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TM 30-900 


Dictionary of 





13 NOVEMBER 1945 


Dictionary of 





13 NOVEMBER 1945 

Washington 25, D. C, 13 November 1945 

TM 30-900, Dictionary of Spoken Spanish, is published for the infor- 
mation and guidance of all concerned. 

[AG 300.7(13 Nov 45)] 

By order of the Secretary of War : 

Official: G. C. MARSHALL 

EDWARD F. WITSELL Chief of Staff 

Major General 
Acting The Adjutant General 

Distribution : 

AAF (10) ; AGF (10) ; ASF (2) ; T of Opn (10) ; Base Comds (10) ; 
Arm & Sv Bd (1) ; S Div ASF (1) ; Tech Sv (2) ; SvC (5) ; Gen & Sp 
Sv Sch (10) ; A (10) ; CHQ (10) ; D (10) ; AF (10) ; The following 
distribution is for SWPA and CDC: B (1) ; R (1) ; Bn (1) ; C (2) ; 
W(1);G (1);S (2). 

Refer to FM 21-6 for explanation of distribution formula. 



Abbreviations Used in This Dictionary iv 

Part I — Spanish-English N 1 

Part II — English-Spanish 226 

Part III. — Appendix 494 

1. Countries, Cities, and Nationalities 494 

2. Weights and Measures 499 

3. Money 500 

4. Numbers 501 

5. National Holidays 502 

6. Important Signs 503 

7. Useful Expressions 504 

8. Spanish and Spanish-American Dishes 507 


















object, objective 










Central America 


commerce, commercial 


























South America 












mathematics, mathematical 










In the vocabularies the symbol A denotes an additional translation of the preceding boldface 
term. The symbol ° denotes idiomatic phrases and reflexive forms. The symbol || introduces 
idiomatic sentences in which the boldface term is not translatable alone. 




I. Sounds and Spelling 

Both the sounds and the spelling of Spanish are simple, and will be described 
together, with the Spanish letters as a starting point. 
. 0.1 Vowels are five in number: 

Spelling Description Examples 

i like English i in machine or ee fino "fine"; mi "me" 

in beet 

u like English oo in boot puro "pure"; tú "you" 

These two vowels may occur unstressed before or after a stressed vowel, in 
which case they are pronounced like English y and w respectively: bien "well"; 
bueno "good"; automóvil "automobile". 

e like the e of English they , if no con- 

sonant follows in the same syllable; 
like e in bed, if a consonant fol- 
lows in the same syllable 

O like the o of English know, if no 

consonant follows in the same syl- 
lable; like au in taut, if a consonant 
follows in the same syllable 

a like the a of English father 

yero "but"; puesto "put" 

todo "all"; corte "court" 

0.2 Consonants are: 
p like English p 

t like English t, but with tongue 

against upper teeth instead of gum 

qu like English k or "hard c" 

(before e, i), 
c (elsewhere) 

mano "hand"; 
parte "part" 

Pepe "Joe" 
tanto "so much" 

que "that"; carro "cart' 


These three sounds are never pronounced with the puff of breath after them, 
as the corresponding English sounds often are. 

bebe "he drinks" 
dedo "finger" 

'pague Usted "(you) pay"; 
pagar "pay" 



Spelling Description 

b, v like English b 
d like English d 

gu like English "hard g" 

(before e, i), 
g (elsewhere) 

The above three sounds, when they come between two vowels, are not pro- 
nounced with a full closure of lips or tongue (as are English b, d, g) but with the 
breath forcing its way out between the lips , or between the tongue and teeth , 
or between the tongue and top of the mouth. 

like English m 

like English n, but with the tip of 
the tongue against the front teeth 

like ni in English onion, but a 
single sound (beginning like n and 
ending like y) 

f like English / 

c like th in English thick 

(before e, i), 
z (elsewhere) 

The above sound is not used by speakers of American Spanish, who replace it 
by "s". 

like English s 

like English /, but with the tip of 
the tongue against the front teeth 

like Hi in English million, but a 
single sound beginning like I and 
ending like y; in Latin America, 
generally like English y 

r single flap of the tongue against 

the front teeth, somewhat like our 
American English d 

rr several repeated flaps of the tongue 

against the front teeth, like the 
telephone operator's "th-r-r-ee" 

y like English y 

like English h 

mano "hand" 
nada "nothing" 

año "year" 

fuerte "strong" 

cierto "certain"; 
zorra "fox"; conozco 
"I know" 

seso "brain" 
lado "side" 

llano "plain"; 
milla "mile" 

caro "dear" 

carro "cart" 


(before e, i), 
j (elsewhere) 

reyes "kings" 

gente "people"; 
junto "together" 


Spelling Description Examples 

h stands for no sound at all, but is haba "bean"; 

written in a number of words hierba "grass" 

0.3 Syllables. A single consonant sound (and, in writing, two letters repre- 
senting a single sound), or a consonant followed by I or r, belongs to the same 
syllable as the vowel following it: ca-ro, ca-rro, mi-lla. Other groups of two 
consonants are broken up, the first consonant belonging with the preceding 
vowel and the second with the following vowel: juz-gar "to judge"; rec-tor 

0.4 Stress. Words ending in a vowel or in -n or -s are normally stressed 
on the next to the last syllable; words ending in any other consonant are 
stressed on the last syllable. Words having this type of stress bear no written 
accent mark: cosa "thing"; cantan "they sing"; cantas "you sing" (Fam); cantar 
"to sing". If a word does not conform to this pattern, an accent mark is 
written over the vowel letter of the syllable which is stressed: vamonos "let's 
go"; jardín "garden". In a few cases, a written accent serves only to mark the 
difference between one word and another written like it but having a different 
meaning: ¿cuándo? "when?" (interrogative), but cuando "when" (relative). 

II. Forms 

1.1 Nouns and adjectives are inflected alike, and will be discussed together. 
A noun is an inflected form that may follow el /la and precede a verb; an 
adjective is a form that may follow el/la and precede a noun. (For the definite 
article, cf §1.22.) 

1.11 The plural of nouns and adjectives is formed in one of three ways: 

1. By leaving the singular unchanged (words ending in -s, family names, 
and a few others): jueves "Thursday, Thursdays"; López "López, Lopezes"; 
deficit "deficit, deficits". 

2. By adding -s to nouns ending in an unstressed vowel or stressed -é: 
libro "book", libros "books"; cara "face", caras "faces"; café "coffee", cafés 

3. By adding -es to most other nouns: rubí "ruby", pi rubíes; buey "ox", 
pi bueyes; papel "paper", pi papeles. The letter c is replaced by qu, and z by c, 
before -es: frac "frock coat", pi fraques; lápiz "pencil", pi lápices. 

1.12 Gender. Nouns belong either to the masculine or the feminine gender; 
adjectives to both. The feminine of an adjective is formed on the masculine 
in one of the following three ways: 

1. By substituting -a for -o of the masculine: bueno m, buena f "good". 

2. By adding -a to the masculine: inglés m, inglesa f "English". 

3. By leaving the masculine unchanged: interesante m, f "interesting"; 
fácil m, f "easy". 

1 .13 Reduced forms of adjectives. Certain adjectives are used in shortened 
or reduced forms when they stand before a noun they modify, e.g. mm buen libro 
"a good book". The following adjectives have reduced forms in the masculine 
singular only: buen{o) "good": mal(o) "bad" ; primer (o) "first"; tercer (o) "third"; 


un{6) "one" and its compounds. Santo "Saint" has the form San before a 
masculine name in the singular: San Francisco "St. Francis". Gran takes the 
place of grande "great" (but un gran hombre is "an important man" while 
un hombre grande is "a large man"), and cien takes the place of ciento "100", 
before either masculine or feminine. 

1.2 Pronouns are of five classes: personal, demonstrative, interrogative, 
relative, and indefinite. 

1.21 Personal pronouns are of two main types: those which can be used 
apart from verbs, called disjunctive pronouns, and those which can be used 
only with verbs, called conjunctive pronouns. 
1. Disjunctive pronouns are: 

Singular Plural 


1. yo "I" 1. nosotros (m), nosotras (f) "we" 

2. tú "you" (Fam) 2. vosotros (m), vosotras (f) "you" (Fam) 

3. usted "you" 3. ustedes "you" 

él "he", ella "she" ellos (m), ellas (f) "they" 


1. mí "me" 1. nosotros (m), nosotras (f) "us" 

2. tí "you" (Fam) 2. vosotros (m), vosotras (f) "you" (Fam) 

3. usted "you" 3. ustedes "you" 

él "him", ella "her" ellos (m), ellas (f) "they" 

Reflexive Prepositional 
si "himself, herself, itself" si "themselves" 

When the pronouns mí, tí, and si (sg) are used as objects of the preposition 
con "with", the following forms result: conmigo, contigo, and consigo. 

The word usted (abbreviated Ud. or Vd.) is used when speaking to persons 
with whom one is not well acquainted, and takes a verb in the third person 
singular; the plural ustedes (abbreviated Uds. or Vds.) is used in the same way. 
In Spanish America, ustedes is often used instead of vosotros, as the plural 
corresponding to tú. Tú is used only between relatives, young people, intimate 
friends, and in addressing children, servants, and pets. In South America, 
especially Argentina, vos is generally used for tú. 

2. Conjunctive pronouns are: 

Singular Plural 

Direct Object 

1. me "me" 1. nos "us" 

2. te "you" (Fam) 2. os "you" (Fam) 

3. le "you" (m), "him" 3. los "you, them" (m) 
la "you" (f), "her", "it" (f) las "you, them" (f) 
lo "it" 



se "yourself, himself, herself, itself" se "yourselves, themselves" 

Indirect Object 

1. me "to me" 1. nos "to us" 

2. te "to you" (Fam) 2. os "to you" (Fam) 

3. le "to you, to him, to her, to it" 3. les "to you, to them" 

These conjunctive pronouns may occur either singly or in groups of two. 
The occurrence of groups of two conjunctive pronouns is determined by the 
following rules: 

a 1 ) If the pronoun se is present in the group, it always comes before the 
other conjunctive pronoun. When se is used in this way, it may have the 
meaning of: 

aa) An unspecified actor: se dice "it is said"; se la trató bien "she was 
treated well". 

bb) A third person object, either reflexive or not: se lo dice "he says 
it to him (her)", or "he (she) says it to himself (herself)". 

b 1 ) If the pronoun se is not present, the first pronoun of the group has 
the meaning of an indirect object, and the second that of a direct object: 
me lo da "he gives it to me". Le, les may not occur as the first member of a 
group of conjunctive pronouns, their place being taken by se (see a 1 , bb, above) . 
The conjunctive pronouns are placed after the verb they modify, and 
written together with it, in the following circumstances: 

a 2 ) After an infinitive or gerund: dárselo "to give it to him"; diciéndolo 
"saying it". 

b 2 ) After other verb forms, only in literary style or (to save money) in 
telegrams: fuime "I went away". 

With other verb forms than the infinitive and gerund, the conjunctive 
pronouns are usually placed before the verb and written as separate words: 
se lo da "he gives it to him"; me fui "I went away". 

1.22 Demonstrative pronouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and 
neuter. The neuter occurs only in the singular and is used only to refer to 
something abstract or already spoken of. The demonstrative pronouns are 
éste "this", ése "that" (near you), aquél "that" (over there), and the definite 
article (el, la, los, las, lo) with de and que, meaning respectively "that (those) 
of", "the one (ones) with (in, on)", "that (those) which", and "the one (ones) 

The forms of these pronouns are: 







el de, el que 





la de, la que 





lo de, lo que 





los de, los que 





las de, las que 


The demonstrative adjectives are the same as the demonstrative pronouns 
but do not bear a written accent and they usually precede the noun. 

Yo escribo con esta pluma "I'm writing with this pen." 

Esta pluma y ésa "This pen and that one." 

There is no neuter adjective in Spanish and the neuter demonstrative pro- 
nouns esto, eso, aquello, and lo bear no written accent. They are used to refer 
to a general idea or object without a determined gender. 

Eso es verdad "That (what has been said) is true." 

Esto me alarma "This (situation, outlook) alarms me." 

When used before a noun or noun phrase (cf §2.14.1), el, la, etc, have about 
the meaning of English "the", and in this use are termed the definite article. 
The form el is used before a masculine singular noun or noun phrase: el hombre 
"the man", el gran diccionario "the great dictionary"; and also directly before 
a feminine noun beginning with the stressed sound a: el alma "the soul", el 
hambre ''the hunger" Before other feminines, la is used: la persona "the 
person", la otra persona "the other person". In the plural, los is used before 
masculine and las before feminine nouns or noun phrases: los hombres "the 
men", los grandes diccionarios "the great dictionaries",, las almas "the souls", 
las otras personas "the other persons". 

1.23 Interrogative pronouns are: ¿qué? "what?", ¿quién? "who?", ¿quiénes? 
(pi), ¿de quién? "whose?", ¿de quiénes? (pi), ¿cuál? "which one?", ¿cuáles? 
"which ones?", ¿cuánto? "how much?", ¿cuántos? "how many?". 

All interrogative adjectives and pronouns bear a written accent mark to 
distinguish them from the corresponding relative. 

qué is not inflected, ¿de quién? is always followed immediately by ser: 
¿De quién es este libro? "Whose book is this?" 

When translating from English into Spanish, the interrogative ¿de quién? 
should not be confused with the possessive relative cuyo "whose, of which" - 
"This book, whose influence has been so beneficial." Ese libro, cuya influencia 
ha sido tan beneficiosa. But "Whose book is this?" ¿De quién es este libro? 

1.24 Relative pronouns are: que "that, which, who", quien, quienes "who, 
whom", el que "he who, the one who, the one which, that which", la que 
"she who, the one who, the one which, that which", lo que "that which, 
what", los que "those who, those which", las que "those who, those which", 
el cual, la cual "he who (she who), the one who, that which", los cuales, las 
cuales "they who, the ones who, those which", lo cual "that, which, what", 
cuanto "all that, as much as", cuantos "all that, as many as". 

A simple relative (1, below) has an antecedent in the main clause and the 
compound relative (2, below) contains its own antecedent. This distinction 
concerns the use and not the form. 

(1) El libro que está sobre la mesa "The book which is on the table 

es suyo. is yours." 

<2) Qui en trahaja mejores María. "The one who works best is 




lo que is used when reference is made to a phrase, a sentence, or to a specific 
thing without a specific gender: Lo que Ud. pide es imposible. "What (That 
which) you ask is impossible." 

lo cual is used in supplementary clauses when the antecedent is a clause, a 
phrase, or an idea: *Se negó a recibirme, lo cual lamento mucho. "He refused to 
receive me, which I regret very much." 

1.25 Indefinite pronouns are: alguien "someone", alguno, -a, -os, -as "some- 
body, some", algo "something", nadie "no one", ninguno, -a, -os, -as "nobody, 
none", nada "nothing", cualquiera "whichever", and quienquiera "whoever"' 

1.26 Possessive adjectives are* 

Singular Plural 

1. mi, mis "my" 1 nuestro, -a(s) "our" 

2 tu, tus "your" (Fam) 2. vuestro, -a(s) "your" (Fam) 

3. su, sus "his, her, its, your" 3. su, sus "their" 

1. mío, 4a, -ios, -ias "mine" 1 nuestro, -a, -os, -as "ours" 

2. tuyo, -a, -os, -as "yours" 2. vuestro, -a, -os, -as "yours" 
(Fam) (Fam) 

3. suyo, -a, -os, -as "yours, 3. suyo, -a, -os, -as "theirs" 
his, hers, its" 

Possessives agree in gender and number with the thing possessed. Possessive 
pronouns are formed by adding el to mío, tuyo, suyo, nuestro, and vuestro. El 
suyo is usually replaced (to avoid ambiguity) by el de él, el de ella, el de ustedes, 
el de ellos: Mi libro, el suyo y el de él. "My book, yours, and his." El is omitted 
after the verb ser: El libro es mío. "The book's mine." 

The English possessive case ("-'s") is rendered by de and possessor noun or 
pronoun: Ese es el libro de mi amigo "This is my friend's book." 

1.3 Prepositions and conjunctions: a, de, en, por, and para are the most 
frequently used prepositions in Spanish. 

1. a "to" implies motion, in contrast with en, which corresponds to 
English "in" or "at" (place where or state). Bear this distinction in mind in 
translating English "at" 

Voy a Valencia. "I'm going to Valencia." 

Estoy en casa. "I'm at home." 

a) a is used as a sign of personal object, and as such is not translated into 

Yo amo a Maria. "I love Mary." 

María enseña a su hija. "Mary teaches her daughter." 

It is also used with the infinitive after verbs of motion (see §2.44.3) 

b) al {a-\-el) followed by the infinitive corresponds to English "on" and 
"when": al partir "on leaving" 

2 de "of, from" is replaced by que "that" and estar "be" when the position 
of a noun is purely accidental and not permanent or customary: la casa de 
enfrente "the house across the street", el hombre que está delante de la casa 
"the man who is in front of the house". 



3. por points to the cause, motive, or reason for an action and corresponds 
to the English "through" (along, around), "by" (expressing agency, means, 
manner, unit of measure) and "for" (meaning "on account of", "because of", 
"in exchange for", "during", "as"). 

4. para points to the end or objective of an action and corresponds to the 
English "for" denoting purpose or destination. 

5. por and para are frequently misused by foreign students of Spanish. 
English "for" is translated in each case into Spanish according to its specific 

"This present's for you." Este regalo es PARA Ud. 

"Do it for me." Hágalo POR mi. 

1.31 Coordinate conjunctions are: y "and", o "or", ni "nor", pero "but" 
(nevertheless), and sino "but" (on the contrary). 

1. y "and" is replaced by e when the word immediately following begins 
with i or hi: franceses e italianos "Frenchmen and Italians"; padre e hijo "father 
and son". 

2. o "or" is replaced by u before o or ho: siete u ocho "seven or eight"; 
mujer u hombre "woman or man". 

1.32 Subordinate conjunctions are: que "that", como' "as, since" (causal), 
cuando "when", mientras "while", pues(que) "for, since", porque "because", 
and si "if, whether". 

1. que, the most widely used subordinate conjunction, introduces noun 
clauses. In addition to its conjunctive uses, que is also a relative pronoun 
(§1.24) or a comparative adverb ("than"). Unlike Spanish, "that" is very 
often omitted in English: 

Quiero que venga. "I want him to come." 

Creo que se ha ido. "I think he's gone." 

Me parece que si. "I think so." 

2. si "if, whether" is used to introduce adverb clauses of condition. 

3. si "yes" bears a written accent to differentiate it from the conjunction 
si, and is an adverb of affirmation: Le pregunté si iba y me dijo que sí. "I asked 
him if he was going and he said yes." 

1 .4 Adverbs of manner may be formed by adding -mente (which is the equiva- 
lent of English "-ly") to the feminine singular of the adjective: lento, -a "slow"; 
lentamente "slow, slowly". 

Prepositional phrases are preferable in Spanish to the adverbs ending in 
-mente: con lentitud or de una manera lenta instead of lentamente. 

1.41 Adverbs are placed as near as possible to the verb they modify: Habla 
bien el español. "He speaks Spanish well." 

1.42 aquí "here", ahi, alii "there", allá "over there" correspond respectively 
to the demonstratives este, ese, and aquel. 

1.43 no "not" corresponds to English "do not", "is not", etc, and the 
adjective "no". 

1. no is placed before the verb: No oigo. "I don't hear." 



2. If another negative is used after the verb, no must always precede: 
No oigo nada. "I hear nothing." 

3. When another negative word precedes the verb, no is omitted: Nada 
oigo. "I hear nothing." 

1.44 When no verb is present, no usually follows pronouns and adverbs: 
todos no "not all of them"; todavía no "not yet", si is similarly used. 

1.45 In a negative sentence all forms are negative (§1.43). 

1.5 Diminutives and augmentatives : The suffixes -ito, -Mo, -cito, -cilio 
added to nouns, adjectives, or adverbs imply small size or affectionate interest: 
Pedrito "little Peter", chiquillo "kid", mujercita "little woman, dear little wife", 
pequeñito "very small, tiny", piececito "tiny little foot". 

1.51 The more frequent augmentative suffixes are -ón, -ote, -azo, -acho, 
which give the idea of large size or comic effect: mujerona "large woman, 
awkward woman", grandote "very large", manaza "huge hand", ricacho "rich 

1.6 The absolute superlative ending is regularly -isimo, corresponding to 
English "most, very, highly, exceedingly": Es un hombre rarísimo. "He's a 
most peculiar man." Una mujer simpatiquísima. "A most charming woman." 

1.61 There are a number of other ways of expressing a high degree of quality 
in Spanish (see §§2.21, 2.5) . The same idea expressed by the suffix -isimo may 
be conveyed by muy "very" or sumamente "exceedingly, a most", with the 
exception of muchísimo (never muy mucho), regular form for "very much." 

1.62 When -isimo is added, adjectives and adverbs ending in -co or -ca, -z, 
-go, and -able change their ending to -qui, -c, -gui, and -bil respectively: cerca, 
cerquísimo; feroz, ferocísimo; largo, larguísimo; amable, amabilísimo. 

1.7 Verbs have ten tenses, or sets of finite forms which show the person and 
number of the actor; and three non-finite forms, or forms which do not show 
person and number. The non-finite forms are: infinitive, gerund, and past 
participle. The ten tenses are formed on three stems, the "present" stem, the 
"future" stem, and the "preterite" stem, as follows: 

Present Stem Future Stem Preterite Stem 

Present Indicative Future Preterite 

Imperfect Conditional Past Subjunctive, -se form 

Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive, -ra form 


1 .71 . There are four classes of verbs, according to the ending of the infinitive: 

I. -ar: cantar "sing" III. -ir: vivir "live" 

II. -er: aprender "learn" IV. -r: ver "see"* 

In the following paragraphs, we shall give examples of the normal forms of 
these four conjugations, as shown in the four model verbs listed above. 

1. Present tense. The present tense is generally used to refer to the 
present but it is often used as a graphic substitute for other tenses, as: a) era- 

* This manual lists as "Class IV verbs" certain verbs usually designated elsewhere as simply 
"irregular verbs." For irregular verbs of all classes see page 12. 


phatic future: Mañana le escribo. "I'll write him tomorrow." b) when 
immediate future time is involved: ¿Vamos ahora? "Shall we go now?" c) for 
the perfect conditional in contrary-to-fact conditions: Si dice algo en aquel 
momento, le pego. "I'd have hit him if he'd said something at that moment." 
d) for the simple past in historical narrative: Por poco le cojo. "I almost 
caught him." The forms of the present are: 










"you" (Fam) 







"you, he, she, it" 














"you" (Fam) 







"you, they" 





2. Imperfect tense. This tense refers to past action that was going on at 
the same time as some other action ("I was singing") or that was habitual 
("I used to sing"). 





































3. Present subjunctive. This tense is used either to express a command 
(in the first person plural, or third person singular or plural) or in certain types 
of dependent clauses (see §§3.5-3.52). 

1. sg 





2. sg 





3. sg 





1. pl 





2. pl 





3. pl 





4. Imperative. This tense is used to give 


it has only the 

second person 

singular and plural forms. 


sg canta 





pl cantad 




5. Future. This tense refers to action in 

future time 

("111 sing") or 

probability . 

1 sg 





2. sg 





3. sg 





1. pl 





2. pl 





3. pl 






6. Conditional. This tense refers to hypothetical action or to future 
action viewed from past time ("I'd sing"). 





































7. Past absolute. This tense refers to action at a specific point in past 
time ("I sang"). The past absolute of most verbs is as follows: 





































Certain irregular verbs, called "strong" verbs, have special changes in the 
stem for the past absolute and the two past subjunctive tenses, e.g.: venir "to 
come"; vine "I came"; and viniera, viniese "(that) I might come". The past 
absolute of these strong verbs is inflected as follows: 



1. vine 


2. viniste 


3. vino 


8. Past subjunctive. Each Spanish verb has two forms of the past sub- 
junctive, one ending in the singular in -se and the other in -ra. The forms of 
these tenses are always built on the same stem as the past absolute or preterite 

a) Past subjunctive in -se: 





































b) Past subjunctive in 

























viera tu os 














1.72 Non-finite forms are such as are based on verbs, but do not show 
distinction of person and number and belong to other than verbal word classes. 
Verbs normally have: 

1. Gerund — an adverb formed by adding -ando to the root of I-conju- 
gation verbs; -endo to roots ending in -y, -11, -ñ; and -iendo to others: cantando, 
aprendiendo, viviendo, viendo; oyendo "hearing" (oír "hear"), bullendo "boiling" 
(bullir "boil"), riñendo "wrangling" (reñir "wrangle"). 

2. Past participle — an adjective formed by adding -ado to the root of 
I-conjugation verbs, -ido to the root of II- and Ill-conjugation verbs, and -do 
to the root of IV-conjugation verbs. Irregular past participles are all those 
that have other endings than these, as: abierto "opened", cubierto "covered", 
dicho "said", escrito "written", hecho "done", impreso "printed", muerto 
"dead", provisto "provided", resuelto "resolved", roto "broken", visto "seen", 
vuelto "returned". 

3. Infinitive — a masculine singular noun ending in -r. Occasionally an 
infinitive is used in the plural, which then ends in -es. 

1.73 Irregular verbs. A number of verbs vary in one way or another from 
the patterns set forth above. Some of them fall into regular patterns of 

1. Radical -changing verbs are such as have the regular endings of the 
conjugation to which they belong, but have certain changes in the vowel of the 
last syllable of the root, depending on the form involved. There are three 
main types of radical-changing verbs: 

a) Type I, in which a diphthong is substituted for a vowel (ie for e or i; 
ue for o or u) when it is stressed. (At the beginning of a verb, the sounds ie 
are spelled ye, and the sounds ue are spelled hue.) These forms are (with 
contar "count" and pensar "think" as examples): 


Present Subjunctive 

1. sg 

2. sg 

3. sg 
3. pi 



3. pi 
2. sg 







b) Type II, in which ie is substituted for e, and ue for o, in all forms 
where stress falls on this vowel, and i is substituted for e, and u for o, wherever 
the root is unstressed but followed by a, ie, or ió. 

c) Type III, in which i is substituted for e both in forms where the last 
syllable of the root is stressed and where the root is unstressed but followed by 
a, ie, or ió. 



Examples of types II and III are sentir "feel", dormir "sleep", pedir 



Present Subjunctive 


Past Subjunctive 

Present Participle 

1. sg siento 

2. sg sientes 

3. sg siente 
3. pi sienten 

1. sg sienta 

2. sg sientas 

3. sg sienta 

1. pi sintamos 

2. pi sintáis 

3. pi sientan 

2. sg siente 

3. sg sintió 

3. pi sintieron 

1,3. sg sintiese 
1,3. sg sintiera 






















durmiendo pidiendo 

2. Roots ending in -y lose this y wherever it would come before stressed i, 
and unstressed i of an ending is lost after this y. Thus, from the root dis- 
tribuy- (III) "distribute" we have: infinitive distribuir; present 1. pi distri- 
buimos, 2. pi distribuís; imperfect distribuía, etc; imperative 2. pi distribuid; 
future distribuiré, etc; conditional distribuiría, etc; preterite 1. sg distribuí, 
2. sg distribuíste, 3. sg distribuyó, 1. pi distribuimos, 2. pi distribuísteis, 3. pi 
distribuyeron; past participle distribuido; present participle distribuyendo. All 
verbs with infinitive in -uir are of this type. 

3. Certain verbs, which we shall term the -zc- verbs, substitute -zc- for -c- 
wherever -o or -a follows. Thus conocer (II) "know" has: 

Present Indicative 1. sg conozco 

Present Subjunctive 1. sg conozca 

2. sg conozcas 

3. sg conozca 

1. pi conozcamos 

2. pi conozcáis 

3. pi conozcan 

4. Other irregular verbs, which do not fall into regular sub-patterns, are 
the following, here listed with indication of the class of verb to which they 
belong and with the individual forms which are irregular: 

abrir III "open": past part, abierto. 

andar I "walk": preterite anduve etc; past subj. anduviese, anduviera. 

atenerse II "depend": like tener. 

atraer II "attract": like traer. 

avenirse III "agree": like venir. 

bendecir III "bless": like decir, but past part, bendito. 



caber II "be contained, fit": pres. 1. sg quepo; pres. subj. quepa etc; 

fut. cabré; condit. cabría; pret. cupe etc; past subj. cupiese, cupiera, 
caer II "fall": pres. caigo; pres. subj. caiga etc; pret. 3. sg cayó, 

3. pi cayeron; past subj. cayese, cayera; pres. part, cayendo, 
componer II "compose": like poner, 
contener II "contain": like tener. 
contradecir III "contradict": like decir, 
contraer II "contract": like traer, 
convenir III "agree": like venir, 
cubrir III "cover": past part, cubierto, 
dar IV "give": pres. doy; imperf. daba etc; pres. subj. dé, dé; pret. di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron; past subj. diese, 

decaer II "decay": like caer, 
decir III "say": radical-changing type III and: pres. digo; pres. 

subj . diga etc; imperative di; fut. 1 .sg diré etc; condit. diría etc; 

pret. dije etc; past subj. dijese, dijera; past part, dicho, 
descubrir III "discover": like cubrir, 
desenvolver II "unroll, unwrap": like volver, 
detener II "hold back, detain": like tener, 
disolver II "dissolve": rad-ch I and past part, disuelto, 
disponer II "dispose": like poner, 
distraer II "distract": like traer, 
entretener II "entertain": like tener, 
escribir III "write": past part, escrito, 
estar IV "be": pres. estoy, estás, está, 3. pi están; imperf. 

estaba etc; pres. subj. esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén; pret. 

estuve etc; past subj. estuviese, estuviera, 
exponer II "expose": like poner, 
haber II "have, for there to be" (normally used in verbal phrases to 

form perfect tenses or in meaning "there is, there was" etc): 

pres. he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han; pres. subj. haya etc; fut. habré; 

condit. habría; pret. hube etc; past subj. hubiese, hubiera. The spe- 
cial form hay is used in pres. in the meaning "there is, there are" . 
hacer II "do, make": pres. hago; pres. subj. haga etc; fut. haré; 

condit. haría; pret. hice etc; past subj. hiciese, hiciera; past part. 

imponer II "impose": like poner, 
indisponer II "indispose": like poner, 
interponer II "interpose": like poner, 
intervenir III "intervene": like venir. 
ir IV "go": pres. voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van; imperf. ¿6a etc; pres. 

subj. vaya etc; fut. iré; condit. iría; pret. and past subj. same as 

those of ser. 
maldecir III "curse": like decir, but past part, maldito, 
mantener II "maintain": like tener. 



morir III "die": rad-ch I and past part, muerto. 

obtener II "obtain": like tener. 

oponer II "oppose": like poner. 

poder II "be able": rad-ch I and: fut. podré; condit. podría; pret. pude 

etc; past subj. pudiese, pudiera, 
poner II "place": pres. pongo; pres. subj. ponga etc; fut. pondré; 
condit. pondría; pret. puse etc; past subj. pusiese, pusiera; past part. 
prevenir III "prepare, warn": like venir, 
proponer II "propose": like poner, 
retener II "retain": like tener, 
saber II "know": pres. sé; pres. subj. sepa etc; fut. sabré; condit. 

sabría; pret. supe etc; past subj. supiese, supiera, 
salir III "go out": pres. salgo; pres. subj. saiga etc; fut. saldré; 

condit. saldría, 
satisfacer II "satisfy": like hacer. 

ser IV "be": pres. soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son; imperf. era etc; pres. 
subj. sea etc; pret. fui, fuiste, fué, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron; past 
subj. fuese, fuera; pres. part, siendo; past part. sido, 
sostener II "uphold, sustain": like tener, 
suponer II "suppose": like poner. 

tener II "have, hold": rad-ch I and: pres. tengo; pres. subj. tenga 
etc; fut. tendré; condit. tendría; pret. tuve etc; past subj. tuviese, 
traer II "bring": pres. traigo; pres. subj. traiga etc; pret. traje etc; 

past subj. trajese, trajera, 
valer II "be worth": pres. valgo; pres. subj. valga etc; fut. valdré; 

condit. valdría, 
venir III "come": rad-ch I and: pres. vengo; pres. subj. venga etc; 
fut. vendré; condit. vendría; pret. vine etc; past subj . viniese, viniera, 
ver IV "see": pret. vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron; past subj. viese, 

viera; past part, visto, 
volver II "turn": rad-ch I and past part, vuelto. 
1.8 Special uses of some important verbs: 

1 . ser "be" is used with a noun or adjective denoting permanent condition, 
inherent characteristic or quality, origin, material, or ownership, and also in 
impersonal expressions and expressions of time: 

¿Quién es? "Who is it?" 

Soy yo. "It's me." 

¿De dónde es? "Where's he from?" 

Es de Cuba. "He's from Cuba." 

Yo soy español. "I'm a Spaniard." 

Ella es pintora. "She's a painter." 

Esa mesa es de madera. "That table's made of wood." 

¿De quién es? "Whose is it?" 

Es de ella. "It's hers." 



Es para tí. 

¿Qué hora est 

Son las cinco. 

Es tarde. 

Pero es necesario ir. 

Es evidente. 

"It's for you." 

"What time is it?" 

"It's five o'clock." 

"It's late." 

"But it's necessary to go.' 

"It's evident." 

2. estar "be" is used to express a temporary condition, location, and also 
as the auxiliary of the progressive tense:. 

¿Cómo está Ud.t 
¿Dónde está el libro? 
Está sobre la mesa. 
Ellos están en Chile. 
¿Quién está hablando? 
El niño está jugando. 
Ella está enferma. 

"How are you?" 
"Where's the book?" 
"It's on the table." 
"They're in Chile." 
"Who's speaking?" 
"The child's playing." 
"She's sick." 

a) In order to determine whether to use ser or estar when the predicate 
is an adjective, the following rule should be kept in mind: ser is used when the 
predicate adjective indicates the nature of an object or an inherent charac- 
teristic (1, below); estar is used when the predicate adjective indicates a 
temporary condition (2, below): 

(1) La lechuga es verde. 

(2) La fruta está verde. 

(1) María es pálida. 

(2) María está pálida. 

(1) Es un hombre raro. 

(2) Está muy raro hoy. 

"Lettuce is green." (by nature) 

"The fruit's green ." (a state of the fruit) 

"Mary's pale." (by nature) 

"Mary looks pale." 

"He's a queer man." 

"He acts very queer today." 

b) estar should never be used with a predicate noun. 

c) ser should never be used with the past participle except to form an 
unequivocal passive voice: 

La ventana está abierta. 

La ventana fué abierta por María. 

La casa está bien construida. 
La casa fué construida en 1945. 

"The window's open." 

"The window was opened by 

"The house is well built." 
"The house was built in 1945." 

3. haber never means "have" in the sense of "possess". This meaning is 
rendered by tener: el tiene el libro "he has the book". 

a) When haber is not used as an auxiliary verb to form the compound 
tenses, it is an impersonal verb corresponding to English "there is, there are, 
there was, there were", etc, and as such has the form hay in the present tense: 

Hay tres libros sobre la mesa. "There are three books on the table." 

Hay un hombre en la habitación. "There's a man in the room." 



b) In all other tenses the impersonal form is identical with the third 
person singular of the auxiliary: 

había "there was, there were" 

hubo "there was, there were" 

habrá "there'll be" 

habría " there 'd be" 

4. tener, which means "have" in the sense of "possess", used with que + in- 
finitive expresses a strong obligation equivalent to English "have to, must": 

Tenemos que hacerlo hoy. "We must do it today." 

a) hay que is substituted for tener que in impersonal constructions and 
is translated into English as "must, it's necessary": 

Hay que decir la verdad. "It's necessary to (One must) tell the truth." 

• b) tener as used in many idioms is translated "be" in English. In such 
cases the Spanish adjective mucho is rendered in English by the adverb "very" : 
Tengo hambre. "I'm hungry." 

Tengo mucha hambre. "I'm very hungry." 
Tengo sed. "I'm thirsty." 

Tengo frío. "I'm cold." 

Tengo miedo. "I'm afraid." 

Tengo prisa. "I'm in a hurry." 

5. The pronoun "it", which is used in the impersonal construction in 
English, is never required in Spanish: 

Llueve. "It's raining." Escampa. "It's clearing off." 

Truena. "It's thundering." Hace fresco. "It's cool." 

6. hacer is used impersonally in expressions of weather: 

Hace calor. "It's warm." Hace frío. "It's cold." 

a) hace . . . que, hacía . que, and hace (hacía) preceded by desde may 
be used to indicate time elapsed: 

Hace dos días que llegó. "It's two days since he arrived." 

Está aquí desde hace dos días. "He's been here two days." 

No la había visto desde hacía dos años. "I hadn't seen her for two years." 

III. Phrase Structure 

Two or more words may be combined into groups of words, or phrases, 
which are used in sentences to take the place of, and fulfill the functions of, 
the various parts of speech. In this section we shall list the main types of 
phrases which occur in Spanish, according to the parts of speech whose place 
they take. We shall use the term head to refer to the central word of the 
phrase, and modifier to refer to a word modifying the head: thus, in English 
"good boy", the noun "boy" is the head of the phrase and "good" is a modifier. 

2.0 Universal phrase types are such as occur with all parts of speech. In 
them two or more heads, usually belonging to the same part of speech, are 



placed next to each other, either not connected at all or connected by con- 

1. No conjunction is present in some phrases which serve to enumerate 
things, actions, etc: 

Se lo dije una, dos, tres veces. "I told him once, twice, three times." 

Museos, escuelos, templos, todo "Museums, schools, and churches — 

lo saquearon. they pillaged everything." 

2. A conjunction is used in other phrases: 

a) Before the last head: el hambre, el frío, la fatiga, y demás dolores 
"hunger, cold, fatigue, and other sorrows". 

b) Before each head: ni esto ni aquello "neither this nor that". 

2.1 Noun phrases normally contain a noun as their head, and an adjective 
or other element as modifier. This modifier may occur either before or after 
the head of the phrase, giving two main types of noun phrases: ♦ 

2.11 Modifier + head. This order occurs primarily when the modifier is: 

1. One of the adjectives mentioned in §1.13: buen{o) "good", gran{de) 
"great", cienito) "100", mal(o) "bad", postrer{o) "last", primerio) "first", 
San(to) "Saint", tercer[p) "third", and un(o)* "one"; or one of certain others: 
pequeño "little", viejo "old", bonito "pretty". 

2. A numeral: diez hombres "ten men". 

3. An interrogative or indefinite adjective: ¿cuáles libros? "which books?"; 
otras personas "other persons"; los demás libros "the other books". 

2.12 Head + modifier. This order is the normal one when the modifier is: 

1. An adjective other than the types mentioned in §2.11: un hombre 
fuerte "a strong man"; una puerta abierta "an open door". 

2. An adjective phrase (adverb -+- adjective), or a phrase consisting of 
preposition+noun, pronoun, or verb: un hombre ?nuy fuerte "a very strong 
man"; un vaso de agua "a glass of water"; su libro de él "his book"; la casualidad 
de haberse encontrado con ella "the chance of having met her". 

3. A clause, normally introduced by a relative pronoun or adjective: 
un caballero que desea hablarle "a gentleman who wants to talk to you". 

2.13 Reversal of normal order of adjective and head in a noun phrase 
(placing the adjective before the noun when it would normally follow, or vice 
versa) gives to the adjective an added meaning of emphasis, rhetorical orna- 
ment, or figurative speech: la blanca nieve "the white, white snow"; cierta 
ciudad "a certain city"; un hombre malo "a very bad man". 

2.14 Phrase markers are certain types of words which may precede any 
noun or noun phrase and mark it as such. They are: 

1. The definite article (§1.22): la infeliz madre "the unhappy mother"; 
los libros escritos en español "the books written in Spanish". 

2. The indefinite article un, una, which in the singular has the meaning 
"a, an" and in the plural "some": un libro interesante "an interesting book"; 
unos libros interesantes "some interesting booW- 

* Uno used as a pronoun does not drop the o. 



3. A possessive adjective: mi viejo amigo "my old friend". 

4. A demonstrative adjective: estos cinco libros "these five books" 

2.2 Adjective phrases are of the following types: 

2.21 Modifier + head. The modifier in this type of phrase is normally an 
adverb* muy bonito "very pretty". A special formation of this type is the 
comparative and superlative of adjectives: más "more" or menos "less" placed 
before an adjective makes a phrase with comparative meaning: más interesante 
"more interesting"; menos útil "less useful". The definite article placed before 
a phrase containing a comparative adjective gives it the meaning of a superla- 
tive: el más interesante "the most interesting"; el menos útil "the least useful". 

2.22 Head -f- modifier. The modifier may be one of the following: 

1. A phrase introduced by a preposition: esta agua es buena para beber 
"this water's good to drink". 

2. A clause introduced by que or de "than" or como "as" (often elliptical) 
after a comparative phrase (§2.21): más habladora que su madre "more talkative 
than her mother"; tiene tantas tarjetas como ella "he has as many cards as she". 

2.3 Pronoun phrases have the structure head + modifier. The modifier 
may be: 

1. An adjective: yo solo "I alone". 

2. A phrase introduced by a preposition: el de mi padre "the one of my 
ather, my father's". 

3. A clause: lo que me gusta "that which pleases me, what I like". 

2.4 Verb phrases are of the following types: 

2.41 Verb + verb. These may be classified according to the form of the 
second verb in the phrase: 

1. Past participle. The first verb may be: 

a) haber "have", which forms perfect tenses with the past participle of 
other verbs. In such phrases, the past participle is always in the masculine 
singular: ha enviado los libros "he's sent the books"; los libros que ha enviado 
"the books he's sent"; los ha enviado "he's sent them". 

b) ser "be", which forms passive tenses with the past participle of other 
verbs. This type of phrase is chiefly literary in use; the past participle agrees in 
gender and number with the subject: este libro fué escrito por Pérez Galdós "this 
book was written by Pérez Galdós". 

c) estar "be", tener "have", quedarse "remain", and similar verbs. The 
past participle agrees in gender and number with the noun to which it refers: 
la puerta está abierta "the door's open"; los niños estaban sentados en el suelo 
"the children were sitting on the floor"; tengo escrita la carta "I have the letter 

2. Gerund, with estar "be", seguir "keep on", etc, as the first verb. This 
construction is equivalent to the English present progressive, which consists 
of a form of "be"+a verb form in "-ing": está hablando "he's talking". 

3. Infinitive. The first verb is one which indicates desire, ability, obliga- 
tion, cause, intention, or emotion: debo irme "I have to go away"; creía haberlo 



visto "he thought he'd seen it". Among the many verbs which occur in this 
construction are* 

mandar "order to, command to" 

necesitar "need to" 

parecer "seem to, appear to" 

pensar "intend to" 

poder "be able to" 

procurar "try to" 

querer "wish to" 

resolver "decide to" 

saber "know how to" 

servirse "be so kind as to" 

temer "fear, be afraid" 

ver "see" 

acostumbrar "be accustomed to" 
bastar "be enough to" 
conseguir "succeed in" 
creer "believe, think" 
deber "ought, should" 
decidir "decide to" 
dejar "let, allow to" 
desear "wish to, desire to" 
gustar "like, be pleasing to" 
hacer "cause to, have done" 
intentar "attempt to, try to" 
lograr "succeed in" 

2.42 Verb + direct object, which is normally a noun, pronoun, or clause: 
no tenemos libros "we haven't any books"; no me tratan bien "they don't treat 
me well"; quiero que estén contentos "I want them to be happy". But this 
construction is normally replaced by that of verb -f- indirect object (cf §2.44.3) 
with proper nouns or nouns referring to specific persons (or personified objects 
or animals), and with disjunctive personal pronouns, relative, demonstrative, 
and indefinite pronouns referring to persons (except que) . 

2.43 Verb+predicate complement, which is normally a noun or pronoun 
used after ser or estar "be" and certain other verbs indicating identity or 
development, and agreeing with the subject in gender and number: mi amigo 
es abogado "my friend's a lawyer"; estamos cansados "we're tired". 

2.44 Verb -f adverbial complement. This latter may be: 

1. An adverb: habla muy bien "he speaks very well". 

2. An adjective or noun used as an adverb: el enemigo atacó duro "the 
enemy attacked hard". 

3. A phrase introduced by a preposition: sigue viviendo a la antigua "he 
continues to live in the old way"; nos entendimos por fin "we understood each 
other at last". This type of adverbial complement, with the preposition a, 
is normal instead of a direct object, in referring to a person (cf 2.42, above). 
Furthermore, the preposition a is normally used to introduce an infinitive after 
most verbs indicating motion, beginning, teaching, and learning, among others 
the following: 

acostumbrarse "become accustomed" 
acudir "come up, run" 

aprender "learn" 
atreverse "dare" 
ayudar "help" 
comenzar "begin" 
correr "run" 
decidirse "decide" 
disponerse "get ready" 

empezar "begin" 
enseñar "teach" 
invitar "invite" 
ir go 

llegar "come, succeed" 
negarse "refuse" 
obligar "oblige" 
ponerse "start, begin" 
probar "try" 



resistirse "resist" venir "come" 

subir "go up, come up" volver "return, come back" 

tornar "return, do again" 

The preposition de is normally used to introduce an infinitive after the 
following verbs: 

acabar "finish, have just . . ." 

acordarse "remember (to)" 

cansarse "get tired (of)" 

cesar "stop" 

dejar "stop, fail (to)" 

guardarse "take care not (to)" 

haber "have (to), be going (to)" 

olvidarse "forget (to)" 

quejarse "complain (of)" 

tratar "try (to)"; (reflexive) "be a question (of)" 

The preposition en is used after the following (and other) verbs: 
complacerse "take pleasure (in)" insistir "insist (on)" 

consentir "consent (to)" pensar "think (of, about)" 

consistir "consist (of)" persistir "persist (in)" 

convenir "agree (to)' tardar "delay (in)" 

empeñarse "insist (on)" 

4. A clause: Antes venía porque me obligaban. "I used to come because 
they forced me to." 

2.5 Adverb phrases are normally of the structure modifier + head, with the 
modifier another adverb: muy bien "very well". An adverb phrase with más 
"more" or menos "less" as modifier has the meaning of the English comparative 
or superlative of an adverb: más tarde "later"; menos bien "less well". 

Phrases consisting of preposition -+- noun, pronoun, or verb may also be used 
adverbially: en el zaguán saludó a la portera "he greeted the janitress in the 
main entrance". 

2.6 Preposition phrases normally consist of an adverb (or equivalent phrase) 
followed by a preposition: junto a "together with"; a pesar de "in spite of". 

2.61 Prepositional phrases are used in Spanish -where in English two or more 
nouns can be combined to form compound nouns*: máquina de coser "sewing 
machine"; ropa para caballeros "men's wear"; neumático de repuesto "spare tire". 

2.7 Conjunction phrases usually consist of an adverb or preposition or 
equivalent phrase followed by a subordinate conjunction (normally que "that"): 
para que "in order that"; sin que "without". 

IV. Clause Structure 

3.0 The clause is the basic unit of the sentence in Spanish as in English. 
Clauses are either major or minor; major clauses are the customary normal 

* In Spanish there are only a few genuine compounds of the type oí ferrocarril "railroad", 
radiodifusión "broadcasting", which generally have an initial member ending in -o. 



type, and minor clauses are all others. The structure of major clauses and 
their combinations will be discussed in §§3.1-3.53; of minor clauses, in §§3.6 
3.62. A major clause always contains a predicate and may or may not contain 
a subject as well. 

3.1 The predicate always has as its main element a verb or verb phrase: 
nos inclinamos para ver mejor "we bent over to see better"; estoy cansado 
"I'm tired"; han matado a la señora "they've killed the lady". Since the verb 
indicates by its endings the person and number of the agent, a predicate often 
occurs alone (as in the above examples) , where English would have a pronoun 

3.2 The subject may be one of the following: 

1. A noun or noun phrase: Inglaterra es grande y bella "England is great 
and beautiful"; las antiguas explotaciones petrolíferas han sido abandonadas 
"the old oil drillings have been abandoned". 

2. An adjective or other part of speech serving as noun: todo le ayudaba 
"everything helped him"; lo mejor y más granado "the finest and most select 

3. A pronoun: él iba delante "he went first"; me gusta éste "I like this one". 

3.21 Agreement in number. The subject normally agrees in number with 
the verb of the predicate: lo hago yo "I'll do it"; lo hacemos nosotros "we'll do it". 

3.22 Agreement in person. The verb of the predicate is normally in the 
grammatical person of the lowest-numbered person represented in the subject. 
(usted, ustedes "you" naturally count as third person in this respect.) If the 
subject contains heads belonging to two different grammatical persons, the 
verb is in the first person if the first person element is present, otherwise in the 
second: nos casaremos, tú y yo "we'll get married, you and I". 

3.23 Agreement in gender. A predicate complement (§2.43) agrees in num- 
ber and gender with the subject: él estaba cansado "he was tired"; las señoritas 
estaban cansadas "the young ladies were tired". 

3.3 Order of subject and predicate is much freer in Spanish than in English. 
In general, the normal order is subject + predicate; inversion of this order 
implies emphasis or rhetorical force, but is very frequent: eso lo hago yo "I'll 
do that"; así continuaba el joven "the young man continued thus". Inverted 
order is normal in a clause containing a subjunctive used as an imperative: 
quítese usted el sombrero "take off your hat". 

Likewise the direct object, predicate complement, or adverbial complement 
is often placed before the verb and subject, giving a meaning of greater em- 
phasis than does the normal order: eso es "that's it" (literally, "it is that"); 
el que no se entera de nada soy yo "I'm the one who doesn't understand"; mejor 
será avisar a la policía "it'll be better to notify the police"; mucho lo siento 
"I'm very sorry". In a sentence containing a specifically interrogative word, 
the phrase containing this word comes first: ¿qué quiere usted? "what do you 
want?"; ¿desde cuándo le conoces? "since when have you known him?" 

3.4 Coordination is the relation to each other of two or more clauses of 
equal rank in a sentence. Of two coordinate clauses, the second is usually 
joined to the first by a coordinating conjunction, such as pero "but", y "and". 



The conjunction que may introduce an independent or coordinate clause when 
followed by a verb in the subjunctive indicating a command: que lo haga él 
"let him do it". 

3.5 Subordination. If a clause has, in another clause, the function of one 
of the parts of speech, and modifies some element of that clause, it is said to be 
subordinate to or dependent on the element it modifies. Subordinate clauses 
are normally introduced by a subordinating conjunction, often one formed with 
que "that". The use of a clause in a subordinate position often requires the 
use of a subjunctive form in the main verb of the subordinate clause. The use 
of the subjunctive may be automatic, i.e. obligatory in certain constructions. 
In others, the use of the subjunctive is not obligatory, and its use is significant, 
i.e. it gives the clause a different meaning than the use of the indicative would . 

3.51 Automatic use of the subjunctive is found in the following types of 
subordinate clauses: 

1. Those containing certain verbs: 

a) Verbs whose general meaning is that of desire, command, judgment 
or opinion, emotion, or doubt. The chief of these verbs are: 

agradecer "be grateful" mandar "command" 

alegrarse "be glad" pedir "ask" 

dejar "let, allow" perdonar "forgive" 

deplorar "regret" permitir "permit, allow" 

desear "desire" preferir "prefer" 

estar "be" + certain adjectives (e.g. prohibir "forbid" 

contento (de) "glad", enojado querer "want, wish" 

"annoyed") sentir "be sorry" 

gustar "like" sorprenderse "be surprised" 

impedir "hinder" sugerir "suggest" 

insistir (en) "insist (on)" tener miedo (de) "be afraid" 

b) Impersonal expressions (used only in the third person singular) in 
which ser "be" is followed by any of a number of adjectives, among them: 

bueno "good" malo "bad" 

difícil "difficult" mejor "better" 

extraño "strange" necesario "necessary" 

fácil "easy" peor "worse" 

importante "important" posible "possible" 

justo "right" probable "probable" 

c) Verbs, usually when they are in the negative or interrogative, whose 
general meaning is that of perceiving, thinking, knowing, declaring; the mean- 
ing given by use of the subjunctive is that of uncertainty or doubt. The most 
important of the determining verbs are: 

concebir "conceive, imagine" juzgar "judge" 

creer "believe" pensar "think" 

decir "say" saber "know" 

estimar "consider" suponer "suppose" 



But after such verbs as dudar "doubt" and negar "deny", with essentially 
negative meaning, the subjunctive is used when the main verb is in the positive, 
and the indicative when it is in the negative: dudo que sea posible "I doubt 
that it's possible". 

2. Clauses serving as adverbs: after a number of conjunctions, such as: 
a condición que "on condition that" aun cuando "even if" 

a fin (de) que "in order that" para que "so that" 

a menos que "unless" supuesto que "supposing that" 

3.52 Significant use of the subjunctive is found in the following types of 

1. Clauses used as adjectives, giving the clauses the meaning of: 

a) A desired characteristic or purpose: busco un libro que sea interesante 
"I'm looking for a book that'll be interesting". 

b) Uncertainty or doubt: las expresiones que Uds. hayan olvidado 
"the expressions you may have forgotten". This type of clause is especially 
frequent after indefinite and concessive expressions: cualquier libro que escriba 
"whatever book he may write"; por rico que sea "no matter how rich he may 
be". It is also found after superlatives or equivalent expressions: el libro más 
interesante que haya "the most interesting book there is". 

2. Clauses used as adverbs, giving the meaning of: 

a) Intent, purpose, or anticipation: hable Ud. de manera que todos le 
oigan "talk in such a way that all can hear you"; aunque venga, no nos lo 
enseñará "even though he may. come, he won't show it to us". 

b) Futurity: cuando venga, dígaselo "when he comes, tell it to him". 

3.53 Conditional sentences. If a sentence contains a clause beginning with 
si "if", the tense of the verb in this clause is determined by the tense of the 
verb in the main clause, normally as follows: 

If the main clause has The "if"-clause has 

a verb in the: a verb in the: 

Present } 

Imperative ¡> Present 

Future J 

Imperfect Imperfect 

Preterite Preterite 

Conditional Past Subjunctive (-ra or -se) 

Thus: si está aquí, trabaja "if he's here, he's working"; si estaba aquí, trabajaba 
"if he was here, he was working"; si está aquí mañana, trabajará "if he's here 
tomorrow, he'll be working"; si estuviera aquí, trabajaría "if he were here, he'd 
be working". A main verb indicating a condition contrary to fact may also be 
in the -ra form of the subjunctive: si estuviera aquí, trabajara "if he were here, 
he'd be working". 

3.6 Minor clauses, which do not conform to the customary structure of 
clauses, are chiefly of the following two types: 



3.61 Fragmentary or elliptical clauses: a phrase or single word, such as 
could enter into the structure of a full clause if the rest of a full clause were 
uttered. Under this type come most cases of incomplete sentences in normal 
conversation, answers to questions, etc: ¿Qué le dijo? — Nada. "What did he 
say to him? — Nothing."; Buenos días. ¿Cómo está Ud.f — Muy bien, gracias. 
¿Y Ud.t "Hello. How are you?— Very well, thanks. And you?" 

3.62 Inter jectional clauses, consisting of words which do not have the 
inflection or function of any of the parts of speech, and may be used as separate 
utterances or joined with other clauses: ¡Ah! "Ah!"; ¡Ay! "Ouch!"; ¡Hola! 
"Hello!"; ¡Oh! "Oh!"; etc. 




a to Voy a Barcelona. I'm going to Bar- 
celona. — Vamos a casa. Let's go home. 
— Se lo dimos al hombre. We gave it 
to the man. A at Vengan Uds. a las 
dos. Come at two o'clock. A on, upon 
Al salir de la casa, la vimos. We saw 
her on leaving the house. A later Nos 
marchamos a los cuatro días. We left 
four days later. A by La carta estaba 
escrita a mano. The letter was written 
by hand. A on Fuimos a pie. We went 
on foot. A from Se lo compré a Juan. 
I bought it from John. 

O a no ser que if . . . not Le veré, a 
no ser que venga demasiado tarde. I'll 
see him if he doesn't come too late. 

|| Quiero ver a Nueva York [Am]. I 
want to see New York. ]| ¡A que no 
sabes donde estuve anoche! I bet you 
can't guess where I was last night! 

abajo below, down, downstairs Estoy 
aquí abajo. I'm down here. 

O boca abajo face down. O cuesta 
abajo downhill No vaya Ud. tan de 
prisa en la cuesta abajo. Don't drive 
so fast downhill. O de abajo lower Los 
pisos de abajo son muy oscuros. The 
lower floors are very dark. O de arriba 
abajo from top to bottom, from head 
to foot Lo examinó de arriba abajo. 
He examined it from top to bottom. 
O desde abajo from below Desde abajo 
la casa parecía muy alta. From be- 
low, the house seemed very tall. 
O hacia abajo downward, down Cuando 
pase el puente no mire hacia abajo. 
When you cross the bridge, don't look 
down. O por abajo at or around the 
bottom, down there El pantalón estaba 
gastado por abajo. The trousers were 
worn at the bottom. 

abandonado (see abandonar) [adj~\ negli- 
gent, sloppy Es muy abandonado en su 
manera de vestir. He's very sloppy in 
his dress. 

abandonar to abandon, leave Abandonó 
a su mujer. He left his wife. A to 

neglect Abandona su trabajo a menudo. 
He frequently neglects his work. 

abanicar(se) to fan (oneself) Como 
hacía calor, se abanicaba. As it was 
warm, she was fanning herself. 

abanico fan Compró un abanico chino. 
She bought a Chinese fan. 

abarrotes [m pi] O tienda de abarrotes 
grocery store [Mex]. 

abatir to depress Las noticias le han 
abatido mucho. The news depressed 
him very much. 

abeja bee. 

abertura opening (of material) La aber- 
tura de este jersey es pequeña y no me 
cabe la cabeza. The opening in this 
sweater's small and my head won't go 

abierto (see abrir) open Las ventanas 
están abiertas. The windows are open. 

ablandar to soften El asfalto se ablandó 
con el calor. The asphalt was softened 
by the heat. 

abogado lawyer. 

abolir to abolish. 

abollar to dent, batter El guardabarros 
quedó todo abollado. The fender was 
badly dented. 

abonar to pay Abonaremos la diferencia. 
We'll pay the difference. A to fertilize 
Esta es la mejor época de abonar los 
campos. This is the best time to fer- 
tilize the fields. 

O abonarse to subscribe Me voy a 
abonar a estos conciertos de música de 
cámara. I'm going to subscribe to 
these chamber-music concerts. 

abono commutation ticket; subscription; 

abrasar to burn La casa se abrasó. The 
house burned to the ground. 

abrazar to embrace, hug. 

abrazo embrace, hug. 

abrelatas [m sg] can opener. 

abreviar to shorten; to abbreviate. 

abreviatura abbreviation. 





abrigar to warm Estas mantas abrigan 
mucho. These blankets are very warm. 
A to shelter, protect La pared me abri- 
gaba de la lluvia. The wall protected 
me from the rain. 

O abrigarse to wrap oneself, dress 
warmly Abrigúese bien antes de salir. 
Wrap up well before you go out. 

abrigo overcoat. 

abril [m] April. 

abrir [irr] to open Haga el favor de 
abrir la puerta. Please open the door. — 
¿Cuándo han abierto el cajón? When 
was the box opened? A to unlock Con 
esta llave abra Ud. el armario. Un- 
lock the cabinet with this key. 

O abrirse to withdraw, back out 
[Am] Si se abren Uds. no se hará el 
negocio. If you back out the deal won't 
go through. O abrirse paso, abrirse 
camino to make one's way Se abría 
paso entre la multitud. He was mak- 
ing his way through the crowd. 

abrochar to buckle, button Abróchale el 
cinturón al niño. Buckle the child's 
belt. — Tengo que abrocharme la cha- 
queta. I have to button my jacket. 

absoluto ° en absoluto (not) at all "¿he 
molesta a Ud.?" "No, en absoluto." 
"Do you mind?" "Not at all."— "¿Re- 
husó Ud. hacerlo?" "¡En absoluto!" 
"Did you refuse to do it?" "Not at 

absorber to absorb. 

absurdo absurd; absurdity. 

abuela grandmother. 

abuelo grandfather. 

abundancia abundance. 

abundante abundant. 

aburrir to bore Aburre a todo el mundo. 
He bores everybody. 

abusar de to abuse El gobernador abusó 
de su autoridad. The governor abused 
his authority. A to betray Abusó de 
mi confianza. He betrayed my confi- 

abuso abuse (of power); betrayal (of 
confidence) . 

acá here, this way Venga Ud. acá. Come 

O por acá around here Espero que le 
veamos por acá pronto. I hope we'll 
be seeing you around here soon. 

acabado (see acabar) [adj] Este mueble 
está muy bien acabado. This piece of 
furniture has a fine finish. A ex- 
hausted, worn out [Am] Estoy aca- 
bado. I'm worn out. A [m] finish El 
acabado de la mesa era perfecto. The 
finish of the table was perfect. 

acabar to finish, end, terminate Acabe 

Ud. su trabajo pronto. Finish your 
work quickly. A to put an end to Aca- 
bemos esta discusión. Let's put an end 
to this discussion. 

O acabar con to exhaust, use up Han 
acabado con todos los recursos del 
país. They exhausted all the resources 
of the country. A to wipe out Aca- 
baron con el enemigo. They wiped out 
the enemy. O acabar de to have just 
Acabo de llegar. I've just arrived. 

acabar por to end by Acabaré por 
volverme loco. I'll end up by going 
crazy. O acabarse to run out of Se me 
acabó el dinero. I ran out of money. 

academia academy. 

acalenturado feverish [Am] El enfermo 
está acalenturado esta tarde. The 
patient's feverish this afternoon. 

acalorarse to become heated or excited 
La discusión se acaloró. The argu- 
ment became heated. A to get over- 
heated Me acaloré jugando al béisbol. 

1 got overheated playing baseball. 
acariciar to caress, pet Acariciaba al 

perro. He was petting the dog. 

acarrear to carry (a load). 

acaso perhaps, maybe Acaso venga ma- 
ñana. Maybe he'll come tomorrow. 
A by chance ¿Acaso lo tiene Ud.? Do 
you have it by any chance? 

O por si acaso just in case Por si 
acaso lo necesita, lleve Ud. dinero. 
Take some money just in case you need 

accidental accidental. 

accidente [m] accident, mishap, chance. 

acción [/] action Esas tropas van a en- 
trar en acción. Those troops are going 
into action. A plot (of a drama) La 
acción se desarrolla rápidamente. The 
plot develops rapidly. 

aceite [m] oil. 

aceituna olive. 

acento stress, accent Esta palabra tiene 
el acento en la última sílaba. This 
word's stressed on the last syllable. 
A accent, pronunciation Tiene buen 
acento. He has a good accent. 

acentuar to accent. 

aceptar to accept. 

acera sidewalk. 

acerca de about, concerning No sé nada 
acerca de eso. I don't know anything 
about that. 

acercar to bring near Acérqueme una 
silla, por favor. Bring up a chair for 
me, please. 

O acercarse a to approach Se acercó 
a la puerta. He approached the door. 

acero steel. 





acertar [rad-ch 7] to guess right Gana 
él que acierte el número. Whoever 
guesses the number wins. 

O acertar con to locate, find Xo acertó 
con la casa. He couldn't find the house. 
O acertar en to hit (a mark) Acertó 
en el centro del bianco. He hit the 

ácido sour Estas naranjas son muy aci- 
das. These oranges are very sour. 
A [ml acid. 

acierto good judgment, good choice Es un 
acierto este traje que se ha comprado 
Ud. That suit you bought's a good 

aclamación [/] acclamation Fué elegido 
por aclamación. He was elected by 

aclamar to acclaim, applaud. 

aclaración [/] explanation. 

aclarar to make clear, clarify Hay que 
aclarar este asunto. This matter must 
be clarified. A to brighten, clear up 
Parece que el día aclara. It seems to 
be clearing up. 

acogida reception Tuvieron una calurosa 
acogida. They got a warm reception. 

acometer to attack. 

acomodado (see acomodar) well-to-do Es 
una familia acomodada. It's a well-to- 
do family. 

acomodador [m] usher. 

acomodar to put, place Acomode bien las 
maletas en la red. Put the suitcases 
carefully on the rack. 

O acomodarse to adapt oneself Se 
acomoda a las circuyistayicias. She 
adapts herself to circumstances. A to 
make oneself comfortable Acomódense, 
que tenemos tiempo de sobra. Make 
yourselves comfortable, for we have 
plenty of time. 

acomodo job, position Está buscando 
acomodo. He's looking for a job. 

acompañar to accompany. 

aconsejar to advise. 

acontecimiento event. 

acorazado battleship. 

acordar [rad-ch 7] to agree to, on, or 
upon ho acordaron por unanimidad. 
They agreed to it unanimously. 

O acordarse de to remember, recol- 
lect ¿Se acuerda Ud. de esto? Do you 
remember this? 

acortar to shorten Haga el favor de acor- 
tar la chaqueta. Would you please 
shorten the jacket. 

O acortar la marcha to slow down. 

acostar [rad-ch 7] to put to bed Ya es 
hora de acostar a los niños. It's time 

to put the children to bed. A to lay 
Se puso enfermo y lo acostaron en un 
banco. He became sick and they laid 
him on a bench. 

O acostarse to go to bed Se acuesta 
temprano pero tarda en dormirse. He 
goes to bed early but it takes him a 
long time to get to sleep. O estar 
acostado to be lying down Estaba acos- 
tado en el diván. He was lying on the 

acostumbrarse a to get accustomed to. 

acrecentar [rad-ch 7] to increase. 

acreditado accredited Es un representante 
acreditado del gobierno francés. He's 
an accredited representative of the 
French government. A of good reputa- 
tion Es un medico acreditado. He's a 
doctor of good reputation. A solvent 
Es una firma acreditada. It's a solvent 

acreedor [m] creditor he persiguen los 
acreedores. His creditors are after 

actitud [/'] attitude. 

actividad [/] activity En la oficina ha 
habido mucha actividad esta mañana. 
There's been a lot o: f activity around 
the office this morning. 

O actividades activities Además de su 
empleo tiene otras muchas actividades. 
In addition to his regular job, he has 
a lot of other activities. 

activo active. 

acto act Fué un acto de valor. It was 
an act of courage. A ceremony El 
acto tuvo lugar por la tarde. The 
ceremony took place in the afternoon. 
A act (of a play) Ahora va a empezar 
el tercer acto. The third act is about 
to begin. 

O en el acto right away ho hizo en el 
acto. He did it right away. 

actor [ml actor. 

actriz [/] actress. 

actual present, current has circunstan- 
cias actuales son desfavorables. Pres- 
ent circumstances are unfavorable. 

actualidad [/] present time En la actuali- 
dad escasea el café. Nowadays coffee 
is scarce. 

actualmente at present, at the present 
time Actualmente está en Chicago. At 
the present time he's in Chicago. 

actuar to act. 

acudir to rush Acudieron en su ayuda. 
They rushed to his aid. A to keep (an 
appointment) No acudió a la cita. He 
didn't keep his appointment. 

acuerdo agreement Llegaron a un acuer- 
do. They came to an agreement. 





O de acuerdo of the same opinion 
Estamos de acuerdo. We're of the 
same opinion. ° de acuerdo con in 
accordance with Lo hice de acuerdo 
con sus instrucciones. I did it accord- 
ing to your instructions. 

acumular to accumulate. 

acusación [/] accusation. 

acusado (see acusar) [adj] accused. A [«] 

acusar to accuse Le acusaron de homi- 
cidio. They accused him of man- 
slaughter. A to acknowledge (in busi- 
ness correspondence) Acusamos recibo 
de su carta. We acknowledge receipt 
of your letter. 

adaptar to adapt. 

adecuado adequate, suitable. 

adelantado (see adelantar) O por adelan- 
tado in advance En ese hotel hay que 
pagar por adelantado. You have to 
pay in advance in that hotel. 

adelantar to surpass, take the lead Este 
muchacho adelanta al resto de la clase. 
This boy surpasses the rest of the class. 
— Adelantaron a todos los demás. They 
went ahead of all the others. A to pass 
Iban a ochenta kilómetros y nos ade- 
lantaron. They were doing eighty 
kilometers and they passed us. A to 
gain time Su reloj adelanta. Your 
watch gains time. A to put ahead 
Adelante Ud. su reloj porque está atra- 
sado. Put your watch ahead; it's 
slow. A to be fast Mi reloj está adelan- 
tado cinco minutos. My watch is five 
minutes fast. A to improve, advance 
Su español adelanta poco a poco. His 
Spanish is improving little by little. 

O adelantarse to beat (someone) to, 
steal a march on Yo quería invitarle, 
pero su amigo se me adelantó. I 
wanted to invite you, but your friend 
beat me to it. 

adelante Siga Ud. adelante. Go ahead. 
O en adelante from now on De ahora 
en adelante lo haremos así. From now 
on we'll do it this way. O m ás ade- 
lante later on Más adelante lo com- 
prenderás. You'll understand it later 
on. A farther on Más adelante encon- 
tramos una casa. Farther on we came 
upon a house. 

|| ¡Adelante! Come in! or Forward! 

adelanto improvement Esta casa tiene 
todos los adelantos. This house has 
all the latest improvements. 

adelgazar to make thin; to lose weight. 

además moreover, furthermore No tengo 
ganas de ir y además ya es muy tarde. 

I don't want to go, and besides it's too 

O además de in addition to, besides 
Además de fruta vamos a tomar he- 
lado. Besides fruit we're going to 
have ice cream. 

adentro within, inside Voy a ir adentro. 
I'm going inside. 

|| ¡Adentro! Come in! 

adiós good-by, so long. 

adivinar to guess ¿A qué no adivina Ud. 
lo que me ha ocurrido hoy? I'll bet 
you can't guess what happened to me 

adjunto enclosed. (Used in correspond- 
ence. ) 

administración [/] administration, man- 

administrador [m] manager; superin- 
tendent (of a building). 

administrar to manage, administer. 

admirable admirable, excellent, wonder- 

admiración [/] admiration, wonder. 

admirar to amaze Me admira su descaro. 
I'm amazed at his nerve. A to admire 
Admiraba el trabajo de s?¿ amigo. He 
admired his friend's work. 

O admirarse de to be surprised or 
amazed at Se admiraron de su resis- 
tencia. They were amazed at his 

admitir to admit he han admitido en la 
escuela de ingenieros. He was ad- 
mitted to the engineering school. A to 
accept No se admiten propinas. Tips 
not accepted. A to let, allow No ad- 
mite interrupciones. He doesn't allow 

adolescencia adolescence, youth. 

adolescente [adj; n] adolescent. 

adonde where, to what place Adonde voy 
tú no puedes ir. You can't go where 
I'm going. 

O ¿adonde? where? where to? 
¿Adonde va Ud.? Where are you 

adoptar to adopt Adoptaron una niña. 
They adopted a little girl. — Han 
adoptado un nuevo plan. They've 
adopted a new plan. A to assume 
Adoptó un aire de gran importancia. 
He assumed an air of great impor- 

adorar to worship, adore. 

adornar to decorate, fix up El salón está 
muy bien adornado para la fiesta. The 
room's nicely fixed up for the party. 
A to trim El traje estaba adornado con 





encajes. The dress was trimmed with 
adorno ornament, trimming. 
adquirir to acquire. 
adquisición [/] acquisition. 
aduana customhouse. A customs Pagaron 
derechos de aduana(s). They paid 
customs duties. 
adulación [/] flattery. 
adular to flatter. 
adulto [n; adj] adult. 
adversario opponent. 
adversidad [/] adversity, misfortune. 
advertencia warning. 
advertir [rad-ch II] to notice, observe 
Advertí algunos errores en su in- 
forme. I noticed some mistakes in 
his report. A to advise, warn Te ad- 
vierto que no lo hagas otra vez. I'm 
warning you not to do it again. — Ya 
se lo advertí a Ud. I told you so. 
aéreo aerial, (of the) air Envíelo por 

correo aéreo. Send it airmail. 
aeródromo airport. 
aeroplano airplane. 
afable affable, pleasant. 
afán [m] anxiety, eagerness. 
afanarse to be eager Muchachos, no se 
afanen tanto. Don't be so eager, boys. 
afectado (see afectar) affected, unnatu- 
afectar to move La noticia le afectó 
mucho. The news moved him deeply, 
afecto affection, regard Les tiene afecto 
a todos sus compañeros de oficina. He 
has regard for all his office com- 
afeitar to shave. 

O afeitarse to shave (oneself). 
afición [/] fondness; inclination. 
aficionado, aficionada fan Soy tin gran 
aficionado al béisbol. I'm a great 
baseball fan. A amateur Esta es una 
compañía de aficionados. This is an 
amateur company. 

O aficionado a fond of Es muy afi- 
cionado a la lectura. He's very fond 
of reading, 
aficionarse a to become fond of Se ha 
aficionado a los deportes. He's become 
fond of sports. 
afilar to sharpen. 

afinidad [/] relationship by marriage 
Es pariente mío por afinidad. He's 
one of my in-laws. 
afirmar to affirm, assert, maintain. 
afirmativo [adj] affirmative. 
aflicción [/] affliction, sorrow, grief, 
afligir to grieve (someone) Les afligió 
macho la pérdida de .<?/< madre. The 

loss of their mother grieved them 
very much. 

O afligirse to grieve Se afligieron 
por la desgracia de su amigo. They 
grieved over their friend's misfor- 
aflojar to loosen, relax Afloje Ud. un poco 
la venda. Loosen the bandage a little. 
A to slacken No aflojen el trabajo en 
tiempo de guerra. Don't slacken in 
your work in war time. A to decrease, 
let up, subside La tormenta aflojó. 
The storm let up. 
afortunadamente fortunately. 
afortunado fortunate, lucky. 
afuera out, outside Vamos afuera. Let's 
go out. 

O afueras [/ pi] suburbs, outskirts 
Viven en las afueras de la ciudad. 
They live in the suburbs. 
|| ¡Afuera! Get out! 
agachar to lower, bend down Agachen la 
cabeza que el techo es muy bajo. Bend 
down; the ceiling's very low. 
agarradero handle. 

agarrar to hold, grasp Agarre Ud. bien 
la cuerda. Hold the rope tight. A to 
catch or contract (illness) He agarra- 
do un catarro atroz. I caught an awful 
cold. A to take [Arg]. 

O agarrarse to hold on, catch hold 
Se agarró de mi brazo para no caerse. 
She caught hold of my arm so she 
wouldn't fall. 
agencia agency (except governmental). 
agente [m] agent Es agente de una gran 
compañía de seguros. He's agent for 
a big rnsurance company. A repre- 
sentative La compañía ha enviado 
varios agentes para tratar el asunto. 
The company's sent several represent- 
atives to discuss the matter. 

O agente (de policía) policeman 
[Am] Pregunte al agente dónde está la 
plaza de Santiago. Ask the policeman 
where St. James Square is. 
ágil quick, agile Es ágil de movimientos. 
He's quick in his movements. — Tiene 
una inteligencia muy ágil. She has a 
very quick mind. 
agitación [/] excitement, agitation. 
agitar to shake Agítese bien antes de 
usarlo. Shake well before using. A to 
stir up, excite El político agitó a los 
trabajadores. The politician stirred 
up the workers. 

O agitarse to become excited Cuando 
lo oyó se agitó mucho. When she 
heard it she got very excited. 
¡ agosto August. 





agotar to run through, use up, exhaust 
Agotaron rápidamente la herencia. 
They ran through the inheritance. 

O agotarse to wear oneself out Con 
tanto trabajo se está agotando. He's 
wearing himself out working so much. 
A to go out of print La edición se 
agotó rápidamente. The edition went 
out of print quickly. A to give out Se 
agotaron las provisiones en poco tiem- 
po. The provisions gave out in a short 

agradable agreeable, pleasant. 

agradar to be pleasing to Es un tipo que 
no me agrada. I don't like his type. 

agradecer [-zc-] to appreciate he agra- 
dezco mucho su amabilidad. I appre- 
ciate your kindness. A to thank for he 
agradecí mucho su ayuda. I thanked 
him very much for his help. 

agradecimiento gratitude. 

agrado liking Esto no es de su agrado. 
This is not to his liking. 

agrandar to enlarge Van a agrandar su 
tienda. They're going to enlarge their 
store. A to let out (a garment). 

agravar to aggravate, make worse Esto 
agrava la situación. This makes the 
situation worse. 

O agravarse to get worse El enfermo 
se agravó. The patient got worse. 

agregado See agregar. A [m] attache 
Vimos al agregado militar de la Emba- 
jada Americana. We saw the military 
attache of the American Embassy. 

agregar to add Hace falta agregar más 
detalles al informe. You have to add 
more details to the report. 

agresión [/] aggression. 

agresivo aggressive. 

agresor [m] aggressor. 

agricultor [m] farmer. 

agricultura agriculture. 

agrio sour ha toronja está muy agria. 
The grapefruit tastes very sour. 

agrupar to group. 

agua water Quiere un vaso de agua 
fresca. He wants a glass of cold 
water. A rain Ahora hace un tiempo 
de agzia. We're having a rainy spell. 
O agua de coco coconut milk. O aguas 
termales hot springs. O más claro que 
el agua clear as crystal Tiene Ud. 
razón, eso está más claro que el agua. 
You're right, that's as clear as crystal. 
|| ¡Hombre al agua! Man overboard! 

aguacate [m] avocado, alligator pear. 

aguacero [m] rainstorm El aguacero 
de anoche ha cortado el camino. Last 
night's storm washed out the road. 

aguado O manos aguadas butterfingers 
[Am] ¡Tienes las manos aguadas! 
You have butterfingers. 
aguafiestas [m, /; sg~\ wet blanket, kill- 
joy No seas aguafiestas. Don't be a 
wet blanket. 

aguantar to bear, endure, stand Es asom- 
broso como puede aguantar tanto. It's 
amazing how much he can stand. — 
Esto no se puede aguantar. This is 
unbearable. A to hang on, not give up 
¡Aguante duro! Hang on tight! 

O aguantarse to be patient, take it 
Hay que aguantarse. You have to take 

aguardar to expect he aguardamos ma- 
ñana a las diez. We expect him to- 
morrow at ten o'clock. A to wait for 
Te estoy aguardando hace horas. I've 
been waiting for you for hours. 

aguardiente [m] brandy, whiskey. 

agudo sharp, keen El cuchillo tenia la 
punta muy aguda. The knife had a 
very sharp point. A clever Es un mu- 
chacho muy agudo. He's a very 
clever boy. A high-pitched Tiene una 
voz muy aguda. She has a very high- 
pitched voice. A witty ¡Siempre tiene 
dichos tan agudos! He's always mak- 
ing such witty remarks ! A acute (of 
an angle) has calles forman un ángulo 
agudo. The two streets form an acute 

águila [/] eagle. 

agüita agüita (water flavored with aro- 
matic leaves) [Am~] ¿Qué quiere Ud. 
después de la comida, café, té o agüita 
de menta? What would you like after 
dinner — coffee, tea, or mint water? 

aguja needle ¿Tiene Ud. una aguja para 
coser estos botones? Do you have a 
needle to sew on these buttons? A hand 
(of watch, compass) A mi reloj se le 
ha caído una aguja. One of the hands 
has fallen off my watch. 

O agujas [pi] switch El tren ha en- 
trado en agujas. The train's passed 
the switch. 

agujero hole. 

aguzar to sharpen to a point Aguce un 
poco la estaca. Sharpen the end of 
the stick a little. 

II Aguzó el oído. He pricked up his 

¡ah! oh! 

ahí there Ahí está su amigo. There's 
your friend. — Qué tiene Ud. ahí en el 
bolsillo? What have you got there in 
your pocket? 

° por ahí that way Por ahí, haga el 





favor. That way, please. A around 
here Por ahí anda su sombrero. Your 
hat's somewhere around here. 

|| ¿Y de ahí, qué hubo? Hello there, 
what's new? [C.A.] 

ahijada goddaughter. 

ahijado godson. 

ahogar to choke Trató de ahogarle. He 
tried to choke him. 

O ahogarse to drown, to be drowned 
Muchos animales se ahogaron en la 
inundación. Many animals were 
drowned in the flood. A to be suffo- 
cated Me ahogo en esta habitación 
tan pequeña y tan caliente. This 
room's so small and hot that I'm suffo- 

ahora now, right now Ahora voy a casa. 
I'm going home now. A now ¿Ahora, 
qué piensa Ud.? Now, what do you 

O ahora bien now, now then Ahora 
bien, hay que aclarar este problema. 
Now then, let's get this problem 
cleared up. ° ahora mismo at once, 
right away Hágalo ahora mismo. Do 
it right away. A just, just now Salió 
ahora mismo. He just left. O ¿ e , 
ahora en adelante from now on ho 
haremos así de ahora en adelante. 
We'll do it this way from now on. 
O hasta ahora up to now, so far Hasta 
ahora nunca hemos tenido este pro- 
blema. Up to now we've never had 
this problem. O por ahora for the 
present Por ahora tenemos bastante 
comida. We have enough food for the 

ahorcar to hang (execute) ho ahorcaron 
el mismo día. They hanged him the 
same day. 

ahorita right now [Am] Ahorita vamos 
a verle. We're going to see himright now. 

ahorrar to save ¿Cuánto dinero hemos 
ahorrado este mes? How much have 
we saved this month? 

aire [m] air El aire de esta habitación 
está muy cargado. The air in this 
room's very stuffy. A wind Sopla un 
aire muy fuerte. There's a very strong 
wind blowing. A look, appearance 
Tiene aire de millonario. He looks 
like a millionaire. — Tenía un aire muy 
cansado. He looked very tired. 

° al aire libre in the open air Pasa- 
mos tres horas al aire libre. We spent 
three hours in the open air. O tomar 
el aire to get some fresh air. 

|| Se da aires de persona importante. 
He puts on airs. 

aislamiento isolation. 

aislar to isolate, cut off. 

¡aja! || ¡Aja! ¿Conque esas tenemos? So 

that's what's going on ! 
ajedrez [m] chess. 
ajeno another's, someone else's No se 

meta en vidas ajenas. Don't meddle 

in other people's affairs. 
ajo garlic. 

O echar ajos to swear Empezó a 

echar ajos. He started swearing. 

O estar en el ajo to be in the know. 
ajustar to tighten Tiene Ud. que ajustar 

esos tornillos. You have to tighten 

those screws. A to fit Esta tapadera 

no ajusta. This cover doesn't fit. A to 

agree about, decide (on) Se reunieron 

para ajustar las condiciones de la paz. 

They met to decide peace terms. A to 

settle Vamos a ajustar las cuentas. 

Let's settle accounts. 
al (a + el) See a. 
ala wing; brim (of a hat). 
alabanza praise. 
alabar to praise. 
alacrán [?rc] scorpion. 
alambrada wire fence. 
alambre [?n] wire. 
alameda mall, public walk (lined with 

álamo poplar. 
alarde [m] boast. 

O hacer alarde de to show off hevantó 

el baúl para hacer alarde de fuerza. 

He lifted the trunk to show off his 

alardear to boast. 
alargar to lengthen, extend Hay que 

alargar las mangas de este abrigo. 

The sleeves of this coat have to be 

lengthened. A to hand Haga el favor 

de alargarme la maleta. Would you 

hand me the suitcase, please? 
alarma alarm. 
alba dawn. 

albañil [m] mason, bricklayer. 
albaricoque [m] apricot [Sp]. 
alborotar to disturb, make noise hos 

niños están alborotando mucho. The 

children are making a lot of noise. 
alboroto disturbance, excitement; [C.A.] 

alcachofa artichoke. 
alcalde [w] mayor. 
alcance [?n] reach Estaba fuera de su 

alcance. It was out of his reach. 
alcancía toy bank; collection box. 
alcanzado short (of money) Siempre 

anda alcanzado de dinero. He's always 

short of money. 





alcanzar to catch up with, overtake Nos 
alcanzaron muy pronto. They caught 
up with us quickly. A to reach No 
puedo alcanzar esa lata de tomate. I 
can't reach that can of tomatoes. A to 
attain, reach Alcanzó el grado de 
general. He reached the rank of 

O alcanzar a to succeed in, can Desde 
aquí no alcanzo a verlo. From here I 
can't see it. 

alcoba bedroom. 

alcohol [m] alcohol. 

alcohólico [adj ; w] alcoholic. 

aldea village. 

alegar to allege, state, assert. 

alegrar to brighten (up) Las flores ale- 
grarán la mesa. The flowers will 
brighten up the table. A to cheer up. 
O alegrarse to rejoice, be glad Me 
alegro mucho de verla. I'm very glad 
to see you. 

alegre glad, happy ¿Por qué está Ud. tan 
alegre hoy? Why are you so happy 
today? A cheerful Son gente muy ale- 
gre. They're very cheerful people. 
A brilliant, bright ¡Qué traje tan ale- 
gre! What a bright-colored suit that is! 
A drunk, tipsy Está un poco alegre. 
He's a little tipsy. 

alegría delight, joy, pleasure Mostró 
gran alegría cuando le vio. He showed 
great joy when he saw him. 

alejarse to go away No se aleje demasia- 
do. Don't go too far away. 

alentado well, all right [Am] Estaba en- 
fermo, pero hoy ya está alentado. He 
was ill, but today he's all right. 

alentar [rad-ch I] to comfort, cheer up 
Hay que alentarla un poco. She needs 
a little cheering up. A to encourage 
Aliéntele Ud. a que lo haga ahora. 
Encourage him to do it. 

alfabeto alphabet. 

alfiler [m] pin. 

alfombra carpet, rug. 

algo something ¿Tiene Ud. algo que de- 
cirme? Have you something to tell me? 
A rather, somewhat Me parece algo 
caro. It seems rather expensive to 

O algo de some ¿Tiene Ud. algo de 
dinero? Have you got some money? 
° por algo for some reason Por algo 
me dice Ud. eso. You must have a 
reason for telling me. O servir para 
algo to be useful, be good for some- 
thing No sé si esto le servirá para 
algo. I don't know whether this'll be 
of any use to you. 

algodón [m] cotton. 

alguien somebody, someone Alguien llama 
a la puerta. Somebody's knocking at 
the door. A anybody, anyone ¿Ha ve- 
nido alguien? Has anybody come? 

algún (see alguno) some Espero que Ud. 
vuelva algún día. I hope you'll come 
again some day. 

alguno some, any Quiero hacerle algunas 
preguntas. I want to ask you some 
questions. — ¿Quiere Ud. hacerme al- 
guna pregunta? Do you want to ask 
me any questions? 

O alguna cosa más anything else 
¿Necesita Ud. alguna cosa más? Do 
you need anything else? O alguna 
vez now and then, sometimes Nos 
visita algunas veces. He visits us now 
and then. O algunos some people Al- 
gunos no tienen paciencia. Some peo- 
ple have no patience. 

alhaja jewel. 

aliado allied. A [n~\ ally. 

alianza union, alliance. 

aliarse to form an alliance, ally oneself. 

aliento breath Llegó sin aliento. He was 
out of breath when he got here. 

|| Es una persona de muchos alientos. 
He's a very energetic person. 

aligerar to lighten Tenemos que aligerar 
la carga. We have to lighten the load. 
A to hasten, hurry Aligera porque es 
tarde. Hurry up, it's late. 

alimentar to feed, nourish Esta comida 
no alimenta bastante. This food's not 
nourishing enough. 

alimento food, nourishment. 

alistarse to enlist Se alistó en la Legión 
Extranjera. He enlisted in the For- 
eign Legion. 

alistarse to get ready [Am] Hay que 
alistarse temprano porque el tren no 
espera. We'd better get ready early 
because the train won't wait. 

aliviar to relieve, alleviate. 

allá there ¡Allá está! There it is! 

O allá arriba up there, way up Está 
allá arriba esperándole. He's up 
there waiting for you. O allá dentro 
in there, inside Allá dentro están sus 
amigos. Your friends are in there. 

hacia allá, para allá that way Vamos 
hacia allá. Let's go that way. O m ás 
allá farther on, beyond El pueblo está 
más allá de aquellos árboles. The vil- 
lage is beyond those trees. O por allá 
over there Les vi por allá hace un rato. 

1 saw 'em over there a while ago. 
allí there Póngalo allí. Put it over there. 

— Su casa está allí a la derecha. His 
house is there on the right. 





O de allí from there Vive lejos de 
allí. She lives far from there. O desde 
allí from there Desde allí se veía per- 
fectamente. From there one could see 
perfectly. O por allí that way Dice 
que vayamos por allí. He says we 
should go that way. 

alma soul. 

O almas people Es un pueblo de tres 
mil almas. It's a town of 3000 people. 
O de mi alma (term of affectionate 
address used in Spanish-speaking 
countries) ¡Hijo de mi alma! My 
dear child! 

|| Lo siento en el alma. I'm terribly 

almacén [to] warehouse, stockroom; 
store, shop; department store; [Arg] 
grocery store. 

almendra almond. 

almidón [to] starch. 

almidonar to starch. 

almirante [to] admiral. 

almohada pillow. 

|| ho voy a consultar con la almo- 
hada. I'm going to sleep on it (i.e., 
think it over). 

almohadón [m] cushion. 

almorzar [rad-ch /] to lunch, breakfast. 

almuerzo lunch, noon meal; breakfast. 

alocado reckless Es un muchacho muy 
alocado. He's a reckless young fellow. 

alojamiento lodging. 

alojar to put up, lodge, quarter. 

alpargata espadrille (sandal with fiber 
sole and canvas upper). 

alquilar to rent, hire Alquilaron una 
casa. They rented a house. A to let 
Se alquilan habitaciones. Rooms for 

alquiler [w] rent, price of rent. 

alrededor O alrededor de around Estaban 
sentados alrededor de la mesa. They 
were sitting ai'ound the table. A about 
Costó alrededor de treinta pesos. It 
cost about thirty pesos. O alrededores 
[m pi] outskirts, surroundings. 

altar [m] altar. 

altavoz [to] loudspeaker. 

alteración [/] alteration, change Tene- 
mos que hacer algunas alteraciones en 
nuestros planes. We have to make 
some changes in our plans. A strong 
emotion Daba muestras de gran altera- 
ción. He showed signs of great emo- 

O alteración del orden tumult, public 
disorder Hubo alteraciones del orden 
en todo el país. There were disorders 
all over the country. 

alterar to change, transform Su venida 
alteró completamente nuestra vida. 
His coming changed our lives com- 

O alterarse to get excited No se 
altere Ud. que no es nada. Don't 
get excited; it's nothing. 

alternar to alternate, take turns. 

alternativa [/] alternative. 

alto high, tall ¿Qué es aquel edificio tan 
alto? What's that very tall building? 
A high (in rank) Habló con un alto em- 
pleado del Ministerio de Hacienda. He 
talked to a high official of the Treas- 
ury Department. A high Los precios 
son muy altos en esta tienda. Prices 
are very high in this store. A loud 
No hables tan alto. Don't talk so loud. 
O a altas horas de la noche very late 
at night Volvió a altas horas de la 
noche. He returned very late at night. 
O altos upper story Viven en los altos 
de aquella casa. They live in the 
upper story of that house. O lo alto 
top La casa está en lo alto de la colina. 
The house is on top of the hill. ° pasar 
por alto to overlook, forget Hemos 
pasado por alto muchos puntos im- 
portantes. We've overlooked many im- 
portant facts. 

alto O hacer alto to stop, halt Hicimos 
alto en el camino para almorzar. We 
stopped along the way to have lunch. — 
Los soldados hicieron alto a la entrada 
del pueblo. The soldiers halted at the 
entrance to the town. 
|| ¡Alto! Halt! or Stop! 

altura height, altitude, elevation No me 
encuentro bien a tanta altura. I don't 
feel well at such a high altitude. 

aludir a to allude to, refer to. 

alumbrado See alumbrar. A lighting, 
lighting system Hay muy poco alum- 
brado en esta parte de la ciudad. The 
lighting's poor in this part of the city. 

alumbrar to give light Los faroles de la 
calle no alumbran bastante. The street 
lamps don't give enough light. A to 
light, illuminate ¿Puede alumbar el 
camino? Can you light the way? 

alumno pupil, student. 

alusión [/] allusion, reference; hint. 

alzar to lift, raise No alzó los ojos del 
libro. He didn't raise his eyes from 
the book. 

O alzarse to rise, revolt Se alzaron 
contra el gobierno.' They revolted 
against the government. A to get up. 
O alzarse con to lift, steal, swipe Se 
alzó con el dinero. He stole the money. 





amabilidad [/] kindness. 
amable kind, amiable. 

amanecer to dawn En verano amanece 
más temprano que en invierno. In the 
summer it dawns earlier than in the 

amanecer [m] daybreak, dawn. 

amanecida O a la amanecida at day- 
break, at dawn. 

amante [adj~\ loving. A [n] lover; mis- 

amapola poppy. 

amar to love. 

amargado (see amargar) embittered 
Ese tipo está amargado. That guy's 
very embittered. 

amargar to make bitter, make miserable 
Amarga la vida de todos los que le 
rodean. He makes life miserable for 
everyone around him. 

amargo bitter. 

amargor [m] bitterness No podia sopor- 
tar el amargor del café. He couldn't 
stand the bitterness of the coffee. 

amargura bitterness Sus desgracias le 
causaron una gran amargura. His 
misfortunes caused him great bitter- 

amarillo yellow. 

amarrar to tie, fasten. 

ambición [/] (excessive) ambition. 

ambicioso overambitious. 

ambiente [m] atmosphere, environment. 
. ambulancia ambulance. 

amén amen. 

|| Dice a todo amén. He's a yes-man. 

amenaza threat, menace. 

amenazar to threaten, menace. 

americana coat (of a man's suit) [Sp]. 

amigo, amiga friend Es una amiga mía. 
She's a friend of mine. 

amistad [/] friendship. 

O hacer amistad to become friends, 
make friends (with) Pronto hicieron 
amistad. They soon became friends. — 
Hizo amistad con Juan. He made 
friends with John. O hacer amistades 
to get acquainted En poco tiempo hizo 
amistades allí. He got acquainted 
there in a short time. 

amistoso friendly. 

amo, ama owner, proprietor Hablamos 
con el amo de la casa. We talked with 
the owner of the house. A boss No se 
lo digas al amo. Don't tell the boss. 

amontonar to heap, pile up. 

amor [m] love Le gusta hablar de amor. 
He likes to talk of love. A love, heart- 
throb Ha encontrado un nuevo amor. 

He's found a new love. A love, dar- 
ling Sí, mi amor. Yes, darling. 

O amor propio self-esteem, pride 
Tiene un amor propio excesivo. He 
has too much pride. 

amoscarse to become peeved or irked Se 
ha amoscado con tus palabras. He 
was peeved by what you said. 

amotinarse to mutiny. 

amparo aid; protection. 

ampliación [/] enlargement Quiero una 
ampliación de esta fotografía. I want 
an enlargement of this photograph. 

ampliar to enlarge, amplify, extend. 

amplio ample, roomy, large. 

amueblar to furnish, supply with furni- 
ture Amueblaron la casa con todo lujo. 
They furnished the house very luxu- 

analfabeto [adj, n] illiterate. 

análisis [m or f] analysis. 

analizar to analyze. 

anarquía anarchy. 

ancho wide, broad ¿Cree Ud. que el ca- 
mino es bastante ancho para automó- 
viles? Do you think the road's wide 
enough for cars? A too big, too wide 
Este traje me está ancho. This suit's 
too big for me. A width, breadth ¿Qué 
ancho tiene la tela? What's the width 
of the material? 

° a sus anchas at ease, comfortable. 

anciano aged, very old (of people). 

ancla anchor. 

andada hike [Am] Dimos la gran andada 
para llegar a la cumbre. We took a 
long hike up to the summit. 

andalón [m] wanderer, gadabout [Am] 
Eres muy andalón, muchacho. You're 
a great gadabout, my boy. 

andar [irr] to walk, go on foot Es dema- 
siado lejos para ir andando. It's too 
far to walk. A to go, move El tren 
echó a andar. The train began to 
move. A to run, go, work ¿Anda ese 
reloj? Is that clock going? 

O andar andando to roam around 
[Mex, Col] He andado andando todo 
el día. I've been chasing around all 
day. O andar cerca to come close to 
No se sacó el premio, pero le anduvo 
cerca. He didn't win the prize, but 
he came close to it. O andar en to be 
going on [Am] El niño anda en siete 
afws. The child's going on seven. 
O andarse por las ramas to beat around 
the bush. 

|| ¡Anda! Move on! or Get up! or 
Go ahead! ¡I ; Ándale! Go on! or Go 
to it! [Am] 





andarivel [m] cable ferry, aerial cable 
car [Am]. A rail, fence [Arg] El 
jinete cayó cerca del andarivel. The 
jockey fell right by the rail. 
andén [m] (railroad) platform. 
angosto narrow. 
ángulo angle. 

anillo ring he regaló un anillo de brillan- 
tes. He gave her a diamond ring. 
animación [/] animation, liveliness La 
animación de la reunión me sorpren- 
dió. The liveliness of the gathering 
surprised me. 
animado (see animar) lively, animated. 
animal [?n] animal. A jackass, stupid 
person ¡No seas animal! Don't be a 
animar to cheer, encourage Vamos a 
animar a los jugadores. Let's encour- 
age the players. A to pep up Su 
llegada animó la fiesta. His arrival 
pepped up the party. 

O animar a to encourage to, urge to 
he estoy animando a que venga con 
nosotros. I'm urging him to come with 
ánimo (state of) mind, spirits Estaba de 
buen ánimo. He was in good spirits. 
A courage. 

O dar ánimos to encourage, cheer up 
Le dio ánimos porque estaba decaído. 
She cheered him up because he was 
aniversario [w] anniversary. 
anoche last night. 

anochecer \_-zc-] to grow dark, get dark 
Ahora anochece a las cinco. It gets 
dark at five now. 
anochecer [m] dusk, nightfall. 
ansiedad [/] anxiety. 
ansioso anxious, eager, impatient Estoy 
ansioso de conocerla. I'm anxious to 
meet her. 
anteanoche night before last. 
anteayer day before yesterday. 
anteojos [m pi] eyeglasses, spectacles. 
antepasado \_adj] before last El año ante- 
pasado fuimos a Europa. The year 
before last we went to Europe. A [w] 
ancestor, ancestress. 
anterior previous, last, 
antes before Ya se lo dije a Ud. antes. 
I told you that before. A formerly 
Esta calle tenía otro nombre antes. 
This street used to have another name. 
O antes de before Comamos antes de 
ir. Let's eat before we go. O antes 
que before Salieron antes que nosotros 
llegásemos. They left before we ar- 

ante todo above all, first of all Ante todo 
no olvide escribirme. Above all, don't 
forget to write me. 

anticipar to advance, lend Me anticipó 
treinta pesos. He lent me 30 pesos. 
A to advance Anticiparon la fecha de 
la fiesta. They advanced the date of 
the party. 

O anticiparse to arrive ahead of time 
Se anticiparon media hora. They ar- 
rived half an hour early. A to get 
ahead of Se me anticipó. He got 
ahead of me. 

antiguo former; old, ancient. 

O a la antigua in an old-fashioned 
way Le gusta vestir a la antigua. She 
likes to dress in an old-fashioned way. 

antipatía dislike Me tiene antipatía. He 
dislikes me. 

antipático disagreeable Es un hombre 
muy antipático. He's a very disagree- 
able man. 

antojarse || Hace todo lo que se le an- 
toja. She does whatever comes into her 
mind. |! Lo hago porque se me antoja. 
I do it because I take a notion to. 

anunciar to announce; to advertise. 

anuncio advertisement; announcement; 

añadir to add (to). 

año year. 

O año bisiesto leap year. O año 
nuevo new year Feliz año nuevo. 
Happy New Year. O tener . . . años 
to be . . . years old Tengo veinte años. 
I'm twenty years old. 

apagar to put out, extinguish Apague 
Ud. la luz. Put out the light. 

O apagarse to go out Se apagaron 
las luces. The lights went out. 

apagón [m] blackout. 

aparato apparatus, set Vende aparatos 
de radio. He sells radio sets. 

aparecer \_-zc-] to show up, turn up No 
apareció. He didn't show up. 

aparición [/] appearance (presence) he 
sorprendió la aparición repentina de 
su amigo. He was surprised by the 
sudden appearance of his friend. 
A apparition. 

apariencia appearance, looks No me 
gusta su apariencia. I don't like his 

apartado (see apartar) distant, far away. 
O apartado (de correos) post office 

apartamiento apartment [Am]. 

apartar to separate, divide. 

aparte separate Eso es cuestión abarte. 
That's a separate question. A aside. 





separately Ponga este paquete aparte. 
Put this package aside. 
apearse to get off Se prohibe apearse en 
marcha. Don't get off while the ve- 
hicle's in motion. 
apellido (family) name. 
apenado sorry, grieved Estaban aperlados 
por la enfermedad de su tía. They 
were grieved by the illness of their 
aunt. A worried [Am~\ Estábamos ape- 
nados porque no recibíamos noticias. 
We were worried because we weren't 
getting any news. 
apenas scarcely, hardly Apenas puede 
andar. He can hardly walk. A as soon 
as Apenas llegue, avíseme. Let me 
know as soon as he comes. 
apertura opening (of exhibition, public 

apetito appetite. 

apiñado gathered in a crowd La gente 
está apiñada para ver el desfile. A 
crowd of people gathered to see the 
apio celery. 
aplanar to smooth, flatten. 

O aplanarse to be in low spirits, get 
depressed Se aplanó después del fra- 
caso. He got very depressed after his 
aplastar to crush Aplastaron toda resis- 
tencia. They crushed all resistance. 
A to flatten Le aplastaron las narices. 
They flattened his nose. 

O aplastarse to flatten oneself Se 
aplastaron contra la pared. They flat- 
tened themselves against the wall. 
aplaudir to applaud. 
aplauso applause. 

aplicado (see aplicar) studious, indus- 
trious Es un estudiante muy aplicado. 
He's very studious. 
aplicar to apply, put on Le aplicaron a 
la silla una capa de pintura. They 
put a coat of paint on the chair. 
O aplicarse to apply oneself. 
aplomo self-possession, poise Tiene mu- 
cho aplomo. He has a lot of poise. 
apoderarse de to take possession of, seize. 
apodo nickname. 
aporrear to beat up, club. 
apostar to bet ¿Cuánto apuesta Ud.? 
How much do you bet? 

O apostar a que to bet that Apuesto 
a que llego yo antes de Ud. I bet I 
get there before you. 
apoyar to rest, prop Apoye el pie en ese 
escalón. Rest your foot on that step. 
A to back, support, second Nadie apoyó 
su proposición. No one supported his 

motion. — Apoyo la proposición. I 
second the motion. 

O apoyarse to support oneself, lean 
Se apoya en un bastón. He's leaning 
on a cane. 
apoyo prop, support. 

aprecio esteem, respect, liking Le tengo 
mucho aprecio. I have great respect 
for him. 
aprender to learn. 

apresurar to hasten, hurry No apresure 
el paso; llegaremos a la hora. Don't 
walk so fast; we'll get there on time. 
O apresurarse to hurry up Haga el 
favor de apresurarse; ya llegamos 
tarde. Please hurry; we're late al- 
apretar [rad-ch I] to tighten Apriete 
este tornillo. Tighten this screw. A to 
be too tight on Me aprieta mucho este 
cuello. This collar's too tight. A to 
press down on, put pressure on, com- 
press Apretó para cerrar la maleta. 
He pressed down on the suitcase to 
close it. A to grip Me apretó la mano. 
He gripped my hand. A to clench 
(fist or teeth). A to go faster, sprint 
El corredor apretó en la última vuelta. 
The runner sprinted on the last lap. 

apretazón [/] crowd [Am] Era tanta la 
apretazón que nadie vio nada. There 
was such a crowd that nobody saw 

aprieto jam, tight spot Se vio en un 
aprieto. He found himself in a tight 

aprisa swiftly, fast, quickly Hace todo 
muy aprisa. He does everything very 

aprobación [/] approval. 

aprobar to approve of No apruebo su 
conducta. I don't approve of his con- 
duct. A to pass (an examination) 
¿Aprobó Ud. en el examen de matemá- 
ticas? Did you pass your math exam? 

aprontar to advance [Am] El patrón 
tuvo que aprontarle algún dinero. The 
boss had to advance him some money. 

aprovechar to profit by, make use of 
Aprovechaba todos los restos. She 
made use of all the left-overs. 

O aprovecharse de to take advantage 
of No dejes que se aproveche de tí. 
Don't let him take advantage of you. 

aprovisionar to supply, provision. 

aproximarse to approach, move near No 
se aproxime Ud. demasiado al fuego. 
Don't go too near the fire 

apuesta bet, wager. 





apunarse to become ill from altitude 

apuntar to aim Apunta demasiado bajo 
para dar en el blanco. You're aiming 
too low to hit the target. A to jot 
down, make a note of Apúntelo en su 
cuaderno de notas. Jot it down in 
your notebook. 

apurar to drain, drink up, consume Apu- 
raron las copas. They drained their 
glasses. A to smoke to the end. 

O apurar (se) to worry La situación 
me apura mucho. The situation worries 
me very much. — No se apure Ud. 
Don't worry. A to hurry ¡Apúrate 
niña! Hurry up, child! — ¡Apúrale! 
Hurry up! [Aw]. 

apuro jam, tight spot, fix Estoy en gran 
apuro. I'm in a jam. 

aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas [adj] 
that, these Compré aquella bufanda 
que vimos ayer. I bought that scarf 
we looked at yesterday. 

aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas [pron] 
that (one), these Prefiero este libro a 
aquél. I like this book better than 
that one. 

aquello [neu pron] that (thing) ¿Qué 
es aquello? What's that? 

aquí here No está aquí. He isn't here. 
O aquí dentro in here Les espero aquí 
dentro. I'll wait for you in here. 
O de aquí en adelante from now on 
De aquí en adelante tendremos que 
gastar menos. From now on we'll 
have to spend less money. O por aquí 
here, this way Venga Ud. por aquí. 
Come this way. 

arado plow. 

araña spider. 

arañar to scratch. 

arañazo scratch. 

arar to plow. 

araucano [adj, n] Araucanian. 

arbitro arbitrator, umpire, referee. 

árbol tree. 

arbusto bush, shrub. 

archivar to file, put in a file. 

arco arch; bow (for arrows). 
O arco iris rainbow. 

arder to burn (be in flames) La leña 
mojada no arde bien. Wet firewood 
doesn't burn well. A to burn (with 

ardido burned up, sore [Am] Me tiene 
ardido con lo que me dijo. I was 
burned up by what he said. 

ardiente [adj] burning. 

ardilla squirrel. 

arena sand. 

arenoso sandy. 

arenque [»(] herring. 

arepa arepa (corn griddle cake) [Aw]. 

argumento argument, logic, premises No 
me convencen sus argumentos. His 
arguments don't convince me. A plot, 
story No me gustó el argumento de la 
película. I didn't like the plot of the 

árido arid, dry, barren. 

aristocracia aristocracy. 

arma weapon Se prohibe llevar armas. 
It's forbidden to carry arms. 

armadura armor; framework. 

armar to arm Armaron al pueblo. They 
armed the people. A to assemble, put 
together Hay que armar esta máquina. 
The machine has to be assembled. 

O armar jaleo to make a racket 
Anoche armaron mucho jaleo. They 
made a big racket last night. O ar- 
marse to balk [Am] Las mulas sc 
armaron a medio camino. The mules 
balked halfway there. ° armarse de 
to arm or provide oneself with Se armó 
de una pistola. He armed himself with 
a pistol. A to build up [Am] Se armó 
de un buen negocio en poco tiempo. 
He built up a good business in a short 

|| Siempre arma líos. He's always 
making a mess of things. 

armario closet, wardrobe. 

armonía harmony 

arqueo balance (in accounting). 

arquitecto architect. 

arquitectura architecture. 

arrabal [m] suburb, outskirts. 

arrancado broke [Am] Siempre está 
arrancado a fin de mes. He's always 
broke at the end of the month. 

arrancar to root out, pull out, tear out 
Han arrancado tres páginas. Three 
pages have been torn out. A to start 
Vimos arrancar el automóvil. We saw 
the car start. 

arranque [m] sudden impulse En un 
arranque me volví a mi pueblo. On 
a sudden impulse I returned to my 
home town. A starter Este automóvil 
tiene arranque automático. This car 
has a self-starter. 

arrastrado (see arrastrar) low, con- 
temptible ¡Qué tipo tan arrastrado! 
What a heel ! A bootlicker, yes-man 
[Am] Consigue todo porque es muy 
arrastrado. He gets everything be- 
cause he's a bootlicker. 





arrastrar to drag, drag along Le arras- 
tró la corriente. He was dragged 
along by the current. A to touch the 
floor or ground, drag Cuidado, le 
arrastra el abrigo. Be careful, your 
coat's dragging. 

O arrastrarse to crawl, creep, drag 
oneself Salieron de la cueva arrastrán- 
dose. They crawled out of the cave. 
arreglar to arrange, adjust, settle ¿Está 
todo arreglado para el viaje? Is every- 
thing arranged for the trip? A to fix 
Creo que arreglarán el radio esta 
tarde. I think they'll fix the radio 
this afternoon. 

O arreglarse to tidy up, dress, put 
make-up on Arréglate un poco y valuó- 
nos al cine. Tidy up a bit and we'll 
go to the movies. O arreglárselas para 
to manage to ¿Cómo me las arreglaré 
para terminar a tiempo? How can I 
manage to finish on time? 
arreglo arrangement, settlement, agree- 
ment; alteration. 

O con arreglo a according to, in ac- 
cordance with Lo hicimos con arreglo 
a sus instrucciones. We did it accord- 
ing to your instructions. 
arrendar [rad-ch /] to rent, let ¿Quiere 
Ud. arrendar su casa? Do you want 
to rent your house? A to rent, hire 
Necesito arrendar una habitación. I 
want to rent a room. 
arrepentirse [rad-ch II] to be sorry for, 
regret Se arrepentirá Ud. de esto. 
You'll be sorry for this. 
arrestar to arrest, imprison. 
arriba up, above Viven dos pisos más 
arriba. They live two flights up. 
A upstairs Los dormitorios están arri- 
ba. The bedrooms are upstairs. 

O arriba de beyond, past (on higher 
level) Es más arriba de la plaza. It's 
past the square. O boca arriba, panza 
arriba, patas arriba face up, on one's 
or its back. O cuesta arriba uphill. 
O de arriba abajo from top to bottom, 
from head to foot Le miró de arriba 
abajo. He looked him up and down. 
O desde arriba from above Desde arri- 
ba se veía el río. From above one 
could see the river. O hacia arriba up, 
upwards El coche iba hacia arriba. 
The car was going up. ' O para arriba 
up, upward Vamos para arriba. Let's 
go up. O por arriba at or around the 
top, up there El sombrero estaba sucio 
por arriba. The hat was dirty around 
the top. 

arriesgar to risk, hazard No le importa 
arriesgar la vida. He doesn't mind 
risking his life. 

O arriesgarse to take risks Si no nos 
arriesgamos yio haremos nada. If we 
don't take risks we'll never get any- 
thing done. 
arrimar to place or put near or close 
No arrimes tanto la mesa a la pared. 
Don't put the table so close to the 

|| ¡Arrima el hombro! Give me a 

arrinconar to neglect; to pigeonhole; to 

arrodillarse to kneel. 

arrogante arrogant, haughty, proud. 

arrojar to throw, hurl, cast Se prohibe 
arrojar objetos por la ventanilla. Don't 
throw things out the window. 

arrollar to coil Hay que arrollar esa 
cuerda. That rope has to be coiled. 
A to trample, run over Fueron arrolla- 
dos por la multitud. They were tram- 
pled by the crowd. 

arroyo brook. 

arroz [m] rice. 

arrugar to wrinkle, crumple. 

arruinar to ruin (financially) Ese hombre 
los ha arruinado completamente. That 
man ruined them completely. 

O arruinarse to be ruined (finan- 
cially) Con esos negocios se ha arrui- 
nado. He was ruined by that business. 

arte [m or /] art ¿Le interesa el arte? 
Are you interested in art? — Las bellas 
artes. Fine arts. A skill Presenta sus 
argumentos con mucho arte. He pre- 
sents his arguments with great skill. 
A craft, cunning. 

arteria artery. 

articulación [/] joint. 

artículo article, news article Lea el artí- 
culo de la página dos. Read the article 
on page two. 

O artículos things, goods Venden ar- 
tículos de deportes. They sell sporting 

artificial artificial. 

artista [m, /] artist. 

artístico artistic. 

arveja green pea [Aw]. 

as [m] ace, star; ace (cards). 

asado See asar. A [m] roast. 

asaltar to assault, attack, hold up. 

asamblea assembly, convention. 

asar to roast Vamos a asar las castañas. 
Let's roast the chestnuts. 





O asarse to be roasting, be uncom- 
fortably warm Se asa uno en este 
cuarto. It's roasting in this room. 
ascender [rad-ch I] to ascend, go up El 
globo ascendió lentamente. The balloon 
went up slowly. A to be promoted 
Ascendió tres veces en un aíw. He was 
promoted three times in one year. 

O ascender a to amount to La cuenta 
ascendía a cuatrocientos pesos. The 
bill amounted to 400 pesos. 
ascensor [m] (passenger) elevator. 
ascensorista [m, /] elevator operator. 
asco nausea, disgust Rechazó la comida 
con asco. He refused the food with 

O dar asco to disgust Esas cosas me 
dan asco. Those things disgust me. 
O estar hecho un asco to be very dirty, 
be filthy No te acerques, estás hecho 
un asco. Don't come near me; you're 
filthy. O hacer ascos to turn up one's 
nose Le hace ascos a todo. He turns up 
his nose at everything. 
asegurar to secure, fasten (with rope or 
strap) Aseguró con una cuerda la carga 
del caballo. He fastened the horse's 
pack with a rope. A to assure Le ase- 
guro que todo estará preparado a 
tiempo. I assure you everything will 
be ready on time. A to affirm, maintain 
Asegura que es cierto. He maintains 
it's true. A to insure El equipaje está 
asegurado. The baggage is insured. 

O asegurarse to make sure Asegú- 
rense primero de que la información 
es cierta. First make sure the infor- 
mation's correct. A to get insured Se 
aseguró contra accidentes. He took 
out accident insurance. 
asesinar to murder, 
asesinato murder. 
asesino assassin, murderer. 
así so, that way Así es. That's the way 
it is. A in this manner, this way Lo 
debe Ud. hacer así. You must do it 
this way. A therefore, and so Así, 
decidieron actuar inmediatamente. And 
so they decided to act immediately. 

O así, así so so ¿Cómo está Ud.?" 
"Así, así." "How are you?" "So so." 
O así como así without reason No ¡o 
digo así como así. I don't say it with- 
out reason. O así que as soon as, after 
Así que llegue le avisaré. I'll let you 
know as soon as I get there. 
asiento seat, chair Tome Ud. asiento. 

Take a seat. 
asilo orphanage; home (for aged). 

asimismo likewise, too, in the same way 
Asimisyno lo creo yo. I think so too. 

asistencia attendance, presence Su asis- 
tencia no es necesaria. Your attend- 
ance isn't necessary. A assistance, help. 

asistir to assist, help, take care of he 
asistí en su enfermedad. I took care 
of him during his illness. 

O asistir a to attend, be present at 
¿Asistió Ud. a la reunión? Were you 
present at the meeting? 

asno ass, donkey. 

asociación [/] association, club. 

asociado See asociar. A [n] associate, 

asociar to associate. 

asolear to dry in the sun Hay que asolear 
la ropa. The wash'll have to be put 
in the sun to dry. 

O asolearse to take a sun bath [Am] 
Estuvieron asoleándose en la playa. 
They were taking a sun bath on the 

asomar to put out (one's head, hand, etc) 
Asojtió la cabeza por la ventana. He 
put his head out of the window. 

O asomarse a to lean out of Se pro- 
hibe asomarse al exterior. It's for- 
bidden to lean out of windows. 

asombrar to astonish, amaze Asombra a 
todo el mundo por su ingenio. He 
amazes everybody by his cleverness. 

O asombrarse de to wonder at, be 
astonished by, be amazed at Me asom- 
bra que diga Ud. eso. I'm amazed that 
you say that. 

asombroso wonderful, astonishing. 

áspero rough, harsh Esa tela es muy 
áspera. That cloth's very rough. 

aspiración [/] ambition. 

aspirar to aspire. 

asqueroso filthy, nasty, mean, low. 

astilla chip; splinter. 

O astillas [pi] kindling. 

astucia [/] cunning. 

astuto astute, crafty. 

asumir to assume, take on Asumió todas 
las responsabilidades. He assumed full 

asunto subject ¿Cuál es el asunto de esa 
comedia? What's the subject of that 
play? A affair, business No se meta 
Ud. en mis asuntos. Don't meddle in 
my affairs, or Mind your own business. 

asustar to frighten Me asustaron sus y ri- 
tos. Your screams frightened me. 

O asustarse to be frightened Se asus- 
ta de los ruidos fuertes. She's fright- 
ened by loud noises. 

atacar to attack. 





atado See atar. A [m] bundle, parcel [Am]. 
atajar to overtake, catch up with Por este 
camino les atajaremos. If we go this 
way we'll catch up with 'em. A to in- 
terrupt, cut short Le atajó cutiéndole 
que no. He cut him short by saying no. 
atajo short cut, shorter road. 
ataque [m] attack, assault; attack, fit. 
atar to tie, lace, bind Átate bien los zapa- 
tos. Lace your shoes up tight. 

O atar cabos to put two and two to- 
gether Aoírlo, até cabos. When I 
heard that I put two and two together. 
atarantado dizzy He bailado tanto que 
estoy atarantada. I've danced so much 
that I'm dizzy. 
atareado busy. 
ataúd [m] coffin, casket. 
atención [/] attention El anunciador 
pidió atención. The announcer called 
for attention. 

O atenciones [pi] kindness Nunca 
olvidaré sus atenciones. I'll never for- 
get your kindness. O llamar la aten- 
ción to attract attention Le gusta 
llamar la atención. She likes to attract 
attention. A to reprimand Le llamé la 
atención por su falta de respeto. I 
reprimanded him for his insolence. 
atender [rad-ch I] to attend, wait on 
El dependiente los atendió en seguida. 
The clerk waited on them immediately. 
A to pay attention Haz el favor de 
atender a lo que te digo. Please pay 
attention to what I'm saying. A to 
look after, take care of Atiende muy 
bien a sus invitados. He takes very 
good care of his guests. 
atenerse a [irr] to depend on, rely on 
(accept as valid) No sé a que atenerme. 
I don't know what to depend on. 
atentado assassination (attempted or suc- 
cessful) ; attempt (to overthrow by vio- 
lence) Se cometió un atentado contra 
la vida del presidente. There was an 
attempt on the life of the president. 
atento polite, courteous; attentive. 

|| S?t atento seguro servidor. Very 
truly yours. 
aterrar to terrify. 

atinar to hit the mark. A to guess 
(right) Atinó el dinero que yo tenia en 
el bolsillo. He guessed the amount of 
money I had in my pocket. 

° atinar a to succeed in No atinó a 
explicar lo que quería. He didn't suc- 
ceed in explaining what he wanted. 
O atinar con to find (hit upon) No 
atino con el ojo de la cerradura. I 
can't find the keyhole. 

atleta [m, /] athlete. 

atlético athletic. 

atmósfera atmosphere. 

atol, atole [m] atol, atole (a hot non- 
alcoholic drink widely used in Mexico 
and Central America). 

atolondrado scatter-brained No he visto 
una persona más atolondrada. I've 
never seen such a scatterbrain. 

atontado foolish, stupid No seas atontado. 
Don't be so foolish. 

atormentar to torment, torture. 

atornillar to screw, turn a screw. 

atracción [/] attraction. 

atractivo attractive, charming ¡Que mu- 
jer tan atractiva! What an attractive 
woman! A [m] charm, appeal Es muy 
bonita pero no tiene atractivo. She's 
very pretty but she has no appeal. 

atraer [irr] to attract, charm. 

atrás back Está allí atrás con unos ami- 
gos. She's back there with some 

O dar marcha atrás to go into re- 
verse, back up No dé marcha atrás que 
hay un árbol. Don't back up; there's 
a tree behind you. O hacia atrás back, 
backward Miró hacia atrás. He looked 
back. O quedarse atrás to stay behind, 
fall behind Se ha quedado atrás con 
unos amigos. She stayed behind with 
some friends. 

atrasado (see atrasar) backward, behind 
(in work, studies, etc). 

atrasar to delay, detain Esto atrasa mu- 
cho mi viaje. This'll delay my trip a 
long time. A to put back (watch or 
clock) Tengo que atrasar mi reloj, está 
muy adelantado. I have to set my 
watch back ; it's very fast. A to go or 
be slow, lose time Mi reloj atrasa diez 
minutos al día. My watch loses ten 
minutes a day. 

O atrasarse to remain or get behind, 
lose time Creo que nos atrasamos en 
este trabajo. I think we're getting 
behind in this work. 
atraso backwardness El atraso de ese 
paí es bien conocido. The backward- 
ness of that country's well known. 
A delay. 
atravesar [rad-ch I] to pierce La bala le 
atravesó el brazo. The bullet pierced 
his arm. A to cross He atravesado el 
Atlántico varias veces. I've crossed 
the Atlantic several times. 

O atravesarse to stop crosswise Se 
atravesó un camión en la carretera. A 
truck stopped crosswise in the middle 
of the road. 





atreverse to dare, venture No se atreve a 
decírmelo. He doesn't dare to tell me. 
atribuir to attribute. 

atrocidad [/] atrocity; horrible or ter- 
rible thing ¡Qué atrocidad! What a 
horrible thing! 
atropellar to run over, knock down Le 
atropello un auto. An automobile ran 
over him. 

O atropellarse to rush through Si 
quiere Ud. hacer el trabajo bien, no se 
atropelle. If you want to do a good 
job, don't rush through it. 
atropello abuse, outrage No podemos 
tolerar tal atropello. We can't toler- 
ate such an outrage. A accident (in 
which a pedestrian is injured) Tres 
peatones fueron víctimas de un atro- 
pello. Three pedestrians were victims 
of an accident. 
atroz terrible, atrocious ¡Fué una cosa 

atroz! It was a terrible thing! 
aturdir to rattle Me aturde tanto ruido. 
So much noise rattles me. 

O aturdirse to be stunned Se aturdió 
y no supo que contestar. He was 
stunned and didn't know what to an- 
audacia audacity, boldness. 
audaz bold, daring. 
auditorio audience, listeners. 
aumentar to increase Han aumentado los 
sueldos. They've increased the sala- 
aumento increase. 

aun, aún still Aun podemos llegar a 
tiempo. We can still get there on time. 
A even Ni aun ahora sería posible. 
Even now it wouldn't be possible. 
A yet No ha venido aún. He hasn't 
come yet. 

O aun cuando even though, even if 
Aun cuando no venga tendremos que 
empezar. Even if he doesn't come 
we'll have to begin. 
aunque though, even if Aunque no he 
nacido en el país, lo conozco muy bien. 
Though I wasn't born in the country, 
I know it very well. 
ausencia absence. 

ausentarse to leave, absent oneself Se 

ausentó de la clase porque se sentía 

enfermo. He left the class because he 

was feeling sick. 

ausente absent. A [n] one who is absent. 

auténtico authentic. 

auto auto, car ¿Hay bastante sitio en el 
auto para todos? Is there enough room 
in the car for everybody? 
autobús [w] bus ¿Qué es más barato, el 

autobús o el tranvía? Which is cheaper, 
the bus or the street car? 
automático automatic. A [m] snap (for 

automóvil [m] automobile. 
autor [m] author. 
autora authoress. 

autoridad [/] authority, power No supo 
mantener su autoridad. He couldn't 
maintain his authority. 

O autoridades authorities, govern- 
ment Han dado parte a las autoHdades. 
They reported it to the authorities. 
autorizar to authorize. 
auxiliar to aid, help, assist. 
avanzar to move forward El coche avan- 
zaba muy despacio. The car moved 
very slowly. A to advance, make prog- 
ress, get ahead No avanzamos yiuda en 
nuestro trabajo. We're not making 
any progress in our work. 
avaro stingy, miserly. A [n] miser. 
ave [m] bird, fowl, 
avena oats. 

avenida avenue. A flood Las avenidas han 
estropeado la cosecha. The floods 
ruined the crops. 
avenirse \irr~\ to agree Se avino a lo que 
le dijeron. He agreed to what they 
aventajado promising Es un muchacho 
muy aventajado. He's a very promis- 
ing young man. 
aventajar to get ahead, to surpass Aven- 
taja a todos en el trabajo. He gets 
ahead of everybody in his work. 
aventura adventure; risk, chance. 
aventurar to risk, hazard ¡No se aven- 
ture! Don't risk it! 
aventurero adventurous; adventurer, 
avergonzar [rad-ch I] to shame, to make 
(someone) ashamed Avergonzó a toda 
su familia con su conducta. He shamed 
his whole family by his conduct. 

O avergonzarse to be ashamed Des- 
pués de decirlo se avergonzó. After 
he said it, he was ashamed. 
avería damage El mecánico arregló la 
avería sin demora. The mechanic re- 
paired the damage without delay. i 
averiarse to be damaged, be spoiled Con 
la lluvia se averió el cargamento. The 
shipment was damaged by the rain, 
averiguar to find out. 
aviación [/] aviation. 
aviador [th] aviator. 
ávido eager, anxious Estaba ávido de 

noticias. He was eager for news. 
avión [m] airplane, plane. 





avisar to notify, inform Hay que avisar 
a la policía We have to notify the 
police. A to warn, advise, counsel Es 
la última vez que te aviso. I'm warn- 
ing you for the last time. 

aviso announcement, notice, warning 
Aviso al público. Notice to the public. 

avispa wasp. 

avivar to revive (make bright) Avivaron 
el fuego echando más leña. They re- 
vived the fire by putting on more wood. 
O avivar el ojo to keep one's eyes 
open, look sharp ¿Por qué no avivas 
el ojo? Why don't you keep your eyes 
open? O avivar el paso to step lively 
Avive el paso; es muy tarde. Step 
lively ; it's very late. O avivarse to 
wake up, to cheer up Avívate; estás 
como dormido. Wake up; you're half 

jay! oh! ouch! 

ayer yesterday. 

ayuda help, aid, assistance Necesito 
ayuda en esto. I need help with this. 

ayudar to aid, help, assist Quiero ayu- 
darle a llevar los paquetes. I want to 
help him carry the packages. 

ayunar to fast. 

ayunas O e n ayunas hungry, fasting, on 
an empty stomach No fume en ayunas. 
Don't smoke on an empty stomach. 

azada hoe. 

azafate [m] tray [Am]. 

azafrán [m] saffron. 

azahar [?«] orange blossom. 

azar [m] chance, risk Corramos ese azar. 
Let's take that chance. A chance Le 
gustan los juegos de azar. He likes 
games of chance. 

O al azar at random Los escogió al 
azar. He chose them at random. 

azarar to embarrass, confuse Esto azara 
a cualquiera. This would embarrass 

O azararse to be embarrassed Cuando 
se lo dije se azaró mucho. When I told 
him that he was very much embar- 

azote [m] whipping; spank; lash. 

azteca \_adj; ri\ Aztec. 

azúcar [m or /] sugar. 

azucarera sugar bowl. A [adj] pertain- 
ing to sugar La industria azucarera. 
The sugar industry. 

azucena white lily. 

azufre [m] sulfur. 

azul [adj; n] blue. 


babucha slipper. 

bacalao codfish. 

bachiller [m] graduate, holder of a bache- 
lor's degree (person possessing a Span- 
ish degree equivalent in the U.S. to a 
high-school diploma plus two years of 

bagazo pulp [Am]. 

bahia bay (arm of sea). 

bailar to dance. 

bailarín [w] dancer. 

bailarina [/] dancer. 

baile [m] dance, ball. 

baja (military) casualty El enemigo su- 
frió muchas bajas. The enemy suf- 
fered many casualties. A fall (in price) 
Hubo una baja en todos los precios. 
There was a general fall in prices. 

O dar de baja to drop out (from a 
list of members 01 subscribers) Se dio 
de baja del club. He dropped out of 
the club. — Por falta de pago, lo dieron 
de baja de la lista de subscriptores. 
Fot lack of payment they dropped him 
from the subscription list. 

bajada descent, slope. 

bajamar [/] low tide. 

bajar to go down, descend Bajemos la 
escalera despacio. Let's go down the 
stairs slowly. A to fall, drop La tem- 
peratura bajó. The temperature fell. 
A to lower ; to bring down Baje Ud. la 
maleta de mi cuarto. Bring the suit- 
case down from my room. A to take 
down ¿Quiere ayudarme a bajar las 
maletas de la red? Will you help me 
take the suitcases down from the 

O bajarse to get down, get off Nos 
vieron al bajarse del tren. They saw 
us as they were getting off the train. 
A to bend over Se bajó para atarse un 
zapato. He bent over to tie his shoe. 

bajo low Quiero una mesa baja. I want 
a low table. A short Es más bajo que 
su hermano. He's shorter than his 
brother. A low, soft Hablaban en voz 
baja. They were speaking in a low 
voice. A bass (voice, instrument) Va- 
mos a colocar los bajos a la izquierda. 
Let's put the basses on the left. A be- 
l»w La temperatura ha llegado a bajo 





cero. The temperature's fallen below 
zero. A street floor, ground floor El 
portero vive en el bajo The superin- 
tendent lives on the ground floor. 

bala bullet, ball. 

balance [m] balance ; balance sheet ¿Cuál 
es mi balance de este mes en el banco? 
What's my bank balance this month? 

balancearse to sway, rock, swing No se 
balancee en la silla; se va a romper. 
Don't rock in the chair; it's going to 

balanceo [m] rocking, wobbling. 

balanza scales, balance. 

balazo shot Se oyeron tres balazos. Three 
shots were heard. A bullet wound 
Tenía tres balazos en el pecho. He 
had three bullet wounds in his chest. 

balcón [m] balcony. 

balde [m] bucket, pail Este balde se sale. 
This bucket leaks. 

O de balde gratis, free Dan boletos 
de balde. They're giving tickets free. 
O en balde in vain, without success 
Trató en balde de hablar con ella por 
teléfono. He tried to get her on the 
phone without success. 

balear to wound by gunshot [Am] Lo 
balearon ayer. They shot him yester- 

balneario bathing resort. 

balón [m] football. 

banana banana. 

banco bank ¿Puedo cobrar mi cheque en 
este banco? Can I cash my check in 
this bank? A bench Todos los bancos 
están ocupados. All the benches are 

banda sash, band (wide strip of material) 
La falda tenía tres bandas rojas. The 
skirt had three red bands. — Llevaba 
una banda roja cruzada al pecho. He 
wore a red sash across his chest. 
A band (music) Esa banda (de música) 
me da dolor de cabeza. That band 
gives me a headache. A gang Una 
banda de ladrones actúa por esta re- 
gión. A gang of thieves works these 

bandeja tray. 

bandera flag. 

bandido bandit. 

banquero banker. 

banqueta sidewalk [Mex]; stool. 

bañar to bathe Haga el favor de bañar a 
los niños. Please bathe the children. 

O bañarse to take a bath Voy a 
bañarme. I'm going to take a bath. 

bañera bathtub. 

bañero lifeguard. 

baño bath; bathroom; bathtub. 

baraja deck of cards. 

barajar to shuffle (cards). 

baranda banister. 

barata cockroach [Ch, Peru]. 

barato cheap, inexpensive Es muy bonito 
y además barato. It's very pretty and 
besides it's cheap. A cheaply, cheap 
En este almacén venden muy barato. 
They sell things very cheap in this 
store. A [m] sale Hoy hay un barato 
en ese almacén. There's a sale today 
in that department store. 

barba beard; chin. 

barbaridad [/] any excess in speech or 
action Come una barbaridad. He eats 
too much. — No diga Ud. barbaridades. 
Don't talk nonsense. — Lo que hizo fué 
una barbaridad. What he did was an 
outrage. — Me gusta una barbaridad. I 
like her an awful lot. 

bárbaro crude Es un hombre bárbaro. 
He's a crude man. 

barbería barbershop. 

barbero barber. 

barca (small) boat. 

barco boat, ship ¿Cuántas veces ha hecho 
Ud. el viaje por barco? How many 
times have you made the trip by boat? 

barniz [m] varnish. 

barnizar to varnish. 

barquinazo tumble, fall [Am]. 

barra bar, rod Necesitamos una barra de 
hierro. We need an iron bar. A public, 
spectators [Am] La barra animaba a 
los jugadores. The spectators cheered 
the players on. 

barranco gorge, ravine. 

barrer to sweep. 

barril [m] barrel, cask. 

barrio quarter, section, district. 

barro mud; pimple. 

base [/] basis; base. 

¡basta! (See bastar) enough! 

¡Basta ya! He dicho que te 


That's enough ! I told you to shut up ! 
bastante enough, sufficient ¿Tiene Ud. 

bastante dinero? Do you have enough 

money? A enough, rather Es una 

mujer bastante bonita. She's a rather 

pretty woman. 
bastar to be enough No bastó la comida 

para todos. There wasn't enough food 

for all. 
bastidores [m pi] O entre bastidores 

behind the scenes, backstage. 
basto coarse, rough El traje está hecho 

de material muy basto. The suit's made 

of very rough material. 
bastón [m] cane, walking stick. 





basura garbage, refuse. 

bata robe, bathrobe; house coat. 

batalla battle. 

batata sweet potato. 

bate [m] baseball bat [-Am], 

batería battery. 

batir to beat Haga el favor de batir los 
huevos. Please beat the eggs. A to 
defeat Batió a su enemigo. He de- 
feated his enemy. 

O batirse to fight; to fight a duel. 

baúl [m] trunk No han deschecho toda- 
vía los baúles. They haven't unpacked 
their trunks yet. 

bautismo baptism. 

bautizar to baptize. 

bebé [m] baby. 

beber to drink ¿Qué van a beber Uds.? 
What are you going to drink? 

bebida drink, beverage. 

becerro calf; calfskin. 

béisbol [m] baseball (game) [Am]. 

beisbolista [m] baseball player [Am]. 

belleza beauty. 

bello beautiful. 

bendecir [irr~\ to bless ¡Qué Dios le 
bendiga! God bless you! 

bendición [/] blessing. 

bendito (see bendecir) blessed, holy. 

beneficencia public charity; department 
of welfare. 

beneficio favor No agradece los beneficios. 
He doesn't appreciate favors. A profit 
Los beneficios fueron muy altos. The 
profits were very high. 

benevolencia kindness, good will. 

berenjena eggplant. 

besar to kiss. 

beso kiss. 

bestia beast. 

betabel [/] beet [Mex]. 

Biblia Bible. 

biblioteca library. 

bicarbonato bicarbonate of soda. 

bicha snake. 

bicicleta bicycle, bike. 

bien [m] good No distingue el bien del 
mal. He doesn't know the difference 
between good and evil. A [adv~\ well 
Habló muy bien. He spoke very well. 
A very La cerveza está bien fría. The 
beer's very cold. 

O ahora bien now then. O bienes 
[m pi] property, estate Tiene muchos 
bienes. He has a great deal of prop- 
erty. O más bien que rather Es más 
bien rico que pobre. He's rich rather 
than poor. 

ill Está bien. All right or Correct. 

If Fíjese bien en lo que le digo. Pay 
close attention to what I tell you. 

bienestar [m] well-being, comfort. 

bienvenido [adj] welcome ¡Bienvenido a 
mi casa! Welcome to my house! 

biftec [m] see bistec. 

bigote [m] mustache. 

billar [m] billiards, pool. 

billete [m] ticket ¿Ha comprado Ud. los 
billetes? Have you bought the tickets? 
O billete (de banco) bill Déme el 
dinero en billetes de a cinco y de a 
diez. Give me the money in fives and 
tens. O billete de ida y vuelta round- 
trip ticket. 

biombo screen Hay que poner un biombo 
delante de la puerta. You have to put 
a screen in front of the door. 

bisabuela great-grandmother. 

bisabuelo great-grandfather. 

bistec, biftec [m] beefsteak. 

bizco cross-eyed. 

bizcocho sponge cake. 

bianco white ¡Ojalá hubiera comprado un 
traje blanco! I wish I'd bought a 
white dress! Á [w] white (person) En 
esta ciudad hay blancos, indios y 
negros. There are white people, In- 
dians, and Negroes in this city. 
A [m] target Dieron en él bianco. They 
hit the target. 

O en bianco blank Deje Ud. esta hoja 
en blanco. Leave this sheet blank. 
O hacer blanco to hit the mark Hicieron 
blanco tres veces. They hit the mark 
three times. O tirar al blanco to shoot 
at the target, have target practice 
Los soldados tiraron al blanco por la 
mañana. The soldiers had target prac- 
tice in the morning. 

blando soft; tender. 

blanquillo egg [Mex]. 

bloque [m] block, piece. 

blusa blouse. 

bobo fool; foolish ¡Hijo, no seas bobo! 
Son, don't be foolish! 

boca mouth No abrió la boca en toda 
a tarde. He didn't open his mouth 
all afternoon. A entrance (of subway, 
cave, etc) En la esquina está la boca 
del metro. The subway entrance is on 
the corner. 

O boca abajo on one's stomach, face 
down El niño duerme boca abajo. The 
child's sleeping on his stomach. O boca 
arriba on one's back, upside down 
Estaba echado en la playa boca arriba. 
He was lying on his back on the beach. 

bocacalle [/] street intersection. 

bocado mouthful; bit. 





bochorno embarrassment ¡Qué bochorno 
pasamos! What an embarrassing situ- 
ation that was ! A sultry weather 
¡Qué bochorno hace! What sultry 
weather we're having! 

bochornoso embarrassing; shameful ¡Qué 
acción bochornosa! What a shameful 
action ! A sultry. 

bocina horn Toque la bocina para que ese 
auto nos deje pasar. Blow the horn so 
that car'll let us pass. 

boda wedding. 

bodega (wine) cellar, winery; storehouse; 
[Am] grocery store. 

bofe lung. 

O echar los bofes to pant, be out of 
breath Estoy echando los bofes. I'm 
out of breath. 

bofetada slap. 

bohemio [adj; n] Bohemian. 

boina beret. 

bola ball, round body or mass Deme Ud. 
esa bola de hierro. Give me that iron 
ball. A ball (to play with) [Am] Com- 
pramos unas bolas de tenis. We bought 
some tennis balls. A crowd [Mex] 
Había una bola de gente a la entrada 
del teatro. There was a crowd of peo- 
ple at the entrance of the theater. 

boleador [m] bootblack [Mex]. 

boletería box office [.Am]. 

boleto ticket [Am]. 

bolo drunkard [Am]. 

O jugar a los bolos to bowl. 

bolsa purse Llevaba una bolsa de seda. 
She carried a silk purse. A bag Nece- 
sito una bolsa de papel para guardarlo. 
I need a paper bag to put it in. A stock 
exchange No sé como están hoy las 
cotizaciones en la bolsa. I don't know 
what the quotations are on the ex- 
change today. 

bolsillo pocket; [Sp~\ (woman's) handbag, 

bomba pump Usaron una bomba para 
sacar el agua. They used a pump to 
take out the water. A bomb La bomba 
destruyó tres casas. The bomb de- 
stroyed three houses. — ¡Cayó como una 
bomba! It struck like a bombshell! 

O bomba de gasolina gasoline pump; 
filling station ¿Dónde hay una bomba 
de gasolina? Where is there a filling 
station ? O bomba de incendios fire 

|| Se puso una bomba. He got drunk 

bombero fireman (fire department). 

bombilla (electric) bulb Se han fundido 

tres bombillas. Three bulbs have 
burned out. 

bonaerense [adj; n] (native) of Buenos 

bondad [/] kindness, goodness Le agra- 
dezco su bondad. Thank you for your 

O tener la bondad (de) please Tenga 
la bondad de esperar un momento. 
Please wait a moment. 

bondadoso [adj] kind. 

boniato sweet potato [Sp, Cuba], 

bonito pretty. 

bono government bond. 

boquilla cigarette holder. 

bordar to embroider. 

borde [m] edge, border. 

bordo O a bordo aboard (ship). 

borrachera drunkenness. 

O coger una borrachera to get drunk. 

borracho [n, adj] drunkard; drunk. 

borrar to rub out, erase. 

bosque [m] forest, woods. 

bostezar to yawn. 

bostezo yawn. 

bota boot; wine bag. 

botado (See botar) cheap, inexpensive 
[Am] Está botado. It's dirt-cheap. 
A lying (down) [Am] Estaba botado 
en la cama. He was lying on the bed. 

botar to throw away [Am] Tenga cuida- 
do, no bote esos papeles. Be careful, 
don't throw away those papers. A to 
throw out, fire Le han botado de su 
empleo. They've fired him. A to 
bounce [Sp] Mire cuanto bota esa 
pelota. Look how that ball bounces. 

bote [m] boat. A can, box Quiero un 
bote de tomates. I want a can of to- 

O dar un bote to jump Cuando lo oyó 
dio un bote. When he heard it he 
jumped. O de bote en bote crowded, 
jammed El teatro estaba de bote en 
bote. The theater was jammed. 

botella bottle. 

botica pharmacy. 

botón [m] button. 

botones [m sg] bellboy. 

boxeador [m] boxer, prize fighter. 

bozal [m] muzzle (for animals). 

bravo fierce, wild Cuidado, es un toro 
bravo. Be careful, it's a fierce bull. 
A angry, mad [Am] Se puso muy bravo. 
He got very mad. 
|| ¡Bravo! Bravo! 

brazo arm (of body). 

O ¡r del brazo to go arm in arm. 

brea pitch, tar. 





breve brief, short. 

O en breve in a little while, shortly. 

brillante shiny No me gusta este papel; 
es muy brillante. I don't like this 
paper; it's too shiny. A [m] diamond 
Le regaló una pulsera de brillantes. 
He gave her a diamond bracelet. 

brillantina brilliantine. 

brillar to shine. 

brillo gloss, shine. 

brincar to leap, jump. 

brindar to drink to a person's health, 
toast ¡Brindemos a su salud! Let's 
drink to your health! 

brindis [m sg] toast (ceremony). 

brisa breeze. 

brocha paint brush; shaving brush. 

broma joke, jest Siempre está diciendo 
bromas. He's always joking. 

O en broma as a joke Lo dije en 
broma. I said it as a joke. O tomar a 
broma to take lightly, take as a joke 
Todo lo toma a broma. He takes every- 
thing lightly. 

bromear to joke Está siempre bromeando. 
He's always joking. 

bronca fight, quarrel. 

O armar una bronca to pick a quar- 
rel, start a fight. 

bronce [m] bronze. 

brotar to bud, sprout. 

brújula (mariner's) compass. 

brusco abrupt, rough Es brusco en su 
manera de hablar. He's abrupt in his 
way of speaking. 

brutal brutal. 

bruto beast, brute No seas bruto. Don't 
be a brute. 

budín [m] pudding. 

buen good, kind Es un buen hombre. 
He's a good man. 

bueno good Ese automóvil es muy bueno. 
That's a very good car. A appropriate, 
good Era una buena ocasión. It was 
a good opportunity. A well, all right 

No estoy muy bueno. I'm not feeling 

very well. A well, all right, O.K. 

Bueno, nos veremos a las cinco. All 

right, we'll meet at five. 

° por las buenas willingly Me lo dio 

por las buenas. He gave it to me 


|| ¡Está bueno! That's enough! [Am] 

|| Buenos días. Good morning. 
buey [m] ox. 
bufanda muffler, scarf. 
buho owl. 

bujía candle; spark plug; watt. 
bulla noise, racket. 

O armar bulla to make a racket 

Armaron una bulla terrible. They 

made a terrible racket. 
bulto bundle Salió con un bulto de ropa 

en la mano. He went out with a bundle 

of clothes in his hand. A swelling, 

lump Tiene un bulto en la cabeza. He 

has a swelling on his head. 

O escurrir, huir, or sacar el bulto to 

duck out En cuanto vio lo que había 

que hacer escurrió el bulto. As soon 

as he saw what he had to do, he ducked 

buque [m] ship, steamer. 
burla mockery, jest. 

O hacer burla to make fun of, make 

a fool of he estaban haciendo burla. 

They were making fun of him. 
burlarse de to make fun of Se burla de 

todo el mundo. He makes fun of 

burro donkey, ass. A jackass, dope ¡Qué 

burro eres! What a dope! 
busca O en busca de in search of. 
buscar to look for, seek. 
busto bust. 

butaca arm chair; orchestra seat. 
buzón [m] mail box Eche Ud. estas car- 
tas en el buzón. Put these letters in 

the mail box. 

¡ca! oh no! no sir! 

cabal complete El juego de té no está 
cabal. The tea set isn't complete. 

caballería cavalry; saddle horse. 

caballero gentleman Es todo un caballero. 
He's a perfect gentleman. A sir Ca- 
ballero, aquí está la cuenta. Here's 
your bill, sir. 

caballete [m] sawhorse; easel. 
caballo horse. 

O a caballo on horseback. 
cabana cabin, hut. 
cabaret [m] cabaret, night club. 
cabecera head (of a bed, table); seat of 

cabecilla ringleader. 





cabello hair (of the head) Lleva el cabello 
suelto. She wears her hair loose. 

caber [irr] to fit, be contained in No 
caben más cosas en el baúl. Nothing 
else will fit in the trunk. A to go 
through El piano no cabe por esa 
puerta. The piano won't go through 
that door. 

O no cabe duda (de que) there's no 
doubt (that) No cabe duda de que es 
inglés. There's no doubt that he's 

cabeza head Ese chico tiene la cabeza 
muy grande. That child has a very 
large head. A chief, leader, head Fué 
la cabeza del movimiento. He was the 
leader of the movement. A mind, brains 
Este trabajo hay que hacerlo con ca- 
beza. You have to use your brains in 
this work. 

O de cabeza headlong, head first Se 
tiró de cabeza al agua. He plunged 
into the water head first. A topsy- 
turvy, in a mess Los negocios andan de 
cabeza. Business is in a mess. O dolor 
de cabeza headache. O perder la ca- 
beza to lose one's head Nunca pierde 
la cabeza. He never loses his head. 

|| Ese proyecto no tiene pies ni ca- 
beza. There's no rhyme or reason to 
that plan. 

cabildo city hall. 

cable [m] cable; cablegram. 

cablegrama [m] cablegram. 

cabo end De cabo a cabo. From end to 
end. — No podemos dejar cabos sueltos. 
We can't leave any loose ends. A cape 
Pasaron el cabo de Buena Esperanza. 
They passed the Cape of Good Hope. 
A corporal Tiene galones de cabo. He 
has corporal's stripes. 

O dar cabo a to end, put an end to, 
finish Dieron cabo a la conversación. 
They put an end to the conversation. 

de cabo a rabo from beginning to end 
Conozco la historia de cabo a rabo. 

1 know the story from beginning to 
end. O llevar a cabo to carry out En 
seguida llevaron a cabo el proyecto. 
They carried out the plan right away. 

cabra goat. 

cacahuate [m] peanut [Am]. 

cacahuete [m] peanut [Sp~\. 

cacao cacao tree; cocoa bean. 

cacerola casserole. 

cachivache(s) [m] junk, trash Quite de 

aquí estos cachivaches. Take this junk 

out of here. 

cacho piece, hunk D.eme Ud. un cacho de 
pan. Give me a piece of bread. 

cactus [m] cactus. 

cada every, each Cada día dice una cosa 
distinta. Every day he says something 

O cada cual, cada uno every one 
Cada cual pagó su comida. Every one 
paid for his own meal. O cada vez 
que every time, whenever Me lo pide 
cada vez que me ve. He asks me for 
it every time he sees me. 

cadáver [m] corpse. 

cadena chain; range (of mountains). 

cadera hip. 

cadete [m] cadet. 

caer [irr] to fall Cayó una lluvia torren- 
cial. A heavy rain fell. A to drop 
Cayó de rodillas. He dropped to his 
knees. A to be becoming to El traje 
le cae bien. The suit's becoming to 
him. A to fall, come Su cumpleaños 
cae en domingo. His birthday falls on 

O caer enfermo (en cama) to be 
taken sick, fall sick Cayó enfermo hace 
unos días. He was taken sick a few 
days ago. O caer en la cuenta to real- 
ize, notice, think of No caí en la cuenta 
hasta mucho después. I didn't realize 
it until much later. O caerse to fall Se 
cayó por la escalera. She fell down 
the stairs. ° dejar caer to drop Tenga 
cuidado, no deje caer la bandeja. Be 
careful, don't drop the tray. 

café [m] coffee; café. 

cafetera coffee pot. 

caída fall, drop Se quedó cojo después de 
la caída. He was lame after the fall. 
A fall, collapse La oposición de la Cá- 
mara causó la caída del gobierno. The 
opposition of the House caused the fall 
of the government. 

caja box, case Le regaló una caja. He 
gave her a box. 

O caja de ahorros savings bank Ha 
ingresado mucho dinero en la caja de 
ahorros. He put a lot of money in the 
savings bank. O caja de caudales, caja 
de hierro safe Tienen sus alhajas en la 
caja de caudales. They keep their 
jewelry in the safe. O caja (registra- 
dora) cash register Mire lo que marca 
la caja. Look and see how much the 
cash register rings up. O en caja on 
hand (of cash) Hay que ver lo que 
tenemos en caja. We have to see how 
much cash we have on hand, 
cajero cashier. 





cajetilla pack of cigarettes Voy a com- 
prar una cajetilla. I'm going to buy 
a pack of cigarettes. 

cajón [m] drawer Han perdido la Have 
del cajón. They've lost the key to the 
drawer. A box Recibieron un cajón de 
libros. They received a box of books. 

cal [/] lime. 

calabaza pumpkin, squash. 

O dar calabazas to refuse, turn down, 
reject (a declaration of love) he dio 
calabazas. She turned him down. A to 
flunk he dieron calabazas en geometría. 
They flunked him in geometry. 

calabozo prison, cell. 

calamar [m] squid. 

calambre [m] cramp he dio un calambre 
mientras nadaba. He got a cramp 
while he was swimming. 

calamidad [/] disaster, calamity, misfor- 

calar to penetrate El puñal le caló hasta 
el corazón. The dagger penetrated to 
his heart. A to soak through, drench 
hlegué a casa calado. I got home 

O calarse to put on or pull down (a 
hat) Se caló el sombrero hasta las 
cejas. He pulled his hat down to his 

calavera skull; madcap, rake. 

calcetín [m] sock. 

calcular to calculate, figure out Vamos a 
calcular los gastos del viaje. Let's 
figure out the cost of the trip. 

cálculo calculation. 

caldera boiler, large kettle. 

caldo broth, bouillon. 

calefacción [/] heating (system). 

calendario calendar. 

calentar to heat, warm Caliente el agua, 
por favor. Please heat the water. 

O calentarse to get warm Se calen- 
taron al sol. They warmed themselves 
in the sun. 

calentura fever Está con calentura desde 
hace días. He's had a fever for the 
past few days. 

calidad [/] quality ¿Es de buena calidad 
esta tela? Is this good material? 

O en calidad de in one's capacity of, 

caliente hot, warm Cuidado, la sopa está 
muy caliente. Be careful, the soup's 
very hot. 

callado (See callar) silent, quiet ¿Por 
qué está Ud. tan callado? Why are 
you so quiet? 

callar to keep quiet Calló mientras noso- 
tros hablábamos. He kept quiet while 

we were talking. A to conceal, keep 
from someone Había callado la verdad. 
He kept the truth from us. 

O callarse to shut up Cállate, ya has 
hablado bastante. Shut up! You're 
talking too much. A to stop talking, 
playing, singing, etc Se callaron de 
repente. All of a sudden they stopped 

calle [/] street ¿En qué calle vive Ud.? 
What street do you live on? 

O echar a la calle to throw out, to 
fire No tuve más remedio que echarle 
a la calle. I had no choice but to 
throw him out. O quedar(se) en la 
calle to be left penniless Al fracasar 
el negocio se quedó en la calle. When 
his business failed he was left penni- 

callejón [m], calleja alley, lane Estamos 
en un callejón sin salida. We're in a 
blind alley. 

calma calm, quiet Después de la tem- 
pestad vino la calma. There was a 
calm after the storm. 

O con calma slowly, taking one's time 
Trabaja con mucha calma. He takes 
his time when he works. 

calmar to calm, soothe, ease Estas pildo- 
ras le calmarán el dolor. These pills 
will ease the pain. 

O calmarse to calm down No se calmó 
hasta mucho después. He didn't calm 
down until much later. 

salor [m] heat No me gusta el calor. I 
don't like the heat. 

O hacer calor to be warm (of 
weather) Hoy hace mucho calor. It's 
very warm today. O tener calor to 
feel warm Tengo calor. I'm warm. 

calumnia slander, false charge Todo lo 
que dice son calumnias. Everything 
he's saying is slander. 

calumniar to slander. 

caluroso warm, hot ¡Qué días más calu- 
roso! What a hot day! 

calva bald head; baldness. 

calvicie [/] baldness (loss of hair). 

calvo bald Estoy quedándome calvo. I'm 
getting bald. 

calzada paved highway; [4m] sidewalk. 

calzado shoes, footwear. 

calzador [m] shoe-horn. 

calzar to put on or wear (shoes) ¿Qué 
número calza Ud.? What size shoe do 
you wear? A to block, chock Voy a 
calzar las ruedas para que no se mueva 
el coche. I'm going to chock the wheels 
so the car won't move. 

calzoncillos [m pi] shorts (underwear). 





cama bed Hágame la cama por favor. 
Please make my bed. 

O guardar cama, estar en cama to be 
confined to bed Está enfermo en cama 
desde hace tres meses. He's been con- 
fined to bed for the past three months. 

cámara camera ¿Qué clase de cámara 
tiene Ud.? What kind of a camera do 
you have? 

O cámara de comercio chamber of 
commerce. O cámara de diputados 
chamber of deputies, house of repre- 

cantarada [m, /] comrade, pal Charla- 
ban como viejos camaradas. They 
were talking together like old pals. 

camarera maid, chambermaid La cama- 
rera todavía no ha arreglado el cuarto. 
The maid hasn't made up the room yet. 
L waitress Pídale el menú a la cama- 
rera. Ask the waitress for the menu. 

camarero waiter; valet. 

camarote [w] cabin, stateroom Quiero 
reservar un camarote de primera clase. 
I want to reserve a first-class state- 

cambiar to change No ha cambiado nada 
desde que le vi. He hasn't changed a 
bit since I saw him. A to change 
(money) ¿Puede cambiarme un billete 
de diez pesos? Can you change a 
ten-peso bill for me? 

cambio change ¿Ha habido algún cambio 
de política? Has there been any change 
in policy? A small change, coins 
¿Tiene Ud. cambio? Do you have any 
change? A rate of exchange ¿Cuál es 
el cambio del dólar hoy? What's the 
rate of exchange on the dollar today? 
O a cambio de in exchange for he 
daré este libro a cambio de ese otro. 
I'll give you this book in exchange for 
the other one. O en cambio on the 
other hand. 

camilla stretcher, litter. 

caminar to walk Es muy aficionado a 
caminar. He's very fond of walking. 
O caminar con pies de plomo to move 
cautiously En este asunto hay que 
caminar con pies de plomo. You have 
to move cautiously in this matter. 

caminata long walk, hike. 

camino road, way, highway ¿Está bien 
el camino para ir en auto? Is the 
road all right to drive on? A method, 
way No sé qué camino seguir para 
conseguirlo. I don't know how to go 
about getting it. 

O ponerse en camino to start out, 

set out Se pusieron en camino al día 
siguiente. They started out the fol- 
lowing day. 

camión [m] truck; [Mex] bus. 

camisa shirt. 

O en mangas de camisa in one's shirt 
sleeves Estaba en mangas de camisa. 
He was in his shirt sleeves. 

camisería haberdashery, store for men's 

camiseta undershirt. 

camisón [m] nightgown. 

camote [m~\ sweet potato [A/ex, C.AJ], 

campamento camp Los soldados volverán 
pronto al campamento. The soldiers 
will soon return to camp. 

campana bell Oímos las campanas de la 
iglesia. We heard the church bells. 

campanada stroke of a bell or clock No 
he oído cuántas campanadas eran. I 
didn't hear how many times the clock 

campanilla small bell, hand bell. 

campaña campaign. 

campeón [m] champion. 

campeonato championship. 

campesino, campesina peasant. 

campo country, field Vivimos durante 
muchos años en el campo. We lived in 
the country for many years. 
O campo de batalla battlefield. 

cana gray hair Se encontró la primera 
cana. She found her first gray hair. — 
Tiene muchas canas. She has a lot of 
gray hair. 

canal [»?] canal Pasamos por el canal de 
Panamá. We passed through the 
Panama Canal. A strait, channel El 
barco se acercaba al canal de la 
Mancha. The boat was approaching the 
English Channel. 

canario canary. 

canasta wide basket Nos trajeron una 
canasta de fruta. They brought us a 
basket of fruit. 

cancha court En este parque hay canchas 
de tenis. There are tennis courts in 
this park. A popcorn [Am]. 

canción [/] song ¿Cuál es la canción que 
está más de moda? What's the latest 
song hit? 

candado padlock. 

candela candle Encienda la candela. 
Light the candle. Might Déme can- 
dela para encender el cigarrillo. Give 
me a light for my cigarette. 

candidato candidate, applicant. 

candido simple-minded, innocent, gul- 





canela cinnamon. 

cangrejo crab (shellfish). 

canje [m] exchange (publications, pris- 

canjear to exchange Decidieron canjear 
los prisioneros. They decided to ex- 
change prisoners. 

canoa canoe. 

cansado (see cansar) tired Estoy can- 
sada. I'm tired. A tiresome, boring 
Ese hombre es muy cansado. This 
man's very tiresome. 

cansancio tiredness, fatigue Está muerto 
de cansancio. He's dead-tired. 

cansar to tire Es un trabajo que cansa 
mucho. It's a very tiring job. 

O cansarse to get tired Se cansa en 
seguida. She gets tired quickly. 

cantaleta || Siempre está con la misma 
cantaleta. He's always harping on the 
same string. 

cantante [m, /] singer. 

cantar [?n] song Quiero aprender ese 
cantar. I want to learn that song. 
A [v] to sing El tenor ha cantado muy 
bien esta noche. The tenor sang very 
well tonight. 

O cantar claro Tendré que cantárselo 
claro. I'll have to tell it to him straight 
from the shoulder. 

cantidad [/] amount, quantity ¿Qué can- 
tidad le debo? How much do I owe 

cantimplora canteen, water bottle. 

cantina tavern, saloon [Am] ; railroad 
restaurant [Sp~\ . 

canto singing Es profesor de canto. 
He's a singing teacher. A song Me 
gustan los cantos populares. I like 
folk songs. 

canto edge. 

O de canto on edge, on its side Ponga 
el libro de canto. Stand the book on 

caña reed, cane En Cuba se cultiva mucha 
caña de azúcar. A lot of sugar cane 
is grown in Cuba. A walking stick, 
cane (of bamboo) Llevaba una caña. 
He carried a cane. 

O caña de pescar fishing rod. 

cañada ravine. 

cañería water pipe, pipe line Tienen 
que arreglar la cañería; está atrancada. 
They have to fix the water pipe; it's 

cañón [m] barrel (of a gun) Compró una 
escopeta de dos cañones. He bought 
a double-barreled shotgun. A cannon, 
gun. A canyon, gorge ¿Conoce Ud. el 

canon del Colorado? Have you seen 
the Grand Canyon? 

caoba mahogany. 

capa cape (clothing) Usa capa española. 
lie wears a Spanish cape. A coat La 
puerta necesita otra capa de pintura. 
The door needs another coat of paint. 
O andar (or ir) de capa caída to be 
on the downgrade ¡Pobrecillos, andan 
de capa caída! Poor people, they're 
on the downgrade ! 

capacidad [/] capacity Este tanque tiene 
una capacidad de treinta litros. This 
tank has a capacity of thirty liters. 
A capability Es un hombre de gran 
capacidad para los negocios. He's a 
very capable business man. 

capataz [w] foreman Querría hablar con 
el capataz. I'd like to talk to the fore- 

capaz large Es una habitación bastante 
capaz para biblioteca. It's a room large 
enough for a library. A capable No es 
capaz de una acción tan baja. He's not 
capable of such a low trick. A able, 
competent Me han dicho que es una 
persona muy capaz. I've been told 
that he's a very competent person. 

capellán [m] chaplain. 

capilla chapel. 

capital [m] capital La compañía tiene 
un capital de un millón de dólares. The 
company has a capital of a million 
dollars. A [/] capital (city) Hicieron 
un viaje a la capital. They took a 
trip to the capital. 

O pena capital capital punishment. 

capitán [w] captain. 

capítulo chapter He leído sólo los tres 
primeros capítulos. I've read only the 
first three chapters. 

capotera hat or clothes rack [Aw]. 

capricho whim, fancy No haga Ud. caso 
de sus caprichos. Don't pay any at- 
tention to her whims. 

caprichoso fickle, capricious. 

cápsula capsule; shell (for short fire- 

capturar to capture. 

capullo bud; cocoon. 

cara face Tiene una cara muy bonita. 
She has a very pretty face. A face, 
front No entiendo las palabras que 
hay en la cara de la moneda. I don't 
understand the words on the face of 
the coin. 

O cara a cara right to a person's 
face Se lo dijo cara a cara. He told 





him right to his face. O cara o cruz 
heads or tails. O dar la cara to face 
the music Tuvo que dar la cara. He 
had to face the music. 

caracol [m] snail. 

O escalera de caracol winding stair- 

carácter [m] character Es un hombre de 
muy buen carácter. He's a man of 
very good character. A firmness, char- 
acter En todo muestra que tiene carác- 
ter. Everything she does shows she 
has character. 

característica [/] characteristic. 

¡caramba! gosh darn! heavens! ¡Caramba 
que frío hace! Heavens, how cold it is! 

caramelo candy ¿Tiene caramelos de 
menta? Do you have any peppermint 

carbón [m] coal Hay que poner más 
carbón en la estufa. You have to put 
more coal in the stove. 

carbonera coal bin La carbonera está 
llena. The coal bin's full. 

carbonero coal dealer. 

carburador [m] carburetor. 

carcajada burst of laughter, loud laugh- 
ter Se estaban riendo a carcajadas. 
They were splitting their sides. 

cárcel [/] jail, prison he metieron en la 
cárcel. They put him in jail. 

carecer \_-zc-~\ to lack, not to have Carece 
del dinero necesario para viajar. He 
doesn't have enough money to travel. 

carey [m] tortoise shell. 

carga load Este mulo no puede llevar más 
carga. This mule can't carry a heavier 
load. A cargo Es un barco de carga. 
It's a cargo ship. A freight Están 
sacando la carga del vagón. They're 
taking the freight out of the car. 

cargamento load; shipment. 

cargar to load Cargaron el camión. They 
loaded the truck. A to charge Hay que 
cargar la batería. The battery has to 
be charged. — La caballería cargó sobre 
el enemigo. The cavalry charged the 
enemy. A to charge (to one's account) 
Cargo esta cantidad en su cuenta. I'm 
charging this amount to your bill. 

caricatura caricature, cartoon. 

caridad [/] charity. 

cariño affection, love Le tienen mucho 
cariño. They're very fond of him. 

cariñoso affectionate Era muy cariñoso 
con sus padres. He was very affec- 
tionate with his parents. 

|| Recuerdos cariñosos a su familia. 
My best regards to your family. 

carne [/] meat Generalmente como carne 
una vez al día. I usually eat meat 
once a day. 

O carne de gallina goose flesh Con 
este frío se me pone la carne de ga- 
llina. This cold weather gives me goose 
flesh. O carne de res beef [Am]. 
O carne de vaca beef ¿Quieren Uds. 
carne de vaca o de cerdo? Do you want 
beef or pork? 

carnero sheep; mutton, lamb. 

carnicería meat market, butcher shop. 

carnicero butcher. 

caro dear, expensive Estas corbatas son 
muy caras. These ties are very ex- 

carpeta briefcase [Am] Necesito una 
carpeta de cuero. I need a leather 
briefcase. A letter file, folder La co- 
rrespondencia está guardada en varias 
carpetas. The correspondence is kept 
in several files. 

carpintero carpenter. 

carrera race Me gustan las carreras de 
caballos. I like horse races. A avenue, 
broad street [Col] Viven en la Carrera 
Tercera. They live on Third Avenue. 
A career Está preparándose para la 
carrera diplomática. He's preparing 
for a diplomatic career. 

O a la carrera hastily, hurriedly Lo 
escribió a la carrera. He wrote it hur- 
riedly. O dar una carrera to sprint 
Dio una carrera para alcanzarlos. He 
sprinted to catch up to them. 

carreta wagon. 

carretera highway, road En este pais las 
carreteras son magníficas. The high- 
ways in this country are excellent. 

carro cart Por la carretera iba un carro 
de muías. There was a mule cart on 
the road. A car, automobile [Am] 
Vamos a ir en carro a la casa. We're 
going home by car. 

carruaje [m] carriage (vehicle). 

carta letter Voy a echar esta carta al 
correo. I'm going to mail this letter. 
O a carta cabal thoroughly, in every 
respect Es honrado a carta cabal. He's 
thoroughly honest. O a la carta á la 
carte. O carta certificada registered 
letter Recibió una carta certificada. 
He received a registered letter. O car- 
ta de crédito letter of credit. O carta 
de presentación letter of introduction. 
O carta de recomendación letter of 
recommendation. O jugar a las cartas 
[Sp], jugar cartas [Am] to play cards 





Vamos a jugar un rato a las cartas. 
Let's play cards a while. 
cartel [w] placard, bill, poster. 
cartera bag Llevaba bajo el brazo una 
gran cartera de cuero. She was carry- 
ing a large leather bag under her arm. 
A wallet Sacó la cartera del bolsillo. 
He took his wallet out of his pocket. 
A briefcase ¿Caben muchos libros en esa 
cartera? Will that briefcase hold many 
cartero mailman, postman ¿A qué hora 
viene el cartero? What time does the 
mailman come? 
cartón [m] cardboard. 
casa house. A home ¿Estará Ud. en casa 
esta tarde? Will you be at home this 

O casa de comercio commercial house, 
firm. O casa de empeño(s) pawnshop. 
O casa de huéspedes boarding house. 
O casa de maternidad maternity hospi- 
tal (charitable institution). O casa de 
socorro emergency hospital. 
casado (see casar) married ¿Es Ud. casa- 
do o soltero? Are you married or 
casamiento wedding, marriage. 
casar to marry Este es el cura que los 
casó. This is the priest who married 
them. A to match Estos colores no casan 
bien. These colors don't match well. 

O casarse to marry, get married Se 
casará el domingo próximo. He'll be 
married next Sunday. ° casarse con to 
marry Se casó con una muchacha muy 
joven. He married a very young girl. 
cascar to crack ¿Tiene Ud. algo con que 
cascar estas nueces? Have you got 
something to crack these nuts? 
cascara rind, peel Esta naranja tiene una 
cascara muy gruesa. This orange has 
a thick rind. A shell (of nuts, eggs, 
etc) ¿Dónde tiro estas cascaras de 
huevos? Where do I throw these egg- 
cascarrabias [adj; m & f sg] irritable 
(person), crab (by) Te estás volviendo 
muy cascarrabias. You're getting to 
be an old crab, 
casco helmet Los soldados llevaban casco 
de acero. The soldiers were wearing 
steel helmets. A hull (of a ship) El 
casco del buque está averiado. The 
ship's hull is damaged. 

° calentarse los cascos to rack one's 
brains Aunque se caliente Ud. los cas- 
cos no lo resolverá. Though you rack 

your brains over it, you won't solve it. 
O casco de caballo horse's hoof. 
caserío small village, settlement. 
casero, casera landlord, landlady; build- 
ing superintendent. A [adj~\ homemade 
Son dulces caseros. They're home- 
made candies, 
caseta de baños locker, bath house. 
casi almost, nearly. 

O casi, casi very nearly Casi, casi lo 
ha acertado. You very nearly guessed 
caso case Ha habido varios casos de 
parálisis infantil. There have been 
several cases of infantile paralysis. 
A occurrence, event Les voy a contar un 
caso curioso. I'm going to tell you 
about a strange incident. 

° en tal caso in such a case En tal 
caso avise a su familia. In such a 
case, notify his family. O en todo 
caso at all events, anyway En todo caso 
nos vemos mañana. Anyway, we'll see 
each other tomorrow. O hacer caso a 
to pay attention to, heed, obey (a per- 
son) No hace caso a sus padres. He 
doesn't obey his parents. O hacer caso 
de to mind, heed, pay attention to No 
hagas caso de lo que te cuente. Don't 
pay any attention to what he tells you. 
castaña chestnut. 

castaño chestnut tree. A [adj] brown 
Tiene el pelo castaño. He has brown 
castañuela castanet. 
castigar to punish No castigue a los 

niños. Don't punish the children. 
castigo punishment. 
castillo castle. 

castizo correct, pure Habla un español 
castizo. He speaks a pure Spanish. 
A genuine, real Es un español castizo. 
He's a real Spaniard. 
casual accidental, chance Fué un encuen- 
tro casual. It was a chance meeting. 
casualidad [/] coincidence ¡Qué casuali- 
dad encontrarle aquí! What a coinci- 
dence meeting you here! 

O por casualidad by chance, by any 
chance ¿Por casualidad le conoce Ud.? 
Do you know him, by any chance ?. 
catalogar to catalog, list. 
catálogo catalog, list. 
catarata cataract, waterfall; cataract (of 

catarro cold He cogido un catarro ho- 
rrible. I've caught a terrible cold, 
catástrofe [/] catastrophe. 
catedral [/] cathedral. 





catedrático professor Es catedrático en la 
Universidad Nacional. He's a profes- 
sor at the National University. 

categoría class, category Los dos no son 
de la misma categoría. The two are 
not in the same category. A rank No 
tiene categoría para ese puesto. His 
rank isn't high enough for that posi- 

O de categoría of importance Es un 
hombre de categoría. He's a man of 

catolicismo Catholicism. 

católico [adj, n] Catholic. 

catorce fourteen. 

catre [m] cot. 

caucho rubber (material). 

caudal [m] fortune, wealth, means Ha 
aumentado mucho el caudal de esa 
familia. The family fortune has in- 
creased a great deal. A volume (of 
water) El río lleva un gran caudal. 
The river carries a huge volume of 

caudillo leader, chief Fué uno de los cau- 
dillos de la revolución. He was one of 
the leaders of the revolution. 

causa cause ¿Cuál fué la causa de su re- 
traso? What was the cause of his 
delay? A case, trial, lawsuit Fué una 
de las causas célebres de su época. It 
was one of the famous cases of his 

causar to cause, occasion Me ha causado 
muchos disgustos. She's caused me a 
lot of trouble. 

cauto cautious, careful Uno tiene que ser 
cauto en los negocios. You have to be 
careful in business. 

cavar to dig. 

caverna cavern, cave. 

cayuco dugout canoe [Am]. 

caza hunt, hunting Ahora está prohibida 
la caza. Hunting's forbidden now. 
A game En esa selva hay mucha caza 
mayor. There's a lot of big game in 
that forest. 

O andar a caza de to go hunting for, 
go in search of Los periodistas andaban 
a caza de noticias. The reporters were 
hunting for news. 

cazador [m] hunter. 

cazar to hunt. 

cazuela earthen cooking pot. 

cebada barley. 

cebo bait. 

cebolla onion; bulb. 

cecear to lisp. 

cedazo sifter (utensil). 

ceder to transfer, turn over, cede Cedió 
todos sus bienes a su hijo. He trans- 
ferred his whole estate to his son. 
A to yield, give in No cedió en su em- 
peño. He wouldn't give in. 

cedro cedar. 

cédula personal identification card. 

cegar [rad-ch I] to blind Me ciega esa luz 
tan fuerte. That strong light blinds 

ceja eyebrow. 

° tener entre ceja y ceja to dislike, 
have a grudge against Mi jefe me tiene 
entre ceja y ceja. My boss has a 
grudge against me. 

celebrar to celebrate, commemorate Cele- 
braron su cumpleaños en una gran 
fiesta. They celebrated his birthday 
with a big party. A to praise, applaud, 
approve Todos celebran sus éxitos. 
They all applauded his success. A to 
be glad, rejoice Celebro mucho verle a 
Ud. I'm certainly glad to see you. 

célebre famous Fué el escritor más céle- 
bre de su tiempo. He was the most 
famous writer of his day. 

celebridad [/] celebrity. 

celo zeal, enthusiasm Trabaja con mucho 
celo. He's a very zealous worker. 

O estar en celo to be in heat (of ani- 
mals). O tener celos to be jealous 
Tiene muchos celos de su mujer. He's 
very jealous of his wife. 

celoso jealous. 

cementerio cemetery, graveyard. 

cemento cement, concrete. 

cena supper ¿Qué vamos a tomar de 
cena? What are we having for sup- 

cenar to dine, eat ¿Dónde cenaron Uds. 
anoche? Where did you eat last 
night? A to have for supper Cenamos 
pescado anoche. We had fish for sup- 
per last night. 

cenicero ash tray. 

ceniza ashes, cinders. 

censura censorship La correspondencia 
tiene que pasar por la censura. Mail 
has to go through censorship. A office 
of censor Hay que enviar este artículo 
a la censura. This article has to go 
through the censor's office. A reproach, 
criticism Es una censura injusta la que 
Ud. me hace. Your criticism's unfair. 

censurar to blame, criticize No se la 
puede censurar por lo que ha hecho. 
You can't blame her for what she did. 

centavo cent [Am]. 

centenar [m] a hundred Había un cen- 





tenar de personas en el local. There 
were a hundred people in the hall. 

O a centenares by hundreds Murie- 
ron las gentes a centenares. People 
died by the hundreds. 

centenario centenary. 

centeno rye. 

centímetro centimeter. 

céntimo cent [Sp~\. 

centinela [m] sentry, guard. 

O de centinela on sentry duty Está 
de centinela. He's on sentry duty. 

central [adj ; /] central. 

O central eléctrica electric power 
plant, power house. 

centro center Vivimos en el centro {de 
la ciudad) . We live in the center of 
the city. A business district, down- 
town Vamos al centro. Let's go down- 
town. A club Hubo un baile en nuestro 
centro. There was a dance at our club. 

ceñir [rad-ch III~\ to fit tightly Esta 
cinturón me ciñe demasiado. This belt 
fits me too tightly. 

O ceñirse to confine or limit oneself 
Cíñase Ud. al asunto. Confine your- 
self to the facts. 

|| No se ciña tanto en la curva. Don't 
hug the inside of the curve. 

ceño O mirar con ceño to frown. 

ceñudo [adj] scowling, frowning Siempre 
está ceñudo. He's always scowling. 

cepillar to brush Tengo que cepillar el 
sombrero. I have to brush my hat. 
A to plane, make smooth Estas tablas 
no están bien cepilladas. These boards 
haven't been planed right. 

cepillo brush (flat, with bristles on one 
side) ¿Dónde puedo comprar un ce- 
pillo? Where can I buy a bi-ush? 

° cepillo de cabeza hairbrush. O ce- 
pillo de carpintero carpenter's plane. 
O cepillo de dientes toothbrush. O ce- 
pillo de ropa clothes brush. 

cera wax. 

cerca fence La huerta tiene una cerca de 
madera. The garden has a wooden 

cerca de near (in place) La estación está 
cerca del hotel. The station's near the 
hotel. A nearly, about, almost Son 
cerca de las once. It's about eleven 

° por aquí cerca near here, some- 
where near here ¿Hay un buen restau- 
rante por aquí cerca? Is there a good 
restaurant somewhere near here? 

cercado fenced in, enclosed. 

cercano near, close Viven en una casa 

cercana a la nuestra. They live in a 

house close to ours. 
cercar to surround, fence in Cercaron la 

finca con alambrado. They fenced in 

the property with wire. 
cerdo pig, hog; pork. 

O chuletas de cerdo pork chops, 
cereal [adj; m] cereal. 
ceremonia ceremony La ceremonia fué 

muy solemne. The ceremony was very 

cereza cherry. 
cerilla match Voy a comprar una caja de 

cerillas. I'm going to buy a box of 

cerillo match [Mea;]. 
cero zero La temperatura está a cuarenta 

grados bajo cero. The temperature's 

forty below. 
cerradura lock. 
cerrar to close, shut Cierre Ud. la puerta, 

por favor. Please close the door. A to 

seal Añade unas palabras antes de que 

yo cierre la carta. Add a few words 

before I seal the letter. 
cerro hill Desde ese cerro hay muy buena 

vista. There's a very good view from 

that hill. 
cerrojo bolt, latch. 

certero well-aimed Fué un disparo cer- 
tero. It was a well-aimed shot. 
certeza assurance, certainty Tengo la 

certeza de que vendrá. I'm certain he's 

certificado (see certificar) certificate 

¿Necesita Ud. un certificado médico? 

Do you need a doctor's certificate? 

A piece of registered mail. 
certificar to register (a letter) Voy a 

certificar estas cartas. I'm going to 

register these letters. 
cervecería bar, saloon. 
cerveza beer, ale Vamos a tomar unos 

vasos de cerveza. Let's drink a few 

glasses of beer. 
cesar to stop, cease El ruido no ha cesado 

en todo el día. The noise hasn't stopped 

all day. A to dismiss, fire Ayer cesaron 

a siete empleados. Yesterday they 

fired seven employees. 
césped [m] lawn, grass. 
cesta basket Compraron una cesta de 

fruta. They bought a basket of fruit. 
cesto large basket. 
chabacano vulgar, in bad taste Siempre 

hace chistes chabacanos. He always 

tells vulgar jokes. A [m] apricot [Mex]. 
chacra small farm [S.A.], 
chai [m] shawl. 





chaleco vest. 

chalet [m] chalet. 

chamaco youngster [Mex]. 

chambergo soft hat. 

champú [m] shampoo. 

chancearse to jest, joke, fool Se chancea 
de todo el mundo. He makes fun of 

chancho pig, hog [Aw]. 

chanchullo something underhanded, 
racket Siempre anda metido en chan- 
chullos. He's always in something 

chanclos [m pi] rubbers. 

chanza joke Déjate de chanzas porque la 
cosa es muy seria. Stop joking; it's a 
serious matter. 

chapa plate, sheet (of metal) El tejado 
está cubierto de chapas metálicas. The 
roof's covered with sheet metal. A lock 
[Am] Hay que cambiar la chapa de la 
puerta. You have to change the lock 
on the door. 

O chapas rosy cheeks [Am] Tiene 
unas lindas chapas. She has beautiful 
rosy cheeks. 

chaparro short person [Mex]. 

chaparrón [in] heavy shower, downpour. 

chapetón [m] Spaniard (fresh from 
Spain) [S.A.]. 

chapetonada illness caused by change of 
climate [S. A.]. 

chapucería botched job, hurried job 
Hágalo Ud. con cuidado, no me gustan 
les chapucerías. Do it carefully. I 
don't like botched jobs. 

chapurrear to speak (a language) bro- 
kenly Chapurrea el español. He speaks 
broken Spanish. 

chaqueta jacket, coat. 

charco puddle. 

charlar to talk, chatter. 

charol [m] patent leather. 

charro cowboy [Mex]. 

chasco O darle a uno un chasco to fool, 
play a joke on Le dimos un chasco 
dejándole la cuenta. We played a joke 
on him by leaving him the bill. 
O llevarse un chasco to be disappointed 
or disconcerted Con esa muchacha nos 
llevamos un chasco terrible. We were 
very disappointed in that girl. 

chato flat-nosed, pug-nosed. 

cheque [m] check (money). 

chequear to check, put a check next to 

chica girl. 

chicha chicha (alcoholic drink made from 
corn) [Am]. 

chícharo green pea [Mex], 

chicharrón [m] thick crisp bacon. 

chichón [m] bump, lump (on the head). 

chicle [m] chewing gum. 

chico little, small El cuarto en que vive 
es muy chico. He lives in a very small 
room. A boy, kid Tiene tres chicos. 
She has three kids. 

chifladura eccentricity. 

chiflón [m] draft [A?n] Por esa ventana 
entra un chiflón muy fuerte. A strong 
draft's blowing in at that window. 

chile [/] chili, red pepper. 

chillar to screech, scream. 

chillido screech, scream. 

chimenea smokestack Desde la ventana se 
ven las chimeneas de la fábrica. From 
the window you can see the smoke- 
stacks of the factory. A chimney Se 
subieron al tejado para limpier la chi- 
menea. They climbed up on the roof 
to clean the chimney. A fireplace Se 
sentaron junto a la chimenea. They 
sat by the fireplace. 

china pebble, small stone Se me ha metido 
una china en el zapato. I have a peb- 
ble in my shoe. A peasant girl, maid, 
servant [Am] La china lo llevará a su 
casa. The maid'll take it to your house. 
A china, porcelain ¿Son de china estas 
tazas? Are these cups porcelain? 
A orange [Antilles] Deme una docena 
de chinas. Give me a dozen oranges. 

chinche [/] bedbug; thumbtack. 

chiquitín [m] small child. 

chiquillo, chiquilla small child. 

chiripa chance or unexpected event 
[Fam] Me ha salido bien por chiripa. 
I got it right by accident. 

¡chis! sh! 

chisme gossip, malicious remark Siempre 
anda metiendo chismes. He's always 

chispa spark ¡Cuidado con las chispas que 
saltan de la chimenea! Watch out for 
the sparks that are flying out of the 
fireplace. A little bit, small amount No 
tiene chispa de tonto. He's not at all 

O echar chispas [Fam] to rage, be 
furious Cuando se lo dije echó chispas. 
When I told him that, he got furious. 

chistar to keep quiet. 

O no, or ni, chistar not to say a 
word Cuando vio a su padre ni chistó. 
When he saw his father, he didn't even 
say a word. 

chiste [m] joke Contó un chiste muy gra- 
cioso. He told a very funny joke. 

chistoso funny, witty. 

chocante surprising, witty [Sp] ; annoy- 
ing, unpleasant [Mex]. 





chocar to collide, crash Chocaron los dos 
autos. The two cars crashed. A to 
clash Han chocado varias veces por sus 
opiniones políticas. They often clashed 
over their political beliefs. A to sur- 
prise unpleasantly, to vex Me choca que 
diga Ud. eso. I'm surprised to hear 
you say that. 

choclo green ear of coi'n [S.A.]. 

chocolate [m] chocolate. 

chofer, chófer [w] chauffeur. 

cholo, chola half-breed [S.A.]. 

choque [m] collision, crash. 

chorizo Spanish sausage. 

chorrear to gush, drip. 

chorro jet, spurt Abrió el grifo y salió un 

chorro de agua. He turned on the 

faucet and a jet of water came out. 

O a chorros abundantly [Fam~\. 

O Hover a chorros to pour (rain). 

choza hut, cabin. 

chuchería trinket; tidbit; trifle. 

chueco crooked, bent [Am] Este zapato 
está chueco. This shoe is crooked. 

chuleta chop. 

chupar to suck. 

churro a kind of cruller. 

chusco funny, amusing. 

cicatriz [/] scar. 

ciclón [m] cyclone. 

ciego blind Se está quedando ciego. He's 
going blind. A [w] blind person Han 
construido un asilo para ciegos. They 
built an asylum for the blind. 

O a ciegas in the dark, blindly iSe 
metió en ese negocio a ciegas. He went 
into that business blindly. 

cielo sky El cielo estaba lleno de aviones. 
The sky was filled with airplanes. 
A paradise, heaven. A dear, darling. 
Ven aquí, mi cielo. Come here, darling. 
O llovido del cielo out of the clear 
sky Apareció como llovido del cielo. 
He appeared out of a clear sky. 

cien (see ciento) one hundred. 

ciencia science. 

científico scientist; scientific. 

ciento one hundred. 

O por ciento per cent Gana el cinco 
por ciento sobre lo que vende. He 
makes five per cent on what he sells. 

cierto sure, certain, true ¿Es cierto que 
vendrá mañana? Is it true he's com- 
ing tomorrow? A certain, some A 
cierta gente le gusta. Some people 
like it. A [adv] certainly Cierto, tiene 
Ud. razón. Certainly, you're right. 

O no por cierto certainly not No por 
cierto, no estoy de acuerdo con Ud. 
Certainly not, I don't agree with you. 

ciervo deer. 

cifra figure, digit (number) ¿Cuántas 
cifras tiene ese número? How many 
digits does that number have? A code 
La carta estaba escrita en cifra. The 
letter was written in code. 

cigarrera cigarette case [Am] ; woman 
cigar maker. 

cigarrería place where cigars and cigar- 
ettes are made or sold [Am]. 

cigarrillo cigarette. 

cigarro (see puro) cigar Le regaló una 
caja de cigarros habanos. She pre- 
sented him with a box of Havana 
cigars. A cigarette Voy a comprar un 
paquete de cigarros. I'm going to buy 
a pack of cigarettes. 

cilindro cylinder. 

cima summit, peak. 

cimiento foundation Han comenzado los 
cimientos de la casa. They laid the 
foundation of the house. 

cine [m] zinc. 

cinco five. 

cincuenta fifty. 

cine [m] moving pictures, movies Me 
gusta mucho el cine americano. I like 
American movies very much. A movie 
theater Es un nuevo cine. It's a new 
movie theater. 

cinematógrafo movie house. 

cínico cynic; cynical. 

cinta ribbon Llevaba una cinta atada a la 
cabeza. She wore a ribbon tied around 
her hair. A film (moving picture) Es 
la mejor cinta del año. It's the best 
film of the year. 

cintura waist Tiene una cintura muy pe- 
queña. She has a small waist. 

O meter en cintura to discipline, re- 
strain Hay que meter en cintura ese 
chico. That child has to be restrained. 

cinturón [m] belt Voy a comprar un cin- 
turón de cuero. I'm going to buy a 
leather belt. 

circo circus Este año el circo tiene diez 
elefantes. This year the circus has 
ten elephants. 

circulación [/] circulation Este periódico 
tiene mucha circulación. This paper 
has a large circulation. A traffic No 
conozco el reglamento de la circulación 
aquí. I don't know the traffic regula- 
tions here. 

circular [/] circular, letter He recibido 
una circular del banco. I've received 
a circular from the bank. 

circular to move about, get around Era 
casi imposible circular por esa calle. It 
was almost impossible to get around 





on that street. A to circulate, get 
around Ha circulado esa noticia. That 
news got around. 

círculo circle Estábamos sentados en cír- 
culo. We were seated in a circle. 
A club, social circle Comimos juntos en 
el círculo. We ate together at the 

circunstancia circumstance. 

circunstante [m] bystander. 

ciruela plum. 

O ciruela pasa prune. 

ciruelo plum tree. 

cita engagement, appointment, date 
¿Acudió Ud. a la cita? Did you keep 
your appointment? A quotation Es 
una cita del Quijote. It's a quotation 
from Don Quixote. 

citar to call, summon Todavía no nos 
han citado para la reunión. We haven't 
been called to the meeting yet. A to 
make (or give) an appointment El 
dentista me citó para las siete. The 
dentist gave me an appointment for 
seven o'clock. A to quote, refer to En 
mi artículo cité muchas veces su libro. 
In my article, I referred to your book 
a great deal. 

ciudad [/] city. 

ciudadano, ciudadana citizen ¿De qué país 
es Ud. ciudadano? What country are 
you a citizen of? 

civil civil. 

O derechos civiles civil rights. 

civilización [/] civilization, culture. 

civilizar to civilize Los misioneros civili- 
zaron a los indígenas. The mis- 
sionaries civilized the natives. 

claramente clearly, openly, frankly Díga- 
melo claramente. Tell me frankly. 

claridad [/] clearness, distinctness La 
claridad de la explicación lo convenció. 
The clearness of the explanation satis- 
fied him. 

clarín [w] trumpet. 

claro clear, transparent Es tan claro 
como el agua. It's as clear as crystal. 
A thin En las sienes tiene el pelo muy 
claro. His hair's thin at the temples. 
A cloudless, fair Es un día muy claro. 
It's a very clear day. A light Lleva 
un traje azul claro. She's wearing a 
light blue suit. A plain, clear La ex- 
plicación es clara. The explanation is 

clase [/] class, kind, sort. A class Era uno 
de los dirigentes de la clase trabaja- 
dora. He was a leader of the working 
class. — Sólo asisto a dos clases este 
curso. I have only two classes this 

year. A classroom Esa clase es dema- 
siado pequeña. That classroom's too 

° dar clase to give a class, hold 
class Tengo que dar una clase mañana 
a las ocho. I have to give a class to- 
morrow at eight. 

clásico classical Anoche asistimos a un 
concierto de música clásica. Last night 
we attended a concert of classical 
music. A [m] classic ¿Ha leído los 
clásicos latinos? Have you read the 
Latin classics? 

clasificar to sort out, classify Todavía no 
han clasificado la correspondencia. 
They haven't sorted the mail yet. 

claustro cloister En esa iglesia hay un 
claustro muy bonito. There's a very 
beautiful cloister in that church. 

clavar to nail Necesito un martillo para 
clavar las tablas. I need a hammer to 
nail the boards. A to stick, pin Tenga 
cuidado donde clava el alfiler. Be 
careful where you stick the pin. 

O clavarse to stick, prick Me clavé 
una espina en el dedo. I got a thorn 
in my finger. 

clave [/] key (of a code) Necesito la 
clave para descifrar esta comunicación. 
I need the key to decode this message. 
A key Esta canción está en clave de sol. 
This song's in the key of G. 

clavel [m] carnation. 

clavo nail Necesito una caja de clavos. 
I need a box of nails. 

O dar en el clavo to hit the nail on 
the head. 

clemencia mercy. 

clerical clerical (church). 

clero clergy. 

cliente [m, /] client, customer. 

clientela clientele. 

clima [w] climate. 

clínica clinic. 

cobarde [m, /] coward ¡Anímese Ud.! 
¡No sea cobarde! Come on, don't be 
a coward! A [adj] cowardly Lo que 
hizo fué muy cobarde. It was a cow- 
ardly thing he did. 

cobardía cowardice. 

cobija cover, blanket [Aw] ¿Cuántas 
cobijas tiene la cama? How many 
blankets are there on the bed? 

cobrador [m~\ collector (bills, taxes) Les 
visitó el cobrador de contribuciones. 
The tax collector called on them. A con- 
ductor (of bus or trolley) Se lo pre- 
guntaremos al cobrador (del tranvía). 
We'll ask the conductor (of the 
trolley) . 





cobranza collection La cobranza de im- 
puestos está bien organizada. The col- 
lection of taxes is well organized. 

cobrar to collect, receive ¿Cobró Ud. el 
dinero que le debían? Did you collect 
the money they owed you? A to cash 
En esta ventanilla puede cobrar su 
cheque. You can cash your check at 
this window. A to charge Cobran muy 
caro en esa tienda. They charge high 
prices at that store. 

cobre [m] copper. 

cobro collection (of money due) Pre- 
sentó la factura al cobro. He presented 
the bill for collection. 

coca coca (plant from which cocaine is 
obtained) [Am]. 

cocal [m] coconut plantation [Am]. 

cocer [rad-ch 7] to boil Cueza Ud. esas 
papas. Boil those potatoes. A to bake 
El pan se está cociendo en el horno. 
The bread's baking in the oven. 

coche [m] carriage, coach Tienen un 
coche de dos caballos. They have a 
two-horse carriage. A car Acaban de 
comprar un coche nuevo. They've just 
bought a new car. 

O coche-cama sleeping car, Pullman 
¿Lleva coche-cama este tren? Does this 
train have a sleeping car? O coche- 
comedor dining car El coche-comedor 
va a la cabeza del tren. The dining 
car's at the forward end of the train. 

cochero coachman Déle la dirección al 
cochero. Give the address to the coach- 

cochino hog, pig. A swine (insult). 
A dirty, filthy, vile ¡Qué cochinos están 
estos niños! How filthy these children 

cocina kitchen La cocina de esa casa es 
muy bonita. The kitchen in that house 
is very nice. A cuisine, cooking Me 
gusta la cocina francesa. I like French 

cocinar to cook Su mujer cocina muy 
bien. His wife cooks very well. 

cocinero, cocinera cook. 

coco coconut; coconut tree. 

cocotero coconut tree. 

coctelera cocktail shaker. 

codicioso greedy Es un hombre codicioso. 
He's a greedy man. 

código code (of laws). 

O código civil civil law. O código 
militar military law. 

codo elbow Se está rompiendo la chaqueta 
por los codos. The jacket's wearing 
through at the elbows. — Se sale el agita 

por el codo de la cañería. The water's 
leaking from the elbow of the pipe. 

cofre [m] (see also baúl) trunk [Am] ; 
chest [Sp~\ Cerró el cofre con Have. 
He locked the trunk with a key. 

coger [should not be used in Arg] to 
catch Cogieron al ladrón. They caught 
the thief. A to pick, gather Van a em- 
pezar a coger las naranjas. They're 
going to start picking oranges. 

coincidencia coincidence. 

coincidir to coincide, agree Los dos rela- 
tos no coinciden. The two statements 
don't agree. 

cojear (not used in Arg; see renguear) 
to limp, hobble Cojea un poco del pie 
derecho. He limps slightly on his right 

cojín [m] pad, cushion Ponga esos coji- 
nes en el diván. Put those cushions 
on the couch. 

col [/] cabbage. 

cola tail El perro movía la cola. The dog 
was wagging his tail. A train (of 
dress) Llevaba un vestido de cola. 
She wore a dress with a train. A line 
of people Esta es la cola para sacar los 
billetes. This is the ticket line. 

O hacer cola to stand in line He 
estado haciendo cola más de dos horas. 
I was standing in line for more than 
two hours. 

colaboración [/] collaboration, working 
together Escribe en colaboración con 
su hermano. He writes in collabora- 
tion with his brother. 

colaborador [m] collaborator, co-worker. 
A contributor (to a periodical, etc) 
Es uno de los mejores colaboradores de 
este periódico. He's one of the best 
contributors to this newspaper. 

colaborar to collaborate, cooperate; to 

colador [m] colander, strainer Ponga las 
verduras en el colador. Put the vege- 
tables in the strainer. 

colar to strain El jugo de naranja no 
está bien colado. The orange juice 
isn't well strained. 

colcha bedspread Tienen una colcha azul 
sobre la cama. They have a blue bed- 
spread on the bed. 

colchón [m] mattress. 

colección [/] collection (of things) Tiene 
una buena colección de cuadros moder- 
nos. He has a good collection of mod- 
ern paintings. 

coleccionar to collect (stamps, coins, etc). 

colecta collection (charity). 





colectivo collective Los intereses colecti- 
vos deben protegerse. Collective inter- 
ests must be protected. A organized. 

colega [m] fellow worker, colleague. 

colegio school (private) Acaba de entrar 
en el colegio. He's just entered school. 
A association, college Es miembro del 
colegio de médicos. He's a member of 
the medical association. 

cólera [/] anger, rage, fury Eso le dio 
mucha cólera. That made him very 

cólera [m] cholera. 

colgado (See colgar) hanging El som- 
brero está colgado en la percha. The 
hat's hanging on the rack. 

colgando (See colgar) dangling Llevaba 
el reloj colgando del bolsillo. His 
watch was dangling from his pocket. 

colgar [rad-ch /] to hang Cuelgue Ud. 
aquí sus ropas. Hang your clothes 
here. A to hang (by the neck) Merecía 
que lo colgaran. He deserved to be 

colina hill. 

collar [w] necklace; collar. 

colmena beehive. 

colocación [/] job, position ¿Le gusta su 

■ nueva colocación? Do you like your 
new job? A arrangement ¿Le agrada 
la colocación de los muebles? Do you 
like the arrangement of the furniture? 

colocar to put, arrange Voy a colocar 
estas flares. I'm going to arrange these 
flowers. A to take on Colocaron mu- 
chos empleados nuevos. They took on 
many new employees. 

O colocar dinero to invest (money) 
Voy a colocar dinero en este negocio. 
I'm going to invest (money) in this 
business. ° colocarse to take a job 
Me he colocado en un banco. I've taken 
a job in a bank. 

colonia colony Jamaica es una colonia 
inglesa. Jamaica's an English colony. 
A suburb, (real estate) development 
Hay lindas colonias en los alrededores 
de la capital. There are beautiful de- 
velopments on the outskirts of the 

O (agua de) Colonia toilet water, 
colonial \_adj~\ colonial. 

colonizador [w] colonizer. 
colono tenant farmer Tiene muchos colo- 
nos en la hacienda. He has many 
tenants on his land. A colonist Los 
primeros colonos americanos llegaron 
en el siglo diecisiete. The first Ameri- 
can colonists arrived in the 17th cen- 

color [m] color Todo lo ve color de rosa. 
He sees the world through rose-colored 
glasses. A blush, flush Le hizo salir 
los colores (a la cara). He made her 
blush. A slant Este periódico no tiene 
color político. This newspaper has no 
political slant. 

colorado [ad/] red. 

° ponerse colorado to blush. 

colorear to color (a map, etc). 

colorido colors, coloring El colorido de 
este cuadro es muy brillante. The 
colors of this painting are very bright. 

colosal huge, gigantic, colossal; "ter- 

columna column. 

coma comma. 

comadre [/] (term of address between 
mother and godmother of a child) ; 
gossip; old woman (among country 

comandante [m] commander; major. 

combate [m~\ combat, battle, fight. 

combatir to combat, fight, oppose, attack. 

combinación [/] combination; (woman's) 

combinar to combine, join, unite. 

combustible [w] fuel ¿Con qué clase de 
combustible funciona esta máquina? 
What kind of fuel do you use in this 

comedia comedy; play. 

comedor [m] dining room. 

comentar to comment on Comentaban su 
nuevo libro. They were commenting on 
his new book. 

comentario remark, comment, commen- 
tary No hay que hacer comentarios. 
One should not make comments. 

comenzar [rad-ch /] to begin, commence 
/Cuándo comienza la función? When 
does the performance begin? 

comer to eat. A to dine ¿A qué hora 
comen Uds.? What time do you have 
dinner? A to fade El sol come los 
colores. The sun fades colors. 

O comerse to eat up Se han comido 
todo el pastel. They ate up all the 
cake. A to omit, skip Se ha comido 
un renglón. He skipped a line. A to 
run through, squander Se comieron 
rápidamente el dinero. They squan- 
dered their money. 

comercial commercial. 

comercio commerce, trade, business Ha 
hecho mucho dinero en el comercio de 
frutas. He's made a lot of money in 
the fruit business. A store, shop Tienen 
un comercio de trajes. They own a 
dress shop. 





O cámara de comercio chamber of 
commerce. O comercio exterior for- 
eign trade. O comercio interior do- 
mestic trade. 

comestible edible, good to eat. 

O comestibles [m pi] provisions, gro- 
ceries En esta calle hay una tienda de 
comestibles. There's a grocery store 
on this street. 

cometa [m] comet; [/] kite. 

cómico comic, funny, amusing ¡Qué situa- 
ción más cómica! What an amusing 
situation ! A [n] actor, actress Son unos 
cómicos malísimos. They're very bad 

comida food La comida es muy buena en 
este hotel. The food in this hotel's 
very good. A dinner ¿A qué hora es la 
comida? When's dinner served? 

comienzo beginning, start. 

comilón [m] glutton. 

comisaria police station. 

comisario de policía chief of police. 

comisión [/] assignment Le han dado 
una comisión difícil. They gave him a 
difficult assignment. A committee, dele- 
gation Ha llegado una comisión de 
diputados. A committee of congress- 
men has arrived. 

comisionado agent. 

comisionar to commission Han sido co- 
misionados por el Gobierno. They've 
been commissioned by the Government. 

como how Voy a decirle como lo tiene que 
hacer. I'll tell you how to do it. A as 
Como Ud. quiera. As you like. A as, 
since Como no me lo dijo, no fui. Since 
he didn't tell me, I didn't go. Mike 
Nada como un pez. He swims like a 
fish. A if Como Ud. no se lo diga, él no 
lo hará. If you don't tell him, he 
won't do it. 

° ¿cómo? why? how come? ¿Cómo no 
me lo dijo? Why didn't you tell me? 
O tan . . . como as ... as ¿Es Ud. tan 
alto como yo? Are you as tall as I? 
O tanto como as much as No creo que 
Ud. trabaje tanto como él. I don't be- 
lieve you do as much work as he does. 

cómoda chest of drawers. 

comodidad [/] convenience La casa tiene 
todas las comodidades. The house has 
all the conveniences. A ease, comfort 
Viven con mucha comodidad. They 
live very comfortably. 

cómodo convenient, suitable, handy Una 
maleta de este tamaño es muy cómoda. 
A valise of this size is very handy. 
A comfortable ¿Está Ud. cómodo? Are 
you comfortable? 

compadecer [-zc-] to pity, sympathize 
with Le compadezco a Ud. I sympa- 
thize with you. 

compadre [w] (term of address between 
father and godfather of a child) ; pal 
(among country people). 

compañero, compañera companion, pal, 
schoolmate Fueron compañeros de 
estudios. They were schoolmates. 

compañía company Trabaja en una com- 
pañía de seguros. He works for an in- 
surance company. A company of ac- 
tors, stock company ¿Le gusta la com- 
pañía que hay en ese teatro? Do you 
like the company at that theater? 

O hacer compañía (a) to keep com- 
pany (with) Está sola; hágale com- 
pañía. She's lonely; keep her com- 

comparable comparable. 

comparación [/] comparison. 

comparar to compare Compare Ud. esta 
copia con el original. Compare this 
copy with the original. 

comparecer [-zc-] to appear (in answer 
to summons) Los testigos compare- 
cieron ante el juez. The witnesses ap- 
peared before the judge. 

compartir to share Compartieron lo que 
tenían. They shared what they had. 
— No comparto su opinión. I don't 
share his opinion. 

compás [m sg] compass Es difícil dibu- 
jar un círculo sin un compás. It's hard 
to draw a circle without a compass. 
A beat, rhythm, time No sabe llevar el 
compás. He can't keep time. 

compasión [/] compassion, pity, sym- 
pathy No tiene compasión de nadie. 
He has no pity for anybody. 

compatriota \m, /] (fellow) countryman, 
fellow citizen. 

compensar to balance, compensate Las 
ganancias compensan los gastos. The 
income balances the expenses. 

competencia competition, rivalry Hay 
mucha competencia en el comercio. 
There's a lot of competition in busi- 

competir [rad-ch III] to compete No va 
a competir en el campeonato. He's not 
going to compete for the champion- 

complacer [-zc-] to please, accommodate 
¿En qué puedo complacerla? How can 
I help you? 

complaciente pleasing, accommodating, 
kind Es una persona complaciente. 
She's a very accommodating person. 





completar to complete, finish No han 
completado el informe. They haven't 
completed the report. 

completo complete ¿Está completo este 
juego de té? Is this tea set complete? 
A full El tranvía va completo. The 
trolley's full. 

complicación [/] complication. 

complicar to complicate No complique 
Ud. la cuestión. Don't complicate the 

cómplice [m, /] accomplice. 

componer [¿77"] to repair, fix ¿Compusi- 
eron el reloj? Did they repair the 
watch? A to compose Ha compuesto 
una sonata. He's composed a sonata. 
O componerse to fix oneself, to doll 
up Se compuso mucho para ir al baile. 
She dolled up a lot to go to the dance. 

composición [/] composition. 

compositor [?rc] composer ¿Quién es el 
compositor de esta sinfonía? Who's 
the composer of this symphony? 

compostura mending, repair(s), repair- 
ing Hacemos toda clase de compostura. 
We make all kinds of repairs. 

compota stewed fruit. 

compra purchase, buy Hicimos una buena 
compra. We made a good buy. 

° hacer la compra to do the day's 
marketing La criada salió a hacer la 
compra. The maid went out to do 
the day's marketing. O ¡r de compras 
to go shopping. 

comprador, compradora buyer, purchaser 
Tiene varios compradores para la finca. 
He has several buyers for the property. 

comprar to buy, purchase. 

comprender to understand, comprehend 
¿Comprende Ud. español? Do you 
understand Spanish? A to include, 
comprise, cover Esta historia com- 
prende también la época contemporá- 
nea. This history also includes the con- 
temporary period. 

comprensión [/] comprehension, under- 

comprimir to compress. 

comprobar [rad-ch /] to verify, confirm, 
check Comprobaron las cuentas. They 
checked the accounts. — Compruebe Ud. 
esta traducción con el original. Check 
this translation with the original. A to 
substantiate, verify No se pudo compro- 
bar la inocencia del acusado. The de- 
fendant's innocence could not be veri- 

comprometer to risk No comprometan 
Uds. su fortuna en eso. Don't risk 
your fortune on that. A to expose, 
jeopardize, endanger Está comprometi- 

endo su carrera política. He's jeopar- 
dizing his political career. 

O comprometerse to get involved No 
se comprometa Ud. en eso. Don't get 
yourself involved in that. A to be- 
come engaged Se comprometieron ayer. 
They became engaged yesterday. 

compromiso obligation, engagement No 
puedo ir con Ud., tengo un compro- 
miso. I can't go with you, I have an 
engagement. A predicament, plight, 
fix Se encontró en un compromiso te- 
rrible. He found himself in a terrible 

O compromiso matrimonial engage- 
ment Rompió su compromiso matrimo- 
nial. She broke her engagement. 

compuesto See componer. 

común common, usual, general Fué la 
opinión común. It was the general 

comunicación [/] communication. 

comunicar to communicate, transmit, 
send, issue Comunique Ud. esta orden 
a sus. empleados. Issue this order to 
your employees. 

O comunicarse to connect Las dos ha- 
bitaciones se comunican. The two 
rooms are connected. A to communi- 
cate, tell one another Se comunican 
todo lo que ocurre. They tell each 
other about everything that happens. 

comunicativo communicative Es un per- 
sona muy comunicativa. He's very 

con with Salió con su hermano. She left 
with her brother. 

° con tal que provided that. 

concebir [rad-ch III] to imagine No con- 
cibo que motivo puede tener para hacer 
eso. I can't imagine what reason he 
has for doing that. 

conceder to give, grant Le han concedido 
una pensión. They've granted him a 

concejal [m] councilman. 

concejo board of aldermen. 

concentrar to concentrate. 

concepto judgment, opinion, thought 
Tengo buen concepto de él. I have a 
good opinion of him. 

concesión [/] concession, grant. 

conciencia conscience Me remuerde la 
conciencia. My conscience bothers 
me. A scruples Es un hombre sin con- 
ciencia. He's a man without scruples. 
A religion En este país no hay libertad 
de conciencia. There's no freedom of 
religion in this country. A conscious- 
ness Con el golpe perdió la conciencia. 





He lost consciousness as a result of 
the blow. 

O a conciencia conscientiously ho 
hizo a conciencia. He did it conscien- 
tiously. A painstakingly Hizo su tra- 
bajo a conciencia. He did his work 

concierto concert ¿Va Ud. al concierto 
esta noche? Are you going to the con- 
cert tonight? 

conciliar to conciliate, reconcile Es difícil 
conciliar todas las opiniones. It's diffi- 
cult to reconcile all the opinions. 

concisión [/] conciseness La concisión es 
una virtud. Conciseness is a virtue. 

concluir to conclude, end, finish, close 
¿A qué hora concluyó la sesión? What 
time did the meeting end? 

conclusión [/] conclusion ¿Se ha llegado 
a alguna conclusión? Has any conclu- 
sion been reached? 

concretar to express concretely Concrete 
Ud. su idea. Express your idea con- 

O concretarse to limit or confine one- 
self Concrétese al tema. Confine your- 
self to the subject. 

concreto definite, concrete ¿Le ha dicho 
a Ud. algo concreto? Has he told you 
anything definite? 

° en concreto concretely, in so many 
words Dígame en concreto lo que nece- 
sita. Tell me in so many words what 
you need. 

concurrir to attend Mucha gente concu- 
rrió a la sesión. Many people attended 
the meeting. 

concurso competition, contest ¿Quiénes 
se presentaron al concurso? Who took 
part in the contest? 

condado county. 

conde [to] count (title). 

condena sentence, term of imprisonment, 
penalty Cumplió su condena en el penal 
de Alcatraz. He served his sentence 
at Alcatraz. 

condenar to prove, find, or declare guilty 
¿Ud. cree que lo condenarán? Do you 
think they'll find him guilty? A to 
sentence he condenaron a treinta años 
de cárcel. They sentenced him to thirty 
years in prison. A to condemn, blame 
Condenaron su conducta. They con- 
demned his behavior. 

condensar to condense Tienen un nuevo 
procedimiento para condensar la leche. 
They have a new process for condens- 
ing milk. 

condición [/] condition, character Es un 

hombre de mala condición. He's a 
man of bad character. 

O a condición de que, con la condi- 
ción de que on the understanding that, 
on condition that, pi'ovided (that) Iré 
a condición de que Ud. vaya conmigo. 
I'll go provided you go with me. O con- 
diciones qualities Tiene buenas condi- 
ciones, pero está mal educada. She 
has good qualities, but she's badly 
brought up. A terms ¿Cuáles son las 
condiciones del contrato? What are 
the terms of the contract? A condi- 
tion, quality, state ¿En qué condiciones 
está el edificio? What condition is the 
building in? 

condiscípulo, condiscípula schoolfellow, 
schoolmate, fellow student. 

cóndor [to] condor. 

conducir [-zc-] to lead ¿A dónde conduce 
este camino? Where does this road 
lead? A to take, accompany Conduzca 
a este señor a mi oficina. Take this 
gentleman to my office. A to drive 
Ud. conduce a demasiada velocidad. 
You drive too fast. 

O conducirse to act, behave Se con- 
duce como una persona educada. She 
acts like a well-bred person. 

conducta conduct, behavior. 

conductor [to] driver, motorman Se pro- 
hibe hablar al conductor. Don't talk 
to the driver. A conductor of train 

conectar to connect ¿Han conectado la 
antena del radio? Have they connected 
the radio antenna? 

conejo rabbit. 

conexión [/] connection No tiene conexión 
una cosa con la otra. There's no con- 
nection between the two things. 

confección [/] workmanship, finish La 
confección del traje es muy mala. The 
workmanship on the dress is very bad. 

confederación [/] confederacy, federa- 

conferencia conference, meeting Hubo 
muchas conferencias entre los ministros 
y senadores. The Ministers and the 
Senators held many conferences. 
A public lecture Está dando unas con- 
ferencias sobre literatura. He's giv- 
ing some lectures on literature. 

conferenciar to confer, consult together, 
hold an interview Después de confe- 
renciar varias horas hicieron públicos 
los acuerdos. After conferring for 
several hours, they made the agree- 
ments public. 





confesar [rad-ch /] to admit, confess 
Confesó su delito. He confessed his 

confesión [/] confession, acknowledg- 

confiado (See confiar) trusting, unsus- 
pecting Son unas personas muy con- 
fiadas. They're very trusting people. 

confianza confidence, faith Han perdido 
la confianza en él. They've lost con- 
fidence in him. 

O de confianza informal, intimate 
Fué una reunión de confianza. It was 
an informal meeting. O en confianza 
confidentially, in confidence Le digo 
esto en confianza. I'm telling you this 
confidentially. O hombre de confianza 
right-hand man Es su hombre de con- 
fianza. He's his right-hand man. 
O tener confianza con to be on intimate 
terms with No tengo suficiente coyi fianza 
con él para eso. I'm not sufficiently 
intimate with him for that. ° tener 
confianza en to trust ¿Por qué no tiene 
Ud. confianza en mí? Why don't you 
trust me? 

confiar to entrust to, put in charge of 
he confiaron la administración de sus 
negocios. They put him in charge of 
their business. 

O confiar en to rely on, trust in, count 
on Ud. puede confiar en él. You can 
rely on him. 

confidencia ° hacer confidencias to con- 
fide Me ha estado haciendo confiden- 
cias. He's been confiding in me. 

confidencial confidential. 

confirmación [/] confirmation. 

confirmar to confirm, corroborate La 
prensa confirmó los rumores. The 
press confirmed the rumors. 

confitería candy store, confectionery; 

conflicto conflict, struggle. 

conforme as Todo queda conforme estaba. 
Everything remains as it was. — Con- 
forme leía, más me interesaba. As I 
was reading, I became more interested. 
O conforme a in accordance with, in 
line with Conforme a su petición. . . . 
In accordance with your request. . . . 
° estar conforme con to be resigned to 
Está- conforme con su suerte. He's re- 
signed to his fate. A to be in agreement 
with Estoy conforme con lo que Ud. 
dice. I agree with you. 

confundido confused, mistaken. 

O estar confundido to be mistaken, 
confused. O quedar confundido to be 
extremely embarrassed Al ver lo que 

había hecho, quedó confundido. On 
seeing what he had done, he was ex- 
tremely embarrassed. 

confundir to confound, jumble, mix up 
Han confundido todas las tarjetas. 
They've mixed up all the cards. A to 
mistake Ud. me confunde con mi her- 
mano. You're mistaking me for my 

O confundirse to make a mistake Me 
he confundido muchas veces al copiar 
esta carta. I made many mistakes in 
copying this letter. 

confusión [/] confusion, disorder Hubo 
unos momentos de confusión. There 
were a few moments of confusion. 
A embarrassment, confusion. 

confuso confusing, not clear Los infor- 
mes eran confusos. The reports were 
confusing. A hard to read or under- 
stand Su letra es confusa. His hand- 
writing's hard to read. A hazy, vague 
Tengo un recuerdo confuso. I have a 
vague recollection. A confused, mixed 
up, embarrassed Se quedaron muy 
confusos. They were completely con- 

congestión [/] stroke (sun, etc) Le dió- 
una congestión. He had a stroke. 

congestionado congested El tráfico está 
congestionado. The traffic's congested. 

congraciarse to get into one's good graces 
Quería congraciarse con la madre de 
su novia. He wanted to get into the 
good graces of his sweetheart's mother. 

congregación [/] congregation. 

congregar to congregate, assemble El 
cura congregó a los fieles en la iglesia. 
The priest assembled the parishioners 
in the church. 

O congregarse to gather, assemble 
Los manifestantes se congregaron en 
la plaza. The demonstrators gathered 
in the square. 

congreso congress, convention. 

O Congreso de los Diputados House 
of Representatives. 

conjetura conjecture, guess Se hacían 
muchas conjeturas sobre lo que iba a 
ocurrir. There was a great deal of 
conjecture as to what would happen. 

conjunto joint, unified Acción conjunta. 
Joint action. A [m] whole, entirety 
Vale más el conjunto que las partes. 
The whole is worth more than the 

O en conjunto as a whole En con- 
junto el plan me parece bien. As a 
whole, the plan seems good to me. 

conmemorativo commemorative. 





conmigo with me Fueron conmigo de 
paseo. They went for a walk with me. 

conocer [-zc-~\ to know, understand Co- 
noce muy bien el problema. He knows 
the problem very well. A to know, be 
acquainted with ¿Conoce Ud. al Sr. 
López? Do you know Mr. López? 

O conocerse to meet, become ac- 
quainted Nos conocimos la semana pa- 
sada. We met last week. A to know 
each other Se conocen muy bien. They 
know each other very well. 

conocido (see conocer) prominent, well 
known Era muy conocido en su país. 
He was well known in his country. 
A [n] acquaintance Es un conocido 
nuestro. He's an acquaintance of 

conocimiento knowledge, understanding 
Tiene muy pocos conocimientos de geo- 
grafía. He has very little knowledge 
of geography. A consciousness Todavía 
no ha recobrado el conocimiento. He 
still hasn't regained consciousness. 

conquista conquest. 

conquistador [m] conqueror Alejandro 
fué un gran conquistador. Alexander 
was a great conqueror. A Don Juan, 
lady-killer Tenga Ud. cuidado con él; 
es un conquistador. Be careful with 
him; he's a Don Juan. 

conquistar to conquer, overcome, subdue 
Conquistaron la ciudad. They con- 
quered the city. A to win No pude con- 
quistar su amistad. I wasn't able to 
win his friendship. 

consagrar to devote, dedicate; to conse- 
crate Consagró toda su vida a la cien- 
cia. He devoted his whole life to 

O consagrarse to devote oneself Se 
consagra a su trabajo. He devotes 
himself to his work. 

consciente conscious. 

consecuencia consequence La disputa tuvo 
malas consecuencias. The quarrel had 
unfortunate consequences. 

conseguir [rad-ch ///] to attain, get, ob- 
tain Conseguí lo que quería. I got 
what I wanted. A to succeed in Con- 
siguió salir de la casa. He succeeded in 
getting out of the house. 

consejero adviser, counselor. 

consejo advice, counsel No necesito sus 
consejos. I don't need your advice. 
A council Lo acordó el consejo. The 
council agreed on it. 

O consejo de ministros cabinet (of a 

consentimiento consent No ha dado su 

consentimiento. He hasn't given his 
consentir [rad-ch II] to allow, permit, 
tolerate ¿Cómo lo consiente Ud.? Why 
do you permit it? A to coddle, spoil 
Consentían demasiado a sus nietos. 
They spoiled their grandchildren. 

conserva ° conservas preserves; canned 
food. O en conserva canned Me gustan 
las frutas en conserva. I like canned 

conservación [/] conservation, mainte- 

conservador [adj; m~\ conservative. 

O el partido conservador the conser- 
vative party. 

conservar to conserve, preserve, keep 
Ponga Ud. esta fruta en la nevera para 
que se conserve bien. Put this fruit 
in the ice box so it will keep. A to keep 
Conservó el retrato durante muchos 
años. He kept the picture for many 

° conservarse to keep (oneself) 
young, be well preserved Se conserva 
muy joven. He keeps himself very 

considerable considerable, great, large 
Es una cantidad considerable. It's a 
large amount. 

consideración [/] consideration, account 
Lo tomaré en consideración. I'll take 
it into consideration. A respect No 
tuvo ninguna consideración con ella. 
He showed her no respect. 

considerado thoughtful, tactful. 

considerar to consider, think over Con- 
sidere de nuevo el problema. Consider 
the problem again. A to show con- 
sideration Lo consideran mucho. They 
show him every consideration. 

consigo with him (self), with her (self), 
with it (self), etc Lleve Ud. el dinero 
consigo. Take the money with you. 

O consigo mismo to oneself Hablaba 
consigo misma. She was talking to 

consiguiente O p0 r consiguiente conse- 
quently, therefore. 

consistir en to be a question or matter of 
La felicidad consiste en la moderación. 
Happiness is a question of moderation. 

consolar [rad-ch /] to console, comfort. 

consolidar to strengthen, consolidate Hay 
que consolidar la República. It's nec- 
essary to strengthen the Republic. 

conspiración [/] conspiracy, plot. 

conspirador, conspiradora conspirator. 

conspirar to conspire, plot. 

constancia perseverance Todo lo consigue 
por su constancia. He gets everything 





through perseverance. A record, state- 
ment No hay constancia de lo que ha 
dicho. There's no record of what he 

constante firm, faithful, constant. 

constar to be evident, be clear, be certain 
Consta que es así. It's clear that it's 
so. A to be recorded or registered Eso 
consta en las actas. That is recorded 
in the minutes. 

O constar de to be composed of, con- 
sist of La obra consta de treinta capí- 
tulos. The book consists of thirty 
chapters. ° constarle a uno to be evi- 
dent to one, be positive Me consta que 
no salió ayer. I'm positive he didn't 
go out yesterday. O conste que let it 
be understood that Conste que yo no lo 
he hecho. Let it be clearly understood 
that I didn't do it. 

constitución [/] constitution La constitu- 
ción del país es muy democrática. The 
constitution of the country is very 
democratic. — Es un hombre de una 
constitución muy fuerte. He has a 
strong constitution. 

constitucional constitutional. 

constituir to constitute, be Esto consti- 
tuye la parte esencial de la obra. This 
is the essential part of the work. A to 
establish, organize, constitute Consti- 
tuyeron una nueva firma comercial. 
They established a new firm. 

construcción [/] construction Han empe- 
zado la construcción del nuevo ferro- 
carril. They've begun the construction 
of the new railroad. A structure, build- 
ing Es la mayor construcción de la 
ciudad. It's the biggest building in the 

constructor [?n] builder. 

construir to build, construct. 

consuelo consolation, comfort. 

cónsul \_m\ consul. 

consulado consulate. 

consulta consultation, conference Se reu- 
nunieron en consulta. They met in 
conference. A office hours ¿A qué hora 
tiene el doctor la consulta? What are 
the doctor's office hours? 

consultar to consult (about) Tengo que 
consultarle una cosa. I want to con- 
sult you about something. 

O consultar con la almohada to sleep 
on, think over Antes de decidirlo con- 
súltelo con la almohada. Sleep on it 
before deciding. 

consumado complete, perfect, accom- 
plished Es un nadador consumado. He's 
an accomplished swimmer. 

consumar to carry out, commit (an evil 
action) Consumaron el crimen. They 
committed the crime. 

consumidor, consumidora consumer. 

consumirse to be used up, run out Se 
consumieron todas las provisiones. All 
the supplies ran out. 

O consumirse de to be consumed with 
Se consume de curiosidad. He's con- 
sumed with curiosity. 

consumo consumption No es grande el 
consumo diario. Daily consumption 
isn't large. 

contabilidad [/] bookkeeping, accounting. 

contable [m, /] bookkeeper, accountant. 

contacto contact, touch. A ignition (of 
motors) Encienda el contacto. Turn 
on the ignition. 

contado (see contar) few Son contadas 
las personas que lo saben. Very few 
people know it. 

O al contado (for) cash ¿Va Ud. a 
pagar al contado? Will you pay cash? 

contador [m] accountant, bookkeeper. 
A meter (for gas, water, electricity, or 

contagiar to infect. 

contagio contagion. 

contagioso contagious El tifus es una 
enfermedad contagiosa. Typhus is a 
contagious disease. 

contaminar to contaminate, pollute. 

contar [rad-ch I] to count Cuente Ud. el 
cambio. Count your change. A to re- 
late, tell Contaron muy bien la historia. 
They told the story very well. 

O contar con to depend upon, count 
on Cuento con su ayuda. I'm counting 
on your help. 

contemplación [/] contemplation (in 
visual sense). 

contemporáneo [ad], n] contemporary. 

contener [irr] to check, curb, control No 
podía contener el caballo. He couldn't 
control the horse. A to contain La bo- 
tella contenía vino. The bottle con- 
tained wine. 

O contenerse to control oneself Se 
contiene admirablemente. He controls 
himself admirably. 

contenido See contener, [w] contents 
¿Puedo ver el contenido del paquete? 
May I see the contents of the package? 

contentar to satisfy, please Es muy difícil 
de contentar. He's very hard to please. 
O contentarse to be satisfied No se 
contenta con nada. He isn't satisfied 
with anything. A to become reconciled, 
make up Se han. contentado ya. They've 
already made up. 





contento happy, glad Estaba muy con- 
tento. He was very happy. 

contestación [/] reply, answer No he 
recibido contestación a mi carta. I 
haven't received a reply to my letter. 

contestar to answer, reply No ha con- 
testado a mi carta. He hasn't answered 
my letter yet. 

contigo with you No sabia que tu madre 
vivía contigo. I didn't know that your 
mother lived with you. 

contiguo adjacent, next Se oían voces en 
el cuarto contiguo. They heard voices 
in the next room. 

continente [m] continent. 

continuación [/] continuation; sequence. 

O a continuación immediately, right 

away Entró y a continuación se sentó. 

He came in and immediately sat down. 

|| Continuación de la primera página. 

Continued from page one. 

continuar to continue, pursue, carry on 
Continúa sus esttidios. He's pursuing 
his studies. Á to remain Su estado 
continúa lo mismo. His condition re- 
mains the same. A to be still (in same 
place or condition) Juan continúa en- 
fermo y en el mismo hospital. John is 
still sick and in the same hospital. 
A to go on, keep on Continuó hablando 
dos horas. He kept on talking for two 

continuo continuous, uninterrupted. 

contorno neighborhood Es conocido en 
todo el contorno. He's known in the 
whole neighborhood. A contour, out- 
line El contorno de la figura no es 
claro. The outline of the figure isn't 

contra against ¡Apoye Ud. la escalera 
contra la pared! Put the ladder 
against the wall ! A against, in oppo- 
sition to Los Diputados votaron contra 
la proposición. The Representatives 
voted against the proposition. 

O contra viento y marea against all 
odds Contra viento y marea consiguió 
lo que quería. He got what he wanted 
against all odds. O en pro y en contra 
for and against. O llevar la contra 
to oppose, object, raise objections Le 
gusta llevar la contra. He likes to 
raise objections. 

contrabando contraband, smuggling. 

contradecir [irr~\ to contradict Se enfada 
si le contradicen. He gets angry if 
he's contradicted. 

O contradecirse to contradict oneself 
Se contradijo varias veces en su decla- 

ración. He contradicted himself sev- 
eral times in his testimony. 

contradicción [/] contradiction. 

contraer \irr\ to contract Contrajo esa 
enfermedad hace muchos años. He 
contracted that illness many years ago. 
A to incur, run into Contrajeron deu- 
das. They ran into debt. 

O contraer matrimonio to marry, get 
married Contraerán matrimonio el 
próximo sábado. They'll get married 
next Saturday. O contraerse to con- 
tract, diminish Se contrae con el frío. 
It contracts with the cold. 

contrahecho deformed, crippled (from 

contraorden [m] countermand. 

contrariar to thwart, change, spoil (a 
plan) Esto contraría todos mis planes. 
This spoils all my plans. A to annoy 
Esto me contraría mucho. This annoys 
me very much. 

contrariedad [/] disappointment Fué una 
contrariedad no verle. It was a dis- 
appointment not to see him. 

contrario contrary Esto es contrario a la 
ley. This is against the law. A ad- 
verse, unfavorable El fallo fué con- 
trario. The verdict was unfavorable. ♦ 
A [w] opponent Ganaron el pleito sus 
contrarios. His opponents won the 

° al contrario on the contrary "¿Ha 
dicho eso?" "Al contrario, no la ha 
dicho." "Did he say that?" "On the 
contrary, he didn't say that." O de lo 
contrario otherwise, if not Saldré a las 
seis; de lo contrario llegaré tarde. I'll 
leave at six; otherwise, I'll be late. 
O todo la contrario just the opposite, 
the other way around No es lo que Ud. 
dice, sino todo lo contrario. It isn't 
what you say, but just the opposite. 

contraseña countersign; pass, check (for 
hat, baggage, or for readmittance). 

contrastar to contrast, be opposed Sus 
ideas contrastaban con la mías. His 
ideas were opposed to mine. 

O contrastar bien to harmonize, go 
well together Esos colores contrastan 
muy bien. Those colors go well to- 
gether. O contrastar mal to clash Esos 
colores contrastan mal. Those colors 

contraste [m] contrast. 

contratar to engage, hire Le han con- 
tratado por un año. They hired him 
for one year. 

contratista [?»] contractor. 

contrato contract. 





contribución [/] contribution. A tax Han 
aumentado mucho las contribuciones. 
They've raised the taxes considerably. 
contribuir to contribute. 
control [w] control. 
controlar to control. 
convalecencia convalescence. 
convencer to convince. 

O convencerse to become (or be) con- 
vinced No se convence fácilmente. He's 
not easily convinced. 
convencido (see convencer) convinced. 
conveniencia self-interest, good, advantage 
No mira más que su propia convenien- 
cia. He only looks out for his own 

O ser de la mayor conveniencia to be 
highly desirable Seria de la mayor con- 
veniencia que viniese Ud. It would be 
highly desirable for you to come. 
conveniente suitable Este clima es muy 
conveniente para él. This climate's 
very suitable for him. A convenient 
¿Será esta hora conveniente para Ud.? 
Will this time be convenient for you? 
A desirable, advisable Es conveniente 
para su salud. It's advisable for his 
, convenir [irr] to agree Convengo con 
Ud. en ese punto. I agree with you on 
that point. 

O convenirle a uno to be to one's 
advantage, be advisable, suit No le 
conviene aceptar ese empleo. It isn't 
advisable for him to take that position, 
convento convent; [Arg] tenement house. 
conversación [/] conversation, talk. 
conversar to talk, converse Le gusta con- 
versar. He likes to talk. 
convertir [rad-ch J] to convert, turn Han 
convertido la casa en un museo. They've 
converted their house into a museum. 

O convertirse to be converted Se con- 
virtió al catolicismo. He became a 
convicción [/] conviction, belief. 
convidado (see convidar) invited. A [«] 
guest ¿Había muchos convidados en la 
cena? Were there many guests at the 
convidar to invite Me convidaron a pasar 
unos días en su casa. They invited me 
to spend a few days at their house. 

O convidarse to invite oneself, come 
uninvited Se convida siempre a comer. 
He always invites himself for dinner. 
convite [m~\ treat; invitation ¿Esto es un 
convite o tenemos que pagar? Is this 
a treat or do we have to pay? 
convocar to convoke, call ¿Han convocado 

ya la reunión? Have they called the 
meeting yet? 
coñac [m] cognac, brandy. 
cooperativa [/] cooperative (enterprise). 
cooperativo [adj] cooperative. 
copa glass, stem glass, goblet Llenó las 
copas de vino. He filled the glasses 
with wine. A drink Se fueron a tomar 
unas copas. They went out to get a few 
drinks. A tree-top Las copas de los 
árboles estaban llenas de pájaros. The 
trees were full of birds. A crown (of 
a hat) La copa de este sombrero es 
demasiado alta. The crown of this 
hat's too high. * heart (of playing 
cards) Tengo el as de copas. I have 
the ace of hearts. 

O sombrero de copa top hat. 
copia copy Necesito tres copias de esta 
carta. I need three copies of this let- 
ter. — Este cuadro es una buena copia 
del original. This painting's a good 
copy of the original. 
copiar to copy, make a copy of; to imi- 
copla popular song. 
copo flake (of snow, soap, etc). 
coqueta coquette, flirt Es la mujer más 
coqueta que he conocido. She's the 
biggest flirt I've ever known. 
coquetear to flirt Coquetea con todo el 

mundo. She flirts with everybody. 
coraje [w] anger; courage, bravery. 

O darle a uno coraje to make one 
angry or mad Lo que le dijeron le dio 
mucho coraje. What they told him 
made him very mad. 
coral [m] coral. 

corazón [w] heart. A core (of fruits). 
O dar el corazón, decir el corazón to 
have a premonition or hunch Me da el 
corazón que no vendrá. I've a hunch 
he isn't coming. O de buen corazón 
kind-hearted Es un hombre de buen 
corazón. He's a kind-hearted man. O de 
(todo) corazón heartily, sincerely Lo 
dijo de (todo) corazón. He said it 
very sincerely. 
corazonada presentiment, hunch. 
corbata necktie, tie ¿Qué tipo de corbata 
quiere Ud., de lazo o de nudo? What 
kind of tie do you want, a bow tie or 
a four-in-hand? 
corcho cork. 

cordel [w] thin rope, cord. 
cordero lamb. 
cordial cordial, hearty. 
cordillera mountain range. 
cordón [m] cord, twine, lace Quiero com- 
prar unos cordones de zapatos. I want 





to buy some shoe laces. A cordon (of 
police or soldiers). 

corneta [/] bugle; cornet. 

corneta [m] bugler. 

coro chorus, choir. 

corona crown; wreath. 

coronar to crown Aquel rey fué coronado 
a los quince años. That king was 
crowned when he was fifteen years old. 
— Sus esfuerzos fueron coronados por 
el éxito. Their efforts were crowned 
with success. 

coronel [ni] colonel. 

coronilla top of the head, crown. 

O estar hasta la coronilla de to be fed 
up with ¡Estoy hasta la coronilla de sus 
bromas! I'm fed up with his jokes! 

corporación [/] (non-profit) corporation. 

corral [w] animal enclosure, corral. 
O aves de corral domestic fowls. 

correa strap, belt. 

corrección [/] correction He tardado 
mucho en la corrección de estas pági- 
nas. The correction of these pages has 
taken me a long time. — La carta tiene 
muchas correcciones. The letter has 
many corrections. A good manners Es 
un hombre malo pero de gran correc- 
ción. He's a bad man, but with very 
good manners. 

correcto correct, right El libro estaba 
escrito en correcto español. The book 
was written in correct Spanish. A ir- 
reproachable Sit conducta es muy co- 
rrecta. His conduct is irreproachable. 

corredor [m] runner, racer; corridor. 

corregir [rad-ch ///] to correct Corrija 
Ud. los errores. Correct the errors. 
A to discipline, correct No le han cor- 
regido cuando era malo. They didn't 
discipline him when he was bad. 

correo mail ¿Ha venido el correo? Has 
the mail come? A post office ¿Está cerca 
de aquí el correo (or la oficina de cor- 
reos) ? Is the post office near here? 

O administrador de correos postmas- 
ter. O correo aéreo air mail Envié Ud. 
sus cartas por correo aéreo. Send your 
letters by air mail. O correo certifi- 
cado registered mail. O echar al 
correo to mail ¿Echó Ud. las cartas al 
correo? Did you mail the letters? 
O lista de correos general delivery. 

correr to run Tenemos que correr para 
llegar a tiempo. We'll have to run to 
get there on time. A to race Su caballo 
correrá mañana. His horse is racing 
tomorrow. A to flow El río corre hacia 
el sur. The river flows towards the 
south. A to blow Corre un viento muy 

fresco. A very cool wind's blowing. 
A to move, push Corre esa silla para 
aquí. Push that chair over here. A to 
slide, draw Corre la cortina. Draw the 
curtain. A to go over, travel over Han 
corrido medio mundo. They've traveled 
over half the world. 

O correr el rumor to be rumored 
Corre el rumor de que se va a casar. 
It's rumored that he's going to get 
married. O correr por cuenta de uno 
to be one's affair, to be up to one Eso 
corre por mi cuenta. I'll take care of 
that, or That's up to me. 

correspondencia correspondence Hemos 
mantenido correspondencia desde hace 
años. We've kept up a correspondence 
for years. A mail Voy a abrir la co- 
rrespondencia. I'm going to open the 

° en justa correspondencia in re- 
ciprocation, to get even Lg hice en 
justa correspondencia. I did it to get 

corresponder to correspond, match Estos 
botones no corresponden. These but- 
tons don't match. A to concern, be up 
to Eso le corresponde a Ud. That's up 
to you. A to return, reciprocate, re- 
spond to Correspondió a sus atenciones. 
She responded to his attentions. 

corresponsal [m] correspondent. 

corrida O corrida de toros bullfight. 

corrido corrido (typical Latin American 
song and dance). 

corriente current, common No es de uso 
corriente. It's not current usage. 
A ordinary Está hecho con tela corrien- 
te. It's made of ordinary cloth. A run- 
ning, flowing ¿Hay agua corriente en 
este cuarto? Does this room have run- 
ning water? A instant, present (month 
or year) Contesté a su carte el veinte 
del corriente (mes). I answered your 
letter on the twentieth instant (or on 
the twentieth of the present month). 
A [/] current (of electricity, air, river) 
Cuidado, la c'orriente es muy fuerte. 
Be careful, the current's very strong. 
° al corriente informed, posted he 
tendré al corriente de lo que pase. I'll 
keep you informed of what happens. 
O contra corriente upstream, against 
the tide. ° corriente y moliente com- 
monplace Es una expresión corriente 
y moliente. It's a commonplace ex- 
pression. O dejarse llevar de la co- 
rriente to follow the current, follow the 
crowd En todo se deja llevar de la 
corriente. He always follows the crowd. 





corromper to corrupt. 

corrupción [/] corruption. 

cortada cut, wound [Mex] Tengo una 
cortada en la mano. I have a cut on 
my hand. 

cortado [adj] cut El traje estaba muy 
bien cortado. The suit was well cut. 
A chapped Tengo las manos cortadas 
por el frío. My hands are chapped 
from the cold. A confused, abashed 
Se quedó cortado y no pudo seguir 
hablando. He became confused and 
couldn't continue talking. 

cortador [m] cutter (tailoring). 

cortadura cut (wound) Tiene una cor- 
tadura muy profunda en el pie. He 
has a very deep cut on his foot. 

cortapapeles [m sg~\ paper knife. 

cortaplumas [m sg] penknife, pocket- 

cortar to cut ¿Tiene Ud. algo con que 
cortar e$ta cuerda? Have you any- 
thing to cut this string? A to inter- 
rupt, stop, cut short Su entrada cortó 
la conversación. His entrance inter- 
rupted the conversation. — Por favor, 
no me cortes el relato. Please don't 
interrupt my story. A to cut off Tiene 
Ud. que cortar los tallos de esas flores. 
You'll have to cut off the stems of 
these flowers. A to cut out El sastre 
todavía no ha cortado el traje. The 
tailor still hasn't cut out the suit. A to 
shut off, cut off (steam, water, elec- 
tricity) Han cortado la electricidad. 
They shut off the electricity. A to cut 
out, abridge Han cortado algunas esce- 
nas importantes de la película. They 
cut out several important scenes in the 

O cortar al prójimo to criticize [Am] 
Le gusta mucho cortar el prójima. He 
likes to criticize others. O cortar el hilo 
to interrupt, break the thread (of a 
story) Por favor, no mé cortes el 
hilo. Please don't interrupt my story. 
O cortársele a uno to get chapped Se 
me ha cortado la cara con el viento. 
My face has got chapped in the cold 
corte [m] cut Tenía un pequeño corte 
en la mano. He had a small cut on his 
hand. A cut (style) Este traje tiene 
buen corte. This suit's well cut. 
A length (of material) Le regaló un 
corte de vestido. He presented her 
with a dress length. 
corte [/] court [Aw] El pleito será juz- 
gado en la Corte Suprema. The case 
will be tried in the Supreme Court. 
O hacer la corte to court, woo Le está 

haciendo la corte desde hace tiempo. 
He's been courting her for some time. 
O las cortes [pi] the Spanish parlia- 
cortedad [/] bashfulness, shyness, timid- 
cortés polite, courteous No es una res- 
puesta muy cortés. It's not a very cour- 
teous answer. 
cortesía courtesy. 

corteza bark (of tree) ; crust (of bread). 
cortijo ranch [Andalusia]. 

cortina curtain. 

corto short La chaqueta me está demasia- 
do corta. The jacket's too short for 
me. A bashful, shy. 

O a la corta o a la larga sooner or 
later Les veremos a la corta o a la 
larga. We'll see 'em sooner or later. 
O corto de vista near-sighted Tiene 
que usar gafas porque es muy corto de 
vista. He has to wear glasses because 
he's very nearsighted. 

cosa thing Eso ya es otra cosa. That's 
quite another thing. 

O como si tal cosa as if nothing had 
happened. O cosa de about, more or 
less Serían cosa de veinte personas. 
There must have been about twenty 
people. O cosa de ver thing worth 
seeing. O cosa nunca vista something 
unheard of. O cosas ideas, notions 
¡Qué cosas tiene Ud.! What ideas you 
have ! O cosas de of the nature of, per- 
taining to. O cosas de niños childish 
things (doings or sayings). O no . . . 
gran cosa not . . . much No vale gran 
cosa. It isn't worth much. — No dijo 
gran cosa. He didn't say much. O no 
hay tal cosa no such thing. 

coscorrón [m] blow on the head. 

cosecha crop, harvest. 

cosechar to reap, harvest. 

coser to sew. 

cosmopolita [adj] cosmopolitan. 

cosquilla tickle. 

O buscarle a uno las cosquillas to 
pick on one. O hacer cosquillas to 
tickle. O tener cosquillas to be ticklish. 

cosquilloso ticklish. 

costa coast Viven en un pueblecito de la 
costa. They live in a little village on 
the coast. 

O a costa de by dint of, at the ex- 
pense of Lo hizo a costa de su salud. 
He did it at the expense of his health. 
— A costa de mucho trabajo consiguió 
lo que quería. By dint of hard work 
he got what he wanted. O a poca costa 
with little effort Lo consiguió a poca 
costa. He got it with little effort. 





O a toda casta at all hazards, at any 
cost ho hará a toda costa. He'll do it 
at any cost. 

costado side, flank. 

costar [rad-ch I] to cost Eso cuesta de- 
masiado. That costs too much. 

coste [m] cost, price. 

costilla rib Se rompió una costilla mon- 
tando en bicicleta. He broke a rib 
riding his bike. A better half, wife 
Tengo que ver a mi costilla. I must 
see my better half. 

costo cost, price. 

costoso costly, expensive. 

costumbre [/] custom; habit. 

costura sewing; seam. 

cotidiano [adj] daily. 

cotorra parrot. 

coyuntura joint (of body) he duelen las 
coyunturas. His joints hurt. A oppor- 
tunity, chance Es una buena coyuntura 
para hacer dinero. It's a good chance 
to make money. 

coz [/] kick (of animals). 

cráneo skull (of living person or animal). 

cráter [m] crater. 

creación [/] creation. 

creador [m] creator. 

crear to create ¿Quien creó el mundo? 
Who created the world? A to create, 
design Están creando nuevos modelos 
de aeroplanos. They're designing new 
airplane models. A to create, cause 
Creó muchos disgustos su actuación. 
His actions caused a lot of trouble. 

crecer [-zc-~\ to increase Su capital ha 
crecido en los últimos años. His capi- 
tal's increased in the last few years. 
A to grow ¡Cómo crece ese niño! How 
that child's growing! 

crecimiento growth. 

crédito credit Puedo comprar a crédito en 
esta tienda. I can buy on credit at 
this store. 

O dar crédito a to believe No di nin- 
gún crédito al relato. I didn't believe 
the story at all. 

creencia belief. 

creer to believe Creyó lo que Ud. le dijo. 
He believed what you told him. A to 
think, believe No lo creo. I don't think 

|| ¡Ya lo creo! Of course! 

crema cream (of milk); cream (cos- 

crespo curly. 

cretona cretonne. 

cría breeding, stock breeding Se dedicó 
a la cría de caballos. He devoted him- 
self to horse breeding. A the young 
(of animals) ha gata tuvo una cría. 

The cat had a litter.— Esa cerdo 
tiene buena cría. That sow has a fine 

O ama de cría wet nurse. 

criada maid, servant. 

criado servant. 

criar to raise, bring up. 

criatura baby, infant ¡Cómo llora esta 
criatura! How this baby cries! — ¡No 
seas criatura! Don't be a baby! 

crimen [m] crime (spilling of blood). 

criminal [adj, n] criminal. 

crío baby (fretful). 

criollo [adj, n] Creole. 

crisis [/] crisis. 

cristal [m\ crystal, glass ¿Cuánto vale 
este juego de cristal? How much is 
this set of crystal worth? A window 
pane El cristal de esta ventana está 
roto. The pane of this window's 
broken. A crystal, lens Se me han roto 
los cristales de las gafas y el del reloj. 
I've broken my lenses and my watch 

cristianismo Christianity. 

cristiano [adj, n] Christian. 

Cristo Christ. 

criterio criterion No tenemos los dos el 
mismo criterio. The two of us don't 
have the same criterion. A judgment 
Es un hombre de buen criterio. He's a 
man of good judgment. 

crítica criticism. 

criticar to criticize. 

crítico critical A [ri\ critic. 

cruda hangover [Mex], 

crudo raw, not cooked enough Estas pata- 
tas están muy crudas. These potatoes 
weren't cooked long enough. A crude 
Habla de una manera muy cruda. He 
speaks very crudely. 

cruel cruel. 

crueldad [/] cruelty. 

cruz [/] cross. 

cruzar to cross, go across Cuidado al 
cruzar la calle. Be careful when you 
cross the street. 

O cruzarse con to pass (a person) Me 
crucé con él en la calle. I passed him in 
the street. O cruzarse de brazos to 
fold one's arms; to be idle. 

cuaderno notebook. 

cuadra stable; [Am] block of houses. 

cuadrado [adj; n m~\ square (shape). 

cuadro painting Es un cuadro de Velaz- 
quez. It's a painting by Velazquez. 
A scene ha obra está dividida en tres 
actos y ocho cuadros. The play's di- 
vided into three acts and eight scenes. 
O a cuadros plaid, checked hlevaba 
un traje a cuadros. She was wearing 





a checked dress. 

cuajado de filled with La calle estaba cua- 
jada de gente. The street was filled 
with people. 

cuajar to materialize No cuajó su plan. 
His plan didn't materialize. 

O cuajarse to coagulate La sangre se 
cuajó en el suelo. The blood coagulated 
on the ground. O leche cuajada jun- 

¿cuál? which? which one? what? ¿Cuál 
de los dos lo hizo? Which one of the 
two did it? — ¿Cual es el número de su 
casa? What's the number of your 

O por lo cual for that reason, that's 
why Me dijo que estabas enfermo, por 
lo cual te he llamado. He told me you 
were ill and that's why I'm calling. 

|| Cual el padre, tal el hijo. Like 
father, like son. 

cualidad [/] quality, trait. 

cualquier(a) any, whatever, whatsoever 
Llegarán cualquier día. They'll come 
any day now. — Déme un libro cual- 
quiera. Give me any book whatsoever. 
A any, any one Déme Ud. cualquiera de 
esos libros. Give me any (one) of those 
books. A anyone (at all) Cualquiera 
puede hacer eso. Anyone can do that. 
O un cualquiera a nobody, low-down 
fellow Es un cualquiera. He's a low- 
down fellow. 

cuando when Cuando Ud. venga se lo 
diré. When you come I'll tell you. 
A if Cuando Ud. lo dice será verdad. 
If you say so, it must be true. 

° ¿cuándo? when? ¿Cuándo vendrá 
Ud.? When will you come? O cuando 
más at most Cuando más, costará 
treinta pesos. It'll cost, at the most, 
thirty pesos. O cuando quiera when 
you please, when you're ready Cuando 
Ud. quiera, empezamos. When you're 
ready, we'll begin. O de cuando en 
cuando from time to time Vendré a 
verle de cuando en cuando. I'll come 
to see you from time to time. 

cuanto all that, as much as Le daré a Ud. 
cuanto necesite. I'll give you all that 
you need. 

° cuánto how much? ¿Cuánto cuesta? 
How much does it cost? A how /Cuán- 
to me alegro de verle! How glad I 
am to see you ! O cuanto antes 
as soon as possible Venga cuanto 
antes. Come as soon as possible. 
O cuanto más . . . menos the more . . . 
the less Cuanto más me lo digas menos 
te creeré. The more you tell me, the 
less I'll believe you. O ¿cuántos? how 

many? ¿Cuántos vendrán? How many 
will come ? O en cuanto as soon as En 
cuanto llegue avíseme. Let me know 
as soon as he arrives. 

cuarenta forty. 

cuaresma Lent. 

cuarta span (of the hand). 

cuartel [m] barracks. 

cuarto room Está en su cuarto. He's in 
his room. A quarter, one fourth Le 
he esperado más de un cuarto de hora. 
I waited for him for more than a quar- 
ter of an hour. A fourth Carlos IV 
(cuarto). Charles the Fourth. A cuar- 
to (old Spanish coin) No tengo un 
cuarto. I don't have any money. 
O cuarto de baño bathroom. 
|| Son las tres y cuarto. It's a quar- 
ter past three. 

cuatro four. 

cuatrocientos four hundred. 

cuba barrel, cask. 

cubeta pail, bucket [Am]. 

cubierta wrapping El paquete tenia una 
cubierta de papel grueso. The package 
was wrapped in thick paper. A cover 
(of book, magazine). A deck (of ship) 
Estuvimos paseando sobre cubierta. 
We were walking on the deck. 

cubierto (see cubrir) covered. A [m] 
place at table. 

O cubiertos set of silver; cover. 

cubrir \irr\ to cover Cúbralo con un 
plato. Cover it with a plate. A to 
cover, balance Sus ingresos cubrían sus 
gastos. His earnings covered his ex- 

O cubrirse to put on one's hat Cú- 
brase Ud. Put on your hat. 

cucaracha cockroach. 

cuchara soup spoon, tablespoon. 

cucharada tablespoonful. 

cucharadita teaspoonful. 

cucharilla teaspoon. 

cucharón [m~\ ladle. 

cuchichear to whisper. 

cuchicheo whisper, whispering. 

cuchilla wide blade; razor blade. 

cuchillo knife. 

cuelgo See colgar. 

cuello neck Tiene un cuello muy largo. 
He has a long neck. A neck (of a 
bottle) Se le ha roto en cuello a la 
botella. The neck of the bottle was 
broken. A collar Necesito una camisa 
de cuello duro. I need a shirt with a 
stiff collar. 

cuenta account Póngalo en la nienta. Put 
it on my account. A bill ¿Le ha pedido 
la cuenta al camarero? Did you ask 
the waiter for the bill? 





O a cuenta y riesgo at one's own risk 
Lo hizo a su cuenta y riesgo. He did it 
at his own risk. O caer en la cuenta 
to figure out, catch on No caigo en la 
cuenta de lo que quiere Ud. decirme. 
I can't figure out what you're trying to 
tell me. O dar cuenta de to account 
for, report Hay que dar cuenta de este 
dinero. You must account for this 
money. A to exhaust, finish up Dio 
cuenta de todo el tabaco. He finished 
up all the tobacco. O darse cuenta de 
to realize Se dio cuenta de su error. 
He realized his mistake. O en resumi- 
das cuentas in short, in a word En 
resumidas cuentas, no quiso venir. 
In short, he wouldn't come. O hacer 
cuentas de to compute, calculate, figure 
out Estaba haciendo las cuentas de la 
casa. She was figuring out her house- 
hold expenses. O tener en cuenta to 
keep in mind Tenga en cuenta lo que 
le digo. Keep in mind what I tell you. 
O tomar por su cuenta to take upon one- 
self Ese asunto lo tomo yo por mi 
cuenta. I'll take that matter upon 

I! Eso no me tiene cuenta. That isn't 
convenient for me. 
cuento story, tale Compró un libro de 
cuentos. He bought a book of stories. 

O dejarse de cuentos to stop beating 
around the bush, come to the point. 

no venir a cuento not to have bear- 
ing on the question Lo que dice Ud. 
ahora no viene a cuento. What you're 
saying now has nothing to do with the 

cuerda cord ¿Tiene Ud. una cuerda para 
atar este paquete? Do you have a cord 
to tie this package with? A string 
Tengo que cambiar una cuerda a la 
guitarra. I have to change a string on 
the guitar. A spring, mainspring Se le 
rompió la cuerda al reloj. The watch 
spring broke. 

O dar cuerda a to wind (a watch or 
clock) No le di cuerda al reloj anoche. 

1 didn't wind the clock last night. 
cuerno horn (of an animal). 

cuero tanned skin, leather La maleta es 
de cuero. It's a leather valise. A skin 
El elefante tiene el cuero muy duro. 
The elephant's skin is very tough. 

O cuero cabelludo scalp Es una en- 
fermedad del cuero cabelludo. It's a 
scalp disease. O e n cueros stark-naked. 

cuerpo body. A corps Pertenece al cuerpo 
diplomático. He belongs to the diplo- 
matic corps. A corpse, body Encontra- 

ron el cuerpo en el río. They found 
the body in the river. 

O tomar cuerpo to take shape El 
proyecto va tomando cuerpo. The proj- 
ect's taking shape. 
cuervo crow. 

cuesta slope, hill A l otro lado de la cuesta 
está el río. The river's on the other 
side of the hill. 

O a cuestas on one's back Llevaba la 
carga a cuestas. He was carrying the 
load on his back. O cuesta abajo 
downhill. O cuesta arriba uphill. 

cuestión [/] question (problem) Esta es 
la cuestión que tenemos que resolver. 
That's the question we have to solve. 
A argument Tuve una cuestión con él. 
I had an argument with him. 

cueva cave; cellar. 

cuidado care El cuidado de la piel es im- 
portante. Care of the skin is important. 
A keeping, care Considera muy impor- 
tante el cuidado de su casa. She con- 
siders the care of her home very im- 

O estar con cuidado to be anxious or 
worried Tardan tanto que estoy con 
cuidado. They're so late that I'm wor- 
ried. O tener cuidado to be careful 
Tenga cuidado al bajar. Be careful 
going down. 

|| ¡Cuidado! Look out! 

cuidadoso careful, painstaking. 

cuidar to take care of, mind Cuida muy 
bien de los niños. She takes very good 
care of the children. 

culebra snake. 

culpa fault, blame Eso no ha ocurrido por 
mi culpa. It isn't my fault that it hap- 
pened. A sin Confesó todas sus culpas. 
He confessed all his sins. 

O echar la culpa a to blame No me 
eches la culpa a mi. Don't blame me. 
O tener la culpa to be to blame Ella 
tiene la culpa de todo. She's to blame 
for everything. 

culpable guilty. ' 

culpar to blame, accuse. 

cultivado (see cultivar) cultured, culti- 
vated Es un hombre muy cultivado. 
He's a very cultured man. 

cultivar to cultivate. 

cultivo cultivation, growing Se dedican al 
cultivo del algodón. They devote them- 
selves to the growing of cotton. A cul- 
tivated fields, crops La inundación ar- 
ruinó los cultivos. The flood ruined 
the crops. 

culto cultured, educated Es un hombre 
muy culto. He's a very cultured man. 
A [ra] worship Acaban de abrir al culto 





esta iglesia. They've just opened this 
church for worship. 

cultura culture (of the mind). 

cumbre [/] top, summit. 

cumpleaños [m sg] birthday ¡Feliz cum- 
pleaños! Happy birthday! 

cumplido polite Es un hombre muy cum- 
plido. He's a very polite man. 

cumplidor reliable Es muy cumplidor en 
su trabajo. He's very reliable in his 

cumplidos formalities ¡Basta de cumpli- 
dos! Enough of formalities! 

cumplimiento performance, fulfillment 
Murió en el cumplimiento de su deber. 
He died in the performance of his duty. 
A compliment Me llenó de cumplimien- 
tos. He paid me many compliments. 

cumplir to carry out, execute ¡Cumpla 
Ud. mis órdenes! Carry out my orders! 
A to keep (a promise) Cumplirá lo que 
nos ha prometido. He'll keep his 
promise to us. 

O cumplir . . . (años) to reach one's 
. . . birthday Mañana cumpliré veinte y 
cinco. I'll be twenty-five tomorrow. 
O cumplirse to mature, fall due Hoy 
se cumple el plazo. The installment 
falls due today. 

cuna cradle. 

cuneta gutter (along highway). 

cuña wedge. 

cuñada sister-in-law. 

cuñado brother-in-law. 

cuota share, quota; dues. 

cúpula dome. 

cura [w] priest, minister Es el cura de 
esta parroquia. He's the priest of this 

parish. A [/] cure, treatment El médi- 
co venía a hacerle la(s) cura(s). The 
doctor came to dress his wound. 
O cura de urgencia first aid. 

curación [/] healing, recovery. 

curar to treat, dress the wounds of Los 
médicos estuvieron curando a los heri- 
dos. The doctors were treating the 
wounded. A to salt, cure, preserve No 
han curado bien estos jamones. They 
haven't cured these hams well. 

O curarse to recover Se ha curado 
muy bien de la pulmonía. He's com- 
pletely recovered from pneumonia. 

curiosidad [/] curiosity; curio. 

curioso curious, inquisitive. A odd, 
strange, quaint, rare Es tin tipo curio- 
so. He's very odd. 

cursi unsuccessfully pretentious. 

curso course (direction) Seguimos el 
curso del río. We followed the course 
of the river. A course (of studies) 
Estudia un curso de historia. He's 
taking a history course. A course (de- 
velopment) La enfermedad sigue su 
curso. The ailment's taking its course. 

curtido (see curtir) experienced, hard- 
ened (by life) Es un hombre curtido 
por la vida. He's a man hardened by 

curtir to tan (hides). 

O curtirse to become tanned or 

curva curve. 

cutis [m] complexion. 

cuyo whose Este es el hombre cuya hija 
conociste ayer. This is the man whose 
daughter you met yesterday. 

dados dice. 

O jugar a los dados to shoot dice. 
dama lady. Primero las damas. Ladies 

danza dance (spectacle) Ha escrito un 

libro sobre la historia de la danza. He's 

written a book on the history of the 

danzar to dance (as a performance). 
dañar to damage. 

O dañarse to damage Al aterrizar se 

le dañó uv ala al avión. The plane 

damaged a wing in landing. 
daño damage El temporal causó gran 

daño. The storm caused a lot of 


O daños damages Tuvo que pagar 

los daños. He had to pay the dam- 

ages. O hacerle daño a uno to be 
harmful to one, not to agree with one 
Me hace daño la comida picante. High- 
ly spiced food doesn't agree with me. 
O hacerse daño to get hurt, hurt oneself 
Me hice daño en el pie. I hurt my foot. 
dar [irr] to give. A to bear Este árbol 
da muy buena fruta. This tree bears 
good fruit. A to show No da señales 
de vida. He doesn't show any sign of 
life. A to show (movies or plays) 
¿Dónde dayi esa película? Where's that 
movie showing? 

° dar a to face, overlook Las ven- 
tanas dan a la calle. The windows 
fa.ce the street. ° dar a conocer to 
make known Dio a conocer su opinión. 
He made his opinion known. O dar a 





entender to pretend El da a entender 
que no le interesa. He pretends that it 
doesn't interest him. A to insinuate, 
drive at ¿Qué quiere dar a entender? 
What are you driving at? O dar (al) 
fiado to sell or give on credit Se lo 
podemos dar fiado. We can let you 
have it on credit. ° dar calabazas See 
calabaza. ° dar con to find, locate 
No puedo dar con él. I can't locate 
him. O dar de baja to dismiss Le han 
dado de baja del equipo. They've 
dropped him from the team. ° dar 
de sí to stretch, give Estos calcetines 
no dan de sí cuando se lavan. These 
socks don't stretch when you wash 'em. 
O dar el golpe to create a sensation, 
make a hit Darás el golpe con ese ves- 
tido. You'll make a hit with that dress. 

dar en to hit ¡Al fin ha dado Ud. en 
el clavo! At last you've hit the nail 
on the head ! A to take to Dio en co- 
leccionar sellos. He took to stamp col- 
lecting. O dar fin a to complete, finish 
Dimos fin a la obra. We finished the 
work. O dar guerra to make trouble 
or a rumpus Dile a los chicos que no 
den guerra. Tell the boys not to make 
a rumpus. O dar la hora to strike El 
reloj de la catedral acaba de dar las 
tres. The cathedral's clock just struck 
three. O dar la razón to agree, be of 
the same opinion Le doy la razón. 

1 agree with you. ° dar las gracias 
to thank No le dieron las gracias. 
They didn't thank him. O darle a uno 
to be stricken with, come down with 
(illness) Me dio el sarampión. I came 
down with measles. ° darle a uno 
gana(s) to want, desire Me dan ganas 
de comprar un automóvil. I want to 
buy an automobile. O dar . . . manos 
de to put on . . . coats (as of paint) 
Dio dos manos de pintura a la pared. 
He put two coats of paint on the wall. 
O dar parte to report ¿Dieron ya parte 
a la policía? Have they reported it to 
the police yet? O dar por cierto or 
seguro to feel sure Doy por segiiro que 
vendrá. I feel sure he'll come. O dar 
por hecho to assume, take for granted 
Lo dimos por hecho. We took it for 
granted. O dar que decir or hablar to 
cause criticism Eso dará mucho que 
decir. That'll cause a lot of criticism. 
O dar que hacer to give or cause trouble 
or work ¡Estos niños me dan tanto qué 
hacer! These children give me so much 
trouble! O dar que pensar to make 
suspicious Su conducta extraña me dio 

que pensar. His queer behavior made 
me suspicious. O dar recuerdos to give 
regards Déle recuerdos de mi parte. 
Give him my regards. O dar saltos to 
jump Al ver a su padre los niños dieron 
saltos de alegría. When they saw their 
father, the children jumped for joy. 
O darse la mano to shake hands ¡Ea, 
dense la mano, muchachos! Come on, 
shake hands, boys ! O darse prisa to 
hurry ¡Dése prisa que perdemos el 
tren! Hurry up or we'll miss the 
train! O (no) darle a uno la gana 
(not) to feel like No me da la gana 
(de) hacerlo. I don't feel like doing it. 
or I refuse to do it. 

datos data. 

de of, -'s Viven en casa de mi madre. 
They live in my mother's house. A of 
Haga el favor de darme un vaso de 
agua. Please give me a glass of water. 
A from Soy de Madrid. I'm from 
Madrid. A about ¿Habla Ud. de mi 
amiga? Are you talking about my 
friend? A in Se lo bebió de un trago. 
He drank it in one gulp. A with ¿Quién 
es esa señora del sombrero rojo? Who's 
the woman with the red hat? A to Es 
la hora de salir. It's time to leave. 

debajo de beneath, under Encontrará Ud. 
la carta debajo de estos papeles. You'll 
find the letter under these papers. 

debate [m] debate. 

deber to owe Nos debe mucho dinero. He 
owes us a lot of money. A to have to, 
must Debemos irnos. We have to go. 
O deber de must be (probability) 
Debe de hacer frío. It must be pretty 

deber [m] duty, obligation Cumple con su 
deber. He does his duty. 

débil weak Después de su enfermedad se 
ha quedado muy débil. Since his ill- 
ness he's been very weak. 

debilidad [/] weakness. 

debilitar to weaken. 

debut [w] debut. 

decadencia decline. 

decaer [irr~\ to fail Su salud decae. His 
health's failing. A to lessen, fall off 
Ha decaído mucho el interés del pú- 
blico. Public interest has fallen off a 

decano dean. 

decente nice, decent A ese lugar no va 
gente decente. No decent people go to 
that place. A honest Creo que son per- 
sonas decentes. I think they're honest 

decepción [/] disappointment. 





decepcionar to disappoint. 

decidido (see decidir) determined Es una 
persona muy decidida. He's a very de- 
termined person. 

decidir to decide Decidieron hacer el 
viaje en seguida. They decided to 
make the trip right away. 

O decidirse a to make up one's mind 
to Se decidió a casarse con ella. He 
made up his mind to marry her. 

décimo tenth. A [m] one-tenth of a lot- 
tery ticket. 

decir [irr\ to tell No dijo la verdad. He 
didn't tell the truth. A to say ¿Qué 
dice hoy el periódico? What does the 
paper say today? 

O como quien no dice nada as if it were 
of no importance Habló de ganar miles 
de dólares como quien no dice nada. He 
spoke of earning thousands of dollars 
as if it were nothing. O decir bien to 
be right Dice Ud. bien. That's right. 
O decir para sí to say to oneself. O de- 
cir por decir to talk for the sake of 
talking, talk to make conversation No 
hace más que decir por decir. He just 
talks for the sake of talking. O e l qué 
dirán gossip, what people will say No 
hay que preocuparse del qué dirán. 
One shouldn't worry about what people 
are going to say. O es decir that is to 
say, that is. O querer decir to mean 
¿Qué quiere decir eso? What does that 
mean? O ser un decir to be a manner 
of speaking Todo esto es un decir. All 
this is a manner of speaking. 

|| \Diga! Hello! (telephone) [Sp, 
Cuba] . 

decisión [/] determination Muestra siem- 
pre mucha decisión en todo lo que 
emprende. He always shows great 
determination in everything he under- 
takes. A decision ¿Han hecho ya pú- 
blica la decisión del tribunal? Have 
they announced the decision of the 
court yet? 

decisivo decisive, final. 

declaración [/] declaration ¿Fué después 
de la declaración de guerra? Was it 
after the declaration of war? A state- 
ment Lea Ud. su declaración antes de 
firmarla. Read your statement before 
you sign it. 

declarar to testify Después declararon los 
testigos. Afterwards the witnesses 

O declararse to declare one's love 
No se me ha declarado todavía. He 
hasn't told me he loves me yet. O de- 
clararse en huelga to declare a strike. 

decoración [/] decoration. A (stage) set- 
ting, props Las decoraciones de la obra 
eran muy acertadas. The settings of 
the play were very appropriate. 

decorar to decorate. 

decoro dignity, decorum. 

decretar to decree. 

decreto decree. 

dedal [?n] thimble. 

dedicar to devote Dedica todo su tiempo 
al trabajo. He devotes all his time to 
his work. A to inscribe, autograph El 
autor me ha dedicado su libro. The 
author has autographed his book for 
me. A to dedicate El libro está dedi- 
cado al Presidente. The book's dedi- 
cated to the President. 

dedillo O saber al dedillo to know per- 

dedo finger; toe. 

O dedo anular ring finger. O dedo 
gordo thumb; big toe. O dedo índice 
index finger. O dedo medio middle 
finger. O dedo meñique little finger, 
pinky. O dedo pulgar thumb. 

deducir [-zc-~\ to deduce, imagine Se pue- 
den deducir las consecuencias. You 
can imagine the consequences. A sub- 
tract, deduct Deduzca Ud. esa cantidad 
del total. Subtract this amount from 
the total. 

defecto defect, imperfection, shortcoming 
No tiene defectos físicos. He has no 
physical defects. 

defectuoso defective, faulty. 

defender [rad-ch I] to defend Defendió 
su opinión con energía. He defended 
his opinion with vigor. A to protect 
La pared nos defendía del viento. The 
wall protected us from the wind. 

defensa defense, protection. 

defensor [m] defender Era uno de los 
defensores de Bataan. He was one of 
the defenders of Bataan. A champion 
Siempre ha sido uno de mis defensores. 
He's always been one of my champions. 
A [adj~\ for the defense Después habló 
el abogado defensor. Then the attor- 
ney for the defense spoke. 

deficiencia deficiency. 

definir to define. 

definitivo final, definite. 

deformar to deform. 

degenerar to degenerate. 

dejado (see dejar) sloppy ¡Anda siempre 
tan dejado! He's always so sloppy! 

dejar to leave Dejó el libro sobre la mesa. 
He left the book on the table. A to let, 
leave Déjale tranquilo. Let him alone. 
A to leave, abandon Dejó a su mujer 





y a sus hijos. He left his wife and 
children. A to intrust, leave, turn over 
Dejó sus negocios a su hijo por un año. 
He turned the business over to his son 
for a year. A to yield, produce, pay 
(income, dividends, profit) Es un nego- 
cio que deja muchas ganancias. It's 
a business that pays big dividends. 
A to give up, leave Ha dejado ese em- 
pleo. He's left that job. A to permit, 
allow, let Déjeme Ud. que se lo ex- 
plique. Let me explain it to you. 

O dejar caer to drop Cuidado, no 
dejes caer la botella. Be careful, don't 
drop the bottle. ° dejar de to stop 
Dejó de comer. He stopped eating. 
O dejar dicho to leave word Dejó dicho 
que vendría a las cuatro. He left word 
that he'd come at four. O dejar en 
paz to leave alone Déjeme en paz por- 
que estoy trabajando. Leave me alone; 
I'm working. O dejar sin efecto to 
cancel. O no dejar de not to fail to 
No dejes de venir a verme. Don't fail 
to come and see me. 

del (de + el; see de) Es el padre del 
abogado. He's the lawyer's father. 
— Acaba de llegar del extranjero. He's 
just arrived from abroad. 

delantal [m] apron. 

delante de before, in front of Mi casa 
está delante de la catedral. My house 
is in front of the cathedral. A before, 
in front of, in the presence of No digas 
esas cosas delante de una señora. 
Don't say such things in front of a 

delantera start, lead El caballo blanco 
ha tornado la delantera. The white 
horse has taken the lead. A front row 
(of seats). A front, facade (of build- 

delantero front Hay que arreglar el de- 
lantero de la chaqueta. You have to 
fix the front of the jacket. A forward 
(basketball, soccer). 

delegación [/] delegation Es un miembro 
de la delegación española. He's a mem- 
ber of the Spanish delegation. 

O delegación de policía police station 
Lo llevaron a la delegación de policía. 
They took him to the police station. 

delegado delegated. A [n] delegate. 

deletrear to spell (out) ¿Quiere Ud. hacer 
el favor de deletrear su apellido? 
Would you spell your name, please? 

delgado thin, slim Se ha quedado muy 
delgado. He's become very thin. A thin, 
light Ese abrigo es muy delgado. That 
coat's too thin. 

deliberar to deliberate El jurado está 
todavía deliberando. The jury's still 

delicadeza delicacy. 

delicado delicate. 

delicia delight. 

delicioso delightful Hemos pasado un rato 
delicioso. We had a delightful time. 
A delicious El postre está delicioso. The 
dessert's delicious. 

delincuente [adj; n] delinquent. 

delirio delirium El delirio le duró toda la 
noche. The delirium lasted all night. 

O con delirio madly La quiere con de- 
lirio. He's madly in love with her. 
O delirio de grandeza delusions of 

delito misdemeanor, crime. 

demanda claim, demand, request Han 
aceptado nuestra demanda. They've 
accepted our demand. A demand, call 
(Com) Ahora hay mucha demanda de 
este artículo. There's a great demand 
for this article now. 

O demanda (judicial) legal proceed- 
ing, court action Entablaré demanda 
contra ellos. I'll take court action 
against them. O oferta y demanda 
supply and demand. 

demás ° lo demás the rest Luego contaré 
la demás. I'll tell you the rest later. 
° los demás, las demás others, the 
others, the rest Esperemos a los demás. 
Let's wait for the others. ° por demás 
too, too much Eso es por demás. That's 
too much. O por lo demás aside from 
this, as to the rest Por lo demás me 
parece bien. Aside from this, it seems 
all right to me. O todo lo demás every- 
thing else. 

demasiado [adj] too much, too many 
Había demasiada gente. There were 
too many people there. A [adv~\ too 
much Cuesta demasiado. It costs too 

demente mad, insane. A [w] insane per- 

democracia democracy. 

demócrata [w, /] democrat. 

democrático democratic. 

demoler [rad-ch /] to demolish. 

demonio devil ¿Para qué demonios lo 
quiere? What the devil does he want 
it for? 

O ¡demonio! damn (it)! ¡Demonio, 
qué frío hace! Damn it, it's cold! 

demora delay. 

demorar to delay Se demoraron en el 
camino. They were delayed on the 





demostración [/] proof Eso no necesita 
demostración. That doesn't need any 
proof. A demonstration Se le recibió 
con grandes demostraciones de alegría. 
He was received with great demonstra- 
tions of joy. 

demostrar [rad-ch /] to prove Demostró 
que tenía razón. He proved he was 
right. A to show Demostró macho 
talento. He showed great talent. 

densidad [/] density. 

dentadura set of teeth. 

dentífrico toothpaste, toothpowder. 

dentista [m, /] dentist. 

dentro inside, into, within he espero den- 
tro. I'll wait for you inside. 

O a dentro See adentro. O dentro de 
inside (of) Está dentro del cajón. It's 
inside the drawer. A in, within Ven- 
drá dentro de dos meses. He'll be here 
in two months. O dentro de poco soon, 
in a little while Nos veremos dentro de 
poco. I'll see you again soon. O p0 r 
dentro inside, on the inside La caja 
está pintada por dentro. The box is 
painted on the inside. 

denunciar to denounce. 

departamento section, department. 
A apartment [/Ira] Viven en una casa 
de departamentos. They live in an 
apartment house. 

depender to depend, be dependent No le 
gusta depender de nadie. He doesn't 
like to be dependent on anyone. 

O depende it depends Depende de lo 
que quiera Ud. hacer. It depends on 
what you want to do. 

dependiente [w, /] clerk, salesman. 

deplorar to deplore, regret, lament. 

deponer [irr] to depose. 

deportar to deport, exile. 

deporte [m] sport ¿Le gustan a Ud. los 
deportes? Do you like sports? 

deportista [m, /] sportsman, sports- 
woman. A [ad;] fond of sports. 

deportivo [adj] sport, athletic. 

depositar to deposit Depositaron su di- 
nero en el banco. They deposited their 
money in the bank. A to put, have 
Deposité en él toda mi confianza. I put 
all my trust in him. 

depósito deposit, bond Para entrar en el 
pais hay que dejar un depósito. You 
must leave a deposit in order to enter 
the country. A warehouse Estos edifi- 
cios son los depósitos de la fábrica. 
These buildings are the warehouses of 
the factory. 

O depósito de agua water tank; res- 
ervoir. O en depósito on deposit. 

depravado depraved, lewd. 

depreciado depreciated Esa mercadería 
está depreciada. That merchandise 
has depreciated. 

depresión [/] depression. 
I deprimir to depress. 

derecha right (hand), right (side) To- 
mamos el camino de la derecha. We- 
took the road to the right. — Conserve 
(or lleve) la derecha. Keep to the 

O a derechas right, well No hace 
nada a derechas. He doesn't do any- 
thing right. O a la derecha to the 
right. O de derecha conservative Per- 
tenece a un partido de derecha. He 
belongs to a conservative party. 

derecho [adj] right (opposed to left) 
Llevaba un anillo en la mano derecha. 
He wore a ring on his right hand. 
A straight Póngase Ud. la corbata de- 
recha. Straighten your tie. A [m] 
right Ud. no tiene derecho a decirme 
eso. You have no right to say that 
to me. A law Es estudiante de derecho. 
He's a law student. 

O del derecho right side out Fíjese 
que esté del derecho. Make sure it's 
right side out. O derechos de aduana 
customs duties No tiene Ud. que pagar 
derechos de aduana. You don't have to 
pay duty. O derechos de autor copy- 
right; royalties. O hecho y derecho 
grown-up, full-fledged Es un hombre 
hecho y derecho. He's a real man now. 
O ponerse derecho to stand up straight. 

derecho [adv] straight, right Siga Ud. 
todo derecho hasta la plaza. Go 
straight ahead to the square. 

derramar to spill Derramó el agua en el 
mantel. He spilled water on the table- 

derretir [rad-ch IIP] to melt El sol está 
derritiendo la nieve. The sun's melt- 
ing the snow. 

O derretirse to melt La mantequilla 
se está derritiendo. The butter's melt- 

derribar to demolish, tear down Han 
derribado muchas casas viejas. Many 
old houses have been torn down. A to 
throw down, knock down De un golpe 
lo derribó al suelo. He knocked him 
down with one blow. A to overthrow 
Derribaron al gobiei~no. They over- 
threw the government. 

derrochar to waste, squander. 

derrota defeat, rout. 

derrotar to defeat, rout. 

derrumbarse to collapse, tumble down El 





puente se derrumbó. The bridge col- 

derrumbe [w] landslide Hay un derrumbe 
en el camino. There's a landslide on 
the road. 

desabrigarse to take off outer clothing, to 
expose oneself (to cold). 

desabrochar to unclasp, unbutton, un- 

desacierto error, mistake, blunder. 

desacreditar to discredit. 

desacuerdo disagreement. 

desafiar to challenge Le desafío a una 
partida de ajedrez. I challenge you to 
a game of chess. A to defy Desafiaba 
el peligro. He defied the danger. 

desafinar to be out of tune. 

desafío duel; challenge; match (sports). 

desagradable disagreeable, unpleasant. 

desagradar to displease Me desagrada 
mucho lo que Ud. ha hecho. I'm very 
much displeased with what you did. 

desagrado displeasure. 

desaguar to drain, draw liquid off. 

desagüe [m] drain (plumbing). 

desahogado comfortable Viven de una 
manera muy desahogada. They live 
very comfortably. A cheeky, nervy 
¡Qué tío más desahogado! What a 
nervy guy. 

desahogo relief, breathing spell, rest No 
he tenido un momento de desahogo 
desde que empecé este trabajo. I haven't 
had a moment's rest since I began this 
work. A cheek, nerve Tiene un desa- 
hogo terrible. He has an awful nerve. 

desairar to scorn, disregard, slight No 
quiero desairarle. I don't mean to 
slight him. 

desalentar [rad-ch J] to discourage No 
le desaliente en su trabajo. Don't 
discourage him about his work. 

desaliento discouragement. 

desalmado inhuman, merciless. 

desalquilado unrented, vacant ¿Tienen al- 
gún apartamento desalquilado? Do 
you have a vacant apartment? 

desalquilarse to become vacant Me han 
dicho que este piso se desalquilará el 
mes próximo. I've been told this apart- 
ment will be vacant next month. 

desamparar to abandon, desert. 

desamueblado unfurnished. 

desandar to retrace (one's steps). 

desangrarse to bleed, lose blood, 

desanimación [/] lack of enthusiasm 
Hubo gran desanimación en el público. 
There was a great lack of enthusiasm 
on the part of the public. 

desanimado poorly attended La fiesta es- 

tuvo muy desanimada. The fiesta was 
very poorly attended. 

desanimar to dishearten, discourage ¿Por 
qué me desanima Ud. a hacer el viaje? 
Why are you discouraging me from 
taking the trip? 

° desanimarse to become discouraged 
Se desanima con la menor dificultad. 
He gets discouraged at the least diffi- 

desaparecer [-zc-] to disappear. 

desaparición [/] disappearance. 

desaprobar to disapprove of Desapruebo 
su actitud. I disapprove of his atti- 

desarmar to disarm Desarmaron a los 
soldados. They disarmed the soldiers. 
A to take apart Desarmé la máquina 
de escribir para limpiarla. I took the 
typewriter apart to clean it. 

desarreglar to disarrange. 

desarrollar to develop Están desarrollan- 
do una nueva industria. They're de- 
veloping a new industry. 

O desarrollarse to develop El niño se 
ha desarrollado muy de prisa. The 
child's developed very quickly. 

desarrollo development. 

desaseado slovenly, not clean. 

desastrado untidy, slovenly. 

desastre [w] disaster, catastrophe. 

desastroso unfortunate, disastrous. 

desatar to untie. 

desatento discourteous. 

desatinado foolish Me dio un consejo 
desatinado. He gave me foolish advice. 
A [n] idiot, fool. 

desatino nonsense. 

desavenencia discord, disagreement. 

desayunarse to breakfast ¿Se ha desa- 
yunado Ud. ya? Have you had your 
breakfast yet? 

desayuno breakfast. 

desbaratar to destroy, ruin Estos niños 
desbaratan todo lo que cogen. These 
children destroy everything they get 
hold of. 

O desbaratarse to fall to pieces Se 
han desbaratado todos nuestros planes. 
All our plans went to pieces. 

desbordarse to overflow. 

descabellado preposterous, absurd ¡Qué 
ideas tan descabelladas tiene Ud.! 
What absurd ideas you have! 

descalabro setback, misfortune. 

descalificar to disqualify. 

descalzarse to take off one's shoes. 

descalzo [adj] barefoot. 

descamisado ragamuffin [Aw]. 

descansar to rest Cuando termine este 





trabajo, descanse Ud. un rato. When 
you finish this work, rest for a while. 

descanso rest, let-up Trabaja sin des- 
canso. He works without let-up. A re- 
lief ;Qué descanso me da haber termi- 
nado eso! What a relief to be finished 
with that! A intermission Iremos a su 
palco en el descanso. We'll come to 
your box during the intermission. 
A landing (of staircase). 

descarado impudent, saucy, fresh. 

descargar to unload Varios hombres des- 
cargaban el camión. Several men were 
unloading the truck. A to free (from 
an obligation or debt) Le han descar- 
gado de esas obligaciones. They've 
freed him from those obligations. A to 
burst, strike (as a storm) La tormenta 
va a descargar de un momento a otro. 
The storm's going to strike any minute. 

descargo unloading, unburdening. 

descartar to discard, eliminate Hay que 
descartar esa posibilidad. You have 
to eliminate that possibility. 

O descartarse (de) to discard (at 
cards) Me he descartado de un rey. I 
discarded a king. 

destendencia descendants Su descenden- 
cia llegó a ser ilustre. His descendants 
came to be well known. 

descender [rad-ch /] to go down, descend 
Esa carretera desciende hasta el mar. 
That road goes down to the sea. A to 
be descended Creo que descienden de 
una familia francesa. I think they're 
descended from a French family. A to 
descend, come down El avión descendió 
rápidemente. The airplane came down 
rapidly. A to drop, decrease ha tempe- 
ratura está descendiendo. The tem- 
perature's dropping. 

descendiente [m, /] descendant. 

descenso descent, going down El descenso 
era muy peligroso. The descent was 
very dangerous. A fall, decrease Du- 
rante varios años hubo un descenso en 
la natalidad. There was a fall in the 
birth rate for several years. 

descifrar to decipher, make out. 

descolgar to take down Ayúdeme a des- 
colgar este cuadro. Help me take down 
this picture. 

descolorido faded La tela está muy des- 
colorida. The cloth's very faded. A pale 
Después de la enfermedad se quedó 
muy descolorido. He was very pale 
after his illness. 

descomedido impolite, rude Es un mucha- 
cho muy descomedido. He's very im- 

descomponer [irr] to upset Eso descom- 

puso todos nuestros planes. That up- 
set all our plans. A to put out of 
order Los niños descompusieron el 
radio. The children put the radio out 
of order. 

O descomponerse to dislocate Se ha 
descompuesto un brazo. He's dislocated 
his arm. A to get out of order El telé- 
fono se descompuso. The telephone got 
out of order. A to spoil, rot Por el 
calor se ha descompuesto la comida. 
The food's spoiled because of the heat. 
A to get very angry, lose one's temper 
Al oír aquello, se descompuso. When 
he heard that he got very angry. A to 
lose one's looks [.1/ex] Con la enferme- 
dad se ha descompuesto mucho. On 
account of her illness she's lost a lot of 
her good looks. 

descompuesto (see descomponer) out of 
order; spoiled. 

desconcertar [rad-ch /] to disturb, con- 
fuse La pregunta le desconcertó 
mucho. The question confused him. 

desconfianza distrust. 

desconfiar de to distrust, suspect No 
tiene Ud. razón para desconfiar de él. 
You have no reason to distrust him. 
A to have little hope of El médico des- 
confiaba de poder salvarlo. The doctor 
had little hope of saving him. 

desconocer [-~c-] to disregard, ignore 
Desconoce las reglas de la etiqueta. 
He ignores the rules of etiquette. 

desconocido (see desconocer) unknown, 
strange Es difícil orientarse en una 
ciudad desconocida. It's difficult to 
find one's way around in a strange 
city. A [n~\ stranger Se le acercó un 
desconocido. A stranger approached 

desconsideración [/] inconsiderateness 
;Eso es mucha desconsideración! 
That's very inconsiderate. 

desconsolado disconsolate. 

descontado See descontar. O dar por 
descontado to take for granted. 

descontar [rad-ch /] to deduct Descuente 
Ud. de esa cantidad los gastos de viaje. 
Deduct the traveling expenses from 
that amount. 

descontento dissatisfied, displeased Esta- 
ban muy descontentos de su trabajo. 
They were dissatisfied with his work. 
A [w] dissatisfaction. 

descortés discourteous, rude. 

describir to describe. 

descripción [/] description. 

descrito See describir. 

descubierto See descubrir. 

descubrimiento discoverv. 





descubrir [irr~\ to discover Descubrimos 
que todo era mentira. We discovered 
that it was all a lie. A to disclose, 
show, make clear Descubrió sus inten- 
ciones. He disclosed his intentions. 
O descubrirse to take off one's hat. 

descuento discount; deduction. 

descuidado (see descuidar) sloppy, sloven- 
ly, unclean. A unaware, off guard. 
A careless, negligent No seas tan des- 
cuidado en tu trabajo. Don't be care- 
less in your work. 

descuidar to neglect Descuidó mucho su 
trabajo. He neglected his work. 

|| Descuida, yo me encargo de eso. 
Don't worry, I'll take care of that. 

descuido carelessness, negligence. 

O al descuido carelessly Hace todo al 
descuido. He does everything care- 
lessly. O en un descuido when least 
expected [Mea?] En un descuido llega. 
He turns up when least expected. 

desde from Le vi desde lejos. I saw him 
from a distance. A since Vivo en esta 
casa desde el mes pasado. I've been 
living in this house since last month. 
O desde ahora from now on. O desde 
entonces since then Desde entonces he 
cambiado mucho. I've changed a lot 
since then. O desde hace for Le conoz- 
co desde hace muchos años. I've known 
him for many years. O desde luego of 
course ¡Desde luego Uds. vendrán con 
nosotros! Of course you're coming 
with us! O desde que (ever) since 
Desde que la conocí la quiero. I've 
loved her ever since I met her. O desde 
un principio from the beginning Desde 
zin principio me pareció que estaba 
equivocado. It seemed to me from the 
beginning that he was mistaken. 

desdén [m] scorn. 

desdicha misfortune. 

desdichado unhappy, unfortunate Fué un 
accidente desdichado. It was an unfor- 
tunate accident. 

desdoblar to unfold. 

desear to desire, want, like Deseo verle 
cuanto antes. I want to see you as soon 
as possible. 

desechar to reject Desecharon su pro- 
puesta. They rejected his proposal. 
A to put aside Deseche Ud. esos temores. 
Put aside those fears. 

desembarcar to unload, put ashore Esta- 
ban desembarcando las mercancías. 
They were unloading the goods. A to 
land, disembark Cuando desembarca- 
mos vimos a nuestro amigo en el 
muelle. When we landed we saw our 
friend on the pier. 

desembarco, landing, disembarkation. 

desembocar to flow, or empty, into Ese 
río desemboca en el Pacífico. That river 
flows into the Pacific. A . to end, lead 
No sé donde desemboca esa calle. I 
don't know where that street leads. 

desembolsar to pay out. 

desempacar to unpack [Am'] Tengo que 
desempacar el equipaje. I have to 
unpack my luggage. 

desempeñar to carry out Desempeñó muy 
bien su misión. He carried out his 
mission very well. 

desenfrenado wild Lleva una vida desen- 
frenada. He leads a wild life. 

desengañar to set right, undeceive. 

O desengañarse to be disillusioned, 
not to fool oneself Desengáñate, no te 
quiere. Don't fool yourself, he doesn't 
love you. O estar desengañado to be 
disappointed or disillusioned Están 
muy desengañados después de lo ocu- 
rrido. They were disillusioned after 
what happened. 

desengaño disappointment, disillusion. 

desentendido O hacerse el desentendido 
to pretend not to know. 

desenterrar [rad-ch /] to dig up. 

desenvolver [rad-ch /] to unwrap Voy a 
desenvolver el paquete. I'm going to 
unwrap the package. 

desenvuelto (see desenvolver) forward; 
free and easy. 

deseo desire, wish No puede refrenar sus 
deseos. He can't control his desires. 

O tener deseo de to be eager to Tengo 
muchos deseos de verle. I'm very eager 
to see him. 

deseoso desirous, eager. 

desertor [m] deserter. 

desesperación [/] desperation. 

desesperanza despair. 

desesperar to despair, lose hope El médi- 
co desespera de salvarle. The doctor's 
losing hope of saving him. A to drive 
crazy Me desesperó con su insistencia. 
He drove me crazy with his insistence. 

desespero despair. 

desfallecer [-zc-] to be on the verge of 
collapse, grow weak, break down. 

desfavorable unfavorable. 

desfigurar to disfigure, deform. 

desfilar to parade. 

desfile [m] parade. 

desganado having no appetite. 

desgarrar to tear, rip. 

desgracia misfortune Tuvo la desgracia 
de perder todo su dinero. He had the 
misfortune to lose all his money. A sor- 
row, grief Trataban de consolarla en 





su desgracia. They tried to console 
her in her grief. 

O por desgracia unfortunately Por 
desgracia no lo supimos a tiempo. Un- 
fortunately we didn't find it out in 

desgraciadamente unfortunately. 

desgraciado [should not be used in Ecua- 
dor] unfortunate Han sido muy des- 
graciados durante los últimos años. 
They've been very unfortunate during 
the past few years. A [n] wretch No 
es más que un desgraciado. He's noth- 
ing but a miserable wretch. 

deshacer [irr] to undo Tenemos que des- 
hacer lo hecho. We have to undo what 
was done. A to untie, unwrap No 
puedo deshacer este nudo. I can't un- 
tie this knot. A to dissolve Deshaga la 
pastilla en un vaso de agua. Dissolve 
the tablet in a glass of water. A to 
spoil, upset Su llegada deshizo nuestros 
planes. His arrival spoiled our plans. 
O deshacerse to wear oneself out Se 
deshace con tanto trabajo. He's wear- 
ing himself out with so much work. 
O deshacerse de to dispose of, get rid 
of Me deshice de mis alhajas. I got rid 
of my jewels. O deshacerse en to out- 
do oneself in Se deshizo en amabilida- 
des con las señoras. He outdid himself 
in courteous attentions to the ladies. 
O deshacerse en lágrimas to burst into 

deshecho (see deshacer) undone, not 
made. A worn out, exhausted Estoy 
deshecho. I'm exhausted. 

deshonesto dishonest, dishonorable; lewd. 

deshonra dishonor, disgrace. 

deshonrar to disgrace. 

desierto deserted; uninhabited La esta- 
ción estaba desierta. The station was 
deserted. A [m] desert La última parte 
del viaje fué a través del desierto. The 
last part of the trip was across the 

designar to name, appoint (a person). 

desigual unequal La lucha era muy desi- 
gual. It was an unequal struggle. 
A uneven El terreno era muy desigual. 
The ground was very uneven. 

desigualdad [/] difference, inequality. 

desilusión [/] disillusionment. 

desinfectante [adj ; m~\ disinfectant. 

desinfectar to disinfect. 

desinteresado impartial; disinterested. 

desistir de to give up, call off Desistió de 
hacer el viaje. He called off the trip. 

desleal disloyal. 

deslizarse to slip, slide, glide Los patina- 
dores se deslizaban rápidamente por 

la pista. The skaters glided rapidly 
around the rink. 

deslucido worn, faded Este traje está 
muy deslucido. This dress is too worn. 
A unsuccessful La fiesta fué muy des- 
lucida. The party was a failure. 

deslumhrar to dazzle. 

desmayar to be dismayed or depressed or 
discouraged No desmayó en su intento. 
He wasn't discouraged in his plan. 

O desmayarse to faint A I saber la 
noticia se desmayó. When she learned 
the news she fainted. 

desmejorado O estar desmejorado to look 

desmentir [rad-ch II] to disprove Pude 
desmentirle en todo lo que decía. I 
was able to disprove every statement 
he made. 

O desmentirse to take back, retract 
Después de haberlo dicho trató de des- 
mentirse. After he had said it, he tried 
to take it back. 

desnudar to undress Está desnudando a 
los niños. She's undressing the chil- 

O desnudarse to take off one's clothes, 
get undressed Se desnudó y se tiró al 
agua. He took off his clothes and dove 
into the water. 

desnudo naked, nude, bare. 

desobedecer [-zc-~\ to disobey No desobe- 
dezca Ud. mis órdenes. Don't disobey 
my orders. 

desocupado unoccupied, vacant ¿Hay al- 
gún piso desocupado? Do you have an 
apartment vacant? A not busy, not oc- 
cupied Hablaré con Ud. cuando esté 
desocupado. I'll talk with you when 
you're not busy. A [w] idler Toda su 
vida no ha sido más que un desocupado. 
He's been an idler all his life. 

desocupar to vacate Tenemos que desocu- 
par la casa antes del mes próximo. We 
must vacate the house before next 
month. A to empty Voy a desocupar 
este armario para que Ud. lo use. I'm 
going to empty this cabinet so that 
you can use it. 

desolación [/] desolation. 

desolado desolate, disconsolate; disap- 

desollar to skin Después de matar el car- 
nero tendrá Ud. que desollarlo. After 
you kill the sheep you'll have to skin it. 
|| Queda el rabo por desollar. The 
most difficult part's still to be done. 

desorden [ni] disorder, confusion, mess 
El cuarto estaba en el más completo 
desorden. The room was a complete 





O desórdenes riots, disturbance En 
los últimos desórdenes hubo varios 
heridos. There were several people 
hurt in the recent riots. 

desordenado disorderly. 

desordenar to upset. 

desorganizar to disorganize. 

desorientar to confuse Me desorienta su 
manera de presentar el asunto. His 
way of presenting the matter confuses 

O desorientarse to lose one's bear- 
ings, get lost Me desorienté al salir del 
metro. I lost my bearings when I 
came out of the subway. 

despachar to ship, send out Despacharon 
un vagón de géneros. They shipped a 
carload of goods. A to attend to, take 
care of No he despachado todavía la 
correspondencia de hoy. I haven't 
taken care of today's mail yet. A to 
wait on, take care of Señorita, ¿quiere 
Ud. despacharme, por favor? Will you 
please wait on me, miss? A to fire, dis- 
miss he despacharon por inútil. They 
fired him because he was useless. 

despacho dispatch. A office ¿Quiere Ud. 
pasar a su despacho? Will you go into 
his office? 

° despacho de billetes ticket office, 
ticket window Tuvo que hacer cola en 
el despacho de billetes. He had to stand 
in line at the ticket office. O despacho 
de mercancía shipment of goods Se ha 
retrasado mucho el despacho de esa 
mercancía. That shipment's been very 
much delayed. 

despacio slowly ¿Quiere Ud. hablar más 
despacio? Would you speak more 

despedazar to tear up, mangle. 

despedida farewell, send-off Les dieron 
una comida de despedida. They gave 
them a farewell dinner. 

despedir [rad-ch III] to dismiss, dis- 
charge Tuvieron que despedir a la 
mitad del personal. They had to dis- 
miss half their personnel. A to see 
(someone) off Iremos a despedirle a la 
estación. We'll go to the station to see 
him off. 

despedirse a la francesa to take 
French leave, sneak away. O despe- 
dirse (de) to take leave (of), say good- 
by (to) Tengo que despedirme de unos 
amigos. I have to say good-by to some 
friends. O ser despedido, salir despe- 
dido to be thrown out A corisecuencia 
del choque uno de los pasajeros salió 
despedido. As a result of the collision 
one of the passengers was thrown out. 

despegar to unglue, take off Voy a despe- 
gar este sello con agua caliente. I'm 
going to take off this stamp with hot 
water. A to rise, take off El avión to- 
davía no ha despegado. The plane 
still hasn't taken off. 

O despegarse to come off El sello se 
despegó. The stamp came off. O no 
despegar los labios to keep silent, 
keep one's mouth shut. 

despejado (see despejar) smart, bright 
¡Qué muchacho tan despejado! What 
a bright boy! 

despejar to clear La policía ha despejado 
la plaza. The police have cleared the 

O despejarse to clear up (of the 
weather or sky) Me parece que el 
tiempo se está despejando. I think it's 
clearing up. 

despensa pantry. 

desperdiciar to waste No se debe desper- 
diciar la comida. Food shouldn't be 

desperdicio [m] waste Esta carne no 
tiene desperdicio. This meat has no 

O desperdicios refuse, garbage. 

desperezarse to stretch (oneself). 

despertador [m] alarm clock Ponga el 
despertador a las siete. Set the alarm 
clock for seven o'clock. 

despertar [rad-ch I] to wake up Des- 
piérteme a las ocho. Wake me up at 
eight o'clock. A to arouse, sharpen, ex- 
cite Todo lo que ve despierta su curiosi- 
dad. Everything he sees arouses his 

° despertarse to wake up Me des- 
perté al amanecer. I woke up at sun- 

despierto (see despertar) awake. A smart, 
wide-awake Es tin chico muy despierto. 
He's a very wide-awake boy. 

despintar to remove paint; to remove 

desplegar [rad-ch 7] to unfold Estaban t 
desplegando el mapa sobre la mesa. 
They were unfolding the map on the 
table. A to deploy (Mil). 

O desplegar los labios to open one's 
mouth Estuvo allí sin desplegar los 
labios. He sat there without opening 
his mouth. 

desplomarse to fall, collapse. 

despoblado uninhabited place, wilderness. 

despojar to strip (of property), despoil 
Le han despojado hasta del último cen- 
tavo. They stripped him of his last 

O despojarse de to take off (clothing^ 





Al entrar se despojó del abrigo. On 
entering he took off his coat. 

despojo spoils. 

O despojos remains. 

déspota [?n] tyrant, despot. 

despotismo tyranny, despotism. 

despreciable despicable, low-down. 

despreciar to look down on, despise No 
tiene Ud. ninguna razón para despre- 
ciarle. You have no reason to look 
down on him. A to scorn, reject Des- 
preció todos mis consejos. He scorned 
all my advice. 

desprecio contempt. 

desprender to unfasten Desprenda Ud. el 
broche. Unfasten the pin. 

O desprenderse to loosen, fall off Se 
ha desprendido un botón del saco. A 
button's fallen off the jacket. O des- 
prenderse de to give away Se ha des- 
prendido de toda su fortuna. He gave 
away his whole fortune. 

desprendido (see desprender) generous 
Siempre ha sido muy desprendido. He's 
always been very generous. 

desprestigiado having lost one's prestige 
or reputation Es un hombre completa- 
mente desprestigiado. He's a man 
who's completely lost his reputation. 

desprestigiar to slander. 

despropósito nonsense. 

después later Tendremos una reunión y 
después podemos dar un paseo. We'll 
have a meeting and later we can take 
a walk. A then Después fuimos al tea- 
tro. Then we went to the theater. 
A afterwards Se lo contaré después. 
I'll tell you afterwards. 

O después de after Iremos después 
de comer. We'll go after we eat. 
° después de todo after all Después de 
todo es lo razonable. After all, it's 

despuntar to be outstanding Ese alumno 
despunta mucho. That student's very 

desquitarse to get even Vamos a jugar 
otra partida, a ver si me desquito. 
Let's play another game to see if I can 
get even. 

desquite [m] revenge, getting even En- 
tonces se le presentó la ocasión de su 
desquite. Then he had a chance for 

destacar to stand out Destacaban por su 
estatura. They stood out because of 
their height. 

O destacarse to be noted, be famous, 
distinguish oneself Se destacaron por 
su valor. They distinguished them- 
selves by their courage, 

destapar to take the lid or cover off 
¿Puede Ud. destapar esta caja? Can 
you take the lid off this box? A to open 
Destape Ud. otra botella de Coca-Cola. 
Open another bottle of Coca-Cola. 

desternillarse to split (one's sides with 

desterrar [rad-ch T] to banish, exile Lo 
van a desterrar. They're going to exile 

destilar to distill. 

destinado (see destinar) addressed La 
carta venía destinada a mí. The letter 
was addressed to me. 

O estar destinado a to be bound to, 
be destined to Ese proyecto está desti- 
nado a fracasar. That plan's bound to 

destinar to appoint, assign Le destinaron 
a otra sucursal del banco. They ap- 
pointed him to another branch of the 

destinatario, destinataria addressee. 

destino job Tiene un destino en el minis- 
terio de Hacienda. He has a job in the 
Treasury Department. A destiny, fate 
Su destino fué trágico. He had a tragic 
fate. A destination Esta carta no lle- 
gará a su destino. This letter won't 
reach its destination. 

O con destino a bound for, going to 
Salió con destino a Buenos Aires, He 
was bound for Buenos Aires. 

destituir to dismiss (from office). 

destornillador [w] screw driver. 

destornillar to unscrew. 

destreza skill. 

destrozar to destroy, tear down. 

destrucción [/] destruction. 

destruir to destroy. 

desunir to separate, take apart Tendre- 
mos que desunir los alambres. We'll 
have to separate the wires. A to es- 
trange La política desunió a las dos 
familias. Politics estranged the two 

desvalido destitute. 

desván [w] attic. 

desvanecerse to vanish, disappear Con el 
viento, el humo se desvaneció. The 
smoke vanished with the wind. A to 
faint Al oír la mala noticia se desvane- 
ció. When she heard the bad news she 

desvelar to keep awake El café me des- 
vela mucho. Coffee keeps me awake. 

O desvelarse to outdo oneself Se des- 
velaban por sernos agradables. They 
outdid themselves in being kind to us. 

desventaja disadvantage; handicap. 

desventura misfortune, mishap. 





desvergüenza impudence; shamelessness. 
desviación [/] detour Había una desvia- 
ción en el camino. There was a detour 
on the road. 
desviar to change the course of Desviaron 
la carretera para hacerla más corta. 
They changed the course of the road 
to make it shorter. 

O desviar la mirada to avoid some- 
one's eyes, look away. O desviarse to 
deviate, get away (from) No se desvíe 
Ud. del tema. Don't get away from 
the subject. A to drift El avión se ha 
desviado de su ruta. The plane drifted 
from its course. 
desvío indifference Su desvío me molesta. 

Her indifference annoys me. 
detallar to tell in detail, to detail. 
detalle [m] detail Cuénteme Ud. todos 
los detalles. Tell me all the details. 

O con detalle in detail Expliquenme 
Uds. con detalle como ha ocurrido eso. 
Explain to me in detail how it hap- 
detener [irr~\ to stop, detain Por favor, 
deténgale un momento. Please detain 
him for a minute. A to arrest La po- 
licía detenuvo a los cómplices del ase- 
sino. The police have, arrested the 
accomplices of the murderer. 

O detenerse to stop, halt El automó- 
vil se detuvo. The automobile stopped. 
A to stop, restrain oneself Detente un 
momento a pensarlo. Stop and think 
it over for a minute. 
detenido (see detener) [adj; ri\ (person) 
under arrest Los detenidos esperaban 
a que se les interrogara. Those under 
arrest were waiting to be questioned. 
determinación [/] determination; deci- 
sion Tenemos que tomar una determi- 
nación. We have to make a decision. 
determinado determined [i4m] Triunfó 
porque era muy determinado. He suc- 
ceeded because he was very determined. 
determinar to fix, determine Determina- 
ron las condiciones del negocio. They 
fixed the terms of the deal. A to de- 
cide ¿Determinó Ud. lo que quiere 
hacer? Did you decide what you want 
to do? 

O determinarse to make up one's 
mind ¿Se determinó a hacer el viaje? 
Did he make up his mind to make the 
detestable hateful, detestable, awful. 
detrás behind Vienen detrás. They're 
coming along behind. 

O detrás de behind, in back of De- 
trás de los árboles hay una casa. 
There's a house behind the trees. O por 

detrás from behind El enemigo atacó 
por detrás. The enemy attacked from 
behind. A behind one's back Por de- 
trás hablaba mal de él. He talked about 
him behind his back. 
deuda debt Pagó todas sus deudas. He 
paid all his debts. 

° estar en deuda to be indebted 
Estoy en deuda con Ud. I'm indebted 
to you. 
deudo, deuda relative, kin. 
deudor, deudora debtor. 
devanar to wind Estaba devanando un 
ovillo de lana. She was winding up a 
spool of wool. 

° devanarse to double up (with pain) 
[Am]. O devanarse los sesos to racíc 
one's brains Me estoy devanando los 
sesos para encontrar una solución. 
I'm racking my brains to find a solu- 
devastar to lay waste. 
devoción [/] piety, devoutness; devotion. 
devolver [rad-ch I] to return, give back 
¿No ha devuelto Ud. todavía esos libros? 
Haven't you returned those books yet? 
A to pay back ¿Te ha devuelto el dinero 
que le prestaste? Has he paid back the 
money you lent him? A to restore 
Aquella noticia le devolvió la tranquili- 
dad. That news restored her peace of 
devorar to devour. 
devoto devout, pious. 
devuelto See devolver, 
día [m] day ¿A qué día estamos hoy? 
What day's today? 

O al día a day, per day Producen cien 
automóviles al día. They produce a 
hundred automobiles a day. A up to 
date Ponga Ud. Esa correspondencia 
al día. Bring that correspondence up 
to date. O al día siguiente the follow- 
ing day. O buenos días good morning 
Buenos días. ¿Cómo está Ud.? Good 
morning. How are you? O darle a 
uno los días to congratulate one on his 
saint's day or birthday Fui a dar los 
días a mi hermano. I went to con- 
gratulate my brother on his birthday. 
O de día before dark ¿Cree Ud. que 
volveremos de día? Do you think 
we'll return before dark? A by day, 
when it's light Llegó a casa cuando ya 
era de día. It was daylight when he 
got home. O de día en día from day 
to day, as time goes by De día en día 
la situación va empeorando. The situ- 
ation's getting worse from day to day. 
O de hoy en . . . días . . . days from today 





Iremos de hoy en ocho días. We'll go a 
week from today. ° de un día para 
otro from day to day Está dejando 
esa visita de un día para otro. He 
keeps putting off that visit from day 
to day. O día de Año Nuevo New 
Year's Day. O día de fiesta holiday 
¿Es mañana un día de fiesta? Is to- 
morrow a holiday? Odia del santo 
saint's day. O el día menos pensado 
when one least expects. O el mejor 
día some fine day El mejor día se pre- 
senta aquí. Some fine day he'll show 
up here. O hoy (en) día today, these 
days Hoy día es muy difícil encontrar 
eso. It's very hard to find that today. 

ocho días a week Voy al cine cada 
ocho días. I go to the movies every 
week. O quince días two weeks Estaré 
en el campo quince días. I'll be in the 
country two weeks. ° todos los días 
daily, every day Le veo todos los días. 

1 see him every day. O un día sí y 
otro no, día de por medio every other 
day Tengo clase un día si y otro no. 
I have a class every other day. 

diablo devil ¡Qué diablo estás haciendo! 
What the devil are you doing? 

O irse al diablo to go to the devil. 

diáfano transparent. 

dialecto dialect. 

diálogo dialogue. 

diamante [?n] diamond. 

¡diantre! the deuce! the devil! 

diario [adj] daily Salió a dar su paseo 
diario. He went out for his daily walk. 
A [in] journal, diary Escribía por las 
noches su diario. He used to write his 
diary in the evening. A paper, journal 
¿Qué trae el diario? What's new in the 
paper today? 

O a diario daily, every day Nos ve- 
mos a diario. We see each other every 

dibujar to draw, sketch. 

dibujo drawing. 

diccionario dictionary. 

dicha happiness. 

dicho See decir. A [m] saying, saw Ese 
es un dicho muy antiguo. That's a 
very old saying. A witty remark 
Tiene unos dichos muy graciosos. 
He makes some very witty remarks. 

|| Dicho y hecho. No sooner said 
than done. 

dichoso happy, fortunate, lucky. 

diciembre [m] December. 

dictador [m] dictator. 

dictadura dictatorship. 

dictar to dictate Le voy a dictar unas 
cartas. I'm going to dictate some let- 

ters to him. — Hizo lo que le dictó su 
consciencia. He did what his con- 
science dictated. A to give, issue (by 
decree) Acerca de esto no se han dic- 
tado órdenes. They haven't given any 
orders about this. 

diente [?»] tooth Tengo un diente picado. 
I have a cavity in my tooth. A tine El 
tenedor tiene torcidos los dientes. The 
tines of the fork are bent. A cog Se 
cogió el brazo entre los dientes de la 
rueda. His arm was caught between 
the cogs of the wheel. 

O decir (or hablar) entre dientes to 
mumble, mutter. O tener buen diente 
to be a hearty eater Este chico tiene 
muy buen diente. This boy's a hearty 

diestro able, skillful. A [m] bull fighter. 

dieta diet. 

diez ten. 

diferencia difference. 

diferenciar to distinguish between. 

diferente different. 

diferido (see diferir) deferred Pusieron 
un cable diferido. They sent a de- 
ferred cablegram. 

diferir [rad-ch 77] to postpone, put off 
No difiera Ud. esos asuntos. Don't put 
off those matters. A to differ Difiero 
de Ud. en ese punto. I differ with you 
on that point. 

difícil difficult, hard. 

dificultad [/] difficulty. 

dificultar to make difficult. 

difundir to spread, tell ¿Quién habrá di- 
fundido esa noticia? Who could have 
spread that news? A to broadcast Esa 
emisión será difundida a toda América. 
That program'll be broadcast through- 
out America. 

difunto [adj] dead, deceased A [n] de- 
ceased person, corpse. 

difusora (radio) broadcasting station. 

digerir [rad-ch 77] to digest Es una co- 
mida que se digiere muy mal. That 
food's hard to digest. 

digestión [/] digestion. 

dignidad [/] dignity; high rank (office). 

digno dignified ¡Que hombre tan digno! 
What a dignified man ! A worthy No es 
digno del puesto que tiene. He's not 
worthy of his position. A worthwhile. 
O digno de confianza reliable Es una 
persona digna de confianza. He's a re- 
liable person. 

dije [m] trinket, charm, pendant. 

dilatación [/] expansion, enlargement. 

dilatar to expand, dilate Tiene las pupi- 
las dilatadas. The pupils of his eyes 
are dilated. A to delay [Am] No dila- 





ten Uds. más la resolución del negocio. 
Don't delay finishing the business. 

diligencia diligence Trabaja con mucha 
diligencia. He works diligently. A speed 
Hay que resolverlo con toda la dili- 
gencia posible. You must solve it with 
all possible speed. 

O hacer una diligencia to attend to 
some business, do an errand. 

diligente industrious. 

diluvio flood, deluge. 

dimensión [/] dimension. 

diminuto diminutive, tiny. 

dineral [m] large sum of money. 

dinero money En ese cajón he dejado el 
dinero. I've left the money in that 
drawer. — No venturen Uds. su dinero 
en eso. Don't risk your money in that. 
O dinero suelto small change. O per- 
sona (or gente) de dinero wealthy 
person (or people). 

Dios, dios [m sg~\ God, god. 

° a Dios gracias, gracias a Dios 
thank God A Dios gracias, tenemos lo 
que necesitamos. Thank God, we have 
what we need. O ¡Dios mío! My God! 
Goodness! O ¡por Dios! for goodness' 
sake ¡Por Dios! No diga Ud. eso. For 
goodness' sake, don't say that! 

|| Que Dios se lo pague. May God 
reward you. 

diplomacia diplomacy. 

diplomático diplomatic Su respuesta no 
fué diplomática. His answer wasn't 
diplomatic. A [w] diplomat Era un 
buen diplomático. He was a good dip- 

diputado a cortes congressman. 

dirección [/] direction ¿En qué dirección 
va Ud.? Which way are you going? 
A address (mail, etc) Escriba Ud. la 
dirección con claridad. Write the ad- 
dress clearly. A board of directors. 
A management. 

O de dirección única one-way Esta 
calle es de dirección única. This is a 
one-way street. 

directo [adj] direct. 

director \m\ director, manager Hable 
Ud. con el director de la empresa. 
Speak to the manager of the firm. 
O director de escena stage manager. 

director (de escuela) principal (of a 
school). O director de orquesta orches- 
tra conductor. O director (de un pe- 
riódico) editor (of a newspaper). 

dirigible [ml dirigible. 
dirigir to direct. A to address ¿A quién 
tengo que dirigir la carta? Who should 

1 address the letter to? A to manage 

Dirigió la campaña política. He man- 
aged the political campaign. A to lead 
Diríjanos Ud. que sabe el camino. Lead 
us, since you know the road. A to steer 
Dirigieron el barco hacia el muelle. 
They steered the boat toward the 

O dirigir la palabra to speak, address 
No me dirigió la palabra en varios días. 
He didn't speak to me for several days. 

dirigirse (a, hacia) to go, make 
one's way (to or toward) Se dirigieron 
hacia la puerta. They went toward 
the door. 

disciplina discipline. 

discípulo, discípula student, pupil. 

disco disk. A phonograph record Ponga 
Ud. un disco de música de baile. Put 
on a dance record. 

discordia discord. 

discreción [/] discretion. 

discrepar to differ, disagree Discrepo de 
su opinión. I differ from your opinion. 

discreto fair (fairly good) Es un actor 
discreto. He's a fair actor. A discreet 
Lo que dijo no era discreto. What he 
said wasn't discfeet. 

disculpa apology Sus disculpas no me in- 
teresan. I'm not interested in his 
apologies. A excuse Lo que ha hecho 
no tiene disculpa. There's no excuse 
for what he did. 

disculpar to pardon, excuse Tenemos que 
disculpar sus faltas. We must excuse 
his mistakes. 

O disculparse to apologize Tengo que 
disculparme por lo tai-de que he venido. 

1 must apologize for coming late. 
discurrir to think Es un hombre que dis- 
curre muy bien en una emergencia. 
He's a man who thinks well in an emer- 

discurso speech. 

discusión [/] discussion. 

discutir to discuss (involving difference 
of opinion between two or more per- 
sons) Estuvieron varias horas discu- 
tiendo el asunto. They discussed the 
matter for several hours. A to argue 
Discute todo lo que se le manda. He 
argues about everything he's told to do. 

disfraz [m] disguise. 

disfrazar(se) to disguise (oneself). 

disfrutar O disfrutar de to enjoy (good 
health) Disfruta de muy buena salud. 
He enjoys good health. O disfrutar en 
or de to enjoy Disfrutamos mucho en 
la excursión. We enjoyed the excur- 
sion very much. 

disgustar to displease, grieve Aquella 





disgustó a todos. That displeased 

O disgustarse to be displeased or 
hurt Se disgustó por lo que le dije. 
She was hurt by what I said to her. 

disgusto quarrel He tenido un disgusto 
con unos amigos. I had a quarrel with 
some friends. A grief , sorrow Cuando 
se enteró de la muerte de su amigo se 
llevó un disgusto terrible. When he 
found out about the death of his 
friend, he was very much grieved. 

O dar disgustos to distress, grieve 
Ese muchacho le dio muchos disgustos 
a sus padres. That boy distressed his 
parents very much. O estar a dis- 
gusto to be uncomfortable, be ill at 
ease Estaba muy a disgusto con aquella 
gente. I was very ill at ease with those 

disimular to conceal, dissimulate Siempre 
disimula sus intenciones. He always 
conceals his intentions. A to tolerate, 
overlook Como la quiere tanto disimula 
todas sus faltas. Since he likes her 
so much, he overlooks her faults. 

disimulo dissimulation. 

disipar to squander Disiparon su fortuna 
en un par de años. They squandered 
their fortune in a couple of years. A to 
dispel, drive away Quiero disipar sus 
dudas. I want to dispel his doubts. 

disminución [/] decrease, diminution. 

disminuir to decline, lessen En unas 
horas disminuirá el dolor. The pain'll 
be lessened in a few hours. A to de- 
crease En estos días han disminuido 
las ventas. Sales have decreased these 
days. A to die down, diminish Si dis- 
minuye el viento, iremos. If the wind 
dies down, we'll go. 

disolución [/] dissolution. 

disolver [irr] to dissolve Disuelva Ud. la 
pastilla en un vaso de agua. Dissolve 
the tablet in a glass of water. A to 
break up La policía disolvió la reunión. 
The police broke up the meeting. 

disparado (see disparar) ° a la disparada 
[Am] at full speed. O salir disparado 
to beat it Al llegar la policía salieron 
disparados. When the police arrived 
they beat it. 

disparar to shoot, fire Dispararon al aire. 
They fired into the air. 

O dispararse to go off Se disparó la 
escopeta. The shotgun went off. 

disparate [m] nonsense; mistake. 

disparo discharge, shooting (of weapon). 

dispensar to excuse he han dispensado de 
hacer ese trabajo. They've excused him 
from doing that work. A to excuse, 

pardon Dispense Ud. que le interrum- 
pa. Pardon me for interrupting you. 
— Dispénseme. Excuse me. or Beg par- 
don. A to distribute, dispense. 

dispersar to scatter, disperse Los guar- 
dias dispersaron a la multitud. The 
police dispersed the crowd. 

disponer [irr] to place, arrange Han 
dispuesto mal los muebles. They ar- 
ranged the furniture badly. A to ar- 
range Disponga Ud. lo que quiera. 
Make any arrangements you like. A to 
order, decree El gobierno ha dispuesto 
la movilización general. The govern- 
ment's ordered total mobilization. 

O disponer de to spend [Am] Dis- 
puso de todo el dinero que le di. He 
spent all the money I gave him. A to 
have at one's disposal Dispongo de muy 
poco tiempo. I have very little time at 
my disposal. O disponerse a to get 
ready to Me dispongo a salir mañana. 
I'm getting ready to leave tomorrow. 

disponible available. 

disposición [/] disposal, service Estoy a 
su disposición. I'm at your service. 
A provision, order Han cambiado las 
disposiciones. They changed the orders. 
A arrangement La disposición de los 
cuadros. The arrangement of the pic- 

O estar en buena disposición to be in 
a good frame of mind. O tener disposi- 
ción to have aptitude or talent Tiene 
mucha disposición para el dibujo. She 
has a great talent for drawing. 

dispuesto (see disponer) disposed, ready; 

° bien dispuesto favorably disposed. 
° mal dispuesto ill-disposed. 

disputa dispute. 

O sin disputa undoubtedly, doubtless. 

disputar to dispute, argue Disputaban 
por cualquier cosa. They argued over 
anything at all. 

O disputarse to fight for or over Los 
dos se disputaron el premio. The two 
of them fought for the prize. 

distancia distance ¿Qué distancia hay de 
su casa al pueblo? How far is it from 
your house to town? 

O a distancia at a distance. O a 
larga distancia long-distance [Am] 
¿Cuánto tiempo hay que esperar para 
una llamada a larga distancia? How 
long must one wait for a long-distance 

distante far, distant. 

distar to be distant ¿Dista mucho de 
aquí? Is it far from here? A to be 





far Distaba mucho de ser cierto. It 
was far from certain. 

distinción [/] distinction Era una mujer 
de mucha distinción. She was a 
woman of great distinction. A differ- 
ence, distinction Hay que hacer una 
distinción entre los dos sonidos. It's 
necessary to make a distinction be- 
tween the two sounds. A distinction, 
honor Aquella distinción era merecida. 
That distinction was well-deserved. 

distinguir to distinguish, tell apart Era 
muy difícil distinguir a los gemelos. 
It was very difficult to tell the twins 
apart. A to make out ¿Distingue Ud. a 
lo lejos una luz? Can you make out a 
light in the distance? A to esteem, 
show regard for La distingue de un 
modo especial. He has a special regard 
for her. 

O distinguirse to distinguish oneself. 

distinto different. 

distracción [/] absent-mindedness Lo 
hizo por distracción. He did it absent- 
mindedly. A diversion, pastime, amuse- 
ment El cine es una gran distracción. 
Movies are a great diversion. 

distraer [irr~\ to distract Ese ruido me 
distrae. That noise distracts me. A to 
entertain, divert Me ha distraído mucho 
esta novela. I've enjoyed this novel 
very much. 

O distraerse to be distracted, not to 
be able to concentrate Ese chico se di- 
strae fácilmente. That child's easily 

distribución [/] distribution. 

distribuir to distribute Distribuyeron 
víveres. They distributed food. A to 
sort ¿Han distribuido el correo? Has 
the mail been sorted? 

distrito district. 

divagar to digress. 

diván [m] couch. 

diversidad [/] diversity. 

diversión [/] pastime, diversion. 

diverso different Tenían opiniones diver- 
sas. They had different opinions. 
O diversos various, several he he 
visto en diversas ocasiones. I've seen 
him on several occasions. 

divertir [rad-ch II] to amuse, entertain, 
divert Esa película le divertirá mucho. 
That picture will amuse you. 

O divertirse to be entertained, have 
a good time. ¿Se divirtieron Uds. ano- 
che? Did you have a good time last 

dividendo dividend. 

dividir to divide. 

divinidad [/] divinity. 

divino divine. A very beautiful Era una 
mujer divina. She was a very beauti- 
ful woman. 

O culto divino public worship in 

divisar to make out, perceive indistinctly. 

división [/] division. A compartment El 
cajón de la cómoda tiene varias divi- 
siones. The bureau drawer has several 
compartments. A disunity, discord Hay 
una gran división en el partido. 
There's a serious split in the party. 
A division [Mil] Se han rendido dos di- 
visiones. Two divisions have sur- 

divorciarse' to get a divorce. 

divorcio divorce. 

divulgación [/] diffusion, spread. 

divulgar to reveal, let out No sé quien di- 
vulgó la noticia. I don't know who let 
out the news. A to popularize, make 
popular Ese libro ha contribuido mucho 
a divulgar la química. That book's 
done a lot to popularize chemistry. 

° divulgarse to become widespread 
Se ha divulgado mucho el uso de ese 
tipo de radio. The use of this type of 
radio has become widespread. 

doblar to fold Está doblando el mantel. 
She's folding the tablecloth. A to dou- 
ble Doblaron las apuestas. They dou- 
bled their bets. 

O doblar la cabeza to give in, yield. 
O doblar la esquina to turn the corner. 

doblarse to bend, sag Con tanto peso 
se doblará la barra. The rod'll bend 
under so much weight. 

doble double Tendrá Ud. que pagar el 
doble. You'll have to pay double. 
A thick, heavy Quiero una tela doble. 

1 want some heavy cloth. A deceitful, 
two-faced No se fíe Ud. de él, es muy 
doble. Don't trust him, he's very two- 

|| Ponga la manta doble. Double the 

doblez [m] fold, crease Tiene que hacer 
el doblez bien derecho. You have to 
make the crease very straight. 

doce twelve. 

docena dozen. 

dócil docile, obedient. 

doctor [m] doctor (academic title) Acaba 
de obtener el grado de doctor en Filo- 
sofía. He's just received his Ph.D. 
A doctor (of medicine) El doctor dijo 
que será necesario operar. The doctor 
said it'll be necessary to operate. 

doctrina doctrine; Sunday school. 

documento document, paper. 

dólar [m~\ dollar. 





dolencia pain; disease. 

doler [rod-ch /] to hurt, pain Esta in- 
yección no duele nada. This injection 
doesn't hurt a bit. A to hurt, grieve 
Les dolió mucho lo que dijo. What he 
said hurt their feelings. 

dolor [w] pain, ache Tornó un calmante 
para el dolor de muelas. He took a 
sedative for his toothache. A sorrow, 
grief, affliction Trataba de consolarla 
en su dolor. He tried to console her in 
her sorrow. 

dolorido sore, painful. 

domar to tame; to subdue, overcome. 

doméstico [adj] domestic. A [??] domestic, 

domicilio residence Avise Ud. si cambia 
de domicilio. Let us know if you 
change your residence. 

dominar to have a command or mastery 
of Domina el español. He has an ex- 
cellent command of Spanish. A to 
dominate No deje que ese hombre le 
domine. Don't let that man dominate 
you. A to overlook, command a view 
of Esta colina domina la ciudad. This 
hill overlooks the city. A to predomi- 
nate Entre los productos de esta región 
domina el algodón. Among the prod- 
ucts of this region, cotton predomi- 

O dominarse to control oneself Domí- 
nese, no se ponga Ud. así. Control 
yourself; don't get excited. 

domingo Sunday. 

dominico Dominican friar. 

dominio power, rule, control Tiene un 
gran dominio sobre sí mismo. He's 
very self -controlled. A domination, au- 
thority Estos territorios estuvieron 
bajo el dominio extranjero. These 
lands were under foreign domination. 
A dominion El rey salió a visitar sus 
dominios. The king went to visit his 

dominó [m] game of dominoes. 

Don [wi] Mr. (used before a man's first 
name or full name). 

don [m] gift Tiene un don natural para 
hablar. He has a natural gift for 

O don de gentes winning manners. 

donación [/] donation, gift, grant. 

donativo donation, gift. 

doncella maid, servant [Sp] La doncella 
sirvió el té. The maid served the tea. 
A girl ¡Qué doncella tan linda! What a 
pretty girl! 

donde where Aquí es donde murió. This 
is where he died. 

O ¿a dónde? where? ¿A dónde va 

Ud.? Where are you going? O ¿de 
dónde? how? ¿De dónde va a saberlo 
si nadie se lo ha dicho? How's he going 
to know if no one's told him? O ¿dónde? 
where? ¿Dónde estuvo Ud. ayer? 
Where were you yesterday? O ¿por 
dónde? which way? where? ¿Por dónde 
está la salida? Where's the exit? 

|| ¡De dónde! Nonsense! || Fui don- 
de mi hermano. I went to my brother's. 

dondequiera wherever; anywhere. 

Doña Mrs. (used before a woman's first 
name or full name) ¿Conoce Ud. a 
Doña María López? Do you know Mrs. 
María López? A Miss [Col] ¿Ha lle- 
gado Doña Juanita? Has Miss Janet 

dorado gold, gilded. 

dormilón, dormilona sleepyhead. 

dormir [rad-ch II] to sleep. A to rest, 
be inactive Deje que duerma el asunto 
hasta que yo vuelva. Let the matter 
rest until I get back. A to put to sleep 
Duerme al niño. Put the child to sleep. 
O dormirse to fall asleep Se durmió 
en la conferencia. He fell asleep at 
the lecture. A to go to bed, retire 
Nunca se duerme antes de las doce. 
He never goes to bed before midnight. 

dormitorio bedroom; dormitory. 

dos two. A second Saldré el dos o el tres 
del mes próximo. I'll leave the second 
or third of next month. A [w] deuce 
Echó el dos del triunfo. He played the 
deuce of trumps. 

O de dos en dos in pairs, by twos, two 
abreast Las niñas iban de dos en dos 
por el paseo. The girls went down the 
walk in pairs. O de dos en fondo two 
abreast Los soldados marchaban de dos 
en fondo. The soldiers were mai-ching 
two abreast. O entre los dos between 
you and me Esto queda entre los dos. 
This is just between you and me. O en 
un dos por tres in a jiffy En un dos por 
tres lo arregló todo. He fixed it all up 
in a jiffy. 

doscientos two hundred. 

dosis [/] dose (of medicine). 

dotación [/] allotment La dotación no es 
suficiente. The allotment's inadequate. 
A endowment, foundation; donation. 
A crew Ya está completa la dotación del 
buque. The ship's crew is now com- 

dotado (see dotar) gifted Es tin muchacho 
muy bien dotado. He's a very gifted 

dotar to give a dowry to Su padre la dotó 
muy bien. Her father gave her a good 





dote [/] dowry Se gastó la dote de su 
mujer. He spent his wife's dowry. 
A talent Con tan buenas dotes tenia que 
triunfar. With such talents he was 
bound to succeed. 

draga dredge. 

drama [m] play, drama. 

dramático dramatic. 

droga drug. 

droguería drug store. 

ducha shower, shower bath. 

duda doubt. 

O sin duda certainly, without doubt 
"¿Vendrá Ud. mañana?" "Sin duda." 
"Will you come tomorrow?" "Cer- 

dudar to doubt Dudo que venga. I doubt 
that he'll come. A to hesitate Dudó al 
darme la respuesta. He hesitated be- 
fore he answered me. 

O dudar de to doubt, distrust, ques- 
tion No dudamos de lo que Ud. dice. We 
don't question what you say. 

dudoso doubtful. A dubious, suspicious 
Ese es un tipo dudoso. He's a suspi- 
cious character. 

duelo mourning Se cerraron las tiendas 
en señal de duelo. The stores were 
closed as a sign of mourning. A sor- 
row La muerte del presidente causó 
gran duelo. The president's death 
caused great sorrow. A duel Su abuelo 
murió en un duelo. His grandfather 
was killed in a duel. 

duende [m] hobgoblin. 

dueño, dueña owner, landlord, landlady 
Es el dueño de la propiedad. He's the 
owner of the property. A master, mis- 
tress El perro miraba a su dueño. The 
dog looked at his master. 

O dueño de sí mismo self -controlled 
Siempre es dueño de sí mismo. He's 
always self-controlled. 

dulce [adj~\ sweet. A [vi] a piece of 
candy; pi candy Compró una caja de 
dulces. He bought a box of candy. 
O agua dulce fresh water. 

dulzura sweetness; mildness El clima es 
de una gran dulzura. The climate's 
very mild. 

duodécimo twelfth. 

duplicado (see duplicar) [adj; m] dupli- 
cate Este ejemplar está duplicado. 
This is a duplicate copy. 

° por duplicado in duplicate Envíelo 
por duplicado. Send it in duplicate. 

duplicar to double; to duplicate; to repeat. 

duque [m] duke. 

duquesa duchess. 

duración [/] duration, term, length La 
duración de la guerra perjudica al 
comercio. The length of the war's 
harmful to trade. 

O ser de duración to wear well, last 
Este género es de mucha duración. 
This material will wear very well. 

duradero lasting, durable. 

durante during. 

durar to last ¿Cuanto dura la película? 
How long does the picture last? A to 
wear, last El abrigo me ha durado tres 
años. This overcoat's lasted me three 

dureza hardness, solidity La dureza del 
ébano es bien conocida. The hardness 
of ebony is well known. A hardness, 
harshness ¡Qué dureza de corazón! 
How hard-hearted! — Debe evitarse la 
dureza en esos casos. Harshness 
should be avoided in those cases. A cal- 
lus Me ha salido una dureza en la 
planta del pie. I have a callus on the 
sole of my foot. 

durmiente [m] (railroad) tie [Am\. 

duro hard Este colchón es muy duro. 
This is a very hard mattress. A hard, 
rough ¡Llevan una vida tan dura! 
They lead such a hard life. A hard, 
stubborn ¿Por qué tienes la cabeza tan 
dura? Why are you so hard-headed? 
A [adv] hard Trabajó muy duro para 
conseguirlo. He worked very hard to 
accomplish it. A [w] duro (Spanish 
coin equal to five pesetas). 

a duras penas with difficulty, 
hardly A duras penas se hacía en- 
tender. He could hardly make himself 

e and (before i or hi) María e Inés irán 
conmigo. Mary and Inez will go with 

¡ea pues! come on! ¡Ea pues! Sigamos 
adelante. Come on, let's get going. 

echar to throw Echaremos esto en el 


cajón. We'll throw this into the 
drawer. A to discharge, dismiss, fire 
Echaron a muchos empleados. They 
fired many employees. A to 
Puede echar el vino en el vaso. 
can pour the wine into the glass 





O echar a (followed by verb of mo- 
tion) to begin to, start to Echaron a 
correr al ver al policía. They began 
to run when they saw the police. 
O echar a perder to spoil, ruin Ha 
echado a perder el trabajo. He's 
spoiled the work. O echar a pique to 
sink Los submarinos echaron a pique 
muchos barcos. The submarines sank 
a lot of ships. O echar de menos to 
miss (notice the lack of) Echa de 
menos a sus amigos. He misses his 
friends. O echar de ver to notice, ob- 
serve No echó de ver el cambio. He 
didn't notice the change. O echar en 
cara to throw in one's teeth, throw up 
to one Sietnpre me echaba en cara sus 
favores. He was always throwing his 
favors up to me. ° echar la Have to 
lock the door Eche Ud. la llave al salir. 
Lock the door when you go out. 
O echar por tierra to overthrow, spoil 
. Le echaron por tierra sus proyectos. 
They overthrew his plans. O echarse 
to lie down Se echó en la arena. He lay 
down in the sand. O echarse a perder 
to spoil La carne se echó a perder. The 
meat spoiled. O echarse a (reír, llorar) 
to begin or start to (laugh, cry). 
O echarse atrás to back out, withdraw 
Cuento con Ud., no se vaya a echar 
atrás. I'm counting on you not to 
back out. 

eclipsar to eclipse. 

eco echo. 

economía economy. 

O economía política economics. 
O economías savings Perdió todas sus 
economías. He lost all his savings. 

económico economical. 

economizar to save Economizaba la mitad 
de lo que ganaba. He saved half of 
what he earned. — Por aquel camino 
economizaba tiempo. He saved time 
by taking that road. 

ecuador [m] equator. 

edad [/] age. 

edificar to build Edificarán una ciudad 
moderna. They'll build a modern city. 

edificio building. 

editor [m] publisher Los editores de ese 
periódico son muy liberales. The pub- 
lishers of that newspaper are very 

edredón [m] comforter (cover) ; feather- 

educación [/] breeding, upbringing Es un 
hombre sin educación. He's ill-bred. 
A education (intellectual, physical, and 
moral training) . 

educar to educate Hay que educar al 

pueblo. The people must be educated. 
A to train Han educado muy bien a su 
perro. They've trained their dog very 

efectivo effective. 

O en efectivo in cash Quiero que me 
paguen en efectivo. I want to be paid 
in cash. 

efecto effect. A impression Su actuación 
causó mal efecto. His behavior made 
a bad impression. 

O en efecto in fact ¡En efecto, no 
sabe nada! In fact, he doesn't know 

efectuar to carry out, put into effect. 

eficaz efficient, effective Tomaron una 
medida muy eficaz. They took a very 
effective measure. 

efusión [/] effusion, warmth La efusión 
de su acogida le emocionó. The warmth 
of his reception moved him. 

egoísta selfish Es un hombre muy ego- 
ísta; no piensa en los demás. He's a 
very selfish man; he never thinks of 

¡eh! hey! ¡Eh! Aquí estoy. Hey, here I 

eje [m] axle El eje está roto. The axle's 
broken. A main point Este es el eje de 
la cuestión. That's the crux of the 

ejecución [/] execution Se hará cargo de 
la ejecución del proyecto. He'll be in 
charge of carrying out the plan. A per- 
formance La ejecución del programa 
musical fué excelente. The perform- 
ance of the musical program was ex- 

ejecutar to execute, carry out Se están 
ejecutando cambios en el Gabinete. 
They're making changes in the Cabi- 

ejecutivo [ad;*] executive; efficient. 

ejemplar exemplary Es de una conducta 
ejemplar. His conduct is exemplary. 
A [m] copy No pude conseguir otro 
ejemplar del libro. I couldn't get 
another copy of the book. 

ejemplo example Sirve de ejemplo a los 
demás. He sets an example for the 
others. — Déme Ud. un ejemplo porque 
no etiendo. Give me an example; I 
don't understand. 

ejercer to handle, hold, practice Ha ejer- 
cido ese cargo por rrnicho tiempo. He's 
handled that job for a long time. 

ejercicio exercise, drill. 

ejercitar to exercise, drill Está ejerci- 
tando su caballo. He's exercising his 

ejército army. 





ejote [m] string bean [Am]. 

el the. 

él he El llegó tarde. He arrived late. 

elástico [adj; m] elastic. 

elección [/] election; choice. 

electo See elegir. 

electricidad [/] electricity. 

electricista [m, /] electrician. 

eléctrico electric. 

elefante [m] elephant. 

elegancia elegance Estaba vestida con 
elegancia. She was elegantly dressed. 

elegante stylish, smart. 

elegir [rad-ch III] to choose, select Sabe 
elegir sus amigos. He knows how to 
choose his friends. A to elect ¿A quién 
han elegido presidente del club? Who 
did they elect president of the club? 

elemental elementary. 

elemento element, factor Es un elemento 
perturbador. He's a disturbing ele- 
ment. A element Cuando baila está en 
su elemento. He's in his element when 
he's dancing. 

elevación [/] elevation, height, altitude. 

elevar to erect Van a elevar un monu- 
mento a los héroes. They're going to 
erect a monument to the heroes. 

O elevarse to climb, ascend Los 
aviones se elevaron a gran altura. The 
airplanes climbed very high. 

eliminar to eliminate. 

ella she. 

ello it, that Hablemos de ello. Let's talk 
about that. 

ellos [m] they. 

elocuencia eloquence. 

elocuente eloquent. 

elogiar to praise Nunca elogia a nadie. 
He never praises anyone. 

elogio praise. 

elote [m] ear of green corn (for roast- 
ing) [Aw]. 

emanación [/] fumes. 

embajada embassy; delegation. 

embajador [m] ambassador. 

embanderar to decorate with banners La 
calle está embanderada. The street's 
decorated with banners. 

embarcar to ship, send by boat Embarcaré 
mi equipaje primero. I'll ship my 
baggage first. 

O embarcar(se) to embark Se em- 
barcó para Buenos Aires. He em- 
barked for Buenos Aires. 

embargar to seize, attach Les embar- 
garán todas sus propiedades. They'll 
seize all their property. 

embargo O sin embargo however, never- 
theless Aunque es el estado más pe- 
queño, es, sin embargo, el más poblado. 

Though it's the smallest estate, never- 
theless it's the most densely populated. 

embarque [m] shipment; boarding (a 

embestir [rad-ch III] to attack, charge 
(head first) El enemigo embistió con 
furia. The enemy attacked furiously. 

emblema [w] emblem, insignia. 

embriagar to make drunk, intoxicate Este 
vino embriaga muy fácilmente. This 
wine's very intoxicating. A to over- 
come Estaba embriagado por la emo- 
ción. He was overcome with emotion. 
O embriagarse to get drunk Se em- 
briagaron en la fiesta. They got drunk 
at the party. 

embrollar to muddle, mess up No em- 
brolle Ud. las cosas. Don't mess things 

embrollo muddle, mess ¡Esto es un em- 
brollo! This is a mess. 

embromar to play jokes on Se pasa el 
tiempo embromando a todo el mundo. 
He spends his time playing jokes on 

embuste [m] lie Todos creyeron su em- 
buste. Everyone believed his lie. 

embustero, embustera liar. 

emergencia emergency. 

emigración [/] emigration. 

emigrante \m, f; adj] emigrant. 

emigrar to emigrate. 

eminencia summit, top; hill Desde una 
eminencia se divisaba el valle. From 
a hill one could see the valley. A out- 
standing person (in science, letters, 

eminente famous, eminent Es un escritor 
eminente. He's a famous writer. 

emoción [/] emotion Me quedé mudo de 
la emoción. I was speechless with 
emotion. A feeling El actor hizo su 
papel con emoción. The actor- played 
the part with feeling. 

emocionarse to be moved Se emociona 
fácilmente. He's easily moved. 

empacar to pack. 

empalizada (wooden) fence. 

empalizar to fence Empalizaron el jar- 
din. They fenced the garden. 

empalme [m] junction. 

empañar to blur, dim La humedad em- 
paña los vidrios. Moisture blurs the 

empapar to soak Empape esta esponja 
en agua. Soak this sponge in water. 
O empaparse to be soaked, be 
drenched Llueve tanto que me he em- 
papado al cruzar la calle. It's raining 
so hard I got soaked crossing the 





emparejar to make level, make even 
[Am]; to match [Sp]. 

empatar to equal. A to tie Los dos 
equipos empataron en el primer par- 
tido. The two teams tied in the .first 

empate [m] tie, draw. 

empedrado cobblestone pavement. 

empedrar to pave with cobblestones. 

empellón [w] push, shove Me dio un em- 
pellón y pasó delante de mí. He gave 
me a push and got ahead of me. 

O entrar a empellones to push one's 
way in La gente entraba a empellones. 
The people pushed their way in. 

empeñar to pledge, give Empeñé mi pala- 
bra. I gave my word. A to pawn 
Tuvo que empeñar su reloj. He had to 
pawn his watch. 

O empeñarse en to be bent on Se em- 
peña en hacerlo a pesar de los obstá- 
culos. He's bent on doing it in spite 
of all obstacles. 

empeño determination, firmness Trabajó 
con tanto empeño que se hizo rico. He 
worked with such determination that 
he became rich. A pawn; pawning. 
O casa de empeños pawnshop. 

empeorarse to grow worse. 

empezar [rad-ch T] to begin ¿A qué hora 
empieza la función? When does the 
performance begin? 

empinado steep. 

empinar O empinar el codo to drink Le 
gusta empinar el codo. He likes to 
drink. O empinarse to stand on one's 
toes Tendrá que empinarse para poder 
ver. You'll have to stand on your toes 
to see. 

empleado See emplear. A [rc] employee. 

emplear to use, employ Emplearemos 
otro material. We'll use other mate- 
rial. A to employ, hire ¿Van a em- 
plear más gente? Are they going to 
employ more people? A to invest Em- 
pleó su dinero en negocios. He invested 
his money in business. 

empleo employment; job Tengo un buen 
empleo. I have a good job. A use El 
empleo de esa palabra no es común. 
That word isn't in common use. 

empobrecerse [-zc-] to become poor. 

empolvarse to powder oneself Se empolva 
demasiado. She uses too much powder. 
A to get dusty En este tiempo se em- 
polva mucho la carretera. The road 
gets very dusty in this weather. 

emprender to undertake. 

empresa undertaking, project, enterprise 
Es muy difícil realizar esa empresa. 
It's very difficult to carry out that 

project. A company Ha quebrado la 
empresa. The company's failed. 

empresario manager (theatrical), pro- 

empujar to push Haga el favor de em- 
pujar la mesa hacia aquí. Please push 
the table over this way. 

empujón [w] push Le dieron un empujón. 
They gave him a push. 
O a empujones by pushing. 

en in. A at La vi en la estación. I saw 
her at the station. A on ¿En cuál tren 
vino Ud.? What train did you come 

O en vano in vain Esperé en vano 
toda la tarde. I waited all afternoon 
in vain. 

enamorado in love. A [n] one in love, 
lover, sweetheart. 

enamorar to flirt with, make love to 
Enamora a todas las chicas. He makes 
love to all the girls. 

O enamorarse de to fall in love with. 

encadenar to chain. 

encajar to fit La tapa no encaja bien. 
The cover doesn't fit well. A to fit in 
Ella no encaja bien aquí. She doesn't 
fit in here. 

encaminar to direct Los encaminamos a 
la estación. We directed them to the 

O encaminarse to make one's way, go 
Se encaminó hacia su casa. He went 
toward his house. 

encantador [adj] charming. A [n] 

encantar to charm, delight Esta escena 
me encanta. This scene delights me. 

encanto charm. 

encarado O mal encarado tough-looking 
Es un tío muy mal encarado. He's a 
very tough -looking guy. 

encaramarse to climb Se encaramó al 
árbol. He climbed the tree. 

encarcelar to imprison. 

encarecer [-20] to raise, make expensive 
Han encarecido el precio de la carne. 
They've raised the price of meat. A to 
beg Le encarezco que lo haga con cui- 
dado. I beg you to do it carefully. 

O encarecerse to become more expen- 
sive, go up Los víveres se han encare- 
cido. The price of food's gone up. 

encargado (see encargar) in charge Está 
encargado de la organización de la 
fiesta. He's in charge of preparations 
for the party. A [n] manager, person 
in charge Hable Ud. con el encargado. 
Speak to the manager. 

encargar to entrust Le encargaron una 
misión muy delicada. They entrusted 





him with a very delicate mission. A to 
ask, urge Me encargó que no lo dijese. 
He urged me not to say it. 

O encargarse to take charge Me en- 
cargaré del trabajo. I'll take charge 
of the work. 

encargo job, assignment Me ha dado un 
encargo que no me gusta. He's given 
me an assignment that I don't like. 
A errand Salió a hacer unos encargos. 
He went out on some errands. 

encarnado [adj] red. 

encarnizado cruel, pitiless. 

encendedor [m] cigarette lighter. 

encender [rad-ch /] to light, put on Haga 
el favor de encender la luz. Please 
put on the light. 

O encenderse to light up, go on Se 
encendieron los faroles. The street 
lights went on. 

encendido (see encender) bright-colored. 
O ponerse encendido to blush. 

encerrar [rad-ch /] to lock up Los en- 
cerraron en un calabozo. They locked 
them up in a cell. A to include, con- 
tain Ese libro encierra ideas útiles. 
That book contains useful ideas. 

O encerrarse to shut oneself (up), 
lock oneself (up) Se ha encerrado en 
su cuarto. He locked himself in his 

encía gum (of the mouth). 

encima on ¿Quiere Ud. que ponga esto 
encima de la mesa? Do you want me 
to put this on the table? 

° por encima superficially, sketchily 
He leído el diario por encima. I 
skimmed through the paper. O por en- 
cima de above El avión volaba por en- 
cima de las nubes. The airplane was 
flying above the clouds. 

encina evergreen oak (tree). 

encinta pregnant. 

encoger to shrink Esa tela va a encoger 
si se lava. That material's going to 
shrink if it's washed. 

O encogerse de hombros to shrug 
one's shoulders Se encogió de hombros 
por toda contestación. His only answer 
was to shrug his shoulders. 

encogido (see encoger) bashful Era un 
chico muy encogido. He was a very 
bashful boy. 

encolerizar to anger. 

O encolerizarse to become angry. 

encomendar to charge with, entrust to 

' he encomendarán la ejecución del 
proyecto. They'll entrust the comple- 
tion of the project to him. 

encomienda O encomienda postal parcel, 
package, parcel post [Am]. 

enconado (see enconarse) rankling Se 
tenían un odio enconado. They had 
a rankling hatred for each other. 

enconarse to become infected Se le ha 
enconado la herida. His wound has 
become infected. 

encontrar [rad-ch /] to find Encontré este 
reloj en la estación. I found this watch 
at the station. — ¿Cómo encuentra Ud. 
el trabajo? How do you find the work? 
A to meet Anoche encontré a mi amigo 
en la biblioteca. I met my friend in 
the library last night. 

O encontrarse to meet Nos encon- 
traremos en el teatro. We'll meet in 
the theater. A to collide Los dos ca- 
miones se encontraron con gran estré- 
pito. The two trucks collided with a 
great crash. A to be Mi mujer se en- 
contraba allí. My wife was there. 
A to come upon Al doblar la esquina 
nos encontramos con el desfile. We 
came upon the parade when we turned 
the corner. A to feel ¿Cómo se en- 
cuentra el enfermo esta mañana? 
How's the patient feeling this morn- 

encontronazo bump, collision. 

encorvar to bend, curve. 

O encorvarse to bend, stoop. 

encrucijada street or road intersection. 

encuentro meeting Fué un encuentro muy 
afortunado. It was a very fortunate 
meeting. A match Después de veneer 
en todos los encuentros, obtuvo el títu- 
lo de campeón. After winning all the 
matches, he got the title of champion. 
O salir al encuentro de to go to meet 
Salió al encuentro de los invitados. 
He went to meet the guests. 

encurtido pickle [Am]. 

enderezar to straighten. 

O enderezarse to straighten up, sit 

endiablado devilish, mischievous. 

endoso indorsement. 

endulzar to sweeten. 

endurecer(se) [-zc-~\ to harden. 

enemigo [n; adj~\ enemy. 

enemistad [/] enmity. 

energía energy. 

O energía eléctrica electric power. 

enérgico energetic. 

enero January. 

enfadar to anger, annoy. 

O enfadarse to get angry No hay 
motivo para enfadarse. There's no 
reason to get angry. 

enfado anger, annoyance. 

énfasis [m] emphasis. 

enfermar(se) to fall ill, to get sick. 





enfermedad [/] illness, sickness, disease. 

enfermera nurse. 

enfermo [ad;] sick Ayer operaron al 
niño enfermo. They operated on the 
sick child yesterday. A [w] patient El 
enfermo está en el hospital. The 
patient's in the hospital. 

enflaquecer(se) [-zc-] to become thin. 

enfrente opposite, across Enfrente hay 
una casa blanca. Across (the street) 
there's a white house. 

O de enfrente across the street Viven 
en la casa de enfrente. They live in 
the house across the street. O en- 
frente de opposite El auto está parado 
enfrente de aquel edificio. The car's 
parked opposite that building. 

enfriamiento [m] cold (illness). 

enfriar to cool Debemos enfriar el agua 
en la nevera. We must cool the water 
in the ice box. 

O enfriarse to cool off, become cold 
Deje el café ahí para que se enfríe. 
Leave your coffee there so it can cool 
off. A to get chilled Abrigúese bien, 
no se vaya a enfriar. Dress warmly so 
you won't get chilled. 

engañar to deceive Engañó a su amigo. 
He deceived his friend. 

O engañarse to make a mistake, be 
wrong Se engañaron a causa de la 
niebla. They made a mistake because 
of the fog. 

engaño deceit. 

engordar to fatten; to get fat. 

enhorabuena congratulations. 

enjuagar to rinse. 

enlace [m] marriage Han anunciado su 
próximo enlace. They've announced 
their coming marriage. A connec- 
tion (s) El enlace de trenes es excelente 
en esta estación. The train connec- 
tions at this station are excellent. 

enlazar to connect Esos dos trenes en- 
lazan en la próxima estación. Those 
two trains connect at the next station. 

enlodarse to get muddy Las ruedas se 
enlodaron completamente. The wheels 
got all muddy. 

enloquecer [-zc-] to become insane A con- 
secuencia del golpe enloqueció. As a 
result of the blow he became insane. 
A to drive crazy Este trabajo me está 
enloqueciendo. This work's driving me 

O enloquecerse to get furious or mad 
Con la discusión se enloqueció. He got 
furious as a result of the argument. 

enmendar [rad-ch /] to amend, correct 
Hágame el favor de enmendar esta 
copia. Please correct this copy for me. 

O enmendarse to mend one's ways, 
reform Si no no se enmienda, no podrá 
triunfar nunca. If he doesn't mend his 
ways, he'll never succeed. 

enmohecido rusty. 

enojar to anger La suspensión del espec- 
táculo enojó al público. The public 
was angered by the suspension of the 

° enojarse to get angry Enojándose 
no arreglará nada. Nothing will be 
gained by getting angry. 

enojo anger. 

enorme enormous. 

enormidad [/] outrage Lo que ha hecho 
ese hombre es una enormidad. What 
that man's done is an outrage. A great 
number, great quantity En la fiesta 
hubo una enormidad de gente. There 
was a great crowd at the party. 

enredadera climbing vine. 

enredar to snarl, tangle up El gato en- 
redó todos los hilos. The cat tangled 
up all the threads. A to snarl, mess up 
El gerente enredó todos los negocios 
de la compañía. The manager messed 
up all the company's business. 

O enredarse to get snarled Se enredó 
la cuerda. The string got snarled. 
O enredarse con to get involved with 
Se enredó con una mala mujer. He 
got involved with a bad woman. O en- 
redarse en to get involved in Se enredó 
en negocios siicios. He got involved 
in shady business affairs. 

enredo tangle, intrigue. 

enriquecer [-zc-~\ to enrich. A to enhance 
Ese adorno enriquece mucho el traje. 
That trimming enhances the dress. 

O enriquecerse to get rich Se enri- 
queció de repente. He got rich quickly. 

enrollar to roll up Enrolle Ud. esas re- 
vistas. Roll up those magazines. 

enronquecer(se) [-zc-~\ to get hoarse Se 
enronqueció de tanto gritar. He got 
hoarse from so much shouting. 

ensalada salad. 

ensanchar to widen Estaban ensanchando 
el camino cuando pasamos. They were 
widening the road when we passed. 
A to let out, enlarge Tiene Ud. que en- 
sancharme la chaqueta. You'll have to 
let out my jacket. 

ensayar to try, test Vamos a ensayar el 
nuevo material. We're going to test 
the new material. A to rehearse No 
han tenido tiempo de ensayar la come- 
dia. They haven't had time to rehearse 
the play. 

ensayo test, trial; rehearsal. 

ensenada cove. 





enseñanza instruction, teaching. 

enseñar to teach Un mejicano le enseñó 
español. A Mexican taught him 
Spanish. A to show Me enseñó el re- 
trato de su novia. He showed me a 
picture of his sweetheart. A to show, 
point out Enseñe Ud. el camino al 
señor. Show this gentleman the way. 

ensillar to saddle. 

ensordecer [-zc-] to deafen. 

ensuciar to soil, to dirty. 

ensueño pipe dream, day dream. 

entablar to board up Entablaron las ven- 
tanas. They boarded up the windows. 
A to begin, start Han entablado nego- 
ciaciones. They've started negotia- 

entablillar to put splints on Se rompió un 
brazo y tuvieron que entablillárselo. 
He broke his arm and they had to put 
splints on it. 

entender [rad-ch 7] to understand Ya en- 
tiendo lo que Ud. quiere decir. Now I 
understand what you mean. 

O a (or según) mi entender in my 
opinion A mi entender es mejor cambiar 
de procedimiento. In my opinion it's bet- 
ter to change the policy. O entender de 
to be familiar with, be good at ¿En- 
tiende Ud. de mecánica? Are you good 
at mechanics? O entenderse con to 
deal with Tendrán que entenderse con 
el jefe. They'll have to deal with the 
boss. O entender(se) en to be in 
charge of ¿Quién se entiende en este 
asunto? Who's in charge of this mat- 

entendido (see entender) O estar (or 
quedar) entendido to be understood 
Está entendido que empezaremos ma- 
ñana. It's understood that we'll start 
tomorrow. O no darse por entendido 
to pretend not to understand No me di 
por entendido. I pretended I didn't 
understand. O ser (muy) entendido en 
to be skilled or informed in Es un obre- 
ro muy entendido en su oficio. He's 
very skilled in his trade. 

entendimiento understanding; mind. 

enterar to inform, report Debemos en- 
terar a la dirección de lo que pasa. 
We must inform the management of 
what's going on. 

O enterarse to pay attention No te 
enteras de lo que te estoy diciendo. 
You aren't listening to what I'm say- 
ing. O enterarse (de) to learn Acabo 
de enterarme de la noticia. I've just 
learned the news. A to find out, inquire 
Entérese del hotel en que viven. Find 
out what hotel they're living at. 

entereza fortitude; presence of mind. 

entero entire, whole. 

enterrar [rad-ch I] to bury. 

entierro burial. 

entonación [/] intonation. 

entonar to sing in tune; to begin to sing. 
A to harmonize, blend (of colors) 
Estos colores entonan muy bien. These 
colors harmonize very well. 

entonces at the time, then Entonces vivía 
con sus padres. He was living with his 
parents at the time. A then ¿Entonces 
ya no me necesita Ud.? Then you 
don't need me now, do you? — ¿Y en- 
tonces que pasó? And then what hap- 

|| ¿Entonces? Then what? or And 
then? [Am]. 

entrada entrance Adornaron la entrada 
con banderas. They decorated the en- 
trance with flags. A admission La en- 
trada será gratis. Admission will be 
free. A attendance La función tuvo 
una buena entrada. The show was 
well attended. A ticket, seat Debemos 
comprar las entradas ahora mismo. 
We have to buy the tickets right now. 
A admittance Se prohibe la entrada. 
No admittance. A beginning A la en- 
trada del invierno saldré de viaje. I'm 
leaving on a trip at the beginning of 
winter. A entrée ¿Qué desea Ud. como 
entrada? What do you want for an 

O entradas receding hair at temples A 
pesar de su juventud ya tiene entradas. 
In spite of his youth his hair's already 
receding at the temples. A income Las 
entradas superan a las salidas. The 
income exceeds the outgo. 

\\Entrada pública. Admission free. 

entrar to enter, come in, go in ¿Se puede 
entrar? May I come in? A to fit El 
zapato no me entra, es muy chico. 
The shoe doesn't fit me; it's too small. 
A to join Quiero entrar en un club de- 
portivo. I want to join an athletic 

O entrar a trabajar to go to work, 
be employed Entraron a trabajar en 
una fábrica. They went to work in a 
factory. O entrar en Cor a) to enter 
Entrará en la Universidad el año 
próximo. He'll enter the University 
next year. 

|| A este chico no le entra la arit- 
mética. This child can't get arithmetic 
through his head. 

entre between La mujer estaba sentada 
entre dos hombres. The woman was 
sitting between two men. A among 





Repartiremos las ganancias entre to- 
dos. We'll divide the profits among all 
of us. — Es muy alegre la vida entre 
estudiantes. Life among students is 
very gay. — Entre los cuatro levantaron 
la carga. Among the four of them, 
they picked up the load. 

entreabierto (see entreabrir) ajar, half- 

entreabrir to open halfway, open part 

entreacto intermission. 

entrega delivery Ud. tendrá que pagar a 
la entrega del paquete. You'll have to 
pay for the package on delivery. 

entregar to deliver, hand over No han 
entregado la mercadería todavía. They 
haven't delivered the goods yet. A to 
hand Entregúeme la carta. Hand me 
the letter. A to give up, surrender, turn 
over Lo entregaron a la policía. They 
turned him over to the police. 

O entregarse to give in, yield Se en- 
tregó a la bebida. He gave in to drink. 
A to surrender El batallón se entregó 
al enemigo. The battalion surrendered 
to the enemy. 

entrenador [m] trainer, coach. 

entrenamiento training, coaching. 

entrenar to train. 

entrepaño shelf. 

entretanto meanwhile. 

entretener \irr\ to entertain, amuse Hay 
que entretener al niño con algo. You 
have to amuse the child with some- 
thing. A to delay, tie up Mis asuntos 
me entretuvieron hasta muy tarde. My 
affairs tied me up until very late. 

O entretenerse to amuse oneself Nos 
entretuvimos jugando a las cartas. We 
amused ourselves playing cards. A to 
be tied up, be delayed Me entretuve 
hasta muy tarde arreglando unas cosas. 
I was tied up until very late getting 
some things in order. 

entretenido (see entretener) entertain- 
ing, amusing. 

entretenimiento pastime. 

entrevista interview. 

entrevistar to interview. 

entristecer [-zc-] to sadden, be depress- 
ing Lo negro entristece. Black is de- 

O entristecerse to become sad Se en- 
tristeció mucho al saberlo. He became 
sad when he found out. 

entumecer to numb El frío entumece los 
miembros. Cold numbs the limbs. 
O entumecerse [-zc-~\ to become numb. 

enturbiar to roil, make muddy El tem- 
poral enturbió las aguas. The storm 

roiled the water. A to dim (vision) La 
fiebre le enturbió la vista. The fever 
dimmed his vision. 

O enturbiarse to become muddy El 
agua se enturbió con la lluvia. The 
water became muddy because of the 

entusiasmar to make enthusiastic Las 
noticias entusiasmaron al público. The 
news made the public enthusiastic. 

O entusiasmarse to be enthusiastic 
Los muchachos se entusiasmaron con 
la música. The boys were enthusiastic 
about the music. 

entusiasmo enthusiasm. 

entusiasta [m, f] enthusiast. 

envejecer [-zc-] to age, become old. 

envenenamiento poisoning. 

envenenar to poison. 

enviado envoy. 

enviar to send Envíe Ud. la carta por 

correo aéreo. Send the letter airmail. 

O enviarle a uno a paseo to send one 

about his business, tell someone to go 

chase himself. 

envidia envy. 

envidiable enviable. 

envidiar to envy Envidia a todos sus 
amigos. He envies all his friends. 

envidioso envious. 

envío shipment. 

envolver [rad-ch 7] to wrap No envol- 
vieron bien la caja. They didn't wrap 
the box well. 

envuelto (see envolver) involved Siempre 
está envuelto en líos. He's always in- 
volved in some sort of a mess. 

epidemia epidemic. 

episodio episode. 

época epoch, time, times, period. 

equilibrio balance. 

equipaje [m] baggage, luggage St va Ud. 
en avión no podrá llevar mucho equi- 
paje. If you go by plane you won't be 
able to take much luggage. — En la 
frontera van a registrar el equipaje. 
They're going to examine the baggage 
at the border. 

equipo team; equipment. 

equivalencia equivalent Déme Ud. la 
equivalencia en dólares. Give me the 
equivalent in dollars. 

equivocación [/] mistake Se llevó mi 
abrigo por equivocación. He took my 
coat by mistake. 

equivocar to mistake, confuse Equivocó 
los paquetes. He mixed up the pack- 

O equivocarse to make a mistake, be 
wrong Se equivoca Ud. You're wrong. 
O equivocarse de to . . . the wrong . . . 




ese, esa 

Me equivoqué de autobús. I took the 
wrong bus. — Me equivoqué de puerta. 
I went to the wrong door. 

error [to] mistake Esta copia está llena 
de errores. This copy's full of mis- 

O error de imprenta typographical 
error (in printed matter). O error de 
máquina typographical error (in type- 
writing). O estar en un error to be 
mistaken Dispénseme, pero está Ud. en 
un error. Excuse me, but you're mis- 

esa (see ese) that. 

escabroso rough, uneven Bajamos por un 
camino muy escabroso. We went down 
a very rough road. A off -color, risque 
Nos contó un chiste escabroso. He told 
us an off -color story. 

escala (rope) ladder Cayó al romperse la 
escala. He fell when the ladder broke. 
4 scale ¿A qué escala está este mapa? 
What's the scale of this map? — Estaba 
haciendo escalas en el piano. He was 
playing scales on the piano. 

° hacer escala to make a stop El 
barco hará escala en Cádiz. The ship'll 
make a stop at Cadiz. 

escalera stair, stairway Subió las esca- 
leras corriendo. He ran up the stairs. 
A ladder Apoye la escalera contra la 
pared. Put the ladder against the wall. 

escalón [to] step ¿Cuántos escalones tiene 
esta escalera? How many steps has 
this staircase? 

escampar to clear up, stop raining Al 
escampar podremos seguir. We'll be 
able to go on when it clears up. 

escandalizar to shock, scandalize La no- 
ticia escandalizó al público. The news 
shocked the public. 

escándalo scandal. 

escapada escapade. 

O en una escapada in a jiffy Aun no 
lo he hecho pero lo haré en una esca- 
pada. I haven't done it yet, but I'll 
do it in a jiffy. 

escapar to escape Escapamos de un gran 
peligro. We escaped from a great 

O escaparse to escape, run away Se 
nos escapó el perro. The dog ran away 
from us. — Se han escapado unos presos 
de la cárcel. Some prisoners have 
escaped from the jail. A to slip out 
Siento haberlo dicho, se me escapó. 
I'm sorry I said it; it slipped out. 

escapatoria escapade, prank Las escapa- 
torias de ese niño preocupan a sus 
padres. That child's pranks worry his 

escape [to] escape. 

O a escape hastily, in a hurry. 

escarbar to scratch, dig, pick. 

escasear to be scarce La gasolina escasea 
por aquí. Gasoline is scarce around 

escasez [/] shortage, scarcity. 

escaso scarce, short La carne está escasa. 
Meat's scarce. 

escena scene No me hagas escenas. Don't 
make scenes. A stage Al levantarse el 
telón, la escena estaba oscura. When 
the curtain went up, the stage was 

escenario stage (of a theater). 

esclavo, esclava slave. 

escoba broom. 

escoger to choose, take, select Escogimos 
el camino más corto. We took the 
shortest road. 

escolar scholastic. A [n] student. 

esconder to hide No sé en dónde escon- 
dieron la llave. I don't know where 
they hid the key. 

escopeta shotgun. 

escribiente [to, /] clerk. 

escribir [irr~\ to write. 

O escribir a máquina to type, type- 

escrito (see escribir) written. 

escritor, escritora writer, author. 

escritorio desk. 

escuadra fleet (naval); carpenter's square. 

escuchar to listen Escuche Ud. un mo- 
mento. Listen a minute. 

escuela school. 

escultura sculpture. 

escupir to spit Se prohibe escupir. Spit- 
ting prohibited. 

escurrir to wring Escurra bien esa ropa 
antes de tenderla. Wring those clothes 
well before you hang them up. A to 
drain Escurre las espinacas. Drain 
the spinach. 

O escurrir el bulto to sneak away, to 
make a get-away Escurrió el bulto 
cuando menos lo pensábamos. He 
sneaked away when we least expected 
it. O escurrirse to slip Se escurrió en 
una. monda de plátano. He slipped on 
a banana peel. — El plato se me escurrió 
de las manos. The plate slipped out of 
my hands. A to slip away Se escurrió 
de la reunión sin que lo viesen. He 
slipped away from the meeting without 
anyone seeing him. 

ese, esa; pi esos, esas [adj] that, those 
¿Quién es ese chico? Who's that boy? 

é9e, ésa; pl ésos, ésas [pron] that, that 
one, those Esos no son los míos. Those 
aren't mine. 





esencia essence. 

esfera sphere. 

esfuerzo effort Haré un esfuerzo para 
terminar el trabajo hoy. I'll make an 
effort to complete the work today. 

eso [neu pron] that Eso es. That's right. 
O eso mismo the same Eso mismo 
creía yo. That's exactly what I used 
to think. 

espacio space El avión se perdió en el 
espacio. The plane disappeared in the 
sky. A space, line Escriba Ud. el in- 
forme a un espacio. Single-space the 
report. A blank, space Deje Ud. un 
espacio. Leave a blank. 

espada sword; spade (cards). 

espalda back (of the body) Le duele la 
espalda. His back hurts. 

° a espaldas behind one's back ho 
hicieron a espaldas de sus padres. They 
did it behind their parents' back. 

espantapájaros [m sg~] scarecrow. 

espantar to scare, frighten Se espanta 
por muy poca cosa. She gets scared 
over nothing at all. 

espanto fear, fright. 

espantoso terrible, frightful. 

espárrago asparagus. 

especial [adj~\ special. 

espectáculo spectacle, show La corrida 
de toros es un espectáculo muy intere- 
sante. Bull fighting's a very interest- 
ing spectacle. A spectacle, scene No 
des un espectáculo llorando en la calle. 
Don't make a spectacle of yourself 
crying in the street. 

espectador, espectadora spectator. 
O espectadores [m pl~\ audience. 

espejo mirror. 

espera wait Después de una espera larga 
pudimos entrar. We got in after a 
long wait. 

O estar en {or estar a la) espera de 
to be waiting for Estuvimos en espera 
del barco muchas horas. We were 
waiting for the boat for many hours. 

sala de espera waiting room. 
esperanza hope. 

O tener (la) esperanza (de) to hope 
Tengo esperanza de que venga. I hope 
he'll come. 

esperar to expect Espero una llamada 
telefónica esta mañana. I expect a 
phone call this morning. A to hope 
Esperaban que no muriese. They hoped 
he wouldn't die. A to wait Espero a 
mi amiga. I'm waiting for my friend. 

espeso thick No me gtista la sopa espesa. 

1 don't like thick soup. A heavy Aceite 
espeso. Heavy oil. 

espesor [m] thickness. 

espesura thickness, density; thicket. 

espía [m, /] spy. 

espiar to spy (on). 

espina thorn Tengo una espina en el dedo. 
I have a thorn in my finger. A bone 
Este pescado tiene muchas espinas. 
This fish has a lot of bones. 

espinacas [/ pi] spinach. 

espinazo spine. 

espíritu [?«] spirit, soul. 

espléndido splendid, wonderful, swell 
Después del baile sirvieron una cena 
espléndida. They served a wonderful 
dinner after the dance. A generous Son 
espléndidos con sus amigos. They're 
generous with their friends. 

esponja sponge. 

esposa wife. 

O esposas [/ pi] handcuffs. 

esposo husband. 

espuela spur. 

espuma foam; lather. 

esqueleto skeleton. A blank (to be filled 
out) [Am], 

esquina corner (outward angle) Viven en 
la casa de la esquina. They live in the 
house on the corner. 

esquinazo O dar esquinazo to evade, 
avoid Le vi venir pero le di esquinazo. 
I saw him coming but I avoided him. 

establecer [-zc-] to establish Establecie- 
ron un nuevo régimen. They estab- 
lished a new regime. 

° establecerse to settle Se establese- 
rán en Méjico. They'll settle in Mexico. 
A to set up a business Se establecieron 
en la Quinta Avenida. They set up a 
business on Fifth Avenue. 

establecimiento establishment. 

estaca stake (post). 

estacada ° dejarle a uno en la estacada 
to leave one holding the bag. 

estación [/] station Fueron a recibirnos 
a la estación. They went to the sta- 
tion to meet us. A season En los tró- 
picos hay sólo dos estaciones. There 
are only two seasons in the tropics. 
A stop [i4w] Este tren es directo, no 
hará muchas estaciones. This is a 
through train; it won't make many 

estacionar to park (car, etc). 

O estacionarse to park ¿Dónde pode- 
mos estacionarnos? Where can we 
park? A to station oneself. 

estadio stadium. 

estado condition El camino está en mal 
estado. The road's in bad condition. 
A status "¿Estado?" "Soltero." "Mar- 





ital status?" "Single." A state Hizo 
un viaje por todos los estados del país. 
He took a trip through all the states 
in the country. A state, government 
Está al servicio del estado. He works 
for the government. 

estallar to break out, start Temen que 
estalle una insurrección. They're afraid 
a revolt'll break out. A to explode Al 
estallar la bomba causó muchos daños. 
The bomb caused a lot of damage when 
it exploded. 

estampilla postage stamp [Am]. 

estanco cigar store. 

estanque [m] pond. 

estanquillo cigar store [Mex]. 

estante [m] shelf. 

estar [irr~\ to be (in a place) La casa está 
en la colina. The house is on the hill. 
A to be (in a condition at a given mo- 
ment) La sopa está muy caliente. The 
soup's very hot. A to look, seem Está 
Ud. muy linda hoy. You look very 
pretty today. 

O estamos a it's (a date or day of the 
week) "¿A cuántos estamos?" "Estamos 
a 5 de junio." "What's the date?" 
"It's the fifth of June." O estar con 
to have (an illness) Estoy con dolor 
de cabeza. I have a headache. O estar 
con prisa to be in a hurry No puedo 
esperar porque estoy con prisa. I 
can't wait because I'm in a hurry. 
O estar de to act as, act in the capacity 
of ¿Quién está de telefonista hoy? 
Who's at the switchboard today? 

estar de acuerdo to agree Estuvieron 
de acuerdo en todo. They agreed on 
everything. O estar de viaje to be 
traveling Estuvimos de viaje durante 
el verano. We were traveling during 
the summer. O estar para to be about 
to Criando llegamos estaban para salir. 
When we arrived they were about to 
leave. O estar por to be in favor of 
Yo estaba por ir y ellos por quedarse. 

1 was in favor of going and they were 
in favor of staying. 

\\¡Está bien! or Está bueno. All 

estatua statue. 
estatura stature, height, 
este [m] east. 
este, esta; estos, estas [adj] this, these 

Este chico nos da mucha guerra. This 

boy gives us a lot of trouble, 
éste, ésta; éstos, éstas [pron\ this one, 

those Este fué el que llegó primero. He 

was the first to arrive. 
estilo style ¿Qué estilo de muebles le gus- 

taría? What style of furniture would 
you like? 

estimar to value, respect, hold dear Es- 
tima mucho a sus amigos. He values 
his friends highly. 

estirar to stretch, pull Al estirar la tela 
se rompió. The material tore when it 
was stretched. 

O estirarse to stretch (oneself). A to 
stretch Esta tela se estira mucho al 
lavarla. This cloth stretches a great 
deal when it's washed. 

esto \neu pron\ this Esto no lo entiendo. 
I don't understand this. 

O en esto at this point En esto llegó 
él. At this point he arrived. 

estofado stew. 

estómago stomach. 

estorbar to block, obstruct Este mueble 
estorba el paso. This furniture's in the 
way. A to bother, be in one's way 
No se vaya Ud., no nos estorba. Don't 
go away, you're not bothering us. A to 
impede, hinder Las huelgas estorban 
la producción de guerra. Strikes hinder 
war production. 

estornudar to sneeze. 

estrechar to take in, make narrower Me 
tiene Ud. que estrechar la chaqueta. 
You have to take in my jacket. 

O estrechar la mano (a) to shake 
hands (with). 

estrecho narrow Pasamos por un camino 
estrecho. We went along a narrow 
road. A tight El traje le está muy es- 
trecho. The dress is very tight on her. 
A close Su amistad es muy estrecha. 
Their friendship's very close. O [ m ] 
strait (s) ¿Ha pasado Ud. por el es- 
trecho de Magallanes? Have you ever 
gone through the Straits of Magellan? 

estrella star; leading actor or actress. 

estrellado (see estrellar) O cielo es- 
trellado starry sky. O hueros estre- 
llados eggs sunny side up. 

estrellar to smash (up) Cualquier día va 
a estrellar el automóvil. He's going 
to smash up his car any day. 

° estrellarse to crash El avión se 
estrelló contra la casa. The plane 
crashed against the house. 

estremecer [-zc-] to shake La detonación 
estremeció el suelo. The explosion 
shook the ground. 

O estremecerse to start, shudder, 
tremble Se estremeció al oír el ruido. 
He started when he heard the noise. 

estremecimiento shudder, shuddering. 

estrenar to open (a play) Mañana estre- 
narán una nueva obra en el Teatro Na-. 





donal. Tomorrow they'll open a new 
play at the National Theater. A to 
wear for the first time ¿Está Ud. estre- 
nando ese traje ? Are you wearing that 
dress for the first time? 

O estrenarse to open (of a play) Esa 
obra se estrenó en Broadway la semana 
pasada. That play opened on Broad- 
way last week. 

estropear to ruin, damage Los niños han 
estropeado el radio. The boys have 
ruined the radio. A to spoil Su dimi- 
sión estropeó nuestros planes. His 
resignation spoiled our plans. 

O estropearse to be out of order La 
plancha eléctrica se ha estropeado. 
The electric iron's out of order. 

estruendo deafening noise. 

estudiante [m, /] student. 

estudiar to study. 

estufa stove, heater. 

estupendo wonderful Anoche vi una pelí- 
cula estupenda. I saw a wonderful 
movie last night. 

estupidez [/] stupidity. 

estúpido stupid. A [«] stupid person. 

etcétera, etc and so forth, etc. 

éter [m] ether. 

eterno eternal, endless. 

etiqueta label Lea Ud. lo que dice la eti- 
queta. Read what's on the label. 

O de etiqueta formal Habrá un baile 
de etiqueta en el Casino. There'll be 
a formal dance at the Casino. 

evangelio gospel. 

evitar to avoid Evitaba encontrarse con 
él. He avoided meeting him. A to pre- 
vent Lograron evitar la explosión. 
They succeeded in preventing the ex- 

exactitud [/] accuracy Este trabajo está 
hecho con mucha exactitud. This 
work's very accurately done. A punc- 
tuality La exactitud es su cualidad 
característica. Punctuality is his dis- 
tinguishing characteristic. 

exacto exact, correct La cuenta está ex- 
acta, gracias. The bill's correct, thank 
you. A accurate Hizo un relato exacto. 
He gave an accurate report. 

exagerar to exaggerate No le puedo creer 
porque siempre exagera. I can't be- 
lieve him because he always exag- 

examen [m] examination, test. 

examinar to inspect No han examinado 
todavía el equipaje. They haven't in- 
spected the baggage yet. A to examine 
El médico examinó al enfermo. The 
doctor examined the patient. A to ob- 
serve Examinaba con mucha atención 

todos sms movimientos. He observed 
all his movements closely. 

O examinarse to be examined, take 
(an) examination (s) Tendrán que ex- 
aminarse de español e inglés. They'll 
have to take examinations in Spanish 
and English. 

excelente excellent. A fine ¡Excelente! 
Iremos juntos. Fine ! We'll go together. 

excepción [/] exception. 

excursión [/] excursion, picnic. 

excusa excuse. 

excusado washroom, toilet. 

excusar to excuse, pardon Debe Ud. ex- 
cusar sus faltas. You should excuse 
his faults. A to decline Excusó la in- 
vitación porque no le gustaba la gente. 
He declined the invitation because he 
didn't like the people. 

O excusarse to apologize Si no va 
tendrá Ud. que excusarse. If you don't 
go you'll have to apologize. 

exhibición [/] exhibition, showing [Am]. 

exhibir to exhibit, show. 

exigir to require Exigen que se pague 
por adelantado. Payment is required 
in advance. A to demand Le exigieron 
que declarase. They demanded that he 

existencia existence, life Me amarga la 
existencia. He makes my life miser- 
able. A stock Tenían grandes existen- 
cias de mercadería. They had a large 
stock of merchandise. 

éxito success El éxito de la empresa sor- 
prendió a todos. The success of the 
enterprise astonished everybody. 

exótico foreign, exotic. 

experiencia experience No tengo experi- 
encia en este trabajo. I haven't any 
experience in this work. 

experto expert, skilled. 

expirar to expire El plazo del contrato 
expira hoy. The contract expires to- 

explicar to explain ¡Déjeme Ud. que se 
lo explique! Let me explain it to you! 
O explicarse to understand No puedo 
explicarme lo ocurñdo. I can't under- 
stand what happened. 

explorador [m] explorer; Boy Scout. 

explosión [/] explosion, blast. 

explotar to work, exploit Están explotan- 
do una mina de plata. They're work- 
ing a silver mine. A to exploit, use 
Explotaba siempre a sus amigos. He 
was always using his friends. 

exponer [irr] to expose No hay que ex- 
poner esto al sol. This mustn't be ex- 
posed to the sun. A to explain Ex- 
ponga Ud. su idea con más claridad. 





Explain your idea more clearly. 

O exponerse to expose oneself Se ex- 
pone Ud. a que le critiquen mucho. 
You're exposing yourself to a lot of 

exportación [/] export Trabaja en una 
oficina de exportación. He works in an 
export house. 

exportar to export. 

exposición [/] exhibition; risk. 

expresar to express. 

O expresarse to express oneself, speak 
Se expresa con mucha corrección. He 
expresses himself very correctly. 

expresión [/] expression. 

expresivo affectionate Escribió una carta 
muy expresiva. He wrote a very affec- 
tionate letter. A expressive Tiene fac- 
ciones muy expresivas. She has very 
expressive features. 

expreso O tren expreso express train. 

expuesto (see exponer) exhibited, on dis- 
play Esos libros estaban expuestos en 
el escaparate. Those books were on 
display in the window. A dangerous En 
aquel tiempo era muy expuesto viajar. 
Traveling was very dangerous at that 

expulsar to expel. 

exquisito delicious El pastel está exqui- 
sito. The pie's delicious. A exquisite 
Tiene un gusto exquisito para vestir. 
She has exquisite taste in clothes. 

extender [rad-ch /] to spread out, extend 
Extendieron el mapa sobre la mesa. 
They spread the map out on the table. 
A to issue La biblioteca le extenderá 
una tarjeta de lector. The library will 
issue you a reader's card. A to enlarge 
Extenderán el campo de aterrizaje. 
They'll enlarge the landing field. . A to 
expand Han extendido sus negocios por 

todo el país. They've expanded their 
business throughout the country. 

O extenderse to spread, become com- 
mon or widespread Se ha extendido 
mucho esa costumbre. That custom's 
become very widespread. 

exterior \_adj; m\ outside El exterior de 
la casa estaba muy deteriorado. The 
outside of the house was very run 

externo external Para uso externo sola- 
mente. For external use only. 

extra [adv~\ extra El desayuno se paga 
extra. Extra charge for breakfast. 
A if] extra [.Am] ¿Leyó Ud. la extra de 
esta mañana? Did you read this morn- 
ing's extra? 

extranjero foreign Hablaban una lengua 
extranjera. They spoke a foreign lan- 
guage. A [n] foreigner El hotel está 
lleno de extranjeros. The hotel's full 
of foreigners. 

° en el extranjero abroad Ha vivido 
mucho tiempo en el extranjero. He's 
lived abroad for a long time. 

extrañar to miss Extraño mucho a mi 
madre. I miss my mother very much. 
O extrañarle a uno to seem strange 
(to) Me extraña que no haya llegado 
aún. It seems strange to me that he 
hasn't arrived yet. 

extraño strange Tiene un nombre ex- 
traño. He has a strange name. A [n] 
stranger No lo conozco, es un extraño. 
I don't know him ; he's a stranger. 

extraordinario extraordinary. 

extravagante queer, unusual. 

extraviarse to be off course, get lost or 
misplaced Los aviadores se extravia- 
ron. The aviators were off their course. 

extremo end Siéntese Ud. al extremo de 
la mesa. Sit at the end of the table. 

fábrica factory. 

fabricación [/] manufacture. 

fabricante [m] manufacturer. 

fabricar to manufacture. 

fábula fable. A fabrication, lies Todo lo 
que nos contó es una fábula. Every- 
thing he told us was pure fabrication. 

fabuloso fabulous. 

facción [/] faction. 

O facciones features (of the face) 
Tiene las facciones muy correctas. He 
has very regular features. 

facha appearance, looks No me gustaba 

la facha que tenía aquel hombre. I 
didn't like that man's looks. A sight, 
mess Vestido de aquella manera, era 
una facha. He was a sight, dressed 
that way. 

fachada front (of a building). 

fácil easy. A loose Aquella mujer era 
muy fácil. She was a loose woman. 
A probable, likely Es muy fácil que 
vaya el domingo. It's very likely hell 
go Sunday. 

O fácil de easy to Eso es muy fácil de 
hacer. That's very easy to do. 





facilidad [/] facility, ease. A aptitude 
Mostró gran facilidad para aprender 
música. He showed great aptitude for 

O con facilidad with ease, fluently 
Hablaba inglés con mucha facilidad. 
He speaks English very fluently. O dar 
facilidades to facilitate; to offer assist- 
ance El gobierno nos dio toda clase de 
facilidades para la investigación. Th~ 
government offered us every assistance 
in the investigation. 

facilitar to supply Facilitó los fondos 
necesarios para aquel negocio. He sup- 
plied the necessary funds for that deal. 
A to facilitate, make easier Estos libros 
facilitarán su trabajo. These books 
will make your work easier. 

factor [»;] factor, element; baggageman. 

factoría trading post; [Mex] factory. 

factura bill, invoice Mándeme la factura 
a casa. Send the bill to my house. 

facturar to check (baggage). 

facultad [/] faculty No tenía completas 
sus facultades. He didn't have all his 
faculties. A authority Se le dio facul- 
tad para resolver la cuestión. He was 
given authority to settle the dispute. 
A branch of a university, school Se li- 
cenció en la Facultad de Derecho. He 
graduated from Law School. 

faena work, task Se dedicaban a las fae- 
nas del campo. They were engaged in 
farm work. A trick Me hizo una mala 
faena. He played a dirty trick on me. 

faja sash (worn around waist); girdle 

falda skirt Lleva la falda muy corta. 
She's wearing a very short skirt. 
A slope, side El pueblo está en la falda 
de la colina. The village is on the side 
of the hill. A lap Tenía el niño en la 
falda. She had the child on her lap. 

fallar to pass sentence El juez está dis- 
puesto a fallar. The judge is ready to 
pass sentence. A to fail Me ha fallado 
imo de mis mejores amigos. One of 
my best friends has failed me. A to 
miss, fail El motor falla siempre al 
subir las cuestas. The motor always 
misses going uphill. 

fallecer [-zc-~\ to die, pass away. 

fallo verdict, decision. 

falsear to falsify Ha falseado los hechos. 
He's falsified the facts. A to open with 
a skeleton key or pass key [Am] Los 
ladrones falsearon la puerta. The 
thieves opened the door with a pass 

falsedad [/] falsehood, lie Estoy seguro 

de que ha dicho una falsedad. I'm sure 
he's told a lie. 

falsificar to forge, counterfeit. 

falso false, untrue. A forged La firma 
era falsa. The signature was forged. 
A counterfeit Me dieron un peso falso. 
They gave me a counterfeit peso. 
A imitation Usaba joyas falsas. She 
was wearing imitation jewelry. A dis- 
honest Fué muy falso conmigo. He was 
dishonest with me. 

O dar un paso en falso to make a 
misstep. O en falso falsely Juró en 
falso. He swore falsely. 

falta error, mistake Hay muchas faltos 
en esta traducción. There are a lot of 
mistakes in this translation. A fault 
Todos tenemos nuestras faltas. We all 
have our faults. A misdemeanor, petty 

O a falta de for lack of Tomaremos 
esto a falta de cosa mejor. We'll take 
this for lack of something better. 
° hacer falta to be necessary, be 
needed Hace falta dinero. Money is 
needed. O hacerle falta a uno to need 
Me hace falta un lápiz. I need a pen- 
cil. A to miss Ud. me hace mucha fal- 
ta. I miss you very much. O sin falta 
without fail Venga Ud. sin falta a las 
once. Come at eleven without fail. 

faltar to lack Le faltan condiciones para 
tener éxito en el teatro. He lacks the 
qualifications for success in the thea- 
ter. A to be missing ¿Le falta a Ud. 
algo en su cartera? Is anything miss- 
ing from your pocketbook? A to be 
needed Faltan cuatro para completar 
los cincuenta. Four more are needed 
to make fifty. A to be lacking Faltan 
diez minutos para las dos. It's ten 
minutes to two. A to offend No le he 
querido faltar. I didn't want to of- 
fend him. 

O faltar a to be absent from Faltó 
a la clase el lunes. He was absent 
from class Monday. A to break, ig- 
nore No puede Ud. faltar a la cita. You 
can't break the appointment. O ¡No 
faltaba más! Of course; by all means 
"¿Va Ud. a quedarse?" "¡No faltaba 
más!" "Are you going to stay?" "Of 

fama fame. A reputation Ese hombre 
tiene mala fama. That man has a bad 

O tener fama de to have the reputa- 
tion of Tiene fama de sabio. He has 
the reputation of being very wise. 

familia family. 





familiar familiar Su apellido me es fa- 
miliar. His name's familiar to me. 
Á [w] relative Invitaron solaviente a 
los familiares. They invited only their 

famoso famous. 

fanático [ad;] fanatic, fanatical. A [«] 

fango mud. 

fantasia imagination Toda esa historia 
es un producto de su fantasia. That 
whole story's a product of his imagina- 
tion. A whim No debe Ud. consentirle 
todas sus fantasías. You shouldn't 
give in to all her whims. A fantasy, 
fairy tale No le crea, todo eso es una 
fantasía. Don't believe that; it's all 
a fairy tale. 

fantasma [m~\ ghost. 

fantástico fantastic, unbelievable Explicó 
de una manera fantástica su retraso. 
He told a fantastic story to explain 
his delay. A extravagant Daba unas 
propinas fantásticas. He gave ex- 
travagant tips. 

fardo big bundle, bale. 

farmacéutico pharmacist. 

farmacia pharmacy. 

faro beacon, lighthouse; headlight. 

farol [m] lantern Encienda Ud. el farol 
para que veamos. Light the lantern 
so we can see. A street lamp A la luz 
del farol de la calle leyó la carta. He 
read the letter by the light of the street 
lamp. A bluff Se echó un farol diciendo 
que le conocía. He was bluffing when 
he said he knew him. 

farola street lamp. 

farra O i r de farra to paint the town red, 
to go on a spree. 

fascinar to fascinate. 

fastidiar to annoy, bother ¡Hombre, no 
fastidies con esas bromas! Don't an- 
noy me with those jokes. 

fastidioso annoying, tiresome. 

fatal fatal. 

fatalidad [/] fate. 

fatiga fatigue, tiredness El trabajo pro- 
duce fatiga. Work produces fatigue. 
A hardship No hay vida sin fatigas. 
There's no life without hardships. 

O pasar fatigas to have a hard time 
Pasaba fatigas para ganarse la vida. 
He had a hard time making a living. 

fatigar to tire Fatigó al caballo de tanto 
galopar. He tired the horse with so 
much galloping. 

O fatigarse to get tired ¡Se fatiga 
Ud. demasiado con este trabajo! You're 
getting too tired doing this work. 

fatuo pompous, vain. 

favor [m] favor Le hicieron muchos 
favores. They did him many favors. 
° a favor de with, aided by Remaba 
a favor de la. corriente. He rowed with 
the current. A on behalf of, for, in 
favor of Hizo testamento a favor de 
S7is hijos. He made his will in favor 
of his children. O en favor in behalf 
(of someone) Fué el único que habló en 
su favor. He was the only one who 
spoke in his behalf. O favor de please 
[Am] Favor de pasarme el azúcar. 
Please pass me the sugar. O hacer el 
favor de please ¿Quiere Ud. hacer el 
favor de pasarme su plato? Will you 
please pass me your plate? O por 
favor please Por favor, ¿Quiere de- 
cirme qué hora es? Would you tell 
me the time, please? 

favorable favorable. 

favorecer [-zc-] to grant favors to, help 
Ese hombre ha favorecido mucha a mi 
familia. That man's helped my family 
a lot. A to flatter Ud. me favorece. 
You flatter me. A to become No creo 
que ese color le favorezca a Ud. I 
don't think that color becomes you. 

favorito [adj; n] favorite. 

fe [/] faith. 

° de buena fe, de mala fe in good 
faith, in bad faith Lo hizo de buena fe. 
He did it in good faith. O tener fe en 
to believe in, have faith in Tengo 
mucha, fe en él. I have great faith in 

fealdad [/] ugliness. 

febrero February. 

febril feverish. 

fecha date ¿Qué fecha tiene la carta? 
What's the date on the letter? 

fechar to date (a letter, etc). 

fecundo prolific, fruitful. 

federación [/] federation. 

federal federal. 

felicidad [/] happiness Es difícil conse- 
guir la felicidad. It's hard to achieve 
happiness. A safety Salió de aquella 
prueba con toda felicidad. He carne 
through that experience safely. 

felicitación [/] congratulations Cuando 
le escriba envíele mi felicitación por su 
éxito. When you write to him, send my 
congratulations on his success. 

felicitar to congratulate. 

feliz happy No creo que será muy feliz 
viviendo con su suegra. I don't think 
she'll be happy living with her mother- 
in-law. — Deseamos a Ud. Feliz Año 





Nuevo. We wish you a Happy New 

femenino feminine. 

fenómeno phenomenon; freak. A prodigy 
Era un fenómeno en las matemáticas. 
He was a prodigy in mathematics. 

feo homely, ugly Era un hombre muy 
feo. He was a very homely man. 
A serious El asunto tomó un cariz muy 
feo. The matter took a serious turn. 
O hacer un feo to be impolite to, to 
slight Vaya Ud. a visitarlo, no le haga 
Ud. un feo. Go and visit him; don't 
slight him. 

feria country market, fair Compró dos 
caballos en la feria. He bought two 
horses 'at the fair. A small change 
[Mex] ¿Tiene Ud. feria? Do you have 
any small change? 

feriado Odia feriado holiday [Aw]. 

fermentar to ferment, sour. 

feroz ferocious. 

ferretería hardware store. 

ferrocarril [rn] railroad, railway. 

fértil fertile. 

festivo humorous. 

O día festivo holiday. 

fiado (see fiar) O a l fiado on credit. 

fiambre cold, served cold (of food). 

O fiambres [m pi] cold meat, cold 

fiambrera lunch pail. 

fianza bail, bond. 

O bajo fianza on bail Le han puesto 
en libertad bajo fianza. They've freed 
him on bail. 

fiar to give credit El Banco le fio hasta 
cien mil pesetas. The bank gave him a 
hundred thousand pesetas' credit. A to 
sell on trust, sell on credit Hoy no se 
fia mañana sí. Cash today, credit to- 

O fiarse de to trust, rely on No me 
fío de lo que dice. I don't trust what 
he says. O S er de fiar to be trust- 
worthy Ese hombre no es de fiar. That 
man's not to be trusted. 

fibra fiber. A stamina, energy Es un 
hombre de mucha fibra. He's a man 
of great energy. 

ficha chip (card games); domino; filing 

fidelidad [/] loyalty, faithfulness La 
fidelidad es una virtud. Faithfulness 
is a virtue. A exactness El documento 
se copió con toda fidelidad. The docu- 
ment was copied exactly. 

fiebre [/] fever. 

fiel faithful Le era fiel como un perro. 
He was as faithful to him as a dog. 
A correct, accurate El relato que hizo 

era fiel. The account he gave was 

O estar en el fiel to balance, be bal- 
anced La balanza estaba en el fiel. The 
scales were balanced. 

fieltro felt (material). 

fiera wild animal En el circo tienen una 
magnífica colección de fieras. The cir- 
cus has a wonderful collection of wild 

O como una fiera furious, like a 
wild beast Se puso como una fiera. He 
became furious. O trabajar como una 
fiera to work like a horse. 

fiesta holiday El lunes es día de fiesta. 
Monday's a holiday. A party Hubo una 
gran fiesta en su casa. There was a 
big party at his house. 

O hacerle fiestas a uno to play with 
(an infant) Le hizo fiestas al niño. He 
played with the child. 

figura figure, build Ese hombre tiene muy 
buena* figura. That man has a very 
good build. 

figurar to figure, be Entre los concu- 
rrentes figuraba el Duque de X. The 
Duke of X was among those present. 
A to be in the limelight, be conspicuous 
Le gustaba mucho figurar. He liked to 
be in the limelight. 

O figurarse to imagine, think Se 
figura que puede hacer todo lo que 
quiere. She imagines she can get 
away with anything. 

fijar to drive in Fijaron estacas para 
asegurar la tienda. They drove in 
stakes to hold the tent down. A to 
post Se prohibe fijar carteles. Post no 
bills. A to establish Han fijado su re- 
sidencia en Paris. They've established 
their residence in Paris. A to fix, set 
Fijaron la fecha de la boda. They set 
the date for the wedding. 

° fijar los ojos en to stare at. 
O fijarse to imagine ¡Fíjate (en) lo 
que me pasó! Imagine what happened 
to me! O fijarse en to pay attention 
to Fíjese Ud. en lo que le digo. Pay 
close attention to what I'm telling you. 

fijo permanent Su puesto no es fijo. His 
job isn't permanent. A fixed, set No 
hacemos rebajas, nuestros precios son 
fijos. We don't make reductions; our 
prices are fixed. A fast No se puede 
quitar. Está fijo. It can't be removed. 
It's fast. 

O a punto fijo exactly No lo sé a 
punto fijo. I don't know exactly. O de 
fijo surely De fijo llueve hoy. It'll sure- 
ly rain today. O hora fija exact time, 
time agreed upon. 





fila row Déme una butaca de primera 
fila. Give me a seat in the first row, 
orchestra. A line, rank Había dos filas 
de soldados. There were two lines of 

O en fila in (a) line Los niños esta- 
ban en fila. The children were stand- 
ing in line. 

filete [m~\ steak Comió un filete con papas 
fritas. He had steak and fried pota- 

filial filial. 

filo (cutting) edge. 

filosofía philosophy. 

filtrar to filter. 

fin [m] end ¿Llegaremos antes del fin de 
la película? Will we get there before 
the end of the movie? A purpose No 
sé con qué fin lo dice. I don't know 
what his purpose is in saying it. 

O a fin de que so (that) A fin de que 
pudiera volver le mandé dinero. I 
sent him money so he'd be able to 
come back. O a fines de toward the 
end of, late in (the week, etc) A fines 
de mes volveré a mi casa. I'll be back 
home toward the end of the month. 
O al fin at last, finally Al fin se que- 
daron solos. They were alone at last. 
° al fin y al cabo after all Al fin y al 
cabo no era tan mala la comedia. After 
all the play wasn't so bad. O en fin 
in short En fin, ella no le quería. In 
short, she didn't love him. A well En 
fin, ya veremos. Well, we'll see. O por 
fin at last Por fin pude encontrarle. 
At last I managed to find him. O sin 
fin (de) endless, no end (of), number- 
less Tenía un sin fin de cosas que hacer. 
He had no end of things to do. 

final [adj] final. A [m] end, conclusion. 
O punto final period (punctuation). 

financiar to finance [Aw]. 

finca country estate, property, farm. 

fineza courtesy, politeness, kindness Me 
hizo muchas finezas. He extended many 
courtesies to me. 

fingir to pretend ¡No finja Ud. lo que no 
siente! Don't pretend what you don't 

fingirse to feign, pretend Se fingió 
enfermo para no trabajar. He feigned 
illness to get out of working. 

fino thin, fine, sharp Me gusta una pluma 
fina. I like a pen with a fine point. 
A fine, delicate (of features, etc) Esa 
muchacha tiene las facciones muy 
finas. That girl has very delicate 
features. A refined, fine La pulsera es 
de oro fino. The bracelet's of fine gold. 

A courteous Era un hombre muy fino. 
He was a very courteous man. A sheer, 
thin Llevaba unas medias muy finas. 
She wore very sheer hose. 

finura courtesy. 

firma signature Escriba Ud. la firma al 
pie. Sign it at the bottom. 

O buena firma reliable firm or house 
Trabajaba para una buena firma. He 
worked for a reliable firm. 

firmar to sign. 

firme firm, steady, sturdy Tome esta silla 
que es muy firme. Take this chair; 
it's sturdy. 

O en firme definite, firm Hicieron una 
oferta en firme. They made a definite 
offer. O estar en lo firme to be in the 
right Creo que estoy en lo firme. I be- 
lieve I'm in the right. O firmes [mpl] 
roadbed La carretera se hizo con firmes 
especiales. The road was built with a 
special roadbed. 

firmeza firmness. 

fiscal fiscal. A [m] attorney-general; dis- 
trict attorney. 

física physics. 

físico physical. A [n] physicist. 

fisonomía physiognomy, countenance, 

flaco thin, lean Cada día se le veía más 
flaco. He appeared thinner every day. 
A weak Encontré su punto flaco. I dis- 
covered his weak spot. 

O hacerle a uno un flaco servicio to 
play a dirty trick on one Le hizo un 
flaco servicio. He played a dirty trick 
on him. 

flamenco flamingo; flamenco (type of 
Spanish songs and dances). 

flan [m] custard. 

flaqueza failing, weakness. 

flauta flute. 

flecha arrow. 

flete [m\ freight; freight rate. 

flexibilidad [/] flexibility. 

flexible flexible. A [w] electric cord [Sp] ; 
soft hat. 

flirtear to flirt. 

flojo lazy, slack Es muy flojo para el tra- 
bajo. He's very slack about his work. 
A loose Ese nudo está flojo. That knot's 

flor [/] flower. A compliment Al verla 
pasar le echó una flor. When he saw 
her pass, he paid her a compliment. 

florecer [-zc-] to bloom No creo que flo- 
rezcan tan pronto los rosales. I don't 
think the roses will bloom so soon. 

florero flower vase. 

florido florid, flowery. A in bloom Los 





almendros están floridos. The almond 
trees are in bloom. 

flota fleet (of ships). 

flotación [/] buoyancy. 

O línea de flotación waterline. 

flotar to float. 

foco focus; headlight. 

fogón [m] fire box (of locomotive, etc) ; 
stove, cooking range. 

fogonero stoker, fireman. 

folleto pamphlet. 

fomentar to foment, promote El gobierno 
debe fomentar las artes. The govern- 
ment ought to promote the arts. A to 
foment, instigate Los agitadores fo- 
mentaban la rebelión. The agitators 
instigated the rebellion. 

fomento encouragement, promotion El 
fomento de las artes. Promotion of 
the arts. 

fonda inn. 

fondo bottom Lo guardaba en el fondo 
del cajón. He kept it in the bottom of 
the drawer. A background El retrato 
tenia un fondo oscuro. The portrait 
had a dark background. A back El 
fondo de la casa. The back of the 

O a fondo thoroughly Era necesario 
estudiar el asunto a fondo. It was 
necessary to study the matter thor- 
oughly. O andar mal de fondos to be 
short of money. O artículo de fondo 
editorial Esc7-ibió un buen artículo de 
fondo. He wrote a good editorial. O en 
el fondo at bottom, at heart En el 
fondo era una excelente persona. He 
was an excellent person at heart. 
O fondos funds No tengo fondos en el 
banco. I have no funds in the bank. 
fonógrafo phonograph. 
forastero, forastera stranger (from an- 
other city or town). 
forjado (see forjar) O hierro forjado 

wrought iron. 
forjar to forge, hammer. 

O forjarse ilusiones to delude one- 
self, build castles in the air. 
forma shape, form No me gusta la forma 
de este sombrero. I don't like the 
shape of this hat. A way, manner No 
había forma de entenderlo. There was 
no way of understanding it. 

O con buenas (or malas) formas 
politely (or impolitely) Lo dijo con 
muy buenas formas. He said it very 
politely. O dar forma a to put in final 
form or shape Había que dar forma al 
artículo. The article had to be put in 
final form. O en forma in order El 

pasaporte estaba en forma. The pass- 
port was in order. 
formación [/] formation. 

O en formación in formation. 
formal reliable Es un hombre muy for- 
mal. He's a very reliable man. 
A serious, sedate, settled Desde que se 
casó se ha vuelto muy formal. He's 
become very settled since his marriage. 
formalidad [/] earnestness, seriousness 
Hablemos con formalidad. Let's talk 

O formalidades red tape Perdieron 
mucho tiempo en todas las formali- 
dades. They lost a lot of time, with all 
the red tape. 
formalizar to arrange, legalize Formali- 
zaron el contrato. They legalized the 
formar to form, make, be Formaban un 
grupo muy alegre. They made a very 
merry group. 

O formar parte de to be a member or 
part of Formó parte de esa organiza- 
ción. He was a member of that or- 
formidable formidable Se enfrentaban con 
una competición formidable. They 
were up against some very formidable 
fórmula formula. A solution Había que 
encontrar una fórmula. A solution had 
to be found. 

O por fórmula as a matter of form 
Le saludó por fórmula. He greeted him 
as a matter of form. 
formular to draw up, formulate Formuló 
sus ideas en una memoria. He formu- 
lated his ideas in a report, 
forro lining (in clothing). 
fortaleza fortitude, strength Su forta- 
leza era notable. His fortitude was 
remarkable. A fortress. 
fortuna fortune Hizo una fortuna especu- 
lando en la bolsa. He made a fortune 
playing the stock market. A luck Tuve 
la fortuna de encontrarle. I had the 
luck to find him. 

O por fortuna fortunately Por for- 
tuna pudieron escapar. Fortunately, 
they were able to escape. 
forzado See forzar. A [?n] convict. 
O trabajo forzado forced labor. 
forzar [rad-ch I] to force, compel; to 
rape. A to break down Forzaron la 
puerta. They broke down the door, 
forzoso compulsory, unavoidable La deci- 
sión era forzosa. The decision was 

O paro forzoso unemployment. 





fosa grave Lo llevaron a la fosa. They 
took him to the grave. 

fósforo match ¿Tiene Ud. fósforos? Have 
you any matches? 

fotografía photography; photograph. 

fracasar to fail La comedia fracasó. The 
play failed. 

fracaso failure, flop El negocio fué un 
fracaso. The business was a failure. 

fracción [/] fraction; fragment. 

fragancia fragrance. 

frágil fragile. 

fragmento fragment. 

fraile [m] monk, friar. 

franco free, exempt Se estableció un 
puerto franco. A free port was estab- 
lished. A frank ¡Sea Ud. franco con- 
migo! Be frank with me! 

O franco de porte prepaid Envió la 
mercancía franco de porte. He sent 
the merchandise prepaid. 

franqueo postage, amount of postage 
¿Cuánto es el franqueo de esta carta? 
What's the postage on this letter? 

franqueza frankness Me gusta la fran- 
queza de Ud. I like your frankness. 
O con franqueza frankly ¿Habla Ud. 
con franqueza? Are you speaking 

frasco bottle, flask. 

frase [/] phrase. 

fraternal brotherly, fraternal. 

frazada blanket Ponga Ud. dos frazadas 
en la cama. Put two blankets on the 

frecuencia frequency. 

frecuente frequent. 

fregadero or fregadera kitchen sink. 

fregar [rad-ch I] to scour, scrub Hace > 
falta que frieguen este piso. The floor 
has to be scrubbed. A to wash (dishes) 
No me gusta fregar los platos. I don't 
like to wash dishes. A to annoy [Am] 
¡Hombre no friegues más! Stop an- 
noying me! 

freír [rad-ch III~\ to fry Fríe el pescado 
con aceite. He's frying the fish in oil. 

frenar to (put on the) brake; to restrain. 

frenesí [m~\ madness; frenzy. 

frenético very angry; frenzied. 

freno bit (for horses); brake. 

frente [/] forehead. A [m] front, battle- 
field Los soldados marcharon al frente. 
The soldiers left for the front. 

O al frente de in charge of No sé 
quien está al frente del negocio. I 
don't know who's in charge of the busi- 
ness. O en frente de opposite Vive en 
la casa que está en frente de la nuestra. 
He lives in the house opposite ours. 

O frente a in front of El coche paró 
frente a la puerta. The coach stopped 
in front of the door. O frente a frente 
face to face Los dos enemigos estaban 
frente a frente. The two enemies were 
face to face. O hacer frente to face 
Había que hacer frente a aquel con- 
flicto. The problem had to be faced. 

fresa strawberry. 

fresco cool (of weather, wind, etc) La 
noche estaba fresca. The night was 
cool. A fresh (of food) El pescado es- 
taba muy fresco. The fish was very 
fresh. A fresh, cheeky, nervy Ese tipo 
es muy fresco. That guy has a lot of 
nerve. A [m\ cooling drink [Am] ¿Le 
gusta el fresco de pina? Do you like 
pineapple drinks? A fresco Los fres- 
cos de la catedral son muy interesantes. 
The frescoes of the cathedral are very 

O quedarse tan fresco to show no 
concern, to remain unmoved ¡Y se que- 
dó tan fresco! He was completely un- 
concerned ! O tomar el fresco to get 
some fresh air Estaban en el jardín 
tomando el fresco. They were in the 
garden getting some fresh air. 

frescura coolness Notamos frescura al 
llegar al río. We felt the coolness when 
we arrived at the river. A nerve, cheek 
La frescura de aquel hombre indig- 
naba. The nerve of that man was 

frialdad [/] coldness (of weather) ; cool- 
ness, unconcern. 

frijol [m] bean. 

frío [adj] cold La sopa está fría. The 
soup's cold. A cold, unemotional Era 
de temperamento muy frío. He was a 
very cold person. 

O hacer frío to be cold (of weather) 
Aquel invierno hizo mucho frío. It was 
very cold that winter. O no darle a 
uno frío ni calor to leave one indif- 
ferent No me daba frío ni calor. It 
left me indifferent. O tener frío to 
feel (or be) cold Tengo mucho frío. 
I'm very cold. 

friolento sensitive to cold. 

friolera trifle, something unimportant 
Eso es una friolera. That's a trifle. 

friolero chilly, sensitive to cold Es muy 
friolero. He's very sensitive to cold. 
A (ironically) extremely important. 

frito (see freír) fried. 

O estar frito to be annoyed Estaba 
frito con esas preguntas. He was an- 
noyed by those questions. O traerle a 





uno frito to pester or annoy Aquel 
hombre me traía frito. That man was 
pestering me. 

fritura fritter. 

frivolo frivolous. 

frontera frontier, boundary. 

frotación [/] rub, rubbing. 

frotar to rub Le frotó la espalda con 
alcohol. She rubbed his back with al- 

fruncir to shir, gather (material). 

O fruncir el ceño or entrecejo to 

frustrar to thwart, frustrate. 

fruta (edible) fruit De postre siempre 
tomaba fruta. He always ate fruit for 

frutal [m], árbol frutal fruit tree. 

frutero greengrocer; fruit bowl. 

fruto fruit (edible or inedible) El fruto 
de ese arbusto es venenoso. The fruit 
of that shrub's poisonous. A fruit, re- 
ward Aquel esfuerzo no dio fruto. 
That effort bore no fruit. A profit El 
negocio no dio fruto. The business 
didn't produce a profit. 

O frutos produce Inglaterra importa 
frutos españoles. England imports 
Spanish produce. 

fuego fire Atice Ud. el fuego que se 
apaga. Poke the fire; it's going out. 

O hacer fuego to fire (a weapon) Los 
soldados hicieron fuego. The soldiers 

fuente [/] fountain El agua de esta fu- 
ente está muy fría. The water of this 
fountain's very cold. A source Su in- 
formación es de buena fuente. His 
information comes from a reliable 
source. A dish, platter Sirva Ud. el 
pescado en esa fuente. Serve the fish 
on that platter. 

fuera out, outside Los enviaron fuera. 
They sent them out. A out ¡Fuera de 
aquí! Get out! 

O desde fuera from the outside 
Desde fuera no se ve el jardín. The 
garden can't be seen from the outside. 
O fuera de out of Estará tres días 
fuera de la ciudad. He'll be out of the 
city for three days. O fuera de sí 
beside oneself Estaba fuera de sí de 
cólera. He was beside himself with 
anger. O por fuera on the outside Por 
fuera la casa es muy bonita. On the 
outside the house is very pretty. 

fuerte strong Era un hombre muy fuerte. 
He was a very strong man. A bad, 
severe Ha cogido un catarro muy 
fuerte. He's caught a very bad cold. 

A severe, intense Hace un frío muy 
fuerte. The cold's intense. A heavy, 
warm, thick Lleve calzado fuerte para 
la excursión. Wear heavy shoes for 
the outing. A heavy La lluvia era muy 
fuerte. The rainfall was very heavy. 
A harsh, unbearable Lo que le dijo fué 
demasiado fuerte. What she told him 
was too harsh. A [adv] loud Habla 
demasiado fuerte. He speaks too loud. 
A [m] fort. 

fuerza power Ese motor no tiene fuerza 
suficiente. That motor doesn't have 
enough power. 

O a fuerza de by dint of Lo consiguió 
a fuerza de trabajo. He got it by dint 
of hard work. O a la fuerza forcibly 
Habrá que hacerlo a la fuerza. It'll 
have to be done forcibly. O fuerza (s) 
strength. O fuerzas forces Nuestras 
fuerzas ocuparon la ciudad. Our forces 
occupied the city. O por (la) fuerza by 
force, forcibly Lo metieron al automó- 
vil por la fuerza. They put him into 
the car forcibly. 

fuete [m~\ quirt, riding whip [Am]. 

fuga flight, escape. 

fugarse to run away, flee, escape. 

fullero shady, not on the level Su juego es 
un poco fullero. He plays a shady 
game. A stuck-up, conceited, pompous 
[Am] Es un tipo muy fullero. He's a 
pompous ass. 

fumar to smoke Se prohibe fumar. No 

función [/] function, duty, position 
¿Cuáles son sxis funciones? What are 
your duties? A show, performance ¿A 
qué hora empieza la función? What 
time does the show start? 

funcionamiento [w] working, function- 

funcionar to work, function, run (of 
machines) El ascensor no funciona. 
The elevator isn't running. 

funcionario public official, public servant. 

funda case, pillowcase; slipcover; sheath. 

fundación [/] foundation, founding Hoy 
se celebra la fundación de la ciudad. 
Today they're celebrating the found- 
ing of the city. 

fundamental [adj] fundamental. 

fundamento basis Sus ideas no tienen 
fundamento. His ideas have no basis. 

fundar to found, establish. 

O fundarse to base oneself En eso 
me fundo para decirlo. That's my 
basis for saying so. 

fundición [/] melting; foundry. A cast- 
ing La fundición de la estatua se re- 





trasó. The casting of the statue was 

fundir to smelt Fundieron todo el hierro. 

They smelted all the iron. 

O fundirse to combine, merge Se 

fundieron los dos negocios en uno. 

They merged the two businesses into 

one. A to be ruined [Am]. 
funeral(es) [m] funeral service Los 

funerales se celebrarán en la catedral. 

Funeral services will take place in the 

furia fury. 

furioso furious. 

furor [m] fury, anger; rage, fashion. 

fusil [m] army rifle. 

fusilar to shoot (execute by shooting). 

fuste [m] substance, importance Una 
dama de alto fuste. A lady of great 

fútbol [m] soccer, football (game). 

futuro \_adj; m] future. 

O en lo futuro in (the) future, here- 
after Procure Ud. en lo futuro venir 
puntualmente a la oficina. In the fu- 
ture, try to get to the office on time. 

gabán [m] coat, overcoat. 

gabinete [m] cabinet Se han encargado 
de formar gabinete. They've undertaken 
to form a cabinet. A study, small liv- 
ing room La casa tiene comedor, alcoba 
y gabinete. The house has a dining 
room, a bedroom, and a study. 

gaceta gazette, newspaper; record. 

gacho slouched, turned down, stooped 
Lleva el sombrero gacho. He wears 
his hat turned down. 

gachupín, gachupina Spaniard who set- 
tles in Mexico. 

gafas [/ pi] eye-glasses, spectacles. 

gajo small bunch [Am] Quiero un gajo 
de uvas. I want a small bunch of 
grapes. A section, piece Pele la naranja 
y déme un gajo. Peel the orange and 
give me a piece. 

gala ° función de gala gala performance. 
O tener a gala to be proud Tenia a 
gala ser inglés. He was proud to be 
an Englishman. O traje de gala dress 
suit (uniform). 

galán juvenile lead (in a movie or the- 
atrical performance) El galán de esa 
compañía es muy malo. The juvenile 
lead of that company is very bad. 

O galán, galán easily, without effort 
[Mex] Galán, galán subió las escaleras. 
He climbed the stairs easily. 

galante attentive Sea Ud. galante con 
ella. Be attentive to her. 

galantear to court, make love to. 

galantería compliment Me dijo una ga- 
lantería. He paid me a compliment. 
A courtesy. 

galápago fresh-water tortoise. A side 
saddle [Am]. 

galera shed [Am] El carro estaba debajo 
de la galera. The cart was under the 
shed. A wagon ; van. 

galería gallery (art) La galería de pin- 
tura estaba muy concurrida. The art 
gallery was very crowded. A gallery 
(theater) Los espectadores de la ga- 
lería hacían mucho ruido. The specta- 
tors in the gallery were making a lot 
of noise. A glass-covered sun porch 
Vamos a tomar el sol en la galería. 
Let's sun ourselves on the sun porch. 
A underground passageway, gallery 
Abrieron otra galería en la mina. They 
opened another passageway in the 

galgo greyhound. 

gallardía fine bearing Los soldados 
mostraban gran gallardía. The soldiers 
had a very fine bearing. 

gallego, gallega Spaniard [Am]. 

galleta cookie ¿Quiere Ud. galletas con el 
té? Would you like cookies with your 
tea? A slap Le dio una galleta. She 
gave him a slap. 

gallina [/] hen. A [m] coward ¡Es Ud. 
un gallina! You're a coward! 

gallinero hen coop; top gallery. 

gallo cock, rooster. A bully [Sp~\ . A match, 
equal [Aw] Ese no es gallo para él. 
That fellow's no match for him. 

O llevar un gallo to serenade [Mex] . 

galón [ni] gallon. 

galope [m] gallop, canter. 

galpón [m] toolshed [Arg]. 

gana O dar ganas to feel like No me dan 
ganas de trabajar. I don't feel like 
working. O darle a uno la gana [Fam] 
to feel like, want to Me da la gana de 
ir. I'm going because I want to. O de 
buena gana willingly Lo hizo de buena 
gana. He did it willingly. O de mala 
gana unwillingly. O n o darle a uno 
la gana to refuse to, not to feel like 
No me da la gana de hacerlo. I refuse 





to do it. O tener ganas de to feel like 
Tengo ganas de pasear. I feel like 
taking a walk. 

ganado cattle, livestock Tenía doscientas 
cabezas de ganado. He had two hun- 
dred head of cattle. 

ganador, ganadora winner. 

ganancia profit, gain. 

ganar to win ¿No ganó Ud. la apuesta? 
Didn't you win the bet? A to gain No 
ganó nada con decirme eso. He gained 
nothing by telling me that. A to earn 
¿Cuánto gana Ud. a la semana? How 
much do you earn per week? 

O ganar de mano to beat (someone) 
to it [Ar^] Los dos queríamos com- 
prar el caballo pero él me ganó de 
mano. We both wanted to buy the 
horse but he beat me to it. O ganarse 
la vida to earn a living Me gano la 
vida como puedo. I earn my living as 
best I can. O ganar tiempo to save 

ganchada O hacer una ganchada to do a 
favor [Arg~\. 

gancho hook Colgó la chaqueta en un 
gancho. He hung his jacket on a hook. 
O gancho de cabeza hairpin [Aw]. 
O tener gancho to be attractive, 
charming Esa muchacha tiene mucho 
gancho. That girl is very attractive. 

ganga bargain Estos calcetines son una 
ganga. These socks are a bargain. 

ganso goose, gander. 

garaje [w] garage. 

garantía security Antes de prestarle el 
dinero pidió garantía. Before lending 
him the money he asked for security. 

garantizar to guarantee El reloj estaba 
garantizado. The watch was guaran- 
teed. A to vouch for Quiero que Ud. 
le garantice. I want you to vouch for 

garbanzo chickpea. 

garbo grace Baila con garbo. He dances 

garfio hook, gaff. 

garganta throat. 

gárgaras [/ pi] gargle (act of gargling). 
O hacer gárgaras to gargle. 

garra claw. 

O caer en las garras de to fall into 
the clutches of. 

garrafa decanter; straw-covered bottle. 

garrote [w] club (weapon) ; gallows. 

garúa drizzle [Arg~\. 

gas [w] gas (vapor) Encienda Ud. el gas. 
Turn on the gas. 

° llevar gas to go at high speed, go 
fast Llevaba mucho gas aquel automó- 

vil. That automobile was going very 

gasa gauze. 

gasolina gasoline. 

gastar to spend Gastó casi todo su sueldo. 
He spent almost all his salary. A to 
waste Me está Ud. haciendo gastar el 
tiempo. You're making me waste time. 
A to wear, use Nunca gasta sombrero. 
He never wears a hat. 

O gastar bromas pesadas to play 
practical jokes Siempre está gastando 
bromas pesadas. He is always playing 
practical jokes. O gastarse to wear out 
Se ha gastado muy pronto esa tela. 
That cloth has worn out very rapidly. 

gasto expense Cuando pagó los gastos 
quedó limpio. When he paid the ex- 
penses, he had nothing left. 

O hacer el gasto to be the life of the 
party Fué él quien hizo el gasto de la 
fiesta. He was the life of the party. 
O pagar los gastos to pay the expenses, 
foot the bill. 

gata cat, she-cat. 

O andar a gatas to walk on all fours, 

gatillo trigger. 

gato cat, tom-cat. A jack Nos hace falta 
el gato para cambiar la rueda. We 
need a jack to change the wheel. 

O dar gato por liebre to cheat, to 

|| Aquí hay gato encerrado. There is 
more here than meets the eye. 

gaucho gaucho, man of the pampas, cow- 
boy [Aw]. 

gaveta drawer [Aw] Los pañuelos están 
en la gaveta. The handkerchiefs are in 
the drawer. 

gemelo twin Parecían gemelos. They 
looked like twins. A cuff link. 

O gemelos binoculars, opera glasses 
Préstame los gemelos para verlo mejor. 
Lend me the binoculars so I can see it 

gemido moan, whine. 

general [adj] general Tomaron billetes 
de entrada general. They bought gen- 
eral admission tickets. A [w] general 

O en general usually, generally En 
general se va a casa a las cinco. He 
generally goes home at five o'clock. 
° por lo general usually ¿Que bebe 
Ud. por lo general, vino o cerveza? 
What do you usually drink, wine or 
beer? O por regla general as a general 

generalidad [/] greatest part, majority 





La generalidad de los niños son jugue- 
tones. Most children are playful. 

generalizar to generalize Generaliza al 
hablar de los norteamericanos. He 
generalizes when he speaks of Ameri- 

O generalizarse to become general El 
uso del chicle se ha generalizado. The 
use of chewing gum has become gen- 

género cloth Ese sastre usa siempre muy 
buenos géneros. That tailor always 

i uses very good material. A kind ¿Qué 
género de trabajo le gusta? What kind 
of work do you like? 

O género humano mankind. O género 
masculino, género femenino masculine 
gender, feminine gender. 

|| Sin ningún género de duda. With- 
out any doubt, or Beyond a shadow of 
a doubt. 

generosidad [/] generosity. 

genial brilliant Es un músico genial. He 
is a brilliant musician. 

genio genius Es un hombre de genio. 
He's a genius. 

O buen genio good nature Tiene buen 
genio. He's good-natured. O mal 
genio bad temper. 

gente [/] people ¿Cuánta gente hay en 
esta oficina? How many people are 
there in this office? A folks ¿Cómo está 
su gente? How are your folks? 

° gente bien upper class. O gente 
de bien honest people. O gente me- 
nuda children, small fry. 

gentil gracious, kind. 

gentileza graciousness, kindness. 

geografía geography. 

geográfico geographical. 

gerencia management Mudaron la geren- 
cia de la fábrica. They changed the 
management of the factory. 

gerente [m] manager. 

germen [m] germ. 

gesto gesture; expression of the face 
Tenía mal gesto. He had an unpleasant 
expression on his face. A gesture Su 
dimisión fué un gesto muy noble. His 
resignation was a very noble gesture. 

O hacer gestos to make gestures, to 
signal, make (a) sign(s) Hizo gestos 
de aprobación. He made signs of ap- 

giganta giantess. 

gigante huge, gigantic. A [vi] giant. 

gimnasia physical exercise, calisthenics. 

gimnasio gymnasium. 

gimotear to whine. 

girar to revolve, turn La rueda no gira. 
The wheel doesn't turn. A to turn 

Llegando a la esquina el coche giró a 
la derecha. The car turned right when 
it reached the corner. A to draw Puede 
Ud. girar contra mí cuenta. You can 
draw against my account. 

giro turn El asunto ha tomado un nuevo 
giro. The matter has taken a new 
turn. A draft Ayer le mandamos un 
giro de veinte dólares. We sent him a 
draft yesterday for fifty dollars. 

giro (postal) money order Mán- 
deme la cantidad por giro (postal). 
Send me the amount by money order. 

gitano, gitana gypsy. 

glacial icy El frío es glacial en este pais: 
It's freezing cold in this country. 

globo globe, sphere, balloon. 

gloria glory En la batalla el general se 
cubrió de gloria. In the battle the 
general covered himself with glory. 
A heaven. 

O saber a gloria to be delicious Comi- 
mos un pastel que sabía a gloria. We 
ate a very delicious pie. 

glotón [adj; n] gluttonous; glutton. 

gobernador [m] governor (political). 

gobernar to govern Es un pueblo difícil 
de gobernar. It is a difficult country 
to govern. 

O gobernarse to manage Se gobierna 
muy bien. He manages his affairs 
very well. 

gobierno cabinet El primer ministro está 
formando un nuevo gobierno. The pre- 
mier is forming a new cabinet. A gov- 
ernment Es un gobierno democrático. 
It's a democratic government. A con- 
trol Perdió el gobierno del volante. He 
lost control of the steering wheel. 

golfo gulf. 

golondrina swallow (bird). 

golpe [m] blow El golpe no le hizo daño. 
The blow didn't harm him. 

O al primer golpe de vista at first 
sight Al primer golpe de vista me 
pareció más grande. At first sight it 
seemed larger to me. O dar golpes to 
knock, pound Dio varios golpes en la 
puerta. He knocked on the door sev- 
eral times. O de golpe suddenly, all of 
a sudden Me lo dijo de golpe. He told 
me all of a sudden. O golpe de estado 
coup d'état. 

golpear to pound Estaba golpeando con 
el martillo. He was pounding with the 

goma glue; rubber, eraser. A hang-over 
[Am] ¡Qué goma tengo! What a hang- 
over I have! 

gordo fat Era demasiado gordo. He was 
too fat. 





O agua gorda hard water [Sp] . 
O hacer la vista gorda to pretend not 
to see, wink at Los niños robaban la 
fruta pero el guarda hacía la vista 
gorda. The children were stealing the 
fruit but the keeper pretended not to 
see. O llevarse un susto gordo to get 
a bad scare. 

gordura stoutness, fatness. 

gorro cap (for head). 

° ir de gorra to sponge Le gustaba 
ir de gorra. He liked to sponge on 

gorrión [w] sparrow. 

gorro cap (for head). 

gota drop No dejó gota en el vaso. He 
didn't leave a drop in the glass. A gout. 
O gota a gota drop by drop. O sudar 
la gota gorda to sweat blood. 

gotear to rain, to drizzle. A to leak Esa 
cañería gotea. That water pipe leaks. 

gotera leak (in roof, wall) ¡Tape Ud. esa 
gotera! Plug up that leak! 

gótico Gothic. 

gozar to enjoy oneself, have a good time 
[Am] Gozamos mucho en la fiesta. We 
had a very good time at the party. 

° gozar de to enjoy ¿Goza Ud. de 
buena salud? Are you enjoying good 

gozo joy. 

grabado (see grabar) engraved Sus ini- 
ciales están grabados en la pulsera. 
Her initials are engraved on the brace- 
let. A fixed La idea quedó grabado en 
su imaginación. The idea became fixed 
in his mind. A [m] engraving, etch- 
ing Era un experto en el grabado en 
cobre. He was an expert in copper en- 
graving. A picture (illustration) El 
periódico tenía muy buenos grabados. 
The newspaper had very good pictures. 

grabar to engrave; to cut (a record). 

gracejada crude joke. 

gracia wit, charm, grace. A mercy El 
abogado defensor pidió gracia para el 
condenado. The defense attorney asked 
mercy for the condemned man. A joke 
Se reía de todas sus gracias. He 
laughed at all her jokes. A name ¿Cual 
es su gracia de Ud.? What is your 

O gracias thanks Estoy bien, muchas 
gracias. I am well, thank you. ° gra- 
cias a thanks to Gracias a Ud. llegué 
a tiempo. Thanks to you I arrived on 
time. O hacer gracia to strike one 
(as) funny Me hace gracia lo que dice. 
What he says strikes me (as) funny. 
O tener gracia to be funny, be witty. 

II ¡Qué gracia! How swell! or How 
funny! (Ironical) 

gradas wide steps leading to the entrance 
of a building; bleachers. 

grado degree Obtuvo el grado de doctor 
en filosofía. He got his doctor's degree. 
— La temperatura bajó tres grados. 
The temperature went down three de- 

O de mal grado unwillingly, reluc- 
tantly Aceptó de mal grado. He ac- 
cepted reluctantly. 

graduar to set Había que graduar la 
espoleta. It was necessary to set the 

O graduarse to graduate, be gradu- 
ated Se graduó en la Universidad de 
Harvard. He was graduated from 
Harvard University. 

gráfico [adj] graphic Habla de una ma- 
nera gráfica. He speaks very graphi- 
cally. A pictorial, picture ¿Hay aquí 
revistas gráficas? Are there any pic- 
ture magazines here ? A [w] time table 
Ese gráfico marca las horas de entrada 
y salida. That time table gives the 
hours of arrival and departure. 

grama lawn (grass) [Am]. 

gramática grammar. 

gramo gram (weight). 

gran (see grande) great Ha tenido Ud. 
una gran idea. You've had a great 
idea. A fine, good, grand Es una gran 
persona. He is a fine person. 

granada grenade; pomegranate. 

granado ripe, mature Es un hombre gra- 
nado. He's a mature man. A [m] 
pomegranate tree. 

grande large Un cigarro grande. A large 
cigar. A tall Es un hombre grande. 
He's a big man. A old [Am] Es el más 
grande de los tres. He is the oldest of 
the three. 

O a lo grande in (great) style Le 
gustaba vivir a lo grande. He liked to 
live in style. O en grande on a large 
scale Las fábricas están produciendo en 
grande. The factories are producing 
on a large scale. 

grandeza greatness. 

grandioso grandiose, magnificent. 

granero granary. 

granito granite; pimple. 

granizo hail. 

granja farm. 

grano grain El grano maduró bien aquel 

año. The grain ripened well that year, 

A pimple Tiene la cara llena de granos. 

His face is covered with pimples. 

O ir al grano to get to the point 





¡Vamos al grano! Let's get to the 
point ! 

grasa grease Una mancha de grasa. A 
grease spot. A fat La carne de cerdo 
tiene mucha grasa. Pork has a lot of 

grasiento greasy, oily Tiene el pelo muy 
grasicnto. Her hair is very oily. 

gratificar to reward ho gratificaron 
espléndidamente. They rewarded him 

gratis gratis, free La entrada es gratis. 
Admission free. 

gratitud [/] gratitude. 

gratuito free La entrada es gratuita. 
Admission free. 

grave grave, serious El estado de mi 
amigo es muy grave. My friend's con- 
dition is very grave. A deep Tiene la 
voz grave. He has a deep voice. 

gravedad [/] seriousness, gravity. 

grieta crack La pared tenia una grieta. 
The wall had a crack in it. 

O grietas en las manos chapped 
hands Tengo grietas en las manos. My 
hands are chapped. 

grifo having hair or fur bristling or 
standing on end El gato está grifo. 
The cat's fur is bristling. A [m\ fau- 
cet El grifo del baño está estropeado. 
The faucet in the bathroom's out of 

grillo cricket (insect). 

O grillos fetters (for prisoners) Le 
pusieron grillos en los pies. They put 
fetters on his feet. 

grima O darle grima a uno to set one's 
teeth on edge, get on one's nerves El 
chirrido de la puerta me da grima. 
The squeaking of the door gets on my 

gringo gringo, American [Am] ; for- 
eigner [Aw]. 

gripa grippe, influenza [MexJ. 

gripe [/] grippe, influenza. 

gris gray. 

gritar to shout, scream. 

grito scream, shout. 

O a grito pelado at the top of one's 
lungs Nos llamó a grito pelado. He 
called us at the top of his lungs. O al- 
zar el grito to raise the voice, shout. 
O poner el grito en el cielo to hit the 
ceiling, make a great fuss. 

grosero rude, coarse Era un hombre gro- 
sero. He was a coarse man. 

grotesco grotesque. 

gruesa gross (twelve dozen). 

grueso [adj] stout, heavy set Era dema- 
siado grueso. He was too stout. A thick 
Esta tela es muy gruesa. This cloth 

is very thick. A [m] main body (of 
troops) El grueso del ejército atravesó 
el río. The main body of the army 
crossed the river. 

gruñido growl; grunt. 

gruñir to growl El perro gruñó cuando 
nos acercamos. The dog growled when 
we approached. A to grunt. A to grumble 
Gruñía porque no le pagaban bastante. 
He grumbled because they didn't pay 
him enough. 

gruñón cranky, irritable. 

grupo group ¿En qué grupo está su 
amigo? Which group is your friend in? 
A clump En lo alto había un grupo de 
árboles. At the top there was a clump 
of trees. 

guacho odd (only one of a pair) [Chile] 
Tengo un guante guacho. I have an 
odd glove. 

guagua bus [Awí] ¿Para dónde va eso 
guagua? Where does that bus go to? 
A baby [Am] La guagua lloró toda la 
noche. The baby cried all night. 

guajolote [m] turkey [Mex]. 

guante [w] glove. 

guapo handsome Era un hombre guapo. 
He was a handsome man. A brave Se 
las da de guapo. He acts like a tough 

guarango rough, vulgar [Arg]. 

guarda [m\ guard ;[Arj(] conductor. 

guardar to keep Guarde Ud. copia de ese 
documento. Keep a copy of that docu- 
ment. A to guard Guardaba la entrada. 
He was guarding the entrance. 

O guardarse de to avoid Guárdese de 
las malas compañías. Avoid bad com- 
pany. O guardar silencio to keep quiet. 

guardarropa [m] wardrobe, clothes closet, 

guardia [w] policeman Llame Ud. a un 
guardia. Call a policeman. A [/] guard, 
guard duty Le tocó hacer la guardia. 
It was his turn for guard duty. 

° en guardia on guard Ante el peli- 
gro me pongo en guardia. I put myself 
on guard against the danger. O estar 
de guardia to be on guard duty. 
O guardia-civil [/] civil guard (body of 
rural police). A [m] member of civil 
guard [Sp]. 

guardián [m] watchman. 

guarida den. 

guarnición [/] garrison; trimming, edg- 

guasa kidding, joking A los andaluces les 
gusta la guasa. Andalusians are fond 
of kidding. 

° de guasa jokingly. 

guasón [m] wag, joker. 





guerra war. 

O dar guerra to cause trouble Ese 
niño da mucha guerra. That child 
caused a lot of trouble. O Departa- 
mento de (or Ministerio de la) Guerra 
War Department. 

guía [m, /] guide Hubo que buscar un 
guía para el viaje. It was necessary 
to find a guide for the trip. A [/] 
guide (book), directory. O guía de fe- 
rrocarriles railroad guide. O guía de 
turismo tourists' guide book. O guía 
telefónica telephone directory. 

guiar to guide Iba delante para guiar a 
los soldados. He went ahead to guide 
the soldiers. A to drive Aprendió a 
guiar un automóvil. He learned to drive 
a car. 

O guiarse por to follow Quiso guiarse 
por los consejos de su amigo. He 
wanted to follow his friend's advice. 

guillotina guillotine. 

guisante [»i] pea [Sp]. 

guisar to cook. 

gustar to like, be fond of Le gustaba 
mucho viajar. He was very fond of 
traveling. — Como Ud. guste. As you 

gusto taste Esto tiene buen gusto. This 
tastes good. — Viste con muy buen gusto. 
She dresses in very good taste. A lik- 
ing Eso ne es de mi gusto. That isn't 
to my liking. 

° a gusto comfortable ¿Esta Ud. a 
gusto? Are you comfortable? O con 
mucho gusto gladly, willingly, with 
much pleasure Lo haré con mucho 
gusto. I shall do it gladly. O dar 
gusto a to please Mi deseo es darles 
gusto a Uds. My wish is to please you. 
|| Tengo mucho gusto en conocerle. 
I'm very glad to meet you. 


haba Lima bean. 

haber to have (auxiliary). A [w] credit 
Asiente Ud. esa cantidad en el haber. 
Enter that amount on the credit side. 
O haber de to be to He de salir 
mañana. I'm to leave tomorrow. 
O hay there is, there are. Hay uno. 
There's one. — Ayer hubo un acci- 
dente en la Quinta Avenida. There 
was an accident on Fifth Avenue yes- 
terday. — Habrá tres. There'll be three. 
O hay que it's necessary Hay que ha- 
cerlo. It has to be done. — Habrá que 
hacerlo mañana. It'll have to be done 
tomorrow. O no hay de qué you're wel- 
come, don't mention it "¡Muchas gra- 
cias!" "No hay de qué." "Thank you !" 
"You're welcome." 

W ¿Qué hubo? How goes it? [Mex] 

habichuela kidney bean. 

O habichuela verde (green) string 

hábil skillful Era muy hábil como mecá- 
nico. He was a very skillful mechanic. 
O día hábil work day ¿Cuántos días 
hábiles hay este mes? How many work 
days are there this month? 

habilidad [/] ability. 

habilitado paymaster, 

habitación [/] room Mi habitación es el 
número catorce del tercer piso. My 
room is number fourteen on the third 

habitante [???, /] inhabitant Es un pueble- 
cito de doscientos habitantes. It is a 
village of two hundred inhabitants. 

habitar to inhabit. 

hábito habit (of a religious). A habit, 
custom Tenía por hábito levantarse 
temprano. It was his custom to get up 

O tomar el hábito to become a monk 
or nun. 

habitual habitual. 

habituarse to become accustomed Se ha- 
bituó a trabajar en la oficina. He be- 
came accustomed to working in the 

habla speech Su habla es clara y precisa. 
His speech is clear and precise. — Ese 
hombre no es de habla española. That 
man's not of Spanish speech. — El mun- 
do de habla española. The Spanish- 
speaking world. 

° perder el habla to be speechless 
Con la emoción perdió el habla. He was 
speechless with emotion. 

hablador [adj~\ talkative Es muy habla- 
dor. He's very talkative. 

hablar to speak ¿Habla Ud. inglés? Do 
you speak English? A to talk Habla, 
pero no sabe lo que dice. He talks, but 
he doesn't know what he's saying. 

O hablar (hasta) por los codos to chat- 
ter Ese muchacho habla por los codos. 
That boy is a chatterbox. O hablar 
por hablar to be just talking Ne le 





creas, habla por hablar. Don't believe 
him, he's just talking (to hear himself 
talk). O hablarse to speak to each 
other, be on speaking terms Hace dos 
días que no se hablan. They haven't 
been speaking to each other for two 
days. — Aunque eran hermanos no se 
hablaban. Although they were brothers 
they were not on speaking terms. 

hacendado rancher; landowner [Aw] Su 
padre es un rico hacendado. His fa- 
ther's a wealthy rancher. 

hacendoso industrious. 

hacer [rrr] to make Le han hecho un traje 
nuevo. They have made him a new 
suit. A to have Hágales entrar ahora 
mismo. Have them come in right now. 
A to do ¿Qué hace Ud. para ganar tanto 
dinero? What do you do to make so 
much money? A to be Hace un buen 
día. It is a beautiful day. 

O hacer alarde to boast, brag Hizo 
alarde de valor. He boasted of his 
courage. O hacer caso a to pay atten- 
tion to No le haga caso. Don't pay any 
attention to him. O hacer de cuenta to 
pretend, act [Aw] Haga de cuenta que 
nada ha ocurrido. Just act as if noth- 
ing has happened, or Think nothing of 
it. O hacer de las suyas to be up to 
one's old tricks Otra vez está haciendo 
de las suyas. He's up to his old tricks 
again. O hacer el amor to pay court 
to, make love to he estuvo haciendo 
el amor durante la fiesta. He was mak- 
ing love to her during the party. 
O hacer el favor please ¿Quiere hacer 
el favor de acompañarme? Will you 
please come with me? O hacer el honor 
de to do the honor of ¿Me hará Ud. el 
honor de comer conmigo? Will you do 
me the honor of dining with me? 
O hacer frío or calor to be cold or hot 
(of weather) Hoy hace mucho calor. 
It's very hot today. O hacer furor to 
make a hit Está haciendo furor esta 
nueva canción. This new song is mak- 
ing a big hit. O hacer gimnasia to do 
exercises (calisthenics) Hago gimnasia 
por la mañana. I do exercises in the 
morning. O hacer los honores to play 
or act as host (ess) Nos hizo honores 
de la casa. She played hostess to us. 
O hacerse to become Se ha hecho muy 
famoso. He's become very famous. 
O hacerse el sueco to pretend not to 
understand. O hacerse el tonto to play 
dumb No te hagas el tonto, que te co- 
nozco. Don't play dumb; I know you. 
O hacerse ilusiones to fool oneself No 
nos hagamos ilusiones con ese proyecto. 

Let's not fool ourselves about that 
project. O hacerse rogar to be coaxed 
Le gusta hacerse rogar. He likes to 
be coaxed. O hacer un barro to make 
a break, to put one's foot in it [Arg], 
° hacer un paréntesis to digress Des- 
pués de hacer un paréntesis, volvió al 
tema. After digressing, he returned 
to the subject. O tener (algo) que 
hacer to have (something) to do ¿Tiene 
Ud. algo que hacer hoy? Have you 
anything to do today? 

|| No le hace. Never mind, or Skip it. 

hacha ax. 

hacia toward Iba hacia su casa. He was 
going toward his house. 

O hacia acá this way ¡Mire Ud. hacia 
acá! Look this way! O hacia adelante 
forward El coche iba hacia adelante. 
The car was going forward. O hacia 
allá that way ¡Mire hacia allá, a la 
derecha! Look that way, to the right! 
O hacia atrás backward (s) Remaban 
hacia atrás. They rowed backwards. 

hacienda fortune Perdió toda su hacienda. 
He lost his whole fortune. A ranch, 
large estate [Am]. A Treasury (gov- 
ernment) Ministro (or Secretario) de 
Hacienda. Secretary of the Treas- 

halagar to flatter. 

halagüeño promising, bright Las perspec- 
tivas no son halagüeñas. The prospects 
aren't very bright. 

halar [today usually written jalar] to 
pull [Aw] Halaban la cuerda con 
fuerza. They pulled hard on the rope. 

hallar to find Se registró los bolsillos y 
halló un peso. He searched his pockets 
and found one peso. 

O hallarse to be No ha podido venir 
porque se halla enfermo. He hasn't 
been able to come because he is sick. 

hallazgo thing found Entre los hallazgos 
hubo paraguas, zapatos y pañuelos. 
Among the things found were umbrel- 
las, shoes, and handkerchiefs. 

hamaca hammock [Aw]. 

hambre [/] hunger Tenía mucha hambre. 
He was very hungry. 

hambriento hungry, starved. 

harapo rag Iba vestido de harapos. He 
went around dressed in rags. 

harina flour, meal. 

hartarse to gorge, stuff oneself Tomó 
helado hasta hartarse. He gorged him- 
self on ice cream. 

harto full, stuffed; fed up ¡Estoy harto de 
sus cuentos! I'm fed up with your 
stories ! 

hasta until No regresarán hasta después 





de las seis. They won't return until 
after six. — Hasta mañana. Until to- 
morrow, or See you tomorrow. A as far 
as Fueron hasta la última calle del 
pueblo. They went as far as the last 
street in town. 

O hasta aquí so far Hasta aquí todo 
está bien. So far everything is all right. 
|| Hasta la vista. So long. J[ Hasta 
luego. So long. 

hay See haber. 

haya beech tree. 

hazaña feat, exploit, deed El soldado fué 
condecorado por st(s hazañas. The sol- 
dier was decorated for his deeds. 

hebilla buckle (fastener). 

hebra thread. 

hechicero bewitching Tiene una cara he- 
chicera. She has a bewitching face. 

hechizo domestic, made in (a given coun- 
try) [Am]. 

hecho (see hacer) done. A ready-made 
Prefiero un traje hecho. I prefer a 
ready-made suit. A [m] deed Fué re- 
cordado por sus nobles hechos. He was 
remembered for his noble deeds. A fact 
El periódico publica los hechos más 
importantes. The newspaper publishes 
the most important facts. 

O de hecho in fact, as a matter of fact 
De hecho quedó convencido. As a mat- 
ter of fact he was convinced. 

hechura workmanship, making No me 
gusta la hechura de ese traje. I don't 
like the workmanship of that suit. 
A style. 

hectárea hectare (10,000 sq. meters). 

hediondo foul, stinking. 

hedor [m] stench, stink. 

helado (see helar) frozen El estanque 
amaneció completamente helado. The 
pond was completely frozen in the 
morning. A shocked La noticia me dejó 
helado. The news shocked me. A [m] 
ice cream Me gusta el helado de choco- 
late. I like chocolate ice cream. 

helar [rad-ch T] to freeze. 

helécho fern. 

hélice [/] (screw) propeller (of ship). 

hembra female No es macho, es hembra. 
It's not a male, it's a female. 

hemisferio hemisphere. 

heredad [/] (inherited) country estate or 
farm Mi padre me dejó una heredad. 
My father left me some property. 

heredar to inherit A la muerte de sus 
padres heredó una gran fortuna. He 
inherited a large fortune when his par- 
ents died. 

heredero, heredera heir. 

hereditario hereditary. 

hereje [m, f] heretic. 

herejía heresy. 

herencia inheritance. 

herida wound La herida se curó. The 
wound healed. 

herido wounded man El herido se curó en 
tres días. The wounded man recovered 
in three days. 

herir [rad-ch II] to wound, hurt Fué 
herido en la guerra. He was wounded 
in the war. 

hermana sister. A nun, sister Una her- 
mana de la caridad le cuidaba. A Sis- 
ter of Charity took care of him. 

hermano brother. 

hermoso beautiful, handsome Es una mu- 
jer muy hermosa. She's a very beauti- 
ful woman. 

hermosura beauty, handsomeness. 

héroe [m] hero. 

heroico heroic. 

heroína heroine. 

heroísmo heroism. 

herrador [m] horseshoer. 

herradura horseshoe Le pusieron la her- 
radura al caballo. They shod the horse. 

herramienta tool; set of tools. 

herrar [rad-ch I] to shoe (horses) ; to 
brand (cattle). 

herrería iron works, blacksmith's shop. 

herrero blacksmith. 

herrumbre [/] rust. 

hervir [rad-ch III] to boil El agua em- 
pezó a hervir. The water began to boil. 

híbrido [adj; n] hybrid. 

hidalga noble(woman) ; lady. 

hidalgo noble(man); gentleman. 

hidrógeno hydrogen. 

hiel [/] gall ; bitterness, malice. 

hielo ice Haga el favor de darme hielo 
para el agua. Please give me some ice 
for the water. 

hiena hyena. 

hierba grass. 

O mala hierba weed La dehesa está 
llena de mala hierba. The pasture is 
full of weeds. A bad influence Ese 
niño es mala hierba. That boy is a bad 

hierro iron Toda el armazón era de hierro. 
The whole framework was made of 

O machacar en hierro frío to work in 
vain, be useless Tratar de corregir a 
ese niño es machacar en hierro frío. 
Trying to correct that boy is useless. 

hígado liver. 

higiene [/] hygiene. 

higo fig. 

hija daughter. 

hijo son. 

hila row, line. 

hilar to spin (wool, silk, etc)'. 





hilera row, line. 

hilo thread Cuidado no se rompa el hilo. 
Be careful that the thread doesn't 
break. — Me hace falta hilo para coser 
este botón. I need thread to sew on 
this button. A linen Me regaló media 
docena de pañuelos de hilo. He gave 
me a half dozen linen handkerchiefs. 

hilvanar to baste (in sewing). 

himno hymn. 

hincar to drive Hincaron en el suelo esta- 
cas para asegurar la tienda. They drove 
stakes into the ground to make the 
tent secure. A to sink El perro me 
hincó los dientes en el brazo. The dog 
sank his teeth into my arm. 

O hincarse de rodillas to kneel down 
Lo primero que hizo fué hincarse de 
rodillas. The first thing he did was 
to kneel down. 

hincha [/] fan Es una hincha del equipo 
argentino. He's a fan of the Argentine 
team. (When referring to a sport as 
a whole, the word used in aficionado). 

hinchar to swell Se le hinchó la pierna. 
His leg swelled up. 

hinchazón [w] swelling (lump). 

hipocresía hypocrisy. 

hipócrita hypocritical. A [ñ] hypocrite. 

hipoteca mortgage. 

hipótesis [/] hypothesis. 

hispanoamericano [adj; n\ Spanish-Amer- 

histérico hysterical. 

historia history, story Conocía a fonda la 
historia de América. He knew the 
history of America thoroughly. A tale 
No me vengas con historias. Don't tome 
to me with tales. 

historiador [m] historian. 

histórico historic (al) Visitamos los lu- 
gares históricos del país. We visited 
the historie sites of the country. 

historieta short story; the comics [Sp]. 

hocico muzzle, snout, nose El gato metió 
el hocico en el puchero. The cat put 
its nose in the pot. 

O estar de hocicos con to be on the 
outs with Estaba de hocicos con su 
novia. He was on the outs with his 

hogar [ni] fireplace ¿Tiene Ud. un hogar 
en su casa? Do you have a fireplace 
in your home? A home Abandonó el 
hogar cuando era muy joven. He left 
home when he was very young. 

hogaza (large) loaf of bread. 

hoguera bonfire Encendieron una hoguera. 
They lit a bonfire. 

hoja leaf El suelo estaba cubierto de 
hojas. The ground was covered with 
leaves. k blade La hoja estaba muy 

afilada. The blade was very sharp. 
A page ¿En qué hoja está Ud.? What 
page are you on? A record ¿Presentó 
Ud. su hoja de servicios? Did you show 
your record of service? 

O hoja de lata tin plate. O poner le a 
uno como hoja de perejil to give one a 
tongue lashing Le puso como hoja de 
perejil. He gave him a tongue lashing. 
O tener hoja to be counterfeit (have 
more than legal proportion of tin) 
Esta plata tiene hoja. That coin is 

|| Doblemos la hoja. Let's change 
the subject. 

hojear to thumb through, glance (or 
skim) through (a book, etc). 

¡hola! Hello! (informal) ¡Hola! ¿Cómo 
estás? Hello, how are you? 

holgazán lazy. 

hombre [ni] man Vino a buscarle un 
hombre. A man came to see him. 

O ¡hombre! man! man alive! ¡Hombre, 
no digas eso! Man, don't say that! 
O hombre de Estado statesman. 

hombría manliness, courage En la lucha 
demostró su hombría. He showed his 
courage in the fight. 

O hombría (de bien) honesty Todos 
lo estimaban por su hombría. They all 
esteemed him for his honesty. 

hombro shoulder Cargó el equipaje al 
hombro. He loaded the baggage on his 

O encogerse de hombros to shrug the 
shoulders Por toda contestación se en- 
cogió de hombros. The only answer he 
gave was a shrug of his shoulders. 

homenaje [m] homage Han venido a 
rendirle homenaje al autor. They have 
come to pay homage to the author. 

homicida [m, /] killer, slayer El homicida 
se refugió en la montaña. The slayer 
hid in the mountains. A [adj] homi- 
cidal El arma homicida no fué hallada. 
The homicidal weapon wasn't found. 

homogéneo homogeneous. 

honda sling (for hurling stones). 

hondo deep Este pozo es muy hondo. This 
well is very deep. 

honestidad [/] modesty, decorum Se ena- 
moró de ella por su honestidad. He fell 
in love with her for her modesty. 

honesto decent, honest El cajero era un 
hombre muy honesto. The cashier was 
a very honest man. 

honor [m] honor Era un hombre de honor. 
He was a man of honor. 

O honores honors Al morir le hicieron 
honores militares. When he died he 
was given military honors. 

honradez [/] honesty, integrity. 





honrado (see honrar) honest Es un hom- 
bre honrado. He's an honest man. 

honrar to honor Nos honra mucho su 
presencia. We're very much honored 
by your presence. 

hora hour Empezó la fiesta a la hora en 
punto. The party began exactly on 
the hour. A time ¿Qué hora es? What 
time is it? 

O a primeras horas de la mañana in 
the early morning. O a última hora 
at the last moment A última hora todo 
se solucionó. Everything was solved 
at the last moment. ° a últimas horas 
de la tarde in the late afternoon. 

horca gallows. 

horizontal horizontal. 

horizonte [m] horizon. 

hormiga ant. 

horno oven. 

horrible horrid, horrible Hizo una escena 
horrible. She made a horrible scene. 

horror [ni] horror Tiene horror a la 
guerra. He has a horror of war. 

horroroso horrible, frightful Fué una 
escena horrorosa. It was a horrible 

hortalizas [/ pl] vegetables. 

hospital [m] hospital. 

hospitalidad [/] hospitality. 

hostilidad [■/] hostility. 

hotel [m] hotel. 

hoy today Hoy empezamos a trabajar. 
We're starting to work today. 

O hoy por hoy for the time being, 
under present circumstances Hoy por 
hoy no pienso regresar a mi pais. 
Under present circumstances I don't 
intend to return to my country. ° por 
hoy for the present Por hoy lo dejare- 
mos pasar. We'll let it go for the 

hoyo hole, depression; ditch. 

hoyuelo dimple. 

hoz [/] sickle. 

hueco [adj] hollow, empty El tronco del 
árbol estaba hueco. The tree trunk was 
hollow. A [?n] hole Cuidado, hay un 
hueco en el piso. Be careful, there's a 
hole in the floor. 

huelga strike (of workers). 

huella track Siguieron las huellas del otro 
automóvil. They followed the tracks of 
the other car. A trace, sign En la 
América del Sur hay muchas huellas de 
la cultura india. In South America 
there are many traces of Indian cul- 
ture. A footprint, fingerprint Aquí están 
sus huellas. Here are his footprints. 
O huella dactilar fingerprint Se de- 
tuvo el asesino por sus huellas dacti- 

lares. The assassin was arrested 
through his fingerprints. 

huérfano, huérfana orphan. 

huerta large vegetable garden. 

huerto orchard. 

hueso bone. 

O estar en los huesos to be nothing 
but skin and bones. 

|| ¡A otro perro con ese hueso! Tell 
it to the Marines! 

huésped [m] guest. 

huevo egg /Cómo quiere Ud. los huevos, 
fritos o revueltos? How do you like 
your eggs, fried or scrambled? 

huida flight, escape. 

huir to flee Los prisioneros huyeron del 
campo de concentración. The prisoners 
fled from the concentration camp. 

humanidad [/] humanity. A humaneness 
La humanidad de sus sentimientos era 
bien conocida. The humaneness of his 
sentiments was well known. 

humano [adj] human. A humane Era 
una persona muy humana. He was a 
very humane person. 

humear to smoke, give off smoke Las 
cenizas todavía humeaban. The cin- 
ders were still smoking. 

humedad [/] dampness, humidity, mois- 
ture La humedad del tiempo me hace 
daño a la salud. The dampness of the 
weather is bad for my health. 

humedecer [-zc-] to moisten. 

húmedo damp, humid. 

humilde poor; humble, unaffected. 

humillar to humiliate. 

humo smoke Por la ventana se veía salir 
el Ikimo. Smoke could be seen pouring 
out of the window. 

O darse humos de grandeza to put on 
airs of grandeur. O humos airs, af- 
fected manner Lo dijo con muchos 
humos. He said it in an affected man- 

humor [m] humor, mood Está siempre de 
buen humor. He's always in good hu- 
mor. A humor, wit. 

hundirse to sink Se hundió en el barro 
hasta las rodillas. He sank in mud up 
to his knees. A to cave in La casa sc 
hundió. The house caved in. A to fall 
off, diminish Empezó a hundirse su 
negocio por no atenderlo. ^lis business 
began to fall off because he didn't take 
care of it. 

huracán [m] hurricane. 

hurtar to steal, pilfer. 

O hurtar el cuerpo to shy away, dodge 
Hurtó el cuerpo al toro. He dodged 
the bull. 

huye See huir. 





iberoamericano [adj;n\ Latin American. 

ida leaving, going, trip out A la ida, el 
viaje fué mas agradable que a la vuelta. 
The trip out was more pleasant than 
the return. 

O billete de ida y vuelta round-trip 

idea idea. 

ideal [adj~\ ideal, perfect. A [m] ideal, 

idear to plan, invent Ideó un mecanismo 
para pelar fruta. He invented an in- 
strument for peeling fruit. 

idéntico identical. 

identidad [/] identity. A identification 
¿Tiene Ud. documentos de identidad? 
Have you any identification? 

identificar to identify. 

O identificarse con to identify one- 
self with. 

idioma [m] language, tongue El Consul 
habla muchos idiomas. The Consul 
speaks many languages. 

idolatrar to worship, idolize, adore Te 
idolatro. I adore you. 

ídolo idol. 

iglesia church; clergy. 

ignorancia ignorance. 

ignorante ignorant. 

ignorar not to know, lack knowledge 
Ignora las cosas más elementales. He 
doesn't know the most elementary 

igual same, similar La madre y la hija 
tienen los ojos iguales. Mother and 
daughter have the same eyes. A even 
Tiene un carácter muy igual. He has 
a very even disposition. A [ni] equal, 
peer Era un hombre sin igual. He was 
a man without (an) equal. — Solo se 
trata con sus iguales. He only deals 
with his equals. 

O de igual a igual as one equal to 
another, man to man Le habló de igual 
a igual. He spoke to him man to man. 
O igual a equal to, the same as Esta 
■ mesa es igtial a aquélla. This table's 
the same as that one. O igual que 
Pienso igual que Ud. I think the same 
as you. O por igual evenly Extienda 
Ud. la arena por igual. Spread the sand 
evenly. O serle a uno igual to be all 
the same to one Que venga o no venga 
me es igual. Whether he comes or not 
it's all the same to me. 

igualar to equal No iguala a «it hermano. 
He doesn't equal his brother. A to 
level No han igualado la carretera. 

The road hasn't been leveled. 

° igualar con or a to put oneself on 
the same plane as, compare oneself 
with No te iguales a tu hermano porque 
vale más que tú. Don't compare your- 
self with your brother because he's a 
better man than you. O igualarse to be 
equal, to be tied (score) Los dos equi- 
pos se igualaron al final. The two 
teams were tied at the finish. 

igualdad [/] equality Libertad, igualdad 
y fraternidad. Liberty, equality, and 
fraternity. A evenness, smoothness. 

ilegal illegal, unlawful. 

ilícito illicit, immoral. 

ilimitado boundless, unlimited Su audacia 
es ilimitada. His audacity is boundless. 

iluminar to light, illumine Iluminaron el 
salón con todas las luces. They turned 
on all the lights in the salon. — Han 
iluminado muy bien el estadio. They've 
lighted the stadium very well. 

ilusión [/] illusion, delusion. 

O hacerse ilusiones to kid oneself. 
A to bank on No se haga Ud. ilusiones 
sobre ese negocio. Don't bank too much 
on that business. ° tener ilusiones 
(de) to have hopes or illusions Tiene 
ilusiones de casarse algún día. She has 
hopes of getting married some day. 

ilusionar to thrill La idea de ver a mi 
madre me ilusiona mucho. The idea of 
seeing my mother thrills me veiw much. 
° ilusionarse (con) to get excited, 
thrilled Se ilusiona con cualquier cosa. 
She gets excited over anything. 

ilustración [/] learning Es un hombre de 
mucha ilustración. He's a very learned 
man. A illustration, picture Las ilustra- 
ciones del libro son muy buenas. The 
illustrations of the book are very good. 

ilustrado learned Era un hombre muy 
ilustrado. He was a very learned man. 
A illustrated, with pictures Pidió una 
revista ilustrada para distraerse. He 
asked for a picture magazine to amuse 

ilustrar to illustrate Es un buen artista 
el que ha ilustrado este libro. The ar- 
tist who illustrated this book is very 

O ilustrarse to educate oneself Le 
gustaba ilustrarse viajando. He liked 
to educate himself by traveling. 

ilustre illustrious, distinguished. 

imagen [/] image, representation ; image, 

imaginar to think of, figure out Imagine 





Ud. algo para resolver nuestro proble- 
ma. Figure out something to solve our 

O imaginarse to imagine, suspect No 
puedo imaginarme lo que pretende. I 
can't imagine what he's driving at. — 
¡Imagine (se) Ud. que sorpresa tuvi- 
mos! Just imagine what a surprise we 

imán [m\ magnet. 

imbécil [w] imbecile, fool. A [adj] stupid. 

imborrable indelible, unforgettable Es 
una impresión imborrable. It's an un- 
forgettable impression. 

imitar to imitate, impersonate Imita muy 
bien a esa actriz. She imitates that 
actress very well. 

impaciencia impatience. 

impaciente impatient; anxious, eager. 

imparcial impartial. 

impasible impassive, unmoved, indifferent 
Tiene una cara impasible. He has an 
impassive face. 

impedimento hindrance, impediment. 

impedir [rad-ch III~\ to prevent ¿Quién 
lo puede impedir? Who can prevent 

O impedir el paso to block the way 
Retírese de ahí, está Ud. impidiendo 
el paso. Step aside; you're blocking 
the way. 

imperar to prevail, reign En la calle im- 
pera el desorden. Disorder prevails in 
the street. 

imperativo imperative Es imperativo 
salir. It's imperative to go out. A bossy 
Es un hombre muy imperativo. He's a 
very bossy man. 

imperdible [m] safety pin [Sp~\. 

imperio empire; command. A spell Ese 
hombre está bajo el imperio de ese 
mujer. That man is under that 
woman's influence. 

imperioso imperative; arrogant, haughty. 

impermeable \_adj~\ waterproof. A [ni] 

impertenencia impertinence Su imperti- 
nencia me molesta. His impertinence 
annoys me. 

impertinente impertinent. 

O impertinentes [m pl~\ lorgnettes. 

ímpetu [m] impetus, impulse. 

impío impious, irreligious. 

implacable implacable, relentless. 

implicar to involve, implicate No me im- 
plique Ud. en ese asunto. Don't in- 
volve me in that matter. 

implorar to beg, implore. 

imponente imposing La ceremonia fué 
imponente. The ceremony was impos- 

imponer [trr] to impose, levy Le impusie- 
ron una multa. They imposed a fine on 

O imponerse to assert oneself, com- 
mand respect Supo imponerse por su 
talento. He was able to command re- 
spect because of his ability. A to domi- 
nate, get one's way Es un hombre que 
siempre se impone a todo el mundo. 
He's a man who always gets his way. 

importación [/] import (s), importation. 

importante important. 

importar to import Importó cien mil tone- 
ladas de trigo. He imported one hun- 
dred thousand tons of wheat. 

O importarle a uno to matter (to), 
concern Eso no me importa. That 
doesn't matter to me. 

|| importa no. No matter, or Never 

importe [ni] cost. 

importuno annoying (of a person) Me 
molesta la gente importuna. Annoying 
people irritate me. 

imposible impossible. 

imposición [/] deposit (of money in a 
bank) ; imposition (of will on an- 
other) ; tax. 

impotencia impotence, weakness. 

imprenta printing shop; press; print. 
O error de imprenta printer's error. 
O libertad de imprenta freedom of the 

imprescindible essential, indispensable, 

impresión [/] impression Me causó muy 
buena impresión lo que me dijo. What 
he said made a good impression on 
me. A imprint. A printing La impre- 
sión del libro era perfecta. The print- 
ing of the book was perfect. 

impresionar to impress he impresionó 
mucho esa novela. She was very much 
impressed by the novel. A to make or 
cut (a record) Fué contratado para 
impresionar discos. He was under 
contract to make records. 

O impresionarse to be moved Se im- 
presionaron cuando le vieron. They 
were moved when they saw him. — Se 
impresionaron con la noticia. They 
were moved by the news. 

impreso (see imprimir) printed matter, 
pamphlet; blank (paper to be filled). 

imprevisión [/] lack of foresight, 
thoughtlessness Dejar a los niños solos 
fué una gran imprevisión. Leaving the 
children alone was sheer thoughtless- 

imprevisto unforeseen, unexpected. 

imprimir to print. 





improbable improbable. 

impropio inappropriate, unfitting. 

improvisado makeshift Un pupitre im- 
provisado. A makeshift desk. 

improvisar to improvise. 

imprudente imprudent, unwise. 

impuesto (see imponer) [m] tax. 

impulsar to urge; to encourage; to push. 

inaccesible inaccessible. 

inactivo inactive. 

inadvertencia oversight No lo incluyeron 
en la lista por inadvertencia. He was 
left off the list through an oversight. 

inagotable inexhaustible. 

inaguantable unbearable El dolor era 
inaguantable. The pain was unbear- 

inaudito unheard of, strange, unexpected 
Obró de una manera inaudita. He be- 
haved in a strange manner. 

inauguración [/] unveiling, dedication, 
(ceremony of) opening (a building) 
Ayer fué la inauguración de la estatua 
del fundador y del edificio de la escuela. 
Yesterday the unveiling of the found- 
er's statue and the opening of the 
school building took place. 

inaugurar to unveil, dedicate, open (exhi- 
bition, courses, etc). 

incansable untiring. 

incapacidad [/] incapacity; incompetence. 

incapaz incompetent; incapable. 

incauto [adi] unwary, gullible. A [w] 
easy mark Por ser incauto le robaron 
el dinero. Since he was an easy mark 
they stole his money. 

incendiar to set on fire. 

incendio fire (conflagration) El incendio 
destruyó tres casas. The fire destroyed 
three houses. 

incertidumbre [/] uncertainty. 

incesante continual, ceaseless El ruido 
era incesante. The noise was cease- 

incidente [m] incident, disturbance. 

incierto uncertain, doubtful El resultado 
del partido es incierto. The result of 
the game is doubtful. 

inclemencia severity, inclemency. 

inclinación [/] slant, slope La inclinación 
del terreno hacia difícil la construcción 
de la carretera. The slope of the 
ground made it difficult to construct 
the road. A bent, inclination Desde 
niño tuvo inclinación por el arte. He 
had a bent for art from childhood. 

inclinar to bend, bow Inclinó la cabeza. 
He bowed his head. 

O inclinarse to bow. A to yield, give 
in Hubo que inclinarse ante aquella 
verdad. He had to yield in the face 

of that truth. O inclinarse a to be in- 
clined to Me parece que se inclina a 
hacerlo. I think he's inclined to do it. 

Incluir to include Incluya Ud. su nombre 
en la lista. Include his name in the 
list. A to enclose Incluí el recibo en la 
carta. I enclosed the receipt in the 

incomodar to disturb, inconvenience, 
bother ¿he incomoda a Ud. esta ma- 
leta? Does this suitcase bother you? 
O incomodarse to become angry, to be 
upset Se incomoda por cualquier cosa. 
He gets angry at the slightest thing. 

incomodidad [/] inconvenience. 

incómodo uncomfortable (of position) 
Esta silla es incómoda. This chair is 
uncomfortable. — En esta postura estoy 
incómodo. In this position I'm uncom- 

incomparable incomparable. 

incompatible incompatible. 

incomprensible incomprehensible. 

inconsciente unconscious El golpe lo dejó 
inconsciente. The blow left him uncon- 
scious. A irresponsible Es un hombre 
muy inconsciente. He's a very irre- 
sponsible person. 

inconveniente [m] disadvantage Ese plan 
tiene algunos inconvenientes. That 
plan has certain disadvantages. A ob- 
jection No tiene inconveniente en que 
salgamos. He has no objection to our 

incorporar to incorporate, unite. A to add 
Incorporó su dinero al fondo común. 
He added his money to the common 

O incorporarse to sit up (in bed). A to 
join (a military unit) Recibió orden de 
incorporarse en su batallón. He got 
orders to join his battalion. 

incorrecto incorrect; ill-mannered. 

increíble incredible, unbelievable. 

inculto uncultivated. 

incumplido unfulfilled Sus promesas que- 
daron incumplidas. His promises were 

incurable incurable. 

indagar to investigate. 

indecente indecent, obscene. 

indeciso vacillating, hesitant Es un hom- 
bre muy indeciso. He's a very hesitant 
man. A indefinite, not clear Su oferta 
es indecisa. His offer is indefinite. 

indefinido indefinite. 

indemnización [/] indemnity, compensa- 

indescriptible indescribable. 

indiano, indiana Spaniard who returns to 





birthplace after long residence on the 
American continent. 

indicación [/] suggestion Siguió las indi- 
cacioyies del médico. He followed the 
doctor's suggestions. A hint Una in- 
dicación de Ud. es bastante. A hint 
from you is enough. 

O indicaciones directions Para usarlo 
siga Ud. las indicaciones siguientes. 
To use this, follow these instructions. 

indicado (see indicar) indicated. A logi- 
cal, appropriate Su madre es la per' 
sona más indicada para decírselo. Her 
mother is the most logical person to 
tell it to her. 

O lo indicado that which is stated, 
directed, or requested Haga Ud. lo in- 
dicado en el prospecto. Do what's 
directed in the prospectus. 

indicar to indicate, to hint, to show. 

índice [m] index; forefinger, index finger. 

indicio indication, evidence, clue No se 
encontraron indicios del asesino. They 
found no clues of the murderer. 

indiferente indifferent Se mostró indife- 
rente a cualquier sugerencia. He was 
indifferent to any suggestion. 

O serle a uno indiferente to make 
no difference to one Eso me es indife- 
rente. That makes no difference to 

indígena [adj] native, aboriginal A [n] na- 
tive, aborigine. 

indigestión [/] indigestion. 

indignación [/] indignation. 

indignar to make indignant Sus palabras 
la indignaron. His words made her 

O indignarse to become indignant 
Ante aquella injusticia se indignó. 
He became indignant in the face of 
that injustice. 

indigno despicable, unworthy. 

indio [adj; ?;] Indian; Hindu. 

indirecta insinuation, hint. 

O echar indirectas to make insinua- 

|| Suprima Ud. esas indirectas. Stop 

indirecto indirect. 

indiscreto indiscreet. 

indiscutible unquestionable, indisputable. 

indispensable essential, indispensable. 

indisponer [írr] to set against (of per- 
sons), prejudice Su mala lengua nos 
indispuso. Her sharp tongue set us 
against each other. 

O indisponerse to fall out (with a 
person) Se indispuso con sus com- 
pañeros. He had a falling out with 
his friends. A to become ill, sick A 

consecuencia del viaje se iiidispuso. 
As a result of the trip she became sick. 

indispuesto (see indisponer) set against; 
indisposed, ill. 

individual [adj] individual, separate. 

individuo individual, person, guy ¿Quién 
es ese individuo? Who is that guy? 

indole [/] (inner) nature Es un hombre 
de mala índole. He's an evil man. 
A class, kind. 

indolencia indolence. 

inducir [-zc-~\ to induce. 

indudable indubitable, certain, evident. 

indulgente indulgent, lenient. 

indulgencia leniency La indulgencia de 
ese profesor es conocida. The leniency 
of that teacher is known. 

indulto pardon (legal). 

industria industry (manufacturing). 

industrial [adj~\ industrial. A [»«] manu- 

ineficaz inefficient. 

inesperado unexpected. 

inestimable invaluable. 

inevitable unavoidable, inevitable. 

inexplicable inexplicable. 

infalible infallible. 

infame infamous. A [m~\ scoundrel. 

infancia infancy, childhood. 

infantería infantry. 

infantil infantile, childlike. 

infatigable untiring. 

infección [/] infection. 

infeliz unhappy Su vida fué muy infeliz. 
His life was very unhappy. A [n] poor 
devil Ese es un infeliz. He's a poor 

inferior lower, inferior En la parte in- 
ferior iba el depósito de gasolina. The 
gasoline tank was underneath. A [n] 
inferior Trata a sus inferiores con bru- 
talidad. He treats his inferiors bru- 

inferioridad [/] inferiority. 

infernal infernal, terrible. 

infidelidad [/'] infidelity, unfaithfulness. 

infiel unfaithful Fué infiel a sus deberes. 
He didn't fulfill his obligations. 

infierno hell. 

infinidad [/] endless number, a lot Había 
una infinidad de personas en el parque. 
There were a lot of people in the park. 

infinito infinite. A [m] infinity. 

inflamar to set on fire Una chispa del 
cigarro inflamó el depósito. A cigar- 
ette spark set the warehouse on fire. 
O inflamarse to catch fire Tenga Ud. 
cuidado porque se inflama muy fácil- 
mente. Be careful, it's very inflam- 
mable. A to swell Los bordes de la 





herida se inflamaron. The edges of 
the wound swelled. 

influir (en) to influence, to have influ- 
ence (on) Influye en los que le rodean. 
He influences everyone around him. 

influyente influential, having pull. 

información [/] information Necesito 
más información sobre este asunto. I 
need more information on this matter. 
O fuente de información source of in- 
formation, contact Este periódico tiene 
muy buenas fuentes de información. 
This newspaper has very good sources 
of information. 

informar to tell, to inform Necesitaba in- 
formar a sus lectores de. lo sucedido. 
He had to tell his readers what hap- 

O informarse to get information, to 
inform oneself Pudo informarse leyen- 
do la carta. He could get the informa- 
tion by reading the letter. O informarse 
de to find out, get information on ¿Se 
ha informado Ud. de lo que necesita 
para entrar en el pais? Did you find 
out what you need to enter the coun- 
try? — Infórmese Ud. de que clase de 
persona es. Find out what kind of a 
person he is. — Por el periódico puede 
Ud. informarse de la marcha de la 
guerra. Through the newspaper you 
can get information on the progress of 
the war. 

informe [m~\ report Presentó un informe 
a sus superiores. He presented a re- 
port to his superiors. 

O informes data, information. 

infortunio great misfortune La muerte 
de su padre fué un infortunio para él. 
The death of his father was a great 

ingeniero engineer (holder of a degree in 

ingenio talent Fué un escritor de mucho 
ingenio. He was a writer of great 
talent. A wit Esa frase tiene mucho 
ingenio. That's a very witty phrase. 
A wits, ingenuity Vivía de su ingenio. 
He lived by his wits. 

O ingenio de azúcar sugar planta- 
tion; sugar mill. 

ingenuo ingenuous, candid, innocent. 

ingrato ungrateful, thankless Es un tra- 
bajo muy ingrato. It's a thankless job. 
A [«] ingrate. 

ingresar (en) to enter, to join Cuando 
ingresó en el Ejército tenía viente 
años. He was twenty when he joined 
the Army. A to deposit Ingresaba cada 
mes su dinero en la Caja de Ahorros. 

He put his money in a savings bank 
every month. 

ingreso entrance (joining) Su ingreso en 
el partido fué muy comentado. His 
joining the party caused a lot of com- 

° ingresos earnings, income Sus in- 
gresos eran escasos. His earnings were 

ingrimo alone [Am] Se quedó ingrimo. 
He was left all alone. 

inicial [adj; /] initial ¿Cuáles son sus 
iniciales? What are your initials? 

iniciar to initiate, begin; to initiate (in 
societies or religious orders). 

iniciativa initiative. 

inhábil incompetent, unskillful, clumsy. 

injuria insult. 

injusticia injustice. 

inmediato adjoining, next. 

inmenso immense. 

inmigrante [m, /] immigrant. 

inmoral immoral. 

inmortal [adj] immortal. 

inmóvil motionless El miedo lo dejó in- 
móvil. He was motionless with fright. 

inmundo filthy, unclean. 

innoble ignoble. 

inocente innocent; not guilty; gullible, 

inofensivo inoffensive, harmless. 

inolvidable unforgettable. 

inoportuno inopportune, inconvenient Era 
un momento muy inoportuno para tra- 
tar el asunto. That was a very incon- 
venient time to bring up the subject. 

inquietar to worry, to trouble La falta 
de noticias le inquietaba. The lack of 
news worried him. 

° inquietarse to become restless, to 
become worried Empezó a inquietarse 
con aquel ruido. He began to get rest- 
less because of that noise. 

inquilino, inquilina tenant. 

inquieto restless Es un niño muy inquieto. 
He's a very restless child. A worried 
Estoy inquieto por su ausencia. I'm 
worried over his absence. 

insaciable greedy, insatiable. 

insano unhealthy, unsanitary; insane Un 
clima insano. An unhealthy climate. 

inscribir to register, enroll Se inscribie- 
ron en la lista de votantes. They regis- 
tered for voting. 

inscripción [/] inscription La medalla 
tenia una inscripción. The medal had 
an inscription. A registration El plazo 
de inscripción acaba a las cuatro. Reg- 
istration is over at four o'clock. 

insecto insect. 

inseguro insecure, unsafe, unsteady. 





insensato senseless, stupid, foolish. 

insensible heartless, insensitive. A numb 
Tenía los dedos insensibles. His fin- 
gers were numb. 

inseparable inseparable. 

insigne famous, noted, outstanding (of 

insignificancia insignificance; trifle Se 
preocupa por cualquier insignificancia. 
He worries over every trifle. 

insignificante insignificant. 

insinuación [/] insinuation. 

insinuar to insinuate, hint. 

insistir to insist Insistió pero no consi- 
guió nada. He insisted but he didn't 
get anything. 

O insistir en to insist on Insistió en 
salir a la calle. He insisted on going 
out into the street. 

insolente insolent. 

insoportable unbearable. 

inspección [/] inspection, examination 
Hicieron una inspección en la oficina. 
They made an inspection in the office. 
A inspector's office Fui a la Inspección 
por los documentos. I went to the in- 
spector's office for the documents. 

inspeccionar to inspect, to examine. 

inspector, inspectora inspector. 

instalar to install, set up ¿Quién le ha 
instalado la radio ? Who installed your 

O instalarse to establish oneself, to 
take quarters Apenas llegó a la capital 
se instaló en un hotel. As soon as he 
arrived in the capital he got settled 
at a hotel. 

instancia petition, application (written). 
O a instancia de at the request of. 

instante [m] instant, moment. 

instintivo instinctive. 

instinto instinct Su instinto le decía que 
iba a ocurrir algo. His instinct told 
him that something was going to hap- 

institución [/] institution. 

instituto institute; school (equivalent to 
high school plus two years of college). 

instrucción [/] education Creo que tiene 
poca instrucción. I don't think he has 
much education. 

O instrucciones instructions, direc- 
tions Todavía no ha recibido instruc- 
ciones. He hasn't yet received instruc- 

instruir to teach, instruct. 

instrumento instrument. 

insuficiente insufficient. 

insufrible unbearable, intolerable. 

insultar to insult. 

insurrección [/] insurrection, rebellion. 

insurrecto [adj; n] insurgent. 

intacto intact, untouched. 

integridad [/] integrity; entirety. 

íntegro complete, whole Estaba íntegro el 
dinero, nadie lo tocó. The money was 
all there ; nobody touched it. A upright 
Es un hombre serio y muy íntegro. 
He's a serious and upright man. 

intelectual [adj; n] intellectual. 

inteligencia intelligence. 

inteligente intelligent. 

intención [/] intention, purpose No sé 
con que intención me lo dijo. I don't 
know what his pui-pose was in telling 
me that. 

° tener buenas intenciones to be well 
meaning. O tener la intención de to 
intend to, mean to Tenía la intención 
de decírselo pero se me olvidó. I meant 
to tell him that, but I forgot. O tener 
malas intenciones to be malicious. 

intensidad [/] intensity. 

intenso intense. 

intentar to attempt, try. 

interés [w] interest Pone mucho interés 
en todo lo que hace. He takes a lot of 
interest in everything he does. A rate 
of interest Tenia que pagar mucho in- 
terés. I had to pay a high interest. 

O intereses affairs Administraba los 
intereses de su amigo. He adminis- 
tered his friend's affairs. O por (el) 
interés for money Se casó por (el) in- 
terés. He married for money. 

interesado (see interesar) interested; 

interesar to interest Su conversación me 
interesaba. His conversation interested 

O interesarse to be interested Llegó 
a interesarse en las matemáticas. He 
became interested in mathematics. 

interior [adj'] interior, inside Esas habi- 
taciones son interiores. Those are in- 
side rooms. A domestic El correo in- 
terior se distribuía cuatro veces por 
día. Domestic mail was delivered four 
times a day. A [m~\ inside El interior 
de la casa es muy fresco. The inside of 
the house's very cool. 

O para el interior de uno to oneself 
ho dijo para su interior. He said it 
to himself. 

interjección [/] interjection. 

intermedio intermediate, medium Quisier 
%ina talla intermedia. I'd like an inter- 
mediate size. A [m~\ intermission Le 
veré en el intermedio. I'll see him 
during the intermission. 

O por intermedio de through (the in- 
tervention of) ho consiguió por inter- 





medio de su tío. He got it through his 

interminable' endless. 

internacional [adj] international. 

interno internal Esto es para tiso interno. 
This is for internal use. A boarding 
Es un alumno interno. He's a board- 
ing pupil. 

interponer [irr] to interpose, place (be- 
tween) Interpusieron un tabique entre 
las dos partes de la habitación. They 
placed a partition between the two 
parts of the room. 

O interponerse to block Esa mujer se 
interpuso en mi camino. That woman 
blocked my way. 

interpretar to interpret Procure Ud. in- 
terpretar bien mis palabras. Try to 
interpret my words properly. 

intérprete [m, f] interpreter. 

interrogación [/] interrogation; question 

interrogar to question, interrogate. 

interrogatorio interrogation, questioning. 

interrumpir to interrupt Por favor, no me 
interrumpa. Please don't interrupt me. 
O interrumpirse to be interrupted, to 
be blocked El tráfico se interrumpió por 
la aglomeración de automóviles. The 
traffic was blocked by the jam of auto- 

intervalo interval. 

intervención [/] intervention Su inter- 
vención fué muy oportuna. He inter- 
vened at a very opportune moment. 
A mediation El sindicato ha pedido la 
intervención del Estado en la cuestión. 
The union has asked for the mediation 
of the government in the dispute. 
A (surgical) operation Después de la 
caída hubo que hacerle una rápida in- 
tervención. He had to undergo an 
operation immediately after his fall. 

intervenir [irr] to intervene Para evitar 
el conflicto tuvo que intervenir. He had 
to intervene to prevent the conflict. 
A to audit, check Se le intervino la 
cuenta en el Banco. His bank account 
was audited. 

intestino [adj; ni] intestine. 

intimar to become an intimate friend. 

intimidar to frighten, intimidate. 

íntimo [adj~\ intimate. A [ri] intimate 

intolerable intolerable. 

intoxicar to poison; to drug. 

intranquilo restless, worried. 

intratable unsociable. 

intrépido brave, fearless. 

intrigar to scheme ¿Cuándo terminará 
Ud. de intrigar? When will you stop 

scheming? A to intrigue, interest 
Aquello intrigó a todos. That intrigued 

O intrigarse to be intrigued Me in- 
triga lo que Ud. dice. I'm intrigued 
by what you say. 

introducir [-zc-] to put (in), insert In- 
trodujo la llave en la cerradura. He 
put the key in the keyhole. A to pre- 
sent (a person) Era el encargado de 
introducir los embajadores ante el rey. 
He was the one in charge of presenting 
the ambassadors to the king. 

intuición [/] intuition. 

inundación [/] flood. 

inundar to flood El agua inundó la ca- 
lles. The water flooded the streets. 

O inundarse to be flooded Se inundó 
el piso bajo. The ground floor was 

inútil useless. A [ri] useless person. 

invadir to invade. 

invariable constant, unchanging. 

invasión [/] invasion. 

invencible invincible, unconquerable. 

inventar to invent; to lie, fib. 

inventario inventory. 

invento invention; lie. 

invernal wintry. 

inverosímil unlikely, improbable. 

invertido See invertir. A [adj; ri] homo- 

invertir [rad-ch II] to invest Invirtió su 
dinero en una casa. He invested his 
money in a house. A to reverse, turn 
upside down No invierta Ud. el orden 
de esas cantidades. Don't reverse the 
order of those amounts. A to spend 
(time) Invirtió dos horas en recorrer 
veinte millas. He spent two hours 
traveling twenty miles. 

investigación [/] investigation, inquiry; 

investigar to investigate Investigue Ud. 
cuál es la causa. Investigate the cause 
of it. A to do research work Investi- 
gaba en un laboratorio. He was doing 
research work in a laboratory. 

invierno winter. 

invisible invisible. 

invitación [/] invitation. 

invitado See invitar. A [ri] guest Esta- 
ban recibiendo a los invitados. They 
were receiving their guests. 

invitar to invite. 

involuntario involuntary. 

inyección [/] injection, shot. 

inyectado bloodshot Tenía los ojos inyec- 
tados. His eyes were bloodshot. 

inyectar to inject, give an injection Le 




inyectó una dosis de morfina. He gave 
him an injection of morphine. 

ir [irr~] to go. A to lead ¿A dónde va ese 
camino? Where does that road lead? 

O ir a caballo to ride on horseback 
Fuimos a caballo a la hacienda. We 
rode to the ranch on horseback. O ir 
a pie to walk, go on foot Si vamos a 
pie tardaremos mucho. If we walk we'll 
be very late. ° ir del brazo to walk 
arm in arm Iban del brazo. They were 
walking arm in arm. O ir de paseo to 
go for a walk ¿Ya Ud. de paseo? Are 
you going for a walk? O ir en auto to 
drive Yendo en auto llegaremos en tres 
horas. We'll arrive in three hours if 
we drive. O irle a uno (bien) to be 
becoming Ese color le va muy bien. 
That color is very becoming to you. 
O ir para (or con) to be meant for (of 
remarks) Lo que he dicho no va con 
Ud. What I've said isn't meant for 
you. O irse to leave, to go away Ya 
se fueron. They've already left. 

|| Ahora va de veras. Now it's the 
real thing. || ¿Cómo le va? How are 

ira anger. 

ironía irony, sarcasm. 

irónico ironical, sarcastic. 

irregular irregular, improper Su con- 
ducta es bastante irregular. His con- 
duct is quite irregular. A irregular, 
uneven Tiene unas facciones muy ir- 
regulares. He has very irregular fea- 

irremediable irreparable, hopeless. 

irresoluto irresolute, wavering, hesitant. 

irritable irritable. 

irritación [/] irritation Tiene irritación 
en la garganta. He has an irritation 
in his throat. A irritation, peevishness 
Su irritación molestó a todos. His 
peevishness annoyed everyone. 

irritar to irritate; to peeve. 

isla island, isle. 

isleño, isleña islander. 

itinerario itinerary. 

izquierda left hand Escribía con la iz- 
quierda. He wrote with his left hand. 
A left En política, militaba en la izqui- 
erda. In politics, he belonged to the 

O a la izquierda on the left, to the 
left Estaba sentado a mi izquierda. 
He was sitting on my left. 

izquierdo [adj~\ left Recibió un balazo en 
el pie izquierdo. He got a bullet wound 
in his left foot. 

jaba crate [Aw]. 

jabón [to] soap ¿Puede darme un jabón y 

una toalla? Can you give me a piece of 

soap and a towel? 
jalar (see halar) to pull, haul [A?w]. 
jalea jelly Deseo café, tostadas y jalea. 

I want coffee, toast, and jelly. 
jamás never, not ever. 
jamón [m~\ ham (cured pork). 
jamona buxom woman (middle-aged) 

[Sp] ; old maid [Antilles'}. 
jaqueca headache, megrim Estoy con 

jaqueca desde ayer. I've had a head- 
ache since yesterday. 
jarabe [m~\ syrup; jarabe (a Mexican 

dance) . 
jardín [to] garden (of flowers). 
jaripeo bronco-busting, rodeo [Mex~\. 
jarra pitcher Hágame el favor de poner 

una jarra con agua en mi cuarto. 

Please put a pitcher of water in my 

jaula cage. 
jefatura headquarters, chief's office Los 

llevaron a la jefatura de Policía. They 
took them to Police Headquarters. 

jefe [to] chief, leader, head Lograron 
capturar al jefe. They managed to 
capture the leader. A boss Tendré que 
avisar a mi jefe que no vendré mañana. 
I'll have to tell my boss that I won't be 
in tomorrow. 

jerga slang. 

jicara small cup. 

jinete [to] horseman. 

jitomate [to] tomato [Mex]. 

Jornada journey; day's work; day's walk. 

jornalero day laborer, casual worker. 

jota letter "j"; Aragonese folk dance. 

joven [ad?] young. A [w] young person. 

joya gem; piece of jewelry. 

judía bean [Sp]. 

O judías verdes string beans. 

judío Jewish. A [w] Jew. 

judía bean [Sp~]. O judías verdes string 

juego game El ajedrez es un juego muy 
difícil. Chess is a very difficult game. 
A set Compré un juego de manteles. I 
bought a set of table linen. A play, 





playing La hora de juego en isa escuela 
es de la una a las dos. The hour for 
play in that school is from one to two. 
A gambling Es un hombre aficionado al 
juego. He's a man fond of gambling. 
O hacer juego to match Ese sombrero 
hace juego con el traje. That hat 
matches the suit. O juego de palabras 
pun, play on words. ° no ser cosa de 
juego not to be a laughing matter. 

jueves [m] Thursday. 

juez [m] judge. 

jugador [to] gambler; player, contestant. 

jugar [rad-ch 7] to play ¿Sabe Ud. jugar 
tenis? Do you play tennis? A to play, 
gamble Jugó y perdió. He played and 

jugo juice. 

O sacar jugo de to get a lot out of 
Saca jugo de todo lo que hace. He gets 
a lot out of everything he does. 

juguete [to] toy. 

juicio judgment Esta chica tiene muy 
buen juicio. This girl has very good 
judgment. A trial (law). 

julepe [to] card game; [Am] dread, fear. 
O tener julepe to be scared stiff 

julio July. 

juma drinking spree. 

junio June. 

junta meeting; board La Junta de Reclu- 
tamiento. Draft Board. A joint, join- 
ing (carpentry). 

juntar to join, connect Juntaron los dos 
cordones eléctricos. They connected 
the two electric wires. A to pool Junta- 

mos todo el dinero. Let's pool all our 

O juntarse to meet, gather Nos jun- 
tamos a la puerta de casa. We met at 
the door of my house. O juntarse con 
to associate with. 

junto together ¿Quiere Ud. que vayamos 
juntos al teatro? Let's go to the the- 
ater together. 

O junto a next to, beside Se sentó 
junto a ella. He sat down next to her. 
O junto con with Llegó junto conmigo. 
He arrived with me. 

jurado jury. 

juramento oath (law) ; oath, swearing. 

jurar to swear (oath) ; to swear, curse. 

justicia justice (fairness); administration 
of justice; the law. 

justo [adj] right, just Creo que la deci- 
sion es justa. I believe that the deci- 
sion is just. A exact, on the dot La 
corrida empezó a la hora justa. The 
bullfight began on the dot. A [n] good 
person Siempre pagan justos por peca- 
dores. The good always pay for the 

O estar justo to fit tightly Este anillo 
me está muy justo. This ring is too 
tight for me. A to be correct Esta 
cuenta está justa. This account is cor- 

juvenil juvenile. 

juventud [/] youth, youthfulness. 

juzgar to judge No me gusta juzgar los 
actos ajenos. I don't like to judge the 
acts of others. A to try Juzgarán a 
los reos inmediatamente. They'll try 
the criminals immediately. 


kilo kilogram. 

kilogramo kilogram. 

kilométrico mileage ticket, book (railroad 

mileage purchased in quantity at cut 

rate) [Sp]. 
kilómetro kilometer. 
kiosco pavilion; newsstand; bandstand. 

la; pi las the. A her, it; [pi] them ¿Dónde 
la encontró Ud.? Where did you meet 

labio lip. 

labor [/] work, task. 

labrador [w] farmer. 

labrar to plow, farm. 

lado side Se sentó a mi lado. He sat by 
my side. A edge, margin Escribió una 

nota en el lado de la página. He made 
a note in the margin. 

O al lado (de) near(by), next door 
to El restaurante está al lado del 
teatro. The restaurant is next door to 
the theater. O a l lado derecho, al lado 
izquierdo on (or to) the right side, on 
(or to) the left side La casa estaba al 
lado derecho del camino. The house was 





on the right side of the road. O a un 
lado aside /Quiere hacerse a un lado? 
Would you step aside? O de lado side- 
ways, on its side Hay que poner el 
piano de lado para que entre. We have 
to put the piano on its side in order 
to get it in. O lado a lado side by side 
Trabajaron lado a lado. They worked 
side by side. O lado flaco weak side, 
weak spot Conozco muy bien su lado 
flaco. I know his weakness very well. 
O mirar de lado to look out of the cor- 
ner of the eye, look askance Aquella 
mujer me miró de lado. That woman 
looked askance at me. O por el lado 
around, in the general direction of 
Están por el lado del río. They're 
around the river. O por todos lados on 
all sides El edificio tiene salidas por 
todos lados. The building has exits on 
all sides. ° por un lado . . . por otro on 
the one side or hand ... on the other; 
in a way ... in a way Por un lado me 
gusta, pero por otro no. In a way I 
like it, in a way I don't. 

ladrar to bark. 

ladrilío brick. 

ladrón, ladrone thief, robber. 

lagarto lizard [Sp] ; alligator [Am]. 

lago lake. 

lágrima tear No derramó ni una lágrima. 
He didn't shed a tear. 

lamentable lamentable, pitiful, sorry Es- 
taba en un estado lamentable. She was 
in a pitiful state. 

lamentar to be sorry Lamento que Ud. 
no pueda acompañarnos. I'm sorry 
you can't join us. 

O lamentarse to lament, wail, moan 
Se lamentaba por la muerte de su 
perro. She moaned over the death of 
her dog. 

lamento moan. 

lamer to lick, lap. 

lámina sheet, plate Hoy hay muchos ob- 
jetos hechos con lámina de metal. 
Today there are many things made of 
sheet metal. A plate (illustration) 
/Tiene láminas de colores ese libro? 
Does that book have colored plates? 

lámpara lamp, bulb; radio tube. 

lana wool. 

lancha (small) boat Alquilemos una- 
lancha de remos. Lefs hire a row 

lanchen \m\ barge. 

langosta lobster; locust (insect). 

lanzar to throw, hurl, fling Lanzó la pe- 
lota. He threw the ball. 
O lanzarse (a) to throw oneself, rush 

to Se lanzó al agua. He threw himself 
into the water. 

lápida memorial tablet, plaque; head- 

lápiz [?n] pencil. 

larga O a la larga in the long run, even- 
tually A la larga se convencerá Ud. 
Eventually you'll be convinced. O dar 
largas to put off. A to give one the 
run-around Siempre me está dando 
largas. He's always giving me the 

largar to let loose, loosen [Am] Ya van 
a largar los caballos. They're going 
to let the horses loose now. 

O largarse to scram, beat it ¡Lar- 
gúese de aquí! Scram! 

largo long Recibí una larga carta de mis 
padres. I got a long letter from my 
folks. A [tn] length ¿Cuál es el largo 
de ese trozo de tela? What is the 
length of this piece of cloth? 

O a lo largo at full length Se tumbó 
a lo largo sobre el sofá. He stretched 
out full length on the couch. °a lo 
largo de along Hay un bosque a lo 
largo del río. There's a forest along 
the river. O de largo long Este ter- 
reno tiene doscientos metros de largo. 
This piece of ground is two hundred 
meters long. O largos años many years 
Vivió en Nueva York largos años. He 
lived in New York (for) many years. 
A long life Vivió largos años. He lived 
to a ripe old age. O pasar de largo to 
pass right by Pasó de largo sin mi- 
rarme. He passed right by without 
looking at me. O traje largo evening 
dress Las damas estaban de traje 
largo. The ladies were in evening 

|| ¡Largo de aquí! Get out of here! 

las See la. 

lástima pity ¡Es látima que Ud. no haya 
venido anoche! It's a pity you didn't 
come last night. — ¡Qué lástima! What 
a pity! 

O dar lástima to inspire pity, be piti- 
ful S?t estado daba lástima. His condi- 
tion was pitiful. 

lastimadura sore, superficial wound. 

lastimar to hurt Estos zapatos me lasti- 
man. These shoes hurt me. — Me dijo 
una cosa, que me lastimó. He told me 
something that hurt me. A to injure, 
hurt El golpe no le lastimó. The blow 
didn't hurt him. 

O lastimarse to hurt oneself Se las- 
timó al caer. He hurt himself when 
he fell, 





lata tin (plate) Esta caja está hecha 

de lata. This box is made of tin. A can 

Quisier dos latas de tórnate. I'd like 

two cans of tomatoes. A annoyance, 

nuisance El ruido era una lata. The 

noise was a nuisance. 

O dar la lata to annoy, bother, pester 

Nos daba la lata con sus qiiejas. He 

annoyed us with his complaints. 
latido beat, beating, throb. 
látigo whip, lash. 
latin [m] Latin (language). 
latino [adj ; ri\ Latin. 
latir to beat, throb El corazón le latía 

rápidamente. His heart was beating 

latón [m] brass. 
laucha mouse [.Am]. 
laurel [m] laurel. 
lavabo washstand; washroom. 
lavadero washtub. 
lavamanos [m sg] washbowl, lavatory 

lavandera laundress. 
lavandería laundry [Am]. 
lavar to wash Tenemos que lavar la ropa. 

We have to wash the clothes. 
lavatorio lavatory, wash basin [Am]. 
laxante [adj; m] laxative. 
lazareto hospital for contagious diseases; 

quarantine (of ports of entry). 
lazo bow, loop ¿Puede Ud. hacer un lazo? 

Can you tie a bow? A lasso, lariat. 
O echar el lazo to lasso. 
le [obj pron] him, to him, to her, to you, 

to it; [pl~\ them, to them, to you. 
leal loyal. 
lección [/] lesson. 
leche [/] milk. 
lechería dairy store (place where only 

milk is sold). 
lecho bed, couch. 
lechuga lettuce. 

lector [m] reader, one who reads. 
lectura reading ¿Qué clase de lectura le 

gusta a Ud.? What kind of reading 

do you like? 
leer to read ¿Ha leído Ud. el diaro dé 

esta mañana? Have you read this 

morning's paper? 
legación [/] legation. 
legal legal, lawful. 
legible legible, readable, 
legítimo lawful, legitimate. 
legua league (measure of length). 
legumbre [/] vegetable. 
lejano distant, far. 
lejos far ¿Es muy lejos de aquí? Is it 

very far from here? A far away Están 

muy lejos. They are very far away. 

O a lo lejos in the distance A lo lejos 
vimos unas casas. We saw some houses 
in the distance. O desde lejos from a 
distance Desde lejos le reconocimos. 
We recognized him from a distance. 
O lejos de far from Vive demasiado 
lejos de la ciudad. He lives too far 
from the city. — Lejos de enmendarse 
está cada día peor. Far from getting 
better he gets worse every day. 

lengua tongue Me mordí la lengua. I bit 
my tongue. A language, tongue En 
Centro y Sur América se habla la 
la lengua castellana. Spanish is 
spoken in Central and South America. 
O írsele a uno la lengua to let some- 
thing out (by talking) ; to give one- 
self away Se le va la lengua muy 
fácilmente. He gives himself away 
very easily. O morderse la lengua to 
hold or control one's tongue. O no 
morderse la lengua not to mince words, 
speak straight from the shoulder. 

lenguado sole, flounder. 

lenguaje [m] language, speech. 

lente [m or /] lens (optical). 

O lente (de aumento) magnifying 
glass Estas letras tan pequeñas se 
pueden leer solamente con una lente. 
These small letters can only be read 
with a magnifying glass. ° lentes 
[m pl~\ eyeglasses Deseo comprar míos 
lentes oscuros. I want to buy some 
dark glasses. 

lentitud [/] slowness. 

lento slow. 

leña firewood. 

león [m] lion. 

les See le. 

letra letter (of alphabet). A handwriting 
Mi hermana tiene muy buena letra. 
My sister has a very good handwriting. 
A words (of a song) ¿Sabe Ud. la letra 
de esa canción? Do you know the 
words of that song? 

O cuatro letras a few lines Le he 
escrito cuatro letras. I wrote him a 
few lines. O letra (de cambio) draft 
¿Dónde puedo cobrar esta letra (de 
cambio) ? Where can I cash this draft? 
O letra (de imprenta) type ¿Qué estilo 
de letra (de imprenta) es esa? What 
style of type is that? 

letrero sign ¿Qui dice este letrero? What 
does this sign say? 

levantar to raise Si Ud. quiere hablar 
levante la mano. If you want to speak, 
raise your hand. — Empezó a levantar 
la voz. He began to raise his voice. 
A to lift No puedo levantar esto, pesa 





demasiado. I can't lift this, it's too 
heavy. A to pick up Levanta ese papel 
del suelo. Pick up that paper there 
on the floor. A to rise up El pueblo se 
levantó contra, los invasores. The peo- 
ple rose up against the invaders. A to 
build Están levantando muchas casas 
nuevas en esa calle. They are building 
many new houses on that street. 

O levantar cabeza to get on one's feet 
Después de la bancarrota no pudo le- 
vantar cabeza. After his bankruptcy, 
he wasn't able to get back on his feet. 
O levantar planos to draw up plans Los 
ingenieros levantaron un plano para 
un nuevo muelle. The engineers drew 
up plans for a new dock. O levantarse 
to get up Yo me levanto temprano. I 
get up early. 
ley [/] law. 
leyenda legend. 
libelo libel. 

liberación [/] liberation. 
liberal [adj ; ??i] liberal. 
liberar to free, liberate. 
libertad [/] liberty, freedom Los pueblos 
luchan por su libertad. Nations are 
fighting for freedom. 

O dejar en libertad to free Dejaron 
en libertad a los presos. They freed 
the prisoners. 
libertador [w] liberator. 
libertar to free, 
libra pound (weight). 

O libra (esterlina) pound (sterling). 
libranza ° libranza postal money order 

librar to free, deliver Los actos del go- 
bernador libraron al pueblo de la mise- 
ria. The acts of the governor delivered 
the people from their misery. 

O librar (una letra) contra to draw 
(a draft) on. O librarse de to get rid 
of Al fin 7ws libramos de él. At last we 
got rid of him. A to avoid, get out of 
Quiso librarse de pagar los impuestos. 
He wanted to get out of paying his 
libre free Abrió la jaula para dejar libre 
al pájaro. He opened the cage to set 
the bh'd free. — Esta mercadería está 
libre de impuestos. This merchandise 
is tax free. — Es muy libre para hablar. 
He's very free-spoken. — La entrada m 
libre. Admission (is) free. A f ree, 
unencumbered, disengaged, off ¿Tiene 
Ud. libre el sábado? Do you have Sat- 
urday off? A dissolute, loose Es una 
mujer (de vida) libre. She's a loose 

librería bookshop. 

libreta O libreta de banco bankbook, pass 
book. O libreta de direcciones address 
book Ya he apuntado su dirección en 
mi libreta. I have already put your 
address in my book. 

libro book. 

O libro de apuntes notebook. O Hbro 
de caja cashbook. O libro de cuentas 
account book. 

licencia license, permit ¿Tiene Ud. licen- 
cia para vender licor? Do you have a 
license to sell liquor? A furlough El 
cabo está con licencia. The corporal 
is on furlough. 

O licencia absoluta discharge Le die- 
ron licencia absoluta del ejército. He 
got his discharge from the army. 

licenciado See licenciar. O licenciado del 
ejército veteran. O licenciado de pre- 
sidio discharged convict. O licenciado 
en filosofía Master of Arts. 

licenciar to discharge (from army or 

O licenciarse to get a master's de- 

licor [m] liqueur, cordial. 

liga garter Estas ligas son de buen elás- 
tico. These garters are made of good 

ligar to tie, bind Le ligaron las manos 
a la espalda. They tied his hands be- 
hind his back. A to join, to connect 
Ligaron los dos alambres. They con- 
nected the two wires. 

O ligarse to join, band together Se 
ligaron contra el peligro común. They 
joined together against the common 

ligero light, thin Quiero un abrigo ligero 
de primavera. I want a light spring 
coat. A f ast ;No vaya tan ligero! 
Don't go so fast ! A light Comeré algo 
ligero. I'll eat something light. — La 
comedia que vimos era ynuy ligera. We 
saw a very light comedy. A unimpor- 
tant, trifling Su contribxición era muy 
ligera. His contribution was unimpor- 

O a la ligera quickly, superficially Lo 
It ice a la ligera. I did it quickly. 
O una mujer ligera de cascos feather- 
brained woman. 

lima lime (fruit); file (tool). 

limitar to restrict, to limit Quieren limi- 
tar el número de boletos. They want 
to limit the number of tickets. 

O limitar con to be bounded by Méxi- 
co limita al norte con los Estados 





Unidos. Mexico is bounded on the 
north by the United States. 

límite [m] limit, boundary. 

limón [m~\ lemon. 

limonada lemonade. 

limonar [m] lemon grove. 

limonero lemon tree. 

limosna alms. 

limpiabotas [m s#] bootblack. 

limpiar to clean ¿Cuánto cuesta limpiar 
un traje de lana? How much do you 
charge for cleaning a woolen dress? 
A to clean out (of money) ho limpiaron 
(de dinero). They cleaned him out. 

° limpiarse to clean, wash (one's 
face, hands, etc) ; to brush (one's 
teeth) Tengo que limpiarme las manos 
y los dientes. . I have to wash my hands 
and brush my teeth. 

limpieza cleanliness. 

limpio clean Estos cristales no están lim- 
pios. These windows aren't clean. 
A clear El cielo está limpio hoy. The 
sky's clear today. A free Está limpio 
de culpa. He's free from guilt. 

O poner en limpio to make a final 
copy Ponga Ud. la carta en limpio. 
Make a final copy of the letter. O sacar 
en limpio to make head or tail of, to 
understand No he podido sacar nada 
en limpio de ese discurso. I couldn't 
make head or tail of that speech. 

lindo lovely Viven en una linda casa. 
They live in a lovely house. — ¡Qué 
Undo! How lovely! A pretty ¡Qué 
linda mujer! What a pretty woman! 
A fine Ha hecho un lindo trabajo. He's 
done a fine job. 

O de lo lindo very much Gozamos de 
lo lindo en la fiesta. We enjoyed the 
party very much. 

línea line Trace Ud. una linea aquí. Draw 
a line here. A lines, figure La mucha- 
cha no quiere perder la línea. The girl 
doesn't want to lose her figure. 

O descendiente en línea directa (or 
recta) direct descendant, lineal de- 
scendant. O en línea in a row Los 
árboles estaban en línea. The trees 
were in a row. O entre líneas between 
the lines Sabe leer entre líneas. He 
knows how to read between the lines. 
° línea férrea railway line. 

lino linen (material). 

linterna lantern; [Sp] flashlight. 

lío bundle Llevaba un lío de ropa. He 
carried a bundle of clothes. A jam, 
trouble No quiero meterme en un lío. 
I don't want to get into a jam. A mess 
¡Qué lío! What a mess! 

liquidación [/] bargain sale, selling out 

En aquel comercio hay una liquidación. 
There is a bargain sale at that store. 

liquidar to pay, pay up Liquida sus cuen- 
tas todos los meses. He pays his bills 
every month. A to squander Liquidó la 
fortuna de su padre. He squandered 
his father's fortune. A to sell out Este 
almacén está liquidando. This store is 
selling out. 

líquido [adj] exactly, just Me quedan 
tres pesos líquidos. I have just three 
dollars left. A [m] liquid Sólo toma 
líquidos. He can only take liquids. 
A net (balance) Hecho el inventario, 
quedó un líquido de trescientos pesos. 
After inventory, there was a net bal- 
ance of three hundred pesos. 

lirio lily. 

liso smooth Quiero un papel liso. I want 
a smooth piece of paper. A straight 
Tiene el pelo liso. She has straight 
hair. A plain Prefiero las telas lisas. 
I prefer plain materials. A slippery 
El suelo está muy liso. The floor is 
very slippery. 

lista [/] list ¿Esta su nombre en la lista? 
Is your name on the list? A stripe 
Lleva un traje a listas. She is wearing 
a striped dress. 

O lista (de teléfonos) (telephone) di- 

listo ready Todo estaba listo para el 
viaje. Everything was ready for the 
trip. A clever Es muy lista. She's 
very clever. 

literal literal. 

literatura literature. 

litro liter. 

liviano light (not heavy) [Am] „• free and 
easy (of women) [Sp]. 

lívido livid. 

llaga open sore. 

llama flame; llama. 

llamada call ¿Ha habido algunas llamadas 
pari mi? Have there been any calls 
for me? 

llamar to call Haga Ud. el favor de llamar 
un taxi. Please call a taxi. A to knock 
Llame Ud. antes de entrar. Knock be- 
fore entering. A to ring (a bell) Abra 
Ud. la puerta están llamando (el tim- 
bre) . Open the door, they are ringing 
(the bell). 

O llamar a call upon, summon El go- 
bierno le llama a defender la patria. 
The government calls upon him to de- 
fend his country. O llamar la atención 
to warn, scold Los niños pisaron el cés- 
ped y el guarda les llamó la atención. 
The children trampled on the grass and 
the guard scolded them. A to call or at- 





tract attention Quiso llamar la atención 
sobre sí mismo todo el tiempo. He al- 
ways wanted to call attention to him- 
self. O llamar por teléfono to phone, to 
telephone La han llamado a Ud. por 
teléfono varias veces. They've phoned 
you several times. O llamarse to be 
called or named "¿Cómo se llama su 
amigo?" "Se llama Jorge." "What's 
your friend's name?" "His name's 
George." — ¿Cómo se llama esto? What's 
the name of this? 

llanero cowboy, plainsman [Ven, Col], 

llano level, even La casa está en la parte 
■más llana del terreno. The house is on 
the most level part of the ground. 
A simple, plain Dígalo en lenguaje llano. 
Say it in plain terms. A frank, unaf- 
fected Es un tipo llano y sincero. He 
is a frank and sincere fellow. 

llanta tire Llevamos dos llantas de re- 
puesta. We are taking two spare tires. 

llanura plain La ciudad está en una lla- 
nura. The city is on a plain. 

Have key Olvidé la llave de mi cuarto. I 
forgot the key to my room. A jet (gas 
stove) Dejaron abierta la llave del gas. 
They left the gas jet on. A switch ¿Dón- 
de está la llave de la luz? Where's the 
light switch? A faucet, tap Cierre Ud. 
la llave del baño. Turn off the faucet 
in the bath tub. 

O echar (la) llave to lock the door 
Debemos echar llave al salir. We 
should lock the door when we leave. 
O llave inglesa monkey wrench. 

llavero key ring. 

llegada arrival. 

llegar to arrive Cuándo llegaremos a la 
Habana? When will we arrive in Ha- 
vana? A to come Lo haré cuando llegue 
mi turno. I'll do it when my turn 
comes. A to reach El traje le llegaba 
hasta los pies. The dress reached to 
her feet. A to extend, go as far as Este 
camino llega hasta Bogotá. This road 
goes as far as Bogotá. A to amount El 
gasto llegó a doce pesos. The cost 
amounted to twelve pesos. 

° llegar a to succeed in No llegó a 
oír lo que decíamos. He didn't suc- 
ceed in hearing what we were saying. 
° llegar a ser to get to be Era muy 
joven cuando llegó a ser coronel. He 
was very young when he became a 
colonel. O llegar a suceder to come to 
pass, happen Si eso llega a suceder me 
alegraré mucho. If that happens I'll 
be very glad. 

llenar to fill (up) Llenó la copa de vino. 
He filled the glass with wine. A to cover 

Se llenaron las manos de pintura. They 
covered their hands with paint. A to 
satisfy, please fully No me llena ese 
espectáculo. That show doesn't please 
me fully. A to fill out Llene Ud. el 
pliego de solicitud. Fill out the appli- 
lleno full La piscina está llena de agua 
limpia. The pool is full of clean water. 
— Esta noche habrá luna llena. There 
will be a full moon tonight. A [»i] 
full house En el teatro hubo un lleno. 
The theater had a full house. 

O de lleno fully Su libro trataba el 
asunto de lleno. His book treated the 
subject fully. A squarely El golpe le 
dio de lleno en la cara. The blow hit 
him squarely in the face. O Heno de 
covered with ¡Todo está lleno de polvo! 
Everything is covered with dust. 

lleno de bote en bote full, full to the 
brim La sala estaba llena de bote en 
bote. The room was full of people. 

llevar to take, carry Llevaron al enfermo 
al hospital. They took the patient to 
the hospital. A to have (with or on 
one), carry ¿Lleva Ud. los boletos? 
Have you the tickets? A to wear 
Llevaré un traje blanco. I'll wear a 
white dress. A to be (for a certain 
time) Llevo mucho tiempo esperando. 

1 have been waiting for a long time. 
— -Cuánto tiempo lleva Ud. en los Es- 
tados Unidos? How long have you 
been in the United States? A to take, 
guide, lead Nos llevaron por un lugar 
peligroso. They took us through a dan- 
gerous place. A to charge ¿Cuánto me 
llevará Ud. por el traje? How much 
will you charge me for the suit? A to 
lead ¿A dónde lleva este camino? 
Where does this road lead? A to con- 
duct Lleva muy bien sus negocios. He 
conducts his business very well. 

O llevar a cabo to carry through, ac- 
complish Llevó a cabo su misión diplo- 
mática con éxito. He carried through 
his diplomatic mission with success. 
O llevar la contra to oppose, contradict 
Le gusta llevar la contra. He likes to 
contradict. A to antagonize. O llevar 
la delantera to be ahead .Vos llevan In 
delantera. They're ahead of us. 
O llevar (mala) vida to lead a (bad) 
life Lleva wia vida desordenada. He 
leads a disorderly life. O llevarse to 
carry off or away, take, steal Los la- 
drones se llevaron las joyas. The 
thieves carried off the jewels. ° lle- 
varse bien to get along well Se lleva 
muy bien con sus amigo*. He gets 





along very well with his friends. 

llevarse (el premio) to win, carry 
off (the prize) Se llevó el premio 
grande. He won the first prize. 
° llevarse un chasco to be disappointed, 
get it in the neck ¡Qué chasco me he 
llevado! I certainly got it in the neck! 

llorar to weep, cry. 

Hover \rad-ch I] to rain Está lloviendo 
mucho. It's raining very hard. 

O como llovido del cielo like manna 
from heaven Llegó el dinero como llo- 
vido del cielo. The money came like 
manna from heaven. O Hover a cán- 
taros to pour (rain) Espere un mo- 
mento, llueve a cántaros. Wait a 
while, it's pouring. 

lloviznar to drizzle. 

lluvia rain. 

lluvioso rainy. 

lo [neut art] the Es lo mejor que tene- 
mos. It's the best we have. 4 \_obj pron; 
pi los] him, it; pi them Mándemelo. 
Send him to me. — Mándemelos. Send 
them to me. 

loba female wolf. 

lobo wolf. 

local [adj~\ local Este es tino de los me- 
jores periódicos locales. This is one 
of the best local newspapers. A [m] 
place (indoors) No me gusta este local. 

1 don't like this place. 

localidad [/] locality, place ¿Qué locali- 
dad es esta? What place is this? A seat 
(in a theater) ¿Quedan buenas locali- 
dades para esta noche? Are there any 
good seats left for tonight? 

localizar to locate. A to find out Primero, 
tenemos que localizer donde viven. 
First we have to find out where they 
live. Á to localize Los bomberos locali- 
zaron el fuego. The firemen localized 
the fire. 

loco insane, crazy ¡No seas loco! Don't 
be crazy! A [n] madman, lunatic Es 
un loco. He's a lunatic. 

locomotora locomotive. 

locura insanity, madness Su locura era 
hereditaria. His insanity was heredi- 
tary. A folly Esas son locuras de la 
juventud. Those are the follies of 

lodo mud. 

lógica logic. 

lógico logical, reasonable. 

lograr to get, obtain Lograba todo lo que 
quería. He got all he wanted. A to 
succeed in No logramos convencerle. 
We didn't succeed in convincing him. 

lomo loin ¿Le gusta el lomo de cerdo? 
Do you like loin of pork? 

lona canvas. 

longitud [/] length; longitude. 

loquero attendant in an insane asylum. 

loro parrot. 

los See le, el, lo. 

lotería lottery. 

loza crockery. 

lucero any bright star. 

lucha struggle, fight La lucha por la exis- 
tencia. The struggle for existence. 

luchador [m~\ fighter; wrestler. 

luchar to fight, struggle Los dos hombres 
lucharon largo rato. The two men 
fought for a long time. A to wrestle. 

lucir [-2C-] to shine, glitter, sparkle Las 
joyas ludan en sus dedos. The jewels 
glittered on her fingers. A to wear, 
show off Se empeñó en lucir su traje 
nuevo. She insisted on wearing her 
new dress. A to look, appear Luce Ud. 
muy bien hoy. You look very well 

° lucirse to do splendidly Se lució en 
el examen. He did splendidly in the ex- 
amination. A to show off Le gusta 
mucho lucirse. He likes to show off. 

luego immediately, right away Vengo 
luego. I'm coming right away. A after- 
wards ¿Qué haremos luego? What shall 
we do afterwards? A next ¿Qué pasó 
luego? What happened next? A then 
Cenaremos juntos y luego iremos al 
teatro. We'll dine together and then 
go to the theater. A later Luego lo haré. 
I'll do it later. 

° desde luego naturally, of course 
¡Desde luego lo haré! Of course I'll 
do it ! O luego, luego right away 
[Mex~\. Otan luego as soon as [Am] 
Tan luego como llegue se lo diré. As 
soon as he arrives I'll tell him. 
|| \Hasta luego! So long! 

lugar [?n] place Nos encontraremos en el 
lugar acostumbrado. We'll meet at the 
usual place. A place, city, town ¿De 
qué lugar es Ud.? Where are you 
from? A room, space No hay lugar 
donde sentarnos. There's no room for 
us to sit down. A position, office Tiene 
un buen lugar en el banco. He has a 
good position in the bank. 

O dar lugar a to cause, give rise to 
Lo que dijo dio lugar a muchas con- 
troversias. What he said gave rise to 
much controversy. O en lugar de in- 
stead of En lugar de comer aquí vamos 
a casa. Instead of eating here, let's 
go home. O en primer lugar in the 
first place En prime-r lugar tengo que 





hacer, además hace calor. In the first 
place I'm busy, and besides it's too hot. 
O tener lugar to take place La cere- 
monia tuvo lugar en el cementerio. The 
services took place at the cemetery. 

lujo luxury. 

O de lujo de luxe, luxurious. 

lujoso luxurious, showy. 

lumbre [/] fire (in stove, fireplace) Se 
sentaron cerca de la lumbre. They sat 
near the fire. A light Se me apagó el 
cigarro. ¿Quiere Ud. darme lumbre' 
My cigar went out. Will you give me 
a light? 

luminoso bright, luminous Una idea lumi- 
nosa. A bright idea. 

luna moon Estaban paseando a la luz de 
la luna. They were walking in the 

O estar en la luna to be distracted. 
O luna de miel honeymoon. O luna 
llena full moon. 

lunar [m~\ mole, beauty mark Tenía ?<n. 
limar en el cuello. She had a mole on 
her neck. A polka dot Llevaba un traje 

de lunares. She was wearing a polka 
dot dress. 

lunes [»i] Monday. 

lunfardo Argentine slang. 

lustrar to polish, shine Tengo que lus- 
trarme los zapatos. I have to shine my 

lustre [?n] luster, shine, polish; splendor. 
O dar lustre to shine, polish. 

luto mourning; grief; mourning gar- 

O estar de luto to be in mourning. 

luz [/] light No puedo ver con esta luz. 
I can't see in this light. — Hizo luz en 
el asunto. He shed some light on the 

O a todas luces any way you look at 
it A todas luces es cierto. It's true 
any way you look at it. O dar a la luz 
to publish. O dar a luz to give birth (to 
a child). O entre dos luces in the twi- 
light Llegaron entre dos luces. They 
arrived at twilight. O luces intelli- 
gence Es un hombre de muchas luces. 
He's a man of great intelligence. 


macana fib, tall tale, exaggeration [Argr]. 
|| ¡Qué macana! How annoving! 

macanudo excellent, wonderful, super 

maceta flowerpot; potted plant. 

machacar to crush Machacó la piedra 
completamente. He crushed the stone 
completely. A to harp (on a subject) 
Es inútil, no machaque Ud. más. It's 
useless, don't harp on it any longer. 

macho [adj; m~\ male (animals). 

macizo [adj~\ solid Era una barra de oro 
macizo. It was a solid gold bar. A [m] 
flower bed En medio del jardín había 
un macizo (de flores). There was a 
flower bed in the middle of the garden. 

madera wood La caja estaba hecha de 
madera de sándalo. The box was made 
of sandalwood. A lumber, timber La 
madera no está todavía seca. The 
lumber is still green. A qualities, talent 
Tiene madera de actor. He has a 
talent for acting. 

madero beam; timber. 

madrastra stepmother. 

madre [/] mother. A origin, source, cra- 
dle Grecia fué la madre de la civiliza- 
ción occidental. Greece was the eradle 
of western civilization. 

O madre política mother-in-law Le 
voy a presentar a mi madre política. 
I'm going to introduce you to my 
mother-in-law. O salirse de madre to 
overflow El río se salió de madre. The 
river overflowed. A to lose control of 

madrina godmother. 

madrugada dawn. 

O de madrugada at daybreak, at 

madrugar to rise early. 

madurar to ripen La uva maduró bien 
aquel verano. The grapes ripened well 
that summer. A to think out, develop 
(an idea) Maduró la idea antes de 
realizarla. He thought out the idea 
thoroughly before putting it into prac- 
tice. A to mature Maduró con los años. 
He became more mature with the pass- 
ing of the years. 

madurez [/] maturity, ripeness. 

maduro ripe; mature (of persons). 

maestro teacher Los chicos escuchaban al 
maestro. The children were listening 
to the teacher. A master, craftsman 
Era maestro en su oficio. He was mas- 
ter of his trade. 

magistrado magistrate; judge (higher 





magnífico magnificent, excellent, grand. 

mago wizard. 

maguey [m] maguey (plant). 

maíz [m] corn, maize. 

majadero silly, foolish. A [n] blockhead. 

majestad [/] majesty. 

majestuoso [adj] grand, majestic. 

mal (see malo) bad Hemos pasado un 
mal rato. We have had a bad time. 
A [ml illness Síi mal era incurable. 
His illness was incurable. A harm 
Gozaba haciendo el mal. He enjoyed 
doing harm. A [adv] badly Todo va 
muy mal. Everything is going very 

O de mal en peor from bad to worse 
Vamos de mal en peor. We are going 
from bad to worse. O estar mal de 
to be badly off (or in a bad way) as re- 
gards Estoy mal de dinero. I'm badly 
in need of money. O mal hecho poorly 
done Ese trabajo está mal hecho. That 
work is poorly done. A wrong. 

|| No hay mal que por bien no venga. 
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good. 
|| Quien canta su mal espanta. He who 
sings drives away his grief. 

malcriado ill-bred, spoiled. 

maldad [/] wickedness, evil deed; harm. 

maldecir \irr~\ to damn, to curse. 

maldición [/] curse. 

maldito [adj~\ cursed, damned. 

malestar [m] indisposition; discontent, 

maleta suitcase. A bundle [Am] Haga 
una maleta con esta ropa. Make a 
bundle of these clothes. 

O hacer la maleta to pack the suit- 
case; to get ready to leave. 

maletero porter (carrier). 

maletín [m] overnight bag, small case. 

maleza weeds. 

malicia malice Lo hizo sin malicia. He 
did it without malice. 

° tener malicia to be malicious 
Aquellas palabras parecían tener mali- 
cia. Those seemed to be malicious 

malicioso malicious; risque. 

maligno malignant. 

malo bad, unpleasant El tiempo está muy 
malo. The weather is very bad. A dif- 
ficult, hard, bad ¡Qué rato tan malo 
hemos pasado! What a bad time we've 
had ! A naughty Este niño es demasiado 
malo. This child's very naughty. A ill 
Tan malo se puso que murió a las dos 
horas. He became so ill that he died 
two hours later. 

O por las malas o por las buenas 
whether you like it or not Lo harás 

por las malas o por las buenas. You 
will do it whether you like it or not. 
|| Ese es un tipo muy malo. He's a 
bad egg. 

malograr to waste, to miss, fail to take 
advantage of (as time, opportunity, 
etc) Malograron la ocasión. They 
failed to take advantage of the op- 

O malograrse to fail La empresa se 
malogró. The business failed. 

malsano unhealthy, unhealthful, unsani- 
tary, unwholesome. 

maltratar to mistreat, to abuse. 

malvado wicked. A [n\ wicked person, 

mamá [/] mamma, mom. 

mameluco overalls [Am]. 

manantial [w] spring, source of stream. 

manar to flow out, spring De la roca ma- 
naba tina fuente. A spring flowed out 
of the rock. 

mancha spot, stain Le cayó una mancha 
en el traje. She got a spot on her 
dress. A patch (of ground or vegeta- 
tion) Sólo había algunas manchas de 
vegetación cerca del río. There were 
only a few patches of vegetation near 
the river. 

manchado (see manchar) spotted, mottled 
Un perro manchado. A spotted dog. 

manchar to stain, soil. 

manco one-armed. 

mandadero messenger; errand boy. 

mandado See mandar. A [m] errand; 

mandamiento order, command; command- 

mandar to order, direct Mandó salir a 
la criada. He ordered the maid to 
leave. A to send Al llegar mandaron 
el equipaje al hotel. When they ar- 
rived they sent their luggage to the 
hotel. A to send, transmit Mande Ud. 
recuerdos a nuestro amigo. Send my 
regards to our friend. 

O mandar a paseo to tell someone to 
go fly a kite. 

mandato order, mandate, command. 

mando order El general dio el mando de 
retirarse. The general gave the order 
to retreat. A leadership, sternness Era 
hombre de mucho mando. He was a 
man of great leadership. A control 
Los mandos del avión no funcionaban. 
The controls of the plane were out of 

O (alto) mando high command El 
mando decidió atacar de madrugado. 
The high command decided to attack at 
dawn. O estar al mando to be in com- 





mand Está al mando del sector. He's 
in command of the sector. O tomar el 
mando to take command Un coman- 
dante tuvo que tomar el mando de la 
división. A major had to take com- 
mand of the division. 

manecilla hand (of a watch, clock, or 

manejar to manage, handle Manejó bien 
el dinero y aumentó los ingresos. He 
handled the money well and increased 
the income from it. A to drive [Am] 
¿Ha aprendido Ud. a manejar el coche? 
Have you learned to drive the car? 

O manejarse to move about Se mane- 
jaba ya sin las muletas. He was al- 
ready moving about without crutches. 
A to get along Se maneja bien. He gets 
along all right. A to manage, succeed 
in ¿Cómo se maneja Ud. para hacer 
esto? How do you manage to do this? 

manejo handling El manejo de esto ofrece 
peligro. This is a dangerous thing to 
handle. — El manejo de la dinamita es 
peligroso. The handling of dynamite 
is dangerous. A driving (a car) [Am]. 
A management, control Lleva todo el 
manejo de la tienda. He is in com- 
plete charge of the shop. A intrigue 
Con sus manejos consiguió lo que que- 
ría. He got what he wanted by in- 

manera way, manner ¿Qué manera es esa 
de contestar? Is that the way to 

O de (esta) manera this way, in this 
manner Hágalo Ud. de esta manera. 
Do it this way. O de mala manera 
rudely Lo dijo de mala manera. He 
said it in a rude way. O de manera que 
so, as a result Ayer no fui, de manera 
que tengo que ir hoy. I didn't go yes- 
terday, so I have to go today. Ode 
ninguna manera by no means De nin- 
guna manera lo aceptaré. By no means 
will I accept it. O de otra manera in 
another way No se lo puedo decir de 
otra manera. I can't tell him any other 
way. A otherwise Estaba allí de otra 
manera no le hubiera hablado. He 
was there, otherwise I wouldn't have 
spoken to him. O de todas maneras 
at any rate De todas maneras iremos. 
In any case we'll go. O en cierta ma- 
nera in a way En cierta manera, tiene 
Ud. razón. In a way you are right. 
O maneras manners No tiene buenas 
maneras. He hasn't got good man- 
ners. O no hay manera de there's no 
way to No hay manera de traducirlo. 
There's no way to translate it. 

manga sleeve Las mangas le estaban cor- 
tas. His sleeves were short for him. 
O andar manga por hombro to be in 
a mess En aquella casa todo andaba 
manga por hombro. Everything was 
in a mess in that house. O de manga 
ancha indulgent Es hombre de manga 
ancha con sus hijos. He's very indul- 
gent with his children. A not too 
scrupulous. O en mangas de camisa in 
shirt sleeves Por el calor estaban en 
mangas de camisa. They were in their 
shirt sleeves because of the heat. 
O manga (de riego) hose La manga 
(de riego) no funcionaba. The hose 
didn't work. 

mango handle; mango (fruit). 

manguito muff. 

maní [m] peanut [4m]. 

mania madness; mania; hobby. 

O tomar manía (a) to dislike, have a 
grudge (against). 

manifestación [/] demonstration (pa- 

manifestar [rad-ch /] to express, show 
En la carta manifestaba estar con- 
forme. In the letter he expressed his 

O manifestarse to make a demonstra- 
tion Los obreros quisieron mani- 
festarse, pero no pudieron. The work- 
ers wanted to make a demonstration, 
but couldn't. 

manifiesto manifest, plain, obvious. 
A [m] manifesto. 

manilla hand (of watch, clock, gage). 

mano [/] hand. A coat (of paint, var- 
nish, etc) Hay que una mano de 
barniz. We must give it a coat of var- 
nish. A first player (next to dealer) 
La mano echó un triunfo. The first 
player led a trump. A mishap, mis- 
fortune [Am] Nos pasó una mano. 
We had a slight accident. 

O a mano by hand La carta estaba 
escrita a mano. The letter was writ- 
ten by hand. A near by, within reach 
Póngalo Ud. a mano. Put it within 
reach. O a mano derecha or izquierda 
on the right or left Su habitación está 
a mano derecha. His room is on the 
right. O de la mano by the hand 
Llevaba el niño de la mano. She was 
leading the child by the hand. O de 
segunda mano second-hand. O echar 
una mano to lend a hand. O hecho a 
mano handmade. O mano a mano tete á 
tete Se pusieron a hablar mano a mano. 
They had a tete á tete. 

manojo bunch (of flowers or vegetables). 





mansedumbre [/] meekness, humility, 

manso tame; calm; meek. 

manta blanket. 

manteca lard, fat. 

mantel [m] table-cloth. 

mantener [irr] to support, provide for, 
make a living for Mantenía a su madre 
y tres hermanos. He supported his 
mother and three brothers. A to hold 
Mantenga firme la cuerda. Hold the 
rope tight. A to maintain, defend (an 
opinion) Mantendrá su opinion contra 
todos. He will defend his opinion 
against anyone. A to keep up Costaba 
trabajo mantener la conversación. It 
was difficult to keep up the conversa- 

O mantenerse to .support oneself 
Para mantenerse durante aquel mes 
no tenía dinero. During that month he 
had no money on which to live. O man- 
tenerse (en) to hold (to) No creo que 
se mantenga en su decisión. I don't 
think he will hold to his decision. 

mantenimiento maintenance, support; 

mantequilla butter. 

mantilla mantilla; baby clothes. 

O estar en mantillas to be innocent 
as a child, not to know anything about 
En cuanto a la política, está todavía 
en mantillas. As far as politics is con- 
cerned, he's still as innocent as a child. 

manual [ad;] manual, physical. A [m] 
manual, handbook. 

manufactura manufacture. 

manufacturar to manufacture. 

manuscrito handwritten. A [m] manu- 

manzana apple. A block ¿En qué man- 
zana está su casa? What block is your 
house in? 

manzano apple tree. 

maña skill; craftiness. 

° darse maña to contrive, manage 
Se da maña para consegrar lo que 
quiere. He manages to get what he 

mañana [/] morning La mañana estaba 
clara. The morning was clear. A [m] 
future Trabaja con ilusión para el 
mañana. He works hopefully for the 
future. A [adv] tomorrow Le espero a 
Ud. mañana en el hotel. I'll wait for 
you in the hotel tomorrow. 

O a la mañana siguiente on the morn- 
ing after he vi a la mañana siguiente. 
I saw him the morning after. O de la 
mañana A.M. Vendrá a las seis de la 
mañana. He's coming at 6 A.M. Ode 

mañana early in the morning Salió 
■muy de mañana. He went out very 
early in the morning. O por (or en) la 
mañana in the morning Nos veremos 
el jueves por la mañana. We'll meet 
on Thursday morning. 

O de mañanita very early in the 

|| ¡Hasta mañana! See you tomor- 

mapa [m] map. 

máquina machine La máquina se puso 
en movimiento. The machine began 
to run. A car (automobile) [Arg], 

O a toda máquina at full speed Lle- 
vaba el trabajo a toda máquina. He 
worked at full speed. O máquina (de 
escribir) typewriter Escribe muy bien 
a máquina. She types very well. 

mar [m or /] sea. 

O alta mar high sea, open sea. 
O hablar de la mar to talk idly Eso es 
hablar de la mar. That's idle talk. 
O la mar a lot, lots En su casa había 
la mar de gente. There were a lot 
of people at his house. O meterse mar 
adentro to go beyond one's depth (in 

maravilla wonder, marvel. 

maravillar to amaze La fiesta maravillaba 
por su riqueza. The lavishness of the 
party amazed everybody. 

O maravillarse to be astonished Me 
maravillo de que llegue a tiempo. I'm 
astonished that he's on time. 

maravilloso wonderful. 

marca mark, characteristic ¿Hay alguna 
marca que lo distinga? Has it any dis- 
tinguishing mark? A mark Ponga Ud. 
una marca en está página. Put a mark 
on this page. 

O marca (de fábrica) trademark, 
brand La marca de fábrica es muy 
conocida. The trademark is very well- 
known. — ¿Qué marca de cigarrillos 
fuma Ud.? What brand of cigarettes 
do you smoke? 

marcar to mark Marcaba con un lápiz los 
nombres de los que asistían. With a 
pencil he marked off the names of those 
who attended. 

O marcar el compás to keep time 
Aprenda Ud. a marcar el compás. 
Learn to keep time. 

marcha speed El barco llevaba muy buena 
marcha. The ship traveled at a good 
speed. A march Tocaban una marcha 
militar. They played a military march. 
O apresurar la marcha to hurry, 
speed up Hay que apresurar la marcha. 
We must hurry. O poner en marcha 





to start, put in motion No podía poner 
en marcha el motor. He couldn't start 
the motor. O sobre la marcha at once 
El trabajo hay que terminarlo sobre 
la marcha. The work must be com- 
pleted at once. 

|| ¡En marcha! Let's go! or Foi-- 
ward, march! 

marchar to ran El tren marchaba a toda 
velocidad. The train was running at 
full speed. A to progress, go along 
¡Esto marcha muy bien! This is 
coming along fine! A to go, run, work 
/Marcha el reloj de Ud.? Is your watch 

O marcharse to leave, go away ¿A 
qué hora se marcha Ud.? When are 
you leaving? 

marchitar to wither El calor marchitó 
la flores. The heat withered the 

O marchitarse to fade, wither S?¿ 
belleza empezó a marchitarse. Her 
beauty began to fade. 

marchito faded, withered; 

marco frame (of door, window, picture); 
mark (German monetary unit). 

marea tide. 

marear to bother ¡No me maree Ud. 
más! Don't bother me any more! 

O marearse to get seasick, get car- 
sick, get dizzy Al empezar a andar el 
barco, se mareó. As soon as the ship 
began to move, he got seasick. 

mareo seasickness, carsickness, dizziness. 

marfil [m] ivory. 

margen [m or /] margin Deje Ud. mar- 
gen en el papel cuando escriba. Leave 
a margin on the paper when you write. 
A edge, border, bank Llegó hasta la 
margen del río. He reached the edge 
of the river. 

O dar margen to give an opportunity 
Le dio margen para ganar dinero. He 
gave him an opportunity to earn 

mariachi [m~\ Mexican street singer. 

marido husband. 

marihuana marihuana. 

marimba marimba [A?n]. 

marina seascape, marine painting. 

O marina (de guerra) navy Era un 
oficial de la marina de guerra. He was 
a naval officer. O marina mercante 
merchant marine. 

marinero sailor, seaman. 

marino marine, of the sea, maritime. 
A [m] seaman Ese almirante era un 
buen marino. That admiral was a 
good seaman. 

mariposa butterfly. 

marítimo maritime. 

marmita large cooking pot. 
.mármol [m] marble (stone). 

marrano hog. A [adj~\ piggish. 

marrón [adj~\ brown. 

martes [»;] Tuesday. 

martillar, martillear to hammer. 

martillo hammer. 

martirio torture, martyrdom. 

marzo March. 

más more. A plus Cuatro más tres son 
siete. Four plus three is seven. 
A longer No puedo esperarle más. I 
can't wait any longer for him. 

O a lo más at most A lo más, costará 
diez pesos. At most it'll cost ten pesos. 
O a más tardar at the latest A más tar- 
dar llegará esta noche. He'll arrive to- 
night at the latest. O de más too 
much, too many Le dieron seis lib)-as 
de más. They gave him six pounds 
too much. O el (or la, los, las) más 
the more, the most Esta muchacha es 
la más inteligente. ' This girl is the 
most intelligent. O en más de for more 
than ho ha vendido en más de lo que 
lo compró. He's sold it for more than 
he paid for it. O estar de más to be 
in excess, be unnecessary Estoy de más. 
I'm unnecessary here. O lo más • . . 
que as ... as Llegó lo más pronto que 
pudo. He arrived as soon as he could. 
° los (or las) más the majority Los más 
de aquellos hombres trabajaban en la 
mina. The majority of those men 
worked in the mine. O más adelante 
later on, farther (or further) on Más 
adelante se lo explicaré. Later on I'll 
explain it to you. O más allá farther 
on La casa está más allá. The house 
is farther on. O más bien rather Llegó 
más bien tarde. He arrived rather 
late. O más de (before numerals) more 
than El pueblo tenía más de mil habi- 
tantes. The village had more than a 
thousand inhabitants. O más que more 
than Me importa más que a Ud. It's 
more important to me than to you. 
O más tarde o más temprano sooner 
or later Se sabrá más tarde o más 
temprano. It'll be known sooner or 
later. O no más que only No tiene más 
que cuatro pesos. He has only four 
pesos. O por más que however much, 
no matter how much Por más que diga 
Ud. no logrará convencerle. No matter 
how much you say you won't succeed 
in convincing him. 

masa dough Se hizo la masa para el pan. 





The dough was made for the bread. 
A mass (of people) Su discurso iba diri- 
gido a las masas. His speech was 
directed to the masses. 

O con las manos en la masa in the 
act, red-handed Le cogieron con las 
manos en la masa. They caught him 
in the act. O masa de la sangre inner 
nature, blood Eso lo tiene en la masa 
de la sangre. It's in his blood. 

masacre [w] massacre. 

mascar to chew Tragúelo, no lo masque. 
Swallow it, don't chew it. 

máscara [/] mask. A [w, /] masquerader. 
O baile de máscaras masquerade ball. 
O máscara contra gases gas mask. 
O vestido de máscara in costume. 

mascota mascot, good-luck charm. 

masculino masculine. 

mástil [m] mast, pole, post. 

mata plant, bush, shrub. 

matanza slaughter. 

matar to kill. A to trump Me mató el rey. 
He trumped my king. 

O estar a matar con to have a feud 
with, be on bad terms with No me 
hables de Pérez, estoy a matar con él. 
Don't speak to me about Pérez; we're 
on bad terms. O matar de aburrimiento 
to bore to death Ese trabajo me mata 
de aburrimiento. That job bores me to 
death. O matar de hambre to starve 
En aquel hotel nos mataban de hambre. 
They starved us at that hotel. O matar 
dos pájaros en un tiro to kill two birds 
with one stone. O matar el tiempo to 
kill time Mató el tiempo leyendo el 
periódico. He killed time reading the 
paper. O matarse to kill oneself In- 
tentó matarse con una pistola. He 
tried to kill himself with a pistol. A to 
get killed Se mató en un accidente de 
automóvil. He got killed in an auto- 
mobile accident. 

mate [m] maté (South American tea). 

matemáticas [/ pi] mathematics. 

materia material, substance ¿De qué ma- 
teria está hecho esto? What material's 
this made of? A matter, topic La mate- 
ria que discutimos es interesante. The 
matter we're discussing is interesting. 
A subject Enseñaba varias materias. 
He taught several subjects. 

O entrar en materia to come to the 
point, get down to business. O materia 
prima raw material. 

material [w] material ¿Con qué material 
se hace esto? What material's used to 
make this? A equipment Tiene una 
fábrica de material eléctrico. He has 
an electrical equipment factory. 

maternal maternal, motherly. 

materno maternal, on the mother's side. 

matiz [m] shade, tint. 

matón [m] bully, overbearing person. 

matorral [m] thicket, brush. 

matrimonio marriage Contrajo matrimo- 
nio hace tres días. He got married 
three days ago. A married couple Era 
un matrimonio bien avenido. They 
were a harmonious couple. 

maullar to meow. 

máxima maxim, proverb. 

máximo [adj; m\ maximum. 

mayo May. 

mayor larger, largest; bigger, biggest 
Juan es mayor que su hermano. John's 
bigger than his brother. A older, oldest 
¿Cómo se llama su hermana mayor? 
What's your older (or oldest) sister's 
name? A main (of streets) Viven en 
la calle mayor. They live on the main 
street. A [m] major Fué mayor en el 
Ejército. He was a major in the Army. 
O al por mayor wholesale Sólo ven- 
demos al por mayor. We sell whole- 
sale only. O la mayor parte (de) the 
majority (of), the greater part (of). 
O ser mayor de edad to be of age. 

mayoría majority, greater part. 

O mayoría de edad majority (of 
age. O llegar a la mayoría de edad 
to come of age. 

mayorista [m] wholesale merchant 

me [obj pron\ me, to me; myself, to (or 
for) myself Cuando me vieron anoche 
me estaba afeitando. When they saw 
me last night I was shaving. 

mecánica mechanics. 

mecánico mechanical Este juguete es 
mecánico. This is a mechanical toy. 
A [m] mechanic Trabajó de mecánico 
en una fábrica. He worked as a me- 
chanic in a factory. 

mecanismo mechanism, works (of ma- 

mecanógrafo, mecanógrafa typist. 

mecedora rocking chair. 

mecer to rock Mecía al niño en la cuna. 
He rocked the child in the cradle. 

O mecerse to rock (oneself), swing, 
sway Las flores se mecían en el viento. 
The flowers were swaying in the wind. 

medalla medal. 

media stocking Llevaba medias negras. 
She wore black stockings. A sock 
[Am] Entró a comprarse unas medias. 
He went in to buy some socks. 

mediación [/] mediation. 

mediado (see mediar) half -filled, half- 
full La jarra estaba mediada. The 





pitcher was half -filled. A half-gone, . 
half -over. 

O a mediados de in (or about) the 
middle of (a period of time) Estamos 
a mediados de mes. We're in the mid- 
dle of the month. 

medianería partition (wall). 

mediano [adj] medium Es de estatura 
mediana. He's of medium height. 
A mediocre Su trabajo era muy me- 
diano. His work was very mediocre. 

mediante through, by means of Mediante 
influencia pudo embarcar. He was 
able to book passage because he had 

O Dios mediante God willing. 

mediar to mediate Quiso mediar en la 
discusión. He wanted to mediate in 
the argument. 

medicina medicine ¿Qué año de medicina 
cursa Ud.? What year of medical 
school are you in? — El doctor le recetó 
una medicina. The doctor prescribed 
a medicine for him. 

médico [adj] medical. A [n] physician. 

medida measure, measurements Voy a 
tomarle la medida. I'm going to take 
your measurements. A rule, measure 
Aquella medida afectaba a todo el 
mundo. That rule applied to every- 
body. A number, size ¿Cuál es su me- 
dida de calzado? What's your shoe 

O a la medida to order, to measure, 
custom-made El traje está hecho a la 
medida. The suit's custom-made. O a 
medida que as .4 medida que lleguen, 
dígales Ud. que pasen. As they ar- 
rive, tell them to come in. O llenar 
(or colmar) la medida to be the last 
straw Eso colma la medida. That's 
the last straw. O sin medida without 
moderation Bebe sin medida. He drinks 
to excess. O tener medida to have a 
sense of proportion or moderation No 
tiene medida en lo que hace. He has no 
sense of proportion in what he does. 
O tomar medidas to take measurements 
Me tomaron medidas para el traje. 
They took my measurements for the 
suit. A to take measures or steps To- 
maron medidas para evitar la rebelión. 
They took steps to prevent the revolt. 

medio [adj] half, half a ¿Quiere Ud. 
medio polio? Would you like half a 
chicken? A mid, middle of Podemos 
vernos a media tarde. We can meet 
in the middle of the afternoon. A [m] 
middle El auto se paró en medio de 
la carretera. The car stopped in the 

middle of the road. A means No veo 
medio de solucionar esto. I see no 
means of solving this. 

O a medias fifty-fifty, halves Iremos 
a medias en el negocio. We'll go fifty- 
fifty in the business. O a medio camino 
halfway to a place Ya estamos a me- 
dio camino. We're halfway there. 
° a medio hacer half-done Este trabajo 
está a medio hacer. This work's half- 
done. O hacer algo a medias to do 
something poorly, do a half-baked job 
No haga Ud. las cosas a medias. Don't 
do a half-baked job. O i r a medias to 
go fifty-fifty, to go halves. 

mediocre mediocre. 

mediodía [m~\ noon, midday. 

medir [rad-ch HI] to measure Midió el 
ancho y el largo de la habitación. He 
measured the length and width of the 
room. A to measure, weigh No mide 
lo que dice. He doesn't weigh his 

meditación [/] meditation, thought. 

meditar to meditate, think. 

mejilla cheek. 

mejor [adj] better Esta casa es mejor que 
la otra. This is a better house than 
the other one. A best Es la mejor casa 
del pueblo. It's the best house in town. 
O a lo mejor perhaps, maybe A lo 
mejor mañana no llueve. Maybe it 
won't rain tomorrow. O mejor dicho 
or rather, or better Iré a las tres, 
mejor dicho a las tres y cuarto. I'll go 
at three, or rather at a quarter past 
three. O mejor que rather than, in- 
stead of Mejor que escribir, ponga Ud. 
un telegrama. Instead of writing, send 
a telegram. O mejor que mejor all the 
better, so much the better Si viene, 
mejor que mejor. If he comes, so much 
the better. 

mejora improvement, getting better; 
renovation, alteration. 

mejorar to improve, recover Se le veía 
mejorar rápidamente. He was obviously 
improving fast. A to improve, get bet- 
ter Han mejorado los negocios. Busi- 
ness has improved. A to improve, make 
better Con las obras mejoraron la 
casa. With the alterations, the house 
was improved. 

melancolía gloom, blues. 

melancólico melancholy, sad. 

melena long hair. 

melocotón [m] peach. 

melodía melody. 

melón [m] ynelon, cantaloupe. 

meloso honeylike, sweet. 





memorable memorable. 

memoria memory (not used for things 
remembered) Su memoria era magní- 
fica. He had a wonderful memory. 
A memorandum, report Escribió una 
memoria con los gastos hechos. He 
made a memorandum of the expenses. 
O de memoria by heart Me lo apren- 
dí de memoria. I learned it by heart. 
° hacer memoria to recall, remember 
Haga Ud. memoria y recuerde lo que 
pasó. Try to recall what happened. 
O memorias regards Muchas memorias 
a su familia. My regards to your 
family. A memoirs. 

mencionar to mention. 

mendigo, mendiga beggar. 

menear to stir Hay que menearlo mi- 
entras cuece. It has to be stirred 
while it's cooking. A to shake No 
menee Ud. la mesa. Don't shake the 
table. A to wag El perro meneaba la 
cola. The dog was wagging his tail. 

menester [m] occupation, duty Los me- 
nesteres de la casa. Household duties. 
O ser menester to be necessary No 
es menester que venga a verme. You 
don't have to come to see me. 

menesteroso needy, poor. A [n] beggar. 

menguar to diminish, decrease. 

menor smaller, smallest María es la 
menor de las tres. Mary's the smallest 
of the three. A younger, youngest Es 
de la misma edad que mi hermano 
menor. She's the same age as my 
younger brother. A less, least, slightest 
No tengo la menor idea. I haven't the 
least idea. A [w] minor No es apto 
para menores. It isn't suitable for 

O al por menor at retail Vendía sólo 
al por menor. He sold only at retail. 
A minutely, in great detail Refirió al 
por menor todo lo sucedido. He re- 
ported in great detail everything that 
happened. O menor de edad under age, 

menoría O menoría de edad minority (of 

menorista [m] retail merchant [Am]. 

menos less, least Mi hermano tiene seis 
años menos que yo. My brother's six 
years younger than I am. — Es el menos 
caro de todos. It's the least expensive 
of all. A [prep] except, but Puede Ud. 
usar todos los libros, menos éste. You 
may use all the books but this one. 

O al menos at least Procure Ud. al 
menos llegar a la hora. At least try 
to come on time. O a menos que unless 
Le espero mañana a menos que Ud. 

me avise. I'll expect you tomorrow 
unless you let me know otherwise. 
O echar de menos to miss Echaba 
mucho de menos a sus amigos. He 
missed his friends very much. O l de 
menos the least of it Eso es lo de 
menos. That's the least of it. O lo 
menos at least En el combate perecie- 
rona le menos seiscientos hombres. At 
least six hundred men died in the ac- 
tion. O menos de (before a numeral) 
less than Tengo menos de quince. I 
have less than fifteen. O por lo menos 
at least Por lo menos costará cien pesos. 
It'll cost at least a hundred pesos. 
O venir a menos to lose social position 
Esa familia ha venido mucho a menos. 
That family's lost its social position. 
mensaje [m] message [Am] ; dispatch 


mensajero, mensajera messenger [Am] ; 
courier [Sp]. 

O paloma mensajera carrier pigeon. 

mensual [adj~\ monthly. 

menta mint, peppermint. 

mental mental. 

mente [/] mind (mental faculties). 

mentir [rad-ch II] to lie, tell lies. 

mentira lie. 

° parece mentira it seems impossible 
Parece mentira que tenga tanta edad. 
It seems impossible that you're that 

|| ¡Mentira! That's a lie! 

menudeo O al menudeo at retail. 

menudo tiny, very small Era una mujer 
muy menuda. She was a very small 
woman. A [m] coins, change [Am] 
Déme cambio en billetes y menudo. 
Give me change in bills and coins. 

O a menudo often Iba a verle a me- 
nudo. He used to go to see him often. 

menudillo giblets. 

mercado market En este mercado hay 
fruta y hay carne. There's fruit and 
meat in this market. 

O mercado de valores stock market. 
O tener mercado con to trade with 
Tenemos mercado con toda América. 
We trade with all America. 

mercancía merchandise, goods. 

mercantil commercial, mercantile. 

merced [/] favor Tenga Ud. la merced 
de ... . Please .... 

O estar a merced de to be at the 
mercy of. O su merced you (courteous 
and familiar) [Col] Si s« merced 
quiere, iremos. If you want to, we'll 

merecer [-zc-] to deserve La cuestión 




mili tai- 

merecía estudio. The question de- 
served study. 

O merecer la pena to be worthwhile. 

merecimiento value, merit. 

merendar [rad-ch I] to have a snack or 
refreshments in the afternoon. 

meridional southern. 

merienda afternoon snack. 

O merienda en el campo picnic. 

mérito merit, worth. 

O hacer méritos to build up good will, 
make oneself deserving. 

mero pure, simple; mere. 

mes [m] month. 

mesa table. 

O poner la mesa to set the table. 

meseta plateau. 

mesón [m] country inn (for lower 

mestizo [adj; n] half-breed, (one) of 
mixed blood (white and Indian). 

meta aim, goal; finish line. 

metal [m] metal; brass. 

O metal de voz tone, timbre (of 

metálico metallic. A [m] coin(s) ¿Quiere 
Ud. su dinero en metálico? Do you 
want your money in coins? 

meter to put Meta Ud. el dinero dentro 
del bolsillo. Put the money in your 
pocket. A to take in Haga el favor de 
meter un poco las costuras de la cha- 
queta. Please take in the seams of the 
jacket a little. 

O meter embustes to tell fibs. 
O meter miedo to frighten Ud. trata 
de meternos miedo. You're trying to 
frighten us. ° meter ruido to make 
noise No meta Ud. tanto ruido. Don't 
make so much noise. O meterse a to 
become (without previous thought or 
training) Decidió meterse a literato. 
He decided to become an author. 
O meterse con to pick a fight with 
¿Por qué se mete Ud. conmigo? Why 
are you picking a fight with me? 
O meterse en to get into Se metió en 
la cama. He got into bed. O meterse 
fraile or monja to become a monk or 
nun. O meterse uno en lo que no le 
importa to be nosy No se meta Ud. en 
lo que no le importa. Don't be (so) 

metódico systematic, methodical. 

método method. 

metro meter Compre Ud. seis metros de 
esa tela. Buy six meters of that cloth. 
A subway [Sp] Tome Ud. el metro aquí 
mismo. Take the subway right here. 

mezclar to mix ¿Quiere Ud. wiskey puro 
o lo mezclo con agua? Do you want 

your whiskey straight or shall I mix 
it with water? A to blend Aquí mezclan 
el café del Brasil con el de Colombia. 
They blend Brazilian and Colombian 
coffee here. 

O mezclarse to get mixed up No se 
mezcle Ud. en eso. Don't get mixed 
up in that. 

mezquino mean, petty; stingy, skimpy. 

mi; pi mis [adj] my ¿Dónde están mi 
sombrero y mis guantes? Where are 
my hat and my gloves? A [obj pron] 
me Esta carta es para mi. This letter's 
for me. 

|! ¡A mí qué! I don't care! 

miedo fear. . 

° tener miedo to be afraid Tenia 
mucho miedo a estar enfermo. He was 
very much afraid of being ill. 

miedoso fearful, afraid. 

miel [/] honey. 

miembro limb Se le paralizaron los 
miembros. His limbs got paralyzed. 
A member Es miembro de varias so- 
ciedades. He's a member of several 

mientras while Lea Ud. el periódico 
mientras yo recibo la visita. Read the 
paper while I receive the visitor. 

O mientras más (or menos) . . . más 
(or menos) the more (or less) . . . the 
more (or less) Mientras más duermo, 
menos ganas tengo de trabajar. The 
more I sleep, the less I feel like work- 
ing. O mientras no unless Mientras no 
estudie Ud. no aprenderá esto. Unless 
you study you won't learn this. 
O mientras tanto meanwhile Volverán 
pronto, mientras tanto juguemos una 
partida. They'll be back soon; mean- 
while let's play a game. 

miércoles [ni] Wednesday. 

miga crumb Quitaba las migas de pan 
del mantel. She brushed the bread 
crumbs from the tablecloth. 

O hacer buenas migas to get on well 
together Los dos amigos hacían buenas 
migas. The two friends got on well 
together. ° hacerse migas to be 
smashed to bits El jarrón al caerse al 
suelo se hizo migas. The jar was 
smashed to bits when it hit the floor. 
O tener miga to have a point, be pithy 
Todo lo que dijo tenía miga. Every- 
thing he said was pithy. 

mil (one) thousand. 

milico soldier, "G.I." [Am]. 

militar [adj] military Fué llamado al 
servicio militar. He was called up for 
militarv service. A [>»] military man 





Es un club de militares. It's a mili- 
tary club. 

milonga party and dance, "shindig", kind 
of dance music [Arg]. 

milla mile. 

millar [m] one thousand. 

millón [ni] million. 

millonario, millonada millionaire. 

mimar to pamper, spoil (a child). 

mina mine (excavation) Los obreros no 
bajaron a la mina aquella noche. The 
workmen didn't go down into the mine 
that night. — Aquel negocio era una 
mina (de oro). That business was a 
gold mine. A mine (explosive) La na- 
vegación era difícil porque había 
minas. Navigation was difficult be- 
cause there were mines. 

minero miner. 

mínimo [adj ; m~\ minimum. 

ministerio department (government) 
¿Es este el Ministerio de Trabajo? Is 
this the Department of Labor? A cabi- 
net Dimitió el ministerio. The cabinet 

ministro minister (member of a cabinet). 

minoría minority Habló en nombre de la 
minoría. He spoke on behalf of the 

minorista [m] retail merchant [Am]. 

minucioso minute, precise, thorough. 

minuta memorandum; minutes (of a 

° a la minuta short-order [A^]. 

minuto [adj] minute. A [m] minute. 
O al minuto right away. 

mío, mía; pi míos, mías [adj] mine, of 
mine Estas corbatas no son mías. 
These ties aren't mine. — Fué un gran 
amigo mío. He was a great friend 
of mine. 

O el mío, la mía; los míos, las mías 
[pron] mine Este lápiz es de Ud.; el 
mío está en la mesa. This pencil's 
yours; mine's on the desk. 

mira intention, aim, goal ¿Cuáles son sus 
miras? What are your intentions? 
A sight (of gun). 

° estar a la mira to be on the lookout 
Procura estar a la mira por si vienen. 
Try to be on the lookout in case they 
come. O tener la mira puesta en to aim 
at Tiene la mira puesta ot esa coloca- 
ción. He's aiming for that job. 

mirada look, expression Su mirada es in- 
teligente. He has an intelligent ex- 
pression. A glance, look Su mirada de 
mostraba odio. His look showed hatred. 
O echar una mirada to glance, cast a 
glance Echó una mirada al libro. He 
glanced at the book. 

mirar to look at ¿Qué mira Ud.? What 
are you looking at? A to glance Miraba 
a u7io y a otro procurando una respues- 
ta. He glanced from one to the other, 
hoping for an answer. A to regard, look 
at Debernos mirar este asunto con más 
calma. We must look at this matter 
more calmly. A to consider, think Mire 
Ud. bien lo que hace. Consider well 
what you're doing. A to watch, be care- 
ful Mire Ud. donde pisa. Watch your 
step. A to watch Miraba lo que está- 
bamos haciendo. He watched what we 
were doing. 

° mirar a to face Tres de las habita- 
ciones miran a la calle. Three of the 
rooms face the street. A to look to- 
wards (in the direction of) Estaba 
mirando al mar. He was looking to- 
wards the sea. O mirar alrededor to 
look around Miró alrededor para ver 
si estaban allí. He looked around to 
see if they were there. O mirar de 
hito en hito to stare at Se quedó mirán- 
dole de hito en hito. He kept staring 
at him. O mirar de reojo to look out 
of the corner of one's eye Le miraba 
de reojo mientras hablaba. He was 
looking at him out of the corner of his 
eye while he was speaking. O mirar 
por to look after ¿No tienen a nadie 
que mire por ellos? Don't they have 
anyone to look after them? O mirarse 
to look at each other Se miraron y se 
echaron a reír. They looked at each 
other and burst out laughing. A to look 
at oneself Le gustaba mirarse en ei 
espejo. He liked to look at himself in 
the mirror. 

|| ¡Mire! Look here! or Listen! 

misa Mass. 

miserable miserable, unhappy, wretched 
Llevaba una vida miserable. He lead 
a miserable life. A contemptible, rot- 
ten Fué una acción miserable. It was 
a contemptible thing to do. A [??] cur, 
cad Aquel hombre era un miserable. 
That man was a cad. 

miseria poverty La familia estaba en La 
miseria. The family lived in poverty. 
A trifle, pittance Lo que le pagan es una 
miseria. They pay him a pittance. 

misericordia mercy, compassion. 

misia, misiá title of respect used with 
first name of old ladies [Col, Arg, 

misión [/] mission Le envió el gobierno 
en misión a Rusia. The government 
sent him on a mission to Russia.— Esa* 
iglesias las construyeron las misiones 





franciscanas. The Franciscan missions 
built those churches. 

mismo same, identical Es el mismo som- 
brero. It's the same hat. 

O aquí mismo right here Nos encon- 
traremos aguí mismo. We'll meet right 
here. O darle a uno lo mismo to be all 
the same to one Todo le da lo mis- 
mo. It's all the same to him. O eso 
mismo that very thing Eso mismo le 
dije yo. That's just what I told him. 
O mismo(s) -self, -selves Yo mismo 
puedo hacer esto. I can do this my- 
self. — Que lo hagan ellos mismos. Let 
'em do it themselves. 

misterio mystery. 

mitad [/] half ¿Quiere Ud. la mitad de 
este pastel? Do you want half of this 
cake? A better half, wife Allí estaba el 
señor Gómez con su cara mitad. Mr. 
Gómez was there with his better half. 
O en la mitad in the middle El auto 
estaba en la mitad del camino. The 
auto was in the middle of the road. 
° por la mitad in half Parta Ud. 
esto por la mitad. Divide this in half. 
|| Estamos a mitad de camino. We're 
half-way there. || Estamos a (la) 
mitad del trabajo. We're half-way 

mitin [m] political meeting, rally. 

mixto mixed. 

O parejas mixtas mixed doubles 
(games). ° tren mixto mixed train 
(freight and passenger train). 

mobiliario furniture. 

mochila knapsack. 

moda fashion, style Viste a la última 
moda. She dresses in the latest 

O a la moda fashionable Siempre 
lleva trajes a la moda. She always 
wears fashionable dresses. O estar de 
moda to be popular, be in fashion Ese 
artista está muy de moda. That art- 
ist's very popular. O pasado de moda 
out of style Se ha pasado de moda. 
It's gone out of style. 

modales [?n pl~\ manners. 

modelo [adj~\ model, perfect Era una 
esposa modelo. She was a model wife. 
A [n] model, one who poses Es ?<n buen 
modelo para una escultura. He's a 
good model for sculpture. A (clothes) 
model Es una de la modelas de la tien- 
da. She's one of the models in the 
store. A [???] thing to be copied, model 
Tenga Ud. esto como modelo. Use this 
as a model. * model, style, pattern 
Me gusta este modelo, I like this 

|| No tiene rriodelo. She has no 

moderación [/] moderation. 

moderado (see moderar) \_adj~\ conserva- 
tive El partido moderado. The con- 
servative party. 

moderar to restrain Modere Ud. sus ím- 
petus. Restrain your impulses. 

O moderarse to become moderate, 
moderate, control oneself Se moderó en 
la bebida. He cut down on drinking. 
— ¡Modérese Ud.! Control yourself! 

moderno modern. 

modestia modesty, humbleness La mode- 
stia era su mejor cualidad. Modesty 
was his greatest attribute. A modesty, 
lack of display Vestía con mucha mo- 
destia. He dressed very modestly. 

modesto simple. 

modificación [/] modification. 

modificar to modify. 

modista dressmaker. 

modo method, way Ese es el mejor modo 
de arreglarlo. That's the best way 
of settling it. 

O a mi (or su) modo in my (or his) 
own way Yo hago las cosas a mi modo. 
I do things in my own way. O con 
buenos modos politely. O con malos 
modos rudely Contestó con muy malos 
modos. He replied very rudely. O de 
este modo (in) this way Creo que es 
mejor hacerlo de este modo. I think 
it's better to do it this way. O de modo 
que so ¿De modo que es Ud. ameri- 
cano? So you're an American? A so. 
therefore Tenemos mucha pi-isa, de mo- 
do que vamos a tomar un taxi. We're in 
a hurry, so let's take a taxi. O de nin- 
gún modo by no (or any) means, under 
no (or any) circumstances No iré de 
ningún modo. I won't go under any 
circumstances. O de todos modos any- 

moho mold, mildew. 

mojar to wet, moisten; to drench. 

molde [w] mold, form. 

O de molde fitting, to the purpose, to 
the point Viene de molde. It's to the 

moldura molding. 

moler [rad-ch /] to grind, mill. 

molestar to disturb ¡No me moleste! 
Don't disturb me! A to annoy Molesta- 
ba a sus amigos con sus palabras. His 
words annoyed his friends. A to bother, 
inconvenience ¿Le molesta a Ud. que 
fume? Will it bother you if I smoke? 
A to hurt Me molestan im poco estos 
zapatos. These shoes hurt me a little. 
° molestarse to be annoyed Ten citt- 





dado con lo que dices porque se molesta 
muy fácilmente. Be careful of what 
you say, for he's easily annoyed. 

molestarse (en) to bother (to) , take 
the trouble (to) No se moleste en hacer 
tantos viajes. Don't bother making so 
many trips. 

molestia trouble Perdone Ud. tantas mo- 
lestias. I'm sorry to trouble you so 
much. A discomfort No se encontraba 
muy bien, tenía algunas molestias. 
She wasn't very well ; she suffered some 

molesto uncomfortable ¿Está Ud. mo- 
lesto? Are you uncomfortable? A an- 
noyed Se sentía molesto y dejó de 
hablarle. He was annoyed and 
stopped speaking to her. 

molete [m~\ disorder, mix-up, confusion 

molino mill. 

momento moment. 

O al momento right away, immedi- 
ately. O por momentos any moment, 

mona female monkey. A hangover Tiene 
ana mona horrible. He has a terrible 

O como la mona terrible, lousy [Ara] 
Me siento como la mona. I feel ter- 

mondar to peel. 

mondas [/ pl~\ peelings. 

moneda coin Dejó algunas monedas sobre 
la mesa. He left some coins on the 
table. A currency ¿Dónde podré cam- 
biar moneda extranjera? Where can 

1 exchange foreign currency? 

O pagar en la misma moneda to pay 
back in one's own coin, give tit for tat. 

monja nun. 

monje [w] monk. 

mono [adj'\ cute ¡Qué mona es esta mu- 
chacha! What a cute girl! A [m] 
monkey El mono está metido dentro de 
la jaula. The monkey's in the cage. 
° mono (de mecánico) overalls [Sp] 
Llevaba puesto un mono de mecánico. 
He was wearing overalls. 

monótono monotonous. 

monstruo monster. 

monstruoso monstrous. 

montado (see montar) astride. 

montador [m~\ assembler (of machinery). 

montaña mountain. 

montañoso mountainous. 

montar to ride (horseback) No monte Ud. 
ese caballo porque le tirará a Ud. 
Don't ride that horse; he'll throw you. 
A to set up, assemble, install Hubn 
que montar una máquina en la fábrica. 

A machine had to be installed in the 
factory. A to set (a precious stone) 
Montaron en el anillo cinco diamantes. 
They set five diamonds in the ring. 

O montar a to amount to (in money) 
¿A cuánto monta mi deuda? How much 
does my debt amount to? O montar a 
caballo to ride horseback Montaba a 
caballo todas las mañanas. He went 
horseback riding every morning. 
O montar en to get on or in, board (a 
vehicle) Al montar en el automóvil me 
hice daño en un pie. I hurt my foot 
getting in the automobile. O montar en 
cólera to get furious Al oír aquello, 
montó en cólera. When he heard that 
he got furious. O montarse to get up 
onto, mount Se montaron a caballo y se 
fueron. They mounted their horses 
and left. 

monte [m] mountain Subió hasta lo más 
alto del monte. He climbed to the very 
top of the mountain. A woods, forest 
El monte era tan espeso que casi no 
se podía andar por él. The forest was 
so thick that one could hardly walk 
through it. 

montón [m] heap, pile Tengo un montón 
de cosas que hacer. I have a lot of 
things to do. 

monumental monumental, tremendous. 

monumento monument. 

moño knot, bun (of hair). 

mora blackberry; Moorish woman. 

moral [ad;] moral No es un libro muy 
moral. It's not a very moral book. 
A [/] morale La moral de aquellos hom- 
bres era magnífica. The morale of 
those men was excellent. A [m] black 
mulberry tree. 

moralidad [/] morals, morality. 

morder [rad-ch /] to bite. 

moreno dark-skinned, brunet(te). A [?i] 
colored person [Antilles]. 

morir [irr~\ to die Cuando murió lo rodea- 
ba toda su familia. All his family was 
around him when he died. 

O estarse muriendo por to be dying 
to, be very anxious to Me estoy murien- 
do por verla. I'm dying to see her. 
O morirse to die Se murió el año pasado. 
He died last year. — Se moría de miedo. 
He was scared to death. O morirse de 
hambre to starve to death Por no mo- 
rirse de hambre aceptó aquel trabajo. 
He took the job to keep from starving 
to death. O morirse por to like very 
much, be crazy about Se muere por la 
cerveza. He's crazy about beer. 
O ¡Muera . . .! Down with . . .! ¡Muera 
el rey! Down with the king', 





moro [adj~\ Moorish. A [ri] Moor. 

morocho dark-skinned [Am], 

mortal [adj] fatal La herida que recibió 
era mortal. The wound he received 
was fatal. A deadly, terrible Un ene- 
migo mortal. A deadly enemy. A [w] 
mortal being Eso les ocurre a todos los 
mortales. That happens to all mortals. 

mortificar to mortify, humiliate Lo que 
dije me mortifica. What I said morti- 
fies me. A to hurt, bother Estos zapatos 
me mortifican. These shoes hurt. 
O mortificarse to torment oneself. 

mosca fly. 

mosquito mosquito. 

mostaza mustard. 

mostrador [m~\ counter (in a shop). 

mostrar [rad-ch /] to show Le mostró la 
herida al médico. He showed the doc- 
tor his wound. A to show, display 
Mostraba una gran tristeza. He showed 
great sadness. 

O mostrarse to appear, show oneself 
Quiso most rarse indulgente en ese mo- 
mento. He wanted to appear lenient 
at that moment. 

mote [in] nickname; alias. 

motín [w] uprising, revolt, riot. 

motivar to cause. 

motivo motive, reason. 

O por ningún motivo under no cir- 

motor [m] motor. 

mover [rad-ch I~\ to move Mueva Ud. esta 
mesa hacia el rincón. Move this table 
toward the corner. A to make use of 
Movió sus influencias para conseguir 
un pxiesto. He made use of his connec- 
tions to get a job. A to motivate No le 
movía al interés de la ganancia. He 
wasn't motivated by gain. A to stir 
Mueva Ud. la sopa hasta que hierva. 
Stir the soup until it boils. 

O mover la cola to wag the tail. 
O moverse to move Procure no mo- 
vase tanto. Try not to move so 

movible [adj~\ movable. 

móvil mobile Pertenece a una brigada 

móvil. He belongs to a mobile brigade. 

[?n] motive ¿Qué móvil tuvo Ud. para 

venir aquí? What made you come 


movilización [/] mobilization. 

movilizar to mobilize. 

movimiento movement, move A la hora 
en punto el tren se puso en movi- 
miento. The train pulled out exactly 
on time. A movement Pertenecia a un 
movimiento progresista. He belonged 
to a progressive movement. A traffic 

Hay mucho movimiento en esa calle. 
There's a lot of traffic in that street. 
A animation, action La primera escena 
tiene mucho movimiento. The first 
scene has a lot of action. 

mozo lad, young man (of peasant class). 
A waiter ¡Mozo, tráigame la lista del 
almuerzo! Waiter, bring me the 
luncheon menu ! A porter, red-cap. 

O buen mozo good-looking [A?n] ; 
well-built [Sp]. 

mucamo, mucama servant [Aw]. 

muchacha girl Me parece una excelente 
muchacha. She seems like a fine girl. 
A young girl (in her teens) Sus hijas 
son ya unas muchachas. Her daugh- 
ters are already in their teens. A maid 
Dígale a la muchacha que haga las 
camas. Tell the maid to make the beds. 

muchachada boyish action, prank; [Argf] 
gang of boys. 

muchacho boy Estaba jugando con otros 
muchachos. He was playing with 
other boys. 

mucho [adj] much No tiene mucha fuer- 
za. He hasn't much strength. A long, 
extended Hace mucho tiempo que le 
estoy esperando. I've been waiting a 
long time for you. A [adv~\ much, a lot 
Bebía mucho. He used to drink a lot. 
A often Esas cosas ocurren mucho. 
Those things happen often. A long No 
me haga Ud. aguardar mucho. Don't 
make me wait long. 

O muchos many Había muchos niños 
en la plaza. There were many children 
in the square. O ni mucho menos nor 
anything like it, far from it No es 
tonto, ni mucho menos. He's not 
stupid; far from it. O sentir mucho 
to be very sorry Siento mucho lo que le 
sucede. I'm very sorry about what 
happened to him. 

mudanza moving, changing residence; 
change, evolution. 

muda change of underwear. 

mudar (de) to change Mudaba de opinión 
cada día. He changed his mind daily. 
— Hubo que mudar toda la instalación 
eléctrica. All the electric installations 
had to be changed. 

O mudarse (de) to change (clothes) 
¿Se mudó Ud. de traje? Did you 
change your clothes? O mudarse (de 
casa, piso, or habitación) to move, 
change residence Decidió mudarse (de 
casa) aquel mismo día. He decided to 
move that very day. 

mudo dumb, mute; speechless. A [w] 
mute (person unable to talk). 
O cine mudo silent films. 





mueble [ad;] movable. A [m] piece of 
furniture Me gusta mucho ese mueble. 
I like that piece of furniture very 

O muebles furniture Los muebles del 
salón eran de estilo moderno. The 
living-room furniture was modern in 
style. O propiedad mueble movable 
property, personal property. 

muela molar, molar tooth; millstone. 
O dolor de muelas toothache. 

muelle soft Una vida muelle. A soft 
life. A [ra] spring (wire) ; pier. 

muerte [/] death. 

O de mala muerte worthless, crumby. 
O guerra a muerte fight to the death. 

muerto (see morir) dead. 

muestra sample Mande Ud. muestras de 
tela. Send samples of cloth. A (shop) 
sign ¿Leyó Ud. bien la muestra? Did 
you read the sign correctly? 

O dar muestras de to show signs of 
Daba muestras de no entender nada. 
She showed no signs of understanding. 

mugre [/] grime, dirt, filth. 

mujer [/] woman; wife. 

mula female mule. 

mulato [adj; ri\ mulatto. 

muleta crutch. 

multa fine (punishment). 

multiplicar to multiply. 

multitud [/] crowd Abrió el balcón para 
ver la multitud. He opened the balcony 
window to see the crowd. A masses En 
su discurso se dÍ7~igia a la multitud. 
His speech was addressed to the 

O multitud de a great many, a great 
deal of Se me ocurren una multitud de 
ideas. I've a great many ideas. 

mundano worldly. 

mundial global, universal, world La 
guerra mundial. The World War. 

mundo world Ha viajado por todo el 
mundo. He's traveled all over the 
world. A world, environment, circle (s) 
Frecuentaba el mundo de las letras. 
He moved in literary circles. 

O gran mundo high society. O tener 

(mucho) mundo to be sophisticated or 
experienced. O todo el mundo every- 
body Todo el mundo estaba reunido en 
el salón. Everybody was gathered in 
the living room. O vida del mundo 
world, worldly life Abandonó la vida 

• del mundo y entró en el convento. She 
gave up the world and entered the con- 

munición, municiones [/] ammunition. 

municipal municipal. 

muñeca wrist; doll. 

muralla wall (of a city). 

murmullo murmur, whisper. 

murmuración [/] gossip, slander. 

murmurar to mutter Murmuró unas pala- 
bras ininteligibles. He muttered some 
unintelligible words. A to murmur, whis- 
per Le murmuró al oído unas palabras. 
She murmured some words in his ear. 
A to gossip Se pasaron la tarde mur- 
murando de todo el mundo. They spent 
the afternoon gossiping about every- 

muro outside wall (of a house or gar- 

músculo muscle. 

museo museum. 

música music Estuvimos oyendo música 
clásica. We were listening to classical 
music. A band (of musicians) La mú- 
sica venía a la cabeza del desfile. The 
band came at the head of the parade. 
A sheet music No puedo tocar de memo- 
ria, haga el favor de darme la música. 
I can't play from memory, please give 
me the music. 

musical [adj~\ musical. 

músico musical. A [w] musician. 

muslo thigh. 

mustio withered; depressed. 

mutuo mutual, reciprocal. 

muy very Estoy muy mal de salud. My 
health's very bad. — Lo he escrito muy 
de prisa. I've written it very quickly. 
O es muy de lamentar it's to be deep- 
ly regretted Es muy de lamentar que 
ocurra esto. It's to be deeply regretted 
that this should happen. 


nabo turnip. 

nacer [-zc-] to be born El nació en Es- 
paña. He was born in Spain. A to 
start, originate La idea nació durante 
la fiesta. The idea started at the 
party. A to sprout Y a nacieron las 
cebollas. The onions have already i 

sprouted. A to rise, appear El sol nace 
más temprano en el verano. The sun 
rises earlier in the summer. A to rise, 
spring, have its source El río hace en 
las montañas rococas. The river has 
its source in the Rocky Mountains. 
O nacer de pie to be born lucky Ese 





hombre nació de pie. That man was 
born lucky. 

nacimiento birth. A beginning, source 
¿Dónde está el nacimiento de este rio? 
Where's the source of this river? 

nación [/] nation. 

nacional national. 

nacionalidad [/] nationality. 

nada nothing, not anything No hay nada 
en esta caja. There's nothing in this 
box. — No me ha dado nada. He hasn't 
given me anything. A [adv~\ not at all 
No es nada fácil. It's not at all easy. 
O De nada You're welcome "Muchas 
gracias." "De nada." "Thank you 
very much." "You're welcome." 

nadador, nadadora swimmer. 

nadar to swim ¿Sabe Ud. nadar? Can 
you swim? 

O nadar en la abundancia to live in 
luxury Desde joven nadó en la abun- 
dancia. From youth he lived in luxury. 

nadie nobody, no one, not anybody, not 
anyone No vino nadie. Nobody came. 
— No he visto a nadie. I haven't seen 
anybody. — Nadie lo conoce. No one 
knows him. 

naipe [??i] (playing) card. 

nalga buttock(s). 

nana grandmother; nurse; lullaby; [Am] 

naranja orange. 

O media naranja better half Es ella 
su media naranja. She's his better 

naranjada orangeade. 

naranjal [?n] orange grove. 

naranjero, naranjera orange seller; 
orange grower. 

naranjo orange tree. 

narcótico [adj~\ narcotic. A [m] narcotic, 

nariz [/] nose. 

nativo [adj] native. 

natural [adj~\ natural. A [n] native Es 
un natural del Uruguay. He's a native 
of Uruguay. A [m] disposition, nature 
Tiene un natural triste. He has a sad 

naturaleza nature La naturaleza es va- 
riada en los países tropicales. Nature 
is varied in tropical countries. A con- 
stitution El enfermo no tenía muy 
buena naturaleza. The patient didn't 
have a very good constitution. A tem- 
perament, disposition Era muy ner- 
vioso por naturaleza. He had a nervous 

naturalidad [/] naturalness Se conduce 
con mucha naturalidad. He behaves 
very naturally. 

naturalización [/] naturalization. 

naufragar to be (ship) wrecked Aquel 
barco naufragó en las costas de Chile. 
That boat was wrecked on the coast of 
Chile. A to fail, fall through Las nego- 
ciaciones naufragaron. The negotia- 
tions fell through. 

naufragio shipwreck. 

náufrago, náufraga shipwrecked person, 

náusea nausea. 

navaja pen knife, clasp knife. 
° navaja de afeitar razor. 

naval naval. 

nave [/] ship A pesar del huracán la 
nave llegó al puerto. In spite of the 
hurricane the ship reached port. 

navegación [/] navigation. A voyage 
Tuvimos una navegación difícil. We 
had a rough voyage. 

navegante [m] navigator. 

navegar to navigate, sail. 

navidad [/] Christmas. 

neblina mist, fog. 

necesario [adj~\ necessary. 

necesidad [/] need, necessity Siniió la 
necesidad de un. cambio de clima. He 
felt the need of a change of climate. 

necesitar to need Necesitamos más obre- 
ros. We need more workers. 

negar [rad-ch 7] to deny Negó que cono- 
ciera a aquel hombre. He denied that 
he knew that man. A to refuse Le 
negaron el aumento de sueldo. They 
refused him a raise in salary. A to 
disclaim Negó toda responsabilidad en 
el accidente. He disclaimed all re- 
sponsibility for the accident. 

O negarse a to refuse to Se negó a 
ayudarme. He refused to help me. 

negativo [adj~\ negative, in the negative 
Su respuesta fué negativa. His reply 
was in the negative. A [m] negative 
¿Quiere Ud. prestarme los negativos de 
esas fotografías? Will you lend me the 
negatives of those photographs? 

negligente negligent. 

negociación [/] negotiation. 

negociante [?n] business man. 

negociar to negotiate Se reunieron para 
negociar las condiciones de paz. They 
met to negotiate peace terms. A to do 
business Mi amigo quiere negociar con 
casas sudamericanas. My friend wants 
to do business with South American 

negocio business, interest Tienen nego- 
cios de petróleo. They have oil in- 

O negocio redondo good bargain Esa 





compra fué un negocio redondo. That 
purchase was a good bargain. 

negro [adj] black. A gloomy, dark El 
porvenir parecía muy negro. The 
future looked very gloomy. A [n] 
Negro, Negress Oímos algunos cantos 
religiosos de los negros. We heard 
some Negro spirituals. A [m] black 

O suerte negra very bad luck Tiene 
una suerte negra. He has very bad 

nene, nena baby. 

neoyorquino, neoyorquina New Yorker. 

nervio nerve. 

nervioso nervous. 

neto [adj] net. 

° peso neto net weight. 

neumático (pneumatic) tire. 

neumonía pneumonia. 

neutral [adj] neutral. 

nevada snowfall. 

nevar [rad-ch I] to snow En este país no 
nieva nunca. It never snows in this 

nevera icebox, refrigerator. 

ni neither, nor. A not even No dijo ni 
adiós. He didn't even say good-by. 

O ni . . . ni neither . . . nor No sabe 
ni inglés ni español. He knows neither 
English nor Spanish. O n i siquiera 
not even, not a single No dijo ni si- 
quiera una palabra. He didn't say a 
single word. 

nicotina nicotine. 

nido nest. 

niebla fog, mist, haze. 

nieta granddaughter. 

nieto grandson. 

nieve [/] snow. 

ningún no, not a, not one Ningún hombre 
entre ellos pudo levantar el peso. Not 
a man among them could lift the 
weight. A no, none ¿No hay ningún 
cuarto libre? Are there no vacant 

ninguno none Ninguna de mis amigas lo 
sabe. None of my friends know. A not 
any ¿No le agrada ninguno de estos? 
Don't you like any of these? A no or 
none (whatever or at all) No tiene 
criado ninguno. He has no servants 
at all. 

O de ninguna manera under no cir- 
cumstances, by no means De ninguna 
manera iría. I wouldn't go under any 
circumstances. O de ningún modo un- 
der no circumstances, by no means De 
ningún modo debe Ud. irse hoy. Under 
no circumstances should you go away 
today. O por ningún lado nowhere No 

lo encontré por ningún lado. I couldn't 
find it anywhere. 

niña girl Con ese traje parece una niña. 
You look like a little girl in that dress. 
A baby No seas niña. Don't be a baby. 
A young lady, girl [Aw]. A Miss (used 
by servants) [Am] Pregúntele Ud. a 
la niña María. Ask Miss Mary. 

O niña bien glamour girl. O niña 
del ojo pupil (of the eye) . A apple 
of the eye La quiere como a la niña 
de sus ojos. She's the apple of his eye. 

niñada childishness. A childish action 
Eso es una niñada. That's childish. 

niñez [/] childhood. 

niño [adj] young Yo era muy niño cuan- 
do sucedió eso. I was very young when 
that happened. A childish Es muy niño 
todavía. He's still very childish. A [m] 
boy Tiene dos niños y una niña. He has 
two boys and a girl. 

O niños children Había un grupo de 
niños jugando en el parque. There was 
a group of children playing in the 

nivel [m] level. 

nivelar to level Nivelaron el terreno en 
muy poco tiempo. They leveled the 
ground in a very short time. A to 
balance Tenemos que nivelar nuestro 
presupuesto. We must balance our 

no no, not "¿Hará Ud. eso?" "No, no lo 
haré." "Will you do that?" "No, I 

O así no más [Am] just like this 
Hágalo así no más. Do it just like 
this. O no más only, no more Esto y 
no más. This and no more. O no sea 
que or else Tenemos que darnos prisa 
no sea que cierren la tienda. We must 
hurry or else the shop'll be closed. 

noble [adj] noble. 

nobleza nobility, nobleness. 

noche [/] night. A evening (after sun- 
set), night ¡Buenas noches! Good eve- 
ning! or Good night! 

O ayer noche last night Ayer noche 
hizo mucho frío. It was very cold 
last night. O de la noche a la mañana 
overnight Se hizo rico de la noche a la 
mañana. He became rich overnight. 
O esta noche tonight Esta noche vamos 
al cine. We're going to the movies to- 
night. O hacerse de noche to get dark 
Tengo que irme proque se hace de 
noche. I must go; it's getting dark. 
O muy de noche late at night Era muy 
de noche cuando regresamos. It was 
late at night when we got back. 

Nochebuena Christmas Eve Pasaré la 





Nochebuena con mi familia. I'm 
spending Christmas Eve with my 

noción [/] notion, idea. 

nombramiento nomination; appointment. 

nombrar to name, mention En la con- 
versación nombramos a ese señor. We 
mentioned that gentleman in the con- 
versation. A to appoint Le nombraron 
presidente de la comisión. They ap- 
pointed him chairman of the commit- 

nombre [m] name ¿Cuál es su nombre? 
What's your name? A fame, renown 
Su libro le dio mucho nombre. His 
book brought him great fame. A repu- 
tation Esa empresa tiene muy buen 
nombre. That firm has a good reputa- 
tion. A noun En este caso el adjetivo 
va antes del nombre. In this case the 
adjective goes before the noun. 

O nombre de familia family name, 
surname. O nombre y apellido full 
name Escriba Ud. su nombre y apelli- 
do. Write your full name. ° no tener 
nombre to be unspeakable Lo que ha 
hecho no tiene nombre. What he did 
is unspeakable. O poner nombre (a) 
to name, call ¿Qué nombre le van a 
poner? What are they going to name 

nordeste [m] northeast. 

normal [adj~\ normal; standard. 

norte [?k] north. A north wind Sopla un 
norte muy fuerte. A very strong north 
wind's blowing. 

norteamericano [adj; n~\ North American 
(specifically, in all Spanish-speaking 
countries, used to designate persons 
or things of or from the United 
States) . 

nos us No nos invitaron a la fiesta. 
They didn't invite us to the party. 
— Vinieron a buscarnos. They came 
to look for us. A one another, each 
other Nos vimos en la calle. We saw 
each other on the street. 

nosotros we Nosotros estamos listos. 
We're ready. 

O nosotros mismos we (...) our- 
selves Lo hicimos nosotros mismos. We 
did it ourselves. 

nota note ¿Tiene Ud. muchas notas en 
su cuaderno? Do you have many notes 
in your notebook? — Desafina en las 
notas altas. She goes flat on the 
high notes. — Hemos recibido una nota 
del Consulado Español. We've received 
a note from the Spanish Consulate. 
A mark, grade Sacó muy buena nota 
en el examen de castellano. He got a 

very good mark on the Spanish exam. 
A note, renown Es un escritor de nota. 
He's a writer of note. A footnote, mar- 
ginal note. 

O dar la nota discordante to be the 
disturbing element Dó la nota dis- 
cordante. She was out of place, or 
She spoke out of turn. O tomar nota 
de to take note of, jot down Tomé nota 
de todo lo que había ocurrido en el 
viaje. I took note of everything that 
happened on the trip. 

notable remarkable, notable; distin- 

notar to notice, note, see No notamos el 
cambio de altura. We didn't notice the 
change in altitude. 

notario notary public. 

noticia news; news item ¿Cómo supo Ud. 
la noticia? How did you find out the 
news? A notice Ponga Ud. una noticia 
en el periódico. Put a notice in the 

O atrasado de noticias behind the 
times Me parece que está Ud. atrasado 
de noticias. I think you're behind the 

notificar to notify, inform. 

novedad [/] novelty, latest fashion Esta 
tienda ofrece las últimas novedades en 
artículos para caballero. This shop 
has the latest things in men's wear. 
A news ¡Eso es una novedad para mi! 
That's news to me! A surprise ¡Eso 
es una novedad! That's a surprise! 
O sin novedad as usual; nothing new, 
no news "¿Hay noticias?" "Sin nove- 
dad." "Any news?" "Nothing new." 

novela novel. 

novelista [m, /] novelist. 

novena novena (nine days' devotion). 

noveno [adj] ninth. 

noventa ninety. 

novia sweetheart, fiancee; bride. 

noviembre [m] November. 

novio sweetheart, fiance; bridegroom. 

nube [/] cloud. A crowd Le rodeaba una 
nube de gente. A crowd of people 
surrounded him. 

O esta en las nubes to daydream Si- 
empre está en las nubes. He's always 
daydreaming. ° por las nubes sky- 
high ¡Los precios están por las nubes! 
Prices are sky-high. 

nublado cloudy, overcast. 

nudo knot. 

nuera daughter-in-law. 

nuestro our Nuestro maestro de español 
es madrileño. Our Spanish teacher's 
from Madrid. A of ours Un amigo 
nuestro nos lo regaló. A friend of 





ours (or One of our friends) gave it 
to us. A ours Esta no es la nuestra, 
es la de Ud. This isn't ours, it's 

nueve nine Ahora son las nueve. It's 
now nine o'clock. 

nuevo new La mesa era nueva. The table 
was new. — ¿Qué hay de nuevo por 
aquí? What's new around here? 
A new, different Ya ha llegado el 
nuevo director. The new director's 
already arrived. 

O de nuevo again Tendrá que hacerlo 
de nuevo. He'll have to do it again. 
|| Eso es nuevo para mí. That's 
news to me. 

nuez [/] walnut. 

nulo void, null. 

numerar to number, put numbers on 
Numeraron los asientos. They num- 
bered the seats. 

número number ¿Cuál es el número de 
su teléfono? What's your phone num- 
ber? A size (of wearing apparel) 
¿Cuál es el número de camisa que usa 
Ud.? What size shirt do you wear? 
A number, edition ¿Tiene Ud. el último 
número de esta revista? Do you have 
the latest number of this magazine? 

nunca never, not ever Nunca me habló. 
He never spoke to me. — No la he 
visto nunca. I've never seen her. 

ñame [to] yam [Antilles]. 

ñapa See yapa. 

ñato pug-nosed [Am]. 


ñeque [m] || Es hombre de ñeque. He's 

a real he-man [Am]. 
ñoño silly. 
ñudo O al ñudo in vain [Ar^f], 

o or Vienen tres o cuatro amigos. Three 
or four friends are coming. 

O0...0 either... or lo hace Ud. 
o lo mato. Either you do it or I'll 
kill you. O o sea that is La fiesta 
será el lunes próximo, a sea el 25 de 
agosto. The party will be next Mon- 
day, that is, August 25th. 

oasis [to] oasis. 

obedecer [-zc-] to obey Tendrán Uds. 
que obedecer mis órdenes. You'll 
have to obey my orders. A to be the 
reason for, to arise from ¿A qué obe- 
dece todo eso? What's the reason for 
all that? 

obediencia obedience. 

obediente obedient. 

obispo bishop. 

objección [/] objection. 

objeto object Había varios objetos sobre 
la mesa. There were several objects 
on the table. A purpose El objeto de 
su visita era estrictamente comercial. 
The purpose of his call was strictly 

oblicuo [adj~\ oblique. 

obligación [/] duty Tiene Ud. la obli- 
gación de contestar. It's your duty 
to reply. A obligation, responsibility 
Con una familia tan numerosa tiene 

muchas obligaciones. With such a 
large family he has a great many 

obligar to oblige, force, compel Le ob- 
ligaron a firmarlo. He was forced to 
sign it. 

O obligarse to obligate oneself, bind 
oneself Se obligó a pagarlo. He bound 
himself to pay it. 

obligatorio obligatory, binding, compul- 

obra work Pongámonos a la obra. Let's 
get to work. A book(s), work(s) La 
obra de Cervantes es umversalmente 
adminrada. The works of Cervantes 
are universally admired. A show, per- 
formance ¿Qué tal era la obra que 
vieron Uds. anoche? How was the 
show last night? 

O en obras under construction, un- 
dergoing repairs Esa casa está en 
obras. That house is undergoing re- 
pairs. O obra maestra masterpiece. 

II ¡Manos a la obra I Let's get to 
work ! 

obrar to do, act Obre Ud. como quiera. 
Do as you please. A to act, behave 
Obró Ud. ligeramente. You acted 
without thinking. 

O obrar en poder de to be in the 





possession of, be in one's hands La 
carta obra en mi pooler. The letter's 
in my possession. 

obrero, obrera woi'ker, laborer. 

o(b)scurecer \_-zc-~\ to get dark En el 
invierno o(b)scurece pronto. It gets 
dark early in winter. 

O o(b)scurecerse to get dark El 
cielo se o(b)sctireció. The sky got 

o(b)scuridad [/] obscurity, darkness. 

o(b)scuro [adj] dark A las cinco ya 
está o(b)scuro. It's already dark at 
five o'clock. — Quiero un traje azul 
o(b)scuro. I want a dark-blue suit. 
A obscure, not clear El significado de 
esta frase es más bien o(b)scuro. 
The meaning of this sentence is rather 

O a o(b)scuras in the dark, in dark- 
ness La habitación estaba a o(b)scu- 
ras. The room was in darkness. 

obsequiar to lavish attentions on, enter- 
tain lavishly Todo el tiempo que estu- 
vo en casa de sus amigos le obsequia- 
ron mucho. During the whole time 
he was in his friends' home, they en- 
tertained him lavishly. A to present 
with La obsequiaron (con) un ramo 
de flores. They presented her with 
a bouquet of flowers. 

obsequio gift, present. 

observación [/] observation, suggestion 
¿Le puedo hacer a Ud. una observa- 
ción? May I make a suggestion? 

O en observación under observation 
Estaba en observación en un sana- 
torio. He was under observation in a 

observador [adj~\ observing Es un mu- 
chacho muy observador. He's a very 
observing fellow. A [w] observer El 
gobierno francés envió un observador. 
The French government sent an ob- 

observar to notice ¿Observa Ud. algún 
cambio en el enfermo? Do you notice 
any change in the patient? A to 
watch Observe Ud. lo que hacen. 
Watch what they're doing. 

O observar buena conducta to be- 
have well. 

obstáculo obstacle, hindrance. 

obstinación [/] obstinacy, stubbornness. 

obstinado stubborn. 

obstinarse en to insist on Se obstina en 
quedarse en casa. He insists on stay- 
ing home. 

obstruir to obstruct, block Aquel auto- 
móvil estaba obstruyendo el tráfico. 
That car was blocking traffic. 

O obstruirse to be blocked up or 
clogged up La cañería se obstruía con 
frecuencia. The pipe was often 

obtener [irr] to get, obtain ¿Dónde ob- 
tuvo Ud. esos informes? Where did 
you get that information? 

obtuso obtuse. 

ocasión [/] chance, opportunity Aquí 
puede tener ocasión de encontrar- 
trabajo. You may have a chance of 
finding work here. A time, occasion 
No es esta la mejor ocasión para 
preguntárselo. This isn't the best 
time to ask him about it. 

O aprovechar la ocasión to take ad- 
vantage of a situation. O de ocasión 
second-hand Compró un automóvil de 
ocasión. He bought a second-hand 

ocasionar to cause Aquel descuido pudo 
ocasionar un incendio. That careless- 
ness could have caused a fire. 

occidental [adj~\ western; Occidental. 
A [n] Occidental. 

occidente [w] west; Occident. 

océano ocean. 

ocio idleness, leisure. 

O ratos de ocio spare time Lo haré 
en mis ratos de ocio. I'll do it in 
my spare time. 

ocioso lazy, idle Era tin hombre ocioso. 
He was a lazy fellow. 

octavo [adj] eighth. 

octubre [m] October. 

ocultar to hide. 

oculto concealed, hidden. 

ocupación [/] business Si no tiene ocu- 
pación mañana, venga por aquí. If 
you have nothing to do tomorrow, 
come on over. A occupation La ocu- 
pación se hizo con orden. The occu- 
pation was carried out in an orderly 

ocupado (see ocupar) busy Hoy estaré 
ocupado todo el día. I'll be busy all 
day today. A occupied, taken ¿Está 
ocupado ese piso? Is that apartment 

ocupar to occupy, take possession of 
Han ocupado tina nueva ciudad. 
They've occupied a new city. A to 
take Puede Ud. ocupar esa silla. 
You may take that chair. A to live 
in Ocupó una habitación en el piso 
tercero. He lived in a room on the 
third floor. 

O ocuparse de to take care of, pay 
attention to Se ocupa muy poco de 
su familia. He pays very little at- 
tention to his family. 





ocurrencia witticism, wisecrack Las 
ocurrencias de aquel hombre hacían 
reír a todos. That fellow's wisecracks 
made everyone laugh. 

ocurrir to occur, happen Saiga Ud. a 
ver qué ocurre. Go out and see 
what's happening. 

O ocurrirsele a uno to occur to one 
Se me ocurrió una buena idea. A 
good idea occurred to me. 

ochavo penny. 

O no tener ni un ochavo to be pen- 

ochenta eighty. 

ocho eight; eighth (day of the month). 

odiar to hate. 

odio hatred. 

odioso mean, nasty ¡Qué odioso! How 
nasty ! 

oeste [m] west. 

ofenderse to take offense Se lo dije y 
no se ofendió. I told him and he 
didn't take offense. 

ofensa insult, offense (personal). 

ofensivo [adj] offensive. 

oferta offer. 

oficial [adj~\ official Fué en misión ofi- 
cial. He went on an official mission. 
A [m] officer Fué oficial del Ejército. 
He was an army officer. 

O oficial mayor chief clerk (govern- 
ment or civil service). 

oficina office (room). 

oficinista [m, /] office worker, white- 
collar worker; clerk. 

oficio manual work, occupation, trade 
¿Qué oficio tiene Ud.? What's your 
occupation? — Es carpintero de oficio. 
He's a carpenter by trade. 

Ooficio(s) divino(s) church ser- 

ofrecer [-zc-] to offer Me ofrecen un 
nuevo empleo. They're offering me 
a new job. 

O ofrecerse to offer oneself, be at 
the service of Me ofrezco a Ud. para 
todo. I'm completely at your service. 

ofrecimiento offer, offering. 

ofrenda offering (religious). 

¡oh! 0! oh! 

oída hearing. 

O de (or por) oídas by hearsay. 

oído (inner) ear Le duelen los oídos. 
He has an earache. A hearing Era 
muy duro de oído. He was very hard 
of hearing. 

O al oído in the ear, whispering Le 
murmuró algo al oído. She whispered 
something in his ear. O dar oídos to 
listen, lend an ear No quiso dar oídos 
a aquello. He didn't want to listen 

to that. O de oído by ear Tocaba el 
piano de oído. He played the piano 
by ear. O tener buen oído to have a 
good ear (for music) ; to have good 

oír [irr] to hear No oigo bien; hable 
más alto. I don't hear well; speak 
louder. A to listen Óigame, por favor, 
tengo que hacerle una pregunta. Lis- 
ten, please, I have to ask you a ques- 

II ¡Oiga! Hello! (telephone) [Sp]. 

ojal [w] buttonhole. 

¡ojalá! || ¡Ojalá (que) venga! I wish 
he'd come! 

ojeada glance. 

O echar una ojeada to cast a glance. 

ojear to glance through Ojeó rápida- 
mente el periódico. He quickly 
glanced through the paper. 

ojo eye El médico le examinó los ojos. 
The doctor examined his eyes. 

O costar un ojo de la cara to cost 
plenty Nos costó un ojo de la cara. 
It's cost us plenty. O en un abrir y 
cerrar de ojos in the twinkling of an 
eye. O ¡ojo! look out! ¡Ojo! Que se 
va a caer. Look out! It's going to 
fall. O ojo de agua spring of water. 
O ojo de la llave keyhole. O ojo mo- 
rado, ojo negro black eye Le pusieron 
un ojo negro. They gave him a black 
eye. O poner ojo to pay (close) at- 
tention ¡Ponga Ud. ojo en esto! Pay 
attention to this ! O tener buen ojo 
to have a good eye or good foresight 
Ha tenido Ud. buen ojo. You've 
shown good foresight. 

ola wave (of water). 

oleaje [m] ground swell, motion of 

oler [rad-ch 7] to smell Esto huele muy 
bien. This smells very good. — Olió el 
peligro y decidió no salir. He smelled 
danger and decided not to go out. 

olfato sense of smell. 

olivar [m] olive grove. 

oliva olive. 

olivo olive tree. 

olla pot. 

olor [m] smell, odor. 

oloroso fragrant. 

olvidar to forget ¿Ha olvidado Ud. algo? 
Have you forgotten something? 

O olvidarse (de) to forget Olvídese 
de lo ocurrido. Forget what's hap- 

olvido forgetfulness. 

omisión [/] omission. 

omitir to omit. 





ómnibus [m] bus. 

once eleven; eleventh (day of month). 

onda wave (of hair) ; ripple (of water). 
O onda corta, onda larga short 
wave, long wave (radio). 

ondulación [/] wave, waiving. 

O ondulación permanente permanent 

ondulado (see ondular) wavy. A [m] 
wave, waving. 

ondular to ripple, wave. 

onza ounce. 

opaco opaque. 

ópera opera. 

operación [/] operation Los médicos de- 
cidieron hacer la operación. The doc- 
tors agreed to perform the operation. 
A operation (Math), calculation ¿Qui- 
ere Ud. comprobar las operaciones? 
Do you want to check the calcula- 
tions? A operation (Mil) El general 
dirigía las operaciones. The general 
directed the operations. 

operar to operate on Le han operado de 
apenaicitis. They operated on him 
for appendicitis. 

operario, operaría operator, skilled 

opinar to judge, hold (or be of) the 

opinión [/] opinion ¿Qué opinión tiene 
Ud. de esto? What's your opinion 
about this? 

oponer [irr~\ to set up Opusieron toda 
cíese de obstáculos. They set up all 
kinds of obstacles. 

O oponerse (a) to oppose Nadie se 
opuso a aquel proyecto. No one op- 
posed that project. 

oportunidad [/] opportunity. 

oportuno opportune, fitting, appropriate 
Su intervención fué oportuna. His 
intervention was opportune. 

oposición [/] opposition. 

oprimir to oppress Oprimía a los débiles. 
He oppressed the weak. A to be tight 
El cinturón le oprimía demasiado. 
The belt was too tight on him. 

óptico optometrist Voy al óptico para 
comprar unos lentes. I'm going to 
the optometrist to get glasses. 

optimismo optimism. 

optimista optimistic. A [w] optimist. 

opuesto (see oponer) [adj] opposed. 
A opposite Estaba situado en el lado 
opuesto. It was situated on the op- 
posite side. 
opulento rich, opulent. 
oración [/] sentence Escribe oraciones 
muy cortas. He* writes very short 

sentences. A prayer Rezó sus oraci- 
ones. He said his prayers. 

orador [w] orator. 

órbita [/] orbit. 

orden [/] order (s), command, instruc- 
tion No he recibido ninguna(s) orden- 
(es) de mis superiores. I haven't re- 
ceived any order (s) from my su- 
periors. A order (commercial) Des- 
pacharemos su orden vía Nueva Or- 
leans. We'll ship your order via New 
Orleans. A order (religious) La or- 
den franciscana. The Franciscan or- 
der. A [m] order Trabajaba sin nin- 
gún orden. He had no order in his 

° a sus órdenes at your service. 
O en orden in order Todo estaba en 
orden. Everything was in order. 
O orden del día agenda, order of the 

ordenar to put in order Tenemos que 
ordenar estos papeles. We must put 
these papers in order. A to order 
Ordenó que le sirvieran la comida. 
He ordered them to serve his dinner. 
O ordenarse to be ordained. 

ordinario usual ¿Cuál es el precio or- 
dinario de esto? What's the usual 
price of this? A ordinary Era un 
hombre ordinario. He was an ordi- 
nary man. A vulgar Es un tipo muy 
ordinario. He's a very vulgar fellow. 
O correo ordinario regular mail. 
O de ordinario usually De ordinario 
viene por la mañana. He usually 
comes in the morning. 

oreja ear Tiene las orejas grandes. 
He has big ears. A handle [Am] Se 
le rompió la oreja a la taza. The 
handle of the cup broke. 

O descubrir la oreja to give oneself 

orgánico organic. 

organismo organism. 

organización [/] organization. 

organizador [adj] organizing. A [m] 

O comité organizador, comisión or- 
ganizadora committee on arrange- 

organizar to organize Van a organizar 
el club la semana que viene. They're 
going to organize the club next week. 
A to arrange, organize Organizó una 
fiesta. She arranged a party. 

órgano organ La cantante fué acompa- 
ñada por un órgano. The singer was 
accompanied by an organ. — No tiene 
órgano sano. He hasn't a healthy or- 
gan in his body. — Ese periódico es el 





órgano de un partido político. That 
paper's the organ of a political party. 

orgía drunken revel, orgy. 

orgullo pride. 

orgulloso proud, haughty. 

oriental [adj~\ eastern; Oriental. A [«] 

orientarse to find one's bearings, to 
orient oneself. 

oriente [m] east; Orient. 

origen [m] origin Sé el origen de toda 
la historia. I know the origin of the 
whole story. A descent, extraction Es 
de origen francés. He's of French 

original original; eccentric, odd Es un 
tipo muy original. He's a very eccen- 
'tric person. A \_m] original Haga Ud. 
el original y tres copias. Make an 
original and three copies. 

originalidad [/] originality; oddity, ec- 

originar to start Aquella frase originó 
una discusión. That sentence started 
a discussion. 

orilla bank Las orillas del río estaban 
cubiertas de árboles. The banks of 
the river were heavily wooded. 
A edge, rim La orilla de la taza está 
rota. The rim of the cup's chipped. 
O orilla del mar seashore. 

oro gold. 

orquesta orchestra (musicians). 

ortografía spelling (in writing). 

os you, to you [Fam pi, Sp; see voso- 
tros] Os he dicho que no lo hagáis 
más. I told you not to do it again. 

osadía audacity, daring, boldness. 

oso, osa bear. 

ostentación [/] ostentation. 

ostentar to boast, show off. 

ostión [m] oyster [Mea]. 

ostra oyster. 

otoño autumn, fall. 

otro another, other Este otro me gusta 
más. I like this other one better. 
A another ¿Quiere Ud. otro? Would 
you like another? 

O alguna otra cosa something (or 
anything) else ¿Quiere Ud. alguna 
otra cosa? Do you want anything 
else? O (el) uno a(l) otro each other 
Se miraron (el) uno a(l) otro con 
sorpresa. They looked at each other 
in surprise. O otra cosa something 
else, something different Eso es otra 
cosa. That's something else. ° otra 
vez again ¿Volverá Ud. otra vez por 
aquí? Will you come here again? 
O por otra parte on the other hand. 
O unos a otros one another Se mira- 
ron unos a otros. They looked at each 

ovación [/] ovation, cheering. 

oveja sheep. 

oxígeno oxygen. 

oyente [m, /] hearer, listener. 

paciencia patience, forbearance. 

paciente [adj] patient ¡Qué niño más 
paciente! What a patient child! 
A [ft] patient No se puede visitar a 
los pacientes después de las seis. Pa- 
tients may not be visited after six 

pacto agreement, pact. 

padecer \_-zc-~] to suffer Padezco de 
jaquecas. I suffer from headaches. 

padre [m~\ father. A priest Llamaron a 
un padre. They called a priest. 

O padres [m] parents Sus padres 
son franceses. His parents are 

padrino godfather Fué a ver a su pad- 
rino. He went to see his godfather. 
A patron, sponsor Tiene muy buenos 
padrinos. He has very good sponsors. 

paella dish of rice with meat or chicken. 

paga wages, pay. 

pagador [?n] paying teller, paymaster. 

pagar to pay Hay que pagar por antici- 

pado. You have to pay in advance. 
A to pay for Pagaron el traje a plazos. 
They paid for the suit in installments. 
O pagar contra recepción C.O.D. 
O pagar el pato to be the scapegoat, 
take the rap Siempre me toca pagar 
el pato. I'm always the one who 
takes the rap. O pagarlas to pay for 
(atone for) ¡Tarde o temprano me 
la pagarás! Sooner or later you'll 
pay for it. or I'll get even with you! 
O pagarse de uno mismo to be con- 
ceited Se paga mucho de si mismo. 
He's very conceited. 

página page (of a book). 

pago payment. 

pais [m] country Esa parte del pais 
está llena de bosques. That part of 
the country's heavily wooded. 

O del pais domestic ¿Le gusta Ud. 
el vino del pais? Do you like the 
domestic wine? 

paisaje [w] landscape, scenery. 





paisano, paisana person from same 
province or city Este señor es gallego; 
es paisano mío. This gentleman's a 
Galician; he's from my province. 
A civilian En la plaza había algunos 
militares y muchos paisanos. In the 
square there were some army men 
and many civilians. 

O de paisano in civilian clothes, in 
mufti Iba vestido de paisano. He was 
wearing civilian clothes. 

paja straw. 

O echarlo a pajas to draw straws 
Vamos a echarlo a pajas para ver 
quien paga. Let's draw straws to 
see who pays. 

pájaro, pájara bird Más vale pájaro en 
mano que ciento volando. A bird in 
the hand's worth two in the bush. 

pala spade, shovel; dust pan. 

palabra word ¿Cómo se escribe esa 
palabra? How do you spell that 

O decir de palabra to tell in person, 
to tell by word of mouth Es mejor 
que se lo diga de palabra que no por 
escrito. It's better to tell him in per- 
son than in writing. O ¡ palabra ! hon- 
estly! no fooling! no kidding! ho que 
le dijo es cierto ¡palabra! No kid- 
ding! What he told him's true. 
O palabra de honor word of honor 
Dio su palabra de honor. He gave his 
word of honor. O palabras mayores 
no joking matter, insulting Esas son 
palabras mayores. That's no joking 
matter, or It's insulting. O pedir (or 
tener) la palabra "¡Pido la palabra!" 
"Un momento, por favor. Ahora la 
tiene el presidente." "May I have the 
floor?" "One moment, please. The 
president has the floor now." 

palacio palace. 

palco box (theater). 

pálido pale. 

paliza beating, spanking. 

palma palm (leaf, tree) La avenida 
estaba bordeada de palmas. The ave- 
nue was lined with palms. A palm 
(hand) Conozco este lugar como la 
palma de la mano. I know this place 
like the palm of my hand. 

O llevar la palma to win the prize, 
carry the day Me parece que te has 
llevado la palma. I think you've won' 
the prize. 
palmada clapping; pat (on the back). 
O dar palmadas to clap, applaud. 
palmo span (measure of length: 8 
inches) . 

palo stick Tenía un palo en la mano. 
He had a stick in his hand. A pole 
El palo del telégrafo cayó en tierra. 
The telegraph pole fell on the ground. 
A wood La cuchara y el tenedor eran 
de palo. The spoon and fork were 
made of wood. A tree [Am] Los palos 
están en flor. The trees are in bloom. 
A suit (in cards) ¿Qué palo es el tri- 
unfo? What's trumps? 

O dar de palos to club, beat Le 
dieron de palos. They gave him a 

paloma pigeon, dove. 

palpitante [adj] throbbing, beating. 

palpitar to beat, throb, quiver. 

pampa pampa, plain [Ar^]. 

O estar a la pampa to be outdoors, 
camp [Am], 

pan [m] bread. 

O pan integral whole-wheat bread. 
O pan seco, pan duro stale bread. 
O pan tierno fresh bread. 

panadería bakery. 

panadero, panadera baker. 

panamericano Pan-American. 

pandereta tambourine. 

pandillero gangster [Am]. 

panecillo roll (bread) Los panecillos 
están muy tiernos. The rolls are very 

pánico panic, fright. 

panorama [m] panorama. 

pantalla lamp shade Cambie la pantalla 
de esta lámpara. Change the shade 
on this lamp. A film, screen, movie 
Conocía a muchas estrellas de la pan- 
talla. He knew many movie stars. 

pantalones [m pl~\ trousers, pants. 

pantano swamp, marsh, bog. 

pantomima pantomime. 

pantorrilla calf (of the leg). 

panza belly, paunch. 

pañal [m] diaper. 

pañito small cloth. 

paño cloth, woolen goods. 

pañuelo handkerchief, kerchief; shawl. 

Papa [m] Pope El Papa reside en el 
Vaticano. The Pope lives in the Vati- 

papa [/] potato [Am] Nos dieron puré 
de papas. They gave us mashed po- 

papá [m] papa, pop, dad. 

papaya papaya (fruit). 

papel [m] paper ¿Está hecho de papel 
o de tela? Is it made of paper or 
cloth? A paper, document Gtiarda 
esos papeles, son importantes. Keep 
those papers; they're important. 
A role, part Tendrá a su cargo el pa- 





pel principal. He'll have the leading 

O papel de cartas stationery He 
comprado una caja de papel de cartas. 
I bought a box of stationery. O papel 
de seda tissue paper Envuélvalo pri- 
mero en papel de seda. Wrap it first 
in tissue paper. O papel moneda 
paper money, bills Démelo en papel 
moneda. Give it to me in bills. 

papelería stationery store. 

papeleta slip of paper. 

O papeleta electoral ballot. 

papera mumps. 

par [adj~\ even (of numbers) Las casas 
con números pares están al norte. 
The houses with even numbers are 
on the north side. A [m] equal Es 
una mujer sin par. She has no equal. 
A pair Un par de zapatos. A pair of 
shoes. A couple Llegará dentro de un 
par de días. He'll arrive in a couple 
of days. 

O abierto de par en par wide open 
La puerta estaba abierta de par en 
par. The door was wide open. O a 
la par at par La peseta estaba a la 
par. The peseta was at par. A in a 
tie, in a dead heat Los caballos llega- 
ban a la par. The horses finished in 
a dead heat. O pares y (or o) nones 
odds and (or or) evens ¿Toma Ud. 
pares o nones? Do you take odds or 

para to, in order to Debemos salir ya 
para llegar a tiempo. We must leave 
now to get there on time. 

O estar para (followed by infini- . 
tive) to be about to Estoy para salir. 
I'm about to leave. O ¿para dónde? 
where (to) ? ¿Para dónde va este 
tren? Where does this train go? 
O para que so (that) Abra la ventana 
para que nos entre el aire fresco. 
Open the window so we can get some 
fresh air. O ¿para qué? what for? 
what good? what use? ¿Para qué 
sirve esta máquina? What's this ma- 
chine for? A why? ¿Para qué lo des- 
pertó? Why did you wake him? 

parachoques [m sg] bumper (of car). 

parada stop ¿Cuántas paradas hace este 
tren? How many stops does this 
train make? A parade (military) 
Vio Ud. la parada esta mañana? Did 
you see the parade this morning? 

paradero whereabouts ¿Sabe Ud. el 
paradero de Juan? Do you know 
John's whereabouts? 

parado (see parar) shy, timid El chico 
es parado. The boy's shy. A sus- 

pended, shut down Está parada la 
fábrica. The factory's shut down. 
A unemployed ¿Hay muchos obreros 
parados estos días? Are there many 
unemployed workers at present? 
A standing [Am] He estado parado 
mucho rato. I've been standing quite 
a while. 

paraguas [m sg~¡ umbrella. 

paraíso paradise, heaven; upper gallery 
(in a theater). 

paralelo parallel, corresponding. 

paralizar to paralyze. 

parar to stop Tuvieron que parar a 
medio camino. They had to stop half- 
way there. A to stake, bet [Am] Con 
estas cartas y o voy a parar cincuenta 
pesos. With these cards I'm going 
to bet fifty pesos. A to stop (over), 
stay ¿En qué hotel pararán sus ami- 
gos? What hotel will your friends 
stay at? A to end up, turn out No 
paró bien aquel negocio. That bus- 
iness didn't turn out very well. 

O ir (or venir) a parar to land 
finally, end up ¿Cómo ha venido a 
parar esto aquí? How in the world 
did this get here? ° parar de to stop 
No para de llover desde ayer. It 
hasn't stopped raining since yester- 
day. O parar la oreja to prick up 
one's ears Paró la oreja para oír lo 
que decíamos. He pricked up his ears 
to hear what we were saying. O pa- 
rarse to stop, halt Al llegar a la pu- 
erta se paró. When he got to the door 
he stopped. A to stand up, get up 
[Am] Se pararon al verla llegar. 
They got up when they saw her 

parcial partial. 

pardo dark-gray; brown Tiene ojos par- 
dos. He has brown eyes. A [n] mu- 
latto [Am]. 

parecer [-zc-] to look, appear Parece 
que va a llover hoy. It looks as 
though it'd rain today. A to seem Me 
parece muy bien. It seems all right 
to me. A [m] opinion Me gustaría 
saber cuál es su parecer en este asun- 
to. I'd like to know what your opin- 
ion is in this matter. 

O al parecer apparently Al parecer 
vendrá la semana próxima. Appar- 
ently he's coming next week. O pare- 
cerse to be alike Los dos se parecen 
mucho. The two of them are very 
much alike. O según parece as it 
seems, apparently Según parece llo- 
verá toda la tarde. Apparently it'll 
rain all afternoon. 





parecido like, similar Los dos trabajos 
son muy parecidos. The two jobs are 
very similar. A [m] resemblance El 
parecido entre padre e hijo es muy 
claro. The resemblance between 
father and son is very clear. 

O bien parecido good-looking Su hi- 
jo es muy bien parecido. Your son's 
very good-looking. O parecido a like, 
similar to Yo tengo un traje muy 
parecido al suyo. I have a suit very 
much like yours. 

pared [/] wall. 

pareja pair ¡Gano, tengo dos parejas! 
I win ; I have two pairs. A team 
Esos dos tenistas hacen muy buena 
pareja. Those two tennis players 
make a very good team. A couple Vi 
una pareja de soldados en el parque. 
I saw a couple of soldiers in the park. 
— Hacen muy buena pareja. They 
make a good couple. A dancing part- 
ner Su pareja baila muy bien. Your 
partner dances very well. 

parejo [adj~\ neck and neck Los dos 
caballos iban parejos en la carrera. 
The two horses were running neck 
and neck. A equal, the same Sus ca- 
racteres son parejos. Their charac- 
ters are the same. 

pariente [m, /] relative. 

parlamento parliament ; parley. 

paro stoppage; unemployment; strike. 

parpadear to blink, wink. 

párpado eyelid. 

parque [m] park Paseamos por el par- 
que. We strolled through the park. 
A ammunition [Am] Se les acabó el 
parque. They ran out of ammuni- 

párrafo paragraph. 

parranda binge Se pasaron toda la 
noche de parranda. We were on a 
binge all night. 

parte [/] part ¿En qué parte de la 
ciudad vive Ud.? What part of the 
city do you live in? — ¿Qué parte del 
pollo le gusta más? What part of 
the chicken do you like best? A share 
Cada uno pagó su parte. Each paid 
his share. A party (legal) Hicieron 
comparecer a ambas partes ante el 
juez. They summoned both parties 
before the judge. A [m] report En- 
víeme el parte mañana. Send me the 
report tomorrow. 

° dar parte to inform, notify Dieron 
parte del robo a la policía. They 
notified the police of the robbery. 
O de mi parte on my behalf Déle 
recuerdos de mi parte. Remember me 

to him. O de parte de in the name 
of, on behalf of Telefoneo de parte 
del Sr. Gómez. I'm calling on behalf 
of Mr. Gómez. O en alguna otra parte 
somewhere else He debido dejar mi 
billete en alguna otra parte. I must 
have left my ticket somewhere else. 
O en parte partly, in part Tiene Ud. 
razón sólo en parte. You're only 
partly right. O en todas partes 
everywhere Se le ve siempre en todas 
partes. He's seen everywhere. 
O parte de guerra (war) communi- 
que ¿Ha leído Ud. el parte de guerra? 
Have you read the communique? 
G por mi parte as for me, as far 
as I'm concerned Por mi parte no hay 
inconveniente. It's all right as far 
as I'm concerned. O por {or a) partes 
in parts Hagamos el trabajo por par- 
tes iguales. Let's do the work in 
equal parts. O tomar parte to take 
part ¿Tomará parte Ud. en el prox- 
imo campeonato de golf? Are you 
taking part in the next golf tourna- 

participante participating. A [n] par- 

participar to announce Participaron a 
las amistades su próximo matrimonio. 
They announced to their friends their 
coming marriage. 

° participar de to share, share in 
Participaremos de las ganancias. 
We'll share the profits. — Los hijos 
participaron de la fortuna de su 
padre. The children shared in their 
father's fortune. ° participar en to 
take part in Participó en las olimpia- 
das de 1936. He took part in the 
1936 Olympic games. 

particular special, particular Es un caso 
muy particular. It's a very special 
case. A private Esta es una casa par- 
ticular. This is a private house. 
A odd, peculiar Es tina persona muy 
particular. He's a very peculiar per- 

O en particular particularly, espe- 
cially Me gustan todos los deportes, 
pero el tenis en particular. I like all 
sports, but particularly tennis. O na- 
da de particular nothing special, noth- 
ing unusual Esa casa no tiene nada 
de particular. There's nothing un- 
usual about that house. 

partida departure La hora de la par- 
tida de los trenes está indicada en el 
horario. Train departures are listed 
in the timetable. A item (in an ac- 
count) Asiente Ud. Esta partida en 





el libro correspondiente. Enter this 
item in the right book. A game 
¿Echamos una partida de cartas? 
Shall we play a game of cards? A cer- 
tificate (of birth, marriage, death) 
Partida de nacimiento. Birth certifi- 
cate. — Partida de casamiento or boda. 
Marriage license. — Partida de de- 
función. Death certificate. A band, 
gang Fueron atacados por una par- 
tida de ladrones. They were attacked 
by a band of thieves. 

O jugarle una mala partida to play 
a dirty trick on, double-cross Le jugó 
una mala partida. She played a 
dirty trick on him. 

partidario follower Este señor es uno 
de sus partidarios más antiguos. This 
gentleman's one of his oldest fol- 

partido broken, divided La cuerda está 
partida en dos. The string's broken 
in two. A [to] party, faction Perte- 
necen al mismo partido. They belong 
to the same party. A match, game 
¿Quiere Ud. ver el partido de fútbol? 
Would you like to see the football 

O sacar partido de to profit by Ese 
hombre saca partido de todo. That 
man profits by everything. 

partir to split Partió la manzana en dos. 
He split the apple in two. A to di- 
vide Partieron el terreno en varios 
lotes. They divided the land into sev- 
eral lots. A to cut Partamos un poco 
de leña para el fuego. Let's cut some 
wood for the fire. A to break, crush 
Esta máquina sirve para partir las 
piedras. This machine's for crush- 
ing stones. A to divide (mathematics) 
Parta Ud. 250 entre 3. Divide 250 by* 
3. A to leave Si partimos por la noche 
llegaremos durante el día. If we 
leave at night, we'll arrive during the 
day. A to start, reckon Ud. parte de 
un supuesto equivocado. You're start- 
ing with a false assumption. 

O partirse to break Al partirse el 
hielo, cayeron al agua. When the 
ice broke they fell into the water. 

pasa (see paso) raisin. 

pasado last Estas cartas llegaron la 
semana pasada. These letters came 
last week. A spoiled La fruta está 
pasado. The frviit's spoiled. A [to] 
past Esa mujer tiene un pasado muy 
romántico. That woman has a very 
romantic past. 

O pasado de moda out of date, out 
of style Está pasado de moda. It's 

out of date. O pasado mañana day 
after tomorrow Me dijeron que ven- 
drían pasado mañana. They told me 
they'd come day after tomorrow. 

pasaje [to] crossing, journey, voyage 
Hicimos el pasaje a Europa en siete 
días. We made the crossing to Eu- 
rope in seven days. A f are ¿Cuánto 
cuesta un pasaje en primera a La 
Habana? How much is the fare to 
Havana, first-class? A passage Citó 
un pasaje del Quijote. He quoted a 
passage from Don Quixote. A arcade 
Dentro de este edificio hay un pasaje. 
There's an arcade in this building. 
A number of passengers on a ship, 
plane, etc El pasaje del avión estaba 
completo. All seats on the plane were 

pasajero passing, transitory Es sola- 
mente una lluvia pasajera. It's only 
a passing shower. A [??.] passenger 
Los pasajeros tienen que enseñar sus 
billetes a la entrada. Passengers 
must show their tickets at the gate. 

pasamanos [to. sg] rail, banister. 

pasaporte [to] passport. 

pasar to pass, overtake Pasemos ese 
carro, nos retrasa mucho. Let's pass 
that car, he's holding us up. A to 
pass, hand Haga el favor de pasarme 
el azúcar. Please pass me the sugar. 
A to pass, go through Tuvimos que 
pasar muchos túneles. We had to go 
through a number of tunnels. A to 
cross Debemos pasar el puente du- 
rante la noche. We must cross the 
bridge at night. A to move, transfer 
Tienen que pasar al enfermo a otro 
cuarto. They have to move the pa- 
tient to another room. A to happen 
¿Que pasó anoche? What happened 
last night? A to spend Pasa los do- 
mingos en la playa. He spends his 
Sundays at the beach. A to come {or 
go) in Pase Ud. y siéntese. Come in 
and sit down. A to tolerate, overlook 
Ella le pasa todas sus faltas. She 
overlooks all his faults. A to get 
along, make out Pasa muy bien con 
lo que gana. He gets along very well 
on what he earns. A to pass (at 
cards) Paso. I pass. A to pass, stop 
(of rain, snow, etc) La lluvia pasará 
pronto. The rain'll stop soon. 

O pasar de largo to go (or pass) 
right by, pass by without stopping 
No se demore, pase Ud. de largo. 
Don't delay. Pass by without stop- 
ping. O pasar de moda to go out of 
style. O pasar el rato to kill time, 





pass the time away ¿Cómo pasaremos 
el rato? How shall we kill time? 
O pasar (la) lista to call the roll Den- 
tro de un momento pasarán (la) lista. 
In a moment they'll call the roll. 
O pasarlo bien to have a good time 
La otra noche lo pasamos muy bien. 
We had a very good time the other 
night. O pasar por alto to skip, over- 
look Pasé por alto esa página. I 
skipped that page. O pasarse to go 
over Se pasó al partido contrario. He 
went over to the other party. A to 
slip one's mind ¡Se me pasó completa- 
mente! It completely slipped my 
mind. O pasarse de ... to be too . . . 
Se pasa de listo. He thinks he's 
smart. ° pasársele a uno to get over 
(a state of mind), pass from Se en- 
fadó, pero se le pasó pronto. He got 
angry but he soon got over it. ° pa- 
sarse sin to do (or get along) without 
Podemos pasar muy bien sin automó- 
vil. We can get along very well 
without a car. 

pasatiempo pastime, amusement. 

Pascua O Pascua florida, Pascua de ! 
resurrección Easter Celebran mucho ! 
la Pascua de resurrección. They have ; 
a big Easter celebration. O pascuas 
Christmas ¿Felices Pascuas! Merry 
Christmas ! 

O estar como unas pascuas to be 
beaming all over. 

pase [m] pass, permit. 

pasear to stroll, take a walk íbamos 
paseando por el parque cuando la vi- 
mos. We were taking a walk through 
the park when we saw her. A to go 
for a ride (car, horse, bicycle) he 
gustaba pasear a caballo. She liked 
to go horseback riding. 

O pasearse to pace the floor Estuvo 
paseándose toda la noche. He paced 
the floor all night. 

paseo walk En este lugar hay lindos 
paseos. There are beautiful walks 

O dar un paseo to stroll, take a 
walk ¿Le gustaría dar un paseo por 
el parque? Would you like to take a 
walk in the park? 

pasillo passage, corridor. 

pasión [/] emotion, passion. 

paso dried (of fruits). 
O ciruela pasa prune. 

paso step Dio unos cuantos pasos y se 
paró. He took a few steps and 
stopped. A gait Este caballo tiene un 
paso excelente. This horse has a fine 
gait. A progress Ha dado un gran 

paso en sus estudios. He's made great 
progress in his studies. A pass (moun- 
tain) El paso es peligroso por la noche. 
The pass is dangerous at night. 

O abrir paso to open a passage, 
make way Los policías abrieron paso 
para el coche del Presidente. The 
policemen opened a passage for the 
President's car. O abrirse paso to get 
through Hay tanta gente que es muy 
difícil abrirse paso. There's such a 
crowd that it's very hard to get 
through. O apretar el paso to hurry, 
hasten Apretemos el paso para llegar 
a tiempo. Let's hurry and get there 
on time. O de paso in passing Aludió 
a la situación política solamente de 
paso. He referred to the political 
situation only in passing. O paso a 
paso step by step, little by little Paso 
a paso se hizo una posición. Little by 
little he made a place for himself. 
O salir del paso to get by Estudia 
sólo lo suficiente para salir del paso. 
He only studies enough to get by. 
O salir de un paso to get out of a 
tough spot Será difícil que Ud. saiga 
de ese paso. It'll be hard for you to 
get out of that tough spot. 

¡I Prohibido el paso. No trespassing. 
or Keep out. 

pasta paste, batter Hicieron una pasta 
de harina de maíz. They made a 
paste of corn meal. A pie crust La 
pasta es muy buena. The pie crust's 
very good. A plastic El cenicero era 
de pasta. The ashtray was made of 
plastic. A "dough" (money) Ese mu- 
chacho tiene mucha pasta. That fel- 
low has a lot of dough. A tea cake 
Tomaron té con pastas. They had 
tea and cakes. A binding, cover (of 
a book) Leía un libro de pasta roja. 
He was reading a book with a red 

O de buena pasta good-natured Ese 
hombre es de muy buena pasta. He's 
a very good-natured man. ° pasta de 
dientes toothpaste ¿Venden Uds. pas- 
ta de dientes? Do you sell toothpaste? 
O sopa de pasta noodle soup. 

pastel [mí] pie Nos sirvieron pastel de 
cerezas. They served us cherry pie. 

pastelería pastry shop; pastry. 

pasteurizado pasteurized. 

pastilla tablet, drop ¿ Tiene Ud. algunas 
pastillas contra la tos? Do you have 
any cough drops? 

pasto pasture; grass. 

O a (todo) pasto aplenty, galore 





Teníamos comida a todo pasto. We 
had food galore. 

pastor [m] shepherd. 

pata foot, leg (of an animal) Cogieron 
al perro de una pata. They caught 
the dog by the leg. A leg (furniture) 
La pata de la mesa está quebrada. 
The table leg's broken. 

O a cuatro patas on all fours, creep- 
ing. O meter la pata to pull a boner, 
to put one's foot in it Ten cuidado no 
metas la pata. Be careful not to put 
your foot in it. 

patada kick. 

patata potato [Sp~\. 

patente evident Era patente que quería 
pedirle a Ud. dinero. It was evident 
that he wanted to borrow some money 
from you. A [/] patent Deberá sacar 
una patente de su invento. You 
should take out a patent on your in- 

patinador, patinadora skater. 

patinar to skate; to skid, slip. 

patio patio, courtyard El patio es ca- 
racterístico en las casas españolas. 
The patio's characteristic of Spanish 

O patio de butacas orchestra (thea- 

patizambo bow-legged. 

pato, pata duck. 

patojo lame, crippled [Am] Quedó pato- 
jo después de la caída. His fall left 
him lame. A [n] kid, urchin [Am] 
Un patojo me enseñó el camino. A 
kid showed me the way. 

patria fatherland, native land. 

patriota [m, /] patriot. 

patriótico patriotic. 

patriotismo patriotism. 

patrón [m] boss Lo ha ordenado el 
patrón. The boss has ordered it. 
A employer. A patron saint Santiago, 
patrón de España. Saint James, pa- 
tron saint of Spain. A pattern Estos' 
patrones para hacer vestidos son muy 
prácticos. These dress patterns are 
very practical. 

O patrón de barca' skipper (of small 
boat) . 

patronal [adj~\ of the employers Las 
representaciones patronales y obreras 
han llegado a un acuerdo. The rep- 
resentatives of the employers and 
workers have reached an agreement. 

patrono employer; patron saint. 

pausa rest; break. 

O hacer una pausa to take a break, 
to pause Vamos a hacer una pausa 
de cinco minutos. Let's take a five- 
minute break. 

pausar to pause, hesitate. 

pava pot, kettle [Arg] ; turkey hen. 

pavada nonsense, foolishness [Arg], 

pavimentar to pave. 

pavimento pavement. 

pavo turkey cock. 

O pavo real peacock. 

payar to sing to the accompaniment of 
a guitar [Arg]. 

payaso clown. 

paz [/] peace Que en paz descanse. 
May he rest in peace. 

O estar (or quedar) en paz to be 
even, be quits Cuando le dé tres dó- 
lares estaremos en paz. When I give 
you three dollars, we'll be square. 
O hacer las paces to make up, patch 
up (differences), become reconciled 
Me alegra que hayan hecho las paces. 
I'm glad they've made up. 

pecado sin. 

pecar to sin. 

pecho chest, bosom. 

pedazo piece, bit Le dio un pedazo de 
pan. She gave him a piece of bread. 
O hacerse pedazos to break into 
pieces, shatter El florero se hizo pe- 
dazos al caer al suelo. The vase broke 
into pieces when it fell on the floor. 

pedido order, shipment. 

pedir [rad-ch III] to ask for Tengo que 
pedirle permiso. I have to ask him 
for permission. A to ask, request 
¿Por qué no pide que le sirvan más 
temprano? Why don't you ask them 
to serve you earlier? A to order He 
pedido mil copias. I've ordered a 
thousand copies. 

O pedir de boca according to desire 
Todo salió a pedir de boca. Every- 
thing worked out according to our 
desires. O pedir limosna to beg for 

pegadizo catchy Es una música muy 
pegadiza. It's a very catchy tune. 

pegajoso sticky. 

pegar to stick, glue, cement ¿Con qué 
pegaron esto? What did they glue 
this with? A to post Pegaron un car- 
tel en la pared. They posted a sign 
on the wall. A to sew (on) Tiene Ud. 
que pegarle botones a esta camisa. 
You have to sew buttons on this shirt. 
A to infect with, communicate Me pegó 
el catarro. He infected me with his 
cold, or I caught his cold. A to hit, 
beat, strike Le pegó con un bastón. 
He beat him with a cane. 

O pegar (le) fuego a to set fire to 
Le pegaron fuego a la casa. They 
set fire to the house. O pegarse to 
be catching Todo se pega menos la 





belleza. Everything's catching ex- 
cept beauty. A to adhere, stick Este 
papel se ha pegado a la mesa. This 
paper's stuck to the table. 

peinado (see peinar) combed. A [m] 

peinador [m] hairdresser; hairdressing 

peinar to comb, do the hair of Peinó 
a la niña con trenzas. She did the 
child's hair in braids. 

O peinarse to comb one's hair, fix 
one's hair Está peinándose. She's 
fixing her hair. 

peine [m] comb (for hair). 

peineta comb (for hair). 

pelado (see pelar) picked, plucked; 
"skinned." A [n~\ peasant [Mex], 

pelar to peel Esta fruta no se puede 
comer sin pelar. You can't eat this 
fruit without peeling it. A to pick, 
pluck (fowl) La cocinera peló los 
pollos. The cook picked the chickens. 
A to fleece, skin En ese negocio me 
pelaron. They skinned me in that 

O pelarse to peel off Esta pintura 
se está pelando. This paint's peeling 
off. A to get one's hair cut Hoy tengo 
que ir a pelarme. I have to get my 
hair cut today. 

pelea fight, brawl, quarrel; bout. 

pelear to fight Pelearon durante muchas 
horas. They fought for hours. A to 
quarrel Son amigos, pero pelean mu- 
cho. They're friends, but they often 

película film Necesito un rollo de pelí- 
cula. I need a roll of film. A picture, 
movie Hoy dan una película muy 
buena. There's a very good picture 

peligro danger Hubo peligro de que se 
incendiara la casa. There was dan- 
ger of the house catching fire. 

O correr peligro to run a risk Cor- 
rió peligro de perder todo su dinero. 
He ran the risk of losing all his 

peligroso dangerous, risky. 

pellejo skin, hide (of animals) ; wine 

O estar en el pellejo de otro to be 
in another's shoes No querría yo estar 
en su pellejo. I wouldn't like to be 
in his shoes. O jugarse el pellejo to 
risk one's life. O quitarle a uno el 
pellejo to gossip about, flay Le quitan 
el pellejo a todo el mundo. They gos- 
sip about everybody. 
pellizcar to pinch. 

pelo hair Tiene el pelo negro y los ojos 
castaños. He has black hair and 
brown eyes. 

° en pelo bareback Sabía montar 
en pelo. He could ride bareback. 
O ne tener pelos en la lengua to be 
outspoken Esa muchacha no tiene 
pelos en la lengua. That girl's very 
outspoken. ° pelos y señales minute 
details Lo contó con pelos y señales. 
He told it in minute detail. ° tomar 
el pelo to pull one's leg Creo que me 
estás tomando el pelo. I think you're 
pulling my leg. O venir a pelo to be 
to the point Lo que dijo no venía muy 
a pelo. What he said wasn't to the 

pelota ball (for games). 

peluca wig, toupee. 

peluquería barber shop; beauty parlor. 

peluquero barber, hairdresser. 

pena penalty Sufrieron una severa pena 
por lo que hicieron. They paid a se- 
vere penalty for what they did. 
A pain, sorrow Le dio mucha pena la 
muerte de su primo. His cousin's 
death caused him great sorrow. 
A trouble Han pasado muchas penas. 
They've suffered a great deal of 
trouble. A embarrassment, chagrin 
[A?n] Me da mucha pena. It's very 

O a duras penas with great diffi- 
culty Llegaron a duras penas. They 
had a hard time getting here. ° pena 
capital, pena de muerte death, capital 
punishment Lo condenaron a la pena 
capital. They condemned him to 
death. O tener la pena de to have the 
misfortune to Tuvo la pena de perder 
a sil padre. He had the misfortune 
to lose his father. O valer la pena 
to be worth (while) No vale la pena 
hacerlo. It's not worth doing. 

pendiente pending Tenemos un asunto 
pendiente con ellos. We have some 
unfinished business with them. A [/] 
drop, slope La pendiente era muy 
pronunciada. The slope was very 

O pendientes [m pi] earrings Le 
regaló unos pendientes de brillantes. 
He gave her diamond earrings. 

penetrante penetrating, piercing. 

penetrar to penetrate, go in La bala 
penetró hasta el hueso. The bullet 
penetrated to the bone. A to deter- 
mine, make out Es difícil penetrar 
sus pensamientos. It's hard to make 
out what he thinks. 

peninsula peninsula. 





penoso arduous, hard Aquel trabajo era 
muy penoso. That was very hard 
work. A embarrassing, unpleasant 
Sería penoso decírselo. It'd be em- 
barrassing to tell him. 

pensamiento thought, idea Sus pensa- 
mientos son muy elevados. His 
thoughts are very lofty. A pansy 

pensar [rad-ch I] to think ¡Yo pensaba 
que Ud. estaba en Chile! I thought 
you were in Chile ! A to intend, plan 
¿Adonde piensa Ud. ir mañana? 
Where do you intend to go tomorrow? 
O pensar de to think of, have an 
opinion of ¿Qué piensa Ud. de Juan? 
What do you think of John? O pen- 
sar en to think of, about, or over 
¿En qué piensas? What are you 
thinking about? 

pensativo pensive, thoughtful. 

pensión [/] pension; boarding house. 

peña rock, boulder. A group of friends 
La peña se reunía en el Café Univer- 
sal. The group of friends used to 
meet in Café Universal. 

peón [m] workman, day laborer \_Am\. 
A pawn (chess). A top (plaything). 
O jugar al peón to spin the top. 

peonza top (plaything). 

O bailar como una peonza to dance 
well, be light on one's feet. 

peor worse Hoy me encuentro peor. 
I'm worse today. A worst Es el peor 
de todos. He's the worst of all. 

° de mal en peor from bad to worse. 
O tanto peor so much the worse Tanto 
peor para él. So much the worse for 

pepa seed, stone, pit [Am], 

pepino cucumber. 

pequeño small, little Vive en un cuarto 
muy pequeño. He lives in a very 
small room. A [w] child Los pequeños 
están en la escuela. The children are 
in school. 

pera pear. 

percha rack (for hat or clothes) ; 
hanger, coat hanger. 

perder [rad-ch 7] to lose Tenga mucho 
cuidado no pierda esos papeles. Be 
careful you don't lose those papers. 
— Jugó y perdió. He gambled and 
lost. A to miss Perdimos el tren. We 
missed the train. A to ruin, disgrace 
(morally, socially) A esa muchacha la 
perdió su amor al lujo. Love of lux- 
ury ruined that girl. 

O echar a perder to ruin, spoil Me 
ha echado Ud. a perder el traje. 
You've ruined my suit. O echarse a 

perder to spoil La carne se echó a 
perder con el calor. The meat spoiled 
because of the heat. A to become 
spoiled El niño se echó a perder con 
las malas compañías. The boy was 
spoiled by the bad company he kept. 
O perder de vista to lose sight of Al 
volver la esquina le perdimos de vista. 
When we turned the corner we lost 
sight of him. O perder la vista to go 
blind. O perderse to go to the dogs 
Se perdió con la bebida. He went to 
the dogs because he liked to drink. 
A to get sour, turn, become spoiled La 
fruta se va a perder porque está 
demasiado madura. The fruit's go- 
ing to spoil because it's overripe. 
A to get lost Se perdió porque no cono- 
cía bien la ciudad. He got lost be- 
cause he didn't know the city very 
well. O perderse de vista to drop out 
of sight. 

pérdida loss El enemigo sufrió muchas 
pérdidas. The enemy suffered great 

perdido (see perder) lost. A \_m\ black 
sheep (person). A perdida [/] loose 

perdón [m] forgiveness Me pidió per- 
dón por no haber contestado a mi 
carta. He asked my forgiveness for 
not having answered my letter. A par- 
don, reprieve El perdón del gober- 
nador le salvó la vida. The gover- 
nor's pardon saved his life. 

]| ¡Perdón! Pardon me! or Excuse 

perdonar to pardon Han perdonado a 
los criminales. They've pardoned the 
criminals. A to forgive ¡Dios me per- 
done! God forgive me! A to excuse, 
pardon ¡Perdone Ud.! Excuse me! 

perecer [-zc-] to perish En la mina 
perecieron cincuenta hombres. Fifty 
men perished in the mine. 

peregrino exotic, strange Tiene ideas 
muy peregrinas. He has very strange 

perejil [m] parsley. 

pereza laziness. 

perezoso lazy. 

perfección [/] perfection. 

perfecto perfect. 

perfil [m] profile; outline. 

perfumar to perfume. 

perfume [m] perfume. 

pericia skill, expertness. 

periódico [adj] periodic (al). A [m] 
newspaper Lo he leído en el periódico 
de esta mañana. I read it in this 
morning's paper. 





periodista [to, /] journalist, newspaper- 
man, newspaperwoman. 

período period, term. 

perito [adj ; n] expert. 

perjudicar to damage, hurt, injure. 

perjudicial harmful, injurious. 

perjuicio prejudice; damage, injury, 
harm; financial loss. 

perla pearl. 

O ser una perla to be a jewel Esa 
criada es una perla. That maid's a 

permanecer [-zc-] to stay, remain. 

permanente [adj~\ permanent. A [/] 
permanent (wave). 

permiso permission, license, permit. 

|| Con permiso (lit., with your per- 
mission) If you don't mind, or Ex- 
cuse me, please. 

permitir to permit, allow. 

pero [conj] but La ciudad es grande, 
pero no es muy hermosa. The city's 
large but it's not very attractive. 
A [to] shortcoming, defect. 

O no tener pero(s) to be faultless 
or flawless Ese trabajo no tiene peros. 
That work's flawless. O poner pe- 
ro(s) to find fault, object A este 
trabajo no se le puede poner ningún 
pero. You can't find fault with this 

|| ¡No hay pero que valga! No buts 
about it! 

perra female dog, bitch, slut. 

perro dog. 

persecución [/] persecution; pursuit. 

perseguir [rad-ch HI] to pursue Persi- 
guieron a los fugitivos. They pur- 
sued the fugitives. A to aim at ¿Qué 
fin persigue Ud.? What are you 
aiming at? 

perseverancia perseverance. 

persona person. 

personaje [to] personage, big shot Bebe 
ser un personaje. He must be an im- 
portant person. A character (in a 
play) El personaje principal es un 
viejo. The main character's an old 

personal [adj] personal Esos son asun- 
tos personales. Those are personal 
matters. A [to] personnel Vaya Ud. 
a la oficina de personal. Go to the 
personnel office. 

° cuestión personal personal quar- 
rel Tuve una cuestión personal con él. 
I had a personal quarrel with him. 

personalidad [/] personality, prominent 
person A la fiesta concurrieron mu- 
chas personalidades. Many promi- 
nent people attended the party. 

persuadir to persuade, convince Le per- 
suadió a que se quesdasen. He per- 
suaded them to stay. 

pertenecer [-20] to pertain to, concern. 
A to belong to Este dinero no nos per- 
tenece. This money doesn't belong to 

perturbar to perturb, disturb. 

perverso perverse, wicked. 

pesa weight (object). 

pesadez [/] boringness, dullness. A per- 
sistence La pesadez de ese hombre me 
molesta. The persistence of that man 
annoys me. 

pesadilla nightmare. 

pesado (see pesar) heavy Esta maleta 
es muy pesada. This suitcase is very 
heavy. A boring, dull, tiresome ; per- 
sistent Es uno de esos tipos pesados. 
He's one of those boring people. 
A sultry (of weather) ¡Qué tiempo tan 
pesado! What sultry weather! 
A sound (of sleep) Tenía un sueño 
muy pesado. She slept soundly. 
A stuffy En esta habitación hay una 
atmósfera muy pesada. The air in 
this room's very stuffy. 

pesar to weigh Esta carta pesa demasi- 
ado. This letter weighs too much. 
A to be weighty, important, count Su 
opinión pesa mucho. Your opinion 
counts a lot. 

O pesarle a uno to regret, be sorry 
for No me pesa haberlo dicho. I don't 
regret having said it. O pesarse to 
weigh oneself, get weighed Es aconse- 
jable pesarse a menudo. It's advis- 
able to get weighed frequently. 

pesar [to] sorrow, remorse Su muerte 
causó gran pesar. His death caused 
great sorrow. 

O a pesar de in spite of A pesar de 
todo, lo haremos. In spite of every- 
thing, we'll do it. O tener pesar to 
be sorry Tengo gran pesar por lo que 
hice. I'm very sorry for what I did. 

pesca fishing La pesca es un deporte 
agradable. Fishing's a pleasant 
sport. A catch (of fish) Fué una gran 
pesca. It was a big catch. 
O ir de pesca to go fishing. 

pescado fish (caught). 

pescador [w] fisherman. 

pescar to fish ¿Le gusta a Ud. pescar? 
Do you like fishing? A to catch, get, 
"hook" 77a pescado un buen marido. 
She hooked a good husband. 

peseta peseta (monetary unit of Spain). 

pesimista [adj] pessimistic. A [n] pes- 

pésimo [adj] the very worst. 





peso weight ¿Puede Ud. darme el peso 
en libras? Can you give me the 
weight in pounds? A load Es demasia- 
do peso para tí. That's too big a 
load for you. A weight, burden, load 
Se me ha quitado un gran peso de 
encima. That's a big load off my 
mind. A peso (monetary unit) . 

O caerse de su peso to be self-evi- 
dent, go without saying Eso se cae 
de su peso. That goes without say- 
ing. O de peso weighty, important La 
razón es de peso. The reason's im- 
portant. O exceso de peso excess 

pestaña eyelash. 

pestañear to wink, blink. 

peste [/] plague. 

pestillo door latch, bolt Corre el pestillo. 
Bolt the door. 

petaca cigarette case; [Ami suitcase. 

petate [ra] straw mat [Mex]. 

petición [/] petition; request. 

petróleo petroleum. 

pez [m] fish (in the water). A [/] tar. 

pianista \_m, /] pianist. 

piano piano. 

pibe [m] kid, child [Ar^]. 

picante spiced ha comida mexicana es 
muy picante. Mexican food's highly 
spiced. A risque, off-color Las histo- 
rias que él cuenta son siempre un poco 
picantes. His stories are always a 
little off-color. 

picar to sting, bite, eat (of insects) Lo 
picaron bien las avispas. The wasps 
stung him good and proper. — Esta 
tela está picada. This material's 
moth-eaten. A to chop, grind up Hay 
que picar muy bien la carne. The 
meat has to be well ground up. A to 
nibble El pez picó el cebo. The fish 
nibbled at the bait. A to itch Me pica 
todo el cuerpo. I'm itching all over. 
A to crush (stone). A to burn Pica 
mucho el sol hoy. The sun burns to- 

O picarse to be hurt, be offended 
Se picó por lo que le dijo él. She was 
hurt by what he said. A to begin to 
spoil Está picándose la fruta. The 
fruit's beginning to spoil. A to get 
rough El mar empieza a picarse. The 
sea's beginning to get rough. 

picaro mischievous. A [w] rascal, rogue. 

picazón [ra] itching, itch Tengo un 
picazón en la espalda. I have an itch 
on my back. 

pichel [m] pitcher [Am]. 

picher [m] baseball pitcher [Am]. 

pichón [m] young pigeon, squab. 

pico beak, bill ¡Qué pico más tremendo 
el de ese pájaro! What a huge bill 
that bird has ! A sharp point, corner 
Me di un golpe con el pico de la mesa. 
I bumped against the corner of the 
table. A pick, pickax Llevaba al hom- 
bro un pico y una pala. He was car- 
rying a pick and shovel on his shoul- 
der. A spout Está roto el pico del 
jarro. The spout of the pitcher's 
broken. A summit, peak Subimos has- 
ta el pico más alto. We climbed up 
to the highest point. A small amount 
over Me costó diez pesos y pico. It 
cost a little over ten pesos. 

pie [m] foot Se lastimó un pie durante 
el juego. He hurt his foot during the 
game. — Un metro tiene un poco más 
de tres pies. A meter's a little over 
three feet. — Estaba sentado al pie de 
la cama. He was sitting at the foot 
of the bed. A base El pie de esa lám- 
para está roto. The base of that 
lamp's broken. 

O al pie de la letra thoroughly Sabe 
el asunto al pie de la letra. He knows 
the subject thoroughly. O a pie on 
foot Iremos a pie. We'll go on foot. 
O de pie standing Tuvieron que ir de 
pie en el tren. They had to stand in 
the train. O e n pie pending, unde- 
cided Aun están en pie nuestros pro- 
yectos. Our plans are still up in the 

|| A los pies de Ud., señora. At 
your service, madam. 

piedad [/] piety; pity. 

piedra stone. 

piel [/] skin Tiene la piel muy delicada. 
He has a very delicate skin. A leather 
Este calzado está hecho con una piel 
muy fina. These shoes are made of 
very fine leather. A fur La piel de 
zorro es muy cara. Fox fur's very 
expensive. A skin, peel A esta fruta 
es muy difícil quitarle la piel. This 
fruit's hard to peel. 

O abrigo de pieles fur coat Me gus- 
taría tener tin abrigo de pieles. I'd 
like to have a fur coat. 

pierna leg Perdió una pierna en la 
guerra. He lost a leg in the war. 

pieza part (of a machine) Se ha per- 
dido una pieza de la máquina. A part 
of the machine's been lost. A bolt (of 
cloth) Necesitamos una pieza de esa 
tela para las cortinas. We need a 
bolt of that material for the curtains. 
A room La casa tiene varias piezas 
grandes. The house has several large 
rooms. A play Vimos una pieza muy 





graciosa anoche. We saw a very 
amusing play last night. A piece (of 
music) Toque Ud. una pieza en el 
piano. Play a piece on the piano. 
A man (piece in games) Falta una 
pieza en este juego. One of the men's 
missing in this game. 

O buena pieza fine guy (ironical) 
¡Ud. es una buena pieza! You're a 
fine guy! 

pijama [m in Sp, f in Am] pajamas. 

pila stone trough, basin. A sink Vacíe 
Ud. la pila. Empty the sink. A bat- 
tery (electrical) Hay que cambiar las 
pilas a esta linterna. The batteries 
in this flashlight have to be changed. 
A pile Había una pila de cosas en el 
cuarto. There was a pile of things 
in the ropm. 

O pila de bautismo baptismal font. 
O nombre de pila Christian name, 
given name. 

pilar [m] pillar, column, post. 

pildora pill, pellet. 

pillo petty thief; rascal. 

piloto pilot. 

pimentón [?n] red pepper; paprika. 

pimienta pepper (spice). 

pimiento pepper (vegetable). 

pino pine, pine tree. 

pintado (see pintar) O como el más 
pintado as (or with) the best of them 
Puede hacerlo como el más pintado. 
He can hold his own with the best 
of them. 

pintar to paint Van a pintar esta habi- 
tación. They're going to paint this 

O pintarse to make up Esa mucha- 
cha se pinta demasiado. That girl 
uses too much make-up. O pintarse 
solo para to have great talent for <Se 
pinta solo para ganar dinero. He has 
great talent for making money. 

pintor [w], pintora painter. 

pintoresco picturesque. 

pintura painting, picture Las pinturas 
que se exhiben aquí son muy valiosas. 
The paintings exhibited here are very 
valuable. A paint Dé Ud. dos manos 
de pintura. Put on two coats of 

pina pineapple. 

piojo louse. 

pipa pipe (smoking) ; cask, hogshead. 

pique [m] resentment. 

O echar a pique to sink Echaron a 
pique muchas naves de guerra. Many 
warships were sunk. O tener un pique 
con to have a grudge against. 

piquete [m] bite, small wound. 

piropo compliment, flattery. 

pisar to step on, tread on. 

piscina pool, swimming pool. 

piso floor, flooring Los pisos de esta 
casa son de madera. This house has 
wood floors. A floor, story Vive en el 
tercer piso. He lives on the third 

° piso bajo ground floor El piso 
bajo está desalquilado. The ground 
floor's vacant. 

pistola pistol. 

pita string, cord [Am]. 

pitar to whistle La locomotora pitó al 
entrar en la estación. The engine 
whistled as it entered the station. 

pito whistle. 

O tocar un pito to blow a whistle. 
|| No me importa un pito. I don't 
give a hoot. 

pizarra slate; blackboard. 

placa plaque. 

placer [v~\ to please, be pleasing to 
Puede Ud. hacer lo que le plazca. 
You can do what you please. A [m] 
pleasure He tenido un gran placer en 
conocerle a Ud. It's been a great 
pleasure to meet you. 

plaga plague, epidemic. 

plan [m] plan ¿Cuáles son sus planes? 
What are your plans? 

O estar en plan de to be out for, 
be in the mood for Están en plan de 
divertirse. They're out for a good 
time. ° plan de estudios curriculum 
Han cambiado el plan de estudios en 
la Universidad. They've changed the 
curriculum at the University. 

plancha plate Las planchas estaban sol- 
dadas. The plates were welded to- 
gether. A iron, flatiron El último mo- 
delo de planchas eléctricas está ya a 
la venta. The latest model electric 
irons are now on sale. 

O hacer planchas to put one's foot 
in it Siempre está haciendo planchas. 
He's always putting his foot in it. 
O tirarse una plancha to pull a boner. 

planilla payroll [Am] La planilla de 
esa compañía es muy elevada. That 
company has a very large payroll. 
A bus (or streetcar) ticket. A list of 
candidates, ticket [Aw] Votaremos 
por esta planilla. We'll vote this 

piano flat El terreno aquí es muy plano 
The ground here's very flat. A [m] 
plan, drawing El arquitecto trazó un 
plano muy bonito. The architect drew 
a very fine plan. 





planta sole Me duele la planta del pie. 
The sole of my foot hurts. A plant 
Esta planta es del Brasil. This plant 
comes from Brazil. 

O buena planta fine physique, good 
build Tiene muy buena planta. He 
has a very good build. 

plantado O dejarle a uno plantado to 
leave one in the lurch, leave one high 
and dry; to stand someone up. 

plantear to pose, present, or state (a 
problem) Éso plantea una dificultad. 
That presents a difficulty. 

plástico [adj] plastic, pliable. 

plata silver En México y Perú hay 
muchas minas de plata. There are 
many silver mines in Mexico and 

° quedarse sin plata to be broke Me 
he quedado sin plata. I'm broke. 

plataforma platform. 

platal [m] great quantity of money 
[Am] Le ha costado un platal. It 
cost him a fortune. 

plátano banana. 

platea orchestra (theater section). 

plateado silver-plated, silvered. 

plática talk, conversation. 

platillo dish (of food) [Mex], 

plato plate, dish La criada rompió tres 
platos. The maid broke three plates. 
A dish (of food) Hubo unos platos 
deliciosos en la cena. There were sev- 
eral delicious dishes for supper. 
A course ¿Qué desea como plato fu- 
erte? What would you like for the 
main course? 

O ser plato de segunda mesa to 
play second fiddle. 

playa beach, shore. 

plaza plaza, square En el centro de la 
plaza hay un gran monumento. 
There's a big monument in the center 
of the square. A market En la plaza 
encontrará Ud. todo lo que desea. 
You'll find everything you need in 
the market. A job, position Hay una 
plaza vacante en la oficina. There's 
a job open in the office. 

O plaza de toros bull ring. O sacar 
plaza to get a position Sacó plaza en 
una compañía de seguros. He got a 
position with an insurance company. 

plazo time limit Si Ud. desea, podemos 
fijar un nuevo plazo. If you wish, 
we can set a new time limit. A in- 
stallment El primer plazo es de cien 
pesos. The first installment is one 
hundred pesos. 

° a plazos in installments. 

plebiscito plebiscite. 

plegar [rad-ch I] to fold; to plait. 

pleito lawsuit Siguen un pleito sobre su 
herencia. They're having a lawsuit 
over their inheritance. A dispute Hu- 
bo un pleito entre los estudiantes. 
There was a dispute among the stu- 

O poner pleito to sue, bring suit 

plenitud [/] plenty, abundance. 

pleno full, complete. 

O en pleno invierno or verano or 
día in the middle of winter or sum- 
mer or the day. 

pliego sheet (of paper, usually folded). 

pliegue [m] fold, crease. 

plomero plumber. 

plomo lead (metal). A f use Se ha fun- 
dido un plomo. A fuse was blown 

pluma feather. A pen Vive de su pluma. 
He lives by his pen. 

O pluma-fuente fountain pen ¿Po- 
dría arreglarme esta pluma- fuente? 
Could V>u fix this fountain pen for 

plural [adj; m] plural. 

población [/] population ¿Qué población 
tiene este país? What's the popula- 
tion of this country? A town, village 
Pasamos por muchas poblaciones pin- 
torescas durante el viaje. We went 
through many picturesque towns on 
the trip. 

pobre [adj] poor En este distrito vive 
gente muy pobre. Very poor people 
live in this section. A poor, humble La 
casa de su madre es muy pobre. Her 
mother's house is very humble. 
A poor, pitiful ¡Pobre muchacho! Poor 
fellow! A [n] poor person Ayudan a 
los pobres. They help the poor. 
A beggar Déle algo a ese pobre. Give 
something to that beggar. 
|| j Pobre de mi! Poor me! 

pobreza poverty. 

poco little Queda muy poca gasolina en 
el tanque. There's very little gasoline 
left in the tank. A small Tienen muy 
poca existencia de vinos. They have 
a very small stock of wines. 

O a poco (de) shortly after A poco 
de llegar nosotros a la estación, llegó 
el tren. The train arrived shortly 
after we reached the station. O den- 
tro de poco soon, in a short time 
Llegará dentro de poco. He'll be here 
soon. O poco a poco little by little, 
gradually Poco a poco aprenderá Ud. 
a hablar español. Liftle by little 





you'll learn to speak Spanish. O poco 
después de soon after Poco después de 
la terminación de la guerra, me casé. 
Soon after the end of the war, I got 
married. O poco más o menos more 
or less, about Saldremos poco más o 
menos a las ocho de la mañana. 
We'll leave about eight in the morn- 
ing. ° pocos a few Saldré dentro de 
pocos días. I'll leave in a few days. 

por poco almost, nearly No miré por 
donde iba y por poco me perdí. I 
didn't look where I was going and 
nearly got lost. ° un poco de a lit- 
tle, small amount of ¿Le pongo un 
poco de vino? May I give you a lit- 
tle wine? 

|| ¡Eh, poco a poco! Hey, not so 
fast! or Take it easy! or Easy 
there ! 

pocho, pocha Mexican born in the U. S. 

poder [irr~\ to be able, can ¿No puede 
Ud. correr más? Can't you run any 
faster? A to be possible, may Puede 
que vaya a Europa el prócoimo año. 

1 may go to Europe next year. A [m] 
power, influence Tenía un poder muy 
grande entre los obreros. He had 
great influence among the workers. 

O a más no poder to the utmost 
Estudia a más no poder. He studies 
as hard as he possibly can. O no 
poder con not to be able to stand, en- 
dure, carry, control, manage No puedo 
con él. I can't stand him. O no poder 
más to be exhausted, be all in ¡No 
puedo más! I'm all in! O no poder 
menos de not to be able to help No 
puedo menos de ir. I can't help go- 
ing. O no poder ver not to be able to 
stand No puedo verle. I can't stand 
him. O poder general power of attor- 
ney Ha dado poder general a su pa- 
dre. He's given his father power of 

poderío power, might. 

poderoso powerful, mighty. 

podrido rotten, spoiled. 

poema [m] poem. 

poesía poetry. 

poeta [m] poet. 

polar polar. 

policía [/] police Dieron parte a la 
policía inmediatamente. They in- 
formed the police immediately. A [m] 
policeman Se lo preguntaré al policía 
de la esquina. I'll ask the policeman 
on the corner. 

polilla moth. 

política policy Ese país ha cambiado su 

política exterior. That country's 
changed its foreign policy. A politics 
Ha dejado todo para dedicarse a la 
política. He's given up everything to 
devote himself to politics. 

politico political Este periódico no re- 
presenta a ningún partido político. 
This newspaper doesn't represent any 
political party. A [w] politician Fué 
uno de los políticos más distinguidos 
de su época. He was one of the most 
distinguished politicians of his time. 

póliza de seguro insurance policy. 

pollo chicken Los pollos están muy caros 
en este tiempo. Chickens are very 
high right now. 

polo pole Hicieron una expedición al 
polo norte. They made an expedition 
to the North Pole. A pole (electrical). 
A polo ¿Le interesaría ver un partido 
de polo? Would you like to see a 
polo match? 

polvareda cloud of dust; dust storm. 

polvera powder box. 

polvo dust Cerraremos la ventana para 
que no entre polvo. We'll close the 
window to keep the dust out. 

O en polvo powdered ¿ Quiere Ud. 
azúcar en polvo o en terrón? Do you 
want powdered or lump sugar? 
O polvos powder Uso polvos de talco 
después de afeitarme. I use talcum 
powder after I shave. O polvos para 
dientes tooth powder. 

pólvora powder, gunpowder. 

pompa pomp, show, display. 

O pompas de jabón soap bubbles El 
niño hace pompas de jabón. The 
child's blowing soap bubbles. 

ponche [m] punch (liquor). 

poncho poncho (South American blanket 
with slit in middle for the head). 

poner [irr~\ to put, place, lay Ponga sus 
cosas aquí. Put your things here. 
A to suppose, assume Pongamos que 
eso sea cierto. Let's suppose that's 
true. A to impose, keep Aquí se nece- 
sita alguien que ponga orden. We 
need someone to keep order around 
here. A to put down, write down 
Ponga Ud. lo que yo le voy a dictar. 
Put down what I'm going to dictate 
to you. 

O poner al corriente to inform, tell, 
bring one up to date Le puse al cor- 
riente de lo que había sucedido. I 
informed him of what had happened. 
O poner de mi (or tu, su etc) parte 
to do all one can Ponga Ud. de su 
parte todo lo que pueda. Do all you 
can. O poner en claro to clear up, 





make clear Tenemos que poner en 
claro este lío. We've got to clear up 
this mess. O poner en duda to ques- 
tion, doubt Pone en duda todo lo que 
le dicen. He questions everything 
they tell him. O poner la mesa to set 
the table Ya dije que pusieran la 
mesa para cenar. I've already told 
them to set the table for supper. 
O ponerle a uno to cause one to be- 
come, make Este calor me pone mala. 
This heat makes me ill. ° ponerse 
to put on, wear Hoy me pondré el 
vestido azul. I'll put on my blue 
dress today. A to get, become (with 
adjective denoting physical condition 
or state of mind) Se pondrán muy 
disgustados si lo saben. They'll get 
very angry if they find out. A to 
place oneself Póngase Ud. en esa ven- 
tana. Place yourself at that window. 
A to set (of the sun) El sol se pone 
más temprano en invierno. The sun 
sets earlier in winter. O ponerse a 
to begin to, start to De repente se 
puso a correr. Suddenly he began 
to run. O ponerse (a) mal con to get 
in bad with Se pone (a) mal con 
todos. He gets in bad with every- 
body. O ponerse colorado to blush Al 
oírlo se puso colorada. She blushed 
when she heard it. O ponerse de acuer- 
do to come to an agreement Después 
de discutir mucho se pusieron de 
acuerdo. After much discussion they 
came to an agreement. ° ponerse en 
to reach Se puso en la frontera en 
unas cuantas horas. He reached the 
border in a few hours. O ponerse en 
camino to set out Nos pusimos en 
camino muy temprano. We set out 
very early. O ponerse en contra de 
to be against, oppose La mayoría de 
los diputados se pusieron en contra 
del proyecto. The majority of depu- 
ties were against the measure. 
O ponerse en marcha to start, start 
out, pull out El tren se puso en mar- 
cha lentamente. The train started 
out slowly. O ponerse en (or de) pie 
to get up, rise Cuando entró el presi- 
dente su pusieron todos en pie. When 
the president entered they all stood 

poniente [m] west. 

popote [m] straw (for drinking) [Mea;]. 

popular popular; folkloric. 

popularidad [/] popularity. 

poquito [adj~\ little. A [m] little bit. 

por by América fué descubierta por 
Colón. America was discovered by 

Columbus. — Hice el viaje por avión. 
I made the trip by plane. A for (in 
behalf of) Nunca olvidaré lo que Ud. 
hizo por mí. I'll never forget what 
you did for me. A around, about Re- 
gresará por la Navidad. He'll come 
back around Christmas. A through 
Pasaron por el túnel. They went 
through the tunnel. A for, (in order) 
to get Vaya Ud. por una botella de 
leche. Go get a bottle of milk. A to, 
in order to Lo hicimos por ayudarle. 
We did it to help him. A still (or 
yet) to (be)... ¿Tiene trabajo por 
hacer? Do you still have work to do? 
- — Quedan tres cartas por escribir. 
There are three letters still to be 
written. A by way of, via Este auto- 
bus va por la calle central. This bus 
goes by way of Center Street. 
A across, over Se pasó la mano por los 
ojos. He passed his hand across his 
eyes. A in, during Estudio por la ma- 
ñana. I study in the morning. A per, 
a(n) ¿Cuánto paga Ud. por hora? 
How much do you pay an hour? 

O al por mayor wholesale. O al por 
menor retail. O por ahí around there, 
near there Viven por ahí cerca. They 
live near there. O por aquí around 
here Venga Ud. por aquí mañana 
temprano. Come around early tomor- 
row morning. O por ciento per cent. 
O por docena by the dozen. O por 
donde wherever Por donde voy lo en- 
cuentro. Wherever I go I meet him. 
O por encima superficially, hastily Leí 
el documento por encima. I glanced 
over the document. Opor entre 
through, among, between La vi por 
entre los árboles. I saw her through 
the trees. O por escrito in writing. 
O por eso for that reason, therefore 
Por eso quiero salir temprano. For 
that reason I want to leave early. 
O por más que however much, no mat- 
ter how much Por más que llame Ud. 
nadie contestará. No matter how 
much you knock, no one'll answer. 
O por qué why No sé por qué me gusta 
tanto. I don't know why I like him 
so much. — ¿Por qué me lo preguntas? 
Why do you ask me? O por si acaso 
in case Llevemos paraguas por si 
acaso llueve. Let's take umbrellas in 
case it rains. O por supuesto of 

|| ¡Por Dios! Goodness! or For 
heaven's sake! 

porcelana chinaware; enamelware. 

porción [/] portion, part. 





porfiar to persist, insist No profíe tanto. 
Don't insist so much. A to argue, 
contend No porfíen más sobre eso. 
Don't argue any more over that. 

pormenor [»;] detail, particular. 

poroto bean [Arflf]. 

porque because, for, as. 

porqué [m] reason No ha explicado el 
porqué de su ausencia. He hasn't ex- 
plained the reason for his absence. 

perqué [adv] why. 

porquería dirty trick, filthy action or 

porra club, bludgeon. 

|| ¡Vayase a la porra! Go to the 
devil ! 

porrazo blow, knock; fall. 

portada entrance, lintel (of door in 
front part of house) La portada está 
pintada de rojo. The entrance is 
painted red. A front, fagade La por- 
tada del edificio es muy hermosa. 
The building has a beautiful facade. 
A cover (of book, magazine, etc) Dibu- 
jaba portadas para revistas. He drew 
covers for magazines. 

portal [m] entry, vestibule, hallway. 

portamonedas [m sg~\ purse, pocketbook. 

portarse to behave, conduct oneself Se 
portó muy mal. He behaved very 

porte [m~¡ postage ¿Cuánto será el porte 
de esta carta? How much is the post- 
age on this letter? A bearing (of a 

portería superintendent's or janitor's 

portero doorman, janitor. 

portezuela door (of a vehicle). 

porvenir [w] future. 

posada lodging house; inn (low-class). 

posar to pose ¿Quién posa para ese 
cuadro? Who's posing for that paint- 

O posarse to light Los pájaros se 
posaron en las líneas del teléfono. 
The birds lighted on the telephone 

posdata postscript. 

poseedor, poseedora owner, possessor. 

poseer to hold, possess, own. 

posesión [/] possession; property. 

posibilidad [/] possibility. 

posible possible No me filé posible venir 
más temprano. It wasn't possible for 
me to come earlier. 

O en lo posible as far as possible. 
O lo más . . . posible as ... as possible 
Lo más pronto posible. As soon as 
possible. — Lo más tarde posible. As 
late as possible. O todo lo posible 

everything possible Hace todo lo posi- 
ble por terminar el trabajo. He's do- 
ing everything possible to finish the 

posición [/] position Cambiaré de posi- 
ción para estar más cómodo. I'm go- 
ing to change to a more comfortable 
position. A position, place Me gus- 
taría cambiar la posición de la cama. 
I'd like to change the position of the 
bed. A position, status Es una per- 
sona de alta posición. He's a man of 
high position. A position (military). 

positivo positive, certain Eso es un 
hecho positivo. That's positive. 
A practical Es un hombre muy posi- 
tivo. He's a very practical man. 
A real No hace un trabajo positivo. 
He doesn't do a real job. 

poso sediment, dregs. 

postal [adj] postal, mail ¿Tienen Uds. 
servicio postal aquí? Do you have 
mail service out here? A [/] post- 
card, postal card Me escríbió una 
postal. He wrote me a postcard. 

O giro postal money order Deseo 
enviar un giro postal. I want to send 
a money order. 

poste [m] post, pillar; pole. 

posterior [adj~\ rear. A later Eso ocu- 
rrió en una época posterior. That 
happened in a later period. A back 
Salga Ud. por la puerta posterior. 
Leave by the back door. 

postizo artificial, false Tiene los dien- 
tes postizos. He has false teeth. 

postre [»;] dessert Aquí sirven muy 
buenos postres. They serve very good 
desserts here. 

postre O a la postre at last. 

postura position, posture Estaba incó- 
modo en aquella postura. I was un- 
comfortable in that position. A posi- 
tion ¿Cuál es sil postura política? 
What's your political position? 
A stake, bet Mi postura es de diez 
pesos. My bet's ten pesos. 

potable [adj~\ drinkable, potable. 

pote [?rc] pot, jar. 

potencia power, capacity, potency El 
motor tiene gran potencia. It's a 
high-powered motor. A power, large 
nation No sabemos qué decidirán las 
potencias extranjeras. We don't know 
what the foreign powers will decide. 

potente powerful, strong, potent. 

pozo well (for water). 

práctica practice; exercise. 

practicar to practice, go in for ¿Practica 
Ud. algún deporte? Do you go in for 
any sport? A to carry out, perform, 





make Practicaron una inspección ge- 
neral. They made a general inspec- 
práctico practical; experienced, skillful. 

O práctico de puerto harbor pilot. 
prado lawn; field; meadow. 
precaución [/] precaution. 
preceder to precede. 

preciar to value, prize Precia mucho 
este recuerdo. She prizes this souve- 
nir very highly. 

O preciarse de to take pride in, 
boast of Se precia de su habilidad. 
He takes pride in his ability. 
precio price Los precios han bajado en 
los últimos días. Prices have gone 
down in the last few days. 

O no tener precio to be priceless. 
O precios fijos fixed prices. 
precioso beautiful Llevaba un traje 
precioso. She wore a beautiful dress. 
A precious Me gustan las piedras pre- 
ciosas. I like precious stones. 
precipicio cliff, precipice. 
precipitación [/] rash haste; precipita- 
precipitarse to rush, hurry, hurl oneself. 
precisar to fix, set Hay que precisar la 
fecha de salida. We must fix the date 
of departure. A to be necessary, must 
Precisa hacer eso pronto. That must 
be done soon. A to be urgent [Am] 
Me precisa hablar con Ud. I must 
speak with you. A to make clear 
Precise Ud. lo que quiere decir. Make 
clear what you mean. 
precisión [/] necessity Hay precisión de 
terminar la carretera pronto. The 
highway must be completed soon. 
A precision Es admirable la precisión 
de la máquina. The precision of that 
machine's wonderful. 

O tener precisión to need, have Ten- 
go precisión de salir. I have to go 
preciso accurate El reloj es muy preciso. 
The watch is very accurate. A exact 
Dígame la hora precisa. Tell me the 
exact time. 

O ser preciso to be necessary Es 
preciso llegar temprano. It's neces- 
sary to get there early. O tiempo 
preciso just time enough Tenemos el 
tiempo preciso para llegar a la esta- 
ción. We've just enough time to get 
to the station. 
precoz precocious. 
predecesor [m] predecessor. 
predispuesto predisposed. 
predominar to predominate, prevail. 

preferencia preference Debemos dar 
preferencia al estudio del español y 
del inglés. We ought to give prefer- 
ence to the study of Spanish and 
preferible preferable. 
preferir [rad-ch II~\ to prefer. 
pregunta question Me hizo muchas pre- 
guntas. He asked me a lot of ques- 

O estar a la cuarta pregunta to be 
broke Siempre está a la cuarta pre- 
gunta. He's always broke. ° hacer 
una pregunta to ask a question ¿Pue- 
do hacerle una pregunta? May I ask 
you a question? 
preguntar to ask Pregúntele Ud. dónde 
vive. Ask him where he lives. 

O preguntar por to inquire or ask 
about or for (a person) Preguntaron 
por Ud. esta mañana. They inquired 
for you this morning. O preguntarse 
to wonder Me pregunto cuando vol- 
verá. I wonder when he'll be back. 
premiar to reward, give a prize to. 
premio prize, reward. 
prenda security Lo dejaron en prenda. 
They left it as security. A personal 
quality Una muchacha de muchas 
prendas. A girl of many fine quali- 

O juego de prendas game of forfeits 
¿Conoce Ud. algún juego de prendas? 
Do you know any game of forfeits? 
O prenda de vestir garment He com- 
prado algunas prendas de vestir. I've 
bought some clothes. 
prendedor [m] pin, brooch; [Sp] clothes 

prender to fix, catch, pin Prenda esto 
con un alfiler. Fix this with a pin. 
A to arrest Lo prendió la policía. The 
police arrested him. 

O prender fuego a to set on fire 
Prendieron fuego a los bosques. They 
set the woods on fire. 
prensa press Las prensas funcionan 
muy bien. The presses are working 
very well. A press, newspapers Li- 
bertad de prensa. Freedom of the 
prensar to press, compress Prensaron 
las uvas en la bodega. They pressed 
the grapes in the winery. 
preocupación [/] preoccupation. A cares, 
worries Tiene mucha preocupación. 
He has many cares. 
preocupar to pi'eoccupy. A to worry 
Aquello le preocupó mucho. That 
worried him a lot. 

O preocuparse to worry No se pre- 





ocupe Ud. por eso. Don't worry about 
that. O preocuparse de to care for, 
take care (of) Preocúpese Ud. de que 
los niños beban la leche. Take care 
that the children drink their milk. 
preparación [/] preparation. 
preparado (see preparar) preparation. 
preparar to prepare Le prepararé el 
desayuno. I'll get your breakfast. 
A to arrange, prepare Vamos a pre- 
parar una fiesta de despedida. Let's 
arrange a farewell party. 

O prepararse to get ready Está 
preparándose para hacer un viaje. 
He's getting ready for a trip. 
preparativos [m pi] preparations. 
presa prey El león devoraba su presa. 
The lion devoured his prey. A dam 
(for water) Tomamos una fotografía 
de la presa. We took a photograph 
of the dam. 
prescribir to prescribe. 
prescrito (see prescribir) prescribed. 
presencia presence Será muy de agra- 
decer su presencia en ese acto. Your 
presence at that function will be 
greatly appreciated. A appearance 
Tiene muy buena presencia. He has 
a very good appearance. 

O en presencia de in front of, in 
the presence of Lo dijo en presencia 
de todos. He said it in front of every- 
body. O presencia de ánimo presence 
of mind Su presencia de ánimo nos 
evitó el peligro. His presence of 
mind saved us from danger. 
presenciar to see, witness. 
presentación [/] exhibition, display Ese 
escaparate tiene presentación muy bo- 
nita. That window has a very pretty 
display. A introduction La presenta- 
ción del orador fué hecha por el presi- 
dente. The speaker was introduced 
by the president. 

O a la presentación on presentation 
Lo pagaré a la presentación de la 
cuenta. I'll pay it on presentation of 
the bill. 
presentar to present, introduce, submit 
El comité presentará mañana un nue- 
vo plan. The committee will present 
a new plan tomorrow. A to present, 
put on Presentarán un nuevo progra- 
ma la semana próxima. They'll put 
on a new program next week. 

O presentarse to present oneself, re- 
port Preséntese Ud. a la oficina de 
inmigración. Report to the Immigra- 
tion Department. A to appear, turn 
up Se presentó inesperadamente. He 
turned up unexpectedly. O presentar 

una queja to complain Presentaron 
una queja a la directiva. They com- 
plained to the management. 
presente present, current Hay cinco 
fiestas en el presente mes. There are 
five holidays in the current month. 
A present Todos los niños presentes se 
levantaron. All the children present 
got up. 

O al presente at present Al presente 
no tenemos ninguna noticia. At pres- 
ent we have no news. ° la presente 
this, the present writing La presente 
es para saudarle y decirle.... This 
is to greet you and say .... O tener 
presente to bear in mind Tengo pre- 
sente lo que me dijo. I'm bearing in 
mind what he told me. 

¡Presente! Present! (roll call), 
presentimiento feeling, premonition. 
presentir [rad-ch II] to have a feeling 

or premonition. 
preservar to preserve, guard, keep. 
presidencia presidency; chairmanship. 
presidente [w] president El presidente 
de la compañía es un hombre muy 
joven. The president of the com- 
pany's a very young man. A chair- 
man Cada año nuestra comisión elige 
un nuevo presidente. Every year our 
committee elects a new chairman, 
presidio penitentiary. 
presión [/] pressure. 
preso fastened; arrested. A [w] convict, 

préstamo loan. 

prestado (see prestar) lent; borrowed. 
O pedir prestado to borrow ¿Puedo 
pedirle prestado su coche el proximo 
domingo? May I borrow your car 
next Sunday? 
prestar to lend, loan Me prestó un libro 
muy interesante. He lent me a very 
interesting book. 

O prestar atención to pay attention 
Se ruega prestar atención. Please 
p«y attention. O prestar ayuda to 
help ¿Quiere Ud. prestarnos ayuda? 
Will you help us? O prestarse to lend 
itself Lo que dijo se prestaba a malas 
interpretaciones. What he said lent 
itself to misinterpretation. A to offer 
Se prestó a ayudarnos. He offered 
to help us. 
prestigio prestige. 

presumir to presume Presumo que es 
así. I presume it's so. A to be con- 
ceited, show off Presume mucho. 
She shows off too much. 

O presumir de to think of oneself 





as Presume de elegante. He thinks 
he's pretty stylish. 

presunción [/] conceit, presumption, 

presupuesto budget. 

pretender to intend, try Esa persona 
pretende aprovecharse de Ud. That 
person intends to take advantage of 
you. A to court Pretendía a una chica 
rica. He was courting a rich girl. 
A to pretend Pretendió no haberme 
visto. He pretended not to have seen 
me. A to aim for, aspire to Varias 
personas pretendían el puesto. Sev- 
eral people aspired to the job. 

O pretender decir to mean, drive at 
¿Qué pretende Ud. decir? What are 
you driving at? ° pretender demasi- 
ado (de) to make unreasonable de- 
mands (on), ask too much (of) Esa 
señora pretende demasiado de su coci- 
nera. That lady demands too much 
of her cook. 

pretendiente [w] suitor; pretender (to 

pretensión [/] (unreasonable) claim 
No habia justificación alguna en su 
pretensión. There was no justifica- 
tion at all for his claim. A pretension 
Tiene muchas pretensiones descabella- 
das. He has many foolish preten- 

pretexto pretext, excuse. 

prevención [/] prevention; police pre- 

prevenido (see prevenir) forewarned. 
O estar prevenido to be ready, be 
prepared, be forewarned Como esta- 
ba prevenido, no lo sorprendieron. As 
he was prepared, they didn't catch 
him unawares. 

prevenir to prepare, arrange Será nece- 
sario prevenir algo para la fiesta. 
It'll be necessary to prepare some- 
thing for the party. A to prevent, 
avoid Tendremos que tomar medidas 
para prevenir la propagación de la 
enfermedad. We'll have to take meas- 
ures to prevent the spread of the 
disease. A to forewarn Le previnieron 
del peligro. They forewarned him of 
the danger. 

O prevenirse (contra) to take pre- 
cautions (against) Hay que prevenirse 
contra las enfermedades. One must 
take precautions against diseases. 

previo previous. 

O examen previo preliminary or en- 
trance examination. 

previsión [/] foresight. 

O previsión social social security. 

prieto dark, brunet(te) [Am]. 

prever to foresee, anticipate Previeron 
la desgracia. They foresaw the mis- 

previsto (see prever) foreseen. 

prima female cousin. 

primavera spring (season). 

primer See primero. 

O en primer lugar in the first place. 
O Primer Ministro Prime Minister. 
O primer piano foreground. 

primero [adj~\ first Es el primero de la 
fila. He's the first in line. A [adv~\ 
first, in the first place Primero es 
tin tonto; segundo no me gusta. In 
the first place, he's a fool; in the sec- 
ond place, I don't like him. A first 
Haga esto primero. Do this first. 

O de buenas a primeras suddenly, 
unexpectedly De buenas a primeras, 
empezó a llorar. Suddenly she began 
to cry. O por primera vez for the 
first time. 

primitivo [adj~\ primitive. 

primo male cousin. 

primor [m] something lovely Ese abri- 
go es tin primor. That coat's lovely. 
A neatness Ese trabajo está hecho con 
primor. That job's very beautifully 

primoroso exquisite; neat; dexterous. 

princesa princess. 

principal [adj] main, principal Es la 
persona principal en la oficina. He's 
the main person in the office. A [w] 
principal Hable Ud. con el principal. 
Speak to the principal. 

O el piso principal the second floor. 

príncipe [m] prince. 

principiar to begin, start Hay que prin- 
cipiar el trabajo inmediatamente. 
The work must be started immedi- 

principio principle ¿En qué principio 
basa Ud. su teoría? On what prin- 
ciple do you base your theory? A prin- 
ciple, standard Eso no está de acuer- 
do con sus principios. That doesn't 
agree with your principles. A begin- 
ning El principio del libro era muy 
interesante. The beginning of the 
book was very interesting. A entree, 
main dish. 

O al principio at first Al principio 
me parecía fácil el trabajo. The 
work seemed easy to me at first. 
O a principios de at the beginning 
of Reunámonos a principios de la se- 
mana entrante. Let's get together the 
beginning of next week. O en prin- 
cipio in principle En principio no me 





parece mal la idea. That idea doesn't 
seem bad to me in principle. 

prisa hurry. A urgency Hay prisa de 
terminar este trabajo hoy. It's ur- 
gent that this work be finished today. 
O andar de prisa to be in a hurry 
Siempre anda de prisa. He's always 
in a hurry. O a toda prisa at full 
speed Iban a toda prisa. They were 
going at f 1.11 speed. O darse prisa to 
hurry ¡Démonos prisa, que es tarde! 
Let's hurry, it's late ! O de prisa 
quickly. O tener prisa to be in a 
hurry Tenía tanta prisa que se olvidó 
el sombrero. He was in such a hurry 
that he forgot his hat. 

prisión [/] prison. 

prisionero prisoner (military). 

privado [adj] private Todos los cuartos 
tienen baño privado. All rooms have 
a private bath. 

O en privado privately, in private 
Lo resolvieron en privado. They set- 
tled it privately. 

privado (see privar) deprived. A uncon- 
scious De la impresión, quedó privada. 
She became unconscious from the 

privar to deprive Lo privaron de sus 
derechos. They deprived him of his 

O privarse to deprive oneself Se 
priva Ud. de demasiadas cosas. You 
deprive yourself of too many things. 

privilegio privilege. 

proa bow, prow; nose (of an airplane). 

probabilidad [/] probability. 

probable probable. 

probar to try, test Probaremos el avión 
esta tarde. We'll test the airplane 
this afternoon. A to taste Pruebe Ud. 
este dulce. Taste this candy. A to 
prove Probó su inocencia. He proved 
his innocence. A to agree with, suit 
Este clima me prueba muy bien. This 
climate agrees with me. 

O probarse to try on ¿Puedo pro- 
barme el vestido? May I try on the 

problema [m] problem. 

proceder to proceed, begin Después de 
examinar a los muchachos procedieron 
a calificarlos. After testing the chil- 
dren they proceeded to classify them. 
A to come, be the result Esto procede 
de su ignorancia. This is the result 
of his ignorance. A to come ¿De dónde 
proceden sus padres? Where do your 
parents come from? A to act Procedió 
sin reflexionar. He acted without 
thinking. A to behave. A [m] con- 

duct, behavior No me gusta su pro- 
ceder. I don't like your behavior. 

O proceder contra to take action 

procedimiento method, procedure Su 
procedimiento de enseñanza es muy 
bueno. Your method of teaching's 
very good. 

procesión [/] procession. 

proceso process; trial (court). 

proclamar to proclaim. 

procurar to try Procuraré llegar al tea- 
tro a tiempo. I'll try to get to the 
theater on time. A to see Procure Ud. 
que no falte nada. See that nothing 
is lacking. 

O procurarse to get, obtain Procú- 
rese Ud. un buen asiento. Get a good 

pródigo prodigal, extravagant. 

producción [/] production. 

producir [irr\ to produce Ese pais pro- 
duce mucho café. That country pro- 
duces a lot of coffee. A to produce, 
cause Un descuido de alguien produjo 
el incendio. The fire was caused by 
somebody's carelessness. A to produce, 
yield, give No creo que el alquiler de 
la casa le produzca a Ud. mucho. I 
don't think the rent from the house 
will yield you much. 

O producirse to arise, break out Se 
produjo una huelga. A strike broke 

productivo productive. 

producto product. 

O productos agrícolas (farm) prod- 

profecía prophecy, forecast. 

profesión [/] profession. 

profesional \_adj] professional. 

profesar to profess; to join (a religious 

profesor [w] professor. 

profeta [m] prophet. 

profundidad [/] depth. 

profundo deep ¿Es muy profunda esta 
parte del lago? Is this part of the 
lake very deep? A profound Eso es 
un pensamiento muy profundo. That's 
a very profound thought. 

programa [???] program ¿Tiene Ud. el 
programa del concierto? Do you have 
the program of the concert? A plans 
¿Cuál es su programa para el do- 
mingo? What are your plans for 

progresar to progress, make progress, 
advance Ese país ha progresado rmi- 
cho en los últimos años. That coun- 
try's made great progress in the last 





few years. A to progress, improve Su 
español progresa mucho. His Span- 
ish is improving a great deal. 

progreso progress. 

prohibición [/] prohibition. 

prohibir to forbid Te prohibo comer en- 
tre horas. I forbid you to eat be- 
tween meals. 

|| Se prohibe fumar. No smoking. 
|| Se prohibe fijar carteles. Post no 

prólogo prologue; preface. 

prolongar to prolong. 

promedio [m] average. 

promesa promise. 

prometer to promise he he prometido ir 
a visitarla. I've promised to visit 
her. — La fiesta promete estar muy 
alegre. It promises to be a very gay 
party. A to be promising Este niño 
promete mucho. He's a very promis- 
ing child. 

prometido (see prometer) engaged. 

pronto [adj] ready Estoy pronto para 
empezar. I'm ready to begin. A [adv] 
quickly Hizo muy pronto el trabajo. 
He did the work very quickly. A soon 
Llegó más pronto de lo que yo espe- 
raba. He came sooner than I ex- 
pected. A [m] sudden impulse Toda- 
vía siente aquel pronto que tuvo. He 
still regrets that sudden impulse. 

O al pronto at first Al pronto no lo 
reconocí. At first I didn't recognize 
him. O de pronto suddenly De pronto 
apareció. Suddenly he appeared. 

por de pronto in the meantime, for 
the time being Por de pronto trabaje 
Ud. en esto. For the time being, 
work on this. O tan pronto como as 
soon as Tan pronto como lo haga, 
avíseme. Let me know as soon as 
you do it. 

pronunciación [/] pronunciation. 

pronunciamiento pronouncement; insur- 
rection (in army). 

pronunciar to pronounce. 

propaganda advertising; propaganda. 

propiedad [/] property. 

propietario, propietaria owner, proprie- 
tor, proprietress. 

propina tip, gratuity. 

propio own Lo vi con mis propios ojos. 

1 saw it with my own eyes. A typical 
Eso es muy propio de él. That's typi- 
cal of him. A proper, right Era el 
hombre propio para aquel trabajo. 
He was the right man for that job. 
A oneself Ella propia lo hizo, She did 
it herself. 

proponer [irr] to propose (suggest) 
Propondremos un cambio. We'll pro- 
pose a change. 

O proponerle algo a alquien to make 
a proposition Le propuso un negocio 
a mi padre. He made a business 
proposition to my father. O propo- 
nerse to plan, intend Se propuso es- 
tudiar mucho. He planned to study 
a lot. 

proporción [/] proportion. 

proporcionar to provide with, supply 
with Le voy a proporcionar a Ud. 
todo lo que necesita. I'm going to 
provide you with everything you need. 

proposición [/] proposition. 

propósito purpose ¿Cuál es su propósito? 
What's your purpose? A intention El 
infierno está empedrado de buenos 
propósitos. The road to hell is paved 
with good intentions. 

O a propósito on purpose Lo hice a 
propósito. I did it on purpose. O a 
propósito de in connection with A 
propósito de lo que dicen les contaré 
esto.... In connection with what 

you're saying, I'll tell you this 

|| ¡A propósito! By the way! 

propuesta proposal, proposition, motion. 

prorrogar to extend (expiration date). 

prosa prose. 

prosperar to prosper. 

prosperidad [/] prosperity. 

protección [/] protection. 

protector [m] protector. 

proteger to protect La madre protege a 
sus hijos. The mother protects her 

O protegerse to protect oneself Para 
protegernos de la lluvia entramos en 
una tienda. We went into a store 
to get out of the rain. 

protesta protest El juez no dio impor- 
tancia a la protesta del público. The 
judge ignored the public protest. 

protestar to protest. 

O protestar de to protest against 
Protestaron de la injusticia. They 
protested against the injustice. 

provecho profit No sacó ningún pro- 
vecho de aquel negocio. He didn't 
make any profit on that deal. 

O de provecho useful Es hombre de 
provecho. He's a useful man. O ser 
de provecho to be good (for) Esta 
comida no es de provecho para Ud. 
This food isn't good for you. 

|| Buen provecho. Enjoy your meal. 
or I hope you've enjoyed your meal, 
(customary greeting before or after 
a meal) 





provechoso profitable. 

providencia providence. 

provincia province. 

provinciano [adj ; n] provincial. 

provisión [/] provision. 

provisional provisional. 

provocación [/] provocation. 

provocar to provoke ¡No me provoque 
Ud.¡ Don't provoke me ! 

proximidad [/] vicinity Naufragaron en 
la proximidad de aquella costa. They 
were shipwrecked in the vicinity of 
that coast. 

próximo [adj] next Empezaré el año 
próximo. I'll begin next year. A close 
Sow parientes muy próximos. They're 
very close relatives. 

O estar próximo a to almost. . . . Es- 
tuvo próximo a caer al río. He al- 
most fell in the river. 

proyectar to plan Proyectan hacer más 
carreteras. They plan to build more 
highways. A to project, show Proyec- 
taron una película científica. They 
showed a scientific movie. 

proyecto plan El proyecto del nuevo edi- 
ficio está listo. The plan of the new 
building's ready. A project, plan Mis 
hijos tienen muchos proyectos para 
el futuro. My sons have many plans 
for the future. 

prudencia prudence. 

prudente prudent, wise. 

prueba proof ¿Qué prueba tiene Ud.? 
What proof do you have? A evidence 
No hay prueba(s) para condenarlo. 
There's no evidence to condemn him. 
A test El aparato se rompió en la prue- 
ba. The apparatus broke down during 
the test. A proof (printing, photogra- 
phy) Me han enviado las pruebas de 
la imprenta. They've sent me the 
printers' proofs. A trick [Am] Hizo 
una prueba can las barajas. He did 
a card trick. 

O a prueba de proof against, -proof 
Este refugio está a prueba de bombas. 
This shelter's bomb-proof. 

I 1 Haga Ud. la prueba. Try it. 

psicología psychology. 

publicación [/] publication. 

publicar to publish. 

publicidad [/] publicity. 

público [adj] public ¿Hay aquí un telé- 
fono público? Is there a public tele- 
phone here? A [m] public; audience 
El público estaba impaciente. The 
audience was impatient. 

puchero cooking pot. 

pudín [m] pudding. 

pueblo town, village Este es un pueblo 

muy pintoresco. This is a very pic- 
turesque village. A people Es un hom- 
bre del pueblo. He's a man of the 

puente [m] bridge. 

puerco pig, hog; pork. 

puerta door; gate. 

O dar con la puerta en las narices 
to slam the door in one's face Me dio 
con la puerta en las narices. He 
slammed the door in my face. 

puerto port. 

pues because, as, since Vaya, pues lo 
han llamado. Go, since they've called 
you. A anyhow Pues yo me voy. I'm 
going anyhow. A well Pues, si no 
quieres no vayas. Well, if you don't 
want to, don't go. A certainly [Am] 
Sí, pues. Yes, certainly. 

O pues bien all right then ¡Pues 
bien, iré! All right then, I'll go! 
O pues no not at all, not so. 

|| ¿Pues qué? So what? || ¿Y 
pues? So? or Is that so? or And so? 

puesto (see poner) set La mesa está 
puesta. The table's set. A [m] place 
Tengo el tercer puesto en la cola. I 
have the third place in the line. 
A stall, stand, booth Lo compré en un 
puesto del mercado. I bought it at a 
stand in the market. A position, job 
Tiene 2tn buen puesto. He has a good 

O bien puesto well dressed Iba muy 
bien puesto. He was very well 
dressed. O mal puesto out of place. 
O puesto que since, as long as Puesto 
que temes aburrirte, no vayas. Since 
you're afraid you'll be bored, don't 

pulga flea. 
pulgada inch, 
pulgar [m] thumb. 
pulmón [ni] lung. 
pulmonía pneumonia. 
pulpería grocery store, general store 

pulque [m] pulque (fermented juice of 

the maguey plant; a Mexican drink). 
pulsera bracelet. 

O reloj de pulsera wrist watch, 
pulso pulse. 

O tomarle a uno el pulso to take 

one's pulse El médico le tomó el pulso. 

The doctor took his pulse, 
punta point Este lápiz no tiene punta. 

This pencil has no point. A end, tip 

Caminamos hasta la punta del muelle. 

We walked to the end of the pier. 

A top En la punta del volcán se veía 

humo. Smoke could be seen at the top 





of the volcano. 

O de punta en blanco all dressed up 
Iban de punta en blanco. They were 
all dressed up. 

puntada stitch. 

O echar puntadas to stitch. 

puntal [m] snack [Am]. 

puntiagudo sharp-pointed. 

puntilla O de puntillas on tiptoe. 

punto point, dot El avión se veía como un 
punto en el cielo. The airplane looked 
like a dot in the sky. A period (in 
writing) ¿Dónde está el punto en esta 
máquina de escribir? Where's the 
period on this typewriter? A place, 
spot Nos veremos en el -mismo punto. 
We'll meet at the same place. A point 
(in sports) Ganó por pocos puntos. 
He won by a few points. 

O al punto instantly Se presentó al 
punto. He appeared instantly. O a 
punto fijo exactly No lo sé a pimto 
fijo. I don't know exactly. ° a tal 
punto that far A tal punto no quiero 
llegar. I don't want to go that far. 
O coche de punto taxi, car for hire 
[Sp] . ° dar en el punto to hit the nail 
on the head Ha dado Ud. en el punto. 
You've hit the nail on the head. ° de 
punto by the minute Su cólera subía 
de punto. He became angrier by the 
minute. A knitted Compraré un chale- 
co de punto. I'll buy a knitted vest. 
O desde cierto punto de vista from a 
certain standpoint Desde cierto punto 
de vista Ud. tiene razón. You're 
right from a certain standpoint. O en 
punto on the dot, sharp Debemos lle- 
gar a las seis en punto. We must ar- 
rive at six on the dot. ° en punto a 
in regard to En punto a los precios 
que Ud. indica, estamos completa- 
mente de acuerdo. In regard to the 
prices you mention, we're in complete 
agreement. O estar a punto de to be 
about to Estábamos a punto de salir 

cuando llegaron. We were about to 
leave when they arrived. ° hasta 
cierto punto to a certain extent Hasta 
cierto punto es cierto. To a certain 
extent it's true. O punto de gracia 
funny side Tiene su punto de gracia. 
It has its funny side. O punto final 
stop Hay que poner punto final a 
esto. We must put a stop to this. 
O punto por punto step by step, in de- 
tail Lo contó todo punto por punto. 
He told everything step by step. 

|| ¿Hasta qué punto del programa 
han estudiado? How far did they get 
in their studies? 

puntual prompt, punctual. 

puñado handful. 

puñalada stab, knife wound. 

puño fist Cerró los puños. He clenched 
his fists. A handle El puño del para- 
guas está roto. The umbrella handle's 
broken. A cuff Están mal planchados 
los puños de la camisa. The shirt 
cuffs are poorly ironed. 

pupila pupil (of eye). 

pupitre [m] (school) desk. 

pureza purity. 

purgante [m] purgative, physic. 

puro . pure- Esta leche es pura. This 
milk's pure. A clear Tiene una voz 
muy pura. She has a very clear 
voice. A [m] cigar Le gusta fumar 
puros. He likes to smoke cigars. 

Ode pura casualidad purely by 
chance Me encontré con él de pura 
casualidad. I met him purely by 
chance. O de pura sangre thorough- 
bred Ese caballo es de pura sangre. 
That horse is a thoroughbred. O la 
pura verdad absolute or unvarnished 
truth Lo que le dijo es la pura verdad. 
What he told her's the unvarnished 

|| Apenas podía andar de puro fati- 
gado. He was so exhausted he could 
hardly walk. 

que that, which Tomaré el tren que 
llegue primero. I'll take the first 
train that arrives. A that, on which, 
when El día que vino era miércoles. 
The day he came was Wednesday. 
A who Ud., que es una experta, debe 
seguramente saberlo. You're an ex- 
pert; you should certainly know. 
A whom Ese es el muchacho de que le 
hablé. That's the boy I spoke to you 

about. A what No sé qué haré ma- 
ñana. I don't know what I'll do to- 
morrow. — ¿Qué ha sido de su her- 
mano? What's become of your broth- 
er? A that Estaba tan cambiado que 
no le conocí. He looked so changed 
that I didn't recognize him. A that 
Dudo que venga. I doubt that he'll 
come. A than La otra es mejor que 
ésta. The other's better than this. 





O el Cor la, los, las) que he (or she, 
they) who, the one(s) who, anyone 
who El que quiera beber que venga 
conmigo. Anyone who wants a drink, 
come with me. ° ¿qué? which? ¿Qué 
libro le gusta a Ud. más? Which book 
do you like better? A what kind of? 
¿Dime qué gente es esa? Tell me, 
what kind of people are they? 
O ¡qué! how! ¡Qué bonito es ese cua- 
dro! How pretty that picture is! 
A what! what a! ¡Qué tontería! What 
nonsense! — ¡Qué niño! What a child! 
O ¡ qué de! how many! ¡Qué de cosas 
me contó! How many things he told 
me ! O ¡ qué va ! go on ! come on ! how 
come? (expressing disbelief) ¡Qué va! 
Eso no es cierto. Go on! That's not 
true. O sin qué ni para qué without 
cause or motive. O un no sé qué a 
certain something Tiene un no sé qué 
que atrae. She has a certain some- 
thing that's attractive. 

|| ¿Qué más da? What's the differ- 
ence? || ¿Pues qué? So what? 
quebrado rough, rugged Estos últimos 
dias hemos viajado por terrenos muy 
quebrados. We've been through some 
very rough country in the last few 
days. A broken Trace una línea que- 
brada. Draw a broken line. 

O estar quebrado to be ruptured. 

número quebrado fraction (mathe- 

quebrar to break Quebró un vaso. He 
broke a glass. A to fail El banco 
quebró cuando nadie lo esperaba. The 
bank failed when no one expected it. 
O quebrarse to break El plato se 
quebró. The plate broke. A to break 
(a bone) Al caer se quebró un brazo. 
He broke his arm when he fell. 

quedar to be left El bolso quedó sobre 
la mesa. The purse was left on the 
table. — Sólo me quedan unos centavos. 

1 have only a few cents left. A to re- 
main La carta quedó sin contestar. 
The letter remained unanswered. A to 
be Queda lejos de aquí. It's far from 

O quedar (bien) to come out (well) 
Quedó muy bien el trabajo. The work 
came out very well. O quedar bien 
con to make a hit with, get along well 
with Está quedando bien con ella. 
He's making a hit with her. ° quedar 
de to promise to [4m] Quedamos de 
llegar el domingo. We promised to 
come Sunday. ° quedar en to agree, 
have an understanding Quedamos en 
que vendría a las ocho. We agreed 

that he'd come at eight. O quedarse 
to remain, stay Nuestro amigo se 
quedó en Europa. Our friend stayed 
in Europe. O quedarse atrás to stay 
behind. O quedarse con to take Me 
quedo con el azul. I'll take the blue 
one. O quedarse limpio to get cleaned 
out Jugó a las cartas y se quedó lim- 
pio. He played cards and was cleaned 

|| ¿Se puede saber en qué queda- 
mos? Can we find out where we 

quehaceres (m pi] de casa household 

queja complaint. 

quejarse to complain No tiene Ud. de 
qué quejarse. You have nothing to 
complain about. 

quema burning La quema de las hojas. 
The burning of the leaves. 

O huir de la quema to get away 
from trouble, beat it Al ver lo que 
iba a ocurrir, huyó de la quema. 
When he saw what was going to hap- 
pen, he beat it. 

quemado (see quemar) burnt Huele a 
quemado. It smells burnt. 

O quemado por el sol sunburned. 

quemadura burn, scald. 

quemar to burn ¿Quién quemó esta cor- 
tina? Who burned this curtain? 

O quemarse to burn oneself Cui- 
dado, puede Ud. quemarse. Be care- 
ful, you'll burn yourself. 

querer [irr~\ to want, wish ¿Qué quiere 
Ud. comer? What do you want to 
eat? A to love La quiere mucho. He 
loves her very much. 

O como quiera que sea in any case 
Como quiera que sea, iremos. In any 
case, we'll go. O donde quiera any- 
where, wherever. O querer decir to 
mean ¿Qué quiere decir esta palabra? 
What does this word mean? O sin 
querer unwillingly; unintentionally Lo 
hizo sin querer. He did it unwill- 

querido [adj] dear, beloved Querido 
hijo:. . . Dear son: . . . 

queso cheese. 

quiebra bankruptcy, failure. 

quien who, whom ¿Quién llamo? Who 
called? — Son los muchachos de quienes 
le hablé. They're the boys I spoke to 
you about. — Es la muchacha a quien 
más quiero. She's the girl I like best 
of all. A whoever, anyone who Quien 
así piense se equivoca. Whoever 
thinks so is wrong. 

O ¿quién sabe? who knows? "¿Crees 





que va a llover?" "¿Quién sabe?" "Do 
you think it'll rain?" "Who knows?" 

quienquiera whoever Deja pasar a quien- 
quiera que venga. Whoever comes, 
let him in. 

quieto [adj] still Estése quieto un mo- 
mento. Stand (or Sit) still a moment. 
A calm El lago ha estado quieto todo 
el día. The lake's been calm all day. 
A quiet Es una chica muy quieta. 
She's a very quiet girl. 

quietud [/] quiet, repose. 

quijada jaw. 

química chemistry. 

químico chemical. A [n] chemist. 

quince fifteen. 

quincena O por quincena (s) every two 
weeks, semi-monthly. 

quinientos five hundred. 

quinina quinine. 

quinta country house. 

quintal [m] a hundred pounds. 

quinto [adj] fifth. A [m] nickel (coin) 

quitar to take away Quitaremos esta 
mesa de aquí. We'll take this table 
away from here. A to subtract Hay 
que quitar esta cantidad del total. 
You have to subtract this amount 
from the total. 

O quitarse to take off (clothing) No 
se quite el abrigo. Don't take off 
your overcoat. A to come out Estas 
manchas no se quitan. These stains 
won't come out. A to give up Se ha 
quitado el vicio de la bebida. He's 
given up drinking. O quitarse de en 
medio to get out of the way. O qui- 
tarse el agua to stop raining [Am] 
Cuando se quite el agua saldremos. 
When it stops raining we'll go out. 
O quitarse un peso de encima to take 
a load off one's mind. ° quitar 
tiempo to take (too much) time Este 
trabajo le quita mucho tiempo. This 
work's taking too much of his time. 

quizá, quizás perhaps, maybe. 


rábano radish. 

O tomar el rábano por las hojas to 

rabia rabies El perro tiene rabia. The 
dog has rabies. A rage, fury. 

O dar rabia to make furious, to an- 
ger Me da rabia no haber ido. It 
makes me furious that I didn't go. 
O tener rabia to have a grudge against 
"Le tengo una rabia tremenda. I've a 
terrible grudge against him. O tomar 
rabia to develop a grudge against Le 
tomó rabia sin tener porqué. He de- 
veloped a grudge against him for no 
reason at all. 

rabiar to be mad, be furious, to rage. 

rabioso furious, enraged; rabid. 

rabo tail (without hair or feathers) El 
ratón se cogió el rabo en la ratonera. 
The mouse's tail got caught in the 

O (con el) rabo entre (las) piernas 
crestfallen Volvió con el rabo entre 
las piernas. He came back crest- 

rabona O hacer rabona to cut or skip 
(class, etc) ; to play hookey. 

racha streak, string, series Ha habido 
una racha de crímenes. There's been 
a series of crimes. 

O buena racha streak of good luck. 

racimo cluster, bunch. 

radiador [m] radiator. 

radio [/ in Sp & Arg, m in rest of Am] 
radio El radio dio la noticia. The 
news came over the radio. A [m] 

° radio de acción range El radio 
de acción de aquella emisora era muy 
extenso. That transmitter had a very 
long range. 

radiograma [m] radiogram. 

raído frayed, threadbare. 

raíz [/] root Este árbol tiene las raices 
muy hondas. This tree has very deep 

O arrancar de raíz to uproot. 

raja split, crack; slice (of food). 

rajar to split, rend. A to slice Hay que 
rajar el melón. The melon has to be 
sliced. A to chatter, gossip [Slang]. 
O rajarse to crack El cristal del 
reloj se rajó. My watch crystal 
cracked. A to hold back Siempre se 
raja a última hora. He always holds 
back at the last moment. 

ralo thin, sparse; [Antilles] weak (of 

rama branch, twig, bough ¡No te cuelges 
de esa rama! Don't hang from that 
branch! A branch Aquel apellido era 
de otra rama de la familia. That 
name came from another branch of 
the family. 





O andarse por las ramas to beat 
about the bush. 

ramo bough (cut off tree). A bouquet, 
bunch Le ofreció un ramo de flores. 
He gave her a bouquet of flowers. 
A branch La química es un ramo de la 
ciencia. Chemistry's a branch of 
science. A (line of) business El ramo 
de ferretería. The hardware busi- 

rancho mess (of food), chow ¿A qué 
hora dan el rancho? What time's 
chow? A hut [Am] Viven en ranchos 
de paja. They live in thatched huts. 
A ranch [Am] Tiene tin rancho muy 
grande. He has a very big ranch. 
A man's flat straw hat [A?n]. 

rancio rancid; old (of wine, nobility). 
A old-fashioned, antiquated Es un 
hombre muy rancio. He's a very old- 
fashioned man. 

rapidez [/] rapidity, swiftness. 

rápido [adj] rapid, quick Era muy rápi- 
do en sus decisiones. He was very 
quick in his decisions. A [?>i] express 
(train) A las nueve pasó el rápido. 
The express went by at nine. 

raqueta racket (tennis). 

raro rare, unusual Era raro que recibie- 
ra carta. It was unusual for him tc 
get a letter. — Los muebles coloniales 
son muy raros hoy día. Colonial fur- 
niture's rare nowadays. A odd, 
strange ¡Qué cosa más rara! What 
a strange thing! 

rascacielos [m sg~¡ skyscraper. 

rascar to scratch. 

rasgar to tear Se rasgó los pantalones. 
He tore his pants. 

rasgo stroke Los rasgos de ese dibujo 
son muy acentuados. The strokes in 
that drawing are very heavy. A im- 
pulse Tuvo un rasgo muy digno de 
alabanza. He had a very worthy im- 

O a grandes rasgos briefly, in out- 
line, in a few words Se lo contaré a 
grandes rasgos. I'll tell it to you in 
a few words. O rasgos features Sus 
rasgos me eran familiares. His fea- 
tures were familiar to me. O rasgos 
(de carácter) characteristics Tiene 
rasgos (de carácter) muy desagrada- 
bles. He has very unpleasant char- 

rasgón [m] tear Llevaba un rasgón en 
el traje. He had a tear in his clothes. 

rasguño scratch Se hizo un rasguño en 
la cara. He got a scratch on his face. 

raspadura bruise Tengo una raspadura 

en el brazo. I have a bruise on my 

raspar to scrape, scratch out. 

raspón [m] bruise. 

rastreador [m] scout. 

rastrear to scout, track down. 

rastro track, trail Los perros perdieron 
el rastro al llegar al río. When they 
reached the river, the dogs lost the 
track. A trace Después del huracán 
no quedó ni rastro de la casa. After 
the hurricane not a trace of the house 
was left. 

O seguir el rastro to track down, 
follow the scent. 

rata rat. 

ratero pickpocket. 

rato (short) while Espere Ud. un rato. 
Wait a while. 

O al poco rato very soon, after a lit- 
tle while Nuestros amigos llegarán al 
poco rato. Our friends will come 
after a little while. ° a ratos perdi- 
dos in one's spare time Leía a ratos 
perdidos. He read in his spare time. 
O pasar el rato to while away the 
time, pass the time away. ° pasar 
un buen rato to have a good time. 

ratón [to] mouse. 

raya dash, line; crease (in trousers) ; 
part (in hair); ray fish. A line 
(sports) La pelota cayó fuera la raya. 
The ball fell outside of the line. 

O tener a raya to keep within 
bounds, control, restrain. 

rayar to draw lines on, rule. A to 
scratch (make scratches on) Está Ud. 
rayando la mesa. You're scratching 
the table. 

rayo flash (or bolt) of lightning Cayó 
un rayo e incendió la casa. A bolt 
of lightning struck the house and set 
it on fire. A ray Los rayos del sol 
queman en verano. The rays of the 
sun burn in summer. — Todavía que- 
daba un rayo de esperanza. There 
was still a ray of hope left. 

raza race (anthropological). 

razón [/] reason (reasoning power). 
A reason, sanity Ha perdido la razón. 
He's lost his reason. A reason, expla- 
nation Dé Ud. algunas razones si 
quiere convencerme. Give me some 
reasons if you want to convince me. 
A reason, cause Lo hizo sin razón. He 
did it without reason. A message 
[Ato] Le daré la razón a la señora. 
I'll give her the message. 

O a razón de at the rate of Pagará 
a razón de un seis por ciento al año. 
He'll pay at the rate of six per cent 





a year. O atender a razones to listen 
to reason. ° dar razón to give infor- 
mation Se alquila. Darán razón en 
la portería. For rent. See the jani- 
tor for information. O tener razón 
to be right. ° no tener razón to be 
wrong. O tomar razón de to make a 
record of. 
razonable reasonable. 
razonar to reason. 

reacción [/] reaction; political conserva- 
tism; reactionary force. 

O entrar en reacción to warm one- 
self, warm up Encendió la estufa para 
entrar en reacción. He lit the stove 
to warm himself. 
real real, actual La situación real no 
ha cambiado. The actual situation 
hasn't changed. A royal Pertenecía a 
la familia real. He belonged to the 
royal family. A [m] real (Sp coin 
worth about 25 cents) Esta revista 
cuesta un real. This magazine costs 
one real. 

realidad [/] reality, fact. 

realización [/] realization, execution La 
realización de los planes durará por 
lo menos un año. The execution of 
the plans will take at least a year. 
A sale El lunes pasado hubo una reali- 
zación de todas las mercancías. There 
was a sale of all the merchandise last 

realizar to accomplish Esto no es difícil 
de realizar. This isn't hard to accom- 
plish. A to carry out Realizaron el 
plan con todos sus detalles. They 
carried out the plan in every detail. 
A to sell out Realizaron todas las ex- 
istencias. They sold out all the goods 
in stock. 

reanimar to cheer up, encourage; to 

rebaja reduction. 

rebajar to reduce, lower Han rebajado 
un poco los precios. They've reduced 
the prices a little. A to reduce (in 
weight) He rebajado diez libras. I've 
reduced ten pounds. 

O rebajarse to lower oneself No me 
rebajaré a hacer tal cosa. I won't 
lower myself to do such a thing. 

rebelde rebellious. A [n\ rebel. 

recadero, recadera messenger. 

recado message; errand. 

recaída relapse. 

recámara bedroom [Mea;]. 

recambio O pieza de recambio spare 

receloso distrustful, suspicious. 

recepción [/] reception, formal gather- 

ing La recepción fué muy lucida. It 
was a very brilliant reception. A re- 
ception Les hicieron una recepción 
muy calurosa. They were given a 
very warm reception. 
receta prescription (medicine). 

O receta de cocina recipe (cooking). 
rechazar to discard, reject, turn down 
Rechazó la idea de ir al campo. He 
turned down the idea of going to the 
country. A to drive back El enemigo 
fué rechazado a sus posiciones. The 
enemy was driven back to his posi- 
recibir to receive Recibió Ud. ayer al- 
guna visita? Did you receive any 
visitors yesterday? 

O recibirse to graduate [Am] Se 
recibió de doctor. He graduated as a 
doctor. O ser bien (or mal) recibido 
to be (or not to be) well-taken Fué 
trial recibida su opinión. His opinion 
wasn't well-taken. 
recibo receipt. 

recién recently, newly Ese café está 
recién hecho. That coffee hasn't been 
made very long. A just, recently [Am] 
Recién me entero. I just found out. 
O recién casados newlyweds. O re- 
cién llegado newcomer. 
reciente new, fresh La pintura estaba 
reciente. The paint was fresh. A re- 
cent ¿Son estas noticias recientes? Is 
this news recent? 
reclamación [/] reclamation; complaint; 

reclamar to claim Ud. ya no puede 
reclamar ese dinero. You can no 
longer claim that money. 
O reclamar en juicio to sue. 
reclamo advertising; claim [Am]; de- 
recluta [m] recruit, rookie, 
recobrar to recover, regain. 
recoger to get Voy a recoger los papeles 
que dejé en mi despacho. I'm going to 
get the papers I left in my office. 
A to collect Han recogido mucho dinero 
para la Cruz Roja. They've collected 
a lot of money for the Red Cross. 
A to collect, gather up Recoja Ud. 
todas esas cosas y póngala» en orden. 
Gather up all those things and put 
them in order. A to pick up Recoja 
Ud. eso que se te ha caído. Pick up 
what you dropped. A to take in, shel- 
ter Han recogido varios huérfanos. 
They've taken in several orphans. 

O recogerse to go home, retire Se 
recoge muy tarde. He keeps late 





recomendación [/] recommendation. 

recomendar to recommend ¿Me puede 
Ud. recomendar un buen restaurant? 
Can you recommend a good restaurant 
to me? A to recommend, advise Le 
recomiendo a Ud. que lo haga de 
prisa. I advise you to do it quickly. 

reconocer to inspect, examine El pacien- 
te fué reconocido cuidadosamente. 
The patient was carefully examined. 
A to recognize Cuando le vi de nuevo, 
no le reconocí. When I saw him 
again, I didn't recognize him. A to 
acknowledge, admit ¿Reconoce Ud. su 
falta? Do you acknowledge your mis- 
take? A to acknowledge, be grateful 
for Estoy reconocido a sus atenciones. 
I'm grateful for your kindness. 

reconstruir to rebuild, reconstruct. 

recordar [rad-ch 7] to remember ¿Recu- 
erda Ud. lo que le dije? Do you re- 
member what I told you? A to remind 
Me recuerda mucho a su padre. He 
reminds me very much of his father. 

recorrer to cover, travel Ayer recorrimos 
diez millas. Yesterday we covered ten 

recorrido route, course, run Ese cartero 
tiene un recorrido muy largo. That 
postman has a very long route. 

recorte [m] scrap, cutting; clipping 

recreo recreation. 

recto [adj] straight Todo el camino era 
recto. The road was straight all the 
way. A just, fair Era un hombre rec- 
to. He was a just man. 

O ángulo recto right angle. 

recuerdo remembrance, memory Guardo 
muy buenos recuerdos de mi amistad 
con él. I have very happy memories 
of my friendship with him. A souve- 
nir, memento Estos son recuerdos de 
nuestro viaje por Italia. These are 
souvenirs of our trip through Italy. 
O recuerdos regards Dé Ud. recuer- 
dos a su familia de mi parte. Give 
my regards to your family. 

recurso means, argument Empleó todos 
los recursos para convencerle. He 
used every argument to convince him. 
O recursos resources, means Estaba 
materialmente sin recursos. He was 
practically without means. 

red [/] net Los pescadores tendieron la 
red. The fishermen spread out the 
net. A snare, trap Cayó en la(s) 
red(es) que le tendiera)/. He fell into 
the snare they set for him. 

redacción [/] editorial staff Entró en la 
redaccióyi de una revista. He joined 

the editorial staff of a magazine. 
A composition La redacción de esta 
carta es mala. This letter's badly 

redactar to compose, frame in writing 
Esta carta está muy bien redactada. 
This letter's very well put. 

redondo \_adj] round. 

O en números redondos in round 

reducción [/] reduction, decrease. 

reducir [-~c-] to reduce Redujo el pre- 
supuesto en su departamento. He re- 
duced the budget in his department. 

O quedar reducido a to be reduced 
to, be brought to a condition of El 
edificio quedó reducido a escombros. 
The building was reduced to rubble. 
O reducir a la obediencia to compel to 

reemplazar to replace. 

reexpedir to forward (mail). 

referencia reference ¿Cuáles son sus 
referencias? What are your refer- 

O dar referencias to inform. O ha- 
cer referencia a to refer to, mention 
Hizo referenda a un autor muy fa- 
moso. He referred to a very famous 

referir [rad-ch 77] to relate Refirió el 
caso con muchos detalles. He related 
the matter in great detail. 

O referirse a to refer to ¿A qué se 
refiere Ud. cuando dice eso? What 
are you referring to wh?n you say 

reforma alteration. 

O cerrado por reformas closed for 

refrán [m] proverb, saying. 

refrescar to cool Hay que refrescar el 
agua. The water must be cooled. A to 
get cool or cooler Esta refrescando la 
tarde. The afternoon's getting cooler. 
O refrescar la memoria to refresh 
one's memory. O refrescarse to cool 
off Vamos a refrescarnos a la sombra 
de los árboles. Let's cool off in the 
shade of the trees. 

refresco l-efreshment, cold drink Tomó 
un refresco para aplacar la sed. He 
took a cold drink to quench his thirst. 

refrigerador [■»«] refrigerator. 

refugiarse to take shelter. 

regalar to present, give (gift) ¿Qué me 
*>as a regalas por mi cumpleaños? 
What are you going to give me for 
my birthday? 

regalo present, gift Recibió un buen re- 
galo. He received a nice gift. 





O con regalo in luxury Vivía con 
regalo. He lived in luxury. 

regañar to scold Siempre me esta rega- 
ñando. He's always scolding me. 

regaño scolding, reprimand. 

regar [rad-ch I] to water, irrigate. 

regateo bargaining, haggling. 

régimen [m] regime, political system El 
regimen de aquel pais era muy demo- 
crático. The political system of that 
country was very democratic. A diet 
El médico lo puso a régimen. The 
doctor put him on a diet. 

región [/] region. 

regir [rad-ch III] to rule, govern ¿Quién 
rige esos territorios? Who rules those 
territories? A to be in effect Aun rige 
ese decreto. That decree's still in 

registrar to search La policía registró 
su casa. The police searched his 
house. A to examine (baggage). A to 
record, keep a record of Registraba 
en aquel libro las compras y ventas. 
He kept a record of purchases and 
sales in that book. 

O registrarse to register (oneself) 
Es preciso registrarse en el Consu- 
lado. You have to register at the 

regla rule, regulation Tiene Ud. que 
obedecer las reglas. You have to obey 
the rules. A ruler (for drawing lines) 
¿Puede dejarme la regla? Can you 
leave me the ruler? 

O en regla in order ¿ Todo está en 
regla? Is everything in order? O por 
regla general as a general rule. 

regocijo joy, gladness. 

regreso return, coming or going back. 

regular regular, orderly, regulated Lle- 
vaba una vida muy regular. He led 
a very regular life. A moderate, so-so 
Esta mañana me siento regular nada 
más. This morning I only feel so-so. 
O por lo regular as a rule, ordinar- 
ily Por lo regular le veía todos los 
días. Ordinarily I saw him every day. 

regularidad [/] regularity. 

reina queen. 

reinar to reign Luis diez y seis reinó 
en Francia en el siglo dieciocho. 
Louis the Sixteenth reigned in France 
in the eighteenth century. A to pre- 
vail, reign Durante la guerra reinó 
el terror. Terror reigned during the 

reino kingdom. 

reir(se) [rad-ch III] to laugh No se ría 
Ud. Don't laugh. 

O reírse a carcajadas to laugh heart- 

ily, guffaw. O reírse de to laugh at 
¿De qué se ríe Ud.? What are you 
laughing at? A to make fun of, ridi- 
cule Estaban riévdose de él. They 
were making fun of him. 

reja bars, iron window grating. 

relación [/] story, account Toda aquella 
relación era interesante. The whole 
story was interesting. 

O con relación a about, with regard 
to No sé nada con relación a ese asun- 
to. I don't know anything about that 
matter. O entrar en (or establecer) 
relaciones con to establish (business) 
relations with. O relaciones relations, 
dealings No existían entre ellos nin- 
gunas relaciones. They had no deal- 
ings with each other. O tener rela- 
ción con to have connection with, have 
relation to Eso no tiene ninguna re- 
lación con el asunto que estamos tra- 
tando. That has no relation to the 
subject we're discussing. O tener re- 
laciones to have connections Tiene 
muy buenas relaciones. He has very 
good connections. 

relacionar to relate, connect, establish 
a relation between En su conferencia 
relacionó los dos hechos históricos. 
In his lecture he established a relation 
between the two historical facts. A to 
introduce (make acquainted) Mi pri- 
ma nos relacionó. My cousin intro- 
duced us. 

O relacionarse con to have dealings 
with No se relacione con tales gentes. 
Don't have any dealings with such 

relajamiento laxness, laxity, looseness. 

relajo disorder, confusion, mi-x-up [Am]. 

relámpago lightning. 

relatar to relate, tell. 

religión [/] religion. 

religioso religious. A [n] member of a 
religious order. 

reloj [m] clock, watch. 

O andar {or marchar) como un re- 
loj to be in perfect trim. O reloj de 
pulsera wrist watch. 

relucir [-zc-] to shine, glisten, glitter. 

rellenar to refill; to fill up; to stuff. 

relleno stuffed, filled. A [m] stuffing. 
O pimientos rellenos stuffed pep- 

remar to row (a boat). 

remate [m] auction. 

O de remate completely Estaba loco 
de remate. He was completely crazy. 

remediar to remedy, repair Tenemos que 
remediar el daño. We'll have to re- 
pair the damage. 





O no poder remediar not to be able 
to help No pudo remediar lo que pasó. 
He couldn't help what happened. 

remedio remedy, medicine Se le dieron 
al enfermo varios remedios caseros. 
Various home remedies were given 
to the patient. 

O ni para un remedio for love or 
money No pude encontrar un taxi ni 
para tin remedio. I couldn't get a 
taxi for love or money. O no hay más 
remedio que there's nothing to do but 
No hay más remedio que dejarle 
marchar. There's nothing to do but 
let him go. O no tener más remedio 
que to have no recourse but No tuve 
más remedio que ir. I had no re- 
course but to go. O no tener remedio 
to be beyond repair Lo que has hecho 
no tiene remedio. What you've done's 
beyond repair. O sin remedio hope- 
less, beyond hope Es un caso sin re- 
medio. He's a hopeless case. 

remendar [rad-ch I] to mend, patch, 

remiendo patch. 

remitir to remit, send. 

remo oar; [Slang] leg. 

remolacha beet. 

remolcar to tow. 

remontar to go up Remontaron el curso 
del río. They went up the river. 

O remontarse to get excited, be ex- 
cited Procure Ud. no remontarse tan- 
to. Try not to be so excited. O re- 
montarse a to go back to En su con- 
ferencia el profesor se remontó a 
fechas muy lejanas. The professor 
went back to very early times in his 
lecture. A to date from, date back to 
Ese hecho se remonta al siglo dieciseis. 
That event dates back to the six- 
teenth century. 

remordimiento remorse. 

remover [rad-ch I] to dig up, loosen 
(soil) Removió la tierra para sembrar 
la semilla. He dug up the ground to 
plant the seeds. A to stir Remueva 
Ud. la sopa. Stir the soup. A to 
shake La explosión removió la casa. 
The explosion shook the house. 

O remover (de un cargo or puesto) 
to dismiss (from a post or office) 
Removieron a todos los empleados. 
All the employees were dismissed. 

rendir [rad-ch III] to yield, produce 
Esta hacienda rinde muy poco. This 
farm produces very little. A to con- 
quer, win (over) Con sus amabili- 
dades la rindió. With his attentions, 
he conquered her. A to surrender El 

general rindió la plaza al enemigo. 
The general surrendered the city to 
the enemy. 

O estar rendido to be all in. O ren- 
dir cuentas to give (or render) an 
account Tuvo que rendir cuentas. He 
had to render an account. O rendirse 
to become exhausted, be worn out Se 
rindió de tanto correr. He became 
exhausted from running so hard. A to 
surrender, give up Después de seis 
días se rindió la plaza. After six 
days the garrison surrendered. A to 
yield, give in No quería rendirse a la 
evidencia. He didn't want to yield 
to the evidence. 

rengo lame [Arg]. 

renguear to limp, hobble [Arg]. 

renquear to limp, hobble. 

renta rent No hemos pagado la renta 
de la casa este mes. We haven't paid 
this month's rent on the house. A in- 
come; interest (from a bank account) 
¿Qué renta anual le produce su capi- 
tal? What's the annual income on 
your capital? 

rentar to rent for ¿Cuánto renta ese 
cuarto? How much does that room 
rent for? A to produce, yield Estos 
valores rentarán mucho en el futuro. 
These stocks will yield a great deal 
in the future. 

renuncia resignation; renunciation. 

renunciar to resign Tuvo que renunciar 
a su puesto. He had to resign from 
his position. A to refuse, reject Re- 
nunció a aquel hoywr. He refused 
that honor. A to give up, renounce 
Hay que renunciar a esos planes. 
Those plans have to be given up. 

reñido (see reñir) on bad terms Estamos 
reñidos. We're on bad terms. 

reñir [rad-ch III] to wrangle, quarrel, 
argue Le gustaba reñir por cualquier 
cosa. He'd quarrel about anything. 
A to scold No le riña Ud. más. Don't 
scold him any more. 

reorganizar to reorganize. 

reparar to repair Había que reparar el 
edificio. The building had to be re- 

O reparar en to consider No reparó 
en las consecuencias. He didn't con- 
sider the consequences. A to notice 
No reparó en el saludo que le hice. 
He didn't notice my greeting. 

reparo objection Los reparos de Ud. no 
son razonables. Your objections aren't 

O poner reparo(s) to make objec- 
tion (s) ¿Puso algún reparo a aquella 





carta? Did he make any objections 
to that letter? 

|| Es un hombre de muchos reparos. 
He's a very discreet man. 

repartir to distribute. 

O repartirse to share, divide Nos 
repartimos el pastel. We divided the 
cake among ourselves. 

reparto sharing, distribution; delivery 
(of goods, mail). 

repasar to check Repase Ud. esa cuenta 
detenidamente. Check that account 
carefully. A to review Repase Ud. las 
lecciones. Review your lessons. A to 
mend Había que repasar aquella ropa. 
Those clothes had to be mended. 

repaso review (of a lesson) ; mending. 

repente [m] sudden impulse Tuvo un 
repente y se declaró. He had a sud- 
den impulse and proposed to her. 

O de repente suddenly, unexpectedly 
Llegó de repente. He arrived unex- 

repentino sudden. 

repetición [/] repetition El informe es- 
taba lleno de repeticiones. The report 
was full of repetitions. A encore El 
público entusiasmado pidió la repeti- 
ción. The enthusiastic audience asked 
for an encore. 

repetir [rad-ch 777] to repeat Haga el 
favor de repetir esa palabra. Please 
repeat that word. 

replicar to reply, answer back; to argue. 

replicón insolent (of children or ser- 

reponer [irr~\ to replace Repuso de fon- 
dos su cuenta corriente. He replaced 
the funds in his current account. A to 
repair Hay que reponer este ventila- 
dor. This electric fan has to be re- 

O reponerse to recover (health) Se 
marchó al campo para reponerse. He 
went to the country to recover his 

reposar to rest. 

reposo rest. 

O sin reposo ceaselessly, endlessly 
Habla sin reposo. He talks endlessly. 

representación [/] performance (usu- 
ally of a play) ¿A qué hora empieza 
la representación? What time does 
the play begin? 

O en representación de representing, 
as a representative of Fué a México 
en representación de su país. He 
went to Mexico as his country's rep- 

representante [adj} representative. 
A [ra] traveling salesman, agent. 

representar to represent; to perform. 

represión [/] repression, suppression 
Medidas de represión. Repressive 

reprimir to suppress, repress Reprimie- 
ron la sublevación. They suppressed 
the revolt. 

O reprimirse to repress oneself, 
control oneself No pudo reprimirse 
por más tiempo. He could control 
himself no longer. 

reprochar to reproach. 

reproducción [/] reproduction (biology). 
A reproduction Aquel instrumento ser- 
vía para la reproducción del sonido. 
That instrument was used to repro- 
duce the sound. A reproduction, copy 
Hizo una buena reproducción de un 
cuadro de Velazquez. He made a good 
copy of a Velazquez painting. 

reproducir [-zc-] to reproduce. 

república republic. 

republicano [adj; ri\ republican. 

repuesto See reponer. 

O de repuesto extra, spare (of a 
part) . 

repugnante repugnant; repulsive. 

repugnar to cause disgust {or loathing) 
in Me repugna esa sopa. I loathe that 
soup. — Me repugna hacerlo. I hate to 
do it. 

requerir [rad-ch 77] to summon Lo 
requirieron para declarar. They sum- 
moned him to testify. A to require 
Este trabajo requiere cuidado. This 
work requires care. 

requisito requisite, requirement. 

res [/] head of cattle. 

resaltar to stand out (by contrast). 

resbaladizo slippery. 

resbalar (se) to slip Tenga cuidado no 
vaya a resbalarse. Be careful you 
don't slip. 

resbaloso slippery [A??i] El camino era 
muy resbaloso. The road was very 

rescate [m] ransom; exchange (of pris- 
oners) . 

reserva secrecy, discretion Se aconseja 
reserva en este asunto. Discretion's 
advisable in this matter. A reserve 
Estaba en la reserva militar. He was 
in the military reserve. 

O guardar reserva to use discretion, 
be discreet Por favor, guarde Ud. 
reserva en esto. Please be discreet 
about this. 

reservado (See reservar) reserved Era 
muy reservado. He was very re- 

reservar to reserve Le reservó la habi- 





tación hasta su regreso. She reserved 
the room for him until his return. 
A to keep in reserve Reserve Ud. ese 
dinero, puede hacerle falta. Keep 
that money in reserve; you may need 

O reservarse to keep for oneself Se 
reservó el mejor asiento. He kept the 
best seat for himself. 

|| Reservado el derecho de admisión. 
Catering to a restricted clientele. 

resfriado cold (sickness). 

resfriarse to catch cold. 

residencia residence, house; student's 
boarding house. 

residente [adj] resident. 

residir to reside, live. 

resignarse to be resigned. 

resistencia resistance; strength, stam- 

resistente strong; resistant. 

resistir to resist, put up resistance Re- 
sistieron en la ciudad durante un mes. 
They resisted in the city for a month. 
O resistirse a to refuse to Se resis- 
tió a comer. He refused to eat. 

resolución [/] decision, resolution; cour- 
age, resoluteness. 

resolver [rad-ch J] to decide Era ne- 
cesario resolver con toda urgencia. A 
decision had to be made immediately. 
A to solve Resolvió el problema. He 
solved the problem. 

O resolverse to bring oneself to the 
point (of) No se resuelve a tomar una 
decisión. He can't bring himself to 
the point of making a decision. 

respaldar to indorse Respalde Ud. este 
documento. Indorse this document. 
A to back, support El jefe respaldaba 
sus actos. The chief supported his 

respaldo back (of a seat). - 

respecto O (con) respecto a with re- 
spect to, with regard to. 

respetable respectable Era un hombre 
respetable. He was a respectable 
man. A considerable Le debía una 
cantidad respetable. I owed him a 
considerable sum. 

respeto respect. 

respiración [/] respiration he faltó la 
respiración. He got short of breath. 

respirar to breathe Respire Ud. fuerte. 
Breathe deeply. 

responder to answer, respond No res- 
pondió riada. He didn't answer any- 
thing. A to respond, react Ha respon- 
dido muy bien al tratamiento. He re- 
sponded very well to the treatment. 
A to be the result, be due Esa ley 

responde a una necesidad pública. 
That law's the result of a public need. 
A to repay, requite. 

O responder de to answer for ¿Qui- 
én responde de los daños? Who an- 
swers for the damages? A to back 
(up) ¿Quién responde de él? Who 
backs him up? 

responsable responsible, reliable Es un 
hombre muy responsable. He's a 
very responsible man. 

O ser responsable to be in charge 
Quién es la persona responsable aquí? 
Who's in charge here? O ser respon- 
sable de to be responsible for, be to 
blame for Ese hombre es responsable 
del incendio. That man's responsible 
for the fire. 

responsabilidad [/] responsibility. 

respuesta answer, reply. 

resquebrajado cracked. 

resta subtraction. 

restar to subtract. A to be left, remain 
No resta nada que hacer. Nothing 
remains to be done. 

restaurante [ni] restaurant. 

resto remainder, balance, rest Es el 
resto del dinero. It's the rest of the 
money. A pile, stack (of chips in 
playing cards) Le juego mi resto. I 
bet my pile. 

O echar el resto to do one's best 
Echó el resto por conseguir trabajo. 
He did his best to get a job. O restos 
leftovers Esa cocinera sabe aprove- 
char los restos. That cook knows how 
to use leftovers. O restos (mortales) 
(mortal) remains Trasladaron los 
restos al cementerio. They took the 
remains to the cemetery. 

restorán [m] restaurant. 

resuelto (see resolver) determined, reso- 
lute Es un hombre muy resuelto. 
He's a very determined man. 

resultado result. 

resultar to result, turn out La fiesta 
resultó muy bien. The party turned 
out very well. A to wear, last ¿Qué 
traje le ha resultado mejor? Which 
suit wore better? 

resumen [m] summary, abstract, re- 

O en resumen in brief, in short. 

retener [irr~\ to withhold Le retuvieron 
el sueldo aquel mes. They withheld 
his salary that month. A to keep, re- 
member, retain (in one's mind) No 
podía retener las fechas en la cabeza. 
He couldn't remember dates. A to 
hold, keep Retuvieron aquella colina 





dos días más. They held that hill 
two more days. 

retirada retreat, retirement, withdrawal. 

retirar to withdraw Puede Ud. retirar 
esa cantidad del Banco. You may 
withdraw that amount from the bank. 
A to pull back, put aside Retire un 
poco la silla para que se pueda pasar. 
Pull the chair aside a little so there'll 
be room to pass. A to retire Lo reti- 
raron a los setenta años. They re- 
tired him at seventy. 

O retirarse to withdraw, retreat Las 
fuerzas se retiraron. The forces 
withdrew. A to retire Se ha retirado 
de los negocios. He's retired from 

retiro retirement (from social life, bus- 
iness, or profession). 

retrasar to postpone Retrasaron la fecha 
de la reunión. They postponed the 
date of the meeting. A to delay Cier- 
tos asuntos me retrasaron. Some bus- 
iness delayed me. A to set back Re- 
trasó el reloj. He set back his watch. 
° retrasarse to run slow El reloj se 
retrasa. That clock runs slow. A to 
be late Siento haberme retrasado tan- 
to. I'm sorry to be so late. 

retratar to portray; to take a picture 

retrato portrait, painting, photograph. 

retrete [w] toilet (room) [Sp~\. 

retroceder to go back, come back Retro- 
cedió unos pasos para reunirse con 
nosotros. He came back a few steps 
to join us. A to back up El auto re- 
trocedió hasta quedar enfrente de la 
puerta. The car backed up until it 
was in front of the door. A to draw 
back, go back (on) No podía retro- 
ceder de su decisión. He couldn't go 
back on his decision. 

reunión [/] meeting, gathering, assem- 
bly, party. 

reunir to unite, gather, bring together 
Reunió todos sus amigos en una fies- 
ta. He brought all his friends to- 
gether at a party. A to collect Reuni- 
eron mucho dinero en la función bené- 
fica. They collected a lot of money 
at the benefit. 

O reunirse to meet Se reúnen en su 
casa todos los miércoles. They meet 
at his home every Wednesday. A to 
unite, gang up Se han reunido todos 
contra mí. They've all ganged up on 

revelación [/] revelation. 

revelar to reveal, show Revela gran 
talento. He shows great talent. A to 

develop ¿Reveló Ud. ya las fotogra- 
fías? Have you developed the pictures 

reventar \_rad-ch /] to burst, bust La 
cañería reventó. The water main 
busted. A to annoy (to death), irri- 
tate Ese tipo me revienta. That fel- 
low annoys me to death. A to burst, 
be full Reventaba de salud. He was 
bursting with health. A to exhaust, 
knock out La caminata me reventó. 
The long walk exhausted me. 

O estar reventado to be exhausted, 
be knocked out Después de esa cami- 
nata estoy reventado. After that long 
walk I'm knocked out. O reventarse 
to blow out, explode Se reventó un 
neumático. A tire blew out. 

revés [w] wrong side, reverse side Ese 
es el revés de la tela. This is the 
wrong side of the material. A slap 
(with back of hand). A backhand 
shot Fué un buen revés. It was a 
good backhand shot. 

O al revés the contrary, the opposite 
No es así, precisamente es al revés. 
It's not like this; it's just the oppo- 
site. A the wrong way, wrong Todo 
le salía al revés. Everything he did 
went wrong. O del revés inside out, 
wrong side out La chaqueta está del 
revés. The jacket's wrong side out. 

revisar to revise; to review, examine. 

revisor [m] conductor (on train) [Sp~\. 

revista review Se pasó revista a los sol- 
dados. The soldiers were reviewed. 
A magazine Es una revista muy cara. 
It's a very expensive magazine. 

revolución [/] revolution, revolt; revo- 
lution, turn. 

revolucionario \_adj ; w] revolutionary. 

revólver [m] revolver, pistol. 

revolver [rad-ch 7] to revolve. A to stir 
Revuélvalo Ud. con una cuchara. Stir 
it with a spoon. A to turn upside 
down El niño lo revolvía todo en la 
casa. The child was turning the 
house upside down. 

revuelta revolt Lo revuelta empezó en 
un cuartel. The revolt started in one 
of the barracks. A turn Al llegar a 
la revuelta del camino, paró. He 
stopped when he reached the turn in 
the road. 

revuelto (see revolver) [adj] topsy- 

rey [m] king. 

rezar to pray, say (prayers) Rezaba 
todos los días sus oraciones. He said 
his prayers every day. 

O rezar con to concern or affect La 





orden no reza conmigo. The order 
doesn't concern me. 

rezo [m] praying. 

rico rich, wealthy Era el más rico del 
pueblo. He was the richest man in 
the town. A rich (in) Hay vegetales 
muy ricos en vitaminas. Some vege- 
tables are very rich in vitamins. A de- 
licious ¡Qué más rico el sabor de esta 
carne! What a delicious flavor this 
meat has! A cute ¡Qué niño más rico! 
What a cute child! 

ridículo ridiculous Su aspecto era ri- 
dículo. His appearance was ridicu- 

O poner en ridículo to put in a ri- 
diculous position La conducta de su 
mujer lo puso en ridículo. The con- 
duct of his wife put him in a ridicu- 
lous position. 

ridiculizar to ridicule. 

rienda rein Sujete Ud. bien las ríendas. 
Hold on to the reins. 

O a rienda suelta without restraint 
Se rió a rienda suelta. He laughed 
without restraint. O dar rienda suelta 
a to give free rein to Dio rienda al 
llanto. She gave free rein to her 

riesgo danger, risk Corrió mucho riesgo. 
He ran a big risk. 

rifar to raffle. 

rígido stiff, rigid; severe, stern. 

rigor [m] rigor, severity. 

O en rigor in fact. O ser de rigor 
to be indispensable. 

riguroso rigorous, strict, severe. 

rincón [m] (inside) corner Ponga Ud. 
la silla en el rincón. Put the chair 
in the corner. A remote spot Buscó 
un rincón donde vivir tranquilo. He 
looked for a remote spot where he 
could live quietly. 

riñon [wt] kidney. 

río river. 

riqueza wealth; abundance. 

risa laugh, laughter La risa es contagi- 
osa. Laughter's contagious. 

O cosa de risa a laughing matter 
No es cosa de risa. It's not a laugh- 
ing matter. 

risueño smiling, cheerful. 

rizador [m] curler, curling iron. 

rizo curl. 

robar to rob, plunder Ese hombre roba 
a todo el mundo. That man robs 
everybody. A to steal Robó el dinero. 
He stole the money. A to draw (in 
cards) Ahora le toca a Ud. robar. 
Now it's your turn to draw. 

roble [w] oak. 

robo robbery, theft. 

robusto robust, vigorous, hale. 

roca rock; cliff. 

rodar [rad-ch /] to roll La piedra ro- 
daba cuesta abajo. The stone was 
rolling downhill. A to wander about, 
roam Empezó a rodar por el mundo. 
He began to roam around the world. 
A to roll in Ahora rueda el dinero 
más que nanea. Now the money rolls 
in more than ever. 

O rodar una película to shoot a 
movie Se empezó a rodar la película. 
They started shooting the picture. 

rodear to surround, encircle El río ro- 
deaba la ciudad. The river sur- 
rounded the city. — La casa está ro- 
deada de árboles. The house is sur- 
rounded with trees. A to take the long 
way around. 

O rodearse to surround oneself Pro- 
curó rodearse de buenos amigos. He 
tried to surround himself with good 

rodeo turn, winding Ese camino da un 
rodeo muy grande. The road makes 
a wide turn. A roundup Hubo rodeo 
la semana pasada. There was a 
roundup last week. 

O dejarse de rodeos to stop beating 
around the bush Déjese de rodeos y 
conteste claramente. Stop beating 
around the bush and give me a 
straight answer. 

rodilla knee Póngase Ud. de rodillas. 
Get down on your knees. A dusting 
cloth, rag Limpie Ud. con esa rodilla. 
Clean it with that rag. 

rogar [rad-ch 7] to request, beg Me 
rogó que le esperara. He begged me 
to wait for him. A to plead Le rogó 
y le rogó pero no consiguió conven- 
cerle. He pleaded and pleaded but 
couldn't convince him. 

rojo red. 

O al rojo red-hot, to red heat. 

rollo roll, anything rolled up. 

romance [>n] ballad, poem. 

romántico romantic. 

romper [irr] to break Rompió el vaso. 
He broke the glass. A to break, break 
off relations Han roto con esa fa- 
milia. They've broken with that 

O al romper el día, al romper el 
alba at dawn, at daybreak. O romper 
a to start to Rompió a hablar cuando 
nadie lo esperaba. He started to talk 
when nobody expected it. ° romper 
la marcha to lead the march Rompía 
In marcha un escuadrón de caballería. 





A squadron of cavalry led the march. 
O romperse to break ¡Cuidado que 
puede romperse! Be careful, it may- 
break! A to fracture, break (bone) 
Se rompió una pierna. He broke his 
leg. A to be torn Se le ha roto el 
traje. Your dress is torn. 

roncar to snore. 

ronco hoarse. 

ropa clothes Voy a planchar la ropa. 
I'm going to iron the clothes. 

O a quema ropa point-blank Le dis- 
paró a quema ropa. He fired at him 
point-blank. Oropa blanca linen. 
O ropa hecha ready-made clothes. 
O ropa limpia clean laundry. O ropa 
sucia soiled laundry. 

ropero closet, wardrobe. 

rosa rose. 

O color de rosa pink. 

rosario rosary. 

rosca thread (screw); spiral. A ring 
(bread or cake). 
O hacer la rosca to flatter. 

rostro face. 

roto (See romper) broken La silla estaba 
rota. The chair was broken. — El com- 
promiso quedó roto. The engagement 
was broken. A tear Tiene Ud. un roto 
en el pantalón. You have a tear in 
your trousers. 

rótulo sign. 

rozadura chafed spot, sore spot. 

rozar to clear (ground) Empezó a rozar 
la tierra. He began to clear the 
ground. A to graze, rub El avión rozó 
ligeramente el suelo. The airplane 
grazed the ground. 

|| No le gustaba rozarse con nadie. 
He didn't like to have anything to do 
with anybody. 

rubia [/] blonde. 

rubio [adj~\ blond (e), fair. 

rúbrica flourish, mark, distinctive flour- 
ish after a signature. 

rudo rude, rough Aquel hombre era muy 
rudo. That man was very rude. 
A hard La jornada fué muy ruda. The 
journey was very hard. 

rueda wheel. 

ruego plea, request. 

ruido noise ¿Qué ruido es ese? What's 
that noise? A comment, discussion 
Aquel suceso dio mucho ruido. That 
event caused a lot of comment. 

|| Mucho ruido y pocas nueces. 
Much ado about nothing. 

ruidoso noisy. 

ruina ruin, decline Aquel negocio fué su 
ruina. That business was his ruin. 
O en ruinas in ruins La ciudad que- 
dó en ruinas. The city was left in 

ruinoso ruinous. 

rumba rumba (dance). 

rumbo direction Salió con rumbo a Eu- 
ropa. He left for Europe. 

O fiesta de rumbo lavish party. 

rumor [m] murmur Un rumor confuso 
salió del público. A confused murmur 
arose from the crowd. A rumor Corre 
el rumor de que va a cambiar la po- 
lítica. Rumor has it that there'll be 
a change of policy. 

rústico rustic, rural. 

ruta route, way. 

sábado Saturday. 

sábana sheet. 

saber [irr] to know ¿Sabe Ud. español? 
Do you know Spanish? A to know 
how ¿Sabe Ud. nadar? Do you know 
how to swim? — Sabe Ud. cómo llegar 
a ese lugar? Do you know how to 
get to that place? A to taste Esto 
sabe mal. This tastes bad. A to... 
usually or customarily [Am] Sabe 
venir los domingos. He usually comes 
on Sunday. 

O a saber namely, i.e. Son tres : a 
saber, Enrique, Juan y María. They 
are three; namely, Henry, John, and 
Mary. O demasiado saber to know 
only too well Demasiado sé que es 
verdad. I know only too well that 

it is true. O saber a to taste of La 
sopa sabe a ajo. The soup tastes of 
garlic. O saberse to become known, 
be found out ¡Cuidado, puede saberse! 
Be careful, you may be found out! 
O un no sé qué a certain something 
Ella tiene un no sé qué muy agra- 
dable. She has a certain something 
that is very pleasing. 

|| ¡Qué sé yo! How do I know? 
]| ¿Quién sabe? Who knows? || ¡Ya 
lo sé! I know (it) ! 

sabiduría learning, knowledge. 

sabio [adj] wise Doña María es une 
mujer muy sabia. Mary's a very wise 
woman. A [n] learned or wise person. 

sablazo borrowing. 

O dar un sablazo to make a touch, 





borrow Anoche me dio un sablazo de 
cinco dólares. Last night he touched 
me for five dollars. 

sable [w] saber. 

sabor [w] taste, flavor El sabor de este 
vino es delicioso. The flavor of this 
wine is delicious. 

O dar sabor to season No le daba 
sabor a lo que guisaba. She didn't 
season her cooking. 

saborear to taste, to relish. 

sabroso savory, tasty. 

sabueso hound. 

sacacorchos [m sg] corkscrew. 

sacar to draw (out) Saqué dinero del 
banco. I drew some money from the 
bank. A to take out Saque Ud. las 
manos de los bolsillos. Take your 
hands out of your pockets. A to take 
off ho sacaron del equipo. They 
took him off the team. A to bring 
out, manufacture Están sacando nue- 
vos modelos de aeroplanos. They are 
bringing out new airplane models. 
A to put out Sacó la cabeza por la 
ventana. He put his head out of the 
window. A to relieve [Am] La medi- 
cina le sacó la fiebre. The medicine 
relieved his fever. A to get ¿De dónde 
han sacado Uds. esa idea? Where did 
you get that idea? A to get out Nos 
sacó de un apuro. He got us out of 
trouble. A to win Saqué un premio en 
el sorteo. I won a prize at the draw- 
ing. A to accomplish ¿Qué saca Ud. 
con eso? What do you accomplish by 
that? A to get out, draw out Le sa- 
caron el secreto. They got the secret 
out of him. 

O sacar a bailar to invite for a 
dance Voy a sacar a bailar a aquella 
chica. I'm going to ask that girl to 
dance. O sacar a relucir to bring up 
Siempre saca a relucir cosas que sería 
mejor olvidar. He always brings up 
things it would be better to forget. 
O sacar copia to make a copy Hay que 
sacar varias copias de la carta. It's 
necessary to make several copies of 
the letter. O sacar el jugo to squeeze, 
work (one) hard Les saca el jugo a 
sus empleados. He's working his em- 
ployees to the bone. ° sacar en claro 
to clear up, come to a conclusion No 
sacó nada en claro. He didn't come 
to an^ conclusion. O sacar la cuenta 
to figure out Hay que sacar la cuenta. 
It's necessary to figure out the bill. 
O sacar (la pelota) to serve (the 
ball) ; to kick off. O sacarse to take 
off [Am] Estaba sacándose los guan- 

tes. He was taking off his gloves. 
O sacar una fotografía to take a pic- 
ture. O sacar ventaja to take the lead 
Mi caballo sacó ventaja en la carrera. 
My horse took the lead in the race. 
O sacar ventaja de to profit by Sacó 
ventaja de ese negocio. He profited 
by that business. 

sacerdote [m] priest. 

saco sack, bag Guarde Ud. eso en el 

saco. Keep that in the bag. A coat, 

jacket [Am] Le sienta muy bien ese 

saco. That coat looks good on him. 

O saco de viaje traveling bag. 

sacrificar to sacrifice Sacrificaron a su 
hijo. They sacrificed their son. 

sacrificio sacrifice. 

sacudir to shake Salió a la terraza a 
sacudir la ropa. She went out on the 
terrace to shake out the clothes. A to 
jolt El autobús sacudió a los pasajeros 
al parar repentinamente. The bus 
jolted the passengers when it stopped 
suddenly. A to beat (remove dust) 
Hay que sactidir esas alfombras. 
Those rugs have to be beaten. A to 
shake off, snap out of ¡Ya es hora de 
que sacuda Ud. la pereza! It's time 
for you to snap out of your laziness! 

sagrado sacred, holy. 

sainete [m] one-act farce; farce La vida 
es un sainete. Life is a farce. 

sal [/] salt. 

sala living room, parlor El piso tiene 
una sala grande. The apartment has 
a large living room. 

O sala (de música) (music) hall. 

salado \_adj] salted, salty No le gustaba 
el jamón salado. He didn't like salty 
ham. A witty Es un tipo muy salado. 
He's a very witty fellow. A cute, win- 
some Es una chica muy salada. She's 
a very cute girl. A unlucky [Aw] 
Está salado. He's unlucky. A expen- 
sive [Arfir] Es muy salado. It's very 

salario salary, wages. 

salchicha sausage. 

salchichón [w] sausage (large). 

saldo balance ¿Cuál es el saldo de mi 
cuenta? What is the balance of my 
account? A sale Hubo un saldo en esa 
tienda. There was a sale in that 

salero salt cellar. 

salida exit; departure La salida de in- 
cendios tiene luz roja. The emei'gency 
exit has a red light. A departure 
Esperemos hasta la salida del barco. 
Let's wait till the boat sails. A come- 
back Tenía muy buenas salidas. He 





always had a snappy comeback. A ex- 
penditure Entradas y salidas. Income 
and expenditures. 

O callejón sin salida dead-end street, 
blind alley. ° dar salida a to clear 
out, dispose of Hay que dar salida a 
estos artículos. We must clear out 
these goods. 
salir [irr] to go (or come) out, leave, 
get out Salieron con Juan. They went 
out with John. A to stick out Le sale 
mucho el pañuelo del bolsillo. His 
handkerchief sticks way out of his 
pocket. A to come out, be published 
¿Ha salido ya el último número de 
esta revista? Has the latest issue of 
this magazine come out yet? A to 
come off (or out), disappear Estas 
manchas no salen. These spots don't 
come off. A to rise Quiso ver salir el 
sol. He wanted to see the sun rise. 
A to grow, to come up Empieza a salir 
el trigo. The wheat is beginning to 
come up. A to begin (games, sports) 
A Ud. le toca salir. It's your turn 
to begin. A to draw (prize) ¿Qué nú- 
mero salió premiado? Which number 
drew the prize? A to cost Esto me 
sale muy caro. This costs me a lot. 
A to turn out El niño salió muy listo. 
The child turned out to be very 
bright. A to end [Am] Al salir el 
verano regresaremos. We'll return 
when the season ends. 

O salir a bailar con to dance with 
Salió a bailar con mi hermana. He 
danced with my sister. O salir bien, 
salir mal to come out well, come out 
badly Salió bien en los exámenes. He 
came out well in his examinations. 
O salir con to come out with ¿Ahora 
sale Ud. con eso? Now you come out 
with that? O salir de compras to go 
shopping. O salir diputado to be 
elected a congressman ¿Quienes sali- 
eron diputados? Which congressmen 
were elected? O salir ganando to come 
out ahead, win ¿Quién salió ganando? 
Who came out ahead? — ¿Quién sale 
ganando? Who's winning? O salirse 
to leak Este cacharro se sale. This 
pot leaks. A to leave, go out Me salí 
del teatro. I left the theater. O sa- 
lirse con la suya to have one's own 
way Siempi-e se sale con la suya. He 
always has his own way. — Siempre me 
salgo con la mía. I always have my 
own way. O salirse de to get out of, 
to dispose of Voy a ver si me salgo 
de este negocio. I'll see if I can get 
out of this deal. 

saliva saliva, spit. 

salmón [m] salmon. 

salón [m] living room, hall, salon. 
O salón de baile dance hall. 

salpicar to spatter El automóvil le sal- 
picó el traje de barro. The car spat- 
tered his suit with mud. 

salsa gravy, sauce. 

|| Estaba en su propia salsa. He 
felt at home, or He was in his ele- 

saltar to jump Salté de la cama al oír 
el despertador. I jumped out of bed 
when I heard the alarm clock. A to 
pop out Saltó el tapón y salió el 
líquido. The cork popped out and 
the liquid spilled. A to bounce, bound 
Esta pelota no salta. This ball 
doesn't bounce. A to spring Saltó en 
su defensa. He sprang to her de- 

O saltar a la vista to be self-evident 
Eso salta a la vista. That is self- 
evident. O saltarse to skip Me he sal- 
tado un renglón. I skipped a line. 
A to pop off Al desabrocharme el saco 
se me saltó un botón. A button 
popped off while I was unbuttoning 
my coat. A to crack, break El cristal 
se saltó son el calor. The glass 
cracked from the heat. 

salto jump Este salto es muy peligroso. 
This is a very dangerous jump. 
O dar un salto mortal to turn a 
somersault. O de un salto in a flash 
De un salto se plantó en la puerta. 
In a flash he was at the door. O salto 
de agua waterfall. O salto mortal 

salud [/] health Su salud era perfecta. 
He was in perfect health. 

O saludos regards, greetings [Am] 
Mi familia le envía muchos saludos. 
My family sends you their regards. 
|| ¡A su salud! To your health! 
|| ¡Salud! Hello! or Greetings! or 
Good luck! 

saludable healthful. 

saludar to greet Nos saludó de una 
manera muy fría. He greeted us very 
coldly. A to salute (Mil). 

|| Le saludo a Ud. atentamente. 
Sincerely yours, or Yours truly. 

saludo greeting, salutation, salute Su 
saludo fué muy cordial. His greeting 
was very cordial. — Saludo militar. 
Military salute. 

salvación [/] salvation. 

salvador, salvadora savior, rescuer. 

salvaje [adj] savage, wild En el parque 
había animales salvajes. There were 





wild animals in the park. A [w] sav- 
age, uncivilized person Los salvajes 
atacaron el fuerte. The savages at- 
tacked the fort. 

salvar to save, rescue Había que salvar 
a muchas víctimas. There were many 
victims to be saved. A to cover, clear, 
jump over Salvó la zanja de un salto. 
He cleared the ditch with one jump. 

salvo except He revisado el libro salvo 
el último capítulo. I have revised 
the book except for the last chapter. 
O ponerse a salvo to escape, reach 
safety Pudo ponerse a salvo del in- 
cendio. He was able to escape from 
the fire. O salvo que unless Salvo que 
llueva mucho, iremos al campo. Un- 
less it rains hard, we'll go to the 

san [adj~\ (see santo) saint San Fran- 
cisco. Saint Francis. 

sanar to heal, to cure. 

sangre [/] blood. 

O a sangre fría in cold blood Lo 
hizo a sangre fría. He did it in cold 
blood. O hacer hervir la sangre to 
make the blood boil ¡Eso me hace 
hervir la sangre! That makes my 
blood boil ! O sangre fría composure, 
coolness of mind Su sangre fría es 
notable. His coolness of mind is well 
known. O subídsele a uno la sangre 
a la cabeza to become excited, see red. 

sangriento bloody. 

sanidad [/] health Pertenecía a la junta 
de Sanidad. He belonged to the Board 
of Health. 

sano healthy Estaba muy sana. She 
was very healthy. A healthful Esta 
región tiene un clima muy sano. This 
region has a very healthful climate. 
A honest, good. 

O sano y salvo safe and sound Al 
fin le vimos sano y salvo. At last we 
saw him safe and sound. 

santidad [/] holiness, sanctity. 

santo holy, saintly. A [n] saint. 

saque O e l saque the kick-off (soccer, 
football) ; serve Ud. tiene el saque. 
It's your serve. 

sarape [m] blanket [Mex] ; type of wo- 
ven material [Me»]. 

sardina sardine. 

sarna mange; itch (disease). 

sartén [m or /] frying pan. 

sastre [m] tailor. 

satisfacción [/] satisfaction. 

satisfacer [irr] to satisfy No me satis- 
face su trabajo. His work doesn't 
satisfy me. A to pay in full Había 

que satisfacer aquella deuda The 
debt had to be paid in full. 

O satisfacerse to be satisfied, be 
convinced Se satisfizo con la explica- 
ción. He was satisfied with the ex- 

satisfactorio satisfactory. 

satisfecho (see satisfacer) satisfied. 

saya skirt. 

sazón [/] ripeness, maturity. 

O a la sazón at that time A la sazón 
estaba yo en España. At that time I 
was in Spain. O en sazón ripe La 
fruta está en sazón. The fruit is 

sazón almost ripe [Am] Este plátano 
está sazón. This banana is almost 

sazonar to season La cocinera sazona 
bien la comida. The cook seasons the 
food well. A to ripen (of fruit) Esa 
fruta sazona en la primavera. That 
fruit ripens in the spring. 

se oneself, himself, herself, themselves, 
yourselves; to (or for) himself, her- 
self, etc; (used for le, les) to him, 
to her, etc Se afeita. He's shaving 
himself. — El se dijo. He said to him- 
self. — Se lo doy a Ud. (a él, a ellos, 
etc). I'm giving it to you (to him, 
to them, etc). A to each other, to one 
another Se escriben todos los días. 
They write to each other every day. 
A (as an indefinite subject) Se dice. 
They say. or It's said. A (for pas- 
sive voice, without agent) Se con- 
struyó una casa. A house was built. 

secante annoying [Arg~\. A blotting. 
A [m] blotter. 

O papel secante blotting paper. 

secar to dry Hay que secar los platos. 
It's necessary to dry the dishes. 

O secarse to dry oneself Procure 
Ud. secarse bien. Try to dry your- 
self thoroughly. A to wither, dry Las 
flores se secaron. The flowers with- 

sección [/] section, division ¿En qué 
sección trabaja Ud.? In what section 
do you work? 

seco dry Tengo la garganta seca. My 
throat is dry. — Aquí no existe la ley 
seca. There's no dry law here. 
A abrupt, curt Era un hombre muy 
seco. He was a very curt man. 
A dried Frutas secas. Dried fruits. 

O a secas only, just Me llamo Pepe 
a secas. My name is just Joe. A curt- 
ly Le contestó a secas. He answered 
her curtly. O en seco high and dry, 





aground. ° parar en seco to stop 

secretaría secretary s office ; secretariat. 

secretario, secretaria secretary Fué se- 
cretario del Alcalde. He was the 
Mayor's secretary. 

secreto secret Guarde Ud. el secreto. 
Keep the secret. 

° un secreto a voces an open secret 
Su casamiento era un secreto a voces. 
Her marriage was an open secret; 

secuestro kidnapping. 

sed [/] thirst Estoy muerto de sed. 
I'm dying of thirst. 

O tener sed to be thirsty Tengo sed. 
I'm thirsty. O tener sed de to be hun- 
gry for Tenía sed de noticias. He 
was hungry for news. 

seda silk. 

seguida O e n seguida right away, im- 
mediately Voy en seguida. I'm going 
right away. 

seguir [rad-ch III] to follow, keep up 
with No puedo seguirle a Ud. I can't 
follow you. — No vaya tan de prisa 
porque no puedo seguirle a Ud. Don't 
go so fast because I can't keep up 
with you. A to follow, come after 
¿Qué sigue después? What comes 
afterwards? A to continue Siguió 
hablando más de dos horas. He kept 
on talking for more than two hours. 
A to keep Siga a la derecha. Keep to 
the right. 

según according to La casa está hecha 
según los planos. The house is built 
according to plans. A as Hágalo según 
le digo. Do it as I tell you. A depend- 
ing on Saldré o no, según esté el 
tiempo. I shall go or stay, depending 
on the weather. A it (or that) depends 
Según; si tengo tiempo iré. It de- 
pends; I'll go if I have the time. 
O según y conforme, según y como 
that depends. 

segundo [adj] second. A [m] second Es- 
péreme un segundo, ahora vuelvo. Wait 
a second, I'll be right back. 

O segunda intención double meaning 
Lo dijo con segunda intención. What 
he said had a double meaning. 

seguridad [/] security ¿Qué seguridad me 
ofrece Ud.? What security can you 
give me? 

O caja de seguridad safe-deposit box. 
O con (toda) seguridad certainly, surely 
Vendrá con toda seguridad. He'll 
surely come. 

seguro sure, certain ¿Está Ud. seguro de 
que no vendrá? Are you sure he won't 
come? A safe Este puente es muy se- 

guro. This bridge is very safe. 
A secure ¿Está el clavo bien seguro? 
Is the nail in firmly? A steady, sure 
Su paso no es seguro. His step is not 
steady. — Anda con paso seguro. He 
walks with a sure step. A [m] safety 
catch Puso la pistola en el seguro. He 
put the safety catch of his pistol on. 
A insurance ¿Quiere Ud. hacerse un 
seguro de vida? Do you wish to take 
out a life insurance policy? 

seis six. 

selección [/] selection, choice. 

seleccionar to choose Seleccionaron a los 
jugadores. They chose the players. 

selecto distinguished, select Había un 
público muy selecto. There was a very 
distinguished audience. 

sellar to stamp Selle Ud. esos localidades. 
Stamp those tickets. A to seal Sellaba 
las cartas. He was sealing the letters. 

sello seal El notario puso su sello en el 
documento. The notar-y placed his seal 
on the document. A stamp ¿En qué 
ventanilla venden sellos? At what 
window do they sell stamps? A cap- 
sule, pill Compró unos sellos para el 
dolor de cabeza. He bought some head- 
ache pills. 

selva jungle, woods, forest. 

semana week ¿En qué día de la semana 

estamos? What day of the week is it? 

O semana inglesa five-day week. 

O Semana Santa Holy Week (Easter). 

semanal [adj] weekly. 

semblante [m] look, expression. 

sembrar [rad-ch 7] to sow En el otoño 
sembraremos. We'll sow in the fall. 
A to spread Siembra la discordia entre 
sus compañeros. He spread discord 
among his friends. 

semejante [adj] similar Las dos historias 
son muy semejantes. The two stories 
are very similar. A such No creo en 
semejante cosa. Don't believe such a 
thing. A [m] fellow-man Piense que 
son sus semejantes. Remember that 
they're your fellow-men. 

semejanza resemblance, similarity. 

semilla seed. 

senado senate. 

senador [m] senator. 

sencillez [/] simplicity Vestía con mucha 
sencillez. She dressed very simply. 
A naturalness Atraía por la sencillez de 
su carácter. She attracted people be- 
cause of her naturalness. 

sencillo [adj] plain Habla de una manera 
sencilla. She speaks plainly. A unaf- 
fected Su amigo es muy sencillo. Your 
friend is very unaffected. 





senda path. 

sendero path, byway. 

sensación [/] sensation. 

sensato sensible, wise. 

sensible sensitive, keen Tenía el oído muy 
sensible. He had a keen sense of hear- 

sentar [rad-ch I] to seat Voy a sentarle 
en la última fila. I'm going- to seat him 
in the last row. A to fit Aquel traje no 
le sentaba bien. That suit didn't fit 
him well. 

O sentarle a uno bien (or mal) to 
agree (or disagree) with one La lan- 
gosta no le sentó bien. The lobster 
didn't agree with him. — Este clima me 
sienta bien. This climate agrees with 
me. O sentarle mal (or no sentarle 
bien) a uno not to set well (with one) 
ho que dijo no vie sentó bien. What he 
said didn't set well with me. O sentarse 
to sit down Siéntese Ud. Sit down. 

sentencia sentence El tribunal dictó la 
sentencia. The court pronounced (the) 

sentido sincere Sus palabras eran muy 
sentidas. His words were very sincere. 
A moving Su discurso era muy sentido. 
His address was very moving. A [»?] 
sense (of five senses) El seritido del 
olfato. The sense of smell. A meaning 
Esto tiene doble sentido. This has a 
double meaning. A direction Caminaba 
en sentido contrario. He was walking 
in the opposite direction. 

° estar sentido to be offended, hurt 
Está sentida por lo que le dijeron. She 
is offended because of what they told 
her. O perder el sentido to lose con- 
sciousness Perdió el sentido y cayó al 
suelo. He lost consciousness and fell 
to the ground. O sentido común com- 
mon sense. O tener sentido to make 
sense No tenía sentido lo que escribía. 
What he was writing didn't make sense. 

sentimental sentimental. 
sentimiento sentiment, feeling Era per- 
sona de buenos sentimientos. He was 
a person of good sentiments. A sorrow, 
grief Su sentimiento fué muy grande. 
His sorrow was very great. 

O persona de malos sentimientos 
malicious person, 
sentir [rad-ch 77] to feel Siento un dolor 
en las articulaciones. I feel a pain in 
my joints. A to sense, feel, hear Siento 
pasos. I hear footsteps. A to regret 
Eso es lo que más siento de todo. That's 
what I regret most of all. A to be 
sorry Siento mucho molestarle. I'm 
very sorry to bother you. 

O sentirse to feel Se sentía enfermo. 
He felt ill. O sentirse molesto to be 
annoyed So tenía porqué sentirse mo- 
lesto. He had no reason to be annoyed. 

seña sign Hizo una seña con la mano. 
He made a sign with his hand. A trace, 
sign No quedaron ni señas del pastel. 
Not a trace of the cake remained. 
A mark Tiene una seña en la cara. He 
has a mark on his face. 

O señas address Escriba Ud. a estas 
señas. Write to this address. O señas 
digitales fingerprints. O señas per- 
sonales personal description. 

señal [/] mark Ponga una señal en esa 
página. Put a mark on that page. 
A signal La señal de avance fué un dis- 
paro. A shot was the signal to ad- 

O en señal as a deposit /Quiere Ud. 
que deje algún dinero en señal? Do 
you want me to leave some money as a 
deposit? O señal de peligro distress 
signal; danger signal. O señales de 
tráfico traffic signs. 

señalar to mark Señale Ud. esto con totea. 
Mark this with ink. A to point out, 
mark Señale Ud. los errores que en- 
cuentre. Point out the errors you find. 
A to set Hay que señalar el dia de la 
reunión. The date of the reunion 
must be set. 

O señalar con el dedo to point (with 
the finger). 

señor [m] Mr. ¿Está el señor Palacios? 
Is Mr. Palacios in? A sir Sí señor, 
tiene Ud. razón. Yes sir, you're right. 
A man Me han dicho que es un señor 
muy fino. I have heard that he's a 
very fine man. A gentleman Hay un 
señor esperándole. There's a gentle- 
man waiting for him. 

° el señor de la casa the master of 
the house. O Señor Lord. O Nuestro 
Señor our Lord. 

|| Tuve un señor disgusto. I was very 

señora Mrs. ¿Puedo hablar con la Señora 
de García? May I speak to Mrs. Gar- 
cía? A lady Cuayido la conocí era una 
señora de edad. When I met her she 
was an elderly lady. A madam St, 
señora. Yes, madam. 

señorita Miss ¿Conoce Ud. a la Señorita 
Martínez? Do you know Miss Mar- 
tinez? A young lady Esta señorita no 
es americana. This young lady is not 
an American. 

señorito young gentleman; master of the 
house; playboy [Sp~\. 

separación [/] separation. 





separar to separate, set apart Separe Ud. 
las niñas de los niños. Separate the 
girls from the boys. A to divide Una 
cortina separa las dos habitaciones. A 
curtain divides the two rooms. A to 
move away Separe Ud. un poco la mesa 
de la pared. Move the table away 
from the wall a bit. A to lay aside 
Separe estos trajes para que me los 
envíen. Lay aside these suits so they 
can send them to me. 

O separarse to separate El matri- 
monio decidió separarse. The couple 
decided to separate. 

septiembre [m] September. 

séptimo seventh. 

sepultar to bury, inter, entomb. 

sepultura grave. 

sequedad [/] aridity, dryness. 

ser [irr] to be (with predicate noun or 
pronoun) Su padre es abogado. His 
father's a lawyer. — La victima no fui 
yo. The victim wasn't I. A (with 
predicate adjectives that express an 
inherent or characteristic quality) El 
camino es muy largo. The road's very 
long.: — La niña es bonita. The child's 
pretty. A (origin) El señor Pérez es 
de Madrid. Mr. Pérez is from Madrid. 
A (ownership) Pero no era de Ud. But 
it wasn't yours. A (material of which 
a thing is made) Era un reloj de oro. 
It was a gold watch. A (in impersonal 
expressions) Es imposible. It's impos- 
sible. — No era verdad. It wasn't true. 
A (in expressions of time) ¿Qué hora 
era? What time was it? — Eran las 
cuatro y media. It was half past four. 
A to take place La escena es en Paris. 
The scene takes place in Paris. A (with 
a past participle to form passive voice) 
La obra fué escrita por Lope de Vega. 
The work was written by Lope de 

° es que the fact is that jE7s que va a 
venir ahora. The fact is that he's com- 
ing right away. O n o sea que because 
. . . might Lleve el paraguas no sea 
que llueva. Take an umbrella because 
it might rain. O ¿qué ha sido de ... ? 
what's become of . . . ? 

serenata serenade. 

serenidad [/] serenity, calm. 

sereno clear, fair El cielo está muy 
sereno. The sky is very clear. A calm, 
serene Era un hombre sereno. He was 
a calm man. A [m] night-watchman 
[Sp] Esta calle no tiene sereno. This 
street has no night-watchman. A dew 
Hay mucho sereno en las flores. There 
is a lot of dew on the flowers. 

serie [/] series Pertenece a la serie A. 
It belongs to series A. 

O en serie mass produced, standard- 

seriedad [/] seriousness, gravity, earnest- 

serio serious, solemn No se ponga Ud. tan 
serio. Don't be so solemn. A critical 
Estos son tientos muy serios. These 
are critical times. 

O en serio seriously Estábamos ha- 
blando en serio. We were speaking 

servicio service El servicio del ferrocarril 
es ahora muy malo. Train service is 
very bad now. A toilet, water-closet 

° servicio doméstico domestic help 
Es muy difícil conseguir servicio do- 
méstico. It is very difficult to get any 
domestic help. O servicio militar mili- 
tary service. 

servidor, servidora servant Tiene muy 
buenos servidores. She has excellent 

|| Servidor de Ud. At your service. 

servidumbre [/] (staff of) servants, at- 
tendants; servitude. 

servilleta table napkin. 

servir [rad-ch III] to serve, wait on 
Sirva Ud. primero a las señoras. Serve 
the ladies first. A to serve Sirvió cua- 
tro años en las fuerzas aéreas. He 
served in the Air Corps for four years. 
O servir para to be good for Eso no 
sirve para nada. That's good for noth- 
ing. O servirse to help oneself Tenga 
la bondad de servirse. Please help 

|| ¡Para servir a Ud.! At your ser- 

sesenta sixty. 

sesión [/] session, meeting ¿Dónde se 
celebrará la sesión? Where will the 
meeting take place? 

seso brain Comió un plato de sesos de 
ternera. He ate a plate of calf's brains. 
O devanarse los sesos to rack one's 
brains Hay que devanarse los sesos 
para comprender este problema. One 
has to rack one's brains to understand 
that problem. O perder el seso to lose 
one's head (over) Perdió el seso por 
aquella muchacha. He lost his head 
over that girl. O saltarse la tapa de 
los sesos to blow out one's brains De 
un tiro se saltó la tapa de los sesos. 
He blew his brains out with one shot. 
O sin seso witless, scatterbrained ¡Qué 
muchacha sin sesos! What a scatter- 
brained girl! 





setenta seventy. 

severidad [/] severity, rigor. 

severo severe, rigorous. 

sexo sex. 

sexto sixth. 

sexual sexual. 

si if, whether Deseo saber si Ud. viene. 
I want to know whether you're coming. 
° por si acaso if by chance, just in 
case he dejo esto por si acaso viene. 
I'm leaving this just in case he comes. 
|| ;Si fuera verdad! If it were only 

sí yes. O sí q Ue certainly Eso si que es 
raro. That's certainly strange. O un 
... sí y otro no every other . . . Viene 
un día sí y otro no. He comes every 
other day. 

sí [prori]. 

O de por sí separately, individually, 
by oneself Dio de por sí todo lo que 
pudo. He gave all he could by himself. 
—Cada uno de por sí haga lo que 
pueda. Let each one individually do 
what he can. O fuera de sí beside him- 
self, herself, yourself, themselves Esta- 
ban fuera de si. They were beside 
themselves (with anger, anxiety, joy, 
etc). O sí mismo, misma, mismos, mis- 
mas himself, herself, themselves Tenía 
un gran dominio sobre sí mismo. He 
had great control of himself (or great 
self-control). O volver en sí to regain 
consciousness No ha vuelto en si. He 
hasn't regained consciousness. 

siembra sowing, seeding, planting. 

siempre always Siempre hace el mismo 
trabajo. He always does the same 

O para siempre forever. O para siem- 
pre jamás forever and ever. O siempre 
que whenever Siempre que me ve, me 
saluda. Whenever he sees me, he greets 
me. ' A provided (that) Siempre qzie 
estudie aprobará. He'll pass provided 
he studies. 

sien [/] temple (anatomy). 

sierra saw No corta bien la sierra. The 
saw doesn't cut well. A mountain range 
Subieron al pico más alto de la sierra. 
They climbed to the highest peak of 
the range. 

siesta afternoon nap. 

siete seven. A [m] tear, rent (in cloth- 
ing) Tenía un siete en la chaqueta. He 
had a tear in his jacket. 

siglo century. 

significación [/] significance, importance, 
implication Ese hejho no tiene ninguna 
significación. That fact has no signifi- 
cance whatever. 

significado meaning (literal) ¿Cuál es el 
significado de esta palabra en inglés? 
What's the meaning of that word in 

significar to mean No sé qué significa esa 
palabra. I don't know what that word 

significativo significant. 

signo mark, sign, symbol Haga Ud. claros 
los signos de puntuación. Make the 
punctuation marks clear. — El signo de 
la Cruz. The sign of the Cross. — Un 
signo fonético. A phonetic symbol. 

siguiente next, following Esperé hasta el 
día siguiente. I waited till the follow- 
ing day. 

sílaba syllable. 

silbar to whistle Silbe Ud. para ver si 
nos oyen. Whistle to see if they hear 
us. A to boo (whistling indicates dis- 
approval in Spanish-speaking coun- 
tries) El público silbó la comedia. The 
audience booed the comedy. 

silbato whistle (instrument) Se oía el 
silbato de la locomotora. The locomo- 
tive's whistle could be heard. 

silbido whistle, sound. 

silencio silence Sufrió en silencio aquel 
agravio. He suffered that affront in 

O en silencio quiet Todo estaba en 
silencio. Everything was quiet. O guar- 
dar silencio to keep quiet (make no 
sound) Procuren guardar silencio du- 
rante las horas de estudio. Keep quiet 
during study hours. 

|| ¡Silencio! Quiet! or Silence! 

silencioso silent, noiseless ¿Quiere Ud. 
comprar la máquina de escribir silen- 
ciosa? Do you want the noiseless type- 

silla chair Siéntese en esa silla. Sit down 
in that chair. 

O silla de montar saddle. 

sillón [w] armchair. 

° sillón de ruedas wheel chair. 

silueta silhouette, outline. A figure Esa 
muchacha tiene una silueta muy bonita. 
That girl has a very nice figure. 

simpatía congeniality Le inspiró mucha 
simpatía. He found her very con- 

simpático nice, pleasant, congenial Es 
un muchacho simpático. He's a nice 
boy. A congenial El ambiente allí es 
muy simpático. The atmosphere there's 
very congenial. 

simple simple, easy Aquel trabajo era 
muy simple. That work was very 
simple. A simple, witless ¡Qué hombre 
más simple! What a witless man! 





A [n] simpleton Es un simple. He's a 
simpleza silliness La simpleza de esa 
mujer me molesta. That woman's silli- 
ness annoys me. A silly thing Ese 
hombre no hace más que simplezas. 
That man's always doing silly things. 
A trifle Riñeron por una simpleza. They 
quarreled over a trifle. 
sin without Llegó sin un centavo. He 
arrived without a penny. — Le espero en 
la oficina mañana sin falta. I'll expect 
you at the office tomorrow without fail. 
O sin embargo however, nevertheless. 
sinceridad [/] sincerity. 
sincero sincere. 

singular [adj] singular (grammar). 
A strange, singular ¡Qué caso tan sin- 
gular! What a strange case! A [to] 
singular Escriba Ud. el verbo en sin- 
gular. Write the verb in the singular. 
siniestro sinister, vicious Era un hombre 

siniestro. He was a sinister man. 
sino but. A except, but Nadie sino tu 
puede hacerlo. No one except you can 
do it. A [to] fate, destiny. 

O no . . . sino not . . . but No es gordo, 
sino flaco. He's not fat, but thin. 
O no sólo . . . sino (también) not only 
. . . but (also) No sólo era pobre, sino 
(también) desgraciado. He was not 
only poor but also unfortunate. 
síntoma symptom. 
sinvergüenza [to] scoundrel, rascal, 
siquiera at least Déme siquiera agua 
fría. At least give me some cold water. 
O (ni) siquiera (not) even Ni si- 
quiera me habló. He didn't even speak 
to me. O (si) siquiera if only, if at 
least Siquiera nos pagaran hoy. If 
only they'd pay us today. 
sirvienta maid, servant girl. 
sirviente [to] servant (domestic). 
sistema [to] system. 

sitio spot, site Es un sitio precioso para 
pasar el verano. It's a delightful spot 
to spend the summer. A place, seat 
Ocupe Ud. su sitio. Take your place. 
A room, space No hay bastante sitio 
para todos There isn't enough room 
for all. A siege, besieging El sitio de 
la ciudad duró tres semanas. The siege 
of the city lasted three weeks. 
situación [/] site, location La situación 
de la colina era muy favorable. The 
situation of the hill was very favor- 
able. A situation, standing (in life) 
La situación de esa familia es muy 
buena. That family's situation is very 
good. A situation, predicament No sé 
lo que hubiera hecho en esa situación. 

I don't know what I'd have done in 
that predicament. 
smoking [to] dinner jacket, tuxedo, 
soberano [adj] absolute Tiene por ella 
un desprecio soberano. He feels abso- 
lute contempt for her. 

O los soberanos the sovereigns (the 
king and queen). 

soberbia arrogance, haughtiness. 

soberbio arrogant, haughty. 

sobornar to bribe. 

sobra excess, surplus. 

O de sobra more than enough Tengo 
de sobra con lo que Ud. me dio. I have 
more than enough with what you gave 
me. O estar de sobra to be superflu- 
ous, be in the way, be in excess Yo 
aquí estoy de sobra. I'm superfluous 
here. O saber de sobra to be fully 
aware Lo sabe Ud. de sobra. You're 
fully aware of that. O sobras left- 
overs Estas croquetas están hechas con 
sobras. These croquettes are made of 

sobrar to be in excess, be more than 
enough, be left over Sobró mucha comi- 
da. A great deal of food was left over. 
— Sobra comida. There's more than 
enough food. A to be superfluous Me 
parece que aquí sobro. It seems to me 
that I'm superfluous here. 

sobre over El avión pasó sobre la ciudad. 
The airplane passed over the city. 
A on, upon Había un libro sobre la 
mesa. There was a book on the table. 
A on Súbase sobre esa silla para al- 
canzar el cuadro. Get up on that chair 
to reach the picture. A about, concern- 
ing Quiero hablarle a Ud. sobre cierto 
asunto. I want to speak to you about 
a certain matter. A [to] envelope Deme 

t un sobre. Give me an envelope. 

O sobre todo above all Sobre todo no 
dejes de escribir. Above all don't fail 
to write. 

sobrehumano superhuman. 

sobrenatural supernatural. 

sobresueldo extra income Tiene un sobre- 
sueldo de veinte dólares la semana. He 
has an extra income of twenty dollars 
a week. 

sobrina niece. 

sobrino nephew. 

sobrio sober, temperate; restrained. 

socar to tighten [Am] Este nudo ha 
quedado muy socado. This knot's very 

social [adj] social. 

sociedad [/] society Le gustaba frecuen- 
tar la buena sociedad. He liked to 





move in high society. A partnership; 

O sociedad anónima joint stock com- 
pany, corporation. 

socio partner (in business) Le presento 
a mi socio, Sr. Avalos. Meet my part- 
ner, Mr. Avalos. A member (of club or 
society) ¿Es Ud. socio de ese club? Are 
you a member of that club? 

socorrer to help Había que socorrer a los 
náufragos. It was necessary to help 
the survivors of a shipwreck. 

socorro help, aid Le agradecí el socorro 
que me prestó. I was grateful to him 
for the help he gave me. 

° puesto de socorro first-aid station. 
|| ¡Socorro! ¡Socorro! Help! 

sofá [m] sofa. 

sofocado (see sofocar) embarrassed, 

sofocar to stifle, suffocate El calor lo 
sofocaba. The heat was stifling him. 
A to choke, suffocate El humo lo sofo- 
caba. The smoke was choking him. 
A to put out, extinguish Las bombas 
sofocaron el incendio. The fire engines 
put out the fire. 

° sofocarse to get flushed and out of 
breath Se sofocó al subir los escaleras. 
He got flushed and out of breath on 
climbing the stairs. A to get excited 
Procure Ud. no sofocarse por ese 
asunto. Don't get excited over that 
matter. A to blush, get embarrassed 
Al oír aquella palabra, la niña se 
sofocó. The girl blushed when she 
heard that word. 

sofoco blushing, embarrassment. 

O pasar un sofoco to be in an em- 
barrassing situation. 

soga rope Coja Ud. la soga por la punta. 
Catch the end of the rope. 

sol [m\ sun. A sunlight, sun Esas plan- 
tas necesitan mucho sol. Those plants 
require a lot of sunlight. A sol (Peru- 
vian currency unit). 

O al salir el sol at sun-up, at sunrise 
Al salir el sol se empezó la marcha. 
The march began at sun-up. O estar 
quemado (or tostado) por el sol to be 
sunburned (or sun-tanned). O hacer 
sol to be sunny Hoy no hace sol. It's 
not sunny today. O tomar el sol to 
sunbathe Estuvieron tomando el sol 
mucho rato. They took a long sunbath. 

solapa lapel. 

soldada salary (of servants). 

soldado (see soldar) soldered, welded 
Todavía no han soldado la cañería. 
They haven't soldered the pipe yet. 

A [m] soldier Los soldados fueron alo- 
jados en el pueblo. The soldiers were 
billeted in the town. A private (mili- 

O soldado de primera (clase) private 
first class. O soldado raso buck pri- 

soldar [rad-ch 7] to solder, weld. 

soledad [/] solitude. 

solemne solemn. 

soler [rad-ch 7] to be in the habit of, have 
the custom of ¿A qué hora suele venir 
Ud. a la oficina? What time do you 
usually come to the office? — Solíamos 
hacer excursiones por la montaña. We 
used to make trips to the mountains. 

solicitar to request, apply for Hay que 
solicitar un permiso para visitar ese 
edificio. It's necessary to apply for a 
pass to visit that building. 

solicitud [/] solicitude; application (re- 

sólido solid, firm El puente tiene una base 
muy sólida. That bridge has a very 
solid base. A sound Tenia una cultura 
muy sólida. He had a very sound cul- 
tural background. 

sollozar to sob. 

sollozo sob. 

solo alone Cuande venga a verme venga 
Ud. solo. When you come to see me, 
come alone. A lonely Estoy muy solo. 
I'm very lonely. A [w] solo El tenor 
cantó muy bien el solo. The tenor sang 
the solo very well. 

sólo only El matrimonio tenia un hijo 
sólo. The couple had only one son. 

soltar [rad-ch 7] to loosen Soltaron las 
amarras. They loosened the cables. 
A to let out Soltó una exclamación. He 
let out an exclamation. A to drop, let 
go Soltó el paquete que tenia en la 
mano. He let go the package he had in 
his hand. 

° soltarse to loosen, become loose Se 
me ha soltado el cordón del zapato. My 
shoe lace is loose. O soltar una bofe- 
tada to slap (suddenly or unexpect- 
edly) Le soltó itna bofetada. She 
slapped him. O soltar una carcajada 
to burst out laughing Cuando lo oyó 
soltó la carcajada. When he heard it he 
burst out laughing. O soltar una fresca 
to give one a piece of one's mind, tell 
one where to get off Le voy a soltar 
una fresca. I'll give him a piece of 
my mind. 

soltero single (not married). 

soltura poise, ease (of movement) Baila- 
ba con mucha soltura. She danced 
effortlessly, * fluency Habla las len- 






guas extranjeras con soltura. He 
speaks foreign languages fluently. 

solución [/] solution Esto no tiene solu- 
ción. This doesn't have any solution. 
A result ¿Qué solución hubo en aquel 
pleito? What was the result of that 
lawsuit? A solution (liquid). 

solucionar to solve. 

solvencia solvency. 

solvente solvent (financially). 

sombra shade Buscó la sombra del árbol. 
He sought the shade of the tree. 
A shadow «Se veía en el suelo la sombra 
del avión. The shadow of the airplane 
could be seen on the ground. A dark, 
darkness Estaba escondido en la som- 
bra. He was hidden in the dark, 
luck. A wit Ese chiste tiene mucha 
sombra. That joke's very witty. 

O a la sombra in the shadow; [Slang] 
in jail. O buena sombra good luck. 
O dar sombra to give shade Los árboles 
dan sombra. The trees give shade. 
O hacer sombra to outshine Esa mujer 
le hace sombra a su marido. That 
woman outshines her husband. O mala 
sombra bad luck. O no ser ni su som- 
bra to be but a shadow of one's former 

sombrerería hat factory or store. 

sombrero hat. 

O sombrero de copa silk hat, top hat. 
O sombrero de paja straw hat. 

sombrilla parasol. 

sombrío gloomy, somber Tenia nn sem- 
blante muy sombrío. He had a very 
gloomy expression on his face. 

someter to subdue Es muy difícil someter 
a esa gente. It's very difficult to subdue 
those people. A to subject Someta Ud. 
esto a nuevo estudio. Subject this to 
further study. A to submit, present 
Someta Ud. el informe. Submit the 

O someterse to submit No sé cómo se 
somete a que le traten así. I don't 
know why he submits to such treat- 
ment. A to surrender Se sometieron 
ante los invasores. They surrendered 
to the invading armies. 

son [m] sound (musical or pleasant) El 
son de los violincs. The sound of the 
violins. A Cuban song and dance. 

O ¿a qué son? for what reason? 
¿A qué son dice Ud. eso? For what 
reason do you say that? O en son de 
as, like, in the manner of Lo dijo en 
son de broma. He said it as a joke. 
O sin ton ni son without rhyme or 
reason Habla sin ton ni son. He talks 
without rhyme or reason. 

sonado (see sonar) sensational, scan- 

sonar \rad-ch /] to sound, ring Sonó la 
sirena del barco. The ship's siren 
sounded. A to strike Sonaron las diez. 
The clock struck ten. A to ring Me 
parece que ha sonado el timbre. I think 
the bell rang. A to sound familiar Ese 
nombre no me suena. That name doesn't 
sound familiar. A to be mentioned, be 
talked about, be in the public eye Su 
nombre suena mucho. His name's al- 
ways in the public eye. 

O sonarse to blow one's nose. 

sondear to sound, take soundings in Estu- 
vieron sondeando la bahía. They were 
taking soundings in the bay. A to 
sound out Sondee Ud. sus intenciones. 
Sound out his intentions. 

sonido sound (something heard). 

sonoro sonorous. 

sonreír to smile. 

sonrisa smile. 

sonrojar to make blush. 
O sonrojarse to blush. 

soñador [m] dreamer. 

soñar [rad-ch /] to dream Sueño con 

mucha frecuencia. I dream very often. 

O ni soñar not by a long shot "¿Te 

lo dio? "¡Ni soñar!" "Did he give it 

to you?" "Not by a long shot!" 

sopa soup. 

O hecho una sopa drenched to the 
skin Llegó a casa hecho una sopa. He 
got home drenched to the skin. 

soplar to blow Soplaba mucho viento. A 
strong wind was blowing. A to tattle, 
blab Le sopla al jefe todo lo que ocurre 
en la oficina. He tattles to the boss 
about everything that goes on in the 

soplido blow(ing), puff De un soplido, 
apagó la vela. He put out the candle 
with a puff. 

soplo breath, gust (of air), puff No hay 
hoy ni un soplo de aire. There's not 
a breath of air today. A tip, hint Co- 
gieron al asesino gracias a un soplo 
que recibió la policía. They caught the 
murderer as a result of a tip received 
by the police. 

soportar to bear, put up with No hay más 
remedio que soportar esto. There's 
nothing to do but bear it. 

sorber to sip. 

sorbo sip Déme un sorbo de agua. Give 
me a sip of water. 

sordo deaf Estaba bastante sordo. He 
was quite deaf. A muffled, dull Oyó u» 
ruido sordo. He heard a muffled noise. 





A dull Tenía un dolor sordo en el pecho. 
He had a dull pain in his chest. 

O hacerse el sordo to turn a deaf ear 
Se hizo el sordo a mis peticiones. He 
turned a deaf ear to my pleas. 

sordomudo deaf and dumb. A [n] deaf- 

soroche [«?] altitude sickness, mountain 
sickness [Am]. 

sorprendente surprising. 

sorprender to surprise he soprendió 
aquella noticia. That news surprised 
him. A to catch Su madre le sorpren- 
dió robando. His mother caught him 

O sorprenderse to be surprised No se 
sorprenda Ud. por eso. Don't be sur- 
prised by that. 

sorpresa surprise ¡Qué sopresa tan agra- 
dable el verle! What a pleasant sur- 
prise to see you ! 

O de sorpresa by surprise Me ha 
cogido de sorpresa esa noticia. That 
news took me by surprise. O por 
sorpresa by surprise Los detuvieron 
por sopresa. They arrested them by 

sortear to raffle off, draw lots for Sor- 
tearon un reloj. They raffled off a 
watch. A to elude, dodge El torero 
sortea hábilmente al toro. The bull- 
fighter dodges the bull skillfully. 

sortija ring (circular object). 

sosegarse [rad-ch /] to compose oneself, 
calm down Cuando Ud. se sosiegue, 
hablaremos. When you calm down, 
we'll talk. 

sosiego peace, tranquillity. 

soso tasteless Estas legumbres están muy 
sosas. These vegetables are tasteless. 
A insipid ¡Qué persona más sosa! What 
an insipid person! 

sospecha suspicion. 

sospechar to suspect Sospecho que este 
trabajo no está bien hecho. I suspect 
that this work isn't well done. 

sospechoso suspicious. 

sostener [irr] to hold Sostenía la botella 
en la mano. He held the bottle in his 
hand. A to maintain, stick to Lo digo 
y lo sostengo. I say it and I stick to it. 
A to support Con su trabajo sostenía a 
su familia. He supported his family 
by working. 

° sostenerse to support oneself, stand 
(up) Estaba tan borracho que no podia 
sostenerse. He was so drunk he couldn't 
stand up. 

sótano basement. 

su; pi sus your, his, her, its, their Su 

pluma. Your pen, his pen, etc. — Sus 
plumas. Your pens, his pens, etc. 

suave delicate, soft, gentle, light El den- 
tista tenía la mano muy suave. The 
dentist had a very light hand. A smooth 
Es una tela muy suave. It's a very 
smooth cloth. A gentle Soplaba un 
viento suave. A very gentle breeze was 
blowing. A mellow, mild Este vino es 
muy suave. This wine's very mellow. 
A meek, docile Est e niño tiene un carác- 
ter muy suave. This child's very meek. 

suavizar to soften. 

subalterno [adj; n] subordinate. 

subasta auction. 

subido (see subir) high, bright Es una 
corbata de color subido. It's a bright- 
colored tie. 

subir to go up Voy a subir por mi abrigo. 
I'm going up for my coat. A to bring 
up Súbame Ud. el baúl. Bring up my 
trunk. A to put on, set on El mozo le 
subirá la maleta al tren. The porter 
will put your suitcase on the train. 
A to put up, lift up Suba Ud. el niño a 
la silla. Lift the child up on the chair. 
A to raise Tendrá Ud. que subir un poco 
la voz, es muy sordo. You'll have to 
raise your voice a little ; he's very deaf. 
A to add up, amount, come ¿A cuánto 
sube la cuenta? How much does the 
bill come to? A to go up, rise, increase 
Los precios han subido miicho. Prices 
have gone up a lot. — Le subió la tem- 
peratura. His temperature rose. A to 
rise, ascend El globo subió hasta diez 
mil pies. The balloon rose to ten thou- 
sand feet. A to rise, advance Ha silbido 
muy de prisa ese muchacho. That boy's 
advanced very rapidly. 

O subírsele a uno a la cabeza to go 
to one's head Se le ha subido a la 
cabeza su popularidad. His popularity's 
gone to his head. 

su(b)scribirse to subscribe ¿Quiere Ud. 
subscribirse a esta revista? Do you 
want to subscribe to this magazine? 

su(b)scripción [/] subscription. 

su(b)stitución [/] substitution. 

su(b)stituir to replace. 

su(b)stituto, su(b)stituta substitute. 

subterráneo subway [Aw], 

suceder to succeed Se cree que su hijo le 
sucederá. It's thought that his son'll 
succeed him. A to happen Sucedió algo 
que nadie se explica. Something hap- 
pened that can't be explained. 

O suceda lo que suceda come what 
may Suceda lo que suceda, yo estaré 
aquí. Come what may, I'll be here. 

sucesivo consecutive, successive. 





O en lo sucesivo in the future. 

suceso event. 

suciedad [/] filthiness. 

sucio dirty La calle estaba muy sucia.. 
The street was very dirty. A dirty, un- 
fair Hizo una jugada, sucia. He played 
a dirty trick. 

sudamericano [ad;; ri\ South American. 

sudar to sweat. 

sudeste [m] southeast. 

sudoeste [w] southwest. 

sudor [m] sweat. 

suegra mother-in-law. 

suegro father-in-law. 

suela sole Las suelas de mis zapatos están 
rotas. The soles of my shoes are worn 

suelo floor El suelo estaba manchado. 
The floor was stained. A soil Este 
suelo produce mucho. This soil's very 
productive. A ground Cayó al suelo 
herido. He fell to the ground wounded. 

suelto loose, untidy Tenia suelto el cor- 
don de un zapato. One of his shoelaces 
was loose. A free, (on the) loose Ese 
perro está suelto. That dog's loose. 
A odd Tenemos unos números sueltos de 
esa revista. We have some odd copies 
of that magazine. A single Número 
suelto, dos pesos. Single copy, two 
pesos. A [m] (loose) change ¿Tiene Ud. 
suelto? Have you any change? A news- 
paper report or item ¿Ha visto Ud. este 
suelto en el periódico? Have you seen 
this newspaper report? 

° suelto de lengua loose-tongued Era 
muy suelto de lengua. He was very 

sueño sleep Necesita Ud. más sueño. You 
need more sleep. A dream He tenido 
un sueño muy raro. I've had a very 
strange dream. 

O conciliar el sueño to get to sleep 
No pudo conciliar el sueño. He couldn't 
get to sleep. O echar un sueño to take 
a nap A la mitad de la tarde eché un 
sueño. I took a nap in the middle of 
the afternoon. O tener sueño to be 

\\Tenia el sueño pesado. He was a 
very sound sleeper. 

suerte [/] fate, luck Quiso la suerte que 
yo llegara en aquel momento. As luck 
would have it, I arrived at that mo- 
ment. A luck Ese hombre tiene buena 
suerte. That man has good luck. 

O de suerte que so (that), and so ¿Be 
suerte que no le ha visto Ud.? So you 
haven't seen him? O echar (a) suertes 
to draw lots. O por suerte fortunately 
Por suerte o por desgracia ya está Ud. 

aquí. Fortunately or unfortunately 
you're here now. O tocarle a uno la 
suerte to be lucky ¡A mi me tocó la 
suerte! I was lucky. 

suéter [m] sweater [Í4ra]. 

sufragio suffrage, vote. 

sufrimiento suffering. 

sufrir to suffer ¿De qué dolencia sufre 
Ud.? What ails you? A to undergo Ha 
sufrido una operación. He's undergone 
an operation. A to endure, put up with 
.¡No le puedo sufrir más! I can't put 
up with him any longer! 

sufrido (see sufrir) serviceable, practical 
El traje tiene un color sufrido. The 
dress is a practical color. A patient, 
long-suffering Es un hombre muy su- 
frido. He's a very long-suffering man. 

sugerir [rad-ch //] to suggest. 

sugestionar to influence Nada podía 
sugestionarle. Nothing could influence 
him. A to hypnotize. 

O sugestionarse to be spellbound Me 
quedé sugestionado. I was spellbound. 

suicida [m, /] suicide (person). 

suicidarse to commit suicide. 

suicidio suicide (act). 

sujetar to hold Los policías trataron de 
sujetarle. The police tried to hold him. 
A to fasten Sujete al perro con una 
cadena. Fasten the dog with a chain. 
O sujetarse to submit, abide (by) 
Había que sujetarse a la nueva dispo- 
sición. We had to submit to the new 

sujeto (see sujetar) fastened No está 
bien sujeto el cinturón. The belt's not 
well fastened. A [m] subject (gram- 
mar) ¿Cuál es el sujeto de esa oración? 
What's the subject of that sentence? 
A fellow, guy ¿Quién es ese sujeto? 
Who's that fellow? 

suma amount, sum ¿Cuánto es la suma 
total? What's the total amount? 

O en suma in short En suma, ¿qué es 
lo que pasó? In short, what happened? 

sumar to add; to amount to. 

sumergirse to submerge, dive. 

sumidero sewer, sink, drain. 

sumo great He tenido sumo gusto en 
conocerle. It's been a great pleasure to 
know you. 

O a lo sumo at most A lo sumo tar- 
dará dos horas. She'll be delayed two 
hours at most. O el sumo the greatest 
El Sumo Hacedor. The Almighty. 

suntuoso sumptuous. 

superficial superficial La herida era su- 
perficial. The wound was superficial. 
— Sus conocimientos eran muy super- 
ficiales. His knowledge was very su- 





perficial. A shallow ¡Qué muchacha tan 
superficial! What a shallow girl! 
superficie [/] surface. 
superior superior, better Esto es de cali- 
dad superior. This is of superior 
quality. A higher Tenía un grado su- 
perior en el ejército. He held a higher 
rank in the army. A above Vive en el 
piso superior. He lives on the floor 
above. A [rri] superior Respete a sus 
superiores. Show respect for your su- 

O parte superior upper part El libro 
está en la parte superior del armario. 
The book's in the upper part of the 
superioridad [/] superiority. 
súplica request; entreaty, supplication. 
superstición [/] superstition. 
superviviente [m, /] survivor. 
suplente [adj] substituting. A [n] sub- 
suplicar to implore Le suplicó que le ayu- 
dara. She implored him to help her. 
A to beg, request Le suplico a Ud. que 
vuelva mañana. I beg you to come 
back tomorrow. 
suplicio torture Le sometieron a horribles 
suplicios. They subjected him to hor- 
rible torture. A ordeal, anguish Pasó 
por el suplicio de ver morir a su padre. 
He went through the ordeal of seeing 
his father die. 
suponer [irr~\ to suppose, assume Supuso 
que ella no quería hacer ese trabajo. 
He assumed she didn't want to do that 
work. A to imagine Ud. podrá suponer 
lo que ocurrió. You can imagine what 
happened. A to amount to, cost ¿Cuan- 
to supone todo esto? How much does 
all this amount to? 
suposición [/] supposition. 
supremo supreme Tribunal Supremo. 

Supreme Court. 
supresión [/] suppression. 
suprimir to suppress, leave out, omit 
Suprima Ud. la pimienta en la sopa. 
Omit the pepper from the soup. A to 
abolish Suprimieron los impuestos so- 
bre la renta. They abolished income 
supuesto (see suponer) assumed; sup- 

O por supuesto of course Por supues- 
to, tendrá Ud. el pasaporte en regla. 
Of course, you have your passport in 

sur [m] south. 
surco furrow. 

surgir to make a sudden appearance 

Surgió cuando nadie le esperaba. He 

appeared when no one expected him. 

A to arise (as a situation). 

suroeste [m\ southwest. 

surtido (see surtir) supplied; assorted. 

A [m] assortment. 
surtidor [m] vertical fountain, spout; 

O surtidor de gasolina filling station. 
surtir to supply ¿Le ha surtido de todo 
lo necesario? Has he supplied you 
with everything that's necessary? 

O surtir efecto to have the desired 
effect Surtirá muy buen efecto este 
artículo. This article will have the de- 
sired effect. 
suspender to suspend, stop Suspendieron 
el espectáculo por la lluvia. The show 
was stopped on account of the rain. 
A to suspend, hang Suspendieron el 
cuadro de un clavo. They hung the pic- 
ture on a nail. A to flunk (give a fail- 
ing mark to) Lo suspendieron en arit- 
mética. They flunked him in arith- 
suspenso (see suspender) hung, sus- 
pended. A [m] failing grade, flunk. 

O en suspenso in suspense Se quedó 
en suspenso. He stopped in suspense. 
A suspended Esa ley está en suspenso. 
That law's suspended. 
sustento support, sustenance, living ex- 

O ganarse el sustento to make a liv- 
susto fright, scare. 

O dar un susto to frighten. 
suyo, suya; suyos, suyas your(s), of 
yours, his, of his, her(s), of hers, 
their (s), of theirs Este lápiz no es 
suyo. This pencil isn't yours (or his, 
hers, theirs). — Son amigos suyos. 
They're friends of yours (or of his, 
of hers, of theirs). 

O el suyo, la suya; los suyos, las 
suyas yours, his, hers, theirs El mío 
está aquí. ¿Dónde está el suyo? Mine's 
here. Where's yours? O los suyos his 
(or her, your, their) folks Fué con 
todos los suyos a la playa. He went 
with all his folks to the beach. 





tabaco tobacco; cigar; cigarettes. 

taberna saloon, tavern, dive. 

tabla board, plank ¿Tiene Ud. una tabla 
de planchar? Have you an ironing 
board? A list, table (of contents, prices, 
etc) Quiero ver la tabla de precios. 
I want to see the price list. 

O salvarse en una tabla to have a 
narrow escape. O tablas [/ pi] stage 
(theater) Es gente de las tablas. They 
belong to the theatrical world. A draw 
(in a game) El partido terminó en 
tablas. The game ended in a draw. 

tablado outdoor stage, platform. 

tacha fault Es una persona sin tacha. 
He is a person without any faults. 

tachar to cross out Tache Ud. esa pala- 
bra. Cross out that word. 

O tachar de to accuse of being Le 
tacharon de ladrón. They accused him 
of being a thief. 

taco taco (Mexican dish) Quiero un taco 
de puerco. I want a pork taco. A heel 
(of a shoe) [Am] Usa tacos muy altos. 
She wears very high heels. 

O echar tacos to ¿wear, curse [Sp] . 
O taco de billar billiard cue. 

tacón [m] heel (of shoe). 

táctica tactics; policy, way of doing Ten- 
dremos que emplear otra táctica. We'll 
have to use different tactics. 

tacto touch, sense of touch Esta tela es 
muy suave al tacto. This cloth is very 
soft to the touch. A tact Tiene mucho 
tacto para tratar a sus amigos. He's 
very tactful with his friends. 

tajada slice (usually meat). 

tal such Jamás se ha visto tal cosa. 
Never has such a thing been seen. 
A such (a) thing Ud. me dijo eso y no 
hay tal cosa. You told me that, but 
there's no such thing. 

O con tal que provided that Con tal 
que me lo haga Ud. bien no importa el 
precio. Provided you do it well the 
price doesn't matter. O e l tal, la tal 
that (contemptuous) No me gustó la 
tal comedia. I didn't like that comedy. 
O tal como just as Siga tal como em- 
pezó. Go on just as you started. O tal 
cual as Me gusta tal cual es. I like it 
as it is. A so-so [Mex] "¿Cómo está 
Ud.?" "Tal cual." "How are you?" 
"So-so." O tales y tales such and such 
Me dijo: Pregunte a tales y tales 
personas .... He said to me: Ask such 
and such persons.... O tal para cual 

two of a kind Son tal para cual. 
They're two of a kind. O un tal a cer- 
tain ¿Conoce Ud. a un tal Pérez? Do 
you know a certain Pérez ? 

|| ¿Qué tal? How do you do? or 
How's everything? 

talabartería leather workshop, harness- 
maker's shop. 

taladro drill, bit. 

talante [m] O mal talante bad humor, 
bad disposition. 

talento talent, brains. 

talla carving Se ha dedicado a la talla 
en madera. She devoted herself to 
wood carving. A size Deseo un traje de 
la talla cuarenta. I want a suit size 
forty. A height (of humans) Un hom- 
bre de talla elevada. A man of great 
height. A prominence Un escritor de 
talla. A prominent writer. 

talle [m] waist, figure Esa muchacha 
tiene un lindo talle. That girl has a 
pretty figure. 

taller [m] workshop; factory, mill. 

tallo stem (of plant). 

talón [m] heel (of foot). A stub (of a 
check, receipt) No pierda Ud. el talón 
de los cheques. Don't lose your check 

talonario check book, receipt book, stub 
book, book of tickets. 

tamal [m] tamale [Aw]. 

tamaño so great, such a big Es imposible 
creer tamaña mentira. It's impossible 
to believe such a big lie. A [m] size 
¿De qué tamaño? What size? 

también also, too El también irá con noso- 
tros. He also will go with us. 

tambor [to] drum. 

tampoco neither, not either Yo tampoco 
la he visto. I haven't seen her either. 

tan [before adj or adv] (see tanto) so 
No le esperaba a Ud. tan temprano. 
I didn't expect you so early. 

tanate [m] bundle [Aw] Haré un tanate 
con esta ropa. I'll make a bundle of 
these clothes. 

tanda turn Como somos muchos, almor- 
zaremos por tandas. Since there are 
so many of us, we'll take turns at 
lunch. A batch. A performance, ses- 
sion [Am] Iremos a la primera tanda. 
We'll go to the first performance. 

tango tango. 

tanque [m~\ tank (military); tank (for 

tantear to estimate, consider Hay que tan- 
tear la situación antes de decidir. The 





situation must be considered before de- 
ciding. A to judge, estimate [Am] 
Tantee Ud. el peso de esto. Estimate 
the weight of this. A to feel out Tan- 
téelo Ud. antes de hablarle claro. Feel 
him out before speaking plainly to him. 
A to feel, test Tantearnos el piso para, 
ver si era fuerte. We tested the floor 
to see if it was strong. 

tanteo computation, calculation; points, 

tanto so, much He comido tanto que ya no 
tengo hambre. I've eaten so much that 
I'm no longer hungry. — No debe Ud. 
trabajar tanto. You shouldn't work so 
much. A so many Ha ido tantas veces 
que conoce muy bien el lugar. He has 
gone so many times that he knows the 
place very well. — Eran tantos que faltó 
comida. There were so many that 
there wasn't enough food. A so long 
No tardará tanto si va en auto. He 
won't take so long if he goes by car. 
A so often Yo no voy tanto al teatro 
como mi hermano. I don't go to the 
theater as often as my brother does. 
A [m] part [Am] Mezclaba tres tantos 
de cal por cinco de arena. He mixed 
three parts lime with five of sand. 
A point (in games) Ganaron por dos 
tantos a cero. They won two to noth- 

O entre tanto meanwhile Entre tanto 
sentémonos. Meanwhile let's sit down. 
O estar al tanto to keep informed, be on 
the alert Y o estaba al tanto. I was on 
the alert. O no ser para tanto not to 
be so serious No es para tanto el asun- 
to. It's not such a serious matter. 
O por lo tanto so, therefore Es tarde, 
por lo tanto debemos irnos ya. It's late 
so we ought to go now. O tanto como 
as much as Sabe tanto como su her- 
mana. He knows as much as his sister. 
O tanto más cuanto que so much more 
since Tanto más cuanto que yo no lo 
esperaba. So much more since I didn't 
expect it. O tanto mejor so much the 
better Si llega Ud. antes, tanto mejor. 
If you get there before, so much the 
better. O tener al tanto de to keep one 
posted or informed Téngame al tanto 
de lo que pase. Keep me informed of 
what's happening:. O un tanto rather, 
somewhat Llegó vv tanto cansado. He 
arrived rather tired. 

|| ¡Se lo he pedido tanto! I've asked 
him so many times! || ¡Tanto bueno 
por aqui! It's good to see you here! 

tapa lid /Dónde está la tapa de la caja? 
Where's the lid of the box? A cover 

Las tapas de este libro están mancha- 
das. The covers of this book are 

tapado lady's overcoat [/Iw]. 

tapar to cover Tape el café para q>>e no se 
enfríe. Cover the coffee so it won't 
get cold. A to obstruct (or block) one's 
view No puedo ver porque me tapa esa 
columna. I can't see because that 
pillar blocks my view. A to cover up 
for Su madre le tapa todas sus diablu- 
ras. His mother covers up all his 

O taparse to bundle up, wrap (one- 
self) up Tápese bien que hace frío 
afuera. Bundle up for it's cold outside. 
A to cover oneself Se tapó la cara con 
las manos. She covered her face with 
her hands . 

tapete [m] small rug; cover for a table. 

tapia wall, brick fence. 

tapioca tapioca. 

tapiz [m] tapestry; carpet (without 

tapón [m] cork, stopper; fuze. 

taquigrafía shorthand. 

taquilla ticket office, ticket window. 

tarantín [m] kitchen utensils [Am] Hay 
muchos tarantines en esta cocina. 
There are many utensils in this 

tardanza delay, slowness, lateness, tardi- 

tardar to delay, be long No tarde mucho. 
Don't be long. A to take (time) Tar- 
daron varios meses en hacer el tra- 
bajo. They took several months to do 
the work. 

O a más tardar at the latest A más 
tardar, vendré el sábado. I'll come 
Saturday at the latest. 

tarde [m] afternoon, early evening Es- 
taré en casa por la tarde. I'll be at 
home in the afternoon. A [adv] late 
Más vale tarde que nunca. Better late 
than never. 

O de la tarde (at a certain hour) in 
the afternoon. Venga Ud. a, las tres 
de la tarde. Come at three in the after- 
noon. O hacerse tarde to become (or get) 
late Se hace tarde y no estamos listas. 
It's getting late and we're not ready. 
O por la tarde afternoon Nos veremos 
el lunes por la tarde. We'll get te 
gether Monday afternoon. O tarde o 
temprano sooner or later Tarde o tem- 
prano lo sabrá. He'll find out sooner 
or later. 

|| Buenas tardes. Good afternoon, or 
Good evening. 





tarea task. 

O por tarea against time [Am] Está 
trabajando por tarea. He's working 
against time. 

tarifa rates, tariff; list or schedule of 
prices, taxes, etc. 

tarjeta card; visiting card; filing card. 

tata [m] papa. 

taz O taz con taz equal, the same, side 
by side [Am] Quedaron taz con taz. 
They were equal. 

taza cup. 

tazón {m] bowl (utensil). 

té [m] tea ¿Quiere una taza de té? Do 
you want a cup of tea ? 

te you, to you; yourself, to (for) your- 
self Te buscan. They are looking for 
you. — Te lo daré cuando lo encuentre. 
I'll give it to you when I find it. — 
¡Cuidado, no te cortes! Careful, don't 
cut yourself ! 

teatro theater. 

techo ceiling; roof. 

técnica technique. 

tecolote [m] owl [Mex]. 

tecomate [ni] gourd, canteen [Aw]. 

teja roof tile. 

tejado roof. 

tejer to weave; [Am] to knit. 

tela cloth, material No me gusta la tela 
de este traje. I don't like the material 
in this dress. 

O tela metálica screen wire; wire 

telefonear to telephone, phone. 

telefonista [m, f] telephone operator. 

teléfono telephone. 

O teléfono automático dial telephone. 

telegrafiar to telegraph, send a telegram. 

telégrafo telegraph. 

telegrama [m] telegram. 

telón [m] theater curtain. 

tema [m] subject, topic, theme. 

temblar [rad-ch I] to tremble, shiver 
Está temblando de frío. He's shiver- 
ing with cold. A to quake [Am] En ese 
país tiembla mucho. There are many 
earthquakes in that country. 

temblor [m] tremor. 

O temblor de tierra earthquake. 

tembloroso trembling. 

temer to fear, be afraid of. 

temerario rash; unwise. 

temible [adj] fearful, terrible. 

temor [m] fear. 

temperamento temperament. 

temperatura temperature. 

tempestad [/] storm, tempest. 

templado brave, courageous Es un tipo 
muy templado. He's a courageous fel- 
low. A temperate Francia está en la 

zona templada. France is in the tem- 
perate zone. A mild Hoy hace un día 
templado. It's a mild day today. 
A tuned El violin no está bien templado. 
The violin isn't tuned. A tepid, luke- 
warm Déme Ud. agua templada. Give 
me some tepid water. 

templar to tune. 

° templarle la gaita a uno to humor 

templo temple, church. 

temporada spell, period of time, season 
Pasaremos tina temporada en la playa. 
We'll spend some time at the beach. 
A season ¿Ha empezado ya la tempo- 
rada de ópera? Has the opera season 
started yet? 

temporal temporary Tengo tin trabajo 
temporal. I have a temporary job. 
A [m] storm El temporal duró varios 
días. The storm lasted several days. 

temprano [adj, adv] early 

tenaz tenacious, persevering Es muy 
tenaz en sus propósitos. He's very 
persevering. A stubborn La resistencia 
fué tenaz. Resistance was stubborn. 

tenaza pliers, tongs. 

tendencia tendency. 

tender [rad-ch I] to stretch, spread out 
Estaba tendiendo el mantel sobre la 
mesa. She was putting the tablecloth 
on the table. A to hang (clothes) 
Tienda Ud. esa ropa al sol. Hang that 
wash out in the sun. A to extend, offer 
(one's hand) Al verlo le tendió la mano. 
When he saw him he offered him his 
hand. A to build (engineering) Ten- 
dieron un puente y una línea ferro- 
viaria. They built a bridge and a rail- 

O tenderse to stretch out, lie full 
length Se tendieron sobre la arena. 
They stretched out on the sand. 

tendero, tendera shopkeeper. 

tendón [m] sinew, tendon. 

tenedor [m] holder; keeper; fork. 
O tenedor de libros bookkeeper. 

tener [irr] to have, possess Tengo un 
automóvil nuevo. I have a new car. 
A to hold Téngalo Ud. por los brazos. 
Hold him by the ai-ms. A to have, con- 
tain Cada caja tiene veinticuatro 
pildoras. Each box contains twenty- 
four pills. A to have, carry, sell 
¿Tienen aquí libros en español? Do 
you carry Spanish books here? A to 
have, entertain Hoy tendremos invita- 
dos. We're going to entertain some 
guests today. A to be, live (in a place) 
Tenemos muchos años de vivir aquí. 
We've lived here many years. 





O no tener razón to be wrong. 
O tener . . . años to be . . . years old 
Creo que tiene veinticinco años. I think 
he's twenty-five years old. O tener 
buena cara to be looking well ¿Cómo 
estás, María? Tienes buena cara. How 
are you, Mary? You're looking well. 
A to look good Tiene buena cara ese 
pastel. That cake looks good. O tener 
con cuidado to worry Su ausencia me 
tiene con cuidado. His absence worries 
me. O tener cuidado to be careful. 
O tener en cuenta to take into consider- 
ation. O tener gana(s) de to feel like. 
O tener frío to be cold. Tengo frío. I'm 
cold. O tener gracia to be funny ¡Ten- 
dría gracia que eso pasara! It would be 
funny if that happened. O tener gusto 
to be pleased, be glad Tengo mucho 
gusto en conocerle. I'm very glad to 
meet you. ° tener hambre to be hun- 
gry. O tener (la) costumbre de to be 
used to Tengo costumbre de levantarme 
temprano. I'm used to getting up early 
in the morning. O tener miedo to be 
afraid. ° tener presente to bear in mind 
Tendré presente lo que Ud. me ha 
dicho. I'll bear in mind what you've 
told me. O tener prisa to be in a 
hurry. O tener que to have to, be 
obliged to Tengo que irme ya. I have 
to go now. O tener que ver to have to 
do with Eso no tiene que ver con lo 
que digo. That has nothing to do 
with what I'm saying. O tener razón 
to be right. O tener remedio to be able 
to be remedied or helped Esta situación 
no tiene remedio. This situation can't 
be helped. O tenerse (en pie) to keep 
on one's feet, stand, remain standing 
Apenas podía tenerse en pie. He could 
hardly stand. 

teniente [to] lieutenant. 

tenis [to] tennis. 

tensión [/] tension. 

tentación [/] temptation. 

tentar [rad-ch I] to touch, feel; to tempt. 

tentativa attempt. 

teñir [rad-ch III] to dye. 

tequila tequila (plant, drink) [Mex]. 

tercer [adj] (see tercero) third Este es 
mi tercer viaje a este país. This is my 
third trip to this country. 

tercero [adj] third Vive en el piso ter- 
cero. He lives on the third floor. A [to] 
third person, mediator Necesitamos un 
tercero para resolver esto. We need a 
third person to decide this. A third one 
Era el tercero de su clase. He was 
third in his class. 

tercio one-third; Spanish Foreign Legion. 

terciopelo velvet. 

terco stubborn. 

terminación [/] termination, completion. 

terminar (de) to end, finish Terminó de 
hablar. He finished speaking. 

término end. 

O en último término in the last analy- 
sis. O poner término a to put an end to. 

término medio compromise, middle 
road. O término municipal township. 

termómetro thermometer. 

ternera female calf; calfskin; veal. 

ternero male calf. 

ternura tenderness, fondness. 

terquedad [/] stubbornness, obstinacy. 

terraza terrace. 

terremoto earthquake. 

terreno piece of ground, lot; ground, soil. 

terrible terrible Hace un calor terrible. 
It's terribly hot. A wonderful, terrific 
Nos divertimos de una manera terrible. 
We had a terrific time. 

territorio territory. 

terrón [w] lump (of sugar) ; clod (of 

terror [to] terror. 

tertulia conversation, gabfest, gathering. 

tesorería treasury. 

tesorero, tesorera treasurer. 

tesoro treasure. 

testamento will (document). 

testarudo stubborn, hardheaded. 

testificar to testify. 

testigo [n~\ witness. A [to] testimony. 

tetera teapot. 

texto text; textbook. 

tez [/] complexion. 

ti [Fam; used only with a preposition] 
you Esta carta es para ti. This letter 
is for you. — No me lo dijo a mí, sino a 
ti. He didn't say it to me, but to you. 

tía aunt; old woman. 

O no hay tu tía [Fam] there are no 
excuses, nothing doing No hay tu tin; 
tienes que ir. Nothing doing; you have 
to go yourself. 

tibio tepid, lukewarm. 

tiempo time, period, epoch Esto fué con- 
struido en tiempo de la coldnia. This 
was built in colonial times. A time No 
sé si tendré tiempo de ir con Ud. I don't 
know whether I'll have time to go with 
you. A weather El tiempo está muy 
malo desde ayer. The weather has been 
very bad since yesterday. 

O a tiempo on time Llegué a tiempo. 

1 arrived on time. O con tiempo in 
time Avíseme con tiempo. Notify me 
in time. O en otro tiempo formerly. 
O ganar tiempo to save time. O hacer 





buen (or mal) tiempo to be good (or 
bad) weather. ° hacer tiempo to while 
away the time. O hace tiempo long 
ago. O hace (,or hacía) tiempo que it is 
(or was) a long time since Hace tiempo 
que estuve allí. It's a long time since 
I was there. O los buenos tiempos 
the good old days; one's youth. O ma- 
tar el tiempo to kill time. O mucho 
tiempo a long time. O perder el tiempo 
to waste time. ° poco tiempo a short 
time. O ¿ (por) cuánto tiempo . . .? 
(for) how long . . .? ¿Cuánto tiempo 
duró la representación? How long did 
the show last? 

tienda shop, store. 

O tienda de campaña tent. 

tierno tender, soft Esta carne de vaca 
está muy tierna. This beef is very 
tender. A tender, affectionate he lanzó 
una mirada tierna. He looked at her 

tierra earth ¿Cómo parece la tierra desde 
tin avión? How does the earth look 
from an airplane? A ground El avión 
cayó en tierra. The plane fell to the 
ground. A land Están arando la tierra. 
They are plowing the land. A soil, 
dirt Ponga tierra en la maceta. Put 
some soil in the flowerpot. A native 
land, country Pronto regresaré a mi 
tierra. Soon I'll return to my country. 
° caer por tierra to fall to the 
ground. O echar por tierra to over- 
throw, ruin Le echaron por tierra sus 
proyectos. They ruined his plans. 
° echar tierra a to forget, hush up Le 
echaron tierra al asunto. They hushed 
up the matter. O por tierra overland, 
by land La única manera de llegar 
allí es por tierra. The only way to 
get there is by land. 

tigre [w] tiger. 

tijera O cama de tijera day bed, cot. 
° tijeras [pi] scissors, shears. 

timbre [m] electric bell; seal, tax stamp. 

timidez [/] shyness, bashfulness. 

tímido timid, shy, bashful. 

timo fraud, swindle Ud. ha sido víctima 
de un timo. You've been the victim of 
a swindle. 

timón [m] helm; rudder. 

tino good aim; tact. 

O hablar sin tino to chatter incessantly. 
O sin tino without rhyme or reason, 

tinta ink. 

tinte [m] shade, tint; dyeing; dry clean- 
ing shop. 

tinterillo shyster lawyer [/!?»]. 

tintero inkwell. 

O quedársele a uno algo en el tin- 
tero to forget completely Se me ha. 
quedado en el tintero. I completely 
forgot about it. 

tinto wine colored. 

O café tinto black coffee [Col]. 

tintorería dry cleaning shop; combina- 
tion laundry and dry cleaning estab- 
lishment [Arflf]. 

tío uncle Llegó con su tío. He came with 
his uncle. A fellow, guy Me lo dijo el 
tío ese. That fellow told me so. 

típico typical, characteristic ¿Cuál es 
el traje típico de esta región? What 
is the typical dress here? — Eso es típico 
de ellos. That's typical of them. 

tiple [m] treble. A [/] soprano. 

tipo type, pattern Ese tipo de letra es 
muy moderno. That's very modern 
lettering. A type Limpie los tipos de 
la máquina de escribir. Clean the type 
on the typewriter. — Tiene tipo latino. 
He's a Latin type. A guy (deroga- 
tory), character ¿Quién es ese tipo? 
Who's that guy? 

° buen tipo good figure or physique 
Tiene buen tipo. He has a good phy- 
sique. O mal tipo bad egg Es muy mal 
tipo. He's a bad egg. A poor physique 
Tiene mal tipo. He has a poor physique. 
° tipo de interés rate of interest Han 
subido el tipo del interés. The rate of 
interest has gone up. 

tiquete [m] ticket [Am]. 

tira narrow strip. 

tirador, tiradora marksman, good shot. 

tiranía tyranny. 

tirano tyrant. 

tirante tight, taut Ponga la red bien 
tirante. Make the net good and tight. 
A tense La situación era muy th ante. 
The situation was very tenso. 

O tirantes [m pi] suspenders Com- 
pró unos tirantes. He bought suspon- 

tirar to throw Tiró la pelota más lejos 
que todos los otros. He threw the ball 
farther than all the others. A to throw 
away, discard Este cinturón ya no 
sirve; hay que tirarlo. This belt is no 
longer any good; we have to throw it 
away. A to shoot, fire (gun) Estabcn 
tirando al blanco con rifle. They were 
shooting at the target with rifles. A to 
draw Tire Ud. una línea recta. Draw a 
straight line. A to squander, waste Ha 
tirado su herencia. He's wasted hia 
inheritance. A to print Tirarán muchos 
ejemplares. They'll print a large edi- 

° tirar a los dados to shoot craps, 





O tirar coces to kick Está tirando 
coces el caballo. The horse is kicking. 
O tirar de to pull Tira de la cuerda. 
Pull the cord. O tirar de la oreja a 
Jorge to gamble Fueron encarcela- 
dos por tirar de la oreja a Jorge. 
They were imprisoned for gambling. 
O tirarse to throw oneself, hurl oneself 
Se tiró por la ventana. He threw him- 
self out the window. A to jump Vimos 
como se tiraban los paracaidistas. We 
saw the parachutists jump. 

tiritar to shiver. 

tiro drive, shot Su tiro de revés es mejor 
que su tiro de derecha. His backhand 
drive is better than his forehand. A shot 
El tiro atravesó la pared. The shot 
went through the wall. A team of 
horses Caballo de tiro. Draft horse. 

O (de) al tiro right away, imme- 
diately [Am] . O errar el tiro to miss 
the mark Ha errado Ud. el tiro. You 
missed. O ni a tiros for love or money 
No lo haremos ni a tiros. We won't do 
it for love or money. 
|| ¡Lindo tiro! Good shot! 

titubear to hesitate, waver No titubea 
nunca. He never hesitates. 

título title, name ¿Cuál es el título del 
libro? What's the title of the book? 
A headline (newspaper) Sólo he leído 
los títulos. I've only read the head- 
lines. A diploma, degree, title Tiene el 
título de maestra normal. She has a 
teacher's diploma. 

O a título de que on whose authority 
¿A título de qué lw.ce ella eso? On 
whose authority is she doing that? 
O título de propiedad deed (of property) 
¿Dónde están los títulos de su propie- 
dad? Where are the deeds to your 

toalla towel No tengo toalla. I haven't 
got a towel. 

tobillo ankle. 

tocador [to] boudoir ; dressing table. 

tocante a concerning. 

tocar to touch No me toque Ud. Don't 
touch me. A to play (an instrument) 
Estaba tocando el piano. He was play- 
ing the piano. A to knock Toqué a la 
puerta. I knocked at the door. A to get 
a share Nos tocarán par-tes iguales. 
We'll get equal shares. A to draw Le 
tocó el número premiado. He drew the 
prize-winning number. A to call (at a 
port) El barco no tocará en Veracruz. 
The ship won't call at Veracruz. 

O por lo que a mí (él, etc) toca as 
far as I'm (he's, etc) concerned. 
O tocarle a uno to be one's turn Le toca 

jugar. It's his turn to play. A to con- 
cern Eso no le toca a ella. That doesn't 
concern her. 

tocino bacon. 

todavía still ¿Todavía tienes hambre? 
Are you still hungry? A yet Todavía 
no ha llegado. He hasn't arrived yet. 
A even Ella es todavía más buena que 
él. She's even kinder than he is. 

O todavía no not yet Todavía no he 
comido. I haven't eaten yet. 

todo [adj~\ all Este pollo es todo huesos. 
This chicken's all bones. A full Pasa- 
ron a toda velocidad. They tore past 
at full speed. A [>h] all, the whole 
¡Eso es todo! That's all! A every- 
thing Le gusta probarlo todo. He likes 
to try everything. 

O ante todo first of all Ante todo 
dígame Ud. a que hora llegan. First 
of all tell me what time they're coming. 
O así y todo in spite of all Así y todo 
me gusta estar aquí. In spite of all 
that, I like being here. O a todo all 
out, to the limit Iban a todo correr. 
They were going at full speed. O con 
todo still, however Con todo prefiero no 
ir. Still, I prefer not to go. O del todo 
wholly, completely Se le olvidó del todo. 
He completely forgot. ° jugarse el 
todo por el todo to bet everything Se 
están jugando el todo por el todo. 
They're betting everything. O ser el 
todo to be the whole El es el todo del 
equipo. He's the whole team. O sobre 
todo especially, above all Me gusta el 
café, sobre todo si está caliente. I like 
coffee, especially if it's hot. O todo 
bicho viviente every living soul Se lo 
contó a todo bicho viviente. He told 
every living soul. O todo cuanto all 
that Todo cuanto Ud. dice me interesa. 
All that you tell me interests me. 
O todo el día all day Todo el día estuvo 
jugando. He was playing all day. 
O todo el mundo everybody Todo el 
mundo lo sabe. Everybody knows it. 
O todos everybody Todos lo quieren. 
Everybody likes him. O todos los every 
Todos los años im a la montaña. He 
goes to the mountains every year. 

|| Todos son unos. They're all the 

toldo awning; tarpaulin. 

tolerancia toleration, tolerance. 

tolerante tolerant. 

tolerar to overlook, tolerate Le tolera sus 
faltas. She overlooks his faults. A to 
tolerate No podemos tolerar eso. We 
can't tolerate that. 

tomada [-A??*] plug (electrical). 





tomar to take Tomaré el que más me 
guste. I'll take the one I happen to 
like best. — Tomaremos el avión esta 
tarde. We'll take the plane this after- 
noon. — No lo tome Ud. en ese sentido. 
Don't take it that way. A to drink, eat, 
have Tomaremos café al regresar. We'll 
have coffee when we return. A to take, 
hire Tomemos un taxi. Let's take a 
taxi. A to take, adopt Ha tornado las 
costumbres de aquel país. He has 
adopted the customs of that country. 
A to take, capture Tomaron la ciudad 
por la noche. They captured the city 
during the night. 

O sin tomar aliento in a great hurry 
Vino sin tomar aliento. He came 
in a great hurry. O tomar a bien to 
take the right way (to put the correct 
interpretation upon) Lo tomarán a 
Men. They'll take it the right way. 
° tomar a broma to take as a joke 
Tomémoslo a broma. Let's take it as 
a joke. O tomar a mal to take offense. 
° tomar a pecho to take to heart No 
lo tome Ud. a pecho. Don't take it to 
heart. O tomar asiento to sit down, 
take a seat ¿Quiere Ud. tomar asiento? 
Won't you sit down? ° tomar cariño a 
to become attached to, fond of Me to- 
maron mucho cariño. They became 
very much attached to me. O tomar 
el gusto to begin to like Ya le estoy 
tomando el gusto a este juego. I'm 
beginning to like this game. O tomar 
el sol to sun oneself Salieron para 
tomar el sol. They went out to sun 
themselves. O tomarla con uno to pick 
on, ride La ha tomado conmigo. He 
picked on me. O tomar la responsabili- 
dad to take (assume) responsibility El 
tomó la responsabilidad del trabajo. He 
assumed the responsibility for the 
work. O tomar las de Villadiego to take 
to one's heels. O tomar nota to take 
note Tomaron nota de todo. They took 
note of everything. O tomar por to 
consider, take for ho toman por tonto. 
They take him for a fool. O tomar por, 
tomar hacia to turn, go in the direction 
Al llegar a la esquina tomó hacia su 
casa. When he reached the corner 
he went in the dh-ection of his house. 
O tomar precauciones to take precau- 
tions Están tomando todas las precau- 
ciones necesarias. They're taking all 
the necessary precautions. O tomarse 
to take Se tomó unas horas para deci- 
dirlo. He took a few hours to decide. 
O tomarse alas to take liberties; to get 
too big for one's breeches. O tomar 

(una or la) resolución to resolve, decide 
Tomó la resolución de hacerlo. He de- 
cided to do it. 

|| ¡Tome Ud.! Here you are! 
tomate [m] tomato. 

tomo volume Esta obra tiene varios 
tomos. This work is in several vol- 
tonada tune, song. 
tonel [m] cask, barrel. 
tonelada ton. 

tono tone, note Desafina casi medio tono. 
She's nearly a half-note off pitch. 
A manner Me lo dijo con mal tono. He 
told me in a rude manner. A shade 
¿No tiene otro tono de rojo? Haven't 
you another shade of red? 

O bajar el tono to lower the pitch 
Baje Ud. el tono de voz. Lower your 
voice. O darse tono to put on airs Se 
da tono de gran persona. She puts on 
the airs of a great lady. O en todos los 
tonos in every possible way Se lo he 
dicho en todos los tonos. I've told him 
in every way I know. 
tontería foolishness, nonsense Eso es una 

tontería. That's nonsense! 
tonto silly, foolish, stupid, dumb No es tan 
tanto como Ud. cree. He's not as dumb 
as you think. A [n] fool ¡Qué tonto! 
What a fool! 

O a tontas y a locas thoughtlessly, 
haphazard Todo lo hace a tontas y a 
locas. Everything he does is crazy. 
O hacerse el tonto to play the fool. 
° pasar las horas en tonto to pass the 
time doing nothing. O tonto de capi- 
rote blockhead Es un tonto de capirote. 
He's a blockhead. 
topar to butt, strike against. 

O topar con to stumble upon, find, 
come upon Topé con él en la calle. I 
came upon him in the street. 
toque [m] touch Unos cuantos toques 
más y estará terminado. A few more 
touches and it will be finished. 

O toque de corneta bugle-call. O toque 
de diana reveille. O toque de tambor 
beat of drum. 
torbellino whirlwind. 

torcer [rad-ch I] to twist Está torciendo 
el alambre. He's twisting the wire. 
A to turn El camino tuerce hacia el río. 
The road turns toward the river. 

O no dar el brazo a torcer to be 
stubborn Nunca da su brazo a torcer. 
He never gives in. O torcerse to sprain, 
dislocate Se ha torcido un pie. He's 
sprained his foot. 
torcido crooked Arregle el cuadro que 
está torcido. Straighten the picture; 





it's crooked. A bent El clavo está tor- 
cido. The nail is bent. A twisted Este 
alambre está torcido. This wire is 
twisted. A unlucky [Am] Es muy tor- 
cido en el juego. He's very unlucky at 

torero bullfighter. 

tormenta storm. 

tormento torment, pain. 

tornarse to turn, become Se tornó muy 
amargo. He became very bitter. 

torneo tournament. 

tornillo screw Necesitamos un clavo, no 
un tornillo. We need a nail, not a 

O faltarle a uno un tornillo to have a 
screw loose A ese muchacho le falta al- 
gún tornillo. That boy has a screw 

toro bull. 

torpe slow; stupid. 

torre [/] tower. 

torta cake. 

tortilla omelet; [3/e.r] pancake. 

tortuga turtle. 

tos [/] cough. 

tosco rough Es un trabajo muy tosco. 
It's a very rough job. A coarse, un- 
couth Es un hombre tosco. He's a 
coarse fellow. 

toser to cough. 

tostada toast En el desayuno tomo café 
con tostadas. I have coffee and toast 
for breakfast. 

tostado tanned (by the sun). 

tostar [rad-ch /] to toast. 

tostón [m] tostón (coin for half a peso) 

total [adj; m] total ¿Cuál es el total de 
la suma? What's the total amount? 

O en total in a word, in short En 
total, lo que pasó fué esto. In a word, 
what happened was this: O total que 
the upshot of it was that Total que 
no podía verla. The upshot of it all 
was that I didn't get to see her. 

trabajador industrious Era honrado y 
trabajador. He was honest and indus- 
trious. A [n] worker Han aumentado 
el número de trabajadores. They've 
increased the number of workers. 

trabajar to work Trabaja en una com- 
pañía de transportes. He works with 
a transport company. A to work, strive 
Ha trabajado mucho para conseguir lo 
que quería. He's worked hard to get 
what he wanted. A to till Están tra- 
bajando la tierra. They're tilling the 

trabajo work El trabajo está muy bien 
hecho. The work is very well done. 

A labor Van a cambiar la ley del tra- 
bajo. They're going to change the 
labor laws. 

O costar mucho trabajo to be diffi- 
cult, hard Me costó mucho trabajo 
arreglar el asunto. It was quité a job 
for me to get the matter straightened 
out. O pasar trabajos to experience 
hardships, have a hard time Está pa- 
sando muchos trabajos. He's having 
a hard time. O trabajos forzados hard 
labor (penal). 

trabar O trabar amistad to strike up a 
friendship Trabaron amistad en un 
viaje. They struck up a friendship on 
a trip. O trabarse la lengua to stam- 
mer Se le traba la lengua cuando habla 
ligero. When he speaks fast he stam- 

tradición [/] tradition. 

tradicional traditional. 

traducción [/] translation. 

traducir [-^c-] to translate ¿Quién tra- 
dujo esto? Who translated this? 

traer [trr] to bring He traído una carta 
para Ud. I brought a letter for you. 
A to wear Ella traía un lindo abrigo. 
She wore a lovely coat. A to bring, 
serve Espere que traigan el café. Wait 
until they serve the coffee. A to carry, 
have El periódico hoy trae tin artículo 
sobre el Señor X. Today's paper has an 
article on Mr. X. A to have No traigo 
la pluma conmigo. I haven't my pen 
with me. 

° traer y llevar to talk about some- 
one, gossip Le gusta mucho traer y 
llevar. He likes to gossip. 

tráfico traffic En esta ciudad hay poco 
tráfico. Traffic is very light in this 

tragar to swallow. 

tragedia tragedy. 

trágico tragic. 

trago swallow, drink. 

O echar un trago to take a drink, 
to have a shot. 

traición [/] treason. 

traicionar to betray. 

traidor [w] traitor. 

traje [m] dress Llevaba un lindo traje. 
She was wearing a pretty dress. 

O traje de baño bathing suit. O traje 
de etiqueta formal dress Todos vestían 
traje de etiqueta. They were all wear- 
ing formal dress. O traje largo eve- 
ning dress Las señoras iban de traje 
largo. The ladies were in evening 
dress. O traje sastre tailored suit 
Siempre usa traje sastre. She always 
wears tailored suits. 





trámite [m] business transaction. 

trampa trap Pusieron algunas trampas 
para los ratones. They set several rat 

O hacer trampas to cheat Hace tram- 
pas cuando juega. He cheats when he 

trance [w] ° a todo trance at any cost 
Está resuelto a hacerlo a todo trance. 
He is determined to do it at any cost. 
O en trance de at the point of Estaba 
en trance de muerte. He was at the 
point of death. 

tranquilidad [/] rest, peace, tranquillity. 

tranquilizarse to be reassured Me he 
tranquilizado con lo que Ud. me ha 
dicho. What you have told me has 
reassured me. A to calm oneself, be 
calmed ¡Tranquilícese! Calm yourself! 

tranquilo [adj] quiet. 

transacción [/] settlement; transaction. 

transcurrir to pass, elapse Transcurrió 
mucho tiempo sin que le volviera a ver. 
A long time passed without her seeing 
him again. 

transeúnte \_adj~] transient. A [w] passer- 

transferir [rad-ch II~\ to transfer. 

transformar to transform. 

transición [/] transition. 

transigir to settle, compromise ¡Con eso 
no transijo! I won't compromise on 
that ! A to agree Transigieron en ha- 
blarle. They agreed to talk to him. 

tránsito passage Se prohibe el tránsito. 
No thoroughfare. 

O de tránsito in transit Estaba de 
tránsito. He was passing through. 

transmisión [/] transmission; broad- 
cast (ing) La transmisión del programa 
de radio será a las ocho de la noche. 
The program will be broadcast at eight 

transmisora broadcasting station. 

transmitir to transmit; to broadcast. 

transparente transparent. A [m] window 

transportar to transport, carry. 

transporte [m] transport; transportation. 

tranvía [?j?] street car. 

trapero rag picker. 

trapo piece of cloth. A rag Déme Ud. el 
trapo para limpiar la mesa. Give me 
the rag to clean the table. 

O a todo trapo to beat the band Esta- 
ban charlando a todo trapo. They were 
talking to beat the band. O poner 
como un trapo to insult, skin alive. 

|| Siempre están charlando de trapos. 
They're always discussing clothes. 

tras after La policía andaba tras él. The 

police were after him. A behind Estaba 
tras la puerta. It was behind the door. 
O tras de behind Iba tras de ella. 
He was walking behind her. 

trasero [adj] rear, back La parte trasera 
del automóvil. The rear part of the 
automobile. A [m] rear, hind part. 

trasladar to transfer La trasladaron a 
otro departamento. She was trans- 
ferred to another department. 

O trasladarse to move (change place 
of residence or work) Se han trasladado 
a otra ciudad. They've moved to an- 
other city. 

trasnochador [m] night-owl. 

trasnochar to be up all night. 

traspasar to go through, pierce El balazo 
le traspasó el corazón. The bullet 
pierced his heart. A to transfer, sell 
(a business) Traspasó la tienda muy 
ventajosamente. He sold the business 
very profitably. 

traspatio back yard [Aw]. 

trastornado (see trastornar) crazy, in- 

trastornar to upset, disturb Trastornó 
toda la habitación. He upset the whole 
room. A to drive insane El disgusto 
la trastornó. The misfortune drove 
her insane. 

tratado treaty; treatise. 

tratamiento medical treatment; courteous 
form of address. 

tratante [m] dealer (in cattle or grain) 
Es un tratante en granos. He's a grain 

tratar to treat Lo trataron con desprecio. 
They treated him with contempt. — El 
médico la trató por mucho tiempo. The 
doctor treated her for a long time. A to 
handle Trate eso con cuidado. Handle 
that with care. 

O tratar de to deal with (a subject 
or thing) Vamos a tratar de ese nego- 
cio. Let's deal with that business. A to 
try Trataron de resolver el problema. 
They tried to solve the problem. A to 
call Lo trató de loco. She called him a 
madman. O tratarse (con) to deal with 
(person), be on good or intimate terms 
(with) No me trato con Juan. I'm not 
on good terms with John. — Juan y 
Pedro no se tratan. John and Peter 
are not on good terms. ° tratarse de 
to be the subject of, be a question of 
Se trata de hacerlo lo mejor posible. 
It's a question of doing it in the best 
possible way. 

trato treatment Le dieron a él muy buen 
trato. They treated him very well. 
A behavior, manners Su trato es muy 





correcto. His manner is very correct. 
A pact, agreement, deal (commercial) 
Hicieron un trato. They had an under- 
standing. A close friendship Parece 
que tienen mucho trato. They seem 
to be very close friends. 

O tener buen trato to be pleasant, 
be nice. 

través O a través de through, across 
Fueron a través del bosque. They went 
through the woods. ° de través side- 
wise, out of the corner of the eye Me 
miró de través. He looked at me out 
of the corner of his eye. 

travesía voyage. 

travesura prank, antic. 

traviesa railroad tie [Sp]. 

travieso mischievous, prankish. 

trayecto distance, stretch, line. 

traza looks, appearance. 

O buena traza good appearance. 
O mala traza evil look Ese hombre 
tiene mala traza. That man looks dan- 
gerous. O tener trazas to show signs 
Esto no tiene trazas de terminarse. 
This doesn't seem te be anywhere near 
finished. O tener trazas de to look 
like Tiene trazas de mendigo. He looks 
like a beggar. 

trazar to draw Trazó un croquis rápida- 
mente. He quickly drew a sketch. 
A to draw up Trazaron planes para el 
futuro. They drew up plans for the 

trazo line, stroke Con unos trazos de 
lápiz hizo una caricatura. With a few 
strokes of his pencil he made a cari- 

trébol [m] clover. 

trece thirteen. 

trecho space, stretch Hay un trecho de 
mal camino. There's a stretch of bad 

O de trecho en trecho at intervals 
Han plantado árboles de trecho en 
trecho. They have planted trees at 

tregua truce, lull Hubo una tregua en la 
lucha. There was a lull in the fighting. 
O sin tregua without rest Trabaja 
sin tregua. He works without rest. 

treinta thirty. 

tremendo terrible, dreadful Hubo un acci- 
dente tremendo. There was a terrible 
accident. A huge, tremendous Ocasi- 
onó tremendos gastos. It entailed tre- 
mendous expense. 

tren [rn] train El tren viene atrasado. 
The train is late. A pomp, show Con 
ese tren de inda se van a arruinar. 

They'll go broke with such extravagant 

O tren correo mail train. O tren de 
mercancías freight train Pasaron un 
tren de mercancías. They passed a 
freight train. O tren de viajeros pas- 
senger train Hay un tren de viajeros 
cada dos horas. There's a (passenger) 
train every two hours. O tren expreso 
(or rápido) express train. O tren mixto 
freight and passenger train. 

trenza braid, tress. 

trepar to climb Trepó al árbol con gran 
dificultad. He climbed the tree with 
great difficulty. 

tres three. 

triángulo triangle. 

tribu [/] tribe. 

tribuna rostrum, reviewing stand El ora- 
dor subió a la tribuna. The speaker 
mounted the rostrum. A gallery Desde 
las tribunas ovacionaron a los diputa- 
dos. The galleries cheered the dele- 

O la tribuna the bar; politics (pro- 
fession). O tribunas grandstand Las 
tribunas estaban llenas de especta- 
dores. The grandstand was filled with 

tribunal [?n] court (of justice) ; examin- 
ing board. 

O llevar alguien a los tribunales to 

tribuno orator. 

trigo wheat. 

trinchadora sideboard. 

trinchante [n¡] carving knife. 

trinchar to carve (meat). 

trinchera trench; ditch; trench coat. 

trineo sled; bob sled. 

tripa tripe; intestines; belly. 

triple triple, treble. 

tripulación [/] ci'ew. 

triste sad. A sad, sorry Hizo un triste 
papel. He cut a sorry figure. A gloomy, 
dismal El día está muy triste. It's a 
gloomy day. 

tristeza sadness, sorrow. 

triunfar to triumph, succeed Triunfaron 
sus proyectos. His plans succeeded. 
A to win Ha triunfado en el campeonato. 
He won the championship. 

O triunfar de to triumph over Pudo 
triunfar de toda la oposición. He was 
able to triumph over all opposition. 

triunfo triumph, victory El trmnfo sobre 
el enemigo fué completo. The victory 
over the enemy was complete. A trump 
card Echó un triunfo. He played a 

O costar un triunfo to be exceedingly 





difficult Nos costó un triunfo conse- 
guirlo. It cost us a lot of effort to 
get it. or It was no easy matter to 
get it. 

triza small piece. 

O hacer trizas to tear to bits Hizo 
trizas el papel. He tore the paper to 

trompa horn; elephant's trunk. 

trompeta [/] trumpet, bugle. A [m] bugler. 

tronar [rad-ch I] to thunder Ha estado 
tronando durante toda la noche. It's 
been thundering all night long. 

O por lo que pueda tronar as a pre- 
caution Lo llevaré por lo que pueda 
tronar. I'll take it along as a precau- 

tronchado (see tronchar) broken. 
O estar tronchado to be all in. 

tronchar to break. 

O troncharse to split one's sides with 
laughter [Slang}. 

troncho stalk, stem (of garden plants). 

tronco trunk, stalk, stem El tronco del 
árbol es muy grueso. The tree has a 
large trunk. A team Un hermoso tronco 
de caballos tiraba del carro. The car- 
riage was drawn by a handsome team 
of horses. A stock Procede de viejo 
tronco. He comes from very old stock. 

trono throne. 

tropa troop Las tropas desfilaron por la 
calle. The troops marched through the 

tropel [m~\ bustle, confusion (of people) 
¿Por qué hay tanto tropel en la calle? 
Why is there so much confusion in the 

O en tropel boisterously, in a throng 
Entraron en la casa en tropel. They 
entered the house boisterously. O tropel 
de caballos herd of horses. 

tropelía excess, excessive act; outrage 
Los soldados cometieron tropelías. The 
troops committed many outrages. 

tropezar [rad-ch 7] to stumble Tropezó 
y cayó al suelo. He stumbled and fell. 
O tropezar con to run into, come upon 
Tropecé con él en la calle. I came upon 
him in the street. O tropezar en to 
trip over Tropecé en el bordillo de la 
acera. I tripped over the curb. 

tropical tropical. 

trópico tropic (al). A [m] tropics. 

tropiezo obstacle, hitch. 

trotar to trot Los caballos trotaban a 
través del campo. The horses were 
trotting across the field. A to hustle 
Me he pasado la mañana trotando. I've 
been on the go all morning. 

trote [m] trot El caballo tiene muy buen 
trote. The horse has a good trot. 

O al trote in haste Me llevaba al 
trote. He kept me on the run. 

trozo piece Déme Ud. un trozo de pollo. 
Give me a piece of chicken. A part Un 
trozo de la calle está en mal estado. 
A part of the street is in bad shape. 
A fragment Está hecho con trozos de 
tela. It's made out of odds and ends of 
cloth. A selection, passage (of books) 
Léame un trozo de ese libro. Read me 
a selection from that book. 

O trozo de madera wooden block El 
niño juega con trozos de madera. The 
child is playing with wooden blocks. 
O trozo musical musical selection Es 
un lindo trozo musical. That's a beau- 
tiful piece of music. 

trucha trout. 

trueno thunder Hubo truenos y relámpa- 
gos durante la tormenta. There was 
thunder and lightning during the 

O trueno gordo big scandal Esa no- 
ticia será un trueno gordo. That news 
will create a big scandal. 

trusa bathing suit [Antilles]. 

tu pi tus [adj; Fam] your Aquí tienes 
tus guantes y tu bastón. Here are your 
gloves and your cane. 

tu [pron; Fam] you María, tu irás con- 
migo. Mary, you'll go with me. 

O tratar de tú to use tú in addressing, 
be on intimate terms with ¿Le trata Ud. 
de tú? Are you on intimate terms with 

tubo tube, pipe. 

tuerca nut (hardware) 

tuerto one-eyed. 

tumba tomb. 

tumbar to knock down Lo tumbó al pri- 
mer golpe. He knocked him down with 
the first punch. 

O tumbarse to tumble Se tumbó en la 
cama. He tumbled into bed. 

tumbo tumble, somersault Andaba dando 
tumbos. He was turning somersaults. 

tumor [m] tumor. 

tumulto mob, noisy crowd. 

tuna prickly pear [Am]. 

tunante [m] rake, rascal, rogue ¡Es un 
tunante! He's a rascal! 

túnel [m] tunnel. 

tupido (see tupir) thick; close-woven; 
stopped up, clogged. 

tupir to pack tight Se me han tupido las 
narices. My nose is stopped up. 

turba crowd, mob. 

turbación [/] confusion. 

turbar to disturb, upset; to confuse. 





turbio muddy Esta agua está turbia. This 
water is muddy. A blurred, indistinct 
Veo todo turbio. I see everything 

turista [m, /] tourist. 

turno turn Espere que le llegue su turno. 
Wait your turn. 

O de turno on duty Estaba de turno 
aquella noche. He was on duty that 

turquesa turquoise. 

turrón [m] nougat. 

tutear to use the familiar tú in address- 
ing a person. 

tutor, tutora tutor. 

tuyo yours, of yours [Fam~\ ¿Es tuyo 
esto? Is this yours? — Creía que eran 
amigas tuyas. He thought they were 
friends of yours. 


u (for o, before o or ho) or Elija uno u 
otro. Choose one or the other. 

ultimo last ¿Quién es el último? Who's 
last? A final Fué su última decisión. 
It was his final decision. A latest Las 
últimas noticias son muy buenas. The 
latest news is very good. 

O a la última moda in the latest style 
Va a la última moda. She dresses in 
the latest style. O a última hora at 
the last minute. O a últimos de at 
the end of Vendrá a últimos de sep- 
tiembre. He'll come at the end of Sep- 
tember. O estar a la última (or a la 
cuarta) pregunta to be fiat-broke El 
pobre muchacho está a la última pre- 
gunta. The poor boy's flat-broke. O po r 
última vez for the last time Por última 
vez ¿viene Ud.? For the last time, are 
you coming? O por último finally. 

un (see uno) a, an; one. 

unánime unanimous. 

undécimo eleventh. 

ungüento ointment. 

único only, only one Es el único que puede 
arreglar este asunto. He's the only one 
who can arrange this matter. — Es hijo 
único. He's an only son. 

unidad [/] unity Trabajemos todos por 
la unidad. Let's all work for unity. 
A figure A esa unidad agregúele dos 
ceros. Add two zeros to that figure. 
A unit ¿Cuál es la unidad monetaria de 
su país? What's the monetary unit of 
your country? 

unión [/] union La unión de esos dos 
países es probable. The union of those 
two countries is likely. A union, mar- 
riage Anoche se celebró la unión de 
Juan y María. The marriage of John 
and Mary took place last night. A unity 
La unión hace la fxierza. In unity there 
is strength. A joining, joint La unión 
de esas tablas está mal hecha. Those 
boards are badly joined. 

unir to tie together Una Ud. esas dos 
cuerdas. Tie those two strings to- 
gether. A to attach Una Ud. esa carta 
al informe. Attach that letter to the 

O unirse to unite, join No quería 
unirse con nadie en aquel negocio. He 
didn't want to be united with anybody 
in that business. A to join Se unió a 
los obreros. He joined the workers. 

universal universal. 

universidad [/] university. 

universo universe, world. 

uno a, an Necesito un experto para este 
trabajo. I need an expert for this 
work. A one Sólo uno ha llegado. Only 
one has arrived. 

O cada uno each one Pagó a cada uno 
lo que le debía. He paid each one what 
he owed him. O de una a otra parte 
from one place to another; from side 
to side. O uno a uno, uno por uno one 
by one Salgan uno a uno. Go out one 
by one. O uno que otro occasional (1 y) 
Uno que otro día viene a vernos. He 
comes to see us occasionally. ° unos a 
otros each other, one another Se mira- 
ban zinos a otros. They were looking 
at one another. O unos cuantos some, 
a few ¿Quiere Ud. darme unos cuantos? 
Will you give me a few? O unos, unas 
some, a few Déme unas manzanas. Give 
me a few apples. O un ... sí y otro no 
every other . . . Viene un día sí y otro 
no. He comes evex-y other day. 

untar to spread Úntele mantequilla a las 
tostadas. Spread some butter on the 
toast. A to bribe Le untaron para que 
no declarara la verdad. They bribed 
him so that he wouldn't tell the truth. 
O untar con grasa to grease Untó la 
rueda con grasa. He greased the 
wheel. O untarse to grease, smear Le 
gustaba untarse la cara con crema. She 
liked to use cream on her face. 





uña nail, fingernail, toenail Se rompió la 
uña. She broke her fingernail. A claw 
El gato sacó las uñas. The cat showed 
its claws. 

O ser uña y carne to be fast friends. 

urbanidad [/] (good) manners. 

urbano urban. 

urgencia urgency, hurry ho necesitan con 
urgencia. They need it in a hurry. 

O clínica de urgencia emergency 
ward. O cura de urgencia emergency 
treatment. ° sello de urgencia spe- 
cial-delivery stamp. 

urgente pressing, urgent. 

usado (see usar) used, second-hand 
Quiero comprar un carro usado. I want 
to buy a used car. 

usanza usage, custom. 

usar to use ¿Puedo usar su pluma? May 
I use your pen? A to wear ¿Qué nú- 
mero de zapatos usa Ud.? What size 
shoe do you wear? 

O antes de usarse before using Agí- 
tese antes de usarse. Shake well be- 
fore using. O usarse to be in use or 
fashion Este año se usa mticho ese 

color. This year that color's very fash- 

uso use ¿Qué uso tiene esta máquina? 
What use has this machine? 

O en buen uso in good condition Ese 
abrigo está todatna en buen uso. That 
overcoat's still in good condition. 

|| Empezó a trabajar apenas tuvo 
uso de razón. He began to work when 
he was very young. 

usted (abbr Ud., Vd.) you ¿Cómo está 
Ud.? How are you? 

usual usual, customary ho usual en estos 
casos es el traje de smoking. The 
tuxedo's customary for such occasions. 

útil profitable El juego es útil y agra- 
dable. The game's both pleasant and 
profitable. A useful Era un hombre 
muy útil. He was a very useful man. 
O útiles (de trabajo) tools, utensils. 

utilidad [/] usefulness, utility ¿Tiene 
esto alguna utilidad? Has this any 

utilizar to utilize. 

uva grape. 

vaca cow. A beef Estos filetes ¿son de 
vaca o de ternera? Ai*e these steaks 
beef or veal? 

vacación [/] vacation. 

vacante \_adj] vacant. A [/] vacancy. 

vaciar to empty; to drain. 

vacilar to reel, stagger Vacilaba mucho al 
andar. He staggered badly when he 
walked. A to waver, hesitate ¡No vacile 
Ud.! Don't hesitate! 

vacío void, empty El granero estaba vacío. 
The granary was empty. A unoccu- 
pied, vacant A fin de mes quedará el 
cuarto vacío. At the end of the month 
the room'll be vacant. A vacuous, stu- 
pid, empty Era un hombre vacío. He 
was a stupid fellow. A [m] empty 
space, space, vacuum Se lanzó al vacío. 
He jumped into space. 

vacuna vaccine. 

vadear to wade through, ford. 

vado ford. 

vagabundo, vagabunda tramp, bum. 

vagar to rove, wander. 

vago vague, hazy Tengo una vaga idea. 
I have a vague idea. A [m] loafer, 
tramp No le gusta trabajar, es un vago. 
He doesn't like to work; he's a loafer. 

vagón [m] railway car. 

O vagón de carga freight car. 

vagoneta dump cart. 

vaina nuisance, bother. A scabbard, 
sheath; pod (of vegetables). 

vainilla vanilla. 

vaivén [m] fluctuation; vibration. 

vajilla set of dishes; chinaware. 

vale [m] note, I.O.U.; sales slip; coupon. 

valentía courage. 

valer \irr\ to cost ¿Cuánto vale ese traje? 
How much is that dress? A to cause, 
result in Aquella tontería le valió mu- 
chos disgustos. That foolishness caused 
him a lot of trouble. A to be of value 
Puede Ud. tirar esos papeles, no valen 
nada. You can throw those papers 
away, they're worthless. A to be worth, 
be worthy Ese hombre vale mucho. 
That man's very worthy. A [m] worth, 
merit Es un hombre de mucho valer. 
He's a man of great merit. 

O más valiera it'd be better Más me 
valiera no haberle conocido. It'd be 
better for me never to have known him. 
O no poder valerse to be helpless Con 
las manos heridas no podía valerse. 
With his injured hands he was help- 
less. O valer(le a uno) la pena to be 
worth (one's) while No (me) vale la 
pena ir. It's not worth (my) while to 
go. O valerse de to make use of, avail 





oneself of Se valió de muchos medios. 
He availed himself of every means at 
his disposal. 

valiente valiant, brave, courageous. 

valija valise, suitcase; briefcase. 

valioso [adj] valuable. 

valla wooden fence. 

valle [m] valley. 

valor [m] price Lo he comprado por la 
mitad de su valor. I bought it at half 
price. A value El valor del dólar equi- 
vale a cinco pesos en México. The dol- 
lar's worth five Mexican pesos. A im- 
port, importance, meaning ¿ Qué valor 
le da Ud. a esas palabras? What im- 
portance do you attach to those words? 
A courage, gallantry El soldado demos- 
tró mucho valor. The soldier showed 
great courage. A nerve, crust ¿Cómo 
tiene Ud. valor para presentarse aquí? 
How do you have the nerve to appear 

O valores stocks, bonds, securities. 

vanidad [/] vanity. 

vanidoso vain. 

vano vain, shallow. 
O en vano in vain. 

vapor [m] steam; steamship. 

O al vapor swiftly, at lightning speed. 

vaquero cowboy, cowhand. 

vara twig, switch; vara (measure; about 
a yard); yardstick. 

varar to run aground La embarcación 
varó frente a la costa. The vessel ran 
aground off the coast. 

It Se ha varado completamente. He's 
down and out [Col]. 

variable changeable, variable, unstable. 

variación [/] variation, change. 

variedad [/] variety, diversity. 
O variedades vaudeville show. 

vario various, varied Tenía telas de varios 
precios. He had fabrics at various 
prices. A several Hay varios libros en 
la mesa. There are several books on 
the table. 

varón [m] male (of humans). 

varonil virile, manly. 

vaselina vaseline. 

vasija container, receptacle (for liquids). 

vaso (drinking) glass. 

vasto vast, huge, immense. 

¡vaya un(a) . . . ! what a(n) . . . l/Vaya 
una idea! What an idea! 

vecindad [/] tenants ¿Tiene esta casa 
mucha vecindad? Are there many ten- 
ants in this house? A vicinity, neigh- 
borhood Viven en la vecindad. They 
live in the vicinity. 

vecindario population of a district, ward, 

vecino neighboring, near-by Traen las 
provisiones del pueblo vecino. They 
bring provisions from the town near-by. 
A [n] neighbor. A tenant Aquella casa 
tenía cincuenta vecinos. There were 
fifty tenants in that house. 

vegetación [/] vegetation. 

vegetal [adj; m] vegetable. 

O el reino vegetal the vegetable 

vehemencia vehemence. 

veinte twenty. 

vejez [/] old age. 

vela vigil Le vela duró hasta la madru- 
gada. The vigil lasted till daybreak. 
A candle Encienda Ud. esa vela. Light 
that candle. A sail Tenia varios barcos 
de vela. He had several sailing ships. 
O a toda vela under full sail ; at full 
speed. £> en vela awake Pasó la noche 
en vela. He was awake all night. 

velada evening party or gathering. 

velar to stay up, keep watch Estuvo toda 
la noche velando el enfermo. He kept 
watch all night over the sick man. A to 
stay awake Veló toda la noche. He 
stayed awake all night. 

O velar por to take care of, protect 
Vela muy bien por su familia. He 
takes very good cai"e of his family. 

velo veil; film (thin coat). 

O correr un velo to drop the matter, 
forget about it Carramos un velo. Let's 
drop it. 

velocidad [/] velocity, speed. 

veloz swift, fast. 

vena vein. 

O estar de vena to be in the mood. 

venado deer. 

veneer to defeat, vanquish Vencieron al 
enemigo. They defeated the enemy. 
A to overcome No creo que venza esa 
pasión. I don't think he'll overcome 
that habit. A to win Venció nuestro 
equipo por dos tantos. Our team won 
by two points. A to prevail Su opinión 
fué la que venció. It was his opinion 
that prevailed. A to become due La 
letra venció ayer. The bill of exchange 
was due yesterday. 
° vencerse to control (one's feelings). 

venda bandage, surgical dressing; roll of 

vendaje [m] bandage, surgical dressing; 

vendar to bandage, dress. 

vendedor [m] vendor, seller, trader. 

vender to sell Vendió todas sus propieda- 
des. He sold all his property. 

° vender a crédito to sell on credit. 
O vender al contado to sell for cash. 





O vender a plazos to sell on install- 
ments O vender (se) to give oneself 
away, betray Su emoción le vendió. His 
emotion betrayed him. — Al hablar se 
vendió. When he spoke he gave himself 
away. A to accept a bribe, sell out Le 
fusilaron por haberse vendido al ene- 
migo. They shot him for having sold 
out to the enemy. 

veneno poison, venom. 

venenoso [adj] poisonous, venomous. 

venganza revenge, vengeance. 

vengar to avenge. 

O vengarse to take revenge. 

venir [ir* - ] to come. Viene de muy buena 
familia. He comes of a very good fam- 
ily. A to fit Eso le viene muy ancho. 
That's too big for her. A to occur No sé 
como me vino esa idea. I don't know 
how that idea occurred to me. 

O que viene next Le veré la semana 
que viene. I'll see you next week. 
O venir a (followed by infinitive) to 
get to, end by Vino a ser presidente. 
He got to be president. O venir a 
menos to decline, be in reduced circum- 
stances Con la muerte del padre esa 
familia vino a menos. As a result of 
the death of the father, that family's 
in reduced circumstances. O venir a 
parar to turn out, terminate ¿En qué 
vino a parar ese asunto? How did that 
matter turn out? O venir a pelo to be 
to the point Lo que dijo no venía a pelo. 
What he said wasn't to the point. 
O venir a ser to amount to Eso viene a 
ser lo mismo. That amounts to the 
same thing. O venir a tener probably 
have, must have Viene a tener unos 
cuatro mil pesos de renta al año. He 
must have an income of about four 
thousand pesos a year. O venir bien 
to suit Me vendrá muy bien una tem- 
porada en el campo. A stay in the 
country will suit me fine. O venir mal 
not to suit, be inconvenient for Me 
viene mal ir a esa hora. It isn't con- 
venient for me to go at that hour. 
° venirse abajo, venirse a tierra to 
fall (through), collapse Todo aquello 
se vino a tierra. The whole thing fell 

venta sale Hicimos un contrato de 
venta. We made a contract of sale. 
A sales, selling Toda la venta se hacia 
al por mayor. All the sales were 

O estar a la venta to be on sale. 

ventaja advantage, profit; headway, lead. 
O llevar ventaja to be ahead, have a 

ventajoso advantageous. 
ventana window. 

O echar la casa por la ventana to put 

oneself out, go to a lot of expense. 

ventanas de la nariz nostrils. 
ventanilla ticket window; window (of a 


ventilación [/] ventilation. 

ventilador [m] electric fan; ventilator. 

ventilar to air, ventilate Hay que ven- 
tilar esta habitación. This room must 
be aired. A to settle ¿Cuándo ventila 
esta cuenta con el Banco? When are 
you going to settle this account with 
the bank? 

ventoso windy. 

ventura happiness; happy event. Muck 
Tuve la ventura de encontrarlo. I had 
the luck to find him. 

ver [irr] to see ¿Ve Ud. bien con esas 
gafas? Can you see well with those 
glasses? A to look ,at [Am] No me 
vea Ud. de esa manera. Don't look at 
me that way. 

O no poder ver to abhor, detest No 
me hables de él, no le puedo ver. Don't 
mention his name, I detest him. O no 
tener que ver con to have nothing to do 
with No tengo nada que ver con él. 

1 have nothing to do with him. O ver 
el cielo abierto to see a great oppor- 
tunity. O ver las estrellas to see stars 
(experience a sudden pain). O verse 
to meet, see each other Hace mucho 
tiempo que no se ven. It's been a long 
time since they saw each other. A to 
find oneself, be Me vi en una mala si- 
tuación. I found myself in a tough 
spot. — Me veo obligado i a hacerlo. I'm 
forced (or I find myself obliged) to do 
it. O ver visiones to see things ¡Está 
Ud. viendo visiones! You're seeing 
things ! 

|| ¡Allá (or Y a) veremos! Time'll 
tell! || ¡A ver! Let's see! || Hasta 
más ver. See you again. 

veranear to summer, spend the summer 
¿Dónde veranea Ud.? Where are you 
spending the summer? 

veraneo (summer) vacation, summering 
Fuimos de veraneo a la playa. We 
spent the summer at the beach. 

verano summer. 

veras [/ pl~\ reality, truth. 

O de veras in truth, really, honestly 
¡Ahora va de veras! Now he's really 
going! — Se lo digo de veras. I'm tell- 
ing you honestly. 

verdad [/] truth Le ha dicho la verdad. 
He's told you the truth. 

O a decir verdad to tell the truth 





A decir verdad, yo no creo eso. To tell 
the truth, I don't believe that. O decir 
cuatro verdades to speak one's mind, 
tell someone a thing or two. O de 
verdad really ¿De verdad lo cree Ud.? 
Do you really believe it? O ser verdad 
to be true Era verdad lo que decía. 
What he said was true. 0¿ verdad 
(que)? isn't that so? isn't it true? 
isn't it? Es Ud. americano ¿verdad? 
Isn't it true that you're an Ameri- 
can? — ¿Verdad que no estaba allí? 
Isn't it true that he wasn't there? 

|| ¿No es verdad? or ¿Verdad? Isn't it 

verdadero true, staunch Es un amigo ver- 
dadero. He's a staunch friend. A real 
No usaba su nombre verdadero. He 
didn't use his real name. 

verde [adj] green. A green, unripe La 
fruta estaba demasiado verde. The 
fruit was too green. A risque, off-color 
Ese libro es muy verde. That book's 
very off-color. 

verdor [m~\ greenness, green. 

verdura vegetation; leafy vegetables. 

vereda path; [Arg~\ sidewalk. 

vergonzoso shameful; shy, bashful. 

vergüenza shame; shyness, bashfulness. 
O darle a uno vergüenza to be 
ashamed No me atrevo a decírselo, me 
da vergüenza. I don't dare tell him, 
I'm ashamed. A to be (too) bashful 
he da vergüenza declararse. He's too 
bashful to propose. O no tener ver- 
güenza to be shameless Ese hombre no 
tiene vergüenza. That man's shame- 
less. O no tener vergüenza de not to be 
too bashful fo, not to be ashamed to 
Ese niño no tiene vergüenza de cantar 
delante de la gente. That boy's not 
ashamed to sing before people. O tener 
vergüenza to be shy Ese niño tiene 
mucha vergüenza. That child's very 
shy. A to be honorable or honest Es 
un politico que tiene vergüenza. He's 
an honest politician. 

|| ¡Qué vergüenza ! How shameful! 

verso line of poetry; poem. 

verter [rad-cli 7] to spill Ha vertido el 
vino. He's spilled the wine. A to empty 
Vierta Ud. esa jarra. Empty that jug. 
A to translate Han vertido ese libro al 
inglés. They've translated that book 
into English. 

vertiente [/] slope; watershed; basin (of 
a river). 

vértigo dizziness. 

vestíbulo vestibule; lobby. 

vestido (see vestir) dressed Iba muy bien 
vestido. He was very well dressed. 

A [hi] dress ¿Qué vestido llevo a la co- 
mida? What dress shall I wear to the 
dinner? A garments, clothing. 

vestir [rad-ch 777] to dress. A to wear 
Vestía uniforme militar. He was wear- 
ing a military uniform. A to be fash- 
ionable, be dressy Ese traje viste 
mucho. That dress is very fashionable. 
— Ese traje viste demasiado. That out- 
fit's too dressy. 

O vestirse to dress ¿Quién le ayuda 
a Ud. a vestirse? Who helps you dress? 
A to clothe oneself; to buy clothes 
Antes, yo me vestía en Paris. I used 
to buy my clothes in Paris. 

veterano old, seasoned (of soldiers). 
A [m~\ veteran ; old hand, old-timer. 

vez [/] turn (in line) Le llegó a Ud. la 
vez de entrar. It was your turn to go in. 
A time La primera vez que vine a los 
Estados Unidos fué en 1938. The first 
time I came to the United States was 
in 1938. 

O a la vez at once, simultaneously 
Todos querían hablar a la vez. Every- 
body wanted to talk at once. O alguna 
que otra vez occasionally Le veía al- 
guna que otra vez. I used to see him 
occasionally. O alguna vez, algunas 
veces sometimes Algunas veces voy a 
comer al restaurante. Sometimes I eat 
at the restaurant. O a veces occasion- 
ally A veces le veo en casa de sus 
amigos. Occasionally I see him at the 
home of friends. O cada vez each 
time ¡Que lo haga otra persona cada 
vez! Let a different person do it 
each time! O cada vez que when- 
ever, every time Cada vez que le en- 
cuentro se lo digo. Whenever I see him 
I tell him so. O cuantas veces when- 
ever, every time Cuayitas veces lo veo 
me habla. Whenever I see him, he 
speaks to me. ° ¿cuántas veces? how 
many times? how often? O de una vez 
immediately, without delay, right now 
¡Hágalo de una vez! Do it right now! 
A in (or at) a gulp Se lo comió de una 
vez. He ate it in a gulp. O de una vez 
para siempre once and for all De una 
■ vez para siempre se lo prohibo. Once 
and for all I forbid it. O de vez en 
cuando once in a while, from time to 
time De vez en cuando iba a verla. I 
went to see her once in a while. O dos 
veces twice. O en vez de instead of 
Voy a tomar pescado en vez de carne. 
I'm going to have fish instead of meat. 
O otra vez again ¿Por qué ha hecho Ud. 
eso otra vez? Why did you do that 
again? A some other time Otra vez 





almorzaremos juntos. We'll have lunch 
together some other time. O tal vez 
perhaps Tal vez mañana podamos ver- 
nos. Perhaps we can meet tomorrow. 
O todas las veces que whenever, every 
time Todas las veces que le veo me 
pregunta por Ud. Whenever I see him 
he asks about you. O U na vez once 
Me invitó a comer una vez. He in- 
vited me to dinner once. — Habia (or 
Era) una vez. . . . Once upon a time 
there was. . . . 

via track ¿Por qué vía viene el expreso? 
Which track does the express train 
come in on? A route La vía marítima 
es algo peligrosa. The sea route's 
somewhat dangerous. A via, by way of 
Llegamos a Nueva York via Miami. 
We arrived in New York via Miami. 
A method, procedure Se hizo por la vía 
ejecutiva. It was done through execu- 
tive channels. 

O vía pública thoroughfare, street. 

viajar to travel. 

viaje [m] trip, travel ¡Cuándo sale Ud. 
de viaje? When do you start on your 
trip? — Hizo un relato de sus viajes. He 
gave an account of his travels. 

|| ¡Buen viaje! Bon voyage! or Have 
a good trip! 

viajero, viajera traveler El viajero estaba 
muy cansado. The traveler was very 
tired. A passenger Se ruega a los via- 
jeros que conserven sus billetes. Pas- 
sengers are requested to keep their 

víbora viper. 

vibrar to vibrate. 

vicio vice. 

O quejarse de vicio to complain ha- 

vicioso licentious, given to vice. 

víctima victim. 

victoria victory, triumph. 

O cantar victoria to celebrate vic- 
tory; to crow too soon. 

victorioso victorious, triumphant. 

rid [/] grapevine. 

vida life, human life Aquel descubri- 
miento salvó muchas vidas. That dis- 
covery saved many lives. A life, liveli- 
ness El niño tiene mucha vida. The 
child's full of life. A life, way of living 
Llevaba muy buena vida. He lived a 
very good life. A life (being alive) 
Estuvo entre la vida y la muerte. He 
hovered between life and death. A life, 
history Sabe la vida y milagros de todo 
el mundo. He knows everybody's life 

O en mi vida never in my life En mi 

vida le he visto. I've never seen him 
before in my life. O ganarse la vida 
to make (or earn) a living Se gana la 
vida escribiendo. He earns his living 
by writing. O vida de perros dog's 

vidriera glass door, window, or partition; 
show case; show window [Am]. 

vidriero glazier, dealer in glass. 

vidrio glass (material); pane of glass. 
° pagar los vidrios rotos to be made 
the scapegoat. 

viejo old Aquella casa era muy vieja. 
That was a very old house. A [m] old 
man [Am] El viejo caminaba con difi- 
cultad. The old man walked with diffi- 
culty. A old man, pal [Am] ¡Oyeme 
viejo! Listen to me, old man! 

O los viejos parents (affectionate) 
[Am] Tengo que escribirles a los vie- 
jos. I have to write to my parents. 
O mi vieja my old lady (affectionate) 
[Am]. O mi viejo my old man (affec- 
tionate) [Am]. O viejo verde old goat 
Era un viejo verde. He was an old 

viento wind. 

O contra viento y marea come hell 
and high water. O con viento con- 
trario against the wind. O i r viento 
en popa to go very well Sus negocios 
van viento en popa. His business is 
going very well. 

vientre [m] belly. 

viernes [m sg~\ Friday. 

O Viernes Santo Good Friday. 

viga beam (of a building). 

vigilancia vigilance, watchfulness. 

vigilante watchful. A [m] watchman; 
[Ar#] policeman. 

vigilar to watch, keep watch, guard, 
watch over. 

vigilia fast, abstaining from food for 
religious reasons; wakefulness. 

O comer de vigilia to fast (abstain 
from meat). 

vigor [m] vigor, strength Era un hombre 
de mucho vigor. He was a man of 
great strength. 

O en vigor in effect, in force. O leyes 
en vigor laws in force. 

vil vile, mean, despicable. 

villa town Toda la villa estaba alegre 
en la fiesta. The whole town was gaV 
at the festival. A villa, country house 
En el campo tengo una villa. I have a 
villa in the country. 

vinagre [m] vinegar. 

° cara de vinagre sour-puss. 

vindicar to vindicate. 





vino wine. 

O vino tinto red wine. 

viña vineyard. 

violencia violence, strength. 

violento impulsive; violent Tiene un ca- 
rácter muy violento. He's very impul- 
sive. A strong No diga Ud. esas frasas 
tan violentas. Don't use such strong 

O sentirse violento to be embarrassed, 
feel out of place. 

violeta violet; lilac (color). 

violin [m] violin. 

violón [??z] bass viol. 

O tocar el violón to talk through 
one's hat. 

virgen [adj; /] virgin. 

virtud [/] virtue, good quality; efficacy, 

virtuoso virtuous. A [h] virtuoso. 

viruela smallpox. 

visera eyeshade, visor. 

visible [adj] visible. 

visillo window curtain. 

visión [/] vision Tuvo una visión. He 
had a vision. A view, opinion Su visión 
del problema me parece justa. His 
view of the problem seems correct to 
me. A sight, peculiar looking person 
Con aquel traje y aquel sombrero es- 
taba hecha una visión. With that dress 
and hat she was a sight. 

O ver visiones to be seeing things, be 

visita visit ¿Recibió Ud. la visita de mi 
amigo? Did my friend call on you? 
A visitor, caller Con tantas visitas no 
hemos podido hacer nada. There were 
so many callers we haven't been able 
to accomplish anything. 

O hacer una visita to pay a call. 
O pagar la visita to return the call. 
O tener visita to have company No 
puede recibirle, tiene visita. She can't 
see you, she has company. 

visitar to visit, call on ¿Cuándo podré 
visitarle? When may Í call on you? 
A to visit, to make a professional visit, 
make a call El doctor está visitando a 
sus enfermos. The doctor is making 
his calls. A to inspect El inspector y 
los arquitectos han salido a visitar las 
obras. The inspector and the archi- 
• tects have gone to inspect the construc- 
víspera eve, day before Hoy es la víspera 
de la fiesta. This is the eve of the holi- 

O estar en vísperas de to be on the 
eve of, be about to Estaba en vísperas 

de embarcar para Europa. He was 
about to sail for Europe, 
vista eyesight, vision Tiene muy buena 
vista. He has very good eyesight. 
A sight ¡No te pongas delante de mi 
vista! Get out of my sight! A view, 
vista La vista desde la terraza era 
preciosa. There was an attractive view 
from the terrace. 

O corto de vista near-sighted Es muy 
corto de vista. He's very near-sighted. 
O de vista by sight, without introduc- 
tion No me han presentado, lo conozco 
sólo de de vista. I haven't been intro- 
duced to him; I know him only by 
sight. O echar la vista encima to lay 
eyes on (upon). O en vista de in view 
of En vista de esto, yo no puedo comer 
con Ud. hoy. In view of this, I cannot 
eat with you today. O hacer la vista 
gorda to wink (at), to overlook. 
O tener la vista cansada to have tired 
eyes; to be far-sighted. O tener 
vistas a to face La casa tiene vistas a 
la calle. The house faces the street. 
O vista cansada far-sightedness. 
|| ¡Hasta la vista! So long! 

visto (see ver) seen. 

O estar mal visto to be improper, be 
disapproved, be bad form No haga Ud. 
eso, equí está mal visto. Don't do 
that; it's considered bad form here. 
O estar visto to be evident, obvious, 
clear Está visto que Juan no viene. 
It's evident that John isn't coming. 
O no estar bien visto to be improper, 
frowned upon Eso no está muy bien 
visto. That isn't done. O por lo visto 
apparently Por lo visto no se acordó 
de que tenía que venir. Apparently 
he forgot that he was supposed to 
come. O visto bueno (abbr Vo Bo) ap- 
proved, O.K. A approval, O.K. Tiene 
que llevar el visto bueno del jefe. He 
has to have the chief's O.K. 

vistoso showy, loud. 

vital vital, essential. 

vitrina show window [Am] ; show case 

viuda widow. 

viudo widower. 

víveres [m pl~\ provisions. 

viveza quickness, liveliness Tiene mucha 
viveza de ingenio. He has a quick 
mind. A vehemence, spirit Al oírlo 
contestó con viveza. When she heard 
it she replied with spirit. 

vivienda dwelling, house. 

vivir to live, exist No sé si vive o ha 
muerto. I don't know whether he's 





living or dead. A to live, to dwell Yo 
vivo en América. I live in America. 
O vivir de to live on Vivía de sus 
rentas. He lived on his investments. 
J| ¿Quién vive? Who's there [Mil] 1 
III ¡Viva! Hurray! || ¡Viva la Repúbli- 
ca! Long live the Republic! 

vivo alive Por fortuna estoy vivo. For- 
tunately I'm alive. A vivid Los colores 
eran muy vivos. The colors were very 
vivid. A intense La luz a esa altura es 
muy viva. The light at that altitude is 
very intense. A acute, quick, keen 
Tiene una inteligencia muy viva. He 
has a very keen mind. A [m] edging, 
piping Llevaba un traje con vivos 
verdes. . She was wearing a suit with 
green piping. A wise guy No me gusta 
porque es un vivo. I don't like him be- 
cause he's a wise guy. 

O a lo vivo vividly Se lo pintó a lo 
vivo. He described it to her vividly. 
O de viva voz by word of mouth Lo 
■aprendió de viva voz. He learned it 
by word of mouth. O en carne viva 
raw, open (wound) Tenia la rodilla en 
came viva. His knee was raw. O tocar 
en lo vivo to cut to the quick. 

vocabulario vocabulary. 

vocación [/] vocation (activity or profes- 
sion for which one feels an inner call- 
ing) Soy médico pero mi verdadera vo- 
cación era la pintura. I'm a doctor, but 
I've always wanted to be a painter. 

volado See volar. 

O hacer un volado to do something 
pressing or urgent [Am] Tengo que 
hacer un volado. I have something 
urgent to do. O volado de genio quick- 
tempered [A«i]. 

volante [m~\ steering wheel (of vehicle); 

° tomar el volante to take the wheel. 

volar [rad-ch I] to fly El avión vuela alto. 
The plane's flying high. A to vanish, 
disappear Mi dinero voló. My money 
vanished. A to blow up Volaron los 
puentes con dinamita. They blew up 
the bridges with dynamite. 

O volando quickly, on the run, as fast 
as possible Fué volando. He went on 
the run. 

volcán [m] volcano. 

volcar [rad-ch I] to overturn, turn over 
El automóvil volcó al entrar en el 
puente. The car turned over when it 
entered the bridge. 

voltear to turn (over), whirl Volteaba en 
el trapecio. He was whirling on the 

O voltearse to change party or creed 

Se volteó a otro partido. He changed 

volumen [m] bulk, volume; volume 

voluntad [/] will Tiene una voluntad de 
hierro. He has a will of iron. 

O buena voluntad kindliness, good 

voluntario voluntary. A [m] volunteer. 

voluptuoso voluptuous. 

volver [irr] to turn (over) Volvía las 
páginas del libro rápidamente. He was 
turning the pages of the book quickly. 
A to turn Este camino vuelve a la dere- 
cha. This road turns to the right. 
A to return, go back Volvió a su casa 
por el mismo camino. He went back 
home by the same route. A to return, 
to pay back, to give or send back 
Vuelva Ud. favor por favor. Return 
favor for favor. 

O volver a to . . . again No ha vuelto 
a escribirme. He hasn't written me 
again. O volver del revés to turn up- 
side down; to turn inside out. O volver 
en sí to recover consciousness, come to. 
O volver la cabeza to turn one's head 
Al oír su nombre volvió la cabeza. 
She turned her head when she heard 
her name. O volver loco to drive crazy, 
irritate Me vas a volver loco. You're 
driving me crazy. O volverse to turn 
Se le ha vuelto el pelo muy blanco. His 
hair has turned snow-white. A to turn 
over ¡Haga el favor de volverse del 
lado contrario! Please turn over on 
the other side. O volverse atrás to 
flinch. A to back out Dijo que vendría, 
pero se ha vuelto atrás. He said he 
would come, but he has backed out. 
O volverse loco to become crazy, be- 
come insane Se ha vuelto loco. He's 
gone crazy. 

vomitar to vomit. 

vómito vomiting, vomit. 

voraz ravenous Tenía hambre voraz. He 
was ravenously hungry. A fierce Un 
voraz incendio arrasó el edificio. A 
fierce fire demolished the building. 

vos you [Fam; Am]. 

votación [/] voting, balloting. 

voto vote, ballot; vow. 

O hacer voto to make a vow. 

voz [/] voice. 

O a media voz softly Estaban hablan- 
do a media voz. They were talking 
softly. O a voces (by) shouting A 
voces no consigue Ud. nada. You won't 
get anything by shouting. O correr 
la voz to be rumored Corre la voz de 
que ha desaparecido. It's rumored 





that he has disappeared. ° dar voces 
to shout, yell ¡No des esas voces! Don't 
shout like that! O en voz alta aloud. 
O en voz baja very softly No hable 
I'd. en voz tan baja, no le oigo. Don't 
speak so softly, I can't hear you. 
O secreto a voces open secret. O voz 
de mando command A la voz de mando 
se pusieron en marcha. At the com- 
mand they began to march. 

vuelco tumble, overturning. 

vuelo flight, trip De un solo vuelo el 
avión atravesó el mar. The airplane 
made a non-stop flight across the 
ocean. A width, fullness Las faldas 
ahora tienen poco vuelo. Skirts are 
narrow this season. 

al vuelo right away, quickly ; in 
flight, on the wing. 

vuelta turn, revolution. A curve ¡Cuidado 
con esa vuelta! Watch out for that 
curve! A change ¿Tiene Ud. vuelta de 
este billete? Do you have change for 
this bill? 

O a la vuelta upon returning A la 
vuelta de mi viaje nos veremos. We'll 
see each other when I get back from 
my trip. O a la vuelta de around La 
casa está a la vuelta de la esquina. 

The house is around the corner. O dar 
la vuelta a to turn Hay que dar dos 
vueltas a la llave. You have to turn 
the key twice. A to go around Dimos 
la vuelta a la casa. We walked around 
the house. O darse vuelta to turn 
around; go to and fro Haga Ud. el 
favor de darse vuelta. Please turn 
around. O dar una vuelta to take a 
stroll, turn Vamos a dar una vuelta por 
el parque. Let's take a turn through 
the park. A to turn over El automóvil 
dio una vuelta. The car turned over. 
O dar vueltas to turn La tierra da 
vueltas sobre su eje. The earth turns 
on its axis. A to hang around Anda 
dando vueltas por ahí sin hacer nada. 
He's hanging around here not doing 
anything. O dar vueltas a to turn, 
turn around and around Déle vueltas 
a la manivela. Turn the handle. 
O poner de vuelta y media to give a 
bawling out. 

I! No hay que darle vueltas. There 
are no two ways about it. 

vuelto change (money) [Am] Cuente Ud. 
el vuelto. Count your change. 

vulgar vulgar, coarse; common. 

y and. 

O ¿y bien? all right Y bien, ¿cuándo 
nos vamos? All right, when do we go? 

y eso que and yet, even though Ud. 
no ha barrido mi cuarto, y eso que le 
dije que no dejara de hacerlo. You 
haven't swept my room, even though 

1 told you not to fail to do so. 0¿y 
luego? and then Y luego, ¿qué pasó? 
And then what happened? 0¿y qué? 
is it true that [Am] ¿Y qué se fué para 
Europa? Is it true that he went to 

ya already Ya sabe Ud. lo que yo quiero. 
You already know what I want. A now 
Y a es tarde. It's too late now. A at 
once, right now [Am] Hágalo ya. Do 
it right now. 

O ya lo creo of course ¿Quiere Ud. 
venir? ¡Ya lo creo! Do you want to 
come? Of course! O ya no no longer Y a 
no tengo ganas. I no longer feel like 
it. O ya pronto presently, any minute 
now Ya pronto llegará el tren. The 
train will be here any minute now. 

° ya que since Ya que me preguntas, 
te contestaré. Since you ask me, I'll 
tell you. O y a V oy I'm coming! ¡Ya voy! 
espere un minuto. I'm coming! Wait 
a minute! 

|] ¡Ya, ya! Sure! 

yanqui Yankee, any citizen of the U.S.A. 

yapa something extra, good measure 
[AmJ Me dieron esto de yapa. They 
gave me this for good measure. 

yegua mare. 

yema bud, shoot; yolk; cushion of finger- 

yerba herb; grass. 

yerno son-in-law. 

yerro error, mistake. 

yeso plaster. 

yeta bad luck, misfortune [Arg"\. 

yo I Soy yo. It's me. or It's I. 

O yo mismo I myself Yo mismo se lo 
dije. I told you so myself. 

yodo iodine. 

yugo yoke (for animals). 

yunta team of draft animals. 





sacate [m] grass; hay [Am]. 

safarse to slip off, come off [Am] Se 
zafó la rueda. The wheel came off. 
A to dislocate [Am] Se ha zafado un 
brazo. He dislocated his arm. A to 
get out of, avoid No sé como zafarme 
de ese compromiso. I don't know how 
to get out of that engagement. 

zafio coarse, vulgar. 

caguán [m] entrance, hall, vestibule. 

sambo [adj; n] half-breed (Negro and 

zambullida dive, plunge. 

zambullir to plunge. 

O zambullirse to dive. 

zanahoria carrot. 

zancudo long-legged. A [m] mosquito 

zangolotear to shake violently [Am]. 

zanja ditch, trench. 

zapatería shoemaker's shop, shoe store. 

zapatero shoemaker. 

zapatilla slipper. 

zapato shoe. 

zarco blue-eyed. 

zarpar to weigh anchor; to sail, start 

moving (of a boat). 
zarza bramble. 
zarzuela musical comedy. 
zona district, zone. 
zonzo dull, stupid, silly [Am]. 
zoológico zoological. 
zoquete [m] piece of stale bread; chuck, 

block; blockhead. 
zorro fox. 
zozobra worry. 

zozobrar to capsize, founder, sink. 
zumbar to buzz. 
zumbido buzz, buzzing. 
zumo juice (of fruit); juice (of fruit 

skin) [Am]. 
zurcir to darn, mend. 
zurdo left-handed. 
zurrar to whip, flog. 






a un, una Do you have a pen, an en- 
velope, and some paper? ¿Tiene Ud. 
una pluma, un sobre y papel? A un, 
algún Is there a bank near here? 
¿Hay algún banco cerca de aquí? 
Á una, alguna Is there a nurse here? 
¿Hay alguna enfermera aquí? A por 
/ make forty dollars a week. Gano 
cuarenta dólares por semana. A por, 
cada The rate of exchange is two 
pesos a dollar. El cambio está a dos 
pesos por dólar. A These eggs are 
fifty cents a dozen. Estos huevos son 
a cincuenta centavos la docena. 

abandon abandonar She abandoned her 
child. Abandonó a su hijo. 

abbreviate abreviar. 

A.B.C. abecé It's as simple as A.B.C. 
Eso es el abecé. 

ability habilidad. 

abnormal anormal. 

abolish abolir, derogar. 

abortion aborto. 

about [prep] de What's he talking 
about? ¿De qué está hablando? 
A concerniente It isn't anything about 
you. No es nada concerniente a Ud. 
• [ac/v] casi Dinner's about ready. 
La comida está casi preparada. A unos 
/ have about ten. Tengo unos diez. 
O about to a punto de, para The 
train's about to leave. El tren está 
a punte de partir. O what about? 
¿qué hay de? What about the things 
you were going to get for me? ¿Qué 
hay de las cosas que Ud. me iba a con- 

above sobre How far above sea level are 
we? ¿A qué altura estamos sobre el 
nivel del mar? 

O above all sobre todo, ante todo 
Above all, remember to be on time. 

Ante todo, acuérdese de estar a ti- 
empo. O to be above sobrepasar He's 
above average height* Su estatura 
sobrepasa la normal. O to go above 
pasar de Don't go above five dollars. 
No pase de cinco dólares. 

abreast de ... en fondo They marched 
four abreast. Marchaban de cuatro 
en fondo. 

O to keep abreast of estar al corri- 
ente de I can't keep abreast of the 
news. No puedo estar al corriente 
de las noticias. 

abroad en el extranjero. 

abrupt brusco (rude); repentino (sud- 

absence falta Have you a record of her 
absences? ¿Lleva Ud. nota de sus 
faltas? A ausencia Her absence was 
noticed at the office. En la oficina 
notaron su ausencia. 

absent ausente Three members were ab- 
sent because of illness. Tres miem- 
bros estuvieron ausentes por enferme- 

absent-minded distraído. 

absolute absoluto His power was abso- 
lute. Su poder era absoluto. A puro 
That's the absolute truth. Esta es la 
pura verdad. 

absolutely absolutamente I'm absolutely 
certain of my facts. Estoy absoluta- 
mente seguro de mis datos. 

absorb absorber This blotter abso)-bs ink 
very well. Este secante absorbe muy 
bien la tinta. — He was so absorbed in 
his book he didn't hear me come in. 
Estaba tan absorto en la lectura que 
no me oyó entrar. 

abstain abstenerse, privarse. 

absurd absurdo. 





abundance abundancia. 

abuse \_n\ abuso That's an abuse of au- 
thority. Eso es un abuso de autori- 
dad. A maltrato That child got more 
abuse than affection. Ese niño re- 
cibió más maltrato que cariño. 

abuse [v~\ abusar de / advise you not 
to abuse any of the privileges we 
have here. Le aconsejo que no abuse 
de ninguno de los privilegios que tene- 
mos aquí. A insultar We heard her 
abuse her sister. La oímos insultar 
a su hermana. A tratar mal Do you 
really feel abused? ¿De veras siente 
Ud. que le tratan mal? 

abusive abusivo. 

academy academia. 

accelerate acelerar, apresurar. 

accelerator acelerador. 

accent [n] acento Where's the accent 
in this word? ¿Dónde lleva el acento 
esta palabra? — He speaks English 
with a Russian accent. Habla inglés 
con acento ruso. 

accent [t>] acentuar Accent the first syl- 
lable of this word. Acentúe la pri- 
mera sílaba de esta palabra. 

accept aceptar He accepted the money 
that I offered him. Aceptó el dinero 
que le ofrecí. 

acceptance aceptación. 

access acceso, entrada. 

accessory accesorio I'd like to get some 
accessories for the automobile. Qui- 
siera comprar algunos accesorios para 
el automóvil. A cómplice The police 
held him as an accessory. La policía 
le detuvo como cómplice. 

accident accidente In case of accident, 
notify the manager. En caso de acci- 
dente avise al administrador. 

O by accident por casualidad We 
met them by accident. Les encontra- 
mos por casualidad. 

accidental accidental, casual. 

accommodate acomodar We can only ac- 
commodate three more people. Pode- 
mos acomodar sólo a tres personas 

accommodations alojamiento We'll have 
to wire ahead for accommodations. 
Tendremos que telegrafiar para re- 
servar alojamiento. 

accompany acompañar May I accom- 
pany you home? ¿La puedo acom- 
pañar a casa? 

accomplish llevar a cabo, realizar He 
accomplished his purpose quickly. 
Llevó a cabo su propósito rápida- 

O accomplished consumado He's an 

accomplished linguist. Es un lin- 
güista consumado. 

accomplishment realización. 

accord acuerdo His ideas on politics are 
in accord with mine. Sus ideas po- 
líticas están de acuerdo con las mías. 
O of one's own accord espontánea- 
mente He wrote to me of his own ac- 
cord. Me escribió espontáneamente. 
O with one accord de común acuerdo, 

accordance conformidad, armonía. 

accordingly de acuerdo, conforme He 
gave us instructions and we acted ac- 
cordingly. Hemos obrado de acuerdo 
con las instrucciones que nos dio. 

according to según We'll make our ar- 
rangements according to your plans. 
Haremos nuestros arreglos según sus 

accordion acordeón. 

account relato His account of the acci- 
dent's different from hers. Su relato 
del accidente es diferente al de ella. 
A cuenta The company's accounts were 
in good order. Las cuentas de la 
compañía estaban en orden. A valor, 
importancia This book's of no account. 
Este libro no tiene ningún valor. 

O on account of a causa de The 
game was postponed on account of 
rain. El partido fué pospuesto a 
causa de la lluvia. O on no account 
de ninguna manera, por ningún mo- 
tivo. O to account for explicarse How 
do you account for that? ¿Cómo se 
explica eso? O to take into account 
tener en cuenta. 

|| Is the baggage accounted for? 
¿Está completo el equipaje? 

accountant contador. 

accuracy exactitud, precisión. 

accurate exacto. 

accuse acusar. 

accustom acostumbrar. 

O to be accustomed estar acostum- 
brado I'm not accustomed to such 
treatment. No estoy acostumbrado a 
semejante trato. 

ache [n] dolor Have you got a head- 
ache? ¿Tiene dolor de cabeza? 

• [v] doler My tooth aches. Me 
duele una muela (molar), or Me duele 
un diente (front tooth). 

achieve llevar a cabo, lograr. 

acid [adj, n] ácido. 

acknowledge admitir The court ac- 
knowledged my claims. El tribunal 
admitió mi demanda. A dar las gra- 
cias por They haven't acknowledged 





the wedding presents yet. Todavía 
no han dado las gracias por los rega- 
los de boda. 

acknowledgment reconocimiento (recog- 
nition); admisión (admission). 

acorn bellota. 

acoustics acústica. 

acquaint O to be acquainted conocerse 
Are you two acquainted? ¿Se conocen 
Uds. dos? 

acquaintance conocido, amigo She's an 
old acquaintance of mine. Es una 
vieja conocida mía. 

O to make one's acquaintance cono- 
cer a uno I'm very happy to make 
your acquaintance. Tengo mucho 
gusto en conocerle. 

acquire adquirir. 

acquit absolver. 

O to acquit oneself well portarse 

acre acre. 

across al otro lado de The restaurant's 
across the street. El restaurante está 
al otro lado de la calle. A a través 
There's an obstruction across the 
road. Hay un obstáculo a través del 

act [n] acción That was a very kind 
act. Fué una acción muy amable. 
A acto I don't want to miss the first 
act. No quiero perder el primer acto. 
• [v] obrar, actuar Now's the time 
to act. Ahora es el momento de 
obrar. A portarse Don't act like a 
child. No te portes como un niño. 
O act of Congress ley aprobada por 
el Congreso. O to act as hacer de 
Who's acting as head? ¿Quién hace 
de jefe? O to act on seguir I'll act 
on your suggestion. Seguiré su su- 
gestión. O to act upon When will this 
be acted upon? ¿Cuándo se decidirá 
sobre esto? ° to be in the act of / 
was in the act of packing. Estaba 
haciendo el equipaje. 

action acción He's a man of action. Es 
un hombre de acción. 

O to take action tomar medidas Has 
any action been taken on my case? 
¿Se ha tomado alguna medida en mi 

active activo. 

activity actividad, movimiento. 
O social activities vida social. 

actor actor. 

actress actriz. 

actual real, verdadero What's the actual 

cost? ¿Cuál es el coste real? 
actually realmente, en realidad, 
acute agudo. 

ad See advertisement. 

adapt adaptar. 

add agregar, añadir Add it to my bill. 
Añádalo a mi cuenta. 

O to add up sumar Add up this list 
of Jigures. Sume Ud. esta columna 
de números. 

adding machine máquina de sumar. 

addition adición, suma Is my addition 
correct? ¿Está correcta mi suma? 
A aumento We need additions to o in- 
staff. Necesitamos un aumento en 
nuestro personal. 

O in addition to además de In addi- 
tion to my worries this has to happen. 
Además de mis preocupaciones tenía 
que ocurrir esto. 

additional adicional. 

address [n] dirección, señas "What's 
your address?" "My address is 21 
Fifth Avenue." "¿Cuál es su dire- 
cción?" "Mi dirección es: Quinta 
Avenida número 21." A discurso / 
have to listen to an address tonight. 
Tengo que oír un discurso esta noche. 
• [i>] dirigir How shall I address 
the letter? ¿Cómo tengo que dirigir 
la carta? A dirigirse a The speaker 
addressed the public. El orador se 
dirigió al público. 

adequate bastante, suficiente. 

adhesive tape esparadrapo. 

adjacent adyacente, cercano. 

adjective adjetivo. 

adjoining contiguo. 

adjust arreglar, ajustar Adjust the 
clock so it'll run faster. Ajuste el 
reloj para que adelante. A adaptar, 
acostumbrar / can't adjust myself to 
the climate here. No me puedo acos- 
tumbrar al clima de aquí. A arreglar, 
atender The manager adjusts all com- 
plaints. El administrador atiende 
todas las quejas. 

adjutant ayudante. 

administer administrar. 

administration aplicación The workers 
complained about the administration 
of the law. Los obreros se quejaron 
por la aplicación de la ley. A minis- 
terio, gobierno During his adminis- 
tration a great many new laws were 
passed. Durante su gobierno se pro- 
mulgaron muchas leyes nuevas. A ad- 
ministración The administration of a 
new drug curbed the epidemic. La 
administración de un nuevo medica- 
mento detuvo la epidemia. 

admirable admirable. 

admiral almirante. 

admiration admiración. 





admire admirar. 

admission admisión, entrada How much 
is the admission? ¿Cuánto cuesta la 
entrada? A confesión He made a 
frank admission. Hizo una confesión 

|| No admission. Se prohibe la en- 

admit dejar entrar Ask for me and 
you'll be admitted. Pregunte Ud. por 
mí y le dejarán entrar. A admitir 
When were you admitted to that club? 
¿Cuándo se le admitió en ese club? 
A reconocer / admit that I was wrong. 
Reconozco que estaba equivocado. 

adopt adoptar. 

adore adorar. 

adorn adornar. 

adult [>i] adulto What's the proper dose 
for adults? ¿Cuál es la dosis para 

• [adfl juicioso She's very adult 
for her age. Es muy juiciosa para su 

|| Adults only. Sólo para personas 

adultery adulterio. 

advance [?i] aumento There's an ad- 
vance in price after 6 o'clock. Hay un 
aumento en los precios después de las 
seis. A adelanto, progreso What ad- 
vances have been made in medicine? 
¿Qué progresos se han hecho en medi- 

• [v] avanzar Advance! ¡Avancen! 
A promover, ascender We'll advance 
him if he proves capable. Le ascen- 
deremos si demuestra su capacidad. 
A adelantar Could you advance me 
some money? ¿Podría Ud. adelantar- 
me algún dinero? 

O in advance por adelantado, con 
anticipación Let me know in advance, 
if you come. Si vienes, avísame por 

advantage ventaja You have the advan- 
tage over me. Ud. me lleva ventaja. 
A provecho, beneficio This is to your 
advantage. Es para su provecho. 

O to take advantage of aprovecharse 
de / wish to take advantage of your 
offer. Deseo aprovecharme de su 
ofrecimiento. A aprovecharse de, en- 
gañar Don't let people take advantage 
of you. No deje que se aprovechen de 

advantageous provechoso. 

adventure aventura. 

adverb adverbio. 

advertise avisar, anunciar The xt.nre's 
advertising a sale. La tienda anuncia 

un saldo. A poner un anuncio They're 
advertising for a cook. Han puesto 
un anuncio solicitando un cocinero. 

advertisement anuncio, aviso. 

advice consejo I'll act on your advice. 
Seguiré sus consejos. 

advisable prudente, aconsejable. 

advise avisar, informar We were ad- 
vised of the dangers of the trip. Nos 
avisaron que el viaje era peligroso. 
A aconsejar / advise against our go- 
ing. Aconsejo que no vayamos. 

aerial [w] antena The aerial on our 
radio needs fixing. Hay que reparar 
la antena de nuestra radio. 

• l a dj] aéreo The town was sub- 
jected to an aerial attack. La ciudad 
fué sometida a un ataque aéreo. 

affair negocio, asunto He handled the 
affairs of the company badly. Mane- 
jó mal los negocios de la compañía. 
A acontecimiento, suceso The dance 
was the biggest affair of the season. 
El baile fué el acontecimiento más 
grande de la temporada. 

O love affair aventura amorosa. 

affect afectar, conmover / wasn't a bit 
affected by the news of his death. 
La noticia de su muerte no me afectó 
nada. A afectar, fingir He affects in- 
difference when you mention her. 
Finge indiferencia cuando se alude a 

affection afecto, cariño. 

affectionate afectuoso. 

affectionately afectuosamente. 

affirm afirmar. 

afford tener con que comprar / really 
can't afford to buy this dress. De 
veras no tengo con que comprar este 
vestido. A convenir He can't afford to 
have his reputation hurt. No le con- 
viene comprometer su reputación. 
A proporcionar The trip afforded us 
the opportunity of seeing the country. 
El viaje nos proporcionó la oportuni- 
dad de ver el país. 

affront [n] afrenta, insulto. 

afloat a flote After the battle our ship 
was still afloat. Después de la batalla 
nuestro buque quedó a flote. 

afraid ° to be afraid tener miedo, 
temer Don't be afraid. No tenga mie- 
do. — I'm afraid I'm going to be late. 
Me temo que voy a llegar tarde. 

after [adv] detrás The man walked 
ahead and the woman came after. 
El hombre caminaba delante y la mu- 
jer venía detrás. 

• [prep] después de Coyne un y time 
after nine. Venga cuando quiex-a des- 





pues de las nueve. A tras We carne 
one after the other. Vinimos uno tras 
otro. A detrás de The police are after 
him. La policía anda detrás de él. 

• [conj] después que Wait until 
after I come back. Espere hasta 
después que yo vuelva. 

O after all después de todo You're 
right, after all. Después de todo 
tiene Ud. razón. O after this en ade- 
lante After this let us know in ad- 
vance. En adelante avísenos por an- 
ticipado. O to go after ir por Will 
you go after the mail? ¿Quiere Ud. 
ir por el correo? O to look after cui- 
dar de, tener cuidado de Is there any- 
one to look after the children? ¿Hay 
alguien que cuide de los niños? 

afternoon tarde Can you come this af- 
ternoon or tomorrow afternoon? ¿Pu- 
ede Ud. venir esta tarde o mañana 
por la tarde? 

afterward (s) después. 

again otra vez, de nuevo Try once again. 
Pruebe otra vez. 

O again and again una y otra vez, 
muchas veces I'll do this again and 
again. Haré esto muchas veces. 
O never again nunca más Never again 
will I make that mistake. Nunca 
más cometeré ese error. 

|| / hope to see you again. Espero 
volver a verle. 

against contra Lean it against the wall. 
Apóyalo contra la pared. A en contra 
de Is everyone against him? ¿Está 
todo el mundo en contra de él? 

age [n] edad What's your age and pro- 
fession? ¿Qué edad y qué profesión 
tiene Ud.? A época This , is the age of 
invention. Esta es la época de los 

• [v~\ envejecer He's aged a great 
deal lately. Ha envejecido mucho 

O of age mayor de edad He'll come 
of age next year. Será mayor de edad 
el año próximo. O old age vejez Save 
something for your old age. Ahorre 
algo para la vejez. 

agency agencia. 

agent agente Your agent has already 
called on me. Su agente acaba de 
visitarme. A representante I'm a gov- 
ernment agent. Soy un representante 
del gobierno. 

aggravate (make worse) agravar. 

ago hace / was here two months ago. 
Estuve aquí hace dos meses. 

O a while ago hace un rato He left 
a while ago. Salió hace un rato. 

agony agonía. 

agree estar de acuerdo Do you agree 
with me? ¿Está Ud. de acuerdo con- 
migo? A concordar The two state- 
ments don't agree. Las dos declaraci- 
ones no concuerdan. A convenir / 
agree to your terms. Convengo en 
sus condiciones. 

agreeable agradable She has an agree- 
able disposition. Tiene un carácter 
agradable. A simpático She's a very 
agreeable person. Es una persona 
muy simpática. 

O agreeable to de acuerdo con Is 
everyone agreeable to the plan? ¿Es- 
tán todos de acuerdo con el plan? 

agreement acuerdo, pacto. 

O in agreement de acuerdo. 

agriculture agricultura. 

ahead adelante Are there many turns 
up ahead? ¿Hay muchas vueltas más 

O to be ahead ir a la cabeza, ir de- 
lante Who's ahead? ¿Quién va a la 
cabeza? A ir adelantado, estar adelan- 
tado I'm ahead in my work. Voy ade- 
lantado en mi trabajo. 

|| Go ahead. Pase delante, or Siga 

aid [n] ayuda I'd welcome any aid. 
Agradecería cualquier ayuda. 

• L v ] ayudar Let me aid you. Dé- 
jeme que le ayude. 

aim [?i] puntería Is your aim good? 
¿Tiene Ud. buena puntería? A propó- 
sito, mira What are your aims in 
Ufe? ¿Cuáles son sus propósitos en 
la vida? 

• l v ] apuntar Aim higher. Apunte 
más alto. 

air [n] aire I'm going out for some air. 
Voy a salir a tomar un poco el aire. — 
There's an air of mystery about the 
whole affair. Hay un aire de misterio 
en todo el asunto. 

• [v] ventilar, airear Would you 
please air the room while I'm out? 
¿Quisiera Ud. hacer el favor de ven- 
tilar el cuarto mientras estoy fuera? 

O by air por vía aérea, por avión 
I'd like to go by air, if possible. Si 
es posible quisiera ir por avión. 

aircraft carrier portaviones. 

airfield campo de aviación, campo de 

air force fuerzas aéreas. 

air mail correo aéreo. 

airplane aeroplano, avión. 

airport aeropuerto. 

aisle pasillo. 

ajar entreabierto, entornado. 





alarm [w] alarma What was that alarm 
for? ¿Por qué ha sido esa alarma? 

• [v] alarmar The noise alarmed 
the whole town. El ruido alarmó a 
toda la ciudad. 

O to be alarmed alarmarse. 

alarm clock despertador. 

album album. 

alcohol alcohol. 

alcove alcoba, recámara. 

ale cerveza inglesa. 

alert [w] alarma We ran for shelter 
when we heard the alert. Corrimos 
a refugiarnos cuando oímos la alarma. 

• [ ac fy] listo, vivo He's a very alert 
child. Es un chico muy listo. A des- 
pabilado The students aren't very 
alert on Mondays. Los estudiantes 
no están muy despabilados los lunes. 

O to be on the alert estar sobre 
aviso, estar alerta. 

algebra álgebra. 

alien [w] extranjero There were many 
aliens in the city. Había muchos ex- 
tranjeros en la ciudad. 

• [adj] extranjero, ajeno They 
adopted alien ways while they were 
in that country. Adquirieron cos- 
tumbres extranjeras mientras estuvie- 
ron en ese país. A contrario Such ac- 
tions are alien to his character. Tales 
actos son contrarios a su carácter. 

align alinear. 

alike igual, semejante These places are 
all alike. Estos sitios son todos 
iguales. A del mismo modo, igual- 
menté We treat all the guests alike. 
Tratamos a todos los clientes del mis- 
mo modo. 

alimony alimentos por razón de divorcio. 

alive vivo, viviente / feel more dead 
than alive. Me siento más muerto 
que vivo. 

O to keep alive mantener vivo. 

all todo I've been waiting all day. He 
estado esperando todo el día. — That's 
all. Eso es todo. — Tell me all about 
it. Dígamelo todo. — That's all there 
is. Eso es todo lo que hay. — It's all 
gone. Todo se ha acabado. A todos 
Did y on all go? ¿Fueron todos Uds.? 
O all alone solo / can't do this all 
alone. No lo puedo hacer yo solo. 
O all at once de pronto All at once 
something happened. De pronto ocu- 
rrió algo. ° all over Is it all over? 
¿Se ha acabado todo? O all the bet- 
ter tanto mejor // that's so, all the 
better. Si es así, tanto mejor. O all 
the same lo mismo That's all the same 
to me. Me da lo mismo. O at all 

// / go at all I'll be there before 
eight. Si voy, estaré allí antes de 
las ocho. O in all en total How many 
are there in all? ¿Cuántos hay en 
total? O not at all nada I'm not at 
all tired. No estoy nada cansado. 
A de nada "Thank you." "Not at all." 
"Gracias." "De nada." O once and 
for all por última vez, ya de una vez 
Once and for all, let's get this over 
with. Por última vez, dejemos esto 

|| All right. Está bien, or Bueno. 

allege alegar. 

allergy alergia. 

alley callejuela, callejón. 

O blind alley callejón sin salida. 
O bowling alley bolera [Sp] , boliche 

alliance alianza. 

alligator caimán, [Am] lagarto. 

allot distribuir, repartir. 

allow permitir, dejar We're not allowed 
to leave the camp at night. No se 
nos permite salir del campamento por 
la noche. 

O to allow for dejar para How much 
should I allow for traveling expenses? 
¿Cuánto tendría que dejar para gastos 
de viaje? 

allowance dieta, abono Hoto much of an 
allowance do you get for your travel- 
ing expenses? ¿Qué dietas le dan 
para sus gastos de viaje? 

O to make allowance for tener en 
cuenta, hacerse cargo de, excusar. 

|| How much a month does your 
father give you for an allowance? 
¿Cuánto te da tu padre para tus gas- 
tos personales al mes? 

allure [v] atraer, tentar. 

ally [w] aliado The Allies won the first 
World War. Los aliados ganaron la 
primera guerra mundial. 

O to ally oneself, to be allied aliarse 
They allied themselves with powerful 
neighbors. Se aliaron con vecinos 

almanac almanaque, calendario. 

almighty todopoderoso. 

O the Almighty el Todopoderoso. 

almond almendra. 

almost casi Are you almost ready? 
¿Estás casi preparado? 

alone solo Do you live alone? ¿Vive Ud. 

solo? A sólo, solamente You alone can 

help me. Sólo Ud. puede ayudarme. 

O to let alone dejar en paz Let me 

alone. Déjeme en paz. 

along a lo largo de A fence runs along 





the road. Hay una cerca a lo largo 
de la carretera. 

|| Bring her along. Tráigala con- 
sigo || Come along with me. Venga 
Ud. conmigo. || Do they get along? 
¿Se llevan? || How are you getting 
along? ¿Cómo le va a Ud.? 

aloof apartado, lejos, a distancia. 

aloud alto, en voz alta Read the story 
aloud. Lea Ud. el cuento en voz alta. 

alphabet alfabeto. 

already ya. 

also también You may also come. Tam- 
bién Ud. puede venir. 

altar altar. 

alter cambiar, modificar. 

alternate [adj~\ alterno. 

alternative [n] alternativa. 

although aunque I'll be there, although 
I may be late. Estaré allá, aunque 
llegue tarde. 

altitude altura 

altogether en conjunto, enteramente. 

always siempre Are you always busy? 
¿Está Ud. siempre ocupado? 

am See be. 

amateur aficionado. 

amaze asombrar, pasmar I'm amazed. 
Estoy pasmado 

ambassador embajador. 

ambition ambición He has no ambition. 
No tiene ambición. Á aspiración My 
greatest ambition is to be an opera 
singer. Mi mayor aspiración es ser 
cantante de ópera. 

ambitious ambicioso. 

ambulance ambulancia. 

ambush [?i] emboscada. 

• [y] sorprender. 
amend enmendar, corregir. 
amendment enmienda. 

amends compensación, reparación. 

O to make amends compensar, dar 

cumplida satisfacción. 
amiable amable, afable. 
amid entre, en medio de. 
ammunition munición. 
among entre You're among friends. Ud. 

está entre amigos. 
amount [n] importe, suma What's the 

whole amount? ¿Cuál es el importe 


• [v] subir What does the bill 
amount to? ¿A cuánto sube la cuenta? 

|| The disturbance didn't amount to 
anything. El disturbio no tuvo nin- 
guna importancia. 

ample amplio. 

amuse divertir That amuses me very 
much. Eso me divierte mucho. 

amusement diversión Are there any 

amusements here? ¿Hay aquí algu- 
nas diversiones? 

an See a. 

analysis análisis. 

analyze analizar. 

anarchy anarquía. 

anatomy anatomía. 

ancestor antepasado. 

anchor [n] ancla The boat had no an- 
chor. El bote no tenía ancla. 

• [v] anclar They anchored the ship 
in the bay. Anclaron el buque en la 

O to weigh anchor levar el ancla. 

ancient antiguo. 

and y The room had only a bed and a 
chair. La habitación tenía solamente 
una cama y una silla. — Wait and see. 
Espere y verá. A e (before i or hi) 
Father and son. Padre e hijo. 

° and so forth etcetera (abbr etc.) 
/ need soap, towels, and so forth. 
Necesito jabón, toallas, etc. 

angel ángel. 

anger [«] cólera, enojo. 

angle ángulo Measure each angle of the 
triangle. Mida cada ángulo del tri- 
ángulo. A punto de vista, aspecto 
Let's not discuss that angle of the 
problem. No discutamos ese aspecto 
del problema. 

O at an angle inclinado, en ángulo 
She wears her hat at an angle. Usa 
el sombrero inclinado. 

angry enojado, enfadado, [Am] bravo 
What are you angry about? ¿Porqué 
está Ud. enojado? 

O to be angry estar enfadado, estar 
enojado, [A?n] estar bravo Are yon 
angry at him? ¿Está Ud. enfadado 
con él? ° to get angry enojarse, en- 

anguish angustia. 

animal animal. 

animate [v] animar. 

ankle tobillo. 

annex [n] anexo. 

annex [v] anexar. 

anniversary aniversario. 

announce anunciar They just announced 
that on the radio. Lo acaban de 
anunciar en la radio. k participar 
They just announced their engage- 
ment. Acaban de participar su próxi- 
mo enlace. 

announcement aviso, anuncio. 

annoy molestar, incomodar. 

annual [adj] anual. 

another otro Please give me another 
cup of coffee. Haga el favor de dar- 
me otra taza de café. 





|| They saw one another frequently. 
Se veían con frecuencia. || They saw 
one another. Se vieron unos a otros. 
answer [n] respuesta, contestación 
What's your answer? ¿Cuál es su 
respuesta? A solución Where can I 
find the answer? ¿Dónde encontraré 
la solución? 

• [v] contestar Please answer me 
by return mail. Haga el favor de con- 
testarme a vuelta de correo. 

ant hormiga. 

antagonize contrariar. 

antarctic [adj, n] antartico. 

antenna antena. 

anthem O national anthem himno na- 

anticipate esperar, prever There was a 
larger crowd at the concert than we 
had anticipated. Había más gente en 
el concierto de lo que esperábamos. 
A anticiparse The attendants antici- 
pated all our needs. La servidumbre 
se anticipó a todo lo que necesitába- 

antidote antídoto, contraveneno. 

antique [n] antigüedad, antigualla. 

• [adj] antiguo. 
antiseptic [adj, n] antiséptico. 
anxiety ansia, ansiedad. 

anxious inquieto I've been anxious about 
you. He estado muy inquieto por tí. 
A ansioso I'm anxious to succeed. Estoy 
ansioso de triunfar. 

any alguno Are there any books around 
here? ¿Hay algunos libros por aquí? 
A algún / don't like this hat. Do you 
have any other? No me gusta este 
sombrero. ¿Tiene Ud. algún otro? 
A cualquier Any policeman can direct 
you. Cualquier guardia puede indi- 
carle el camino. 

O any longer más, más tiempo / 
can't stay any longer. No puedo que- 
darme más. O any way de cualquier 
modo, de cualquier manera Do it any 
way you can. Hágalo de cualquier 
manera. O at any time en cualquier 
momento. O in any case en todo caso, 
de todos modos. 

|| "Do you have any money?" "I 
don't have any." "¿Tiene Ud. di- 
nero?" "No tengo nada." 

anybody alguien Will anybody be at the 
station to meet me? ¿Habrá alguien 
en la estación esperándome? A cual- 
quiera Anybody can do that. Cualquie- 
ra puede hacer eso. 

anyhow de todos modos, de todas ma- 
neras It may rain but I'm going any- 

how. Puede ser aue llueva pero iré 
de todos modos. 

anyone alguien // anyone calls, take the 
message. Si llama alguien, tome Ud. 
el recado. 

anything algo, alguna cosa Is there any- 
thing for me? ¿Hay algo para mi? 
A cualquier cosa Anything you have 
will be all right. Cualquier cosa que 
Ud. tenga estará bien. 

|| Can't anything be done? ¿No se 
puede hacer nada? 

anyway de todos modos, con todo / didn't 
want to go anyway. De todos modos 
yo no quería ir. 

anywhere en alguna parte Have you 
seen him anywhere? ¿Le ha visto Ud. 
en alguna parte? A en ninguna parte 
(in negative sentence) I don't want 
to go anywhere tonight. No quiero ir 
a ninguna parte esta noche. A donde 
quiera, cualquier parte We could go 
anywhere if we had the money. Pod- 
ríamos ir a cualquier parte si tuvié- 
ramos dinero. 

apart separado The house stands apart 
from the others. La casa está sepa- 
rada de las otras. A aparte Set this 
apart for me. Ponga esto aparte para 

O to take apart desmontar Take the 
machine apart. Desmonte Ud. la má- 
quina. O to tell apart distinguir How 
do you tell the two apart? ¿Cómo 
puede distinguir uno del otro? 

apartment piso [Sp~\, apartamento 
[Am], departamento [Chile] We want 
to rent an apartment in the city. 
Queremos alquilar un apartamento en 
la ciudad. 

ape mono. 

apiece por persona, cada uno My brother 
and I earned six dollars apiece. Mi 
hermano y yo ganamos seis dólares 
cada uno. 

apologize disculparse, excusarse You 
ought to apologize to her for being so 
rude. Debe Ud. disculparse con ella 
por haber sido tan descortés. 

appall espantar, aterrar. 

apparatus aparato. 

apparent aparente (seeming) ; claro 

appeal [n] llamamiento He made an ap- 
peal for justice. Hizo un llamamiento 
pidiendo justicia. A apelación The de- 
fendant was granted an appeal. AI 
acusado le permitieron la apelación. 

• [v] apelar, recurrir He appealed 
to his friends for sympathy. Apeló a 
la solidaridad de sus amigos. A atraer 





Her type appeals to me. El tipo de 
ella me atrae. 

appear salir, aparecer The paper ap- 
pears every day. El periódico sale 
todos los días. A parecer He appears 
to be very sick. Parece muy enfermo. 

appearance apariencia, aspecto Try to 
improve your appearance. Trate de 
mejorar su aspecto. 

O to make an appearance dejarse 
ver At least make an appearance. 
Por lo menos déjese Ud. ver un mo- 

appease apaciguar, calmar. 

appeasement apaciguamiento. 

appendix apéndice. 

appetite apetito. 

appetizer aperitivo. 

applause aplauso. 

apple manzana. 

appliance aparato. 

application solicitud Your application 
has been received. Su "solicitud ha 
sido recibida. A compresa Cold appli- 
cations will relieve the headache. 
Compresas frías aliviarán el dolor de 

O application blank formulario Fill 
out this application blank. Llene este 

apply dirigirse To whom do I apply? 
¿A quién tengo que dirigirme? A apli- 
car Apply a hot compress every two 
hours. Aplique una compresa caliente 
cada dos horas. 

O to apply for solicitar, pedir I wish 
to apply for the position. Quiero 
pedir el empleo. 

|| The information doesn't apply. 
La información no es pertinente. 
|| This order applies to all citizens. 
Esta orden comprende a todos los 

appoint nombrar, designar. 

appointment nombramiento, puesto 
She's very happy since she received 
her appointment. Está muy feliz des- 
de que recibió su nombramiento. A cita 
I have an appointment to meet him 
at six o'clock. Tengo cita para en- 
contrarle a las seis. 

appreciate apreciar. 

appreciation reconocimiento Everyone 
expressed appreciation for what he 
had done. Todos expresaron su reco- 
nocimiento por lo que él había hecho. 
A aprecio She has a deep appreciation 
for art. Tiene un profundo aprecio 
por el arte. 

apprehension aprehensión, aprensión. 

approach [n] acceso The approaches to 

the bridge are under repair. Los acce- 
sos del puente están en reparación. 
A camino, método Am I rising the right 
approach! ¿Estoy siguiendo el ca- 
mino debido? 

• [v] acercarse Let's approach 
carefully. Acerquémonos con cuidado. 

|| Is it all right to approach him 
aboxit this matter? ¿Está bien que le 
preguntemos a él acerca de este 

appropriate [v] destinar The govern- 
ment has appropriated more money 
for road construction. El gobierno 
ha destinado más dinero para la con- 
strucción de caminos. A apropiarse 
All my ties have been appropriated by 
my son. Mi hijo se ha apropiado de 
todas mis corbatas. 

appropriate [adj~\ apropiado I don't 
think that's an appropriate dress for 
a party. No creo que ese vestido sea 
apropiado para una fiesta. 

approval aprobación, consentimiento. 

approve aprobar. 

approximate [adj] aproximado. 

apricot albaricoque, [Mea:] chabacano. 

April abril. 

apron delantal. 

apt capaz He's apt to do anything. Es 
capaz de hacer cualquiera cosa. 
A propenso He's apt to make mistakes. 
Está propenso a equivocarse. A acer- 
tado Her last remark was very apt. 
Su última observación fué muy acer- 
tada. A competente He's an apt stu- 
dent. Es un estudiante competente. 

|| Don't call this afternoon because 
I'm apt to be out. No me llame por 
teléfono esta tarde porque puede ser 
que salga. 

arbor emparrado. 

arch [«] arco The bridge has a tremen- 
dous arch. El puente tiene un arco 

• [v] arquear She arched her eye- 
brows. Arqueó las cejas. 

O fallen arches pies planos. 
architect arquitecto. 
architecture arquitectura. 
arctic [adj] ártico. 
ardor ardor. 
are See be. 
area area What's the area of the park? 

¿Cuál es el área del parque? A zona 

What area's he working in? ¿En qué 

zona trabaja? 
argue sostener I argued that taking the 

train would save us a lot of tiiue. 

Sostenía que ganaríamos mucho tiem- 





po tomando el tren. A discutir Let's 
not argue the point. No discutamos 
ese asunto. A convencer, persuadir 
You can't argue me into going there 
again. Ud. no puede persuadirme de 
volver allí. 

argument argumento This is a strong 
argument in his favor. Este es un 
argumento muy fuerte en su favor. 
A razonamiento / don't follow your ar- 
gument. No sigo su razonamiento. 
A disputa They had an argument. Tu- 
vieron una disputa. 

|| Let's not have any argument. No 

arise surgir Many difficulties arose in 
carrying out the plan. Surgieron 
muchas dificultades al realizar el 
plan. A sobrevenir The trouble arose 
over a question of priority. Sobrevino 
la dificultad sobre una cuestión de 

aristocracy aristocracia. 

arithmetic aritmética. 

arm brazo Can you carry the package 
under your arm? ¿Puede llevar el 
paquete debajo del brazo? 

• [v] armar They armed the sol- 
diers with pistols. Armaron a los 
soldados con pistolas. 

armchair butaca, sillón. 

armistice armisticio. 

armor [n] blindaje These shells can't 
penetrate the heavy armor of a battle- 
ship. Estos proyectiles no pueden 
atravesar el grueso blindaje de un 

• [v] blindar The tanks were heav- 
ily armored. Los tanques estaban 
muy bien blindados. 

armory armería, arsenal. 

armpit sobaco, axila. 

arms armas They couldn't fight with- 
out arms. No podían pelear sin 

O to bear arms tomar las armas. 
O to be up in arms sublevarse The 
students were up in arms at the new 
restrictions. Los estudiantes se sub- 
levaron ante las nuevas restricciones. 
O to carry arms llevar armas, tener 
armas In this city you need a license 
to carry arms. En esta ciudad se 
necesita un permiso para llevar ar- 
mas. ° under arms sobre las armas. 

army ejército. 

around alrededor de We'll have to take 
a walk around the town. Tendremos 
que dar un paseo alrededor de la ciu- 
dad. A alrededor de, más o menos / 
have around twenty dollars. Tengo 

alrededor de veinte dólares. A a la 
vuelta de The store's around the cor- 
ner. La tienda está a la vuelta de 
la esquina. A alrededor Look around 
you. Mire a su alrededor. 

O around here por aquí Are there 
any soldiers around here? ¿Hay por 
aquí algunos soldados? Oto look 
around buscar I'll have to look around 
for it. Tendré que buscarlo por aquí. 
° to turn around dar la vuelta He 
turned around and spoke to me. Dio 
la vuelta y me habló. 

|| How many miles is it around the 
lake? ¿Cuántas millas tiene la vuelta 
del lago? || It's somewhere around 
the house. Está en algún sitio de la 
arouse despertar / was aroused during 
the night by fire engines. Me desper- 
taron los bomberos por la noche. 

O to arouse suspicion despertar sos- 
arrange arreglar Everything's been ar- 
ranged. Todo está arreglado. 
arrangement colocación, disposición The 
arrangement of the furniture was 
very inconvenient. La disposición de 
los muebles era muy incómoda. A arre- 
glo, preparativo They made arrange- 
ments to leave by plane. Hicieron los 
preparativos para ir en avión. A arre- 
glo musical How do you like the ar- 
rangement of that song? ¿Qué le 
.parece el arreglo musical de esa 
arrears atrasos. 

arrest \n\ detención The police made 
two arrests. La policía hizo dos de- 

• [v] arrestar, prender Why have 
you been arrested? ¿Por qué ha sido 
Ud. arrestado? — They arrested two 
men. Prendieron dos hombres. 
A atraer It arrested my attention. Me 
atrajo la atención. 

If You're under arrest. Está Ud. 
arrival llegada. 

O new arrival recién llegado. 
arrive llegar When will I arrive in New 
York? ¿Cuándo llegaré a Nueva 
arrow flecha. 
arsenal arsenal. 

art arte This building contains many 
works of art. Este edificio encierra 
muchas obras de arte. A técnica 
There's an art to it. Hay una técnica 
para ello. 

O art gallery galería de arte. 





artery arteria. 

article objeto I have no articles of value 
to declare. No tengo objetos de valor 
que declarar. A artículo There ivas an 
interesting article about it in the 
newspaper. Había en el periódico un 
artículo interesante acerca de ello. 
artificial artificial The flowers she was 
wearing were artificial. Las flores 
que ella llevaba eran artificiales. 
A afectado, fingido Her manner of act- 
ing was artificial. Su manera de ac- 
tuar era afectada. 
artillery artillería, 
artist artista. 
artistic artístico. 

as como He's late as usual. Está re- 
trasado como de costumbre. A porque 
/ must go, as it's late. Tengo que 
irme porque es tarde. A cuando Did 
you see anyone as you came in? ¿Vio 
Ud. a alguien cuando entró? A a medi- 
da que Count the people as they enter. 
Cuente la gente a medida que entre. 
O as far as hasta I'll go with you 
as far as the door. Le acompañaré a 
Ud. hasta la puerta. O as if como 
si Act as if nothing had happened. 
Obre Ud. como si no hubiese pasado 
nada. ° as soon as possible cuanto 
antes, lo más pronto posible 7 want 
to leave as soon as possible. Quiero 
salir cuanto antes. O as to, as for 
en cuanto a As to that, I don't know. 
En cuanto a eso, yo no lo sé. O as 
yet aún, todavía Nothing has hap- 
pened as yet. Todavía no ha pasado 
nada. Oso as to para, a fin de We 
must start early so as to be on time. 
Tenemos que salir pronto para llegar 
a tiempo. 

|[ I regard it as important. Lo con- 
sidero de importancia. 
ascend ascender, subir. 
ascertain averiguar, determinar. 
ash(es) ceniza. 

O ash tray cenicero. 
ashamed O to be ashamed dar vergü- 
enza I was ashamed to ask for a sec- 
ond helping. Me daba vergüenza re- 
petir. A tener vergüenza, estar aver- 
gonzado He's ashamed of his English. 
Está avergonzado de su inglés. 
aside a un lado All joking aside, I in- 
tend to go. Bromas a un lado, tengo 
la intención de ir. 

O aside from aparte de Aside from 
singing he has no talent. Aparte de 
cantar no tiene otros talentos. ° to 
put aside dejar a un lado Let's put 
our work aside and go and get a 

drink. Dejemos a un lado el trabajo 
y salgamos a beber algo. ° to set 
aside apartar / think tve have enough 
set aside for the trip. Creo que hemos 
apartado suficiente dinero para el 
ask preguntar Did you ask him his 
name? ¿Le preguntó Ud. su nombre? 
A pedir He asked for permission to go. 
Pidió permiso para ir. A invitar Ask 
him in. Invítele a entrar. 

O to ask about informarse de, pedir 
información sobre Mr. X is asking 
about trains. El señor X. pide in- 
formación sobre los trenes. O to ask 
a question hacer una pregunta, pre- 
guntar una cosa May I ask a ques- 
tion? ¿Puedo hacer una pregunta? 
asleep dormido / must have been asleep. 
Debo haberme dormido, or Estaría 

O to fall asleep dormirse, quedarse 
dormido He's fallen asleep. Se ha 
quedado dormido. 
asparagus espárrago, 
aspect aspecto Have you considered 
every aspect of the problem? ¿Ha 
examinado Ud. todos los aspectos del 
problema? A apariencia The house 
has a gloomy aspect. La casa tiene 
una apariencia sombría. 
asphalt asfalto. 
aspire aspirar. 
aspirin aspirina, 
ass asno, burro, 
assassin asesino, 
assault [?í] asalto. 
• [v] asaltar. 
assemble reunir They assembled a great 
force for the invasion. Reunieron una 
gran fuerza para la invasión. A re- 
unirse A large crowd assembled in 
the park. Un gran gentío se reunió 
en el parque. A montar, armar He's 
an expert at assembling airplane mo- 
tors. Es experto en montar motores 
de aeroplane 
assembly asamblea, 
assert afirmar, sostener. 

O to assert oneself hacerse sentir, 
hacer valer sus derechos. 
assign indicar, señalar I'll assign your 
lessons for tomorrow. Voy a indi- 
carles la lección para mañana. A asig- 
nar Who was assigned to the new 
post? ¿A quién asignaron para el 
nuevo cargo? 
assignment misión The editor gave him 
an interesting assignment to cover. 
El director del periódico le encargó 
una misión interesante. A tarea Our 





teacher gave us a big assignment. El 
profesor nos dio una tarea grande. 
A designación / was surprised at his 
assignment. Me causó sorpresa su 
assimilate asimilar. 
assist ayudar, asistir. 
assistance auxilio, ayuda, 
assistant ayudante, asistente. 
associate [w] consocio He's been an as- 
sociate of mine for many years. Ha 
sido consocio mío durante muchos 
associate [v] mezclar His name has been 
associated with a recent scandal. Su 
nombre ha estado mezclado en un re- 
ciente escándalo. A asociar Our two 
firms have always been associated. 
Nuestras dos casas siempre han es- 
tado asociadas. 

|| She never did associate with us 
very much. Nunca ha sido muy ami- 
ga nuestra. 
association asociación, relación His as- 
sociation with important people helped 
him to advance. Su relación con gente 
de importancia le ayudó a progresar. 
A asociación, sociedad I don't think I'll 
join that association. No creo que 
me incorporaré a esa asociación. 

O associations recuerdo This picture 
doesn't bring up any associations for 
me. Este cuadro no despierta en mi 
ningún recuerdo. 
assorted surtido / want a bag of as- 
sorted chocolates. Deseo un paquete 
de bombones surtidos. 
assume asumir I've always had to as- 
sume the family's responsibilities. 
Siempre he tenido que asumir las res- 
ponsabilidades de la familia. A supo- 
ner, presumir / assume that dinner 
will be on time. Supongo que la co- 
mida estará a la hora. A darse She 
assumed an air of innocence. Se dio 
aire de inocente. 
assurance seguridad, certeza He gave 
us his assurance that he'd pay on 
time. Nos dio la seguridad de que 
pagaría a tiempo. — He works with 
complete assurance that he'll succeed. 
Trabaja con la completa seguridad de 
que va a tener éxito. — I wouldn't want 
to start this without the assurance 
that it's necessary. No quisiera em- 
pezar esto sin tener la seguridad de 
que es necesario, 
assure asegurar That's not so, I assure 
you. No es así, se lo aseguro. — He 
assured us that he'd be there. Nos 
aseguró que estaría allí. 

aster aster. 
asthma asma. 

at en I'll be at home. Estaré en casa. — " 
I'm not good at that. No soy hábil en - 
eso. A de / was surprised at its size. 
Estaba sorprendido de su tamaño. — 
What are you laughing at? ¿De qué 
se están riendo Uds.? A a The gloves 
sell at three dollars a pair. Los guan- 
tes se venden a tres dólares el par. — 
Be there at ten o'clock. Esté Ud. 
allí a las diez. — Aim at it. Apunte a 
eso. — We haven't arrived at a deci- 
sion. No hemos llegado a ninguna 
decisión. A por In the morning, and 
at night. Por la mañana, y por la 
noche. A con He's mad at me. Está 
enfadado conmigo. 

O at all nada de / haven't got any 
money at all. No tengo nada de di- 
nero. O at all costs a toda costa We 
must do it at all costs. Tenemos que 
hacerlo a toda costa. O at best a lo 
más This car will go only forty-five 
miles per hour, or at best, fifty. Este 
auto marcha sólo a cuarenta y cinco 
millas por hora, o a lo más a cin- 
cuenta. O at first al principio At 
first we didn't like the town. Al 
principio no nos gustaba la ciudad. 
O at last al fin At last the train's 
arrived. Al fin el tren ha llegado. 
O at least al menos, por lo menos 
There were at least a hundred people 
present. Había presentes por lo me- 
nos cien personas. ° at most a lo 
más Give me a dozen, or at most 
twenty. Déme una docena, o a lo 
más veinte. O at once en seguida I'll 
leave at once. Salgo en seguida. O at 
times a veces At times I'm doubtful. 
A veces dudo. O a t will a antojo de 
uno They come and go at will. Van 
y vienen a su antojo. O to be at ease 
sentirse bien / feel at ease in his 
presence. Me siento bien en su pre- 

|| Be ready to leave at a moment's 
notice. Esté preparado para salir a 
momento en que le avisen. 
athlete atleta. 
atmosphere atmósfera. 
attach enganchar Attach the trailer to 
your automobile. Enganche el carro 
de remolque a su automóvil. A em- 
bargar His creditors attached his sal- 
ary. Sus acreedores le embargaron el 

O to attach importance to dar im- 
portancia a We don't attach much im- 
portance to it. No le damos mucha 





importancia. O to be attached ser 
agregado, estar agregado For many 
years he's been attached to the Em- 
bassy. Fué agregado a la Embajada 
durante muchos años. A estar apegado 
He' 8 very much attached to his fam- 
ily. Esta muy apegado a su familia. 
attack [r¡] ataque She's had a heart at- 
tack. Ha tenido un ataque al corazón. 

• [y] atacar The enemy position 
has been attacked. La posición del 
enemigo ha sido atacada 

attain lograr, obtener. 

attempt [n] esfuerzo He made a cou- 
rageous attempt to save her Hizo un 
esfuerzo valeroso para salvarla A ten- 
tativa That was her first attempt at 
cooking. Fué su primera tentativa 

• [v~\ intentar Don't attempt too 
much. No intente demasiado. 

attend asistir a Did you attend the 
meeting? ¿Asistió Ud a la reunión? 
A cuidar What doctor attended you? 
¿Qué doctor le cuidó? 

O to attend to atender, ocuparse / 
have some things to attend to. Tengo 
algunas cosas a que atender. 

attendance presencia My attendance will 
hardly be necessary. Casi no será 
necesaria mi presencia. A público, au- 
ditorio We've had very poor atten- 
dance at these meetings. Hemos te- 
nido muy poco público en estas re- 

attendant sirviente. 

attention atención Please give me your 
complete attention. Hagan el favor 
de escucharme con toda atención. 

|| / can't get anyone's attention. No' 
puede conseguir que nadie me atienda. 

attest atestiguar. 

attitude actitud. 

attorney abogado. 

attract atraer. 

attraction atracción Her dancing is the 
big attraction of the show. Su baile 
es la atracción más grande de la 

O main attraction número principal 
We got to the circus just in time for 
the main attraction. Llegamos al 
circo precisamente para el número 

attractive atractivo, atrayente. 

attribute [n] atributo. 

attribute [v] atribuir To xohat do you 
attribute your success? ¿A qué atri- 
buye Ud. su éxito? 

auction subasta, remate. 

audible audible. 

audience auditorio, público. 

auditorium auditorio. 

August agosto. 

aunt tía 

O aunt and uncle tíos I'd like you to 
meet my aunt and uncle Me gustaría 
presentarle a mis tíos. 

author autor 

authority autoridad What, authority do 
you have to do this? ¿Qué autoridad 
tiene Ud para hacer esto? — I'm not 
an authority on that- No soy una 
autoridad en eso. 

O authorities autoridades I'll speak 
to the authorities. Hablaré con las 

authorize autorizar, facultar. 

auto auto. 

automatic automático. 

O automatic (pistol) pistola auto- 

automobile automóvil. 

autumn otoño. 

avail O of no avail en vano The doc- 
tor's efforts to save his life were of 
no avail. Los esfuerzos del médico 
por salvar su vida fueron en vano. 
Oto avail oneself aprovecharse Avail 
yourself of every opportunity. Apro- 
véchese de todas las oportunidades. 

available disponible. 

avenue avenida. 

average [n] promedio The average 
(age) of the class is fifteen years. 
El promedio (de edad) de la clase es 
de quince años. 

• [adj~¡ medio What's the average 
temperature here? ¿Cuál es la tem- 
peratura media aquí? 

• [y] hallar el promedio Average 
this column of figures for me. Há- 
lleme el promedio de esta columna de 

O on the average por término medio 
On the average I go to the movies 
once a week. Por término medio voy 
al cine una vez por semana. 

aviation aviación. 

avocado aguacate, palta [Am]. 

avoid evitar Avoid that at all cost. 
Eviten eso a toda costa. 

|] He avoided her. Evitaba encon- 

await esperar We await your reply. 
Esperamos su repuesta. 

awake [adj] despierto Are you wide 
awake? ¿Está Ud. bien despierto? 

• [y] despertar Some airplanes 
awoke me at five o'clock. Unos aei'o- 
planos me despertaron a las cinco. 





O to be awake to darse cuenta He's 
awake to his responsibilities. Se da 
cuenta de sus responsabilidades. 

aware enterado, sabedor. 

away fuera Have you been away? ¿Ha 
estado Ud. fuera? 

O to give away dar We're giving 
this away free. Estamos dando esto 
gratis. O to go away irse Go away. 
Vayase. O to take away llevar (se) 
Please take this away. Haga el favor 
de llevarse esto. O to throw away 
tirar Don't throw anything away. No 
tire nada 

|| It's thirty kilometers away. Está 
a treinta kilómetros. 

awe pavor. 

awful terrible, tremendo An awful ac- 
cident happened yesterday . Ayer 
ocurrió un accidente terrible. A hor- 
rible We've been having awful wea- 
ther. Hemos tenido un tiempo ho- 

rrible. A muy malo He looked awful. 
Tenía un aspecto muy malo. 

|| What an awful shame! ¡Qué 
lástima ! 

awhile algún tiempo The girl will be 
here for awhile. La muchacha estará 
aquí por algún tiempo A un rato 
Let's talk for awhile. Vamos a char- 
lar un rato. 

awkward torpe, chambón He was awk- 
ward in everything he did. Era torpe 
en todo lo que hacía. A desgarbado 
He's a very awkward fellow. Es un 
tipo muy desgarbado. A incómodo 
This package is awkward to, carry. 
Es muy incómodo llevar este paquete. 
A delicado, embarazoso It was an 
awkward situation. Era una situa- 
ción delicada. 

awning toldo, marquesina. 

ax hacha. 

axis eje. 

axle eje de las ruedas. 


baby [n~\ nene, criatura, bebé, crío. 
A niño She's sewing baby clothes. 
Está cosiendo ropa de niño. 

• [v] mimar We must baby her un- 
til she gets well again. Tenemos que 
mimarla hasta que se ponga buena. 

bachelor soltero My brother's a bachelor. 
Mi hermano es soltero. A bachiller 
He has a bachelor's degree. Tiene el 
grado {or titulo) de bachiller. 

O confirmed bachelor solterón My 
uncle's a confirmed bachelor. Mi tío 
es un solterón. 

back [n~\ espalda (of person) He's car- 
rying the bag on his back. Lleva el 
saco a la espalda. A lomo (of animal). 
A respaldo This chair has a high back. 
Esta silla tiene un respaldo alto. 

• [adj de atrás He went out the 
back door. Salió por la puerta de 

• [adv] de vuelta I'll be back at 
four. Estaré de vuelta a las cuatro. 

• [v] apoyar We'll back him in his 
request. Le apoyaremos en su peti- 
ción. A dar marcha atrás Please back 
your car slowly. Por favor, dé mar- 
cha atrás despacio. 

O at the back, in the back al fondo 
He's in the back of the classroom. El 
está al fondo de la clase. O back in 
allá por Back in 1850. Allá por el 
año de 1850. O back number número 

atrasado The library has the back 
numbers of this magazine. La biblio- 
teca tiene los números atrasados de 
esta revista. O behind one's back a 
espaldas de uno They told stories 
about her behind her back. Contaban 
cosas de ella a sus espaldas. O on 
one's back boca arriba He lay on his 
back. Estaba acostado boca arriba. 
O to back down volverse atrás Don't 
back down on what you said. No se 
vuelva atrás en lo que ha dicho. O to 
get back volver, regresar They got 
back from their journey. Han vuelto 
de su viaje. ° to give back devolver 
When are you going to give me back 
the book? Cuándo me va a devolver 
el libro? Oto go back on volverse 
atrás He went back on me. Se me 
volvió atrás. O to hold back con- 
tener They held the crowd back. Con- 
tuvieron a la multitud. O to hold 
something back callarse algo Tell 
everything; don't hold anything back. 
Dilo todo; no te calles nada. Oto pay 
back pagar We must pay back what 
we owe him. Debemos pagar lo que 
le debemos. O to turn one's back on 
volver la espalda He turned his back 
on them. Les volvió la espalda. 

|| What's at the back of what he 
said? ¿Con qué intención lo dijo? 
backbone espinazo He hurt his back- 





bone. Se lastimó el espinazo. A aga- 
llas // she had any backbone she 
ivouldn't take those insults. Si tuvie- 
ra agallas no aguantaría esos in- 

I] He's the backbone of the organi- 
zation. Es la piedra angular de la 

background fondo He painted some white 
flowers on a black background. Pintó 
unas flores blancas sobre un fondo 
negro. A antecedentes She has a very 
fine background. Tiene muy buenos 

O in the background en segundo tér- 
mino She likes to keep in the back- 
ground. Le gusta estar en segundo 

backward [adj] tímido He's very back- 
ward about asking for anything. Es 
muy tímido para pedir algo. A atra- 
sado She runs a school for backward 
children. Tiene una escuela para ni- 
ños atrasados. 

• [etch;] al revés You've got your 
blouse on backward. Ud. tiene puesta 
la blusa al revés. 

backwards hacia atrás. 

bacon tocino. 

bad [n] lo malo We must take the bad 

along with the good. Hay que aceptar 

lo bueno con lo malo. 

• [adj] mal, malo It's a bad day to 
go out. Es mal día para salir, or 
Está día malo para salir (of weather). 
— It's not a bad idea. No es una 
mala idea. A fuerte / caught a bad 
cold in the rain. Con la lluvia he 
cogido un fuerte catarro. A mal / feel 
bad today. Me siento mal hoy. 

O from bad to worse de mal en peor 
His affairs went from bad to worse. 
Sus asuntos iban de mal en peor. ° to 
be bad for hacer daño a Too much 
smoking's bad for you. El fumar 
demasiado le hará daño. O to go bad 
echarse a perder The butter went bad 
because of the heat. La mantequilla 
se echó a perder por el calor. ° too 
bad (una) lástima That's too bad. 
Eso es una lástima. 

baffle [v] desconcertar, confundir. 

bag [n] bolsa, saco, cartucho Put these 
groceries in a bag. Ponga estos co- 
mestibles en una bolsa. A cartera 
Hand me my bag and my gloves, 
please. Por favor, mi cartera y mis 
guantes. A maleta Where shall I 
check my bags and trunk? ¿Dónde 
puedo facturar las maletas y el baúl? 

• [v] capturar They bagged a lion. 
Capturaron un león. 

O to bag at the knees hacer rodi- 
lleras His trousers bag at the knees. 
Los pantalones le hacen rodilleras. 
O to let the cat out of the bag escapár- 
sele a uno un secreto. 

baggage equipaje Take my baggage up 
to my room. Suba el equipaje a mi 

O baggage car furgón (or vagón) 
de equipajes The baggage car's at the 
end of the train. El furgón de equi- 
pajes está al final del tren. O bag- 
gage room sala de equipajes Where's 
the baggage room? ¿Dónde está la 
sala de equipajes? 

bail [n] fianza He's out on bail. Está 
libre bajo fianza. 

• [v] poner fianza, salir fiador Hia 
friends bailed him out of jail. Sus 
amigos le pusieron una fianza para 
sacarlo de la cárcel. A achicar He had 
to bail the water out of the boat with 
a can. Tuvo que achicar el bote con 
una lata. 

O to bail out lanzarse The pilot 
bailed out of the plane. El piloto se 
lanzó del avión. 

bait [n] cebo. 

bake asar, [Am] hornear We had baked 
potatoes for dinner. Hemos comido 
patatas asadas. A cocer [Sp], hornear 
[A)/i] The bread was baked this morn- 
ing. El pan ha sido cocido esta ma- 

baker panadero. 

bakery panadería. 

balance [n] equilibrio / lost my balance 
and fell off the step. Perdí el equi- 
librio y me caí del escalón. A resto 
Pay the balance in monthly install- 
ments. Pague el resto por mensuali- 
dades. A balance What's my bank bal- 
ance? ¿Cuál es mi balance en el 

• [v] equilibrar The two weights 
balance each other. Los dos pesos se 

O in the balance en la balanza Hia 

fate hung in the balance. Su suerte 

estaba en la balanza. 

|| Does this account balance? ¿Está 

bien el balance de esta cuenta? 
balcony balcón. 
bald calvo. 
bale fardo, bala. 
ball ovillo He rolled the string into a 

ball. Hizo un ovillo con la cuerda. 

A pelota They played ball all after- 





noon. Jugaron a la pelota toda la 

O to be balled up estar hecho un lío 
He got all balled up. Estaba hecho 
un lío. 

|| Do you want to play baseball, 
football, or basketball? ¿Quiere Udi 
jugar al béisbol, al fútbol, o al basket- 

ballet ballet. 

balloon globo. 

O balloon tire neumático de baja 
presión, neumático de balón. 

ballot papeleta para votar. 

ballroom salón de baile. 

bamboo bambú. 

banana plátano, banana. 

band lista, franja The room was deco- 
rated with a blue band near the ceil- 
ing. El cuarto estaba decorado con 
una franja azul cerca del techo. 
A banda The band played marches. La 
banda tocó marchas. 

O metal band fleje, [Sp] precinto, 
[Am] zuncho Put a metal band 
around this box. Ponga un zuncho 
en esta caja. O rubber band goma 
Can you get me a box of rubber 
bands? ¿Me puede conseguir una 
caja de gomas? O to band together 
unirse They banded together against 
me. Se unieron contra mi. 

bandage [n~¡ vendaje. 

• [f] vendar. 
bandit bandido. 

bang [n] estrépito / heard a loud bang. 
Oí un gran estrépito. A ímpetu He 
started off with a bang. Empezó con 
mucho ímpetu. 

• [v~¡ golpear con violencia She 
banged the table. Golpeó la mesa con 
violencia. A tirar con violencia He 
banged the book down on the table. 
Tiró el libro sobre la mesa con vio- 
lencia. A cerrar de golpe He banged 
the door. Cerró la puerta de golpe. 
A golpear Stop banging on the piano! 
No siga golpeando en el piano. 

O bangs flequillo She wore her hair 
in bangs. Se peinaba con flequillo. 
° to go over with a bang resultar 
bomba The party went over with a 
bang. La fiesta resultó bomba. 

banish desterrar. 

banjo banjo. 

bank [w] montón There's a bank of snow 
near the door. Hay un montón de 
nieve cerca de la puerta. A orilla, 
margen, ribera He swam to the near- 
est bank. Nadó hasta la orilla más 
cercana, A banco We should deposit 

this money in a bank. Deberíamos 
depositar este dinero en un banco. — 
I'd. like to' open a bank account. 
Quisiera abrir una cuenta en el banco. 
A ' banca (in games) Hoiv much is in 
the bank? ¿Cuánto hay de banca? 

• [v] tapar, cubrir (a fire) Please 
bank the fire so it'll burn sllowly. 
Haga el favor de cubrir el fuego para 
que arda lentamente. 

O to bank on estar seguro You can 
bank on it. Puede estar seguro.- 

banker banquero. 

bankruptcy quiebra. 

banner bandera. 

banquet banquete They gave a banquet 
in his honor. Dieron un banquete en 
su honor. 

baptize bautizar. 

bar [ti] tranca, barra Put the bar 
across the window. Ponga Ud. la 
tranca a través de la ventana. A ba- 
rra Where's the bar of soap? ¿Dón- 
de está la barra de jabón? A im- 
pedimento Is a foreign accent much 
of a bar to making friends? ¿Es un 
impedimento para hacer amigos el 
acento extranjero? A compás He 
played a few bars of my favorite 
waltz. Tocó unos compases de mi vals 
favorito. A mostrador He was stand- 
ing at the bar when I walked in. Es- 
taba frente al mostrador cuando yo 
entré. A bar Meet me in the bar on 
the corner in an hour. Encuéntreme 
en el bar de la esquina dentro de una 

O [v] trancar He forgot to bar the 
gate to the pasture. Olvidó trancar 
la portilla de la pradera. A obstruir 
The fallen tree barred our way. El 
árbol caído obstruía el paso. A excluir 
He's been barred from the club. Le 
han excluido del club. 

O bar none incluyendo a todos, sin 
excepción. O barred window ventana 
enrejada The jail has barred windows. 
La cárcel tiene ventanas enrejadas. 

|| He was admitted to the bar. Se 
licenció para ejercer la abogacía. 

barbecue [w] barbacoa [Mece]. 

• [u] asar en asador, hacer bar- 

barbed wire alambre de púas. 
barber peluquero, barbero Where can I 
find a good barber? ¿Dónde puedo 
encontrar un buen peluquero? 

O barber shop peluquería, barbería. 

bare desnudo, al aire Don't go otit in 

this weather with bare legs. No saiga 

Ud. en este tiempo con las piernas 





desnudas. A puro I'm telling you the 
bare truth. Le estoy diciendo la pura 
verdad. A vacío The apartment was 
completely bare when we moved in. 
El apartamento estaba completamente 
vacío cuando nos mudamos allí. A es- 
caso He won the race by a bare sec- 
ond. Ganó la carrera por un segundo 

O to bare one's head descubrirse 
When the flag passed, the men bared 
their heads. Al pasar la bandera, los 
hombres se descubrieron. 

bareback O to ride bareback montar en 

barefoot descalzo. 

barely escasamente He had barely 
enough to live on. Tenía escasamente 
lo bastante para vivir. 

bargain [n] trato I'll make a bargain 
with you. Haré un trato con Ud. 
A ganga You'll find many bargains 
there. Ud. encontrará allí muchas 

• [v] regatear We bargained with 
him before buying. Estuvimos rega- 
teando con él antes de comprar. 

|| Tomorrow's a bargain day at this 

store. Mañana habrá una venta de 

saldos en esta tienda. 
barge lanchen. 
baritone [adj; n] barítono. 
bark [n] corteza That tree has a rough 

bark. Ese árbol tiene una corteza 


• [v] raspar / barked my shin. 
Me raspé la canilla. 

bark [n] ladrido That dog has a shrill 
bark. Ese perro tiene un ladrido 

• [v] ladrar Make the dog stop 
barking. Haga que el perro deje de 

barley cebada. 

barn granei-o The barn was filled with 
hay and grain. El granero estaba 
lleno de heno y de grano. 

barometer barómetro. 

barracks cuartel. 

barrel barril The truck was loaded with 
barrels of beer. El camión estaba 
cargado con barriles de cerveza. 
A cañón Clean the barrel of this gun. 
Limpie el cañón de esta escopeta. 

barren árido. 

barrier obstáculo, barrera. 

base [n] pedestal The base of the statue 
was still there. Todavía estaba allí 
el pedestal de la estatua. A base The 
soldiers returned to their base. Los 
soldados regresaron a su base. — Run 

to base before he catches you. Corra 
a la base antes de que le coja. 

• [adj] bajo That's a very base ac- 
tion. Esa es una acción muy baja. 

• [v] basar Success is based on 
honesty. El éxito está basado en la 

baseball béisbol (game). 

basement sótano. 

bashful tímido. 

basic básico. 

basin palangana (for washing). 

basis base. 

basket cesta, canasta He brought a bas- 
ket of fruit. Trajo una canasta de 

basketball basketball. 

bass (singer) bajo. 

bass (fish) lubina, róbalo. 

baste hilvanar Why don't you baste 
the seam? ¿Por qué no hilvana Ud. 
la costura? Mardear Baste the 
chicken with butter every half hour. 
Lardee Ud. el pollo con mantequilla 
cada media hora. 

bat [n] bate He hit the ball with the 
bat. Dio con el bate a la pelota 

• \_v~\ batear He batted the ball 
over the fence. Bateó la pelota por 
encima de la cerca. 

O at bat bateando Who's at bat? 
¿Quién está bateando? 

bat* murciélago I'm afraid of bats. 
Tengo miedo a los murciélagos. 

O blind as a bat ciego como un topo 
[literally, "as a mole"]. 

batch (of bread) hornada. 

bath baño Where can I take a bath? 
¿Dónde puedo tomar un baño? 

bathe bañar What time do you usually 
bathe the baby? ¿A qué hora baña 
Ud. al niño usualmente? A bañarse 
We went bathing in the lake. Nos 
bañamos en el lago. 

bathing cap gorro de baño. 

bathing suit traje de baño. 

bathrobe albornoz, bata de baño. 

bathroom cuarto de baño. 

bath towel toalla de baño. 

bathtub bañera, baño, [Am] tina. 

batter (cooking) batido. 

batter down derribar. 

battery batería My radio needs a neto 
battery. Mi radio necesita una nueva 
batería. — We silenced the enemy bat- 
tery. Silenciamos la batería enemiga. 
O assault and battery agresión. 

battle [n] batalla The battle was fought 
at the river. La batalla se libró junto 
al río. 

• [v] batirse The two armies bat- 





tied all day long. Los dos ejércitos se 
batieron todo el día. A luchar He bat- 
tled against heavy odds. Luchó en 
condiciones desiguales. 

battlefield campo de batalla. 

battleship acorazado. 

bay bahía The boat sailed in the bay. 
El barco navegaba por la bahía. 

bay O at bay a raya He held them at 
bay. Los mantuvo a raya. 

be ser The road was built by the pri- 
soners. El camino fué construido por 
los prisioneros. — The plans have been 
perfected. Los planes han sido per- 
feccionados. — It was a gold watch. 
Era un reloj de oro. — "What time is 
it?" "It's ten o'clock." "¿Qué hora 
es?" "Son las diez." — They're mine. 
Son míos. — We're from New York. 
Somos de Nueva York. — Be a good 
boy! ¡Sé buen chico! — He's a doctor. 
Es médico. — / wish I were younger! 
¡Ojalá fuese más joven! — My birth- 
day's July the third. Mi cumpleaños 
es el tres de julio. — Being stubborn 
won't help you. El ser terco no le 
traerá ningún beneficio. A estar 
Where's your office? ¿Dónde está su 
oficina? — He's to be there next Tues- 
day. Tendrá que estar allí el martes 
próximo. — He'll be here tomorrow. 
Estará aquí mañana. — I'm looking for 
another job. Estoy buscando otro 
empleo. — He was writing a letter. Es- 
taba escribiendo una carta. — The 
house -was painted white. La casa 
estaba pintada de blanco. — She's still 
sick. Todavía está enferma. — Your 
baggage is being checked. Están fac- 
turando su equipaje. A haber There's 
a big house on the corner. Hay una 
casa grande en la esquina. — There 
was a cup on the table. Había una 
taza en la mesa. — The child must be 
punished. Hay que castigar al niño. 
— I'm sorry I was late this morning. 
Siento haber llegado tarde esta ma- 
ñana. A tener I'm cold. Tengo frío. 
— You're right. Tiene razón. A hacer 
It's sunny. Hace sol. — It's cold. Hace 
frío. — We'll have been here a year 
this coming Friday. El viernes que 
viene hará un año que estamos aquí. 
— What are you doing? ¿Qué hace 

O to be off ser inexacto His figures 
were way off. Sus cálculos eran muy 

|| It's rumored that they're getting 
a divorce. Se dice que van a divorci- 
arse. \\ Be quiet! ¡Cállate! || Span- 

ish is spoken here. Aquí se habla 
español. || The book was written by 
a friend of mine. Un amigo mío 
escribió el libro. 

beach [n] playa Were you at the beach 
all summer? ¿Estuvo Ud. en la playa 
todo el verano? 

• [v~¡ varar, poner en seco We 
beached the canoe. Hemos puesto la 
canoa en seco. 

bead cuenta. 

beak pico. 

beam [w] viga The beams are begin- 
ning to rot. Las vigas empiezan a 
pudrirse. Á rayo / was awakened by 
a beam of light. Me despertó un rayo 
de luz. 

© [v] destellar de alegría She 
beams every time he speaks to her. 
Destella de alegría cada vez que le 

O to be off the beam no dar pie con 
bola You're off the beam this morn- 
ing. No da Ud. pie con bola esta 

bean frijol [Am], judía [Sp] Do they 
have beans on the menu? ¿Tienen 
frijoles en el menú? 

bear [n]¡ oso. 

bear [v] sostener This board won't 
bear your weight. Esta tabla no 
sostendrá su peso. A soportar He bore 
the pain bravely. Soportó el dolor 
con valentía. A sufrir / can't bear to 
see them leave. No puedo sufrir el 
verlos marchar. A aguantar / can't 
bear him. No puedo aguantarle. 
A dar This orchard bears good peaches. 
Este huerto da buenos duraznos. 
A tener She's borne three children. 
Ha tenido tres hijos. 

O to bear out probar This bears out 
ivhat I said. Esto prueba lo que dije. 

beard barba. 

bearing relación That has no bearing on 
the matter. Eso no tiene relación con 
el asunto. A porte, aire His military 
bearing's excellent. Su porte militar 
es excelente. A cojinete The bearings 
of the car are worn out. Los coji- 
netes del automóvil están gastados. 
A marcación, rumbo The navigator's 
taking a bearing. El oficial de de- 
rrota está determinando el rumbo. 

O to get one's bearings orientarse, 
marcarse Let's get our bearings be- 
fore we go any further. Vamos a 
orientarnos antes de continuar. O to 
lose one's bearings aturdirse. 

beat [w] ritmo The beat of the music 

beast bestia. 





beat \ri] ritmo The beat of the music 
wasn't clear. El ritmo de la música 
no era claro. A ronda What police- 
man's on this beat? ¿Qué policía 
hace esta ronda? 

• [v] derrotar We beat the enemy. 
Derrotamos al enemigo. A vencer 
They were beaten in the game. Fue- 
ron vencidos en el juego. A sacudir 
Please beat this carpet. Haga el fa- 
vor de sacudir esta alfombra. A batir 
Beat the egg before putting it in. 
Bata el huevo antes de añadirlo. 
A latir, palpitar His heart was beating 
regularly. Su corazón latía con regu- 

O beaten path camino(s) trillado(s) 
He always sticks to the beaten path. 
Siempre sigue los caminos trillados. 
O to beat back hacer retroceder The 
soldiers beat back the enemy. Los 
soldados hicieron retroceder al ene- 
migo. Oto beat it escapar (se) He 
beat it. Se escapó. ° to beat time 
marcar el compás He beat time with 
his foot. Marcaba el compás con el 
pie. ° to beat to death matar a gol- 
pes They beat him to death. Le ma- 
taron a golpes. 

|| Beat it! ¡Largúese! || They beat 
him to it. Le cogieron la delantera. 

beautiful bello, hermoso What a beauti- 
ful day! ¡Qué día tan hermoso! 

beauty belleza / find great beauty in 
his music Encuentro mucha belleza 
en su música. — She's a beauty! ¡Es 
una belleza! 

|| The fish we caught were beauties. 
Los pescados que cogimos eran muy 

beauty parlor salón de belleza, pelu- 

beaver castor. 

because porque He didn't come because 
he got sick. No vino porque se en- 

O because of a causa de 1 didn't 
buy it because of the high price. No 
lo compré a causa de lo elevado del 

beckon llamar con señas. 

become hacerse The work's become 
harder. El trabajo se ha hecho más 
difícil. — He became a lawyer. Se hizo 
abogado. A ponerse He became ill. 
Se puso enfermo. A volverse He's be- 
coming more aggressive every day. Se 
está volviendo cada día más agresivo. 
A llegar a ser He became a good law- 
yer. Llegó a ser un buen abogado. 
A cumplir When he became twenty- 

one, he left home. Cuando cumplió 
veintiún años se marchó de su casa. 
A sentar bien, quedar bien The red 
dress becomes her. El traje rojo le 
sienta bien. 

O to become of ser de What's to be- 
come of her? ¿Qué será de ella? 

becoming [adj] O to be becoming sen- 
tar bien, quedar bien That hat's very 
becoming. Ese sombrero le sienta 
bien. O to be becoming to ir con Such 
conduct isn't becoming to a man of 
your position. Tal conducta no va 
con un hombre de su posición. 

bed cama My bed hasn't been made. No 
han hecho mi cama. A lecho He was 
on his death bed. Estaba en su lecho 
de muerte. A base The machine's set 
in a bed of concrete. La máquina está 
colocada sobre una base de hormigón. 
A firme The road bed's in bad condi- 
tion. El firme de la carretera está 
en malas condiciones. A macizo Don't 
step in the flower bed. No pise Ud. 
el macizo de flores. A cauce Follow 
the old river bed for two miles. Siga 
el viejo cauce del río dos millas. 

O to get up on the wrong side of 
the bed levantarse de mal humor. 
O to go to bed acostarse I went to bed 
late. Me acosté tarde. 

bedbug chinche. 
j bedding ropa de cama Air the bedding. 
Ponga al aire la ropa de. cama. 
A cama We used straw for bedding for 
the horses. Usábamos paja para la 
cama de los caballos. 

bedroom dormitorio, alcoba. 

bedspread colcha, cubrecama. 

bee abeja. 

O to have a bee in one's bonnet 
estar un poco destornillado. 

beech haya. 

beef carne de vaca Do you have beef 
or pork? ¿Tiene Ud. carne de vaca 
o de cerdo? 

beefsteak bistec, biftec. 

beehive colmena. 

beeline || He made a beeline for home. 
Se fué directamente a casa. 

been See be. 

beer cerveza. 

beet remolacha. 

beetle escarabajo. 

before [adv~\ antes We should have 
done this before. Deberíamos haberlo 
hecho antes. 

• [prep] ante, en presencia de He 
was taken before the judge. Fué lle- 
vado ante el juez. A antes de The tele- 
gram should come before, evening. El 





telegrama debe llegar antes de la 
noche. A antes que Do this before any- 
thing else. Haga Ud. esto antes que 

• [conj~\ antes de I'll telephone you 
before I start. Le telefonearé antes 
de salir. A antes de que Let me know 
before you come. Avíseme antes de 
que Ud. venga. 

O before Christ (B. C.) antes de 
Jesucristo (a. de J. C.) The temple 
was built in the first century before 
Christ. El templo fué construido en 
el siglo primero antes de Jesucristo. 
O before long dentro de poco They'll 
come before long. Vendrán dentro 
de poco. 

|| Business before pleasure. Pri- 
mero es la obligación que la devoción. 

beforehand de antemano. 

beg pedir limosna Begging is a common 
practice in this country. El pedir 
limosna es corriente en este país. 
A mendigar That man went begging 
from door to door. Aquel hombre iba 
mendigando de puerta en puerta. 
A pedir The children begged for pen- 
nies. Los chicos pedían centavos. 
A rogar They begged us to help them. 
Nos rogaron que les ayudásemos. 
|| / beg your pardon! ("Excuse 
me.") ¡Perdone! || / beg your par- 
don? ("Please repeat.") ¡Perdone! 
¿Qué dijo Ud.? 

beggar mendigo, pordiosero. 

begin empezar The performance begins 
at 8:30 P. M. La función empieza a 
las ocho y media de la noche. — The 
building was begun many years ago. 
El edificio fué empezado hace muchos 
años. A comenzar Cigarettes began to 
disappear from the market. Los 
cigarillos comenzaban a desaparecer 
del mercado. 

O to begin with para empezar To 
begin with, he's too old. Para empe- 
zar, es demasiado viejo. 

beginner principiante. 

beginning [n] principio. 

behalf O j n , or on, behalf of a favor 
de, en nombre de. 

behave portarse, conducirse The little 
boy behaved badly during the whole 
trip. El muchacho se portó muy mal 
durante todo el viaje. A conducirse 
bien Behave oneself. Condúcete bien. 

behavior conducta Her behavior's very 
strange. Su conducta es muy rara. 
II He was on his very best behavior. 
Se comportó de bien como nunca. 

behind [adv] atrás They left all the 

other cars behind. Dejaron atrás a 
los demás autos. 

• [prep] detrás de The car's parked 
behind the house. El carro está esta- 
cionado detrás de la casa. 

O behind one's back a espaldas He 
talked about me behind my back. 
Habló a espaldas mías. O to be be- 
hind time estar atrasado The train's 
behind time. El tren está abrasado. 
O to fall behind atrasarse He's fallen 
behind in his work. Se ha atrasado 
en su trabajo. O to leave behind olvi- 
dar Have you left anything behind? 
¿Ha olvidado Ud. algo? 

behold contemplar. 

beige beige. 

being ser They don't act like human 
beings. No se portan como seres 

O for the time being por ahora, de 
momento Let the matter rest for the 
time being. Deja dormir el asunto 
por ahora. 

belief creencia, opinión. 

believe creer Do you believe what he 
told us? ¿Cree Ud. lo que nos dijo? 
— / believe so. Creo que si. 

O to believe in creer en Do you be- 
lieve in ghosts? ¿Ud. cree en fan- 

bell campana The bell rings half an 
hour before services. La campana 
toca media hora antes de los servicios 
religiosos. A timbre Ring the bell for 
the elevator. Toque el timbre para el 

O stroke of a bell campanada / 
couldn't count the strokes of the bell. 
No he podido contar las campanadas. 

bellboy botones, muchacho (or mozo) de 

bellow [v] bufar. 

belly vientre. 

belong pertenecer Does this book belong 
to you? ¿Le pertenece a Ud. este 
libro? — He belongs to the Republican 
Party. Pertenece al Partido Republi- 
cano. A ser de Who does this belong 
to? ¿De quién es esto? — This old 
chair belongs in the kitchen. Esta 
silla vieja es de la cocina. 

beloved [adj, «] querido, amado. 

below [adv] abajo From the window 
they saw what happened below. Des- 
de la ventana veían lo que pasaba 
abajo. A de abajo Try the floor be- 
low. Mire en el piso de abajo. 

• [prep] debajo de Who has the 
room belotu mine? ¿Quién tiene el 
cuarto debajo del mío? A bajo The 





temperature here seldom gets below 
zero. La temperatura aquí rara vez 
llega a bajo cero. A por debajo de 
He's below average height. Está por 
debajo de la altura media. 

|| Watch out below! ¡Cuidado! 

belt cinturón Do you wear a belt or 
suspenders? ¿Usa Ud. cinturón o 
tirantes? A correa Please fix the fan 
belt in this car. Haga el favor de 
arreglar la correa del ventilador del 

O life belt salvavidas, cinturón de 
salvamento Have your life belts ready. 
Tengan listos los salvavidas. 

bench banco We sat down on a bench 
in the park. Nos sentamos en un 
banco en el parque. A banco The car- 
penter's at his bench eight hours a 
day. El carpintero está pegado a su 
banco ocho horas al día. 

bend [w] curva The house is beyond the 
bend in the road. La casa está pa- 
sada la curva de la carretera. 

• [i>] doblar He bent the rod into 
a V shape. Dobló la varilla en forma 
de V. A doblarse How much will this 
bend without breaking? ¿Cuánto se 
podrá doblar esto sin que se rompa? 

O to bend down encorvarse, aga- 
charse You'll have to bend down to 
get through here. Tendrá Ud. que 
agacharse para pasar por aquí. 

beneath debajo de He was buried be- 
neath the tree. Fué enterrado debajo 
del árbol. A inferior a Don't look on 
these people as beneath you. No con- 
sidere a esta gente inferior a Ud. 

|| That remark's beneath our notice. 
Esa observación ni siquiera merece 
que la tomemos en cuenta. 

benefit [n] beneficio (s) The new law 
gave us very little benefit. La nueva 
ley nos suministro muy pocos bene- 
ficios. — Will you buy this ticket for 
the benefit? ¿Quiere comprar este 
billete para el beneficio? 

• [v ] beneficiar, aprovechar The 
trip didn't benefit us much. El viaje 
no nos ha beneficiado mucho. 

bent [w] inclinación He has a bent for 
art. Tiene inclinación por el arte. 

• [adj] torcido These nails are bent 
too much. Estos clavos están demasia- 
do torcidos. 

O bent on resuelto a In spite of us 
he's bent on going. A pesar de nues- 
tra opinión está resuelto a irse. 
berth cama I couldn't get a berth on 
the midnight train. No pude conse- 
guir cama en el tren de media noche. 

A camarote There are two berths left 
on this ship. Quedan dos camarotes 
en este barco. A amarradero The ship 
was anchored in its berth. El buque 
estaba anclado en su amarradero. 

beside al lado de Please put this trunk 
beside the other one. Haga Ud. el 
favor de poner este baúl al lado del 

O beside oneself fuera de sí He was 
beside himself with anger. Estaba 
fuera de sí de rabia. O to be beside 
the point no venir al caso 

besides [adv] además We need these 
and others besides. Necesitamos es- 
tos y además otros. 

• [prep~\ además de Others must 
help besides him. Otros deben ayudar 
además de él. 

best [adv] mejor She knows three lan- 
guages but speaks French best. Sabe 
tres idiomas pero el que mejor habla 
es el francés. 

O the best el mejor We tried to pick 
out the best plan. Tratamos de esco- 
ger el mejor plan. A lo mejor We 
want only the best. Queremos sólo lo 
mejor. O to get the best of adelan- 
tarse, aventajar We must be careful 
he doesn't get the best of us. Tene- 
mos que tener cuidado de que no se 
nos adelante. O to make the best of 
sacar el mejor partido de We had few 
supplies, but we made the best of what 
we had. Teníamos pocas provisiones, 
pero sacamos el mejor partido de 

bestow conferir. 

bet [n] apuesta When are you going to 
pay up that bet? ¿Cuándo va a 
pagar esa apuesta? 

• [v] apostar / bet five dollars on 
the black horse. Apuesto cinco dólares 
al caballo negro. 

|| You bet! ¡Y que lo digas! 

betray traicionar He was charged with 
betraying his country. Se le acusó 
de traicionar a su país. A revelar His 
remarks betrayed his ignorance. Lo 
que decía revelaba su ignorancia. 

better [adj] mejor / want a better room 
than this one. Quiero un cuarto me- 
jor que éste. — / felt better this morn- 
ing. Me encontraba mejor esta ma- 

e ñaña. 

• [adv] mejor / can't do better 
than this. No lo puedo hacer mejor 
que esto. 

• [v] mejorar We're trying to bet- 
ter living conditions here. Estamos 





tratando de mejorar aquí las condi- 
ciones de vida. 

O better half media naranja, esposa. 
O better off mejor We'll be better off 
if we move. Estaremos mejor si nos 
mudamos. O so much the better tanto 
mejor So much the better if you pay 
in advance. Tanto mejor si Ud. paga 
por adelantado. O to get better me- 
jorar The doctor says he's getting bet- 
ter. El médico dice que va mejorando. 
O to get the better of aprovecharse 
de He'll try to get the better of you. 
Tratará de aprovecharse de Ud. 

|| This is for the better. Más vale 
así. || We'd better go before it rains. 
Sería mejor que nos fuésemos antes 
de que llueva. 

between (por) entre They walked be- 
tween the buildings. Pasaron entre 
los edificios. A de I'll meet you be- 
tween six and seven. Le encontraré 
de seis a siete. 

O between you and me entre nosot- 
ros, entre Ud. y yo There's nothing 
between you and me. No hay nada 
entre Ud. y yo. ° to come between 
interponerse entre We nearly caught 
up with him, but the traffic came be- 
tween us. Casi le alcanzamos pero el 
tráfico se interpuso entre nosotros. 

beverage brebaje. 

beware O to beware of cuidarse de Be- 
ware of the dog! ¡Cuídese del perro! 
|| Beware! ¡Cuidado! 

bewilder dejar perplejo. 

beyond más allá de They live beyond 
the river. Viven más allá del río. 

|| When we arrived he was beyond 
help. Cuando llegamos para soco- 
rrerle, ya era tarde. || She's living 
beyond her means. Gasta más de lo 
que tiene. 

bias [n] sesgo / want the skirt cut on 
the bias. Quiero la falda cortada al 
sesgo. A prejuicio It's wrong to judge 
her with so much bias. No es justo 
juzgarla con tanto prejuicio. 

• [vi influir Her opinions have 
been biased by her friends. Sus opini- 
ones han sido influidas por sus 

bib babero. 

Bible Biblia. 

bicycle [w] bicicleta My bicycle needs 
repairs. Mi bicicleta necesita repa- 

• [v] dar un paseo en bicicleta 
Let's bicycle down to the lake. Vamos 
a dar un paseo en bicicleta hasta el 

bid [ri\ oferta His bid was too high to 
get the contract. Su oferta fué dema- 
siado elevada para conseguir la con- 

• [v] mandar, ordenar He wouldn't 
do as I bid him. No quiso hacerlo 
como se lo mandé. A ofrecer He bid 
five dollars for the rug and then she 
bid ten. El ofreció cinco dólares por 
la alfombra y después ella ofreció diez. 
A declarar / bid two hearts. Declaro 
dos corazones. 

O to bid good-by decir adiós. 

big grande They live in a big house. 
Viven en una casa grande. A mayor 
She's my big sister. Ella es mi her- 
mana mayor. A importante A big 
man will talk at the meeting. Un 
hombre importante hablará en el 

O to talk big darse importancia, 
echárselas de importante He talks big, 
but don't believe everything he says. 
Se da mucha importancia, pero no 
crea Ud. todo lo que dice. 

bill cuenta We must pay the bill today. 
Tenemos que pagar la cuenta hoy. 
A billete Can you change a five-dollar 
bill? ¿Me puede cambiar un billete 
de cinco dólares? A cartel Post no 
bilis. Se prohibe fijar carteles. — 
What's on the bill at the theater this 
evening? ¿Qué hay en el cartel del 
teatro esta noche? A proyecto de ley 
The bill will be voted upon by the 
House of Representatives. El proyecto 
de ley será votado por la Cámara de 
Diputados. A pico This bird has a 
long bill. Este pájaro tiene un pico 

O bill of fare lista de comidas. 
O bill of health certificado de sanidad. 
O bill of lading manifiesto de em- 

billboard cartelera. 

billfold billetera. 

billiards billar. 

billion mil millones (1,000,000,000). 

bind atar They bound his hands behind 
his back. Le ataron las manos detrás 
de la espalda. A vendar You should 
bind up this cut. Ud. debería vendar 
esta cortadura. A encuadernar, em- 
pastar They're binding both volumes 
of his poetry into one book. Están 
empastando los dos volúmenes de su 
poesía en un solo libro. A obligar 
That doesn't bind me. Eso no me 

biography biografía. 

biology biología. 





birch abedul. 

bird pájaro. 

birth nacimiento What's the date of 
your birth? ¿Cuál es la fecha de su 
nacimiento? A origen The governor 
was a man of humble birth. El go- 
bernador era un hombre de humilde 

O by birth de nacimiento Are you 
an American by birth? ¿Es Ud. 
norteamericano de nacimiento? O to 
give birth to dar a luz She's given 
birth to twins. Ha dado a luz geme- 

birthday cumpleaños. 

biscuit galleta de mar, bizcocho. 

bishop obispo (church); alfil (chess). 

bit pedazo, pedacito He broke the candy 
into bits. Partió el dulce en pedaci- 
tos. A bocado This bridle doesn't 
have a bit. Estas bridas no tienen el 
bocado. A taladro / need a bit to 
drill a hole with. Necesito un taladro 
para hacer un agujero. A pizca, lo 
más mínimo That doesn't make a bit 
of difference. Eso no altera en lo 
más mínimo. A poco, poquito They ar- 
rived a bit later than the others. Lle- 
garon un poco más tarde que los 

O bit by bit poco a poco We learned 
the story bit by bit. Nos enteramos 
de la historia poco a poco. O to blow 
to bits hacer pedazos The truck was 
blown to bits. El camión quedó hecho 

|| May I give you a bit of advice? 
¿Me permite Ud. darle un consejo? 

bite [w] bocado / took one bite of the 
apple. Tomé un bocado de la man- 
zana. A picadura / have two mosquito 
bites on my arm. Tengo dos picaduras 
de mosquito en el brazo. 

• [v] morder Will this dog bite? 
¿Muerde este perro? — He bit inio the 
apple. Mordió la manzana. A picar 
The fish are biting well today. Los 
peces están picando bien hoy. A cortar 
It's a biting-cold day. Es un día en 
que el frío corta. 

O biting mordaz She often makes 
biting remarks. Hace muchas veces 
observaciones mordaces. 

|| His bark's worse than his bite. 
No es tan fiero como parece. 

bitter amargo This coffee's too bitter. 
Este café está demasiado amargo. 
A picante, desapacible It was bitter- 
cold. Hacía un frío desapacible. 
A enconado He had a bitter quarrel 
with his brother. Tuvo una enconada 

disputa con su hermano. A encarni- 
zado After the war their bitter ha- 
tred continued. Después de la guerra 
continuaron sus odios encarnizados. 
O to the bitter end hasta veneer o 
morir He fought to the bitter end. 
Luchó hasta veneer o morir. 

black luto She's worn black since her 
husband died. Va de luto desde que 
murió su marido. A negro Do you 
have a black dress? ¿Tiene Ud. un 
traje negro? — Their future's black. 
Su porvenir es negro. A obscuro The 
night was very black. La noche era 
muy obscura. 

O to black out pintar de negro This 
line should be blacked out. Esta línea 
hay que pintarla de negro. A obscu- 
recer The house must be blacked out 
by dark. Hay que obscurecer la casa 
al anochecer. 

blackberry zarza (plant); mora (fruit). 

blackbird mirlo. 

blackboard pizarra, encerado. 

blacken one's character difamarlo a uno. 

blackmail [ri\ chantaje. 

• [v] chantajear. 

blackout apagón, obscurecimiento, black- 

blacksmith herrero. 

blade hoja (knife) ; pala (oar, pro- 

O blade of grass brinza de hierba. 

blame echar la culpa He blamed us for 
the accident. Nos echó la culpa del 
accidente. A culpar He didn't blame 
us for going ahead. No nos culpó 
porque prosiguiéramos. 

O to be to blame tener la culpa 
Who's to blame? ¿Quién tiene la 
culpa? O to take the blame echarse 
la culpa. 

|| You must blame the taxi for our 
lateness. El taxi tiene la culpa de 
nuestro retraso. 

blank blanco Fill in the blanks. Llene 
Ud. los blancos. A vacío He feels that 
his future is a blank. El cree que 
su porvenir es vacío. 

O blank check cheque en bianco. 
O blank form formulario. 

blanket [w] manta We only had one 
blanket apiece. Sólo teníamos una 
manta cada uno. A capa The ground 
was covered with a thick blanket of 
snow. La tierra estaba cubierta con 
una capa espesa de nieve. 

• [v] envolver A thick fog blan- 
keted the city. Una niebla densa 
envolvía a la ciudad. 

blast [n] ráfaga A blast of wind 





knocked off my hat. Una ráfaga de 
viento me llevó el sombrero. A explo- 
sión You could hear the blast for 
miles. Se podía oír la explosion a 
muchas millas. 

• [v] volar From a distance we 
watched them blasting rocks. Les 
observábamos desde lejos volar las 
rocas. A malograr That scandal 
blasted her chances for success. Aquel 
escándalo malogró sus probabilidades 
de éxito. 

O at full blast a toda velocidad The 
machine was working at full blast. 
La máquina estaba funcionando a toda 
blaze In] llama Isn't that fire giving 
off a good blaze! ¡No da este fuego 
buena llama ! 

• [v] arder The fire's blazing nicely 
now. El fuego está ardiendo ahora 
muy bien. A abrir, construir We're 
going to blaze a new trail. Vamos a 
abrir un nuevo sendero.^ 

bleach [v] blanquear, poner blanco. 
bleed sangrar This cut's bleeding a lot. 

Esta cortadura está sangrando mucho. 
O to bleed for sangrar de dolor por 

My heart bleeds for you. Mi corazón 

sangra de dolor por tí. 
blemish [n] mancha. 
blend [n] mezcla This tobacco's a good 

blend. Este tabaco es una buena 


• [v] combinar Those two colors 
blend well. Esos dos colores combinan 

bless bendecir. 

blessing bendición. 

blind [n] persiana The house has green 
blinds. La casa tiene persianas ver- 

• í a dj] ciego He was blind to the 
true facts. Estaba ciego para ver la 

• [v] cegar The lightning blinded 
me for a while. El relámpago me 
cegó por un momento. 

O blind alley callejón sin salida 
This is only a blind alley. Esto es 
sólo callejón sin selida. O blind man 
ciego We helped the blind man across 
the street. Ayudamos al ciego a cru- 
zar la calle. ° to be blinded quedarse 
ciego, cegar He was blinded in the 
accident. Se quedó ciego a consecuen- 
cia del accidente. 

|| He was too blind to read the let- 
ter. Veiía tan mal que no podia leer 
la carta. 
blister ampolla. 

blizzard ventisca. 

block [n] tarugo, zoquete, trozo The 
child was playing with wooden blocks. 
El niño estaba jugando con tarugos 
de madera. A manzana [Sp~\, cuadra 
[Am] Walk three blocks and then 
turn right. Camine Ud. tres man- 
zanas y entonces tuerza a la derecha, 
i • [v~\ obstruir That car's blocking 
traffic. Ese automóvil está obstruyen- 
do el tráfico. A planchar How long 
will it take you to block my hat? 
¿Cuánto tardará Ud. en planchar mi 

blond [adj, n] rubio. 

blonde [adj, n\ rubia. 

blood sangre After the accident there 
was blood on the ground. Después 
del accidente había sangre en el suelo. 
O blood pressure presión / have 
high blood pressure. Tengo la presión 
alta. O blood relatives parientes por 
consanguinidad They're blood rela- 
tives. Son parientes por consanguini- 
dad. O blood test reacción de la san- 
gre Have you had your blood test? 
¿Le han hecho ya la reacción de su 
sangre? ° in cold blood a sangre fría 
The crime was committed in cold 
blood. El crimen fué cometido a 
sangre fría. 

bloody sangriento. 

bloom [v] florecer. 

blossom [n] flor, capullo The blossoms 
are beginning to fall off the trees. 
Las flores empiezan a caer de los 

blot [w] borrón This book's full of ink 
blots. Este libro está lleno de bo- 
rrones de tinta. A mancha, baldón 
Don't forget this will be a blot on 
your record. No se olvide que esto 
será una mancha en su hoja de ser- 

• [v] emborronar The teacher 
scolded the little girl for blotting her 
homework. La maestra regañó a la 
niña por emborronar sus cuadernos. 

O to blot out quitar la vista, en- 
cubrir The trees blot out the view 
from here. Los árboles quitan la vista 
desde aquí. A arrasar, destruir After 
the raid the town was almost blotted 
out. Después del raid el pueblo quedó 
casi arrasado. O to blot up secar 
Blot up the ink you spilled. Seque 
la tinta que ha derramado. 

|| She tried to blot out the memory 
of the mart she loved. Trató de olvi- 
dar al hombre que amaba. 

blotter papel secante. 





blow [«] golpe He died from a bloiv on 
the head. Murió de un golpe en la 

• [v] soplar The wind'll blow hard 
tonight. El viento soplará fuerte esta 
noche. A sonar Has the whistle 
blown? ¿Ha sonado la sirena? A to- 
car Blow the horn three times when 
you come. Toque Ud. la bocina tres 
veces cuando venga. 

O to blow away llevarse el viento 
The wind'll blow the tent away. El 
viento se va a llevar la tienda de 
campaña. ° to blow down derribar 
The wind blew the tree down. El 
viento derribó el árbol. O to blow 
one's nose sonarse (las narices) / 
have to blow my nose. Tengo que 
sonarme. O to blow out apagar Blow 
out the candle before you go. Apague 
la vela antes de irse. A reventar, 
estallar The old tire blew out. El 
neumático viejo reventó. A fundir (se) 
The fuse blew out. Se fundió el 
fusible. O to blow over pasar Wait 
until all this blows over. Espere has- 
ta que pase todo esto. O to blow up 
volar The eneyny will try to blow up 
the bridge. El enemigo tratará de 
volar el puente. A inflar Please blow 
up this tire. Haga el favor de inflar 
este neumático. A desencadenarse A 
storm may blow up this afternoon. 
Puede desencadenarse una tormenta 
esta tarde. O to come to blows pelear, 
venir a las manos. 

blue azul She always wears blue. Va 
siempre de azul. A triste Why are you 
so blue this morning? ¿Porqué está 
Ud. tan triste esta mañana? 

O the blues esplín [Sp~¡, morriña 
[Sp], tristeza / get the blues when it 
rains. Tengo esplín cuando llueve. 
or Me da tristeza cuando llueve. 

bluff [n] risco We climbed to the top 
of the bluff. Escalamos hasta la 
punta del risco. 

• [v ] farolear He won't do it, he's 
only bluffing. No lo hará, está farole- 
ando únicamente. 

O to call one's bluff ver un farol, 
descubrir una farsa. 

blunder equivocación / made an awful 
blunder. Cometí una tremenda equi- 

blunt [adj~\ romo These scissors have a 
blunt point. Estas tijeras tienen la 
punta roma. A descortés, crudo 
There's no need for you to be so blunt 
about it. No hace falta que sea Ud. 
tan descortés. 

• [v] embotar // you use the knife 
that way you'll blunt the edge. Si 
usa Ud. así el cuchillo embotará el 

blush [n~\ rubor. 

• [v] ruborizarse, sonrojarse. 
board [w] tabla We need some boards to 

make the top of the box. Necesitamos 
algunas tablas para hacer la tapa del 
cajón. A comida Is the board good 
there? ¿Es buena la comida allí? 
A junta The board has made new regu- 
lations. La junta ha establecido 
nuevas regulaciones. 

• [i>] subir He's already boarded 
the train. Ya ha subido al tren. 
A comer Is there a place to board near 
your work? ¿Hay un sitio dónde 
comer cerca de su trabajo? 

O ironing board tabla de planchar 
Do you have an ironing board? ¿Tiene 
Ud. una tabla de planchar? O on 
board a bordo The whistle's blown. 
Let's get ori board. Ha sonado la 
sirena. Subamos a bordo. O room 
and board pensión completa They 
advertise room and board. Anuncian 
pensión completa. 

|| How many people does she board? 
¿Cuántos huéspedes tiene? 

boarder huésped. 

boarding house casa de huéspedes. 

boardwalk entablado de paseo. 

boast jactarse / get fed up hearing you 
boast about your connections. Estoy 
harto de oírle a Ud. jactarse de sus 

|| Our town boasts the finest race 
horses in the country. Nuestro pue- 
blo se vanagloria de poseer los me- 
jores caballos de carrera del país. 

boat barca We can cross the river in 
this boat. Podemos cruzar el río en 
esta barca. A barco The boat trip'll 
take five days. El viaje en barco 
durará cinco días. 

|| We're all in the same boat. Corre- 
mos todos la misma suerte. 

bob cortar corto She bobbed her hair. 
Ella se cortó corto el pelo. 

O to bob up presentarse súbitamente 
He's always bobbing up at the wrong 
time. Siempre se presenta súbita- 
mente en el momento inoportuno. 

bobby pin horquilla, ganchito para el 

body cuerpo He had a rash on his body. 
Tenía una erupción en el cuerpo. 
A cuerpo, tronco His legs are too short 
for his body. Sus piernas son de- 
masiado cortas para su cuerpo. A ca- 





dáver They buried the two bodies in 
one grave. Enterraron los dos ca- 
dáveres en una tumba. A formación 
A body of troops marched down the 
street. Una formación de tropas mar- 
chaba calle abajo. A contenido The 
body of his speech was technical. El 
contenido de su discurso era técnico. 

O in a body en grupo They all left 
in a body. Todos salieron en grupo. 

bodyguard guardaespaldas. 

bog pantano. 

O to bog down empantanarse. 

boil [w] divieso, ferúnculo, grano This 
boil's painful. Este divieso es dolo- 

• [i>] hervir In a few minutes the 
water will boil. Dentro de pocos 
minutos hervirá el agua. A cocer 
Please boil the egg two minutes. Haga 
el favor de cocer el huevo dos minutos. 

O to boil down reducirse What does 
all this boil down to? ¿A qué se 
reduce todo esto? ° to boil over sa- 
lirse The coffee's boiling over. Se 
sale el café. 

|| That remark made me boil. Esa 
observación me indignó. 

boiler caldera. 

boisterous ruidoso. 

bold arrojado, atrevido He was bold 
enough to face the enemy alone. Era 
bastante atrevido para hacer frente 
él solo al enemigo. A descarado He's 
too bold in his manners. Es demasiado 
descarado en sus modales. 

bologna salchichón. 

bolt [w] tornillo The nut's loose on this 
bolt. La tuerca del tornillo está floja. 
A cerrojo Did you push the bolt shut? 
¿Ha corrido Ud. el cerrojo? A pieza 
She ordered half a bolt of cloth. Ella 
pidió media pieza de paño. 

• [v] echar el cerrojo a You forgot 
to bolt the door. Ha olvidado Ud. 
echar el cerrojo a la puerta. A dis- 
pararse The horse bolted across the 
field. El caballo se disparó por el 
campo. A engullir Don't bolt your 
food. No engullas la comida. 

O bolt of lightning rayo, centella. 
bomb [n] bomba A bomb was dropped 
by the plane. El avión dejó caer una 

• [v] bombardear They bombed the 
factory last night. Bombardearon la 
fábrica anoche. 

bomber bombardero, avión de bombardeo. 

bombing [w] bombardeo This city was 
subjected to a bombing. Esta ciudad 
fué sometida a un bombardeo. 

bond lazo There's a firm bond of friend- 
ship between them. Hay un lazo de 
amistad muy firme entre ellos. A bono 
How much llave you invested in 
bonds? Cuánto ha invertido Ud. en 
bonos? A contrato Will you require a 
written bond for this job? ¿Será 
necesario un contrato escrito para 
este trabajo? 

|| The employees were bonded by the 
bank. Los empleados fueron asegura- 
dos por el banco. 

bone [tc] hueso He broke two bones. 
Se le rompieron dos huesos. 

• [i>] quitar las espinas a (of fish) ; 
quitar los huesos a (of animal). 

O fish bone espina A fish bone 
caught in his throat. Se le ha clavado 
una espina en la garganta. O to feel 
in one's bones darle a uno el corazón 
/ feel it in my bones that he isn't 
coming. Me da el corazón que no 
viene. O to make no bones no andarse 
con rodeos He made no bones about 
what he wanted. No se anduvo con 
rodeos en lo que quería. 

|| / have a bone to pick with you. 
Tengo que habérmelas con Ud. || I'm 
chilled to the bone. Estoy helado 
hasta los huesos. 

bonfire hoguera, fogata. 

bonnet caperuza. 

book [w] libro / want a book to read 
on the train. Quiero un libro para 
leerlo en el tren. A taco This book of 
tickets will save you money. Este 
taco de billetes le ahorrará dinero. 

• [v] reservar Have you booked 
passage on the boat yet? ¿Ha reser- 
vado Ud. ya el pasaje del barco? 

O to keep books llevar los libros 
Who kept the books when the ac- 
countant was sick? ¿Quién llevó los 
libros cuando el contador estuvo en- 

|| The dance team was booked up 
two weeks in advance. La pareja de 
baile estaba contratada con dos se- 
manas de anticipación. || We're 
booked up two weeks in advance 
(theater, travel reservations). Lo 
tenemos todo vendido con dos semanas 
de anticipación. || This hotel's com- 
pletely booked up at present. Este 
hotel está tomado completamente al 

bookcase librería, estante para libros. 

bookend sujetalibros. 

bookkeeper tenedor de libros. 

booklet folleto. 





jookmaker, "bookie" corredor de apues- 
jookstore librería. 

joom estampido We could hear the 
boom of the cannons. Podíamos oír 
el estampido de los cañones. A auge ; 
He made all his money in the boom. | 
Hizo todo su dinero en aquel auge. ; 
boost [n] empuje, alza. 

boot [w] bota You can't get rubber boots j 
now. No se pueden comprar ahora ¡ 
botas de goma. 

O to boot He gave me the horse and i 
ten dollars to boot. Me dio diez dó- 
lares además del caballo. 
bootblack limpiabotas. 
booth puesto We visited most of the 
booths at the fair. Hemos visitado la 
mayoría de los puestos en» la feria. 
A cabina telefónica I'm calling from a 
booth. Estoy llamando desde una ca- 
bina telefónica. 
bootlegging contrabando. 
booty botín. 

border frontera Tell me when we reach 
the border. Avíseme cuando llegue- 
mos a la frontera. A borde The border 
of this rug's worn out. El borde de 
esta alfombra está gastado. 

O to border on rayar en His argu- 
ment borders on the ridiculous. Su 
argumento raya en lo ridículo. 
bore [w] pelmazo Don't tell me you're 
going out again with that bore. No 
me diga que va Ud. a salir otra vez 
con ese pelmazo. 

• [v] aburrir That speech bored me 
to death. Ese discurso me aburrió 

O to bore a hole taladrar, hacer un 
agujero We'll have to bore a hole 
through the wall. Tendremos que 
taladrar (or hacer un agujero) a 
través de la pared. 
born O to be born nacer Were you born 
in America? ¿Nació Ud. en los Esta- 
dos Unidos? 
borrow pedir prestado He's borrowed 
money at the bank. Ha pedido dinero 
prestado al banco. 
bosom pecho, seno. 

boss [n] jefe The boss bawled me out 
for being late again. El jefe me 
echó una buena por llegar tarde otra 
vez. A cacique The party split when 
he became boss. El partido se dividió 
cuando él se hizo cacique. 

• [v] mandar, ordenar What right 
have you to boss me around? ¿Con 
qué derecho me manda Ud.? 
botany botánica. 

both ambos, los dos Both roads will take 
you to the city. Los dos caminos le 
llevan a la ciudad. — I'll buy both of 
the books. Compraré ambos libros. 

O both . . . and y ... a la vez It's 
both good and cheap. Es bueno y 
barato a la vez. A tanto . . . como Both 
boys and girls use this playground. 
Tanto los muchachos como las niñas 
usan este campo de juego. ° both of 
us nosotros dos Both of us saw it 
happen. Nosotros dos vimos como 

bother [n] molestia. 

• [i>] molestar, incomodar. 

bottle [?i] botella He drank the whole 
bottle of milk. Se bebió toda la botella 
de leche. A frasco I'd like a bottle of 
ink. Quisiera un frasco de tinta. 

• [v] embotellar This milk was bot- 
tled this morning. Esta leche ha sido 
embotellada esta mañana. 

O to bottle up reprimir He bottled 
up his anger. Reprimió su cólera. 

bottleneck embotellamiento, atascamien- 
to There was a bottleneck in the work. 
Hubo un embotellamiento en el trab- 

bottom fondo The coffee grounds were 
at the bottom of the cup. Los posos 
del café estaban en el fondo de la 
taza. — The bottom of this chair's 
broken. El asiento de esta silla está 

O at bottom en el fondo At. bottom 
he's honest. En el fondo es honrado. 
O to get to the bottom of llegar al 
fondo de We'll never get to the bot- 
tom of the case. Nunca podremos 
llegar al fondo del caso. 
|¡ Bottoms up! ¡Salud! 

bough rama. 

boulevard bulevar. 

bounce [n] bote This ball still has a lot 
of bounce. Esta pelota todavia tiene 
buen bote. 

• [v] rebotar The ball bounced off 
the roof. La pelota rebotó en el te- 
jado. A echar, arrojar, [Am] botar 
That drunk ought to be bounced out 
of here. Se le debería arrojar a ese 
borracho de aquí. 

bound [n] límite His pride had no 
bounds. Su orgullo no tenía límites. 

• [v] limitar The United States is 
bounded on the north by Canada. Los 
Estados Unidos limitan al norte con 
el Canadá. 

|| The ball fell out of bounds. La 
pelota cayó fuera del campo. 
bound [»] salto He jumped to safety 





in one bound. De un salto se puso a 

• [v] saltar The child bounded 
along the sidewalk. El niño iba sal- 
tando por la acera. 

bound O bound up ligado His success is 
bound up with politics. Su éxito está 
ligado a la política. 

|| She's bound to be late. Es seguro 
que venga tarde. 

bound || Where are you bound for? ¿A 
dónde se dirige Ud.? 

boundary límite. 

bounty generosidad; prima (money). 

bouquet ramo (flowers) ; aroma (smell). 

bow arco (weapon) ; arco de violin ; lazo 

bow [w] reverencia The conductor made 
a bow. El director hizo una reveren- 

• [v~\ inclinarse He bowed respect- 
fully on leaving. Se inclinó respetu- 
osamente al salir. A ceder / generally 
bow to my father's wishes. General- 
mente cedo a los deseos de mi padre. 

bow proa (ship). 
bowels intestinos. 
bowl [«] tazón Can I have another bowl 

of soup? ¿Puedo tomar otro tazón de 


• [^] jugar a los bolos He went 
bowling last night. Anoche fué a 
jugar a los bolos. 

O to bowl over dejar de una pieza 
I was simply bowled over by his mar- 
velous performance. Me dejó de una 
pieza por su ejecución maravillosa. 

box cajón We need a larger box for 
packing. Necesitamos un cajón mayor 
de embalaje. A caja Please put it in 
a box. Haga el favor de ponerlo en 
una caja. — She ate a whole box of 
chocolates. Se comió una caja de 
bombones. A palco The party took a 
box at the theater. El grupo tomó un 
palco en el teatro. 

O to box up meter en una caja Box 
up what's left. Meta en una caja lo 
que queda. 

boxear furgón. 

boxer boxeador. 

boxing boxeo Do you like boxing? Le 
gusta el boxeo? 

box office taquilla. 

boy niño They have tivo boys and a girl. 
Tienen dos niños y una niña. A mozo, 
muchacho Boy, please bring me some 
ice water. Mozo, haga el favor de 
traerme agua con hielo. — The boys are 
having a game of poker. Los mucha- 
chos van a echar una partida de 

poker. A chico Boy, what a night! 
¡Chico, qué noche! 
O boy scout explorador, boy scout. 
boycott [«] boicoteo. 

• [v~\ boicotear. 
brace [n~\ abrazadera, laña. 

• [v] asegurar Brace the tent. A 
storm's coming up. Asegure la tienda 
de campaña; se acerca una tormenta. 

O to brace up fortalecer / drank 
some broth to brace me up. Tomé un 
caldo para fortalecerme. ° to brace 
oneself tomar ánimo Brace yourself 
for the news. Tome Ud. ánimo para 
enterarse de la noticia. 

bracelet pulsera. 

brag jactarse, fanfarronear. 

braid [w] trenza (hair); galón (fabric). 

• [v] trenzar. 

brain [n] cerebro She's going to have 
an operation on her brain. Se le va 
a hacer una operación en el cerebro. 
A seso You haven't got a brain in your 
head. No tiene Ud. nada de seso. 

• [t>] romper la crisma // you do 
that again I'll brain you. Si vuelve 
Ud. a hacer eso le voy a romper la 

O on the brain metido en el seso 
I've got that song on the brain. Ten- 
go esa canción metida en el seso. 
O to rack one's brain dar vueltas a 
la cabeza No matter how I rack my 
brain I can't remember. Por más 
vueltas que le doy en mi cabeza no 
puedo acordarme. 

brainstorm Oto have a brainstorm 
salirse de quicio, perder la cabeza. 

brake freno. 

brakeman guardafreno. 

bran salvado, afrecho. 

branch [n\ rama Several branches were 
blown off by the wind. El viento se 
llevó algunas ramas. — Our branch of 
the family comes from the West. 
Nuestra rama familiar procede del 
Oeste. A brazo No, this is only a 
branch of the river. No, sólo es un 
brazo del río. 

• [v] bifurcarse Wait for us where 
the road branches to the right. Espé- 
renos donde el camino se bifurca a la 

|| Get the stamps at the branch post 
office. Compre los sellos en la sucur- 
sal de correos. 
brand [n] marca Have you tried that 
new brand of coffee? ¿Ha probado 
Ud. esa nueva marca de café? A hie- 
rro, marca Whose brand is on that 





cow? ¿De quién es el hierro de esa 

• [''] marcar con hierro We're go- 
ing to brand the new horses this after- 
noon. Esta tarde vamos a marcar con 
hierro los potros. 

|| He roas branded as a swindler. 
Tenía fama de estafador. 

brand-new flamante, lo más nuevo. 

brandy coñac. 

brass latón Here's a brass bowl you can 
use for the flowers. Aquí tiene un 
cacharro de latón donde puede colocar 
las flores. A metal There's too much 
brass in the orchestra. Hay demasia- 
do metal en la orquesta. A cara dura 
With all his brass he should get 
ahead. Con toda su cara dura ya 
podría salir adelante. 

brassiere sostén. 

brave [ad;] valiente, bravo. 

• [v] arrostrar. 
brawl alboroto, refriega. 

bread [n] pan / must cut the bread. 
Tengo que cortar el pan. 

• \y~\ empanar. 

O bread line cola de menesterosos 
Many people are on the bread line. 
Hay mucha gente en la cola de 
menesterosos. O loaf of bread pan We 
need two loaves of bread. Necesitamos 
dos panes. ° to earn one's bread and 
butter ganarse el pan How does he 
earn his bread and butter? ¿Cómo se 
gana el pan? 

breadth anchura. 

break [n] oportunidad Let's give him a 
break. Démosle una oportunidad. 

• [v] romper Be careful not to 
break it. Ten cuidado de no romperlo. 
— He broke with his family. Rompió 
con su familia. A romperse poes it 
break easily? ¿Se rompe con facili- 
dad? A quebrantar We mustn't break 
the law. No debemos quebrantar la 

O jail break fuga There was a jail 
break yesterday. Hubo una fuga ayer 
en la cárcel. O to break camp levan- 
tar el campo We're going to break 
camp tonight. Vamos a levantar el 
campo esta noche. O to break down 
estropearse The car didn't break 
down until yesterday. El auto no se 
estropeó hasta ayer. A echar abajo 
They broke down the argument. Echa- 
ron abajo el argumento. O to break 
into entrar en A thief may break into 
the house. Un ladrón puede entrar en 
la casa. O to break off partir Please 
break off a piece for me. Haga el 

favor de partirme un pedazo. A rom- 
per They've broken off relations. Han 
roto relaciones. O to break out esta- 
llar We hope war won't break out. 
Esperamos que la guerra no estalle. 
O to break out with brotar The child's 
breaking out with measles. Al niño 
le está brotando el sarampión. O to 
break the ice romper el hielo They 
were very formal until a joke broke 
the ice. Estaban muy ceremoniosos 
hasta que una broma rompió el hielo. 
O to break up disolver The police are 
breaking up the meeting. La policía 
está disolviendo la reunión. A resque- 
brajarse The ice is breaking up. El 
hielo se está resquebrajando. 

breakdown agotamiento (nervous) ; in- 
terrupción, avería (mechanical). 

breakfast [n] desayuno. 

• [v] desayunar. 
breast pecho. 

breath respiración Hold your breath to 
stop the hicctips. Contenga la respi- 
ración para que se le quite el hipo. 
A soplo There isn't a breath of air to- 
day. No hay ni un soplo de aire hoy. 
O out of breath sin aliento She ran 
up the hill and was out of breath. 
Subió corriendo a la colina y quedó 
sin aliento. O to catch one's breath 
tomar aliento Let's stop here and 
catch our breath. Detengámonos aquí 
para tomar aliento. O to save one's 
breath ahorrarse las palabras You 
might as well save your breath. Po- 
dría Ud. ahorrarse las palabras. ° to 
take a breath respirar Now take a 
deep breath. Ahora respire Ud. hon- 

breathe respirar He's breathing regu- 
larly. Respira con regularidad. A re- 
velar Don't breathe a word of this to 
anyone. No revele a nadie ni una 
palabra de esto. 

O breathing spell respiro When do 
we get a breathing spell? ¿Cuándo 
tenemos un respiro? 

breed [w] casta, raza. 

• [v] criar. 

O to breed hatred despertar odio. 
breeze brisa. 
brew [n] mezcla. 

• [v] amenazar (storm); hacer 

|| Something's brewing here. Aquí 
va a empezar algo. 
bribe [n] soborno. 

• [v] sobornar. 

brick ladrillo Their house is made of 





red brick. Su casa está hecha de 

ladrillo rojo. 

■ || You're a brick. Vale Ud. lo que 


bride novia. 

bridge [«] puente This boat can go un- 
der the bridge. Este barco puede pa- 
sar por debajo del puente. — Can you 
see the captain on the bridge? ¿Puede 
Ud. ver al capitán en el puente? — 
The dentist's making a new bridge for 
me. El dentista me está haciendo un 
puente nuevo. A bridge Do you play 
bridge? ¿Juega Ud. al bridge? 

• [v] tender un puente sobre They 
intend to bridge this river. Se pro- 
ponen tender un puente sobre este río. 
A llenar These books will bridge the 
gaps in the library. Estos libros lle- 
narán los claros de la biblioteca. 

O to burn one's bridges behind one 
quemar las naves He burned his 
bridges behind him. Ha quemado sus 

brief breve Please make your speech 
brief. Por favor, haga su discurso 

O in brief brevemente, en una pala- 
bra In brief, our plan is this. Breve- 
mente, nuestro plan es éste. 

brief case portafolio, cartera de papeles. 

bright claro We'd better wait for a 
bright day. Sería mejor que esperáse- 
mos un día claro. A llameante / like 
to see a bright fire. Me gusta ver 
un fuego llameante. A fuerte The 
flower's a bright yellow. La flor es 
de un amarillo fuerte. A brillante 
He's a bright boy. Es un mucha- 
cho brillante. A inteligente He wasn't 
bright enough to catch the idea. No 
era bastante inteligente para com- 
prender la idea. A luminoso Do you 
have any bright ideas? ¿Se le ocurre 
alguna idea luminosa? A alegre 
Everyone was bright and cheerful at 
the party. Todos estaban alegres y 
animados en la reunión. 

brilliance brillantez. 

brilliant brillante. 

brim borde (glass, cup); ala (hat). 

bring llevar May I bring a friend with 
me? ¿Puedo llevar a un amigo con- 
migo? A traer Bring it with you. 
Tráigalo con Ud. A valer How much 
does this bring in the market? 
¿Cuánto vale esto en el mercado? 

O to bring about efectuar We hope 
to bring about a change soon. Espe- 
ramos efectuar un cambio pronto. 
O to bring around convencer At first 

they didn't agree but we brought 'em 
around. Al principio no estaban de 
acuerdo pero les convencimos. O to 
bring back devolver Please bring the 
book back with you. Haga Ud. el 
favor de devolver el libro. ° to bring 
down bajar Do you think they'll bring 
down the prices soon? ¿Cree Ud. que 
bajarán los precios pronto? O to bring 
forward presentar, poner sobre el 
tapete // you have any complaints, 
bring them forward. Si Ud. tiene 
algunas quejas, preséntelas. Oto 
bring in dar Have they brought in the 
verdict yet? ¿Han dado ya el vere- 
dicto? A recoger Bring in the clothes 
before it rains. Recoja la ropa antes 
de que llueva. O to bring on traer 
This bad weather will bring on many