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Full text of "A dictionary of terms used in medicine and the collateral sciences"

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A NEW MEDICAL DICTIONARY. 

In one volume, large 13mo., now ready, at a low price* 

A DICTIONARY 

OF 

TEEMS USED IN MEDICINE 

AND _ 

THE COLLATERAL S*CIENCES; 

BY 

RICHARD D. HOBLYN, A.M., OXON. 

FIRST AMERICAN, FROM THE SECOND LONDON EDITION. 
REVISED, WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS, 

BY ISAAC HAYS, M.D., 

EDITdR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL SCIENCES. 



oMnions of the press. ^ ^A 

"Wo hardly remember lo have seen so much valuable matter coiroensed i^^kuch a small 
compass as this little volume presents. The first edition was published in 1835^nd the present 
may be said to be almost rewritten, introducing the most recent terms on each subject. The 
Etymology, Greek. Latin, &c., is carefully attended to, and the explanations are clear and precise. 

" We cannot too strongly recommend this small and cheap volume to the library of every stu- 
dent and every practiljoner." — Medico- Chirurgical Review. 



We gave a very favourable account of this little book on its first appearancoi, and we have 
only to repeat the praise with increased emphasis. It is, for its size, decidedly the be^^ook of the 
kind, and ought to be in the possession of every student. Its plan is sutriciently comprehensive, 
and it contains an immense mass of necessary information in a very small compass." — British and 
Foreign Medical Review. 



"A work much wanted, and very ably exed^ed."— London Medical Journal, 



"This compendious volume is well adapted'* for the use of students. It contains a complete 
glossary of the terms used in medicije,— not only those in common use, but also the more recent 
and less familiar names int«»duced by modern writers. The introduction of tabular views of 
different subjects is at once comprehensive and satisfactory." — Medical Gazette. 

"Concise and ingenious." — Johnson's Me-dico-Cliirur. Journal. 



" It is a very learned, pains-taking, complete, and useful work,— a Dictionary absolutely neces- 
saiy in a medical library." — Spectator. 



DICTIONAEY 



MEDICAL TERMS. 



DICTIONARY 



TERMS USED IN MEDICINE 



AND THE COLLATERAL SCIENCES. 



BY 

RICHARD D. HOBLYN, A.M. Oxon. 



FIRST AMERICAN, FROM THE SECOND LONDON, EDITION. 



REVISED, WITH NUMEROUS ADDITIONS, 

By ISAAC HAYS, M.D., 

EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL SCIENCES. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA & BLANC HARD. 

1845. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, 

By Lea & Blanchard, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of 
Pennsylvania. 



C, SHERMAN, PRI.NTER, 

19 St. James Street. 



TO 

MARSHALL HALL, M.D. F.R.S., &c. 

THIS LITTLE WORK, 

UNDERTAKEN AT HIS SUGGESTION, 

AND 

PROMOTED BY HIS ASSISTANCE, 

IS INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



The object of this work is to present to the Student, in a concise 
form, an explanation of the terms most used in Medicine, and the 
Sciences connected with it, by giving their etymology and significa- 
tion. This design the author has so ably executed as to have elicited 
the highest encomiums of the Medical Press. 

Believing that its republication in this country would be useful, the 
Editor consented to revise and adapt it to the wants of the Ameri- 
can practitioner. With this view he has added the native medicinal 
plants, — the formula for the officinal preparations, &c , — and made the 
work conform with the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

For the greater convenience of reference, he has also introduced 
into the body of the work most of the interesting articles placed by 
the author in an Appendix, 

The Editor has availed himself of many sources of information in 
preparing his additions, to which he need not specially refer, but he 
must not omit to acknowledge his indebtedness to the admirable 
United States Dispensatory of Professors Wood and Bache, of which 
he has made much use, particularly in relation to the vegetable 
Materia Medica of the United States. 

The Editor's additions are enclosed within brackets. 

Philadelphia, September, 1845. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



In preparing this edition of the Dictionary of Medical Terms, the 
Author has endeavoured to render the work as complete as possible, 
by an entire revision and correction of the former edition, and by the 
introduction of the most recent terms on each subject of which it 
purports to treat. The work may, indeed, be said to have been almost 
re written. 

An Appendix has been added, in which several important subjects 
have been treated at greater length than was compatible with their 
insertion into the body of the work. These subjects, some of which 
are arranged in a tabular form, afford matter for study, as well as for 
occasional reference, to the medical student. 

'2, Sussex Place, Regent's Park, 
October 1, 1844. 



DICTIONARY 



OP 



MEDICAL TERMS. 



A (a). In words of Greek derivation i 
this letter is employed, as a prefix, in 
a privative sense, as in a-cephalous, head- 
less, a-phonia, voicelessness. 

A A (contracted from dt/a), 'of each;' 
an expression used in prescriptions, to 
denote that an equal quantity of two or 
more substances is to be employed. 

AAA. A chemical abbreviation for 
amalgama, amalgamate. 

[ABAJN'GA. The name given by the in- 
habitants of the Island of St. Thomas to 
the eatable fruit of a palm tree which 
they term Ady. This fruit contains a 
stone, the kernel of which is much es- 
teemed by the islanders in diseases of the 
chest. Three or four are given three or 
four times a day.] 

ABAPTISTON (a, priv., paTzri^w, to 
plunge). The perfijrating part of the 
trephine, which had formerly the figure 
of a truncated cone, to prevent its sudden 
plungins into the brain. 

[ABB-REVIATION {brevin, short). The 
contraction of a word or passage, made 
by dropping some of the letters, or by 
substituting certain marks or characters 
in their place. Abbreviations are used 
principally either for celerity or secrecy; 
and were probably resorted to for both 
purposes by the older physicians, who 
made copious use of them. They are 
chiefly used in prescriptions, under which 
head a list of them is given. See Pre- 
scription.] 

ABDO'MEN {abdo, to hide ; or abdo 
and omentum). The belly, or the cavity 
situated between the thorax and the pel- 
vis; so called from its containing the in- 
testines, &c. 



ABE 

ABDOMINAL REGIONS. The ab- 
domen is distinguished into three trans- 
verse zones, — an upper, a middle, and a 
lower. Each zone is divided, by perpen- 
dicular lines, into three compartments or 
regions ; a middle, and two lateral. They 
are thus named : — 

1. Epigastric Region. The middle re- 
gion of the upper zone, immediately over 
the small end of the stomach. The two 
lateral regions of this zone, situated under 
the cartilages of the ribs, are called the 
hypochondriac. 

2. Umbilical Region. The middle re- 
gion of the middle zone, immediately 
over the umbilicus. The two lateral re- 
gions of this zone, situated over the loins, 
are called the lumbar. 

3. Hypogastric Region. The middle 
region of the lowest zone, situated below 
the stomach. The two lateral regions of 
this zone, situated over the ilia, are called 
the iliac. 

4. Inguinal Region. By this term is de- 
noted the vicinity of Poupart's ligament. 

[ABDOMINAL (a6dome7j, the belly) be- 
longing to the abdomen.] 

ABDOMINA'LES {abdomen, the belly). 
An order of Fishes which have fins placed 
on the abdomen, as the salmon, the trout, 
&c. 

ABDUCTOR {abduco, to draw from). 
Abducent. A muscle whose office is to 
draw one part of the body away from 
another. Thus, the rectus exlernus is 
called abductor oculi, from the action of 
this muscle in drawing the eye away 
from the nose. Its antagonist is called 
adductor. 

ABELMOSCHUS (an Arabic term, sig- 



ABE 



14 



ABS 



nifying masked seeds). Grana moschata ; employed to denote any ihing that is with 



the musky seeds of a species of Hibiscus. 
A powder, caWed poudre de Chi/pre is pre- 
pared from these seeds in the East, for 
flavouring coffee 

ABERRATION {aberro, to wander 
from). Adeviaiion from the natural slate, 
as applied to the mind. Also, a deviation 
of the rays of light from the true focus 
of reflection or refraction, in certain 
lenses. 

ABIES (abeo, quod in coelum longe 
abeat). The Fir; a genus of plants of the 
order Conifera, abounding in resin. 

1. Abietis resina. L. Rosin of the 
Spruce Fir; formerly called //tusor frank- 
incense; a spontaneous exudation from 
llie tree. 

2. Fix ahietina. L. Fix Burgundica. 
[q. v.] 

3. Fix liquida. Tar. [q. v.J 

4. Fix nigra. Black pitch, [q. v.] 

5. Tar-water. A solution of tar in wa- 
ter, having a sharp empyreumatic taste. 

6. Abieiic acid. An acid lately dis- 
covered in the resin of trees of the genus 
Abies. The old preparation, termed aci- 
dum abietis, is the peculiar acid liquor, 
yielded along with the essential oil, in 
distillation of the fresh branches or fruit 
of some species of Abies. 

[ABIRRITATION (from ab, priv., and 
irritatio, irritation). Literally, absence of 
irritation. This term was used by Broussais 
and his school to denote a diminution of 
the vital phenomena in the different tis- 

[ABLACTATION {ab, from, lacto, to 
give suck). This term denotes the cessation 
of the period of suckling, as regards the 
mother. The same period, with regard to 
the infant, is termed weaning.] 

[ABLATION {aufero, to remove). For- 
merly employed in a very extensive sig- 
nification, and expressed the subtraction 
of whatever was in excess, in the body; 
the reduction of regimen; and the dimi- 
nution of the mass of blood, by bleeding, 
&c. Its meaning has been much restricted 
in modern times, and it is now principally 
used in surgery, as a generic term, ex- 
pressive of all cases where a part is taken 
away. It includes two species, Amputa- 
tion and Extirpation.] 

ABLEPSIA (a, priv., 0\szo>, to see). 
Blindness ; privation of sight. 

ABLUENTS {ablua, to wash away). 
Medicines formerly supposed to cleanse 
the blood, by washing away impurities. 

ABNORMAL {ah, from, norma, a rule). 
Irregular; that which deviates from the 
usual order. The term anormal is also 



out rule or order. The terms are nearly 
synonymous. 

ABOMA'SUM {ab, dim., and omasum, 
the paunch). The fourth stomach of the 
liuminanlia. It is in this stomach of 
calves and lambs that rennet is formed. 

ABORTION (aiorfor, to die; to be born 
before the time). Aliscarriage ; the pre- 
mature expulsion of the Icetus from the 
uterus. 

[ABORTIVES. Medicines supposed to 
act in a special manner on the gravid ute- 
rus, causing the expulsion of its contents.] 

ABRANCHIA, (a, priv., /Jpayxia, gills). 
Animals which have no gills, or apparent 
external organs of respirationjbut respire 
by the entire surface of the %kin, or by 
internal cavities; as the earthworm, the 
leech, &c. 

ABRASION (a&rado, to shave ofi). The 
act of wearing or rubbing off, as the me- 
chanical removal of the epidermis. Also, 
the matters abraded by the friction of sur- 
faces of bodies. 

ABRUS PRECATORIUS. Jamaica or 
Wild Liquorice, a leguminous plant. Its 
polished and parti-coloured seeds, called 
jumble beads, were formerly employed for 
rosaries, necklaces, &c. 

ABSCESS {abscedo, to separate). Apo- 
stema. An imposthume, gathering, or boil ; 
a collection of pus formed or deposited in 
some tissue or organ. It is so named from 
the separation of the sides of the cavity 
which is produced. Where the skin is 
most thin, and fluctuation most palpable, 
the abscess is said lo point, or to make its 
point. 

[ABSCISSION {abscidere, to cut ofi). The 
cutting away of a part, more especially of 
a soft part. This is the only signification 
in which it is at present employed, though 
formerly used in several others.] 

[ABSINTHIN. The resm of the Ab- 
.iinlhiu7n.] 

ABSINTHIUM (a priv., xpivBos, plea- 
sure ; so named from its unpleasant taste). 
Common Wormwood ; a species of Arte- 
misia, yielding a bitter resin, termed ab- 
sitithiii. Infused in ale, it forms the beve- 
rage known by the name of purl. Its 
powers as a vermifuge have gained for it 
the name wormwood. 

ABSORBENTS {absorbeo, to suck up). 
Two distinct sets of vessels, which absorb 
and convey fluids to the thoracic duct. 
These are the lacleals, which take up the 
chyle from the alimentary canal; and the 
li/mphalics, which pervade almost every 
part of the body, which they take up in 
the form of lymph- 



ABS 



15 



AC A 



[In Materia Medica, this term has been 
applied : — 1st. To those articles which 
when internally administered, have the 
properly of chemically combining with, 
and thus neutralizing the acid secretions 
produced in certain morbid conditions of 
the digestive canal; and 2d, to certain ex- 
ternal applications made to ulcers, gan- 
grene, (i:c., for the purpose of arresting 
the progress of these diseases, and also to 
prevent the patient or his attendants from 
suffering from the fetid discharges.] 

ABSORPTION {absorbeo, to suck up). 
The function of the absorbents, and, it is 
said, of the capillaries and veins. 

1. Interstitial Absorption. The func 
tion by which the particles of the tissue 
which fill the meshes of the capillary net- 
work are removed, as in the atrophy of 
the tail of the tadpole, and of the pupil 
lary membrane in the ftBtus, and in the 
developement of cells in bones. 

2. Cutaneous Absorption. A function 
of the skin, by which certain prepara- 
tions, rubbed into the skin, have the 
same action as when given internally, 
only in a less degree. Thus, mercury 
applied in this manner, cures syphilis, 
and excites salivation; tartrate of anti- 
mony is said to occasion vomiting; and 
arsenic produces poisonous effects. 

3. Absorption, in Chemistry. This term 
denotes the passage of a gas or vapour 
into a liquid or solid substance ; or that of 
a liquid into the pores of a solid. Thus, 
water ab.sorbs carbonic acid gas, lime ab- 
sorbs water, &c. 

ABSTERGEiMTS(a6s«e7-^eo, to cleanse). 
Abstersiies. Lotions, or other applica- 
tions for cleansing sores. Applied to sup- 
purating surfiices, they are called deter- 
sives. 

ABSTINENCE (abstineo, to abstain), 
Curafamis. Excessive or total privation 
of food. 

ABSTRACTION {abstraho, to draw 
away). The process of distilling a liquid 
from any substance. See Cohobalion. 

[ABSUS. Cassia Absus. A small species 
of Egyptian lotus, termed by the natives 
chimchin. The seeds, powdered and mixed 
with an equal quantity of sugar, are used 
in Egypt in the commencem'eiit of puru- 
lent ophthalmia, as a dry coUyrium.] 

ACA'CIA (d/cuJ(o, to sharpen). A genus 
of spiny trees and shrubs, of the order 
Legiiminos(P. 

1. Acacia Catechn.The Khair tree, which 
yields the C'alechu, or Terra Japonica. 

2. Acacia Vera. The Egyptian Thorn, 
which yields ihe Gian Arabic. This sub- 
stance is produced by other species of 



this genus, as A. Arabica and Senegalen- 
sis. [See Gumnii Arabicirm.] 

0. Mucilago AcacicB. Mucilage of Gum 
Arabic; a preparation consisting of one 
part of gum and two of water. 

ACALE'PH/E {dKa\i'i<pri, a nettle). Sea- 
nettles ; a class of gelatinous zoophytes 
found in Ihe waters of the ocean, and so 
named from the sensation which they 
produce when touched. 

[ACALYPHA. A genus of plants of 
the order Euphorbiacta. 

[1. Acalypha Betulina. Birch-leaved 
Acalypha. A native of India. The leaves 
have an aromatic taste and smell, and 
they are much esteemed by the Hindoo 
practitioners as a stomachic in dyspepsia 
and cholera, and for their alterative pro- 
perties. The dose is half a te^lSpful of 
the infusion twice a day. 

[2. A. Indica. Indian Acalypha. This 
plant is much used by the Hindoos as an 
anthelmintic: the powder of the dried 
leaves or an infusion of them being given 
for the purpose. 

[3. A. Virginica. Mercury weed. This 
species, found in most parts of the United 
Stales, is said to be useful as an expecto- 
rant and diuretic] 

ACANTHA (dKavQa, a thorn). A spine 
or prickle of a plant. A prickly fin of 
a fish. A spinous process of a vertebra. 
The term has been used for the spina 
dorsi. Hence, 

1. Acanllia-bolus{pdXKio,\osU]ke). Vol- 
sella. An instrument for extracting splin- 
ters of bones, &c., from wounds, the pha- 
rynx, &c. 

2. Acantho-pterygii (irTepv^, a fin). Spi- 
nous-finned fishes, or fishes whose back- 
fins are bony and prickly. 

ACARDIAC (a,priv., xapSta, the heart). 
Without a heart. 

A'CARUS, {liKapt, a very minute ani- 
malcule, from a, priv., and Kdpo), to cut; 
a kind of animal atom). A mile found 
in cheese ; a tick, said to be found in the 
pustules of the itch. 

ACATAPOSIS (a, priv., xardTroo-is de- 
glutition). An inability to swallow li- 
quids; synonymous with hydrophobia. 

[ACATASTATIC (a, priv., KaOigrn^t, 
to determine). An epithet given to fevers, 
the paroxysms and succession of symp- 
toms of which are irregular.] 

ACAULIS (a, priv., KavXoi, a cabbage- 
stalk). Acuulescentt Sleraless; a term ap- 
plied to certain plants, of which the stem 
is so short as to be almost reduced to no- 
thing. The term siibcaulescenl would be 
preferable in these cases. 

ACAWERIA. The Singalese designa^ 



ACC 



16 



ACE 



tion of the root of the Ophioxylon serpen- 
tinum, a supposed antidote to the venom 
of serpents. 

ACCELERATION (acceZero, to hasten). 
Increased rapidity, as of the puise, of the 
respiration, &c. 

ACCELERATOR {accelero, to hasten). 
A muscle which contracts to expel or 
accelerate the passage of the urine. 

[.ACCESS {accedo, to approach). Pa- 
roxysm.] 

ACCESSION {accedo. to approach). 
The approach or commencement of the 
pyrexia! period, in fevers. 

'ACCESSORH WILLISII (accedo, to 
be added to). The superior refpiralorq 
nerves; a pair arising from tlie spinal 
marra^ and joining \he par vajium. 

[ACCESSORY [accedo, to be added to). 
That which has a dependence on, or is 
secondary to, some other. In analomif, ii 
!s applied to certain muscles, ligaments, 
nerves, &c., which are joined to other 
/similar parts, and assist in their functions. 
In phifsiology, this term is given to cer- 
tain phenomena which result from olhers 
which are primary or essential; such are 
the effects of the contraction of the dia- 
phragm, in respiration, upon the abdomi 
xial viscera, the circulation, &c. In pa- 
Ikology, it is employed to designate cer 
lain phenomena which follow olhers with 
out being a necessary consequence of 
them; as the swelling in the arm-pit, re- 
sulting from whitlow, or injury of the 
hand; &c. Finally, it is applied to seve- 
ral sciences, more or less intimately con- 
nected with medicine, but which hold a 
secondary rank, as respects the importance 
of a knowledge of them to the physician.] 

[ACCIDENT {accido, to happen). Ac- 
cident. Every fortuitous and unforeseen 
occurrence. 

[ACCIDENTAL (accido, to happen). 
That which happens unexpectedly. 

\^Accidenlal Symptoms. Those which 
supervene during a disease, but which 
are not necessarily connected with it 
See Epiphenomena. 

[Accidental Tissue. A structure deve- 
loped by a morbid action.] 

ACCIDENTAL COLOURS. A series 
of optical phenomena, so named by Buffoii 
and now known by the name of Ocular 
Spectra. If the eye be steadily directed, 
for some time, to a while wafer upon a 
dark ground, and be then turned aside, a 
well-defined image of the wafer will be 
perceived, with the colours reversed ; the 
wafer will appear dark, the ground white. 
This new appearance is termed the acci- 
dental colour, or ocular spectrum. By 



using differently coloured wafers, we ob- 
tain the following results: 

Colour of Wafer. Colour of Spectra. 

Black White. 

White Black. 

Red Bluish Green. 

Orange Blue. 

Yellow Indigo. 

t^, ( Violet, with 

^'^^"^ [a little Red. 

Blue Orange Red. 

Indigo Orange Yellow. 

Violet Bluish Green. 

Darwin classes the Spectra under the 
two heads of direct and reverse ; the 
former depending upon the perminence 
of the impression, the latter upon ex- 
haustion. 

ACCIPITRES {accipio, to take). Ra- 
pacious birds; birds of prey: known by 
their hooked beak and talons. They 
are the diurnal and the nocturnal. 

ACCLIMATION. Naturalization to a 
foreign or unusual climate; a term ap- 
plied to animals or plants. 

ACCOUCHEMENT {accoucher, to be 
brought to bed). Parturition; a woman's 
delivery; the expulsion of the foetus from 
the uterus. 

ACCRETION (accresco to grow to). 
The addition of new parts, as in the for- 
mation of a crystal by the position of new 
parts around a central nucleus. The or- 
ganic and inorganc kingdoms are distin- 
guished by their mode of increase; the 
former increasing by intus-susception and 
alimeniation, the latter by accretion with- 
out alimentation. 

[ACCUMBENT. Lying against any 
thing, as the edges of the cotyledons against 
the radicle in some cruciferous plants.] 

-ACEOUS. Terminations in -aceous 
denote a resemblance to a substance, as 
membranaceous, resembling membrane; 
whereas terminations in -ous denote the 
substance itself, as membranous, belong- 
ing to membrane. 

ACEPHALA(a,priv.,«0aX^,thehead). 
Headless animals; a class of animals hav- 
ing no head, but merely a mouth con- 
cealed within the folds of their mantle, 
as the oyster. 

[ACEPHALOBRACHUS (a, priv., kc- 
ipaXri, head, 0paxtwv, arm). A monster 
without head or arms.] 

[ACEPHALOCHEIRUS (a, priv., «- 
•j>a\n, head, xnp, hand). A monster with- 
out head or hands.] 

ACEPHALOCYST (a, priv.. /fj^aX.), the 
head, Kvanq, a bladder). The hydatid, or 
headless bladder- worm. See Hydatis. 



ACE 



17 



ACH 



[ACEPHALOGASTER (a, pnv.,Kei>a\r,, 
head, anfl yaarnp, stomach). Monsters 
devoid of head, chest, and abdomen; or 
having an abdomen without liead or chest.] 

[ACEPHALOSTOMA (a, priv., Kc<pa^n, 
head, and (rrd^a, mouth). An acephalous 
foetus, having at its upper part an open- 
ing resembling a mouth.] 

[ACEPHALOTHORUS (a, priv., Ke(pa\n, 
head, and Sojpac, chest). JVlonsters de- 
void of head and chest; or which pos- 
sess a chest and abdomen, but are devoid 
of a head.] 

ACERIC ACID. A peculiar acid said 
to exist in the sap of the Acer campestre, 
or common Maple, in the state of acerate 
of lime. 

[ACEROSE. Sharp-pointed, tapering to 
a fine point, as the leaves of jumper.] 

ACERVULUS (dnu. oCacervus, a heap). 
Literally, a little heap; a term applied by 
Soemmering to a small quadrilateral mass 
of concretions collected under the tela 
choroidea, near the posterior commissure 
of the brain. 

ACESCENT {acesco. to become sour). 
A term applied to substances which be- 
come sour spontaneously, as vegetable and 
animal juices, or infusions. 

ACETABULUM (acetiim, vinegar). Li- 
terally, a vinegar-cruet. Hence it denotes 
the Clip like cavity of the os innominatum. 
which receives the head of the os femoris. 
Also, a Roman measure containing two 
ounces and a half 

ACETAL. A compovmd of aldehyde 
with ether; formed by the action of plaii- 
niim black on the vapour of alcohol with 
the presence of oxygen. It is a colourless, 
very fluid liquid, having a peculiar odour, 
suggesting that of Hungary wines. 

ACETONE. The new chemical name 
for pt/roacelic spirit; a limpid, colourless 
liquid, prepared by disiilling a mixture ol 
two parts of crystallized acetate of lead 
and one part of quicklime in a salt-glaze 
jar. It is highly inllammable, and burns 
with a white flame. 

ACETO'S.*; FOLIA (acetnm, vinegar) 
Common Sorrel leaves; the leaves of the 
Rumex Acelosa. Their qualities depend 
on the presence of binoxalate of polassa. 

ACE'TUM {acer, sour). Vinegar. The 
varieties of vinegar known in commerce 
are three: whte vinegar, malt vinegar, and 
sriijar vinegar. The strongest malt vinegar 
is termed proof vinegar, and is called bv 
the manufacturer No. 24; it is estimated 
to contain 473 per cent, of real acetic acid 
These vinegars are formed by fermentation 



from cider. Within a few years, however, 
a considerable amount has also been made 
by the G<;rinan methud.] 

1. Acidum acelicum. The sour princi- 
ple which exists in vinegar. It occurs, 
ready formed, in several products of the 
vegetable kingdom, and is generated dur- 
ing the spontaneous fermentation of many 
vegetable and animal juices. By real ace- 
tic acid is meant such an acid as occurs 
in a dry acetate; it cannot exist in an un- 
combined state. 

2. Acidum acelicum dilutum. Common 
distilled vinegar; dilute acetic acid, with 
very minute portions of uncombined mu- 
cilage and extractive. 

3. Acidum acelicum fortius. This va- 
riety is obtained by distillation from wood, 
getierally that of oak coppice deprived of 
its bark, and is then termed pyroligneous 
acid; by decomposing the acetates by sul- 
phuric acid, and is then termed radical 
vinegar; and when mixed with camphor 
and essential oils, it is called " Henry's 
Aromatic Essence of Vinegar," and Mar- 
seilles or Thieves' Vinegar, or Vinaigre 
des quaire voleura. See Glacial Acid. 

4. Acetas. An acetate; a salt formed 
by the union of acetic acid with an alka- 
line, earthy, or metallic base. 

5. Acelis. An acetite; a term formerly 
applied to those salts which are now called 
acetates. 

6. Aretica. Preparationsof vinegar, con- 
sisting of vegetable principles dissolved in 
vinegar,as that of colchicum, thatof squill. 

7. Aceto-meter (pLtrpov, a measure). An 
instrument for estimating the strength of 
vinegars. 

8. Acetyl. A hypothetical radical, pro- 
duced by the abstraction of two atoms of 
oxygen from ethyl, by oxidating processes. 
It pervades a series of compounds, includ- 
ing acetic acid, from which it derives its 
name. 

ACH^NIUM (a, priv., xaiVw, to open), 
.^n indehisrent itnil\ it is one-celled, one- 
seeded, superior, hard, and dry, with the 
integuments of the seed distinct from it. 
Itoccurs in the Labiatoe and the BoraginesB. 

[ACHILLEA. Milfoil. Yarrow. A ge- 
nus of plants, of the order Composilce, seve- 
ral species of which have been employed 
as tonics and vermifuges, 

[L Achillta tigeraium. Sweet Maudlin. 
Formerly employed as a verniifiige. 

[2. A. millffolium. Milfijil. This spe- 
cies has the properties of a mild aromatic, 
tonic and astringent. It formerly had great 
reputation as a vulnerary, and was also 



[In the United States, the vinegar ofj given internally for the suppression of he- 
commerce is for the most part prepared morrhages and profuse mucous discharges. 



ACH 



18 



AGO 



[3. A. moschata. The distilled water 
much used in Europe under the name of 
Esprit d'lva is prepared from this species 

[■I. A. plarmica. Sneezewort. The pow- 
der of the dried root and leaves are used 
as a slernutatory. A decoction of the plant 
has some reputation in Russia in Ha;ma- 
turia and Menorrhagia.] 

ACH[LL1S TENDO (tendon of Achil- 
les). The strong tendon of the gastro 
cnemius and soleus muscles, which is in- 
serted in the heel. 

ACHLAMYD'EOUS (a, priv., xW^s, 
a cloak). The name of those plants in 
which the floral envelopes — the calyx and 
the corolla — are both absent. 

A'CHOR iflxvfjov, cliafT). A small acu- 
minated pustule, which contains a straw- 
coloured matter, and is succeeded by a 
thin brown or yellowish scab. See Favus 

ACHROA (a, priv., Xf>6a, colour). A 
colourless state of the skin, depending 
upon a want of the pigmentary or usual 
colouring matter of the rete mucosum 
Compare Di/srhroa. 

ACHROIVIATIC (a, priv., xp^^ta. colour). 
Without colour; lenses are so designated, 
in which the dispersion of light is corrected. 

[ACHROMATOPSIA (o, priv., xp'oi^a, 
colour, oTTTOftai, to see). Inability to distin- 
guish colours] 

ACICULAR (acicula, a little needle) 
A term applied, in Crystallography, to 
needle-shaped crystals; and, m Botany, to 
the leaves of certain plants which are long, 
stiff", and pointed, like a needle, [or marked 
with fine needle-like streaks, as applied lo 
surfhces. Aciadnte] 

ACID. A compound which is capable 
of uniting indefinite proportions with alka- 
line bases, and which, when liquid or in a 
state of solution, has either a sour taste, or 
reddens litmus paper. 

1. The Names of Acids, formed from 
the same base, vary in their terminations, 
according to the quantity of o.KVgen which 
they are presumed lo contain. Thus, Acids 
which terminate in ic denote the maxi- 
mum of oxidation ; in ous, a lower propor- 
tion; those which begin with hyper {virip, 
above) denote an excessof oxidation; with 
iiijpo (tiTrd, under), the lowest proportion. 
See Sal. 

2. The Acids which terminate inicform 
compounds which terminate in ale ,• those 
which terminate in ous form compounds 
which terminate in ife : thus, sulphurif 



acid by an acidifying principle. Substances 
possessing this property are called radicals, 
or acidifiable bases. 

4. Acidifying Principle. That which 
possesses the property of convening asub- 
siance into an acid. O.Yygen was formerly 
supposed to be the general acidifying prin- 
ciple of nature; no such general principle, 
however, exists. 

5. Acidi-meiri/ {jxtrpov, a measure). The 
measurement of" the strength of acids. A 
given weight of an acid substance is sa- 
turated by an alkaline base, the quantity 
of which, requisite for this purpose, is the 
measure of its power. 

6. Acidulous. Slightly acid ; a term ap- 
plied to those salts in which the base is 
combined with such an excess of acid that 
they manifestly exhibit acid properties, as 
the supertartrale of potas.sa. 

ACLXACIFORM. Scimitar shaped; 
plane on the sides, with one border thick, 
the other thin, as the leaves of mesembry- 
anthemum acinaciforme. 

ACIiVESIA (a, priv., Kiviw, to move). 
Loss of motion. 

[.\CrESIS (a, priv., Kvuv, to conceive). 
Sterility in females. Vogel.] 

ACINI (pi. of acinus, a gr.ipe-stone). 
The minute parts of the lobules of the 
liver, connected together by vessels. 

Aciniform (forma, likeness). A term 
applied by the old anatomists to the choro'id, 
from its resemblance to the grains of the 
raisin. 

ACJPENSER. The Sturgeon. A genus 
of the seventh order of Pisces from which 
isinglass is prepared. 

[ACME (aKfir}, a point). The top or height 
of any thing. In pathology the utmost 
height of a disease. The ancients distin- 
guished diseases into four stages: 1. Apxi, 
the commencement: 2. avapaci;, the pe- 
riod of increase; 3. aKjtri, the height; 4. 
VapaKfiT], the decline.] 

ACNE (Sift'j?, quasi dKiirj, from its appear- 
ance in youth, or at the acme of the sys- 
tem; or from axvn, chaff", down, scurf). 
Stone-pock, maggot pimple, or whelks; 
tubercular tumours slowly suppurating, 
chiefly occurring on the face. 

1. A. Simplex. Simple pimple. 

2. A. Punctata. Maggot pimple. Grubs. 

3. A. Indurala. Stone-pock. 

4. A. Rosacea. Rosj' drop. Carbuncled 
face. The Gulta rosea or rosacea. 

ACOLOGY (aKos, a remedy, ^oyo;, a 



acid forms saltswhich are called sulpha/p.^, description). That department of Thera 
whde sulphuroi/aacid forms salts which peutics which relates to the consideration 
are called sulphiie,"!. of remedies. By some authors the term is 

3. Acidifiable. A term applied to sub-; limited to the consideration of surgical 
stances capableof being converted into an'and mechanical remedies. 



AGO 



19 



ACT 



ACONITUM NAPELLUS. Commonj [ACRINIA (a, priv., (fpii'wto separate). A 
Monk's-hood, or Wolf's-bane; aplantof the diminution in the quantity or a suppression 
order i?a?u/7ir;!/Zace(P, and one ofour most ac- of the secretions.] 



tivenarcotico-acrid poisons. The aconitifo 
lia of the Pharmacopoeia appear to be the 
produce of the Aconitum paniculatum. the 
species introduced into medicine by Siu- 
erck. 

1. Aconidcacid. An acid obtained from 
species of the genus Aconitum It is also 
procured by the decomposition of citric 
acid by heat. It occurs in the form of small 
confused crystals. 

2. Aconiline. An alkaloid obtained from 
the dried and bruised root and leaves of 
several species of aconite, it is in the 
highest degree poisonous. 

ACOPA, (a, priv., /cotoj, fatigue). Medi- 
cines against fatigue. Celsus. 

ACORL-\ (a, priv., /copeo), to satisfy). Insa- 
tiable hunger. 

ACORUS CALAMUS. Common Sweet 
Flag; a plant of the order AroidecB, yield- 
ing the calamus aromaticus. 

ACOTYLEDOXES (a, priv., KOrvXnSij 



[ACRODYNl.A {uKpo;, extremity, dcii/rj 
pain'). This term was given to a disease 
which prevailed in Paris in the years 1828 
and 1829, and the most prominent symp- 
tom of which was intense pain in the 
wrists and ankles.] 

ACRATL\, (a. priv., Kparoi, strength). 
Weakness; intemperance. 

ACROS {iiKpos). Extreme. An adjective 
denoting the termination of any thing. 

1. AcTO-byslia (/Juw, to stop up). The 
extremity of the prepuce; or that part 
which covers the glans penis. 

2. Acro-cheir (\'£ip, the hand). A term 
used by Hippocrates to designate the fore- 
arm and hand. 

3. Acro-chordon (xop'"''";- a string). An ex- 
crescence on the skin, with a slender base. 

4. Acro-gen (yefvaco, to produce). Point- 
grower; the name of a plant which grows 
only at its point or top, as a fern tree. It 
is distinguished from an exogen, which 



aseed-lobe). AcoIyledonouspJarjts; plants grows by deposition on the exterior, and 
whoseembryoshaveno cotyledons, orseed-jfrom an endogen which grows by deposi- 
lobes. But the acotyledonous embryo is tion towards the interior, of its trunk, 
not exactly, as its name seems to indicate, 5 Acr-oleine {oleum, oil). A substance 
an embryo without cotyledons; for,in that of a highly pungent odour, given off by 
case, euscuiu would be acotyledonous. On oils and fats when boiling at a high tem- 
the contrary, it is an embryo which does perature. It is a sure and delicate test ol 
not germinate from two fixed invariable the presence of glycerine in the oil. 
points, namely, the plumule and the radi- 6. Acro-pathia (;rd9of, disease). A dis- 
ole, but indifferently from any point of the i ease at any extremity of the body. Hippo- 



surface, as in some Araceas, and in all 
flowerless plants. 

[ACOUMETER (okovw, to hear, fitrpov 
a measure). An instrument devised by 
Itaxd for measuring the degree of hearing.] 
[ACOUOPHOiMA, Cophonia. (From 
aKovos, to hear, <}iiovri, voice). A mode of 
auscultic investigation in which the ob- 
server places his ear to the chest and ana- 
lyses the sounds produced by percussion 
of the surface. Donne.] 

ACOUSTIC (d/coCo), to hear). Relating 
to the hearing, as the nerwxa acousticus vel 
auditorius — the portio mollis of the seventh 
pair. See Auditory. 

[.A.CRANIA(a, priv., xpaviov, cranium). 
Deficiency of cranium.] 

[ACRID. A term given to substances 
which [irodiice in the organs of taste, a 
burning and irritating sensation,] 

[ACRIMONY. Humorum acrimonia, acri- 
mony of the humours. A supposed change 
in the fluids which was conceived to exist 
in all disea.ses. Sylvius de la Boe, Prof, at 
Leyden, the author of this hypothesis, was 
of opinion that there v*-ere two species of 
acrimony, one acid, the other alkaline.] 



crates applies this term to disease of the 
internal orifice of the uterus, and to cancer. 

7. Acro-poHhia (.-ofjdnAhe ^TeYtiice). The 
extremity of the prepuce; a term synony- 
mous with acrn-bystia. 

8. Acro-apire [cnrupa, a spire). That part 
of a germinating embryo which botanists 
call the plumula. It is sometimes called 
plantula. 

9. Acro-ihymion(Qvjitov,B.v;ati). A coni- 
cal, rugated, bleeding wart. 

10. Acr-olenion [wXtv-q, the cubit.) The 
upper extremity of the ulna; a term sy- 
nonymous with olecranon. 

11. Acr-omion (tj/ioj, the shoulder). The 
humeral extremity of the spinous process 
of the scapula. 

12 Acr-omphnlion {opupaXi);, umbilicus). 
The exiremitv of the umliilicus, or navel. 

ACROTISMUS (a. priv., Kporoi, pulse). 
Defect of pulse. Asphyxia is the term em- 
ployed lor this affection by Ploucquet. See 
Crotnphtis. 

[ACT.CA.. A genus of plants of the 
natural order Ranunrulaceee. 

[1. Acttxa Racemosa. Black snake-root ; 
an American plant, recommended for its 



ACT 



20 



ADE 



expectorant, antispasmodic, and diaphore- 
tic properties. 

[2. Aclaa Spicata. Baneberry. The root 
of this plant is purgative and sometimes 
emetic, and in over-doses poisonous. 

[3. Acl(ra Americana. White and red co- 
hosh. This is supposed to have similar 
medical properties with the preceding.] 

ACTI'NIA (difrii', a ray of light). Sea 
Anemones or Animal Flowers; so named 
from the resemblance of their numerous 
tentacula to the petals of a llovver. 

ACTI'ISOLITE (a/fni/, a ray of light, 
Xt0of, a stone). A variety of hornblende. 

ACTINOMETER (d/cn.s a ray of light, 
ixtrpoi', a measure). An instrument for 
measuring the intensity of light. This in- 
strument indicates the forceof sunshine al 
the Cape of Good Hope as 48° 75', while 
ordinarv good sunshine in England is only 
from 250 to 30°. 

ACTION (ago, to act). The motions or 
changes observed in the animal body 
These are voluntary, involuntary, and 
mixed. 

1. Voluntary actions are those produced 



[ADDEPHAGIA (al'Snv, much, ^ayw, to 
eat.) Voracity, bulimia.] 

ADDITAMENTUM {addo, to add). A 
term applied to the sutures which connect 
the parietal and occipital bones to the 
mastoid portion of the temporal. 

Ad dil amentum pedum hippocampi. The 
name given to a bulging observed in the 
substance which forms the bottom of the 
ventricles of the brain; it follows the di- 
rection of the cornua ammonis, and ia 
sometimes equally large. 

ADDITIONS (addo, to add). The trivial 
name applied to such articles as are added 
to the fermenting wash of the distiller. 

ADDUCTOR [adduco, to draw to). Ad- 
ducent. A muscle whose office is to bring 
one part toward another. Thus, the rec- 
tus internus is also called adductor oculi, 
from the action of this muscle in turning 
the eye towards the nose. Its antagonist 
is called abductor. 

ADELPHIA {die\<p6s, a brother). Lite- 
rally, a brotherhood ; a term applied in bo- 
tany to a combination of the filaments of 
the stamens into a single mass. Thus, if 



by acts of the will, as the contractions of there is only one combination, as in Mal- 
the muscles. low, the filaments are said to be moti-adel- 

2. Involuntary actions are those excited phous : if there are two, as in Pea, they 



either mediately, through the nerves and 
spinal marrow, as those of the larynx, 
pharynx, sphincters, &c. ; or immediately, 
as those of irritability. 

3. Mixed actions are those motions or 
alterations of inspiration and expiration 
which constitute the acts of respiration. 

ACULEATE. Prickly ; applied to a 
surface covered with prickles, as the stem 
of rosa. 

ACUMIN'ATE. Pointed ; tapering gra- 
dually to a point, as the leaf of salix alba. 

ACUPUNCTURE (rtc«s. a needle, j9«n- 
zo, to prick). The insertion of needles 
into the skin or flesh. 

[.ACUTE, {acus, a needle). Diseases are 
termed acute which are of severe charac- 
ter, have a rapid progress, and short dura- 
tion. Pain is called acute when it is sharp 
and pungent.] 

ACUTENACUCUM (ac«s, a needle, te- 
naculum, a handle). A needle-handle; the 
name given bv Heisier to the porte-aiguille. 

[ACYANOBLEPSIA (a, priv., xvam, 
blue, ffXcTTOi, to see). Defect of vision con- 
sisting in an inability to distinguish blue.] 

[ACYESIS (a, priv., kv(o, to conceive). 
Sterility in woman.] 

ADAM.\NT (a, priv., lafiao>,to subdue). 
The former name of the diamond. 

Adamantine Spar. The crystals of Co- 
rundum, so named from their being next in 
hardness to adamant. 



are di-adelphous ; if three, as in some 
species of St. John's Wort, they are <ri- 
adelphous; if many, as in Melaleuca, they 
are called pohj-adelphous. The tube form- 
ed by the union of monadelphous fila- 
ments is termed, by Mirbel, androphorum. 

ADEMONIA {aSnuot'Cij. to be in despair). 
A term used by Hippocrates to denote 
anxiety, restlessness, &c. 

ADEN (utV/c). A gland. Hence. 

[1. Adenalgia (aXyja>, to suffer). Pain in 
a gland. 

[2. Adenemphraxia (eiKppaacro), to ob- 
struct). Engorgement of a gland. 

[3. Adeniform {forma, form). Of a glan- 
dular form. 

[4. Adenitis. Inflammation of a gland.] 

5. Adeno-graphy (ypdipo}, to describe). A 
treatise on the glands. 

6. Adenoid {cJfoi, likeness). Resembling 
a gland ; a term .fpplied by Dr. Craigie to 
the tiesh-like tumour of the brain. 

7. Adeno-logy (Xi5yo;, a treatise). The 
doctrine of the glands. 

8 Adeno-phyma {ipvjxa,a. suppurating tu- 
mour). A swelling of a gland ; as it oc- 
curs in the liver, it is called hepalophyma ; 
but as it occurs in the inguinal gland, it is 
termed bubo. 

[ADENO-MENINGEAL (ain^. a gland, 
and iirjviyi, a membrane.) Pinel gave 
this epithet to the epidemic which prevail- 
ed at Goettingen in 17\0, because the seat 



ADE 



21 



ADU 



of that fever was in the intestinal mu- 
cous membrane, and principally in the 
muciparous glands. It is the Dothinen- 
teritis of Bretonneau.] 

[ADENO-MESENTERITIS {aSf!v, a 
gland, fieao;, midst, and cvrcpov, intestine). 
Inflammation of the lymphatic glands of 
the mesentery. Tabes mesenteriea.] 

[ADENO-NERVOUS (a6nv, a gland, 
and vivpov, a nerve). Pinel has applied 
this epithet to the plague, the principal 
seat of which he places in the nerves 
and in the lymphatic glands of the arm- 
pit and eroin.] 

[ADENO-PHARYNGITIS {a&^v, a 
gland, and cpapvy^, the pharynx). Inflam- 
mation of the tonsils and pharynx.] 

[ADE]VOPHTHALMIA(a^^r,agland, 
and o(p8a\noi, the eye). Inflammation of 
the glands of Meibomius. Lippitudo.] 

[ADENO-SCLEROSIS (a6r,u, a gland, 
and axXripos, hard). Swediaur has given 
this name to tumefactions and indurations 
of the glands, unaccompanied with pain, 
and which do not become scirrhus or 
cancerous.] 

ADEPH AGIA {aSriv, abundantly, (pdyo), 
to eat). Voracious appetite. See Buli- 
mia. 

ADEPS. Fat ; animal oil. Herfce, 

1. Adeps praparaia. L. Prepared Lard. 

2. Adeps suillus. D. Hog's lard ; the 
fat of the Sus scrofa ; vulgo. axuneia 
porcina, used in the formation of oint- 
ments, plasters, and liniments. 

3. Adeps ansenrms. Goose grease; 
formerly used as an emollient in enema- 
ta, and as a mild emetic. 

4. Adeps ovillus, Sevum, or mutton 
guet. 

ADHESION (adhaireo, to stick to). The 
process by which parts which have been 
separated, by accident or design, unite. 
This is owing to an intervening deposit 
of coagulating lymph, or albumino-fibrin, 
commonly called cicatrix. 

1. Union hy the first intention is a term 
used by Galen to express the union of 
surfaces, by bringing them into accurate 
contact with each other. It is now gene- 
rally called the process of adhesion, or 
adhesive inflammation. 

2. Union hy the second intention is a 
a term used by the same author to de- 
note other processes which take place in 
the healing of wounds, when iheir sur- 
faces unite more slowly. These are now 
generally comprised under the term 
grannlntion. 

ADIANTUM (a, priv., iiatvo), to mois- 
ten). A genus of Ferns, so called be- 
cause they cannot easily be made wet 



A. CapiUus Vejieris. Maiden-hair; the 
species from which capillaire is made. 

ADIAPHOROUS (a, priv., 6ta,pcpu, it 
differs). A volatile inodorous principle 
extracted from tartarffcy distillation. 

ADIAPNEUSTIA (a, priv., Ita, 
through, TTvcci, to breathe). Defective or 
impeded perspiration. Nearly synony- 
mous with adiophoresis. 

ADIPIC ACID (adeps, adipis, fat). An 
acid obtained by treating oleic with nitric 
acid. 

ADIPOCIRE {adeps, fat, cera, wax). 
The fatty spermaceti-like substance into 
which muscle is converted by long im- 
mersion in water or spirit, or by burial 
in moist earth. 

Adipocire mineral. A fatty matter 
found in the argillaceous iron ore of 
Merihyr; it emits a slightly bituminous 
odour when heated. 

ADIPOSE MEMBRANE, or TISSUE. 
That which encloses the adeps, or (ht. 

ADIPO'SIS (adeps, fat). Excessive de- 
position, or hypertrophy of the adipose 
substance. 

ADIPSA (a, priv., Slipa, thirst). Medi- 
cines which quench thirst. A term ap- 
plied by Hippocrates to oxymel. 

ADIPSIA (a, priv., iiipa, thirst). The 
total absence of thirst. 

ADJUVANS(ad;'?/t)o, to help). A con- 
stituent part of a medicinal formula, de- 
noting ' that which assists and promotes 
the operation.' See Prescriptioyi. 

ADNA'TA (arfnascor, to grow to). Lite- 
rally, ^row/j <o, or adhering; a term ap- 
plied to the tunica conjunctiva, or exter- 
nal coat of the eye. This term is ap- 
plied, in bolany, to the anther, when it is 
attached to the filament by its back. [Ad- 
nate.] See Anther. 

ADOLESCENCE (adolesco, to grow). 
The period of life in which the body has 
acquired its utmost developemenf ; com- 
mencing at puberty, and terminating, in 
ihe male, about the twenty-fifth, and in 
the female, in the twenty-first year. 

ADOPTER, or ADAPTER. A vessel 
with two necks placed between a retort 
and a receiver, and serving to measure 
the length of the neck of the former. 

ADRAGANT, a corruption of traga- 
canlh. [q. v.] 

Adrosnntine, see tragacanlhin. 

ADULT (adolesco, to grow). That 
which has reached the period when the 
body has acquired its full developement. 
This extends, in the male, from the 
iwenty-fifih to the fiftieth year; in the 
female, from the twenty-first to the forty- 
fifth. 



ADU 



22 



^ST 



ADULTERATION {adulleTo, to adul- 
terate). The mixing up noxious or inert 
ingredients wilh articles of food or medi- 
cine; the debasing any product of manu- 
facture, espocially^hemicai, by the in- 
troduction of cheap materials. 

ADUSTJON (aduro, to burn). The 
action of heat, as applied to the body. 

AD-UTERUM. The analogue in birds 
of the Fallopian tubes, or of the Cornua 
in the Mammalia. 

ADVENTITIOUS (advenio, to come 
to). Accidental, casual, that which is 
not normal ; that which comes from some 
other person or thing; a term applied to 
false membranes; or opposed to the term 
hereditary. 

ADYNAMIA (a, priv., ivvajm, power). 
The defect of power. 

.iEDOIA {aXioia, pudenda, from aicJoJj, 
pudor). The pudenda. Hence, 

[1. ^doiodynia {oivvri, pain). Pain in 
the genital organs. 

[2. JEdoi-tis. Inflammation of the ge- 
nital organs.] 

3. yEdo-ptosis (irriiatg, lapsus). Pro- 
lapsus of one or more of the pudenda. 
Sauvages and Sagar apply the terra to 
the meatus urinarius, as well as to the 
uterus. 

4. ^do-jjsopMa {ipoipog, a noise). Fla- 
tus from the urethra, or per vaginam. 

/EGAGROPILUS (a% a goat, Rypm 
wild, n-tXof, a ball of hair). A hair-ball : 
a concretion sometimes found in the in- 
testines of the Rumiiiantia, &c. See 
Beznar. 

.(EGILOPS (a'/f, a goat, mi//, the eye). 
Anchilops. A sore just under the inner 
angle of the eye, so called from the 
supposition that goats were subject to it. 

.EGOBRONCHOPHONY. The bleat- 
ing and bronchial voice, the principal 
symptom in pleuropneumonia. See Aus- 
cultation. 

.^GOPHONY (a7f, a goat, (pwvri, a 
voice). A peculiar sound of the voice, 
resembling the bleating of a goat. See 
Auscultation. 

^.OLIPILE (yEoZi, pila, yEoIus' ball). 
A hollow metal ball with a slender pipe 
for the purpose of converting water into 
steam. 

AER (Jihp, aspos, air). This prefix de- 
notes the presence of air or gas in the 
following terms : — 

1. Aerate. To impregnate with car- 
bonic acid gas, or fixed air, as in aerated 
or gas waters. The process is termed 
aeration. 

2. Aerial Acid. The name given by 
Bergmann to Carbonic Acid, from an idea 



that it entered into the composition of 
atmospheric air. 

3. Aeri-formt, forma, likeness). Air-like; 
a term applied to gaseous fluids, from the 
resemblance to common air. 

4. Aero-lite (\idoi, a stone). Air-stone ; 
meteoric stone ; a mineral substance 
which falls through the air. 

5. Acro-mcler [jiirpov, a measure). An 
instrument constructed by Dr. M. Hall 
for ascertaining the changes in the tem- 
perature of the atmos|ihere; in the baro- 
metrical pressure; in the external and 
internal heights of the fluid in the pneu- 
matic trough; and when this trough con- 
tains water, for the elevation and precipi- 
tation of aqueous vapour. 

6. A'ero-pliohia ((pofiibi, to fear). The 
dread of air; a symptom of hydrophobia. 

7. Aero-scopy {cKo-rrioi, to investigate). 
The investigation of the air. 

8. Aero-slai.ion. The art of raising 
heavy bodies into the atmosphere, by the 
buoyancy of heated air, or gases of small 
specific gravity, enclosed in a balloon. 

^RO'SUS L.APIS (as, copper). The 
name given by Pliny to the lapis calami- 
naris, from the notion of its being a 
copper ore. 

yERU'GO (<ES, copper). Verdigris; an 
impure sub-acetate of copper, formed by 
placing plates of the metal in contact 
with the fermenting marc of the grape, 
or with cloth dipped in vinegar. See 
\ erdigris. 

ALS CORINTHIUM. A kind of brass 
produced, as it is said, by an accidental 
mixture of metals at the burning of Co- 
rinth ; it appears, however, from Pliny 
to have been in use at Corinth long be- 
fore the burning of that city. 

[/ESCULUS IIIPPOC.'^STANUM. 
florsechestnut. A plant of the order Hip- 
pocaslanew. The bark has been used as 
a substitute for cinchona, and the pow- 
dered kernel of the fruit as a sternutatory.] 

^S USTUM. Burnt copper ; a pre- 
paration consisting of equal parts of cop- 
per and rough brimstone, laid in strata, 
with a small quantity of common salt 
sprinkled on each layer, and exposed to 
the fire till the brimstone is burned out 
It has been called ces Veneris, (es creman- 
turn, cinis (eris, crocus Veneris, &c. 

yESCULINE. An alkaloid lately dis- 
covered in the bark of the ^^sculus Hip- 
pocastanum, or Ilorsechestnut ; supposed 
to be a febrifuge. 

/ESTHESIA (aiVer/CTif, sensibility, from 
aiaQavojiat, to perceive). Perception; feel- 
ing; sensibility. 

1. Dys-cESlhesia. Defective perception ; 



AN^ 



23 



AFF 



a morbid state of the corporeal senses 
generally. 

2. An-oEsthesia. Absence of the sense 
of touch. The former term is extended 
to all the senses; the present is limited 
to a single sense ! 

3. jEslheterium. The sensorium. 
.(ESTIVATION [asiivus, belonging to 

summer). Prafioration. A terin used in 
botany, to express the manner in which 
the parts of a llower are arranged wiih 
respect to each other, before their ex- 
pansion. Compare Vemalion. 

^STUS VOLATICUS ((!!Mu!>, heat, 
volo, to lly). A term applied to transient 
beats, or erythema of the face. 

.£TAS. Age; a term including the 
several slates of life, as infancy, youth, 
old age, &c. The best Roman writers 
expressed these periods in the Ibllowin 
terms : — 

1. j¥l(as frmata. The prime or full 
strength of age; the age of thirty. 

2. AHlas constans. The steady age ; 
tlie age of forty. 

3. ALlas malura. The age of maturity, 
or prudence; the age of filly. 

4. JElas provecta. Advanced age. 

5. A^tas ingravescent. The burden- 
some age; the weight of years. 

6. JEias decrepita. Decrepit age, as re- 
lates to countenance and state of old age 

7. jElas nffecla. Tlie slate of total de- 
cay in the human frame. 

8. JElas exacta, vel precipitata. The 
decline of age; the end of life. 

9. ^'Elas extrema. The approaching 
end of life. 

^THER (aidnp, ether). A highly vo- 
latile and indammable fluid, produced 
by the action of acids on alcohol. 

1. ASlher Hoffmanni. liofTman's ano- 
dyne solution, or the Spiritus Elheris 
Sulphurici Compositus. L., [U. S ] 

2. ./Ether sulphiiricus reclijicntus. L. 
Rectified ether. This is the ethereal 
liquor sold under ihe names of Ether, 
and Sulphuric or Vitriolic Ether. 

3. JElher nitrosus. Nitrous ether, or 
the Naphtha Nitri. 

4. Aether sulphuricus. L. Sulphuric 
or Vitriolic elher, or Naphtha Vilrioli. 

^THIOPS {a'ieco, to burn, ioiV, the 
eye). The name of a medicine, so called 
from its black appearance, resembling 
that of the /Ethiop. 

1. A^tMops mineral. The black sul- 
phuret of mercury, or the Hydrargyri 
sulphuretuni cum sulphure. L. [Hiidrar- 
gyri sulphuretum nigrum. U. S.] As an 
anthelmintic, it has received the name 
of poudre vermifuge mercurielle. 



2. Allhiops per se. The name given 
by Boerhaave to the gray oxide formed 
by long agitation of mercury in a bottle 
half full of air. 

3. jEthiops vegelabilis. A name given 
lo a species of charcoal, prepared by 
burning the fucus vesiculosus in the 
open air, and reducing it to a black 
powder. 

4. jEthinps anlimnnialis. A term ap- 
plied in Germany to a compound of the 
hydrargyri sulphuretum cum sulphure 
with sulphuret of antimony. 

5. jEthiops Martial. An old name for 
the deuloxide of iron. 

^THOGEN iaWcov, brilliant, yafo/Kai, 
to become). A compound of boron and 
nitrogen, lately discovered by Mr. Bal- 
raain. It gives a brilliant phosphore- 
scent light when heated before the 
blowpipe. 

^THRIOSCOPE (aWpla. serene wea- 
ther, iTKOvhi), to examine). An instrument 
invented liy Sir John Leslie for indicating 
the power of the clouds in preventing 
radiation. It consists of the ditTerential 
thermometer, having one of the balls ex- 
cluded from the light, and the other placed 
in a polished metallic cup. Exposed to 
a clear part of llie sky, the heat radiated 
from It escapes rapidly, and the tempe- 
rature fills; exposed to a cloud, the ra- 
diated heat is restored, and there is no 
reduction of temperature. 

yETHUSA CYNAPIUM. Lesser Hem- 
lock, or Fool's Parsley; a plant of the 
order Vmhelliferce, possessing poisonous 
properties. It yields an alkaloid, called 
cynapia. 

.(ETIOLOGY (airi'a, a cause, Xdydg, a 
treatise). The doctrine of the causes 
of disease. 

^/riTES LAPIS {dsros, an eagle). 
Eagle-stone, a variety of iron ore; so 
called from the belief that it was found 
in the nest of the eagle, where it was 
supposed to prevent the eggs from be- 
coming rotten. 

[AFFECTIVE FACULTIES. The 
propensities and sentiments.] 

[AFFERENT (ad. to, and fero, to 
carry). AJJ'erens. This epithet is given 
to the vessels which convey lymph to 
the lymphatic glands] 

AFFLNITY {offinitas. relationsliip). 
That kind of attraction by which diffe- 
rent classes of bodies combine to form 
new bodies, as in the case of an acid with 
an alkali, forming a salt. The term was 
introduced from the idea that chemical 
attraction takes place between those sub- 
stances only which resemble each other. 



AFP 



24 



AGE 



1. Single ajfiuily is ihe power by which 
two elementary bodies combine. 

2. Elective affinity denotes tiie prefe- 
rence which one body manifests in com- 
bining with another, rather than with a 
third, a fourth, &.C. 

3. Double elective affinity occurs when 
two compounds decompose each other, 
and two new compounds are fi)rmed, by 
an exchange of elements. This is also 
called double decomposition, or complex 
affinity. 

4. Quiescent affinity is that which tends 
to maintain the elements of a compound 
in their present state, preventing decom- 
position. This, and the following term, 
were introduced by Kirwan. 

5. Divellent affinity is that which tends 
to arrange the particles of a compound 
in a new form, producing decomposition. 
In mixing different compounds, if the 
sum total of the divellent be more pow 
erful than that of the quiescent affinities, 
decomposition lakes place. 

6. Disposing affinity is that which pro- 
motes the tendency of bodies to combine 
in a particular way, by presenting to 
them a third substance which exerts a 
strong attraction to the compound they 
form ; when the combination has been 
efTected, the third substance may be 
withdrawn. Some writers call this ten- 
dency to unite, the affinity of intermedium 
Berthollet styles it reciprocal affinity. 

7. Berthollet distinguishes affinity into 
elementary, when it takes place between 
the elementary parts of bodies; and re- 
sulting, when it is a compound only, and 
would not take place with the elements 
of that compound. 

AFFL.\TUS (afflo, to blow to). A 
blast, vapour, or blight. A species of 
erysipelas, which attacks persons sud- 
denly. 

AFFLUXUS (affluo, to flow to). Forma 
speciftca. Names given in former times 
to a supposed reciprocal influence of ter- 
restrial bodies; it was compared to the 
effect of a magnet on iron, and of amber 
on chaff. 

[In pathology it signifies the flow or de- 
termination of humours to a part.] 

AFFUSION (affundo, to pour upon) 
Generally, the pouring of water over the 
surface of the body, the head, &c. There 
are different kinds of affusions, as. 

1. Lotions, which consist in washing a 
part of the body with a sponge or rag 
soaked in a liquid. 

2. Asper.<!ions, which consist in throw-- 
ing a liquid, drop by drop, like rain, upon 
the body. 



3. iSAojter-ta<A«, which consist in throw- 
ing a column of water with more or less 
violence upon the surface of the body. 
When water is thrown from a considera- 
ble height, this kind of affusion is termed 
by the French douche, or dash. 

AFTER-BIRTH. A term applied to 
the placenta and the membranes of the 
ovum, from their being expelled after 
the delivery of the foetus. 

AFTER-PAINS. A term applied to 
the contractions of the uterus which are 
continued for a certain length of time 
after delivery. 

AGALACTIA (a, priv., yuXa, milk). 
The defect of milk after child-birth. 

AGAMOUS (a, priv., yAfiog, marriage). 
Sexless; a term applied to the cryploga- 
mous plants, from the notion that they 
possess 710 sexual characters. 

AGARICUS. Agaric; the generic name 
of the mushroom family: Order, Fungi; 
Class, Cryptonamia. 

Agaricus Quercus. Boletus igniarius; 
Agaric of the Oak, or Touchwood ; a 
fungus formerly used for arresting ex- 
ternal hnemorrhages. 

AGARICUS MINERALIS. The 
mountain milk or meal of the Germans; 
one of the purest of the native carbo- 
nates of lime, found in clefts of rocks, 
&.C. It is named from its resemblance to 
an agaric in texture and colour. 

AGATE. A hard siliceous stone, used 
by lapidaries for engraving seals, cameos, 
and other objects of ornament. It is com- 
posed chiefly of quartz with various co- 
louring matters. 

[AGATHOSMA CRENATUM, Dios- 
ma crenata, Barossma crenata. See Bu- 
chu.] 

AGAVE CUBENSIS. A species of 
American aloe, the roots of which resem- 
ble the red sarsaparilla of the shops. 

AGEDOITE. A name erroneously 
given by Robiquet to the juice of the 
liquorice root, which is, in fact, aspa- 
ragiu. 

AGENNESIA (a, priv., yewdw, to be- 
get). Male sterility; inability to beget 
offspring. As applied to the brain, it de- 
notes imperfect developement and atro- 
phy of that organ. 

AGENT {ago, to act). A substance 
capable of producing chemical action. 

AGES OF LIFE. The periods of hu- 
man life characterized by the most re- 
markable processes of develo])ement, or 
by their completion, are the following: — 

1. The period of embryonic life. During 
this period the processes of formation 
and growth are in their greatest activity. 



AGE 



25 



AIR 



The organs which are forming present 
none of their functional phenomena, or 
only a gradual commenceraent of them. 

2. The period of immaturity. This 
period extends from birth to puberty. It is 
marked by growth, by the developemenl 
of the forms of the different parts of the 
body, and by the gradual perception and 
analysis, by the mind, of the different 
phenomena of the senses. The period 
o[ childhood comprises the first six years ; 
that of boyhood extends to the fifteenth 
year. 

3. The period of maturity. This period 
begins at puberty and ends at the period 
when the generative power is lost, which 
in woman occurs about the forty-fifth or 
fiftieth year. This period is distinguished 
into the ages of youth, and manhood or 
womanhood. 

4. The period of sterility. This period 
extends from the cessation of the fruitful 
exercise of the generative function to 
extreme old age. Milller. 

AGEUSTIA (a, priv., yrfo/iai, to taste). 
Defect or loss of taste. 

AGGLUTINATION (agglutino, to 
glue). Adhesive union; the adhesion of 
parts by means of a coagulating sub- 
stance. See Adhesion. 

AGGREGATE [aggregalus, herded to- 
gether). A body, or mass, made up of 
smaller bodies or masses. The smallest 
parts into which an aggregate ^an be 
divided without destroying its chemical 
properties are called integrant parts. [In 
botany, this term signifies crowded toge- 
ther, as the florets of the composite, the 
carpels of ranunculus, &c.] 

AGGREGATION {aggrego, to bring 
together). A form of attraction, com- 
monly called that of cohesion, by which 
the panicles of bodies are aggregated or 
retamed in the state of a solid. 

AGLIA (ayXt'ij). A whitish speck of 
the cornea. 

AGNI'NA MEMBRANA {agninus, 
from agnns, a lamb, mcmhrana, a mem- 
brane). The name given by Aetius to 
one of the membranes of the foetus, from 
its tenderness. 

AGNUS CASTUS. The chaste tree, 
a species of Vitex, formerly celebrated as 
an antaphrodisiac. This name has been 
given to Castor oil, or the oil of the Ri- 
cinus communis, from its effects upon the 
body and mind. 

AGO-MPIirASIS (a. priv., yo^^po;, a 
nail). Agomphosis. Looseness of the 
teeth ; a condition, the reverse of goni 
phosis. 
^ [AGONY (ayi-iv, a combat). The last 



struggle of life against death. The series 
of phenomena which usually precede 
death, and which result from the gra- 
dual and successive abolition of the func- 
tions.] 

AGRIA (aypto;, wild). The name 
under which Celsus notices the Lichen 
ferns, or wild Lichen, as applied to it by 
ihe Greeks, from the violence with which 
it rases. 

[AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA. Com- 
mon Agrimony. A plant of the natural 
order Rosacea, used in medicine as a 
corroborant and astringent. It has also 
been recommended as a deobstruant in 
jaundice and as an alterative in diseases 
of the skin. The plant is given in sub- 
stance, infusion or decoction; the dose 
of the first is a drachm.] 

AGRIPPA (uypa, capture, roS;, a foot). 
A child born with the feel foremost. 
Hence the name of some celebrated 
Romans. 

AGRYPNIA (aypa, a capture, wi/oj, 
sleep). Watchfulness; want of sleep. 

AGRYPNOCOMA (Jiypv^via, sleep- 
lessness, KWfia, drowsiness). A lethargic 
state without actual sleep. 

AGUE. Intermittent fever. This term 
appears to be derived from a Gothic word 
ienoting trembling or shuddering. 

AGUE CAKE. Enlargement of the 
spleen, induced by ague. 

AGUE DROP. Absolution of the Ar- 
senite of Potassa, or the Liquor Arseni- 
calls of the PharmacopcEia. 

AGYRTA [ayvpis, a crowd of people). 
Formerly a mountebank ; a person who 
collected a crowd about him; a quack. 

AIR (ufjp, aer). In popular language, 
this term denotes the atmosphere, or the 
gaseous fluid which surrounds the earth. 
It consists, ii-hen pure, of 20 oxygen and 
80 nitrogen : it contains, however, car- 
bonic acid, varying from 3 to 8 parts in 
10,000 by weight. The term is also gene- 
rally used to denote a gas, or a perma- 
nently elastic or aeriform fluid. 

1. Rarefied air is that which is ex- 
panded, or less dense than usual. 

2. Condensed air is that which is ren- 
dered more dense than usual by pressure. 

3. Inflammable air, formerly called 
phlogiston, or phlogisticated air, is a 
term applied to hydrogen gas, owing to 
its inflammable property. 

4. Vital air, formerly called dephlo- 
gisticated air, empyreal air, &.C., is a term 
applied to oxygen gas, from its being in- 
dispensable to the maintenance of life. 

5. Fixed air, formerly called mephitic 
air, is a term for carbonic acid, from its 



AIR 



26 



ALB 



being found to exist in limestone, from 
which it may be expelled by heat. 

6. JVUrous air is a term for nitric oxide 
or the deiitoxide of nitrogen. 

7. Dephlogislicated nitrous air is a term 
for nitrous oxide, or the protoxide of ni- 
trogen. 

8. Alkaline air is a term applied to 
Ammonia, the volatile alkali. 

AL. The Arabic article signifying Me, 
prefixed to many terms Ibrmerly in use 
as alchemy, al-kahesl, al-co/iol, &c. 

ALA. A wing. The name of each 
lateral petal of a papilionaceous corolla 

1. Ala, or pavUion. The upper and 
cartilagmous part of the ear. 

2. AlcB 7najores. Literally, larger wiiti^ 
another term for the labia externa of the 
pudenda. 

3. AlcB minores. lAleraWy, lesser vjings ; 
a name applied to the two small Iblds 
formed by the nyniphas. 

4. AlcB Nasi. The lateral or movable 
cartilaginous parts of the nose. 

5. AUe vespertilioiium. Literally, bats 
wings ; the broad ligaments situated be- 
tween the uterus and the Fallopian tubes. 

6. Al(s vomcris. Two laminaj consti- 
tuting the sphenoidal edge of the vomer. 

ALABASTER [oKaiiaaTfiou ; deriva- 
tion remote). A stone usually white, and 
soft enough to be scratched by iron. 
There are two kinds of it: — 

L Gypseous alabaster ; a natural semi 
crystalline sulphate of lime, forming s 
compact gypsum of common occurrence ; 
it presents various colours, and is em- 
ployed ibr making statues, vases, &c. 

2. Calcareous alabaster. A carbonate 
of lime, deposited by the dripping of 
water in slalactitic caves, and frequently 
found as a yellowish-white deposit in 
certain fountains. The oriental alabaster 
is of this kind. 

AL.\NTINE. A starch-like powder 
obtained from the Angelica Archange- 
Ilea. 

ALARIS {ala, a wing). Pterygoid or 
wing-like; as api)licd to the pterygoid 
processes of the sphenoid bone, to a liga- 
ment witiiin the knee-joint, and to the 
inner vein of the bend of the arm. 

ALBICA.NTIA CORPORA {albico, to 
become while). Two white bodiesof the 
cerebrum. See Corpus. 

ALBINISM. A state in which the 
skin is of an uniform dull milky white 
colour, the hair resembles bleached flax 
or silk, the iris is pink, and the retina 
and choroid, seen through the pupil, pre- 
sent another shade of the same colour; 
the sight is weak, and strongest in the 



dark. There is the Ethiopian variety, 
found among negroes ; and the European, 
found among Europeans and other white 
nations. See Leucopalhia. 

ALBIN0ES(a/6us, white). Personsin 
whom the skin, hair, and iris are light, 
and the pigmenlum of the eye wanting. 
The term Albino is derived from the 
Portuguese, by whom it was applied to 
individuals found on the coast of Africa, 
who resembled the negroes in every re- 
spect except in their colour. See Leu- 
copathia. 

ALBITE. Soda Felspar. A silicate 
of alumina, resembling tislspar in its pro- 
perties, with the substitution of soda for 
potash. 

ALBUGINEA {albus, white). Whitish. 
The word tunica being understood, we 
have the following terms: — 

L Albuginea oculi. The fibrous mem- 
brane situated immediately under the 
conjunctiva, formed by the expansion of 
the tendons of the four recti muscles. 
From the brilliancy of its whiteness, it 
has given rise to the popular expression 
of 2chite of the eye. 

2. Albuginea testis. A thick fibrous 
membrane of a white appearance, form- 
ing the proper tunic of the testis. 

ALBUGO {albus, white). Leucoma. 
The w'hite opacity of the cornea. 

ALBUM GR^CUM. Slercus canis. 
The white and solid excrement of dogs 
whicff subsist chiefly on bones; it con- 
sists, for the most part, of the earth of 
bones or lime, in combination with phos- 
phoric acid. It was formerly used in 
medicine; it is now sometimes used to 
soften leather in the process of dressing 
it after the depilatory action of lime. 

ALBUM A'lGRUM. The excrement 
of mice and rats; f()rmerly used both ex- 
ternally and internally as a remedy, but 
now very properly abandoned. 

ALBUMEN {atbus, white). Albumen 
is of two kinds, animal and vegetable. 

1. Animal Albumen exists in two forms; 
the liquid, and the solid. In the liquid 
state, it is a thick glairy fluid, consti- 
tuting the principal part of the white of 
egg. In the solid state, it is contained in 
several of the textures of the body, as 
the cellular membrane, the skin, glands, 
and vessels. A substance slightly differ- 
ing from albumen has beenobtained from 
the serum of chyle, and termed by Dr. 
Prout, incipient albumen. 

2. Vegetable A/iHwe?* closely resembles 
animal albumen, and appears to be an in- 
gredient of emulsive seeds generally, and 
to exist in the sap of many plants. It has 



ALB 



ALE 



been found in wheat, 15-6, barley, peas, 
and beans. 
ALBURNUiM {albus, white). The ex- 



1. Alcohol Ammonialum. [Spiritusam- 
monioB. Ph. U. S.] A combination of alco- 
hol and ammonia, prepared by passing am- 



ternal, last formed, and whiter portion otnioniacal gas into alcohol, which must be 
the wood of exogenous trees. From its! kept cool. 



being the channel of the ascending sap, 
it is commonly called sap-wood. Compare 
Duruvitn. 

ALCARGEN. Another name for ca 
codylic acid. It is Ibund by leaving ca- 
codyl and its oxide under water to the 
slow action of the air. 

ALCARR.\ZAS. A species of porous 
pottery made in Spain, for the purpose of 
cooling water by its transudation and 
copious evaporation from the sides of the 
vessel. 

ALCARSIN, Liquor of Cadet. A liquid 
obtained by the dry distillation of equal 
weights of acetate of potash and arse- 
nious acid. It is remarkable for iis in- 
supportable odour and spontaneous in 
flammability in air. See Cacudyl. 

ALCHEAULLA. A genus of plants, 
so named from their pretended alchemical 
properties. A. arvensis is the Lady's 
Mantle, Parsley Breakstone, or Parsley 
Piert (perce pierre ?), so named from its 
supposed efficacy in stone. Order, San- 
guisorbece. 

ALCHEMY (aZ, Arab., chimia? che- 
mistry). The fanciful search of the Al- 
diemisls or Adepts after the 

1. Lapis Fhilosopkorum, or philoso- 
pher's stone, by which the baser were to 
be transmuted into the precious metals. 

2. Elixir vita, or essence of life, by 
which human life was to be indefinitely 
prolonged. 

ALCOHOL (an alchemical term for 
the essence of bodies, separated by subli 
mation from the impure particles). Ardent 
spirit of wine. A term applied to the 
pure spirit obtained by distillation from 
all liquids which have undergone vinous 
fermentation. When diluted with an 
equal weight of water, it is termed Proof 
Spirit, or Spiritus tenuior, of the Pharma- 
copoeia. [Alcohol dilutum. Ph. U. S.] The 
first product of distillation is technically 
called lorn wine, and is again subjected to 
distillation. The latter portions of what 



2. Alcoholates. Officinal medicines, dif- 
fering from alcoholic tinctures; first, in 
the menstruum containing the volatile 
principles of medicinal substances; and, 
secondly, in their mode of preparation, 
which consists in impregnating the alco- 
hol with medicinal principles, first by 
maceration, and then by distillation. 

3. Alcoates. (^ompounds-of salts with 
alcohol, similar to hydrates, discovered 
by Mr. Graham. 

4. Alcohomeler (jxtrpov, a measure). 
CEnometer. An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the quantity of spirit contained in 
any vinous liquid. 

ALCOHOL OF SULPHUR. The name 
given 10 ihe bisulphuret of carbon by Lam- 
padius, who regarded it as a compound 
of sulphur and hydrogen. See Car- 
bon. 

[ALCORNOQUE. A bark from South 
America at one lime lauded as a specific 
in phthisis pulraonalis. The dose of the 
powder is 3ss; of the strong decoction 

O'J 'o 3i"J-] 

ALDEHYDE. A newly discovered 
colourless liquid, one of the products of 
the oxidation of alcohol. Its name is de- 
rived from the first syllables of the word 
aZcohol and dehijdtogenailns. Aldehyde 
is, in fact, alcohol minus hydrogen. 

1. Aldthydic or Acetous Acid is pre- 
pared from aldehyde, and may be re- 
garded as acetic acid deprived of an 
equivalent of water. 

2. Resin of Aldehyde is a product of 
the decomposition of aldehyde by alka- 
lies, with the assistance of air. 

ALE. The fermented infusion of pale 
mailed barley, usually combined with 
infusion of hops. See JSeer. 

ALEMBIC \,Arabic). A chemical ves- 
sel, of glass or metal, formerly used in 
distillation, but now generally super- 
seded by the retort. It consists of a body, 
cucurbit, matrass, or boiler; a head, or 
capital, fitted lo the body by grinding 



comes over are called /einis, and are re- lute; and a tube, which conducts the 



served for a further process in the wash- 
slill. The second product is termed raw 
spirit, and when again distilled is called 
rectified spirit. I'he strongest alcohol 
which can be procured is termed absolute 
alcohol, to denote its entire freedom from 
water. 

Alcohol. L. D. Rectified spirit distilled 
from the subcarbonate of potassa dried. 



listilled liquid into a receiver. Compare 
lietort. 

ALEMBROTH SALT(aChaldee term, 
signifying the key of art). The Salt of 
Wisdotn oi the Alchemists. The name 
formerly given to the crystals which se- 
parate from a solution of corrosive mu- 
riate of mercury and muriate of ammonia 
in water. It is a compound of bichlo- 



ALE 



28 



ALK 



ride of mercury and sal ammoniac, from 
which the old white precipitate of mer- 
cury is made. 

[ALETRIS FARINOSA. Star-grass. 
A plant of the order LiUacea, the root of 
which is employed as a ionic. The dose 
of the powder is ten grains.] 

ALEXIPHARMICS (uXtftd, lo repel, 
(papfiaKov, poison). Alexileria. Antidotes 
to poisons. 

[ALRZE, ALESE, or ALAISE (aXsfoj, 
to protect.) A cloth several times folded ; 
employed for the protection of the bed 
and clothes, of patients from purulent 
and other discharges, blood, &c.] 

ALG^E (Alga, a sea-weed). Algaceec. 
The Sea- weed tribe of Cellular or Crypto- 
gamic plants. Leafless, flowerless plants, 
without any distinct axis of vegetation, 
growing in water. Reproductive matter, 
either absent or contained in the joints 
of the filaments, or deposited in peculiar 
thecrfi formed in the substance of the 
frond. Sporules without any proper in- 
tegument. 

ALGAROTH, POWDER OF. A com- 
pound of oxide and chloride of antimony, 
so called after a physician of Verona. It 
is a precipitate, Ibrmed by pouring the 
sesqui-chloride of antimony into water. 

ALGE'DO (aXyof, pain). Inflammation 
of the neck of the bladder, occurring in 
gonorrhoea ; a term seldom used. 

ALGOR ifllgeo, to be cold). A sudden 
chilliness or rigour. Sauvages. 

[ALIBLE {alo, to nourish). Nutritive.] 

ALICA {alo, to nourish). A kind ol 
wheat ; pottage, or drink made of com, 
as frumenty, barley-broth, &c. Celsus. 

[ALICES (aXi^o), lo sprinkle). Reddish 
spots in the skin which precede the irrup- 
tion of small-pox.] 

ALIEN ATIO {alieno, to estrange). 
Mental derangement. 

ALIFORMIS {ala, a wing,/or77ia, like- 
ness). Pterygoid, or wing-like; as ap- 
plied to processes of the sphenoid bone. 
See Alaris. 

ALIMENT {alimentum, food). Sub- 
stances which nourish the body. Accord- 
ing to Hippocrates, there are different 
kinds of food, and but one kind of nutri 
ment or aliment; with him, the term 
aliment denoted the product of digestion. 

ALIMExNTARY CANAL. The en- 
tire passage through which the aliment 
or food passes. It is a musculo-mem 
branous tube, extending from the mouth 
to the anus. 

[ALISxMA PLANTAGO. Water Plan 
tain. A plant which was at one time 
believed to be a specific in hydropho' 



bia. The leaves are rubefacient, and 
will sometimes even blister. They have 
been given in gravel and disorders of 
the bladder in the dose of a drachm.] 

ALIZARINE (alizari, madder). The 
red colouring matter of madder. The 
roots of the Rulda Tinctorum, which 
yield this substance, are sold in the south 
of France, under the name of alizari: 
a powder is prepared from it, called 
garance. 

ALKAHEST. The pretended univer- 
sal solvent, or menstruum of the ancient 
chemists. But, if it dissolve all sub- 
stances, in what vessels can it be con- 
tained ? 

ALKALI (Arab, al, the, kali, the name 
of a particular plant, and an old name for 
potash). A substance which unites with 
acids in definite proportions, and changes 
vegetable blues to green. It is of three 
kinds: — 



1. The Vegetable, 

or Potash, 

2. The Mineral, 

or Soda, 



or fixed alkalies, 
being left in the 
ashes of inland 
and marine plants 
respectively. 
3. The Animal, or Ammonia, or vola- 
tile alkali, being raised by distillation 
from hartshorn, &c. 

1. Alkali Prussian. Phlogisticated al- 
kali. A name formerly given to a fixed 
alkali, when ignited with some animal 
substance, and lixiviated. It is found to 
be in a great measure saturated with 
Prussic acid. 

2. Alkalescent. A terra applied to sub- 
stances in which alkaline (ammoniacal) 
properties are becoming developed. The 
term is generally applied to the urine. 

3. Alkalimeter (^irpov, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the quantity 
of alkali in given substances, by the 
quantity of dilute sulphuric acid of a 
known strength which a certain weight 
of them can neutralize. 

4. Alkalina. A class of substances de- 
scribed by CuUen as comprehending the 
substances otherwise called antacida. 

5. Alkaline air. The term by which 
Priestly first described ammonia or am- 
moniacal gas: the volatile alkali. 

6. Alkaline earths. Substances which 
possess alkaline properties; such are mag 
nesia, lime, baryta, and strontia. 

7. Alkalinity. The property of an al- 
kali, that of turning vegetable blues into 
green. 

8. Alkalization, The impregnation of 
any substance with an alkali. 

9. Alkaloids (fllkali and ttJof , likeness). 
Vegetable Alkalies and Bases. These 



ALK 



29 



ALO 



are substances having some of the pro- 
perties ol' alkalies, the discovery of which 
may be dated from 1816. 

ALKANA. The nunie of the root and 
leaves of the Lausonia i/iermis, a plant 
employed in the East for dyeing the nails, 
teeth, hair, garments, &c. See Henni. 

ALKAiNET. See Anchusa Tincto- 
ria. 

ALKEKENGE. Winter Cherry ; the 
fruit of the I'hi/salis Alkekengi, used in 
nephritis, dysiiria, ascites, &c. 

ALLAiNlTE. The name of a mineral 
containing cerium, found in Greeidand, 
and named in honour of Mr. Allan, who 
first dislinj^iiished it as a species. 

ALLANTOIS (aXXaj, a sausage, elio,-, 
likeness). Allanluides membrana. 1. A 
thin transparent membrane, situated be- 
tween the amnion and the chorion, 2. A 
vesicle or sac projecting at the lower end 
of the alimentary canal, in the embryo. 

1. Allantoic Acid. A compound de- 
scribed by Vauquelin under the name of 
amniotic acid, and said to e.xist in lhe| 
liquor amnii of the cow. It was found 
by Dzondi to be present solely in the 
liquor of the allantois, and to be in fiict 
the urine of the fetus. ' 

2. Allantoin. A crystalline substance 
found in the allantoic fluid of the cow, 
and produced artificially by boiling uric 
acid with the pure-coloured o.xide, or 
peroxide, of lead. 

AI.LIGATION (alligo, to bind). An 
arithmetical fi )rmula for ascertaining the 
proportion of constituents in a mi.\ture, 
when they have undergone no change of 
volume by chemical action. When alco- 
holic liquors are mixed with water, there 
is a condensation of bulk, which renders 
this arithmetical rule inapplicable. The 
saine thing occurs, to a certain extent, in 
the union of metals by fusion. 

ALLIUM {oleo, to stink). A genus of 
plants of the order Axphodeleis, contain- 
ing an acrid principle. 

1. Aim Radix. Garlic bulb; the bulb 
of the Allium sativum. 

2. Aim Cepa Biilbus. Onion bulb; 
the bulb of the Allium cepa: 

3. Allium Porrum. The Leek. 
ALLOPATHIA (uXXo;. other, TraOos, 

disease). Heternpathin. The art of curing, 
founded on differences, by which one 
morbid slate is removed by inducing a 
different one. See Homceopathy. 

ALLOXAN. The erythric acid of 
Brugnalelli, discovered in the decom- 
position of uric acid. Alloxanic acid is 
produced by the metamorphosisof alloxan 
by caustic alkalies. 

2 



Alloxantin. A crystalline substance 
observed by Dr. Prout among the pro- 
ducts of the decomposition of uric acid 
by nitric acid. 

ALLOY. A term applied to a combi- 
nation of metals by fusion, except when 
mercury is one of them, in which case 
the compound is called an amalgam. 

ALLSPICE. Pimento berries, or Ja- 
maica pepper ; the fruit of the Eugenia 
Pimenta, a Mvrtaceous plant. 

ALLU'VIUM {alluo, to wash near to). 
The soil whicii is formed by the destruc- 
tion of mountains, when their particles 
are washed down and deposited by tor- 
rents of water. 

ALMOND OIL. A bland fixed oil, 
obtained usually from bitter almonds by 
the action of a hydraulic press, either in 
the cold or by means of hot iron plates. 

ALMONDS. Amygdala;. This term 
is applied, popularly, to the exterior 
glands of the neck and to the tonsils. 
[The nuts of the Amygdalus communis.] 

[ALNUS. Alder. A genus of plants 
of the order BelulinecB. 

[1. Alnus glulinom. Common Euro>- 
pean Alder. The bark of this plant has 
been tised in intermittent fevers, the 
bruised leaves are sometimes applied to 
the mammaj to arrest the secretion of 
milk. 

[2. A. serrulata. Common American 
Alder. This species has analogous pro- 
perties to the proceeding.] 

ALOE. A genus of plants of the order 
AsphodelecB ; characterized by an intense- 
ly bitter taste. 

1. Aloes SpicatfB Extractum. L. Aloes; 
an extract prepared from the Aloe Spi- 
cata, or Socotrine Aloe. In this species 
the bitter taste is accompanied by an 
aromatic flavour. 

2. Aloe Hepatica ; Extractum. E. D. 
Barbadoes Aloes; an extract prepared 
from the Aloe Hepatica, formerly Barba- 
densis; of a much stronger and less 
pleasant odour than the preceding. 

3 Fetid or CuhalUne Aloes. A very 
impure variety, having the appearanceof 
bitumen, anil used chiefly fijr horse me- 
dicine, as one of its names imports. 

4. Red Aloes. A variety supposed to 
be a natural exudation from the Aloe 
Spicala, which ha.s concreted in the sun. 

5. Mocha Aloes. Probably only a va- 
riety of that known in commerce as the 
Socotrine Aloes. Little is known of it. 

6. Indian and Mozambique Aloes. A 
very impure variety, apparently of an in- 
termediate quality between the Hepatic 
and the Caballine. 



A LO 



30 



ALU 



ALOES WOOD {Lignum Alois). A frequently both of them. The aluraen 
fragrant resinous substance, consisting of lof the Pharmacopoeias is prepared from 
the interior of the iriuiU, tlie Aquilaria schistose clays; in Italy, this salt is pro- 



ovata, and A. asnllochnm 

ALOKTIC ACID. The precipitate 
procured by heating nitric acid on aloes. 

ALOETICS. Medicines in which aloes 
are the principal ingredient. 

[ALOGOTROPHIA {aXoyoi, dispropor- 
tionate, rpo(l>ri, nutrition). Uneqiiiii nutri- 
tion, as when one part receives a greater 
degree of nourishment than another.] 

ALOPE'CIA (uXojrjjf, a fox). Fliixus 
capiUcnnn; area; cnlcitic?. Baldness, 
or the fiillinir off of llie hair. 

ALPHAORCEIN. Dr. Kann finds the 
orcein of arciiil to be oiieu a mixture of 
two substances, differing in ilicir propor- 
tion w.ih the age of the archil, v. hich he 
names alplia-orcein and tiela-orccin ; the 
Jatter is produced by the oxidation of the 
former, and is the orcein of Robiquet and 
.ai'hcr chemists. 

ALPniTA (plural of r<Xc?(roN farina). 
Bariey meal; barley meal tried. 

ALJ'liOiVSlN. "An instrument for ex- 



cured from alum stone, a mineral sub- 
stance occurring in most volcanic districts. 

1. Alumcn riipeum. Roche or rock 
alum. A variety of alum brougiit from 
Roccha, formerly called Edessa, in Syria. 
That vvliirh is sold under ibis name is 
common English alum, artificially co- 
loured. 

2. Alumen Romanum. Roman alum; 
the purest variety of alum, containing no 
ammonia in its composition. 

3. Arnmoniacal alum is a double salt, 
consisting of the sulphates of ammonia 
and of alumina. 

4. Iron alum, Manganese alum, and 
Chraine alum, are sails of alumina, to 
whici) the generic term alum is applied, 
the species being distinguished by the 
name of the metallic peroxide which each 
contains. 

5. Alumen exsiccatum, vel uslum. 
Dried alum; the pbarmacopncial name of 
alum when it has undergone watery 



tractiug balls, invented by Alphonso] fusion, and parted with all its water of 



Ferrier. of Naples 

ALPIiOS (aX(/.of, white). A Greek 
synonym for the Lepra alpho'ides, or 
White Lepra. 

ALTERANTIA NERVINA. A class 
ofsubslances,asspirituousliquorsand nar- 
cotics, which produce material changes 
in the l)rain, attended by disturbance of 
the intellectual functions. 

ALTERATIVES {allero, to change). 
Remedies which very graduallj' re-esta- 
blish the healthy habit, functions, secre- 
tions, &c. 

ALTH^A OFFICINALIS Common 
Marsh Mallow; a plant of the order Mal- 
vacea, abounding in mucilage. From 
the root are prepared an altvaloid called 
allfiea, and a demulcent lozenge, employ- 



crystallization, by the action of heat. 

6. Alum cn^d of Kiverius. Albumen 
aluminosum. A coagulum formed by 
briskly agitating a drachm of alum with 
the white of an egg. 

7. Alum whey. Serum ahiminosimi. 
A vvhey made by boiling two drachms of 
alum with a pint of milk, and then 
straining. 

8. Alum iraler. A solution of alum in 
v\ ater, used by painters in water colours. 

9. Alum oinlment. Common turpen- 
tine, lard, and powdered alum. 

10. Bocrhaaie's aslrhigent powder for 
the ague consisted of alum and nutmeg, 
with the addition of Armenian bole. 

ALUMINA. Aluminous earth. One 
of the primitive earths, which, from con- 



ed on the continent under the name oflstituting the plastic principle of all clays 



pate de guimauve 

ALTHIONIC ACID. An acid found 
in the residue of the preparation of olefi- 
ant gas by means of alcohol and sulphuric 
acid. The name is derived from the 
words alcohol and ethionic. 

ALUDEL. A pear-shaped vessel used 



loams, and boles, was called argil, or ar- 
gilhiceous earth ; but how, as being ob- 
tained in its greatest purity from alum, is 
called alumina, or the sesqui-oxide of 
aluminimn. It occurs nearly in a pure 
state in the sapphire and the ruhy. 
1. Aluminile. The name by which 



by the earlier chemists, resembling the, mineralogists designate the hydrated sub- 
head of an alcml)ic, with the exception sulphate of alumina, 
of the beak, &c. A series of these ves-l 2. Aluminium. The metallic base of 
sels, joined together, is used for distilling alumina. It is obtained from its chloride 
mercury in Spain. I by the action of potassium. 

ALU'MEN. Sulphas Alumina- et Po-\ 3. Petra aluminaris. Sulphuretted 
tasscp.. Alum; a double, or sometimes a clay; the ptiresi of all aluminous ores, 
triple salt, consisting of sulphuric acid and as hard as indurated clay; hence its 
.Ttnd alumina, with potass or ajnmonia, or name, alum rock. 



ALV 



31 



AMB 



ALVEARIUM (alveare, a bee-hive), 
The meatus audilorius externus, or audi- 
tory canal of the ear. 

ALVKOLI (dim. of alvei, channels) 
The alveolar processes, or the sockets of 
the teelh. Hence the term alveolar, as 
applied to the arteries and veins of the 
sockets of the teeth. 

Alveolar structure. A term applied by 
Hewson to minute superficial cavities 
found in the mucous membrane of the 
stomach, oesophagus, and small intestine, 
and which he compared to the cells of 
honeycomb. They are distinct from the 
follicles. 

ALVEUS COxMMUNIS. The name 
given by Scarpa to the common duct or 
communication of the arapulte of the 
semicircular canals of the ear. 

ALVUS (ab allueiido, qua sordes allu- 
untur). The belly; the intestines; also 
the intestinal evacuation. 

1. Alviduca. Medicines w^hich promote 
evacuation of the contents of the intes- 
tines. 

2. Alvijluxus. Diarrhffia; a flux or dis- 
charge of the contents of the intestines. 

3. Alcine Concretions. Calculi formed j 
in the stomach or intestines. See Be-\ 
zoar. 

4. Alous coacta. Literally, hard-bound! 
belly; the state of costiveness. — Celsus.] 

ALYSMUS [aXvaiioi, restlessne.'is, from 
aXrJcj, to be vexed). A term used by Hip- 
pocrates to denote anxiety, or restless- 
ness chiefly affecting the prfficordia, with 
lowness of spirits, &c. ' 

ALYSSUM [(a, pro dvri, against, Xuao-a, 
madness). So called from its being sup- 
posed to be a specific against hydro- 
phobia. Madwort Plantain. See Alisma 
Planlogo.] 

AMADOU. Agaric ; a spongy inflam- 
mable substance, prepared from the dried 
plant of the Boletus Igniartus, found on 
old ash and other trees It is used for 
stopping ha;morrhages, &c. 

AMALGAM (I'ifia, together, yaidio, to 
marry). A mixture of mercury with 
some other metal. See Alloy. 

Amalgamation. The process of mixing 
mercury with some other metal. It is 
extensively used in separating silver and 
gold from some other ores, and is founded 
on the property which mereuiy has to 
dissolve these metals out of the minerals 
with which they are associated. 

AMANITA MUSCARIA. Fly Ama- 
nita; a plant of the order Fungi, contain- 
ing a poisonous principle, which has been 
called amanitine. 

AMA'RA (sc. medicamenta; from 



awarus, bitter). Bitters; medicines with 
a bitter flavour, and tonic property, as 
camomile, gentian, &c. 

AMARYTHRIN. Erythrin bitter of 
Ileeren. A bitter extractive matter, ob- 
tained by dissolving erythrin in hot water, 
and exposing it some days to the action 
of air. 

AMATORII (ar7w, to love). Pathetici, 
or the superior obliqui muscles of the 
eye ; so named from the expression which 
they impart. 

AMAURO'SIS (d/xaupdj, obscure). Ca- 
ligo oculorum. Blindness; drop serene; 
[gutta Serena;] loss of sight from an af- 
fection of the retina, the optic nerve, 
or the brain. This term was employed 
by Hippocrates merely in the sense of 
obscurity or dimness; by later writers it 
was used as the name of the particular 
disease. 

Amaurotic cat's eye (amblyopia seni- 
lis ?) ; a term applied by Bf.er to an amau- 
rotic affection, accompanied by a remark- 
ably pale colour of the iris. It occurs 
chieflv in very old persons. 

AMBE {Hiiih, the edge of a rock). An 
old machine for reducing dislocations of 
the shoulder. 

AMBER. Succinum. A yellowish, 
translucent, and inflammable substance, 
which is found in beds of wood-coal, and 
appears to be the altered resin of trees ; 
by Berzelius it was considered as a con- 
creted balsam. 

1. Acid of Amber, or Succinic Acid, is 
obtained from amber by dry distillation. 
It is a delicate reagent for separating red 
oxide of iron from compound metallic so- 
lutions. 

2. Amber Camphor. A yellow, light 
sublimate, obtained by the destructive 
distillation of amber in a retort or alembic. 
By Vogel it was termed volatile resin of 
amber. 

AMBERGRIS (ambre-gris, Fr.). A se- 
baceous substance found floating on the 
sea in warm climates, supposed to be a 
concretion formed in the intestinal canal 
of the Physeter Marrocephalus, or Sper- 
maceti whale. The Japanese call it 
whale's dung. 

AMBLO'SIS (duffXoo), to cause abor- 
tion). Miscarriage. Hence the term aw- 
blolica, as applied to medicines supposed 
to cause abortion. 

AMBLYAPHIA (dfi.SXOf, dull, d^^, 
touch). Insensibility of touch or general 
feeling. 

AMBLYGONITE. A rare mineral— a 
phosphate of alumina and liihia. 

AMBLYOPIA {d^^iSMi, dull, JJi//, the 



A MB 



32 



AMM 



eye). Incomplete or incipient amaurosis ; 
or weakness of sight. 

AMBON {dvai3ali>co, to ascend). Tlie 
morgiti of tiie sockets in wiiich the heads 
of the large bones are lodged. — Celsiis. 

AMBREIC ACID. A peculiar acid, 
obtained by digesting ambrein in nitric 
acid. 

AMBREIN (ambre, Ft.). A substance 
analogous to cholestenne, forming the 
chief constituent of ambergris. 

AMBUL.^NCE [ambulo, to walk). A 
light caravan, furnished with surgeon's 
assistants and orderlies, for attending up- 
on the wounded in the field of battle. 

AMENORRilCEA (a, priv., )ir,v, a 
month, peu), to flow). Suppressio men- 
inum. Obstruction, or morbid deficiency 
of the menses or catamenia. 

AMENTIA {a?nens, senseless). Im- 
becility of intellect. 

AxMENTUM. A catkin; a form of 
inflorescence, in which the flowers of a 
spike are destitute of calyx and corolla, 
the place of which is taken by bracts, and 
the whole inflorescence falls ofTin a single 
piece, either after flowering or the ripen- 
ing of the fruit, as in the hazel, the wil- 
low, &c. 

AMER {hitler). The bitter principle 
produced by digesting nitric acid on silk. 

AMETHYST (a, priv., fxMu,, to be 
intoxicated). A reddish violet-coloured 
gem ; a variety of Corundum. Its name 
IS derived from its reputed virtue of pre- 
venting intoxication ; topers .were for- 
merly in the habit of wearing it about 
their necks. It consists almost entirely 
of silica. 

AMIANTHUS (a, priv., fnaivu, to pol- 
lute). Mountain flax. An incombustible 
mineral, consisting of very delicate and 
regular silky fibres. See Asbestos. 

AMIDES. A series of saline com- 
pounds, in which the compound of nitro- 
gen and hydrogen occurs, containing an 
atom less of hydrogen than ammonia. 
The name amidogen has been applied to 
their radical. 

AMIDINE {amidon, starch). A sub- 
stance inlerraediale between gum and 
starch, obtained by solution of tiie latter 
in water. 

AMILENE. A liquid hydrocarbon, 
obtained by distilling hydrate of oxide of 
amyl repeatedly with anhydrous phos- 
phoric acid. 

AMMELIDE. A substiwice formed by 
toiling melamine in strong nitric -acid, 
until the solution is complete. 

AMMELINE. A substance generated 
by boiling melam in a solution of potassa; 



on adding acetic acid, the ammeline is 
thrown down as a white precipitate. 

AMMI. The warm carminative fruit 
of several species of Sison: Order Um 
bellifercB. 

a'MMONIA. Ammoniacal Gas. A 
transparent, colourless, pungent gas, 
formed b}- ihe union of nitrogen and hy- 
drogen. By Priestley it was called alka- 
line air ; it is frequently termed the vola- 
tile alkali, to distinguish it from the fixed 
alkalies, soda and potash. Its present 
name is derived from sal ammoniac, of 
which it constitutes the basis, and which 
received its title from being first prepared 
in the district of Ammonia in Libya. 

1. Liquor AmmonicB. Liquid ammonia; 
the incorrect name of the concentrated 
solution of ammonia. One volume of 
water takes up about 750 times its bulk 
of the gas, forming a liquid possessed of 
similar properties, and termed spirits of 
hartshorn, from its being raised by distil- 
lation from that substance. 

2. Ammoniaco — . A term prefixed to 
salts, in which ammonia has been added 
in sufficient quantity to combine with 
both the acid and the base. 

3. Ammoninret. A compound, con- 
taining ammonia and a salifiable base, or 
other substance not acid. 

4. Ammoniacal Amalgam. A substance 
formed by the action of galvanism on a 
salt of ammonia, in contact with a globule 
of mercury. 

5. Ammonium. A term applied to a 
hypothetical compound of nitrogen and 
hydrogen. Berzelius considered it to be 
the metallic base of ammonia. 

AMMONIACUM. Ammoniac, a gum- 
resin, which exudes from the surface of 
the Dorema ammoniarum, a plant of the 
order Umbellifera. Tvro varieties occur 
in the market: — 

L GuttcB Ammoniaci, occurring in tears, 
which should be white, clear, and dry; 
and 

2. Lapis Ammoniaci, occurring in 
lumps, very impure, and generally adul- 
terated with common resin. 

African Ammoniacum. A gum-resin, 
obtained from the Ferula tingilana. It 
resembles the Persian Ammoniacum of 
the shops in external appearance, but it 
differs in its odour when heated. 

AMIVJONION {anjioi, sand). A colly- 
riiim, said to remove sand or gravel from 
the eves. — Aciiux. 

AMMO.MTE. a fossil molluscous 
animal, allied to the genus Nautilus. 
From lis resemblance to the horns of the 
statues of Jupiter Amman, it is named 



AMN 



33 



AMY 



cornu ammonis : from its coiled form, it 
is popularly called snake-gl.oiie. The term 
is frequently applied, in anatomy, to the 
pes hippocampi of the brain. 

AMNE'SIA (a, priv., and jxinwii, me- 
mory). Forgetfulness; loss of memory. 

AMNION (dp'Oi, a lamb). The inter- 
nal membrane of the ovum, or that which 
immediately surrounds \\\efi£liis in nlero. 

1. Amnii liquor. The fluid contained 
in the amnion. 

2. Amniotic Acid. A weak acid dis- 
covered in the liunor anmii of ihe cow. 

AMOMUM GRAN A PARADISI 
Grains of Paradise Amomum; a plant of 
the order ScitaminecE, the fruit of which 
is well known under the name of Grains 
of Pararli^e, or Meliegetta Pepper. 

AAIORPHOUS (a, priv.. iioppr, form). 
Shapeless; irregular. A term ajjplied to 
ninieral and other substances, which oc- 
cur in forms not easy to be defined ; also 
to certain sediments found in the urine, 
in disease. See Calculus. 

A.MPELIC ACID. An acid obiained 
by Laurent from the oils of bituminous 
schist. The term ampelin has been also 
applied to an oily matter prepared fi'om 
the same substance. 

AiMPIil- {dfiipi). A Greek preposition, 
signifying about, on both sides, &c. 

1. Amph-enierina IJijitpa, a day). An- 
other term for quolidian ague. 

2. Amph-arthrosis afiOpucrti, articula- 
tion). A mixed kind of articulation, wiih 
obscure motion, partaking of both diar- 
throsis and synarthrosis; it is also called 
continuous diarlhrosis. See Articiilalion. 

3. Amplii-hia ijiioq, life). The second 
class of the Encephalala or Vertehrata, 
comprising amphibious animals, which 
coniinerice their larva stale as fishes, and 
undergo various degrees of metamorpho- 
sis in advancnig lowarils the condition 
of reptiles. 

4. Amphi-bole (/?wXof, a mass). The 
name given by Haiiy to the mineral 
hornblende; a silicate of lime and mag- 
nesia. 

5. Amphi-gen (yc^vaw, to produce). A 
name of the mineral leucite, or Vesw- 
vian; a variety of clay, or silicale of alu- 
mina. 

6. Amphi-tropal (rptiroj, to turn). That 
which is curved round the body to which 
it belongs; a term applied to the em 
bryo of I he seed. 

7. Amplii-lrnpous. This term is ap- 
plied to the ovule of plants, where the 
ibraminal and chalazal ends are trans- 
verse wiih respect to the hilum. 

AMPHORA {dft(pl, on each side, rpipu 



to carry ; so named from its being carried 
by two handles). Quadranlal; cadus. A 
measure of capacity, frequently men- 
tioned by Roman authors, containing 
2 urncB, 3 modii, 8 congii, 48 sextarii, and 
96 hemina or cotylcB. But the .'Vttic am- 
phora, called by the Greeks mt'treta or 
ceramium, coiitained"2 urna3, and 72 sex- 
tarii. The amphora was nearly equal to 
9 gallons English, and the sextarius to 
one pint and a half English, or one 
mutchkin and a half Scokh. 

AMPHORIC RESONANCE {ampho- 
ra, a vessel). A sound of the chest like 
that heard on blowing into a decanter. 
See Auscultation. 

AMPLEXICAUL (amplector, to em- 
brace, caulis, a stem). A term applied, 
in botany, to the stalks of leaves which 
are dilated and embrace, or form a sheath 
10, the stem. Some leaf-stalks perform 
this office partially, and are called semi- 
amplexiraul, or half-.stem-shealhing. 

AMPULL.'^. A big-bellied jug or bot- 
tle, used by the Romans for containing 
wine. Hence the term is applied to a 
chemical vessel having the same form as 
a cucurbit. The term is used in medi- 
cine as synonymous with bulla; hence 
pemphigus is called, by some of the con- 
tinental writers, febris ampullosa, or bul- 
losa. 

AMPULLULA (dim. of ampulla, a bot- 
tle). A term applied by Lieberkuhn to 
the extremity of each villus of ihe mu- 
cous coat of the intestines; it is an oval 
vesicle, having its apex perforated by 
lacteal orifices, through which the chyle 
is taken up. 

AMPUTATION (ampwfo, to cut ofT). 
The removal of a limb, or other part of 
the bod)', by means of the knife. 

AMULET. A supposed charm against 
infection or disease; such are anodyne 
necklaces, used in teething of infants. 

AMYELOUS(a. priv.,/iMf,\dj, medulla). 
A term applied to the foetus, in cases in 
which there is complete absence of the 
spinal marrow. When the encephalon 
also is absent, Ihe frotus is termed amyen- 
cephalous. There may be absence of the 
encephalon — of the cerebrum and cere- 
bellum only; in this case the foetus is 
called anenceph'dous. Or, the cerebrum 
merely may be in a stale of defective 
dcveloiiemcnt, or atrophy, more or less 
partial or extensive. 

AMYGDAL^-E. Literally, almonds. 

[q. v.] 

AMYGDALAE AMAR^-, DULCES. 
Bitter and sweet almonds; the fruit of 
two varieties of the Amygdalus Commu- 



AMY 



34 



ANi^: 



7iis. The hitter almond contains prussic 
acid, and enters into the composition of 
tio;iau. 

1. Amvudulw placenta. Almond cake ; 
the substance left after the expression 
of the oil, which, when ground, forms 
almond poirder, so generally used for 
washing the hands. 

2. Oil of hitler almonds. For obtaining 
this oil, the expressed cake is submitted 
to distillation, when a highly-volatile, 
pungent oil passes over. 

3. Amijgdalin. A substance extracted 
from the Amygdala amara, or bitter al- 
mond, and from the berries of the cherry 
laurel. 

4. Amygdallc acid. An acid obtained 
by the action ol"alkalie.s upon amygdalin. 

AMYGDALE^. The Almond tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants; a sub-order of 
the Rosacea-, yielding an abundance of 
hydrocyanic acid in their leaves and 
kernels. Trees or shrubs with lenies 
alternate; corolla polypefalons; stumens 
perigynous; ovary superior, solitary, sim- 
ple ;./V«»7, drupaceous. 

AMYL. The hypoihetical radical of 
a series of compounds, of which the by 
drate of the oxide has long been known 
as fouscl oil. or as the oil of grain-spirit 
or potatoes, as it is produced in the fer 
mentation of unmalted grain and pota- 
toes, along with alcohol, and distils over 
with the latter. 

A'MYLUM (a, priv., ;iiJXof, a mill; as 
being prepared without a mill). Starch ; 
the fecula of the Triticum hybernum, or 
wheat. 

1. Amylum Maranla. Arrow-root; a 
nutritive starch, prepared from the Mn 
ranta Arundinacea, very analogous to 
well-washed potato-starch 
and Fecula. 



A\A- (dva). A Greek preposition, de- 
noting through, upon, 6ic.\ and, in com- 
[X)sition, again, upwards, &c. 

1. A7ia-catharsis {Kadaipw, to cleanse). 
A term used by the Greeks, and copied 
by Sauvages, to denote cough attended 
by expectoration. 

2. Aiia-lepsis (Xa/j/Javw, to take). Re- 
covery of strength after sickness. Hence 
the term analeptics or restoratives. 

3. Ana-logoiis tissues (\6yoi, an ac- 
count). A term applied to all solid, mor- 
bid products, which resemble the natural 
elementary tissues of the body. (Carswell). 
It is synonymous with the euplastic mat- 
ter of Lobsiein. See Heterologous Forma- 
tions. 

4. Ana-h/sis (Xvu, to solve). The re- 
solution of compounds into their elemen- 
tary parts. Every distinct compoimd, 
which exists ready formed, is called a 
proximate or immediate principle, and 
the jirocess of procuring it is termed 
proximate analysis. The reduction of 
the proximate principles into their sim- 
plest ports, constitutes ultimate analysis. 
Compare SyTithesis. 

■5. Ana-plysis (TrrOo), to spit). A term 
used by the Greeks in the same sense as 
anacat/iarsis. 

6. Anasarca {uap^, the flesh). Aqua 
inter cutem; hydrops. General dropsy; 
dropsy of the cellular substance; the 
leiirojihlcgmasia of various writers. 

7. Anastomosis (cTTona, a mou\U). The 
communicaiion of vessels with each other, 
as of the arteries with the veins, which, 
by touching at numerous points, form a 
network of reticulation. See Inoscu- 
lation. 

8. Ana-tropous (rpcTTu, to turn). A term 
See fari?;n I ap|)lied to the o\'ule of plants, when the 

I inside of this organ is reversed, so that 



2. Amylic acid. A volatile acid, pro-| the apex of the nucleus, and conse- 
cured by digesting moistened starch with quently the foramen, correspond with 
peroxide of manganese. the base of the ovule. 

AMYRIDACE^. An order of Dico- ANACARDIACEiE. The Cashew 



tyledonous plants, abounding in fragrant 
resin. Trees or shrubs, with leaves com- 
pound, with pellucid dots; corolla polv- 
petalous; stamens hypoeyuous; ovari/ 
superior; fruit sub-drupaceous, sama- 
roid, or leguminous. 

AMYRIS (a, intens., fiipoif, myrrh). 
A genus of plants abounding in resin. 
A. Gileadcnsis is the Balsam of Gilead 
tree, yielding the lirjuid resin called 
Balsam or Balm of Gilead or Mecca. 
A. Elemifera yields the resin called 
Gum Elemi. 



tribe of Dicotyledonous plants, abound- 
ing in a resinous, sometimes acrid, highly 
poisonous juice. Trees or shrubs with 
lenies alternate; flowers usually uni- 
sexual; .'/ome^is perigynous ; oi-ar^ supe- 
rior; fruit generally drupaceous. 

ANACARDIUM. Anacardium occi- 
denlale. Cashew nut, or marking nut. 
The nut contains, between its rind and 
shell, a red. inflammable, and very caus- 
tic liquor, used as a marking ink. 

ANEMIA (a, priv., aliia. blood). San- 
guinis defectus. Exsanguinity, or a state 



ANA, or AA, contracted from dvo, ofiof bloodicssness. The term should be 
each, used in prescriptions. lanhamia. 



ANiE 



35 



A NE 



ANiEMOTROPHY fa, priv., a'ifia. 
blood, 7po ;./';, nourishment). By this term, 
and he-motrophy, are implied simply a 
deficiency, and an excess, of sanguineous 
nourishment. Atrophy and hyperlrophii, 
as commonly understood, include the idea 
of diminished and increased magnitude; 
while ancBmia and hyperamia have re- 
ference only to the quantity of blood 
present, without regard to its nutritive 
properties. — Prnuf. 

ANAESTHESIA (a, priv., ahOncrii, per- 
ception). Loss of the sense of touch. 

[A.XAGALLIS ARVEASIS. Scarlet 
Pimpernel. A plant of the order Primu- 
lacecp, much esteemed by the ancients 
as a counter-poison, and in more modern 
times as a preventive of hydrophobia.] 

[ANAMNESTIC {avafivnmi, remem 
brance). A medicine for Strengthening 
the memory.] 

ANAPH'RODISIA (a, priv., 'A(/.pocTir,,, 
Venus). Impotence; incapability of se.\- 
ual intercourse, from organic, functional, 
or moral cause; one of the dysorexia of 
Cullen. 

ANATOMY {avarkuvw, to cut up). 
The science of oraraiiization ; the science 
whose object is the examination of the 
organs or instriimenlg of life. Animal 
anatomy is divided into human nnalomi/ 
and rcmparnlive analomy, according as it 
treats of ihe organization of the human 
body, or of that of other animals. Human 
anatomy may be distinguished into the 
following branches: — 

1. /Jeacripfive Avatomi/ treats of the 
numerous organs of which the human 
body consists, with reference to their 
shape and mutual relations. This branch 
is subdivided into ihe particular avalonu/ 
of origans, and the miutumij uf regions, or 
surgical analomy. 

2. General Anatomy treats of the struc- 
ture and properties of the different tissues 
which are common to several organs. 
To this branch belongs the examination 
of the general characters of all the organs 
and hiimo'irs. 

3. Special Anatomy is that which treats 
of the healthy state of the origans, while 
morbid or pal.holnaical analonni is that 
which treats of diseased slates, or altera- 
tions of structure. 

4. Tranfcendenlal Ariati>mj/ is llint 
which investigates the mode, plan, or 
model upon which tlie animal frame or 
organs are formed. 

AN All DA (a, priv., aviri speech). 
Dumbness; privation of voice; catalep- 
sia. — Hippocrates. 

ANCHILOPS iayxi, near, Toj^, the 



eye). A sore under the inner angle of 
ihe eye. Incipient fistula lacrynialis. 
According to Blanchard, the swelling is 
called anchilops, while yet entire; and 
a^ilops. when the abscess has hurst. 

"ANCHU'SA TINCTORIA. Dyers' Al- 
kanet ; a plant of the order Boraginacea, 
the root of which abounds in the red 
colouring matter called alkanet, used by 
dyers, and for imparling a deep red to 
oils, ointments, and plasters. 

ANCON idyK.^v). The elbow. Hence, 

1. Anconeus. A muscle which assists 
in extending the fore-arm. 
. 2. Ancondid (iwo;, likeness). JSlbow- 
like; applied to a process of the cubit. 

ANCYROIDES (ayKvpa, an anchor, 
tiVoj, likeness). A former designation of 
the coracoi'd process of the scapula, from 
Its likeness to the beak of an anchor. 

ANDROCEUM {dvhp, a man). A term 
applied to the male apparatus in plants, 
commonly called the stamens — the apices 
of old botanists. 

ANDROGYNUS (dvhp, a man, ywo, a 
woman). A hermaphrodite; a lusus na- 
turce, in which the organs of generation 
appear to be a mixture of both sexes. 

[A.NDRO.MEDA ARBOREA. Sorrel 
Tree. The leaves of this tree have a 
pleasant acid taste, and a decoction of 
them forms a pleasant drink in fevers.] 

[ANEMONE PRATENSIS. Meadow 
Anemonv. A plant of the order Ranun- 
culaceif, believed by Siorck to be useful 
in diseases of ihe eyes, in secondary 
syphilis and in cutaneous eruptions. 
Tliere are several closely allied species, 
which possess the same medical proper- 
ties] 

.\NDRUM. A species of hydrocele, 
peculiar to the south of Asia, and de- 
scribed by Koempfer. 

ANEMOMETER (aw,<oj, wind, ptrr.ov, 
measure). An instrument for measuring 
the strength or velocity of the wind. 

ANENCEPHALIA (a, priv., £y^l,^,aXof, 
the brain ) The slate of an anencepha- 
lus; the absence of a greater or less 
part of the cerebral portion of the head. 
Geoffrey St. Hil.lire justly distinguishes — 

1. Real Anencephalia, or entire ab- 
sence of the brain, which might be de- 
nominated hol-anenrephnlia (oXo;, entire), 
or vniit-anevceplialia l-rrdg, -avrd^, all). 

2. d.'st-anenctjihaJia (iciVrif.a bladder), 
or the vesicular brain, in which, instead 
of a brain, a bladder is found filled with 
fluid. 

3. Der-anencephalia {iipri, the neck), in 
which only a small portion of the brain 
exists, resting on the cervical vertebrae. 



ANE 



36 



ANG 



4. Pod-anencephalia (^off, zo^o;, a foot 
or stalk), in which a brain indeed exists, 
but it is situated outside ihe cranium, 
attached as it were to a sialk. 

5. Not-anf-ncephalia {yCiroi, the back), 
in which the brain is not within the 
skull, but (at least in great part) is ihriisl 
through a fissure of the back part of the 
head, and so produces, like a spina bifida 
nol-encephalorele. 

ANENCEPHALUS (a, priv., iyK!i<pa 
\os, the brain). A monsier without brains. 

AjN'ESIS {iivir,fu, lo remit). A remis- 
sion, or rela.vation of a disease, or syrap 
lom. 

ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS. Cofn- 
mon or Garden Dill; a plant of the order 
JJmbelUfercn, much vahied for the carmi- 
native proi<ortics of ils fruit. 

ANEURYSM (aifz-Ci'M, to dilate). The 
dilatation of a vessel or vessels. 

1. The old distinction was between 
true and false anenri/Km : the former 
comprehends dilatation without rupture 
of any of the arterial coals; the latter, 
dilatation with rupture of some of the 
coats. 

2. False Aneurysm admits of some dis- 
tinctions. When the extravasation is 
diffused, the disease has been termed a 
diffused false aneurysm; when circum- 
scribed, a circnmscriticd false aneury.?m. 
The French writers term the former aiii- 
vrismefaiix primitif the latter andvrisme 
faux ronsicutif. 

3. Active Ancurj/sm of ihe Heart. The 
increased muscular structure of the left 
ventricle of the heart, which frequently 
accompanies the cartilaginous thicken- 
ing of the semilunar valves of the aorta. 

4. Aneuri/sm by Aiiaslomosis. A tumor 
consisting of a congeries of small and 
active arteries, absorbing veins, and in- 
termediate ceils. The cellular substance 
through which these vessels are expand- 
ed, resembles the gills of a turkey-cock; 
or the substance of ilie placenta, spleen, 
or uterus; or the nasvi materni of inflmts. 

5. Aneurysmal Varix. A particular 
kind of aneurysm, in which Ihe blood 
ettiised from a wounded artery passes 
into a neighbouring vein, which it dilates 
in the form of a sac. It is produced 
when a cutting instrument pierces a vein 
and a subjacent artery at the same time, 
Ibrming a direct communication between 
the two vessels. 

[6. Dissecting Aneurism. A form of 
aneurism resulting from a rupture of the] 
internal coat, and the partial laceration 
of the middle coat, of the artery, in con-i 
sequence of which blood passes betweeni 



the laminae of the middle tunic, separat- 
ing ils internal from its external layer.] 

ANFK.ACTUS (AfupX, about, <paaccoy, 
to environ). A winding, or turning. The 
term denotes the anfractuosiiies, furrows, 
or depressions by which the convolutions 
of the brain are separated. 

[.\NGEIAL {ayytXov, a vessel). Vas- 
cular. Angeial. tissue or angeial cystous 
ti,«sue. The serous membrane which 
lines the blood-vessels and lymphatics is 
so termed bv M. Blainville.] 

ANGEIO'SPERMIA (iyycXov. a vessel, 
(nrtpjia, seed). The name of plants which 
have their seeds enclosed in a vessel, or 
pericarp. Compare Gymnospermia. 

ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA.Gar- 
den Angelica; a plant of the order Um- 
licllfercp, the root of which is occasion- 
ally used in pectoral disorders. 

[There is an American species, the 
A. atropurpurea. which is supposed to 
have similar medical properties.] 

Candied Angelica is made from the 
fresh stalks of this plant, boiled in syrup; 
an agreeable sweetmeat, said to be aphro- 
disiac. 

ANGI'N A PECTORIS (ango, to choke, 
from ayXMy the same). Breast-pang ; spasm 
of the chest. This disease, which is at- 
tended by acute pain, sense of suffoca- 
tion, and syncope, has been thus vari- 
ously designated at different periods, by 
different writers: — 
Cardiogmuscordissinistri Sauvages 1763 

Angina Pectoris Heberden 17C8 

Die Bruslbniiine Eisner 1760 

Diaphragmatic gout Butter 1791 

Asthma arthriticum Schmidt 1795 

Syncope angens Parry 1799 

Asthma dolorificum Darwin 1801 

Sternodynia svncopalis ..Sluis 1802 

Asthma spasiico-arlhri- ) g j, 

ticum inconstans ... ^ 
Suspiriiim cardiacum ...Stephen 1804 

Sternalgia Baumes 1806 

Stenocardia Brera 1810 

Pnigophobia Swediaur 1812 

Ansor Pectoris Frank 1818 

The following varieties of Angina are 
distinguished in practical medicine: — 

1. A. tonsillaris. Sore throat. 

2. A. maligna. Malignant sore throat 

3. A. trachealis. Tracheitis; Croup, 
or inflammation of the Trachea. 

4. A. /larnlidea. The Mumjis: a spe- 
cific inflammation of the parotid and 
sub-maxillarv elands. 

ANGiOLOGY {iyycTov, a vessel, \6yo;, 
a discourse). The science of the vascular 
system. 
■ ANGLICUS SUDOR. The English 



ANG 



37 



ANN 



sweating-fever, or ihe ephemera maligna 
of Burserius, described by Dr. Caius as 
" a contagious pestilential fever of one 
day." It made its first appearance in 
London in 1480, or 1483. 

AXGO'NE [a-yxoi, to strangle). A sense 
of strangnliilion and suffocation. 

AJNGOSTURA BARK. This bark is 
referred by Humboldt to the Galipea 
Cusparia; by Dr. Hancock to the G. 
Officinalis. 

1. Angosturin. A neutral principle, 
obtained by submitting the alcoholic tinc- 
ture of angostura bark to spontaneous 
evaporation^ 

2. False Angostura. The bark of the 
Utrijchnos mix vomica, formerly assigned 
to tiie Brucea antidysenterica. 

ANGULAR {avgidus, an angle). The 
name of the facial vein, when it has 
arrived at the side of the nose, near the 

ANGULARIS SCAPULAE. Another 
name for the levator anguli scapula;. 

[ANII^iVIIA. See A7U£mia.^ 

AiNHKLATION (Q?i//efo,topanl). Dys- 
pnwM. Difficulty of breathing. 

ANHYDRITE (a, priv,, iSup, water). 
Anhydrous sulphate of lime; a mineral. 

ANHYDROUS (a, priv., vhop, water). 
Without water; a term applied tocrjsials 
and gases which are deprived of water. 
Compare Htjdrates. 

ANIL. Nil. A plant growing in Ame- 
rica, from the leaves of which indigo is 
prepared. 

1. Anilic Acid. A name given by Du- 
mas to the acid formed by the action of 
nitric acid upon indigo. It was formerly 
termed indigolic acid. 

2. Aniline. An oily liquid, which dis- 
tils over when finely-pulverized indigo is 
decomposed by a higldy-concentrated so- 
lution of caustic potash or soda, in a re- 
tort. 

AN IMA (the soul). The name given 
by Siahl to the intelligent agent supposed 
to preside over many parts of the animal 
economy. This is the Archcr.as of Van 
Helmont, and has been termed the vital 
principle, the spirit of animation, <!cc. 

ANIMA ARTICULORUM. Literally, 
life of the hn,ibs.; a name given to Iler- 
modactyllus, or Colchlcum, from its great 
popularity. It formed the ha.sis of the dia 
articulorum, the pulvis arthriticus Tur- 
nori, and the Vienna gout decoction. 

ANIMALCULES (dim. of Q7i/ffia/). Mi- 
croscopic animals. They doubtless exist 
in the atmosphere, and in all rivers or 
ponds; they are, besides — 

1. Ivfusory. Observed in all fluids im- 



pregnated with any animal or vegetable 
substance. 

2. Spermatic. Supposed to have been 
discovered in the semen. See Sperma- 
tozoa. 

ANIMALIZATION. The process by 
which food is assimilated, or converted 
into animal matter. 

ANIME'. A resinous substance, im- 
properly called gum animi, said to be ob- 
tained irom the Hymenea Courbaril, and 
used in perfumes, varnishes, and certain 
plasters. It re.'icmbles copal in appear- 
ance and is often sold under that name. 

ANION (lij/idj/, that which goes up). A 
term apiilied by Dr. Faraday to the body 
which passes to the positive pole — to the 
anode of the decomposing body — as it is 
separated by eleetricit\'. See Kalian. 

ANISETTE DE BOURDEAUX. A 
liqueur made by distilling anise, fennel, 
and coriander seeds, previously .steeped 
in brandv, wiihsucar, and one-half water. 
.ANISI SEMINA. Aniseed; the fruit 
of the Pimpinclla Anisum, a plant of the 
order VnJiellifera. 

ANKER. A liquid measure used at 
Amsterdam, containing about 32 gallons 
English wine measure. 

A N K YLOB L E P H AR O N, (ay/cilAof , 
bent, /JXtYapoj/, the eyelid). A preterna- 
tural union of the two lids. 

[ANKYLOGLOSSUM (dy(c{iXoj, bent, 
yXco(To-a, Ihe tongue). Abnormal con- 
nexion of the tongue and mouth re- 
stricting the motions of that organ, and 
arising either from shortness of the fne- 
num, or from the presence of an adventi- 
lious_ membrane extending from this part 
to the tip of the tongue (Tongue-lie) ; or 
from adhesions between the mucous mera- 
jbrane of the tongue and that lining the 
cavity of the mouth.] 

ANKYLOSIS {uyKvXcjatg, from ay/cuXoy, 
curved). A stiff" joint from bony union. 
It admits of the Ibllowing varieties; — 

1. True Ankylosis. An affection of the 
synovial membrane, in which the two 
surfaces of the joints adhere together, 
the synovial membrane disappears, or is 
changed into cellular tissue, and the 
bones become firmly united. 

2. False Ankylosis. An affection in 
which all the parts composing the joint 
are thickened, the motion is limited, and 
a kind of amphiarthrosis produced. — B6- 
clard. 

ANNEALING, or NEALING. The 
process of healing a metallic body, and 
suffering it to cool again in a moderate 
temperature. If cooled too suddenly, it 
becomes extremely brittle. 



ANN 



38 



ANT 



The Annealing of Glass is conducted 
in the same manner, and is necessary to 
prevonl its flying to pieces on the appli- 
cation of violence or a high temperature. 
See Rupert's Drops. 

ANNOTTO. Rocnu. A substance 
procured from the pellicles of the seeds 
of the liixn OreUana, a Liliaceous plant, 
and used for colouring cheese, for dyeing, 
and other purposes. 

[ANNUL.A.TE [annulns, a ring), ring- 
ed ; surrounded by rings.] 

ANNULIDA {annu/us, a ring). The 
fifth class of the Diplo-neiira or Ilelmin- 
thoida, consisting of long, cylindrical, 
mostly aquatic worms, wiih red blood, 
covered with a soft and more or less seg- 
mented and annulated skin. 

AN'NULUS (Latin). A ring; a circle, 
or rounded margin. 

1. Aiuiiilus ciliaris. The ciliary circle 
or ligament; a white ring, forming the 
bontl of union betwixt the choroid coat, 
the iris, and the corona ciliaris. It is ttie 
mutulus gangli/ormis tunica choro'idecB of 
Soemmering. 

2. Aunulus ovalis. The rounded mar- 
gin of the septum, which occupies llie 
place of the foramen ovale in the foelus. 
It is also called the anyiutus foramitiis. 

ANODE (lii/u, upwards, 6id;, a way). 
A term applied by Dr. Faraday to that 
part of ihe surfaceof a decomposing body 
which the electric current enters — the 
part immediately touching the positive 
pole. See Kathode. 

A .\ODYNES(a, priv., dSCvri, pain). Re- 
medies against pain. 

Anodyne Necklaces. Necklaces -made 
of the roots of Hyoscyamns, imagined to 
facilitate teeihinsj in infants. 

A.\OMAL(JUS (a, priv., 6//aXdf, even) 
Irregular; a term applied to diseases, in 
which the symptoms are irregular. 

[ANOiMOCEPHALUS (a, priv., foixog, 
rule, KcrpaXr], head). A foetus with a de- 
formed head.l 

[ANOMPriALOS(a, priv., o/.'/iaXof, um- 
bilicus). Wiihout a navel ] 

ANO.NYMUS (a, priv., Svojia, a name), 
Literally, namclpfs ; a term tbrmerly ap- 
plied to the cricoid muscle. 

[ANORCHIS or ANORCHIDES («, 
priv., opvff. testicle). Wiihout testicles.] 

ANOREXIA (a, priv.. Sps^i;, appetite). 
Want of appeiiip; absence of appetite, 
iinaccnmpatiied by loathing. 

ANORMAL {anorrnis, without rule) 
Irregular; contrary to the usual stale, 
See Abnormal. 

ANOSMIA (a, priv., dc/o), odour). Loss 
of smell; it is organic, arising from dis- 



ease of the Schneiderian membrane, or 
atonic, occurring wiihout manifest cause. 

ANTERIOR (Latin). Before; as ap- 
plied to muscles and nerves. 

ANTEV^ERSIO UTERI (ante, before, 
verlo to turn). A morbid inclination of the 
fundus uteri forward. Compare 7v(V,-orfrsio. 

ANTIIEMIS (a)/0£u, to blo.ssom). A 
genus of plants of the order Compositce. 
Chamomile flowers are the produce of 
the A. nobilis; Spanish Chamomile, or 
Pellitory of Spain, is the produce of the 
A. pyrethruin. 

ANTHER [avQnpoi, from dvOta, to flour- 
ish). The part of a plant which has 
hiiherio been considered as the male 
sexual organ. It is the essential part of 
the stamen, consisting, in most cases, of 
two theccB placed at the top of the fila- 
ment, and hence called the hilocular an- 
ther. The ihecB contain a powdery mat- 
ter called pollen grains, and these enclose 
a semi-fluid substance termed fotilla, 
composed in great part of minute granu- 
lations, the nature of whose motions is 
not understood. The anther is termed, 

1. liniate, when it is attached to the 
filament bv its l)ase, as in sparganium. 

2. Adnate, when it is attaf-hed to the 
filament by its back, as in polygonum. 

3. Versatile, when it is attached to the 
filament by a single point of the connec- 
tive, from which it lightly swings, as in 
grasses. ^ 

4. Aniica or introrsa, when the line of ^ 
its dehiscence is towards the pistil. 

5. Postica or extrorsa, when the line of 
its dehiscence is towards the petals. 

ANTHIARIN. The active prmciple 
of a gum resin obtained from the Authi- 
arls lorlcaria, the most deadly of the Upas 
poisons, emp!o)'ed by the inhabiiants of 
the East Indian Archipelago to poison 
their arrows. 

ANTHRACITE [ai^Opai, a burning 
coal). Stone coal, a species of coal which 
contains no bituminous substances, and 
docs not yield inflammable gases by dis- 
tillation. It consists, in some specimens, 
of 95 per cent, of carbon. 

ANTHRACOKALI. Thenamegiven 
by Dr. Polya to a remedy in cerlaiu her- 
petic affections. The simple preparation 
consists of a levigated coal dust and pure 
potassa ; the sidjdmraled, of sulphur, levi- 
gated coni dust, and caustic polassn. 

[ANTHRACOSIS (aiSpat, a co.al). A 
species of anthrax which attacks the 
eyelids.] 

ANTHRANITIC ACID. An acid ol> 
tained by the action of fused potash on 
indigo. 



ANT 



39 



ANT 






ANTHRAX {afdpa^, a burning coal). 
Carbuncle, [q. v.] A name also given 
by Vitniviiis to the factitious cinnabar, 
or bisiilphurct of mercurv. 

[A N T H R I S CUS CE R E F OLIUM. 
Chervil. An annual European plant, cul- 
tivated as a pot-herb, and a decoction of 
which has been employed as a deobstru- 
ent, diuretic, vulnerary, &c. 

[ANTHROPOLOGY (ai'dpco-o;, man, 
^oyog, discourse). A treatise on man or 
the science of hitman nature.] 

[ANTHROPOMORPHOUS (a)'9p«7ro;, 
man, ixopipri, form). Having the human 
form.] 

[ANTHROPOTOMY (avepoi-^o;, man, 
rtjjLvo}, to cut). Dissection of the human 
body.] 

ANTI- (dvri). Against. A Greek pre- 
position, signifying opposition. 

I. Coiniter-Asenls. or Rem'dies. 

1. Atit-arids. Remedies against acid- 
ity; synonymous with alkalines. 

2. Avt-nlkalines. Remedies against 
alkalescence, as applied to the urine. 

3. Ani-alffica (li.\yo<;, pain). Remedies 
which remove or relieve pain. 

4. Antaphrodifiacs {'Aippooirri, Venus). 
Medicines which allay the venereal ap- 
petite. 

5. Anl-rirlhritics (dpOptrti, gout). Re- 
medies against gout. 

6. Anti-doles {Sifwfit, to give). Alexi- 
pharmica ; counter-poisons 

7. Anti • ha-morrhnaic Extract. The 
name given by M. Bonjean to a styptic 
extract, obtained from ergot of rye. 

8. Avt-helmintics (i\f.avs, a worm). Re- 
medies against worms. 

[9. Anti-hypnotics (i'tvoj, sleep). Re- 
medies against drowsiness or sleep.] 

10. Anii-lithics {\Woi, a stone). Reme- 
dies against stone. 

11. Anti-h/ssic (\v(T(Ta, madness). The 
celebrated Ormskirk medicine. 

12. Anti-pathic (TrdOoi, a disease). A 
term applied to the method of employing 
medicines which produce effects of an 
opposite nature to the symptoms of the 
disease, and the maxim adopted is " con- 

raria contrariis opponenda." 

13. Anti-jjhlogistics ((jiXlyw, to burn). 
Remedies against inflammation. 

14. Anti-fcorbiitics. Remedies against 
scorbutus, or scurvy. 

1.5. Antiseptics (injrrM, to putrefy). Re- 
medies against putrefaction. 

16. Antispasmodics (fnraw, to draw). 
Remedies against spasm. 

17. Anii-.ipasis (mnuo, to draw). Re- 
vulsion, or derivation; the effect pro- 
duced by the application of a blister. 



18. AnI-odontotgics (dcopra'Kyia, tooth- 
ache). Remedies against tooth-ache. 

II. Opposed in Situatio?i. 

19. Anti-cnrdium {k-apSia, the heart). 
The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the 
stomach. 

20. Anti-cheir {xdp, the hand). The 
thumb; opposed to the hand. 

21. Anti-cnemion (Kvijurj, the calf of 
the leg). The shin-bone, as opposed to 
the calf 

22. Anti-helix (riXtoj, to turn about). 
An elevation parallel to, and in front of, 
the helix. 

23. Ant-inial {tviov, the occiput). A 
term applied by Barclay to an aspect 
towards the part of the head opposite to 
the inion. 

24. Anti-lobinm. The tragus; the pro- 
cess projecting over the opening of the 
ear from the face. 

25. Anii-thenar {dtvap, the palm of the 
hand). A muscle which extends the 
thumb, or opposes it to the hand. 

26. Anti-lragns {rp'iyo^, a goat). A 
prominence of the ear opposite to the 
tragus. 

27. Anti-tragiciis. The muscle arising 
from the anti-tragus. 

28. Anti-tropal{Tp€7:o},tonnn). Straight, 
and having a direction contrary to that of 
the body to which it belongs; a terin ap- 
plied to the embryo of the seed. 

III. Opposed in Action or Feeling. 

29. Ant-agonist (dyi'iv, a struggle). A 
muscle which acts in opposition to an- 
other, and counteracts its action, as the 
adductors to the abductors. 

30. Anti-pal}iy {-ndo;, affec.lion). Aver- 
sion; a feeling of opposition. 

31. Anti-perislallic (-rpiorrXXfo, to con- 
tract). A motion contrary to the peristal- 
tic motion of the intestines. 

ANTIADITIS {dvriaScg, the tonsils, 
and the termination ilis). Inflammation 
of the tonsils. This is a classical term, 
whereas lunsiUitis is barbarous. 

ANTIMONIILM. Stihium. Antimony; 
a brittle whitish metal, usually found 
associated with sulphur. In type fijun- 
dries it is much used, to give hardness to 
lead, in the alloy called type metal. The 
etymology of the term has been fanci- 
fully derived from its fatal effects upon 
some monks (nnti-moine). upon whom its 
properties were tried by ^'alenliue. 

1. Crude Antimoni/. The name given 
to the ore of antimony, or stiliiu7n, which 
was long regarded as the metal itself, 
the pure meTal being termed regulus of 
antimony. 

2. Argentine Flowers of Antimony. 



ANT 



40 



APH 



The sesqui-oxide of antimony ; the result 
of the simple combustion of the metal. 
During this process a while vapour rises, 
which condenses on cool surfaces, fre- 
quently in the form of small shining 
needles of sj7i!ery whiteness; hence the 
name. 

3. Powder of Algaroth. See Algarolh. 

4. Gla$s, Liver, and Crocus of Anti- 
mony. These pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions are oxy-sulphurels of the metal, and 
are similar in their nature to the red 
antimony ore of mineralogists; they are 
prepared by roasting and then vitrefying 
the ore. The oxide of antimony is dis- 
solved out from the glass by acids, and a 
substance is left which is called saffron 
of antimony. 

5. Kermes Mineral. An orange-red 
substance, deposited when sulphuret ofj 
antimony is boiled in a solution of potassa 
or soda, and so called from its colour,] 
and from its resemislance to the insect ofi 
that name. On subsequently neutralizing 
the cold solution with an acid, an aildi- 
lional quantity of similar substance, the 
golden sulphuret of the Pharraacopffiia, 
subsides. 

6. Butler of Antimony. The sesqui- 
chioride of antimony; the result of dis- 
tillation of the metal with chloride of 
mercury. At common temperatures it is 
a soft solid, of the consistence of butter, 
which is melted by a gentle heat, and 
crystallizes on cooling. 

7. Antimonious Acid. An acid ob- 
tained by oxidating metallic antimony 
by nitric acid, or by roasting the sul- 
phuret of antimony. Its salts are called 
antijnoniles. 

8. Antimonic Acid. An acid, some- 
times called peroxide of antimony, pre- 
pared by oxidation of oxide of antimony, 
by nitric acid. Its sails are called anli- 
moniales. 

9. Antimonial Powder. This pharma- 
copneial preparation is an oxide of anti- 
mony combined with phosphate of lime. 
It is used as a substitute for James's 
Powder. 

10. Tartar Emetic. This preparation, 
the antimonium lartarizalian of the Phar- 
macopoeia, consists of the tartrates of an- 
timony and of potash, and is formed by 
digesting the oxide of antimony vi'ith 
cream of tartar. 

11. Antimonial Trine. Vinum antimo- 
nii. A solution of tartar emetic in sherry 
wine; two grains of the tartrate being 
contained in every fluid ounce of the I 
preparation. j 

12. Bolus ad Quartanus. A compound] 



of tartarizcd antimony and bark, em- 
ployed bv the French physicians. 

[AA'TlRRHENUM LINAKIA. A 
plant of the order Scrophularineee. It 
once was in repute as a purgative and 
diuretic. Its expressed juice is a useful 
application to hemorrhoidal tumours; 
and an ointment made from the flowers 
is used for the same purpose and in dis- 
eases of the skin.] 

ANTONII SANCTI IGNIS. St. An- 
thony's fire; so called because St. An- 
thony was supposed to cure it miracu- 
lously. See En/si pelns. 

ANTRUM HIGHMORIANUM, or 
Maxillare {antrum, a cave). The max- 
illary sinus; a cavity above the molar 
teeth of the upper jaw. 

ANTYLION {Aniyllus, its inventor). 
An astringent application, recommended 
by Paulus yEginela. 

ANUS. The termination or verge of 
the rectum, serving as an outlet for the 
fKces. 

1. Artificial Anux. An opening in the 
parieies of the abdomen, and of some 
part of the intestinal tube, subjacent and 
adherent. 

2. Imperforate Anus. Congenital clo- 
sure or obliteration of the anus. 

3. Ani prolapsus. Exania, or archo- 
ptosis. Protrusion of the rectum, or of 
its internal membrane. 

ANUS; or, Foramen commune poste- 
rius; the interior aperture of the aque- 
duct of .S'i/Zi'jKS. 

AORTA {dnp, air, rr/pcu, to keep; as 
having been formerly supposed to con- 
lain only air). The great artery of the 
heart. It is distinguished into the as- 
cending and descending. Hippocrates ap- 
plies this term to the larger bronchi. 

Aortitis. Inflammation of the Aorta. 

A PATH V (a, priv., vado;, affection). 
Indifference, insensibility. 

APATITE. A phosphate of lime. 

A PEPSI A (a, priv.. -Utm, to concoct). 
Indigestion. Di^spepsia is now used. 

APERIENTS {aperio, to open). Mild 
purgatives. 

APELATOUS (a, priv., Trlra\oi', a pe- 
tal). Plants which have no petals, or 
flower-leaves. See Petal. 

APEX (Latin). The extremity of a 
part, as of the tnniiie. Plural, apices. 

APHLOGISTIC LAMP (a. priv,. (jXe- 
yto. to burn). .\ lamp which burns with- 
out flame. 

APHO'NIA, (o, priv., (piovfi, voice). 
Mutilas; defeclus loquelm. Dumbness; 
loss of speech or voice, without syncope 
or coma. 



APH 



41 



APO 



APHORIA (a, priv., <pipo), to bear). 
Barrenness; sterility; inability to con- 
ceive offspring. 

APHORISM {d<pop{;u, to limit). A 
maxiin, principally as applied to a book 
of Hippofrates. 

APHRODISIACS (Atppoiirr), Venus). 
Medicines which excile the venereal ap- 
petite. Remedies against impotence. 

APHTHA (liTZTo,, to inflame). Vlcus- 
ciila oris. Thrush ; numerons minute 
vesicles, terminating in white sloughs 
It occurs in the fauces and in the pudenda. 
In the former case it has been distinguish- 
ed into — 

1. A. laclantium. Infantile, or white. 

2. A. adullorum. Of adults, or black. 

3. A.ansinosn. Of the throat. 
APHYLLOUS (a, priv., <pv\\ov, a leaf). 

Leafless; as applied to ceriain plants. 

APIS MELLIFICA (meZ, honey ,/ado, 
to make). The honey bee. 

APIUM GRAVEOLE.\S. Celery; a 
plant of the order UmhelliJercB. When 
wild, growing in wet meadovvs and 
ditches, it is acrid and poisonous; when 
cultivated in dry ground, and partially 
blanched, it is used as salad. 

[APLASTIC (a, priv., TrAao-o-M, to form). 
Incapable of forming. Gerber so denom- 
inates those elements, which are unsus- 
ceptible of any farther organization.] 

[APiVCEA, APNEUSTIA (a, priv., 
irvtw, to respire). Absence of respira- 
tion.] 

APO- (oTrd). From, off A Greek pre- 
position, denoting separalion. 

1. Ap-arlhrosis {lipOpop, a joint). Arti- 
culation ; connexion of the joints. 

2. Aph-aresis {aipatpcoi, to remove). 
Formerly, that branch of surgery which 
consists in removing any diseased or pre- 
ternatural portion of the body. 

3. Aph-elxia (a^tA/cw, to abstract). Re- 
very ; inactivity of the attention to the 
impressions of surrounding objeclsduring 
wakefulness. 

4. Apo-carpoR (Kap-rrSs, fruit). Plants 
which have distinct carpels, as distin- 
guished from the syncarpcB, in which the 
carpels cohere. 

[Apo-cenoses {Kcvwaii, evacuation). Su- 
perabundant flux of blood or other fluid 
without pyrexia. — Ciillen.] 

5. Apo-neuTosis {veiipov, a nerve). A 
fibrous or tendinous expansion, erroneous- 
ly supposed by the ancients to be that of 
nerve; in the thigh it is termed the 
fascia lata. 

6. Apo-plilegmafic medicines. Medi- 
cines which promote the secretion of 
phlegm or mucus, as squill, &c. 



7. Apo-phi/sis i<j,vijo, to produce). A pro- 
cess oi a bone, and a part of the same 
hone. During the earlier periods of lile, 
these processes are for the most part 
called epiphyses. Compare Epiphysis. 

8. Apo-plexia {n\{)<Ta(.o, to strike). Apo- 
plexy; apoplectic fit or stroke. The term 
denotes congestion or rupture of the brain, 
with sudden loss of sensation and motion. 
The affection is sometimes called sidera- 
tio, resolutio nervorum, &c. 

9. Apo-plexia piilmonaris. This term 
has been recently applied to hemorrhage 
into the parenchyma of the lungs, usually 
attended by hiemopiiie. 

10. Apo-psi/chia (ti/vx>>, ihe soul). Lei- 
popsychia of Hippocrates. Syncope, or 
liiinling. 

1 1. Ajw-sepedine {ariTztiMv, putrefaction). 
A substance formed from the putrefiiclion 
of animal matters; it is also called caseous 
oxide. 

12. Apo-sta-iis (itrrriiit, to Stand). An 
aposteme, imposihume, or abscess. When 
a disease passes away by some outlet, 
Hippocrates calls it opostasis by excretion ; 
when the morbific matter settles on any 
part, he calls it aposlasis by settlement ; 
and when one disease turns to another, 
aposlasis by metastasis. 

13. Apo-slaxis {(rra^o), to drop). The 
dropping of any fluid, as of blood from 
the nose. 

14. Apo-stema (i(TTn^a, to stand). An 
abscess; a separation of parts. 

15. Apo-syringesi's {(riipiy^, fistula). The 
degenerating ot a sore into a fistula. 

16. Apo-theca {dTtodiiK-q, a shop, from 
ridrjfii, to place). A shop where medi- 
cines are sold. Hence 

Apo-ihecarius. An apothecary ; a com- 
pounder of medicines. This designation 
is more correct than those of chemist and 
druggist. 

17. Apo-theria. Scutella, or little 
shields; a term applied, in botany, to the 
reproductive portions of lichens. 

18. Apo-zem (^tco) to boil). A decoc- 
tion ; a preparation differing from a ptisan 
only in the addition of various medicines, 
and in its being employed at prescribed 
intervals, and not as a habitual drink. 

APOCYNACEiB^ An order of Dico- 
tyledonous plants, agreeing with Ascle- 
piadaces, but of rather more suspicious 
properties. Trees or shrubs, usually 
milky* with leaves opposite, sometimes 
whorled; corolla monopetalous, hypogy- 
nous; slameiis inserted into the corolla; 
ovaries two; fruit a follicle, capsule, 
drupe, or berry, single or double. 

APOCYNINE. A bitter principle, ob- 



APO 



42 



AQU 



tained from the Apocynum Cannnh'mum, 
or Imliaii-lieinp, or Dog's-baiie. 

[APOC YiN UiM. A genus of the order 
Il^poci/nacetr. 

[1. A. androsixinifoUum. Dog's-baiie. 
Tlie root of this species is a prompt eme- 
tic in the dose oi' thirty grains. 

[2. A.cannabinnm. Indian hemp. This 
species is powerfully emetic and cathar- 
tic, soinetnnes diuretic, diaphoretic, and 
expectorant. It lia.s been successfully 
used in dropsy.] 

A'l'ODES (n, priv., irov;, TTO^dy, a foot). 
Fishes which have no ab<louiinaI fins. 

APPAR.ATUS {appareo, to be at hand). 
A term applied to instruments employed 
in surgery, chemistry, &c. ; also to cer- 
tain methods oi' cutting fiir the slone. 
See Liitholom;/. [In physiology it signi- 
fies an assemblage of organs concurring 
in the performance of the same function, 
and the actions of which have a com- 
mon object.] 

APPENDIX (appendo, to hang to). 
Appeiidicida. A process or appendage ; 
something appended to another part, 
without being essential to the e.'iislence 
of this part, as a thorn or a gland in 
plants. 

1. Appendix cceci vermifonnis. A long 
worm-shaped tube or process, the rudi- 
ment of the lengthened cuecum, found in 
all the mammalia, e.xcept man and the 
higher quadrumana. 

2. Appendices Epiploica, vel pingiie- 
dinoscB. Small, irregular pouches of peri- 
tona;uin, filled with Jat, and situated like 
fringes upon the large intesine. Thoy 
are sometimes called omcnlala: inlestini 
crassi. 

3. Appendix auricularis. A process 
situated at the anterior and upper part of 
the auricles of the heart. 

APPERT'S PROCESS. A method in- 
troduced by M. Appert for preserving 
articles of food unchanged for several 
years. The articles are inclosed in bot- 
tles, which are filled to the top with any 
liquid, and hermetically closed. They 
are then placed in kettles, filled with 
cold water, and subjected to heat till the 
water boils; the boiling temperature is 
kept up for a consid«|ble time, and the 
bottles are then siiliPed to cool gradu- 
ally. Instead of bottles, tin canisters are 
sometimes used, and rendered tight by 
soldering. 

APPETENCY iappelo. to seek). The 
disposition of organized beings to acquire 
and appropriate substances adapted to 
their support. 

APPOSITION [appono, to place at). 



A term applied to that part of the func- 
tion of nuirition, by which the compo- 
nents of the blood are transformed on the 
free surtiice of an organ into a solid un- 
organized substance, which is the mode 
of growth of the non-vascular tissues. 
See 'riaiiffurmaUons. 

APTER.V (a. priv., -rcpop, a wing). 
Apterous, or wingless insects. 

[APYRETIC (a, pnv., rrijpj, fever). 
Without fever.] 

APYREXIA (a, priv., nvpc^is, a fever). 
Intermissions between the paroxysms of 
a fever. 

APYROUS (a, priv., irvp, fire). A term 
applied to bodies which sustain the action 
of a strong heat for a long lime, without 
change of figure or other properties. It 
is synonymous with refractor//. 

AQU.A. Water. This sulisiance i.s 
composed of one part of hydrogen, and 
eight of oxygen, by iveighl; and of two 
of hydrogen and one of oxygen, by 
volume. 

1. Aqua pluvialis. Rain water; the 
purest natural water, holding in solution 
carbonic acid, a minute portion of car- 
bonate of lime, and traces of muriate of 
lime. 

2. Aqua fo/Uana. Spring water; con- 
taining, in addition to the above sub- 
stances, a small portion of muriate of 
soda, and frequently other salts. Spring 
v.-aler which dissolves soap, is termed 
scfl; that which decomposes and cur- 
dles it, is called hard. 

3. Aqua ex Jlumine, [aqua fluviatilis.] 
River water; generally of considerable 
purity, but liable to hold in suspension 
particlesofearthy matter, which impair its 
transparency, and .sometimes its salubrity. 

■ 4. Aqua ex puleo. Well water; essen- 
tially the same as spring water, being 
derived from the same source; but more 
liable to impurity from its stagnation, or 
slow infiltration. 

5. Aqua ex 7iive. Snow water; differ- 
ing apparently from rain water only in 
being destitute of air, to which water is 
indebted for its briskness, and many of 
its good effects upon animals and vege- 
tables. 

6. Aqua ex lacu. Lake water; a col- 
lection of rain, spring, and river waters, 
contaminated with various animal and 
vegetable bodies, which, from its stag- 
nant nature, have undergone putrefac- 
tion in it. 

7. Aqua ex palude. Marsh water; the 
most impure, as being the most stagnant 
of all water, and generally loaded with 
decomposing vegetable matter. 



AQU 



43 



AQU 



8. Aqua destillala. Distilled water; 
having a vapid taste, from the absence 
of air, and slightly empyreumatic, in con- 
sequence probably of the presence of a 
small quaniilyofextractive matter, which 
has undergone partial decomposition. 

9. Aijua marina. Sea water; contain- 
ing sulphate of soda, the muriates of 
soda, magnesia, and lime, a minute jiro- 
portion of polass, and various ainmal and 
vegetable bodies. — Paris. 

AQUJ: DESTILLAT^. A<]U(B Stil- 
latilicE. Distilled waters; waters impreg- 
nated wilh the essential oil of vegetables, 
principally designed as grateful vehicles 
for the exhibition of more active reme- 
dies. 

AQU.-E MINERALES. Mineral wa- 
ters; a term conventionally applied to 
such waters as are distinguished from 
spring, lake, river, or other waters, by 
peculiarities oi' colour, taste, smell, or 
real or supposed medicinal effects. Mine- 
ral waters are of four kinds: — 

1. Acididons ; owing their properties 
chiefly to carbonic acid; they are tonic 
and diuretic, and in large doses produce 
a transient exhilaration; the most cele- 
brated are Pyrmont, Seltzer, Spa, Carls- 
bad, and Scarborough. 

2. Chalyleale ; containing iron in the 
, form of sulphate, carbonate, or muriate; 

they have a styptic, inky tasle. [See 
Chali/beale Waters.] 

3. Stdp/iureous ; deriving their charac- 
ter from sulphuretted hydrogen, either 
uncombined, or united with lime or an 
alkali. 

4. Saline; mostly purgative, and ad- 
vantageously employed in those hypo- 
chondriacal and visceral diseases which 
require roniinued and moderate relaxa- 
tion of the bowels. 

AQUA BINCLLI. An Italian quack 
medicine, supjjosed to be a solution of 
creosote, and celebrated at Naples for 
arresting hremorrhage. 

AQUA CHALYBEATA. A water 
consisting of a solution of citrate of iron 
highly charged wilh carbonic acid gas, 
and flavoured by a little aromatized syrup. 

AQUA FORTIS. A name applied by 
the alchemists to the nitric acid of the 
Pharmacopoeia, on account of its strong 
solvent and corrosive properties. It is 
distinguished by the terms doable and 
siiif^le, the latter being only half the 
strength of the foriner. The more con- 
centrated acid, which is much stronger 
even than the double aqua fbrlis, is 
termed by artists spirit of nitre. 

AQUA LABYRINTHI. Liquor of 



Scarpa ; a fluid found in the cavities of 
the petrous bone. It is secreted by a 
mucous membrane which lines the ves- 
tibule and semicircular canals. 

AQUA MARIiNE. A variety of fier^i. 
[q. v.] 

AQUA PHAGED.«NICA. Phagede- 
nic water; a lotion for ulcers, formed by 
the decomposition of corrosive sublimate 
in lime water. 

AQUA POTASStE. The pharmaco- 
poeial name of the aqueous solution of 
potassa, prepared by decomposing car- 
bonate of potassa by lime. 

AQUA REGIA. Royal water; the 
name given by the alchemists to a mix- 
ture of the nitric and hydrochloric acids, 
from itsproperty of dissolving gold, styled 
by them the king of metals. It is now 
called nilro-murialic acid, and consists 
of one part of the former to two ol the 
latter acid. 

AQUA TOFFANA. A subtle, cer- 
tain, slow-consuming poison, prepared 
by a woman of that name in Sicily, said 
by some to consist of opium and can- 
thnrides; by others, of a solution of 
arsenic. 

AQUA VIT^. Eau de Vie. A name 
given in commerce to ardent spirit of 
the first distillation. Distillers call it 
low wines. As an intoxicating beverage, 
it might very properly be termed aqua 
mortis. 

AQUA VULNERARIA {vulnus, a 
wound). A remedy applied to wounds; 
another term for arquebusade. 

AQUEDUCT {aqua ductus, a water- 
course). A term applied to certain canals 
occurring in different parts of the body, 
as that — 

1. Of Fallopius. The canal by which 
the portio dura winds through the petrous 
portion of the temporal bone. 

2. Of Sylvius. The canal which ex- 
tends backwards under the tubereula 
quadrigemina, into the fourth ventricle. 

3. Of the Cochlea. A foramen of the 
temporal hone, for the transmission of a 
small vein from the cochlea. 

4. Of the Vestibulum. Tlie commence- 
ment of a small canal, which opens upon 
the posterior surface of the petrous bone, 
and transmits a smalh vein. 

AQUEOUS {aqua, water). A term now 
coming into general use for designating 
definite combinations wilh water.' The 
term hydrate has long been employed for 
the same purpose. A prefix is used when 
there is more than one atom, as in bin- 
aqueous, ^er-hydrate. 

AQUEOUS HUMOUR {aqxia, water), 



AQU 



44 



ARC 



The fluid which fills the anterior and, 2. Arbor Salurni. A term applied to 
posterior chambers of the eye. ^lead, when separated from its salts in a 

AQUILA. Literally, an eagle. A term'melallic state by zinc, 
whifh iiad (brmerly many epithets joined i ARBORKSCErS'T(arftor, a tree). Hav- 
wiih it to denote particular subslances;'ing the character of a tree; as disiin- 
ihus, aquila alba, sen miligafa was one'guished from that of an herb or shrub. 
of the fanciful names of calomel. j ARBOR VIT.E. Literally, ^ree r/Zi/e. 

[AQUILEGL^ VULGARIS. Colum-:A term applied \o ihe arborescent appear- 
bine. A perennial herbaceous plant of ance presented by the cerebellum, when 
the order Raniinciilacccr, f()rmerly con- cut into vertically. 

sidered diuretic, diaphoretic, antiscor-l Arbor vilm nierina. A term applied to 
bulic, and vulnerary.] an arborescent arrangement of Iblds on 

AQUUL.\(dim.ofa7';a, water). A fatly the interior of the cervL^c uteri. They 
tumour under the skin of ihe eyelid. [resemble the smallest of the carness co- 

ARACE.^2. Aroidea. Tne .^rum tribe jlumna? of the heart, 
of Monocotyledonous plants, containing' ARBUTUS UVA URSI. Trailing 
an acrid, and in some cases a highly ! Arbutus, or Red Bear-Berry; a plant of 
dangerous princiiile. Herbaceous plants the order Ericacew, employed in cases 



with leaves sheathing at the base ; flowers 
unisexual, arranged uponaspadix, within 
aspathe; slamens hypogynous; orar^ su- 
perior; />HiJ succulent. 

AR.-\eH\rDA(dp,ix>'7;t, a spider). The 
third class of the Diplo-ganqliala, or En- 
tomoida, comprising articulated animal 



of irriiable bladder, of diabetes, &c. 

ARCA ARCANORUM. Literally, a 
chest of secrets. The alchemical name 
of the philosopher's stone. 

ARCA'^iUM. A secret; a secret re- 
medy ; a remedy which owes its value 
to its being kept secret. Thus, sulphate 



generally with four pairs of legs, without of potash was formerly called arcanum 



wings or metamorphosis, 

ARACHNOID MEMBRANE (dpa^- 
vrii, a spider, dio;, likeiies.s). Meninx 
media. The fine cobweb-like membrane 
situated between the dura and pia mater. 
It is the serous membrane of the cerebro- 
spinal centres. 

1. Arachnnrdilis, or Arachnitis, In- 
flammation of the arachnoid membrane. 

2. Suh-arachnoidian fluid. An abun- 
dant serous secretion, which fills all the 
vacuities existing between the ar.ichnoid 
and pia mater, and distends the arach- 
noid of the spinal cord so completely, as 
to enable it to occupy the whole of ihe 
space included in the shcaih ol' the dura 
mater. 

AR.^OMETER (dpaid,-, thin, ,xirpov 



duplicatum ; acetate of potash, arcanum 
larlari; deutoxide of mercury, arcanum 
coTallinnm, &c. 

ARCH. FEMORAL. The name of a 
considerable arch formed over the con- 
cave border of the pelvis. It is bounded 
above by Poupart's ligament, below by 
the border of the pubes and ilium. 

ARCH^US {ipxh, beginning). A hy- 
pothetical intelligent agent, adopted Bj' 
Van Helmont, reserlibling the anima of 
Stahl. See Anima. 

ARCHIL. A violet red paste, pre- 
pared from the Lichen rocellus, or Or- 
seille, and other species of lichen, and 
used in dyeing. The plant, reduced to 
a pulp, and treated with impure ammo- 
niacai liquor, yields a rich purple line- 



measure). Hj/drnmi'ter. An inslrumeniture, called litmus or turnsole, used in 
for determining the specific gravity of chemistry as a te.«t. 

liquids into which it is plunged, by the ARCHOPTO'M.V {dpxdf, anus, m'Trrco, 
depth to which it becomes immersed in to fall). Archoptosis. Prolapsus ani. A 
them. The art or process of measuring descent of the rectum. See Anns. 
thedensity or gravity of liquids is termed! ARCIFORM FIBRES {arcus, a bow, 
arceometry. \forma, likeness). A term applied by 

[AR.A.CK. St'd Arrach.] , Mr. Solly to a set of fibres which proceed 

ARALIA -NUDICAULIS. The naked- from the corpus pyramidale, and pass 
stalked Aralia, the roots of w"hich areloutwards beneath the corpus olivare to 
sometimes mixed with the split sarsapa-'the cerebellum. He distinguishes them 
rilla of the shops. ;into two layers, the superficial cerebellar, 

ARBOR. A tree. The term is applied, and deep cerebdlar fibres. 
to certain arborescent iotms assumed byi ARCTATIO (arcto, to narrow). Con- 
metals: — stipation of the intestines; also preter- 

1. Arbor Diana;. A term applied to'natural straighlness of the v.igina. 
silver, when precipitated from its oxidcj [ARCTIUM LAPPA. A plant of the 
in the metallic form by mercury. 'order CompositcB, the root of which is 



ARC 



45 



ARG 



considered aperient, diaphoretic, depura-i [AREOMETER. See Arceometer.] 
live, and diuretic. The bruised leaves, AKES. An alchemical term expres- 
or a deco(:iion of ihem, have been used'sive ot Ihe Great First Cause. 



as an application to ulcers and leprous 
eruptions. The seeds are diuretic] 

[ARCUATE {areas, a bow), Bow- 
shaped, bent like the arc of a circle.] 

ARCUATIO {arciis. a bow). A gib- 
bosily, or curvature, of the dorsal verle- 
briE, sternum, or ihe libia. — Avia-nna. 

ARCUS SENILIS (bow of old age). 
[Gerontoxon.] An opacity round ihe mar- 
gin of the cornea, occurring in advanced 
age. 

ARDEINT SPIRIT. A term applied 
to alcohol of moderate slrenglh. 

ARDOR {ardeo, to burn). Heat; a 
sen.se of heal, or burning. 

1. Ardor UrincB. A sense of scalding 
on passing the urine. 

2. Ardor VenlricuU. Heartburn. 

AREA. Literally, an open place. Un- 
der this lerin, Celsus describes two va- 
rieties of baldness, viz. — 

\. Area dijjlaens. Diffluent areated 
hair; con.sisling of bald ploisof an inde- 
terminate figure, in the beard as well as 
in the scalp. This is the true alopecia 
of Ihe Greeks. 

2. Area serpens. Serpentine areated 
hair; consisting of baldness commencing 
at the occiput, and winding in a lino not 
exceeding two lingers' breadth, to each 
ear, sometimes to the Ibrehead ; ofien 
terminating spontaneously. This is the 
ophiasis of the Greeks. 

AREA PELLUCIDA. The iranspa 
rent space formed after the lapse of seve- 
ral hours in the incubated egg, around 
the first trace of the embryo, by the mid 
die poriion of the germinal membrane. 

1. Area \ascidosa. A second distinct 
space surrounding the area pellucida 
and so named from the formation of the 
blood-vessels in it. 

2. Area ViieVina. A third distinct 
space, surrounding the area vasculosa. 
This zone eveiiiually encloses the whole 
yolk. 

[ARECA NUT. Betel-nut. The pro- 
duct of the Areca Caiechu.] 

ARE'NA. Sand; an obsolete term for 
gravel or sedimont in the urine. 

AREOLA (dim. of area, a void space). 
The pink or brown circle which sur- 
rounds the nipple. Also the name given 
by Brown to an opaque spot or nucleus 
observed in the cells of plants, and since 
termed by Schleiden, cyloUasl. 

[AREOLATE [areola, a small space). 
Divided inio areolas or small spaces, as 
applied to surfaces.] 



ARGAND L.AMP. A name applied, 
from one of the inventors, to all lamps 
with hollow or circular wicks. The in- 
tention of them is to furnish a more rapid 
supply of air to the flame, and to afford 
this air to the centre as well as to the 
outside of the f^ame. 

ARGE'MA {apyog, while). A small 
white ulcer of the eye, described by Hip- 
pocrates. 

[ARGEMONE MEXICANA. Thorn 
poppy. A plant of the natural order 
Papaveracecs, ihe juice of which after 
exposure to the air resembles gamboge, 
and is said to l)e useful as a hydrogogue 
in dropsies and jaundice. In Java the 
juice is used externally and internally 
in cutaneous affections; and the Hindoos 
consider it as a valuable remedy in oph- 
ihaimia, rublied on the larsi, or dropped 
in the eye. The seeds are employed in 
ilic West Indies, as a substitute fiir ipeca- 
cuanha, in doses of two drachms infused 
in a pint of water.] 

ARGENTINE FLOWERS OF AN- 
TIMONY {argeiitimt, silver). The ses- 
qui-oxide of antimony, frequently occur- 
ring in the form of small shining needles 
o[ silvery whileness. See Antimony. 

ARGENTUM {apyds, white). Silver; 
the u/iitesl of meials; it occurs in the 
metallic stale, and is also obtained fi-om 
the ores of lead. It is employed in phar- 
macy only in the preparation of the 
nitrate. - -.. 

1. Argenti nitras. Fused nitrate of 
silver, or lunar caustic; formed by dis- 
solving pure silver in diluted nitric acid, 
evaporating to dryness, melting, and p<$ur- 
ing the melted mass into moulds. 

2. Argentum folialum {folium, a leaf). 
Silver leaf; used for covering pills and 
other substances. 

3. Argentum in musculis {musculus, a 
mussel). Shell silver; made by grind- 
ing the cuttings of silver leaf with strong 
gum water, and spreading it in pond- 
mussel shells; it is used for writing 
silver-coloured letters, but it tarnishes, 
and is inferior to ihe argentum musivum. 

4. Argentum zootinicum. Cyanide of 
silver, sometimes called hydrocyanale, 
cyanuret, or cyanodide of silver. 

The following are Misnomers: — 

5. Argentum musivum. Mosaic silver; 
made of' bismnlh and tin melied together, 
with the addition of quicksilver; used 
as a silver colour. 

6. Argentum vivum. Quicksilver, or 



ARG 



46 



ARS 



mercury, found native, but mostly ex- 
tracted from ihe native sulphurets. 

7. Argentum vivum purificalum. Hy- 
drargyrus purificalus; or quicksilver rub- 
bed with an equal weight of iron filiugs, 
and distilled in an iron vessel. 

ARGILLA (dpyo;, white). Argillaceous 
Earth. White clay, or potter's earth; 
the earth of clay, called in chemistry 
alumina, from its being obtained in great- 
est purity from alum. See Alumina. 
Argilla vilriolata. Alum. 
ARGOL, or ARGAL. Wine -stove. 
Crude tartar; an acidulous concrete salt, 
deposited by wine, and used by dyers as 
a mordant. 

ARICINA. An alkaloid found in cin- 
chona bark, and very analogous in its 
properties to cinrhonia and quina. These 
three alkaloids may be viewed as oxides 
of the same compound radical. 

ARILLUS. A term applied, in botany, 
to an expansion of the placenta, or funi- 
culus, about the seed : the mace of the 
nutmeg, and the red covering of ihe 
seed of the spindle-tree, are instances of 
arillus. 

ARlSTOLOCHIACEiE {'dpiTroi, the 
best, \oxeia, delivery). The Birthwort 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants, so named 
from the reputed emmenagogue proper- 
ties of the genus Arisiolochia. Herba- 
ceous plants or shrubs, with leaves alter- 
nate; J?oii'ers apetalous, hermaphrodite; 
stamens epigynous; ovary many-celled; 
fruit, dry or succulent, manv-celled. 

ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA. 
Virginia Birthwort, or Snake-root ; a plant 
supposed to possess the power of arrest- 
ing the effects of serpents' venomous 
bites. 

ARMORACI^ RADIX. Horseradish 
root; the root of the Cochlearia Armo- 
racia. Its virtues depend on an essential 
oil combined with sulphur. See Horse- 
radish. 

ARNALDTA. A disease formerly 
known in England, and attended with 
Alopecia, or baldness. 

ARNI'CA MOiNTANA. Leopard's- 
bane ; a plant of the order Composilce. 
It has been celebrated for internal pains 
and congestions from bruises, and has 
obtained the epithet of ' panacea lapse 
rum.' [The powder of the root and herb 
is given in doses of from 5 to 10 grs.] 

AROMA (upi. intensely, oUo, to smell) 
The odorous pruiciple of plants, formerly 
called by Boerhaave the Spiritus Rector 
Aromatics. Plants which possess an 
■ aroma united with pungency, and are 
warm to the taste. 



AROMATIC VINEGAR. An acetic 
solution of camphor, oil of cloves, of 
lavender, and of rosemary. The acetic 
acid used for this purpose is of about 
145^ oi" the acetoineter, containing 685 
per cent, of real acid. A preparation of 
this kind may be extemporaneously made 
by putting gJ- of acetate of potass into a 
phial with a few drops of some fragrant 
oil, and fT^xx. of sulphuric acid. 

ARQUA. a term by which the Ara- 
bian writers sometimes designate the 
aqua, or gatia seretia, or cataract. 

ARQUATUS MORBUS (arcuatus, 
from arcus, a bow). Literally, the arched 
disea.ie; a name Ibrmerly given to jaun- 
dice, from the supposed resemblance of 
its colour to that of the rainbow. 

ARQUEBUSADE (arquebus, a hand- 
gun). Aqua Vulneraria. A lotion com- 
posed of vinegar, sulphuric acid, honej', 
alcohol, and various aromatics; originally 
applied to wounds inflicted by the arque- 
bus. 

ARQUIFOUX. A sort of lead ore, 
commonly called potters' ore, from its 
being used by potters as a green varnish. 

ARRACK, or R.\CK. An intoxicating 
beverage made in India, by distilling the 
fermented juice of the cocoa-nut, the pal- 
myra tree, and rice in the husk. It may 
be imitated by dissolving forty grains of 
flowers of benjamin in a quart of rum: 
Dr. Kitchener calls this " Vauxhall Nec- 
tar." 

1. Goa arrack is made from a vegeta- 
ble juice called toddy, vihich flows by 
incision from the cocoa-nut tree. 

2. Batavia arrack is obtained by dis- 
tillation from molasses and rice, and is 
stronger than that of Goa. 

ARRAGONITE. An impure species 
of carbonate of lime, brought from Arra- 
gon in Spain. 

ARROW-ROOT. A term improperly 
applied to fecula or starch, prepared from 
the root of the Maranta Arundinacea, 
said to be efficacious in poisoned wounds. 
[It is also prepared from several other 
plants.] 

Arrow-root , British. A fecula prepared 
from the roots of the Aruvi maculalum, 
or Cuckoo-pint, in the isle of Portland, 
by beating them into a pulp, which is 
repeatedly washed by passing it through 
a sieve; it is then dried in shallow pans. 

{Arroto-rool, Florida. Fecula of the 
Zamia integri/clia or Z. pumila.'] 

ARSENICUM (lipaei'iKon, masculine, an 
ancient epithet, denoting strong and acri- 
monious properties). Arsenic; a brittle 
metal of a bluish white colour. 



ARS 



47 



ART 



1. Amenious Acid. This compound, 
frequently called while arsenic, and white 
oxide of arsenic, is prepared by digesting 
the metal in dilute nitric acid. It is well 
known as a violent poison. Its sails are 
called arsenitcs. 

2. Arsenic Acid. The compound which 
results fi-bra the further acidification of 
the arsenious with nitric acid. Its salts 
are called arseniates. 

3. Fl]/ Powder. Poudre a mouches. 
A black powder, formed by the exposure 
of the metal to a moist atmosphere. It is 
generally regarded as a mixture of white 
oxide and metallic arsenic. 

4. Fumivg Liquor of Arsenic. A co- 
lourless volatile liquid, which fumes 
strongly on exposure to the air. It is the 
sesqui-chloride of arsenic; and is formed 
by throwing powdered arsenic into chlo- 
rine gas. 

5. Realgar. Ruby or Red Arsenic; 
the protosulphuret. It occurs native, and 
may be formed by heating arsenious acid 
with about half its weight of sulphur. 

6. Orpiment. Yellow arsenic ; the ses- 
qui-sulphuret. It occurs native, and may 
be formed by fusing together equal parts 
of arsenious acid and sulphur. It con- 
stitutes a well-known paint, and is the 
colouring principle of the pigment called 
king's yellotc. 

7. Scheele's Mineral Green. A well- 
known pigment, consisting of arsenite of 
copper, or the combination of the arse- 
nious acid with oxide of copper. 

8. Liquor Arsenicalis. A pharraaco- 
pcsial preparation, called Fowler's solu- 
tion and Tasteless Ague Drop, consisting 
of arseniate of potash dissolved in water, 
and flavoured and coloured by spirit of 
lavender. 

9. Fiile Arsenicale. A remedy used in 
France, consisting of cinnabar, [70 parts,] 
sanguis draconis, [22 parts,] and arsenious 
acid, [8 parts,] made into a paste with 
saliva. 

ARSENOVINIC ACID. A new acid 
produced by the action of arsenic upon 
alcohol. 

ARTEMISIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Compositce. The species Chi- 
nensis, Indica, and Vulgaris, yield the 
substance called moxa, which is prepared 
by beating the tops of these plants in a 
mortar, until they become like tow. 

Artemisia Dracunculus. Tarragon ; a 
plant which is used to impart a peculiar 
stimulating flavour to vinegar. 

[Artemisia Santonica. Tartarian south- 
ern wood. Under the name of semen 
contra, seeds supposed to be of this plant 



are celebrated as a vermifuge. The dose 
of the powder is from gr. x. to gr. xxx.] 

ARTERIA {dnp, air, rnpto), to hold). 
A vessel which carries the l)lood from 
the heart; formerly supposed, from its 
being ibund empty after deatli, to con- 
tain only air. 

1. Arleria innominafa. A trunk arising 
from the arch of the aorta. 

2. Arterial helicincB. The name given 
by MiiUer to one set of the arterial 
branches of the corpora cavernosa penis. 
"They come off' from the side of the arte- 
ries, and consist of short, slightly-curled 
branches, terminating abruptly by a 
rounded, apparently closed extremity, 
turned back somewhat on itself: these 
are sometimes single; sometimes several 
arise from one stem, forming a tuft." 

3. Arterice VenoseB. The four pulmo- 
nary veins were so called, because they 
contained arterial blood. 

4. Arterial Circle of Willis. This is 
formed by branches of the carotid and 
vertebral arteries at the base of the 
brain. 

6. Arlerialization. The conversion of 
the venous into the arterial blood ; a term 
applied to the change induced in the 
blood as it passes through the lungs, by 
the evolution of carbonic acid, and the 
abstraction of oxygen from the air. 

6. Arteritis. Inflammation of an artery 
or arteries. 

7. Arteriotomy {ropiri, a section). The 
opening of an artery to let blood, gene- 
rally the temporal. 

ARTHAN ATIN. A name applied by 
Saladin to a colourless crystalline matter, 
which is extracted by alcohol from the 
tuberous stem of the Cyclamen Europa- 
um, or Sow-bread. 

ARTHKON (rtpV")- A joint. Hence 

1. Arthr-itis. Podagra, or Gout. Cor- 
rectly, inflammation of a joint. 

2. Arthro-dia. A kind of shallow arti- 
culation, as that of the humerus with the 
glenoid cavity. 

3. Arthr-odynia (oSivn, pain). Pains in 
the joints. 

4. Arthro-logy (Xoyog, a description). 
A description of the joints. 

5. Arthro-pyosis {ttvov, pus). Abscess 
of a joint. 

6. Arthrosis. Articulation, or joint. 
ARTICULARIS {articulus, a joint).' 

Relating to joints; particularly applied to 
the arteries given off" from the popliteal. 
Arlicularis genu. This, and the term 
subcrura^us, have been applied to a few 
detached muscular fibres, frequently 
found under the lower part of the cru- 



ART 



48 



ASA 



rails, and attached to the capsule of the 
knee-joint. 

ARTJCULATA {arliculus, a joint). 
Articuiiiied or jointed animals; one of 
the four great divisions of the animal 
kingdom. 

ARTICULATION {arliculus, a joint). 
Ardirosiis; a joint. The mechanism by 
which ihe bones of the skeleton are eon- 
neeted with each other. All the forms oi 
articulation may be reduced to three: — 
i. Sy7iarlhrnsis, or Immovable. 

1. Harmouia (apw, to adapt). Close 
joining; in which the bones merely lie 
in opposition to each other, as in the 
bones of the face. 

2. Schind i/lesis {<jXtv6v\n<y's< a fissure). 
A mode of joining, by which a projection 
of one bone is niserted into a groove or 
fissure in another, as in the articulations 
of the vomer with the rostrum of the 
sphenoid, and with the central lamella 
of the ethmoid bone. 

3. Gomphnsis [yofi'ijos, a nail). Nail- 
like insertion, as of the teeth in their 
sockets: their roots being fixed into the 
alveoli, like nails into a board. This is 
the only example of this kind of ariicula 
tion. 

4. Sutura. Literally, a seam. A dove- 
tailing mode of articulation, the most 
solid of the four forms oi si/narthrosis ; it 
occurs in the union of the flat bones of 
the skull with each other. There are 
two varieties, viz. — 

1. Sutura serrata, as in the serrated, 
or saw-like, union of the frontal with 
the parietal bones, and ot the parietal 
bones with each other. 

2. Sutura squamosa, as in the scale- 
like connexion of the temporal with the 
parietal hone. 

H. Diarlhrosis, or Movahle. 

1. Arlhrodia. In this form of articu- 
lation, the extent of motion is limited, as 
in the articulation of both extremities of 
the clavicle, and ribs; in the articulations 
of the radius with the ulna, of the fibula 
with the tibia, of the articular processes 
of the vertebras, and of the bones of the 
carpus and tarsus with each other, &c. 

2. Girigh/mus (yiyyXu/^df, a hinge). 
Hinge-like articulation, in which the 
bones move upon each other in two di- 
rections only, viz. forwards and back- 
wards; but the degree of motion may be 
very considerable. Examples occur in 
the elbow, the wrist, the knee, the ankle, 
the lower jaw, &c. 

3. Enarlhrosis lev, in, apOpoicri;, articu- 
lation). Ball-and-socket joint, the most 
extensive in its range of motion of all the 



movable joints. There are three exam- 
ples of this kind of joint, viz. the hip, 
the shoulder, and the articulation of the 
metacarpal bone of the thumb with the 
trapezium. 

III. Amphi-arthrosis, or Mixed. 

This kind of articulation is intermedi- 
nle between the immovable and the mo- 
vable forms. It is characterized by hav- 
ing an intervening substance between the 
contiguous ends of the bones, and per- 
mitting of only a slight or obscure degree 
of motion. Examples occur in the con- 
nexion between llie bodies of the verte- 
bra, the union of the two first pieces of 
the sternum, and the sacro-iliac and pubic 
symphyses. 

A RTIMOM A NTICO. An alloy of tin, 
sulphur, bismuth, and copper. 

ARTOS(Vs)- The Greek term for 
bread, or pan is of the Latins. 

1. Arto-creas (Kpca;, flesh). A food 
made of bread and various meals boiled 
together. 

2. Arlo-gala {yaXa, milk). A food 
made of bread and milk. A poultice. 

3. Ar<o-^7ieZ^(/lcX(, honey). A cataplasm 
made of bread and honey. 

[ARUM. A genus of the natural order 
Aroidem. The officinal species are 

[1. A.maculatiim. Wake robin, cuckoo- 
pint. The root when fresh contains an 
extremely acrid juice. The root par- 
tially dried, has been given in dyspepsia, 
in doses of ten or fifteen grains. The 
starch termed Portland arrow-root, or 
Portland sago, is prepared from the dried 
root. 

[2. A. Iriphellum. Indian turnip; dra- 
gon root. The recent root is a powerful 
local irritant. The recently dried root, 
which is less active, has been given in 
asthma, pertussis, dyspepsia, chronic 
rheumatism, Arc, in the dose of ten 
grains, in an emulsion, or made into a 
conserve.] 

ARYTJENOm (dpvraiva, a ewer.elSos, 
likeness). A term applied to two trian- 
gular cartilages of the larynx. The deri- 
vation of the term relates to the appear- 
ance of both cartilages taken together, 
and covered by mucous membrane. In 
animals, which were the principal sub- 
jects of dissection among the ancients, 
the opening of Ihe larynx with the arylae- 
noid cartilages bears a striking resem- 
blance to the mouth of a pitcher, having 
a large spout. 

ASAPH ATI (a, priv., ca<l,fi?, clear). 
A sort of serpigo, supposed to be gene- 
rated in the pores, like worms. 

ASAPIUA (a, priv., <7a(pfis, clear). 



ASA 



49 



ASP 



Defective utterance; a want of clearness 
of articiilalioii or speech. 

ASARI FOLIA. Asarabacca leaves; 
The leaves of" the Asartim Europeiuii, a 
plantoftheorderAr!i;/o/ocA(Oce<B, abound- 
ing in a bitter principle called asarin, and 
used as an errhine. 

[ASARUM CANADENSE. Canada 
snake-root, wild ginger. A plant of the 
order AriMolochiacece, the root of which 
is aromatic, stimulant, tonic, and diapho- 
retic] 

ASBESTOS (a. priv., afShwftt, to extin- 
guish). A mineral substance of a fibrous 
structure, from which an incombustible 
linen is made. There are several varie- 
ties, ail more or less flexible and fibrous, 
and termed amianthus, or mountain flax, 
mountain leather, &c. 

ASCAKIS (riff/fapi'sto, to jump). Pa- 
rasitical worms found in the human 
body. 

1. Ascaris Lumhriroides. The long 
and round worm. 

2. Ascarix Vermicldaris. The thread 
or maw-worm. See Vermes. 

ASCENSUS MORBI. The ascent or 
increase of a disease. 

ASCIA (an axe, or hatchet). A ban- 
dage, so called from its shape, and de- 
scribed by Hippocrates. 

ASCI'TES (a(r«.df,asack; a skin-bottle; 
a big-bellied man). Hydrups venlris, vel 
abdominis. Dropsy of the belly or ab- 
domen. 

ASCLEPIADACE^. The Asclepias 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Shrubs 
or herbaceous plants, with leaves opposite, 
alternate, or whorled ; corolla monopela- 
lous, hypogynous; stamens inserted into 
the base of the corolla ; ovaries lwi>; frini 
one or two follicles. In this tribe the 
sexual apparatus is verv peculiar. 

[ASCLEPIAS INCARNATA. Flesh- 
coloured Asclepias. An American plant, 
said to be a useful emetic and cathartic] 

[ASCLEPIAS SYRIACA. Silk-weed. 
The root of this species is said to possess 
anodyne properties.] 

ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA. Swallow- 
wort; an American plant, used as a dia- 
phoretic in catarrh and rheumatism. 

A SEPTA (o, priv.. aimo), to putrefy). 
Substances free from the putrefactive 
process. 

ASHES. The residuum of the com- 
bustion oi' vegetables, containing alkaline 

ASIATIC PILLS. Each pill coniains 
about one-thirieenth of a grain of while 
oxide of arsenic, and somewhat more 
than half a grain of black pepper. 



ASITIA (a, priv., o-frof, food). Loss of 
appetite. 

[ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS. Com- 
mon Asparagus. A well known plant of 
the natural order Asphodelece. The young 
shoots are diuretic, and are by some con- 
sidered aperient, deobstruent, and to 
exert a sedative influence 'over the 
heart. A syrup and extract have been 
prepared, vvhich possess the same powers 
as ihe fresh plant.] 

ASPARAMFDE. A principle disco- 
vered in the juice of the asparagus, and 
in the root of the marsh-mallow and 
liquorice. It is the same as the agedoile 
of Robiqiiet. 

ASPARMIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from asparamide, when boiled some time 
with hvdrated ovide of lead or magnesia. 

ASPERA ARTERIA. Literally, a 
roiiirh air-vessel. The trachea ; so named 
from the inequality of its cartilages. 

ASPERGI LLIFORM. [Aspergillus, 
brush.] Brush-like; divided into minute 
ramifications, as the stigmas of grasses, 
certain hairs of the cuticle, &c. 

ASPERSION (aspergo, to sprinkle). 
A kind of affusion. See Affusion. 

ASPHALTENE. A solid black sub- 
stance, obtained by submittnig the bitu- 
men of Bechelborum, purified by ether, 
to a hisjh and prolonged temperature. 

ASPHALTUM (a, priv., rr^aWoy, to 

slip; from its being used for cement). 
Jews' Pilch. Native bitumen ; a solid 
brittle bitumen, found principally on the 
shores and on the surlhce of the Dead 
Sea, and named from the lake Asphaltitis. 
A brown colouring matter is formed from 
it, which, when dissolved in oil of tur- 
pentine, is semi-transparent, and is used 
as a elaze. 

ASPHODELE^. The Asphodel or 
Lilv tribe of Monocotyledonous plants. 
Herbaceous plants, with bulbs, occasion- 
ally arborescent, with leaves not articu- 
lated with the stem, parallel- veined ; 
flowers hexapetaloideous; stamens hypo- 
gynous; ovary auperioT ; fruit succulent 
or drv and capsular. 

ASPHYXIA (a, priv.,o-(/)i'rf?, the pulse). 
Defectus pulsus; defectus animi. Origi- 
nally, interrupted pulse; but, more re- 
cently and generally, interrupted respi- 
ration, as in hanging, drowning; sua-, 
pendfd animation; apparent death. 

[ASPIDIUM FILIX MAS. Male fern. 
A fern, the root of which has acquired 
great celebrity as a cure for tape-worm.] 

[ASPLICNITIM. .A genus of ferns, some 
of the species of which are thought to 
have medicinal properties. 



ASS 



50 



AST 



[1. A. Jilix fcemina. Female fern. The Celsus has assa nutrix, a careful nurse; 
root is supposed to possess vermil'uge pro-quol puero adsit, or assit, which is a 
perlies. (jifferent origin. 

[2. A. rula muraria. While Maiden ASTATIC (a, priv., oratj, to stand). 
Hair. A term applied to a magnetic needle, 

[3. A. trichommies. Common Spleen-lwhen iis direciive properly is destroyed 
wort. I by the proximity of another needle of 

[A. A. Adlantunniigrum. Black Spleen-] equal magnetic intensity fixed parallel 
wort. The leaves of these three last! to ii, and in a reversed position, each 



species are mucilaginous and are em- 
ployed as substitutes for the true Maiden 
Hair {Adiaiilum Capillus Veneris) in mak- 
ing Capillaire.] 

ASSA-FCETIDA. A felid gumresin, 
which exudes from the root of (he Ferula 
Assafvelida, a plant of the order Umbel- 
lifera. It occurs massive, and in tears. 
It was used by the ancients as a condi- 
ment, under the name of aiXiptdv {laser- 
pilium) ; it has also been called opium 



needle having its north pole adjacent to 
the south pole of the other. In this slate 
the needles, neutralizing each other, are 
unaffecied by the magnetism of ihe earth, 
while they are still subject to the influ- 
ence of galvanism. 
ASTER (narfip). A star. 

1. Astro-holis7nus (/JhAXw, to cast). Si- 
deratio. Apoplexy; formerly supposed 
to be cansed by the influence of the stars. 

2. ^.s^ro-Zoffy (Xdyof, a description). A 



Cijrenaicnm, or juice from ('yrene. The'description of the stars. The pretended 



term assa-foetida is derived from the 
monks of the Salernian school. [Its me- 
dicinal properties are antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, expectorant and laxative. Dose 
gr. X. to gr. XX.] 

ASS.\YING. The chemical operation 
of ascertaining the quantity of any metal 
in an ore or mixture. It differs from 
Analysis only in degree, and is peribrmed 
in the dry way, am by heat; hi ihe moist 
way, as by acids and other re-agenls; or 
by both methods. See Ciipellution. 

ASSES' MILK. Lac A.^ininum. The 
artificial milk m.iy be prepared in the 
following way: — Boil eryngo root, pearl 
barley, sago, and rice, of each one ounce, 
in three pints of water till half wasted ; 
strain, and put a teaspoonful of the mix- 
ture into a cofTee-cup of boiling milk, so 
as to render it of the consistence of 
cream ; sweeten with sugar or honey to 
the taste. 

ASSIDENT SIGNS (assideo, to sit 
by). Occasional symptoms of a disease. 

ASSIM1L.\TI0N {assimilo, to assimi- 
late). The conversion of the food into 
nutriment. 

ASSOCIATE MOVE.MENTS. Con- 
sensual Movements. Those movements 
which, contrary to our v>i\\, accompany 
other, voluntary, motions. Thus, the eye 
cannot be moved inwards by the action 
of the rectus inlernus, without contrac- 
tion of ihe ins being produced. 

ASSODRS Oia„, loathing). Asodes. A 
continual fever, attended with a loathing 
of food. Saiivages calls it Trilaophi/a 
assodes; and Cullen arranges it under 
the tertian remittents. 

ASSUS (quasi arsus, from ardere, to 



burn). Roasted, as applied to foods. But 1 diarrhoea, &c 



science of foretelling events by inquiring 
of the stars. Hippocrates ranks ihis, and 
astronomy, among the necessary studies 
of a physician. 

3. Astro-nomy (vd/to;, a law). The 
science which investigates the laws of 
the stars, or the motions of the heavenly 
bodies. 

ASTHEiMA (n, priv., aOivos, strength), 
Debility; .want of strength. 

ASTHMA (atrfl/iasoj.to breathe hea^ 
vily). Anhtialio ; spirandi dijjiadtas, 
suspirium. Broken-wind ; short-breath : 
difficulty of breathing, recurring in pa 
roxysms, and independent of organic diS' 
ease. 

[Asthma, thymic. A spasmodic affec- 
tion of the glottis supposed to result from 
eniargred thymus gland.] 

[ASTOMI.\ (a, priv., orofia, mouth). 
Without a month.] 

.ASTRAGALUS (dorpayaXof. a die). 
The ankle-bone : the analogous bones of 
some animal were used by the ancients 
as dice. 

ASTR.\GALUSCRETICUS. Cretan 
milk-vetch; a plant of the order Legw- 
viinoaa, which yields the cnvi tragacanth 
of commerce. Several other species of 
-Astragalus yield this substance, particu- 
larly the A. verus, the A. suinmifer, &c. 

ASTRIAGENT PRINCIPLE. A prin- 
ciple contained in the husks of nuls, of 
walnuts, in green tea, and eminently in 
the gall-nut. From the use of this prin- 
ciple in tanning skins, it has obtained 
the name of tannin. 

ASTRINGENTS {astringo, to bind). 
Remedies which contract the animal 
fibre, and arrest fluxes, hcemorrhages. 



ATA 



51 



ATO 



Especes Astrinf^enls. The name given 
in the Codex of Parisian Pharmacopceia 
lo a mixture of equal pans of bistort-root, 
of tormeiitil-root, and of pomegranate- 
bark. 

ATAXIA (a, priv., rafij, order). Irre- 
gularity ; a term ajiplied to some dis- 
eases. 

ATHEROMA {aOnpa, pap). An en- 
cysted tumour, so called irom iis pap- 
like contents. Beclard observes, that this 
kind of cyst, as well as the varieties term- 
ed meliceris and sieaUrma, are merely se- 
baceous follicles enormously dilated. 

ATHYMIA (a. pnv., 9n//df, courage). 
Lowness of spirits; depres.<ion. 

ATLAS (rAicj, to sustain). The up- 
permost of the cervical verlebr-B; so 
named from its supporiing the head, as 
Atlas is said to support the world. 

[ATMIATRIA {ar^oi, vapour, gas, 
larptia, treairaent). Treatment of dis- 
eases by teases or vapours.] 

ATMOMETER (drfidj, vapour, nirpov, 
a measure). An instrument corunved by 
Proiessor Leslie for measuring the quan- 
tity of exhalation from a moist surfiice in 
a given time. 

ATMOSPHERE (^araig. vapour, c^paX- 
pa, a sphere'). That volume of air which 
surrounds the earth. 

1. Atmospheric Pressure is indicated 
by the length of a column of mercury. 
A mercurial cf)lumn, 30 inches in lengih, 
presses on a given surfice with the same 
force as the atmosphere in iis ordinary 
slate; and hence the Ibrce of a 60 inch 
column is equal to the pressure of /i/>o 
atmospheres ; that of 15 inches lo half an 
atmosphere; that of one inch to l-30ih 
of the atmospheric pressure. 

2. Atmospheres — tino, three, &o. Mul- 
tiplied pressures of air, arising from con- 
densation, the ordinary pre.ssure being 
fifteen pounds on the square inch. 

ATOM (a, priv., rcfiuio, 10 cut). An 
ultimate particle of mailer, incapable of 
further division. The term is frequently 
used in chemistry as synonymous wiih 
equivalent. 

ATOMIC THEORY. A theory intro- 
duced by Dalton for exfilaining the laws 
of definite proportions in chemical com- 
binations. It is founded on the supposi- 
tion that mailer consists of ullimaie indi- 
visible particles, called aloms : that these 
are of the same si/.e and shape in ihe 
same body, but differ in wci<rht in diffe- 
rent bodies; and that bodies combine in 
definite proportions, with reference to 
those weights, which are hence called 
atomic weights. The main features of 



ihis iheory are briefly stated in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs: — 

1. In bodies capable of assuming the 
gaseous furm, the weight of the atom is 
oblained from the volume; thus, water 
being composed of one volume of oxy- 
gen, uniied with tivo volumes (or one 
atom) of hydrogen, the relative weights 
will be, oxygen 8, hydrogen 1, and 
water 9. 

2. In bodies which do not assume the 
gaseous form in their simple state, the 
weight of the atom is deduced from that 
of the covipound ; the weight of carbon, 
for instance, is oblained from that of 
carbonic acid gas, one volume of which 
weighs 22 limes as much as our standard 
of unity; of these 22 pans, 16 are oxy- 
gen, leaving 6 to represent the primary 
molecule of carbon. 

3. In the case of bodies which are 
incapable of assuming a gaseous form, 
either aloneorincombinalion, the weight 
must be obtained hy analysis ; thus, mar- 
ble, 6r the carbonaie of lime, is found to 
be composed of 22 parts of carbonic acid, 
and 28 of lime : 28 therefore represents 
ihe atomic weight of lime. 

4. The aiomic weights are generally 
supposed to be related to one another by 
multiple; hence, this law is often called 
the law of multiples, or of combinations 
in multiple proportion. This will be 
easily seen by referring to the component 
pans of the following substances. 

Nitrogen. Oxygen. 

Nitrons oxide 14 8 

Nitric oxide 14 16 

Hyponitrous acid . . . . 14 24 

Nitrous acid 14 32 

Nitrii! acid 14 40 

5. When only one combination of any 
two elementary bodies exists. Dr. Dalton 
assumes that its elements are united, 
atom to atom singly, by what he calls 
binarif combinations; if several com- 
pounds can be obtained from the same 
elements, they combine, as he supposes, 
in proportions expressed by some simple 
multiple of the number of atoms; as in 
the Ibllowing table: — 

Atoms 

1 of A-f 1 ofB=l ofC, binary. 

1 of A+2 of B=l of D, ternary. 

2 of A+1 of B= 1 of E, ternary. 

1 of A-t-3 of B=l of F, quaternary. 

3 of A+l of 3=1 ofG, quaternary. 
Berzelius has proposed aditforent clas- 
sification of atoms, viz. into — 

1. Elemenlnr If aloms; and 

2. Compound atoms, which are — 

1 . Compound aloms of the first order. 



ATO 



52 



AUD 



or atoms formed of only two ele- 
meniary substances united. 

2. Organic atoms; or those composed 
of more than two elementary sub- 
stances; these he has named from 
their being only found in organic 
bodies, or bodies obtained by the 
destruction of organic matter. 

3. Compound atoms of lite second 
order, OTihose formed by the union 
of two or more compound atoms, 
as the salts. 

6. Dr. VVollaston applied the term 
equivalents to the combining proportions 
of elementary and compound substances, 
as, for instance, the quantities of acid and 
base, in salts, required to neutralize each 
other: thus, 100 parts of sulphuric acid, 
and 68 parts of muriatic acid, are equiva- 
lents of each other, being both necessary 
to saturate 71 parts of lime. 

7. After all, Dr. Donovan observes that 
there is not perhaps a word in the lan- 
guage that conveniently expresses the 
quantity of a body which enters* into 
combination. Atom is not only hypothe- 
tical, but often inapplicable, as when half 
atoms occur. Equivalent is only expres- 
sive when comparison with a correlative 
equivalent is directly implied. Propor- 
tion means similitude of ratios. Propor- 
tional is one of the terms of a proportion. 
Combining qtianlily or v-eigkt is some- 
times expressive, but, besides being im- 
wieldy, it is not always ap|)licable. Dr. 
Donovan adds, the word dose is univer- 
sally employed to designate a dtlermlnate 
or definite i/uantili/ of a thing given ; it 
has the quality of involving noihing be- 
yond a fiict, and can oilen be used with 
advantage. 

ATOiNIA (a, priv. ,rd»'Oj, lone). Atony; 
a defect of muscular power. 

ATRA BILIS U^ilin). Black bile; 
melancholy. [See Bdis.] 

ATKAMEMTUM {aler, black). Ink. 
Celsus calls green vitriol atramentum 
sutoriiim, or cobbler's ink. 

ATRESIA (a, priv., rpdoi. to perforate). 
Imperforaiion ; usually applied to the 
rectum, urethra, &c. 

ATRIPLEX FCETID.A. The wild or 
slinking Orach, now called Chennpodium 
olidum or vuharia, much used by Dr. 
CuUen, as a volatile (etid, in convulsions. 
The plant exhales pure ammonia during 
its whole existence. 

ATROPA BELLADONNA. Deadly 
Nightshade, or Dwale ; a plant of the 
order .So/a ne<p, belonging to the narcotico- 
acrid class of poisons. 

Atropine. An organic base, found in 



all parts of the Alropa Belladonna. It is 
highly poisonous, and in the most minute 
proportion possesses the properly of dilat- 
ing the pupil of the eye. 

ATROPHIA (a, priv., rpo(t>fi, nourish- 
ment). Tabes. Atrophy; emaciation; 
deiective nutrition; wasting of the body, 
without cough or evident f(?ver. 

[ATROPdiJS (a, priv., rpcrroi, to turn). 
Not inverted. See Orlliolrojious.] 

ATTENUANTS (atlenuo, to make 
thin). Diluent medicines. 

ATTENUATION (attennn, lo make 
thill). The lessening of weight or of 
consistency; emaciation. The term is 
applied to the process by which a fluid 
becomes of less specific gravity, as when 
it undergoes lerineiitation,and parts with 
carbonic acid. 

ATTOLLENS t^attollo, to lift up). A 
muscle which draws any part upwards, 
as the (illoLlens auriculum., or superior 
aiiris. which raises the car. 

ATTRACTION (attraho. to draw to). 
A term denoting certain physical and 
chemical properties of matter. 

1. Attraction of Gravitation. The ten- 
dencies of masses of bodies to each other. 
See Gravity. 

2. Capillary Attraction. The power 
by whicii a liquid rises in a line tube 
higher than the surface of the liquid 
wliich siiiTounds it. 

3. Electrical Attraction. The property 
displayed by certain subslances of at- 
tracting certain others, on i)eing rubbed. 

4. Magnetic Attraction. The tendency 
of certain bodies, chielly iron, towards 
the north pole of the earth and each 
oilier. 

5. Attraction of Cohesion. The ten- 
dency of the molecules of a body lo co- 
here, lo form masses. It is the antagonist 
oi'offinili/. 

6. Attraction of Affinity. The ten- 
dency of the atoms of certain bodies to 
combine, to form chemical compounds. 
See Ajjinilij. 

AT'l'RAHENS AURIS {attraho, to 
draw to). .\ muscle which draws the 
car forwards and upwards; also called 
anterior aurls. and ])rior auricula. 

-ATUS. This termination, as also that 
of -itus, denotes the presence of the sub- 
stance iniiicaied by the word which it 
terminates; as a\atus, having wings; 
aurilus, having ears, &c. 

AUDITORV (audio, to hear). Belong- 
ing to parts connected with the sense of 
hearing, as applied to a process of the 
temporal bone; to two passages in this 
bone — the external and the internal 



AUG 



53 



AUR 



meatus; and to a nerve — the portio 
mollis of the seventh pair. 

AUGITE. Pi/roxene. A silicate of 
lime and magnesia. 

AURA (acj, to breathe). A breath; a 
gentle gale; a breeze. 

1. Aura Electricn. Electricity, as re- 
ceived from a point; so called from the 
sensation of its communication. 

2. Aura Epilepdca. A tingling sensa- 
tion felt in the extreme parts of the body 
before an attack of epilepsy — a kind of 
' formicalio.' 

3. Atira Podasxrica. A peculiar sensa- 
tion creeping through the .system, in gout, 

4. Aura Semhialis. A theory of the 
mode of action of the semen in the ovum, 
according to which it was supposed to 
lake place through the intervention of a 
peculiar eOTa/iaa'oM, and not by immediate 
contact. 

AURANTfACE.^. The Orange tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants, aliounding in 
a volatile, fragrant, bitter, exciting oil. 
Trees or shrubs, with haves alternate, 
often compound, dotted with transparent 
receptacles of volatile oil: flmcen' poly- 
petalous ; stamcTis hypogynous ; ovary 
many-celled ; /ri/iV, pulpy, many-celled, 
its rind filled with receptacles of oil. 

AURANTIUM. The Seville Orange 
tree; a species of Citrus. The unripe 
fruit is known by the synonyms of 
orange peas, curasso oranges, ^c. See 
Citrus. 

Aurantii hacca, cortex. The Seville 
Orange, and its rind, flowers, leaves, and 
immature fruit. 

[Aurantii aijna. The distilled water 
of the flowers of Citrus vulgaris, and 
sometimes of Citrus aurantium. Taken 
in sweetened water, it produces a very 
Boothing and tranquilizing effect on the 
nervous system; and in some cases of 
nervous excitement will induce sleep 
when active narcotics fail to do so. 

{Aurantii (ileum. See Neroli oil.] 

AURIC .\CID (aurmn. gold). A name 
proposed by Pelleiier for the peroxide of 
gold, from its property of forming salts 
with alkaline bases. 

AURICULA (dim. of auris, the ear). 
An auricle; the prominent part of the 
ear. Also the name of two cavities of 
the heart, 

AURICULiE CORDIS, Auricles; a 
term applied to those cavities of the 
heart which lead to the ventricles. 

AURICULA'KISfoi/m, thccar). The 
little finger; so called because it is gene 
rally put into the ear, when that organ is 
obstructed. Also, a designation of the 



muscle which extends the little finger, or 
the extensor minimi (Haiti, from its turn- 
ing up the little finger in picking the ear. 

[AURICULATE (dimin. of auris, the 
earl. Eared. In botany this term is 
applied to leaves having two roimded 
lobes at the base, as the leaf of the salvia 
oHicinalis.] 

AURIGO {aurum, goldl. Orange skin ; 
a term applied to an orange hue, diffused 
over the entire surface of ilie skin in new- 
horn infants; Sauvages terms it ephelis 
lulea. Also, an old name for jaundice, 
derived from its colour. 

AURIPIGMENTUM (aururn, gold, 
pigmenlum. paint). Yellow Orpiment. 
See Arsenicum. 

AURIS {aura, air). The ear. It is 
distinguished into the external and the 
internal. 

AURISCALPUM {scalpo, to scrape). 
.An insirument for cleansing the ear. 

AURIUM TINNITUS (?(>(?ao, to ring). 
.A ringing noise in the ears. 

AURUM. Gold; a yellow metal, of 
great malleability and ductility. It is 
found generally native, massive, and dis- 
seminated in threads through a rock, or 
in grains among the sand of rivers. 

1. Aurum fulminans. Aurate of am- 
monia; an explosive substance, produced 
by precipitating a solution of gold by am- 
numia. 

2. Aurum graphicum. An ore of tellu- 
rium, occurring in veins in porphyry in 
Transylvania. According to Klaproth, 
100 parts of it consist of CO tellurium, 
30 gold, and 10 silver. 

3. Aurum foliatum. Aurum in libellis. 
Gold leaf, u.sed for gilding pills, &c. 

4. Aurum in muscnlis. Shell gold; 
made by grinding the cuttings of gold 
leaf with thick gum- water, and spreading 
the groimd gold in pond-mussel shells. 

5. Aurum polahile. Gold dissolved and 
mixed with volatile oil, to be drunk. 

6. Aurum pulveratum. True gold 
powder; made by rubbing together grain 
gold and quicksilver, then distilling off 
the quicksilver, or corroding it away 
with spirit of nitre, and heating the 
black powder which is left to redness. 

The following are Misncmicrs: — 

1. Aurum musivnm, sen mosaicnm. 
Mosaic gold ; the former name of the bi- 
sulphuret of tin. It is used as a pigment 
for giving a golden colour to small statues 
or plasier figures. 

2. Aurum sopliisticum. Powder gold, 
or bronze powder; made of verdigris, 
luity, borax, nitre, and. corrosive subli- 
mate, made into a paste with oil, and 



AUS 



54 



AUS 



melted together; used in japan work as 
a gold colour. 

AUSCULTATION {ausculto, to listen; 
from the ancient auses for aures, qunsi 
aures ciilto, i. e. aures coin). Auricular 
exploration. The act of listening by the 
application of the ear, in llie examination 
of disease. It is term(=:d immetliate, when 
practised by the unassisted ear; mediate, 
when performed by means of the stetho- 
scope. 

I. Soundsf of the Respiration. 

1. Vesicular Respiration is the sound 
of respiration produced in the vesicles of 
the lungs; it denotes that the lungs are 
permeable to air. It is at its maximum 
in infants, and is termed puerile; at its 
minimum in the aged, and termed se- 
nile. 

2. Bronchial Respiration is the sound 
of respiration, as heard in the laryn.y, 
trachea, and large bronchi; it appears 
dry, and the air seems to be p.issing 
through a large empty space. There are 
several varieties of this sound. 

3. Cavernous Respirulion is the sound 
of respiration produced in morbid cavi- 
ties of the lungs. During e.xpiration, the 
wind appears to be puffed into the ear of 
the ausciiltator. 

4. Sonjfle, or Blowing, is a sound re- 
sembling that of the air being actually 
drawn Irom or propelled into the ear of 
the ausciiltator, when the patient speaks 
or coughs. The 'souffle' is sometimes 
modified by the sensation, as of a veil 
interposed between a caviiy and the ear, 
and is then termed souffle voile, or the 
veiled blowing sound. 

II. Rat/lex, Rales, or R/inriclii. 

1. Vesicular or Crepitating Rallies are 
of two kinds, the moist and tlie dry. 
The former resembles the noise of salt 
thrown on the fire; the latter, that made 
by disteniiing a dry bladder. The moist 
sound runs into the varieties of the 
bronchial rattle, and, when the bubbles 
are large, is called suhcrepil alien. 

2. Bronchial Rattles are distinguished 
into the mucous, the sonorous, and the 
sibilant. The first resembles the rattling 
in the throat of the dying; the second, a 
sort of snoring sound, the tone of a base 
string ill vibration, or a cooing sound ; 
the third, a ^vhistling sound. The mu- 
cous rattle, when seated in the bronchi 
or cavities, is termed cavernous, or gar- 
gling. 

III. Souj}ds of the Voice. 
1. Bronchophony is the resonance of 
the voice over the bronchi. It traverses 
the tube of the stethoscope, and is very 



similar to pectoriloquism. In thin per- 
sons it resembles laryngophony. 

2. Perlonloi/uism is distinguished from 
bronchophony by its cavernous and cir- 
cumscribed characier The voice comes 
directly from the chest to the ear, as if it 
were formed within the lungs. It may 
be pertecl or imperfect. 

3. Aigophony is a sound resembling 
the bleating of a goat, or a snuffling 
liuman voice. It seems as if an echo of 
the voice, of an acute, harsh, and silvery 
character, were heard at the surface of 
the lungs, rarely entering, and scarcely 
ever traversing, the tube of the stetho- 
scope. 

IV. Sounds of Cough. 

1. Tubal CoH<j;h is a resonance of the 
concussion produced by coughing, over 
the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi. 
There is the obvious sensation of an in- 
ternal canal. It denotes that the air is 
not allowed to enter the cellsof thelungs. 

2. Cavernous Cough is the resonance 
of the concussion produced by coughing, 
over a caviiy. It is attended by cavern- 
ous rattle. 

3. Metallic Tinhling resembles the 
sound of a metallic vessel, or glass, 
struck by a pin. It is heard in respira- 
tion, but especially when the patient 
speaks or coughs; it is sometimes heard 
in cough, when inaudible in the respira- 
tion or in the voice. 

4. Amphoric Resonance is a sound like 
that heard on blowing into a decanter. 
It is heard under the same circumstances 
as the previous sound. 

V. Sou7ids of the Heart. 

1. Cri dn cuir neuf. The sound resem- 
bling the creakingof the leather of anew 
saddle. This sound has been supposed 
to be produced by the friction of the heart 
against the pericardium, when one or 
both have lost their polish from the effu- 
sion of solid lymph with little or no 
serum. 

2. Bruit de soufflct. A sound of the 
heart resembling the puffing of a small 
pair of bellows, as employed to l)lovv the 
fire. This sound usually takes the place 
of the natural one ; sometimes the two 
are conjoined ; it may take place during 
the first and second sound, oronly during 
one of these. 

3. Bruit de scie. A grating sound of 
the heart, resembling that produced by 
the action of a saw upon wood ; and — 

4. Bruit de rape. A grating sound of 
the heart, like that produced by the 
action of a file or rasp. There is every 
intermediate gradation, from the .smooth- 



AUT 



55 



AZO 



ness of the hcUovis-sound to the roughest 
sounds produced by a large-loolhed saw 
3. Frimisseme7it cataire of Laeiinec, 
or bruissement of Corvisart. A peculiar 
thrill or tremor, perceived by the finger 
when applied to the heart or artery where 
it exists, resembling that communicated 
to the hand by \he purring of a cat. 

VI. Sounds of the Arteries. 

1. Bruit de soufflel intermittent. An 
intermittent blowing sound, occasioned 
by contraction of the calibre of an artery, 
from tumour, &c. It is sufficient to com- 
press the artery with the stethoscope to 
produce this noise. 

2. Bruit du suxtfflet continu. A con- 
tinuous blowing and snoring sound, re- 
sembling the blowing noise of the bel- 
lows of a forge. The bruit de diable, or 
sound of the humming-top, is a variety 
of this soufflet. Sometimes a kind of 
tune of the arteries is heard, resembling 
the humming of certain insects; this is 
Called sifflcmenl moduli, ou chant des 
arthes. 

VII. Sounds of Pregnancy. 

1. Bruit Placenlaire. A sound of the 
placenia, produced, according to Bouil- 
laud, by compression of one of the large 
vessels of the abdomen by the gravid 
uterus. It is analogous to the intermit- 
tent blowing sound of ihe arteries. 

2. Double pulsation of the heart of the 
foetus. A tolera))ly exact idea of this 
noise will be obtained by listening to the 
tic-tac of a watch placed under a jiillow 
upon which the head rests. It occurs 
at the middle of the period of gesta- 
tion. 

AUTOMATIC MOTIONS {avrdi^aroi, 
of his own accord). Those muscular 
actions which are not dependent on the 
mind, and which are either persistent, or 
take place periodically wiih a regular 
rhythm, and are dependent on normal 
causes seated in the nerves or the central 
organs of the nervous system. 

[AUTOPHONIA (.avTOg, self, ipuvr,, 
voice). An auscultatory process, which 
consists in noting the characler of the 
observer's voice, while he speaks with 
his liead placed closely to the patient's 
chest. The voice will, it is alleged by 
M. iloiirmann, be modified by the condi- 
tion of the subjacent organs.] 

AUTOPSIA {_avT6i, oneself, OTrrojiai, to 
see). Post-moriem examination. Inspec- 
tion of the body after death. 

AVEi\^ SEMINA. Oats; the fruil 
of the Avena Saliva, of the order Grand- 
new, yielding a flour or meal which forms 
the common food in the north. Groats 



are the oats freed from the cuticle, and 
used in broths and gruels. 

1. Avencp farina. Oat meal ; employed 
for gruels, or decoctions. 

2. Avenaine. A principle discovered 
in the Avena Saliva, or oat. 

AVES {avis, a bird). The fourth class 
of Ihe Encephalata or Vertebrata, com- 
prising birds. 

AVULSION [avello, to tear asunder). 
The forcible separation from each other 
of parts of the body which were pre- 
viously more or less intimately united, 

AXILLA {ala, a wing). The arm-pit ; 
the space between the side of the chest 
and the shoulder. Hence the term — 

Axillary. Applied to parts belonging 
to the axilla, or arm-pit. In botany, this 
term is applied lo buds, which are deve- 
loped in the angle formed by a leaf-stalk 
and the stem; the normal position of 
everv bud is axillary in this sense. 

.AXINITE ((iriVj/.'an axe). A mineral, 
so called from the thinness and sharpness 
of its edges. 

AXIS (0^0, to drive). Modiolus. The 
central conical bony nucleus of the 
cochlea. lis surface is spirally marked 
by a double groove. 

AXUNGIA (so called from its being 
used to grease wheels — ab axe rotarum 
qufE unguuntur). Axunge, hog's lard, or 
adeps. 

1. Axungia prcpporatavel curala. Pre- 
pared lard, or the Adeps Prtpparala. 

2. Axunnia artirularis. Unguen arti- 
culare. Names of the peculiar fluid 
which favours ihe motions of the joints, 
and which is commonly called sjpwvia. 

3. Axungia Casloris. Pinguedo Casto- 
ris. A name formerly given to the secre- 
tion found in the oil sacs near ihe rectum 
of Ihe Castor Fiber, or Beaver. The In- 
dians use It in smoking. 

AZELAIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by treating oleic with nitric acid. It 
closely resembles suberic acid. Another 
acid, the aznieic, is procured by the same 
process. The terms are derived from the 
words aznte and oleic. 

AZOERYTHRIN. A colouring prin- 
ciple, obtained from the archil of com- 
merce. 

AZOLITMIN. A pure colouring ma- 
terial, of a deep blood-red colour, obtained 
from lilmus. 

AZOTE (a, priv., ^o>!h life). A consti- 
tuent part of the atmosphere, so called 
from its being incapable, alone, of sup- 
porting life. This gas is also called Ni- 
trogen, from its being the basis of Nitric 
Acid, or Aquafortis. 



AZO 



56 



BAL 



AZOTIC ACID. Another name for 
nitric acid. It exists only in combina- 
lion. 

AZOTOUS ACID. Another name for 
nitrous acid.orihe hvponiirous of Turner. 

AZULMIC ACID. The name given 
by Baullay to the black matter depo.sited 
during the decomposition of prussic acid; 
it is very similar lo ulmic acid. See 
Ulmin. 

AZURE. A fine blue pigment, com- 



monly called smalt, consisting of a gla.ss 
coloured with oxideof cobalt, and ground 
to an impalpable powder. 

AZURt: STONE. Lapis Lazuli. An 
azure blue mineral, from which the un- 
changeable blue colour ultramarine is 
prepared. 

AZYGOS (a, priv., ^vyd;, a yoke). A 
term applied to parts which are single, 
and not in pairs, as to a process of the 
sphenoid bone, and a vein of the thoras. 



B 



BALE AH. The rind or shell which 
surrounds the fruit of tiie Mimosa cine- 
raria: it is brought from the East Indies, 
under the name of neb-neb ; and is em- 
ployed as a dye-stuff 

BACC.A. A berry; an inferior, inde- 
hiscent, pul[)y fruit, as the gooseberry. 
The term is often otherwise applied by 
botanists. 

[BACCATE {bacca, a berry). Berried. 
It also in Botany signifies having a juicy, 
succulent consistence.] 

BACCtII.\ {bacckiis, wine). Gutia 
rosacea. The name given by Linnaeus 
to a pimpled or brandy (ace, — the kind 
efface that Bacchus rejoiced in. 

BACKERS TOxNIC PILLS. Extract 
of hellebore, and myrrh, of each, 3J-" 
with 3i'j- of powdered carduus benedic- 
tus, to be divided into pills of one grain 
each; from two to six to be given three 
times every day, according to the effects 
thev produce. 

BACULUS. Literally, a stick; and 
hence the term has been applied to a 
lozenge, shaped into a little short roll. 

BAKER'S ITCH. Psoriasis pisloria. 
The vulgar name of a species of scall, 
occurring on the hack of the hand. 

BAKERS' SALT. A name given to 
the sub-carbonate of ammonia, or smell- 
ing salts, from its being used by bakers, 
as a substitute for yeast, in the manufac- 
ture of some of the finer kinds of bread. 

BALAxXCE ELECTROMETER. An 
instrument constructed on the applica- 
tion of the common balance and weights, 
to estimate the mutual attraction of op- 
positely-electrified surfaces. 

BALANITIS (/?aXai'o;, glans). Inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the 
glatis penis, and inner layer of the pre- 
puce. 

BALAUSTA {Jia\ai<jrtov). A name 



applied lo the many-celled, many-seeded, 
inferior, indehiscent fruit of the pome- 

° BALBUTIES (ffaPaCu, 10 babble). 
Stammering. In pure Latin, balbns de- 
notes one who lisps, or is incapable of 
pronouncing certain letters; blasits, one 
who siannners, or has an impediment in 
his speech. 

BALDWIN'S PHOSPHORUS. The 
ignited nitrate of lime. This salt is so 
termed from its property of emitting a 
beautiful white light in the dark, when 
kept in a stoppered vial, and exposed for 
some time to the ravs of the sun. 

BALISTA ifiaXhd, to cast). A sling. 
The astragalus vvas formerly called as 
balista, from its being cast by the an- 
cients from their slings. 

BALL. A form of medicine used in 
farriery, corresponding to the term bo- 
lus; it is generally that of a cylinder of 
two or three inches in length. 

BALL AND SOCKET. Er.arlhrosis. 
A species of movable articulation, as that 
of liie hip. See Articulation. 

BALLISMUS (/?aXX.'s>, to trip or ca- 
per). A term w'hich has been generally 
applied to those forms of palsy which 
are attended with fits of leaping or run- 
ning. 

B.ALLOON. A chemical instrument 
or receiver, of a spherical form, for con- 
densing vapours from retorts. 

BALLOTA LA NAT A. A plant in- 
digenous in Siberia, and much recom- 
mended by Brera in rheumatic and gouty 
aflfijctions. 

BALLOTTEMENT (.French). The 
repercussion or filling back of the foetus, 
after being raised by an impulse of the 
finger or hand, and so made to float in 
the liquor amnii. 

BALM TEA. An infusion of the 



BAL 



57 



BAR 



leaves of the Melissa officinalis, or Com 
mon Biilm. 

BALM OF GILEAD. Another name 
for the Mecca Balsam. See Balsam 

BALSAM. A lechnical lerm nsed to 
express a native compound of ethereal or 
essential oils with resin and Beiizoic acid. 
Those compounds which have no Ben- 
zoic acid are miscalled balsams, being ir 
fact true turpeniines. 

\. Balsams with Benzoic Acid. 

1. Balsam of Liqnidamhar. Balsam 
which flows from incisions made into 
the trunk of the LiquidamhaT styracijiua 
It dries up readily, and thus occurs in 
the solid form. 

2. Liquid Balsam of Slorax. Balsam 
said to be procured from the Liquidambar 
attinia and orienlale. The substance sold 
as strained slorax is prepared from an 
impure variety of liquid storax. 

3. Balsam of Peru. BaLsam procured 
from the Myroxylon Peruijerum. There 
are two kinds; the broicn balsam, ex- 
tracted by incision, very rare, imported 
in the husk of the cocoa-nut, and hence 
called balsam en coque ; and the black 
balsam, obtained by evaporating the de- 
coction of the bark and branches of the 
tree. These are semifluid balsams. 

4. Balsam of Tolu. Balsam which 
flows spontaneously from the trunk of 
the Myroxylon iolitiferum, and dries into 
a reddish resinous mass. 

5. Chinese Varnish. Balsam which 
flows from the bark of the Augia .<si?iensis, 
and dries into a smooth shini.ig lac, used 
for lacquering and varnishing. 

6. Benzoin. Balsam which exudes 
from incisions of the Styrax Benzoin. 
See Benzoinnm. 

II. Balsams wilhoul Benzoic Acid. 

7. Copaiba balsam. Balsam of copahu 
or capivi ; obtained by incisions made in 
the trunk of the Copaifera officinalis ; 
used for making paper transparent, for 
lacquers, and in medicine. 

8. Mecca balsam, or Opobalsam. Bal- 
sam obtained by incisions of, and by 
boiling, the branches and leaves of the 
Balsamodendron Gileadense. It becomes 
eventually solid. 

9. Japan lac varnish. Balsam which 
flows from incisions made in the trunk 
of the Rhus Vernix. 

[BALSAM OF HONEY. A tincture 
of benzoin or tolu. Hill's balsam of ho- 
ney is made of tolu, honey aa Ibj.; and 
spirit Oj. It is used in coughs. 

[BALSAM OF HOKEHOUND. 
(Ford's.) An aqueous infusion of bore- 
hound and liquorice root, with double 



the proportion of proof spirit, or brandy; 
to which are then added opium, cam- 
phor, benzoin, squills, oil of aniseed, and 
honey. 

[BALSAM OF LIQUORICE. This 
consists principally of paregoric elixir, 
very strongly impregnated with the oil 
of aniseed.] 

BALSAM OF SULPHUR. A solu- 
tion of sulphur in volatile oils. The ab- 
surdity of the term vmII be evident on 
referring to the article Balsam. 

BALSAMICA. Balsamics; a term ge- 
nerally applied to substances of a smooth 
and oily consistence, possessing emol- 
lient, sweet, and generally aromatic qua- 
lities. See Balsam. 

BALSA MODErsiDROxN MYRRH A. 
The Myrrh-tree ; a plant of the order 
Terebint harem, which yields the gum- 
resin myrrh. 

BAMBALIA(/3a/(/?aii'aj, to lisp or stam- 
mer). Stammering; a kind of St. Vitus's 
dance, confined to the vocal organs. Its 
varieties are hesitation and stuttering. 
See Balbuties. 

BAiN'DAGE. An apparatus of linen 
or flannel lor binding parts of the body. 
Some bandages are called simple, as the 
circular, the spiral, the uniting, the re- 
taining bandages; others are compound, 
as the T bandage, the suspensory, the 
capisirum, the eighteen-tail bandage, &c. 

B,\jNDANA. a style of calico print- 

g practised in India, in which while 
or brighily-coloured spots are produced 
upon a red or dark ground. See Bar- 
wond. 

BANG. Subjee or Sidhee. An intoxi- 
cating preparation made from the larger 
leaves and capsules of the Cannabis In- 
dica, or Indian Hemp. 

[BANYER'S OINTMENT. This con- 
sists of half a pound of litharge, two 
ounces of burnt alum, one ounce and a 
half of calomel, half a pound of Venice 
turpentine, and two pounds of lard, well 
rubbed together. It is used in Porrigo] 

[BAPTISTA TINCTORIA. Wild In- 
digo. The root of this plant is said in 
small doses to act as a mild laxative; 
and in large doses to be violently emetic 
and cathartic. It has been used exter- 
nally as a cataplasm in obstinate and 
painful ulcers and in threatened or ex- 
isting mortification.] 

BARBADOES LEG. The name un- 
der which Dr. Hillary trea's of the Ara- 
bian Elephantiasis. Dr. Hendy calls it 
the " Glandular disease of Barbadoes." 

BARBADOES TAR. Petroleum. A 
species of bitumen, diifenng from naph- 



BAR 



53 



BAS 



tha in its greater weight and impurity. 
See Biliimen. 

BAltBADOES NUTS. Nucen Barha- 
denses. The t'ruii of the Julropha curcas. 
The seeds are ciilled p/iyic nuts. 

BARliARY GUM. Morocco gum. A 
variety of gum arable, said to be pro- 
duced by the Acacia gummif era. 

[BARBATE {t>arba, a beard). Bearded, 
covered wiih hairs.] 

B.\KB1ERS. A vernacular Indian 
term, of unknown derivation. It denotes 
a chronic affection, prevalent in India, 
and almost iniiversally conlbunded by 
nosologi.sts with beriberi. 

BARCLAY'S ANTIBILIOUS 
PILLS. Extract, colocynth, 3ij ; resin 
of jalap (extract, jalap.) 3'! almond soap, 
3iss; guaiacura, 3''J! tartarized anti- 
mony, grs. viij. ; essential oils of juniper, 
carravvay, and rosemary, of each, gtt. iv. : 
syrup of Buckthorn, q. s. To be divided 
into si.xty-four pills. 

BAREGE. A village situated on the 
French side of the Pyrenees, celebrated 
for its thermal waters. A peculiar sub- 
stance has been obtained from these and 
other waters, and termed baregin, 

BARILLA. The crude soda extracted 
from the ashes of the plants Salsola and 
Salicorina. See Kelp. 

BARIUM (j3apv;, heavy). The metal- 
lic basis of the earlli baryta, so named 
from the great density olits compounds. 

BARK. Peruvian bark; a name for- 
merly promiscuously applied to the three 
species of Cinchona bark. See Cinchona. 

False Bark. A term which has been 
applied to certani barks, as the canella 
alba, OT false winter's bark. 

BARK OF PLA.^TS. The external 
envelope of trees and shrubs. It was 
formerly dislinguished into an external 
cortical or cellular integument, and an 
internal or fibrous portion, called liber. 
More recently, bark has been distin- 
guished into lour portions; — 

1. Epidermis. The external and cel- 
lular envelope, continuous with the epi- 
dermis of the leaves. This is never re- 
newed ; the following parts increase by 
successive additions to their interior. 

2. Epi-phlaum (etti, upon, ffXoiii, bark). 
A cellular portion lying immediately un- 
der the epidermis. Cork is the epi- 
phlceum of the Quercus suber. 

3. Mesophlceum (/liaos, middle, tj>\oidi, 
bark). A cellular portion, lying imme- 
diately under the epiphloeum. This por- 
tion differs from the preceding in the 
direction of its cells. 

4. Endo-pklceum lJv6ov, within, <p\oids, 



bark). * The liber, part of which is cellu- 
lar, part woody. 

BARK,ESSENTIALSALTOF. This 
is merely an extract, prepared by macerat- 
ing the bruised substance of bark in cold 
water, and submitting the infusion to a 
I very slow evaporation. 
I BARLEY. Hordei semina. The fruit, 
; incorrectly called seeds, of the Hordeum 
\distichon. The specific name is derived 
from its two-rowed ears. See Hordeum. 
I BAR.M, OR YEAST. The froth of 
fermenting beer, used, in its turn, as a 
I ferment in making bread or beer. 
I BAROMETER (/J.ipof, weight, fihpop, 
a measure). A weather-glass, or instru- 
ment for measurmg the varying pressure 
; of the atmosphere. 

B.AROSM.A Uiafiiis, heavy, dc-//r>, odour). 
\Diosma. A genus of plants of the order 
i KutacecB. The leaves of several species 
constitute buchu. 

I BARR.AS. Galipot. An oleo-resinous 
1 substance, which exudes from incisions 
made in fir-lrees. 

BARRY'S EXTRACTS. These ex- 
tracts differ from the common by the 
evaporation being carried on in a va- 
cuum produced by admitting steam into 
the apparatus, which resembles a retort 
with its receiver; the part containing the 
liquor to be evaporated being s polished 
iron bowl. As the temperature is much 
lower than in the common way, the vir- 
tues of the plant are less altered, the ex- 
tracts are generally green, and contain 
saline crystals, but some of them will not 
keep. — Gray. 

BARWOOD. A red dye-wood brought 
from Africa, and used, with sulphate of 
iron, for producing the dark red upon 
British bandana handkerchiefs. 

BARYPHONIA t8apvp heavy, (poyvi,, 
voice). Heaviness of voice; a difficulty 
of pronunciation. 

IJARl'^TA (ft apis, heavy). Barytes. 
An alkaline earth, the heaviest of all the 
earths, and a violent poison. The native 
sulphate is called heavy spar. The native 
carbonate has been named after Dr. With- 
ering, its discoverer, witherite. 

BARYTIN. A new vegetable base, 
discovered in the rhizome of Veratrum 
album, and named in consequence of its 
being precipitated from its solution, like 
barvta. See Jervin. 

BASALT (basal, iron, Ethiopian). An 
argillaceous rock, consisting of silica, 
alumina, oxide of iron, lime, and mag- 
nesia. 

BASANITE (ffatravi^oi, to test, from 
i3a<javoi, a Lydian stone). A stone by 



BAS 



59 



BAT 



which the purity of gold was tried, and 
of which medical mortars were made. 
It consists of silica, lime, magnesia, car- 
bon, and iron. 

BASCULATION {iasculer, French). 
A term used in examuiations of the 
uterus in retroversion ; the fundus is 
pressed upwards, the cervix drawn 
downwards; it is half the see-saw move- 
ment. 

BASIC WATER. A term applied in 
cases in which water appears to act the 
part of a base: phosplioric acid, for in- 
stance, ceases to be phosphoric acid, un- 
less three equivalents of water to one of 
acid be present. 

BASILAR [BASILARY] (0acts, a 
base). Belonging to the base ; a term 
applied to several bones, to an artery of 
the brain, and to a process of the occipital 
bone. 

BASILICA u3aai\iKos). Royal ; a term 
generally oi' eminence ; and hence applied 
to ihe large vein of the arm. 

1. Basilicon. The Ceralum Re&bioi. 
An ointment made of resin, pitch, oil, 
wax, &c., — a royal ointment. 

2. Basilirus Piilvis. The Royal Pow- 
der; an ancient preparation of calomel, 
rhubarb, and jalap. 

BASIO-GLOSSLTS. A muscle running 
from the base of the os hyoi'des to the 
tongue. 

1. Basio-chondro-ceralo-glossus. An 
unwieldy designation of the component 
parts of the hyo-glossu.s muscle, accord- 
ing to their origins and inseriions. 

2. Basio-p/iarij7igeus. A term applied 
by Winslovv to some libres of the muscu- 
lar layer of the pharynx, which proceed 
from the base of ihe os hyoi'des, and form 
part of the constrictor medius. 

BASIS ifiaai;, a base). 1. The sub- 
stance with which an acid is combined 
in a salt. 2. A mordanul ; a substance 
used in dyeing, which has an affinity 
both for the cloth and the colouring 
matter. 3. The principal medicine in a 
prescription. 

BASIS CORDIS. The base of the 
heart ; the broad part of the heart is thus 
called, as distinguished from the apex or 
point. 

BASSORIN. A constituent part of a 
species of gum brought from. Bassora, as 
also of gum tragacanth, and of some gum 

BASTARD DITTANY. The root ofl 
the Diclamnus fraxincUa, now fallen into 
disuse. 

BASYLE (fidats, a base, v\r}, nature 
or principle). A term proposed by Mr. 



Graham, to denote the metallic radical of 
a salt. Thus, sodium is the hasyle of sul- 
phate of soda ; soda is the base, and sul- 
phalo.xygeii the sail radical, \i ihe salt be 
viewed as consistnig of sulphatoxide of 
sodium. 

BATEMAN'S PECTORAL DROPS. 
These consist principally of the tincture 
of castor, wiih poriions of camphor and 
opium, llavoured with anise-seeds, and 
coloured by cochineal. 

BATESS ALUM WATER. Com- 
pound solution of alum or the liquor alu- 
mi?tis tvmpositus. Alum, sulphate of 
zinc, of each ^j.; boiling water, Oiij. 
Dissolve and strain. 

BATESS AJNODYJNE BALSAM. 
One part of tincture of opium, and two 
of opodeldoc. 

BATES S AQUA CAMPHORATA. 
Thiscollyrium, which was highly esieem- 
ed by Mr. Ware, is prepared as follows: — 
R Cupn sulph., boli gallii, aa gr. xv. ; 
camphors, gr. iv. Solve in aquoe li-igidaa 
Oiv.; et fiat coll3'riuni.] 

BATH {bad, Saxon). Balneum. Baths 
are general or partial; ihey may consist 
of simple water, or be medicated. The 
physiological and therapeutic effects of 
baths being modified by their tempera- 
lure, the following classification, con- 
structed on these principles, will be 
found practically usei'uj: — 

I. General Baths. 

1. Cold Bath. Balneum frigidum. The 
temperature ranges from 330 to 60OFahr. 
Below 50^, it is considered very cold. 

2. Cool Bath. Balneum frigidulum. 
Temperature from 60° to 75^ Fahr. 

3. Temperate Bath. Balneum tempe- 
ratum. 'I'empeiature from 75^ to 85° F. 

4. Tepid Bath. Balneum tepidura. 
Temperature from 85° to 92^ Fahr. 

5. Warm Bath. Temp, from 92° to 98o 
Fahr.; that is, about that of the body. 

6. Hot Bath. Balneum calidura. Tem- 
perature from 982 [g 112^ Fahr. 

7. \apour Bath. Balneum vaporis; 
balneum laconicum. Temp, from 122° 
to 144oo Fahr. When a vapour bath is 
applied only to a particular part of the 
body, it is called a fumigation or vapour 
douche. 

8. Hot-air Bath. Balneum sudato- 
rium. The sweating bath. Tempera- 
ture froni 100° to 130° Fahr. 

9. Artifcial Hea-waler Bath. Balneum 
maris faciitium. A solution of one part 
of common salt iruthirty parts of water. • 

II. Partial Baths. 

10. ArmBalh. Balneum brachiluvium. 

11. Fool Bath. Balneum pediluviura. 



BAT 



60 



BE A 



12. Hand Balh. Bain, maniiluvium. |Si50°, niRial baths are employed, as those 

13. Head Bath. Bain, capiiihivium. Uil' mercury, I'lisible iiielal, lin, or lead. 

14. Hip Bath. Coxasliivium, or demi- The teiDpcralure may thus be raised to 
bain of the French; in which the bo.ly'6003. 

is immersed as high as the hips or uin-' BATRACHI.\ {pirpaxo;, a frog). An 
bilicus. order of the class Rtplilia, comprising 



III. Medicated Baths. 

15. Saline Balh. Prepared _by adding 
common salt to water. 'I'he temperature 
ought not to exceed 92^ Fahr. 

10. Sulphurous Balh. Prepared by 
dissolving Ibiir ounces of sulphuret oi 
potassium in thirty gallons of water. Il 
should be prepared m a wooden bathing- 
vessel. 

17. Gelatino-sulphurous Bath. Pre- 
pared by adding one pound of Flanders' 
glue, previously dissolved in water, to 
the sulphurous bath above described. 
Dapaylren. 

18. AlliuUne Bath. Prepared with 
soap, the carbunaies of soda ami potash, 
or the solution of hydraie of potash. 

19. MetaUint Bath. Prepared by im- 
pregnating water with tiie scorijc of 
metals, parlicularly of iron. 

20. Fernigiiiiins Bath. Prepared with 
muriated tincture of iron, or sulphate of 
iron. 

21. Medicated Hot-air Balk. Prepared 
by impregnating the hot air with some 
gas or vapour, as sulphurous acid gas, or 
chlorine. 

BATH, CHEMICAL. An apparatus 
for modilying and regulating the heat in 
various chemical processes, by interpos- 
ing a quantity of sand, or other subslance, 
between the lire and the vessel intended 
to be healed. 

1. Water Bath. Balneum aquosum; 



the frog, load, salamander, and siren. 

BATP.ACU L:S iparpaxos, a frog). Ra- 
nnla. Designations of the distended sub- 
maxillnry duct. 

BATTERY. ELECTRICAL. A term 
applied to an arrangement of Leyden jars 
which communicate together, and may 
all be charged with electricity and dis- 
charged at the same time. 

Battery, Galvanic. A combination of 
several pairs of zinc and copper plates 
soldered togeiher, and so arranged that 
the same metal shall always be on the 
same side of the compound plate. 

BATTLEY'S SOLUTION. Liquor 
opii sedalivus. A narcotic preparation, 
generally supposed to owe its efficacy to 
The acetate of morphia. 

BAUHIN, VALVULE OF. Ileocolic 
valve. A valve within the ctecum, whose 
office is to prevent the return of the ex- 
cremcniilious matters from the caecum 
into the small intestine. The extremi- 
ties of its two lips form rugae in Iho 
straight part of the cajcum, called by 
Morgagiiiy>ffina of ihe valvule of Bauhin. 

BAY BERRIES. BaccmLduri. The 
berries of the Laurus vobilis, or Sweet 
Bay. A solid substance is extracted from 
them, called laurin, or camphor of the 
bay berry. 

BAYNTON'S ADHESIVE PLAS- 
TER. This differs irom the EmplasLrum 
resincB, L. P., only in containing less 



formerly called balneum maria;, liom the resin, six drachms only being added to 
use of a solution of salt instead of water one pound of the litharge plaster. 



only. Any vessel of water, capable of 



BAY SALT. Chloride of sodium, or 



being heated to the boiling point, and of commrm salt, as obtained by solar evapo- 
containing a retort, will answer the pur- ration on the shores of the Mediterra- 
pose. A balh of steam may sometimes nean. 

be preferable to a water bath. BDELLA {fi&aWo), to suck). The 

2. Sand Bath. Balneum arenas An,Greek term for the ZeecA, or the /ii>«6?o of 
iron vessel containing sand, being gra-lihe Latins. The latter is the term now 
dually heated, communicates the heat to used, 
every vessel buried in the sand. Those| BDELLIUM. A name applied to two 



disiillaiioiis which, at any part of the 
process, require as much as a low red 
heat, are usually performed in sand baths. 

3. Solution Balh. Where temperatures 
above 212^ are required in baths, satu- 
rated solutions are employed ; these, boil- 
ing at different temperatures, communi- 
cate heat up to iheir boiling points. So- 
lution baths will produce temperatures 
up to 360°. 

4. Melal Balh. For temperatures above 



gum-resinous substances. One of these 
is the Indian bdellium, or false myrrh, 
procured from the Amyris commiphora. 
The oiher is called -4/r(can bdellium,n.nd 
is obtained from the Heudolotia Afri- 
cana. 

BEAD-PROOF. A term denoting the 
strength of spirituous liquors, as shown 
by the coniinuance of the bubbles or 
beads on the surface. 

BEARBERRY. The Arctoslaphylos 



BEA 



61 



BER 



uva-ursi, the leaves of which are em- 
ployed in chronic affections of the blad- 
der. 

BEAUMf DE VIE. Balm of life. 
The compound decoction of aloes. 

BEBEERU. A tree of British Guiana, 
the limber of which is known to wood- 
merchants by ihe name of greenkearl. 
It yields a substance, called bebeerine, of 
antiperiodic properties. 

BEDEGUAR. A remarkable gall, 
termed siveet-briar sponge, found on va- 
rious species of Rosa, and produced by 
the puncture of several insect species. 

BEER {Hire, Fr., bier. Germ.). Cere- 
visia. The fermented inflision of malted 
barley, flavoured with hops. The term 
beer is also applied lo beverages consist- 
ing of a saccharine liquor, partially ad- 
vanced into the vinous fermentation, and 
flavoured with peculiar substances, as, 
spruce beer, ginger beer, &c. 

BEESTINGS. The first milk taken 
from the cow after calving. 

BEGUIN'S SULPHURATED SPI- 
RIT. A variety of hydrosulphale of 
ammonia, commonly called hepatized 
ammonia. 

BELL-METAL. An alloy of 100 parts 
copper with 20 to 25 of tin. This com- 
pound fijrms a hard, sonorous, and dura- 
ble composition, for making bells, cannon, 
statues, <fec. 

BELLADONNA. Deadly nightshade; 



2. Benediclum laxativum. Rhubarb, 
and sometimes the lenitive electuary. 

3. Benedicl.a cenlaurea. The blessed 
thistle; a plant of the order ComposileB. 

BENUMBERS. Agents which cause 
topical numbness and muscular weakness. 

[BENZOIN ODORIFERUM. Laurus 
Benzoin, Linn. Spicevvood, Fever-bush. 
A shrub indigenous in the United States, 
possessing a spicy, agreeable flavour, and 
an infusion of which is sometimes used 
as a gently stimulant aromatic. The bark 
has also been used in domestic practice, 
in intermiltents.] 

BENZOINUiVI. Benzoin; a balsam 
which exudes from incisions made in the 
Styrax Benzoin, or Benjamin tree. 

1. Siam Benzoin. Benzoin of best 
quality. It occurs in tears and in masses. 
The presence of the white tears embed- 
ded in the brown resiniform mass gives 
an almond-like appearance, suggested by 
the term amygdaloid benzoin. 

2. Calcutta benzoin. Benzoin of second 
and third quality, corresponding with 
the common or brown benzoin of some 
writers. 

3. Head benzoin is a technical term for 
the first and purest portion; belly benzoin 
is the next in purity, mixed with parings 
of wood ; foot benzoin is very foul, and 
used in India for fumigations, &c. 

4. Benzoic Acid. Flowers of Benjamin. 
An acid exhaled from benzoin, dragon's 



a species of A^royva, the juice of which is blood, and other resins, by heat. Its 



well known to produce a singular dilata 
tion (if the pupil of the eye. The name 
is derived from the words bcl/a donna, 
beautiful woman, the juice of its berries 
being used as a cosmetic by the Italian 
women to make their faces pale. 

Belladonnin. A volatile vegetable al- 
kali, said to be distinct from airopia. 

BELLOWS' SOUND. An unnatural 
sound of the heart, resembling that of 
the puffing of a small pair of bellows, as 
heard by the stethoscope. See Ausculta- 
tion. 

BEN, OIL OF. The expressed oil of 
the Ben-nut, or the Morynga pterygo- 
sperma, remarkable for not becoming 
rancid for many years. 

BENEDICTUS (benedico, to bless). 
Benedict or blessed; a term prefixed to 
compositions and herbs, on account of: almonds, 
their supposed good qualities; thus anii-i 10. Benzile. A substance procured by 
monial wine was termed 6c7iefy(rt«/rt passing a stream of chlorine gas through 
viniim ; the philosopher's stone, be?iedic-\ I'used benzoin. 
ius lapis, &v. BERBERIN. A crystalline substance 

1. Benedicia Aqua. Blessed water; of a fine yellow colour, derived from the 
lime-water; a water distilled from thyme; bark of the barberry root, used as a dye 
and, in Schroeder, an emetic. | stuff. 



alts are called benzoates. 

5. Benzine. The name applied by 
Milscherlich to the bicarburet of hydro- 
gen, procured by heating benzoic acid 
with lime ; this compound is termed by 
Liebig benzole, the termination in ole 
being assigned to hydrocarbons. 

6. Benzone. A volatile fluid procured 
by Peligot, by heating dry benzoate of 
lime. 

7. Benzoyl, benzo'ile, or benzule. The 
hypothetical radical of a series of com- 
pounds, including benzoic acid, and the 
essence or volatile oil of bitter almonds. 

8. Benz-amide. A compound prepared 
by saturating chloride of benzoyl by dry 
ainmoniacal gas, &c. See Amide. 

9. Benzimule. A substance discovered 
by Laurent in crude essence of bitter 



BER 



62 



BEZ 



KERGAMOT. An essence prepared 
from the rind of the Citrus bergamia, or 
Bergamot Citrus. 

BERGMEHL. Literally, Mountain 
meal ; an earth, so named in Sweden, 
resembling fine flour, and celebrated for 
its nutritious qualities. It is found to be 
composed entirely of the shells of micro- 
scopic animalcules. 

BERIBERI. A spasmodic rigidity of 
the lower limbs, &c. ; an acute disease 
occurring in India, and commonly con- 
founded by nosologists with barbicrs. 
" Bontius and Ridley say that this term 
is derived from the Indian word signify- 
ing a sheep, on account of the supposed 
resemblance of the gait of persons affect- 
ed with it to that of the sheep. Good 
derives it from (iipfiept, the pearl oyster, 
or other shell, and hence uses it figura- 
tively for incurvation. Marshall derives 
it from the reduplication of the word 
beri, signifying, in the language of Cey 
Ion, weakness or inability, as if to express 
intensity of weakness." — Forbes. 

BERLIN BLUE. Prussian Blue. The 
ferro-sesquicyanide of iron, sometimes 
called ferro-prussiate of iron. 

BERRIES. BacccB. The fruits of dif- 
ferent species of plants. See Bacca. 

1. Bay berries. The fruit of the Lau- 
rus nobilis; the berries and the oil ob- 

. tained by boiling them in water are 
imported from Italy and Spain. 

2. Juniper berries. The fruit of the 
Juniperus communis, which yields an oil, 
upon which the peculiar flavour and 
diuretic qualities of Geneva principally 
depend. 

3. TurTicy Yellow berries. The unripe 
fruit of the Rhamnus infectorius of Lin 
nseus, used for giving a yellow dye in 
calico-printing. 

4. Persian Yellow berries. Said to be 
of the same species as the preceding 
They are termed graines d' Avignon, or 
berries of Avignon. 

BERYL. A variety of the emerald ; a 
mineral or gem, usually of a green colour 
of various shades, passing into honey- 
yellow and sky-blue. When coloured 
green by oxide of chromium, it forms the 
true emerald, and when colourless and 
transparent, aqua marina. 
, Chryso-beryl {xpv(7ds,go\il). One of the 
finest of the gems, consisting of glucina 
and alumina. 

BETEL. A famous masticatory em- 
ployed in the East, consisting of the areca, 
betel, or pinang nut, the produce of the 
Areca Catechu, or Catechu Palm. A por 
lion of the nut is rolled up with a little 



lime in the leaf of the Piper betel, and the 
whole chewed. 

[BETOJNICA OFFICINALIS. Wood 
Betony. An European plant belonging 
to the natural order Labiatce. By the 
ancients it was highly esteemed, and 
employed in many diseases, but at pre- 
sent it is little used. The root has been 
considered emetic and purgative.] 

[BETULA ALBA. Common Euro- 
pean birch. An European tree, the 
nner bark of which has been employed 
n intermittent fever. An infusion of 
ts leaves has been used in gout, rheu- 
matism, dropsy, and cutaneous affec- 
tions ; and the juice obtained by wound- 
ing the branches is considered useful 
in complaints of the kidneys and blad- 
der. 

[Betulin. A white uncrystallizable pe- 
culiar principle, obtained from the bark 
of the Betidaalba.] 

BEZOAR ipa-zahar, Persian, a de- 
stroyer of poison). A morbid concretion 
Ibrraed in the bodies of land animals, to 
which many fanciful virtues were for- 
merly ascribed. 

1. Bezoardics. A name giveh to a 
class of alexipliarmic medicines, from the 

niputed properties of the bezoar. 

2. Bezoardicum Joviale. A bezoar of 
tin and nitre, which differed little from 
the Antihecticnm Poterii. 

3. Bezoardicum minerale. A bezoar 
of antimony, made by adding spirit of 
nitre to butter of antimony. ■ 

4. Bezoardicum animate. The name 
formerly given to the heart and liver of 
vipers, once used in medicine. 

5. Camel-bezoar. A bezoar found in 
the gall-bladder of the camel, and much 
prized, as a yellow paint, by the Hin- 
doos. 

6. Goal-bezoar. A bezoar said to be 
procured from animals of the goat kind, 
capra gazella, in Persia. The Greek 
term for this species of concretion is 
agagropila, literally, mountain-goat ball. 

7. Hog-bezoar. A bezoar found in the 
stomach of the wild boar in India. 

8. Bovine-bezoar. A bezoar found in 
the gall-bladder of the ox; common in 
Nepani. 

9. Oriental bezoars. These were for- 
merly much valued in medicine: they 
are smooth, polished, and of a green co- 
lour: three of these, sent by the Schah 
of Persia to Bonaparte, were lieniform, 
or composed of fragments of wood; 
another was found to be composed of 
rosin. 

10. Spurious, or factitious bezoars. 



BIN 



63 



BIR 



These were formerly made of lobsters' 
claws and oyster-shells, levigated on por- 
phyry, made into a paste with niusk and 
ambergris, and formed into balls like be- 
zoars; of this kind were the pierres de 
Goa, or de Malacca, &c. 

BI, BINUS {bis, twice). Two,- a pair. 
Also a prefix of certain salme compounds, 
into which two proportions of acid enter 
for one of base, as bi-arseniate. 

[1. Bi-nale (binus, a pair). Growing in 
pairs.] 

2. Bi-carhonales. Salts containmg a 
double proportion of carbonic acid gas. 

3. Bi-ceps {caput, the head). Two- 
headed, or having two distinct origins, 
as applied to a muscle of the thigh and 
of the arm. The interossei muscles are 
termed bicipiles, from their having each 
two heads or origins. | 

[4. Bi-coTijugale {conjiigalus, coupled) 
Bigeminate; arranged in two pairs.] 

5. Bi-cornis {coniti, a horn). A term 
applied to the os hyoides, which has two 
processes or horns; and, formerly, to 
muscles which have two inseriions 

[6. Bi-crenate{c.-e7iatu!>, noichad). Dou- 
bly crenate. AppUed in botany to leaves, 
the crenate toothings of which are them- 
selves crenate. See Crenate.] 

7. Bi-cuspidati {cuspis, a spear). Ilav 
ing two tubercles; as applied to the two 
first pairs of grinders in each jaw. 

8. Bi-envial {annus, a year). Enduring 
throughout two years, and then perish- 
ing ; plants which bear only leaves the 
first year; leaves, flowers, and fruit the 
second year, and then die. 

[9. Bi-farious. Arranged in two rows. 

[10. Bi-fd {bijidus, forked). Divided 
into two by a fissure. 

[11. Bi-Joliate {folium, a. leaf). When 
two leaflets grow from the same point at 
the end of the petiole, as in zygophyllum 
fabago. See Conjugate and Bi-7iate.] 

12. Bi-furcatinn {furca, a fork). The 
division of a vessel, or nerve, into two 
branches, as that of a two-pronged fork. 

13. Bi-gaster {yaariip, the belly). Two- 
bellied, as appled to muscles; a term 
synonymous with bl-venler and di-gas- 
tricus. 

[14. Bi-geminafe {geminus, a twin). 
Arranged in two pairs.] 

15. Bi-hernius [hernia, cpvoi, a branch). 
Having a scrotal hernia on each side. 

[16. Bi-jugous {jugatus, coupled). In 
two pairs.] 

17. Bi-lobus {lobus, a lobe). Having 
two lobes, resembling the tips of ears. 

18. Bilocular {loculus, a cell). Two- 
celled; divided into two cells; a terra I 



:applied, in botany, to the anther, to cer- 
'tain capsules, &c. 

19. Bi-mana {7nanus, a hand). Two- 
handed: as man: the first order of the 
Mammalia. 

20. Bin-oculas {oculus, an eye). Hav- 
ing tno eyes; a bandage for securing 
the dressings on both eyes. 

[21. Bi-partite (parlitus, diyided). Part- 
ed in two.] 

22. Bi-pinnale {pinna, the fin of a fish). 
Doubly pinnate; a variety of compound 
leaves. See Pinnate. 

[23. Bi-serial {series, a row). Arranged 
in two rows. 

[24. Bi-serrale (serratus, sawed). Dou- 
bly sawed, as applied to the margins of 
leaves, when the serrations are them- 
selves serrate. See ferrate. 

[25. Bi-ternale {lernus, three). Doubly 
ternate; when three secondary petioles 
proceed from the common petiole, and 
each bears three leaflets.] 

26. Bi-valved {valva, a door). Tvvo- 
valved, as the shell of the oyster, a 
legume, &c. 

27. Bi-venler {venter, the belly). The 
name of muscles which have two bellies, 
as the occipito-frontalis. The term is 
synonymous with di-gustricus. 

' BIBlTORlUS(6!6otodrink). A former 
name of the rectus internus oculi, from 
its drawing the eye inwards towards the 
nose, and thus directing it into the cup in 
drinking. * 

BICE. A blue colour, prepared from 
the lapis armenius, for painting. 

BILIS. Bile, gall, or choler; the 
secretion of the liver. Bile is distin- 
guished as the hepatic, or that which 
flows immediately from the liver; and 
the cystic, or that contained in the gall- 
bladder. 

1. Bilin. The constituent principle of 
the bile. It is separated by chemical pro- 
cesses; and when it contains acetate of 
soda, and is modified by the action of ace- 
tic acid, it is called bile-sugar or picromel. 

2. Biliverdin. An ingredient in the 
bile, being the principal constituent of 
the yellow matter forming the concre- 
tions found in the ox, and much prized 
by painters. 

3. Bilis atra. Black bile; formerly 
supposed to be the cause of low spirits, 
an affection named accordingly from the 
same term in Greek, fucXaiva xo^^ii or me- 
lancholy. 

4. Bilious. A term employed to cha- 
racterize a class of diseases caused by a 
too copious secretion of bile. 

BIRDLIME. A glutinous substance 



BIS 



64 



BLA 



prepared from the bark of the holly. It 
contains resin, vvliich has been galled 
viscina. 

BISMUTH (wismntk, German). Mar- 
casita, tectum argenti, or tin glance. A 
white metal, usually found in tin mines. 
It occurs as an oxfde, under the name 
of bismuth ochre; as a sulphuret, called 
bismuth glance ; as a sulphuret with cop- 
per, called copper bismuth ore; and with 
copper and lead, called needle ore. Eight 
parts of bismuth, five of lead, and three 
of tin, constitute Newton s fusible metal. 
See Pearl Powder. 

1. Magislery of bismuth. The tris- 
nitrate of bismuth ; [subnitrate of bis- 
muth, v. S. P.] ; a white, modorous, taste- 
less powder, also called Spanish white, 
and pearl white. [This preparation has 
tonie and antispasmodic properties, and 
has been used in gastrodynia and some 
nervous affections. The dose is five to 
ten grains.] 

2. The butler of bismuth is the chlo- 
ride; the flowers of bismuth, the sub- 
limed oxide; and the glance of bismuth, 
the native sulphuret. 

BISTORTS RADIX (bis torta, twice 
turned; so named from the form of the 
root). The root of the Polygonum bis- 
iiorta, great Bistort or Snake-weed. 

BISTOURY {bistoire, French). A small 
curved knife for operations. 

BISTRE. A brown colour made of 
vvflod soot boiled and evaporated. Beech 
•soot is said to make the best. 

BITTER. A term applied, from its 
obvious meaning, to the following sub- 
stances : — 

1. Bitter principle. A General term 
applied to an intensely bitter substance, 
procured by digesting nitric acid on silk, 
indigo, &c. ; also to quinia, quassia, sali- 
cina, &C. 

2. Bitter of Welter. Picric or carba- 
.zotic acid, produced by the action of 

nitric or indigoiic acid. 

3. Bitter-apple, or cucumber. The com- 
.mon name of the fruit of the Cucumis 
coiocyntlds. 

4. Bitter earth. Talc earth. Verna 
cular designations of calcined magnesia. 

5. Bitter infusion. A term applied to 
the Extractum Gentianse Compositum of 
the pharmacopcBia. 

6. Bitter-sweet. The vulgar name of 
the Solanum dulcamara, a plant formerly 
■used in medicine. 

7. Bitters. A class of vegetable tonics, 
as gentian, chamomile, orange peel, <kc. 

BlTTERING. Corruptly Bittern. A 
preparation for adulterating beer, com- 



posed of cocculus indicus, liquorice, to- 
bacco, quassia, and sulphate of iron or 
copperas. A similar preparation is sold 
for the same purpose under the name of 
bitter balls. 

BITTERN. The mother water, or un- 
crystallizable residue lelt after muriate of 
soda has been separated from sea-water 
by crystallization. It owes its bitterness 
to sulphate and muriate of magnesia. It 
contains bromine. 

BITUMEN {TTirxya, jrirwf, pine). A 
mineral pitch, supposed to be formed in 
the earth by the decomposition of animal 
and vegetable substances. In its most 
Huid state it constitutes naphtlia ; when 
of the consistence of oil, it becomes pe- 
troleum; at the next stage of induration 
it becomes elastic bitumen ;' then maltha ; 
and so on until it becomes a compact 
mass, and is then called asphaltum. 

BLACK. A term applied to certain 
diseases, to some chemical compounds, 
&c., in consequence of their black ap- 
pearance. 

1. Black Death. The name given in 
Germany and the North of Europe, to 
an Oriental plague, which occurred in 
the I4th century, characterized by in- 
flammatory boils and black spots of the 

kin, indicating putrid decomposition. In 
Italy it was called la mortalega grande, 
the great mortality. In many of its cha- 
racters, this pestilence resembled the 
present bubo plague, complicated with 
pneumonia and ha;morrhages. 

2. Black Disease. This, and black 
jaundice, are English terms for the mor- 
bus niger of the Latin writers, and the 
melcena of the Greeks. 

3. Black Water. This, and waterbrash, 
are English terms for pyrosis. 

4. BlackVomit. Meltenacruenta. Sub- 
stances of a black appearance rejected 
in certain forms of disease, as in yellow 
fever, &;c. 

5. Black Rust. A disease of wheat, in 
which a black moist matter is deposited 
in the fissure of the grain. See Brown 
Rust. 

6. Black Draught. A popular purga- 
tive, consisting of the infusion of senna 
with sulphate of magnesia. 

7. Black Drop. A preparation of opium. 
[A nostrum, under the name o{ Lancaster 
or Quakers' Black Drop, has long been 
in u.=!e, which is prepared as follows: — 
Take of opium, ftss. ; verjuice (juice of 
the wild crab), Oiij.; nutmegs, 3iss., and 
saffron, gss. ; boil them to a proper thick- 
ness, then add a quarter of a pound of 
sugar and two spoonsful of yeast. Set 



BLA 



65 



BLA 



the whole in a warm place near the fire J supposed to be produced by the Xanthor 
for six or eight weeks, then place it in 
the open air until it becoriies a syrup; 
lastly, decant, filter, and bottle it up, 
adding a little sugar to each bottle. One 
drop is considered equal to about three 
of the tincture of opium. The vinegar 
of opium {acetum opii) has been intro- 
duced into the pharmacoposias as a sub- 
stitute for, or imitation of, this prepa- 
ration.] 

8. Black Extract. Hard multum. A 
preparation from cocculus indicus, im- 
parting an intoxicating quality to beer. 

9. Black Wash. A lotion prepared by 
the decomposition of calomel in lime wa- 
ter. [R calomel, 5i.; aq. calcis, giv.] 

10. Black Flux. A mixture of charcoal 
and carbonate of potash. 

11. Black Dye. A compound of oxide 
of iron, with gallic acid and tannin. 

12. Black Lead. Plumbago, or gra- 
phite; a carburet of iron. It is named 
from >its leaden appearance, for it does 
not contain a particle of lead. 

13. Black Chalk. Drawing-slate; a 
soft clay, of a bluish-black colour, com- 
posed principally of silica. 

14. Black Jack. The name given by 
miners to a sulphuret of zinc. 

15. Black Naphtha. A common name 
for petrolenm, or rock oil. 

16. Black Turpelh. Another name for 
the protoxide of mercury, commonly 
called the gray, ash; or black oxide. 

17. Black nadd. The peroxideof man- 



rho'a arhniea. 

[24. Black Snakerool. Cimicifuga race- 
mosa. 

[25. Blackberry Root. Rubus villosus.] 
BLADDKR, URINARY. Vesica uri- 
naria. The reservoir which contains the 
urine. 

1. Columnar Bladder. A term applied 
in cases in which there is an unusual de- 
velopement of the muscular fasciculi of 
the bladder, giving an appearance of 
persistent prominences or columns. 

2. Triponal space of the bladder. A 
smooth triangular surface on the inside 
of the bladder, in the middle of its fundus, 
where the mucous membrane is destitute 
of rugw. 

3. Neck of the bladder. The orifice of 
the urethra; it is crescentiform, and em- 
braces a small tubercle, called uvula 
vesica;, formed by the projection of the 
mucous membrane. 

4. Fundus of the bladder. 'All that 
part of its internal surface which cor- 
responds to the inferior region of its ex- 
ternal surface. 

BLADDER GREEN. A green pig- 
ment, prepared from the ripe berries of 
the lihamnus calharlicus, or Buckthorn, 
mixed with gum arable and lime water. 

BLADDERY FEVER. Bullosa febris. 
Vesicular fever, in which the skin is 
covered with bullce. See Pemphigus. 

BL-.'ESITAS {blcBSus, one who stam- 
mers). Misenunciation ; a species of 



ganese ; a well-known ore, commonly '.pselli smus, in which articulate sounds 
called, from its black appearance, black! are freely, but inaccurately enunciated. 



oxide of manganese; it is used as a dry 
ing ingredient in paints. 

18. Ivory Black. Ebur iistum, or ani- 
mal charcoal ; procured from charred 
ivory shavings, and used as a dentifrice 
and pigment, under the name of blue 
Hack, being of a bluish hue; but bone- 
black is usually sold for it. 

19. Black Salts. The name given in 
America to wood-ashes, after they have 
been lixiviated, and the solution evapo- 
rated, until the mass has become black. 

20. Lamp Black. Fuligo lampadum 



BLAlN. An elevation of the cuticle 
containinir a watery fluid. See Rupia. 

BLANC DETROYES. Spanish White, 
prepared chalk, or the Crela preparaiaof 
the pharmacopcBia. 

BLANQUININE. A supposed new 
alkaloid, discovered in White Cinchona. 

BLASTE'MA (/iXao-ra^o), to bud). A 
term applied to the rudimental mass of 
an organ in the state of f!)rmation. Ac- 
cording to Schwann, it consists partly of 
a fluid, partly of granules, which spon- 
taneously change into the nuclei of cells 



A form of charcoal, procured by burningjand into cells, and partly, also, of such 
resinous bodies, as the refuse of pitch, in [nucleated cells already formed. Miiller. 
furnaces. | [BLA UD'S PILLS. The following is 

21. Black sticking Piaster. A solulioni the original formula for these pills: — 



of isinglass, with some tincture of benja 
min, brushed over black sarsenet. 

22. Spanish Black. A form of charcoal 
made of burnt cork, and first used by the 
Spaniards. ^^ 

23. Blac^^oy Gum. A red resin, re- 



"Take of gum tragacanth, in powder, si. x 
grains; water one drachm. Macerate in 
a glass or marble mortar until a thick 
mucilage is formed; then add sulphate 
of iron, in powder, half an ounce. Beat 
well until the mixture is quite homoge- 
cenlly imported from New Holland, andineous; then add subcarbonate of potassa 



BLE 



BLO 



half an ounce. Rub this until the mass, 
which quickly becomes of a yellowish 
green, passes mto a deep green, and 
assumes a soft consistence. Divide into 
forty-eight pills." This quantity M.Blaud 
considers sufficient for the cure of an or- 
dinary case of chlorosis.] 

BLEACHING. The chemical process 
oi lohitening linen or woollen slulfs. 1. 
Linen is bleached, by the old process, by 
exposure to air and moisture ; by the new 
process, by means of chlorine or solution 
of chloride of lime. 2. Woolltn sUijfs 
are bleached by exposure to the vapour 
of sulphurous acid. 

1. Bleaching powder. Chloride of lime, 
formerly called oxymuriate of lime ; pre- 
pared by exposing liydrate of lime gra- 
dually to chlorine gas. 

2. Bleaching liquid. Eau do Javelle. 
O.vymuriatic alkaline water. This is the 
above compound obtained in solution, by 
transmitting a stream of chlorine 
through hydrate of lime suspended in 
water. 

BLEAR-EYE. A chronic catarrhal in- 
flammation of the eyelids. See IJppiludo. 

BLEB. Pemphix. A bulla, vesicle, or 
bladdery tumour of the skin, distended 
by a fluid. See Pemphigus. 

BLENDE {blenden, German, to dazzle, 
or blind). Native sulphuret of zinc; a 
native mineral of an adamaniiiie lustre. 
and often black. It is called by the 
miners blackjack. 

BLENNA {fi\tvva). The Greek term 
for mucus. 

1. Blenno-rrhagia {pfiywixi, to burst 
forth). A discharge of mucus from the 
urethra. 

2. Blenno-rrhma (pcM, to flow). Gleet. 
A term u.scd by Good as synonymous 
with gonorrhoja. 

BLEPIIARON (P\£4>apov). The eye- 
lid. Hence the compounds: — 

1. Blephar-ophlhalmia. Ophthalmia, 
or inflammation of the eyelid. 

2. Blepharo-ptosis {TrTomig, prolapsus). 
A falling of the upper eyelid. 

3. Anki/Io-blepharon {nyKvXoi, beni). 
A preternatural union of the two lids. 

4. Pachy-blepharosis {Traxvi, thick). A 
thickened state oithe eyelids. 

5. Sym-blepharon [cvv, together). The 
connexion of the lid to the globe of the eye. 

[6. Blepharoplastice (TrXaartxoi, forma- 
tive). Formation of a new eyelid.] 

[7. Blepharospasinus {a-n-aaiiOi, spasm). 
A spasmodic contraction of the orbicu- 
laris palpebrarum muscle.] 

BLIGHT. A slight palsy, induced by 



of the face. The nerves which lose their 
power are branches of the portio dura, or 
the respiratory of Bell. 

BLISTER. Vesicalorium. An appli- 
cation to the skin, producing a serous or 
puriform discharge, by exciting inflam- 
mation. The effect is termed revulsion, 
antispasis, or derivation. See Cantharis. 

Flying Blisters. Vesieatoires volants. 
A mode of treatment employed by the 
continental practitioners, lor the purpose 
of ensuring a more diflTusive counter- 
irritation. According to this plan, the 
blister remains only till it produces a ru- 
befacient ^Tecl, a second blister is then 
applied to some other part, and so on in 
succession. 

BLOOD (,blod, Sa.xon). Sanguis. The 
well-known fluid which circulates 
through ihe tubes called, from their 
function, blood-vessels. Blood contains 
albumen in three states of modification, 
viz. albumen, properly so called, _/(Y)ri«, 
and red particles. Blood separates, on 
coagulation, into — 

1. Serum, a yellowish liquid, contain- 
ing albumen, and various saline matters, 
suspended in water; and 

2. Crassamcnlu7n, cruor, or clot; a red 
solid, consistingof fibrin and red particles. 

BLOOD-LETTING. The abstraction 
of blood, as performed by venesection, 
arteriotomy, cupping, or leeches. 

1. Vena-section [vena: seclio). The 
opening of a vein. When it is right to 
make an impression on the system, as 
well as the part affecled, full venesection 
is cmjiloyed. This, when duly instituted 
in the erect position, becomes a valuable 
diagnostic: the nature and seat of the 
disease, and the powers of the patient, 
are denoted by the quantity of blood 
which flows on placing the patient erect 
and looking upward.*, and bleeding to 
incipient .syncope. — {M. Hall.) Small 
bleedings are employed as a preventive, 
as (or ha;moptysis. — (Cheyne.) 

2. Arteriotomy. The opening of an 
artery, as the temporal, in di.seases of the 
head, of the eye, c<cc. 

3. Cupping. Usually prescribed in 
topical afI(?ctions, either when venesec- 
tion has been already duly employed, or 
is deemed unnecessary or un.safe. 

4. Leeches. Their use is similar to 
that of cupping. This and the preceding 
are means of general, as well as topical 
blood-letting in infimts. 

[BLOOD ^ROOT. Sanguinaria Cana- 
den>is.] ^k 

BLOOD-SHOT. A disiPlion of the 



sudden cold or damp, applied to one sidej blood-vessels of the eye. 



BLO 



67 



BON 



BLOODSTONE. Hamaliles. A species 
of calcedony, supposed lo have been use- 
ful in stopping a bleeding from the nose. 

BLOOD-STROKE. Coup de sang. An 
instantaneous and universal congestion, 
without any escape of blood from the 
vessels 

BLOODY FLUX. Another name for 
dysentery, from the bloody nature of the 
intestinal dii-charges. 

BLOWPIPE. A small conical tube, 
bent at one end, so as to be easily intro- 
duced into the flame of a candle or lamp, 
for the purpose of directing a stream of 
flame, by hloiving through it, upon any 
object which is to be heated. 

Oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. An apparatus 
for producing intense heat, by supplying 
a stream of hydrogen with pure oxygen, 
so that the two gases issue together in 
the form of a jet from the nozzle of the 
blowpipe 



BOIL. FuTunculus. The popular name 
for a small resisting tumour, attended 
with inflammation and pain. 

BOILLNG POINT. That degree in 
the scale of the thermometer, at which 
ebullition is produced under the medium 
pressure of the atmosphere. Thus, 212° 
is the boiling point of water, when the 
barometer stands at 30 inches ; at 31 
inches, it is 213-76; at29,it is only 210-19, • 
in a common vacuum, it is 76°. 

BOLE (/3t5Aof, a mass). A massive 
mineral. lis colours are yellow-red, and 
brownish-black, when it is called moun- 
tain soap. 

BOLETIC ACID. An acid extracted 
from the expressed juice of the Boletus 
pseudo-igniarius, a species of mushroom. 

BOLETUS. A genus of mushroom : 
Order, Fungi. Some of its species are — 

1. Boletus Igniarius. Amadou, or Ger- 
man tinder; a fungus which grows on 



BLUE. A term applied to a particular the trunks of trees, especially the oak, 
disease, to several pigments, and other and is used for stopping hasmorrhage 
compounds, in consequence of their from wounds. It is known in Scotland 



colour 

1. Blue Disease. See Cyanosis. 

2. Prussian Blue. Berliri blue. Ses- 
quiferrooyanide of iron, prepared from 
bullocks' blood, carbonate of potash, sul- 
phate of iron, and alum. The combina- 
tion of Prussian blue and peroxide of iron 
is called basic Prussian blue. 

3. Saxon Blue. Sulphate of indigo; a 
solution of indigo iii concentrated sul- 
phuric acid. 

4. Blue Verditer. An impure carbonate 
of copper. [See Verditer.] 

5. Blue Copper-ore. The finely crys- 
tallized subcarbonaie of copper. 

6. TurnbulVs Blue. Ferrocyanide of 
iron ; a beautiful blue precipitate, thrown 
down on addmg red prussiate of potash 
to a prolo-salt of iron. 

7. Blue Pill. The Pilute Hydrargyri, 
or mercurial pill. [See Mercury.] 

8. Blue Ointment. Neapolitan oint- 
ment ; the Unguentum Hydrargyri, or 
mercurial ointment. [See Mercury.] 

9. Blue Eye-water. The Liquor Cupri 
Ammoniati, or solution of aramoniated 
copper. 

10. Blue Stone, or blue vitriol. Blue 
copperas; the sulphate of copper. 

11. Blue J of m. A name given by the 
miners to fluor spar, [q. v.] also called 
Derbyshire spar. 

BODY. Any determinate part of mat- 
ter. Its Ibrms are the solid, as crystals ; 
and Ihe fluid, whi(-h are elastic and aeri- 
form, as gases; or inelastic and liquid, as 



and the north of Ireland by the name of 
paddock stool. 

2. Boletus purgans. Larch agaric, for- 
merly employed as a drastic purgative. 

BOLOGNA STONE. The native sul- 
phate of baryta; a phosphoric stone 
ibund at Bologna. 

BOLUS (/ituAof, a bole). A form of 
medicine larger than a pill. 

BOLUS AD QUARTAN AM. A re- 
medy used by Laennec in pneumonia, 
consisting of one grain of emetic tartar to 
a drachm of bark, made into a mass by 
extract ofjuniper. 

BOLUS ARMENA RUBRA. Red 
Armenian bole; a compound of aluminum 
found in Armenia. The substance sold 
under this name is made by grinding 
together pipeclay and red oxide of iron, 
and levigating. 

BOMBIC ACID (/?<5,*/?..f, the silk- 
worm). An acid contained in a reservoir 
near the anus of the silk-worm. Its salts 
are called bombiates. 

BOAIBUS (poixffoi, the humming of 
bees). A sense of beating in the ears ; 
a species of bourdonnement, consisling in 
a dull, heavy, intermitting sound. 

BONE. A substance consisting chiefly 
of phosphate of lime and gelatine. See 
Os, ossis. 

1. Bone earth. Phosphate of lime; the 
earthy basis of the bones of animals. 

2. Bone ash. Animal ashes. 

3. Bone spirit. A brow n ammoniacal 
liquor, obtained in i!ie process of manu- 
facturing animal charcoal from bones. 



BON 



68 



BOU 



[BOxNESET. Eupatoriiim perfbl latum.] 

BOAPLANDIA TRIFOLIATA. A 
name of the Galipea cusparia, which 
yields the Cusparia, or Aniiostura Bariv. 

BORACIC ACID. Hornbcrg's sedative 
salt. An acid found native on the edges 
of hot springs in Florence, &c. It occurs 
in small pearly scales, and also massive, 
fusing at the flame of a candle into a 
glassv globule. See Borax. 

BORACITE. Bi-borate of magnesia, a 
rare natural prod uci ion. 

BORAGIMACE.'E. The Borage tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants or shrubs, wilh leaves alternate, 
covered wilh asperities ; corolla gamo- 
petalous; slnmens inserted in the corolla; 
fruit four nuts, distinct. 

[BORAGO OFFICINALIS. Borage. 
An European plant, an infusion of the 
leaves and flowers of which, sweetened 
with honey or syrup, is employed in 
France as a demulcent, refrigerant and 
gentle diaphoretic drink, in catarrhal 
afl^ections, rheumatism, diseases of the 
skin. &c.] I 

BOR.\TE. A salt formed by combina-i 
lion of boracic acid with a salifiable b.ase. 

BORAX {baurach, Arab,). A native! 
bi-lx)rate of soda, chiefly found in an im- 
pure state, and then called tinhal, as a 
saline incrustation in the beds of certain 
small lakes in an upper province of 
Thibet. When the refined salt is de- 
prived of its water of crystallization by 
fusion, it forms a vitreous transparent 
substance, called glass of borax. 

Honey of borax. Mel boracis. Pow- 
dered borax and clarified honey. 

BORBORYGMUS {lSop!3np»yfi6s). The 
rumbling noise occasioned by flatus with- 
in the intestines. 

BORNEE.\. The name given to a 
compound of carbon and hydrogen found 
in valeric acid, and which, on exposure 
to moisture, acquires the properties of 
borrteo camphor; it is siipposed to be 
identical with liquid.camphor. The cam- 
phor itself has been named bornenl, and 
it is converted, by the action of nitric 
acid, into laurel-camphor. 

BORNEO CAMPHOR. Sumatra cam- 
phor. A crystalline solid found in cre- 
vices of the wood of the Drynhalanops 
aromalica. Dr. Pereira says that it rarely 
comes to England as a commercial ar- 
ticle. 

1. Liquid Camphor ; Camphor oil. A 
liquid obtained by making deep incisions 
into the Dryobalanops uromatica. 

2. Artificial Camp/tor. A hydrochlorate 
of oil of turpentine, or other volatile oil. 



BOROX. A dark olive-coloured sub- 
stance, forming the combustible base of 
boracic acid. 

BOSOPRIC ACID (Bovi, an ox, Koirpo;, 
dung). Cow-dung acid ; a strong colour- 
less acid, procured from fresh cow-dung, 
of great efficacy in purifying mordanted 
cotton in the cow-dung bath. A better 
term would be bucopric. 

BOSWELLIA THURIFERA. The 
Oliijanum tree, a plant of the order Te- 
rebinthacea, yielding the gum-resin oli- 
barium. 

[BOTAL FORAMEN. The foramen 
ovale, q. v.] 

BOTANY (/Jorai/jj, a plant). The sci- 
ence which treats of the Vegetable 
Kingdom. It embraces the following 
divisions: — 

1. Structural Botany, relating to the 
laws of vegetable structure, iniernal or 
external, independently of the presence 
of a vital principle. 

2. Pht/siologicol Botany, relating to the 
history of vegetable life, the functions 
of the various organs of plants, their 
changes in disease or health, <i:c. 

3. Descriptive Botany, relating to the 
description and nomenclature of plants. 

4. Systematic Botany, relating to the 
principles upon which plants are con- 
nected with, and distinguished from, 
each other. 

BOTANY-BAY RESIN. A sponta- 
neous exudation from the Acarois Resi- 
nifera of New Holland. 

BOTHRENCHYMA (/?(56)poj, a pit, 
cyXMfia, enchyma). A name recently ap- 
plied in Botany to the pilled tissue or 
dotted ducts of former writers, the appear- 
ance of these tubes being occasioned by 
the presence of little pits sunk in their 
walls. It is either articulated or conti- 
nuous. 

BOTIIRIOCEPHALUS LATUS {/]6. 
dpiov, a pit, K€ipa\n. the head). Tcenia 
lata. The broad Tapeworm, found in 
the intestines. See Vermes. 

BOTT.S. Worms which breed in the 
intestines of horses ; the maggots of the 
horse gadfly. 

BOTULINIC ACID. A peculiar fatty 
acid, produced by decomposing sausages, 
and supposed to be the cau.se of their 
deleterious qualities. 

BOUGIE. Literally, a wax taper. 
Bougies are cylindrical instruments, ge- 
nerally made of slips of linen, spread 
with plaster, and rolled up with the 
plaster side outermost, on a hot glazed 
tile, and shaped. These instruments are 
intended to be introduced into the canals 



BOU 



69 



BRE 



of the urethra, the rectum, the ossopha- 
gus, Ac, for the purpose ol'dilating Ihera, 

1. B. Bell's Bougies are made in the 
same way, hy melting in one vessel four 
ounces of litharge plaster, and in another 
three drarhms of olive oil, and an ounce 
and a half of yellow wax, mixing them 
for use. 

2. Plenck's Bougies are made of catgut, 
and may swell after being introduced. 

3. Elastic gum Bovgies are not made 
of caoutchouc, but prepared hy boiling 
linseed oil for a long time over a slow 
fire, and with this varnishing cotton, silk, 
or linen, employed as a basis. 

4. Smyth's Jlexible metallic Bougies are 
liable to break, and are dangerous. 

3. Daran's medicated Bougies are made 
of materials which dissolve in the ure- 
thra; of this class are the armed bougies, 
which are prepared with potassa fusa, or 
nitrate of silver. 

BOURDONNEMEIS'T. The name 
given by the French to the several varie- 
ties of imaginary sounds, termed — 

1. Syrigmus, or ringing in the ears. 

2. Susurrus, or whizzing sounds. 

3. Bombns, or beating sounds. 
BOVI'.NA FAMES (60s, an ox,fames, 

hunsrer). Bnlimia. X'oracious appetite. 

BOYLE'S FUMING LIQUOR. See 
Fuinivi! Liiiuor. 

BR.VCriEKIUM (iracA/aZe, a bracelet). 
A term used by some Latin writers for a 
truss, or bandage, for hernia. 

[BRACHIATE {jdpaxiwv, an arm). 
Armed. Applied in botany to branches 
which diverge nearly at right angles from 
the stem.] 

BRACHIUM {(ipaxloiv, an arm). The 
arm; the part from the shoulder to the 
elbow. The part from the elbow to the 
wrist is termed lacertus. Thus, 'sub- 
juncta lacertis brachia.' Ovid. 

Bracliio-poda (ro?5, Troodj , a foot). Arm- 
fooled animals ; animals which have 
arms instead of feet; they are all bi- 
valves. 

BRACTEA. A Latin term, denoting a 
thin leaf or plate of any metal. It is ap 
plied, in botany, to all those modifications 
of leaves which are fijund upon the inflo- 
rescence, and are situated between the 
true leaves and the calyx of the flower. 
They compose the invulucrum of Compo- 
sitfe, the glumes of Gramineoe, the spathe 
of the Arum. &c. 

BRADY-SPERMATISMUS OJpae'f,-, 
slow, (Tvtiijia, semen). Seminal mis-emis- 
sion, in which the discharge is retarded 
from organic weakness. 

BRAIJN. Encephalon. Cerebrum. The 



largest portion of the central part of the 
nervous system, occupying the whole 
upper part of the cavity of the cranium. 
This substance is not homogeneous 
throughout, but presents two distinct 
modilications, viz. — 

1. A cortical, cineritious, or gray sub- 
stance, which covers the brain in general; 
and, 

2. A medullary or v;hite substance, or 
the mass contained within the former. 

BRAN. Furfur tritici. The husk of 
ground wheat. 

BRANCA (Spanish for a/00; or SrancA). 
A term applied to some herbs stipposed 
to resemble a particular foot, as brankur- 
sine, or branca ursina, the name of the 
Heracleum sphondvlium. 

BRANCHIA (/ipdyxia. gills). Gills; 
filamentous organs for breathing in 
water. 

Branchio-poda {rrovq, -Koid;, a foot). Gill- 
footed animals; animals which have gills 
instead of feet, as the monoculus. 

BRANDY. Eau de Vie. The spirit 
distilled from wine. See Spirit. 

BR.4NKS. The vernacular name in 
Scotland for parotitis, or the mumps. 

BRASQUE. A term used bv the 
French metalltirgists to denote the lining 
of a crucible or a furnace with char- 
coal. 

BRASS. ^», esris. An alloy of cop- 
per and zinc. Common brass consists of 
three parts of copper and one of zinc. 
See Similor. 

BRASSICA RUBR.A.. The Red Cab- 
bage; employed by chemists as an excel- 
lent test for acids and alkalies. 

BRAZIL NUTS. Chestnuts of Brazil. 
The nuts of the BerthoUetia exceha. 

BRAZIL WOOD. The wood of the 
Ccesalpinia Braziliensis, which j'ields a 
red colouring matter used by dvers. 

BRAZILETTO. An inferior species 
of Brazil wood, brought from Jamaica. 
It is one of the cheapest and least 
esteemed of the red dye-woods. 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE. The Arto- 
carpus incisa, a tree of the order Urlica- 
cecF, the fruit of which is, to the inhabi- 
tants of Polynesia, what corn is to the 
inhabitants of other parts of the world. 

BREGM.\ ((Sficxo), to moisten). Fon- 
tanel. The two spaces left in the head 
of the infant, where the frontal and the 
occipital bones respectively join the pa- 
rietal. It is distinguished as anterior and 
posterior. See Cranium. 

BRESLAW FEVER. An epidemic 
which broke out in the Prussian army at 
Breslaw, in the middle of the last century. 



BRE 



70 



BRU 



and which has been named by Sauvages 
tritmopkia Vralislaviensis. 

BREVISSIMUS OCULI (superl. of 
brevis, short). A synonym of the obli- 
quus inferior, from its being the shortest 
muscle of the eye. 

BREZILIN. The name applied by 
Chevreul to the colouring matter of Bra- 
zil wood, obtained from several species 
of CtBSalpinia. 

BRICKLAYERS' ITCH. A species of 
local tetter, or impetigo, produced on the 
hands of bricklayers by the contact of 
lime. See Grocers' Itch. 

BRIM OF THE PELVIS. The oval 
ring which parts the cavity of the pelvis 
from the cavity of the abdomen. The 
Outlet of the Pelvis is a lower circle, com- 
posed by the arch of the pubes and the 
sciatic ligaments. 

BRIMSTONE. A name for sulphur, 

[q- v.] 

BRITISH GUM. A term applied to 
starch when reduced to a gum-like state 
by exposure to great heat. It then be- 
comes of a brown colour, and in that 
stale is employed by calico printers. 

BRITISH OIL. Camphor one ounce, 
rectified spirits of wine four ounces, sweet 
oil twelve ounces, and oil of hartshorn 
five ounces, boiled together. 

This name is also given to the Oleum 
petrcB vulgare, or common oil of petre ; 
a variety of petroleum. 

BRODIUM. A term synonymous, in 
pharmacy, with Jusciilum, or brolh, the 
liquor in which any thing is boiled ; as 
brvdium salis, a decoction of salt. 

BROM A (fipiiaKw, to eat). Food ; any 
thing that is masticated. 

Broma-tology {\6yos, a description). A 
description, or treatise on food. 

BROAIAL. A colourless oily liquid, 
formed by adding bromine to alcohol 
cooled bv ice. 

BROMINE (/?pc3uoj, a stench). A deep 
red-coloured fetid liquid, formerly called 
muride ; an ingredient of sea-water, of 
several salt springs, of the ashes of sea- 
weeds, and of those of the Janlhina vio-\ 
lacea, and other animals. It combines 
wilh oxygen, and forms bromic acid; 
and with hydrogen, forming the hydro- 
bromic. 

BROxMURET. A combination of the 
bromic acid with iodine, phosphorus, sul- 
phur, &'C. 

BRONCHUS (0f>6yxoi, the windpipe, 
from iSfiixi-o, to moisten). The windpipe; 
a ramification of the trachea; so called 
from the ancient belief that the solids 
were conveyed into the stomach by the 



oesophagus, and the fluids by the bron- 
chia. 

1. Bronchial tubes. The minute rami- 
fications of the bronchi, terminating in 
the bronchial cells, or air cells, of the 
lungs. 

2. Bro7ich-ilis. Inflammation of the 
bronchi, or ramifications of the trachea. 
It is known by the vernacular terms, 
bronchial inflammation, inflammatory ca- 
tarrh, bastard peripneumony, and suflTo- 
cative catarrh. 

3. Bronch-lemmilis {\tfijia, a sheath or 
membrane). A membrane-like inflam- 
mation of the bronchia. See Diphlherite. 

4. Broncho-cele {KijXri, a tumour). Bo- 
tium; thyrophraxia. An enlargement 
of the thyroid gland. In Switzerland 
it is termed goitre ; in England it is 
railed swelled neck, Derbyshire neck, or 
Derby-neck. 

5. Broncho-hamorrhagia. A term re- 
cently proposed by Andral to designate 
the exhalation of blood from the lining 
membrane of the bronchial tubes, com- 
monly called bronchial hasmorrhage. See 
Pneumo-hamorrhagia. 

6. Broncho-phony {(pwvn, voice). The 
resonance of the voice over the bronchi. 

7. Broncho-tomy (ro^tr;, section). An 
incision made into the larynx or trachea. 

BRONZE. An alloy of copper, 8 or 
10 per cent, of tin, and other metals, used 
for making statues, ifcc. 

BROOM ASHES AND TOPS. A 
remedy formerly exiolled for dropsy, con- 
sisting of tlie ashes and green tops of the 
Ct/tisiis Scapariiis, or common broom. 

"BROWN RUST. A disease of wheat, 
in which a dry brown powder is substi- 
tuted for the farina of the grain. Com- 
pare Black Rust. 

BROWNING. A preparation of sugar, 
port-wine, spices, &c., for colouring and 
flavouring meat and made dishes. 

BRUCIA. A substance procured from 
the bark and seeds of nux vomica, and 
from St. Ignaiius's bean. It is said to be 
a compound of strychnia and resin, and 
not a peculiar alkaloid. 

[BRUIT. Sound. A term from the 
French, applied to various sounds heard 
on auscultation and percussion. See 
Auscultation.] 

BRUNNERS GLANDS. Small flat- 
tened granular bodies of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine, visible 
to the naked eye, distributed singly in 
the membrane, pnd most numerous in 
the upper part of the small intestine. 
These glands, sometimes erroneously 
termed "solitary," were described by 



BRU 



71 



BUL 



Peyer as being as numerous as the " stars 
of heaven." By Von Brunn they were 
compared collectively to a second pan- 
creas. See Feyer's Glands. 

BRUNOLIC ACID. One of the par- 
ticular products which have been isolated 
in the distillation of coal. 

BRUNOi\L\N THEORY. A theory 
founded by John Brown, according to 
which no change can take place in the 
state of the excitable powers without 
previous 'excitement; and it is only by 
over-excitement that the excitability, 
with life, can be exhausted. 

BRUNSWICK GREEi\. An ammo- 
niaco-muriate of copper, used for oil 
painting. 

BRYGMUS {ffpvyixoi, from P(,vxi», to 
gnash with the teeth). Gnashing or 
grating with the teeth. 

BRYONIA DIOICA. Bryony, or wild 
vine, a Cucurbilaceous plant, of which 
the fresh root is sold under the name of 
while bryony. Its properties are owing 
to the presence of an extractive matter 
called hryonin. [It is an active hydra- 
gogue cathartic, and, in large doses, 
sometimes emetic. The dese of the 
powdered root is from a scruple to a 
drachm.] 

BUBO {/?oll/?w^/, the groin). A swelling 
of the lymphatic glands, particularly 
those of the groin and axilla. It has been 
distinguished by the terms — 

1. Sympatlielic, arising from the mere 
irritation of a local disorder. 

2. Venereal, arising from the absorp- 
tion of the syphilitic virus. 

3. Constitutional, as the pestilential — 
a symptom of the plague ; or scrofulous 
swellings of the inguinal and axillary 
glands. 

BUBONOCELE (PovPiiv, the groin, 
Ki'jX'j, a tumour). Inguinal hernia. 

BUCCAL (bucca, the cheek). A term 
applied to a branch of the internal max- 
illary artery, to certain branches of the 
facial vein, and to a branch of the infe- 
rior maxillary nerve. 

Buccal Glands. The name of numerous 
follicles situated beneath the mucous 
layer of the cheek. 

BUCCINATOR {bnccina, a trumpet). 
The trumpeter's muscle ; a muscle of the 
cheek, so called from its being much 
used in blowintr the trumpet. 

BUCCO-LABIALIS. The name given 
by Chaussierlo a nerve of variable origin, 
being sometimes a continuation of the 
exterior fasciculus of the portio minor; 
at other times arising from the interior 
fasciculus, or from the deep temporal, 



though generally from the inferior max- 
illary. Bellingeri. 

BUCCULA (dim. oihucca, the cheek). 
The fleshy part under the chin. 

BUCIliJ LEAVES (fioccAae, Ind.) The 
leaves of several species of Barosma, or 
Diosma, much extolled for chronic dis- 
orders of the bladder. 

BUCKBEAN. The Menyanthes trifo- 
liata, a plant of the order Genlianacem, 
employed by the brewers in some parts 
of Germany as a substitute for hops. 

BUCIiTilORN. The vernacular name 
of the Rhamnus catharticus, derived 
from the spinous nature of some of the 
species; for the same reason it has been 
termed spina cervina, or stag's horn. The 
berries yield a delicate green, named by 
painters verdevissa. 

BVCNFML\ (Ihv, a Greek augmenta- 
tive, Kvf]nri, the leg). Literally, bulky or 
tumid leg. See Phlegmasia dolens. 

BUFFY COAT. The buff coloured 
fibrin which appears on the surface of 
the crassamentum of blood drawn in cer- 
tain stales of disease. 

BULAM FEVER. A name given to 
Yellow Fever, from its fatal visitations 
on the Guinea coast and its adjoining 
islands. [By some writers it is consi- 
dered as a distinct form of fever.] See 
Febris. 

BULBO-CAVERNOSUS. The name 
of a muscle situated beneath the bulb of 
the urethra, and covering part of the 
corpus spongiosum. Chaussier termed 
it biilbo-nrethralis. 

BULBUS. A bulb; a scaly leaf-bud, 
which developes roots from its base, and 
a stem from its centre. When the outer 
scales are thin, and cohere in the form of 
a thin envelope, as in the onion, this is 
the tnnicaled bulb. When the outer 
scales are distinct and fleshy, as in the 
lily, this is called the vahtd bulb. There 
can be no such thing as a solid bulb. See 
Cormiis. 

1. Bulbus olfaciorius. That portion of 
the olfactory nerve, which expands into 
a bulb-like form, and rests upon the cri- 
briform plate. 

2. Bulbus arteriosus. The name of the 
anterior of the three cavities of the heart 
in all vertehrata, as exhibited in the early 
period of its developement. 

3. Bulb of the urethra. The po.=terior 
huUi-Uke commencement of the corpus 
spouLnosum penis; hence, the included 
urethra is called the bulbous portion. 

BULIMIA (fiovs, an ox, or (iav, aug., 
X(/<dj, hunger). Voracious appetite. Its 
synonyms are — 



BUL 



72 



CAD 



Adephasia, Bupeina, Cynorexia, Fames 
canina, Phasedtena. [q. v.] 

BULITHUM {0OVS, an ox, Xi'Sof, a 
stone). A bezoar or stone found in the 
kidneys, the gall, or urinary bladder of 
the ox. See Bezoar. 

BULL^ (hubbies). Blebs; blains; 
spheroidal vesicles, or portions of the 
cuticle raised by a watery fluid. The 
genera are — 

1. Pemphigus. Vesicular feter. 

2. Pompholyx. Water blebs. 
BUNYON.'Inflamraation of the bursa 

mucosa, at the inside of the bail of the 
great toe. I 

[BUPEINA (/?o5f, an ox, Ttc'ivn. hun- 
ger). Voracious appetite. See Bulimia.] 

BUPHTHALMIA {povi, an ox, d(p- 
BaXfios, eye). Ox-eye; dropsy of the eye. 
See Hi/drophthalmia. 

BURGUNDY PITCH. Prepared from 
the abietis resina. See Pix Burgundica. 

BURNT SPONGE. An article pre- 
pared by cutting sponge into small pieces, 
and burning it in a covered vessel until 
it becomes black and friable, when it is 
rubbed to a very fine powder. 

BURS.E MUCOSAE {mucous bags). 
Small sacs situated about the joints, be- 
ing parts of the sheaths of tendons. 

1. Bursalogij (Xdyoj, an account). The 
description of the burste mucosse. 

2. Bursalis, or marsupiali.t. Former 
designations of the obturator iniernus 
muscle. 



BUTEA GUiW. A gum procured from 
natural fissures and wounds made in the 
bark of the Butea frondosa, a legumi- 
nous plant of India. 

BUTTER (butyrum, from ftovi, a cow, 
Tvpoi, coagnlum). A substance procured 
from the cream of milk by churning. 

1. Butler-milk. The thin and sour 
milk separated from the cream by churn- 
ing. 

2. Butyrine. A peculiar oleaginous 
principle procured from butler. 

3. Butyric acid. An oily limpid liquid, 
one of the volatile acids of butter. By 
distillation, it yields a substance called 
butyro7}e. 

4. The term butler is applied to butler- 
like substances, as those of antimony, 
bismuth, &c., meaning the chlorides. 

BUTTER OF CACAO. An oily con- 
crete white matter, of a fkmer consis- 
tence than suet, ol)tained from the Cacao, 
or cocoa-nut, of which chocolate is made. 

BUTUA ROOT. Abuta root. The 
name sometimes given in commerce to 
the root of the Cissampelos pareira, more 
commonly called pareira brava. 

BUXINfl. An alkaloid procured from 
the Buxus Sempervireiis. 

[BVSSACEOUS. Divided into very 
fine pieces, like wool, as the roots of 
some agarics.] 

[BYSSUS. The filaments by which 
certain acephalous mollusca attach their 
shells to rocks.]. 



c 



CABBAGE BARK. Surinam bark. 
The bark of the Andiva inermis, a legu- 
minous plant of the West Indies; an- 
thelmintic. 

CACAO. The Chocolate-nut tree, a 
species of Theobroma. See Cocoa. 

CACHEXIA (KaKff, bad. £f<f, habit). 
A bad habit of body ; the name either of 
an individual disease, or of a class of 
diseases. The latter are denominated by 
Sagar cacochijirtia, a term signifying 
faulty chymifications. 

[Cachexia Africana. Desire of dirt- 
eating amongst the negroes.] 

CACODYL (<fa)f .y;jj, fetid). A limpid 
liquid, of fetid odour, the supjwsed ra- 
dical of a series of arsenical compounds 
derived from acetyl. 

Cacodylic Acid. An acid obtained by 
the oxidation of cacodyl and its oxide, 
and synonymous with alcargen. 



CACOETHES (Kaxd;, bad, Wof, habit). 
The name by which Celsus distinguishes 
noli me lanirere from cancer. 

CADETr LIQUOR OF. [See Fuming 
Li(/uor.] 

CADMIUM. A bluish-white metal 
found in several of the ores of zinc; so 
named from cadmia fossilis, a former 
name of the common ore of zinc. 

[Sulphate of Cailmium. Used as a 
collyrium for the removal of superficial 
opacities of the cornea; one to four 
grains being dissolved in an ounce of 
pure water.] 

CADU'CA {cado, to fall). The deci- 
duous membrane ; so called from its being 
cast off from the iHerus. 

CADUCOUS {cado, to fall). A term 
applied in Botany to parts which fall 
early, as the calyx of^ the poppy, the 
petals of the gum cistus, &c. Parts which 



CAE 



73 



CAL 



continue on the plant long are termed 
persistent. 

[C^CAL. Belonging lo the esecum.] 

CiECITAS {cacus, blind). A general 
term for blindness. 

C.€:CUM {cants, blind). The caput 
coli, or /jlind intestine; so named from 
its being prolonged inferiorly under the 
form of a cul-de-sac. 

CiESAKIAN SECTION. Hysteroto- 
mia. The operation by which the fetus 
is taken out of the uterus, by an incision 
through the parietes of the abdomen. 
Persons so born were formerly called 
CcBsones — a caso matris utero. 

[CyESPITOSE {rcBspes, turf). Grow- 
ing in tufts; forming dense patches, or 
tufts ; as the young stems of many 
planis.] 

CAFFEIC ACID. An acid discovered 
in cofRe ; it contains the aroma of roasted 
coffee. 

Caffein. A crystalline substance ob- 
tained from coffee, from tea, and from 
guarana — a prepared mass from the fruit 
o[ Faidlhiia sorbilis. 

[CAHINCA, CAINCA. The Brazilian 
name for the root of a species of Cfiio- 
cocca, lately introduced as a medicine. 
It is said lo be tonic, emeiic, diaphoretic, 
and very actively diuretic. It is es- 
teemed in Brazil as a remedy for the 
bites of serpents, and its Indian name is 
said lo be derived from this property. 
The dose of the powder of the bark of 
the root, as an emetic and purgative, is 
from a scruple to a draclim ; but the 
aqueous extract is usually preferred, the 
dose of which is from ten to twenty 
grains.] 

CAJUPUTI OLEUM {kayu-puti, white 
wood). Kyapootie oil; [Cajeput oil]; an 
essential oil procured from the leaves of 
the Melaleuca Minor, termed by Rum 
phius arbor alba, a Myrtaceous plant of 
the Moluccas. 

CALAMI RADIX. [Calamus, U. S, 
P.] Sweet-Flag root ; the rhizome of the 
Acorus Calamus. 

CAL.AMINA {calamus, a reed). Ca- 
lamine; the impure carbonate of zinc; 
a pulverulent mineral, generally of a 
reddish or Hesh colour. 

Calamina prcrjmrala. The calamine 
reduced to an impalpable powder by 
roasting. 

[CALAMUS. See Calami Radix.] 

CALAMUS SCRIPTORIUS. Lite 
rally a iLrititig pen. A groove upon the 
anterior wall, or floor, of the fourtii ven 
tricle. Its pen-like appearance is pro- 
duced by the divergence of the posterior 



median columns, the feather by the linefe 
transversffi. At the point of the pen is a 
small cavity, lined with gray substance, 
and called the Ventricle of Aranlius. 

CALCANEUM {calx, the heel). Cal- 
car. The os calcis, or heel bone. 

[CALCARATE {calcar, a spur). Hav- 
ing a spur, as the petals of aquilegia.] 

CALCAREOUS. The name of a class 
ol' earths, consisting of lime and carbonic 
acid, as chalk, marble, &c. 

Calcareous rock is another term for 
limestone. 

Calcareous Spar. Crystallized carbo- 
nate of lime. Iceland spar is one of its 
purest varieties. 

CALCINATION (caZx, lime). A term 
formerly applied to express the oxidation 
of a melal effected by the action of the 
air: the oxide thus formed was denomi- 
nated a calx, from its being eariliy like 
lime. The term is now generally applied 
whenever any solid matter has been sub- 
jected to heat, so as to be convertible into 
a stale of powder. 

CALCIUM {calx, lime). The metallic 
base of lime, discovered by Davy. 

Calcii chloridurn. Chloride of calcium, 
commonly called muriate of lime. The 
anhydrous chloride deliquesces in the 
air, and becomes oil of lime. 

CALCULUS (dim. of calx, a lime or 
chalk-stone). A solid or unorganized 
concretion found in various parts of the 
human body, and commonly called stone, 
or gravel. It is apt to be formed in the 
kidney, in the circumstances of those 
constitutional derangements which have 
been denominated calculous diathesis, 
of which the principal are, — 

1. The Lilfiic Diathesis, characterized 
by yellow, red or laieritious, or pink de- 
posits of lilhate of ammonia; or by the 
ibrmaliou of red gravel, or crystals of 
uric or lithic acid. 

2. The Phospliatic Diathesis, charac- 
terized by tjie formation of white gravel, 
or crystals of phosphate of magnesia and 
ammonia; or by the white sediment of 
the mi.xed phosphates of magnesia and 
ammonia, and of lime. 

I. Amorphous Sediments. 
These are pulverulent, and may con- 
sist, 1. oi' uric acid, which is of a yellow 
or brick-dust colour, like the ordinary 
sediment of cooled urine; 2. oi phosphate 
of lime, mixed wilh phosphate cf ammonia 
and magnesia, and a considerable quan- 
liiy of mucus; and 3. of the mucus of (he 
bladder, which, having no earthy salts, 
becomes of a greenish yellow on drying, 
and the urine is always acid. 



CAL 



74 



CAL 



II. Cri/slalllrie Deposits, or Gravel. J thought to be antispasmodic, sudorific, 
These substances usually consist ofldeobstruent, and emmenagogue. It is 
1. acid urate of ammonia, in the form of] now rarely employed.] 
small, shining, red or yellow, pointed, [CakitduUn. A peculiar principle dis- 
cryst.-illine groups; 2. of oxalate of lime.Jcovered by Geiger in the Calendula qffl.- 
in pale yellow or green crystals; or, of cinali.i, ,jnd considered by Berzelius tooe 



phosphate of ammonia and magnesia 
III. Varieties of Calculus. 
Urinary Calculi have usually a nucleus 
in the centre consisting of one substance, 
which afterwards alternates with un- 
equal layers of other, and, in some cases, 
of all the principles of urinary calculi. 
Many calculi consist of the same sub- 
stance in successive layers. The varie- 
ties of calculus may be thus arranged : 

1. The Lilhic or Uric Acid, or the light 
brown. This acid is the most constant 
constituent of urinary calculus. 

2. The Triple Phosphate of Magnesia 
and Ammonia, or the white. This is 
never found quite alone in calculi; but 
is often one of their chief constituents. 

3. The Mixed Phosphates of Magnesia 
and Ammonia, and of Lime. This va- 
riety, next to uric acid, constitutes the 
most common material of calculus, From 
its ready fusibility before the blow-pipe, 
it is termed \\\e fusible calculus. 

4. The Oxalate of Lime. This is, ap- 
parently, a frequent constituent of calcu- 
lus, particularly in children. The stone 
has usually an uneven surface, resem- 
bling the mulberry, and is hence called 
the midberri/ calculus. 

5. The Alternating. The nucleus is 
most frequently lithic acid, rarely the 
phosphates; these, on the contrary, gene- 
rally form upon some nucleus, and are 
seldom covered by other depositions. 

6. The Xanlhic Oxide. Discovered by 
Dr. Marcel, and so named from its form- 
ing a lemon-coloured compound, when 
acted upon by nitric acid. 

7. The Fibrinous. Discovered by Dr. 
Marcet, and so termed from its resem- 
blance to fibre. 

[Calculous concretions are also met 
with in the gall-bladder, biliary ducts, 
liver, pineal gland, lungs, veins, articu- 
lations, tonsils, lachrymal passages, sali- 
vary glands, auditory canals, digestive 
tube, prostate, vesiculi seminales, pan- 
creas, uterus, and mammary glands. See 
Gall stones, Pineal concretions, Chalk- 
stones, Salivary calculi, Bezoar, Prostatic 
concretions &c 1 

CALEFACIENTS {calefacio, to make 
warm). Medicines which excite warmth. 

[CALENDULA OFFICINALI.S. Ma- 
rygold ; a well-known garden plant, for- 
merly much used in medicine, and 



analogous to bassorin.] 

CALExXTURE {caleo. to be hoi). A 
violent fever, attended with delirium, 
incident to persons in hot countries. 
Under its influence it is said that sailors 
imagine the sea to be green fields, and 
will throw themselves into it, if not re- 
strained. 

CALICULUS (dim. of calyx, a cup). 
A little cup, or goblet. , Celsus. 

CALI'GO (darkness). A disease of the 
eye, imparting dimness, cloudiness, ob- 
scurity. Jn old English, this opacity, as 
well as pterygium, was denominated a 
" web of the eye." 

1. Caligo lentis. The true cataract, or 
the glaucoma Woulhousi. 

2. Caligo cornecB. Dimness, cloudiness, 
or opacity of the cornea. 

3. Caligo jnipillcB. Synchisis, or amy- 
osis. Blindness from obstruction in the 
pupil. 

4. Caligo humorum. Glaucoma Vo- 
gelii. Blindness from an error in the 
humours of the eye. 

5. Caligo palpebrarum. Blindness from 
disorder in the evelids. 

[CALLIPERS. Compasses with 
curved legs.] 

CALLUS(Latin,hardness). New bone, 
or the substance which serves to join to- 
gether the ends of a fracture, and to 
restore destroyed portions of bone. 

CalU. Nodes in the gout. 

Callositas. [Callosity.] A horny pro- 
duct. 

CALOMELAS. Calomel, the chloride 
of mercury; formerly called by a variety 
of fanciful names; as draco mitigalus, or 
mild dragon ; aquila alba, or while eagle ; 
manna metallorum, or manna of the me- 
tals ; panchymagogum minerale, sweet 
mercury, &c. The term calomel, from 
xaXdi, good, and ixi\as, black, was first 
used by Sir Theodore Turquet de May- 
enne, in consequence, as some say, of his 
having had a favourite black servant who 
prepared it; or, according to others, be- 
cause it was a good remedy for the black 
bile. 

CALOR (Latin). Heat. Calorfervens 
denotes boiling heat, or 212° Fahr. ; calor 
lenis, gentle heat, between 90° and 100° 
Fahr. 

CALOR MORDICANS. Literally, a 
biting heal; a term applied to a dan- 



C AL 



75 



CAL 



gerous symptom in typhus, in whiehjcaloric; as when a portion of air, passing 
there is a biting and pungent heat upon through and near a fire, has become 



the skin, leaving a smarting sensation 
on the fingers for several minutes after 
touching it. 

CALORIC (color, heat). The cause 
of the sensation of heat — a fluid, or con- 
dition diffused through all bodies. 

1.' Sensible or free caloric is that which 
produces the sensation of heat, or atfects 
the thermometer; all caloric is sensible, 
if it be considered in reference to bodies 
of which the/or?n is permanent. 

2. Insensible caloric, formerly supposed 
to be latent or combined, is that portion 
which passes into bodies during a change 
of form, without elevating their tempera- 
lure ; as into ice at 32°, as it becomes 
water, and termed caloric ofjluidilij 
into water at 212°, as it passes inio 
vapour, and termed caloric of vaporiza 
don. 

3. Specific caloric is the (unequal) 
quantity of caloric required by similar 
quantities of rf(^ere?i< bodies to heat them 
equally. The specific caloric of water is 
23 times as great as that of mercury; 
thus, if equal weights of the former at 
40°, and of the latter at 160°, be mixed 
together, the resulting temperature is 45°. 
This quality of bodies is called their ca 
pacity for caloric. 

4. Absolute caloric denotes the total 
amount of heat in bodies; no method 
is known by which this can be ascer- 
tained. 

5. Evolution of caloric denotes that 
which is set free on a change of capaci- 
ties in bodies, from greater to less, as in 
combustion, on mixing water with sul- 
phuric acid, or alcohol, (fee, 

6. Absorptioh of caloric ; the reverse 
of the former, as in the melting of ice 
the evaporation of water or other fluids, 
&c. 

7. Diffusion of caloric denotes the 
modes by which its equilibrium is ef- 
fected ; viz., by conduction, radiation, 
and convection : 

8. Conduction of caloric, or its passage 
through bodies: those which allow it a 
free passage through their substance, as 
metals, are termed good conductors; 
those of a different quality, bad conduc 
tors. 

9. Radiation of caloric, or its emission 
from the surface of all bodies equally in 
all directions, in the form of radii or 
rays; these, on falling upon other bodies, 
are either reflected, absorbed, or trans- 
mitted 

10. Convection, or the conveying of 



heated, and has conveyed up the chimney 
the temperature acquired from the fire. 
The convection of heat, philosophically 
considered, is in reality a modification of 
the conduction of heat ; while the latter 
may be viewed as an extreme case of 
radiation. Proul. 

11. The effects of caloric are Expan- 
sion, or augmentation of bulk; Liguefac 
tion, or change from the solid to the 
liquid form ; and Vaporization, or the 
passing of a liquid or solid into an aeri- 
form state. 

[CALORIFICATION {calor, heat, /a- 
cio, to make). The function of generat- 
ing animal heat.] 

CALORIMETER (color, heat, ixtrpov. 
measure). An apparatus for measuring 
the heat given out by a body in cooling 
by the quantity of ice it melts. 

CALORIMOTOR (caZor, heat, moveo, 
to move). An apparatus constructed by 
Dr. Hare of Philadelphia, for evolving 
caloric. 

CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA. An As- 
clepiadaceous plant introduced from In- 
dia, under the name ofmudar, or madar, 
as an alterative and sudorific. It is said 
to contain a peculiar principle, called 
mudarine, 

CALUMB^ RADIX (Kalumho, Por- 
tuguese). [Colomba, Ph. U. S.] The 
root of the Cocculus palmatus, one of 
our most useful stomachics and tonics. 
It contains a bitter principle, called ca- 
lumbin. 

CALVARIA (calvus, bald). The upper 
part of the cranium; the skull, quasi 
calva capitis area. 

Calvides. Baldness. This term is syno- 
nymous with calvitas and calvitium. 

CALX. (This term, when masculine, 
denotes the heel ; when feminine, a chalk- 
stone, or /wje). Lime; oxide of calcium, 
commonly called caustic lime, or quick- 
lime. 

1. Calx vivce. Quicklime; unslaked 
or uncombined lime; obtained by heat- 
ing masses of limestone to redness in a 
lime-kiln. 

2. Calx e testis. Lime from shells; a 
pharmacoposial preparation from oyster 
shells. 

3. Calx cum Jiali puro. Lime with 
pure kali, or ihe potassa cum calce of the 
pharmacoposia. 

4. Calcis hypochloris. Hypochlorite of 
lime, or Tennant's bleaching powder. 
It has been termed oxymuriate of lime, 
chloride of lime, &c. 



CAL 



76 



CAM 



5. Calais carbonas. Carbonate of lime 
a substance occurring in tlie forms of 
marble, chalk, &c. 

6. Calcis sulipJwfphas. Subphosphate 
of lime ; the principal part of the earili 
of bone. 

CALY'CES (pi. of ca/j/ar.'a flower-cup). 
Small membranous cup-like pouclies, 
which invest tlie points of the papiljaj 
of the kidney. Their union forms the 
infmidibula. 

CALYCIFLOR^ (caZ//jr, a flower-cup, 
Jlos, a flower). Plants which have their 
flowers furnished with both a calyx and 
a corolla, the latter consisting of distinct 
petals, and their stamens perigynous. 

[CALYCUL.A.Tt: (cahjculas, a small 
calyx). Having an involucrum of bracts 
exterior to the calyx, as in many compo- 

CALYPTRA (/caXiTrnj, to veil). Lite- 
rally, a veil or hood. A term applied to a 
membranous covering, which envelopes 
the urn-like capsule of mosses, and is 
eventually ruptured and falls off! 

{Caiyplrate. Having a calyptra or 
hood.] 

CALYSAYA. A name of the pale or 
crown bark. See Cinchona. 

CALYX (KaXuf, a cup). The flower- 
cup, or external envelope of the floral 
apparatus. Its separate pieces are called 
sepals: when these are distinct fi-om each 
other, the calyx is termed pol>/-sepalous ; 
when they cohere, ganio-sepalous, or, in- 
correctly, mnno-sc.palous. A sepal may 
be hollowed out into a conical tube, as 
in larkspur, and is then said to be spurred. 
Compare Corolla. 

[In anatomy this term has been given 
to the cup-like pouch, formed by mucous 
membrane, around each papilla of the 
kidney.] 

CAINIBIUM. a viscid juice abound- 
ing in spring between the bark and wood 
of trees, and supposed to be closely con- 
nected with the developement of woody 
fibre. 

C.AMBOGIA. Gamboge; a gum-resin, 
procured from the Hdiradendroii Camho- 
gioides, a Gultiferous plant. It issues 
from the broken leaves or branches in 
drops, and has hence been termed gummi 
gulta. 

CAMERA. Literally, a chamber. A 
term applied to the chambers of the eye. 

CAMP VINEGAR. Sleep in the best 
vinegar for a month one drachm of cay- 
enne pepper, two tablespoonsful of soy, 
and four of walnut-ketchup, six ancho- 
vies chopped, and a small clove of garlic 
minced fine. Shake it frequently, strain 



through a tammis, and keep it well 
corked in small bottles. 

CAMPANUL.ACE.E {campanula, a 
little bell). The Campanula tribe of Di- 
cotyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants 
or under shrubs, yielding a milky juice. 
Corolla gamopetalous, inserted into the 
top of the calyx, and withering on the 
fruit. Stamens inserted into tlie calyx, 
alternate with the lobes of the corolla. 
Ovary inferior, with two or more cells. 
Fruit dry, crowned by the withered 
calyx and corolla, and dehiscing by aper- 
tures or valves. 

Campanulate. Bell-shaped; as applied, 
in botany, to the calyx or corolla, when 
shaped like a little bell. 

CAMPEACHY WOOD. The Hama. 
toxijli Lignum, or Logwood ; used for 
dyeing, in the form of chips. 

C.\MPHINE. A spirit for burning in 
lamps, said to consist of oil of turpentine 
with a species of naphtha. 

CAMPflORA OFFICINARUM. The 
Camphor-tree, a Lauraceous plant, the 
wood and leaves of which yield the offi- 
cinal camphor by means of dry distilla- 
tion. Camphor is a kind of stearopten 
remaining after the elaopten or ethereal 
oil of the live tree is evaporated. 

1. Dutch camphor. Japan camphor; 
brought from Batavia, and said to be the 
produce of Japan. It is imported in tubs, 
and is hence called tub camphor. 

China camphor. Ordinary crude 
camphor, produced in the island of For- 
mosa. It is purified by sublimation, and 
then called refined camphor. 

3. Liquid camphor. This substance 
contains the same proportions of carbon 
and hydrogen as solid camphor, but only 
half as much oxygen. It is the elaopten 
of the oil of camphor of commerce. 

4. Artificial camphor. The name given 
to a white granular crystalline volatile 
product, having a smell resembling that 
of camphor, which is obtained by pass- 
ing hydro-chloric acid gas through oil of 
turpentine. 

5. CamphorcB flores. The subtile sub- 
stance which first ascends in subliming 
camphor; it is merely camphor. 

G. Camphoro' flores composiii. Com- 
pound flowers of camphor; or camphor 
sublimed with benzoin. 

7. Camphoric acid. A compound pro- 
cured by digesting camphor in nitric acid. 
Its salts are called camphorales. 

8. Campholic acid. An acid w-ith the 
consistence of camphor, but contain- 

ng two parts more of hydrogen and 
oxygen. 



CAM 



77 



CAN 



9. Camplwpen. A colourless lii]uid, 
obtained by distilling camphor with an-j 
hydrous pliosphoric a'-id. 

10. Camphrone. A light oil obtained] 
by dropping fragmenis of camphor into 
a porcelain tube containing quicklime 
heated (o redness. 

11. Tlie term Cnmphnr has been ap- 
plied to all the volatile oils which are 
concrete at the ordinary temperature, 
provided they do not. at the same time, 
contain any notable quantity of fluid oil. 
Thus we have the Camphor of Toliaccn,\ 
Camphor of Anemone, Camphor of Ele-' 
campane. &c. 

CAMPVLOTROPOUS (>fa/<TuXof, 
curved, Tpentj, to turn). A term applied 
to the ovule of plants, when its axis, in- 
stead of remaining rectilinear, is curved 
down upon itself, the base of the nucleus 
still continuing to be contiguous to the 
hilum. 

CAMWOOD. A red dye-wood, prin- 
cipally obtained from the vicinity of 
Sierra Leune. 

[CANALICULATE {Canaliadm, a 
small canal). Channelled; having a long 
furrow ] 

CANALICULI (dim. of ca7?flZi.'i, a ca- 
nal). The name given by Morgagni to 
some large lacunre, which secrete mucus 
in the canal of the urethra. 

CAISALIS {canim, a reed). A canal; 
so named from its being hollowed out in 
the fijrm of a reed. A hollow instrument 
used by surgeons as a splint. Celsim. 

1. Canolin arteriosus. A blood-vessel 
which unites the pulmonary artery and 
aorta in the fiEtus. 

2. Canalis venostis. A canal which 
conveys the blood from the vena porta 
of the liver to the ascending vena cava 
in the foetus. 

3. Canal of Fontana. A minute vas- 
cular canal situated within the ciliary 
ligament, and so named from its dis- 
coverer. It is also termed the ciliary 
canal. 

4. Canal of Petit. A triangular canal 
situated immediately around the circum- 
ference of the crystalline lens; so named 
after its discoverer. When distended 
with air, or size injection, it presents a 
plaited appearance, and has hence been 
called by the Frencli canal podronni. 

[5. Canal of Schlemm. A minute canal 
al the junction of the cornea and sclero- 
tica.] 

CANCELLI. The Latin terra for lat- 
tices, or windows, made with cross-bars 
of wood, iron, &c. Hence it is applied 
to the spongy structure of bones; and 



hence the term cancellated is applied 
to any thing which is cross-barred, or 
marked by lines crossing one another. 

CANCER. Literally, a cniA; and when 
used in this sense, its genitive case is 
cancri; but when it signifies the disease 
designated by the Greeks carcinoma, its 
genitive case is canccris. The term is 
applied to the disease from the claw-like 
spreading of the veins. The textures ol' 
cancer, as given by Bayle, are the fol- 
lowing: — 

\. 'Pho Chondroid (xocjpof, cartilage, 
£7(5o{, likeness), or cartilaginiiorm. 

2. The Hyaloid (iiaXof, glass, elioi, 
likeness), or vitriforin. 

3. The L'lrinoid (Xapicdf, fat, etSo;, 
likeness), or lardifbrm. 

4. The Biinioid (ffovi/iov, a turnip, 
cu^oi, likeness,) or napill)rm. 

5. The Encephalo'id (iyKlipaXog, the 
brain, cliog, likeness), or cerebriform. 

6. The Colloid {kuWu. glue, ddo;, like- 
ness), or gelaiiniform. 

7. The Compound cancerous ; the~ 
Mixed cancerous; and the Supcr^iciiA' 
cancerous. 

CANCER SCROTI. Cancer mundi- 
lorum. Chimney sweepers' catM^rj or 
the soot-wart. 

CANCER (BANDAGE). A grab; a 
term denoting a bandage resembling a 
crab ill the number of its legs^and called, 
the split-cloth nf eight tails. 

CANCRORUM LAPILLI. Craba^ 
eyes, or crabs' stones; the names of two 
calcareous concretions fo4ind in the sto- 
mach of the Astacus fluvialilis, or Cray- 
fish, at the lime when the animal is about 
to change its shell ; ibese were formerly- 
ground and employed in medicine as ab- 
sorbents and antacids. 

Cancrorum chela?. Oabs' claws ; the 
claws of the Cancer pa^rwrus, the Black- 
clawed, or Lirge Edible- Crab; these, 
when prepared by grinding, constitute 
the prepared crabs' claujx of the shops, 
formerly used for the- same purposes as. 
the crabs' stones. 

CANCRUM ORIS (cancer, a crab). 
Canker ; a fetid ulcer, with jagged edges., 
of the gums and inside of the lips and 
cheeks, attended with a copious flow of 
offensive saliva. It occurs principally \n 
children. Compare Gangrixna oris and 
Aphtha. 

CANDLE TREE OIL A solid oi?, 
obtained from the seed of the Croton 
seliiferum, or Candle tree, a native of 
China. It is used by the Chinese for 
making candles. 

CAN ELLA ALBA. Laurel-leavs^i 



CAN 



CAP 



CanellaorWiklCinnnmon; aGulliferous 
plant, the inner bark of which consiitules 
the canella bark of the shops, sometimes 
termed on the continent costus didcis, or 
cosliis corticosus. 

Canellin. A crystallizable saccharine 
-substance found in canella bark. 

CANINE APPETITE. Fames canina. 
Voracity. See Bulimia. 

CANINE TEETH (ca«!s, a dog). Cus- 
pidati. Eye-teeth ; the four which im- 
mediately adjoin the incisors. See Dens. 

CANINUS (earns, a dog). A name 
given to the levator angidi oris, from its 
arising above the eanini, or dog-teeih. 
• Compare Incisivug. 

[CANNA. Canna starch. A fecula 
recently introduced from the West In- 
dies under the French name of " Totis 
leg mois."] 

CANNABIS SATIVA (kinmb, Ara- 
bic). Cannabis Indica (?). Common Hemp, 
an Urlicaceoiis plant, the leaves of which 
furnish an intoxicating drug, under the 
names of Ijang oi panga m India, kinnah 
or hashish in Arabia, malach in Turkey, 
and dacha among the Hottentotg. 

1. Cherris. A concreted resinous ex- 
udation from the leaves, slender stems, 
and flowere, 

2. Gunjah. The dried hemp-plani 
which has flowered, and from which the 
resin has not been removed. 

3. Bang, siibjee, or sidhee. This con- 
sists of the larger leaves and capsules 
without the stalks. 

CANTHARIS VESICATORIA (,ca^ 
dapls, a beetle). The Blister Beetle or 
Spanish Fly, a coleopterous insect, found 
on species of Okaceis and Caprifoliaceai. 
, but rare in England. 

Cantharidin. A crystalline substance 
procured from the above insect, and ex- 
isting probably in all blistering beetles ; 
1000 parts of cantharides yield lour parts 
of pure cantharidin. 

CANTHUS [KaveSi). The angle of the 
eye, where the eyelids meet; the inner 
canthus is that nearest to the nose; the 
other is called the outer or lesser canthus. 

CANTON'S PHOSPHORUS. A snb- 
/ stance made by exposing calcined oyster- 
shells and sulphur to a red heat. On ex- 
posure to light, it acquires the properly 
of shining in the dark. 

CAN'mi-l (dim. ol'canna, a reed). A 
small tube, generally applied to that of 
the trochar, &c. 

CAOUTCHOUC. Elastic gum, or 

Indian rubber; the concrete juice of the 

Hoevea Caoutchouc, latropa Elastica, 

i Ficus Indica, and Artocarpus Integrifolia. 



Caoutchine. A volatile oil produced 
by distillation of caoutchouc at a high 
temperature. 

CAPELINA (capeUne,VT.,a. woman's 
hat). A double-headed roller put round 
the head, &c. 

CAPERS. The pickled buds of the 
Capparis spinosa, a low shrub, growing 
out of the joints of old walls, and the 
fissures of rocks, in most of the warm 
parts of Europe. 

CAPHOPICRITE (/fa^to), to exhale, 
TiK-pdj, bitter). The bitter principle of 
rhubarb, also called rhabarberin. But 
what this principle consists in, appears 
to be wholly undetermined. Quol ho- 
mines, tot senlentise. 

C.APILLAIRE. A syrup made of sugar, 
honey, and orange-flower water. [More 
properly made of the Adianlum capillus 
veneris.] 

CAPILLARY {capillus, a hair). Re- 
sembling a hair in size ; a term applied 
to— 

1. The Vessels which intervene be- 
tween the minute arteries and veins. 

2. A Fissure ; capillatio; a very minute 
crack in the skull. 

3. Tubes, which are so small as to be 
less than the twentieth of an inch in 
diameter in the inside. 

4. The Attraction by which a liquid 
rises in a capillary tube higher than the 
surface of that which surrounds it. 

CAPILLUS (quasi capitis pilus). The 
hair in general. 

CAPISTRUM (capio, to take). Lite- 
rally, a bridle. The single split-cloth 
bandage, so called from its being used to 
support the lower jaw like a bridle. 

[CAPITATE {caput, the head). Head- 
ed ; terminated by a sudden enlarge- 
ment.] 

CAPITILUVIUM {caput, the head, 
lavo, to wash). A bath for the head. 

CAPIVI. A miscalled balsam, yielded 
by several species of Copaifera. 

CAPNOIviOR {Kairvoi, smoke, fiorpa, 
part ; so called from its being one of the 
ingredients of smoke). A colourless trans- 
parent liquid, — the only ingredient in tar 
which can dissolve caoutchouc. It oc- 
curs along with creosote in the heavy oil 
of tar. 

CAPRIC and CAPROIC ACIDS. Vo- 
latile odoriferous compounds, yielded by 
butter on iis conversion into soap. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^. The Honey- 
suckle tribe of Dycotyledonous plants. 
Shrubs or herbaceous plants with leaves 
opposite; Jlowers corymbose, inonopeta- 
lous ; stamens alternating with the lobes 



CAP 



79 



CAR 



of the corolla ; ovarium inferior, many- 
celled ; /rf/ii indehiscent. 

CAPSICUM ANNUUM. Common 
Capsicum, or Chilly ,■ a plant of the order 
SolanacecE, (he dried fruit of which is 
sold under the name of capsicum or 
chillies. 

1. Capsicum frutescens. The species 
which yields the capsules sold as Guinia 
pepper, or bird pepper. Their powder is 
cayenne pepper. 

2. Capsiciji. An acrid soft resin, ob- 
tained by digesting the alcoholic extract 
of the Capsicum annuum in ether, and 
evaporating the etherial solution. 

CAPSULA (dim. of capsa, a chest). 
Literally, a little chest. 1. A capsule, or 
bag, which encloses any part, as the cap- 
sule of Glisson, or the cellulo-vascular 
membrane which envelopes the hepatic 
vessels. 2. In Botany it is a dry, supe- 
rior fruit, dehiscent by valves, and always 
proceeding from a compound ovarium. 

1. Renal capsules. Two yellowish, 
triangular, and flattened bodies, lying 
over the kidneys in the foetus, in which 
they are as large as the kidneys them- 
selves. In the adult they are two lobes. 

2. Capsular ligament. A loose bag 
which contains the synovia of the joints. 
This must be distinguished from the 
synovial membrane which produces this 
fluid. The latter is allied, by structure 
and function, to the serous membrane; 
the former, to the fibrous. 

CAPUT (quoJ inde, says Varro, in- 
itium capiant sensus et nervi). The head. 
It is distinguished into the skull, or 
cranium, and the face, or fades. 

1 . Caput coli. The head of the colon, 
the cseeum, or blind intestine. 

2.Caputgallinaginis (vi'oodcock's head). 
Veru Montanum. A lengthened fold of 
mucous membrane, situated on the in- 
ferior wall or floor of the prostatic por- 
tion of the urethra. 

3. Caput mortuum (dead head). The 
inert residuum of a distillation, or sub- 
limation; a term nearly obsolete. 

4. Caput olistipum (a stifle head). A 
term for torticollis, or wry-neck. 

[5. Caput succedaneum. The (Edema- 
tous swelling which forms on that part 
of the head of the fcetus which presents 
in some cases of labour, resulting from 
the circulation in the scalp being more 
or less impeded from the lightness with 
which the head is embraced by the 
vagina.] 

CARAMEL. The name given to the 
black porous shining mass produced by 
heating sugar at a high temperature. 



CARBAZOTIC A CI D (carJon and 
azote). Nitro-picric Acid. An acid formed 
by the action of nitric acid on indigo. 

CARBO LIGNI. Charcoal of wood; 
a species of artificial coal, consisting of 
half-burnt wood. 

CARBON {carlo, a coal). A substance 
well known under the form of coal, 
charcoal, lamp-black, &c. In chemical 
language, it denotes the pure inflamma- 
ble principle of charcoal; in its state of 
absolute purity, it constitutes the dia- 
mond. 

1. Carbon vapour. The name of a 
hypothetical substance, for carbon has 
never been obtained in the insulated 
form of vapour. When the term is used 
in chemical works, it denotes the condi- 
tion of carbon as it exists in carbonic 
acid. 

2. Carbon, animal. Animal charcoal, 
bone charcoal, and ivory-black, are names 
applied to bones calcined, or converted 
into charcoal, in a close vessel. Animal 
charcoal is also prepared by calcining 
dried blood, horns, hoofs, clippings of 
hides, &c., in contact with carbonate of 
potash, and washing the calcined mass 
afterwards with water. 

3. Carbon, mineral. A term applied 
to charcoal, with various proportions of 
earth and iron, without bitumen. It has 
a silky lustre, and the fibrous texture of 
wood. It occurs stratified with various 
kinds of coal. 

4. Carbonic oxide. A colourless gas, 
formed when carbon is burned with a 
tninimum of oxygen, as when coke or 
charcoal is burned in a close vessel with 
a limited draught. 

5. Carbonic acid. A pungent and 
acidulous gas, produced by the combus- 
tion of carbonic oxide, or by that of char- 
coal in oxygen gas. This gas was termed 
by Black ^xerf air, from its having been 
found to exist, in a fixed state, in lime- 
stone, and the mild alkalies, from which 
it was expelled by heat and the action of 
acids. 

6. Carbonates. Compounds of carbonic 
acid with the salifiable bases. They are 
composed either of one atom of acid and 
one of the base, or of two of acid and one 
of the base ; the former are called carbon- 
ates, the latter bi-carbonates. 

7. Carburets. Combinations of carbon 
with some metals by fusion ; thus, steel 
is a darburet of iron. The term has also 
been applied to a peculiar compound of 
sulphur and hydrogen, the carburet of 
sulphur, also termed sulphuret of carbon, 
and alcohol of sulphur. 



CAR 



80 



CAR 



8. Carbtirelted Ilijdrogen. A colour- 
less inflammaWe gas, abuiidaiilly fbrined 
in n;itur« in stagnant pools, wherever 
vegetables are undergoing the process 
of putrefaction ; it also ibrins the greater 
part of the gas obtained from coal. This 
gas was formerly called heavy injlamma- 
ble air. See Olefianl Gas. 

9. Carbamide. A compound of ami- 
dogcn and carbonic acid — an ingredient 
of ehloro carbonate of ammonia. See 
Amide. 

10. Carbydrogen. A name suggested 
for pyroxylic or wood spirit, which con- 
sists of one atom of hydrogen and one 
atom of carbon. The name consists of 
these two terms. 

11. Carbomtlhylic and. An acid ob- 
tained by DuiTias and Peligot, by acting 
upon pyroxylic spirit with carbonic 
acid. 

12. Carbolic acid. One of the particu- 
lar products which have been isolated in 
the distillation of coal. 

CARBUNCLE {rarbo, a burning coal). 
Anthrax. A boil, differing from the furun- 
cle in having no central core, and termi- 
nating in gangrene under the skin, in- 
stead of suppuration. 

CARCLXOMA (v.ip/trm. a crab). The 
Greek term for cancer. See Cancer. 

CARDAMOM. The name of the fruit 
of several species of KlcUaria and Amo- 
mum. 

Ceylon Cardamoms. The fruit of the 
Grain of Paradise plant of Ceylon. The 
term Grains of Paradise, as employed 
at present in Europe, applies to the hot 
acrid seeds called Malaguetta pepper, 
brought from Africa. Pereira. 

CARDIA (KapMa, the heart). The en- 
trance into the stomach, so called from 
being near the heart. 

1. Cardialgia (uXyoj, pain). Literally, 
heart-ache; but employed to denote pain 
in the stomach, and hence .synonymous 
with gastralgia, gastrodynia, cardiaca 
passio, &(!. 

2. Carditis. Inflammation of the car- 
dia or heart. 

3. Cardiaciis. Belonging to the heart, 
or stomach. Hence, Cardiaciis Morbus 
a name given by the ancients to Typhus 
Fever; Cardiaca Confectio, the Aromatic 
Confection; and Cardiacs, a term for 
cordial medicines. 

4. Cardiogmus. A term used by Galen 
and Sauvages to denote a speciesof aneu- 
rysm, called by some aneurysma pracor 
diorvm, and by others polypus cordis. 

CARDIAC {xapdia, the heart). Re 
lating to the heart. 



1 

L heart, as ^H 



1. A-cardiac. Not having a 
ceriain defective fojtuses, the insect 
tribe.<, etc. 

2. llaplocardiac {drr\6os, single). Hav- 
ing a single heart; this in pulmonic, as 
the fish tribes, or systemic, as the mol- 
lusca. 

3. /)ipZo-carrf(ac(oiTX<5oj, double). Hav- 
ing a double heart, pulmonic and sys- 
temic, as the mammalia, birds, &c. 

CARICA PAPAYA. The Papaw tree, 
the milky juice of which contains an 
abundance of fibrin, resembling animal 
matter. 

CARICA FRUCTUS. The preserv- 
ed fruit of the Fig, or Ficus Carica. 

CARIES ((ctipo), to abrade). Ulceration 
of the bones. 

CARI'NA. Literally, a keel. A term 
applied to the two lower petals of a papi- 
lionaceous corolla, which cohere by their 
lower margins in the form of a keel. 

[Cariiiale. Having a carina, or keel.] 

CARMINATIVES {carmen, a verse or 
charm). Remedies which dispel flatu- 
lency, and allay pain of the stomach and 
bowels — as by a charm. 

CARMINE. See Lale. 

CARNIFICATION {caro, carnis, flesh, 
fio, to become). A term improperly used 
to designate common hepatization, but 
api)lied by Laennec to that slate of the 
lungs, in pleurisy, complicated with slight 
pneumonia, in which the lungs have lost 
the granulated surface characteristic of 
hepatization, and are converted into a 
substance resembling, both in appear- 
ance and consistence, muscular flesh, 
which has been beaten to make it tender. 
[Compare //p/>a^isa<ion.] 

CARO, CARNIS. Flesh ; the fibrous 
substance composing muscle. 

1. Cornea coluvinm (fleshy columns). 
The muscular fiisciculi within the cavi- 
ties of the heart. 

2. Carnivora {voro, to devour). Ani- 
mals which subsist on flesh solely. 

3. Carnosa. Fleshy animals, as the 
sea anemone. 

[4. Carnose. Of a fleshy consistence.] 

CAROTID i,Kap6ijj, to indiK-e sleep). 
The name of two large arteries of the 
neck; so called from an idea that lying 
them would induce coma. They sub- 
divide into the external carotid, or artery 
of the head ; and the internal carotid, or 
principal artery of the brain. 

C A ROTIN. See Daucus Carota. 

CARPELLUM {Kapndi, fruit). A tech- 
nical term applied, in Botany, to a leaf 
in a particular state of modification, con- 
stituting i\io pistil. The blade of the leaf 



CAR 



81 



CAS 



forms the ovary; the elongated midrib, 
the style; and the apex of the midrib, 
the stigma. The edge of ihe carpel 
which corresponds to the midrib of the 
leaf, constitutes the dorsal suture; that 
of the united margins, the ventral. See 
Pistil. 

CARPHOLOGIA [Kap^^o?, the nap of 
clothes, Xcyiti, to pluck). Floccitatio. A 
picking of the bed-clothes, supposed to 
be an indication of approaching disso- 
lution. 

CARPOLOGY (KapTTdi, fruit, X<5ydf, de- 
scription). That branch of Botany which 
treats of fruits. 

[CARPO- PEDAL SPASM. Laryn- 
gismus Stridulus; Cerebral Spasmodic 
Croup; Spasm of the Glottis. Thymic 
Asthma. A spasmodic affection occur- 
ring in young children, characterized by 
excessive dyspnosa, with croiipy inspira- 
tion, and spasmodic contraction of the 
thumbs and toes.] 

CARPUS (KapTTO;, the wrist). The ossa 
carpi, or carpal bones, are eight in num- 
ber, and form two rows. 

CARRAGEEN. /r«^ Moss. The 
Chondrus crispus, a nutrient Algaeeous 
plant, employed on the coast of Ireland 
in making size. 

Carrapeenin. The name given by 
Dr. Pereira to the mucilaginous matter 
called by some writers vegetable jelhj, 
by others pectin. 

CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS. A 
plant of the order Composite, the flow- 
ers of which are imporied, for Ihe use of; 
dyers, under the name of sofflower, or 
bastard saffron. 

Carlhamin, OT Carthamic acid. A red 
colouring matter, obtained from saf- 
flower. 

CARTILAGE (quasi carnila^o). Gris- 
tle. It is attached to bones, and must be 
distinguished from the ligaments of joints 
and tendons of muscles. 

CARUM CARUI. Caraway; a na- 
turalized Umbelliferous plant, cultivated 
for the sake of its fruit, commonly but 
erroneously called caraway seeds. Pliny 
notices the plant by the name of Careum, 
from Caria, its native country. 

CARUNCULA (dim. of caro, flesh). 
[Caruncle.] A little piece of flesh. 
Hence — 

1. Cnruncula lacrymalis (hcrt/ma, a 
tear). The small red substance situated 
in the inner angle of ihe eye. 

2. Caruncula myrtiformis [myrtiis, a 
myrtle, ybr/7W, likeness). The granula- 
tions observed around the orifire of the 
vagina, from rupture of the hymen. 



CARUS {Kapa, the head). Profound 
sleep; lethargy. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^. The Chick- 
weed tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Herbaceous plants, wiih leaves opposite, 
and tumid nodes; flowers polypetalous, 
symmetrical; ."ttamen."?, definite ; ovarium 
one-celled, with a free central placenta; 
fruit a one-celled capsule, by obliteration 
of ihe dissepiments. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS. 
The Clove-tree ; a Myrtaceous plant, 
yielding the Clove of commerce. 

1. Carifophyllus (Kapvov, a nut, ^vWov, 
a leaf). The Clove, or unexpanded flower 
of Ihe above plant. The corolla forms a 
ball between the four teeth of the calyx, 
and this, with the lengthened tube of the 
calyx, resembles a nail, or clou of the 
French ; hence the English term clove. 

2. Matrices caryophylli vel anlkophylli. 
Mother cloves; the fruits of the clove, 
crowned superiorly by the teeth of the 
calyx, with the remains of the style in 
the centre. 

3. Caryophyllin. Clove sub-resin ; a 
crystalline substance extracted from 
cloves by ahtohol. 

4. Carynphyllic acid. Eugenic acid ; 
clove acid, or heavy oil of cloves, one of 
the two oils composing oil of cloves; ihe 
01 her is light oil, called clove hydro- 
carbon. 

CARYOPSIS [Kaprt, a head, 3-^,f, 
likeness). A one-celled, one-seeded, su- 
perior, dry, indehiscent fruit, wiih the 
integumenlsof the seed cohering insepa- 
rably wiih the endocarp; Ihe character- 
istic fruit of the Graminaceas. 

CASCARILL.E CORTEX. Cascarilla 
bark; the produce of the Croton Casca- 
rilla, or wild Rosemary bush of Jamaica. 
By some it is referred to the Croton 
eleuteria, 

C.\SEUM [caseus, cheese). Casein. 
Albumen of milk; the curd separated 
from milk by Ihe addition of an acid or 
rennet, consiiiuiing the basis of cheese 
in a state of purity. The liquid left after 
this separation is termed serum laciis, or 
whey. 

Caseous oxide. Another name for apo- 
sepedine, a substance procured by the 
putrefaction of animal matter. 

CASSAVA. A fecula, separated from 
the juice of the root of Janipha Manihot, 
and exposed lo heat; a principal article 
of diet in South .America. The same 
substance, differently prepared and gra- 
nulated, constitutes tnpinrn. 

CASSERIAN GANGLION. A large 
semilunar ganglion, formed by the fifth 



CAS 



82 



CAT 



nerve, and immediately dividing into llie 
ophlhalmic, superior and inferior max- 
illary nerves. It was named from Julius 
Casserius of Padua. 

CASSIA. A genus of Leguminous 
plants, several speciesof which yield the 
senna of commert-e. Cassia pulp is a 
soft blackish substance, surrounding the 
seeds of the Caihartocarpus, formerly 
Cassia fistula, the Pudding-pipe tree or 
Purginsr Cassia. 

CASSIA LIGNEA. Cortex Cassia. 
The bark of the Cinnamomum Cassia. 
The best variety is China cinnamon. 

1. Cassia buds. The unexpanded flow- 
ers of the Cinnamon Cassia, resembling 
cloves. 

2. Cassia oil. The common oil of cin- 
namon, procured from cassia bark, and 
cassia buds. 

CASSIUS, PURPLE OF. A purple- 
coloured precipitate, obtained by mixing 
the proto-chloride of tin with a dilute 
solution of gold. [Solution of gold in 
nitro-muriatic acid one ounce, distilled 
water a pint and a half; mix and dip 
rods of tin in the mixture as a precipi- 
tant.] 

C A S S O N A D E. Muscovado. Raw 
sugar; the crystallized atid dried portion 
of sugar. 

[CASSUMUNIAR. See Zerumhei.] 

CASTOR OIL. The oil extracted from 
the seeds of the Ricinus Communis. 

CASTOREUM (yaarcop, a big-bellied 
animal). Castor; a substance found in 
the two castor sacs, near the pubes ofj 
iwth the male and the female Beaver, or 
Castor Fiber. 

Caslorine. Casloreum Camphor ; a 
crystalline, fatty substance, found in C?as- 
loreum. By boiling with nitric acid, it 
is converted into casloric acid. 

CASTRATION (rasiro, to emasculate). 
Emasculation. The operation of remov- 
ing the testes. 

CAT'S EYE. A mineral brotighi from 
Ceylon, .so called from a peculiar play 
of light arising from while fibres inter- 
spersed. The French call this appear- 
ance rhatovatil. 

CAT'S PURR. A characteristic sound 
of the ches:, heard by means of the ste- 
thoscope. See Auscultation. 

{'ATA (Kara. KaO'). A Greek prepo- 
sition, signifying down, ai^ainsl, into, ic. 
In composition, it is intensive, and signi- 
fies thoroughly. 

1. Cata-causis (/catw, Kavtro). to burn). 
General combustibility of the body. 

2. Cala-cli/smus (kXvCi,], to wash). The 
name given by the ancients to the cold 



douche applied to the region of the 
stomach, or to the back opposite to the 
stomach. 

3. Cata-lepsis (\aii,3afio, to seize). Li- 
terally, a seizure or attack. A spasmodic 
disease, in which the limbs remain in 
any position in which ihey are placed, 
however painful or fatiguing. 

4. Cala-li/sis (Xiu, lo decompose). De- 
composition by contact. A body in which 
the catalytic force resides, resolves others 
into new compounds, merely by contact 
with them, or by an action of presence, as 
it has been termed, without gaining or 
losing any thing itself The body which 
determines changes in another is called 
the catalytic agent. 

5. Cnta-menia {^rjv, a month). Menses. 
The monthly uterine discharge. 

6. Cata-phora {ipcpw, to bear). The 
coma somnolentum of many writers; a 
variety of lethargy, attended with short 
remissions, or intervals of imperfect 
waking, sensation, and speech. See 
Lethargy. 

7. Caia-plasma IjtXaaaw, to spread). 
A poultice; an application which is 
spread over a part of the surface of the 
body. 

8. Cala potium {-orov, drink). A pill, 
or medicine, to be swallowed without 
chewing. Celsus. 

9. Cala-ract {dpaaco), to confound). 
Glaucoma; gutta opaca; suffusio. Opa- 
city of the crystalline lens, of its capsule, 
or of the Morgagnian fluid, separately or 
conjointly. Cataracts were formerly de- 
nommated ripe, or unripe. Beer divides 
them into the true and the spurious: — 

I. The true are designated with refer- 
ence to their seat, as — 

1. The Lenticular — these are of va- 
rious consistence, as the hard or 

firm ; and the soft, caseous, gelati- 
nous or milky. 

2. The Capsular — these are termed 
the anterior, the posterior, and the 
complete. 

3. The Morgagnian, sometimes called 
the milk cataract, or confounded 
with the purulent; one of the rarest 
liirms of the disease. 

4. The Capsuln-lenticular ; the varie- 
ties of this form are termed, with 
reference to their appearances: — 

The marmoracea, or the marbled. 

The fenestrala. or the latticed. 

The stellata, or the starry. 

The striata, or the streaky. 

The centralis, or the central. 

The punctata, or the dotted. 

The dimidiata, or the half-cataract. 



CAT 



83 



C AU 



The tretnula, or the shaking. 

The natatalis, or the swimming. 

The pyramidalis, or the conical. 

The siliquata arida, or the dry-.shelled. 

The gypsea, or the cretaceous. 

The purulent encysted, or putrid. 

The trabecularis, or the barred. This 

is the "calaracte harree," or bar-calaraci 

of the f'rench, and the "cataract uilh a 

girth or zone," of Schmidt. 

II. The spurious are distinguished as — 

The lympliatica, or lymph-cataract. 

The membranacea, or membranous. 

The purulenta, or spurious purulent. 

The grumosa, or blood-cataract. 

The dendritica, arborescent, or choroid. 

The Operations practised for the cure 
of cataract, are the following : — 

1. Couching, or depression ; an opera- 
tion described by Celsus, and con- 
sisting originally in the removal of 
the opaque lens out of the axis of 
vision, by means of a needle. See 
RecliTialinn. 

2. Extraction, or the removal of the 
opaque lens from the eye, by divi- 
sion of the cornea, and laceraiion of 
the capsule. 

3. Keratonyxis, (,K€pa;, Kcparoi.a horn, 
nVtro), to puncture); or the operation 
of couching, performed by puncture 
of the cornea. 

10. Cata-rrhus {f)co),\oRnw). Literally, 
a flowing down; popularly, a cold. In- 
flammation of the mucous membrane of 
the nostrils and bronchia. It is syno- 
nymous with coryza, gravedo, &c. 

11. Cuta-slogmus (ora^tj, to dropl. A 
term applied hy the later Greek physi- 
cians to a deflu.vion from the fauces and 
thorax. 

12. Calh-arlics (xaOatpw, to purge). 
Medicines which produce alvine evacii- 
ations. These are termed luxativc, when 
mild; purgative, when active; and dras- 
tic, when very violent. 

13. Cath-arline (Ka9aip(o, to purge). 
The active principle of senna. 

14. Cath-eler {KaOirifii, to thrust into). 
A tube which is introduced through the 
urethra into the bladder. 

15. Cath-olicon lo\o;, universal). A 
panacea, or nniversnl medicine. 

[CATALPA CORDIFOLIA. ditalpa 
orCaiavvba tree. The seeds are said to be 
useful in asihma.] 

CATECHU, (rale, a tree, chu, juice) 
The name of a variety of asirinsjeiit ex- 
tracts, which are imporle'j under the 
several names of catechu, terra japonica, 
catch, and gamhir. 



tanners, under the name oi^ terra japonica, 
from its being supposed to be of mineral 
origin; it is produced from the leaves of 
the Uncaria gnnibir, and therefore is not 
catechu, but gambir. 

2. Pegu ciitch. or catechu. The pro- 
duce of ihe Acacia catqchu, brought from 
Pegu. 

3. Bengal catechu. A pale extract, ob- 
tained also from the Acacia catechu ; 
from its laminated texture, it was com- 
pared by Jiissieu to the bark of a tree. 

4. Colombo catechu. Round flat cakes 
procured by making an extract of the 
betel nut, Ihe seed of the Areca catechu. 

5. Catechin. A particular principle 
obtained from the portion of catechu 
which is insoluble in cold water. 

t). Catechuic acid. Catechine. An 
acid obtained by Buchner from catechu. 
This acid, when treated with caustic 
potash, &c., yields japonic acid; and, 
when dissolved in carbonate of potash, 
ruliiiiic acid. 

CATIIARTOCARPUS f^KaOaip^, to 
purge, KapTTOi, fruil). A genus of Legu- 
minous plants, of which the species^s/u?a 
yields the ca.isia pulp of the pharmaco- 
poeia. 

CATLING. A sharp-pointed, double- 
edged knife, chiefly used in amputations 
of the fore-arm and leg, for dividing the 
interosseous ligaments. 

CATOCHUS (Karcxo), 'to detain). A 
species ol' catalepsy, in which the body 
is rigidly detained in an erect posture. 

[CATOPTRIC EXAMINATION OF 
THE EYE. A means of diagnosis 
founded on the properly which the sur- 
faces of ihe cornea and cryslalline lens 
possess of reflecting images of a luminous 
body. Thus when the cornea, the crys- 
lalline lens, and its capsule, are transpa- 
rent, if a lighted candle be held before 
the eye, three images of it may be seen : 
two upright, one reflected from the an- 
terior surlace of the cornea, the other 
from the anterior capsule of the lens; 
and an inverted one, reflected from the 
posterior capsule of the lens. An opacity 
of any of these reflecting surfaces de- 
stroys iheir reflecting properly.] 

CAUDA EQUINA. Hippuris, or 
horse's tail; the final division of the 
spinal marrow, so called from the dispo- 
sition of ihe nerves which issue from it. 

[CAUDATE {Cauda, a tail). Tail- 
pointed ; prolonged into a long and weak 
tail-like point.] 

CAUDEX. The trunk of a tree. In 
Botany, the stem, or ascending axis of 



1. Square catechu. This is used hy growlh, is {ermed caudex ascendens; the 



C A U 



84 



CEN 



root, or descending axis, caudex descen- 
dens. 

CAUL. The trivial appellation of the 
amnion when it comes away with the 
child ill the birth. 

CAULIFLOWER EXCRESCENCE. 
A disease of the os uieri; supposed by 
Gooch to be encephalosis. 

[C.'\ULh\E {caiilis, ihe stern). Be- 
longing 10 the stem. Leaves are so called 
which arise directly from the stem.] 

CAUSTIC (x-aio), Kaiato, to burn). A 
substance which destroys pans by chemi- 
cally decomposing tbem. Such are the 
concentrated mineral acids, lunar caus- 
tic, &c. 

Causticiim acerrimum. The old name 
for the hydrate of potash — the strongest 
common caustic. 

CAUSUS (Ka'uo, Kaico), to burn). A 
variety of malignant remittent, thus de- 
nominated by Hippocrates from its e.\- 
treme heat, ic. It has been termed by 
later writers fehris arderis, ardent or 
burning remittent. 

Causus endcmlal. A name given to 
the yellow fever of the West Indies. 

CAUTERY (Katui, Kuva'-o, to burn). 
The application of caustics. By the 
term actual cautery is meant the white- 
hot iron; polenlial cautery i?. svnonymoa% 
with caustic. 

Cauterisation ohjective. The employ 



lanthacccB. The seeds are also called 
sabadilla and cevadilla; but more pro- 
perly cebadiUa (from the Spanish cebada, 
barley), on account of the supposed re- 
semblance of the inflorescence of the 
plant to that of Hordeum. — Pereira. 

1. Cevadic or sahaddiic acid. A crj'S- 
talline, fatly acid, obtained by saponifi- 
cation of the oil of cebadilla. 

2. Sabadillina. A substance obtained 
from cebadilla seeds, said to be merely a 
compound of resinate of soda and resi- 
nate of veratria. 

CEDRIRET. A substance found 
among the products of the distillation of 
wood. 

CELESTINE {calum. the sky). Sul- 
phate of strontian, so named from its fre- 
quently presenting a blue colour. 

CELLULA (dim. of ceZZa). A little cell 
or cavity, as those of the hyaloid mem- 
brane. 

1. Cellular. The designation of the 
structure of the mastoid process, of the 
lungs, &c. ; also, of one of the elementary 
tissues of plants. 

2. CtUular membrane, or tissue. The 
filmy meshes which connect the minute 
component pans of most of the struc- 
tures of the body. 

3. Cellularef.' Cellular plants; those 
which have no flowers or spiral ves.sels; 
they are also called Crypiogamous, and 



ment, b3' the French, of radiant heat' .\coiyledonous plants. Compare Vascu 



from a red-hot iron or burning coal, as a 
cautery to check hjemorrhnges, and to 
promote the reduction of prolapsus of the 
rectum and uterus, and of hernia. 

C.W'ERNOL'S (caverna, from cnviis, 
hollow). The name of a ganglion in the 
head, and of two .■'inttses of the sphenoid 
bone. [See Curpus] 

[Cavernous Respiration. See Auscul- 
tation.] 

CAVITARIA [cavilag, a cavity). In- 
testinal worms which have cavities or 
stomachs. 

CAWK. The Sulphas Baryta, or vi- 
triolaled heavy spar. 

CAYE.\NE PEl'PER. The ground 
seeds of the Capsicum frnlescens 

[CEANOTIIUS AMERICANUS. 
]Vew Jersey Tea. Red-root. A small 
shrub, of iheorder Rh<imuate(P. the root i>f 
which is astringent, and said to he useful 
in syphilitic complaints. The infusion is 
an exceedinsrly useliil applicaiiim in aph- 
thous affections, in crusta hclea, in the 
sore throat of scarlatina, &c., and also as 
an internal remedy in dysentery.] 



lares. 

CE.MENT. \ preparation made of 
various materials, which is applied in a 
soft Slate, and afterwards hardens and 
unites the surfaces to which it is ap- 

pliprl. 

C E M E .\ T A T I O N. A process by 
which the properties of a body are 
changed, on being surrounded with the 
powder of other bodies, and exposed to a 
high temperature, as the conversion of 
iron into steel, by cementation with char- 
coal. The substance so employed is 
called cement pounder. 

[CEi\TAUREA BENEDICTA. 
Blessed Thistle. A plant of the natural 
order Campositae, which has been em- 
ployed as a tonic, diaphoretic, and eme- 
tic] 

CENTAURII CACUMINL The 
flowering lops of the Erythrcra centan- 
riiim. or Common [European] Centaury. 
'I"he name is derived from Chiron the 
Ceiiianr, whose wound is said to have 
been cured bv it. 

[CE.NTAURY, AMERICAN. The 



CEBADILL.A. The seeds of the .4.«a-^herb of Sahbatiaans<daris.] 
grea officinalis, a plant of the order Me-\ [CENTIGRAMME. The hundredth 



CEN 



85 



CER 



part of a gramme, a French measure, 
equal to 01544 gr. Troy.] 

[CENTILITRE. The hundredth part 
of a litre, a French measure, equal to 
2-7053 fluid drachms] 

[CENTIMETRE. The hundredth pari 
of a metre, a French measure, equal to 
0-3937 inch.] 

[CENTRIFUGAL {centrum, centre, 
fiigio, to fly). Leaving the centre. In 
Botany this term is applied to inflore- 
scences in which the central flowers 
open first.] 

[CENTRIPETAL (cenfrum, centre, 
pc^o, to seek). Approaching the centre. 
In Botany it is applied to inflorescences 
in which the marginal flowers open first.] 

CENTRUM {Kti'riw, to prick). The 
centre or middle point of any pari. 

1. Centrum ovale majus. The appear- 
ance of a large centre of white substance 
surrounded by a thin stratum of gray, 
presented when both hemispheres of the 
brain are cut down nearly to a level with 
the corpus callosum. 

2. Centrum ovale minus. The appear- 
ance of a centre of white substance, sur- 
rounded by a narrow border of gray, ob- 
served on removing the upper part of one 
hemisphere of the brain. 

3. Centrum tendinosum. The tendi- 
nous centre of the diaphragm. 

CEPHALE'(«(/.aX-;). The head. Its 
compounds are — 

1. Cephalalgia (aXyog. pa]i\). Cephatea. 
Pain in the head ; headache. 

2. Cephalic Vein. The anterior vein 
of the arm ; formerly opened in disorders 
of the head. 

3. Cephnlics. Remedies for disorders 
of the head. 

4. Cephalitis. Inflammation of the 
brain. 

5. Cephalndyne (ocvvr), pain). Head- 
ache; pain in the head. 

6. Cephaloma. Medullary tumour; a 
morbid product, resembling brain, some- 
times called encephaloid or cerebriform 
tumour, medullary sarcoma, fungus hce- 
matodes, &c. 

7. Cephalogenesis (yivscri;, creation). 
The doctrine of the formation of the 
brain. 

8. Cephalo-pharyngpus. A designation 
of the constrictor superior muscle, from 
its arising from the bape of ihe skull. 

9. Ceplittlcemaloma {ajfia, blood). S.in- 
guineons tumour of the head, forming 
spontaneously, and sometimes called ab- 
scessus capitis saiigiiincus neonatorum. 

10. Ceplialo-poda (vovg, Trocoi, a foot). 
The fifth class of the Ct/clo-gangliata, or 



Mollusca, consisting of aquatic animals, 
with feet disposed around iheir head. 

[1 1. Ceplialotribe (rpilSoi, to crush). A 
strong forceps invented by Baudelocque 
the nephew, for crushing the foetal head.] 

CER,A. Wax; a resinous substance 
secreted from the ventral scales of the 
Apis mellifica, or Honey-bee ; also a pro- 
duct of vegetables, as of the Myrica 
cerifera, the Wax Myrtle, or Bayberry. 
Bees-wax is distinguished into the white, 
bleached, or virgin wax; and the yellow 
or unbleached wax. 

1. Cerine. One of the constituents of 
wax, forming at least 70 per cent, of it. 
The other constituent is myricine. Re- 
cently it has been stated that wax is ho- 
mogeneous, that it possesses the properties 
of myricine, and that the difference be- 
tween these two substances is owing to 
the presence of eerie acid, formed by the 
oxidation of myricine. 

2. Ceric acid. An acid produced by 
the action of the fixed alkalies on wax. 

CERASIN. A substance contained in 
the gum exuded from the bark of the 
Prunus Cerasus, or Cherry-tree. 

CERASUSLAURO-CERASUS. Com- 
mon or Cherry-laurel ; a Rosaceous plant, 
the leaves of which are employed for pre- 
paring the cherry-laurel water. 

CERATO-GLbSSUS («paf, a horn, 
yXCmaa, the tongue). A muscle running 
from one of the cornua of the os hyoi'des 
to the tongue. See Hi/o-glossus. 

CERATOTOME {xlpa;. a horn, roixij, 
section). The name given by Wenzel 
to the knife with which he divided the 
cornea. 

CERA'TUM (cfra, wax). A cerate, or 
composition of wax, &c., characterized 
by a consistence intermediate between 
that of plasters and that of ointments. 

[l.C.Cantharidis. Ph. U. S. Blistering 
Plaster. Yellow wax, resin, and lard, of 
each 3*''J! ^n*?'' together, and add of 
finely powdered Spanish flies fej., and 
stir constantly until cold. 

[2. C. Cctacei. Ph. U. S. Spermaceti 
Cerate. Spermaceti, 3'j., white wax, giij.; 
melt together, then add of oil previously 
heated, f gvj. An emollient dressing to 
sores. 

[3. C. Hydrargyri compnsitum. Ph. U. 
S. Compound cerate of Mercury. Strong 
mercurial ointment, s-oap cerate, each 
^iv.. camphor, ^.; mix. A discutient 
application to indolent tumours. 

[4. C.Plumbisuhacelalis. Ph. U.S. Ce- 
rate of siibncetaie of lead, Goulard's ce- 
rate. To melted white wax gi^-' ^^^ 
olive oil, gviij. ; mix, and remove from 



CER 



CER 



ciipying ihe whole upper cavity of the 
skull. 

1. Cerebritis. Encephalitis; inflam- 
mntion of the cerelirum. 

2. Cereltric acid. One of the peculiar 
arids Inund in the faiiy mailer of the 
brain. The oilier acid is termed the 
oleophnsp/tnric. 

[3. Cerehro-spinal fluid. The fluid ex- 
isting bcnealh the arachnoid membrane 
of the brain and spinal cord.] 

4. Cerebro-spinants. Anolher name for 
narcotics, from their affecting the func- 
tions of the cerebro-spinal system. 

CEREVISIA (quasi reresia. from Ceres, 
corn). Malt liquor; beer and ale; a fer- 
mented decoction of malt and hops. The- 
ophrasius termed it mne of barley. 

1. CerevisifB ferment urn. Yeast, or 
barm; a substance procured from wori 
during fermentation, partly as a scum, 
partly as a sediment. It consists of vesi- 
cles, capable of generating other vesicles, 
and regarded by Turpin as a new plant, 
which he called ti,ruta cerevisics. Thus, 
fermentation is an effect of vitality. 

2. Cerevisia abietis. Spruce beer ; made 
from essence of spruce, pimento, ginger, 
hops, yeast, molasses, and water. 

CERIN. A peculiar substance which 
precipitates, on evaporation, from alco- 
hol which has been digested on grated 
cork. Subercerin would have been a 
fitter name. 

CERIUM. A white metal found in a 
Swedish mineral called cerite, and more 
recently in aJlanite. 

[CER.\UOUS(cer?ii/MS, hanging down). 
Drooping; inclining from Ihe perpendicu- 
lar towards the horizon.] 

CEROMA {Ktipoi, wax). The name 
given by Dr. Crai'gie to adipose tumour 
of the brain, from its waxy appearance. 
By Andral it is termed fatly production ; 
by Hebreart, lardaceous degeneration. 

CERULINcceruZeus, blue). The name 
a tumour). Protrusion of the membrane; given to indigo in the modified state 



the fire; when it begins to thicken, add 
subacetate of lead, I3iiss. ; mix with a 
wooden spatula till it becomes cool, and 
then add camphor, 3?s., previously dis 
solved in one ounce of olive oil. Used 
to dry up excoriaiions. relieve the inflam- 
mation of burns, scalds, Arc. 

[5. C. Renlna. Ph. U. S. Basilicon 
Ointment. Resin. 'Jv., lard, 3^'''J- y*''" 
low wax, 3ij.; melt together, and strain 
through linen. A gently stimulating ap- 
plication, used to blistered surfaces, indo- 
lent ulcers, burns, &c. 

[6. C. RessincF. compositum. Ph. U. S. 
Compound Resin Cerate, Deshler's salve. 
Resin, suet, yellow wax. aa }^., turpen- 
tine, ftss., flax-seed oil,Oss. ; rnelt toge- 
ther, and strain through linen. A stimu- 
lating application, used for indolent ul- 
cers, <fcc. 

[7. C. SahincE. Ph. U. S. Savine 
Cerate. Powdered savine, ^'J-- resin 
cerate, 8J.; mix. A stimulating appli- 
cation, used to keep up the discharge 
from blisters, setons, &c.' 

[8. C. Saponis. Ph. U. S. Soap Ce- 
rate. Solution of subacetate of lead,Oij., 
soap, 3^'j-; ''O'' together over a slow fire 
to the consistence of honey, then transfer 
to a water bath and evajwrate all the 
moisture; lastly, add white wax, ^x., pre- 
viously melted in olive oil, Oj. A mild 
cooling dressing for scrofulous swellings 
and other local inflammations. &c, 

\9. C. Simplex. Ph. U. S. Simple 
Cerate. Lard, ^^'U-- white wax, giv 
melt, and stir till cold. A mild and cool- 
ing dressing for inflamed surfaces. 

[10. C. ^Zinci carbonatis. Ph. U. S 
Cerate of Calamine. Turner's Cerate 
Yellow wax, ftss., lard, ftij.; melt to- 
gether; when, on cooling, they begin to 
thicken, add prepared carbonate of zinc, 
ftss., and stir till cool. A mild astrin- 
gent, used in excoriations, burns, &c.] 

[KER.\TOCELE («pa;, a horn, Kh'^r, 



of the aqueous humour through an open 
ing in the cornea.] 

CERCHNUS. Wheezing; a dense 
and impeded sound, produced below the 
larynx ; a symptom common to asthma 
and dyspnoea. 

CERKALIA (feasts dedicated to Ceres). 
All sons of corn, of which bread or any 
nutritious substance is made. 

CEREBELLUM (dim. of cerebrum). 
The little brain ; the postero-inferior pan 
of the encephalon, situated behind the 
larger brain, or cerebrum. 

CEREBRUM (Kapr,, the head). The 
brain ; the chief portion of the brain, oc- 



which it acquires during solution. 

CERU'ME.\ 'sera, wax). Cerea. Au- 
rium sordes. The waxy secretion of the 
ear, furnished by the cerumenous glands. 

CERUSS.A. Ceruse, or carbonate of 
lead ; [magistery of lead] the white-lead 
of painters, used by them to give the 
property called body. 

Cerusaa Acetata. Sugar of lead, Sac- 
chnrum Saturni; the super-acetate of lead. 

CERVrCAL {cervix, the neck). A 
pillow or bolster. Celsus. [Belonging to 
the neck.] 

CERVIX. The neck ; the hinder part 
of the neck ; the forepart is called coUum. 



CER 



87 



CHA 



The lerm cervix is also applied to the 
necii of the bladder and of liie uterus. 

CERVUS ELAPHLS. The slag, or 
hart, from the horns and hools oC which 
the harlphorn shavings are prorurcd. 

CKTACKA {ccte, a whale). Whale-like 
animals, as liie dolphin, diigong, <fcc. 

1. Celaceiim. Spermaceti; a peculiar 
modification of fiilty matter, obtained 
from tiie Physeler macTocephalus, or 
Spermaceti Whale. 

2. Celic acid. An acid procured from 
spermaceti, consisting of margarine and 
fatty mailer. 

3. Celine. A white laminated sub- 
stance, constituting pure spermaceti. 
The commercial spermaceti, or ce/aceum, 
usually contains a little sperm oil. 

4. Cett/l. The supposed radical of a 
new series of compounds derived from 
spermaceti. Celene is one of these, and 
is procured by distilling ethal with gla- 
cial phosphoric acid. See Elhal. 

CETRARIA ISLANDICA. Liche?, 
Islandicus. Iceland Liverwort, or Moss ; 
a lichen employed as an aliment. 

CEVADIC ACID. An acid produced 
by the saponification of the oil of the 
lerairum sahadilla. It is also called 
sahadillic acid. 

CEYLON MOSS. The Fucus amyla- 
ecus, a Cryptogamic plant, of the order 
AlgcB, lately introduced as a substitute 
for farinaceous foods. 

CHABERT'S OIL. An oil prepared 
by mixing three parts of oil of turpentine 
with one part of Dippel's oil, and dis- 
tilling three parts. 

CHALASIS(\iiXafa,a small swelling). 
The name given by Sauvages to the 
porcine species of scrofula ; the equine 
species he denominated scrofula farci- 
nien. 

CHALAZA (xdXasa, a small swelling). 
A small brown spot observed at the apex 
of some seeds, as of the orange, formed 
by the union of certain vessels proceeding 
from the hilum. 

CHALAZIUM (x<iXa?a, a hailstone). 
Chalazion. An indurated tumour of un- 
defined margin, occupying the edge of 
the lid. It IS called, in Latin, grando; 
and, from its being supposed to be the 
indurated remains of a stye, it has been 
termed hordeolum indnralum. 

CHALCANTHUM (xa\Kdg, brass, 
avBoi, a flower). The flowers of brass, 
or the Sulphas Zinci. Pliny's term for 
copperas. 

CHALK. Creta. Carbonate of lime; 
a common species of calcareous earth. 

1. Black chalk. Drawing slate ; a 



bluish-black clay, containing about 12 
per cent, of carbon. 

2. Red chalk. A species of argillaceous 
iron-sione ore. 

3. Spanish chalk. Steatite or soap rock. 

CHALK -STOKES. Gouty concre- 
tions, lound in the joints, consisting of 
urate of soda and phosphate of lime. 

CHALYBEATE WATERS. Ferru- 
ginous waters. Mineral waters, whose 
predominating or active principle is iron. 
There are two kinds; the carbonated, 
containing carbonate of the protoxide of 
iron; and the sulphaled, corHaining sul- 
phate of iron. Some of the latter contain 
sulphate of alumina, and are called alu- 
minaus suiphated chalyleates. 

CHALYBS (Chalybes, a people who 
dug iron out of the earth). A kind of 
hard iron, or steel. Hence the term cha- 
lybeate is applied to waters which are 
impregnated with iron or steel. 

Chalybis rubigo. Rust of iron; the 
prepared subcarbonate of iron. 

CHAMELEON MINERAL. A com- 
bination of black oxide of manganese and 
potash, which gives a green colour to 
water, passes gradually through all the 
shades of the prism, and at last becomes 
colourless. 

CHAMOMILE FLOWERS. The 
floral heads of the Anlhemix nobilis, an 
indigenous Composite plant. The single 
jlowirs have the largest yellow discs, in 
which the volatile oil resides; the double 
flowers, in which the yellow tubular 
florets of the disc are more or less con- 
verted into white ligulate florets, contain 
less of this oil ; the former are, therefore, 
to be preferred. 

CHANCRE (Fr. KapKivo;, cancer). A 
sore which arises from the direct appli- 
cation of the syphilitic poison. 

CHANDOO. An extract of opium, 
prejiared by the Chinese for smoking. 

CHARA HISPIDA. A submersed 
leafless aquatic plant, interesting to the 
physiologist as displaying the special 
circulation in plants, and as being analo- 
gous in botany to the frog in zoology. 

CHARCOAL. CarboLigni. The re- 
sidue of animal, vegetable, and many 
mineral substances, when heated to red- 
ness in close vessels. There are several 
varieties of charcoal, termed gas-carbon, 
lamp-black, wood-charcoal, coke, and 
ivory-black. 

ClIARPIE {carpo, to scrape). The 
French term for scraped linen, or lint. 

CHARTREUX, POUDRE DE. The 
Kermes mineral ; a term invented by 
some Carthusian friars. 



CHA 



88 



CHI 



CHAY, or CHAYA ROOT. The root 
of the Oldenlandia umhellata, used for 
giving the beautiful red of the Madras 
cottons. 

CIIKESE. Cafeiis. The curd of milk 
separated from the whey, pressed or har- 
dened, and coloured with annolto, one 
ounce of which will colour a hundred 
weight of cheese. 

1. Uoiida cheese is made in Holland ; 
muriatic acid is used in curdling the milk 
instead of rennet; this renders it pungent 
and preserves it from miles. 

2. Parmesan cheese, so called from 
Parma in Italy, is merely a skim-ynilk 
cheese, owing its flavour to the fine 
herbage of the meadows along the Po, 
where the cows feed. 

3. Gruyere cheese, so named from a 
place in Fribourg, is made of skimmed, 
or partially skimmed milk, and flavoured 
with herbs. 

CHELIDONIUM MAJUS. The 
Greater Celandine ; a Papaveraceous 
herb, the yellow juice of which has 
been employed as an esclmrotic to de- 
stroy warts. 

CHELOFDE (xAnj, a tortoise, clSo;, 
likeness). Cancroide. A designation of 
a disease of the skin, described under this 
name by Alibcrt, from its presenting a 
flattish raised patch of integument, re- 
sembling a tortoise's shell. 

[CHEILOPLASTICE (Kct\o;, a lip, 
Tr\aiTTiKo;, forming). Operation for form- 
ing an artificial lip.] 

CHELONIA (xAw^M. a tortoise). The 
Tortoise tribe: the first order of the class 
Reptilia. 

CHEMISTRY. A term, of Arabic 
origin, signifying the knowledge of the 
composition of bodies, and of the changes 
of constitution produced by their mutual 
action on each other. 

CHEMO'SIS (xoiVw, to gape). An af- 
fection in which the conjunctiva is ele 
vated above the transparent cornea. 

CHELSEA PENSIONER. A nos- 
trum for the rheumatism, said to be the 
prescription of a Chelsea pensioner, by 
which Lord Amherst was cured. Gum 
guaiac, 3j. ; rhubarb, ^ij. ; cream of tar- 
'^''i 3J-> flowers of sulphur, 3J-i one 
nutmeg ; clarified honey, one pound. 
Two large spoonsful to be taken night 
and mornmff. 

CHELTENHAM SALTS. Sulphate 
of soda, grs. 120; suljihate of magnesia 
grs. 66 ; muriate of soda, grs. 10 ; 
sulphate of iron, gr. J, triturated to 
gether. 

I. " Efflorescence of Real Cheltenham 



Salts." The preceding salt deprived of 
its water of crystallization. 

2. " Efflorescence of the real Magnesian 
Cheltenham Salts," made from the waters 
of the Chalybeate Magnesian Spa. Ep- 
som salt, with small portions of magne- 
sia, and muriate of magnesia, or muriate 
of soda. 

3. Murio-Sulphate of Magnesia and 
Iron. A preparation so named by Mr. 
Thomson, and consisting of Epsom salt 
deprived of a part of its water of crystal- 
lization, and discoloured by a little rust 
of iron, and containing a small portion of 
muriate of magnesia. 

4. " Original Combined Cheltenham 
Salts." The waters of the Spa evapo- 
rated to dryness. 

[CHENOPODIUM. Ph. U. S. Worm- 
seed. The fruit of Chenopodium anihel- 
mintieum. A very efficient indigenous 
anthelmintic. The seeds and the ex- 
pressed oil are both given.] 

CHENOPODIUM OLIDUM. A plant 
of the Goosefoot tribe, remarkable for 
exhaling uncombined ammonia. 

CHEST. Thorax. An old English 
term, commonly traced to the Latin cista 
and Greek Ktirrn, which are of the same 
import. "When it is considered that 
the .same word was anciently used for a 
liashet, the appropriation of it to the 
human thorax will appear quite natural 
to anv one who has ever seen a skeleton." 
Forbes. 

CHEVASTER, or CHEVESTRE (ca- 
pistriim, a halter). A double roller, ap- 
plied to the head in cases of fracture, or 
luxation of the lower jaw. 

CHEWING BALLS. Masticatories 
used in farriery, composed of the wood 
of the bay and juniper trees, assafietida, 
liver of antimony, and pellitory of Spain. 

CHIASMA. The point of decussation 
of the optic nerves. 

CHIASTRE. A bandage for stopping 
ha;morrhage from the tetnporal artery, 
and named from its being shaped like a 
cross, or the Greek letter X, chi. 

CHICKEN POX. The popular name 
of a species of Varicella. 

CHIGRE, orCHIQUE. Chirones. A 
small sand-flea of the West Indies, which 
insinuates itself into the soft and tender 
pans of the firiscrs and toes. 

CHILBLAIN. Pernio. An inflam- 
maiion of ihe extreme parts of the body, 
from exposure to cold. 

CHILU-BED FEVER. Puerperal fe- 
ver, and often called peritoneal fever. 

CHILLIES. Long taper pods of the 
Capsicum annuum. Cayenne pepper con- 



CHI 



89 



CHL 



sists of the dried and ground seeds of 
Capaicum frulescens. 

CHIMAPHILA UMBKLLATA. A 
plant known by the names of Winter 
Green and Pipsisewa, and reputed as a 
specific against scrofula. [It has tonic, 
diuretic, and diaphoretic properties.] 

CHIMNEY-SWEEPERS' CANCER. 
A popular name of the Cancer Scroti, or 
Munditorum, or soot-wart. 

CHINA-CLAY. Kaoliii. [q. v.] 

CHINA GLAZE. A preparation for 
printing blue frit, made from ten parts 
of glass, two parts of lead, and three or 
more of blue calx. 

CHINA NOVA. The name given in 
Germany to the red bark, known in 
France as Quinquina nova ; it is the pro- 
duce of the Cinchona oblongifolia. Ii is 
very different from the red bark of Eng- 
lish commerce, though they have been 
confounded together by the London Col- 
lege. Pharm. Journ. 

Chinova bitter. A snow-while sub- 
stance, of acid properties, obtained by 
operating on china nova. 

CHINA ROOT. Radix China Orien- 
talis. Tbe produce of the Smilax China, 
said to be brought from the province of 
Ofiansi in China. 

American China Root. Radix Chinte 
Americanae. Said to be the produce of 
Smilax pseudo - China, brought from 
Mexico. 

CHINCOUGH. Probably a corruption 
od' chinecoiigh. See Pertussis. 

CHIRAGRA (x^}p, the hand, aypa, sei- 
zure). Gout of the hand. 

CHIRAYTA. An intensely bitter sub- 
stance, procured from the Agatholes Chi- 
rayta, a plant of the order Gentianacea, 
and closely allied to Gentian. The sub- 
stance sold as sulphate of chirayiline is 
sulphate of quina. 

CHIRURGIA (^ap, the hand, ipyov, 
work). Operation by means of the hand, 
commonly called chirurgery, or surgery. 

CHITINE. A chemical principle dis- 
covered by M. Odier in the wings and 
elytra of coleopterous insects. It is ob- 
tained by plunging beetles, &c., in a hot 
solution of potass, which dissolves all but 
the chitine. It is also called entomoline. 

CHLOASMA {x\6n, grass). Chloasma 
paeudo-porrigo. A designation of the 
Pityriasis versicolor, or chequered dan- 
driff It has been called maculaj hepa- 
ticfE, or liver-spots, from an opinion that 
it originated in disease of the liver. 

CHLORINE ix^upd;, green). A green- 
ish gas, obtained by the action of mu- 
riatic acid on peroxide of manganese. It 



was first described under the name of 
dephlogisticaled marine acid, and was 
alterwards called oxy-muriatic acid. Its 
compounds, which are not acid, are called 
(liliirides (ur chlururcls). and are charac- 
terized by the same prefixes as the oxides. 

1. Aqua chlorinii. Chlorine water; a 
solution of chlorine gas in water; also 
called aqua oxymuriata, or liquid oiy- 
murialic acid. 

2. Chlorates. The salts of chloric acid, 
formerly called hyper oxymuriates. The 
principal are those of potash and baryta. 

3. Chloracetic acid. A remarkable acid, 
in which the three atoms of the hydrogen 
of acetic acid are replaced by three atoms 
of chlorine. 

4. Chloral. This term, derived from 
the first syllable of the words chlorine 
and a/cohol, has been applied by Liebig 
to a new compound of chlorine, carbon, 
and oxygen, prepared by the mutual 
action of alcohol and chlorine. 

5. Chloriodic acid. The name given, 
from its acid properties, to a compound 
ol' chlorine and iodine. Gay-Lussac calls 
it chloride of iodine. 

6. Chlorimetry. The process of esti- 
mating the bleaching power of chloride 
of lime, by the quantity of a solution of 
sulphate of indigo which a known weight 
of chloride can discolour or render yellow. 

7. Chloroid. A term applied, on the 
electrical hypothesis, to the negative pole, 
from its exhibiting the attraction which 
is characteristic of chlorine. The positive 
pole is termed the Zinco'id. 

8. Chlorydric acid. The name given 
by Thenaril to muriatic, now called hy- 
drochloric acid. 

9. Chloric ether. Under this name two 
compounds have been confounded. One 
of these results from the action of chlo- 
rine on defiant gas, and is generally 
known as the oil of the Dutch chemists. 
The other is obtained by passing hydro- 
chloric acid gas into alcohol to satura- 
tion, and distilling the product; this is 
generally called hydrochloric ether. 

10. Chloretherise. A substance ob- 
tained by Laurent by passing chlorine 
through Dutch liquor, in Liebig's appa- 
ratus. 

[CHLOROFORME. A very dense, 
transparent, limpid liquid, obtained by 
the distillation of alcohol and the chlo- 
ruret of lime dissolved in water. It has 
a saccharine, slightly alcoholic savour, 
very analogous to that of ethers. It is 
said to possess antispasmodic properties, 
and to present considerable analogy of 
composiiiou and action with the etheis.] 



CHL 



90 



CHO 



CHLOROPIIANE (:^:X6jp<Jj, green, lera. The premonitory symptoms or early 



(paivo), to shine). A variety oijluor spar 
which gives out an emerald green light, 
by the mere heat of I he hand. 

CHLOROPIIYLLE (xXcjpSf, green, 
(piWof, a leaf). The green colouring 
matter of leaves. See Chromule. 

CHLORO'SIS (xXwpdf, green, pale). 
Green-sickness; an affection in which 
the blood becomes impaired, the coun- 
tenance pallid, and, as a further conse- 
quence, the catamenia suppressed. 

CfiOKE DAMP. Carbonic acid; the 
irrespirable air of coal-pits, wells, &c. 
Compare Fire-Damp. 

CIIOLE' (xoX--)). Bile. The peculiar 
secretion of the liver. 

1. Cholagogues (ayo), to move). A term 
formerly applied to purgatives which 
cause the discharge of bile into the ali- 
mentary canal. They have been called 
chololks or bililics. 

2. Choledochus ductus {itxoiiai, to re- 
ceive). The common bile duct. 

3. ChoUcaad. A peculiar animal acid, 
prepared directly from bile. 

4. Cholo-lithic (\Wos, a stone). Gall- 
stone; a bilious concretion found in the 
gall-bladder, or bile ducts 

CHOLERA. An affection attended by 
vomiting, purging, &c. ; in the European 



stages of cholera, or the slight diarrhoea 
with which many persons are affected 
during the prevalence of that disease as 
epidemic ] 

CHOLESTERINE (xoXfj, bile, crcpcoi, 
solid). A crystallizable substance which 
may be dissolved out of inspissated bile, 
by ether; it is also a constituent of the 
brain and nerves. 

C/iolesteric acid. A substance produced 
by heating nitric acid with cholesterine. 

CHONDROS (X(Sk5/)0!,-). Cartilage; an 
opaque elastic substance, capable of be- 
ing reduced to gelatine by boiling. 

1. Chondro-logy (Xoyoj, discourse). A 
description of cartilages. 

2. Cliondr j-pteryqii (n-rtpuf , a fin). Car- 
tilaginous fishes, as the ray, the second 
sub-class of the order Pisces. 

3. Chondroma. The name given by 
Hooper and Craigie to scirrhous or fibro- 
cartilaginous tumour of the brain. 

4. Chondrin. 1. A modification of 
animal gelatine, first found by Miiller in 
a bony tumour, and afterwards obtained 
from permanent cartilages, &c. 2. The 
substance of the cartilages of the ribs. 

5. Chondro-glossus. A muscle running 
from the cartilaginous joining of the body 
and horn of the os hyoides to the tongue. 



form, accompanied with bile; in iheSeeHyo-glossus. 

Indian, without bile or urine. The term 6. Syn-chondrosis. An articulation in 

is usually derived from xoXfj, bile, and which cartilage is employed to keep the 

piu, to flow; or it may be from xoXtpa,, bones together. 

a water-trough, precisely, accorduig to CHOA'DRUS CRISPUS. Carrageen 

Dr. Forbes, '• as we have seen the word 'or Irish Moss, sometimes sold as pearl 

diabetes transferred, by metonymy, I'rom'raoss; an Aigaceous plant, 



an instrument to the disease. Others de 
rive the term from xo^"^s, an intestine, 
and ^tcj, to flow, quasi bowel-Jlux, in 
place of bile-flux." 

[CHOLERA LNFAIVTUM. Summer 
Complaint. A disease of infants: indi- 
genous to the United States; prevalent 
during the hot weather in most of the 
towns of the Middle and Southern, and 
many of the Western Slates; ordinarily 
characterized by excessive irrilabiliiy of 
stomach, with purging, the stools benig 
thin and colourless, or of various hues of 
green and pink, but never yellow except 
at the onset or during convalescence; 
fever of an obscurely remittent charac- 
ter; rapid emaciation; cold feet and 
hands, with preternatural heat of head 
and abdomen ; dry, harsh and wilted 
skin; excessive thirst; and in the latter 
stages somnolency, the patient sleeping 
with his eyes half open; coma; the case 
terminating often with convulsions.] 

[CHOLERINE. Diminutive of Cho- 



CHORDA, pi. ChordcB (.xopSfi). A cord ; 
a tendon; a filament of nerve, &c. 

1. Chorda Tympani. A filament of 
the vidian nerve, which enters the tym- 
panum. 

2. Chordm Tendinece. The tendinous 
strings which connect the carnea" colum- 
n(r of the heart to the auricular valves. 

3. Chorda Ventriculi. A designation 
of I he gastric plexus of the par vagum. 

4. Cliord<B Vocales. The vocal chords, 
or ihe thyro-aryiKnoid lisramenis. 

5. Chorda: Willisii. The small fibres 
crossing the sinuses of the dura mater. 

CHORDAPSUS [xop^n. a gut, uttt-m, 
to twist). A kind of violent spasmodic 
colic, in which the large intestines seem, 
as it were, twisted into knots. — Ctlsus. 

CHORDEE (French, from xop^fi, a 
chord). A painful erection of the penis, 
attending gonorrhoea, sometimes with in- 
curvation. 

CHOREA SANCTI VITI ixopda, a 
dancing, from xop^Si a dance). Scelo- 



CHO 



91 



C IL 



tyrbe: St. Vitus' Dance. Convulsive |name given by Soubeiran to iincryslal- 
motions of the limbs, as of a person lizable sugar.] 



dancing 

CHORION (xtopioi/, a domicile). The 
external membrane of the foetus. 

Choroid {ciioi, likeness;. Resembling 
the chorion ; a term applied to the plexus 
and web of the pia mater, to the inner 
tunic of the eye, &c. 

CHORIUM (x6ptou. skin, leather). The 
dermis, or innermost layer of the skin. 

CHREME. A preparation of real 
cream, or an imitation of it, with fruits 
and flavoured substances. 

CHROMIUM (xpco//a, colour). A me- 
tal, so called from its remarkable ten 
dency to form coloured compounds. The 
emerald and the ruby owe their colours 
to the presence of this element. 

1. Chrome iron. The ore from which 
the compounds of chromium, used in the 
arts, are derived. 

2. Chrome alum. A crystallizable 
double salt formed of the sulphates of 
chromium and of potash. 

3. Chrome yellow. This well-known 
pigment is the chrornate of lead. 

CHKOMULE (\7)(3//a, colour). The 
name of the colouring matter of plants. 
It has been incorrectly termed chloro- 
phylle. 

CHRONIC (xpi5i/oj, time). Long-con- 
tinued, as applied to diseases of long- 
standing, and opposed to acute. 

[CHRUPSIA (xpoa, colour, oi^if. light) 
Coloured vision.] 

[CHRYSEN {xpvaoi, gold). A yellow 
crystalline substance obtained from pilch, 
by distillation at a high temperature, by 
M. Laurent.] 

CHRYSOS (xpy<T6s). Gold. Hence, 

1. Chryso-balanus, {j3d\avos, an arorn). 
The Nulmegi or the Myristicae Nuclei. 

2. Chryso-btryl. A gem of a pale 
yellow or green colour, consisting of 
glucina and alumina. 

3. Chryso-coUa {koWu, glue). Golden 
glue. The Greek name lor borax. But 
It does not appear that borax was known 
to the ancients, their chrysocolla being 
a very different substance, composed ol 
the rust of copper, triturated with urine. 
Ure. 

4. Chryso-lite (Xi'floy, a stone). For- 
merly, a general name for precious 
stones ; now restricted to a stone termed 
by the French peridot. 

5. Chrysomelia {finXov, an apple). The 
Seville Orange, or the Auranlii Bacca. 

6. Chri/so-prasus {vpaaov, a leek). A 
green stone with a golden lustre. 

[CHULARIOSE [xv^apwv.symp). A 



CHURRUS. A resinous extract of 
Indian Hemp, prepared in Central India. 
A finer variety is sold in Nipal, and 
termed momeea, or waxen churrus. 

CHYAZIC. A term derived from the 
nilials of carbon, hydrogen, and azote, 
and applied to an acid. 

CHYLE (X'Ads, juice). The milk-like 
fluid absorbed by the lacteal vessels. 

1. Chyli-Jication (Jio, to become). The 
process by which the chyle is separated 
from the chyme. 

2. Chylopoielic {irodo), to make). A 
term applied to the viscera and vessels 
which are connected with the formation 
of chvle. 

CHYME (Vfids, juice). The semi-fluid 
matter which passes from the stomach 
into the duodenum. 

Chyvii-Jication {Jio, to become). The 
process by which the aliment is con- 
verted into chyme. 

CICATRIX (a scar). The mark left 
after the healing of a wound or ulcer. 

Cicatrization. The process by which 
wounds and sores heal. 

CICHORIUM INTYBUS. Wild Suc- 
cory, Chicory, or Wild Endive; n Com- 
posite plant, the root of which is used in 
France as a substitute for coffee. 

CICUTA VIROSA. Water Cowbane ; 
a poisonous plant of the order Umhelli- 
fer<e, supposed by Haller to be the co- 
nium of ihe Greeks. 

[CICUTA MACULATA. American 
Water Hemlock. An American species 
closely analogous to the preceding in 
botanical character and in its action on 
the system.] 

[CICUTINE. A synonym of CoTiia] 

C ILIUM isileo, to twinkle). The 
eyelash, or eyelid. Cdia are also mi- 
croscopic hairs, of a vibratile nature, 
abundant in the lowest forms of animals. 

1. Ciliary. The name of arteries, pro- 
cesses, follicles (Meibomian glands), &c., 
belonging to the eyelids. 

2. Ciliaris musculus. The name by 
which Riolan distinguished tht)se fibres 
of the orbicularis paijiebranim, which 
are next to the tarsus or cartilaginous 
circle of the eyelids. 

3. Ciliary circle or ligament. Orbiculus 
ciliaris. A kind of grayish ring, situated 
between the choroid membrane, the iris, 
and the sclerotica. 

4. Ciliary processes. Small vaseulo- 
membranous bodies surrounding the 
[crystalline lens in a radiating form. 
I 5. Ciliary body. The name of the ring 



CIM 



92 



CIP 



wliich results from the union of the 6. Cinchonic, kinic, or quinic acid. An 
ciliary processes. ac-id found in the Cinchona barks, and 

[6. Ciliated. Fringed with hairs, like nlso in ihe all)urniiiTi of Abies communis, 
an eyeinsh.] When heated in close vessels, it is de- 

Cl.VIICIC ACID (Cimex, a bui?). An composi'd, and jnjjnkinic acid is formed, 
acid procured from ihe bug by Tlienanl. 7. Kinocic acid. A brilliant white 

[CIMICIKUtJA KACKMOSA. Actcca light substance, discovered in Cinchona 
racemosa, Willd. Black Snakeroot. .'V. nova. 

plant of the order /ita/jMncu/acejp, indige-| 8. Red Cinchonic. An insoluble red 
nous in the United Slates, possessing colouring matter found in Cinchona 
tonic, antispasmodic, and expectorant barks, siippo.sed by Berzelius to be a pro- 
properties. It has been used with marked duct of tainiin altered by the air. 
success in the treatment of chorea, in ttie 9. Cinchona alkalies. These are cin- 
doseofa leaspoonful three times a day.] jchonia, quina, and aricina. They may 

CIMOLITE. Cimolian earth. A sub-' be regarded as oxides of a common base 
stance lately brought from Argentiera, the i which has been termed quinogen. Ac- 
ancient Cimolus, consisting apparently of, cording to this view, cinchonia is a mon- 
silex, alumina, oxide of iron, and water, oxide, quina a binoxide, and aricina a 

CINCHONA. A genus of plants,' teroxide. Pereira. 
several species of which yield Peruvian! CINCHONACEjE. The Cinchona 
Bark. The terms Cinchona iiarA and | tribe of dicotyledonous plants. Trees or 
Countess's Powder are derived from the shrubs, with leaves opposite ; ^ow,'prs in 
circumstance that the Countess of Chin-j panicles ; stamens arising from the co- 
chon, wife of the Viceroy of Peru, brought, rolla ; /r«i7 inferior, either splitting into 
80me bark to Europe from South America,! two cocci or indehiscent. 
in 1G39. Soon afterwards, the Jesuits,! CINCINiNUS. The hair on the tem- 
and particularly Cardinal de Lugo, car- pies. Cnrnpare Capilliis. 
ried it to Rome, and hence it was called CINERKS CLAVELLATI (clavus, a 
Jesuits' bark, Jesuits' powder, Pi;Zt)(s vvedge). Riissici. Pearl-ash, or the Po- 
Cardinalis de Lugo, Piilcis Pairiim. iLcUassa impura. The name is derived from 



It was subset] uently employed in France 
by Sir Robert T.ilbor, and was hence ca 
cdTalhor's powder, or the English rented if. 

1. Pale Barks. These are the crovm 
or Loxa bark, the produce of Cinchona 
condaminea ; the silver, giai/, or Huanuco 
bark, the produce of the Cinchona mi- 
crauthra ; the ash and the white Lnxa 
barks of species unknown. 

2. Yellow Barks. These are the yellow 
bark, the produce of Cinchona lanceoiata 
chiefly, also C. hirsula, and niiida; the 
Calisayn, the produce of Cinchona lance- 
oiata?; the 6'ur//ia^ena, of Cinchona cor- 
difolia?; and the Cusco, of a species 
unknown. 

3. Red Barks. These are the red 
Cinchona bark rf IJma, of a species un 
known ; and the Cinchona nova, the pro 
duce of Cinchona magnifolia. 

4. Brown Bark. This is the Huamalies 
bark, the produce of Cinchona purpurea. 
Lindley. 

5. Barkj falsely called Cinchonas. 
Barks which are not obtained from any 
•pecies of Cinchona, and not known lo 
contain quina, cinchonia, or aricina. The 
principal of these are the St. Lucia bark, 
the Caribaean or Jamaica bark, the Peru- 
vian (false) Cinchona, the Brazilian Cin- 
chona, the Piiaya Cinchona., and the Rio 
Janeiro bark. 



the little wedges or billets into which the 
wood was cut to make potash. 

CLNERITIOUS {cineres, ashes). Ash- 
coloured ; a term applied to the exterior 
or cortical part of the brain. 

Cineritiims tubercle. The floor of the 
third ventricle of the brain. 

CINNABAR. Asulphuret of mercury. 
It is native and factitious; the farmer is 
called " ore of mercury ;" the latter is the 
red bisiilphiiret. 

CINNAMIC ACID. An acid procured 
from the oil of cinnamon. Its hypotheti- 
cal base is called cinnamule. 

CINNAMOMUM (^i/inan. Hebr.) A 
genus of plants of the order Lauracca. 

1. Cinnamomum Zei/lanicum. The Cin- 
namon plant, which yields the true Cey- 
lon cinnamon; the Laurus cassia of the 
gardens. 

2. Cinnamomum Cassia. The cinnamon 
Cassia, which yields the cassia lignea, or 
cassia bark, and the cassia buds of com- 
merce 

CINNAMON SUET. A production of 
the Cinnamon tree, used in Ceylon for 
making candles. According lo Dr. Chris- 
lison, it contains 8 per cent, of a fluid 
oil, not unlike olive oil; the remainder 
;s a waxy principle, which answers very 
nearly to Ihe cerin of John. 

CIPOLIN. A green marble, with white 



CIR 



93 



CLA 



zones, brought from Rome ; it gives fire 
with steel, thougli with difhcully. 

CIRCINATE (circinalns, roundedj. 
Rolled inwards from the point to the 
base, like a lock of hair, as the fronds of 
ferns. 

CIRCULATION (circulus, a circle). 
The flow of the blood through the heart, 
the arteries, and veins. It is — 

1. Perfeclly double in the adtdl ; viz, 
that which takes place in the lungs, and 
called pulmonic ; and that which takes 
place through the entire system, and is 
called syslemic. 

2. ParliuUy double in the fmtus, the 
auricles communicating by the foramen 
ovale — the arteries, by the ductus arteri- 
osus, — e.xcept we consider the placental 
circulation as analogous with the pulmo- 
nic ; in fact, the blood of the fetus is 
circulated through the placenta, as that 
of the adult is through the lungs, and for 
the same purpose. 

CIRCULUS WILLISII. Circle of 
Willis. This consists of the communica- 
tions established between the anterior 
cerebral arteries in front, and the inter- 
nal carotids and posterior cerebral arteries 
behind, by the communicating arteries. 

L Circulus ariicitU vasculosus. A term 
applied by W. Hunter to the appearance 
presented by the margin of the articular 
cartilages, where tlie blood-vessels ter- 
minate abruptly. 

2. Circulus tonsillaris. A plexus form- 
ed by the lingual and glosso-pharyngeal 
nerves, around the tonsil. 

CIRCUMAGEiNTES (circumago, to 
move round). A name applied to the 
obliqui muscles, from their supposed 
action of rolling the eye. 

CIRCUMCISION {cirnum.rido. to cut 
about). The removal of a circular por- 
tion of the prepuce. See Phiynosis. 

[CIRCUMDUCTION. See Motion.] 

CIRCUMFLEXUS {circum, about, 
fleclo, to bend). A term applied to a 
muscle which stretches the palate hori- 
zontally, and is hence termed tensor pa- 
lali mollis ; and to the axillary nerve. ■ 

[CIRCUMSCISSILE (circumscisus, cut 
round). Divided across by a transverse 
separation.] 

CIRRHOPODA ^cirrhus, frizzled hair, 
• ffowf, TTodus, a loot). The fourth class of 
the Diploneura or Helminlhoida, consist- 
ing of acjuatic animals, with numerous 
lateral articulated cirrhi, and their body 
iixed in a niuliivalve shell. 

[CIRRIIOSE (cirrus, a tendril). Ter- 
minated by a spiral or flesuose filiform 
appendage.] 



CIRRHO'SIS (Kip/joi, yellowish). A 
disease consisting of diminution and de- 
generation of the liver, which is dense, 
granular, wrinkled, and frequently of a 
rust-brown colour. By Baillie, it vsas 
called common tubercle of the liver ; by Dr. 
EUiotson, gin liver, as being induced by 
drunkenness; by others, granulated, lobu- 
lated, mammellated, or schirrous liver. 

CIRSOS. The Greek term for a varix 
or dilated vein. 

L Cirsocde {Kfi\ri, a tumour). A vari- 
cose enlargement of the spermatic vein. 

2. Cirsophlhalmia (6(p0a\fidi, the eye). 
[Varicositas oculi.] A general varicose 
affection of the blood-vessels of the eye ; 
a local complication of amaurosis. 

CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA. Pareira 
brava or Velvet Leaf, a Menispermaceous 
plant, the root of which, commonly called 
pareira brava, and sometimes imported 
under the name of abuta or butua root, 
exercises a specilic influence over the 
mucous membrane lining the urinary 
passages. 

('issampelin. A new vegetable alkali 
found in pareira brava roof. 

CITRIC ACID. The acid of lemons, 
or Coxwell's Concrete Saltof Lemon. It 
is decomposed by exposure to heat, and 
a new acid sublimes, called the pyro- 
cilric. 

Citricic Acid. A new acid obtained 
by Baup in the preparation of pyro-citpic 
acid ; tiie latter acid was named by him 
citribic. 

CITRINE OINTMENT. The com- 
mon name of the Unguenlum hydrargyri 
nilralis of the pharmacopoeia. 

CITRUS. A genus of Aurantiaceous 
plants, containing vesicular receptacles 
of volatile oil in the external yellovi' por- 
tion, ciiWedJlavedo, of their baccate fruit. 

1. Citrus IJmomim. The Lemon tree. 
The juice of the fruit yields citric acid. 

2. Citrus Aurantium. The Sweet 
Orange. The young unripe fruit dried 
and turned in a lathe are the issue peas 
of ihe shops. 

3. Citrus Bigaradia. The Bigarade, 
or the Bitter or Seville Orange. 

4. Citrus Medica. The Citron tree. 
Pliny calls the fruit malum citreum. 

5. Citrus Limetla. The Lime. The 
fruit yields the oil of bergamol of the 
shops. 

CIVET. A substance collected in a 
bag under the tail of the civet-cat, and 
used as a perfume. 

CLAIRVOYANCE. Clearsightedness. 
A peculiar mode of sensation, or second 
sight, connected with somnambulism, Wi^ 



CLA 



94 



CLI 



supposed to be diffused over the wholei 2. Climacteric teething. The prodiic- 
surl'ace of the body, but to be especially tion of tecih at a very late period ol' life, 
seated in the epigastrium and fingers after the loss of the permanent teeth by 



ends. 

CLAP. The vulgar name of a venereal 
infection. See (wouorrhcr.a. 

CLARIFICATION (clarm, clear, /o, 
to become). The process of ciearmg 
liquids. It is performed by — 

1. Subsidence of the suspended parti- 
cles, and decantation of the supernatant 
liquor. 

2. miration, or straining through fil- 
ters of paper, linen, sand, charcoal, &c. 

3. Coagulation, or the admixture of 
albumen, or the white of egg, and the 
subsequent aolion of caloric, acids, &c. 

CLAUSU'RA (^clatido, to shut). The 
imperforaiion of any canal or cavity. 

[CLAVATE (ctava, a club). Club- 
shaped ; thickest at the upper end.] 

CLAVATIO {clava, a club). Gompho- 
sis. A sort of articulation, in which the 
parts are fixed like a nail by a hammer, 
as the teeth in the sockets. 

CLAVaCULA (dim. of clavis, a key). 
The clavicle, or collar-bone; so called 
irom its resemblance to an ancient key. 

CLAVUS(anail). Spirta pedum. Cal- 
lut. A term applied to corns, and to sta- 
phyloma, or tumour on the eyelids. 

Clavus hystericus. A fixed pain in Ihe 
forehead, as if produced by a nail. 

CLAY. One of ihe primitive earths, 
formerly called argil, but now alumina, 
from its being obtained in greatest purity 
from alum. 

CLEAVAGE. The mechanical di- 
vision of crystals, by which the inclina- 
tion of their lamina is determined. 

CLEISAGRA (tfXtij, ihe clavicle, aypa, 
seizure). The gout in the articulation ol 
the clavicles. 

[CLEMATIS ERECTA. Upright Vir- 
gin's Bower. An European perennial 
plant, having acrid properties, and ex- 
tolled by Slorck as useful in secondary 
syphilis, cancerous and indolent ulcers, 
&c. An infusion of the leaves was given 
internally by him, and the powdered 
leaves applied to the ulcer.] 

CLJBANUS (K'Xi/Jai'Of). An oven; a 
stove, or hot-house. Celsus. 

CLIMACTERIC {K\,naKTiip. the step 
of a ladder). The progression of the life 
of man. It is usually divitled into pe 
riodsof seven years; ihe ninth period, or 
63d year, being tUe grand climacieric. 

1. Climacteric disease. This tenn has 
been applied to a sudden and general 
alteration of health, occurring at a certain 
period of life, and of uncertain duration. 



accident or natural decay, commonly be- 
tween the 63d and 81st year, or ihe in- 
terval which fills up the two grand cli- 
macieric years of the Greek physiologists. 

CLIMATE (ai>a, a region). This 
term denotes, in medicine, the condition 
of the almosphere of different countries, 
or districts, in reference to their ellects 
upon the health of persons inhabiting 
them. The following observations, com- 
piled from the well-known work of Sir 
James Clark, comprises, 1. a brief account 
of ihe condition of Ihe atmosphere of dif- 
ferent countries, or districts, in reference 
lo their effects upon the health of persons 
inhabiting them; and, 2. an enumeraiion 
of those diseases which are most deci- 
dedly benefited by change of climate, 
and the particular situation most suitable 
to each. 

I. English Climates. 

The great desiderata in this country 
are a mild climate and sheltered resi- 
dence lor pulmonary and otheralleclions, 
during the winter and spring. The dis- 
tricts of England may be divided into— 

1. The South Coast. — This compre- 
hends the tract of coast between Hastings 
and Portland Island, including the Isle 
of Wight. The superiority of the climate 
of this district exists chiefly during the 
months of December, January, and Fe- 
bruary. The principal places are — 

(1.) UndercLiff, in the Isle of Wight, 
the most sheltered and warmest of all 
these places; it affords also a good sum- 
mer climate. 

(2.) Hastings, which follows next in 
point of shelter and warmth, during the 
winter and spring monlhs. 

(3.) Brighton, which, though inferior 
to the preceding places as a residence in 
diseases of the respiratory organs accom- 
panied with much irritaiion, is of a drier 
and more bracing atmosphere. Autumn 
is the season during winch the climate of 
this place possesses the greatest advan- 
tages. 

2. The Southwest Coast. — This 
reaches from ihe Isle of Wight to Corn- 
wall. The temperature of ihe more shel- 
tered spots of the south coast of Devon, 
during the months of November, Decem- 
ber, and January, is. on the average, 
about five degrees higher than that of 
London during the same period; whereas 
on the south coast, the diflerence scarcely 
exceeds two degrees. The principal 
places are Torquay, Dawlish, Sidmouth, 



CLI 



95 



C LI 



and Exmauth: the first of these is ihe, between France and Piedmont. The 
most sheltered place in the island; .SaZ-| climate of this district is warmer and 
comfie, the Montpelier of Huxham, is one drier, but more irritating and ex<:iting 
of the warmest spots in this country dur-jthan that of the Southwest. It is also 
ing the winter. 

3. The Land's End. 



subject to sudden vicissitudes of temper- 
This district is'ature, and to frequent harsh, cold winds, 
most suitable for the irritable and inflam-l especially the mistral, or the northwest, 
matory habit, and least so lor the relaxed rendering the whole of this country an 
nervous constitution. The only places in I improper residence for patients suffering 
this district deserving particular notice 
are — 

(1.) Penzance, which is remarkable for 
the equal distribution of its temperature 



under, or peculiarly disposed to, inflam- 
mation or irritation of the respiratory 
organs. The principal places are — 
(1.) Mon/pelier, the high and exposed 
throughout the year, throughout the day situation otvvhich renders it liable to all 
and night; indeed, it is only excelled ihiihe above mentioned objections in a re- 
this respect by the cUmaie of Madeira. 'markable degree; it is well ascertained 
The difTerence between the warmest and that pulmonary inflammation and phthisis 
coldest months in London is 26^; at Pen-lare among the most prevailing diseases 
zance, it is only 18°. The climate of the! of the place. 

Land's End is, however, very humid,] (2.) Marseilles, which, though less ex- 
and, from its exposure to the northerly^ posed than the preceding place, is an 



and easterly winds, colder during the 
spring than Torquay or Undercliff 

(2.) Flushing, a small village in the 
vicinity of Falmouth; its position differs 
from that of Penzance only in being 
somewhat protected from the north and 
east winds. 



equally improper residence for consump- 
tive invalids. It forms a good winter 
residence for persons likely to benefit by 
a dry sharp' air. 

(3.) Hyeres, which possesses the mild- 
est climate in the whole of this district, 
being sheltered to a considerable degree 



4. The West of England. — This from the northerly winds 
comprehends the places along the bor- 3. Nice. — This place, situated in the 
ders of the Bristol Channel and estuary|same line of coast as Provence, is supe- 
of the Severn. Of these it is necessary ' rior to it in several respects: it is pro- 
only to notice — Itected from the northerly winds, espe- 

Cliflon, which, compared with the'cially the mislral; but it is not exempt 
Southwest Coast, is more" exciting, morejfrom cold winds, especially during the 
bracing, and drier, but not so mild ; it is'spring, and is therefore considered an 
therefore better suited to a relaxed, Ian- unfavourable situation for consumption, 
guid habit, and less so for pulmonary and even in its earlier stages, for bronchial 
other diseases, accompanied with irrita- diseases of the dry irritable character, 
tion and a tendency to inflammation. 
II. Foreign Cli.mates. 

1. The Southwest of France. — This! mucous membrane of the stomach. This 
comprehends the tract of country extend-'climaie is found useful for languid, torpid 
ing from Bourdeauxand Bayonne to Tou-' constitutions, for scrofulous affections in 
louse. The mean annual temperature is persons of this kind of constitution, for 
only about four degrees higher than that'chronic bronchial disease, accompanied 
of the southwest of England ; both are' with copious expectoration, for humoral 
soft and rather humid, and agree and dis-|asthma, &c. The summer at Nice is too 
agree, generally speaking, with diseases hot for any class of invalids, 
of the same character. The only place! 4. Italy. — The climate of the south of 
in this district which need be here no-!ltaly differs little in actual temperature 



land for dyspepsia depending on an irri- 
tated or inflammatory condition of the 



ticed IS 



from that of Provence and Nice, but it is 



Pa«, a little town remarkable for the'sofier, more humid, and less exciting, 
mildness of the spring, and its compara-|On the other hand, the sirocco, which is 
live exemption from sharp cold winds scarcely fell at the latter places, forms an 
during that season; its chief fault is the objection to the Italian climate, though 



unsteadiness of its temperature. 
2. The SotiTHEAST OF France.- 



this objection is of not much weight 
This'during the winter. The diseases in 



includes that extensive tract of country which the climate of Italy proves most 
which stretches along the shores of the beneficial, are chronic bronchitis and 
Mediterranean, from Monipelier to the rheumatism. The principal places for 
banks of the Var, the boundary stream | winter climates are — 



CLI 



96 



CLI 



(1.) Rome, which possesses one of the 
best climates in Italy: to the invaUd, 
capable of taking exercise in the open 
air, it affords advantages over both Na- 
ples and Pisa. It is somewhat warmer 
in the winter, and drier than Pisa, though 
more humid than Nice and the parching 
climate of Provence. 

(2.) risa, which resembles Rome in its 
general qualities, but possesses advan- 
tages over every other place in Italy, for 
patients who can bear little, exposure to 
the air. 

(3.) Naples, which is more subject to 
winds, and the air of which is more ex- 
citing than that of Pisa or Rome. As a 
residence for invalids labouring under 
pulmonary irritation, or chronic rheuma- 
tism, it is inferior lo both. 

5. Tha MiCOITKRRANEAN ISLANDS. — 

Some parts of the coast of Sicily afford a 
pretty good winter climate ; it is, how- 
ever, diflicnlt to obtain in these parts 
the comforts and conveniences of life. 
Although exception may be made in this 
respect in favour of 3/a/;a, the climate of 
this island has little to recommend it to 
any class of invalids, least of all to such 
as suffer from pulmonary affections. 

(5. Atlantic Climate. — The climate 
of the Northern Atlantic in the temperate 
latitudes is more steady than that of the 
Mediterranean, and imparts a similar 
character to the climate of its islands. 
The principal of these are — 

(1.) Madeira, the mean annual tem- 
perature of which is only about six de- 
grees higher than that of the southeast 
of France and Italy; this temperature 
is, however, very differently distributed 
throughout the' year, the range being far 
less at Madeira than in the most favoured 
spots in the south of Europe. Thus, 
while the winter is twelve degrees 
warmer than in Italy and France, the 
summer is five degrees cooler; and, 
while the mean annual range at Madeira 
is only fourteen degrees, it is nearly 
double this at Pisa, Rome, Naples, and 
Nice. Madeira affords the best climate 
of the Atlantic Islands for consumptive 
cases ; Funchal is the most desirable for 
a winter residence. 

(2.) The Canary Islands, which rank 
next to Madeira in point of climate ; 
they are somewhat warmer, but the ex- 
cess of temperature is not equally distri- 
buted over the whole year ; for while 
Sanla Cruz, the capital of Teneriffe, is 
seven degrees warmer than Funchal in 
summer, it is only live degrees warmer 
in winter. The temperature is also more 



equable throughout the year at Madeira 
than at Teneriffe ; the difference between 
the mean temperature of summer and 
winter being 9^ at the former place, 
while it is 12^ at the latter. 

(3.) The Azores, or Western Islands, 
which in their external characters resem- 
ble Madeira and the Canaries. The cli- 
mate appears to he mild, but somewhat 
humid; less warm than Madeira during 
the winter, and more oppressive during 
summer. 

(4.) The Bermudas, which differ little 
from Madeira in the mildness of their 
winter climate ; they are. however, much 
more liable to high winds in the winter, 
extremely hot during the summer, and 
quite improper at this season for the 
residence lof such invalids as are likely 
to be sent from this country. 

(5.) The Bahamas, in which the winter 
and spring are considerably cooler than 
the same seasons in the West Indies, 
while the temperature of the summer 
and autumn is nearly the same. During 
the winter, the temperature is subject to 
rapid and consitierable vicissitudes, and 
cold, harsh, northerly winds are not un- 
frequent. 

(6.) The West Indies, of which the 
mean annual temperature, near the level 
of the sea, is about 80°, and during the 
six months which include the winter 
season, the temperature is only 2° lower. 
The extreme annual range does not ex- 
ceed 20°, while the mean daily range 
throughout the year is only 6°. Hence, 
this climate is improper, generally speak- 
ing, for consumptive invalids, who, ne- 
vertheless, are frequently sent there. 
Calculous disorders and scrofula are ex- 
tremely rare in the West Indies; gout is 
not common ; and rheumatism neither 
frequent nor severe. 
[III. Climate of the United States. 

[The United States stretch over a vast 
extent of territory, and embrace a corre- 
sponding variety of climate. The late 
Dr. Forry, who investigated this subject 
with much care, classified the country in 
three general divisions, embracing thfee 
systems of climate, viz; — the Northern, 
the Middle, and the Southern. 

[I. The Northern Division. — This 
extends on the Atlantic coast from East- 
port, Me., to the harbour of New York, 
and is characterized by great range of 
temperature and violent contrasts in the 
seasons; the rigour of the climate being 
somewhat tempered on the sea-coast by 
the ocean, and in the region of the lakes 
by those inland seas. 



CLl 



97 



CO A 



[2. The Middle Division. — This ex- 
tends from the Delaware Bay to Savan- 
nah, and is characterized by great varia- 
bleness of temperature, though the ex- 
tremes are much less than in the North- 
ern Division. 

[3. The Southern Division. — This 
embraces the whole region south and 
west to Texas and the Rocky Mountains, 
and is characterized by the predominance 
of high temperature. 

[(1.) Peninsula of Florida. — This is 
characterized, according to Dr. Forry. by 
mildness and uniformity of climate ; and 
although the air is more humid than in 
the northern divisions, the atmosphere 
in winter is comparatively dry and se- 
rene, in consequence of much the larger 
proportion of rain, nearly two-thirds of 
the whole falling during the six months 
from May lo November. The most fa- 
vourable situations for invalids labouring 
under bronchitis and incipient phthisis, 
Dr. Forry stales to be Fort King, in the 
interior; Key Biscayno on the southeast- 
ern coast; and Tampa Bay on the Gulf 
of Mexico. St. Augustine, on the eastern 
coast. Dr. F. conceives to be less favour- 
able, in consequence of the frequency and 
severity of the northeast winds, which 
are chilly and surcharged with vapour, 
and forbid the valetudinarian venturing 
from his domicile. Dr. Dunglison, how- 
ever, adduces some evidence leading to 
a more favourable estimate of the suita- 
bleness of St. Augustine as a winter resi- 
dence for invalitls; and at ail events 
showing that it is a far more favourable 
locality for a winter retreat than the 
northern portions of the United Slates.] 

CLINICAL {K\ivn, a bed). A term 
applied to lectures given at the bedside. 

CLINKF-R. Black oxide of iron, or 
the oxidam fcrroso-ferricum of Berzelius. 
It is always formed when iron is heated 
to redness in the open air, and is there- 
fore readily obtained at the blacksmith's 
forge. 

CLINOID {K\ivri, a bed, eTJoj, likeness). 
A designation of processes of the sella 
tiftcica of the sphenoid bone, from their 
resemblance to the knobs of a bedstead. 

CLINOMETER (/cXi'iw, to incline, /xj- 
Tpov, a measure). An instrument for mea- 
suring the dipofmineral strata. 

[CLISEOMETER (vXiV,?, inclination 
fierpov, a measure). An instrument for 
measuring the inclination of the pelvis. 
and for determining the relative direc 
tion of the axis of this cavity and that of 
the bodv.] 

CLITORIS (aa'cj, to hide.). A small 



elongated organ of the pudendum, con- 
cealed by the labia majora. 

Clitorismus. A morbid enlargement of 
the clitoris. 

CLOA'CA (a sewer). A receptacle 
observed in the monotremata, in birds, in 
reptiles, and in many fishes, which re- 
ceives the lieces and the urine, together 
with the semen of the male, and the ovum 
of the female. 

Cloaca. The openings in cases of 
necrosis, leading to the enclosed dead 
bone. 

CLONIC {K\ovew, to move to and fro). 
A term denoting the kind of spasm which 
occurs in hiccough, &c. See Spas7n. 

CLOVE. Caryophyllus ; the unex- 
panded and dried flower-bud of the Ca- 
ryophyllus aromaticus. 

CLUB-FEET. Pedes contorti. A con- 
genital distortion of the feet, arising from 
contraction of the extensor muscles. The 
following are some new terms, intro- 
duced by Dr. Krauss, to designate the 
varieties of club-foot: — 

1. The Tip-foot, Horse-foot, or Pes 
equinus. When the sufferer walks on 
his toes, and the heel is drawn upward. 
In this class may be included the knol- 
fool (pied-bot en dessous), when the pa- 
tient walks upon the back of the foot. 

2. The Crossfoot, Club-foot inward, 
or Varus. When the sufferer walks on 
the outward edge of the foot, or the out- 
ward part of the dorsum, the point of the 
foot being turned inwards. 

3. The Out-how fool, Club-foot out- 
ward, or Valgus. The sufferer treads 
upon the inward part of the foot ; the 
point of the foot, and sometimes the heel, 
are turned outward. 

4. The Htel club-foot, or Talipes cal- 
caneus. The patient walks upon the 
heel. 

[CLYPEATE {rlypeus, a shield). 
Shield-shaped ; in the form of an ancient 
buckler ; synonymous with scutate or 
scutifbrm.] 

CLYSSUS (x-Xi^M, to wash). A term 
formerly used to denote the vapour pro- 
duced by the detonation of nitre with any 
inllammable substance. 

CLYSTER {k\v:oj, to wash out). An 
enema, or lavamentum. [The injection 
of a liquid per anum into the large intes- 
tine, by means of a syringe or other suit- 
able apparatus.] 

CNICUS BENEDICTUS. Blessed 
Thistle; an indigenous Composite plant, 
contaniing a brown, bitter substance, 
called cnicin. 

COAGULABLE LYMPH. The fluid 



CO A 



COD 



slowly effused in wounds, which after- 
wards becomes the bond of union, or 
cicatrix. 

COAGULATION {ron and o^ere, to 
briri? together). A term formerly sy- 
nonymous with crystallization, hut now 
applied to the partial solid ifiration of a 
fluid body by ex|)osure to cold, or by the 
addition of some agent. 

1. Spoufaneous coagulation denotes the 
cohesion of the particles of the blood, of 
some effused fluids, <&:c. 

2. Induced connulation denotes the 
effect produced upon albumen by heat, 
alcohol, acids, rennet, &c. 

COAGULUM. The substance which 
results from coagulation. As applied to 
the blood only, it is termed clot ; as ap- 
plied to milk, it is called curd. 

COAL. A combustible mineral, the 
varieties of which consist of bitumen and 
carbon in different proportions, and burn 
with flame and a bituminous smell. 

COAPTATION, or SETTING. The 
act of placing the broken extremities of 
a bone in their natural position. 

COATING. Lorkalion. A method 
employed for securing or repairing retorts 
used in distillation. Coatings are made 
of marly earih. kneaded with fresh horse- 
duns;; slaked lime, and linseed oil, &c. 

COBALT {Cnhalus. the demon of 
mines). A metal, found chiefly in com- 
bination with arsenic, as arsenical co- 
balt; or with sulphur and arsenic, as 
gray cobalt ore. These ores are employ- 
ed to give the blue colour of porcelain 
and stone-ware. See Zaffre, and Smalt. 

COBALUS. The demon of mines, 
which obstructed and destroyed the 
miners. The ores oi cobalt, being at first 
mysterious and intractable, received their 
name from this personage. 

[COBWEB. See Tda aranearum.] 

COCA. Ypada. The leaf of the 
Erythroxylnn coca, a plant in extensive 
use among the Indians of the Andes, lor 
the purpose of producing intoxication 
and stupor. 

COCCLLUS PAL.MATUS. The Ca- 
himba [Colomba] plant; a Menisperma- 
ceous plant, the root of which constitutes 
the calumha of commerce. 

Anamiria Cocculiis. The cocculus 
Indicus plant, the fruit of which is ihe 
cocculus Indicus, sometimes termed Le- 
tiant nut, or barca orientalis; and by the 
Germans louse-arain, from its use in de- 
stroying pediculi. 

COCCI'S CACTI. Coccinella. The 



lifera. The cochineal of the shops con- 
sists of the dried female insects; there 
are the silver and the black varieties. 
The term granilla is applied to very 
small cochineal insects and minute mas- 
ses, resembling fragmeitts of the larger 
insects. 

Cochinilin. A colouring matter ob- 
tained from cochineal. It is a constituent 
of carmine. 

COCCYX (.KOKK-l a cuckoo). The 
lower end of the spine, so called from 
its resemblance to the cuckoo's beak. 
Hence the terms os coccygis, the cauda. 
or coccyx ; and coccygeus, a muscle of 
the OS coccygis. 

COCHINEAL. Thedried insectcalled 
Coccus Cacti, or Coccinella. 

COCHLEA (/foxXof, a conch). A ca- 
vity of the ear, resembling the spiral shell 
of the snail. It describes two turns and 
a half around a central pillar called the 
modiolus. 

COCHLEARE (cocWea, a snail's shell). 
A spoon, so named from its resemblance 
to the shell of a snail ; a spoonful. The 
following proportions are used in appor- 
tioning the dose of mixtures: — 

1. Cochleare amplum. A table-spoonful, 
or half a fluid ounce. 

2. Cochleare mediocre. A dessert-spoon- 
ful, or somewhat more than two fluid 
drachms. 

3. Cochleare minimum. A tea-spoonful, 
or one fluid drachm. 

COCHLEARIA ARMORACIA. 
Horseradish; an indigenous Cruciferous 
plant, the root of which is considered an- 
tiscorbutic. 

[COCHLEARIA OFFICINALIS. 
Common scurvy grass; a Cruciferous 
plant, celebrated as a remedy in sea- 
scurvy. It is gently stimulant, aperient, 
and diuretic. It is eaten as a salad, and 
ihe infusion, expressed juice, &c., may 
be taken.] 

[COCHLE.ATE (cochlea, a snails shell). 
Shell-shaped ; twisted in a short spire, 
so as to resemble the convolutions of a 
snail-shell.] 

COCINIC ACID. Cocostearic f/kd. 
The cr>stallizable acid of the butter of 
the cocoa-nut. 

COCOA. A substance procured from 
the seeds of the Theobroma Cacao, or 
Chocolate tree. 

COCTION (coqito, to digest). The 
process of red ucmg the aliment to chyle. 

CODEINE (K'o6eia, a poppy head). 
[Codeia, U. S. Ph.] An alkali discovered 



Cochineal insect ; a Hemipterous insect,! by Robiquet in hydrochlorate of raor 
which feeds upon the Opuntia coc/«>u7- Iphia, 



COD 



99 



COL 



COD LIVER OIL. Oleum Jecoris 
Aselli. An oil obtained from the livers 
of ihe Morrhua vulgaris, or Common 
Cod, formerly called Asellus major, and 
from allied species; employed in rheu- 
maiism and scrofula. 

CCECUM (Circus, blind). The bli?id 
pouch, or cul-de-sac, at the commence- 
ment of the large intestine. 

CCELIA [KotXia, from KotXog, hollow). 
The belly, or abdomen ; the cavity which 
contains the intestines. 

1. Cceliaca term applied to an artery — 
the first branch of the aorta in the abdo- 
men ; and to a plexus, a prolongation of 
the solar. 

2. Ceeliac Passio?i. The colic. 
C(E}iOSTHKSlS[Ccen(Bsthesis]{Koivdi, 

common, aiadricris, perception). A term 
expressive of the general sensibility of 
the system. 

CCEN'URUS (koivos, common, oipa, a 
tail). A eystose bladder, containing seve- 
ral animals grouped together, and ad- 
hering 10 its sides. See Hydatid. 

COFFEA ARABICA. The Coffee tree, 
a Rubiaceous plant, of which ihealbumen 
of the seeds constitutes the cujfee of com- 
merce. Caffein is a volatile, crystalline, 
neutral constituent of coffee. Caffeic acid 
is a peculiaracid contained in raw coffee. 
Coffee green is a green substance produced 
by the action of alkalies on a volatile 
principle of coffee. 

COHESION [cohcereo, lo stick to- 
gether). The power by which the com- 
ponent particles of a body cohere, or are 
kept together. It is the opposite to ex- 
pansion. See All raction. 

COnOBATION. The continuous re- 
distillation of a liquid from the same ma- 
terials, or from a fresh parcel of the 
same materials. 

[COHOSH. See Cimicifuga racemosa, 
and Acicpa Amtricana.'\ 

COITUS (coire, to go together). The 
conjiinclion of the sexes. 

COKE. The residue of coal, when the 
volatile matters are driven off 

COLATURA (colo, to strain). Any 
filtered or strained liquor. 

COLCHICUM AUTUMN ALE. 
Meadow Saffron, a bulbous plant, used 
by the ancients under the name of licr- 
modacli/Uus. The juice of the l)ulb i 
very poisonous to dogs; hence the Dutch 
name Huitdfs hoden, and ihe French 
name Tue.-chien. All the species of Co 
chicum yield ihe alkaloid veratria. 

Colchicine [Colchicia, U. S. Disp.]. A 
vegelo-alkali, procured li-om theTJolchi- 
cuin autumnale. 



COLCOTHAR. A mixture of red 
oxide of iron and the persulphate, used 
as a paint, &c. 

COLD. 1. As heal exists in all bodies, 
the term cold has only a negative sense, 
implying a greater or less privation of 
heat. 2. In employing cold as a reme- 
dial agent, its proximate or physical ef- 
fects must be distinguished from its re- 
mote or physiological ; the former are of 
a sedative, the latter of a stimulant na- 
ture. 3. A popular name for catarrh. 

[COLD CREAM. Ceratum Galeni; 
Uuguenlum aqucB rasa, U. S. Ph. Take 
of rose-water, oil of almonds, each two 
fluid ounces; spermaceti, half an ounce ; 
white wax, a drachm. Melt together 
by means of a water-bath, the oil, sper- 
maceti, and wax ; then add the rose- 
water, and stir the mixture constantly 
until cold.] 

COLEOPTERA (koXso;, a sheath, 
Trrfpoi/, a Wing). Sheath-winged insects; 
beetles. 

COLES (/cai'Xdf, a stalk). A designa- 
tion of the penis. Celsus. 

COLICA {km\ov, the colon). The colic. 
A painful affection of the colon, witliout 
infiammaiioii or fever. See Ileus. 

1. CiiUca accidentalis. [C. crapulosa.] 
Induced by particular articles of diet. 

2. Colica slercorea. From accumulation 
of llie contents of the bowels. 

3. Colica mecouialis. From retention 
of the meconium. 

4. Colica calculosa. From intestinal 
calculi. 

5. Colica Ficfonum (an endemic at 
Poictou). The colic of tlie Pictones; dry 
belly-ache; Devonshire colic; Painters' 
colic; also called salurnina, as being 
produced by the effects of lead. 

[G. Colica hijiatica. Pain in the region 
of the liver, caused by the passage of a 
biliary calculi, through the cystic and 
choledoch ducts. 

[7. Colica iiephritica. Acute pains 
which accompany nephritis, and parti- 
cularly calculous nephritis, or the pas- 
sage of a calculus through the ureters. 

[8. Colica ulerina. Pain in the uterus. 
See IIi/sfern!gia.] 

COLLAPSE (co/Zaior, to shrink down). 
More or less sudden failure of the circu- 
lation, or viial powers, as of the brain, 
or of the whole system. 

[COLLI NSONl A CANADENSIS. 
Horseweed, Heal-all. An indigenous 
plant. A decoction of the liesh root is used 
in domestic praciice as a diuretic, and dia- 
phorclic; and the leaves are em pi' yedas 
a cataplasm to wounds, bruises, iic] 



COL 



100 



COM 



COLLIQUAMENTUM {colliqueo, toiing principle existing in vcgetnble sub- 



melt.) A term applied by Harvey to the 
first rudiments of tlie embryo in gene- 
ration. 

Colliquative. A term applied to any 
excessive evacuation, as of diarrhoea, or 
perspiration. 

[COLLOID. See Cancer.] 

COLLUM {KoWaw, to join). The neck ; 
the part by which the head is joined lo 
the body. It is distinguished from cervix, 
which is the hinder part of the neck, or 
the hollow part between the head and 
the nape of the neck. In Botany, (he 
term collum denotes that jiortion of tiie 
axis of growth where the stem and the 
root diverge; by Grew it was termed 
coarctnre ; bv Lamarck, vital knot. 

COLLUTORIUM {colluo, to wash). 
Gargarisma. A liquid applied to the 
mouth or throat for local purposes. 

COLLYRIUM {KoWvptoi'). Formerly, 
a solid substance applied to the eyes ; 
now, a liquid wash, or €i/n-v:ater. 

COLOMBA IRIDIS (VoX6/y<o/<a, a mu- 
tilated limb). Fissure of the iris, with 
prolongation of the pupil. 

COLOCYNTIIIDIS PULPA. Bitter 
Cucumber Pulp; the medullary part of 
the fruit of the Citcumis Coloo/nlhif, the 
active principle of which is called cola- 
cynlhni. 

[COLOMBA. The root of the Coccu- 
lus Palmains.] 

[COLOMBIA or Calombin. A pecu- 
liar, crystallizable bitter principle, ob- 
tained by Wittstock from Colomba.] 

COLON (koAov, quasi, ko';\ov, hollow). 
The first of the large intestines, com- 
mencing at the CfDcum, and terminating 
at the rectum. It is distinguished into 
the right lunil)ar or ascending colon ; the 
arch of the colon, or transverse colon ; 
the left lumbar, or descending colon; 
and the sigmoid flexure, or left iliac 
colon. 

1. Colic. The name of arteries of the 
colon, and of one of the omenta. 

2. Colonilis. Inflamm.Ttion of the co- 
lon ; a term emiiloyed by Dr. Ballingall. 

COLOPHONY (so tf-rmed from a city 
of the same name). Pix ni^ra. Resin 



stances. Colours are termed suhslaniive, 
when they adhere to the cloth without 
a basis; adjective, when they require a 
basis. 

COLPOCELE {K6\no;, the vagina, xfiM, 
tumour). A tumour or hernia of the va- 
gina. 

COLPOPTO'SIS (/ftfXrrof. the vagina, 
rw(7(f, a falling down). Prolapsus or 
falling down of the vagina. 

COLTSFOOT. The vernacular name 
of the Tussilago Farfara. 

COLUMBIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by fusing the ore of Colitmbium with the 
carbonate or the bisiil|)iiate of potass; a 
soluble columbate of potass is obtained, 
and the acid is precipitated in the form 
of a white hydrate. 

COLUMBIUM. A metal, supposed to 
have been brought from Massachusetts 
in North America. It is also termed 
Tantnlum. 

[COLUMBO AMERICAN. The root 
of the Frasera VValleri.] 

COLUMNA. A column, or pillar, as 
those of the velum palati, and the co- 
liimna; cameo-, or muscular fasciculi of 
the internal walls of the heart. 

[COLUTEA ARBORESCENS. Blad- 
der Senna. An European plant, the leaf- 
lets of which have slight purgative pro- 
perties, and are sometimes used as a sub- 
stitute for senna.] 

COLZA OIL. A liquid extracted from 
the grain of the Brassica Arvensis, used 
in making soft soap. 

COMA (Koifia, drowsiness, from ksco, to 
lie). Drowsines.'s; lethargic sleep; dead 
sleep; torpor. See Cataphora. 

1. Coma somnolentiim ; in which the 
patient, when roused, immediately re- 
lapses into sleep. 

2. Coma vigil; in which the patient is 
unable to sleep, though so inclined. 

C0M.\TOSE {coma, drowsiness). Af- 
fected xviih coma or drowsiness. 

COMBINATION {cum. with, hinus, 
two). The union of the particles of dif- 
ferent substances, by chemical altractiorj, 
in forming new compounds. 

COMBUSTION (comhiiro, to burn). 



of turpentine. It has beejj distinguished Burninc; tlie disemragernent of heat and 
into two different reins, called .xymt-llight. which accompanies rapid chemical 
and pinic acids. Icoinbination. 

Colophonic acid. An acid formed by Comhns/iim spontaneous. This is said 
the action of heat on pinic acid. Brown | to occur in the human body ; and it does 
rosin, or colophony, owes its colour to occur when masses of vegetables, as 
this acid. Iilainji hay, or oily cotton, are heaped to- 

COLOSTRUM. Beestings; the niilk!gether^ There are also cases on record 
first secreted after delivery. of the spontaneous ignition of charcoal, 

COLOURING MATTER. A colour-! both dry and moist. 



COM 



101 



COM 



COMENIC ACID. A bibasic acid, 
formed by boiling a solution of meconic 
acid wilh a pretty strons: acid. 

[COMFREY. See Symphytum Offici- 
7iale.] 

COMMANDRR'S BALSAM. Bal- 
samum traumalicum. Friar's Balsam, Je- 
suits' Drops, Wade's Drops, or the Tinc- 
tura Benzoini composita. 

COMMINUTED [comminuo, to break 
ill pieces). A term applied to a fracture, 
when the bone is broken into several 
pieces; also to any substance which has 
been ground into minute particles. 

COMMISSU'RA (commitlo, to unite). 
A term applied to the convf-ri^intx jihres 
which imite the hemispheres of the brain. 

1. Commissura anterior et posterior. 
Two white cords situated across the an- 
terior and posterior parts of the third 
ventricle. 

2. Com7nissura magna. The commis- 
sure of the corpus callosum, so called 
from its being the largest. 

3. Cornmissura inoLUs. The name of 
the gray mass which unites the thalami. 

4. The term Commissure is also ap- 
plied to the quadrilateral body formed 
by union of the optic nerves, to the acute 
angle formed on each side of the mouth 
bv the union of the lips, &c. 

■ CO AIMUNIC A NS Tl BI./E. The exter- 
nal saphenal branch of the tibial nerve. 

COMMUNICATING ARTERY OF 
WILLRS. A branch of the internal ca- 
rotid artery. 

[COMOSE {coma, hair). Having hair 
at the e.xiremity.] 

COMPLEXUS {cornph'Clor, to com- 
prise). A mtiscle situated at the back 
part of the neck. It is so named from 
the intricate mixture of its muscular and 
tendinous parts. From the irregularity 
of its origins, it has been termed com- 
plcxus implicatus tri/jemmus. Albinus 
distinguishes it into two parts; viz., 

1. Biventer, or the upper layer, hitherto 
called cornplexus; and, 

2. Cornplexus, or the lower layer, never 
before distinguished from the rest. 

COMPO.SIT^. The Synaniherous 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants. Herba 
ceous plants or shrubs with hrivrs alier 
nate or opposite; JZoiofif.? {cMpA jlorfls) 
unisexual or hermaphrodite, collected in 
dense heads upon a common receptacle, 
surrounded by an involiu-ruin ; Jlorels 
monopetalous; a?i;/(e)".'!syngenesions; ova 
rium one-celled ; fruil, a dry, indehiscent 
pericarp, termed achenium or cypsela. 

COMPOTES. Fruits preserved with 
sugar; generally stone fruits. 



COMPOUND MEDICINES. These 
have been divided into two classes; 
viz , Officinal Preparations, or those or- 
dered in the pharmacopoeias; and Ma- 
gistral or Extemporaneous Formula', or 
those constructed by the practitioner at 
the moment. 

COMPOUNDS. The following 
terms are employed in designating com- 
pounds : 

1. Binary, ternary, qnalernary. These 
terms refer to the number of elements or 
proximate principles — two, three, or four 
— which exist in a compound, 'i'he binary 
compounds of oxygen, chlorine, iodine, 
bromine, and fluorine, which are not 
acid, terminate in ide, as oxide, chloride, 
&c. ; those of all other substances termi- 
nate in urel, as hydruret of carbon, sul- 
phuret of iron, &c. 

2. Bis, ler. quater. These are Latin 
nuiTierals, indicating the number of o/oms 
of acid which are combined wilh one of 
the base in a compound, as 6j-sulphate of 
soda, &c. 

3. Dis, tris, telrahis. These are Greek 
numerals, indicating the number of a^om* 
of base, which are combined with one of 
the acid in a compound, as rfi-chromate 
of lead, &c. No prefix is used \v hen the 
compound consists of one atom of each 
ingredient. But there are many excep- 
tions to these rules: protoxide and deut- 
oxide are frequently used for oxide and 
bin-oxide respectively. 

COMPRESS {comprimo, to press). A 
pad of folded linen, lint, &c., which sur- 
geons place where they wish to make a 
pressure, &c. 

COMPRESSIBILITY (comprimo, to 
compress). A property of masses of mat- 
ter, l5y which their particles are capable 
of being brought nearer together. Bodies 
which recover their former bulk on re- 
moval of the compressing cause, are 
called elastic. 

COMPRESSION {comprimo, to press). 
A diseased slate, usually of the brain, 
occasioned bv pressure. 

COMPRESSOR (comprimo, to press). 
A muscle which compresses a part, as 
thnt of the nose, and of the urethra. 

[I. Compressor aj Dupuylrcn. An in- 
slruineiU (or compressing the crural ar- 
tery. It consists of two pads plnced at 
the extremities of a semicircle of steel, 
which, passing from one to the other, 
restricts the compression to two opposite 
points of the thigh, and does not interrupt 
the collateral circulation. 

[2. Compressor of Nuck. An instru- 
ment for compressing the urethra and 



COM 



102 



CON 



preventing ihe involuntary discharge of 
the urine.] 

[COMPTORICA ASPLENIFOLIA. 
Sweet Fern. A plant of the flimily 
Aurentacea, indigenous in the United 
Stales, said to be tonic and astringent, 
and employed in the Ibrni of decoction, 
in domestic practice, as a remedy in 
diarrhoea and various other complaints.] 

CONARIUM (coiuis, a cone). A de- 
signation of the pineal gland, from its 
conical form. 

CONCENTRATION {concentro). The 
strengthening of solutions, mixtures, &c., 
by evaporation of their watery parts. 

CONCEPTION (roncipio, to conceive). 
The first stage of generation on the part 
of the female. 

CONCHA (a shell). A term applied 
to parts resembling a shell; thus, we 
have concha aiiris, the cavity of the ear; 
and concha iiaris, the turbinated portion 
of the ethmoid bone. 

CONCHIFERA (concha, a shell, fero. 
to carry). The second class of the Cijclo- 
^a))gliala or MoUusca, comprising ace- 
phalous, aquatic animals, covered with 
a bivalve or mullivalve shell. 

CONCOCTION (concoquo. to digest). 
The act of boiling. Digestion. 

CONCRETION (concresco, to grow to- 
gether). Calculus; a term usually ap- 
plied to that of Ihe intestines. 

CONCUSSION (concutio, to shake to- 
gether). A term applied lo injuries sus- 
tained by the brain, and other viscera, 
from falls, blows, &c. 

CONDENSATION [condense, to make 
thick). The act of diminishing the bulk 
of a body, as by the conversion of steam 
into water, gases into fluids, fluids into 
solids, (fee. 

CONDENSER. I. A vessel in which 
steam is converted into water, by the 
application of cold. 2. An instrument 
employed in electrical experimcuis on 
the same principle as the eiectropiiorus, 
the purpose of whi(-h is to collect a 
weak electricity, spread over a large sur- 
face, into a body of small dimensions, in 
which its intensity will be proportionably 
increased, and therefore become capable 
of beine examined. 

CONDIMENTA (condio, to season). 
Condiments; substances taken with the 
food to improve its flavour, to promote 
its digestion, or to correct its injurious 
qualities. 

CONDUCTOR (conduce, to lead). An 
instrument used to direct the knife in 
operations. Compare Director. 

CON DUPLICATE {conduplicalus. 



doubled together). Doubled together; 
a form of vernation or teslivaiion, in 
which ilie sides of a leaf or petal are 
applied parallelly to the faces of each 
other. 

CONDYLE (K6u&«\oi, a knuckle). A 
rounded eminence in the joints of seve- 
ral Iwnes, as of the humerus and the 
lemur. 

1. Condyloid (eu'oj, likeness). A term 
applied to some of the foramina of the 
occipital bone, viz. the anterior, through 
which the lingual nerves pass; and the 
posterior, through which the veins of the 
neck pass. 

2. Condtjlnma. A wart-like excrescence, 
which appears about the anus and pu- 
dendum. 

CONE. The friiil of the Fir-tree. It 
is a conical amentum, of which the car- 
pels are scale-like, spread open, and bear 
naked seeds. 

CONFECTIO {conficio, to make up). 
A confection. Under this title, the Lon- 
don College [and Pharmacopivia of the 
United States] comprehend the conserves 
and electuaries of its former pharmaco- 
pceias. Strictly speaking, however, a 
conserve merely preserves the virtues 
of recent vegetables by means of su- 
gar; an electuary imparts convenience 
of form. 

[1. C.Ami/qdal(B. Lond.Ph.U.S. Al- 
mond confection. Sweetalmonds, blanch- 
ed, 3viij.; Gura Arabic, powdered, Tj.; 
sugar, yiv. Beat all together until they 
are thoroughly incor|X)rated. 

[2. C Aromatica. Ph. U. S. Aromatic 
confection. Aromatic powder, gvss. ; 
saffron in powder, g.ss. ; rub together 
and add, syrup of orange, gvj.; clarified 
honey, 3ij.; beat the whole until tho- 
roughly mixed. Dose gr. x. to 3'- 

[3. C.Aurantiicorlicis. Ph. U. S. Con- 
fection of orange peel. Fresii orange 
peel, grated, ft^j ; add gradually loaf su- 
gar, feiij.; beating them till thoroughly 
mixed. 

[4. C. Cassia. Ph. U. S. Confection of 
cassia. Manna, gij.; dissolve in syrup 
of roses, fjviij.; add cassia (pulp), ftss. ; 
tamarind (pulp), 3J-i ^nJ evaporate to 
a proper consistence. A mild laxative. 
Dose 3*s. 

[5. 7v. Catechu. Ed. electuary of ca- 
techu. Opium, diffused in a little sherry, 
3iss. ; syrup of red roses, reduced to the 
consistence of honey, }),iss. ,• mix, and add 
catechu and kino, in powder, of each, 
3iv. ; cinnamon and nutmeg, in powder, 
of each, gj-! heal thoroughly into a uni- 
form mass. Aromatic and astringent; 



CON 



103 



CON 



useful in diarrhoea and chronic dysen-i dually added, and, having thrown in the 
tery. Dose ^ss. to "^j. I sifted powder, beat all together until tho- 
[lo.C.Opn. Ph. U.S. Confection of| u,.. „.:.._.■.- du tt c a„„.„„u„„. 



opuim. Opium, powdered, 3'vss. ; aro- 
malic powder, gvj.; rub together, then 
add, flarified honey, gxiv.; and beat 
together until thoroughly mixed. Stimu- 
lant narroiic. Dose gr. x. to gj. 

[7. C. Piperis Nian. Dub. Confection 
of black pepper. Black pepper, elecam- 
pane, of each, ftj,; fennel seeds, ftiij.; 
sugar, refined, ftij. Rub together into 
a very fine powder, then add honey, 
ftij. Used as a substitute for Ward's 
Paste, a remedy of some reptitalion in 
England for piles and ulcers of the rec- 
tum. Dose 3j. to 3'J-> repeated two or 
three times a day. 

[8. C. Roses. Ph. U.S. Conserve of roses. 
Red roses in powder, ^iv. ; rose water, 
at a boiling heat, f^viij.; rub together 
and add refined sugar, in powder, gxxx. ,• 
clarified honey, 3vj.; beat together until 
thoroughly mixed. Slightly astringent 
Chiefly used as a vehicle for other medi- 
cines. 

[9. C RoscB CanincB. Lond. Confection 
of the Dog Rose. Dog Rose pulp, ftj.; 
expose to a gentle heat in an earthen 
vessel; add gradually refined sugar, in 
powder, gxx.; and rub together until mix 
ed. Acidulous and refrigerant; chiefly 
used like the preceding. 

[10. C. Rutm. Dub. Confection of rue. 
Dried rue, caraway, laurel berries, each, 
giss. ; sagapenum, 3^^-' black pepper, 
J5ij.; rub together to a very fine powder 
and add clarified honey, gxvj. Anti- 
spasmodic and carminative. Given in 
enema. Dose gj. to 3J- diffused in half 
a pint of warm mucilaginous fluid. 

[11. C. Scaimnonii. Dub. Scammony 
giss. ; cloves and ginger, of each, 3^].; 
rub into a fine powder and add syrup of 
roses, a sufficient quantity, oil of cara- 
way, f3ss. Active cathartic. Do.se 3ss. 
to3i. 

[12. C. Sennw. Ph. V. S. Confection 
of senna; Lenitive electuary. Senna, 
gviij.; coriander seed, giv.; liquorice 
root, bruised, giij.; figs, ftj.; pulp of 
prunes, pulp of lamarinds, pulp of purg- 
ing cassia, of each, ftss. ; refined sugar 
ftijss. ; water, Oj. Rub the senna and co- 
riander together, and separate ten ounces 
of the powder with a sieve. " Boil the 
residue viiih the figs and liquorice root, 
in thQ water, to one half; then press out 
and strain. Evaporate the strained liquor, 
by means of a water baih, to a pint and a 
half; then add ihe sugar and form a syrup. 
Lastly, rub the pulps with the syrup gra- 



roiighly mixed." Ph. U.S. An excellent 
laxative in habitual costiveness. Dose3ij.] 
COxNFLATlON (co7iJio. to blow toge- 
ther). The casting or melting of metal. 
[COiNFLUEiNT (co/i/Zmo, to flow toge- 
ther). Running together. It is applied 
to the exanthemata when the pustules 
run together. In Botany it signifies grow- 
ing together, and is synonymous with 
connate, cohering, (fee] 

[ C O N F O R MAT 1 N {conformo, to 
shape). The natural sliape and form of 
any part] 

CONGELATION [congelo, to freeze). 
The passing from a fluid to a solid state 
by the agency of cold. 

CONGENER (con, and genus, kind). 
A thing of the same kind or nature. 
Hence the term congenerous is applied 
to diseases of the same kind. 

[CONGENITAL {con, with, genilus. 
begotten). Born with. A term applied 
to diseases or peculiarities of conforma- 
tion existing at birth.] 

CONGESTION {congero, to amass). 
Undue fulness of the blood-vessels. By 
passive congestion is denoted torpid stag- 
nation of Ihe blood, observed in organs 
whose power of resistance has been 
greatly exhausted. 

CONGIUS. This measure among the 
Romans was equivalent to the eighth of 
an amphora, to a cubic half foot, or to 
six sextarii. It is equal to our gallon, or 
a little more. 

COiXGLOBATE {congloho, to gather 
into a ball). The desigriation of a gland 
of a globular form, like those of the ab- 
sorbent system. 

CONGLOMERATE {conglomero, to 
heap together). The designation of a 
gland composed of various glands, hav- 
ing a common excretory duct, as the pa- 
rotid, pancreas, &c. 

CONI VASCULOSI. Vascular cones ; 
the conical convolutions of the vasa effe- 
rentia. They constitute the epididymis. 

CONIFER^E. The Fir or cone-bearing 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Trees or 
shrubs with a stem abounding with re- 
sin ; leaves linear, acerose, or lanceolate ; 
flowers monoecious, or dioecious; ovarium 
in Ihe cones, spread open, appearing like 
a flat scale, desiitute of style or stigma; 
/ruii a solitary naked seed or a cone; seeds 
with a hard crustaceous integument. 

CONl'UiVI MACULA 'TUM. The 
Common or Spotted Hemlock; an Um- 
belliferous plant, termed Ciciila by the 
Latin authors, but quite distinct from 



CON 



104 



CON 



the Cicuta maculata of English wri- 
ters. ■ 

Conia. The active principle of hem- 
lock, in wliich it exists in (.ombination 
with an acid called the coniic acid. 

[CONJUGATE {conjiigalus, yoked to- 
gether); growing in a pair] 

CONJUNCTIVA (amjnngo, to unite). 
Adnata tunica. The mucous membrane 
which lines the posterior surface of the 
eyelids, and is continued over the fore- 
part of the globe of the eye. 

Cbrijinicliva Grarmlar. A diseased con- 
dition of the conjunctiva, the sequel of 
purulent ophthalmia. 

[Conjunctivitis. Inflammation of the 
conjunctiva.] 

CONNATUS {connnscor, to be born 
together). Connate. Born with another; 
congenital. A term applied in botany to 
two opposite leaves united at their bases, 
as in the garden honeysuckle. 

[CONNIVENT (conniveo, to connive). 
Converging; having a direction inwards. 
In anatomy applied to the valvular folds 
in the mucous membrane of the small 
intestines, which are called valvula con- 
niventes, from their converging or ap- 
proaching each other] 

[CONSENT OF PARTS. See Sym- 
path I/.] 

CONSERVA {conservo, to keep). A 
conserve, or composition of vegetable 
and saccharine mailer. See Covfectio. 

CONSTIPATION (constipo, to crowd 
together, from con, and stipo, to cram) 



together). A muscle which contracts 
any opening of the body, as that of the 
pharvnx. 

CONSUMPTION iconsumo, to waste 
away). Wasting of the body; phthisis, 
or marnsmns. 

CONTABESCENTIA (contahesco, to 
waste away). Atrophy, or consumption ; 
wasting away of every organ. 

CONTAGION (contiiifTo, to touch one 
another). The propagation of disease 
from one individual to another, — pro- 
perly by contact. Compare Infection. 

[CONTAGIOUS. Capable of being 
commimicated bv contact.] 

[CONTORTED {con and torqneo, to 
twist). Twisted. Infiote'/y signifies twist- 
ed in such a manner that each piece of a 
whorl overlaps its neighbour by one mar- 
gin, and is overlapped by its other neigh- 
bours by the other margin, as in the sesti- 
vation of oleander.] 

CONTRACTILITY (contraho, to draw 
together). The property by which bodies 
contract. 

1. The property by which the fibrous 
tissues return to their former dimensions, 
after being temporarily extended. 

2. The property of the muscular fibre, 
by which it shortens on the application 
of a stimulus; more properly Irritability. 

CONTRACTION (contraho, to draw 
together). A rigid state of the joints. 
Also, a decrease of volume, the usual 
effect of a diminution of Heal. 

CONTRA-FISSUKE (contra, against, 



Obstipalio. Cosliveness; confinement offindo, to cleave). A fracture of the skull. 



the bowels; constipation; the contents 
of the bowels being so crammed together 
as to obstruct the passage. 

CONSTITUENS. The vehicle; a con- 
stituent part of a medicinal formula, sig- 
nifying " that wliich imparts an agreea- 
ble form." See Prescription. 

CONSTITUTION {consiiluo, to esta- 
blish). A state of being; the temper of 
the body; natural qualities, &c. 

1. Constitution of the Dcuhj — Diathesis. 
The condition of the bodv; the "pro- 
pria," or peculiarities, as distinguished 
from the " comniunia," or generalities. — 
Cehus. 

2. Constitution of the Air. That pecu- 
liar state of the air or vapour from the 
earth, which induces epidemics, or im- 
presses upon epidemic or sporadic dis- 
eases their peculiar characters on parti- 
cular occasions. It is denominated by 
Sydenham, bilious, di/senteric, &c. 

[CONSTITUTIONAL. Inherent in 
the constitution.] 
CONSTRICTOR (constringo, to bind 



produced by a contrc-coup opposite to the 
part on which the blow is received. 

CONT R A - 1 N D I CAT I O N (contra, 
against, indico, to show). Circumstances 
which forbid the exhibition of a remedy. 

CONTRAJERVA (contrayerva, Indian 
Spanish for alexipharmic). A species of 
Dorstenia, to which the controi/erra root 
was formerly referred : but Dr. Pereira 
says that the root of this species is not 
met with in commerce. See Dorste- 
nia. 

CONTRE-COUP. A term used syno- 
nymously with contra-fisxure ; but it is 
rather the cause of this effect. 

[CON T R O - S T I M ULA N T (contra, 
against, slimnlus, an excitant). A sub- 
stance, according to Rnsori, which has 
the property ofdirectly diminishing vital 
action. 

[CONTRO-STIMULUS. A term given 
by Rasori to a doctrine which he origi- 
nated, and which is founded on the 
controslimulant properties supposed to 
be possessed by certain medicines.] 



CON 



105 



COR 



CONTUSION (contundo, to bruise). A 
bruise. 

CONVALESCENCE (convalesco, to 
grow strong). The state of recovery. 

CONVOLUTA (convolvo, to wrap to- 
gether). [Convolute.] A term applied 
to the upper and lower turbinated bones 
of the nose. 

[In botany applied to a form of aestiva- 
tion or vernation in which one petal or 
leaf is wholly rolled up in another.] 

CONVOLUTION {corivolvo, to roll to- 
gether). The state of any thing which 
is rolled upon itself Hence the term is 
applied to the windings and turnings of 
the cerebrum, called gyri; and to the 
foldings of the small intestines. 

CON VOLVULACE.-E. The Bindweed 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Herba- 
ceous plants with leaves alternate ; ^^oio- 
ers regular, monopetalous; stnmens in- 
serted into the base of the corolla; ova- 
rium superior, 2-4 celled; seeds albumi- 
nous. 

1. Convolvulus Scammonia. The plant 
whose rout yields the hard, brittle, ash- 
coloured resin called scammony. It con- 
tains a substance called convolvulin, sup- 
posed to be a vegetable alkali. 

2. Convolvulus Jalapa. The former 
name of the Jalap plant. The drug is 
now said to be yielded by the Ipomaa 
purga, and probably by other species. 

CONVULSION {convello, to pull to- 
gether). Spasm. Violent involuntary 
contractions of the muscles, with alter- 
nate relaxations, commonly called Jits. 

COPAIVA BALSAM. ' A balsam ob- 
tained by making incisions into the stems 
of several species of Copaifera. 

1. Kesin of Copaiva. A brown resinous 
mass, left alter the balsam has been de- 
prived of its volatile oil by distillation. 
It consists of two resins; the one, a yel- 
low brittle resin, called copaivic acid; 
the other, the viscid resin of copaiva. 

2. Gelatine Capsules of Copaiva. Cap- 
sules forjTied of a concentrated solution 
of gelatine, and containing each about 
ten grains of the balsam of copaiva. 

COPAL. A resin obtained from the 
Hymenaa Courbaril, and also termed 
jalahi) or jafchy. 

[COPALCHI BARK. The bark of the 
Croton Pseudo— China of Schiede. It 
has some resemblance to Cascarilla.] 

COPHO'SIS {Kco(j,6i, deaf). Deafness. 

COPPER {Cuprum, quasi ces Cyprium, 
from the island Cyprus, where it was 
first wrought). A red metal, found in 
the comrnoQ ore called copper pyrites. 
Among its compounds are red copper, or 



the protoxide; black copper, or the per- 
oxide ; copper glance, or the protosulphu- 
ret ; resin of copper, the protochloride or 
white rnuriate; and the white copper of 
the Chinese, an alloy of copper, zinc, 
nickel, and iron. See Cuprum. 

COPPERAS. Sulphate of iron, or 
green vitriol. See Vitriol. 

COPPERNICKEL. a native arseni- 
uret of nickel, a copper-coloured mine- 
ral of Westphalia. 

COPROSTASIS (TOTrpdf, fa;ces, Irrrnni, 
to stand). Costiveness; undue retention 
of the faeces in the intestines. Hence 
the terms copragoga or eccoprolica, de- 
noting purgatives, or medicines to quick- 
en the passage of the fa?ces. 

[COPTIS. Ph. U.S. Goldthread. The 
root of Coptis trifolia. It is a bitter 
tonic; and is much employed in New 
England as a local application in aph- 
thous ulcerations of the mouth.] 

COR, CORDIS. The heart; the cen- 
tral organ of circulation. [See Heart.} 

[CORDATE [cordis, the heart). Heart- 
shaped.] 

CORACO- (/cdpaf, a crow). Names 
compounded with this word belong to 
muscles which are attached to the 

Coracoid Process [uioi, likeness). The 
upper and anterior point of the scapula, 
so called from its resemblance to a crow's 
beak. 

CORALLICOLA {corallum, coral, colo, 
to inhabit). Coral-inhabiters, as the horn- 
wrack. 

CORALLIUM RUBRUM. Red coral ; 
the calcareous internal skeleton of a Fo- 
lypiferous animal, consisting of carbonate 
of lime, principally coloured with oxide 
of iron. 

CORDIALS {cor, the heart). Cardiacs. 
Warm medicines; medicines which in- 
crease the action of the heart, or quicken 
the circulation. 

CORE {cor, the heart). The slough 
which forms at the central part of boils. 

[CORECTOMIA (rap?;, the pupil, iK-o,iri, 
excision). Irideclonica. Formation of an 
artificial pupil by excision. 

[COREDIALYSIS {Kopr,, the pupil, 
iiaXvaiq, loosening). Iridodialysis. The 
formation of an artificial pupil by sepa- 
rating the iris from its ciliary attach- 
ment. 

[COREMORPHOSIS (xdp;;, pupil. 
fiopipoiaii, formation). Operation for the 
formation of an artificial pupil. See Co- 
relomia, Corectomia, Coredialysis, Iri- 
dejicleisis, Iridectomedialysis, Sclerotic- 
ectome. 

[COREONCION (ATop?), the pupil, oy«os. 



COR 



106 



COR 



a hook). An instrument with a hooked 
exlremity, devised by Langenbeck ibr 
the operation orariificial pupil. 

[CORETOMIA (.Kopn, the pupil, rofiij, 
section). The Ibrinaiiou of an urtilicial 
pupil by incision.] 

[CORIACEOUS {coritim, leather). 
Leathery; of a leathery consistence; ap- 
plied to leaves and pods which are thick 
and tough without being pulpy or succu- 
lent] 

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. The 
Officinal Coriander; an Umbelliferous 
plant, yielding the fruit erroneously called 
coriander seeds. 

CORIUM (quasi cariitm, quod eo caro 
tegatur). Leather. The deep layer of 
cutis, or true skin, forming the base of 
support to the skin. 

CORIVIUS. The enlarged subterranean 
base of the stem of Colchicum, of Arum, 
&c., falsely c.illed root or bulb. 

CORN {coruu, a horn). Clavus. Spina 
pedis. A horny induration of the skin, 
generally formed on the toes. 

CORNEA {cornu, a horn). Cornea 
pellucida. The anterior transparent por- 
tion of the globe of the ej'e. 

Cornea opaca. A term formerly ap- 
plied to the sclerotica. 

[Corneitis, Ceratilis, Keratitis. In- 
flammation of the cornea. 

[CORNEOUS {cornu, a horn). Homy; 
of a horny consisience. 

[CORN ICU LATE {cortiu, a horn). 
Horned ; terminating in a horn-like pro- 
cess.] 

CORNICULUM (dim. of cornu, a 
horn). A small cartilaginous body, sur- 
mounting the summit of the arytenoid 
cartilage. 

CORNINE. A new principle, disco- 
vered in the bark of the Cornus Florida : 
its properties re.semble those of quinine. 

CORNU. A horn ; a term applied to 
warts, from their horny hardness; and to 
parts resembling a horn in Ibrm ; as — 

L Cornu Ammouis. A designation of 
the pes hippocampi of the brain, from its 
being bent like a ram's horn, the fiiraoiis 
crest of Jupiter Amnion. 

2. Cornua sacralta. Horns of the sa- 
crum; two tubercles, forming notches, 
which transmit the last sacral nerves. 

3. Cornua uteri. The horn-like appear- 
ance of the angles of the uterus in certain 
animals. 

4. Each lateral ventricle of the brain 
has been divided into a body or central 
portion; an anterior or diverging cornu ; 
a posterior or converging cornu ; and an 
inferior or descending cornu : hence the 



appellation of tricorne applied to this 
caviiy. 

CORNU CERVL Stag's or Hart's 
horn ; the horn of the Cervus Elaphus, 
formerly so much used for the prepara- 
tion of ammonia, that the alkali was 
commonly called Sail or Spirit of Harts- 
horn. 

1. Cornu ustum. Burnt hartshorn ; a 
white friable substance, possessing no 
antacid properties. 

2. Sptrilus cornu usti. The result of 
the desiructive distillation of hartshorn. 

[CORNUS. A genus of plants of the 
natural order Cornacece. 

[1. Cornus circinata. Round-leaved 
dogwood. An indigenous plant, the bark 
of which is employed as a tonic and as- 
tringent. 

[2. Cornus Florida. Dogwood. An 
indigenous plant, believed to possess 
medicinal properties closely analogous to 
those of Peruvian Bark. It is given in 
powder, decoclioii, and extract. 

[3. Cornus sericea. This is also an in- 
digenous species, and has the same me- 
dicinal properties as the preceding.] 

COROLL.\ (dim. of corojia, a crown). 
Literally, a little crown. The internal 
envelope of the floral apparatus. Its 
separate pieces are called petals ; when 
these are distinct from each other, the 
corolla is termed poly pelalous; when 
they cohere, gatno-petalous, or incorrectly 
riiono-petalous. A petal, like a sepal, may 
he spurred, as in violet. Compare Calyx. 

CORON.A. A crown. Hence the term 
coronal is applied to a suture of the head ; 
and coronary to vessels, nerves, &c., from 
their surrounding the parts like a crown. 

1. Corona ciliaris. The ciliary liga- 
ment, or circle^ See Cilium and Halo 
signalus. 

2. Corona glandis. The prominent 
margin or ridge of the glans penis. 

3. Corona tubular um. A circle of mi- 
nute tubes surrounding each of Peyer's 
u'laiids, opening into the intestine, but 
closed at the oiher exlremity. 

4. Corona Veneris. A term for venereal 
blotches appearing on the forehead. 

CORO'NE {Kop-jivri, a crow). The acute 
process of the lower jaw-bone ; so named 
fi-om its supposed likeness to a crow's 
bill: whence 

Coron-oid (eifo;, likeness). A process 
of the ulna, shaped like a crow's beak. 

CORPULENCY (corpus, the body). 
An excessive increase of the body from 
accumulation of fat. See Obesitti. 

CORPUS. A body. Plural, Corpora. 
Hence the following terms : — 



COR 



107 



COR 



1. Corpus Arantii. A small fibro-carii- 
Jaginoiis tubercle, situated in the centre 
of the I'ree margin of each of the semi- 
lunar valves of the heart, and named 
after Araniius of Bologna. 

2. Corpus callofum {callus, hardness). 
The hard substance which communicates 
between the hemispheres of the brain; 
also called commissura magna. 

3. Corpus cavernasuni vagince. The 
erectile spongy tissue of the vagina, 
termed by Degraaf retifnrme, or net- 
like. 

4. Corpus denlalum vel serratum. A 
yellowish matter which appears on mak- 
ing a section of the crura cerebelli. 

5. Corpus Jimbrialum (Jimbria, a fringe). 
A narrow while band, — the lateral thin 
edge of the fornix, also called tcenia hip- 
pocampi. 

6. Corpus Highmorianum. A promi- 
nence of the superior part of tiie testis, 
so called from Highraore of Oxford. See 
Mediastinum testis. 

7. Corpus luteum {luteux, yellow). The 
cicatrix left in the ovarium, in conse- 
quence of the bursting of a Graaffian 
vesicle. 

8. Corpus mucosum. Rete mucosum. 
A soft, reticulated substance, first de- 
scribed by Malpighi as situated between 
the cuticle and cutis, and giving the 



penis. They are separated by an incom- 
plete partition, named septum peclini- 
Jorme. 

15. Corpora geniculata (geniculum, a 
knot). Two knotty prominences, the ex- 
ternal and the internal, at the inlerior 
surface of the ihalami nervorum opii- 
coruin. 

16. Corpora olivaria. Two oZjue-shaped 
eminences of the medulla oblongata. On 
making a section of the corpus olivare, 
an oval medullary substance is seen, sur- 
rounded by cineriiious matter, and called 
cor])us dentalam eminentia: olivans. 

17. Corpora pyramidalia. Two small 
pyramidal eminences of the medulla ob- 
longata. 

18. Corpora quudrigemina (four double). 
Four eminences (tubercula) of the brain, 
sup|iorting the pineal gland, ibrmerly 
called nates and testes. 

19. Corpora restiformia (restis, a cord). 
Two cord-like processes, extending from 
the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum. 

20. Corpora sesamo'idea. Another name 
for the Corpuscula Arantii, from their 
being of the size of sesamum seeds. 

21. Corpora striata {stria, a streak). 
Two streaky eminences in the lateral 
ventricle, termed by Gall the great supe- 
rior ganglion of the brain. 

CORPUSCULUM (dim. of corpus, a 



proper colour to the skin, being black in! body). A corpuscle, or little body 



ihe Negro, yellow in the Chinese, and 
copper-coloured in the aboriginal Ame- 
ricans. 

9. Corpus pampiniforme {pampinus, a 
tendril). A tendril-like plexus of ihe 
spermatic vein. 

10. Corpus psaUo'ides. Another name 
for the lyra, considered by Gall as the 
general union of Ihe communicating fila- 
ments of the fornix. 

11. Corpus rhombo'ideum. Ganglion of 



Corpuscula Arantii. A designation of 
three small hard tubercles, situated on 
the point of the valves of the aorta. 
They are also called corpora sesamo'idea, 
Irom their being of the size of the sesa- 
mum seeds. 

CORRIGENS. A constituent part of 
a medicinal formula, ' that which cor- 
rects Us operation.' See Prescription. 

CORROBORANTS {corroboro, to 
strengthen). Remedies which impart 



the cerebellum; a gray body observed injstreiigih 
the centre of the white substance of ihel CORROSIVES {corrodo, lo eat away), 
cerebellum, ifan incision be made through 1 Substances which have the power of 

vvearing away or consuming bodies, as 
caustics, escharotics, &c. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE {corrodo, 
10 eat away). The bi-chloride of mercury, 
I Ibrmerly called the oxymuriale. 

CORRUG.ATION (corri/g-o, to wrinkle). 



the outer third of the organ. 

12. Corpus spongiosum {spongia, a 
sponge). A lengthened body situated in 
the groove upon the under surfiice of the 
two corpora cavernosa. 

13. Corpora albicantia [alhico, to be- 



come white). Two white bodies of thelThe contraction of the surface of the 
cerebrum, situated behind the gray sub-Ibody into wrinkles, 
stance from which the infuiidibiilumi Corr(/g^o/or sM/jerd/ii. A muscle which 
arises. They are also called corpora caf>-|kniis and contracts the brow into wrin- 
dicantia, and maramillary or pisiform Ikies. 

tubercles. j CORSICAN MOSS. The Gigartina 

14. Corpora cavernosa (caverna, a ca-\f>elmintho-corlon, a Cryptogamic plant, of 
verg). Two lengthened bodies, consti-lihe order ^^^a, used in Corsica as a re- 
lating the chief bulk of the body of ihejmedy for intestinal worms. 



COR 



108 



cou 



CORTEX (bark). A term which is 
generally applied to Peruvian bark. 

1. Curliciiie. An alkaloid lound in the 
bark ol' the Populus Tremens. 

2. Cortical substance. The exterior 



Cotyloid (elSoi, likeness). A term ap- 
plied to the acetabulum, or the cavity of 
the hip, lor receiving the head of the 
thigh-l)one, resenibliiig an ancient cup. 

COTYLKDO.N (voruX^(l.>, a cavity). 



part of the brain, also termed ciHen7tciu5,-j The seed-lobe of a plant. Plants have 
and of ihe kidney. I been dit^imguisiied, with reference to the 

CORYDALIiM. An alkaloid contained nuniljcr ol iheir cotyledons, into rft-cot^- 



in the root of the Conjdalis bulbosa and 
fahacea. 

CORYMB. A form of inflorescence, 
in which the lower stalks are so long that 
their flowers are elevated to the same 
level as that oi the uppermost flowers. 
The expansion of the flowers of a corymb 
is centripetal. See Fascicle. 

CORY'ZA (K6pvi,a, from Kopv;, or xipa, 
the head). An inflammatory affection of 
llie mucous membrane lining the nose, 
and its contiguous cavities, usually ariS' 
ing from cold. It is also called gravedo 
nasal catarrh, cold in the head, slufling 
in the head, &c. See Catarrh. 

COSiMETiC {Koajiog, ornament). A 
remedy which improves the complexion, 
and removes blotches and freckles. 

COSTA (cuslodio, to guard). A rib. 
The ribs are divided into — 

1. The true, or sterno-verlehral. The 
first seven pairs; so called because they 
are united by their cartilages to the ster- 
num ; these are called cuslodes, or the 
preservers of the heart. 

2. The false, or vertebral. The re- 
maining Jive pairs, which are successive- 
ly united to the lowest true rib, and to 
each other. 

3. The vertebral extremity of a rib is 
called the head ; the contracted part 
which adjoins it forms the neck; at the 
back of the rib is the tubercle; further 
outward the hone bends forward, pro- 
ducing the angle, from which proceeds 
the body, which passes forwards and 
downwards to the sternal extremity. 

COSTIVEi\ESS. Another term for 
constipation, or confinement of the 
bowels. 

COSTUS. A substance called putckuk 
in India, and produced by a genus of the 
order Coniposita;, to which the name of 
Aucklandia has been given, in honour of 
the Earl of Auckland. 

COTTOx\. The hairy covering of the 
seeds of several species of Gossypium. 

[COTULA. Ph. U. S. The herb of 
Anlhemis Cotula. May-weed. This 
plant possesses the same properties as 
Chamomile, and is given in the same 
form.] 

COTYLE'. An old Roman measure. 
The socket of the hip-bone. 



ledonous, or those which have two coty- 
ledons in their seeds; mono-cot y ledonous, . 
or those which have only one ; and 
a-coti/ledonous, or those which have none. 

COU CHI AG. The depression of a 
cataract. 

COUMARLV. The odoriferous prin- 
ciple of the Tonka bean, the produce of 
the Coumarouma odorata ; and of the 
flowers ol the Melilotus officinalis. 

COUNTER-EXTENSION. A means 
of reducing a fracture by making exten- 
sion in the opposite direction. See Ex- 
tension. 

COUNTER-IRRITATION. Antago- 
nism. The production of an artificial or 
secondary disease, in order to relieve 
another or primary one. Dr. Parry calls 
this the " cure of diseases by conversion." 
But as the secondary disease is not 
always a state of irritation, Dr. Pereira 
suggests the use of some other term, as 
counter-morbific. The practice is also 
called derivation and revulsion. 

COUNTER-OPENING. Contra-aper- 
tura. All-Opening made in a second part 
of an abscess, opposite to a first. 

COUP-DE-SANG. Blood-stroke; an 
instantaneous and universal congestion, 
without any escape of blood from the 
vessels. This is a Ibrra of ha;morrhage, 
cfccurring in the brain, the lungs, and in 
most of the other organs of the body. 

COUP-DE-SOLEIL. :Sun-stroke. An 
affection of the head, produced by the 
rays of the sun. 

COUP or TOUR-DE-MAITRE. A 
mode of introducing the sound, with the 
convexity towards tlie abdomen. 

COUPEROSE {cuprum, copper, rosa, 
arose). Goutte-rose. The Acne, or gutta 
rosacea, or carbuncled iiice ; so named 
from the redness of the spots. 

COURAP. A form of Impetigo, pe- 
culiar to India, described by Sauvages 
under the term scabies Indica. 

COURONNE-DE-TASSES. Literally, 
a crown or circle of cups. An apparatus 
employed in voltaic electricity, consisting 
of a circle of cups containing salt water, 
and connected together by compound 
metallic arcs of copper and zinc. 

COUVRE-CHEF EN TRIANGLE. 
A triangular bandage Ibr the head. ' 



cow 



109 



CRI 



COW-ITCH, or CO^VHAGE. A sub-| C R ASS AM ENTUM (crassws, thick), 
stance procured from the strong, brown The cruor, or clot of blood, consisting of 



stinging hairs, covering the legume of 
the Mucuna pruriens, and employed as a 
mechanical anthelminiic. 

COWPER'S GLANDS. Accessory 
Glands. Two small granulated glandu- 
lar bodies placed parallel to each other 
before the prostate. 

COW-POX. The vernacular name for 
Vaccijiia, from its having been derived 
from the cow. 

COW-TREE. Pala de Vaca. A tree 
which yields, by incision, a glutinous 
sap or vegetable milk. 

COXA. The hip, or haunch ; the 
huckle-bone; the joint of the hip. The 
term is synonymous with coxendix. 

1.0s cnxarum. Another term for the 
OS iliacum, more generally called os in 
nominatum. 

2. Cox-algia{a\yos,Tpam). Pain of the 
hip or haunch. 

COX.(ELUVIUM {coxa, the hip, lava, 
to wash). The hip-bath, or demi-bain of 
the French, in which the patient is im- 
mersed as high as to the umbilicus or hip. 

CRAB-LOUSE. The pediculus pubis, 
ormorpio; a species of louse distinguish- 
ed by the cheli/orm structure of its legs, 
and frequently inducing local prurigo; 
it is Ibuiid chiefly on the groin and eye- 
brows of uncleanly persons. 

CRAB YAWS. Excrescences on the 
soles of I he feet. See Framboesia. 

CRAMP (krempen, German, to con- 
tract). Spasm; violent contraction of 
the muscles, 

CRANIUM (Kdpa, the head). The 
skull, or cavity which contains the brain, 
its membranes, and vessels. The inner 
and outer surfaces of the bones are com- 
posed of compact layers, called the ex 
ternal or fibrous, and the intental or 
vitreous, tables of the skull. There is an 
intermediate cellular texture, termed 
diploe, which is similar to the cancell 
of other bones. 

L Crariio-logy {\6yai, discourse). A 
description of the skull. 

2. Cranio-scopy {aKotrioi, to observe) 
An inspection of the skull. Dr. Prichard 
has characterized the primitive forms of 
the skull according to the width of the 
bregma, or space between the parietal 
bones: hence — 

1. The sleno-bregmale {cnvdi, narrow), 
or .Ethiopian varieiy. 



fibrin and red globules. 

CREAM OF LIME. A mixture of 
ime and water, used (or purifying coal 
g:is, by its jiroperty of absorbing or com- 
bining with the contaminating gases. 

CREAM OF TARTAR. Cremor 
Tartari. The purified bi-tartrate of 
potash. 

[CREASOTE, or] CREOSOTE {Kpcas, 
flesh, o-w^o), to preserve). An oily, co- 
lourless, transparent liquid, discovered 
first in pyroligneous acid, and subse- 
quently in the different kinds of lar. lis 
name is derived from its preventing the 
putrefaction of meat or fish, when dipt 
in it. 

CREATINE (Kpcag, flesh). A nitro- 
genous, crystallizable substance, obtained 
from muscular fibre. 

CREEPING SICKNESS {kriebel 
kranheil). The name by which the gan- 
grenous form of Ergotism is known in 
Germany. 

CREMASTER (Kpeitaoi, to suspend). 
A muscle which draws up the testis. 

CREMOR PTISANS. The thick 
juice of barley; panada water; gruel of 
frumenty. Celsus. 

[CRENATE {crenatns, notched). Hav- 
ing rounded teeth. Applied to certain 
leaves, the margins of which have 
rounded projections or teeth. When 
these teelh are themselves crenate, the 
leaf is said to be bicrenate.] 

CREPITATION {crepit.o, to creak). 
The grating sensation, or noise, occa- 
sioned by pressing the finger upon a part 
affected with emphysema ; or by the ends 
of a fracture when moved; or by certain 
salts during calcination. 

CREPITUS (cjepo, to crackle). The 
peculiar rattle of pneumonia ; the grating 
made by joints, in a deficiency of syno- 
via, &c. 

CRETA. Chalk ; a friable carbonate 
of lime. 

Creta prcBparala. Prepared chalk. 
This is common chalk, the coarser par- 
ticles of which have been removed by 
washing. 

CRETINISM. Imperfect develope- 
ment of the brain, with mental imbeci- 
lity, usually conjoined with bronchocele, 
observed in the valleys of Switzerland 
and on the Alps. See Gohlre. 

CRIBRIFORMIS (cribrum, a sieve. 



2. The mesobregmate (ftio-oj, middle), /or»ia, likeness). The name of the plate 
or Caucasian variety. of the ethmoid bone, from its being per- 

3. The platy-breginale (TrXaruj, broad), forated like a sieve. 

■' or Mongolian variety. | CRICOS (/cpiVoj). A ring. 



CRI 



110 



CRU 



1. Cricoid (£i(5oj, likeness). The name 
of the ring-like cartilage ol' the larynx. 

2. Crico-. Terms compounded with 
this word belong lo muscles of the la- 
rynx. 

CRIA'IS. The hair, when set in order 
or plaited. See Capillus. 

CRliSOJNES. Grubs; a secretion from 
the sebaceous glands, appearing on the 
arms, legs, and backs of mlanls. 

CRISIS (Kpiioj, to decide). Literally, 
a decision or judgment. An event or 
period, which marks changes in disease. 

[CRISTA. A crest. In anatomy it is 
applied to several bony projections, and 
to a part of the nymphoe. In surgery it 
is applied to e.\croscence3 like the comb 
of a cock about the anus.] 

CRISTA GALLl {cock's crest). The 
crisdform process of the ethmoid bone. 

[CRIST AT L"S. Crested. Applied to 
several parts of plants.] 

CRITICAL (vpiVo), to decide). A term 
applied to syraploms or periods, espe- 
cially connected with changes in a dis- 
ease, as sudden perspiration, diarrhoea, 
or a deposit in the urine ; and certain 
days were so designated by the ancient 
physicians. 

CROCI STIGMATA. Saffron; the 
dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, or com- 
mon crocus. 

CROCKE. A kind of dyspncea, ob- 
served in hawks, produced by overstrain- 
ing in flying. It is analogous to broken 
wind in horses. In both cases there is 
pulmonary emphysema. 

CROCOMC ACID {crocus, saffron). 
An acid, procured by heating potash with 
carbon, and so named from the saffron 
colour of its salts. 

CROCUS {KpdKos). Saffron. An old 
term applied to oxides, and other prepa- 
rations of the metals, from their saffron 
colour: thus we have crocus marlis, or 
oxide of iron ; crocus melallorum, or 
oxide of antimony ; crocus Veneris, or 
oxide of copper. 

CROP, or CRAW. A sort of preli- 
minary stomach in some birds, formed by 
an expansion of the oesophagus. Com- 
pare Gizzard. 

CROSS-BIRTH. Parodinia perversa. 
Labour impeded by preternatural pre- 
sentation of the ioetus or its mem- 
branes. 

CROTAPHITIC NERVE (Kfidra^og, 
the temple). A name given by Palletia 
to a portion of the Fifth Pair, which he 
considered to be divided into three parts; 
viz. the common trunk of the fifth pair, 
or portio major ; the crotaphilic, agreeing 



with the portio minor of other anatomists ; 
and the buccinator. 

CROTCHET. A curved instrument 
with a sharp hook to extract the foetus. 

CROTON. A genas of Euphorbiaceous 
plants, abounding in a milky juice. 

1. Croton tiglium. Purging Croton; 
the plant which yields the drastic croton 
oil, or oil of tiglium. The seeds, called 
grana tiglii, or purging nuts, are said to 
be produced by the Croton pavana. 

2. Croton eteuteria. Sea-side Balsam, 
or Sweet-wood; the plant which yields 
the cascanlla or eleuteria bark. 

3. Crutonic acid. Jatrophic acid. An 
acid existing in the seeds of Croton tig- 
lium. 

4. Crotonia. A vegeto-alkali found in 
the seeds of Croton tiglium, and probably 
identical with tiglin. 

CROTOPHUS («-p<5roj, a pulse). Cro- 
lophiam. A term importing painful pul- 
sation, or throbbing in the temple. 

CROUP. The Cynanche Trachealis, 
so called from the croupmg noise attend- 
ing it. This noise is similar to the sound 
emitted by a chicken affected with the 
pip, which in some parts of Scotland is 
called roup ; hence, probably, the term 
croup. See Hives. 

CRUCIAL [cruciate, cruciform] (crux, 
crucis, a cross). [Crosswise.] A term ap- 
plied to — L incisions made across one an- 
other, and — 2. to the crosting ligaments 
of the knee, &c. 

CRUCIBLE {crux, a cross, which the 
alchemists stamped upon the vessels; or 
Ironi crucio, to torture). A chemical 
vessel in w hich the metals were tortured, 
to force them to become like gold. 

CRUCIFER^ {crux, crucis, a cross, 
fero, to bear). The Cruciferous tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants with leaves ahernate; flowers, poly- 
petalous ; sepals, 4, deciduous, cruciate, 
alternating with four cruciate petals ; 
stamens, 6, hypogynous, tetradynamous ; 
fruit, a siliqua, or silicula. 

CRUDI'I'IES {crudus, raw). Undi- 
gested substances in the stomach. 

CRUOR. The crassamentum, or clot 
of the blood. See Blood. 

CRUPSIA (xpi5a, colour, oxpt;, sight). 
] isus coloralus. A defect of sight, con- 
sisting in the colouration of objects. 

CRURA. Plural of Crus, a leg; a 
term applied lo some parts of the body, 
from their resemblance to a leg or root, 
as the crura penis, crura cerebri, crura 
cerebelli. 

1. CrurcBus. One of the extensor mus- 
cles of the leg, also called femormus. 



CRU 



111 



CUN 



2. Crural arch. The ligament of ihe 
thigh, also called inguinal ligament, liga- 
ment oC Poiipart, of Fallopius, &e. 

CRUSTA (Latin). A shell ; a scab. 

1. Cnista lactea. Milk scall ; the Por- 
rigo larvalis of Willan. 

2. Cruslacea. The fourth class of the 
Diplo-gaiis^liata, or Entomoida, compris- 
ing articulated animals, with an exterior 
shell which is generally hard and calca- 
reous. 

CRYOLITE. The double hydrofluate 
of alumina and soda. 

CRYOPHORUS (Kpvoi, cold, 0£pw, to 
bring). Literally, the frost-bearer. An 
instrument for exhibiting the degree of 
cold produced by evaporation. 

CRYPT/E i:KpvwTo>, to hide). Mucous 
follicles which are concealed. 

CRYPTOGAMIA (-cpus-rof, hidden, 
yafioi, nuptials). The 24th class of plants 
in Linnoeus's artificial system, compre- 
hending those in which the function of 
reproduction has not been understood. 
All other plants are ranged under the 
class PharierDgamia. 

CRYSTALLI. A term formerly ap- 
plied to the appearances of Varicella, de- 
scribed as white shining pustules con- 
taininc; lymph. 

CRV'STALLINE (;cp«<7raXXof, ice). A 
term applied to the lens of the eye. 

CRYSTALLIZATION {KpvaraWo;, 
ice). The process by which the particles 
of liquid or gaseous bodies form ihem 
selves into crijslafs, or solid bodies of a 
regularly limited form. 

1. Alternale Crystallization. Thlstorm 
is applied to a phenomenon which takes 
place when several crystallizable sub 
stances, having little attraction for each 
other, are present in the same solution 
That which is largest in quantity and 
least soluble crystallizes first, in part; 
the least soluble substances next in quan 
tiiy then begin to separate; and thus dif- 
ferent substances, as salts, are often de- 
posited in successive layers from the 
same solution. 

2. Crystallography {ypafM, to describe). 
The science which investigates ihe forms 
of crystals. These have been considered 
as primitive, or fundamental ; and se- 
condnry, or derived. 

CU'fiEBA [cuhah, Indian). Cubebs, 
or Java Pepper, the berries of the Piper 
Cuheha, an Indian spice. 

[Cnhchin. A principle very analogous 
to, if not identical with piperin, obtained 
from Cubebs] 

CUBITUS (cuho, to lie down, from the 
ancients reclining on this part at meals) 



The fore-arm, consisting of the ulna and 
radi)is. 

CUBOIDES (Kvfioi, a cube, u^oi, like- 
ness). [Cuboid.] The name of a bone 
of the loot, somewhat resembling a cube, 
situated at the fore and outer part of the 
tarsus. 

CUCULLA'RIS {cucullus, a hood). A 
broad hood-like muscle of Ihe scapula. 

[Citcullate. Hooded ; having the apex 
and sides curved inwards.] 

CUCUMIS COLOCYNTHIS. The 
Bitter Cucumber or Colocynth ; a Cucur- 
bitaceous plant, the fruit of which is the 
colocynth or coloquintida of commerce. 
There are two kinds of colocynth, the 
Turkey or peeled, and the Mogadore or 
unpeeled colocynth. 

Colocynthin. The bitter or purgative 
principle of the colocynth gourd. 

CUCURBITA (acurvitate). A goufd. 
A sourd-like vessel for distillation. 

[CUCURBITA CITRULLUS. Wa- 
termelon. The seeds of this well known 
fruit are considered demulcent and diu- 
retic, and an infusion of them is much 
used in domestic practice for strangury 
and other affections of the urinary pas- 
sages.] 
CUCURBlTACE^(c«eMr5Jte,agourd). 
The Gourd tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Climbing plants wiih leaves palmated, 
succulent; J/owers unisexual, monopeta- 
lous; stamens cohering in three parcels; 
ovarium inferior ;/ruk fleshy; seeds flat; 
testa coriaceous. 

CUCURBITULA (dim. of cucurbita). 
A cupping-glass; it is termed crncnta, 
when employed with scarification ; sicca, 
when unaccompanietl with scarification. 
CUDBEAR. A colouring matter pre- 
pared from the lichen Lecanora lartarea, 
and named from ^ir Cuthbert Gordon. 

[CULILAWAN. An aromatic back, 
produced by the Cinnamomum Culila- 
wan. It is rarely used] 

CULINARY {culina, a kitchen). Arty 
thing appertaining to the kitchen. 

CULM. The name of the peculiar 
ste^Ti of grasses, sedges, &c. 

CUMINUM CYMINUM. The Offi- 
cinal Cumin; an Umbelliferous plant, 
yielding the fruit incorrectly termed cu- 
min seeds. It is principally used in vete- 
rinary surgery. 

Ciimen or cymen. One of the two oils 
composing oil of cumin; a carbo-hydro- 
gen. The other is an oxygenated oil, 
called hydruret of cumyl. Cuniyl is a 
hypothetical base. 

[CUNEATE(r!i7ieiiS,a wedge). Wedge- 
shaped : inversely triangular, with round- 



CUN 



112 



C YA 



ed angles, as applied to certain leaves. 
Synonymous wiili cuneiform.] 

CUNEIFORM (cuneu's, a wedge,/orma, 
likeness). Wedge-like; the name of three 
bones of the foot, the inner, middle, and 
outer cuneiform. 

CUPEL (kiippel, German). A small 
flat cupAikti crucihle, made of bone asii. 

Cupellaiion. The process of purifying 
gold and silver by melting them wiih 
lead, which becomes first oxidated, then 
vitrified, and sinks into the cupel, carrying 
along with it all the baser metals, and 
leaving the gold or silver upon its surface. 

CUPOLA. The dome-like extremity 
of the canal oi'lhe cochlea. 

CUPPIiNG. The abstraction of blood 
by the application of the cupping-glass. 

CUPRUM (quasi <es Cyprium, from 
the island of Cyprus). Copper; a red 
metal, found in America, and some parts 
of England. By the alchemists it was 
called Venus. See Copper. 

\. Cupri sulphas. Sulphate of copper, 
also called blue vitriol, Roman vitriol, 
blue copperas, blue stone, and bisulphate 
of copper. 

2. C upro-snlphas ammonia. Cu pro- 
sulphate of ammonia, commonly called 
ammoniaied copper, or ammoniuret of 
copper. 

3. Cupri suh-acetas. Subacetate of 
copper, the a-rugo of the ancients; it is 
frequently termed diacetate of copper. 

4. Cupri acetas. Acetate of copper, 
improperly called distilled or crystallized 
verdigris. 

CUPULIFER^ {cupula, a small cup). 
The Oak tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Trees or shrubs with leaves alternate ; 
flowers amentaceous, d ioecious, apetalous ; 
ovarium inferior, enclosed in a cupule; 
fruit a horny or coriaceous nut. 

CURA FAiMIS. Abstinence; or, lite- 
jally, regard for fasting. 

CURARINE. An alkaloid, extracted 
irom the Curara or Urali, a substance 
used by the Indians for poisoning arrows. 
(CURCUMA LONG A (kurkum, Persian 
ibr saffron). The Long-rooted Turmeric, 
.the tubers of which yield the turmeric of 
commerce. 

1. Curcuma angustifolia. The Narrow- 
leaved T'lrmeric, the tubers of which 
yield the East Indian Arrow-root of com- 
merce. 

2. Curcuma Zedoaria. The species 
which yields the aromatic rhizome called 
zedoarti root. 

3. Curcuma Zerumbet. The species, 
perhaps, which yields the aromatic rhi- 
zome called Zerumbet root. 



CURCUMA PAPER. Paper stained 
with a decoction of turmeric, and em- 
ployed by chemists as a test of free alkali, 
by the action of which it receives a 
brown slain. 

CURCUMINE. The colouring matter 
of turmeric, obtained in a state of purity 
by separating it from its combmation 
with oxide of lead. 

CURD. The coagulum which sepa- 
rates from milk, upon the addition of 
acid, rennet, or wine. 

CURETTE (a spoon). [Scoop.] A 
spoon-like instrument for the extraction 
of the cataract. 

CUSPARIA BARK. Angostura Bark. 
The produce, according to Humboldt, of 
the Galipea cusparia; according to Dr. 
Hancock, of the G. officinalis. 

[Cusparin. A peculiar principle, crys- 
tallizable in tetrahedral prisms, obtained 
by Saladin from Angostura Bark.] 

[CUSPIDATE (fus/jis.apoint). Spear- 
shaped ; tapering to a stiff point ; abruptly 
acuminate.] 

CUSPIDATI {cuspis, a point). The 
canine or eye-teeth. See Dens. 

[CUTANEOUS (.cutis, the skin). Be- 
longing to the skin.] 

CUTANEUSMUSCULIS(cu<(,s,skin). 
.\ name of the platysma myoides, or latis- 
simus colli, a muscle of the neck; it has 
the appearance of a very thin fleshy mem- 
brane. 

CUTICLE (dim. of cutis). The epi- 
dermis or scarf-skin ; under this is the 
cutis vera, or derma, the true skin ; and 
between these is the rcte mucosum. 
' CUTIS {KVTOi, the skin). The derma, 
or true skin, as distinguished from the 
cuticle, epidermis, or scarf-skin. 

Cutis anserina. Goose-skin ; an effect 
of cold upon the skin, in which the cuta- 
neous tissue becomes dry and shrivelled, 
while the bulbs of the hairs become ele- 
vated and manifested. 

CYAN'OGEN {Kviifos, blue, ycwdo), to 
generate; so called from its being an es- 
sential ingredient in Prussian blue). Bi- 
carburet of nitrogen ; a gas. It forms, 
with oxygen, the cyanic, cyanous, and 
fulminic acids; and with hydrogen, the 
hydro-cyanic or prussic. All its com- 
pounds, which are not acid, are termed 
cyanides or ci/anureis. 

CYANOPATHIA {Kvavoi, blue. r^dOos, 
disease). Blue disease; another term for 
cyanosis. 

CY.ANO'SIS (Kvdvwirii, the giving a 
blue colour, from Kvavog, blue). Morbus 
Cwruleus. Blue disease; blue jaundice 
of the ancients: a disease in which the 



CY A 



113 



C YS 



complexion is tinged with venous blood, 
from maltbrmation of the heart. The 
term has been derived from Kvavog voaog, 
literally, blue disease; and it is synony- 
mous with plethora venosa. 

[CYATHIFORM (cyathns, a drinking- 
cup, fonna, form). Cup-shaped.] 

CY'ATHUS (Kvado;, a drinking-cup). 
A wine-glass, which may be estimated to 
contain an ounce and a half — as much as 
one could easily swallow at once. See 
Cochleare. 

CYCAS CIRCINALIS. An East In- 
dian Palm tree, the soft centre of which 
yields a kind of sago. 

CYCLO-BRANCHIA {kvk\os, a circle. 
ffpayxia, gills). Ring-gilled animals, as 
the chiton : Order 9, class Gasteropoda. 

CYCLO-GANGLIATA {kvkXo;. a cir- 
cle, yayyXiot/, a nerve-knot). A term 
applied by Dr. Grant to the Fourth sub- 
kingdom of animals, or Mollusca, com- 
prising animals mostly aquatic, slow- 
moving, or fixed, without internal skele- 
ton, covered with a permanent calcareous 
or cartilaginous shell, and distinguished 
by the high developementof the cerebral 
ganglia, and their circular distribution 
around the oesophagus. The classes are 
the Tunicata, Conchifera, Gasteropoda, 
Pleropoda, and Cephalopoda. 

CYCLO-NEURA (vrnXo^, a circle, lev- 
pov, a nerve). A term applied by Dr. 
Grant to the First sub-kingdom of ani- 
mals, or Radiata, as expressive not only 
of the circular form of the nervous axis 
in this division, but also of its rudi- 
mental slate of simple filaments. The 
classes are Poriphera, Polypiphera, Ma- 
lactinia, and Echinoderma. 

[CYCLOPS {KVK\oi, a circle, w.//, an eye) 
A monster with a single eye, and that 
situated in the middle of the forehead] 

CYCLO'SIS {kvk\o;, a circle). A cir- 
cular movement of the globular particles 
of the sap, as observed in the cells of 
Chara and Nitella, and in the jointed 
hairs projecting from the cuticle of seve- 
ral other plants. A similar motion has 
been recently found by Mr. Lister to exist 
in a great number of Polypiferous Zoo- 
phytes. 

CYCLO-STOMI ((cCvXoj, a circle, arO 
pa, a mouth). Ring-mouihed fishes, as 
the lamprey. 

CYDONIA VULGARIS. The Com- 
mon Quince, a Pomaceous plant, the 
seeds of which are employed in medicine 
for the sake of their mucilage, which is 
called bassorin. or more strictly cydonin. 

[CYMBIFORM {cymba, a boat,/orma 
likeness). Boat-shaped ; navicular.] 



CYME. A form of inflorescence re- 
sembling an umbel and a corymb, but 
with a centrifugal expansion, indicated 
by the presence of a solitary flower in the 
axis of the dichotomous ramifications. 

[Cymose. Resembling a cyme, as 
applied to inflorescences and leafy 
branches.] 

CYNANCHE (icicov, a dog, ayxos, to 
strangle). Literally, dog-choke. Squin- 
ancy, squincy, quincy, sore throat, throat 
disorder. " The disease is supposed by 
some to be named from its occasioning a 
noise in breathing like that made by dogs 
when being strangled. By others it is 
said to be from the patient being obliged 
to breathe like a dog, with open mouth 
and protruded tongue." — Forbes. 

[CYNANCHUM VINCETOXICUM. 
White Swallow-wort. A plant of the 
family Apocinsea, formerly esteemed as 
a counter-poison. The leaves are emetic] 

CYNAPIA. An alkaloid discovered in 
the j¥Ah\isa Cynapium, or lesser hemlock. 

CYNIPS QUERCIFOLIL A hymen- 
oplerous insect, whose habitation is the 
gall of the oak. The gall itself is called 
cynipis indns, or the nest of the cynips. 

[CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICINALE. 
Hound's Tongue. A plant of the family 
BoraginecB, common both in Europe and 
this country, supposed to possess narcotic 
properties. It has been used as a demul- 
cent and sedative in pectoral affections, 
and applied externally to burns, ulcers, 
&c.] 

C YNOLISSA (Kvuiv, a dog, Xvaaa, mad- 
ness). Canine madness. 

CYNOREXIA {Kvoiv, a dog, op£|if. ap- 
petite). Canine appetite. 

CYNOSBATUS {kvojv, a dog, (idroi, a 
bramble). Rosa canina. The dog-rose, 
which yields the hep of medicine. 

CYRTO'SIS ((fi.prdf, curved). A term 
denoting, among the anciepts, a recurva- 
tion of the spine, or posterior crooked- 
ness; as lordosis denoted procurvation of 
the head, or anterior crookedness. It has 
more recently, been termed cyrtonosis, 
or " morbus incurvus." See Hybosis. 

CYSTIS (KvcTii. a bladder). By this 
term is meant an accidental membrane, 
forming a sort of shut sac, and containing 
a liquid or half-liquid matter, secreted by 
the membrane which encloses it. 

1. Cystis fellea (/e/, gall). The gall- 
bladder, a membranous reservoir, situ- 
ated at the under surface of the right 
lobe of the liver. 

2. Cystic duct. The duet leading from 
the gall-bladder, and uniting with the 
hepatic duct. 



CYS 



114 



D AR 



3. Cystic oxide. A species of calculus, 
found in the bladder, &c. 

4. Ci/slicercus (KcpKOi, a l&il). A cyslose 
bladder, containing an unattached and 
almost always solitary animal. Compare 
Ccenurus, and see Hydatid. 

6. Cystirrhagia {pnyvioi, to burst forth). 
Haemorrhage from the urinary bladder. 

6. Ci/slirrhwa (pioi, to flow). Catarrhus 
Vesicfe, or Catarrh of the bladder. 

7. Cystitis. Inflammation of the blad- 
der, the nosological termination in itis 
denoting inflammation. 

8. Cyslilome I^TOjih, section). An in- 
strument for opening the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

[9. Cyslo-bubonocde {/iov0(x)v, the groin, 
KfiXn, a tumour). Hernia of the bladder 
through the inguinal canal.] 

10. Cyslocele (xi'/Xr/, a tumour). A hernia 
formed by protrusion of the bladder. 

11. Ci/slo-plasty (n-Xdo-ffw, to form). A 
mode of treating vesico-vaginal fistula. 
The edges of the fistula are refreshed, 



a flap dissected off from the e.tternal 
labium, and united by suture with the 
refreshed edges of the sore 

12. Cystotomia {ro^in, section). The 
operation of opening the bladder for the 
extraction of a calculus. 

CYTISSINA. The emetic principle of 
the Cytisus laburnum, Asarabacca, and 
Arnica montana. 

CYTISUS SCOPARIUS. Common 
Broom ; an indigenous Leguminous plants 
of which the tops and seeds are employed 
m medicine. Salt of broom, or sal genis- 
tse, is obtained by burning the whole 
plant. 

CYTOBLAST {kvto^. a cavity, l3\a- 
(TTavo}, to sprout). A nucleus observed in 
the centre of some of the bladders of the 
cellular tissue of plants, and regarded by 
Schleiden as a universal elementary 
organ. 

[CYTOBLASTEMA. Hyaline sub- 
stance ; intercellular substance. See 
Blastema.] 



D 



DACRYO'M.\ {SoKpiti), to weep). An flight carburetted hydrogen, exploding on 
impervious state of one or both of the contact with a light, 
puncta lachrymalia; so named from Ihej DANDRIFF. A Saxon term for scurf 
running down of the tear over the lower of the head. See Piti/riasis. 
eyelid. I DAPHNE MEZEREON. The Com- 

D.iEMONOMANl.\ ((5oi//mi', a demon, raon Mezereon. or Spurge Laurel; a 
/xavta, madness). A species of melan- plant of the order Thymelacea, yielding 
choly, in which the patient supposesjthe Mezereon Bark. 
himself possessed by demons. \. Daphne gnidium. The bark of this 

DAGUERREOTYPE. A process by .species is employed in France as a vesi- 
which all images produced by the camera catory, under the name o{ garou. The 
obscura are retained and fixed in a few fruit is the kokkos kvHios, or Gnidian 
minutes upon surfoces of silver by the ,6err^ of Hippocrales. 
action of light. The name is derived | 2. Daphne laureola. An indigenous 
from Daguerre, the inventor. jspecies, agreeing in property with the 

DAHLINE. A vegetable principle preceding, 
discovered in the dahlia, similar to inulinj S.^Daphnin. A peculiar crystalline 
and sfarch. j principle, found in the Daphne mezereon, 

[DALEY'S CARMINATIVE. A cele-'but not consliluting its active principle, 
braled empirical carminative for children. See Ljaaeila. 

composed of carbonate of magnesia, gij.;' DARTOS [izpw, to excoriate). Dnrsis. 
oil of peppermint, (T^fj.; oil of nutmeg,] A contractile fibrous layer, situated im- 
rTJ-ij.; oil of aniseed, 'TJ'iij.; tincture of.mediately beneath the integument of the 
castor, fT^'xxx. ; tincture of assafoelida, scrotum. 

rrj'xv.; tincture of opium, n\\.\ spirit off Dartoid tissue. The structure of the 
pennyroyal, flj^w.; compound tincture dartos, intermediate between muscle and 
of cardamom, <1\'xx\.; peppeririint water, elastic fibrous tissue, 
fgij.] ' \ DARTRE (iapTo;, a shell or crnst, 

DAMPS. The permanently elastic from rcpw. to excoriate). Teller; a term 
fluids which are extricated in mines, which has been used at different limes 
These are choke </«;;)/?, or carbonic acid ; to designate almost all diseases of the 
and fire damp, consisting almost solely of skin. 



DAT 



115 



DEF 



DATES. The drupaceous fruil of the 
Phoenix daclylifera, or Date Palm tree. 

DATURA STUAMO.NIUM. The 
Common Thornapple ; a plant of the 
order Solanacece, the effects of which are 
similar to those of belladonna. 

Daturia. A vegetable alkali said to 
exist in the Datura Stramonium. 

DAUCUS CAROTA. Common or 
Wild Carrot; an indigenous Umbellife- 
rous plant. The officinal root is that of 
the variely saliva, the cultivated or gar- 
den carrot. The officinal fruits, incor- 
rectly called carrot-seeds, belong to the 
wild carrot. 

1. Rob dauci. Carrot-juice; the ex- 
pressed juice of the carrot-root. By 
standing, a feculent matter, called amy- 
lum dauci, recently employed in medi- 
cine, is deposited. 

2. Carotin. A crystalline, ruby-red 
neutral substance obtained from the car- 
rot root. 

DAV-MARE. Ephialtes vi;rilantium. 
A species of incubus, occurring during 
wakefulness, and attended with thai 
severe pressure on the chest which pe- 
culiarly characterizes night-mare. 

DAY-SIGHT. An affection of the 
vision, in which it is dull and confused 
in the dark, but clear and .strong in the 
daylight; it is also called nyctalopia, or 
night-blindness. Hens are well known 
to labour under this affection ; hence it 
is sometimes called hen-blindness. 

[DEAFNESS. Diminution or total loss 
of hearing.] 

[DEATH. The final cessation of all 
the functions which in their aggregate 
constitute life. Real death is disiin 
guished from apparent death, the latter 
being simply the suspension of the same 
functions.] 

DEBILITY {dehilis, weak). Weak 
ness, feebleness, decay of strength, both 
in mind and body. 

DECANDRIA {ScKa, ten, di-Pjp, a man) 
A class of plants in the LinnoBan system, 
characterized by having ten stamens 

DECANTATIOTV. The pouring off 
of clear fluid from sediments. 

DECIDUA (decido. to fall off). A 
spongy membrane, or chorion, produced 
at the period of conception, and thrown 
off from the uterus after parturition. 

1. Decidua refiexa. That portion of 
the decidua wViich is reflected over, and 
surrounds the ovum. 

2. Decidua vera. That portion of the 
decidua which lines the interior of the 
uterus; the non-reflected portion. 

DECIDUOUS {decido, to fall off). 



Falling off; in botany synonymous with 
caducous, and opposed to persistent, 
which denotes permanence. 

DECLINATE {declino, to turn aside). 
Bent downwards; applied in botany to 
the stamens, when they all bend to one 
side, as in amaryllis. 

[DECIGRAMME (decimus, the tenth 
part, ypanjia, a gramme). The tenth part 
of a gramme, equal to 1'5434 grains 
Troy.] 

DECOCTION [dccoquo, to boil away). 
1. The operation of boiling. 2. A solu- 
tion of the active principle of vegetables, 
obtained by boiling them in water. 

DECOLLATION (decollo, to behead, 
from collum, the neck.) Decapitation. 
The removal of the head. 

DECOMPOSITION. Analysis. The 
separation of the component parts or 
principles of bodies from each other. 

DECORTICATION [de, from, cortex, 
bark). The removal or stripping off of 
the bark, husk, <fec. 

DECREPITATION (de, from, crepitus, 
crackling). The crackling noise which 
takes place when certain bodies, as com- 
mon salt, part with the water which they 
contain, by the application of heat, and 
fall to pieces. 

[DECUBITUS (decumho, to lie down). 
The posture of lying ; the attitude in 
which the body reposes when lying 
down.] 

DECUMBENT (decumho, to lie down). 
Lying prostrate, but rising from the earth 
at the upper e.Ktremity, as applied to the 
directions taken bv plants. 

DECURRENT'(decMrro, to run down). 
Running down; applied to leaves which 
are prolonged down the stem, giving it a 
winged appearance. 

DECUSSATION (rfecHSso, to cross like 
an X). A term applied to parts which 
cross each other, as the optic nerve. 

DECUSSORIUM (decusso, to divide). 
An instrument for depressing the dura 
mater, after trephining. 

[DEFECATION {de, from, faces, ex- 
crement). The separating of any thing 
from its excrement. In physiology, the 
act by which the residual portion of the 
food is extruded from the body. In che- 
mistry and pharmacy, the separating of 
the sediment which forms in any fluid.] 

[DEFERENS {defero, to convoy from). 
Deferent. Applied in anatomy to the ex- 
cretory canal of the testicle. See Vas 
Deferens.] 

DEFLAGRATION (deflofrro. to be ut- 
terly consumed by fire). The oxidation 
of metals by mixing them with nitrate or 



DEF 



116 



DEN 



chlorate of potash, and projecting the 
mixture into a red-hot crucible. 

1. Deflagrating mixtures. These are 
generally made with nitre, the oxygen o( 
which is the active ingredient in promot- 
ing their combustion. 

2. Dejlagrator. The name given by 
Dr. Hare lo a very effective battery, in 
which the plates were so connected to- 
gether as to admit of the whole being 
immersed into the exciting liquid, or 
removed from it, at the same instant. 

DEFLUXION (dejluo, to flow off). 
Destillatio, Catarrh. This terra was 
formerly used, as well as fluxion, lo de- 
note a swelling arising from the sudden 
flow of humours from a distant part. 

DE'FRUTUM. A mixture made of 
new wine, mentioned by Celsus. The 
term appears to be derived a defervendo, 
contracted for defervitura, i.e. decoctum. 
See Rob. 

[DEGENERATIOxN or DEGENERE- 
SCENCE {degenero, to grow worse). A 
change in the intimate composition of 
bodies which deteriorates them.] 

DEGLUTITION (deglulio, lo swallow). 
The act of swallowing. 

DEHISCENCE (dehisce, to gape or 
open). A term used in botany to denote 
the opening of a ripe fruit for the dis- 
charge of the seeds. 

DEJECTIO ALVTNA (dejicio, to cast 
down). The discharge of the faeces. 

DELIQUESCENCE {deliquesco. to 
melt). The property of some salts, of 
becoming liquid by their attracting mois- 
ture from the air. 

fin botany the term delioxiescent is ap- 
plied to a panicle which is so much 
branched that the primary axis disap 
pears] 

DELIQUIUM ANIMI f^delinquo, to 
leave). Syncope; fainting. 

DELIRIUM {deliro, properly, to slip 
out of the furrow ; from de, and lira, 
a furrow ; figuratively, to talk or act 
extravagantly, to swerve from reason) 
Raving; phrensy; disorder of the brain. 

1. Delirium tremens. A barbarous ex- 
pression, intended to convey the idea of 
delirium coexisting with a tremulous 
condition of the body or limbs. It has 
been called brain fever, a peculiar dis 
order of drunkards, delirium et mania e 
potu, delirium ebriosilaiis, erethismus 
ebriosorum, &c. 

2. Delirium traumalicum. A similar 
disease which occurs after serious acci- 
dents or operations. Dupuylren. 

DELITESCENCE {delilesro, to lie hid). 
A term used principally by the French 



physiologists lo express a more sudden 
disappearance of the symptoms of inflam- 
mation than occurs in resolution. 

DELPHINIC ACID. An acid pro- 
cured from the oil of the Delphinus del- 
phis, or dolphin. 

DELPHINIUM STAPHISAGRIA. 
Stavesacre ; a Ranunculaceous plant, of 
narcotico-acrid properties, depending on 
the presence of a peculiar principle called 
delphinia, and a volatile acid. The seeds 
have been used to destroy pediculi, and 
are hence termed by the Germans louse- 
seeds 

DJELTOIDES {iiXra, the Greek letter 
A, and ciSos, likeness). [Shaped like A.] 
The name of a muscle of the humerus, 
from its supposed resemblance to the 
Greek letter A. 

DEMENTIA {de, from, mens, the 
mind). Idiotcy; absence of intellect. 

DEMI-BAIN. The French term for a 
hip-bath; UieraWy half-balh. 

DEMULCENTS (demulceo, to soften). 
Softening and diluting medicines. 

[DENGUE. A form of fever which pre- 
vailed in the West Indies and the South- 
ern Slates in the years 1827 and 1828, 
attended vvilh violent pains in the joints, 
and in many cases with a sort of miliary 
eruption.] 

DENIGRATION {de, from, and niger, 
black). Another term for Melanosis, de- 
rived from its black appearance. 

DENS. A tooth. The first set of 
teelh in children, called the milk teeth, 
consist of 20, which are shed in child- 
hood, and replaced by 28 permanent teeth 
at about 7 years o{ age; to which are 
added 4 denies sapienlim or wisdom teeth 
at about the age of twenty. 

The Classes of the teeth are three: — 

1. Incisores, the front or cutting teeth. 

2. Canini, or cuspidati, the eye or 
corner teelh. 

3. Molares, the grinders, ihe double or 
lateral teelh. The first two pairs have 
been termed bicuspidali, from their two 
conical tubercles; the three next, the 
large grinders or multicuspidali. 

4. The teeth in the Adult are — 



In Infants: 
In. 4; Can. 1—1; Mol. |— 2=20. 

4 ' 11' 2 2 

5. In each tooth are observed, the 
Crown, above the alveolus; the Neck, 
just below the crown; and the Fang- or 
fangs, wilhin the alveolus. 

6. The Structure of ihe Teeth is, 1. 
Enamel, encasing the crown, and the 



DEN 



117 



DER 



hardest production of the body ; 2. Bone, 
coiisiituiing Ihe whole of the root, and 
the inleriorof the crown; and 3. the Pulp, 
a bulbous prolongation of the mucous 
membrane of the gums, which fills the 
cavity of the teeth, forming their nu- 

DENSITY (densus, thick). The pro- 
perty of a body, by which a certain quan- 
tity of matter IS contained under a certain 
bulk. It is opposed to rarity. 

DENTA'TA (dens, a tooth). The name 
of the second vertebra, so called from its 
projecting tooth-like process. 

[DENTATE (dens, a tooth). Toothed ; 
in botany having sharp teeth with con- 
cave ed^'es.l 

[DENTELLARIA (dentella, a little 
tooth). Plitmha<ro £uropcBa.] 

DENTIFRICE (dens, a tooth). Various 
powders used for cleaning the teeth. 

DENTITION [dentio, to breed teeth 
from dens, a tooth). Cutting the teeth ; 
teething. See Dens. 

Dedentition. The loss or shedding of 
the teelh 

DENUDATION {demido, to make 
bare). The laying bare of any part in 
operations. 

DEOBSTRUENTS {de, from, obstruo, 
to obstruct). Medicines for removing 
obstructions. 

DEOXIDATION {de, from, and oxida 
tion). The separation of oxygen from a 
body; the reducing a body from the state 
ol'an oxide. 

DEPAUPERATED. In botany, im 
perfectly developed; shrivelled, as from 
scanty nutriment, as applied to certain 
stipules, bracts, &c. 

DEPIILEGMATION {de, from, and 
phlegma, a watery distilled liquor, as diS' 
tinguished from a spirituous liquor). The 
depriving a body of water. Thus, when 
the fluid is simply rendered stronger, 
as in the case of alcohol, by bringing 
over the spirit by distillation, and leav 
ing behind the superfluous water, the 
process is called dephlegmation, or con 
centraiion. 

DEPHLOGISTICATED {de, from, and 
phlosislon, the inflammable principle). 
Oxidised; deprived of phlogiston 

1. Dephlogifticated air. Oxygen gas; 
called by Scheele empyreal air, and by 
Condorcet vital air. 

2. Depklngisticated marine acid. The 
name given by Scheele to chlorine 

DEPILATORY {de, {Tom,pilns, a hair). 
An application for removing hair from 
any part of the body. 



feather). A disease of the eyelids, in which 
the hair falls ofl^. 

DEPOSIT {depono, to lay down). A 
sediment, or any thing laid down. The 
mechanical deposits of urine are divided 
by Dr. Prout into the pulverulent, or 
amorphous sediments; the crystalline 
sediments, or gravel ; and the solid con- 
cretions, or calculi, formed by the aggre- 
gation of these latter sediments. See 
Calculus. 

[DEPRESSED {deprimo, to press 
down). Flattened from apex to base, as 
applied to seeds.] 

DEPRESSION {deprimo, to press 
down). [In anatomy a hollow or fossa. 
In surgery it is applied to fractures of the 
cranium, in which a portion of bone is 
forced inwards.] Couching; an opera- 
tion for cataract, consisting in the removal 
of the opaque lens out of the axis of 
vision, by means of a needle. 

DEPRESSOR (deprimo, to press down). 
A muscle which depresses any part, as 
those of the ala of the nose, of the angle 
of the mouth, of the lower lip. 

DEPRIMENS OCULI (deprimo. to 
press down). A name given to the rectus 
inferior, from the action of this muscle 
in drawing the eyeball down. See At' 
lollens oculi. 

DERBYSHIRE NECK. A name 
given by Prosser to hronchocele, from its 
frequency in the hilly parts of that 
county. 

DERBYSHIRE SPAR. Fluor spar. 

DERIVATION (derivo, to draw off 
water from its regular channel). Revul- 
sion, or drawing away of the fluids of an 
inflamed part, by applying blisters, &c., 
over it, as in pleuritis; or at a distance 
from it, as sinapisms to the feet, in coma- 
tose affections. Agents producing this 
effect, are termed derivatives. 

DERMA ((5f/)^a). Dermis, or chorium. 
The cutis vera, or true skin, consisting 
of a superficial or papillary layer, and a 
deep layer or corium. See Cuticle. 

1. Dermic. A term applied to the ac- 
tion of remedies through the skin. 

2. Dermoid (clio;, likeness). A term 
applied to tissues which resemble skin. 

DERM.\TOLYSIS (Sspixa, skin, Avw, 
to loosen). Cutis pendula. A form of 
hypertrophy of the skin, characterized by 
great extension of this organ, which is 
thrown into folds, forming occasionally 
large pendulous masses. 

DEROSNE'S SALT. Narcotine ; 
Opiane. A crystalline substance, ob- 



DEPLUMATION (de, from, pZuma, a|tained by treating opium with aether. 



DES 



118 



DIA 



DESCENDENS NONI. The descend- 
ing cervical branch of the ninth pair of 
nerves, or hypoelossal. 

[DESHLERS SALVE. The ceratum 
resinae compositum.] 

DESICCATIOxN (desicco, to dry up). 
The operation of drying; the state of 
being dry. 

[DESMA (kfffios, a ligament). A liga- 
ment. 

[Desmoid (etSoi, likeness). A term ap- 
plied to the ligamentous tissues.] 

DESPUMATION (de, from, spuma, 
foam). The clarifying of a fluid, or a 
separating its foul parts; literally, the 
throwing offof froih or foam. 

DESQUAMATION {de, from, squama, 
a scale). The falling off of the cuticle, 
in the form of scales. 

DETERGENTS {detergo, to wipe 
away). Substances which cleanse 
■wounds, ulcers, &c. 

DETERMINATION {de, from, termi- 
nus, a bound). An excessive flow of 
blood to a part. 

DETOxNATION {delono, to thunder). 
A sudden combustion and explosion. 

DETRITUS {worn down). Suppura- 
tion; softening; ramoliissement. 

DETRUSOR URIN.E (delrudo, to 
thrust out). The aggregate of the mus- 
cular fibres of the bladder which expel 
the urine. 

[DEUTEROPATHIA {Scvrcpoi, second, 
rrados, disease). A secondary disease; a 
disease produced by another.] 

DEUTO- {icvTcpo;. second). A prefix 
denoting two, or double, as deut-ox'nle, 
having two degrees of oxidation; deuto- 
chloride, &c. 

DEUTOXIDE {fnrcpos, second). A 
term applied to a subsiance which is in 
the second degree of oxidation. This term 
is often used to denote a compound of 3 
atoms of oxygen with 2 of metal, as in 
deutoxide of manganese, of lead, &.c. 

DEVONSHIRE COLIC. Colic of Poi- 
tou. A species of colic, occasioned by 
the introduction of lead into the system, 
and named from its frequent occurrence 
in Devonshire and Poitou, w-here lead 
was formerly used to destroy the acidity 
of the weak wines and cider made in 
those parts. It is also called Painters' 
colic, from the same cause. 

DEW. The moisture insensibly de- 
posited from the atmosphere on the sur- 
face of the earth. It occurs whenever 
that surface is lower in temperature 
than that of the dcw-poini of the atmo- 
sphere immediately in contact with it. 

Dew-point. That temperature of the 



atmosphere at which its moisture begins 
to deposit. 

DEXTRIN {dexter, right). Mucilagi- 
nous starch, prepared by boiling a solu- 
tion of starch with a few drops of sul- 
phuric acid. Its name is derived from 
its property of turning the plane of the 
pol.Trizalion of light to the right hand. 

DI.4 {6ia). A Greek preposition, de- 
noting through. Words compounded 
with Sta imply extension, perversion, 
transition ; also that which in English 
and Latin is expressed by the prefixes di- 
or dis-, as in divido, to divide; disjungo, 
to disjoin. 

1. Di-ceresis {Siaipio), to divide). A so- 
lution of continuity. This term was for- 
merly applied to denote a cause of exter- 
nal aneurysm. 

2. Di-arthrosis {apQpov, a limb). A 
species of movable articulation, consti- 
tuting the greater proportion of the joints 
of the body. 

3. Dia-betes {(iaivw. to go ; or ita/ifirrn, 
a siphon). An immoderate flow of urine. 
This disease has been termed diarrhoea 
urinosa, hydrops ad matulam, hyderus, 
dipsacus, morbus silibundus, fluxus urinse, 
nimia urinaa profusio, polyuria. It is 
termed insipidus (tasteless), in which the 
urine retains its usual taste; and mellitus 
(honied), in which the saccharine state is 
the characteristic symptom. 

Diabetic sugar. The sweet principle of 
most acid fruits, and of diabetic urine. 
It is also termed starch sugar, sugar of 
fruits, grape sugar, glucose, <Xrc. 

4. Dia-chi/lon (x>)\6i, juice). An emol- 
lient digestive plaster, formerly prepared 
from expressed juices. It forms the 
Emplastrum plumbi of the Pharmaco- 
poeia. 

5. Dia-codium {KwScta, a poppy-head). 
The old name of the Syrupus Papaveris, 
or syru p of poppies. 

6. Dia-gnosis {yivi'jaKO), to discern). 
The act of discerning, or distinguishing, 
in general; in medicine, the distinction 
of diseases. 

7. Di-agometer Electrical {Stayiii, to 
conduct, /iCTpoi', a measure). An appa- 
ratus used liy Rousseau for ascertaining 
the conducting power of oil, as a means 
of detecting its adulteration. It consists 
of one of Zamboni's dry piles, and a 
feebly-magnetized needle, moving freely 
on a pivot. The deviation of the 
needle is less in proportion to the low 
conducting power of the inter|)Osed sub- 
stance. 

8. Dia-grydium. or Dia-crydium. One 
part of quince Juice, and two pirts of 



DIA 



119 



DIA 



scamraony, digested for twelve hours, I allied in its general properties to gluten, 



and evaporaied to dryness. 

9. Dia-luric acid {ovpov, urine). A new 
acid produced by the decomposition of 
alloxaniin. 

10. Dta-lyses ( Xvoj, to dissolve). Solu- 
tions of continuity. 

11. Di-o/j(rics (oTTTOfiai. to see). The 
laws of refracted light. 

12. Di-orthosis i6f)66a>, to regulate). 
The restoration of parts to their proper 
situation; one of the ancient divisions of 
surgery. 

13. Dia-pente, {nivrc, five). Equal parts 
of rayrrh, laurel berries, gentian root, 
ivory shavings, and birthwort root. 

14. Dia-pedisis {irriido), to spring). A 
term formerly used to denote e.xiernal 
aneurysm. " Per diapedesin," says Sil- 
vaticus, " id est, rarefiictis ejus lunicis." 

15. Dia-phanous ((patvoi, lo shine). 
Transparent; the name given by Pinel 
to the serous membranes, from their 
transparency when detached from their 
organs, as the arachnoid, the omentum, 
&c. In Chemistry, the term denotes per- 
meability to light. 

16. Dia-phoresis {<pop€oi, to carry). In- 
creased perspiration. 

17. Dia-phoretics {(jiopcut, to carry). Me- 
dicines which increase the natural ex- 
halation of the skin ; when they are so 
powerful as to occasion sweating, they 
have been called sudorifics 

18. Dia-phragnia ((ppiaaM, to divide). 
The midriff; or diaphragm: the trans- 
verse muscular septum which separates 
the thorax from the abdomen. 

19. DIa-phraginatic Gout. A term ap- 
plied by Butter to the affection now 
called Angina Pectoris. 

20. Dia-phragmalilis {(ppatriToi, lod'ivide). 
Inflammation of the diaphragm. A term 
sometimes applied to that variety of par- 
tial pleurisy in which the effused fluid 
exists between the base of the lung and 
the diaphragm. 

21. Diaphysis {(piid, to he ingrafted) 
A term applied to the middle part, or 
body, of the long or cylindrical bones. 

22. Dia-pnoics {Sianvon, perspiration) 
A term synonymous with diaphoretics 
and sudnrijics. 

23. Dia-rrhcea (pcoj, to flow). A flux, 
or flowing ihrougn, or looseness. It is 
termed fl.uxus ventris, alviis fusa, lien- 
teria, &c. 

24. Dia-scordium. The Electuarium 
opialum astringens; an electuary made 
of Water Germander or Scordium leaves, 
and other ingredients. 

25. Diastase. A vegetable principle, 



which appears in the germination of bar- 
ley and other seeds, and co#irerts their 
starch into gum and sugar for the nutri- 
tion of the embryo. The name is derived 
from oucrrripi, to separate, in reference to 
its property of separating two supposed 
constituents of starch. 

26. Diastasis {iuarrifii, to separate). 
A forcible separation of bones, without 
fracture. 

27. Diastole {6iaaTt\\a,\od\\a\e). The 
dilatation of the heart and arteries. It is 
opposed to Systole. 

28. Dia-thermanous (Btppaivo), to warm). 
A term denoting free permeability to 
heat. It is synonymous with transca- 
lent. 

29. Dia-thermancy. The property pos- 
sessed by nearly all diathermanous bo- 
dies, of admitting the passage only of 
certain species of calorific rays. When 
the quantity of heat transmitted inde- 
pendently of the quality is to be denoted, 
the term diathermaneity has been sug- 
gested by Melloni, in order to preserve 
the same termination as in the word dia- 
phaneity, indicating the analogous pro- 
perty in relation to light. 

30. Dia-thesis {ridript, Xo arrange). Con- 
stitutional disposition. Examples of dia- 
thesis are the rheumatic, the scrophu- 
lous dispositions, Ac. 

31. Di-uresis {ovpcoi, to make water). 
A copious flow of urine. Hence the term 
diuretics is applied to medicines which 
promote the secretion of urine. 

DIADELPHIA {ik, twice, aSe\(pog, a 
brother). The seventeenth class of plants 
in LinuEBUs's system, in which the fila- 
ments of the stamens are united into two 
parcels, or brotherhoods. 

[Hence Diadtlphous, having the sta- 
mens arranged in two distinct fasciculi.] 

DIAMOND. A gem; the crystallized 
and pure stale of carbon, and the hardest 
and most brdliant body in nature. 

DIANDRIA (Jts, twice, dv'np. a man). 
The second class of plants in Linnajus's, 
system, characterized by the presence of 
two stamens. 

[Hence diandrous, having two stamens, 
of about the same length.] 

[DIANTllUS CARYOPHYLLUS. 
Clove Pink. A Caryophyllaceous plant, 
the flowers of which are used to flavour 
a syrup which serves as a vehicle for 
less pleasant medicines.] 

DIARY FEVER {dies, a day). Ephe- 
mera. The simplest form of fever, distin- 
guished by Dr. Fordyce as simple fever ; 
it has one series of increase and decrease, 



Die 



120 



DIL 



with a tendency to esticerbation and re- so called from its giving attachment to 
mission, for the most part appearing twice the muscle of that name, 
in twenty Ar hours. DIG.ASTRFCUS {Slg, twice, yaarhp. a 

DICHOTOMOUS ((5ix«, doubly, Ttfivo, belly). Having two bellies; the name 
to divide). A term applied to stems or of a muscle attached to ihe os hyaides : 



branches which bifurcate, or are uonti 
Dually divided into pairs. 

DICOTYLEDONES (Jij, twice, kotv 
\Ti6it>, a seed-lobe). Plants whose em- 
bryo contains two cotyledons or seed- 
lobes. See Coli/ledon. 

DICROTIC Uk, twice, «-pouco, to strike). 
A term applied to the pulse, where the 
artery conveys the sensation of a double 
pililsaiion. 

[DICTAMUS ALBUS. White Fraxi- 
nella. A plant of the family Rutacece, 
the root of which has been used as an- 
thelmintic, eramenagogue and stomachic, 
ill doses of from gj. to 3J. It is not used 
in this countrv.] 

DIDYM {SiSvftos, twin). The name of 
a metal recently discovered united with 



it is sometimes called biventer maxillce 
iiiferioris. The term is also applied to 
one of the interior profundi of Meckel, 
given off by the facial nerve; the other 
is called the stylo-hyoideus. 

DIGESTER. A vessel of copper or 
iron, for preventing the loss of heat by 
evaporation. 

DIGESTION (digero, from diversim 
gero, to carry into different parts). A 
term employed in various senses : — 

1. In Physiology, the change of the 
food into chyme by the mouth, stomach, 
and small intestines; and the absorption 
and distribution of the more nutritious 
parts, or the chyle, through the system. 

2. In Surgery, the bringing a wound 
into a state in which it forms healthy 



oxide of cerium, and so called from itsjpus. Applications which promote this 
being, as it vi'ere, the Iwiii-hTOlher of object are called digestives. 



lantanium, which was previously found 
in the same body. 

DIDYMI {Sidviioi, double). Twins. An 
obsolete term for the testes. 

Epi-didymis, the body which lies above 
the testes. 

[Didymous in Botany signifies growing 
in pairs," 



3. In Chemistry, the continued action 
of a solvent upon any substance. 

DIGESTIVE SALT OF SYLVIUS. 
A salt discovered by Sylvius, since named 
muriate of potash, and now chloride of 
potassium. 

DIGITALIS PURPUREA. Purple 
Foxglove; a plant of the order Scrophu- 



DIDYNAMIA (oif, twice, (^ica/iif. pow-1/ariacfffi. The term is evidently derived 
er). The fourteenth class of Linnaeus'sjfrom digitale, the finger of a glove, on 
system of plants, characterized by the account of the blossoms resembling fin- 
presence of four stamens, of which two ger-cases. See Foxglove, 



are long, two short. 

[Hence didynamous, having two pairs 
of stamens of unequal length.] 

DIET (^I'aira, regimen). The food 
proper for invalids. La di'ele, used by 
the French physicians, means extreme 
abstinence. 

1. Dietetics. That part of medicine 
which relates to the regulating of the 
diet and regimen. 

2. Diet drink. The Decoct. Sarsapa- 
rillae comp. of the Pharmacopoeia. 

DIFFUSION VOLUME. A term 



Digilalin. A colourless acrid substance 
obtained from the above plant. See 
Picrin. 

DIGITUS {digero, to point out). A 
finger or a toe — pes altera manus. The 
fingers of the hand are the index, or fore- 
finger; the medius, or middle finger; the 
annularis, or ring-finger; and the auri- 
cularis, or little finger. The bones of 
the fingers are called phalanges. 

[Disitate. Fingered. In Botany di- 
verging from a common centre.] 

DIGYNI.\ dU, twice, yvvri, a woman). 



adopted to express the different disposi-|The second order in Linnsus's system 
tion of gases to interchange particles ; of plants, characterized by the presence 
the diffusion volume of air being 1, that'of two pistils, 
of hydrogen gas is 3-33. DILATATION ((^«7a<o, from diversim 

Diffusion Tube. An instrument for, fero, tiili, latum). The act of enlarging 
determining the rate of diffusion for dif- or making wide any thing. In physio- 
ferent gases. It is simply a graduated I logy, it may be a temporary act, as in 
tube, closed at one end by plaster ofl the diastole of the heart; in pathology, 
Paris, a substance, when moderately a permanen* ac^ as in the passive aneu- 
dry, possessed of the requisite porosity, rysm of that organ. 

DIGASTRIC GROOVE. A longilu- [DILATOR. A term applied to mus- 
dinal depression of the mastoid process, I cles whose office is to dilate certain ca- 



DIL 



121 



DIP 



vities; also to instruments employed to 
dilate wounds, canals, &c.] 

DILL. The common name of the Ane- 
(hum gravcolens. 

DILUENTS {diluo, to dilute). Watery 
liquors, which increase the fluidity of 
the blood, and render several of the 
secreted and excreted fluids less viscid. 

[DIMIDIATE [dimidius, half). Halv- 
ed. In Botany, half-formed, or having 
one side only perfect.] 

DIMORPHISM (dif, twice, //op^;), form). 
The property of many solid bodies to as- 
sume two incompatible crystalline forms: 
such are sulphur, carbon, arsenious acid, 
&c. 

DINUS (,Hvt], vortex). Vertigo, or gid- 
diness; illusory gyration of the person, 
or of the objects surrounding him. 

DICECIA ((5if, twice, oixof, a house). 
The twenty-second class of plants in 
Linnffius's system, in which the stamens 
and pistils are in separate flowers, and 
on separate plants. 

[Hence dtceceous, having stamens on 
one plant and pistils on another.] 

DIOGENES'S CUP. A term applied 
to the cup-like cavity of the hand, occa- 
sioned by bending the metacarpal bone 
of the little finger. 

[DIOSMA. See Barosma and Buchu 
leaves.] 

DIOSME^. The Buchu tribe of Di- 
cotyledonous plants. Trees and shrubs 
with leaves e.vstipulate, doited ; flowers 
axillary or terminal, polypetalous, her- 
maphrodite; slainens hypogynous; ova- 
rium many-celled ; fruil consisting of 
several concrete capsules ; seeds twin or 
solitary. 

[DIOSPYROS. Ph. U. S. Persim 
mon. The Bark of the Diospyros Vir- 
giniana. An indigenous plant, common 
in the Middle and Southern States, 
belonging to the natural order Ebenacea. 
The bark and unripe fruit are very 
astringent, and have been employed in 
chronic dysentery, uterine hemorrhage, 
ulcerated sore throat, &c.] 

DIOXIDE. According to the electro- 
chemical theory, the elements of a com 
pound may, in relation to each other, be 
considered oppositely electric; the equi- 
valents of the negative element may then 
be distinguished by Latin numerals, those 
oi \he positive by Greek; thus a 6»i-oxide 
denotes a compound which contains two 
equivalents of the negative element oxy- 
gen ; whereas a di-ox'tde indicates that 
one equivalent of oxygen is combined 
with two of some positive body. And so 
of the 6i-chloride, rft-chloride, &c. 



DIPHTHERITE {St(peipa. skin). Un- 
der this term, Bretonneau has included 
not only the acute and gangrenous vari- 
eties of pharyngitis, both of wliich are 
accompanied by exudation of a false 
membrane, but also inflammation of the 
trachea; and he contends that this pecu- 
liar disease is identical with croup, aris- 
ing from the same causes, and requiring 
the same mode of treatment. 

DIPLOE (^iTrXoiif, double). Meditul- 
lium. The cellular osseous tissue be- 
tween the two tables of the skull. 

DIPLOGA]NGLIATA(<5i7rXo5s, double. 
yayyyiov, a nerve-knot). A term applied 
by Dr. Grant to the Third Sub-kingdom 
of Animals, or Entomo'ida, consisting 
chiefly of articulated animals, with ar- 
ticulated members, the insects of Lin- 
najus, having their nervous columns ar- 
ranged in the same relative position as the 
diplo-neura, with the ganglia increased 
in size, and corresponding with the in- 
creased developement of the segments 
and of their lateral appendages. The 
classes are myriapoda, insecta, arachnida, 

DIPLO-NEURA (^irrXoCf, double, veii- 
pov, a nerve). A term applied by Dr. 
Grant to the Second Sub-kingdom of Ani- 
mals, or Helmintho'ida, comprising the 
various forms of Worms, in which the 
nervous columns have their ganglionic 
enlargements very slightly developed, 
and are marked by a greater lateral sepa- 
ration from each other along the median 
line, than is observed in the next sub- 
kingdom. 

DIPLO'MA {Mn\o}na). Originally, let- 
ters patent of a prince, written on waxed 
tables /oWerf together. The term is now 
restricted to an instrument by which a 
legalized corporation confers a title of 
dignity, or a privilege to practise in a 
learned profession. 

DIPLOPIA (^iffXoOj, double, cj<p, the 
eye, from o-rrTOjiat, to see). Visus dupli- 
catus. A disease of the eye, in which the 
person sees an object double or triple ; a 
species of pseudoblepsis. This disease is 
of two kinds: — 1. The patient sees an 
object, double, treble, &c., only when he 
is looking at it with both his eyes, the 
object appearing single on his shutting 
one eye; or, 2. The patient sees every 
object double, whether he surveys it 
with one or both his eyes. 

DIPPEL'S OIL. An animal oil pro- 
cured by the destructive distillation of 
animal matter, especially of albuminous 
and gelatinous substances. 

DIPSACUS {6iipa, thirst). A name 



DIP 



122 



DIS 



formerly given to diabetes, from the I DISLOCATION (djsZoco, to put out of 

thirst nrcompanying that affection. place). \ Luxation. The displacement 

D IPSO' SIS [6iipa, thirst). Morbid of the ariinilar surfaces of a bone, from 

thirst; excessive or impaired desire of their natural situation. 



drinking. 

DIPTERA ((5if, twice, Trr'tpov, a wing.) 
Two-winged insects, as the common fly, 
or gnat. 

[Dipterous. Two-winged : as applied 
to the two margins which are prolonged 
on the surface of certain seeds.] 

DIPTEKOCARPE/E. The Camphor- 
tree tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Trees 
abounding in resinous juice; leaves alter- 
nate; flowers polypelaious; stamens hy- 
pogynous; car/jeWa concrete ; calyx Inhu- 
lar; fruit coriaceous. 

[DIRCA P A LUSTRIS. Leather- 
wood. An indigenous plant of the na- 
tural order 7'/(i/me/ace<c, the bark of which 
appears to possess analogous properties to 
mezereon.] 

DIRECTOR {dirigo, to direct). A 
■ narrow grooved instrument» of silver or 
steel, used to direct the knife. 

DIRIGENS [dirigo, to direct). An 
ancient constituent in a prescription, 
meaning that which directs the operation 
of the associated substances: thus. Nitre, 
in conjunclion with Squill, is diuretic; 
with Guaiacum, it is diaphoretic. 

DIRT-EATING. Mai d'estomac, or 
cachexia Africana ; a disease observed 
among the negroes. 

[DISCREET. Distinct. Applied in 
paiiiology to exanthemata when the pus- 
tules are distinct and not confluent.] 

DISEASE. Any morbid state in ge- 
neral ; change of structure, as distin- 
guished from disorder of function in par 
tJcular. It is termed acute, when severe 
and of short duration ; chronic, when 
less severe, and of long continuance ; 
sporadic, when arising from occasiona 
causes, as cold, fatigue; epidemic, when 
arising from a general cause, as excessive 
heat, contagion; endemic, vihen prevail- 
ing locally, as from marsh miasma; in 
tercurrent, when it is sporadic, occurring 
in the midst of epidemic or endemic dis- 
ease. 

DISINFECTANTS. Agents which 
destroy miasmata, both odorous and inO' 
dorous. 

DISINFECTION. The purification of 
infected air. 

DISK. A term applied in botany to 
certain bodies or projections, siinaled be 
tween the base of the stamens and the 
base of the ovary, forming part with 
neither. It is often incorrectly called 
iitctary. 



1. Dislocations are distinguished, with 
respect to their extent, into the complete, 
OT incomplete ; the latter term is applied 
when the articular surfaces still remain 
partially in contact; this only occurs in 
ginglymoi'd articulations, as those of the 
foot, knee, and elbow. The complete 
luxation almost always occurs in the or- 
bicular articulations. 

2. The Direction of a Dislocation is 
named upward, downward, forward, and 
backivard, in the orbicular articulations; 
and lateral, forward, and backward, in the 
ginglymoid. 

3. Dislocations are further distinguish- 
ed, according to the accompanying cir- 
cumstances, into the simple, when un- 
attended by a wound, communicating, 
internally with the joint, and externally 
with the air; and the compound, when 
attended by such a wound. 

4. When a Dislocation occurs in con- 
sequence of a disease destroying the car- 
tilages, ligaments, and articular cavities 
of the bones, it is termed spontaneous. 

5. Desault divided Dislocations of thQ 
humerus into the primitive, which are 
the sudden effects of external violence; 
and the consecutive, which follow the 
former, by the influence of other causes, 
as of a fresh fall, while the arm is sepa- 
rated from the trunk. 

DISPENSARY [dispenso, from diver- 
sim penso, frequent, oi pendeo, to distri- 
bute by weighing). A shop in which 
medicines are compounded; and an in- 
stitution where the poor are supplied 
with medicines. 

[DISPENSATORY (dispendo, to dis- 
tribute). A book which treats of the 
composition of medicines. Hooper.] 

DISPLACEMENT. A process applied 
to pharmaceutical preparations, and 
founded on the long-known iact, that 
any quantity of liquid with which a 
powder may be saturated, when put into 
a proper apparatus, may be displaced by 
an additional quantity of that or of aii- 
other liquid. 

DISSECTION {disspco, to cut in pieces). 
The display of the different structures of 
the animal body by means of the scalpel. 

DISSEPIMENT (dissepio, to separate). 
Septum. A term applied, in botany, to 
the partition which divides the capsule 
into cells. 

DISTEMPER. Catarrlius caninus. 
An affection occurring among dogs, and 



DIS 



123 



DOR 



vulgarly called the snaffles, or snuffles, 
from the state of the nosirils. 

DISTENTIOiN (distendo, to stretch 
out). The dilatation of a hollow viscus 
by too great accumulation of its con- 
tents. 

pjSTICHIA (<5ts, twice, <rri'^of, a row) 
Dislichiasis, A term applied by Gorraeus, 
Heister, and St. Ives, to an affection in 
which each tarsus has a double row of 
eyelashes, which, inclining inward, irri- 
tate the eye, and keep up ophthalmia. 
See Trichiasis. 

Distichous. Arranged in two rows, 
as the florets of many grasses. Bifarious. 

DISTILLATION {disldlo, to drop by 
little and little). The vaporization and 
subsequent condensation of liquids, by 
means of a retort, alembic, or still. Dry 
distillation is performed in the same way 
as the humid, except that the substance 
is neither immersed nor dissolved in any 
menstruum. It is termed sublimation. 

1. Distillation destructive. The sub- 
jection of bodies to a red heat in close 
vessels, and the collection of the pro- 
ducts. 

2. Destillatio per latus, in which the 
vapour passes laterally from the retort to 
the receiver, where it is condensed. 

3. Destillatio per ascensum, in which 
the vapour ascends into the head of the 
still, and thence passes into the worm, 
before it is condensed. 

4. Destillatio per descensum, in which 
the vapour descends into a lower cavity 
of the vessel, to be condensed, the fire 
being placed over the materials. 

DISTOMA HEPATICUM ((5ij, twice, 
0T(5//o, the mouth, fivap, the liver). The 
fluke, a worm sometimes found in the 
liver and gall-bladder of man, but more 
commonly of sheep, goats, &c. 

DISTORTION {distorqueo, to wrest 
aside). A term applied to the spine, or 
limbs, when they are bent from their na- 
tural form. 

DISTORTOR ORIS (distorqueo, to 
twist on one side). A name given to 
one of the zygomatic muscles, from its 
distorting the mouth, as in rage, grinning, 
&c. 

DISTRIX (^ij, twice, dp^, the hair). 
Forky hair; a disease of the hair, in 
which it splits at the ends. 

DIU'RESIS (<5ia, through, ovpcoi, to 
make water). A large flow of urine. 

Diuretics. Medicines which augment 
the urinary discharge. 

DIURNATION {diurnns, daily). A 
term introduced by Dr. M. Hall to ex- 
press the state of some animals, as the 



bat, during the day, contrasted with their 
aciivity at night. Compare Hibernation. 

DIVARICATION (divarico, to strad- 
dle). The bifurcation, or separating into 
two, of an artery, a nerve, &c. 

DIVERTICULUM NUCKII. The 
opening through which the round liga- 
ment of the uterus passes. 

DIVI-DIVI. The legume of the Ccbs- 
alpinia coriaria, imported fi-om Carthage. 
It abounds in tannin. 

DOBEREINER'S LAMP. A method 
of producing an instantaneous light, by 
throwing a jet of hydrogen gas upon 
recently-prepared spongy platinum ; the 
metal instantly becomes red hot, and 
then sets fire to the gas. This discovery 
was made in 1824, by Prof Dobereiner 
of Jena. 

[DOCIMASCIA PULMONALIS. The 
testing of the lungs of a foetus, in order 
to ascertain whether it has respired, 
and consequently whether it was born 
living or dead.] 

DOCIMASTIC ART (5o)c(/idsw, to 
prove by trial). The art of assaying. 

DODECANDRIA (6<;ikKa, twelve, dvfip, 
a man). The eleventh class of plants in 
the LinnaBan system, characterized by 
the presence of from twelve to nineteen 
Stamens. 

[DOGMATIC (Soyna, dogma, from 
Sokcol), to think). The name of an ancient 
sect of physicians, who endeavoured to 
discover the essence of diseases and their 
occult causes by reasoning, whilst a rival 
sect, the Empyrics, restricted themselves 
to experience, that is to the observation 
of facts]. 

DOG-ROSE. RosaCanina. Cynosba- 
tum. The ripe fruit is called hip or hep, 
and is used for making the confection of 
that name. 

[DOGWOOD. The common name of 
the several species of Cornus.] 

[DOLABRIFORM (dolabella, a hatchet, 
forma, resemblance). Hatchet-shaped.] 

DOLICHOS PRURIENS. Mucuna 
pruriens. Covvhage ; vulgo, cow-itch ; a 
plant of the order Leguminosce. 

Dolichi pabes. L. The sliflj" hairs of 
the Dolichos pods, employed as a me- 
chanical anthelmintic. 

DOLOMITE. A magnesian limestone; 
a mixture or combination of the carbon- 
ates of lime and magnesia, having the 
crystalline form of caic-spar. 

DORE'MA AMMONIACUM {6ir,pr,ixa, 
a gift). The Ammoniacum Dorema; an 
Umbelliferous plant, which yields the 
ammoniacum of commerce, or the Per- 
sian ammoniacum. It occurs in the tear 



DOR 



124 



DOS 



and in lump. African ammoniacum isj 
ihe produce of the Ferula tingitana. ! 

DOROMCUM MONTAiNUM. Ar-\ 
nica montana. Mountain Tobacco, or 
Leopard's Bane; a virulent plant of the| 
order Composite, said to owe its noxious 
qualities to the presence o(cylisiiie. On 
the continent it has obtained the name 
oi panacea lapforum. 

DORSTEMA. A genus of Urtkaceous 
plants, in which the flowers are arranged 
upon a fleshy receptacle, usually flat and 
expanded, and of very variable form. 
The D. Braziliensis is said to yield the 
contrajerva root which occurs in the 
shops. See Contrajerva. 

DORSUM (Latin). The back; the 
round part of the back of a man or beast. 

L Dorsal. Appertaining to the back, 
as applied to a region, ligaments, &c. 

2. Dorsi-spinal. A set of veins, form- 
ing a plexus around the spinous, trans- 
verse, and articular processes and arches 
of the vertebrae. 

3. Dorso-cervical. The designation of 
the region at the back part of the neck. 

DOSE (ido-if, from, ciioi^i, to give). A 
determinate quantity of a thing given. 
Ride. — For children under twelve years, 
the doses of most medicines miret be 
diminished in the proportion of the age, 
to the age increased by 12. Thus — 

[At 1 year of age, j^^p-jg = TT 
2 years 



1+12~ 


13 


2 

2 + 12"" 


2 

1 -1 


3 
3 + 12 


3 
\5 


4 

4"+T2~ 


4 
T6 


5 _ 


.-^^] 



5 + 12 

At 21 the full dose may be given. 
It should be carefully remembered, 
however, that infants bear opiates far 
worse, and purgatives better, than ac- 
cording to the rule. 

[The following list exhibits the doses 
for an adult, of the medicines (Ph. U. S.) 
most commonly employed in practice.] 

Absinthium . • 9J- to gij. 

Acacia • • . . • BJ- to Jij. 

Acetum colchici . . ^X\\\. to f^j. 

Acetum scillae . . fgss. to f3j. 

[Acid urn arseniosura . gr. y'^ to 4.] 
Acid, acetic, dil. . . f 3j. to fgij. 
Acid, benzoicum . . gr. x. to 3ss. 



Acid, citricutn 

[Acid, hydrocyanicum 

Acid, rauriaticum . 

Acid, phosphoricum 

Acid, nitric, dil. 

Acid, tartaricum . 

Acid, sulphuric, dil. 

[Acid, tannicum. , 

Aconitum 

^iher sulphuricus 

^Eriigo vel cuprisubacet, 

Allii radicis succus 

Aloe 

A lumen . 

Ammoniacum 

Ammoniffi murias . 

Ammonias subcarbonas 

Anethura 

Anisum . 

Anthemi 

.Antimonii sulphuret. 

Antim. sulphur, pnecip. 

Antimonium tart, diaph. 

Antimonium tart.,e»ie<. 

Aqua anethi . 

Aqua carui 

Aqua cinnamomi . 

Aqua fceiiiculi 

Aqua menthae piperit® 

Aqua menthae viridis 

Aqua pimentaB 

Aqua pulegii . 

Argenti nilras 

Armoraciae radix . 

AssafcEtida 

Balsamum Peruvianum 

BalsamumTolutanum 

Belladonnas folia 

Benzoinum . 

Bismuthisubnilras 

Bisiorias radix 

Cajuputi oleum 

Calami radix 

Calumba? radix 

Cambogia 

Camphora 

Canellae cortex 

Cantharis 

Capsici baccffi 

Cardamines flores 

Cardamomi semina 

Carui semina 

Caryophylli . 

Caryophylli oleum 

Cascarillae cortex 

Cassiae pulpa . 

Castoreum 

Catechu extractum 

Cenlaiirii cacumina 

Cetaceum 

[Chenopodii semina 

[Cimicifugas radix . 



gr. X. to f^ss. 

TTlJ.to7Tiiv.] 
Ttl v. to 1T[xx. 
■lT[x. to f3ss. 
7T[x. to \\\. 
gr. x. to 3ss. 
TT[x. to V([x\. 
gr. ij. to gr. v.] 
gr. j. to gr. V. 
f 3ss. to f3ij. 
gr. i^ to gr. ij. 

1'3J- 'o 5ij- 
gr. v. to gr. XV. 
gr. v. to 9J. 
gr. X. to 9J. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr- V. to 9J. 
gr. XV. to 3j. 
gr. XV. to 3j. 
9J- to 3ij. 
gr. V. to gr. X. 
gr.j. togr. iij. 
gr. ^ to gr. ss. 
gr. j. to gr. iij. 
Igj. to 31V. 
f ;^. to 31V. 

fgj. to 'Jiv. 
f^. to J IV. 
i'S-^o ;5iv. 
f 3J. to 3iv. 

gr. i to gr. ij. 
aj- to 3J. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. X. to 3S8. 
gr. ss. to gr. ▼. ■ 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. V. to gr. X. 
gr. X. to 3j. 
TTLJ. to TT^iv. 
gr. X. to 3). 
gr. X. to 9J. 
gr. V. to gr. X. 
gr. ij. to 9SS. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. ss. to gr. j. 
gr. ij. to gr. X. 
3J- to 3ij. 
gr- V. to 9j. 
9J- to 3j. 
gr. V. to 9j. 
TTl_j. to rs\y. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
5'j- to 3j. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr. X. to i^ij. 
aj- to 3j. 
gr. XV. to 3iss. 
9J- to 9ij.] 
gr. X. to 3J.] 



DOS 



12S5 



DOS 



Cinchonoj cord, cortex . 
Cinchonce lane, cortex . 
Cinchonae oblong, cortex 
Cinchonicc sulphas 
Cinnamonii cortex . 
,Cinnamomi oleum 
Colchici radix 
Colocynihidis piilpa 
Coiifect. arnygdalaj 
Confect. aromatica 
Confect. aiirantii corticis 
Confect. cassiB 
Confect. opii . 
Confect. piperis nigri 
Confect. rosoe caninoe 
Confect. rosas 
Confect. scammonii 
Confect. scnnoe 
Conii folia 
Conlrajervce radix . 
Copaiba 

Coriandri semina . 
Creta prasparata 
Cubeba .... 
Cumini semina 
Cupri sulphas, ionic 
Cupri sulphas, emetic 
Cuprum ammoniatum . 
Cuspari;B cortex 
Dauci semina 
Decoct, aloes comp. 
Decoct. cinchorvE . 
Decoct, dulcamaras 
Decoct, lichenis 
Decoct, sarsaparilte 
Decoct, sarsaparil. comp. 
Decoct, senegae 
Decoct, ulmi . 
Digitalis folia 
Dolichi pubes 
[Ergota .... 
Extract, aconiti 
[Extract, aconiti olcohol. 
Extract, aloes 
Extract, anthemidis 
[Extract, artemis. absiulh. 
Extract, belladonna 
Extract, cinchonas . 
[Extract, colchici ncel. . 
J'lxtract. colocynlh. 
Extract, colonyn. comp. . 
Extract, conii 
[Extract. conii alcohol. . 
[Extract, digitalis . 
[Extract, dulcamaras 
Extract, elaterii 
Extract, gentianae . 
Extract, hasmato.xyli 
Extract, luimuli 
Extract, hyoscyami 
Extract, jalapas 
[Extract, juglandis 



gr. X. to 3'j- 
gr. X. to 3J. 
gr. X. to 3J. 
gr. ij. to gr. vj. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
lT[j. to ir[iv. 
gr.j. togr. V. 
gr. ijj. to 9SS. 
3ss. to 3j. 
gr. X. to 3J. 
3J- to Si- 
3J- to 'S- 
gr. X. to gij. 
3J- to 31J. 

3J- 'o 3J. 
3J- 10 'S- 
93- to 3j. 
3J- 'o gss. 
gr. ij. to gr. X. 
gr. X. to 3s!S- 
11[xv. to f3ss. 
3J- to 5j. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 

3J- to 3"J- 
3J- to 3j. 
gr. Jtogr.j. 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. ss. to gr. iij. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
aj. to 3J. 
t gss. to f 3iss. 
f^j. to fy-iij. 
f ^ss. to 1 J}. 
f'J'J- to fgiij. 
I'S'J- to f 31V. 
fgij. to fgiv. 

f 31J. to f'^IV. 
gr. fs to gr. iij. 
gr. V. to gr. X. 
gr. V-. to 3ss.] 
gr. ss. to gr. ij. 
gr. ss. to gr.j,] 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. X. to 9J. 
gr. X. to 9J.] 
gr. i to gr. ij. 
gr. X. to 3ss- 
gr.j. togr. ij.] 
gr. V. to pj. 
gr. y. to tSj. 
gr. ij. to gr. X. 
gr. ij. to gr. iv.] 
gr. ss. to gr. ij.] 
gr. V. to gr X.] 
gr. ss. to gr. j. 
gr- V. to 9J. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. V. to pj. 
gr. ij. to gr. X. 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
9J. to 3ss.] 
8 



[Extract, kramerias 
Extract, lactucse 
Extract, opii . 
Extract, papaveris . 
Extract, rhei . 
Extract, sarsaparillas 
[Extract, scammonii 
Extract, stramonii . 
Extract, taraxaci . 
Ferri sulphas . 
Ferri subcarbonas . 
Ferrum ammoniatum 
Ferrum tartarizatum 
Filicis radix . 
Foeniculi semina . 
Galbani gummi-resina . 
Gentianoe radix 
Granati cortex 
Guaiaci resina , 
Hellebori felidi folia 
Hellebori nigri radix 
Humuli slrobili 
[Hydrarg. iodidum 

[Hydrarg. iodid.rubrum 

Hydrarg. oxyd. nigrum . 

Hydrarg. ohlorid. corros. 

Hyd.chlorid. mhe, alter. 

Hyd. chlorid. mite, cath. 

Hydrarg. sulphuret. nigr. 

[Hyd. sulphas flavus,e?/te^ 

Hydrarg. cum creta 

Hyoscyami folia 

Jalapffi radix . 

Infus. anthemidis . 

Infus. armoracice . 

Infus. aurantii comp. 

Infus. calumbae 

Infus. caryophyllorum . 

Infus. cascarillcE 

Infus. catechu comp. 

Infus. cinchonae 

[Infus. cinchon® comp. . 

Infus. cusparice 

Infus. digitalis 

Infus. gentianas comp . 

[Infus. pruni Virginians 

Infus. quassia; 

Infus. rhei 

Infus. rusne cdrap. . 

Ini'us. sennas . 

[Infus. serpenip.rioe 

Infus. simarubp; 

[Infus. spigelice 

[Inialas radix . 

Ipecacuan. radix, diaph. 

Ipecacuanha; radix, emet. 

lodinum 

Juniperi baccae 

Kino . . . . 

Lanri baccae et folia 

Lichen .... 



gr. x. to 9J.] 
gr. ij. to gr. XV. 
gr. j. to gr. iij. 
gr. tj. to gr. X. 
gr. v. to 9j. 
gr. X. to 3J. 
gr. V. to gr. xij,] 
gr. A to gr.j. 
gr. X. to 3J. 
gr. j. 10 gr. V. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr. iij. togr. x. 
gr. V. to ^j. 
3J. 'o 3'J- 
9J- to oj- 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
9J- to oJ- 
gr. X. to 9J. 
gr. V. to Qj. 
gr. V. to 9j. 
gr. nj. to 9j. 
gr.j. togr. IV.] 

gr.Jgtogr.^] 
gr. i. to gr. iij. 
gr. f 10 gr. i. 
gr. ss. to gr.j. 
gr. iij. to gr. X. 
gr. V. to 9j. 
gr. )j. to gr. v.] 
gr. iij. to gr. x. 
gr. iij. to gr. X. 
gr. X. to 9j. 
1'3J- to 1 3ij. 
^3J-lo<3'J- 
fdJ- to i'S'j. 
f;5J-lo<3U- 
i'6i- to f 31J. 
i^j-'of^ij. 
f 3J- to i-^ij. 
f SJ- 'o fgij- 
fai- 'o f'Siij.] 
1'3J- to f 31J. 
fo'J- lolgss. 
f 3ss. to f 31J. 

i'A'i- to f3"j-] 
f 3ss. to f^ij. 
I 3ss. to f 31J. 
f'Jss. tof3ij. 
f o'J- to f 31V. 
< SJ- to f 3ij.] 
f 3SS. to f3ij. 

f3iv.iof3viij.] 

9J- 10 3j.] 
gr. ss. to gr. ij. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr. ss. to gr. iij. 

9J- 10 3J- 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. X. to 9J. 
9J. to 3J- 



DOS 



126 



DOS 



Linum caiharticutn . 9J. to 3j.' 
Liq. ammoniae . . in_v. to TIJ^xx. 
Liq. ammoniiE acetatis . fgij- tof'^ss. 
Liq. potassse arscnitis . TT[v. to TTLxx. 
Liq. calcis . . . f 3J. to f ^vj. 
Liq. calcis chloridi . lT[xx. to f 3J. 

Liq. ferri iodidi •. . fo^s- to f 3Jss. 
Liq. hydrarg. bichloridi f 3J. to fgij. 
[Liq. iodini compositus f ;5J. to f^'ij.] 



Liq. potassaj 
Liq. poiassse carb 
Lobelia, emet., 
[Lupulin 
Alagnesia 
MagnesitE carb. 
Magnesia! sulphas 
Alanna . 
Marrubium . 
Mastiche 
Menyanthes . 
Mezerei cortex 
Mist, ammoniaci 
Mist. assafoetidsE 
Mist, camphorffi 
Mist, cretffi 
Mist, ferri comp. 
Mist, guaiaci 
Mist, moschi . 
Morphia 
[Morphias aeetas 
[Morphics raurias 
Moschus 
Mucilago acaciffi 
MyristicM nuclei 
Myrrha . 
Oleum amygdala 
Oleum anthemidis 
Oleum anisi . 
Oleum carui . 
Oleum caryophyll 
[Oleum chenopodii 
Oleum cinnamorai 
[Oleum cubebaj 
Oleum juniperi 
Oleum lavandulae 
Oleum menthie pip, 
Oleum menthae vi 
Oleum origani 
Oleum pimenlae 
Oleum pulegii 
Oleum ricini 
Oleum rosmarini 
Oleum succini recti 
Ol. terebia purif, dinr. 
01. terebin. pnrif., anth. 
Oleum liglii 
Opium . 
Opopanax 
Origanum 
Oxymel . 
'Oxymel seillte 
Pil. aloes 



Tl^vij. to 1 3ss. 

. ir^x. to f 3j. 

. gr. V. to 9J. 

. gr. vj. to gr. xij.] 

• 9J- to 3ij. 

• 3.i- to 3'J- 

• 3J- to 'J}- 

■ 5J- 'o 3J- 

• 9J- 'o 3.)- 
. gr. x. to 3s3. 

• 9J- lo 3J- 
. gr. j. to gss. 

• ^'Sss- 'o f 3'J- 
. f ^ss. to f ;jij. 

• f ;jss. to f'^i}. 

■ f 3SS- '« f'^'i- 

■ f^ss. to f 3ij. 

• f ^ss. to f 3ij. 

. f 3ss. to {[^ij. 
. gr. i to gr. i. 

• gr- w 'o g"-- |] 

• gr- 4 to gr. i.] 

• gr- 'J- 'o 9J- 

• ^3)- tof^ss. 
. gr. V. to gss. 
. gr- X. to 9j. 
. f3ss. to 1 3J. 
. •rTi_v. to V\x. 

. Tfj^v. to lljxv. 
. TTIj. to niviij. 
. fTfj. to Tl] V. 
(child) TT'i V. to Tlfx.] 
. irjj. to TT[v. 

TTl^.x. to TT[xij.] 

Tli V. to TT] XV. 

TTIJ. to TTlv. 

ITl-x. to]T]xv. 

TT[ij. to Tliv. 

in j. to 1T[v. 
. TT^ij. to 711 vj. 

W. to Vr[y. 

3u- to a- 

tilij. to Tr[v. 

7n V. to Tl^xv. 

Tr[x. to r3ss. 

Vi[ss. to TTlij. 
gr. J to gr. iij. 
gr. x. to 9j. 
gr. X. to =)j. 

foi- 'o f 3s3- 
f 3.'s. to 1 3ij. 
gr.jv.togr.svj.] 



fie. 



Pil. aloes comp. 
[Pil.aloesetassafoEtidae . 
Pil. aloes et myrrha 
[Pil. assafclida; 
Pil. camlx)gi» comp. 
[Pil. calhariicse comp. . 
Pil. ferri carbonat. 
[Pil. ferri sulphatis 
Pil. galbani comp. 
Pil. hydrarg. alter, 
Pil. hydrarg. cath. . 
[Pil. hydrarg. iodidi 
[Pil. rliei composiliE 
Pil. saponis compositse . 
Pil. scillffi comp. 
Piraeiita 

Piperis longi fruclus 
Piperis nigri baccje 
Piperina 
Plumbi aeetas 
Porri radicis succus 
Potassa; aeetas 
PotasssB carbonas . 
Pota.ssa; nitras 
Potassse sulphas 
Polassffi bisulphas . 
Poiassje bitariras . 
Potassse tartras 
Pulv. aloes comp. . 
[Pulv. aloes et canellie . 
[Pulv. aromaticus . 
Pulv. cretffi comp. c. opi 
Pulv. ipecacuan. et opii 
Pulv. scammoniae comp. 
Pyrethri radix 
QuassifE lignum 
Quercus tinctoria . 
Quininoe sulphas . 
Rhei radix 
Rosmarini cacumina 
Rubia . . . . 
Ruta . . . . 
Sabinae folia . 
[Salicina 
Salicis cortex 
Sapo . . . . 
Sarsaparilla . 
Sassafras 
Scammonium 
Scilloe radix exsiccata . 
Senegas radix 
Senna; folia . 
Serpentariae radix . 
Siraarubae cortex . 
Sinapis semina 
SodjE bicarbonas . 
Soda; carb. exsiccatus . 
[Soda} phosphas 
[Sodas et potassse tartras 
Sodre sulphas 
Spigelia; radix 
Sp. ajiheris nitrici . 



gr. V. to gr. IX. 
gr. viij. to 9J.] 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. V. to gr. X.] 
gr. v. to gr. XV. 
gr. iv. to gr. xij.] 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. V. 10 9J.] 
gr. X. to gr. XX. 
gr. ij. to gr. V. 
gss. to 9J. 
gr. V. to gr. x] 
gr. X. to 9j.] 
gr. iij.togr. vnj. 
gr. v. to gss. 
gr. V. to 9ij. 
gr. V. to 9J. 
gr. V. to jjj.. 
gr. ss. to gr. ij. 
gr. ss. to gr. ij. 
3J- 'o 3'ss. 
9J- to 3J- 
gss. to 3ss. 
gr. V. to gj. 
9J- t<> 3ij. 
9J- to 3ij. 
9J- to 3'J- 
3J- to 'Jss. 
gr. X. to 3s3. 
gr. X. to 9J.] 
gr. X. to 9J.] 
gr. X. to 9J. 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. V. to gr. XV. 
gr. iij. to 9ss. 
gr. X. 10 3ss. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. j. to gr. iv. 
3J- to 3ss. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gss. to 3ss. 
9J- to gij. 
gr. v. to gr. X. 
gr. iv. to gr. vj.] 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. v. to 9J. 
9J- to 3j. 
9J- to 3J- 
gr. v. to gr. XV. 
gr. j. to gr. iv. 
gr. X. to 3=3. 
9J- to 3j. 
gr. X. to 9j. 
9J- to 3j. 
9J- 'o 3U- 
I3SS. to 3ss. 
gr, iij. lo gr. xv. 
Xi- to 3ij. 
gss. to 3J.] 

3J- to 3j. 

gr. X. to 91J. 
f3ss. to f3J. 



DOS 



127 



DOU 



Sp. celheris sulphurici . 
Sp. aeiheris sulph. comp. 
Sp. ammoniee 
Sp. ammoniffi aromat. . 
Sp. ammonine fbetidus 
Sp. anisi . . . . 
Sp. carui 
Sp. cinnamomi 
Sp. juniperi comp. 
Sp. lavandtilae comp. 
Sp. menthaj piperita 
Sp. metiihaj viridis 
Sp. myrisiicffl 
Sp. pimenlEe. 
Sp. rosmarini 
Spongia usta 
Slannura 

Staphisagrix semina 
Strychnia 

Styrax . . . . 
Sulphur lotnm 
Sulphur praecipitatum . 
Syrupus aurantii corticis 
[Syrupus ipecacuanhas 
[Syrupus lirameriaa 
Syrupus papaveris 
Syrupus rhamni 
[Syrupus rhei 
[Syrupus rhei aromaticus 
Sy. scillffi comp. expect., 
[Syrupus senegae . 
Syrupus sennae 
Tamarind! pulpa . 
Terebinihiiia 
[Tinct. aconiti 
Tincr. aloes . 
Tinct. aloes et myrrhas . 
Tinct. assafoetidaj . 
Tinct. aurantii 
[Tinct. beiladonnoe 
Tinct. benzoini comp. . 
Tinct. colombaB 
Tinct. camphoras . 
Tinct. cantharidis 
Tinct. capsici 
Tinct. cardamomi 
Tinct. cardamomi comp. 
Tinct. castorei 
Tinct. catechu 
Tinct. cinchonae . 
Tinct. cinchonoe comp. . 
Tinct. cinnamomi 
Tinct. cinnamomi comp. 
[Tinct. colchici seminis 
[Tinct. conii 
[Tinct. cubebae 
Tinct. digitalis 
Tinct. ferri ammoniati . 
Tinct. ferri chloridi 
Tinct. geniianaj comp. . 
Tinct. guaiaci 
Tinct. guaiaci ammon. . 



f^ss. to f3j. 
f3ss. to f3jj. 
f 3ss. to f 3j. 
f 3ss. to f3J. 
f 3S3. to f 3j. 

f 3SS. to f3j. 

f3Jiof3.j. 
f 3j- to f ;sss. 
f 3SS. to i 3ij. 
f3ss. to f3ij. 

f 3ss. to f 31J. 
f3ss. to 13 ij. 
f3ss. to f 31J. 
f3ss. 10 f 3.J. 

S-"*- to 3j. 
3J- 'o- 3'J- 

gr. iij. to gr. X. 
gr. i to gr. j. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
3ss. to 31J 
3ss. to 31J. 
ISJ- 'o t3'J- 
f3J- to f3J.] 

f 3ij. to 1 3-ss.] 

f3ss. to f3ij. 
f3J- 'o f 3j- 
fa- to f ;jij.] 

f I3SS. to i 2iss.] 
f 9J- to f 3J. 
f3J- 10 f3ij.] 
f3J- 'o (3^- 
3'J- to 3j. 
.yss. to 3j. 
iXi^Kx. rrj-.vxx.] 

* '^5i■ to t 3i8S. 

f 3i- to 1-30. 

foJ to f^lj. 

f3J- to f3ij. 
fT^-x torr^'xx.] 
f 3j- to 1 3ij. 
f3i- to r3ij. 

"^v. to 3J. 

air^- to 1 3j. 
f^X^- to f3j. 
f3J- to f3ij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 
f 3s5. to 3ij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 
f 3j. to f ^^ss. 
f3'J- to f 3iij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 

f 3ss. to 1 3iss.] 

rrj-xx. to f3j.] 
f 3J- to f3.j ] 
rrt'vj. to ir^xx. 
i3ss. to i3ij. 
(TXk. to f 3s.s. 

foJ- to f3iij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 
f3J- to f3ij. 



Tinct. hellebori . . fl^x. to f^j. ■ 

Tinct. humuli . . f3ss. to 1 3'J- 

Tinct. hyoscyami . . fT^'xx. to f3j. 

Tinct. io'dini . . rrj-xv. to fT^'xl. 

[Tinct. iodini comp. . (T^xx. to fTt'xJ.] 

Tinct. jalapas . . 1 3J. to f3ij. 

Tinct. kino . . . f 3J. to f 3ij. 

[Tinct. kramerire . . f 3J. to f 30-] 

[Tinct. lobelife, expect. . f3j. to f 3'J] 

Tinct. lobelia, emet., . i'3'U- to < 3'ss. 

[Tinct. lupulinE . . f3J. to f'3'j-] 

Tinct. myrrhEe . . f 3ss. to t 3J. 

Tinct. op'ii . . . (T^v. lo fl^xl. 

[Tinct. opii acetata . fVtvj. to ffj'xij.] 

[Tinct. opii camphorata . f 3J- tof3ij.] 

Tinct. rhei . . . f 3J. to f'gss. 

[Tinct. rhei et aloes . f 3*^. f 3j.] 

Tinct. rhei comp. . f3J- to t ^ss. 

[Tinct. rhei et gentianoe f gss. to 1 gj] 

[Tinct. rhei et senna . f'Jss. to f^jiss.], 

Tinct. scilloe . . . n;^x. to f 3ss. , 

Tinct. seiinse comp. . f'3J- to f 3ss. 

[Tinct. sennae et jalapae . f3y- to I'^j.] 

Tinct. serpentariiB . f 3J. to f3ij. 

Tinct. Valerianae . . f 3J. to f3iij. 

Tinct. Valerianae ammon. f3J. to f3ij. 

Tinct. zingiberis . . f'3J. to f3ij, 

Tormentilla . . . gss. to 3ss. 

Toxicodendri folia . gr. ss. to gr. iv. 

Tragacantha . . gr. x. to 3j. 

Valerianae radix . . gj. to 3j. 

Veratria . . . gr- .^.J- to gr. i 

Vin. aloes . . . f3j. to f gss. 

Vin. antiraonii, expect. . (T^k. to '3ss. 

V'in colchici radicis . tT;|-x. to f 3J. 

[Vin. colchici seminis . f 3j. to f3iss.] j 

[Vin. ergota . . f3j. to f3ij.] 

Vin. ipecacuanhas, c?/a/iA. rrj'x. to f3ss. 

Vin. ipecacuanhae, emei. i'[jij. to f ^ss, 



ft^v. to rrt-xl. 

1 3J. 10 l^ss.] 
rtj'v. to 1353. 
gr. X. to 3ss. 
gr. j. to gr. vj. 
gr.j. togr. iij. 
gr. X. to 9J. 
;r. V. to 3ss. 



Vin. opii 

[Vin. rhei 

Vin. veralri albi 

Uva ursi 

Zinci oxydum 

Zinci sulphas, tonic 

Zinci sulphas, emetic 

Zingiberis . . ^ 

DOSSIL. A term applied to linl,^vhen 
made up in a cylindrical form. 

DOTHINENTE'RITE (iodivh, a pus- 
tule, evTcpov, an intestine). A term ap- 
plied by M. Bretonneau to inflammation 
of the glands of Peyer and Brunner. 

DOUBLER. An instrument employed 
in electrical experiments, and .so con- 
trived that, by executing certain move- 
ments, very small quantities of electricity 
coinmunicaled to a part of the apparatus 
may be continually doubled, until it be- 
comes perceptible hv an electroscope. 

DOUCHE {duccia). Affusion. The 
term applied to a column or current of 



DO V 



128 



DUG 



fluid directeJ to, or made Jo fall on, some 
part of ihe Ixjdy. According as the 
iluid employed is water or aqueous va- 
pour, the application is called the liquid 
douche, or tiie vapuur douche. According 
to the direction in which it is applied, 
we have the descending, the laleral, and 
the ascending douche. 

DOVE-TAIL JOINT. The suture or 
serrated articulation, as of the bones of 
the hend. 

DOVER'S POWDER. A valuable 
sudorific ; the I'ulvis Ipecacuanha el 
Opii. Ph. U. S. 

DR.\CIJNE {draco, a dragon). A pre- 
cipitate Ibrmed liy mixing cold water 
with a concentrciled alcoholic solution of 
dragon's blood. 

[DRACONTIUM. Skunk Cabbage. 
The root of the Dracontium ifEtidum. 
An indigenous plantol'the order Araceoe, 
the root of which is reputed to be stimu- 
lant, antispasmodic, and narcotic. Dose, 
grs. X to XX.] 

DRACUA'CULUS (dim. of draco, a 
dragon). The Guinea Worm, which 
breeds under tlie skin, and is common 
among the natives of Guinea, &c. 

DRAGANTIN. A mucilage obtained 
from gum tragacanlh. 

DRAGO?<"S BLOOD. Sanguis dra- 
conis. A term applied to certain resinous 
substances, mostly obtained from some 
palms of the geims Calamus; to a product 
of the DracLena draro; also to a substance 
obtained from the Pterocarpus draco. 

DRASTICS (dpao), to effect). Purga 
lives which operate powerfully. 

DRAUGHT. Haiislus. A liquid form 
of medicine, dilfering from a mixiure 
only in quantity. It is usually taken at 
once, and should not exceed an ounce 
and a half. 

. DRENCH. A form of medicine used 
in farriery, analogous to a draught. 

DRIMV.S WINTERI. Winlera arc 
matica. The plant which yields the bark 
called Winter's bark. Under the name 
of casca d'anta, it is much used in Brazil 
against colic. It was employed by Winter 
in scurvy, but is now obsolete. 

DRlV"ELLlN(i. Slavering; an invo- 
luntary liow of saliva, from a want of 
command over the muscles of deglutition. 

DROPS. Gullce. A form of medici:ie 
in which the dose is measured by drops, 
as ague drop, black drop, &c. 

DROPSY (from the Greek, vSpoxb- 
Latin, hydrops: — Th. vooip, water, and 
wi//, the look or aspect). A<iua inter 
culem. An effusion into the cellular 
tissue, or into any of the natural cavities 



of the body. With the addition of the 
epithet encysted, it designates a collection 
of serous fluid in a sac, of which the 
ovarium is most frequently the seat. 
See Hydrops. 

DRUPE. A pulpy fruit, without a 
valve or outward opening, containing a 
bony nut, as the cherry. It is commonly 
called a stone-fruit. 

Drupaceous. That kind of fruit which 
has an indehiscent pericarp, fleshy exter- 
nallv, st(my internallv, as the peach. 

DRY CUPPING. " The applicatioti of 
the cupping-glass, without scarification, 
in order to produce revulsion of blood 
from any part of the body. 

DRY PILE. The name of a galvanic 
apparatus, constructed with pairs of me- 
tallic plates, separated by layers of fari- 
naceous paste mixed with common salt. 
The name is inappropriate, as the appa- 
ratus evidenll}' owes its efficacy to the 
moisture of the paste. 

DRY ROT. A species of decay to 
which wood is subject. The wood loses 
all its cohesion, and becomes friable, and 
fungi generally appear upon it; but the 
first destructive change is probably of a 
chemical kind, allied to the action offer- 
mentation. — Graham. 

DRY VOMIT OF MARRIOTT. A 
vomit exhibited without drink, and ron- 
sisting of equal proportions of tartarized 
antimony and sulphate of copper. 

DRYOBALANOPSAROMATICA. A 
tree of the order Dipteraceoe, yielding a 
liquid called camphor oil, and a crystalline 
solid termed Sumatra or Borneo camphor. 

DUCTILITY (duco, to draw). That 
property of bodies by which they admit 
of being drawn out into wire. 

DUCTUS {duco, to lead). A duct; a 
conduit-pipe ibrthe conveyance of liquid. 

1. Ductus hepalicus. The duct which 
results from the conjunction of the proper 
ducts of the liver. 

2. Ductus cysticus. The excretory 
duct which leads from the neck of the 
gall-bladder to join Ihe hepatic, forming 
with it the following duct. 

3. Ductus communis choledochus. The 
bile duct, formed by the junction of the 
C)'Stic and hepatic ducts. 

4. Duciits pancreaticus. The pancreatic 
duct, which joins the gall-duct at its 
entrance into the duodenum. Near the 
duodenum this duel is joined by a smaller 
one, called ductus pancreaticus minor. 

b. Ductus arteriosus. A tube whicth, 
in the fostus, joins the pulmonary artery 
with the aoria. It degenerates, after 
birth, into a fibrous cord. 



DUG 



129 



DYS 



6. Ductus venosus. A branch which, 
in the foeius, joins the inferior vena cava 
with the umbilical vein. 

7. Ductus ad nasum. A duct con- 
tinued from the lachrymal sac, and open- 
ing inio the inferior meatus of the nose. 

8. Ductus incisorius. A continuation 
ol' the foramen incisivum between the 
palatine processes into the nose. 

9. Ductus lymphalicus dexter. A duct 
formed by the lymphatics of the right 
side of the thorax, &c., and opening into 
the junction of the right jugular and sub- 
clavian veins. 

10. Ductus prostatici. The ducts of 
the prostate, from twenty to twenty-live 
in number, opening into the prostatic 
urethra, on each side of the veru mon- 
tanum. 

11. Ductus deferens. Another name 
for the vas deferens, which arises from 
the tail of the epididymis, and enters the 
spermatic cord. 

12. Ductus galactoferi vel lactiferi. 
Milk-ducts, arising from the glandular 
grains of the mamma, and terminating 
in sinuses near the base of the nipple. 

13. Ductus thoracicus. The great 
trunk formed by the junction of the ab- 
sorbent vessels. 

14. Ductus thoracicus dexter. A de- 
signation of the right great lymphatic 
vein, formed of lymphatic vessels arising 
from the a.xillary ganglia of the right 
side. 

15. Ductus ejaculatorius. A duct within 
the prostate gland, opening into the ure- 
thra; it is about three quarters of an inch 
in length. 

\&. Ductof Sleno. The excretory duct 
of the parotid gland. 

17. Duct of Wharton. The excretory 
duct of the submaxillary gland. These 
two last, with the sublingual, constitute 
the salivary ducts. 

18. Duels of BelUni. The orifices of 
the nriniferous canals of the kidneys. 

DUii^LECH. A term employed by Van 
Helmont to denote the stale in which 
the spirit of urine is precipitated when 
it f()rms calculous concretions. 

DULCAMA'RA (dulcis, sweet, amarus, 
bitter). Woody Nightshade, or Bitter- 
sweet; a species of Solanum. The twigs 
of this plant yield a salifiable principle 
called solauine; a bitter principle, of a 
honey smell and sweet after-taste, called 
picro-!;li/cion ; and a sweet principle, 
called dulcarine. 

DULCE'DO SPUTORUM. The name 
given by Frank to sweet-spittle, or that 
form of ptyalism, in which the saliva is 



distinguished by a sweet or mawkish 
taste. 

DUMASINE. An empyreumatic oil, 
obtained by rectifying acetone derived 
from the acetates. 

DUMOSE (duttius, a bush). Bushy. 
A shrub which is low and much 
branched. 

DUiNT. The provincial name of a 
staggering affection, particularly observ- 
ed in yearling lambs, occasioned by 
hydatids of the brain. 

DUODENUM (duodeni, twelve). Ven- 
Iriculus succenturialus. The twelve-inch 
intestine, so called from its being equal 
in length to the breadth of twelve fin- 
gers; the first portion of the small intes- 
tines, beginning from the pylorus. The 
inner surface of the duodenum is covered 
by a mucous membrane, presenting a 
number of folds, called the valvula con- 
niventes. 

[Duodenitis. Inflammation of the duo- 
denum.] 

DUPLUM {duo, two, plica, a fold). 
Twofold, as duplo-cathuret, two-fold 
carburet. 

[DupUcatare. The folding of a part 
upon itself] 

DURA MATER (hard mother). Me- 
ninx exterior. The outermost membrane 
of the brain. See Mutres. 

DURA'MEN [durus, hard). The in- 
terior, more deeply-coloured, and harder 
portion of the trunk and branches of 
trees, commonly called lieartwood, as dis- 
tinguished from the exterior portion, 
alburnum, or sapwood. 

DUTCH GOLD. An alloy of copper 
and zinc, in which the zinc is in greater 
proportion than it exists in brass. It is 
allied to Inmhnc and pinchbeck. 

DUTCH MINERAL. Metallic copper 
beaien out in very thin leaves. 

DUTCH PINK. Chalk or whiting, 
dyed yellow, with a decoction of birch- 
leaves, French berries, and alum. 

DYRS. Colouring matters, derived 
from vegetable substances. Colouring 
matters form, with several metallic ox- 
ides, insoluble compounds called lakes. 

DYS- [ivs). An adverb, signifying 
luith dijiculti/ ; badly. Hence — 

1. Dys-cesihesia {aiadavoftai, to perceive). 
Impaired feeling. Dr. Young terms de- 
fective memory dysceslhe.sia interna. 

2. Dys-cataposia {xaTaTrom;, the act of 
swallowing, from varaffiVoj, to swallow). 
Difficulty of swallowing liquids; a term 
applied by Dr. Mead to hydrophobia. 

3. Dys-chroa (xp''>a. colour). A disco- 
loured state of the skin. 



DYS 



130 



E AU 



4. Dys-cinesia [kivm, to move). Im- 
perfecl motion. 

5. Dtjs-crasia (KpSais, the state of the 
hlood, &c.., from Kcpavwut, or Kcpaw, to 
mix). A morbid stale of the constitu- 
tion. 

6. Bi/f-eccr.a (.dxe'ri, hearing). Cophosis. 
Impaired hearing. 

7. Dijs-eutery (tvnpa, the bowels). In- 
flammation of "the mucous lining of the 
large intestines. By certain French 
writers it is named colile ; and in com- 
mon language it is termed Jinx, or bloody 

flux, according as the intestinal dis- 
charges are free from blood or sangui- 
nolent. 

8. Dys-li/sin (Xuo-it, solution). An in- 
gredient of bilin, which remains ujidis- 
solved, as a resinous mass, during the 
solution and digestion of bilin in dilute 
hydrochloric acid. 

9. Di/s-menorrlima (/n>, a month, peco, 
to How). Difficult or painful menstrua- 
lion. 

10. Di/s-odes (o^oi, to smell). Having 
a bad smell; a term applied by Hippo- 
crates to a fetid disorder of the' small 
intestines. 

11. Dys-opia (u-p, an eye). Impaired 
sight. 



12. Dys-orcxia (J^tfij, appetite). De- 
praved appetite. 

13. ZJ//.'>'-/;f7J.«(a (TTEirro), to concoct). In- 
digestion ; difficulty of digestion. 

14. Dys-phugia (<j>ayw. to ept). Diffi- 
culty of svvjillo'wing ; chokin* 

15. Dys-plinnia (^toi')>, voice). Diffi- 
culty of speaking. * 

16. Dys-phoria {(pcpoj, to bear). Inqui- 
etude ; a difficulty of enduring one-self; 
it embraces the afTections of anxiety and 
fidgtts. 

17. Dys-pnaa (ttvcw, to breathe). Dif- 
ficult respiration; short breath; short- 
windedness; pursiness; phthisic. 

18. Dys-spermati.imus (aneppa, semen). 
Slow or impeded emission of semen. 

19. Dys-tocliia (riKrai, to bring forth). 
Difficult parturition. 

20. JJys-nria (avpov, urine). Suppres- 
sion or difficulty in discharging the urine; 
painful micturition. Total suppression 
is called ischuria; partial suppression, 
dysuria; the aggravated form, when the 
urine passes by drops, slrangnry ; when 
the discharge is attended with heat or 
pain, this is termed ardor nrincB. 

[DYNAMOMETER {ix>vaptu force, 
pcTpov, a measure). An instrument for 
measuring' force.] 



E 



EAR. Aiiris. The organ of hearing. 
ft consists of three parts; viz., the ex- 
ternal ear; the middle ear, or tympanum; 
and the internal ear, or labyrinth. 
Ear-vnx. Cerumen aurium ; [q. v.] 
EARTH. The general term for the 
materials which compose the crust of the 
globe. In chemical language the earths 
are termed metallic oxides; four of these, 
viz., baryta, strontia, lime, and magnesia, 
are termed, from their properties, alka- 
line earths. To these must be added, — 

1. Alumina, or clay; the oxide of alu- 
minum ; ar^j7Zaceo«s earth, constituting 
the basis ol^ sapphire, pipe-clay, slate, &c. 

2. Glucina, the oxide of glucinum; 
found in iha euolase. beryl, and emerald. 

3. Yllria, the oxide of ytlriurn; found 
in the gadolinite of Yilerby. 

4. 7'Aori«a, the oxide of thorium; pro- 
cured from the mineral thorite. 

5. Zirconia, the oxide of zirconium ; 
forming the bulk of hyacinth. 

6. Silica, the oxide of silicum; con- 
stituting almost the whole of flint, opal, 
amethyst, rock crystal, &c. 



EA RTH-BATH. A remedy consisting 
literally of a bath of earth, used on the 
continent. 

EARTH OF ALUM. A preparation 
used in making paints, and procured by 
preclpiiating the earth from alum dis- 
solved in water, by adding ammonia or 
pota.ss. 

EARTH OF BONE. A phosphate of 
lime, sometimes called bo?te phosphate, 
existing in bones after calcination. 

EAU. The French term for -water; 
the name of a distilled water. 

1. Ean de Bnbahe. A liqueur manu- 
factured in Barbados from lemon-peel. 

2. Ean de Cologne. Aqua Coloniensis, 
or Cologne water; a perfume, and an 
evajxirating lotion in headache, fever, 
&o. 

3. Eau de Javelle. Bleaching liquid, 
or the Aqua Alkalina Oxymuriatica of 
the Dublin pharmacopoeia. 

4. Eau de Luce. The tinct. ammonira 
comp.of the pharmacopoeia. The French 
name is derived from that of an apothe- 
cary at Lille. 



EAU 



131 



EDU 



5. Eau de Naphre. Aqua naphse. A 
hitler aromatic water, prepared by dis- 
tilling the leaves of the Seville orange 
with water. 

6. Eau de Rahel. Aqua Rabelliana. 
So named from its inventor, the empiric 
Rabel. It consists of one part of sul- 
phuric acid and three of rectified spirit 
of wine, constituting a sort of sulphuric 
ether. 

7. Eau de Vie. Aqua vilse. Ardent 
spirit of the first distillation. 

EBLANIN. Pyroxanthin. A sub- 
stance obtained irora raw pyroxylic 
spirit. 

EBVLUTION {ebullio, to bubble up). 
The boiling or bubbling of liquids ; the 
production of vapour at the hoilivg point. 

EBUR USTUM NIGRUM. Cologne 
black. Ivory black ; charcoal prepared 
from charred ivory shavings. 

ECBOLICA {cKi36\iov, a medicine 
which expels the fetus). AmUoiica 
Medicines which e.xcite uterine contrac- 
tions, and thereby promote the expulsion 
of the contents of the uterus. 

ECCiiYMOMA (ckxvco, to pour out). 
A term synonymous with Ecchymosi 
extravasation, or that form of the affec- 
tion which takes the name vibices; it is 
sometimes called crustida and siigillalln. 

Ecchyraoma lymphalica. A term which 
has been given to puerperal tumid-leg, 
cw phlegmasia dolens. 

ECCHYMO'SIS {cKXyco, to pour out) 
Extravasated blood, from bruises; in 
typhus, purpura, &c. It assumes the 
several forms of — 

1. Petechia:. Stigmata, or specks. 

2. Vibices, or ecchymomnta. Patches. 

3. Sa7igiiineoiis discharges. 
[ECCOPROTICA (jf, out of, Koxpo; 

ftBces). Mild aperients or laxatives. See 
Catharlics.] 

ECCRITICA {EKKpii^io, to strain off). 
Diseases of the excernenl function. 

ECCYESIS {cKKvioi, to be pregnant). 
Extra-uterine fcetation; imperfect fcela- 
tion in some organ exterior to the uterus, 
as in one of the ovaria, the Fallopian 
tube, or the cavity of the abdomen. 

ECHPiNUS (arvos, the sea hedge-hog). 
A calcareous pptrilaction of the echinus. 

[Echinale. Bristly; covered with stiff 
hairs or prickles, like an echinus; as the 
fruit of tlie chestnut.] 

Echino - derma (itfyia, skin). The 
fourth class of the Cyclo-neura, or Rridi- 
ata, consisting of simple aquatic animals 
covered with a spiny shell or a coriaceous 
skin. 

tCLAMFSIA (UXdiinw, to shine forth). 



Circuli ignei. Convulsive motions, espe- 
cially of the mouth, eyelids, and fingers, 
so excessively rapid that it is often diffi- 
cult to follow ihem. 

ECLEGM A («Xf I'xw, to lick.) Linctus ; 
linctuarium. A pharmaceutical prepa- 
ration of a certain consistence, and of a 
weet flavour. See Lohoch. 

PXPHLYSIS {U,p\<>!;o>. to bubble up). 
Vesicular eruption confined in its action 
to the surface. This term comprehends 
he several species of ponipholyx, herpes, 
rhypia, and eczema. Compare Ernphlysis. 

ECPHRONIA CiKippiof, out of one's 
mind). Insanity; craziness; a term com- 
prising the species melancholy and mad- 
ness. 

ECPHYMA {eKipvco, to spring out). A 
cutaneous excrescence, including the 
several species verruca, caruncula, cla- 
vus, callus. 

ECPYESIS {eKwio), to suppurate). 
Humid scall, including the species im- 
petigo, porrigo, ecthyma, and scabies. 
Compare Empyesis. 

ECSTASIS {cfiaTanat, to be out of 
one's senses). Ecstasy, or trance. 

EC'TidYMA {h-Oiio, to break out). An 
eruption on the skin. Irritable pustule. 
Papulous scall. Tetter; ulcerated tetter. 
Inflammation of the sebaceous follicles, 
characterized by phlyzaceous pustules. 

ECTOPI.^ {£K, out, Toiroi, a place). 
Displacement of bones; lu.xations. 

ECTROPIUM {tKrpenco. to evert). 
Ever.iio palpebrcB. Eversion of the eye- 
lids. Compare Enlropium. 

ECZEMA (£/c^£w, to boil out). Lite- 
rally, that which is thrown up by boiling. 
Heat eruption ; minute vesicles, which 
form into thin flakes or crusts. 

1. Eczema solare. Sun heat ; heat 
spots ; arising in a part which has been 
exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 

2. Eczema impctiginodes. Depending 
on a local irritation, and constituting the 
grocers' and the bricklayers' itch, accord- 
ing as the exciting cause is sugar ot 
lime. 

3. Eczema rubrum. Excited by the 
use of mercury, and formerly called ery- 
thema mercuriale. 

EDENTATA (edenlulus, toothless). 
Toothless animals; quadrupeds without 
front teeth, as the armadillo. 

EDULCOUATION (dulci.'!, sweet). 
The sweetening of any medicinal pre- 
paration. Also the process of freeing a 
diflicnltly soluble substance from one that 
is easily soluble, by means of distilled 
water. It differs little from lixiviation, 
except that the former term respects the 



EDU 



132 



EL A 



insoluble residue, the latter liie soluble 
poriion. 

EDULCORATOR. Dropping Bottle. 
An instrument for supplying small quan- 
tities of water to test tubes, watch-glasses, 
&c. It is made by inserting a cork, con- 
taining a glass tube, into a phial holding 
some distilled water. The phial being 
inverted, the poriion of nir confined 
above the liquid is expanded by ihe 
warinlh of the hand, and expels the 
water, drop by drop, or in a stream, ac- 
cording as the position of the phial is 
perpendicular or horizontal. 

EEL OIL. An oil procured from eels 
by roasting, employed as an ointment fur 
stiff joints, and by ironmongers for pre- 
serving steel from rust. 

[liFFERENT (e, from, fero, to con- 
vey). A term given to vessels which 
convey a fluid from glands. See Vasa 
effererilia.] 

EFFERVESCENCE (cffervesco, to 
grow hot). The commotion produced in 
fluids by the sudden escape of gas, in Ihe 
form of bubbles, as on jiouring acid on 

EFFERVESCING DRAUGHT. Dis- 
solve a scruple of carbonate of soda or 
potass in an ounce of water, and two 
drachms of cinnamon water with a drachm 
and a half of syrup of orange peel ; add 
a lablespoonful of fresh lemon juice, and 
drink the mixture immediately. 

EFFLORESCENCE {effloresco, to blow 
as a flower). The pulverescencc of crys- 
tals, by the removal of their moisture, 
on exposure to the air. It is opposed to 
deliquescence. [In pathology it siijnilies 
an eruption of the skin. See Rranlhemn.] 

EFFLUVIA (effltio, to flow out). Ex- 
halations, vapours, &c. They am dis- 
tinguished into the conln<riiiiis, as the 
rubeolous; niocsli, as miasmata; and 
those arising from animals or vegetables, 
as odours. 

EFFUSION (effundo, to pour out). 
The escape of a fluid out of its natural 
vessel or viscus into nnolhor part. Also, 
the secretion of fluids from the vessels, as 
of lymph or serum, on different surfaces. 

EGE.STA {e^ero, to carry out). A 
Latin term lor the substances carried out 
of the body, as the fa;ces, &c. See Jn- 
gesla. 

EIGHTH PAIR, or PNEUMOGAS- 
TRIC. The nerve which supplies the 
lungs, the heart, the stomach, <i;c., — the 
exciter of respiration. 

[ElLOm Ui\s>.>, to coil, £((?of, like- 
ness). Eiloides. A name given by Dr. J. 
C. Warren to dermoid tumours, in which 



the skin has the appearance of a roll or 

coil.] 

EJACULATORES {rjaculo. to cast 
out). A pair of muscles surrounding the 
whole of the bulb of the urethra. As 
ejaculalores Sjemiriis, they act under the 
influence of the reflex function ; as acce- 
leratores uriiiae, as voluntary muscles. 

[ELABORATION [lahoro, to labour). 
The diffi?rent changes which assimilable 
substances undergo, by the action of the 
living organs, before becoming nutritive.] 

ELjEOSACCHARA (JXa.oi/, oil, sac- 
charitm, sugar). The mixtures or com- 
pounds of volatile oils and sugar. 

ELAIDIC ACID (iXaiov, oil). An acid 
related to the oleic acid of oils. 

ELAIDINE. A white saponifiable fat, 
consisting of elaidic acid and glycerin. 

ELAIN {eXaiov, oil). The more fluid 
part of one of the proximate principles of 
iat. This and stearine constitute the fixed 
oils. 

ELAIODON (aaioi/, oil). The name 
given by llerberger to the igreusine of 
Boullay. See Jareiisine. 

ELAIOMETER {c\atov, oil, nhpov, a 
measure). An instrument ibr delecting 
the adulteration of olive oil. 

ELAIS GUINEENSIS. The Guinea 
Palm, which yields the palm oil, and, it 
is said, the best kind of pulm wine. 

ELALDFIIYDE. The coherent mass 
into which pure and anhydrous aldehyde 
is transformed, when kept for some time 
at 32=. 

ELAOPTEN (EXafoi/, oil). The liquid 
portion of a volatile oil. The concrete 
poriion is called slcaroptcn. The volatile 
oils, when exposed to cold, generally 
separate into a solid and a liquid poriion, 
showing that iliey are mixtures of two 
oils differing in fluidity. These terms 
were first applied to the solid and fluid 
port ions of fixed oils. 

ELASTIC GUM. Caoutchouc; Indian 
rubber; the produce of the Ficus elaslica 
and other plants. 

ELASTICITY. The property or power 
by whiidi a body compressed or extended 
returns to its (ornier stale. 

EL.ATER UXaii'w, to drive). A spiral 
fibre, Ibund in great numbers mixed with 
the spiirulcs, in Ihe ihecaj of some cryp- 
logamic plants. 

ELATERIUM {t\avvu>, to stimulate). 
A term applied by the Greeks to any pur- 
gative substance. It now denotes a sub- 
siance procured from the juice surround- 
injr the seeds of ihe Mamordira Klaterium, 
or Squiriine Ciicumbpr. There are two 
kinds, the English and the Maltese. 



ELA 



133 



ELE 



Elaterin. A crystalline substance, con- 
stituting the active principle of elaterium. 
Dr. Paris applied Ihe term elatin to this 
substance combined with the green resin 
also found in elaterium.. 

ELATIO. Quixotism; a species of 
mental extravagance, so named by the 
rhetoricians, and importing, with them, 
" elevated, exalted, magnificent style or 
imagery." 

EL.WL. The name given by Ber- 
zelius to hydruret of acetyl, otherwise 
called defiant gas, and elherine. 

ELDER. The Sambucus nigra. The 
dried berries are called grana aclcs; and 
their inspissated juice, elder rob. 

ELKCAMPAJME (contracted from 
enula campana). The Inula Helenium, 
a plant of the order Compositcp., the root 
of .which yields a white starchy powder, 
called inuline. 

ELECTRICITY (.'iXt/crpoi', amber, the 
substance in which the electric property 
was first discovered). The fluid or pro- 
perty in nature which is called into action 
in its simplest form by rubbing — 

1. Glass — which exhibits the vitreous, 
plus, or positive electricity; i. e. when 
the substance is overcharged; 

2. Resi/i or Amber — which exhibits the 
resinous, minus, or negative electricity; 
i.e. when the substance is undercharged. 

Phenomena of Eleclricili/. 

1. Excitation, or the disturbance of 
the electric equilibrium by friction, ele- 
vation of temperature, contact, &c. Bo- 
dies have been distinguished into con- 
ductors and non-conductors, according to 
the facility with which the electric in- 
fluence passes, or is conducted along their 
surfaces. 

2. A»r<jc//on, or the law by which light 
bodies move rapidly towards an excited 
surface. 

3. Repidsion, or the law by which light 
bodies fly off from an electrified surface, 
after contact. • 

4. Distribution, or the law by which 
electrified bodies transfer their properties 
toothers with which they come in contact. 
It is similar to the conduction of caloric. 

5. Induction, or the law by which an 
electrified body tends to produce in con- 
tiguous substances an electric state op- 
posite to its own. 

6. Tension or intensity, or the degree 
to which a body is excited, as estimated 
by the electrometer. It must be distin- 
guished from quanliti/. 

7. Eleclr-ode (iVdj, a way). A term 
synonymous witii jtole ; it denotes the 
boundary of the decomposing matter in 



the direction of the electric current. 
This, and the terms in the two following 
paragraphs, were introduced by Dr. Fara- 
day. 

8. The Electric Currents round the 
earth pursue a course from east {auo, up) 
to west {Kano, down); hence, if a body to 
be decomposed be similarly placed, the 
Anode is the point or surface at which 
the electricity enters, Ihe part immedi- 
ately touching the positive pole; and the 
Cathode, the point or surface out of which 
it passes, — the part ne.xt to the negative 
pole. 

9. Substances directly decomposable by 
electricity are termed Ehctro-lylcs (kvcj, 
to set free). The elements of an electro- 
lyzed body are called ions; — that which 
goes to the anode, anion ; that to the 
cathode, cation. Thus, if water be elec- 
irolyzed, oxygen and hydrogen are ions — 
the former an anion, the latter a cation. 

10. Electrical column. A species of 
electrical pile, invented by De Luc, com- 
posed of thin plates of different metals 
in the usual order, with discs of writing 
paper interposed between them. 

11. Elfctro-lyiiis (Xiito, to decompose). 
A kind of decomposition effected by elec- 
tricity. The chemical expression equiva- 
lent to this is zincolysis, the decomposi- 
tions throughout the circle being referred 
to the inductive action of the affinities of 
zinc or the positive metal. 

12. Electro-meter (ulrpov, a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the inten- 
sity of electricity. Among the varieties 
of this instrument are the (quadrant, in- 
vented by Mr. Henley, and the electrical 
balance of Coulomb. 

13. Eleclro-phorus {(pipoi, to convey). 
An instrument invented by Volla, for the 
purpose of collecting weak electricity. 

14. Electro-scope (aKoiv^o, to examine). 
An iflstrument for indicating excitement, 
and the electrical slate by which it is 
produced. 

15. Electro-motion. The term applied 
by Volla lo the developement of electri- 
cily in voltaic combinations. 

16. Eleciro-d ynamics {ivvanig, power). 
That branch of electricity which relates 
to the action of voltaic conductors on 
each other. 

17. Electro-magnetism. The term ap- 
plied to that branch of science which 
includes the mutual aclion of conductors 
and magnets. 

18. Electro-metallurgy. The art of 
working in metals by the galvanic fluid. 
See Electrotype. 

19. Elect ro-lint. An application of 



ELE 



134 



ELI 



electrotype, in wliicli ilir> rcquireH siihjeri 
is painicd on copper wuh a thick %Mrnisli 
or paint; tho plate is then prepared iii 
the usual way, and submitted to the vol- 
taic circuit; a plate is thus obtained from 
which prints are furnished. 

20. Ettclrottipe. The science by which 
facsimile medals are executed in copper 

by means of electricity. It consists in 
preparing for a negative plate models or 
moulds of objects lo be copied; and in 
so arranging the battery or apparatus 
which generates the voltaic current, as 
to release the metals in a compact and 
solid form. 

21. Electro-vital, or netiro-electric cur- 
rents. The name of two electric currents, 
supposed to exist in animals, — the one 
external and cutaneous, moving from the 
e.ilremities to the cerebrospinal axis; the 
other internal, going from the cerebro- 
spinal axis to the internal organs situated 
beneath the skin. 

22. Electric aura. A current or breeze 
of electrified air, employed as a mild sti- 
mulant in electrifying delicate parts, as 
the eye. 

23. Electric friction. A mode of em- 
ploying electric sparks as a remedial 
agent, by drawing them through flannel, 
as recommended by Cavallo. 

24. Eleclrizerg, Harrington's. Plates 
of copper and zinc, or silver and zinc, of 
various forms, for medical purposes. 

ELCCTRO-PUNCTURATiON (pun- 
go, to prick). The operation of inserting 
two or more needles in a part or organ 
affected, and then touching them with 
the wires from the poles of a galvanic 
machine. 

KLKCTRO- STIMULATION The 
name given by Dr. Turnbull to the sen 
sation of heat and tingling caused by the 
application of veratria, in the form of oint- 
ment, to the skin. 

ELECTRUM. A mixture of gold 
and silver of which the fifth part was 
silver. 

ELECTUARIUM (UXt^rdy, Hipp) 
An Electuary; an ancient form of pre- 
•cription, retained in the pharmacopneias 
of Edinburgh and Dublin, but rejected 
in that of London. Electuaries are in 
general extemporaneous y>re'()nra\'ums com 
posed of dry powders, formed into a pro- 
per consistence by the addition of syrup, 
honey, or mucilage. See Confeclio. 

ELEMENT. This term denotes, in 
Chemistry, a simple substance, — one not 
known to contain more than one kind of 
matter, as the metal iron. The rust of 
iron, on the other hand, is a compound, 



being r.solvable into metallic iron, oxy- 
gen, and carbonic acid. 

L'llimale Element. The last element 
into which a body can be decomposed or 
analyzed; thus, oxygen, hydrogen, car- 
bon, and azote are the ultimate elements 
of all organized matter. 

ELEMI. A fragrant feniiel-scented 
resin, produced by several species of 
Aini/ris. 

ELEPHANTI'ASIS (e\t<pas, an ele- 
phant). Leprosy, black leprosy; elephant 
There are two diseases so named, 
from the supposed resemblance of the 
skin of leprous persons to that of the ele- 
phant; or from the misshapen leg in the 
.Arabian leprosy being supposed to resem- 
ble that oi'llie elephant. 

1. Elephantiasis Arahum. The original 
Arabic name was dal fil, literally ele- 
phant disease. In the West Indies, it is 
called Barbados leg, sometimes yam leg, 
from the supposed resemblance of the 
affected limb lo the form of this root; in 
Ceylon it is called Guile leg; and on the 
peninsula of India, Cochin leg. In the 
Malabar language, it is called anay kaal, 
which also means elephant leg. 

2. Elephantiasis Gracorum. Tuber- 
cular Elephantiasis. It has been called 
leonliasis and satyriasis, from the disfi- 
guration of the countenance, suggesting 
the idea of a wild beast or satyr. It is 
the Juzam of the older .Arabians. 

.3. The Pelagra of Milan, the Rosa 
asturica of Spain, the Crimean disease 
of Pallas anrl Gmelin, and the Mai 
rouse of Cayenne, are all closely allied 
to it. 

ELEVA'TOR {elevo, to raise). A name 
applied to certain muscles, whose office 
it is to elevate any part ; and to an in- 
strument for raising depressed portiona 
of the cranium. 

ELF-SIDENNE. Elf-squatting; the 
old Anglo-Saxon name for Ephialles, in- 
cuHus, or niofht-mare. 

ELIQUATION (eliqua, to clarify). 
The separation by heat of a more fusible 
substance from another less fusible. 

ELIXIR. .An Arabic term, denoting 
an essence, or pure mass without any 
dregs; and formerly applied to compound 
tinctures. 

1. Elixir paresoricum. Paregoric Elixir, 
or the Tin^t. Camphoraj Comp. 

2. Elixir proprielatis. Elixirof Nature, 
or the Tinct. .Aloes et Myrrhoe. 

3. Elixir Sacrum. Sacred Elixir, or 
the Tinctura Rhei et Aloes. 

4. Elixir snlutis. Elixir of Health, or 
the Tinctura Sennae Comp. 



ELI 



135 



EMP 



5. Elixir slomachicum. Stomachic Alfo, tlie rudiment of the future plant' 
Elixir, or ihe Tinct. Gentianaj Comp. Itoniained wiihin the seed. 



6. F.Uxir vitrioli. The Acidurn Sul- 
phiiriciim Aromaticum. 

7. Elixir arili-arlhritic, of Cadet de 
Gassicourt. A mixture of the three 
tinctures of aloes, guaiacum, and myrrh. 

8. Elixir of Daffy. The Tinct. Senna? 
Comp., wiih treacle instead of sugar- 
cand)-, and the addition of aniseeds and 
elecampane roots. 

ELLAGIC ACID {from the word galle, 
read backward). An acid which is ob 



1. Evibryo-logy (Koyoq, an account). 
A description oi'ihe embryo. 

2. Emhryo-lomy {rcfiva), to cut). The 
dismemberinst of the foetus in utero, in 
order to admit of delivery. 

3. Embry-ulcia (fXvw, to draw). The 
same as enibrj'oiomy. It is performed by 
means of a blunt hook or forceps, termed 
emhryidrMS. 

4. Embryo-lega {lego, Xo covet). A small 
callosity oljserved in some seeds, at 



tained from galls, in the process for|Short distance from the hilum; it gives 



way, like a lid, at the time of germina- 
tion, for the emission of the radicle. 

EMERY. A variety of corundum. The 
powder is obtained by trituration, attach- 
ed to brown paper called emery paper, 
ELY'TRON {tXvTpov). A sheath ; the and used for polishing, for preparing 
hard case which covers the wings of co- razor-strops, &c. 

leoplerous insects. The vagina. EMETIC, (f^iw, to vomit). A siib- 

]. Elylro-cele {KfiXri, a tumour). The stance which causes vomiting. Emetics 



makine gallic acid. 

ELUTRIATION (fhilrio, to cleanse). 
The process of washing, by which the 
lighter earthy parts are separated from 
the he.Tvier and metallic. 



name given by Vogel to vaginal her 
nia. 

2. Elylr-o'ides (fi&f, likeness). Sheath- 
like; a term applied to the tunica vagi- 
nalis; also to the pessary ofM. J. Clo- 
quet. 

3. Elytro-rraphia [paiph, a suture). Su- 
ture of the vagina; an operation for the 
prevention of prolapsus uteri. 

EMACIATION [emacio, to make lean). 
Marasmus. General extenuation of the 
body, with debility. 

EMAASIO MENSIUM. Retention 
of the menses, called by many writers 



are termed topical, when they act only 
when taken into the stomach, as mus- 
tard ; specif c, when they act by being 
introduced into the circulation, as eme- 
tic tartar. 

1. Emetic tartar, or tartarized antimo- 
ny; tartrate of antimony and potash, or 
the antimonium tartarizatum. 

2. Emetin. The emetic principle of 
ipecacuanha; it has been discovered to 
consist of a peculiar alkaline basis which 
may he termed emcta, acid, and colour- 
ing matter. Dr. Paris says that emela is 
to emeiin what while crystallized sugar 



tnenoHalio; and by Frank, amenorrAtfo lis to moist sugar. 

tirxmculaniin. I E M M E N A G O G U E S (i^ii^fivia. the 



EM A RGINATE. Having a notch ai 
the upper extremity, as if a portion had 
been cut out of the margin. 

EMASCULATION {emasculo, to ren- 
der impotent). Privation of virility ; cas- 
tration; removal of Ihe testes. 

EMBALMING. The filling a dead 
body with spices, gums, and other anti- 
septics, to prevent putridity. 

EMBOITEMENT (the situation of one 
box wiihin another, from hoite, a box). 
A term used by Bonnet to describe that 
species of generation, by which hundreds 
and thousands of indivi<luals lie one 
wiihin the other, each possessing a com- 
plete series of organized parts. See Evo- 
lutiov. 

EMBROCATION [t^(ipkx<^, to moist- 
en). An external fluid application, for 
rubbincf any part of the body. 

EMBRYO (h, in, (Ipiu), to bud forth). 
The ovum in utero, before the fourth 
month, after which it is called fostus. 



menses, aym, to induce). Medicines which 
promote the catamenial discharge, or the 
menses. 

EMME'NIA {iv, in, fifiv, a month). The 
catamenial discharee, or menses. 

EMMOLLIENTS (emollio, to soften). 
Agents which diminish the tone of the 
living tissues, and cause relaxation or 
weakness. When employed for the pur- 
pose of sheathing surfaces from the action 
of injurious substances, they are called 
demulcents. 

EMPATHEMA (h, and 7ra%a, affec- 
tion). Ungovernable passion; including 
excitement, depression, and hair-brained 
passion, or the manie sans dtlire of Pine). 

EMPHLYSIS [iv, and ^Xvo-if, a vesi- 
cular tumour, or eruption). Ichorous ex- 
anthem; including miliary fever, thrush, 
cow-pox, water-pox, pemphigus, and ery- 
sipelas. 

EMPHYMA (£!■, and i^vw, to spring 
forth). Tumour; including the sarcoma- 



EMP 



136 



END 



tous, the encysted, and the bony spe- 
cies. 

EMPHVSE'MA (tj^pvcaoi, to inflate). 
Literally, that wliich is blown in; wind- 
dropsy. A swelling produced by air, 
difi'used in the cellular tissue. It is dis- 
tinguished into the Iraumalic, when the 
air has been introduced by a solution of 
continuity; and the idiopalhic, or spon- 
taneous, when the gas is developed with- 
in the cells. 

EMPIRIC {Iv, in, -Kupa, experiment). 
Formerly, one who practised medicine 
upon experience, wilhout regard to the 
rules of science ; it now signifies a quack, 
or vender of nostrums. 

EMPLASTRUM (ifnrM<jaoi, to spread 
upon). A plaster; a solid and tenacious 
compound, adhesive at the ordinary heat 
of the human body. Plasters have been 
termed solid ointments, as they may be 
said to differ only in consistence from lini- 
ments, ointments, and cerates. 

EMPRESMA (Jv, and Trpf,9ui, to burn). 
Internal inflammation; a term employed, 
in its simple sense, by Hippocrates, &c., 
and revived by Dr. Good as a generic 
term for all those visceral inflammations 
generally distinguished by the suffix -itis. 

EMPROSTH'O'TOJNOS (f>7rpo,79£r, be- 
fore, Tctvw, to draw). Clonic spasm fix- 
ing the body forward. Compare Tetanus. 

EMPyE'M.\ {if, within, ttvov, pus). 
An internal abscess, particularly of^ the 
lungs; matter in the chest. This term 
was originally applied by the ancients lo 
every collection of purulent matter; it 
was subsequently confined to effusions 
into the pleura, and abscesses of the 
lungs; it is now applied by surgeons to 
effusions into the pleura only : hence 
the terms, empyema of pus, of blood, o( 
water and air, are often used as syno 
nynis of pleurisy, hajmolhorax, hydrotho- 
rax, and pneumothorax. Chronic pleu- 
risy constitutes the " purulent empyema" 
of surgeons. 

EMPYESIS(£/i7ru£(o, to suppurate). Pus 
tulous exanlhern; a term used by Hippo 
crates, and including, in Dr. Good's sys- 
tem, variola or small-pox. 

[Emptjesis oculi (ci/, in, ttvov, pus). Sup- 
puration of the eye. See Hypopium.] 

EMPYREUMA (f/iTuptiJoj, to set on 
fire; from n-iip, fire). Peculiar vapours pro- 
duced by destructive distillation. Hence 
the term empyreumatic is applied to the 
acid, and to the oil, which result from 
the destructive disiillalion of vcsretabh 
substances; and, hence, hartshorn is call- 
ed the empyreumaiic alkali. 
EMULGENTS {emulgeo, to milk out) 



A designation of the arteries and veins 
of the kidneys, which were supposed lo 
strain, or inuk out, the serum. A terra 
also applied to remedies which excite 
the flow of bile. 

EMULSIN. Vegetable albumen of 
almonds; a constituent of almond emul- 
sion. A peculiar acid is procured from 
it, termed emulsic acid. 

EMULSIO {emulgeo, to milk). An 
emulsion; a mixture of oil and water, 
made by means of mucilage, sugar, or 
yelk of egg. This term is used by the 
Edinburgh College for the Mistura of the 
London Pharmacopoeia [and Ph. U. S.] 

EMUNCTORY {emungo, to wipe out). 
An excretory duct; a canal through 
which the contents of an organ, as the 
gall-bladder, are discharged. 

ENAMEL. The hard exterior surface 
of the teeth. Also a white glass formed 
of peroxide of tin, &c. 

ENANTHESIS {Iv and dMoj, to blos- 
som). Rash exanthem ; including scarlet- 
fever, measles, and nettle-rash. — Good. 

EN A RTH ROSIS (£^ and apOpo 1/, a joint). 
A ball-and-socket joint. Hee Articulation. 

ENCANTHUS (.cu, in, Kii-Oo;, the cor- 
ner of the eye). A disease of the carun- 
ciila lachrymalis. 

ENCEPHALON {Iv, in. /cE^aX;?, the 
head). The brain; the contents of the 
skull, consisting of the cerebrum, cere- 
bellum, medulla oblongata, and mem- 
branes. 

1. Encephahta. A term applied by 
Dr. Grant to the Fifth sub-kingdom of 
Animals, or Vertehrata, comprising ani- 
mals in which the brain is enclosed in a 
bony cavity. The classes are the pisces, 
amphibia, replilia, avps, and mammalia. 

2. Enceplial-itis. Inflammation of the 
brain; as distmguished from meningitis, 
arachnitis, or inflammation of the mem- 
branes. 

3. Encephalc-c€le{Kfi\ri,atumoviT). Her- 
nia of the brain, through the walls of the 
cranium, by a congenital opening, a frac- 
ture, &c. 

4. Encephal-oid {clioi, likeness). A 
term applied to a morbid product, or 
encephalosis, the cut surface of which re- 
sembles brain. 

ENCHELIDF- MONAD. An animal- 
cule which performs the usual function 
of the green parts of plants, decomposing 
carbonic acid and evolving oxygen, un- 
der the influence of the light of the sun. 
E.\-CYSTKD (£)<, in, xwris, a cyst). A 
term applied to tumours which consist of 
[mattor contained in a sac or cyst. 
I ENDE'MIC {if, among, ^/j/xoj, a peo- 



END 



im 



ENT 



pie). An epithet for diseases peculiar to flaramaiion is said to be " but d'adfluxion, 

the inhabitants ol" particular countries — jet oiigine d'impulsion." 

native diseases. | Endosmo-meler {e^idosmosis, impulsion 



EN-DERJVIIC. A term indicative of 
the method of applying medicines to the 
denuded dermis. It is also called the 
emplastro-endermic method. 

EN DO {hiov, within). A Greek pre- 
position, signifying luiihin. 

1. Endo-cardium {xapSia, the heart). 
A colourless transparent membrane, 
which lines the interior of the heart. 
Inflammation of this membrane is termed 
endocnnlUis. 

2. Endo-carp (Kapwd;, fruit). The in- 
nermost portion of the pericarp. In some 
fruits it presents a bony consistence, as 
in the peacii, and has been termed puta- 
men. See Pericarp. 

3. Endo-gen [yewaw, to produce). A 
plant whose stem grows by internal in- 
crease, as a palm. See Exogen. 

4. Endo-phli£um {ifKow^, bark). An- 
other name for liber — the innermost 
layer of the bark oi exogens. 

5. Endo-pleara [vXevpa, the side). 
The internal integument of the seed, also 
termed twiica interna, tegmen, hilofere, 
&c. 

6. Endo-rrhizous (pii^a, a root). A 
term expressive of the mode of germina- 
tion of Endogens, in which the radicle 
is emitted from the substance of the 
radicular extremity, and is sheal/ied at 
its base by the substance from which it 
protrudes. This sheath is termed the 
cole opt He. 

7. Endo-spermium (crKcpiia, seed). The 
name given by Richard to the albumen 
of other botanists. Jussieu termed it 
perisperm. 

8. Eiido-stome (aro^a, a mouth). The 
orifice of the inner uitegument of the 
ovule, ill plants. 

9. Endo-t/iecium {Ot'tKrt, a case). The 
name given by Purkinje to the lining of 
the anther, consisting of fibro-cellular 
tissue. 

ENDOSMO'SIS icvSov, within, oxr/^ds, 
impulsion).' The property by which rarer 
fluids pass through membranous sub 
stances into a cavity or space containing 
a denser fluid. M. Dutrochet, who has 
introduced this term, with a knowledge 
of the moiory principle to which it refers, 
has used othf rs explicative of his views 
of some operations in the animal eco- 
nomy : such is hi/perendosmose, or the 
state of things in inflammation ; with this 
are associated adfluxion, or accumulation 
of the fluids, and impulsion, or increased 
flow of the fluids onwards. Thus, in- 



jxtrpov, a measure). An instrument con- 
trived by Dutrochet lor measuring the 
force of the endosmosmic function. 

ENECIA (iivcKfii, continuous). A term 
denoting continued action, and applied 
by Dr. Good to continued fever, includ- 
ing the several species of inflammatory, 
typhous, and synochal lever. These 
were formerly called continentes, from 
their being supposed to be unattended 
by any change or relaxation whatever. 

EJN'EMA (£j/(>f;(, to inject). A clyster, 
lavement, or injection. A formula used 
for conveying both nourishment and me- 
dicine to the system, under particular 
morbid circumstances. 

EN-EPIDERMIC. A term indicative 
of the method of applying medicines to 
the epidermis, unassisted by friction, as 
when blisters, fomentations, &c., are em- 
ployed. See Endcrmic. 

[ENGORGEMENT. An overfulness, 
or obstruction of the vessels of a part; 
congestion.] >■ 

[ENGOUEMENT. Obstruction of a 
conduit by matters accumulated in it.] 

ENNEANDRIA (iwea, nine, dvr,p, 
man). The ninth class of plants in 
Lmnffius's system, comprehending those 
which have nine stamens. 

[Erineandrous. Having nine stamens 
of about equal length] 

ENNUI. Weariness; listless fatigue 
of the mind. 

ENS. The participle present of the 
verb sum, employed as a substantive, in 
philosophical language, for any being or 
existence. This term denotes, in che- 
mistry, a substance supposed to contain 
all the qualities or virtues of the ingre- 
dients from which it is drawn, in a small 
compass: — 

1. Ens Marfis. Fcrrum Aramoniatum. 
Ammoniated Iron, or Martial Flowers of 
the muriate of ammonia and iron. 

2. Ens Vc7icTis. The ancient desig- 
nation of the muriate of ammonia and 
copper. 

ii. Ens primum. A name given by the 
alchemists to a tincture which ihcy sup- 
posed to have the power of transmuting 
the metals. 

ENSIFORM (ensis, a sword, forma, 
likeness). [Sword-shaped.] A Latin term 
applied to the sword-Uhe cartilage of the 
sternum. The corresponding term in 
Greek is xiphoid. 

ENTASIS (ivTcUno, to stretch). A term 
denoting intention, or stretching, and 



ENT 



138 



EPI 



applied by Good to constrictive spasm, in- 
cluding cramp, wry-neck, locked-jaw, &.C. 
EN'l'ERA (cvrcpa, the bowels, from 
hrds, within). The intestines. 

1. Enteric. Belonging to the intestines. 

2. Enter-ids. Intlainmalion of the in- 
testines — the termination in itis, being 
the nosological sign of inflammation. 

3. Eulero-cele {Kfi\ri, a tumour). A her- 
nia, the contents of which are intestine. 

4. Enlero-epiplo-cele {cTrtrXooi', omen- 
tum, Ki'iXn, a tumour). A hernia, the con- 
tents oC which are both intestine and 
omentum. 

5. Enlero-litku.1 (Xt'Gof, a stone). An 
intestinal concretion, as a bezoar, a cal- 
culus, &c. 

6. Entero-rrhaphia (pa<pfi, a suture). A 
suture ofthe divided edgesof an intestine. 

7. Entero-tonie {rt^vw, to cut). An 
instrument for the operation of artificial 
anus. 

EiNTOMOLINE {ivronov, an insect). 
See Chiiine. 

ENTOMOLOGY {tvTOjia, insects, Xi5yof , 
an account). That part of Zoology which 
treats of insects. 

EiNTOZOA (tcrof, within, Idh, life). 
Intestinal worms. See Vermes. 

ENTROPiUiM (£<-, in, rpmj, to turn). 
Inversio palpebrcB. Inversion of the eye- 
lid. Compare Eclropium. 

ENURESIS (£»/, in, ovpov, urine). In- 
continence of urine; involuntary dis- 
charge of urine. 

EPACTAL. The name given by 
Fischer to the inter-parietal bone of 
Geoffrey St. Hilaire. It is only deve- 
loped after birth, and is only occasionally 
met with. 

EPI (£771). A Greek preposition, denot- 
ing upon, for, &c. Hence the conT- 
pounds : — 

1. Ep-anetus [aviriiii, to remit). A term 
denoting remittent, and applied by Good 
to remittent fever, including the mild 
form, the malignant form, and hectic 
fever. 

2. Eph-elit (ilXiof, the sun). Tan- 
spots; sun-burn; dark freckles, conflu- 
ent or corymbose, disappearing in the 
winter. 

3. Eph-emem {n/iipa, a day). A fever 
which runs its course of the cold, hot 
and sweating stages in twelve hours. 

4. Eph-ialies (aWofiat, to leap). Incu 
bus, or nightmare; ihe imaginary being 
which seems to leap upon the chest o( 
the sleeper. 

5. Epk-idro'sifC'^p6o), to petspWe). Pro- 
fuse and morbid perspiration. 

6. Eph-ippium (a saddle ; from eti, 



upon, "tttos, ahorse). Sella turcica. Part 
ol' the OS sphenoides, so called lirom its 
saddle-like shape. 

Epicanthus (eti, upon, Kavdos, the cor- 
ner of the eye). A Ibid of skin covering 
the internal canlhus. 

7. Epi-carp (/oapirdf, fruit). The ex- 
terior portion of the pericarp, commonly 
termed the skin of fruits. See Pericarp. 

8. Epi-cra'nium {Kpai/iov, the cranium). 
The integuments, and epineurotic ex- 
pansion which lie over the cranium. 

9. Epi-cranius. A name sometimes 
given to the occipito-fronlalis muscle, 
Irom ils covering the cranium. 

10. Epi-chrosis (xpiofia, colour). A 
coloured or spotted surlace of any kind, 
applied to maculre, or blemishes of the 
skin, as freckles, sun-burn, &c. 

11. Epi-demic (Jtnjio;, the people). An 
epithet lor a popular, prevailing, but not 
native disease, arising from a general 
cause, as excessive heat. See Endemic. 

12. Epi-dermis (icppia, the skin). The 
cuticle, or scarf-skin ; the thin horny 
layer which protects the surface of the 
integument. The external layer of the 
bark of plants. 

13. Epi-didymis {^livfioi, two; the tes- 
tes). The small oblong btidy which lies 
above the testis, formed by the convolu- 
tions of the vasa efTerentia, external to 
the testis. 

14. Epi-gaslrium {yaarhp, the stomach). 
The superior part of the abdomen; the 
part situated above the belly. 

15. Epi-genesis iyhecrts, generation). 
A term applied to a theory of non-sexual 
generation, in which each new germ is 
an entirely new production of the parent 
organism. Compare Evolution. 

[Epigeou.i (y;), the earth). Growing 
close upon the earth.] 

16. Epi-gloUis (yXajTTis, glottis). A 
cartilage of the larynx, situated above 
the glottis. 

17. Epi-gynous {yvvf\, a woman). That 
condition of the stamens of a plant, in 
which they adhere both to the calyx and 
the ovarium, as in umbelliferous plants. 

18. Epi-lepsy (Xapiffavw, to seiz"). An 
attack, particularly of the falling sick- 
ness. This affection has been called 
morbus divinus, morbus herculeus, mor- 
bus sacer, morbus comitialis, morbus 
caducus, mal caduc, &c. 

19. Epi-nyctis (cuf, vmrdq. night). A 
pustule, so called, because the eruption 
first appeared, or only appeared, by night; 
or because it was most troublesome at 
night. The term is applied by Sauvages 
to ecthyma. 



EPI 



EQU 



[ Epiphenomenon. An adventitious 
Bymplom, one not essentially attendant 
on the disease.] 

20. Epi-phlosum (,<p\oiQg, bark). A layer 
of bark, situated immediately beneath 
the epidermis, termed by JVlohl, phlojum 
or peridermis. 

21. Epi-phora {eirKpcpco, to Carry with 
force). The watery eye ; flux of tears. 
It is distinguished from slillicidium lac- 
rymarum, which consists in an obstacle 
to the absorption and conveyance of the 
tears from the lacus lacrymarum into the 
sac; whereas Epiphora consists in a su 
perabundant secretion of tears. 

22. Epi-physis {<piu), to grow). A pro 
cess of a bone attached by cartilage to 
a bone, and not a part of the same bone. 
It differs from Apophysis, which is a- pro- 
cess of a bone, and a part of the same 
bone. 

23. Epi-ploon (ttXem, to sail). The 
omentum; a membranous expansion 
which^Zoa^s upon the intestines. 

24. Epi-plo-cete (iTr'nrXoov, omentum, 
KnKrj, tumour). Hernia of the Epiploon, 
or omentum. 

25. Epi-pl-oscheo-cele, {inirrXoov, the 
omentum, oaxcov, the scrotum, KfiXti, a 
tumour). A hernia in which the omen- 
tum descends into the scrotum. 

26. Epirrheo-logy {i-aippoi-i, a flowing 
on, Xiiyof, an account). That branch of 
science which treats of the efTects of ex- 
ternal agents upon living plants. 

27. Epi-schesis (iax'to, to restrain). Ob- 
struction ; suppression of excretions. 

28. Epispadias {(uvau, lodrnw). That 
malformation, when the urethra opens 
on the dorsum of the penis, not far from 
the pubes. See Hypospadias. 

29. Epi-spasiics (o-Traco, to draw). Vesi- 
catories; blisters; external applications 
to the skin, which produce a serous or 
puriform discharge, by exciting inflam- 
mation. When these agents act so mildly 
as merely to excite inflammation, without 
occasioning the effusion of serum, they 
are denominated ruhefacienls. 

30. Epi-sperm (a-rrcpfta, seed). This, 
and perisperm, are terms applied by 
Richard to the tesia of seeds — the sper- 
vioderm of DecandoUe. 

31. Epi-siaxis (<rrdjij, a dropping, from 
oT«yo, to distil or drop down). Nasal 
htemorrhage; bleeding from the nose. 

32. Epi-lhelium {ridnt'i, to place). The 
cuticle on the prolabium, or red part of 
the lips, and on the mucous membranes 
in general. It is distinguished into the 
scaly epil/ielinm, which forms the inner 
surface of the blood and lymph vessels, 



the inner surface of many mucous and 
serous sacs, &c. ; the columnar epilhelinm, 
which forms the surface of the intestinal 
canal, as well as the surface of the pas- 
sages from most glands ; and the ciliated 
epit/iflium, which forms the surface of 
the mucous membrane of the organs of 
respiration, &c. 

33. Epi-lhem. [riOri^a, to place). A 
general term for any external topical ap- 
plication to the body, except ointments 
and plasters. 

34. Ep-ulis (ojjXa, the gums). A small 
tubercle on the gums, said sometimes to 
become cancerous. 

35. Ep-tdotics (oi)X)'), cicatrix). Medi- 
cines which promote the cicatrization of 
wounds. They are also called cicairi- 
santia. 

EPIAN. Pian. A term denoting a 
raspberry, and applied on the American 
coast to frambasia. On the African 
coast this afTection is termed yaws. 

EPSOM SALT. 8al calharlicus ama- 
rus. Sulphate of magnesia, formerly 
procured by boiling down the mineral 
water of Epsom ; but now prepared from 
sea water. 

EQUILIBRIUM [aqae, equally, Ubro, 
to balance). A term expressive of the 
equality of temperature, which all bodies 
on the earth are constantly tending to 
attain (see Caloric) — and of the equal 
distribution of the electric fluid in its 
natural undisturbed state. 

[EQUINIA {equinus, belonging to a 
horse). Glanders. A contagious disease, 
to which horses are liable, attended with 
discharge from the nostrils, ulceration of 
the nasal mucous membrane, &c., and 
which is communicated to the human 
species by inoculation.] 

EQUITANT. A form of vernation 
in which the leaves overlap each other 
parallelly and entirely, without involu- 
tion. 

EQUIVALENTS (ffi^i/e, equally, t-a/eo, 
to avail). A term applied by Dr. Wol- 
laston to the combining proportions of 
elementary and compound substances, as 
the quantities of acid and base, in salts, 
required to neutralize each other. The 
following are instances of this law : — 
Arsenic acid . . 57-G8 Lime .... 28 
Muriatic acid . 37 Magnesia 20 
Nitric acid ... 54 Potash ... 48 
Sulphuric acid 40 Soda .... 32 
Thus 5768 of arsenic acid, 37 of muri- 
atic, 54 of nitric, and 40 of sulphuric, 
combine with 28 of lime, forming, re- 
spectively, n neutral arseniate; muriate, 
nitrate, and sulphate of lime; &c. &c. 



ERB 



140 



ERY 



KRBIUM. A newly discovered meial, 
OCi'urnrigalong wilhyttria. See Terhiian. 

ERKCriLE TISSUE {erigo, to erect). 
Tlie tissue peculiar to the penis, nipple, 
&c. That of the vagina has been termed, 
by De Graafi retiformis, and latterly, cor- 
pus cavernosum vagince. The term is also 
applied to a similar tissue, constituting 
nsEvus, <S:c. 

ERECTOR {erigo, to raise). A muscle 
of the clitoris and of the penis, so named 
li-om its office. 

EREMACAUSIS (•'ipcjioi, slow, Kavaiq, 
burning). A term ap|)lied by Liebig lo 
the slow combustion or oxidation of or- 
ganic matters in air, as the conversion of 
wood into humus, the formation of acetic 
acid from alcohol, nitrification, &c. 

ERETHISMUS (iptflijoj, lo excite). 
Constitutional irritation, or excitement. 

EreUdsmus Meicurialis. Mercurial 
ereihistn; a peculiar state of erethism 
produced by mercury. 

ERGOTA. Secnle Cornutum. Spurred 
rye; a long black substance, like a horn 
or spur, fbrincd on rye, and many other 
of the gramina, and supposed to be pro- 
duced by a parasitic fungus. 

1. Ergoleetia {ergota, and alria. origin). 
The generic name given by Mr. Quekett 
to the ergot fiingus, to which was added 
the speeilic appellation of aljnrlifackns, 
in allusion' to <is destroying the germi- 
nating power of the grain of grasses. 

2. Ergoline. A peculiar principle dis- 
covered in ergot, by M. Bonjeau, wiio 
formerly termed it hamoslalic extract, 
from its being a real specific for hasmor- 
rhages in general. 

3. Ergntism. An epidemic occurring 
in moist districts, as in that of Sologne, 
from the use oCergota, inlje^nead. Its 
forms are, the coniMlsive, — a nervous 
disease, characterized by violent spasmo- 
dic convulsions; and the gangrenous, — 
a depraved state of the constitution, ter- 
minaiing in dry gangrene, and known in 
Germany by the name of the creeping 
sickness. 

ERiCACE^. The Heath tribe of 
Dicotyledonous plants. Shrubs, with 
leaves evergreen, rigid, entire, whorled, 
or opposite; /Zowcrs monopetalous, regu- 
lar; stamens deiinite; ovarium superior, 
many-seeded ; seeds apterous. 

[ERIGERO.N CANADE.NSE. Canada 
fleabane. An indigenous plant, said to 
possess diuretic, tonic, and astringent 
properties. 

[ERIGERON HETF.ROPIIYLLUM. 
V'arinns-leaved (leahaiie. 

[ERIGEROiN PHILADELPHICUM. 



Piuladelphia fleabane. This and the 
preceding species are diuretic, and have 
been employed in nephritic complaints 
and dropsv.] 

ERO'DEiNTS {erodo, to gnaw off). 
Substances which eat away, as it were, 
extraneous growths. 

[EROSE [erodo, to gnaw off). Gnawed ; 
having the margin irregularly divided, 
as if bitten by some animal; applied to 
leaves.! 

EROSION [erodo, to gnaw off). De- 
struction by ulceration; the name ap- 
plied by Galen to the phenomena of 
ulcerative absorption. 

[EROTIC [cpuis, love). Relating to 
love.] 

[EROTOMANIA [epots, love, navia, 
madness). Melancholy caused by love.] 

ERR.ATIC [erro, to wander). Wander- 
ing; irregular; as applied to pains, gout, 
erysipelas, gestation, &c. 

ERRHINES (£i/, in, plv, the nose). 
Medicines which produce an increased 
discharge of nasal mucus. See Sternula- 
lories. 

ERROR LOCI [error of place). A term 
formerly applied to certain derangements 
in the capillary circulation. Coerhaave 
conceived that the vessels were of dif- 
ferent sizes for the circulation of blood, 
lymph, and serum ; and that, when the 
larger-sized globules passed into the 
smaller vessels by an error loci, an ob- 
sirucrion took place which gave rise to 
the phenomena of inflammation. 

ERUCTATION (erHC/o,to belch forth). 
Flatulency, with frequent rejection up- 
wards, as from a volcano. 

ERUPTION [erumpo, to break out). 
A breaking out ; a term applied to acute 
cutaneous diseases. 

[ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM. Button 
snakerooi. An indigenous. Umbelliferous 
plant, the root of which jwssesses dia- 
phoretic and expectorant, and, in large 
doses, emetic properties.] 

ERYNGO. The candied root of the 
Eryngium campeslre, reckoned by Boer- 
haave as the first of aperient diuretic 
root.s. 

ERYSIPELAS [ipicxi, to draw, jrtXaj, 
adjoining ; so named from its propensity 
to spread ; or, simply, from ipvdpos, red). 
An eruptive fever, cilled by the Romans 
Ignis saccr ; popularly, the Hose, from 
the colour oithe skin ; and St. Antlionys 
lire, from its burning heat, or becau.se St. 
Anthony was supposed to cure it miracu- 
lously. 

[^Erysipelatous. Belonging to erysi- 
pelas.] 



ER Y 



141 



ETH 



ERYTHE'MA {epvdpo;, red). Morbid 
redness of the skin; inflammalory blush. 
A red fulness of the integuments, termi- 
nating in scales, and occasionally in gan- 
grene. 

ERYTHR^A CENTAURIUM. Com- 
mon Centaury; a plant of the order Gen- 
tianarecn, possessing similar effects to 
those of Genliun. Its bitter principle is 
called cenfaiirin. 

ERYTHRIC ACID {tpvdpds, red). The 
name given by Brugnatelli to purpuric 
acid. 

ERYTHRIN {ipvOpd;, red). One of a 
series of substances, including erythrilin, 
erythrin bitter or amarythrin, lelerythrin, 
&c., obtained by Dr. Kane Irom the Roc- 
cella linctoria. 

ERYTHROGEN {ipvOpdi, red, yewao,, 
to produce). A green-coloured substance 



ESOGASTRITIS (eVu, within, and 
gastritis). InHammation of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach. 

ESPRIT. The French term for spirit, 
or essence. Any subtile and volatile pro- 
duct of distillation. 

ESSEiN'CE DE PETIT GRAIN. A 
term originally applied to the volatile oil 
of the orange berry, but now denoting 
the volatile oil obtained from the leaves 
of both the bitter and sweet orange. 

ESSENTIA ABIETIS. Essence of 
Spruce; prepared by boiling in water 
the young tops of some Coniferous plant, 
as the Abies nigra, or Black Spruce, and 
concentrating the decoction by evapora- 
tion. 

ESSENTIA BINA. A substance used 
to colour brandy, porter, &c., and pre- 
pared by boiling coarse sugar till it is 



found in the gall-bladder, in a case of'black and bitter; it is then made into a 
jaundice. It unites with nitrogen, and syrup with lime-water, 
produces a red compound. 

ERYTUROID {ipvOpds, red, clSo;, like- 
ness). A term applied to the cremasteric 
covering of ihe spermatic cord and testis 

[ERYTHRO.MUM AMERICANUM. 
Erythronium. An indigenous, Liliaceous 
plant, the recent bulb of which is emetic 
in the dose of cjj. to 3ss.] 

ERYTHROiPHYLLE {ipvepds. red, 0iiX- 
Xov, a leaf). A term applied by Berze- 
lius to the red colouring matter of fruil.s 
and leaves in autumn. 

ERYTHROSIS {ipvdpds. red). Plethora 
arleriosa. A form of plethora, in which 
the blood is rich in fibrin and in bright 
red pigment; a state corresponding in 
some measure with what has been term- 
ed the arterial constitution. 

ESCHAR {icrxapooi, to form a scab or 
crust). A dry slough; a gangrenous por- 
tion, which has separated from the healthy 
substance of the body. 

Escharotics. Substances which form 
an eschar, or slough, when applied to the 
skin. 

ESCULENT. An appellation given to 
those plants, or any part of them, which 
may be eaten lor (bod. 

ESCULINE. An alkaloid obtained 
from the ./Esculus Hippocaslanum, or 
horse-chesinut, from the ash, &c. 

ESENBECKINA. An organic alkali, 
procured from Brazilian Cinchona, or the 
bark of the Exoslema Souzanum, a native 
plant of Brazil, and named from the erro- 
neous idea that the bark belonged to 
Esenbetkia febrifuga. 

ESOENTERITIS (tVw, within, and 
enteritis). Inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the intestines. 



ESSENTIAL OILS. Oils obtained by 
distillation from odoriferous vegetable 
substances. Several of the volatile or 
essential oils are essences. 

ESSERA. The Nettle-rash, or the 
t/j-^jcar/a of Willan. Good. 

ESTIVATION (cBstivus, belonging to 
summer). Prajloration. A term applied 
to the condition of a flower when its 
parts are uiiexpanded. See Vernation. 

ET.^R10 (iraipda, an association). A 
term applied by Mirbel to an aggregate 
fruit, the parts of which are achenia, as 
in ranunculus, rubus, &c. 

ETHAL. A peculiar oily substance, 
obtained from spermaceti; also termed 
hydrate of oxide of ceiyl. The term is 
formed of the first syllables of ether and 
alcohol. 

ETHER {aiQnp, ether). A liquid pro- 
duced by a remarkable decomposition ol' 
alcohol, by sulphuric, phosphoric, and 
arsenic acids. It is sometimes distin- 
guished as sulphuric ether, from the mode 
of preparing it. 

ETHEREAL OIL. The Oleum Vini, 
found in the residuum of sulphuricether, 
and forming the basis of Hoffhnan's cele- 
brated anodyne liquor. 

ETHERINE. A term synonymous 
with olefiant gas, elayl, or hydruret of 
acetyl. 

ETHEROLE. A carbo-hydrogen, com- 
monlv known as light oil of wine. 

ETHMOID (nQpidi, a sieve, cUo^, like- 
ness). Cribriform, or sieve-like; a bone 
of the nose, perforated ibr the transmis- 
sion of the oll'aciory nerves. 

Ethmoidal crest, or spine. See Crista 
gain. 



ETH 



142 



EVO 



ETHYL {aWhp, ether, v\t), matter). A 
hypothetical radical, existing in ether and 
its compounds ; ether being the oxide ot 
ethyl, and alcohol llie hydrated oxide of 
ethyl. 

ETIOLATION. The process of blanch- 
ing plants, as celery, kale, &c., by shel- 
tering them from the action of light. The 
natural colour of the plants is thus pre- 
vented from being formed. 

EUCHLORINE {cv, brilliant, xXwpof, 
green). The name given by Davy lo 
the protoxide of chlorine, from its being 
considerably more brilliant than simple 
chlorine. 

EUCHRONIC ACID {evxpoog, of a fine 
colour). An acid procured by the de- 
composition of the neutral mellilaie of 
ammonia by heat. It forms a blue com- 
pound with zinc, called eiichrohe. 

EUDIOMETEFi {Mia, calm weather, 
fitrpov, a measure). An instrument for 
ascertaining the proportion of oxygen in 
a given gas. 

EUGENIA PIMENTA. The Com- 
mon Allspice, a iVlyrtaceous plant, the 
fruit of which constitutes Pimento, or 
Jamaica pq^per, commonly called allspice, 
from its flavour approaching that of cin- 
namon, cloves, and nutmegs. 

[EUGENIC ACID. Caryophyllic acid, 
(q. V.)] 

EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM. A 
plant employed in America as a substi- 
tute for Peruvian bark, and known by 
the names of thorough-wort, thorough- 
wax, cross-wort, and bone-set. 

Eupatorine. An alkaloid discovered 
in the Eupalorium Cannabinum. 

[EUPHORBIA COROLLATA. Large- 
flowering Spurge. An indigenous Eu- 
phorbiaceous plant, the root of which in 
the dose of from ten to twenty grains is 
an active emetic. In somewhat smaller 
dose it is cathartic, and in still smaller 
dose diaphoretic and expectorant. 

[EUPHORBIA IPECACUANHA. 
Ipecacuanha Spurge. This is also an 
indigenous species. Its root is an active 
emetic and cathartic, in the dose of from 
gr. X. to sir. XV.] 

EUPHORBIACE^. The Euphorbium 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Trees, 
shrubs, and herbaceous plants, with leaves 
alternate ; flowers apetalous, unisexual ; 
ovarium three-celled, the cells separating 
with elasticity from their common axis. 

EUPHORBIUiM. A saline waxy resin, 
produced by an undetermined species of 
Evphorhia. 

EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS. Com- 
mon Eye-bright; a plant of the order 



ScroplmlarincetB, and a popular remedy 
(or diseases of the eye. 

EUPION (£«, well, TTiwv, fat). A co- 
lourless liquid, obtained by distillation 
from the tar of animal matters, and so 
named from its great limpidity. 

EUPLASTIC, (cv, well, irXim, forma- 
tion). A term applied by Lobstein to the 
elaborated organizable matter, by which 
the tissues of the body are renewed. The 
same w riter speaksof another animal mat- 
ter, the tendency ot which is to soitening 
and disorganization; this he terms caco- 
plastic. 

EUPVRION, (£v, easily, TrSp.fire). Any 
contrivance (brobtainingan instantaneous 
light, as the »ijhosphorus bottle, the pro- 
methean, &c. 

EUSTACHIAN TUBE. The Iter a 
palalo ad aurem; a canal which extends 
from the tympanum to the pharynx, called 
after Eiisiachius, its discoverer. 

1. Miisctdiis tuba EustachiancB nonus. 
A designation of the circumflexus palati 
muscle, from its arising in part from the 
Euslac^hian tube. 

2. Eustachian Vallye. A fold of the 
lining membrane of the auricle, which 
in the foetus is supposed to conduct the 
blood in two different courses. 

EVACUANTS {evacuo, to empty). 
Agents which cause a discharge by some 
emunctory. Some of the milder evacu- 
ants are called alteratives, or purifiers of 
the blood. 

EVACUATION (evactio, to empty). 
The discharge of the feces, &c. 

EVAPORATION. The production of 
vapour at common or moderate tempera- 
tures. Compare Ebullition. 

Spontaneous Evaporation. The pro- 
duction of vapour by some natural agen- 
cy, without the direct application of heat, 
as on the surface of the earth or ocean. 

EVOLUTION (evolvo. to roll out). A 
term applied to a theory of non-sexual 
generation, according to which the first 
created embryos of each species must 
contain within themselves, as it were in 
miniature, all the individuals of that spe- 
cies which shall ever exist; and must 
contain them so arranged, that each ge- 
neration should include not only the next, 
but, encased within it, all succeeding ge- 
nerations. Hence this theory has also 
received the name of the emhoitement 
theory. Compare Epitrenesis. 

EVOLUTION. SPONTANEOUS. A 
term applied by Dr. Denman to natural 
delivery, in cases in which the shoulder is 
so far advanced into the pelvis, as to pre- 
clude the possibilityof relief by operation. 



EX A 



143 



EXP 



EXACERBATION {exacerlo, to exas- 
perate). An increaseof febrile symptoms. 

EX^RiiSIS {ilaipioi, to remove). One 
of tlie old divisions of surgery, implying 
the removal ol' parts. 

EXANIA {ex, and anus). Archoplosis. 
A prolapsus, or falling down of the anus. 

EXANTHE'MATA (qavOco), to blos- 
som). Efflorescence; eruptive diseases; 
a term formerly equivalent to eniplion 
generally, but now limited to rashes, or 
superficial red patches, irregularly dif- 
fused, and terminating in cuiicular exib- 
liations. 

EXANTHESIS (ej, out, dvOio}, to bios- 
som). A superlicial or cutaneous efflo. 
rescence, as rose-rash ; it is opposed to en- 
anlheais, or efflorescence springing from 
wiihin. 

EXCITANTS [excifo, lo stimulate). Sti- 
mulants; these are termed general, when 
they excite the system, as spirit; and 
particular, when they e.vcite an organ, as 
in the action of diuretics on the kidneys. 

EXCITEMENT. The effect proiluced 
by excitants, e-spcciallv the general. 

[EXCITO-MOTORY. A lerm applied 
by Dr. Riarshall Hall lo a division of ihe 
nervous system, comprising the tuher- 
cula quadrigemina, the medulla oblon- 
gata, ihe medulla spinalis, and the true 
spinal nerves.] 

EXCORIATION {excorio, to take off 
the skin). Abrasion of the skin. 

EXCREMENT (excerno, to separate 
from). The alvine ffeces, or excretion. 
A term applied to a preternatural grovvlh, 
as a wan, a wen, &c. 

EXCRESCENCE {excresco, to grovi' 
from). A term applied to a preternatu- 
ral growth, as a wart, a wen, (fcc. 

EXCRETION {excerno, to separate 
from). A general term for the perspira- 
tion, urine, fceces, &c., which are separat- 
ed and voided from the blood or the food. 

EXCRETORY DUCT {excerno, to se- 
parate from). The duct which proceeds 
from a gland, as the parotid, hepatic, &c., 
and transmits outwards, or into particu- 
lar reservoirs, the fluid secreted by it. 

EXERCITATIO. Gymnaslics. Exer- 
cise; the action of the organs of loco- 
motion. 

EXFCETATION (ex, outward, and/ce- 
tus). Extra-uterine fojlation, or imper- 
fect foeiation in some organ exterior to 
the uterus. See Eccyeais. 

EXFOLIATION (exfolio, to cast the 
leaf). The separation of a dead piece of 
bone from the living. 

[EXHALANT. A term applied to ca- 
pillary vessels which pour out a fluid.] 



EXHALATION {exlalo, to exhale). 
Effluvia. The vapours which arise from 
animal and vegetable bodies, marshes, 
the earlh, &c. 

[EXHUMATION (ea:, from, Aumus, the 
ground). Disinterment; the act of re- 
moving a corpse from the ground.] 

EXO- (£^(0, outward). A Greek pre- 
position, signifying onlward. 

1. Exo-gen {yewaw, to produce). A 
plant whose stem grows by external 
increase, and which exhibits, in a trans- 
verse section, a series of concentric cir- 
cles or zones. Compare Endogen. 

2. Exo-rrhizous, {Jn'^a, a rool). A term 
expressive of the mode of germination in 
Exogens, in which the radicle appears at 
once on the surface of the radicular ex- 
tremity, and consequently has no sheath 
at its base. See Endorrhizous. 

3. Exo-stome {aTOjia, the mouth). The 
orifice of the outer integument of the 
ovule in plants. 

4. Exo-thecium (OfiKri. a case). The 
name given by I'urkinje to the coat of 
the anther. 

F.XOMPHALOS (tf, out, 6iifpa\ds, um- 
bilicus). Hernia at, or near, the umbilicus. 

EXOPHTHALMIA (f|, out, d,p9a\ixds, 
the eye). Ophlhalmojitosis. Ptosis bulbi 
ocidi. Protopsis, or protrusion of the 
globe of the eye. Beer proposes to call 
the affection exophthalmus, Avhen the pro- 
truded eye is in iis natural state; exo- 
p/iihfdmia when it i.s inflamed; and qpA- 
thalmoptosis, when the displacement is 
caused by the division of the nerves and 
muscles of the orbit, or by paralysis of 
the latier. 

EXORMIA (£f, out, opfih, impetus). A 
term used by the Greeks as synonymous 
wiih ecthyma, or papulous skin, com- 
prising gum-rash, &c. 

EXOSMO'SIS (c^, out, (iff/jof, impul- 
sion). The property by which rarer fluids 
pass through membranous subslances, out 
of a cavity into a denser fluid — " dehors 
impulsion." See Endosmosis. 

EXOSTO'SIS (cc, out, 6aT!:o:>, a bone). 
An excrescence or morbid enlargement 
of a bone. 

EXPANSIBILITY. Expansile power. 
These terms are employed by physiolo- 
gists to denote a vital properly more or 
less observable in several organs, as the 
penis, the nipple, the heart, ihe uterus, 
the retina, perhaps even the cellular sub- 
stance of the brain. 

EXPANSION (expando, to spread out). 
An enlargement of volume; the usual 
effect of caloric. 

[EXPECTANT {expecto, !o wait). Ex. 



EXP 



144 



FAC 



pectalion. A term given to a method |<iireclion from the trunk, in order to 
which consists in watching the progress bring the ends of the bone into their 
of diseases without giving any active natural situation. 

medicine, unless symptoms appear which ! Counter-extension. The act of making 
imperiously require such.] [extension in the opposite direction, in 

EXPECTORAiNTS (ex peclore, from [order to hinder the limb from being 
the chest;. Medicines ibr promoting the drawn along by the extending power, 
discliarge of mucus or other matters from EXTEiNSOK (exlendo, to stretch out), 
the trachea and its branches. .\ muscle which e.xtends any part. It is 

Expectoration. The act of discharging opposed to flexor, or that which bends a 
any matter from the chest; also, the [part, 
makers so discharged. EXTIRPATION (ez^tVpo, to eradicate, 

[EXPERIENCE (tj, from, 7r?<pa, a trial), from stirps, a root). The entire removal 
Practical knowledge; knowledge obtain-:Ofanv part by the knife, or ligature, 
ed by practice. j EXTRA UTERhXE. A term applied 

[Experiment. A practical proof A trial to those cases of pregnancy in which the 



for the purpose of ascertaining a truth or 
of obtaining knowledge.] 

EXPIRATION {expiro, to breathe). 
That part of respiration in which the air 
is e.xpelled. Compare Inspiration. 

EXPLORATION {exploro, to examine.) 
Examination of the abdomen, chest, &.c., 
■with a view to ascertain the physical 
signs of disease, in contradistinction to 
those signs which are termed symptoms. 

EXPRESSED OILS. Oils obtained 
from bodies bv pressure. 

EXSANGUINITY (ex, out, sanguis, 
blood). Anhamia. A state of bloodless- 
ness. 

EXSICCATION (exsicco, to dry up). 
A variety of evaporation, producing the 
expulsion of moisture from solid bodies 
by heat; it is generally employed for de- 
priving salts of their water of cr^'Stalli- 
zalion. 

[EXSTROPHIA (ff, out of, aTfxxpn, a 
turnine). Displacement of an organ.] 

EXTENSION (extendo, to stretch out) 
This term denotes, in physics, the pro- 
perly of occupying a certain portion of 
;space. In surgery, it signifies the act of 
pulling the broken part of a limb in a 



foetus is contained in some organ exterior 
to the uterus. 

EXTRACTION (extraho, to draw out). 
The operation of removing the teeth, a 
musket-ball, &c. The process of prepar- 
ing a pharmaceutical extract. 

EXTRACTUM (extraho, to draw out). 
An extract; a preparation obtained by 
the evaporation of a vegetable solution, 
or a native vegetable Juice. Its basis is 
termed extractive, or ^tractive principle. 

EXTRAVAS.\TION (extra, oulof, vas, 
a vessel). The passage of fluids out of 
their proper vessels, and their inliltration 
into the surrounding tissues. 

EXTROSE. Turned outward; turn- 
ed awaj' from the axis to which it be- 
lonss; applied to certain anthers. 

EXUDATION. Transpiration. The 
flow of liquid from the surface of the 
skin or membrane, an ulcer, &c. 

EXUVI^ (exuo, to put off) The 
slough, or cast-off covering of certain 
animals, as those of the snake-kind. 

EYE. Oculus. The organ of vision. 

EYE OF TYPHON. The mystic name 
given by the Egyptians to the Squill, or 
sea-onion. 



F 



F, or FT. Abbreviations of flat, or 
flarit, let it, or them, be made; used in 
prescriptions. 

FACE AGUE. Tic douloureux. A 
form of neuralgia, which occurs in the 
nerves of the face. 

FACET (facetle, a little face). \ term 
applied to an articular cavity of a bone, 
when nearly plain. 

FACIES.' The fare; the lower and 
enterior part of the head, including the 



nose, mouth, eyes, and cheeks. See Vul- 
lus and Frons. 

1. Fades Hi ppocralica. The peculiar 
appearance of the face immediately before 
death, described by Hippocrates. 

2. Fades rubra. The red face ; another 
name for the guita rosacea. See Acne. 

3. Facial angle. An angle composed 
of two lines, one drawn in the direction 
of the basis of the skull, from the ear to 
the roots of the upper incisor teeth, and 



F AC 



145 



FAS 



the other from the latter point to the must be distinguished from the liquor 



most projecting part of the forehead 

4. Facial nerve. The pnrlio dura of 
the seventh pair. The fifth pair is de- 
signated as the trifacial. 

5. Facial vein. A vein which com- 
mences at the summit of the head and 
forehead. See Angular. 

6. Face grippde. The pinched-in face ; 
a peculiar expression of features in peri- 
tonitis. See Physiognomy. 

FACTITIOUS (faclilo, to practise). 
Made by art, as factitious cinnabar, in 
distinction from the natural production. 
This term is also applied to diseases 
which are produced vvholly, or in part, 
by the patient; and to waters prepared in 
imitation of natural waters, as those of 
Brighton. 

FACULTY {facullas, from facer e, to 
make). The power or ability by which 
an action is performed. A term employ- 
ed to denote the professors of the medical 
art. 

FyECES (pi. or fax, dregs). Dregs or 
lees of wine; the settlement of any liquor 
The excrement of animals. 

FAGIN. A narcotic substance ob- 
tained from the nuts of the Fagus sylva- 
tica, or common beech 

FAIN'I'S. The weak spirituous liquor 
which runs off from the still after the 
proof spirit is taken awav. 

FALCIFORM ifalx, fdcis. a scythe 



amnii, which ihev term simply tlie icaters. 

[FALSIFICATION (falsus, false, fa- 
cio, to make). Adulteration, sophistica- 
tion, or fraudulent imitation of an article.] 

FALX, FALCIS. A scythe, or sickle. 
A scythe or sickle-like process. 

L Fidx cerebri, or falx major. The 
sicMe-Uke process or lamina of the dura 
mater, situated between the lobes of the 
cerebrum. 

2. Falx cerehelli, or falx minor. The 
small sichle-\\V.e process of the dura mater, 
situated between the lobes of the cere- 
bellum. 

FAMES {(payo, to eat). Famine, hun- 
ger. Hence the terms cura famis, or 
abstinence from food ; and fames canina, 
voracious or canine appetite. See Bu- 
limia. 

F.^MILY. A group of genera, which 
are connected together by common cha- 
racters of structure. The term order is 
synonymous. 

FAKCIMEN. The name given by 
Sauvages to the equine species of scro- 
fula, commonly called farcy. The por- 
cine species he denominated chalasis. 

FARrN.\ (far, f arris, corn). Meal, 
or vegetable flour, made from the seed 
of the Trilicnm Hybermim, or Winter 
Wheat. See Amj/lum. 

Farinaceous. [Mealy.] A term for all 
those substances which contain farina ; 



/brmn, likeness). [Falcate.] Scythe-like ; viz the cerealia, legumes, &c 



a term applied to a process of the dura 
mater, and the iliac process of the fascia 
lata. 

FALLING SICKNESS. Cadncnsmor- 
bus. Epilepsy; an affection in which the 
patient suddenly falls to the ground. 

FALLOPIAN TUBES. Two trumpet- 
like ducts, arising from the sides of the 
fundus uteri, and extending to the ovaria ; 
so called from Gabriel Fallopius. The 
commencement of each is termed ostium 
uterinum; the termination, ostium ahdo- 
minale; the fimbriated extremity, morsm 
diaboli. 

FALSE CONCEPTION. Anorma 
conception, in which, instead of a well- 
organized embryo, a mole or some analo 
gous production is formed. 

FALSE MEMBRANE. Thisisahvays 
the result of inflammation, as that pro 
duced in pleurisy, in peritonitis, in croup, 
&c. 

FALSE WATERS. Fansses eaux. A 
term applied by the French to a serous 



FAR-SIGHTEDNESS. An affection 
occurring in incomplete amaurosis; [and 
as the result of a natural malformation.] 
See Presbyopia. 

FASCIA ifascis, a bundle). Literally 
a scarf or large band. Hence, it is ap- 
plied to the aponeurotic expansion of a 

uscle. 

1. Fascia lata. A name frequently 
civen to the aponeurosis of the ihigh. 

2. Fascia su/icrficialis. A membrane 
extending over the abdomen, and down- 
wards over the front of the thigh. 

.3. Fascia trnnsvcrsalis. A dense layer 
of cellular fibrous membrane, lying be- 
neath the peritoneum, and investing the 
transversalis muscle. 

4. Fascialis. Another name for the 
tensor vagintB femoris muscle. 

Fasciated. Banded ; grown unnaturally 
together, as contiguous stems, or fruits. 

FASCICLE (fasciculus, a little bun- 
dle). A form of inflorescence, resembling 
a corymb, but having a centrifugal, in- 
It is a 



fluid which accumulates between thelstead of a centripetal expansion. 

chorion and the nmnios,and is discharged kind of compound con/mb. 

at certain periods of pregnancy. This| FASCICULUS (dim. offascis, a bun- 



FAS 



146 



FEL 



die). A little bunrfle ; a handful. Thus, 
a muscle consists oi fasciculi of fibres. 

Fasciculate. Clustered, as when se- 
veral boiJies spring from a common point. 

FASCIOLA HCPATICA. The Huke, 
a worm frequently found in the hepatic 
vessels of the sheep. It is also called 
distoma hepatica. 

FASTIGIATE. When the branches 
of a tree are appressed to the stem, as- 
suming nearly the same direction, as in 
populiis fastigiata. 

FAT. Adeps. Solid animal oil. Hu- 
man fot consists of two proximate princi- 
ples, elaine and sleariite, the former con- 
stituting the oily or liquid, the latter the 
fatty or solid substance. Fatty or unc- 
tuous bodies are divisible into 

1. The Oils, which are liquid at the 
ordinary temperature, and are common 
to both the vegetable and animal king- 
doms ; and 

2. The Fats, which are concrete at the 
ordinary temperature, and belong prin- 
cipally to the animal kingdom. The 
Crolu'n Sebiforum is the only vegetable 
known which produces a real fat. See 
Oils. 

FATUITY {fatuus, without savour; 
figuratively, nonsensical). Foolishness, 
weakness of understanding. 

FAUCES. The gullet, or wind-pipe; 
the part where the mouih grows nar- 
rower; the space surrounded by the 
velum [)alali, the uvula, the tonsils, and 
the posterior part of the tongue. 

FAUNA {Fauin, ihe rural divinities). 
A term denoting the animals peculiar to 
any particular country. 

FAU.X. The gullet-pipe ; the space 



been termed arthrilifugum magnum, from 
its supposed effieacy in gout. 

FEBRIS {fervto, or ferbeo, to be hot). 
Pyrexia. Fever ; a class of diseases cha- 
racterized by increased heat, &c. It is 
termed idio-pathic, i. e. of the general 
system, not depending on local disease ; 
or symptomatic, or sympathetic — a second- 
ary attection of the constitution, depend- 
ent on local disease, as the inflammatory. 
The hectic is a remote effect. Piiiel dis- 
tinguishes the following varieties: — 

1. The Angeio-tenic {dyycXov, a vessel, 
rdvo), to stretch), or inflammatory fever, 
situated in the organs of circulation. 

2. The Meningo gastric (iif)VLyl, a mem- 
brane, yaarhp, the belly), or bilious fever, 
originating in the mucous membrane of 
the intestines. 

3. The Adeno-meningeal (dcnv, a gland, 
fiiii'iy^, a membrane), a form of gastric 
lever, depending on disease of the mu- 
cous follicles. 

4. The Ataxic (a, priv., rafij, order), 
or irregular fever, in which the brain 
and nervous system are chiefly affected. 

5. The Adynamic (a, priv., c-ivajHi, 
power), or fever characterized by prostra- 
tion or depression of the vital powers. 

FEBURE'S LOTION. A celebrated 
remedy for cancer, consisting of ten 
grains of the white o.xide of arsenic dis- 
solved in a pint oi distilled water, to 
which were then added one ounce of the 
extractum conii, three ounces of the 
liquor plumbi subacetatis, and a drachm 
of laudanum. 

FECULA {feex, the grounds or settle- 
ment of any liquor). Originally miy sub- 
stance derived by spontaneous subsidence 



between the gula and the gnttur, or the from a liquid ; tiie term was afterwards 
superior part of the gula. The term is applied to s^arcA, which was thus depo- 
used in botany to denote the orifice ofjsiied by agitating the flour of wheat in 

water; and, lastly, it denoted a peculiar 
vegetable principle, which, like starch, 
is insoluble in cold, but completely solu- 
ble in boiling water, with which it forms 
a gelatinous solution. — Paris. 

FECUNDATION [fecuvdo, to make 
fruitful). Impregnation. Tiie effect of 
the vivifying fluid upon the germ or 
ovum, which is then called the embryo. 
See Generation. 

FEIGNED DISEASES. Morbi fell, 
vel simnlati. Alleged affections, which 
are either pretended or inteniionally in- 
duced, as abdominal tumour, animals in 
ihe siomach, &.C. The practice of feign- 
ing disease is technically termed in the 
British navy skulking, and in the army 
maUnaerins. 
FEL, FELLIS. Gall, or bile ; a secre- 



the lube formed by the cohering petals o 
a gamopetalous corolla. 

FAVUS (a honey-comb). A non acu 
minated pustule, larger than the achur 
and succeeded by a yellow and cellular 
scab, resembling a honey-comb. 

Favose. Honey-combed ; excavated 
like a honey-comb. 

FAYNARDS POWDER. A cele- 
brated powder for stopping haeinorr'iuge, 
said to have oecn nothmg more than the 
charcoal of beerth-wood, finely jiowdered. 

[FEBRICULA (dim. oCfeb'ris, a fever). 
A slight degree of fever] 

FEBRIFUGE (febris. a [e\er,fiigo, to 
dispel). A remedy against fever. 

Fcbrifiigum mugni/m. The name given 
by Dr. Hancocke to cold water as a drink 
in ardent fever. The same remedy has 



FEL 



147 



FER 



tion found in the cystis fellea, or gall- 
bladder. 

1. Fel bovivum. Fel tauri, bilis bovi- 
na, or ox-gall. An extract is used by 
painters to remove the greasiness of co- 
lours, &f!. 

2. Fellinic acid. An acid formed in 
the preparation of bilin. 

3. Fellijiiia passio. Gall-flux disease; 
an ancient name for cholera. 

FELON. The name of malignant whit- 
low, in which the effusion presses on the 
periosteum. 

FEMUR.FEMORIS. Osfenwris. The 
Ihigh-bone, the longest, largest, and hea- 
viest of all the bones of the body. 

1. Femoral. The name given to the 
external iliac artery immediately after it 
has emerged from under the crural arch ; 
and to the crural vein, or continuation of 
the popliteal. 

2. Femoraas. Another name for the 
cruraus muscle, — an extensor of the leg. 

FENESTRA ((/.ati/w, to shine). Lite- 
rally, a window ; an entry into any place. 
Hence the terms fenestra ovalis and ro- 
tunda are respectively synonymous with 
foramen ovale and rotund um, or the oval 
and round apertures of the internal ear. 
The latter of these apertures, however, 
is not round, but triangular. 

Fenestrate. Windowed; as applied to 
the incomplete dissepiment sometimes 
occurring in the siliqua of Cruciferous 
plants. 

FENU-GREC. The Tngonella fa- 
num. Grixcum.a Leguminous plant. ii)rm- 
ing an article of food in Kgypt, and em- 
ployed in this country in veterinary me- 
dicine. 

FER AZURE'. A mineral, described 
by Haiiy, containing prussic acid. 

FERMENTATION. Certain changes 
of animal or vegetable substances, re- 
duced to the moist or liquid stale by 
water. There are lour kinds: — 

1. The Saccharirw; when tlte change 
terminates in sugar, as that of starch. 

C The Panary ; as that of flour 

2 J forming bread ; — or 
■ J The Villous; as that of the grape 
* &c., forming wine; 
evolving alcohol. 

3. The Acetous; when the result is 
acetic acid, or vinegar. 

4. The Putrefactive ; generally of ani- 
mal substances, evolving ammonia. 

FERMENTUM (quasi fervimentum, 
from ferveo, to work). A ferment; a 
substance which possesses the power of 
commencine fermentation, as yeast. 

FERN, MALE SHIELD. The Ae- 



phrodium filix mas, the rhizome and 
gemmtE of which have been extolled as 
vermifuges. Batso found a peculiar acid, 
ihe acidur/ijilicum, and an alkali, j^/icina, 
in the rhizome. 

FERRUGINOUS {ferrum, iron). That 
which contains iron, or is of the nature of 
iron, as certain salts, mineral waters, &c. 

FERRU'GO. Giatis'i ferri cerugo. Rust 
of iron ; a term mostly used to express 
colours. 

FERRUM. Iron; a whitish gray me- 
tal, found in anmials, plants, and almost 
all mineral substances. By the alche- 
mists, iron was called Mars. 

1. Ferric oxide. Another name for the 
peroxide of iron. 

2. Ferro-cyanic acid. A compound of 
cyanogen, metallic iron, and hydrogen; 
also called ferruretled chyazic acid. It 
contains the elements of hydro-cyanic 
acid, but differs from it totally in its pro- 
perties. Its salts, formerly called triple 
prussiales, are now termed ferro-ci/a?iates. 
The beautiful pigment Prussian blue is a 
ierro-cyanate of the peroxide of iron. 

3. Ferrosoferric oxide. Ferri oxidum 
nigrum, the black oxide, magnetic oxide, 
or martial asthiops. It occurs in the mi- 
neral kingdom under the name of mag- 
netic iron ore, the massive form of which 
is called native loadstone. 

4. Ferrosoferric sulphate. The name 
given by Berzelius to a combination of 
the proto- and per-sulphates of iron. 

5. Ferruretled chi/azic acid. A name 
given by M. Porrett to ferro-cyanic acid. 

G. Red or peroxide of iron. Ferri ses- 
qui-oxydum, formerly called crocus mor- 
tis; found native in the crystallized state 
as specular iron, or iron glance, and in 
stalaetitic masses, as red heematite; as 
obtained by precipitation from sulphate 
of iron, it is frequently termed car/ionate, 
subcarhonate, or precipitated carbonate 
of iron; as obtained by calcining sulphate 
of iron, it is known as colcot/iar, caput 
mortunm vitrioli, trip, brown-red, rouge, 
and crocus. 

7. Ammoniacal iron. Ferri ammonio- 
chloriduni, formerly called martial flow- 
ers of sal ammoniac, ens Veneris, &c. 

8. Prussian or Berlin blue. Ferri ferro- 
sesquicyanidum, sometimes called ferro- 
prussiate of iron. 

9. Copperas. Ferri sulphas, commonly 
called ureen vitriol, sal marlis, vitriolated 
iron, &c. The Romans termed it atra- 
mentum sutorium, or shoemaker's black. 

10. Rust of iron. Ferri rubigo; a prot- 
oxide, obtained by moistening iron wire 
with water, and exposing it to the air 



FER 



148 



FIR 



until it is corroded into rust, wliicli is The term is also applied to a needle for 



then made up into small conical loaves, 
like prepared chalk. 

W. Iron filings. Ferri ramenta. Pro- 
cured by filing pure iron vviih a clean tile. 

12. Iron I'uiiwr. The name given by 
dyers to ihe acetate of iron. 

FERTILISATION {/ertilis, fertile) 



sewing up wounds. 

Fibular. [Belonging to the fibula.] 
The designation of the external popli- 
teal or peroneal nerve; of lymphatics, 
arteries, &c. 

FICATIO, or FICUS {ficus, a fig). A 
fig-like tubercle about the anus or pu- 



The function of the pollen of plants upon denda. See Si/cosis. 



the pistil, by means of which the ovules 
are converted into seeds. 

FERULA ASSAFCETIDA. The As- 
safcBiida Ferula; an Umbelliferous plant, 
yielding the assa/cetida of commerce. 
'The F. persica is also supposed to yield 
this drug. 

FERVOR {/erven, to boil). A violent 
and scorching heat. Ardor denotes an 
e.tcessive heat; color, a moderate or na- 
tural heat. Calor expresses less than fer- 
vor, and fervor less than ardor. 

FEU VOLAGE. Ulerally, flying fire; 
the French terra for ebsius volaticus of 
the earlier writers, and the erythema vo- 
laticum of Sauvages. 

[FEVER. See Fehris.] 

FIBER. An old adjective for ex/rcmi/s, 
and applied by the Latins to the Beaver 
or Pontic Dog, from its residing at the 
extremities of rivers. It yields castoreum. 

FIBRE [fibra, a filament). A filament 
or thread, of animal .vegetable, or mine- 
ral composition. 

1. Animal fibre, or the filaments which 
compose the muscular fasciculi, &c. The 
epithets cameous and tendinous are some- 
times added, to mark the distinction be- 
tween fleshy and sinewy fasciculi. 

2. Wood)/ fibre, or lignin; the fibrous 
structure of vegetable substances. 

3. Fibril. A small filament, or fibre, 
as the ultimate division of a nerve. The 
term is derived {torn fibrilla, dim. of fibra, 
a filament. 

4. Fibrin. A tough fibrous mass, which, 
together with albumen, forms the basis 
of muscle. See Blood. 

5. Fibro-cartiloge. Alerabraniform car- 
tilage. The substance, intermediate be- 
tween proper cartilage and ligament, 
which constitutes the base of the ear. 
determining the form of that pari; and 
composes the rings of the trachea, the 
epiglottis, &c. By the older anatomists 
it was termed li.<:amenlous cartilage, or 
carlilaginiform ligament. It appears to 
be merely ligament incrusted with ge- 
latin. 

FIBULA. Literally, a clasp or buckle. 
Hence, it denotes the lesser bone of the 
leg, from its being placed opposite to the 
part where the knee-buckle was attached. 



FICUS CARICA. The Common Fig. 
The fig is an aggregate fruit called a 
syconus. 

FIDGETS. Tilulmtio. A term deriv- 
ed from fidgety, probably a corruption of 
fugitive, and denoting general restless- 
ness, with adesireofchanging Ihe position. 

FIDICIJNALES {fidicen, a harper). A 
designation of the lumbricales of the 
hand, from their usel'ulness in playing 
upon musical instruments. 

FILAMENT {fdum, a thread). A 
small thread-like structure, or fibre, as 
that of a nerve, &c. Also, the thread- 
like portion of the stamen, which sup- 
ports the anther. 

FILARI.\ ifilum, a thread). A thread- 
like parasitic worm, which infests the 
cornea of the eye of the horse. 

FILICES (,filix,filicis, fern). The Fern 
Iribe of Acoiyledonous plants. Leafy 
plants, producing a rhizome; leaves sim- 
ple or variously di\iiied ; flowerless; re- 
productive organs consisling of thecw or 
semi-transparent cases appearing on the 
back or margin of the leaves. 

Filicis radix. The root of the Aspi- 
dium filix, mas, or male fern. 

FILlFORxM (.filiim, a thread, forma, 
likeness). Thread-like; applied to the 
papilliB at the edges of the tongue ; [and 
in botany, to thefilaments, and the styles 
of plants] 

FILM. The popular term for opacity 
of the cornea. See Leucuma. 

FILTRATION [filtrum, a strainer). 
The act of straining fluids through paper, 
linen, sand, &c. The strainers are termed 
fillers. 

FILTRUM. The superficial groove 
along the upper lip, from Ihe partition of 
ihe nose to the tip of the lip. 

FIMBRIA. A fringe. The fringe- 
like exiremiiy of the Fallopian tube. 

[Fimbriated. Fringed; having the mar- 
gin bordered with filiform processes.] 
' FINERY CINDER. A name given 
by Dr. Priestley to the pulverized black 
o.xide of iron. 

FINGERS. Digili. These consist of 
twelve bones, arranged in three rows, 
termed phalanges. 

FIRE-DAMP. A gas evolved in coal- 



FIS 



149 



FLO 



mines, consisling almost solely of light 
carbureticd hydrogen. See C/iuIte-Bamp. 

FISH-CiLUE. Isinglass; a glue pre 
pared Irdm different kinds of lish. See 
Ichlfiyiirtilkt. 

FlSHSKIN DISFASE. A horny con- 
dition of the skin. See Ichfhi/osix. 

[FJ SSI PA ROUS. See Gerieralior,.] 

FISSF'RA Ifnflo. to cleave). A fis- 
sure, a groove ; a fine crack in a bone. 
J 1. Fissiira Glaseri. A fissure situated 
in the deepest part of the glenoid fossa. 

2. Fissura longilitdivalis. A deep fis- 
sure observed in the median line on the 
upper surface of the brain, occupied by 
the falx cerebri of the dura mater. 

3. Fissura iSilvii. The fissure which 
separates the anterior and middle lobes 
of the cerebrum. It lodges the middle 
cerebral artery. 

4. Fissura umbiltcalis. The groove of 
the umbilical vein, situated between the 
large and small lobes, at the under and 
fore part of the liver, which, in the foetus, 
contains the umbilical vein. 

5. Fissure of the spleeri. The groove 
which divides the inner surface of the 
spleen. It is filled by vessels and fat. 

6. Fissure of Bichat. The name given 
to the transverse fissure of the brain, from 
Ihe opinion of Bichat that it was here 
that the arachnoid entered into the ven 
tricles. 

FISTULA. A pipe to carry water ; 
hence it denotes a pipe-like sore, with a 
narrow orifice, and without disposition to 
heal. 

1. Fistula in ano ; fistula penetrating 
into the cellular substance about the 
anus, or into the rectum itself Those 
cases in which the matter has made its 
escape, by one or more openings through 
the skin only, are called blind external 

JistuliF ; those in which the discharge has 
been made into the cavity of the intestine, 
without any orifice in the skin, are named 
blind internal; and those which have an 
opening both through the skin and into 
the gut, are called complete fistula'. 

2. Fistula in perinao; fistula in the 
course of the perineum, sometimes ex- 
tend mg to the urethra, bladder, vagina, 
or rectum. 

3. Fistula lacrymalis ; fistula penetrat- 
ing into the lacrymal sac. 

4. Fistula salivari/ ; fistula penetrating 
into the parotid duct, occasioned by a 
wound or ulcer. 

FIXF;D air. a name formerly given 
by chemists to Ihe air which was extri- 
cated from lime, magnesia, and alkalies, 
now called carbonic acid gas. 



FIXED BODIES. Substances which 
do not evaporate by heat, as the j'.'xerf, 
opposed to the vclnlile, oils; or non- 
melallic elements, wliich can neither be 
fused nor volatilized, as carbon, silicon, 
and Ixiron. This property of resistance 
is called fixity. 

FLA BELLI FORM {flahellum, a fan, 
forma, likeness). Fan-shaped; plaited 
like the rays of a fan. 

FLAGELLIFORM(/7o^e?ZM»j, a small 
whip). Whip-like; long, taper, and 
supple. 

FLAKE-WHITE. Oxide of bismuth, 
so called from its occurring in small 
laminte or flakes. 

FLAME (flamma). The combustion 
of an explosive mixture of inflammable 
gas, or vapour, with air. 

FLASH. A preparation used for 
colouring brandy and rum, and giving 
them a fictitious strength ; it consists (rf" 
an extract of cayenne pepper, or capsi- 
cum, with burnt sugar. 

FLATULENCE (/aius, a blast). Wind 
in the intestines. The term flatus de- 
notes the same thing. 

FLAX. A substance prepared from 
the fibrous portion of the bark of Linura 
usitatissimum. The short fibres which 
are removed in heckling constitute tou\ 
Of flax is made linen, and this, when 
scraped, constitutes lint. 

[FLAXSEED. The seeds of Linum 
usitatissimum.] 

FLEAM. An instrument for lancing 
the gums; and for bleeding horses. 

FLEXOR Ifleclo, to bend). A muscle 
which bends ihe part into which it is in- 
serted. Its antagonist is termed extensor. 

FLEXrOSE. Wavy; bending alter- 
nately inwards and outwards. 

FLINT. Silex. A mineral, consisting 
of silicious earth, nearly pure. 

Liquor of flints, or liquor silicum. A 
name formerly given to the solution of 
silic.'ited alkali. 

FLOCCl VOLITANTES. Musca Vo- 
litanies. A symptom consisting in the 
appearance of objects, such as locks of 
wool, or flies, before the eyes. 

FLOCCITATIO {floccus, a lock of 
wool). Carphohgia. Picking the bed- 
clothes, a forerunner of death. Dame 
Quickly says of Falstaff: "After I saw 
h\m fumble with the sheets, and play with 
flowers, and smile upon his fingers' ends, 
I knew there was but one way ; for his 
nose was as sharp as a pen, and 'a bab- 
bled of green fields." 

FLOCCOSE (floccus, a lock of wool). 
Covered with tufts of hair. 



FLO 



150 



FLU 



FLOCCULUS, vel lobus nervi pneumo- 
gastrici. A term applied to tlie pneuino- 
gastric lobule of the cerebellum ; its form 
is that of a small foliated or lamellated 
luft. 

FLOODLNG. Uterine lifemorrhage. 
It occurs either in the puerperal state, or 
from disease. 

FLORA (flos,Jloris, a flower). A term 
expressive of the botanical produciions 
of any particular country. 

FLORES. PI. offlos,floris. Flowers ; 
a term formerly used to denote such bo- 
dies as assume a pnlverulent form by sub- 
limation or crystallization. 

L Floret Benzoes. Flowers of Benja- 
min, or benzoic acid. 

2. Flores Salis Ammoniaci. Flowers 
of sal-ammonia, or the sub-carbonate of 
ammonia. 

3. Flores Su!phuris. Flowers of sul- 
phur; or sublimed sulphur. 

4. Flores Martiales. Ammoniated Iron; 
formerly ens Veneris, flowers ofsleel, &c. 

5. Flores Zinci. Flowersof zinc; oxide 
of zinc, or philosophical wool. 

6. Flores Bismulhi. Flowers of bis- 
muth; a yellowish oxide of bismuth. 

FLORET. Diminutive of Jloiver; a 
term applied to the small flowers which 
compose the rapitula, or flower-heads, of 
the Compoulce. They are sometimes 
called _^oscuZes, a diminutive of the Latin 
flores. 

FLOUR OF MUSTARD. The seeds 
of mustard, dried, powdered, and sifted. 

FLU ATE. A compound of fluoric acid 
vvilh a salifiable base. 

FLUCTUATION {flucluo, to rise in 
waves). The perceptible motion com- 
municated to pus or other fluids by pres- 
sure or percussion. The possession of 
the (actus erudilus constitutes the practi- 
tioner's skill in ascertaining the presence 
of fluids in parts. 

Fluctuation, superficial (peripherique). 
A new mode of detecting abdominal effu- 
eions, described by M. Tarral. 

FLUIDITY ifluo. to flow). The stale 
of bodies when their parts are very rea- 
dily movable in all directions with re- 
spect to each other. There is a partial 
fluidity, in which the particles are con- 
densed or thickened into a coherent 
though tremulous mass. Jellies are of this 
kind, and may be considered as holding 
a middle place between liquids and 
solids. 

FLUID OF COTUNiMUS. A thin 
gelatinous fluid, found in the bony cavi- 
ties of the labyrinth of the ear; so called 
from the name of the anatomist who first 



distinctly described it. It has been also 
called aqua lahyrinlhi ; and, by Breschet, 
the periu/mph. 

FLUIDS. Substances which have the 
quality of fluidity, and are, in conse- 
quence, of no fixed shape. They are di- 
vided into the gaseous and the liquid, — 
otherwise expressed by the terms elastic 
and inelastic fluids. 

FLUKE. The Fasciola hepatica ; an 
intestinal worm. See Vermes. 

FLUORALBUS. Literally, white * 
discharge; another name lor leueorrhoea. 

FLUOR SPAR (so called from its as- 
sisting the fusion of earthy minerals in 
metallurgic operations). Derbyshire spar ; 
properly, ^uori<fe of calcium. 

1. Fluoric Acid. An acid obtained by 
treating fluor spar with sulphuric acid. 
Owing to its destructive properties, it has 
been termed phthore, from (pddptoi, de- 
structive. 

2. Fluorine. A substance occurring 
chiefly in fluor spar, in a state of com- 
bination with lime; it is the imaginary 
radical of fluoric acid. [Drs. Will and 
Fresonius have detected it in the ashes 
of plants; it exists in all the cereals, in 
the bones of all recent animals thus far 
examined, and also in fossil bones.] 

3. FLuo-horic Acid. A gas produced by 
the decomposition of fluor spar, by vitri- 
fied boracic acid. 

4. Fluo-chromic Arid. A gaseous com- 
pound, formed by distilling a mixture of 
fluor spar and chromale of lead in fuming, 
or in common sulphuric acid. 

5. Fluo-silicic Acid. A colourless gas, 
produced by the action of hydro-fluoric t 
acid on glass. It combines with water, 
producing silico-hydrojluoric acid. 

6. Fluo-silicates. Double salts, con- 
sisting of two proportionals of hydrofluate 
of silica, and one proportional of a hydro- 
fluate of some other base. 

7. Fluo-tanlalic Acid. An acid pre- 
pared by treating the metal tantalum 
with fluoric acid. 

8. Fluo-litanic Acid. An acid consist- ' 
ing of a compound of the fluoric and 
titanic acids. 

FLUX ifluo, to flow). A discharge ; 
another term for diarrhoea. Bloody flux 
is svnonvmous with dysentery. 

FLUX, CHEMICAL (fluo, to flow). A 
substance or mixture frequently employ- 
ed to assist ihe fusion ot minerals. Al- 
kaline fluxes are generally used, which 
render the earthy mixtures fusible by 
convertiii'.; them into glass. 

1. Crude flux. A mixture of nitre and 
crystals of tartar. 



FLU 



151 



FOR 



2. Black flux. A carbonaceous mix- 
ture, procured by heating cream of tar- 
tar alone. 

3. Vt'/iile flux. White carbonate of 
potassa, prepared by deflagrating cream 
of tartar with two parts of nilre. 

4. Cornish Reducing Flux. A mixture 
of ten ounces of tartar, three and a half 
ounces of nilre, and three ounces and a 
drachm of borax. 

5. Cornish Refining Flux. Two parts 
of nitre, and one part of tartar, defla- 
grated, and then pounded. 

FLUXION {fluo, to flow). Fluxion de 
poiirine. Another name for catarrh. 

FLUXUS CAPILLORUM. A term 
applied by Celsus to Alopecia, or the 
falling off of the hair. Parts entirely de- 
prived of hair were called by him arecB ; 
by Sauvages this aifection was termed 
alopecia areata ; and by Willan porrigo 
decalvans. When universal, it is desig- 
nated, in French, la pelade. 

FLY POWDER. See Arsenicum. 

Fly Water. A solution of arsenic. 

FCENICULUM VULGARC. Common 
Fennel ; a European, Umbelliferous plant, 
the fruit of which is incorrectly called wild 
fennel seed. 

Fceniculum duke. A species or cul- 
tivated variety, which yields the sweet 
fennel seeds employed in medicine. 

FCETICIDE {fuelits, and ctedo, to kill). 
The destruction of the frelus in utero, 
commonly called criminal abortion 

FtE'I'OR (fwieo, to stink). A strong 
ofTensive smell. 

FCETUS. The young of any animal 
The child in iltero, after the fourth 
month. At an earlier period, it is com 
monly called the embryo. The term 
fatus is also applied adjectively to ani- 
mals which are pregnant. 

[FOLL\CEOUS (folia, a leaf). Leaf- 
like.] 

FOLIA CEREBELLI [folium, any 
sort of leaf). An assemblage of gray 
laminaj. observed on the surface of the 
cerebellum. 

FOLl ATIOJM (folium, a leaf). Verna- 
tion. The manner in which the young 
leaves are arranged within the leaf-bud 

FOLLICLE (dim. of folds, a pair of 
bellows). Literally, a little bag, or scrip 
of leather; in anatomy, a very minute 
secretins cavity. 

1. Fullicles of Licherkuhn. Micro 
scopic foramina, depressions, or smal 
pouches of the mucous membrane of the 
small intestine, so numerous that, when 



2. Sebaceous Follicles. Small cavities, 
situated in the skin, which supply the 
cuticle with an oily or sebaceous fluid, by 
minute ducts opening upon the surface. 

3. Mucous Follicles. These are situ- 
ated in the mucous membranes, chiefly 
that oithe intestines. See Gland. 

4. Follicle in Plants. A one-celled, 
one-valved superior fruit, dehiscent, along 
its face, as in Paeonia. The term double 
follicle is applied by Mirbel to the con- 
ceplaculum of other writers, and consists 
of a two-celled, superior fruit, separating 
into two portions, the seeds of which do 
not adhere to marginal placenlfe, as in 
the follicle, but separate from their pla- 
centiB, and lie loose in each cell, as in 
Asclepias. 

FOMENTATION (foveo, to keep 
warm). The application of flannel, wet 
with warm water, or some medicinal 
concoction. 

FOMES. PI. Fomiles. Literally, fuel. 
This term is generally applied to sub- 
stances imbued with contagion. 

Fomes venlricuii. Hypochondriasis. 

FONTANELLA (dim. offons. a foun- 
tain). Bregma. Tlie spaces left in the 
head of an infant, where the frontal and 
occipital bones join the parietal. It is 
also called fons pulsatilis, and commonly 
mould. 

FONTICULUS (dim. of /wis, a foun- 
tainl. A little fountain; an issue. 

FOOT. Pes. The organ of locomo- 
tion, consisting ol' the tarsus, the meta- 
tarsus, and the phalanges. 

FORA'MEN (foro, to pierce). An 
opening. A passage observed at the 
apex of the ovule in plants, and com- 
prising both the exostorne and the endos- 
tome. 

1 . Foramen of Monro. Foramen com- 
mune anterius. An opening under the 
arch of the fornix, by which the lateral 
ventricles communicate with each other, 
with the third ventricle, and with the 
infundibulum. 

2. Foramen of Soemmering. Foramen 
centrale. A circular foramen at the pos- 
terior part of the retina, exactly in the 
axis of vision. 

3. Foramen ovale. An oval opening 
situated in the partition which separates 
the right and lelt auricles, in the tirius; 
it is also called the foramen of Botal. 
This term is also applied lo an oval aper- 
ture communicating between the tympa- 
num and the vestibule of the ear. 

4. Foramen rotundum. The round, or. 



sufficiently magnified, they give to the more correctly, triangular aperture of the 
membrane the appearance of a sieve. j internal ear. This, and the preceding 



FOR 



152 



FOU 



terra, are, respectively, synonymous wiih motiihs of arteries, &c. Celsiis uses the 
fenestra nvalis and rotiDiffa. won! fur/ex for a pair of pincers lor ihe 



5. Foramen cwciim. The hlind hole at 
the root of the spine of the fron!;il bone, 
so called from its not perforating the 
bone, or leading to any cavity. Also, 
the designation of a little sulcus, situated 
between tlie corpora pyramidalia and the 
pons Varolii. 

6. Foramen cceciim of Morgagni. A 
deep mucous follicle situated at the 
meeting of the papillce circuravallatffi 
upon the middle of the root of the 
tongue 



eMraciion of teeth. 

FORMICA. Literally, an ant. A 
term ajiplied by the Arabians to Herpes, 
from its creeping progress. 

1. Formication. A sensation of creep- 
ing in a limb, or in the surface of Ihe 
body, occasioned by pressure or affectioa 
of a nerve. 

2. Formic Acid. An acid extracted 
from red ants. Its salts are called for- 
miales. 

3. Formtil. A hypothetical radical of 



7. Foramen nupra-orhitarinm. The a series of compoimds, one of which is 



upper orbitary hole, situated on the 
ridge over which the eyebrow is placed. 

8. Foramen magnum occipitis. The 
great opening at the under and fore part 
of the occipital bone. 

9. Foramen incisivum. The opening 
immediately behind the incisor teeth. 

10. Foramina Thebesii. Minute pore- 
like openings, by which the venous blood 
exhales directly from the muscular struc- 
ture of the heart into the auricle, without 
entering the venous current. They were 
originally described by Thebesius. 

11. Foramen Vesalii. An indistinct 
hole, situated between the foramen ro- 
tundum, and foramen ovale of the sphe- 
noid bone, particularly pointed oat by 
Vesaliiis. 

12. Foramen of Winslow. An aperture 
situated behind the capsule of Glisson, 
first described by Winslow, and forming 
a communication between the large sac 
of the omentum, and the cavity of the 
abdomen. 

13. This term is also applied to nume- 
rous little holes {cribrosa foramina) of 
the cribriform plate; to several openings 
— the round, the oval, the spinal — of the 
sphenoid bones; to certain holes — the 
mastoid, the sti/lo-inasto'id, the videan, 
the glenoid — of the temporal bones; to 
the opening (malar) through which the 
malar nerve passes; to the opening (jn/ra- 
orbilar) for the passage of nerves to the 
face ; to the groove (palalo-maxilUiry). 
through which the palatine nerve and 
vessels proceed to the palate; to another 
opening {the palatine) which transmits 
branches of the same to the soft palate; 
and to two openings at the base of Ihe 
cranium, called, respectively, the anterior 
and posterior lacerated foramen. 

FORCEPS (quasi ferriceps, from fer 
rum, iron, capio, to lake). A pair of 
tongs, or pincers; an instrument for ex- 
tracting the fcElus. The artery or dis- 
secting forceps is used for taking up the 



formic acid. 

FORMULA (dim. of forma, a form). 
A prescription; the mode of preparing 
medicines used in the pharmacop<Biaa 
and in extemporaneous practice. 

[Formulary. A collection of formulse.] 

FORiXLX. Literally, an arched vault. 
A triangular lamina of white substance, 
extending into each lateral ventricle, and 
terminating in two crura, which arch 
downwards to the base of the brain. 

FOSSA ifodio, to dig). A ditch or 
trench; a liitle depression, or sinus. 

1. Fossa hi/alo'idea (I'loXof, glass, e76os, 
likeness). The cup-like excavation of 
the vitreous humour in which the crys- 
talline lens is embedded. 

2. Fossa innominnla. The space be- 
tween the helix and the aniihelix. 

3. Fo.'isa lacrymalis (lacryma, a tear), 
A depression in the frontal bone for the 
reception of the lacrymnl gland. 

4. Fossa navicularis (navicula, a little 
boat). The superficial depression which 
separates the two roots of the aniihelix. 
Also the dilatation towards the extremity 
of the spongy portion of the urethra. 
Also, the name of a small cavity imme- 
diately within the fourchelte. 

5. Fossa ovalis. The oval depression 
presented by the septum of the right 
auricle. 

6. Fossa pituitaria (pituita, phlegm). 
The sella turcica, or cavity in the sphe- 
noid bone for receiving the pituitary 
body. 

■7. Fossa scapholdes (aKaipn, a little boat, 
nt'of, likeness). A term synonymous with 
fossa na vie u la r is. 

8. Fossa Sylvii. A designation of the 
fifth ventricle of Ihe brain. 

FOSSIL ifodio, to dig). Any thing 
dug out of the earth. The term is now 
applied to the remains of animal or vege- 
table substances found embedded in the 
strata of the earth. 

FOURCHETTE (a fork). Franum 



FOU 



153 



FRE 



labiorum. The name of the thin com- 
missure, by which the labia majora of 
the pudendum unite together. 

FOUR-TAILED BAxNDAGE. A ban- 
dage for tiie forehead, face, and jaws. 
The terms head and tail are used syiio- 
nymously by writers ; hence, this ban- 
dage is sometimes called the sling with 
Jour heads. 

FOUSEL OIL. Oil of grain-spirils or 
potatoes. An oil produced in the fer- 
mentation of unmalted grain and pota- 
toes. It is also called hydrate of oxide 
of amyl. 

FOVILLA. A viscous liquor contained 
in the vesicles which compose the pollen 
of plants. 

FOWLER'S SOLUTION. A solution 
of the arsenite of potassa, coloured and 
flavoured by the compound spirit of la- 
vender, one fluid drachm of which con- 
tains half a grain of arsenioics acid. It 
was introduced into practice by Dr. Fow 
ler of Siaffurd, as a subsiituie for the 
empirical remedy known by the name of 
"The Tasteless Ague Drop." 

Soliitio Soivenlis Mineralis. The name 
of anoiher preparation of this kind, in 
troduced by the late Dr. Valangin; it is 
kept at Apothecaries' Hall, and is equally 
efficacious. — Bateman 

FOXGLOVE. The common name of 
the Digitalis purpurea, probably derived 
from the faiicitul resemblance of i:s flow 
ers 10 tinger-cases, — quasi folks' glove. 



or the lower commissure of the labia pu- 
dendi. 

4. Frcenvm lingucB. A fold formed at 
the under surface of the tongue, by ihe 
mucous membrane lining the mouih. 
Infants are said to be tongue-lied when 
the frsenum is very short, or continued 
too far forward. 

5. Franum praputii. A triangular fold, 
conneciing the prepuce with the under 
part of the glans penis. 

6. Frcenum of the under lip. A fold 
of the mucous membrane of the mouth, 
formed opposite to the symphysis of the 

FRAGILITAS OSSIUM. Fragile vi- 
treum. A morbid brittleness of the bones. 
See Mollifies Ossium. 

FRAGMENT {frango, to break). A 
piece of a ihing broken. A splinter or 
detached portion of a fractured bone. 

FRAMBCESIA {framboise, French, a 
raspberry). A Latinized form of the 
French term for raspberry, applied to the 
disease called Yaws, which signifies the 
same in Africa; it is termed Sibbens {a. 
corruption of the Gaelic Sivvens, wild 
rash) in Scotland ; and proved by Dr. 
Hibbert lo be the same as the Great 
Gore, Pox, or Morbus Galliciis, of the 
fifteenth century. It consists of imper- 
fectly suppurating tumours, gradually in- 
creasing lo the size of a raspberry, with a 
fungous core. 

1. Master, or Mother-yaw, termed 



FR.\CTURE {frango, to break). A Mama-pian by the Negroes; the desigiia- 
solution of continuity of one or more tion of the largest tumour. 



bones. It is termed transverse, lougitu 
dinal, or oblique, according to its direc- 
tion in regard to the axis of the bone. 
Fractures are distinguished as — 

\. Simple; when the bone only is di- 
vided, without external wound. 

2. Compound; the same sort of injury, 
with laceration of the integuments. 

3. Comminuted ; when the bone is 
broken into several pieces 

4. Complicated; when attended with 
diseases or accidents, as contusion, &c. 

FRCENUM {J'rcBno, to curb a horse) 
A bridle; a part which performs the of- 
fice of a check or curb. 

1. Frcena epiglottidis. Three folds of 
mucous membrane which unite the 
epiglottis to the os hyoides and the 
tongue 

2. Frcena of the valvule of Bauhin. 
The name given by Morgngni to the 
rugffi,or lines observed at the extremities 
of the lips of the valvule of Bauhin, or 
ileo-colic valve. 

3. Frcenum labiorum. The fourchelte, 



2. Crab-yaws. Tedious excrescences 
which occA on the soles of the feet, 
called tuhba in the West Indies. 

FRANGIPAN. An extract of milk, 
for preparing artificial milk, made by 
evaporating skimmed milk to dryness, 
mi.xed vviih almonds and sugar. 

FRANKINCENSE. Formerly Oliba- 
num, a gum-resin of the JuniperusLycia; 
but now the Abietis resina, or Resin of 
the Spruce Fir. 

FRASERA WALTERL The Ameri- 
can Calumba, a plant of ihe order Gen- 
tianaceff-, with the properties of gentian. 
From lis having been sold in France as 
calumba. it was called false calumba. 

FRAXINUS ORNUS. The flowering 
Ash, or Manna tree; an Oleaceous plant, 
which yields manna. 

FRECKLES. The little yellow lenti- 
gines which appear on persons of fair 
skin; sun-burn, Arc. See Ephelis. 

FREEZING-POINT. The degree of 
temperature at which water is changed 
into ice, or 32° Fahr. 



F RE 



154 



FUL 



[FREMISSEMKNT CATAIRE. A 

peculiar ihrillorirenior, perceived by the 
linger when applied lo llie heart or arteries 
where it exists, resembling thai comnin- 
nicated to the hand by the purring of a 
cat. See Auscultation.] 

[FREMITUS. Vibration. In physical 
diagnosis, the vibration coramunicated to 
the hand under certain cir'jumstaiiees, 
when it is applied to the chest, &c. 
Thoracic frenuius may be produced by 
speaking [vocal); by coughing [tussive); 
by the bubbling of air through fluids in 
the lung, [rhoncal) ; by the collision and 
rubbing together of plastic matter exuded 
upon the pleural surfaces [rubbing) ; and 
by pulsation of the lung [pulsatile].] 

FRE-\CH BliRRlES. The fruit of 
several species of Rliamnus, called by 
the French Graines d' Avignon ; they 
yield a yellow colour. 

FREiNCH POLISH. Gum lac dis- 
solved in spirits of wine. 

FRENCH RED, or ROUGE. Genuine 
carmine, one ounr-e, mixed with line 
sifted starch powder, according to the 
shade required. 

FRENCH WHITE. The common de- 
signation of finely pulverized talc. 

FRIABILITY [frio, to crumble). The 
property by which a substance is capa- 
ble of being crumbled and reduced to 
powder. 

FRIARS' BALSAM. The Tinclura 
benzoes comp., Ibrmerly balsamum trau- 
maticum. 

FRICTION [frico, to rub). The act 
of rubbing the surface of the body with 
the hand, a brush, or lineii It is per- 
formed either in the dry way, or with 
ointments, liniments, &c. 

FRIESLAND GREEN. Brunswick 
green; an ammoniaco-muriate of copper. 

FRIGIDARIUM (frigidus, cold). The 
cold bath. See Bath. 

FRIGORIFIC [frigus, coldness). Hav- 
ing the quality of producing extreme 
cold, or ol converting liquids into ice, as 
applied to certain chemical mixtures. 

FRIGUS (frigeo, to- be cold, from 
(ppiaao), to have an ague fit). Cold; 
trembling with cold. This term differs 
from algor, which denotes a starving with 
cold, and is derived from aAyoj, pain, be- 
cause cold causes pain. 

FRITT. The mass produced by the 
materials of glass, on calcination. 

FROND [frons, a branch). A term 
applied to the leaves of Ferns, and other 
Cryptogamic plants, from their partaking 
at once of the nature of a leaf and 
branch. 



FRONS, FRONTIS. The forehead; 
that part of the face extending from the 
roots ot the hair to the eyebrows. See 
Facie.t and Vnllus. 

FROSr-BlTE. A state of numbness, 
or torpefaction of any part of the body, 
Ibllowed, unless relieved, by the death 
of the part, li occurs in the nose and 
ears in cold climates. 

FRUCTUS [fruor, to enjoy). Fruit; 
a term denoting, in botany, the ovary or 
pistil arrived at maturity. 

FRUMENTUM. All kinds of corn 
or grain for making bread. 

FRUSTUM. A piece or morsel of 
any thing. It differs from fragmentum, 
which is a piece broken, and from seg- 
mcntiim, which is a piece cut off. 

FRUTEX. A shrub; a plant, of which 
the branches are perennial, proceeding 
directly from the surface of the earth 
without any supporting trunk. When 
very small, the plant is termed Jruticulus, 
or little shrub. 

FUCUS VESICULOSUS. A sea-weed, 
termed vernacularly bladder-icrack, first 
described by Clusius, under the name of 
quercus marina. Burnt in the open air, 
;ind reduced to a black powder, it forms 
the ve;ielable cetliiopft,^ species of charcoal. 

[FUGACIOUS [fugax). Fading or 
perishing quickly.] 

FULI'GO. Soot or smoke. Wood- 
soot, or fuligo ligni, is the condensed 
smoke of burning wood, used as a species 
of charcoal. 

Fuliginous. The name of vapours 
which possess the property of smoke. 

[FULIGOKALI [fuligo, soot, kali, 
poiassa). A remedy for chronic cuta- 
neous diseases, prepared by boiling one 
hundred parts of soot and twenty parts 
of potassa, in water, then filtering and 
evaporating the solution. A sulphuretted 
fuligocali is jirepared by dissolving four- 
teen parts of potassa, and five of sulphur, 
in water, then adding sixty parts of fuli- 
gocali, evaporating and drying the resi- 
duum.] 

FULLERS' EARTH. A variety of 
clay, containing about 25 per cent, of 
alumina, and so named from its being 
used by fullers to remove the grease 
from cloth before the soap is applied. 

FULMINATING MIXTURE (/mZ- 
mino, to thunder). A term applied to 
certain mixtures which detonate by heat 
or friction. 

1. Fulminating gold. A deep olive- 
coloured powder prepared by keeping 
recently precipitated peroxide of gold in 
strong ammonia for about a day. 



FUL 



155 



FUN 



2. Fulminativg Mercury. A powder 
obtained by dissolving mercury in nitric 
acid, and pouring the solution into alco- 
hol. It is employed for making percus- 
sion caps. 

3. Fulminating silver. A black pow- 
der prepared by leaving oxide of silver 
lor ten or twelve hours in contact with a 
strong solution of ammonia. 

4. Fulmijiating ammoniuret of silver. 
A combination of oxide of silver and 
ammonia, of violently explosive charac- 
ter. 

5. Fulminating platinum. A substance 
prepared by the action of ammonia on a 
solution of sulphate of platinum. 

6. Fidmiiialivg powder. A mixture of 
three parts of chlorate of potass, and one 
of sulphur; or three parts of nitre, two 
ol'carbonate of potass, and one of sulphur, 
in powder. 

FULMINATION [fulmen, a thunder- 
bolt). The explosion which takes place 
in chemical bodies by friction or heat. 

FULMINIC ACID. A compound of 
cyanogen, which explodes when heated, 
rubbed, or struck. It is said to differ 
from cyanic acid in the ratio of its ele- 
ments, and in containing hydrogen. 

[FUMARIA OFFICINALIS. Fumi- 
tory. An European, Papaveraceous plant. 



FUNCTION (fuiigor, to discharge an 
oflice). The office of an organ in the 
animal or vegetable economy, as of the 
heart in circulation, of the leal in respi- 
ration, &c. 

1. Vital functions. Functions imme- 
diately necessary to life ; viz. those of 
the brain, the heart, the lungs, die. ; 
whence these have been called the tri- 
pod of life. 

2. Natural functions. Functions less 
instantly necessary to life ; as digestion, 
absorption, assimilation ; reabsorption, 
expulsion, &c. 

3. Animal functions. Functions of re- 
lation to the external world ; as the senses, 
the voluntary motions. 

4. Rejlex function. A term applied by 
Dr. M. Hall to that action of the muscles 
which arises from a stimulus, acting 
through the medium of their nerves and 
the spinal marrow: thus the larynx closes 
on the contact of carbonic acid, the pha- 
rynx on that of food, the sphincter ani on 
that of the faeces, <fec. 

[FUNDUS. In anatomy, the bottom 
of any of the viscera.] 

FUNGI. The Mushroom tribe of Cel- 
lular or Aeotyledonous plants. Plants 
consisting of a congeries of cellules, 
chiefly growing upon decayed substances. 



formerly much esteemed as a remedy in SporuZes lying either loose among the 
visceral obstructions and eruptive (lis- tissue, or enclosed in membranous cases 
eases. The expressed juice and a de- called sporidia. 



coction of the leaves are employed.] 



1. Fungic acid. An acid procured 



FUMARIC ACID. A monobasic acid, from several species oi fungus, by ex- 



produced by heating malic acid, and also 
existing in fumitory, and in Iceland moss. 
FUMIGATION (fumigo, to perfume). 
The use of fumes, chiefly chlorine, nitric 
acid, or vinegar, for the removal of efflu 



pressing their juice, boiling it, forming 
an extract, and treating it with alcohol. 

2. Fmigin, A whitish substaiice form- 
ing the base of fungi. 

FUNGIFORM {fungus, a mushroom, 



via or miasmata. Also, the application l/orma, likeness). Fungus-like; a term 



of fumes, as of water to the throat, of 
mercury or sulphur to sores, &c. 

FUMING LIQUOR {fumus, smoke). 
A chemical mixture, which emits fumes 
or vapour on exposure to the air. 

1. Boyle's fuming liquor. The proto- 
sulpliuret of ammonium; a volatile liquid, 
formerly called hepar sulphuris volatilis, 
&c. The vapour is decomposed by oxy- 
gen, producing fumes. 

2. Cadet's fuming liq^uor. A liquid 
obtained by the dry distillation of equal 
weights of acetate of potash and arsenious 
acid. It is remarkable for its insupporta- 
ble odour and spontaneous inflammability 
in air. It is also called alcarsin. 

3. Lihavius's fuming liquor. The an- 
hydrous bi-chloride of tin; a colourless, 
limpid liquid, which fumes strongly in 
humid air. 



applied to the papillas near the edges of 
the tongue. Having a rounded convex 
head, like that of a mushroom. 

FUNGUS. A mushroom. A morbid 
growth of granulations in ulcers, com- 
monly termed proud flesh. Granulations 
are often called fungous when they are 
too high, large, flabby, and unhealthy. 

Fu7igus Hamatodes (atixaTcoSrig, bloody). 
Bleeding fungus; Soft Cancer; Medul- 
lary Sarcoma ; Spongoid Inflammation, 
&c. In England, it is a form of ence- 
phalosis ; in France, noevus, morbid erec- 
tile tissue, &c. 

FUNICULUS (dim. of funis, a thick 
rope). A term applied to the spermatic 
cord, consisting of the spermatic artery 
and vein, &c. 

FUNIS UMBILICALIS. The umbi- 
lical cord ; the means of communication 



FUR 



156 



GAL 



between the fetus and the placenta. Its 
lenglh is almost two feet. 

FURFUR, FURFURIS. Bran. A 
desquamation of the cuticle. 



parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, and 3 of tin ; 
it melts below the temperature at which 
water boils. 

Rose's Fusible Alloy. An alloy con- 



1. Furfur triiici. Bran. Pants /ur- |sisting of 2 parts by weight of bismuth, 



furaceus, brown or bran bread. 

2. Fur/uraceous. Branny, or scaly; a 
term applied to a deposit in the urine, 
which is .said to consist of the phosphates 
of that fluid. 

FURNACE ifurmis). A fire-place 
employed for pharmaceutical operations, 
as fusion, distillation, sublimation, the 



with 1 of lead and 1 of tin. 

FUSIFORM {fusus, a spindle, forma, 
likeness). Spindle-shaped ; thickest at 
the middle and tapering to both ends; a 
term applied to certain roots. 

FUSION (/u^HS, melted, from fmido, 
to pour out). The state of melting. 
Substances which admit of beina; fused 



oxidisement, and the deoxidisement, or | are termed /(/.'(A/e, but those which resist 
reduction, of metals. Furnaces have the action of fire are termed refractory. 
accordingly been termed Fusion differs from liqueliiction in being 

1. Evaparatory, when employed to re- applied chiefly to metals and other sub- 
duce substances into vapour by heat. stances which melt at a high tempera- 

2. Reverberator y, when so constructed lure. 

as to prevent tiie tlame from rising. 1. Aqueous fusion. The soluiion of 

3. Forge, when the current of air is salts which contain water of crvstalliza- 



determined by bellows. 

FUROR UTERLNUS. Uterine mad- 
ness; another term for nvmphomania. 

FURUNCULUS {fu'o, to rage). A 
boil, so named from iis violent inflamma- 
tion. 

FUSELOL. An oily liquor obtained 
from alcohol, also termed oil of grain, 
corn-spirit oil, potato-spirit oil, and hypo- 
thetically, hydrate of amule. 

FUSIBILITY (/«s«.s, mglledor poured 
out). The properly by which bodies as- 
sume the fluid slate oii the application of 
heat. 

FUSIBLE CALCULUS. A variety 
of urinary concretion, consisting of the 
mixed phosphates of magnesia and am- 
monia, and of lime. 

FUSIBLE METAL. An alloy of 8 



lion on exposure to increased tempera- 
ture. 

2. Dry fusion. The liquefaction pro- 
duced by heat after the water has been 
expelled. 

3. Igneous fusion. The melting of an- 
hydrous salts by heat without undergoing 
any decomposition. 

FUSTICK, or YELLOW WOOD. The 
wood of the Morns linctoria, an Urtica- 
ceoiis plant, which yields much yellow 
colouring matter, which is very perma- 
nent. 

Young fustick, or fuslet. The wood of 
the Rhus Colinus, the arbre d perrmjue, 
or wig-tree of the French, and Venetian 
Sumach of the English; an Anacardia- 
ceous plant, which yields a fine yellow 
colour, but not durable. 



G 



GADOLLXITE. The name of a mine- 
ral, so called from the Swedish chemist 
Gadolin, who discovered in it the earth 
yllria. 

GALACTIA (yaXa, milk). Mislacta- 
tion ; a morbid flow or deficiency of milk ; 
the former affection has been termed 
galaclirrkcea. or milk-flux. 

GALACTIC ACID (y,iXa, milk). Lac- 
tic acid. The aiid of milk, supposed to 
be merely animalized acetic acid. 

GALACTIN (ydXa, yAXaKro;, milk). 
A substance which constitutes the prin- 
cipal ingredient in the sap of the Gulac- 
todeudron utile, or Cow Tree of South 
America, used as a substitute for cream. 



GALACTOPHOROUS {ydXa, yuXa/crOf, 
milk, ipcpbi, to carry). Lactifi?rous, or 
milk-conveying, as applied to the duels 
of the mammary glands. 

GAL.ANGA MAJOR. Radix Galanga. 
The pungent aromatic rhizome of the 
Alpinia Galanga, a plant of the order 
Zingiberacece, forming a substitute for 
ginger. 

GALBANUM. A gum-resin; the se- 
creted juice of the Galbanum Officinale, 
an Umbelliferous plant. It occurs in tear 
and in lump. 

GALBULUS. A kind of cone, differ- 
ing from the strobile only in being round, 
and having the heads of the carpels much 



GAL 



157 



GAM 



enlarged. The fruit of the Juniper is a 
galbulus. 

GALKA. Literally, a helmet. The 
name of the arched upper lip of I ho 
corolla of several labiate plants, as La- 
mium, &c. 

Galeale Archeil like a helmet ; as ap- 
plied Id the lip of some labiate corollas. 

[GALbLGA OFFIChNALIS. Goat's 
rue. An European, Leguminous plant, 
formerly employed as a remedy in malig- 
nant fevers, bites of snakes, &c., but now 
not used. 

[Galega Virginiana. Virginia goal's 
rue. An indigenous species, Ihe root of 
which is said to be diaphoretic and pow 
crfully anthelmintic. It is given in de- 
coction.] 

GALEN'S BANDAGE. A term some- 
times apjilied to the Jour-tailed bandage, 
or single splil-dotk. 

GALE'NA. Lead-glance; the native 
sulphuret of lead. 

GALIPEA CUSPARLA. A Rutaceous 
plant, said by Humboldt to produce An- 
gostura bark, a sub.stance assigned by 
Dr. Hancock to ihe Galipea Officinalis. 

G.ALIPOT. Barras. A white resin, 
derived from the Pinus pinaster, or clus- 
ter pine. 

[GALIUM APARINE. Cleavers; 
Goosegrass. A Rubiaceous plant common 
in Europe and the United Slates, the ex 
pressed juice of which is said to be ape- 
rient, diuretic, and antiscorbutic. The 
dose is 3i'j- 'wice a day. 

[G. verum. Yellow Lady's Bed-Straw; 
Cheese-rennet. An European species 
formerly esteemed as a remedy in epi 
lepsy and hy.steria. It is used to colour 
cheese yellow. 

[G. Tinctorium. An American species, 
closely allied in properties to the preced- 
ing. It is employed by the Indians for 
staining their ornaments red.] 

GALL-BLADDER. Ci/stisfellea. A 
membranous reservoir, lodged in a fissure 
on the under surface of the right lobe of 
the liver, and containing the bile. 

1. Gall-ducts. These are the cystic, 
proceeding from the gall-bladder; the 
hepatic, proceeding from the liver; and 
the ductus communis choledochus, result- 
ing from the union of the two preceding. 

2. Gall-stones. Biliary concretions found 
in the gall-bladder; [and sometimes in 
the liver and hepatic and choledoch 
ducts;] viz. 

1. Calculi composed of cholesierine, 
nearly in a state of purity. 

2. Mellilic calculi, so named from their 
likeness to honey, in colour. 

10 



3. Calculi entirely composed o{ inspis- 
sated bile. 

GALL-SICKNESS. A popular name 
for the \V'ak,heren fever, which proved 
so fatal to the English in the year 1809, 
and is attended with a vomiting of bile. 

GALL.^. Galls, gall-nuts, or oak-galls; 
e.xcrescenccs of the Quercus infecloria , 
and other species of the oak, produced 
by the nidus, or nest, of the hymenopte- 
rous insect, ci/nips quercifolii. 

GALLIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from gall-nuts, but principally by decom- 
position of tannic acid. 

GALLI'N/E igallus, a cock). Galli- 
naceou.s birds, so named from their affi- 
nity to the domestic cock. 

GALVANIC MOXA. A term applied 
by Fabrc-Pulaprat to the employment 
of voltaic electricity, as a therapeutical 
agent, fiir producing the cauterizing ef- 
fects of the moxa. 

GALVANISM. A form of electricity 
named after Gahani, and usually elicited 
by the mutual action of various metals 
and chemical agents upon each other. 
The additional discoveries of Volta led 
to the term Voltaism, or Voltaic Elec- 
Iririti/ ; and its effects on the muscles of 
animals newly killed, suggested the term 
Animal Electricity. 

1. Galvanic Battery, or Trough. An 
apparatus for accumulating Galvanism, 
consisting of (ilates of zinc and copper 
fastened together, and cemented into a 
wooden or earthenware trough, so as to 
form a number of cells; the trough is 
then filled with diluted acid. 

[2. Galvanic Pile. See Pile.l 

3. Galvano-meter (fii-pov, a measure). 
An instrument which indicates the fee- 
blest polarization of the magnetic needle, 
or slightest current in the connecting 
wire of a voltaic circle. 

4. Guhano-scope (ckokcco, to examine). 
An instrument by means of which the 
existence and direction of an electric cur- 
rent may be detected. A magnetic nee- 
dle is a galvanoscope. 

GAMBIR. The Malay name of an as- 
tringent extract, procured from the Un- 
caria gambir. The substance commonly 
called square catechu, and by tanners 
terra japonica, is the produce of this 
plant, and is therefore not catechu, but 
gambir. 

GAMBOGE. A gum-resin, .said to be 
produced by a species of Hebradendron, 
a Gutliferous plant. 

1. Gambogic acid. An acid procured 
by evaporating to dryness the ethereal 
tincture of the pure gum-resin. 



GAM 



158 



GAR 



2. American Gamhn^e. A seorelion 
similar to gamboge, yielded by several 
species of \'ismia. 

GAMOPETALOUS {yaficoy, to marry, 
TriraKov, a petal). A term applied to n 
corolla which consists of cohering jn-lah, 
and which is incorrectly termed mono- 
pelalous. 

Gamo-sepalous. A term applied to a 
calyx which consists of cohering sepals, 
and which is incorrectly termed mono- 
sepalous. 

GANGLION (yayyViov. a nerve-knot). 
A small nervous centre, or an enlarge- 
ment in the course of a nerve, sometimes 
termed a diminutive brain. In speaking 
of the lymphatic system, a ganglion de- 
notes what is commonly called a conglo- 
bate gland. The term also signifies a 
morbid enlargement in the course of a 
tendon, or aponeurosis, from effusion into 
its iheca, as in ganglion patelire, or the 
housemaid's knee. See Hi/groma. 

1. Ganglion azi/gos,ve\impar. A small 
ganglion situated on the first bone of the 
coccyx. 

2. Ganglion, cardiac. A plexus, con 
stituting the central point of union of the 
cardiac nerves. 

3. Ganglion, Casserian. A large semi 
lunar ganglion, formed of the fifth nerve, 
or trifacial. 

4. Ganglion cavernosum. A ganglion 
placed at the outer side of the internal 
carotid arte^3^ towards the middle of the 
cavernous sinus. It does not always exist. 

5. Ganglion cervicalc primum. The 
superior cervical ganglion, situated un- 
der the base of the skull, and remarkable 
for its size and the regularity of its occur- 
rence. Under the term great symnathetic 
or intercostal nerve are commonly asso- 
ciated all the ganglia which occur from 
the upper part of the neck to the lovi-er 
part of the sacrum, together with the 
filaments which issue from them. 

6. Ganglion cervicalc medium sen thy- 
roideiun. A ganglion situated opposite 
to the fifth or sixth vertebra. It is often 
entirely wanting; sometimes double. 

7. Ganglion cervicalc inferitis. The 
inferior cervical ganglion, situated be- 
hind the vertebral artery, between the 
transverse process of the seventh cervi- 
cal vertebra and the neck of the first rib. 
It is sometimes double, and frequently 
continuous with the preceding cnnglion. 

8. Ganglia, lumbar. Five or fewer on 
each side, placed between the twelfth 
rib and the articulation of the last verte- 
bra with the sacrum. 

9. Ganglion of Meckel. The sphenO' 



palatine ganglion, the largest of the crc- 
niai ganglia. 

lOr Ganglion, vaso-palatine. A gan- 
glion discovered by Cloquet in the ante- 
rior palatine foramen. 

11. Ganglion ophthalmiciim. The oph- 
thalmic or lenticular ganglion, placed on 
tlie outer side of the optic nerve; one of 
the smallest ganglia of the body. 

12. Ganglion, otic. A small ganglion 
discovered by Arnold, near the foramen 
ovale. 

13. Ganglion pelrosum. Ganglion of 
.\ndersch;"a gangliform swelling on the 
glosso-|)haryngeal nerve. 

14. Ganglion of Ribes. A small gan- 
glion of communication between the 
sympathetic filaments of the anterior ce- 
rebral arteries. 

15. Ganglia, sacral. Three or four on 
each side, placed upon the sides of the 
anterior surface of the sacrum. 

16. Ganglia, semihmar. Two ganglia 
of the abdomen, lying partly upon the 
crura of the diaphragm, partly upon the 
aorta, opposite the coeliac trunk. 

17. Ganglion, sub -maxillary. A gan- 
glion which occurs opposite the sub- 
maxillary gland. 

[GANGLIONIC. Having ganglions. 
This term is applied to nerves which 
have ganglions in their coarse, and to 
the ganglions collectively as forming a 
system.] 

" GANGR.^NA ORIS. A disease which 
affects or destroys the cheeks, or gums, 
in infants. A similar disease occurs in 
the pudenda. 

GANGRENE [ypaivoi, to eat). The 
first stage of mortification, so named from 
its eating away the flesh. 

1. Hot gangrene.) That form of the dis- 
ease which is preceded or accompanied 
by inflammation : cold gangrene is unat- 
tended by inflammation. 

2. Humid gangrene. So called from 
the aflfected part containing a greater or 
less quantity of decomposed or other 
fluids: in dry gangrene these fluids are 
not present, or only in very small quan- 
tity. The latter form, being frequently 
found to affect old people, has been also 
named gnn^rcpna senilis. 

GARGARISMA iyapyap't^o), to Wash 
the throat). [Gnrgarism.] A gargle for 
the throat; a preparation used for rinsing 
the throat. 

GARLIC. The bulb, or cloves, of the 
Allium sativum. 

GARNET-BLENDE, or Zinc-blende. 
A sulphiiret of zinc. 

G.'VRUM. A sauce or pickle made by 



GAS 



159 



GEN 



the Romans, from the yapo; a small fish; 
it resembled the modern anchovy sauce 
in nature and use. 

GAS. An old Teutonic word, signi- 
fying air or spirit; now applied to any 
permanent aeriform lluid. Gases are dis- 
tinguished from iiqiuds by the name of 
elastic fluids ; and from vapours, by their 
retaining their elasticity in all tempe- 
ratures. 

Gaseous. That which has the nature 
of gas; gaseous fluids are thus distin- 
guished from other fluids. 

GASTE'R iyaarfip). The Greek term 
for the stomach. 

1. Gastric fever. A term first applied 
by Baillou to common fever, when at- 
tended by unusual gastric derangement; 
it is the meningo-gaslric of Pinel. 

2. Gastric juice. The peculiar diges- 
tive fluid secreted by the stomach. 

3. Gastero-poda (vov^, iroSds, a foot). 
The third class of the C yclo-gangliala, or 
MoUusca, comprising animals furnished 
with a muscular foot, extended under 
the abdomen, and adapted for creeping. 

4. Gastr-ilis. Inflammation of the sto- 
mach; the nosological termination ilis 
denoting inflammation. 

5. Gastro-relc {Kt'iXrj, a tumour). Hernia 
of the stomach. 

6. Gastro-cnemius (Kvv]jiri. the leg). A 
muscle, also called gemellus, which prin- 
cipally forms the calf or beJhj of the leg; 
it is distinguished into two ffeshy masses, 
called the outer and inner heads. Its 
office is to extend the foot. 

7. Gaslr-odynia {divvrj, pain), or gastr- 
algia {aXyoi, pain). Pain in the stomach. 

8. Gastro-enterilis. Inflammation of 
the gaslro-intestinalmucous membrane. 

9. Gastro-epip/oic (firirXooi', the omen- 
tum). Belongmg to the stomach and 
omentum, as applied to a branch of the 
hepatic artery, lymphatic glands of the 
abdomen, &c. 

10. Gaslro-malacia {fiaXaKOi, soft). Soft- 
ening of the stomach; a disease occur- 
ring in infants, and usually preceded by 
hydrocephalus, by an acute e.xanthema- 
tous disease, or by some disease of the 
respiratory organs. 

11. Gastro-periodynia {-nepioioi, a pe- 
riod). Periodical pain of the stomach; 
a peculiar disease known in India by the 
name of sool. So painful are the parox- 
ysms of this disease, that it is supposed 
to be produced by the deadly weapon in 
the hands of Siva, the destroying power 
of the triad ; and so incurable that even 
Siva himself cannot remove it. 

12. Gastro-raphe {pa(j)r\, a suture). A 



suture uniting a wound of the belly, or 
of some of its contents. 

13. Gaslro-splenic omenta. A term ap- 
plied to the laminae of the peritoneum, 
which are comprised between the spleen 
and the stomach. 

14. Gnstro-lomia {rofifi, section). [Gas- 
troiomy.] The operation of opening the 
abdomen, as in the Ccesarian section. 

[G A U LTH ERIA PROCUMBENS. 
Partridge-berry ; winter-green ; teaberry. 
An indigenous plant of the order Erica- 
cecB, which combines the properties of an 
aromatic and astringent. An infusion of 
the leaves has been employed in amenor- 
rh<Ea and in chronic dysentery. Its vola- 
tile oil is used to flavour other medicines. 
In the dose of an ounce it is said to have 
caused fatal gastritis.] 

GAYACIJNE. A substance procured 
from the bark of guaiacum ; it dissolves 
in nitric acid, forming oxalic acid. 

GE'INE, or GE'IC ACID {ymm, 
earthy, from y^, earth). A name given 
by Berzelius to humus, or vegetable 
mould, the result of the decomposition of 
vegetable substances. 

GELATINE {gelu, frost). The prin- 
ciple of jelly. It is found in the skin, 
cartilages, tendons, membranes, and 
bones. The purest variety of gelatine is 
isinglass; the common gelatine of com- 
merce is called glue; and the hydrate of 
gelatine, ;>//(/. 

Gelatine Capsules. Capsules prepared 
from a concentrated solution of gelatine, 
and filled with medicines. When swal- 
lowed, the capsules dissolve in the gas- 
tro-intesiinal juices, and the nauseous 
taste of the medicine is avoided. 

GELE'E POUR LE GOITRE. A pre- 
parationsold at Lausanne in Switzerland, 
consisting of the iodide of potassium. 

GEMELLUS (dim. of gem/ziMS, double). 
The name of two muscles — the superior 
and the inferior — situated below the ob- 
turator externiis. They are also called 
musculi gemini. 

GEMM.A. The general name for any 
precious stone; also, a leaf-bud, or the 
rudiment of a young branch. The term 
gemmce is also applied to minute green 
bodies found in little cups on the fronds 
of Marchantia. 

Gemmule. A term used synonymously 
with plumule, the growing point of the 
embryo in plants. 

GENiE. The cheeks, forming the la- 
teral walls of tlie mouth. See 3/a/a. 

GENERATION {genero, to beget). 
Reproduction. This is — 

1. Fissiparous (flssus, deR, {romflndo, 



GEN 



160 



GER 



to cleave; and pario, to bring forth) , -J 1. Gentians radix. Gentian root ; the 
when it occurs by s;>on<aneoMS division of! root nf the Gentiana lutea, so called 
the body of the parent into two or more'from Gentius, king of lUyria, its disco- 



parts, each part, when separated, berom 
ing a distinct individual, as in the monad, 
vorticella, &c. ; or i>y artificial division, 
as in the hydra, planaria, &c. ; in the 
propagation of plants by slips. 

2. Oemmiparniis {gemma, a bud, and 
pario, to bring forth), or the mtiltiplina- 
tion of the species by buds or gemmtdes, 
arising from germs, as exemplified in the 
vegetable kingdom, in many of the infu- 
soria, &c. 

3. By Fecundation (fecundus, fruitful), 
or the effect of the vivifying fluid pro- 
vided by one class of organs upon the 
germ contained in a seed orovum formed 
by another class ; the germ, when fecun- 
dated, is termed the embryo. This pro- 
cess consists in impregnation in the male, 
conception in the female. 

GENICULATE (genu, a knee). 
Knee-jointed, bent abruptly in the mid- 
le, as the stems of some grasses. 

GENlO—iyhaoi', the chin). Terms 



[2. Gentiana Catesbeei. Blue gentian. 
An American species possessing similar 
properties to the G. lutea.] 

3. Gentianite. The bitter principle of 
gentian. This, and genfisin, were for- 
merly confounded under the name of 
gentiauin. 

4. Gentisin or gentisic acid. A crys- 
talline, tasteless substance procured from 
gentian. 

5. Gentian spirit. .An alcoholic liquor 
produced by the vinous fermentation of 
tlie infusion of gentian, and much ad- 
mired by the Swiss. 

GENU (yovii). A Latin term for the 
knee. It is indeclinable in the singular 
number. See Gonagra. 

GEOFFR.^A INERMIS (so named 
after Dr. Geoflroy). The Cabbage tree, 
a Leguminous plant, named from its of- 
fensive smell, bilse-rvater tree. 

GEORGIA B.ARK. The bark of the 



compounded of this word relate to miis-\ Pinckneya pubens, an American plant, 
cles attached to the chin, as — used as a substitute for Cinclwna. 

1. Genio-glnssus iY'>^Maua, the tongue). [G E R A N I U M M A C U L A T U M. 
A muscle situated between the tongue Cranesbill. An indigenous plant of the 
and the lower jaw. This is also called order Geraniacece. Its root is an astrin- 
genio-fiyoglossus, from its being inserted jgent of considerable power, and is a po- 
also into the OS hyoi'des; and by VVinslow,lpular remedy in various parts of the 
polychrestus, from its performing every, United States. It is given in substance, 
motion of the tongue. jdecoction, tincture, and extract. The 

2. Genio-hyo'idens. A muscle attached 'dose of the powder is ^j. to 3J- 

to the mental process of the lower jaw [G. Rnbertianum. Herb Robert. A 
and to the OS hyoi'des. It pulls the throat species common to this country and 
upwards. Europe, though rare in the former. It 

3. Genial Processes. The name of four has been used internally in intermittent 
eminences of the inferior maxillary bone, fever, consumption, hemorrhages, jaun- 



beneath the symphysis of the chin 

[GENISTA TINCTORIA. Dyers- 
broom;; green-weed. .An European, Legu- 
minous plant, the flowering tops and 
seeds of which are said to possess purga- 
tive and emetic properties. It was e.x- 



hydrophobia.] 



dice, <S:c. ; as a gargle in affections of the 
throat; and externally, as a resolvent to 
swollen breasts, tumours, &c.] 

GERMAN PASTE. Beat together 
Ibij. of pease flour, Ibj. of blanched sweet 
almonds, three ounces of fresh butter, 



tolled some years ago as a preventive of the yolks of two fresh eggs, with a little 



honey and saffron; heat the mass gently, 



GENITO-CRUR.AL. The nameof a'and pass it through a sieve, to form it 



nerve proceeding from the first lumbar^ 
and dividing into an internal branch, 
which accompanies the spermatic cord ; 
and an external, which is distributed into 
filaments at the crural arch. 

GENTIANACE^. The Gentian tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants with leaves opposite; flowers ter- 
minal, axillary; stamens, alternate with 
the segments of the corolla; ovarium 
single, superior, 1- or 2-celled; fruit a 
many-seeded berrjr. 



into grams. 

GERMAN SILVER. Pachfong. The 
white alloy of nickel, formed by fusing 
together 100 parts of copper, 60 of zinc, 
and 40 of nickel. 

GERMAN TINDER. Amadou. A 
substance prepared from the Polyporus 
fomenlarius and igniarius, by cutting the 
fungi into slices, beating, and soaking 
them in a solution of nitre. 

GERMEN. The term applied by Lin- 
nseus to the ovarium of plants, or the 



GER 



161 



GLA 



hollow case forming the base of the pisii), 
and contnining the ovules. 

GERMINATIOJN {germino, to bud). 
The growth of the plant from seed. 

GEROxNTOXON {yipuv, yipovrog, an 
old man, rd^ov, a bow). Arcus senilis. 
The opaque circle, or half circle, which 
occurs in the cornea, in elderly persons. 

GESTATION (geslatio ulerina). The 
state of pregnancy ; the carrying of the 
fnetus in ulero. Of erratic or exlra-ute- 
rine gestation, there are four kinds, viz. — 

1. The abdominal, in which the fiEtus 
is lodged in the abdomen. 

2. The ititerslitial, in which the fiEtus 
is lodged among the interstitial elements 
of the ijterns. 

3. The ovarial, in which the foetus is 
developed in the ovarium. 

4. The tubular, in which the foetus is 
lodged in the Fallopian tube. 

GEUM URBANUM. Common Avens, 
or Herb Bennet; a European, Rosaceous 
plant, the root of which is" employed for 
flarouring and preserving the Augsburg 
beer. 

[G. Rivale. Water Avens. A species 
common to Europe and the United 
Slates, the root of which is tonic and very 
astringent. It is used in passive hemor- 
rhages, leucoriiliQBa, diarrhoea, and as a 
tonic in phthisis, dyspepsia, &c. The 
dose of the root is from aj. to 3J-; of the 
decoction, made by boiling an ounce of 
the root in a pint of water, f;jj. to f3'j-] 

[GIBBOUS (gibbiis. protuberant). An 
irregularity or swelling on the back,' or 
other part of the body. In botany, ap- 
plied to leaves, petals, &c., when irregu- 
larlv swelled on one side or both.] 

[GILLENIA. Ph. U. S. The root of 
the Gilleriia irifoliata, an indigenous. 
Rosaceous plant; a mild and efficient 
emetic, and used as a sulistitute for Ipe- 
cacuanha. The dose is from aj. to ^ss. 
Another species, G. stij)nlacea, though 
not officinal, possesses the same medical 
properties] 

GIMBERNATS LIGAMENT. The 
name given to that portion of the external 
oblique muscle, which is inserted into 
the pectineal line. It is commonly called 
" the third insertion of Foupart's liga 



GINGILIE OIL. A bland fixed oil 
procured by expression from the seeds of 
the Sesamum orientale, commonly called 
leel seeds. 

GINGIVA. The gums; the reddish 
tissue which surrounds the neck of the 
teeth. 

GFNGLYMUS (yiyyXt'/^oV, a hinge> 
The hinge-like joint. See Articulalimi . 

Ginglymo'id (,tliog, likeness). Hinge- 
like; as applied to that species of joint 
which admits of flexion and extension. 

GIN-SENG. A term signifying human 
powers, and applied by the Chinese to the 
root of the Panax quinquefblium, in 
high repute as a stimulant and resto- 
rative. 

GIZZARD. The proper stomach of 
birds, consisting of a strong hollow mus- 
cle. Compare Crop. 

GLABELLA {glaber, smooth). The 
triangular space betwixt the eyebrows. 

Glabellar. A term used by Barclay 
to denote an aspect of the head. 

[Glabrous. Smooth. Having a surface 
free from hairs or any asperities.] 

GLACIAL ACID {glacies, ice). The 
strongest acetic acid which can be pro- 
cured. It exists in a crystallized state 
under fifty degrees of Fahrenheit, and 
contains 79 per cent, of real acid. See 
Acetum. 

[GLADIATE (gladius, a sword). 
Sword-shaped. Synonymous with en- 
si firm.] 

GLAIRINE. A term referred by some 
to a gelatinous vegetable matter ; by 
others, to a pseud-organic substance 
which forms on thermal waters. 

GL.ANCE [glanz, sjilendour; or gla- 
des, ice). A name given to certain mi- 
nerals which have a metallic or pseudo- 
metallic lustre, as glance-coal, &c. 

GLAND {glans, glandis, an acorn). A 
small body, occurring in many parts of 
the body, and composed of its various 
tissues, blood-vessels, nerves, &c. Dr. 
Pemberton designates at^ glands of supply , 
the liver, the pancreas, the spleen, &c. ; 
and, as glands of vxLSte, the kidneys, the 
mamma, &c. 

1. Gland, conglobate {co7i, together, 
globus, a ball), or simple; a gland sub- 



ment." Gimhernat was surgeon to the sisling by itself, as those of the absorbent 
king of Spain, and published an essay on|Sysiem. 

femoral hernia in 1793. 2. Gland, conglomerate {con, together, 

[GIN. A spirit distilled from ma\t or glomus, glorneris. a heap), or compound; 
rye, and then distilled with juniper-ber-ja gland composed of various glands, as 
ries. A very considerable portion of ihe'ihe salivary, parotid, pancreatic, Arc. 
liquor, however, sold for gin, is facIi-[ 3. Glands, concatenate (chained toge- 
tious, and prepared from pernicious arti-ilher. from con and catina, a chain), or 
cles.] ! glands of the neck, presenting, in chil- 



GLA 



162 



GLI 



dren, a kind of knotty cord, extending 
from behind the ear to the collar-bone. 

4. Glands, Brunner's, or the duodenal. 
Small flatlened granular bodies, found in 
the duodenum, and compared collectively 
by Von Biunn lo a second pancreas. 

5. Glands of Cowper. Two small glan- 
dular bodies, placed parallel to each 
other before the proslate. They are also 
called accessory glands. 

6. Gla?ids, Haversian. The name of 
the fatty bodies which are found in con- 
nexion wiih most of the joints, and in 
general lying behind the synovial fringes. 
Clopton Havers supposed them to be the 
agents of the synovial secretion, and 
called them glandula; mncilaginoscB. 
Weitbrechl called them adipo-glandu- 
loscB. 

7. Glands, Meibomian. Minute folli- 
cles embedded in the internal surfai-e of 
the cartilages of the eyelids, resembling 
parallel strings of pearls, 

8. Glands, Peyer's, or aggregate. Clus- 
tered glands, reseniblnig oval patches, 
principally situated near the lower end 
of the ileum. 

9. Glands, solitary. Small flatlened 
granular bodies, fbimd in the stomach 
and intestines. They are sometimes 
erroneously called Brunner's. 

GL.-VA'DERS. See Equinia. 

GLANDULA (dim. ofglans, an acorn, 
or gland), A little aeorn ; a small 
gland. 

1. Glai\dnlcB Odoriferce. Glands of 
Tyson. The name of certain glands situ- 
ated around the neck and corona of the 
glans penis in the male, and of the glans 
ditoridis in the female, secreting a 
strongly odorous humour, called smegma 
prepulii. 

2. Glandulte Paccliioni. The granula- 
tions found in the superior longitudinal 
sinus of the membranes of (he brain; so 
called after Pacchioni, their discoverer. 
These bodies have no analogy whatsoever 
with glands. 

[GLANDULAR {glandula, a small 
gland). In anatomy, signifies having the 
appearance, structure, or function of a 
gland. In botany, covered with hairs 
bearing glands upon their tips.] 

GLANS. GLANDIS. An acorn, a 
mast of any tree. A pellet of lead, or 
other metal. 

1. Glans ditoridis. A term applied to 
the extremity of the clitoris. 

2. Glans penis. The vascular body 
forming the apex of the penis. It is cir- 
cumscribed by a prominent ridge, termed 
the corona glandis. 



GLASS. V'itrum. A compound of 
silica and an alkali. 

The terra Glass is also applied \o glassy 
substances, as the glass of antimony, or 
the sulphuret; to mica, glacies marise, or 
Muscoty glass ; to bismuth, or tin glass; 
Arc. ikc. 

G L.^SS G A LL. Sel de verre ;fel vitri ; 
saiidiver. The saline scum which swims 
on the glass when first made. 

GLAUBERS SALT. Sulphate of 
soda ; frequently found in mineral 
springs, and sometimes on the surface 
of the earth. 

1. Glauber's secret sal ammoniac. Sul- 
phate of ammonia; a constituent of soot 
from coals. 

2. Glauberile. A crystallized salt, con- 
sisting of nearly equal parts of the sul- 
phates of lime and soda ; both anhydrous, 
or nearly so. 

[GL.VUCOMA. See Glaucosis.] 
GLAUCOS (yXauKOf). Blue ; of a sea- 
green colour; azure. 

1. Glaucic acid. An acid procured 
from the teazle and scabious plants. 

2. Glaucina. A term proposed by He- 
benslreit for the natural form of cow-pox, 
from the bluish or azure tint of the vesi- 
cles. 

3. Glaucosis. Humo«il opacity ; a 
greenish or gray opacity of the vitreous 
humour; a name formerly given to cata- 
ract ; also called by the Greeks ^ZoMcoma, 
and by the Romans glaucedo. Dr. Good 
prefers glaucosis to glaucoma, " because 
the final oma imports usually, and, for 
the sake of simplicity and consistency, 
ought always to import, external pro- 
tuberance, as in staphyloma, sarcoma, 
&c." 

[GLECHOMA HEDERACEA. 
Ground Ivy. A labiate plant, indige- 
nous in the United Slates and Europe, 
which formerly enjoyed some credit as a 
remedy in chronic affections of the lungs 
and kidneys. The infusion was the usual 
form of administration.] 

GLEET. A transparent mucous dis- 
charge, sometimes the sequela of gonor- 
rhcea. 

GLENOID {y'>^f)vr}, a cavity, tliog, like- 
ness). The name of a part having a 
shallow cavity, as the socket of the 
shoulder-joint, a fissure and a foramen 
of the temporal bones, &c. 

GLIADINE {.yVia, glue). Vegetable 
albumen; one of the constituents of 
gluten. Compare Zi/mome. 

GLISSON'S CAPSULE. A cellulo- 
vascular membrane, which envelopes the 
hepatic vessels in the right border of the 



G LO 



163 



GLU 



lesser omentum, and accompanies lliem 
through the transverse fissure to their 
ultimaie raniificaiioiis. 

GLOBULES, KKD (dim. oV globus, a 
ball). The red colouring matter of the 
blond; a peculiar animal principle. 

GLOBULINE. The principal consti- 
tuent of llie blood globules, closely allied 
to albumen. Also, the term applied by 
Turpin to the amylaceous granules found 
in the tissue of plants, which he con- 
sidered as the elementary slate of the 

tlSSU6< 

GLOBUS HYSTERICUS. A sensa- 
tion attendant on hysteria, as of a globus 
or ball ascending to the stomach, then 
up the chest to the neck, and becoming 
fixed in the throat. 

L Globus major epididymis. A name 
applied to the upper end of the epididy- 
mis, which is of great size, owing to the 
large assemblage of convoluted lubes in 
the coni vasculosi. 

2. Globus 7niuor epididymis. The 
lower portion of the epididymis, consist- 
ing of the convolutions of the vas defe- 
rens, previously to its commencing its 
ascending course. 

GLOME RATION (glomus, glomeris. a 
ball or clew of thread). Literally, heap- 
ing into a ball ; a term sometimes applied 
to tinnour. 

GLOMERULE. Glomus. A form ol 
inflorescence bearing the same relation 
to the capitulum that the compoiuid does 
to the simple umbel ; that is, it is a clus- 
ter of capitula enclosed in a common in- 
volncrum, as in Echinops. 

GLOSS A, or G LOTl'A (yXc3r-a). The 
tongue; the organ of speech. 

1. Glo.is-figra {aypcL, seizure). Inflam- 
mation of the tongue; swelled tongue; 
a term synonymous with glussalgia, glos- 
socele, glossitis, &c. 

2. Gloss-ids. Inflammation of the 
tongue; the terminal panicle ilis denot- 
ing inflammation. 

3. Glosso: Terms compounded of this 
word belong to nerves or muscles at- 
tached to the tongue, as in the three fol- 
lowing terms. 

4. Glosso-staphylinus. A designation 
of the constrictor isthmi liiuciuni, from 
its origin in the tongue, and insertion 
into the uvula. 

5. Glossn-pharyngeus. A synonym of 
the conslricior superior, from its origin 
in the root of the tongue, and its insertion 
into the pharynx. 

G. Glossn-phari/rigcal verves. Another 
name for the eighth pair. 

7. Glosso-caiochus {Karcx^o, to hold 



down). An instrument for depressing 
the tongue. 

8. Glosso-cele {Ki'i\ri, a tumour). An ex- 
trusion of the tongue; swelled tongue. 

9. Glosso-comum {koucco, to guard). 
Formerly, a case for the tongue of a 
hautboy; but, metaphorically, a kind of 
long box, or case, fijr containing a frac- 
tured leg. 

10. Glosso-logy (Xoyo';, an account). 
[A treatise on the tongue. A definition 
of hard terms (glossa, a hard term); ex- 
planatory notes for illustrating an author.] 

GLOTTIS (yXdrra, the tongue). Rima 
glotddis. The aperture between the ary- 
taenoid cartilages. It is covered by a car- 
tilage called the epi glottis. 

GLUCIC ACID (yXu/fOf, sweet). An 
acid formed by the action of a saturated 
solution of lime or barytes on grape 
sugar. 

GLUCI'iNA {y\vkv;, sweet ; many of 
its combinations having a sweet taste). 
An earth found in the emerald, the beryl, 
and the euciase. Its metallic base is 
called glucirium. 

GLUCOSE (yXwKiij, sweet). Another 
name for starch sugar, diabetic sugar, or 
the sugar of fruits. 

GLUE (glulen). The common gelatine 
of commerce, made from the parings of 
hides, hoofs, &c. 

GLUME igluma, the husk of corn). 
A term applied to the peculiar envelope 
of the floral apparatus in grasses, which 
are hence called glumncece. It is a mo- 
dification of the bract. 

Glumaccous. Having the floral enve- 
lopes reduced to scales, called glumes, as 
in grasses. 

GLUTiEUS (yXourdf, the buttock). 
The name of three muscles of the hip, 
forming part of the bullocks. They are 
the mnximus, which extends the thigh; 
ihe viedius, which acts in standing; and 
the iiiiiiiynus, which assists the others. 
Hence the term — 

Gluia:al. Applied to the posterior iliac 
artery — to lymphatics which have the 
same distribution as that artery — and to 
a nerve distributed to the glutei muscles. 

GLUTEN igelo, to congeal). A viscid 
substance obtained from whcaten flour. 
It has been decomposed into 

1. Gliadine (yAi'a, gluten). Vegetable 
albumen ; and 

2. Zymome Hvjir], leaven). That por- 
tion of the mass which the acid that is 
present has united with. 

GLUTEN BREAD. An article of 
diet used in diabetes. It is not made of 
jiurc gluten, but one-sixth of the original 



GLU 



164 



GO S 



quantity of starch contained in ihe flour 
is retained. 

GLUTINE. A principle resembling 
gluten, but differing from it in not being 
soluble in alcohol. 

GLUTINOUS SAP. Milk^ sap. Ve- 
getable milk, or the juice obtained by 
incision Irom the Palo de Vaca, or Cnv> 
tree, which grows in the (iroviiice of Ca^ 
raccas. 

GLYCERIN {y\vKVi, sweei). The 
sweet principle of oil, also termed hy- 
drate of oxide of glycervl. 

GLYCERYL [or GLYCERULE] (yX.,- 
KVi, sweet, v\r), matter). A hypothetical 
radical existing in glycerin. 

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA (yXu<rii,-, 
sweet, pi^a, a root). Coitimon Liquorice; 
a Leguminous plant, the underground 
stem of which is called liquorice-root, or 
slick liquorice. The Greeks distinguished 
the liquorice-root by the name oi' adipsoii, 
from a, priv., and 6iipa, thirst, from its 
property of assuaging thirst; perhaps the 
term liquorice may be derived from the 
same idea. 

Glycyrrhizin [or Glycion]. Liquorice- 
sugar; the saccharine juice of liquorice- 
root. 

GOBEL'S PYROPHORUS. A mix- 
ture of charcoal and lead, in which the 
latter is in such an extreme stale of di- 
vision, as to take fire on exposure to the 
air. It is formed by heating the tartrate 
of lead in a close vessel or tube to dull 
redness. 

[GODFREY'S CORDIAL. A cele- 
brated carminative, and anodyne cordial. 
The following is the formula for prepar- 
ing it, recommended by a cornmuiee of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
"Take of tincture of opiiun, Ojss. ; mo- 
lasses (from the sugar refiners), Oxvj.; 
alcohol, Oij.; water, Oxxvj.; carbuniUe 
of potassa, ^i'ss. ; oil of sa.ssafras, f3iv. 
Dissolve the carbonate of potassa in I lie 
water, add the molasses, and heat over a 
gentle fire till they smimer; take off the 
scum which rises, and add the laudanum 
and oil of sassafras, having previously 
mixed ihem well tosether."] 

GOITRE, or GOTRE (probably a cor- 
ruption of .•;iitlur, the throat). The name 
given in Switzerland to Bronchoccle, or 
the Thyrophraxia of Alibort. Heister 
thought it should be called Irncheoctli:. 
Prosser, from its frequency in the hdly 
parts of Derbyshire, called it the Dtrhi}. 
shire veck; and, not satisfied respecting 
the similitude of this tumour to that oii- 
served on the necks of women on the 
Alps, the Euglish bronchocele. It con- 



sists in an enlargement of Ihe thyroid 
gland, and is li-equently associated with 
cretinism. 

GOLD. A yellow metal, generally 
found nalive in primary rocks, and in 
alluvial depositions. See Aurum. 

Gold coin is termed — 

1. Sterling, i. e. 22 gold -|- 2 copper. 

2. Standard, i. e. 18 gold -|- 6 copper. 
Gold becomes /rreen when silver is sub- 
stituted for copper. 

GOLD LEAF ELECTROMETER. 
An instrument for detecting the presence 
of electricity by the divergence of two 
slips of gold leaf. 

GOLDEN SULPHURET. A sulphu- 
ret of antimony, also termed sulplianli- 
monic acid, and prepared by precipitating 
aniimonic acid by sulphuretted hydrogen. 
See Kermes Mineral, 

GOMPHO'SIS (yii/ifof, a peg). An 
articulation of bones, like that of a nail 
in a piece of wood : that of the teeth, for 
instance, in their sockets. 

GON,AGR.\ (yo'i/ii, the knee, aypa, 
seizure). Gout in the knee. The term 
frenugra is sometimes Ibund, but it is 
barbarous. 

GONIOMETER (yowta, an angle, iic- 
rpi'x). to measure). An instrument liir 
measuring angles, particularly those of 
crystals. 

GONORRHCEA (yoi'-;, .oemen. piio, to 
flow). Literally, an involuntary dis- 
charge of the semen; hut always under- 
stood as a discharge of purulent infec- 
tious matter from the urethra, the va- 
gina, &c. Ill English, the disease is 
called a clap, from the old French word 
clapisen, (public shops, kept and inha- 
bited by prostitutes); in German, a ?ri/)- 
pcr, from dripping; and, in French a 
chaudepiase, from the heat and scalding 
in micturition. 

GONYALGIA (yoi/ti, the knee, aXyo;, 
pain). Gomilgia. Pain in the knee; 
gout in the knee 

GORDIUS. The Seta equina, or horse- 
hair worm of the old writers. It is sup- 
poseii to occasion — 

1. Intestinal disease, occurring among 
the peasantry of Lapland from drinking 
water impregnated with this worm ; 
and — 

2 Ciiliculnr disease, when it is lodged 
under (he skin, coiisliiuting the morbus 
pilaris of Horst, and the lualis a crino- 
nihus of Saiivages, &c. 

GORGET. An instrument used in 
lithotomy, fi)r cutting the prostate gland 
and neck of the bladder. 

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM. Cora- 



GOU 



165 



GR A 



mon Cotton ; a Malvaceous plant, yield 
ing the cotlon of commerce. This sub- 
stance consisis of tubular hairs, whicii 
arise from the surface of the seed-coat; 
in its unprepared state it is called raw 
cotton. 

GOULARD'S CERATE. The rcwlnm 
pliimbi [siib-acefalis, Ph. U. S] The for- 
mula for this difTers, however, from Gou- 
lard's original recipe, in ordering cam- 
phor, while the other directs a large 
quantity of water to be mi.\ed with the 

GOULARD'S EXTRACT. A satu- 
rated solution of subacelale of lend, or 
the Liquor Pliimbi !Siib-acetalis, [Ph. U. S., 
the Aqua Lithnrgyri Acetali, P. L. 1767. 
dim. Extract of Sal urn. 

GOUT. Podagra ; arihrilis. A term 
derived from the French goutle, a drop, 
and this from the Latin gutta, also a 
drop, applied to the disease trom the old 
notion of its being produced by a morbific 
drop. See Podagra. 

Gouty concretions. Calculi formed in 
the joints of gouty persons, resembling 
dialk-!t(oncs in colour and softness, and 
consisting of urate of soda. 

GRACILIS. Slender; a long, thin, 
flat muscle, otherwise called rectus iiiler- 
liusfenioris, from its straight direction. 

GRAIKES D'AVIGNON. French 
berries. The unripe fruit of the Rham- 
nus infectoriiis, used for dyeing Maro- 
quin leather yellow, &(■. 

GRALL.^ (stilts). Waders: an order 
of aquatic birds, frequenting marshes, &c., 
as the heron. 

GRAMINACRiEc^roOT^n, grass). The 
Grass tribe of Monoco'yledonous plants. 
Herbaceous plants with cylindrical 
stems; leaves alternate, with a split 
sheath ; flowers hermaphrodite, some- 
times monoecious, glumaceous; glumes 
alternate, imequal ; stamens hypogynous ; 
ovarium simple. 

[GRAMME. A measure of weight, 
equal to 15-4340 grains Troy.] 

GRAN A MOLUCCA. These are said 
to be the seeds of the Croton Pavana, the 
original Tilly-seed plant. 

GRANA PARADISf. Grains of Pa- 
radise, or Melligotta pepper ; the seeds of 
the Ainnmum Graua Poradisl. The term 
appears to have been applied to the pro- 
duce of no fewer than six Scitamineous 
plants. 

GRANA SECALTS DEGENERATI 
Ergot; a substance found m the place of 
the grains of rye, of agrosiis, &c. ; also 
termed Spermoedia clavus, Secale cornu- 
tum, Spurred rye, &c. See Ergota. 



GRANA TIGLL\. Grana Dilla ; 
Grona Tilli. The seeds of the Ciolon 
Tiglinm, Irom which the croton oil or oil 
of tiglium is procured. 

GRAIN ATI CORTEX. Pomnnnn Cor- 
tex. [Granali frncius cortex. Ph. U. S.] 
Pomegranate bark; thfe produce of the 
Putiica Granatnm. [The bark of the root 
(Granati radicis cortex, Ph. U. S.) has 
been used as a vermifuge.] 

GRAiNDINES. Plural of grando, a 
hail-sione; a term applied by Wesser to 
luhercles, as ihev become enlarged. 

GRANULATION l^granum, a grain). 
A process by which minute grain-like 
fleshy bodies are formed on the surface 
of wounds or ulcers during their healing. 
In Chemistry, the term denotes a process 
for the mechanical division of metals and 
of phosphorus. 

GRAPHITE (ypd(po}, to write; so 
termed from its use in the manufacture 
of pencils). Plumbago, or black lead; a 
carburet of iron. 

GRASS OIL OF NAMUR. A vola- 
tile oil procured, according to Royle, from 
the Andropogon Calamus aroraaticus. It 
is sometimes called oil of .yiHenard, 
though incorrectly, this substance being 
procured from the Kardostachys Jata- 
mansi. 

GRATfOLA OFFICINALIS. Hedge 
Hyssop; a plant of the order Srrophula- 
riacea, formerly called Gratia Dei, on 
account of its remedial powers. It has 
been said to be the basis of the eaii medi- 
cinal e. 

GRAVE'DO (gravis, heavy). A ca- 
tarrh, or cold, with a sense of heaviness 
in the head. 

GRAVEL. Crystalline sediments de- 
posited in the bladder from the urine. 
When these sediments are amorphous 
and pulverulent, they are — 

1. Red, lateriiious, or pink, and con- 
sist chiefly of liihate of ammonia ; or 

2. White, consisting of mixed lithic 
and phosphatic sediments, with an iri- 
descent pellicle. 

When crystallized, they constitute — 

1. The red gravel, consisting of crystals 
of uric or lithic acid ; or 

2. The white gravel, generally consist- 
in? of the triple phosphate of magnesia 
and ammonia, and existing in the form of 
perfecllv while and shining crystals. 

GR.WITY (gravitas, heaviness). The 
tendency of all bodies towards the centre 
of the earth ; the unknown cause of this 
phenomenon is called gravitation. Gra- 
vity differs from Attraction, in being a 
species of the latter; e.g. we speak of 



GRA 



166 



GUL 



capillary attraciion, magnetic attraction, 
&c., but not of capillary or magnetic 
gravity. 

Gravity, specific. The density of bodies, 
as ascertained by coiuparisoii with an 
equal bulk of water. 

GRE.\T syMP.\THETIC. A nerve 
formed by a collection of filaments from 
every nerve which join each other at the 
adjacent ffanslia. 

GRECIAN WATER. A solution of 
nitrate of silver disguised, for dyeing 
the hair black; the hair, thus tlyed, 
soon becomes purple on exposure to 
light. 

GRE;EK fire. An artificial fire, in- 
vented by the Greeks during their wars 
with the Arabs and Turks. It is sup- 
posed to have consisted of asphaltura, 
nitre, and sulphur. 

GREEN MINERAL. A carbonate of 
copper, used as a pigment. 

GREEN SICKNESS. The popular 
term for chlorosis, from the pale, lurid, 
and greenish cast of the skin. 

GRENOUILLE. The French term 
for a frog; the distended submaxillary 
duct. See Balrachus. 

GREY LOTION. A preparation for 
irritable sores, consisting of chloride of 
mercury and lime-water. 

GRIFFITHS' MIXTURE. Compound 
mixture of iron, or the Mist.ferricomp. 

GRIPPE. A French term applied to 
various epidemic forms of gastro-bron- 
chilis. It is used by Laennec to denote 
an epidemic catarrh, which occurred in 
1803, and which w-as characterized by the 
peculiarff/uanous sputa observed in acute 
pneumonia. 

GROATS. The decorticated grains of 
ihe Avena sativa, or oat. 

GROCERS' ITCH. The Eczema im- 
peliginodes, produced in grocers by the 
irritation of sugar. 

GROSS U LINE (groseille, a goose- 
berry). The name given by Guihourl to 
a peculiar principle procured from goose- 
berries and other acid fruits, forming the 
basis of jelly. 

GROTTO DEL CANE (dog's grotto). 
A cave in Italy, in which there is a 
constant natural exhalation of carbonic 
acid, which, occupying the lowest stra- 
tum of the air, induces asphyxia in dogs 
taken into it. although man escapes. 

GRUMOUS. Knotted, collected into 
granular masses, as the feculaof the sago 
palm. 

GRUTUM. The name given by Plenck 
to milium, or millet-rash. 

GRYLLUS VERRUCIVORUS. The 



wart-eating grasshopper of Sw'eden 
which is caught for the purpo.=e, as ills 
said, of biting off the excrescence, when 
It also discharges a corrosive liquor on 
the wound. 

GUAIACIM OFFICINALE. Offici- 
nal Guaiacum; a Zygophyllaceous plant, 
the wood, resin, and bark of which are 
imported from St. Domingo. > 

1. Guaiacum wood. Commonly termed 
lignum vil(P, from its reputed efficacy in 
syphilis. The shavings or raspings, scohs 
vel rasura guaiaci, are prepared by the 
turner for the use of the druggist. [See 
Lignum^ 

2. Guaiacum bark. Employed on the 
Continent, but not officinal in this coun- 
try. 

3. Guaiacum resin. Commonly, though 
erroneously, called gum guaiacum; ob- 
tained by various processes from the stem 
of the tree. It occurs in tears and in 
masses. 

4. Guaiacic acid. An acid obtained 
irom llie resin of guaiacum. 

5. Guaiacine. A peculiar substance 
obtained from guaiacum, 

GUANO. A manure, consisting of 
urate of ammonia, and other ammoni- 
acal sails. It appears to consist of the 
excrements of sea-fowl. 

G U A R A N I N E. A new vegetable 
principle, discovered in the fruit of the 
PauUiiiia sorbilis by M. Marlius. 

GUBERNA'CULUM (Ku/Jcpruu, to 
command). Literally, the rudder of a 
ship. A name given by Hunter to the 
fibro- vascular substance between the 
testes and scrotum in the fretus, from 
his considering it the principal agent in 
directing the course of the testis in its 
descent. 

GUESTONIAN EMBROCATION 
FOR KHEUM.-^TISM. 01. Terebinth, 
f^jss. ; 01. oliv. f giss. ; Acid, sulph. 
duiii. foiij- 

GUIDO'S BALSAM. The Tinctura, 
or Linimentuin S.ipnnis et Opii. 

GUINE.\-HEN WEED. The vulgar 
name of the Peleveria alliacea, an ex- 
tremely acrid plant, used in Jamaica as 
a sialosogue. 

GUINEA-WORM. Malis fdarim. A 
worm found chiefly in both the Indies, 
often twelve feet long, and about the 
thickness of a horse-hair; it burrows 
under the cuticle, for the most part, of 
the naked feet of the West Indian slaves. 
It is frequently called dracunculus, vena 
Mediuensis, &c. 

PiULA. The oesophagus or gullet; the 
canal extending from the lower part of 



GUM 



167 



GYM 



the pharynx to the superior orifice of the 
stomach. 

GUM. A common proximate princi- 
ple of vegetables; the primary form of 
vepeiable tcxiiire: 

GUM-BOIL. Parulis. Inflammation, 
abscess, or boil of the gums. 

GUM JUjNIPER. a concrete resin 
which exudes in white tears from the 
Juniperus Communis. It has been called 
sandarach, and, hence, confounded with 
the cavcapaKri of Aristolle, which was a 
sulphuret of arsenic. Reduced to pow- 
der it is called pounce, which prevents 
ink from sinking into paper, Irom which 
the exterior coating of size has been 
scraped away. 

GUM RASH. Red gum. A genus of 
cutaneous diseases. See S/rnphulus. 

GUM-RESLNS. The concrete juices 
of certain plants, consisting of resin, 
essenlial oil, gum, and extractive vege- 
table matter, as aloes, ammoniac, assa- 
fcelidn, enphorbium,scammony, &c. 

GUMM.A. A soft tumour, so named from 
the resemblance of i!s contents to gum. 

GUMMI RUBRUM ASTRINGENS. 
An astringent substance, called bii/ca 
gum, — an exudation from the Butea fron- 
dosa. Its Hindu name is kiieni or kiteii- 
nee, from which probably our term ki?io 
is derived. 

1. Gummi Arahicum seu TuTciciim. 
Gum Arabic; the produce of the Acacia 
vera, and other species, especially A. 
Arabica. The white pieces constitute 
ihe girmmi electum of the druggists; on 
the Continent they are called gum Tiiric, 
from Tor, a seaport in Arabia, near the 
isthmus of Suez. The red pieces are 
soiTietimes called gum Gedda, from the 
name of another port. 

2. Gummi gutlce. A term applied to 
gamboge, owing to its issuing guitaliin, 
or by drops, from the broken leaves or 
branehlets of the gamboge tree. 

3. Gummi nostras. Cherry-tree gum ; 



GUNPOWDER. A mixture of five 
parts of nitre, one of sulphur, and one 
of charcoal, finely powdered, and very 
accurately blended. The grains are 
smoothed by friction, and are then said 
to be glazed. 

GUSTATORY [guslo, to taste). A 
name of the lingual nerve — a branch of 
the inferior maxillary. See Nerves. 

GUT. A substance made by pulling a 
silkworm, when ready to spin its cocoon, 
in two, extending the silk as far as it 
will so, and hanging it up to dry. 

GUTHRIE'S MUSCLE. A name 
given to the transverse portion of the 
compresnor urethra muscle. The per- 
pendicular or pubic portion is termed 
Wilson's muscle. 

GUTTA (a drop). PI. gutla, drops. 
A term applied to a measure in prescrip- 
tions, abridged gt., pi. gtt., vihich should 
be equal to the minim. [See Quantity^ 
Also to certain affections and prepara- 
tions. 

L Giittu opaca. Cataract, or opacity of 
the crystalline lens, of its capsule, or of 
the Morgagnian fluid, separately or con- 
jointly. 

2. Gntia sereiia. Drop serene ; so 
named from the idea of an effused fluid 
at or behind the pupil. A term said to 
have been first applied by Actuarius to 
amaurosis. 

3. Gutia rosacea. Rosy drop, or car- 
buncjed face ; a species ofacne. 

4. Gutta anodijna. Anodyne drop. A 
solution of acetate of morphia. 

5. Gutta nigra. Black drop; Lan- 
cashire drop. See Black Drop. 

6. Gutias vita: Drops of life; a nos- 
trum conslslins: of spirituous stimulants. 

GUTTIFER.E {gulta, a drop, fero, to 
bear). The Mangosteen tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs, oc- 
casionally parasitical, yielding resinous 
juice; haves entire, opposite; flowers 
polvpelalous; stamens hypogynous ; car- 



an exudation from the stem of the Cera- pella concrete ; ovarium of several cells, 
sus avium. This, and ihe gummi pru7>i, GUTTUR. The throat; also, classi- 
or plum-tree gum, produced by the cally, the windpipe. Gula is the gullet, 
Prunus domestica, may be substituted in whereby the food passes into Ihe sto- 
mediciiie for tragacanth gum. They con- mach ; and faux the gullet-pipe, or space 



between Ihe gula and the guttur, or the 
superior part of the gula, nearest the 
chin, but interior, where the mouth grows 



tain two gummy principles, viz. arabin, 
and pruniii or cerasin. 

GUMS. Gingiva. The red substance 
which covers the alveolar processes of narrower, 
the jaws, and embraces the necks of thel GYMNASTICS (yvftvdZo>, to exercise 
teeth. naked). Exercises systematically adapt- 

GUNJ.AII. The dried plant of the ed to develope and preserve the physical 
Cannabis Indica, after it has flowered, 'powers. 

and still retaining the resin; used in | GYMNOSPERM^ (yiT/idj, naked, 
Calcutta for smoking. lirrcpfia, seed). Plants which have their 



G YN 



168 



H^M 



seeds destitute of a pericarp, as opposed it is dilated, and supports a row of car- 
to the Angiospermce. I pels, vvliich have an oblique inclination 

[Hence Gymnospermous, having the towards the axis of the flower, as in the 
seeds apparently naked.] JLabialas, the Boraginaccos, &c. 

GYJME {yuvri). A woman. In the fol- 4. Gi/no-phore ((pepij. to bear). A term 
lowing compounds, the term relates to applied to the stalk upon which the 
the female apparatus, or the pislil, of ovarium is sometimes seated, instead of 
plants: — jbeing sessile, as in Passiflora. It is also 

1. Gijnecenm. A term applied by called thecaphore. 

Roper to the entire female system of; GYPSUM (yv-^of, chalk,- from'yij, 
plants, more commonly called the /)is<i7. earth, and fi/iM, to bake). Sulphate of 
See Androceiim. lime. When highly burnt, it falls into 

2. Gyn-andria {dvnp. a man). The 'powder, constituting /)Zas<er o/" Par/s. 
twentieth class of the Linnean system ofj GYRI (pi. gyrus, a circuit). The spi- 
plants, in which the stamens are situated ral cavities of the internal ear. Also, the 
upon the style, above the ovarium. I convolutions of the brain. 

3. Gyno-base (.paai;, a base). This Gyrale. Curved in from apex to base, 
term is applied to the receptacle, when | Synonymous with circulate. 



H 



HiEMA, HiEMATOS (aJjia. a^aro;). 
Blood. The circulating fluid of animals. 

1. Hmma-reU-nosis (/ci'jXis, a spot, i/6ao;. 
a disease). Blood-spot disease; the name 
given by Rayer to Purpura. 

[2. H(Ema-dynamomf'ler{5mams, power, 
Itcrpai'. a measure). An instrument for 
measuring the force wish which the blood 
is propelled in the blood-vessels, invented 
by M. Poiseuille] 

3. H(em-as;ogues (ayw. to e.Kpel). Ex- 
pellers of blood; medicines which pro- 
mote the catamenial and haemorrhoi'dal 
discharges. 

4. H<tma-lopia (wJ/, the eye). H^raa- 
lops. An eflf^ision of blood in the globe 
of the eye; blood.shot eye. 

5. Hffin-arilhns {avOo;, a flower). The 
Blood-flower, a plant of the natural order 
Amaryllidece ; the Hottentots arc said to 
dip their arrow-heads in the juice of its' 
bulbs, on account of its poisonous pro- 
perties, j 

6. HcBmnt-em'esLt {ifi'cbi, to vomit). Vo-| 
mitus cruentus. A vomiting of blood; 
haemorrhage from the stomach. 

7. Hcemnlin. The name given by Che- 
vreul to the colouring matter of the Hte-' 
maloxvlon Campechianum, or logwood. 

8. HcEmalite. Blood-sioue, a peroxide 
of iron, so named from iis property of 
slopping hremorrhages; or from its co- 
lour. The red hfcmatile is an anhydrous, 
the brown a hydraled, peroxide. 

9. H(F-matn-cele (Ki)\r^, a tumour). A 
collection of blood in the tunica vagi- 
nalis. If serous fluid occupy the place 
of blood, the case is that oi hydrocele. 



10. Hcemalo'des [aifiaTwini)- Bloody; 
as applied to a fungous or fleshy excres- 
cence. The termination in -odes (w^tc) 
sometimes expresses a yu/wess, as in the 
present ca.se. 

11. Hamalo-losiy (X6yof, an account). 
The history of the blood. 

12. Hcemalo'ma. A blood-like tumour, 
sometimes occurring in the brain. 

13. Hamaloxin. A characteristic con- 
stituent of the blood, derived from the 
gloliules. 

14. Hiemaln'sh. Sanguification, or the 
formation of the blood. 

15. Hcmntoxyli lignum (^vXai/, wood). 
Logwood ; the wood of the Hteniatoxylon 
Campechianum, a Leguminous plant of 
Campeaehy. Its colouring matter is call- 
ed hcBmaloxylin, and by Chevreul hm- 
malin. 

16. H(xmo-lu' ria (ovpioi, to void urine). 
Sanguis in urina. Bloody urine; the 
passing of blood in the urine. 

17. Heemo-ptysis (TrnJtrif, spilling, from 
TrruM, to spit). Hamoptoe. The spitting 
of blood ; expectoration of blood. It has 
been called pneumo-rrhngia. 

18. Hamo-rrhage ('pfiyvf'yLi, to break 
forth). A rupture of a blood-vessel; a 
bursting forth of blood; loss of blood. 

19 Htrmo-rrlitea petechialis {phi, to 
flow). A term applied by Dr. Adair to 
the chronic form of purpura. It has also 
been designated as Petechics sine febre ; 
land-scurvi/, &c. 

20. H<rmo-rrlioidal {pew, to flow). A 
term applied to a branch of the sciatic 
nerve; and to arteries of the rectum, 



H^M 



169 



HAM 



because they often bleed; these arei HALO (aXwj, an area). Areola; the 
termed the superior, middle, and in/e- circle or ring surrounding the nipple. 
rior.&c.&c. HALO SIGNATUS. The name giv 



rior, &c. &c 

21. HcBm-ophllialmns [oipOaX^oi, the ej'e). 
An effusion of blood into the chambers ot 
the eye. 

22. Htpmo-rrho'ids { pccj, to flow). Lite- 
rally, a hsemorrhage, and originally used 
in this sense in general ; but now re- 
stricted to the piles. These are termed 
open, when they discharge blood ; and 
blind, when there is no discharge. 

23. Haemostasia {'itrrriixt, losland). Stag- 
nation of blood. Hence 

24. Hamo-slalica {'iarriixt, to stand). 
Styptics. Medicines which stop haemor- 
rhages. 

25. Ha-mo-thorax. An effusion of blood 
into the cavity of the pleura, from a 
wountl, a contusion of the chest, certain 
diseases, &c. 

25. Hamn-spaslic system. A new sys- 
tem of medicine, introduced by Dr. Junod 
of Paris, consisting in the employment of 
a pneumatic apparatus of peculiar con- 
struction, in which the arm or leg is so 
placed as to attract the blood to the ex- 
tremities, without diminishing the mass 
of this liquid. 

27. Hcemo-lrophi) {Tpo<pl), nourishment) 
An excess of sanguineous nutriment, as 
distinguished from hypertrophy, and hy- 
peraemia. See Ancsmolrophy. 

[HAIL. See Rain.] 

HAIR. Each hair consists of a bulb, 
situated under the skin, and a trunk, 
which perforates the skin and cuticle, 
and is enveloped in a peculiar sheath 
The colour of the hair — black, red, an 
burn, and v)hile — depends on that of the 
oil which enters into its composition. 

HAIL LICHEN. The Lichen pilaris ; 
a variety of lichenous rash, in which the 
pimples are limited to ihe roots of the 
hair, and desquamate after ten days. 

HAL'ITUS(/ia/o, to breathe). An aque- 
ous vapour, or gas, for inhalation. 

Halilus of the blood. The vapour which 
arises from the blood when newly drawn 
from the body. Plenck termed it gas 
animale san/ruinis. 

HALLEX {aWofiat, to leap, quod super 
. proximum digitum scandat). Hallus. 
The great toe. 

HALLUCL\ATION (hallucinor, to 
mistake). Depraved or erroneous ima- 
gination. The term has been used as 
synonymous with phantasm, from which 
it should, however, be distinguished, the 
phenomena of hallucination having been 
chiefly observed in the insane. See 
Phantasm. 



given 
by Sir C. Bell to the impressiim of the 
ciliary processes on the anterior surface 
of the vitreous humour, &c., from its 
consisting of a circle of radiations, called 
by Haller, slrim relincB suhjectcB ligamento 
ciliari. By Winslow these marks are 
called sulci ciliares ; by Zinn, corona 
ciliaris. 

HALOGENE (SXy, salt, ycvvdoj, to pro- 
duce). A term employed by Berzelius 
to denote bodies which form salts with 
metals, as chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluo- 
rine, and cyanogen. The salts thus pro- 
duced are called haloids. 

HALOID SALTS (SXj. the sea, sea- 
salts, tliog, likeness). Salt-like com- 
pounds, consisting of a metal on the one 
hand, and of chlorine, iodine, and the 
radicals of the hydracids in general, ex- 
cepting sulphur, on the other. Besides 
the simple haloid salts, Berzelius dis- 
tinguishes the three following combina- 
tions: — 

L Hydro-haloid salts, or combinations 
of a simple haloid salt and the hydracid 
of its radical. 

2. Oiy-halo'id salts, or combinations of 
a metallic oxide with a haloid salt of the 
same metal. 

3. Double haloid sails, consisting — 

1. Of two simple haloifd salts, which 
contain ditibrent metals, but the 
same non-metallic ingredient. 

2. Of two haloid salts, consisting of the 
same metal, but in which the other 
element is different. 

3. Of two simple haloid salts, of 
which both elements are entirely 
different. 

[HAiMAMELIS VIRGLNICA. Witch- 
Hazel. An indigenous shrub, of the 
family Berberideee, the bark of which is 
astringent and bitter, and has been used 
in the shape of a poultice or a decoction, 
and has been employed as a wash, in 
painful tumours and haemorrhoids, oph- 
thalmia, &c. The leaves are said to pos- 
sess similar properties, and a decoction 
of them has been given in bowel com- 
plaints and hremorrhages.] 

HAMULARIA LYMPHATICA. A 
new species of worm discovered by 
Treuiler, a German Physician, in 1789, 
in the bronchial glands of a phthisical 
subject. 

HAMULUS COCHLEAE. Literally, 
the small hook of the cochlea; a kind of 
hook, by which the lamina spiralis ter- 
minates upon the axis, towards the raid- 



HAN 



170 



HEC 



die of the second turn, where the point 
of the infundibulum commences. 

HAND. Manus. The organ of pre- 
hension, consisting of — 

1. The Carpus, or wrist, which is com- 
pose^ of the eight Ibllowing bones: — 

1. Tlie scaphoid, or boat-shaped. 

2. The semilunar, or half moi)n. 

3. The cuneiform, or wedge-like. 

4. The pisiform, or pea-like. 

5. The trapezium, or (bur-sided. 

6. The trapezoid, like the former. 

7. The OS magnum, or large bone. 

8. The unciform, or hook-like. 

2. The Metacarpus, or the four bones 
constituting the pilm and back of the 
hand; the upper ends have plane sur- 
faces ; the lower, convex. Sometimes 

the first bone ol' the thumb is reckoned 
among the metacarpal. 

3. The Digiti, or lingers, consisting of 
twelve bones, arranged in three 2)ha 
langes, or rows. 

4. The Pollex, or thumb, consisting of 
three bones. 

HAPSUS (ujrro/iai, to touch). A hand- 
ful ; a bolster of linen, or woollen, to 
place upon a wound. Cehns. 

[HARDHACK. The common name 
for the Spiraea tomentosa.] 

HARE-BRAINED PASSION. Way- 
ward passion, leading to acts of violence ; 
the manie sans dilire of M. Pinel, who 
ascribes it to the effect of a neglected or 
ill-directed education upon a mind natu- 
rally perverse or unruly. 

HARE-LIP {labia leporina). A con- 
genital division of the lip; so called from 
a fancied resemblance to the upper lip of 
a hare. 

HARMONIA (apjiovia, a close joining, 
from opw, to fit together). A species of 
synarthrosis, or immovable articulation 
of bones. See Articulation. 

HARTSHORN. Cornu cervi. The 
antlers of the Cervus Elaphus, or Stag. 

Spirit of harlskorn. The aqueous solu- 
tion of ammonia, ibrmerly prepared from 
the cornu cervi, or hart's horn. 

HARVEST BUG. The Acarusautmn- 
nalis, a variety of the tick insect, which 
infests the skin in the autumn, producing 
intolerable itching, succeeded by glossy 
wheals; it has hence been called wheal- 
worm. 

HASTATE (hasta, a spear). Spear- 
shaped ; applied to leaves which have 
three lance-shaped lobes, one in the di- 
rection of the midrib, the other two at 
the base at right angles to the first, as in 
Arum maculatum. 

HAUSTUS {haurio, to draw). A 



draught. It differs from a mixture only 
in quantity, and should not exceed an 
ounce and a half 

HAVERSIAN TUBES. A term given, 
from the name of their discoverer, to a 
verv complicated apparatus oi minute 
canals found in the substance ol' bone, 
and containing medullary matter. The 
central canal, as well as the separate 
cells, may be regarded as enlargements 
of them. 

HEADACHE. An original English 
term Ibr pain in the head, megrim, cepha- 
lalgia, cephalaja, &c. 

HE.ADING. A preparation of equal 
parts of alum and green vitriol, used in 
brewing. 

HEART. Cor. The central organ of 
circulation. It is enveloped in a mem- 
brane called the pericardium. It is di- 
vided, externally into a base, or its broad 
part ; a superior and an inferior surface ; 
and an anterior and a posterior margin. 
Internally, it consists, in man, of lour 
cavities, viz. two auricles and two ven- 
tricles, and is thence called double. 

1. Heart, caudal. A pulsating palish 
sac, containing red blood, and situated at 
the caudal extremity of the eel. 

2. Heart, lymphatic. A term applied 
by Midler to some small pulsating sacs 
in the frog, the snake, &c., considered 
by him as hearts of the lymphatic sys- 
tem. 

3. Heart, displacement of. Ectopia 
cordis, from cktottiscl), to displace, or ixrd- 
mof, displaced. It is congenital; or the 
eflect of effused fluid,or of its subsequent 
absorption, &c. 

4. Heart-burn. Cardialgia mordens. 
.\ gnawing or burning uneasiness, ielt 
chiefly at the cardia. See Circulation. 

HEAT. The sensation experienced on 
toiiciiing a body of a higher temperature 
than that of the blood. In chemical lan- 
guage it is the cause of that sensation, or 
caloric. 

HEAT, PRICKLY. The Lichen tro- 
picus; a species of lichenous rash. 

HEAVV SPAR. Sulphate of baryles. 

H E B R A DEN DRON C AMBOGIOI- 
DES. The Gamboge Jlebradendron ; 
a Gutliferous plant, which yields a kind 
of gamboge not distinguishable from that 
of Siam. 

HECTIC {iKTiKOi. habitual). This 
term is sometimes used, like the Greek 
feminine, as a substantive, to denote a 
habitual or veiy protracted fever; but, 
more generally, as an adjective, in con- 
junction with the term fever, todesignate 
the same disease. 



HEC 



171 



HEM 



[HECTOGRAMME. A French mea- 
sure of weight, equal to 3 oz. 1 dr. 43-4 
grains Trov.] 

HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES. A La- 
biate plant of North America, highly re- 
puted as an emmenagogue, and called 
penvyroyal. 

[HEDERA HELIX. Ivy. An Euro- 
pean plant, of the fiimily Caprifolia; ; 
the fresh leaves are used externally for 
dressing issues, and a decoction of them 
has been recommended in cutaneous af- 
fections. 

[Hederin. A peculiar alkaline princi- 
ple, obtained by Vandamme and (Jheval- 
lier from ivy seeds, and which is said to 
be closely allied to ijuinia in febrifuge 
properties.] 

[HELENIN. A white concrete sub- 
stance, obtained from Inula, intermediate 
in its properties between the essential 
oils and camphor] 

[H E L E N I U M AUTUMNAL E. 
Sneezewort. An indigenous, perennial 
herbaceous plant, the dried leaves and 
flowers of which have been used as an 
errhine.] 

IJELIOSTAT (.'jXioj, the sun, 'larrj^^t, 
to stand). An instrument by which the 
sunbeam can be steadily directed to one 
spot during the whole of its diurnal 
period. 

HELIOTROPIUM (-'iX(o<r, the sun 
TpcTTco, to turn). The lilood-stone, so 
called from the blood-red specks occa- 
sionally appearing on its green surfiice 
and formerly used to stop a bleeding 
from the nose. 

HELIX (tXff, from IXiaao), to turn 
about). A coil; a spiral, or winding 
line. This term denotes, — 

^^l. The outer bar or margin of the ex- 
ternal ear. Hence, helicis mnjnr and 
helicis minor, two muscles of the helix 
H 2. The name of a coil of wire, used in 
magneto-galvanic experiments. 

3. A testaceous animal, inhabiting a 
spiral shell, as the snail, &c. The helix 
poinalia is the Creator Vineyard Snail; 
a popular remedy lor emaciation, with 
hectic fever and phthisis. 

HELLEBORUS (tWipopog. qu. l\m>, 
to seize, (hpa, in eating). Hellebore : 
a poisonous genus of Ranunculaceous 
plants. 

1. HelhhoTus fcetidus. Fostid Helle- 
bore, or Bear's-foot; a plant retained in 
the list of Materia Medicn, but rarely 
used. Its leaves have been strongly re- 
commended as a vermifuge against the 
ascaris lumbricoides. 

2. Helleborus nis'er. Black Hellebore, 



or Christmas rose ; a plant reputed in 
classic writers as a remedy for mania, 
and hence recomrneoded by Horace to 
ihe poels of his day. See Melam/jodiiim. 

3. Hellehorits orieutalis. The root of 
this species was formerly much extolled 
in mania, epilepsy, and dropsy; it is still 
used in the Levant, and is called zopiemc 
by the Turks, and cKapfi-i by the Greeks. 

4. The term Helleliore has been applied 
10 the Veralrum album, probably from it.s 

imilar properties. Yet the former is an 
exogenous, the latter an endogenous 
plant. 

HELMINS {fXfKi's, tX/ifi/Oos). Vennis. 
The Greek term lor a worm. 

1. Helmititli-afrogues (uycj, to expel). 
Anthelmintics; remedies against worms. 

2. Helminthiasis. A disease peculiar 
to some countries, in which worms, or 
their larva;, are bred under the skin, &c. 

3. Helmintho corton (xoprog, food ?). 
Corsican Moss ; a species of Gigailina, 
supposed to be particularly efficacious 
agamst the ascaris lumbricoides. 

HELO'DES (fXoj, a marsh). A term 
applied to fevers produced by marsh 
miasma. 

HE'LOS (i^Xos, clavus, a nail). A name 
given to the tumour formed by prolapsus 
or procidentia iridis. See Myocephalon. 

HEMERALOPIA i^hptpa, the day, 
(iXadi, blind, S)ip, Ihe eye). Diurna ca;ci- 
tudo, or day-blindness. This term is used 
by Hippocrates (by omission of the dXadj?) 
lo denote night-blindness — caligo tene- 
brariun; dysopia tenebrarum. Sauvages 
terms it amblyopia crcpuscularis. See 
Syctalopia. 

HEMI- (i'lfdo-iif). The Greek prefi,\ 
for half, corresponding with the Latin 
semi. 

1. Hemi-crania (Kpdvioy, the head). A 
pain which affects only one side of the 
head. See Megrim. 

2. Hemi-opia {Mip, the eye). Visus 
dimidialus. A defect of vision, in which 
only half of the object is seen. 

3. Jfemi-plrgia {■n-'Xiiaaco. to strike). Pa- 
ralysis of one side of the body. 

4. Hrmi-ptrra (Trripoi', a wing). Insects 
which have one liall' of their wings thick 
and coriaceous, and the other half mem- 
branous, as the bug, tick, &c. 

5. Hemispheres {a<l>aXpa, a sphere). 
The two parts which constitute the 
upper surface of the cerebrum. They 
are separated by the falx cerebri. 

HEMIDi':SMUS INDICUS. An As- 
clppiadaceous plant, the root of which is 
used in India under the name o( country 
sarsaparilta. It has been called Indian 



HEM 



172 



HER 



or scented sarsaparilla, nannari, or the, 9. Hepato-phyma (ipvixa, a suppurating 
root ot'smilnx asjiem. tumour). A suppurative swelling of the 

HKMliN'A. A i{i)man measure of ca- liver, 
paciiy, consisting of half a se.\Iarius, or| IIKPAR ANTIMONH. Liver of Anti- 
three qiiariers of a pint, imony; an o.\y-sulphurel. The term 

IIE.MP. A powerful slimul;iting nar-^ Ae/wi/- \va.s formerly applied to the com- 
cotic, much employed in some couiilrics] binaiions of sulphur vviih alkalies, from 
as an intoxicating drug. See Cajntahis. \iheir liver-like appearance. Hence we 

flEMP-SEED. The name of some have also, — 
varieties of the muiier;-!/ ca/cH/ui!, which 1. IJcpur calci.i. A crude bisulphuret 
are remarkably smooth and pale-coloured, of calcium, recommended as an external 
resembling hemp-seed. application to crusla lactea. 

HENB.\i*JE. A powerfully-narcotic 2. Hepar sulphnri.i. Liver of sulphur; 
plant, said to be poisonous to the domes- the old pharraaceuiic name of a liver- 
tic fowl. The botanical name suggests brown sulphuret of potash. 
a different etymology. See Hi/oscyamus. 3. Hepar snlphuris volalilis. Volatile 

HEN-BLL\Di\ESS. A name some-j liver oi' sulphur. This is also termed 
times given to nyctalopia, or night-blind-' Boyle"s or Beguin's Fuming Spirit; sul- 
ness, from a natural defect in hens, in phuretum ammonis; sulphuretted hy- 



consequence of which they cannot see 
to pic'k up small grains in the dusk of the 
evening, and so employ this time in going 
to roost. 

HENNE'. A substance procured in 
Egypt, from the Lawsonia inermis, with 
which the women slain their lingers and 
feet ; it is also used for dyeing skins and 
maroquins of a reddish yellow. 

HEPAll inirap, i,-aros). The liver; 
the orsan which secretes the bile. 



droguret of ammonia, or the hydro-sul- 
phurel of ammonia. 

4. Hepatic air. Another name for sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas. 

5. Hepatic cinnabar. A dark-coloured, 
steel-gray variety of cinnabar. 

6. Hepatic pyrites. Hepatic sulphuret 
of iron ; A variety of prismatic iron py- 
rites, which becomes brswn on exposure 
to the air. 

Hepatite. A variety of heavy spar, 



1. Hepal-alaia (aXyos, pain). Pain in.or sulphate of barytes, containing a mi 
the liver. Svvellingof the liver is termed nute portion of sulphur, and emitting, 



hepatalgia infarcta, liver disease, en- 
larged liver, &c. 

2. Hepatic. A term applied to any 
part belonging to the liver. 

3. Hepatic Jlitx. Bilious flux ; the 
name given in the East to a variety of 
dysentery, in which there is a frequent 
flow of bilious fluid from the rectum. 

4. Hepat-itis. Inflammation of the 
liver. The term is used by Galen in the 
present sense, but it is more usually em- 
ployed adjeciively, with the sense ol' he- 
patic. The Latin word hepatitis is only 



when healed or rubbed, a fetid sulphu- 
rous odour. 

8. Hepalule. A name given by Kir- 
wan to the hydrosulphurel of other 
wrilere. 

[HEPATICA AMERICANA. Liver- 
wort. An indigenous, Ranuncnlaceous 
plant, supposed lo possess diuretic and 
deobstruent properties. It is but little 
used.] 

HEPAT'ICyE {TiTTop, iVaro;, the liver). 
The Liver-wort tribe of Acotyledonous 
plants. Cellular, Jlowerless plants, con- 



used, according to Pliny, as " gemmajsisting of an axis or stem, either leafy or 
nomen a figura jocinoris." Forbes. bordered; reproductive organs are \a.l\ed 

5. Hepaio-rrhasa (piot, to flow}. Lite-|/Aef« of difltrent kinds. 



rally, a liver-flow; a morbid flow of bile 

6. Hepatization. Carriification. A 
change induced in the lungs by inflam- 
mation, in which it loses its vesicular and 
crepitating character, and resembles ihe 
liver in llrmiiess and weight, sinking in 
water. It is divided into the red, and 
into the gray, or purulent inflltration. 
Compare Spleenization. 

7. Hepato-cele {Kij^ri, a tumour). He- 
patic hernia; hernia of the liver. 

8. Hepato-gastric. A name of the 
smaller omentum, which passes from life 
liver to the stomach. 



HEPTANDRIA (£Tra, seven, dviip, a 
man). The seventh class of the Linnean 
system, including those plants which 
have seven stamens. 

Heptandrons, having seven stamens, 
of about equal lenstlh. 

HEPTAPHARMACUM (iTrra, seven, 
ipapi.iaKoi', a medicine). A medicine com- 
posed of seven ingredients: these were 
ceruse, litharge, pitch, wax, colophony, 
incense, and ox-fat. 

[HERACLEUM LANATUM. Mas- 
lerwort. An indigenous. Umbelliferous 
plant, the root of which is somewhat 



HER 



173 



HER 



stimulant and carminative, and lias been 
emplo\ed in epilepsy. The dose of the 
powdered root is from ."'J- 'o o'U] 

HERB BENNET. The Geum urba- 
num, or Avens; the term is probably 
contracted liom herha benedicta. 

HERBARIUM (/icria, an herb). A col- 
lection of dried specimens of plants, for- 
merly known by the expressive term 
hortiis siccus, or dried garden. 

HERCULES BOV'lI. Gold and mer- 
cury dissolved in a distillation of cop- 
peras, nitre, and sea-salt; a violently 
cathartic preparation. 

HEREDITARY {kcEres, an heir). A 
term applied to diseases supposed to be 
transmitted from parents to their chil-j 
dren. 

HE RMAPHRODITE('EpA<.lf, Mercury, 
'A^poCir/;, Venus). Androgyiius. A liisus 
naiura:, m which the organs of genera- 
tion appear to be a mixture of both 
sexes. In botany, plants are so called 
whicii contain the stamen and pistil in 
the same flower; all other flowering 
plants are called unisexual. 

HERMETIC SEAL('Epn.K, Mercury). 
The closing of the end ot a glass vessel 
v.hen heated to the melting point. The 
name is derived from the Egyptian 
Hermes, supposed to have been the liilher 
of Chemistry, which has been called the 
HermHic Art. 

HERMODACTYLUS (Epfii?;, Mer- 
cury, ^lU-ri'Xoj, a finger). The name by 
which the ancients designated a plant 
supposed to be a species of Colchicum. 

HERiNIA (zpvo;, a branch, so called 
from its protruding forward). The pro- 
trusion of one or more of the viscera into 
a sac, formed of the pevitonjEum. A 
hernia is termed reducible, when it ad- 
raits of being replaced in the abdomen ; 
irreducible, when it suffers no constric- 
tion, yet cannot be put back, owing to 
adhesions or its large size; and incar- 
cerated or strangulated, when it not only 
cannot be reduced, but also suffers con- 
striction. This disease is distinguished 
with reference to, — 

I. Its Situation. 

1. Hernia cruralis. Femoral hernia; 
or a protrusion under Pou part's ligament. 
The passage through which the hernia 
descends is called, by Gimbernat, the 
crural, by Hey, \\\e femoral ring ; and by 
Cloquet, the crural canal. 

2. Hernia inguinalis. Bubonocele ; or 
hernia at the groin. It is termed incom- 
plete or oblique, when it does not pro- 
trude through the abdominal ring; and 

11 



complete or direct, when it passes out at 
that opening. 

3. Hernia inguino-inierstilial. This 
term is applied by Dr. Goyraud to the 
form of hernia termed by most authors 
incomplete inguinal, and described by 
Boyer as iutra-inguinal. The former 
term was considered objectionable, be- 
cause, whatever may be their situation, 
when the viscera have escaped from the 
abdomen, the hernia is complete ; the 
latter was also objectionable, because the 
inguinal canal does not always constitute 
the limits of the protruded viscera. 

4. Hernia ischiatica. Hernia occurring 
at the ischiatic notch. 

5. Hernia j)erinealis. Hernia of the 
perina;um, occurring, in men, between 
the bladder and rectum; and in women, 
between the rectum and vagina. 

6. Hernia pvdendalis. Hernia which 
descends, between the vagina and ramus 
ischii, into the labium. 

7. Hernia scrotalis. Oscheocele; hernia 
enteroscheocele, or osc-healis, when omen- 
tum or intestine, or both, descend into 
the scrotum ; epiploscheocele, when omen- 
tum only ; sleulocele, when sebaceous 
matter descends. 

8. Hernia tln/roidalis. Hernia of the 
foramen ovale. 

9. Hernia umhilicalis. Omphalocele, 
or exomphalos. Hernia of the bowels at* 
the umbilicus. It is called pneumatom- 
phalos, when owing to flatulency. 

10. Hernia vaginalis. Elytrocele; or 
hernia occurring within the os externum. 

11. Hernia ventralis. Hypogastrocele ; 
or hernia occurring at any part of the 
from of the abdomen, most frequently 
between the recti muscles. 

12. Hernia carnosa. Sarcoeele. A 
fleshy enlargement of the testis; a tu- 
mour seated m the scrotum. 

13. Hernia mesenlerica et mesocolica. 
Hernia through the lacerated mesentery, 
or mesocolon. 

14. Hernia phrenica. Hernia of the 
diaphragm. 

15. Hernia of the intestines. Hernia 
through a loop formed by adhesions, &c. 

n. Its Contents. 

16. Hernia cerebri. Fungus cerebri. 
Encephalocele. Hernia of the brain. 

17. Hernia intestinalis. Enterocele; 
containing intestine onl)'. 

18. Hernia omentalis. Epiplocele ; 
containing a portion of omentum only. 
If both intestine and omentum contribute 
td the formation of the tuinnir, it is called 
entero-epiplocele. 



HER 



174 



HIC 



19. Hernia uteri. Hysterocele. Hernia 
of the uterus. 

20. Hernia vesicaUs. Cystocele; or 
hernia ol' the bladder. 

21. Hernia corneae. Ceratocele ; or 
hernia of the cornea. 

III. lis Condition. 

22. Hernia congenita. Congenital her- 
nia; appearing at birth. 

23. Hernia incarcerata. Strangulated 
hernia; or irreducible hernia with con- 
striction. 

IV. Misapplied Terms. 

24. Hernia guUuris. Bronchocele, 
goitre, or enlargement of the thyroid 
gland. 

25. Hernia humoralis. Inflammatio 
.testis, or swelled testis. 

26. Hernia sacci lacrymalis. The name 
given by Beer to rupture of the lacrymal 
sac. It has been also called mucocele. 
See Fistula lacrymalis. 

27. Hernia varicosa. Cirsocele, or a 
'Varicose enlargement of the spermatic 
•vein. 

28. Hernia venlosa, or flatulenta. 
Pneumatocele; or hernia distended with 
flatus. 

HERNIOTOMY (liernia, and rofif), 
section). The operation lor strangulated 
hernia. 

HERPES (fp-oi, to creep). Tetter; 
clustered vesicles, concreting into scabs. 
The name is derived from the progressive 
extension of the eruption. 

1. Herpes labialis. Herpes of the lip; 
occasionally diffused on the velum and 
palate. 

2. Herpes zoster. Herpes spreading 
across the waist or thorax, like a sash or 
fivvord-belt, commonly called sJdngles. 

3. Herpes phlyclcenodes. Herpes simi- 
lar to the preceding, but of less regular 
form, occurring on any part of the body, 
commonly called nirles. 

4. Herpes circinnatus. Herpes of a 
more chronic form than the preceding; 
commonly called ringworm. 

5. Herpes prapulialis. Herpes of the 
prepuce, or the labia pudendi. 

6. Herpes iris. Rainbow ringworm. 
[Herpetic. Of the nature of herpes.] 
HESPERIDIN. A cryslallizable, neu- 
tral principle found in the white jwrtion 
of the rind of the fruit of the genus 
Citrus. 

HESPERIDIUM. .\ many-celled, su- 
perior, indehiscent fruit, covered by a 
;6pon2y separable rind, as the orange. 

HETERO- (er^fiOi, other). A Greek 
terra denoting difference : — 



1. Heter-adelphia {d6i\ipdi, a brother). 
A term applied by Geoffrey St. Iliiaire to 
union of liie bodies of two fffituses. In 
these cases one foetus generally attains 
its perfect growth; the oiher remains un- 
developed, or acephalous, maintaining 
a parasitic life upon its brother. 

2. Helero-geneous^yinoi, kind). A term 
used to denote substances, the parts of 
which are of different kinds. Compare 
Homogeneous. 

3. Hetero-logous formation {\6yog, an 
account). A term applied to a solid or 
fluid substance, different from any of the 
solids or fluids which enter into the 
healthy composition of the body. {Cars- 
well.) It is synonymous with the hetero- 
plastic matter of Lobstein. 

4. Hetero-pathy (ttoOoj, disease). The 
art of curing founded on differences, by 
which one morbid condition is removed 
by inducing a differerrt one. Compare 
Homapathy. 

5. Hetero-plasis (TrXaais, formation). A 
term employed by Lobstein in the same 
sense as that of heterologous formation, 
adopted by Carswell. The same writer 
applies the term euplasis to organizable 
matter, by which the tissues of the body 
are renewed. 

6. Hetero-tropal (rpi-u, to turn). That 
which has its direction across the body 
10 which it belongs; a term applied to 
the embryo of the seed. 

[HEUCHERA AMERICANA. Alum- 
root. An indigenous plant of the natural 
order Saxifragaceas, the root of which is 
very astringent.] 

HEVEENE. An oil obtained in the 
rectification of oil of caoutchouc, and de- 
rived from the Hevea guianensis, one of 
the Euphorbiaceaj from which caout- 
chouc is extracted. 

HEXANDRIA (??, six, dvfip, a man). 
The sixth class of the Linnean system, 
including those plants which have six 
stamens. Hence — 

Hexandrous, having six stamens of 
about equal length. 

HI.^TUS FALLOPII {hiatus, an open- 
ing, from hio, to gape). An opening in 
the tympanum, named from Fallopius. 

HIBISCUS MOSCHATUS. A Mal- 
vaceoiis plant, reputed to be of powerful 
efficacy against the bite of venomous 
reptiles. The present generic name is 
Ahtlmoschns. 

HICCORY. An American plant which 
yields a vellow dve : Order Jtiglandem. 

HICCUP or HICCOUGH. A spas- 
modic contraclion of the diaphragm, with 
partial closure of the larynx. The term 



HID 



175 



HOM 



corresponds with the French hoquet, and 
the German sc/ilucken, and is perhaps 
meant to iraitale the sound it denotes. 
The Greek XOyf or Avy^df, and the Latin 
singultus, which have been applied to 
this affection, rather denote sobbing. 

HJ DE-BOUND. A term descriptive 
of tiiat state in horses, m wliich the skin 
is tightly drawn over the emaciated mus- 
cles; also, of a disease in trees, when the 
bark cleaves too close to the wood. 

I-IIDROA Ctcpi>i, sweat). The term 
given by Sauvages and Vogel to eczema, 
or heat eruption; the halo, with which 
the vesicle is surrounded, is popularly 
called a heut spot. 

HIDRO'TICA ((Jpojf, lipoiroi, sweat). 
Medicines which cause perspiration. 

HI'ERA PrCRA (Upoi, holy, Trupds, 
bitter). Vu\gb, likcory piccory. A name 
which has been long applied in the shops 
to the Pulvis Aloes cum Canella. It 
was formerly called hiera logadii, and 
made in the form of an electuary with 
honey. 

HIERONOSOS {'ispog, sacred, voa-og, dis- 
ease). Morbus sacer. Literally, sacred 
disease; an ancient term lor epilepsy. 

HIGHGATE RESL>J. Fossil Copal; 
found in the bed of blue clay at High- 
gate. 

HILUM. The point of the seed by 
which it is attached to the placenta. 
This is the base of the seed. 

HILUS LlEiMS. A fissure observed 
on the internal and concave surface of 
the spleen, through which the vessels 
enter and leave the substance of the 
organ. 

HIP. The ripe fruit of the Rosa ca- 
nina, or dog-rose; it is chiefly used for 
making the confection of that name. 

HIPPO- (iimoi, a horse). A Greek term, 
denoting a reference to the horse, the sea- 
horse ; or, simply, a large size : — 

1. Hippo-campus ((fd^Trrto, to bend). 
The sea-horse ; the name of a small 
marine animal. Hence the term is ap- 
plied to two kinds of convolution of the 
brain, — the hippocampus minor, situated 
in the posterior horn, and the hippocam- 
pus major, situated in the inferior horn of 
the ventricles of the brain. See Cornu 
Ammonis. 

2. Hippo-caslanum, or the Horse-chest- 
nut. In ihis term, and in several others, 
as hippo-lappaihum, hippo-maraihrum, 
hippo-selmum, «iic., the prefix is a Gre- 
cism, denoting size. 

3. Hippo-lithns {\idoi, a alone). A con- 
cretion found in the intestines of horses, 
composed of ammoniacal phosphate of 



magnesia, derived from the husk of the 
oais on which they feed. 

4. Hippo-manes (navta, madness). A 
humour in mares, said to be merely the 
mucus of the vagina in season, employed 
as an aphrodisiac. Anciently an ingre- 
dient ill philtres. 

6. Hipp-uric acid (ovpov, urine). An 
acid obtained from the urine of the horse, 
cow, and other graminiveious animals. 

6. Hipp-uris {.oipa, a tail). The final 
division of the spinal marrow, also termed 
Cauda equina, or horse's tail, from the 
division of the nerves which issue from 
it. Also, a genus of plants, so called 
from their resemblance to a horse's tail. 

HIPPUS PUPILL^. A peculiar mo- 
tion of the iris, consisting of a constant 
fluttering between expansion and con- 
traction. It occurs in amaurosis. 

HIRCINE (hircus, a goat). A sub- 
stance contained in the lat of the goat 
and sheep, yielding, by saponification, 
the hircic acid. 

HIRSUTIES [hirsutus, shaggy). Shag- 
giness; superfluous growth of hair. 

HIRU'DO MEDICINALIS. The me- 
dicinal leech ; named by the Romans 
haurio, as expressive of its well-known 
peculiar action. 

[HISPID {hispidus, bristly). Covered 
with long rigid hairs.] 

HIVES. The popular name in the 
north of England, and in some parts of 
Scotland, for a species of Chicken-pox — 
the Varicella globularis of WiUan. See 
Croup. 

HOFFMANNI LIQUOR ANODY- 
NUS. Hoffman's Anodyne Solution, or 
the Spiritus .^theris Sulphurici Compo- 
situs, 

HOG GUM. A substance yielded by 
the Rhus metopium. Dr. Pereira says he 
has met with an unsaleable gum, under 
this name, resembling a sample in his 
possession oi' false tragacanlh, or gomme 

HOJVIBERG'S PHOSPHORUS. Ig- 
nited muriate of lime. See Phosphorus. 

HOMBERG'S PYROPHORUS {nip, 
fire, 0Epa), to bring). A mixture of alum 
and brown sugar, which takes fire on 
exposure to the air. A more convenient 
mixture is made with three parts of lamp- 
black, four of burnt alum, and eight of 
carbonate of potash. 

HOMBERG'S SEDATIVE SALT. 
A name for boracic acid, which appears, 
however, to possess no sedative properly. 

HOiMCEOPATHY (6>o«)f. similar, ttA- 
9oi, disease). The art of curing founded 
on resemblances, introduced by Samuel 



HOM 



176 



HOR 



Hahnemann. The principle is, that every | of the Philadelphia College of Pharmaev. 
disease is curable by such medicines as iK. Aloes Barbadensis, gviij. ; Ferri sulph. 
would produce, in a healthy person, symp-exsic. gij., 3iss., vel Ferri sulphat. 
toms similar to those which characterize crystal. 3iv.; Extr. hellebori nig. 30- >" 
the given disease. — " Similia similibus MyrrhiE, gij.; Saponis, 3'j- ! Caiiella; in 
curentur," in opposition to the "contra- pul v. tritaj, 3J.; Zingiberis in pulv. Irit. 
ria contrariis," — or heleropath]/. 3J. Beat them well together into a mass 

HOMOGEIS'EOUS {'oiidg, like, ytvoi;. vvith water, and divide into pills, each 
kind). This term denotes substances containing two and a half grains.] 



made up of parts possessing the same 
properties. Heterogeneous, on the con- 
trary, denotes that the parts are of dif- 
ferent qualities: thus, in minerals, sand- 
stone is a homogeneous, and granite a 
libterogeneons, bod v. 

HOxMO-TROPAL (6^,of, the same, rp6- 
Toj, a turn). Having the same direction 
as the body to which it belongs, but not 
being straight; a terra applied to the 
embryo of the seed. 

HOMEY. Mel. A vegetable juice, 
collected from the nectaries of flowers by 
the Apis mellifica, or Honey Bee. With 
vinegar it (brms oxi/mel. 

1. Virgin honey. Honey wrought by 
the young bees which have never swarm- 
ed, and which runs I'rom the comb with- 
out heat or pressure. 

2. Clarified honey. Mel despumatum; 
honey melted in a water-bath, and cleared 
from scum. 

3. Acetated honey. Mel acetatum, or 
the osymel simplex ; clarified honey and 
acetic acid. 

4. Egyptian honey. Osymel ceruginis, 
or linimentum seruginis; clarified honey, 
with aerugo and vinegar. 

5. Honey of borax. Mel boracis; clari- 
fied honey, and bruised borax. 

6. Rose honey. Mel rosa; ; clarified 
honey, the petals of the rosa gallica, and 
water. 

HONEY-BAG. The crop or sucking 
stomach of the honey-bee, in which it 
transports the honey from the flower to 
the hive. 

HONEY^DEW. A sweetish substance 



HOOP1-\G COUGH. Whooping cough. 
These are vernacular English terms, de- 
rived lirom the verb to hoop or whoop, 
signifying to call with a loud voice. The 
attection is the tussus convnlsiva of Willis, 
the tussis ferina of Hoffman. See jPer- 
tussis. 

Chincough. According to Johnson, for 
kincovgh, from kinchen, to cough. Is it 
a corruption from chine-cough? 

HOPS. The strobiles of the Humulus 
hipiilus, or Hop-plant. 

HORDEI Sfc:MlNA. Pearl barley ; the 
grains of the Hordcum dislichon, the Com- 
mon or Long-eared Barley, after the husks ■ 
have been removed. 

1. Hordeummundalum. S(;otch, hulled, 
or pot barley, consisting of the grains de- 
prived of their husk by a mill. 

2. Hordeum perlatum. Pearl barley; 
the grains divested of their husk, round- 
ed, and polished. The farina obtained 
by grinding pearl barley to powder is 
called patent barley. 

3. Hordei decocium. Decoction of bar- 
ley, commonly called barley water. 

4. Hordein. The principle of barley ; 
a peculiar modification of starch. 

HORDEOLUM (dim. oihordeum, bar- 
ley). A stye, or small tumour on the eye- 
lids, resembling a barley-corn. 

HOR A". A substance consisting of 
coagulated albumen and gelatine. It 
differs from bone in containing only a 
trace of earih. 

HORN SILVER. Luna cornea. The 
chloride of silver; the term is derived 
from its forming a gray semi-transparent 



ejected by very small insects, called] mass, which may be cut with a knife, 
aphides, upon the leaves of plants, and and much resembles horn. 



vulgarly supposed to be caused by 
blight, or some disease in the plant. 
There is another kind of honey-dew, ob- 
served only at particular times, and in 
certain states of the atmosphere, hanging 
occasionally in drops from the points of 
the leaves of plants ; its cause is not 
known. 

[HOOPERS FEMALE PILLS. A 
nostrum which has been extensively 
used as a purgative and emrnenagogue. 
The following is the formula for its 
preparation recommended by a committee 



1. Horn Lead. Plumbum comeum ; 
the chloride of lead, a semi-transparent 
mass, resembling horn. 

2. Horn Quicksilver. A natural proto- 
chloride of quicksilver; it has a white 
horn-like appearance. 

HORN POCK. Crystnlliiie pock. A 
form of Variola, in which the pimples 
are imperfectly suppurating, ichorous or 
horny, and semi-transparent. 

HORNBLENDE. Amphilole. A sili- 
cate of lime and magnesia. 

HORRIPILATIO (horreo, to dread. 



HOR 



177 



HYD 



pilus, the hair). [Horripilalion.] A sense 
of creeping in diiferent pans of the body; 
a symptom of the approacli of fever. 

HORSE-RADISH. The Cochlearia Ar- 
moracia. The term horse, as an epithet, 
in this case, is a Grecism, as also in horse- 
mint, &c.; the same may be said of the 
term btiU, in bull-rash, &c. ; these terms 
are derived from 'h-n-o; and Povg. respec- 
tively, which merely denote greatnes/t; 
Bu-ceplialus, for Alexander's horse; Bu- 
limia, for voracious appetite; Bu-phthal- 
mus, for dropsy of the eye; Bu-cnemia, 
for swelled lei;, &c. See Hippo. 

HORTUS SICCUS (a dry garden). 
An emphatic appellation given to a col- 
lection of specimens of plants, carel'ully 
dried and preserved ; a more general term 
is herbartnm. 

HOSPITAL GANGRENE. A com- 
bination of humid gangrene with pliage- 
denic ulceration, occirrring in crowded 
hospitals, &c. ; al.so termed phagedena 
gangra^nosa, putrid or malignant ulcer, 
hospital sore, &c. 

HOUR-GLASS CONTRACTION. An 
irregular and transverse conlraciion of 
the uterus, in which it assumes the form 
of an hour-glass. 

HOUSE-LEEK. The Sempervivum 
tectorum; a plant of the order Crassula- 
cea. common on roofs and walls. 

HOWARD'S or JEWEL'S HYDRO- 
SUBLIMATE. A 'patent calomel, pre- 
pared by exposing the salt in the act of 
sublimation to aqueous vapour, and re- 
ceiving it in water. It is lighter than 
common calomel, in the proportion oi 
three to five, and cannot contain any 
corrosive sublimate. 

HUM150LD1TE. A mineral, consist- 
ing of oxalate of lime, and forming the 
basis of a species of urinary calctilus. 

HUMECTANTIA (liumecto, to moist- 
en). Moistening and sofiening medicines. 

HUMERUS (cof<of ). The shoulder, 
consi.sfing ot' two bones, the scapula and 
the clavicle. 

[Humeral. Belonging lo the arm.] 

HUMILIS (humble). A name given 
to the rectus inferior, i'rom the expression 
of humility or modesty which the action 
of this muscle imparts. 

HUMORAL PATHOLOGY. A sys- 
tem in medicine, which attributed all 
diseases to morbid changes in the hu- 
mours or fluid parts of the body, without 
as.signing any inlluence to the state of 
the solids. 

HUMORIC {humor, a humour). A 
term applied by M. Piorry lo a peculiar 
sound, produced on percussion, by the 



stomach, when that organ contains much 
air and liquid. It resembles the metallic 
tiriMlniT of Laennec. 

HUMOUR {humeo, to be moist, from 
humus, the ground). A" humour; an 
aqueous substance. [A general term for 
any tliiid; but particularly applied to 
those of the human body, both in their 
healthy and diseased stales.] The hu- 
mours of the eye are, the Aqtteovs, the 
Vitreous, and the Crystalline. [See these 
words.] 

HUMULUS LUPULUS. The Com- 
mon Hop; a Dioscious plant, of the order 
UrticacecE. [See Hops and Lupulin.] 

HUMUS. Vegetable mould; woody 
fibre in a state of decay. The various 
names of itlmiri, humic acid, coal of hu- 
7nus, and humin, are applied to modifica- 
tions oi'humtis. 

Humic acid of chemists. A product of 
the decomposition of humus by alkalies; 
it does not exist in the humus of vegetable 
physiologists. — Liebig. 

HYACINTH. Amineral occurring of 
various colours, composed principally of 
the earth called zirconia. 

HYALOIDES {va\os, glass, eloog, like- 
ness). The name of the membrane which 
encloses the vitreous humour of the eye ; 
it consists of numerous cellules, communi- 
calinsr with each other. 

HYBERNATION (hyberna, winter- 
quarters for soldiers; from hyems, win- 
ter.) A reptile state of the functions, 
which occurs in some animals in winter, 
as the bat, hedge-hog, dormouse, hamster, 
&c. Compare Diurnalion. 

HYBO'SIS (I'/idf, curved). The name 
given by the Greek writers to the lateral 
curvature of the spine. It is the hyboma 
scoliosis of Swediaur, and the rhuchybia 
of Dr. Good. 

HYBRID [hyhrida, from vfipiq, injuria, 
.'c. illata nalurffi). Mongrel; a term ap- 
plied to plants and animals of a cross 
breed. 

HYDARTIIRUS (iWo.p, water, updpov, 
a joint). Hydarthrosis. 'VVhite swelling; 
dropsv of an articulation, from an accu- 
mulation of synovia; generally occurring 
in the knee-joint; the spina verUosa of 
the Arabian writers. 

HYDATIS {viaTi;, a vesicle, from 
vc<,ift, water). A hydatid ; a pellucid 
cyst, containing a transparent fluid, de- 
veloped in a cavity or tissue of the 
human body, &c. ; the term is now used 
to designate an order of intestinal worms. 

1. Hi/datis acephalocystis (a, priv.. kc- 
i;-a\ii. the head, Kvan;. a bladder). The 
headless hydatid, or bladder-worm. 



H YD 



178 



H YD 



2. Hydalis ccenurus (KOivdi, common, 
oipa, a tail). The hydatid conlainina 
several animals grouped together, and 
terminating in one tail. 

3. Hi/dalis c'i/!:ticercus (ifwrif, a blad- 
der, KcpKo;, a tail). The bladder-tailed 
hydatid. 

4. Hi/datis ditrachijceros (6U, twice, 
rpaxvs, rough, Kcpa^, a horn). The hy- 
datid furnished with a rough bifurcated 
horn. 

5. Hi/dalis echinococcus {txTvo;, a hedge- 
hog, kSkko;, a grain). .The round rough 
hydatid. 

6. Hydatis polycephalus (iroXvf, many, 
Ke<pa\!h' the head). The many-headed 
hydatid. 

7. To these may be added a white en- 
cysted body, which Raspail names the 
nvuliffer of (he joint of the vrrisl, and 
considers as a new genus, intermediate 
between the cysticercus and the cce- 
nurus. 

8. The rot and the stasssers in sheep are 
occasioned by the developement of two 
species of vesicular worms, the cy.tticercns 
luientun and te?niicollis, and ihe ccenurus 
cerehralis of Rudolphi, the one in the 
liver, or some other of the abdominal 
viscera; the other in the ventricles of the 
brain. The sheep which feed in sail 
meadows are exempt from this disorder. 
— iMenriec. 

HYDERUS {J^kpoi). Literally, water- 
flux; a name given by the Greeks to 
diabetes, which was also called urinal 
dropsy, urinary diarrhnca, and dipsacus, 
from its accompanying thirst. 

HYDRA {vitop, water). A polypus in- 
digenous in our brooks, destitute of a 
stomach, brain, viscera, or lungs. 

[HYDRASTIS CANADENSrS. Yel- 
low root. An indigenous, Kanuncula- 
r.eous plant. The root is very bitter, and 
is popularly used as a tonic, and the in- 
fusion has also been employed in oph- 
thalmia. By the Indians it is used as a 
yellow dye.] 

HY'DR-, HYDRO- {vScop, vSaroi, wa- 
ter). A prefix generally denoting the 
presence of water in definite proportions ; 
but, owing to the changes of nomencla- 
ture, it sometimes denotes the presence 
of hydrogen in certain chemical com- 
pounds. 

1. H'/dr-acid n. Hvdro-acids; a class 
of acid compounds, into which hydrogen 
enters, as the acidifying principle; as the 
hydro-chloric, the hydro-cyanic, <i'c. 

2. Hi/dr-ogogues (ayio, to expel). The 
name of those cathartics which produce 
liquid evacuations. 



3. Hydr-amnios. A morbid accumula- 
tion of the liquor amnii. 

4. Hi/dr-arg)/ria {hydrnrgyrum, mer- 
cury). The Eczema rubrum ; termed 
also erythema mereuriale; a species of 
heat eriiplimn, arising from the irritation 
of mercury. 

5. Hydr-argyrum (vSpapypo;, of the 
Greeks, from v6wp, waier, apyvpog, silver; 
so called from its fluidity and colour). 
Formerly, Argentum vivum. Mercury, 
or quicksilver. See Mercury. 

6. Hydr-ates. Chemical compounds of 
solid bodies and vvater.still retaining the 
solid form, as sulphur, soap, &c. These 
are also termed hydroxures, and hydro- 
oxidea. When there is more than one 
atom of water, prefixes are employed, as 
bin-aipteous. ter-h i/drate, &c. 

7. Hydr-elcpurn {e\aioi',o\\). A mixture 
of oil and water. 

8. Hi/dr-encephalo-cele leYici^'p'i^og, the 
brain, /f 17X17, a tumour). Watery rupture 
[tumour] of the brain. 

9. Hifdr-enr.ephaloid {eYKt(f>a\o;, the 
brain, eUoi, likeness). Affections which 
reiemhle hydrencephalus; they arise from 
intestinal disorder, and exhaustion. 

10. Hydr-enterocele (cVrtpa, the bowels, 
Kfi\n, a tumour). Hydrocele, or dropsy of 
the scrotum, complicated with intestinal 
hernia. 

11. Hydr-iodic acid. An acid consist- 
ing of hydrogen and iodine vapour. 

12. Hi/dro-a. A watery pustule. 

13. Hydro -benzamide. A colourless 
substance obtained by placing hydrate of 
benzoile in a solution of ammonia. 

14. Hqdro-cardia (Kapiia, the heart). 
Hydro-pericardia; dropsy of the pericar- 
dium. 

15. Hydro-cele (K>i\ri, a tumour). Ori- 
ginally, any tumour containing water. 
The term is now applied, — 1. to a collec- 
tion of water in the tunica vaginalis, with 
a communication between the cavity of 
this membrane and that of the perito- 
nsEum, and termed congenital hydrocele; 

2. to anasarcous tumour of the scrotum, 
termed cedematoux hydrocele, or the hy- 
drocele by inflllralion of the French; 

3. to hydrocele of the spermatic cord, 
which is diffused, involving the surround- 
ing cellularsubstance, or cnc?/s/erf, the cel- 
lularsiibsiance being unaffected ; and 4. to 
spina bifida, and termed hydrocelespinalis. 

16. Hydro-cephalus (Ki^aXi)), the head. 
More properly, hydrencephalus, from iy- 
KCipoKo^, brain. Dropsy of the brain; wa- 
ter in Ihe head. It is external, when it 
occurs between the membranes; inter- 
nal, when within the ventricles. 



H YD 



179 



H YD 



17. Hydro-chloric acid. An acid con-! 30. Hi(dro-pedesis {vriHo), to spring 
sisting of hydrogen and chlorine, andiforiti). A violent breaking out of perspi- 
long known under the names of spirit of ration. 



salt, marine acid, and ninriaiicacid. Some 
modern rhcmists term it cMorydric acid. 

18. Hydro - chloric ether. An ether 
wliifh has received the various names 
of chlorydric, marine, and muriatic ether, 
and, hypolhetically, chloride of elhule. 

19. Hydro-cyanic acid. An acid con- 
sisting of hydrogen and cyanogen, and 
commonly called priissic acid. The hy- 
drocyanic acid of Scheele contains 'five 
per cent., by weight, of real acid ; that 
of the pharmacopoeia contains about two- 
fiflhs of the above weight. 

20. Hydro -cyfiis {kvcttis, a bladder). 
An encysted dropsy. 

21. Hydro-dynamics [ivvajii^, power). 
The mechanics of fluids; or that blanch 



31. Hydro-pericardium. Hydrops peri- 
cardii. Dropsy of the pericardium. 

32. Hydrophone {(j)aifco, to appear). A 
variety of opal, which becomes transpa- 
rent when immersed in pure water. It is 
also called oculus mnndi. 

33. Hydro-2)hobia ((p6i3og, fsar). .A dread 
of water; an affection consisting of spas- 
modic contractions of the larynx, and 
a difficulty of drinking. It has been 
termed rallies caniyia, rabies, and ra-re: 
by the French, la rage; hygro-phobia 
{vypdi, moisi), from the patient being un- 
able to swallow any kind of mois'.ure; 
phobodipsia ((i>6i3os, lear, and itila, thirst), 
because the patient is thirsty, yet /ears 
lo drink; pheiig-ydros iipcvyu. to avoid, 



of natural philosophy which investigates tiJup, water), from the disposition to shun 



the phenomena of equilibrium and mo- 
tion among fluid bodies, especially such 
as are heavy and liquid. 

22. Hydro-gen [yevi/aio, to produce). 
A gas formerly termed inflammable air, 
phlogiston, or phlogisticated air; its pre- 
sent name refers to its forming water, 
when oxidated. 

23. Hydrolica. A term applied by the 
Frencli to solutions of the active princi- 
ples of medicinal agents. Those obtained 
by distillation are called hydrolats. 

24. Hydro-mancy (ftavrsia, prophecy) 



water; brachyposia, Hipp. (jSpaxv;, short, 
Trda-ii, the act of drinking), either from 
the act of drinking little, or frequently, 
at short intervals; canis rabidi morsus by 
Avicenna, &c. ; dys-cataposia (fv;, with 
difficulty, ArariiTOo-if, swallowing), by 
Mead ; and recently, entasia li/ssa (Xvacra, 
canine madness), by Dr. Good. The old 
writers used the terms aero-phobia, or a 
dread of air; and panto-phobia, or a lisar 
of all things, as expressive of some of the 
symptoms. 

34. Hydr-ophlhalmia (d<p9a\pnf, the eye). 



An ancient superstition respecting thel Dropsy of the eye. This ati'ection is 



divining nature of certain springs and 
fountains; hence, perhaps, arose the dis- 
covery of the medicinal virtues of mine- 
ral waters. 

25. Hydro-mel {jxtXi, honey). Honey 
diluted with water; also called mulsum, 
melicratum, and aqua niulsa. When 
lermented, it becomes mead, "^etheglin 
wine is called liydromel vinosum. 

26. Hi/dro-meler {fitrpov, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the gravity 
of fluids, particularly that of the urine. 
When floating in this liquid, it rises in 
proportion as the density of the liquid 
increases; it is gradnatetl from 1-000 to 
1060, so as to exhibit at once the specific 
gravity. 

27. Hydro-me'lra [ixfirpa, the uterus). 
Hydrops uteri Dropsy of the uterus. 

28. Hydr-omphalon (6ji,j>a\6:;. umbili- 
cus). A tumour of the umbilicus con- 
taining water. 

29. Hydro-pnlhy (Tn9o,-, nflfpction). The 
Water-cure; a mode of treating diseases 
by the iniernal and external use of <^old 
water, &c. The term hydrotherapeia 
would be preferable, 



also called hydroplhahnus; hydrops ociili , 
buphihalmus, or ox-eye, denoting the en- 
largement of the organ. 

35. Hydro-physocele {tfivaa.w, lo inflate, 
kviXti, a tumour). Hernia, complicated 
with hydrocele; hernia, containing wa- 
ter and gas. 

36. Hydro-pica (vipoxp, the dropsy). 
Mediciries which relieve or cure dropsy. 

37. Hi/dro-pleiiritis. Pleuriiis, acute 
or chronic, attended with effusion. 

38. Hi/dropneitmo-sarca {-^i/evfia, air, 
cap^, flesh). A tumour containing air, 
water, and a flesh-like substance. 

39. Hydro-pneumo-thorax. The com- 
plication of pneumothorax with liquid 
effusion. 

40. Hydrnp-oides {elSo;, likeness). A 
term formerly applied to watery excre- 
ments. 

41. Hydro-pyretiis (TtvpcTos, iever). Su- 
dor Anglicus. Sweating fever, or sick- 
ness. 

42. Hydro-rachitis (paxi;, the spine). 
Dropsy of the spine. It is congenital, 
and is then termed spina bifida ; or it is 
analogous to hydrencephalus. 



HYD 



180 



HYP 



43. Hydro-saccharuni (sacchariim, su- 
gar). A drink made of sugar and water. 

44. Hi/dro-sarca {aap^, flesh). Ana- 
sarca. Dropsy of the cellular membrane. 

45. Hi/dro-sarco-cele (cnip^, flesh, /fiyX/j, a 
tumour). Sarcocele, attended with dropsy 
of the tunica vaginalis. 

46. Hydro-thorax {O^pa^, the chest). 
Hydrops pectoris. Dropsy of the chest; 
water on the chest. 

47. Htidro-sulphurets. Compounds of 
sulphuretted hydrogen with the salifiable 
bases. See Kermes mineral. 

4S. Hydro-lhionic {Oilou, sulphur). A 
name given by some ol' the German che- 
mists to sulphuretted hydrogen, or the 
hydro-sulphuric acid of ril. Gay-Lussac. 

49. Hydr-urels. Compounds of hydro- 
gen with metals. 

HYDROPS {vcpMxp, from, vSap, water, 
and ckp, the aspect or appearance). Drop- 
sy; a morbid accumulation of water in a 
cavity, or the cellular substance. 

HYGIENE (iyiaiVM. to he well). Health; 
the preservation of health; that part of 
medicine which regards the preservation 
of health. 

Hygienic agents. Under this term are 
included si.x things essential to health ; 
viz. air, aliment, exercise, e.vcretious, 
sleep, and affections of the mind. The 
ancients applied to them the absurd 
name of non-naturals. 

HYGRO- {iYpo;. moist). This prefix 
denotes the presence of mni.fliire. 

1. Hygroma. .\ humoral tumour. 
This term is applied to (lro])sy of the 
bursce mucosse, when the fluid is serous, 
colourless and limpid; when it is of a 
reddish colour, thick, and viscous, the 
affection is called ganglion. The term 
also denotes hygromatous tumour of the 
brain, or cysts containing a serous or al- 
buminous fluid. 

2. Hygro-meler {jx'zrpov, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the degree of 
moisture of the atmosphere. Whatever 
.swells by moisture and shrinks by dry- 
ness, may be employed for this purpose. 

3. Hygro-metric water. That portion 
of humidity which gases yield to deli- 
quescent salts. 

HYJMEX (I'/ii?!', a membrane). A 
crescentiform fold of the menilirano situ- 
ated at the entrance of the virgni vagina. 
The remains of the hymen, when rup- 
tured, are termed raruncnUn mi/rtifnrme.i. 

HYMEN-EA COURBARIL '(Hyme- 
rttra, corrupted from auinii, ot aniinua?) 
The systematic name of the tree which 
affords the resin animi, frequently used 
as a substitute for gum guaiacuin. 



HYMENOP'TERA (V>. membrane, 
TTTtpov, a wing). Insects which have 
membranous wings, as the wasp. 

HYO- (the Greek letter v). Names 
compounded with this word belong to 
muscles attached to the os hyoides: e. g. 
the hi/o-glosguf, attached to the os hy- 
oides, and to the tongue ; the hyo-pharyn- 
gens, a synonym of the constrictor medius ; 
the Inio-lhyrovleus, &c. 

HYOI'DES (the Greek letter v. and 
tUoi, likeness). A bone situated between 
the root of the tongue and the larynx. 

HYOSCY'AMUS AIGER (i^f, v.j?, a 
hog, KvufiOi, a bean; so named because 
hogs eat it, or because it is hairy, like 
swme). Faba suilta. Henbane; an in- 
digenous plant of the order SolanacecB, 
and a powerful narcotic. 

Hi/osciainia. A vegetable alkali pro- 
cured from the seeds and herbage of the 
Hyoscvamus niger. 

HYPER (uTJp, over or above). This 
prefix is a Greek preposition, denoting 
excess. In chemistry, it is applied to 
acids which contain more oxygen than 
those to which the word per is prelixed. 

1. HQper-acusis {dKovoi, to hear). Hy- 
percousis. The name given by M. Itard 
to a morbidly acute sense of hearing. In 
a case given by Dr. Good, this aflection 
singularly sympathized with the sense of 
sislit: the patient said, "A loud sound 
affects my eyes, and a strong light my 
ears." 

2. Hyper-cBSlliesis (a'iirOnais, the fiiculty 
of sensation). Excessive sensibility. 

3. Hi/per-calliarsi.t (Kadaipto, to purge). 
Super-purgation ; excessive purgation. 

4. Hyper-chloric acid. An acid con- 
taining a greater proportion of oxygen 
than the chloric acid. 

5. Hypm-crisis {Kptvio, to decide). A 
crisis of iimisual severity. 

6. Hyper-hccmia {alfxa, blood). An ex- 
ce.-^sive fulness of blood. 

7. Hyper-iiydrosis (Upooj, sweat). A 
term applied by Swediaur to morbidly- 
profuse perspiration. It is also called 
ephidrosis. 

8. Hiiper-oMosis {iartov, a bone). En- 
largement of a bone, or of its membra- 
nous covering. 

9. Hyper-oxymnriatic acid. The former 
name of chloric acid, lis compounds are 
hyjicr-oxi/ntitrialeg, or neutral salts, now 
called chlorates. Sec Chlorine. 

10. Hyper-trophy {rpoij,:!, ninrition). An 
excess of nutriticui, as applied to ti.ssues 
and organs; it is indicated by increase of 
size, and sometimes of the consistence, 
of the organic texture. Hypertrophy of 



HYP 



ISl 



'4L<^ ^Za-.CZ.^_^ 



H YS 



the white substance of the liver is de- 
scribed by Baillie as the common tubercle 
of the liver, ami is known in this country 
by the name of the drunkard's liver. The 
accidental erectile tissue is, in some cases, 
composed of capillary vessels in a stale 
of hvpertrophv. 

[HYPERICUM PERFORATUM. St. 
John's Wort. A perermial siirub, com- 
mon to Europe and the United Slates. 
It formerly enjoyed high repute as a me- 
dicine, and parlicularly as a vulnerary. 
It was employed lor a very large number 
of diseases, but at present it has fallen 
into disuse, except in domestic practice.] 

HYPNOBATES (fc^-of, sleep, /^afi-w, 
to walk). A sleep-walker; one who 
walks in his sleep. See Somnambu- 
lism. 

HYPNOTICS (v-voi, sleep). Medi- 
cines which cause sleep. They are also 
termed narcotics, anodynes, and sopori- 
fics. 

HYPO- (wTrd). A Greek preposition 
signifying under, or deficiency. In che- 
mistry, it denotes a smaller quantity of 
acid than is ibnnd in the compounds to 
which it is prefixed, as in hypo-sulphuric 
acid, <fec. 

1. Hyp-amia (alfia, blood). Deficiency 
of blood ; a term synonymous with ance- 
mia, and denoting a disease analogous to 
etiolation in plants. 

2. Hifpo-chloroux acid. A bleaching 
compound of chlorine and oxygen. 

3. Hiipo-c/iondria.HS. Hyp; vapours; 
low spirits; blue devils; dyspepsia, with 
a sense of uneasiness in the hypochon- 
dria, (fcc, and great lowness of spirits. 
It has been designated, by Dr. Cheyne 
the English malady ; and has been also 
termed "morbus literatorum." 

4. Hypo-chondrium (x^vf^po;^ cartilage). 
The hypochondriac, or upper lateral re- 
gion of the abdomen, under the cartilages 
of the false ribs. 

5. Hi/po-chyma (xvoi, to pour out). Hy- 
pochysis; apochysis. These are terms 
applied by the Greeks to cataract, which 
seeins to have been first introduced by 
the Arabian writers; though the more 
common name among ihem was gutta 
obscura. It is the suffusio of the Latins. 

Hypocrateriform [xparrip,a cwp, forma, 
likene.ss). Salver-shaped; as applied to 
a calyx or corolla, of which the lufie is 
long and slender, and the limb flat. 

6. Hypo-gastrium (yacr'np, the belly). 
The lower anterior region of the abdo- 
men, or super-pubic. , 

[Hypogeous {yn. the earth). Subter- 
ranean. Applied, in botany, to those 



the 



cotyledons which remain beneath 
earth ; opposed to epigeous.] 

7. Hypo-glossal [yXoiaaa, the tongue). 
The name of the lingualis, or ninth pair 
of nerves, situated beneath the tongue. 

8. Hypo-gala {ya\a, milk), \ Ertlision 
Hypo-hmma (ai'^ia, blood), f ofa milky 
Hypo-lympha (lymph), ^ sangnine- 
Hypo-pyum, (ttvov. pus), 3 ous, lym- 

phy, or purulent, fluid into the chamber 
of the aqueous humour of the eye. — 
Empyesis vculi (iv, in, vvoi', pus) denotes 
an effusion of pus behind, as well as in 
front of, the iris. 

9. Hypo-gi/nous (.yvvij, a woman). That 
condition of the stamens of a plant in 
which they contract no adhesion to the 
sides of the calyx, as in ranunculus. 

10. Hypo-nitrous acid. The name 
given by Turner to nitrous acid, or the 
azotous of Thenard ; while hypo-nitric 
acid is another name for the nitrous 
acid of Turner, or the peroxide of nitro- 

§®"- 

11. Hypo-physis cerebri. The pituitary 

gland or body, in which the infundibu- 
lum ends. 

12. Hypo-picroloxic acid. An acid 
found in the seed-coat of the cocculus 
indicus. 

13. Hypo-spndias (or-tito, to draw). 
That malformation of the penis, when 
the urethra opens in the under surface. 
See Ej>ispndias. 

14. Hi/po-sarca (o-cipf, vapKo;, flesh). A 
term used by Celsiis, &c., for anasarca ; 
the aqua subter cutem of Cajlius Aureli- 
anus. 

15. Hypostasis (c-rao), to stand). A 
sediment, as that of the urine. 

16. Hyuo-thenar (dtnap, the palm of the 
hand). One of the muscles contracting 
the thumb. 

17. Hypo-thesis {vTroridniti, lo put under), 
A system, or iloctrine, founded on a the- 
ory. Induction, on the contrary, is the 
collecting together numerous facts, and 
drawing conclusions from a general exa- 
mination of the whole. 

[HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS. A La- 
biale plant, a native of Europe. The 
flowering leaves and summits have a 
warm, bitter taste, and aromatic odour; 
and a decoction of them has been used 
as an expectorant in chronic catarrh, par- 
iicularlv in aged persons.] 

HYSTERA (itrrlpa). The Greek term 
for the uterus, matrix, or womb. This 
term is the fi^minine of varepoi, inferior, 
the womb being the lowest of the viscera. 

1. Hysler-algia (uXyof, pain). Dolor 
uteri. Pain situated in the uterus. 



H YS 



18-2 



IDI 



2. Hysteria. Hysterics, vapours, hys-|A prolapsus, or falling down of the 
teric fit, fits of the mother; a nervous uterus. 

affection, chiefly seen in females. Seel 6. Hi/sfero-tomia (TOjifi, a aeci'xon). The 
Claviix hystericus:, Globus A(/s?er(V«,<f, jCfiesnrian section, or incision into the 
&c. jabdonien and uterus, to extract the 

3. Hyster-itis. Inflammation of the] foetus. 



uterus. 

4. Hi/sterocele {xiiXTj, n tumour). Her- 
nia of the uterus. 

5. Hystero-ptosis (irrwcrif, prolapsus). 



HYSTRI.\CIS {wrpt^, n porcupine). 
Porcupine hair; bristly hair; an affection 
in which the hair is thick, rigid, and 
bristly. 



lATRALIPTA (lar/io,-, a physician 
dXfi(/i(j, to anoint). Medicns uv^uenfa 
rius. A physician who cures by oint 
menis and frictions. — Celsus. 

latralipfic Method. The application of 
medicines to the skin, aided by friction. 
It has been termed the epidermic method, 
espnnic medicine, &c. 

lATRKUSOLOGlA d'arpaltj, to cure, 
Xoyo;, a description). A term applied by 
Sprengel to general Therapeutics. 

ICE. Glacies. Congealed water. The 
temperature at which it is solidified is 
called ihe freezing or congealing point, or 
323 of Fahrenheit. During liquefaction, 
its temperature is not changed; and, 
hence, the caloric which it has absorbed 
is said to have become latent, and is 
sometimes called, from its effect, the 
caloric of fluidity. 

ICE CAP. A bladder containing 
pounded ice, applied to the head in in- 
flammation of the brain. 

ICELAND MOSS. Celraria islandica. 
A lichen, growing on the ground m ex- 
posed situations in northern countries, 
and affording; a light nutritious aliment. 

ICELAND SPAR. One of the purest 
varieties of calcareous spar, or crystal- 
lized carbonate of lime. 

ICFIOR 'jxcop, sanies, corrupted blood). 
A thin acrid discharge, issuing from 
wounds, ulcers. &n. 

ICHTHYOCOLLA {IxOi;, ixeio^, a 
fish, K6\\a, glue). Isinglass; fish-glue; 
a substance prepared from Ihe air-bladder 
or sound of different species ^yi Acipenser, 
and other genera of fishes. Sometimes 
the air-bladder is dried unopened, as in 
the case oi purse, pipe, and /wmjo isinglass 
of the shops. At other times it is laid 
open, and submitted to some preparation ; 
being either dried unfolded, as in the 
leaf and honeycomb isinglass ; or folded. 



as in the staple and book isinglass; or 
rolled out, as in ribbon isinglass. When 
it arrives in this country, it is picked or 
cut. — Pereira. 

ICHTHYOLOGY {!xdi;, IxOiog, a fish, 
Xoyof, a description). That branch of 
Zoology which treats of fishes. 

ICHTHYO'SIS (ixOva, dried fish-skin). 
Fish-skin disease; a papillary, indurated, 
horny condition of the skin. It is distin- 
guished into the simple and the horny. 

Ichthyiasis. A synonym fbr the above 
disease, adopted by Good. The termi- 
nation -iasis is more accordant with the 
analogy followed in the formation of 
similar names. — Forbes. 

ICOSANDRIA (nVon-i, twenty, di')7p, a 
man). The twelfth class in Linnseus's 
system, comprising plants which have 
twenty or more stamens inserted into the 
calyx, hence 

Icosandrous. Having twenty or more 
stamens inserted into the calyx. 

ICTERUS. The Jaundice; also called 
morbus regius. morbus arcuatus, aarigo, 
&c. According to Pliny, the term is de- 
prived from the name of a bird, called by 
the Greeks iVrfpo?, by the Romans gal- 
bulus; the looking upon this bird by the 
jaundiced person was said to cure the 
[patient, though it killed the bird. 

1. Icterila. Infantile jaundice. 
I 2. Icter-odes ulSog, likeness). A state 
of complexion resembling that of jaun- 
dice. 

I ICTUS SOLTS. Coup de soldi. Sun- 
stroke; an effect produced by the rays of 
the sun upon a part of the body, as ery- 
sipelas, or inflammation of the brain or 
of its membranes. 

IDIOPATHIC (re.of, peculiar, ^aSo^, 
affection). Primary disease; as opposed 
to ■•sympinmotic. 
' IDIOSYNCRASY {Uio;, peculiar, avy 



IDI 



183 



ILI 



Kpamg, composition^ Individual peru- which several species have been em- 
liarilies, hereditary or induced. Thus, I ployed in medicine. 

there are persons in vvliom opium does [1. 1/ex Aipn/olinm. Common Euro- 
not induce sleep; others, in whom milk^pean Holly. The leaves, barli, and ber- 



seems to act as a poison ; some, who are 
purged bv astringents ; others, in whom 
purgatives appear to produce an astrin- 
gent effect. 

IDIOT {iStf'irng, an ignorant person, 
who does not practice an art or profes- 
sion). A person deprived of sense. 

IDRIALINE. A substance obtained 
from a mineral from the quicksilver mines' 
at Idria in Carniola. It consists of carbon 
and hvdrogen. 

IGASURIC ACID. The name given 
by Pelletier and Caventou to a peculiar 
acid, which occurs in combination with 
strychnia in nux vomica, and the St. Ig- 
naiius's bean; but its existence, as dif- 
ferent from all other known acids, is 
doubtful. It is so called from the Malay 
name by which the natives in India de- 
signate the faba Sancti Jgnalii. 

IGNIS FATUUS. A luminous ap- 
pearance or flame, frequently seen in the 
night in the country, and called Jack o' 
lantern, or Will with the vnsp. It is pro- 
bably occasioned bv the extrication of 
phosphorus from rolling leaves and other 
vegetable matters. 

IGNIS SACCR (sacred fire). Ignis 
Sancti Anionii, or St. Anthony's fire; 
erysipelas, or the rose; or the febris ery- 
sipelatosa of Sydenham. 

IGNIS VOtiATICUS. Literally, fly- 
ing tire; a term for erysipelas. 

IGNITION (ignis, fire). An effect of 
caloric, implying an emission of light, 
from bodies which are much heated, 
without their suffering any change of 
comiiosition. Bodies begin to become 
ignited, or red-hot, at about the 800ih 
degree of Fahrenheit; the highest point 
of ienition is a perlectly ichile light. 

IGRKUSINF. That portion' of vola- 
tile oils which is odoriferous, and is co- 
loured by treating it with nitric acid; it 
is called elaiiidon by Herberger. 

I'LEUM [dUw, to turn about). The 
lower three-fifths of the sviall intestine, 
so called from their convolutions, or pe- 
ristaltic motions; they e.xtend as far as 
the hypoeastric and iliac regions. 

I'LEUS (ti'Xfw, volvo, to turn about; — 
hence vnlvulus). Costiveness, with twist- 
ing about the umbilical region. It is 
also called the Iliac Passion ; Chordnp- 
sus i\opS!h a chord, a-n-r^o, to bind); Mise- 
rere, an invocation for pity, &c. 

ILEX. The Latin name for the holm 



ries of this species were considered to pos- 
sess medical properties. The leaves were 
esteemed diaphoretic, and an infusion of 
them was used in catarrh, pleurisy, erup- 
tive fevers, &c. The barf;, a few years 
since, gained considerable reputation for 
an antiperiodic; it was given in powder, 
in the dose of a drachm. The berries are 
said to be cathartic in the dose of ten or 
twelve, and sometimes to produce erae- 
sis. Their expressed juice has been given 
in jaundice. 

[2. Ilex opaca. American Holly. This 
species is said to possess similar proper- 
ties to the preceding. 

[3. Eex Paragnaiensis. This furnishes 
the celebrated Paraguay tea, a favourite 
South American beverage. 

[4. Ilex vomitoria. Cassina. The de- 
coction of the toasted leaves forms the 
black drink, employed by the Indians as 
a medicine and a drink of etiquette ai 
their councils. 

[llicin. A peculiar bitter principle ob- 
tained from the Ilex Aquifolium.] 

ILIAC PASSION. Another name for 
ileus; and also for colic. 

ILIACUM OS. Oscoxarum. Another 
name for the os innominatum, derived 
from the circumstance that this com- 
pound bone supports the parts which the 
ancients called ilia, or the flanks. 

1. Ilium OS. The uppermost portion of 
the OS iliacum, probably so named be- 
cause it seems to support the intestine 
called the ileum. This bone is also term- 
ed pars iliaca ossis innominali. 

2. Iliac fossa. A broad and shallow 
cavity at the upper part of the abdomi- 
nal or inner surface of the os iliacum. 
Another fossa, alternately concave and 
convex, on the femoral or external sur- 
face, is called the external iliac fossa. 

3. Iliac region. The region situated 
on each side of the hypogastrium. 

4. Iliac arteries. These are termed 
common, when they are formed by the 
bifurcation of the aorta. They afterwards 
divide into the external iliac, and the 
internal or hypogastric arteries. 

5. Iliac mesocolon. A fold of the peri- 
toneum, which embraces the sigmoid 
flexure of the colon. 

6. Iliacus i?iternus. A muscle situated 
in the cavity of the ilium. 

7. Ilio: Terms compounded with this 
word denote parts connected with the 



oak ; now the generic name for holly ; [ofi ilium, as ilio-lumbar, ilio-sacral, &c. 



ILL 



im 



I MP 



[ILLICIUM ANISATUM. Star Ani- 
seed. An evergreen tree of the family 
MagnnliacecE, a native of China, Japan, 
and Tartary. Tls fruit yields an oil 
(Oleum badiani) having the odour and 
taste of Anise, and often sold in this 
country as common oil of aniseed. 

[IlUcium, Floridanum. Florida Anise- 
tree. A species growing in Florida; its 
bark and leaves have a taste analogous 
to Anise. 

[llUcium parvijiorum. This species 
grows in Georgia and Carolina; its bark 
has a flavour resembling that of Sassa- 
fras.] 

ILLUSION {illudo, to sport at). De- 
ception, as of the sight, imagination, 
&c. 

ILLUTATIO {in, upon, luUm, mud). 
Mud-bathing; immersion in the slime of 
rivers, or in saline mud. Hut dung is 
used in France and in Poland. 

IMBECILITY (imbecillns, weak). 
Weakness of mind or intellect. 

IMBIBITION {imhlbo, to drink in). 
The terms imbibition, and exudation or 
transpiration, used in physiology, are ana- 
logous to those of anpiration and expira- 
tion, and have been lately translated, by 
Dutrochet, by the two Greek words en- 
dosmosis and exosmo:sis. 

IMBRICATED {imbrex:, iinbricis, a 
roof-tile). A term applied to the brac- 
tetB of plants, when they overlap each 
other, like tiles upon the roof of a iioiise, 
a distinguishing character of the GLuma- 
cetp. 

IMMERSION {immergo, to dip in). 
The act of plunging any thing into water 
or any other lluid. 

[IMMOVABLE APPAR.\TUS. A 
bandage imbued with stardi, dextrin, or 
some other adhesive substance, which, 
when dry, becomes firm, and retains the 
parts to which it is applied in their pro- 
jier position. It is employed for certain 
fractures, dislocations, *c.] 

[IMPATIENS FULVA and I. PAL- 
LIDA. Touch me not. Jewel-Weed. 
Balsam Weed. An indigenous plant of 
the order Geraniacece. Drs. Wood and 
Bache state that an ointment made by 
boiling the fresh plants in lard has been 
employed by Dr. Ruan with great advan- 
tage in piles.] 

[IMPERATORIA OSTRUTllIUM. 
Masterwort. An Umbelliferous plant, 
indigenous in the .south of Europe. It is 
a stimulant aromatic; at present it is 
rarely used, but formerly it was consider- 
ed to possess diversified remedial powers, 
and was used in an extended range ofi tertian; or of different kinds, as an inter- 



diseases, with so much supposed success, 
as to have gained for it the title of divi- 
num remediiim.] 

IMPENETRABILITY {in, not, pene- 
tro, lo penetrate). That properly by 
which a body occupies any space, to the 
exclusion of every other body. In a po- 
pular sense, all matter is penetrable ; but, 
philosophical!}- speaking, it is impene- 
trable, what is called penetration being 
merely the adraissiim of one substance 
into the pores of another. 
• IMPER'FORATE {in, not, perforatus, 
bored through). A term applied to any 
part congeiiitally closed, as the anus, the 
hymen, &c. 

IMPERIAL. Plisana imperialis. A 
cooling beverage, prepared by mixing 
half an ounce, each, of cream of tartar 
and fresh lemon peel, bruised, with four 
ounces of while sugar, and three pints of 
boiling water. 

IMPETIGINES. Cutaneous diseases; 
depraved habit, with affections of the 
skin; the third order of the class Ca- 
chexia! of Cullen. 

LMPETl'GO {impelo, to infest). Humid 
or running tetter, or scall; yellow, itch- 
ing, clustered pustules, terminating in a 
yellow, thin, scaly crust. Bricklayers' 
itch and Grocers' itch are local tellers, 
produced by the acrid stimulus of lime 
and sugar. 

IMPLANTAT10,((m/i/aw<o,lo engraft). 
A term applied to a monstrosity, in which 
two bodies are united, but only one is 
perfectly developed, while the other re- 
mains in a rudimentary state. 

1. Imphinlatio externa. This is of two 
kinds: — 1. Implantatio externa cr:qi:alis, 
in which the parts of the imperfect em- 
bryo are connected with corresponding 
parts of the perfect one; as when the 
posterior parts of the body of a dimi- 
nutive foetus hang to the front of the 
thorax of a fully-formed child, or where 
a third foot, parasitic hand, or supernu- 
merary jaw is present: and, 2. implanta- 
tio externa incntualis, in which the per- 
fect and imperfect fcclus are connected 
by dissimilar points, 

2. Implanlalio interim. In this case 
one foetus contains within it a second. — 
Miiller. 

IMPLICATED. A term applied by 
Cclsus and others to those parts of phy- 
sic which have a necessary dependence 
on one another; hut the term has been 
more significantly applied, by Bellini, to 
fevers, whore two at a time afflict a per- 
son, either of the same kind, as a double 



IMP 



185 



IND 



rnittent tertian, and a quotidien, called a 
semiterlian. 

IMPLUVIUM {in, and plno, to rain). 
A shower-bath ; an embrocation. 

IMPONDERABLES (in, pT'iv.,pondus, 
weight). Agents which are destitute of 
■weight, as heat, light, and electricity. 

[IMPOSTHUME. An abscess.] 

IMPOTENCE (impolens, unable). In- 
capability of sexual intercourse, from or- 
ganic, functional, or moral cause. 

IMPREGNATION. The act of gene- 
ration on the part of the male. The cor- 
respondng act in the female is conception. 
[See Generation.] 

INANITION [inanio, to empty). Emp- 
tiness, from want of food, exhaustion, &c. 

INCANDESCENCE {incandesce, to 
become white-hot). The glowing or 
shining appearance of healed bodies; 
proporly, the acquisition of a white heat. 

INCANTATION {incantn, to enchant). 
A charm or spell; a mode anciently em- 
ployed of curing diseases by poetry and 
music. See Carminatives. 

INCARCERATION {in, and career, 
a prison). A term applied to cases of 
hernia, in the same sense as strangu- 
lation. Scarpa, however, restricts the 
former term to interruption of the fujcal 
matter, without injury of the texture, or 
of the vitality of the bowel. 

INCARNATION {in, and caro, carnis, 
flesh). A term synonymous with granu- 
lation, or the process which takes place 
in the healing of ulcers. 

INCIDENTI A {incido, to cut). A name 
formerly given to medicines which con- 
sist of pointed and sharp particles, as 
acids, and most salts, which are said to 
incide or cut the phlegm, when they 
break it so as to occasion its discharge. 

INCINERATION {incinero, to reduce 
to ashes, from cinis, a cinder). The re- 
ducing to ashes by burning. The com- 
bustion of vegetable or animal substances 
for the purpose of obtaining their ashes 
or fixed residue. 

INCISION {i7icido, to cut). The act of 
cutting, with the bistoury, scissors, &c. 

IKCISI'VUS {incisor, a cutting-tooth). 
A name sometimes given to the levator 
labii superioris proprius, from its arising 
just above the incisores. 

1. Incisivus medius. The name given 
by Winslow to the depressor labii supe- 
rioris alceqne 7iasi, from its rising from 
the gum or socket of the fore-teeth. Al- 
binus termed it depressor aim nasi. 

2. Incisivus inferior. A name given 
to the levator meuti, from its arising at 
the root of the incisores. 



INCISORES {incido, to cut). The 
fore or cutting teeth. See Dens. 

INCISORIUM {incido, xo cut). A table 
whereon a patient is laid for an opera- 
tion, by incision or otherwise. 

INCISURA {incido, to cut). A cut, 
gash, or notch ; a term applied to two 
notches of the posterior edge or crest of 
the ilium. 

INCOMBUSTIBLE CLOTH. A cloth 
manufactured of the fibres of asbestos, 
supposed to have been anciently used 
for wrapping around dead bodies, when 
exposed on the funeral pile. 

INCOMPATIBLE SALTS. Salts 
which cannot exist together in solution, 
without mutual decomposition. 

INCOMPRESSIBILITY. That pro- 
perty f)f a substance, whether solid or 
fluid, by which it resists being pressed 
or squeezed into a smaller bulk. The 
ultimate particles of all bodies are sup- 
posed to be incompressible. 

INCONTINENCE {in, not, contineo, 
to contain). Inability to retain the na- 
tural evacuations, as enuresis, or inconti- 
nence of urine, &c. 

INCUBATION {incubo, to sit upon). 
A term applied to the period during 
which the hen sits on her eggs. This 
term also denotes the period occupied 
between the application of the cause of 
inflammation, and the full establishment 
of that process. 

IN'CUBUS {incubo, to lie or sit upon). 
Succubus ; ephialtes ; ludibria Fauni. 
Night-mare ; an oppressive sensation in 
the chest during sleep, accompanied 
with frightful dreams, &c. 

[INCUMBENT {incumbo, to lie upon). 
Lying upon any thing ; in botany, ap- 
plied to the cotyledons of some Crucife- 
rous plants, which are folded with their 
backs upon the radicle.] 

INCUS {an anvil). A small bone of 
the internal ear, with which the malleus 
is articulated ; so named from its fiincied 
resemblance to an anvil. It consists of a 
body and two crura. 

INDEHISCENT. JVot opening spon- 
taneously ; as applied to certain ripe 
fruits. 

INDEX {indico, to point out). The 
fore-finger ; the finger usually employed 
in pointing at any object. 

INDIAN INK. See Int. 

[INDIAN PHYSIC. A common name 
for Gillenia trifoliata.] 

INDIAN RUBBER. See Caoutchouc. 

INDICATION {indico, to point out). 
Circumstances which point out, in a dis- 
ease, what remedy ought to be applied. 



IND 



186 



INF 



When a remedy is forbidden, it is said to 
be conlra-indicaled. 

IN Die ATOR iiiidico, to point out). A 
muscle ol' the fore-arm, whicli points the 
irider or fore-finger. It is also called the 
extensor di^iii priini. 

INDIGENOUS (indigena, a native). 
A term applied to diseases, animals, or 
plants, peculiar to a country. 

INDIGESTION (in, neg., digero, to 
distribute). Dyspepsia; interrupted, dil- 
ficult, or painful digestion. 

INDIGNABUNDUS {indignor, to be 
indignant). Literally, angry, scornful; a 
name given to the rectus inttrnus, from 
the expression of anger or scorn, which 
the action of this muscle imparls. 

INDIGO. A blue pigment, obtained 
from the leaves of all the species, of In- 
digofera, and various other plants. Ber- 
zelius separated Irom it gluten of Indigo, 
indigo brown, and indigo red, 

1. White indigo, otherwise called re- 
duced indigo, js produced by the action 
of deoxidating bodies upon blue indigo. 
In this state, Liebig termed it indigo- 
s'"- 

2. Indigolic or anilic acid is formed 

when indigo is dissolved in nitric acid 
considerably diluted. This is the nitran- 
ilic acid of Berzelius. 

[INDOLENT {in, priv.. doleo, to be in 
pain). A term applied to tumours which 
are slow in their progress, and attended 
with little or no pain.] 

li\DOLES. The natural disposition, 
relating to the qualities of the mind. 

INDUCTION. That law by which an 
electrified body induces in contiguous 
substances an electric state opposite to 
its own. 

LNDUPLICATE. A form of vernation 
orsestivation.in whicli the margins of the 
leaves are bent abruptly inwards, and the 
external face of these margins applied to 
each other, without any twisting. 

INDURATION (induro. to harden). 
An increase of the natural consistence 
of organs, the effect of chronic inflam- 
mation; opposed to softening or ramul- 
lissement. 

INEBRIANTS (inebrio, to intoxicate). 
Agents, which produce intoxication. 

[INERAilS [in, priv., arma, weapon) 
Unarmed ; applied, in botany, to parts ol 
plants which have no spines.] 

INERTIA {iners, sluggish). Errone- 
ously called vis inerlice. A term applied 
to express the inactivity or opposing force 
of matter with respect to rest or motion. 
It is overcome by attraction or by external 
force. 



1. The Quantity of Matter of a body 
is determined by its (juantiti/ of inertia, 
and this latter is estimated by the cjuan- 
tilij of force necessary to put it in motion 
at a given rate. 

2. The term Inertia is applied to the 
condition of the uterus, when it does not 
contract properly after parturition; it is 
a cause of' huemorrhage. 

INFANTICIDE {infans, an infant, 
cado, to kill). The destruction of the 
child, either newly born, or in the course 
of parturition. Compare FiElicide. 

INFARCTION {lufarcio, to stufi' or 
cram). Stufiing; constipation. 

INFECTION {inficio, to slain). The 
propagation of disease by effluvia from 
palienis crowded together. 

INFERIOR. A term applied to the 
ovarium or fruit, when the calyx adheres 
to its walls; when no such adhesion oc- 
curs, the ovarium or fruit is termed supe- 
rior. So also the calyx is said to be infe- 
rior in the latter case, superior in the 
former. 

INFERO-BRANCHIA. Animals 
which have their gills IJipdyxia) on their 
sides. 

INFIBULATIO {infibulo, to buckle in). 
An affection in which the prepuce cannot 
be retracted. 

INFILTRATION {infillratio). The 
diffusion of fluids into the cellular tissue 
of organs. It may be serous, and is then 
termed oedema and anasarca ; or sangui- 
neous, and is then called hyemurrhage 
and apoplexy ; or purulent, occurring in 
the third stage of pneumonia; or tubercu- 
lous, either gray or gelatinil'orm. 

INFIRMARY. A place where the 
sick poor are received, or can get advice 
and medicines gratis. . 

INFLAMMABLE AIR. Hydrogen 
gas; formerly called phlogiston, vt phlo- 
gisticated air. 

INFLAMMATION (inflammo, to burn). 
A state characterized, when situaled ex- 
ternally, by pain, heat, redness, and tur- 
gidity.' It is generally expressed in com- 
position, in Greek words, by the ternii- 
naiion itis, as pleur-i7(s, intluminalion of 
the pleura ; it-itis, inflammation of the 
iris, &c. Inflammation is distinguished 
as — 

1. Healthy, or adhesive; that which 
disposes the part to heal or cic'atrize. 

2. Unhealthy ; that which disposes to 
ulceration, erosion, sloughing, &c. 

3. Common; that induced by common 
causes, as incisions, punctures, &.C. 

4. Specific; that induced by inocula- 
tion, <&:c., as variola, &.c. 



INF 



187 



IN J 



5. Acute, sub-acute, and chronic ; with 
reference to its intensity and duration. 

6. Phlegmonous; tliat which is circum- 
scribed, and disposed to suppuration. 

7. Erysipdalous ; thai which is dif- 
fused, and less disposed to suppuratCi 

8. Gangrenous ; that which leads to 
mortification, or the death of a part. 

INFLAMMATORY CRUST. The 
buffy coat which appears on the surface 
of the crassainentum of blood drawn in 
inflammation, in pregnancy, &c. 

INFLATIO {ivjio, to blow into). The 
state of the stomach and bowels, when 
distended by flatus. 

INFLORESCENCE {ivjloresco, to flou- 
rish). A term expressing generally the 
arrangement of flowers upon a branch or 
stem. 

INFLUENZA (Ital. iTi/ue/ice, supposed 
of the stars; more probably of a peculiar 
state of the atmosphere). Epidemic fe- 
brile catarrh. The French call • it la 
grippe, under which name Sauvages first 
described the epidemic catarrhal fever of 
1743. It was formerly called coccoluche, 
" because the sick wore a cap close over 
Iheir heads." 

INFRA-ORBITAR. Beneath the 
orbit ; as applied to a foramen, a nerve, 
&c. 

INFRA-SPINATUS. A muscle aris- 
ing from the scapula below the spine, 
and inserted into the humerus. See Su- 
pra-spinalus. 

mFVNDlB\JUF0RM(infu7idibulu?n, 
a funnel, forma, likeness). Funnel- 
shaped; a term applied by Winslow to 
a ligament joining the first vertebra to 
the occiput. In botany, applied to an 
organ with an obconical tube and an en- 
larged limb, as the corolla of tobacco. 

INFUNDIBULUM {infundo, to pour 
in). A funnel ; a term applied to, — 

1. A little funnel-shaped process of 
gray matter, attached to the pituitary 
gland. Unlike a funnel, however, it is 
not hollow internally. 

2. A small cavity of the cochlea, at the 
termination of the modiolus. 

3. The three large cavities formed by 
the union of the calyces, and constitui- 
ing, by their union, the pelvis of the kid 
ney. 

INFUSA {infundo, to pour in). Infu- 
sions ; aqueous solutions of vegetable 
substances obtained without the aid of 
ebullition. 

INFUSIBLE (in, not, fundo, to pour). 
That which cannot be fused or^ reduced 
to the fluid slate. 

INFUSION {infundo, to pour in). The 



operation of pouring water, hot or cold, 
on vegetable substances, for the purpose 
of extracting their soluble and aromatic 
principles. 

INFUSO'RIA {infundo, to pour in). 
Water animalcules; microscopic animals 
found in infusion.s of animal or vegetable 
matter: These are distinguished by 
Cuvier into, — 

1. Rofijera {rota, a wheel, fero, to 
carry). Wheel-bearers, as the wheel in- 
•sect. 

2. Homogena {bfiog, the same, ytvos, 
kind). Homogeneous animalcules, as 
the globe animalcule. 

INFU'SUM {infundo, to pour in). An 
infusion; vulgo, a<ea. A ita^er)/ solution, 
obtained by the maceration of a vegetable 
substance, in water, hot or cold. 

INGESTA {ingero, to heap in). A 
Latin term for designating the food, drink, 
&c. See Egesla. 

INGRASSIAS, PROCESS OF. A tri- 
angular eminence of the upper aspect of 
the sphenoid bone has been termed the 
orbital process or small wing of Ingras- 
sias. 

INGUEN, -inis. The groin; the part 
between the abdomen and the thigh. 

1. Inguinal glands, situated in the 
groin: the superficial, between the skin 
and aponeurosis; the deep-seated, under 
the aponeurosis. 

2. Inguinal hernia. Bubonocele; her- 
nia of the groin. It is termed oblique, 
when it takes the course of the spermatic 
canal; direct, when it pushes directly 
through the external abdominal ring. 

3. Inguinal Ugavient. A ligament of 
the groin, commonly called Poupart's. 

[INHALER. An apparatus for inhal- 
ing vapours, employed in diseases of the 
pulmonary organs. Mudge's inhaler con- 
sists of a pewter tankard, in the lid of 
which is a valve, and a flexible tube. 
The vessel is partly fiUe'd with boiling 
water, and the vapour is inhaled through 
the tube. Various volatile articles may 
be added to the water, and the steam 
thus impregnated with them.J 

INHAL.A.TIONS {inhalo, to inhale). 
A general term comprehending two 
classes of volatilized substances; viz., 
suJfUus, or dry fumes, and halitits, oi 
watery vapours. 

INHUMATION {ijihumo, to inter). 
The act of interring. The placing a pa- 
tient in an earth-bath. 

INJECTION {injicio, to throw in). A 
composition with which the vessels of 
any part of the body are filled for anato- 
mical purposes. For ordinary purposes, 



INI 



188 



INS 



it maybe made of fuiir ptirts of lallow, aoria, which subsequently divides into 

one part of rosin, and one part ot bees-!ihe caroiid and subclavian. 

wax; to which, when melted together,! '2. Innomtnuli iiervi. A former name 

there is to be added some oil of turpen-of ihe tilih pair of nerves. 

tine, having a suliicient quantity of co- 3. Jniinmiiiatuin os. A bone composed 



louring matter (vermilion lor red, and 
iung"s yellow for yellow) suspendwl in it 
to colour the injection. But for a line 
preparation, the following may be used : — 

1. The fine injection. Composed of 
brown spint-varnish and white spirit- 
varnish, of each lour parts; turpentine-' 
varnish, one part; and colouring matter, 
one part, or as much as is sufficient. A 
little of this while hot is first thrown into 
the arteries, into the minute branches of 
which it is to be forced by — 

2. T/ie coarse injection. Composed of 
bees-wax two parts, rosin one part, tur- 
pentine-varnish one part, and colouring 
matter, q. s. To the bees-wax and rosin 
melted together add the turpentine var- 
nish, and then the colouring matter sus- 
pended in some oil of turpentine. 

I'NION l^iviov, the nape of the neck; 
from If, iVof, a sinew). The ridge of the 
occiput. Hence, — 

I'ltial. A term applied by Barclay to 
that aspect of Ihe head which is towards 
the inion. The opposite aspect is called 
ant-inial. 

' INIC. A liquor or pigment used for 
writing or printing. 

1. Common ink, made by adding an 
infusion or decoction of Ihe nut-gall to 
sulphate of iron, dissolved in water. Red 
ink is composed of Brazil wood, gum, and 
alum. See Sympalhelic ink. 

2. Indian ink, made of lamp-black and 
size, or animal glue, scented with musk 
or amber, and used in China for writing 
with a brush, and painting. 

3. Printers' ink, a black paint, made of 
linseed or nut oil and lamp-black. 

4. Fermanenl ink. A solution of nitrate 
of silver, thickened with sap green or 
cochineal; used lor marking Inien. The 
pounce liquid, with which the linen is 
prepared, is a solution of soda, boiled 
with gum, or some animal mucilage. If 
potash be used, the ink will run. 

INN/VTE, Growing upon any thing 
by one end, as when the anther is at- 
tached by its base to the apex of the fila- 
ment. 

INNERVATION (in, and nervns, a 
nerve). The properties or functions of 
the nervous system. 

INNOMINATUS (in, priv., nomen, 
name). Nameless. Hence, — 

1. Innominala nrteria. The branch 



of three portions: viz., 

1. The ilium, or haunch-bone. 

2. The ischium, or hip-bone. 

3. The OS pubis, or share-bone. 
lNOCUL.\TIO.\ (in, and oculits, an 

eye). The insertion, intentional or acci- 
dental, of a healthy or morbid virus, as 
the vaccine or syphilitic, into the system. 

[INORG.\NIC (in, priv., organum, an 
organ). Without organs; or any parts for 
the performance of special functions, as 
minerals. f?ee Orsanizalion.] 

INOSCULATION (in, and osculum, a 
little mouth). The union of vessels, or 
anastomosis : the latter term, however, is 
sometimes used to designate union by 
minute ramification; the former, a direct 
communication of trunks. 

INSA'NIA (in, priv., sanus, sound). 
Insanity ; mania ; deranged intellect. 
The Latin term i7isanitas is applied to 
bodily, and not to mental, indisposition. 

INSECTA. The second class of the 
Diplo-gangliata or Entonioida, compris- 
ing articulated animals with six feet, 
which undergo metamorphosis and ac- 
quire wings. 

INSERTION (jnsero, to implant). The 
attachment of a muscle to the part it 
moves. Compare Origin. 

INSOLATIOCi'n, and sol, the sun). [In- 
solation]. A term sometimes made use 
of to denote that exposure to the sun 
which is made in order to promote the 
chemical action of one substance upon 
another. .Also, a disease which arises 
from the influence of the sun's heat upon 
the head, called conp-de-soleil. Lastly, it 
denotes exposure to the solar heat, as a 
therapeutic agent. 

INSOLUBILITY (,in, not, solve, io 
loose). A property, resulting from co- 
hesion, by which a substance resists so- 
lution. 

INSOMNIA (in, not, somniA, sleep). 
Sleeplessness, watching, lying awake. 

INSPIRATION (inspiro, to inhale). 
That part of respiration in which the air 
is inhaled. Compare Expiration. 

INSPISSATION (in, and spissatus, 
thickened). The process of making a 
liquid of a thick consistence. 

INSTINCT. This convenient term ad- 
mits of the fitllowing significations: — 

1. The Instinctive Faculty; or that 
faculty which leads the duckling, un- 



given off to the right by the arch of thei taught, into the water; the heaver to 



\ 



INS 



169 



INT 



build its luit ; the bee its comb; the hen the septum between the auricles of the 
to incubate her eggs, &c. ; and, — 1 heart, in Ilie fcetiis 



2. Tlie InslincUve Mnlions; or those 
involuntary actions which are excited 
mediately ihrough the nerves, — a part of 
the reflex fanclion. The principal in- 
stinctive motions are, — 

1. The closure of the eyelids. 

2. The act of sucking. 

3. The act of closing the hand. 

4. The act of swallowing. 

5. The closure of the glottis. 

6. The action of the sphincters. 

7. Inspiration, as an involuntary act. 

8. The acts of sneezing ; of vomit 
ing. 

All these phenomena accord with the 
definition, and take jilace even in the 
anencephalous child, on the due applica 
tion of the appropriate stimuli. 

[hXSUFFLATlON (iw, in, svfflo, to 
blow). The act of blowing a gas or va- 
pour into a cavity of the body, as when 
tobacco smoke is injected into the rec- 
tum, or air blown into the lungs, &c.] 

INSULATION {insula, an island). A 
term applied to a body containing a 
quantity of electric fluid, and surrounded 
by non-conductors, so that its communi- 
cation with other bodies is cut off. 

INTEGRAL PARTICLKS {integer. 
entire). The most minute particles into 
which any substance, simple or com- 
pound, can be divided, similar to each 
other, and to the substance of which they 
are parts. Thus, the smallest portion of 
powdered marble is siill marble; but if, 
by chemical means, the calcium, the 
carbon, and the oxygen of this marble be 
separated, we shall then have the ele- 
mentary or constituent particles. 

INTEGUMENT {in, and lego, to 
cover). The covering of any part of the 
body, as the cuticle, cutis, &c. The 
common integuments are the skin, with 
the fat and cellular membrane adhering 
to it; also, particular membranes, which 
invest cenain pans of the body, are 
called integuments, as the tunics or coats 
of the eye. 

INTENSITY. A term denoting the 
degree to which a body is electrically 
excited. 

[INTENTION. See Union] 

INTER. A Latin preposition, signi- 
fying between, or denoting intervals. 

1. Inter-articular. A designation o( 
earlilasres which lie within joints, as that 
of the jaw; and of certain ligaments, as 
the ligamcritum teres within the acetabu- 
lum, &c. 

2. Inler-anricular. A term applied to 

12 



3. Inlcr-clavicnlar. The name of a 
ligament connecting the one clavicle 
with the other. 

4. liitfr-coslales. The name of two 
sets of muscles between the ribs — the 
external and the internal — which have 
been compared, from their passing in con- 
trary direciions, to St. Andrew's cross. 

5. Liter-current. Applied to fevers or 
other diseases which occur sporadically 
in the midst of an epidemic. 

6. lnler-luniusmorhns{luna, the moon). 
Epilepsy; so called from its being sup- 
posed to affect persons born in the wane 
of the moon. 

7. Inter-mediate {medixis, middle). A 
term applied to a third subsiance, em- 
ployed lor combining together two other 
substances; thus, alkali is an intermedi- 
ate between oil and water, forming 
soap. 

8 Inter-mittenl {mitto, to send). A 
term applied to Ague, or fever recurring 
at intervals; il is called quotidian, when 
the paroxysms recur daily; tertian, when 
ihey recur each second day; and ijuar- 
tan, when they recur each third day. 

9. Inter-nuntii dies {nuntius, a mes- 
senger). Critical days, or such as occur 
between the increase and decrease of a 
disease. 

10. Inter-ossei. Muscles situated be- 
tween bones; as those between the me- 
tacarpal of the hand, and the metatarsal 
bones of the loot. 

11. Inter-spinales cervicis. The desig- 
nation of six small muscles, situated be- 
tween the spinous processes of the neck. 
There are also inter-spinous ligaments 
attached to the margins of the spinous 
processes. 

12. Inter-slitial {inter sto, to stand be- 
tween). A term applied to an organ 
which occupies the interstices of contigu- 
ous cells, as the uterus, the bladder, &c. 

13. Intvr-iransversales. The name of 
muscles situated between the transverse 
processes of the cervical, and the similar 
prr)cesses of the lumbar vertebrae. 

14. Inter-trigo {inter, between, tero, 
trivi, to rub). The erythema, abrasion, 
fret, or chatmg.of the skin of parts which 
are in contact, as behind the ears, in the 
groins of fat persons, &c. 

15. Inler-vcrtebral. A term applied to 
the fibro-cartilage between the vertebrcE ; 
to ligaments, &c. 

INTERRUPTED. A term denoting 
a disturbance of a normal arrangement: 
a leaf ia said to be interruplcdly pinnate,^ 



INT 



190 



lOD 



when some of the pinnae are much smaller 
than ihe rest, or absent. 

I.NTESTI'NA {intus, within). An 
order of worms which inhabit the bodies 
of 01 her animals. These are distinguished, 
by Ciivier, into, — 

1. Cavitaria [cavitas, a cavity). Worms 
which have cavities or stomachs. 

2. Parcnchymala {-apiy%vna, ihe sub- 
stance of the lungs, &c.). Cellular-bodied 
worms, as ihe tape-worm. 

INTESTINES [inius, within). That 
part of the alimentary canal which ex- 
tends from the stomach to the anus. The 
intestines are distinguished into the 
small, consisting of the duodenum, jeju- 
num, and ileum; and the large, compris- 
ing the crecum, colon, and rectum. 

1. Intestiniim lenne. The small intes- 
tine, in which the duodenum terminates; 
the upper portion is called jejunum, the 
lower poriioii is the ileum. 

2. Infesilninn crassum. The large in- 
testine, comprising the caecum and the 
colon; the former of these is called the 
intestinum cascum. 

INTOLERANCE {in, not, lolero, to 
bear). ,A term applied to the condition 
when any remedy cannot be borne, as 
lo.ss of blood. 

INTRITA {inlero, to rub in). A term 
used bv Celsus lor panada, caudle. &c. 

INTROITL'S {intra ire, to go within). 
An entrance. Hence the term introilus, 
vel apertura pelvis superior is applied to 
the upper or abdominal strait of the pel- 
vis. The lower circumference or strait 
is called exitus vel apertura pelvis infe- 
rior. 

INTRORSE. Turned inwards; ap- 
plied, in botany, to anthers whose line of 
dehiscence is towards the axis of the 
flower ; opposed to exirorse. 

INTUMESCENTIyE {intumesco, to 
swell). Intumescences; external swell- 
ing of the whole or great part of the 
body ; the second order of the class Ca- 
chexia; of Cullen. 

INTUSSUSCEPTIO {intus, within, 
susci]>io, to receive). Intro-susccplion. 
The descent of a higher portion of intes- 
tine into a lower one, — generally, of the 
ileum into the colon. When it takes 
place downwards, it may be termed pro- 
gressive ; when upwards, retrograde. The 
term Intus-susceptio is ;ilso applied to the 
process of nutrition, or the transforma- 
tion of the components of ihe blood into 
the organized substance of the various 
nrgans. 

INULA HELENIUM. Elecampane; 
a European, Composite plant, allied 



in its operation to sweet-flag and se- 
nega. 

1. Inulin. A variety of starch ob- 
tained from the root of the Inula Hele- 
nium. 

2. Heleni.n. A constituent of the root 
of Ihe same plant, also called elecampane- 
camphor. 

INUSTION {inuro, to burn in). A 
term applied to the burning operation of 
the cautery. 

INVAGINATION {in, and vagina, a 
sheath). A term synonymous with intus- 
susceptio7i. 

INVENTUM NOVUM. A name 
given by Avenbrugger, a physician of 
Vienna, to the employment of Percus- 
sion, which was first adopted by him, in 
1763, as a means of diagnosis. 

IN VERMIN ATION {in, and vermis, 
a worm). Hehninlhia. An aflfection in 
which worms, or the larvae of insects, 
inhabit the stomach or intestines. 

INVERSIO UTERI (inverto, to in- 
vert). That state of the uterus in which 
it is turned, wholly or partially, inside 
outward. 

INVOLU'CRUM {i7>volvo, to wrap in). 
The designation of membranes which 
cover any part. The term is also applied, 
in botany, to a whorl of bracts which 
surrounds several flowers, as in the Com- 
positas, Umbelliierte, &c. 

INVOLUTE. A form of vernation or 
aestivation, in which the edges of the 
leaves are rolled inwards spirally on 
each side, as in the apple. 

lODINUM {i'oSns, or iottSng, violet- 
coloured, from (01', a violet, and uSog, 
likeness). Iodine, a crystallized solid 
substance, found in marine plants; it 
becomes volatile by a slight increase of 
temperature, and forms a beautiful violet 
vapour. 

1. lodal {iodine and aZcohol). An ole- 
aginous liquid obtained by the action of 
iodine upon nitric alcohol. 

2. Iodic acid. An anhydrous acid, 
termed oxiodine by Davy, and produced 
by the combination of iodine with oxygen. 
It combines with metallic oxides, and 
forms salts which are termed iodates. 

3. Iodides, or indnrels. The compounds 
of iodine with metals, and with the sim- 
ple non-metallic substances. 

4. lodous acid. A compound prepared 
by the action of iodine on chlorate of 
potash, — probably by the combination of 
iodine and chlorine. 

5. Chloriodic odd. This is also called 
chloride of iodine; and is fbrmeil by the 
absorption of chlorine by dry iodine. 



lOD 



191 



ISC 



lODISM. A peculiar morbid state, 
induced by the use of iodine. 

lOiNTHOStioi-eof, the root of the hair). 
Varus. The name by which most of the 
Greeii writers designate the disease 
Acne, from its occurring during the 
growth of the lanugo, or first beard. See 

lOTACISMUS (iWa, the Greeit letter, 
i). A species of psellismus, in which 
the letters _;' and g are defectively pro- 
nounced. See Lambdacismus. 

IPECACUANHA {ipi. Peruvian for 
root, Cacuanha, the district from whence 
the root was lirst obtained). The root of 
the Cep/iaelis Ipecacuanha, known in 
commerce by the names of the annu- 
lated, Brazilian, or Lisbon Ipecacuanha, 
to distinguish it from the roots of other 
emetic plants also collected in Brazil for 
officinal use. Its emetic principle is 
termed emelina. 

1. Striated Ipecacuanha. The longi- 
tudinally striated root of the Psychotria 
eraetica, called by some writers the black 
or Peruvian ipecacuanha. 

2. Undulated Ipecacuanha. The semi- 
circularly-grooved root of the Riehard- 
sonia scabra, or ihe amylaceous or white 
ipecacuanha of Merat. 

IPOM^A PURGA. The Jalap Ipo- 
mffia, a Convolvulaceous plant, the dried 
tubers of which constitute the jalap ot 
commerce. 

IRIDACE^. The Cornflag tribe of 
Monocoiyledonous jilants. Smooth her- 
baceous plants, with leaves equitant ; 
flowers hexapetalous, triandrous; sta- 
mens 3 ; ovarium three-celled, many- 
seeded. 

[IRIDECTOMEDIALYSIS (Jpi;, iris 
E/cro/^'j, excision, iiaXmi^, separation). The 
operation for artilicial pupil by excision 
and separation.] 

[IRIDENCLEISIS (7pij, iris, iyK\eiw 
to enclose). The strangulation of a de- 
tached portion of the iris.] 

IRIDESCENT {ins, a rainbow). Th 
property of shining with many colours, 
like the rainbow. 

IRIDIUM {iris, the rainbow). The 
most infusible of all known metals; so 
called from the variety of colours assumed 
by its salts. 

IRIS. Literally, a rainbow; and hence 
applied to the rainbow-like membrane 
which separates the anterior from the 
posterior chamber of the eye. See 
Uvea. 

Iritis. Inflammatiiin of the iris. 



circular patches, each composed of con- 
centric rings of different colours. 

IRIS KLOREiNTINA. Florentine 
Iris or Orris; Fleur-de-Luce. The dried 
rhizoma of this plant is the orris-root of 
the shops. 

IRISH MOSS. Carrageen. The Chon- 
drus crispus; a lichen growing on rocks 
and stones in the sea. 

IRON. See Ferrnm. 

IRRIGATION (iVr/g-o, to water). The 
continual application of a cold lotion by 
dropping cold water on an affected 
pari. 

IRRITABILITY {irrito, to provoke). 
That action of certain muscles, as the 
heart, the intestines, &c., which flows 
from a stimulus acting immediately upon 
their fibres; or, in the case of the volun- 
tary muscles, upon these, or the nerves 
immediately proceeding to them. This 
properly hfts been termed by Haller vis 
insita ; by Goerter, vis vilalis ; by Boer- 
haave, oscillation ; by Stahl, tonic power ; 
by Bell, muscular power; by Cullen, in- 
herent power ; and by Dr. Bostock, con- 
Iractilily. 

IRRITATION {irrito, lo excite). The 
action produced by any stimulus. This 
term, as a disease, is applied to, — 

1. The case arising from calculus in 
the ureter, in the gall-duct, &c. 

2. The affection induced by the pre- 
sence of improper food in the stomach, 
or morbid matters retained in the bowels, 
&c., inducing symptoms resembling — 
arachnitis, peritonitis, pleurilis, carditis . 
—Dr. M. Hall. 

rSATIS TINCTORIA. Woad. A 
plant irom which an inferior kind of in- 
digo is prepared. 

ISCHIUM {ItTxiov, the hip). Coxa vel 
acetabulum. The hip-bone, a spinous 
process of the os innominatum. 

1. Ischi-agra {liypa, a seizure). An 
attack of the hip; hip gout. 

2. Ischi-algia {akyoq, pain). Pain in the 
hip. See Sciatica. 

b". Ischias The term used by the 
Latins for rheumatism of the hip-joint ; 
it was afterwards corrupted into ischi- 
atica, or scialaca. 

4. Ischiatic. The designation of a noteA 
of the OS innominatum; of an artery 
which proceeds through that notch, &c. 

5. 1 schialo-cele {Kfi\rj, a tumour). An 
intestinal rupture through the sciatic 
ligaments. 

6. Ischio-cavernosus. A muscle at- 
tached to the ischium and to the corpus 



IRIS DISE.ASE. Rainbow ringworm, jcavernosiim. It draws the root of the 
a species of Herpes, occurring in smalllpenis downwards and backwards. Ilia 



ISC 



192 



I vo 



also called, from its office, erector penis ; same summer and the same winter, are 
and the two togei her are called coZto/era- denominated isolheral (Ocpof, summer), 
les penis, from their lying on the sides of] and iso-cheimal Oceifia, winter), lines. 



ISOLUSINE. A new principle, dis- 
covered by M. Peschier, in various spe- 



the penis. 

ISCHAOPIIOMA (iVxi-os. slender. 
ipovi), voice). Psellismus hasitaiis. A cies of polygala. 
shrillness of the voice; hesitation oli ISSUE. Fonliculus. An ulcer inten- 
speecli. or siammering. tionally made and kept open, for the cure 

ISCHURIA (lo-xcj, to retain, ovpov, jor prevention of disease, 
urine). Suppression or retention of the I Issue peax. The young unripe fruit of 
urine. The term is employed, in iVAur/a' the Citrus auranlium, dried and turned 
renalis, in the sense of suppression; in|inalaihe. 

ischuria urelica, vesicalis, and urethralis,' ISfHMITIS {iadjidi, a narrow neck of 
in the sense of retention. jland, the throat; and the particle itis). 

ISI^iGLASS. A corruption of the Inllammalion of the throat. See Par- 
Dutch hijzenblas, an air bladder, com-' isthmitis. 

pounded oUnizen, to hoist, and bias, a ISTHMUS VIEUSSENII. The isth- 
bladder. Fish-glue. See Ichthyoculla. jmus of Vieussens; the ridge surrounding 

ISO- C'aos, equal). This prelix denotes! the oval fossa, or remains of the foramen 
equality, or similarili/. Hence, — ovale, in the right auricle of the heart. 

1. Isu-harysm {i]aj,Oi, weight). Simila-I Isthmus of the thyroid gland. A trans- 
rity of weight, supposed to be <he cause; verse cord which connects the two lobes 
of ihe ideniiiy in the size and shape of composing the thyroid body. 



molecules which cohere into the crystal- 
line form. 

2. Iso-chromatic (.xpw/<a, colour). Hav 
ing the same colour, as applied to lenses 



ITACOiMC ACID. Another name for 
the pyrocilric or citricic acid. 

ITCH. The vulgar name for a cuta- 
neous disease of the fingers, &c. See 



3. Iso-chronous (xpoi/oi, time). That Scabies. 
which occurs in equal times, as thCj i/c/t insect. The Acarus Scabiei, a very 
strokes of the pulse, ihe vibrations ofl minute animalcule, said to be found in 
pendulums of the same length, <i:c. jor near the pustules of the itch ; they are 

4. Iso-meric compounds (fispo;, part), called u-Aeoi-it'orms in man, and resemble 
A term applied to different bodies which the mites of cheese, &c. 

agree in composition, but differ in pro-! ITER. A passage of communication 

perties; their relation to each other isj between two or more parts. 

termed isomerism. \ 1. Iter ad infundibulum. The passage 

3. Iso-morphous bodies (y.op(ph, form), of communication between the third ven- 
A term applied by Miischerlich to dif-'tricle of the brain and the infundibulum. 
ferent bodies which assume the same It is also termed ybranj«n commune an- 
crystalline form; their relation in lormlterius. 

is called isomorphism. When the rela-| 2. Iter a palato ad aurem. The pas- 
tions are not exact, but nearly so, they sage from the palate to the ear, or the 
may be supposed to give origin to p/esio- Eustachian tube. 

morphism {-Xijaioi, near), or an approxi-j 3. Iter a terlio ad quartum veniriculum. 
mation to similarity of form. The passage between the third and fourth 

6. Iso-perimetrical. Having the same j ventricles of the brain, known by the 



length of perimeter (rtpi, around, nirpov 
measure), or bounding line. 

7. Iso-poda, (roi!j, Toa'df, a foot). Ani- 
mals which have equal feet, as the wood- 
louse. 

8. Iso-thermal (Otpjin, heat). Of equal 



name of the aqueduct of Sylvius. 

IVORY. The name given lo the teeth 
or tusks of the elephant, and of the 
walrus or sea-horse. All under 18 lbs. 
are called scrivelloes, and are of the least 
value. 



degrees of heat, as applied to lines of] IVORY BLACK. Animal charcoal. 
equal temperature in physical geography.! The residue of heated bones; a mixture 
Lines drawn through places having the! of charcoal and phosphate of lime. 



JAC 



193 



JOI 



JACOB'S MEMBRANE. The thin 
external membrane of the retina, consider- 
ed bv Dr. Jacob as a serous membrane. 

JACOB SON'S NERVE. Another 
name for the tympanic branch, described 
by Jacobson. 

[JACTATION or JACTITATION 
(jactatio vel jactitatio, a tossing). Rest- 
lessness; a itind of physical inquietude, 
which impels the patient to change con 
tinually his position.] 

JALAP. The dried tubers of the 
Ipomaa Purga, a plant of the order Con- 
volvidacea, so named from Jalapa, a 
place in Me.vico. The Ipoma;a Oriza- 
bensis probably yields a portion of the 
imported drug. 

Jalapin. A substance constituting 
nearly nine-tenths of jalap resin. The 
remaining portion is jalajiic acid. 

JAMAICA KINO. An extract pre 
pared from the bark of the Coccoloha uvi 
/era, or sea-side Erape, of the West Indies 

JAMAICA PEPPER. Allspice, or 
Pimento; the fruit of the Eugenia Pi- 
menta, which grows in Jamaica. 

JAiM.AICINA. A crystalline substance 
found in Cahhage hark, the produce of 
the Aiidira inermis of the West Indies. 

JAMES'S POWDER. PuMs Jacohi 
verus. A celebrated fever powder, sup- 
posed to be the same as the Anlimonii 
oxidiim cum phosphate calcis, or antimo- 
nial powder. 

JAPAN EARTH. The Catechu ex- 
iractum. procured from tiie .\cacia cate- 
chu, or Kliair tree. It is also called lerrfi 
japoiiica, from its being supposed to be 
a mineral production; dark calerhu, as 
distinguished from the pale kind; Bengal 
cutch, in distinction from that of Bom- 
hay ; Gummi Lyciiim ? &.C. 

JAPAi\ S.\'GO. A feculent matter 
obtained from the soft centre of the 
Ci/rax revnliila, and other species. 

■JAPONIC ACID. An acid produced 
when catechin with alkalies or alkaline 
carl)onaies absorbs oxygen from the air. 

JASPER. A species of rhombohedral 
quartz, found in the composition of many 
mountains; its varieties are distinguished 
by the terms Egyptian, striped, porcelain, 
and common. 

JATROPHA MANIHOT. Janiphn 
Manihol. The Cassava or Tapioca Plant, 
from the tuberous root of which is pre- 



pared a fecula called tapioca. The pulp, 
when dried and baked into cakes, con- 
stitutes cassava or cassada hread. 

Jalropha curcas. The species which 
yields the nux harhadensis of some wri- 
ters, and the physic nuts of the shops. 

JATROPHIC ACID. Crotonic acid. 
An acid procured by converting croton 
oil into soap. 

JAUNDICE. A disease proceeding 
from obstruction in the liver, and charac- 
terised by a yellow colour of the skin,&e. 
The term is most probably a corruption 
of the French word jrt«n?sse, yellowness, 
from jaune, yellow. See Icterus. 

JEJUNUM (jejumis, hungry). The 
upper two-fifths of the small intestines, 
HO named from this portion being gene- 
rally found empty. 

JELLY. A soft tremulous substance, 
— the solution of gelatin, when cold. 

\. Animal jelly, or ge]!iUne, is extracted 
by boiling from the skin, membranes, 
ligaments, cartilages, and bones of ani- 
mals. See Gelatine. 

2. Vegetahle jelly is procured from the 
recenll}' expressed juices of certain fruits, 
as the currant; and consists of mucilage, 
or some modification of gum and vege- 
table acid. 

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. The 
Hcliunlhus tuherosns, a species of sun- 
flower, the root of which resembles the 
artichoke in taste. The term Jerusalem, 
as applied to artichoke, is a curious cor- 
ruption of the Italian term gira-sole, that 
is, turn-sun in English, and heliotrope in 
Greek. 

JERVIN. A new base discovered by 
M. Simon, in the rhizome of Veratrum 
Allium, and so named from jerva, the 
Spanish name for a poison obtained from 
this rhizome. 

JESUITS' BARK, or POWDER. A 
term formerly applied promiscuously to 
the three kinds of bark, or Peruvian bark. 
See Cinchona. 

JET, or PITCH COAL. A black vel- 
vet-coloured bitumen, used lor fuel, and 
for making vessels, &c. 

JEWELLERS PUTTY. Ignited and 
linely-levigated oxide of tin, used by 
jewellers for jxilishiiig hard objects. 

JOINT. Arthrosis. An articulation, 
or the mode by which bones are con- 
nected to eacii other. 



JUG 



194 



KER 



JUGALE, OS {j"S"^»'^ a y^l^e)- 0.< 
inalai; os zi/gomalicum. The zygojiia, or 
arch formed by ihe zygomalic processes 
of the lomporal and cheek bones. 

JUGALKS (jiigiim, a yoke). A desig- 
nation of'ihe siiperiicial lemporal.or zygo- 
niaiic nertes. given off from the facial. 

[JUGLA.NS ChNEREA. Bimernut, 
Oil nut, white walnut. An indigenous 
plant, of the order Jnglandacem. The 
extract is a mild cathartic, in the dose of 
from gr. v. to gr. xxx.] 

JUGULUM. The throat; the fore- 
part of the neck, where the windpipe is 
Situated. 

Jugular. Belonging lo the neck ; applied 
chieliv to llie principal veins of the neck. 

JUGUM PE?>1S. An instrument for 
compressing some part of the urethra, to 
j.revent dribbling in cases in which the 
urine cannot be retained. 

JUJUBE, PATE DE. A pectoral 
lozenge, prepared from the Rham/tus ju- 
Jufia and vulgaris. 

JULEPUM. A Julep; a term which, 
in Ibrnier pharmacopceias, expressed what 
is now understood by mistura. 

JUMPER KESU\. Sandarach. A 
resin, also called gum juniper, procurer! 
from the CalUi.ris (/uadrivalvis. Its pow- 
der is called puunce. 



JUiMPERUS COMMUi^l*. Common 
Juniper; the plant which yields the fruit 
called juiiijii'r berries, and from which 
the 0(7 oj junipers is obtained. 

1. Juniperus Sabina. Savin; the plant 
which yields the ail of savin. 

2. Juniperus virginiana. Red cedar, 
the wood of which is used for black-lead 
pencils. 

JUPITER. The ancient chemical 
name of tin, which was supposed to be 
under the control of that planet. 

JURlSPKUDEiXCE, MEDICAL. Fo- 
rensic medicine; the science which treats 
of the legal proceedings in reference lo 
medicine. 

JUS. Broth; pottage; gravy; gruel. 
The term jusculum is a diminutive of 
jus, and denotes the same thing ;jHSCi/- 
lum coactum is jolly. 

JUSTAMOND'S ARSENICAL 
CAUSTIC. A preparation made by 
melting together in a crucible antimony 
and arsenic, both in a state of powder. 

JUVANTIA U'^^o< 'o assist). Medi- 
cines which assist or relieve diseases. 

JUZAM, or JUDAM. Terms by which 
the Arabians designated Elephaniiasis ; 
it is still called, in Arabia and Persia, 
Dsjiiddam, and Madsjuddam, according 
to JXiebuhr. 



K 



K.^LI. A term of Arabic origin, de- 
noting a particular plant; hence the 
word al-kali, with the article, originally 
signified the pariicular residuum obtained 
by lixiviating the ashes of that plant; tiie 
term was then used for poiassa: thus, 
kali vilriolatum is an old name for sul- 
phate of polas.sa ; kali puruin fi)r potassa 
fiisa ; calx cum kali puro lor potassa cum 
calce, &o. 

KAOLIN. China-clay; a fine pure 
clay prepared by levigation from moul- 
dering granite, and employed in the 
manufacture of porcelain. 

KEDRIA TERKESTRIS. Barbadoes 
tar: a mineral oil. See Bitumen. 

KEEL. Carina. A term applied lo 
the two lower petals of a papilionaceous 
corolla, which cohere by their lower 
margin, so as to present a keeled appear- 
ance. 

KELP. Varec. The crude soda ob- 
tained from the ashes of the Fuci in 
Holland, and on the northern coast of 
France. It is used in the composition of 



soap, in the manufacture of alun'i, and in 
the formation of crown and bottle glass. 
See Barilla. 

KERATOME (Kepa;, the cornea, rcfivoi, 
to cut). An instrument for dividing the 
ftansparent cornea in the operation for 
cataract by extraction. 

KERATOiNYXIS {Kepa^, xiparos, a 
horn, the cornea, vvfTac•^, to puncture). A 
term employed in Germany to denote the 
operation of couching performed through 
the cornea. When the opaque lens is, 
by this means, merely turned, presenting 
its anterior and posterior, surface in the 
horizontal position, the term reclinalion 
is adopted. 

KERMES ANIMAL. Coccm llicis, 
a hemipterous insect, found upon the 
Quercus ilex, and formerly used for dye- 
ing scarlet; cloth so dyed was colled 
coccinum, and persons wearing this cloth 
were termed by the Romans coccinati. 
The drug was termed granakermes, from 
the resemblance of the dried insects lo 
grains or seeds. 



KER 



195 



LAB 



KERMllS MINERAL. Formerly, 
Pavncea Glaiiberiaiia ; a sulphuret of an- 
timony ; so named, from iis resemblance, 
in colour, to the insect kermes. 

KIBE. Pernio exnlceralus. Chilblain, 
accompanied with ulceration. 

KIDNEYS. Renes. Two glandular 
bodies, situated in the lumbar regions, 
and consisting of a corticai or external, 
and a tuhnlar or medullary substance. 

[KIESTEINE {kv€w, to conceive, caBrn, 
a vestment). A gelatino-albuminous sub- 
stance, existing in the urine of pregnant 
females, subsequent to the first month of 
pregnancy, which separates by rest, 
ibrming a pellicle on the surface. It is a 
useful test of pregnancy.] 

KINGDOM. A term denoting any of 
the principal divisions of nature; thus 
we have the organic hingdom, compre- 
hending substances which organize, and 
the inorganic kingdom, comprehending 
substances which crystallize. 

KING'S EVIL. Morlms Regis. A 
scrofulous disease, the curing of which 
was fonnerly attributed to the king of 
England, from the time of Edward the 
Confessor. This practice was called 
touching for the evil. 

KINIC ACID. Quinicacid. An acid 
found in the Cinchona barks. It forms 
salts called kinates. 

Kinu'ile. A neutral substance pro- 
duced by the calcination of a kinale by 
a gentle heat. 

KINO. An astringent extract, termed 
East Indian or genuine kino. Nothing is 
known respecting its origin. 

1. Botany Baij kino. The produce of 
the Eucalyptus resinifera, or Iron-bark 
tree, imported from Van Diemen's land. 

2. Jamaica kino. The produce of the 
Coccoloba uvifera, or sea-side grape. 

3. African kino. Said to be the pro- 
duce of the Pterocarpus erinaceus; bui 
there is no evidence o{\\.-^Pereira. 

KIRKLAND'S NEUTRAL CE- 
RATE. Melt together gviij. of lead 



plaster with f 3'V. of olive oil, into which 
are to be stirred giv. of prepared chalk; 
when the mixture is sufficiently cooled, 
add Igiv. of acetic acid, and 3iij. of 
pulverized acetate of lead, and stir the 
whole until nearly cold. 

KIRSCH-WASSER. A liqueur distil- 
ed from the fruit of the small cherry-tree, 
and called the brandy of Switzerland. 

KNEE-JOINT. A complex articula- 
tion, consisting of an angular ginglymus, 
formed by the condyles of the lemur, the 
upper extremity of the tibia, and the 
posterior surface of the patella. 

KNEE-PAN. Patella; the small round 
bone at the front of the knee-joint. 

KORE' {KOfin). The pupil of the eye. 
The compounds of this terra will be 
(bund in pp. 105, 106. 

KOUMISS. A vinous liquid, made by 
the Tartars from milk, principally from 
that of mares. Something similar is pre- 
pared in Orkney and Shetland ; also by 
the Turks under the name of i/aourt, 
and by the Arabs under that oihtan. 

KRAMERIA TRIANDRA. The Rha- 
tany; a plant of the order Poli/galacece., 
yielding rhatany root; the stypticity of 
which has been ascribed to the presence 
of an acid called krameric acid. 

KRIEBEL KRANKHEIT. The Ger- 
man name of a disease which was ende- 
mic in Hessia and Westphalia during a 
season of dearth, in 1597. It has also 
been called die Fever-flecke, ignis sacer, 
ignis Sancti Anionii, mal des ardens, 
ergot, &c. It is arranged by Sauvages 
under the head of Krysijielas pestilens ; 
and by Sagar, under the genus Necrc.iis. 

KU'NDAH OIL. An oil obtained from 
the seeds of the Carapa Toulouconna, 
also called talliconnah oil. 

KUPFEKNICKEL.The German name 
for sulphuret of nickel ; in which the me- 
tal is generally mixed also with arsenic, 
iron, and cobalt. 

[KYLLOSIS(>fi)XXoj, crooked). A n.ame 
given by Prof. Chaussier lo clubfoot.] 



L 



LABARRAQUE'S SOLUTION. A] is formed into cylindrical pieces, called 
disinfecting li(jnid, of which chloride ofJahdaniim in tortin. 

soda is the active ingredient. It is ana- I^ibdaniim fuclitium. Yellow wax and 
logous to the well-known bleaching pow-ihog's lard, of each six ounces; and black 
der, chloride of lime. burnt ivory, four ounces. 

LABDANUM. J^danian. A resinous LABELLUM (dim. of labium, a lip), 
exudation from the Cistus Creticus. Itl A little lip; a term applied, in botany, to 



LAB 



196 



LAC 



to the lip-lihe petal of Orchidaceous Indica, the Croton lacciferuin, the Bufea 

frondosa, &c. The substance is depo- 
sited over the eggs of the insert, and 
serves as a present protection to the 
ovum, and as food for the maggot at a 
future stage. Lac yields a fine red dye; 
the resinous part is used in making 
sealing-wax and for a varnish. 

1. istkk lac is the term applied to the 
substance in its natural state, with the 
encrusted leaves and twigs. 

2. Lac di/e, lac lake, or cake lac, are 
names applied to the colouring matter 
extracted from the stick lac. 

3. Seed lac is the resinous powder 
which remains after the extraction of 
the colouring matter, by pounding and 
solution in water; so called from its 
resemblance to mustard seed. When 
melted, it is formed into rakes, and 
called lump lac; and, when strained 
through cotton over a charcoal fire, the 
resinous part, which melts the most 
easily, is fiirmed into thin sheets, and 
called s/icll lac. 

4. Lnccic acid. An acid obtained, by 
Dr. John, from stick lac. Its salts are 
called laccatcs. 

5. Laccin. A newly-discovered prin- 
ciple contained in lac, intermediate be- 
tween wax and resin. 

LAC LUi\^. Literally, milk of the 
moon. A snowy-while substance, resem- 
bling chalk, consisting almost wholly of 
aluminn, saturated with carbonic acid. 

LAC SULPHURIS. Milk of sulphur, ' 
or the sniphur |)rfecipitatiim. 

LAC VACCINUM. Cows' milk; an 
emulsive substiince, consisting of globu- 
lar particles fioaling in a serous liquid. 
The milk globules consist essentially of 

l/UltcT. 

1. Cremor liclis. Flos laclis. Cream, 
or ihe globular particles of milk, which 
rise to ilie surface, carrying with them 
some caseum, and retaining some of the 
.serum. 

2. Caseum. Albumen of milk; the 
coagiilum, or curd, separated Irom milk 
l)y the addition to ii of an acid or rennet. 

3. Serum liirji$. The n7/("// of milk left 
alter the separation of ihe (!urd. 

4. Ijtriin. Saccholaciin,_or sugar of 
milk, obtained from whey hy evapora- 
tion. 

5. Jjiclic arid. This is probably a pro- 
duct of Ihe decomposition of milk. 

G. Ijiclnmeler. A graduated glass tube. 
(()r c.slimating the relative quantity of 
cream Jifjonlcd bv milk. 

LACRRATIO.X (Jucero. to tear). A 



plant.'. 

LABL\ (from \a,3cXv, to take}. The 
lips; the two moveable veils which close 
the cavity of the mouth anteriorly. They 
are laterally united by means of two 
acute angles, \\ hich are called their com- 
m insures. 

1. Lahia majnra. The two large folds, 
constituting the external orifice of the 
pudendum; also called labia pudendi. 

2. Labia minora. The two smaller 
folds, situated within the labia majorn, 
and frequently termed nymphcr. 

3. Labia leporina (leporinus, from Icpun, 
a hare). The hare-lip; a division of the 
lip, resembling that of the ujiper lip of 
Ihe hare. 

4. Labia pudendi. The parts of the 
pudendum exterior to the nymphsc; they 
are also called aim majores, as distin- 
guished from the nymphas, or ate mi- 
nores. The term is synonymous with 
labia majora. 

LABIAT.-E. The Mint tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants, 
with leaves opposite; flowers irregular, 
unsymmetrical ; stamens 4, didymous, 
inserted in the corolla; ovarium deeply 
4-lobed ; fruit 1-4 small nuts. 

LABIATE (labia, a lip). Lipped; 
divided into two lips, as the corolla of 
lamium, the calvx of priniella, i:c. 

LABORATORY [luburo, to labour). 
A place properly fitted up lor the per- 
Ibrmance of chemual operations. 

LABRADOR STO.Mi. A species of 
prismatic felspar, found in the island of 
St. Paul, on the coast of Labrador, A:<-. 

LABRUM. Literally, the exlrcuiiiy 
of the lips; also, the brim of any vessel. 
Hence the fibro-cartilaginous rim which 
surmounts the cotyloid cavity has been 
termed aretnbuli lubrum carlilas:ineutn. 

LABVRl.NTH. The name of a series 
of caviiits, viz, the vestibule, the coch- 
lea, and the semicircular canals, which 
are channelled through ihe siilistance of 
the petrous bone, and situated between 
the cavity of the tympanum and Ihe 
meatus auditorius cxterniis. The name 
is derived from the complexity of its 
coramunicaiions. 

L.^C. xMilk. A term used by the 
Dublin College for the misturu of the 
London — when white and opaque, or 
milk like — and the emulsio o{' \\w Kdiii- 
biirgh Pharrnaf opreia. 

LAC, or GU.MLAC (look, Arab.). A 
suljstanre, improperly called a gum. pro- 
duced by an insect called kerines Incca, 



oil the leaves and branches of the Ficusrent; ihe tearing of any part. The term 



LAC 



197 



LAG 



lacerated is applied to two foramina at 
ihe base of the cranium, from their lace- 
rated nppearance. 

LACKRTUS (the arm; a lizard). An 
old term applied to a bundle of muscular 
fibres, which are enclosed in a mem 
branous sheath, and are divisible into 
smaller bundles, apparently in an inde^ 
Unite poru's. 

[LACMUS. Litmus, q. v.] 

L A C 1 1\ I A T E {lucima, a fringe) 
Slashed; as a leaf divided by deep, 
taper- jioin ted incisions. 

LACONICUM. A term applied to a 
vapour bath, from its having been much 
used by the people of Laconia. 

LACQUER, or LACKER. Solutiim 
of lac in alcohol; a kind of varnish for 
brass and other metals. 

LACRYMA. A tear; the fluid secret- 
ed by the lacrymal sliind, and flowing 
on the surface of the eye. 

1. The inincla larri/jnalia are the ex- 
ternal commencements of two small 
lubes, situated near the inner canthus, 
called — 

2. The lacrymal canals or ducts, which 
originate from the internal angle of the 
eye, and terminate in — 

3. The hcn/inid sac, an oval bag. about 
the size of a small horse-bean, constitut- 
ing the upper extremity of the nasal 
duct. 

4. The laciis lacrymarum consists of a 
small space in Ihe inner angle of the eye. 
between the two eyelids, towards which 
Ihe tears flow. 

[LACTATE OF IRON. Ferri Lacta.s. 
Lactate of Protoxide of Iron. A prepa- 
ration recently introduced into use, and 
highly spoken of in the treatment of 
chlorosis. It is given in the form of lo- 
zenge, pill, or syrup, in the dose of I or 
2 grains, repeated at intervals, to the ex- 
tent of f:5ss. to pj. a day.] 

LACTATION (lac. milk). The process 
of secreting and supplying milk, of nurs- 
ing, or suckling. Pliny uses the word 
ladatus, which is more classical than 
laclalio. 

LACTEALS (Znc, milk). Numerous 
minute lubes which absorb or take up 
the chyle, or milk-like fluid, from the 
alimentary canal. 

LACTIC ACID {lor, lactis. milk). An 
acid produced whenever milk, and per- 
haps most animal fluids, become spoiit.i- 
neously sour, or when llie jiiice of lieel- 
root is kept for sonie iiionlhs at a high 
lemperatiire. [It has alsn liceri found in 
the secrelMiris, pnriicuhirly in the urine] 

LACTICA. 'I'lie Arabian name Ibr 



that species of fever which the Greeks 
call tiiphns, or typhodes. 

LACTIFEROUS DUCTS (lac, lactis 
milk, fern, to convey.) The milk-con- 
veying ducts of the mammary glands. 
The corresponding term in Greek is ga- 
lactdjihornns. 

LACTIFUGE [lac, lactis, milk, fiigo, 
to expel). A medicine which checks or 
diminishes the secretion of mill; in the 
mamma, as in cases of weaning; coriander 
seeds are reputed to have this property. 

LACTIN {lac, laciis, milk). Sugar of 
milk; a crystalline substance procured 
from milk. 

[LACTUCARIUM. Ph. U.S. The in- 
spissated juice of the Lactuca saliva. It 
possesses anodyne properties, and maybe 
given in the dose of from er. ij. to sr. xv.] 

LACTUCA VIROSA.^ The Strong- 
srenled Lettuce, the milky juice of 
which, when inspissated, has been used 
as a substitute for opium, under the name 
oCt/iridace or laclucarivm. 

1. Lactuca saliva. The Garden Let- 
tuce, the milky juice of which yields 
Inctucariiim, but in much less quantity 
than the preceding species. 

2. Lactuca eloiigata. Wild Lettuce. 
An indigenous species, said to possess 
medical properties similar to those of ihe 
Lactuca virosa. 

3. Lactucic acid. An acid obtained 
from the Lactuca virosa, resembling 
ox.'dic acid. 

LACTU'MINA {lactn, to suckle). Lac- 
tiicimina. A name given by Amatiis 
Lucitanus to the infantile aphthae, from 
Ihe supposition that they originated in a 
Vitiated condition of the milk. 

LACUN.\ {lams, a lake). Literally, a 
ditch containing water. Hence t!io term 
lacuna is api'lied to a multitude of fbl- 
icles observeil in the mucous membrane 
of the urethra, and also named sinuses of 
Morgngni. 

1. Luc>n>a masrria. The largest of the 
above-mentioned lacunar, said to be the 
seat of the secretion of the drop of matter 
which is squeezed from the urethra in 
old gonorrhrea. 

2. Lacuna, in plants. A term applied 
by Link to the air-cells which occur in 
the vegetable tissue. 

LACUNAR. Literally, the main beam 
of a house, which is arched or bent like 
ii bow. Hence the term lacunar orhitcf, 
iir the u|.per wall or vault of the orbit. 

LACUNOSE. Havine large deep la- 
cuna' or (lepressioiis on the snrlnre. 

lac; ETTA LIN'J'EAKIA. The Lace 
Bark Tree, a plant of Ihe order Tinjine- 



LAG 



198 



LAN 



lacccB, poRsessini; llie iircipfrlii^s of nirze- 
reuni. lis bnrk is ca|):iblc'or lioiiijj; sop;!- 
raled irilo ihin wliile layers, resembllrii^ 
lacc-wdik, and may bo even washed with 
soap like linen. 

LAGNE'SIS (Xdyvris, lustful). Lust; 
inordinate desire of sexual interroiirse; 
the name of a genus adopted by Dr. Good, 
and intended lo include (he satyriasis 
and iivmpliomania of Sauvages. 

LAGOPHTHALMIA {Uy^j;, a hare, 
6ipBa\ud;, the eye). Oculiis leporinus. 
The nare's eye; a disease in which the 
eye cannot be completely shut. Shorten- 
ing' of ihe upper lid. 

LAGOSTOMA (Xoytbf, a hare, ardna, 
the mouth). The Greek term for labia 
leporiiia. or hare-lip. 

LA IT DE POULE. An emulsion, 
employed by the French as an artificial 
milk ibr infants, and consisting of the 
raw yolk of an egg. diffused by agitation 
in a pint of warm water sweetened with 
sugar. 

LAKE. A term applied to certain 
insolul)le compounds, formed by precipi-j 
tating colouring matter with an earth or| 
oxide. Almost all vegetable colouring! 
matters may be precipitated into lakes, j 
by means of alum or o.vide of tin. The 
principle lakes are — | 

1. Carmine, a red pigment, prepared 
from cochineal, by precipitation with, 
Roman alum. 

2. FloretUine lake, prepared from the 
sediment oC the cochineal in the pre-| 
ceding process, by precipitation wiih; 
solution of tin. A cheaper sort may be 
obtained from Brazil wood, instead of 
cochineal. 

3. Madder lake, prepared from Dutch' 
crop m.idder, by precipitation with alum.( 

L.ALLATIO {lallo, to sing hd.labij).\ 
Lullaby-speech; a name given by the 
Romans to that variety of psei/(s«;/«, inj 
which ihe letter L is rendered unduly 
liquid, or substituted for an R ; as when 
delusive is pronounced del/'usive, as 
though the I possessed the prower of the[ 
Spanish II. or the Italian ^l ; or, as when 
parable is pronounced pa/able. 

LALO. A favourite article of food in 
Africa, made of the dried and pulverized 
leaves of the .Adansonia or Baobab tree, 
the largest, and, it is said, the oldest tree 
in the world. 

LAMBDACISMUS (Knixjlia, lambda,] 
the Greek letter X). The Greek designa-i 
tion of that affection of the speech, whi?h | 
consists in a vicious enunciation of thei 
letter I. See Lallalio, and lolacismus. 

LAMBDOIDAL (iheGreek A, lambda,| 



and E^'u;. likeness). The nam.'^ of a 
sulureollhe .«kull. tioiii ils laucicd resem- 
blance in Ibrin lo the letter A. See Suliire. 

LAMELLA rdini of Imtiina. a plaie). 
A small plaie or scale, as applied to the 
gills of a mushroom, <tc. 

LAMINA. Literally, a small plate of 
any metal. A term applied to the ibiiated 
structure of bones or other organs. 

1. Lamina cornea. A horn-coloured 
lamina at the anterior part of the tu;nia 
ihalami opiici, or semicircularis. 

2. Lamina cribnisa. A cribriform or 
sieve-like layer, formed by the sclerotica 
at the entrance of the optic nerve, and 
so named from the numerous minute 
openings by which it is pierced for the 
passage of the nervous filamenis. 

3. Lamina spiralis. The plate or sep- 
tum of the cochlea, which is wound spi- 
rally round the modiolus, dividing the 
cochlea into two parts. 

LAMP-BLACK. Fuligo lampadnm. 
A species of charcoal, of which the finest 
sort is produced by collecting the smoke 
from a lamp; but it is generally obtained 
by burning resinous substances, as the 
dregs of pitch, or pieces of fir-wood, in 
furnaces, and collecting the smoke in a 
close-boarded chamber. 

LAMP OF SAFETY. A lamp in- 
vented by Sir H. Davy, to prevent Ihe 
explosion of fire-damp, or inflammable 
air, in coal-mines. It is made of wire- 
gauze, which is impermeable to flame. ■ 

LAMPIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by Sir H. Davy from the combustion of 
ether. It is merely acetic acid, combined 
with some etheroiis matter. 

LANA PIIILO.SOPIIICA. Philoso- 
phical wool, floworsof ziuc,or the snowy 
flakes of while oxide of zinc, which arise 
and float in the air fi-om the combustion 
of that molal. 

LANCI'yr (lancetla ; dim. of lancca, a 
spear). An instrument used in phlebo- 
tomy, in opening tumours, &c. 

LANCEOLATE. Lance-shaped ; nar- 
rovvly-ellipiical, tapering to each end, as 
the leaf of mezereon. 

LANCISI, NERVES OF. Some fila- 
ments, found on the anterior part of the 
corpus callosum, are by some authors 
called the lonsiindinal nerves o/ Lancisi. 

LANDSCURVY. An affeclion, con- 
sisting in circiilarspots, stripes, or patches, 
scattered over the thighs, arms, and trunk; 
it is called by Bateman purpura liamor- 
rhagica, from the occasional htEinorrhage 
from the mouth, nostrils, or viscera; and 
by the German writers, morbus macidosus 
Werlhojii. 



LAN 



199 



LAU 



LA.N'TANUM {\a,'eth-u, to he concenl- 
ed), A iiev\ ly-(ii.«covertHl mehil.sonainpd 
from its proper! ies being cunceakd by 
those of rerium, with Mhich it is found 
united. It occurs in the cerilc of Bast- 
nas. 

I.APIDELLUM (tapis, a stone). The 
name of a kind of spoon, formerly used 
lo take small stones out of the bladder. 

LAPILLUS (dim. of lapis, a stone). 
A little stone. A term applied to a cal- 
careous concretion found in the cray-fish. 
See Cancrorujn lapilli. 

LAPIS. A generic term, signifying 
all kinds of stones: thus lapis calcarens 
is limestone; lapis infenialis, an old name 
for ciHislic potash; lapis calarninaris, the 
impure carbonate of zinc; laj>is lazuli. 
azure slone, a mineral from which the 
blue colour ulfra marine is prepared. 

LAPPA MINOR. Common Burdock, 
or Clot-bur; an indigenous Composite 
plant, the root of which is said lo pro- 
moie the lochial discharge. 

LAQUEUS GUTTURIS. Literally, 
a noose of the throat. A malignant in- 
flammation of the tonsils, in which the 
patient app.ears as if suffocated by a 
noose. 

LARD. Adeps snillus. The fat of 
tlie Sus scrofa, or Hog, melted down. It 
difftTs from suet chieBv in consistence 

LARDACEOUS. A term applied to 
tissues which, from cancerous disease, 
resemble lard. 

LARIX EUROP^A. The Common 
Larch, a Coniferous tree, yielding the 
Uirch, or Venice turpentine, and a saccha- 
rine mailer called manna of the larch, or 
manna de Branron. 

LARYNX (X<Vi'yf. the larynx). The 
superior part of the trachea, situated im 
mediaiely under the os hyoides. 

1. Lari/nf;eal. The designation of 
nerves furnished by the par vaguni, and 
distributed to the larynx; these are the 
superior laryngeal, and the recurrent or 
iiiftrior laryngeal nerves. 

2. Laryngismus. A sense of spasmodic 
sufiijcation in the larynx, •commonly called 
spasmodic croup, from its resemblance to 
that affection. 

[3. Jjiryngismns stridulus. Thymic 
Asthma, Nlillcr's Aslhnia, Spasm of the 
glottis. Crowing disease of Infants, Ce- 
rebral Croup. Crowing inspiration, with 
a sense of suffocation in the larynx, a 
tumid and livid countenance, coming on 
in paroxysms, which are sudden in their 
attack and of short duration.] 

4. Laryngitis. Cynanche laryngaea. 
Inflammation of ihe laryax. 



5. Loryngi.lf.my {ropj, section). The 
operaiioii ol' making an opening into the 
larynx. 

LASCIVUS. Wanion; an epithet ap- 
plied, by Paracelsus, to chorea, from the 
peculiar contortions of the limbs. 

LASER. A term applied by the an- 
cients to assafatida, and to the succus 
Ci/renaiciis. It has been suspected that 
the term assafcelida is derived from 
laser — o.s.'Ja, quasi laser. The laser Cyre- 
naicum, or assa dulcis of Cyrene, is the 
produce of the Thapsia silphion, an Um- 
belliferous plant, growing on the moun- 
tains of Cvrene. f 

LATENT (laleo, to be hidden). A 
term applied to diseases of which the 
diacnosis is very obscure. 

LATERAL [latus. lateris, the side). 
Belonging to the side; a term applied to 
a mode of cq:ieraiion in cutting for the 
slone. See Lithotomy. 

LATERITIOUS [later, lateris,a brick). 
A term applied to ihe red sediment de- 
posited from the urine in some stages of 
lever. This was supposed by Proust to 
constitute a peculiar acid, which he 
named the rosaic. 

LATEX (laleo, to be hidden). Any 
kind of liquor squeezed out. This term 
denotes, in botany, a highly elaborated 
and highly organized juice, which is not 
formed immediately from the fluid matter 
absorbed from without. The tissue, in 
which this juice is found, is termed late- 
rilious ti.'isue, and more recently cinen- 
ch i/7na. 

LATIBULUM {lateo, lo lie hid). A 
hiding-place. The fomes, or hidden 
matter, of infisciious diseases. 

LATISSIMUS DORSI {latissimus; 
superl. of latus, broad ; dorsum, the 
back). A flal muscle, situated on the 
back and side of the lower part of the 
trunk. It moves the arm backwards 
and downwards; or brings forward the 
body when the hand is fi,xed. It has 
received the oflijnsive appellations of 
sculptor ani and termor ani. 

LAUDANUM. TheTinctura Opiisive 
Thebaica. Nineieen [thirteen] minims 
[or 25 drops] contain one grain of opium. 

Laudanum liq^iiduvi Si/ilenha7ni. The 
original of the V'iniim Opii, with double 
the quantity of opium, and with wine as 
ihe menstruum. One fluid drachm con- 
tains len grains of opium. 

LAURACE.^. The Cinnamon tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Leaves entire, 
alternate ; Jloivcrs apetalous; stamens pe- 
rigynous ; fruit baccate or drupaceous ; 
seeds without albumen. 



LAU 



200 



LEM 



LAUREL WATER. The distilled 
water of the Primus lauro-cerasus, a spe- 
cies of cherry. 

LAURIN. Camphor of the hay-Jierry. 
A solid substance extracted from iHe 
berries of the Latirus Nobilis, or Sweet 
Bay. 

LAURUS NOBILIS. The Sweet Bay; 
the plant which yields the bay-berry, anil 
its camphor, called latiriu. 

L.AVA. The malter thrown out from 
volcanoes, in consequence of the combus- 
tion of bituminous masses. The lightest 
kind is called pumice-stone. 

LA VA'MEN {lava, to wash). The La- 
tin term for enema, or injection 

LAVAXDULA VERA. Common or 
Garden Lavender; the plant from which 
the oil, and the spirit, of lavender are 
prepared. It enters also into Ihe com- 
position of Eau fie Cologne and the Vin- 
aigre aux qualre voleurs. 

Lavandula spica. French Lavender, 
which yields the oil of $j)ilie, sometimes 
cnWed foreign oil of lavender, in order to 
distinguish it from the oil of Lavandula 
stcechas, the true oil of spike. Used by 
painters on porcelain, and for making 
varnishes. 

LAVER. The name of a species of 
fueus, which is eaten as a delicacy. 

LAVIPEDIUM (lavo, to wash, pes, 
the foot). A bath for the feet. 

LAWSONL\ LNER.VIIS. The plant 
from which the henn^ of Egypt is ob- 
tained. It is principally used by the 
natives as a dye. 

LAXATIVES {laxo, to loosen). Mild 
purgatives; medicines which loosen the 
contents of the intestines. See Cathar- 
tics. 

LAXATOR TYMPANI (Inro, to 
loosen). A muscle of the tympanum, 
attached to the handle of the malleus. 

LAZARETTO (lazzeritto, Italian; 
from lazzero. a leper). A pest-hou.se, or 
establishment for fiieilitaiing the per- 
fiirmance of quarantine, and particularly 
the purification of goods arriving from 
places infected with disease. 

LE.\D. Plumbum. A bluish-gray 
metal; the softest of all the durable 
metals. [See Black lead. Minium, and 
Cerussa.] 

LEAPING AGUE. The name of a 
disease occurring in some parts of Scot- 
land, and consisting of a morbid propen- 
sity to running, leapins, Arc. i 

LE.\THER The skins of animals,' 
macerated in lime-water, and tanned 
with astringent substances, particularly 
oak-bark. ', 



LEAVEN, or YEAST. A substance 
which possesses the power of commencing 
fermentation in other substances. 

LECONORIN. A white crystalline 
substance obtained from the Leconora 
tartarea, and other lichens employed in 
the manufacture of cudbear. 

[LEDUM PALUSTRE. Marsh tea, 
Rosmarinus sylvestris. A plant of the 
natural order Ericinea;, the leaves of 
which are supposed to possess narcotic 
properties, and have been used in hoop- 
ing-cough, dysentery, various cutaneous 
diseases, &c. They have been also 
used as a substitute for hops in making 
beer. 

[Ledum lalifolium. Labrador tea. .An 
indigenous species, the leaves of which 
are considered pectoral and tonic] 

LEECH. A genus of the class Vermes, 
and order Inlestina. See Hirudo. 

LEGUMEN (lego, to gather). A le- 
gume; a one-celled, two-valved, superior 
fruit, dehiscent by a suture along its face 
and its back, and bearing seeds on each 
margin of its ventral suture. 

1. Legumen himenlaceum. A lomen- 
tum ; a fruit differing from a legntne in 
being contracted in the spaces between 
each .seed, and there separating into dis- 
tinct pieces. 

2. Legumin. A peculiar principle, 
found in the fleshy cotyledons of the 
seeds of papilionaceous plants. 

LEGU.VIINOS^ Uegumen, a le- 
gume). The Pea tribe of Dicotyledonous 
plants. Heibs with leaves alternate; 
stamens perigynous, munadelphous, or 
diadelphous; ovarium superior, solitary, 
simple; fruit leguminous; seeds without 
albinnen. 

LEIPOPSVCHIA (XaVo, to leave, 
\p"Xh, the soul). The term used by Hip- 
pocrates for .syncope; Galen uses <i/>n- 
psychia. It is synonymous with the 
leipo-(lii/mia of Sauvasres. 

LEIPOTHY'MIA (Wo, to leave, 
©'/(oj, the mind). Deliquium animi. 
Fainting. The term is synonymous with 
the leipnpsychia of Hippocrates. 

LEiVINIAN EARTH. A compound of 
aluminum, found in the island of Lemnos. 
It is also called sphra^ide {aippayii, a seal), 
and terra sigillata, from its being cut 
into pieces, an I stamped with a seal. It 
is similar to Armenian bole. 

LE.MONADE. A refrigerant acidu- 
lated drink, made by addinsf two lemons 
sliced, and two ounces of suirar. to two 
|im;s of boiling water, and digesiing 
uiiiil cold. A similar beverage is called 
king's cup. 



LEiN 



201 



LET 



LENIENTIA {lenio, to assuage). Me- 
dicines which allay irniatiori. 

LENITIVES (Uuis, gemle). Soothing 
medicines. Gentle purgatives. 

Lenilivb electuary. Eleciuarium Sen- 
nae. The former name of the confectio 
SennaB. See [Confectio ISenria.] 

LENS {lens, lenlis, Latin, a bean). 
Properly, a small roundish glass, shaped 
like a lentil, or bean. 

L In Pkysics, the term is applied to 
any transparent medium, of certain 
forms: these are, the convex, which con- 
verges the rays; the concave, which dis- 
perses them ; the plano-convex, having 
one surface plane, and the other convex j 
the double convex, having both sides con- 
vex ; the plano-concave, having one sur- 
face plane, and the oiher concave; the 
double concave, having two concave sur- 
faces; and the meniscus, having one side 
concave, and the other convex. 

2. In %.natoiny, the term is applied to 
the crystalline humour of the eye. iShort- 
sightedness is occasioned by the conver- 
gence of the rays to a point before they 
liill upon the retina, and a concave lens 
is employed to delay their convergence; 
in lojig-sightedness, the rays do not con- 
verge to a point till they have passed the 
retina, and a convex lens is employed to 
promote their convergence. 

LENTICELL^. Lenticular glands, 
or brown oval spots found upon the bark 
of many plants, especially willows. 

LENTICULA (fens, a lentil seed). 
The term used by Celsus for freckles; it 
is now more generally written lentigo. 

LENTICULAR (lens, lentis, a lentil). 
A term applied to parts which are about 
the size of a lentil seed. 

1. Lenticular ganglion. Another name 
for the ciliary ganglion, situated at the 
external side of the optic nerve. 

2. Lenticular papillee. The papillae situ- 
ated at the posterior part of the tongue; 
they are from nine to fifteen in number, 
of a round form, of the size of a large 
mustard seed. 

3. Lenticular hone. Another name for 
the OS orbicuiare. 

LENTICULAR (lenticulaire, doubly 
convex). An instrument for removing the 
irregularities of bone from the edge of the 
perforation made in the cranium bv the tre- 
phine. [In botany, it signifies lens-shaped ; 
small, depressed, and doubly convex.] 

LENTIGO (Ze/is, lentis, a lentil). 
Ephelis, freckles, or the little yellow 
spots on the skin, produced by exposure 
to the rays of the sun, and so named from 
their likeness to lentil seeds. 



LENTOR {lentus, clammy). The vis- 
cidity or clamminess of a fluid. 

Lentor of the blood. The name given 
by Boerhaave to viscidity of the blood, 
to which he ascribed the existence of 
fever; maintaining that the general dis- 
turbance, which constitutes fever, pro- 
ceeds from an error loci of the viscid 
blood, &c. Hence the terms diluents, 
humectants, attenuants, &c., were applied 
to medicines which were supposed to 
dissolve that tenaciiy ; while those of an 
opposite character were called inspis- 
sunts. 

[LEONTODON TARAXICUM. Dan- 
delion. A plant of the order ComposiliE. 
Its root is the officinal Taraxicum, and is 
esteemed slightly tonic, diuretic, and 
aperient.] 

LEONTI'ASIS {Xcuv, Xcovro;, a lion). 
A designation of the tubercular species 
of Elephantiasis; so termed from its im- 
parting a fiincied resemblance to the 
physiognomy of the lion. 

LEPIDIN. A yellow substance pro- 
cured by Leroux from the Lepidium ihe- 
ris, a Cruciferous plant. 

LEPIDOPTERA (Xettis, A£7riJoj,a scale, 
TZTCpQv, a wing). Scaly-winged insects, 
as the butterfly. 

LEPIUO'SIS (XcTT.s, a scale). Scale- 
skin ; an efflorescence of scales over dif- 
ferent pans of the body, often thickening 
into crusts. 

Lepidole. Leprous, covered with mi- 
nute peltate scales. 

LEPRA {\£Kpai from \enpds, XtTrpa, 
scaly; ih. XtTrij, or Xotoj, a scale). The 
leprosy of the Greeks; a scaly disease of 
the skin, occurring generally in circular 
patches. 

LEPROSY (X£Tpd{, scaly; from Xctij, 
a scale). The leprosy of the Jews ap- 
pears to have been the leuce {\evK^] of the 
Greeks, the white barasof the Arabians, 
and the third speciesofvj^e/ig'o of Celsus. 
It is principally characterized by white- 
ness of the hair, and depression of the 
skpi. Compare Lepra. 

LERE'MA (Xripiw, to doat). Dotage; 
superannuation ; impotence of body and 
mind from premature old age. 

LESION (l<Esio; from Icedo, to hurt). 
Any hurt, injury, or morbid change. 
Under the terra organic lesions, Pinel 
includes most of the chronic disorders 
which are unaccompanied by fever, in- 
flammation, hcemorrhage, or nervous af- 
fection. 

LETHARGY (Xr/e?;, forgetfulness. dp- 
yia, inactivity). Profound and continued 
sleep. It is the slightest form of coma. 



LET 



2(» 



LIE 



and has been sometimes termed cala- 
phora. 



LEVIG ATION {lemgo, to polish ; from 
IcBvix, smooth). The process of rubbing 



LETTUCE OPIUM. Lactucarium.leanhs and some metallic substances with 
The inspissated milky juice of the Lac- 'a muller upon a flat table of hard stone. 



tuca virosa and saliva. 

LEUCIN {\s'<Kd;, white). A name 
applied by Bracouiiet to a peculiar white 
principle obtained from muscle. JNitric 
acid converts it into a cryslallizable acid, 
called uilro-leucic. 

LEUCOL. A particular substance 
produced in the distillation of coal. 

LEUCO'MA i\f'Kd;. white). Alhugo. 
A dense opacity, extending through the 
laminae of the cornea. The slighter form 
of opacity is termed nebula, haziness, or 
duliiess; and a small patch or speck, 
macula. The popular term for opacity 
is film. 

LEUCOPATHIA {XevKos, white, Trddoi, 
affection). The Alhino state. This de- 
viation from ihe natural colour was first 
observed in Africa, and the individuals 
so alfected were called f^uc-alhiopes, or 
white negroes. In consequence of the 
irksomeness of light to Albinoes, the 
Dutch named those whom they met with 
in Java, kakkerbnkken, or cock-roaches, 
insects which run about in the dark. 

LEUCOFHLEGMASI A (Acwdf , white, 
(jtXtyiia, phlegm). Leucophlegmatic ha- 
bit ; a term formerly applied to a dropsi- 
cal habit. 

LEUCORRHCEA (Xewdj, white, ptu, 
to How). Literally, a. white discharge — 
per vaginam. lis source is either the 
vagina itsell', or the uterus. This affec- 
tion has been also termed fiuxus oTjluor 
albu.<i ; fluor muliebris ; les fleurs blanches ; 
sexual weakness; a weakness; and, vul- 
garly, the uhiles. 

LEUCOSIS (X£"/fdf, white). A term 
applied by .Alibert to the diseases of the 
lymphatic vessels. 

LEVATOR (levo, to lift up). A muscle 
which raises any part, as the rectus su- 
perior. Its antagonist is called depressor. 

1. Levator palati mollis. A muscle 
which arises from the point of the i)etrous 
bone, the Eustachian tube, and ihe sphe- 
noid bone, and is inserted into the velum 
palati, which it pulls up, acting at the 
same time as a valve to ihe nostrils. See 
Slaphylinus. 

2. Levator scapula; or levator proprius 
angularis. A muscle which arises from 
the transverse processes of the four or 
five upper cervical verlebne, and is in- 
serted into the upper corner of the sca- 
pula, which it raises, as in shrugging the 
shoulders; hence it has been called mus- 
cuius patienlicB. 



Some fluid is added to assist the opera- 
tion, and in this respect it differs from 
triiuraiion. 

LE,\1PHARMACA (X^y&j, to cease, 
ipiip^aKov, poison). Medicines which re- 
sist or destroy ihe power of poisons. 

LEY. Lixivium. A term used for a 
solution of alkali in water. 

LEYDEN PHIAL or JAR (so called 
from its effects having been first exhi- 
bited in that city). A cylindrical glass 
vessel for collecting electricity. It is 
coated to a certain height, inside and 
outside, with tinfoil or some conducting 
substance, so that every point of both 
sides of the glass may be brought into 
communication at the same moment. A 
combination of such phials is called an 
electrical battery. 

LIBER. The inner bark of a tree, 
used instead of paper by the ancients to 
write upon. In botanical language, it 
denotes ihe interior fibrous portion of' the 
bark, lying immediately upon the albur- 
num; the endophloenm of later writers. 

LICHEN (\cixnv. lichen). Lichenous 
rash; an eruption of red papula?, usually 
terminating in scurf Although Dios- 
corides says that the plant, so called, is 
named from its being a remedy for the 
disease, the more genera! opinion is, that 
the disease is named from its supposed 
resemblance to the plant. Forbes. 

LICHE'JVES. The Lichen tribe of ihe 
Aphylloe, or leafless plants. Aerial, leaf- 
less, perennial plants, spreading over 
almost all dry surfaces, of" trees, stones, 
&c. ; reproductive organs are sporules 
lying in thecse in the medullary sub- 
stance, or separated cellules of the me- 
dullary layer of the thalliis. 

1. Lichen Islandicus. Iceland, or 
Eryngo-leaved liverwort; Iceland Moss, 
now called Cetraria islandica. 

2. Lichen Orcella. Dyer's Lichen, or 
Orchall; the species which furnishes the 
litmus dye. See Litmus. 

3. Lichenin. A feculoid substance 
found in the Cetraria islandica, and other 
lichens. 

4. Licien starch. .\ variety of starch 
procureiffrom the Cetraria islandica. and 
oiher lichens, closely resembling common 
slarch. See Cetraria. 

LIEN, LIE'NIS. The milt; the spleen. 
In Celsus, the nominative case of this 
word is lienis. 

LIENTERIA (XeXos, smooth, tj/rtpa, 



LIF 



203 



LI G 



the intestines). Lcevitas intestinoritm. 
Lientery ; a species of diarrhoea, in which 
the food has been only partially digested. 

[LIFE. The state of action peculiar 
to an organized body or organism. This 
stale commences with the first produc- 
tion of the germ; it is manifested in the 
phenomena of growth and reproduction; 
and it terminates in the death of the or- 
ganized structure, when its component 
pans are disintegrated, more or less com- 
pletely, by the operation of the common 
laws ot' matier. Carpenter.] 

LIGAMENTUM {ligo, to bind). A 
ligament; a membrane of a flexible but 
compact texture, which connects ihe ar- 
ticular surfaces of bones and cartilages; 
and sometimes protects the joints by a 
capsular envelope 



4. Polarization, or the property by 
which a ray of light, after its emergence 
from the substance, or reflection from the 
surliice, of a body, acquires po/fts or sides 
with different properties, in relaiioii to 
the plane of its incidence. Polarized 
light may be procured from common 
light in three ways; viz., 

1. \iy reflection from the surfaces of 
transparent and opaque bodies. 

2. By transmission through several 
plates of uncrystallized bodies, 

3. By transmission through bodies re- 
gularly crystallized, and possessing 
the projierty of double refraciion, as 
Iceland spar, &c. 

5. Decomposition, or the division of a 
ray of light, in traversing a prism, into 
its cofisiituent colours; the appearance, 



LIGATURE {ligo. to bind). Thread, thus produced, is called the prismatic 



or sdk, or inkle, commonly rubbed with 
white wax, for tying arteries, excre- 
scences, &c. 

Ligature d'altente. A loose ligature, 
used by the continental surgeons in the 
operation for aneurysm, &c., ibr the pur- 
pose of being tied in the event of hae- 
morrhage. 

LIGHT. Lux, lucis. The agent of 
vision. It is distinguished into two 
kinds ; viz., natural light, proceeding 
from the sun and stars; and artificial 
light, proceeding from bodies which are 
strongly heated ; this glowing or shining 
appearance is called incandescence. The 
phenomena of light may be referred to 
the following heads: — 

1. Radiation, or the emission of light, 
like that of caloric, in all directions, in 
the form of radii, or rays. A collection 
of such rays accompanying each oiher, 
is termed a pencil. The radiant point 
is the point from which diverging rays 
proceed ; the focus, the point into which 
converging rays are collected. 

2. Reflection, or the rebound of a ray 
of light, as of caloric, from a polished 
surfijce ; the angle of incidence being 
equal to the angle o{ reflection. 

3. Refraction, or the break of the na 
tural course of a ray of light, as it passes 
into a transparent substance, as glass or 
water; this is termed ordinary refraction. 
If a ray fall upon the surfsjce of Iceland 
spar, or certain other substances, it will 
be split into two portions, making an 
angle with each other, and each pursuing 
its own separate course; ihis is called 
double refraction ; one of these rays fol- 
lowing the same rule as if the substance 
were glass or water, the other undergoing 
extraordinary refraction 



'•pectruin. See Prism. 

6. P/iosphorescence, or the emission of 
light from certain substances. These are 
ariificial compounds, as Canton's phos- 
phorus ; some bodies when strongly heat- 
ed, as marble; certain marine animals, 
in the living or dead state, as ihe me- 
dusa, the herring, &c. ; certain animal- 
cules, as the fire-fly of the West Indies, 
the glow-worm, &c. ; vegetable sub- 
stances, as rotten wood, peat-earth, &c. 

LIGNEOUS (lignum, wood). Woody; 
having the structure and other charac- 
ters of wood. 

LIGjNIN (lignum, wood). The basi.s 
of woody fibre — the most durable pro- 
duct of vegetation. When healed in 
close vessels, it yields pyro-ligiteous acid ; 
and a peculiar spirituous liquor is pro- 
duced, called pyro-xylic spirit. 

LIGNONE (lignum, wood). Xylite. 
A liquid which exists in commercial 
pyroxylic spirit, — a product of the dislil- 
iaiion of wood. 

LIGNUM. Wood ; that portion of ar- 
borescent plants which comprises the 
alburnum and the duramen. 

1. Lignum aloes. See Aloes Wood. 

2. Lignum Braziliense, lignum Per- 
vamhiicense, Pernambuco wood. See 
Brazil Wood. 

3. Lignum r.ampecldanvm, T^icaragua 
u'ood. Logwood, i^ee Hcrmatoxi/li lignum. 

4. Lignum coluhrinum (coluber, a 
snake). Snake-wuod; the produce of the 
Stryclinos liguslrina, supposed lo be a 
preservative against the bite of serpents. 

5. Lignum nephrilicum (iri/ipoj, a kid- 
ney). The name of a bilter-iasietl wood, 
imported from Mexico, and formerly sup- 
posed lo be a sovereign remedy in nephri- 
tis, or inflammation of the kidneys. 



LIG 



204 



LIN 



6. Lignum, pavanw. The wood of the ing simply a hydrate, the latter holding 
Croioii 'I'lgliuia. Ji hns the same qiialiiy I liinc iii suspension with a large quantity 



as the sueds, but weaker. 

7. Lignum. rhodium (/)<5(5oj, a rose). Ja- 
maica Uose-wood; the produce of the 
Aiuyris balsiiniifera ; used in cephalic 
fumigations, A:.c. The African lignum 
rhodium is the produce of the Convolvu- 
lus scopanus; tlie U'esf /;i(f(a?», of a spe- 
cies ot Cordia. 

8. Lignum santali rubri. Red Saun- 
ders' wood. See Flerocarpus Kiantalinus. 

9. Lignum serpenimum. The wood of 
the Opiiioxylon serpentinuin; used in 
the bites of serpents. 

10. Lignum Vila. The wood of the 
Guaiacuin olficinale, remarkable for the 
direction of us tibres, each layer of which 
crosses the preceding diagonally. ' Jt is 
also called lignum benediclum, or St. Be- 
nedict's wood; lignum indicum, or In 
dian wood; and lignum sanclum, or ho\y 
wood. 

LIG L' LA. .A peculiar membranous pro 
cess at I tie top of the sheath ol Grasses 
between tlie sheath and the blade. 

Ligulale. Strap-shaped. 

[LlGUSTiCUM LliV'ISTICUM. Lo- 
vage. A b^uropean Umbelliferoiis plant, 
possessing carminalive, diaphoretic, and 
emraenaiiogue properties. 'I'he root, stem, 
leaves, and seeds have been employed 

LILACINIi. The bitter crystalhzable 
principle of the Si/ri?iga vulgaris, or L,i\ac. 

LIMATU'K.A {lima, a file). Ramcnta. 
The pf)vvder or dust which conies from 
filing. 

Ll.M.AX {limus, slime). Cochlea ter- 
resiris. The snail, so called from its 
sliminess 

LIMBIJS LUTEUS. A yellow halo 
surrounding the foramen of Soemmering, 
observed in animals vvhich have the axis 
of the eyeballs parallel with each other, 
as in man, the quadrumana, and some 
reptiles. 

LIML. [The fruit of the citrus acris, 
a variety of lemon.] 

The oxide of calcium; an alkaline 
earth, lound as a carbonate in marble, 
chalk, and limestone. These substances 
become lime when burned in a white 
heat. See Calx. 

1. Quicklime. The name of limestone 
which has been burned, and undergone 
a change of properties. 

2. Slaked lime. The powder produced 



ol lluid. 
3. Milk or cream of lime. The hydrate 

of lime dilTused through water. 

LiMO.N. The Lemon; the fruit of 
the Citrus Medica, or Lemon tree; a 
native of Media. 

LIMO'SIS (\ifids, hunger). Morbid ap- 
petite; impaired, e.vces3ive, or depraved 
appetite. 

LLNACL^. The Flax tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants 
with leavts usually alternate; Jlouers 
symmetrical, polypetalous; stamens hy- 
pogynous; ovarium entire, many-celled; 
seeds compressed and inverted. 

1. Linum usilatissimum. The Lint 
plant, or Common Fla.x. The seed is 
commonly called linseed, or more pro- 
perly liniseed. The cake, or placenta 
lini, left after the expression of the oil, 
is called oil-cake; and this, when pow- 
dered, ibrnis limited meal, or the farina lini. 

2. Linum calharticiim. Purging Flax; 
a European plant, now almost obsolete. 

LLN AMENTUM {linum, linen). Lint; 
a tent lor a wound. — Celsus. 

LLNCTUS (lingo, to lick). A term 
applied to soft substances, of the con- 
sistence of syrup, which are taken by 
being licked off a spoon. 

LINE.A. A line or streak; a linear 
fibre, or process, &,c. 

1. Linea alba. A while line formed by 
the meeting of the tendons of the abdi>- 
minal muscles; it extends from the ensi- 
lijrm cartilage to the pubes. This is tlic 
median line of Chaussier. 

2. LinecB semilunares. Two curve<l 
lines, a little external to the linea alba, 
extending from the sides of the chest 
to the pubes, and bounding the recti 
muscles. 

o. /.jinea transversales. Three or four 
transverse lines, which connect the lineaj 
semilunares to the linea alba. 

4. Linea innominata. Literally, an 
unnamed line ; an elevated line, lorming 
a part of the brim of the pelvis; and also 
termed linea ileo-pectinea. 

5. Linea aspera. The rough promi- 
nence observed along the posterior sur- 
face of the femur. 

6. Linea quadrala. The posterior inter- 
trochanteric line of the femur, to which 
the qiiadratus femoris muscle and capsu- 



by pouring water upon quick-lime; ihe|lar ligament are attached 

water is absorbed, the lime swells,! 7. Linece trar.svcrscE. The name of 

evolves heat, and falls to powder. It is some fibres which run across the raphe 

then termed dry lime, in conlradistinc-lof the corpus callosiim. 

tion to that o[ lime-water, the former be-l LINF,AMEi\T {linea, a line). A deli- 



LIN 



205 



LIQ 



cate trait; the earliest trace of the em- of purifying the ore of tin. The impure 



bryo. 

LINEAR. Narrow, with the two op- 
posite margins parallel. 

LIA'GUA {lingo, to lick). The tongue; 
the organ of lasle and speech. 

1. Lhigual. The designation of the 
gustatory verve, or nerve of the tongue 



metal being exposed to heal, the pure tin is 
first melted, and separated from a less fusi- 
ble alloy, containing the foreign metals. 

LIQUEFACIAPsTS {Uqnefacio, to li- 
quefy). Agents which augment the se- 
cretions, arrest the solidifying, and pro- 
mote the liquefying processes of the ani- 



2. Lingualis. A muscle of the tongue, mal economy. They correspond with the 
arising from the root, and inserted into jianchymagogues of the ancients. From 



the tip; it is unconnected with any 
bone; it contracts the tongue, and com- 
presses its point. 

LLXGUETTA LAMINOSA. A thin 
tonguelet of gray sub.stance, extending 
from the gray substance of the cerebel- 
lum upon the valve of Vieussens. 

LINIiMEJN'TUM (lino, to besmear). A 
liniment, or embrocation; an external 
application, having the consistence of an 
oil or balsam. 



their etiect in checking phlegmonous in- 
flammation, removing indurations, &c., 
they are frequently termed resolvents. 

LIQUEFACTION {liijuefacio, to melt). 
The passing of a substance from the solid 
to the liquid state, — one of the effects of 
caloric. This term is sometimes synony- 
mous with fusion, with deliquescence, 
and with solution. 

LIQUEUR. A spirituous liquor, com- 
posed of water, alcohol, sugar, and some 



LINNEAN SYSTEM. A method of aromatic infusion, extracted from fruii.s, 
classifying plants, introduced by Lin-seeds, &c. The same aromatic infusion 
noBus, and founded on modifications of may give its name to liqueurs of difFe- 
the sexual apparatus; hence, it is also, rent qualities; tlius, one proportion of 
called the sexual system. jingredienls gives emt<le-noyau ; another, 

LINT. Linieum. The scrapings ofcreme-rle-noyaii.&c. The French distill* 
fine linen, for dressing wounds, ulcers, ,guish three qualities; viz., 
&c. It is made into various forms, which i 1. The Ratafias, or simple liqueurs, in- 
have different names, according to the: which the sugar, the alcohol, and the 
difference of the figures: when made up aromatic substance are in small quanli- 
in an oval or orbicular form, it is called ties; as anise-water, noyau, Arc. 
a pledget; when in a cylindrical form.j 2. The Oils, oi the fine liquetsrs, Con- 
or in the shape of a date or olive-stone, 'taining more saccharine and spirituous 
it is called a dossil. I matter; as anisetta, curacoa, &c. 

LINTEUM (quasi lineum, from lino,\ 3. The Creams, or superfine liqueurs, 
to anoint). A linen cloth, or napkin. ' as rosoglio, maraschino, Dantzic, &c. 
Celsus uses the diminutive term linteo-] LIQUID (//^weo, to melt). An inelastic 
lum, for a piece of linen cloth or a fluid. All liquids may be arranged into 



pledget. 

[LINUM. See Linacea-.] 

LIPAROCELE (Xhog, fat, KnX^, a tu- 
mour). A species of sarcocele, in which 
the enclosed substance is fat. 

LIPO'MA (XiVoj, fat). Adipose tumour, 
formed of fatty, unorganized substances. 



two great classes, viz., simple liquids, as 
mercury ; and compound liquids, as com- 
bined gases, &c. 

LIQUIDAMBAR {liqnidum. fluid, am- 
bar, the aromatic substance which distils 
from the tree). A genus of plants, of 
which the species altingia yields the 



LIPPITUDO (lippus, blear-eyed), liquid storax, oi vasaxnala. of ihe Ma\avan 
Blearedness; a chronic catarrhal inilam-j archipelago, 
malion of the eyelids. This affection | LIQUOR (liqueo, to become liquid). 



commonly begins towards the angles of 
the eye, and is thence called lippitudo 
angularis ; when it is attended with 
tingling and itching, it has been termed 
lippitudo pruriginosa, and, by Mr. Ware, 
psorop/ithalmia ; syphilitic eruption on 
the eyelids of infiiitts is termed lippitudo 
syphilitica neonatorum. 

LIPYRIA (Xa'TTO), to leave, r?p, heat). 
Properly, Leipopyria. Coldness of the 



A liquor or solution; an intimate mix- 
ture of solid with fluid bodies; the dis- 
solving fluid is termed the solvent, or 
menstruum. 

1. Liquor aluminis compositus. A com- 
pound solution of alum and sulphate of 
zinc, formerly called aqua aluminosa Ba- 
teana. 

2. Liquor ammonia;. A solution of am- 
moniacal gas in water, otherwise called 



surface; a symptom in some fevers, as|aqua ammoniae. ]^ee Ammoniii?\ 
the noted epidemic of Breslaw, &c. 3. Liquor ammonia acetntis. A solu- 

LIQUATION (Zi^ueo.to melt). Amode,ltion of the neutral acetate of ammonia. 

13 



LIQ 



206 



LIT 



wilh a proporlion of carbonic acid dif- 
fused through it; commonly called spirit 
uf Minde.rerus. 

4. Liijuor ammonia: snh-carbonatis. A 
solution of the solid sub-carbonate in 
distilled' water. 

5. Liquor arsenicalis. [See Fowler's 
Solution.] 

6. Liquor calcis. Lime water; a satu- 
rated solution of lime in water. 



LIQUOR OF VAN' SWIETEN. A so- 
lution of twelve grains of deutochloride 
of mercury, in two pints* of distilled 
water. 

LIQUOR OF KOECHLLN. The name 
given in Germany to an ammoniacal 
compound, with copper, employed in 
scrophulous affections by M. Baude- 
locque. 

LIQUOR SILICUM. Literally, liquor 



Liquor calcii chloridi. Solution of of flints. The former name of a solution 



chloride of calcium 

8. Liquor cupri ammoniali. A simple 
•solution of ammoniated copper in dis- 
tilled water. 

9. Liquor Jerri alkalini. Solution of 
alkaline iron, similar to Slahl's tinctura 
inartis alkalina. 

10. Liquor Injdrargyri bickloridi. So- 
lution of corrosive sublimate. 

11. Liquor plumhi sub-acetatis. Solu- 
tion of sub-acetate of lead, formerly call- 
ed extract of Saturn, and now Goulard's 
extract. 

12. Liquor plumbi sub-acetatis dilutus. 
The former preparation, diluted, and 
with the addition of a portion of spirit. 

13. Liquor potassa;. Solution of potassa, 
formerly called aqua kali puri, lixivium 
saponariura. 

14. Liquor potassce. carbonalis. Solu- 
tion of the carbonate of potassa, formerly 
called aqua kali prajparati, lixivium tar- 
tari, oleum tartari per deliquium. 

LIQUOR OF SURFACES. The fluid 
poured out on ihe surfaces of every ca- 
vity in the Iwdy. To this head may be 
referred the following fluids; — 

1. Liquor amuii. A fluid in the interior 
of the amnios, in which the fretus floats. 

2. Liquor chorii. A gelatinous fluid 
which separates the inner surface of the 
chorion from the amnios in the early pe- 
riod of gestation; it is commonly called 
ihefahe icaters. 

3. Liquor Cotunnii. A limpid fluid 
found in the veslibulam of the ear, and 
in the nervous tubes lodged in the semi- 
circular canals. 

4. Liquor cnlericua {hrepa, the bowels). 
The natural secretion of the interior coat 
of the bowels. 

5. Liquor Morgagni. A peculiar trans- 
parent fluid found between the crystal- 
line lens and its membrane. Many ana- 
tomists consider it as a posC-morlem ap- 
pearance. 

6. Liquor pericardii. A serous fluid 
contained in the pericardium. 

7. Liquor of Scarpa. A liquor found 
in the cavities of the labyrinth, and 
(termed aqua labi/rinthi. 



of the vitreous mass formed by igniting 
one part of silicic acid with three of car- 
bonate of potassa. 

LIQUOR SANGUINIS. The fluid 
portion of the blood, in which the red 
particles float during life. It separates, 
on coagulation, into two parts, the serum, 
and the Jilirin which was previously in 
solution. The fibrin coagulating encloses 
within it the red particles. The serum 
still retains the albumen in solution. 

LIQUORICE (liquor, liquor (?)). The 
root of the Glycyrrhiza Glabra. 

Liquorice juice. The inspissated juice 
of the common licjuorice root, usually 
imported in rolls or cakes, from Spain, 
and hence called Spanish liquorice. 

[LIRIODENDRON. The bark of the 
Liriodendron lulipifera, or Tulip-tree, an 
indigenous plant of the natural order 
Magnoliacecp. It is a mild tonic and dia- 
phoretic. The dose of the bark in pow- 
der is from 3ss. to 3ij] 

LISPING. A species of psellismus, or 
defective enunciation, commonly called 
speaking through the teeth, and produced 
by an unnatural length of tongue, — or by 
affectation. 

LITHAGOGA (Xi9oj, a stone, ayu, to 
expel). Lithagogues; medicines which 
expel or dissolve stone. 

LITHARGE {XiOog, a stone, apyvpos, 
silver). Spurna argenti. An oxide of 
lead in an imperfect state of vitrification. 
Lead becomes oxidised and changed into 
litharge during the process of refining, 
which is performed for the purpose of 
.separating the silver which it contains. 
Litharge is more or less white or red, 
according to the metals with which the 
silver is alloyed, the white being called 
litharge of silver; the red, litharge of 
gold. 

[LITHECTASY (Xi9of,a stone, fc-ao-ij, 
dilatation). Cysiecia.sy. The operation 
for the removalof stone from the bladder 
by slowly dilating the neck of the blad- 
der without cutting or lacerating the 
prostate, an incision being first made in 
the perina?uiTi and the membranous por- 
tion of the urethra opened.] 



LIT 



207 



LIX 



LITHIA {\Wog, a stone). The prot- 
oxide of lithium; an ali^ali discovered 
in 1818, by M. Arlwedson, of Sweden, 
in the mineral called petalite; it re- 
ceived its name from its having been 
first found in an earthy mineral. 

LITHI'ASIS ( Xi'fios, a stone). The for- 
mation of a calculus, or stone, in the uri- 
nary passages. It is sometimes termed 
lithia and luhns. 

LITHIC ACID (Xi9o;, astone). Uric 
acid. A principle constantly present in 
healthy urine, and generated by the 
action of the kidneys. 

LITHIUM (Xi-9of, a stone). The me- 
tallic base of a rare alkaline oxide called 
lithia, from its having been first derived 
from an earthy mineral. 

LlTHOiN'TRlPTlCS (XWoi, a stone, 
rpiffw, to wear by friction). Medicinal 
agents which dissolve or disintegrate uri- 
nary calculi within the body. 

1. Lilhonlriplor. The name of an in- 
strument for reducing calculi in the 
bladder into small particles or powder, 
which is then washed out or voided with 
the urine. The following instruments 
are used by Baron Heurteloup: — 

2. " Uinslrument a irois branches, avec 
iin forel simple," consisting of a canula, 
three tenacula, and a drill, for crushing 
stones equal in diameter to the drill. 

3. " L'itistrumenl a trois branches, avec 
le mandrill a. virgiile," applicable to 
stones of from eight to ten lines in dia- 
meter; the " virgide," or shoulder, being 
employed to excavate the calculus. 

4. " L'inslrumenl a qualre branches,'" or 
" pince d. forceps," adapted to stones of 
from twelve to eighteen lines in diame- 
ter, and furnished with a " mandrin a 
virgnle," the " virgule" of which makes 
a larger excavation than that of the pre- 
ceding instrument. 

5. " Le brise coque," or the shell- 
breaker, adapted to breaking down the 
shell formed by the previous excava- 
tions; and also Hat and small stones. 

LITHOP^DION ( \ieog, a stone, nai- 
liov, a child). A kind of s/on?/ mass, into 
which the fcetus has been found to be 
converted in the uterus. The term osleo- 
pcedion is also used to denote a bony 
mass, found on'similar occasions. 

LITHOTOMY {\Woi, a stone, toi,;i, 
section). The operation of cutting into 
the bladder, in order to extract a stone. 
The various modes of performing this 
operation are termed — 

1. The apparatus minor, or lesser ap- 
paratus; this has been described by Cel- 
sus; and hence called litholomia Cel- 



siana. As the stone, fixed by the pres- 
sure of the fingers in the anus, was cut 
directly upon, this has been called cutting 
on the gripe, a knife and a hook being the 
only instruments used. 

2. The appuiraliis major, or greater ap- 
paratus, so named from the numerous 
instruments employed ; this has been 
also called the Marion method, from 
having been first published by Marianus 
Sanctus, in 1524, as the invention of his 
master, Johannes de Romanis. 

3. The high operation, first practised in 
Paris, in 1475, and performed by making 
the incision above the pubes, in the di- 
rection of the linea alba. 

4. The lateral operation, so named from 
the prostate gland and neck of the blad- 
der being laterally cut. 

[LITHOTRITY or LITHOTRIPSY. 
(Kidoi, a stone, rtpcw, to perforate, or dpvTz- 
rco, to crush in pieces). The operation of 
boring or crushing calculi in the bladder, 
with a view of reducing them into small 
fragments, so that they may pass through 
the urethra with the urine. See Lithon- 
triplics.] 

LITMUS or TURNSOL. A blue pig- 
ment obtained from the Lichen Orcella. 
In an earlier state of its preparation, it 
is of a purplish red colour, and is then 
called arcliil, orchall, and orseille de Ca- 
naries. Litmus is employed by chemists 
for detecting the presence of a free acid. 

Litmus paper is prepared by digesting 
powdered litmus in water, and painting 
with it white paper which is free from 
alum. See Curcuma Paper. 

LIVER. The largest glandular appa- 
ratus in the body, the office of which is 
to secrete the bile. It is divided into 
three lobe.s — 

1. The great lobe, situated in the right 
hypochondriac region ; 

2. The small lobe, situated in the epi- 
gastric region; and, 

3. The lobulus SpigeUi, situated on the 
left side of the great lobe. It has two 
prolongations, which have been termed , 
the lobulus caudatus, and the lobulus 
anoni/mus or quadratus. 

LIVER-SPOTS. Chloasma. A verna- 
cular term for the pityriasis versicolor. 

LIVIDITY {liwr, a livid colour.) The 
discoloration which occurs in the body 
in some diseases of the heart, &c. 

LIVOR (Uveo, to be black and blue). 
A blaclvish mark on the body, produced 
by a blow, fall, &c. A dark circle round 

lh6 CV<i. 

LIXIVIATION. A term denoting the 
application of water to a saline body 



LIX 



208 



LOG 



which consists of both soluble and inso- 
luble ingredients. The solution obtained 
is the lixivium, or ley. 

LIXIVIUM (lix, licis, anciently. Water 
or liquor in general; also lye). Lye, or 
ley, made of ashes; also, the polassa im- 
pura. This term was formerly applied 
to some of the alkaline salts, and their 
solutions. 

1. Lixivia vilriolata. Vilriolated ley, 
or the sulphas poiassK. 

2. Ijxivia vitriolata sulphurea. Sul- 
phureous vitrioiated ley, or the sulphas 
potassas cum sulphure. 

3. Lixivium alkali fxum vegetahile. 
Fixed vegetable alkaline ley, or the pot- 
assa impura. 

4. Lixivium causticum. Caustic ley ; 
another name for the liquor potasste. 

5. Lixivium saponarixim. Soap ley ; 
another name for the liquor potassa;. 

6. Lixivium iarlari. Tartar ley; or 
the liquor poiassaj carbonatis, formerly 
called oleum tartari per deliquium. 

7. Lixiviumvinum. The wine which ex- 
udes from grapes before they are pressed. 

8. Lixivium sanguinis. Blood ley; an 
impure solution of forrocyanide of potas- 
sium. 

LO.^DSTONE. An ore of iron which 
possesses the peculiar properties of at- 
tracting iron, and of turning towards the 
north pole, when freely suspended. The 
properties of the natural loadstone may 
be communicated to iron and steel, 
which, when properly prepared and 
touched by the loadstone, are called 
artificial magnets. .See Magnet. 

LOAM. An impure potters' clay, mix- 
ed with mica and iron ochre. 

[LOBE. See Lobus.] 

[LOBED {lohus, a lobe). Partly divided 
in toa number of segments. In botany 
applied to leaves the margins of which 
are deeply incised.] 

LOBELIA CE^. The Lobelia tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants or shrubs, with leaves alternate; 
flowers axillary or terminal ; stamens syn- 
genesious; ovarium inferior; fruit cap- 
sular. 

L Lobelia inflata. Bladder-podded Lo- 
belia, Indian Tobacco, or Emetic Weed ; 
a plant with properties similar to those 
of tobacco. 

2. Lobelia syphilitica. Blue Cardinal 
Flower; the root of which has been 
used by the North American Indians as 
specific in syphilis. 

3. Lobelin. A peculiar principle, pro- 
cured from Lobelia inflata, and said to 
resemble nicotin. 



LOBULUS (dim. of lobus, a lobe). A 
lobule, or small lobe. 

1. Lobulus Spigelii. A small lobe of 
the liver, on the left of the great lobe, 
and named from Adrian Spigel, a Bel- 
gian physician. 

2. Lobulus quadraius vel anonymus. 
That portion of the liver which is be- 
tween the gall-bladder and the umbilical 
fissure. 

3. Lobulus vel processus caudalus. A 
small tail-like appendage to the lobulus 
Spigelii, from which it runs outwards, 
like a crest, into the right lobe. 

4. Lobule (f the par vagum. The name 
of a small tuft at the inferior part of the 
cerebellum. 

5. Lobulus pneumogastricus. A lobule 
of the cerebellum, situated near the ori- 
gin of the eighth pair of nerves; its form 
IS that of a convoluted shell. 

6. Lobulus auris. The lower depend- 
ent and fleshy portion of the pinna of the 
ear. 

7. Lobuli testis. The lobules formed 
by the convolutions of the tubuli semi- 
niferi of the testis. 

LOBUS i\ot}6i, from, Xafi/Javu, to take 
hold of). A lobe : — 

1. The designation of the portions into 
which the lower surface of the brain is 
divided : these are termed the anterior, 
the middle, and the posterior lobes. 

2. The name of the lower and pendent 
part of the external ear. 

3. The name of the divisions of the 
lungs, of the liver, (fee. 

4. The lohus of Morgagni is a lobe at 
the base of the prostate, discovered bv 
Morgagni, and since described by Sir 
Everard Home. 

LOCALES {locus, a place). Local dis- 
eases; morbid affections which are par- 
tial. 

LOCHIA (Xoxrfu, to bring forth). The 
uterine discharge which takes place for 
some days after delivery ; in cattle, it is 
termed the cleansings. 

LOCKED JAW. A spasmodic affec- 
tion, preventing the motion of the jaws. 
See Trismus, and Tetanus. 

LOCOMOTION {locus, a place, maveo, 
to move). The act of moving from one 
place to another. 

LOCULICIDAL. That mode of de- 
hiscence of fruits, in which the loculi, or 
cells, are severed at their back. 

LOCUS NIGER. Literally, a black 
spot; a term applied to the dark appear- 
ance in the centre of the section of the 
crus CGrGDri 

LOCUS PERFORATUS. A whitish 



LOG 



209 



LUN 



gray substance situated between the 



crura cerebri, and perforated by several 
apertures for the transmission of vessels. 
It is sometimes called pons Tarini. 

LOCUSTA. A spikelet, or partial 
spike; a portion of the inflorescence of 
many grasses. 

LOCUSTIC ACID {locusla, a grass- 
hopper). An acid procured from grass- 
hoppers, differing little from acetic acid. 

LOGWOOD. "See Hamatoxyli, Lig- 
num. 

LOHOCH, or LOOCH. Edegma. A 
thick syrup, made of mucilaginous sub- 

LONb SIGHT. An affection of the 
sight, in which the vision is only accu- 
rate when the object is far off: it is the 
dysopia proximorum of CuUen, and the 
vue tongue of the French. See Lens, 
[and Presbi/opia.] 

LONGISSIMUS OCULI. A name 
given to the obliquus superior, from its 
being the longest muscle of the eye. See 
Brevissimus. 

LONGITUDINAL {longus, long). A 
term applied to two sinuses of the dura 
mater 

LONGUS COLLI. A long muscle at 
the back of the oesophagus, which sup- 
ports and bends the neck. The muscle 
between the spinous processes of the ver- 
tehrtB and the angle of the ribs is called 
longissimns dorsi. 

LORDO'SIS (Xop(5df, curved). Pro- 
curvation of the head and shoulders, or 
anterior crookedness. Posterior incurva- 
tion was formerly called cijrtosis; and 
the lateral Ibrm, hyhonis. 

LORI'CA. Literally, a coat of mail. 
A kind of lute, with which vessels are 
coated before tiiey are exposed to the 
fire. Hence the term loricalion in che- 
mistry, for coating. See Lute. 

LOTIO. a lotion, or wash; a liquid 
remedy, intended for external applica- 
tion. This generic term comprehends 
embrocations, fomentations, liniments, 
collyria, &c. 

LOUSINESS. Malis pedicuU. An 
affection in which the cuticle is infested 
W'iili lice; depositing their nils or eggs 
at t!io roots of the hair, accompanied 
with troublesome itching. See Pedicu- 
las. 

LOXA BARK. The Pale Crown hark, 
the produce of the Cinchona Condaminea 

LOXARTHRUS C>^oidi. twisted, -V 
Bpov, a joint). .An obliquity of a joint, 
vvilhonl spasm or luxation, as varus, val 
gus, lie. 

LOXIA (\old;, twisted). Caput cbsti- 



pum. Wry-neck: a distortion of the head 



towards one side. 

LOZENGES. Trocliisci. These are 
composed of fine powders, mixed with 
mucilage and sugar, (or adulterated with 
pipe-clay,) rolled into cakes, cut into 
shapes, and dried in a stove. 

LUES VENEREA. Literally, the 
plague of Venus, or venereal disease. 
Syphilis; a disease also called morbus 
Aphrodisius, morbus Gallicus, morbus 
Indicus, morbus Neapolitanus, &c. 

LUGOL'S SOLUTION. A liquid con- 
taining 20 grains of iodine, and 30 grains 
of iodide of potassium in one ounce of 
water. 

LUMBA'GO (lumhus, the loins). A 
rheumatic afiection of the muscles about 
the loins. 

LUMBI. The loins; the inferior part 
of the hack. 

1. Lumbar. The designation of nerves, 
arteries, veins, &c., belonging to the re- 
gion of the loins. Hence, also, the term 
lumbo-abdominal, pr lumbar plexus; the 
lumbosacral nerves, and the lumbo-dorsal 
region. 

2. Lumbar Abscess. Psoas abscess. A 
chronic collection of pus, which forms in 
llie cellular substance of the loins, be- 
hind the peritonaeum, and descends in 
the course nf the psoas muscle. 

LUMBRI'CALES {lumbricus,an earth- 
worm). The name of four muscles of 
the hand and foot; so called from their 
resemblance to the earth-worm. 

LUiMBRICUS {lubricus. slippery). The 
earth-worm. Ascaris lumbrico'ides is the 
long and round worm, found in the in- 
testines. 

Lumbricus cucurbiiinus. The Gourd- 
worm of Dr. Hcberden, so called from its 
jomis, when broken, presenting the ap- 
pearance of gourd-seeds. 

LUNA. The Moon; the alchemical 
name of silver. 

LUNA CORNEA. Horn silver. The 
chloride of silver, so named from its 
horn-like appearance and consistence. 

L U N A F I X A T A. Literally, fixed 
moon ; the name given by the famous 
empiric Luddeniann to the cadmia of 
Gaubius, a n-medy formerly much used 
in clonic affections, and consisting of 
oxide, or the flowers of zinc. 

LUNAR CAUSTIC {luna, the moon; 
the old alchemical name for silver). The 
Argenti nitras, or fused nitrate of sil- 
ver. 

[LUNATE {luna, the moon). Cres- 
centiform. or semi-lunar.] 

LUNATIC {luna, the moon). One 



LUN 



210 



LYT 



uho is aflected by the changes of Ihe 
moon, or is poriodifallv deranged. 

LUiNATlCA ISCHURIA {linia, the 
moon). A suppression of urine, which 
relurns nionlhly. or wiih the moon. 

LUNCiS. Two vesicular organs, situat- 
ed in the thorax. The right lung is divid- 
ed \nXo three lobes; the left, into two; each 
of them is subdivided into /rii/;/e.«, or small 
lobes. See Pidnio and Respiration. 

LUNUL.\ (,dim. of lima, the moon). 
The white serai-lunar mark at the base 
of the nail. 

LUPIA. Wen; a tumour, termed by 
WiUan mnUuscurn. 

LUPULIN. The name given by Dr. 
Ives to the active principle of the Hu- 
mulus I.upulus, or tiie hop. [It occurs in 
the form of a yellow powder, on the sur- 
face of the scales of the fruit. It is tonic 
and moderately narcotic. The dose is 
fi-om gr. vj. to gr. xij., and is usually 
given in the form of pills.] 

LUPUS (Lat. a w'olf). Nuli me lan- 
gere. A slow tubercular affection, oc- 
curring especially about the face, com- 
monly ending in ragged ulcerations of 
the nose, cheeks, forehead, eyelids, and 
lips. It is so called from its eating away 
the flesh, like a wolf 

LUSCITAS {liiscus, blind of one eye). 
A term applied by Beer to a distortion 
of ihe eyeball, which resembles squint- 
ing, but diffisrs from it in the want of 
power to move the affected eye when 
the other is closed. It occurs as a symp- 
tom in amaurosis. 

LUTE. A compound paste, made of 
clay, sand, and other materials, for clos- 
ing the joinings of retorts, receivers, &c., 
in chemical experiments, in order lo ren- 
der them air-tight. Fat lute is made of 
powdered pipe-clay and boiled linseed 
oil, otherwise called drying oil, formed 
into a mass like putty. 

LUTEOLIiNE. The colouring prin- 
ciple of Reseda liiteola, commonly called 
Dvers' Kocket, Yellow Weed or Weld. 

'LUX.\TIO.\ (luxn, to put out of joint). 
Dislocation; or the removal of the arti- 
cular surfaces of bones out of their pro- 
per situation. See Dislocation. 

L Y C A N T H RO P I A ( \vKOi, a wolf, 
ixi'OpMzoi, a man). Lnpina insania. Wolf- 
madness, called cucubutJi by Aviceniia, 
in which men fancy themselves to be 
wolves, bears, &c. In Pliny's time this 
metamorphosis appears to have been re- 
ciprocal: he says, "homines interdum 
lupos fieri, el contrn." 

[LYCOPODIUM (^XvKO;, a wolf, rouf, 
a foot). A genus of cryptogamous plants. 



The pharmaceutical name for Ihe fine 
powder obtained from the capsules of 
the Lycopodium clavatum or club-moss 
and other species of the same genus. It 
is used as an absorbent application to ex- 
coriated surfaces, and in pharmacy it has 
been employed to prevent pills iiom ad- 

[LYCOPUS VIRGINICUS. Bugle 
Weed. An indigenous, Labiate plant, 
said to possess mild narcotic pro(ierties, 
and to have been used with advantage 
in incipient phthisis and hemorrhage 
from the lungs. It is given in the form 
of infusion, made by macerating an ounce 
of the herb in a pint of boiling water, 
and drunk ad lihitum.] 

LYE. A solution of potass, or other 
alkaline substances, used in the arts. 

LYMPH (lympha, w-ater). A colour- 
less liquid which circulates in the lym- 
phatics. The liquid which moistens the 
surface of ('ellular membrane. 

Liimph of Plants.The unelaborated sap, 
so called from lis resemblance to water. 

LYMPH-CATARACT. The most fre- 
quent form of spurious cataract ; so 
named by Beer, w ho observes, that only 
this species deserves the name of mem- 
branous, as alone consisting of an adven- 
titious membrane, formed by inflamma- 
tion. 

LYMPHATICS [bjmpha, water). Mi- 
nute tubes which pervade every part of 
the body, which they absorb, or lake up, 
in the form of bjmph. They are some- 
times called ductus aquosi. 

LYi^CURIUM. This is supposed to 
have been the ancient name of tourma- 
lin. It possesses the properly of attracting 
light bodies, when heated. The Dutch, 
in Ceylon, call it aschentrikker, from its 
attracting the ashes, when a portion of it 
is laid over the fire. 

LYRA (a lyre). Fsalterium. The name 
given to that part of Ihe fornix, which 
presents the appearance of some white 
lines, somewhat resembling the strings 
of a lyre. 

[Lyrate. Lyre-shaped; in botany ap- 
plied to a leaf which has several sinuses 
on each side, gradually diminishing in 
size from above downwards.] 

LYSSA (Maaa, canine madness). En- 
lasia b/.'isa ; a term applied by Dr. Good 
10 hydrophobia. 

LYTHRUM SALICARIA. Spiked 
Purple Looselrife, an indigenous plant, 
principally used in diarrhosa and dysen- 
tery. 

LYTTA. The former name of the 
Cantharis vesicatoria, or blistering beetle. 



M 



211 



MAG 



M 



M. This letter has the following sig- 
nifications in presatiptions: — 

1. Manipnlus, a handful ; when herbs, 
flowers, chips, &c., are ordered. 

2. Misce, mix; thus, m. f. haust. signi- 
fies, mix and let a draught be made. 

3. Mensura, by measure. 

MACE. A thin, flat, membranous sub- 
stance which envelopes the nutmeg ; it 
is an expansion of the funiculus, and is 
termed, in botany, an arilliis. 

MACERATION (maccro, to make soft 
by steeping). The steeping of a body for 
some time in cold or warm water. 

MACHAON. The name of an ancient 
physician, said to be a son of /Escula- 
pius; hence, particular inventions have 
been dignified with his name, asasclepiai' 
Marhaonis.n collyrium described by Scri- 
bonius; and medicine in general is some- 
times called ars Aladiaoiiia. 

MACIES {maceo, to be lean). Wasting, 
atrophy, or emaciation. 

MACQUER'S salt. Neutral arse- 
nical salt of Macquer; super-arseniate of 
polassa. 

MACROCEPHALOUS {ixnicpd;, large, 
>c£'/>aAi). the head). Large-headed; a term 
applied by Richard to those Dicotyledo- 
nous embryos, in which the two cotyle- 
dons coAere, as in horse-chestnut. Gaartner 
terms these embryos pseudo-monocotyle- 
don on s. 

MacTopodal (^jxaKpd^, large, nov^, ttoSos, 
a foot). Large-iboied ; a term applied by 
Richard to a modification of the mono- 
cotylcdonous embryo, in which the radi- 
cle presents an unusual protuberance, as 
in wheat. 

MACROCOSM (fiavpdf, large, (ffofioj, 
world). Large world ; a term employed 
as synonymous with iniicerse; while 7ni- 
crocosm, or little world, has been used 
by some philosophers as a designation of 
man. 

MACULA. A spot. A small patch or 
speck of the cornea. See Opacity. 

\. Macula gerwbiativa. The cerminal 
spot, or nucleus gcrminativus of Wagner ; 
a spot found in the germinal vesicle of 
the ovum, consisting of one or more 
somewh.Tt opaque rorpuscules, and pos- 
sibly the analogue of the nucleus of for- 
mative cells. 

2. Macules. Spots; a permanent dis- 
coloration of the skin, generally the result 



of an alteration of the natural texture of 
the part. Macula; have been distin- 
guished into ephelis, sun-burn or freckles ; 
ncpvus, or mother-spots ; npilus, or thick- 
ening and discoloration of the rete mu- 
cosum ; and moles. 

3. Macula: hepatlccp. Hepatic spots ; 
the term tnider which Sennertus de- 
scribed the Pityriasis versicolor, or varie- 
gated dandriflf; 

4. Macula volatica. Flying spots ; a 
designation of the Erythema fuga.v, from 
its fugitive character. 

[MADAR. See Mudar.1 

MADA RO'SIS (;^aJ«w, lobe bald). 
A defect or loss of the eyebrows or eye- 
lashes. 

MADDER. The root of the Rubia 
Tinctorum; used in dyeing the Adria- 
nople or Turkey Red, and other colours. 
It is distinguished, in commerce, accord- 
ing to its quality, by the terms crop, 
ombro, pamene, and mull, of" which the 
first is the best. Two colourless acids 
have been noticed in madder, viz. the 
madderic and the rubiacic acids. See 
Alizarine. 

MADREPORE. A species of coral: 
a zoophyte, consisting of carbonate of 
lime, and a little animal membranaceous 
substance. 

MAGISTERY(?no^zsrer, a master). A 
term formerly applied to almost all pre- 
cipitates, supposed to be subtle and mo.<- 
tevlii preparations; but at present it is 
applied only to a few, as the magislery 
of bismuth, or the sub-nitrate. 

Magisterium Argenli. The alchemical 
name of the nitras argenti, also called 
crystalli Dianoj; when fused, it was 
termcHl lapis infernalis. 

MAGISTRAL [magislralis. masterly). 
A term applied to medicines which are 
prepared extemporaneously, and which 
were therefore considered as masterly 
preparations. 

MAGMA {naaaojiat, to knead dough). 
Literally, a kneaded or squeezed mass; 
dregs, or sediment; a kind of salvo. 

M AGNES ARSENICA LIS. A cor- 
rosive preparation of eiiual parts of sul- 
phur, white arsenic, and common anti- 
mony, mixed by fusion. 

MAGNESIA (magnes, a magnet, or 
loadstone). An alkaline earth, having a 
metallic base called magnesium. The 



MAG 



212 



MA J 



term magnesia was originally employed 
to denote any substance which had the 
power ol' attracting some principle from 
ihe air; the peculiar body which we now 
denominate magnesia was first sold as a 
panacea, bv a canon at Rome, in the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, un 
der the title of Magnesia alba, or Count 
Palma's Powder. 

1. Magnesia usta. The oxide of mag' 
nesium, prepared by calcining the arti- 
ficial carbonate. It is sometimes called 
ialc earth or bitlcr earth. 



2. Magnesia alba. The carbonate ofl possessed by cerinin bodies, more espe- 



magnesia, prepared by precipitating a 
boiling solution of the sulphate by means 
of carbonate of potash. There are two 
kinds, the heavy, and the light, commonly 
called Scotch magnesia. 

3. Magnesia nigra. The black oxide 
of manganese was long known by this 
name, from its fancied relation to mag- 
nesia alba 

4. Magnesia water. An aerated water 
prepared by impregnating ihe carbonate 
of magnesia, dissolved in water, with ten 
times its volume of carbonic acid gas, by 
means of a forcing-pump or soda-water 
apparatus. 

5. Magnesia sulphas. Sulphate of ma 
nesia; bitler purging salt; Epsom salt; 
formerly magnesia vitriolata, and sal 
calharticum nmarum. 

MAGXKSIUM. A metal having the 
colour and lustre of silver. At a red 
heat it burns brilliantly, and forms mag- 
nesia. 

[Chloride of Magnesium. This has 
lately been recommended as a saline 
aperient by M. Lebert. The dose is 
about an ounce.] 

MAGNET. An iron ore, commonly 
called loadstone, which exhibits the re- 
markable property of attracting other 
kinds of iron nr steel. Its name is de- 
rived from Miignesia, the place in which 
the ore, or native magnet, was originally 
founil. It has since been discovered in 
many other localities. 

1. 'The mnijnet, or loadstone, in powder, 
was formerly an ingredient of several 
plasters, and was supposed lo po.ssess the 
power of dr.iu'ing bullets and arrow- 
heads out of ilie body, as in the emplas- 
trum divinum Nicolai, the emplasirum 
nigrum of Aussburg, the opodeldoc and 
atlractiviim of Paracelsus, &c. 

2. Artificial inngnet. It' a straight bar 
of hard-tempered steel, devoid of all per- 
ceptible magnetism, be held in a posiiloji 



with one end pointing about 24J° west 
of north, and downwards, so as to make 
an angle of 72J° with the horizon), and 
struck several smart blows with a ham- 
mer, it will be found to have acquired 
the properties of a magnet. 

3. Magnetic properties. These are of 
four kinds: — 1. pola^iy; 2. attraction of 
unmagnetic iron ; 3. attraclion and repul- 
sion of magnetic iron; and, 4. the power 
of inducing magnetism in other iron. 

4. Magnetism. The term which ex- 
presses the peculiar property, occasionally 



cially by iron and some of its compounds, 
by which, under certain circumstances, 
they mutually attract or repel one ano- 
ther, according to determinate laws. 

5. Magnetic fluid. The hypothetical 
agent, lo which the phenomena of mag- 
netism have been referred. Some have 
supposed two such fluids, — a boreal, or 
northern, and an austral, or southern. 

6. Magnetic magazine. The name 
given to a kind of battery,. Ibrmed of 
several magnets placed one over the 
other, with all their poles similarly dis- 
posed, and fastened firmly together. 

7. Magnetic plates. Plates of mag- 
netized steel, of various forms, for fitting 
any part of the body. 

8. Electro-magnetism. The designation 
of the phenomena showing the connexion 
between electricity and magnetism. 

9. Animal magnetism. A fanciful sys- 
tem introduced by Mesmer, from the 
supposed eiTects of the magnet upon the 
human body, and hence termed Mes- 
merism. 

[MAGA'OLIA. A genus of plants of 
the natural order Magnoliacese. The 
bark of three of the species, M. glauca, 
M. acuminata, and M. tripttala, are offi- 
cinal in the U. S. Pliarmacopfeia. It is 
a mild aromatic tonic end diaphoretic, 
and has been given in chronic rheuma- 
tism, and in intermittent fever. The 
dose of the recently dried bark is from 
3ss. to .-^j-] 

xM.\GXUS MORRL'S. The great dis- 
ease; a term applied by Hippocrates to 
epilepsv. 

MAHOGANY. The wood of the 
Swietenia Mahogoni, the bark of which 
is used in the West Indies as a sub- 
stitute for Peruvian bark, but is inferior 
to it. 

xMAJORANA HORTENSfS. [Ori- 
gauum marjorana, Willd.] Sweet Marjo- 
ram ; a Labiate plant, cultivated in 



slightly inclined to the perpendicular, | kitchen gardens, and employed for pre- 
the lower end deviating to the north (i.e. 'paring the cil of sweet marjoram. 



MAL 



213 



MAL 



MAL {malus, evil). The French term 
for a malady or disease. 

1. Mai de la Rosa. The name given 
byThiery to scarlatina. 

2. Mai de Siam. A name given in 
some parts of India to yellow fever. 

3. Mai del sole. A name of itie Italian 
Elephantiasis, from its being commonly 
ascribed to the heat of the sun's rays. 

4. Mai des ardens. One of the desig- 
nations of a fatal epidemic disease, which 
prevailed extensively in the early and 
dark ages, as the sequel of war and 
famine. It is placed by Sausages under 
the head of Erysipelas pestilens; and by 
Sagar under the genus necrosis. 

MALA. A term contracted from max- 
illa, as ala from axilla. In classic writers, 
gerta; is properly the part of the foce 
under the eyelids, while mala denotes 
the cheeks, the round and lively-red part 
of the face; also the jaw, the cheek- 
bone. 

MALACENCEPHALON (f,aXa*df, 
soft, iyKC'paXog, the brain). A term ap- 
plied by Dr. Craigie to simple diminished 
consistence of the brain, without change 
of structure. 

MALACHITE. Green Bice. A beau- 
tiful native green carbonate of copper. 

MAL.ACI.^ (,ixa\aKia, softness). Pica. 
Depraved appetite. The desire for one 
particular kind of food, and disgust for 
all other kinds. It may assume the form 
of mal d'estoinac, or dirt-eating. 
; MALACOSTEON (f<aXa«df, soft, do- 
Tcoy, a bone). Mollilies ossium. Softness 
of the bones. 

MALACTINIA (/iaXawf, soft). The 
third class of the Cyclo-?ieura or Radiata, 
consisting of soft aqualio animals, emit- 
ting an acid secretion from their surface, 
which is capable of irritating and inflam- 
ing the human skin, like the stinging of 
a nettle; hence the name acalephcB, or 
nettles, has been commonly given to this 
class. 

M.VLAGMA {na\a<T<TM, to soften). A 
term synonymous with cata plasma, and 
so crdlnd from its snflenin.ir property. 

MALAGUETTA pepper. Seeds 
resembling, if not identical with, the 
grains of paradise, and referred to the 
Amomum Grana Paiadisi. Roscoe, how- 
ever, affirms tliat they are the produce of 
of A. mileaiif/n. 

MALA.MBO BARK. Matlas Bark. 
The bark of a tree said to be procured 
from Colombia, and used as a substitute 
for cinchona. 

MAL.ARIA (mala aria, bad air, Ital). 
A term generally employed to designate 



certain effluvia or emanations from 
marshy ground. Hence the term marsh- 
fever, in Europe; J«7i^Zf;/(SiJcr, in India. 
The malaria of Campagna is the name 
of an endemic intermittent, arising from 
the aria caiiiva, as it is called, exhaled 
from decaying vegetables in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome, especially about the 
Pontine marshes. 

MALATES. Neutral and acid salts 
formed by malic acid with alkaline and 
masnesian bases. 

MALFORMATION. A deviation from 
the natural form of an organ. It is 
termed — 

1. Defective, when an organ is entirely 
deficient, as the heart, &c., in acardiac 
cases. 

2. Irregular, as in the misplacement, 
&c., of parts in the heart, constituting the 
(jualilalive malformations of Meckel. 

3. Stiperjluous, when consisting of ex- 
cessive developement of an organ, as in 
the case of supernumerary auricles, &c. 

MALIC ACID (//^Xoj^, Dor. ndXov, 
malum, an apple). An acid existing in 
apples, but generally prepared from the 
berries of the Sorbus aucnparia, or moun- 
tain ash. By dry distillation, it yields 
another acid, termed the maleic. 

MALICORIUM. The rind or external 
coat of the pomesrranate. 

MALIGNANT. Malignns. A term 
applied to diseases in which the symp- 
toms appear fatal, as in typhus, cholera, 
cynanche, <tc. 

[MALINGERER. A term applied to 
soldiers who feign disease.] 

MALIS (fiiiXif). Maliasmns. A cu- 
taneous disease, produced by parasitic 
worms, formerly called dodders. The 
difTcrent species of verminaiion are — 

1. Malis pediculi, or lousiness. 

2. Malis pulicis, or flea-bite. 

3. ]\falis acari, or tick-bite. 

4. Malis JilaricB, or guinea-worm. 

5. Malis oiStri, or gadfly-bite. 

6. j\lalis gordii, or hair-worm. 
MALLEABILITY (malleus, a ham- 

mer). A property of some metals, by 
which they are beaten out in plates, or 
leaves, by a hammer. Gold leaf, for 
instance, is so thin, that less than five 
grains will cover a surface of 272^^ square 
inches; and the thickness of each leaf 

does not exceed the ^-g-sV^'o J'"'' '^^ *"" 
inch. 

MALLEATIO {malleus, a bfimmer). 
A fijrm of chorea, consisting in a con- 
vulsive action of one or boili hands, 
which strike the kneo like a hammer. 

iMALLEOLAR {malleolus, dim. of 



MAL 



214 



M A M 



malleus, a hammer). A term applied to 
two branches of the posterior tibial ar- 
terv. 

MALLEOLUS {dim. of malleus, a mal- 
let). The ancle, so called from its resem- 
blance to a mallet; lliere is an exlernal 
and an internal malleolus. The Icrm 
malleolus is applied, in botany, to the 
lat/er by which some plants are propa- 
gated. 

RL'\LLEUS (a hammer). One of the 
ossicular aud'Uus, or small bones of the 
ear, in form resembling a hammer. It 
consisis of a head, a neck, a handle or 
manubrium, and two processes. 

MALPIGHIAN CORPUSCULES. 
The name of some whitish, round, mi- 
nute bodies, discovered by Malpighi in 
the red substance of the spleen. They 
are very different from the grape-like cor- 
puscules discovered by ihe same writer in 
the spleen of some herbivorous quadru- 
peds. 

Malpighian vessels of insects. A term 
applied to the biliary csEca of insects, as 
observed by Malpighi, and considered to 
be analogous to the liver of the higher 
animals. 

MALT. Brasium ; bt/ne. Barley made 
to germinate by moisture and warmih, 
and ihen dried, in order to destroy the 
vitality of the embryo. When scorched, 
it is called high-dried malt. 

M.\LTHA. Mineral pitch, or tallow ; 
a varieiv of bitumen. See Bitumen. 

MALTING. The proi^ess of making 
malt; it consists in the inducing of an 
artificial growth or germination of barley, 
by steeping in water, and then evolving 
the saccharine principle by the applica- 
tion of heal. This process consists of 
four distinct stages, viz. — 

\, Sleeping, or immerging the grain in 
water for about two days, until consi- 
derably swelled. 

2. Couching, or depositing the grain in 
heaps on the couch-frame, for about thirty 
hours; it then becomes warm and dis- 
posed to germinate. 

3. Flooring, or spreading the grain on 
floors in layers of a few inches in thick- 
ness, to prevent its unequal or partial 
germination. 

4. Kiln-drying, or arresting the pro- 
cess of germination, when the saccharine 
matter is freely developed, by exposure to 
a gradually increasing temperature in the 
kiln. 

MALUM iftSXov, Dorice pro ix!)\oi'). 
An apple. The following terms occur in 
classic writers: — 

\. Malum cilreum. The citron. 



2. Malum cnlojicum. The quince. 

3. Malum Ejiiroticum. The apricot. 

4. Malum granalum. The poinegra-' 
naie. 

5. Malum Medicu7n. The lemon, 
fi. Malum Persicnm. The peach. 
MALUM MORTUUAL Adiseaseap- 

pearing in the form of a pustule, which 
soon acquires a dry, brown, hard, and 
broad crust, remaining for a long time 
before it can be detached. It is mostly 
observed on the tibia and os coccygis. 

MALUM PILARE (;jiZ«s, a hair). A 
complaint, sometimes confounded with 
crinones, and said to be owing to hairs 
not duly expelled, which stTck in the 
skin, especially in the backs of young 
infants, inducing incessant itching, and 
sometimes raising small tumours. 

MALVACE.-ET The Mallow tribe of di- 
cotyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants, 
trees, or shrulis, with leaves alternate ; 
flowers polypetalous ; sla7ncns hypogy- 
nous, monadelphous ; /rait capsular or 
baccate, containing seed with crumpled 
cotyledons. 

[Malva rolundifolia. This has the 
same medical properties as the following 
species.] 

Malva sylveslris. Common Mallow, 
a European plant abounding in mu- 
cilage. The colouring matter of the 
flower is a very delicate test of alkalis, 
which render it green. 

MAMA-PIAN. The term applied in 
Africa, to the master-lbngus, or motbcr- 
yaw, supposed to be the source of all the 
other timiours in Irani bcesia. 

[MAMELLONATED {mamelon, Fr., a 
nipple). Mammillated. See Mammil- 
larif.] 

RIAMM.A. The breast; the organ 
which secretes the milk. The deep- 
coloured circle which surrounds the 
papilla, or the nipple, is termed the 
areola. The tubuli lactiferi are lactife- 
rous ducts, which enter into the rnam- 
mary gland situated behind the adipose 
tissue of the mamma. 

MAMMALI.A {mamma, a. teat). The 
fifth class of the Enccphalata or Verie- 
brata, consisting of animals provided 
with mammary glands for the lactation 
of their young after birth. 

1. Bi-mana {binus, two, manus, hand). 
Two-handed animals, as man. 

2. Quadru-mana {quatuor, four, manus, 
hand). Four-handed animals, as mon- 
keys. 

3. Carnivora {caro, carnis, food, torn, to 
devour). Flesh-eating animals. These 
are subdivided into the cheiroptera {xdp, 



MA M 



215 



MAN 



,\'£ipdj, a hand, irnpoy, a wing), or animals 
vvilh vvingnd hands, as the bat; and ni- 
seclivuia, or animals uhirh feed on in- 
secis, as the hedgehog. They are also 
distinguished into l\\e plaitligruda(plunla, 
the fool, gradior, to walk), or animals 
which walk on the soles of the feet; di- 
gitigrada, or such as walk on their digilf, 
or toes; amphibia {dfufi, both, (]io;, life), 
or animals which live indifferently, on 
land or in water, as the seal ; and the 
viarsitpialia {marsupium, a pouch), or 
pouch-bearing animals, as the kangaroo 
and opossum. 

4. llodenlia (rodn, to gnaw). Glires, 
or gnawing animals, as the beaver. 

5. Edenla/a {edentulits, toothless). Ani- 
mals without teeth, as the armadillo. 

6. Pachijdermala (7ra\tV. thick, iipfia, 
skin). Belluffi, or thick-skinned animals, 
as the elephant. 

7. Ruminantia {rnmino, to chew the 
cud). Pecora, or ruminating animals, as 
the deer. 

8. Cetacea {cele, a whale). The Whale 
tribe; mammiferous animals destitute of 
hind feet, and having their trunk termi- 
nating in a horizontal tail. 

MAMMARY ABSCESS {mamma, the 
breast). Another name lor milk abscess. 

MAMMARY GLAND imam?na, the 
breast). The gland placed beneath the 
adipose layer of the mamma. 

MAMAIILLA (dim. of mamma, a 
breasi). Literally, a little breast. A 
term synonymous with papilla, as applied 
to the conical bodies of the kidneys, at 
the points where the urine escapes. 

1 . Mammillary. Having small rounded 
prominences, like teals; the name of an 
eminence of the inierior vermiform pro- 
cess of the cerebellum. 

2. MammiUares processus. A name 
given by the ancients to the olfactory 
nerves, which they considered as emunc- 
tories, or canals, by which the serum and 
pituita, separated from the brain, flowed 
off 

MANCHINEAL. The Hippomane 
mancintila, a tree of such extremely poi- 
sonous properties, that jtersons have been 
said to die from merely sleeping beneath 
iis shade; the juice is used to poison 
weapons: Order Eiiphorhiaceee. 

RLAiNDIBL'LUM {mandn, to chew). 
MaxMn inferior. .\ mandible or lower 
jaw. In insects, the upper jaw is termed 
mandible; the lower jaw, maxilla. 

Mandihuh-lahialis. The inferior den- 
tal branch of the inierior maxillary nerve. 

M A N D U A G O R A OFFICINALIS. 
The Mandrake, a plant of the order 8o- 



lanacetB, the root of which, from its fan- 
cied resemblance to the human form, has 
been termed anthropmnorphon (ai'Bponrog, 
man, )top<j>ft, form), and supposed to pre- 
vent barrenness. The root of Bryonia 
dioica is somewhat similar in form, and 
is sold for mandrake. The fruit of Man- 
dragora has been termed malum caninum, 
or dog-apple. 

MANDUCATION {manduco, to eat). 
The act of eating. 

MANGANESE. A grayish-white 
metal, found in the ashes of plants, the 
bones of animals, and in many minerals. 
It was named by Gahn magnesium, a 
term which has since been applied to the 
metallic base of magnesia. The binoxide, 
used in chemistry, is commonly termed 
native black or peroxide of manganese. 

[Sulphate of Mavganese. A neutral 
salt, which possesses cathartic properties, 
in the dose, according to Dr. Thomson.'of 
from half an ounce to an ounce; but Mr. 
Ure says that he would be reluctant to 
give it to that extent, and has always 
found a much smaller quantity, one 
drachm, suffice. It should be given dis- 
solved in a considerable quantity of water. 
It is said, at first to excite the action of the 
liver, but, if its use be long continued, to 
subsequently suppress the secretion of 
bile. Dr. Goolden states that it rarely 
acts as a purgative alone, and that when 
taken on an empty stomach, in the dose 
of one or two drachms, it invariably pro- 
duces vomiting, but that this emetic ac- 
tion is seldom induced after the first dose.] 

MANGEL WURZEL. Field-beet; 
a mongrel plant, between the red and 
white beet. It is used as food for cattle; 
also in distillation, and in the extraction 
of sugar. 

MANIA {fxaivofiai, to be mad). In- 
sanity ; disordered intellect. In the 
works of Sauvages, and other writers, we 
find the terms vesanio', or halhicinaliones, 
denoting erroneous impressions of the 
understanding ; morosilates, or morbl 
pathelivi, consisting of depraved appe- 
tites, and other morbid changes in the 
feelings and propensities. 

1. Mono-mania {jxovog, alone). Insanity 
upon one particular subject, the faculties 
being unaffected upon every other. 

2. Damono-mania (^aijioiv, a daemon). 
Insanity in which the patient supposes 
himself to be (lossessed by doemons. 

3. Erolo-mania (ipus, love). Insanity 
occasioned by excessive affection. 

4. Dementia. Incoherent or chaotic 
madness; the first period of fatuity. 

5. Amentia. The last stage of fatuity ; 



MAN 



216 



MAR 



an almost total obliteration of the facul-! MARCOR {marceo, to droop). A term 
ties. 'employed by Celsus for drowsiness. In 

6. Noslo-mania (vScro;, a return). Cullen's nosology, the Marcores consti- 
Horae-raadness J an aggravated form of tiite the first order of CacAex/a:, denoting 
nostalgia. I emaciations, or wasting of the whole 

MAJNIAC {jiavia, madness). A mad- [body, as tabes and atrophia. 
man ; one attacked by mania. j [MARESCENT {mareo, to wither). 

MANIPULATION {manipulus, a hand- 1 Withering. In botany, applied to flowers 
ful). The mode of handling utensils, ma- j which fade some time before they fall off] 
terials, &c., in experimental philosophy ;; MARGARIC ACID (/i/apyapij.a pearl), 
the performance of experiments. |An acid obtained from human fat and 

MANIP'ULUS(contr. wioJii'pZHS — quod i vegetable fixed oils, and also produced 
manum impleat, because it fills the hand). | by the dry distillation of ox and mutton 
Properly, a sheaf A handful, as of herbs, suet, and of stearic acid. Its name is de- 
flowers, chips, &c. j rived from hs pearly lustre 



MANNA (a term derived from a Chal- 
daic root, signifying what is it?). The 
concrete juice of the Ornus Eurnpxa, and 
the Eucalyptus mannifera of New South 
Wales. 

1. Manna cannulata. Flake manna, the 
best variety, occurring in a stalactitic form. 

2. Sicilian Tolfa manna. An inferior 
variety, corresponding with manna in 
sorts of some writers. The commonest 
kind is called Sicilian manna ; and ap- 
pears to be, according to Dr. Pereira, 
what is sometimes called common or fatly 
manna. 



1. Margarine. Margarate of glyceryl; 
a principle discovered in spermaceti. 

2. Margarone. A pearly substance 
obtained by dry distillation of margaric 
acid. 

M.\RGINALIS {margo, a margin). 
Angnlaris. A designation of the shoot 
of the cervico-facialis, or inferior facial 
branch of the seventh pair of nerves. 

MARINE ACID (mare, the sea). 
Spirit of salt. Muriatic or hydrocliloric 
acid, procured from common salt by dis- 
tilling it with sulphuric acid and water 
over a water-bath. 

MARLY CLAY. A variety of clay, 
pale bricks, and as a 



3. Manna of the larch. Manna de 
Briancon;a saccharine exudation from j used in makin: 
the Pinus laris. manure. 

4. Manna sugar, or mannite. The' MARMARYGE (ixap/iapvyri, dazzling 
sweet principle of manna, and one of the light, Hipp.). Msus lucidus; photopsia, 
products of the viscous fermentation of A disease of the eyes, in which sparks 
cane and grape sugar. It is identical and flashes of fire seem to present them 



•with srrenadin. 

MANUBRIUM {manu habere, lo hold 
in the hand). A haft or handle; the 
upper bone of the sternum. 
•> M.4NULUVIUM {manus, a hand, Za»o, 
to wash). A hand-bath. 

MANURES, .\niraal or vegetable 
matters deposited in the soil to accele- 
rate vegetation and increase the produc- 
tion of crops. The principal manures 
are rape-cake, sea-weeds, bones, fish, 
night-soil, soot, &c. 

MA RANT A ARUNDINACEA. The 
Arrow-root plant, so called from its re- 
puted properiyof counteracting the eflTects 



selves. Homer applies the terra to the 
rapid motion of the feet in dancing, — 
fiapuapi'yat —o6(ov. 

MARMOR ALBUM. White marble ; 
an indurated carbonate of lime. 

Marmnr mcinllicum. Metallic marble ; 
the native sulphate of barvtcs. 

MARROW. Medulla: The animal 
fat found in the cavities of long bones. 

MARRUBIUM VULGARE. White 
Horehound ; a Labiate plant, employed 
for making horehound tea, &.c. 

MARS. Martis. The god of war. 
The mythological and alchemical name 
of iron. Hence the salts of iron were 



of poisoned arrows. The tubers yield the, called martial salts; the protoxide, wiar- 
fecula marantcB, or the West Indian /foZ cthiops ; the sulphuret, martial py- 
Arrow-root of commerce. \rites. 

MARAS.MUS (/<apaiV(j, to wither).] MARSH'S APPARATUS. An instru- 
Emaciation; a wasting of the bodv ; for- ment for detecting the presence of arse- 
merly a generic term for atrophy, tabes, i nions acid insolation, 
and phthisis. T-MARSM MALLOW. See Althaa 

MARCET'S BLOWPIPE. An appa- 0//;r/rui//s.] 
ratus for increasing temperature, byj MARSUPIUM. A purse or pouch, 
urging the flame of an alcohol lamp by a! A dark-coloured membrane found in the 
blowpipe supplied with oxygen gas. I vitreous humour of the eye of birds. 



MAR 



217 



MAT 



1. Marsupialia. Animals possessin 
abdominal pouches, as the opossum. 

2. Marsiipialis. Another name of 
the bursaiis muscle, or obturator inter- 
nus. 

MARTIAL {mars, iron). An old my- 
thological designation of several prepara- 
tions of iron. See Mars. 

MARTIN'S CANCER POWDER. A 
famous cancer powder [formerly], known 
by this name in North America, and sup- 
posed to be prepared from the Orohanche 
Virginiana, in combination with white 
oxide of arsenic. 

MA RUM SYRIACUM. Teucrium 
marum. Syrian Herb Mastich ; a bitter 
aromatic plant, smelling like ammonia, 
and used as an errhine. It has lately 
been asserted to be excellent in nasal 
polypus. — Quart. Journ. of For. Med. 

MASS {fnaaaoyiai, to knead together). 
A term synonymous with quanlUy ; thus, 
the mass of a body is the quantity of 
matter it contains. Also a term gene- 
rally applied to the compound of which 
pills are formed. 

MASSA CARNEA, Jacobi Sylvii, or 
Plants; Pedis. The flexor accessorius 
muscle, which lies in the sole of the foot. 
It is a small mass of flesh, connected with 
the flexor longus. 

M.ASSETER {fiaaadoixai, to chew). A 
muscle which assists in chewing. Hence 
the term masseteric, as applied to a branch 
of the inferior maxillary nerve. 

MASSICOT. Yellov/ oxide, or pro- 
toxide of lead. When partially fused by 
heat, it is called litharge. 

[MASTICATION {mastico. to chew). 
Chewing. The act of comminuting food 
and impregnating it with saliva. It is 
the first step in the process of digestion, 
and unless thoroughly performed, all the 
subsequent stages of that process are ren- 
dered difficult, and are imperlectly ac- 
complished.] 

MASTICATORIES (mastico, to chew). 
Acrid sialogogues; substances which, on 
being masticated, stimulate the excre- 
tory ducts, and increase the secretion of 
saliva. 

MASTIC. A resinous substance pro- 
duced by the Pislacia lentiscus; used in 
fumigations, in making varnishes, &c. 
1. Mastic water. A remedy employed 



women, commonly a form of hysteria, or 
an attendant on lactation. 

MASTOID (fiaoTos, a breast, elio;, like- 
ness). Sliaped lil<e the breast or nipple; 
as applied to a process, and a foramen of 
the temporal bone. The slylo-mastoid 
foramen is situated between the root of 
the styloid and mastoid processes. 

Maslo'ideus. A muscle of the fore part 
of the neck, the origin and insertion of 
which are shortly described in its syno- 
nym, sterno-cleido-masto'ideus. 

[MASTURBATION {mastupralio, or 
manustiipralio, from mamts, a hand, 
stvpro, to commit adulterj'). The exci- 
tation of the genital organs by rubbing 
and titillating them with the hand; a 
horrid vice, productive of the most serious 
disturbance of the nervous system, and 
derangement of health.] 

MATER ACETI. Mother of Vine- 
gar; a mould-plant, belonging lo the 
genus mycoderma, which is developed 
in vinegar, and forms thereon a thick 
leather-like coat, similar to the inflam- 
matory crust which covers the crassa- 
mentum of blood drawn from rheumatic 
patients. 

MATERIA MEDICA. That branch 
of medical science which relates to me- 
dicines. Medicinal agents are — 

1. Natural, or those which are found 
ready-prepared by nature : these are sim- 
ple and compound substances, organic 
and inorganic; the former belonging to 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms; the 
latter to the mineral. 

2. Artiflcial, or those which have been 
modified, either by addition or subtrac- 
tion of some of their parts; these are 
called plftrmaceulical preparations, and 
belong to the department of chemistry. 

MATICO. The native name of the 
Piper angustifolium, a Peruvian plant, 
recently introduced into use as a styptic. 
See Piper. 

MATLOCK. A village in Derbyshire, 
affording a spring of saline water. 

M.\TRASS. A cucurbit or vessel of 
glass, earthenware, or metal, usually of a 
globular shape, and open at the top, for 
the purposes of digestion, evaporation, 
&c. See Alembic. 

MATRES. Mothers ; a name formerly 
given to the membranes of the brain — 



by the Albanian physicians in infantilci the dura and />ia 77ia<er, from the fanciful 
diarrhoea; it is simply water which hasiidea that they were the origins of all the 
been boiled along with mastic. other membranes of the body. 

2. Maslicin. A substance which re- MATRICARIA {matrix, the uterus), 
mains on dissolving mastic in alcohol. Medicines for disorders of the uterus. 

MASTODYNIA (^aard;, the breast, [MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA. 
uivvtj, pain). Pain of the breasts in 'German Chamomile. An European plant, 



MAT 



218 



MED 



of the natural order Composito;, the flow- 
ers of which possess mild ionic properties, 
similar to those of cliamomile.] 

MATRIX. The eanliy or stony mat- 
ter which accompanies ores, or envelopes 
them in the earth. Also a designation 
of the uterus or womb. 

MATTER (materia). The general term 
for designatmg all ponderable bodies; 
their ultimate particles are called tnole- 
cides or atoms. Material substances have 
two kinds of properties, //Aysica/ and che- 
vtical, and the study of their phenomena 
has given rise to two corresponding 
branches of knowledge, natural philoso- 
phy and chemistn/. 

MATURATION {_maturo, to ripen). 
The process succeeding to inflammation, 
by which pus is (iirmed in an abscess. 
Applications which promote suppuration 
have been called malarants. 

MATURITY {matitnts, ripe). A term 
applied to fruits and seeds which have 
reached the full period of their develope- 
ment. 

MAW-WORM. The Ascaris vermi- 
cularis. The term is derived, according 
to Dr. Harvey, Irom the occasional visit 
which this animal makes to the inaw or 
stomach, in migrating from its proper 
region, which is the recliun ;hnt, more 
probably, from the peculiar enecis which 
it often produces on the maw or siomach, 
by sympathy, and without quitting its 
home, as a gnawing pain, and faiiiiness 
from the intolerable itching it excites in 
the anus. 

MAXILLA. The jaw; the jaw-bone. 
Hence the term maxillarj/, as applied to 
nerves, arteries, &c., belonguag to the 
jaw. See Mandibulum. 

Maxillo-labialis. The name given by 
Chaussier to the triangularis labiorum. 

Maxillo-labii-nasalis. The name given 
by Dumas to the elevator labii superioris 
aiaaque nasi. 

Maxillo-palpehralis. The name given 
by Dumas to the orbicularis palpebra- 
rum. 

M.A.XIMUM (superl. ofmagnus,greaV). 
A term denoting the greatest possible 
quantity or effbcl; it is opposed to inini- 
mum, or the leaH possible ; and lo medium, 
or the mean between these extremes. 

MEAD or METHEGLIN. Hydromel 
vinosum. The ancient beverage of the 
northern nations, prepared from honey 
and water. 

MEAL. Farina. The edible part of 
wheat, oats, rye, barley, &c., ground into 
a coarse flour. 

MEASLES. A cutaneous disease ; 



the first genus of the order Exavthemala, 
of Bateman. See Rubeola. 

MEA'TUS {meo, to pass, to flow). Li- 
terally, a passage. Hence — 

1. Meatus auditorius [externus]. .\ 
canal, partly cartilaginous and partly 
osseous, whicth extends from the concha 
to the tympanum. 

[2. Meatus auditorius internus. The 
internal auditory passage; a small bony 
canal, beginning internally at the poste- 
rior surface of tlie petrous portion ol llie 
temporal bone, running towards the vesti- 
bulum and cochlea.] 

3. Meatus uriuarius. The orifice of 
the female urethra. 

MECHANICAL THEORY. A sys- 
tem of medicine, by which all diseases 
were attributed principally to lenlor and 
morbid viscidity of the blood; attenuant 
and diluent medicines, or substances for 
promoting mechanical force, were adopt- 
ed : thus, mercury was supposed to act 
by its speciiic gravity. 

[MECHANISM. The structure of a 
body or of a machine, or the mechanical 
arrangement of its parts.] 

MECHOACAN. The slightly purga- 
tive root of a Mexican plant, probably 
some species of the genus Ipomrea. 

MECONIC ACID {fif,KMv, a poppy). 
The characteristic acid of opium. 

Mechonia. An alkaline principle found 
in opium, associated with narceia. 

MECO'NIUM (unKc'jvtoi', the inspis- 
sated juice of the poppy; opium). The 
first discharge of lieces, of a blackish 
green colour, in inlants. It consists of 
the e.xcrementiiious matter of the bile of 
the fcElus, which collects together with 
intestinal mucus in the lower part of the 
canal. 

[MEDEOLA VIRGINICA. Indian cu- 
cumber. An indigenous plant, the root 
of which IS said lo be eaten by the In- 
dians. It probably possesses some diu- 
retic powers, and, according to Professor 
Barton, is thought useful in dropsies.] 

[MEDIAN. See Medius.} 

iVIEDlASri'NUM (ex medio slando). 
A middle portion separating parts from 
each other, as the septum, which divides 
the cavity of the thorax into distinct 
parts. 

MEDICA'MEN. Any mixing or mix- 
ture. Tacitus has vis medicaminis, the 
violence of a poisonous mixture. 

MEDICAMENTUM. A medicament; 
a term applied only to what heals bodily 
or mental disease, whereas remedium is 
said of any thing which contributes to 
the alleviation of pain. There are reme- 



MED 



219 



MEL 



dies against cold, but no medicament. 
Medkamenlum is the remedy liiat is 
made use of, and reinedinm the liealing 
remed}'. Medicamenta cruda are unpre- 
pared medicines or simples. 

MEDICI'NA {jinioi, care). Medicine; 
a term applied both to the art of physic, 
and to the remedy itself. 

1. Forensiic inedicine. Medical juris- 
prudence; the application of medical 
knowledge to the preservation of the 
human species and to the exercise of jus- 
tice. 

2. Veterinary medicine. The applica- 
tion of medical knowledge to the treat- 
ment of the lower animals. 

MEDITULLIUM (ex medium et tul 
Hum, productio vocis). The very middle; 
a term s3'nonymons with dipl'ue, or the 
cellular tissue of the bones of the skull. 

MEDIUS. Middle; equally distant 
from both extremities. Hence — 

1. MeJiana vena. The middle vein of 
the arm, situated between the basilic and 
cephalic veins. 

2. Median nerve. The largest nerve of 
the brachial plexus. 

3. Median line. The vertical line which 
divides the body into two equal parts. 

MEDULLA. Marrow ; a kind of fixed 
oil, occupying the cavities of bones. In 
botany, the pith of plants. 

1. Medulla oblongata. The upper en- 
larged portion oi'the spinal cord, extend- 
ing from the cerebral protuberance lo (he 
great occipital lijramen. 

2. Medulla spinalis. The spinal mar- 
row or cord, extending from the great 
occipital foramen, to the second lumbar 
vertebra. It finally separates into the 
Cauda equina, or horse's tail. 

3. Medullary. The designation of the 
■while substance of the brain, contained 
within the cortical or cineritious sub- 
stance. In botany, it is applied lo rad 
proceeding from the medulla lo the bark, 
in exogenous plants. 

MEDULLIN (medulla, pith). The 
name given by Dr. John to the porous 
pith of the sun-flower. 

MEDU'S.\. A genus of the Acalephse, 
or sea-nettles: on being touched, they 
induce redness and a tingling sensation; 
they are also supposed to occasion, in 
certain latitudes, the phosphorescent ap- 
pearance of the sea. 

MEERSCHAUM. A silicate of mag- 
nesia; a greasy, soapy substance, occur^ 
ring in Cornwall. In Turkey and in 
Germany it is made into tobacco-pipes. 
It is also called keffekiUov eaith of KafTa ; 
and icume de mer, or sea-foam. 



MEGRIM. This term is probably a 
corruption from the Greek compound 
word hemiciania, through the French 
word migraine. 

MEIBOMIAN GLANDS. Ciliari/ fol- 
licles. Small glands, first described by 
Meibomius, lying under the inner mem- 
brane of the eyelids. About twenty or 
thirty duels of these glands open upon 
the tarsus of each eyelid. 

MEL. Honey; a substance secreted 
by the nectaril(?rous glands of flov^ers, 
and collected by the working bee, which 
transports it in its crop or lioney-hag to 
the hive. See Honey. 

MEL/ENA {utXaiva voaog, morbus ni- 
ger ; the black disease; hence the name 
of the black jaundice). A term adopted 
by Sauvages from the writings of Hippo- 
crates, to denote the occurrence of dark- 
coloured, grinnous, and pitchy evacua- 
tions, generally accompanied by sangui- 
neous vomiting. The adjective is liere 
used singly, the substantive being under- 
stood. By Hoffmann the disease is called 

MELALEUCA MINOR. [M. cajuputi 
Ruraphius.] The Lesser Melaleuca, a 
Myrtaceous plant, yielding cajeput oil. 

MELAM. A substance formed by dis- 
tilling dry hydro-sulpho-cyanate of ammo- 
nia. On boiling melam with hydro-chloric 
acid, a crystalline substance is generated, 
called melamine. 

MELAMPODIUM. A name given by 
the Greeks lo the Black Hellebore, from 
Melampus, who is said to have cured the 
daughters of Proetns, king of Argos, of 
melancholv, wiih this plant. 

MELAMPYRIN. A substance ob- 
tained from the Melampyrum nemorosum. 
It appears to be somewhat analogous to 
gum and sugar. 

M E L A N yE M A (^rXai/ alfxa, black 
blood). The name given by Dr. Good- 
win to as[)hyxia, from the colour of the 
blood in that affection; he distinguishes 
the disease into melanoma, from hang- 
ing; from drowning; and from inspira- 
tion of fixed air. 

MELAjNCHOLIA (ncUiva xoM, black 
bile, or choler). Melancholy; mental 
dejection. The varieties are the gloomy, 
or attonita ; the restless, or errabunda ; 
the mischievous, or 77inZcDoZe7;s,- and the 
self-complacent, or complacens. 

MELA NIC ACID (^fAaj. ^iXavo?, 
black). The name given to a prniciple 
discovered by Dr. Marcet, in a specimen 
of.bhck urine. Dr. Prout says it is appa- 
renllv connected with lithic acid. 

MELANO'MA (jKtXai, //tXai-oj, black). 



MEL 



220 



MEM 



This term implies more than the tncla-iA tumour of the encysted kind, filled 
Jiosis of Lacnnec ; for, whereas the luiier: wiiii a subflance resembling wax, or ho- 
denotes a morbid product, siii ^c?ifr(s, I ney. in consistence, 
the former i.i employed hy Dr. Carswell; ftlKLlLOTUS. A Leguminous plant, 
to siatnilv all " black discolouraiions or said by \'ogel to owe i is odoriferous prin- 



products." which he separates into two 
groups, the true and the spurious. 

MELANO'SIS (iic\as, ixi^avo;, black). 
A morbid product of a dark brown or 
black colour, tirst described by Laennec, 
in 1806, under the forms of masses en- 
closed in cysts; masses without cysts; 
inliltration in the tissue of organs, and 



ciple to benzoic acid ; others refer it to 
coumarine, the aromatic principle of the 
Tonka bean. 

MELISSA OFFICINAIS (^tXiatra, a 
bee). The Common Balm, or Balm Mint ; 
a Labiate plant, sometimes used for mak- 
ing balm tea. 

MELLATE. A salt formed by corn- 



deposition on the surface of organs, a bination of mellitic acid with a salifiable 
liquid form of melanosis. base. 

MELANTHACE^.i TheGolchicuml [MELLITA. Preparations of honey, 
tribe of monocolyledonous plants. Herbs Oxymels.] 

with a r^(2('me, sometimes fleshy; /eawsj MELLITIC ACID (me/, honey). An 
sheathing at the base ; /Zotters hexape-acid discovered in the 7?ie//i7e or honey- 
tahudeous, tubular; stamens 6; orarni/n stone, or meliitate of alumina. 
3-celled ; seeds albuminous. MELLON. A salt-radical, consisting 

MELAS (//cXa;, black). A term ap- of carbon and nitrogen, 
plied by the ancients to a superficial! MELOE. A genus of insects. The 
afFectioii, resembling the alphas, excepi meloe vesicatoria was the former name of 
in its colour; it is synonymous with the: the cnnt/iaris. or blistering beetle. 
lepra 7iii>rica!is. or black lepra. ] [MELOPLASTIC {ficXov, the cheek, 

MELASiXLA. (/jfXof, black). The name TrXao-o-co, to form). The operation for form- 
given bv writers to the ecthyma liiTidumJi'^S a new cheek], 
orlurid'paiiulousscall. I MELTING POINT. That point of 

MEL^SSES (mel, honey). The un-!the thermometer at which a solid he- 
cr3'stallizable part of the juice of the'comes fluid. Thus ice molts at 32°, sul- 
sugar-cane, separated from the sugar phur at 2183, gold at .'J237° Fahr. 
during its manufacture — a sort of mother-! MEMBRANA. This term formerly 
water of raw sugar. That which is im-!denoted the skin of animals, dressed like 
ported into England, is principally con-j our parchment or vellum to write upon, 
verted into a coarse, soft sugar, called] In anatomy it signifies sometimes a l)ag 
fiastards. lor containing iluids, sometimes a thni 

MELASSIC ACID (fitXi, honey). An substance lining a cavity. The mem- 
acid produced by the simultaneous action branes of the body are the — 
of alkalies and heat upon grape sugar. | 1. Mucous membranes, investing the 

MELIACE/E. The Bead-tree tribe of sides of cavities which communicate 
dicotyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs with the external air; they are divided 



with leaves alternate ; flowers symmetri- 
cal; calyx imbricated; stamens hypogy- 
nous;' ovarium of several cells; seeds 
definite, apterous. 



into the mucous 7nembrancs properly so 
called, and the skin. 

2. Serous membranes, lining cavities 
which are not externally open; they are 



[Melia Azedarach. Azedarach, Ph. U.S.|divided into the splanchnic serous mem 
Pride of India. Pride of China. A plant Aranes, and the syyiovial membranes. 
of the natural order Meliacetc. The bark' 3. jFVfiroKS 7nem6ra7ie.'!, of various forms, 
is cathartic and emetic, and in large doses, constituting capsules, shealhs, aponeuro- 
is said to be narcotic. It is esteemed inlses, &c. ; by their combination with the 



two preceding kinds of membrane, they 
' constitute the fibro-serous and fibro-mn- 
ecus membranes. 

4. Membrana dentata. A process of 
the pia maler sent ofi" from either side of 
the cord, and forming a serration between 
each of the nerves. 

5. Membrane, investing. The first layer 
days and then followed by an active ca-jof cells which assumes a distinctly mem- 
thartic] Ibranous form upon the surface of the 

MELICERIS (/liXi, honey, KTjpdj, wax)., cicatricula of the ovum, hitherto called 



the Southern States as a very efficient 
anthelmintic. It is given in tlie form of 
decoction, made by boiling four ounces 
of the fresh bark in a quart of water, 
down to a pint. The dose for a child is 
a tablespnonful every two or three hours 
until it affects the stomach — or it may be 
given morning and evening for several 



MEM 



221 



M E N 



the serous layer of the germinal mem- membrane which forms part of ilie rho- 



brane 

6. Membrane, false. This is ihe result 
of inflammation, and is formed by ihe 
coagulation of the fibrinous fluid or 
lymph poured out on membranes which 
have a free surface. 

7. Me mbr ana media. The name given 
by the earlier writers to that part of the 
ailantois which lies in contact with the 
amnion, and which contains but few 
vessels ; it is the ertdochorion of Dutro- 
chet. 

8. Membrana capsulo-.pup'dlarin. A 
vascular membrane extending backwards 
from the pupillar margin of the iris in 
the fcBtus of the mammalia and of man, 
and connecting the margin of the capsule 
of the lens with the margin of the iris. 

9. Membrarm vilellina. The vitelline 
membrane, lying within the ovicapsule, 
and surrounding the yolk of the ovum. 

JO. Membrana: rennientes. A term re- 
cently applied by Ralhke to certain parts 
of the embryo of all the vertebrate classes. 
To the very thin membranous part of liie 
abdominal walls in the embryo, he gives 
the name of membrana reuniens inferior, 
and 10 the corresponding part in the dor- 
sal region the name oi membrana reuviens 
superior ; while he reserves the terms 
lamina: abdominales and lamina; dorsale.^ 
for the thicker parts of the abdominal 
and dorsal regions of the embr3'0, which, 
adv.Tncing from each side, at length meet 
above and below in the middle line. 
When these thicker laminae have thus 
united and enclosed the cavities to which 
they belong, Ihe membrance reunienles 
have lost their office. 

11. Membrana germinativa. The ger- 
minal membrane, the earliest develope- 
mem of the germ in fishes and the am- 
phibia, in the ibrm of a thin stratum of 
yolk of definite extent; it gradually ex- 
tends itself over the whole surface of the 
yolk, so as to assume the form of a vesicle 
including the mass of yolk. 

12. Membrana dccidua. The docidii- 
ous membrane, which is developed upon 
the inner surface of the uterus, before 
the ovum reaches that organ. It con- 
sists of a whitish, gray, moist, and soft 
mass, similar to coagulated filjrin, and 
entirely formed of nucleated cells. — See 
Decidiia. 

13. Membrana corticaJis. The e.t ternal 
transparent coat of the ovum of mamma- 
lia, before the formation of the embryo, 
as observed by Von Baer. 

14. Membrana versicolor. The name 
of a brilliant and variouslv coloured 

14 



roid in many animals. Mr. Dalrymplr- 
denies that any such membrane exisls in 
the human eye. 

15. Membrana intermedia. A term ap- 
plied to the niemiiraiie which, in the 
ovum of the bird, lies between the rudi- 
mentary nervous cenircs ami Ihe mucous 
layer of the germinal membrane. 

16. Mc/nbrana semilunaris. The name 
given to the conjunctiva at that part of 
its Course where it is posterior lo the 
caruncula, and a little external to it. 
This membrana semilunaris has been 
supposed to be the rudiment of the mem- 
brana nictitans, or the third eyelid oi'the 
lower animals. 

17. Membrana Jacobi. The oxiernal 
membrane or layer of tiie retina. 

18. Membrana sacciformis. A syno- 
vial membrane; which forms a duplica- 
ture between the radius and the u!na. 

19. Membrana pigmenii. The internal 
Liyer of the choroid membrane, which 
retains the pigmcntum nigrum in its 
place. ' 

20. Membrana niclitans {nicto, lo winkj. 
A membrane with which birds and rep- 
tiles can occasionally cover their eyes. 
This term has been erroneously applied 
lo a loose crescenliform fold of the con- 
junctiva at Ihe irmer angle of the eye, 
which has neither the office nor the 
muscular apparatus of Ihe nictitaline 
memhrdVie. 

21. Membrana piipillaris (pnpilla, the 
pupil of the eye). A membrane extended 
across the pupil ol' the fcetus. It disap- 
pears at about the seventh month. 

22. Membrana lyinpani. A membrane 
extended over the circular opening at 
the bottom of the meatus audiiorins. 

23. Membrana piluilaria, or Schneide- 
rian. The membrane which lines ihe 
cavities of the nose. 

MEMBRANACEOUS (jnembrana, a 
membrane). Resembling membrane. This 
term must be distinguished from mem- 
branous, which denotes that the sub- 
siance consists of membrane. 

[MEMBRANES. By the term "the 
membranes" is understood, in obstetrical 
wriiings, ihe three membranes which 
envelope the frrtns, viz. the decidua, the 
chorion, and the amnion.] 

MEMBRUM (,,r,>,„, to divide). A 
member or limb; an externa! part of the 
body, distinguished from all the rest bj' 
some particular use, as mcmbrum virile. 
the penis, &.c. It is not said of the 
head. 

MENACHANITE. A subMatxe found 



MEN 



222 



MER 



in Cornwall, in which Mr. Gregor disco- 
vered tiianium. Il consists of the oxide 
of lilaninm, iron, and manganese. 

MEiNDO'SUS {mendax, false). Spu- 
rious, or false : hence mendosce costtr, ihe 
false ribs; mendosa siitura, the bastard 
or squamous suture of the cranium. 

MENIiXGES (pi. of unviy^, a mem- 
brane). The name of the membranes of 
the brain — the dura and pia mater. 

1. Meningilis. Inflammation of the 
membranes of the brain and spinal mar- 
row. See Enccphalil'ts, and Myelitis. 

2. Meningosis. An articulation in 
which membrane is employed. 

3. Meningo-pltylax ((l>v\aaaio, to protect). 
An instrument Ibrmerly used for protect- 
ing the dura mater and brain from injury, 
during the operation of trepanning. 

MENISCUS i^nvr], the moon). A lens 
which is concave on one side and conv 
on iho other, iis section resembling the 
appearance of the new moon. Also, 
term applied by authors to interarticular 
cartilage. 

MEXISPERMACE^. TheCocculus 
tribe of Dicoiyledonous plants. Leaves 
alternate; Jlov:ers polypelalous; unisex 
ual; slnmens hypogynous,_/n/t7, a 1-seed 
ed drupe. 

Menispermrim palmalum. The Kalumb 
or Calumba plant, now called Cocculus 
palmalus. It yields the Colomba root of 
the shops, and its seeds contain meni- 
spermic acid. • 

Menispermia ; paramcnispermia. Two 
crystalline substances fliund in the seed- 
coat of the Cocculu.i Indiciis. 

MENORRHAGIA (/^fji-, itr,v6;, a month, 
pfiyvv^a, to break forth). A morbidly pro- 
fuse discharge of the catamenia, com- 
monly cMed flooding, or uterine haemor- 
rhage. 

MENOSTATION dtiiv, itrivdg, mensis, 
a month, 'icrrtjii,' to stand). A suppres- 
sion or retention of the eatamenial dis- 
charge. 

MENSES (meusis, a month). The 
months; the monthly discharge or pe- 
riod ; the catamenia, courses, or flow- 

MENSTRUATION {menstrua, pi. 
neut. of menslruHS, used absolutely). The 
periodical oischurge from the female gene 
rative organs of a bloody fluid poured out 
hy the inner surface of the uterus. The 
menstrual periods occur usually at inter- 
vals of a lunar monlh, their duration being 
from three to six days. 

MENSTRUUM. A term synonymous 
with solvent. A liquid which does not 
change the nature of the substance to be 



dissolved. Thus pure water is employed 
10 dissolve gum, aZco/joZ to dissolve resins, 
and acids to dissolve the bases of colchi- 
cum and squill. 

MENSURATION (mensura, a mea- 
sure). The process of ascertaining the 
comparative size of the two sides of the 
chest. It consists simply in measuring 
the superficial e.^itent of the chest with a 
piece of tape stretched over it from cer- 
tain fixed points. 

MENTAGRA {mentum, the chin, aypa, 
seizure). The sycosis menti ; an eruption 
about the chin. See Sycosis. 

MENTHA. A genus of Labiate plants. 
According to Sirabo, Ulinthe was a chere 
amie of Pluto, and was metamorphosed 
by Proserpine into a plant, which bore 
her name. 

1. Mentha viridis is the spear-mint or 
green mint; mentha piperita, peppermint, 
from which the cordial of this name is 
prepared ; and mentha pidegiurn, penny- 
royal, which enters into the composition 
of the pennyroyal, or hysteric water of the 
shops. 

2. Menthene. A liquid hydrocarbon 
obtained from the stearopten contained 
in oil of peppermint. 

3. RotulcB mentha piperitcB. Pepper- 
mint drops; peppermint lozenges; pre- 
pared from sugar and oil of peppermint. 

MENTUM. The chin; the projecting 
surface of which is termed the mental 



process. 

iMENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA. 
Buckbean: an indigenous plant growing 
in marshes, and yielding a peculiar sub- 
stance called meiiyanlhin. 

MEPHI'TIS (tlie name of the goddess 
of foul smells). An impure or poisonous 
exhalation. 

1. Mephitic acid. The name given by 
Mr. Bewley to carbonic acid, from its 
occasioning death on being respired. 

2. Mephitic air. Nitrogen gas; [also 
carbonic acid and other irrespirable gases.] 

AIERA'CUS {merus, unmixed). With- 
out mixture. Celsus has meracas po- 
^io/ie.*;, draughts of pure wine; and Pliny, 
vinvm meraculum, wine pretty pure. 

MERCAPTAN. A liquid of an ethe- 
real character, named from its energetic 
action on peroxide of mercury — quasi 
mrrcnrium caplans. It is alcohol of 
which the oxvgen is replaced by sulphur. 

MERCURIAL ERETHISM. An af- 
feciion arising from the use of mercury, 
and characterized by irregular action of 
the heart, frequent sighing, trembling, 
&c. 

MERCURIAL RASH. A variety of 



MER 



223 



MER 



the Eczema rubrum, arising from the 
irritation of mercury ; lience, it has been 
called eczema mercuriale ; erytliema 
mercuriale; hydrargyria; and mercurial 
lepra. 

MERCURY. A metal differing from 
all others in being always fluid, unless 
subjected to a temperature of — 39°, when 
it becomes solid. Some of its names 
suggest its silvery appearance and liquid 
form, as hydrargyrum, or silver-water; 
others, its mobility and liquidity, as well 
as its resemblance to silver, as argenlum 
vivum. aqua argentea, aqua melallorum, 
and quicksilver. Its volatility has also 
gained for it the name of that locomotive 
personage, the messenger of the gods. 
Ores of ]\lercury. 

1. Native or Virgin Mercury. The 
pure metal, found in the form of glo- 
bules, in cavities of the other ores of this 
metal. 

2. Native Amalgam. An ore consisting 
of mercury combined with silver. 

3. Native Cinnabar. Native vermilion, 
or the bisulphuret of mercury; the ore 
which yields the mercury of commerce. 

4. Corneous Mercury. Mercurial horn 
ore, or the proto-chloride of mercury. 

Pharmaceutical Preparations. 

5. Mercury and chalk. Hydrargyrum 
cum creta; a compound of three parts 
of mercury and five of chalk, also called 
mercurius alkalisatus, or eethiops ab- 
sorbens. [A mild laxative and altera- 
tive.] 

6. Mercurial Pills. PilulsB hydrargyri, 
or blue pill; a mass consisling of mer- 
cury rubbed with confection of red roses 
until the globules can no longer be seen, 
and then blended with liquorice powder. 
Three grains contain one grain of mer- 
cury. 

7. Mercurial Ointment. Unguentum 
hydrargyri, formerly termed Blue or 
JNeapolitan Ointment; consisling of mer- 
cury rubbed with suet and lard until the 
globules can no longer be seen. 

8. Gray or black oxide. Hydrargyri 
oxidum, sometimes called the protoxide, 
and sub-oxide ; used externally, and for 
making black wash. 

9. Red oxide. Hydrargyri binoxidum, 
formerly called red precipitate per se, 
calcined mercury, and by Geber, coagu- 
lated mercury. 

10. Red precipitate. [Hydrargyri ox- 
idum rubrum, Ph. U. S.] Hydrargyri 
nitrico-oxydum, commonly called red 
precipilaied mercury ; used externally. 

11. Caloinel. Hydrargyri chloridum 
[mile, Ph. U. S.], formerly called the sub- 



muriate, or mild muriate, of mercury, 
[and sweet precipitate]. 

12. Corrosive sublimate. Hydrargyri 
bichloridum, [hydrargyri chloridum cor- 
rosivum, Ph. U. S.,] formerly called o.xy- 
muriate, or corrosive muriate of mercury. 

13. White precipitate. Hydrargyri am- 
monio-chloridum, [Hydrargyri aramonia- 
tum. Ph. U. S.] someiimes called Le- 
mery's white precipitate, and cosmetic 
mercury. 

[Iodide of Mercury. Hydrargyri io- 
didum. Given in scrofula and syphilis. 
The dose is a grain daily, gradually in- 
creased to three or four.] 

14. Red iodide. Hydrargyri biniodi- 
dum, [Hydrargyri iodidum rubrum, Ph. U. 
S. ;] also called the deutiodide or per- 
iodide of mercury. [Used in scrofula 
and syphilis. The dose is the sixteenth 
of a grain, in pill, gradually increased to j 
a fourth of a grain.] 

15. Red sulphur el. Hydrargyri sul- 
phuretum, rubrum, cinnabar, or, former- 
ly, minium ; reduced to powder, it is 
vermilion. 

16. jEt^iiops mineral. The common 
name of the hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum. 

17. Prussian mercury. Hydrargyri 
bicyanidum, [Hydrargyri cyanuretum. Ph. 
U. S.] also called prussiate, hydrocyanate, 
and cyanuret of mercury. [Occasionally 
used as an antisyphiliiic remedy; the 
dose is from a sixteenth to an eighth of 
a grain.] 

18. Citrine Ointment . Unguentum hy- 
drargyri nitratis, also called yellow oint- 
ment, and mercurial balsam. 

19. Turpeth mineral. Hydrargyri sul- 
phas flavus, a compound which resem- 
bles in colour the tool of the Ipomoea 
tnrpethum. [An alterative and powerful 
emetic and errhine. The dose, as an 
alierativo, is from a quarter to half a 
grain; as an emetic, from two to five 
grains.] 

20. Hahnemann's soluble mercury. A 
velvety black precipitate, formed by add- 
ing very dilute ammonia to the soluble 
niirates of mercury, without neutralizing 
the whole acid. 

[21. Acetate of Mercury. Hydrargyri 
acetas. Used as an antisyphiliiic, in ihe 
dose of one grain, in pill, twice a day; 
and also in solution, as an external appli- 
cation to cutaneous eruptions.] 

iM ERICA RP (ni-pos, a part, Kap-df, fruit). 
The botanical designation of a half of the 
fruit of Umbelliferous plants. What are 
called carraway seeds are, in fact, fruits, 
each consisting of two achenia, or meri- 



MER 



224 



MET 



carps, placed face to face, and separating 
from a central axis. The two together 
are called cremorarp {Kpejxacj, to suspend), 
I'rom their being suspended from the 
common central axis. 

ME ROC ELK (urifidi, the thigh, xijX^. a 
tumour). Femor.ll or crural hernia. 

MERORGaNIZATION (/<.>,-, a part). 
Organization in part; a modification of 
the general principles of organization. — 
Prout. 

MERUS. Mere, pure; unmixed, as 
meriim vinum, neat wine, &c. Hence, 
when mernm is said of wine, vinum is 
understood, — "curare genium mero;" 
hence also " merobibus," one who drinks 
wine without water. 

[MESEMBRYANTHEMUM CRYS- 
TALLINUM. Ice plant. A native of 
the south of Europe; the expressed juice 
of it is considered demulcent and diu- 
retic, and has been given in diseases 
of the mucous membranes of the pulmo- 
nary and urinary organs, and in drop- 
sy.] 

MESITE. A liquid existing in pyro- 
.vylic spirit, and produced in the distilla- 
tion of wood. Mesiten is a similar pro- 
duct of the same process. 

MESITYLENE. A light oily liquid, 
produced by distilling pyro-acelic spirit 
(acetone) with fuming sulphuric acid. 

MESMERISM. Animal magnetism, 
a system introduced by Mesmer. 

MESOS (ucffoj). Medius. The Greek 
term for middle, or mediate, or that which 
is situated heiween others. • 

1. Mes-araic ■ {apaia, the small intes- 
tines). A term synonymous with mesen- 
teric. 

2. Mes-entery {Ivrcpa, the bowels). 
The membrane which connects the small 
intestines and the posterior wall of the 
abdomen. 

3. Mes-enteritis. Inflammation of the 
mesentery. 

4. Meso-carp (Kap-ad^, fruit). The in- 
termediate part of the pericarp of fruits ; 
when fleshy, it is called sarcocarp. 

5. Meso-cephnlon {Ke<pa\ri, the head). 
The name given by Chaussier to the pons 
Varolii. 

6. Mcso-ccEcum. That part of the peri- 
tonseum which embraces the cwcum and 
its appendix. 

7. Meso-colon {KOiXov, the colon). That 
part of the mesentery which connects 
the transverse colon and the posterior 
wall of the abdomen. 

8. Meso-gastrium (ya(rri)o, the stomach). 
A kind of suspensory band of the sto- 
mach, observed in the earliest stage of] 



embryonic life, which at a later period 
is converted' into a sac, the great omen- 
tum. 

9. Meso-lohe. Chaussier's designation 
of the corpus callosum, or the maxima 
commissura cerebri of Soemmering. 

10. Meso-phlceum {<p\oids, bark). That 
portion of the bark of plants which lies 
between the epiphloeum and the endo- 
phlffiura or liber. 

11. Meso-phyllum [ipiWov, a leaf). The 
cellular substance of the leaves of plants ; 
also called diachyma and diploe. 

12. Meso-reclum. That part of the 
peritoncEum which connects the rectum 
with the front of the sacrum. 

13. Mefo-sperm {oTrepfia, seed). The 
middle one of the three membranes by 
which seeds are sometimes enveloped. 

14. JSleso -thorax (Owpa^, the chest). 
That part of the chest in insects which 
gives origin to the second pair of legs, &c. 

M E T A iperd, prep.). After ; with ; 
in composition this preposition denotes 
change, transference, &c. 

1. Met-acetone. A combustible liquid, 
obtained, mixed with acetone, in distil- 
ling sugar with quicklime. 

2. Met-aldehyde. A product of the 
condensation of the elements of. alde- 
hyde. 

3. Mela-carpus (Kap-rrd;, the wrist). That 
part of the' hand which is situated be- 
tween the carpus and the fingers. 

4. Meta-meric {ptpo;, a part). A term 
applied to compounds in which the ulti- 
mate elements are the same as in other 
well-known combinations, but are con- 
sidered to be arranged in a different way : 
thus, oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur, and a 
metal, may be considered as combined in 
the form of sulphuretted hydrogen and a 
metallic oxide, or of water (consisting of 
o.Kygenand hydrogen) and a metallic sul- 
phuret. See Isomeric and Polymeric. 

5. Mela-murphopsia (^sra/zd/jc^coo-is-, a 
change of form, oipi?, vision). A species 
of amaurosis, in which objects appear 
confused or distorted. 

6. Meta-morphosis (pop-pn, form). Lite- 
rally, a change of form. A term applied 
by Liebig to those chemical actions in 
which a given compound is caused, by 
the presence of a peculiar substance, to 
resolve itself into two or more compounds; 
as sugar, by the presence of yeast, into 
alcohol and carbonic acid. 

7. 3Ie!a-slasis (pcdtarripi, to transfer). 
Literally, a removal from one place to 
another. Generally, the supervention of 
an affection ol' a new organ, on the sub- 
sidence of a similar disorder of a limb 



MET 



225 



MET 



or organ primarily affected ; as the ces-il8. Molybdenum, Hielm 1782, 



sation of rheumatism, foUo^pd by peri 
carditis, &c. 

8. Meta-larsus{rapcdg, the tarsus). Thai 
part oi'the foot which is siluated between 
the tarsus and the toes. 

9. Mela-thorax {dwpa^, the chest). The 
third and last segment of the thorax, in 
insects. 

MET.\LS (^icraWa). A class of com- 
pact, heavv.opnqne bodies, distinsiuished, 
in different degrees, by the folio wing gene- 
ral properties : — 

1. Malleabilit)/, by which they admit 
of being hammered out into thin plates 



19. Uranium 

20. Titanium . 

21. Chromium . 

22. Columbium 

23. Palladium, 

24. Rhodium, 

25. Iridium . . . 

26. Osmium . . . 



. Klaproth . . 
. Gregor . . . 
. Vauquelin . 
. Ilatchett . . 



1789. 
1791. 
1797. 
1802. 



Wollaston . . 1803. 



Descotils,&c. 1803. 
S. Tennant, 1803. 

27. Cerium Berzelius,&c. 1804. 

28. Potassium ^ 

29. Sodium . . | 

30. Barium . . J>Davy 1807. 

31. Strontium 

32. Calcium , 



'1' 



or leaves. Gold is the most malleable of' 33. Cadmium . . . Stromeyer . . 1818. 



all the metals. When a metal admits of 
being extended by the rolling-press, it is 
called laminable. 35. Silicium 

2. DucliJity, by which they admit of 37. Zirconium, 
being drawn out into wire. All the mal- 38. Aluminium, 
leable metals possess this property. 39. Glucinium, 

3. Fusibility, or the capacity of being 40. Yttrium 
melted by heat. The point of fusion 41. Thorium 
varies considerably in the different me- 
tals, though they are all solid, except 
mercury, at common temperatures. 

4. Tenacity, by w"hich they are capable 
of supporting considerable weight with- 
out breaking. 

5. Elasticity and hardness; properties'?'"^ 
which adapt them for exciting sound. ' 

6. Crystalline textnre ; thus, iron is 
fibrous; zinc, lamellaied, steel, granu- 
lar; others are procured in crystals, as 
gold, silver, .&c. ; when they crystallize, 
they always assume the figure of a cube, 
the regular octohedron, or some form 
allied to it. 

I. Table of the Metals. 
The Metals are here arranged accord- 
ing to the order in which ihey have been 
discovered, with the names of the per- 
sons who discovered, or first described 
them. 



34. Lithium .... Arfwedson . 1818. 

35. Selenium . . . Berzelius,&c. 1818. 



Berzelius . . 1824. 



■ Wohler 1828. 



1. Gold . . . 

2. Silver . . 

3. Iron . . . 

4. Copper . 

5. Mercury 

6. Lead . . . 

7. Tin .... 
Antimony 



Known to the ancients. 
Gold and silver are term- 
ed noble metals; ihe for- 
mer of these was con- 
sidered as the metallic 
element ; the rest were 
called base metals. 
, . B.Valentine, ]5ih cent. 



Brandt 



1733. 



9. Zinc Agricola . . . 1520. 

10. Bismuth .... Paracelsus. . IGthcent. 

11. Arsenic. 

12. Cobalt . 

13. Platinum . . '. Wood 1741. 

14. ISickel Cronsiedt . . 1751. 

15. Maneaneso . Scheele, &-c. 1774. 

16. Tungsten . . . DT.lhiiyart, 1781. 

17. Tellurium . . Miiller 1782. 



Berzelius. . . 1829. 
42. Magnesium . Bussy, &c. . . 1829. 
II. Classes of the Metals. 

1. Melallic bases of the alkalies, viz. 
potassium, sodium, and lithium. These 
powerfully attract cxygen ; the oxides 
are termed alkalies: and the metallic 

ses, alkaline or alkaligenous metals. 

2. Melallic bases of the alkaline earths, 
viz. barium, strontium, calcium, and 
magnesium. These also powerfully at- 
tract oxygen, and their oxides are termed 
alkaline earths. 

3. Metallic bases of ihe Earths, viz. 
aluminium, zirconium, glucinium, sili- 
cium, yttrium, and thorium. The oxides 
of these meials are the pure earths. 

4. Mefals yiMing oxides, which are 
neutral salifiable bases, viz. gold, silver, 
mercury, copper, lead, iron, tin, platinum, 
palladium, nickel, cadmium, zinc, bis- 
muth, antimony, cobalt, and manga- 
nese. 

5. Melals ivhcch are acidifiable, by 
combination with o.xygen, viz. tellurium, 
arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, tung- 
sten, columbium, and selenium. Of the 
oxides of the rest, little is known. 

6. Metals magnetic, viz. iron, nickel, 
,Tnd cobalt; chromium has also been af- 
firmed to be magnetic. 

HI. Terms connected with Metals. 
1. Metals are termed native, when 
found in an uncoiubiiipd form; viineral- 
ized, when combined with other bodies; 
compounds of two or more metals, ex- 
cept mercury, are called alloys, and pos- 
sess the characteristic properties of pure 



MET 



226 



MIC 



metals ; those ofraercury with other me 
tals are called amalgams, 

2. The termination in nret denotes 
combinations of ihe simple non-melallic 
elements, either with one another, with 
a metal, or with a metallic oxide; thus 
si;Jph-ure< and carh-urel of iron signify 
compounds of sulphur and carbon with 
iron. 

3. The result of the oxidallon of metals, 
when heated in the air, was formerly 
called a calx, and the process of forming 
n, calcination ; when mixed with nitrate 
or chlorate of potash, and projected into 
a red-hot crucible, they are said to be 
deflagrated ; when the oxides are re- 
duced to the metallic state, they are said 
to suffer reduction. Wetals are the best 
reflectors of caloric, and the worst radia- 
tors. 

METALLOGRAPHY {jitraXSov, a me- 
tal, ypaipw, to describe). That branch of 
science which treats of metals. 

METALLOID (|(craXXoi/,a metal, clSoi, 
likeness). A term applied, at first, to the 
metals obtained from the fixed alkalies 
and some of the earths. They arc now 
called metallic. 

METALLURGY (ixtTa\\oi>, a metal, 
'ipyov, work). The separation of metals 
from their ores. It comprises the several 
operations of assaying, refining, smelt- 
ing, &c. 

METEORISM {utrkwpoq, a meteor). 
Distention of the abdomen by gas. 

METEOROLITES (pe-icpos. floating 
in the air, Xi'fioj, a stone). Meteoric 
stones; aerolites; solid compounds of 
earthy and metallic matters, descending 
from the atmosphere; such was the an- 
die, or shield of Mars, which fell in the 
reign of Numa; the arx julia of 1561; 
&c. They all contain iron alloyed with 
nickel. 

METEOROLOGY (pcreupa, meteors; 
from peril, and uii:>pko, to suspend ; \oyog, 
a description). The dffctrine of meteors, 
or the study of the variable phenomena 
of the atmosphere. 

METHODE NUME'RIQUE. A me- 
thod of pursuing the study of physic, in- 
vented by M. Louis. It consists — 

1. In the collection, wilh every pre- 
caution to secure accuracy, and to avoid 
omissions, of individual Cases; and — 

2. In the analysis and, collation of these 
cases, so as to deduce general Laivs and 
conclusions. 

METHODIC SECT. A class of prac- 
titioners founded by the Roman physi- 
cian Themison, a disciple of Asclepiades, 
who attributed all diseases to over-bracing. 



or relaxation,: hence, all medicines were 
classed as relaxi?ig and bracing reme- 
dies. 

METHYL. The newly-discovered ra- 
dical, or basyle, of woo<l spirit. 

\. Methyltc ether. Oxide of methyl; a 
colourless gas. 

2. MettiyhiL A compoimd of hydrate 
of oxide of formyl wilh oxide of methyl. 

3. Methol. A liquid produced in the 
distillation of wood. 

METOPOSCOPY iptroiTTOv, the fore- 
head, oKo-coi, to examine). The art of 
divining by inspection of the forehead; 
practised among the Romans, and in the 
middle aeres. 

METRE. The French standard mea- 
sure of length, equivalent to 39-371, or 
very nearly 39f English inches. The 
French measures ascend and descend in 
a decimal progression. See Qnaiitity. 

METRITIS ipnrpa, the uterus). In- 
flammation of the uterus. 

METRORRHAGIA [pfirpa, the uterus, 
pfiyvvpi, to burst forth). Uterine haemor- 
rhage. 

METROSCOPE (pfi-pa. the uterus, 
uKOTCo), to observe). An instrument de- 
signed by M. Nauche, for examining the 
OS uteri. 

MEZEREON. A species of Daphne, 
which yields the mezereon hark. As a 
local irritant, this bark is used in France, 
under the name of garou, to produce 
vesication. 

MIASMA (piarrpa, from ptaivo), to pol- 
lute). Originally, pollution or contagion ; 
but, with the addition of the term marsh, 
it denotes certain effluvia, or emanations, 
from marshy grounds. 

MIC.\. A mineral of various colours, 
but usually gray. It occurs in the form 
of very thin plates, which are employed 
in Russia for window-panes, and are 
then called Muscovy glass. 

MICROCOSMIC SALT (p,Kpdg, little, 
K6(Xfioi, order). A triple salt, obtained 
by mixing equal parts of the phosphates 
of soda and of ammonia, in solution, and 
then crystallizing. It is much employed 
as a flux, in experiments wilh the blow- 
pipe. 

MICROGLOSSIA (//u-pof, small, yXwir- 
ca, the tongue). Congenital smallnessof 
the tongue; one of the causes of dyspha- 
gia. It is owing, according to .Andral, to 
an arrest of developement, and the con- 
sequent existence of the hyoid portion 
only of the tongue. 

MiCROPYLE (ptKpdi, small, TriXr,, a 
gate). In botany, the foramen of the 
ipe seed, comprising the exostome and 



MIC 



227 



MIN 



the endostome of the ovule, which lead to 
the internal portion of the ovule, or the 
nucleus. 

[MICTURITION {mictiirio, to make 
water). The act of voiding the urine.] 

MIDRIB. The principal vein of a 
leaf, running from the base to the apex. 

MIDRIFF. Diaphragma. The muscle 
which divides the body into the thorax 
and the abdomen. 

MIDWIFERY. The art of aiding and 
facilitating child-birth. 

MILDEW MORTIFICATION. Can- 
grtena ustilaginea; a disease supposed lo 
arise from the use of grain vitiated by the 
growth of parasitic plants in the interior 
of the culm, or straw, chiefly the " usti 
lago," hlighl or mildew. 

MILIARIA {milium, a millet seed) 
Miliary fever— /eirw being understood; 
minute transparent vesicles, of the size 
of millet seeds, filled with a colourless 
acrid fluid, and terminating in scurf; the 
fifth genus of the order ]'f:sicul(E of Bate- 
man. Miliary fever has been designated 
by the terms — 

1. Miliaria rubra, or red; when the 
vesicles, on their first rising, being filled 
with transparent lymph, exhibit the red 
colour of the inflamed surlace beneath. 

2. Miliaria attn, or white; when, the 
lymph having acquired in thiriy hours a 
milky opacity, the vesicles assume a 
while or pearly appearance. 

MILIUM (a millet seed). A small 
white tumour, of the size of a millet seed, 
or larger, on the margin of the eyelids 
containing a substance like boiled rice. 

MILK. Lac. A fluid secreted by the 
females of the mammalia, for the nou- 
rishment of their offspring. It separates, 
on stariding, into a thick whitish fluid, 
called cream, and what is termed skim- 
med milk; and by the addition of rennet, 
acids, or wine, into a solid coagulum 
called curd, and a limpid fluid termed 
whey: the curd is considered to be ca- 
seous mailer, or the basis of cheese in a 
state of purity. 

MILK ABSCESS. Tumour seated in 
the breast, proceeding from a redundancy 
of milk, when first secreted after child- 
birth. 

MILK FEVER. Fehris lactea. An 
aggravated f()rm of the excitement which 
takes place at the onset of lactation. It 
is commonly said in such cases, that the 
milk flies to the head. 

MILK SICKNESS. A disease ende- 
mic in the western states of Alabama 
Indiana, and Kentucky. It aflects both 
man and beast. It is commonly attri- 



buted, in cattle, to something eaten or 
drunken by lliem; and in man, to the 
eating of the flesh of animals which have 
been affected with this disease. From 
the rigours which occur in asiimals, the 
disease has been called trembles. 

MILK TEETH. The first set in 
children, which are shed m childhood. 

MILLEPEDES (mille, a thousand, pes, 
pedis, a fool). Blaters, or Wood-lice. 
These insects, killed by the vapour of 
spirit of wine, formerly obtained a place 
in the pharmacopoeias, and were employ- 
ed in humoral asthma and dropsy. 

MIMOSA SENSITIVA. The Sensi- 
tive plant, which exhibits the phenomena 
of irritability, residing in an intumes- 
cence situated at the articulation of the 
leaf-stalks. In the natural state during 
the day the stalk is elevated, the leaves 
expanded, and the intumescence elon- 
gated, but equally convex superiorly and 
inferiorly. But at night, or when irri- 
tated, the stalk is depressed, the leaves 
applied to each other in pairs, and the 
intumescence curved so as to be convex 
superiorly, concave inferiorly. 

MINDERERUS' SPIRIT. The liquur 
ammonia acelalis, or liquid acetate of 
ammonia. 

MINERAL CAOUTCHOUC. A va- 
riety of bitumen resembling caoutchotic 
in elasticity and softness, and in remov- 
ing pencil-marks. 

MINERAL CHARCOAL. A fibrous 
variety of non-bituminous mineral coal. 

MINERAL GREEN. A hydrated 
subcarbonale of copper, used as a pig- 
ment. 

MINERAL SOLUTION. Li(/>ior ar- 
seyiicalis. Fowler's solution, or the Li- 
quor potassaj arsenitis. 

MINERAL WATERS. Waters im- 
pregnated with mineral substances. See 
A</ii(p. minerales. 

MINERAL YELLOW. Paleid Yel- 
low. A pigment consisting of chloride 
and protoxide of lead. 

MINERALIZATION. The process 
of converting a substance into a mineral. 
A metal combined with oxygen, sulphur, 
&c., loses its metallic properties, and 
becomes mineralized ; the latter bodies 
are then termed mineralizers. 

MINERALOGY. The science which 
treats of inorganic subslanccs. These 
are generally solids, extracted from the 
earth by mining, and hence called mi?te- 
rals. The term fossil is now commonly 
applied to organic substances, penetrated 
with earthy or metallic matters. 
MINIA BATTA OIL. A solid oil. 



MIN 



228 



MOL 



said to be extracted by the natives of 
Borneo from a tree of that country. The 
term minia batta means slone oil. 

MINIMUM. A minim; iKe sixtieth 
pari of a fluidrachm. Also, the least pari 
of any thing, as opposed to the maximum, 
or greatest part. 

MINIUM. Red had, or vermilion ; an 
oxide of lead, of an intensely red colour, 
employed as a pigraenH 

Minii Gleba. The red earth from 
which vermilion is procured. — Cdsas. 

MISCARRIAGK. The expulsion of 
the foetus from the uterus, vvilhin six 
weeks after conception, is usually called 
miscarriage; if it occur between six 
weeks and six months, it is called abor- 
tion ; and, if during any part of the last 
three months before the completion of 
the natural term, premature labour. 

MISCEE. The name of an Indian 
dentifrice, which produces indeed a black 
jet upon the teelh, but leaves the enamel 
untouched, while it destroys the tartar 
and hardens the gums. Its ingredients 
are not known. 

MISERERE MEI. Literally, Pity 
me; a name given to the iliac passion, or 
ileus, from the pain it creates. 

MISTU'RA {misceo, to mix). A mix- 
ture; an extemporaneous preparation, in 
which different ingredienis are mingled 
together in llie liquid form, or in which 
solid substances are dili'used through 
liquid, by the medium of mucilage or 
syrup. 

[1. Mistura Ammoniaci. Ammoniac, 
3ij. ; water, 0?s.; mix thoroughly. 

[2. Misttira Ami/^dulce. Almond emul- 
sion. Sweet almonds (blanched), gss. ; 
gum Arabic, in powder, 3*^-' wliite 
sugar, 3ij.; rub well together in a mar- 
ble mortar, and then add ilislillcd water, 
fgviij., and strain. 

[3. Misliira Aasofalida. Assafoelida 
mixture. Mdk of Assafcetida. Assafos- 
lida, 3ij.; water. Oss. 

[4. Misttira CrtuMti. Crensote mixture. 
Creasote and acetic acid, ol'each, IT] xvj. ; 
compound spirit of juniper and syrup, of 
each, f 3,).; water, f^^xiv. Dose f ^^jj. 

[5. jMisfura Creta:. Chalk mixture. 
Prepared chalk, "^ss.; white sugar, pow- 
dered gum Arabic, of each, i^'ij.; cinna- 
mon water, water, of each, l^iv.; mix 
thoroughly. Laudanum is frequently and 
kino is sometimes added. 

[6. Mistiiru Jerri c<impn.'<i/a. Compound 
mixture of iron. Myrrh, 3j. ; carbonate 
of potassa, gr. xxy.; rose water, f3viiss. ; 

sulphate of iron in powder, 9J; spirit ofi between the masseter and biicciualor 
lavender, fgss. ; white sugar, 3J' Kub m.uscles, having the orifice of their e.x- 



the myrrh with the rose water gradually 
added ; then mix with these the spirit of 
lavender, sugar, and carbonate of potassa, 
and lastly, the sulphate of iron. Pour the 
mixture immediately into a glass bottle, 
which is to be well slopped. Ph. U. S. 
This is nearly the same as the aniiheclic 
myrrh mixture of Dr. Griffith. It is given 
in the hectic fever of phthisis, in chloro- 
sis, debility of the digestive organs, &c.] 

MITHRIDATE. An ancient compo- 
sition, having opium for its basis, and 
now replaced by the confection of 
opium. 

IMITRAL VALVES (mitra, a mitre). 
The name of two valves which guard 
the left ventricle of the heart. The dif- 
ference of size of the two valves, both 
being triangular, and the space between 
them, have given rise to the idea of 
a bishop's mitre, after which they are 
named. ' 

iVIIXTURE. Mistura. A chemical 
mixture should be distinguished from a 
chemical solution. In the former, the 
aggregate particles can again be sepa- 
rated by meciianical means, and the pro- 
portion of the different particles deter- 
mined ; but, in solution, no mechanical 
power whatsoever can separate them. 

MOBILITY (mobilis, movable). A 
term applied by Dr. Cullen to excessive 
susceptibility to impressions— one of the 
afflictions of nervous persons. 

MODI'OLUS (dim. of modus, a mea- 
sure). The bony pillar, in the centre of 
the cochlea, encircled by the lamina 
spiralis. Also, the crown, or saw, of the 
trephine. 

MODIUS. The chief Roman measure 
for things dnj, the third part of a cubic 
foot, somewhat more than a peck Eng- 
lish. Six modii were called a medimnus, 
an Attic measure. 

[MODUS OPERANDL Mode of ope- 
rating. In Materia Medica, this term is 
applied to the general principles on which 
medicines when applied to the body alter 
or modifv its vital actions.] 

MOIRE'E ME'TALLIQUE. Crystal- 
lized tin-plate, obtained by pouring on 
heated tin-plate a mixture of two parts of 
nitric acid, and three of muriatic acid, 
diluted with eight of water. When var- 

shed, it is worked into ornamental ves- 

Is 

MOL.'\'RES {mola, a mill-stone). The 
double or grinding teeth. Those with two 
fangs are called bicuspid, or false molars. 

Millar gi'tnds. Tuosmall bodies, placed 



MOL 



229 



MON 



cretory duct situated opposite the last 
molar tooth. 

MOLE (mola, a mill-stone). A brown 



MON-, MONO- ( fiiJroj, single). A Greek 
prefix, denoting vnily. 

1. Mon-aJelphia (dle\(l)dg, a brother). 



macula, or spot, generally, though not iThe sixteenth class of plants in the Lin- 
alvvays, congenital. Also, a morbid pro- ncean system, in which the filaments are 
duct of conception, consisting of a false all united into one tube. Hence 



germ, or, as it is called in birds, osi/f 
clair ; a fleshy substance; a hydatid sub- 
stance; &c. 

MOLECULE (dim. of moles, a mass). 
A minute particle of a mass or body. It 
differs from atom, in being always consi- 
dered as a portion of some aggregate. 

L Complex organic molecule. An as 
sociation of two or more binary com 
pounds, comparatively simple in consti- 
tution, often isolable substances and pos- 
sessed of considerable stability. 

2. Integrant mohciiles. The name 
given by Haiiy to the last particles into 
which the nucleus of a crystal can be 
mechanically divided. 

MOLLITIES (mollis, soft). Softness; 
softening. Hence — 

1. Mollilies cerehri. Ramollissement 
of the French. Softening of the brain. 

2, MolUties ossium. A morbid soft- 
ness and flexibility of the hnnes, com- 
monly called the rickets of adults. See 
Frasilitas ossiiim. 

MOLLUSCA (mollis, soft). Literally, 
a nut w ith a soft shell. Soft, inverlebral, 
inarticulate animals, often protected by 
a shell. They constitute division 2d of 
Cuvier's .\nimal Kingdom, and are dis- 
tinguished into the following classes: 
viz. — 

1. Cephalopoda ; 2. Pleropodn ; 3. Gas- 
teropoda ; 4. Brarhiopnda ; 5. Cirropoda. 

MOLLUSCUM (mollis, soft). Wen: 
a movable tumour, litlle sensible, and 
often elastic lo the touch, containing an 
atheromatous matter; the third genus of 
the Tiiherrula of Bateman. 

MOLYBDENUM (n6\vl3So;, lead). A 
white melal closely allied to tungsten. 
Its name was derived from the resem- 
blance of its native sulphuret to plum- 
bago. 

Moli/hdic acid. .\n acid obtained 
from the native sulphuret of molybde- 
num. 

MOMORDICA ELATERn^%L The 
Siinirtma Cucumber; a Cucurbitaceous 
plant, cultivated at IMiicham for the sake 
of the elalerium (i)und in the juice sur- 
rounding the seecls.. 

[Momordico Bnhnminn. Balsam .Api)le. 
A native of llio h'.ast Indies. The fruiti 
was fiirmerly highly esteemed as a vul- 
nerary, and is still used in domestic prac- 
tice.] 



Moiiadelphous. Having the filaments 
all united in one lube. 

2. Mon-niidria (Avhp, a man). The first 
class of plants in the Linnrean system, 
containing only one stamen. Hence — 

Monandrotis. Having only one stamen. 

[3. Mono-hlcpsis (lJ\eT7Gis. sight). Con- 
fusion and imperfection of vision when 
both eyes are used, whilst the sight with 
either eye singly is distinct.] 

4. Mono-chlamydecB (xKajivi, a tunic). 
A sub-class of exogenous plants, in which 
the flowers have only one envelope, viz. 
a calyx. 

5. 3Iono-coti/ledones (KOrvKriidtv , a seed- 
lobe). Plants which have only one coty- 
ledon, or seed-lobe; those which have 
two are termed di-cotyledo?ics ; and those 
which have none, a-colt/ledones. The 
first and second of these classes, respec- 
tively identical with the endogenai and 
exogena, constitute the first division of 
plants in the natural system, or Vascu- 
LAREs; the third is identical with Cel- 
LULAUES, the second division. Hence — 

Monocotylcdojious. Having only one 
cotyledon or seed-lobe. 

6. Mon-oculns (oodus, an eve). An 
unclassical term, signifying one-eyed, and 
applied lo a bandage formerly used for 
fistula lacrymalis, and diseases of the 
eye. 

7. Mon-ceciri (oIko;, a house). The 
21st class of plants in the Linna?an sys- 
tem, in which the stamens and pistils 
grow on separate flowers, but on the 
same individual. 

8. Monomania (jiavia, madness). Mad- 
ness upon one subject only. See Mania. 

9. Mono-pelalous (viToXov, a leaf). Li- 
terally, having ^ single petal or leaf, as 
applied to the corolla of plants. The 
difference, however, between a mono- 
petalous and a poly-pelalons corolla is, 
that in the one, the leaves out of \vhich 
it is fiirmed are distinct; in the other, 
thev are united. A more proper term 
for the latter is gnmo-petaloiis. Where 
there are no petals, the plants are termed 
a-]ietnloiis. 

10. Monn-phyllus ((^vWov, a leaf). A 
term used synonymously with mono- 
sepalous, denoting cohesion of the sepals 
of ihe calyx. 

11. .Vo7;-orcZii'fZ (upxif, a testis). Having 
a single testis. 



MON 



230 



MOR 



12. Mono-sepalons. Having a single 
sepal, or calyx-leaf. The remarks ai 
monopelalous are applicable here, bj' 
merely changing -pelalous inlo -sepalonx. 

13. Mono-tremalti (rpuw, lo bore a hole). 
The third/tribe of Cuvier's Edeiilala, or 
toothless animal.s. See Cloaca. 

MOiXAD {jiova;, unity). The smallest 
of all visible animalcules. Ehrenberg 
computed that a single drop of fluid may 
contain 500,000.00u' monads— a number 
equal to that of all the human beings on 
the surface of the globe. 

1. Monad of the Physiologists. An 
elementary particle of an organic body. 
Thus, the primary cell or germ from 
which all the other cells of the brain are 
produced, is termed the priinarif monad; 
and the secondary cells or particles, pro- 
duced by this, are termed secondari/ 
monads. 

2. Monad of the Metaphysicians. An 
active kind of principle, endued with 
perception and appetite, ascribed to each 
elementary particle of matter. The mu- 
tual reaction of the mind and body upon 
each other, accordingly, consists of the 
action of the mental monad upon the 
internal state of the monads of the body, 
and vice versa. 

[MOXARDA. Ph. U. S. The herb 
Monarda punctata, horsemint, an indi 
genous. Labiate plant. The volatile oil 
prepared from it is a powerful rubefa 
cient]. 

RIONESIA. A vegetable substance 
prepared from the bark of a tree of South 
America; sup|»sed to be a Clirysophyl- 
lum. [It is moderately astringent and a 



nences, situated upon the anterior part of 
ihe thalumi nervorum opiicorum. 

MORBILLl (mnrbillus, dim. of mnr- 
hiis, a disease). The ?nir,or plngite; a 
term by which the continental writers 
have in general designaieil Rubeola or 
Measles. The term is borrowed from 
the Italians, among whom il morbo (the 
disease) signified the plague. 

Morhilli regulares. Common Measles, 
Syderiham; the Rubeola vulgaris of Bate- 
man. 

MORBOSUM AUGMENTUM. An 
old term denoting an increased mass, a 
preternatural growth, or new matter. 

MORBUS. A disease; disordered ac- 
tion of any part of the machiney of the 
body. 

1. Morbus aphrodisius. Lues Venerea, 
or syphilis. It has also been called mor- 
bus Gallicus; morbus Indicus; morbus 
j\eapolitanus; &c. 

2. Morbus arcuatus, or argitatus (arcus, 
a bow ; so called fi-om one of the colours 
of the rainbow). The Jaundice. 

3. Morbus caducu.i. Epilepsy, or fall- 
ing sickness. This has been also termed 
morbus alionitus; morbus comitialis, or 
" electioneering disease," so called from 
its occurring at the time of the comilia, 
or popular assemblies at Rome, from ex- 
citement, &.C.; morbus divinus; morbus 
herculeus; morbus infantilis; morbus 
interlunius; morbus raagnus, or major; 
morbus sacer; &c. 

4. Morbus incurvus. Another name 
for cyrlosis, incurvation of the spine, or 
posterior crookedness. 

5. Morbus interpellatus (inlerpello, to 



gentle stimulant to the stomach. It has' interrupt). A disease attended with irre 



been recommended in diarrhisa, leucor- 
rhcea, hemoptysis, menorrhagia, dyspep- 
sia, &c. The dose is from gr. ij. to gr. x. 
repeated to the extent of from gr. x. to 
3J. dailv.] 

[AIOAILIFORM {monile, a necklace, 
forma, likenes.s). Neckla«e-Iike; cylindri- 
cal, and contracted at regular intervals.] 

MONS VEA'ERIS. The eminence of 



gular or uncertain paroxysms. 

[6. Morbus Regis. See King's Evil.} 

7. Morbus sacer. A name for epilepsy. 
The notion of demoniacal agency is of 
the remotest antiquity; and amongst the 
Greeks nervous affections were consi- 
dered as of divine infliction, and were 
called sacred diseases. 

8. Morbus strangulatorins. The name 
integument situated immediately overl given by Dr. Starr to a species of angina 
the OS pubis, in women. maligna, which raged in Cornwall in the 



MOA'STRUM. Lusus naturce. A mon- 
ster ; any thing out of the common course 
of nature, as a bicephalous, hemicepha- 
lous, or acephalous fretus. 

MONTA.XLN. The bitter principle of 
the St. Luria Bark, or the bark of Ihe 
Exostema floribundum, a native of the 
West Indian islands. 

MOiNTlCULUS (dim. of mo/!.'!, a moun- 
tain). A little mountain. The term fnon- 
ticuli has been applied to two little emi- 



year 1748. 

9. Morbi pathetici. Morositales. De- 
praved appetites, and morbid changes in 
the feelings and propensities. 

M0RD.A.>;T. A substance used in dye- 
ing, which has an affinity both for tha 
colouring matter, and for the stuff to be 
dyed ; the combination of the colour with 
the texture is thus aided by a kind of 
double decomposition. The term b»eis 
is commonly employed. 



MOR 



2S1 



MOT 



MOREL. The Morchella esculenta, a 
fungus employed for flavouring gravies, 
&c. 

MORIA (/(Mpd;, foolish). Foolishness; 
fatuity; delect or hebetude of the under- 
stand Inij. 

MORIBUNDUS (morior. to die). Mo- 
ribund ; dying, ready to die. 

MOROXYLIC ACID (tiipov, the mul- 
berry, ii\ov, wood). An acid produced 
from the bark of the mulberry tree. 

MORPHIA {Morpheus, the god of 
sleep). A vegeto-alkali, existing in opium, 
in combination with a peculiar acid, 
which has been named the meconic, in 
the form of a meconate. Morphia is ge- 
nerally admitted to constitute the narco- 
tic principle of opium. 

[1. MorpMcB acetas. Acetate of Mor- 
phia. One-sixth of a grain is considered 
equivalent to a grain of opium. 

[2. Morphia viurias. Muriate or Hy- 
drochloraie of Morphia. One-sixth of a 
grain is about equivalent to one grain of 
opium. 

[3. Morphia: siilplias. Sulphate of Mor- 
phia. The dose is from gr. ^ to gr. ;j.] 

M O R P I O. The pediculus pubis, or 
crab-louse; an insect which burrows in 
the skin of the groins and eyebrows. 

MORS, MORTIS. Death; properly, 
the cessation of life, the separation of the 
soul from the body. Nex is a violent 
denih, or slaughter. 

MORSULUS. A little mouthful; a 
term applied to a form of medicine like 
drops, or lozens'es. without regular form 

MORSUS DIABOLI. Literally, devil's 
bile; an uncouth designation of the fim- 
briated extremity of the Fallopian tube. 

MORT DE CHIEN (dog's death). A 



On the continent it denotes the complete 
form. See Gangrtne. 

2. Sphacelus, or complete mortifica- 
tion. Some apply the term gangrene 
lo the death of the superfcial texture, 
and sphacelus to the death of the whole 
subslauce of an organ. 

3. Slough ; the technical term for the 
fibrous, senseless substance, resulting 
from sphacelus. 

4. Necrosis, or death of the bones; the 
term caries meaning ulceration of bone. 

5. Hospital gangrene, or the combina- 
tion of humid gangrene with phagedoenic 
ulceration. 

6. Pustule maligne, or chorion of the 
French; malignant pustule, or carbun- 
cle, supposed by some to originate in 
horned cattle. 

7. Gangrenous ergotism, necrosis usti- 
liginea sen epidemica, arising from the 
use of spurred rye. 

MORUS TINCTORTA. The plant 
which yields the yellow dye called 
fustic. The colouring principle is termed 
morin. 

Morus nigra. The mulberry tree. The 
fruit, commonly called a berry, is a 
sorcsis. 

[Morus rubra. An indigenous species, 
the fruit of which, like that of the pre- 
ceding species, is an agreeable article 
of food, and is esteemed refreshing and 
laxative.] 

MOSAIC GOLD. Aurum musivum. 
The alchemical name of the bi-sulphuret 
of tin. It is produced in fine flakes of 
a beautiful gold colour, and is used as a 
pigment. 

MOSCHUS. Musk; a granular sub- 
stance found in the preputial musk sac 



name of the spnsmodic cholera, of Mr. 'under the belly of the Moschns moschi- 
Cunis; it is said to be a corruption of'ferus, a species of deer inhabiting the 



mordezym, the Indian name of the dis- 
ease ; or of the Arabic mordelde, or " the 
death-blow," — according to Golius, actio 
inferens mortem, and hence synonymous 
w-ilh " mors violenla." 

MORTAR CEMENT. A mixture of 
lime and siliceous sand, tised for building. 

MORTIFICATION {jnors, mortis, 
death, Jio, lo become). A generic term 
denoting the death of any part of the 
body, occasioned by inflammation : the 
circulation in the part is completely 
arrested, the blood in the capillaries is 
not only coagulated, but decomposed, 
w'hile the tissue itself undergoes decom- 
position. The particular stages of mor- 
tification are designated in this country, 
by the terms — 

1. Gaugrene, or the incipient stage. 



Alpine mountains of the east of Asia. 

Moschus factitius. Artificial musk, pre- 
pared with nitric acid, fetid animal oil, 
and rectified spirit. 

MOTHER SPOTS. Maculcp maternm. 
Congenital spots and discolourations of 
the skin. See N<rvus. 

MOTION {moveo. to move). This term, 
as employed in Animal Physiology, de- 
notes the following phenomena: — 

1. Voluntary Motion. The spontaneous 
act of the will of the individual ; a func- 
tion attached to the brain. 

2. Excited Motion, or that of the Reflex 
Function; as in the closure of the larynx 
on the contact of acrid vapours, of the 
pharynx on that of the food, &c., a func- 
tion of the medulla. 

3. Motion of Irritability ; as the action 



MOT 



232 



MUC 



of the heart, the intestinal canal, &c., a 
function of the muscular fibre. 

4. Ciliari/ motion. The peculiar vi- 
brating motion of the cilia of animals, as 
observed on the external surface, in the 
alimentary canal, the respiratory system, 
the generative organs, in the cavities oi' 
the nervous system, and on the surfiice 
of serous membranes. 

MOTIONS OF THK LIMBS. The 
motions which may take place between 
any two segments of a limb, are distin- 
guished by the following terms: — 

1. Gliding, the simplest kind of mo- 
tion, existing between two contiguous 
surfaces, when one glides over the other. 

2. Flexion, by which two segments of 
a limb, placed in a direct line or nearly 
so, are brought to form an angle. This 
is opposed by — 

3. Exlennon, by which the segments 
are restored to the direct line. These 
two motions belong to what Bichat calls 
limited opposition, and tliey are iUus- 
trated by the flexion and extension of 
the fore-arm. 

4. Abduction, by which the thigh-bone 
is separated from the middle line of the 
body, so as to form an angle with the 
lateral surface of the trunk; and — 

5. Adduction, by which it is restored 
and made to approximate the middle line. 
Bichat terms this " opposition vague." 

6. Circumduction , or a continuous mo- 
tion performed rapidly in directions inter 
mediate to the four preceding: the distal 
extremity of the limb describes a circle 
indicating the base of a cone, whose 
apex is the articular extremity moving in 
the joint. 

7. Rotation, or the revolving of a bone 
round its axis. 

MOTOR (moveo, to move). A mover ; 
a part whose function is motion. 

1. Motor tract. The prolongation of 
the anterior columns of the spinal cord 
through the pons Varolii into the crura 
cerebri. This tract gives origin to the 
three motor nerves. 

2. Motores oculorum. The movers of 
the eyes, or the third pair of nerves. 

3. The metals were denominated by 
Volta, motors of electriciljf, from their 
property ot transferriiig electricity to 
each other by simple cont.aoi; this pro- 
cess was called hv D.ivy, tleclrn-moiion. \ 

MOULDIXKSS. A peculiar fuMgus, 
plant, propagated by spores, infiniielyi 
small. Reaumur foimJ the interior of' 
an addled egg mouldy; hence the sjwres, 
must have passed through the pores of 
the shell. 



MOUNTAIN BLUE. Malachite, or 
carbonate of copper. Mountain green is 
the common copper green, also a carbo- 
nate. 

MOUNTAIN CORK. The name of 
the elastic variety of asbestos. Mountain 
leather is the tough variety. When in 
very thin pieces, it is called mountain 
paper. The ligniform variety is called 
mountain or rock vtood. 

MOUNTAIN SOAP. A mineral sub- 
stance occurring in the island of Skye ; 
used in crayon-painting. 

MOUSTACHIiS. The hair which 
grows on the upper lip of men, forming, 
two oblique rows, meeting under the 
nose, and prolonged as far as the com- 
missures of the lips. 

MOXA. A small mass of combustible 
vegetable matter, prepared from the 
Artemisia mora, or Moxa-weed, a Chi- 
nese plant of the order Compositfe, and 
employed as an actual cautery. 

1. European moxa. Usually made with 
cotton-wool, which has been soaked in a 
solution of nitrate or chlorate of potash; 
or the pith of the Helianthus annuns, or 
sun-flow'er, which contains naturallyl'ni- 
trate of potash. 

2. Percy's moxa. Consists of pith, roil- 
ed in cotton, and enveloped in mus- 
lin. 

3. Porte-moxa. A pair of forceps, or 
other instjument for fixing the cylinder 
of moxa upon the spot where it is to be 
applied. 

MUCIC ACID. An acid first obtained 
from sugar of milk (sacchannn lactis), 
and hence termed saclactic, or sacclio- 
lactic ; but as all the gums appear to 
afFjrd it, and the principal acid in the 
sugar of milk is the oxalic, it is now 
called mucic. 

MUCIL.\GO. Mucilage ; an aqueous 
solution of gum. 

1. Mucilaginous mailer. The flame 
given by chemists to the while floecu- 
lent deposit formed in the distilled wa- 
ters of plants. 

2. Mucilaginous Extracts. Extracts 
which readily dissolve in water, scarcely 
at all in spirits of wine, and undergo spi- 
rituous formpntation. 

MUCIPAROUS (m»cu.«, "and pario, to 
produce). Producing mucus; a term ap- 
plied to the follicles of the mucous mem- 
branps. , 

MUCOCELE (mucus, and /cijXt), a tu- 
mour). Ilerniu sacei lacrijmalis. .\n en- 
largement of Ilio lacrymal sac, constitut- 
ing a soft swelling, which contains tears 
mixed with mucus. 



MUC 



233 



MUR 



[MUCOUS (mucosms, from mucus). Re- 
lated to mucus or to mucilage.] 

MUC RON ATE [{mucro, a sharp point)]. 
Abruptly terminated by a liard sliori 
point; applied to leaves. 

MUCUNA PRURIENS. Common 
Covvhage, or Cow-itch; a leguminous 
plant, having its legumes covered with 
stinging hairs, called cowhage, or cow-, 
itch, employed as an anthelnnntic. 

MUCUS (fiv^a, the mucus of the nos- 
trils). The liquor secreted by the mucous 
surfaces, as of the nostrils, intended as a 
protection to the parts exposed to external 
influences. 

MUDAR. By this name, and those of 
akum and yercund, are designated the 
root, bark, and inspissated juice of the 
Calolropis giganlea. 

Mudarine. The active principle of the 
above plant, remarkable for its properly of 
coagulating by heat, and becoming again 
fluid by exposure to told. 

MUFFLE. A small earthen oven, fixed 
in a furnace, and used in cupellation, and 
other processes which require the access 
of air. 

MUGWORT. The common name of 
the Artemisia Vulgaris, a European Com- 
posite plant. 

MULBERRY CALCULUS. A spe- 
cies of urinary calculus, consisting of 
oxalate of lime, and named from its 
rough and tuberculated surface. There 
is a variety of it, denominated from its 
colour and general appearance, the hemp- 
seed calculus, which seems to contain 
lithate of ammonia. 

MULBERRY EYELID. An ancient 
designation of the ophthalmia purulenta; 
said also to be the pladarotis (TrXaJapdj, 
moist) of the Greeks. 

MULSUM (scilicet vinum muhum). 
Hydromel. A drink chiefly made of wa- 
ter, wine, and honey, mixed and boiled 
together. 

MULTICUSPIDATI {multvs. many, 
cuspis, a spear). The name of the three 
last molares ; so called from their having 
several tubercles. See Dens. 

MULTIFID {muUus, many, findo, to 
cleave). Cut into many parts; applied 
to leaves which have numerous shallow 
seements. 

MULTIFIDUS SPINiE {mnllus, ma- 
ny, Jindo, to cleave). The name of a 
mass of muscles, which are placed ob 
liquely from the transverse, to the spi- 
nous, processes. They have been de- 
scribed as three distinct sets of muscles, 
by the names — 

1. Transversn-spinalis colli. 



2. Transverso-spinalis dorsi. 

3. TransverKO-spijinUs lumborum. 
MULTIPARTITE {mnllus, many,;7ar- 

lio, to divide). Divided into many parts; 
pplied to leaves which have many deep 
lobes. 

MULTIPLE {nmltus, many). A num- 
ber which includes another, a certain 
number of times; as 6 the multiple of 
2; 18 the multiple of 6, &c. - 

MULTUM. The name of a compound 
of extract of quassia and liquorice, used 
by brewers for the purpose of econo- 
mizing malt a.nd hops. 

Hard muhum, or Black Extract, is a 
preparation made from Cocculus Indicus, 
and used by brewers to imparl an intoxi- 
cating quality to beer. 

MUM. A malt liquor, made in the 
same way as beer, by using wheat malt. 

MUMPS. A popular name for Cy- 
nanehe parolidaea. In Scotland ii is call- 
ed hranks. 

MUNGO. The root of the Ophio- 
rrhiza mungos, supposed to be a specific 
for the bite of the cobra di capello and 
the rattle-snake. In India and Ceylon 
it is still used as an antidote against the 
bite of the mad dog. The parts are so 
intensely bitter, that the plant is called 
by the Malays, earth gall. 

MUNJEET. A species of Ruhia tinc- 
torum, or madder, produced in JNepaul 



and in various districts of India. That 
which is brought to England is imported 
from Calcutta. 

MUREX. A shell-fish noted among 
the ancients for its purple dye. 

1. Murexide. A beautiful purple pro- 
duct of the decomposition of uric acid, 
first described by Dr. Prout under the 
name of purpurate of ammonia. 

2. Murexan. The purpuric acid of 
Prout. It is prepared by dissolving mu- 
rexide in caustic potash, heating till the 
blue colour disappears, and then adding 
an excess of diliile sulphuric acid. 

MURIAS. A muriate, or hydro-chlo- 
rate; a salt fbrined by the union of mu- 
riatic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or 
metallic base. Metallic muriates contain 
either an excess or deficiency of acid ; 
in the former case, the salt is called an 
oxy-muriate ; in the latter, a suh-muriate. 

1. Murias Ammonia:. Muriate of Am- 
monia; generally called sal-ammoniac, 
and formerly imported from Egypt, where 
it is procured by sublimation from the 
soot of the camel's dung. 

2. Murias calcis. Muriate of lime; 
formerly known by the names of marine 
selenile ; calcareous marine suit ; muria ; 



MUR 



234 



MUS 



calx salila; fixed sal-ammoniac; &c.| water, or theca, seated on a seta or 
When deliquesced, it has been called oil stalk. 



of lime; and Hoinberg found that, on 
being reduced by heat lo a vitreous mass, 
it emitted a phosphoric light on being 



[MUSCLE. See Musculus.] 
AICSCULI PECTLNATI {pecten, a 
comb). The name of the muscular fas- 



struck by a hard body, and in that state] ciculi, within the auricles of the heart ; 
it was called ILnnhe.rg s phosphorus. so called from their being arranged like 

3. Marias ferri. Muriate of Iron ; the teeth of a comb. 

formerly called /tvr!/»j salitum ; oleuml MUSCULQ-CUTANEUS. The exter- 
Tuarlis per deliquium ; &c. . mal cutaneous nerve, or neryusper/'r;ra?js, 

4. Marias polassw. Muriate of potash ; Casserj'i. 

formerly known by the names ul' fcbri-\ Masculo-spiralis. Another name for 
fuge salt of Sylvias ; digestive sail; reg^e- the radial nerve. 
nerated sea-salt ; &c. MUSCULUS (/luj, a mouse). A mus- 

5. Marias sodce. Muriate of soda, or cle; an organ of motion, constituting the 
common salt, found in large masses, orjlesh of animals, and consisting of bead- 
in rocks under the earth. In the solid led or cylindrical fibres, which are un- 
forra it is called sal gem, or rock salt; branched, and are arranged parallel to 



that obtained by evaporation from salt 
water, is called bay sail. 

MURIATIC ACID (mwr/a, brine). The 
hydro-chloric of the French chemists, for- 
merly called spiritus salis, &c.; an acid 
contained in great abundance in sea- 
water, in combination with soda and 
magnesia. It consists of chlorine and 
hydrogen. Its salts are called muriates 
or hydro-chlorates. 

Oxygenated muriatic acid. Chlorine. 

MURICATED. Covered with nume- 
rous short, hard protuberances. 

MURIDE {muria, brine). The name 
first given to bromine, from its being an 
ingredient of sea-water. 

MURIFORM [{murus, a wall, /oma, 
likeness)]. Wall-like. Applied to the tis- 
sues constituting the medullary rays in 
plants, from its presenting an appearance 
similar to that of bricks in a wall 



each other in fiisciculi. In general, the 
name of venter or belly is given to the 
middle portion of a muscle, while its ex- 
tremities are named the head and tail, or 
more commonly the origin and insertion. 
Hence the terms digastricus, or two- 
bellted, triceps, or three-headed, &c.' 
I. Properties of Muscles. 

1. Contractility, by which their fibres 
return to their former dimensions, after 
being extended ; and, 

2. Irritability, by which their fibres 
shorten on the application of a stimulus. 

II. Forms of Muscles. 

1. The muscles, like the bones, may 
be divided into long, broad, and short ; 
and each of these kinds may present 
muscles, either simple or compound. 

2. The Si"/n/)Ze, or those which have their 
fibres arranged in a similar or parallel 
direction. They are in general bulging. 



MUSCA. The Fly; a genus of insects i. e. their transverse outline is more or 



which deposit their eggs jn meat which 
is becoming putrid, and have hence pass- 
ed into the human intestines. 

1. Masca canaria, the flesh-fly. 

2. Masca-vomitoria, the blow-fly. 

3. Musca cibaria, the pantry-fly. 

4. Masca putris, a species of which the 



less inflated in the middle. The simple 
muscles are sometimes /Za(, as the sartorius. 

3. The radiated, or those which have 
their fibres converging, like the radii of 
a circle, to their tendinous insertion, as 
the pectoralis. 

4. The ventriforjn, or belly-shaped. 



larvoB are known by the name of Ao/>/)ers,| which have their centre large, diminish- 
as those of all of them are by that of ing towards their tendons, or extremi- 



magc^ols ; the latter term has olten been 
applied, though in a looser sense, to the 
grubs of insects generally. 

MUSC.-E VOLITANTES. Visas mus- 
carum. An appearance of motes or small 
bodies floating before the eyes — a com- 
mon precursor of amaurosis. 

MUSCI. The Moss tribe of Acotyle- 
donous plants. CeWnlar, flmverless plants, 
with leaves imbricated, entire, or ser- 
rated ; reproductive organs either axil- 
lary bodies containing spherical or oval 
particles, emitted on the application of 



ties, as the biceps. 

5. The penniform, or pen-shaped, which 
have their fibres arranged obliquely on 
each side of the tendon, as the rectus 
femoris. 

6. The semi-penniform, which have 
their fibres arranged on one side of the 
tendon, as the peronteus longus. 

7. The complicated, or compound, 
which have two or more tendons, as the 
flexors of the fingers; or a variety in the 
insertion of oblique fibres into the ten 
dons, as the linguales. 



MUS 



235 



M YR 



III. Actions of Muscles. 

1. The voluntari/, or those which are 
subject to the will, as the muscles of 
locomotion. 

2. The 'aivolanlary, or those which 
act independently of the will, as the 
heart, &c. 

3. The mixed, or those which act im- 
perceptibly, but yet are sulyect, more or 
less, to the control of the will, as the 
muscles of respiration. 

MUSHROOM SUGAR. A sugar ob- 
tained by treating the tincture of the 
ergot of rye with water. 

MUSK. A substance procured from 
the Musk deer. See JMoschus. 

MUST. The common name for the 
expressed juice of the grape. 

[MUSSITATION (mussilo, to mutter 
to oneself). A movement of the lips, as 
if the patient spoke in a low voice ; an 
unfavourable symptom in disease.] 

[MUSTARD. The powdered seeds 
of Sinapis nigra and alba. See Siriapis 
Semina.] 

MUTITAS (mutus, dumb). Dumbness; 
an inability of arliciiiation. 

MYDRIASIS (//iiJof, moisture). A pre- 
ternatural dilatation of the pupil). Com- 
pare Mi/oni.i. 

MYELI'TIS (/u"£XoV, marrow). Inflam- 
mation of the subsla?ice of the brain 
or spinal marrow, as distinguished from 
metiingilis, specilically, or encephalitis, 
generally. 

MYLABRIS. A genus of insects. 

1. M(/labrisvariritjilis.Aspecies brought 
from China, and used as a substitute for 
Caniharides. 

2. Mylabris cJiicorii. A species said 
to be the same as the biiprestis of the 
Greeks, and used, according to Pliny, in 
the same manner as the blister-beetle. 

MYLO- iiivXrj, a mill-stone). Names 
compounded wah this word belong tc 
muscles attached near the grinders. 

1. Mylo-hyo'ideiis. A triangular mus' 
cle, arising from the inside of the lower 
jaw, between the molar teeth and the 
chin, and inserted into the os hyoi'des. It 
raises the os hyoi'des, or depresses the jaw 

2. MyLo-pharyngeuK A synonym of 
the constrictor superior muscle, from ils 
arising from the alveolar process. 

MYOCEPHALON {f^vXa, a fly, /ct-Z-aXi), 



of incipient amaurosis. The technical 
term for these objects is musca voli- 
lanles, or mouches volantes, commonly 
called motes. 

MYOIDES (ixvg, fivd;, a muscle, clSog, 
likeness). Plalysma myoides ; a muscu- 
lar expansion on the neck. 

MYCOLOGY ( fiOf, fivdg, a muscle, Xdyoj, 
a descrption). A description of the mus- 
cles; one of the divisions in the study of 
anatomy. 

MYOTIA (fiucj, to close, cjijj, the eye). 
Paropsis propinqua. Short sight ; near 
sight. It is also called myopiasis (/i5;, 
ixvdg, a mouse), or " mouse-sight," Irom 
the supposition that mice have naturally 
this kind of vision. See Lens. 

WYO'SIS {ixv(j), to close the eyes). An 
unnatural contraction of the pupil). Com- 
pare Mydriasis. 

MYOTOMY (liVi, ftvdg, a muscle, rofiii, 
section). Dissection of the muscles; a 
branch of anatomy. 

MYRIAPODA (jivpioi, innumerable, 
TTOvg 7ro(5df, a foot). The first class of the 
Diplogangliata, or Entomoida, compris- 
ing animals with articulated bodies, all 
the segments of the trunk being provided 
each with one or two pairs of jointed 
ambulatory feet. 

MYRICA CERIFERA. The Wax 
myrtle or Bay berry; the berries of which 
are employed for the same purposes as 
bees' wax and candles. 

Myricin. The ingredient of wax, which 
remains after digestion in alcohol. See 
Cera. 

MYRISTICACE^. TheNutmeg 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants. Trees with 
leaves ahernate; flowers dicecious, with 
no trace of a second sex; fruit baccate, 
dehiscent, 2-valved ; seed nut-like, enve- 
loped in a many-parted arillus. 

1. Myrislicce nuclei. Nutmegs; the 
seeds of the Myrislica officinalis, [M. Mos- 
chata, Willd.] They are partially enve- 
loped by an arillus, constituting the spice 
called mace. 

2. Myrislica adeps. Butter of nut- 
megs; prepared by beating the nutmegs 
to a paste, which is then exposed to the 
vapour of water, and expressed by heated 
plates. It is often called expressed oil of 
mace. 

3. Myristic acid. An acid obtained 



the head). -^ small prolapsus of the iris,: from the solid portion of the butter of 
forming a brownish tumour, as large asi nutmegs, in which it is combined with 



a fly's head. 

MYODESOPSIA {^^vTa, a fly, e7Sos,\ 



glycerine. 

MY^ROBALANS (iivpov, ointment, /Sd- 



likeness, oipi;, siglu). Vims mnscarum.\\avoi, an acorn). Dried fruits of the 
The imaginary appearance of floating plum kind, brought from Bengal and 
bodies in the air, — a common symptoraj other parts of India: there are five kinds. 



M YR 



NAP 



VIZ., the belleric, ihe emblic, the che/uilic, I [MYROYLON. Ph. U. S. Balsam 
the Indinn, and ihe i/cllow. iofl'eru. See Mi/rosjjermum Peruifcrum.] 

MVROSIQI ACii) iiivpov, an odorous] MYRRH A (;uvpoy, an ointment). 
oil). A bitter acid procured from black | My nil ; an exiidniioii from the bark of 
mustard seeds. ilhe Frotium Kalaf. U is also called 

MYKOSPERMUM {nipov, a liquid siacif, from oruvw. to distil. 



perfume, o-irepua, seed). A genus of 
Leguminous plants, the seeds of which 
are besmeared with balsamic juice. 

1. Mijrospermum Peruiferiim. [Mi/- 
roxylon Feruiferum, WiUd.] The Quin- 
quino; the species which yields the bal- 
sam of Peru, called also black or liquid 
balsam of Peru. 

2. Mijrospermum Toluiferum. The 
Balsam of Tolu tree ; the species which 
yields the balsam oithat name. 

MYROSYJME l^fivpov, an odorous oil, 
o-O;-, with). Emulsin of black mustard 
seeds; a peculiar substance which de- 
rives its name from its yielding, with 
myronic acid, the volatile oil of mustard. 



MYRTACE.E. The Myrtle tribe of 
dicotyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs 
with leaves opposite, entire, and marked 
with transparent dots; ilowers polype- 
talous; Klaineiis perigynous; rarpella con- 
crete; ini'erior ooarimnvi'\\\\ several cells. 

Myrlus plmenia. The Pimenta or All- 
spice tree; a native of South America; 
where it is called Fumake (in the May- 
pure language); and of the West India 
islands; hence the I'ruit is also called 
Jamaica pepper. 

MYRTIFORM. The name of the ca- 
runcul(B which remain after the lacera- 
tion of the hymen, from their supposed 
resemblance to the mvrtle. 



N 



N. This letter, in prescriptions, de- 
notes numcTo, in number. 

NyEVUS. Congenil(p nolcc. Envies. 
Maculae maternte, or mother-spots; con- 
genital spots and discolouraiions of the 
skin; the second genus of the Order 
Maculce, of Bateman. These marks are 
vulgarly ascribed to the inliuence of the 
imagination of the mother upon the child 
in litem; hence, we have the — 

N. araneus, the spider-like stain. 

N. foliacens. the leaf-like stain. 

N. cerasus, the cherry stain. 

^.fragaritis, the strawberry stain. 

W. morns, the mulberry stain. 

N. ribes, the currant stain. 

N. Ttibus, the blackberry stain. 

To these may be added the claret, or 
port wine slain, supposed to be repre 
sented by the flat and purple na;vus, or 
the TKBDHSjZammeusof Plenck; and those 
resembling a slice of bacon, or other flesli. 
See Spilus. 

Vascular NcBvi. 

1. The Arterial, consisting in nume- 
rous enlarged cutaneous arteries, as is 
seen in the noeviis araneus. 

2. The Capillary, consisting in dilated 
capillary vessels, the points of dilatation 
being frequently manifest on the surface. 

3. The Sub-cutaneous, so denominated 
by Dr. Wardrop, and probably identical 
W'ilh the preceding species, when sealed 
more deeply and unattended by disco- 



louration. It may involve the subjacent 
te.vtures, and is then called the £ompli- 
caled n£EVUS. 

4. The Venous, or varicose. This is 
sub-cutaneous; and when the veins are 
large, the sensation which it imparls lo 
the linger, is precisely that conveyed by 
varicocele. 

5. The Increscens. This must be dis- 
tinguished from the stationary nrevus, 
becau.se, as Celsus observes — " qua:dam 
remedia increscenlibus,morbis,/jiura jam 
incliantibus, convcniunt."' 

NAILS. Ungues. Horny lamina: co- 
vering the backs of the extremities of 
the fingers and toes. A nail is divided 
into a root, a body, and a free extremih/. 

NANCEIC ACID. An acid procured 
from sour rice, and other acescent vege- 
table substances, and named by Bracon- 
not in honour of the town of Nancy, 
where he resides. 

NAPHTHA. A native liquid bitu- 
men, occurring in springs on the shores 
of the Caspian sea; and procured also by 
distillation from petroleum. Naphthene 
and naphttiol axe liquid bitumens of simi- 
lar nature. 

NAPHTHALINE. A compound ob- 
tained by distillation from coal tar; said 
to be a sesquicarburet of hydrogen. [Re- 
commended by Dupasquier as an expec- 
torant in chronic catarrh of old people 
attended with difliculi expectoration.j 



NAP 



237 



NEC 



NAPIFORM [napus, a turnip, /orma, 
likeness). A term applied to one of the 
textures of cancer, the bunio'id of Bayle ; 
and to certain roots (or stems) which 
present the form of a depressed sphere, 
like that of the turnip. 

NAPLES YELLOW. A colour pre- 
pared by calcining lead with antimony 
and potash. 

NAKCEINE {.vapKY), stupor). A weak 
base existing in opium in a very small 
proportion. 

[NARCISSUS PSEUDO-NARCIS- 
SUS. Daffodil. A well-known plant, the 
bulb of which is emetic, and the flowers 
it is said are emetic and antispasmodic] 

NARCOTICS {vdpKx,, stupor). Hyp- 
notics. Medicines which induce sleep 
or stupor, as opiates. 

NARCOTINE {^vapKri, stupor). A crys- 
talline substance derived from opium, 
formerly called sail of Derosne. 

NARCOTISM {I'ipKr,, stupor). [Narco- 
sis,] A state of unnatural sleep, induced 
by the effect of narcotic substances. 

NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSL 
An Indian plant of the order Valeriana- 
cea;, the root of which appears to be the 
spikenard of the ancients. 

NARIS. Cava naris. The nostril, the 
hole of the nasus, or nose. 

NASCENT STATE (nascor, to be 
born). A term applied to the state of gases, 
at (he moment of their generation, before 
they have acquired the repulsive power. 

[NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE. Wa- 
ter-cress. A cruciferous plant, eaten as 
a salad, and esteemed useful in scurvy 
and visual obstruction. The N. palustre 
and N. amphibitim possess the same vir 
tues as the N. officinale.] 

NASUS. The nose, or organ of smell ; 
the external part of the nose. 

1. Nasal fosscB. Two irregular, com- 
pressed cavities, extending backwards 
from the nose to the pharynx, and con- 
stituting the internal part of the nose. 

2. Nasal duct. A short canal leading 
from the lacrymal sac to the inferior 
meatus of the nose. 

3. Al(B nasi. The two movable sides, 
or imngs, of the nose. 

[NATATION {nato, to swim). The 
act of swimming, or of floating and mov- 
ing in the water by the action of the 
muscles of locomotion.] 

NATES. The buttocks. The name 
of the upper pair of the tubercula qua- 
drigeraina of the brain ; the lower pair 
is called the testes. 

NATRIUM. A term formerly used to 
designate sodium. 

15 



NATRON. Native carbonate of soda; 
it is found in mineral seams or crusts, 
and is hence called the mineral alkali. 

NAUCLEA GAMBIR. The plant 
which yields an extract called gamhir. 
Dr. Pereira considers this gambir not to 
form any of the kinos of the shops, but 
to be one of the substances called catechu 
m commerce. See Kino. 

NAUCUM. An old Latin term ap- 
plied by botanists to the exterior coat of 
the drupe; it is soft and fleshy, and sepa- 
rable from the interior, hard, and bony 
coat, which is called the endocarpiiim, or 
stone. Gagrmer applied the term nanca 
to seeds which have a very large hilum, 
as that of the horse-chestnut. 

NAUSEA (sea-sickness, from vaiiq, a 
ship). Sickness of the stomach; loath- 
ing; tendency to reject, but without re- 
gurgitation. 

[Nauseants. Medicines which excite 
nausea.] 

NAVICULARE OS {navicula, dim. of 
navis, a boat). A boat-shaped bone of 
the carpus, and of the tarsus. The term 
navicular is applied in botany to the 
glumes of grasses, owing to their boat- 
shaped appearance. It signifies the same 
as the term carinated, or keeled. See 
Keel. 

NEBULA. A cloud. Haziness, or dul- 
ness; a slight form of opacity. 

[NECRjEMIA [vcKfio;, death, htjia, 
blood). Death beginning with the blood, 
a term given by Dr. C. J. B. Williams to 
those fatal cases in which the first and 
most remarkable change is exhibited in 
the blood.] 

[NECROPHOBIA (i/cicpo;, death, ^oSog, 
fear). An exaggerated fear of death, a 
common symptom of hypochondriasis.] 

NECROSCOPICAL (i-wpof, dead, ,jko- 
irho, to examine). Relating to post-mor- 
tem examination, or autopsia. 

NECRO'SIS {u£Kp6u, to mortify). Lite- 
rally, mortification; it is confined to that 
affection of the bones, and is the conse- 
quence either of an unfavourable termi- 
nation of inflammation of the bone in a 
bad constitution, or of its vascular supply 
being cut off by the destruction of its 
periosteum or medullary membrane. It 
is termed — 

1. Simple, when it is confined to one 
bone, the patient being in other respects 
healthy. 

2. Compound, when several parts of 
the same bone, or several distinct bones, 
are affected at the same time; when the 
health is bad, &c. 

3. Necrosis ustilaginea. The name 



NEC 



238 



NER 



given by Sauvages to that species of 
mortification which arises from the use 
of grain infecled by " ustilago" or blight. 

NECTARY. That part of a flower 
which secretes nectar, or honey. The 
term has been vaguely applied lo several 
parts which have no such function. 

NEEDHA MIAN A CORPORA. A term 
applied to the spermatozoa, or organized 
animals, found in the seminal reservoirs 
of the ioligo, as observed by Needham. 

NEGRO CACHEXY. Mai d'estomac 
of the French. A propensity for eating 
dirt, peculiar to the natives of the West 
Indies and Africa, and probably similar 
to chlorosis. 

NEPENTHE (vh, neg., TrtvOos, grief). 
The ancient name of a drug, probably 
opium, mentioned in Homer. Hence the 
old pharmacopoeia termed the common 
opiate pills nepenthes upiattim. 

[NEPETHA CATARIA. Catnip. Ca- 
taria. Ph. U. S. A Labiate plant, an 
infusion of which is used in domestic 
practice, in amenorrhcea, infantile colic, 
hysteria, &c.] 

■NEPHROS(i'£#(Sf). Ren. A kidney; 
the secreting organ of the urine. 

1. Nephr-algia (oXyof, pain). Pain of 
the kidneys, from calculus, or gravel. 

2. Nephr-itic. Belonging to the kidney; 
a medicine which acts on the kidney. 

3. Nephr-itis. Inflammation or other 
disease of the kidney. 

4. Nephro-lvgy ( \6yoi, an account). An 
account or description of the kidneys. 

5. Nephro-lomy (rofii';, section). The 
operation of cutting a stone out of the 
kidney. 

NEROLI OIL. Oleum Aurantii. Oil 
procured from the flowers of the Citrus 
Auranlium, or sweet orange. 

NERVES (nervtis, a string). White 
cords arising from the brain or the spinal 
marrow, and distributed to every part of 
the system. 

I. Cerebral Nerves. 

1. First pair, or olfactory nerves, ex- 
panding on the membrane of the nose. 

2. Second pair, or optic nerves, termi- 
nating at the middle of the retina. 

3. Third pair, or oculo-motory nerves, 
distributed to the muscles of the eye. 

4. Fourth pair, or nervi palhetici seu 
trochleares, distributed to the superior 
oblique muscle of the eye. 

5. Fifth pair, trigemini, or trifacial 
nerves, the grand sensitive nerves of the 
head and face. It includes — 

1. The large, ganglionic, or trifacial 
portion, the sentient and organic 
nerve of the face ; and 



2. The small, aganglionic, or masti' 
calory portion, the motor nerve of 
the temporal, masseter, &c. 

6. Sixth pair, or abducens, distributed 
to the external rectus of the eye. 

7. Severtth pair, consisting of the por^ 
tio dura, facial, or the respiratory of the 
face, of Bell; and the portio mollis, or 
auditory. 

8. Eighth pair, or grand respiratory 
nerve, consisting of — 

1. The glosso-pharyngeal, penetrat- 
ing into the back of the tongue; 

2. The pneumo-gastric, nervi vagi, 
par vagum, or middle sympathe- 
tic ; and 

3. The spinal accessory, nervus ad 
par vagum accessorius, or supe- 
rior respiratory of the trunk, of 
Bell. 

9. Ninth pair, sublingual, or hypo- 
glossal, terminating in the tongue. 

II. Spinal Nerves. 

1. Cervical nerves. Eight pairs; the 
first passing between the occipital bone 
and atlas, and termed sub-occipital, or 
tenth nerve of the head ; the last passing 
between the seventh cervical vertebra 
and the first dorsal. 

2. Dorsal nerves. Twelve pairs; the 
first issuing between the first two dorsal 
vertebrae, the last between the twelfth 
dorsal and the first lumbar vertebra. 

3. Lumbar iierves. Five pairs; the 
first issuing between the first two ver- 
tebrfB of the loins, the last between the 
last vertebra and the sacrum. 

4. Sacral nerves. Generally six pairs; 
the first issuing by the upper sacral holes, 
the last by the notches at the upper part 
of the coccyx. 

III. Respiratory Nerves, arising from 
the Medulla Oblongata. 

1. The fourth pair, or pathetici. 

2. The portio dura of the seventh. 

3. The glosso-pharyngeal nerve. 

4. The par vagum, and accessorius. 

5. The phrenic nerve. 

6. The external respiratory. 

7. The fifth, and certain spinal nerves, 
with the par vagum, should be distin- 
guished as exciters of respiration, the 
rest being motors. — Dr. M. Hall. 

IV. Sympathetic Nerve. 
A collection of ganglia and branches 
connected with the sixth nerve, the 
Vidian portion of the fifth, the portio 
dura, the eighth, ninth, and all the 
spinal nerves. It is, in fact, a collection 
of branches from almost every nerve in 
the frame, which join it at the adjacent 
ganglia. 



NER 



239 



NIG 



NERVINE {nervhius, from nervus, a or any local disease; the second class of 



nerve). Neuroiic ; that which relieves 
disorders of the nerves, as antispasmo- 
dics, &o. 

[NERVOUS. Belonging, or relating 
to the nerves; strong, vigorous; excess- 
ive irritability or mobility of the nervous 
system. 

[1. Nervous centres. The parts from 
which the nerves originate, the brain, 
spinal marrow and ganglions. 

[2. Nervous fluid. A fluid supposed to 
circulate in the nerves, and believed to 
be the agent of sensation and motion.] 

3. Nervous Quinsy. A name given by 
Dr. Heberden to the globus hystericus of 
Dr. Darwin and other writers. 

[4. Nervous si/slein. The nerves of the 
body considered collectively.] 

NETTLE-RASH. Elevations of the 
cuticle, or wheals resembling the sting oi 
the nettle. See Urticaria. 

NEURON {v£vpuv). A nerve; a cord 
arising from the brain or spinal marrow. 

1. Neur-algia (aXyof, pain). Nerve- 
ache, or pain in a nerve. It occurs in 
nerves of ihe face, and is then called 
face ague, tic douloureux, &c. 

2. Neuri-lemma (\tjijia, a coat). The 
sheath of a nerve. 

3. Neuro-logy Q^oyoi, a description). 
The doctrine of the nerves. 

[4. Neuroma. Neuromation. Tumours 
in nerves. Odier has given the term 
Neuroma to movable, circumscribed, and 
very painful tumours, caused, according 
to him, by the swelling of a nerve. 
Craigie gives the epithet neuromation to 
those pisiform painful tumours or hard 
tubercles which form beneath the skm, 
and which are seated in the subcutane- 
ous nervous twigs. These are lermed 
painful subcutaneous tubercle by Wood.] 

5. Neuro-plera {vrspov, a wing). Net- 
winged insects, as the dragon-fly, ant- 
lion, &c. 

6. Neuroses. Nervous diseases. A 
class of diseases of Cullen. 

7. Neuro-sthenia {rrBhog, force). An 
excess of nervous irritation ; an inflam 
matory aflleciion of the nerves. 

8. Neuro-tica. Nervous medicines; a 
term synonymous with nervines. 

9. Neuro-lomy [TOfin, section). DisseC' 
tion of the nerves. 

10. Neur-ypno-logy (wi/o;, sleep, (\6-/o; 
a description). An account of nervous 
sleep, considered in relation to animal 
magnetism. 

NEUROSES (vevpov, a nerve). Ner- 
vous diseases, in which sense and motion 
are impaired, without idiopathic pyrexia, 



diseases in Cullen's nosology, comprising 
the orders comaia, adynamite, spasmi, 
and vesaniaj. 

[NEUTRAL MIXTURE. Liquor Po- 
tas.sa3 Citratis. Ph. U. S. This is best 
prepared by saturating fresh lemon juice 
with bicarbonate of potassa and filtering. 
It is a valuable diaphoretic. The dose 
is from 3ij- 'o ^5ss.] 

NEUTRAL SALTS. Salts in which 
the base is perfectly saturated with the 
alkali, thus possessing the character nei- 
ther of acid nor alkaline salts. 

NEUTRALIZATION. A term denot- 
ing the loss of characteristic properties, 
which frequently attends chemical com- 
bination. It is exemplified when an acid 
and alkali are combined in such propor 
lions that the compound does not change 
the colour of litmus or violets. The com- 
pound is called neutral, and one ingre- 
dient is said to be ncHiraZizeJ or saturated 
by the other. See Sal. 

NICARAGUA WOOD. Peach wood. 
A tree of the same genus {Ccesalpinia) 
as the Brazil wood; it grows near the 
lake of Nicaragua. It is used as a 
dye. 

NICKEL. A scarce white metal, oc- 
curring in combination with other metals. 
It is employed in potteries, and in the 
manufacture of porcelain. 

1. Cupfer-nichel. False copper ; a 
name given by the German miners to 
the arsenical ore of nickel, after their 
vain atlempts to extract copper from it. 

2. Speiss. An artificial arseniuret. 
NICOTIANA. A genus of plants, of 

which the species tabacum yields the 
Virginian, Havana, and pigtail tobac- 
cos of the shops; the rustica, the Syrian 
and Turkish tobaccos; and the persica, 
the fragrant tobacco of Shiraz. The term 
Nicoliana is derived from the name of 
Joan Nicot, who sent the seeds or the 
plant to France, about the year 1560. 

1. Nicotine. An organic base existing 
in the leaves, root, and seeds of different 
species of Nicotiana. 

2. Nicotianin. Concrete volatile oil of 
tobacco, or tobacco-camphor, obtained by 
submitting tobacco leaves with water, to 
distillation. 

NICTITATIO {nictito, to wink). [Nic- 
titation.] Twinkling of the eyelids; 
winking. It occurs as a symptom in 
amaurosis, generally accompanying a 
convulsive stale of the iris. See 3Iem- 
brana niclitans. 

NIGHTMARE. See Incubus. 

NIGRITIES {?iiger, black). Black- 



NIH 



240 



NIT 



ness; thus, a caries is called nigrides 
ossium, or a blackness of the bone. 

NIHIL ALBUM. Literally, while 
nothing ; a former name of ihe flowers of 
white oxide of zinc ; lana philosophica, or 
philosophical wool, is a scarcely less cu- 
rious designation. 

NIPPLE. Papilla. The prominent 
part of the integument in the centre of 
the areola of the mamma. 

NIRLES. The popular appellation of 
the herpes phlyctanudes, or miliary herpes 
of Bateman. 

NISUS FORMATIVUS. Literally, a 
forraaiive effort; a principle similar to 
gravitation, applied by Blumenhach to 
organized matter, by which each organ 
is endowed, as soon as it acquires struc- 
ture, with a vita propria. 

NITRAS. A nitrate; a compound of 
nitric acid with a salifiable base. 

L Nitraspolass(E. The salt known by 
the name oi nitre or saltpetre. 

2. Nilras sodcp. Formerly called cubic 
or quadrangular nitre. 

3. Nilras calcis. Formerly called cal- 
careous nitre. The ignited nitrate of 
lime is called Baldwin's phosphorus. 

4. Nilras ammonicB. Formerly called 
nilrumjlammans, from its property of ex- 
ploding at the temperature of 600°. 

5. Nilras magnesia. Also called mag- 
nesian nitre; it combines with the pre- 
ceding salt, and forms a triple salt, called 
the ammoniaco-magnesian nitrate. 

6. Nilras argenti. Fused nitrate of 
silver, or lunar caustic. 

NITRE. Saltpetre. The common 
name of the nitrate of potash. When 
fused, and poured into moulds, it is 
called sal-prunella, or cn/stal mineral; 
when mixed with charcoal, and burnt, 
the residuum was formerly called clyssus 
of nitre ; mixed with carbonate of potash 
and sulphur, in a warm mortar, it forms 
the fulminating powder ; mixed with sul- 
phur and charcoal, it Ibrras gu.npoujder ; 
and when mixed with sulphur and fine 
aaw-dust, it constitutes the powder of 
fusion. 

NITRIC ACID. A constituent of 
nitre or saltpetre. From its corrosive 
qualities, it is commonly called a(pia 
fortis [q. v.J 

NITROGEN (i/i'rpoi/, nitre, yti'vaco, to 
produce ; so called from its being a gene- 
rator of nitre). Azote. An elementary 
principle, constituting four-fifihs of the 
volume of atmospheric air. It was for- 
merly called mcphilic air, and, by Priest 
ley, phlogisticaled air. 

1. Nitrous oxide. Formerly called by 



Priestley, w ho discovered it, dephlogisli- 
caled nitrous air ; but more properly prot- 
oxide of nitrogen. Its common name is 
laughing gas. 

2. Nitric oxide, or nitrous gas. For- 
merly called nitrous air ; but, more pro- 
perly, deutoxide of nitrogen. When 
mixed with atmospheric air, nitrous acid 
vapours are produced, of a red or orange 
brown colour. 

3. Nitrous acid. Formerly called /iz?n- 
ing nitrous acid. An acid of uncertain 
constitution, termed hyponilrous by Tur- 
ner.