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Full text of "A dictionary of terms used in medicine and the collateral sciences"

I 

1 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



/ C . Al "^ ■""' 



DICTIONARY 



MEDICAL TERMS. 



LONDON : 

GILBERT & RIVIITGTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. JOHN'S SQUARE. 



DICTIONARY 



TERMS USED IN MEDICINE 



AND THE COLLATERAL SCIENCES. 



BY 

RICHARD D. HOBLYN, A.M. Oxon, 

AUTHOR OF *' A MANUAL OP THE STEAM ENGINE," 
AND OF " A MANUAL OP CHEMISTRY." 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, & PIPER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 
1844. 



r\ 






TO 

MARSHALL HALL, M.D. F.R.S., &c. 

THIS LITTLE WORK, 

UNDERTAKEN AT HIS SUGGESTION, 

AND 

PROMOTED BY HIS ASSISTANCE, 

IS INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



2;88I9C!A! 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/dictionaryoftermOOhoblrich 



PREFACE. 



In preparing this edition of the Dictionary of Medical Tenns, the 
Author has endeavoured to render the work as complete as pos- 
sible, by an entire revision and correction of the former edition, 
and by the introduction of the most recent terms on each subject 
of which it purports to treat. The work may, indeed, be said to 
have been almost re-written. 

An Appendix has been added, in which several important sub- 
jects have been treated at greater length than was compatible 
with their insertion into the body of the work. These subjects, 
some of which are arranged in a tabular form, afford matter for 
study, as well as for occasional reference^ to the medical student. 

2, Stissex Place, Regenfs Park, 
October 1, 1844. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



MEDICAL TERMS. 



ABD 

A (o). In words of Greek derivation 
this letter is emplojed, as a prefix, in 
a, privative sense, as in a-cephalous, head- 
less, a-phonia, voicelessness. 

A A (contracted from ava), 'of each;' 
an expression used in prescriptions, to 
denote that an equal quantity of two or 
more substances is to be employed. 

AAA. A chemical abbreviation for 
amah/ama, amalgamate. 

ABAPTISTON (a, priv., /Sanrl^w, to 
plunge). The perforating part of the 
trephine, which had formerly the figure 
of a truncated cone, to prevent its sudden 
plunging into the brain. 

ABDO'MEN {abdo, to hide ; or abdo 
and omentum). The belly, or the cavity 
situated between the thorax and the pel- 
vis ; so called from its containing the 
intestines, &:c. 

ABDOMINAL REGIONS. The Ab- 
domen is distinguished into three trans- 
verse zones, — an upper, a middle, and 
a lower. Each zone is divided, by per- 
pendicular lines, into three compartments 
or regions; a naiddle, and two lateral. 
They are thus named : — 

1. Epigastric Region. The middle 
region of the upper zone, immediately 
over the small end of the stomach. The 
two lateral regions of this zone, situated 
under the cartilages of the ribs, are called 
the hypochondriac. 

2. Umbilical Region. The middle re- 
gion of the middle zone, immediately 
over the umbUicus. The two lateral re- 
gions of this zone, situated over the loins, 
are called the lumbar. 

3. Hypogastric Region. The middle 
region of the lowest zone, situated below 

1 



ABI 

the stomach. The two lateral regions of 
this zone, situated over the ilia, are called 
the iliac. 

4. Inguinal Region. By this term is 
denoted the vicinity of Poupart's liga- 
ment. 

ABDOMINA'LES {abdomen, the belly). 
An order of Pw/ie* which have fins placed 
on the abdomen, as the salmon, the trout, 
&c. See Zoology. 

ABDUCTOR {abduco, to draw from). 
Abducent. A muscle whose oflSce is to 
draw one part of the body away from 
another. Thus, the rectus externus is 
called abductor oculi, from the action of 
this muscle in drawing the eye away 
from the nose. Its antagonist is called 
adductor. 

ABELMOSCHUS (an Arabic term, 
signifying viusked seeds). Grana mos- 
chata; the musky seeds of a species of 
Hibiscus. A powder, called poudre de 
Chypre is prepared from these seeds in 
the East, for flavouring coffee. 

ABERRATION (aberro, to wander 
from). A deviation from the natural 
state, as applied to the mind. Also, 
a deviation of the rays of light from the 
true focus of reflection or refraction, in 
certain lenses. 

ABIES (abeo, quod in ccelum longd 
abeat). The Fir; a genus of plants of 
the order Coniferce, abounding in resin. 

1. Abietis resina. L. Resin of the 
Spruce Fir ; formerly called thus or 
frankincense ; a spontaneous exudation 
from the tree. 

2. Pix abietina. L. Fix Burgundica, 
or Burgundy pitch ; a substance procured 
by melting common frankincense in hot 

B 



ABR 



A BS 



water, and straining through a coarse 
cloth ; formerly pix arida, or dried pitch. 

3. Pix liquida. L. Tar; formerly 
' resina empyreumatica ;' a fluid obtained 
from the decomposition of the resinous 
juice of the Pinus Sylvestris, or Norway 
Spruce Fir, by heat. 

4. Pix nigra. Black pitch; the solid 
prepared resin obtained from the Pinus 
Sylvestris, or Norway Spruce Fir. 

5. Tar-water. A solution of tar in 
water, having a sharp empyreumatic 
taste. 

6. Abietic acid. An acid lately dis- 
covered in the resin of trees of the genus 
Abies. The old preparation, termed 
acidiim ahietis, is the peculiar acid 
liquor, yielded along with the essential 
oil, in distillation of the fresh branches 
or fruit of some species of Abies. 

ABLACTATION (c6, from, lacto, to 
give suck). This tenn denotes the cessa- 
tion of the period of suckling, as regards 
the mother. The same period, with re- 
gard to the infant, is termed weaning. 

ABLEPSIA (a, priv., /3\e7ra>, to see). 
Blindness ; privation of sight. 

ABLUENTS (abluo, to wash away). 
Medicines formefly supposed to cleanse 
the blood, by washing away impurities. 

ABNORMAL (aft, from, normo, a rule). 
Irregular ; that which deviates from the 
usual order. The term anormal is also 
employed to denote any thing that is 
without rule or order. The terms are 
nearly sjTionymous. 

ABOMA'SUM {ab, dim., and omasum, 
the paunch). The fourth stomach of the 
Ruminantia : Order 7, Class Mammalia. 
It is in this stomach of calves and lambs 
that rennet is formed. 

ABORTION {aborior, to die; to be 
born before the time). Miscarriage ; the 
premature expulsion of the foetus from 
the uterus. 

ABRANCHIA, fa, priv., ^pdyx'a, 
gills). Animals which have no gills, or 
apparent external organs of respiration, 
but respire by the entire surface of the 
skin, or by internal cavities ; as the 
earthworm, the leech, &c. See Zoology. 

ABRASION (abrade, to shave off). 
The act of wearing or rubbing off, as the 
mechanical removal of the epidermis. 
Also, the matters abraded by the friction 
of surfaces of bodies. 

ABRUS PRECATORIUS. Jamaica 
or "Wild Liquorice, a leguminous plant. 
Its polished and parti-coloured seeds, 
called jumble beads, were formerly em- 
ployed for rosaries, necklaces, &:c. 
2 



ABSCESS (abscedo, to separate). Apo- 
sterna. An im.posthume, gathering, or 
boil; a collection of pus formed or de- 
posited in some tissue or organ. It is so 
named from the separation of the sides of 
the cavity which is produced. Where 
the skin is most thin, and fluctuation 
most palpable, the abscess is said to point, 
or to make its point. 

ABSINTHIUM (a, priv., yl^ivOov, plea- 
sure ; so named from its unpleasant 
taste). Common Wormwood; a species 
of Artemisia, yielding a bitter resin, 
termed absinthin. Infused in ale, it 
forms the beverage known by the name 
of purl. Its powers as a vermifuge have 
gained for it the name wormwood. 

ABSORBENTS (absorheo, to suck up). 
Two distinct sets of vessels, which absorb 
and convey fluids to the thoracic duct. 
These are the lacteals, which take up the 
chyle from the alimentarj- canal ; and the 
lymphatics, which pervade almost every 
part of the body, which they take up in 
the form of lymph. 

ABSORPTION {absorbeo, to suck up). 
The function of the absorbents, and, it is 
said, of the capillaries and veins. 

1. Interstitial Absorption. The func- 
tion by which the particles of the tissue 
which fill the meshes of the capillary net- 
work are removed, as in the atrophy of 
the tail of the tadpole, and of the pupil- 
lary membrane in the foetus, and in the 
development of cells in bones. 

2. Cutaneous Absorption. A function 
of the skin, by which certain prepara- 
tions, rubbed into the skin, have the 
same action as when given internally, 
only in a less degree. Thus, mercury, 
applied in this manner, cures syphilis, 
and excites salivation ; tartrate of anti- 
mony is said to occasion vomiting ; and 
arsenic produces poisonous effects. 

3. Absorption, in Chemistry. This term 
denotes the passage of a gas or vapour 
into a liquid or solid substance ; or that of 
a liquid into the pores of a solid. Thus, 
water absorbs carbonic acid gas, lime 
absorbs water, &c. 

ABSTERGENTS [abstergeo, to cleanse). 
Abstersives. Lotions, or other applica- 
tions for cleansing sores. Applied to 
suppurating surfaces, they are called 
detersives. 

ABSTINENCE {abstineo, to abstain). 
Cura famis. Excessive or total privation 
of food. 

ABSTRACTION {abstraho. to draw 
away). The process of distilling a liquid 
from any substance. See Cohobation. 



ACC 

ACA'CIA (uKafo), to sharpen). A genus 
of spiny trees and shrubs, of the order 
Leguminosa: . 

1. Acacia Catechu. The Khair tree, 
which yields the Catechu, or Terra Ja- 
ponica. 

2. Acacia Vera. The Egyptian Thorn, 
which yields the Gum Arabic. This sub- 
stance is produced by other species of 
this genus, as A. Arabica and Senega- 
lensis. 

3. Mucilago Acacia. Mucilage of Gum 
Arabic; a preparation consisting of one 
part of gum and two of water. 

ACALE'PHiE (iKoX^^n. a nettle). 
Sea-nettles ; a class of gelatinous zoo- 
phytes found in the waters of the ocean, 
and so named from the sensation which 
they produce when touched. See Zoology. 

ACANTHA (aKavtia, a thorn). A spine 
or prickle of a plant. A prickly fin of 
a fish. A spinous process of a vertebra. 
The term has been used for the spina 
dorsi. Hence, 

1. Acantha-bolus (/3d\\&», to strike). 
Volsella. An instrument for extracting 
splinters of bones, &c., from wounds, the 
pharynx, &c. 

2. Acantho-pterygii (irrepv^, a fin). 
Spinous-finned fishes, or fishes whose 
back-fins are bony and prickly. 

ACARDIAC (o, priv., (capita, the 
heart). Without a heart. 

A'CARUS (IxKapt, a very minute ani- 
malcule, from a, priv., and Keipu), to cut; 
a kind of animal atom). A mite found 
in cheese ; a tick, said to be found in the 
pustules of the itch. 

ACATAPOSIS (o, priv., Kardiroaif, 
deglutition). An inability to swallow 
liquids ; synon)Tnous with hydrophobia. 

ACAULIS (a, priv., KavXdt, a cabbage- 
stalk). Stemless ; a term applied to cer- 
tain plants, of which the stem is so short 
as to be almost reduced to nothing. The 
term suhcaulescent would be preferable in 
these cases. 

ACAWERIA. The Singalese desig- 
nation of the root of the Ophioxylon ser- 
pentinum, a supposed antidote to the 
venom of serpents. 

ACCELERATION [accelero, to hasten). 
Increased rapidity, as of the pulse, of the 
respiration, &c. 

ACCELERATOR (accelero, to hasten). 
A muscle which contracts to expel or 
accelerate the passage of the urine. 

ACCESSION (accedo, to approach). 
I'he approach or commencement of the 
pyrexial period, in fevers. 

ACCESSORII WILLISII [accedo, to 
8 



ACE 

be added to). The superior respiratory 
nerves ; a pair arising from the spinal 
marrow, and joining the par vagum. 

ACCIDENTAL COLOURS. A series 
of optical phenomena, so named by 
BulTon, and now known by the name of 
Ocular Spectra. If the eye be steadily 
directed, for some time, to a white wafer 
upon a dark ground, and be then turned 
aside, a well-defined image of the wafer 
will be perceived, with the colours re- 
versed ; the wafer will appear dark, the 
ground white. This new appearance is 
termed the accidental colour, or ocular 
spectrum. By using diflferently coloured 
wafers, we obtain the fillowing results : 
Colour of Wafer. Colour of Spectra. 

Black White. 

White Black. 

Red Bluish Green. 

Orange Blue. 

Yellow Indigo. 

^,„ „ /Violet, with 

^^^^" i aUttleRed. 

Blue •. Orange Red. 

Indigo Orange Yellow. 

Violet Bluish Green. 

Darwin classes the Spectra under the 
two heads of direct and reverse; the 
former depending upon the permanence 
of the impression, the latter upon ex- 
haustion. 

ACCIPITRES {accipio, to take). Ra- 
pacious birds ; birds of prey : known by 
their hooked beak and talons. They 
are the diurnal and the nocturnal. See 
Zoology. 

ACCLIMATION. Naturalization to 
a foreign or unusual climate; a term 
applied to animals or plants. 

ACCOUCHEMENT (accoucher, to be 
brought to bed). Parturition ; a woman's 
delivery; the expulsion of the foetus 
from the uterus. 

ACCRETION {accresco, to grow to). 
The addition of new parts, as in the for- 
mation of a crystal by the position of new 
parts around a central nucleus. The 
organic and inorganic kingdoms are dis- 
tinguished by their mode of increase; 
the former increasing by intussusception 
and alimentation, the latter by accretion 
without alimentation. 

-ACEOUS. Terminations in -aceous 
denote a resemblance to a substance, as 
membranaceous, resembling membrane ; 
whereas terminations in -ous denote the 
substance itself, as membranous, belong- 
ing to membrane. 

ACEPHALA (a, priv., Ke<pa\i], the 
head). Headless animals ; a class of ani- 
B2 



ACE 



ACH 



mals having no head, but merely a mouth 
concealed within the folds of their mantle, 
as the oyster. See Zoology. 

ACEPHALOCYST (a, priv., Ke^aX.';, 
the head, klcttk, a bladder). The hydatid, 
or headless bladder-worm. See Vermes. 

ACERIC ACID. A peculiar acid said 
to exist in the sap of the Acer campestre, 
or common Maple, in the state of acerate 
of lime. 

ACERVULUS (dim. of acerws, aheap). 
Literally, a little heap ; a term applied 
by Soemmering to a small quadrilateral 
mass of concretions collected under the 
tela choroidea, near the posterior com- 
missure of the brain. 

ACESCENT {acesco, to become sour). 
A term applied to substances which be- 
come sour spontaneously, as vegetable 
and animal juices, or infusions. 

ACETABULUM {acetum, vinegar). 
Literally, a vinegar-cruet. Hence it de- 
notes the cup-like cavity of the os inno- 
minatum, which receives the head of the 
OS femoris. Also, a Roman measure con- 
taining two ounces and a half. 

ACETO'S^ FOLIA {acetum, vinegar). 
Common Sorrel leaves ; the leaves of the 
Rumex Acetosa. Their qualities depend 
on the presence of binoxalate of potassa. 

ACE'TUM [acer, sour). Vinegar. The 
varieties of vinegar known in commerce 
are three: wine vinegar, malt vinegar, 
and sugar vinegar. The strongest malt 
vinegar is termed proof vinegar, and is 
called by the manufacturer No. 24 ; it is 
estimated to contain 473 percent, of real 
acetic acid. These vinegars are formed 
by fermentation. 

1. Acidum aceticum. The sour prin- 
ciple which exists in vinegar. It occurs, 
ready formed, in several products of the 
vegetable kingdom, and is generated 
during the spontaneous fermentation of 
many vegetable and animal juices. By 
real acetic acid is meant such an acid as 
occurs in a dry acetate; it cannot exist 
in an uncombined state. 

2. Acidum aceticum dilutum. Common 
distilled vinegar ; dilute acetic acid, with 
very minute portions of uncombined mu- 
cilage and extractive. 

3. Acidum aceticum fortius. This va- 
riety is obtained by distillation from wood, 
generally that of oak coppice deprived of 
its bark, and is then termed pyroligneous 
acid; by decomposing the acetates by 
sulphuric acid, and is then termed 
radical vinegar ; and when mixed with 
camphor and essential oils, it is called 
' Henry's Aromatic Essence of Vinegar,' 

4 



and Marseilles or Thieves' Vinegar, or 
Vinaigre des quatre voleurs. See Glacial 
Acid. 

4. Acelas. An acetate ; a salt formed 
by the union of acetic acid with an alka- 
line, earthy, or metallic base. 

5. Acetis. An acetite ; a term formerly 
applied to those salts which are now 
called acetates. 

6. Acetica. Preparations of vinegar, 
consisting of vegetable principles dis- 
solved in vinegar, as that of colchicum, 
that of squill. 

7. Aceto-meter {/.lerpov, a measure). An 
instrument for estimating the strength 
of vinegars. 

8. Acetal. A compound of aldehyde 
with ether ; formed by tlie action of pla- 
tinum black on the vapour of alcohol 
with the presence of oxygen. It is a 
colourless, very fluid liquid, having a pe- 
culiar odour, suggesting that of Hungary 
wines. 

9. Acetone. The new chemical name 
for pyro-acetic spirit; a limpid, colourless 
liquid, prepared by distilling a mixture 
of two parts of cr>'stallized acetate of 
lead and one part of quicklime in a saJt- 
glaze jar. It is highly inflammable, and 
burns with a white flame. 

10. Acetyl. A hypothetical radical, 
produced by the abstraction of two atoms 
of oxygen from ethyl, by oxidating pro- 
cesses. It pervades a series of com- 
pounds, including acetic acid, from which 
it derives its name. 

ACH^NIUM (a, priv., xaiVto, to open). 
An indehiscent fruit ; it is one-ceUed, 
one-seeded, superior, hard, and dry, with 
the integuments of the seed distinct from 
it. It occurs in the Labiatae and the 
BoraginejB. 

ACHILLIS TENDO (tendon of Achil- 
les). The strong tendon of the gastro- 
cnemius and soleus muscles, which is 
inserted in the heel. 

ACHLAMYD EOUS (a, priv., xXajuw, 
a cloak). The name of those plants in 
which the floral envelopes— ttve calyx and 
the corolla— are both absent. 

A'CHOR {axvpov, chaff). A small 
acuminated pustule, which contains a 
straw-coloured matter, and is succeeded 
by a thin brown or yellowish scab. See 
Favus. 

ACHROA (a, priv., xpoa, colour). A 
colourless state of the skin, depending 
upon a want of the pigmentary or usual 
colouring matter of the rete mucosum. 
Compare Dyschroa. 

ACHROMATIC (a, priv., x^iwixa, co- 



ACI 



AGO 



lour). Without colour; lenses are so 
designated, in which the dispersion of 
light is corrected. 

ACICULAR {acicula, a little needle). 
A term applied, in Crystallography, to 
needle-shaped crystals; and, in Botany, to 
the leaves of certain plants which are 
long, stiff, and pointed, like a needle. 

ACID. A compound which is capable 
of uniting in definite proportions with 
alkaline bases, and which, when liquid 
or in a state of solution, has either a sour 
taste, or reddens litmus paper. 

1. The A^ames of Acids, formed from 
the same base, vary in their terminations, 
according to the quantity of oxygen 
which they are presumed to contain. 
Thus, Acids which terminate in ic de- 
note the maximum of oxidation ; in ous, 
a lower proportion ; those which begin 
with hi/per {virep, above) denote an ex- 
cess of oxidation ; v.'ith hypo (utto, under), 
the lowest proportion. See Sal. 

2. The Acids which terminate in ic 
form compounds which terminate in ate; 
those which terminate in ous form com- 
pounds which terminate in ite ; thus, 
sulphuric acid forms salts which are 
called sulTphates, while sulphuroMs acid 
forms salts which are called sulphides. 

3. Acidifinhle. A term applied to sub- 
stances capable of being converted into 
an acid by an acidifying principle. Sub- 
stances possessing this property are called 
radicals, or acidifiable bases. 

4. Acidifying Principle. That which 
possesses the property of converting a 
substance into an acid. Oxygen was 
formerly supposed to be the general 
acidifying principle of nature : no such 
general principle, however, exists. 

5. Acidi-metry (nerpov, a measure). 
The measurement of the strength of 
acids. A given weight of an acid sub- 
stance is saturated by an alkaline base, 
the quantity of which, requisite for this 
purpose, is the measure of its power. 

6. Acidulous. Slightly acid; a term 
applied to those salts in which the base 
is combined with such an excess of acid 
that they manifestly exhibit acid proper- 
ties, as the supertartrate of potassa. 

ACINESIA (a, priv., Kivea, to move). 
Loas of motion. 

AC INI (pi. of acinus, a grape-stone). 
The minute pans of the lobules of the 
liver, connected together by vessels. 

Aciniform (forma, likeness). A term 
applied by the old anatomists to the cho- 
roid, from its resemblance to the grains 
of the raisin. 
5 



ACIPENSER. The Sturgeon. A 
genus of the seventh order of Pisces. 
from which isinglass is prepared. See 
Zoology. 

ACNE [aKvri, quasi uic/u*;, from its ap- 
pearance in youth, or at the acme of the 
system ; or from ax*")) chaff, down, 
scurf). Stone-pock, maggot pimple, or 
whelks ; tubercular tumours slowly sup- 
purating, chiefly occurring on the face. 

1. A. Simplex. Simple pimple. 

2. A. Punctata. Maggot pimple. Grubs. 

3. A. Indurata. Stone-pock. 

4. A. Rosacea. Rosy drop. Carbuncled 
face. The Gutta rosea or rosacea. 

ACOLOGY (oKor, a remedy, Xofoi, 
a description). That department of 
Therapeutics which relates to the con- 
sideration of remedies. By some authors 
the term is limited to the consideration 
of surgical and mechanical remedies. 

ACONITUM NAPELLUS. Common 
Monk's-hood, or Wolf s-bane ; a plant of 
the order Ranuvculacece, and one of our 
most active narcotico-acrid poisons. The 
aconiii folia of the Pharmacopoeia appear 
to be the produce of the Aconitum pa- 
niculatum, the species introduced into 
medicine by Stoerck. 

1. Aconitic acid. An acid obtained 
from species of the genus Aconitum. It 
is also procured by the decomposition of 
citric acid by heat. It occurs in the form 
of small confused crystals. 

2. Aconitine. An alkaloid obtained 
from the dried and bruised root and 
leaves of several species of aconite. It 
is in the highest degree poisonous. 

ACOPA (a, priv., kottov, fatigue). 
Medicines against fatigue. Celsus. 

ACORIA (a, priv., Kopew, to satisfy). 
Insatiable hunger. 

ACORUS CALAMUS. Common Sweet 
Flag ; a plant of the order Aroidece, yield- 
ing the calamus aromalicus. 

ACOTYLEDONES (a, priv., KOTi;\ri- 
5a)i/, a seed-lobe). Acotyledonous plants ; 
plants whose embryos have no cotyledons, 
or seed lobes. But the acotyledonous 
embryo is not exactly, as its name seems 
to indicate, an embrj'O without cotyle- 
dons ; for, in that case, cuscuta would be 
acotyledonous. On the contrary, it is an 
embryo which does not germinate from 
two fixed invariable points, namely, the 
plumule and the radicle, but indifferently 
from any point of the surface, as in some 
Araceae, and in all flowerless plants. 

ACOUSTIC {aKovu>, to hear). Relating 
to the hearing, as the nervus acousticus 
B 3 



ACT 



ADD 



vel auditorius— the portio mollis of the 
seventh pair. See Auditory. 

ACRATIA (a, priv., Kpdroi, strength). 
Weakness ; intemperance 

ACROS (aKpot). Extreme. An ad- 
jective denoting the termination of any 
thing. 

1. Acro-byatia {/3vio, to stop up). The 
extremity of the prepuce ; or that part 
which covers the glans penis. 

2. Acro-cheir (xeJp, the hand). A term 
used by Hippocrates to designate the 
fore-arm and hand. 

3. Acro-ckordon {xop6i], a string). An 
excrescence on the skin, with a slender 
base. 

4. Acro-gen(yevvdu>, to T^Toiuce). Point- 
grower ; the name of a plant which grows 
only at its point or top, as a fern tree. It 
is distinguished from an exogen, which 
grows by deposition on the exterior, and 
from an endogen which grows by depo- 
sition towards the interior, of its trunk. 

5. Acr-oleine (oleum, oil). A substance 
of a highly pungent odour, given off by 
oils and fats when boiling at a high tem- 
perature. It is a sure and delicate test of 
the presence of glycerine in the oil. 

6. Acro-pathia {irddo^, disease). A dis- 
ease at any extremity of the body. Hip- 
pocrates applies this term to disease of 
the internal orifice of the uterus, and to 
cancer. 

7. Acro-posthia {TroaOn, the prepuce). 
The extremity of the prepuce; a term 
synonymous with acro-bystia. 

8. Acrospire {a-ireTpa, a spire). That 
part of a germinating embrj'o which bo- 
tanists call the plumula. It is sometimes 
called plantula. 

9. Acro-thymion {Ou^jluv, a wart). A 
conical, rugated, bleeding wart. 

10. Acr-olenion {wXevrt, the cubit). The 
upper extremity of the ulna; a term 
synonymous with olecranon. 

11. Acr-omion {ojij.ot, the shoulder). 
The humeral extremity of the spinous 
process of the scapula. 

12. Acr-omphalion (oij.(})a\6t, umbili- 
cus). The extremity of the umbilicus, 
or navel. 

ACROTISMUS (a, priv., Kporo^, pulse). 
Defect of pulse. Asphyxia is the term 
employed for this affection by Ploucquet. 
See Crotophus. 

ACTiEA RACEMOSA. Black snake- 
root; an American plant, recommended 
for its expectorant, antispasmodic, and 
diaphoretic properties. 

ACTI'NIA {Ur'iv, a ray of light). Sea 
Anemones or Animal Flowers ; so named 
6 



from the resemblance of their numerous 
tentacula to the petals of a flower. 

ACTI'NOLITE (ukt;,-, a ray of light, 
A«0or, a stone). A green-coloured mine- 
ral, forming a variety of hornblende. 

ACTINOMETER (uKrii/, a ray of 
light, ixe-rpov, a measure). An instru- 
ment for measuring the intensity of 
light. This instrument indicates the 
force of sunshine at the Cape of Good 
Hope as 48'^ 75', while ordinary good 
sunshine in England is only from 25° to 
30°. 

ACTION {ago, to act). The motions 
or changes observed in the animal body. 
These are voluntjury, involuntary, and 
mixed. 

1. Voluntary actions are those pro- 
duced by acts of the will, as the contrac- 
tions of the muscles. 

2. Involuntary actions are those ex- 
cited either mediately, through the nerves 
and spinal marrow, as those of the larynx, 
pharj'nx, sphincters, &c. ; or immediately, 
as those of the irritability. 

3. Mixed actions are those motions oi 
alternations of inspiration and expiration 
which constitute the acts of respiration. 

ACUPUNCTURE {acusy a needle, 
pungo, to prick). The insertion of needles 
into the skin or flesh. 

ACUTENACULUM {acus, a needle, 
tenaculum, a handle). A needle-handle ; 
the name given by Heister to the porte- 
aiguiUe. 

ADAMANT (a, priv., dajua'w, to sub- 
due). The former name of the diamond. 

Adamantine Spar. The crystals of Co- 
rundum, so named from their being next 
in hardness to adamant. 

ADDITAMENTUM {addo, to add). 
A term applied to the sutures which con- 
nect the parietal and occipital bones to 
the mastoid portion of the temporal. 

Additamentum pedum hippocampi. The 
name given to a bulging observed in the 
substance which forms the bottom of the 
ventricles of the brain ; it follows the 
direction of the cornua ammonis, and ia 
sometimes equally large. 

ADDITIONS {addo, to add). The 
trivial name applied to such articles as 
are added to the fermenting wash of the 
distiller. 

ADDUCTOR {addttco, to draw to). 
Adducent. A muscle whose office is 
to bring one part toward another. Thus, 
the rectus intemus is also called adductor 
oculi, from the action of this muscle in 
turning the eye towards the nose. Its 
antagonist is called abductor. 



ADH 



ADO 



ADELPHIA {a8e\<p6t, a brother). 
Literally, a brotherhood ; a term applied 
in botany to a combination of the fila- 
ments of the stamens into a single mass. 
Thus, if there is only one combination, 
r.s in Mallow, the filaments are said to be 
tnon-udelphom ; if there are two, as in 
Pea, they are di-adelphous ; if three, as in 
some species of St. John's Wort, they are 
tri-adelphous; if many, as in Melaleuca, 
they are called poly-adelphous. The 
tube formed by the union of monadel- 
phous filaments is termed, by Mirbel, 
androphorum. 

ADEMONIA (iSri/uovew, to be in 
despair). A term used by Hippocrates to 
denote anxiety, restlessness, &c. 

ADEN (ix6i]v). A gland. Hence, 

1. Adeno-graphy (ypd^u), to describe). 
A treatise on the glands. 

2. Adenoid {et3o?, likeness). Resem- 
bling a gland; a term applied by Dr. 
Craigie to the flesh-like tumour of the 
brain. 

3. Adeno-logy {\6yot, a treatise). The 
doctrine of the glands. 

4. Adeno-phyma ((pvtxa, a suppurating 
tumour). A swelling of a gland ; as it 
occurs in the liver, it is called hepato- 
phyma ; but as it occurs in the inguinal 
gland, it is termed bubo, 

ADEPHAGIA (&6nv, abundantly. 
^)d7&), to eat). Voracious appetite. See 
Bulimia. 

ADEPS. Fat ; animal oil. Hence, 

1. Adeps prcuparata. L. Prepared 
Lard. This preparation is bought, ready 
prepared, run into bladders. 

2. Adeps suillus. D. Hog's lard ; the 
fat of the Sus scrofa ; vulgo, axungia 
porcina, used in the formation of oint- 
ments, plasters, and liniments. 

3. Adeps anserinus. Goose grease; 
formerly used as an emollient in ene- 
mata, and as a mUd emetic. 

4. Adeps ovillus. Sevum, or mutton 
suet. 

ADHESION {adheereo, to stick to). 
The process by which parts which have 
been separated by accident or design 
unite. This is owing to an intervening 
deposit of coagulating lymph, or albu- 
mino-fibrin, commonly called cicatrix. 

1. Union by the first intention is a term 
used by Galen to express the union of 
surfaces, by bringing them into accurate 
contact with each other. It is now gene- 
rally called the process of adhesion, or 
adhesive inflammation. 

2. Union by the second intention is 
a term used by the same author to de- 

7 



note other processes which take place in 
the healing of wounds, when their sur- 
faces unite more slowly. These aie now 
generally comprised imder the term 
gra?iulation. 

ADIANTUM (a, priv., diaivco, to 
moisten). A genus of Ferns, so called 
because they cannot easily be made wet. 

A. Capillus Veneris. Maiden-hair ; the 
species from which capillaire is made. 

ADIAPHORUS (a, priv., biacpipei, it 
differs). A volatile inodorous principle 
extracted from tartar by distUlation. 

ADIAPNEUSTIA (a, priv., &ia, 
through, jTvew, to breathe). Defective or 
impeded perspiration. Nearly synony- 
mous with adiaphoresis. 

ADIPIC ACID {adeps, adipis, fat). 
An acid obtained by treating oleic with 
nitric acid. 

ADIPOCIRE {adeps, fat, cera, wax). 
The fatty spermaceti-like substance into 
which muscle is converted by long im- 
mersion in water or spirit, or by burial in 
moist earth. 

Adipocire mineral. A fatty matter 
found in the argillaceous iron ore of 
Merthyr ; it emits a slightly bituminous 
odour when heated. 

ADIPOSE MEMBRANE, or TISSUE. 
That which encloses the adeps, or fat. 

ADIPO'SIS {adeps, fat). Excessive 
deposition, or hypertrophy of the adipose 
substance. 

ADIPSA (a, priv., 6lxl,a, thirst). Me- 
dicines which quench thirst. A term 
applied by Hippocrates to oxymel. 

ADIPSIA (a, priv., di^a, thirst). The 
total absence of thirst ; one of the dys- 
orexicE, or false or defective appetites, of 
CuUen. 

ADJUVANS {adjuvo, to help). A con- 
stituent part of a medicinal formula, de- 
noting ' that which assists and promotes 
the operation.' See Prescription. 

ADNATA {adnascor, to grow to). 
Literally, grown to, or adhering ; a term 
applied to the tunica conjunctiva, or 
external coat of the eye. This term is 
applied, in botany, to the anther, when 
it is attached to the filament by its back. 
See Anther. 

ADOLESCENCE {adolesco, to grow). 
The period of life in which the body has 
acquired its utmost development ; com- 
mencing at puberty, and terminating, in 
the male, about the twenty-fifth, and in 
the female, in the twenty-first year. 

ADOPTER, or ADAPTER. A vessel 
with two necks placed between a retort 
B4 



JEOL 



JESC 



and a receiver, and servinfj to measure 
the length of the neck of the former. 

ADRAGANT (a corruption of traga- 
canth). A gum obtained from several 
species of Astragalus. It consists, in 
great measure, of a scaly substance, 
called adragantine. 

ADULT {adolesco, to grow). That 
which has reached the period when the 
body has acquired its full development. 
This extends, in the male, from the 
twenty- fifth to the fiftieth year; in the 
female, from the twenty-first to the forty- 
fifth. 

ADULTERATION {adultero, to adul- 
terate). The mixing up noxious or inert 
ingredients with articles of food or medi- 
cine ; the debasing any product of manu- 
facture, especially chemical, by the intro- 
duction of cheap materials. 

ADUSTION (aduro, to burn). The 
action of heat, as applied to the body. 

AD-UTERUM. The analogue in birds 
of the Fallopian tubes, or of the Cornua 
in the Mammalia. 

ADVENTITIOUS {advenio, to come 
to). Accidental, casual, that which is 
not normal ; that which comes from some 
other person or thing ; a term applied to 
false membranes; or opposed to the 
term hereditary. 

ADYNAMIA (o, priv., duvafitu, power). 
The defect of power. 

.lEDOlA {aiSoTa, pudenda, from, aldoos, 
pudor). The pudenda. Hence, 

1. jEdo-ptosis {iTTuicrci, lapsus). Pro- 
lapsus of one or more of the pudenda. 
Sauvages and Sagar apply the term to 
the meatus urinarius, as weU as to the 
uterus. 

2. jEdo-psophia {^6(poi, a noise). Fla- 
tus from the urethra, or per vaginam. 

iEGAGROPILUS (aif , a goat, ayptor, 
wild, TTiXof , a ball of hair). A hair-ball ; 
a concretion sometimes found in the in- 
testines of the Ruminantia, &c. See 
Bezoar. 

iEGILOPS (alf, a goat, Ih^,, the eye). 
Anchilops. A sore just under the inner 
angle of the eye, so called from the sup- 
position that goats were subject to it. 

^GOBRONCHOPHONY. The bleat- 
ing and broncliial voice, the principal 
sjTTiptora in pleuropneumonia. See Aus- 
cultation. 

^GOPHONY (aTf, a goat, 0gov^, a 
voice). A peculiar sound of the voice, 
resembling the bleating of a goat. See 
Auscultation. 

^OLIPILE {Moli pila, ^olus' ball). 
A hollow metal ball with a slender pipe 



for the purpose of converting water into 
steam . 

AER {ut]p, uhpot, air). This prefix 
denotes the presence of air or gas in the 
following terms : — 

1. Aerate. To impregnate with car- 
bonic acid gas, or fixed air, as in aerated 
or gas waters. The process is termed 
aeration. 

2. Aerial Acid. The name given by 
Bergmann to Carbonic Acid, from an idea 
that it entered into the composition of 
atmospheric air. 

3. Aeri-form {forma, likeness). Air- 
like; a term applied to gaseous fluids, 
from the resemblance to common air. 

4. Aero-lite (\i6ot, a stone). Air-stone; 
meteoric stone ; a mineral substance which 
falls through the air. 

5. Aero-meter {fxerpov, a measure). An 
instrument constructed by Dr. M. Hall 
for ascertaining the changes in the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere ; in the baro- 
metrical pressure ; in the external and 
internal heights of the fluid in the pneu- 
matic trough ; and when this trough con- 
tains water, for the elevation and pre- 
cipitation of aqueous vapour. 

6. Aero-phobia (0o/3ea), to fear). The 
dread of air ; a symptom of hydrophobia. 

7. Aero-scopy {a-Koneia, to investigate). 
The investigation of the air. 

8. Aero-station. The art of raising 
heavy bodies into the atmosphere, by the 
buoyancy of heated air, or gases of small 
specific gravity, enclosed in a balloon, 

^RO SUS LAPIS {(ss, copper). The 
name given by Pliny to the lapis calanii- 
naris, from the notion of its being a 
copper ore. 

^RU'GO ((Ts, copper). Verdigris ; an 
impure sub-acetate of copper, formed by 
placing plates of the metal in contact 
with the fermenting marc of the grape, 
or with cloth dipped in vinegar. See 
Verdigris. 

MS CORINTHIUM. A kind of brass 
produced, as it is said, by an accidental 
mixture of metals at the burning of Co- 
rinth ; it appears, however, from Pliny 
to have been in use at Corinth long 
before the burning of that city. 

jES USTUM. Burnt copper; a pre- 
paration consisting of equal parts of cop- 
per and rough brimstone, laid in strata, 
with a small quantity of common salt 
sprinkled on each layer, and exposed to 
the fire till the brimstone is burned out. 
It has been called ces Veneris, ces creman- 
tum, cinis erris, crocus Veneris, &c. 

^SCULINE. An alkaloid lately dis- 



^TH 



AFF 



covered in the bark of the Msculus Hip- 
pocastanum, or Horse Chestnut; sup- 
posed to be febrifuge. 

^STHESIA {aUenarti, sensibility, 
from alaOdvonai, to perceive). Percep- 
tion ; feeling ; sensibility. 

1. Dys-asthesia. Defective perception ; 
a morbid state ■ of the corporeal senses 
generally. 

2. Jn-esstliesia. Absence of the sense 
of touch. The former term is extended 
to aU the senses ; the present is limited 
to a single sense ! 

3. jEstheterium. The sensorium. 
^ESTIVATION {astivus, belonging to 

summer). Prafloration. A term used 
in botany, to express the manner in 
wliich the parts of a flower are arranged 
with respect to each other, before their 
expansion. Comp£ire Vernation. 

M&T\]S VOLATICUS {astus, heat, 
volo, to fly). A term applied to transient 
heats, or erythema of the face 

VETAS. Age; a term including the 
several states of life, as infancy, youth, 
old age, &c. The best Roman writers 
expressed these periods in the following 
terms : — 

1. JStes firmata. The prime or full 
strength of age ; the age of thirty. 

2. jEtas constans. The steady age; 
the age of forty. 

3. jEtas maiura. The age of maturity, 
or prudence ; the age of fifty. 

4. jEtas provecta. Advanced age. 

5. JEtas ingravescens. The burthen- 
some age ; the weight of years. 

6. JEtas decrepita. Decrepit age, as 
relates to the countenance and state of 
old age. 

7. JEtas affecta. The state of total 
decay in the human frame. 

8. Mtas exacta, vel precipitata. The 
decline of age ; the end of life. 

9. JEtas extrema. The approaching 
end of life. 

iETHER {a\er](,, ether). A highly vo- 
latile and inflammable fluid, produced by 
the action of acids on alcohol. 

1. jEther Hoffmanni. Hoifman's ano- 
dyne solution, or the Spiritus JEtheris 
Sulphurici Compositus. L. 

2. jEther sulphuricus rectificatus. L. 
Rectified ether. This is the ethereal 
liquor sold under the names of Ether, 
and Sulphuric or Vitriolic Ether. 

3. JEther nitrosus. Nitrous ether, or 
the Naphtha Nitri. 

4. Mther sulphuricus. L. Sulphuric 
or Vitriolic ether, or Naphtha Vitrioli. 

iETHIOPS (al'^w, to burn, ajf, the 



eye). The name of a medicine, so called 
from its black appearance, resembling 
that of the iEthiop. 

1. uEthiops mineral. The black sul- 
phuret of mercury, or the Hydrargyri 
sulphuretum cum sulphure. L. As an 
anthelmintic, it has received the name of 
poudre vermifuge mercurielle. 

2. JEthiops per se. The name given 
by Boerhaave to the grey oxide formed 
by long agitation of mercury in a bottle 
half full of air. 

3. jEthiops vegetabilis. A name given 
to a species of charcoal, prepared by burn- 
ing the fucus vesiculosus in the open air, 
and reducing it to a b^ack powder. 

4. .iEthiops antimonialis. A term ap- 
plied in Germany to a compound of the 
hydrargyri sulphuretum cum sulphure 
with sulphuret of antimony. 

5. jEthiops Martial. An old name for 
the deutoxide of iron. 

iETHOGEN (ai'</<oi/, brilliant, yeivoiJiai, 
to become). A compound of boron and 
nitrogen, lately discovered by Mr. Bal- 
main. It gives a brilliant phosphorescent 
light when heated before the blowpipe. 

iETHRIOSCOPE {alOpia, serene wea- 
ther, aKoirem, to examine). An instru- 
ment invented by Sir John Leslie for 
indicating the power of the clouds in 
preventing radiation. It consists of the 
diflferential thermometer, having one of 
the balls excluded from the light, and 
the other placed in a polished metallic 
cup. Exposed to a clear part of the sky, 
the heat radiated from it escapes rapidly, 
and the temperature falls ; exposed to 
a cloud, the radiated heat is restored, and 
there is no reduction of temperature. 

iETHUSA CYNAPIUM. Lesser Hem- 
lock, or Fool's Parsley; a plant of the 
order Umbelliferce, possessing poisonous 
properties. It yields an alkaloid, called 
cynapia. 

iETIOLOGY (airm, a cause, \6yo?, 
a treatise). The doctrine of the causes of 
disease. 

iETITES LAPIS (ierif, an eagle). 
Eagle-stone, a variety of iron ore; so 
called from the belief that it was found 
in the nest of the eagle, where it was 
supposed to prevent the eggs from be- 
coming rotten. 

AFFINITY (affinitas, relationship). 
That kind of attraction by which different 
classes of bodies combine to form new 
bodies, as in the case of an acid with an 
alkali, forming a salt. The term was 
introduced from the idea that chemical 
attraction takes place between those 
B.5 



AFF 



AGE 



substances only which resemble each 
other. 

1. Single affinity is the power by which 
two elementary bodies combine. 

2. Elective affinity denotes the pre- 
ference which one body manifests in 
combining with another, rather than 
with a third, a fourth, &c. 

3. Double elective affinity occurs when 
two compounds decompose each other, 
and two new compounds are formed, by 
an exchange of elements. This is also 
called double decomposition, or complex 
affinity. 

4. Quiescent affinity is that which tends 
to maintain the elements of a compound 
in their present state, preventing decom- 
position. This, and the following term, 
were introduced by Kirwan. 

5. Divellent affinity is that which tends 
to arrange the particles of a compound in 
a new form, producing decomposition. 
In mixing different compounds, if the 
sum total of the divellent be more power- 
ful than that of the quiescent affinities, 
decomposition takes place. 

6. Disposing affinity is that which pro- 
motes the tendency of bodies to combine 
in a particular way, by presenting to 
them a third substance which exerts 
a strong attraction to the compound they 
form; when the combination has been 
effected, the third substance may be 
withdrawn. Some writers call this ten- 
dency to unite, the affinity of intermedium. 
BerthoUet styles it reciprocal affinity. 

7. BerthoUet distinguishes affinity into 
elementary, when it takes place between 
the elementary parts of bodies ; and re- 
sulting, when it is a compound only, and 
would not take place with the elements 
of that compound. 

AFFLATUS {afflo, to blow to). A 
blast, vapour, or blight. A species of ery- 
sipelas, which attacks persons suddenly. 

AFFLUXUS {affiuo, to flow to). Forma 
specifica. Names given in former times 
to a supposed reciprocal influence of ter- 
restrial bodies ; it was compared to the 
effect of a magnet on iron, and of amber 
on chaff. 

AFFUSION {affundo, to pour upon). 
Generally, the pouring of water over the 
surface of the body, the head, &c. There 
are different kinds of affusions, as, 

1. Lotions, which consist in washing 
a part of the body with a sponge or rag 
soaked in a liquid. 

2. Aspersions, which consist in throw- 
ing a liquid, drop by drop, like rain, upon 
the body. 

10 



3. Shower baths, which consist in 
throwing a column of water with more 
or less violence upon the surface of the 
body. When water is thrown from a 
considerable height, this kind of affusion 
is termed by the French douche, or dash. 
AFTER-BIRTH. A temi applied to 
the placenta and the membranes of the 
ovum, from their being expelled after the 
delivery of the foetus. 

AFTER-PAINS. A term applied to 
the contractions of the uterus which are 
continued for a certain length of time 
after delivery. 

AGALACTIA (a, priv., -^dXa, milk). 
The defect of milk after child-birth. 

AGAMOUS (a, priv., ya/utoj, marriage). 
Sex-less ; a term applied to the cryptoga- 
mous plants, from the notion that they 
possess no sexual characters. 

AGARICUS. Agaric; the generic name 
of the mushroom family : Ordet, Fungi ; 
Class, Cryptogarnia. 

Agaricus Quercut. Boletus igniarius; 
Agaric of the Oak, or Touchwood; 
a fungus formerly used for arresting ex- 
ternal haemorrhages. 

AGARICUS MINERALIS. The 
mountain milk or meal of the Germans; 
one of the purest of the native carbo- 
nates of lime, found in clefts of rocks, 
&c. It is named from its resemblance to 
an agaric in texture and colour. Kirwan 
calls it argillomurite ; Haiiy, talc pulve- 
rulent silicifere ; Brochant considers it as 
a variety of meerschaum; the Germans 
call it bergmehl, or mountain meal ; and 
the Italians, latte di luna, or moon mUk. 

AGATE. A hard siliceous stone, used 
by lapidaries for engraving seals, cameos, 
and other objects of ornament. It is 
composed chiefly of quartz with various 
colouring matters. 

AGAVE CUBENSIS. A species of 
American aloe, the roots of which resem- 
ble the red sarsaparilla of the shops. 

AGEDOITE. A name erroneously 
given by Robiquet to the juice of the 
liquorice root, which is, in fact, <w- 
paragin. 

AGENNESIA (a, priv., yewaa, to be- 
get). Male sterility; inability to beget 
offspring. As applied to the brain, it 
denbtes imperfect development and atro- 
phy of that organ. 

AGENT {ago, to act). A substance 
capable of producing chemical action. 

AGES OF LIFE. The periods of 
human life characterised by the most 
remarkable processes of development, or 
by their completion, are the following : — 



AGO 



AIR 



1. The period of embryonic life. During 
this period the processes of formation 
and growth are in their greatest activity. 
The organs which are forming present 
none of their functional phenomena, or 
only a gradual commencement of them. 

2. The period of immaturity. This 
period extends from birth to puberty. 
It is marked by growth, by the develop- 
ment of the forms of the different parts 
of the body, and by the gradual percep- 
tion and analysis, by the mind, of the 
different phenomena of the senses. The 
period of childhood comprises the first six 
years; that of boyhood extends to the 
fifteenth year. 

3. The period of maturity. This period 
begins at puberty and ends at the period 
when the generative power is lost, which 
in woman occurs about the forty-fifth or 
fiftieth year. This period is distinguished 
into the ages of youth, and manhood or 
womanhood. 

4. The period of sterility. This period 
extends from the cessation of the fruitful 
exercise of the generative function to 
extreme old age. MUller. 

AGEUSTIA (a, priv., yevonai, to 
taste). Defect or loss of taste ; one of 
the dyscesthesice of Cullen. 

AGGLUTINATION {agglutino, to 
glue). Adhesive union ; the adhesion of 
parts by means of a coagulating sub- 
stance. See Adhesion. 

AGGREGATE {aggregatus, herded 
together). A body, or mass, made up of 
smaller bodies or masses. The smallest 
parts into which an aggregate can be 
divided without destrojing its chemical 
properties are called integrant parts. 

AGGREGATION {aggrego, to bring 
together). A form of attraction, com- 
monly called that of cohesion, by which 
the particles of bodies are aggregated or 
retained in the state of a solid. 

AGLIA {ay\in). A whitish speck of 
the cornea. 

AGNINA MEMBRANA {agninus, 
from agnus, a lamb, membrana, a mem- 
brane). The name given by Aetius to 
one of the membranes of the foetus, from 
its tenderness. 

AGNUS CASTUS. The chaste tree, 
a species of Vitex, formerly celebrated as 
an antaphrodisiac. This name has been 
given to Castor oil, or the oil of the 
Ricinus communis, from its effects upon 
the body and mind. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS (a, priv., yofx^ot, 
a nail). Agomphosis. Looseness of the i 
11 ' 



teeth; a condition, the reverse of gom- 
phosis. 

AGRIA {aypios, wild). The name 
under which Celsus notices the Lichen 
ferus, or wild Lichen, as applied to it by 
the Greeks, from the violence with which 
it rages. 

AGRIPPA(a'ypa, capture, novs, afoot). 
A child born with the feet foremost. 
Hence the name of some celebrated 
Romans. 

AGRYPNIA {'dypa, a capture, vnvoi, 
sleep). Watchfulness ; want of sleep. 

AGRYPNOCOMA {Uypvirvia, sleep- 
lessness, Ku>na, drowsiness). A lethargic 
state without actual sleep. 

AGUE. Intermittent fever. This 
term appears to be derived from a Gothic 
word denoting trembling or shuddering. 

AGUE CAKE. Enlargement of the 
spleen, induced by ague. 

AGUE DROP. A solution of the 
Arsenite of Potassa, or the Liquor Ar- 
senicalis of the Pharmacopoeia. 

AGYRTA (a-ywpif, a crowd of people). 
Formerly a mountebank ; a person who 
collected a crowd about him; a quack. 

AIR (a>7p. aer). In popular language, 
this term denotes the atmosphere, or the 
gaseous flmd which surrounds the earth. 
It consists, when pure, of 20 ox3'gen and 
80 nitrogen: it contains, however, car- 
bonic acid, varying from 3 to 8 parts in 
10,000 by weight. The term is also gene- 
rally used to denote a gas, or a perma- 
nently elastic or aeriform fluid. 

1. Rarefied air is that which is ex- 
panded, or less dense than usual. 

2. Condensed air is that which is ren- 
dered more dense than usual by pressure. 

3. Inflammable air, formerly called 
phlogiston, or phlogisticated air, is a 
term applied to hydrogen gas, owing to 
its inflammable property. 

4. Vital air, formerly called dephlo- 
gisticated air, empyreal air, &c., is a 
term applied to oxygen gas, from its 
being indispensable to the maintenance 
of life. 

5. Fixed air, formerly called mephitic 
air, is a term for carbonic acid, from its 
being found to exist in limestone, from 
which it may be expelled by heat. 

6. Nitrous air is a term for nitric oxide, 
or the deutoxide of nitrogen. 

7. Dephlogisticated nitrous air is a term 
for nitrous oxide, or the protoxide of 
nitrogen. 

8. Alkaline air is a term applied to 
Ammonia, the volatile alkali. 

B6 



ALB 



ALB 



AIX LA CHAPE LLE. A town in the 
south of France, celebrated for its sul- 
phurous waters. 

AL. The Arabic article signifying 
the, prefixed to many terms formerly in 
use, as al-chcmy, al-kahest, al-cohol, &c. 

ALA. A wing. The name of each 
lateral petal of a papilionaceous corolla. 

1. Ala, or pavilion. The upper and 
cartilaginous part of the ear. 

2. Ala majores. Literally, larger wings; 
another term for the labia externa of the 
pudenda. 

3. Alee minores. Literally, lesser wings ; 
a name applied to the two small folds 
formed by the nymphaa. 

4. Al(e nasi. The lateral or moveable 
cartilaginous parts of the nose. 

."5. Alee vesperiilionuin. Literally, bats' 
wings ; the broad ligaments situated be- 
tween the uterus and the Fallopian tubes. 

6. Alee vomeris. Two laminae con- 
stituting the sphenoidal edge of the 
vomer. 

ALABASTER {UXdjSaaTpov ; deriva- 
tion remote). A stone usually white, 
and soft enough to be scratched by iron. 
There are two kinds of it : — 

1. Gypseous alabaster. This is a na- 
tural semi-crystalline sulphate of lime, 
forming a compact gypsum of common 
occurrence ; it presents various colours, 
and is employed for making statues, 
vases, &c. 

2. Calcareous alabaster. This is a car- 
bonate of lime, deposited by the dripping 
of water in stalactitic caves, and fre- 
quently found as a yellowish-white de- 
posit in certain fountains. The oriental 
alabaster is of this kind. 

ALANTINE. A starch-like powder, 
obtained from the Angelica Arckangelica. 

ALARIS (ala, a wing). Pterygoid or 
wing-like; as applied to the pterygoid 
processes of the sphenoid bone, to a liga- 
ment within the knee-joint, and to the 
inner vein of the bend of the arm. 

ALBICANTIA CORPORA {albico, to 
become white). Two white bodies of the 
cerebrum. See Corpus. 

ALBINISM. A state in which the 
skin is of an uniform dull milky white 
colour, the hair resembles bleached flax 
or silk, the iris is pink, and the retina 
and choroid, seen through the pupil, pre- 
sent another shade of the same colour; 
the sight is weak, and strongest in the 
dark. There is the Ethiopian variety, 
found among negroes ; and the European, 
found among Europeans and other white 
nations. See Leucopathia. 
12 



ALBINOES {albus, white). Persons 
in whom the skin, hair, and iris are 
light, and the pigmentum of the eye 
wanting. The term Albino is derived 
from the Portuguese, by whom it was 
applied to individuals found on the coast 
of Africa, who resembled the negroes in 
every respect except in their colour. 

ALBITE. Soda Felspar. A silicate 
of alumina, resembling felspar in its 
properties, with the substitution of soda 
for potash. 

ALBUGINEA {albus, white). Whitish. 
The word timica being understood, we 
have the following terms : — 

1. Albuginea oculi. The fibrous mem- 
brane situated immediately under the 
conjunctiva, fonned by the expansion of 
the tendons of the four recti muscles. 
From the brilliancy of its whiteness, it 
has given rise to the popular expression 
of white of the eye. 

2. Albuginea testis. A thick fibrous 
membrane of a white appearance, form- 
ing the proper tunic of the testis. 

ALBUGO {albus, white). Leueoma. 
The white opacity of the cornea. 

ALBUM GR^CUM. Stercus canis. 
The white and solid excrement of dogs 
which subsist chiefly on bones ; it con- 
sists, for the most part, of the earth of 
bones or lime, in combination with phos- 
phoric acid. It was formerly used in 
medicine; it is now sometimes used to 
soften leather in the process of dressing 
it after the depilatory action of lime. 

ALBUMEN {albus, white). Albumen 
is of two kinds, animal and vegetable. 

1. Animal Albumen exists in two 
forms ; the liquid, and the solid. In the 
liguid state, it is a thick glairj^ fluid, 
constituting the principal part of the 
white of egg. In the solid state, it is 
contained in several of the textures of 
the body, as the cellular membrane, the 
skin, glands, and vessels. A substance 
slightly differing from albumen has been 
obtained from the serum of chyle, and 
termed by Dr. Prout, incipient albumen. 

2. Vegetable Albumen closely resembles 
animal albumen, and appears to be an 
ingredient of emulsive seeds generally, 
and to exist in the sap of many plants. 
It has been found in wheat, rye, barley, 
peas, and beans. 

ALBURNUM {albus, white). The 
external, last formed, and whiter portion 
of the wood of exogenous trees. From 
its being the channel of the ascending 
sap, it is commonly called sap-wood. 
Compare Duramen. 



ALC 



ALE 



ALCARGEN. Another name for caco- 
dylic acid. It is found by leaving cacodyl 
and its oxide under water to the slow 
action of the air. 

ALCARRAZAS. A species of porous 
pottery made in Spain, for the purpose 
of cooling water by its transudation and 
copious evaporation from the sides of 
the vessel. 

ALCARSIN, Liquor of Cadet. A liquid 
obtained by the dry distillation of equal 
weights of acetate of potash and arsenious 
acid. It is remarkable for its insupport- 
able odour and spontaneous inflamma- 
bility in air. See Cacodyl. 

ALCHEMILLA. A genus of plants, 
so named from their pretended alchemi- 
cal properties. A decoction of ^. vulgaris 
has been reputed by Hoffman to restore 
the faded beauty of ladies to their earliest 
freshness. A. arverisis is the Lady's 
Mantle, Parsley Breakstone, or Parsley 
Piert {perce pierre ?), so named from its 
supposed efficacy in stone. Order, San- 
guisorhea. 

ALCHEMY \al, Arab., cJiimia? che- 
mistry). The fanciful search of the 
Alchemists or Adepts after the 

1. Lapis Philosophorum, or philoso- 

tpher's stone, by which the baser were 
to be transmuted into the precious 
metals ; and the 

2. Elixir vitce, or essence of life, by 
which human life was to be indefinitely 
prolonged. 

ALCOHOL (an alchemical term for the 
essence of bodies, separated by sublima- 
tion from the impure particles). Ardent 
spirit of wine. A term applied to the 
pure spirit obtained by distillation from 
all liquids which have undergone vinous 
fermentation. When diluted with an 
equal weight of water, it is termed Proof 
Spirit, or Spiritus tenuior of the Phar- 
macopoeia. The first product of distilla- 
tion is technically called low wine, and is 
again subjected to distillation. The latter 
portions of what comes over are called 
feints, and are reserved for a further pro- 
cess in the wash-still. The second pro- 
duct is termed raw spirit, and when 
again distilled is called rectified spirit. 
The strongest alcohol which can be pro- 
cured is termed absolute alcohol, to de- 
note its entire freedom from water. 

Alcohol. L. D. Rectified spirit dis- 
tilled from the subcarbonate of potassa 
dried. 

I. Alcohol Ammoniatum. A combi- 
nation of £ilcohol and ammonia, pre- 
13 



pared by passing ammoniacal gas into 
alcohol, which must be kept cool. 

2. Alcoholates. OtRcinal medicines, 
differing from alcoholic tinctures ; first, 
in the menstruum containing the volatile 
principles of medicinal substances ; and, 
secondly, in their mode of preparation, 
which consists in impregnating the alco- 
hol with medicinal principles, first by 
maceration, and then by distillation. 

3. Alcoates. Compounds of salts ^vith 
alcohol, similar to hydrates, discovered 
by Mr. Graham. 

4. Alcohometer (/xerpov, a measure). 
(Enometer. An instrument for ascer- 
taining the quantity of spirit contained 
in any vinous liquid. 

ALCOHOL OF SULPHUR. The 
name given to the bisulphuret of carbon 
by Lampadius, who regarded it as a com- 
pound of sulphur and hydrogen. See 
Carbon. 

ALDEHYDE. A newly discovered 
colourless liquid, one of the products of 
the oxidation of alcohol. Its name is 
derived from the first syllables of the 
words alcohol and dehijdiogensitas. Al- 
dehyde is, in fact, alcohol minus hydrogen. 

1. Aldehydic or Acetous Acid is pre- 
pared from aldehyde, and may be re- 
garded as acetic acid deprived of an 
equivalent of water. 

2. Resin of Aldehyde is a product of 
the decomposition of aldehyde by alka- 
lies, with the assistance of air. 

ALE. The fermented infusion of pale 
malted barley, usually combined with 
infusion of hops. See Beer. 

ALEMBIC {Arabic). A chemical ves- 
sel, of glass or metal, formerly used in 
distillation, but now generally superseded 
by the retort. It consists of a body, 
cucurbit, matrass, or boiler; a head, or 
capital, fitted to the body by grinding, or 
lute ; and a tube, which conducts the 
distilled liquid into a receiver. Compare 
Retort. 

ALEMBROTH SALT (a Chaldee 
term, signifying the key of art). The 
Salt of Wisdom of the Alchem.ists. The 
name formerly given to the crystals 
which separate from a solution of corro- 
sive muriate of mercury and muriate of 
ammonia in water. It is a compound of 
bichloride of mercury and sal ammoniac, 
from which the old white precipitate of 
mercury is made. 

ALEXIPHARMICS (uAefco, to repel, 
<papiJ.aKov, poison). Alexiteria. Anti- 
dotes to poisons. 



ALK 



ALL 



ALGJE {alga, a sea-weed). Algacecc. 
The Sea-weed tribe of Cellular or Crypto- 
gamic plants. Leafless, flowerless plants, 
without any distinct axis of vegetation, 
groA\-ing in water. Reproductive matter, 
either absent or contained in the joints of 
the filaments, or deposited in peculiar 
thecae formed in the substance of the 
frond. Sporules without any proper in- 
tegument. 

ALGAROTH, POWDER OF. A com- 
pound of oxide and chloride of antimony, 
so called after a physician of Verona. 
It is a precipitate, formed by pouring 
the sesqui-chloride of antimony into 
water. 

ALGE'DO {aXyoi, pain). Inflamma- 
tion of the neck of the bladder, occurring 
in gonorrhoea ; a term seldom used. 

ALGOR {algeo, to be cold). A sudden 
chillness or rigour. Sauvages. 

ALICA {alo, to nourish). A kind of 
wheat; pottage, or drink made of corn, 
as frumenty, barley-broth, &c. Celsus. 

ALIENATIO {alieno, to estrange). 
Mental derangement. 

ALIFORMIS {ala, a wing, forma, like- 
ness). Pterygoid, or wing-like; as ap- 
plied to processes of the sphenoid bone. 
See Alar is. 

ALIMENT {alimentum, food). Sub- 
stances which nourish the body. Accord- 
ing to Hippocrates, there are different 
kinds of food, and but one kind of nutri- 
ment or aliment; with him, the term 
aliment denoted the product of di- 
gestion. 

ALIMENTARY CANAL. The entire 
passage through which the aliment or 
food passes. It is a musculo-raembranous 
tube, extending from the mouth to the 
anus. 

ALIZARINE [alizari, madder). The 
red colouring matter of madder. The 
roots of the Rubia Tinctorum, which 
yield this substance, are sold in the 
south of France, under the name of 
alizari: a powder is prepared from it, 
called garance. 

ALKAHEST. The pretended univer- 
sal solvent, or menstruum of the ancient 
chemists. But, if it dissolve all sub- 
stances, in what vessels can it be con- 
tained ? 

ALKALI (Arab, al, the, kali, the name 
of a particular plant, and an old name for 
potash). A substance which unites with 
acids in definite proportions, and changes 
vegetable blues to green. It is of three 
kinds: — 
14 



1. The Vegetable, 

or Potash, 

2. The Mineral, 

or Soda, 



ror fixed alkalies, 
I being left in the 
< ashes of inland 
I and marine plants 
y respectively. 
3. The Animal, or Ammonia, or vola- 
tile alkali, being raised by distillation 
from hartshorn, &c. 

1. Alkali Prussian. Phlogisticated 
alkali. A name formerly given to a 
fixed alkali, when ignited with some 
animal substance, and lixiviated. It is 
found to be in a great measure saturated 
with Prussic acid. 

2. Alkalescent. A term applied to 
substances in which alkaline (ammoni- 
acal) properties are becoming developed. 
The term is generally applied to the 
urine. 

3. Alkalimeter {fxerpov, a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the quan- 
tity of alkali in given substances by the 
quantity of dilute sulphuric acid of a 
known strength which a certain weight 
of them can neutralize. 

4. Alkalina. A class of substances 
described by CuUen as comprehending 
the substances otherwise called antacida. 

5. Alkaline air. The term by which 
Priestly first described ammonia or am- 
moniacal gas : the volatile alkali. 

6. Alkaline earths. Substances which 
possess alkaline properties ; such are 
magnesia, lime, baryta, and strontia. 

7. Alkalinity. The property of an 
alkali, that of turning vegetable blues 
into green. 

8. Alkalization. The impregnation of 
any substance with an alkali. 

9. Alkaloids {alkali and €»3or, like- 
ness). Vegetable Alkalies and Bases. 
These are substances having some of the 
properties of alkalies, the discovery of 
which may be dated from 1816. 

ALKANA. The name of the root and 
leaves of the Lausonta inermis, a plant 
employed in the East for dyeing the 
nails, teeth, hair, garments, &c. See 
HennS. 

ALKANET. The name of the^wcAM^a 
Tinctoria, a species of Bugloss, the root 
of which yields a red colouring matter. 

ALKEKENGE. Winter Cherry ; the 
fruit of the Fhysalis Alkekengi, used in 
nephritis, dysuria, ascites, &c. 

ALLANITE. The name of a mineral 
containing cerium, found in Greenland, 
and named in honour of Mr. Allan, who 
first distinguished it as a species. 

ALLANTOIS (uWa?, a sausage, 
eZdoy, likeness). Allantoides membrana. 



ALL 



ALP 



1. A thin transparent membrane, situated 
between the amnion and the chorion. 

2. A vesicle or sac projecting at the lower 
end of the alimentary canal, in the em- 
bryo. 

1. Allantoic Acid. A compound de- 
scribed by Vauquelin under the name of 
amniotic acid, and said to exist in the 
liquor amnii of the cow. It was found 
by Dzondi to be present solely in the 
liquor of the allantois, and to be in fact 
the urine of the foetus. 

2. Allantoin. A crj'stalline substance 
found in the allantoic fluid of the cow, 
and produced artificially by boiling uric 
acid with the pure-coloured oxide, or 
peroxide, of lead. 

ALLIGATION {alligo, to bind). An 
arithmetical formula for ascertaining the 
proportion of constituents in a mixture, 
when they have undergone no change of 
volume by chemical action. When alco- 
holic liquors are mixed with water, there 
is a condensation of bulk, which renders 
this arithmetical rule inapplicable. The 
same thing occurs, to a certain extent, 
in the union of metals by fusion. 

ALLIUM {oleo, to stink). A genus of 
plants of the order Asphodelece, contain- 
ing an acrid principle. 

1. Aim Radix. Garlic bulb; the bulb 
of the Allium sativum. 

2. Aim Cepce Bulbus, Onion bulb; 
the bulb of the Allium cepa. 

3. Allium Porrum. The Leek. 
ALLOPATHIA (5\\or, other, traOoi, 

disease). Heteropathia. The art of 
curing, founded on differences, by which 
one morbid state is removed by inducing 
a different one. See Homoeopathy. 

ALLOXAN. The erythric acid of 
Brugnatelli, discovered in the decom- 
position of uric acid. Alloxanic acid is 
produced by the metamorphosis of al- 
loxan by caustic alkalies. 

Alloxantin. A crystalline substance 
observed by Dr. Prout among the pro- 
ducts of the decomposition of uric acid 
by nitric acid. 

ALLOY. A term applied to a com- 
bination of metals by fusion, except 
when mercury is one of them, in which 
case the compound is called an amalgam. 

ALLSPICE. Pimento berries, or Ja- 
maica pepper ; the fruit of the Eugenia 
Pimento, a Myrtaceous plant. 

ALLU'VIUM {alluo, to wash near to). 
The soil which is formed by the destruc- 
tion of mountains, when their particles 
are washed down and deposited by tor- 
rents of water. ^ 
15 



ALMOND OIL. A bland fixed oil, 
obtained usually from bitter almonds by 
the action of a hydiaulic press, either in 
the cold or by means of hot iron plates. 

ALMONDS. Amygdala;. This term 
is applied, popularly, to the exterior 
glands of the neck and to the tonsils. 

ALOE. A genus of plants of the order 
Asphodelece ; characterized by an in- 
tensely bitter taste. 

1. Aloes Spicatce Extractum. L. Aloes; 
an extract prepared from the Aloe Spi- 
cata, or Socotrine Aloe. In this species 
the bitter taste is accompanied by an 
aromatic flavour. 

2. Aloe Hepatica; Extractum. E. D. 
Barbados Aloes; an extract prepared 
from the Aloe Hepatica, formerly Barba- 
densis ; of a much stronger and less 
pleasant odour than the preceding. 

3. Fetid or Caballine Aloes. A very 
impure variety, having the appearance of 
bitumen, and used chiefly for horse me- 
dicine, as one of its names imports. 

4. Red Aloes. A variety supposed to 
be a natural exudation from the Aloe 
Spicata, which has concreted in the sun. 

5. Mocha Aloes. Probably only a va- 
riety of that kno^vn in commerce as the 
Socotrine Aloes. Little is known of it. 

6. Indian and Mozambique Aloes. 
A very impure variety, apparently of an 
intermediate quality between the Hepatic 
and the Caballine. 

ALOES WOOD {Lignum Aloes). A 
fragrant resinous substance, obtained 
from the Aquilaria ovata, and A. agallo- 
chum. 

ALGETIC ACID. The precipitate 
procured by heating nitric acid on aloes. 

ALOETICS. Medicines in which aloes 
are the principal ingredient. 

ALOPE'CIA (aXoiTrnf , a fox). Fluxus 
capillorum; area; calvities. Baldness, 
or the falling off" of the hair. 

ALPHAORCEIN. Dr. Kane finds the 
orcein of archil to be often a mixture of 
two substances, diflfering in their propor- 
tion with the age of the archil, which he 
names alpha-orcein and beta-orcein ; the 
latter is produced by the oxidation of the 
former, and is the orcein of Robiquet and 
other chemists. 

ALPHITA (plural of a\(pirov, farina). 
Barley meal ; barley meal fried. 

ALPHONSIN. An instrument for 
extracting balls, invented by Alphonso 
Ferrier, of Naples. 

ALPHOS {ii\<t,6v, white). A Greek 
synonym for the Lepra alpho'ides, or 
White Lepra. Celsus. 



ALU 



AL V 



ALTERANTIA NERVINA. A class 
of substances, as spirituous liquors and 
narcotics, which produce material changes 
in the brain, attended by disturbance of 
the intellectual functions. 

ALTERATIVES {^altero, to change). 
Remedies which very gradually re- 
establish the healthy habit, functions, 
secretions, &c. 

ALTHiEA OFFICINALIS. Common 
Marsh Mallow; a plant of the order 
Malvacece, abounding in mucilage. From 
the root are prepared an alkaloid called 
althea, and a demulcent lozenge, em- 
ployed on the continent under the name 
of pdte de guimauve. 

ALTHIONIC ACID. An acid found 
in the residue of the preparation of olefi- 
ant gas by means of alcohol and sulphuric 
acid. The name is derived from the 
words alcohol and ethionic. 

ALUDEL. A pear-shaped vessel used 
by the earlier chemists, resembling the 
head of an alembic, with the exception of 
the beak, &c. A series of these vessels, 
joined together, is used for distilling 
mercury in Spaiii. 

ALU'MEN. Sulphas Alumince et Po- 
tasscB. Alum; a double, or sometimes 
a triple salt, consisting of sulphuric acid 
and alumina, with potass or ammonia, 
or frequently both of them. The alumen 
of the Pharmacopoeias is prepared from 
schistose clays ; in Italy, this salt is pro- 
cured from alum stone, a mineral sub- 
stance occurring in most volcanic dis- 
tricts. 

1. Alumen rupeum. Roche or rock 
alum. A variety of alum brought from 
Roccha, formerly called Edessa, in Syria. 
That which is sold under this name is 
common English alum, artificially co- 
loured. 

2. Alumen Romanum. Roman alum; 
the purest variety of alum, containing no 
ammonia in its composition. 

3. Ammoniacal alum is a double salt, 
consisting of the sulphates of ammonia 
afld of alumina. 

4. Iron alum, Manganese alum, and 
Chrome alum, are salts of alumina, to 
which the generic term alum is applied, 
the species being distinguished by the 
name of the metallic peroxide which each 
contains. 

5. Alumen exsiccatum, vel ustum. 
Dried alum ; the pharmacopceial name of 
alum when it has undergone watery 
fusion, and parted with all its water of 
crystallization, by the action of heat. 

6. Alum curd of Riverius. Albumen 

16 



I aluminosum. A coagulum formed by 
briskly agitating a drachm of alum with 
the white of an egg. , 

7. Alum whey. Serum aluminosum. 
A whey made by boiling two drachms of 
alum with a pint of milk, and then 
straining. 

8. Alum water. A solution of alum in 
water, used by painters in water colours. 

9. Alum ointment. Common turpen- 
tine, lard, and powdered alum. 

10. Boerhaave's astringent powder for 
the ague consisted of alum and nutmeg, 
with the addition of Armenian bole. 

ALUMINA. Aluminous tarth. One 
of the primitive earths, which, from 
constituting the plastic principle of all 
clays, loams, and boles, was called argil, 
or argillaceous earth ; but now, as being 
obtained in its greatest purity from alum, 
is called alumina, or the sesqui-oxide of 
aluminium. It occurs nearly in a pure 
state in the sapphire and the ruby. 

1. Aluminite. The name by which 
mineralogists designate the hydrated 
subsulphate of alumina. 

2. Aluminium. The metallic base of 
alumina. It is obtained from its chloride 
by the action of potassium. 

3. Petra aluminaris. Sulphuretted 
clay ; the purest of all aluminous ores, 
and as hard as indurated clay ; hence its 
name, alum rock. 

ALVEARIUM {alveare, a bee-hive). 
The meatus auditorius extemus, or au- 
ditory canal of the ear. 

ALVEOLI (dim. of alvei, channels). 
The alveolar processes, or the sockets of 
the teeth. Hence the term alveolar, as 
applied to the arteries and veins of the 
sockets of the teeth. 

Alveolar structure. A term applied by 
Hewson to minute superficial cavities 
found in the mucous membrane of the 
stomach, oesophagus, and small intes- 
tine, and which he compared to the cells 
of honeycomb. They are distinct from 
the follicles. 

ALVEUS COMMUNIS. The name 
given by Scarpa to the common duct or 
communication of the ampullae of the 
semicircular canals of the ear. 

ALVUS (ab alluendo, qua sordes allii- 
untur). The belly ; the intestines ; also 
the intestinal evacuation. 

1. Alviduca. Medicines which pro- 
mote evacuation of the contents of the 
intestines. 

2. Alvifluxus. Diarrhoea; a flux or 
discharge of the contents of the intes- 
tines. 



AMB 



AME 



3. Alvine Concretions. Calculi formed 
in the stomach or intestines. HeeBezoar. 

4. Alius coacta. Literally, hard-bound 
belly ; the state of costiveness. — Celsus. 

ALYSMUS (aXvatxoi-, restlessness, from 
a\i5ft), to be vexed). A term used by 
Hippocrates to denote anxiety, or rest- 
lessness chiefly affecting the praecordia, 
with lowness of spirits, &c. 

ALYSSUM. Alysma Plantago. The 
Madwort Plantain ; a specific in America 
for the bite of the rattle-snake ; and a 
popular remedy for canine madness, 
especially in the North of Europe. 

AMADOU. Agaric ; a spongy inflam- 
mable substance, prepared from the dried 
plant of the Boletus Igniarius, found on 
old ash and other trees. It is used for 
stopping haemorrhages, &c. 

AMALGAM [ajxa, together, yapLeu, 
to marry). A mixture of mercury with 
some other metal. See Alloy. 

Amalgamation. The process of mixing 
mercury with some other metal. It is 
extensively used in separating silver and 
gold from some other ores, and is founded 
on the property which mercury has to 
dissolve these metals out of the minerals 
with which they are associated. 

AMANITA MUSCARIA. Fly Ama- 
nita ; a plant of the order Fungi, contain- 
ing a poisonous principle, which has been 
called amanitine. 

AMA'RA (sc. medicamenta; from 
amarus, bitter). Bitters ; medicines with 
a bitter flavour, and tonic property, as 
camomile, gentian, &c. 

AMARYTHRIN. Erythrin bitter of 
Heeren. A bitter extractive matter, ob- 
tained by dissolving erj-thrin in hot water, 
and exposing it some days to the action 
of air. 

AMATORII (a»?o, tolove). Pathetici, 
or the superior obliqui muscles of the 
eye ; so named from the expression which 
they impart. 

AMAUROSIS (a/uaupof, obscure). 
Caligo ocu/orum. Blindness; drop serene; 
loss of sight from an affection of the re- 
tina, the optic nerve, or the brain. This 
term was employed by Hippocrates 
merely in the sense of obscurity or dim- 
ness ; by later writers it was used as the 
name of the particular disease. 

AMBE (a/ji/Sn, the edge of a rock). 
An old machine for reducing dislocations 
of the shoulder. 

AMBER. Siiccinum. A yellowish, 

translucent, inflammable substance, 

which is found in beds of wood-coal, and 

appears to be the altered resin of trees ; 

17 



by Berzelius it was considered as a con- 
creted balsam. 

1. Acid of Amber, or Succinic Acid, is 
obtained from amber by dry distillation. 
It is a delicate re-agent for separating red 
oxide of iron from compound metallic 
solutions. 

2. Amber Camphor. A j'ellow light 
sublimate, obtained by the destructive 
distillation of amber in a retort or alem- 
bic. By Vogel it was termed volatile 
resin of amber. 

AMBERGRIS {ambre-gris, Fr.). A 
sebaceous substance found floating on 
the sea in warm climates, supposed to 
be a concretion formed in the intestinal 
canal of the Physeter Macrocephalus, or 
Spermaceti whale. The Japanese call it 
whale's dung. 

AMBLO'SIS (an/3\6w, to cause abor- 
tion). Miscarriage. Hence the term a?«- 
blotica, as applied to medicines supposed 
to cause abortion. 

AMBLYAPHIA {UupXvv, dull, Utpij, 
touch). Insensibility of touch or general 
feeling. 

AMBLYGONITE. A rare mineral— 
a phosphate of alumina and lithia. 

AMBLYOPIA (u/i/3,\vr, dulj, a..t, the 
eye). Incomplete or incipient amau- 
rosis ; or weakness of sight. 

AMBON (uva/3a«i/a), to ascend). The 
margin of the sockets in which the heads 
of the large bones are lodged. — Celsus. 

AMBREIC ACID. A peculiar acid, 
obtained by digesting ambrein in nitric 
acid. 

AIMBREIN {amhre, Fr.). A substance 
analogous to cholesterine, forming the 
chief constituent of ambergris. 

AMBULANCE {ambulo, to walk). A 
light caravan, furnished with surgeon's 
assistants and orderlies, for attending 
upon the wounded in the field of battle. 

AMENORRHCEA (a, priv., nijv, a 
month, peoj, to flow). Suppressio men- 
sivm. Obstruction, or morbid deficiency, 
of the menses or catamenia. 

AMENTIA {amens, senseless). Im- 
becility of intellect. 

AMENTUM. A catkin; a form of 
inflorescence, in which the flowers of a 
spike are destitute of calyx and corolla, 
the place of which is taken by bracts, and 
the whole inflorescence falls oflT in a 
single piece, either after flowering or the 
ripening of the fruit, as in the hazel, the 
willow, &c. 

AMER (bitter). The bitter principle 
produced by digesting nitric acid on silk. 

AMETHYST (a, priv., iseOvtii, to be 



AMM 



A ^I P 



intoxicated). A reddish violet-coloured 
gem ; a variety of Corundum. Its name 
is derived from its reputed virtue of pre- 
venting intoxication : topers were for- 
merly in the habit of wearing it about 
their necks. It consists almost entirely 
of silica. 

AMIANTHUS (o, priv., fxialvto, to 
pollute). Mountain flax. An incom- 
bustible mineral, consisting of very deli- 
cate and regular silky fibres. See Asbes- 
tos. 

AMIDES. A series of saline com- 
pounds, in which the compound of nitro- 
gen and hydrogen occurs, containing an 
atom less of hydrogen than ammonia. 
The name amidogen has been applied to 
their radical. 

AMIDINE {amidon, starch). A sub- 
stance intermediate between gum and 
starch, obtained by solution of the latter 
in water. 

AMILENE. A liquid hydrocarbon, 
obtained by distilling hydrate of oxide of 
amyl repeatedly with anhydrous phos- 
phoric acid. 

AMMELIDE. A substance formed by 
boiling melamine in strong nitric acid, 
until the solution is complete. 

AMMELINE. A substance generated 
by boiling melam in a solution of potassa ; 
on adding acetic acid, the ammeline is 
thro>;\'n down as a white precipitate. 

AMMI. The warm carminative fruit 
of several species of Sison : Order Umbel- 
lifercB. 

AMMONIA. Ammoniacal Gas. A 
transparent, colourless, pungent gas, 
formed by the union of nitrogen and 
hydrogen. By Priestley it was called 
alkaline air; it is frequently termed the 
volatile alkali, to distinguish it from the 
fixed alkalies, soda and potash. Its pre- 
sent name is derived from sal ammoniac, 
of which it constitutes the basis, and 
which received its title from being first 
prepared in the district of Ammonia in 
Libya. 

1. Liquor Ammonia:. Liquid ammo- 
nia; the incorrect name of the concen- 
trated solution of ammonia. One volume 
of water takes up about 750 times its bulk 
of the gas, forming a liquid possessed 
of similar properties, and termed spirits 
of hartshorn, from its being raised by dis- 
tillation from that substance. 

2. Ammoniaco — . A term prefixed to 
salts, in which ammonia has been added 
in sufficient quantity to combine with 
both the acid and the base. 

3. Ammoniuret. A compound, con- 

18 



taining ammonia and a salifiable base, or 
other substance not acid. 

4. Ammoniacal Amalgam. A substance 
formed by the action of galvanism on a 
salt of ammonia, in contact with a globule 
of mercury. 

5. Ammonium. A term applied to a 
hypothetical compound of nitrogen and 
hydrogen. Berzelius considered it to be 
the metallic base of ammonia. 

AMMONIACUM. Ammoniac, a g\im- 
resin, which exudes from the surface of 
the Dorema ammoniacum, a plant of the 
order Vmbellifercc. Two varieties occur 
in the market : — 

1. Guttce Ammoinaci, occurring in 
tears, which should be white, clear, and 
dry; and 

2. Lapis Ammoniaci, occurring in 
lumps, very impure, and generally adul- 
terated with common resin. 

African Amvioniacum. A gum-resin, 
obtained from the Ferula iingitana. It 
resembles the Persian Ammoniacum of 
the shops in external appearance, but it 
differs in its odour when heated. 

AMMONION {afxiJLot, sand). A col- 
lyrium, said to remove sand or gravel 
from the eyes. — Aetius. 

AMMONITE. A fossil molluscous 
animal, allied to the genus Nautilus. 
From its resemblance to the horns of the 
statues of Jupiter Ammon, it is named 
cornu ammonis: from its coiled form, it 
is popularly called snake-stone. The term 
is frequently applied, in anatomy, to the 
pes hippocampi of the brain. 

AMNE'SIA (a, priv., and fivTiffit, me- 
mory). Porgetfulness ; loss of memory. 

AMNION [unvoi, a lamb). The in- 
ternal membrane of the ovum, or that 
which immediately surrounds the foetus 
in utero. 

1. Amnii liquor. The fluid contained 
in the amnion. 

2. Amniotic Acid. A weak acid dis- 
covered in the liquor amnii of the cow. 

AMOMUM GRANA PARADISI. 
Grains of Paradise Amomum ; a plant of 
the order Scitaminea, the fruit of which 
is well known under the name of Grains 
of Paradise, or MeUegetta Pepper. 

AMORPHOUS (a, priv., iJ.op<pri, form). 
Shapeless ; irregular. A term applied to 
mineral and other substances, which oc- 
cur in forms not easy to be defined ; also 
to certain sediments found in the urine, 
in disease. See Calculus. 

AMPELIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by Laurent from the oils of bituminous 
schist. The term ampelin has been also 



AMP 



AMY 



applied to an oily matter prepared from 
the same substances. 

AM PHI- {uij.(pi). A Greek preposition, 
signifying about, on both sides, &c. 

1. Amph-emerina (njuepa, a day). An- 
other term for quotidian ague. 

2. Amph-arthrosis {apOpuifftv, articu- 
lation). A mixed kind of articulation, 
with obscure motion, partaking of both 
diarthrosis and synarthrosis ; it is also 
called continuous diarthrosis. See Arti- 
culation. 

3. Amphi-bia {/3lov, life). The second 
class of the Encephalata at Vertebrata, 
comprising amphibious animals, which 
commence their larva state as fishes, and 
undergo various degrees of metamor- 
phosis in advancing towards the condi- 
tion of reptiles. 

4. Amjjhi-bole (fiwXof, a mass). The 
name given by Haiiy to the mineral horn- 
blende ; a silicate of lime and magnesia. 

5. Amphi-gen (^evi/dw, to produce). A 
name of the mineral leucite, or Vesuvian ; 
a variety of clay, or silicate of alumina. 

6. Amphi-tropal{Tp(^-n(a, to inm). That 
which is curved round the body to which 
it belongs ; a term applied to the embryo 
of the seed. 

7. Amphi-tropous. This term is applied 
to the ovule of plants, when the foraminal 
and chalazal ends are transverse with 
respect to the hilum. 

AMPHORA (afx(pt, on each side, ^tpto, 
to carry ; so named from its being carried 
by two handles). Quadrantal; cadus. A 
measure of capacity, frequently men- 
tioned by Roman authors, containing 
2 urnce, 3 modit, 8 congii, 48 sextarii, and 
96 hemincE or cotylce. But the Attic am- 
phora, called by the Greeks metreta or 
ceramium, contained 2 urnee, and 72 sex- 
tarii. The amphora was nearly equal to 
9 gallons English, and the sextariiis to 
one pint and a half English, or one 
mutchkin and a half Scotch. 

AMPHORIC RESONANCE (ampho- 
ra, a vessel). A sound of the chest like 
that heard on blowing into a decanter. 
See Ascultation. 

AMPLEXICAUL {amplector, to em- 
brace, caulis, a stem). A term applied, 
in botany, to the stalks of leaves which 
are dilated and embrace, or form a sheath 
to, the stem. Some leaf-stalks perform 
this office partially, and are called semi- 
amplexicaul, or half-stem-sheathing. 

AMPULLA. A big-bellied jug or bot- 
tle, used by the Romans for containing 
wine. Hence the term is applied to a 
chemical vessel having the same form as 
19 



a cucurbit. The term is used in medicine 
as synonjTnous with bulla ; hence pem- 
phigus is called, by some of the conti- 
nental writers, febjis ampullosa, or bul- 
losa. 

AMPULLULA (dim. of ampulla, a 
bottle). A term applied by Lieberkulm 
to the extremity of each villus of the 
mucous coat of the intestines ; it is an 
oval vesicle, having its apex perforated 
by lacteal orifices, through which the 
chyle is taken up. 

AMPUTATION [amputo, to cut off). 
The removal of a limb, or other part of 
the body, by means of the knife. 

AMULET. A suppo;;ed charm against 
infection or disease : such are anodyne 
necklaces, used in teething of infants. 

AMYELOUS (a, priv., nveXot, me- 
dulla). A term applied to the foetus, in 
cases in which there is complete absence 
of the spinal marrow. When the ence- 
phalon also is absent, the foetus is termed 
amyencephalous. There may be absence 
of the encephalon — of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum only ; in this case the foetus 
is called anencephalous. Or, the cere- 
brum merely may be in a state of defective 
development, or atrophy, more or less 
partial or extensive. 

AMYGDALA. Literally, almonds; a 
popular name for the exterior glands of 
the neck, and for the tonsils. 

AMYGDALA AMARiE, DULCES. 
Bitter and sweet almonds; the fruit of 
two varieties of the Amygdalus Communis. 
The bitter almond contains prussic acid, 
and enters into the composition of noyau. 

\. AmygdalcB placenta. Almond cake; 
the substance left after the expression of 
the oil, which, when ground, forms al- 
mond powder, so generally used for wash- 
ing the hands. 

2. Oil of bitter almonds. For obtaining 
this oil, the expressed cake is submitted 
to distillation, when a highly-volatile, 
pungent oil passes over. 

3. Amygdalin. A substance extracted 
from the Amygdala amara, or bitter al- 
mond, and from the berries of the cherry- 
laurel. 

4. Amygdalic acid. An acid obtained 
by the action of alkalies upon amygdalin. 

AMYGDALE^. The Almond tribe of 
Dicotyledonous plants ; a sub-order of the 
RosacecB, yielding an abundance of hydro- 
cyanic acid in their leaves and kernels. 
Trees or shrubs with leaves alternate; 
corolla polji^etalous ; stamens perigynous ; 
ovary superior, solitary, simple; jruit 
drupaceous. 



ANA 

AMYL. The h\T)othetical radical of a 
series of compounds, of which the hy- 
drate of the oxide has long been known 
as fousel oil, or as the oil of grainspirit 
or potatoes, as it is produced in the fer- 
mentation of unmalted grain and potatoes, 
along with alcohol, and distils over with 
the latter. 

A'MYLUM (a, priv., fxvXoi, a mill ; as 
being prepared without a mill). Starch ; 
the fecula of the Triticum hybernum, or 
wheat. 

1. Amylum MaranteB. Arrow-root; a 
nutritive starch, prepared from the Ma- 
ranta Artindinaceu, very analogous to 
well-washed potato-starch. See Farina 
and Fecula. 

2. Amylic acid. A volatile acid, pro- 
cured by digesting moistened starch with 
peroxide of manganese. 

AMYRIDACE^. An order of Dico- 
tyledonous plants, abounding in fragrant 
resin. Trees or shrubs, with leaves com- 
pound, with pellucid dots ; corolla poly- 
petalous ; stamens hypogynous ; ovary 
superior ; /r Mi/ sub-drupaceous, samaroid, 
or leguminous. 

AMYRIS (a, intens., nvpov, myrrh). 
A genus of plants abounding in resin. 
A. Gileadensis is the Balsam of Gilead 
tree, yielding the liquid resin called Bal- 
sam or Balm of Gilead or Mecca. A. 
Elemifera yields the resin called Gum 
Elemi. 

ANA, or AA, contracted from iivu, of 
each, used in prescriptions. 

ANA- (ui/a). A Greek preposition, 
denoting through, upon, &c. ; and, in 
composition, again, upwards, &c. 

1. Ana-catharsis (KaOaipu), to cleanse). 
A term used by the Greeks, and copied 
by Sauvages, to denote cough attended 
by expectoration. 

2. Ana-lepsis (Xa/m/Sai/to, to take). Re- 
covery of strength after sickness. Hence 
the term analeptics or restoratives. 

3. Ana-logous tissues (\6yoy, an ac- 
count). A term applied to all solid, 
morbid products, which resemble the 
natural elementary tissues of the body 
(Carswell). It is synonymous with the 
euplastic matter of Lobstein. See He- 
terologous Formations. 

4. Ana-lysis (\vu>, to solve). The re- 
solution of compounds into their elemen- 
tary parts. Every distinct compound, 
which exists ready formed, is called a 
proximate or immediate principle, and 
the process of procuring it is termed 
proximate analysis. The reduction of the 
proximate principles into their simplest 

20 



ANA 

parts, constitutes ultimate analysis. Com- 
pare Synthesis. 

5. Ana-ptysis (tttuo), to spit). A term 
used by the Greeks in the same sense as 
anacatharsis. 

6. Anasarca (o-apf, the flesh). Aqua 
inter cutem ; hydrops. General dropsy ; 
dropsy of the cellular substance ; the 
leucophlegmasia of various writers. 

7. Anastomosis {<n6(xa, a mouth). 
The communication of vessels with each 
other, as of the arteries with the veins, 
which, by touching at numerous points, 
form a net-work or reticulation. See In- 
osctdation. 

8. Ana-tropous (rpeTrw, to turn). A 
term applied to the ovule of plants, when 
the inside of this organ is reversed, so 
that the apex of the nucleus, and con- 
sequently the foramen, correspond with 
the base of the ovule. 

ANACARDIACEiE. The Cashew 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants, abound- 
ing in a resinous, sometimes acrid, highly 
poisonous juice. Trees or shrubs with 
leaves alternate ; flowers usually uni- 
sexual ; stamens perigynous ; ovary su- 
perior ; fruit generally drupaceous. 

ANACARDIUM. Anacardium occi- 
dentale. Cashew nut, or marking nut. 
The nut contains, between its rind and 
shell, a red, inflammable, and very caus- 
tic liquor, used as a marking ink. 

ANEMIA (a, priv., alfxa, blood). 
Sanguinis defectus. Exsanguinity, or a 
state of bloodlessness. The term should 
be anhfcmia. 

AN.EMOTROPHY (a, priv.. altia, 
blood, Tpo(prj, nourishment). By this 
term, and hcemotrophy, are implied sim- 
ply a deficiency, and an excess, of san- 
guineous nourishment. Atrophy and 
hypertrophy, as commonly understood, 
include the idea of diminished and in- 
creased magnitude ; while ancemia and 
hypcraemia have reference only to the 
quantity of blood present, without regard 
to its nutritive properties. — Prout. 

ANESTHESIA (a, priv., u'laOmi^, 
perception). Loss of the sense of touch. 

ANAPHRODISIA (a, priv., 'A^poairn, 
Venus). Impotence; incapability of 
sexual intercourse, from organic, func- 
tional, or moral cause ; one of the dys- 
orexicc of CuUen. 

ANATOMY {avarenvu), tO CUt up). 
The science of organization ; the science 
whose object is the examination of the 
organs or instruments of life. Animal 
anatomy is divided into human anatomy 
and comparative anatomy, according as it 



ANA 



A NE 



treats of the organi-iation of the human 
body, or of that of other annuals. Human 
anatomy may be distinguished into the 
following branches : — 

1. Descriptive Anatomy treats of the 
numerous organs of which the human 
body consists, with reference to their 
shape and mutual relatio'^s. This branch 
is subdivided into the particular anatomy 
of organs, and the anatomy of regions, or 
surgical anatomy. 

2. General Anatomy treats of the struc- 
ture and properties of the different tissues 
which are common to several organs. 
To this branch belongs the examination 
of the general characters of all the organs 
and humours. 

3. Special Ayiatomy is that which treats 
of the healthy state of the organs, while 
morbid or pathological anatomy is that 
which treats of diseased states, or alter- 
ations of structure. 

4. Transcendental Anatomy is that 
which investigates the mode, plan, or 
model upon which the animal frame or 
organs are formed. 

Terms used by Barclay : — 

1. Aspects of the Head, Neck, end 
Trunk. — A plane, dividing the body into 
similar halves, is termed the mesial plane. 
Everj' aspect towards this plane is mesial ; 
towards the right or left, lateral, dextral, 
or sinistral. 

2. Aspects of the Head. — Towards the 
tvtov, or occiput, inial; towards the co- 
rona, coronal; towards the base, basilar ; 
towards the glabella, glabellar: or to- 
v,ards the side opposite to the inion, 
antinial. 

3. Aspects of the Neck and Trunk. — 
Towards the atlas, atlantal ; towards the 
sacrum, sacral; towards the dorsum, 
dorsal; and towards the sternum, ster- 
nal. 

4. Aspects of the Four Extremities. — 
Towards the trunk, proximal; from the 
tnink, distal. 

5. Aspects of the Atlantal Extremities. 
— Towards the radius, radial; towards 
the ulna, ulnar ; towards the ancon, an- 
conal ; and towards the vola, or Bevap, 
thenal. 

6. Aspects of the Sacral Extremities. — 
Towards the tibia, tibial; towards the 
Gbvia, fibtilar ; towards the rotiila, rotu- 
lar ; and towards the poples, popliteal. 

7. Termsof Aspect common to the Head, 
Neck, Trunk, Extremities, and Viscera. 
— Towards the cutis, dermal ; towards the 
circumference, peripheral; and tow£irds 
the centre, central. 

21 



8. When d is substituted for the / or 
r which terminate these adjectives, they 
become adverbs, or are used adverbially ; 
so that coronad, iniad, glabellad, radiad, 
ulnad, tibiad, fibulad, &c. will respec- 
tively signify towards the coronal, inial, 
glabellar, radial, ulnar, tibial, and fibular 
aspects. 

ANAUDIA (a, priv., ahbr], speech). 
Dumbness; privation of voice; catalepsia. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANCHILOPS (ci7x^ near, m^, the eye). 
A sore under the inner angle of the eye. 
Incipient fistula lacrymalis. According 
to Klanchard, the swelling is called an- 
chilops, while yet entire ; and ayilops, 
when the abscess has burst. 

ANCHU'SA TINCTORIA. Dyers' 
Alkanet ; a plant of the order Boragina- 
cece, the root of which abounds in the red 
colouring matter called alkanet, used by 
dyers, and for imparting a deep red to 
oils, ointments, and plasters. 

ANCON (a-yKwO- The elbow. Hence, 

1. Anconeus. A muscle which assists 
in extending the fore arm. 

2. Ancono'id {eldot, likeness). Elbow- 
like ; applied to a process of the cubit. 

ANCYROIDES ('d-iKvpa, an anchor. 
et3o9, likeness). A former designation of 
the coraco'id process of the scapula, from 
its likeness to the beak of an anchor. 

ANDROCEUM (uvJ/p, a man). A term 
applied to the male apparatus in plants, 
commonly called the stamens — the apices 
of old botanists. 

ANDROGYNUS {Uvrfp, a man, 71-1,;;, a 
woman). A hermaphrodite ; s. Ins us na- 
turte, in which the organs of generation 
appear to be a mixture of both sexes. 

ANDRUM. A species of hydrocele, 
peculiar to the south of Asia, and de- 
scribed by Kaempfer. 

ANEMOMETER {-dvetxcv, wind, ix4- 
rpov, measure). An instrument for mea- 
suring the strength or velocity of the wind. 

ANENCEPHALIA (a, priv., h'<Ke<pai- 
Xor, the brain). The state of an anen- 
cephalus ; the absence of a greater or less 
part of the cerebral portion of the head. 
Geoffroy St. Hilaire justly distinguishes — 

1 . Real Anencephalia, or entire absence 
of the brain, which might be denominated 
hol-anencephalia {oXot, entire), or pant- 
anencephalia (Tray, navTos, all). 

2. Cyst-anencephalia (KiVrjy, abladder), 
or the vesicular brain, in which, instead of 
a brain, a bladder is found filled with fluid. 

3. Deranencephalia (3ep»7, the neck), 
in which only a small portion of the brain 
exists, resting on the cervical vertebrae. 



ANF 



AN G 



4. Pod-anencephalia {trovv, noiot, a 
foot or stalk), in which a brain indeed 
exists, but it is situated outside the cra- 
nium, attached as it were to a stalk. 

5. Not-anevcephalia {vwtov, the back), 
in which the brain is not within the 
skull, but (at least in great part) is thrust 
through a fissure of the back part of the 
head, and so produces, like a spina bifida, 
not-encephalocele. 

ANENCEPIIALUS (a, priv., i-^Ki<pa- 
\or, the brain). A monster without brains. 

AN'ESIS (an'rj/ui, to remit). A remis- 
sion, or relaxation, of a disease, or 
symptom. 

ANETHUM GKAVEOENS. Common 
or Garden Dill ; a plant of the order l/»«- 
belliferce, much valued for the carmi- 
native properties of its fruit 

ANEURYSM (avevpvvu, to dilate). 
The dilatation of a vessel or vessels. 

1. The old distinction was between 
true and false aneurysm : the former 
comprehends dilatation without rupture 
of any of tlie arterial coats ; the latter, 
dilatation with rupture of some of the 
coats. 

2. False Aneurysm admits of some dis- 
tinctions. When the extravasation is 
diff'used, the disease has been termed a 
diffused false aneurysm ; when circum- 
scribed, a circumscribed false aneurysm. 
The French writers term the former ane- 
vrisme faux primitif, the latter anevrisme 
faux consecutif. 

3. Jctive Aneurysm of the Heart. The 
increased muscular structure of the left 
ventricle of the heart, which frequently 
accompanies the cartilaginous thickening 
of the semilunar valves of the aorta. 

4. Aneurysm hy Anastomosis. A tumor 
consisting of a congeries of small and 
active arteries, absorbing veins, and inter- 
mediate cells. The cellular substance 
through which these vessels are ex- 
panded, resembles the gills of a turkey- 
cock ; or the substance of the placenta, 
spleen, or uterus; or the naevi raaterni 
of infants. 

5. Aneurysmal Varix. A particular 
kind of aneurysm, in which the blood 
eflTused from a wounded artery passes 
into a neighbouring vein, which it dilates 
in the form of a sac. It is produced 
when a cutting instrument pierces a vein 
and a subjacent artery at the same time, 
forming a direct communication between 
the two vessels. 

ANFRACTUS (uw^i, about, ^.pdo-o-to, 
to environ). A winding, or turning. The 
term denotes the anfractuosities, furrows, 
22 



or depressions, by which the convolutions 
of the brain are separated. 

ANGEIOSPERMI A (u-y^elov, a vessel, 
o-TTfrpMa. seed). The name of plants 
which have their seeds enclosed in a 
vessel, or pericarp. Compjire Gymno- 
spermia. 

ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA. Gar- 
den Angelica ; a plant of the order Um- 
bellifercc, the root of which is occasionally 
used in pectoral disorders. 

Candied Angelica is made from the 
fresh stalks of this plant, boiled in syrup ; 
an agreeable sweetmeat, said to be aphro- 
disiac. 

ANGI'NA PECTORIS {ango, to choke, 
from ayxw, the same). Breast -pang ; 
spasm of the chest. This disease, which 
is attended by acute pain, sense of suffo- 
cation, and syncope, has been thus vari- 
ously designated at different periods, by 
different writers : — 
Cardiogmus cordis sinistri Sauvages 17G3 

Angina Pectoris Heberden 17G8 

Die Brustbraune Eisner 1780 

Diaphragmatic gout Butter 1791 

Asthma arthriticum Schmidt 1 7 95 

Syncope angens Parry 175)9 

Asthma dolorificum Darwin 1801 

Sternodynia syncopalis....Sluis 1802 

Asthma spastico-arthri- | ^^^^^ie^ jgoa 

ticum inconstans J 

Suspirium cardiacum Stephen 1804 

Sternalgia Baumes 1806 

Stenocardia Brera 1810 

Pnigophobia Swediaur 1812 

Angor Pectoris Frank 1818 

The following varievieb ol Angina are 
distinguished in practical medicine : — 

\. A. tonsillaris, t^on throat. 

2. A. maligna. Malignant sore throat. 

3. A. trachealis. Tracheitis; Croup, or 
inflammation of the Trachea. 

4. A. parotidea. The Mumps: a spe- 
cific inflammation of the parotid and sub- 
maxillary glands. 

ANGIOLGGY {atyeiov, a vessel, \6- 

yor, a discourse). Ihe science of the 

vascular system. 
ANGLICUS SUDOR. The English 

sweating-fever, or the ephemera maligna 
j of Burserius, described by Dr. Caius as 
i " a contagious pestilential fever of one 
' day." It made its first appearance in 
j London in 1480, or 1483. 
j ANGONE (a7xw. to strangle). A 

sense of strangulation and suffocation. 
ANGOSTURA BARK. This bark is 
! referred by Humboldt to the Galipea 
j Cusparia ; by Dr. Hancock to the G. 
I Officinalis. 



A N I 



ANK 



1. Angosturin. A neutral principle, 
obtained by submitting the alcoholic tinc- 
ture of angostura bark to spontaneous 
evaporation. 

2. False Angostura. The bark of the 
Strychnos ntix vomica, formerly assigned 
to the Brucea antidysenterica. 

ANGULAR [atigulus, an angle). The 
name of the facial vein, when it has ar- 
rived at the side of the nose, near the eye. 

ANGULARIS SCAPULAE. Another 
name for the levator anguli scapula. 

ANHELATION {anhelo, to pant). 
Dyspnoea. Difficulty of breathing 

ANHYDRITE (a, priv., vbup, water). 
Anhydrous sulphate of lime ; a mineral. 

ANHYDROUS (a, priv., i;5<op, water). 
Without water ; a term applied to crystals 
and gases M'hich are deprived of water. 
Compare Hydrates. 

ANIL. Nil. A plant growing in 
America, from the leaves of which indigo 
is prepared. 

1. Anilic Acid. A name given by Du- 
mas to the acid formed by the action of 
nitric acid upon indigo. It was formerly 
termed indigotic acid. 

2. Aniline. An oily liquid, which dis- 
tils over when finely-pulverized indigo is 
decomposed by a highly-concentrated so- 
lution of caustic potash or soda, in a retort. 

ANIMA (the soul). The name given 
by Stahl to the intelligent agent sup- 
posed to preside over many parts of the 
animal economy. This is the Jrcheevs 
of Van Helmont, and has been termed 
the vital principle, the spirit of anima- 
tion, &c. 

ANIMA ARTICULORUM. Literally, 
life of the limbs ; a name given to Her- 
niodactyllus, or Colchicum, from its great 
popularity. It formed the basis of the 
dia articulorum, the pulvis arthriticus 
Turneri, and the Vienna gout decoction. 

ANIMALCULES (dim. of animal). 
Microscopic animals. They doubtless 
exist in the atmosphere, and in all rivers 
or ponds ; they are, besides— 

1. Infusory. Observed in all fluids 
impregnated with any animal or veget- 
able substance. 

2. Spermatic. Supposed to have been 
discovered in the semen. See Sperma- 
tozoa. 

ANIMALIZATION. The process by 
which food is assiniOated, or converted 
into animal matter. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. The following 

is a classification of the Animal Kingdom, 

by Dr. Grant. It is distinguished into four 

sub-kingdoms, and twenty-three clcsscs 

23 



An example is given of an individual of 
each class. 

I. Cyclo-neura, or Radiata. 

1. Polygastrica. Microscopic Animal- 

cules. 

2. Porifera. Sponge. 

3. Polypifera. Coral, 

4. Acalephae. Sea-nettle. 

5. Echinoderma. Star-fish. 

II. Diplo-neura, or Articulata. 

6. Entozoa. Tape-worm. 

7. Rotifera. Wheel-insect. 

8. Cinhopoda. Barnacle. 

9. Annulida. Leech. 

10. Myriapoda. Centipede. 

11. Insecta. Bee; butterfly. 

12. Arachnida. Spider. 

13. Crustacea. Lobster. 

III. Cyclo-yangliata, or Mollusca. 

14. Tunicata. Cynthia dione. 

15. Conchifera. Oyster. 

16. Gasteropoda. Snail. 

17. Pteropoda. Clio borealis. 

18. Cephalopoda. Cuttlefish. 

IV. Spini-cerehrafa, or Fertebrata. 

19. Pisces. Salmon; shark. 

20. Amphibia. Frog. 

21. Reptilia. Crocodile; serpent. 

22. Aves. Eagle ; humming-bird. 

23. Mammalia. Whale; monkey; man. 

ANIME'. A resinous substance, im- 
properly called yum anime, said to be 
obtained from the Hymenea Courbaril, 
and used in perfumes, varnishes, and 
certain plasters. It resembles copal in 
appearance, and is often sold under that 
name. 

ANION {aviov, that which goes up). 
A term applied by Dr. Faraday to the 
body which passes to the positive pole — 
to the anode of the decomposing body — 
as it is separated by electricity. See 
Kation. 

ANISETTE DE BOURDEAUX. A 
liqueur made by distilling anise, fennel, 
and coriander seeds, previously steeped in 
brandy, with sugar, and one half water. 

ANISI SEMINA. Aniseed ; the fruit 
of the Pimpinella Anisum, a plant of the 
order UmbellifercB. 

ANKER. A liquid measure used at 
Amsterdam, containing about 32 gallons 
English wine measure. 

ANKYLO'SIS {ixfKvl^bxrtt, from ufKv- 
Xor, curved). A stiff" joint from bony 
union. It admits of the following vari- 
eties :— 

1. True Ankylosis. An affection of the 
synovial membrane, in which the two 
surfaces of the joints adhere together, 
the synovial membrane disappears, or is 



AN 



ANT 



changed into cellular tissue, and the 
bones become firmly united. 

2. False Ankylosis. An affection in 
which all the parts composing the joint 
are thickened, the motion is limited, and 
a kind of amphiarthrosis produced. — 
Beclard. 

ANNEALING, or NEALING. The 
process of heating a metallic body, and 
suffering it to cool again in a moderate 
temperature. If cooled too suddenly, it 
becomes extremely brittle. 

The Annealing of Glass is conducted 
in the same manner, and is necessary to 
prevent its flying to pieces on the appli- 
cation of violence or a high temperature. 
See Rupert's Drops. 

ANNOTTO. Rocou. A substance 
procured from the pellicles of the seeds 
of the Bixa Orellana, a Liliaceous plant, 
and used for colouring cheese, for dyeing, 
and other purposes. 

ANNULIDA (annulus, a ring). The 
fifth class of the Diplo-neura or Helmin- 
thoida, consisting of long, cylindrical, 
mostly aquatic worms, with red blood, 
covered with a soft and more or less seg- 
mented and annulated skin. 

AN NULL'S (Lati.i). A ring ; a circle, 
or rounded margin. 

1. Annvlus ciliaris. The ciliary circle 
or ligament ; a white ring, forming the 
bond of union betwixt the choroid coat, 
the iris, and the corona ciliaris. It is 
the annulus gangliformis tunica.' choro- 
idece of Soemmering. 

2. Annulus avails. The rounded mar- 
gin of the septum, which occupies the 
place of the foramen ovale in the foetus. 
It is also called the annulus foraminis. 

ANODE {uv(\, upwards, obw, a way). 
A term applied by Dr. Faraday to that 
part of the surface of a decomposing body 
which the electric current enters — the part 
immediately touching the positive pole. 
See Kathode. 

ANODYNES (a, priv., hbvvt], pain). 
Remedies against pain. 

Anodyne Necklaces. Necklaces made 
of the roots of Hyoscyamus, imagined to 
facilitate teething in infants. 

ANOMALOUS (a, priv., opiaXoi, even). 
Irregular ; a term applied to diseases, in 
which the symptoms are irregular. 

ANONYMUS (a, priv., ovofjia, a name). 
Literally, nameless ; a term formerly ap- 
plied to the cricoid muscle. 

ANOREXIA (a, prjv., opeftf, appe- 
tite). Want of appetite; absence of appe- 
tite, unaccompanied by loathing. 

ANOilMAL (anormis, without rule). 
24 



Irregular; contrary to the usual state. 
See Abnormal. 

ANOSMIA (a, priv., bafxij, odour). 
Loss of smell ; it is organic, arising from 
disease of the Schneiderian membrane, 
or atonic, occurring without manifest 
cause. 

ANTERIOR (Latin). Before ; as ap- 
plied to muscles and nerves. 

ANTEVERSIO UTERI (ante, before, 
verto, to turn). A morbid inclination of 
the fundus uteri forward. Compare Re- 
troversio. 

ANTHEMIS {^xvOem, to blossom). A 
genus of plants of the order Compositce. 
Chamomile flowers are the produce of the 
A. nobilis; Spanish Chamomile, or Pel- 
litory of Spain, is the produce of the A . 
pyrethrum. 

ANTHER (uv^Mpof, from aveea,, to 
flourish). The part of a plant which has 
hitherto been considered as the male 
sexual organ. It is the essential part of 
the stamen, consisting, in most cases, of 
two thecae placed at the top of the fila- 
ment, and hence called the bilocular 
anther. The thecae contain a powdery 
matter called pollen grains, and these 
inclose a semi-fluid substance termed 
fovilla, composed in great part of minute 
granulations, tlie nature of whose motions 
is not understood. The anther is termed, 

1. Innate, when it is attached to the 
filament by its base, as in sparganium. 

2. Adnate, Avhen it is attached to the 
filament by its back, as in polygonum. 

3. Versatile, when it is attached to the 
filament by a single point of the con- 
nective, from which it lightly swings, as 
in grasses. 

4. Antica or introrsa, when the line of 
its dehiscence is towards the pistil. 

5. Postica or extrorsa, when the line of 
its dehiscence is towards the petals. 

ANTHIARIN. The active principle 
of a gum resin, obtained from the An- 
thiaris toxicaria, the most deadly of the 
Upas poisons, employed by the inhabi- 
tants of the East-Indian Archipelago to 
poison their arrows. 

ANTHRACITE {&v6pa?, a burning 
coal). A species of Slaty coal found in 
the transition-rock formation, and often 
called stone coal, glance coal, and blind 
cool. It differs from common coal, which 
it frequently accompanies, in containing 
no bituminous substances, and in not 
yielding inflammable gases by distillation. 
It consists, in some specimens, of 95 per 
cent, of carbon. 

ANTHRACOKALI. The name given 



ANT 



ANT 



by Dr. Polya to a remedy in certain her- 
petic affections. The simple preparation 
consists of a levigated coal dust and pure 
potassa; the sulphurated, of sulphur, 
levigated coal dust, and caustic pot- 
assa. 

ANTHRANITIC ACID. An acid ob- 
tained by the action of fused potash on 
indigo. 

ANTHRAX (ai/0paf, a burning coal). 
Carbuncle. A name also given by Vi- 
truvius to the factitious cinnabar, or bi- 
sulphuret of mercury. 

ANTI- (ui/Ti). Against. A Greek 
preposition, signifying opposition. 
I. Counter-Agents, or Remedies. 

1. Ant-acids. Remedies against acid- 
ity ; synonymous with alkalines. 

2. Ant-alkalincs. Remedies against 
alkalescence, as applied to the urine. 

3. Ant-algica (aX-yor, pain). Remedies 
which remove or relieve pain. 

4. Ant-aphrodisiacs ('A^po5<Tn, Venus). 
Medicines which allay the venereal appe- 
tite. 

5. Ant-arthritics {apOplrn, gout). Re- 
medies against gout. 

G. Anti-dotes {hibu>ni, to give). Alexi- 
pharmica ; counter-poisons. 

7. Anti-h<Emorrhagic Extract. The 
name given by M. Bonjean to a styptic 
extract, obtained from ergot of rye. 

8. Ant-helmintics (eX/i<i/s, a worm). 
Remedies against worms. 

9. Anti-lithics {\iOoi, istone). Reme- 
dies against stone. 

10. Anti-lyssic {\vaaa, vadk^ness). The 
celebrated Ormskirk medicine. 

11. Anti-pathic {nuOor, a disease). A 
term applied to the method of employing 
medicines which produce effects of an 
opposite nature to the symptoms of the 
disease, and the maxim adopted is ' con- 
traria contrariis opponenda.' 

12. Anti-phlogistics [tpXeyoo, to burn). 
Remedies against inflammation. 

13. Anti-scorbutics. Remedies against 
scorbutus, or scurvy. 

14. Antiseptics (o-jjjtw, to putrefy). 
Remedies against putrefaction. 

15. Antispasmodics (<rn-a<u, to draw). 
Remedies against spasm. 

16. Antispasis {(mdu, to draw). Re- 
vulsion, or derivation; the effect pro- 
duced by the application of a blister. 

17. Ant-odontalgics {bdovraXyia, tooth- 
ache). Remedies against tooth-ache. 

II. Opposed in Situation. 

18. Anti-cardium (Kapdia, the heart). 
The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the 
stomach. 

25 



19. Anti-cheir (xeJp, the hand). The 
thumb ; opposed to the hand. 

20. Anti-cnemion {Kvt^ixt), the calf of 
the leg). The shin-bone, as opposed to 
the calf. 

21. Anti-helix (eiXeto, to turn about). 
An elevation parallel to, and in front of, 
the helix. 

22. Ant-inial [\vlov, the occiput). A 
term applied by Barclay to an aspect to- 
wards the part of the head opposite to 
the inion. 

23. Anti-lobium. The tragus ; the pro- 
cess projecting over the opening of the 
ear from the face. 

24. Anti-thenar {Qivap, the palm of 
the hand). A muscle which extends the 
thumb, or opposes it to the hand. 

25. Anti tragus {rpdyot, a goat). A pro- 
minence of the ear opposite to the tragus. 

26. Anti-tragicus. The muscle arising 
from the anti-tragus. 

27. Anti-tropal (rpeTro), to turn). 
Straight, and having a direction contrary 
to that of the body to which it belongs ; 
a term applied to the embryo of the 
seed. 

III. Opposed in Action or Feeling. 

28. Ant-agonist {dywv, a struggle). A 
muscle which acts in opposition to an- 
other, and counteracts its action, as the 
adductors to the abductors. 

29. Anti-pathy (irdOoi:, affection). Aver- 
sion ; a feeling of opposition. 

30. Anti-peristaltic (irept(TTe\\<ji>, to con- 
tract). A motion contrary to the peri- 
staltic motion of the intestines. 

ANTIADITIS (uvTi'adef, the tonsils, 
and the termination itis). Inflammation 
of the tonsils. This is a classical term, 
whereas tonsillitis is barbarous. 

ANTIMONIUM. Stibium. Antimony; 
a brittle whitish metal, usually found 
associated with sulphur. In type foun- 
dries it is much used, to give hardness 
to lead, in the alloy called type metal. 
The etymology of the term has been fan- 
cifully derived from its fatal effects upon 
some monks (anti-moine), upon whom its 
properties were tried by Valentine. 

1. Crude Antimony. The name given 
to the ore of antimony, or stibium, which 
was long regarded as the metal itself, the 
pure metal being termed regulus of anti- 
mony. 

2. Argentine Flowers of Antimony. 
The sesqui-oxide of antimony; the result 
of the simple combustion of the metal. 
During this process a white vapour rises, 
which condenses on cool surfaces, fre- 
quently in the form of small shining 

C 



ANT 



APH 



needles of silvery -whiteness; hence the 
name. 

3. Powder of Algaroth. The oxy- 
chloride of antimony ; a white curdy pre- 
cipitate, formed by pouring the sesqui- 
chloride of the metal into water. Its 
name is derived from that of the physician 
Algarotti. 

4. Glass, Liver, and Crocus of Antimony. 
These pharmaceutical preparations are 
0X3'^-sulphurets of the metal, and are 
similar in their nature to the red antimony 
ore of mineralogists ; they are prepared 
by roasting and then vitrefying the ore. 
The oxide of antimony is dissolved out 
from the glass by acids, and a substance 
is left which is called saffron of antimony. 

5. Kermes Mineral. An orange-red 
substance, deposited when sulphuret of 
antimony is boUed in a solution of potassa 
or soda, and so called from its colour, 
and from its resemblance to the insect of 
that n ame. On subsequently neutralizing 
the cold solution with an acid, an addi- 
tional quantity of similar substance, the 
golden sulphuret of the Pharmacopoeia, 
subsides. 

6. Butter of Antimony. The sesqui- 
chloride of antimony ; the result of dis- 
tillation of the metal with chloride of 
mercury. At common temperatures it is 
a soft solid, of the consistence of butter, 
which is melted by a gentle heat, and 
crystallizes on cooling. 

7. Antimonious Acid. An acid ob- 
tained by oxidating metallic antimony by 
nitric acid, or by roasting the sulphuret 
of antimony. Its salts are called anti- 
monites. 

8. Antimonic Acid, An acid, some- 
times called peroxide of antimony, pre- 
pared by oxidation of oxide of antimony, 
by nitric acid. Its salts are called anti- 
moniates 

9. Antimonial Powder. This pharma- 
copoeial preparation is an oxide of anti- 
mony combined with phosphate of lime. 
It is used as a substitute for James's 
Powder. 

10. Tartar Emetic. This preparation, 
the antimonium tartarizatum of the Phar- 
macopoeia, consists of the tartrates of 
antimony and of potash, and is formed 
by digesting the oxide of antimony with 
cream of tartar. 

11. Antimonial Wine. Vinura anti- 
monii tartarizati. A solution of tartar 
emetic in proof spirit ; two grains of the 
tartrate being containe'' in every fluid 
ounce of the preparation. 

12. Bolus ad Quartanas. A compound 
26 



of tartarized antimony and bark, employed 
by the French physicians. 

ANTONII SANCTI IGNIS. St. An- 
thony's fire ; so called because St. Antho- 
ny was supposed to cure it miraculously. 
See Erysipelas. 

ANTRUM HIGHMORIANUM, or 
Maxillare {antrum, a cave). The 
maxillary sinus ; a cavity above the mo- 
lar teeth of the upper jaw. 

ANTYLION (Antyllus, its inventor). 
An astringent application, recommended 
by Paulus Mgmeia.. 

ANUS. The termination or verge of 
the rectum, serving as an outlet for the 
faeces. 

1. Artificial Anus. An opening in the 
parietes of the abdomen, and of some 
part of the intestinal tube, subjacent and 
adherent. 

2. Imperforate Anus. Congenital closure 
or obliteration of the anus. 

3. Ani prolapsus. Exania, or archo- 
ptosis. Protrusion of the rectum, or of 
its internal membrane. 

ANUS ; or. Foramen commune poste- 
rius; the interior aperture of the aque- 
duct of Sylvius. 

AORTA (a»;p, air, rripew, to keep ; as 
having been formerly supposed to con- 
tain only air). The great artery of the 
heart. It is distinguished into the 
ascending and descending. Hippocrates 
applies this term to the larger bronchi. 

Aortitis. Inflammation of the Aorta. 

APATHY (a, priv., Tra'^or affection). 
Indifference, insensibility. 

APATITE. Phosphate of lime ; a mi- 
neral which occurs in tin veins, and pos- 
sesses phosphorescent properties. 

APEPSIA (a, priv., Tremca, to concoct). 
Indigestion. Dyspepsia is now used. 

APERIENTS [aperio, to open). Mild 
purgatives. 

APETALOUS (a, priv., ireraXov, a 
petal). Plants which have no petals, or 
flower-leaves. See Petal. 

APEX (Latin). The extremity of a 
part, as of the tongue. Plural, apices. 

APHLOGISTIC LAMP (a, priv., (pKe- 
yco, to burn). A lamp which burns with- 
out flame. 

APHO'NIA (a, priv., 0wv^, voice). 
Mutitas ; defectus loquelce. Dumbness; 
loss of speech or voice, without syncope 
or coma ; one of the dysorexia of Cul- 
len. 

APHORIA (a, priv., ^epM, to bear). 
Barrenness; sterility; inability to con- 
ceive offspring. 

APHORISM (a<^opif(o, to limit). A 



A PO 



APP 



maxim, principally as applied to a book 
of Hippocrates. 

APHRODISIACS ('A^pod/Tn, Venus). 
Medicines which excite the venereal ap- 
petite. Remedies against impotence. 

APHTHA (aTTTM, to inflame). Ulcus- 
cula oris. Thrush ; numerous minute 
vesicles, terminating in white sloughs. 
It occurs in the fauces and in the pu- 
denda. In the former case it has been 
distinguished into — 

1. A. lactantium. Infantile, or white. 

2. A. adultorutn. Of adults, or black. 

3. A. anginosa. Of the throat. 
APHYLLOUS (a, priv., <pvX\ov, a 

leaf). Leafless; as applied to certain 
plants. 

APIS MELLIFICA (met, honey, facio, 
to make). The honey bee. 

APIUM GRAVEOLENS. Celery; a 
plant of the order UmbeUifera:. When 
wild, growing in wet meadows and 
ditches, it is acrid and poisonous ; when 
cultivated in dry ground, and partially 
blanched, it is used as salad. 

APO- (otto). From, off. A Greek pre- 
position, denoting separation. 

1. Ap-arthrosis {'dpOpov, Siiomt). Arti- 
culation ; connection of the joints. 

2. Aph-ceresis {d(patp€w, to remove). 
Formerly, that branch of surgery which 
consists in removing any diseased or pre- 
ternatural portion of the body. 

3. Aph-elxia {d(pe\Koo, to abstract). 
Reverie ; inactivity of the attention to 
the impressions of surrounding objects 
during wakefulness. 

4. ApocarpcB (Kapwor, fruit). Plants 
which have distinct carpels, as distin- 
guished from the syncarpcB, in which 
the carpels cohere. 

5. Apo-neurosis {veZpov, a nerve). A 
fibrous or tendinous expansion, erro- 
neously supposed by the ancients to be 
that of a nerve ; in the thigh it is termed 
ihe fascia lata 

6. Apo-phlegmatic medicines. Medi- 
cines which promote the secretion of 
phlegm or mucus, as squill, &c. 

7. Apo-physis {<pv(o, to produce). A 
process of a bone, and a part of the same 
bone. During the earlier periods of life, 
these processes are for the most part 
called epiphyses. Compare Epiphysis. 

8. Apo-plexia (irMjoraw, to strike) 
Apoplexy; apoplectic fit or stroke. The 
term denotes congestion or rupture of 
the brain, with sudden loss of sensation 
and motion. The affection is sometimes 
called sideratio, resolutio nervorum, &c. 

27 



9. Apo-plexia pulmonaris. This term 
has been recently applied to haemorrhage 
into the parenchyma of the lungs, usually 
attended by hiemoptoe. 

10. Apo-psychia (ij/vxr], the soul). Lei- 
popsychia of Hippocrates. Syncope, or 
fainting. 

11. Apo-sepedine {(Tr]iTe6wv, putrefac- 
tion). A substance formed from the pu- 
trefaction of animal matters ; it is also 
called caseous oxide. 

12. Apo-stasis (V(tt>)M<> to stand). 
An aposteme, imposthume, or abscess. 
When a disease passes away by some out- 
let, Hippocrates calls it apostasis by ex- 
cretion ; when the morbific matter settles 
on any part, he calls it apostasis by settle- 
ment ; and when one disease turns to 
another, apostasis by metastasis. 

13. Apo-staxis (o-rafo), to drop). The 
dropping of any fluid, as of blood from 
the nose. 

14. Apo-stema {'iaTtiixt, to stand). An 
abscess ; a separation of parts. 

15. Apo-syritigesis {avpiy^, fistula). 
The degenerating of a sore into a fistula. 

16. Apo-theca [dnoOiiKru a shop, from 
TiOr\txi, to place). A shop where medi- 
cines are sold. Hence 

ApO'thecarius. An apothecarj' ; a com- 
pounder of medicines. This designation 
is more correct than those of chemist and 
druggist. 

17. Apo-thecia. Scutella, or little 
shields ; a term applied, in botany, to the 
repro dagti ve portions of lichens. 

lsJ^K^«m {tew, to boil). A decoc- 
tion -IHI^aration diflering from a ptisan 
only iinhe addition of various medicines, 
and in its being employed at prescribed 
intervals, and not as a habitual drink. 

APOCYNACE^. An order of Dico- 
tyledonous plants, agreeing with Ascle- 
piadaceae, but of rather more suspicious 
properties. Trees or shrubs, usually 
milky, with leaves opposite, sometimes 
whorled; corolla monopetalous, hj'pogy- 
nous ; stamens inserted into the corolla ; 
ovaries two; fruit a follicle, capsule, 
drupe, or berry, single or double. 

APOCYNINE. A bitter principle, ob- 
tained from the Apocynum Cannabinum, 
or Indian-hemp, or Dog's-bane. 

A'PODES (a, priv., novv, 7ro56f, a 
foot). Fishes which have no abdominal 
fins : Order 4, Pisces. See Zoology. 

APPARATUS {appareo, to be at hand). 
A term applied to instruments employed 
in surgery, chemistry, &c. ; also to cer- 
tain methods of cutting for the stone. 
See IMhotomy. 

C 2 



AQU 

APPENDIX {appendo, to hang to). 
Appendicula. A process or appendage ; 
something appended to another part, 
without behig essential to the existence 
of this part, as a thorn or a gland in 
plants. 

1 . Appendix cceci vermiformis. A long 
worm-shaped tube or process, the rudi- 
ment of the lengthened caecum, found in 
all the mammalia, except man and the 
higher quadrumana. 

2. Appendices epiploiece, vel pinguedi- 
nosce. Small irregular pouches of peri- 
tonaeum, filled with fat, and situated like 
fringes upon the large intestine. They 
are sometimes called omentulce intestini 
crassi. 

3. Appendix auricularis. A process 
situated at the anterior and upper part of 
the auricles of the heart. 

APPERT'S PROCESS. A method in- 
troduced by M. Appert for preserving 
articles of food unchanged for several 
years. The articles are inclosed in bottles, 
which are filled to the top with any liquid, 
and hermetically closed. They are then 
placed in kettles, filled mth cold water, 
and subjected to heat till the water boils ; 
the boiling temperature is kept up for a 
considerable time, and the bottles are 
then suffered to cool gradually. Instead 
of bottles, tin canisters are sometimes 
used, and rendered tight by soldering. 

APPETENCY (appeto, to seek). The 
disposition of organized beings to acquire 
and appropriate substances adapted to 
their support. 

APPOSITION (appono, to place at). 
A term applied to that part of the function 
of nutrition, by which the components of 
the blood are transformed on the free 
surface of an organ into a solid unor- 
ganized substance, which is the mode of 
growth of the non-vascular tissues. See 
Transformations. 

APTERA (a, priv., irrepov, a wing). 
Apterous, or wingless insects. 

APYREXIA (a, priv., Tri'/pef /?, a fever). 
Intermissions between the paroxysms of 
a fever. 

APYROUS (a, priv., irvp, fire). A 
terra applied to bodies which sustain the 
action of a strong heat for a long time, 
vdthout change of figure or other proper- 
ties. It is synonjTnous with refractory. 

AQUA. Water. This substance is 
composed of one part of hydrogen, and 
eight of oxygen, by weight ; and of two 
of hydrogen and one of oxj'gen, by vo- 
lume. 

1. Aqua pluvialis. Rain wat^: the 
28 



AQU 

purest natural water, holding in solution 
carbonic acid, a minute portion of car- 
bonate of lime, and traces of muriate of 
lime. 

2. Aqua fontana. Spring water ; con- 
taining, in addition to the above sub- 
stances, a small portion of muriate of soda, 
and frequently other salts. Spring water 
which dissolves soap, is termed soft ; that 
which decomposes and curdles it, is 
called hard. 

3. Aquaexflumine. River water ; ge- 
nerally of considerable purity, but liable 
to hold in suspension particles of earthy 
matter, which impair its transparency, 
and sometimes its salubrity. 

4. Aqua ex puteo. Well water; essen- 
tially the same as spring water, being 
derived from the same source ; but more 
liable to impurity from its stagnation, or 
slow infiltration. 

5. Aqua ex nive. Snow water; differ- 
ing apparently from rain water only in 
being destitute of air, to which water is 
indebted for its briskness, and many of 
its good effects upon animals and vege- 
tables. 

6. Aqua ex lacu. Lake water; a col- 
lection of rain, spring, and river waters, 
contaminated with various animal and 
vegetable bodies, which, from its stagnant 
nature, have undergone putrefaction in it. 

7. Aqua ex palude. Marsh water; the 
most impure, as being the most stagnant, 
of all water, and generally loaded with 
decomposing vegetable matter. 

8. Aqua destillata. Distilled water; 
having a vapid taste, from the absence of 
air, and slightly empyreumatic, in con- 
sequence probably of the presence of a 
small quantity of extractive matter, which 
has undergone partial decomposition. 

9. Aqua marina. Sea water ; contain- 
ing sulphate of soda, the muriates of 
soda, magnesia, and lime, a minute pro- 
portion of potass, and various animal and 
vegetable bodies. — Paris. 

AQU^ DESTILLATA. Aqua Stil- 
latiticE. Distilled waters ; waters impreg- 
nated with the essential oil of vegetables, 
principally designed as grateful vehicles 
for the exhibition of more active reme- 
dies. 

AQUA MINERALES. Mineral wa- 
ters; a term conventionally applied to 
such waters as are distinguished from 
spring, lake, river, or other waters, by 
peculiarities of colour, taste, smell, or 
real or supposed medicinal effects. Mi- 
neral waters are of four kinds : — 

1. Acidulous owing their properties 



AQU 



AR A 



chiefly to carbonic iicid; they are tonic 
and diuretic, and in large doses produce 
a transient exhilaration ; the most cele- 
brated are Pyrmont, Seltzer, Spa, Carls- 
bad, and Scarborough. 

2. Chalybeate ; containing iron in the 
form of sulphate, carbonate, or muriate ; 
they have a styptic, inky taste ; they are 
found at Brighton, Cheltenham, Bath, 
Tunbridge, Leamington Priors, Hartfell 
near Moffat, Peterhead, Castle Horneck, 
&c. 

3. Sulphureous ; deriving their charac- 
ter from sulphuretted hydrogen, either 
uncombined, or united with lime or an 
alkali ; these are found at Enghien, Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Harrowgate, Moffat. 

4. Saline; mostly purgative, and ad- 
vantageously employed in those hypo- 
chondriacal and visceral diseases which 
require continued and moderate relaxa- 
tion of the bowels; these are the Chel- 
tenham, Leamington, Seidlitz, and all 
brackish waters. 

AQUA BINELLI. An Italian quack 
medicine, supposed to be a solution of 
creosote, and celebrated at Naples for 
arresting haemorrhage. 

AQUA CHALYBEATA. A water con- 
sisting of a solution of citrate of iron, 
highly charged with carbonic acid gas, 
and flavoured by a little aromatized 
syrup. 

AQUA FORTIS. A name applied by 
the alchemists to the nitric acid of the 
Pharmacopoeia, on account of its strong 
solvent and corrosive properties. It is 
distinguished by the terms double and 
single, the latter being only half the 
strength of the former. The more con- 
centrated acid, which is much stronger 
even than the double aqua fortis, is 
termed by artists spirit of nitre, 

AQUA LABYRINTHl. Liquor of 
Scarpa ; a fluid found in the cavities of 
the petrous bone. It is secreted by a 
mucous membrane which lines the vesti- 
bule and semicircular canals. 

AQUA MARINE. A designation of 
beryl, a mineral of a green colour, of 
various shades. 

AQUA PHAGED^NICA. Phagedenic 
water ; a lotion for ulcers, formed by the 
decomposition of corrosive sublimate in 
lime water. 

AQUA POTASSiE. The pharmaco- 
poeial name of the aqueous solution of 
potassa, prepared by decomposing car- 
bonate of potassa by lime. 

AQUA REGIA. Royal water; the 
name given by the alchemists to a mix- 
29 



ture of the nitric and hydrochloric acids, 
from its propertyof dissolving gold, styled 
by them the king of metals. It is now 
called nitro-muriatic acid, and consists 
of one part of the former to two of the 
latter acid. 

AQUA TOFF AN A. A subtle, certain, 
slow-consuming poison, prepared by a 
woman of that name in Sicily, said by 
some to consist of opium and cantharides : 
by others, of a solution of arsenic. 

AQUA VITiE. Eau de Vie. A name 
given in commerce to ardent spirit of 
the first distillation. Distillers call it 
low wines. As an intoxicating beverage, 
it might very properly be termed aqua 
mortis. 

AQUA VULNERARIA {vulnus, a 
wound). A remedy applied to wounds ; 
another term for arquebusade. 

AQUEDUCT {aqua ductus, a water- 
course). A term applied to certain canals 
occurring in different parts of the body, 
as that— 

1. Of Fallopius. The canal by which 
the portio dura winds through the petrous 
portion of the temporal bone. 

2. Of Sylvius. The canal which extends 
backwards under the tubercula quadri- 
gemina, into the fourth ventricle. 

3. Of the Cochlea. A foramen of the 
temporal bone, for the transmission of a 
small vein from the cochlea. 

4. Of the Vestibulum. The commence- 
ment of a small canal, which opens upon 
the posterior surface of the petrous bone, 
and transmits a small vein. 

AQUEOUS {aqua, water). A term now 
coming into general use for designating 
definite combinations with water. The 
term hydrate has long been employed for 
the same purpose. A prefix is used when 
there is more than one atom, as in bin- 
aqueous, fer-hydrate. 

AQUEOUS HUMOUR {aqua, watery 
The fluid which fills the anterior and 
posterior chambers of the eye. 

AQUILA. Literally, an eagle. A 
term which had formerly many epithets 
joined with it to denote particular sub- 
stances ; thus, aquila alba, seu mitigata 
was one of the fanciful names of calomel. 

AQUULA (dim. of aqua, water). A 
fatty tumor under the skin of the eye- 
lid. 

ARACE^. Aroidecc. The Arum .tribe 
of Monocotyledonous plants, containing 
an acrid, and in some cases a highly 
dangerous principle. Herbaceous plants 
with leaves sheathing at the base ; flowers 
unisexual, arranged upon a spadix, within 
C 3 



ARC 



ARE 



a spathe ; stamens hypogynous ; ovanj 
superior; fruit succulent. 

ARACHNI'DA (apaxwur, a spider). 
The third class of the Diplo-gangliata, or 
Entomoida, comprising articulated ani- 
mals, generally with four pair of legs, 
without wings or metamorphosis. 

ARACHNOID MEMBRANE {dpdx- 
vn^, a spider, et'So?, likeness). Meninx 
media. The fine cobweb-like membrane 
situated between the dura and pia mater. 
It is the serous membrane of the cerebro- 
spinal centres. 

1. Arachnoiditis, or Arachnitis. In- 
flammation of the arachnoid membrane. 

2. Sub-arachnoidian fluid. An abundant 
serous secretion, which fiUs all the vacu- 
ities existing between the arachnoid and 
pia mater, and distends the arachnoid of 
the spinal cord so completely, as to enable 
it to occupy the whole of the space 
included in the sheath of the dura ma- 
ter. 

ARAEOMETER (apatir, thin, fxerpov, 
measure). Hydrometer. An instrument 
for determining the specific gravity of 
liquids into which it is plunged, by the 
depth to which it becomes immersed in 
them. The art or process of measuring 
the density or gravity of liquids is termed 
arceometry. 

ARALIA NUDICAULIS. The naked- 
stalked Aralia, the roots of which are 
sometimes mixed with the split sarsapa- 
rilla of the shops. 

ARBOR. A tree. The term is applied 
to certain arborescent forms assumed by 
metals : — 

1. Arbor Diana. A term applied to 
silver, when precipitated from its oxide 
in the metallic form by mercury. 

2. Arbor Suturni. A term applied to 
lead, when separated from its salts in a 
metallic state by zinc. 

ARBORESCENT (arbor, a tree). 
Having the character of a tree ; as distin- 
guished from that of a herb or shrub. 

ARBOR VIT^. Literally, tree of life. 
A term applied to the arborescent appear- 
ance presented by the cerebellum, when 
cut into vertically. 

Arbor vitce uterina. A term applied to 
an arborescent arrangement of folds on 
the interior of the cervix uteri. They 
resemble the smallest of the cameae co- 
lumnse of the heart. 

ARBUTUS UVA URSI. TraUing Ar- 
butus, or Red Bear-berry ; a plant of the 
order Ericacece, employed in cases of 
irritable bladder, of diabetes, &c. 

ARCA ARCANORUM. Literally, a 
30 



chest of secrets. The alchemical name 
of the philosopher's stone. 

ARCA'NUM. A secret; a secret re- 
medy ; a remedy which owes its value to 
its being kept secret. Thus, sulphate of 
potash was formerly called arcanum du 
plicatum ; acetate of potash, arcanum tar- 
tari; deutoxide of mercury, arcanum 
corallinum, &c. 

ARCH, FEMORAL. The name of a 
considerable arch formed over the concave 
border of the pelvis. It is bounded above 
by Poupart's ligament, below by the 
border of the pubes and Uium. 

ARCH.EUS {dpxh, beginning). A hy- 
pothetical intelligent agent, adopted by 
Van Helmont, resembling the anima of 
Stahl. See Anima. 

ARCHIL. A violet red paste, pre- 
pared from the Lichen rocellus, or Orseille, 
and other species of lichen, and used in 
dyeing. The plant, reduced to a pulp, 
and treated with impure ammoniacal 
liquor, yields a rich purple tincture, 
called litmus or turnsole, used in che- 
mistry as a test. 

ARCHOPTO'MA (dpxor, anus, irinrw, 
to fall). Archoptosis. Prolapsus ani. A 
descent of the rectum. See Anus. 

ARCIFORM FIBRES [arcus, a bow, 
forma, likeness). A term applied by Mr. 
Solly to a set of fibres which proceed from 
the corpus pyramidale, and pass out- 
wards beneath the corpus olivare to the 
cerebellum. He distinguishes them into 
two layers, the superficial cerebellar, and 
deep cerebellar fibres. 

ARCTATIO {arcto, to narrow). Con- 
stipation of the intestines; also preter- 
natural straightness of the vagina. 

ARCUATIO [arcus, a bow). A gib- 
bosity, or curvature, of the dorsal verte- 
brae, sternum, or the tibia. — Avicenna. 

ARCUS SENILIS (bow of old age). 
An opacity round the margin of the cor- 
nea, occurring in advanced age. 

ARDENT SPIRIT. A term applied 
to alcohol of moderate strength. 

ARDOR {ardeo, to burn). Heat; a 
sense of heat, or burning 

1. Ardor Urines. A sense of scalding 
on pass^g the urine. 

2. Ardor Ventriculi. Heartburn. 

AREA. Literally, an open place. Un- 
der this tenu, Celsus describes two vari- 
eties of baldness, viz. — 

1. Area diffluens. Diffluent areated 
hair ; consisting of bald plots of an inde- 
terminate figure, in the beard as well as 
in the scalp. This is the true alopecia 
of the Greeks. 



ARG 



ARM 



2. Area serpens. Serpentine areated j 
hair ; consisting of baldness commencing 
at the occiput, and winding in a line not I 
exceeding two fingers' breadth, to each 
ear, sometimes to the forehead ; often | 
terminating spontaneously. This is the 
ophiasis of the Greeks. 

AREA PELLUCIDA. The transpa- 
rent space formed after the lapse of several 
hours in the incubated egg, around the 
first trace of the embryo, by the middle 
portion of the germinal membrane. 

1. Area Vasculosa. A second distinct \ 
space surrounding the area pellucida, 
and so named from the formation of the 
blood vessels in it. 

2. Area Vitellina. A third distinct 
space, surrounding the area vasculosa. 
This zone eventually encloses the whole 
yolk. 

ARENA. Sand ; an obsolete term for 
gravel or sediment in the urine. 

AREOLA (dim. of area, a void space). 
The pink or brown circle which surrounds 
the nipple. Also the name given by 
Brown to an opaque spot or nucleus ob- 
served in the cells of plants, and since 
termed by Schleiden, cytoblast. 

ARES. An alchemical term, expres- 
sive of the Great First Cause. 

ARGAND LAMP. A name applied, 
from one of the inventors, to all lamps 
with hollow or circular wicKS. The 
intention of them is to furnish a more 
rapid supply of air to the flame, and to 
afford this air to the centre as well as to 
the outside of the flame. 

ARGE'MA idpyos, white). A small 
white ulcer of the eye, described by Hip- 
pocrates. 

ARGENTINE FLOWERS OF ANTI- 
MONY {argentum, silver). The sesqui- 
oxide of antimony, frequently occurring 
in the form of small shining needles of 
silvery whiteness. See Antimony. 

ARGENTUM (apTor, white). Silver; 
the whitest of metals; it occurs in the 
metallic state, and is also obtained from 
the ores of lead. It is employed in phar- 
macy only in the preparation of the 
nitrate. 

1. Argenti nitras. Fused nitrate of 
silver, or lunar caustic ; formed by dis- 
solving pure silver in spirit of nitre, 
evaporating to drjTiess, melting, and 
pouring the melted mass into moulds. 

2. Argentum foliatum (folium, a leaf). 
Silver leaf; used for covering pills and 
other substances. 

3. Argentum in musculis [musculus, a 
mussel). Shell silver ; made by grinding 

31 



the cuttings of silver leaf with strong 
gum water, and spreading it in pond- 
mussel shells; it is used for writing 
silver-coloured letters, but it tarnishes, 
and is inferior to the argentum musi- 
vum. 

4. Argentum zootinicum. Cyanide of 
silver, sometimes called hydrocyanate, 
cyanuret, or cyanodide of silver. 

The following are Misnomers : — 

5. Argentum musivum. Mosaic silver ; 
made of bismuth and tin melted together, 
with the addition of quicksilver ; used as 
a silver colour. 

6. Argentum vivum. QuicksUver, or 
mercury; found native, but mostly ex- 
tracted from the native sulphurets. 

7. Argentum vivum purificatum. Hy- 
drargyrus purificatus ; or quicksilver rub- 
bed with an equal weight of iron filings, 
and distUled in an iron vessel. 

ARGILLA (apyor, white). Argillaceous 
Earth. White clay, or potter's earth ; 
the earth of clay, called in chemistry 
alumina, from its being obtained in great- 
est purity from alum. See Alumina. 

Argilla vitriolata. Alum. 

ARGOL, or ARGAL. Wine-stone. 
Crude tartar ; an acidulous concrete salt, 
deposited by wine, and used by dyers as 
a mordant. 

ARICINA. An alkaloid found in cin- 
chona bark, and very analogous in its 
properties to cinchonia and quina. These 
three alkaloids may be viewed as oxides 
of the same compound radical. 

ARILLUS. A term applied, in botany, 
to an expansion of the placenta, or funi- 
culus, about the seed : the mace of the 
nutmeg, and the red covering of the seed 
of the spindle-tree, are instances of aril- 
lus. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEiE {'dptcno^, the 
best, Xoxeia, delivery). The Birthwort 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants, so named 
from the reputed emmenagogue proper- 
ties of the genus Aristolochia. Herba- 
ceous plants or shrubs, with leaves alter- 
nate ; flowers apetalous, hermaphrodite ; 
stamens epigynous ; ovary many-celled ; 
fruit, dry or succulent, many-celled. 

ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA. 
Virginia Birthwort, or Snake-root; a plant 
supposed to possess the power of arrest- 
ing the effects of serpents' venomous 
bites. 

ARMORACI.E RADIX. Horse-ra- 
dish root; the root of the Cochlear ia 
Armoracia. Its virtues depend on an 
essential oil combined with sulphur. See 
Horse radish. 

C 4 



ARS 



ART 



ARNALDIA. A disease formerly 
known in England, and attended with 
Alopecia, or baldness. 

ARNICA MONTANA. Leopard's- 
bane; a plant of the order Composite. 
It has been celebrated for internal pains 
and congestions from bruises, and has 
obtained the epithet of 'panacea lapso- 
rum.' 

ARO'MA {api, intensely, 6^u>, to smell). 
The odorous principle of plants, formerly 
called by Boerhaave the Spiritus Rector. 

Aromatics. Plants which possess an 
aroma united with pungency, and are 
warm to the taste. 

ARQUA. A term by which the Ara- 
bian writers sometimes designate the 
aqtia, or gutta serena, or cataract. 

ARQUATUS MORBUS {arcuatus, 
from arcu^, a bow). Literally, the arched 
disease; a name formerly given to jaun- 
dice, from the supposed resemblance of 
its colour to that of the rainbow. 

ARQUEBUS AD E {arquebus, a hand- 
gun). Aqua Vulneraria. A lotion com- 
posed of vinegar, sulphuric acid, honey, 
alcohol, and various aromatics ; originally 
applied to wounds inflicted by the arque- 
bus. 

ARQUIFOUX. A sort of lead ore, 
commonly called potters' ore, from its 
being used by potters as a green varnish. 

ARRACK, or RACK. An intoxicating 
beverage made in India, by distilling the 
fermented juice of the cocoa-nut, the pal- 
myra tree, and rice in the husk. It may 
be imitated by dissolving forty grains of 
flowers of benjamin in a quart of rum : 
Dr. Kitchener calls this " Vauxhall Nec- 
tar." 

1 . Goa arrack is made from a vegetable 
juice called toddy, which flows by in- 
cision from the cocoa-nut tree. 

2. Batavia arrack is obtained by dis- 
tillation from molasses and rice, and is 
stronger than that of Goa. 

ARRAGONITE. An impure species of 
carbonate of lime, brought from Arragon 
in Spain. 

ARROW-ROOT. A term improperly 
applied to fecula or starch, prepared from 
the root of the Maranta Arundinacea, ^ 
said to be efficacious in poisoned wounds. 

Arrow-root, British. A fecula prepared 
from the roots of the Arum maculatum, 
or Cuckoo-pint, in the isle of Portland, 
by beating them into a pulp, which is 
repeatedly washed by passing it through 
a sieve ; it is then dried in shallow pans. 

ARSENICUM {dpaevtKov, masculine, 
an ancient epithet, denoting strong and 
32 



acrimonious properties). Arsenic ; a brit- 
tle metal of a bluish white colour. 

1. Arsenious Acid. This compound, 
frequently called white arsetiic, and white 
oxide of arsenic, is prepared by digesting 
the metal in dilute nitric acid. It is well 
known as a violent poison. Its salts are 
called arsenites. 

2. Arsenic Acid. The compound which 
results from the further acidiflcation of 
the arsenious with nitric acid. Its salts 
are called arseniates 

3. Fly Powder. Poudre k mouches. A 
black powder, formed by the exposure of 
the metal to a moist atmosphere. It is 
generally regarded as a mixture of white 
oxide and metallic arsenic. 

4. Fuming Liquor of Arsenic. A colour- 
less volatile liquid, which fumes strongly 
on exposure to the air. It is the sesqui- 
chloride of arsenic ; and is formed by 
throwing powdered arsenic into chlorine 
gas. 

5. Realgar. Ruby or Red Arsenic; the 
protosulphuret. It occurs native, and 
may be formed by heating arsenious acid 
with about half its weight of sulphur. 

6. Orpiment. Yellow arsenic ; the ses- 
qui-sulphuret. It occurs native, and may 
be formed by fusing together equal parts 
of arsenious acid and sulphur. It con- 
stitutes a weU-known paint, and is the 
colouring principle of the pigment called 
king's yellow. 

7. Scheele's Mineral Green. A well- 
known pigment, consisting of arsenite of 
copper, or the combination of the ar- 
senious acid with oxide of copper. 

8. Liquor Arsenicalis. A pharmaco- 
poeial preparation, called Fowler's solu- 
tion and Tasteless Ague Drop, consisting 
of arseniate of potash dissolved in water, 
and flavoured and coloured by spirit of 
lavender. 

9. Pate Arsenicale. A remedy used in 
France, consisting of cinnabar, sanguis 
draconis, and arsenious acid, made into 
a paste with saliva. 

ARSENOVINIC ACID. A new acid 
produced by the action of arsenic upon 
alcohol. 

ARTEMISIA. A genus of plants of 
the order Composites. The species Chi- 
nensis, Indica, and Vulgaris, yield the 
substance called moxa, which is prepared 
by beating the tops of these plants in a 
mortar, until they become like tow. 

Artemisia Dracunculus. Tarragon; a 
plant which is used to impart a peculiar 
stimulating flavour to vinegar. 

ARTERIA {dijp, air, rnpew, to hold). 



ART 



ART 



A vessel which carries the blood from 
the heart ; formerly supposed, from its 
being found empty after death, to contain 
only air. 

\. Arteriainnominata. A trunk arising 
from the arch of the aorta. 

2. ArtericB helicincB. The name given 
by M tiller to one set of the arterial 
branches of the corpora cavernosa penis. 
"They come off from the side of the 
arteries, and consist of short, slightly- 
curled branches, terminating abruptly by 
a rounded, apparently closed extremity, 
turned back somewhat on itself: these 
are sometimes single ; sometimes several 
arise from one stem, forming a tuft." 

3. Arteria; Venosce. The four pulmo- 
nary veins were so called, because they 
contained arterial blood. 

4. Arterial Circle of Willis. This is 
formed by branches of the carotid and 
vertebral arteries at the base of the 
brain. 

5. Arlerialization. The conversion of 
the venous into the arterial blood ; a term 
applied to the change induced in the 
blood as it passes through the lungs, by 
the evolution of carbonic acid, and the 
abstraction of oxygen from the air. 

6. Arteritis. Inflammation of an artery 
or arteries. 

7. Arteriotomy (to/u>;, a section). The 
opening of an artery, to let blood, gene- 
rally the temporal. 

ARTHANATIN. A name applied by 
Saladin to a colourless crystalline matter, 
which is extracted by alcohol from the 
tuberous stem of the Cyclamen Europce- 
um, or Sow-bread. 

ARTHRON (ap^poi/). A joint. Hence 

1. Arthr-itis. Podagra, or Gout. Cor- 
rectly, inflammation of a joint. 

2. Arthro-dia. A kind of shallow arti- 
culation, as that of the humerus with the 
glenoid cavity. 

3. Arthr-odynia {oivvnt pain). Pains 
in the joints. 

4. Arthro-logy [Xofov, a description). 
A description of the joints. 

•5. Arthro-pyosis [irvov, pus). Abscess 
of a joint. 

6. Arthrosis. Articulation, or joint. 

ARTICULARIS {articulus, a joint). 
Relating to joints; particularly applied to 
the arteries given off from the popliteal. 

Articularis genu. This, and the term 
subcruraitts, have been applied to a few 
detached muscular fibres, frequently 
found under the lower part of the cruralis, 
and attached to the capsule of the knee- 
joint. 

33 



ARTICULATA (arWcM^w*, ajoint). Ar- 
ticulated or jointed animals ; one of the 
four great divisions of the animal king- 
dom. See Zoology. 

ARTICULATION {articulus, a joint). 
Arthrosis ; a joint. The mechanism by 
which the bones of the skeleton are con- 
nected with each other. All the forms of 
articulation may be reduced to three : — 
I. Synarthrosis, or Immoveable. 

1. Harmonia (apw, to adapt). Close 
joining ; in which the bones merely lie 
in opposition to each other, as in the 
bones of the face. 

2. Schindylesis {<Txiv6v\n(Tit, a fissure). 
A mode of joining, by which a projection 
of one bone is inserted into a groove or 
fissure in another, as in the articulations 
of the vomer with the rostrum of the 
sphenoid, and with the central lamella of 
the ethmoid bone. 

3. Gomphosis {yo/jicpoi, a nail). Nail- 
like insertion, as of the teeth in their 
sockets ; their roots being fixed into the 
alveoli, like nails into a board. This is 
the only example of this kind of articu- 
lation. 

4. Sutura. Literally, a seam. A dove- 
tailing mode of articulation, the most 
solid of the four forms of synarthrosis ; it 
occurs in the union of the flat bones of 
the skuU with each other. There are 
two varieties, viz.— 

1. Sutura serrata, as in the serrated, 
or saw-like, union of the frontal with 
the parietal bones, and of the parietal 
bones with each other. 

2. Sutura squamosa, as in the scale- 
like connexion of the temporal with the 
parietal bone. 

II. Diarthrosis, or Moveable. 

1. Arthrodia. In this form of articu- 
lation, the extent of motion is limited, 
as in the articulations of both extremities 
of the clavicle, and ribs ; in the articula- 
tions of the radius with the ulna, of the 
fibula with the tibia, of the articular pro- 
cesses of the vertebrae, and of the bones 
of the carpus and tarsus with each other. 
&c. 

2. Ginglymus (fff/Xvuot, a hinge). 
Hinge-like articulation, in which the 
bones move upon each other in two di- 
rections only, viz. forwards and back- 
wards ; but the degree of motion may be 
very considerable. Examples occur in 
the elbow, the wrist, the knee, the ankle, 
the lower jaw, &c. 

3. Enarthrosis {hv, in, ap0pu<r«r, arti- 
culation). Ball-and-socket joint, the most 

C 5 



ASC 



ASP 



extensive in its range of motion of all the 
moveable joints. There are three exam- 
ples of this kind of joint, viz. the hip, 
the shoulder, and the articulation of the 
metacarpal bone of the thumb with the 
trapezium. 

III. Amphi-artkrosis, or Mixed. 

This kind of articulation is intermedi- 
ate between the immoveable and the 
moveable forms. It is characterized by 
having an intervening substance between 
the contiguous ends of the bones, and 
permitting of only a slight or obscure 
degree of motion. Examples occur in 
the connection between the bodies of the 
vertebrae, the union of the two first 
pieces of the sternum, and the sacro-iliac 
and pubic symphyses. 

ARTIMOMANTICO. An alloy of tin, 
sulphur, bismuth, and copper. 

ARTOS i&pTot). The Greek term for 
bread, or pa7iis of the Latins. 

1. Arto-creas {upeai, flesh). A food 
made of bread and various meats boiled 
together. 

2. Arto-gala {ydXa, milk). A food 
made of bread and milk. A poultice. 

3. Arto^neli (neXt, honey). A cata- 
plasm made of bread and honey. 

ARYTiENOID {dpvraiva, a ewer, eldot, 
likeness). A term applied to two trian- 
gular cartilages of the larynx. The de- 
rivation of the term relates to the appear- 
ance of both cartilages taken together, 
and covered by mucous membrane. In 
animals, which were the principal subjects 
of dissection among the ancients, the 
opening of the larynx with the arytsenoid 
cartilages bears a strikhig resemblance to 
the mouth of a pitcher having a large 
spout. 

ASAPHATI (a, priv., <Ta(pij<!, clear). 
A sort of serpigo, supposed to be gene- 
rated in the pores, like worms. 

ASAPHIA (a, priv., aa^rjt, clear). 
Defective utterance ; a want of clearness 
of articulation or speech. 

ASARI FOLIA. Asarabacca leaves ; 
The leaves of the Asarum Europeum, a 
plant ofthe order ^rJs^o^ocAiacete, abound- 
ing in a bitter principle called asarin, and 
used as an errhine. 

ASBESTOS (a, priv., ir/Sevvvni, to 
extinguish). A mineral substance of a 
fibrous structure, from which an incom- 
bustible linen is made. There are several 
varieties, all more or less flexible and 
fibrous, and termed amianthus, or moun- 
tain flax, mountain leather, &c. 

ASCARIS (uo-Kapt'fM, to jump). Para- 
sitical worms found in the human body. 
34 



1. Ascaris Lumbricoides. The long 
and round worm. 

2. Ascaris Vermicularis. The thread 
or maw-worm. See Vermes. 

ASCENSUS MORBI. The ascent or 
increase of a disease. 

ASCIA (an axe, or hatchet). A ban- 
dage, so called from its shape, and de- 
scribed by Hippocrates. 

ASCITES (<io-K6r, a sack; a skin- 
bottle ; a big-bellied man). Hydrops ven- 
tris, vel abdominis. Dropsy of the belly 
or abdomen. 

ASCLEPIADACE.E. The Asclepias 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Shrubs 
or herbaceous plants, with leaves opposite, 
alternate, or whorled; corolla monope- 
talous, hypogynous; stamens inserted into 
the base of the corolla ; ovaries two ; fruit 
one or two follicles. In this tribe the 
sexual apparatus is very peculiar. 

ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA. Swallow- 
wort ; an American plant, used as a dia- 
phoretic in catarrh and rheumatism. 

ASEPTA (a, priv., arj-nut, to putrefy). 
Substances free from the putrefactive 
process. 

ASHES. The residuum of the dbm- 
bustion of vegetables, containing alkaline 
salts. 

ASITIA (a, priv., a-'iTOi, food). Loss 
of appetite. 

ASPARAMIDE. A principle dis- 
covered in the juice of the asparagus, 
and in the root of the marsh-mallow and 
liquorice. It is the same as the agedoite 
of Robiquet. 

ASPAP»,TIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from asparagin, when boiled for some time 
with hydrated oxide of lead or magnesia. 
ASPERA ARTERIA. Literally, a 
rough air-vessel. The trachea ; so named 
from the inequality of its cartilages. 

ASPERSION (aspergo, to sprinkle). 
A kind of affusion, in which the liquid is 
thrown, drop by drop, like rain, upon the 
body. 

ASPHALTENE. A solid black sub- 
stance, obtained by submitting the bitu- 
men of Bechelborum, purified by ether, 
to a high and prolonged temperature. 

ASPHALTUM (a, priv., cr^aXXo), to 
slip ; from its being used for cement). 
Jews' Pitch. Native bitumen; a solid 
brittle bitumen, found principally on the 
shores and on the surface of the Dead 
Sea, and named from the lake Asphaltitis. 
A brown colouring matter is formed from 
it, which, when dissolved in oil of tur- 
pentine, is semitransparent, and is used 
as a glaze. 



ASS 



AST 



ASPHODELE^. The Asphodel or Lily 
tribe of Monocotyledonous plants. Her- 
baceous plants, with bulbs, occasionally 
arborescent, with leaves not articulated 
with the stem, parallel-veined ; flowers 
liexapetaloideous ; stamens hypogynous ; 
ovary superior; fruit succulent or dry 
and capsular. 

ASPHYXIA (a, priv., o-^i^ftf, the 
pulse). Defectus pulsus ; defectus animi. 
Originally, interrupted pulse ; but, more 
recently and generally, interrupted respi- 
ration, as in hanging, drowning; sus- 
pended animation; apparent death, 

ASSA-FCETIDA. A fetid gum-resin, 
which exudes from the root of the Ferula 
Assafcetida, a plant of the order Umbel- 
Ufercc. It occurs massive, and in tears. 
It was used by the ancients as a condi- 
ment, under the name of aiX<pi6v {laser- 
pitium) ; it has also been called opium 
Cyrenaicum, or juice from CjTene. The 
term assa-foetida is derived from the 
monks of the Salernian school. 

ASSAYING. The chemical operation 
of ascertaining the quantity of any metal 
in an ore or mixture. It differs from 
Analysis only in degree, and is performed 
in the dry way, as by heat ; in the moist 
way, as by acids and other re-agents ; or 
by both methods. See Cupellation. 

ASSES' MILK. Lac Asininum. The 
artificial milk may be prepared in the fol- 
lowing way : — Boil eryngo root, pearl 
barley, sago, and rice, of each one ounce, 
in three pints of water till half wasted ; 
strain, and put a tea-spoonful of the mix- 
ture into a coffee-cup of boiling milk, so 
as to render it of the consistence of 
cream ; sweeten with sugar or honey to 
the taste. 

ASSIDENT SIGNS {assideo, to sit by). 
Occasional symptoms of a disease. 

ASSIMILATION (assimilo, to assimi- 
late). The conversion of the food into 
nutriment. 

ASSOCIATE MOVEMENTS. Con- 
sensual Movements. Those movements 
which, contrary to our will, accompany 
other, voluntary, motions. Thus, the eye 
cannot be moved inwards by the action of 
the rectus internus, without contraction 
of the iris being produced. 

ASSODES i'dar], loathing). Asodes. A 
continual fever, attended with a loathing 
of food. Sauvages calls it Tritceophya 
assodes ; and CuUen arranges it under 
the tertian remittents. 

ASSUS (quasi arsus, from ardere, to 
burn). Roasted, as applied to foods. 
But Celsus has assa nutrix, a careful 
35 



nurse ; quod puero adsit, or assit, which 
is a different origin. See Elixus. 

ASTATIC (a, priv., tndw, to stand). 
A term applied to a magnetic needle, 
when its directive property is destroyed 
by the proximity of another needle of 
equal magnetic intensity, fixed parallel 
to it, and in a reversed position, each 
needle having its north pole adjacent to 
the south pole of the other. In this state 
the needles, neutralizing each other, are 
unaffected by the magnetism of the earth, 
while they are still subject to the influence 
of galvanism. 

ASTER (u(rT>;p). A star. 

1. Astro-bolismus (/SaXXco, to cast). 
Sideratio. Apoplexy ; formerly supposed 
to be caused by the influence of the 
stars. 

2. Astro-logy {\6yos, a description). 
A description of the stars. The pretended 
science of foretelling events by inquiring 
of the stars. Hippocrates ranks this, and 
astronomy, among the necessary studies 
of a physician. 

3. Astro-nomy (»/6/xor, a law). The 
science which investigates the laws of 
the stars, or the motions of the heavenly 
bodies. 

ASTHENIA (a, priv., aOevoi, strength). 
Debility ; want of strength. 

ASTHMA (uCT^yuaCft), to breathe hea- 
vily). Anhelatio ; spirandi difficultas ; 
suspirium. Broken-M'ind ; short-breath ; 
difficulty of breathing, recurring in parox- 
ysms, and independent of organic disease. 

ASTRAGALUS (iicTpdyaXoi, a die). 
The ankle-bone : the analogous bones of 
some animal were used by the ancients 
as dice. 

ASTRAGALUS CRETICUS. Cretan 
milk-vetch ; a plant of the order Legumi- 
nosce, which yields the gum tragacanth of 
commerce. Several other species of As- 
tragalus yield this substance, particularly 
the A. verus, the A. gumviifer, &c. 

ASTRINGENT PRINCIPLE. A prin- 
ciple contained in the husks of nuts, of 
walnuts, in green tea, and eminently in 
the gall-nut. From the use of this prin- 
ciple in tanning skins, it has obtained the 
name of tannin. 

ASTRINGENTS (astringo, to bmd). 
Remedies which contract the animal 
fibre, and arrest fluxes, haemorrhages, 
diarrhoea, &c. 

Especes Astringents. The name given 
in the Codex or Parisian Pharmacopoeia 
to a mixture of equal parts of bistort- 
root, of tormentil-root, and of pomegra- 
nate-bark. 

C 6 



ATO 

ATAXIA (a, priv., rd^tt, order). Ir- 1 
regularity ; a term applied to some dis- | 
eases. I 

ATHERO'MA (cl^npa, pap). An en- j 
cysted tumor, so called from its paplike \ 
contents. Beclard observes, that this | 
kind of cyst, as well as the varieties 
termed meliceris and steatoma, are merely 
sebaceous follicles enormously dilated. 

ATHYMIA (a, priv., ('ujuos'. courage). 
Lowness of spirits ; depression. 

ATLAS (rXao), to sustain). The up- 
permost of the cervical vertebrae; so 
named from its supporting the head, as 
Atlas was said to support the world. 

ATMOMETER (uthos, vapour, /xerpov, 
a measure). An instrument contrived 
by Professor Leslie for measuring the 
quantity of exhalation from a moist sur- 
face in a given time. 

ATMOSPHERE (uTiuo?, vapour, a-<pa7- 
pa, a sphere). That volume of air which 
surrounds the earth. 

1. Atmospheric Pressure is indicated by 
the length of a column of mercury. A 
mercurial column, 30 inches in length, 
presses on a given surface with the same 
force as the atmosphere in its ordinary 
state; and hence the force of a 60-inch 
column is equal to the pressure of two 
atmospheres ; that of 15 inches to half an 
atmosphere ; that of one inch to l-30th of 
the atmospheric pressure. 

2. Atmospheres — two, three, &c. Mul- 
tiplied pressures of air, arising from con- 
densation, the ordinary pressure being 
fifteen pounds on the square inch. 

ATOM (a, priv., refivoo, to cut). An 
ultimate particle of matter, incapable of 
further division. The term is frequently 
used in chemistry as synonymous with 
equivalent. 

ATOMIC THEORY. A theory in- 
troduced by Dalton for explaining the 
laws of definite proportions in chemical 
combinations. It is founded on the sup- 
position that matter consists of ultimate 
indivisible particles, called atoms; that 
these are of the same size and shape in 
the same body, but diiFer in weight in 
different bodies ; and that bodies combine 
in definite proportions, with reference to 
those weights, which are hence called 
atomic weights. The main features of 
this theory are briefly stated in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs : — 

1. In bodies capable of assuming the 
gaseous form, the weight of the atom is 
obtained from the volume; thus, water 
being composed of one volume of oxygen, 
united with two volumes (or one atom) of 
36 



ATO 

hydrogen, the relative weights will be, 
oxygen 8, hydrogen 1, and water 9. 

2. In bodies which do not assume the 
gaseous form in their simple state, the 
weight of the atom is deduced from that 
of the compound ; the weight of carbon, 
for instance, is obtained from that of car- 
bonic acid gas, one volume of which 
weighs 22 times as much as our standard 
of unity; of these 22 parts, 16 are oxygen, 
leaving 6 to represent the primary mole- 
cule of carbon. 

3. In the case of bodies which are in- 
capable of assuming a gaseous form, either 
alone or in combination, the weight must 
be obtained by analysis; thus, marble, 
or the carbonate of lime, is found to be 
composed of 22 parts of carbonic acid, 
and 28 of lime : 28 therefore represents 
the atomic weight of lime. 

4. The atomic weights are generally 
supposed to be related to one another by 
multiple ; hence, this law is often called 
the law of multiples, or of combinations 
in multiple proportion. This will be 
easily seen by referring to the component 
parts of the following substances. 

Nitrogen. Oxygen. 

Nitrous oxide 14 8 

Nitric oxide 14 16 

Hyponitrous acid ... 14 24 

Nitrous acid 14 32 

Nitric acid 14 40 

5. When only one combination of any 
two elementary bodies exists. Dr. Dalton 
assumes that its elements are united, 
atom to atom singly, by what he calls 
6zraary combination ; if several compounds 
can be obtained from the same elements, 
they combine, as he supposes, in propor- 
tions expressed by some simple multiple 
of the number of atoms ; as in the fol- 
lowing table : — 

Atoms 

1 of A-f-1 of B = l of C, binary. 

1 of A-f 2 of B= 1 of D, ternary. 

2 of A-fl of B = 1 of E, ternary. 

1 of A-f-3 of B=l of F, quaternary. 

3 of A-f 1 of B = l of G, quaternary. 
Berzelius has proposed a different 

classification of atoms, viz. into — 

1. Elementary atoms ; and 

2. Compound atoms, which are — 

1 . Compound atoms of the first order, 
or atoms formed of only two ele- 
mentary substances united. 

2. Organic atoms, *or those composed 
of more than two elementary sub- 
stances ; these he has named from 
their being only found in organic 



ATR 



AUR 



bodies, or bodies obtained by the 
destruction of organic matter. 
3. Compound atoms of the second 
order, or those formed by the union 
of two or more compound atoms, 
as the salts. 

6. Dr. Wollaston applied the term 
equivalents to the combining proportions 
of elementary and compound substances, 
as, for instance, the quantities of acid 
and base, in salts, required to neutralize 
each other: thus, 100 parts of sulphuric 
acid, and 68 parts of muriatic acid, are 
equivalents of each other, being both ne- 
cessary to saturate 71 parts of lime. 

7. After all, Dr. Donovan observes that 
there is not perhaps a word in the lan- 
guage that conveniently expresses the 
quantity of a body which enters into 
combination. Atovi is not only hypo- 
thetical, but often inapplicable, as when 
half atoms occur. Equivalent is only 
expressive when comparison with a cor- 
relative equivalent is directly implied. 
Proportion means similitude of ratios. 
Proportional is one of the terms of a pro- 
portion. Combining quantity or weight is 
sometimes expressive, but, besides being 
unwieldy, it is not always applicable. 
Dr. Donovan adds, the word dose is uni- 
versally employed to designate a deter- 
minate or definite quantity of a thing 
given; it has the quality of involving 
nothing beyond a fact, and can often be 
used with advantage. 

ATONIA (a, priv., t6i/o?, tone). Ato- 
ny ; a defect of muscular power. 

ATRA BILIS {Latin). Black bile; 
melancholy. 

ATRAMENTUM {ater, black). Ink. 
Celsus calls green vitriol atramentum 
sutorium, or cobbler's ink. 

ATRESIA (q, priv., Tpa'>, to perfo- 
rate). Imperforation ; usually applied to 
the rectum, urethra, &c. 

ATRIPLEX FOETIDA. The wUd or 
stinking Orach, now called Chenopodium 
olidum or vulvaria, much used by Dr. 
Cullen, as a volatile fetid, in convulsions. 
The plant exhales pure ammonia during 
its whole existence. 

ATROPA BELLADONNA. Deadly 
Nightshade, or Dwale ; a plant of the 
order Solanece, belonging to the narcotico- 
acrid class of poisons. 

Atropine. An organic base, found in 
all parts of the Atropa Belladonna. It is 
highly poisonous, and in the most minute 
proportion possesses the property of di- 
lating the pupil of the eye. 

ATROPHIA (a, priv., rpofpii, nourish- 
37 



ment). Tabes. Atrophy ; emaciation ; 
defective nutrition ; wasting of the body, 
without cough or evident fever. 

ATTENUANTS {attenuo, to make 
thin). DUuent medjcines. 

ATTENUATION {attenuo, to make 
thin). The lessening of weight, or of 
consistency; emaciation. The term is 
applied to the process by which a fluid 
becomes of less specific gravity, as when 
it undergoes fermentation, and parts with 
carbonic acid. 

ATTOLLENS {attollo, to lift up). A 
muscle which draws any part upwards, 
as the attollens auriculam, or superior 
auris, which raises the ear. 

ATTRACTION {attraho, to draw to). 
A term denoting certain physical and 
chemical properties of matter. 

1. Attraction of Gravitation. The ten- 
dency of masses of bodies to each other. 
See Gravity. 

2. Capillary Attraction. The power by 
which a .liquid rises in a fine tube higher 
than the surface of the liquid which sur- 
rounds it. 

3. Electrical Attraction. The property 
displayed by certain substances of at- 
tracting certain others, on being rubbed. 

4. Magnetic Attraction. The tendency 
of certain bodies, chiefly iron, towards 
the north pole of the earth and each 
other. 

5. Attraction of Cohesion. The ten- 
dency of the molecules of a body to cohere, 
to form masses. It is the antagonist of 



6. Attraction of Affinity. The ten- 
dency of the atoms of certain bodies to 
combine, to form chemical compounds. 
See Affinity. 

ATTRAHENS AURIS {attraho, to 
draw to). A muscle which draws the ear 
forwards and upwards; also called an- 
terior auris, and prior auriculae. 

-ATUS. This termination, as also that 
of -itus, denotes the presence of the sub- 
stance indicated by the word which it 
terminates ; as dlatus, having wings ; 
aMxitus, having ears, &c. 

AUDITORY {audio, to hear). Belong- 
ing to parts connected with the sense of 
hearing, as applied to a process of the 
temporal bone; to two passages in this 
bone — the external and the internal 
meatus ; and to a nerve — the portio mollis 
of the seventh pair. 

AUGITE. Pyroxene. A silicate of 
lime and magnesia. 

AURA (ao), to breathe). A breath ; a 
gentle gale ; a breeze. 



AUR 



AUS 



1. Aura Electrica. Electricity, as re- 
ceived from a point ; so called from the 
sensation of its communication. 

2. Aura Epilepiina. A tingling sensa- 
tion felt in the extreme parts of the body 
before an attack of epilepsy — a kind of 
' formicatio.' 

3. Atira Podagrica. A peculiar sensa- 
tion creeping through the system, in 
gout. 

4. Aura Seminalis. A theory of the 
mode of action of the semen in the ovum, 
according to which it was supposed to 
take place through the intervention of a 
peculiar emanation, and not by immediate 
contact. 

AURANTIACEiE. The Orange tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants, abounding in 
a volatile, fragrant, bitter, exciting oU. 
Trees or shrubs, with leaves alternate, 
often compound, dotted with transparent 
receptacles of volatile oil ; flowers poly- 
petalous ; stamens hypogynous ; ovary 
many-celled; fruit pulpy, many-celled, 
its rind filled with receptacles of oil. 

AURANTIUM. The Seville Orange 
tree; a species of Citrus. The unripe 
fruit is known by the synonyms of orange 
peas, curasso oranges, %c. See Citrus. 

Aurantii bacca, cortex. The Seville 
Orange, and its rind, flowers, leaves, and 
immature fruit. 

AURIC ACID {aurum, gold). A name 
proposed by Pelletier for the peroxide of 
gold, from its property of forming salts 
with alkaline bases. 

AURICULA (dim. of auris, the ear). 
An auricle; the prominent part of the 
ear. Also the name of two cavities of 
the heart. 

AURICULA CORDIS. Auricles; a 
term applied to those cavities of the 
heart, which lead to the ventricles. 

AURICULA'RIS {auris, the ear). The 
little finger ; so called because it is gene- 
rally put into the ear, when that organ 
is obstructed. Also, a designation of the 
muscle which extends the little finger, or 
the extensor minimi digiti, from its turn- 
ing up the little finger, as in picking the 
ear. 

AURIGO (awrwOT, gold). Orange-skin; 
a term applied to an orange hue, diffused 
over the entire surface of the skin in 
new-bom infants ; Sauvages terms it 
ephelis lutea. Also, an eld name for 
jaundice, derived from its colour. 

AURIPIGMENTUM {aurum, gold, 
pigmentum, paint). Yellow Orpiment. 
See Arsenic. 

AURIS {aura, air). The ear. It is 
38 



distinguished into the external and the 
internal. 

AURISCALPUM {scalpo, to scrape). 
An instrument for cleansing the ear. 

AURIUM TINNITUS (^iranio, to ring). 
A ringing noise in the ears. 

AURUM. Gold; a yellow metal, of 
great malleability and ductility. It is 
found generally native, massive, and dis- 
seminated in threads through a rock, or 
in grains among the sand of rivers. 

1. Aurum fulminajis. Aurate of am- 
monia ; an explosive substance, produced 
by precipitating a solution of gold by am- 
monia. 

2. Aurum graphicum. An ore of tellu- 
rium, occurring in veins in porphyry in 
Transylvania. According to Klaproth, 
100 parts of it consist of 60 tellurium, 
30 gold, and 10 silver 

3. Aurum foliatum. Aurum in libellis. 
Gold leaf, used for gilding pills, &c. 

4. Aurum in musculis. Shell gold ; 
made by grinding the cuttings of gold 
leaf with thick gum-water, and spreading 
the ground gold in pond-mussel shells. 

5. Aurum pot abile. Gold dissolved and 
mixed with volatile oil, to be drunk. 

6. Aurum pulveratum. True gold 
powder ; made by rubbing together grain 
gold and quicksilver, then distilling off 
the quicksilver, or corroding it away with 
spirit of nitre, and heating the black 
powder which is left to redness. 

The following are Misnomers ; — 

1. Aurum musivum, sen mosaicum. 
Mosaic gold ; the former name of the bi- 
sulphuret of tin. It is used as a pigment 
for giving a golden colour to small statue 
or plaster figures. 

2. Aurum sophisticum. Powder gold, 
or bronze powder; made of verdigris, 
tutty, borax, nitre, and corrosive subli- 
mate, made into a paste with oil, and 
melted together ; used in japan work as 
a gold colour. 

AUSCULTATION {ausculto, to listen; 
from the ancient auses for aures, quasi 
aures culto, i. e. aures colo). Auricular 
exploration. The act of listening by the 
application of the ear, in the examination 
of disease. It is termed immediate, when 
practised by the unassisted ear ; mediate, 
when performed by means of the stetho- 
scope. 

I. Sounds of the Respiration. 

1. Vesicular Respiration is the sound 
of respiration produced in the vesicles of 
the lungs : it denotes that the lungs are 
permeable to air. It is at its maximum 
in infants, and is termed puerile ; at its 



AUS 



AUS 



minimum in the aged, and termed se- 
nile. 

2. Bronchial Respiration is the sound 
of respiration, as heard in the larynx, 
trachea, and large bronchi; it appears 
dry, and the air seems to be passing 
through a large empty space. There are 
several varieties of this sound. 

3. Cavernous Respiration is the sound 
of respiration produced in morbid cavities 
of the lungs. During expiration, the 
wind appears to be puffed into the ear of 
the auscultator. 

4. Souffle, or Blowing, is a sound re- 
sembling that of the air being actually 
drawn from or propelled into the ear of 
the auscultator, when the patient speaks 
or coughs. The 'souffle' is sometimes 
modified by the sensation, as of a veil 
interposed between a cavity and the ear, 
and is then termed souffle voile, or the 
veiled blowing sound. 

II. Rattles, Rales, or Rhonchi. 

1. Vesicular or Crepitating Rattles are 
of two kinds, the moist and the dry. 
The former resembles the noise of salt 
thrown on the fire ; the latter, that made 
by distending a dry bladder. The moist 
sound runs into the varieties of the 
bronchial rattle, and, when the bubbles 
are large, is called subcrepitation. 

2. Bronchial Rattles are distinguished 
into the mucous, the sonorous, and the 
sibilant. The first resembles the rattling 
in the throat of the dying ; the second, a 
sort of snoring sound, the tone of a 
base string in vibration, or a cooing 
sound ; the third, a whistling sound. 
The mucous rattle, when seated in the 
bronchi or cavities, is termed cavernous, 
or gargling. 

III. Sounds of the Voice. 

1. Bronchophony is the resonance of 
the voice over the bronchi. It traverses 
the tube of the stethoscope, and is very 
similar to pectoriloquism. In thin per- 
sons it resembles laryngophony. 

2. Pectoriloquism is distinguished from 
bronchophony by its cavernous and cir- 
cumscribed character. The voice comes 
directly from the chest to the ear, as if it 
were formed within the lungs. It may 
be perfect or imperfect. 

3. JEgophony is a sound resembling 
the bleating of a goat, or a snuffling 
human voice. It seems as if an echo of 
the voice, of an acute, harsh, and silvery 
character, were heard at the surface of 
the lungs, rarely entering, and scarcely 
ever traversing, the tube of the stetho- 
scope. 

39 



IV. Sounds of Cough. 

1. Tubal Cough is a resonance of the 
concussion produced by coughing, over 
the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi. 
There is the obvious sensation of an in- 
ternal canal. It denotes that the air is 
not allowed to enter the ceUs of the lungs. 

2. Cavernous Cough is the resonance of 
the concussion produced by coughing, 
over a cavity. It is attended by cavern- 
ous rattle. 

3. Metallic Tinkling resembles the 
sound of a metallic vessel, or glass, struck 
by a pin. It is heard in respiration, but 
especially when the patient speaks or 
coughs ; it is sometimes heard in cough, 
when inaudible in the respiration or in 
the voice. 

4. Amphoric Resonance is a sound like 
that heard on blowing into a decanter. 
It is heard under the same circumstances 
as the previous sound. 

V. Sounds of the Heart. 

1 . Cri du cuir neuf. The sound resem- 
bling the creaking of the leather of a new 
saddle. This sound has been supposed 
to be produced by the friction of the heart 
against the pericardium, when one or 
both have lost their polish from the effu- 
sion of solid lymph with little or no 
serum. 

2. Bruit de soufflet. A sound of the 
heart resembling the puffing of a small 
pair of bellows, as employed to blow the 
fire. This sound usually takes the place 
of the natural one ; sometimes the two 
are conjoined ; it may take place during 
the first and second sound, or only during 
one of these. 

3. Bruit de scie. A grating sound of 
the heart, resembling that produced by 
the action of a saw upon wood ; and — 

4. Bruit de rape. A grating sound of 
the heart, like that produced by the 
action of a file or rasp. There is every 
intermediate gradation, from the smooth- 
ness of the bellows-sound to the roughest 
sounds produced by a large-toothed saw. 

5. Frimissement cataire of Laennec, or 
bruissement of Corvisart. A peculiar 
thrill or tremor, perceived by the finger 
when applied to the heart or artery where 
it exists, resembling that communicated 
to the hand by the purring of a cat. 

VI. Sounds of the Arteries. 
1. Bruit de soufflet intermittent. An 
intermittent blowing sound, occasioned 
by contraction of the calibre of an artery, 
from tumor, &c. It is sufficient to com- 
press the artery with the stethoscope to 
produce this noise. 



AXI 



AZ Y 



2. Bruit de soufflet continu. A con- 
tinuous blowing and snoring sound, re- 
sembling the blowing noise of the bellows 
of a forge. The hruit de diable, or sound 
of the humming-top, is a variety of this 
soufflet. Sometimes a kind of tune of 
the arteries is heard, resembling the 
humming of certain insects ; this is called 
sifflement module, ou chant des artires. 

VII. Sounds of Pregnancy. 

1. Bruit placentaire. A sound of the pla- 
centa, produced, according to BouUlaud, 
by compression of one of the large vessels 
of the abdomen by the gravid uterus. It 
is analogous to the intermittent blowing 
sound of the arteries. 

2. Double pulsation of the heart of the 
foetus. A tolerably exact idea of this 
noise will be obtained by listening to the 
tic-tac of a watch placed under a pillow 
upon which the head rests. It occurs at 
the middle of the period of gestation. 

AUTOMATIC MOTIONS (0^x6)010x09, 
of his own accord). Those muscular 
actions which are not dependent on the 
mind, and which are either persistent, or 
take place periodically with a regular 
rhythm, and are dependent on normal 
causes seated in the nerves or the central 
organs of the nervous system. 

AUTOPSIA (avTot, oneself, oirroiiai, 
to see). Post-mortem examination. In- 
spection of the body after death. 

AVEN^ SEMINA. Oats ; the fruit 
of the Avena Saliva, of the order Grami- 
necB, yielding a flour or meal which forms 
the common food in the north. Groats 
are the oats freed from the cuticle, and 
used in broths and gruels. 

\. Avence farina. Oat meal ; employed 
for gruels, or decoctions. 

2. Avenaine. A principle discovered 
in the Avena Saliva, or oat. 

AVES {avis, a bird). The fourth class 
of the Encephalata or Vertebrata, com- 
prising birds. 

AVULSION {avello, to tear asunder). 
The forcible separation from each other 
of parts of the body, which were previously 
more or less intimately united. 

AXILLA {ala, a wing). The arm-pit ; 
the space between the side of the chest 
and the shoulder. Hence the term— 

Axillary. Applied to parts belonging 
to the axilla, or arm-pit. In botany, this 
term is applied to buds, which are de- 
veloped in the angle formed by a leaf- 
stalk and the stem ; the normal position 
of every bud is axillary in this sense. 

AXINITE (uf t'l/r), an axe). A mineral, 
40 



so called from the thinness and sharp- 
ness of its edges. 

AXIS {ago, to drive). Modiolus. The 
central conical bony nucleus of the 
cochlea. Its surface is spirally marked 
by a double groove. 

AXUNGIA (so called from its bemg 
used to grease wheels — ab axe rotarum 
quae unguuntur). Aximge, hog's lard, 
or adeps. 

1. Axungia prceparatavel curata. Pre- 
pared lard, or the Adeps Prceparata. 

2. Axungia articularis. Unguen arti- 
culare. Names of the peculiar fluid 
which favours the motions of the joints, 
and which is conmionly called synovia. 

3. Axungia Casioris. Pinguedo Casto- 
ris. A name formerly given to the secre- 
tion found in the oil sacs near the rectum 
of the Castor Fiber, or Beaver. The In- 
dians use it in smoking. 

AZELAIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by treating oleic with nitric acid. It 
closely resembles suberic acid. Another 
acid, the azoleic, is procured by the same 
process. The terms are derived from the 
words azote and oleic. 

AZOERYTHRIN. A colouring prin- 
ciple, obtained from the archil of com- 
merce. 

AZOLITMIN. A pure colouring ma- 
terial, of a deep blood-red colour, obtained 
from litmus. 

AZOTE (a, priv., fo)*;, life). A con- 
stituent part of the atmosphere, so called 
from its being incapable, alone, of sup- 
porting life. This gas is also called Ni- 
trogen, from its being the basis of Nitric 
acid, or Aquafortis. 

AZOTIC ACID. Another name for 
nitric acid. 1 1 exists only in combination. 

AZOTOUS ACID. Another name for 
nitrous acid, or the hyponitrous of Tur- 
ner. 

AZULMIC ACID. The name given 
by BouUay to the black matter deposited 
during the decomposition of prussic acid; 
it is very similar to ulmic acid. See 
Ulmin. 

AZURE. A fine blue pigment, com- 
monly called smalt, consisting of a glass 
coloured with oxide of cobalt, and ground 
to an impalpable powder. 

AZURE STONE. Lapis Lazuli. An 
azure blue mineral, from which the un- 
changeable blue colour ultramaritie is 
prepared. 

AZYGOS (a, priv., ^vynv, a yoke). A 
term applied to parts which are single, 
and not in pairs, as to a process of the 
sphenoid bone, and a vein of the thorax. 



B AL 



B AL 



B 



BABLAH. The rind or shell which 
surrounds the fruit of the Mimosa cine- 
raria : it is brought from the East Indies, 
under the name of neb-neb ; and is em- 
ployed as a dye-stuff. 

BACCA. A berry; an inferior, inde- 
hiscent, pulpy fruit, as the gooseberry. 
The term is often otherwise applied by 
botanists. 

BACCHIA {bacchus, wine). Gutta 
rosacea. The name given by Linnaeus 
to a pimpled or brandy face,— the kind of 
face that Bacchus rejoiced in. 

BACULUS. Literally, a stick; and 
hence the term has been applied to a 
lozenge, shaped into a little short roll. 

BAKERS' ITCH. Psoriasis pistoria. 
The vulgar name of a species of scall, 
occurring on the back of the hand. 

BAKERS' SALT. A name given to 
the sub-carbonate of ammonia, or smell- 
ing salts, from its being used by bakers, 
as a substitute for yeast, in the manufac- 
ture of some of the finer kinds of bread. 

BALANCE ELECTROMETER. An 
instrument constructed on the applica- 
tion of the common balance and weights, 
to estimate the mutual attraction of op- 
positely-electrified surfaces. 

BALANITIS {fiaXavoi, glans). In- 
flammation of the mucous membrane of 
the glans penis, and inner layer of the 
prepuce. 

BALAUSTA {fioKavartov). A name 
applied to the many-celled, many-seeded, 
inferior, indehiscent fruit of the pome- 
granate. 

BALBUTIES (fSa/Sd^a,, to babble). 
Stammering. In pure Latin, balbus de- 
notes one who lisps, or is incapable of 
pronouncing certain letters ; blcesus, one 
who stammers, or has an impediment in 
his speech. 

BALDWIN'S PHOSPHORUS. The 
ignited nitrate of lime. This salt is so 
termed from its property of emitting a 
beautiful white light in the dark, when 
kept in a stoppered vial, and exposed for 
some time to the rays of the sun. 

BALISTA (/SaXAw, to cast). A sling. 
The astragalus was formerly called os 
balistcc, from its being cast by the an- 
cients from their slings. 
41 



BALL. A form of medicine used in 
farriery, corresponding to the term bolus ; 
it is generally that of a cylinder of two 
or three inches in length. 

BALL AND SOCKET. Enarthrosis. 
A species of movable articulation, as that 
of the hip. See Articulation. 

BALLISMUS (/3aX\ifft), to trip or 
caper). A term which has been generally 
applied to those forms of palsy which 
are attended with fits of leaping or run- 
ning. 

BALLOON. A chemical instrument 
or receiver, of a spherical form, for con- 
densing vapours from retorts. 

BALLOTA LANATA. A plant in- 
digenous in Siberia, and much recom- 
mended by Brera in rheumatic and 
gouty affections. 

BALLOTTEMENT (French). The 
repercussion or falling back of the foetus, 
after being raised by an impulse of the 
finger or hand, and so made to float in 
the liquor amnii. 

BALM TEA. An infusion of the 
leaves of the Melissa officinalis, or Com- 
mon Balm. 

BALM OF GILEAD. Another name 
for the Mecca balsam. See Balsam. 

BALSAM. A technical term used to 
express a native compound of ethereal or 
essential oils with resin and Benzoic acid. 
Those compoimds which have no Benzoic 
acid are miscalled balsams, being in fact 
true turpentines. 

I. Balsams with Benzoic Acid. 

1. Balsam of Liquidambar. Balsam 
which flows from incisions madd into 
the trunk of the Liquidambar styraciflua. 
It dries up readily, and thus occurs in 
the solid form. 

2. Liquid Balsam of Storax. Balsam 
said to be procured from the Liquidambar 
attinia and orientate. The substance 
sold as strained storax is prepared from 
an impure variety of liquid storax. 

3. Balsam of Peru. Balsam procured 
from the Myroxylon Peruiferum. There 
are two kinds ; the broiin balsam, ex- 
tracted by incision, very rare, imported 
in the husk of the cocoa-nut, and hence 



BAN 



BAR 



called balsam en coque ; and the black 
balsam, obtained by evaporating the de- 
coction of the bark and branches of the 
tree. These are semifluid balsams. 

4. Balsam of Tolu. Balsam which 
flows spontaneously from the trunk of 
the Myroxylon toluiferum, and dries into 
a reddish resinous mass. 

5. Chinese Varnish. Balsam which 
flows from the bark of the Augia sinensis, 
and dries into a smooth shining lac, used 
for lacquering and varnishing. 

6. Benzoin. Balsam which exudes 
from incisions of the Styrax Benzoin. 
See Benzoinum. 

II. Balsams without Benzoic Acid. 

7. Copaiba bals'm. Balsam of copahu 
or capivi ; obtained by incisions made in 
the trunk of the Copaifera officinalis; 
used for making paper transparent, for 
lacquers, and in medicine. 

8. Mecca balsam, or Opobalsam. Bal- 
sam obtained by incisions of, and by 
boiling, the branches and leaves of the 
Balsamodendron Gileadense. It becomes 
eventually solid. 

9. Japan lac varnish. Balsam which 
flows from incisions made in the trunk 
of the Rhus Vernix. 

BALSAM OF SULPHUR. A solution 
of sulphur in volatile oils. The absurdity 
of the term will be evident on referring 
to the article Balsam. 

BALSAMICA. Balsamics ; a term 
generally applied to substances of a 
smooth and oily consistence, possessing 
emollient, sweet, and generally aromatic 
qualities. Dr. CuUen mentions them 
under the joint titles of balsamica et 
resinosa, considering that turpentine is 
the basis of all balsams. See Balsam. 

BALSAMODENDRON MYRRHA. 
The MjTrh-tree; a plant of the order 
Terebinth acece, which yields the gum- 
resin myrrh. 

BAMBALIA {^afi^aivw, to lisp or 
stammer). Stammering; a kind of St. 
Vitus's dance, confined to the vocal or- 
gans. Its varieties are hesitation and 
stuttering. See Balbuties. 

BANDAGE. An apparatus of linen 
or flannel for binding parts of the body. 
Some bandages are called simple, as the 
circular, the spiral, tlie uniting, the re- 
taining bandages ; others are compound, 
as the T bandage, the suspensory, the 
capistrum, the eighteentail bandage, &c. 

BANDANA. A style of calico print- 
ing practised in India, in which white or 
brightly-coloured spots are produced upon 
a red or dark ground. See Barwood. 
42 



BANG. Subjee or Sidhee. An intoxi- 
cating preparation made from the larger 
leaves and capsules of the Cannabis In- 
dica, or Indian Hemp. 

BARBADOS LEG. The name un- 
der which Dr. Hillary treats of the Ara- 
bian Elephantiasis. Dr. Hendy calls it 
the "Glandular disease of Barbados." 

BARBADOS TAR. Petroleum. A 
species of bitumen, difl!ering from naphtha 
in its greater weight and impurity. See 
Bitumen. 

BARBADOS NUTS. Nuces Barba- 
denses. The fruit of the Jatropha curcas. 
The seeds are called physic nuts. 

BARBARY GUM. Morocco gum. 
A variety of gum arable, said to be pro- 
duced by the Acacia gummifera. 

BARBIERS. A vernacular Indiar. 
term, of unknown derivation. It denotes 
a chronic aflfection, prevalent in India, 
and almost universally confounded by 
nosologists with beriberi. 

BAREGE. A village situated on the 
French side of the Pyrenees, celebrated 
for its thermal waters. A peculiar sub- 
stance has been obtained from these and 
other waters, and termed baregin. 

BARILLA. The crude soda extracted 
from the ashes of the plants Salsola and 
Salicorina. See Kelp. 

BARIUM (/3apu?, heavy). The metal- 
lic basis of the earth baryta, so named 
from the great density of its compounds. 

BARK. Peruvian bark ; a name for- 
merly promiscuously applied to the three 
species of Cinchona bark. See Cinchona. 

False Bark. A term which has been 
applied to certain barks, as the canella 
alba, or false winter's bark. 

BARK OF PLANTS. The external 
envelope of trees and shrubs. It was 
formerly distinguished into an external 
cortical or cellular integument, and an 
internal or fibrous portion, called liber. 
More recently, bark has been distin- 
guished into four portions : — 

1. Epidermis. The external and cel- 
lular envelope, continuous with the epi- 
dermis of the leaves. This is never re- 
newed ; the following parts increase by 
successive additions to their interior. 

2: Epi-phloeum {kn'i, upon, <p\oi6t, 
bark). A cellular portion lying imme- 
diately under the epidermis. Cork is the 
epiphloeum of the Quercus suber. 

3. Meso-phloeum (/xeo-or, middle, 0Xo«- 

69, bark). A cellular portion, Ijing im- 

I mediately under the epiphloeum. This 

' portion differs from the preceding in the 

' direction of its cells. 



B AS 



B A S 



4. Endo-phloeum {ikv&ov, within, <p\ot6i, 
bark). The liber, part of which is cellu- 
lar, part woody. 

BARLEY. Hordei semina. The fruit, 
incorrectly called seeds, of the Hordeum 
distichon. The specific name is derived 
from its two-rowed ears. See Hor- 
deum. 

BARM, OR YEAST. The froth of 
fermenting beer, used, in its turn, as 
a ferment in making bread or beer. 

BAROMETER (/iapor, weight, /xerpov, 
a measure). A weather-glass, or instru- 
ment for measuring the varying pressure 
of the atmosphere. 

BAROSMA {/3apvs, heavy, oa-fxij, 
odour). Diosma. A genus of plants of 
the order Rutacecc. The leaves of seve- 
ral species constitute buchu. 

BARRAS. Galipot. An oleo-resinous 
substance, which exudes from incisions 
made in fir-trees. 

BARRY'S EXTRACTS. These ex- 
tracts differ from the common by the 
evaporation being carried on in a vacuum 
produced by admitting steam into the 
apparatus, which resembles a retort with 
its receiver ; the part containing the 
liquor to be evaporated being a polished 
iron bowl. As the temperature is much 
lower than in the common way, the vir- 
tues of the plant are less altered, the ex- 
tracts are generally green, and contain 
saline crystals, but some of them will 
not keep. — Gray. 

BAR WOOD. A red dye-wood brought 
from Africa, and used, with sulphate of 
iron, for producing the dark red upon 
British bandana handkerchiefs. 

BARYPHONIA (^apuf, heavy, ^uvv, 
voice). Heaviness of voice ; a difficulty 
of pronunciation. 

BARYTA (/3api/r, heavy). Barytes. 
An alkaline earth, the heaviest of all the 
earths, and a violent poison. The native 
sulphate is called heavy spar. The native 
carbonate has been named, after Dr. 
Withering, its discoverer, witherite. 

BARYTIN. A new vegetable base, 
discovered in the rhizome of Veratrum 
album, and named in consequence of its 
being precipitated from its solution, like 
baryta. See Jervin. 

BASALT {basal, iron, Ethiopian). An 
argillaceous rock, consisting of silica, 
alumina, oxide of iron, lime, and mag- 
nesia. 

BASANITE (/Jao-oftfo), to test, from 

^daavot, a Lydian stone). A stone by 

which the purity of gold was tried, and 

of which medical mortars were made. 

43 



It consists of silica, lime, magnesia, car- 
bon, and iron. 

BASCULATION {basculer, French). 
A term used in examinations of the 
uterus in retroversion : the fundus is 
pressed upwards, tlie cervix drawn 
downwards ; it is half the see-saw move- 
ment. 

BASIC WATER. A term applied in 
cases in which water appears to act the 
part of a base: phosphoric acid, for in- 
stance, ceases to be phosphoric acid, un- 
less three equivalents of water to one of 
acid be present. 

BASILAR (/3a(7£9, a base). Belonging 
to the base ; a term applied to several 
bones, to an artery of the brain, and to 
a process of the occipital bone. 

BASILICA (/Sao-tXiKof ). Royal ; a term 
generally of eminence ; and hence applied 
to the large vein of the arm. 

1. Basilicon. The Ceratum ResincB, 
An ointment made of resin, pitch, oil, 
wax, &c., — a royal ointment. 

2. Basilicus Pulvis. The Royal Pow- 
der ; an ancient preparation of calomel, 
rhubarb, and jalap. 

BASIO-GLOSSUS. A muscle running 
from the base of the os hyoides to the 
tongue. 

1 . Basio-chondro-cerato ylossus. An 
unwieldy designation of the component 
parts of the hyo-glossus muscle, accord- 
ing to their origins and insertions. 

2. Basio-pharyngeus. A term applied 
by Winslow to some fibres of the muscu- 
lar layer of the pharynx, which proceed 
from the base of the os hyoides, and form 
part of the constrictor medius. 

BASIS (/Saatr, a base). 1. The sub- 
stance with which an acid is combined in 
a salt. 2. A mordaunt ; a substance used 
in dyeing, which has an affinity both for 
the cloth and the colouring matter. 
3. The principal medicine in a prescrip- 
tion. 

BASIS CORDIS. The base of the 
heart ; the broad part of the heart is thus 
called, as distinguished from the apex 
or point. 

BASSORIN. A constituent part of 
a species of gum brought from Bassora, 
as also of gum tragacanth, and of some 
gum resins. 

BASTARD DITTANY. The root of 
the Dictamnus fraxinella, now fallen into ' 
disuse. 

BASYLE {/Sda-ts, a base, v\ri, nature 
or principle). A term proposed by Mr. 
Graham, to denote the metallic radical of 
a salt. Thus, sodium is the basyle of 



BAT 

sulphate of soda; soda is the base, and 
sulphatoxygen the salt radical, if the 
salt be viewed as consisting of sulphat- 
oxide of sodium. 

BATH {bad, Saxon). Balneum. Baths 
are general or partial; they may consist 
of simple water, or be medicated. The 
physiological and therapeutic effects of 
baths being modified by their tempera- 
ture, the following classification, con- 
structed on these principles, will be 
found practically useful :— 

I. General Baths. 

1. Cold Bath. Balneum frigidum. The 
temperature ranges from 33° to 60° Fahr. 
Below 50°, it is considered very cold." 

2. Cool Bath. Balneum frigidulum. 
Temperature from 60" to 75° Fahr. 

3. Temperate Bath. Balneum tempe- 
ratum. Temperature from 75° to 85° F. 

4. Tepid Bath. Balneum tepidum. 
Temperature from 85° to 92° Fahr. 

5. Warm Bath. Temp, from 92° to 98° 
Fahr. ; that is, about that of the body. 

6. Hot Bath. Balneum calidum. Tem- 
perature from 98" to 112° Fahr. 

7. Vapour Bath. Balneum vaporis; 
balneum laconicum. Temp, from 122° 
to 144-5'' Fahr. "When a vapour bath is 
applied only to a particular part of the 
body, it is called a fumigation, or vapour 
douche. 

8. Hot-air Bath. Balneum sudato- 
rium. The sweating bath. Temperature 
from 100° to 130° Fahr. 

9. Artificial Sea-water Bath. Balneum 
maris factitiura. A solution of one part 
of common salt in thirty parts of water. 

II. Partial Baths. 

10. Arm Bath. Balneum brachiluvium. 

11. Foot Bath. Balneum pediluvium. 

12. Hand Bath. Bain, manuluvium. 

13. Head Bath. Bain, capitiluvium. 

14. Hip Bath. Coxaeluvium, or demi- 
bain of the French ; in which the body is 
immersed as high as the hips or um- 
bilicus. 

III. Medicated Baths. 

15. Saline Bath. Prepared by adding 
common salt to water. The temperature 
ought not to exceed 92° Fahr. 

16. Sulphurous Bath. Prepared by 
dissolving four ounces of sulphuret of 
potassium in thirty gallons of water. It 
should be prepared in a wooden bathing- 
vessel. 

17. Gelatino-sulphurous Bath. Pre- 
pared by adding one pound of Flanders' 
glue, previously dissolved in water, to 

44 



BAT 

the sulphurous bath above described. 
Dupuytren. 

18. Alkaline Bath. Prepared with 
soap, the carbonates of soda and potash, 
or the solution of hydrate of potash. 

19. Metalline Bath. Prepared by im- 
pregnating water with the scoriae of 
metals, particularly of iron. 

20. Ferruginous Bath. Prepared with 
muriated tincture of iron, or sulphate of 
iron. 

21. Medicated Hot-air Bath. Prepared 
by impregnating the hot air with some 
gas or vapour, as sulphurous acid gas, or 
chlorine. 

BATH, CHEMICAL. An apparatus 
for modifying and regulating the heat in 
various chemical processes, by inter- 
posing a quantity of sand, or other sub- 
stance, between the fire and the vessel 
intended to be heated. 

1. Water Bath. Balneum aquosum ; 
formerly called balneum mariae, from the 
use of a solution of salt instead of water 
only. Any vessel of water, capable of 
being heated to the boiling point, and of 
containing a retort, will answer the pur- 
pose. A bath of steam may sometimes 
be preferable to a water bath. 

2. Sand Bath. Balneum arense. An 
iron vessel containing sand, being gra- 
dually heated, communicates the heat to 
every vessel buried in the sand. Those 
distillations which, at any part of the 
process, require as much as a low red 
heat, are usually performed in sand 
baths. 

3. Solution Bath. Where temperatures 
above 212° are required in baths, satu- 
rated solutions are employed ; these, 
boiling at different temperatures, com- 
municate heat up to their boiling points. 
Solution baths will produce temperatures 
up to 360°. 

4. Metal Bath. For temperatures 
above 360°, metal baths are employed, 
as those of mercury, fusible metal, tin, 
or lead. The temperature may thus be 
raised to 600°. 

BATRACHIA {fidnpaxo^, a frog). An 
order of the class Rcptilia, comprising 
the frog, toad, salamander, and siren. 

BATRACHUS (^drpaxoi, a frog). 
Ranula. Designations of the distended 
sub-maxillary duct. 

BATTERY, ELECTRICAL. A tenn 
applied to. an arrangement of Leyden 
jars which communicate together, and 
may all be charged with electricity and 
discharged at the same time. 



BEE 



BEN 



Battery, Galvanic. A combination of 
several pairs of zinc and copper plates 
soldered together, and so arranged that 
the same metal shall always be on the 
same side of the compound plate. 

BAUHIN, VALVULE OF. Ileo-colic 
valve. A valve within the caecum, whose 
office is to prevent the return of the ex- 
crementitious matters from the caecum 
into the small intestine. The extremi- 
ties of its two lips form rugae in the 
straight part of the caecum, called by 
Morgagni frcena of the valvule of 
Bauhin. 

BAY BERRIES. Bacccc lauri. The 
berries of the Laurus nobilis, or Sweet 
Bay. A solid substance is extracted 
from them, called laurin, or camphor of 
the bay berry. 

BAY SALT. Chloride of sodium, or 
common salt, as obtained by solar evapo- 
ration on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

BDELLA (/3dd\\w, to suck). The 
Greek term for the leech, or the hirudo of 
the Latins. The latter is the term now 
used. 

BDELLIUM. A name applied to two 
gum-resinous substances. One of these 
is the Indian bdellium, or false myrrh, 
procured from the Amyris commiphora. 
The other is called African bdellium, 
and is obtained from the Heudolotia 
Africana. 

BEAD-PROOF. A term denoting the 
strength of spirituous liquors, as shown 
by the continuance of the bubbles or 
beads on the surface. 

BEARBERRY. The Arctostaphylos 
uva-ursi, the leaves of which are em- 
ployed in chronic affections of the 
bladder. 

BEAUME DE VIE. Balm of life. 
The compound decoction of aloes. 

BEBEERU. A tree of British Guiana, 
the timber of which is known to wood- 
merchants by the name of greenheart. It 
yields a substance, called bebeerine, of 
antiperiodic properties. 

BEDEGUAR. A remarkable gall, 
termed sweet-briar sponge, found on va- 
rious species of Rosa, and produced by the 
puncture of several insect species. 

.BEER {biere, Ft., bier. Germ.) Cere- 
viiia. The fermented infusion of malted 
barley, flavoured with hops. The term 
beer is also applied to beverages consist- 
ing of a saccharine liquor, partially ad- 
vanced into the vinous fermentation, and 
flavoured with peculiar substances, as, 
spruce beer, ginger beer, &c. 
45 



BEESTINGS, The first milk taken 
from the cow after calving. 

BEGUIN'S SULPHURATED SPI- 
RIT. A variety of hydrosulphate of 
ammonia, commonly called hepatized 
ammonia. 

BELL-METAL. An alloy of 100 parts 
of copper with 20 to 25 of tin. This com- 
pound forms a hard, sonorous, and du- 
rable composition, for making bells, can^ 
non, statues, &c. 

BELLADONNA. Deadly nightshade ; 
a species of Atropa, the juice of which is 
well known to produce a singular dilata- 
tion of the pupil of the eye. The name 
is derived from the wcrds bella donna, 
beautiful woman, the juice of its berries 
being used as a cosmetic by the Italian 
women to make their faces pale. 

Belladonnin. A volatile vegetable 
alkali, said to be distinct from atropia. 

BELLOWS' SOUND. An unnatural 
sound of the heart, resembling that of 
the puffing of a small pair of bellows, as 
heard by the stethoscope. See Ausculta- 
tion. 

BEN, OIL OF. The expressed oil of 
the Ben-nut, or the Morynga pterygo- 
sperma, remarkable for not becoming 
rancid for many years. 

BENEDICTUS {benedico, to bless). 
Benedict or blessed ; a term prefixed to 
compositions and herbs, on account of 
their supposed good qualities ; thus anti- 
monial wine was termed benedictum 
vinum; the philosopher's stone, bene- 
dictus lapis, &c. 

1. Benedicta aqua. Blessed water ; 
lime-water; a water distilled from 
thyme ; and, in Schroeder, an emetic. 

2. Benedictum laxativum. Rhubarb, 
and sometimes the lenitive electuary. 

3. Benedicta centaurea. The blessed 
thistle ; a plant of the order Composita:. 

RENUMBERS. Agents which cause 
topical numbness and muscular weakness. 

BENZOINUM. Benzoin; a balsam 
which exudes from incisions made in 
the Styrax Benzoin, or Benjamin tree. 

1. Siam benzoin. Benzoin of best 
quality. It occurs in tears and in masses. 
The presence of the white tears embed- 
ded in the brown resiniform mass gives 
an almond-like appearance, suggested by 
the term amygdaloid benzoin. 

2. Calcutta benzoin. Benzoin of second 
and third quality, corresponding with 
the common or brown benzoin of some 
writers. 

3. Head benzoin is a technical term 
for the first and purest portion; belly 



B ER 



B EZ 



benzoin is the next in purity, mixed with 
parings of wood ; foot henzoin is very 
foul, and used in India for fumigations, 
&c. 

4. Benzoic Acid. Flowers of Benjamin. 
An acid exhaled from Benzoin, dragon's 
blood, and other resin^, by heat. Its 
salts are called benzoates. 

5. Benzine. The name applied by 
Mitscherlich to the bicarburet of hydro- 
gen, procured by heating benzoic acid 
with lime ; this compoimd is termed by 
Liebig benzole, the termination in ole 
being assigned to hydrocarbons. 

6. Benzone. A volatile fluid procured 
by Peligot, by heating dry benzoate of 
lime. 

7. Benzoyl, benzoile, or benzule. The 
hypothetical radical of a series of com- 
pounds, including benzoic acid, and the 
essence or volatile oil of bitter almonds. 

8. Benz-amide. A compound prepared 
by saturating chloride of benzoyl by dry 
ammoniacal gas, &c. See Amide. 

9. Benzimide. A substance discovered 
by Laurent in crude essence of bitter 
almonds. 

10. Benzile. A substance procured by 
passing a stream of chlorine gas through 
fused benzoin. 

BERBERIN. A crystalline substance 
of a fine yellow colour, derived from the 
bark of the barberry root ; used as a dye 
stuff. 

BERGAMOT. An essence prepared 
from the rind of the Citrus bergamia, or 
Bergamot Citrus. 

BERGMEHL. LiteraUy, Mountain 
meal ; an earth, so named in Sweden, 
resembling fine flour, and celebrated for 
its nutritious qualities. It is found to 
be composed entirely of the shells of 
microscopic animalcules. 

BERIBERI. A spasmodic rigidity of 
the lower limbs. &c. ; an acute disease 
occurring in India, and commonly con- 
founded by nosologists with barbiers. 
" Bontius and Ridley say that this term 
is derived from the Indian word signi- 
fying a sheep, on account of the supposed 
resemblance of the gait of persons affected 
with it to that of the sheep. Good de- 
rives it from /3ep/3ep<, the pearl oyster, 
or other shell, and hence uses it figu- 
ratively for incurvation. Marshall de- 
rives it from the reduplication of the 
word beri, signifying, in the language of 
Ceylon, weakness or inability, as if to 
express intensity of weakness."— i^orfiei. 

BERLIN BLUE. Prussian blue. The 
46 



ferro-sesquicyanide of iron, sometimes 
called ferro-prussiate of iron. 

BERRIES. Bacca;. The fruits of 
different species of plants. See Bacca. 

1. Bay berries. The fruit of the Lau- 
ras nobilis; the berries and the oil ob- 
tained by boiling them in water are 
imported from Italy and Spain. 

2. Juniper berries. The fruit of the 
Juniperus communis, which yield an oil, 
upon which the peculiar flavour and 
diuretic qualities of Geneva principally 
depend. 

3. Turkey Yellow berries. The unripe 
fruit of the Rhamnus infectorius of Lin- 
nasus, used for giving a yellow dye in 
calico-printing. 

4. Persian Yellow berries. Said to be 
of the same species as the preceding. 
They are termed graines d" Avignon, or 
berries of Avignon. 

BERYL. A variety of the emerald ; a 
mineral or gem, usually of a green colour 
of various shades, passing into honey- 
yeUow and sky-blue. When coloured 
green by oxide of chromium, it forms 
the true emerald, and when colourless 
and transparent, aqua marina. 

Chryso-beryl (xpuo-or, gold). One of the 
finest of the gems, consisting of glucina 
and alumina. 

BETEL. A famous masticatory em- 
ployed in the East, consisting of the 
areca, betel, or pinang nut, the produce 
of the Areca Catechu, or Catechu Palm. 
A portion of the nut is rolled up with a 
little lime in the leaf of the Piper betel, 
and the whole chewed. 

BEZOAR (pa-zahar, Persian, a de- 
stroyer of poison). A morbid concretion 
formed in the bodies of land animals, to 
which many fanciful virtues were for- 
merly ascribed. 

1. Bezoardics. A name given to a 
class of alexipliarmic medicines, from 
the imputed properties of the bezoar. 

2. Bezoardicum Joviale. A bezoar of 
tin and nitre, which differed little from 
the Antihecticum Poterii. 

3. Bezoardicum minerale. A bezoar 
of antimony, made by adding spirit of 
nitre to butter of antimony. 

4. Bezoardicum animate. The name 
formerly given to the heart and liver of 
vipers, once used in medicine. 

5. Camel- bezoar. A bezoar found in 
the gall-bladder of the camel, and much 
prized, as a yellow paint, by the Hin- 
doos. 

6. Goat-bezoar. A bezoar said to be 
procured from animals of the goat kind, 



B I 



B I R 



capra gazella, in Persia. The Greek 
term for this species of concretion is 
isgagropila, literally, mountain-goat ball. 

7 . Hog-bezoar. A bezoar found in the 
stomach of the wild boar in India. 

8. Bovine-bezoar. A bezoar found in 
the gall-bladder of the ox ; common in 
Nepaul. 

9. Oriental bezoars. These were for- 
merly much valued in medicine : they 
are smooth, polished, and of a green 
colour : three of these, sent by the Schah 
of Persia to Buonaparte, were ligtiiforin, 
or composed of fragments of wood ; ano- 
ther was found to be composed of rosin. 

10. Spurious, or factitious bezoars. 
These were formerly made of lobsters' 
claws and oyster-shells, levigated on por- 
phyry, made into a paste with musk and 
ambergris, and formed into balls like 
bezoars ; of this kind were the pierres de 
Goa, or de Malacca, &c. 

BI, BINUS {bis, twice). Two; a pair. 
Also a prefix of certain saline compounds, 
into which two proportions of acid enter 
for one of base, as biarseniate. 

1. Bi-carbonates. Salts containing a 
double proportion of carbonic acid gas. 

2. Bi-ceps (caput, the head). Two- 
headed, or having two distinct origins, 
as applied to a muscle of the thigh and 
of the arm. The interossei muscles are 
termed bicipites, from their having each 
two heads or origins. 

3. Bi-cornis {cornu, a horn). A term 
applied to the os hyoides, which has two 
processes or horns ; and, formerly, to 
muscles which have two insertions. 

4. Bi-cuspidati {cuspis, a spear). Hav- 
ing two tubercles ; as applied to the two 
first pairs of grinders in each jaw. 

5. Bi-ennial {annus, a,yeax). Enduring 
throughout two years, and then perish- 
ing; plants which bear only leaves the 
first year ; leaves, flowers, and fruit the 
second year, and then die. 

6. Bi-furcation {furca, a fork). The 
division of a vessel, or nerve, into two 
branches, as that of a two-pronged fork. 

7. Bi-gaster {yaarr^p, the belly) Two- 
bellied, as applied to muscles; a term 
synonymous with bi-venter and di-gastri- 
cus. 

8. Bi-hernius {hernia, epvor, a branch). 
Having a scrotal hernia on each side. 

9. Bi-lobus {lobus, a lobe). Having 
two lobes, resembling the tips of ears. 

10. Bi-locular {loculus, a cell). Two- 
celled; divided into two cells; a term 
applied, in botany, to the anther, to cer- 
tain capsules, &c. 



\\. Bi mana {manus, a hand). Two- 
handed ; as man : the first order of the 
Mammalia. 

12. Bin-ocnlus {oculus, an eye). Hav- 
ing two eyes ; a bandage for securing 
the dressings on both eyes. 

13. Bi-pinnaPe {pinna, the fin of a fish). 
Doubly pinnate ; a variety of compound 
leaves. See Pinna. 

14. Bi-valied {vulva, a door). Two- 
valved, as the shell of the oyster, a le- 
gume, &c. 

15. Bi-venter {venter, the belly). The 
name of muscles which have two bellies, 
as the occipito-frontalis. The term is 
synonymous with di-gastricus. 

BIBITORIUS {bibo, to drink). A 
former name of the rectus internus ocuii, 
from its drawing the eye inwards towards 
the nose, and thus directing it into the 
cup in drinking. 

BICE. A blue colour, prepared from 
the lapis armenius, for painting. 

BICH AT. This writer considered man 
to consist of two distinct and co-existent 
lives, C2illed the organic and the animal, 
with two distinct assortments of sensi- 
bilities, the conscious and the uncon- 
scious. Each of these lives is limited to 
a separate set of organs, commencing 
coetaneously, and perishing at the same 
moment. 

BILIS. Bile, gall, or choler ; the 
secretion of the liver. Bile is distin- 
guished as the hepatic, or that which 
fiows immediately from the liver; and 
the cystic, or that contained in the gall- 
bladder. 

1. Bilin. The constituent principle of 
the bile. It is separated by chemical 
processes ; and when it contains acetate 
of soda, and is modified by the action of 
acetic acid, it is called bile-sugar or picro- 
mel. 

2. Biliverdin. An ingredient in the 
bile, being the principal constituent of 
the yellow matter forming the concre- 
tions found in the ox, and much prized 
by painters. 

3. Bilis atra. Black bUe; formerly sup- 
posed to be the cause of low spirits, an 
affection named accordingly from the 
same term in Greek, fjiiXaiva xo\'t], or 
melancholy. 

4. Bilious. A term employed to cha- 
racterize a class of diseases caused by a 
too copious secretion of bile. 

BIRDLIME. A glutinous substance 
prepared from the bark of the holly. It 
contains resin, which has been called ij*- 



B 1 T 



B L A 



BISMUTH [wismuth, German). Mar- 
casita, tectum argenti, or tin glance. A 
white metal, usually found in tin mines. 
It occurs as an oxide, under the name of 
bismuth ochre; as a sulphuret, called bis- 
muth glance ; as a sulphuret with copper, 
called copper bismuth or* ; and with cop- 
per and lead, called needle ore. Eight 
parts of bismuth, five of lead, and three 
of tin, constitute Newton's fusible metal. 
See Pearl Powder. 

1. Magistery of bismuth. The tris- 
nitrate of bismuth ; a white, inodorous, 
tasteless powder, also called Spanish 
white, and pearl white. 

2. The butter of bismuth is the chloride ; 
i\iQ flowers of bismuth, the sublimed oxide ; 
and the glance of bismuth, the native sul- 
phuret. 

BISTORTiE RADIX {his torta, twice 
turned ; so named from the form of the 
root). The root of the Polygonum bis- 
torta, great Bistort or Snake-weed. 

BISTOURY [bistoire, French) A 
small curved knife for operations. 

BISTRE. A brown colour made of 
wood soot boiled and evaporated. Beech 
soot is said to make the best. 

BITTER. A term applied, from its 
obvious meaning, to the following sub- 
stances : — 

1. Bitter principle. A general term 
applied to an intensely bitter substance, 
procured by digesting nitric acid on silk, 
indigo, &c. ; also to quinia, quassia, sali- 
cina, &c. 

2. Bitter of Welter. Picric or carba- 
zotic acid, produced by the action of 
nitric on indigotic acid. 

3. Bitter apple, ox cucumber. The com- 
mon name of the fruit of the Cucumis 
colocynthis. 

4. Bitter earth. Talc earth. Verna- 
cular designations of calcined magnesia, 

5. Bitter infusion. A term applied to 
the Extractum Gentianae Compositum of 
the pharmacopoeia. 

6. Bitter-sweet. The vulgar name of 
the Solanum dulcamara, a plant formerly 
used in medicine. 

7. Bitters. A class of vegetable tonics, 
as gentian, chamomile, orange peel, &c. 

BITTERING. Corruptly Bittern. A 
preparation for adulterating beer, com- 
posed of cocculus indicus, liquorice, to- 
bacco, quassia, and sulphate of iron or 
copperas. A similar preparation is sold 
for the same purpose under the name of 
bitter balls. 

BITTERN. The mother water, or un- 
crystallizable residue left after muriate 



of soda has been separated from sea- water 
by crystallization. It owes its bitterness 
to sulphate and muriate of magnesia. It 
contains bromine. 

BITUMEN (TT.Ti/Ma, TT.'Tuf, pine). A 
mineral pitch, supposed to be formed in 
the earth by the decomposition of animal 
and vegetable substances. In its most 
lluid state it constitutes naphtha ; when 
of the consistence of oil, it becomes petro- 
leum ; at the next stage of induration it 
becomes elastic bitumen ; then maltha ; 
and so on until it becomes a compact 
mass, and is then called asphaltum. 

BLACK. A term applied to certain 
diseases, to some chemical compounds, 
&c., in consequence of their black ap- 
pearance 

1. Black Death. The name given in 
Germany and the North of Europe to an 
Oriental plague, which occurred in the 
14th century, characterized by inflam- 
matory boils and black spots of the skin, 
indicating putrid decomposition. In 
Italy it was called la mortalega grande, 
the great mortality. In many of its cha- 
racters, this pestilence resembled the 
present bubo plague, complicated with 
pneumonia and haemorrhages. 

2. Black Disease. This, and black 
jaundice, are English terms for the mor- 
bus niger of the Latin writers, and the 
melcena of the Greeks. 

3. Black Water. This, and water- 
brash, are English terms for pyrosis. 

4. Black Vomit. Melaena cruenta. 
Substances of a black appearance rejected 
in certain forms of disease, as in yellow 
fever, &c. 

5. Black Rust. A disease of wheat, in 
which a black moist matter is deposited 
in the fissure of the grain. See Brown 
Rust. 

6. Black Draught. A popular purga- 
tive, consisting of the infusion of senna, 
with sulphate of magnesia. 

7. Black Drop. A preparation of opium, 
sold as a nostrum. See Quack Medi- 
cines. 

8. Black Extract. Hard multum. A 
preparation from cocculus indicus, im- 
parting an intoxicating quality to beer. 

9. Black Wash. A lotion prepared by 
the decomposition of calomel in lime 
water. 

10. Black Flux. A mixture of char- 
coal and carbonate of potash. 

11. Black Dye. A compound of oxide 
of iron, with gallic acid and tannin. 

12. Black Lead. Plumbago, or gra- 
phite ; a carburet of iron. It is named 



B L A 



BLE 



from its leaden appearance, for it does 
not contain a particle of lead. 

13. Black Chalk. Drawing-slate; a 
soft clay, of a bluish-black colour, com- 
posed principally of silica. 

14. Black Jack. The name given by 
miners to blende, or mock lead ; a sul- 
phuret of zinc. 

15. Black Naphtha. A common name 
for petroleum, or rock oil. 

16. Black Tuipelh. Another name for 
the protoxide of mercury, commonly 
called the gray, ash, or black oxide. 

17. Black IVudd. The peroxide of 
manganese ; a well-known ore, commonly 
called, from its black appearance, black 
oxide of manganese ; it is used as a 
drying ingredient in paints. 

1 8. Ivory Black. Ebur ustum, or ani- 
mal charcoal; procured from charred 
ivory shavings, and used as a dentifrice 
and pigment, under the name of hlnc 
black, being of a bluish hue ; but bone- 
black is usually sold for it. 

19. Black Salts. The name given in 
America to woud-ashes, after they have 
been lixiviated, and the solution evapo- 
rated, until the mass has become black. 

20. Lamp Black. Fuligo lampadum. 
A form of charcoal, procured by burning 
resinous bodies, as the refuse of pitch, in 
furnaces. 

21. Black sticking Plaster. A solution 
of isinglass, with some tincture of ben- 
jamin, brushed over black sarsenet. 

22. Spanish Black. A form of charcoal 
made of burnt cork, and first used by the 
Spaniards. 

23. Black Boy Gum. A red resin, re- 
cently imported from New Holland, and 
supposed to be produced by the Xantho- 
rrhoea arborea. 

BLADDER, URINARY. Vesica uri- 
naria. The reservoir which contauis the 
urine. 

1. Columnar bladder. A term applied 
in cases in which there is an unusual de- 
velopment of the muscular fasciculi of 
the bladder, giving an appearance of per- 
sistent prominences or columns. 

2. Trigonal space of the bladder. A 
smooth triangular surface on the inside 
of the bladder, in the middle of its 
fundus, where the mucous membrane is 
destitute of rugae. 

3. Neck of the bladder. The orifice of 
the urethra ; it is crescentiform, and em- 
braces a small tubercle, called uvula 
vesica, fonned by the projection of the 
mucous membrane. 

4. Fundus of the bladder. All that 

49 



part of its internal surface which cor- 
responds to the inferior region of its ex- 
ternal surface. 

BLADDER GREEN. A green pig- 
ment, prepared from the ripe berries of 
the Rhamnus catharticus, or Buckthorn, 
mixed with gum arable and lime water. 

BLADDERY FEVER. Bullosa febris. 
Vesicular fever, in which the skin is 
j covered with bailee, or blisters. See 
I Pemphigus. 

I BL^SITAS (blcesus, one who stam- 
• mers). Misenunciation ; a species of 
I psellismus, in which articulate sounds 
j are freely but inaccurately enunciated. 
I BLAIN. An elevation of the cuticle 
I containing a watery fluid. See Rupia. 
BLANC DETROYES. Spanish White, 
prepared chalk, or the Creta preparuta of 
I the pharmacopoeia. 

I BLANQUININE. A supposed new 
I alkaloid, discovered in White Cinchona. 
j BLASTE'MA (/JXacTTano, tobud). A 
term applied to the rudimental mass of 
an organ in the state of formation. Ac- 
cording to Schwann, it consists partly of 
a fluid, partly of granules which spon- 
taneously change into the nuclei of cells 
and into cells, and partly, also, of such 
nucleated cells already formed. Milliter. 
BLEACHING. The chemical process 
of whitening linen or woollen stufts. 
1. Linen is bleached, by the old pro- 
cess, by exposure to air and moisture; 
by the new process, by means of chlorine 
or solution of chloride of lime. 2. Wool- 
len stuffs are bleached by exposure to the 
vapour of sulphurous acid. 

1. B lea chi 710 powder. Chloride of lime, 
formerly called oxymuriate of lime ; pre- 
pared by exposing hydrate of lime gra- 
dually to chlorine gas. 

2. Bleaching liquid. Eau d6 Javelle. 
Oxjinuriatic alkaline water. This is the 
above compound obtained in solution, by 
transmitting a stream of chlorine gas 
through hydrate of lime suspended in 
water. 

BLEAR-EYE. A chronic catarrhal 
inflammation of the eyelids. See Lippi- 
tudo. 

BLEB. Pemphix. A bulla, vesicle, or 
bladdery tumor of the skin, distended 
by a fluid. See Pemphigus. 

BLENDE {blenden, German, to dazzle, 
or blind). Native sulphuret of zinc ; a 
massive mineral of an adamantine lustre, 
and often black. It is called by the 
miners blackjack. 

BLENNA (/JXevi/a). The Greek term 
for mucus. 



BLO 



BLU 



1. Blenno-rrhagia {pijywfxi, to burst 
forth). A discharge of mucus from the 
urethra. 

2. Blenno-rrhcea (peoo, to flow). Gleet. 
A term used by Good as synonjTnous 
with gonorrhoea. 

BLEPHARON (/3\e0apov). The eye- 
lid. Hence the compounds : — 

1. Blephar-ophthalmia. Ophthalmia, 
or inflammation of the eye-lid. 

2. Blepharo -ptosis (mwiri^, prolapsus). 
A falling of the upper eye-lid. 

3. Ankylo-blepharon {uyKvXo^, bent). 
A preternatural union of the two lids. 

4. Pachy-blepharosis (Traxir, thick). A 
thickened state of the eye-lids. 

5. Sym-blepharon {avv, together). The 
connexion of the lid to the globe of the 
eye. 

BLIGHT. A slight palsy, induced by 
sudden cold or damp, applied to one side 
of the face. The nerves which lose their 
power are branches of the portio dura, or 
the respiratory of Bell. 

BLISTER. Vesicatorium. An appli- 
cation to the skin, producing a serous or 
puriform discharge, by exciting inflam- 
mation. The effect is termed revulsion, 
antispasis, or derivation. See Cantharis. 

Flying Blisters. Vesicatoires volants. 
A mode of treatment employed by the 
continental practitioners, for the purpose 
of ensuring a more diffusive counter- 
irritation. According to this plan, the 
blister remains only tiU it produces a 
rubefacient effect, a second blister is then 
applied to some other part, and so on in 
succession. 

BLOOD {blod, Saxon). Sanguis. The 
well-known fluid, which circulates 
through the tubes called, from their 
function, blood-vessels. Blood contains 
albumen in three states of modification, 
viz. albumen, properly so called, fibrin, 
and red particles. Blood separates, on 
coagulation, into — 

1. Serum, a yellowish liquid, contain- 
ing albumen, and various saline matters, 
suspended in water ; and 

2. Crassamentum, cruor, or clot ; a red 
solid, consisting of fibrin and red par- 
ticles. 

BLOOD-LETTING. The abstraction 
of blood, as performed by venaesection, 
arteriotomy, cupping, or leeches. 

1. Fencesection {vencE sectio). The 
opening of a vein. When it is right to 
make an impression on the system, as 
well as the part affected, full veneesection 
is employed. This, when duly instituted 
in the erect position, becomes a valuable 
50 



diagnostic : the nature and seat of the 
disease, and the powers of the patient, 
are denoted by the quantity of blood 
which flows on placing the patient erect 
and looking upwards, and bleeding to 
incipient syncope. — (Af. Hall.) Small 
bleedings are employed as a preventive, 
as for haemoptysis. — (Cheyne.) 

2. Arteriotomy. The opening of an 
artery, as the temporal, in diseases of the 
head, of the eye, &c. 

3. Cupping. Usually prescribed in <o- 
pical affections, either when venaesection 
has been already duly employed, or ia 
deemed unnecessary or unscife. 

4. Leeches. Their use is similar to 
that of cupping. This and the preceding 
are means of general, as weU as topical, 
blood-letting in infants. 

BLOOD-SHOT. A distension of the 
blood-vessels of the eye. 

BLOOD-STONE. Hcematites. A spe- 
cies of calcedony, supposed to have been 
useful in stopping a bleeding ifrom the 
nose. 

BLOOD-STROKE. Coup de sang. Au 
instantaneous and universal congestion, 
without any escape of blood from the 
vessels. 

BLOODY FLUX. Another name for 
dysentery, from the bloody nature of the 
intestinal discharges. 

BLOW-PIPE. A small conical tube, 
bent at one end, so as to be easily intro- 
duced into the flame of a candle or lamp, 
for the purpose of directing a stream of 
flame, by blowing through it, upon any 
object which is to be heated. 

Oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. An apparatus 
for producing intense heat, by supplying 
a stream of hydrogen with pure oxygen, 
so that the two gases issue together in 
the form of a jet from the nozzle of the 
blow-pipe. 

BLUE. A term applied to a particular 
disease, to several pigments, and other 
compounds, in consequence of their 
colour. 

1. Blue Disease. Blue jaundice of the 
ancients ; a disease in which the com- 
plexion is tinged with blue or venous 
blood. See Cyanosis. 

2. Prussian Blue. Berlin blue. Ses- 
quiferrocyanide of iron, prepared from 
bullocks' blood, carbonate of potash, sul- 
phate of iron, and alum. The combina- 
tion of Prussian blue and peroxide of 
iron is called basic Prussian blue. 

3. Saxon Blue. Sulphate of indigo ; a 
solution of indigo in concentrated sul- 
phuric acid. 



BOL 



BOR 



4. BlueVerditer. An impure carbonate 
of copper, said to be prepared by decom- 
posing nitrate of copper by chalk. 

5. Blue Copper-ore. The finely-crys- 
tallized subcarbonate of copper. 

6. Turnbull's Blue. Ferrocyanide of 
iron ; a beautiful blue precipitate, thrown 
down on adding red prussiate of potash 
to a pro to-salt of iron. 

7. Blue Pill. The Pilulae Hydrargyri, 
or mercurial pill, prepared by triturating 
metallic mercury with conserve of roses. 

8. Blue Ointment. Neapolitan oint- 
ment ; the Unguentum Hydrargyri, or 
mercurial ointment, prepared by mecha- 
nical mixture of metallic mercury, or 
chemical combination of its oxide, with 
lard. 

9. Blue Eye-water. The Liquor Cupri 
Ammoniati, or solution of ammoniated 
copper. 

10. Blue Stone, or blue vitriol. Blue 
copperas; the sulphate of copper, pre- 
pared by the roasting and oxidation of 
sulphuret of copper. 

11. Blue John. A name given by the 
miners to fluor spar, also called Derby- 
shire spar. 

12. Blue Pot. Another term for a 
black-lead crucible, made of a mixture of 
coarse plumbago and clay. 

13. Blue Black. Another name for 
ivory black, or the ebur ustum, from its 
bluish hue. 

BODY. Any determinate part of mat- 
ter. Its forms are the solid, as crystals ; 
and the fluid, which are elastic and aeri- 
form, as gases ; or inelastic and liquid, as 
water. 

BOIL. Furunculus. The popular 
name for a small resisting tumor, at- 
tended with inflammation and pain. 

BOILING POINT. That degree in 
the scale of the thermometer, at which 
ebullition is produced under the medium 
pressure of the atmosphere. Thus, 212° 
is the boiling point of water, when the 
barometer stands at 30 inches; at 31 
inches, it is 2 13- 76; at 29, it is only 210-19; 
in a common vacuum, it is 70°. 

BOLE (ySSAof, a mass). A massive 
mineral. Its colours are yellow-red, and 
brownish-black, when it is called moun- 
tain soap. 

BOLETIC ACID. An acid extracted 
from the expressed juice of the Boletus 
pseudo-igniarius, a species of mush- 
room. 

BOLETUS. A genus of mushroom : 
Order, Fungi. Some of its species are — 

1 . Boletus Igniarius. Amadou, or Ger- 
51 



man tinder; a fungus which grows on 
the trunks of trees, especially the oak, 
and is used for stopping haemorrhage 
from wounds. It is known in Scotland 
and the north of Ireland by the name of 
paddock stool. 

2. Boletus pvrgans. Larch agaric, for- 
merly employed as a drastic purgative. 

BOLOGNA STONE. The native sul- 
phate of baryta ; a phosphoric stone 
found at Bologna. 

BOLUS (/SwXof, a bole). A form of 
medicine larger than a pill. 

BOLUS AD QUARTANAM. A re- 
medy used by Laennec in pneumonia, 
consisting of one grain of emetic tartar to 
a drachm of bark, made into a mass by 
extract of juniper. 

BOLUS ARMENA RUBRA. Red 
Armenian bole ; a compound of aluminum 
found in Armenia. The substance sold 
under this name is made by grinding 
together pipeclay and red oxide of iron, 
and levigating. 

BOMBIC ACID (/J^M/Suf, the silk- 
worm). An acid contained in a reservoir 
near the anus of the silk-worm. Its salts 
are called bombiates. 

BOMBUS {/36fx/3os, the humming of 
bees). A sense of beating in the ears ; 
a species of bourdonnement, consisting in 
a dull, heavy, intermitting sound. 

BONE. A substance consisting chiefly 
of phosphate of lime and gelatine. See 
Os, ossis. 

1. Bone earth. Phosphate of lime ; the 
earthy basis of the bones of animals. 

2. Bone ash. Animal ashes. 

3. Bone spirit. A brown ammoniacal 
liquor, obtained in the process of manu- 
facturing animal charcoal from bones. 

BONPLANDIA TRIFOLIATA. A 
name of the GaHpea cusparia, which 
yields the Cusparia, or Angostura Bark. 

BORACIC ACID. Homberg's sedative 
salt. An acid found native on the edges 
of hot springs in Florence, &c. It occurs 
in small pearly scales, and also massive, 
fusing at the flame of a candle into a 
glassy globule. See Borax. 

BORACITE. Bi-borate Of magnesia, a 
rare natural production. 

BORAGINACE^E. The Borage tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants or shrubs, with leaves alternate, 
covered with asperities ; corolla gamo- 
petalous ; stamens inserted in the corolla ; 
fruit four nuts, distinct. 

BORATE. A salt formed by com- 
bination of boracic acid with a salifiable 
base. 

D 2 



BOT 



BO U 



BORAX {baurach, Arab.). A native 
bi-borate of soda, chiefly found in an im- 
pure state, and then called tinkal, as a 
saline incrustation in the beds of certain 
small lakes in an upper province of 
Thibet. When the refined salt is de- 
prived of its water of crystallization by 
fusion, it forms a vitreous transparent 
substance, called glass of borax. 

Honey of borax. Mel boracis. Pow- 
dered borax and clarified honey. 

BORBORYGMUSC/^op^fiopuyMoO- The 
rumbling noise occasioned by flatus with- 
in the intestines. 

BORNEEN. The name given to a 
compound of carbon and hydrogen found 
in valeric acid, and which, on exposure 
to moisture, acquires the properties of 
horneo camphor; it is supposed to be 
identical with liquid camphor. The cam- 
phor itself has been named borneol, and 
it is converted, by the action of nitric 
• acid, into laurel-camphor. 

BORNEO CAMPHOR. SumatraCam- 
phor. A crystalline solid found in cre- 
vices of the wood of the Dryobalanops 
aromatica. Dr. Pereira says that it rarely 
comes to this country as a commercial 
article. 

1. Liquid Camphor; Camphor oil. A 
liquid obtained by making deep incisions 
into the Dryobalanops aromatica. 

2. Artificial Camphor. A hydrochlorate 
of oil of turpentine, or other volatile oil. 

BORON. A dark olive-coloured sub- 
stance, forming the combustible base of 
boracic acid. 

BOSOPRIC ACID (/Sow, an ox, k6- 
Trpo?, dung). Cow-dung acid ; a strong 
colourless acid, procured from fresh cow- 
dung, of great efficacy in purifying mor- 
danted cotton in the cow-dung bath. A 
better term would be bucopric. 

BOSWELLIA THURIFERA. The 
Olibanum tree, a plant of the order Te- 
rebinthacea:, yielding the gum-resin oli- 
hanum. 

BOTANY (/3oTai/»j, a plant). The 
science which treats of the Vegetable 
Kingdom. It embraces the following 
divisions : — 

1. Structural Botany, relating to the 
laws of vegetable structure, internal or 
external, independently of the presence 
of a vital principle. 

2. Physiological Botany, relating to the 
history of vegetable life, the functions 
of the various organs of plants, their 
changes in disease or health, &c. 

3. Descriptive Botany, relating to the 
description and nomenclature of plants. 

52 



4. Systematic Botany, relating to the 
principles upon which plants are con- 
nected with, and distinguished from, each 
other. See Sketch, in Appendix. 

BOTANY BAY RESIN. A sponta- 
neous exudation from the Acarois Besi- 
nifera of New Holland. 

BOTHRENCHYMA {^69poi, a pit, 
'^ixufxa, enchyma). A name recently ap- 
plied in Botany to the pitted tissue or 
dotted ducts of former writers, the appear- 
ance of these tubes being occasioned bv 
the presence of little pits sunk in their 
walls. It is either articulated or conti- 
nuous. 

BOTHRIOCEPHALUS LATUS {^6- 
Optov, a pit, KecpaXtj, the head). Tcenia 
lata. The broad Tape-worm, found in 
the intestines. See Vermes. 

BOTTS. Worms which breed in the 
intestines of horses ; the maggots of the 
horse gadfly. 

BOTULINIC ACID. A peculiar fatty 
acid, produced by decomposing sausages, 
and supposed to be the cause of their 
deleterious qualities. 

BOUGIE. Literally, a wax taper. 
Bougies are cylindrical instruments, ge- 
nerally made of slips of linen, spread 
with plaster, and rolled up with the 
plaster side outermost, on a hot glazed 
tile, and shaped. These instruments are 
intended to be introduced into the canals 
of the urethra, the rectum, the oesophagus, 
&c., for the purpose of dilating them. 

1. B. Bell's Bougies are made in the 
same way, by melting in one vessel four 
ounces of litharge plaster, and in another 
three drachms of olive oil, and an ounce 
and a half of yellow wax, mixing them 
for use. 

2. Plenck's Bougies are made of catgut, 
and may swell after being introduced. 

3. Elastic gum, Bongies are not made 
of caoutchouc, but prepared by boiling 
linseed oil for a long time over a slow 
fire, and with this varnishing cotton, silk, 
or linen, employed as a basis. 

4. Smyth's flexible metallic Bougies are 
liable to break, and are dangerous. 

5. Daran's medicated Bougies are made 
of materials which dissolve in the ure- 
thra ; of this class are the armed bougies, 
which are prepared with potassa fusa, or 
nitrate of silver. 

BOURDONNEMENT. The name 
given by the French to the several varie- 
ties of imaginary sounds, termed — 

1. Syriymus, or ringing in the ears. 

2. Sitsurrus, or whizzing sounds. 

3. Bombus, or beating sounds. 



BRA 



BRI 



BOVEY COAL. Brown Coal. A va- 
riety of coal found at Bovey Heathfield, 
near Exeter. See Coal. 

BOVI'NA FAMES {bos, an ox, fames, 
hunger). Bulimia. Voracious appetite. 

BOYLE'S FUMING LIQUOR. Hy- 
dro-sulphuret of ammonia, or volatile 
liver of sulphur. See Fuming Liquor. 

BRACHERIUM (brachiale, a brace- 
let). A term used by some Latin writers 
for a truss, or bandage, for hernia. 

BRACHIUM {/Spaxioov, an arm). The 
arm ; the part from the shoulder to the 
elbow. The part from the elbow to the 
wrist is termed lacertus. Thus, * sub- 
juncta lacertis brachia.' Ovid. 

Brachio-poda {irovt, nodof, a foot). 
Arm-footed animals ; animals which have 
arms instead of feet ; they are all bivalves. 
Class V. Mollusca. 

BR ACTEA. A Latin term, denoting a 
thin leaf or plate of any metal. It is ap- 
plied, in botany, to all those modifications 
of leaves which are found upon the inflo- 
rescence, and are situated between the 
true leaves and the calyx of the flower. 
They compose the involucrum of Com- 
positae, the glumes of Graminese, the 
spathc of the Arum, &c. 

BRADY-SPERMATISMUS (/3pa5uf, 
slow, a-nepfxa, semen). Seminal mis- 
emission, in which the discharge is re- 
tarded from organic weakness. 

BRAIN. Encephaloii. Cerebrum. The 
largest portion of the central part of the 
nervous system, occupying the whole 
upper part of the cavity of the cranium. 
This substance is not homogeneous 
throughout, but presents two distinct 
modifications ; viz. — 

1. A cortical, cincritious, or grey sub- 
stance, which covers the brain in general ; 
and 

2. A medullary, or white substance, or 
the mass contained within the former. 

BRAN. Furfur tritici. The husk of 
ground wheat. 

BRANCA (Spanish fox afoot or branch). 
A term applied to some herbs supposed 
to resemble a particular foot, as brankur- 
sine, or branca ursina, the name of the 
Heracleum sphondylium. 

BRANCHIA (/3pa7X'«- giUs). GUIs; 
filamentous organs for breathing in 
water. 

Branchio-poda (Trouf, no^ios, a foot). 
GUI-footed animals ; animals which have 
gUls instead of feet, as the monoculus. 
Order VI. Crustacea. 

BRANDY. Eau de Fie. The spirit 
distilled from wine. See Spirit. 
53 



BRANKS. The vernacular name in 
Scotland for parotitis, or the mumps of 
this country. 

BRASQUE. A term used by the 
French metallurgists to denote the lining 
of a crucible or a furnace with char- 
coal. 

BRASS, ^s, ceris. An alloy of cop- 
per and zinc. Common brass consists of 
three parts of copper and one of zinc. 
See Similor. 

BRASSICA RUBRA. The Red Cab- 
bage ; employed by chemists as an excel- 
lent test for acids and alkalies. 

BRAZIL NUTS. Chestnuts of Brazil. 
The nuts of the Bertholletia excelsa. 

BRAZIL WOOD. The wood of the 
CcBsalpinia Braziliensis, which yields a 
red colouring matter used by dyers. 

BRAZILETTO. An inferior species 
of Brazil wood, brought from Jamaica. 
It is one of the cheapest and least es- 
teemed of the red-dye woods. 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE. The Arto- 
carpus incisa, a tree of the order Urtica- 
cecE, the fruit of which is, to the inha- 
bitants of Polynesia, what corn is to the 
inhabitants of other parts of the world. 

BREGMA (/Jpfx'". to moisten). Fon- 
tanel. The two spaces left in the head 
of the infant, where the frontal and the 
occipital bones respectively join the pa- 
rietal. It is distinguished as anterior 
and posterior. See Cranium. 

BRESLAW FEVER. An epidemic 
which broke out in the Prussian army at 
Breslaw, in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, and which has been named by Sau- 
vages tritceophya Vratislaviensis. 

BREVISSIMUS OCULI (superl. of 
brevis, short). A synonym of the obli- 
quus inferior, from its being the shortest 
muscle of the eye. 

BREZILIN. The name applied by 
Chevreul to the colouring matter of Bra- 
zil wood, obtained from several species 
of Ccesalpinia. 

BRICKLAYERS' ITCH. A species of 
local tetter, or impetigo, produced on the 
hands of bricklayers by the contact of 
lime. See Grocers' Itch. 

BRIM OF THE PELVIS. The oval 
ring which parts the cavity of the pelvis 
from the cavity of the abdomen. The 
Outlet of the Pelvis is a lower circle, com- 
posed by the arch of the pubes an4 the 
sciatic ligaments. 

BRIMSTONE. A name for sulphur. 
The sublimed sulphur of the Pharma- 
copoeia is termed /02t'er« of brimstone, or 
of sulphur. 

D 3 



BRO 



BR Y 



BRISTOL HOT-WELL. A calcareous 
spring at Bristol. See Aqua Minerales. 

BRITISH GUM. A term applied to 
starch when reduced to a gum-like state 
by exposure to great heat. It then be- 
comes of a brown colour, and in that 
state is employed by calico printers. 

BRITISH OIL. Camphor one ounce, 
rectified spirits of wine four ounces, 
sweet oil twelve ounces, and oil of 
hartshorn five ounces, boiled together. 

This name is also given to the Oleum 
petrtE vulgare, or common oil of petre ; 
a variety of petroleum. 

BRODIUM. A term synonymous, in 
pharmacy, with jusculum, or broth, the 
liquor in which any thing is boiled ; as 
brodium salis, a decoction of salt. 

BROMA (/3pa»rKco, to eat). Food; any 
thing that is masticated. 

Bromato-logy {Xoyot, a description). 
A description or treatise on food. 

BROMAL. A colourless oily liquid, 
formed by adding bromine to alcohol 
cooled by ice. 

BROMINE(/3p(«/uo?, a stench). A deep 
red-coloured fetid liquid, formerly called 
muride; an ingredient of sea-water, of 
several salt springs, of the ashes of sea- 
weeds, and of those of the Janthina vio- 
lacea, and other animals. It combines 
with oxygen, and forms bromic acid; 
and with hydrogen, forming the hydro- 
brnmic. 

BROMURET. A combination of the 
bromic acid with Iodine, phosphorus, 
sulphur, &c. 

BRONCHUS (/Jpo-yxof. the windpipe, 
from /3pex<», to moisten). The wind- 
pipe ; a ramification of the trachea ; so 
called from the ancient belief that the 
solids were conveyed into the stomach by 
the oesophagus, and the fluids by the 
bronchia. 

1. Bronchial tubes. The minute rami- 
fications of the bronchi, terminating in 
the bronchial cells, or air cells, of the 
lungs. 

2. Bronck-itis. Inflammation of the 
bronchi, or ramifications of the trachea. 
It is known by the vernacular terms, 
bronchial inflammation, inflammatory 
catarrh, bastard peripneumony, and suf- 
focative catarrh. 

3. Bronch-lemmitis (Xemsa, a sheath 
or membrane). A membrane-like in- 
flammation of the bronchia. See Diph- 
therite. 

4. Broncho-cele (KtjXt^, a tumoiu"). 
Botium ; thyrophraxia. An enlargement 
of the thyroid gland. In Switzerland it 

54 



is termed goitre; in this country it is 
called swelled neck, Derbyshire neck, 
or Derby-neck. 

5. Bronclio-hcBmorrhagia. A term re- 
cently proposed by Andral to designate 
the exhalation of blood from the lining 
membrane of the bronchial tubes, com- 
monly called bronchial haemorrhage. See 
Pneumo-hwmorrhagia. 

6. Broncho phony {(ptovrj, voice). The 
resonance of the voice over the bronchi. 

7. Bronchotomy (to/x>;, section). An 
incision made into the larj'nx or trachea. 

BRONZE. An alloy of copper, 8 or 10 
per cent, of tin, and other metals, used 
for making statues, &c. 

BROOM ASHES AND TOPS. A 
remedy formerly extolled for dropsy, 
consisting of the ashes and green tops of 
the Cytisus scoparius, or common broom. 

BROWN RUST. A disease of wheat, 
in which a dry brown powder is substi- 
tuted for the farina of the grain. Com- 
pare Black Rust. 

BROWNING. A preparation of sugar, 
port-wine, spices, &c., for colouring and 
flavouring meat and made dishes. 

BRUCIA. A substance procured from 
the bark and seeds of nux vomica, and 
from St. Ignatius's bean. It is said to be 
a compound of strychnia and resin, and 
not a peculiar alkaloid. 

BRUNNER'S GLANDS. Small flat- 
tened granular bodies of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine, visible 
to the naked eye, distributed singly in 
the membrane, and most numerous in 
the upper part of the sm2dl intestine. 
These glands, sometimes erroneously 
termed "solitary," were described by 
Peyer as being as numerous as the " stars 
of heaven." By Von Brunn they were 
compared collectively to a second pan- 
creas. See Peyer's Glands. 

BRUNOLIC ACID. One of the par- 
ticular products which have been isolated 
in the distillation of coal. 

BRUNONIAN THEORY. A theory 
founded by John Brown, according to 
which no change can take place in the 
state of the excitable powers without 
previous excitement ; and it is only by 
over -excitement that the excitability, 
with life, can be exhausted. 

BRUNSWICK GREEN. An ammo- 
niaco-muriate of copper, used for oil 
painting. 

BRYGMUS {/Spvyfxof, from /3puxw, to 
gnash with the teeth). Gnashing or 
grating with the teeth. 

BRYONIA DIOICA. Bryony, or wild 



BUF 



BUR 



vine, a Cucurbitaceous plant, of which 
the fresh root is sold under the name of 
white bryony. Its properties are owing 
to the presence of an extractive matter 
called bryonin. 

BUBO {/3ov/3wv, the groin). A swelling 
of the lymphatic glands, particularly 
those of the groin and axilla. It has 
been distinguished by the terms — 

1. Sympathetic, arising from the mere 
irritation of a local disorder. 

2. Venereal, arising from the absorp- 
tion of the syphilitic virus. 

3. Constitutional, as the pestilential — 
a symptom of the plague ; or scrofulous 
swellings of the inguinal and axillary 
glands. 

BUBONOCELE {/3ov/3iav, the groin, 
KtjKn, a tumour). Inguinal hernia. 

BUCCAL {bucca, the cheek). A term 
applied to a branch of the internal max- 
illary artery, to certain branches of the 
facial vein, and to a branch of the in- 
ferior maxillary nerve. 

Buccal glands. The name of numerous 
follicles situated beneath the mucous 
layer of the cheek. 

BUCCINATOR [buccina, a trumpet). 
The trumpeter's muscle ; a muscle of the 
cheek, so called from its being much 
used in blowing the trumpet. 

BUCCO-LABIALIS. The name given 
by Chaussier to a nerve of variable origin, 
being sometimes a continuation of the 
exterior fasciculus of the portio minor ; at 
other times arising from the interior 
fasciculus, or from the deep temporal, 
though generally from the inferior max- 
illary. Bellingeri. 

BUCCULA (dim. of bucca, the cheek). 
The fleshy part under the chin. 

BUCHU LEAVES {bocchae, Ind.) 
The leaves of several species of Barosma, 
or Diosma, much extolled for chronic 
disorders of the bladder. 

BUCKBEAN. The Menyanthes trifo- 
liata, a plant of the order Gentianacece, 
employed by the brewers in some parts 
of Germany as a substitute for hops. 

BUCKTHORN. The vernacular name 
of the Rhamnus catharticus, derived 
from the spinous nature of some of the 
species ; for the same reason it has been 
termed spina cervina, or stag's horn. 
The berries yield a delicate green, named 
by painters verdevissa. 

BUCNEMIA {(3ov, a Greek augmenta- 
tive, Kvtjun, the leg). Literally, bulky or 
tumid leg. See Phlegmasia dolens. 

BUFFY COAT. The buflT-coloured 
fibrin which appears on the surface of 
55 



the crassamentum of blood drawn in cer- 
tain states of disease. 

BULAM FEVER. A name given to 
Yellow Fever, from its fatal visitations 
on the Guinea coast and its adjoining 
islands. See Febris. 

BULBO-CAVERNOSUS. The name 
of a muscle situated beneath the bulb of 
the urethra, and covering part of the 
corpus spongiosum. Chaussier termed 
it bulbo-urethralis. 

BULBUS. A bulb ; a scaly leaf-bud, 
which developes roots from its base, and 
a stem from its centre. When the outer 
scales are thin, and cohere in the form of 
a thin envelope, as in the onion, this is 
the tunicated bulb. When the outer 
scales are distinct and fleshy, as in the 
lily, this is called the naked bulb. There 
can be no such thing as a solid bulb. 
See Cormus. 

1. Bulbus olfactorius. That portion of 
the olfactory nerve, which expands into 
a bulb-\\}Le form, and rests upon the 
cribriform plate. 

2. Bulbus arteriosus. The name of the 
anterior of the three cavities of the heart 
in all vertebrata, as exhibited in the early 
period of its development. 

3. Bulb of the urethra. The posterior 
bulb-Vtk& commencement of the corpus 
spongiosum penis; hence, the included 
urethra is called the bulbous portion. 

BULIMIA {0OW, an ox, or /3oS, aug., 
\</ior, hunger). Voracious appetite. Its 
synonyms are — 

Adephagia (a5»ji/, much, ^dyw, to eat). 

Bupeina {^ovv, an ox, irelvn, hunger). 

Cynorexia {kvuv, a dog, 6'pef «?, appetite). 

Fames canina. Canine appetite. 

Phagedena {(payo), to eat, as an ulcer). 

BULITHUM (ySoDc, an ox, M0oi, a 
stone). A bezoar or stone found in the 
kidneys, the gall, or urinary bladder of 
the ox. See Bezoar. 

BULL^ {bubbles). Blebs ; blains ; 
spheroidal vesicles, or portions of the 
cuticle raised by a watery fluid. The 
genera are — 

1. Pemphigus. Vesicular fever. 

2. Pompholyx. Water blebs. 
BUNYON. Inflammation of the bursa 

mucosa, at the inside of the ball of the 
great toe. 

BUPHTHALMIA (/Sow, an ox, h<p- 
0a\fjL69, eye). Ox-eye; dropsy of the 
eye. See Hydrophthalmia. 

BURGUNDY PITCH. Prepared from 
the abietis resina. See Abies. 

BURNT SPONGE. An article pre- 
pared by cutting sponge into small 
D4 



CAD 



CA J 



pieces, and burning it in a covered vessel 
until it becomes black and friable, when 
it is rubbed to a very fine powder. 

BURS^ MUCOSAE (mucous bags). 
Small sacs situated about the joints, be- 
ing parts of the sheaths of tendons. 

1, Bursalogy (Xo-io^, an account). The 
description of the bursas mucosae. 

2. Bursalis, or marsupialis. Former 
designations of the obturator internus 
muscle. 

BUTEA GUM. A gum procured from 
natural fissures and wounds made in the 
bark of the Bntea frondosa, a legumi- 
nous plant of India. 

BUTTER (butyrum, from /3oZ<:, a cow, 
rvpot, coagulum). A substance procured 
from the cream of milk by churning. 

1. Butter-milk. The thin and sour 
milk sep£irated from the cream by churn- 
ing. 



2. Butyrine. A peculiar oleaginous 
principle procured from butter. 

3. Butyric acid. An oily limpid liquid, 
one of the volatile acids of butter. By 
distillation, it yields a substance called 
butyrone. 

4. The term butter is applied to butter- 
like substances, as those of antimony, 
bismuth, &c., meaning the c/ilorides. 

BUTTER OF CACAO. An oily con- 
crete white matter, of a firmer consistence 
than suet, obtained from the Cacao, or 
cocoa-nut, of which chocolate is made. 

BUTUA ROOT. Abuta root. The 
name sometimes given in commerce to 
the root of the Cissampelos pareira, more 
commonly called pareira brava. 

BUXINE. An alkaloid procured from 
the Buxus Sempervirens. 

BUXTON WATERS. Calcareous 
springs at Buxton, in Derbyshire. 



c 



CABBAGE BARK. Surinam bark. 
The bark of the Andiva inermis, a legu- 
minous plant of the West Indies; an- 
thelmintic. 

CACAO. The Chocolate-nut tree, a 
species of Theobroma. See Cocoa. 

CACHEXIA [KaKi], bad, e^c, habit). 
A bad habit of body ; the name either of 
an individual disease, or of a class of 
diseases. The latter are denominated by 
Sagar cacochymice, a term signifying 
faulty chymifications. 

CACODYL (KaKa.5»r, fetid). A limpid 
liquid, of fetid odour, the supposed radi- 
cal of a series of arsenical compounds 
derived from acetyl. 

Cacodylic Acid. An acid obtained by 
the oxidation of cacodyl and its oxide, 
and synonymous v.ith ulcargen. 

CACOETHES {KaKw, bad, 1,00^, habit). 
The name by which Celsus distinguishes 
noli me tangere from cancer. 

CADET, LIQUOR OF. Alcarsin. 
A liquid obtained by distilling acetate of 
potash and arsenious acid, and remark- 
able for its insupportable odour and 
spontaneous inflammability in air. 

CADMIUM. A bluish-white metal 
found in several of the ores of zinc ; so 
named from cadmia fossilis, a former 
name of the common ore of zinc. 

CADU'CA [cado, to fall). The de- 
56 



ciduous membrane; ro called from its 
being cast off from the uterus. 

CADUCOUS {cado, to fall.) A term 
applied in Botany to parts which fall 
early, as the calyx of the poppy, the 
petals of the gum cistus, &c. Parts which 
continue on the plant long are termed 
persistent. 

CvECITAS {ccccus, blind). A general 
term for blindness. See Eye, diseases of. 

CiECUM (ccecus, blind). The caput 
coli, or blind intestine ; so named from 
its being prolonged inferiorly under the 
form of a cul-de-sac. 

CAESARIAN SECTION. Hysteroto- 
mia. The operation by which the foetus 
is taken out of the uterus, by an incision 
through the parietes of the abdomen. 
Persons so born were formerly called 
Ccesones — a caso matris utero. 

CAFFEIC ACID. An acid discovered 
in coffee ; it contains the aroma of roasted 
coffee. 

Caff ('in. A crystalline substance ob- 
tained from coffee, from tea, and from 
guarana — a prepared mass from the fruit 
of Paullinia sorbilis. 

CAJUPUTI OLEUM (kayu-pnti, white 
wood). Kyapootie oil; an essential oil 
procured from the leaves of the IMela- 
leuca Minor, termed by Rumphius arbor 
alba, a Myrtaceous plant of the Moluccas 



C AL 

CALAMI RADIX. Sweet-Flag root; 
the rhizome of the Acorus Calamus. 

CALAMINA {calamus, a reed). Ca- 
lamine; the impure carbonate of zinc; 
a pulverulent mineral, generally of a red- 
dish or flesh colour. 

Calamina prceparata. The calamine 
reduced to an impalpable powder by 
roasting. 

CALAMUS SCRIPTORIUS. Literally, 
a writing-pen. A groove upon the ante- 
rior wall, or floor, of the fourth ventricle. 
Its pen-like appearance is produced by 
the divergence of the posterior median 
columns, the feather by the lineEe trans- 
versae. At the point of the pen is a small 
cavity, lined with grey substance, and 
called the Ventricle of Aratitius. 

CALCANEUM {calx, the heel). Calcar. 
The OS calcis, or heel bone. 

CALCAREOUS. The name of a class 
cf earths, consisting of lime and carbonic 
acid, as chalk, marble, &c. 

Calcareous rock is another term for 
limestone. 

Calcareous Spar. Crystallized carbo- 
nate of lime. Iceland spar is one of its 
purest varieties. 

CALCINATION {calx, lime). A term 
formerly applied to express the oxidation 
of a metal effected by the action of the 
air : the oxide thus formed was denomi- 
nated a calx, from its being earthy like 
lime. The term is now generally applied 
whenever any solid matter has been sub- 
jected to heat, so as to be convertible 
into a state of powder. 

CALCIUM {calx, lime). The metallic 
base of lime, discovered by Davy. 

Calcii cliloridum. Chloride of calcium, 
commonly called muriate of lime. The 
anhydrous chloride deliquesces in the 
air, and becomes oil of lime. 

CALCULUS (dim. of calx, a lime or 
chalk-stone). A solid or unorganized 
concretion found in various parts of the 
human body, and commonly called stone, 
or gravel. It is apt to be formed in the 
kidney, in the circumstances of those 
constitutional derangements which have 
been denominated calculous diatheses, 
of which the principal are, — 

1. The Liihic Diathesis, characterised 
by yellow, red or lateritious, or pink de- 
posits of lithate of ammonia ; or by the 
formation of red gravel, or crystals of 
uric or lithic acid. 

2. The Phosphatic Diathesis, charac- 
terised by the formation of white gravel, 
or crystals of phosphate of magnesia and 
ammonia; or by the white sediment of 

57 



C AL 

the mixed phosphates of magnesia and 
ammonia, and of lime. 

I. Amorphous Sediments. 

These are pulverulent, and may con- 
sist, 1. of uric acid, which is of a yellow 
or brick-dust colour, like the ordinary 
sediment of cooled urine ; 2. of phospkatfi 
of lime, mixed -with phosphate of ammonia 
and magnesia, and a considerable quan- 
tity of mucus; and 3. of the mucus of the 
bladder, which, having no earthy salts, 
becomes of a greenish yellow on drying, 
and the urine is always acid. 

II. Crystalline Deposits, or Gravel. 

These substances usually consist of. 
1. acid urate of animonia in the fonn of 
small, shining, red or yellow, pointed, 
crystalline groups ; 2. of oxalate of lime, 
in pale yellow or green crystals; or, of 
phosphate of ammonia and magnesia. 
III. Varieties of Calculus. 

Urinary Calculi have usually a nucleus 
in the centre consisting of one substance, 
which afterwards alternates with unequal 
layers of other, and, in some cases, of all 
the principles of urinary calculi. Many 
calculi consist of the same substance in 
successive layers. The varieties of calcu- 
lus may be thus arranged : — 

1. The Lithic or Uric Acid, or the 
light brown. This acid is the most con- 

j stant constituent of urinary calculus. 

2. The Triple Phosphate of Magnesia 
and Ammonia, or the white. This is 
never found quite alone in calculi; but 
is often one of their chief constituents. 

3. The Mixed Phosphates of Magnesia 
and Ammonia, and of Lime. This variety, 
next to uric acid, constitutes the most 
common material of calculus. From its 
ready fusibility before the blow-pipe, it 
is termed the fusible calculus. 

4. The Oxalate of Lime. This is, ap- 
parently, a frequent constituent of calcu- 
lus, particularly in children. The stone 

I has usually an uneven surface, resera- 
! bling the mulberry, and is hence called 
the mulberry calculus. 

5. The Alternating. The nucleus is 
' most frequently lithic acid, rarely the 
i phosphates ; these, on the contrary, gene- 
\ rally form upon some nucleus, and are 
\ seldom covered by other depositions. 

I 6. The Xanthic Oxide. Discovered by 
I Dr. Marcet, and so named from its form- 
j ing a lemon-coloured compound, when 
i acted upon by nitric acid. 



7. The Fibrinous. Discovered by Dr. 
Marcet, and so termed from its resem- 
blance to fibre. 

D5 



CAL 



CAL 



CALEFACIENTS {calefacio, to make 
warm). Medicines which excite warmth. 

CALENTURE (caleo, to be hot). A 
violent fever, attended with delirium, 
incident to persons in hot countries. 
Under its influence it is said that sailors 
imagine the sea to be green fields, and 
will throw themselves into it, if not re- 
strained. 

CALICO PRINTING. The art of dye- 
ing cotton, &c., with one or more colours, 
in certain parts, leaving the rest of the 
surface in its original state. 

CALICULUS (dim. of calyx, a cup). 
A little cup, or goblet. Celsus. 

CALI'GO (darkness). A disease of the 
eye, imparting dimness, cloudiness, ob- 
scurity. In old English, this opacity, as 
well as pterygium, was denominated a 
"web of the eye." 

1. Caligo lentis. The true cataract, or 
the glaucoma Woulhousi. 

2. Caligo cornece. Dimness, cloudiness, 
or opacity of the cornea. 

3. Caligo pupillcB. Synchysis, or amy- 
osis. Blindness from obstruction in the 
pupil. 

4. Caligo humorum. Glaucoma Vo- 
gelii. Blindness from an error in the 
humours of the eye. 

5. Caligo palpebrarum. Blindness from 
disorder in the eyelids. 

CALLUS (Latin, hardness). New bone, 
or the substance which serves to join 
together the ends of a fracture, and to 
restore destroyed portions of bone. 

Colli. Nodes in the gout. 

Callositas. A horny product. 

CALOMELAS. Calomel, the chloride 
of mercury ; formerly called by a variety 
of fanciful names ; as draco mitigatus, or 
mild dragon ; aquila alba, or white eagle ; 
manna metallorum, or manna of the me- 
tals ; panchymagogum minerale, sweet 
mercury, &c. I'he term calomel, from 
KaXoi, good, and ju.t\ar, black, was first 
used by Sir Theodore Turquet de May- 
enne, in consequence, as some say, of his 
having had a favourite black servant who 
prepared it ; or, according to others, be- 
cause it was a good remedy for the black 
bile. 

CALOR (Latin). Heat. Calor fervens 
denotes boiling heat, or 212° Fahr. ; calor 
lenis, gentle heat, between 90° and 100° 
Fahr. 

CALOR MORDICANS. Literally, a 
biting heat; a term applied to a dan- 
gerous symptom in typhus, in which 
there is a biting and pungent heat upon 
the skin, leaving a smarting sensation 
58 



' on the fingers for several minutes after 
touching it. 

CALORIC {calor, heat). The cause 

1 of the sensation of heat — a fluid, or con- 
dition diffused through all bodies. 

1. Sensible or free caloric is that -which. 
produces the sensation of heat, or aflTects 
the thermometer ; all caloric is sensible, 
if it be considered in reference to bodies 
of which the form is permanent. 

2. Insensible caloric, formerly supposed 
to be latent or combined, is that portion 
which passes into bodies during a change 
of form, without elevating their tempera- 
ture ; as into ice at 32°, as it becomes 
water, and termed caloric of fluidity; or 
into water at 212°, as it passes into va- 
pour, and termed caloric of vaporization. 

3. Specific caloric is the (unequal) 
quantity of caloric required by similar 
quantities of different bodies to heat them 
equally. The specific caloric of water is 
23 times as great as that of mercury ; 
thus, if equal weights of the former at 
40°, and of the latter at 160°, be mixed 
together, the resulting temperature is 45°. 
This quality of bodies is called their ca- 
pacity for caloric. 

4. Absolute caloric denotes the total 
amount of heat in bodies ; no method is 
known by which this can be ascertained. 

5. Evolution of caloric denotes that 
which is set free on a change of capacities 
in bodies, from greater to less, as in com- 
bustion, on mixing water with sulphuric 
acid, or alcohol, &c. 

6. Absorption of caloric ; the reverse 
of the former, as in the melting of ice, 
the evaporation of water or other fluids, 
&c. 

7. Diffusio7i of caloric denotes the 
modes by which its equilibrium is effect- 
ed ; viz., by conduction, radiation, and 
convection : — 

8. Conduction of caloric, or its passage 
through bodies : those which allow it 
a free passage through their substance, 
as metals, are temied good conductors; 
those of a different quality, bad con- 
ductors. 

9. Radiation of caloric, or its emission 
from the surface of all bodies equally in 
all directions, in the form of radii or 
rays ; these, on falling upon other bodies, 
are either reflected, absorbed, or trans- 
mitted. 

10. Convection, or the conveying of 
caloric ; as when a portion of air, passing 
through and near a fire, has become 
heated, and has conveyed up the chimney 
the temperature acquired from the fire. 



C AL 



CAM 



The convection of heat, philosophically 
considered, is in reality a modification of 
the conduction of heat ; while the latter 
may be viewed as an extreme case of 
radiation. Prout. 

1 1. The effects of caloric are Expansion, 
or augmentation of bulk ; Liquefaction, 
or change from the solid to the liquid 
form ; and Vaporization, or the passing 
of a liquid or solid into an aeriform state. 

CALORIMETER (calor, heat, fxcTpov, 
measure). An apparatus for measuring 
the heat given out by a body in cooling, 
by the quantity of ice it melts. 

CALORIMOTOR {color, heat, moveo, 
to move). An apparatus constructed by 
Dr. Hare of Philadelphia, for evolving 
caloric. 

CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA. An As- 
clepiadaceous plant introduced from 
India, under the name of mudar or 
madar, as an alterative and sudorific. 
It is said to contain a peculiar principle, 
called mudarine. 

CALUMET RADIX {Kalumbo, Por- 
tuguese). The root of the Cocculus pal- 
matus, one of our most useful stomachics 
and tonics. It contains a bitter principle, 
called calumbin. 

CALVARIA {calvus, bald). The up- 
per part of the cranium ; the skuU, quasi 
calva capitis area. 

Calvities. Baldness. This term is 
sjTionymous with calvitas and calvitium. 

CALX. (This term, when masculine, 
denotes the heel ; when feminine, a chalk 
stone, or lime.) Lime; oxide of calcium, 
commonly called caustic lime, or quick- 
lime. 

1 . Calx viva. Quicklime ; unslaked or 
uncombined lime ; obtained by heating 
masses of limestone to redness in a lime- 
kiln. 

2. Calx e testis. Lime from shells ; 
a pharmacopoeial preparation from oyster 
shells. 

3. Calx cum kali pure. Lime •with 
pure keili, or the potassa cum calce of 
the pharmacopoeia. 

4. Calcis hypochloris. Hypochlorite of 
lime, or Tennant's bleaching powder. It 
has been termed oxymuriate of lime, 
chloride of lime, &c. 

5. Calcis carbonas. Carbonate of lime, 
a substance occurring in the forms of 
marble, chalk, &c. 

6. Calcis subphosphas. . Subphosphate 
of lime ; the principal part of the earth 
of bone. 

C ALY'CES (pi. of calyx, a flower-cup). 
Small membranous cup-like pouches, 
59 



which invest the points of the papUlae 
of the kidney. Their union forms the 
infundibula. 

CALYCIFLOR^ {calyx, a flower-cup, 
flos, a flower). Plants which have their 
flowers furnished with both a calyx and 
a corolla, the latter consisting of distinct 
petals, and their stamens perigynous. 

CALYPTRA (kuXutttw, to veil). Lite- 
rally, a veil or hood. A term applied to 
a membranous covering, which envelopes 
the urn-like capsule of mosses, and is 
eventually ruptured and falls oif. 

CALYSAYA. A name of the pale or 
crown bark. See Cinchona. 

CALYX (Ka\uf, a cup). The flower- 
cup, or external envelope of the floral 
apparatus. Its separate pieces are called 
sepals : when these are distinct from each 
other, the calyx is termed poly-sepalous ; 
when they cohere, gamo-sepalous, or, in- 
correctly, mono-sepalous. A sepal may 
be hollowed out into a conical tube, as in 
larkspur, and is then said to be spurred. 
Compare Corolla. 

CAMBIUM. A viscid juice abounding 
in spring between the bark and wood of 
trees, and supposed to be closely con- 
nected yntYi the development of woody 
fibre. 

CAMBOGIA. Gamboge; a gum-resin, 
procured from the Hebradendron Cambo- 
gioides, a Guttiferous plant. It issues from 
the broken leaves or branches in drops, 
and has hence been termed gummi gutt<B. 

CAMERA. Literally, a chamber. A 
term applied to the chambers of the eye. 

CAMP VINEGAR. Steep in the best 
vinegar for a month one drachm of cay- 
enne pepper, two table-spoonsful of soy, 
and four of walnut-ketchup, six anchovies 
chopped, and a small clove of garlic 
minced fine. Shake it frequently, strain 
through a tammis, and keep it well 
corked in small bottles. 

CAMPANULACEjE {campanula, a 
little bell). The Campanula tribe of 
Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants or under shrubs, yielding a milky 
juice. Corolla gamopetalous, inserted 
into the top of the calyx, and withering 
on the fruit. Stamens inserted into the 
calyx, alternate with the lobes of the 
corolla. Ovary inferior, with two or 
more cells. Fruit dry, crowned by the 
withered calyx and corolla, and dehiscing 
by apertures or valves. 

Campanulate. Bell-shaped ; as applied, 
in botany, to the calyx or corolla, when 
shaped like a little bell. 

CAMPEACHY WOOD. The Hama- 
D6 



CAM 



CAN 



toxyli Lignum, or Log-wood ; used for 
dyeing, in the form of chips. 

CAMPHINE. A spirit for burning in 
lamps, said to consist of oil of turpentine 
with a species of naphtha. 

CAMPHORA OFFICINARUM. The 
Camphor-tree, a Lauraceous plant, the 
wood and leaves of which yield the offi- 
cinal camphor by means of dry distilla- 
tion. Camphor is a kind of stearopten 
remaining after the elaopten or ethereal 
oil of the live tree is evaporated. 

1. Dutch camphor. Japan camphor; 
brought from Batavia, and said to be the 
produce of Japan. It is imported in 
tubs, and is hence called tub camphor. 

2. Chi7ia camphor. Ordinary crude 
camphor, produced in the island of For- 
mosa. It is purified by sublimation, and 
then called refined camphor. 

3. Liquid camphor. This substance 
contains the same proportions of carbon 
and hydrogen as solid camphor, but only 
half as much oxygen. It is the elaopten 
of the oil of camphor of commerce. 

4. Artificial camphor. The name given 
to a white granular crystalline volatile 
product, having a smell resembling that 
of camphor, which is obtained by passing 
hydro-chloric acid gas through oil of tur- 
pentine. 

5. CamphorcE flores. The subtile sub- 
stance which first ascends in subliming 
camphor ; it is merely camphor. 

6. CamfhorcB flores compositi. Com- 
pound flowers of camphor ; or camphor 
sublimed with benzoin. 

7. Camphoric acid. A compound pro- 
cured by digesting camphor in nitric acid. 
Its salts are called camphorates. 

8. Campholic acid. An acid with the 
consistence of camphor, but contain- 
ing two parts more of hydrogen and 
oxygen. 

9. Camphogen. A colourless liquid 
obtained by distilling camphor with an- 
hydrous phosphoric acid. 

10. Camphrone. A light oil obtained 
by dropping fragments of camphor into 
a porcelain tube containing quicklime 
heated to redness. 

11. The terra Camphor has been ap- 
plied to all the volatile oils which are 
concrete at the ordinary temperature, 
provided they do not, at the same time, 
contain any notable quantity of fluid oil. 
Thus we have the Camphor of Tobacco, 
Camphor of Anemone, Camphor of Ele- 
campane, &c. 

CAMPYLOTROPOUS {KaixnvXoi, 
curved, Tptjrw, to turn). A term applied 
60 



to the ovule of plants, when its axis, in- 
stead of remaining rectilinear, is curved 
down upon itself, the base of the nucleus 
still continuing to be contiguous to the 
hilum. 

CAMWOOD. A red dye-wood, prin- 
cipally obtained from the vicinity of 
Sierra Leone. 

CANALICULI (dim. of canalis, a 
canal). The name given by Morgagni to 
some large lacunze, which secrete mucus 
in the canal of the urethra. 

CANALIS (canna, a reed). A canal; 
so named from its being hollowed out in 
the form of a reed. A hollow instrument 
used by surgeons as a splint. Celsus. 

1. Canalis arteriosus. A blood-vessel 
which unites the pulmonary artery and 
aorta in the foetus. 

2. Canalis venosus. A canal which 
conveys the blood from the vena portce of 
the liver to the ascending vena cava in 
the foetus. 

3. Canal of Fontana. A minute vas- 
cular canal situated within the cUiary 
ligament, and so named from its dis- 
coverer. It is also termed the ciliary 
canal. 

4. Canal of Petit. A triangular canal 
situated immediately around the circum- 
ference of the crystalline lens ; so named 
after its discoverer. When distended 
with air, or size injection, it presents a 
plaited appearance, and has hence been 
called by the French canal godronne. 

CANCELLI. The Latin term for lat- 
tices, or windows, made with cross-bars 
of wood, iron, &c. Hence it is applied to 
the spongy structure of bones ; and 
hence the term cancellated is applied to 
any thing which is cross-barred, or 
marked by lines crossing one another. 

CANCER. Literally, a crab ; and when 
used in this sense, its genitive case is 
cancri ; but when it signifies the disease 
designated by the Greeks carcinoma, its 
genitive case is canceris. The term is 
applied to the disease from the claw-like 
spreading of the veins. The textures of 
cancer, as given by Bayle, are the follow- 
ing :— 

1. The Chondro'id (xovbpof, cartilage, 
et3or, likeness), or cartilaginiform. 

2. The Hyaloid {vaKoi, glass, tibo^, 
likeness), or vitriform. 

3. The Larino'id (Xaptvoy, fat, etdor, 
likeness), or lardiform. 

4. TYieBunio'id {fiovviov, a turnip, cJior, 
likeness), or napiform. 

5. The Encephalo'id {kyaecpaXoi, the 
brain, d6oi, likeness), or cerebriform. 



CAN 

6. The Colloid (KoWa, glue, elSoi, 
likeness), or gelatiniform. 

7. The Compound cancerous; the 
Mixed cancerous ; and the Superficial 
cancerous. 

CANCER SCROTI. Cancer mundi- 
torum. Chimney-sweepers' cancer, or 
the soot-wart. 

CANCER (BANDAGE). A crab ; a 
term denoting a bandage resembling a 
crab in the number of its legs, and called 
the split-cloth of eight tails. 

CANCRORUM LAPILLI. Crabs' 
eyes, or crabs' stones ; the names of two 
calcareous concretions found in the sto- 
mach of the Astacus fluviatilis, or Cray- 
fish, at the time when the animal is about 
to change its shell; these were formerly 
ground and employed in medicine as ab- 
sorbents and antacids. 

Cancrorum chelce. Crabs' claws; the 
claws of the Cancer paguriis, the Black- 
clawed, or Large Edible Crab; these, 
when prepared by grinding, constitute 
the prepared crabs' claws of the shops, 
fonnerly used for the same purposes as 
the crabs' stones. 

CANCRUM ORIS {cancer, a crab). 
Canker ; a fetid ulcer, with jagged edges, 
of the gums and inside of the lips and 
cheeks, attended with a copious flow of 
oftensive saliva. It occurs principally 
in children. Compare Gangrcena oris and 
Aphtha. 

CANDLE TREE OIL. A solid oil, 
obtained from the seed of the Croton 
sebiferum, or Candle tree, a native of 
China. It is used by the Chinese for 
making candles. 

CANELLA ALBA. Laurel-leaved Ca- 
nella or Wild Cinnamon ; a Guttiferous 
plant, the inner bark of which constitutes 
the canella bark of the shops, sometimes 
termed on the continent costus dulcis, or 
costus corticosus. 

Canellin. A crystaUizable saccharine 
substance found in canella bark. 

CANINE APPETITE. Fames canina. 
Voracity ; insatiable desire for food. See 
Bulimia. 

CANINE TEETH {canis, a dog). Cus- 
pidati. Eye-teeth ; the four which im- 
mediately adjoin the incisors. See Dens. 
CANINUS (canis, a dog). A name 
given to the levator anguli oris, from its 
arising above the canini, or dog-teeth. 
Compare Incisivus. 

CANNABIS SATIVA(/tiwMo6, Arabic). 

Cannabis Indica (?). Common Hemp, an 

Urticaceous plant, the leaves of which 

furnish an intoxicating drug, under the 

61 



CAP 

names of barig or ganga in India, kinnab 
or hashish in Arabia, malach in Turkey, 
and dacha among the Hottentots. 

1. Cherris. A concreted resinous ex- 
udation from the leaves, slender stems, 
and flowers. 

2. Gunjah. The dried hemp-plant 
which has flowered, and from which the 
resin has not been removed. 

3. Bang, subjee, or sidhee. This con- 
sists of the larger leaves and capsules 
without the stalks. 

C ANN EL COAL. A bituminous sub- 
stance which yields, on combustion, a 
bright flame without smoke. The term 
is probably a vulgarism for candle coal, 
in allusion to its illuminating properties. 

CANNON METAL. An aUoy of cop- 
per, tin, and small quantities of other 
metals, used for casting cannon. 

CANTHARIS VESICATORIA (icav- 
Oapn, a beetle). The Blister Beetle or 
Spanish Fly, a coleopterous insect, found 
on species of Oleacece and Caprifoliacece, 
but rare in England. 

Caniharidin. A crj'stalline substance 
procured from the above insect, and ex- 
isting probably in all blistering beetles ; 
1000 parts of cantharides yield four parts 
of pure cantharidin. 

CANTHUS {KaveSi). The angle of 
the eye, where the eye-lids meet; the 
inner canthus is that nearest to the nose ; 
the other is called the outer or lesser 
canthus. 

CANTON'S PHOSPHORUS. A sub- 
stance made by exposing calcined oyster- 
shells and sulphur to a red heat. On 
exposure to light, it acquires the property 
of shining in the dark. 

CAN ULA (dim. of canna, a reed). A 
small tube, generally applied to that of 
the trochar, &c. 

CAOUTCHOUC. Elastic gum, or 
Indian rubber ; the concrete juice of the 
Hoevea Caoutchouc, latropa Elastica, 
Ficus Indica, and Artocarpus Integri- 
folia. 

Caoutchine. A volatile oil produced 
by distillation of caoutchouc at a high 
temperature. 

CAPELINA [capeline. Ft., a woman's 
hat). A double-headed roller put round 
the head, &c. 

CAPERS. The pickled buds of the 
Capparis spinosa, a low shrub, growing 
out of the joints of old waUs, and the 
fissures of rocks, in most of the warm 
parts of Europe. 

CAPHOPICRITE (/ca^eto, to exhale, 
irtKpos, bitter). The bitter principle of 



CAP 

rhubarb, also called rhabarberin. But 
what this principle consists in, appears 
to be wholly undetermined. Quot ho- 
mines, tot sententiae. 

CAPILLAIRE. A syrup made of sugar, 
honey, and orange-flower water. 

CAPILLARY {capiUus, a hair). Re- 
sembling a hair in size ; a term applied 
to— 

1. The Vessels which intervene be- 
tween the minute arteries and veins. 

2. A Fissure; capillatio; a very minute 
crack in the skull. 

3. Tubes, which are so small as to be 
less than the twentieth of an inch in 
diameter in the inside. 

4. The Attraction by which a liquid 
rises in a capillary tube higher than the 
surface of that which surrounds it. 

CAPILLVS (quasi capitis pilus). The 
hair in general. 

1. Coma (Konn)- Ahead of hair, either 
dressed or not; and, by analogy, the 
branches and leaves of trees. 

2. Crinis (uplvco, to put in order). The 
hair when set in order or platted. 

3. CcBsaries (ccedo, to cut). A man's 
head of hair; woman's hair being for- 
merly never cut. 

4. Cincinnos {kIkivvo<;). A bush of hair 
crisped, curled, or braided; a curled or 
frizzled lock. 

5. Cirrhus. Quasi in circum tortus. 
A curl or frizzle. From (cepar, a horn, 
because the cirrhus resembled a horn in 
its shape. 

6. Cilium [cileo, to twinkle). The eye- 
lashes. 

7. Super-cilium. The eye-brow; the 
hair situated over the cilium. 

8. Vibrissa (vibro, to quiver). The 
hairs in the nostrils ; so named from their 
straining the air, as it were, in its pas- 
sage, and preventing the introduction of 
foreign bodies into the nasal fossae. 

9. Mystax (/uuo-Taf, mustaches). The 
hair on the upper lip. 

10. Barba {ipop^ij, nourishment). The 
beard, both of man and of beasts. 

11. Pilus (TTiXor, carded wool). The 
hair of the head, beard, &c., of any 
creature. 

12. Villus [vellus, a fleece). Wool; 
shaggy hair of beasts. 

13. Seta (xaiTti, a horse's mane). A 
bristle, as of horses, pigs, &c. See Seton. 

14. Pappus (TraTTTrof). The down on 
the cheek,— on the seed-vessel of certain 
plants. 

CAPISTRUM {capio, to take). Lite- 
rally, a bridle. The single split-cloth 
62 



CAP 

bandage, so called from its being used to 
support the lower jaw like a bridle. 

CAPITILUVIUM {caput, the head, 
lava, to wash). A bath for the head. 

C A PI VI. A miscalled balsam, yielded 
by several species of Copaifera. 

CAPNOMOR (xaTTj/oy, smoke, ^o'lpa, 
part ; so called from its being one of the 
ingredients of smoke). A colourless trans- 
parent liquid,— the only ingredient in tar 
which can dissolve caoutchouc. It occurs 
along with creosote in the heavy oil of 
tar. 

CAPRIC and CAPROIC ACIDS. Vo- 
latile odoriferous compounds, yielded by 
butter on its conversion into soap. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^. The Honey- 
suckle tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Shrubs or herbaceous plants with leaves 
opposite ; flowers corjTnbose, monopeta- 
lous ; stamens alternating with the lobes 
of the corolla; ovarium inferior, many- 
celled ; fruit indehiscent. 

CAPSICUM ANNUUM. Common 
Capsicum, or Chilly ; a plant of the order 
Solanacece, the dried fruit of which is 
sold under the name of capsicum or 
chillies. 

1. Capsicum frutescens. The species 
which jields the capsules sold as Guinea 
pepper, or bird pepper. Their powder is 
cayenne pepper 

2. Capsicin. An acrid soft resin, ob- 
tained by digesting the alcoholic extract 
of the Capsicum annuum in ether, and 
evaporating the etherial solution. 

CAPSULA (dim. of capsa, a chest). 
Literally, a little chest. 1. A capsule, or 
bag, which incloses any part, as the cap- 
sule of Glisson, or the cellulo-vascular 
membrane which envelopes the hepatic 
vessels. 2. In Botany it is a dry, supe- 
rior fruit, dehiscent by valves, and always 
proceeding from a compound ovarium. 

1. Renal capsules. Two yellowish, 
triangular, and flattened bodies, lying 
over the kidneys in the foetus, in which 
they are as large as the kidneys them- 
selves. In the adult they are two lobes. 

2. Capsular ligament. A loose bag 
which contains the synovia of the joints. 
This must be distinguished from the 
synovial membrane which produces this 
fluid. The latter is allied, by structure 
and function, to the serous membranes ; 
the former, to the fibrous. 

CAPUT (quod inde, says Varro, in- 
itium capiant sensus et nervi). The 
head. It is distinguished into the skull, 
or cranium, and the face, or fades. 



CAR 



CAR 



1. Caput coli. The head of the colon, i 
the caecum, or blind intestine. 

2. Caput gallinaginis{'wooAc(xk.'sYie3A). I 
Veru Montanum. A lengthened fold ol 
mucous membrane, situated on the in- 
ferior wall or floor of the prostatic portion 
of the urethra. 

3. Caput mortuum (dead head). The 
inert residuum of a distillation, or sub- 
limation ; a term nearly obsolete. 

4. Caput obstipuni (a stiff head). A 
term for torticollis, or wry-neck. 

C\RAMEL. The name given to the 
black porous shining mass produced by 
heating sugar at a high temperature. 

CARB AZOTIC ACID (carbon and 
azote). Nitro-picric Acid. An acid 
formed by the action of nitric acid on 
indigo. 

CARBO LIGNI. Charcoal of wood ; 
a species of artificial coal, consisting of 
half-burnt wood. 

CARBON {carbo, a coal). A substance 
well known under the form of coal, char- 
coal, lamp-black, &c. In chemical lan- 
guaj^e, it denotes the pure inflammable 
principle of charcoal ; in its state of ab- 
solute purity, it constitutes the dia- 
mond. 

1 . Carbon vapour. The name of a hypo- 
thetical substance, for carbon has never 
been obtained in the insulated form of 
vapour. When the term is used in che- 
mical works, it denotes the condition of 
carbon as it exists in carbojiic acid. 

2. Carbon, animal. Animal charcoal, 
bone charcoal, and ivory-black, are names 
applied to bones calcined, or converted 
into charcoal, in a close vessel. Animal 
charcoal is also prepared by calcining dried 
blood, horns, hoofs, clippings of hides, 
&c., in contact with carbonate of potash, 
and washing the calcined mass afterwards 
with water. 

3. Carbon, mineral. A term applied 
to charcoal, with various proportions of 
earth and iron, without bitumen. It has 
a silky lustre, and the fibrous texture of 
wood. It occurs stratified with various 
kinds of coal. 

4. Carbonic oxide. A colourless gas, 
formed when carbon is burned with a 
minimum of oxygen, as when coke or 
charcoal is burned in a close vessel with 
a limited draught. 

5. Carbonic acid. A pungent and 
acidulous gas, produced by the combus- 
tion of carbonic oxide, or by that of char- 
coal in oxygen gas. This gas was termed 
by Black fixed air, from its having been 
found to exist, in a fixed state, in lime- 

63 



stone, and the mild alkalies, from which 
it was expelled by heat and the action of 
acids. 

6. Carbonates. Compounds of carbonic 
acid with the salifiable bases. They are 
composed either of one atom of acid and 
one of the base, or of two of acid and one 
of the base; the former are called car- 
bonates, the latter bi-carbonates. 

7. Carburets. Combinations of carbon 
with some metals by fusion ; thus, steel 
is a carburet of iron. The term has also 
been applied to a peculiar compound of 
sulphur and hydrogen, the carburet of 
sulphur, also termed sulphuret of carbon, 
and alcohol of sulphur. 

8. Carburetted Hydrogen. A colour- 
less inflammable gas, abundantly formed 
in nature in stagnant pools, wherever 
vegetables are undergoing the process of 
putrefaction; it also forms the greater 
part of the gas.obtained from coal. This 
gas was formerly called heavy inflammable 
air. See defiant Gas. 

9. Carbamide. A compound of ami- 
dogen and carbonic acid— an ingredient 
of chloro-carbonate of ammonia. See 
Amide. 

10. Carbydrogen. A name suggested 
for pyroxylic or wood spirit, which con- 
sists of one atom of hydrogen and one 
atom of carbon. The name consists of 
these two terms. 

11. Carboniethylic acid. An acid ob- 
tained by Dumas and Peligot, by acting 
upon pyroxylic spirit with carbonic acid. 

12. Carbolic acid. One of the parti- 
cular products which have been isolated 
in the distillation of coal. 

CARBUNCLE [carbo, a burning coal). 
Anthrax. A boil, differing from the 
furuncle in having no central core, and 
terminating in gangrene under the skin, 
instead of suppuration. 

CARCINOMA (kopkIvo?, a crab). The 
Greek term for cancer. See Cancer. 

CARDAMOM. The name of the fruit 
of several species of Elettaria and Amo- 
mum. 

Ceylon Cardamoms. The fruit of the 
Grain of Paradise plant of Ceylon. The 
term Grains of Paradise, as employed at 
present in Europe, applies to the hot 
acrid seeds called Malaguetta pepper, 
brought from Africa. Pereira. 

CARDIA {Kapbia, the heart). The en- 
trance into the stomach, so caUed from 
being near the heart. 

1. Cardi-algia {ixK-yoi, pain). Literally, 
heart-aiche ; but employed to denote pain 
in the stomach, and hence synonymous 



CAR 



CAR 



with gastralgia, gastrodynia, cardiaca 
passio, &c. 

2. Carditis. Inflammation of the car- 
dia or heart. 

3. Cardiacus. Belonging to the heart, 
or stomach. Hence, Cardiacus Morbus, 
a name given hy the ancients to Typhus 
Fever ; Cardiaca Confectio, the Aromatic 
Confection ; and Cardiacs, a term for 
cordial medicines. 

4. Cardiogmus. A term used by Galen 
and Sauvages to denote a species of aneu- 
rysm, called by some aneurysma prcecor- 
diorum, and by others polypus cordis.. 

CARDIAC {Kuphia, the heart). Re- 
lating to the heart. 

1. A-cardiac. Not having a heart, as 
certain defective foetuses, the insect 
tribes, &c. 

2. Haplo-cardiac {anXooi, single). 
Having a single heart ; this is pulmonic, 
as the fish tribes, or systemic, as the 
mollusca. 

3. Diplo-cardiac (3iff\dor, double). 
Having a double heart, pulmonic and 
systemic, as the mammalia, birds, &c. 

CARICA PAPAYA. The Papaw tree, 
the milky juice of which contains an 
abundance of fibrin, resembling animal 
matter. 

CARICA FRUCTUS. The preserved 
fruit of the Fig, or Ficus Carica. 

CARIES (Ke/po), to abrade). Ulceration 
of the bones. 

CARI'NA. Literally, a *ee/. A term 
applied to the two lower petals of a papi- 
lionaceous corolla, which cohere by their 
lower margins in the form of a keel. 

CARMINATIVES (carmen, a verse or 
charm). Remedies which dispel flatu- 
lency, and allay pain of the stomach and 
bowels — as by a charm. 

CARMINE. A lake made of cochineal 
and alumina, or oxide of tin. 

CARNIFICATION [euro, carnis, flesh, 
fio, to become). A term improperly used 
to designate common hepatization, but 
applied by Laennec to that state of the 
lungs, in pleurisy complicated with slight 
pneumonia, in which the lungs have 
lost the granulated surface characteristic 
of hepatization, and are converted into a 
substance resembling, both in appearance 
and consistence, muscular flesh, which 
has been beaten to make it tender. 

CARO, CARNIS. Flesh ; the fibrous 
substance composing muscle. 

1. Carnees columnce (fleshy columns). 
The muscular fasciculi within the cavities 
of the heart. 



2. Carnivora (voro, to devour). Ani- 
mals which subsist on flesh solely 

3. Carnosa. Fleshy animals, as the sea 
anemone: Order 1, class Polypi. 

' CAROTID (Kapow, to induce sleep). 
The name of two large arteries of the 
neck ; so called from an idea that tying 
them would induce coma. They sub- 
divide into the external carotid, or artery 
of the head ; and tlie internal carotid, or 
principal artery of the brain. 

CARPELLUM {/capTror, fruit). A tech- 
nical term applied, in Botany, to a leaf 
in a particular state of modification, con- 
stituting the pistil. The blade of the 
leaf forms the ovary ; the elongated mid- 
rib, the style ; and the apex of the midrib, 
the stigma. The edge of the carpel which 
corresponds to the midrib of the leaf,, 
constitutes the dorsal suture ; that of the 
united margins, the ventral. See Pistil. 

CARPHOLOGIA {Kapcpoi, the nap of 
clothes, At-yo), to pluck). Flocciiatio. 
A picking of the bed-clothes, supposed 
to be an indication of approaching dis- 
solution. 

CARPOLOGY (KapTTM, fruit, \6yoi, 
description). That branch of Botany 
whicli treats of fruits. 

CARPUS (Kap7r6?). The wrist. The 
ossa carpi, or carpal bones, are eight in 
number, and form two rows. 

CARRAGEEN. Irish Moss. The 
Chondrus crispus, a nutrient Algaceous 
plant, employed on the coast of Ireland 
in making size. 

Carrageenin. The name given by Dr. 
Pereira to the mucilaginous matter called 
by some writers vegetable jelly, by others 
pectin. 

CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS. A 
plant of the order Compositse, the flowers 
of which are imported, for the use of 
dyers, under the name of safflower, or 
bastard saffron. 

Carthamin, or Carthamic acid. A red 
colouring matter, obtained from saf- 
flower. 

CARTILAGE (quasi carnilago). Gris- 
tle. It is attached to bones, and must be 
distinguished from the ligaments of joints 
and tendons of muscles. 

CARUM CARUI. Caraway; a na- 
turalized Umbelliferous plant, cultivated 
for the sake of its fruit, commonly bxit 
erroneously called caraway seeds. I liny 
notices the plant by the name of Careum, 
from Caria, its native country. 

CARUNCULA (dim. of euro, flesh). 
A little piece of flesh. Hence — 

1. Caruncula lacrymalis {lacryma, a 



CAS 



CAT 



tear). The small red substance situated 
in the inner angle of the eye. 

2. Caruncula myrtiformis (myrtus, a 
ni>Ttle, forma, likeness). The granula- 
tions observed around the orifice of the 
vagina, from rupture of the hymen. 

CARUS {Kapa, the head). Profound 
sleep; lethargy. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^. The Chick- 
weed tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Herbaceous plants, with leaves opposite, 
and tumid nodes ; flowers polypetalous, 
symmetrical ; stamens definite ; ovarium 
one-celled, with a free central placenta ; 
frtiit a one-celled capsule, by obliteration 
of the dissepiments. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS. 
The Clove-tree ; a Myrtaceous plant, 
yielding the Clove of commerce. 

1. Caryophyilus {Kapvov, a nut, (jwWov, 
a leaf). The Clove, or unexpanded flower 
of the above plant. The corolla forms a 
ball between the four teeth of the calyx, 
and this, with the lengthened tube of the 
calyx, resembles a naU, or clou of the 
French ; hence the English term clove. 

2. Matrices caryophylli vel anthophylli. 
Mother cloves; the fruits of the clove, 
crowned superiorly by the teeth of the 
calyx, with the remains of the style in 
the centre. 

3. Caryophyllin. Clove sub-resin ; a 
crystalline substance extracted from 
cloves by alcohol. 

4. Caryophyllic acid. Eugenic acid; 
clove acid, or heavy oil of cloves, one of the 
two oils comiKDsing oil of cloves; the other 
is light oU, called clove hydro-carbon. 

CARYOPSIS (Kdptj, a head, c(x//«, 
likeness). A one-celled, one-seeded, 
superior, dry, indehiscent fruit, with the 
integuments of the seed coliering insepa- 
rably with the endocarp ; the characteris- 
tic fruit of the graminaceae. 

CASCARILLiE CORTEX. CascariUa 
bark ; the produce of the Cretan Casca- 
riUa, or wild Rosemary bush of Jamaica. 
By some it is referred to the Croton 
eleuteria. 

CASEUM (caseus, cheese). Casein. 
Albumen of milk ; the curd separated 
from miik by the addition of an acid or 
rennet, constituting the basis of cheese 
•in a state of purity. The liquid left after 
this separation is tenned serutn lactis, or 
whey. 

Caseous oxide. Another name for apo- 
sepedine, a substance procured by the 
putrefaction of animal matter. 

CASSAVA. A fecula, separated from 
the juice of the root of Janipha Manihot, 
65 



and exposed to heat ; a principal article 
of diet in Soutli America. The same 
substance, differently prepared and gra- 
nulated, constitutes tapioca. 

CASSERIAN GANGLION. A large 
semi-lunar ganglion, formed by the fifth 
nerve, and immediately dividing into the 
ophthalmic, superior and inferior max- 
illary nerves. It was named from Julius 
Casserius of Padua. 

CASSIA. A genus of Leguminous 
plants, several species of which yield tlie 
senna of commerce. Cassia pulp is a 
soft blackish substance, surrounding the 
seeds of the Cathartocarpus, formerly 
Cassia fistula, tlie Pudding-pipe tree or 
Purging Cassia. 

CASSIA LIGNEA. Cortex Cassia: 
The bark of the Cinnamomum Cassia. 
The best variety is China cinnamon. 

1. Cassia buds. The unexpanded flow- 
ers of the Cinnamon Cassia, resembling 
cloves. 

2. Cassia oil. The common oU of cin- 
namon, procured from cassia bark, and 
cassia buds. 

CASSIUS, PURPLE OF. A purple- 
coloured precipitate, obtained by mixing 
the proto-chloride of tin with a dilute 
solution of gold. 

CASSONADE. Muscovado. Raw 
sugar ; the crystallized and dried portion 
of sugar. 

CASTOR OIL. The oil extracted from 
the seeds of the Ricinus Communis. 

CASTOREUM (7a tt.o, , a big-belUed 
animal). Castor; a substance found in 
the two castor sacs, near the pubes of 
both the male and the female Beaver, or 
Castor Fiber. 

Castorine. Castoreum Camphor ; a 
crystalline, fatty substance, found in 
Castoreum. By boiling with nitric acid, 
it is converted into castoric acid. 

CASTRATION {castro, to emasculate). 
Emasculation. The operation of remov- 
ing the testes. 

CAT'S EYE. A mineral brought from 
Ceylon, so called from a peculiar play 
of light arising from white fibres inter- 
spersed. The French call this appear- 
ance chatoyant. 

CAT'S PURR. A characteristic sound 
of the chest, heard by means of the ste- 
thoscope. See Auscultation. 

CATA {Kara, KaO'). A Greek prepo- 
sition, signifying down, against, into, &c. 
In composition, it is intensive, and sig- 
nifies thoroughly. 

1. Cata-causis {Kaim, Kavato, to burn). 
General combustibility of the body. 



CAT 



CA U 



2. Cata-clysmus [kKvVu), to wash). The 
name given hy the ancients to the cold 
douche applied to the region of the 
stomach, or to the back opposite to the 
stomach. 

3. Cata-lepsis {Xa^i^dvoi, to seize). Li- 
terally, a seizure or attack. A spasmodic 
disease, in which the limhs remain in 
any position in which they are placed, 
however painful or fatiguing. 

4. Ca/a-/«/sis (Xt'o), to decompose). De- 
composition by contact. A body in which 
the catalytic force resides, resolves others 
into new compounds, merely by contact 
with them, or by an action of presence, as 
it has been termed, without gaining or 
losing anything itself. The body which 
determines changes in another is called 
the catalytic agent. 

5. Cata-me?iia (n'riv, a montli). Menses. 
The monthly uterine discharge. 

6. Cata-phora {<pepw, to bear). The 
coma somnolentum of many writers ; a 
variety of lethargy, attended with short 
remissions, or intervals of imperfect 
waking, sensation, and speech. See 
Lethargy. 

7. Cata-plasma {irXdaaa, to spread). 
A poultice ; an application which is 
spread over a part of the surface of the 
body. 

8. Cata-potiuni {ttotov, drink). A pill, 
or medicine, to be swallowed without 
chewing. Celsus. 

9. Cata-ract (apdccra), to confound). 
Glaucoma ; gutta opaca ; suffusio. Opa- 
city of the crystalline lens. 

10. Cato-rr^Ms(p6'a), toflow). Literally, 
a flowing down ; popularly, a cold. In- 
flammation of the mucous membrane of 
the nostrils and bronchia. It is syno- 
nymous with coryza, gravedo, &c. 

11. Cata-stagmus ((rrafo), to drop). A 
term applied by the later Greek phy- 
sicians to a defluxion from the fauces and 
thorax. 

12. Cath-artics {KaBaipai, to purge). 
Medicines which produce alvine evacu- 
ations. These are termed laxative, when 
mild ; purgative, when active ; and dras- 
tic, when very violent. 

13. Cath-artine (KaOaipa, to purge). 
The active principle of senna. 

14. Cath-eter {KaOltyixt, to thrust into). 
A tube which is introduced through the 
urethra into the bladder. 

15. Cath-olicon (oXor, universal). A 
panacea, or universal medicine. 

CATECHU {cate, a tree, chu, juice). 
The name of a variety of astringent ex- 
tracts, which are imported under the 
66 



several names of catechu, terra japonica, 
cutch, and gambir. 

1. Square catechu. This is used by 
tanners, under the name of terra japonica, 
from its being supposed to be of mineral 
origin ; it is procured from the leaves of 
the Uncaria gambir, and therefore is not 
catechu, but gambir. 

2. Pegu cutch, or catechu. The pro- 
duce of the Acacia catechu, brought from 
Pegu. 

3. Bengal catechu. A pale extract, ob- 
tained also from the Acacia catechu; 
from its laminated texture, it was com- 
pared by Jussieu to the bark of a 
tree. 

4. Colombo catechu. Round flat cakes 
procured by making an extract of the 
betel nut, the seed of the ^reca catechu. 

5. Catechin. A particular principle 
obtained from the portion of catechu 
which is insoluble in cold water. 

6. Catechuic acid. Catechine. An 
acid obtained by Buchner from catechu. 
This acid, when treated with caustic 
potash, &c., yields japonic acid; and, 
when dissolved in carbonate of potash, 
rubinic acid. 

CATHARTOCARPUS (Ka0ot'pw, to 
purge, Kapnoi, fruit). A genus of Legu- 
minous plants, of which the species^*^M/a 
yields the cassia pulp of the pharmaco- 
poeia. 

CATLING. A sharp-pointed, double- 
edged knife, chiefly used in amputations 
of the fore-arm and leg, for dividing the 
interosseous ligaments. 

CATOCHUS (Karexo), to detain). A 
species of catalepsy, in which the body is 
rigidly detained in an erect posture. 

CAUDA EQUINA. Hippuris, or 
horse's tail ; the final division of the 
spinal marrow, so called from the dispo- 
sition of the nerves which issue from 
it. 

CAUDEX. The trunk of a tree. In 
Botany, the stem, or ascending axis of 
growth, is termed caudex ascendens ; the 
root, or descending axis, caudex descen- 
dens. 

CAUL. The trivial appellation of the 
amnion when it comes away with the 
child in the birth. 

CAULIFLOW R EXCRESCENCE. 
A disease of the os uteri ; supposed by 
Gooch to be encephalosis. 

CAUSTIC (Kaio), (cayo-o), to bum). A 
substance which destroys parts by che- 
mically decomposing them. Such are the 
concentrated mineral acids, lunar caustic, 
&c. 



CEB 



CEL 



Cauiticum acerrimum. The old name 
for the hydrate of potash— the strongest 
common caustic. 

CAUSUS {Kaiu>, KaiKTQ}, to burn). A 
variety of malignant remittent, thus de- 
nominated by Hippocrates from its ex- 
treme heat, &c. It has been termed by 
later writers febris ardens, ardent or 
burning remittent. 

Causus endemial. A name given to 
the Yellow Fever of the West Indies. 

CAUTERY (Ka/o), Kavao}, to bum). 
The application of caustics. By the term 
actual cautery is meant the white-hot 
iron ; potential cautery is synonymous 
with caustic. 



Cauterisation objective. The employ- 
ment, by the French, of radiant heat 
from a red-hot iron or burning coal, as a 
cautery to check haemorrhages, and to 
promote the reduction of prolapsus of 
the rectum and uterus, and of hernia. 

CAVERNOUS {caverna, from cavus, 
hollow). The name of a ganglion in the 
head, and of two sinuses of the sphenoid 
bone. 

CAVITARIA {cavitas, a cavity). In- 
testinal worms which have cavities or 
stomachs. 

CAVITIES OF BONES. The follow- 
ing table presents tiie various kinds of 
cavities found on the surface of bones : — 



:l 



C Cotyloid, when they are hemispherical. 
J Glenoid, when broad and shallow. 

Articular, are called < Trochlea;, when grooved like pulleys. 

I Facet, when they are nearly plain. 

\.Alveoli, when they are conical. 

(FosscB, when the entrance is wider than 

< the bottom. 

\Sinuses, when it is narrower. 

(Impressions, when they are wide, irregu- 

■J lar, and shallow. 

\Fissures, when extended in length. 



Non- articular 
are called 



Of Reception, 
these are 



Of Insertion, 
these are 



Grooves for the passage of tendons. 



Of Impression, 
which are called 



Of Transmission, 
named 



Of Nutrition ; 
they transmit 
vessels for 



CAWK. The Sulphas Barytce, or vi- 
triolated heavy spar. 

CAYENNE PEPPER. The ground 
seeds of the Capsicum frutescens. 

CEBADILLA. The seeds of the Asa- 
grrea officinalis, a plant of the order Me- 
lanthacecE. The seeds are also called 
sabadilla and cevadilla; but more pro- 
perly cebadilla (from the Spanish cebada, 
barley), on account of the supposed re 
semblance of the inflorescence of the 
plant to that of Hordeum. — Pereira. 

1. Cevadic or sabadillic acid. A crys- 
talline, fatty acid, obtained by saponifi- 
cation of the oil of cebadilla. 

2. Sabadillina. A substance obtained 
from cebadilla seeds, said to be merely a 
compound of resinate of soda and resi- 
nate of veratria. 

67 



Grooves^ gutters, or channels, when they 

correspond to arteries or veins. 
'Notches, when superficial, and formed in 
the edges of bones. 

Foramina, or holes, when they pass 
through and through a thin bone. 

Canals, or aqueducts, when their passage 
is of great extent, or when formed by 
the superposition of several holes. 

Clefts, or scissures, if they are longitudi- 
nal and very narrow. 

The medulla of the long bones. 

The spongy tissue of the short bones, and 
of the extremities of the long bones. 

.The compact tissue. — Knox's Cloquet. 

CEDRIRET. A substance found 
among the products of the distillation of 
wood. 

CELESTINE {ccelum, the sky). Sul- 
phate of strontian, so named from its 
frequently presenting a blue colour. 

CELLULA (dim. of cella). A little cell 
or cavity, as those of the hyaloid mem- 
brane. 

1. Cellular. The designation of the 
structure of the mastoid process, of the 
lungs, &c. ; also, of one of the elementary 
tissues of plants. 

2. Cellular membrane, or tissue. The 
filmy meshes which connect the minute 
component parts of most of the struc- 
tures of the body. 

3. Cellulares. Cellular plants; those 
which have no flowers or spiral vessels ; 



CEP 



C E R 



they are also called Cryptogamous, and 
Acotyledonous plants. Compare Vascu- 
lares. 

CEMENT. A preparation made of 
various materials, which is applied in a 
soft state, and afterwards hardens and 
unites the surfaces to which it is applied. 

Roman Cement. A mortar made of 
lime, and puzzolano ground to fine 
powder. The latter suhstatice consists 
principally of pumice, found near Poz- 
zuoli. 

CEMENTATION. A process by which 
the properties of a body are changed, on 
being surrounded with the powder of 
other bodies, and exposed to a higli 
temperature, as the conversion of iron 
into steel, by cementation with charcoal. 
The substance so employed is called 
cement powder. 

CENTAURII CACUMINA. The 
flowering tops of the Erythrcea centau- 
rium, or Common Centaury. The name 
is derived from Chiron the Centaur, whose 
wound is said to have been cured by it. 

CENTRUM (Kei/Tco), to prick). The 
centre or middle point of any part. 

1. Centrum ovale ma jus. The appear- 
ance of a large centre of white substance, 
surrounded by a thin stratum of grey, 
presented when both hemispheres of the 
brain are cut down nearly to a level with 
the corpus callosum. 

2. Centrum ovale minus. The appear- 
ance of a centre of white substance, sur- 
rounded by a narrow border of grey, ob- 
served on removing the upper part of one 
hemisphere of the brain. 

3. Centrum tendinosum. The tendi- 
nous centre of the diaphragm. 

CEPHALE' {K€<pa\f;). The head. Its 
compounds are — 

1. Cephalalgia {a\yof,j)a.m). Cephalaea. 
Pain in the head ; headache. 

2. Cephalic Vein. The anterior vein 
of the arm ; formerly opened in disorders 
of the head. 

3. Cephalics. Remedies for disorders 
of the head. 

4. Cephalitis. Inflammation of the 
brain. 

5. Cephalodyne {hdvvt], pain). Head- 
ache ; pain in the head. 

6. Cephaloma. Medullary tumor; a 
morbid product, resembling brain, some- 
times called encephaloid or cerebriform 
tumor, medullary sarcoma, fungus hae- 
matodes, &c. 

7. Cephalogenesis (7ei/€(rK, creation). 
The doctrine of the formation of the 
brain. 



8. Cephalo-phnryngeus. A designation 
of the constrictor superior muscle, from 
its arising from the base of the skull. 

9. Cephalcemaloma {ul/jm, blood). San- 
guineous tumor of the head, forming 
spontaneously, and sometimes called abs- 
cesstis capitis sa?iguineus neonatorum. 

10. Cephaln-poda (ttoD?, 7ro569, a foot). 
The fifth class of the Cyclo-gangliata, or 
MoUusca, consisting of aquatic animals, 
with feet disposed around their head. 

CERA. Wax ; a resinous substance 
secreted from tlie ventral scales of the 
Apis meWfica, or Honey-bee ; also a pro- 
duct of vegetables, as of the Myrica 
cerifera, the Wax Myrtle, or Bayberry. 
Bees'-wax is distinguished into the ivhite, 
bleached, or virgin wax ; and the yellow 
or unbleached wax. 

1. Cerine. One of the constituents of 
wax, forming at least 70 per cent, of it. 
The other constituent is myricine. Re- 
cently it has been stated that wax is 
homogeneous, that it possesses the pro- 
perties of myricine, and that the dif- 
ference between these two substances is 
owing to the presence of eerie acid, 
formed by the oxidation of myricine. 

2. Ceric acid. An acid produced by 
the action of the fixed alkalies on wax. 

CERASIN. A substance contained in 
the gum exuded from the bark of the 
Prunus Cerasus, or Cherry-tree. 

CERASUS LAURO-CERASUS. Com- 
mon or Cherry-laurel; a Rosaceous plant, 
the leaves of which are employed for pre- 
paring the cherry-laurel tvater. 

CERATO-GLOSSUS {Kepa^, a horn, 
-yXwo-cra, the tongue). A muscle running 
from one of the cornua of the os hyoides 
to the tongue. See Hyo~glossus. 

CERATOTOME (Kepa^, a horn, to)u^, 
section). The name given by Wenzel 
to the knife with which he divided the 
cornea. 

CERA'TUM {cera, wax). A cerate, or 
composition of wax, &c., characterized 
by a consistence intermediate between 
that of plasters and that of ointments. 

CERCHNUS. Wheezing ; a dense and 
impeded sound, produced below the 
larynx; a symptom common to asthma 
and dyspnoea. 

CEREALIA (feasts dedicated toCeres). 
All sorts of corn, of which bread or any 
nutritious substance is made. 

CEREBELLUM (dim. of cerebrum). 
The little brain ; the postero-inferior part 
of the encephalon, situated behind the 
larger brain, or cerebrum. 

CEREBRUM {Kapn, tlie head). The 



CER 



CH A 



brain; the chief portion of the brain, 
occupying- tlie whole upper cavity of the 
skull. 

1. Cerebritis. Encephalitis; inflam- 
mation of the cerebrum. 

2. Cerebric acid. One of the peculiar 
acids found in the fatty matter of the 
brain. The other acid is termed the 
olcophosphoric. 

3. Cerebro-s pin ants. Another name for 
narcotics, from their affecting the func- 
tions of the cerebro-spinal system. 

CEREVISI A (quasi ceresia, fromCeres, 
corn). Malt liquor ; beer and ale ; a fer- 
mented decoction of malt and hops. 
Theophrastus termed it wine of barley. 

1. Cerevisice formentum. Yeast, or 
barm; a substance procured from wort 
during fermentation, partly as a scum, 
partly as a sediment. It consists of vesi- 
cles, capable of generating other vesicles, 
and regarded by Turpin as a new plant, 
which he called torula cerevisice. Thus, 
fermentation is an effect of vitality. 

2. Cerevisiaabietis. Spruce beer; made 
from essence of spruce, pimento, ginger, 
hops, yeast, molasses, and water. 

CER IN. A peculiar substance which 
precipitates, on evaporation, from alco- 
hol which has been digested on grated 
cork. Subercerin would have been a 
fitter nam.e. 

CERIUM. A white metal found in a 
Swedish mineral called cerite, and more 
recently in alUinite. 

CEROMA {utipov, wax). The name 
j,'iven by Dr. Craigie to adipose tumor of 
the brain, from its waxy appearance. By 
Andral it is termed fatty production ; by 
Hebreart, lardaceous degeneration. 

CERULIN {ceruleus, blue). The name 
given to indigo in the modified state 
v.hich it acquires during solution. 

CERUMEN (cera, wax). Cerea. Au- 
rium sordes. The waxy secretion of the 
ear, furnished by the cerumenous glands. 

CERUSSA. Ceruse, or carbonate of 
lead ; the white-lead of painters, used by 
them to give the property called body. 

Cerussa Acetata. Sugar of lead, or 
Saccharum Saturni ; the super-acetate of 
lead. 

CERYI'CAL {cervix, the neck). A 
pillow or bolster. Celsus. 

CERVIX. The neck ; the hinder part 
of the neck ; the forepart is called collum. 
The term cervix is also applied to the 
neck of the bladder and of the uterus. 

CERVUS ELAPHUS. The stag, or 
hart, from the horns and hoofs of which 
the hartshorn shavings are procured. 

m 



CETACEA {cete, a whale). Whale- 
like animals, as the dolpliin, dugong, 
&c. 

1. Cetaceum. Spermaceti; a peculiar 
modification of fatty matter, obtained 
from the Physeter macrocephalus, or Sper- 
maceti Whale. 

2. Cetic acid. An acid procured from 
spermaceti, consisting of margarine and 
fatty matter. 

3. Celine. A white laminated sub- 
stance, constituting pure spermaceti. 
The commercial spermaceti, or cetaceum, 
usually contains a little sperm oil. 

4. Cetyl. The supposed radical of a 
new series of compounds derived from 
spermaceti. Cetene is one of these, and 
is procured by distilling ethal with glacial 
phosphoric acid. See Ethal. 

CETRARIA ISLANDICA. Lichen 
Islandicus. Iceland Liverwort, or Moss ; 
a lichen employed as an aliment. 

CEVADIC ACID. An acid produced 
by the saponification of the oil of the 
Veratrum sabadilla. It is also called 
sabadillic acid. 

CEYLON MOSS. The Fucus amyla- 
ceus, a Cryptogamic plant, of the order 
Algce, lately introduced as a substitute 
for farinaceous foods. 

CHABERT'S OIL. An oil prepared 
by mixing three parts of oil of turpentine 
with one part of Dippel's oil, and dis- 
tilling three parts. 

CHALASIS {xo-\a^a, a small swelling). 
The name given by Sauvages to the por- 
cine species of scrofula ; the equine spe- 
cies he denominated scrofula /a/ciwew. 

CHAL AZA {x<^\a^a, a small swelling). 
A small brown spot observed at the apex 
of some seeds, as of tlie Orange, formed 
by the union of certain vessels proceeding 
from the hilum. 

CHALAZIUM {xa'Ka^a, a hailstone). 
A little tubercle on the eyelid, supposed 
to resemble a hailstone. 

CHALCANTHUM (xaX«or, brass, 
avQoi, a flower). The flowers of brass, 
or the Sulphas Zinci. Pliny's term for 
copperas. 

CHALK. Creta. Carbonate of lime ; 
a common species of calcareous earth. 

1. Black chalk. Drawing slate; a 
bluish-black clay, containing about 12 
per cent, of carbon. 

2. Red chalk. Red clay, or reddle; a 
species of argillaceous iron-stone ore. 

3. Spanish chalk. A designation of 
steatite or soap rock, a sub-species of 
rhomboidal mica. 

CHALK-STONES. Gouty concretions, 



CHE 



CHI 



found in the joints, consisting of urate of 
soda and phosphate of lime. 

CHALYBEATE WATERS. Ferru- 
ginous waters. Mineral waters, whose 
predominating or active principle is iron. 
There are two kinds; the carbonated, con- 
taining carbonate of the protoxide of iron ; 
and the sulphated, containing sulphate of 
iron. Some of the latter contain sul- 
phate of alumina, and are called alumi- 
nous sulphated chalybeates. 

CHALYBS {Chalybes, a people who 
dug iron out of the earth). A kind of 
hard iron, or steel. Hence the term 
chalybeate is applied to waters which are 
impregnated with iron or steel. 

Chalybis rubigo. Rust of iron; the 
prepared subcarhonate of iron. 

CHAMELEON MINERAL. A com- 
bination of black oxide of manganese 
and potash, which gives a green colour 
to water, passes gradually through all 
the shades of the prism, and at last be- 
comes colourless. 

CHAMOMILE FLOWERS. The floral 
heads of the Anthemis nobilis, an indi- 
genous Composite plant. The sifigle 
flowers have the largest yellow discs, in 
which the volatile oil resides ; the double 
flowers, in which the yellow tubular florets 
of the disc are more or less converted 
into white ligulate florets, contain less of 
this oil ; the former are, therefore, to be 
preferred. 

CHANCRE (Fr. Kapnivo^, cancer). A 
sore which arises from the direct appli- 
cation of the syphilitic poison. 

CHANDOO. An extract of opium, 
prepared by the Chinese for smoking. 

CHARA HISPIDA. A submersed 
leafless aquatic t)lant, interesting to the 
physiologist as displajing the special cir- 
culation in plants, and as being analogous 
in botany to the frog in zoology. 

CHARCOAL. Carbo Ligni. The re- 
sidue of animal, vegetable, and many 
mineral substances, when heated to red- 
ness in close vessels. There are several 
varieties of charcoal, termed gas-carbon, 
lamp-black, wood-charcoal, coke, and 
ivory-black. 

CHARPIE {carpo, to scrape). The 
French term for scraped linen, or lint. 

CHARTREUX, POUDRE DE. The 
Kermes mineral ; a term invented by 
some Carthusian friars. 

CHAY, or CHAYA ROOT. The root 
of the Oldenlandia umbellata, used for 
giving the beautiful red of the Madras 
cottons. 

CHEESE. Caseus. The curd of milk 
70 



separated from the whey, pressed or 
hardened, and coloured with annotto, 
one ounce of which wiU colour a hundred 
weight of cheese. 

1. Gouda cheese is made in Holland; 
muriatic acid is used in curdling the 
milk instead of rennet; this renders it 
pungent, and preserves it from mites. 

2. Parmesan cheese, so called from 
Parma in Italy, is merely a skim-milk 
cheese, owing its flavour to the fine 
herbage of the meadows along the Po, 
where the cows feed. 

3. Gruyere cheese, so named from a 
place in Fribourg, is made of skimmed, 
or partially skimmed milk, and flavoured 
with herbs. 

CHELIDONIUM MAJUS. The Greater 
Celandine; a native Papaveraceous herb, 
the yellow juice of which has been em- 
ployed as an escharotic to destroy warts. 

CHELOIDE (xeAwr, a tortoise, iibo^, 
likeness). Cancruide. A designation of 
a disease of the skin, described under this 
name by Alibert, from its presenting a 
flattish raised patch of integument, re- 
sembling a tortoise's shell. 

CHELONIA ixeXtivr,, a tortoise). The 
Tortoise tribe : the first order of the class 
Reptilia. 

CHEMISTRY. A term, of Arabic 
origin, signifying the knowledge of the 
composition of bodies, and of the changes 
of constitution produced by their mutual 
action on each other. 

CHEMO'SIS (xaiW, to gape). An 
affection in which the conjunctiva is 
elevated above the transparent cornea. 

CHENOPODIUM OLIDUM. A plant 
of the Goosefoot tribe, remarkable for 
exhaling uncombined ammonia. 

CHEST. Thorax. An old EngUsh 
term, commonly traced to the Latin cista 
and Greek Kiarn, which are of the same 
import. " When it is considered that 
the same word was anciently used for a 
basket, the appropriation of it to the 
human thorax will appear quite natural 
to any one who has ever seen a skeleton." 
Forbes. 

CHEV ASTER, or CHEVESTRE {ca- 
pistrum, a halter). A double roller, ap- 
plied to the head in cases of fracture, or 
luxation of the lower jaw. 

CHEWING BALLS. Masticatories 
used in farriery, composed of the wood 
of the bay and juniper trees, assafcetida, 
liver of antimony, and pellitory of Spain. 

CHI ASMA. The point of decussation 
of the optic nerves. 

CHIASTRE. A bandage for stopping 



CHI 



CHL 



haemorrhage from the temporal artery, 
and named from its being shaped like a 
cross, or the Greek letter X, chi. 

CHICKEN POX. The popular name 
of a species of Varicella. 

CHIGRE, or CHIQUE. Chirones. A 
small sand-flea of the West Indies, which 
insinuates itself into the soft and tender 
parts of the lingers and toes. 

CHILBLAIN. Pernio. An inflam- 
mation of the extreme parts of the body, 
from exposure to cold. 

CHILD-BED FEVER. Puerperal fe- 
ver, originating in the peritonaeum, and 
often called peritoneeal fever. 

CHILLIES. Long taper pods of the 
Capsicum annuum. Cayenne pepper 
consists of the dried and ground seeds of 
Capsicum frutescens. 

CHIMAPHILA UMBELLATA. A 
plant known by the names of Winter 
Green and Pipsisewa, and reputed as a 
specific against scrofula. 

CHIMNEY-SWEEPERS' CANCER. 
A popular name of the Cancer Scroti, or 
Munditorum, or soot-wart. 

CHINA-CLAY. Kaolin. A variety 
of clay prepared from decaying granite. 

CHINA GLAZE. A preparation for 
printing blue frit, made from ten parts 
of glass, two parts of lead, and three or 
more of blue calx. 

CHINA NOVA. The name given in 
Germany to the red bark, known in France 
as Quinquina nova; it is the produce of 
the Cinchona oblongifolia. It is very 
different from the red bark of English 
commerce, though they have been con- 
founded together by the London College. 
Pharm. Journ. 

Chindva bitter. A snow-white sub- 
stance, of acid properties, obtained by 
operating on china nova. 

CHINA ROOT. Badix Chinee Orien- 
talis. The produce of the Smilax China, 
said to be brought from the province of 
Onansi in China. 

American China Root. Radix Chinae 
Americanae. Said to be the produce of 
Smilax pseudo-China, brought from Mex- 
ico. 

CHINCOUGH. Probably a corruption 
of chinecough. See Pertussis. 

CHIRAGRA (xeip, the hand, aypa, 
seizure). Gout of the hand. 

CHIRAYTA. An intensely bitter sub- 
stance, procured from the Agathotes 
Chirayta, a plant of the order Gentiana- 
ceee, and closely allied to Gentian. The 
substance sold as sulphate of chirayitine 
is sulphate of quina. 
71 



CHIRURGIA (xeJp, the hand, ep70K, 
work). Operation by means of the hand, 
commonly called chirurgery, or surgery. 

CHITINE. A principle discovered by 
M. Odier, in insects, by plunging beetles, 
&c., in a hot solution of potass, which 
dissolves all but the chitine. It is also 
called entomoline. 

CHLOASMA (x^on, grass). Chloasma 
pseudo-porrigo. A designation of the 
Pityriasis versicolor, or chequered dan- 
driflT. It has been called macula hepa- 
ticae, or liver-spots, from an opinion that 
it originated in disease of the liver. 

CHLORINE [x\o?o^, green). A green- 
ish gas, obtained by the action of mu- 
riatic acid on peroxide of manganese. It 
was first described under the name of 
dephlogisticated marine acid, and was 
afterwards called oxy-muriatic acid. Its 
compounds, which are not acid, are called 
chlorides (or chlorurets), and are charac- 
terized by the same prefixes as the oxides. 

1. Aqua chlorinii. Chlorine water; a 
solution of chlorine gas in water; also 
called aqua oxymuriata, or liquid oxy- 
muriatic acid. 

2. Chlorates. The salts of chloric acid, 
formerly called hyper oxymuriates. The 
principal are those of potash and baryta. 

3. Chloracetic acid. A remarkable 
acid, in which the three atoms of the 
hydrogen of acetic acid are replaced by 
three atoms of chlorine. 

4. Chloral. This term, derived from 
the first syllable of the words cA/orine 
and alcohol, has been applied by Liebig 
to a new compound of chlorine, carbon, 
and oxygen, prepared by the mutual 
action of alcohol and chlorine. 

5. Chloriodic acid. The name given, 
from its acid properties, to a compound 
of chlorine and iodine. Gay-Lussac calls 
it chloride of iodine. 

6. Chlorimetry, The process of esti- 
mating the bleaching power of chloride 
of lime, by the quantity of a solution of 
sulphate of indigo which a known weight 
of chloride can discolour or render yellow. 

7. Chloro'id. A term applied, on the 
electrical hypothesis, to the negative pole, 
from its exhibiting the attraction which 
is characteristic of chlorine. The positive 
pole is termed the Zinco'id. 

8. Chlorydric acid. The name given by 
Thenard to muriatic, now called hydro- 
chloric acid. 

9. Chloric ether. Under this name two 
compounds have been confounded. One 
of these results from the action of chlo- 
rine on oleflant gas, and is generally 



CH 



CHR 



known as the oil of the Dnlch chemists. 
The other is obtained by passing hydro- 
chloric acid gas into alcohol to saturation, 
and distilling the product ; this is gene- 
rally called hydrochloric ether. 

10. Chloretherise. A substance ob- 
tained by Laurent by passing chlorine 
through Dutch liquor, in Liebig's appa- 
ratus. 

CHLOROPHANE (xXwpo?, green, 
0a«Va), to shine). A variety offluor spar, 
which gives out an emerald green light, 
by the mere heat of the hand. 

CHLOROPHYLLE (xXojpov, green, 
<pv\\ov, a leaf). The green colouring 
matter of leaves. See Chromu'e. 

CHLORO'SIS {x^wp6i, green, pale). 
Green-sickness; an affection in which 
the blood becomes impaired, the coun- 
tenance pallid, and, as a further conse- 
quence, the catamenia suppressed. 

CHOKE DAMP. Carbonic acid; the 
irrespirable air of coal-pits, wells, &c. 
Compare Fire-Damp. 

CHOLE' (xoX^). Bile. The peculiar 
secretion of the liver. 

1. Cholagogues (ajo), to mo\e). A term 
formerly applied to purgatives which 
cause the discharge of bile into the ali- 
mentary canal. They have been called 
cholotics or bilitics. 

2. Choledochvs ductus [hexofxai, to re- 
ceive). The common bile duct. 

3. Cholic acid. A peculiar animal acid, 
prepared directly from bile. 

4. Cholo-Uthic {\iOoi, a stone). Gall- 
stone ; a bilious concretion found in the 
gall-bladder, or bile ducts. 

CHOLERA. An affection attended by 
vomiting, purging, &c. ; in the European 
form, accompanied with bile ; in the In- 
dian, without bile or urine. The term is 
usually derived from x"^hy ^^^^> ^"^ ptw, 
to flow; or it may be from xoXe'pa, a 
water-trough, precisely, according to Dr. 
Forbes, " as we have seen the word dia- 
betes transferred, by metonymy, from an 
instrument to the disease. Others derive 
the term from xoXci?, an intestine, and 
pea, to flow, quasi boivel-flux, in place of 
bile-flux." 

CHOLESTERINE (xo\;7,bile, o-repeor, 
solid). A crystallizable substance which 
may be dissolved out of inspissated bile, 
by ether ; it is also a constituent of the 
brain and nerves. 

Cholesteric acid. A substance produced 
by heating nitric acid with cholesterine. 

CHONDROS {xov^poi)- Cartilage ; 
an opaque elastic substance, capable of 
being reduced to gelatine by boiling. 
72 



1. CAondro/o^f^/ (X6709, discourse). A 
description of cartilages. 

2. Chondro-pteryijii (wrepuf, a fin). 
Cartilaginous fishes, as the ray, the second 
sub-class of the order Pisces. 

3. Chondroma. The name given by 
Hooper and Craigie to schirrous or fibro- 
cartilaginous tumor of the brain. 

4. Chondrin. 1. A modification of ani- 
mal gelatine, first found by MiiUer in a 
bony tumor, and afterwards obtained from 
permanent cartilages, &c. 2. The sub- 
stance of the cartilages of the ribs. 

5. Chondro-glossus. A muscle running 
from the cartilaginous joining of the 
body and horn of the os hyoides to the 
tongue. See Hyo-glossus. 

6. Syn-chondrosin. An articulation in 
which cartilage is employed to keep the 
bones together. 

CHONDRUS CRISPUS. Carrageen 
or Irish Moss, sometimes sold as pearl 
m.oss ; an Algaceous plant. 

CHORDA, pL Chordce (xop3^). A 
cord ; a tendon ; a filament of nerve, &c. 

1. Chorda Tympani. A filament of the 
vidian nerve, which enters the tympa- 
num. 

2. Chordce Tendinete. The tendinous 
strings which connect the earner coiitm- 
ncB of the heart to the auricular valves. 

3. Chorda Ventriculi. A designation 
of the gastric plexus of the par vagum. 

4. Chordce Vocales. The vocal chords, 
or the thyro-arytaeno'id ligaments. 

5. ChordcE Willisii. The small fibres 
crossing the sinuses of the dura mater. 

CHORDAPSUS (xopdi], a gut, Stttw, 
to twist). A kind of violent spasmodic 
colic, in which the large intestines seem, 
as it were, twisted into knots. Celsus. 

CHORDEE (French, from xop^h> a 
chord). A painful erection of the penis, 
attending gonorrhoea, sometimes with in- 
curvation. 

CHOREA SANCTI VITI (xopeia, a 
dancing, from xopo?, adance). Scelotyrbe; 
St. Vitiis' Dance. Convulsive motions of 
the limbs, as of a person dancing. 

CHORION (x<opt'ov, a domicile). The 
external membrane of the foetus. 

Choroid {el6oi, likeness). Resembling 
the chorion ; a term applied to the plexus 
and tveb of the pia-mater, to the inner 
tunic of the eye, &c. 

CHORIUM {xopiov, skin, leather). 
The dermis, or innermost layer of the 
skin. 

CHREME. A preparation of real 
cream, or an imitation of it, with fruits 
and flavoured substances. 



CH Y 



CIN 



CHROMIUM (xpwMa. colour). A me- 
tal, so called from its remarkable ten- 
dency to form coloured compounds. The 
emerald and the ruby owe their colours 
to the presence of this element. 

I. Chrome iron. The ore from which 
the compounds of chromium, used in the 
arts, are derived. 

2. Chrome alum. A crystallizable 
double salt formed of the sulphates of 
chromium and of potash. 

3. Chrome yellow. This well-known 
pigment is the chromate of lead. 

CHROMULE (xpS/Lia, colour). The 
name of the colouring matter of plants. 
It has been incorrectly termed chloro- 
phylle. 

CHRONIC (xpo^o^y time). Long-con- 
tinued, as applied to diseases of long- 
standing, and opposed to acute. 

CHRYSOS (xpu<r6y). Gold. Hence, 

1. Chryso-balanus (/3aXai/or, an acorn). 
The Nutmeg, or the Myristicae Nuclei. 

2. Chryso-beryl. A gem of a pale 
yellow or green colour, consisting of 
glucina and alumina. 

3. Chryso-colla {koWu, glue). Golden 
glue. The Greek name for borax. But 
it does not appear that borax was known 
to the ancients, their chrysocolla being 
a very different substance, composed of 
the rust of copper, triturated with urine. 
Ure. 

4. Chryso-lite {\i0os, a stone). For- 
merly, a general name for precious 
stones ; now restricted to a stone termed 
by the French peridot. 

5. Chryso-melia (fii^Xov, an apple). The 
Seville Orange, or the Aurantii Bacca. 

G. Chryso-prasus {irpdaov, a leek). A 
green stone with a golden lustre. 

CHURRUS. A resinous extract of 
Indian Hemp, prepared in Central India. 
A finer variety is sold in Nipal, and 
termed momeea, or waxen churrus. 

CHYAZIC. A term derived from the 
initials of carbon, hydrogen, and azote, 
and applied to an acid 

CHYLE (xfXor, juice). The milk-like 
fluid absorbed by the lacteal vessels. 

1. Chyli-fication {fio, to become). The 
.process by which the chyle is separated 

from the chyme. 

2. Chylo-poietic {iroieai, to make). A 
term applied to the viscera and vessels 
which are connected with the formation 
of chyle. 

CHYME (xi'Moy, juice). The semi-fluid 
matter which passes from the stomach 
into the duodenum. 
73 



Chymi-fication [fio, to become), Thd 
process by which the aliment is con- 
verted into chyme. 

CICATRIX (a scar). The mark left 
after the healing of a wound or ulcer. 

Cicatrization. The process by which 
wounds and sores heal. 

CICHORIUM INTYBUS. Wild Suc- 
cory, Chicory, or Wild Endive; an in- 
digenous Composite plant, the root of 
which is used in France as a substitute 
for coffee. 

CICUTA VIROSA. Water Cowbane ; 
a poisonous plant of the order Umbel- 
liferce, supposed by Haller to be the 
conium of the Greeks. 

CILIUM (cileo, to twinkle). The eye- 
lash, or eye-lid. Cilia are also micro- 
scopic hairs, of a vibratile nature, abun- 
dant in the lowest forms of animals. 

1. Ciliary. The name of arteries, pro- 
cesses, follicles (Meibomian glands), &c., 
belonging to the eye-lids. 

2. Ciliaris musculus. The name by 
which Riolan distinguished those fibres 
of the orbicularis palpebrarum, which 
are next to the tarsus or cartilaginous 
circle of the eyelids. 

3. Ciliary circle or ligament. Orbiculus 
ciliaris. A kind of grayish ring, situated 
between the choroid membrane, the iris, 
and the sclerotica. 

4. Ciliary processes. Small vasculo- 
membranous bodies surrounding the 
crystalline lens in a radiating form. 

5. Ciliary body. The name of the ring 
which results from the union of the 
ciliary processes. 

CIMICIC ACID {cimex, a bug). An 
acid procm-ed from the bug by Thenard. 

CIMOLITE. Cimolian earth. A sub- 
stance lately brought from Argentiera, 
the ancient Cimolus, consisting appa- 
rently of silex, alumina, oxide of iron, 
and water. 

CINCHONA. A genus of plants, 
several species of which yield Peruvian 
Bark. Ihe terms Cinchona Bark and 
Countess's Powder are derived from the 
circumstance that the Countess of Chin- 
chon, wife of the Viceroy of Peru, brought 
some back to Europe from South America, 
in 163!). Soon afterwards, the Jesuits, 
and particularly Cardinal de Lugo, car- 
ried it to Rome, and hence it was called 
Jesuits' bark, Jesuits' powder, Pulvis 
Cardinalis de Lugo, Pulvis Patrum, &c. 
It was subsequently employed in France 
by Sir Robert Talbor, and was hence 
called Tailor's powder, or the English 
remedy. 



CIN 



CIR 



1. Pale Barks. These are the crown 
or Loxa bark, the produce of Cinchona 
coadaminea ; the silver, gray, or Huamico 
bark, the produce of the Cinchona mi- 
cranthra; the ash and the white Loxa 
barks of species unknown. 

2. Yellow Barks. These are the yellow 
bark, the produce of Cinchona lanceolata 
chiefly, also C. hirsuta, and nitida; the 
Calisaya, the produce of Cinchona lance- 
olata?; the Carthagena, of Cinchona cor- 
difolia ? ; and the Cusco, of a species un- 
known. 

3. Red Barks. These are the red 
Cinchona bark of Lima, of a species un- 
known ; and the Cinchona nova, the pro- 
duce of Cinchona magnifolia. 

4. Brown Bark. This is the Huamalies 
bark, the produce of Cinchona purpurea. 
Lindley. 

5. Barks falsely called Cinchonas. 
Barks which are not obtained from any 
species of Cinchona, and not known to 
contain quina, cinchonia, or aricina. The 
principal of these are the St. Lucia bark 
the Caribaean or Jamaica bark, the Peru 
vian (false) Cinchona, the Brazilian Cin- 
chona, the Pitaya Cinchona, and the Rio 
Janeiro bark. 

6. Cinchonic, kinic, or quinic acid. An 
acid found in the Cinchona barks, and 
also in the alburnum of Abies communis. 
When heated in close vessels, it is de- 
composed, and pyrokinic acid is formed. 

7. Kinovic acid. A brilliant white 
light substance, discovered in Cinchona 
nova. 

8. Red Cinchonic. An insoluble red 
colouring matter found in Cinchona 
barks, supposed by Berzelius to be a pro- 
duct of tannin altered by the air. 

9. Cinchona alkalies. These are cin- 
chonia, quina, and aricina. They may 
be regarded as oxides of a common base 
which has been termed quinogen. Ac- 
cording to this view, cinchonia is a mon- 
oxide, quina a binoxide, and aricina a 
teroxide. Pereira. 

CINCHONACE.E. The Cinchona 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants. Trees or 
shrubs with leaves opposite ; flowers in 
panicles ; stamens arising from the co- 
rolla ; fruit inferior, either splitting into 
two cocci or indehiscent. 

CINCINNUS. The hair on the tem- 
ples. Compare Capillus. 

CINERES CLAVELLATI {clavus, a 
wedge). Russici. Pearl-ash, or the Pot- 
assa impura. The name is derived from 
the little wedges or billets into which the 
wood was cut to make potash. 
74 



CINERITIOUS {cineres, ashes). Ash- 
coloured ; a term applied to the exterior 
or cortical part of the brain. 

Cineritious tubercle. The floor of the 
third ventricle of the brain. 

CINNABAR. A sulphuret of mercury. 
It is native and factitious ; the former is 
called 'ore of mercury ;' the latter is the 
red bisulphuret. 

CINNAMIC ACID. An acid procured 
from the oil of cinnamon. Its hypotheti- 
cal base is called cinnamule. 

CINNAMOMUM [kinnan, Hebr.). 
A genus of plants of the oidei Laurace<e. 

1. Cinnamomum Zeylanicufn. The Cin- 
namon plant, which yields the true Ceylon 
cinnamon; the Laurus cassia of the 
gardens. 

2. Cinnamomum Cassia. The Cinnamon 
Cassia, which yields the cassia lignea, or 
cassia bark, and the cassia buds of com- 
merce. 

CINNAMON SUET. A production of 
the Cinnamon tree, used in Ceylon for 
making candles. According to Dr. Chris- 
tison, it contains 8 per cent, of a fluid 
oil, not unlike olive oil ; the remainder 
is a waxy principle, which answers very 
nearly to the cerin of John. 

CIPOLIN. A green marble, with white 
zones, brought from Rome ; it gives fire 
with steel, though wjth difficulty. 

CIRCULATION {circulus, a circle). 
The flow of the blood through the heart, 
the arteries, and veins. It is — 

1. Perfectly double in the adult; viz., 
that which takes place in the lungs, and 
called pulmonic ; and that which takes 
place through the entire system, and is 
called systemic. 

2. Partially double in the foetus, the 
auricles communicating by the foramen 
ovale— the arteries, by the ductus arteri- 
osus, — except we consider the placental 
circulation as analogous with the pulmo- 
nic ; in fact, the blood of the foetus is 
circulated through the placenta, as that 
of the adult is through the lungs, and 
for the same purpose. 

CIRCULUS WILLISII. Circle of 
Willis. This consists of the communica- 
tions established between the anterior 
cerebral arteries in front, and the inter- 
nal carotids and posterior cerebral arteries 
behind, by the communicating arteries. 

1. Circulus articuli vasculosus. A term 
applied by W. Hunter to tlie appearance 
presented by the margin of the articular 
cartilages, where the blood-vessels termi- 
nate abruptly. 



CIT 



CLE 



2. Circulus tonsillaris. A plexus formed 
by the lingual and glosso-pharyngeal 
nerves, around the tonsil. 

CIRCUMAGENTES {circumago, to 
move round). A name applied to the 
obliqui muscles, from their supposed 
action of rolling the eye. 

CIRCUMCISION {circumcido, to cut 
about). The removal of a circular por- 
tion of the prepuce. See Phimosis. 

CIRCUMFLEXUS {circum, about, 
fleclo, to bend). A term applied to a 
muscle which stretches the palate hori- 
zontally, and is hence termed tensor 
palati mollis; and to the axillary nerve. 

CIRRHOPODA (cirrhus, frizzled hair, 
■Kovi, no^oi, a foot). The fourth class of 
the Diploneura or Helmintho'ida, con- 
sisting of aquatic animals, with numerous 
lateral articulated cirrhi, and their body 
fixed in a multivalve shell. 

CIRRHO'SIS {iiipp6^, yellowish). A 
disease consisting of diminution and de- 
formity of the liver, which is dense, gra- 
nular, wrinkled, and frequently of a rust- 
brown colour. By Baillie, it was called 
common tubercle of the liver ; by Dr. 
Elliotson, gin liver, as being induced by 
drunkenness ; by others, granulated, 
lobulated, mammellated, or schirrous 
liver. 

CIRSOS. The Greek term for a varix 
or dilated vein. 

1. Cirsocele {KrjXn, a tumor). A vari- 
cose enlargement of the spermatic vein. 

2. Cirsophthalmia {o^OaX/io^, the eye). 
A general varicose affection of the blood- 
vessels of the eye ; a local complication of 
amaurosis. 

CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA. Pareira 
brava or Velvet Leaf, a Menlspermaceous 
plant, the root of which, commonly called 
pareira brava, and sometimes imported 
under the name of abuta or butua root, 
exercises a specific influence over the 
mucous membrane lining the urinary 
passages. 

Cis.iampelin. A new vegetable alkali 
found in pareira brava root. 

CITRIC ACID. The acid of lemons, 
or Coxwell's Concrete Salt of Lemon. It 
is decomposed by exposure to heat, and 
a new acid sublimes, called the pgro- 
citric. 

Citricic Acid. A new acid obtained by 
Baup in the preparation of pyro-citric 
acid ; the latter acid was named by him 
citribic. 

CITRINE OINTMENT. The common 
name of the Unguentum hydrargyri ni- 
tratis of the pharmacopoeia. 
75 



CITRUS. A genus of Aurantiaceous 
plants, containing vesicular receptacles 
of volatile oil in the external yellow 
portion, called flavedo, of their baccate 
fruit. 

1. Citrus Limonum. The Lemon tree. 
The juice of the fruit yields citric acid. 

2. Citrus Aurantium. The Sweet 
Orange. The young unripe fruit dried 
and turned in a lathe are the issue peas 
of the shops. 

3. Citrus Bigaradia. The Bigarade, 
or the Bitter or Seville Orange. 

4. Citrus Medica. The Citron tree. 
Pliny calls the fruJt malum citreum. 

5. Citrus lAmetta. The Lime. The 
fruit yields the oil of bergamot of the 
shops. 

CIVET. A substance collected in a 
bag under the tail of the civet-cat, and 
used as a perfume. 

CLAIRVOYANCE. Clearsightedness ; 
a peculiar mode of sensation, or second 
siglit, connected vi\ih somnambulism, and 
supposed to be diffused over the whole 
surface of the body, but to be especially 
seated in the epigastrium and fingers' 
ends. 

CLAP. The vulgar name of a venereal 
infection. See Gonorrhoea. 

CLARIFICATION {clarus, clear, fio, 
to become). The process of clearing 
liquids. It is performed by — 

1. Subsidence of the suspended parti- 
cles, and decantation of the supernatant 
liquor. 

2. Filtration, or straining through fil- 
ters of paper, linen, sand, charcoal, &c. 

3. Coagulation, or the admixture of 
albumen, or the white of egg, and the 
subsequent action of caloric, acids, &c. 

CLAUSU'RA (claudo, to shut). The 
imperforation of any canal or cavity. 

CLAVATIO {clava, a club). Gompho- 
sis. A sort of articulation, in which the 
parts are fixed like a nail by a hammer, 
as the teeth in the sockets. 

CLAVICULA (dim. of clavis, a key). 
The clavicle, or coUar-bone ; so called 
from its resemblance to an ancient key. 

CLAVUS (a nail). Spina pedum. Cal- 
lus. A term applied to corns, and to sta- 
phyloma, or tumor on the eyelids. 

Clavus hystericus. A fixed pain in the 
forehead, as if produced by a nail. 

CLAY. One of the primitive earths, 
formerly called argil, but now alumina, 
from its being obtained in greatest purity 
from alum. 

CLEAVAGE. The mechanical di- 
E2 



CLO 



CO A 



vision of crystals, by which the inclina- 
tion of their lamina is determined. 

CLEISAGR A (K\e«r, the clavicle, a^pa, 
seizure). The gout in the articulation of 
the clavicles. 

CLIBANUS {KKifiavo^). An oven; 
a stove, or hot-house. Celsus. 

CLIMACTERIC (KXi/xaKT^/p, the step 
of a ladder). The progression of the life 
of man. It is usually divided into pe- 
riods of seven years ; the ninth period, or 
63rd year, being the grand climacteric. 

1. Climacteric disease. This term has 
been applied to a sudden and general 
alteration of health, occurring at a certain 
period of life, and of uncertain duration. 

2. Climacteric teething. The produc- 
tion of teeth at a very late period of life, 
after the loss of the permanent teeth by 
accident or natural decay, commonly be- 
tween the 63rd and 81st j^ear, or the in- 
terval which fills up the two grand cli- 
macteric years of the Greek physiologists. 

CLIMATE {KKitxa, a region). This 
term denotes, in medicine, the condition 
of the atmosphere of different countries, 
or districts, in reference to their effects 
upon the health of persons inhabiting 
them. See Appendix. 

CLINICAL (kA«V»i, a bed). A term 
applied to lectures given at the bedside. 

CLINKER. Black oxide of iron, or 
the oxidum ferroso-ferricum of Berzelius. 
It is always formed when iron is heated to 
redness in the open air, and is therefore 
readily obtained at the blacksmith's 
forge. 

CLINOID (kX/vh, a bed, eUov, like- 
ness). A designation of processes of the 
sella turcica of the sphenoid bone, from 
their resemblance to the knobs of a bed- 
stead. 

CLINOMETER (kX/i/w, to incline, /ae- 
rpov, a measure). An instrument for 
measuring the dip of mineral strata. 

CLITORIS ((cXetw, to hide). A small 
elongated organ of the pudendum, con- 
cealed by the labia majora. 

Clitorismus. A morbid enlargement of 
the clitoris. 

CLOA'CA (a sewer). A receptacle 
observed in the monotremata, in birds, 
in reptiles, and in many fishes, which 
receives the faeces and the urine, to- 
gether with the semen of the male, and 
the ovum of the female. 

Cloaca. The openings, in cases of 
necrosis, leading to the inclosed dead 
bone. 

CLONIC (KXoi/f«i), to move to and fro). 
A term denoting the kind of spasm 
76 



which occurs in hiccough, &c. See 
Spasm. 

CLOVE. Caryophyllus ; the unex- 
panded and dried flower -bud of the 
Caryophyllus aromaticus. 

CLUB-FEET. Pedes contorti. A con- 
genital distortion of the feet, arising from 
contraction of the extensor muscles. The 
following are some new terms, intro- 
duced by Dr. Krauss, to designate the 
varieties of club-foot : — 

1. The Tip-foot, Horse-foot, or Pes 
equinus. When the sufferer walks on 
his toes, and the heel is drawn upward. 
In this class may be included the knot- 
foot (pied-bot en dessous), when the pa- 
tient walks upon the back of the foot. 

2. The Cross-foot, Club-foot inward, 
or Varus. "VVTien the sufferer walks on 
the outward edge of the foot, or the out- 
ward part of the dorsum, the point of the 
foot being turned inwards. 

3. The Out-boiv foot, Club-foot out- 
ward, or Valgus. The sufferer treads 
upon the inward part of the foot; the 
point of the foot, and sometimes the 
heel, are turned outward. 

4. The Heel club-foot, or Talipes cal- 
caneous. The patient walks upon the 
heel. 

CLYSSUS (/<Xi'fw, to wash). A term 
formerly used to denote the vapour pro- 
duced by the detonation of nitre with any 
inflammable substance. 

CLYSTER (kXi'/^w, to wash out). An 
enema, lavement, or lavamentum. 

CNICUS BENEDICTUS. Blessed 
Thistle ; an indigenous Composite plant, 
containing a brown, bitter substance, 
called cnicin. 

COAGULABLE LYMPH. The fluid 
slowly effused in wounds, which after- 
wards becomes the bond of union, or 
cicatrix. 

COAGULATION {con and agere, to 
bring together). A term formerly syn- 
onymous with crjstallization, but now 
applied to the partial solidification of a 
fluid body by exposure to cold, or by the 
addition of some agent. 

1. Spontaneous coagulation denotes the 
cohesion of the particles of the blood, of 
some effused fluids, &c. 

2. Induced coagulation denotes the 
effect produced upon albumen by heat, 
alcohol, acids, rennet, &c. 

COAGULUM. The substance which 
results from coagulation. As applied to 
the blood only, it is termed clot ; as ap- 
plied to milk, it is railed curd. 

COAL. A combustible mineral, the 



coc 



coc 



varieties of which consist of bitumen and 
carbon in different proportions, and bum 
with flame and a bituminous smell. 

1. Splint Coal, so named from the 
splintery fracture which it presents. 

2. Caking Coal, which undergoes a 
partial fusion, and forms a cake when 
heated. 

3. Cherry Coal, which has a slaty frac- 
ture, and is more easily broken than 
splint coal. 

4. Cannel or Parrot Coal, which yields 
much gas when heated, and was formerly 
used as a substitute for candles. 

5. Glance Coal, or Anthracite, which 
contains no bituminous matter, and con- 
sists almost entirely of carbon. It yields 
no gas when heated, but burns with a 
fixed light. 

6. Brown Coal, Bituminous Wood, or 
Surturbrand, which has a brownish co- 
lour, retains the structure of the wood 
unchanged, and resembles peat in the 
phenomena produced during its combus- 
tion. 

7. Jet, which is employed in making 
black ornaments. 

COAPTATION, or SETTING. The 
act of placing the broken extremities of 
a bone in their natural position. 

COATING. Lorication. A method 
emplo3'ed for securing or repairing retorts 
used in distillation. Coatings are made 
of marly earth, kneaded with fresh 
horse-dung ; slaked lime, and linseed 
oil, &c. 

COBALT {Cobalus, the demon of 
mines). A metal, found chiefly in com- 
bination with arsenic, as arsenical co- 
balt; or with sulphur and arsenic, as 
grey cobalt ore. These ores are em- 
ployed to give the blue colour of por- 
celain and stone-ware. 

1 . Zaffre. An impure oxide of cobalt, 
obtained from the native arseniuret. 

2. Smalt. A blue-coloured glass, ob- 
tained by heating zaffre with sand and 
potash, reduced to powder. It is the 
blue-stone used in washing 

COBALUS. The demon of mines, 
which obstructed and destroyed the 
miners. The Germans formerly used a 
form of prayer for the expulsion of the 
fiend. The ores of cobalt, being at first 
mysterious and intractable, received 
their name from this personage. 

COCA. Ypada. The leaf of the 
Erythroxylon coca, a plant in extensive 
use among the Indians of the Andes, for 
the purpose of producing intoxication 
and stupor. 
77 



COCCULUS PALMATUS. The Ca- 
lumba plant ; a Menispermaceous plant, 
the root of which constitutes the culumba 
of commerce. 

Anamirta Cocculus. The Cocculus 
Indicus plant, the fruit of which is the 
cocculus Indicus, sometimes termed Le- 
vant nut, or bacca orientalis ; and by the 
Germans louse-grain, from its use in 
destroying pediculi. 

COCCUS CACTI. Coccinella. The 
Cochineal insect ; a Heraipterous insect, 
which feeds upon the Opuntia cochinil- 
lifera. The cochineal of the shops con- 
sists of the dried female insects ; there 
are the silver and the black varieties. 
The term granilla is applied to very 
small cochineal insects and minute 
masses, resembling fragments of the 
larger insects. 

Cochinilin. A colouring matter ob- 
tained from cochineal. It is a constituent 
of carmine. 

COCCYX {kokkv^, a cuckoo). The 
lower end of the spine, so called from its 
resemblance to the cuckoo's beak. Hence 
the terms os coccygis, the cauda, or 
coccyx ; and coccygeus, a muscle of the 
OS coccygis. 

COCHINEAL. The dried insect called 
Coccus Cacti, or Coccinella. 

COCHLEA (koxKo^, a conch). A ca- 
vity of the ear, resembling the spiral shell 
of the snail. It describes two turns and 
a half around a central pillar called the 
modiolus. 

COCHLEARE {cochlea, a snail's shell). 
A spoon, so named from its resemblance 
to the shell of a snail ; a spoonful. The 
following proportions are used in appor- 
tioning the dose of mixtures : — 

1. Cochleare amplum. A table-spoonful, 
or half a fluid ounce. 

2. Cochleare mediocre. A dessert-spoon- 
ful, or somewhat more than two fluid 
drachms. 

3. Cochleare minimum. A tea-spoonful, 
or one fluid drachm. 

COCHLEARIA ARMORACIA. Horse- 
radish ; an indigenous Cruciferous plant, 
the root of which is considered anti- 
scorbutic. 

COCINIC ACID. Cocostearic acid. 
The crystallizable acid of the butter of 
the cocoa nut. 

COCOA. A substance procured from 
the seeds of the Theobromu Cacao, or 
Chocolate tree. 

COCTION {coqtio, to digest). The 
process of reducing the aliment to 
chyle. 

JS3 



COL 



COL 



CODEINE {Ktideia, a poppy head). An 
alkali discovered by Robiquet in hydro- 
chlorate of morphia. 

COD LIVER OIL. Oleum Jecoris 
Aselli. An oil obtained from the livers 
of the Morrhua vulgaris, or Common 
Cod, formerly called Asellus major, and 
from allied species ; employed in rheuma- 
tism and scrofula. 

CCECUM {coecus, blind). The blind 
pouch, or cul-de-sac at the commence- 
ment of the large intestine. 

CGELIA [KoiXia, from koIXo?, hollow). 
The belly, or abdomen ; the cavity which 
contains the intestines. 

1. Coeliac, a term applied to an artery — 
the first branch of the aorta in the abdo- 
men ; and to a plexits, a prolongation of 
the solar. 

2. Coeliac Passion. The colic. 
CCENOSTHESIS {koivS?, common, 

a'i(T6n<Tii, perception). A term expressive 
of the general sensibility of the system. 

CCENURUS {koivos, common, ovpa, 
a tail). A cystose bladder, containing 
several animals grouped together, and 
adhering to its sides. See Hydatid. 

COFFEA ARABICA. The Coffee tree, 
a Rubiaceous plant, of which the albumen 
of the seeds constitutes the coffee of com- 
merce. Caffein is a volatile, crystalline, 
neutral constituent of coffee. Caffeic acid 
is a peculiar acid contained in raw coffee. 
Coffee green is a green substance produced 
by the action of alkalies on a volatile 
principle of coffee. 

COHESION {cohccreo, to stick to- 
gether). The power by which the com- 
ponent particles of a body cohere, or are 
kept together. It is the opposite to ex- 
pansion. See Attraction. 

COHOBATIOX. The continuous re- 
distillation of a liquid from the same 
materials, or from a fresh parcel of the 
same materials. 

COITUS {coire, to go together). The 
conjunction of the sexes. 

COKE. The residue of coal, when the 
volatile matters are driven off. 

COLATURA {colo, to strain). Any 
filtered or strained liquor. 
COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE. Meadow 
Saffron, a bulbous plant, used by the an- 
cients under the name of hermodactyllus. 
The juice of the bulb is very poisonous 
to dogs ; hence the Dutch name Hundes 
hoden, and the French name Tue-chien. 
All the species of Colchicum yield the 
alkaloid veratria. 

Colchicine. A vegeto-alkall, procured 
from the Colchicum autumnale. 
78 



COLCOTHAR. A mixture of red 
oxide of iron and the persulphate, used 
as a paint, &c. 

COLD. 1. As heat exists in all bodies, 
the term cold has only a negative sense, 
implying a greater or less privation of 
heat. 2. In employing cold as a reme- 
dial agent, its proximate or physical 
effects must be distinguished from its 
remote or physiological ; the former are 
of a sedative, the latter of a stimulant 
nature. 3. A popular name for catarrh. 

COLEOPTERA («o\eo?, a sheath, 
TTTepoM, a wing). Sheath-winged insects; 
beetles. Order 5, Insecta. 

COLES {KavXoi, a stalk). A designa- 
tion of the penis. Celsus. 

COLICA {kwXov, the colon). The colic. 
A painful affection of tlie colon, without 
inflammation or fever. See Ileus. 

1. Colica accidentalis. Induced by 
particular articles of diet. 

2. Colica stercorea. From accumulation 
of the contents of the bowels. 

3. Colica meconialis. From retention 
of the meconium. 

4. Colica calculosa. From intestinal 
calculi. 

5. Colica Pictonum (an endemic at 
Poictou). The colic of the Pictones ; dry 
belly-ache ; Devonshire colic ; Painters' 
colic ; also called saturnitia, as being 
produced by the effects of lead. 

COLLAPSE {collabor, to shrink down). 
More or less sudden failure of the circu- 
lation, or vital powers, as of the brain, 
or of the whole system. 

COLLIQUAMENTUM {colliqneo, to 
melt). A term applied by Harvey to the 
first rudiments of the embryo in gene- 
ration. 

Colliquative. A term applied to any 
excessive evacuation, as of diarrhoea, or 
perspiration. 

COLLUM (KoXXa'o), to join). The 
neck ; the part by which the head is 
joined to the body. It is distinguished 
from cervix, which is the hinder part of 
the neck, or the hollow part between the 
head and the nape of the neck. In Bo- 
tany, the term collum denotes that por- 
tion of the axis of growth where the stem 
and the root diverge ; by Grew it was 
termed coarcture ; by Lamarck, vital 
knot. 

COLLUTORIUM (colluo, to wash). 
Gargarisma. A liquid applied to the 
mouth or throat for local purposes. 

COLLYRIUM {KoWvpiov). Formerly, 
a solid substance applied to the eyes; 
now, a liquid wash, or eye-water 



COL 



COM 



COLOBOMA IRIDIS (Ko\6/3a>na, a 
mutilated limb). Fissure of the iris, 
with prolongation of the pupil. 

COLOCYNTHIDIS PULPA. Bitter 
Cucumber Pulp ; the medullary part of 
the fruit of the Cucumis Colocynthis, the 
active principle of which is caUed colo- 
cyntine. 

COLON {kwXov, quasi koIXov, hollow). 
The first of the large intestines, com- 
mencing at the caecum, and terminating 
at the rectum. It is distinguished into 
the right lumbar or ascending colon ; the 
arch of the colon, or transverse colon ; the 
left lumbar, or descending colon ; and the 
sigmoid flexure, or left iliac colon. 

1 . Colic. The name of arteries of the 
colon, and of one of the omenta. 

2. Colonitis. Inflammation of the 
colon ; a term employed by Dr. Ballin- 
gall. 

COLOPHONY (so termed from a city 
of the same name). Pix nigra. Resin 
of turpentine. It has been distinguished 
into two different resins, called sylvic and 
pinic acids. 

Colophonic acid. An acid formed by 
the action of heat on pinic acid. Brown 
rosin, or colophony, owes its colour to 
this acid. 

COLOSTRUM. Beestings ; the milk 
first secreted after delivery. 

COLOURING MATTER. A colour- 
ing principle existing in vegetable sub- 
stances. Colours are termed substan- 
tive, when they adhere to the cloth with- 
out a basis ; adjective, when they require 
a basis. 

COLPOCELE {K.6\no<!, the vagina, 
Ki^Xn, tumor). A tumor or hernia of the 
vagina. 

COLPOPTO'SIS (KoXjTor, the vagina, 
•mihaii, a falling down). Prolapsus or 
falling down of the vagina. 

COLTSFOOT. The vernacular name 
of the Tussilago Farfara. 

COLUMBIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by fusing the ore of Columbium with the 
carbonate or the bisulphate of potass ; 
a soluble columbate of potass is obtained, 
and the acid is precipitated in the form 
of a white hydrate. 

COLUMBIUM. A metal, supposed to 
have been brought from Massachusets in 
North America. It is also termed Tan- 
talum. 

COLUMN A. A column, or pillar, as 
those of the velum palati, and the co- 
lumnce carnece, or muscular fasciculi of 
the internal walls of the heart. 
79 



COLZA OIL. A liquid extracted from 
the grain of the Brassica Arvensis, used 
in making soft soap. 

COMA (Kw/ua, drowsiness, from »cew, 
to lie). Drowsiness ; lethargic sleep ; 
dead sleep ; torpor. See Caiaphora. 

1. Coma somnolentum ; in which the 
patient, when roused, immediately re- 
lapses into sleep. 

2. Coma vigil ; in which the patient is 
unable to sleep, though so inclined. 

COMATOSE {coma, drowsiness). Af- 
fected with coma or drowsiness. 

COMBINATION (cum, with, binus, 
two). The union of the particles of dif- 
ferent substances, by chemical attrac- 
tion, in forming new compounds. 

COMBUSTION {comburo, to burn). 
Burning ; the disengagement of heat and 
light, which accompanies rapid chemical 
combination. 

Combustion spontaneous. This is said 
to occur in the human body ; and it does 
occur when masses of vegetables, as 
damp hay, or oily cotton, are heaped to- 
gether. There are also cases on record 
of the spontaneous ignition of charcoal, 
both dry and moist. 

COMENIC ACID. A bibasic acid, 
formed by boiling a solution of meconic 
acid with a pretty strong acid. 

COMMANDER'S BALSAM. Bal- 
samuni traumaticum. Friar's Balsam, 
Jesuits' Drops, Wade's Drops, or the 
Tinctura Benzoini composita. 

COMMISSU'RA {committo, to unite). 
A term applied to the converging fibres 
which imite the hemispheres of the 
brain. 

1. Commissura anterior et posterior. 
Two white cords situated across the an- 
terior and posterior parts of the third 
ventricle. 

2. Commissura magna. The commis- 
sure of the corpus callosum, so called 
from its being the largest. 

3. Coinmissura mollis. The name of 
the grey mass which unites the tha- 
lami. 

4. The term Commissure is also applied 
to the quadrilateral body formed by union 
of the optic nerves to the acute angle 
formed on each side of the mouth by the 
union of the lips, &c. 

COMMUNICANS TIBIiE. The ex- 
ternal saphenal branch of the tibial 
nerve. 

COMMUNICATING ARTERY OF 
WILLIS. A branch of the internal ca- 
rotid artery. 

E4 



COM 



CON 



COMMINUTED (comminuo, to break 
in pieces). A term applied to a fracture, 
when the bone is broken into several 
pieces ; also to any substance which has 
been ground into minute particles. 

COMPLEXUS {complector, to com- 
prise). A muscle situated at the back 
part of the neck. It is so named from 
the intricate mixture of its muscular and 
tendinous parts. From the irregularity 
of its origins, it has been termed com- 
plexus implicatus trigeminus. Albinus 
distinguishes it into two parts ; viz., 

1. Biventtr, or the upper layer, hitherto 
called complexus ; and, 

2. Complexus, or the lower layer, never 
before distinguished from the rest. 

COMPOSITE. The Synantherous 
tribe of dicotyledonous plants. Herba- 
ceous plants or shrubs with leaves alter- 
nate or opposite ; flowers (called florets) 
unisexual or hermaphrodite, collected in 
dense heads upon a common receptacle, 
surrounded by an involucrum ; florets 
monopetalous ; anthers syngenesious ; ova- 
rium one-celled ; fruit a dry, indehiscent 
pericarp, termed achenium or cypsela. 

COMPOTES. Fruits preserved with 
sugar ; generally stone fruits. 

COMPOUND MEDICINES. These 
have been divided into two classes ; viz., 
Officinal Preparations, or those ordered 
in the pharmacopoeias ; and Magistral or 
Extemporaneous Formulce, or those con- 
structed by the practitioner at the mo- 
ment. 

COMPOUNDS. The following terms 
are employed in designating compounds : 

1. Binary, ternary, quaternary. These 
terms refer to the number of elements or 
proximate principles — two, three, or four 
— which exist in a compound. The binary 
compounds of oxygen, chlorine, iodine, 
bromine, and fluorine, which are not 
acid, terminate in ide, as oxide, chloride, 
&c. ; those of all other substances termi- 
nate in uret, as hydruret of carbon, sul- 
phuret of iron, &c. 

2. Bis, ter, quater. These are Latin 
numerals, indicating the number of atoms 
of acid, which are combined with one of 
the base in a compound, as 6i-sulphate of 
soda, &c. 

3. Dis, tris, tetrakis. These are Greek 
numerals, indicating the number of atoms 
of base, which are combined with one of 
the acid in a compound, as di-chromate 
of lead, &c. No prefix is used when the 
compound consists of one atom of each 
ingredient. But there are many excep- 
tions to these rules : protoxide and deut- 



oxide are frequently used for oxide and 
bin-oxide respectively. 

COMPRESS {comprtmo, to press). A 
pad of folded linen, lint, &c., which sur- 
geons place where they wish to make a 
pressure, &c. 

COMPRESSIBILITY [comprtmo, to 
compress). A property of masses of mat- 
ter, by which their particles are capable 
of being brought nearer together. Bodies 
which recover their former bulk on re- 
moval of the compressing cause, are 
called elastic. 

COMPRESSION [comprtmo, to press). 
A diseased state, usually of the brain, 
occasioned by pressure. 

COMPRESSOR [comprtmo, to press). 
A muscle which compresses a part, as 
that of the nose, and of the urethra. 

CONARIUM [conns, a cone). A desig- 
nation of the pineal gland, from its coni- 
cal form. 

CONCENTRATION (conc(?»<ro). The 
strengthening of solutions, mixtures, &c., 
by evaporation of their watery parts. 

CONCEPTION [concipio, to conceive). 
The first stage of generation on the part 
of the female. 

CONCHA (a shell). A term applied to 
parts resembling a shell ; thus, we have 
concha auris, the cavity of the ear ; and 
concha naris, the turbinated portion of 
ethmoid bone. 

CONCHIFERA [concha, a shell, fero, 
to carry). The second class of the Cyclo- 
gangliata or MoUusca, comprising acepha- 
lous, aquatic animals, covered with a bi- 
valve or multivalve shell. 

CONCOCTION [concoquo, to digest). 
The act of boiling. Digestion. 

CONCRETION [concresco, to grow to- 
gether). Calculus ; a term usually applied 
to that of the intestines. 

CONCUSSION [concutio, to shake to- 
gether). A term applied to injuries sus- 
tained by the brain, and other viscera, 
from falls, blows, &c. 

CONDENSATION [condense, to make 
thick). The act of diminishing the bulk 
of a body, as by the conversion of steam 
into water, gases into fluids, fluids into 
solids, &c. 

CONDENSER. 1. A vessel in which 
steam is converted into water, by the 
application of cold. 2. An instrument 
employed in electrical experiments on 
the same principle as the electrophorus, 
the purpose of which is to collect a weak 
electricity, spread over a large surface, 
into a body of small dimensions, in which 
its intensity will be proportionably in- 



CON 



CON 



creased, and therefore become capable of 
being examined. 

CONDIMENTA {condio, to season). 
Condiments ; substances taken with the 
food to improve its flavour, to promote 
its digestion, or to correct its injurious 
qualities. 

CONDUCTOR {conduco, to lead). An 
instrument used to direct the knife in 
operations. Compare Director. 

CONDYLE (k6i/3uXo9, a knuckle). A 
rounded eminence in the joints of several 
boneS; as of the humerus and the femur. 

1. Condyloid (etdof, likeness). A term 
applied to some of the foramina of the 
occipital bone, viz. the anterior, through 
which the lingual nerves pass ; and the 
2)osterior, through which the veins of the 
neck pass. 

2. Condyloma. A wart-like excrescence, 
which appears about the anus and pu- 
dendum. 

CONE. The fruit of the Fir-tree. It 
is a conical amentum, of which the car- 
pels are scale-like, spread open, and bear 
naked seeds. 

CONFECTIO {conficio, to make up). 
A confection. Under this title, the Lon- 
don College comprehends the conserves 
and electuaries of its former pharmaco- 
posias. Strictly speaking, however, a 
conserve merely preserves the vurtues of 
recent vegetables by means of sugar; 
an electuary imparts convenience of 
form. 

CONFLATION {conjlo, to blow to- 
gether). The casting or melting of 
metal. 

CONGELATION {congelo, to freeze). 
The passing from a fluid to a solid state 
by the agency of cold. 

CONGENER {con, and genus, kind). 
A thing of the same kind or nature. 
Hence the term congenerous is applied to 
diseases of the same kind. 

CONGESTION [congero, to amass). 
Undue fulness of the blood-vessels. By 
passive congestion is denoted torpid stag- 
nation of the blood, observed in organs 
whose power of resistance has been 
greatly exhausted. 

CONGIUS. This measure among the 
Romans was equivalent to the eighth of 
an amphora, to a cubic half foot, or to 
six sextarii. It is equal to our gallon, 
or a little more. 

CONGLOBATE {conglobo, to gather 
into a ball). The designation of a gland 
of a globular form, like those of the ab- 
sorbent system. 

CONGLOMERATE {conglomero, to 



heap together). The designation of a 
gland composed of various glands, having 
a common excretory duct, as the parotid, 
pancreas, &c. 

CONI VASCULOSI. Vascular cones ; 
the conical convolutions of the vasa effe- 
rentia. They constitute the epididymis. 

CONIFERS. The Fir or cone-bearing 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Trees or 
shrubs with a stem abounding with re- 
sin ; leaves linear, acerose, or lanceolate : 
flowers monoecious, or dioecious ; ovarium 
in the cones, spread open, appearing like 
a flat scale destitute of style or stigma ; 
fruit a solitary naked seed or a cone ; 
seeds with a hard crustaceous integu- 
ment. 

CONI'UM MACULATUM. The Com- 
mon or Spotted Hemlock ; an indigenous 
Umbelliferous plant, termed Cicuta by 
the Latin authors, but quite distinct 
from the Cicuta maculata of English 
writers. 

Conia. The active principle of hem- 
lock, in which it exists in combination 
with an acid called the coniic acid. 

CONJUNCTIVA {conjungo, to unite). 
Adnata tunica. The mucous membrane 
which lines the posterior surface of the 
eyelids, and is continued over the fore- 
part of the globe of the eye. 

Conjunctiva Granular. A diseased 
condition of the conjunctiva, the sequel 
of purulent ophthalmia. 

CONNATUS {connascor, to be born to- 
gether). Born with another ; congenital. 
A term applied in botany to two opposite 
leaves united at their bases, as in the 
garden honeysuckle. 

CONSERVA {conservo, to keep). A 
conserve, or composition of vegetable 
and saccharine matter. See Confectio. 

CONSTIPATION [constipo, to crowd 
together, from con, and stipo, to cram). 
Obstipatio. Costiveness ; confinement of 
the bowels ; constipation ; the contents 
of the bowels being so crammed together 
as to obstruct the passage. 

CONSTITUENS. The vehicle ; a con- 
stituent part of a medicinal formula, 
signifying ' that which imparts an agree- 
able form.' See Prescription. 

CONSTITUTION {constituo, to esta- 
blish). A state of being ; the temper of 
the body ; natural qualities, &c. 

1. Constitution of the Body — Diathesis. 
The condition of the body ; the ' propria,' 
or peculiarities, as distinguished from 
the * communia,' or generalities. Celsus. 

2. Constitution of the Air. That pecu- 
liar state of the air or vapour from the 

E5 



CON 



COR 



earth, which induces epidemics, or im- 
presses upon epidemic or sporadic dis- 
eases their peculiar characters on parti- 
cular occasions. It is denominated by 
Sydenham, bilious, dysenteric, &c. 

CONSTRICTOR {constringo, to bind 
together). A muscle which contracts 
any opening of the body, as that of the 
pharynx. 

CONSUMPTION {consumo, to waste 
away). Wasting of the body; phthisis, 
or marasmus. 

CONTABESCENTIA {contabesco, to 
waste away). Atrophy, or consumption ; 
wasting away of every organ. 

CONTAGION {contingo, to touch one 
another). The propagation of disease 
from one individual to another,— pro- 
perly by contact. Compare Infection. 

CONTRACTILITY {contraho, to draw 
together). The property by which bodies 
contract. 

1 . The property by which the fibrous 
tissues return to their former dimensions, 
after being temporarily extended. 

2. The property of the muscular fibre, 
by which it shortens on the application 
of a stimulus ; more properly Irritability. 

CONTRACTION {contraho, to draw 
together). A rigid state of the joints. 
Also, a decrease of volume, the usual 
effect of a diminution of heat. 

CONTRA-FISSURE (contra, against, 
findo, to cleave). A fracture of the skull, 
produced by a contre-coup opposite to the 
part on which the blow is received. 

CONTRA -INDICATION (contra, 
against, indico, to show). Circumstances 
which forbid the exhibition of a remedy. 

CONTRAJERVA (contrayerva, Indian 
Spanish for alexipharmic). A species of 
Dorstenia, to which the contrayerva root 
was formerly referred : but Dr. Pereira 
says that the root of this species is not 
met with in commerce. See Dorstenia. 

CONTRE-COUP. A term used syno- 
nymously with contra-fissure ; but it is 
rather the cause of this effect. 

CONTUSION (contundo, to bruise). 
A bruise. 

CONVALESCENCE (convalesco, to 
grow strong). The state of recovery. 

CONVOLU'TA (convolvo, to wrap to- 
gether). A term applied to the upper 
and lower turbinated bones of the nose. 

CONVOLUTION (convolvo, to roll to- 
gether). The state of anything which is 
rolled upon itself. Hence the term is ap- 
plied to the windings and turnings of the 
cerebrum, called gyri ; and to the fold- 
ings of the small intestines. 
82 



CONVOLVULACE^. The Bindweed 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Herba- 
ceous plants with leaves alternate ; flowers 
regular, monopetalous ; stamens inserted 
into the base of the corolla; ovarium 
superior, 2-4 celled ; seeds albuminous. 

1. Cofivolvulus Scammonia. The plant 
whose root yields the hard, brittle, ash- 
coloured resin called scammony. It con- 
tains a substance called convolvulin, sup- 
posed to be a vegetable alkali. 

2. Convolvulus Jalapa. The former 
name of the Jalap plant. The drug is 
now said to be yielded by the Ipomcea 
purga, and probably by other species. 

CONVULSION (convello, to pull to- 
gether). Spasm. Violent involuntary 
contractions of the muscles, with alter- 
nate relaxations, commonly called^/*. 

COPAIVA BALSAM. A balsam ob- 
tained by making incisions into the stems 
of several species of Copaifera. 

1. Resin of Copaiva. A brown resinous 
mass, left after the balsam has been de- 
prived of its volatile oil by distillation. 
It consists of two resins ; the one, a yellow 
brittle resin, called copaivic acid; the 
other, the viscid resin of copaiva. 

2. Gelatine Capsules of Copaiva. Cap- 
sules formed of a concentrated solution 
of gelatine, and containing each about 
ten grains of the balsam of copaiva. 

COPAL. A resin obtained from the 
Hymencca Courbaril, and also termed 
jatahy or jatchy. 

COPHO'SIS (naxpoi, deaf). Deafness. 

COPPER (Cuprum, quasi ces Cyprium, 
from the island Cyprus, where it was first 
wrought). A red metal, found in the 
common ore called copper pyrites. 
Among its compounds are red copper, or 
the protoxide ; black copper, or the per- 
oxide; copper glance, or the protosul- 
phuret ; resin of copper, the protochloride 
or white muriate ; and the white copper 
of the Chinese, an alloy of copper, zinc, 
nickel, and iron. See Cuprum. 

COPPERAS. Sulphate of iron, or ^reew 
vitriol. See Vitriol. 

COPPERNICKEL. A native arseni- 
uret of nickel, a copper-coloured mine- 
ral of Westphalia. 

COPROSTASIS (KoiTp69, faeces, IVth/ui, 
to stand). Costiveness ; undue retention 
of the faeces in the intestines. Hence 
the terms copragoga and eccoprotica, de- 
noting purgatives, or medicines to quicken 
the passage of the faeces. 

COR, CORDIS. The heart ; the cen- 
tral organ of circulation. 

CORACO- (Kopa^, a crow). Names 



COR 



COR 



compounded with this word belong to 
muscles which are attached to the 

Coraco'id Process {elSo^, likeness). The 
upper and anterior point of the scapula, 
so called from its resemblance to a crow's 
beak. 

CORALLICOLA (coraUum, coral, colo, 
to inhabit). Coral-inhabiters, as the 
horn-wrack : Order 3, class Polypi. 

CORALLIUM IIUBRUM. Red coral ; 
the calcareous internal skeleton of a Poly- 
piferous animal, consisting of carbonate of 
lime, principally coloured with oxide of 
iron. 

CORDIALS {cor, the heart). Cardiacs. 
"Warm medicines ; medicines which in- 
crease the ^ction of the heart, or quicken 
the circulation. 

CORE {cor, the heart). The slough 
which forms at the central part of boils. 

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM. The Of- 
ficinal Coriander ; an Umbelliferous plant, 
yielding the fruit erroneously called 
coriander seeds. 

CORIUM (quasi cariuw, quod eo caro 
tegatur). Leather. The deep layer of 
cutis, or true skin, forming the base of 
support to the skin. 

CORMUS. The enlarged subterranean 
base of the stem of Colchicum, of Arum, 
&c., falsely called root or bulb. 

CORN {cornu, a horn). Clavus. Spina 
pedis. A horny induration of the skin, 
generally formed on the toes. 

CORNEA {cornu, a horn). Cornea 
pellucida. The anterior transparent por- 
tion of the globe of the eye. 

Cornea opaca. A term formerly ap- 
plied to the sclerotica. 

CORNICULUM (dim. of cornu, a 
horn). A small cartilaginous body, sur- 
mounting the summit of the arytenoid 
cartilage. 

CORNINE. A new principle, disco- 
vered in the bark of the Cornus Florida : 
its properties resemble those of quinine. 

CORNU. A horn ; a term applied to 
warts, from their homy hardness ; and to 
parts resembling a horn in form ; as — 

1. Cornu Ammonis. A designation of 
fhe pes hippocampi of the brain, from its 
being bent like a ram's horn, the famous 
crest of Jupiter Ammon. 

2. Cornua sacralia. Horns of the sa- 
crum ; two tubercles, fonning notches, 
which transmit the last sacral nerves. 

3. Cornua uteri. The horn-like appear- 
ance of the angles of the uterus in certain 
animals. 

4. Each lateral ventricle of the brain 
has been divided into a body or central 

83 



portion ; an anterior or diverging cornu ; 
a posterior or converging cornu ; and an 
inferior or descending ornu : hence the 
appellation of tricorne applied to this 
cavity. 

CORNU CERVI. Stag's or Hart's 
horn ; the horn of the Cirvue Elaphus, 
form.erly so much used for the prepara- 
tion of ammonia, that the alkali was 
commonly called Salt or Spirit oj Harts- 
horn. 

1. Cornu ustum. Burnt hartshorn; a 
white friable substance, possessing no 
antacid properties. 

2. Spiritus cornu usti. The result of 
the destructive distillation of hartshorn. 

COROLLA (dim. of corona, a crown). 
Literally, a little crown. The internal 
envelope of the floral apparatus. Its 
separate pieces are called petals; when 
these are distinct from each other, the 
corolla is termed poly-petalous ; when 
they cohere, gamo-jjetalom, or incorrectly 
mono-petalous. A petal, like a sepal, 
may be spurred, as in violet. Compare 
Calyx. 

CORONA. A crown. Hence the term 
coronal is applied to a suture of the head ; 
and coronary to vessels, nerves, &c.,from 
their surrounding the parts like a crown. 

1. Corona ciliaris. The ciliary liga- 
ment, or circle. See Cilium and Halo 
signatus. 

2. Corona glandis. The prominent 
margin or ridge of the glans penis. 

3. Corona tubulornm. A circle of mi- 
nute tubes surrounding each of Peyer's 
glands, opening into the intestine, but 
closed at the other extremity. 

4. Corona Veneris. A terra for venereal 
blotches appearing on the forehead. 

CORO'NE (Kopwi/n. a crow). The 
acute process of the lower jaw-bone ; so 
named from its supposed likeness to a 
crow's bill : whence 

Cnron-oid (ei(5or, likeness). A process 
of the ulna, shaped like a crow's beak. 

CORPULENCY (corpus, the body). 
An excessive increase of the body from 
accumulation of fat. See Obesity. 

CORPUS. A body. Plural, Corpora. 
Hence the following terms : — 

1. Corpus Arantii. A small fibro- 
cartilaginous tubercle, situated in the 
centre of the free margin of each pf the 
semilunar valves of the heart, and named 
after Arantius of Bologna. 

2. Corpus callosum {callus, hardness). 
The hard substance which communicates 
between the hemispheres of the brain ; 
also called commissura magna. 

E 6 



COR 



COR 



3. Corpus cavernosum vagina:. The 
erectile spongy tissue of the vagina, 
termed by Degraaf retiforme, or net-like. 

4. Corpus dentatum vel serratum. A 
yellowish matter which appears on mak- 
ing a section of the crura cerebelli. 

5. Corpus fitnbriatuin [fimbria, a 
fringe). A narrow white band, — the la- 
teral thin edge of the fornix, also called 
tcB7iia hippocampi. 

6. Coipus Highmorianum. A promi- 
nence of the superior part of the testis, 
so caUed from Highmore of Oxford. See 
Mediastinum testis. 

7. Corpus luteum (luteus, yellow). The 
cicatrix left in the ovarium, in conse- 
quence of the bursting of a GraafSan 
vesicle. 

8. Corpus mucosum. Rete mucosum. 
A soft, reticulated substance, first de- 
scribed by Malpighi as situated between 
the cuticle and cutis, and giving the 
proper colour to the skin, being black in 
the Negro, yellow in the Chinese, and 
copper-coloured in the aboriginal Ame- 
ricans. 

9. Corpus pampiniforme {pampinus, a 
tendril). A tendril-like plexus of the 
spermatic vein. 

10. Corpus psalloides. Another name 
for the lyra, considered by Gall as the 
general union of the communicating fila- 
ments of the fornix. 

11. Corpus rhombo'ideum. Ganglion of 
the cerebellum ; a grey body observed in 
the centre of the white substance of the 
cerebellum, if an incision be made through 
the outer third of the organ. 

12. Corpus spongiosum {spongia, a 
sponge). A lengthened body situated in 
the groove upon the under surface of the 
two corpora cavernosa. 

13. Corpora albicaiitia (alb co, to be- 
come white). Two white bodies of the 
cerebrum, situated behind the gray sub- 
stance from which the infundibulum 
arises. They are also called corpora can- 
dicantia, and mammillary or pisiform 
tubercles. 

14. Corpora cavernosa {caverna, a ca- 
vern). Two lengthened bodies, consti- 
tuting the chief bulk of the body of the 
penis. They are separated by an incom- 
plete partition, named septum pectini- 
forme. 

15. Corpora geniculata [geniculum, a 
knot). Two knotty prominences, the ex- 
ternal and the internal, at the inferior 
surface of the thalami nervorum opti- 
corum. 

16. Corpora olivaria. Two o/Jt>e-shaped 

84 



eminences of the medulla oblongata. On 
making a section of the corpus olivare, 
an oval medullary substance is seen, sur- 
rounded by cineritious matter, and called 
corptis dentatum eminenticB olivaris. 

17. Corpora pyramidalia. Two small 
pyramidal eminences of the medulla ob- 
longata. 

18. Corpora quadrigemina (four double). 
Four eminences (tubercuJa) of the brain, 
supporting the pineal gland, formerly 
called nates and testes. 

19. Corpora rettiformia {restis, a cord). 
Two cord-like processes, extending from 
the medulla oblongata to the cerebellum. 

20. Corpora sesamoidea. Another name 
for the Corpuscula Arantii, from their 
being of the size of sesamum seeds. 

21. Corpora striata [stria, a streak). 
Two */reoA"y eminences in the lateral ven- 
tricle, termed by Gall the great superior 
ganglion of the brain. 

CORPUSCULUM (dim. of corpus, a 
body). A corpuscle, or little body. 

Corpuscula Arantii. A designation of 
three small hard tubercles, situated on 
the point of the valves of the aorta. 
They are also called corpora sesamoidea, 
from their being of the size of the sesa- 
mum seeds. 

CORRIGENS. A constituent part of 
a medicinal formula, ' that which corrects 
its operation.' See Prescription. 

CORROBORANTS [corroboro, to 
strengthen). Remedies which impart 
strength. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE [corrodo, 
to eat away). The bi-chloride of mercury, 
formerly called the oxymuriate. 

CORROSIVES [corrodo, to eat away). 
Substances which have the power of 
wearing away or consuming bodies, as 
caustics, escharotics, &c. 

CORRUGATION [corrugo, to wrinkle). 
The contraction of the surface of the 
body into wrinkles. 

Corrugator supercilii. A muscle which 
knits and contracts the brow into wrin- 
kles. 

CORSICAN MOSS. The Gigartina 
helmintho-corton, a Cryptogamic plant, of 
the order AlgcB, used in Corsica as a re- 
medy for intestinal worms. 

CORTEX (bark). A term which is 
generally applied to Peruvian bark. 

1. Corticine. An alkaloid found in the 
bark of the Populus Tremens. 

2. Cortical substance. The exterior 
part of the brain, also termed cineritious; 
and of the kidney. 

CORYDALIN. An alkaloid contained 



COT 



COW 



in the root of the Corydalis bulbosa and 
fabacea. 

CORYMB. A form of inflorescence, 
in which the lower stalks are so long 
that their flowers are elevated to the 
same level as that of the uppermost 
flowers. The expansion of the flowers of 
a corymb is centripetal. See Fascicle. 

CORY'ZA {Kopv^a, from Kopw?, or Kapa, 
the head). An inflammatory aflfection of 
the mucous membrane lining the nose, 
and its contiguous cavities, usually arising 
from cold. It is also called gravedo, 
nasal catarrh, cold in the head, stufling 
in the head, &c. See Catarrh. 

COSMETIC (Koo-jtA)?, ornament). A 
remedy which improves the complexion, 
and removes blotches and freckles. 

COSTA (custodio, to guard). A rib. 
The ribs are divided into— 

1. The true, or stenio vertebral. The 
first seven pairs ; so called because they 
are united by their cartilages to the ster- 
num ; these are called custodes, or the 
preservers of the heart. 

2. The false, or rertebral. The re- 
maining five pairs, which are successively 
united to the lowest true rib, and to each 
other. 

3. The vertebral extremity of a rib is 
called the head; the contracted part 
which adjoins it forms the neck ; at the 
back of the rib is the tubercle, further 
outward the bone bends forward, pro- 
ducing the angle, from which proceeds 
the body, which passes forwards and 
downwards to the sternal extremity. 

COSTIVENESS. Another term for con- 
stipation, or confinement of the bowels. 

COSTUS. A substance called putchuk 
in India, and produced by a genus of the 
order Composites, to which the name of 
Aucklandia has been given, in honour of 
the Earl of Auckland. 

COTTON. The hairy covering of the 
seeds of several species of Gossypium. 

COTYLE'. An old Roman measure. 
The socket of the hip-bone. 

Cotyloid {e'i6oi, likeness). A term ap- 
plied to the acetabulum, or the cavity of 
the hip, for receiving the head of the 
thigh-bone, resembling an ancient cup. 

COTYLE'DON {KorvXndwv, a cavity). 
The seed-lobe of a plant. Plants have 
been distinguished, with reference to the 
number of their cotyledons, into di- 
cotyledonous, or those which have two 
cotyledons in their seeds ; mono-cotyle- 
donous, or those which have only one; 
and a-cotyledonous, or those which have 
none. 

85 



COUCH. The heap of moist barley, 
about sixteen Inches deep, on the malt- 
floor. 

COUCHING. The depression of a 
cataract. See Eye, Diseases of. 

COUMARIN. The odoriferous prin- 
ciple of the Tonka bean, the produce of 
the Coumarouma odorata ; and of the 
flowers of the Melilotus officinalis. 

COUNTER-EXTENSION. A means 
of reducing a fracture, by making exten- 
sion in the opposite direction. See Ex- 
tension. 

COUNTER-IRRITATION. Antago- 
nism. The production of an artificial or 
secondary disease, in order to relieve 
another or primary one. Dr. Parry calls 
this the "cure of diseases by conversion." 
But as the secondary disease is not 
always a state of irritation. Dr. Pereira 
suggests the use of some other term, as 
counter-morbific. The practice is also 
called derivation and revulsion. 

COUNTER-OPENING. Contra-aper- 
tura. An opening made in a second part 
of an abscess, opposite to a first. 

COUP-DE-SANG. Blood-stroke; an 
instantaneous and universal congestion, 
without any escape of blood from the 
vessels. This is a form of hajmorrhage, 
occurring in the brain, the lungs, and in 
most of the other organs of the body. 

COUP-DE-SOLEIL. Sun-stroke. An 
afliection of the head, produced by the 
rays of the sun. 

COUP or TOUR-DE-MAITRE. A 
mode of introducing the sound, Avith the 
convexity towards the abdomen. 

COUPEROSE {cuprum, copper, rosa, 
a rose). Goutte-rose. The Acne, or gutta 
rosacea, or carbuncled face; so named 
from the redness of the spots. 

COURAP. A form of Impetigo, pe- 
culiar to India, described by Sauvages 
under the term scabies Indica. 

COURONNE-DE-TASSES. Literally, 
a crown or circle of cups. An apparatus 
employed in voltaic electricity, consisting 
of a circle of cups containing salt water, 
and connected together by compound 
metallic arcs of copper and zinc. 

COUVRE-CHEF EN TRIANGLE. 
A triangular bandage for the head. 

COW-ITCH, orCOWHAGE. A sub- 
stance procured from the strong, brown, 
stinging hairs, covering the legume of 
the Mucuna pruriens, and employed as a 
mechanical anthelmintic. 

COWPER'S GLANDS. Accessory 
Glands. Two small granulated glandular 



CRE 



CRI 



bodies placed parallel to each other before 
the prostate. 

COW-POX. The vernacular name for 
Vaccinia, from its having been derived 
from the cow. 

COW-TREE. Palo de Vaca. A tree 
which yields, by incision, a glutinous sap 
or vegetable milk. 

COXA. The hip, or haunch ; the 
huckle-bone ; the joint of the hip. The 
term is synon3rmous with coxendix. 

1. Os coxarum. Another term for the 
OS iliacum, more generally called os in- 
nominatum. 

2. Cox-algia (aXyoi, pain). Pain of 
the hip or haunch. 

COXiELUVIUM {coxa, the hip, lava, 
to wash). The hip-bath, or demi-bain of 
the French, in which the patient is im- 
mersed as high as to the umbilicus or 
hip. 

CRAB-LOUSE. The pediculus pubis, 
or morpio ; a species of louse distinguish- 
ed by the cheliform structure of its legs, 
and frequently inducing local prurigo; 
it is found chiefly on the groins and eye- 
brows of uncleanly persons. 

CRAB YAWS. Excrescences on the 
soles of the feet. See Frnmbcesia. 

CRAMP (krempen, German, to con- 
tract). Spasm; violent contraction of 
the muscles. 

CRANIUM {Kdpa, the head). The 
skull, or cavity which contains the brain, 
its membranes, and vessels. The inner 
and outer surfaces of the bones are com- 
posed of compact layers, called the ex- 
ternal or fibrous, and the internal or 
vitreous, tables of the skull. There is 
an intermediate cellular texture, termed 
dipioe, which is similar to the cancelli of 
other bones. 

J. Cranio-logy {Xo'^o?, discourse). A 
description of the skull. 

2. Cranio-scopy (ffKOTreco, to observe). 
An inspection of the skull. Dr. Prichard 
has characterized the primitive forms of 
the skull according to the width of the 
bregma, or space between the parietal 
bones : hence — 

1 . The steno-bregmate {a-Tevoi, narrow), 
or ^Ethiopian variety. 

2. The mcso-hregmate {neaoi, middle), 
or Caucasian variety. 

3. The platy-bregmate (TrXariT, broad), 
or Mongolian variety. 

CRASSAMENTUM {crassus, thick). 
The cruor, or clot of blood, consisting of 
fibrin and red globules. 

CREAM OF LIME. A mixture of 
lime and water, used for purifying coal 
86 



gas, by its property of absorbing or com- 
bining with the contaminating gases. 

CREAM OF TARTAR. Cremor Tar- 
tari. The purified bi-tartrate of potash. 

CREATINE (Kptay, fiesh). A nitro- 
genous, crystallizable substance, obtained 
from muscular fibre. 

CREEPING SICKNESS [kriebel 
kranheit). The name by which the gan- 
grenous form of Ergotism is known in 
Germany. 

CREMASTER (Kpe/udw, to suspend). 
A muscle which draws up the testis. 

CREMOR PTISANS. The thick 
juice of barley ; panada water ; gruel of 
frumenty. Celsus. 

CREOSOTE (Kpear, flesh, ady^w, to pre- 
serve). An oily, colourless, transparent 
liquid, discovered first in pyroligneous 
acid, and subsequently in the different 
kinds of tar. Its name is derived from 
its preventing the putrefaction of meat 
or fish, when dipt in it. 

CREPITATION {crepito, to creak). 
The grating sensation, or noise, occa- 
sioned by pressing the finger upon a part 
affected with emphysema ; or by the ends 
of a fracture when moved ; or by certain 
salts during calcination. 

CREPITUS {crepo, to crackle). The 
peculiar rattle of pneumonia ; the grating 
made by joints, in a deficiency of synovia, 
&c. 

CRETA. Chalk ; a friable carbonate 
of lime. 

Creta prccparata. Prepared chalk. 
This is common chalk, the coarser par- 
ticles of which have been removed by 
washing. 

CRETINISM. Imperfect develop- 
ment of the brain, with mental imbeci- 
lity, usually conjoined with bronchocele, 
observed in the valleys of Switzerland 
and on the Alps. See Goitre. 

CRIBRIFORMIS {cribrum, a sieve. 
forma, likeness). The name of the plate 
of the ethmoid bone, from its being per- 
forated like a sieve. 

CRICOS (Kp/(cor). A ring. 

1. Cricoid {e'iSoi, likeness). The name 
of the ring-like cartilage of the larynx. 

2. Crico-. Terms compounded with 
this word belong to muscles of the la- 
rynx. 

CRINIS. The hair, when set in order, 
or plaited. See Capillus. 

CRINONES. Grubs ; a secretion from 
the sebaceous glands, appearing on the 
arms, legs, and back of infants. 

CRISIS {Kpivoo, to decide). Literally, 
a decision or judgment. An event or 



CRO 



CRY 



period, which marks changes in dis- 
ease. 

CRISTA GALLI {cock's crest). The 
cristiform process of the ethmoid bone. 

CRITICAL (/cp/i/o), to decide). A term 
applied to symptoms or periods, espe- 
cially connected with changes in a dis- 
ease, as sudden prespiration, diarrhoea, 
or a deposit in the urine ; and certain 
days were so designated by the ancient 
physicians. 

CROCI STIGMATA. Saffron; the 
dried stigmas of Crocus sativus, or com- 
mon crocus. 

CROCKE. A kind of dyspnoea, ob- 
served in hawks, produced by over- 
straining in flying. It is analogous to 
broken wind in horses. In. both cases 
there is pulmonary emphysema. i 

CROCONIC ACID {crocus, saffron). 
An acid, procured by heating potash with 
carbon, and so named from the saffron 
colour of its salts. 

CROCUS (KpoKo?). Saffron.. An old 
term applied to oxides, and other prepa- 
rations of the metals, from their saffron 
colour: thus we have crocus martis, or 
oxide of iron ; crocus metallorum, or 
oxide of antimony; crocus Veneris, or 
oxide of copper. 

CROP, or CRAW. A sort of prelimi- 
nary stomach in some birds, formed by 
an expansion of the oesophagus. Com- 
pare Gizzard. 

CROSS- BIRTH. Parodinia perversa. 
Labour impeded by preternatural presen- 
tation of the foetus or its membranes. 

CROTAPHITIC NERVE {KpoTatpo^, 
the temple). A name given by Palletta 
to a portion of the Fifth Pair, which he 
considered to be divided into three parts ; 
viz. the common trunk of the fifth pair, 
or portio major ; the crotaphitic, agreeing 
with the portio minor of other anatomists ; 
and the buccinator. 

CROTCHET. A curved instrument 
with a sharp hook to extract the foetus. 

CROTON. A genus of Euphorbiaceous 
plants, abounding in a milky juice. 

1. Croton tiglium. Purging Croton ; 
the plant which yields the drastic croton 
oil, or oil of tiglium. The seeds, called 
grana tiglii, or purging nuts, are said to 
be produced by the Croton pavana. 

2. Croton eleuteiia. Sea-side Balsam, 
or Sweet-wood ; the plant which yields 
the cascarilla or eleuteria bark. The 
Croton cascarUla yields copalchi, not cas- 
carilla, bark. 

3. Crotonic acid. Jatrophic acid. An 

87 



acid existing in the seeds of Croton tig- 
lium. 

i. Crotonin. A vegeto alkali found in 
the seeds of Croton tiglium, and probably 
identical with tiglin. 

CROTOPHUS (kp6to9, a pulse). Cro- 
tophium. A term importing painful pul- 
sation, or throbbing in the temple. 

CROUP. The Cynanche Trachealis, 
so called from the Grouping noise attend- 
ing it. This noise is similar to the sound 
emitted by a chicken affected with the 
pip, which in some parts of Scotland is 
called roup; hence, probably, the term 
croup. See Hives 

CRUCIAL {crux, crucis, a cross). A 
term applied to — 1 . incisions made across 
one another, and — 2. to the crossing liga- 
ments of the knee, &c. 

CRUCIBLE {crux, a cross, which the 
alchemists stamped upon the vessels ; or 
from crucio, to torture). A chemical 
vessel in which the metals were tortured, 
to force them to become like gold. 

CRUCIFER.(E {crux, crucis, a cross, 
fero, to bear). The Cruciferous tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants with leaves alternate ; flowers poly- 
petalous ; sepals, 4, deciduous, cruciate, 
alternating with four cruciate petals; 
stamens, 6, hypogynous, tetradynamous ; 
fruit a siliqua, or silicula. 

CRUDITIES {crudus, raw). Undi- 
gested substances in the stomach. 

CRUOR. The crassanientum, or clot 
of the blood. See Blood. 

CRUPSIA {xpoa, colour, o\^/?, sight). 
Visus coloratus. A defect of sight, con- 
sisting in the colouration of objects. 

CRURA. Plural of Cms, a leg ; a 
term applied to some parts of the body, 
from their resemblance to a leg or root, 
as the crura penis, crura cerebri, crura 
cerebetli. 

1. Crurceus. One of the extensor mus- 
cles of the leg, also called femorceus. 

2. Crural arch. The ligament of the 
thigh, also called inguinal ligament, liga- 
ment of Poupart, of Fallopius, &c. 

CRUSTA (Latin). A shell ; a scab. 

1. Crusta lactea. Milk scall; the Por- 
rigo larvalis of Willan. 

2. Crustacea. The fourth class of the 
Diplo-gangliata, or Entomo'ida, com- 
prising articulated animals, with an ex- 
terior shell which is generally hard and 
calcareous. 

CRYOLITE. The double hydrofluate 
of alumina and soda. 

CRYOPHORUS {Kpvo9, cold, ^epw, to 
bring). Literally, the frost-bearer. An 



cue 



CUP 



instrument for exhibiting the degree of 
cold produced by evaporation. 

CRYPTO (Kpurrroj, to hide). Mucous 
follicles which are concealed. 

CRYPTOGAMIA {Kpvnroi, hidden, 
•^d/jio^, nuptials). The 24 th class of plants 
in Linnasus's artificial system, compre- 
hending those in which the function of 
reproduction has not been understood. 
All other plants are ranged under the 
class Phanerogamia. 

CRYSTALLI. A term formerly ap- 
plied to the appearances of Varicella, de- 
scribed as white shining pustules con- 
taining lymph, 

CRYSTALLINE (Kpiyo-raWoj, ice). A 
term applied to the lens of the eye. 

CRYSTALLIZATION {KpvaraWo^, 
ice). The process by which the particles 
of liquid or gaseous bodies form them- 
selves into crystals, or solid bodies of a 
regularly limited form. 

1. Alternate Crystallization. This 
term is applied to a phenomenon which 
takes place when several crystallizable 
substances, having little attraction for 
each other, are present in the same solu- 
tion. That which is largest in quantity 
and least soluble crystallizes first, in 
part ; the least soluble substance next in 
quantity then begins to separate ; and 
thus different substances, as salts, are 
often deposited in successive layers from 
the same solution. 

2. Crystallography (-ypa^w, to describe). 
The science which investigates the forms 
of crystals. These have been considered 
as primitive, or fundamental; and se- 
condary, or derived. 

CU'BEBA (cubab, Indian). Cubebs, 
or Java Pepper, the berries of the Piper 
Cubeba, an Indian spice. 

CUBITUS {cubo, to lie down, from the 
ancients reclining on this part at meals). 
The fore-arm, consisting of the ulna and 
radius. 

CUBOIDES {kv/3o^, a cube, eUo^, like- 
ness). The name of a bone of the foot, 
somewhat resembling a cube, situated at 
the fore and outer part of the tarsus. 

CUCULLA'RIS {cucullus, a hood). A 
broad hood-like muscle of the scapula. 

CUCUMIS COLOCYNTHIS. The 
Bitter Cucumber or Colocynth ; a Cucur- 
bitaceous plant, the fruit of which is the 
colocynth or coloquintida of commerce. 
There are two kinds of colocynth, the 
Turkey or peeled, and the Mogadore or 
unpeeled colocynth. 

Colocynthin. The bitter or purgative 
principle of the colocynth gourd. 



CUCURBITA (A curvitate). A gourd. 
A gourd-like vessel for distillation. 

CUCURBI TACE^E (cMcwrfti/a, agourd). 
The Gourd tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Climbing plants with leaves palmated, 
succulent ; flowers unisexual, monopeta- 
lous ; stamens cohering in three parcels ; 
ovarium inferior ; fruit fleshy ; seeds flat ; 
testa coriaceous. 

CUCURBITULA (dim. of cucurbita). 
A cupping-glass ; it is termed cruenta, 
when employed with scarification ; sicca, 
when unaccompanied with scarification. 

CUDBEAR. A colouring matter pre- 
pared from the lichen Lecunora tartarea, 
and named from Sir Cuthbert Gordon. 

CULINARY (cwZiwa, akitchen). Any 
thing appertaining to the kitchen. 

CULM. The name of the peculiar 
stem of grasses, sedges, &c. 

CUMINUM CYMINUM. The Offi- 
cinal Cumin ; an Umbelliferous plant, 
yielding the fruit incorrectly termed cu- 
min seeds. It is principally used in vete- 
rinary surgery. 

Cumen or cymen. One of the two oils 
composing oil of cumin ; a carbo-hydro- 
gen. The other is an oxygenated oil, 
called hydruret of cumyl. Cumyl is a 
hypothetical base. 

CUNEIFORM (cuneus,3.v;eAge, forma, 
likeness). Wedgelike; the name of three 
bones of the foot, the inner, middle, and 
outer cuneiform. 

CUPEL (kuppel, German). A small 
flat cMp-like crucible, made of bone ash. 

Cupellatior,. The process of purifjing 
gold and silver by melting them with 
lead, which becomes first oxidated, then 
vitrified, and sinks into the cupel, carry- 
ing along with it all the baser metals, 
and leaving the gold or silver upon its 
siu-face. 

CUPOLA. The dome-like extremity 
of the canal of the cochlea. 

CUPPING. The abstraction of blood 
by the application of the cupping-glass. 

CUPRUM (quasi ces Cyprium, from the 
island of Cyprus). Copper ; a red metal, 
found in America, and some parts of 
England. By the alchemists it was called 
Venus. See Copper. 

1. Cupri sulphas. Sulphate of copper, 
also called blue vitriol, Roman vitriol, 
blue copperas, blue stone, and bisulphate 
of copper. 

2. Cupro-sulphas ammonice. Cupro- 
sulphate of ammonia, commonly called 
ammoniated copper, or ammoniuret of 
copper. 

3. Cupri sub-acetas. Subacetate of 



CUT 



CYC 



copper, the jerugo of the ancients ; it is 
frequently termed diacetate of copper. 

4. Cuprl acetax. Acetate of copper, 
improperly called distilled or crystallized 
verdigris. 

CUPULIFER.E {cupula, a small cup). 
The Oak tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Trees or shrubs with leaves alternate ; 
flowers amentaceous, dioecious, apetalous ; 
oifarii/m inferior, inclosed in a cupule ; 
fruit a horny or coriaceous nut. 

CURA FAMIS. Abstinence ; or, Ute- 
rally, regard for fasting. 

CURARINE. An alkaloid, extracted 
from the Curara or Urali, a substance 
used by the Indians for poisoning ar- 
rows. 

CURCUMA LONGA [kurkum, Persian 
for saffron). The Long-rooted Turmeric, 
the tubers of which yield the turmeric of 
commerce. 

1 . Curcuma angustifolia. The Narrow- 
leaved Turmeric, the tubers of which 
yield the East Indian Arrow-root of com- 
merce. 

2. Curcuma Zedoaria. The species 
which yields the aromatic rhizome called 
zedoary root. 

3. Curcuma Zerumbet. The species, 
perhaps, which yields the aromatic rhi- 
zome called Zerumbet root. 

CURCUMA PAPER. Paper stained 
with a decoction of turmeric, and em- 
ployed by chemists as a test of free alkali, 
by the action of which it receives a brown 
stain. 

CURCUMINE. The colouring matter 
of turmeric, obtained in a state of purity 
by separating it from its combination 
with oxide of lead. 

CURD. The coagulum which sepa- 
rates from milk, upon the addition of 
acid, rennet, or wine. 

CUSPARIA BARK. Angostura Bark. 
The produce, according to Humboldt, of 
the Galipea cusparia ; according to Dr. 
Hancock, of the G. officinalis. 

CUSPIDATI {cuspis, a point). The 
canine or eye-teeth. See Dens. 

CUTANEUS MUSCULUS {cutis, sUn). 
A name of the platysma myoides, or 
latissimus colli, a muscle of the neck ; it 
has the appearance of a very thin fleshy 
membrane. 

CUTICLE (dim. of cutis). The epi- 
dermis or scarf-skin ; under this is the 
cutis vera, or derma, the true skin ; and 
between these is the rete mucosum. 

CUTIS (Ki^Tor, the skin). The derma, 
or true skin, as distinguished from the 
cuticle, epidermis, or scarf-skin. 
89 



Cutis anserina. Goose-skin ; an effect 
of cold upon the skin, in which the cuta- 
neous tissue becomes dry and shrivelled, 
while the bulbs of the hairs become ele- 
vated and manifested. 

CUVETTE (a spoon). "A spnon-\\\e 
instrument for the extraction of the cata- 
ract. 

CYAN'OGEN {Kvavov, blue. Yevmai, to 
generate; so called from its being an 
essential ingredient in Prussian blue). 
Bi- carburet of nitrogen ; a gas. It forms, 
with oxygen, the cyanic, cyanous, and 
fulminic acids ; and with hydrogen, the 
hydro-cyanic or prussic. All its com- 
pounds, which are not acid, are termed 
cyanides or cyanurets 

CYANOPATHIA {Kvaw^, blue, Traf^or, 
disease). Blue disease; another term for 
cyanosis. 

CYANO'SIS {Kvavaiai^, the giving a 
blue colour, from Kvavo^, blue). Morbus 
I Cceruleus. Blue disease ; blue jaundice 
of the ancients : a disease in which the 
complexion is tinged with venous blood, 
from malformation of the heart. The 
term has been derived from Kvavo^ voarot, 
literally, blue disease; and it is synony- 
mous with plethora venosa. 

CY'ATHUS {Kvaeo<:, a drinking-cup). 
A wine-glass, which may be estimated to 
contain an ounce and a half— as much as 
one could easily swallow at once. See 
Cochleare. 

CYCAS CIRCINALIS. An East In- 
dian Palm tree, the soft centre of which 
yields a kind of sago. 

CYCLO-BRANCHIA {kvkXo^, a circle, 
/3pd7X'"> gills). Ring-gilled animals, as 
the chiton : Order 9, class Gasteropoda. 

CYCLO-GANGLIATA {kvkXo^, a cir- 
cle, 7077X401/, a nerve-knot). A term 
applied by Dr. Grant to the Fourth sub- 
kingdom of animals, or Mollusca, com- 
prising animals mostly aquatic, slow- 
moving, or fixed, without internal skele- 
ton, covered with a permanent calcareous 
or cartilaginous shell, and distinguished 
by the high development of the cerebral 
ganglia, and their circular distribution 
around the oesophagus. The classes are 
the Tunicata, Conchifera, Gasteropoda, 
Pteropoda, and Cephalopoda. 

CYCLO-NEURA {kvkXo^, a circle, veZ- 
pov, a nerve). A term applied by Dr. 
Grant to the First sub-kingdom of ani- 
mals, or Radiata, as expressive not only 
of the circular form of the nervous axis 
in this division, but also of its rudi- 
mental state of simple filaments. The 



C YR 



C YT 



classes are Poriphera, Polypiphera, Ma- 
lactinia, and Ecliinoderma. 

CYCLO'SIS [KvKXoi, a circle). A cir- 
cular movement of the globular particles 
of the sap, as observed in the cells of 
Chara and Kitella, and in the jointed 
hairs projecting from the cuticle of 
several other plants. A similar motion 
has been recently found by Mr. Lister to 
exist in a great number of Polypiferous 
Zoophytes. 

CYCLO-STOMI {KvKXoi, a circle, aro- 
/ua, a mouth). Ring-mouthed fishes, as 
the lamprey : Order 9, class Pisces. 

CYDONIA VULGARIS. The Com- 
mon Quince, a Pomaceous plant, the 
seeds of which are employed in medicine 
for the sake of their mucilage, which is 
called bassorin, or more strictly cydonin. 

CYME. A form of inflorescence resem- 
bling an umbel and a corymb, but with 
a centrifugal expansion, indicated by the 
presence of a solitary flower in the axis 
of the dichotomous ramifications. 

CYNANCHE {kvoov, a dog, S-yx*'. to 
strangle). Literally, dog-choke. Squin- 
ancy, sqmncy, quincy, sore throat, throat 
disorder. " The disease is supposed by 
some to be named from its occasioning a 
noise in breathing like that made by dogs 
when being strangled. By others it is 
said to be from the patient being obliged 
to breathe like a dog, with open mouth 
and protruded tongue."— Forbes. 

CYNAPIA. An alkaloid discovered 
in the JEthusa Cynapium, or lesser hem- 
lock. 

CYNIPS QUERCIFOLII. Ahymen- 
opterous insect, whose habitation is the 
gall of the oak. The gall itself is called 
cynipis nidus, or the nest of the cynips. 

CYNOLYSSA {kv<^v, a dog, X.;<7<7a, 
madness). Canine madness. 

CYNOREXIA [kvuv, a dog, opeftr, ap- 
petite). Canine appetite. 

CYNOSBATUS {Kvav, a dog, ^uto^, a 
bramble). Rosa canina. The dog-rose, 
which yields the hep of medicine. 

CYRTO'SIS (Ki/pTor, curved). A term 
denoting, among the ancients, a recurva- 
tion of the spine, or posterior crooked- 
ness ; as lordosis denoted procurvation of 
the head, or anterior crookedness. It 
has, more recently, been termed cyrto- 
nosos, or " morbus incurvus." See Hy- 
bosis. 

90 



CYSTIS {Kimr,,, a bladder). By this 
term is meant an accidental membrane, 
forming a sort of shut sac, and containing 
a liquid or half-liquid matter, secreted 
by the membrane which encloses it. 

1. Cystis fellea {fel, gall). The gall- 
bladder, a membranous reservoir, situ- 
ated at the under surface of the right 
lobe of the liver. 

2. Cystic duct. The duct leading from 
the gall-bladder, and uniting with the 
hepatic duct. 

3. Cystic oxide. A species of calculus, 
found in the bladder, &c. 

4. Cysticercus (KepKor, a tail). A cystose 
bladder, containing an unattached and 
almost always solitary animal. Compare 
Coenurus, and see Hydatid. 

5. Cystirrhagia (pt]yvvM, to burst forth). 
Haemorrhage from the urinary bladder. 

6. Cystirrhoea {peco, to flow). Catarrhus 
Vesicae, or Catarrh of the bladder. 

7. Cystitis. Inflammation of the blad- 
der, the nosological termination in itis 
denoting inflammation. 

8. Cystiiome (to^v, section). An in- 
strument for opening the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

9. Cystocele (k»'/X»], a tumor). A hernia 
formed by protrusion of the bladder. 

10. Cysto-plasty (TrXao-o-o), to form). A 
mode of treating vesico-vaginal fistula. 
The edges of the fistula are refreshed, 
a flap dissected oflf from the external 
labium,, and united by suture with the 
refreshed edges of the sore. 

11. Cystotomia [Toixi], section). The 
operation of opening the bladder for the 
extraction of a calculus. 

CYTISSIXA. The emetic principle of 
the Cytisus laburnum, Asarabacca, and 
Arnica montana. 

CYTISUS SCOPARIUS. Common 
Broom ; an indigenous Leguminous 
plant, of which the tops and seeds are 
employed in medicine. Salt of broom, or 
sal genistas, is obtained by burning the 
whole plant. 

CYTOBLAST (K,'-TOf, a cavity, /3\a- 
indi/w, to sprout). A nucleus observed in 
the centre of some of the bladders of the 
cellular tissue of plants, and regarded by 
Schleiden as a universal elementary or- 
gan. 



D AR 



DEC 



D 



DACRYO'MA (SaKpi/w, to weep). An 
impervious state of one or both of the 
puncta lacrjinalia; so named from the 
running down of the tear over the lower 
eye-lid. 

D^MONOMANIA {daifxoyv, a demon, 
(jLavia, madness). A species of melan- 
choly, in which the patient supposes 
himself possessed by demons.. 

DAGUERREOTYPE. A process by 
which all images produced by the camera 
obscura are retained and fixed in a few 
minutes upon surfaces of silver by the 
action of light. The name is derived 
from Daguerre, the inventor. 

DAHLINE. A vegetable principle dis- 
covered in the dahlia, similar to inulin 
and starch. 

DAMPS. The permanently elastic 
fluids which are extricated in mines. 
These are choke damp, or carbonic acid ; 
and fire damp, consisting almost solely of 
light carburetted hydrogen, exploding on 
contact with a light. 

DANDRIFF. A Saxon term for scurf 
of the head. See Pityriasis. 

DAPHNE MEZEREON. The Com- 
mon Mezereon, or Spurge Laurel; a 
plant of the order Thymelacece, yielding 
the Mezereon bark. 

1. Daphne gnidium. The bark of this 
species is employed in France as a vesi- 
catory, under the name of garou. The 
fruit is the kokkoc Kvi&to^, or Gnidian 
berry, of Hippocrates. 

2. Daphne laureola. An indigenous 
species, agreeing in property with the 
preceding. 

3. Daphnin. A peculiar crystalline 
principle, found in the Daphne mezereon, 
but not constituting its active principle. 
See Lagetta. 

DARTOS (3ep[o, to excoriate). Darsis. 
A contractile fibrous layer, situated im- 
. mediately beneath the integument of the 
scrotum. 

Dartoid tissue. The structure of the 
dartos, intermediate between muscle and 
elastic fibrous tissues. 

DARTRE (aapTor, a shell or crust, 

from 6epco, to excoriate). Tetter ; a term 

which has been used at diflferent times to 

designate almost all diseases of the skin. 

91 



DATES. The drupaceous fruit of the 
Phoenix dactylifera, or Date Palm tree. 

DATURA STRAMONIUM. The 
Common Thornapple ; a plant of the 
order Solanacece, the effects of which are 
similar to those of belladonna. 

Daturia. A vegetable alkali said to 
exist in the Datura Stramonium. 

DAUCUS C A ROTA. Common or 
Wild Carrot ; an indigenous Umbel- 
liferous plant. The officinal root is that 
of the variety sativa, the cultivated or 
garden carrot. The officinal fruits, in- 
correctly called carrot-seeds, belong to the 
wild carrot. 

1. Rob dauci. Carrot juice ; the ex- 
pressed juice of the carrot root. By 
standing, a feculent matter, called amy- 
lum dauci, recently employed in medi- 
cine, is deposited. 

2. Carotin. A crystalline, ruby-red, 
neutral substance obtained from the carrot 
root. 

DAY-MARE. Ephialtes vigilantium. 
A species of incubus, occurring during 
wakefulness, and attended with that 
severe pressure on the chest which pe- 
culiarly characterizes night-mare. 

DAY-SIGHT. An affection of the 
vision, in which it is dull and confused 
in the dark, but clear and strong in the 
day-light ; it is also called nyctalopia, or 
night-blindness. Hens are well known 
to labour under this affection ; hence 
it is sometimes called hen-blindness. 

DEBILITY {debilis, weak). Weakness, 
feebleness, decay of strength both in mind 
and body. 

DECANDRIA (Sfxa, ten, av^p, a man). 
A class of plants in the Linnaean system, 
characterized by having ten stamens. 

DECANTATION. The pouring off of 
clear fluid from sediments, 

DECIDUA {decido, to fall off). A 
spongy membrane, or chorion, produced 
at the period of conception, and thrown 
off from the uterus after parturition. 

1. Decidua reflexa. That portion of 
the decidua which is reflected over, and 
surrounds the ovum. 

2. Decidua vera. That portion of the 
decidua which lines the interior of the 
uterus ; the non-reflected portion. 



DEL 



DEN 



DECOCTION {decoquo, to boil away) 
1. The operation of boiling. 2. A solu- 
tion of the active principles of vegetables, 
obtained by boiling them in water. 

DECOLLATION {decollo, to behead, 
from collum, the neck). Decapitation. 
The removal of the head. 

DECOMPOSITION. Analysis. The 
separation of the component parts or 
principles of bodies from each other. 

DECORTICATION {de, from, cortex, 
bark). The removal or stripping off of 
the bark, husk, &c. 

DECREPITATION {de, from, crepitus, 
crackling). The crackling noise which 
takes place when certain bodies, as com- 
mon salt, part with the water which 
they contain, by the application of heat, 
and fall to pieces. 

DECUSSATION {decusso, to cross like 
an X). A term applied to parts which 
cross each other, as the optic nerve. 

DECUSSORIUM {decusso, to divide). 
An instrument for depressing the dura 
mater, after trephining. 

DEFLAGRATION {deflagro, to be 
utterly consumed by fire). The oxidation 
of metals by mixing them with nitrate or 
chlorate of potash, and projecting the 
mixture into a red-hot crucible. 

1. Deflagrating Mixtures. These are 
generally made with nitre, the oxygen of 
which is the active ingredient in pro- 
moting their combustion. 

2. Deflagrator. The name given by 
Dr. Hare to a very effective battery, in 
which the plates were so connected to- 
gether as to admit of the v/hole being 
immersed into the exciting liquid, or 
removed from it, at the same instant. 

DEFLUXION {defluo, to flow off). 
Bestillatio. Catarrh. This term was for- 
merly used, as well as fluxion, to denote 
a swelling arising from the sudden flow 
of humors from a distant part. 

DE'FRUTUM. A mixture made of 
new wine, mentioned by Celsus. The 
term appears to be derived a dejervendo, 
contracted for defervitum, i. e. decoctum. 
See Tioh. 

DEGLUTITION {deglutio, to swallow). 
The act of swallowing. 

DEHISCENCE {dehisce, to gape or 
open). A term used in botany to denote 
the opening of a ripe fruit for the dis- 
charge of the seeds. 

DEJECTIO ALVI'NA {dejicio, to cast 
down). The discharge of the faeces. 

DELIQUESCENCE {deliqucsco, to 
melt). The property of some salts, of 
92 



becoming liquid by their attracting mois- 
ture from the air. 

DELIQUIUM ANIMI {delinqiw, to 
leave). Syncope ; fainting. 

DELIRIUM {deliro, properly, to slip 
out of the furrow ; from de, and lira, 
a furrow; figuratively, to talk or act 
extravagantly, to swerve from reason). 
Raving ; phrensy ; disorder of the brain. 

1. Delirium tremens. A barbarous ex- 
pression, intended to convey the idea of 
delirium coexisting with a tremulous 
condition of the body or limbs. It has 
been called brain fever, a peculiar dis- 
order of drunkards, delirium et mania e 
potu, delirium ebriositatis, erethismus 
ebriosorum, &c. 

2. Delirium traumalicum. A similar 
disease which occurs after serious acci- 
dents or operations. Dupuytren. 

DELITESCENCE (rfc^i/esco, to lie hid). 
A term used principally by the French 
physiologists to express a more sudden 
disappearance of the symptoms of in- 
flammation than occurs4n resolution. 

DELPHINIC ACID. An acid pro- 
cured from the oil of the Delphinus del- 
phis, or dolphin. 

DELPHINIUM STAPHISAGRIA. 
Stavesacre ; a Ranunculaceous plant, of 
narcotico-acrid properties, depending on 
the presence of a peculiar principle called 
delphinia, and a volatile acid. The seeds 
have been used to destroy pediculi, and 
are hence termed by the Germans louse- 
seeds. 

DELTOIDES (atXra, the Greek letter 
A, and ei3or, likeness). The name of a 
muscle of the humerus, from its sup- 
posed resemblance to the Greek letter A. 

DEMENTIA {de, from, mens, the 
mind). Idiotcy; absence of intellect. 

DEMI-BAIN. The French term for 
a hip-bath ; literally half-bath. 

DEMULCENTS {demulceo, to soften). 
Softening and diluting medicines. 

DENIGRATION {de, from, and niger, 
black). Another term for Melanosis, de- 
rived from its black appearance. 

DENS. A tooth. The first set of 
teeth in children, called the milk teeth, 
consists of 20, which are shed in child- 
hood, and replaced by 28 permanent 
teeth at about 7 years of age ; to which 
are added 4 denies sapientieB or wisdom 
teeth at about the age of twenty. 
The Classes of the teeth are three : — 

1. Incisores, the front or cutting teeth. 

2. Canini, or cuspidati, the eye or 
corner teeth. 

3. Molares, the grinders, the double or 



DEP 

lateral teeth. The first two pairs have 
been termed bicuspidati, from their two 
conical tubercles; the three next, the 
large grinders or multicuspidaii. 
4°. The teeth in the Adult are— 
In.^; Can. i— i; Mol. |— f=32. 
In Infants :— 
In. ^; Can.i— i; Mol. 1-^=20. 

5. In each tooth are observed, the 
Crown, above the alveolus; the Neck, 
just below the crown ; and the Fang or 
fangs, within the alveolus. 

6. The Structure of the Teeth is, 
1. Enamel, encasing the crown, and the 
hardest production of the body ; 2. Bone, 
constituting the whole of the root, and the 
interior of the crown ; and 3. the Pulp, 
a bulbous prolongation of the mucous 
membrane of the gums, which fills 
the cavity of the teeth, forming their 
nucleus. 

DENSITY {densus, thick). The pro- 
perty of a body, by which a certain quan- 
tity of matter is contained under a certain 
bulk. It is opposed to rarity. 

DENTA'TA {dens, a tooth). The name 
of the second vertebra, so called from its 
projecting tooth-like process. 

DENTIFRICE {dens, a tooth). Various 
powders used for cleaning the teeth. 

DENTITION {dentio, to breed teeth, 
from dens, a tooth). Cutting the teeth; 
teething. See Dens. 

Dedentition. The loss or shedding of 
the teeth. 

DENUDATION {denudo, to make 
bare). The laying bare of any part in 
operations. 

DEOBSTRUENTS {de, from, obstruo, 
to obstruct). Medicines for removing 
obstructions. 

DEOXIDATION {de, from, and oxida- 
tion). The separation of oxygen from 
a body; the reducing a body from the 
state of an oxide. 

DEPHLEGMATION {de, from, and 
phlegma, a watery distilled liquor, as dis- 
tinguished from a spirituous liquor). The 
depriving a body of water. Thus, when 



DER 

2. Dej.hlogisticated marine acid. The 
name given by Scheele to chlorine. 

DEPI L ATOR Y {de, from, pilus, a hair). 
An application for removing hair from 
any part of the body. 

DEPLUMATION {de, from, pluma, 
a feather). A disease of the eyelids, in 
which the hair falls off. 

DEPOSIT [depono, to lay down). A 
sediment, or any thing laid down. Tlie 
mechanical deposits of urine are divided • 
by Dr. Prout into the pulverulent, or 
amorphous sediments; the crystalline 
sediments, or gravel ; and the solid con- 
cretions, or calculi, formed by the aggre- 
gation of these latter sediments. See 
Calculus. 

DEPRESSION {deprimo, to press 
down). Couching ; an operation for cata- 
ract, consisting in the removal of the 
opaque lens out of the axis of vision, by 
means of a needle. 

DEPRESSOR {deprimo, to press 
down). A muscle which depresses any 
part, as those of the ala of the nose, of 
the angle of the mouth, of the lower lip. 

DEPRIMENS OCULI {deprimo, to 
press down). A name given to the 
rectus inferior, from the action of this 
muscle in drawing the ej'eball down. 
See AttoUens oculi. 

DERBYSHIRE NECK. A name 
given by Prosser to bronchocele, from its 
frequency in the hilly parts of that 
county. 

DERBYSHIRE SPAR. Fluor spar, 
or blue-john. Fluate of lime; a combina- 
tion of calcareous earth with fluoric acid, 
found abundantly in Derbyshire. 

DERIVATION {derivo, to draw off 
water from its regular channel). Revul- 
sion, or drawing away of the fluids of an 
inflamed part, by applying blisters, &c., 
over it, as in pleuritis ; or at a distance 
from it, as sinapisms to the feet, in co- 
matose affections. Agents, producing 
this effect, are termed derivatives 

DERMA {bipixa). Dermis, or chorium. 
The cutis vera, or true skin, consisting 
of a superficial or papillary layer, and 



the fluid is simply rendered stronger, as , a deep layer or coriuni. See Cuticle. 



the case of alcohol, by bringing over 
the spirit by distillation, and leaving be- 
hind the superfluous water, the process 
is called dephlegmation, or concentration. 

DEPHLOGISTICATED {de, from, and i 
phlogiston, the inflammable principle). 
Oxidised ; deprived of phlogiston. 

1 . Dephlogisticated air. Oxygen gas ; 



1 . Dermic. A term applied to the ac- 
tion of remedies through the skin. 

2. Dermoid (eZ-Jor, likeness). A term 
applied to tissues which resemble skin. 

DERMATOLYSIS {6tpfxa, skin, Ai/co, 
to loosen). Cutis pendula. A form of 
hypertrophy of the skin, characterized by 
great extension of this organ, which is 



called by Scheele empyreal air, and by thrown into folds, forming occasionally 
Condorcet vital air. j large pendulous masses. 

93 



DEX 



D I A 



DEROSNE'S SALT. Narcotine ; 
Opiane. A crystalline substance, ob- 
tained by treating opium with aether. 

DESCENDENS NONI. The descend- 
ing cervical branch of the ninth pair of 
nerves, or hypoglossal. 

DESICCATION {desicco, to dry up). 
The operation of drying; the state of 
being dry. 

DESPUMATION (de, from, spuma, 
foam). The clarifying of a fluid, or a 
separating its foul parts; literally, the 
throwing off of froth or foam. 

DESQUAMATION (dc, from, squama, 
a scale). The falling off of the cuticle, 
in the form of scales. 

DETERGENTS {detergo, to \sipe 
away). Substances which cleanse wounds, 
ulcers, &c. 

DETERMINATION {de, from, termi- 
nus, a bound). An excessive flow of 
blood to a part. 

DETONATION (detono, to thunder). 
A sudden combustion and explosion. 

DETRITUS {tvorn down). Suppura- 
tion; softening; ramollissement. 

DETRUSOR URINiE (detrudo, to 
thrust out). The aggregate of the mus- 
cular fibres of the bladder which expel 
the urine. 

DEUTO- (Sei'Tepof, second). A prefix 
denoting two, or double, as deut-oxide, 
having two degrees of oxidation ; deuto- 
chloride, &c. 

DEUTOXIDE (5eyT€poc, second). A 
term applied to a substance which is in 
the second degree of oxidation. This term 
is often used to denote a compound of 
3 atoms of oxygen with 2 of metal, as in 
deutoxide of manganese, of lead, &c. 

DEVONSHIRE COLIC. Colic of 
Poitou. A species of colic, occasioned by 
the introduction of lead into the system, 
and named from its frequent occurrence 
in Devonshire and Poitou, where lead 
was formerly used to destroy the acidity 
of the weak wines and cider made in 
those parts. It is also called Painters' 
colic, from the same cause. 

DEW. The moisture insensibly de- 
posited from the atmosphere on the sur- 
face of the earth. It occurs whenever 
that surface is lower in temperature 
than that of the dew-point of the atmo- 
sphere immediately in contact with it. 

Dew-point. That temperature of the 
atmosphere at which its moisture begins 
to deposit. 

DEXTRIN {dexter, right). Mucilagi- 
nous starch, prepared by boiling a solu- 
tion of starch with a few drops of sul- 



phuric acid. Its name is derived from 
its property of turning the plane of the 
polarization of light to the right hand. 

DIA {6ta). A Greek preposition, de- 
noting through. Words compounded 
with 6ict imply extension, perversion, 
transition; also that which in English 
and Latin is expressed by the prefixes 
di- or dis-, as in divido, to divide ; dis- 
jungo, to disjoin. 

1. Di-ecresis {6iaipeu>, to divide). A so- 
lution of continuity. This term was for- 
merly applied to denote a cause of exter- 
nal aneurysm. 

2. Di-arthrosis {'dpOpov, a limb). A 
species of moveable articulation, consti- 
tuting the greater proportion of the joints 
of the body. 

3. Dia-betes {/Saivbi, to go; or 6ia/3t^rr]t, 
a siphon). An immoderate flow of urine. 
This disease has been termed diarrhoea 
urinosa, hydrops ad matulam, hyderus, 
dipsacus, morbus sitibundus, fluxus 
urinae, nimia urinae profusio, polyuria. 
It is termed insipid us {tasteless), in which 
the urine retains its usual taste ; and 
mellitus (honied), in which the saccharine 
state is the characteristic symptom. 

Diabetic sugar. The sweet principle of 
most acid fruits, and of diabetic urine. 
It is also termed starch sugar, sugar of 
fruits, grape sugar, glucose, &c. 

4. Dia-chylon (xf^or, juice). An emol- 
lient digestive plaster, formerly prepared 
from expressed juices. It forms the 
Emplastrum plumbi of the Pharmaco- 
poeia. 

5. Dia-codjum {Kw8eia, a poppy-head). 
The old name of the Syrupus Papaveris, 
or sjTup of poppies. 

6. Dia-gnosis {fivwaKto, to discern). 
The act of discerning, or distinguishing, 
in general; in medicine, the distinction 
of diseases. 

7. Di~agometer Electrical {didyio, to 
conduct, yoieTpov, a measure). An appa- 
ratus used by Rousseau for ascertaining 
the conducting power of oil, as a means 
of detecting its adulteration. It consists 
of one of Zamboni's dry piles, and a 
feebly-magnetized needle, moving freely 
on a pivot. The deviation of the needle 
is less in proportion to the low conduct- 
ing power of the interposed substance. 

8. Dia-grydium, or Dia-crydium. One 
part of quince juice, and two parts of 
scammony, digested for twelve hours, 
and evaporated to dryness. 

9. Dia-luric acid {olpov, urine). Anew 
acid produced by the decomposition of 
alloxantin. 



D I A 



D I C 



10. Dia-lyses ^Xwco, to dissolve). Solu- 
tions of continuity. An order in the 
Class Locales, of CuUen, 

11. Di-optrics (onrofxat, to see). The 
laws of refracted light. 

12. Di-orthosis (bp06a>, to regulate). 
The restoration of parts to their proper 
situation ; one of the ancient divisions of 
surgery. 

13. Dia-pe7iie {irivTe, ^ve). Equal parts 
of myrrh, laurel berries, gentian root, 
ivory shavings, and birthwort root. 

14. Dia-pedesis (7r>j5d<o, to spring). A 
term formerly used to denote external 
aneurysm. ' Per diapedesin,' says Sil- 
vaticus, * id est, rarefactis ejus tunicis.' 

1.5. Dia-phanous (^atVo), to shine). 
Transparent; the name given by Pinel 
to the serous membranes, from their 
transparency when detached from their 
organs, as the arachnoid, the omentum, 
&c. In Chemistry, the term denotes per- 
meability to light. 

16. Dia-phoresis {(popea, to carry). In- 
creased perspiration. 

17. Diaphoretics [cpopeuy, to carry). 
Medicines which increase the natural ex- 
halation of the skin ; when they are so 
powerful as to occasion sweating, they 
have been called sudorifics. 

18. Dia-phragma {(ppdaaut, to divide). 
The midriff, or diaphragm: the trans- 
verse muscular septum which separates 
the thorax from the abdomen. 

19. Dia-phragmatic Gout. A term ap- 
plied by Butter to the affection now called 
Angina Pectoris. 

20. Dia-phragmatitis {<ppacr<Tui, to di- 
Nide). Inflammation of the diaphragm. 
A term sometimes applied to that variety 
of partial pleurisy in which the effused 
fluid exists between the base of the lung 
and the diaphragm. 

21. Dia-plnjsis {(pOw, to be ingrafted). 
A term applied to the middle part, or 
body, of the long or cylindrical bones. 

22. Dia-pnoics (Stairvor], perspiration). 
A term synonjTnous with diaphoretics 
and sudorifics. 

23. Dia-rrhcea (pe«, to flow). A flux, 
or flowing through, or looseness. It is 
termed fluxus ventris, alvus fusa, lien- 
teria, &c. 

24. Dia-scordium. The Electuarium 
opiatum astringens ; an electuary made 
of Water Germander or Scordium leaves, 
and other ingredients. 

25. Diastase. A vegetable principle, 
allied in its general properties to gluten, 
which appears in the germination of 
barley and other seeds, and converts 

95 



their starch into gum and sugar for the 
nutrition of the embryo. The name is 
derived from bitarmxi, to separate, in 
reference to its property of separating 
two supposed constituents of starch. 

26. Diastasis (du'oTnjui, to separate). 
A forcible separation of bones, without 
fracture. 

27. Diastole {diaareWa), to dilate). 
The dilatation of the heart and arteries. 
It is opposed to Systole. 

28. Dia-thermanous {6epiJ.atvi>>, to 
warm). A term denoting free per- 
meability to heat. It is synonymous 
with transcalent. 

29. Diathermancy. The property pos- 
sessed by nearly all diathermanous bodies, 

i of admitting the passage only of certain 
species of calorific rays. When the quan- 
tity of heat transmitted independently of 
the quality is to be denoted, the term 
diathermaneify has been suggested by 
Melloni, in order to preserve the same 
termination as in the word diaphaneity, 
indicating the analogous property in re- 
lation to light. 

30. Dia-thesis (TiBnui, to arrange). 
Constitutional disposition. Examples of 
diathesis are the rheumatic, the scrophu- 
lous dispositions, &c. 

31. Di-uresis {ovpem, to make water). 
A copious flow of urine. Hence the 
term diuretics is applied to medicines 
which promote the secretion of urine. 

DIADELPHIA (dli, twice, aSeX^or, 
a brother). The seventeenth class of 
plants in Linnaeus's system, in which the 
filaments of the stamens are united into 
two parcels, or brotherhoods. 

DIAMOND. A gem ; the crj'stallized 
and pure state of carbon, and the hardest 
and most brilliant body in nature. 

DIANDRIA (5ir, twice, uvrip, a man). 
The second class of plants in Linnaeus's 
system, characterized by the presence of 
two stamens. 

DIARY FEVER {dies, a day). Ephe- 
mera. The simplest form of fever, dis- 
tinguished by Dr. Fordyce as simple fever ; 
it has one series of increase and decrease, 
with a tendency to exacerbation and 
remission, for tlie most part appearing 
twice in twenty-four hours. 

DICHOTOMOUS {dixa, doubly, tpm^m, 
to divide). A term applied to stenis or 
branches which bifurcate, or are con- 
tinually divided into pairs. 

DICOTYLEDONES (Sir, twice, ko- 
rvXridwv, a seed-lobe). Plants whose 
embryo contains two cotyledons or seed- 
lobes. See Cotyledon. 



D I G 

DICROTIC (air, twice, Kpovta, to 
strike). A term applied to the pulse, 
where the artery conveys the sensation 
of a double pulsation. 

DIDYM {6l6vno^, twin). The name of 
a metal recently discovered united with 
oxide of cerium, and so called from its 
being, as it were, the /wi«-brother of 
lantanium, which was previously found 
in the same body. 

DIDYMI {didv/io^, double). Twins. 
An obsolete term for the testes. 

Epi-didymis, the body which lies above 
the testes. 

DIDYNAMIA {bh, twice, 6vva,u^, 
power). The fourteenth class of Lin- 
naeus's system of plants, characterized 
by the presence of four stamens, of which 
two are long, two short. 

DIET (blaiTa, regimen). The food 
proper for invalids. La diete, used by 
the French physicians, means extreme 
abstinence. 

1. Dietetics. That part of medicine 
which relates to the regulating of the 
diet and regimen. 

2. Diet drink. The Decoct. Sarsapa- 
rillae comp. of the PharmacopGeia. 

DIFFUSION VOLUME. A term 
adopted to express the different dispo- 
sition of gases to interchange particles ; 
the diffusion-volume of air being 1, that 
of hydrogen gas is 3-83. 

Diffusion Tube. An instrument for 
determining the rate of diffusion for dif- 
ferent gases. It is simply a graduated 
tube, closed at one end by plaster of 
Paris, a substance, when moderately dry, 
possessed of the requisite porosity. 

DIGASTRIC GROOVE. , A longitu- 
dinal depression of the mastoid process, 
so called from its giving attachment to 
the muscle of that name. 

DIGASTRICUS {dk, twice, ya(Tr',,p, a 
belly). Having two bellies ; the name 
of a muscle attached to the os hyoides ; 
it is sometimes called biventer maxillce 
inferioris. The term is also applied to 
one of the interior profundi of Meckel, 
given off by the facial nerve ; the other 
is called the stylo-hyo'ideus. 

DIGESTER. A vessel of copper or 
iron, for preventing the loss of heat by 
evaporation. 

DIGESTION {digero, from diversim 
gero, to carry into different parts). A \ 
term employed in various senses : — j 

1. In Physiologt/, the change of the 
food into chyme by the mouth, stomach, | 
and small intestines ; and the absorption 



D I O 

and distribution of the more nutritious 
parts, or the chyle, through the system. 

2. In Surgery, tlie bringing a wound 
into a state in which it forms healthy 
pus. Applications which promote this 
object are called digestives. 

3. In Chemistry, the continued action 
of a solvent upon any substance. 

DIGESTIVE SALT OF SYLVIUS. 
A salt discovered by Sylvius, since named 
muriate of potash, and now chloride of 
potassium. 

DIGITALIS PURPUREA. Purple 
Foxglove; an indigenous plant of the 
order Scrophulariacea;. The term is 
evidently derived from digitale, the finger 
of a glove, on account of the blossoms 
resembling iinger-cases. See Foxglove. 

Bigitalin. A colourless acrid substance 
obtained from the above plant. See 
Pterin. 

DIGITUS (digero, to point out). " A 
finger or a toe— pe^ altera manus. The 
fingers of the hand are the index, or fore- 
finger ; the medius, or middle finger ; the 
annularis, or ring finger ; and the au- 
ricularis, or little finger. The bones of 
the fingers are called phalanges. 

DIGYNIA (air, twice, 7ui/>;, a woman). 
The second order in Linnaeus's system 
of plants, characterized by the presence 
of two pistils. 

DILATATION {dilato, from diversim 
fero, tuli, latum). The act of enlarging 
or making wide any thing. In physiology, 
it may be a temporary act, as in the dia- 
stole of the heart; in pathology, a per- 
manent act, as in the passive aneurysm of 
that organ. 

DILL. The common name of the 
Anethum graveolens. 

DILUENTS (diluo, to dilute). Watery 
liquors, which increase the fluidity of 
the blood, and render several of the 
secreted and excreted fluids less viscid. 

DIMORPHISM (air, twice, iJ.op(pij, 
form). The property of many solid bodies 
to assume two incompatible crj'stalline 
forms ; such are sulphur, carbon, arseni- 
ous acid, &c. 

DINUS [bivt], vortex). Vertigo, or 
giddiness; illusory gj'ration of the per- 
son, or of the objects surrounding him. 

DICECIA (air, twice, otKor, a house). 
The twenty-second class of plants in 
Linnaeus's system, in which the stamens 
and pistils are in separate flowers, and on 
separate plants. 

DIOGENES'S CUP. A term applied 
to the cup-like cavity of the hand, occa- 



DI P 



DIS 



sioned by bending the metacarpal bone 
of the little finger. 

DlOSMEiE. The Buchu tribe of 
Dicotyledonous plants. Trees and slurubs 
with leaves exstipulate, dotted; flowers 
axillary or terminal, polypetalous, her- 
maphrodite ; stamens hypogynous ; ovn- 
rium many-celled; fruit consisting of 
several concrete capsules ; seeds twin or 
solitary. 

DIOXIDE. According to the electro- 
chemical theorj', the elements of a com- 
pound may, in relation to each other, be 
considered oppositely electric ; the equi- 
valents of the negative element may then 
be distinguished by Latin numerals, those 
of the positive by Greek; thus a bin- 
oxide denotes a compound which con- 
tains two equivalents of the negative 
element oxygen ; whereas a d«-oxide in- 
dicates that one equivalent of oxygen is 
combined with two of some positive body. 
And so of 6i-chloride, di-chloride, &c. 

DIPHTHERITE {di<p6epa, skin). Un- 
der this term, Bretonneau has included 
not only the acute and gangrenous vari- 
eties of pharyngitis, both of which are 
accompanied by exudation of a false 
membrane, but also inflammation of the 
trachea; and he contends that this pe- 
culiar disease is identical with croup, 
arising from the same causes, and re- 
quiring the same mode of treatment. 

DIPLOE {8nr\oZ9, double). Medi- 
tullium. The cellular osseous tissue 
between the two tables of the skull. 

DIPLO-GANGLIATA {binXoZi, double, 
7077X401/, a nerve-knot). A term applied 
by Dr. Grant to the Third Sub-kingdom 
of Animals, or Entomoida, consisting 
chiefly of articulated animals, with ar- 
ticulated members, the insects of Lin- 
naeus, having their nervous columns 
arranged in the same relative position as 
the diplo-neura, with the ganglia increased 
in size, and corresponding with the in- 
creased development of the segments and 
of their lateral appendages. The classes 
are myriapoda, insecta, arachnida, and 
Crustacea. 

DIPLO-NEURA {hnt\oZ':, double, veZ- 
poi/, a nerve). A term applied by Dr. 
Grant to the Second Sub-kingdom of 
Animals, or Helminthoida, comprising 
the various forms of Worms, in which 
the nervous columns have their gan- 
glionic enlargements very slightly de- 
veloped, and are marked by a greater 
lateral separation from each other along 
the median line, than is observed in the 
next sub-kingdom. The classes are 
97 



polygastrica, rotifera, suctoria, cirrhopo- 
da, and annulida. 

DIPLO'MA {6iiT\oifxa). OriginaUy, 
letters patent of a prince, written on 
waxed tables folded together. The term 
is now restricted to an instrument by 
which a legalized corporation confers a 
title of dignity, or a privilege to practise 
in a learned profession. 

DIPLOPIA (diirXow, double, w^i,, the 
eye, from oirrofiai, to see). Fisus dupli- 
catus. A disease of the eye, in which the 
person sees an object double or triple; 
a species of pseudoblepsis. This disease 
is of two kinds : — 1. The patient sees an 
object double, treble, &c., only when he 
is looking at it with both his eyes, the 
object appearing single on his shutting 
one eye; or, 2. The patient sees every 
object double, whether he surveys it 
with one or both his eyes. 

DIPPEL'S OIL. An animal oil pro- 
cured by the destructive distillation of 
animal matter, especially of albuminous 
and gelatinous substances. 

DIPSACUS {6i^a, thirst). A name 
formerly given to diabetes, from the 
thirst accompanying that affection. 

DIPSOSIS (d..Ao, thirst). Morbid 
thirst ; excessive or impaired desire of 
drinking. 

DIPTERA {bU, twice, -mepov, a wing). 
Two-winged insects, as the common fly, 
or gnat. Order 12, Insecta. 

DlPTEROCARPEiE. The Camphor- 
tree tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Trees 
abounding in resinous juice ; leaves alter- 
nate ; flowers polypetalous ; stamens hy- 
pogynous ; carpella concrete ; calyx tu- 
bular; fruit coriaceous. 

DIRECTOR {dirigo, to direct). A 
narrow grooved instrmnent, of silver or 
steel, used to direct the knife. 

DIRIGENS {dirigo, to direct). An 
ancient constituent in a prescription, 
meaning that which directs the operation 
of the associated substances : thus. Nitre, 
in conjunction -with Squill, is diuretic ; 
with Guaiacum, it is diaphoretic. 

DIRT-EATING. Mai d'estomac, or 
cachexia Africana ; a disease observed 
among the negroes. 

DISCUTIENTS {discutio, to shake in 
pieces). Substances which posses^ a 
power of resolving tumors. 

DISEASE. Any morbid state in ge- 
neral ; change of structure, as distin- 
guished from disorder of function in par- 
ticular. It is termed acute, when severe, 
and of short duration ; chronic, when 
less severe, and of long continuance; 



D IS 



DIS 



sporadic, when arising from occasional 
causes, as cold, fatigue ; epidemic, when 
arising from a general cause, as excessive 
heat, contagion ; endemic, when prevail- 
ing locally, as from marsh miasma ; in- 
tercurrent, when it is sporadic, occurring 
in the midst of epidemic or endemic dis- 
ease. 

DISINFECTANTS. Agents which 
destroy miasmata, both odorous and in- 
odorous. 

DISINFECTION. The purification of 
infected air. 

DISK. A term applied in botany to 
certain bodies or projections, situated be- 
tween the base of the stamens and the 
base of tl* ovary, forming part with 
neither. It is often incorrectly called 
nectary. 

DISLOCATION {disloco, to put out 
of place). A Luxation. The displace- 
ment of the articular surfaces of a bone, 
from their natural situation. 

1. Dislocations are distinguished, with 
respect to their extent, into the complete, 
or incomplete ; the latter term is applied 
when the articular surfaces still remain 
partially in contact ; this only occurs in 
ginglymoid articulations, as those of the 
foot, knee, and elbow. The complete 
luxation almost always occurs in the or- 
bicular articulations. 

2. The Direction of a Dislocation is 
named upward, downward, forward, and 
backward, in the orbicular articulations ; 
and lateral, forward, and backward, in 
the ginglymoid. 

3. Dislocations are further distin- 
guished, according to the accompanying 
circumstances, into the simple, when un- I in any menstruum 
attended by a wound, communicating, limation 
internally with the joint, and externally 
with the air; and the compound, when 
attended by such a wound. 

4. When a Dislocation occurs in con- 
sequence of a disease destroying the car- 
tilages, ligaments, and articular cavities 
of the bones, it is termed spontaneous. 

5. Desault divided Dislocations of the 
humerus into the primitive, which are 
the sudden effects of external violence ; 
and the consecutive, which follow the 
former, by the influence of other causes, 
as of a fresh fall, while the arm is se- 
parated from the trunk. 

DISPENSARY (dispense, from diver- 
simpenso, frequent, of pendeo, to distri- 
bute by weighing). A shop in which 
medicines are compounded ; and an in- 
stitution where the poor are supplied 
with medicines. 



DISPLACEMENT. A process applied 
to pharmaceutical preparations, and 
founded on the long-known fact, that 
any quantity of liquid with which a 
powder may be saturated, when put into 
a proper apparatus, may be displaced by 
an additional quantity of that or of an- 
other liquid. 

DISSECTION (disseco, to cut in 
pieces). The display of the different 
structures of the animal body, by means 
of the scalpel. 

DISSEPIMENT (dissepio, to separate). 
Septum. A term applied, in botany, to 
the partition which divides the capsule 
into cells. 

DISTEMPER. Catarrhus caninus. 
An affection occurring among dogs, and 
vulgarly called the snaffles, or snuffles, 
from the state of the nostrils. 

DISTENTION {distendo, to stretch 
out). The dilatation of a hollow viscus 
by too great accumulation of its con- 
tents. 

DISTICHI A (Sir, twice, <tt«xov, a row). 
Distichiasis. A term applied by Gorraeus, 
Heister, and St. Ives, to an affection in 
which each tarsus has a double row of 
eyelashes, which, inclining inward, irri- 
tate the eye, and keep up ophthalmia. 
See Trichiasis. 

DISTILLATION {distillo, to drop by 
little and little). The vaporization and 
subsequent condensation of liquids, by 
means of a retort, alembic, or still. Dry 
distillation is performed in the same 
way as the humid, except that the sub- 
stance is neither immersed nor dissolved 
It is termed sub- 



1. Distillation destructive. The sub- 
jection of bodies to a red heat in close 
vessels, and the collection of the pro- 
ducts. 

2. Destillatio per latus, in which the 
vapour passes laterally from the retort to 
the receiver, where it is condensed. 

3. Destillatio per ascensum, in which 
the vapour ascends into the head of the 
still, and thence passes into the worm, 
before it is condensed. 

4. Destillatio per descensum, in which 
the vapour descends into a lower cavity 
of the vessel, to be condensed, the fire 
being placed over the materials. 

DISTOMA HEPATICUM (dir, twice, 
o-To/ia, the mouth, riirap, the liver). The 
fluke, a worm sometimes found in the 
liver and gall-bladder of man, but more 
commonly of sheep, goats, &c. 



98 



DOR 



DOU 



DISTORTION {dtstorqueo, to wrest 
aside). A term applied to the spine, or 
limbs, when they are bent from their na- 
tural form. 

DISTORTOR ORIS (distorqueo, to 
twist on one side). A name given to one 
of the zygomatic muscles, from its dis- 
torting the mouth, as in rage, grinning, 
&c. 

DISTRIX (aJf, twice, Spif, the hair). 
Forky hair; a disease of the hair, in 
which it splits at the ends. 

DIU'RESIS {6in, through, oiipeca, to 
make water). A large flow of urine. 

Diuretics. Medicines which augment 
the urinary discharge. 

DIURNATION {diurnus, daily). A 
term introduced by Dr. M. Hall to ex- 
press the state of some animals, as the 
bat, during the day, contrasted with their 
activity at night. Compare Hybernation. 

DIVARICATION (divarico, to strad- 
dle). The bifurcation, or separating into 
two, of an artery, a nerve, &c. 

DIVERTICULUM NUCKII. The 
opening through which the round liga- 
ment of the uterus passes. 

DIVI-DIVI. The legume of the Ca;s- 
alpinia coriaria, imported from Carthage. 
It abounds in tannin. 

DOBEREINER'S LAMP. A method 
of producing an instantaneous light, by 
throwing a jet of hydrogen gas upon 
recently-prepared spongy platinum; the 
metal instantly becomes red hot, and 
then sets fire to the gas. This discovery 
was made in 1 824, by Prof. Dobereiner of 
Jena. 

DODECANDRIA {dtiSeKa, twelve, 
avr]p, a man). The eleventh class of 
plants in the Linneaen system, charac- 
terized by the presence of from twelve to 
nineteen stamens. 

DOG-ROSE. Rosa Canina. Cynosba- 
tum. The ripe fruit is called hip or hep, 
and is used for making the confection of 
that name. 

DOKIMASTIC ART (doKiixd^t^, to 
prove by trial). The art of assaying. 

DOLICHOS PRURIENS. Mucuna 
pruriens. Cowhage, vulgo, cow-itch; a 
plant of the order LeguminoscB. 

Dolichi pubes. L. The stiff hairs of 
the Dolichos pods, employed as a me- 
chanical anthelmintic. 

DOLOMITE. A magnesian lime-stone ; 
a mixture or combination of the carbon- 
ates of lime and magnesia, having the 
crystalline form of calc-spar, 

DORE'MA AMMONIACUM(da.pn/tiu, 
a gift). The Ammoniacum Dorema; an 



Umbelliferous plant, which yields the 
ammoniacum of commerce, or the Per- 
sian ammoniacum. It occurs in the tear 
and in lump. African ammoniacum is 
the produce of the Ferula tingitana. 

DORONICUM MONTANUM. Arnica 
montana. Mountain Tobacco, or Leo- 
pard's Bane ; a virulent plant of the order 
Composites, said to owe its noxious qua- 
lities to the presence of cytisine. On the 
continent it has obtained the name of 
panacea lapsorum. 

DORSTENI A. A genus of Urticaceoui 
plants, in which the flowers are arranged 
upon a fleshy receptacle, usually flat and 
expanded, and of very variable form. 
The D. Braziliensis is said to yield the 
contrajerva root which occurs in the 
shops. See Contrajerva. 

DORSUM (Latin). The back; the 
round part of the back of a man or 
beast. 

1. Dorsal. Appertaining to the back, 
as applied to a region, ligaments, &c. 

2. Dorsi-spinal. A set of veins, form- 
ing a plexus around the spinous, trans- 
verse, and articular processes and arches 
of the vertebrae. 

3. Dor so-cervical. The designation of 
the region at the back part of the neck. 

DOSE (b6ai<!, from dl6oifj.i, to give). 
A determinate quantity of a thing given. 
Rule. — For children under twelve years, 
the doses of most medicines must be 
diminished in the proportion of the age, 
to the age increased by 12. Thus— 

1 + 12 = 1^ 

2 + U = ^ = }, 
3+ 12 = t^ = | 

4 + 12 = -^= I 

5 + 12 = ^ = ^ ^ nearly. 
At 21 the full dose may be given. 

It should be carefully remembered, 
however, that infants bear opiates far 
worse, and purgatives better, than ac 
cording to the rule. See Appendix. 

DOSSIL. A term applied to lint, when 
made up in a cylindrical form. 

DOTHINENTE'RITE (3o6»tv^, a pus- 
tule, evrepov, an intestine). A term ap- 
plied by M. Bretonneau to inflammation 
of the glands of Peyer and Brunner. 

DOUBLER. An instrument employed 
in electrical experiments, and s6 con- 
trived that, by executing certain move- 
ments, very small quantities of electricity 
communicated to a part of the apparatus 
may be continually doubled, until it be- 
comes perceptible by an electroscope. 

DOUCHE {duccia). Cold affusion. 
F 2 



DRO 



DUG 



The term applied to a column or current of • epithet encysted, it designates a collection 



fluid directed to, or made to fall on, some 
part of the body. According as the fluid 
employed is water or aqueous vapour, 
the application is called the liquid douche, 
or the vapour douche. According to the 
direction in which it is applied, we have 
the desce?iding, the lateral, and the 
ascending douche. 

DOVE-TAIL JOINT. The suture or 
serrated articulation, as of the bones of 
the head. 

DOVER'S POWDER. A valuable 
sudorific ; consisting of the Pulvis Ipeca- 
cuanhce Compositus of the pharmaco- 
poeia. 

DRACINE {draco, a dragon). A pre- 
cipitate formed by mixing cold water 
with a concentrated alcoholic solution of 
dragon's blood. 

DRACUNCULUS (dim. of draco, a 
dragon). The Guinea Worm, which 
breeds under the skin, and is common 
among the natives of Guinea, &c. 

DRAGANTIN. A mucilage obtained 
from gum tragacanth. 

DRAGON'S BLOOD. Sanguis dra- 
conis. A term applied to certain resinous 
substances, mostly obtained from some 
palms of the genus Calamus; to a pro- 
duct of the Dracaena draco; also to a 
substance obtained from the Pterocarpus 
draco. 

DRASTICS (apdo), to effect). Purga- 
tives which operate powerfully. 

DRAUGHT. Haustus. A liquid form 
of medicine, diifering from a mixture 
only in quantity. It is usually taken at 
once, and should not exceed an ounce 
and a half. 

DRENCH. A form of medicine used 
in farriery, analogous to a draught. 

DRIMYS WINTERI. Wintera aro- 
matica. The plant which yields the bark 
called Winter's bark. Under the name 
of casca d'anta, it is much used in Brazil 
against colic. It was employed by Winter 
in scurvy, but is now obsolete. 

DRIVELLING. Slavering ; an invo- 
luntary flow of saliva, from a want of 
command over the muscles of degluti- 
tion. 

DROPS. Guttce. A form of medicine 
in which the dose is measured by drops, 
as ague drop, black drop, &c. 

DROPSY (from the Greek, Mpwif^— 
Latin, hydrops: — Th. vdwp, water, and 
u)\l/, the look or aspect). Aqua inter 
cutem. An effusion into the cellular 
tissue, or into any of the natural cavities 
of the body. With the addition of the 
100 



of serous fluid in a sac, of which the 

ovarium is most frequently the seat. 

See Hydrops. 

DRUPE. A pulpy fruit, without a 
valve or outward opening, containing a 
bony nut, as the cherry. It is commonly 
called a stone-fruit. 

DRY CUPPING. The appUcation of 
the cupping-glass, without scarification, 
in order to produce revulsion of blood 
from any part of the body. 

DRY PILE. The name of a galvanic 
apparatus, constructed with pairs of 
metallic plates, separated by layers of 
farinaceous paste mixed with common 
salt. The name is inappropriate, as the 
apparatus evidently owed its efficacy to 
the moisture of the paste. 

DRY ROT. A species of decay to 
which wood is subject. The wood loses 
all its cohesion, and becomes friable, and 
fungi generally appear upon it ; but the 
first destructive change is probably of a 
chemical kind, allied to the action of fer- 
mentation. — Graham. 

DRY VOMIT OF MARRIOTT. A 
vomit exhibited without drink, and con- 
sisting of equal proportions of tartarized 
antimony and sulphate of copper. 

DRYOBALANOPS AROMATICA. A 
tree of the order Dipteracese, yielding a 
liquid called camphor oil, and a crystal- 
line solid termed Sumatra or Borneo 
camphor. 

DUCTILITY {duco, to draw). That 
property of bodies by which they admit 
of being drawn out into wire 

DUCTUS {duco, to lead). A duct ; a 
conduit-pipe for the conveyance of liquid. 

1. Ductus hepaticus. The duct which 
results from the conjunction of the proper 
ducts of the liver. 

2. Ductus cysticus. The excretory 
duct, which leads from the neck of the 
gall-bladder to join the hepatic, forming 
with it the following duct. 

3. Ductus communis choledochus. The 
bile duct, formed by the junction of the 
cystic and hepatic ducts. 

4. Ductus pancreaticus. The pancreatic 
duct M'hich joins the gaU-duct, at its 
entrance into the duodenum. Near the 
duodenum, this duct is joined by a 
smaller one, called ductus pancreaticus 
minor. 

5. Ductus arteriosus. A tube which, 
in the foetus, joins the pulmonary' artery 
with the aorta. It degenerates, after 
birth, into a fibrous cord. 

6. Ductus venosus. A branch which. 



DUL 

in the foetus, joins the inferior vena cava 
with the umbilical vein. 

7. Ductus ad nasum. A duct con- 
tinued from the lacrymal sac, and open- 
ing into the inferior meatus of the 
nose. 

8. Ductus incisorius. A continuation 
of the foramen incisivum between the 
palatine processes into the nose. 

9. Ductus lymphaticus dexter. A duct 
formed by the lymphatics of the right 
side of the thorax, &c., and opening into 
the junction of the right jugular and sub- 
clavian veins. 

10. Ductus prostatici. The ducts of 
the prostate, from twenty to twenty-five 
in number, opening into the prostatic 
uretlira, on each side of the veru mon- 
tanum. 

11. Ductus deferens. Another name 
for the vas deferens, which arises from 
the tail of the epididymis, and enters the 
spermatic cord. 

12. Ductus galactoferi vel lactiferi. 
Milk- ducts, arising from the glandular 
grains of the mamma, and terminating 
in sinuses near the base of the nipple. 

13. Ductus thoracicus. The great 
trunk formed by the junction of the ab- 
sorbent vessels. 

14. Ductus thoracicus dexter. A de- 
signation of the right great lymphatic 
vein, formed of lymphatic vessels arising 
from the axillary ganglia of the right 
side. 

15. Ductus ejaculatorius. A duct 
within the prostate gland, opening into 
the urethra; it is about three quarters of 
an inch in length. 

16. Duct of Steno. The excretory duct 
of the parotid gland. 

17. Duct of Wharton. The excretory 
duct of the submaxillary gland. These 
two last, with the sublingual, constitute 
the salivary ducts. 

18. Ducts of Belini. The orifices of 
the uriniferous canals of the kidneys. 

DUELECH. A term employed by Van 
Helmont to denote the state in which 
the spirit of urine is precipitated when it 
forms calculous concretions. 

DULCAMARA (dulcis, sweet, amarus, 
bitter). Woody Nightshade, or Bitter- 
sweet ; a species of Solanum. The twigs 
of this plant yield a salifiable principle 
called solanine ; a bitter principle, of a 
honey smell and sweet after-taste, called 
picro-glycion ; and a sweet principle, 
called dulcarine. 

DULCEDO SPUTORUM. The name 
given by Frank to sweet-spittle, or that 
101 



D YS 

form of ptyalism, in which the saliva is 
distinguished by a sweet or mawkish 
taste. 

DUMASINE. An empyreumatic oil, 
obtained by rectifying acetone derived 
from the acetates. 

DUNT. The provincial name of a 
staggering affection, particularly observed 
in yearling lambs, occasioned by hydatids 
of the brain. 

DUODENUM {duodeni, twelve). Ven- 
triculus succenturiatus. The twelve- inch 
intestine, so called from its being equal 
in length to the breadth of twelve 
fingers ; the first portion of the small 
intestines, beginning from the pylorus. 
The inner surface of the duodenum is 
covered by a mucous membrane, pre- 
senting a number of folds, called the 
valvulce conniventes. 

DUPLUM (duo, two, plica, a fold). 
Two-fold, as rfwpZo-carburet, two-fold 
carburet. 

DURA MATER {hard mother). Me- 
ninx exterior. The outermost membrane 
of the brain. See Matres. 

DURA'MEN {durus, hard). The in- 
terior, more deeply-coloured, and harder 
portion of the trunk and branches of 
trees, commonly called heartwood, as dis- 
tinguished from the exterior portion, 
alburnum, or sapwood. 

DUTCH GOLD. An alloy of copper 
and zinc, in which the zinc is in greater 
proportion than it exists in brass. It is 
allied to tombac and pinchbeck. 

DUTCH MINERAL. MetalUc copper 
beaten out in very thin leaves. 

DUTCH PINK. Chalk or whiting, 
dyed yellow, with a decoction of birch- 
leaves, French berries, and alum. 

DYES. Colouring matters, derived 
from vegetable substances. Colouring 
matters form, with several metallic ox- 
ides, insoluble compounds called lakes. 

DYS- (ay?). An adverb, signifying 
with difficulty; badly . Hence — 

1. Dys-cBsthesia (aiaBdvotxai, to per- 
ceive). Impaired feeling. Dr. Young 
terms defective memory dyscesthesia in- 
terna. 

2. Dys-cataposia (Karawoo-tr, the act of 
swallowing, from Ka-Tai^iviD, to swallow). 
Difficulty of swallowing liquids ; a term 
applied by Dr. Mead to hydrophobia. 

3. Dys-chroa (xpoa, colour). A dis- 
coloured state of the skin. 

4. Dys-cinesia (xtveco, to move). Im- 
perfect motion. 

5. Dys-crasia (Kpao-ir, the state of the 

F 3 



EAR 



E AU 



blood, &c., from Kepdvvv^ii, or Kepati>, to 
mix). A morbid state of the consti- 
tution. 

6. Dys-ecoea {aKoij, hearing). Cophosis. 
Impaired hearing. 

7. Dys-entery (€vrepa,thehoyfels). In- 
flammation of the mucous lining of the 
large intestines. By certain French 
writers it is named colite; and in com- 
mon language it is termed ^mo:, or bloody 
flux, Eiccording as the intestinal dis- 
charges are free from blood or sangui- 
nolent. 

8. Dys-lysin (Xvat^, solution). An in- 
gredient of bilin, which remains undis- 
tolved, as a resinous mass, during the 
solution and digestion of bUin in dilute 
hydrochloric acid. 

9. Dyt-menorrhoea (fxrjv, a month, pe«, 
to flow). Difficult or painful menstru- 
ation. 

10. Dys-odes (ofw, to smell). Having 
a bad smell; a term applied by Hippo- 
crates to a fetid disorder of the small 
intestines. 

11. Dys-opia (&>/', an eye). Impaired 
sight. 



12. JDys-orexia {ope^n, appetite). De- 
praved appetite. 

13. Dys-pepsia {neirrui, to concoct). 
Indigestion ; difficulty of digestion. 

14. Dys-phagia (^070), to eat). Diffi- 
culty of swallowing ; choking. 

15. Dys-phonia (<pa>vr], voice). Diffi- 
culty of speaking. 

16. Dys-phoria ((pep<o, to bear). In- 
quietude; a difficulty of enduring one- 
self; it embraces the affections of anxiety 
and fidgets. 

17. Dys-pnoea {itveut, to breathe). Dif- 
ficult respiration; short breath; short- 
windedness ; pursiness ; phthisic. 

18. Dys-spermatismus {(TTrepua, semen). 
Slow or impeded emission of semen. 

19. Dys-tochia (TtKrco, to bring forth). 
Difficult parturition. 

20. Dys-uria [olpov, urine). Suppres- 
sion or difficulty in discharging the urine ; 
painful micturition. Total suppression 
is called ischuria; partial suppression, 
dysuria ; the aggravated form, when the 
urine passes by drops, strangury; when 
the discharge is attended with heat or 
pain, this is termed ardor urinee. 



E 



EAR. Auris. The" organ of hearing. 
It consists of three parts ; viz. , the ex- 
ternal ear ; the middle ear, or tympanum- 
and the internal ear, or labyrinth. 

Ear-wax. Cerumen aurium ; the waxy 
secretion of the meatus externus. 

EARTH. The general term for the 
materials which compose the crust of the 
globe. In chemical language the earths 
are termed metallic oxides; four of these, 
viz., baryta, strontia, lime, and magnesia, 
are termed, from their properties, alka- 
line earths. To these must be added,— 

1. Alumina, or clay; the oxide of alu- 
minum ; argillaceous earth, constituting 
the basis of sapphire, pipe-clay, slate, &c. 

2. Glucina, the oxide of glucinum ; 
foimd in the euclase, beryl, and emerald. 

3. Yttria, the oxide of yttrium ; found 
in the gadolinite of Ytterby. 

4. Thorina, the oxide of thorium ; pro- 
cured from the mineral thorite. 

5. Zirconia, the oxide of zirconium ; 
forming the bulk of hyacinth. 

6. Silica, the oxide of silicium ; con- 
stituting almost the whole of flint, opal, 
amethyst, rock crystal. &c. 

102 



EARTH-BATH. A remedy consisting 
literally of a bath of earth, used on the 
continent. 

EARTH OF ALUM. A preparation 
used in making paints, and procured by 
precipitating the earth from alum dis- 
solved in water, by adding ammonia or 
potass. 

EARTH OF BONE. A phosphate of 
lime, sometimes called bone phosphate, 
existing in bones after calcination. 

EAU. The French term for water; 
the name of a distilled water. 

1 . Eau de Babade. A liqueur manu- 
factured in Barbados from lemon-peel. 

2. Eau de Cologne, Aqua Coloniensis, 
or Cologne water; a perfume, and an 
evaporating lotion in headache, fever, 
&c. 

3. Eau de Javelle. Bleaching liquid, 
or the Aqua Alkalina Oxymuriatica of 
the Dublin pharmacopoeia. 

4. Eau de Luce. The tinct. ammoriiae 
comp. of the pharmacopoeia. The French 
name is derived from that of an apothe- 
cary at Lille. 

5. Eau de Naphre. Aqua naphae. A 



ECL 



EDU 



bitter aromatic water, prepared by dis- 
tilling the leaves of the Seville orange 
with water. 

6. Eau de Rahel. Aqua Rabelliana. 
So named from its inventor, the empiric 
■Rabel. It consists of one part of sul- 
phuric acid and three of rectified spirit of 
wine, constituting a sort of sulphuric 
ether. 

7. Eau de Vie. Aqua vitae. Ardent 
spirit of the first distillation. 

EBLANIN. Pyroxanthin. A sub- 
stance obtained from raw pyroxylic 
spirit. 

EBULLITION {ebullio, to bubble up). 
The boiling or bubbling of liquids ; the 
production of vapour at the boiling point. 

EBUR USTUM NIGRUM. Cologne 
black. Ivory black ; charcoal prepared 
from charred ivory shavings. 

ECBOLICA (€K^6\iov, a medicine 
which expels the foetus). Amblotica. 
Medicines which excite uterine contrac- 
tions, and thereby promote the expulsion 
of the contents of the uterus. 

ECCHYMOMA (^»cx^«, to pour out). 

A term synonymous with Ecchymosis, or 

extravasation, or that form of the aifec- 

tion which takes the name vibices; it is 

5 sometimes called crustula and sugillatio. 

i Ecchymoma lymphatica. A term which 

T has been given to puerperal tumid-leg, 

or phlegmasia dolens. 

ECCHYMO'SIS {kKxva, to pour out). 
Extravasated blood, from bruises; in 
typhus, purpura, &c. It assumes the 
several forms of— 

1. PetechicB. Stigmata, or specks. 

2. Vibices, or ecchymomata. Patches. 

3. Sanguineous discharges. 
ECCRITICA {eKKpivo, to strain off). 

Diseases of the excernent function. 

ECCYESIS (eKKueoj, to be pregnant). 
Extra-uterine fcetation ; imperfect foeta- 
tion in some organ exterior to the uterus, 
as in one of the ovaria, the Fallopian 
tube, or the cavity of the abdomen. 

ECHI'NUS {kxlvos, the sea hedge-hog). 
A calcareous petrifaction of the echinus. 

Echino-derma {Sepfia, skin). The 
fourth class of the Cyclo-neura, or Radi- 
ata, consisting of simple aquatic animals, 
covered with a spiny shell or a coriaceous 
skin. 

ECLAMPSIA (6K\a/u7rw, to shine forth). 
Circuit ignei. Convulsive motions, espe- 
cially of the mouth, eyelids, and fingers, 
80 excessively rapid that it is often diffi- 
cult to follow them. 

ECLEGMA (eKXei'xw, to lick). Linctus ; 
linctuarium. A pharmaceutical prepa- 
103 



ration of a certain consistence, and of 
a sweet flavour. See Lohoch. 

ECPHLYSIS {eK<pXvCoo, to bubble up). 
"Vesicular eruption confined in its action 
to the surface. This term comprehends 
the several species of pompholyx, herpes, 
rhypia, and eczema. Compare Emphlysis. 

ECPHRONIA (^K^ptoi/, out of one's 
mind). Insanity ; craziness ; a term 
comprising the species melancholy and 
madness. 

ECPHYMA (6K0y<a, to spring out). A 
cutaneous excrescence, including the 
several species verruca, caruncula, cla- 
vus, callus. 

ECPYESIS (eKTTueo), to suppurate). 
Humid scall, including the species im- 
petigo, porrigo, ecthyma, and scabies. 
Compare Empyesis. 

ECSTASIS (ef/ffTOMat, to be out of 
one's senses). Ecstasy, or trance, 

ECTHYMA {eKOvoi, to break out). An 
eruption on the skin. Irritable pustule. 
Papulous scall. Tetter ; ulcerated tetter. 
Inflammation of the sebaceous follicles, 
characterized by phlyzaceous pustules. 

ECTOPIiE (k, out, TOTTOf, a place). 
Displacement of bones ; luxations. 

ECTROPIUM (eKTpeTrco, to evert). 
Eversio palpebrce. E version of the eye- 
lids. Compare Entropium. 

ECZEMA (€K^6a), to boil out). Lite- 
rally, that which is thrown up by boiling. 
Heat eruption ; minute vesicles, which 
form into thin flakes or crusts. 

1. Eczema solare. Sun heat; heat 
spots ; arising in a part which has been 
exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 

2. Eczema impetiginodes. Depending 
on a local irritation, and constituting the 
grocers' and the bricklayers' itch, accord- 
ing as the exciting cause is sugar or 
lime. 

3. Eczema rubrum. Excited by the 
use of mercury, and formerly called ery- 
thema mercuriale. 

EDENTATA {edentulus, toothless). 
Toothless animals; quadrupeds without 
front teeth, as the armadillo. 

EDULCORATION {dulcis, sweet). 
The sweetening of any medicinal pre- 
paration. Also the process of freeing a 
difficultly soluble substance from one that 
is easily soluble, by means of distilled 
water. It differs little from lixiviation, 
except that the former term respects the 
insoluble residue, the latter the soluble 
portion. 

EDULCORATOR. Dropping Bottle. 
An instrument for supplying small quan- 
tities of water to test tubes, watch-glasses, 
F 4 



EL A 

&c. It is made by inserting a cork, con- 
taining a glass tube, into a phial holding 
some distilled water. The phial being 
inverted, the portion of air confined 
above the liquid is expanded by the 
warmth of the hand, and expels the 
water, drop by drop, or in a stream, ac- 
cording as the position of the phial is 
perpendicular or horizontal. 

EEL OIL. An oil procured from eels 
by roasting, employed as an ointment for 
stiif joints, and by ironmongers for pre- 
serving steel from rust. 

EFFERVESCENCE (e/erte«co, to grow 
hot). The commotion produced in fluids 
by the sudden escape of gas, in the form 
of bubbles, as on pouring acid on chalk. 

EFFERVESCING DRAUGHT. Dis- 
solve a scruple of subcarbonate of soda 
or potass in an ounce of water, and two 
drachms of cinnamon water with a drachm 
and a half of syrup of orange peel ; add 
a table- spoonful of fresh lemon juice, 
and drink the mixture immediately. 

EFFLORESCENCE (effloresco, to blow 
as a flower). The pulverescence of crys- 
tals, by the removal of their moisture, 
on exposure to the air. It is opposed to 
deliquescence. 

EFFLUVIA (effluo, to flow out). Ex- 
halations, vapours, &c. They are dis- 
tinguished into the contagious, as the 
rubeolous ; marsh, as miasmata ; and 
those arising from animals or vegetables, 
as odours. 

EFFUSION (effundo, to pour out). 
The escape of a fluid out of its natural 
vessel or viscus into another part. Also, 
the secretion of fluids from the vessels, 
as of lymph or serum, on difierent sur- 
faces. 

EGESTA {egero, to carry out). A 
Latin term for the substances carried out 
of the body, as the faeces, &c. See In- 
gesta. 

EIGHTH PAIR, or PNEUMO-GAS- 
TRIC. The nerve which supplies the 
lungs, the heart, the stomach, &c.,— the 
exciter of respiration. 

EJACULATORES {ejaculo, to cast 
out). A pair of muscles surrounding the 
whole of the bulb of the urethra. As 
ejaculatores seminis, they act under the 
influence of the reflex function ; as acce- 
leratores urincE, as voluntary muscles. 

ELiEOSACCHARA {e\aiov, oil, sac- 
charum, sugar). The mixtures or com- 
pounds of volatile oils and sugar. 

ELAIDIC ACID {'4\aiov, oil). An 
acid related to the oleic acid of oils. 



ELD 

ELAIDINE. A white saponifiable fat, 
consisting of elai'dic acid and glycerin. 

ELAIN (eXatov, oil). The more fluid 
part of one of the proximate principles 
of fat. This and stearine constitute the 
fixed oils. 

ELAIODON (eXaiov, oil). The name 
given by Herberger to the igreusine of 
BouUay. See Igreusine. 

ELAIOMETER (^Xaiov, oil, utrpov, a 
measure). An instrument for detecting 
the adulteration of olive oil. 

ELAIS GUINEENSIS. The Guinea 
Palm, which yields the palm oil, and, it 
is said, the best kind of palm wine. 

ELALDEHYDE. The coherent mass 
into which pure and anhydrous aldehyde 
is transformed, when kept for some time 
at 32°. 

ELAOPTEN (e'Xa.ov, oil). The liquid 
portion of a volatile oil. The concrete 
portion is called stearopten. The volatile 
oils, when exposed to cold, generally 
separate into a solid and a liquid portion, 
showing that they are mixtures of two 
oils diflfering in fluidity. These terms 
were first applied to the solid and fluid 
portions of fixed oils. 

ELASTIC GUM. Caoutchouc ; Indian 
rubber ; the produce of the Ficus elastica 
and other plants. 

ELASTICITY. The property or power 
by which a body compressed or extended 
returns to its former state 

ELATER (eXavvu), to drive). A spiral 
fibre, found in great numbers mixed 
with the sporules, in the thecas of some 
cryptogamic plants. 

ELATERIUM (kXauvu, to stimulate). 
A term applied by the Greeks to any pur- 
gative substance. It now denotes a sub- 
stance procured from the juice surround- 
ing the seeds of the MomordicaE later ium, 
or Squirting Cucumber. There are two 
kinds, the English and the Maltese. 

Elaterin. A crystalline substance, 
constituting the active principle of ela- 
terium. Dr. Paris applied the term ela- 
tin to this substance combined with the 
green resin also found in elaterium. 

ELATIO. Quixotism ; a species of 
mental extravagance, so named by the 
rhetoricians, and importing, with them, 
" elevated, exalted, magnificent style or 
imagery." 

ELAYL. The name given by Ber- 
zelius to hydruret of acetyl, otherwise 
called defiant gas, and etherine. 

ELDER. The Sambucus nigra. The 
dried berries are called grana acles ; and 
their inspissated juice, elder rob. 



ELE 



ELE 



ELECAMPANE (contracted from 
enula campana). The Inula Helenium, 
a plant of the order CompositcB, the root 
of which yields a white starchy powder, 
called inuline. 

ELECTRICITY (^XexTpov, amber, the 
substance in which the electric property 
was first discovered). The fluid or pro- 
perty in nature which is called into 
action in its simplest form by rubbing— 

1. Gtos— which exhibits the vitreous, 
plus, or positive electricity ; i. e. when 
the substance is overcharged ; 

2. Resin or Amber — which exhibits the 
resinous, minus, or negative electricity ; 
i. e. when the substance is undercharged. 

Phenomena of Electricity. 

1. Excitation, or the disturbance of 
the electric equilibrium by friction, ele- 
vation of temperature, contact, &c. 
Bodies have been distinguished into con- 
ductors and non-conductors, according to 
the facility with which the electric in- 
fluence passes, or is conducted along 
their surfaces. 

2. Attraction, or the law by which 
light bodies move rapidly towards an 
excited surface. 

3. Repulsion, or the law by which light 
bodies fly off" from an electrified surface, 
after contact. 

4. Distribution, or the law by which 
electrified bodies transfer their properties 
to others with which they come in contact. 
It is similar to the conduction of caloric. 

5. Induction, or the law by which an 
electrified body tends to produce in con- 
tiguous substances an electric state op- 
posite to its own. 

6. Tension or intensity, or the degree 
to which a body is excited, as estimated 
by the electrometer. It must be distin- 
guished from quantity. 

7. Electr-ode {666f, a way). A term 
synonymous with pole; it denotes the 
boundary of the decomposing matter in 
the direction of the electric current. 
This, and the terms in the two following 
paragraphs, were introduced by Dr. Fara- 
day. 

8. The Electric Currents round the 
earth pursue a course from east (avm, 
up) to west (/caTco, down); hence, if a 
body to be decomposed be similarly 
placed, the Anode is the point or surface 
at which the electricity enters, — the part 
immediately touching the positive pole; 
and the Cathode, the point or surface out 
of which it passes, — the part next to the 
negative pole. 

9. Substances directly decomposable by 

105 



electricity are termed Electro-lytes (Xuw, 
to set free). The elements of an electro- 
lyzed body are called ions .-—that which 
goes to the anode, anion; that to the 
cathode, cation. Thus, if water be elec- 
trolyzed, oxygen and hydrogen are ions— 
the former an anion, the latter a cation. 

10. Electrical column. A species of 
electrical pile, invented by De Luc, com- 
posed of thin plates of dififerent metals in 
the usual order, with discs of writing 
paper interposed between them. 

11. Electro-lysis (Xvcj), to decompose). 
A kind of decomposition eflected by 
electricity. The chemical expression 
equivalent to this is zincolysis, the de- 
compositions throughout the circle being 
referred to the inductive action of the 
affinities of zinc or the positive metal. 

12. Electrometer {jjLerpov, a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the in- 
tensity of electricity. Among the varieties 
of this instrument are the quadrant, in- 
vented by Mr. Henley, and the electrical 
balance of Coulomb. 

13. Electro-phorus {tpepa, to convey). 
An instrument invented by Volta, for 
the purpose of collecting weak electri- 
city. 

14. Electro-scope (o-Kowfo), to examine). 
An instrument for indicating excitement, 
and the electrical state by which it is 
produced. 

15. Electro-motion, The term applied 
by "Volta to the development of electricity 
in voltaic combinations. 

16. Electro-dynamics (3waju«?, power). 
That branch of electricity which relates 
to the action of voltaic conductors on 
each other. 

17. Electro-magnetism. The term ap- 
plied to that branch of science which 
includes the mutual action of conductors 
and magnets. 

18. Electro-metallurgy. The art of 
working in metals by the galvanic fluid. 
See Electrotype, 

19. Electro-tint. An application of 
electrotype, in which the required subject 
is painted on copper with a thick varnish 
or paint; the plate is then prepared in 
the usual way, and submitted to the 
voltaic circuit ; a plate is thus obtained 
from which prints are furnished. 

20. Electro-type. The science by which 
facsimile medals are executed in copper 
by means of electricity. It consists in 
preparing for a negative plate models or 
moulds of objects to be copied ; and in 
so arranging the battery, or apparatus 
which generates the voltaic current, as 

F 5 



ELE 



ELI 



to release the metals in a compact and 
solid form. 

21. Electro-vital, or neuro-electric cur- 
rents. The name of two electric currents, 
supposed to exist in animals, — the one 
external and cutaneous, moving from 
the extremities to the cerebro-spinal 
axis ; the other internal, going from the 
cerebro-spinal axis to the internal organs 
situated beneath the skin. 

22. Electric aura. A current or breeze 
of electrified air, employed as a mild sti- 
mulant in electrifying delicate parts, as 
the eye. 

23. Electric friction. A mode of em- 
ploying electric sparks as a remedial 
agent, by drawing them through flannel, 
as recommended by Cavallo. 

24. Electrizers, Harrington's. Plates 
of copper and zinc, or silver and zinc, of 
various forms, for medical purposes. 

ELECTRO-PUNCTURATION {pun- 
go, to prick). The operation of inserting 
two or more needles in a part or organ 
affected, and then touching them with 
the wires from the poles of a galvanic 
machine. 

ELECTRO - STIMULATION. The 
name given by Dr. TurnbuU to the sen- 
sation of heat and tingling caused by the 
application of veratria, in the form of 
ointment, to the skin. 

ELECTRUM. A mixture of gold and 
silver of which the fifth part was silver. 

ELECTUARIUM (^kX€kt6i/, Hipp.). 
An Electuary; an ancient form of pre- 
scription, retained in the pharmacopoeias 
of Edinburgh and Dublin, but rejected 
in that of London. Electuaries are in 
general extemporaneous preparations, 
composed of dry powders, formed into 
a proper consistence by the addition of 
syrup, honey, or mucilage. See Con- 
fectio. 

ELEMENT. This term denotes, in 
Chemistry, a simple substance, — one not 
known to contain more than one kind of 
matter, as the metal iron. The rust of 
iron, on the other hand, is a compound, 
being resolvable into metallic iron, oxy- 
gen, and carbonic acid. 

Ultimate Element. The last element 
into which a body can be decomposed or 
analyzed ; thus, oxygen, hydrogen, car- 
bon, and azote are the ultimate elements 
of all organized matter. 

ELEMI. A friigrant fennel-scented 
resin, produced by several species of 
A my r is. 

ELEPHANTI'ASIS {^\e,pai, an ele- 
phant). Leprosy, black leprosy ; elephant 
106 



leg. There are two diseases so named, 
from the supposed resemblance of the 
skin of leprous persons to that of the 
elephant ; or from the mis-shapen leg in 
the Arabian leprosy being supposed to 
resemble that of the elephant. 

1. Elephantiasis Arabum. The original 
Arabic name was dal fil, literally, ele- 
phant disease. In the West Indies, it is 
called Barbados leg, sometimes yam leg, 
from the supposed resemblance of the 
affected limb to the form of this root ; in 
Ceylon it is called Galle leg; and on the 
peninsula of India, Cochin leg. In the 
Malabar language, it is called anay kaal, 
which also means elephant leg. 

2. Elephantiasis Grcecorum. Tubercu- 
lar Elephantiasis. It has been called 
leontiasis and satyriasis, from the disfi- 
guration of the countenance, suggesting 
the idea of a wild beast or satyr. It is 
the Juzam of the older Arabians. 

3. The Pelagra of Milan, the Rosa 
asturica of Spain, the Crimean disease of 
Pallas and Gmelin, and the Mai rouge of 
Cayenne, are all closely allied to it. 

ELEVA'TOR {elevo, to raise). A name 
applied to certain muscles, whose office 
it is to elevate any part; and to an in- 
strument for raising depressed portions 
of the cranium. 

ELF-SIDENNE. Elf-squatting ; the 
old Anglo-Saxon name for Ephialtes, in- 
cubus, or night-mare. 

ELIQUATION (eliquo, to clarify). 
The separation by heat of a more fusible 
substance from another less fusible. 

ELIXIR. An Arabic term, denoting 
an essence, or pure mass without any 
dregs ; and formerly applied to compound 
tinctures. 

1. Elixir paregoricum. Paregoric Elixir, 
or the Tinct. Camphorae Comp. 

2. Elixir proprietatis. Elixir of Na- 
ture, or the Tinct. Aloes Comp. 

3. Elixir sacrum. Sacred Elixir, or 
the Tinctura Rhei et Aloes. 

4. Elixir salutis. Elixir of Health, or 
the Tinctura Sennae. 

5. Elixir stomachicum. Stomachic 
Elixir, or the Tinct. Gentianae Comp. 

6. Elixir viirioli. The Acidum Sul- 
phuricum Aromaticum. 

7. Elixir of longevity, of Dr. Jernitz, 
of Sweden. An aromatic tincture, with 
aloes. 

8. Elixir anti-arthritic, of Cadet de 
Gassicourt. A mixture of the three 
tinctures of aloes, guaiacum, and myrrh. 

9. Elixir of Daffy. The Tinct. Sennae 
Comp., with treacle instead of sugar- 



EMB 



EMP 



candy, and the addition of aniseeds and 
elecampane roots. 

ELLAGIC ACID (from the word galle, 
read backward). An acid which is ob- 
tained from galls, in the process for 
making gallic acid. 

ELUTRIATION {elutrio, to cleanse). 
The process of washing, by which the 
lighter earthy parts are separated from 
the heavier and metallic. 

ELYTRON {iXvrpov). A sheath ; the 
hard case which covers the wings of co- 
leopterous insects. The vagina. 

1. Elytro-cele (Kf]\n, a tumor). The 
name given by Vogel to vaginal hernia. 

2. Elytr-oides{€ido<!, likeness). Sheath- 
like ; a term applied to the tunica vagi- 
nalis ; also to the pessary of M. J. Clo- 
quet. 

3. Elytro-rrhaphia {pa<pr], a suture). 
Suture of the vagina ; an operation for 
the prevention of prolapsus uteri. 

EMACIATION {emacio, to make lean). 
Marasmus. General extenuation of the 
body, with debility. 

EMANSIO MENSIUM. Retention 
of the menses, called by many writers 
menostatio; and by Frank, amenorrhcea 
tiruncularum. 

EMASCULATION {emasculo, to render 
impotent). Privation of virility ; castra- 
tion ; removal of the testes. 

EMBALMING. The filling a dead 
body with spices, gums, and other anti- 
septics, to prevent putridity. 

EMBOITEMENT (the situation of 
one box within another, from boite, a 
box). A term used by Bonnet to describe 
that species of generation, by which 
hundreds and thousands of individuals 
lie one within the other, each possessing 
a complete series of organized parts. See 
Evolution 

EMBROCATION (e/x/Jpexco, to moist- 
en). An external fluid application, for 
rubbing any part of the body. 

EMBRYO (ei/, in, /Spua, to bud forth). 
The ovum in utero, before the fourth 
month, after which it is called foetus. 
Also, the rudiment of the future plant, 
contained within the seed. 

1. Embryo-logy {X6yoi, an account). 
A description of the embryo. 

2. Embryo-tomy (rejuvw. to cut). The 
dismembering of the foetus in utero, in 
order to admit of delivery. 

3. Embry-ulcia (e\Km, to draw). The 
same as embryotomy. It is performed 
by means of a blunt hook or forceps, 
termed embryulcus. 

4. Embryo-tega {lego, to cover). A 

107 



small callosity observed in some seeds, 
at a short distance from the hilum ; it 
gives way, like a lid, at the time of ger- 
mination, for the emission of the ra- 
dicle. 

EMERY. A variety of corundum 
found in Spain, the Greek islands, &c. 
The powder is obtained by trituration, 
attached to brown paper called emery 
paper, and used for polishing, for pre- 
paring razor-strops, &c. 

EMETIC {ifxei^, to vomit). A sub- 
stance which causes vomiting. Emetics 
are termed topical, when they act only 
when taken into the stomach, as mus- 
tard; specific, when they act by being 
introduced into the circulation, as emetic 
tartar. 

1. Emetic tartar, or tartarized anti- 
mony ; tartrate of antimony and potash, 
or the antimonium tartarizatum. 

2. Emetin. The emetic principle of 
ipecacuanha; it has been discovered to 
consist of a peculiar alkaline basis which 
may be termed emeta, acid, and colour- 
ing matter. Dr. Paris says that emeta is 
to emetin what white crystallized sugar 
is to moist sugar. 

EMMENAGOGUES {kis^^vta, the 
menses, ayw, to induce). Medicines 
which promote the catamenial discharge, 
or the menses. 

EMME'NIA {ev, in, /x^f, a month). 
The catamenial discharge, or menses. 

EMOLLIENTS {emollio, to soften). 
Agents which diminish the tone of the 
living tissues, and cause relaxation or 
weakness. When employed for the pur- 
pose of sheathing surfaces from the 
action of injurious substances, they are 
called demulcents. 

EMPATHEMA (kv, and 7ra'0»i|ua, af- 
fection). Ungovernable passion ; includ- 
ing excitement, depression, and hair- 
brained passion, or the manie sans delire 
of Pinel. 

EMPHLYSIS (kv, and <p\6aK, a vesi- 
cular tumor, or eruption). Ichorous ex- 
anthem ; including miliary fever, thrush, 
cow-pox, water-pox, pemphigus, and ery- 
sipelas. 

EMPHYMA (ey, and (pv(o, to spring 
forth). Tumor; including the sarcoma- 
tous, the encysted, and the bony species. 

EMPHYSE'MA {hfKpvcdm, to inflate). 
Literally, that which is blown in ; wind- 
dropsy. A swelling produced by air, 
diffused in the cellular tissue. It is dis- 
tinguished into the traumatic, when the 
air has been introduced by a solution of 
continuity ; and the idiopathic, or spon- 
F 6 



EMU 



END 



taneous, when the gas is developed with- 
in the cells. 

EMPIRIC {hv, in, welpa, experiment). 
Formerly, one who practised medicine 
upon experience, without regard to the 
rules of science ; it now signifies a quack, 
or vender of nostrums. 

EMPLASTRUM (ktxnXoiaffio, to spread 
upon). A plaister ; a solid and tenacious 
compound, adhesive at the ordinary heat 
of the human body. Plaisters have been 
termed solid ointments, as they may be 
said to differ only in consistence from 
liniments, ointments, and cerates. 

EMPRESMA {ev, and irpijea), to burn). 
Internal inflammation ; a term em- 
ployed, in its simple sense, by Hippo- 
crates, &c., and revived by Dr. Good as 
a generic term for all those visceral in- 
flammations generally distinguished by 
the suffix -itis. 

EMPROSTHO'TONOS (?MTpo(j0ev, be- 
fore, TetVco, to draw). Clonic spasm fixing 
the body forward. Compare Tetanus. 

EMPYE'MA (kv, within, nvov, pus). 
An internal abscess, particularly of the 
lungs ; matter in the chest. This term 
was originally applied by the ancients to 
every collection of purulent matter; it 
was subsequently confined to effusions 
into the pleura, and abscesses of the 
lungs ; it is now applied by surgeons to 
effusions into the pleura only : hence 
the terms, empyema of pus, of blood, of 
water and air, are often used as syno- 
nyms of pleurisy, haemothorax, hydro- 
thorax, and pneumothorax. Chronic 
pleurisy constitutes the 'purulent em- 
pyema' of surgeons. 

EMPYESIS (e/uTweco, to suppurate). 
Pustulous exanthem ; a term used by 
Hippocrates, and including, in Dr. Good's 
system, variola or small-pox. 

EMPYREUMA {kfinvpevw, to set on 
fire ; from Triip, fire). Peculiar vapours 
produced by destructive distillation. 
Hence the term empyreumatic is applied 
to the acid, and to the oil, which result 
from the destructive distillation of vege- 
table substances; and, hence, hartshorn 
is called the empyreumatic alkali. 

EMULGENTS (emulgeo, to milk out). 
A designation of the arteries and veins 
of the kidneys, which were supposed to 
strain, or milk out, the serum. A term 
also applied to remedies which excite 
the flow of bile. 

EMULSIN. Vegetable albumen of 
almonds ; a constituent of almond emul- 
sion. A peculiar acid is procured from 
it, termed emulsic acid. 



EMULSIO (emulgeo, to milk). An 
emulsion ; a mixture of oil and water, 
made by means of mucilage, sugar, or 
yelk of egg. This term is used by the 
Edinburgh College for the Mistura of the 
London pharmacopoeia. 

EMUNCTORY (emungo, to wipe out). 
An excretory duct ; a canal through 
which the contents of an organ, as the 
gall-bladder, are discharged. 

ENAMEL. The hard exterior sur- 
face of the teeth. Also a white glass 
formed of peroxide of tin, &c. 

ENANTHESIS {kv and iv^Jeco, to 
blossom). Rash exanthem ; including 
scarlet-fever, measles, and nettle-rash. — 
Good. 

ENARTHROSIS (kv and op^pov, a 
joint). The ball-and-socket joint, as 
that of the head of the femur with the 
hip — the head of the humerus with the 
glenoid cavity of the scapula. 

ENCANTHUS (ev, in, KavBo^, the cor- 
ner of the eye). A disease of the carun- 
cula lachrymalis. 

ENCEPHALON (kv, in, KetpaXi], the 
head). The brain ; the contents of the 
skull, consisting of the cerebrum, cere- 
bellum, medulla oblongata, and mem- 
branes. 

1. Encephalata. A term applied by 
Dr. Grant to the Fifth sub-kingdom 
of Animals, or Vertebrata, comprising 
animals in which the brain is enclosed 
in a bony cavity. The classes are the 
pisces, amphibia, reptilia, aves, and 
mammalia. 

2. Encephal-itis. Inflammation of the 
brain ; as distinguished from meningitis, 
arachnitis, or inflammation of the mem- 
branes. 

3. Encephalo-cele (k»/\>), a tumor). 
Hernia of the brain, through the walls of 
the cranium, by a congenital opening, a 
fracture, &c. 

4. Encephal-oid (eldov, likeness). A 
term applied to a morbid product, or 
encephalosis, the cut surface of which 
resembles brain. 

ENCHELIDE MONAD. An animal- 
cule which performs the usual function 
of the green parts of plants, decomposing 
carbonic acid and evolving oxygen, un- 
der the influence of the light of the sun. 

EN-CYSTED (kv, in, KWT«r, a cyst). A 
term applied to tumors which consist of 
matter contained in a sac or cyst. 

ENDEMIC (kv, among, d;jiuor, a peo- 
ple). An epithet for diseases peculiar 
to the inhabitants of particular coun- 
tries — native diseases. 



END 



ENT 



EN-DERMIC. A term indicative of 
the method of applying medicines to the 
denuded dermis. It is also called the 
emplastro-endermic method. 

ENDO (eVSoi/, within). A Greek pre- 
position, signifying within. 

1. Endo-cardium {icap6ia, the heart). 
A colourless transparent membrane, 
which lines the interior of the heart. 
Inflammation of this membrane is termed 
endocarditis. 

2. Endo-carp {Kapiro^, fruit). The in- 
nermost portion of the pericarp. In 
some fruits it presents a bony consist- 
ence, as in the peach, and has been 
termed putamen. — See Pericarp. 

3. Endo-gen {yevvato, to produce). A 
plant whose stem grows by internal in- 
crease, as a palm. See Exogen. 

4. Endo-phlceum {(p\ow^, bark). An- 
other name for liber— i\iQ 'innermost 
layer of the bark of exogens. 

5. Endo-pleura (nXevpa, the side). 
The internal integument of the seed, 
also termed tunica interna, tegmen, 
hiloffere, &c. 

6. Endo-rrhizous {pl^a, a root). A 
term expressive of the mode of germina- 
tion of Endogens, in which the radicle 
is emitted from the substance of the 
radicular extremity, and is sheathed at 
its base by the substance from which it 
protrudes. This sheath is termed the 
coleoptile. 

7. Endo-spermium {a-rrepfia, seed). The 
name given by Richard to the albumen 
of other botanists. Jussieu termed it 
perisperm. 

8. Endo-stome {a-rofxa, a mouth). The 
orifice of the inner integument of the 
ovule, in plants. 

9. Endo-thecium {$r]Kn, a case). The 
name given by Purkinje to the lining of 
the anther, consisting of fibro-cellular 
tissue. 

ENDOSMO'SIS {evSov, within, thaixot, 
impulsion). The property by which rarer 
fluids pass through membranous sub- 
stances into a cavity or space containing 
a denser fluid. M. Dutrochet, who has 
introduced this term, with a knowledge 
of the motory principle to which it refers, 
has used others explicative of his views 
of some operations in the animal eco- 
nomy : such is hyperendosmose, or the 
state of things in inflammation ; with 
this are associated adfluxion, or accumu- 
lation of the fluids, and impulsion, or 
increased flow of the fluids onwards. 
Thus, inflammation is said to be " but 
d'adfluxion, et origine d'impulsion." 
109 



Endosmo-meter (endosmosis, impulsion 
nerpov, a measure). An instrument con- 
trived by Dutrochet for measuring the 
force of the endosmosmic function. 

ENECIA {hveKrjv, continuous). A term 
denoting continued action, and applied 
by Dr. Good to continued fever, includ- 
ing the several species of inflammatory, 
typhous, and synochal fever. These 
were formerly called continentes, from 
their being supposed to be unattended 
by any change or relaxation whatever. 

EN'EMA (ei/t»jM'> to inject). A clys- 
ter, lavement, or injection. A formula 
used for conveying both nourishment 
and medicine to the system, under par- 
ticular morbid circumstances. 

EN-EPIDERMIC. A term indicative 
of the method of applying medicines to 
the epidermis, unassisted by friction, as 
when blisters, fomentations, &c., are era- 
ployed. See Endermic. 

ENNEANDRIA (4Vvea, nine, kvi^p, 
man). The ninth class of plants in 
Linnaeus's system, comprehending those 
which have nine stamens. 

ENNUI. Weariness; listless fatigue 
of the mind. 

ENS. The participle present of the 
verb sum, employed as a substantive in 
philosophical language, for any being or 
existence. This term denotes, in che- 
mistry, a substance supposed to contain 
all the qualities or virtues of the ingre- 
dients from which it is drawn, in a small 
compass : — 

1. EnsMartis. Ferrum Ammon latum. 
Ammoniated Iron, or Martial Flowers of 
the muriate of ammonia and iron. 

2. Ens Veneris. The ancient desig- 
nation of the muriate of ammonia and 
copper. 

3. Ens primum. A name given by the 
alchemists to a tincture which they sup- 
posed to have the power of transmuting 
the metals. 

ENSIFORM {ensis, a sword, forma, 
likeness). A Latin term applied to the 
sword- like cartilage of the sternum. The 
corresponding term in Greek is xiphoid. 

ENTASIS (evre/i/ft), to stretch). A 
term denoting intention, or stretching, 
and applied by Good to constrictive 
spasm, including cramp, wry-neck, 
locked-jaw, &c. 

ENTER A (li/repa, the bowels, froni 
kvrhi, within). The intestines. 

1. Enteric. Belonging to the intestines. 

2. Enter-itis. Inflammation of the in- 
testines — the termination in itis being 
the nosological sign of inflammation. 



EPI 



EPl 



3. Entero-cele (k^\»), a tumor). A 
hernia, the contents of which are intes- 
tine. 

4. Entero-epiplo-cele {kninXoov, omen- 
tum, K/jXfj, a tumor). A hernia, the con- 
tents of which are hoth intestine and 
omentum. 

5. Entero-lithus (Xi'^o?, a stone). An 
intestinal concretion, as a bezoar, a cal- 
culus, &c. 

6. Enter o-rrhaphia {pa<pr], a suture). 
A suture of the divided edges of an in- 
testine. 

7. Entero-tome {rinvu>, to cut). An 
instrument for the operation of artificial 
anus. 

ENTOMOLINE {^vrofxov, an insect). 
A peculiar chemical principle, found in 
large quantities in the -wings and elytra 
of coleopterous insects, and termed chi- 
tine by M. Odier. 

ENTOMOLOGY {evTona, insects, X6- 
yov, an account). That part of Zoology 
which treats of insects. 

ENTOZOA (ei/Tor, within, ^(oi], life). 
Intestinal worms. See Vermes, 

ENTROPIUM {kv, in, rpeTro), to turn). 
Inversio palpebm. Inversion of the eye- 
lid. Compare Ectropium. 

ENURESIS {ev, in, olpov, urine). In- 
continence of urine ; involuntary dis- 
charge of urine. 

EPACTAL. The name given by Fisch- 
er to the inter-parietal bone of Geoffrey 
St. Hilaire. It is only developed after 
birth, and is only occasionally met wth. 

EPI (eTTi). A Greek preposition denot- 
ing upon, for, &c. Hence the com- 
pounds : — 

1. Ep anetus {uv'umxi, to remit). A 
term denoting remittent, and applied by 
Good to remittent fever, including the 
mild form, the malignant form, and 
hectic fever. 

2. Eph-elis (JiXtor, the sun). Tan- 
spots ; sun-bum ; dark freckles, con- 
fluent or corymbose, disappearing in the 
winter. 

3. Eph-emera {finepa, a day). A fever 
which runs its course of the cold, hot, 
and sweating stages in twelve hours. 

4. Eph-ialtes {aWonai, to leap). Incu- 
bus, or night-mare ; the imaginar}'^ being 
which seems to leap upon the chest of 
the sleeper. 

5. Eph-idro'sis (tdpSa), to perspire). 
Profuse and morbid perspiration. 

6. Eph-ippium (a saddle ; from knl, 
upon, iTTTTor, a horse). SeUa turcica. 
Part of the os sphenoides, so called from 
its saddle-like shape. 

110 



7. Epi-carp (Kapn-os-, fruit). The ex- 
terior portion of the pericarp, commonly 
termed the skin of fruits. See Peri- 
carp. 

8. Epi-cra'nium [Kpaviov, the cranium). 
The integuments, and epineurotic ex- 
pansion which lie over the cranium. 

9. Epi-cranius. A name sometimes 
given to the occipito-frontalis muscle, 
from its covering the cranium. 

10. Epi-chrosis {xpto/xa, colour). A 
coloured or spotted surface of any kind, 
applied to maculae, or blemishes of the 
skin, as freckles, sun-burn, &c. 

11. Epi-demic {drtfxof, the people). An 
epithet for a popular, prevailing, but not 
native disease, arising from a general 
cause, as excessive heat. See Ende- 
mic. 

12. Epi-dermis (depua, the skin). The 
cuticle, or scarf-skin ; the thin horny 
layer which protects the surface of the 
integument. The external layer of the 
bark of plants. 

13. Epi-didymis {6ihvfxoi,iVTo; the tes- 
tes). The small oblong body which lies 
above the testis, formed by the convolu- 
tions of the vasa efferentia, external to 
the testis. 

14. Epi-gastrium {ya<rrrip, the stomach). 
The superior part of the abdomen ; the 
part situated above the belly. 

15. Epi-genesis {leveai^, generation). 
A term applied to a theory of non-sexual 
generation, in which each new germ is 
an entirely new production of the parent 
organism. Compare Evolution. 

16. Epi-glottis (^Xwrriy, glottis). A 
cartilage of the larynx, situated above 
the glottis. 

17. ^pi-^'ywoM* (71/1/;;, a woman). That 
condition of the stamens of a plant, in 
which they adhere both to the calyx and 
the ovarium, as in umbelliferous plants. 

18. Epi-lepsy {ka^xjSavbo, to seize). An 
attack, particularly of the falling sick- 
ness. This affection has been called 
morbus divinus, morbus herculeus, mor- 
bus sacer, morbus comitialis, morbus 
caducus, mal caduc, &c. 

19. Epi-nyctis (i/i/f, vvkto^, night). A 
pustule, so called because the eruption 
first appeared, or only appeared, by 
night; or because it was most trouble- 
some at night. The term is applied by 
Sauvages to ecthyma. 

20. Epi-phloium {<p\oi6f, bark). A 
layer of bark, situated immediately be- 
neath the epidermis, termed by Mohl, 
phloeum or peridermis. 

21. Epi-phora [enKpepo), to carry with 



EPI 

force). The watery eye; flux of tears. 
It is distinguished from stillicidium 
lacrymatum, which consists in an obsta- 
cle to the absorption and conveyance of 
the tears from the lacus lacrymarum 
into the sac ; whereas Epiphora consists 
in a superabundant secretion of tears. 

22. Epi-physis ((pva, to grow). A pro- 
cess of a bone attached by cartilage to 
a bone, and not a part of the same bone. 
It differs from Apophysis, which is a pro- 
cess of a bone, and a part of the same 
bone. 

23. Epi-ploon (TrXew, to sail). The 
omentum ; a membranous expansion 
which y?oa/5 upon the intestines. 

24. Epi-plo-cele {eninXoov, omentum, 
KijM, tumor). Hernia of the Epiploon, 
or omentum. 

25. Epi-pl-oscheo-cele (eiriirXoov, the 
omentum, Saxeov, the scrotum, KrjXtu a 
tumor). A hernia in which the omen- 
tum descends into the scrotum. 

26. Epirrheo-logy [eizippoi], a flowing 
on, Xo'^o^, an account). That branch of 
science which treats of the effects of ex- 
ternal agents upon living plants. 

27. Epi-schesis (iVxo), to restrain). 
Obstruction ; suppression of excre- 
tions. 

28. Epispadias (triraw, to draw). That 
malformation, when the urethra opens 
on the dorsum of the penis, not far from 
the pubes. See Hypospadias. 

29. Epi-spastics (o-Trdw, to draw). Vesi- 
catories ; blisters ; external applications 
to the skin, which produce a serous or 
puriform discharge, by exciting inflam- 
mation. When these agents act so mildly 
as merely to excite inflammation, without 
occasioning the effusion of serum, they 
are denominated rubefacients. 

30. Epi-sperm (crnepixa, seed). This, 
and perisperm, are terms applied by 
Richard to the testa of seeds— the sper- 
moderm of Decandolle. 

31. Epi-staxis {tna^is, a dropping, 
from o-Tafft), to distil or drop down). 
Nasal haemorrhage; bleeding from the 
nose. 

32. Epi-thelium (riOrjuc, to place). 
The cuticle on the prolabium, or red 
part of the lips, and on the mucous 
membranes in general. It is distin- 
guished into the scaly epithelium, which 
forms the inner surface of the blood and 
lymph vessels, the inner surface of many 
mucous and serous sacs, &c. ; the colum- 
nar epithelium, which forms the surface 
of the intestinal canal, as well as the sur- 
face of the passages from most glands ; 

Ul 



ERE 

and the ciliated epithelium, which forms 
the surface of the mucous membrane of 
the organs of respiration, &c. 

33. Epi-them (riOnfJ-t, to place). A 
general term for any external topical 
application to the body, except ointments 
and plaisters. 

34. Ep-ulis (olXa, the gums). A small 
tubercle on the gums, said sometimes to 
become cancerous. 

35. Ep-ulotics {ovXi], cicatrix). Medi- 
cines which promote the cicatrization of 
wounds. They £ire also called cicatri- 
santia. 

EPIAN. Pian. A term denoting a 
raspberry, and applied on the American 
coast to framboesia. On the African 
coast this affection is termed yaws. 

EPSOM SALT. Sal catharticus ama- 
rus. Sulphate of magnesia, formerly 
procured by boiling down the mineral 
water of Epsom ; but now prepared from 
sea water. 

EQUILIBRIUM {ceque, equaUy, libra, 
to balance). A term expressive of the 
equality of temperature, which all bodies 
on the earth are constantly tending to 
attain (see Caloric)— and of the equal 
distribution of the electric fluid in its 
natural undisturbed state. 

EQUIVALENTS (aqui, equally, valeo, 
to avail). A term applied by Dr. Wol- 
laston to the combining proportions of 
elementary and compound substances, as 
the quantities of acid and base, in salts, 
required to neutralize each other. The 
following are instances of this law: — 

Arsenic acid... 57-68 Lime 28 

Muriatic acid 37 Magnesia... 20 

Nitric acid ... 54 Potash 48 

Sulphuric acid 40 Soda 32 

Thus 57-68 of arsenic acid, 37 of muri- 
atic, 54 of nitric, and 40 of sulphuric, 
combine with 28 of lime, forming, re- 
spectively, a neutral arseniate, muriate, 
nitrate, and sulphate of lime ; &c. &c. 

ERBIUM. A newly discovered metal, 
occurring along with yttria. See Terbium. 

ERECTILE TISSUE {erigo, to erect). 
The tissue peculiar to the penis, nipple, 
&c. That of the vagina has been termed, 
by De Graaf, retiformis, and latterly, cor- 
pus cavernosum vagince. The term is 
also applied to a similar tissue, consti- 
tuting naevus, &c. 

ERECTOR {erigo, to raise). A muscle 
of the clitoris and of the penis, so named 
from its oflSce. 

EREMACAUSIS {npepo^, slow, Kavat^, 
burning). A term applied by Liebig to 
the slow combustion or oxidation of or- 



ERR- 



ER Y 



ganic matters in air, as the conversion of 
wood into humus, the formation of acetic 
acid from alcohol, nitrification, &c. 

ERETHISMUS (epeSiCw. to excite). 
Constitutional irritation, or excitement. 

Erethismus Mer cur talis . Mercurial 
erethism; a peculiar state of erethism 
produced by mercury. 

ERGOTA. Secale Cornutum. Spurred 
rye ; a long black substance, like a horn 
or spur, formed on rye, and many other 
of the gramina, and supposed to be pro- 
duced by a parasitic fungus. 

1. ErgoicEtia (ergota, and aWia, origin). 
The generic name given by Mr. Quekett 
to the ergot fungus, to which was added 
the specific appellation of abortifaciens, 
in allusion to its destroying the germi- 
nating power of the grain of grasses. 

2. Ergotine. A peculiar principle dis- 
covered in ergot, by M. Bonjeau, who 
formerly termed it hcBmostatic extract, 
from its being a real specific for haemo- 
rrhages in general. 

3. Ergotism. An epidemic occurring 
in moist districts, as in that of Sologne, 
from the use of ergota, in rye-bread. Its 
forms are, the convulsive, — a nervous 
disease, characterized by violent spasm- 
odic convulsions ; and the gangrenous, — 
a depraved state of the constitution, ter- 
minating in dry gangrene, and known in 
Germany by the name of the creeping 
sickness. 

ERICACEvE. The Heath tribe of 
Dicotyledonous plants. Shrubs, with 
leaves evergreen, rigid, entire, whorled, 
or opposite ; flowers monopetalous, regu- 
lar ; stamens definite ; ovarium superior, 
many-seeded ; seeds apterous. 

ERO'DENTS (erodo, to gnaw off). 
Substances which eat away, as it were, 
extraneous growths. 

EROSION {erodo, to gnaw off). De- 
struction by ulceration ; the name ap- 
plied by Galen to the phenomena of 
ulcerative absorption. 

ERRATIC {erro, to wander). Wan- 
dering ; irregular ; as applied to pains, 
gout, erj'sipelas, gestation, &c. 

ERRHINES (ei/, in, p\v, the nose). 
Medicines which produce an increased 
discharge of nasal mucus. See Sternu- 
tatories, 

ERROR LOCI {error of place). A 
term formerly applied to certain derange- 
•ments in the capillary circulation. Boer- 
haave conceived that the vessels were of 
different sizes for the circulation of blood, 
l3niiph, and serum; and that, when the 
112 



larger-sized globules passed into the 
smaller vessels by an error loci, an ob- 
struction took place which gave rise to 
the phenomena of inflammation. 

ERUCTATION {eructo, to belch forth). 
Flatulency, with frequent rejection up- 
wards, as from a volcano. 

ERUPTION {erumpo, to break out). 
A breaking out ; a term applied to acute 
cutaneous diseases. 

ERYNGO. The candied root of the 
Eryngium campestre, reckoned by Boer- 
haave as the first of aperient diuretic 
roots. 

ERYSIPELAS {hpvia, to draw, TreXav, 
adjoining ; so named from its propensity 
to spread; or, simply, from epu^po?, red). 
An eruptive fever, called by the Romans 
Ignis sacer ; popularly, the Rose, from 
the colour of the skin ; and St. Anthony's 
fire, from its burning heat, or because 
St. Anthony was supposed to cure it mi- 
raculously. 

ERYTHE'MA {kpv9p6^, red). Morbid 
redness of the skin ; inflammatory blush. 
A red fulness of the integuments, ter- 
minating in scales, and occasionally in 
gangrene. 

ERYTHRiEA CENTAURIUM. Com- 
mon Centaury ; a plant of the order Gen- 
tianacecc, possessing similar effects to 
those of Gentian. Its bitter principle is 
called centaurin. 

ERYTHRIC ACID (^pu^por, red). 
The name given by Brugnatelli to pur- 
puric acid. 

ERYTHRIN (Ipuflpi?, red). One of a 
series of substances, including erythrilin, 
erythrin bitter or amarythrin, telerythrin, 
&c., obtained by Dr. Kane from the Roc- 
cella tinctoria. 

ERYTHROGEN {epvOpds, red, fewdu, 
to produce). A green-coloured substance 
found in the gall-bladder, in a case of 
jaundice. It unites with nitrogen, and 
produces a red compound. 

ERYTHROID {kpvSpdi, red, e'idoi, 
likeness). A term applied to the cre- 
masteric covering of the spermatic cord 
and testis. 

ERYTHROPHYLLE {kpvOpd^, red, 
(pvWov, a leaf). A term applied by Ber- 
zelius to the red colouring matter of 
fruits and leaves in autumn. 

ERYTHROSIS {^pvepS,, red). Ple- 
thora arteriosa. A form of plethora, in 
which the blood is rich in fibrin and in 
bright red pigment ; a state correspond- 
ing in some measure with what has been 
termed the arterial constitution. 



ETH 



-EUP 



ESCHAR (eo-xapow, to form a scab or 
crust). A dry slough; a gangrenous 
portion, which has separated from the 
healtliy substance of the body. 

Escharotics. Substances which form 
an eschar, or slough, when applied to the 
skin. 

ESCULENT. An appellation given to 
those plants, or any part of them, which 
may be eaten for food. 

ESCULINE. An alkaloid obtained 
from the jEsculus Hippocasianum, or 
horse-chestnut, from the ash, &c 

ESENBECKINA. An organic alkali, 
procured from Brazilian Cinchona, or the 
bark of the Exostema Souzanum, a native 
plant of Brazil, and named from the 
erroneous idea that the bark belonged to 
Esenbeckia febrifuga. 

ESO-ENTERITIS (efaw, within, and 
enteritis). Inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the intestines. 

ESO-GASTRITIS (eo-co, within, and 
gastritis). Inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach. 

ESPRIT. The French term for spirit, 
or essence. Any subtile and volatile pro- 
duct of distillation. 

ESSENCE DE PETIT GRAIN. A 
term originally applied to the volatile oil 
of the orange berry, but now denoting 
the volatile oil obtained from the leaves 
of both the bitter and sweet orange. 

ESSENTIA ABIETIS. Essence of 
Spruce; prepared by boiling in water 
the young tops of some Coniferous plant, 
as the Abies nigra, or Black Spruce, and 
concentrating the decoction by evapora- 
tion. 

ESSENTIA BINA. A substance used 
to colour brandy, porter, &c., and pre- 
pared by boiling coarse sugar till it is 
black and bitter ; it is then made into a 
syrup with lime-water. 

ESSENTIAL OILS. Oils obtained 
by distillation from odoriferous vegetable 
substances. Several of the volatile or 
essential oils are called essences. 

ESSERA. The Nettle-rash, or the 
Urticaria of Willan. Good. 

ESTIVATION {(Bstivus, belonging to 
summer). Pra-floration. A term applied 
to the condition of a flower when its parts 
are unexpanded. See Vernation. 

ET.ERIO (6Ta«peja, an association). 
A term applied by Mirbel to an aggregate 
fruit, the parts of which are achenia, as 
in ranunculus, rubus, &c. 

ETHAL. A peculiar oily substance, 
obtained from spermaceti; also termed 
hydrate of oxide of cetyl. The term is 
113 



formed of the first syllables of ether and 
alcohol. 

ETHER (alei/p, ether). A liquid pro- 
duced by a remarkable decomposition of 
alcohol, by sulphuric, phosphoric, and 
arsenic acids. It is sometimes distin- 
guished as sulphuric ether, from the 
mode of preparing it. 

ETHEREAL OIL. The Oleum Fini, 
found in the residuum of sulphuric ether, 
and forming the basis of Hoffman's cele- 
brated anodyne liquor. 

ETHERINE. A term synonymous 
with olefiant gas, elayl, or hydruret of 
acetyl. 

ETHEROLE. A carbo-hydrogen, com- 
monly known as liglit oil of wine. 

ETHMOID {hBtx6<;, a sieve, eidov, like- 
ness). Cribriform, or sieve-like; a bone 
of the nose, perforated for the transmis- 
sion of the olfactory nerves. 

Ethmoidal crest, or spine. Crista galli. 
A sharp process of the ethmoid bone. 

ETHYL {a\6rip, ether, vXt], matter). 
A hypothetical radical, existing in ether 
and its compounds ; ether being the 
oxide of ethyl, and alcohol the hydrated 
oxide of ethyl. 

ETIOLATION. The process of blanch- 
ing plants, as celery, kale, &c., by shel- 
tering them from the action of light. 
The natural colour of the plants is thus 
prevented from being formed. 

EUCHLORINE {d, brilliant, x^^po?, 
green). The name given by Davy to the 
protoxide of chlorine, from its being con- 
siderably more brilliant than simple chlo- 
rine. 

EUCHRONIC ACID (e^xpoor, of a 
fine colour). An acid procured by the 
decomposition of the neutral mellitate of 
ammonia by heat. It forms a blue com- 
pound with zinc, called euchrone. 

EUDIOMETER {evdia, calm weather, 
juerpoi/, a measure). An instrument for 
ascertaining the proportion of oxygen in 
a given gas. 

EUGENIA PIMENTA. The Com- 
mon Allspice, a Myrtaceous plant, the 
fruit of which constitutes Pimento, or 
Jamaica pepper, commonly called allspice, 
from its flavour approaching that of cin- 
namon, cloves, and nutmegs. 

EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM. 
A plant employed in America as a sub- 
stitute for Peruvian bark, and known by 
the names of thorough-wort, thorough- 
wax, cross- wort, and bone-set. 

Eupatorine. An alkaloid discovered in 
the Eupatorium Cannabinum. 

EUPHORBIACEiE. The Euphor- 



E VO 



EXE 



bium tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, 
with leaves alternate ; floicers apetalous, 
unisexual ; ovarium three-celled, the cells 
separating with elasticity from their com- 
mon axis. 

EUPHORBIUM. A saline waxy resin, 
produced by an undetermined species of 
Euphorbia. 

EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS. Com- 
mon Eye-bright; a plant of the order 
Scrophulariacece, and a popular remedy 
for diseases of the eye. 

EUPION {il, well, iriwv, fat). A 
colourless liquid, obtained by distillation 
from the tar of animal matters, and so 
named from its great limpidity. 

EUPLASTIC {el, weU, TrXaV^r, forma- 
tion). A term applied by Lobstein to the 
elaborated organizable matter, by which 
the tissues of the body are renewed. The 
same writer speaks of another animal 
matter, the tendency of which is to 
softening and disorganization; this he 
terms caco-plastic. 

EUPYRION {el, easHy, nZp, fire). 
Any contrivance for obtaining an instan- 
taneous light, as the phosphorus bottle, 
the promethean, &c. 

EUSTACHIAN TUBE. The Iter a 
palate ad aurem ; a canal which extends 
from the tjTnpanum to the phar>-nx, 
called after Eustachius, its discoverer. 

J. Musculus tubcB Eustachiance nanus. 
A designation of the circumflexus palati 
muscle, from its arising in part from the 
Eustachian tube. 

2. Eustachian Valve. A fold of the 
lining mem.brane of the auricle, which 
in the foetus is supposed to conduct the 
blood in its two different courses. 

EVACUANTS {evacuo, to empty). 
Agents which cause a discharge by some 
emunctory. Some of the milder evacu- 
ants are called alteratives, or purifiers 
of the blood. 

EVACUATION {evacuo, to empty). 
The discharge of the fasces, &c. 

EVAPORATION. The production of 
vapour at common or moderate tempera- 
tures. Compare Ebullition. 

Spontaneous Evaporation. The pro- 
duction of vapour by some natural agency, 
without the direct application of heat, as 
on the surface of the earth or ocean. 

EVOLUTION {evolvo, to roll out). A 
term applied to a theory of non -sexual 
generation, according to which the first 
created embryos of each species must 
contain within themselves, as it were in 
miniature, all the individuals of that 
114 



species which shall ever exist ; and must 
contain them so arranged, that each ge- 
neration should include not only the 
next, but, encased within it, all succeed- 
ing generations. Hence this theory has 
also received the name of the emboitement 
theory. Compare Epigenesis. 

EVOLUTION, SPONTANEOUS. A 
term applied by Dr. Denman to natural 
delivery, in cases in which the shoulder 
is so far advanced into the pelvis, as to 
preclude the possibility of relief by opera- 
tion. 

EXACERBATION {exacerbo, to ex- 
asperate). An increase of febrile sym- 
ptoms. 

EX^RESIS (efatpew, to remove). 
One of the old divisions of surgery, im- 
pljing the removal of parts. 

EXANIA {ex, and anus). Archoptosis. 
A prolapsus, or falling down of the anus. 

EXANTHE'MA A (^fav^ew, to blos- 
som). Eflaorescence ; eruptive diseases ; 
a term formerly equivalent to eruption 
generally, but now limited to rashes, or 
superficial red patches, irregularly dif- 
fused, and terminating in cuticular ex- 
foliations. 

EXANTHESIS tef, out, dv0^«, to 
blossom). ' A superficial or cutaneous 
efllorescence, as rose-rash ; it is opposed 
to en-anthesis, or efilorescence springing 
from within. 

EXCITANTS {excito, to stimulate). 
Stimulants; these are termed general, 
when they excite the system, as spirit ; 
and particular, when they excite an 
organ, as in the action of diuretics on 
the kidneys. 

EXCITEMENT. The eflfect produced 
by excitants, especially the general. 

EXCORIATION {excorio, to take off 
the skin). Abrasion of the skin. 

EXCREMENT {excerno, to separate 
from). The alvine faeces, or excretion. 

EXCRESCENCE {excresco, to grow 
from). A term applied to a preternatural 
growth, as a wart, a wen, &c. 

EXCRETION {excerno, to separate 
from). A general term for the perspira- 
tion, urine, faeces, &c., which are sepa- 
rated and voided from the blood or the 
food. 

EXCRETORY DUCT {excerno, to se- 
parate from). The duct which proceeds 
from a gland, as the parotid, hepatic, &c., 
and transmits outwards, or into particular 
reservoirs, the fluid secreted by it. 

EXERCITATIO. Gymnastics. Ex- 
ercise ; the action of the organs of loco- 
motion. 



EXP 



EXT 



EXFCETATION {ex, outward, and foe- 
tus). Extra-uterine foetation, or imper- 
fect foetation in some organ exterior to 
the uterus. See Eccyesis. 

EXFOLIATION {exfolio, to cast the 
leaf). The separation of a dead piece of 
bone from the living, 

EXHAI.ATION {exhalo, to exhale). 
Effluvia. The vapours which arise from 
animal and vegetable bodies, marshes, 
the earth, &c. 

EXO- (efw, outward). A Greek pre- 
position, signifying outward. 

1. Exo-gen {'^tvvdia, to produce). A 
plant whose stem grows by external in- 
crease, and which exhibits, in a trans- 
verse section, a series of concentric circles 
or zones. Compare Endvgen. 

2. Exo-rrhizous (pi^a, a root). A term 
expressive of the mode of germination in 
Exogens, in which the radicle appears at 
once on the surface of the radicular 
extremity, and consequently has no 
sheath at its base. See Endorrhizous. 

3. Exo-stome {(rrSfia, the mouth). The 
orifice of the outer integument of the 
ovule in plants. 

4. Exo-ihecium {OfjKTi, a case). The 
name given by Purkinje to the coat of 
the anther. 

EXOMPHALOS (Jf, out, hni>a\6t, 
umbilicus). Hernia at, or near, the um- 
bilicus. 

EXOPHTHALMIA {k^, out, b^aX- 
fjios, the eye). Ophthalmoptosis. Ptosis 
bulbi oculi. A swelling of the bulb of 
the eye. 

EXORMIA (ef, out, 6pij.ij, impetus). 
A term used by the Greeks as synony- 
mous with ecthyma, or papulous skin, 
comprising gum-rash, &c. 

EXOSMO'SIS (ef , out, marfjiii, impul- 
sion). The property by which rarer fluids 
pass through membranous substances, 
out of a cavity into a denser fluid — ' de- 
hors impulsion.' See Endosmosis. 

EXOSTO'SIS (ef, out, hareov, a bone). 
An excrescence or morbid enlargement 
of a bone. 

EXPANSIBILITY. Expansile power. 
These terms are employed by physiolo- 
gists to denote a vital property more or 
■ less observable in several organs, as the 
penis, the nipple, the heart, the uterus, 
the retina, perhaps even the cellular 
substance of the brain. 

EXPANSION {expando, to spread 
out). An enlargement of volume; the 
usual effect of caloric. 

iXPECTORANTS {ex pectore, from 
115 



the chest). Medicines for promoting 
the discharge of mucus or other matters 
from the trachea and its branches. 

Expectoration. The act of discharging 
any matter from the chest; also, the 
matters so discharged. 

EXPIRATION (expiro, to breathe). 
That part of respiration in which the air 
is expelled. Compare Inspiration. 

EXPLORATION (exploro, to exa- 
mine). Examination of the abdomen, 
chest, &c., with a view to ascertain the 
physical signs of disease, in contradis- 
tinction to those signs which are termed 
symptoms. 

EXPRESSED OILS. Oils obtained 
from bodies by pressure. 

EXSANGUINITY {ex, out, sanguis, 
blood). Anheemia. A state of bloo<Ues8- 
ness. 

EXSICCATION {exsicco, to dry up). 
A variety of evaporation, producing the 
expulsion of moisture from solid bodies 
by heat ; it is generally employed for 
depriving salts of their water of crystal- 
lization. 

EXTENSION {extendo, to stretch out). 
This term denotes, in physics, the pro- 
perty of occupying a certain portion of 
space. In surgery, it signifies the act of 
pulling the broken part of a limb in a 
direction from the trunk, in order to 
bring the ends of the bone into their 
natural situation. 

Counter-extension. The act of making 
extension in the opposite direction, in 
order to hinder the limb from being 
drawn along by the extending power. 

EXTENSOR {extendo, to stretch out). 
A muscle which extends any part. It is 
opposed to flexor, or that which bends a 
part. 

EXTIRPATION {extirpo, to eradi- 
cate, from stirps, a root). The entire 
removal of any part by the knife, or liga- 
ture. 

EXTRA-UTERINE. A term applied 
to those cases of pregnancy in which the 
foetus is contained in some organ exterior 
to the uterus. 

EXTRACTION {exlraho, to draw out). 
The operation of removing the teeth, a 
musket-ball, &c. The process of pre- 
paring a pharmaceutical extract. 

EXTRACTUM (extraho, to draw out). 
An extract; a preparation obtained by 
the evaporation of a vegetable solution, 
or a native vegetable juice. Its basis is 
termed extractive, or extractive prin- 
ciple. 

EXTRAVASATION {extra, out of, 



EYE 



EYE 



ms, a vessel). The passage of fluids out 
of their proper vessels, and their infil- 
tration into the surrounding tissues. 

EXUDATION. Transpiration. The 
flow of liquid from the surface of the 
skin or membrane, an ulcer, &c. 

EXUVI^ {exuo, to put off). The 
slough, or cast-off covering of certain 
animals, as those of the snake-kind. 

EYE. Oculus. The organ of vision. 
The following is a systematic arrange- 
ment of the diseases to which this organ 
is liable :— 

I. Diseases of the Eye, generally. 

1. Ophthalmia {b<p9a\fx6f, the eye). 
Generally, any inflammation of the eye. 

2. Ophthalmitis. Inflammation of the 
globe of the eye 

3. Exophthalmia (ef, out, b<p9a\ix6i, 
the eye). Proptosis, or protrusion of the 
globe of the eye. Beer proposes to call 
the affection exophthabnus, when the 
protruded eye is in its natural state; 
exophthalmia, when it is inflamed ; and 
ophthalmoptosis, when the displacement 
is caused by division of the nerves and 
muscles of the orbit, or by paralysis of 
the latter. 

4. Lippitudo {lippus, blear-eyed). Ca- 
tarrhal ophthalmia. 

5. Epiphora (k7ri(pepu>, to carry with 
force). Watery eye. 

6. Cirsophthalmia, (Kipo-oc, varix, 6^- 
6a\iJi6t, the eye). Varicositas oculi, or 
varicose ophthalmia. A varicose affec- 
tion of the blood-vessels of the eye. 

7. Empyesis oculi (kv, in, nvov, pus). 
Suppuration of the eye. 

8. Ophthalmoplegia {ixpOaX/j-of, the eye, 
n\fi<T(ru), to strike). Paralysis of one or 
more of the muscles of the eye. 

9. Hypocema scorbuticum {viro, under, 
aljua, blood). A scorbutic blood-shot 
appearance of the eye. 

10. Hydrophthalmia {vdap, water, o</)- 
OaXfjiov, the eye). Hydrops oculi, or 
dropsy of the eye. This has been also 
termed bu-phthalmus (ySoDv, an ox, b<p6a\- 
/u6r, the eye), or ox-eye. 

II. Diseases of the Eye-lids. 

11. Ankyloblepharon (uyKuAor, bent, 
p\e<papov, the eye-lid). A preternatural 
union of the two lids. 

12. Chalazion ixdXaCa, a hail-stone). 
An indurated tumor of undefined mar- 
gin, occupying the edge of the lid. It is 
called, in Latin, grando ; and, from its 
being supposed to be the indurated re- 
mains of a stye, it has been termed hor- 
deolum induratum. 

116 



13. Ectropium (ck, out, rpt'Trw, to turn). 
E version of the eye-lids. 

14. Entropium {ev, in, rpeTrw, to turn). 
Inversion of the eye-lids. 

15. Epicanthus (en-i, upon, KavOot, the 
corner of the eye). A fold of skin cover- 
ing the internal canthus. 

16. Hordeolum (dim. of hordeum, bar- 
ley). Stye ; a tumor resembling a bar- 
ley-corn. 

17. Lagophthalmos (\a7wr, a hare, 
o<p6a\fj.6i, the eye). Hare-eye ; shorten- 
ing of the upper lid. I 

18. Milium (a millet seed). A small 
white tumor on the margin of the lids, 
containing a substance nearly like boiled 
rice. 

19. N(vvi materni, or mother-spots, oc- 
curring on the eye-brow, or upper lid. 

20. Pediculi ciliorum. Lice of the 
eye-lashes. Phtheiriasis. 

21. Phlyctenula (dim. of phlyctaena). 
A watery vesicle of the ciliary margin. 

22. Ptilosis (TTTtXaxTtf, the moulting of 
birds). Madarosis. Alopecia. Loss of 
the eye-lashes. 

23. Ptosis (TTTtoatf, prolapsus). A fall- 
ing of the upper eye-lid. 

24. Symblepharon (0-1)1/, together with, 
f3\e(papov, the eye-lid). The connexion 
of the lid to the globe of the eye. 

25. Trichiasis (^pjf, rpixw, hair). An 
unnatural direction of the cilia inwards 
against the eye -ball. 

26. Tylosis {tvXo^, callosity). Thick- 
ening and induration of the palpebral 
margins. The terms pachyblepharosis, 
pachea blephara, and pachytes {naxv^f 
thick), denote the thickened state of the 
lids. 

III. Diseases of the Conjunctiva. 

27. Encanthis {ev, in, KavQoi, the cor- 
ner of the eye). Enlargement of the 
caruncula lacrymalis. 

28. Pterygium (n-repuf, a wing). A 
thickened state of the membrane, pro- 
bably so called from its triangular shape. 

IV. Diseases of the Cornea and chambers 
of the aqueous humors, 

29. Ceratocele [Kepa^, K^paro^, cornu, 
Kf]\t], a tumor). Hernia of the cornea. 

30. Corneitis, ceratitis, or keratitis. 
Inflammation of the cornea. 

31. Hcemophthalmus (al^a, blood, of- 
OaXfioT, the eye). Effusion of blood into 
the chambers of the eye. 

32. Hypogala (i/tto, under, 70X0, milk). 
The effusion of a milk- like fluid into the 
chambers of the eye. 

33. Hypopyon (v7t6, under, trZov, pus). 



EYE 



EYE 



The presence of pus in the anterior 
chamber. 

34. Hypohjmpha (i»iro, under, and 
lympha). The effusion of lymph in the 
chambers of the aqueous humor. 

35. Opacity (opacus, opaque). A gene- 
ral term, popularly called //»i, including 
all changes affecting the transparency of 
the cornea : these are — 

1. Arcus senilis (senile bow), or geron- 
toxon. The opaque circle, or half 
circle, formed in old age. 

2. Nebula (a cloud). Haziness; dul- 
ness. 

8. Leucoma {XevKos, white), or albugo. 

A denser opacity extending through 

the laminae. 
4. Macula (a spot). A small patch, or 

speck. 

36. Staphyloma (o-ra^wX*;, a grape). 
Increased size of the cornea, with opa- 
city. 

V. Diseases of the Iris, lens and cap- 
sule, and vitreous humor. 

37. Coloboma iridis ((coXo/Su/ua, a muti- 
lated limb). Fissure of the i,ris, with 
prolongation of the pupU. 

38. Glaucoma {yXavKos, azure). For- 
merly cataract, but now discoloration of 
the pupil. 

39. Iritis. Inflammation of the iris. 

40. Mydriasis (fivda, moisture). Di- 
lated pupil. 

41. Myosis (nvw, to close, Zax^, the eye). 
Contracted pupil. 

42. Prolapsus iridis. A hernia-like pro- 
trusion of the iris through a wound of 
the cornea. The tumor, thus formed, 
is sometimes called staphyloma iridis; 
the protrusion of the whole iris is 
termed staphyloma racemosum ; a small 
prolapsus, myocepkalon {fivla, a fly, 
KerpaXi], the head) ; those of larger size 
have been named clavus (a nail), helos 
(iiXof, a nail), and melon (juJjXov, an 
apple). 

43. Synchysis {airixvrii, a melting). A 
fluid state of the vitreous humor. 

44. Synechia [avvexi^, to keep together). 
Adhesion of the uvea to the crystalline 
capsule, which is termed posterior ; and 
that of the iris to the cornea, which is 
anterior. 

45. Synizesis (o-ui/i'fntrir, collapse, sink- 
ing in). Atresia iridis. Closure of the 
pupil. 

VI. Cataract. 

46. Cataract. Opacity of the crystal- 
line lens, of its capsule, or of the Mor- 
gagnian fluid, separately or conjointly. 
Cataracts were formerly denominated 

117 



ripe, or unripe. Beer divides them into 
the true and the spurious. 
True Cataract. 

1. lYiG Lenticular, of various consist- 
ence, as the hard or firm ; and the soft, 
caseous, gelatinous, or milky. 

2. The Capsular ; termed the anterior, 
the posterior, and the complete. 

3. The Morgagnian, sometimes called 
the milk cataract, or confounded with 
the purulent ; one of the rarest forms of 
the disease. 

4. The Capsulo-lenticular ; the varie- 
ties of this form are termed, with refer- 
ence to their appearances : — 

Marmoracea, or the marbled. 

Fenestrata, or the latticed. 

Stellata, or the starry. 

Striata, or the streaky. 

Centralis, or the central. 

Punctata, or the dotted. 

Dimidiata, or the half-cataract. 

Tremula, or the shaking. 

Natatalis, or the swimming. 

Pyramidalis, or the conical. 

Siliquata arida, or the dry-shelled. 

Gypsea, or the cretaceous. 

Purulent encysted, or putrid. 

The trabecularis, or the barred. This 
is the "cataracte barree," or bar-cataract 
of the French, and the " cataract with a 
girth or zone," of Schmidt. 

Spurious Cataract. 

Lymphatica, or lymph-cataract. 

Membranacea, or membranous. 

Purulenta, or spurious purulent. 

Grumosa, or blood-cataract. 

Dendritica, arborescent, or choroid. 
VII. Operations for Cataract. 

1. Couching, or depression; an opera- 
tion described by Celsus, and consisting 
originally in the removal of the opaque 
lens out of the axis of vision, by means 
of a needle. See Reclination. 

2. Extraction, or the removal of the 
opaque lens from the eye, by division 
of the cornea, and laceration of the cap- 
sule. 

3. Keratonyxis (»cepar, (ceporor, a horn, 
vvactx), to puncture) ; or the operation of 
couching performed by puncture of the 
cornea. 

VIII. Operations for artificial pupil — 
coremorphosis (k6p»i, pupil, fxap^oxrii; 
formation) : — 

1. Coretomia (Kopn, pupil, to/u>/, sec- 
tion), or iriditomia; the operation by 
incision. 

2. Corectomia (k6p>j, pupil, eKTOfxij, ex- 
cision), or iridectomia; the operation by 
excision. 



EYE 



EYE 



3. Coredialt/sis (xoprj, pupil, 6ioi\v<rii, 
loosening), or iridodialysis ; the operation 
by separation. 

4. Iridencleisis (Iptv, iris, eyK\et<o, to 
inclose) ; the strangulation of the de- 
tached portion of the iris. 

5. Iridectomed'iahjsis (Zptr, iris, eKTO/i»;, 
excision, iiaXvai^, separation) ; the ope- 
ration by excision and separation. 

6. Scleroticectome (sclerotica, and ck- 
roiJii], excision); the operation for form- 
ing an artificial pupil in the sclerotica. 

IX, Amaurosis. 
Imperfection or loss of sight from affec- 
tion of the retina, optic nerve, or sen- 
Borium. Literally, it means dimness of 
sight, and is applied, generally, to the 
following forms and degrees : — 

1. Amblyopia (u^i/3\i/?, dull, w^, the 
eye), the incipient or incomplete ; the 
epithet amaurotica is sometimes at- 
tached to it. 

2. GM<<a serewa (drop serene ; so named 
from the idea of an effused fluid at or 
behind the pupil), the complete; often 
synonymous with amaurosis. 

3. Suffusion (suffundo, to suffuse) is a 
term applied generally by Celsus, &c. 
to amaurosis, arising from cataract, &c. 
The vKoxvua, or vit6xv<ti^, of the earlier 
Greek writers, includes amaurosis and 
cataract ; the latter was afterwards called 
•yXayKw/ia. 

X. In Incomplete Amaurosis there are — 

4. Amaurotic cat's eye (amblj'opia se- 
nilis?); a term applied by Beer to an 
amaurotic affection, accompanied by a 
remarkably pale colour of the iris. It 
occurs chiefly in very old persons. 

5. Hemeralopia {rifxipa, day, w4/, the 
eye), day-eye ; or caecitas crepuscularis, 
or nocturna,— caligo, or dysopia tene- 
brarum — or night-blindness. 

6. Nyctalopia (vv^, vuktoc, night, ih^, 
the eye), night-eye; caecitas diurna, or 
day-blindness. 

7. Myopia {fxvo}, to close, w^, the eye), 
or near-sightedness. 

8. Presbyopia (irpeafiv^, old, S>^, the 
eye), or far-sightedness. 

9. Photophobia ((pm, (puTot, light, 06- 

118 



/3or, fear), or intolerance of light. This 
is connected with 

10. Oxyopia (ofi>r, acute, oij/is. sight), 
or acuteness of sight, for a short time, at 
intervals. 

11. Strabismus {inpaptapw, squinting, 
from o-Tpa/Jor, i. q. arpe^Xo^, twisted), 
or squinting ; when the eye turns inward 
it is called convergens ; when outward, 
divergens. 

12. Luscitas (luscus, blind of one eye), 
or obliquity of the eye. 

XI. Other defects of sight {vitia visds), — 

13. Visus color atus, or chrupsia (xpoa, 
colour, 6\l/i?, sight), or coloration of 
objects. 

14. Visus defiguratus or metamorphopsia 
(fx€Tan6p<pu>aK, transformation, S^n, 
sight), or distortion and confusion of 
objects. 

15. Fisus dimidiatus, or hemioptia 
(riij.i<rv, half, 6^1/1?, sight), or half-sight; 
an affection of the sight, in which the 
sphere of vision is diminished, so that 
the person sees only a part of an object, 

16. Visus duplicatus, or diplopia {di- 
jrXoor, double, and wf , sight), or double 
vision. 

17. Visus int.rruptus (interrumpo, to 
interfere with), or broken interrupted 
vision. 

18. Visus lucidus, or photopsia (05r, 
(puTOi, light, oyj/ii:, sight), or luminous 
vision, in which flashes of light appear 
to pass before the eyes, when the eyelids 
are shut, particularly in the dark. This 
is the marmaryge (napfiapvyij, dazzling 
light) of Hippocrates. 

19. Visus muscarum, or myodesopsia 
(/iula, musca, a fly, o.//<y, visus, sight), 
or the appearance of flies, &c., floating 
before the eyes. A single black speck is 
called scotoina (o-KOToy, darkness) ; the 
more moving substances are termed 
musccB volitantes or mouches volantes. 

20. Visus nebulosus (nebula, a cloud), 
or misty, clouded vision. 

21. Visus reticulatus (rete, a net), or a 
gauzy, net-like appearance of objects. 

EYE OF TYPHON, The mystic 
name given by the Egyptians to the 
Squill, or sea-onion. 



FAI 



FAR 



F 



F, or FT. Abbreviations of fiat, or 
fiant, let it, or them, be made ; used in 
prescriptions. 

FACE AGUE. Tic douloureux. A 
form of neuralgia, which occurs in the 
nerves of the face. 

FACET {facette, a little face). A term 
applied to an articular cavity of a bone, 
when nearly plain. 

FACIES. The face; the lower and 
anterior part of the head, including the 
nose, mouth, eyes, and cheeks. See Vul- 
tus and Frons. 

1. Fades Hippocratica. The peculiar 
appearance of the face immediately before 
death, described by Hippocrates. 

2. Fades rubra. The red face ; another 
name for the gutta rosacea. See Acne. 

3. Facial angle. An angle composed 
of two lines, one drawn in the direction 
of the basis of the skull, from the ear to 
the roots of the upper incisor teeth, and 
the other from the latter point to the 
most projecting part of the forehead. 

4. Facial nerve. The portio dura of 
the seventh pair. The fifth pair is de- 
signated as the trifacial. 

5. Facial vein. A vein which com- 
mences at the summit of the head and 
forehead. See Angular. 

6. Face grippee. The pinched-in face ; 
a peculiar expression of features in peri- 
tonitis. See Physiognomy. 

FACTITIOUS {factito, to practise). 
Made by art, as factitious cinnabar, in 
distinction from the natural production. 
This term is also applied to diseases 
which are produced whoUy, or in part, 
by the patient ; and to waters prepared 
in imitation of natural waters, as those 
of Brighton. 

FACULTY {facultas, from facere, to 
make). The power or ability by which 
an action is performed. A term em- 
ployed to denote the professors of the 
medical art. 

F^CES (pi. of fcex, dregs). Dregs or 
lees of wine ; the settlement of any liquor. 
The excrement of animals. 

FAGIN. A narcotic substance ob- 
tained from the nuts of the Fagus syl- 
vatica, or common beech. 

FAINTS. The weak spirituous liquor 
119 



which runs off from the still after the 
proof spirit is taken away. 

FALCIFORM (falx, falcis, a scythe, 
forma, likeness). Scythe-like; a term 
applied to a process of the dura mater, 
and the iliac process of the fascia lata. 

FALLING SICKNESS. Caducus mor- 
bus. Epilepsy ; an atfection in which the 
patient suddenly falls to the ground. 

FALLOPIAN TUBES. Two trumpet- 
like ducts, arising from the sides of the 
fundus uteri, and extending to the ovaria ; 
so called from Gabriel Fallopius. The 
commencement of each is termed ostium 
uterinum ; the termination, ostium abdo- 
minale; the fimbriated extremity, morsus 
diaboli. 

FALSE CONCEPTION. Anormal 
conception, in which, instead of a well- 
organized embryo, a mole or some ana- 
logous production is formed. 

FALSE MEMBRANE. This is always 
the result of inflammation, as that pro- 
duced in pleurisy, in peritonitis, in 
croup, &c. 

FALSE WATERS. Fausses eaux. A 
term applied by the French to a serous 
fluid which accumulates between the 
chorion and the amnios, and is discharged 
at certain periods of pregnancy. This 
must be distinguished from the liquor 
amnii, which they term simply the waters. 

FALX, FALCIS. A scythe, or sickle. 
A scythe or sickle-like process. 

1. Falx cerebri, or falx major. The 
sickle-like process or lamina of the dura 
mater, situated between the lobes of the 
cerebrum. 

2. Falx cerebelli, or falx minor. The 
small sic*/e-like process of the dura 
mater, situated between the lobes of the 
cerebellum. 

FAMES (^a7ci), to eat). Famine, hun- 
ger. Hence the terms cura famis, or 
abstinence from food ; and fames canina, 
voracious or canine appetite. See Bu- 
limia. 

FAMILY. A group of genera, which 
are connected together by common cha- 
racters of structure. The term order is 
synonjTuous. 

FARCIMEN. The name given by 
Sauvages to the equine species of scro- 



F AU 



FEB 



fula, commonly called farcy. The por- 
cine species lie denominated chalasis. 

FARI'NA {far, f arris, corn). Meal, 
or vegetable flour, made from the seed 
of the Triticum Hybernum, or Winter 
Wheat. See A my I urn. 

Farinaceous. A term for all those sub- 
stances which contain farina; viz. the 
cerealia, legumes, &c. 

FAR-SIGHTEDNESS. An affection 
occurring in incomplete amaurosis. See 
Presbyopia. 

FASCIA ifascis, a bundle). Literally, 
a scarf or large band. Hence, it is ap- 
plied to the aponeurotic expansion of a 
muscle. 

1. Fascia lata. A name frequently 
given to the aponeurosis of the thigh. 

2. Fascia superjicialis. A membrane 
extending over the abdomen, and down- 
wards over the front of the thigh. 

3. Fascia transversalis. A dense layer 
of cellular fibrous membrane, lying be- 
neath the peritoneum, and investing the 
transversalis muscle. 

4. Fascialis. Another name for the 
tensor vagince femoris muscle. 

FASCICLE (fasciculus, a little bundle). 
A form of inflorescence resembling a 
corymb, but having a centrifugal, instead 
of a centripetal, expansion. It is a kind 
of compound corymb. 

FASCICULUS (dim. of fascis, a bun- 
dle). A little bundle ; a handful. Thus, 
a muscle consists of fasciculi of flbres. 

FASCIOLA HEPATIC A. The fluke, 
a worm frequently found in the hepatic 
vessels of the sheep. It is also called 
distoma hepatica. 

FAT. Adeps. Solid animal oil. Hu- 
man fat consists of two proximate prin- 
ciples, elaine and stearine, the former 
constituting the oily or liquid, the latter 
the fatty or solid substance. Fatty or 
unctuous bodies are divisible into 

1. The Oils, which are liquid at the 
ordinary temperature, and are common 
to both the vegetable and animal king- 
doms ; and • 

2. The Fats, which are concrete at the 
ordinary temperature, and belong prin- 
cipally to the animal kingdom. The 
Croton Sehiferum is the only vegetable 
known which produces a real fat. See 
Oils. 

FATUITY ifatuus, without savour; 
figuratively, nonsensical). Foolishness, 
weakness of understanding. 

FAUCES. The gullet, or wind-pipe; 
the part where the mouth grows nar- 
rower ; the space surrounded by the 
120 



velum palati, the uvula, the tonsils, and 
the posterior part of the tongue. 

FAUNA {Fauni, the rural divinities). 
A terra denoting the animals peculiar to 
any particular country. 

FAUX. The gullet-pipe; the space 
between the gula and the yuttur, or the 
superior part of the gula. The term is 
used in botany to denote the orifice of 
the tube formed by the cohering petals of 
a gamopetalous corolla. 

FAVUS (a honey-comb). A non-acu- 
minated pustule, larger than the achor, 
and succeeded by a yellow and cellular 
scab, resembling a honey-comb 

FAYNARD'S POWDER. A cele- 
brated powder for stopping haemorrhage, 
said to have been nothing more than the 
charcoal of beech-wood, finely powdered. 

FEBRIFUGE {febris, a fever, fugo, to 
dispel). A remedy against fever. 

Febrifugum magnum. The name given 
by Dr. Hancocke to cold water as a drink 
in ardent fever. The same remedy has 
been termed arthritifugum magnum, from 
its supposed efficacy in gout. 

FEBRIS iferveo, or ferbeo, to be hot). 
Pyrexia. Fever; a class of diseases cha- 
racterized by increased heat, &c. It is 
termed idio-pathic, i. e. of the general 
system, not dependent on local disease ; or 
symptomatic, or sympathetic — a secondary 
affection of the constitution, dependent 
on local disease, as the inflammatory. 
The hectic is a remote effect. Pinel dis- 
tinguishes the following varieties : — 

1. The Angeio-tenic (a'^'jeiov, a vessel, 
TetVo), to stretch), or inflammatory fever, 
situated in the organs of circulation. 

2. The Meningo-gastric {/j.rjvi'^^, a mem- 
brane, yac-Ttjp, the belly), or bilious fever, 
originating in the mucous membrane of 
the intestines. 

3. The Adeno-meningeal {a&tjv, a gland. 
firiviy^, a membrane), a form of gastric 
fever, depending on disease of the mu- 
cous follicles. 

4. The Ataxic (a, priv., Ta^i^, order), 
or irregular fever, in which the brain 
and nervous system are chiefly affected. 

5. The Adynamic (a, priv., ivva/m, 
power), or fever characterized by prostra- 
tion or depression of the vital powers. 

FEBURE'S LOTION. A celebrated 
remedy for cancer, consisting of ten 
grains of the white oxide of arsenic, dis- 
solved in a pint of distilled water, to 
which were then added one ounce of the 
extractum conii, three ounces of the 
liquor plumbi subacetatis, and a drachm 
of laudanum. 



FER 



FER 



FECULA {fax, the grounds or settle- 
ment of any liquor). Originally, any sub- 
stance derived by spontaneous subsidence 
from a liquid ; the term was afterwards 
applied to starch, which was thus depo- 
sited by agitating the flour of wheat in 
water ; and, lastly, it denoted a peculiar 
vegetable principle, which, like starch, is 
insoluble in cold, but completely soluble 
in boiling water, with which it forms a 
gelatinous solution. Paris. 

FECUNDATION (fecundo, to make 
fruitful). Impregnation , The effect of 
the vivifying fluid upon the germ or 
ovum, which is then called the embryo. 

FEIGNED DISEASES. Morbi ficti, 
vel simulati. Alleged affections, which 
are either pretended or intentionally in- 
duced, as abdominal tumor, animals in 
the stomach, &c. The practice of feign- 
ing disease is technically termed in the 
British navy skulking, and in the army 
malingering. 

FEL, FELLIS. Gall, or bile; a secre- 
tion found in the cystis fellea, or gall- 
bladder. 

1. Fel hovinum. Fel tauri, bilis bovina, 
or ox-gall. An extract is used by paint- 
ers to remove the greasiness of colours, 
&c. 

2. Fellinic acid. An acid formed in 
the preparation of bilin. 

3. Felliflua passio. Gall-flux disease; 
an ancient name for cholera. 

FELON. The name of malignant 
whitlow, in which the effusion presses 
on the periosteum. 

FEMUR, FEMORIS. Os femoris. 
The thigh-bone, the longest, largest, and 
heaviest of all the bones of the body. 

1. Femoral. The name given to the 
external iliac artery immediately after it 
has emerged from under the crural arch ; 
and to the crural vein, or continuation of 
the popliteal. 

2. Femorccus. Another name for the 
crnrcBus muscle,— an extensor of the leg. 

FENESTRA [cpaivw, to shine). Li- 
terally, a window; an entry into any 
place. Hence the terms fenestra ovalis 
and rotunda are respectively synonymous 
with foramen ovale and rotundum, or 
the oval and round apertures of the in- 
ternal ear. The latter of these apertures, 
however, is not round, but triangular. 

FENU-GREC. The Trigonellafoenum 
Gr cecum, a Leguminous plant, forming 
an article of food in Egypt, and employed 
in this country in veterinary medicine. 

FER AZURE'. A mineral, described 
by Haiiy, containing prussic acid. 
121 



iiiiaica 111 

(The 1 
form 
The r 



FERMENTATION. Certain changes 
of animal or vegetable substances, re- 
duced to the moist or liquid state by 
water. There are four kinds : — 

1. The Saccharine ; when the change 
terminates in sugar, as that of starch. 

The Panary ; as that of flour 
forming bread ; — or 

'inovs ; as that of the grape, 
&c., forming wine ;— 
evolving alcohol. 

3. The Acetous; when the result is 
acetic acid, or vinegar. 

4. The Putrefactive ; generally of ani- 
mal substances, evolving ammonia. 

FERMENTUM (quasi fervimenium, 
from ferveo, to work). A ferment ; a 
substance which possesses the power of 
commencing fermentation, as yeast. 

FERN, MALE SHIELD. The Ne- 
phrodiumjilix mas, the rhizome and gem- 
mae of which have been extolled as 
vermifuges. Batso found a peculiar acid, 
the acidum filicum, and an alkali, fili- 
cina, in the rhizome. 

FERRUGINOUS (ferrum, iron). That 
which contains iron, or is of the nature 
of iron, as certain salts, mineral waters, 
&c. 

FERRU'GO. Qu&si ferri arugo. Rust 
of iron ; a term mostly used to express 
colours. 

FERRUM. Iron ; a whitish grey 
metal, found in animals, plants, and 
almost all mineral substances. The 
smelted iron, obtained from clay iron ore, 
is run into moulds, and then termed cast 
or pig iron ; and this, by refining, pud- 
dling, and welding, is changed into 
wrought iron. By the alchemists, iron 
was called Mars. 

1 . Ferric oxide. Another name for the 
peroxide of iron. 

2. Ferro-cyanic acid. A compound of 
cyanogen, metallic iron, and hydrogen ; 
also called ferruretted chyazic acid. It 
contains the elements of hydro-cyanic 
acid, but differs from it totally in its pro- 
perties. Its salts, formerly called triple 
prussiatcs, are now termed ferro-cyanates. 
The beautiful pigment Prussian blue is a 
ferro-cyanate of the peroxide of iron. 

3. Ferroso'ferric oxide. Ferri oxidum 
nigrum, the black oxide, magnetic oxide, 
or martial aethiops. It occurs in the 
mineral kingdom under the name of 
magnetic iron ore, the massive form of 
which is called native loadstone. 

4. Ferroso-ferric sulphate. The name 
given by Berzelius to a combination of 
the proto- and per-sulphates of iron. 

G 



FIB 



FIL 



5. Ferrurelted chyazic acid. A name 
given by M. Porrett to ferro-cyanic acid. 

6. Red or peroxide of iron. Ferri ses- 
qui-oxydum, formerly called crocus mar- 
tis ; found native in the crystallized state 
as specular iron, or iron glance, and in 
stalactitic masses as red hccmatite ; as 
obtained by precipitation from sulphate 
of iron, it is frequently termed carbonate, 
subcarbonate, or precipitated carbonate of 
iron ; as obtained by calcining sulphate 
of iron, it is known as colcoihar, caput 
mortuum vitrioli, trip, brown-red, rouge, 
and crocus. 

7. Ammoniacal iron. Ferri ammonio- 
chloridum, formerly called martial flowers 
of sal ammoniac, ens Veneris, &c. 

8. Prussian or Berlin blue. Ferri ferro- 
sesquicyanidura, sometimes called ferro- 
prussiate of iron. 

9. Copperas. Ferri sulphas, commonly 
called green vitriol, sal martis, vitriolated 
iron, &c. The Romans termed it atra- 
raentum sutoriimi, or shoemaker's black. 

10. Rust of iron. Ferri rubigo; a 
protoxide, obtained by moistening iron 
wire with water, and exposing it to the 
air until it is corroded into rust, which is 
then made up into small conical loaves, 
like prepared chalk. 

11. Iron filings. Ferri ramenta. Pro- 
cured by filing pure iron with a clean 

me. 

12. Iron liquor. The name given by 
dyers to the acetate of iron. 

FERTILISATION {fertilis, fertile). 
The function of the pollen of plants upon 
the pistil, by means of which the ovules 
are converted into seeds. 

FERULA ASSAFffiTIDA. The As- 
safoetida Ferula ; an Umbelliferous plant, 
jrielding the assafoetida of commerce. 
The F. persica is also supposed to yield 
this drug. 

FERVOR {ferveo, to boil). A violent 
and scorching heat. Ardor denotes an 
excessive heat ; calor, a moderate or na- 
tural heat. Calor expresses less than 
fervor, and fervor less than ardor. 

FEU VOL AGE. Literally, /i/iw^r/re ; 
the French term for aestus volaticus of 
the earlier writers, and the erythema vo- 
laticum of Sauvages. 

FI BER. An old adjective for extremus, 
and applied by the Latins to the Beaver 
or Pontic Dog, from its residing at the 
extremities of rivers. It yields casto- 
reum. 

FIBRE (/6ro, a filament). A filament 
or threjid, of animal, vegetable, or mineral 
composition. 
122 



1. Animal fibre, or the filaments which 
compose the muscular fasciculi, &c. 
The epithets carneous and tendinous are 
sometimes added, to mark the distinction 
between fleshy and sinewy fasciculi. 

2. Woody fibre, or lignin ; the fibrous 
structure of vegetable substances. 

3. Fibril. A small filament, or fibre, 
as the ultimate division of a nerve. The 
term is derived from fibrilla, dim. of 
fibra, a filament. 

4. Fibrin. A tough fibrous mass, 
which, together with albumen, forms the 
basis of muscle. See Blood. 

5. Fibro-cartilage. Membraniform car- 
tilage. The substance, intermediate be- 
tween proper cartilage and ligament, 
which constitutes the base of the ear, 
determining the form of that part ; and 
composes the rings of the trachea, the 
epiglottis, &c. By the older anatomists 
it was termed ligamentous cartilage, or 
cartilaginiform ligament. It appears to 
be merely ligament incrusted with ge- 
latin. 

FIBULA. Literally, a clasp, or buckle. 
Hence, it denotes the lesser bone of the 
leg, from its being placed opposite to the 
part where the knee-buckle was attached. 
The term is also applied to a needle for 
sewing up wounds. 

Fibular. The designation of the ex- 
ternal popliteal or peroneal nerve; of 
lymphatics, arteries, &c. 

FICATIO, or FICUS (ficus, a fig). A 
fig-like tubercle about the anus or pu- 
denda. See Sycosis. 

FICUS CARICA. The Common Fig. 
The fig is an aggregate fruit called a 
syconus. 

FIDGETS. Titubatio. A term de- 
rived from fidgety, probably a corruption 
oi fugitive, and denoting general rest- 
lessness, with a desire of changing the 
position. 

FIDICINALES {fidicen, a harper). A 
designation of the lumbricales of the 
hand, from their usefulness in playing 
upon musical instruments. 

FI'LAMENT (filum, a thread). A 
small thread-like structure, or fibre, as 
that of a nerve, &c. Also, the thread- 
like portion of the stamen, which sup- 
ports the anther. 

FILARIA {filum, a thread). A thread- 
like parasitic worm, which infests the 
cornea of the eye of the horse. 

FILICES {filix, filicis, fera). The 
Fern tribe of Acotyledonous plants. 
Leafy plants, producing a rhizome; leaves 
simple or variously divided ; flowerlets ; 



FI S 



FLE 



reproductive organs consisting of thecee 
or semi-transparent cases appearing on 
the back or margin of the leaves. 

Filicis radix. The root of the Aspi- 
dium filix, mas, or male fern. 

FILIFORM {filum, a thread, forma, 
likeness). Thread-like ; applied to the 
papUlae at the edges of the tongue. 

FILM. The popular term for opacity 
of the cornea. See Leucoma. 

FILTRATION {filtrum, a strainer). 
The act of straining fluids through paper, 
linen, sand, &c. The strainers are termed 
filters. 

FILTRUM. The superficial groove 
along the upper lip, from the partition of 
the nose to the tip of the lip. 

FIMBRIA. A fringe. The fringe- 
like extremity of the Fallopian tube. 

FINERY CINDER. A name given 
by Dr. Priestley to the pulverized black 
oxide of iron. 

FINGERS. Digiti. These consist of 
twelve bones, arranged in three rows, 
termed p/talanges. 

FIRE-DAMP. A gas evolved in coal- 
mines, consisting almost solely of light 
carburetted hydrogen. See Choke-Damp. 

FISH-GLUE. Isinglass; a glue pre- 
pared from different kinds of fish. See 
Ichthyocolla. 

FISH-SKIN DISEASE. A horny con- 
dition of the skin. See Ichthyosis. 

FISSU'RA {findo, to cleave). A fis- 
sure, a groove ; a fine crack in a bone. 

1 . Fissura Glaseri. A fissure situated 
in the deepest part of the glenoid fossa. 

2. Fissura longitudinalis. A deep fis- 
sure observed in the median line on 
the upper surface of, the brain, occupied 
by the falx cerebri of the dura mater. 

3. Fissura Silvii. The fissure which 
separates the anterior and middle lobes 
of the cerebrum. It lodges the middle 
cerebral artery. 

4. Fissura umbilicalis. The groove of 
the umbilical vein, situated between the 
large and small lobes, at the under and 
fore part of the liver, which, in the foetus, 
contains the umbilical vein. 

5. Fissure of the spleen. The groove 
which divides the inner surface of the 
spleen. It is filled by vessels and 
fat. 

6. Fissure of Bichat. The name given 
to the transverse fissure of the brain, from 
the opinion of Bichat that it was here 
that the arachnoid entered into the ven- 
tricles. 

FISTULA. A pipe to carry water; 
hence it denotes a pipe-like sore, with a 
123 



narrow orifice, and without disposition 
to heal. 

1 . Fistula in ana ; fistula penetrating 
into the cellular substance about the 
anus, or into the rectum itself. Those 
cases in which the matter has made its 
escape, by one or more openings through 
the skin only, are called blind external 
fistulcB ; those in which the discharge has 
been made into the cavity of the intestine, 
without any orifice in the skin, are named 
blind internal; and those which have an 
opening both through the skin and into 
the gut, are called complete ftstulce. 

2. Fisttila in penn^eo ; fistula in the 
course of the perinaeum, sometimes ex- 
tending to the urethra, bladder, vagina, 
or rectum. 

3. Fistula lacrymalis; fistula pene- 
trating into the lacrymal sac. 

4. Fistula salivary ; fistula penetrating 
into the parotid duct, occasioned by a 
wound or ulcer. 

FIXED AIR. A name formerly given 
by chemists to the air which was extri- 
cated from lime, magnesia, and dkalies, 
now called carbonic acid gas. 

FIXED BODIES. Substances which 
do not evaporate by heat, as the fixed, 
opposed to the volatile, oils; or non- 
metallic elements, which can neither be 
fused nor volatilized, as carbon, silicon, 
and boron. This property of resistance 
is called fixity. 

FLAKE-WHITE. Oxide of bismuth, 
so called from its occurring in small 
laminae or flakes. 

FLAME {flamma). The combustion 
of an explosive mixture of inflammable 
gas, or vapour, with air. 

FLASH. A preparation used for 
colouring brandy and rum, and giving 
them a fictitious strength ; it consists of 
an extract of cayenne pepper, or capsi- 
cum, with burnt sugar. 

FLATULENCE (/o/M«, a blast). Wind 
in the intestines. The term flatus de- 
notes the same thing. 

FLAX. A substance prepared from 
the fibrous portion of the bark of Linum 
usitatissimum. The short fibres which 
are removed in heckling constitute tow. 
Of flax is made linen, and this, when 
scraped, constitutes lint. 

FLEAM. An instrument for lancing 
the gums ; and for bleeding horses. 

FLEXOR (flecto, to bend). A muscle 
which bends the part into which it is 
inserted. Its antagonist is termed ex- 
tensor. 

G2 



FLU 



FLU 



FLINT. Silex. A mineral, consisting 
of silicious earth, nearly pure. 

Liquor of flints, or liquor silicum. A 
name formerly given to the solution of 
silicated alkali. 

FLOCCI VOLITANTES. Musac Vo- 
litantes. A symptom consisting in the 
appearance of objects, such as locks of 
wool, or flies, before the eyes. 

FLOCCITATIO {floccus, a lock of 
wool). Carphologia. Picking the bed- 
clothes, a forerunner of death. Dame 
Quickly says of Falstaff: "After I saw 
him fumble with the sheets, and play with 
flowers, and smile upon his fingers' ends, 
I knew there was but one way ; for his 
nose was as sharp as a pen, and 'a bab- 
bled of green fields." 

FLOCCULUS, vel lobus nervi pneumo- 
gastrici. A term applied to the pneu- 
mogastric lobule of the cerebellum ; its 
form is that of a small foliated or lamel- 
lated tuft. 

FLOODING. Uterine haemorrhage. 
It occurs either in the puerperal state, or 
from disease. 

FLORA (flos, fioris, a flower). A term 
expressive of the botanical productions 
of any particular country. 

FLORES. PI. oiflos, fioris. Flowers ; 
a term formerly used to denote such 
bodies as assume a pulverulent form by 
sublimation or crystallization. 

1. Flores Benzoes. Flowers of Benja- 
min, or benzoic acid. 

2. Flores Salts Ammoniaci. Flowers 
of sal-ammonia, or the sub-carbonate of 
ammonia. 

3. Flores Sulphuris. Flowers of sul- 
phur ; or sublimed sulphur. 

4. Flores Martiales. Ammoniated 
Iron ; formerly ens Veneris, flowers of 
steel, &c. 

5. Flores Zinci. Flowers of zinc ; 
oxide of zinc, or philosophical wool. 

6. Flores Bismuthi. Flowers of bis- 
muth ; a yellowish oxide of bismuth. 

FLORET. Diminutive of flower ; a 
term applied to the small flowers which 
compose the capitula, or flower-heads, of 
the CompositcE. They are sometimes 
called fioscules, a diminutive of the Latin 
flores. 

FLOUR OF MUSTARD. The seeds 
of mustard, dried, powdered, and sifted. 

FLUATE. A compound of fluoric 
acid with a salifiable base. 

FLUCTUATION {fluctuo, to rise in 
waves). The perceptible motion com- 
municated to pus or other fluids by 
pressure or percussion. The possession 
124 



of the tactus eruditus constitutes the 
practitioner's skill in ascertaining the 
presence of fluids in parts. 

Fluctuation, superficial (peripherique). 
A new mode of detecting abdominal effu- 
sions, described by M. Tarral. 

FLUIDITY ^fluo, to flow). The state 
of bodies when their parts are very rea- 
dily moveable in all directions with re- 
spect to each other. There is a partial 
fluidity, in which the particles are con- 
densed or thickened into a coherent 
though tremiilous mass . Jellies are of this 
kind, and may be considered as holding 
a middle place between liquids and solids. 

FLUID OF COTUNNIUS. A thin 
gelatinous fluid, found in the bony cavi- 
ties of the labyrinth of the ear ; so called 
from the name of the anatomist who first 
distinctly described it. It has been also 
caUed aqua labyrinthi ; and, by Breschet, 
the perilymph. 

FLUIDS. Substances which have the 
quality of fluidity, and are, in conse- 
quence, of no fixed shape. They are 
divided into the gaseous and the liquid, — 
otherwise expressed by the terms elastic 
and inelastic fluids. 

FLUKE. The Fasciola hepatica ; an 
intestinal worm. See Vermes. 

FLUOR ALBUS. Literally, white 
discharge ; another name for leucorrhoea. 

FLUOR SPAR (so called from its 
assisting the fusion of earthy minerals 
in metallurgic operations). Derbyshire 
spar; properly, fluoride of calcium; a 
mineral well known in mining districts. 

1. Fluoric Acid. An acid 'obtained by 
treating fluor spar with sulphuric acid. 
Owing to its destructive properties, it has 
been termed phthore, from (pOSptos, de- 
structive. 

2. Fluorine. A substance occurring 
chiefly in fiuor spar, in a state of com- 
bination with lime ; it is the imaginarj' 
radical of fluoric acid. 

3. Fluo-boric Acid. A gas produced 
by the decomposition of fluor spar, by 
vitrified boracic acid. 

4. Fluo-chroniic Acid. A gaseous com- 
pound, formed by distilling a mixture of 
fluor spar and chromate of lead in fuming, 
or in common sulphuric acid. 

5. Fluo-silicic Acid. A colourless gas, 
produced by the action of hydro-fluoric 
acid on glass. It combines with water, 
producing silico-hydrofiuoric acid. 

6. Fluo-silicates. Double salts, con- 
sisting of two proportionals of hydro- 
fluate of silica, and one proportional of a 
hydrofluate of some other base. 



FOET 



FOR 



7. Fluo-tantalic Acid. An acid pre- 
pared by treating the metal tantalum 
with fluoric acid. 

8. Fluo-litanic Acid. An acid con- 
sisting of a compound of the fluoric and 
titanic acids. 

FLUX {fluo, to flow). A discharge ; 
another term for diarrhoea. Bloody flujc 
is synonymous with dysentery. 

FLUX, CHEMICAL {fluo, to flow). A 
substance or mixture frequently em- 
ployed to assist the fusion of minerals. 
Alkaline fluxes are generally used, which 
render the earthy mixtures fusible by 
converting them into glass. 

1. Crude Flux. A mixture of nitre 
and crystals of tartar. 

2. Black flux. A carbonaceous mix- 
ture, procured by heating cream of tar- 
tar alone. 

3. White flux. White carbonate of 
potassa prepared by deflagrating cream 
of tartar with two parts of nitre. 

4. Cornish Reducing Flux. A mixture 
of ten ounces of tartar, three and a half 
ounces of nitre, and three ounces and a 
drachm of borax. 

5. Cornish Refining Flux. Two parts 
of nitre, and one part of tartar, defla- 
grated, and then pounded. 

FLUXION (fluo, to flow). Fluxion de 
pottrine. Another name for catarrh. 

FLUXUS CAPILLORUM. A term 
applied by Celsus to Alopecia, or the 
falling off of the hair. Parts entirely 
deprived, of hair were called by him, 
arecs ; by Sauvages, this aflfection was 
termed alopecia areata ; and by Willan, 
porrigo decalvans. When universal, it 
is designated, in French, la pelade. 

FLY POWDER, or Poudre a Mouches. 
A protoxide of arsenic. See Arsenicum. 

Fly Water. A solution of arsenic. 

FGENICULUM VULGARE. Common 
Fennel ; an indigenous Umbelliferous 
plant, the fruit of which is incorrectly 
called wild fe?inel seed. 

Foeniculum dulce. A species or cul- 
tivated variety, which yields the sweet 
fennel seeds employed in medicine. 

FOETICIDE ifcilus, and ceedo, to kill). 
The destruction of the foetus in utero, 
commonly called criminal abortion. 

FCETOR ifoeteo, to stink). A strong 
offensive smell. 

FCETUS. The young of any animal. 
The child in utero, after the fourth 
month. At an earlier period, it is com- 
monly called the embryo. The term 
foetus is also applied adjectively to ani- 
mals which are pregnant. 
125 



FOLIA CEREBELLI (folium, any 
sort of leaf). An assemblage of gray 
laminae, observed on the surface of the 
cerebellum. 

FOLIATION (folium, a leaf). Verna- 
tion. The manner in which the young 
leaves are arranged \^ithin the leaf-bud. 

FOLLICLE (dim. of follis, a pair of 
bellows). Literally, a little bag, or scrip 
of leather ; in anatomy, a very minute 
secreting cavity. 

1. Follicles of Lieberkuhn. Micro- 
scopic foramina, depressions, or small 
pouches of the mucous membrane of the 
small intestine, so numerous that, when 
sufficiently magnified, they give to the 
membrane the appearance of a sieve. 

2. Sebaceous Follicles. Small cavities, 
situated in the skin, which supply the 
cuticle with an oily or sebaceous fluid, by 
minute ducts opening upon the surface. 

3. Mucous Follicles. These are situated 
in the mucous membranes, chiefly that 
of the intestines. See Gland. 

■ 4. Follicle in Plants. A one-ceUed. 
one-valved, superior fruit, dehiscent 
along its face, as in Paeonia. The term 
double follicle is applied by Mirbel to 
the conceptaculum of other writers, and 
consists of a two-celled, superior fruit, 
separating into two portions, the seeds of 
which do not adhere to marginal pla- 
centae, as in the follicle, but separate 
from their placentae, and lie loose in each 
cell, as in Asclepias. 

FOMENTATION (fovea, to keep 
warm). The application of flannel, wet 
with warm water, or some medicinal 
concoction. 

FOMES. PI. Fomites. Literally, fuel. 
This term is generally applied to sub- 
stances imbued with contagion. 

Fomes ventriculi. Hypochondriasis. 

FONTANELLA (dim. of /ow«, a foun- 
tain). Bregma. The spaces left in the 
head of an infant, where the frontal and 
occipital bones join the parietal. It is 
also caHed fons pulsatilis, and commonly 
mould. 

FONTICULUS (dim. of fons, a foun- 
tain). A little fountain ; an issue. 

FOOT. Pes. The organ of locomo- 
tion, consisting of the tarsus, the meta- 
tarsus, and the phalanges. 

FORA'MEN (foro, to pierce). An 
opening. A passage observed at the 
apex of the ovule in plants, and com- 
prising both the exostome and the en- 
dostome. 

1. Foramen of Monro. Foramen com- 
mune anterius. An opening under the 
G3 



FOR 



FOS 



arch of the fornix, by which the lateral 
ventricles communicate with each other, 
with the third ventricle, and with the 
infundibulum. 

2. Foramen of Soemmering. Foramen 
centrale. A circular foramen at the pos- 
terior part of the retina, exactly in the 
axis of vision. 

3. Foramen ovale. An oval opening 
situated in the partition which separates 
the right and left auricles, in the foetus ; 
it is also called the foramen of Botal. 
This term is also applied to an oval aper- 
ture communicating between the tympa- 
num and the vestibule of the ear. 

4. Foramen rotundum. The round, or, 
more correctly, triangular aperture of the 
internal ear. This, and the preceding 
term, are, respectively, synonymous 
vdth fenestra ovalis and rotunda. 

5. Foramen ceecum. The blind hole at 
the root of the spine of the frontal bone, 
so called from its not perforating the 
bone, or leading to any cavity. Also, 
the designation of a little sulcus, situated 
between the corpora pyramidalia and the 
pons Varolii. 

6. Foramen ccscum of Morgagni. A 
deep mucous follicle situated at the 
meeting of the papillae circumvallatae 
upon the middle of the root of the 
tongue. 

7. Foramen supra-orbitarium. The 
upper orbitary hole, situated on the 
ridge over which the eye-brow is placed. 

8. Foramen magnum occipitis. The 
great opening at the under and fore part 
of the occipital bone. 

9. Foramen incisivum. The opening 
immediately behind the incisor teeth. 

10. Foramina Thebesii. Minute pore- 
like openings, by which the venous blood 
exhales directly from the muscular struc- 
ture of the heart into the auricle, with- 
out entering the venous current. They 
were originally described by Thebesius. 

11. Foramen Vesalii. An indistinct hole, 
situated between the foramen rotun- 
dum, and foramen ovale of the sphe- 
noid bone, particularly pointed out by 
Vesalius. 

12. Foramen of Winslow. An aperture 
situated behind the capsule of Glisson, 
first described by Winslow, and forming 
a communication between the large sac 
of the omentum, and the cavity of the 
abdomen. 

13. This term is also applied to nume- 
rous little holes [cribrosa foramina) of 
the cribriform plate ; to several openings 
— the round, the oval, the spinal — of the 

126 



sphenoid bone ; to certain holes— the 
mastoid, the slylo-mastoid, the videan, 
the glenoid— oi the temporal bones ; to 
the opening {malar) through which the 
malar nerve passes ; to the opening {in- 
fra orbitar) for the passage of nerves to 
the face; to the groove (palato-maxil- 
lary), through which the palatine nerve 
and vessels proceed to the palate ; to an- 
other opening (the palatine) which trans- 
mits branches of the same to the soft 
palate ; and to two openings at the base 
of the cranium, called, respectively, the 
anterior and posterior lacerated foramen. 

FORCEPS (quasi ferriceps, from fer- 
rum, iron, capio, to take). A pair of 
tongs, or pincers; an instrument for ex- 
tracting the foetus. The artery or dis- 
secting forceps is used for taking up the 
mouths of arteries, &c. Celsus uses the 
word forfex for a pair of pincers for the 
extraction of teeth. 

FORMI'CA. Literally, an ant. A 
term applied by the Arabians to Herpes, 
from its creeping progress. 

1 . Formication. A sensation of creep- 
ing in a limb, or in the surface of the 
body, occasioned by pressure or affection 
of a nerve. 

2. Formic Acid. An acid extracted from 
red ants. Its salts are called /ormiflics. 

3. Formyl. A hypothetical radical of 
a series of compounds, one of which is 
formic acid. 

FORMULA (dim. of forma, a form). 
A prescription ; the mode of preparing 
medicines used in the pharmacopoeias 
and in extemporaneous practice. 

FORNIX. Literally, an arched vault. 
A triangular lamina of white substance, 
extending into each lateral ventricle, 
and terminatuig in two crura, which 
arch downwards to the base of the brain. 

FOSSA {fodio, to dig). A ditch or 
trench ; alittle depression, or sinus. 

1. Fossa hyaloidea {vaKo^, glass, eJior, 
likeness). The cup-like excavation of 
the vitreous humor in which the crys- 
talline lens is embedded. 

2. Fossa innominata. The space be- 
tween the helix and antihelix. 

3. Fossa lacrymalis (lacryma, a tear). 
A depression in the frontal bone for the 
reception of the lacrymal gland. 

4. Fossa navicularis (navicula, a little 
boat). The superficial depression which 
separates the two roots of the antihelix. 
Also the dilatation towards the extremity 
of the spongy portion of the urethra. 
Also, the name of a small cavity imme- 
diately within the fourchette 



FR A 



FRA 



5. Fossa ovalis. The oval depression 
presented by the septum of the right 
auricle. 

6. Fossa pituitaria (pituita, phlegm). 
The sella turcica, or cavity in the sphe- 
noid bone for receiving the pituitary 
body. 

7. Fossa scaphoides {tTKa<pr], a little 
boat, ei3or, likeness). A term synony- 
mous with fossa navicularis. 

8. Fossa Sylvii. A designation of the 
fifth ventricle of the brain. 

FOSSIL (fodio, to dig). Any thing 
dug out of the earth. The term is now 
applied to the remains of animal or vege- 
table substances found embedded in the 
strata of the earth. 

FOURCHETTE (a fork). Frainum 
lahiorum. The name of the thin com- 
missure, by which the labia majora of 
the pudendum unite together. 

FOUR-TAILE D BANDAGE. A band- 
age for the forehead, face, and jaws. 
The terms head and tail are used syno- 
nymously by writers ; hence, this band- 
age is sometimes called the sling with 
four heads. 

FOUSEL OIL. Oil of grain- spirits or 
potatoes. An oil produced in the fer- 
mentation of unmalted grain and pota- 
toes. It is also called hydrate of oxide 
of amyl. 

FOVILLA. A viscous liquor con- 
tained in the vesicles which compose 
the pollen of plants. 

FOWLER'S SOLUTION. A solution 
of the arsenite of potassa, coloured and 
flavoured by the compound spirit of la- 
vender, one fluid drachm of which con- 
tains half a grain of arsenious acid. It 
was introduced into practice by Dr. Fow- 
ler of Stafford, as a substitute for the 
empirical remedy known by the name of 
" The Tasteless Ague Drop." 

Solutio Solventis Mineralis. The name 
of another preparation of this kind, in- 
troduced by the late Dr. Valangin ; it is 
kept at Apothecaries' Hall, and is equally 
efficacious. — Bateman. 

FOXGLOVE. The common name of 
the Digitalis purpurea, probably derived 
from the fanciful resemblance of its flow- 
ers to finger-cases, — quasi folks' glore. 

FRACTURE [frango, to break). A 
solution of continuity of one or more 
bones. It is termed transverse, longitu- 
dinal, or oblique, according to its direc- 
tion in regard to the axis of the bone. 
Fractures are distinguished as — 

1. Simple; when the bone only is 
divided, without external wound. 
127 



2. Compound ; the same sort of injury, 
with laceration of the integuments. 

3. Comminuted ; when the bone is 
broken into several pieces. 

4. Complicated; when attended with 
diseases or accidents, as contusion, &c. 

FR^NUM {frcBuo, to curb a horse). 
A bridle ; a part which performs the oflice 
of a check or curb. 

1. Frcena epiglotlidis. Three folds of 
mucous membrane which unite the epi- 
glottis to the OS hyoides and the tongue. 

2. Frcena of the valvule of Bauhin. 
The name given by Morgagni to the 
rugje, or lines observed at the extremi- 
ties of the lips of the valvule of Bauhin, 
or ileo-colic valve. 

3. Frcenum lahiorum. The fourchette, or 
the lower commissure of the labia pudendi. 

4. Frcenum linguce. A fold formed at 
the under surface of the tongue, by the 
mucous membrane lining the mouth. 
Infants are said to be tongue-tied when 
the fraenum is very short, or continued 
too far forward. 

5. Frcenum prceputii. A triangular 
fold, connecting the prepuce vnth the 
under part of the glans penis. 

e. Frcenum of the under lip. A fold 
of the mucous membrane of the mouth, 
formed opposite to the symphysis of the 
chin. 

FRAGILITAS OSSIUM. Fragile vi- 
treum. A morbid brittleness of the bones. 
See Mollities Ossium. 

FRAGMENT {frango, to break). A 
piece of a thing broken. A splinter or 
detached portion of a fractured bone. 

FRAMBCESIA (framboise, French, a 
raspberry). A Latinized form of the 
French term for raspberry, applied to the 
disease called Yaws, which signifies the 
same in Africa ; it is termed Sibbens (a 
corruption of the Gaelic Sivvens, wild 
rash) in Scotland; and proved by Dr. 
Hibbert to be the same as the Great 
Gore, Pox, or Morbus Gallicus, of the 
fifteenth century. It consists of imper- 
fectly suppurating tumors, gradually in- 
creasing to the size of a raspberry, with a 
fungous core. 

1. Master, or Mother-yaw, termed 
Rlama-pian by the Negroes ; the designa- 
tion of the largest tumor. 

2. Crab-yaws. Tedious excrescences 
which occur on the soles of the feet, 
called tubba in the West Indies. 

FRANGIPAN. An extract of milk, 
for preparing artificial milk, made by 
evaporating skimmed milk to dryness, 
mixed with almonds and sugar. 
G4 



FRO 



FUL 



FRANKINCENSE. Formerly Oliba- 
num, a gum-resin of the Juniperus Lycia ; 
but now the Abietis resina, or Resin of 
the Spruce Fir. 

FRASERA WALTERI. The Ameri- 
can Calumba, a plant of the order Gen- 
tianacece, with the properties of gentian. 
From its having been sold in France as 
calumba, it was called false calumba. 

FRAXINUS ORNUS. The flowering 
Ash, or Manna tree ; anOleaceous plant, 
which yields manna. 

FRECKLES. The little yellow lentU 
gines which appear on persons of fair 
skin ; sun-burn, &c. See Ephelis. 

FREEZING POINT. The degree of 
temperature at which water is changed 
into ice, or 32° Fahr. 

FRENCH BERRIES. The fruit of 
several species of Rhamnus, called by 
the French Graines d' Avignon; they 
yield a yellow colour. 

FRENCH POLISH. Gum lac dis- 
solved in spirits of wine. 

FRENCH RED, or ROUGE. Genuine 
carmine, one ounce, mixed with fine 
sifted starch powder, according to the 
shade required. 

FRENCH WHITE. The common de- 
signation of finely pulverized talc. 

FRIABILITY {frio, to crumble). The 
property by which a substance is capable 
of being crumbled and reduced to 
powder. 

FRIARS' BALSAM. The Tinctura 
benzoes comp., formerly balsamum trau- 
maticum. 

FRICTION [frico, to rub). The act 
of rubbing the surface of the body with 
the hand, a brush, or linen. It is per- 
formed either in the dry way, or with 
ointments, liniments, &c. 

FRIESLAND GREEN. The same as 
Brunswick green; an ammoniaco-mu- 
riate of copper. 

FRIGIDARIUM {frigidus, cold). The 
cold bath. See Bath. 

FRIGORIFIC {frigus, coldness). Hav- 
ing the quality of producing extreme 
cold, or of converting liquids into ice, as 
applied to certain chemical mixtures. 

FRIGUS (frigeo, to be cold, from 
(ppiffffw, to have an ague fit). Cold; 
trembling with cold. This term differs 
from algor, which denotes a starving 
with cold, and is derived from aXyoi, 
pain, because cold causes pain. 

FRITT. The mass produced by the 
materials of glass, on calcination. 

FROND (frons, a branch). A term 
applied to the leaves of Ferns, and other 
128 



CrjTptogamic plants, from their partaking 
at once of the nature of a leaf and a 
branch. 

FRONS, FRONTIS. The forehead; 
that part of the face extending from the 
roots of the hair to the eye-brows. See 
Fades and Vultus. 

FROST-BITE. A state of numbness, 
or torpefaction of any part of the body, 
followed, unless relieved, by the death 
of the part. It occurs in the nose and 
ears in cold climates. 

FRUCTUS (fruor, to enjoy). Fruit; 
a term denoting, in botany, the ovary or 
pistil arrived at maturity. 

FRUMENTUM. All kinds of corn 
or grain for making bread. 

FRUSTUM. A piece or morsel of 
any thing. It diflfers from fragmentum, 
which is a piece broken, and from seg- 
mentum, which is a piece cut off". 

FRUTEX. A shrub ; a plant, of which 
the branches are perennial, proceeding 
directly from the surface of the earth 
without any supporting trunk. When 
very small, the plant is termed fruticu- 
lus, or little shrub. 

FUCUS VESICULOSUS. A sea-weed, 
termed vernacularly bladder-wrack, first 
described by Clusius, under the name of 
quercus marina. Burnt in the open air, 
and reduced to a black powder, it forms 
the vegetable cethiops, a species of char- 
coal. 

FULI'GO. Soot or smoke. Wood- 
soot, or fuligo ligni, is the condensed 
smoke of burning wood, used as a species 
of charcoal. 

Fuliginous. The name of vapours 
which possess the property of smoke. 

FULLERS' EARTH. A variety of 
clay, containing about 25 per cent, of 
alumina, and so named from its being 
used by fullers to remove the grease 
from cloth before the soap is applied. 

FULMINATING MIXTURE {ful- 
mino, to thunder). A term applied to 
certain mixtures which detonate by heat 
or friction. 

1. Fulminating gold. A deep olive- 
coloured powder prepared by keeping 
recently precipitated peroxide of gold in 
strong ammonia for about a day. 

2. Fulminating Mercury. A powder 
obtained by dissolving mercury in nitric 
acid, and pouring the solution into alco- 
hol. It is employed for making percus- 
sion caps. 

3. Fulminating silver. A black pow- 
der prepared by leaving oxide of silver 



FUN 



FUR 



lor ten or twelve hours in contact with a 
strong solution of ammonia. 

4. Fulminating ammoniuret of silver. 
A combination of oxide of silver and 
ammonia, of violently explosive charac- 
ter. 

5. Fulminating platinum. A substance 
prepared by the action of ammonia on a 
solution of sulphate of platinum. 

Q. Fulminating powder. A mixture of 
three parts of chlorate of potass, and one 
of sulphur ; or three parts of nitre, two 
of carbonate of potass, and one of sulphur, 
in powder. 

FULMINATION {fulmen, a thunder- 
bolt^ The explosion which takes place 
in chemical bodies by friction or heat. 

FULMINIC ACID. A compound of 
cyanogen, which explodes when heated, 
rubbed, or struck. It is said to differ 
from cyanic acid in the ratio of its ele- 
ments, and in containing hydrogen. 

FUMARIC ACID. A monobasic acid, 
produced by heating malic acid, and also 
existing in fumitory, and in Iceland 
moss. 

FUMIGATION (fumigo, to perfume). 
The use of fumes, chiefly chlorine, nitric 
acid, or vinegar, for the removal of ef- 
fluvia or miasmata. Also, the application 
of fumes, as of water to the throat, of 
mercury or sulphur to sores, &c. . 

FUMING LIQUOR {fumus, smoke). 
A chemical mixture, which emits fumes 
or vapour on exposure to the air. 

1. Boyle's fuming liquor. The proto- 
sulphuret of ammonium ; a volatile 
liquid, formerly called hepar sulphuris 
volatDis, &c. The vapour is decomposed 
by oxygen, producing fumes. 

2. Cadefs fuming liquor. A liquid ob- 
tained by the dry distillation of equal 
weights of acetate of potash and arsenious 
acid. It is remarkable for its insup- 
portable odour and spontaneous inflam- 
mability in air. It is also called alcarsin. 

3. Libavius's fuming liquor. The an- 
hydrous bi-chloride of tin ; a colourless 
limpid liquid, which fumes strongly in 
humid air. 

FUNCTION {fungor, to discharge an 
office). The office of an organ in the 
animal or vegetable economy, as of the 
heart in circulation, of the leaf in respi- 
ration, &c. 

1. Fital functions. Functions imme- 
diately necessary to life ; viz. those of 
the brain, the heart, the lungs, &c. ; 
whence these have been called the tripod 
of life. 

2. Natural functions. Functions less 

129 



instantly necessary to life ; as digestion, 
absorption, assimilation ; reabsorption, 
expulsion, &c. 

3. Animal functions. Functions of 
relation to the external world; as the 
senses, the voluntary motions. 

4. Reflex function. A term applied by 
Dr. M. Hall to that action of the muscles 
which arises from a stimulus, acting 
through the medium of their nerves and 
the spinal marrow : thus the larynx 
closes on the contact of carbonic acid, 
the pharynx on that of food, the sphincter 
ani on that of the faeces, &c. 

FUNGI. The Mushroom tribe of Cel- 
lular or Acotyledonous plants. Plants 
consisting of a congeries of cellules, 
chiefly growing upon decayed substances. 
Sporules lying either loose among the 
tissue, or enclosed in membranous cases 
called sporidia. 

1. Fungic acid. An acid procured 
from several species of fungus, by ex- 
pressing their juice, boiling it, forming 
an extract, and treating it with alcohol. 

2. Fungin. A whitish substance form- 
ing the base of fungi. 

FUNGIFORM [fungus, a mushroom, 
forma, likeness). Fungus-like; a term 
applied to the papillae near the edges of 
the tongue. 

FUNGUS. A mushroom. A morbid 
growth of granulations in ulcers, com- 
monly termed proud flesh. Granulations 
are often called fungous when they are 
too high, large, flabby, and unhealthy. 

Fungus Ha;7natodes{aifiaTw6nf, bloody). 
Bleeding fungus ; Soft Cancer ; Medul- 
lary Sarcoma; Spongoid Inflammation, 
&c. In England, it is a form of ence- 
phalosis ; in France, naevus, morbid 
erectile tissue, &c. 

FUNICULUS (dim. of funis, a thick 
rope). A term applied to the spermatic 
cord, consisting of the spermatic artery 
and vein, &c. 

FUNIS UMBILICALIS. The umbi- 
lical cord ; the means of communication 
between the foetus and the placenta. Its 
length is almost two feet. 

FURFUR, FURFURIS. Bran. A 
desquamation of the cuticle. 

1. Furfur tritici. Bran. Pants fur- 
furaceus, brown or bran bread. 

2. Furfuraceous. Branny, or scaly ; a 
term applied to a deposit in the urine, 
which is said to consist of the phosphates 
of that fluid. 

FURNACE {fumus). A fire-place 
employed for pharmaceutical operations, 
as fusion, distillation, sublimation, the 
G5 



GAL 



GAL 



oxidisement, and the deoxidisement, or 
reduction, of metals. Furnaces have 
accordingly been termed 

1. Evaporatory, when employed to re- 
duce substances into vapour by heat. 

2. Reverberator y, when so constructed 
as to prevent the flame from rising. 

3. Forge, when the current of air is 
determined by bellows. 

FUROR UTERINUS. Uterine mad- 
ness ; another term for nymphomania. 

FURUNCULUS (furo, to rage). A 
boil, so named from its violent inflam- 
mation. 

FUSELOL. An oily liquor obtained 
from alcohol, also termed oil of grain, 
corn-spirit oil, potato-spirit oil, and, 
hypothetically, hydrate of amule. 

FUS I BILIT Y Ifusvs, melted or poured 
out). The property by which bodies as- 
sume the fluid state on the application 
of heat. 

FUSIBLE CALCULUS. A variety 
of urinary concretion, consisting of the 
mixed phosphates of magnesia and am- 
monia, and of lime. 

FUSIBLE METAL. An alloy of 8 
parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, and 3 of tin ; 
it melts below the temperature at which 
water boils. 

Rose's Fusible Alloy. An alloy con- 
sisting of 2 parts by weight of bismuth, 
with 1 of lead and 1 of tin. 



FUSIFORM ifiisus, a spindle, forma, 
likeness). Spindle-shaped; a term ap- 
plied to certain roots. 

FUSION {fusus, melted, from /undo, 
to pour out). The state of melting. 
Substances which admit of being fused 
are termed fusible, but those which resist 
the action of fire are termed refractory. 
Fusion differs from liquefaction in being 
applied chiefly to metals and other sub- 
stances which melt at a high tempera- 
ture. 

1. Aqueous fusion. The solution of 
salts which contain water of crystalliza- 
tion on exposure to increased tempera- 
ture. 

2. Dry fusion. The liquefaction pro- 
duced by heat after the water has been 
expelled. 

3. Igneous fusion. The melting of an- 
hydrous salts by heat without undergoing 
any decomposition. 

FUSTICK, or YELLOW WOOD. The 
wood of the Morus tinctoria, an Urtica- 
ceous plant, w^hich yields much yellow 
colouring matter, which is very perma- 
nent. 

Young Fustick, or fustet. The wood of 
the Rhus Cotinus, the arbre a perruque, 
or wig-tree of the French, and Venetian 
Sumach of the English; an Anacardia- 
ceous plant, which yields a fine yellow 
colour, but not durable. 



G 



GADOLINITE. The name of a mine- 
ral, so called from the Swedish chemist 
Gadolin, who discovered in it the earth 
yttria. 

GALACTIA iyiXa, milk). Mislacta- 
tion ; a morbid flow or deficiency of milk; 
the former affection has been termed 
galactirrhoea, or milk-flux. 

GALACTIC ACID {-rdXa, milk). Lac- 
tic acid. The acid of milk, supposed to 
be merely animalized acetic acid. 

GALACTIN (70X0, ydXanTOf, milk). 
A substance which constitutes the prin- 
cipal ingredient in the sap of the Galac- 
todendron utile, or Cow Tree of South 
America, used as a substitute for cream. 

GALACTOPHOROUS (,td\a, ydXaK- 
roT, milk, <pepw, to carry). Lactiferous, 
or milk-conveying, as applied to the ducts 
of the mammary glands. 
130 



GALANGA MAJOR. Radix Galanga. 
The pungent aromatic rhizome of the 
Alpinia Galanga, a plant of the order 
Zingiber acecB, forming a substitute for 
ginger. 

GALBANUM. A gum-resin ; the se- 
creted juice of the Galbanutn Officinale, 
an Umbelliferous plant. It occurs in tear 
and in lump. 

GALBULUS. A kind of cone, differing 
from the strobile only in being round, 
and having the heads of the carpels much 
enlarged. The fruit of the Juniper is a 
galbulus. 

GALEA. Literally, a helmet. The 
name of the arched upper lip of the 
corolla of several labiate plants, as La- 
mium, &c. 

GALEN'S BANDAGE. A term some- 



GAL 



GAN 



times applied to the four-tailed bandage, 
or single split-cloth. 

GALE'NA. Lead-glance; the native 
sulphuret of lead. There are two vari- 
eties, the common, and the compact. 

GALIPEA CUSPARIA. A Rutaceous 
plant, said by Humboldt to produce An- 
gostura bark, a substance assigned by Dr. 
Hancock to the Galipea Officinalis. 

GALIPOT. Barras. A white resin, 
derived from the Pinus pinaster, or clus- 
ter pine. 

GALL-BLADDER. Cystis fcllea. A 
membranous reservoir, lodged in a fissure 
on the under surface of the right lobe of 
the liver, and containing the bUe. 

1. Gall-ducts. These are the cystic, 
proceeding from the gall-bladder; the 
hepatic, proceeding from the liver ; and 
the ductus communis choledochus, result- 
ing from the union of the two preceding. 

2. Gall-stones. Biliary concretions 
found in the gall-bladder ; viz. 

1. Calculi composed of cholesterine, 
nearly in a state of purity. 

2. Metlitic calculi, so named from their 
likeness to honey, in colour. 

3. Calculi entirely composed of inspis- 
sated bile. 

GALL-SICKNESS. A popular name 
for the Walcheren fever, which proved 
so fatal to the English in the year 1809, 
and is attended with a vomiting of 
bile. 

GALLjE. Galls, gall-nuts, or oak- 
galls ; excrescences of the Querent infec- 
toria, and other species of the oak, pro- 
duced by the nidus, or nest, of the hy- 
menopterous insect, cynips quercifolii. 

GALLIC ACID. An acid obtained 
from gaU-nuts, but principally by decom- 
position of tannic acid. 

GALLI'N.^ {gallus, a cock). Galli- 
naceous birds, so named from their affi- 
nity to the domestic cock. 

GALVANIC MOXA. A term ap- 
plied by Fabre-Palaprat to the employ- 
ment of voltaic electricitj', as a thera- 
peutical agent, for producing the cau- 
terizing effects of the moxa. 

GALVANISM. A form of electricity 
named after Galvani, and usually elicited 
by the mutual action of various metals 
and chemical agents upon each other. 
The additional discoveries of Volta led 
to the term Voltaism, or Voltaic Electri- 
city ; and its effects on the muscles of 
animals newly killed, suggested the term 
Animal Electricity. 

1. Galvanic Battery, or Trough. An 
apparatus for accumulating Galvanism, 
131 



consisting of plates of zinc and copper 
fastened together, and cemented into a 
wooden or earthenware trough, so as to 
form a number of cells ; the trough is 
then filled with diluted acid. 

2. Galvano-meter {fxerpov, a measure). 
An instrument which indicites the 
feeblest polarization of the magnetic 
needle, or slightest current in the con- 
necting wire of a voltaic circle. 

3. Galvano-scope (,<rKorrea>, to examine). 
An instrument by means of which the 
existence and direction of an electric 
current may be detected. A magnetic 
needle is a galvanoscope. 

GAMBIR. The Malay name of an 
astringent extract, procured from the 
Uncaria gambir. The substance com- 
monly called square catechu, and by tan- 
ners terra japonica, is the produce of this 
plant, and is therefore not catechu, but 
gambir. 

GAMBOGE. A gum-resin, said to be 
produced by a species of Hebradendron, 
a Guttiferous plant. 

1. Gambogic acid. An acid procured 
by evaporating to dryness the ethereal 
tincture of the pure gum- resin. 

2. American Gamboge. A secretion 
similar to gamboge, yielded by several 
species of Vismia. 

GAMOPETALOUS {yafieu, to marry, 
ireraXov, a petal). A term applied to a 
corolla which consists of cohering petals, 
and which is incorrectly termed mono- 
petalous. 

Gamo-sepalous. A term applied to a 
calyx which consists of cohering sepals, 
and which is incorrectly termed mono- 
sepalous. 

GANGLION (-ya'yYX/ov, a nerve-knot). 
A small nervous centre, or an enlarge- 
ment in the course of a nerve, sometimes 
termed a diminutive brain. In speaking 
of the lymphatic system, a ganglion de- 
notes what is commonly called a conglo- 
bate gland. The term also signifies a 
morbid enlargement in the course of a 
tendon, or aponeurosis, from effusion 
into its theca, as in ganglion patellae, or 
the housemaid's knee. See Hygroma. 

1. Ganglion azygos, vel impar. A 
small ganglion situated on the first bone 
of the coccyx. 

2. Ganglion, cardiac. A plexus, con- 
stituting the central point of imion of 
the cardiac nerves. 

3. Ganglion, Casserian. A large semi- 
lunar ganglion, formed of the fifth nerve, 
or trifacial. 

4. Ganglion cavernosum. A ganglion 

6 6 



G AN 

placed at the outer side of the internal 
carotid artery, towards the middle of the 
cavernous sinus. It does not always 
exist. 

5. Ganglion cervicale primum. The 
superior cervical ganglion, situated under 
the base of the skull, and remarkable for 
its size and the regularity of its occur- 
rence. Under the term great sympa- 
thetic or intercostal nerve are commonly 
associated all the ganglia which occur 
from the upper part of the neck to the 
lower part of the sacrum, together with 
the filaments which issue from them. 

6. Ganglion cervicale medium seu thy- 
roideum. A ganglion situated opposite 
to the fifth or sixth vertebra. It is often 
entirely wanting ; sometimes double. 

7. Ganglion cervicale inferius. The 
inferior cervical ganglion, situated be- 
hind the vertebral artery, between the 
transverse process of the seventh cervical 
vertebra and the neck of the first rib. It 
is sometimes double, and frequently con- 
tinuous with the preceding ganglion. 

8. Ganglia, lumbar. Five or fewer on 
each side, placed between the twelfth 
rib and the articulation of the last ver- 
tebra with the sacrum. 

9. Ganglion of Meckel. The spheno- 
palatine ganglion, the largest of the 
cranial ganglia. 

10. Ganglion, naso-palatine. A gan- 
glion discovered by Cloquet in the ante- 
rior palatine foramen. 

11. Ganglion ophthalmicum. The | 
ophthalmic or lenticular ganglion, placed 
on the outer side of the optic nerve ; one 
of the smallest ganglia of the body. 

12. Ganglion, otic. A small ganglion 
discovered by Arnold, near the foramen 
ovale. 

13. Ganglion petrosum. Ganglion of 
Andersch ; a gangliform swelling on the 
glosso-pharyngeal nerve. 

14. Ganglion of Ribes. A small gan- 
glion of communication between the sym- 
pathetic filaments of the anterior cerebral 
arteries. 

15. Ganglia, sacral. Three or four on 
each side, placed upon the sides of the 
anterior surface of the sacrum. 

16. Ganglia, semilunar. Two ganglia 
of the abdomen, lying partly upon the 
crura of the diaphragm, partly upon the 
aorta, opposite the coeliac trunk. 

17. Ganglion, sub-maxillary. A gan- 
glion which occurs opposite the sub- 
maxillary gland. 

GANGRyENA ORIS. A disease which 
affects and destroys the cheeks, or gums, 
132 



GAS 

in infants. A similar disease occurs in 
the pudenda. 

GANGRENE (7pa/i/a), to eat). The 
first stage of mortification, so named 
from its eating away the flesh. 

1. Hot gangrene. That form of the 
disease which is preceded or accompanied 
by inflammation : cold gangrene is unat- 
tended by inflammation. 

2. Humid gangrene. So called from 
the affected part containing a greater or 
less quantity of decomposed or other 
fluids : in dry gangrene these fluids are 
not present, or only in very small quan- 
tity. The latter form, being frequently 
found to affect old people, has been also 
named gangrcena senilis. 

GARGARISMA (yap^ap/fw, to wash 
the throat). A gargle for the throat ; a 
preparation used for rinsing the throat. 

GARLIC. The bulb; or cloves, of the 
Allium sativum. 

GARNET-BLENDE, or Zinc-blende. 
A sulphuret of zinc ; a massive mineral 
of adamantine lustre, and often black. 

GARUM. A sauce or pickle made by 
the Romans, from the ydpor, a small 
fish ; it resembled the modem anchovy 
sauce in nature and use. 

GAS. An old Teutonic word, signi- 
fying air or spirit ; now applied to any 
permanent aeriform fluid. Gases are 
distinguished from liquids by the name 
of elastic fluids; and from vapours, by 
their retaining their elasticity in all tem- 
peratures. 

Gaseous. That which has the nature 
of gas ; gaseous fluids are thus distin- 
guished from other fluids. 

GASCOIGNES BALL, or POWDER. 
A composition of Bezoar, with absorbent 
powders, consisting of gypsum, or of 
pipe-clay, tinged with ox-gaff. 

GASTE'R {7a<7T>;p). The Greek term 
for the stomach. 

1 . Gastric fever. A term first applied 
by Baillon to common fever, when at- 
tended by unusual gastric derangement ; 
it is the meningo-gastric of Pinel. 

2. Gastric juice. The peculiar digestive 
fluid secreted by the stomach. 

3. Gastero-poda (Trolir, nodo^, a foot). 
The third class of the Cyclo-gangliatu , or 
MoUusca, comprising animals furnished 
with a muscular foot, extended under 
the abdomen, and adapted for creeping. 

4. Gastr-itis. Inflammation of the 
stomach ; the nosological termination itis 
denoting inflammation. 

5. Gasiro-cele {nfiXri, atumoT). Hernia 
of the stomach. 



GEL 



GEN 



6. Gastro-cuemius {Kurjun, the leg). A 
muscle, also called geinellus, which prin- 
cipally forms the calf or belly of the leg ; 
it is distinguished into two fleshy masses, 
called the outer and inner heads. Its 
office is to extend the foot 

7. Gastr-odynia [obiivr], pain), or gastr- 
algia (ciX^oy, pain). Pain in the sto- 
mach. 

8. Gastro-enieritis. Inflammation of 
the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane. 

9. Gastro-epiploic {eniirXoov, the omen- 
tum). Belonging to the stomach and 
omentum, as applied to a branch of the 
hepatic artery, lymphatic glands of the 
abdomen, &c. 

10. Gastro-malacia (naXano^, soft). 
Softening of the stomach ; a disease oc- 
curring in infants, and usually preceded 
by hydrocephalus, .by an acute exanthe- 
matous disease, or by some disease of 
the respiratory organs. 

11. Gastro-periodynia {itepioho9, a pe- 
riod). Periodical pain of the stomach ; 
a peculiar disease known in India by the 
name of sonl. So painful are the parox- 
ysms of this disease, that it is supposed 
to be produced by the deadly weapon in 
the hands of Siva, the destroying power 
of the triad ; and so incurable that even 
Siva himself cannot remove it. 

12. Gastro-raphe {pa<pij, a suture). A 
suture uniting a wound of the belly, or 
of some of its contents. 

13. Gastro-splenic omenta. A term ap- 
plied to the laminas of the peritoneum, 
which are comprised between the spleen 
and the stomach. 

14. Gastro-tomia {rofxi], section). The 
operation of opening the abdomen, as in 
the Caesarian section. 

GAYACINE. A substance procured 
from the bark of guaiacum ; it dissolves 
in nitric acid, forming oxalic acid. 

GAY-LUSSITE. A crystaUine mine- 
ral substance, found in South America, 
and named from the French chemist, 
Gay-Lussac. 

GE'INE, or GE'IC ACID (-y^iVof, 
earthy, from jTi, earth). A name given 
by Berzelius to humus, or vegetable 
mould, the result of the decomposition 
of vegetable substances. 

GELATINE {gelu, frost). The prin- 
ciple of jelly. It is found in the skin, 
cartilages, tendons, membranes, and 
bones. The purest variety of gelatine 
is isinglass; the common gelatine of 
commerce is called glue ; and the hydrate 
of gelatine, jelly. 

Gelatine Capsules. Capsules prepared 
133 



from a concentrated solution of gelatine, 
and filled with medicines. When swal- 
lowed, the capsules dissolve in the gas- 
tro-intestinal juices, arid the nauseous 
taste of the medicine is avoided. 

GELE'E POUR LE GOITRE. A pre- 
paration sold at Lausanne in Switzerland, 
consisting of the iodide of potassium. 

GEMELLUS (dim. otgeminus, double). 
The nam^ of two muscles— the superior 
and the inferior — situated below the ob- 
turator externus. They are also called 
musculi gemini. 

GEMMA. The general name for- any 
precious stone; also, a leaf-bud, or the 
rudiment of a young branch. The term 
gemmce is also applied to minute green 
bodies found in little cups on the fronds 
of Marchantia. 

Gemmule. A term used sjTionymously 
•with plumule, the growing point of the 
embryo in plants. 

GENjE. The cheeks, forming the la- 
teral walls of the mouth. See Mala. 

GENERATION {genera, to beget). 
Reproduction. This is — 

1. Fissiparovs {fisstis, cleft, fiom findo, 
to cleave ; and pario, to bring forth) ; 
when it occurs by spontaneous division of 
the body of the parent into two or more 
parts, each part, when separated, be- 
coming a distinct individual, as in the 
monad, vorticella, &c. ; or by artificial 
division, as in the hydra, planaria, &c. ; 
in the propagation of plants by slips. 

2. Gemmiparous {gemma, a bud, and 
pario, to bring forth), or the multiplica- 
tion of the species by buds or gemmules, 
arising from germs, as exemplified in the 
vegetable kingdom, in many of the in- 
fusoria, &c. 

3. By Fecundation {fecundus, fruit- 
ful), or the effect of the vivifying fluid 
provided by one class of organs upon 
the germ contained in a seed or ovum 
formed by another class ; the germ, when 
fecundated, is termed the embryo. This 
process consists in impregnation in tlie 
male, conception in the female. 

GENPO— (7ei/e«oi', the chin). Terms 
compounded of this word relate to mus- 
cles attached to the chin, as — 

1. Genio-glossus {yXuxrca, the tongue). 
A muscle situated between the tongue 
and the lower jaw. This is also called 
genio-hyoglossus, from its being inserted 
also into the os hyoides ; and by Winslow, 
polychrestus, from its performing every 
motion of the tongue. 

2. Genio-kyoideus. A muscle attached 
to the mental process of the lower jaw 



GER 



GL A 



and to the os hyoides. It pulls the 
throat upwards. 

3. Genial Processes. The name of 
four eminences of the inferior maxillary 
bone, heneath the symphysis of the chin. 

GENITO-CRURAL. The name of a 
nerve proceeding from the first lumbar, 
and dividing into an internal branch, 
which accompanies the spermatic cord ; 
and an external, which is distributed into 
filaments at the crural arch. 

GENTIANACEiE. The Gentian tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants with leaves opposite ; flowers ter- 
minal, axillary; stamens alternate with 
the segments of the corolla; ovarium 
single, superior, 1- or 2-cel\ed; fruit a 
many-seeded berry. 

1. GeniiancE radix. Gentian root; the 
root of the Gentiana lutea, so called from 
Gentius, king of lUyria, its discoverer. 

2. Gentianite. The bitter principle of 
gentian. This, and gentisin, were for- 
merly confounded under the name of 
gentianin. 

3. Gentisin or gentisic acid. A crystal- 
line, tasteless substance procured from 
gentian. 

4. Gentian spirit. An alcoholic liquor 
produced by the vinous fermentation of 
the infusion of gentian, and much ad- 
mired by the Swiss. 

GENU {tow). A Latin term for the 
knee. It is indeclinable in the singular 
number. See Gonagra. 

GEOFFR-EA INERMIS (so named 
after Dr. Geoffrey). The Cabbage tree, 
a Leguminous plant, named from its of- 
fensive smell, bilge-water tree. 

GEORGIA BARK. The bark of the 
Pinckneya pubens, an American plant, 
used as a substitute for Cinchona. 

GERMAN PASTE. Beat together 
Ibij. of pease flour, Ibj. of blanched sweet 
almonds, three ounces of fresh butter, 
the yolks of two fresh eggs, with a little 
honey and saffron ; heat the mass gently, 
and pass it through a sieve, to form it 
into grains. 

GERMAN SILVER. Packfong. The 
white alloy of nickel, formed by fusing 
together 100 parts of copper, 60 of zinc, 
and 40 of nickel. 

GERMAN TINDER. Amadou. A 
substance prepared from the Polyporus 
fomentarius and igniarius, by cutting the 
fungi into slices, beating, and soaking 
them in a solution of nitre. 

GERMEN. The term applied by Lin- 
neus to the ovarium of plants, or the 
134 



hollow case forming the base of the 
pistil, and containing the ovules. 

GERMINATION (germino, to bud). 
The growth of the plant from seed. 

GERONTOXON {-feprnv, 7epovTOj, an 
old man, Tofov, a bow). Arcus senilis. 
The opaque circle, or half circle, which 
occurs in the cornea, in elderly persons. 

GESTATION (gestatio uterina). The 
state of pregnancy ; the carrying of the 
foetus in utero. Of erratic or extra-ute- 
rine gestation, there are four kinds, viz. — 

1. The abdominal, in which the foetus 
is lodged in the abdomen. 

2. The interstitial, in which the foetus 
is lodged among the interstitial elements 
of the uterus. 

3. The ovarial, in which the foetus is 
developed in the ovarium. 

4. The tubular, in which the foetus is 
lodged in the Fallopian tube. 

GEUM URBANUM. Common Avens, 
or Herb Bennet ; an indigenous Rosa- 
ceous plant, the root of which is em- 
ployed for flavouring and preserving the 
Augsburg beer. 

GIMBERNAT'S LIGAMENT. The 
name given to that portion of the external 
oblique muscle, which is inserted into 
the pectineal line. It is commonly called 
' the third insertion of Poupart's liga- 
ment.' Gimbemat was surgeon to the 
king of Spain, and published an essay on 
femoral hernia in 1793. 

GINGILIE OIL. A bland fixed oU 
procured by expression from the seeds of 
the Sesamum orientale, commonly called 
teel seeds. 

GINGIVAE. The gums; the reddish 
tissue which surrounds the neck of the 
teeth. 

GI'NGLYMUS [yiyyXvudi, a hinge). 
The hinge-like joint ; a species of articu- 
lation admitting of flexion and exten- 
sion. 

Ginglymo'id (elSot, likeness). Hinge- 
like ; as applied to that species of joint 
which admits of flexion and extension. 

GIN-SENG. A term signifying human 
powers, and applied by the Chinese to the 
root of the Panax quinquefolium, in high 
repute as a stimulant and restorative. 

GIZZARD. The proper stomach of 
birds, consistmg of a strong hollow mus- 
cle. Compare Crop. 

GLABELLA {glaber, smooth). The 
triangular space betwixt the eyebrows. 

Glabellar. A term used by Barclay 
to denote an aspect of the head. See 
Anatomy. 

GLACIAL ACID {glacies, ice). The 



GL A 



GL A 



strongest acetic acid which can be pro- 
cured. It exists in a crystallized state 
under fifty degrees of Fahrenheit, and 
cont£Lins 79 per cent, of real acid. See 
Acetum. 

GLAIRINE. A term referred by some 
to a gelatinous vegetable matter; by 
others, to a pseud-organic substance 
which forms on thermal waters. 

GLANCE {glanz, splendour; or gla- 
eies, ice). A name given to certain mine- 
rals which have a metallic or pseudo- 
^Snetallic lustre, as glance-coal, lead- 
{lance, antimony-glance, &c. 
GLAND {glans, glandis, an acorn). A 
I small body, occurring in many parts of 
[the body, and composed of its various 
^tissues, blood-vessels, nerves, &c. Dr. 
[Pemberton designates as glands of sup- 
ply, the liver, the pancreas, the spleen, 
&c. ; and, as glands of waste, the kid- 
, neys, the mamma, &c. 

1. Gland, conglobate {con, together, 
\globus, a ball), or simple ; a gland sub- 
sisting by itself, as those of the absorbent 
system. 

2. Gland, conglomerate {con, together, 
glomus, glomeris, a heap), or compoimd ; 
a gland composed of various glands, as 
the salivary, parotid, pancreatic, &c. 

3. Glands, concatenate (chained toge- 
ther, from con and catena, a chain), or 
glands of the neck, presenting, in chil- 
dren, a kind of knotty cord, extending 
from behind the ear to the collar-bone. 

4. Glands, Brunner^s, or the duodenal. 
Small flattened granular bodies, found in 
the duodenum, and compared collectively 
by Von Brunn to a second pancreas. 

5. Glands of Cowper. Two small glan- 
dular bodies, placed parallel to each 
other before the prostate. They are also 
called accessory glands. 

6. Glands, Haversian. The name of 
the fatty bodies which are found in con- 
nexion with most of the joints, and in 
general lying behind the sjTiovial fringes. 
Clopton Havers supposed them to be the 
agents of the synovial secretion, and 
called them glandulce mucilaginosce. 
Weitbrecht called them adipo-glandu- 
loscB. 

7. Glands, Meibomian. Minute fol- 
licles embedded in the internal surface of 
the cartilages of the eyelids, resembling 
parsdlel strings of pearls. 

8. Glands, Peyer's, or aggregate. Clus- 
tered glands, resembling oval patches, 
principally situated near the lower end of 
the Ueum. 

9. Glands, solitary. Small flattened 

135 



granular bodies, found in the stomach 
and intestines. They are sometimes 
erroneously called Brunner's. 

GLANDULA (dim. of glans, an aconi, 
or gland). A little acorn ; a small gland. 

1. Glandulce Odoriferce. Glands of 
Tyson. The name of certain glands 
situated around the neck and corona of 
the glans penis in the male, and of the 
glans clitoridis in the female, secreting a 
strongly odorous humor, called smegma 
preputii. 

2. Glandulce Pacchioni. The granu- 
lations found in the superior longitudinal 
sinus of the membranes of the brain ; so 
called after Pacchioni, their discoverer. 
These bodies have no analogy whatsoever 
with glands. 

GLANS, GLANDIS. An acorn, a 
mast of any tree. A pellet of lead, or 
other metal. 

1. Glans clitoridis. A term applied 
to the extremity of the clitoris. 

2. Glans penis. The vascular body 
forming the apex of the penis. It is 
circumscribed by a prominent ridge, 
termed the corona glandis. 

GLASS. Vitrum. A compoimd of 
silica and an alkali. 

1. Flint Glass (so called because the 
silicious ingredient was originally em- 
ployed in the form of ground flints) ; or 
glass of lead ; now made of purified Lynn 
sand 100 parts, litharge or red lead 60, 
purified pearl-ash 30, and a little black 
oxide of manganese. 

2. Plate Glass, or glass of pure soda, 
used for looking-glasses, and composed 
of sand and alkali in their purest state. 

3. Bottle Glass, or coarse green glass, 
made of impure materials, such as river 
sand, which contains iron, and the most 
common kind of kelp, or pearl-ashes. 

4. Crown Glass, for windows, made of 
a purer alkali, and sand which is free 
from iron. 

5. The term Glass is also applied to 
glassy substances, as the glass of anti- 
mony, or the sulphuret ; to mica, glacies 
mariae, or Muscovy glass; to bismuth, or 
tin glass ; &c. &c. 

GLASS GALL. Sel de verre ; fel vitri ; 
sandiver. The saline scum which swims 
on the glass when first made. 

GLAUBER'S SALT. Sulphate of 
soda ; frequently found in mineral 
springs, and sometimes on the surface of 
the earth. 

1. Glauber^ s secret sal ammoniac. Sul- 
phate of ammonia ; a constituent of soot 
from coals. 



GLO 



GLU 



2. Glauberite. A crystallized salt, con- 
sisting of nearly equal parts of the sul- 
phates of lime and soda; both anhydrous, 
or nearly so. 

GLAUCOS (yXauKor). Blue ; of a sea- 
green colour ; azure. 

1. Glaucic acid. An acid procured 
from the teazle and scabious plants. 

2. Glauchia. A term proposed by He- 
benstreit for the natural form of cow-pox, 
from the bluish or azure tint of the vesi- 
cles. 

3. Glauc6sis. Humoral opacity; a 
greenish or gray opacity of the vitreous 
humor ; a name formerly given to cata- 
ract ; also called by the Greeks glaucoma, 
and by the Romans glaucedo. Dr. Good 
prefers glaucosis to glaucoma, "because 
the final omw imports usually, and, for 
the sake of simplicity and consistency, 
ought always to import, external pro- 
tuberance, as in staphyloma, sarcoma, 
&c." 

GLEET. A transparent mucous dis- 
charge, sometimes the sequela of gono- 
rrhoea. 

GLENOID {'^Xijvr], a cavity, eJ^or, 
likeness). The name of a part having 
a shallow cavity, as the socket of the 
shoulder-joint, a fissure and a foramen 
of the temporal bones, &c. 

GLIADINE (7\m, glue). Vegetable 
albumen ; one of the constituents of 
gluten. Compare Zymome. 

GLISSON'S CAPSULE. A cellulo- 
vascular membrane, which envelops the 
hepatic vessels in the right border of the 
lesser omentum, and accompanies them 
through the transverse fissure to their 
ultimate ramifications. 

GLOBULES, RED (dim. of globus, a 
ball). The red colouring matter of the 
blood I a peculiar animal principle. 

GLOBULINE. The principal consti- 
tuent of the blood globules, closely allied 
to albumen. Also, the term applied by 
Turpin to the amylaceous granules found 
in the tissue of plants, which he con- 
sidered as the elementary state of the 
tissue. 

GLOBUS HYSTERICUS. A sensa- 
tion attendant on hysteria, as of a globus 
or ball ascending to the stomach, then 
up the chest to the neck, and becoming 
fixed in the throat. 

1. Globus major epididymis. A name 
applied to the upper end of the epi- 
didymis, which is of great size, owing to 
the large assemblage of convoluted tubes 
in the coni vasculosi. 
136 



2. Globus minor epididymis. The 
lower portion of the epididymis, con- 
sisting of the convolutions of the vas 
deferens, previously to its commencing 
its ascending course. 

GLOMERATION {glomus, glomeris, a 
ball or clew of thread). Literally, heap- 
ing into a ball ; a term sometimes applied 
to tumor. 

GLOMERULE. Glomus. A form of 
inflorescence bearing the same relation 
to the capitulum that the compound does 
to the simple umbel ; that is, it is a 
cluster of capitula enclosed in a common 
involucrum, as in Echinops. 

GLOSSA, or GLOTTA (-yXSTTa). The 
tongue ; the organ of speech. 

1. G/os*-a(/ra (a7pa, seizure). Inflam- 
mation of the tongue ; swelled tongue ; 
a term synonymous with glossalgia, 
glo^socele, glossitis, &c. 

2. Gloss-itis. Inflammation of the 
tongue ; the terminal particle itis de- 
noting inflammation. 

3. Glosso-. Terms compounded of this 
word belong to nerves or muscles at- 
tached to the tongue, as in the three fol- 
lowing terms. 

4. Glosso-staphylinus. A designation 
of the constrictor isthmi faucium, from 
its origin in the tongue, and insertion 
into the uvula. 

5. Glosso-pharyngeus. A synonym of 
the constrictor superior, from its origin 
in the root of the tongue, and its inser- 
tion into the pharynx. 

6. Glosso-pharyngeal nerves. Another 
name for the eighth pair. 

7. Glosso-catochus (KarexW) to hold 
down). An instrument for depressing 
the tongue. 

8. Glosso-cele {KfiXn, a tumor). An 
extrusion of the tongue ; swelled tongue. 

9. Glosso-comum (kojucw, to guard). 
Formerly, a case for the tongue of a 
hautboy ; but, metaphorically, a kind 
of long box, or case, for containing a 
fractured leg. 

10. Glosso-logy {\6yo9, an account). 
An account of the terms used in Botany. 

GLOTTIS {yXttiTra, the tongue). 
Rima glottidis. The aperture between 
the arytaenoid cartilages. It is covered 
by a cartilage called the epi-glottis. 

GLUCIC ACID (•yXuKi'9, sweet). An 
acid formed by the action of a saturated 
solution of lime or barytes on grape 
sugar. 

GLUCI'NA {yXuKvi, sweet; many of 
its combinations having a sweet taste). 
An earth found in the emerald, the beryl, 



GL Y 



GON 



and the 'euclase. Its metallic base is 
called glucinum. 

GLUCOSE (7XuKi/9, sweet). Another 
name for starch sugar, diabetic sugar, or 
the sugar of fruits. 

GLUE [gluten). The common gela- 
tine of commerce, made from the parings 
of hides, hoofs, &c. 

GLUME {gluma, the husk of corn). 

BA term applied to the peculiar envelope 
, of the floral apparatus in grasses, which 

are hence called glumacece. It is a modi- 
fication of the bract. 

GLUTEUS (yXovToi, the buttock). 
The name of three muscles of the hip, 
forming part of the buttocks. They are 
the viaxivius, which extends the thigh ; 
the medius, which acts in standing ; and 
the minimus, which assists the others. 
Hence the term — 

Giutceal. Applied to the posterior iliac 
artery — to IjTnphatics which have the 
same distribution as that artery— and to a 
nerve distributed to the glutaei muscles. 

GLUTEN {gelo, to congeal). A viscid 
substance obtained from wheaten flour. 
It has been decomposed into 

1. Gliadine {y\ia, gluten). Vegetable 
albumen; and, 

2. Zymome {^iifxt], leaven). That por- 
tion of the mass which the acid that is 
present has united with. 

GLUTEN BREAD. An article of 
diet used in diabetes. It is not made of 
pure gluten, but one-sixth of the original 
quantity of starch contained in the flour 
is retained. 

GLUTINE. A principle resembling 
gluten, but differing from it in not being 
soluble in alcohol. 
[ GLUTINOUS SAP. Milky sap. Ve- 

getable milk, or the juice obtained by 
incision from the Palo de Vaca, or Cow 
tree, which grows in the province of 
Caraccas. 

GLYCERIN {-(XvKw, sweet). The 
sweet principle of oil, also termed hydrate 
of oxide of glyceryl. 

GLYCERYL (^Xukvj, sweet, v\t\, mat- 
ter). A hypothetical radical existing in 
glycerin. 

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA {-iXvKvi, 
sweet, pi^a, a root). Common Liquorice; 
a Leguminous plant, the underground 
stem of which is called liquorice-root, or 
stick liquorice. The Greeks distinguished 
the liquorice-root by the name of adipnon, 
from a, priv., and 6i^a, thirst, from its 
property of assuaging thirst ; perhaps 
the term liquorice may be derived from 
the same idea. 
137 



Glycyrrhizin. Liquorice- sugar ; the 
saccharine juice of liquorice-root. 

GOBEL'S PYROPHORUS. A mix- 
ture of charcoal and lead, in which the 
latter is in such an extreme state of 
division, as to take fire on exposure to 
the air. It is formed by heating the tar- 
trate of lead in a close vessel or tube to 
dull redness. 

GOITRE, or GOTRE (probably a cor- 
ruption of guttur, the throat). The 
name given in Switzerland to Broncho- 
cele, or the Thyrophraxia of Alibert. 
Heister thought it should be called tra- 
cheocele. Prosser, f-om its frequency in 
the hilly parts of Derbyshire, called it 
the Derbyshire neck; and, not satisfied 
respecting the similitude of this tumor 
to that observed on the necks of women 
on the Alps, the English bronchocele. 
It consists in an enlargement of the 
thyroid gland, and is frequently asso- 
siated with cretinism. 

GOLD. A yellow metal, generally 
found native in primary rocks, and in 
alluvial depositions. See A urum. 

Gold coin is termed — 

1. Sterling, i. e. 22 gold + 2 copper. 

2, Standard, i. e. 18 gold + 6 copper. 
Gold becomes green when silver is sub- 
stituted for copper. 

GOLD LEAF ELECTROMETER. 
An instrument for detecting the presence 
of electricity by the divergence of two 
slips of gold leaf. 

GOLDEN SULPHURET. A sulphu- 
ret of antimony, also termed sulphanti- 
monic acid, and prepared by precipitating 
antimonic acid by sulphuretted hydrogen. 
See Kermes Mineral. 

GOMPHO'SIS (76A10O?, a peg). An 
articulation of bones, like that of a nail 
in a piece of wood : that of the teeth, for 
instance, in their sockets. 

GONAGRA (76H/, the knee, aypa, 
seizure). Gout in the knee. The term 
genugra is sometimes found, but it is 
barbarous. 

GONIOMETER (•ycovja, an angle, 
juerpeo), to measure). An instrument 
for measuring angles, particularly those 
of crystals. 

GONORRHOEA {yovh, semen, ptu, 
to flow). Literally, an involuntary dis- 
charge of the semen ; but always under- 
stood as a discharge of purulent infec- 
tious matter from the urethra, the va- 
gina, &c. In English, the disease is 
called a clap, from the old French word 
clapises, (public shops, kept and inha- 
bited by prostitutes) ; in German, a trip- 



GRA 



GR A 



per, from dripping; and, in French, a 
chaudepisse, from the heat and scalding 
in micturition. 

GONYALGIA {yow, the knee, HXyo^, 
pain). Gonalgia. Pain in the knee; 
gout in the knee. 

GOKDIUS. The Seteeguiwa, or horse- 
hair worm of the old writers. It is sup- 
posed to occasion — 

1. Intestinal disease, occurring among 
the peasantry of Lapland from drinking 
water impregnated with this worm; 
and— 

2. Cuticular disease, when it is lodged 
under the skin, constituting the morbus 
pilaris of Horst, and the malis a crino- 
nibus of Sauvages, &c. 

GORGET. An instrument used in 
lithotomy, for cutting the prostate gland 
and neck of the hladder. 

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM. Com- 
mon Cotton ; a Malvaceous plant, yield- 
mg the cotton of commerce. This sub- 
stance consists of tubular hairs, which 
arise from the surface of the seed-coat ; 
in its unprepared state it is called raw 
cotton. 

GOULARD'S CERATE. The cera/Mw 
plumbi comp., or compound cerate of lead. 
The formula for this differs, however, 
from Goulard's original recipe, in ordering 
camphor, while the other directs a large 
quantity of water to be mixed with the 
cerate. 

GOULARD'S EXTRACT. A satu- 
rated solution of sub-acetate of lead, or 
the Liquor Plumbi Sub-acetatis. L. the 
Aqua Lithargyri Acetati, P. L. 1767. 
olim. Extract of Saturn. 

GOUT. Podagra; arthritis. A term 
derived from the French goutte, a drop, 
and this from the Latin gutta, also a 
drop, applied to the disease from the old 
notion of its being produced by a morbific 
drop. 

Gouty concretions. Calculi formed in 
the joints of gouty persons, resembling 
chalk-stones in colour and softness, and 
consisting of urate of soda. 

GRACILIS. Slender; a long, thin, 
flat muscle, otherwise called rectus inttr- 
nus femoris, from its straight direction. 

GRAINES D'AVIGNON. French 
berries. The unripe fruit of the Rham- 
nus infectorius, used for dyeing Maro- 
quin leather yellow, &c. 

GRALLjE {stilts). Waders ; an order 
of aquatic birds frequenting marshes, &c., 
as the heron : Order V. class Aves. 

GRAMINACEiE {gramen, grass). The 
Grass tribe of Monocotyledonous plants. 
138 



Herbaceous plants with cylindrical stems ; 
leaves alternate, with a split sheath ; 
flowers hermaphrodite, sometimes mo- 
noecious, glumaceous ; glumes alternate, 
unequal; stamens hypogynous; ovarium 
simple. 

GRANA MOLUCCA. These are said 
to be the seeds of the Croton Pavana, the 
original Tilly-seed plant. 

GRANA PARADISI. Grains of Pa- 
radise, or Melligetta pepper ; the seeds of 
the Amomum Grana Paradisi. The term 
appears to have been applied to the pro- 
duce of no fewer than six Scitamineous 
plants. 

GRANA SECALIS DEGENERATI. 
Ergot ; a substance found in the place of 
the grains of rye, of agrostis, &c. ; also 
termed Spermoedia clavus, Secale comu- 
tum. Spurred rye, &c. See Ergota. 

GRANA TIGLIA. Grana DUla ; 
Grana Tilli. The seeds of the Croton 
Tiglium, from which the croton oil or oil 
of tiglium is procured. 

GRANATI CORTEX. Pomorum Cor- 
tex. Pomegranate bark ; the produce of 
the Punica Granatum. 

GRANDINES. Plural of grando, a 
hail-stone ; a term applied by Wesser to 
tubercles, as they become enlarged. 

GRANULATION [granum, a grain). 
A process by which minute grain-like 
fleshy bodies are formed on the surface 
of wounds or ulcers during their healing. 
In Chemistry, the term denotes a process 
for the mechanical division of metals and 
of phosphorus. 

GRAPHITE (Tpa^eo, to write ; so 
termed from its use in the manufacture 
of pencils). Plumbago, or black lead; a 
carburet of iron. 

GRASS OIL OF NAMUR. A vola- 
tile oil procured, according to Royle, from 
the Andropogon Calamus aromaticus. It 
is sometimes called oil of spikenard, 
though incorrectly ; this substance being 
procured from the Nardostachys Jata- 
mansi. 

GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS. Hedge 
Hyssop ; a plant of the order Scrophula- 
riacecB, formerly called Gratia Dei, on 
account of its remedial powers. It has 
been said to be the basis of the eau medi- 
cinale. 

GRAVE'DO {gravis, heavy). A ca- 
tarrh, or cold, with a sense of heaviness 
in the head. 

GRAVEL. Crystalline sediments de- 
posited in the bladder from the urine. 
When these sediments are amorphous 
and pulverulent, they are— 



GRO 



GUI 



1 . Red, lateritious, or pink, and consist 
chiefly of lithate of ammonia ; or 

2. White, consisting of mixed lithic 
and phosphatic sediments, with an iri- 
descent pellicle. 

When crystallized, they constitute — 

1 . The red gravel, consisting of crystals 
of uric or lithic acid ; or 

2. The white gravel, generally consist- 
ing of the triple phosphate of magnesia 
and ammonia, and existing in the form 
of perfectly white and shining crystals. 

GRAVITY [gravitas, heaviness). The 
tendency of all bodies towards the centre 
of the earth ; the unknown cause of this 
phenomenon is called gravitation. Gra- 
vity diifers from Attraction, in being a 
species of the latter ; e. g. we speak of 
capillary attraction, magnetic attraction, 
&c., but not of capillary or magnetic 
gravity. 

Gravity, specific. The density of bodies, 
as ascertained by comparison with an 
equal bulk of water. 

GREAT SYMPATHETIC. A nerve 
formed by a collection of filaments from 
every nerve which join each other at the 
adjacent ganglia. 

GRECIAN WATER. A solution of 
nitrate of silver disguised, for dyeing the 
hair black ; the hair, thus dyed, soon be- 
comes purple on exposure to light. 

GREEK FIRE. An artificial fire, 
invented by the Greeks during their wars 
with the Arabs and Turks. It is sup- 
posed to have consisted of asphaltum, 
nitre, and sulphur. 

GREEN MINERAL. A carbonate of 
copper, used as a pigment. 

GREEN SICKNESS. The popular 
term for chlorosis, from the pale, lurid, 
and greenish cast of the skin. 

GRENOUILLE. The French term 
for a frog: the distended submaxillary 
duct. See Batrachus. 

GREY LOTION. A preparation for 
irritable sores, consisting of chloride of 
mercury and lime-water. 

GRIFFITHS' MIXTURE. Compound 
mixture of iron, or the Mist, ferri camp. 

GRIPPE. A French term applied to 
various epidemic forms of gastro-bron- 
chitis. It is used by Laennec to denote 
an epidemic catarrh, which occurred in 
1803, and which was characterized by the 
peculiar glutinous sputa observed in 
acute pneumonia. 

GROATS. The decorticated grains of 
the Avena sativa, or oat. 

GROCERS' ITCH. The Eczema im- 
139 



peUginodes, produced in grocers by the 
irritation of sugar. 

GROSSULINE {groseille, a goose- 
berry). The name given by Guibourt to 
a peculiar principle procured from goose- 
berries and other acid fruits, forming 
the basis of jelly. 

GROTTO DEL CANE {dog's grotto). 
A cave in Italy, in which there is a 
constant natural exhalation of carbonic 
acid, which, occupying the lowest stra- 
tum of the air, induces asphyxia in dogs 
taken into it, although man escapes. 

GRUTUM. The name given by Plenck 
to milium, or millet-rash. 

GRYLLUS VERRUCIVORUS. The 
wart-eating grasshopper of Sweden, 
which is caught for the purpose, as it 
is said, of biting off the excrescence, 
when it also discharges a corrosive liquor 
on the wound. 

GUAIACUM OFFICINALE. Offici- 
nal Guaiacum ; a Zygophyllaceous plant, 
the wood, resin, and bark of which are 
imported from St. Domingo. 

1 . Guaiacum wood. Commonly termed 
lignum vita, from its reputed efficacy in 
syphilis. The shavings or raspings, scobs 
vel rasura guaiaci, are prepared by the 
turner for the use of the druggist. 

2. Guaiacum bark. Employed on the 
Continent, but not officinal in this coun- 
try. 

3. Guaiacum resin. Commonly, though 
erroneously, called gum guaiacum; ob- 
tained by various processes from the stem 
of the tree. It occurs in tears and in 
masses. 

4. Guaiacic acid. An acid obtained 
from the resin of guaiacum. 

5. Guaiacine. A peculiar substance 
obtained from guaiacum. 

GUANO. A manure employed in 
South America, consisting of urate of 
ammonia, and other ammoniacal salts. 
It appears to consist of the excrements 
of sea-fowl. 

GUARANINE. A new vegetable 
principle, discovered in the fruit of the 
Paullinia sorbilis by M. Martins. 

GUBERNA'CULUM (Ku/3epvo'w, to 
command). Literally, the rudder of a 
ship. A name given by Hunter to the 
fibro - vascular substance between the 
testes and scrotum in the foetus, from 
his considering it the principal agent in 
directing the course of the testis in its 
descent. 

GUIDO'S BALSAM. The Tinctura, 
or Linimentum Saponis et Opii. 



GUM 



GUT 



GUINEA-HEN WEED. The vulgar 
name of the Peteveria alliacea, an ex- 
tremely acrid plant, used in Jamaica as 
a sialogogue. 

GUINEA-WORM. MalisfilaricB. A 
worm found chiefly in both the Indies, 
often twelve feet long, and about the 
thickness of a horse-hair ; it burrows 
under the cuticle, for the most part, of 
the naked feet of tlie West Indian slaves. 
It is frequently called dracunculus, vena 
Medinensis, &c. 

GULA. The oesophagus or gullet; the 
canal extending from the lower part of 
the pharynx to the superior orifice of the 
stomach. 

GUM. A common proximate prin- 
ciple of vegetables ; the primary form of 
vegetable textures. 

GUM-BOIL. Parulis. Inflammation, 
abscess, or boil of the gums. 

GUM JUNIPER. A concrete resin 
which exudes in white tears from the 
Juniperus Communis. It has been 
called sandarach, and, hence, confound- 
ed with the aavdapaKt] of Aristotle, 
which was a sulphuret of arsenic. Re- 
duced to powder it is called pounce, 
which prevents ink from sinking into 
paper, from which the exterior coating 
of size lias been scraped away. 

GUM RASH. Red gum. A genus of 
cutaneous diseases. See Strophulus. 

GUM-RESINS. The concrete juices 
of certain plants, consisting of resin, 
essential oil, gum, and extractive vege- 
table matter, as aJoes, ammoniac, assa- 
foetida, euphorbium, scammony, &c. 

GUMMA. A soft tumor, so named 
from the resemblance of its contents to 
gum. 

GUMMI RUBRUM ASTRINGENS. 
An astringent substance, called butea 
gum, — an exudation from the Butea fron- 
dosa. Its Hindu name is kueni or kuen- 
nce, from which probably our term kino 
is derived. 

1. Gummi Arabicum seu Turcicum. 
Gum Arabic ; the produce of the Acacia 
vera, and other species, especially A. 
Arabica. The white pieces constitute 
the gummi electum of the druggists ; on 
the Continent they are called gum Turic, 
from Tor, a sea-port in Arabia, near the 
isthmus of Suez. The red pieces are 
sometimes called gum Gedda, from the 
name of another port. 

2. Gummi guttai. A term applied to 
gamboge, owing to its issuing guttatim, 
or by drops, from the broken leaves or 
branchlets of the gamboge tree. 

140 



3. Gummi nostras. Cherry-tree gum; 
an exudation from the stem of the Cera- 
sus avium. This, and the gummi pruni, 
or plum-tree gum, produced by the 
Prunus domestica, may be substituted in 
medicine for tragacanth gum. They con- 
tain two gummy principles, viz. arabin, 
and pruniti or cerasin. 

GUMS. Gingivce. The red substance 
which covers the alveolar processes of 
the jaws, and embraces the necks of the 
teeth. 

GUNJAH. The dried plant of the 
Cannabis Indica, after it has flowered, 
and still retaining the resin ; used in 
Calcutta for smoking. 

GUNPOWDER. A mixture of five 
parts of nitre, one of sulphur, and one 
of charcoal, finely powdered, and very 
iaccurately blended. The grains are 
smoothed by friction, and are then said 
to be glazed. 

GUSTATORY {gusto, to taste). A 
name of the lingu^ nerve — a branch of 
the inferior maxillary. See Nerves. 

GUT. A substance made by pulling a 
silk-worm, when ready to spin its cocoon, 
in two, extending the silk as far as it 
will go, and hanging it up to dry. 

GUTHRIE'S MUSCLE. A name 
given to the transverse portion of the 
compressor urethrce muscle. The per- 
pendicular or pubic portion is termed 
Wilson's muscle. 

GUTTA (a drop). PI. 't/tUtep, drops. 
A term applied to a measure in prescrip- 
tions, abridged gt., pi. gtt., which should 
be equal to the minim; also to certain 
affections and preparations. 

1. Gutfa opaca. Cataract, or opacity of 
the crystalline lens, of its capsule, or of 
the Morgagnian fluid, separately or con- 
jointly. 

2. Gutta Serena. A term said to have 
been first applied by Actuarius to amau- 
rosis. 

3. Gutta rosacea. Rosy drop, or car- 
buncled face ; a species of acne. 

4. Gutta anodyjia. Anodyne drop. A 
solution of acetate of morphia. 

5. Gutta nigra. Black drop ; Lan- 
cashire drop. See Quack Medicines. 

6. GuttcB vitce. Drops of life ; a 
nostrum consisting of spirituous stimu- 
lants. 

GUTTIFERjE [gutta, a drop, fero, to 
bear). The Mangosteen tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs, oc- 
casionally parasitical, yielding resinous 
juice ; leaves entire, opposite ; flowers 
polypetalous ; stamens hypogynous ; car- 



KMU 



H^M 



pella concrete; ovarium of several 
cells. 

GUTTUR. The throat; also, clas- 
sically, the wind-pipe. Gula is the gullet, 
whereby the food passes into the sto- 
mach ; and faux the gullet-pipe, or space 
between the gula and the guttur, or the 
superior part of the gula, nearest the chin, 
but interior, where the mouth grows 
narrower. 

GYMNASTICS (■yujuvdfw, to exercise 
naked). Exercises systematically adapt- 
ed to develope and preserve the physical 
powers. 

GYMNOSPERMiE {yvfivo^, naked, 
crnep/ia, seed). Plants which have their 
seeds destitute of a pericarp, as opposed 
to the AngiospermcE. 

GYNE i'ivvi)). A woman. In the fol- 
lowing compounds, the term relates to 
the female apparatus, or the pistil, of 
plants :— 

1. Gyneceum. A term applied by 
Roper to the entire female system of 



plants, more commonly called the pistil. 
See Androceum. 

2. Gyn-andria {avt]p, a man). The 
twentieth class of the Linnean system of 
plants, in which the stamens are situated 
upon the style, above the ovarium. 

3. Gyno-base {^aai^, a base). This 
term is applied to the receptacle, when 
it is dilated, and supports a row of car- 
pels, which have an oblique inclination 
towards the axis of the flower, as in the 
Labiatae, the Boraginaceas, &c. 

4. Gyno-phore {(pepoo, to bear). A term 
applied to the stalk, upon which the 
ovarium is sometimes seated, instead of 
being sessile, as in Passiflora. It is also 
called thecaphore. 

GYPSUM (-yyx^of, chalk; from 7?). 
earth, and e\/<o), to bake). Sulphate of 
lime. When highly burnt, it falls into 
powder, constituting plaster of Paris. 

GYRI (pi. of gyrus, a circuit). The 
spiral cavities of the internal ear. Also, 
the convolutions of the brain. 



H 



• HiEMA, H^MATOS (aliua, aV/uaTor). 
Blood. The circulating fluid of animals. 

1. H(Bjna-celi-nosis {Kt]\t^, a spot, v6aoi, 
a disease). Blood-spot disease ; the name 
given by Rayer to Purpura. 

2. Hcem-agogues (a^w, to expel). Ex- 
pellers of blood ; medicines which pro- 
mote the catamenial and hsemorrhoidal 
discharges. 

3. Hcema-lopia {wi^, the eye). Haema- 
lops. An effusion of blood in the globe 
of the eye ; blood-shot eye. 

4. HcBin-anthus (Si/0or, a flower). The 
Blood-flower, a plant of the natural order 
AmaryllidecB ; the Hottentots are said to 
dip their arrow-heads in the juice of its 
bulbs, on account of its poisonous pro- 
perties. 

5. Hcemat-em'esis (e/uew, to vomit). 
Vomitus cruentus. A vomiting of blood ; 
haemorrhage from the stomach. 

6. H(pmatin. The name given by 
Chevreul to the colouring matter of the 
Haematoxylon Campechianum, or log- 
wood. 

7. HcBmatite. Blood-stone, a peroxide 
of iron, so named from its property of 
stopping haemorrhages; or from its co- 
lour. The red haematite is ah anhydrous, 
the brown a hydrated, peroxide. 

141 



8. Hamato-cele (n^Xr), a tumor). A 
collection of blood in the tunica vagi- 
nalis. If serous fluid occupy the place of 
blood, the case is that of hydrocele. 

9. Hcemato'des {a\narwbt\^). Bloody; 
as applied to a fungous or fleshy excres- 
cence. The termination in -odes (w^ny) 
sometimes expresses a fulness, as in the 
present case. 

10. Hcemato-logy (\670r, an account). 
The history of the blood. 

1 1 . Hcemato'ma. A blood-like tumor, 
sometimes occurring in the brain. 

12. Hamatosin. A characteristic con- 
stituent of the blood, derived from the 
globules. 

13. Hccmato'sis. Sanguification, or the 
formation of the blood. 

14. Hcematoxyli lignum (fuXov, wood). 
Logwood ; the wood of the Haematoxylon 
Campechianum, a Leguminous plant of 
Campeachy. Its colouring matter is 
called hcematoxylin, and by Chevreul 
hamatin. 

15. Hamo-tu'ria {ovpew, to void urine). 
Sanguis in urina. Bloody urine; the 
passing of blood in the urine. 

16. Hamo-ptysis {mvai^, spitting, from 
TTTvw, to spit). Hcemoptoe. The spitting 



HAL 



HAM 



of blood ; expectoration of blood. It has 
been called pneiimono-rrhagia. 

17. Hcemo-rrhage {ptjyvufxi, to break 
forth). A rupture of a blood-vessel ; a 
bursting forth of blood ; loss of blood. 

18. Hcemo-rrhoea petech'talis (peu), to 
flow). A term applied by Dr. Adair to 
the chronic form of purpura. It has also 
been designated as Petechiee sine febre; 
land-scurvy, &c. 

19. HcBmo-rrhoidal (peoi, to flow). A 
term applied to a branch of the sciatic 
nerve; and to arteries of the rectum, 
because they often bleed ; these are 
termed the superior, middle, and inferior, 
&c. &c. 

20. Ham-ophthalmos {h(p6a\fxo^, the 
eye). An eff"usion of blood into the cham- 
bers of the eye. 

21. Hcemo-rrho'ids (pew, to flow). Li- 
terally, a haemorrhage, and originally 
used in this sense in general ; but now 
restricted to the piles. These are termed 
open, when they discharge blood ; and 
blind, when there is no discharge. 

22. Hcemo-stasia (IVrriM'. to stand). 
Stagnation of blood. Hence 

23. Hcemo-statica {^i(nt]ni, to stand). 
Styptics. Medicines which stop haemo- 
rrhages. 

24. Hcemo-thorax. An effusion of 
blood into the cavity of the pleura, from 
a wound, a contusion of the chest, certain 
diseases, &c. 

25. Hccmo-spasic system. A new sys- 
tem of medicine, introduced by Dr. Junod 
of Paris, consisting in the employment 
of a pneumatic apparatus of peculiar 
construction, in which the arm or leg is 
80 placed as to attract the blood to the 
extremities, without diminishing the 
mass of this liquid. 

26. HcBmo-trophy (rpo^//, nourishment). 
An excess of sanguineous nutriment, as 
distinguished from hypertrophy, and 
hyperhaemia. See Ancemotrophy. 

HAIR. Each hair consists of a bulb, 
situated under the skin, and a trunk, 
which perforates the skin and cuticle, 
and is enveloped in a peculiar sheath. 
The colour of the hair — black, red, auburn, 
and white — depends on that of the oil 
which enters into its composition. 

HAIR LICHEN. The Lichen pilaris ; 
a variety of lichen ous rash, in which the 
pimples are limited to the roots of the 
hair, and desquamate after ten days. 

HAL'ITUS {halo, to breathe). An 
aqueous vapour, or gas, for inhalation. 
. Halitus of the blood. The vapour which 
arises from the blood when newly drawn 
142 



from the body. Plenck termed it gat 
animale sanguinis. 

HALLEX (aWofjiai, to leap, quod 
super proximum digitum scandat). Hal- 
lus. The great toe. 

HALLUCINATION {hallucinor, to 
mistake). Depraved or erroneous ima- 
gination. The term has been used as 
synonymous with phantasm, from which 
it should, however, be distinguished, the 
phenomena of hallucination having been 
chiefly observed in the insane. See 
Phantasm. 

HALO (a\tor, an area). Areola; the 
circle or ring surrounding the nipple. 

HALO SIGNATUS. The name given 
by Sir C. Bell to the impression of the 
ciliary processes on the anterior surface 
of the vitreous humour, &c., from its 
consisting of a circle of radiations, called 
by Haller, stricc retince subjectce ligamento 
ciliari. By Winslow these marks are 
called stilci ciliares ; by Zinn, corona 
ciliaris. 

HALOGENE (u\?, salt, 'i^wnia, to pro- 
duce). A term employed by Berzelius 
to denote bodies which form salts with 
metals, as chlorine, bromine, iodine, 
fluorine, and cyanogen. The salts thus 
produced are called haloids. 

HALOID SALTS (aAr, the sea, sea- 
salt, ei5or, likeness). Salt-like com- 
pounds, consisting of a metal on the one 
hand, and of chlorine, iodine, and the 
radicals of the hydracids in general, ex- 
cepting sulphur, on the other. Besides 
the simple haloid salts, Berzelius dis- 
tinguishes the three following combinar- 
tions : — 

1. Hydro-haloid salts, or combinations 
of a simple haloid salt and the hydracid 
of its radical. 

2. Oxy-haloid salts, or combinations of 
a metallic oxide with a haloid salt of the 
same metal. 

3. Double haloid salts, consisting — 

1. Of two simple haloid salts, which 
contain different metals, but the same 
non-metallic ingredient. 

2. Of two haloid salts consisting of the 
same metal, but in which the other 
element is different. 

3. Of two simple haloid salts, of which 
both elements are entirely different. 

HAMULARIA LYMPHATICA. A 
new species of worm, discovered by 
Treutler, a German physician, in 1789, 
in the bronchial glands of a phthisical 
subject. 

HAMULUS COCHLE.E. Literally, 
the small hook of the cochlea ; a kind of 



H AU 

hook, by which the lamina spiralis ter- 
minates upon the axis, towards the mid- 
dle of the second turn, where the point 
of the infundibulum commences. 

HAND. Manus. The organ of pre- 
hension, consisting of— 

1 . The Carpus, or wrist, which is com- 
posed of the eight following bones : — 

1. The scaphoid, or boat-shaped. 

2. The semilunar, or half moon. 

3. The cuneiform, or wedge-like 

4. The pisiform, or pea-like. 

5. The trapezium, or four-sided. 

6. The trapezoid, like the former. 

7. The OS magnum, or large bone. 

8. The unciform, or hook-like. 

2. The Metacarpus, or the four bones 
constituting the palm and back of the 
hand; the upper ends have plane sur- 
faces ; the lower, convex. Sometimes 
the first bone of the thumb is reckoned 
among the metacarpal. 

3. The Digiti, or fingers, consisting 
of twelve bones, arranged in three pha- 
langes, or rows. 

4. The Pollex, or thumb, consisting of 
three bones. 

HAPSUS {anrofxat, to touch). A hand- 
ful ; a bolster of linen, or woollen, to 
place upon a wound. Celsus. 

HARE-BRAINED PASSION. Way- 
ward passion, leading to acts of violence ; 
the manie sans delire of M. Pinel, who 
ascribes it to the effect of a neglected or 
ill-directed education upon a mind natu- 
rally perverse or unruly. 

HARE-LIP {^lahia leporina). A con- 
genital division of the lip ; so called 
from a fancied resemblance to the upper 
lip of a hare. 

HARMONIA (apfxovla, a close join- 
ing, from apo), to fit together). A spe- 
cies of synarthrosis, or immoveable arti- 
culation of bones. See Articulation. 

HARROWGATE WATER. Mineral 
springs, containing sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. 

HARTFELL WATER. A chalybeate 
water near Mofiat, in Scotland. 

HARTSHORN. Cornu cervi. The 
antlers of the Cervus Elaphus, or Stag. 

Spirit of hartshorn. The aqueous solu- 
tion of ammonia, formerly prepared from 
the cornu cervi, or hart's horn. 

HARVEST BUG. The Acarus autum- 
nalis, a variety of the tick insect, which 
infests the skin in the autumn, pro- 
ducing intolerable itching, succeeded by 
glossy wheals ; it has hence been called 
wheal-worm. 

HAUSTUS {haurio, to draw). A 
143 



HEC 

draught. It differs from a mixture only 
in quantity, and should not exceed an 
ounce and a half. 

HAVERSIAN TUBES. A term given, 
from the name of their discoverer, to a 
very complicated apparatus of minute 
canals found in the substance of bone, 
and containing medullary matter. The 
central canal, as well as the separate 
cells, may be regarded as enlargements 
of them. 

HEAD-ACHE. An original English 
term for pain in the head, megrim, 
cephalalgia, cephalaea, &c. 

HEADING. A pi-eparation of equal 
parts of alum and green vitriol, used in 
brewing. 

HEART. Cor. The central organ of 
circulation. It is enveloped in a mem- 
brane called the pericardium. It is di- 
vided, externally, into a base, or its 
broad part; a superior and an inferior 
surface; and an anterior and posterior 
margin. Internally, it consists, in man, 
of four cavities, viz. two auricles and two 
ventricles, and is thence called double. 

1. Heart, caudal. A pulsating palish 
sac, containing red blood, and situated at 
the caudal extremity of the eel. 

2. Heart, lymphatic. A term applied 
by Miiller to some small pulsating sacs 
in the frog, the snake, &c., considered 
by him as hearts of the lymphatic sys- 
tem. 

3. Heart, displacement of. Ectopia 
cordis, from eKToirl^w, to displace, or 
eKTonioi, displaced. It is congenital ; or 
the effect of effused fluid, or of its subse- 
quent absorption, &c. 

4. Heart-burn. Cardialgia mordens. 
A gnawing or burning uneasiness, felt 
chiefly at the cardia. See Circulation. 

HEAT. The sensation experienced on 
touching a body of a higher temperature 
than that of the blood. In chemical lan- 
guage it is the cause of that sensation, or 
caloric. 

HEAT, PRICKLY. The Lichen tro- 
picus ; a species of lichenous rash. 

HEAVY SPAR. Sulphate of barytes, 
baroselenite, or prismatic heavy spar. 

HEBRADENDRON CAMBOGIOI- 
DES. The Gamboge Hebradendron ; 
a Guttiferous plant, which yields a kind 
of gamboge not distinguishable from that 
of Siam. 

HECTIC (UriKoi, habitual). This 
term is sometimes used, like the Greek 
feminine, as a substantive, to denote a 
habitual or very protracted fever ; but, 
more generally, as an adjective, in con- 



HEL 

junction with the term fever, to designate 
the same disease. 

HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES. A La- 
biate plant of North America, highly re- 
puted as an emmenagogue, and called 
pennyroyal. 

HELIOSTAT (nXtof, the sun, iVrnM'. 
to stand). An instrument by which the 
sun-beam can be steadily directed to one 
spot during the whole of its diurnal 
period. 

HELIOTROPIUM (I'iX.o?, the sun, 
TpfTTo), to turn). The Blood-stone, so 
called from the blood-red specks occa- 
sionally appearing on its green surface, 
and formerly used to stop a bleeding 
from the nose. 

HELIX (fc'Xtf, from eXtWo), to turn 
about). A coil; a spiral, or winding 
line. This term denotes, — 

1 . The outer bar or margin of the ex- 
ternal ear. Hence, helicis major and 
helicis mmor, two muscles of the helix. 

2. The name of a coil of wire, used in 
magneto-galvanic experiments. 

3. A testaceous animal, inhabiting a 
spiral shell, as the snail, &c. The helix 
pomatia is the Great or Vineyard Snail ; 
a popular remedy for emaciation, with 
hectic fever and phthisis. 

HELLEBORUS (^XXp/3opoc, qu. kXeiv, 
to seize, /9op^, in eating). Hellebore ; 
a poisonous genus of Ranunculaceous 
plants. 

1. Helleborus foetidus. Foetid Helle- 
bore, or Bear's-foot ; a plant retained in 
the list of Materia Medica, but rarely 
used. Its leaves have been strongly re- 
commended as a vermifuge against the 
ascaris lumbricoides. 

2. Helleborus niger. Black Hellebore, 
or Christmas rose ; a plant reputed in 
classic writers as a remedy for mania, 
and hence recommended by Horace to 
the poets of his day. See Melampodium. 

3. Helleborus orient alts. The root of 
this species was formerly much extolled 
in mania, epilepsy, and dropsy; it is still 
used in the Levant, and is called zopUme 
by the Turks, and aKapipij by the Greeks. 

4. The term Hellebore has been applied 
to the Veratrum album, probably from its 
similar properties. Yet the former is an 
exogenous, the latter an endogenous 
plant. 

HELMINS (eXjutiT, eXfxiveoi). Vermis. 
The Greek term for a worm. 

1. Helminth-agogues {'6i<^ui, to expel). 
Anthelmintics ; remedies against worms. 

2. Helminthiasis. A disease peculiar 
to some countries, in which worms, or 

144 



HEN 

their larvae, are bred under thfe skin, 
&c. 

3. Helmintho-chorton {xopro^, food?). 
Corsican Mess ; a species of Gigartina, 
supposed to be particularly efficacious 
against the ascaris lumbricoides. 

HELO'DES (eXor, a marsh). A term 
applied to fevers produced by marsh 
miasma. 

HE'LOS (^Xov, clavus, a nail). A name 
given to the tumor formed by prolapsus 
or procidentia iridis. See Myocephalon. 

HEMERALOPIA (/;Mtpa, the day, 
ctXaos^, blind, w»|/, the eye). Diurna 
cascitudo, or day-blindness. This term is 
used by Hippocrates (by omission of the 
uXaor?) to denote night-blindness— c&Wgo 
tenebrarum ; dysopia tenebrarum. Sau- 
vages terms it amblyopia crepuscularis. 
See Nyctalopia. 

HEMI- (nuiav!). The Greek prefix for 
half, corresponding with the Latin semi. 

1. Hemi-crania {Kpaviov, thehe&A). A 
pain which affects only one side of the 
head. See Megrim. 

2. Hemi-opia (u»l/, the eye). Visus 
dimidiatus. A defect of vision, in which 
only half of the object is seen. 

3. Hemi-pleyia (itXijoram, to Strike). 
Paralysis of one side of the body. 

4. Hemi-ptera (Trrepov, a wing). In- 
sects which have one half of their wings 
thick and coriaceous, and the other half 
membranous, as the bug, tick, &c. : 
Class 7, Insecta. 

5. Hemispheres {a<paipa, a sphere). 
The two parts which constitute the 
upper surface of the cerebrum. They 
are separated by the falx cerebri. 

HEMIDESMUS INDICUS. An As- 
clepiadaceous plant, the root of which is 
used in India under the name of country 
sarsaparilla. It has been called Indian 
or scented sarsaparilla, nannari, or the 
root of sniilax aspera. 

HEMINA. A Roman measure of ca- 
pacity, consisting of half a sextarius, or 
three quarters of a pint. 

HEMP. A powerful stimulating nar- 
cotic, much employed in some countries 
as an intoxicating drug. See Canna- 
bis. 

HEMP-SEED. The name of some 
varieties of the mulberry calculus, which 
are remarkably smooth and pale-coloured, 
resembling hemp-seed. 

HENBANE. A powerfully-narcotic 
plant, said to be poisonous to the domes- 
tic fowl. The botanical name suggests 
a different etymology. See Hyoscyamus. 

HEN-BLINDNESS. A name some- 



HEP 



HER 



times given to nyctalopia, or night-blind- 
ness, from a natural defect in hens, in 
consequence of wliich they cannot see 
to pick up small grains in the dusk of 
the evening, and so employ this time in 
going to roost. 

HENNE'. A substance procured in 
Egypt, from the Lausonia inermis, with 
which the women stain their fingers and 
feet ; it is also used for dyeing skins and 
maroquins of a reddish yellow. 

HEPAR (^Trap, rnraroi). The liver; 
the organ which secretes the bile. 

1. Hepat-algia (0X70?, pain). Pain in 
the liver. Swelling of the liver is termed 
hepatalgia infarcta, liver disease, en- 
larged liver, &c. 

2. Hepatic. A term applied to any 
part belonging to the liver. 

3. Hepatic flux. Bilious flux; the 
name given in the East to a variety of 
dysentery, in which there is a frequent 
flow of bilious fluid from the rectum. 

4. Hevat-itis. Inflammation of the 
liver. The term is used by Galen in the 
present sense, but it is more usually em- 
ployed adjectively, with the sense of he- 
patic. The Latin word hepatitis is only 
used, according to Pliny, as "gemmae 
nomen a figura jocinoris." Forbes. 

5. Hepato-rrhoea {pew, to flow). Lite- 
rally, a liver-flow ; a morbid flow of bile. 

6. Hepatization. Carnification. A 
change induced in the lungs by inflam- 
mation, in which it loses its vesicular and 
crepitating character, and resembles the 
liver in firmness and weight, sinking in 
water. It is divided into the red, and 
into the grey, or purulent infiltration. 
Compare Spleenizution. 

7. Hepato-cele (.KrjKr), a. tumor). Hepatic 
hernia ; hernia of the liver. 

8. Hepato-gastric. A name of the 
smaller omentum, which passes from the 
liver to the stomach. 

9. Hepato-phyma (^vfia, a suppurating 
tumor). A suppurative swelling of the 
liver. 

HEPAR ANTIMONII. Liver of Anti- 
mony ; an oxy-sulphuret. The term hepar 
was formerly applied to the combinations 
of sulphur with alkalies, from their liver- 
like appearance. Hence we liave also, — 

1. Hepar calcis. A crude bisulphuret 
of calcium, recommended as an external 
application to crnsta lactea. 

2. Hepar sulphur is. Liver of sulphur ; 
the old pharmaceutic name of a liver- 
brown sulphuret of potash. 

3. Hepar sulphuris volatilis. Volatile 
liver of sulphur. This is also termed 

145 



Boyle's or Beguin's Fuming Spirit ; sul- 
phuretum ammoniae ; sulphuretted hy- 
droguret of ammonia, or the hydro-sul- 
phuret of ammonia. 

4. Hepatic air. Another name for sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas 

5. Hepatic cinnabar. A dark -coloured, 
steel-grey variety of cinnabar. 

6. Hepatic pyrites. Hepatic sulphuret 
of iron ; a variety of prismatic iron py- 
rites, which becomes brown on exposure 
to the air. 

7. Hepatite. A variety of heavy spar, 
or sulphate of barytes, containing a mi- 
nute portion of sulphur, and emitting, 
when heated or rubbed, a fetid sul- 
phurous odour. 

8. Hepatule. A name given by Kir- 
wan to the hydrosulphuret of other 
writers. 

HEPAT'ICffi {Tinap, ^Varor, the liver). 
The Liver-wort tribe of Acotyledonous 
plants. Cellular, flowerless plants, con- 
sisting of an axis or stem, either leafy or 
bordered ; reproductive organs are valved 
theccB of diflferent kinds. 

HEPTANDRIA (eTrra, seven, livrip. a 
man). The seventh class of the Linnean 
system, including those plants which 
have seven stamens. 

HEPTAPHARMACUM (lirrd, seven. 
(j>appiaKov, a medicine). A medicine 
composed of seven ingredients: these 
were ceruse, lithjirge, pitch, wax, colo- 
phony, incense, and ox-fat. 

HERB BENNET. The Geum ur- 
banum, or Avens ; the term is probably 
contracted from herba benedicta. 

HERBARIUM {herba, a herb). A col- 
lection of dried specimens of plants, for- 
merly known by the expressive term 
hortus siccus, or dried garden. 

HERCULES BOVII. Gold and mer- 
cury dissolved in a distillation of cop- 
peras, nitre, and sea-salt ; a violently 
cathartic preparation. 

HEREDITARY {hceres, an heir). A 
term applied to diseases supposed to be 
transmitted from parents to their chil- 
dren. 

HERMAPHRODITE ('Ep/x^f, Mer- 
cury, 'Xcppoiirri, Venus). Androgynus. 
A lusus natural, in which the organs of 
generation appear to be a mixture of 
both sexes. In botany, plants are so 
called, which contain the stamen and 
pistil in the same flower; all other 
flowering plants are called unisexual. 

HERMETIC SEAL ( Epun^, Mercury). 
The closing of the end of a glass vessel 
when heated to the melting point. The 
H 



HER 



HER 



name is derived from the Egyptian 
Hermes, supposed to have been the 
father of Chemistry, which has been 
called the Hermetic Art. 

HERMODACTYLUS CEpju^J, Mer- 
cury, aa/cTuXor, a finger). The name by 
which the ancients designated a plant 
supposed to be a species of Colchicum. 

HERNIA (epvor, a branch, so called 
from its protruding forward). The pro- 
trusioft of one or more of the viscera into 
a sac, formed of the peritonaeum. A 
hernia is termed reducible, when it ad- 
mits of being replaced in the abdomen ; 
irreducible, when it suffers no constric- 
tion, yet cannot be put back, owing to 
adhesions or its large size ; and incar- 
cerated or strangulated, when it not only 
cannot be reduced, but also suffers con- 
striction. This disease is distinguished 
with reference to, — 

I. Its Situation. 

1. Hernia cruralis. Femoral hernia; 
or a protrusion under Poupart's liga- 
ment. The passage through which the 
hernia descends is called, by Gimbernat, 
the crural, by Hey, the femoral ring ; 
and by Cloquet, the crural canal. 

2. Hernia inguinalis. Bubonocele ; or 
hernia at the groin. It is termed incom- 
plete or oblique, when it does not pro- 
trude through the abdominal ring; and 
complete or direct, when it passes out at 
that opening. 

3. Hernia inguino-interstitial. This 
term is applied by Dr. Goyraud to the 
form of hernia termed by most authors 
incomplete inguinal, and described by 
Boyer as intra-inguinal. The former 
term was considered objectionable, be- 
pause, whatever may be their situation, 
when the viscera have escaped from the 
abdomen, the hernia is complete; the 
latter was also objectionable, because the 
inguinal canal does not always constitute 
the limits of the protruded viscera. 

4. Hernia ischiatica. Hernia occurring 
at the ischiatic notch. 

.'). Hernia perinealis. Hernia of the 
perinaeum, occurring, in men, between 
the bladder and rectum ; and in women, 
between the rectum and vagina. 

6. Hernia pudendalis. Hernia which 
descends, between the vagina and ramus 
ischii, into the labium. 

7. Hernia scrotalis. Oscheocele ; hernia 
enteroscheocele, or oschealis, when omen- 
tum or intestine, or both, descend into 
the scrotum ; epiploscheocele, when omen- 
tum only ; steatocele, when sebaceous 
matter descends. 

146 



8. Hernia thyroidalis. Hernia of the 
foramen ovale. 

9. Hernia umbilicalis. Omphalocele, 
or exomphalos. Hernia of the bowels at 
the umbilicus. It is called pneumatom- 
■phalos, when owing to flatulency 

10. Hernia vaginalis. Elytrocele; or 
hernia occurring within the os externum. 

11. Hernia ventralis. Hypogastrocele ; 
or hernia occurring at any part of the 
front of the abdomen, most frequently 
between the recti muscles. 

12. Hernia carnosa. Sarcocele. A 
fleshy enlargement of the testis ; a tumor 
seated in the scrotum. 

1.3. Hernia mesenterica et mesocolica. 
Hernia through the lacerated mesentery, 
or mesocolon. 

14. Hernia phrenica. Hernia of the 
diaphragm. 

15. Hernia of the intestines. Hernia 
through a loop formed by adhesions, &c. 

II. Its Contents. 

16. Hernia cerebri. Fungus cerebri. 
Encephalocele. Hernia of the brain. 

17. Hernia intestinalis. Enterocele; 
containing intestine only. 

18. Hernia omentatis. Epiplocele; 
containing a portion of omentum only. 
If both intestine and omentum contribute 
to the formation of the tumor, it is called 
entero-epiplocele. 

19. Hernia uteri. Hysterocele. Hernia 
of the uterus. 

20. Hernia vesicalis. Cystocele; or 
hernia of the bladder. 

21. Her?iia cornece. Ceratocele ; or 
hernia of the cornea. 

III. Its Condition. 

22. Hernia congenita. Congenital her- 
nia ; appearing at birth. 

23. Hernia incarcerata. Strangulated 
hernia; or irreducible hernia with con- 
striction. 

IV. Misapplied Terms. 

24. Hernia gutturis. Bronchocele, 
goitre, or enlargement of the thyroid 
gland. 

25. Hernia humor alis. Inflammatio 
testis, or swelled testis. 

26. Hernia sacci lacrymalis. The name 
given by Beer to rupture of the lacry- 
mal sac. It has been also called mucocele. 
See Fistula lacrymalis. 

27. Hernia varicosa. Cirsocele, or a 
varicose enlargement of the spermatic 
vein. 

28. Hernia ventosa, or flatulenta. 
Pneumatocele ; or hernia distended with 



H ET 



HIL 



HERNIOTOMY {hernia, and tom»";, 
section). The operation for strangulated 
hernia. 

HERPES (fc'pTTo), to creep). Tetter; 
clustered vesicles, concreting into scabs. 
The name is derived from the progressive 
extension of the eruption. 

1. Herpes labialis. Herpes of the lip ; 
occasionally diffused on the velum and 
palate. 

2. Herpes zoster. Herpes spreading 
across the waist or thorax, like a sash or 
sword-helt ; commonly called shingles. 

3. Herpes phlyctcenodes. Herpes simi- 
lar to the preceding, but of less regular 
form, occurring on any part of the body, 
commonly called nirles. 

4. Herpes circinnatus. Herpes of a 
more chronic form than the preceding ; 
commonly called ringworm. 

5. Herpes prcsputialis. Herpes of the 
prepuce, or the labia pudendi. 

6. Herpes iris. Rainbow ringworm. 

HESPERIDIN. A crystallizable, neu- 
tral principle found in the white portion of 
the rind of the fruit of the genus Citrus. 

HESPERIDIUM. A many-ceUed, su- 
perior, indehiscent fruit, covered by a 
spongy separable rind, as the orange. 

HETERO- (erepof, other). A Greek 
term denoting difference : — 

1 Heter-adelphia {ude\(f>6s, a brother). 
A term applied by Geoffrey St. Hilaire to 
union of the bodies of two foetuses. In 
these cases, one foetus generally attains 
its perfect growth ; the other remains un- 
developed, or acephalous, maintaining 
a parasitic life upon its brother. 

2. Hetero-geneous (yevo^, kind). A 
term used to denote substances, the 
parts of which are of different kinds. 
Compare Homogeneous. 

3. Hetero-logous formation (X670?, an 
account). A term applied to a solid or 
fluid substance, different from any of the 
solids or fluids which enter into the 
healthy composition of the body. {Cars- 
well.) It is synonymous with the hetero- 
plastic matter of Lobstein. 

4. Hetero-pathy {ndtioi, disease). The 
art of curing, founded on differences, by 
which one morbid condition is removed 
by inducing a different one. Compare 
Homoeopathy. 

5. Hetero-plasis {TrXdcrt?, formation). 
A term employed by Lobstein in the same 
sense as that of heterologous formation, 
adopted by Carswell. The same writer 
applies the term euplasis to organizable 
matter, by which the tissues of the body 
are renewed. 

147 



6. Hetero-tropal (rpeTrcd, to turn). That 
which has its direction across the body 
to which it belongs ; a term applied to 
the embryo of the seed. 

HEVEENE. An oil obtained in the 
rectification of oil of caoutchouc, and de- 
rived from the Hevea guianensis, one of 
the Euphorbiaceae from which caoutchouc 
is extracted. 

HEXANDRIA (ef, six, av)]p, a man). 
The sixth class of the Linnean system, 
including those plants which have six 
stamens. 

HIATUS FALLOPII {hiatus, an open- 
ing, from hio, to gape). An opening in 
the tympanum, named from Fallopius. 

HIBISCUS MOSCHATUS. A Mal- 
vaceous plant, reputed to be of powerful 
eflScacy against the bite of venomous 
reptiles. The present generic name is 
Abehnoschus. 

HICCORY. An American plant which 
yields a yellow dye : Order Juglandece. 

HICCUP or HICCOUGH. A spasm- 
odic contraction of the diaphragm, with 
partial closure of the larynx. The term 
corresponds with the French hoquet, and 
the German schlucken, and is perhaps 
meant to imitate tlie sound it denotes. 
The Greek Kity^ or Xvyno^, and the Latin 
singultus, which have been applied to 
this affection, rather denote sobbing. 

HIDE-BOUND. A term descriptive 
of that state in horses, in which the skin 
is tightly drawn over the emaciated mus- 
cles ; also, of a disease in trees, when the 
bark cleaves too close to the wood. 

HIDROA (t3pwv, sweat). The term 
given by Sauvages and Vogel to eczema, 
or heat eruption ; the halo, with which 
the vesicle is surrounded, is popularly 
called a heat spot. 

HIDRO'TICA {idpu}^, iap5T09, sweat). 
Medicines which cause perspiration. 

HI'ERA PI'CRA (lepos, holy, iriKp6i, 
bitter). Vulgo, hiccory piccory. A name 
which has been long applied in the shops 
to the Pulvis Aloes cum Canella. It 
was formerly called hiera logadii, and 
made in the form of an electuary with 
honey. 

HIERONOSOS (iepos, sacred, i/6<ror, 
disease). Morbus sacer. Literally, sacred 
disease ; an ancient term for epilepsy. 

HIGHGATE RESIN. Fossil Copal ; 
found in the bed of blue clay at High- 
gate. 

HILUM. The pomt of the seed by 
which it is attached to the placenta. 
This is the base of the seed. 

HILUS LIENIS. A fissure observed 
H2 



H IV 



HON 



on the internal and concave surface of 
the spleen, through which the vessels 
enter and leave the substance of the 
organ. 

HIP. The ripe fruit of the Rosa ca- 
nina, or dog-rose: it is chiefly used for 
making the confection of that name. 

HIPPO- (i'TTTTor, a horse). A Greek 
term, denoting a reference to the horse, 
the sea-horse ; or, simply, a large size : — 

1. Hippo-campus {Kdnmo), to bend). 
The sea-horse ; the name of a small 
marine animal. Hence the term is ap- 
plied to two kinds of convolution of the 
brain, — the hippocampus minor, situated 
in the posterior horn, and the hippo- 
campus major, situated in the inferior 
horn of the ventricles of the brain. See 
Cornu Ammonis. 

2. Hippo-castanum, or the Horse-chest- 
nut. In this term, and in several others, 
as hippo-lapathum, hippo-marathrum, 
hippo-selinum, &c., the prefix is a Gre- 
cism, denoting size. 

3. Hippo-lithus (\i0oi, a stone). A 
concretion found in the intestines of 
horses, composed of ammoniacal phos- 
phate of magnesia, derived from the 
husk of the oats on which they feed. 

4. Hippo-manes (navia, madness). A 
humor in mares, said to be merely the 
mucus of the vagina in season, employed 
as an aphrodisiac. Anciently an ingre- 
dient in philtres. 

5. Hipp-uric acid {olpov, urine). An 
acid obtained from the urine of the horse, 
cow, and other graminivorous animals. 

6. Hipp-uris (oiipa, a tail). The final 
division of the spinal marrow, also termed 
cauda equina, or horse's tail, from the 
division of the nerves which issue from 
it. Also, a genus of plants, so called 
from their resemblance to a horse's tail. 

HIPPUS PUPILL^. A peculiar 
motion of the iris, consisting of a con- 
stant fluttering between expansion and 
contraction. It occurs in amaurosis. 

HIRCINE {hircus, a goat). A sub- 
stance contained in the fat of the goat 
and sheep, yielding, by saponification, 
the hircic acid. 

HIRSUTIES (hirsutus, shaggy). Shag- 
giness ; superfluous growth of hair. 

HIRU'DO MEDICINALIS. The me- 
dicinal leech ; named by the Romans 
haurio, as expressive of its well-known 
peculiar action. 

HIVES. The popular name in the 
north of England, and in some parts of 
Scotland, for a species of Chicken-pox — 
the Varicella globularis of Willan. 
148 



HOFFMANNI LIQUOR ANODY- 
NUS. Hoffman's Anodyne Solution, or 
the Spiritus ^Etheris Sulphurici Compo- 
situs of the London pharmacopa?ia. 

HOG GUM. A substance yielded by 
the Rhus metopium. Dr. Pereira says he 
has met with an unsaleable gum, under 
this name, resembling a sample in his 
possession of false tragacanth, or gomme 
de Sassa. 

HOMBERG'S PHOSPHORUS. Ig- 
nited muriate of lime. See Phosphorus. 

HOMBERG'S PYROPHORUS (jrDp, 
fire, 0ep&), to bring). A mixture of alum 
and brown sugar, which takes fire on 
exposure to the air. A more convenient 
mixture is made with three parts of lamp- 
black, four of burnt alum, and eight of 
carbonate of potash. 

HOMBERG'S SEDATIVE SALT. 
A name for boracic acid, which appears, 
however, to possess no sedative pro- 
perty. 

HOMCEOPATHY (ojuoioy, similar, itd- 
Ooi, disease). The art of curing founded 
on resemblances, introduced by Samuel 
Hahnemann. The principle is, that every 
disease is curable by such medicines as 
would produce, in a healthy person, sym- 
ptoms similar to those which characterize 
the given disease. — " Similia similibus 
curentur," in opposition to the " con- 
traria contrariis," — or heteropathy. 

HOMOGENEOUS (^yuor, like, fevo^, 
kind). This terra denotes substances 
made up of parts possessing the same 
properties. Heterogeneous, on the con- 
trary, denotes that the parts are of dif- 
ferent qualities : thus, in minerals, sand- 
stone is a homogeneous, and granite a 
heterogeneous, body. 

HOMO-TROPAL {6tx6<:, the same, 
TpoTTor, a turn). Having the same direc- 
tion as the body to which it belongs, but 
not being straight; a term applied to 
the embryo of the seed. 

HONEY. Mel. A vegetable juice, 
collected from the nectaries of flowers by 
the Apis mellifica, or Honey Bee. With 
vinegar it forms oxymel. 

1. Virgin honey. Honey wrought by 
the young bees which have never swarm- 
ed, and which runs from the comb with- 
out heat or pressure. 

2. Clarified honey. Mel despumatum ; 
honey melted in a water-bath, and cleared 
from scum. 

3. Acetated honey. Mel acetatum. or 
the oxymel simplex ; clarified honey and 
acetic acid. 

4. Egyptian honey. Oxymel aerugfinis, 



H R 



HUM 



or linimentum seruginis ; clarified honey, 
with aerugo and vinegar. 

5. Honey of borax. Mel boracis ; clari- 
fied honey, and bruised borax. 

6. Rose honey. Mel rosae ; clarified 
honey, the petals of the rosa gallica, and 
water. 

HONEY-BAG. The crop or sucking 
stomach of the honey-bee, in which it 
transports the honey from the flower to 
the hive. 

HONEY-DEW. A sweetish substance 
ejected by very small insects, called 
aphides, upon the leaves of plants, and 
vulgarly supposed to be caused by a 
blight, or some disease in the plant. 
There is another kind of honey-dew, ob- 
served only at particular times, and in 
certain states of the atmosphere, hanging 
occasionally in drops from the points of 
the leaves of plants ; its cause is not 
known. 

HOOPING COUGH. Whooping cough. 
These are vernacular English terms, de- 
rived from the verb to hoop or whoop, 
signifying to call with a loud noise. The 
affection is the tussis convulsiva of Willis, 
the tussis ferina of Hoflfman. See Per- 
tussis. 

Chincough. According to Johnson, for 
kincough, from kincken, to cough. Is it 
a corruption from chine-cough ? 

HOPS. The strobiles of the Humulus 
Ivpulus, or Hop- plant. 

HORDEI SEMINA. Pearl barley ; the 
grains of the Hordeum distichon, the Com- 
mon or Long-eared Barley, after the husks 
have been removed. 

1. Hordeum mundatum. Scotch, hulled, 
or pot barley, consisting of the grains de- 
prived of their husk by a mill. 

2. Hordeum perlatum. Pearl barley ; 
the grains divested of their husk, round- 
ed, and polished. The farina obtained 
by grinding pearl barley to powder is 
called patent barley. 

.3. Hordei decoctum. Decoction of bar- 
ley, commonly called barley water. 

4. Hordein. The principle of barley ; 
a peculiar modification of starch. 

HORDEOLUM (dim. of hordeum, bar- 
ley). A stye, or small tumor on the eye- 
lids, resembling a barley-corn. 

HORN. A substance consisting of 
coagulated albumen and gelatine. It 
differs from bone in containing only a 
trace of earth. 

HORN SILVER. Luna cornea. The 
chloride of silver ; the term is derived 
from its forming a grey semi-transparent 
H9 



mass, which may be cut with a knife, 
and much resembles horn. 

1. Horn Lead. Plumbum corneum ; 
the chloride of lead, a semi-transparent 
mass, resembling horn. 

2. Horn Quicksilver. A natural proto- 
chloride of quicksilver ; it has a white 
horn-like appearance. 

HORN POCK. Crystalline pock. A 
form of Variola, in which the pimples 
are imperfectly suppurating, ichorous or 
horny, and semi-transparent. 

HORNBLENDE. Amphibole. A sili- 
cate of lime and magnesia. 

HORRIPILATIG (horreo, to dread, 
pilus, the hair). A sense of creeping in 
different parts of the body ; a symptom 
of the approach of fever. 

HORSE-RADISH. The Cochlearia Ar- 
moracia. The term horse, as an epithet, 
in this case, is a Grecism, as also in horse- 
mint, &c. ; the same may be said of the 
term bull, in bull-rash, &c. ; these terms 
are derived from iVTror and /SoDr, respec- 
tively, which merely denote greatness; 
Bu-cephalus, for Alexander's horse ; Bu- 
limia, for voracious appetite ; Bu-phthal- 
mus, for dropsy of the eye ; Bu-cnemia, 
for swelled leg, &c. See Hippo. 

HORTUS SICCUS (a dry garden). 
An emphatic appellation given to a col- 
lection of specimens of plants, carefully 
dried and preserved ; a more general term 
is herbarium. 

HOSPITAL GANGRENE. A com- 
bination of humid gangrene with phage- 
denic ulceration, occurring in crowded 
hospitals, &c. ; also termed phagedena 
gangraenosa, putrid or malignant ulcer, 
hospital Sore, &c. 

HOUR-GLASS CONTRACTION. An 
irregular and transverse contraction of 
the uterus, in which it assumes the form 
of an hour glass. 

HOUSE-LEEK. The Sempervivum 
tectorum ; a plant of the order Crassula- 
cecB, common on roofs and walls. 

HOWARD'S or JEWEL'S HYDRO- 
SUBLIMATE. A patent calomel, pre- 
pared by exposing the salt in the act 
of sublimation to aqueous vapour, and 
receiving it in water. It is lighter than 
common calomel, in the proportion of 
three to five, and cannot contain any 
corrosive sublimate. 

HUMBOLDITE. A mineral, consist- 
ing of oxalate of lime, and forming the 
basis of a species of urinary calculus. 

HUMECTANTIA (humecto, to moist- 
en). Moistening and softening medi- 
cines. 

H S 



H YB 



H YD 



HUMERUS (a)Mof). The shoulder, 
consisting of two bones, the scapula and 
the clavicle. 

HUMILIS (humble). A name given 
to the rectus inferior, from the expression 
of humility or modesty which the action 
of this muscle imparts. 

HUMOR {humeo, to be moist, from 
humus, the ground). A humor; an 
aqueous substance. The humors of the 
eye are distinguished into — 

1. The Aqueous, or watery, situated in 
the anterior and posterior chambers of 
the eye. 

2. The Vitreous, or glassy, forming the 
principal bulk of the globe of the eye. 

3. The Crystalline, or icy, consisting of 
a lens situated immediately behind the 
pupil, and surrounded by the ciliary pro- 
cesses. 

HUMORAL PATHOLOGY. A sys- 
tem in medicine, which attributed all 
diseases to morbid changes in the humors 
or fluid parts of the body, without assign- 
ing any influence to the state of the 
solids. 

HUMORIC {humor, a humor). A 
term applied by M. Piorry to a peculiar 
sound, produced on percussion, by the 
stomach, when that organ contains much 
air and liquid. It resembles the metallic 
tinkling of Laennec. 

HUMULUS LUPULUS. The Com- 
mon Hop ; a dioecious plant, of the order 
Urticacea:. 

1. Hops. The commercial term for 
the ripe catkins or strobiles of the Hu- 
mulus lupulus. 

2. Lupulin. Lupulinic grains, occur- 
ring around the nuts, in the ^orm of a 
yellow powder, and constituting the bitter 
principle of the hop. 

HUMUS. Vegetable mould ; woody 
fibre in a state of decay. The various 
names of ulmin, humic acid, coal of hu- 
mus, and humin, are applied to modifi- 
cations of humus. 

Humic acid of chemists. A product 
of the decomposition of humus by al- 
kalies ; it does not exist in the humus of 
vegetable physiologists . — L ieb ig. 

HYACINTH. A mineral occurring of 
various colours, composed principally of 
the earth called zirconia. 

HYALOIDES {vaXov, glass, cZ<?of, 
likeness). The name of the membrane 
which encloses the vitreous humor of 
the eye ; it consists of numerous cellules, 
communicating with each other. 

HYBERNATION {hyberna, winter- 
quarters for soldiers ; from hyems, win- | 
150 



ter). A reptile state of the functions, 
which occurs in some animals in winter, 
as the bat, hedge-hog, dormouse, hamster, 
&c. Compare Diurnation. 

HYBO'SIS ({,/369. curved). The name 
given by the Greek writers to the lateral 
curvature of the spine. It is the hyboma 
scoliosis of Swediaur, and the rhachybia 
of Dr. Good. 

HYBRID {hybrida, from K/Spj^, injuria, 
sc. illata natures). Mongrel ; a term ap- 
plied to plants and animals of a cross 
breed. 

HYDARTHRUS {vdwp, water, ^9pov, 
a joint). Hydarthrosis. White swelling ; 
dropsy of an articulation, from an accu- 
mulation of synovia ; generally occurring 
in the knee-joint ; the spina ventosa of 
the Arabian writers. 

HYDATIS {hbarli, a vesicle, from 
vbwp, water). A hydatid ; a pellucid 
cyst, containing a transparent fluid, de- 
veloped in a cavity or tissue of the 
human body, &c. ; the term is now 
used to designate an order of intestinal 
worms. 

1. Hydatis acephalocystis (a, priv., k€- 
<pa\r), the head, Kvam, a bladder). The 
headless hydatid, or bladder-worm. 

2. Hydatis cosnurus {Kotvof, common, 
ovpa, a tail). The hydatid containing 
several animals grouped together, and 
terminating in one tail. ' 

3. Hydatis cysticercus (Ki5o-T«r, a blad- 
der, KepKoy, a tail). The bladder-tailed 
hydatid. 

4. Hydatis ditrachyceros (ih, twice, 
rpaxw, rough, Kepac, a horn). The hy- 
datid furnished with a rough bifurcated 
horn. 

5. Hydatis echinococcus {extvos, a 
hedge-hog, kokkoj, a grain). The round 
rough hydatid. 

6. Hydatis polycephalui {iroXin, many, 
Ke<l)a\i^, the head). The many-headed 
hydatid. 

7. To these may be added a white en- 
cysted body, which Raspail names the 
ovuliger of the joint of the wrist, and con- 
siders as a new genus, intermediate be- 
tween the cj'sticercus and the coenurus. 

8. The rot and the staggers in sheep 
are occasioned by the development of two 
species of vesicular worms, the cysticercus 
lineatus and tenuicollis, and the coenurus 
cerebralts of Rudolphi, the one in the 
liver, or some other of the abdominal 
viscera; the other in the ventricles of the 
brain. The sheep which feed in salt 
meadows are exempt from this disorder. 
— Laennec. 



H YD 



H YD 



HYDERUS (udepor). Literally, water- 
flux; a name given by the Greeks to 
diabetes, which was also called urinal 
dropsy, urinary diarrhoea, and dipsacus, 
from its accompanying thirst. 

HYDRA ({Jaoop, water). A polypus 
indigenous in our brooks, destitute of a 
stomach, brain, viscera, or lungs. 

HYDR-, HYDRO- (vdiop, Caaror, 
water). A prefix generally denoting the 
presence of water in definite proportions ; 
but, owing to the changes of nomencla- 
ture, it sometimes denotes the presence 
of hydrogen in certain chemical com- 
pounds. 

1 . Hydr-acids. Hydro-acids ; a class 
of acid compounds, into which hydrogen 
enters, as the acidifying principle ; as the 
hydro-chloric, the hydro-cyanic, &c. 

2. Hydr-agogues (a-yo), to expel). The 
name of those cathartics which produce 
liquid evacuations. 

3. Hydr-amnios. A morbid accumula- 
tion of the liquor amnii. 

4. Hydr-argyria {hydrargyrum, mer- 
cury). The Eczema rubrum ; termed 
also erythema mercuriale; a species of 
heat eruption, arising from the irritation 
of mercury. 

5. Hydr-argyrum {vdpdpfvpov of the 
Greeks, from lidcop, water, ap-yupor, silver ; 
so called from its fluidity and colour). 
Formerly, Argentum vivum. Mercury, 
or quicksilver. See Mercury. 

6. Hydr-ates. Chemical compounds of 
solid bodies and water, still retaining the 
solid form, as sulphur, soap, &c. These 
are also termed hydroxures, and hydro- 
oxides. When there is more than one 
atom of water, prefixes are employed, as 
bin-aqueous, ter-hydrate, &c. 

7. Hydr-elcEum (eXatov, oil). A mix- 
ture of oil and water. 

8. Hydr-encephalo-cele (g-yxe^aXov, the 
brain, /cijXrj, a tumor). Watery rupture 
of the brain. 

9. Hydr-encephalo'id (I^Ke^aXor, the 
brain, eiho<;, likeness). Affections which 
resemble hydrencephalus ; they arise from 
intestinal disorder, and exhaustion. 

10. Hydr-enterocele {evrepa, the bowels, 
KTi\r\, a tumor). Hydrocele, or dropsy of 
the scrotum, complicated with intestinal 
hernia. 

11. Hydr-iodie acid. An acid consist- 
ing of hydrogen and iodine vapour. 

12. Hydro-a. A watery pustule. 

13. Hydro-benzamide. A colourless 
substance obtained by placing hydrate of 
benzoile in a solution of ammonia. 

14. Hydro-cardia (Kapdia, the heart). 

151 



Hydro-pericardia; dropsy of the peri- 
cardium. 

15. Hydro-cele (k^\»j, a tumor). Ori- 
ginally, any tumor containing water. 
The term is now applied, — 1. to a collec- 
tion of water in the tunica vaginalis, with 
a communication between the cavity of 
this membrane and that of the perito- 
naeum, and termed congenital hydrocele; 

2. to anasarcous tumor of the scrotum, 
termed oedematous hydrocele, or the 
hydrocele by infiltration of the French ; 

3. to hydrocele of the spermatic cord, 
which is diffused, involving the surround- 
ing cellular substai;ce, or encysted, the 
cellular substance being unaffected ; and 

4. to spina bifida, and termed hydrocele 
spinalis. 

16. Hydro-cephalus (ice^aXJ;, the head). 
More properly, hydrencephalus, from €7- 
Ke^aXov, brain. Dropsy of the brain ; 
water in the head. It is external, when 
it occur.s between the membranes ; inter- 
nal, when within the ventricles. 

17. Hydro- chloric acid. An acid con- 
sisting of hydrogen and chlorine, and 
long known under the names of spirit of 
salt, marine acid, and muriatic acid. 
Some modem chemists term it chlorydric 
acid. 

18. Hydro-chloric ether. An ether 
which has received the various names of 
chlorydric, marine, and muriatic ether, 
and, hypothetically, chloride of ethule. 

19. Hydro-cyanic acid. An acid con- 
sisting of hydrogen and cyanogen, and 
commonly called prussic acid. The hy- 
drocyanic acid of Scheele contains five 
per cent., by weight, of real acid ; that of 
the pharmacopoeia contains about two- 
fifths of the above weight. 

20. Hydro-cystis {nixniv, a bladder). 
An encysted dropsy. 

21. Hydro-dynamics (6vvaiJ.it, power). 
The mechanics of fluids ; or that branch 
of natural philosophy which investigates 
the phenomena of equilibrium and mo- 
tion among fluid bodies, especially such 
as are heavy and liquid. 

22. Hydro-gen {fevvdia, to produce). 
A gas formerly termed inflammable air, 
phlogiston, or phlogisticated air ; its pre- 
sent name refers to its forming water, 
when oxidated. 

23. Hydrolica. A term applied by the 
French to solutions of the active princi- 
ples of medicinal agents. Those obtained 
by distillation are called hydrolats. 

24. Hydro-mancy [fiaxneia, prophecy). 
An ancient superstition respecting the 
divining nature of certain springs and 

H4 



H YD 



H Y G 



fountains ; hence, perhaps, arose the 
discovery of the medicinal virtues of 
mineral waters. 

25. Hydro-mel {fxe\i, honey). Honey 
dQuted with water ; also called mulsum, 
melicratum, and aqua mulsa. When 
fermented, it becomes mead. Metheglin 
wine is called hydromel vinosum. 

26. Hydro-meter (/lerpoi/, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the gravity 
of iluids, particularly that of the urine. 
When floating in this liquid, it rises in 
proportion as the density of the liquid 
increases; it is graduated from 1*000 to 
1 '060, 80 as to exhibit at once the specific 
gravity. 

27. Hydro-me'tra [ixijrpa, the uterus). 
Hydrops uteri. Dropsy of the uterus. 

28. Hydr-omphalon {bfx<pa\6f, umbili- 
cus). A tumor of the umbilicus con- 
taining water. 

29. Hydro-pathy {irdOov, affection). 
The Water-cure ; a mode of treating dis- 
eases by the internal and external use of 
cold water, &c. The terra hydrotherapeia 
would be preferable. 

30. Hydro-pedesis (Trnido), to spring 
forth). A violent breaking out of per- 
spiration. 

31. Hydro-pericardium. Hydrops peri- 
cardii. Dropsy of the pericardium. 

32. Hydro-phane (<palvo>, to appear). 
A variety of opal, which becomes trans- 
parent when immersed in pure water. 
It is also called oculus mundi. 

33. Hydro-phobia {<p6/Soi, fear). A 
dread of water ; an affection consisting of 
spasmodic contractions of the larjmx, and 
a difficulty of drinking. It has been 
termed rabies canina, rabies, and rage: 
by the French, la rage; hygro-phobia 
{vypdi, moist), from the patient being 
unable to swallow any kind of moisture ; 
phobodipsia (^6/3o9, fear, and di^a, 
thirst), because the patient is thirsty, yet 
fears to drink; pheug-ydros {(pevyw, to 
avoid, ii6o}p, water), from the disposition 
to shun water ; brachyposia, Hipp. (/3pa- 
xir, short, ttoo-jc, the act of drinking), 
either from the act of drinking little, or 
frequently, at short intervals ; canis ra- 
bidi morsus by Avicenna, &c. ; dys-cata- 
posia {5vt, with difficulty, KaraTroo-ir, 
swallowing), by Mead ; and recently, en- 
tasia lyssa (Xi/cro-a, canine madness), by 
Dr. Good. The old writers used the 
terms aero-phobia, or a dread of air ; and 
panto-phobia, or a fear of all things, as 
expressive of some of the symptoms. 

34. Hydr-ophthalmia {bcpOaXixo^, the 
eye). Dropsy of the eye. This affection 

152 



is also called hydrophthalmus ; hydrops 
oculi ; buphthalmus, or ox-eye, denoting 
the enlargement of the organ. 

35. Hydro-physocele {(pvcrdui, to inflate, 
KiyXtj, a tumor). Hernia, complicated 
with hydrocele ; hernia, containing water 
and gas. 

36. Hydro-pica {vSptoyI/, the dropsy). 
Medicines which relieve or cure dropsy. 

37. Hydro-pleuritis. Pleuritis, acute 
or chronic, attended with effusion. 

38. Hydro-pneumo-sarca {nvevna, air, 
<T(\p^, flesh). A tumor containing air, 
water, and a flesh-like substance. 

39. Hydro-pneumo-thorax. The com- 
plication of pneumothorax with liquid 
effusion. 

40. Hydrop-o'ides {eidov, likeness). A 
term formerly applied to watery excre- 
ments. 

41. Hydro-pyretas {nvpeTot, fever). 
Sudor Anglicus. Sweating fever, or 
sickness. 

42 Hydro-rachitis (pax'f> t^e spine). 
Dropsy of the spine. It is congenital, 
and is then termed spina bifida ; or it is 
analogous to hydrencephalus. 

43. Hydro-saccharum (saccharum, su- 
gar). A drink made of sugar and water. 

44. Hydro-sarca {(rdp^, flesh). Ana- 
sarca. Dropsy of the cellular membrane. 

45. Hydro-sarco-cele (a c'lp^, flesh, k»;X»), 
a tumor). Sarcocele, attended with dropsy 
of the tunica vaginalis. 

46. Hydro-thorax (0<opa^, the chest). 
Hydrops pectoris. Dropsy of the chest ; 
water on the chest. 

47. Hydro-sill phurets. Compounds of 
sulphuretted hydrogen with the salifiable 
bases. See Kermes mineral. 

48. Hydro-thionic {Oeiov, sulphur). A 
name given by some of the German 
chemists to sulphuretted hydrogen, or 
the hydro-sulphuric acid of M. Gay 
Lussac. 

49. Hydr-urets. Compounds of hydro- 
gen with metals. 

HYDROPS {vbp<i>y\,, from {;3a)p, water, 
and w\/', the aspect or appearance). 
Dropsy ; a morbid accumulation of water 
in a cavity, or the cellular substance. 

HYGIENE [vyialvw, to be well). 
Health ; the preservation of health ; that 
part of medicine which regards the pre- 
servation of health. 

Hiigienic agents. Under this term are 
included six things essential to health ; 
viz., air, aliment, exercise, excretions, 
sleep, and affections of the mind. The 
ancients applied to them the absurd 
name of non-naturals. 



HYP 



HYP 



HYGRO- (y7po?, moist). This prefix 
denotes the presence of moisture. 

1. Hygroma. A humoral tumor. This 
term is applied to dropsy of the bursae 
mucosae, when the fluid is serous, colour- 
less, and limpid ; when it is of a reddish 
colour, thick, and viscous, the affection 
is called ganglion. The term also denotes 
hygromatous tumor of the brain, or cysts 
containing a serous or albuminous fluid. 

2. Hygro-meter {/jieTpov, a measure). 
An instrument for ascertaining the de- 
gree of moisture of the atmosphere. 
Whatever swells by moisture and shrinks 
by dryness, may be employed for this 
purpose. 

3. Hygro-metric water. That portion 
of humidity which gases yield to deli- 
quescent salts. 

HYMEN {\)iJit]v, a membrane). A 
crescentiform fold of the membrane situ- 
ated at the entrance of the virgin vagina. 
The remains of the hymen, when rup- 
tured, are termed carunculce myrtifor- 
mes. 

HYxMENiEA COURBARIL {Hyme- 
ncea, corrupted from anime, or animaa ?). 
The systematic name of the tree which 
affords the resin anime, frequently used 
as a substitute for gum guaiacum. 

HYMENOP'TERA {vfxriv, membrane, 
iTTepov, a wing). Insects which have 
membranous wings, as the wasp. 

HYO- (the Greek letter v). Names 
compounded with this word belong to 
muscles attached to the os hyoides : e. g. 
the h'jo-glossus, attached to the os hy- 
oides, and to the tongue ; the hyo-pha- 
ryngeus, a synonym of the constrictor 
medius ; the hyo-thyro'ideus, &c. 

HYOI'DES (the Greek letter v, and 
eldos, likeness). A bone situated between 
the root of the tongue and the larynx. 

HYOSCY'AMUS NIGER (5r, 66?, a 
hog, (ci'/aMor, a bean; so named because 
hogs eat it, or because it is hairy, like 
swine). Faba suilla. Henbane ; an in- 
digenous plant of the order Solanacece, 
and a powerful narcotic. 

Hyoscyamia. A vegetable alkali pro- 
cured from the seeds and herbage of 
the Hyoscyamus niger. 

HYPER {virep, over or above). This 
prefix is a Greek preposition, denoting 
excess. In chemistry, it is applied to 
acids which contain more oxygen than 
those to which the word per is prefixed. 

1. Hyper-acusis {aKova, to hear). Hy- 

percoiisis. The name given by M. Itard 

to a morbidly acute sense of hearing. In 

a case given by Dr. Good, this affection 

153 



singularly sympathised with the sense of 
sight: the patient said, "A loud sound 
affects my eyes, and a strong light my 
ears." 

2. Hyper-cesthesis {a'i(T0n<rti, the faculty 
of sensation). Excessive sensibility. 

3. Hyper-catharsis {KaOalpa), to purge). 
Super-purgation ; excessive purgation. 

4. Hyper-chloric acid. An acid con- 
taining a greater proportion of oxygen 
than the chloric acid. 

5. Hyper-crisis {Kpivas, to decide). A 
crisis of unusual severity. 

6. Hyper-htEmia (.cu^xa, blood). An 
excessive fulness of blood. 

7. Hyper-hidrosis (tdpwr, sweat). A 
term applied by Swediaur to morbidly- 
profuse perspiration. It is also called 
ephidrosis. 

8. Hyper- ostosis {oa-reov, a bone). En- 
largement of a bone, or of its membra- 
nous covering. 

9. Hyper-oxymurialic acid. The former 
name of chloric acid. Its compounds are 
hyper-oxymuriates, or neutral salts, now 
called chlorates. See Chlorine. 

10. Hyper-trophy {rpocpi], nutrition). 
An excess of nutrition, as applied to 
tissues and organs ; it is indicated by in- 
crease of size, and sometimes of the con- 
sistence, of the organic texture. Hyper- 
trophy of the white substance of the liver 
is described by Baillie as the common 
tubercle of the liver, and is known in this 
country by the name of the drunkard's 
liver. The accidental erectile tissue is, 
in some cases, composed of capillary ves- 
sels in a state of hypertrophy. 

HYPNOBATES (Cttvoj, sleep, ^aivu>, 
to walk). A sleep-walker ; one who walks 
in his sleep. See Somnambulism. 

HYPNOTICS {iinvoi, sleep). Medi- 
cines which cause sleep. They are also 
termed narcotics, anodynes, and sopo- 
rifics. 

HYPO- {vTTo). A Greek preposition 
signifying under, or deficiency. In che- 
mistry, it denotes a smaller quantity of 
acid than is found in the compounds to 
which it is prefixed, as in hypo-sulphuric 
acid, &c. 

1. Hyp-cemia (alyua, blood). Deficiency 
of blood ; a term synonymous with ance- 
mia, and denoting a disease analogous to 
etiolation in plants. 

2. Hypo-chlorous acid. A bleaching 
compound of chlorine and oxygen. 

3. Hypo-chondriasis. Hyp ; vapours ; 
low spirits ; blue devils ; dyspepsia, with 
a sense of uneasiness in the hypochon- 
dria, &c., and great lowness of spirits. 

H5 



J AL 



JAL 



It has been designated, by Dr. Cheyne, 
the English malady ; and has been also 
termed "morbus literatorum." 

4. Hypo-chondrium (xovi^pov, cartilage). 
The hypochondriac, or upper lateral re- 
gion of the abdomen, under the cartilages 
of the false ribs. 

5. Hypo-chyma (x''«>>, to pour out). 
Hypochysis ; apochysis. These are terms 
applied by the Greeks to cataract, which 
seems to have been first introduced by 
the Arabian writers; though the more 
common name among them was gutta 
obscura. It is the suffusio of the Latins. 

e. Hypo-gastrium {yaa-rr]p, the belly). 
The lower anterior region of the abdo- 
men, or super-pubic. 

7. Hypo-glossal {y\wa<ra, the tongue). 
The name of the lingualis, or ninth pair 
of nerves, situated beneath the tongue. 

8. Hypo-gala {ydXa, milk),>i Effusion 
Hypo-hcsma (ai/xa, blood), I ofamilky, 
Hypo-lympha (lymph), j sanguine- 
Hypo-pyum {nvov, pus), J ous, lym- 

phy, or purulent, fluid into the chamber 
of the aqueous humor of the eye. — Em- 
pyesis oculi {ev, in, ■nvov, pus), denotes 
an effusion of pus behind, as well as in 
front of, the iris. 

9. Hypo-gynous {ywi], a woman). That 
condition of the stamens of a plant in 
which they contract no adhesion to the 
sides of the calyx, as in ranunculus. 

10. Hypo-nitrous acid. The name 
given by Turner to nitrous acid, or the 
azotous of Thenard; while hypo-nitric 
acid is another name for the nitrous 
acid of Turner, or the peroxide of nitro- 
gen. 

11 . Hypo-physis cerebri. The pituitary 
gland or body, in which the infimdibu- 
lum ends. 

12. Hypo-picrotoxic acid. An acid 
found in the seed-coat of the cocculus 
indicus. 



13. Hypospadias {a-irdw, to draw). 
That malformation of the penis, when 
the urethra opens in the under surface. 
See Epispadias. 

14. Hypo-sarca (aapf, o-apKor, flesh). 
A term used by Celsus, &c., for anasarca; 
the aqua subter cutem of Caelius Aure- 
lianus. 

15. Hypo-stasis (arrdui, to Stand). A 
sediment, as that of the urine. 

16. Hypo-thenar {Oevap, the palm of 
the hand). One of the muscles contract- 
ing the thumb. 

17. Hypo-thesis {biroTiBrjui, to put un- 
der). A system, or doctrine, founded on 
a theory. Induction, on the contrary, is 
the collecting together numerous facts, 
and drawing conclusions from a general 
examination of the whole. 

HYS'TERA (IffTepa). The Greek 
term for the uterus, matrix, or womb. 
This term is the feminine of vo-Tepor, 
inferior, the womb being the lowest of 
the viscera. 

1. Hyster-algia (aXyo^, pain). Dolor 
uteri. Pain situated in the uterus. 

2. Hysteria. Hysterics, vapours, hys- 
teric fit, fits of the mother; a nervous 
aflfection, chiefly seen in females. See 
Clavus hystericus, Globus hystericus, &e. 

3. Hyster-itis. Inflammation of the 
uterus. 

4. Hystero-cele {k{]M, a tumor). Her- 
nia of the uterus. 

.5. Hystero-ptosis {itrStai^, prolapsus). 
A prolapsus, or falling down, of the 
uterus. 

6. Hystero-tomia {ro/jirj, a section). 
The Caesarian section, or incision into 
the abdomen and uterus, to extract the 
foetus. 

HYSTRIACIS (Jio-Tptf, a porcupine). 
Porcupine hair ; bristly hair ; an aflection 
in which the hair is thick, rigid, and 
bristly. 



JACOB'S MEMBRANE. The thin 
external membrane of the retina, con- 
sidered by Dr. Jacob as a serous mem- 
brane. 

JACOBSON'S NERVE. Another 
name for the tympanic branch, described 
by Jacobson. 

JALAP. The dried tubers of the 
154 



IpomcBa Purga, a plant of the order Con- 
volvulacece, so named from Jalapa, a 
place in Mexico. The Ipomaea Oriza- 
bensis probably yields a portion of the 
imported drug. 

Jala pin. A substance constituting 
nearly nine-tenths of jalap resin. The 
remaining portion is jalapic acid. 



J AU 



ICH 



JAMAICA KINO. An extract pre- 
pared from the bark of the Coccoloba uvi- 
fera, or sea-side grape, of the West Indies. 
JAMAICA PEPPER. Allspice, or 
Pimento ; the fruit of the Eugenia Pi- 
menta, which grows in Jamaica. 

JAMAICINA. A crystalline substance 
found in Cabbage bark, the produce of 
the Andira inermis of the West Indies. 

JAMES'S POWDER. Pulvis Jacobi 
verus. A celebrated fever powder, sup- 
posed to be the same as theAntimonii 
oxidum cum phosphate calcis, or anti- 
monial powder. 

JAPAN EARTH. The Catechu ex- 
tractum, procured from the Acacia cate- 
chu, or Khair tree. It is also called terra 
japonica, from its being supposed to be 
a mineral production; dark catechu, as 
distinguished from the pale kind ; Bengal 
cutch, in distinction from that of Bom- 
bay ; Gummi Lycium ? &c. 

JAPAN SAGO. A feculent matter 
obtained from the soft centre of the 
Cycas revoluta, and other species. 

JAPONIC ACID. An acid produced 
when catechin with alkalies or alkaline 
carbonates absorbs oxygen from the 
air. 

JASPER. A species of rhombohedral 
quartz, found in the composition of many 
mountains ; its varieties are distinguished 
by the terms Egyptian, striped, porcelain, 
and common. 

lATRALIPTA (laTpor, a physician, 
uXei^w, to anoint). Medicus unguenta- 
rius. A physician who cures by oint- 
ments and frictions.— Census. 

latraliptic Metfiod. The application of 
medicines to the skin, aided by friction. 
It has been termed the epidermic method, 
espnoic medicine, &c. 

lATREUSOLOGIA Oarpeva, to cure, 
Xo'^o^, a description). A term applied 
by Sprengel to general Therapeutics. 

JATROPHA MANIHOT. Janipha 
Manihot. The Cassava or Tapioca Plant, 
from the tuberous root of which is pre- 
pared a fecula called tapioca. The pulp, 
when dried and baked into cakes, con- 
stitutes cassava or cassada bread. 

Jatropha curcas. The species which 
yields the nux barbadensis of some 
writers, and the physic nuts of the shops. 
JATROPHIC ACID. Crotonic acid. 
An acid procured by converting croton 
oil into soap. 

JAUNDICE. A disease proceeding 
from obstruction in the liver, and charac- 
terized by a yellow colour of the skin, &c. 
The term is most probably a corruption 
155 



of the French word jaunisse, yellowness, 
from jaune, yellow. See Icterus. 

ICE. Glacies. Congealed water. The 
temperature at which it is solidified is 
called the freezing or congealing point, or 
32° of Fahrenheit. During liquefaction, 
its temperature is not changed; and, 
hence, the caloric which it has absorbed 
is said to have become latent, and is 
sometimes called, from its effect, the 
caloric of fluidity. 

ICE CAP. A bladder containing 
pounded ice, applied to the head in in- 
flammation of the brain. 

ICELAND MOSS. Cetraria islandica. 
A lichen, growing on the ground in ex- 
posed situations in northern countries, 
and affording a light nutritious aliment. 

ICELAND SPAR. One of the purest 
varieties of calcareous spar, or crystal- 
lized carbonate of lime. It is not, how- 
ever, peculiar to Iceland. 

ICHOR (Ix^P) sanies, corrupted blood). 
A thin acrid discharge, issuing from 
wounds, ulcers, &c. 

ICHTHYOCOLLA {\xei>^, IxOva; a 
fish, KoWa, glue). Isinglass; fish-glue; 
a substance prepared from the air-bladder 
or sound of different species of Acipenser, 
and other genera of fishes. Sometimes 
the air-bladder is dried unopened, as in 
the case of purse, pipe, and lump isinglass 
of the shops. At other times it is laid 
open, and submitted to some preparation; 
being either dried unfolded, as in the 
leaf and honeycomb isinglass ; or folded, 
as in the staple and book isinglass; or 
rolled out, as in ribbon isinglass. When 
it arrives in this country, it is picked or 
cut. — Pereira. 

ICHTHYOLOGY {\x6v,, 1x6^09, a fish, 
\6yoi, a description). That branch of 
Zoology which treats of fishes. This 
class of animals is distinguished, by 
Cuvier, into the Osseous, and the Carti- 
laginous, or chondro-pterygii. 
I. Osseous Fishes. 

1. Acantho-pterygii (a.Kav$a, a spine, 
Trrepyf, a fin). Spinous- rayed fishes, as 
the perch. 

2. MalacO'pterygii abdominales {fxaXa- 
Kof, soft, TTxepuf , a fin). Soft-rayed abdo- 
minal fishes, as the pike. 

3. Malaco-pterygii sub-brachiati. Soft- 
rayed pectoral fishes, as the cod. 

4. Malaco-pterygii apodes (a, priv., 
TTouy, 7ro5o9, a foot). Soft-rayed fishes, 
without abdominal fins, as the eel. 

5. Lopho-branchii {\6<pos, a tuft, ftpdy- 
Xta, gills). Tuft-gilled fishes, as the hip- 
pocampus. 

H 6 



JE J 



IGN 



6. Plecto-gnnthi (irXeiCTov, twisted, -yvd- 
6of, a jaw). Fishes with fixed jaws, as 
the sun-fish. 

II. Cartilaginous Fishes. 

7. Sturiones {sturio, a sturgeon). The 
sturgeon tribe. 

8. Setachii {aeXdxtov, a cartilaginous 
fish). The shark tribe. 

9. Cyclo-stomi (ki/kXos-, a circle, a-roisa, 
a mouth). Fishes with circular mouths, 
as the lamprey. 

ICHTHYO'SIS {'ixOia, dried fish-skin). 
Fish-skin disease ; a papillary, indurated, 
homy condition of the skin. It is dis- 
tinguished into the simple and the horny. 

Ichthyiasis. A synonym for the above 
disease, adopted by Good. The termina- 
tion -iasis is more accordant with the 
analogy followed in the formation of 
similar names. — Forbes. 

ICOSANDRIA (eiKoat, twenty, ii/i/p, 
a man). The twelfth class in Linnaeus's 
system, comprising plants which have 
twenty or more stamens inserted into the 
calyx. 

ICTERUS. The Jaundice ; also called 
morbus regius, morbus arcuatus, aurigo, 
&'c. According to Pliny, the term is de- 
rived from the name of a bird, called by 
the Greeks tKrepor, by the Romans gal- 
bulus ; the looking upon this bird by the 
jaundiced person was said to cure the 
patient, though it killed the bird. 

1. Icterita. Infantile jaundice. 

2. Icter-odes (ei3o9, likeness). A state 
of complexion resembling that of jaundice. 

ICTUS SOLIS. Coup de soleil. Sun- 
stroke ; an effect produced by the rays of 
the sun upon a part of the body, as ery- 
sipelas, or inflammation of the brain or 
of its membranes. 

IDIOPATHIC ((3tof, peculiar, iratfo?, 
affection). Primary disease ; as opposed 
to symptomatic. 

IDIOSYNCRASY (73io9, peculiar, av-j- 
Kpaffit, composition). Individual pecu- 
liarities, hereditary or induced. Thus, 
there are persons in whom opium does 
not induce sleep ; others, in whom milk 
seems to act as a poison ; some, who are 
purged by astringents ; others, in whom 
purgatives appear to produce an astrin- 
gent effect. 

IDIOT (iSiwrn^, an ignorant person, 
who does not practise an art or profes- 
sion). A person deprived of sense. 

IDRIALINE. A substance obtained 
from a mineral from the quicksilver 
mines at Idria in Carniola. It consists of 
carbon and hydrogen. 

JEJUNUM {jejunut, hungry). The 
156 



upper two-fifths of the small intestines, 
so named from this portion being gene- 
rally found empty. 

JELLY. A soft tremulous substance, 
—the solution of gelatin, when cold. 

1. Animal jelly, or gelatine, is extracted 
by boiling from the skin,- membranes, 
ligaments, cartilages, and bones of ani- 
mals. See Gelatine. 

2. Vegetable jelly is procured from the 
recently expressed juices of certain fruits, 
as the currant ; and consists of mucilage, 
or some modification of gum and veget- 
able acid. 

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. The 
Helianthus tuberosus, a species of sun- 
flower, the root of which resembles the 
artichoke in taste. The term Jerusalem, 
as applied to artichoke, is a curious cor- 
ruption of the Italian term gira-sole, that 
is, turn-sun in English, and heliotrope in 
Greek. 

JERVIN. A new base discovered by 
M. Simon, in the rhizome of Veratrum 
Album, and so named from jerva, the 
Spanish name for a poison obtained from 
this rhizome. 

JESUITS' BARK, or POWDER. A 
term formerly applied promiscuously to 
the three kinds of bark, or Peruvian bark. 
See Cinchona. 

JET, or PITCH COAL. A black vel- 
vet-coloured bitumen, used for fuel, and 
for making vessels, &c. In Prussia it 
is called black amber, and is cut into 
rosaries and necklaces. Ure says the 
word jet is derived from the river Gaga 
in Lesser Asia. 

JEWELLER'S PUTTY. Ignited and 
finely-levigated oxide of tin, used by 
jewellers for polishing hard objects. 

IGASURIC ACID. The name given 
by Pelletier and Caventou to a peculiar 
acid, which occurs in combination with 
strychnia in nux vomica, and the St. Ig- 
natius's bean ; but its existence, as dif- 
ferent from all other known acids, is 
doubtful. It is so called from the Malay 
name by which the natives in India de- 
signate the /a6a Sancti Ignatii. 

IGNIS FATUUS. A luminous ap- 
pearance or flame, frequently seen in the 
night in the country, and called Jack 
o' lantern, or Will with the wisp. It is 
probably occasioned by the extrication 
of phosphorus from rotting leaves and 
other vegetable matters. 

IGNIS SACER (sacred fire). Ignis 
Sancti Antonii, or St. Anthony's fire ; 
erysipelas, or the rose; or the febris ery- 
sipelatosa of Sydenham. 



ILI 



IMP 



IGNIS VOLATICUS. Literally, fly- 
ing fire ; a term for erysipelas. 

IGNITION (ignis, fire). An effect of 
caloric, implying an emission of light 
from bodies which are much heated, 
without their suffering any change of 
composition. Bodies begin to become 
ignited, or red-hot, at about the SOOtli 
degree of Fahrenheit ; the highest point 
of ignition is a perfectly white light. 

IGREUSINE. That portion of vola- 
tile oils which is odoriferous, and is 
coloured by treating it with nitric acid ; 
it is called elaiodon by Herberger. 

I'LEUM (elXew, to turn about). The 
lower three-fifths of the small ijitestine, 
80 called from their convolutions, or 
peristaltic motions ; they extend as far 
as the hypogastric and iliac regions. 

I'LEUS (ei\ea), volvo, to turn about ; 
— hence volvulus). Costiveness, with 
twisting about the umbilical region. It 
is also called the Iliac Passion ; Chord- 
apsus {xopdrj, a chord, awra), to bind); 
Miserere, an invocation for pity, &c. 

ILEX. The Latin name for the holm 
oak ; now the generic name for holly. 

ILIAC PASSION. Another name for 
ileus ; and also for colic. 

ILIACUM OS. Oscoxarum. Another 
name for the os innominatum, derived 
from the circumstance that this com- 
pound bone supports the parts which 
the ancients called ilia, or the flanks. 

1. Ilium OS. The uppermost portion 
of the OS iliacum, probably so named 
because it seems to support the intestine 
called the ileum. This bone is also termed 
pars iliaca ossis innominati. 

2. Iliac fossa. A broad and shallow 
cavity at the upper part of the abdominal 
or inner surface of the os iliacum. An- 
other fossa, alternately concave and con- 
vex, on the femoral or external surface, 
is called the external iliac fossa. 

3. Iliac region. The region situated 
on each side of the hypogastrium, 

4. Iliac arteries. These are termed 
common, where they are formed by the 
bifurcation of the aorta. They afterwards 
divide into the external iliac, and the 
infernal or hypogastric arteries. 

5. Iliac mesocolon. A fold of the peri- 
toneum, which embraces the sigmoid 
flexure of the colon. 

6. Iliacus internus. A muscle situated 
in the cavity of the ilium. 

7. Ilio-. Terms compounded with this 
word denote parts connected with the 
ilium, as ilio-lumbar, ilio-tacral, &c. 

157 



ILLUSION (illudo, to sport at). De- 
ception, as of the sight, imagination, &c. 

ILLUTATIO [iti, upon, lutum, mud). 
Mud-bathing ; immersion in the slime of 
rivers, or in saline mud. Hot dung is 
used in France and in Poland. 

IMBECILITY {imbeciUus, weak). 
Weakness of mind or intellect. 

IMBIBITION {imbibo, to drink in). 
The terms imbibition, and exudation or 
transpiration, used in physiology, are 
analogous to those of aspiration and ex- 
piration, and have been lately translated, 
by Dutrochet, by the two Greek words 
endosmosis and exosinosis. 

IMBRICATED [imbrex, imbricis, a 
roof-tile). A term applied to the bractese 
of plants, when they overlap each other, 
like tiles upon the roof of a house,— a 
distinguishing character of the Gluma- 
cecB, 

IMMERSION (immergo, to dip in). 
The act of plunging anything into water 
or any other fluid. 

IMPENETRABILITY [in, not, pe»e- 
tro, to penetrate). That property by 
which a body occupies any space, to the 
exclusion of every other body. In a po- 
pular sense, all matter is penetrable; but, 
philosophically speaking, it is impene- 
trable, what is called penetration being 
merely the admission of one substance 
into the pores of another. 

IMPERFORATE (in, not, perforatus, 
bored through). A term applied to any 
part congenitally closed, as the anus, the 
hymen, &c. 

IMPERIAL. Ptisana imperialis. A 
cooling beverage, prepared by mixing 
half an ounce, each, of cream of tartar 
and fresh lemon peel, bruised, with four 
ounces of white sugar, and three pints of 
boiling water. 

IMPETIGINES. Cutaneous diseases ; 
depraved habit, with affections of the 
skin r the third order of the class Ca- 
chexies of CuUen. See Impetigo. 

IMPETI'GO (impeto, to infest). Hu- 
mid or running tetter, or scall ; yellow, 
itching, clustered pustules, terminating 
in a yellow, thin, scaly crust. Brick- 
layers' itch and Grocers' itch are local 
tetters, produced by the acrid stimulus of 
lime and of sugar. 

IMPLANTATIO (implanto, to fen- 
graft). A term applied to a mostrosity, 
in which two bodies are united, but only 
one is perfectly developed, while the 
other remains in a rudimentary state. 

1. Implantatio externa. This is of two 
kinds: — 1. implantatio externa evqualis, 



INC 



INC 



in which the parts of the imperfect em- 
bryo are connected with corresponding 
parts of the perfect one ; as when the 
posterior parts of the body of a dimi- 
nutive foetus hang to the front of the 
thorax of a fully-formed child, or where 
a third foot, parasitic hand, or super- 
numerary jaw is present : and, 2. implan- 
tatio externa tjiccqualis, in which the 
perfect and imperfect fcEtus are connected 
by dissimilar points. 

2. Implantatio interna. In this case 
one foetus contains within it a second. — 
Miiller. 

IMPLICA'TED. A term applied by 
Celsus and others to those parts of phy- 
sic which have a necessary dependence 
on one another ; but the term has been 
more significantly applied, by Bellini, to 
fevers, where two at a time aiflict a per- 
son, either of the same kind, as a double 
tertian ; or, of different kinds, as an in- 
termittent tertian, and a quotidian, called 
a semitertian. 

IMPLUVIUM {in, and pluo, to rain). 
A shower-bath ; an embrocation. 

IMPONDERABLES {in, priv., pon- 
dus, weight). Agents which are destitute 
of weight, as heat, light, and electricity. 

IMPOTENCE {impotens, unable). In- 
capability of sexual intercourse, from 
organic, functional, or moral cause. 

IMPREGNATION. The act of gene- 
ration on the part of the male. The cor- 
responding act in the female is concep- 
tion. 

INANITION {inanio, to empty). Emp- 
tiness, from want of food, exhaustion, &c. 

INCANDESCENCE {incandesce, to 
become white-hot). The glowing or 
shining appearance of heated bodies ; 
properly, the acquisition of a white heat. 

INCANTATION {incanto, to enchant). 
A charm or spell ; a mode anciently em- 
ployed of curing diseases by poetry and 
music. See Carminatives. 

INCARCERATION {in, and career, 
a prison). A term applied to cases of 
hernia, in the same sense as strangu- 
lation. Scarpa, however, restricts the 
former term to interruption of the faecal 
matter, without injury of the texture, or 
of the vitality of the bowel. 

INCARNATION {in, and caro, carnis, 
flesh). A term synonymous with granu- 
lation, or the process which takes place 
in the healing of ulcers. 

INCIDENTIA {incido, to cut). A 

name formerly given to medicines which 

consist of pointed and sharp particles, as 

acids, and most salts, which are said to 

158 



incide or cut the* phlegm, when they 
break it so as to occasion its discharge. 

INCINERATION {incinero, to reduce 
to ashes, from cinis, a cinder). The re- 
ducing to ashes by burning. The com- 
bustion of vegetable or animal substances 
for the purpose of obtaining their ashes 
or fixed residue. 

INCISION {incido, to cut). The act 
of cutting, \vith the bistoury, scissors, &c. 

INCISI'VUS {incisor, a cutting-tooth). 
A name sometimes given to the levator 
labii superioris proprius, from its arising 
just above the incisores. 

1. Incisivus medius. The name given 
by Winslow to the depressor labii supe- 
rioris alceque nasi, from its rising from 
the gum or socket of the fore-teeth. 
Albinus termed it depressor alec nasi. 

2. Incisivus inferior. A name given 
to the levator menti, from its arising at 
the root of the incisores. 

INCISO'RES {incido, to cut). The 
fore or cutting teeth. See Dens. 

INCISORIUM {incido, to cut). A 
table whereon a patient is laid for an 
operation, by incision or otherwise. 

INCISURA {incido, to cut). A cut, 
gash, or notch; a term applied to two 
notches of the posterior edge or crest of 
the ilium. 

INCOMBUSTIBLE CLOTH. A cloth 
manufactured of the fibres of asbestos, 
supposed to have been anciently used 
for wrapping around dead bodies, when 
exposed on the funeral pile. 

INCOMPATIBLE SALTS. Salts 
w^hich cannot exist together in solution, 
without mutual decomposition. 

INCOMPRESSIBILITY. That pro- 
perty of a substance, whether solid or 
fluid, by which it resists being pressed 
or squeezed into a smaller bulk. The 
ultimate particles of all bodies are sup- 
posed to be incompressible. 

INCONTINENCE {in, not, contineo, 
to contain). Inability to retain the na- 
tural evacuations, as enuresis, or incon- 
tinence of urine, &c. 

INCUBATION {incubo, to sit upon). 
A term applied to the period during 
which the hen sits on her eggs. This 
term also denotes the period occupied 
between the application of the cause of 
inflammation, and the fuU establishment 
of that process. 

IN'CUBUS {incubo, to lie or sit upon). 
Succubus; ephialtes ; ludibria Fauni. 
Night-mare ; an oppressive sensation in 
the chest during sleep, accompanied 
with frightful dreams, &c. 



IND 



INF 



INCUS {an anvil). A small bone of 
the internal ear, with which the malleus 
is articulated ; so named from its fancied 
resemblance to an anvil. It consists of 
a body and two crura. 

INDEX (indico, to point out). The 
fore-finger ; the finger usually employed 
in pointing at any object. 

INDIAN INK. A preparation of 
lamp-black procured from oil lamps, beat 
into a mass with purified glue or isin- 
glass, and scented with musk or amber ; 
it is also called China ink, from its being 
originally brought from China. 

INDIAN RUBBER. Caoutchouc. The 
produce of the Hevea guianensis, and 
several other trees. 

INDIAN YELLOW. A paint of a 
bright yellow colour, imported from India. 

INDICATION (indico, to point out). 
Circumstances which point out, in a dis- 
ease, what remedy ought to be applied. 
When a remedy is forbidden, it is said to 
be contra-indicated. 

INDICATOR {indico, to point out). 
A muscle of the fore-arm, which points 
the index, or fore-finger. It is also called 
the extensor digiti primi. 

INDIGENOUS {indigena, a native). 
A term applied to diseases, animals, or 
plants, peculiar to a country. 

INDIGESTION {in, neg., digero, to 
distribute). Dyspepsia ; interrupted, dif- 
ficult, or painful digestion. 

INDIGNABUNDUS {indignor, to be 
indignant). Literally, angry, scornful ; a 
name given to the rectus internus, from 
the expression of anger or scorn, which 
the action of this muscle imparts. 

INDIGO. A blue pigment, obtained 
from the leaves of all the species of In- 
digofera, and various other plants. Ber- 
zelius separated from it gluten of indigo, 
indigo brown, and indigo red. 

1. White indigo, otherwise called re- 
duced indigo, is produced by the action 
of deoxidating bodies upon blue indigo. 
In this state, Liebig termed it indigogen. 

2. Indigotic or anilic acid is formed 
when indigo is dissolved in nitric acid 
considerably diluted. This is the nitran- 
ilic acid of Berzelius. 

INDOLES. The natural disposition, 
relating to the qualities of the mind. 

INDUCTION. That law by which an 
electrified body induces in contiguous 
substances an electric state opposite to 
its own. 

INDURATION {induro, to harden). 
An increase of the natural consistence 
of organs, the effect of chronic infiam- 
159 



mation; opposed to softening or ramol- 
lissement. 

INEBRIANTS {inehrio, to intoxicate). 
Agents which produce intoxication. 

INERTIA {iners, sluggish). Erro- 
neously called vis inertice. A term ap- 
plied to express the inactivity or opposing 
force of matter, with respect to rest or 
j motion. It is overcome by attraction or 
by external force. 

j 1. The Quantity of Matter of a body 
is determined by its quantity of inertia, 
and this latter is estimated by the quan- 
tity of force necessary to put it in motion 
at a given rate. 

2. The term Inertia is applied to the 
condition of the uterus, when it does not 
contract properly after parturition ; it is 
a cause of haemorrhage. 

INFANTICIDE {infans, an infant, 
cccdo, to kill). The destruction of the 
child, either newly born, or in the course 
of parturition. Compare Foeticide. 

INFARCTION {infarcio, to stuff or 
cram). StuflBng; constipation. 

INFECTION {inficio, to stain). The 
propagation of disease by elfluvia from 
patients crowded together. 

INFERO-BRANCHIA. Animals 
which have their gills {/Spdfxta) on their 
sides : Order 3, class Gasteropoda. 

INFIBULATIO {infibulo, to buckle 
in). An affection in which the prepuce 
cannot be retracted. 

INFILTRATION {infdtratio). The 
diffusion of fluids into the cellular tissue 
of organs. It may be serous, and is then 
termed oedema and anasarca; or san- 
guineous, and is then called haemorrhage 
and apoplexy ; or purulent, occurring 
in the third stage of pneumonia ; ox tu- 
berculous, either grey or gelatiniform. 

INFIRMARY. A place where the 
sick poor are received, or can get advice 
and medicines gratis. 

INFLAMMABLE AIR. Hydrogen 
gas ; formerly called phlogiston, or phlo- 
gisticated air. 

INFLAMMATION {inflammo, to bum). 
A state characterized, when situated 
externally, by pain, heat, redness, and 
turgidity. It is generally expressed in 
composition, in Greek words, by the ter- 
mination itis, as pleur-tYis, inflammation 
of the pleura ; ir-itis, inflammation of the 
iris, &c. Inflammation is distinguished 
as — 

1. Healthy, or adhesive; that which 
disposes the part to heal or cicatrize. 

2. Unhealthy; that which disposes to 
ulceration, erosion, sloughing, &c. 



INF 



IN J 



3. Common ; that induced by common 
causes, as incisions, punctures, &c. 

4. Specific ; that induced by inocu- 
lation, &c., as variola, &c. 

5. Acute, sub-acute, and chronic; with 
reference to its intensity and duration. 

6. Phlegmonous ; that which is circum- 
scribed, and disposed to suppuration. 

7. Erysipelatous ; that which is dif- 
fused, and less disposed to suppurate. 

8. Gangrenous; that which leads to 
mortification, or the death of a part. 

INFLAMMATORY CRUST. The 
bufFy coat which appears on the surface 
of the crassamentum of blood drawn in 
inflammation, in pregnancy, &c. 

INFLATIO (inflo, to blow into). The 
state of the stomach and bowels, when 
distended by flatus. • 

INFLORESCENCE (infloresco, to flou- 
rish). A term expressing generally the 
arrangement of flowers upon a branch or 
stem. 

INFLUENZA (Ital. influence, supposed 
of the stars ; more probably of a peculiar 
state of the atmosphere). Epidemic fe- 
brile catarrh. The French call it la grippe, 
under which name Sauvages first de- 
scribed the epidemic catarrhal fever of 
1743. It was formerly called coccoluche, 
"because the sick wore a cap close over 
their heads." 

INFRA- ORBITAR. Beneath the 
orbit ; as applied to a foramen, a nerve, 
&c. 

INFRA-SPINATUS. A muscle arising 
from the scapula below the spine, and 
inserted into the humerus. See Supra- 
spinatus. 

INFUNDIBULIFORM {infundibulum, 
a funnel, forma, likeness). Funnel- 
shaped ; a term applied by Winslow to 
a ligament joining the first vertebra to 
the occiput. 

INFUNDIBULUM (infundo, to pour 
in). A funnel ; a term applied to, — 

1. A little funnel-shaped process of 
grey matter, attached to the pituitary 
gland. Unlike a funnel, however, it is 
not hollow internally. 

2. A small cavity of the cochlea, at the 
termination of the modiolus. 

3. The three large cavities formed by 
the union of the calyces, and constituting, 
by their union, the pelvis of the kid- 
ney. 

INFUSA {infundo, to pour in). Infu- 
sions; aqueous solutions of vegetable 
substances obtained without the aid of 
ebullition. 

INFUSIBLE {in, not, fundo, to pour). 
160 



That which cannot be fused or reduced 
to the fluid state. 

INFUSION (infundo, to pour in). The 
operation of pouring water, hot or cold, 
on vegetable substances, for the purpose 
of extracting their soluble and aromatic 
principles. 

INFUSO'RIA {infundo, to pour in). 
Water animalcules ; microscopic animals 
found in infusions of animal or vegetable 
matter: Class V., Radiata. These are 
distinguished by Cuvier into, — 

1. Rotifera {rota, a wheel, fero, to 
carry). Wheel-bearers, as the wheel in- 
sect. 

2. Homogena {6/i6f, the same, yevoi, 
kind). Homogeneous animalcules, as 
the globe animalcule. 

INFU'SUM {infundo, to pour in). An 
infusion ; vulg6, a tea. A watery solu- 
tion, obtained by the maceration of a vege- 
table substance, in water, hot or cold. 

INGEST A {ingero, to heap in). A 
Latin term for designating the food, 
drink, &c. See Egesta. 

INGRASSIAS, PROCESS OF. A tri- 
angular eminence of the upper aspect of 
the sphenoid bone has been termed the 
orbital process or small wing of Ingras- 
sias. 

INGUEN, 'inis. The groin ; the part 
between the abdomen and the thigh. 

1. Inguinal glands, situated in the 
groin : the superficial, between the skin 
and aponeurosis ; the deep-seated, under 
the aponeurosis. 

2. Inguinal hernia. Bubonocele ; her- 
nia of the groin. It is termed oblique, 
when it takes the course of the spermatic 
canal ; direct, when it pushes directly 
through the external abdominal ring. 

3. Inguinal ligament. A ligament of 
the groin, commonly called Poupart's. 

INHALATIONS (inhale, to inhale). 
A general term, comprehending two 
classes of volatUized substances; viz., 
svffitus, or dry fumes, and halitus, or 
watery vapours. 

INHUMATION (inhumo, to inter). 
The act of interring. The placing a pa- 
tient in an earth-bath. 

INJECTION (injicio, to throw in). A 
composition with which the vessels of 
any part of the body are filled for ana- 
tomical purposes. For ordinary purposes, 
it may be made of four parts of tallow, 
one part of rosin, and one part of bees'- 
wax ; to which, when melted together, 
there is to be added some oil of turpen- 
tine, having a suflicient quantity of co- 
louring matter (vermilion for red, and 



INO 



INS 



king's yellow for yellow) suspended in it 
to colour the injection. But for a fine 
preparation, the following maybe used : — 

1. The fine injection. Composed of 
brown spirit-varnish and white spirit- 
varnish, of each four parts ; turpentine- 
varnish, one part ; and colouring matter, 
one part, or as much as is sufficient. A 
little of this while hot is first thrown into 
the arteries, into the minute branches of 
which it is to be forced by — 

2. The coarse injection. Composed of 
bees'-wax two parts, rosin one part, tur- 
pentine varnish one part, and colouring 
matter g. s. To the bees'-wax and rosin 
melted together, add the turpentine var- 
nish, and then the colouring matter sus- 
pended in some oil of turpentine. 

I'NION (\viov, the nape of the neck ; 
from V?, \v6i, a sinew). The ridge of the 
occiput. Hence, — 

I'nial. A term applied by Barclay to 
that aspect of the head which is towards 
the inion. The opposite aspect is called 
ant-inial. See Anatomy. 

INK. A liquor or pigment used for 
writing or printing. There are three 
kinds of black ink ; viz., 

1. Common ink, made by adding an 
infusion or decoction of the nut-gall to 
sulphate of iron, dissolved in water. Red 
ink is composed of Brazil wood, gum, 
and alum. See Sympathetic ink. 

2. Indian ink, made of lamp-black and 
size, or animal glue, &c., and used in 
China for writing with a brush, and 
painting. 

3. Printers' ink, a black paint, made of 
linseed or nut oil and lamp-black, adapt- 
ed to adhere to moistened paper. The 
red is coloured with vermilion. 

INNERVATION (in, and nervus, a 
nerve). The properties or functions of 
the nervous system. 

INNOMINA'TUS (ire, priv., nomcn, 
name). Nameless. Hence, — 

1. Innominata arteria. The branch 
given off to the right by the arch of the 
aorta, which subsequently divides into 
the carotid and subclavian. 

2. Innominati nervi. A former name 
of the fifth pair of nerves. 

3. Innominatum os. A bone composed 
of three portions : viz., 

1 . The ilium, or haunch-bone. 

2. The ischium, or hip-bone. 

3. The OS pubis, or share-bone- 
INOCULATION {in, and oculus, an 

eye). The insertion, intentional or acci- 
dental, of a healthy or morbid virus, as 
the vaccine or syphilitic, into the system. 
161 



INOSCULATION {in, and osculum, a 
little mouth). The union of vessels, or 
anastomosis : the latter term, however, is 
sometimes used to designate union by 
minute ramification ; the former, a direct 
communication of trunks. 

INSA'NIA {in, priv., sanus, sound). 
Insanity ; mania ; deranged intellect. 
The Latin term insanitas is applied to 
bodily, and not to mental, indisposition. 

INSECTA. The second class of the 
Diplo-gangliata or Entomoida, compris- 
ing articulated animals with six feet, 
which undergo metamorphosis and ac- 
quire wings. 

INSERTION {insero, to implant). The 
attachment of a muscle to the part it 
moves. Compare Origin. 

INSOLATIO {in, and sol, the sun). A 
term sometimes made use of to denote 
that exposure to the sun which is made 
in order to promote the chemical action 
of one substance upon another. Also, a 
disease which arises from the influence 
of the sun's heat upon the head, called 
coup-de-soleil. Lastly, it denotes expo- 
sure to the solar heat, as a therapeutic 
agent. 

INSOLUBILITY {in, not, solvo, to 
loose). A property, resulting from co- 
hesion, by which a substance resists so- 
lution. 

INSOMNIA {in, not, somnus, sleep). 
Sleeplessness, watching, lying awake. 

INSPIRATION {inspiro, to inhale). 
That part of respiration in which the air 
is inhaled. Compare Expiration. 

INSPISSATION {in, and spissatus, 
thickened). The process of making a 
liquid of a thick consistence. 

INSTINCT. This convenient term ad- 
mits of the following significations : — 

1. The Instinctive Faculty; or that 
faculty which leads the duckling, un- 
taught, into the water; the beaver to 
build its hut ; the bee its comb ; the hen 
to incubate her eggs, &c. ; and,— 

2. The Instinctive Motions; or those 
involuntary actions which are excited 
mediately through the nerves, — a part of 
the reflex function. The principal in- 
stinctive motions are, — 

1 . The closure of the eyelids. 

2. The act of sucking. 

3. The act of closing tlie hand. 

4. The act of swallowing. 

5. The closure of the glottis. 

6. The action of the sphincters. 

7. Inspiration, as an involuntary act. 

8. The acts of sneezing; of vomiting. 
All these phenomena accord with the 



INT 



INT 



definition, and take place even in the 
anencephalous child, on the due applica- 
tion of the appropriate stimuli. 

INSULATION (imula, an island). A 
term applied to a body containing a 
quantity of electric fluid, and surrounded 
by non-conductors, so that its communi- 
cation with other bodies is cut off. 

INTEGRAL PARTICLES {integer, 
entire). The most minute particles into 
which any substance, simple or com- 
pound, can be divided, similar to each 
other, and to the substance of which they 
are parts. Thus, the smallest portion of 
powdered marble is still marble ; but if, 
by chemical means, the calcium, the 
carbon, and the oxygen of this marble be 
separated, we shall then have the ele- 
mentary or constituent particles. 

INTEGUMENT {in, and tego, to 
cover). The covering of any part of the 
body, as the cuticle, cutis, &c. The 
common integuments are the skin, with 
the fat and cellular membrane adhering 
to it ; also, particular membranes, which 
invest certain parts of the body, are 
called integuments, as the tunics or coats 
of the eye. 

INTENSITY. A term denoting the 
degree to which a body is electrically 
excited. 

INTER-. A Latin preposition, signi- 
fying between, or denoting intervals. 

1. Inter-articular. A designation of 
cartilages which lie within joints, as that 
of the jaw; and of certain ligaments, as 
the ligamentum teres within the acetabu- 
lum, &c. 

2. Inter-auricular. A term applied to 
the septum between the auricles of the 
heart, in the foetus. 

3. Inter-clavicular. The name of a 
ligament connecting the one clavicle 
with the other. 

4. Inter-costales. The name of two 
sets of muscles between the ribs — the 
external and the internal — which have 
been compared, from their passing in 
contrary directions, to St. Andrew's cross. 

5. Inter-current. Applied to fevers or 
other diseases which occur sporadically 
in the midst of an epidemic. 

6. Inter-lunius morbus {luna, the 
moon). Epilepsy; so called from its 
being supposed to aifect persons born in 
the wane of the moon. 

7. Inter-mediate {medius, middle). A ; 
term applied to a third substance, em- 
ployed for combining together two other 
substances ; thus, alkali is an intermedi- 
ate between oil and water, forming soap. 

162 



8. Inter-mitient {mitto, to send). A 
term applied to Ague, or fever recurring 
at intervals ; it is called quotidian, when 
the paroxysms recur daily; tertian, when 
they recur each second day; and quar- 
tan, when they recur each third day. 

9. Inter-nuntii dies {nufitius, a mes- 
senger). Critical days, or such as occur 
between the increase and decrease of a 
disease. 

10. Inter-ossei. Muscles situated be- 
tween bones ; as those between the meta- 
carpal of the hand, and the metatarsal 
bones of the foot. 

11. Inter-spinales cervicis. The desig- 
nation of six small muscles, situated be- 
tween the spinous processes of the neck. 
There are also inter-spinous ligaments 
attached to the margins of the spinous 
processes. 

12. Interstitial {intersto, to stand be- 
tween). A term applied to an organ 
which occupies the interstices of contigu- 
ous cells, as the uterus, the bladder, 
&c. 

13. Inter-transversales. The name of 
muscles situated between the transverse 
processes of the cervical, and the similar 
processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 

14. Inter-trigo {inter, between, tero, 
trivi, to rub). The erythema, abrasion, 
fret, or chafing, of the skin of parts which 
are in contact, as behind the ears, in the 
groins of fat persons, &c. 

15. Inter-vertebral. A term applied to 
the Jibrocartilage between the vertebrae; 
to ligaments, &c. 

INTESTI'NA {intus, within). An 
order of worms which inhabit the bodies 
of other animals. These are distin- 
guished, by Cuvier, into, — 

1. Cavitaria {cavitas, a cavity). Worms 
which have cavities or stomachs. 

2. Parenchymata {-irape'ixuiJia, the sub- 
stance of the lungs, &c.). Cellular-bodied 
worms, as the tape-worm. 

INTESTINES {intus, within). That 
part of the alimentary canal which ex- 
tends from the stomach to the anus. The 
intestines are distinguished into the 
small, consisting of the duodenum, jeju- 
num, and ileum ; and the large, com- 
prising the caecum, colon, and rectum. 

1. Intestinum tenue. The small intes- 
tine, in which the duodenum terminates ; 
the upper portion is called jejunum, the 
lower portion is the ileum. 

2. Intestinu7n crassum. The large in- 
testine, comprising the caecum and the 
colon ; the former of these is called the 
intestinum ccecuin. 



I N V 



I P E 



INTOLERANCE {in, not, tolero, to 
bear). A term applied to the condition 
when any remedy cannot be borne, as 
loss of blood. 

INTRITA (intero, to rub in). A term 
used by Celsus for panada, caudle, &c. 

INTROITUS {intro ire, to go within). 
An entrance. Hence the term introitus 
vel apertura pelvis superior is applied to 
the upper or abdominal strait of the pel- 
vis. The lower circumference or strait 
Is called exitus vel apertura pelvis in- 
ferior. 

INTUMESCENTI^ {intumesco, to 
swell). Intumescences; external swell- 
ing of the whole or great part of the 
body ; the second order of the class Ca- 
chexies of Cullen. 

INTUS-SUSCEPTIO {intus, within, 
suscipio, to receive). Intro-susception. 
The descent of a higher portion of intes- 
tine into a lower one, — generally, of the 
ileum into the colon. When it takes 
place downwards, it may be termed pro- 
gressive ; when upwards, retrograde. The 
term Intus-susceptio is also applied to the 
process of nutrition, or the transforma- 
tion of the components of the blood into 
the organized substance of the various 
organs. 

INULA HELENIUM. Elecampane; 
an indigenous Composite plant, allied in 
its operation to sweet-flag and senega. 

1. Inulin. A variety of starch, ob- 
tained from the root of the Inula Hele- 
nium. 

2. Helenin. A constituent of the root 
of the same plant, also called elecampane- 
camphor. 

INUSTION {inuro, to bum in). A 
term applied to the burning operation of 
the cautery. 

INVAGINATION {in, and vagina, a 
sheath). A term synonymous with i7itus- 
susception. 

INVENTUM NOVUM. A name 
given by Aveiibrugger, a physician of 
Vienna, to the employment of Percus- 
sion, which was first adopted by him, 
in 1763, as a means of diagnosis. 

INVERMINATION {in, and vermis, 
a worm). Helminthia. An alfection in 
which worms, or the larvae of insects, 
inhabit the stomach or intestines. 

INVERSIO UTERI {inverto, to in- 
vert). That state of the uterus in which 
it is turned, wholly or partially, inside 
outward. 

INVOLU'CRUM {involvo, to wrap in). 
The designation of membranes which 
cover any part. The term is also applied, 
163 



in botany, to a whorl of bracts which 
surrounds several flowers, as in the Com- 
positse, Umbelliferae, &c. 

lODINIUM (iwdnr, or loet3>/r, violet- 
coloured, from i'oi/, a violet, and elbo^, 
likeness). Iodine, a crystallized solid 
substance, found in marine plants ; it 
becomes volatile by a slight increase of 
temperature, and forms a beautiful violet 
vapour. 

1. lodal {iodine and a/cohol). An 
oleaginous liquid obtained by the action 
of iodine upon nitric alcohol. 

2. Iodic acid. An anhydrous acid, 
termed oxiodtne by Davy, and produced 
by the combination of iodine with oxygen- 
It combines with metallic oxides, and 
forms salts which are termed iodates 

3. Iodides, or iodurets. The compounds 
of iodine with metals, and with the sim- 
ple non-metallic substances. 

4. lodous acid. A compound prepared 
by the action of iodine on chlorate of 
potash, — probably by the combination of 
iodine and chlorine. 

5. Chloriodic acid. This is also called 
chloride of iodine ; and is formed by the 
absorption of chlorine by dry iodine. 

lODISM. A peculiar morbid state, 
induced by the use of iodine. 

JOINT. Arthrosis. An articulation, 
or the mode by which bones are con- 
nected to each other. 

IONTHOS(i'ov»o9, the root of the hair). 
Varus. The name by which most of the 
Greek writers designate the disease Acne, 
from its occurring during the growth of 
the lanugo, or first beard. See Acne. 

lOTACISMUS (iSra, the Greek letter 
i). A species of pseUismus, in which 
the letters j and g are defectively pro- 
nounced. See Lambdacismiis. 

IPECACUANHA {ipi, Peruvian for 
root, Cacuanha, the district from whence 
the root was first obtained). The root of 
the Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, known in 
commerce by the names of the annu- 
lated, Brazilian, or Lisbon Ipecacuanha, 
to distinguish it from the roots of other 
emetic plants also collected in Brazil for 
officinal use. Its emetic principle is 
termed emetina. 

1. Striated Ipecacuanha. The longi- 
tudinally striated root of the Psychotria 
emetica, called by some writers the black 
or Peruvian ipecacuanha. 

2. Undulated Ipecacuanha. The semi- 
circularly-grooved root of the Richard- 
sonia scabra, or the amylaceous or white 
ipecacuanha of Merat. 



IRR 



SO 



IPOM^A PURGA. The Jalap Ipo- 
maea, a Convolvulaceous plant, the dried 
tubers of which constitute the jalap of 
commerce. 

IRIDACE.E. The Cornflag tribe of 
Monocotyledonous plants. Smooth her- 
bjiceous plants, with leaves equitant ; 
flowers hexapetalous, triandrous ; sta- 
jnens 3 ; ovarium 3-celled, many-seeded. 

IRIDESCENT {iris, a rainbow). The 
property of shining with many colours, 
like the rainbow. 

IRIDIUM {iris, the rainbow). The 
most infusible of all known metals ; so 
called from the variety of colours assumed 
by its salts. 

IRIS. Literally, a rainbow; and hence 
applied to the rainbow-like membrane 
which separates the anterior from the 
posterior chamber of the eye. See Uvea. 

Iritis. Inflammation of the iris. 

IRIS DISEASE. Rainbow ring-worm, 
a species of Herpes, occurring in small 
circular patches, each composed of con- 
centric rings of different colours. 

IRIS FLORENTINA. Florentine 
Iris or Orris ; Fleur-de-Luce. The dried 
rhizoma of this plant is the orris root of 
the shops. 

IRISH MOSS. Carrageen. The Chon- 
drus crispus ; a lichen growing on rocks 
and stones in the sea. In Ireland it is 
converted into size, and employed in- 
stead of isinglass. 

IRON. A bluish-white metal, sup- 
posed to constitute 2 per cent, of the 
entire mineral crust of the globe. See 
Ferrum. 

IRON MOULD. This is the result of 
an ink-stain, produced partly in con- 
sequence of the oxidation of the iron of 
ink, and partly, perhaps, in consequence 
of the destruction of the acid of galls. 

IRRIGATION {irriffo, to water). The 
continual application of a cold lotion, 
by dropping cold water on an affected 
part. 

IRRITABILITY {irrito, to provoke). 
That action of certain muscles, as the 
heart, the intestines, &c., which flows 
from a stimulus acting immediately upon 
their fibres ; or, in the case of the volun- 
tary muscles, upon these, or the nerves 
immediately proceeding to them. This 
property has been teriAd by Haller, 
vis insita ; by Goerter, vis vitalis ; by 
Boerhaave, oscillation; by Stahl, tonic 
power ; by Bell, muscular power ; by Cul- 
len, inherent power; and by Dr. Bostock, 
contractility. 

IRRITATION {irrito, to excite). The 
164 



action produced by any stimulus. This 
term, as a disease, is applied to, — 

1. The case arising from calculus in 
the ureter, in the gall-duct, &c. 

2. The affection induced by the pre- 
sence of improper food in the stomach, 
or morbid matters retained in the bowels, 
&c., inducing symptoms resembling — 
arachnitis, peritonitis, pleuritis, carditis. 
—Dr. M. Hall. 

rs ATIS TINCTORI A. Woad. A plant 
from which an inferior kind of indigo is 
prepared. 

ISCHIUM {\<Txiov, the hip). Coxa, 
vel acetabulum. The hip-bone, a spi- 
nous process of the os innominatum. 

1. Ischi-agra (aopa, a seizure). An 
attack of the hip ; hip gout. 

2. Ischi-algia (0X709, pain). Pain in 
the hip. See Sciatica. 

3. Ischias. The term used by the 
Latins for rheumatism of the hip-joint ; 
it was afterwards corrupted into ischi- 
atica, or sciatica. 

4. Ischiatic. The designation of a notch 
of the OS innominatum ; of an artery 
which proceeds through that notch, &c. 

5. Ischiato-cele (Ki7\r), a tumor). An 
intestinal rupture through the sciatic 
ligaments. 

6. Ischio-cavernosus. A muscle at- 
tached to the ischium and to the corpus 
cavernosum. It draws the root of the 
penis downwards and backwards. It is 
also called, from its office, erector penis ; 
and the two together are called collatera- 
les penis, from their lying on the sides of 
the penis. 

ISCHNOPHONIA {\axvw, slender, 
(puvij, voice). Psellismus heesitans. A 
shrillness of the voice ; hesitation of 
speech, or stammering. 

ISCHURIA (i'(Txu), to retain, olpov, 
urine). Suppression or retention of the 
urine. The term is employed, in ischuria 
renalis, in the sense of suppression ; in 
ischuria uretica, vesicalis, and urethra- 
lis, in the sense of retention. 

ISINGLASS. Fish-glue; a substance 
prepared from the sound of several kinds 
of fish. The term is a corruption of the 
Dutch hyzenblas, an air-bladder, com- 
pounded of hyzen, to hoist, and bias, 
a bladder. See Ichthyocolla. 

ISO- (i'o-or, equal). This prefix denotes 
equality, or similarity. Hence, — 

1. Iso-barysm (/3a'por, weight). Simi- 
larity of weight, supposed to be the cause 
of the identity in the size and shape of 
molecules which cohere into the crystal- 
line form. 



ITC 



JUS 



2. Iso-chromatic (xp««»mo> colour). Hav- 
ing the same colour, as applied to 
lenses. 

3. Iso-chronouS (xpoi/o?, time). That 
which occurs in equal times, as the 
strokes of the pulse, the vibrations of 
pendulums of the same length, &c. 

4. Iso-mertc compounds {/uepor, part). 
A term applied to different bodies which 
agree in composition, but differ in pro- 
perties; their relation to each other is 
termed isomerism. 

5. Iso-morphous bodies {fiofxprj, form). 
A term applied by Mitscherlich to dif- 
ferent bodies which assume the same 
crystalline form ; their relation in form 
is called isomorphism. When the rela- 
tions are not exact, but nearly so, they 
may be supposed to give origin to plesio- 
tnorphism {irXtyaio^, near), or an approxi- 
mation to similarity of form. 

6. Iso-perimetrical. Having the same 
length of perimeter (jrepJ, around, fieTpou, 
measure), or bounding line. 

7. Iso-poda (TToi/r, irobhi, a foot). Ani- 
mals which have equal feet, as the wood- 
louse : Order 5, Class Crustacea 

8. Tso-thermal {Of put], heaX). Of equal 
degrees of heat, as applied to lines of 
equal temperature in physical geography. 
Lines drawn through places having the 
same summer and the same winter, are 
denominated isotheral (6epot, summer) 
and iso-ckeimal (xe'M"> winter), lines. 

ISOLUSINE. A new principle, dis- 
covered by M. Peschier, in various spe- 
cies of polygala. 

ISSUE. Foniiculus. An ulcer inten- 
tionally made and kept open, for the cure 
or prevention of disease. 

Issue peas. The young unripe fruit of 
the Citrus aurantium, dried and turned 
in a lathe. 

ISTHMITIS (\<Tefx6i, a narrow neck of 
land, the throat ; and the particle itis). 
Inflammation of the throat. See Par- 
isthmitis. 

ISTHMUS VIEUSSENII. The isth- 
mus of Vieussens ; the ridge surrounding 
the oval fossa, or remains of the foramen 
ovale, in the right auricle of the heart. 

Isthmus of the thyroid gland. A trans- 
verse cord which connects the two lobes 
composing the thyroid body. 

ITACONIC ACID. Another name for 
the pyrocitric or citricic acid. 

ITCH. The vulgar name for a cuta- 
neous disease of the fingers, &c. See 
Scabies. 

Itch insect. The Acarus Scabiei, a very 
minute animalcule, said to be found in 
165 



or near the pustules of the itch ; they are 
called wheat-worms in man, and resemble 
the mites of cheese, &c. 

ITER. A passage of communication 
between two or more parts. 

1. Iter ad infundibulum. The passage 
of communication between the third ven- 
tricle of the brain and the infundibulum. 
It is also termed foramen commune an- 
terius. 

2. Iter a palato ad aurem. The pas- 
sage from the palate to the ear, or the 
Eustachian tube. 

3. Iter a tertio ad quartum ventriculum. 
The passage between the third and fourth 
ventricles of the brain, known by the 
name of the aqueduct of Sylvius, 

JUGALE, OS (jugum, a yoke). Ot 
malcB ; os zygomaticum. The zygoma, or 
arch formed by the zygomatic processes 
of the temporal and cheek bones. 

JUGALES {jugum, a yoke). A designa- 
tion of the superficial temporal, or zygo- 
matic, nerves, given off from the facial. 

JUGULUM. The throat; the fore- 
part of the neck, where the windpipe is 
situated. 

Jugular, Belonging to the neck ; ap- 
plied chiefly to the principal veins of the 
neck. 

JUGUM PENIS. An instrument for 
compressing some part of the urethra, to 
prevent dribbling in cases in which the 
urine cannot be retained. 

JUJUBE, PATE DE. A pectoral 
lozenge, prepared from the Rhamnus 
jujuba and vulgaris, 

JULEPUM. A Julep ; a term which, 
in former pharmacopoeias, expressed what 
is now understood by mistura. 

JUNIPER RESIN. Sandarach. A 
resin, also called gum juniper, procured 
from the Callitris quadrivalvis. Its pow- 
der is called pounce. 

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS. Common 
Juniper; the plant which yields the 
fruit called juniper berries, and from 
which the oil of junipers is obtained. 

1. Juniper us Sabina. Savin ; the plant 
which yields the oil of savin. 

2. Juniper us virginiana. Red cedar, 
the wood of which is used for black-lead 
pencils. 

JUPITER. The ancient chemical 
name of tin, which was supposed to be 
under the control of that planet. 

JURISPRUDENCE, MEDICAL. Fo- 
rensic medicine ; the science which treats 
of the legal proceedings in reference to 
medicine. 

JUS. Broth; pottage; gravy; gruel. 



KER 



KI N 



The term jusculum is a diminutive of 
jus, and denotes the same thing ; juscu- 
lum coactum is jelly. 

JUSTAMOND'S ARSENICAL CAUS- 
TIC. A preparation made by melting 
together in a crucible antimony and 
arsenic, both in a state of powder. 

JUVANTIA {juvo, to assist). Medi- 
cines which assist or relieve diseases. 

JUZAM, or JUDAM. Terms by which 
the Arabians designated Elephantiasis; 



it is still called, in Arabia and Persia, 
Dsjuddam, and Madsjuddam, according 
to Niebuhr. 

IVORY. The name given to the teeth 
or tusks of the elephant, and of the 
walrus or sea-horse. All under 18 lbs. 
are called scrivelloes, and are of the least 
value. 

IVORY BLACK. Animal charcoal. 
The residue of heated bones ; a mixture 
of charcoal and phosphate of lime. 



K 



KALI. A term of Arabic origin, de- 
noting a particular plant ; hence the word 
al-kali, with the article, originally signi- 
fied the particular residuum obtained by 
lixiviating the ashes of that plant; the 
term was then used for potassa : thus, 
kali vitriolatum is an old name for sul- 
phate of potassa ; kali purum, for potassa 
fusa; calx cum kali puro for potassa 
cum calce, &c. 

KAOLIN. China-clay; a fine pure 
clay prepared by levigation from moul- 
dering granite, and employed in the 
manufacture of porcelain. 

KEDRIA TERRESTRIS. Barbadoes 
tar ; a mineral oil. See Bitumen. 

KEEL. Carina. A term applied to 
the two lower petals of a papilionaceous 
corolla, which cohere by their lower mar- 
gin, so as to present a keeled appearance. 

KELP. Varec. The crude soda ob- 
tained from the ashes of the Fuci in 
Holland and on the northern coast of 
France. It is used in the composition of 
soap, in the manufacture of alum, and in 
the formation of crown and bottle glass. 
See Barilla. 

KERATOME (Kepar, the cornea, 
TF/ivw, to cut). An instrument for di- 
viding the transparent cornea in the 
operation for cataract by extraction. 

KERATONYXIS ((cepar, Keparor, a 
horn, the cornea, vixrau), to puncture). 
A term employed in Germany to denote 
the operation of couching performed 
through the cornea. When the opaque 
lens is, by this means, merely turned, 
presenting its anterior and posterior sur- 
face in the horizontal position, the term 
reclination is adopted. 

KERMES ANIMAL. Coccus Ilicis, 
a hemipterous insect, found upon the 
166 



Quercus ilex, and formerly used for dye- 
ing scarlet : cloth so dyed was called 
coccinum, and persons wearing this cloth 
were termed by the Romans coccinati. 
The drug was termed grana kermes, from 
the resemblance of the dried insects to 
grains or seeds. 

KERMES MINERAL. Formerly, 
Panacea Glauberiana ; a sulphuret of 
antimony; so named, from its resem- 
blance, in colour, to the insect kermes. 

KIBE. Pernio exulceratus. Chilblain, 
accompanied with ulceration. 

KIDNEYS. Renes. Two glandular 
bodies, situated in the lumbar regions, 
and consisting of a cortical or external, 
and a tubular or medullary substance. 

KINGDOM. A term denoting any of 
the principal divisions of nature ; thus 
we have the organic kingdom, compre- 
hending substances which organize, and 
the inorganic kingdom, comprehending 
substances which crystallize. 

KING'S EVIL. Morbus Regis. A 
scrofulous disease, the curing of which 
was formerly attributed to the king of 
England, from the time of Edward the 
Confessor. This practice was called 
touching for the evil. 

KING'S YELLOW. A paint, of which 
the colouring principle is orpiment, or 
the sesqui-sulphuret of arsenic. 

KINIC ACID. Quinic acid. An acid 
found in the Cinchona barks. It forms 
salts called kinates. 

Kinoile. A neutral substance pro- 
duced by the calcination of a kinate by 
a gentle heat. 

KINO. An astringent extract, termed 
East Indian or genuine kino. Nothing is 
known respecting its origin. 



LAB 



LAB 



1. Botany Bay Icino. The produce of 
the Eucalyptus resmifera, or Iron-bark 
tree, imported from Van Diemen's land. 

2. Jamaica kino. The produce of the 
Coccoloba uvifera, or sea-side grape. 

3. African kino. Said to be the pro- 
duce of the Pterocarpus erinaceus; but 
there is no evidence of it. Pereira. 

KIRSCH-WASSER. A liqueur distil- 
led from the fruit of the small cherry-tree, 
and called the brandy of Switzerland. 

KNEE-JOINT. A complex articu- 
lation, consisting of an- angular gingly- 
mus, formed by the condyles of the 
femur, the upper extremity of the tibia, 
and the posterior surface of the patella. 

KNEE-PAN. Patella; the small 
round bone at the front of the knee- 
joint. 

KORE' ((copn). The pupil of the eye. 
The compounds of this term will be 
found in pp. 117, 118. 

KOUMISS. A vinous liquid, made 
by the Tartars from mUk, principally 
from that of mares. Something similar 



is prepared in Orkney and Shetland ; also 
by the Turks under the name of yaourt, 
and by the Arabs under that of leban. 

KRAMERIA TRIANDRA. The 
Rhatany ; a plant of the order Polygala- 
cecc, yielding rhatany root; the stypticity 
of which has been ascribed to the pre- 
sence of an acid called krameric acid. 

KRIEBEL KRANKHEIT. The Ger- 
man name of a disease which was ende- 
mic in Hessia and Westphalia during a 
season of dearth, in 1597. It has also 
been called die Fever-flecke, ignis sacer, 
ignis Sancti Antonii, mal des ardens, 
ergot, &c. It is arranged by Sauvages 
under the head of Erysipelas pestilens ; 
and by Sagar, under the genus Necro- 
sis. 

KUNDAH OIL. An oil obtained from 
the seeds of the Carapa Toulouconna, 
also called tallicoonah oil. 

KUPFERNICKEL. The German 
name for sulphuret of nickel ; in which 
the metal is generally mixed also with 
arsenic, iron, and cobalt. 



LABARRAQUE'S SOLUTION. A 

disinfecting liquid, of which chloride of 
soda is the active ingredient. It is ana- 
logous to the well-known bleaching 
powder, chloride of lime. 

LABDANUM. Ladanum. A resinous 
exudation from the Cistus Creticus. It 
is formed into cylindrical pieces, called 
labdanum in tortis. 

Labdanum factitium. Yellow wax and 
hog's lard, of each six ounces ; and black 
burnt ivory, four ounces. 

LABELLUM (dim. of labium, a lip). 
A little lip ; a term applied, in botany, to 
the lip-like petal of Orchidaceous plants. 

LABIA (from \a/3eli/, to take). The 
lips ; the two moveable veils which close 
the cavity of the mouth anteriorly. They 
are laterally united by means of two 
acute angles, which are called their com- 
missures. 

1. Labia majora. The two large folds, 
constituting the external orifice of the 
pudendum ; also called labia pudendi. 

2. Labia minora. The two smaller 
folds, situated within the labia majora, 
and frequently termed nymphcc. 

3. Labia leporina (leporinus, from lepus, 

167 



a hare). The hare-lip ; a division of the 
lip, resembling that of the upper lip of 
the hair. 

4. Labia pudendi. The parts of the 
pudendum exterior to the nymphae ; they 
are also called alee majores, as distin- . 
guished from the nymphae, or alae mi- 
nores. The term is synonymous with 
labia majora. 

LABIATE. The Mint tribe of Dico- 
tyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants, 
with leaves opposite ; flowers irregular, 
un symmetrical ; stamens 4, didymous, 
inserted in the corolla; ovarium deeply 
4-lobed ; fruit 1-4 small nuts. 

LABORATORY (laboro, to labour). 
A place properly fitted up for the per- 
formance of chemical operations. 

LABRADOR STONE. A species of 
prismatic felspar, found in the island of 
St. Paul, on the coast of Labrador, &c. 

LAB RUM. Literally, the extremity 
of the lips ; also, the brim of any vessel. 
Hence the fibro-cartilaginous rim which 
surmounts the cotyloid cavity has been 
termed acelabuli labrum cartilagineum. 

LABYRINTH. The name of a series 
of cavities, viz. the vestibule, the coch- 



LAC 



LAC 



lea, and the semicircular canals, which 
are channelled through the substance of 
the petrous hone, and situated between 
the cavity of the tympanum and the 
meatus auditorius externus. The name 
is derived from the complexity of its 
communications. 

LAC. Milk. A term used by the 
Dublin College for the mistura of the 
London — when white and opaque, or 
milk like — and the emulsio of the Edin- 
burgh Pharmacopoeia. 

LAC, or GUM-LAC {laak, Arab.). A 
substance, improperly called a gum, 
produced by an insect called kermes 
lacca, on the leaves and branches of the 
Ficus Indica, the Croton lacciferum, the 
Butea frondosa, &c. The substance is 
deposited over the eggs of the insect, 
and serves as a present protection to the 
ovum, and as food for the maggot at a 
future stage. Lac yields a fine red dye ; 
the resinous part is used in making 
sealing-wax and for a varnish. 

1 . Stick lac is the term applied to the 
substance in its natural state, with the 
encrusted leaves and twigs. 

2. Lac dye, lac lake, or cake lac, are 
names applied to the colouring matter 
extracted from the stick lac. 

3. Seed lac is the resinous powder 
which remains after the extraction of 
the colouring matter, by pounding and 
solution in water ; so called from its 
resemblance to mustard seed. When 
melted, it is formed into cakes, and 
called lump lac; and, when strained 
through cotton over a charcoal fire, the 
resinous part, which melts the most 
easily, is farmed into thin sheets, and 
called shell lac. 

4. Laccic acid. An acid obtained, by 
Dr. John, from stick lac. Its salts are 
called laccates. 

5. Laccin. A newly-discovered prin- 
ciple contained in lac, intermediate be- 
tween wax and resin. 

LAC LUN.E. Literally, milk of the 
moon. A snowy- white substance, resem- 
bling chalk, consisting almost wholly of 
alumina, saturated with carbonic acid. 

LAC SULPHURIS. Milk of sulphur, 
or the sulphur prsecipitatum. 

LAC VACCINUM. Cows' milk ; an 
emulsive substance, consisting of globu- 
lar particles floating in a serous liquid. 
The milk globules consist essentifdly of 
butter. 

1 . Cremor lactis. Flos lactis. Cream, 
or the globular particles of milk, which 
rise to the surface, carrying with them 
168 



some caseum, and retaining some of the 
serum. 

2. Caseum. Albumen of milk ; the 
coagulum, or curd, separated from milk 
by the addition to it of an acid or rennet. 

3. Serum lactis. The whey of milk left 
after the separation of the curd. 

4. Lactin. Saccholactin, or sugar of 
milk, obtained from whey by evapora- 
tion. 

5. Lactic acid. This is probably a 
product of the decomposition of milk. 

6. Lactometer. A graduated glass 
tube, for estimating the relative quantity 
of cream afforded by mUk. 

LACERATION {lacero, to tear). A 
rent ; the tearing of any part. The term 
lacerated is applied to two foramina at 
the base of the cranium, from their lace- 
rated appearance. 

LACERTUS (the arm; a lizard). An 
old term applied to a bundle of muscular 
fibres, which are enclosed in a mem- 
branous sheath, and are divisible into 
smaller bundles, apparently in an inde- 
finite series. 

LACONICUM. A term applied to a 
vapour bath, from its having been much 
used by the people of Laconia. 

LACQUER, or LACKER. Solution 
of lac in alcohol ; a kind of varnish for 
brass and other metals. 

LACRYMA. A tear; the fluid secreted 
by the lacrymal gland, and flowing on 
the surface of the eye. 

1 . The puncta lacrymalia are the ex- 
ternal commencements of two small 
tubes, situated near the minor canthus, 
called — 

2. The lacrymal canals or ducts, which 
originate from the internal angle of the 
eye, and terminate in — 

3. The lacrymal sac, an oval bag, about 
the size of a small horse-bean, consti- 
tuting the upper extremity of the nasal 
duct. 

4. The lacus lacrymarum consists of a 
small space in the inner angle of the eye, 
between the two eyelids, towards which 
the tears flow. 

LACTATION {lac, milk). The process 
of secreting and supplying milk, of nurs- 
ing, or suckling. Pliny uses the word 
lactatus, which is more classical than 
lactatio. 

LACTEALS {lac, milk). Numerous 
minute tubes which absorb or take up 
the chyle, or f«i/A--like fluid, from the 
alimentary canal. 

LACTIC ACID {lac, lactis, mUk). An 
acid produced whenever milk, and perhaps 



LAG 



LAM 



most animal fluids, become spontane- 
ously sour, or when the juice of beet- 
root is kept for some months at a high 
temperature. 

LACTIC A. The Arabian name for 
that species of fever which the Greeks 
call typhos, or typhodes. 

LACTIFEROUS DUCTS {lac, lactis, 
milk, fero, to convey). The milk-con- 
veying ducts of the mammary glands. 
The corresponding term in Greek is ga- 
lactophornits. 

LACTIFUGE {lac, lactis, milk, fugo, 
to expel). A medicine which checks or 
diminishes the secretion of milk in the 
mamma, as in cases of weaning ; corian- 
der seeds are reputed to have this pro- 
perty. 

LACTIN {lac, lactis, milk). Sugar of 
milk; a crystalline substance procured 
from milk. 

LACTUCA VIROSA. The Strong- 
scented Lettuce, the milky juice of which, 
when inspissated, has been used as a 
substitute for opium, under the name of 
thridace or lactucarium. 

1. Lactuca sativa. The Garden Let- 
tuce, the milky juice of which yields 
lactucarium, but in much less quantity 
than the preceding species. 

2. Lactucic acid. An acid obtained 
■from the Lactuca virosa, resembling 

oxalic acid. 

LACTU'MINA {lacto, to suckle). Lac- 
tucimina. A name given by Amatus 
Lucitanus to the infantile aphthae, from 
the supposition that they originated in a 
vitiated condition of the milk. 

LACUNA {lacus, a lake). Literally, a 
ditch containing water. Hence the term 
lacuna is applied to a multitude of fol- 
licles observed in the mucous membrane 
of the urethra, and also named sinuses of 
Morgagni. 

1. Lacuna magna. The largest of the 
above-mentioned lacunae, said to be the 
seat of the secretion of the drop of matter 
which is squeezed from the urethra in 
old gonorrhoea. 

2. Lacuna, in plants. A term applied 
by Link to the air-cells which occur in 
the vegetable tissue. 

LACUNAR. Literally, the main beam 
of a house^ which is arched or bent like 
a bow. Hence the term lacunar orbitce, 
for the upper wall or vault of the orbit. 

LAGETTA LINTEARIA. The Lace 
Bark Tree, a plant of the order Thyme- 
laca;, possessing the properties of meze- 
reum. Its bark is capable of being sepa- 
rated into thin white layers, resembling 
IG9 



lace-work, and may even be washed with 
soap like linen. 

LAGNE'SIS (\d7»/n5', lustful). Lust; 
inordinate desire of sexual intercourse ; 
the name of a genus adopted by Dr. Good, 
and intended to include the satyriasis 
and nymphomania of Sauvages. 

LAGOPHTHALMIA {Xayd,':, a hare, 
b(p0a\ij.6i, the eye). Oculus leporinus. 
The hare's eye; a disease in which the 
eye cannot be completely shut. Shorten- 
ing of the upper lid. 

LAGOSTOMA (Xa-yO,?, a hare, crofxa, 
the mouth). The Greek term for labia 
leporina, or hare-lip. 

LAIT DE POULE. An emulsion, 
employed by the French as an artificial 
milk for infants, and consisting of the 
raw yolk of an Gg;g, diffused by agitation 
in a pint of warm water sweetened with 
sugar. 

LAKE. A term applied to certain 
insoluble compounds, formed by precipi- 
tating colouring matter with an earth or 
oxide. Almost all vegetable colouring 
matters may be precipitated into lakes, 
by means of alum or oxide of tin. The 
principal lakes are — 

1. Carmine, a red pigment, prepared 
from cochineal, by precipitation with 
Roman alum. 

2. Florentine lake, prepared from the 
sediment of the cochineal in the pre- 
ceding process, by precipitation with 
solution of tin. A cheaper sort may be 
obtained from Brazil wood, instead of 
cochineal. 

3. Madder lake, prepared from Dutch 
crop madder, by precipitation with alum. 

LALLATIO {lallo, to sing lullaby). 
Lullaby-speech; a name given by the 
Romans to that variety of psellismus, in 
which the letter L is rendered unduly 
liquid, or substituted for an R ; as when 
delusive is pronounced deliusive, as 
though the I possessed the power of the 
Spanish II, or the Italian gl ; or, as when 
parable is pronounced pa/able. 

LALO. A favourite article of food in 
Africa, made of the dried and pulverized 
leaves of the Adansonia or Baobab tree, 
the largest, and, it is said, the oldest 
tree in the world. 

LAMBDACISMUS (Xa'M/33a, lambdd, 
the Greek letter \). The Greek designa- 
tion of that affection of the speech, which 
consists in a vicious enunciation of the 
letter I. See Lallatio, and lotacismus. 

LAMBDOIDAL (the Greek A, lambda ; 
and eiboi, likeness). The name of a 
suture of the skull, from its fancied re- 
I 



LAN 



LAS 



semblance in form to the letter A. See 
Sutvre. 

LAMELLA (dim. of lamina, a plate). 
A small plate or scale, as applied to the 
gills of a mushroom, &c. 

LAMINA. Literally, a small plate of 
any metal. A terra applied to the foliated 
structure of bones or other organs. 

1. Lamina cornea. A horn-coloured 
lamina at the anterior part of the taenia 
thalami optici, or semicircularis. 

2. Lamina cribrosa. A cribriform or 
sieve-like layer, formed by the sclerotica 
at the entrance of the optic nerve, and 
so named from the numerous minute 
openings by which it is pierced for the 
passage of the nervous filaments. 

3. Lamina spiralis. The plate or sep- 
tum of the cochlea, vrhich is wound spi- 
rally round the modiolus, dividing the 
cochlea into two parts. 

LAMP-BLACK. Fuligo lampadum. 
A species of charcoal, of which the finest 
sort is produced by collecting the smoke 
from a lamp ; but it is generally obtained 
by burning resinous substances, as the 
dregs of pitch, or pieces of fir- wood, in 
furnaces, and collecting the smoke in a 
close-boarded chamber. 

LAMP OF SAFETY. A lamp in- 
vented by Sir H. Davy, to prevent the 
explosion of fire-damp, or inflammable 
air, in coal-mines. It is made of wire- 
gauze which is impermeable to flame. 

LAMPIC ACID. An acid obtained by 
Sir H. Davy from the combustion of 
ether. It is merely acetic acid, com- 
bined with some etherous matter. 

LANA PHILOSOPHICA. Philoso- 
phical wool, flowers of zinc, or the snowy 
flakes of white oxide of zinc, which arise 
and float in the air from the combustion 
of that metal. 

LANCET {lancetta; dim. of laneea, a 
spear). An instrument used in phle- 
botomy, in opening tumors, &c. 

LANCISI, NERVES OF. Some flla- 
ments, found on the anterior part of the 
corpus callosum, are by some authors 
called the longitudinal nerves of Lancisi. 

LAND-SCURVY. An aflFection, con- 
sisting in circular spots, stripes, or 
patches, scattered over the thighs, arms, 
and trunk ; it is called by Bateman, pur- 
pura hcemorrhagica, from the occasional 
haemorrhage from the mouth, nostrils, 
or viscera ; and, by the German WTiters, 
morbus maculosus Werlhofii. 

LANTANUM {XavOavio, to be con- 
cealed). A newly-discovered metal, so 
named from its properties being con- 
170 



cealed by those of cerium, with which it 
is found united. It occurs in the cerite 
of Bastnas. 

LAPIDELLUM {lapis, a stone). The 
name of a kind of spoon, formerly used 
to take small stones out of the bladder. 

LAPILLUS (dim. of lapis, a stone). 
A little stone. A term applied to a cal- 
careous concretion found in the cray-fish. 
See Cancrorum lapilli. 

LAPIS. A generic term, signifying 
all kinds of stones : thus lapis calcareus 
is limestone ; lapis infernalis, an old name 
for caustic potash; lapis calaminaris, 
the impure carbonate of zinc ; lapis la- 
zuli, azure stone, a mineral from which 
the blue colour ultra-marine is prepared. 

LAPPA MINOR. Common Burdock, 
or Clot-bur; an indigenous Composite 
plant, the root of which is said to pro- 
mote the lochia! discharge. 

LAQUEUS GUTTURIS. Literally, a 
noose of the throat. A malignant in- 
flammation of the tonsils, in which the 
patient appears as if suffocated by a 
noose. 

LARD. Adeps suilltts. The fat of the 
Sus scrofa, or Hog, melted down. It 
diflTers from suet chiefly in consistence. 

LARDACEOUS. A term applied to 
tissues which, from cancerous disease, 
resemble lard. 

LARIX EUROPiEA. The Common 
Larch, a Coniferous tree, yielding the 
larch, or Venice turpentine, and a sac- 
charine matter called manna of the larch, 
or manna de Branfon. 

LARYNX (Xa'pnf. the larynx). The 
superior part of the trachea, situated im- 
mediately under the os hyoides. 

1. Laryngeal. The designation of 
nerves furnished by the par vagum, and 
distributed to the larynx ; these are the 
superior laryngeal, and the recurrent or 
inferior laryngeal nerves. 

2. Laryngismus. A sense of spasmodic 
suflTocation in the larynx, commonly 
called spasmodic croup, from its resem- 
blance to that aflTection. 

3. Laryngitis. Cynanche larjmgaea. 
Inflammation of the larj'nx. 

4. Laryngotomy {rout], section). The 
operation of making an opening into the 
larynx. 

LASCIVUS. Wanton; an epithet ap- 
plied, by Paracelsus, to chorea, from the 
peculiar contortions of the limbs. 

LASER. A term applied by the an- 
cients to assafoetida, and to the succus 
Cyrenaicus. It has been suspected that 
the term assafoetida is derived from 



L AU 



LEA 



laser — assa, quasi laser. The laser Cyre- 
naicum, or assa dulcis of Cyrene, is the 
produce of the Thapsia silphion, an Um- 
belliferous plant, growing on the moun- 
tains of Cyrene. 

LATENT {lateo, to be hidden), A 
term applied to diseases of which the 
diagnosis is very obscure. 

LATERAL (latus, lateris, the side). 
Belonging to the side ; a term applied to 
a mode of operation in cutting for the 
stone. See Lithotomy. 

LATERITIOUS {later, /aieris, a brick). 
A term applied to the red sediment de- 
posited from the urine in some stages of 
fever. This was supposed by Proust to 
constitute a peculiar acid, which he 
named the rosaic. 

LATEX {lateo, to be hidden). Any 
kind of liquor squeezed out. This term 
denotes, in botany, a highly elaborated 
and highly organized juice, which is not 
formed immediately from the fluid matter 
absorbed from without. The tissue, in 
which this juice is found, is termed late- 
ritious tissue, and more recently cinen- 
chyma. 

LATIBULUM {lateo, to lie hid). A 
hiding-place. The fomes, or hidden 
matter, of infectious diseases. 

LATISSIMUS DORSI {latissimus ; 
superl. of latus, broad; dorsum, the 
back). A fiat muscle, situated on the 
back and side of the lower part of the 
trunk. It moves the arm backwards 
and downwards; or brings forward the 
body when the hand is fixed. It has 
received the oflfensive appellations of 
sculptor ant and tersor ani. 

LAUDANUM. The Tinctura Opii sive 
Thebaica. Nineteen minims contain one 
grain of opium. 

Laudanum liquidum Sydenliami. The 
original of the Vinum Opii, with double 
the quantity of opium, and with wine as 
the menstruum. One fiuid drachm con- 
tains ten grains of opium. 

LAURACEiE. The Cinnamon tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Leaves entire, 
alternate ; flowers apetalous ; stamens 
perigynous ; fruit baccate or drupaceous ; 
seeds without albumen. 

LAUREL WATER. The distUled 
water of the Prunus lauro-cerasus, a 
species of cherry. 

LAURIN. Camphor of the bay-berry. 
A solid substance extracted from the ber- 
ries of the Laurus Nobilis, or Sweet Bay. 
LAURUS NOBILIS. The Sweet Bay ; 
the plant which yields the bay-berry, and 
its camphor, called laurin. 
171 



LAVA. The matter thrown out from 
volcanoes, in consequence of the com- 
bustion of bituminous masses. The 
lightest kind is called pumice-stone. 

LAVA'MEN {lavo, to wash). The La- 
tin term for enema, or injection. 

LAVANDULA VERA. Common or 
Garden Lavender ; the plant from which 
the oil, and the spirit, of lavender are 
prepared. It enters also into the com- 
position of Eau de Cologne and the Vin- 
aigre aux quatre voleurs. 

Lavandula spica. French Lavender, 
which yields the oil of spike, sometimes 
called foreign oil of lavender, in order to 
distinguish it from the oil of Lavandula 
stcechas, the true oil of spike. Used by 
painters on porcelain, and for making 
varnishes. 

LAVER. The name of a species of 
fucus, which is eaten as a delicacy. 

LAVIPEDIUM {lavo, to wash, pes, 
the foot). A bath for the feet. 

LAWSONIA INERMIS. The plant 
from which the henne of Egypt is ob- 
tained. It is principally used by the 
natives as a dye. 

LAXATIVES {laxo, to loosen). Mild 
purgatives ; medicines which loosen the 
contents of the intestines. See Cathar- 
tics, 

LAXATOR TYMPANI {laxo, to 
loosen). A muscle of the tympanum, 
attached to the handle of the malleus. 

LAZARETTO {lazzeretto, Italian ; 
from lazzero, a leper). A pest-house, or 
establishment for facilitating the per- 
formance of quarantine, and particularly 
the purification of goods arriving from 
places infected with disease. 

LEAD. Plumbum. A bluish-grey 
metal ; the softest of all the durable 
metals. 

1. Black lead. Plumbago, or graphite ; 
a carburet of iron, employed in making 
pencils, crucibles, &c. The term is evi- 
dently a misnomer. 

2. Red lead. Minium, or red oxide of 
lead ; a tasteless powder of an intensely 
red colour, often inclining to orange. 

3. White lead. Cerussa; a white sub- 
stance produced, in the form of flakes, 
by the action of the vapour of vinegar on 
lead. It may be dissolved in acetic acid, 
forming a crystallizable salt, called, from 
its sweetness, sugar of lead. 

LEAMINGTON WATERS. Saline 
and purgative. See Aquce Minerales. 

LEAPING AGUE. The name of a 
disease occurring in some parts of Scot- 
I 2 



L E N 



LEN 



land, and consisting of a morbid pro- i 
pensity to running, leaping, &c. I 

LEATHER. The skins of animals, j 
macerated in lime-water, and tanned 
with astringent substances, particularly 
oak-bark. 

LEAVEN, or YEAST. A substance 
which possesses the power of commencing 
fermentation in other substances. 

LECONORIN. A white crystalline 
substance obtained from the Leconora 
tartarea, and other lichens employed in 
the manufacture of cudbear. 

LEECH. A genus of the class Vermes, 
and order Intestina. See Hirudo. 

LEGUMEN [lego, to gather). A le- 
gume ; a one-celled, two-valved, superior 
fruit, dehiscent by a suture along its face 
and its back, and bearing seeds on each 
margin of its ventral suture. 

1. Legumen lomentaceum. A lomen- 
tum ; a fruit differing from a legume in 
being contracted in the spaces between 
each seed, and there separating into dis- 
tinct pieces. 

2. Legumin. A peculiar principle, 
found in the fleshy cotj'ledons of the 
seeds of papilionaceous plants. 

LEGUMINOS^ {legumen, a legume). 
The Pea tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. 
Herbs with leaves alternate ; stamens peri- 
gj-nous, monadelphous, or diadelphous ; 
ovarium superior, solitary, simple ; fruit 
leguminous ; seeds without albumen. 

LEIPOPSYCHIA (Xe.'TTto, to leave, 
^vxh^ the soul). The term used by Hip- 
pocrates for syncope; Galen uses apo- 
psychia. It is synonymous with the 
leipo-thymia of Sauvages. 

LEIPOTHY'MIA (Xe.Vw, to leave, 
OvfjLoi, the mind). Deliquium animi. 
Fainting. The term is synonymous with 
the leipopsychia of Hippocrates. 

LEMNIAN EARTH. A compound of 
aluminum, found in the island of Lemnos. 
It is also called sphragide {o-^pa^ir, a seal), 
and terra sigillata, from its being cut 
into pieces, and stamped with a seal. It 
is similar to Armenian bole. 

LEMONADE. A refrigerant acidu- 
lated drink, made by adding two lemons 
sliced, and two ounces of sugar, to two 
pints of boiling water, and digesting until 
cold. A similar beverage is called king's 
cup. 

LENIENTIA (lenio, to assuage). Me- 
dicines which allay irritation. 

LENITIVES {lenis, gentle). Soothing 
medicines. Gentle purgatives. 

Lenitive electuary. Electuarium Sen- 
172 



nae. The former name of the Confectio 
Sennae. See Electuary. 

LENS {lens, lentis, Latin, a bean). 
Properly, a small roundish glass, shaped 
like a lentil, or bean. 

1. In Physics, the term is applied to 
any transparent medium, of certain 
forms : these are, the convex, which con- 
verges the rays ; the concave, which dis- 
perses them; the plano-convex, having 
one surface plane, and the other convex ; 
the double convex, having both sides con- 
vex ; the plano-concave, having one sur- 
face plane, and the other concave ; the 
double concave, having two concave sur- 
faces ; and the meniscus, having one side 
concave, and the other convex. 

2. In Anatomy, the term is applied to 
the crystalline humor of the eye. Short- 
sightedness is occasioned by the conver- 
gence of the rays to a point before they 
fall upon the retina, and a concave lens 
is employed to delay their convergence ; 
in longsightedness, the rays do not con- 
verge to a point till they have passed the 
retina, and a convex lens is employed 
to promote their convergence. 

LENTICELLiE. Lenticular glands, 
or brown oval spots found upon the bark 
of many plants, especially willows. 

LENTICULA {lens, a lentil seed). 
The term used by Celsus for freckles ; it 
is now more generally written lentigo. 

LENTICULAR {lens, lentis, a lentil). 
A term applied to parts which are about 
the size of a lentil seed. 

1. Lenticular ganglion. Another name 
for the ciliary ganglion, situated at the 
external side of the optic nerve. 

2. Lenticular papilla;. The papillse 
situated at the posterior part of the 
tongue ; they are from nine to fifteen in 
number, of a round form, of the size of a 
large mustard seed. 

3. Lenticular bone. Another name for 
the OS orbiculare. 

LENTICULAR {lenticulaire, doubly 
convex). An instrument for removing 
the irregularities of bone from the edge 
of the perforation made in the cranium 
by the trephine. 

LENTl'GO {lens, lentis, a lentil). 
Ephelis, freckles, or the little yellow 
spots on the skin, produced by exposure 
to the rays of the sun, and so named 
from their likeness to lentil seeds. 

LENTOR {lentus, clammy). The vis- 
cidity or clamminess of a fluid. 

Lentor of the blood. The name given 
by Boerhaave to viscidity of the blood, 
to which he ascribed the existence of 



LEU 



LEX 



fever ; maintaining that the general dis- 
turbance, which constitutes fever, pro- 
ceeds from an error loci of the viscid 
blood, &c. Hence the terms diluerds, 
humectavts, attenuants, &c. were applied 
to medicines which were supposed to 
dissolve that tenacity ; while those of an 
opposite character were called inspissanis. 

LEONTI'ASIS {\€u>v, Xeovroi, a lion). 
A designation of the tubercular species 
of Elephantiasis ; so termed from its im- 
parting a fancied resemblance to the 
physiognomy of the lion. 

LEPIDIN. A yellow substance pro- 
cured by Leroux from the Lepidium 
iberis, a Cruciferous plant. 

LEPIDOPTERA (AtTrl?, Xejr/<5o9, a 
scale, mepov, a wing). Scaly-winged in- 
sects, as the butterfly : Order X., Insecta. 

LEPIDO'SIS (Xen-k, a scale). Scale- 
skin ; an efflorescence of scales over dif- 
ferent parts of the body, often thickening 
into crusts. 

LEPRA (XcTTpa ; from XeTrpo?, \e7rpa, 
scaly ; th. Xen-if, or XeTror, a scale). The 
leprosy of the Greeks ; a scaly disease of 
the skin, occurring generally in circular 
patches. 

LEPROSY (XeTrpoy, scaly; from XeTrir, 
a scale). The leprosy of the Jews appears 
to have been the leuce {XevKt]) of the 
Greeks, the white baras of the. Arabians, 
and the third species of vitiligo of Celsus. 
It is principally characterized by white- 
ness of the hair, and depression of the 
skin. Compare Lepra. 

LERE'MA (Xnpeotf, to doat). Dotage; 
superannuation ; impotence of body and 
mind from premature old age. 

LESION {Icesio ; from laido, to hurt). 
Any hurt, injury, or morbid change. 
Under the term organic lesions, Pinel 
includes most of the chronic disorders 
which are unaccompanied by fever, in- 
flammation, haemorrhage, or nervous 
affection. 

LETHARGY (X>j«n, forgetfulness, 
apyia, inactivity). Profound and con- 
tinued sleep. It is the slightest form of 
coma, and has been sometimes termed 
catajjhora. 

LETTUCE OPIUM. Lactucarium. 
The inspissated milky juice of the Lac- 
tuca virosa and sativa. 

LEUCIN (XevKot, white). A name 
applied by Braconnet to a peculiar white 
principle obtained from muscle. Nitric 
acid converts it into a crystallizable acid, 
called nitro-leucic. 

LEUCOL. A particular substance 
produced in the distillation of coal. 
173 



LEUCO'MA (Xet/Kof, white). Albugo. 
A dense opacity, extending through the 
laminae of the cornea. The slighter form 
of opacity is termed nebula, haziness, or 
dulness ; and a small patch or speck, 
macula. The popular term for opacity 
is film. 

LEUCOP ATHI A (Xei/K09, white, n-aSoy, 
affection). The Albino state. This de- 
viation from the natural colour was first 
observed in Africa, and the individuals 
so affected were called Leuc-<sthiopes, or 
white negroes. In consequence of the 
irksomeness of light to Albinoes, the 
Dutch named thost whom they met with 
in Java, kakkerbakken, or cock-roaches, 
insects which run about in the dark. 

LEUCOPHLEGMASIACXeuKof, white, 
(pXeyna, phlegm). Leucophlegmatic ha- 
bit ; a term formerly applied to a dropsi- 
cal habit. 

LEUCORRHCEA (XeuKor, white, peu, 
to flow). Literally, a white discharge — 
per vaginam. Its source is either the 
vagina itself, or the uterus. This affec- 
tion has been also termed fiuxus or fluor 
albus ; fluor muliebris ; les fleurs blanches; 
sexual weakness; a weakness; and, vul- 
garly, the whites. 

LEUCOSIS {Xevnoi, white). A term 
applied by Alibert to the diseases of the 
lymphatic vessels. 

LEVA'TOR {levo, to lift up). A muscle 
which raises any part, as the rectus su- 
perior. Its antagonist is called depres- 
sor. 

1. Levator palati mollis. A muscle 
which arises from the point of the petrous 
bone, the Eustachian tube, and the 
sphenoid bone, and is inserted into the 
velum palati, which it pulls up, acting 
at the same time as a valve to the nos- 
trils. See Staphylinus. 

2. Levator scapulce, or levator proprius 
angularis. A muscle which arises from 
the transverse processes of the four or 
five upper cervical vertebrae, and is in- 
serted into the upper corner of the sca- 
pula, which it raises, as in shrugging the 
shoulders ; hence it has been called mus- 
culus patienticB. 

LEVIGATION {Icevigo, to polish; 
from Iccvis, smooth). The process of 
rubbing earths and some metallic sub- 
stances with a muller upon a fiat table 
of hard stone. Some fluid is added to 
assist the operation, and in this respect 
it differs from trituration. 

LEXIPHARMACA (xyjyw, to cease, 
(papnaKov, poison). Medicines which re- 
sist or destroy the power of poisons. 



LIG 



LIG 



LEY. Lixivium. A term used for a 
solution of alkali in water. 

LEYDEN PHIAL or JAR (so called 
from its effects having been first ex- 
hibited in that city). A cylindrical glass 
vessel for collecting electricity. It is 
coated to a certain height, inside and 
outside, with tinfoil or some conducting 
substance, so that every point of both 
sides of the glass may be brought into 
communication at the same moment. A 
combination of such phials is called an 
electrical battery. 

LIBER. The inner bark of a tree, 
used instead of paper by the ancients to 
write upon. In botanical language, it 
denotes the interior fibrous portion of the 
bark, lying immediately upon the albur- 
num ; the endophloeum of later writers. 

LICHEN {Xeixhv, lichen). Lichenous 
rash; an eruption of red papulae, usually 
terminating in scurf. Although Dios- 
corides says that the plant, so called, is 
named from its being a remedy for the 
disease, the more general opinion is, that 
the disease is named from its supposed 
resemblance to the plant. Forbes. 

LICHE'NES. The Lichen tribe of the 
Aphyllae, or leafiess plants. Aerial, leaf- 
less, perennial plants, spreading over 
almost all dry surfaces, of trees, stones, 
&c. ; reproductive organs are sporules 
lying in thecae in the medullary sub- 
stance, or separated cellules of the me- 
dullary layer of the thallus. 

1. Lichen Islandicus. Iceland, or 
Eryngo-leaved liverwort ; Iceland Moss, 
now called Cetraria islandica. 

2. Lichen Orcella. Dyer's Lichen, or 
Orchall ; the species which furnishes the 
litmus dye. See Litmus. 

3. Lichenin. A feculoid substance 
found in the Cetraria islandica, and other 
lichens. 

4. Lichen starch. A variety of starch 
procured from the Cetraria islandica, and 
other lichens, closely resembling com- 
mon starch. See Cetraria. 

LIEN, LIE'NIS. The mUt ; the 
spleen. In Celsus, the nominative case 
of this word is lienis. 

LIENTERIA (Xelor, smooth, evrepa, 
the intestines). Lcevitas intestinorum. 
Lientery ; a species of diarrhoea, in which 
the food has been only partially digested. 

LIGAMENTUM {ligo, to bind). A 
ligament; a membrane of a fiexible but 
compact texture, which connects the 
articular surfaces of bones and carti- 
lages; and sometimes protects the joints 
by a capsular envelope. 
174 



LIGATURE {ligo, to bind). Thread, 
or silk, or inkle, commonly rubbed with 
white wax, for tying arteries, excres- 
cences, &c. 

Ligature d'attente. A loose ligature, 
used by the continental surgeons in the 
operation for aneurysm, &c., for the pur- 
pose of being tied in the event of hae- 
morrhage. 

LIGHT. Lux, lucis. The agent of 
vision. It is distinguished into two 
kinds; viz., natural light, proceeding 
from the sun and stars ; and artificial 
light, proceeding from bodies which are 
strongly heated ; this glowing or shining 
appearance is called incandescence. The 
phenomena of light may be referred to 
the following heads : — 

1. Radiation, or the emission of light, 
like that of caloric, in all directions, in 
the form of radii, or rays. A collection 
of such rays accompanying each other, 
is termed a pencil. The radiant point 
is the point from which diverging rays 
proceed ; the focus, the point into which 
converging rays are collected. 

2. Reflection, or the rebound of a ray 
of light, as of caloric, from a polished 
surface; the angle of incidence being 
equal to the angle of reflection. 

3. Refraction, or the break of the na- 
tural course of a ray of light, as it passes 
into a transparent substance, as glass or 
water; this is termed ordinary refrac- 
tion. If a ray fall upon the surface of 
Iceland spar, or certain other substances, 
it will be split into two portions, making 
an angle with each other, and each pur- 
suing its own separate course ; this is 
called double refraction; one of these 
rays following the same rule as if the 
substance were glass or water, the other 
undergoing extraordinary refraction, 

4. Polarization, or the property by 
which a ray of light, after its emergence 
from the substance, or reflection from 
the surface, of a body, acquires poles or 
sides with different properties, in re- 
lation to the plane of its incidence. Po- 
larized light may be procured from com- 
mon light in three ways; viz., 

1. By reflection from the surfaces of 

transparent and opaque bodies. 

2. By transmission through several 

plates of uncrystallized bodies. 

3. By transmission through bodies 

regularly crystallized, and pos- 
sessing the property of double re- 
fraction, as Iceland spar, &c. 

5. Decomposition, or the division of a 
ray of light, in traversing a prism, into 



LIG 

its constituent colours ; the appearance, 
thus produced, is called the prismatic 
spectrum. See Prism. 

6. Phosphorescence, or the emission of 
light from certain substances. These are 
artificial compounds, as Canton's phos- 
phorus ; some bodies when strongly 
heated, as marble; certain marine ani 
mals, in the living or dead state, as the 
medusa, the herring, &c. ; certain ani- 
malcules, as the fire-fly of the West 
Indies, the glow-worm, &c. ; vegetable 
substances, as rotten wood, peat-earth, 
&c. 

LIGNIN {lignum, wood). The basis 
of woody fibre— the most durable product 
of vegetation. When heated in close 
vessels, it yields pijro-ligneous acid ; and 
a peculiar spirituous liquor is produced, 
called pyro-xylic spirit. 

LIGNONE {lignum, wood). Xylite. 
A liquid which exists in commercial 
pyroxylic spirit,— a product of the dis- 
tillation of wood. 

LIGNUM. Wood; that portion of 
arborescent plants which comprises the 
alburnum and the duramen. 

1. Lignum aloes. Aloes wood; a fra- 
grant resinous substance, consisting of 
the interior of the trunk of the Aquilaria 
ovata, and Aquilaria agallochum. The 
lignum aspalathi, or Eagle wood, is the 
produce of the Aquilaria ovata, but is 
less esteemed than the lignum aloes. 

2. Lignum Braziliense. Brazil wood ; 
also called lignum Pernambucense, or 
Pernambuco wood ; the produce of seve- 
ral species of Csesalpinia. It yields a red 
colouring matter. 

3. Lignum campechianum. Logwood ; 
the wood of the Haematoxylon Campe- 
chianum; also called Nicaragua wood. 
It yields a red colouring matter, called 
hcsmatin. 

4. Lignum colubrinum (coluber, a 
snake). Snake-wood ; the produce of the 
Strychnos ligustrina, supposed to be a 
preservative against the bite of serpents. 

5. Lignum nephriticum {vecppov, a kid- 
ney). The name of a bitter-tasted wood, 
imported from Mexico, and formerly sup- 
posed to be a sovereign remedy in nephri- 
tis, or inflammation of the kidneys. 

6. Lignum pavanee. The wood of the 
Croton Tiglium. It has the same quality 
as the seeds, but weaker. 

7. Lignum rhodium (p65or, a rose). 
Jamaica Rose-wood ; the produce of the 
Amyris balsamifera ; used in cephalic 
fumigations, &c. The African lignum 
rhodium is the produce of the Convolvu- 

175 



LIN 

lus scoparius; the West Indian, of a spe- 
cies of Cordia. 

8. Lignum santali rubri. Red Saunders' 
wood ; the wood of the Pterocarpus San- 
talinus, which yields a deep-red colouring 
matter. 

9. Lignum serpentinum. The wood of 
the Ophioxylon serpentinum; used i?i 
the bites of serpents. 

10. Lignum vitce. The wood of the 
Guaiacum oflacinale, remarkable for the 
direction of its fibres, each layer of which 
crosses the preceding diagonally. It is 
also called lignum benedictum, or St. 
Benedict's wood; Mgnum indicum, or 
Indian wood ; and lignum sanctum, or 
holy wood. 

LIGULA. A peculiar membranous 
process at the top of the sheath of Grasses, 
between the sheath and the blade. 

LILACINE. The bitter crystallizable 
principle of the Syringa vulgaris, or 
Lilac. 

LIMATU'RA {lima, a file). Ramenta. 
The powder or dust which comes from 
filing. 

LIMAX {limus, slime). Cochlea ter- 
restris. The snail, so called from its 
sliminess. 

LIMBUS LUTENS. A yellow halo 
surrounding the foramen of Soemmering, 
observed in animals which have the axis 
of the eyeballs parallel with each other, 
as in man, the quadrumana, and some 
reptiles. 

LIME. The oxide of calcium; an 
alkaline earth, found as a carbonate in 
marble, chalk, and limestone. These 
substances become lime, when burned in 
a white heat. See Calx. 

1. Quick lime. The name of lime- 
stone which has been burned, and under- 
gone a change of properties. 

2. Slaked lime. The powder produced 
by pouring water upon quick-lime; the 
water is absorbed, the lime swells, evolves 
heat, and falls to powder. It is then 
termed dry lime, in contradistinction to 
that of lime water, the former being sim- 
ply a hydrate, the latter holding lime in 
suspension with a large quantity of fluid. 

3. Milk or cream of lime. The hydrate 
of lime diffused through water. 

LIMON. The Lemon; the fruit of 
the Citrus Medica, or Lemon tree ; a na- 
tive of Media. 

LIMO'SIS (Xt/ioff, hunger). Morbid 
appetite ; impaired, excessive, or depraved 
appetite. 

LINACEiE. The Flax tribe of Dico- 
14 



LIN 

tyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants 
with leaves usually alternate; flowers 
sj-mmetrical, polypetalous ; stamens hy- 
pogynous ; ovarium entire, many-celled ; 
seeds compressed and inverted. 

1. Linum usitatissimum. The Lint 
plant, or Common Flax. The seed is 
commonly called linseed, or more pro- 
perly lintseed. The cake, or placenta 
lini, left after the expression of the oil, 
is called oil-cake: and this, when pow- 
dered, forms linseed meal, or the farina 
lini. 

2. Linum catharticum. Purging Flax ; 
an indigenous plant, now almost ob- 
solete. 

LINAMENTUM {«w«OT, linen). Lint; 
a tent for a wound. Celsus. 

LINCTUS {lingo, to lick). A term 
applied to soft substances, of the con- 
sistence of syrup, which are taken by 
being licked off a spoon. 

LINE A. A line or streak; a linear 
fibre, or process, &c. 

1. Linea alba. A white line formed by 
the meeting of the tendons of the abdo- 
minal muscles ; it extends from the 
ensiform cartUage to the pubes. This is 
the median line of Chaussier. 

2. LineoB semilunares. Two curved 
lines, a little external to the linea alba, 
extending from the sides of the chest 
to the pubes, and bounding the recti 
muscles. 

3. Linea; transver sales. Three or four 
transverse lines, which connect the lineae 
semilunares to the linea alba. 

4. Linea innominata. Literally, an un- 
named line; an elevated line, forming 
a part of the brim of the pelvis ; and also 
termed linea ileo-pectinea. 

5. Linea aspera. The rough promi- 
nence observed along the posterior sur- 
face of the femur. 

6. Linea quadrata. The posterior 
inter-trochanteric line of the femur, to 
which the quadratus femoris muscle and 
capsular ligament are attached. 

7. LinecB transversce. The name of 
some fibres which run across the raphe 
of the corpus callosum. 

LINEAMENT {linea, a line). A deli- 
cate trait; the earliest trace of the em- 
bryo. 

LINGUA {lingo, to lick). The tongue ; 
the organ of taste and speech. 

1. Lingual. The designation of the 
gustatory nerve, or nerve of the tongue. 

2. Lingualis. A muscle of the tongue ; 
arising from the root, and inserted into j 

176 I 



LIQ 

the tip; it is unconnected with any bone; 
it contracts the tongue, and compresses 
its point. 

LINGUETTA LAMINOSA. A thin 
tonguelet of grey substance, extending 
from the grey substance of the cerebellum 
upon the valve of Vieussens. 

LINIMENTUM {lino, to besmear). 
A liniment, or embrocation ; an external 
application, having the consistence of an 
oil or balsam. 

LINNEAN SYSTEM. A method of 
classifying plants, introduced by Lin- 
nasus, and founded on modifications of 
the sexual apparatus; hence, it is also 
called the sexual system. See Botany, in 
Appendix. 

LINT. Linteum. The scrapings of 
fine linen, for dressing wounds, ulcers, 
&c. It is made into various forms, which 
have different names, according to the 
difference of the figures : when made up 
in an oval or orbicular form, it is called 
a pledget; when in a cylindrical form, or 
in the shape of a date or olive-stone, it is 
called a dossil. 

LINTEUM (quasi lineum, from lino, 
to anoint). A linen cloth, or napkin. 
Celsus uses the diminutive term linteo- 
lum, for a piece of linen cloth or a 
pledget. 

LIPAROCELE (X/ttoc, fat, KijK,^, a 
tumor). A species of sarcocele, in which 
the enclosed substance is fat. 

LIPO'MA {Xino?, fat). Adipose tumor, 
formed of fatty, unorganized substances. 
LIPPITUDO {lippus, blear-eyed). 
Blearedness ; a chronic catarrhal inflam- 
mation of the eyelids. This affection 
commonly begins towards the angles of 
the eye, and is thence called lippitudo 
angularis ; when it is attended with 
tingling and itching, it has been termed 
lippitudo pruriginosa, and, by Mr. Ware, 
psorophthalmia ; syphilitic eruption on 
the eyelids of infants is termed lippitudo 
syphilitica neonatorum. 

LIPYRIA (Xemct), to leave, irvp, heat). 
Properly, Leipopyria. Coldness of the 
surface ; a symptom in some fevers, as 
the noted epidemic of Breslaw, &c. 

LIQUATION {Uquo, to melt). A mode 
of purifying the ore of tin. The impure 
metal being exposed to heat, the pure 
tin is first melted, and separated from a 
less fusible alloy, containing the foreign 
metals. 

LIQUEFACIENTS {liquefacio, to lique- 
fy'). Agents which augment the secre- 
tions, arrest the solidifying, and promote 
the liquefjing processes of the animal 



LIQ 

economy. They correspond with the 
panchymagogues of the ancients. From 
their effect in checking phlegmonous in- 
flammation, removing indurations, &c., 
they are frequently termed resolvents. 

LIQUEFACTION {liquefacio, to melt). 
The passing of a substance from the solid 
to the liquid state, — one of the effects of 
caloric. This term is sometimes synony- 
mous with fusion, with deliquescence, 
and with solution. 

LIQUEUR. A spirituous liquor, com- 
posed of water, alcohol, sugar, and some 
aromatic infusion, extracted from fruits, 
seeds, &c. The same aromatic infusion 
may give its name to liqueurs of different 
qualities ; thus, one proportion of ingre- 
dients gives eau - de - noyau ; another, 
creme-de-noyau, &c. The French dis- 
tinguish three qualities ; viz., 

1. The Ratafias, or simple liqueurs, in 
which the sugar, the alcohol, and the 
aromatic substance are in small quanti- 
ties ; as anise- water, noyau, &c. 

2. The Oils, or the fine liqueurs, con- 
taining more saccharine and spirituoils 
matter ; as anisetta, curagoa, &c. 

3. T\\e Creams, or 'superfine liqueurs, 
as rosoglio, maraschino, Dantzic, &c. 

LIQUID (liqueo, to melt). An inelastic 
fluid. All liquids may be arranged into 
two great classes, viz., simple liquids, as 
mercury ; and compound liquids, as com- 
bined gases, &c. 

LIQUIDAMBAR {liquidum, fluid, 
ambar, the aromatic substance which 
distils from the tree). A genus of plants, 
of which the species altingia yields the 
liquid star ax, or rasamala of the Malayan 
archipelago. 

LIQUOR {liqueo, to become liquid). 
A liquor or solution; an intimate mix- 
ture of solid with fluid bodies ; the dis- 
solving fluid is termed the solvent, or 
menstruum. 

1. Liquor aluminis compositus. A com- 
pound solution of alum and sulphate of 
zinc, formerly called aqua aluminosa 
Bateana. 

2. Liquor ammonice. A solution of 
ammoniacal gas in water, otherwise called 
aqua ammoniae. 

3. Liquor ammonice acetatis. A solu- 
tion of the neutral acetate of ammonia, 
with a proportion of carbonic acid dif- 
fused through it ; commonly called spirit 
of Mi7idererus, 

4. Liquor ammonice sub-carbonatis. A 
solution of the solid sub-carbonate in dis- 
tilled water. 

5. Liquor arsenicalis. A solution of 

177 



LIQ 

the arsenite of potass, coloured and fla- 
voured by the compound spirit of laven- 
der. It is employed, as a substitute for 
the 'tasteless ague drop,' under the 
name of Fowler's solution. 

6. Liquor calcis. Lime water; a satu- 
rated solution of lime in water. 

7. Liquor calcis muriatis. Solution of 
muriate of lime, or rather chloride of 
calcium. 

8. Liquor calcis chloridi. Solution of 
chloride of lime, known under the name 
of bleaching powder, or Tennant's pow- 
der. 

9. Liquor cupri ammoniati. A simple 
solution of ammoniated copper in dis- 
tilled water. 

10. Liquor ferri alkalini. Solution of 
alkaline iron, similar to Stahl's tinctura 
martis alkalina. 

11. Liquor hydrargyri oxy-muriatis. 
Solution of corrosive sublimate. 

12. Liquor plumbi acetatis. Solution 
of sub-acetate of lead, formerly called 
extract of Saturn, and now Goulard's 
extract. 

13. Liquor plumbi sub-acctatis dil.utus. 
The former preparation, diluted, and 
With the addition of a portion of spirit. 

14. Liquor potassce. Solution of potass, 
formerly called aqua kali puri, lixivium 
saponarium. 

15. Liquor potassce sub-carbonatis. 
Solution of the sub-carbonate of potass, 
formerly called aqua kali praeparati, 
lixivium tartari, oleum tartari per de- 
liquium. 

LIQUOR OF SURFACES. The fluid 
poured out on the surfaces of every ca- 
vity in the body. To this head may be 
referred the following fluids : — 

1. Liquor amnii. A fluid in the in- 
terior of the amnios, in which the foetus 
floats. 

2. Liquor chorii. A gelatinous fluid 
which separates the inner surface of the 
chorion from the amnios in the early 
period of gestation ; it is commonly called 
the false waters. 

3. Liquor Cotunnii. A limpid fluid 
found in the vestibulum of the ear, and 
in the nervous tubes lodged in the semi- 
circular canals. 

4. Liquor entericus {evrepa, the bowels). 
The natural secretion of the interior coat 
of the bowels. 

5. Liquor Morgagni. A peculiar trans- 
parent fluid found between the crystal- 
line lens and its membrane. Many ana- 
tomists consider it as a post-mortem ap- 
pearance. 

15 



L IT 



LIT 



6. Liquor pericardii. A serous fluid 
contained in the pericardium. 

7. Liquor of Scarpa. A liquor found 
in the cavities of the labyrinth, and 
termed aqtia labyrinthi 

LIQUOR OF VAN SWIETEN. A 
solution of twelve grains of deutochloride 
of mercury, in two pints of distilled 
water. 

LIQUOR OF KOECHLIN. The name 
given in Germany to an ammoniacal 
compound, with copper, employed in 
scrophulous affections by M. Baude- 
locque. 

LIQUOR SILICUM. Literally, liquor 
of flints. The former name of a solution 
of the vitreous mass formed by igniting 
one part of silicic acid with three of car- 
bonate of potassa. 

LIQUOR SANGUINIS. The fluid 
portion of the blood, in which the red 
particles float during life. It separates, 
on coagulation, into two parts, the serum, 
and the fibrin which was previously in 
solution. The fibrin coagulating encloses 
within it the red particles. The serum 
still retains the albumen in solution. 

LIQUORICE {liquor, liquor (?)). The 
root of the Glycyrrhiza Glabra. 

Liquorice juice. The inspissated juice 
of the common liquorice root, usually 
imported in rolls or cakes, from Spain, 
and hence called Spanish liquorice. 

LISPING. A species of psellismus, or 
defective enunciation, conmionly called 
gpeaking through the teeth, and produced 
by an unnatural length of tongue, — or by 
affectation. 

LITHAGOGA (Xi'flos, a stone, ayo, to 
expel). Lithagogues; medicines which 
expel or dissolve stone. 

LITHARGE (X/^or, a stone, ap7upor, 
silver). Spuma argenti. An oxide of 
lead in an imperfect state of vitrifaction. 
Lead becomes oxidised and changed into 
litharge during the process of refining, 
which is performed for the purpose of 
separating the silver which it contains. 
Litharge is more or less white or red, 
according to the metals with which the 
silver is alloyed, the white being called 
litharge of silver; the red, litharge of 
gold. 

LITHIA (X/0or, a stone). The pro- 
toxide of lithium ; an alkali discovered 
in 1818, by M. Arfwedson, of Sweden, in 
the mineral called petalite ; it received 
its name from its having been first found 
in an earthy mineral. 

LITHI'ASIS (Xt6lor, a stone). The 
formation of a calculus, or stone, in the 
178 



urinary passages. It is sometimes termed 
lithia and lithut. 

LITHIC ACID (X.'flor, a stone). Uric 
acid. A principle constantly present in 
healthy urine, and generated by the 
action of the kidneys. 

LITHIUM (x;#of, a stone). The metal- 
lic base of a rare alkaline oxide called 
lithia, from its having been first derived 
from an earthy mineral. 

LITHONTRIPTICS (Xifloy, a stone, 
rpi/3co, to wear by friction). Medicinal 
agents which dissolve or disintegrate 
urinary calculi within the body. 

1. Lithontriptor. The name of an in- 
strument for reducing calculi in the 
bladder into small particles or powder, 
which is then washed out or voided with 
the urine. The following instruments 
are used by Baron Heurteloup : — 

2. " L'ifistrument a trois branches, avec 
un foret simple," consisting of a canula^ 
three tenacula, and a drill, for crushing 
stones equal in diameter to the drill. 

3. ^^ L' instrument a trois branches, avec 
le mandrin a virgule," applicable to 
stones of from eight to ten lines in dia- 
meter; the "virgule," or shoulder, being 
employed to excavate the calculus. 

4. " V instrument a quatre branches," 
or "pince a forceps," adapted to stones 
of from twelve to eighteen lines in dia- 
meter, and furnished with a " mandrin a 
virgule," the "virgule" of which makes 
a larger excavation that that of the pre- 
ceding instriiment. 

5. "Ze brise coque," or the shell- 
breaker, adapted to breaking down the 
shell formed by the previous excavations ; 
and also flat and small stones. 

LITHOP^DION (Xi^or, a stone, 
irat&iov, a child). A kind of stony mass, 
into which the foetus has been found to 
be converted in the uterus. The term 
osteo-pcedion is also used to denote a 
bony mass, found on similar occasions. 

LITHOTOMY (X.'^or, a stone, tom»?, 
section). The operation of cutting into 
the bladder, in order to extract a stone. 
The various modes of performing this 
operation are termed — 

1 . The apparatus minor, or lesser ap- 
paratus ; this has been described by Cel- 
sus; and hence called lithotomiaCelsiana. 
As the stone, fixed by the pressure of the 
fingers in the anus, was cut directly 
upon, this has been called cutting on the 
gripe, a knife and a hook being the only 
instruments used. 

2. The apparatus major, or greater 
apparatus, so named from the numerous 



LIX 

instruments employed ; this has been 
also called the Marian method, from 
having been first published by Marianus 
Sanctus, in 1524, as the invention of his 
master, Johannes de Romanis. 

3. The high operation, first practised in 
Paris, in 1475, and performed by making 
the incision above the pubes, in the di- 
rection of the linea alba. 

4. The lateral operation, so named 
from the prostate gland and neck of the 
bladder being laterally cut. 

LITMUS or TURNSOL. A blue pig- 
ment obtained from the Lichen Orcella. 
In an earlier state of its preparation, it 
is of a purplish red colour, and is then 
called archil, orckall, and orseille de Ca- 
naries. Litmus is employed by chemists 
for detecting the presence of a free acid. 

Litmus paper is prepared by digesting 
powdered litmus in water, and painting 
with it white paper which is free from 
alum. See Curcuma paper. 

LIVER. The largest glandular appa- 
ratus in the body, the ofiice of which is 
to secrete the bile. It is divided into 
three lobes— 

1. The great lobe, situated in the right 
hypochondriac region ; 

2. The small lobe, situated in the epi- 
gastric region ; and, 

3. The lobulus Spigelii, situated on 
the left side of the great lobe. It has 
two prolongations, which have been 
termed the lobulus caudatus, and the 
lobulus anonymus or quadratus. 

LIVER-SPOTS. Chloasma. A ver- 
nacular terra for the pityriasis versicolor. 

LIVIDITY (livor, a livid colour). The 
discoloration which occurs in the body 
in some diseases of the heart, &c. 

LIVOR {liveo, to be black and blue). 
A blackish mark on the body, produced 
by a blow, fall, &c. A dark circle round 
the eye. 

LIXIVIATION. A term denoting the 
application of water to a saline body 
which consists of both soluble and inso- 
luble ingredients. The solution obtained 
is the lixivium, or ley. 

LIXIVIUM {lix, licis, anciently, water 
or liquor in general; also lye). Lye, or 
ley, made of ashes ; also the potassa im- 
pura. This term was formerly applied 
to some of the alkaline salts, and their 
solutions. 

1. Lixivia vitriolata, Vitriolated ley, 
or the sulphas potassae. 

2. Lixivia vitriolata sulphur ea. Sul- 
phureous vitriolated ley, or the sulphas 
potassae cum sulphure. 

179 



LOB 

3. Lixivium alkali fixum vegetabile. 
Fixed vegetable alkaline ley, or the pot- 
assa impura. 

4. Lixivium causticum. Caustic ley ; 
another name for the liquor potassae. 

5. Lixivium saponarium. Soap ley ; 
another name for the liquor potassae. 

6. Lixivium tartari. Tartar ley; or 
the liquor potassae sub-carbonatis, for- 
merly called oleum tartari deliquium. 

7. Lixivium vinum. The wine which 
exudes from grapes before they are 
pressed. 

8. Lixivium sanguinis. Blood ley ; an 
impure solution of ferro-cyanide of potas- 
sium. 

LOADSTONE. An ore of iron which 
possesses the peculiar properties of at- 
tracting iron, and of turning towards the 
north pole, when freely suspended. M. 
Haiiy observes, that the ores in which 
the iron contains the least oxygen inde- 
pendently of other combinations, form 
natural magnets ; and he terms the load- 
stones of commerce, found in diiferent 
parts of the world, oxidulaied iron. The 
properties of the natural loadstone may 
be communicated to iron and steel, which, 
when properly prepared and touched by 
the loadstone, are called artificial mag- 
nets. See Magnet. 

LOAM. An impure potters' clay, 
mixed with mica and iron ochre. The 
Hedgerley loam, found near Windsor, is 
used in making lutes, &c. 

LOBELIACEiE. The Lobelia tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants or shrubs, with leaves alternate ; 
fl,owers axillary or terminal ; stamens syn- 
genesious; ovarium inferior; fruit cap- 
sular. 

1. Lobelia inflata. Bladder- podded 
Lobelia, Indian Tobacco, or Emetic Weed ; 
a plant with properties similar to those 
of tobacco. 

2. Lobelia syphilitica. Blue Cardinal 
Flower ; the root of which has been used 
by the North American Indians as specific 
in syphilis. 

3. Lobelin. A peculiar principle, pro- 
cured from Lobelia inflata, and said to 
resemble nicotin. 

LOBULUS (dim. of lobus, a lobe). A 
lobule, or small lobe. 

1. Lobulus Spigelii. A small lobe of 
the liver, on the left of the great lobe, 
and named from Adrian Spigel, a Belgian 
physician. 

2. Lobulus quadratus vel anonymus. 
That portion of the liver which is be- 

I 6 



LOG 



LON 



tween the gall-bladder and the umbilical 
fissure. 

3. Lobulus vel processus caudatus. A 
small tail-like appendage to the lobulus 
Spigelii, from which it runs outwards, 
like a crest, into the right lobe. 

4. Lobule of the par vagum. The name 
of a small tuft at the inferior part of the 
cerebellum. 

5. Lobulus pneumogastricus. A lobule 
of the cerebellum, situated near the 
origin of the eighth pair of nerves ; its 
form is that of a convoluted shell. 

6. Lobulus auris. The lower dependent 
and fleshy portion of the pinna of the ear. 

7. Lobuli testis. The lobules formed 
by the convolutions of the tubuli semi- 
niferi of the testis. 

LOBUS (\o/36^, from Xa/jif^dvw, to take 
hold of). A lobe :— 

1. The designation of the portions into 
which the lower surface of the brain is 
divided : these are termed the anterior, 
the middle, and the posterior lobes. 

2. The name of the lower and pendent 
part of the external ear. 

3. The name of the divisions of the 
lungs, of the liver, &c. 

4. The lobus of Morgagni is a lobe at 
the base of the prostate, discovered by 
Morgagni, and since described by Sir 
Everard Home. 

LOCALES (locus, a place). Local dis- 
eases ; morbid affections which are partial ; 
the fourth class of diseases in Cullen's 
nosology, comprising the following or- 
ders : — 

1. DyscEsthesice. Impaired sensations; 
diseases in which the senses are depraved 
or destroyed, from a defect of the external 
organs ; as caligo, amaurosis, dysopia, 
pseudoblepsis, dysecoea, paracusis, anos- 
mia, ageustia, and anaesthesia. 

2. Dysorexice. Depraved appetites ; 
false or defective appetites ; as bulimia, 
polydipsia, pica, satyriasis, nymphoma- 
nia, nostalgia, anorexia, adipsia, and 
anaphrodisia. 

3. DyscinesicB. Depraved or impeded 
motions, from imperfection of an organ; 
as aphonia, mutitas, paraphonia, psellis- 
mus, strabismus, dysphagia, and con- 
tractura. 

4. Apocenoses. Increased secretions ; 
superabundant fluxes of blood, or other 
fluid, without pyrexia ; as profusio, ephi- 
drosis, epiphora, ptyalismus, enuresis, 
and gonorrhoea. 

5. Epischeses. Obstructions ; suppres- 
sion of excretions; as obstipatio, ischuria, 



dysuria, dyspermatismus, and araeno- 
rrhoea. 

6. Tumores. Partial swellings, with- 
out inflammation; as aneurj'sma, varix, 
ecchymoma, scinhus, cancer, bubo, sar- 
coma, verruca, clavus, lupia, ganglion, 
hydatis, hydarthrus, and exostosis. 

7. Ectopia. Protrusions; parts dis- 
placed ; as hernia, prolapsus, and luxatio. 

8. Dialyses. Disunions ; solutions of 
continuity; as vulnus, ulcus, herpes, 
tinea, psora, fractura, and caries. 

LOCHIA (\oxeuQ), to bring forth). 
The uterine discharge which takes place 
for some days after delivery ; in cattle, it 
is termed the cleansings. 

LOCKED JAW. A spasmodic affec- 
tion, preventing the motion of the jaws. 
See Trismus, and Tetanus. 

LOCOMOTION {locus, a place, moveo, 
to move). The act of moving from one 
place to another. 

LOCUS NIGER. Literally, a black 
spot ; a term applied to the dark appear- 
ance in the centre of the section of the 
crus cerebri. 

LOCUS PERFORATUS. A whitish 
grey substance situated between the crura 
cerebri, and perforated by several aper- 
tures for the transmission of vessels. It 
is sometimes called pons Tarini. 

LOCUSTA. A spikelet, or partial 
spike ; a portion of the inflorescence of 
many grasses. 

LOCUSTIC ACID {locusta, a grass- 
hopper). An acid procured from grass- 
hoppers, differing little from acetic acid. 

LOGWOOD. The wood of the Has- 
matoxylon Campechianum, a native of 
Campeachy, in America. It is imported 
in logs, and is principally used as a dye- 
wood. The colouring matter is called 
hcematin. 

LOHOCH, or LOOCH. Eclegma. A 
thick syrup, made of mucilaginous sub- 
stances. 

LONG SIGHT. An affection of the 
sight, in which the vision is only accurate 
when the object is far off: it is the dys- 
opia proximorum of Cullen, and the vue 
longue of the French. See Lens. 

LONGISSIMUS OCULI. A name 
given to the obliquus superior, from its 
being the longest muscle of the eye. See 
Brevissiinus. 

LONGITUDINAL {longus, long). A 
term applied to two sinuses of the dura 
mater. 

LONGUS COLLI. A long muscle at 
the back of the oesophagus, which sup- 
ports and bends the neck. The muscle 



LUM 



LUS 



between the spinous process^ of the 
vertebrae and the angle of the ribs is 
called longissimus dorsi. 

LORDO'SIS (\0pd69, curved). Pro- 
curvation of the head and shoulders, or 
anterior crookedness. Posterior incur- 
vation was formerly called cyrtosis ; and 
the lateral form, hybosis. 

LORI'CA. Literally, a coat of mail. 
A kind of lute, with which vessels are 
coated before they are exposed to the 
fire. Hence the term lorication in che- 
mistry, for coating. See Lute. 

LOTIO. A lotion, or wash ; a liquid 
remedy, intended for external applica- 
tion. This generic term comprehends 
embrocations, fomentations, liniments, 
ccllyria, &c. 

LOUSINESS. Malts pediculi. An 
affection in which the cuticle is infested 
with lice ; depositing their nits or eggs 
at the roots of the hair, accompanied 
with troublesome itching. See Pedictdus. 

LOXA BARK. The Pale Crown bark, 
the produce of the Cinchona Condami- 
nea. 

LOXARTHRUS (Xofoc, twisted, Sp- 
dpov, a joint). An obliquity of a joint, 
without spasm or luxation, as varus, 
valgus, &c. 

LOXIA {Ko^o^, twisted). Caput obsti- 
pum. Wry-neck : a distortion of the 
head towards one side. 

LOZENGES. Trochisci. These are 
composed of fine powders, mixed with 
mucilage and sugar, (or adulterated with 
pipe-clay,) rolled into cakes, cut into 
shapes, and dried in a stove. 

LUES VENEREA. Literally, the 
plague of Venus, or venereal disease. 
Syphilis; a disease also called morbus 
Aphrodisius, morbus Gallicus, morbus 
Indicus, morbus Neapolitanus, &c. 

LUGOL'S SOLUTION. A liquid con- 
taining 20 grains of iodine, and 30 grains 
of iodide of potassium in one ounce of 
•water. 

LUMBA'GO {lumbus, the loins). A 
rheumatic affection of the muscles about 
the loins. 

LUMBI. The loins ; the inferior part 
of the back. 

1. Lumbar. The designation of nerves, 
arteries, veins, &c., belonging to the re- 
gion of the loins. Hence, also, the term 
lumbo-abdominal, or lumbar plexus ; the 
lumbosacral nerves, and the lumbo- 
dorsal region. 

2. Lumbar Abscess. Psoas abscess. A 
chronic collection of pus, which forms in 
the cellular substance of the loins, be- 

181 



hind the peritonaeum, and descends in 
the course of the psoas muscle. 

LUMBRI'CALES {lumbricus, an earth- 
worm). The name of four muscles of 
the hand and foot ; so called from their 
resemblance to the earth-worm. 

LUMBRI'CUS {lubricus, slippery). 
The earth-worm. Ascaris lumbricoides 
is the long and round worm, found in 
the intestines. 

Lumbricus cucurbitinus. The Gourd- 
worm of Dr. Heberden, so called from 
its joints, when broken, presenting the 
appearance of gourd-seeds. 

LUNA. The Moon; the alchemical 
name of silver. 

LUNA CORNEA. Horn silver. The 
chloride of silver, so named from its 
horn-like appearance and consistence. 

LUNA FIXATA. LiteraUy, fixed 
moon; the name given by the famous 
empiric Luddemann to the cadmia of 
Gaubius, a remedy formerly much used 
in clonic affections, and consisting of 
oxide, or the flowers of zinc. 

LUNAR CAUSTIC {luna, the moon; 
the old alchemical name for silver). 
The Argenti nitras, or fused nitrate of 
silver. 

LUNATIC {luna, the moon). One 
who is affected by the changes of the 
moon, or is periodically deranged. 

LUNATICA ISCHURIA [luna, the 
moon). A suppression of urine, which 
returns monthly, or with the moon. 

LUNGS. Two vesicular organs, situ- 
ated in the thorax. The right lung is 
divided into three lobes; the left, into 
two; each of them is subdivided into 
lobules, or small lobes. See Pulmo and 
Respiration. 

LUNULA (dim. of luna, the moon). 
The white semi-lunar mark at the base 
of the nail. 

LUPIA. Wen; a tumor, termed by 
Willan molluscum. 

LUPULIN. The name given by Dr. 
Ives to the active principle of the Hu- 
mulus Lupulus, or the hop. 

LUPUS (Lat. a wolf). Noli me tan- 
gere. A slow tubercular affection, oc- 
curring especially about the face, com- 
monly ending in ragged ulcerations of 
the nose, cheeks, forehead, eyelids, and 
lips. It is so called from its eating away 
the flesh, like a wolf. 

LUSCITAS {luscus, blind of one eye). 
A term applied by Beer to a distortion 
of the eyeball, which resembles squint- 
ing, but differs from it in the want of 
power to move the affected eye when the 



MAC 



MAC 



other is closed.. It occurs as a symptom 
in amaurosis. 

LUTE. A compound paste, made of 
clay, sand, and other materials, for closing 
the joinings of retorts, receivers, &c., in 
chemical experiments, in order to render 
them air-tight. Fat lute is made of 
powdered pipe-clay and boiled linseed 
oil, otherwise called drying oil, formed 
into a mass like putty. 

LUTEOLINE. The colouring prin- 
ciple of Reseda luteola, commonly called 
Dyers' Rocket, Yellow Weed or Weld. 

LUXATION [luxo, toput out of joint). 
Dislocation ; or the removal of the arti- 
cular surfaces of bones out of their proper 
situation. See Dislocation. 

LYCANTHROPIA (Xi^ko?, a wolf, 
avOpoy-noi, a man). Liipina insania. 
Wolf-madness, called cucubuih by Avi- 
cenna, in which men fancy themselves 
to be wolves, bears, &c. In Pliny's time 
this metamorphosis appears to have been 
reciprocal : he says, ' homines interdiun 
lupos fieri, et contra.' 

LYE. A solution of potass, or other 
alkaline substances, used in the arts. 

LYMPH {lympha, water). A colour- 
less liquid which circulates in the 
lymphatics. The liquid which moistens 
the surface of cellular membrane. 

Lymph of Plants. The unelaborated 
sap, so called from its resemblance to 
water. 



LYMPH-CATARACT. The most fre- 
quent form of spurious cataract ; so 
named by Beer, who observes, that only 
this species deserves the name of mem- 
branous, as alone consisting of an adven- 
titious membrane, formed by inflamma- 
tion. 

LYMPHATICS {lympha, water). Mi- 
nute tubes which pervade every part of 
the body, which they absorb, or take up, 
in the form of lymph. They are some- 
times called ductus aguosi. 

LYNCURIUM. This is supposed to 
have been the ancient name of tourmalin. 
It possesses the property of attracting 
light bodies, when heated. The Dutch, 
in Ceylon, call it aschentrikker, from its 
attracting the ashes, when a portion of it 
is laid over the fire. 

LYRA (a lyre). Psalterium. The 
name given to that part of the fornix, 
which presents the appearance of some 
white lines, somewhat resembling the 
strings of a lyre. 

LYSSA {\vaa-a, canine madness). En- 
iasia lyssa ; a terra applied by Dr. Good 
to hydrophobia. 

LYTHRUM SALICARIA. Spiked 
Purple Loosetrife, an indigenous plant, 
principally used in diarrhoea and dysen- 
tery. 

LYTTA. The former name of the 
Cantharis vesicatoria, or blistering bee- 
tle. 



M 



M. This letter has the following sig- 
nifications in prescriptions : — 

1. Manipulus, a handful; when herbs, 
flowers, chips, &c., are ordered. 

2. Misce, mix ; thus, m. f. haust. sig- 
nifies, mix and let a draught be made. 

3. Mensurd, by measure. 

MACE. A thin, flat, membranous 
substance which envelopes the nutmeg ; 
it is an expansion of the funiculus, and 
is termed, in botany, an arillus. 

MACERATION (macero, to make soft 
by steeping). The steeping of a body for 
some time in cold or warm water. 

MACH AON. The name of an ancient 
physician, said to be a son of iEscula- 
pius ; hence, particular inventions have 
been dignified with his name, as asclepias 
Machaonis, a collyrium described by 
Scribonius ; and medicine in general is 
sometimes called ars Machaonia, 
182 



MACIES {maceo, to be lean). Wasting, 
atrophy, or emaciation. 

MACQUER'S SALT. Neutral arse- 
nical salt of Macquer ; super-arseniate of 
potass. 

MACROCEPHALOUS (yuaKpor, large, 
Ke<pa\i], the head). Large-headed; a 
term applied by Richard to those Dico- 
tyledonous embryos, in which the two 
cot3'ledons cohere, as in horse-chestnut. 
Gsertner terms these embryos pseudo- 
monocotyledonous. 

Macropodal [jj-aKpo^, large, woilr, 7ro56r, 
a foot). Large-footed ; a term applied by 
Richard to a modification of the mono- 
cotyledonous embryo, in which the radicle 
presents an unusual protuberance, as in 
wheat. 

MACROCOSM (/uaKpo?, large, kochov, 
world). Large world ; a term employed 
as synonymous with universe; while 



MAG 



MAG 



microcosm, or little world, has been used 
by some philosophers as a designation of 
man. 

MACULA. A spot. A small patch or 
speck of the cornea. See Opaciti/. 

1 . Macula germinatlva. The germinal 
spot, or nucleus germinativus of Wagner ; 
a spot found in the germinal vesicle of 
the ovum, consisting of one or more 
somewhat opaque corpuscules, and pos- 
sibly the analogue of the nucleus of 
formative cells. 

2. MaculcE. Spots ; a permanent dis- 
coloration of the skin, generally the result 
of an alteration of the natural texture of 
the part. Maculee have been distin- 
guished into ephelis, sun-burn or freckles ; 
nccvus, or mother-spots ; spilus, or thick- 
ening and discoloration of the rete mu- 
cosum ; and moles. 

3. Macula: hepaticce. Hepatic spots; 
the term under which Sennertus de- 
scribed the Pityriasis versicolor, or varie- 
gated dandriff. 

4. Macules volaiicce. Flying spots ; a 
designation of the Erythema fugax, from 
its fugitive character. 

MADARO'SIS (Ma3aa), to be bald). 
A defect or loss of the eyebrows or eye- 
lashes. 

MADDER. The root of the Rubia 
Tinctorum ; used in dyeing the Adria- 
nople or Turkey Red, and other colours. 
It is distinguished, in commerce, accord- 
ing to its quality, by the terms crop, 
ombro, gamene, and mull, of which the 
first is the best. Two colourless acids 
have been noticed in madder, viz. the 
madderic and the rubiacic acids. See 
Alizarine. 

MADREPORE. A species of coral ; 
a zoophyte, consisting of carbonate of 
lime, and a little animal membranaceous 
substance. 

MAGISTERY {magister, a master). 
A term formerly applied to almost all 
precipitates, supposed to be subtle and 
masterly preparations ; but at present it 
is applied only to a few, as the magistery 
of bismuth, or the sub-nitrate. 

Magister ium Argenti. The alchemical 
name of the nitras argenti, also called 
crystalli Dianae ; when fused, it was 
termed lapis infernalis. 

MAGISTRAL {magistralis, masterly). 
A term applied to medicines which are 
prepared extemporaneously, and which 
were therefore considered as masterly 
preparations. 

MAGMA (/udo-o-oyua*, to knead dough). 
183 



Literally, a kneaded or squeezed mass ; 
dregs, or sediment ; a kind of salve. 

MAGNES ARSENICALIS. A cor- 
rosive preparation of equal parts of sul- 
phur, white arsenic, and common anti- 
mony, mixed by fusion. 

MAGNESIA {magnes, a magnet, or 
loadstone). An alkaline earth, having a 
metallic base called magnesium. The 
term magnesia was originally employed 
to denote any substance which had the 
power of attracting some principle from 
the air ; the peculiar body which we now 
denominate magnesia was first sold as a 
panacea, by a canon at Rome, in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, 
under the title of Magnesia alba, or 
Count Palma's Powder. 

1 . Magnesia usta. The oxide of mag- 
nesium, prepared by calcining the arti- 
ficial carbonate. It is sometimes called 
talc earth or bitter earth. 

2. Magnesia alba. The carbonate of 
magnesia, prepared by precipitating a 
boiling solution of the sulphate by means 
of carbonate of potash. There are two 
kinds, the heavy, and the light, commonly 
called Scotch magnesia. 

3. Magnesia nigra. The black oxide 
of manganese was long known by this 
name, from its fancied relation to mag- 
nesia alba. 

4. Magnesia water. An aerated water 
prepared by impregnating the carbonate 
of magnesia, dissolved in water, with ten 
times its volume of carbonic acid gas, 
by means of a forcing-pump or soda- 
water apparatus. 

5. Magnesice sulphas. Sulphate of mag- 
nesia ; bitter purging salt ; Epsom salt ; 
formerly magnesia vitriolata, and sal 
catharticum amarum. 

MAGNESIUM. A metal having the 
colour and lustre of silver. At a red 
heat it burns brilliantly, and forms mag- 
nesia. 

MAGNET. An iron ore, commonly 
called loadstone, which exhibits the re- 
markable property of attracting other 
kinds of iron or steel. Its name is de- 
rived from Magnesia, the place in which 
the ore, or native magnet, was originally 
found. It has since been discovered in 
many other localities. 

1. The magnet, or loadstone, in powder, 
was formerly an ingredient of several 
plasters, and was supposed to possess the 
power of drawing bullets and arrow- 
heads out of the body, as in the emplas- 
trum divinum Nicolai, the emplastrum 



M AL 



M AL 



nigrum of Augsburg, the opodeldoc and 
attractivum of Paracelsus, &c. 

2. Artificial magtiet. If a straight bar 
of hard-tempered steel, devoid of all per- 
ceptible magnetism, be held in a position 
slightly inclined to the perpendicular, 
the lower end deviating to the north 
(i. e. with one end pointing about 24^° 
west of north, and downwards, so as to 
make an angle of 72^° with the horizon), 
and struck several smart blows with a 
hammer, it will be found to have acquired 
the properties of *a magnet. 

3. Magnetic properties. These are of 
four kinds: — 1. polarity; 2. attraction of 
unmagnetic iron ; 3. attraction and repul- 
sion of magnetic iron ; and, 4. the power 
of inducing magnetism in other iron. 

4. Magnetism. The terra which ex- 
presses the peculiar property, occasionally 
possessed by certain bodies, more espe- 
cially by iron and some of its compounds, 
by which, under certain circumstances, 
they mutually attract or repel one an- 
other, according to determinate laws. 

5. Magnetic fluid. The hypothetical 
agent, to which the phenomena of mag- 
netism have been referred. Some have 
supposed two such fluids, — a boreal, or 
northern, and an austral, or southern. 

6. Magnetic magazine. The name 
given to a kind of battery, formed of 
several magnets placed one over the 
other, with all their poles similarly dis- 
posed, and fastened firmly together. 

7. Magnetic plates. Plates of mag- 
netised steel, of various forms, for fitting 
any part of the body. 

8. Electro-magnetism. The designation 
of the phenomena showing the connexion 
between electricity and magnetism. 

9. Animal magnetism. A fanciful sys- 
tem introduced by Mesmer, from the 
supposed effects of the magnet upon the 
human body, and hence termed Mes- 
merism. 

MAGNUS MORBUS. The great dis- 
ease ; a term applied by Hippocrates to 
epilepsy. 

MAHOGANY. ' The wood of the 
Swietenia Mahagoni, the bark of which is 
used in the West Indies as a substitute 
for Peruvian bark, but is inferior to it. 

MAJORANA HORTENSIS. Sweet 
Marjoram ; a Labiate plant, cultivated in 
kitchen gardens, and employed for pre- 
paring the oil of sweet marjoram. 

MAL {mains, evil). The French term 
for a malady or disease. 

1. Mai de la Rosa. The name given 
by Thiery to scarlatina. 

184 ' 



2. Mai de Siam. A name given in 
some parts of India to yellow fever. 

3. Mai del sole. A name of the Italian 
Elephantiasis, from its being commonly 
ascribed to the heat of the sun's rays. 

4. Mai des ardens. One of the desig- 
nations of a fatal epidemic disease, which 
prevailed extensively in the early and 
dark ages, as the sequel of war and 
famine. It is placed by Sauvages under 
the head of Erysipelas pestilens ; and by 
Sagar under the genus necrosis. 

MALA. A term contracted from max- 
illa, as ala from axilla. In classic writers, 
genes is properly the part of the face 
under the eyelids, while mala denotes 
the cheeks, the round and lively-red part 
of the face; also the jaw, the cheek- 
bone. 

MALACENCEPHALON {fiaXaKo^, 
soft, k'^Ke^ahoi, the brain). A term ap- 
plied by Dr. Craigie to simple diminished 
consistence of the brain, without change 
of structure. 

MALACHITE. Green Bice. A beau- 
tiful native green carbonate of copper. 

MALACIA {naXaKla, softness). Pica. 
Depraved appetite. The desire for one 
particular kind of food, and disgust for 
all other kinds. It may assume the form 
of mal d'estomac, or dirt-eating 

MALACOSTEON dmaXanoi, soft, h<r- 
reov, a bone). Mollities ossium. Soft- 
ness of the bones. 

MALACTINIA (^aXaKor, soft). The 
third class of the Cyclo-neura or Radiata, 
consisting of soft aquatic animals, emit- 
ting an acid secretion from their surface, 
which is capable of irritating and inflam- 
ing the human skin, like the stinging of 
a nettle; hence the name acalephce, or 
nettles, has been commonly given to this 
class. 

MALAGMA (^laXao-o-to, to soften). A 
term synonymous with cataplasma, and 
so called from its softening property. 

MALAGUETTA PEPPER. Seeds 
resembling, if not identical with, the 
grains of paradise, and referred to the 
Amomum Grana Paradisi. Roscoe, how- 
ever, aflTirms that they are the produce 
of A. melegueta. 

MAL AM BO BARK. Matias Baric. 
The bark of a tree said to be procured 
from Columbia, and used as a substitute 
for cinchona. 

MALARIA [mala aria, bad air, Ital.). 
A term generally employed to designate 
certain elfluvia or emanations from 
marshy ground. Hence the term marsh- 
fever, in Europe ; jungle-fever, in India. 



M AL 



M AL 



The malaria of Campagna is the name 
of an endemic intermittent, arising from 
the aria cattiva, as it is called, exhaled 
from decaying vegetables in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome, especially about the 
Pontine marshes. 

MALAXES. Neutral and acid salts 
formed by malic acid with alkaline and 
magnesian bases. 

MALFORMATION. A deviation from 
the natural form of an organ. It is 
termed — 

1. Defective, when an organ is entirely 
deficient, as the heart, &c., in acardiac 
cases. 

2. Irregular, as in the misplacement, 
&c., of parts in the heart, constituting the 
qualitative malformations of Meckel. 

3. Superfluous, when consisting of ex- 
cessive developement of an organ, as 
in the case of supernumerary auricles, 
&c. 

MALIC ACID {n7\\ov, Dor. fxaXov, 
malum, an apple). An acid existing in 
apples, but generally prepared from the 
berries of the Sorbus aucuparia, or moun- 
tain ash. By dry distillation, it yields 
another acid, termed the maleic. 

MALICORIUM. The rind or external 
coat of the pomegranate. 

MALIGNANT. Malignus. A term 
applied to diseases in which the sym- 
ptoms appear fatal, as in typhus, cholera, 
cynanche, &c. 

MALIS (jufiXtr). Maliasmus. A cu- 
taneous disease, produced by parasitic 
worms, formerly called dodders. The 
different species of vermination are — 

1. Mails pediculi, or lousiness. 

2. Malls pulicis, or flea-bite. 

3. Mails acari, or tick-bite. 

4. Malts filariee, or guinea-worm. 

5. Malls oestri, or gadfly-bite. 

6. Malls gordli, or hair-worm. 

MALLEABILITY (malleus, a ham- 
mer). A property of some metals, by 
which they are beaten out in plates, or 
leaves, by a hammer. Gold leaf, for 
instance, is so thin, that less than five 
grains will cover a surface of 272J square 
inches; and the thickness of each leaf 
does not exceed the j^'jjigth part of an 
inch. 

MALLEATIO (malleus, a hammer). 
A form of chorea, consisting in a con- 
vulsive action of one or both hands, 
which strike the knee like a hammer. 

MALLEOLAR (malleolus, dim. of 
malleus, a hammer). A term applied to 
two branches of the posterior tibial ar- 
tery. 

185 



MALLEOLUS (dim. of malleus, a mal- 
let). The ancle, so called from its resem- 
blance to a mallet ; there is an external 
and an internal malleolus. The term 
malleolus is applied, in botany, to the 
layer by which some plants are propa- 
gated. 

MALLEUS (a hammer). One of the 
ossiculee auditus, or small bones of the 
ear, in form resembling a hammer. It 
consists of a head, a neck, a handle or 
manubrium, and two processes. 

MALPIGHIAN CORPUSCULES. 
The name of some whitish, round, mi- 
nute bodies, discovered by Malpighi in 
the red substance of the spleen. They 
are very different from the grape-like 
corpuscules discovered by the same writer 
in the spleen of some herbivorous qua- 
drupeds. 

Malplghian vessels of insects, A term 
applied to the biliary caeca of insects, as 
observed by Malpighi, and considered to 
be analogous to the liver of the higher 
animals. 

MALT. Brasium ; hyne. Barley made 
to germinate by moisture and warmth, 
and then dried, in order to destroy the 
vitality of the embryo. When scorched, 
it is called high-dried malt. 

MALTHA. Mineral pitch, or tallow ; 
a variety of bitumen. See Bitumen. 

MALTING. The process of making 
malt ; it consists in the inducing of an 
artificial growth or germination of barley, 
by steeping in water, and then evolving 
the saccharine principle by the applica- 
tion of heat. This process consists of 
four distinct stages, viz. — 

1 . Steeping, or immerging the grain in 
water for about two days, until consi- 
derably swelled. 

2. Couching, or depositing the grain in 
heaps on the couch-frame, for about thirty 
hours ; it then becomes warm and dis- 
posed to germinate. 

3. Flooring, or spreading the grain on 
floors in layers of a few inches in thick- 
ness, to prevent its unequal or partial 
germination. 

4. Kiln-drying, or arresting the pro- 
cess of germination, when the saccharine 
matter is freely developed, by exposure 
to a gradually increasing temperatuje in 
the kiln. 

MALUM (fiaXov, Doric^ pro ju/jAoi/). 
An apple. The following terms occur in 
classic writers : — 

1. Malum citreum. The citron. 

2. Malum cotoneum. The quince. 

3. Malum Epirolicum. The apricot. 



M A M 



MA N 



4. Malum granatum. The pomegra- 
nate. 

5. Malum Medicum. The lemon. 

6. Malum Persicum. The peach. 

MALUM MORTUUM. A disease ap- 
pearing in the form of a pustule, which 
soon acquires a dry, hrown, hard, and 
hroad crust, remaining for a long time 
before it can be detached. It is mostly 
observed on the tibia and os coccygis. 

MALUM PILARE {pilus, a hair). A 
complaint, sometimes confounded with 
crinones, and said to be owing to hairs 
not duly expelled, which stick in the 
skin, especially in the backs of young 
infants, inducing incessant itching, and 
sometimes raising small tumors. 

MALVACE^. The Mallow tribe of di- 
cotyledonous plants. Herbaceous plants, 
trees, or shrubs, with leaves alternate; 
flowers polypetalous ; stamens hypogy- 
nous, monadelphous ; fruit capsular or 
baccate, containing seed with crumpled 
cotyledons. 

Malva sylvestris. Common Mallow, 
an indigenous plant abounding in mu- 
cilage. The colouring matter of the 
flower is a very delicate test of alkalis, 
which render it green. 

MAMA-PIAN. The term applied, in 
Africa, to the master-fungus, or mother- 
yaw, supposed to be the source of all the 
other tumors in framboesia. 

MAMMA. The breast; the organ 
which secretes the milk. The deep- 
coloured circle which surrounds the 
papilla, or the nipple, is termed the 
areola. The tubuli lactiferi are lactiferous 
ducts, which enter into the mammary 
gland situated behind the adipose tissue 
of the mamma. 

MAMMALIA (majMOTa, ateat). Thefifth 
class of the Encephalata or Vertebrata, 
consisting of animals provided with mam- 
mary glands for the lactation of their 
young after birth. 

1. Bi-mana {binus, i^o, manus, hand). 
Two-handed animals, as man. 

2. Quadru-mana (quatuor, four, manus, 
hand). Four-handed animals, as mon- 
keys. 

3. Carnivora {caro, carnis, food, voro, 
to devour). Flesh-eating animals. These 
are subdivided into the cheiroptera (xe'p» 
xejpof, a hand, inepov, a wing), or ani- 
mals with winged hands, as the bat ; and 
insectivora, or animals which feed on in- 
sects, as the hedgehog. They are also dis- 
tinguished into the plantigrada {planta, 
the foot, gradior, to walk), or animals 
which walk on the soles of the feet ; di- 



gitigrada, or such as walk on their digits, 
or toes ; amphibia (a/Kpl, both, /3»or, life), 
or animals which live, indifferently, on 
land or in water, as the seal ; and the 
marsupialia (marsupium, a pouch), or 
pouch-bearing animals, as the kangaroo 
and opossum. 

4. Rodentia {rodo, to gnaw). Glires, 
or gnawing animals, as the beaver. 

5. Edentata {edentulus, toothless). Ani- 
mals without teeth, as the armadillo. 

6. Pachydermata {iraxv^, thick, bepfia, 
skin). Belluae, or thick-skinned animals, 
as the elephant. 

7. Ruminantia {rumino, to chew the 
cud). Pecora, or ruminating animals, as 
the deer. 

8. Cetacea (cete, a whale). The Whale 
tribe ; mammiferous animals destitute of 
hind feet, and having their trunk termi- 
nating in a horizontal tail. See Zoology. 

MAMMARY ABSCESS {mamma, the 
breast). Another name for milk abscess. 

MAMMARY GLAND {mamma, the 
breast). The gland placed beneath the 
adipose layer of the mamma. 

MAMMILLA (dim. of mamma, a 
breast). Literally, a little breast. A 
term synonymous with papilla, as ap- 
plied to the conical bodies of the kidneys, 
at the points where the urine escapes. 

1. Mammillary. Having small rounded 
prominences, like teats ; the name of an 
eminence of the inferior vermiform pro- 
cess of the cerebellum. 

2. Mammillares processus. A name 
given by the ancients to the olfactory 
nerves, which they considered as emunc- 
tories, or canals, by which the serum and 
pituita, separated from the brain, flowed 
off. 

MANCHINEAL. The Hippomane 
mancinella, a tree of such extremely 
poisonous properties, that persons have 
been said to die from merely sleeping 
beneath its shade; the juice is used to 
poison weapons : Order Euphorbia ceie. 

MANDIBULUM {mando, to chew). 
Maxilla inferior. A mandible or lower 
jaw. In insects, the upper jaw is termed 
mandible; the lower jaw, maxilla. 

Mandibulo-labialis. The inferior den- 
tar branch of the inferior maxillary nerve. 
MANDRAGORA OFFICINALIS. 
The Mandrake, a plant of the order 
SolanacecE, the root of which, from its 
fancied resemblance to the human form, 
has been termed antliropomorphon {av- 
^ptoTTor, man, ^op<j)Tj, form), and supposed 
to prevent barrenness. The root of Bry- 
onia dioica is somewhat similar in form, 



MAN 



MAR 



and is sold for mandrake. The fruit of 
Mandragora has been termed malum ca- 
ninum, or dog-apple. 

MANDUCATION {manduco, to eat). 
The act of eating. 

MANGANESE. A greyish-white 
metal, found in the ashes of plants, the 
bones of animals, and in many minerals. 
It was named by Gahn magnesium, a 
term which has since been applied to the 
metallic base of magnesia. The binoxide, 
used in chemistry, is commonly termed 
native black or peroxide of manganese. 

MANGEL WURZEL. Field-beet; 
a mongrel plant, between the red and 
white beet. It is used as food for cattle ; 
also in distillation, and in the extraction 
of sugar. 

MANIA {jxalvonat, to be mad). In- 
sanity ; disordered intellect. In the 
works of Sauvages, and other writers, we 
find the t&rvcisvesanice, ox hallucinationes, 
denoting erroneous impressions of the 
understanding ; morositates, or morbi 
pathetici, consisting of depraved appe- 
tites, and other morbid changes in the 
feelings and propensities. 

1. iWo«o-»iflnia (juovof, alone). Insanity 
upon one particular subject, the faculties 
being unaffected upon every other. 

2. Dccmono-mania {daifiav, a daemon). 
Insanity in which the patient supposes 
himself to be possessed by daemons. 

3. Eroto-mania {epw?, love). Insanity 
occasioned by excessive affection. 

4. Dementia. Incoherent or chaotic 
madness ; the first period of fatuity. 

5. Amentia. The last stage of fatuity; 
an almost total obliteration of the facul- 
ties. 

6. Nusto-mania {voaro?, a return). 
Home-madness; an aggravated form of 
nostalgia. 

MANIAC {fxavia, madness). A mad- 
man ; one attacked by mania. 

MANIPULATION {manipulus, a hand- 
ful). The mode of handling utensils, 
materials, &c., in experimental philo- 
sophy ; the performance of experiments. 

MANIP'ULUS (contr. mani'plus — quod 
manum impleat, because it fills the hand). 
Properly, a sheaf. A handful, as of herbs, 
flowers, chips, &c. 

MANNA (a term derived from a Chal- 
daic root, signifying what is it?). The 
concrete juice of the Ornus Europcea, and 
the Eucalyptus mannifera of New South 
Wales. 

1. Manna cannulata. Flake manna, 
the best variety, occurring in a stalactitic 
form. 

187 



2. Sicilian Tolfa manna. An inferior 
variety, corresponding with manna in sorts 
of some writers. The commonest kind 
is called Sicilia?i manna ; and appears 
to be, according to Dr. Pereira, what is 
sometimes called common or fatty manna. 

3. Manna of the larch. Manna de 
Brian^on; a saccharine exudation from 
the Pinus larix. 

4. Manna sugar, or mannite. The 
sweet principle of manna, and one of the 
products of the viscous fermentation of 
cane and grape sugar. It is identical 
with grenadin. 

MANUBRIUM {^manu habere, to hold 
in the hand). A haft or handle ; the 
upper bone of the sternum. 

MANULUVIUM {manus, a hand, lavo, 
to wash). A hand-bath. 

MANURES. Animal or vegetable 
matters deposited in the soil to accele- 
rate vegetation and increase the pro- 
duction of crops. The principal ma- 
nures are rape-cake, sea- weeds, bones, 
fish, night-soil, soot, &c. 

MARANTA ARUNDINACEA. The 
Arrow-root plant, so called from its re- 
puted property of counteracting the effects 
of poisoned arrows. The tubers yield the 
fecula marantce, or the West Indian 
Arrow-root of commerce. 

MARASMUS (MapaiVo), to wither). 
Emaciation ; a wasting of the body ; for- 
merly a generic term for atrophy, tabes, 
and phthisis. 

MARCET'S BLOWPIPE. An appa- 
ratus for increasing temperature, by 
urging the flame of an alcohol lamp by 
a blowpipe supplied with oxygen gas. 

MARCOR (marceo, to droop). A term 
employed by Celsus for drowsiness. In 
Cullen's nosology, the Marcores consti- 
tute the first order of Cachexice, denoting 
emaciations, or wasting of the whole 
body, as tabes and atrophia. 

MARGARIC ACID (/xapYopJr, a 
pearl). An acid obtained from human 
fat and vegetable fixed oils, and also 
produced by the dry distillation of ox 
and mutton suet, and of stearic acid. Its 
name is derived from its pearly lustre. 

1. Margarine. Margarate of glyceryl; 
a principle discovered in spermaceti. 

2. Margarone. A pearly substance 
obtained by dry distillation of margaric 
acid. 

MARGINALIS (margo, a margin). 
Angularis. A designation of the shoot 
of the cervico-facialis, or inferior facial 
branch of the seventh pair of nerves. 

MARINE ACID (mare, the sea). 



MAS 



MAT 



Spirit of salt. Muriatic or hydrochloric 
acid, procured from common salt by dis- 
tilling it with sulphuric acid and water 
over a water-bath. 

MARLY CLAY. A variety of clay, 
used in making pale bricks, and as a 
manure. 

MARMARYGE (iiapnapvytj, dazzling 
light, Hipp.). Visa sliicidus ; photopsia. 
A disease of the eyes, in which sparks 
and flashes of fire seem to present them- 
selves. Homer applies the term to the 
rapid motion of the feet in dancing, — 

fiapnapvyai TTobiov. 

MARMOR ALBUM. White marble ; 
an indurated carbonate of lime. 

Marmor metalUcum. Metallic marble; 
the native sulphate of barytes. 

MARROW. Medulla. The animal 
fat found in the cavities of long bones. 

MARRUBIUM VULGARE. White 
Horehound; a Labiate plant, employed 
for making horehound tea, &c. 

MARS, Martis. The god of war. 
The mythological and alchemical name 
of iron. Hence the salts of iron were 
CdllGA. martial salts ; the protoxide, mar- 
tial ethiops ; the sulphuret, martial py- 
rites. 

MARSH'S APPARATUS. An instru- 
ment for detecting the presence of arse- 
nious acid in solution. 

MARSUPIUM. A purse or pouch. 
A dark -coloured membrane found in the 
vitreous humor of the eye of birds. 

1. Marsupialia. Animals possessing 
abdominal pouches, as the opossum. 

2. Marsupialis. Another name of the 
bursalis muscle, or obturator internus. 

MARTIAL (mars, iron). An old my- 
thological designation of several prepara- 
tions of iron. See Mars. 

MARUM SYRIACUM. Teucrium 
marum. Syrian Herb Mastich ; a bitter 
aromatic plant, smelling like amm«nia, 
and used as an ervhine. It has lately 
been asserted to be excellent in nasal 
polypus. — Quart. Journ. of For. Med. 

MASS ifxda-a-ofjiai, to knead together). 
A term synonymous with quantity; thus, 
the mass of a body is the quantity of 
matter it contains. Also a term gene- 
rally applied to the compound of which 
pills are formed. 

MASSA CARNEA, Jacobi Sylvii, or 
Plantae Pedis. The flexor accessorius 
muscle, which lies in the sole of the foot. 
It is a small mass of flesh, connected with 
the flexor longus. 

MASSETER (/iao-<rdojaat, to chew). 
A muscle which assists in chewing. 
188 



Hence the term masseteric, as applied to 
a branch of the inferior maxillary nerve. 

MASSICOT. Yellow oxide, or pro- 
toxide of lead. When partially fused by 
heat, it is called litharge. 

MASTICATORIES (;«rts</co, to chew). 
Acrid sialogogues ; substances which, on 
being masticated, stimulate the excre- 
tory ducts, and increase the secretion of 
saliva. 

MASTIC. A resinous substance pro- 
duced by the Pistacia lentiscus ; used in 
fumigations, in making varnishes, &c. 

1. Mastic water. A remedy employed 
by the Albanian physicians in infantile 
diarrhoea ; it is simply water which has 
been boiled along with mastic. 

2. Masticin. A substance which re- 
mains on dissolving mastic in alcohol. 

MASTODYNIA (/iao-ror, the breast, 
hdvvrj, pain). Pain of the breasts in 
women, commonly a form of hysteria, 
or an attendant on lactation. 

MASTOID (ij.a<TT6s, a breast, et6or, 
likeness). Shaped like the breast or 
nipple ; as applied to a process, and a 
foramen of the temporal bone. The 
stylo-masto'id foramen is situated be- 
tween the root of the styloid and mas- 
toid processes. 

Mastoideus. A muscle of the fore part 
of the neck, the origin and insertion of 
which are shortly described in its syno- 
nym, sterno-cleido-mastoideus. 

MATER ACETI. Mother of Vine- 
gar ; a mould-plant, belonging to the 
genus mycoderma, which is developed 
in vinegar, and forms thereon a thick 
leather-like coat, similar to the inflam- 
matory crust which covers the crassa- 
mentum of blood drawn from rheumatic 
patients. 

MATERIA MEDIC A. That branch 
of medical science which relates to me- 
dicines. Medicinal agents are — 

1. Natural, or those which are found 
ready-prepared by nature : these are sim- 
ple and compound substances, organic 
and inorganic; the former belonging to 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms ; the 
latter to the mineral. 

2. Artificial, or those which have been 
modified, either by addition or subtrac- 
tion of some of their parts ; these are 
called pharmaceutical preparations, and 
belong to the department of chemistry. 

Dr. Murray arranges the Materia 
Medica into four divisions : — 

1. General stimulants: these are dif- 
fusible, as narcotics and antispasmodics ; 
and permanent, as tonics and astringents. 



MAW 



MED 



2. Local stimulants : these are emetics, 
cathartics, emmenagogues, diuretics, dia- 
phoretics, expectorants, sialogogues, er- 
rhines, and epispastics. 

3. Chemical remedies : these are re- 
frigerants, antacids, lithontriptics, and 
escharotics. 

4. Mechanical remedies : these are 
anthelmintics, demulcents, diluents, and 
emollients. See Appendix. 

M ATI CO. The native name of the 
Piper an<justifolium, a Peruvian plant, 
recently introduced into this country. 
See Piper. 

MATLOCK. A village in Derbyshire, 
affording a spring of saline water. 

MATRASS. A cucurbit or vessel of 
glass, earthenware, or metal, usually of 
a globular shape, and open at the top, 
for the purposes of digestion, evapora- 
tion, &c. See Alembic. 

MATRES. Mothers ; a name formerly 
given to the membranes of the brain — 
the dura and pia mater, from the fanciful 
idea that they were the origins of all the 
other membranes of the body. 

MATRICARIA {matrix, the uterus). 
Medicines for disorders of the uterus. 

MATRIX. The earthy or stony mat- 
ter which accompanies ores, or envelopes 
them in the earth. Also a designation 
of the uterus or womb. 

MATTER (materia). The general term 
for designating all ponderable bodies; 
their ultimate particles are called mo- 
lecules or atoms. Material substances 
have two kinds of properties, physical 
and chemical, and the study of their 
phenomena has given rise to two cor- 
responding branches of knowledge, na- 
tural philosophy and chemistry. 

MATURATION {maturo, to ripen). 
The process succeeding to inflammation, 
by which pus is formed in an abscess. 
Applications which promote suppuration 
have been called maturants. 

MATURITY (maturus, ripe). A term 
applied to fruits and seeds which have 
reached the full period of their develop- 
ment. 

MAW- WORM. The Ascaris vermi- 
cularis. The term is derived, according 
to Dr. Harvey, from the occasional visit 
which this animal makes to the maw or 
stomach, in migrating from its proper 
region, which is the rectum; but, more 
probably, from the peculiar effects which 
it often produces on the maw or stomach, 
by sympathy, and without quitting its 
home, as a gnawing pain, and faintness 



from the intolerable itching it excites in 
the anus. 

MAXILLA. The jaw ; the jaw-bone. 
Hence the term maxillary, as applied to 
nerves, arteries, &c., belonging to the jaw. 
See Mandibulum. 

Maxillo-labialis. The name given by 
Chaussier to the triangularis labiorum. 

Maxillo-labii-nasalis. The name given 
by Dumas to the elevator labii superioris 
alaeque nasi. 

Maxillo-palpehralis. The name given 
by Dumas to the orbicularis palpebra- 
rum. 

MAXIMUM (supcrl. of magnus, great). 
A term denoting the greatest possible 
quantity or effect ; it is opposed to mini- 
mum, or the least possible; and to medium, 
or the mean between'these extremes. 

MEAD or METHEGLIN. Hydromel 
vinosum. The ancient beverage of the 
northern nations, prepared from honey 
and water. 

MEAL. Farina. The edible part of 
wheat, oats, rye, barley, &c., ground into 
a coarse flour. 

MEASLES. A cutaneous disease ; the 
first genus of the order Exanthemata, of 
Bateman. See Rubeola. 

MEA'TUS [meo, to pass, to flow). Li- 
terally, a passage. Hence — 

1. Meatus auditorius. A canal, partly 
cartilaginous and partly osseous, which 
extends from the concha to the tympa- 
num. 

2. Meatus urinarius. The orifice of 
the female urethra. 

MECHANICAL THEORY. A sys- 
tem of medicine, by which all diseases 
were attributed principally to lentor and 
morbid viscidity of the blood; attenuant 
and diluent medicines, or substances for 
promoting mechanical force, were adopt- 
ed : thus, mercury was supposed to act 
by its specific gravity. 

MECHOACAN. The slightly purga- 
tive root of a Mexican plant, probably 
some species of the genus Ipomcea. 

MECONIC ACID (mZ/ko,!-, a poppy). 
The characteristic acid of opium. 

Mechonia. An alkaline principle found 
in opium, associated with narceia. 

MECO'NIUM {ij.r\Kwviov, the inspis- 
sated juice of the poppy; opium). The 
first discharge of faeces, of a blackish 
green colour, in infants. It consists of 
the excrementitious matter of the bile of 
the foetus, which collects together with 
intestinal mucus in the lower part of the 
canal. 

MEDIASTI'NUM (ex medio stando). 



MED 



MEL 



A middle portion separating parts from 
eacli other, as the septum, which divides 
the cavity of the thorax into distinct 
parts. 

MEDICA'MEN. Any mixing or mix- 
ture. Tacitus has vis medicaminis, the 
violence of a poisonous mixture. 

MEDIC AMENTUM. A medicament; 
a term applied only to what heals bodily 
or mental disease, whereas remedium is 
said of any thing which contributes to 
the alleviation of pain. There are reme- 
dies against cold, but no medicament. 
Mcdicamentum is the remedy that is 
made use of, and remedium the healing 
remedy. Medicamenta cruda are un- 
prepared medicines or simples. 

MEDICI'NA (fi^dor, care). Medicine ; 
a term applied both to the art of physic, 
and to the remedy itself. 

1. Forensic medicine. Medical juris- 
prudence; the application of medical 
knowledge to the preservation of the 
human species and to the exercise of 
justice. 

2. Veterinary medicine. The applica- 
tion of medical knowledge to the treat- 
ment of the lower animals. 

MEDITULLIUM (ex medium et tul- 
lium, productio vocis). The very middle ; 
a term synonymous with dipliJe, or the 
cellular tissue of the bones of the skull. 

MEDIUS. Middle; equally distant 
from both extremities. Hence — 

1. Mediana vena. The middle vein of 
the arm, situated between the basilic and 
cephalic veins. 

2. Median nerve. The largest nerve of 
the brachial plexus. 

3. Median line. The vertical line 
which divides the body into two equal 
parts. 

MEDULLA. Marrow ; a kind of fixed 
oil, occupying the cavities of bones. In 
botany, the pith of plants. 

1. Medulla oblongata. The upper en- 
larged portion of the spinal cord, extend- 
ing from the cerebral protuberance to the 
great occipital foramen. 

2. Medulla spinalis. The spinal marrow 
or cord, extending from the great occi- 
pital foramen, to the second lumbar 
vertebra. It finally separates into the 
Cauda equina, or horse's tail. 

3. Medullary. The designation of the 
7vhite substance of the brain, contained 
within the cortical or cineritious sub- 
stance. 

MEDULLIN {medulla, pith). The 
name given by Dr. John to the porous 
pith of the sun-flower. 
190 



MEDU'SA. A genus of the Acalephae, 
or sea-nettles : on being touched, they 
induce redness and a tingling sensation ; 
they are also supposed to occasion, in 
certain latitudes, the phosphorescent ap- 
pearance of the sea. 

MEERSCHAUM. A silicate of mag- 
nesia ; a greasy, soapy substance, occur- 
ring in Cornwall. In Turkey and in 
Germany it is made into tobacco-pipes. 
It is also called kejffekil, or earth of 
Kaffa ; and ecume de mer, or sea-foam 

MEGRIM. This term is probably a 
corruption from the Greek compound 
word hemicrania, through the French 
word migraine. 

MEIBOMIAN GLANDS. Ciliary 
follicles. Small glands, first described 
by Meibomius, lying under the inner 
membrane of the eyelids. About twenty 
or thirty ducts of these glands open upon 
the tarsus of each eyelid. 

MEL. Honey ; a substance secreted 
by the nectariferous glands of flowers, 
and collected by the working bee, which 
transports it in its crop or honey-bag to 
the hive. See Honey. 

MELjENA (/xfcXatva voaot, morbus 
niger; the black disease; hence the name 
of the black jaundice). A term adopted 
by Sauvages from the writings of Hip- 
pocrates, to denote the occurrence of dark- 
coloured, grumous, and pitchy evacua- 
tions, generally accompanied by sangui- 
neous vomiting. The adjective is here 
used singly, the substantive being under- 
stood. By Hoflmann the disease is called 
secessus niger. 

MELALEUCA MINOR. The Lesser 
Melaleuca, a Myrtaceous plant, yielding 
cajeput oil. 

MELAM. A substance formed by 
distilling dry hydro-sulpho-cyanate of 
ammonia. On boiling melam with hydro- 
chloric acid, a crystalline substance is 
generated, called melamine. 

MELAMPODIUM. A name given by 
the Greeks to the Black Hellebore, from 
Melampus, who is said to have cured the 
daughters of Proetus, king of Argos, of 
melancholy, with this plant. 

MELAMPYRIN. A substance ob- 
tained from the Melampyrum nemorosum. 
It appears to be somewhat analogous to 
gum and sugar. 

MELANOMA (^fXav alixa, black 
blood). The name given by Dr. Good- 
win to asphyxia, from the colour of the 
blood in that aflfection ; he distinguishes 
the disease into melansema, from hang- 



MEL 



MEM 



ing ; from drowning ; and from inspira- 
tion of fixed air. 

MELANCHOLIA (neXatva xo\r], Wack 
bile, or choler). Melancholy; mental 
dejection. The varieties are the gloomy, 
or attonita ; the restless, or errabunda ; 
the mischievous, or vialemlens ; and the 
self-complacent, or complacens. 

MELANIC ACID {fxeXas, n€\avo^, 
black). The name given to a principle 
discovered by Dr. Marcet, in a specimen 
of black urine. Dr. Prout says it is 
apparently connected with lithic acid. 

MELANO'MA {fxe\at, neKavov, black). 
This tenn implies more than the mela- 
fiosis of Laennec ; for, whereas the latter 
denotes a morbid product, sui generis, 
the former is employed by Dr. Carswell 
to signify all "black discolourations or 
products," which he separates into two 
groups, the true and the spurious. 

MELANO'SIS ifi€\M, iieXavoi, black). 
A morbid product of a dark brown or 
black colpur, first described by Laennec, 
in 1806, under the forms of masses en- 
closed in cysts ; masses without cysts ; 
infiltration in the tissue of organs ; and 
deposition on the surface of organs, a 
liquid form of melanosis. 

MELANTHACEiE. The Colchicum 
tribe of monocotyledonous plants. Herbs 
with a rhizome, sometimes fleshy ; leaves 
sheathing at the base ; flowers hexapetal- 
oideous, tubular; stamens 6; ovarium 
3-celled ; seeds albuminous. 

MELAS (jueXa?, black). A term ap- 

r* plied by the ancients to a superficial aflfec- 

^C tion, resembling the alphas, except in its 

colour ; it is synonymous with the lepra 

nigricans, or black lepra. 

MELASMA (jueXac, black). The name 
given by writers to the ecthyma luridum, 
or lurid papulous scall. 

MELASSES (mel, honey). The un- 
crystallizable part of the juice of the 
sugar-cane, separated from the sugar 
during its manufacture— a sort of mother- 
water of raw sugar. That which is im- 
ported into this country, is principally 
converted into a coarse, soft sugar, called 
bastards. 

MELASSIC ACID {^xe\t, honey). An 
acid produced by the simultaneous action 
of alkalies and heat upon grape sugar. 

MELIACEiE. The Bead-tree tribe of 
dicotyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs 
with leaves alternate ; flowers symmetri- 
cal; calyx imbricated; stamens hypogy- 
nous ; ovarium of several cells ; seeds 
definite, apterous. 

MELICERIS ifxiXi, honey, K»jp6y, 
191 



wax). A tumor of the encysted kind, 
filled with a substance resembling wax, 
or honey, in consistence. 

MELILOTUS. A Leguminous plant, 
said by Vogel to owe its odoriferous prin- 
ciple to benzoic acid ; others refer it to 
coumarine, the aromatic principle of the 
Tonka bean. 

MELISSA OFFICINALIS {^xeXtcca, 
a bee). The Common Balm, or Balm 
Mint ; a Labiate plant, sometimes used 
for making balm tea. 

MELLATE. A salt formed by com- 
bination of meUitic acid with a salifiable 
base. 

MELLITIC ACID {mel, honey). An 
acid discovered in the mellite or honey- 
stone, or mellitate of alumina. 

MELLON. A salt-radical, consisting 
of carbon and nitrogen. 

MELOE. A genus of insects. The 
meloe vesicatoria was the former name 
of the cantharis, or blistering beetle. 

MELTING POINT. That point of 
the thermometer at which a solid be- 
comes fluid. Thus ice melts at 32°, sul- 
phur at 218°, gold at 5237° Fahr. 

MEMBRANA. This term formerly 
denoted the skin of animals, dressed like 
our parchment or vellum to write upon. 
In anatomy it signifies sometimes a bag 
for containing fluids, sometimes a thin 
substance lining a cavity. The mem- 
branes of the body are the — 

1. Mucous membranes, investing the 
sides of cavities which communicate with 
the external air ; they are divided into 
the mucous membranes properly so called, 
and the skin. 

2. Serous membranes, lining cavities 
which are not externally open ; they are 
divided into the splanchnic serous mem- 
branes, and the synovial membranes. 

3. Fibrous membranes, of various 
forms, constituting capsules, sheaths, 
aponeuroses, &c. ; by their combination 
with the two preceding kinds of mem- 
brane, they constitute the fibro-serous 
a,nd flhro-mucous membranes. 

4. Membrana dentata. A process of 
the pia mater sent oflf from either side of 
the cord, and forming a serration between 
each of the nerves. 

5. Membrane, investing. The first 
layer of cells which assumes a distinctly 
membranous form upon the surface of 
the cicatricula of the ovum, hitherto 
called the serous layer of the germinal 
membrane. 

6. Membrane, false. This is the result 
of inflammation, and is formed by the 



M E M 



MEN 



coagulation »f the fibrinous fluid or 
l3nnph poured out on membranes which 
have a free surface. 

7. Membrana media. The name given 
by the earlier writers to that part of the 
allantois which lies in contact with the 
amnion, and which contains but few 
vessels ; it is the endochorion of Dutro- 
chet. 

8. Membrana capsulo-pupiilaris. A 
vascular membrane extending backwards 
from the pupillar margin of the iris in 
the fcetus of the mammalia and of man, 
and connecting the margin of the capsule 
of the lens with the margin of the iris. 

9. Membrana vitellina. The vitelline 
membrane, Ijing within the ovicapsule, 
and surrounding the yolk of the ovum. 

10. MembrancB reunientes. A term 
recently applied by Rathke to certain 
parts of the embryo of all the vertebrate 
classes. To the very thin membranous 
part of the abdominal walls in the em- 
bryo, he gives the name of membrana 
reuniens inferior, and to the correspond- 
ing part in the dorsal region the name of 
tnembrana reuniens superior ; while he 
reserves the terms lamincB abdominales 
and lamince dorsales for the thicker parts 
of the abdominal and dorsal regions of 
the embryo, which, advancing from each 
side, at length meet above and below in 
the middle line. When these thicker 
laminae have thus united and enclosed 
the cavities to which they belong, the 
membranae reunientes have lost their 
office. 

1 1 . Membrana germinativa. The ger- 
minal membrane, the earliest develop- 
ment of the germ in fishes and the am- 
phibia, in the form of a thin stratum of 
yolk of definite extent ; it gradually ex- 
tends itself over the whole surface of the 
yolk, so as to assume the form of a vesicle 
including the mass of yolk. 

12. Membrana decidua. The decidu- 
ous membrane, which is developed upon 
the inner surface of the uterus, before 
the ovum reaches that organ. It con- 
sists of a whitish grey, moist, and soft 
mass, similar to coagulated fibrin, and 
entirely formed of nucleated cells. — See 
Decidua. 

13. Membrana corticalis. The exter- 
nal transparent coat of the ovum of 
mammalia, before the formation of the 
embryo, as observed by Von Baer. 

14. Membrana versicolor. The name 
of a brilliant and variously coloured 
membrane which forms part of the cho- 
roid in many animals. Mr. Dalrymple 

192 



denies that any such membrane exists in 
the human eye. 

15. Membrana intermedia. A terra 
applied to the membrane which, in the 
ovum of the bird, lies between the rudi- 
mentary nervous centres and the mucous 
layer of the germinal membrane. 

16. Membrana semilunaris. The name 
given to the conjunctiva at that part of 
its course where it is posterior to the 
caruncula, and a little external to it. 
This membrana semilunaris has been 
supposed to be the rudiment of the mem- 
brana nictitans, or the third eyelid of the 
lower animals. 

17. Membrana Jacobi. The external 
membrane or layer of the retina. 

18. Membrana sacciformis. A syno- 
vial membrane, which forms a duplica- 
ture between the radius and the ulna. 

19. Membrana pigmenii. The internal 
layer of the choroid membrane, which 
retains the pigmentum nigrum in its 
place. 

20. Membrana nictitans {nicto, to 
wink). A membrane with which birds 
and reptiles can occasionally cover their 
eyes. This term has been erroneously 
applied to a loose crescentiform fold of 
the conjunctiva at the inner angle of the 
eye, which has neitlier the office nor the 
muscular apparatus of the nictitating 
membrane. 

21. Membrana pupillaris (pupilla, the 
pupil of the eye). A membrane ex- 
tended across the pupil of the foetus. It 
disappears at about the seventh month. 

22. Membrana tympani. A membrane 
extended over the circular opening at 
the bottom of the meatus auditorius 

23. Membrana pituitaria, or Schnei- 
derian. The membrane which lines the 
cavities of the nose. 

MEMBRANACEOUS (membrana, a 
membrane). Resembling membrane. 
This term must be distinguished from 
membranous, which denotes that the sub- 
stance consists of membrane. 

MEMBRU.M (/ueipu), to divide). A 
member or limb ; an external part of the 
body, distinguished from all the rest by 
some particular use, as membrum virile, 
the penis, &c. It is not said of the head. 

MENACHANITE. A substance found 
in Cornwall, in which Mr. Gregor dis- 
covered titanium. It consists of the 
oxide of titanium, iron, and manganese. 

MENDO'SUS {mendax, false). Spu- 
rious, or false : hence mendosce costce, the 
false ribs; mendosa sutura, the bastard 
or squamous suture of the cranium. 



MEN 



MER 



MENINGES (pi. of ju^n-yf, a mem- 
brane). The name of the membranes of 
the brain— the dura and pia mater. 

1. Meningitis. Inflammation of the 
membranes of the brain and spinal mar- 
row. See EncephaliUs, and Myelitis. 

2. Meningosis. An articulation in 
which membrane is employed. 

3. Meningo-phytax ((^i/Xaairco, to pro- 
tect). An instrument formerly used for 
protecting the dura mater and brain from 
injury, during the operation of trepan- 
ning. 

MENISCUS {nr,vn, the moon). A lens 
which is concave on one side and convex 
on the other, its section resembling the 
appearance of the new moon. Also, a 
term applied by authors to interarticular 
cartilage. 

MENISPERMACE.E. The Cocculus 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Leaves 
alternate ; flowers polypetalous, uni- 
sexual ; stamens hypogynous, fruit a 
1- seeded drupe. 

Menispennum palmatum. The Kalumb 
or Calumba plant, now called Cocculus 
palmalus. It yields the Calumba root of 
the shops, and its seeds contain meni- 
spermic acid. 

Menispermia; paramenispermia. Two 
crystalline substances found in the seed 
coat of the Cocculus Indicus. 

MENORRHAGIA (/j^v, luni/oy, a 
month, pi]yvvni, to break forth). A 
morbidly profuse discharge of the cata- 
menia, commonly called flooding, or 
uterine haemorrhage. 

MENOSTATION (m'/i', unvoi, mensis, 
a month, V<tt»i/uj, to stand). A suppres- 
sion or retention of the catamenial dis- 
charge. 

MENSES (mensis, a month). The 
months ; the monthly discharge or 
period ; the catamenia, courses, or 
flowers. 

MENSTRUATION {menstrua, pi. 
neut. of menstruus, used absolutely). 
The periodical discharge from the female 
generative organs of a bloody fluid poured 
out by the inner surface of the uterus. 
The menstrual periods occur usually at 
intervals of a solar month, their duration 
being from three to six days. 

MENSTRUUM. A term synonymous 
with solvent. A liquid which does not 
change the nature of the substance to be 
dissolved. Thus pure water is employed 
to dissolve gum, alcohol to dissolve 
resins, and acids to dissolve the bases of 
colchicum and squill. 

MENSURATION (meruura, a mea- 
193 



sure). The process of ascertaining the 
comparative size of the two sides of the 
chest. It consists simply in measuring 
the superficial extent of the chest with a 
piece of tape stretched over it from cer- 
tain fixed points. 

MENTAGRA (mentum, the chin, a7pa, 
seizure). The sycosis menti ; an eruption 
about the chin. See Sycosis. 

MENTHA. A genus of Labiate plants. 
According to Strabo, Minthe was a chere 
amie of Pluto, and was metamorphosed 
by Proserpine into a plant, which bore 
her name. 

1. Mentha viridis is the spear-mint or 
green mint ; mentha piperita, pepper- 
mint, from which the cordial of this name 
is prepared ; and mentha pulegium, 
pennyroyal, which enters into the com- 
position of the pennyroyal, or hysteric 
water of the shops. 

2. Menthcne. A liquid hydrocarbon 
obtained from the stearopten contained 
in oil of peppennint. 

3. RotulcB mentha piperitcB. Pepper- 
mint drops ; peppermint lozenges ; pre- 
pared from sugar and oil of peppermint. 

MENTUM. The chin ; the projecting 
surface of which is termed the mental 
process. 

MENYANTHESTRIFOLIATA. Buck- 
bean : an indigenous plant, growing in 
marshes, and yielding a peculiar sub- 
stance called menyunihin. 

MEPHI'TIS (the name of the goddess 
of foul smells). An impure or poisonous 
exhalation. 

1. Mephitic acid. The name given by 
Mr. Bewley to carbonic acid, from its 
occasioning death on being respired. *~ 

2. Mephitic air. Nitrogen gas. 

MERA'CUS {merjis, unmixed). With- 
out mixture. Celsus has fiieiacas po- 
tiones, draughts of pure wine ; and Pliny, 
vinum meraculum, wine pretty pure. 

MERCAPTAN. A liquid of an ethe- 
real character, named from its energetic 
action on peroxide of mercury — quasi 
mercurium captans. It is alcohol of 
which the oxygen is replaced by sul- 
phur. 

MERCURIAL ERETHISM. An af- 
fection arising from the use of mercury, 
and characterized by irregular action of 
the heart, frequent sighing, trembling,&c. 

MERCURIAL RASH. A variety of 
the Eczema rubrum, arising from the 
irritation of mercury ; hence, it has been 
called eczema mercuriale ; erythema 
mercuriale ; hydrargyria j and mercurial 
lepra. 



MER 



MES 



MERCURY. A metal differing from 
all others in being always fluid, unless 
subjected to a temperature of — 39°, when 
it becomes solid. Some of its names 
suggest its silvery appearance and liquid 
form, as hydrargyrum, or silver-water ; 
others, its mobility and liquidity, as well 
as its resemblance to silver, as argentum 
vivum, aqua drgentea, aqua metallorum, 
and quicksilver. Its volatility has also 
gained for it the name of that locomotive 
personage, the messenger of the gods. 
Ores of Mercury. 

1. Native or Virgin Mercztry. The 
pure metal, found in the form of glo- 
bules, in cavities of the other ores of this 
metal. 

2. Native Amalgam. An ore consisting 
of mercury combined with silver. 

3. Native Cinnabar. Native vermilion, 
or the bisulphuret of mercury ; the ore 
which yields the mercury of commerce. 

4. Corneous Mercury. Mercurial horn 
ore, or the proto-chloride of mercury. 

Pharmaceutical Preparations. 

5. Mercury and chalk. Hydrargyrum 
cum creta ; a compound of three parts 
of mercury and five of chalk, also called 
mercurius alkalisatus, or sethiops ab- 
sorbens. 

6. Mercurial Pills. Pilulae hydrargyri, 
or blue pill; a mass consisting of mer- 
cury rubbed with confection of red roses 
until the globules can no longer be seen, 
and then blended with liquorice powder. 
Three grains contain one grain of mer- 
cury. 

7. Mercurial Ointment. Unguentum 
hydrargyri, formerly termed Blue or 
Neapolitan Ointment ; consisting of mer- 
cury rubbed with suet and lard until 
the globules can no longer be seen. 

8. Grey or black oxide. Hydrargyri 
oxidum, sometimes called the protoxide, 
and sub-oxide; used externally, and for 
making black wash. 

9. Red oxide. Hydrargyri binoxidum, 
formerly called red precipitate per se, 
calcined mercury, and by Geber, coagu- 
lated mercury. 

10. Med precipitate. Hydrargyri ni- 
trico-oxydum, commonly called red pre- 
cipitated mercury ; used externally. 

11. Calomel. Hydrargyri chloridum, 
formerly called the submuriate, or mild 
muriate, of mercury. 

12. Corrosive sublimate. Hydrargyri 
bichloridum, formerly called oxymuriate, 
or corrosive muriate of mercury. 

13. White precipitate. Hydrargyri am- 
monio-chloridum, sometimes called Le- 

194 



mery's white precipitate, and cosmetic 
mercury. 

14. Red iodide. Hydrargyri biniodi- 
dum, also called the dentiodide or per- 
iodide of mercury. 

15. Red sulphuret. Hydrargyri bisul- 
phuretum, cinnabar, or, formerly, mi- 
nium ; reduced to powder, it is vermi- 
lion. 

16. Mthiops mineral. The common 
name of the Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
cum sulphure. 

17. Prussian mercury. Hydrargyri 
bicyanidum, also called prussiate, hydro- 
cyanate, and cyanuret of mercury. 

18. Citrine Ointment. Unguentum hy- 
drargyri nitratis, also called yellow oint- 
ment, and mercurial balsam. 

19. Turpeth mineral. Hydrargyri sub- 
sulphas flavus, a compound which 
resembles in colour the root of the Ipo- 
mcea turpethum. 

20. Hahnemann's soluble mercury. A 
velvety black precipitate, formed by add- 
ing very dilute ammonia to the soluble 
nitrates of mercury, without neutralizing 
the whole acid. 

MERICARP {fxepoi, a part, Kapnov, 
fruit). The botanical designation of a 
half of the fruit of Umbelliferous plants. 
What are called carraway seeds are, in 
fact, fruits, each consisting of two ache- 
nia, or mericarps, placed face to face, 
and separating from a central axis. The 
two together are called cremocarp (xpe- 
fidw, to suspend), from their being sus- 
pended from the common central axis. 

MEROCELE {tmpo^, the thigh, (c»;Xn, 
a tumor). Femoral or crural hernia. 

MERORGANIZATION {/lipoi, apart). 
Organization in part; a modification of 
the general principles of organization. — 
Prout. 

MERUS. Mere, pure; unmixed, as 
merum vinum, neat wine, &c. Hence, 
when merum is said of wine, vinum is 
understood, — "curare genium mero;" 
hence also " merobibus," one who drinks 
wine without water. 

MESITE. A liquid existing in pyro- 
xylic spirit, and produced in the distil- 
lation of wood. Mesiten is a similar pro- 
duct of the same process. 

MESITYLENE. A light oily liquid, 
produced by distilling pyro-acetic spirit 
(acetone) with fuming sulphuric acid. 

MESMERISM. Animal magnetism, 
a system introduced by Mesmer. 

MESOS (Meo-or). Medius. The Greek 
term for middle, or mediate, or that which 
is situated between others. 



MET 



MET 



1. Mes-araic {upaia, the small intes- 
tines). A term synonymous with mes- 
enteric. 

2. Mes-entery {'4v7epa, the bowels). 
The membrane which connects the small 
intestines and the posterior wall of the 
abdomen. 

3. Mes- enteritis. Inflammation of the 
mesentery. 

4. Meso-carp {Kapno^, fruit). The in- 
termediate part of the pericarp of fruits ; 
when fleshy, it is called sarcocarp. 

5. Meso-cfphalon (Ke<pa\>], the head). 
The name given by Chaussier to the pons 
Varolii. 

6. Meso-ccecum. That part of the peri- 
ton eeum which embraces the caecum and 
its appendix. 

7. Meso-colon (kCXow, the colon). That 
part of the mesentery which connects 
the transverse colon and the posterior 
wall of the abdomen. 

8. Meso-gastrium {yavrijp, the stomach). 
A kind of suspensory band of the sto- 
mach, observed in the earliest stage of 
embryonic life, which at a later period is 
converted into a sac, the great omen- 
tum. 

9. Meso-lohe. Chaussier's designation 
of the corpus callosum, or the maxima 
commissura cerebri of Soemmering. 

10. Meso-pkloeum((li\ot6s, harla). That 
portion of the bark of plants which lies 
between the epiphloeum and the endo- 
phltt»um or liber. 

11. Meso-phyllum (0u\Xov, a leaf). 
The cellular substance of the leaves of 
plants ; also called diachyma and diploe. 

12. Meso-rectum. That part of the 
peritonaeum which connects the rectum 
with the front of the sacrum. 

13. Meso-sperm {anep/xa, seed). The 
middle one of the three membranes by 
which seeds are sometimes enveloped. 

14. Meso-thorax {Owpa$, the chest). 
That part of the chest in insects which 
gives origin to the second pair of legs, 
&c. 

META inera, prep.). After; with; 
in composition this preposition denotes 
change, transference, &c. 

1. Met-acetone. A combustible liquid, 
obtained, mixed with acetone, in distil- 
ling sugar with quicklime. 

2. Met-aldehyde. A product of the 
condensation of the elements of alde- 
hyde. 

3. Meta-carpus {Kapno^, the wrist). 
That part of the hand which is situated 
between the carpus and the fingers. 

4. Meta-meric (/uepoy, a part). A term 

195 



applied to compounds in which the ulti- 
mate elements are the same as in other 
well-known combinations, but are con- 
sidered to be arranged in a different way : 
thus, oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur, and a 
metal, may be considered as combined in 
the form of sulphuretted hydrogen and a 
metallic oxide, or of water (consisting of 
oxygen and hydrogen) and a metallic 
sulphuret. See Isomeric and Polymeric, 
a. Meta-morphopsia (/oterajuop^oxTt?, a 
change of form, 6^i/i^, vision). A species 
of amaurosis, in which objects appear 
confused or distorted. 

6. Meta-morphosis {p.op(j)tj, form). Li- 
terally, a change of form. A term ap- 
plied by Liebig to those chemical actions 
in which a given compound is caused, 
by the presence of a peculiar substance, 
to resolve itself into two or more com- 
pounds; as sugar, by the presence of 
yeast, into alcohol and carbonic acid. 

7. Metastasis (^eOiarr\ixi, to transfer). 
Literally, a removal from one place to 
another. Generally, the supervention of 
an affection of a new organ, on the sub- 
sidence of a similar disorder of a limb 
or organ primarily affected ; as the ces- 
sation of rheumatism, followed by peri- 
carditis, &c. 

8. M eta-tarsus (rapaw, the tarsus). 
That part of the foot which is situated 
between the tarsus and the toes. 

9. Meta-thorax (tiwpa?, tlie chest). The 
third and last segment of the thorax, in 
insects. 

METALS ifieTaWa). A class of com- 
pact, heavy, opaque bodies, distinguished, 
in different degrees, by the following gene- 
ral properties : — 

1. Malleability, by which they admit 
of being hammered out into thin plates 
or leaves. Gold is the most malleable of 
all the metals. When a metal admits of 
being extended by the rolling-press, it is 
called laminable. 

2. Ductility, by which they admit of 
being drawn out into wire. All the mal- 
leable metals possess this property. 

3. Fusibility, or the capacity of being 
melted by heat. The point of fusion 
varies considerably in the different me- 
tals, though they are all solid, except 
mercury, at common temperatures. ' 

4. Tenacity, by which they are capable 
of supporting considerable weight with- 
out breaking. 

5. Elasticity and hardness ; properties 
which adapt them for exciting sound. 

6. Crystalline texture; thus, iron is 
fibrous ; zinc, lamellated ; steel, granu- 

K 2 



MET 



MET 



Brandt 1733. 



lar ; others are procured in crystals, as 
gold, silver, &c. ; when they crystallize, 
they always assume the figure of a cube, 
the regular octohedron, or some form 
allied to it. . 

I. Table of the Metals. 
The Metals are here arranged accord- 
ing to the order in which they have been 
discovered, with the names of the persons 
who discovered, or first described them. 

1. Gold "] Known to the ancients. 

2. Silver ... Gold and silver are term- 

3. Iron ed 7ioble metals; the for- 

4. Copper ... /mer of these was con- 

5. Mercury sidered as the metallic 

6. Lead element; the rest were 

7. Tin J called base metals. 

8. Antimony B.Valentine, 15th cent. 

9. Zinc Agricola 1520. 

10. Bismuth Paracelsus... IGth cent. 

11. Arsenic 

12. Cobalt . 

13. Platinum Wood 1741. 

14. Nickel Cronstedt..., 1751. 

15. Manganese ....Scheele, &c. 1774. 

16. Tungsten D'Elhuyart, 1781. 

17. Tellurium Miiller 1782. 

18. Molybdenum, Hielm 1782. 

19. Uranium Klaproth 1789. 

20. Titanium Gregor 1791. 

21. Chromium Vauquelin... 1797. 

22. Columbium ...Hatchett 1802. 

23. Palladium. | WoUaston... 1803. 

24. Rhodium, J 

25. Iridium Descotils &c. 1803. 

26. Osmium S. Tennant, 1803. 

27. Cerium Berzelius&c. 1804. 

28. Potassium, -^ 

29. Sodium 

30. Barium VDavy 1807. 

31. Strontium, I 

32. Calcium J 

33. Cadmium Stromeyer... 1818. 

34. Lithium Arfwedson... 1818. 

35. Selenium Berzelius&c. 1818. 

36. SUicium JBerzelius 

37. Zircomum. .J 

38. Aluminium, -v 

39. Glucinium, \ Wohler ... 

40. Yttrium ) 

41. Thorium Berzelius. 

42. Magnesium ...Bussy, &c 

II. Classes of the Metals. 

1. Metallic bases of the alkalies, viz. 
potassium, sodium, and lithium. These 
powerfully attract oxygen ; the oxides 
are termed alkalies: and the metallic 
bases, alkaline or alkaligenous metals. 

2. Metallic bases of the alkaline earths, 
viz. barium, strontium, calcium, and 

196 



1824. 



1829. 
1829. 



magnesium. These also powerfully at- 
tract oxygen, and tlieir oxides are termed 
alkaline earths. 

3. Metallic bases of the Earths, viz. 
aluminium, zirconium, glucinium, sili- 
cium, yttrium, and thorinum. The 
oxides of these metals are the pure 
earths. 

4. Metals yielding oxides, which are 
neutral salifiable bases, viz. gold, silver, 
mercury, copper, lead, iron, tin, platinum, 
palladium, nickel, cadmium, zinc, bis- 
muth, antimony, cobalt, and manganese. 

5. Metals which are acidifiable, by 
combination with oxygen, viz. tellurium, 
arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, tung- 
sten, columbium, and selenium. Of the 
oxides of the rest, little is known. 

6. Metals magnetic, viz. iron, nickel, 
and cobalt ; chromium has also been 
affirmed to be magnetic. 

III. Terms connected with Metals. 

1. Metals are termed native, when 
found in an uncombined form ; mineral- 
ized, when combined with other bodies ; 
compounds of two or more metals, ex- 
cept mercury, are called alloys, and pos- 
sess the characteristic properties of pure 
metals ; those of mercury with other 
metals are called amalgams. 

2. The termination in uret denotes 
combinations of the simple non-metallic 
elements, either with one another, with 
a metal, or with a metallic oxide ; thus 
sulph-Mre< and caxh-uret of iron signify 
compounds of sulphur and carbon with 
iron. 

3. The result of the oxidation of metals, 
when heated in the air, was formerly 
called a calx, and the process of forming 
it, calcination ; when mixed with nitrate 
or chlorate of potash, and projected into 
a red-hot crucible, they are said to be 
deflagrated ; when the oxides are re- 
duced to the metallic state, they are said 
to suffer reduction. Metals are the best 
reflectors of caloric, and the worst ra- 
diators. 

METALLOGRAPHY {^x4^a\\ov, a 
metal, 7f*a^aj, to describe). That branch 
of science which treats of metals. 

METALLOID (fxiraWov, a metal, 
e?5or, likeness). A term applied, at first, 
to the metals obtained from the fixed 
alkalies and some of the earths. They 
are now called metallic. 

METALLURGY {fxeraWov, a metal, 
e'p7ov, work). The separation of metals 
from their ores. It comprises the several 
operations of assaying, refining, smelting, 
&c. 



MEZ 



MIL 



METEORTSM (nerewpov, a meteor). 
Distention of tlie abdomen by gas. 

METEOROLITES (Meretopov, floating 
in the air, \iOoi, a stone). Meteoric 
stones ; aerolites ; solid compounds of 
earthy and metallic matters, descending 
from the atmosphere ; such was the an- 
cile, or shield of Mars, which fell ia the 
reign of Numa; the arx julia of 1561 ; 
&c. They all contain iron alloyed with 
nickel. 

METEOROLOGY (/xercwpa, meteors ; 
from /U6T«, and aitdpeoj, to suspend ; 
Aovor, a description). The doctrine of 
meteors, or the study of the variable 
phenomena of the atmosphere. 

ME'THODE NUxME'RIQUE. A me- 
thod of pursuing the study of physic, 
invented by M. Louis. It consists — 

1. In the collection, with every pre- 
caution to secure accuracy, and to avoid 
omissions, of individual Cases ; and — 

2. In the analysis and collation of these 
cases, so as to deduce general Laws and 
conclusions. 

METHODIC SECT. A class of prac- 
titioners founded by the Roman physi- 
cian Themison, a disciple of Asclepiades, 
who attributed all diseases to over- 
bracing, or relaxation; hence, all me- 
didnes were classed as relaxing and 
bracing remedies. 

METHYL. The newly-discovered ra- 
dical, or basyle, of wood spirit. 

1. Methylic ether. Oxide of methyl; a 
colourless gas. 

2. Methylal. A compound of hydrate 
of oxide of formyl with oxide of methyl. 

3. Methol. A liquid produced in the 
distillation of wood. 

METOPOSCOPY {fxertoitov, the fore- 
head, aKoireu), to examine). The art of 
divining by inspection of the forehead ; 
practised among the Romans, and in the 
middle ages. 

METRE. The French standard mea- 
sure of length, equivalent to 39-371, or 
very nearly 39f English inches. The 
French measures ascend and descend in 
a decimal progression. See Quantity. 

METRITIS {^Jin^pa, the uterus). In- 
flammation of the uterus. 

METRORRHAGIA (fi^rpa, the ute- 
rus, ptjyvv^t, to burst forth). Uterine 
haemorrhage. 

METROSCOPE (M^rpa, the uterus, 
aiconew, to observe). An instrument de- 
signed by M. Nauche, for examining the 
OS uteri. 

MEZEREON. A species of Daphne, 
which yields the mezereon bark. As a 
197 



local irritant, this bark is used in France, 
under the name of garou, to produce 
vesication. 

MIASMA {niaajxa, from fjnaivo, tO 
pollute). Originally, pollution or con- 
tagion; but, with the addition of the 
term marsh, it denotes certain effluvia, 
or emanations, from marshy grounds. 

MICA. A mineral of various colours, 
but usually gray. It occurs in the form 
of very thin plates, which are employed 
in Russia for window-panes, and are 
then called Muscovy giass. 

MICROCOSMIC SALT (^^por, little, 
Koo-juof, order). A triple salt, obtained 
by mixing equal parts of the phosphates 
of soda and of ammonia, in solution, and 
then crystallizing. It is much employed 
as a flix, in experiments with the blow- 
pipe. 

MICROGLOSSIA {fxiKp6<!, small, 
■yXwCTo-a, the tongue). Congenital small- 
ness of the tongue ; one of the causes of 
dysphagia. It is owing, according to 
Andral, to an arrest of development, 
and the consequent existence of the 
hyoid portion only of the tongue. 

MICROPYLE (M<Kp6f, small, -KvXr), a 
gate). In botany, the foramen of the 
ripe seed, comprising the exostome and 
the endostome of the ovule, which lead to 
the internal portion of the ovule, or the 
nucleus. 

MIDRIB. The principal vein of a 
leaf, running from the base to the 
apex. 

MIDRIFF. Diaphragma. The muscle 
which divides the body into the thorax 
and the abdomen. 

MIDWIFERY. The art of aiding and 
facilitating child-birth. 

MILDEW MORTIFICATION. Gan- 
graena ustilaginea ; a disease supposed 
to arise from the use of grain vitiated 
by the growth of parasitic plants in the 
interior of the culm, or straw, chiefly 
the " ustilago," blight or mildew. 

MILIARIA {milium, a millet seed). 
Miliary fever— febris being understood; 
minute transparent vesicles, of the size 
of millet seeds, filled with a colourless 
acrid fluid, and terminating in scurf; the 
fifth genus of the order Fesiculce of Bate- 
man. Miliary fever has been designated 
by the terms — 

1. Miliaria rubra, or red; when the 
vesicles, on their first rising, being filled 
with transparent lymph, exhibit the red 
colour of the inflamed surface beneath. 

2. Miliaria alba, or white ; when, the 
lymph having acquired in thirty hours a 

K 3 



MIN 



MI S 



milk}'^ opacity, the vesicles assume a 
white or pearly appearance. 

MILIUM (a millet seed). A small 
white tumor, of the size of a millet seed, 
or lar?:er, on the margin of the eyelids, 
containing a substance like boiled rice. 

MILK. Lac. A fluid secreted by 
the females of the mammalia, for the 
nourishment of their offspring. It se- 
parates, on standing, into a thick whitish 
fluid, called cream, and what is termed 
skimmed milk ; and by the addition of ren- 
net, acids, or wine, into a solid coagulum 
called ciird, and a limpid fluid termed 
whey: the curd is considered to be ca- 
seous matter, or the basis of cheese in a 
state of purity. 

MILK ABSCESS. Tumor seated in 
the breast, proceeding from a redundancy 
of milk, when first secreted after child- 
birth. 

MILK FEVER. Fehris lactea. An 
aggravated form of the excitement which 
takes place at the onset of lactation. It 
is commonly said in such cases, that the 
milk flies to the head. 

MILK SICKNESS. A disease ende- 
mic in the western states of Alabama, 
Indiana, and Kentucky. It affects both 
man and beast. It is commonly attri- 
buted, in cattle, to something eaten or 
drunken by them; and in man, to the 
eating of the flesh of animals which have 
been affected with this disease. From 
the rigors which occur in animals, the 
disease has been called trembles. 

MILK TEETH. The first set in 
children, which are shed in childhood. 

MILLEPEDES {mille, a thousand, 
pes, pedis, a foot). Slaters, or Wood- 
lice. These insects, killed by the va- 
pour* of spirit of wine, formerly obtained 
a place in the pharmacopoeias, and were 
employed in humoral asthma, and dropsy. 

MIMOSA SENSITIVA. The Sensi- 
tive plant, which exhibits the phenomena 
of irritability, residing in an intumes- 
cence situated at the articulation of the 
leaf-stalks. In the natural state during 
the day the stalk is elevated, the leaves 
expanded, and the intumescence elon- 
gated, but equally convex superiorly and 
inferiorly. But at night, or when irri- 
tated, the stalk is depressed, the leaves 
applied to each other in pairs, and the 
intumescence curved so as to be convex 
superiorly, concave inferiorly. 

MINDERERUS' SPIRIT Theliquor 
ammnniee acetatis, or liquid acetate of 
ammonia. 

MINERAL CAOUTCHOUC. A vari- 
198 



ety of bitumen, resembling caoutchouc 
in elasticity and softness, and in remov- 
ing pencil marks. 

MINERAL CHARCOAL. A fibrous 
variety of non-bituminous mineral coal. 

MINERAL GREEN. A hydrated 
subcarbonate of copper, used a& a pig- 
ment. 

MINERAL SOLUTION. Liquor ar- 
senicalis. Fowler's solution, or the 
Liquor potassae arsenitis. 

MINERAL WATERS. Waters im- 
pregnated with mineral substances. See 
Agues minerales. 

MINERAL YELLOW. Patent Yel- 
low. A pigment consisting of chloride 
and protoxide of lead. 

MINERALIZATION. The process of 
converting a substance into a mineral. 
A metal combined with oxygen, sulphur, 
&c., loses its metallic properties, and 
becomes mineralized; the latter bodies 
are then termed mineralizers. 

MINERALOGY. The science which 
treats of inorganic substances. These 
are generally solids, extracted from the 
earth by mining, and hence called mine- 
rals. The term fossil is now commonly 
applied to organic substances, penetrated 
with earthy or metallic matters. 

MINIA BATFA OIL. A solid oil, 
said to be extracted by the natives of 
Borneo from a tree of that country. The 
term minia hatta means stone oil. 

MINIMUM. A minim; the sixtieth 
part of a fluidrachm. Also, the least part 
of anything, as opposed to the maximum, 
or greatest part. 

MINIUM. Red lead, or vermilion ; 
an oxide of lead, of an intensely red 
colour, employed as a pigment. 

Minii Gleba. The red earth from 
which vermilion is procured. — Celsus. 

MISCARRIAGE. The expulsion of 
the foetus from the uterus, within six 
weeks after conception, is usually called 
miscarriage ; if it occur between six 
weeks and six months, it is called abor- 
tion ; and, if during any part of the last 
three months before the completion of 
the natural term, premature labour. 

MISCEE. The name of an Indian 
dentifrice, which produces indeed a black 
jet upon the teeth, but leaves the enamel 
untouched, while it destroys the tartar 
and hardens the gums. Its ingredients 
are not known. 

MISERERE MEL Literally, P%>ne; 
a name given to the iliac passion, or 
ileus, from the pain it creates. 

MISTU'RA (misceo, to mix). A mix- 



MOL 



MOL 



ture; an extemporaneous preparation, in | 
which diflferent ingredients are mingled , 
together in the liquid form, or in which j 
solid substances are diffused through 
liquid, by the medium of mucilage or j 
syrup. 

MITHRIDATE. An ancient compo- j 
sition, having opium for its basis, and ; 
now replaced by the confection of opium. ! 

MITRAL VALVES {miira, a mitre). | 
The name of two valves which guard the | 
left ventricle of the heart. The difference j 
of size of the two valves, both being 
triangular, and the space between them, 
have given rise to the idea of a bishop's 
mitre, after which they are named. 

MIXTURE. Mistura. A chemical 
mixture should be distinguished from a 
chemical solution. In the former, the 
aggregate particles can again be separated 
by mechanical means, and the proportion 
of the different particles determined; 
but, in solution, no mechanical power 
whatsoever can separate them. 

MOBILITY {mobilis, moveable). A 
term applied by Dr. Cullen to excessive 
susceptibility to impressions — one of the 
afflictions of nervous persons. 

MODI'OLUS (dim. of modus, a mea- 
sure). The bony pillar, in the centre of 
the cochlea, encircled by the lamina 
spiralis. Also, the crown, or saw, of the 
trephine. 

MODIUS. The chief Roman measure 
for things dry, the third part of a cubic 
foot, somewhat more than a peck En- 
glish. Six modii were called a medimnus, 
an Attic measure. 

MOFFAT. A village in Dumfries- 
shire, affording cold sulphuretted water. 

MOIRE'E ME'TALLIQUE. Crystal- 
lized tin-plate, obtained by pouring on 
heated tin-plate a mixture of two parts 
of nitric acid, and three of muriatic 
acid, diluted with eight of water. When 
varnished, it is worked into ornamental 
vessels. 

MOLA'RES (mola, a mUl-stone). The 
double or grinding teeth. Those with 
two fangs are called bicuspid, or false 
molars. 

Molar glands. Two small bodies, 
placed between the masseter and bucci- 
nator muscles, having the orifice of their 
excretory duct situated opposite the last 
molar tooth. 

MOLE {mola, a mill-stone). A brown 
macula, or spot, generally, though not 
always, congenital. Also, a morbid pro- 
duct of conception, consisting of a false 
germ, or, as it is called in birds, oeuf 
199 



clair; a fleshy substance ; a hydatid sub- 
stance ; &c. 

MOLECULE (dim. of moles, a mass). 
A minute particle of a mass or body. 
It differs from atom, in being always con- 
sidered as a portion of some aggregate. 

1. Complex organic molecule. An 
association of two or more binary com 
pounds, comparatively simple in consti- 
tution, often isolable substances and pos- 
sessed of considerable stability. 

2. Integrant molecules. The name 
given by Haiiy to the last particles into 
which the nucleus of a crystal can be 
mechanically divided. 

MOLLITIES {mollis, soft). Softness ; 
softening. Hence— 

1. Mollities cerebri. Ramollissement 
of the French. Softening of the brain. 

2. Mollities ossium. A morbid soft- 
ness and flexibility of the bones, com- 
monly called the rickets of adults. See 
Fragilitas ossium. 

MOLLUSCA {mollis, soft). Literally, 
a nut with a soft shell. Soft, invertebral, 
inarticulate animals, often protected by 
a shell. They constitute division 2nd of 
Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, and are dis- 
tinguished into the following classes : 
viz. — 

1. Cephalopoda (Ke^aXJ/, the head, 
7r6(5ef, the feet). Animals which have 
their feet arranged round their heads, as 
the sepia, or cuttlefish. 

2. Pteropoda {irrepov, a wing, woJer, 
feet). Animals which have fins, or wing- 
like processes, on each side of the mouth, 
as the clio borealis. 

3. Gasteropoda (-yao-Tz/p, the stomach, 
ir65er, feet). Animals which have their 
feet placed under their belly, as the snail, 
limpet, &c. 

4. Brachiopoda {^paxiav, the arm, 
TToSer, feet). Animals which move by 
processes resembling arms, as the lin- 
gula, &c. 

5. Cirropoda {cirrus, a tuft of hair, 
TToSer, feet). Animals which have tufted 
feet, as the barnacle, &c. 

MOLLUSCUM {mollis, soft). Wen; 
a moveable tumor, little sensible, and 
often elastic to the touch, containing an 
atheromatous matter; the third genus 
of the Tubercula of Bateman. 

MOLYBDENUM (/x6Xi;/35or, lead). A 
white metal closely allied to tungsten. 
Its name was derived from the resem- 
blance of its native sulphuret to plum- 
bago. 

Molybdic acid. An acid obtained from 
the native sulphuret of molybdenum. 
K 4 



MON 



MOR 



MOMORDICA ELATERIUM. The 
Squirting Cucumber ; a Cucurbitaceous 
plant, cultivated at Mitcham for the 
sake of the elaterium found in the juice 
surrounding the seeds. 

MON-, MONO- {fxovoi, single). A 
Greek prefix, denoting unity. 

1. Mon-adelphia (ude\^6i, a brother). 
The sixteenth class of plants in the Lin- 
naean system, in which the filaments are 
all united into one tube. 

2. Mon-andria [av'rjp, a man). The 
first class of plants in *:he Linnaean sys- 
tem, containing only one stamen. 

3. Monoclilamydea: (x^a/ui'S"* <i tunic). 
A sub-class of exogenous plants, in which 
the flowers have only one envelope, viz. 
a calyx. 

4. Mono-cotyledones {KOTvXribwv, Si^eG^- 
lobe). Plants which have only one coty- 
ledon, or seed-lobe ; those which have 
two are termed di-cotyltdones ; and those j 
which have none, a-cotyledones. The j 
first and second of these classes, respec- i 
tively identical with the endoyencs and ' 
exogencB, constitute the first division of , 
plants in the natural system, or Vascu- 
LARES ; the third is identical with Cel- 
LULARES, the second division. See 
Botany, in Appendix. 

5. Mon oculus {oculus, an eye). An 
unclassical term, signifying one-eyed, and 
applied to a bandage formerly used for 
fistula lacrymalis, and diseases of the 
eye. 

(j. Mon-cecia (o»»cor, a house) The 
21st class of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem, in which the stamens and pistils 
grow on separate flowers, but on the 
same individual. 

7. Mowowa/jia (/iiawa, madness). Mad- 
ness upon 07ie subject only. See Mania. 

8. Mono-petalous {ireraXov, a leaf). 
Liteially, having a single petal or leaf, 
as applied to the corolla of plants. The 
diiference, however, between a mono- 
petalous and a poly-petalvus corolla is, 
that in the one, the leaves out of which 
it is formed are distinct ; in the other, 
they are united. A more proper term 
for the latter is gamo-petalous. Where 
there are no petals, the plants are termed 
a-petalons. 

9. Mono-phyllous [<pvWov, a leaf). A 
term used synonymously with mono- 
sepalous, denoting cohesion of the sepals 
of the calyx. 

10. Mon-orchid (opx'f > a testis). Hav- 
ing a single testis. 

U. Mono-sepalous. Having a single 
sepal, or calyx-leaf. The remarks at 



mono-peialous are applicable here, bj 
merely changing -petalous into -sepalous. 

12. Mono-tremata {Tpdui, to bore a 
hole). 1 he third tribe of Cuvier's Eden- 
tata, or toothless animals. See Cloaca. 

MONAD (/uowiy, unity). The smallest 
of all visible animalcules. Ehrenberg 
computed that a single drop of fluid may 
contain 500,000,000 monads— a number 
equal to that of all the human beings on 
the surface of the globe. 

1. Monad of the Physiologists. An 
elementary particle of an organic body. 
Thus, the primary cell or germ from 
which all the other cells of the brain are 
produced, is termed the pri7nary monad; 
and the secondary cells or particles, pro- 
duced by this, are termed secondary 
monads. 

2. Monad of the Metaphysicians. An 
active kind of principle, endued with 
perception and appetite, ascribed to 
each elementary particle of matter. 
The mutual reaction of the mind and 
body upon each other, accordingly, con- 
sists of the action of the mental monad 
upon the internal states of the monads of 
the body, and vice versa. 

MONESIA. A vegetable substance, 
prepared from the bark of a tree of South 
America; supposed to be a Chrysophyl- 
lum. 

MONS VENERIS. The eminence of 
integument situated immediately over 
the OS pubis, in women. 

MONSTRUM. Liisus naturce. A 
monster ; anything out of the common 
course of nature, as a bicephalous, hemi- 
cephalous, or acephalous foetus. 

MONTANIN. The bitter principle of 
the St. Lucia Bark, or the bark of the 
Exostema floribundum, a native of the 
West Indian islands. 

MONTICULUS (dim. of /KOHS, amoun- 
tain). A little mountain. The term 
monticuli has been applied to two little 
eminences, situated upon the anterior 
part of the thalami nervorum optico- 
rum. 

MORBILLI [morbillus, dim. of mot- 
bus, a disease). The minor plague ; a 
term by which the continental writers 
have in general designated Rubeola or 
Measles. The term is borrowed from 
the Italians, among whom il morbo (the 
disease) signified the plague. 

Morbilli regulares. Common Measles, 
Sydenham ; the Rubeola vulgaris of Bate- 
man. 

MORBOSUM AUGMENTUM. An 



MOR 



MOR 



old term denoting an increased mass, a 
preternatural growth, or new matter. 

MORBUS. A disease; disordered 
action of any part of the machinery of 
the body. 

). Morbus aphrodisius. Lues Venerea, 
or syphilis. It has also been called mor- 
bus Gallicus ; morbus Indicus ; morbus 
Neapolitanus ; &c. 

2. Morbus arcuatus, or arguatus (arcus, 
a bow ; so called from one of the colours 
of the rainbow). The Jaundice. 

3. Morbus caducus. Epilepsy, or fall- 
ing sickness. This has been also termed 
morbus attonitus ; morbus comitialis, or 
"electioneering disease," so called from 
its occurring at the time of the comitia, 
or popular assemblies at Rome, from ex- 
citement, &c. ; morbus divinus ; morbus 
herculeus ; morbus infantilis ; morbus 
interlunius; morbus magnus, or major; 
morbus sacer ; &c. 

4. Morbus incurvus. Another name 
for cyrtosis, incurvation of the spine, or 
posterior crookedness. 

5. Morbus interpellatus {interpello, to 
interrupt). A disease attended with irre- 
gular or uncertain paroxysms. 

6. Morbus sacer. A name for epilepsy. 
The notion of demoniacal agency is of 
the remotest antiquity ; and amongst the 
Greeks nervous atfections were consi- 
dered as of divine infliction, and were 
called sacred diseases. 

7. Morbus strangulatorius. The name 
given by Dr. Starr to a species of angina 
maligna, which raged in Cornwall in the 
year 1748. 

8. Morbi pathetici. Morositates. De- 
praved appetites, and morbid changes in 
the feelings and propensities. 

MORDANT. A substance used in 
dyeing, which has an affinity both for the 
colouring matter, and for the stuflT to be 
dyed ; the combination of the colour with 
the texture is thus aided by a kind of 
double decomposition. The term basis is 
commonly employed. 

MOREL. The Morchella esculenta, a 
fungus employed for flavouring gra- 
vies, &c. 

MORIA {fxwpoT, foolish). Foolishness ; 
fatuity ; defect or hebetude of the under- 
standing. 

MORIBUNDUS {inorior, to die). 
Moribund ; dying, ready to die. 

MOROXYLIC ACID (/topov, the mul- 
berry, fi/Xov, wood). An acid produced 
from the bark of the mulberry tree. 

MORPHIA {Morpheus, the god of 
sleep). A vegeto-alkali, existing in 
201 



opium, in combination with a peculiar 
acid, which has been named the meconic, 
in the form of a meconate. Morphia is 
generally admitted to constitute the nar- 
cotic principle of opium. 

MORPIO. The pediculus pubis, or 
crab-louse ; an insect which burrows in 
the skin of the groins and eye-brows. 

MORS, MORTIS. Death ; properly, 
the cessation of life, the separation of the 
soul from the body. Nex is a violent 
death, or slaughter. 

MORSULUS. A little mouthful; a 
term applied to a form of medicine like 
drops, or lozenges, without regular form. 

MORSUS DIA.BOLI. Literally, devil's 
bite ; an uncouth designation of the 
fimbriated extremity of the Fallopian 
tube. 

MORT DE CHIEN (dog's death). A 
name of the spasmodic cholera, of Mr. 
Curtis; it is said to be a corruption of 
mordezym, the Indian name of the dis- 
ease ; or of the Arabic mordekie, or " the 
death-blow,"— according to Golius, actio 
inferens mortem, and hence synonymous 
with "mors violenta." 

MORTAR CEMENT. A mixture of 
lime and siliceous sand, used for building. ■ 
Hydraulic mortar is obtained from con- 
cretionary masses found in marl, and also 
as isolated blocks in the bed of the 
Thames. 

MORTIFICATION {mors, mortis, 
death, fio, to become). A generic term 
denoting the death of any part of the 
body, occasioned by inflammation: the 
circulation in the part is completely 
arrested, the blood in the capillaries is 
not only coagulated, but decomposed, 
while the tissue itself undergoes decora- 
position. The particular stages of mor- 
tification are designated in this country, 
by the terms — 

1. Gangrene, or the incipient stage. 
On the continent it denotes the com- 
plete form. See Gangrene. 

2. Sphacelus, or complete mortifica- 
tion. Some apply the term gangrene 
to the death of the superficial texture, 
and sphacelus to the death of the whole 
substance of an organ. 

3. Slough ; the technical term for the 
fibrous, senseless substance, resulting 
from sphacelus. 

4. Necrosis, or death of the bones: 
the term caries meaning ulceration of 
bone. 

5. Hospital gangrene, or the combina- 
tion of humid gangrene with phage- 
daenic ulceration. 

K5 



MOT 



MOU 



6. Pustule maligne, or charbon of the i 3. Extension, by which the segments 
French ; malignant pustule, or carbun- are restored to the direct line. These 
cle, supposed by some to originate in [ two motions belong to what Bichat calls 



homed cattle. 

7. Gajigrenoiis ergotism, necrosis usti- 
liginea seu epidemica, arising from the 
use of spurred rye. 

MORUS TINCTORIA. The plant 
which yields the yellow dye called fustic, 
The colouring principle is termed morin. 
Morus nigra. The mulberry tree. 
The fruit, commonly called a berry, is a 
sorosis. 

MOSAIC GOLD. Aurum mttsivum. 
The alchemical name of the bi-sulphuret 
of tin. It is produced in fine flakes of a 
beautiful gold colour, and is used as a 
pigment. 

MOSCHUS. Musk ; a granular sub- 
stance found in the preputial musk sac 
under the belly of the Moschus moschi- 
ferus, a species of deer inhabiting the 
Alpine mountains of the east of Asia. 

Moschus factitive. Artificial musk, 
prepared with nitric acid, fetid animal 
oil, and rectified spirit. 

MOTHER SPOTS. Macules maternce. 
Congenital spots and discolourations of 
the skin. See Ncevus. 

MOTION {moveo, to move). This 
term, as employed in Animal Physiology, 
denotes the following phenomena :— 

1. Voluntary Motion. The sponta- 
neous act of the will of the individual ; a 
function attached to the brain. 

2. Excited Motion, or that of the Reflex 
Function; as in the closure of the larynx on 
the contact of acrid vapours, of the pha- 
rynx on that of the food, &c., a function 
of the medulla. 

3. Motion of Irritability; as the ac- 
tion of the heart, the intestinal canal, 
&c., a function of the muscular fibre. 

4. Ciliary motion. The peculiar vibra- 
ting motion of the cilia of animals, as 
observed on the external surface, in the 
alimentary canal, the respiratory system, 
the generative organs, in the cavities of 
the nervous system, and on the surface of 
serous membranes. 

MOTIONS OF THE LIMBS. The 
motions which may take place between 
any two segments of a limb, are distin- 
guished by the following terms : — 

1. Gliding, the simplest kind of mo- 
tion, existing between two contiguous 
surfaces, when one glides over the other. 

2. Flexion, by which two segments of 
a limb, placed in a direct line or nearly 
so, are brought to form an angle. This 
is opposed by — 

202 



limited opposition, and they are illus- 
trated by the flexion and extension of 
the fore-arm. 

4. Abduction, by which the thigh-bone 
is separated from the middle line of the 
body, so as to form an angle with the 
lateral surface of the trunk ; and— 

5. Adduction, by which it is restored 
and made to approximate the middle 
line. Bichat terms this " opposition 
vague." 

6. Circumduction, or a continuous mo- 
tion performed rapidly in directions in- 
termediate to the four preceding: the 
distal extremity of the limb describes a 
circle indicating the base of a cone, 
whose apex is the articular extremity 
moving in the joint. 

7. Rotation, or the revolving of a bone 
round its axis. 

MOTOR {moveo, to move). A mover ; 
a part whose function is motion. 

1. Motor tract. The prolongation of 
the anterior columns of the spinal cord 
through the pons Varolii into the crura 
cerebri. This tract gives origin to the 
three motor nerves. 

2. Motores ocnlorum. The movers of 
the eyes, or the third pair of nerves. 

3. The metals were denominated by 
Volta, motors of electricity, from their 
property of transferring electricity to 
each other by simple contact ; this pro- 
cess was called by Davy, electro-motion. 

MOULDINESS. A peculiar fungus 
plant, propagated by spores, infinitely 
small. Reaumur found the interior of 
an addled egg mouldy ; hence the spores 
must have passed through the pores of 
the shell. 

MOUNTAIN BLUE. Malachite, or 
carbonate of copper. Mountain green 
is the common copper green, also a 
carbonate. 

MOUNTAIN CORK. The name of 
the elastic variety of asbestos. Moun- 
tain leather is the tough variety. When 
in very thin pieces, it is called mountain 
paper. The ligniform variety is called 
mountain or rock wood. 

MOUNTAIN SOAP. A mineral sub- 
stance occurring in the island of Skye ; 
used in crayon -painting. 

MOUSTACHES. The hair which 
grows on the upper lip of men, forming 
two oblique rows, meeting under the 
nose, and prolonged as far as the com- 
missures of the lips. 



MUD 



MUN 



MOX A. A small mass of combustible 
vegetable matter, prepared from the 
Artemisia moxa, or Moxa-weed, a Chi- 
nese plant of the order Compositae, and 
employed as an actual cautery. 

1. European moxa. Usually made with 
cotton-wool, which has been soaked in a 
solution of nitrate or chlorate of potash ; 
or the pith of the Helianthus annuus, or 
sun-flower, which contains naturally 
nitrate of potash. 

2. Percy's moxa. Consists of pith, 
rolled in cotton, and enveloped in 
muslin. 

3. Porte-moxa. A pair of forceps, or 
other instrument for fixing the cylinder 
of moxa upon the spot where it is to be 
applied. 

MUCIC ACID. An acid first obtained 
from sugar of milk (saccharum lactis), 
and hence termed saclactic, or saccho- 
lactic ; but as all the gums appear to 
afford it, and the principal acid in the 
sugar of milk is the oxalic, it is now 
called mucic. 

MUCILAGO. Mucilage; an aqueous 
solution of gum. 

1. Mucilaginous matter. The name 
given by chemists to the white flocculent 
deposit formed in the distilled waters of 
plants. 

2. Mucilaginous Extracts. Extracts 
which readily dissolve in water, scarcely 
at all in spirits of wine, and undergo 
spirituous fermentation. 

MUCIPAROUS {mucus, and pario, to 
produce). Producing mucus ; a term 
applied to the follicles of the mucous 
membranes. 

MUCOCELE {mucus, and k^\»i, a 
tumor). Hernia sacci lacrymalis. An 
enlargement of the lacrymal sac, con- 
stituting a soft swelling, which contains 
tears mixed with mucus. 

MUCUNA PRURIENS. Common 
Cowhage, or Cow-itch; a leguminous 
plant, having its legumes covered with 
stinging hairs, called cowhage, or cow- 
itch, employed as an anthelmintic. 

MUCUS (/lufa, the mucus of the nos- 
trils). The liquid secreted by the mucous 
surfaces, as of the nostrils, intended as a 
protection to the parts exposed to exter- 
nal influences. 

MUDAR. By this name, and those of 
akum and yercund, are designated the 
root, bark, and inspissated juice of the 
Calotropis gigantea. 

Mudarine. The active principle of the 
above plant, remarkable for its property 
203 



of coagulating by heat, and becoming 
again fluid by exposure to cold. 

MUFFLE. A small earthen oven, fixed 
in a furnace, and used in cupellation, 
and other processes which require the 
access of air. 

MUG WORT. The common name of 
the Artemisia Vulgaris, an indigenous 
Composite plant. 

MULBERRY CALCULUS. A spe- 
cies of urinary calculus, consisting of 
oxalate of lime, and named from its 
rough and tuberculated surface. There 
is a variety of it, denominated from its 
colour and general appearance, the hemp- 
seed calculus, which seems to contain 
lithate of ammonia. 

MULBERRY EYELID. An ancient 
designation of the ophthalmia puru- 
lenta ; said also to be the pladaroiis (ttXq- 
3ap6r, moist) of the Greeks. 

MULSUM (scilicet vinum mulsum). 
Hydromel. A drink chiefly made of 
water, wine, and honey, mixed and 
boiled together. 

MULTICUSPIDATI {multut, many, 
cuspis, a spear). The name of the three 
last molares ; so called from their having 
several tubercles. See Dens. 

MULTIFIDUS SPIN^ {multus, many, 
findo, to cleave). The name of a mass 
of muscles, which are placed obliquely 
from the transverse, to the spinous, pro- 
cesses. They have been described as 
three distinct sets of muscles, by the 
names — 

1. Transverso-spinalis colli. 

2. Transverso-spinalis dorsi. 

3. Transverso-spinalis lumborum. 

MULTIPLE {multus, many). A num- 
ber which includes another, a certain 
number of times ; as 6 the multiple of 
2 ; 18 the multiple of 6, &c. 

MULTUM. The name of a compound 
of extract of quassia and liquorice, used 
by brewers for the purpose of econo- 
mizing malt and hops. 

Hard multum, or Black Extract, is a 
preparation made from Cocculus Indi- 
cus, and used by brewers to impart an 
intoxicating quality to beer. 

MUM. A malt liquor, made in the 
same way as beer, by using wheat malt. 

MUMPS. The popular name in this 
country for Cynanche parotidaea. In 
Scotland it is called branJcs. 

MUNGO. The root of the OpMo- 

rrhiza mungos, supposed to be a specific 

for the bite of the cobra di capello and 

the rattle-snake. In India and Ceylon 

K6 



MUR 



MUS 



it is still used as an antidote against the 
bite of the mad dog. The parts are so 
intensely bitter, that the plant is called 
by the Malays, earth gall. 

MUNJEET. A species of Rubia fmc- 
torum, or madder, produced in Nepaul 
and in various districts of India. That 
which is brought to England is imported 
from Calcutta. 

MUREX. A shell-fish noted among 
the ancients for its purple dye. 

1. Murexide. A beautiful purple pro- 
duct of the decomposition of uric acid, 
first described by Dr. Prout under the 
name of purpurale of ammonia. 

2. Murexan. The purpuric acid of 
Prout. It is prepared by dissolving mu- 
rexide in caustic potash, heating till the 
blue colour disappears, and then adding 
an excess of dilute sulphuric acid. 

MURIAS. A muriate, or hydro-chlo- 
rate ; a salt formed by the union of mu- 
riatic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or 
metallic base. Metallic muriates contain 
either an excess or deficiency of acid ; 
in the former case, the salt is called an 
oxy-muriate ; in the latter, a sub-muriate. 

1. Murias Ammonia!. Muriate of Am- 
monia; generally called sal-ammoniac, 
and formerly imported from Egypt, where 
it is procured by sublimation from the 
soot of the camel's dung. 

2. Murias calcis. Muriate of lime ; 
formerly known by the names of marine 
selenite; calcareous marine salt; muria; 
calx salita ; fixed sal-ammoniac ; &c. 
When deliquesced, it has been called oil 
of lime; and Romberg found that, on 
being reduced by heat to a vitreous mass, 
it emitted a phosphoric light on being 
struck by a hard body, and in that state 
it was called Hombeig's phosphorus. 

3. Murias ferri. Muriate of Iron ; 
formerly called ferrtim salitum ; oleum 
martis per deliquium ; &c. 

4. Murias potass CE. Muriate of potash ; 
formerly known by the names of febrifuge 
salt of Sylvius ; digestive salt ; regene- 
rated sea-salt ; &c. 

5. Murias sodce. Muriate of soda, or 
common salt, found in large masses, or 
in rocks under the earth. In the solid 
form it is called sal gem, or rock salt; 
that obtained by evaporation from salt 
water, is called bay salt. 

MURIATIC ACID {.muria, brine). 
The hydro-chloric of the French che- 
mists, formerly called spiritus salis, &c. ; 
an acid contained in great abundance, in 
sea-water, in combination with soda and 
magnesia. It consists of chlorine and 
204 



hydrogen. Its salts are called muriates 
or hydro-chlorates. 

Oxygenated muriatic acid. Chlorine. 

MURIDE (muria, brine). The name 
first given to bromine, from its being an 
ingredient of sea-water. 

MUSCA. The Fly ; a genus of insects 
which deposit their eggs in meat which 
is becoming putrid, and have hence 
passed into the human intestines. 

1. Musca carnaria, the flesh-fly. 

2. Musca vomitoria, the blow-fly. 

3. Musca cibaria, the pantry-fly. 

4. Musca putris, a species of which the 
larvae are known by the name of hoppers, 
as those of all of them are by that of 
maggots ; the latter term has often been 
applied, though in a looser sense, to the 
grubs of insects generally. 

MUSCiE VOLITANTES. Visus mus- 
carum. An appearance of motes or small 
bodies floating before the eyes— a com- 
mon precursor of amaurosis. 

MUSCI. The Moss tribe of Acotyle- 
donous plants. Cellular, fiowerless plants, 
with leaves imbricated, entire, or ser- 
rated; reproductive organs either axil- 
lary bodies containing spherical or oval 
particles, emitted on the application of 
water, or thecce, seated on a seta or 
stalk. 

MUSCULI PECTINATI [pecten. a 
comb). The name of the muscular fas- 
ciculi, within the auricles of the heart ; 
so called from their being arranged like 
the teeth of a comb. 

MUSCULO-CUTANEUS. The exter- 
nal cutaneous nerve, or nervus perforans 
Casserii. 

Musculo-spiralis. Another name for 
the radial nerve. 

MUSCULUS (/xys', a mouse). A mus- 
cle ; an organ of motion, constituting the 
fiesh of animals, and consisting of beaded 
or cylindrical fibres, which are un- 
branched, and are arranged parallel to 
each other in fasciculi. In general, the 
name of venter or beUy is given to the 
middle portion of a muscle, while its ex- 
tremities are named the head and tail, or 
more commonly the origin and insertion. 
Hence the terms digastricus, or two- 
bellied, triceps, or three-headed, &c. 
I. Properties of Muscles. 

1. Contractility, by which their fibres 
return to their former dimensions, after 
being extended ; and, 

2. Irritability, by which their fibres 
shorten on the application of a stimulus. 

II. Forms of Muscles. 
1. The muscles, like the bones, may 



M YL 



M YR 



be divided into long, broad, and short; 
and each of these kinds may present 
muscles, either simple or compound. 

2. The simple, or those which have 
their fibres arranged in a similar or 
parallel direction. They are in general 
bulging, i. e. their transverse outline is 
more or less inflated in the middle. The 
simple muscles are sometimes flat, as 
the sartorius. 

3. The radiated, or those which have 
their fibres converging, like the radii of 
a circle, to their tendinous insertion, as 
the pectoralis. 

4. The ventriform, or belly-shaped, 
which have their centre large, diminish- 
ing towards their tendons, or extremi- 
ties, as the biceps. 

5. The permiform, or pen -shaped, 
which have their fibres arranged obliquely 
on each side of the tendon, as the rectus 
femoris. 

6. The semi-penniform, wTiich have 
their fibres arranged on one side of the 
tendon, as the peronaeus longus. 

7. The complicated, or compound, 

k- . which have two or more tendons, as the 

flexors of the fingers ; or a variety in the 
., ' insertion of oblique fibres into the ten- 
dons, as the linguales. 

III. Actions of Muscles. 

1. The voluntary, or those which are 
subject to the will, as the muscles of 
locomotion. 

2. The involuntary, or those which 
act independently of the will, as the 
heart, &c. 

3. The mixed, or those which act im- 
perceptibly, but yet are subject, more or 

kless, to the control of the will, as the 
muscles of respiration 
MUSHROOM SUGAR. A sugar ob- 
tained by treating the tincture of the 
ergot of rye with water. 

MUSK. A substance procured from 
the Musk deer. See Moschus. 

MUST. The common name for the 
expressed juice of the grape. 

MUTITAS (mutus, dumb). Dumb- 
ness ; an inability of articulation ; one of 
the dyscinesice of Cullen. 

MYDRI'ASIS {ixv6o9, moisture). A 
preternatural dilatation of the pupil. 
Compare Myosis. 

MYELI'TIS (Mve\o9, marrow). In- 
flammation of the substance of the brain 
or spinal marrow, as distinguished from 
meningitis, specifically, or encephalitis, 
generally. 

MYLABRIS. A genus of insects. 

1. Mylabris variabilis. A species 
205 



brought from China, and used as a sub- 
stitute for Cantharides. 

2. Mylabris chicorii. A species said 
to be the same as the buprestis of the 
Greeks, and used, according to Pliny, in 
the same manner as the blister-beetle. 

MYLO- iixi'iKn, a mill-stone). Names 
compounded with this word belong to 
muscles attached near the grinders. 

1. Mylo-hyoideus. A triangular mus- 
cle, arising from the inside of the lower 
jaw, between the molar teeth and the 
chin, and inserted into the os hyoides. 
It raises the os hyoides, or depresses the 
jaw. 

2. Mylo-pharyngeus. A synonym of 
the constrictor superior muscle, from its 
arising from the alveolar process. 

MYOCEPHALON (/xi/Ia, a fly, Ke<pa\ii, 
the head). A small prolapsus of the 
iris, forming a brownish tumor, as large 
as a fly's head. 

MYODESOPSIA {fxvla, a fly, eidor, 
likeness, 6\tif, sight). Visus muscarum. 
The imaginary appearance of floating 
bodies in the air, — a common symptom 
of incipient amaurosis. The technical 
term for these objects is mnscce voli- 
tantes, or mouches volantes, commonly 
called motes. 

MYOIDES (juuc, (xvoi, a muscle, el&o^, 
likeness). Platysma myo'ides ; a mus- 
cular expansion on the neck. 

MYOLOGY (/Aur, }xv6^, a muscle, X6- 
709, a description). A description of the 
muscles ; one of the divisions in the 
study of anatomy. 

MYO'PIA {nixo, to close, fix^, the eye). 
Paropsis propinqua. Short sight; near 
sight. It is also called myopiasis (jixDs, 
/uuof, a mouse), or " mouse-sight," from 
the supposition that mice have naturally 
this kind of vision. See Lejis. 

MYO'SIS {fjLvuy, to close the eyes). An 
unnatural contraction of the pupil. Com - 
pare Mydriasis. 

MYOTOMY (juuf, ixvoi, a muscle, 
Toixt), section). Dissection of the mus- 
cles ; a branch of anatomy. 

MYRIAPODA {fxvpio9, innumerable, 
TTour, nohoK, a, foot). The flrst class of 
the Diplogangliata, or Entomoi'da, com- 
prising animals with articulated bodies, 
all tlie segments of the trunk being pro- 
vided each with one or two pairs of 
jointed ambulatory feet. 

MYRICA CERIFERA. The Wax 
myrtle or Bayberry ; the berries of which 
are covered with a waxy secretion, which 
is employed for the same purposes as 
bees' wax and candles. 



M YR 



N^ V 



Myricin. The ingredient of wax, 
which remains after digestion in alcohol. 
See Cera. 

MYRISTICACEiE. The Nutmeg tribe 
of dicotyledonous plants. Trees with 
leaves alternate; /ower« dioecious, with 
no trace of a second sex ; fruit baccate, 
dehiscent, 2-valved ; seed nut-like, en- 
veloped in a many-parted arillus. 

1. Myristicee nuclei. Nutmegs; the 
seeds of the Myristica officinalis. They 
are partially enveloped by an arillus, 
constituting the spice called mace. 

2. MyristiccB adeps. Butter of nut- 
megs ; prepared by beating the nutmegs 
to a paste, which is then exposed to the 
vapour of water, and expressed by heated 
plates. It is often called expressed oil of 
mace. 

3. Myristic acid. An acid obtained 
from the solid portion of the butter of 
nutmegs, in which it is combined with 
glycerine. 

MYROBALANS (ixvpov, ointment, 
fiaXavoi, an acorn). Dried fruits of the 
plum kind, brought from Bengal and 
other parts of India : there are five kinds, 
viz., the bellerJc, the emblic, thechebulic, 
the Indian, and the yellow. 

MYRONIC ACID (ixvpov, an odorous 
oil). A bitter acid procured from black 
mustard seeds. 

MYROSPERMUM [nvpov, a liquid 
perfume, airepua, seed). A genus of 



Leguminous plants, the seeds of which 
are besmeared with balsamic juice. 

1. Myrospermum Peruiferum. The 
Quinquino; the species which yields the 
balsam of Peru, called also black or liquid 
balsam of Peru. 

2. Myrospermum Toluiferum. The 
Balsam of Tolu tree ; the species which 
yields the balsam of that name. 

MYROSYNE {ixvpov, an odorous oil, 
avv, with). Emulsin of black mustard 
seeds ; a peculiar substance which de- 
rives its name from its yielding, with 
myronic acid, the volatile oil of mustard. 

MYRRHA iixvpov, an ointment). 
Myrrh; an exudation from the bark ot 
the Protium Kataf. It is also called 
stacte, from cnu^o), to distil. 

MYRTACEiE. The Myrtle tribe of 
dicotyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs 
with leaves opposite, entire, and marked 
with transparent dots ; flowers polype- 
talous ; stamens perigynous ; carpella 
concrete ; inferior ovarium with several 
cells. 

Myrtus pimenta. The Pimenta, or 
Allspice tree ; a native of South America, 
where it is called Pumake (in the May- 
pure language) ; and of the West India 
islands; hence the fruit is also called 
Jamaica pepper. 

MYRTIFORM. The name of the 
carunculce which remain after the lace- 
ration of the hymen, from their sup- 
posed resemblance to the mjTtle. 



N 



N. This letter, in prescriptions, de- 
notes numero, in number. 

NiEVUS. Congenitce notes. Envies. 
Maculae matemae, or mother-spots ; con- 
genital spots and discolourations of the 
skin ; the second genus of the Order 
Macula:, of Bateman. These marks are 
vulgarly ascribed to the influence of the 
imagination of the mother upon the 
child in utero ; hence, we have the — 

N. araneus, the spider-like stain. 

N. foliaceus, the leaf-like stain. 

N. cerasus, the cherry stain. 

N. fragarius, the strawberry stain. 

N. morus, the mulberry stain. 

N. ribes, the currant stain. 

N. Tubus, the blackberry stain. 
206 



To these may be added the claret, or 
port wine stain, supposed to be repre- 
sented by the flat and purple nsevus, or 
the ncBvus flammeus of Plenck ; and those 
resembling a slice of bacon, or other 
flesh. See Spilus. 

Vascular Ncevi. 

1. The Arterial, consisting in nume- 
rous enlarged cutaneous arteries, as is 
seen in the na»vus araneus. 

2. The Capillary, consisting in dilated 
capillary vessels, the points of dilatation 
being frequently manifest on the surface. 

3. The Sub-cutaneus, so denominated 
by Dr. Wardrop, and probably identical 
with the preceding species, when seated 
more deeply and unattended by disco- 



N AS 



NEC 



louration. It may involve the subjacent 
textures, and is then called the compli 
cated naevus. 

4. The Venous, or varicose. This v. 
sub-cutaneous ; and when the veins are 
large, the sensation which it imparts to 
the finger, is precisely that conveyed by 
varicocele. 

5. The Increscens. This must be dis- 
tinguished from the stationary naevus, 
because, as Celsus observes — " qucedam 
remedia increscentibus morbis, plura 
jam inclinantibus, conveniunt." 

NAILS. Ungues. Horny laminae 
covering the backs of the extremities of 
the fingers and toes. A nail is divided 
into a root, a body, and a free extremity. 

NANCEIC ACID. An acid procured 
from sour rice, and other acescent vege- 
table substances, and named by Bracon- 
not in honour of the town of Nancy, 
where he resides. 

NAPHTHA. A native liquid bitu- 
men, occurring in springs on the shores 
of the Caspian sea ; and procured also by 
distillation from petroleum. Naphthene 
and naphthol are liquid bitumens of simi- 
lar nature. 

NAPHTHALINE. A compound ob- 
tained by distillation from coal tar ; said 
to be a sesquicarburet of hydrogen. 

NAPIFORM {napus, a turnip, forma, 
likeness). A term applied to one of the 
textures of cancer, the bunioid of Bayle ; 
and to certain roots (or stems) which 
present the form of a depressed sphere, 
like that of the turnip. 

NAPLES YELLOW. A colour pre- 
pared by calcining lead with antimony 
and potash. 

NARCEINE (vapKn, stupor). A weak 
base existing in opium in a very small 
proportion. 

NARCOTICS (va'pKrj, stupor). Hyp- 
notics. Medicines which induce sleep 
or stupor, as opiates. 

NARCOTINE (i/apxn, stupor). A 
crystalline substance derived from opium, 
formerly called salt of Derosne. 

NARCOTISM (i/apic»j, stupor). A 
state of unnatural sleep, induced by the 
effect of narcotic substances. 

NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI. 
An Indian plant of the order Valerian- 
acecB, the root of which appears to be the 
spikenard of the ancients. 

NARIS. Cava naris. The nostril, 
the hole of the nasus, or nose. 

NASCENT STATE {nascor, to be 
born). A term applied to the state of 
gases, at the moment of their generation, 
207 



before they have acquired the repulsive 
power. 

NASUS. The nose, or organ of smell ; 
the external part of the nose. 

1. Nasal fosscB. Two irregular, com- 
pressed cavities, extending backwards 
from the nose to the pharynx, and con- 
stituting the internal part of the nose. 

2. Nasal duct. A short canal leading 
from the lacrymal sac to the inferior 
meatus of the nose. 

3. Alee nasi. The two moveable sides, 
or wings, of the nose. 

NATES. The buttocks. The name 
of the upper pair of the tubercula qua- 
drigemina of the brain ; the lower pair 
is called the testes. 

NATRIUM. A term formerly used 
to designate sodium. 

Natron. Native carbonate of soda; 
it is found in mineral seams or crusts, 
and is hence called the mineral alkali. 

NAUCLEA GAMBIR. The plant 
which yields an extract called gambir. 
Dr. Pereira considers this gambir not to 
form any of the kinos of the shops, but 
to be one of the substances called cate- 
chu in commerce. See Kino. 

NAUCUM. An old Latin term ap> 
plied by botanists to the exterior coat of 
the drupe ; it is soft and fleshy, and 
separable from the interior, hard, and 
bony coat, which is called the endocar- 
pium, or stone. Gasrtner applied the 
term nauca to seeds which have a very 
large hilum, as that of the horse-chest- 
nut. 

NAUSEA (sea-sickness, from vaZs, a 
ship). Sickness of the stomach ; loath- 
ing ; tendency to reject, but without re- 
gurgitation. 

NAVICULARE OS {navicula, dim. of 
jiavis, a boat). A boat-shaped bone of 
the carpus, and of the tarsus. The term 
navicular is applied in botany to the 
glumes of grasses, owing to their boat- 
shaped appearance. It signifies the 
same as the term carinated, or keeled. 
See Keel. 

NEBULA. A cloud. Haziness, or 
dulness ; a slight form of opacity. 

NECROSCOPICAL (^eKp6r, dead, <7/co- 
jreoj, to examine). Relating to post-mor- 
tem examination, or autopsia. 

NECRO'SIS (i/e/cpoco, to mortify).' Li- 
terally, mortification ; it is confined to 
that affection of the bones, and is the 
consequence either of an unfavourable 
termination of inflammation of the bone 
in a bad constitution, or of its vascular 
supply being cut off by the destruction 



NER 



NER 



of its periosteum or medullary mem- 
brane. It is termed — 

1. Simple, when it is confined to one 
bone, the patient being in other respects 
healthy. 

2. Compound, when several parts of 
the same bone, or several distinct bones, 
are affected at the same time ; when the 
health is bad, &c. 

3. Necrosis ustilaginea. The name 
given by Sauvages to that species of 
mortification which arises from the use 
of grain infected by " ustilago" or blight. 

NECTARY. That part of a flower 
which secretes nectar, or honey. The 
term has been vaguely applied to several 
parts which have no such function. 

NEEDHAMIANA CORPORA. A 
term applied to the spermatozoa, or or- 
ganized animals found in the seminal 
reservoirs of the loligo, as observed by 
Needham. 

NEGRO CACHEXY. Mai d'estomac 
of the French. A propensity for eating 
dirt, peculiar to the natives of the "West 
Indies and Africa, and probably similar 
to chlorosis. 

NEPENTHE {vij, neg., ireveo?, grief). 
The ancient name of a drug, probably 
opium, mentioned in Homer. Hence the 
old pharmacopoeia termed the common 
opiate pills nepenthes opiatum. 

NEPHROS (i/e0p6r). i?ew. A kidney ; 
the secreting organ of the urine. 

1. Nephralgia (0X70?, pain). Pain of 
the kidneys, from calculus, or gravel. 

2. Nephr-itic. Belonging to the kid- 
ney ; a medicine which acts on the 
kidney. 

3. Nephr-itis. Inflammation or other 
disease of the kidney. 

4. Nephro-logy {\6yoi, an account). 
An account or description of the kidneys. 

5. Nephro-tomy (tom»;, section). The 
operation of cutting a stone out of the 
kidney. 

NEROLI OIL. Oleum Aurantii. Oil 
procured from the flowers of the Citrus 
Aurantium, or sweet orange. 

NERVES (nervus, a string). White 
cords arising from the brain or the 
spinal marrow, and distributed to every 
part of the system. 

I. Cerebral Nerves. 

1. First pair, or olfactory nerves ex- 
panding on the membrane of the nose. 

2. Second pair, or optic nerves, ter- 
minating at the middle of the retina. 

3. Third pair, or oculo-motory nerves, 
distributed to the muscles of the eye. 



4. Fourth pair, or nervi pathetici seu 
trochleares, distributed to the superior 
oblique muscle of the eye. 

5. Fifth pair, trigemini, or trifacial 
nerves, the grand sensitive nerves of the 
head and face. It includes — 

1. The large, ganglionic, or trifacial 
portion, the sentient and organic 
nerve of the face ; and 

2. The small, aganglionic, or mastica- 
tory portion, the motor nerve of the 
temporal, masseter, &c. 

6. Sixth pair, or abducens, distributed 
to the external rectus of the eye. 

7. Seventh pair, consisting of the por- 
tio dura, facial, or the respiratory of the 
face, of Bell ; and the porlio mollis, or 
auditory. 

8. Eighth pair, or grand respiratory 
nerve, consisting of — 

1. The glosso-pharyngeal, penetrating 
into the back of the tongue ; 

2. The pneumo-gastric, nervi vagi, par 
vagum, or middle sympathetic ; and 

3. The spinal accessory, nervus ad par 
vagum accessorius, or superior respi- 
ratory of the trunk, of Bell. 

9. Ninth pair, sublingual, or hypo- 
glossal, terminating in the tongue. 

II. Spinal Nerves. 

1. Cervical nerves. Eight pairs; the 
first passing between the occipital bone 
and atlas, and termed sub-occipital, or 
tenth nerve of the head ; the last passing 
between the seventh cervical vertebra 
and the first dorsal. 

2. Dorsal nerves. Twelve pairs ; the 
first issuing between the first two dorsal 
vertebrae, the last between the twelfth 
dorsal and the first lumbar vertebra. 

3. Lumbar nerves. Five pairs ; the 
first issuing between the first two ver- 
tebrae of the loins, the last between the 
last vertebra and the sacrum. 

4. Sacral nerves. Generally six pairs ; 
the first issuing by the upper sacral holes, 
the last by the notches at the upper part 
of the coccyx. 

III. Respiratory Nerves, arising from 
the Medulla Oblongata. 

1. The fourth pair, or pathetici. 

2. The portio dura of the seventh. 

3. The glosso-pharyngeal nerve. 

4. The par vagum, and accessorius 

5. The phrenic nerve. 

6. The external respiratory. 

7. The fifth, and certain spinal nerves, 
with the par vagum, should be distin- 
guished as exciters of respiration, the 
rest being motors.— Dr. M. Hall. 



NEU 



NIS 



IV. Si/mpathetic Nerve. 

A collection of ganglia and branches 
connected with the sixth nerve, the 
Vidian portion of the fifth, the portio 
dura, the eighth, ninth, and all the 
spinal nerves. It is, in fact, a collection 
of branches from almost every nerve in 
the frame, which join it at the adjacent 
ganglia. 

NERVINE {nervinus, from nervus, a 
nerve). Neurotic ; that which relieves 
disorders of the nerves, as antispas- 
modics, &c. 

NERVOUS QUINSY. A name given 
by Dr. Heberden to the globus hystericus 
of Dr. Darwin and other writers. 

NETTLE-RASH. Elevations of the 
cuticle, or wheals resembling the sting of 
the nettle. See Urticaria. 

NEURON (vevpov). A nerve; a cord 
arising from the brain or spinal marrow. 

1. Neur-algia (aX-yo?, pain). Nerve- 
ache, or pain in a nerve. It occurs in 
nerves of the face, and is then called 
face ague, tic douloureux, &c. 

2. Neuri-lemma [Xenfxa, a coat). The 
sheath of a nerve. 

3. Neuro-logy (XoTor, a description). 
The doctrine of the nerves. 

4. Neuro-ptera (inepov, a wing). Net- 
winged insects, as the dragon-fly, ant- 
lion, &c. 

5. Neuroses. Nervous diseases. A 
class of diseases of CuUen. 

6. Neuro-ithetiia (aOevos, force.) An 
excess of nervous irritation ; an inflam- 
matory affection of the nerves. 

7. Neuro-tica. Nervous medicines ; a 
term synonymous with nervines. 

8. Neuro-tomy {rofxi], section). Dis- 
section of the nerves. 

9. Neur-ypno-logy (uttvo?, sleep, \670f, 
a description). An account of nervous 
sleep, considered in relation to animal 
magnetism. 

NEUROSES (veDpoi/, a nerve). Ner- 
vous diseases, in which sense and motion 
are impaired, without idiopathic pyrexia, 
or any local disease ; the second class of 
diseases in CuUen's nosology, comprising 
the orders comata, adynamiae, spasmi, 
and vesanire. 

NEUTRAL SALTS. Salts in which 
the base is perfectly saturated with the 
alkali, thus possessing the character nei- 
ther of acid nor alkaline salts. 
. NEUTRALIZATION. A term de- 
noting the loss of characteristic proper- 
ties, which frequently attends chemical 
combination. It is exemplified when an 
acid, and alkali are combined in such 
209 



proportions that the compound does not 
change the colour of litmus or violets. 
The compound is called neutral, and 
one ingredient is said to be neutralized 
or saturated by the other. See Sal. 

NICARAGUA WOOD. Peach wood. 
A tree of the same genus (Ccesalpinia) 
as the Brazil wood ; it grows near the 
lake of Nicaragua. It is used as a dye. 

NICKEL. A scarce white metal, oc- 
curring in combination with other me- 
tals. It is employed in potteries, and in 
the manufacture of porcelain. 

1. Cupfer-nickel. False copper ; a 
name given by the German miners to 
the arsenical ore of nickel, after their vahi 
attempts to extract copper from it. 

2. Speiss. An artificial arseniuret. 
NICOTIANA. A genus of plants, of 

which the species tabacum yields the 
Virginian, Havannah, and pigtail tobac- 
cos of the shops ; the ruslica, the Syrian 
and Turkish tobaccos ; and the persica, 
the fragrant tobacco of Sliiraz. The term 
Nicotiana is derived from the name of 
Joan Nicot, who sent the seeds or the 
plant to France, about the year 1560. 

1 . Nicotine. An organic base existing 
in the leaves, root, and seeds of different 
species of Nicotiana. 

2. Nicotianin. Concrete volatile oil of 
tobacco, or tobacco-camphor, obtained by 
submitting tobacco leaves, with water, to 
distillation. 

NICTITATIO {nictito, to wink). 
Twinkling of the eyelids ; winking. It 
occurs as a symptom in amaurosis, gene- 
rally accompanying a convulsive state of 
the iris. See Membrana nictitans. 

NIGHTMARE. Incubus. Struggle 
and tremor during sleep, attended with 
pressure on the chest, &c. The Romans 
attributed this affection to the frolics of 
the fauns, and termed it ludibria fauni. 

NIGRITIES {niger, black). Black- 
ness ; thus, a caries is called nigrities 
ossium, or a blackness of the bone. 

NIHIL ALBUM. Literally, white 
nothing ; a former name of the flowers of 
white oxide of zinc ; lana philosophica, 
or philosophical wool, is a scarcely less 
curious designation. 

NIPPLE. Papilla. The prominent 
part of the integument in the centre of 
the areola of the mamma. 

NIRLES. The popular appellation of 
the herpes phlyctcBiiodes, or miliary 
herpes of Bateman. 

NISUS FORMATIVUS. Literally, a 
formative effort; a principle similar to 
gravitation, applied by Bluraenbach to 



N I T 



NOD 



organized matter, by which each organ 
is endowed, as soon as it acquires struc- 
ture, with a vita propria. 

NITRAS. A nitrate; a compound of 
nitric acid with a salifiable base. 

1. Nitras potassce. The salt known by 
the name of nitre or saltpetre. 

2. Nitras sodce. Formerly called cubic 
or quadrangular nitre. 

3. Nitras calcis. Formerly called cal- 
careous nitre. The ignited nitrate of 
lime is called Baldwin's phosphorus. 

4. Nitras ammonice. Formerly called 
nitrum flammans, from its property of 
exploding at the temperature of G00°. 

5. Nitras magnesia. Also called 7nag- 
nesian nitre; it combines with the pre- 
ceding salt, and forms a triple salt, called 
the ammoniaco-magnesian nitrate. 

6. Nitras argenti. Fused nitrate of 
silver, or lunar caustic. 

NITRE. Saltpetre. The common 
name of the nitrate of potash. When 
fused, and poured into moulds, it is 
called sal-prunella, or crystal mineral; 
when mixed with charcoal, and burnt, 
the residuum was formerly called clyssus 
of nitre; mixed with carbonate of pot- 
ash and sulphur, in a warm mortar, it 
forms the fulminating powder ; mixed 
with sulphur and charcoal, it forms gun- 
powder ; and when mixed with sulphur 
and fine saw-dust, it constitutes the 
powder of fusion. 

NITRIC ACID. A constituent of 
nitre or saltpetre. From its corrosive 
qualities, it is commonly called aqua 
fortis. 

NITROGEN {v'npov, nitre, fewciu), to 
produce ; so called from its being a 
generator of nitre). Azote. An elemen- 
tary principle, constituting four-fifths of 
the volume of atmospheric air. It was 
formerly called mephitic air, and, by 
Priestley, phlogisticated air. 

1. Nitrous oxide. Formerly called by 
Priestley, who discovered it, dephlogisti- 
cated nitrous air ; but more properly, 
protoxide of nitrogen. Its common name 
is laughing gas. 

2. Nitric oxide, or nitrous gas. For- 
merly called nitrous air ; but, more pro- 
perly, deutoxide of nitrogen. When 
mixed with atmospheric air, nitrous acid 
vapours are produced, of a red or orange 
brown colour. 

3. Nitrous acid. Formerly called fum- 
ing nitrous acid. An acid of uncertain 
constitution, termed hyponitrous by Tur- 
ner. 

4. Peroxide of nitrogen. A compound 

210 



forming the principal part of the nitrous 
acid vapours above mejitioned; the ni- 
trous acid of Turner, the hyponitric acid 
or nitrous gas of Berzelius. 

5. Nitric acid. A constituent of nitre 
or saltpetre, and existing only in com- 
bination. It is called aqua fortis, Glau- 
ber's spirit of nitre, &c. 

6. Nitro-saccharic acid. An acid pro- 
cured from the sugar of gelatine and 
nitric acid, by heat. 

7. Nitro-lc-ucic acid. An acid formed 
by treating leucine with nitric acid. 

8. Nitro-muriutic acid. A compound 
acid formed by the union of the nitric 
and muriatic acids ; it is generally known 
by the name of aqua regia, from its pro- 
perty of dissolving gold. 

9. Nitro-naphthalase\ Three new pro- 

10. Nitro-naphthalese > ducts obtained 

11. Nitro-naphthalise J by the action of 
nitric acid on naphthaline, and named 
according to Laurent's plan of distin- 
guishing compounds obtained succes- 
sively from the same root by the vowels, 
a, e, i, o, &c. 

NITROGENISED FOODS. Sub- 
stances containing nitrogen, and sup- 
posed to be the only substances capable 
of being converted into blood, and of 
forming organic tissues ; hence they have 
been termed by Liebig the plastic ele- 
ments of nutrition. 

Non-nitrogenised foods. Substances 
which contain no nitrogen, and supposed 
to be incapable of forming organised or 
living tissues. Liebig states that their 
function is to promote the process of 
respiration, and he therefore terms them 
elements of respiration. 

NITROUS POWDER. A combina- 
tion of nitrate of potash with tartar emetic 
and calomel. 

NITRUM FLAMMANS. A name 
given to nitrate of ammonia, from its pro- 
perty of exploding, and being totally de- 
composed, at the temperature of 600°. 

NOCTAMBULATIO {nox, noctis, 
night, ambulo, to walk). Sleep-walking; 
literally, night-walking. 

NODE {nodus, a knot). A swelling of 
a bone, or a thickening of the perios- 
teum, from a venereal cause. In botany, 
the term node signifies the thickened part 
of a stem or branch from which a leaf is 
developed. The space between two nodes 
is termed an internode. 

NODOSITY {nodus, a node). A cal- 
careous concretion found in joints, in 
gout or articular rheumatism. 

NODULE (dim. of nodus, a node). A 



NU C 



N U X 



little node ; a small woody body found in 
the bark of the beech and some other 
trees, and formed of concentric layers of 
wood arranged around a central nucleus. 
Dutrocliet terms it an embryo-bud. 

NODUS CEREBRI. A designation 
of the pons Varolii, or tuber annulare of 
the brain. 

NOLI ME TANGERE {touch me not). 
A name given by various writers to lupus, 
the seventh genus of the Tubercula of 
Bateman. It is the cancer lupus of Sau- 
vages. and the dartre rougeante of the 
French writers. Ihe disease is tenned 
from its impatience of handling, and its 
being aggravated by most kinds of treat- 
ment. See Lupus. 

NOMA {voixdia, to eat). Water-can- 
ker ; a form of sphacelus occurring gene- 
rally in children, and also called stoma- 
cace gangrenosa seu maligna, necrosis 
infantilis, gangrenous aphthae, &c. 

NOMENCLATURE. A general de- 
signation for the terms employed in any 
art or science. 

NOOTH'S APPARATUS. An appa- 
ratus invented by Nooth for the purpose 
of making a solution of carbonic acid gas. 
NORMAL {norma, a rule). That 
which is regular ; that in which there is 
no deviation from the ordinary structure. 
See Abnormal. 

NOSE. Nasus. The organ of smell. 
It is composed, superiorly, of bones, and 
inferiorly of cartilages ; and it is lined 
by a mucous membrane, tenned the mem- 
brana pituitaria, or Schneiderian mem- 
brane; the two moveable sides are called 
ala: nasi, or the wings of the nose. 

NOSOCOMIUM {voaoi, disease, ko- 
Heui, to take care of). A hospital ; a place 
where diseases are treated. 

NOSOGRAPHY {v6<roi, disease, -vpd- 
0(0, to describe in writing). A descrip- 
tion or treatise of diseases. 

NOSOLOGY (i/6(Tos, disease, \6fot, 
description). An arrangement of diseases 
according to their classes, orders, genera, 
and species. 

NOSTALGIA (koo-toj, a return, 0X70?, 
pain). Home-sickness ; a vehement de- 
sire to return to one's country. Nosto- 
munia is the same morbid desire aggra- 
vated to madness. Nostrassia is a simi- 
lar term, derived from nostras, of our 
country. 

NOSTRUM. Literally, our own; a 
term applied to a quack medicine, and 
indicative of exclusiveness. 

NUCHA. Cervix. The hind part or 
nape of the neck. 
211 



I NUCLEUS. The kernel of a nut. 

I The solid centre around which the par- 
ticles of a crystal are aggregated. This 
term is applied to the centre of the red 
particles of the blood, and also to the 
pulp of the teeth. 

1. Nucleus cicatriculce. A granular 
mass situated beneath the germinal disk 
in the hen's egg, also called cumulus pro- 
ligerus, or nucleus of the germinal disk. 

2. Nucleus germinativns. 'ihe ger- 
minal spot found in the germinal vesicle 
of the ovum. It is synonymous with 
macula germinativa. 

3. Nucleus, in plants. A pulpy conical 
mass, constituting the central part of the 
ovulum. 

NUCULA (dim. of nux, a nut). A 
term applied by Desvaux to the fruit of 
the oak, the hazel, &c. It is commonly 
called glans. 

NUCULANIUM. A superior, inde- 
hiscent, fleshy fruit, containing two or 
more cells, and several seeds, as the 
grape. By Desvaux it was called bacca ; 
from which it differs, however, in being 
superior. 

NUMBNESS. Insensibility of touch, 
or general feeling. 

NUMMULARY («M»nwKs, money). A 
term applied to the sputa in phthisis, 
when they flatten at the bottom of the 
vessel like a piece of money. 

NUT. A dry, bony, indehiscent, one- 
celled fruit, proceeding from a pistil of 
three cells, and inclosed in a cupule, as 
the hazel, acorn, &c. 

NUTGALL. An excrescence of the 
bark of the Qiuercus infectoria, or the 
Gall or Dyers' Oak, caused by the punc- 
ture of a hymenopterous insect, of the 
tribe called Gallicolce. The egg is depo- 
sited and hatched inside the gall, the 
young insect undergoes its transforma- 
tions, and, in its imago state, perforates 
the gall and escapes. The galls from 
which the insect has escaped, are called 
white galls, from their lighter colour; 
those gathered before the insect has 
escaped are called black or blue, and 
green galls. 

NUTMEG. The seed of the Myristica 
Oflficinalis, or Nutmeg tree. The com- 
mon nutmeg of commerce was formerly 
called the female nutmeg ; a longer kind 
of nutmeg, imported in the shell, being 
called the male nutmeg. 

. NUTRITION {nutrio, to nourish). 
The process of nourishing the frame. 
NUX. A nut ; a term applied by some 



NYC 



OBL 



botanists to the fruit of the borago, the | 
lithospermum, &c. It is more generally j 
called achcenium. 

Nux haccata. A term sometimes ap- 
plied to the fruit of the taxus, &c. Des- 
vaux calls it sphalerocarpum. 

NUX VOMICA. The common term 
for the seeds of the Strychnos nux vomica. 
The plant yields a poisonous principle 
called strychnia. 

Nux vomica bark. This has been de- 
termined to be identical with false An- 
gustura, and is sold at Calcutta under the 
name of rohun. 

NYCTALOPIA {vi,^, vvkto^, night, 
fit^, the eye). Visus nocturnus. Night- 
eye, or day-blindness, vulgarly called owl- 
sight; an affection of the sight, in which 
the patient is blind in the day, but sees 
very well at night. It is sometimes 
called night-blindness. The term has 
been confounded with hemeralopia ; the 
following distinction is given by Dr. 
Forbes : — 



1. Nyctalopia. Vision lost or obscure 
by day, comparatively good at night — 
night-sight, day-blindness. 

2. Hemeralopia. Vision lost or ob- 
scure by night, good or comparatively 
good by day — day-sight, night-blindness, 
hen-blindness. 

NYMPHS (NyM0c«, Nymphs). Labia 
minora. Two semicircular glandular 
membranes, situated within the labia 
majora of the pudendum, so called be- 
cause they direct the course of the urine, 
and preside over its emission, as the 
Nymphs do over fountains. 

1. Nympho-mania {fxavia, madness). 
Lascivious madness in females ; in males 
it is the satyriasis furens of CuUen. 

2. Nympho-tomia (Toixij, section). The 
operation of removing the nymphae. 

NYSTAGMUS {vv(rTayiJi6<!, from i/ytr- 
Tfifo), to be sleepy). A term applied by 
Plenck to denote habitual squinting. It 
occurs in amaurosis, as an involuntary 
pendulum-like rolling of the eyeball. 



o 



OAK-APPLE. A well-known paZ/, of 
spongy texture, produced on the Quercus 
pedunculata. See Nutgall. 

OATS. Semina avence cruda. The 
grains (caryopsides) of the Avena sativa, 
or Common Oat. When deprived of 
their integuments, they are called groats 
or grutum ; and these, when crushed, 
are termed Embden groats. By grinding 
the oat, a farina is obtained, called oat- 
meal ; and by boiling an ounce of this, 
with three quarts of water, to a quart, 
water gruel is prepared. 

OB. A Latin preposition, employed 
in some botanical terms, and denoting 
inversion : thus, oiovate means inversely 
ovate; o6cordate, inversely cordate; oh- 
conical, inversely conical. Hence it is 
evident that this prefix must be restricted 
to terms which indicate that the upper 
and lower parts of a body are of a dif- 
ferent width. 

OBESITY {obesus, corpulent ; from ob 
and edo, to eat). Fatness, corpulency; 
an excessive development of fat in the 
body ; it is synonymous with polysarcia. 
There are two varieties : viz. — 

1. General obesity, extending over the 
body and limbs ; a kind of dropsy of 
animal oil, instead of a dropsy of water. 
212 



2. Splanchnic obesity, confined to the 
organs. It most generally overloads the 
omentum, and gives that rotundity to 
the abdomen which is vulgarly called 
pot-belly, and described, in the person of 
Falstaff, as " a huge hill of flesh," — " a 
globe of sinful continents." 

OBLIQUUS. Oblique or slanting ; not 
direct, perpendicular or parallel. 

1. Obliquus externus. A muscle of the 
abdomen, also called descendens, arising 
from the eight lowest ribs, and inserted 
into the linea alba and the pubes. 

2. Obliquus iniernus. A muscle situ- 
ated within the preceding, also called 
ascendens or minor, arising from the 
spine of the ilium, &c., and inserted into 
the cartilages of the seventh and all the 
false ribs, &c. This and the preceding 
muscle turn the trunk upon its axis, &c. 

3. Obliquus inferior. A muscle which 
arises from the outer edge of the orbitar 
process of the upper jaw-bone, and is 
inserted into the sclerotica. It is also 
called brevissimus oculi, from being the 
shortest muscle of the eye. This and 
the following muscle are said to roll the 
eye, and have hence been named circum- 
agentes; and, from the expression they 
impart, amatorii. 



OBT 



OCU 



4. Ohliquus superior. A muscle which 
arises from the optic foramen, passes 
through the ring of the cartilaginous 
pulley which is in the margin of the 
socket, and is inserted into the sclerotica. 
It is also called longissimus oculi, from 
being the longest muscle of the eye ; and 
trochlearis, from its passing through the 
trochlea or pulley. 

OBLITERATION {oblitero, to efface). 
The closure of a canal or cavity of the 
body, by adhesion of its parietes. 

OBLIVION (obliviscor, to forget). 
Amnestia. Forgetfulness ; failure of me- 
mory. 

OBOMA'SUM. The fourth stomach of 
the Ruminantia. See Omasum. 

OBSIDIANUM. A species of glass, 
discovered by one Obsidius, in Ethiopia. 
Pliny says that obsidianum was a sort of 
colour with which vessels were glazed ; 
and Libavius applies the term to glass of 
antimony. 

OBSTETRIC (obstetrix, a midwife). 
Belonging to midwifery. Pliny uses the 
term obstetricia, sc. officio, for the office 
of a midwife. 

OBSTIPATIO {obstipo, to stop up). 
A form of costiveness, in which the 
faeces, when discharged, are hard, slen- 
der, and often scybalous ; one of the 
epischeses of Cullen. 

OBSTI'PUS {nb, and stipes, a stake). 
Stiff, awry. Hence the term caput obsti- 
pum, for torticollis, or wry-neck. 

OBSTRUENTS (obstruo, to shut up). 
Medicines which close the orifices of 
vessels, &c. 

OBTUNDENTS (obtuvdo, to make 
blunt). Substances which sheathe, or 
biunt, irritation ; a term applied by the 
humoral pathologists to remedies which 
are supposed to soften the acrimony of 
the humors. 

OBTURA'TOR {obturo, to stop up). 
The name of two muscles of the thigh, 
and of a nerve :— 

1 . Obturator externus, arising from the 
obturator foramen, &c., and inserted into 
the root of the trochanter major. It is 
sometimes called rotator femoris extror- 
aum. 

2. Obturator internus, arising and 
inserted as the externus, and formerly 
called marsupialis, or bnrsalis. This and 
the preceding muscle move the thigh 
backwards, and roll it upon its axis. 

3. Nervus obtnratorius. The obturator 
nerve, which comes principally from the 
second and third lumbar nerves, and 
sometimes from the fourth. 

213 



OCCIPITO-FRONTALIS. The name 

of a muscle which arises from the trans- 
verse ridge of the occipital bone, passes 
over the upper part of the cranium, and 
is inserted into the orbicularis palpe- 
brarum and the skin under the eye- 
brows. A slip, sometimes called py- 
ramidalis nasi, goes down over the nasal 
bones, and is fixed by its base to the 
compressor nasi. This muscle has been 
also termed epicranius, bit enter, or di- 
gastricus capitis, &c. It raises the eye- 
brow, wrinkles the forehead, &c. 

OCCIPUT {ob caput). The back part 
of the head ; the part opposite to the front 
or sincijiut. 

Os occipiiis. The occipital bone, situ- 
ated at the posterior, middle, and in- 
ferior part of the skull. It was termed 
by Soemmering pars occipitalis ossis 
spheno-occipitalis, because he considered 
the sphenoid and occipital as but one 
bone, they being never found separate in 
the adult. 

OCCLUSIO (occludo, to close up). 
Total or partial closure of a vessel, cavity, 
or hollow organ. 

1. Occlusio pupillee lymphatica. Closure 
of the pupil by an adventitious mem- 
brane. 

2. Occlusio pupilleB cum synechiA poste- 
riori. Closure of the pupil, with adhesion 
of its margin to an opaque capsule, the 
lens being at the same time generally, 
if not always, opaque ; a consequence of 
iritis. 

OCCULT (occultus). Hidden: as ap- 
plied to diseases, the causes and treat- 
ment of which are not understood ; or to 
qualities of bodies, which do not admit of 
any rational explanation. 

OCHRE (wxpos^. pale). An argillaceous 
earth, impregnated with iron of a red or 
yellow colour ; used in painting. 

OCHRE A. Literally, a boot. A mem- 
branous tube sheathing the stem of rhu- 
barb and other plants, and consisting of 
two stipules cohering by their margins. 

OCTA'NA {octo, eight). Sub. febris. 
An erratic intermitting fever, which re- 
turns every eighth day. 

OCTANDRIA (oktw, eight, uv'^p, a 
male). The eighth class of plants in the 
Linnaean system, characterized by their 
flowers having eight stamens. 

Octo-gynia {'ywi], a female). The name 
given by Linnaeus to those orders of 
plants which have eight pistils in their 
flowers. 

OCULAR SPECTRES. Phantasmata. 
Imaginary objects floating before the 



(EST 



OLE 



eyes, and assuming the form of muscse 
volitantes, net-work, sparks, iridiscent 
appearance, &c. 

OCULIST {ocultts, the«ye). One who 
practises in diseases of the eye. 

ODAXISMUS (bia^ew, to'bite). Pain 
or irritation of the gums, indicating the 
period of teething. 

ODOUS (iiov?, o66vro9). Dens. The 
Greek term for a tooth. 

1. Odontagra (a7pa, a seizure). Gout 
in the teeth ; pain of the teeth, as a 
sequela of gout or rheumatism. 

2. Odont-algia {uXyov, pain). Tooth- 
ache ; pain in the teeth. Remedies for 
the tooth-ache are called odontalgics. 

3. Odontiasis. Dentition, or the cutting 
of teeth. 

4. Odont-otdes (ei3ov, likeness). Tooth- 
like ; the name of a process of the dentata, 
or second vertebra. 

CEDE'MA {o'idrtna, from oldea, to 
swell). Literally, a swelling of any kind ; 
but now confined to a swelling of a drop- 
sical nature, situated in the cellular tis- 
sue, and commonly called watery swelling 
or puffing. The affection, when exten- 
sive, and accompanied with a general 
dropsical tendency, is termed anasarca. 

(ENANTHE CROCATA. Hemlock- 
dropwort, or Dead-tongue ; the most 
energetic of the narcotico-acrid Umbel- 
liferous plants. It has been called five- 
fingered root. 

(ENANTHIC ETHER (oZi/or, wine, 
ai/6*or, flower). An oily liquid, which 
gives the characteristic odour to all wines. 

(Enanthic acid. An acid found in the 
foregoing compound, in combination with 
ether. 

CENANTHYLIC ACID. An acid pro- 
cured by the action of nitric acid on 
castor oil. 

(ESOPHAGUS (oi'o), oUu), to carr}^ 
fpA'^m, to eat). The carrier of food ; the 
gullet; a musculo-membranous canal, 
extending from the lower part of the 
phars'nx to the superior orifice of the 
stomach. 

1. (Esophageal cords. Two elongated 
cords, formed of the pneumogastric 
nerves, which descend along the oeso- 
phagus. 

2. (Esophageal glands. A name some- 
times given to the mucous follicles of the 
oesophagus. 

3. (Esophago-tomy {rofiij, section). The 
operation of cutting into the oesophagus, 
for the purpose of extracting any foreign 
body. 

(ESTRUS (oZo-Tpor). The Breeze, or 
214 



Gad-fly ; a variety of ascaris, the larvae 
of which, called hots, are found convo- 
luted in the mucus and faeces of man, 
but more generally in those of the horse. 

OFFICINAL (officina, a shop). A 
term applied to any medicine directed by 
the colleges to be kept in the shops. 

OFFSET. Propagulum. A short 
branch of certain herbaceous plants, 
which is terminated by a tuft of leaves, 
and is capable of taking root when sepa- 
rated from the parent plant, as in House- 
leek. It differs little from the runner. 

OIL (oleum, from olea, the olive). 
The designation of a number of unctuous 
liquors, which give a greasy stain to 
paper. These have been divided into 
the fixed oils and the volatile oils. 

1 . Fixed Oils. These are comparatively 
fixed in the fire, and give a permanently 
greasy stain to paper. The term philo- 
sopher's oil was formerly given to them 
when acrid and empyreumatic ; and oil 
of brick, from their being sometimes ob- 
tained in this state, by steeping hot brick 
in oil, and submitting it to distillation. 
They are vegetable or animal. 

1. Vegetable Oils ; obtained from vege- 
tables by expression, with or without 
heat : in the latter case they are 
termed cold-drawn. Some of them 
lose their limpidity on exposure to 
the air, and are hence called drying 
oils. 

2. Animal Oils ; obtained from animals, 
by boiling. They are solid or fluid. 

2. Volatile Oils. These are so called 
from their evaporating, or flying off, 
when exposed to the air ; they are also 
called essential, from their constituting 
the chief ingredient, or essence, of the 
vegetable from which they are obtained ; 
the other parts being considered as an 
useless caput mottuum. 

OIL OF SPIKENARD. Grass oil of 
Namur ; a volatile oil, yielded by the 
Andropogon calamus aromaticus. It is 
not the spikenard of the ancients, which 
Professor Royle conceives to be the 
Nardostachys Jatamansi. The name of 
the oil of spikenard is, therefore, in- 
correct. 

OIL OF WINE. Heavy oil of wine. 
The Oleum sethereum of the pharma- 
copoeia. See Etherole. 

OLD OIL. The name given by watch- 
makers to olive oil, after it has been 
purified and reduced to limpidity. 

OLEA DESTILLATA. Distilled, vo- 
latile, or essential oils. The British 
pharmacopoeia directs these to be pre- 



OLE 



OLI 



pared by distillation only ; the French j 
Codex orders several of them to be pre- 
pared by expression. 

Olea expressa. Expressed or fixed oils. 
These are obtained from animal matter 
by fusion, and from vegetables by ex- 
pression, or decoction with water. 

OLEACEyE. The Olive tribe of dico- 
tyledonous plants. Trees or shrubs 
with leaves opposite ; flowers regular, 
monopetalous, hermaphrodite, or dioe- 
cious ; stamens two ; ovarium simple, 
superior, 2-celled ; seeds pendulous. 

Olea Europcea. The European Olive, 
the products of which are a resiniform 
exudation, called lecca gum; and a dru- 
paceous fruit, which in the unripe state 
constitutes the olive of commerce, and in 
the ripe state yields olive oil. 

OLEAGINOUS {oleum, oil). That 
which contains, or resembles, oil. 

OLECRANON (uiXei-n, the ulna, Kpd- 
vov, the head). The large apophysis, 
constituting the elbow, or head of the 
olna. 

OLEFIANT GAS {oleum, oil, fio, to 
become). A compound gas consisting 
of carbon vapour and hydrogen, and now 
viewed as a compound of the organic 
radical acetyl with hydrogen. Its name 
was derived from its forming an oily 
substance with chlorine. 
• OLEIC ACID {oleum, oil). An acid 
forming the essential part of fat oils 
which are not drying, as oil of almonds. 

1. Olcine. The oleate of oxide of 
glyceryl, forming the greater part of the 
fat oils, and of most of the solid fats 
found in nature. 

2. Oleene. This and ela'ene are two 
hydrocarbons formed by distillation of 
the metoleic and hydroleic acids. 

OLEO-RESINS. Native compounds 
of volatile oil and resin, the proper juices 
of coniferous and other plants. 

OLEO-RICINIC ACID. An acid pro- 
cured by distillation from castor oil, along 
with the ricinic and stearo-ricinic acids. 

OLEOSACCHARUM {oleum, oil, sac- 
charum, sugar). The name given to a 
mixture of oil and sugar incorporated 
with each other, to render the oil more 
easily diffusible in watery liquors. 

OLERACEOUS (o;m5, any garden herbs 
for food). An epithet applied to pot- 
herbs, or plants grown for food. 

OLEUM {olea, the olive). Oil ; an 
unctuous liquid, animal or vegetable. 
See Oil. 

1. Oleum animate. Animal oil ; an 
empyreumatic oil obtained by distillation 
215 



from animal substances, and called Dip- 
pel's oil. 

2. Oleum athereum. .ffitherial oil, or 
oil of wine, used as an ingredient in the 
compound spirit of aether. 

3. Oleum sulj huralum. Sulphuretted 
oil, formerly simple balsam of sulphur. 

4. Oleum e vitcllis. Oil of eggs ; ob- 
tained by boiling the yelks, and then 
submitting them to pressure ; fifty eggs 
yield about ,502. of oil. It is used on the 
continent for killing mercury. 

5. Oleum vivum. A name given by 
some Latin writers to bitumen, when in 
a fluid state. See Bitumen. 

OLFACTORY {olfacio, to smell). Be- 
longing to the smell ; the name of the 
first pair of cerebral nerves, &c. 

OLFACTUS {olfacio, to smell). The 
sense of smell, or the act of smelling. 

OLIBANUM. A gum-resin, the pro- 
duce of the Boswellia serrata. It has 
been supposed to be the thus, or frankin- 
cense, of the ancients. 

OLIGO- (oXi'yoc, little, few). A term 
used in Greek compounds, to denote that 
the number of any thing is small, not 
indefinite. It is contrasted by the prefix 
poly- {noXvf, many), signifying that the 
number is large and not definite. Thus 
we have o%o-spermous and poly-sfer- 
mous fruits. 

OLIVARIS {oliva, an olive). Resem- 
bling an olive : hence, the term corpora 
olivaria denotes two olive-shaped emi- 
nences of the medulla oblongata. 

OLIVE OIL. The oil expressed from 
the ripe fruit of the Olea Europcea. 
There are four kinds of olive oil, known 
in the districts where it is prepared, viz., 
in Aix and Montpellier : — 

1. Virgin oil. The oil which sepa- 
rates spontaneously from the paste of 
crushed olives ; or, that obtained from 
the olives ground to a paste, and sub- 
mitted to slight pressure. 

2. Ordinary oil. The oil prepared by 
pressing the olives, previously crushed 
and mixed with boiling water; or, that 
made from the olives which have been 
used for obtaining the virgin oil. 

3. Oil of the infernal regions. The oil 
which remains mixed with the water em- 
ployed in the preceding operation ;. the 
water is conducted into large reservoirs, 
called the infernal regions, and the oil 
collects on the surface. It is used for 
lamps, and is sometimes called lamp-oil. 
It never occurs in commerce. 

4. Fermented oil. The oil obtained by 
leaving the fresh olives in heaps for 



OMP 

some time, and pouring boiling water 
over them before -pressing the oil. It is 
rarely met with in commerce. 

OLIVILE. The name given by Pelle- 
tier to a peculiar substance which re- 
mains after gently evaporating the alco- 
holic solution of the gum which exudes 
from the olive tree. 

OLOPHLYCTIS (o\or, whole, ^Xiifo), 
to be full, or hot). A small hot erup- 
tion, covering the whole body ; when 
partial, it is termed phlyctagna. 

OMA'SUM. Manijplies. The thurd 
stomach of the Ruminantia. The food, 
having been softened in the first and 
second stomachs, termed respectively the 
paunch and the reticulum, is after a time 
returned to the oesophagus and mouth, 
and having been a second time masti- 
cated, descends through the oesophagus 
into the third stomach, whence it passes 
by a narrow opening into the fourth 
stomach, or obomasum. 

OMENTUM [omen, an omen). Epi- 
ploon. The caul ; a fold or reflexion of 
the peritoneum. There are four of these, 
sometimes considered as separate omenta, 
viz. — 

1. The hepato-gaslric, or smaller omen- 
tum, surrounding the liver, and passing 
to the stomach. 

2. The great omentum, surrounding 
the stomach, and returning to the trans- 
verse colon. 

3. The colic omentum, surrounding 
the transverse colon, and passing back- 
ward to the vertebral column. 

4. The gastro-splenic omentum, con- 
necting the spleen to the stomach. 

OMNIVOROUS {omnis, all, voro, to 
devour). A term applied to animals 
which feed on all substances indiffer- 
ently. A synonymous, though unclass- 
ical, term is omnlphagous. 

OMO- ((JjLior, the shoulder). Words 
compounded with this term belong to 
muscles attached to the scapula. 

1. Om-agra (u7pa, a seizure). Gout in 
the shoulder ; pain of the shoulder. 

2. Omo-hyoideus. The name of a mus- 
cle which arises from the shoulder, and 
is inserted into the os hyoides. It de- 
presses that bone and the lower jaw. 

3. Om.o-plata (TrXari/r, broad). A name 
of the scapula, or shoulder-blade. 

OMPHALOCELE {oix(pa\6v, umbili- 
cus, KijXn, a tumor). A rupture, or her- 
nia at the umbilicus. 

1. Omphalo-mesenteric. The name of 
the vessels which, at an early period of 
uterine life, are seen to pass from the 
216 



OPE 

umbilicus to the mesentery. They are 
the first developed vessels of the germ. 

2. Omphalo tomia (to^^, section). The 
separation of the umbilical cord, or navel- 
string. 

OMPHALODIUM (o^u^aXof, the um- 
bilicus). A term applied by Turpin to 
rhe centre of the hilum of the seed, 
through which the nutrient vessels pass 
to the embr>'o. 

ONEIRODYNIA (Hveipo^, a dream, 
lihiwt], pain). Disturbed imagination 
during sleep, comprehending night-mare 
and somyiambiilism. 

ONISCUS ASELLUS. The Wood- 
louse, or slater, the name of an insect, 
otherwise called millepede; it is found 
in rotten wood, and has obtained a place 
in the pharmacopcEia as a medicinal 
agent, but it is seldom used in this 
country. 

ONYCHIA (oi/uf, the nail). An abs- 
cess near the nail of the finger. 

ONYX (oVi/f, the nail). Unguis. A 
small collection of pus in the anterior 
chamber of the aqueous humor, so 
named from its being shaped like a nail ; 
it is of the same nature as hypopyum. 
Some denote, by this term, a small abs- 
cess between the layers of the cornea. 

OPACITY (opacitas, from opacus, 
opaque). Popularly, //>«. Any change 
which affects the transparency of the 
cornea, from a slight film to an intense 
whiteness, like that of marble or chalk. 
Opacities are distinguished into leucoma 
or albugo, the denser form ; nebula, or 
haziness, the slighter form ; and macula, 
a small patch or speck. 

OPAL. A stone, distinguished by the 
name precious opnl, of which there are 
several varieties, found in different parts 
of Europe. Some have the property of 
emitting various coloured rays ; these 
are distinguished by lapidaries, by the 
iexm. Oriental ; and by mineralogists, by 
that of nobilis. Opal is almost entirely 
composed of silica. 

OPERATION. Any exercise of the 
surgical art performed by the hand, or 
by the assistance of instruments. It is 
termed — 

1 . Simple, when one kind of operation 
only is required, as incision, &c. 

2. Complicated, when it consists of 
more than one kind, as in the opera- 
tion for cataract, requiring incision, ex- 
traction, &c. 

OPERCULUM (operio, to shut up). 
A cover or lid ; a term applied to the 
lid- like extremity of the pitcher-like 



OPH 



OPO 



k 



leaf of Nepenthes and Sarracenia ; also 
to the lid which closes the sporangium 
of mosses. 

OPHI'ASTS (o(/)ir, a serpent). A term 
applied by Celsus to a variety of Area, 
which spreads in a serpentine form, 
round both sides of the head, from the 
occiput. That which spreads in irre- 
gular patches, he denominates alopecia. 

OPHIOSTOMA {o<^t9, a serpent, aro- 
/ua, a mouth). A genus of intestinal 
worms, having their mouths furnished 
with two lips ; one species has been 
found in the human subject. 

OPHTHALMIA {b(i>0a\no7, the eye). 
Ophthalmitis. Inflammation of the eye. 
1. Catarrhal ophthalmia. Arising 
from atmospheric causes, and popularly 
designated by the terms cold, or blight ; 
the expression ophthalmia mucosa de- 
notes the increased mucous discharge, 
which accompanies it. It is seated in 
the conjunctiva. 

2. Purulent ophthalmia. Acute oph- 
thalmia, attended with a puriforra secre- 
tion. This is the blepharo-blennorrhoea 
and ophlhalmo blennorrhoea of Schmidt 
and Beer. Its forms are— 

1. Purulent ophthalmia of infants. 
This is the ophthalmia neonatorum ; 
or the ^^ purulent eye" of children. 

2. Purulent ophthalmia after infancy. 
This is the Egyptian ophthalmia, 
so called from being endemic in 
Egypt, and brought to Europe by 
the French and English troops ; 
contagious ophthalmia, &c. 

3. Gonorrhoeal ophthalmia. This is the 
blepharophthalmia, and ophthalmia 
gonorrhoica vera of Beer. 

3. Rheumatic ophthalmia. Inflamma- 
tion chiefly confined to the sclerotica, 
and caused by exposure to cold. 

4. Catarrho-rheumatic ophthalmia. An 
active external inflammation, embracing 
the mucous and fibrous coats of the eye. 

5. Erysipelatous ophthalmia. A modi- 
fication of conjunctival inflammation, 
and attended with erysipelatous redness 
and swelling of the palpebrae, and the 
surrounding parts. 

6. Pustular ophthalmia. Inflamma- 
tion of the mucous membrane, attended 
with the formation of pustules, and con- 
stituting an intermediate link between 
catarrhal and strumous inflammation. 

7. Scrofulous or strumous ophthalmia. 
An external inflammation of the eye, oc- 
curring in scrofulous subjects. 

8. Variolous ophthalmia. Occurring 
in small-pox; morbillous, occurring in 

217 



measles; and scarlatinous, in scarlet 
fever. 

9. External ophthalmia. Inflamma- 
tion of the outer coats of the eye ; the 
ophthalmitis externa idiopathica of Beer. 
The modifications of this species are 
called ophthalmia levis, ophthalmia an- 
gularis, taraxis, and sometimes chemosis, 
and ophthalmia sicca. 

10. Iniernal ophthalmia. Idiopathic 
inflammation of the internal textures of 
the eyeball. 

OPHTHALMODYNIA ib<}>0a\p.6i, 
the eye, b&Ovt). pain). Pain of the eye, 
producing a sensation as if the ball were 
forcibly compressed. Neuralgia of the 
orbit. 

OPHTHALMOPLEGIA {b<peaXpi6t. 
the eye, TrXZ/o-o-o), to strike). Paralysis 
of one or more of the muscles of the 
eye ; a local complication of amaurosis. 

OPHTHALMOPTO'SIS (b<p0a\fii>^, 
the eye, inibcm, prolapsus). Prolapsus 
of the globe of the eye. This term is 
applied by Beer, when the displacement 
is caused by division of the nerves and 
muscles of the orbit, or by paralysis of 
the latter. 

OPIANE. Narcotine. A new prin- 
ciple called Salt of Derosne, from its dis- 
coverer ; it is procured by digesting opium 
in sulphuric ether. 

OPIATE {opiatum, sc. medicamentum). 
An anodyne ; a medicine which acts like 
opium, in producing sleep, &c. 

OPISTHOTONUS {oiziaOev, back- 
wards, reivay, to bend). Tetanus of the 
extensor muscles, the body being rigidly 
bent backwards. See Emprosthotouos. 

OPIUM (oTTor, juice ; quasi, the juice, 
par excellence). The juice which exudes 
from incisions made into the half-ripe 
capsule of the Papaver soraniferum. The 
following table shows in what propor- 
tion opium is contained in some com- 
pound medicines of the London Phar- 
macopoeia: — 

1. Confectio Opii, in about thirty-six 
grains, contains one grain of opium. 

2. Pilulce Saponis cum Opio, in five 
grains, contain one grain of opium. 

3. Pulvis Cornu Usti cum Opio, in ten 
grains, contains one grain of opium. 

4. Pulvis CretcE compositus cum Opio, 
in two scruples, contains one grain of 
opium. 

5. Pulvis IpecacuanhcB compositus, in 
ten grains, contains one grain of opium. 

6. Pulvis Kino compositus, in one 
scruple, contains one grain of opium. 

OPOBALSAMUM (iTroj, juice, bal- 
L 



ORB 



ORE 



samum, hailsam). Balsam of Mecca. The 
most valued of all the balsams, yielded 
by the wounded bark of the Protium 
gileadense. 

OPOCALPASUM. A dark-coloured 
bitter balsam. The tree which yields it, 
is not ascertained. 

OPODELDOC. A solution of soap in 
alcohol, with the addition of camphor, 
and volatile oils. 

OPOPONAX. A fetid gum resin 
formed of the milky juice which exudes 
from the wounded root of the Opoponax 
chironium, a plant of the order Umbel- 
liferae. It occurs in lumps, and in tears. 

OPPILATION {oppilo, to close up). 
Obstruction ; the closing of a cavity by 
adhesion of its parietes. The term op- 
pilativ-'S has been applied to remedies 
which close the pores. 

OPPONENS POLLICIS. A muscle 
which arises from the annular ligament 
of the wrist, &c., and is inserted into 
the thumb. It brings the thumb in- 
wards, so as to oppose the fingers. 

OPTIC {oTTTonai, to see). Belonging 
to the sight; a term applied to the 
second pair of nerves, to two ihalami of 
the brain, &c. 

OPTICS {oirTonai, to see). That 
branch of natural philosophy which 
treats of the properties of light and 
vision. It is distinguished into — 

1. Optics, properly so called, which 
treats of direct vision. 

2. Catoptrics, which treats of reflected 
vision, or the progress of rays of light 
after they are reflected from plane and 
spherical surfaces, and of the formation 
of images from objects placed before 
such surfaces. 

3. Dioptrics, which treats of refracted 
vision, or the progress of rays of light 
which enter into transparent bodies, 
and are transmitted through their sub- 
stance. 

ORA SERRATA. A serrated border, 
or dentated line, constituting the poste- 
rior edge of the ciliary processes. 

ORANGEADE. Essence of orange- 
peel, added to lemon-juice, with water 
and sugar. 

ORANGE PEAS. The young unripe 
fruit of the Citrus Aurantium, or Sweet 
Orange, dried, and turned in a lathe, 
constituting the issue peas of the shops. 

ORANGE-SKIN. An orange hue of 
the skin, chiefly observed in newly-born 
infants, and improperly termed ephelis 
Itttea by Sauvages. 

ORBICULARE OS {orbiculus, a little 
218 



orb). Os lenticulare. The small orbed 
bone of the ear, articulating with the 
head of the stapes. 

ORBICULARIS. The name of two 
muscles of the face : — 

1. Orbicularis oris, a muscle consti- 
tuting the substance of the lips, and 
often termed constrictor oris, sphincter, 
or osculator. It has been considered as 
consisting of two semicircular muscles, 
called the semi-orbicularis superior and 
inferior. The nusalis labii superioris is 
a small slip of this muscle, sometimes 
extending to the tip of the nose. 

2. Orbicularis palpebrarum, a muscle 
arising from the outer edge of the orbitar 
process, and inserted into the nasal pro- 
cess of the superior maxillary bone. It 
shuts the eye. 

ORBICULUS CILIARIS. Annulus 
or circulus ciliaris. The white circle 
formed by the ciliary ligament, marking 
the distinction between the choroid and 
iris. A similar circle defines the boun- 
dary of the cornea. 

ORBIT {orbita, an orbit, a track). The 
cavity under the forehead, in which the 
eye is fixed. The angles of the orbit 
are called canthi. 

ORCHELLA. Dyers' Orchil. The 
Rocella tinctoria, a cryptogamic plant of 
the order Lichenes, which yields the 
colouring matter called orchil or archil. 

1. Orcin. A colourless substance ob- 
tained from the Lichen dealbatus, and 
assuming a deep violet colour when ex- 
posed to the joint action of ammonia and 
air, owing to the formation of orcein. 

2. Orcein. A red colouring principle 
found in archil, and referred by Dr. Kane 
to a mixture of two substances, diflfering 
in their proportion with the age of the 
archil ; these he calls alpha-orcein and 
beta-orcein, the latter being produced by 
oxidation of the former. 

ORCHIS (opx'O- The testis. Hence, 
the term mon-orchid denotes a person 
possessed of only one testis. 

1. Orchitis. Inflammation of the testis; 
a term adopted by Dr. M. Good, as more 
appropriate than the unmeaning name 
hernia humoralis. 

2. Orcho-tomy {TOjxr], section). Castra- 
tion ; the operation of extirpating one or 
both of the testes. 

ORCHIS MASCULA. The Male Or- 
chis ; a plant, from the tubers of which 
is prepared the substance called salep, so 
remarkable as the source of bassorine. 

ORENBURGH GUM. Gummi Oren- 
burgense. A gum which issues from the 



ORG 



RS 



I 



medullary part of the trunk of the Pinus 
larix, when the larch forests in Russia 
take fire. 

ORES. The mineral bodies from which 
metals are extracted. These are termed 
sulphurets, when combined with sulphur ; 
oxides, when combined with oxygen ; and 
salts, when combined with acids. 

ORGAN (iipyavov). A part which has 
a determinate office in the animal eco- 
nomy. There are organs — 

1. Of Circulation, as the heart, the 
arteries, veins, capillaries, &c. 

2. Of Absorption, as the lymphatic 
vessels and glands, the lacteals, &c. 

3. Of Sensation, as the eye, ear, nose, 
tongue, skin, the muscles, &c. 

4. Of Digestion, as the mouth, the 
stomach, the intestines, &c. 

5. Of Respiration, as the lungs, the 
trachea, the bronchia, &c. 

6. Of the Voice, as the larynx, the car- 
tilages and muscles of the throat, &c. 

7. Of Secretion, as the liver, for the 
secretion of the bile ; the kidneys for that 
of the urine ; the lacrymal gland for that 
of the tears ; &c. 

8. Of Generation, as the testes, penis, 
&c. in the male ; the pudendum, uterus, 
&c. in the female. 

ORGANIC ATTRACTION. A term 
applied to the phenomenon by which 
blood is attracted into parts which are 
capable of erection, and which are, at 
the same time, in a state of excitement ; 
to the union of germs by which a part 
of the double monsters is to be ex- 
plained; &c. 

ORGANIC FORCE. A term applied 
to that power which resides in organ- 
ized bodies, on which the existence of 
each part depends, and which has the 
property of generating from organic mat- 
ter the individual organs necessary to 
the whole. It exists already in the 
germ, and creates in it the essential 
parts of the future animal. The germ 
is potentially the whole animal ; during 
the development of the germ, the essen- 
tial parts which constitute the actual 
whole are produced. The result of the 
union of the organic creative power 
and organic matter is called organism 
or the organized state. 

ORGANIC MOLECULES. A term 
applied by Spallanzani to certain float- 
ing bodies supposed to exist in the male 
semen, and which he regarded as pri- 
mordial monads of peculiar activity, ex- 
isting through all nature, and consti- 
tuting the nutrient elements of living 
219 



matter. These are the animalcules, or 
homuncular tadpoles, of Leewenhoeck ; 
the vital germs of Darwin, &c. 

ORGANIZATION. A term applied 
to a system, composed of several indi- 
vidual parts, each of which has its pro- 
per function, but all conduce to the 
existence of the entire system. 

ORGASMUS (op7aa), to desire vehe- 
mently). A term denoting evanescent 
congestive phenomena, which manifest 
themselves in one or in several organs at 
once. 

ORICHALCUM {aurichalctim, from 
aurum, gold, and xaXKor, brass). The 
brass of the ancients ; their ces was a 
species of bronze. 

ORIFICIUM {OS, a mouth, facio, to 
make). An orifice ; a mouth or entrance 
to any cavity of the body ; hence orificium 
vagina;, that part of the pudendum which 
is below the level of the urethra. 

ORIGANUM VULGARE. Common 
Marjoram, a Labiate plant, which yields 
the oil of thyme of the shops. 

ORIGIN (origo). The commencement 
of a muscle from any part. Its attach- 
ment to the part it moves is called its 
insertion. 

ORNITHOLOGY (opvi-:, a bird, Xo-yoy, 
an account). That department of Natu- 
ral History which treats of birds. This 
Class of the Vertebrata is divided by 
Cuvier into the following Orders : — 

1. Accipitres. The hawk tribe, includ- 
ing birds of prey, as the eagle, vulture, &c. 

2. Passeres. The sparrow tribe, includ- 
ing the small singing-birds, as the lark, 
swallow, &c. 

3. Scansores. Climbing birds, includ- 
ing the parrot, woodpecker, &c. 

4. Gallince. Gallinaceous birds, in- 
cluding the domestic fowl, peacock, &c. 

5. Gratia. Waders, including the he- 
ron, woodcock, ostrich, &c. 

6. Palmipedes. Web-footed birds, in- 
cluding the duck, gull, darter, &c. 

ORNUS EUROP^A. The European 
Flowering Ash; an Oleaceous plant, 
which yields manna. 

ORPIMENT (auri pigmentum). The 
name usually given to sulpharsenious 
acid ; it is principally used as a pigment, 
and is the colouring principle of the 
paint called king's yellow. 

ORRIS ROOT. The rhizome of the 
Iris florentina, and perhaps also of the 
Iris pallida. 

ORSEDEW. Manheim, or Butch Gold. 
An inferior sort of gold-leaf, prepared of 
copper and zinc, sometimes called leaf- 
L2 



OS 



OS 



hrasn, and principally manufactured at 
Manheim. 

ORTHO- (opflor, straight). A Greek 
adjective, denoting straigktness or erect- 
ness of position. 

1. Ortho-pnoea (nveo), to breathe). An 
affection of the breathing when it takes 
place only in the erect position. 

2. Ortho-ptera (Trepoi/, a wing). 
Straight-winged insects, as the locust, 
grasshopper, &c. 

3. Ortlio-tropal {rpeiria, to turn). That 
which is straight, and has the same di- 
rection as the body to which it belongs, 
as applied to the embryo of the seed, 
when its radicle coincides with the hilum : 
the embryo is then erect with respect to 
the seed, as in the apple, &c. 

4. Orlho-tropous (rpeTrw, to turn). A 
term applied by Mirbel to the axis of 
the ovule in plants, when it is recti- 
linear, the foramen being at the extremity 
most remote from the hilum, as in cistus, 
urtica, &c. 

ORYCTOLOGY (opuKTor, buried under 
ground, \670r, a description). That 
branch of geology which comprehends 
the study of fossils, or organic remains. 
It is sometimes known by the name 
orycto-gnosy, from ■yvSo-*?, knowledge or 
science. 

ORYZA SATIVA. The grain, or 
rather the endosperm of the seed of rice, 
used for making ptisans, &c. 

05. ORIS. A mouth ; a passage or 
entrance into any place. 

1. Os tincce. The tench's mouth; the 
OS uteri, or orifice of the uterus. 

2. Os externum. The entrance of the 
vagina ; so named to distinguish it from 
the OS internum, or orifice of the uterus. 

OS, OSSIS. A bone ; a portion of the 
skeleton, constituting a passive organ of 
locomotion, as distinguished from a mus- 
cle, or active organ of this faculty. See 
Tissue of Bones. 

1. Ossa longa vel cylindrica. The long 
or cylindrical bones, occurring in the 
limbs. Their middle part is called the 
body or diaphysis, and their centre is 
traversed by a cylindrical cavity, called 
the medullary canal. 

2. Ossa lata vel plana. The flat or 
broad bones, which protect important 
viscera, or form the walls of certain cavi- 
ties, as those of the cranium. 

3. Ossa crassa. The short bones, gene- 
rally of a globular, tetrahedral, cuboidal, 
cuneiform, or polyhedral form, and oc- 
curring in the tarsus, the carpus, and 
the vertebral column. 

220 



4. Processes of hones. The name given 
to certain eminences by which the sur- 
face of bones is frequently surmounted. 
The following is an enumeration of the 
different kinds of processes, together 
with their peculiar characters : — 

5. Processes which belong to the move- 
able articulations are termed heads, when 
they are nearly hemispherical ; and con- 
dyles, when they are broader in one 
direction than in the others. 

6. Processes which belong to the im- 
moveable articulations, are termed serrcs 
or dentations, as in the bones of the cra- 
nium ; roots, as in the teeth ; and ridges, 
as in those articulations called schin- 
dyleses. 

7. Processes which serve for the inser- 
tion of fibrous organs, whose points of 
attachment they multiply, are termed — 

1. According to their general form; im- 
pressions or irregular eminences, not 
much elevated, but rather broad, and 
formed of a great number of small 
tubercles placed very close together, 
and separated by slight depressions ; 
lines, or unequal eminences, long, 
but not very prominent ; crests, or 
eminences resembling lines, but 
broader and more prominent ; pro- 
minences, when rounded, broad, and 
smooth; and tuberosities, when 
rounded and rough. 

2. After the bodies to which they have 
been compared ; spinous processes, of 
the form of a spine ; styloid, resem- 
bling a style or pen ; coraco'id, like a 
crow's beak ; odontoid, like a tooth ; 
and mastoid, like a nipple. 

3. According to their uses ; trochanters, 
or those which are subservient to the 
act of turning ; and orbilar, belong- 
ing to the orbit, &c. 

4. According to their direction and 
relative situation; ascending pro- 
cesses, vertical, transverse, superior, 
&c. 

8. Processes which serve for the reflec- 
tion of certain tendons which deviate 
from their original direction, are termed 
processes of reflection. 

9. Processes which correspond to cavi- 
ties existing on the surface of some organs 
are called processes of impression. 

10. Membrane of bones. A dense fibrous 
membrane, surrounding tlie bones in 
their fresh state, except at the surfaces 
by which they are articulated to each 
other ; on the skull it is called pericra- 
nium; on the cartilages, perichondrium; 
on the bones in general, periosteum. 



OST 



OT 



r 



OSCHEOCELE io(Txeov, the scrotum, 
K>]\n, a tumor). A hernia which has 
descended into the scrotum. 

OSCILLATION {oscillum, an image 
hung on ropes, and swung up and down 
in the air). A term applied by Boerhaave 
to muscular irritability. See Irritability. 

OSCILLATORIA. A filamentous Al- 
gaceous plant, interesting to the physio- 
logist, as exhibiting the first traces of 
organic contractility in its simplest con- 
dition. 

OSCILLATORIUS. Versatile, or that 
which is slightly attached by its middle 
to any body, so that the two halves are 
balanced, and swing backwards and for- 
wards ; a term applied to the anther of 
certain plants. 

OSCITANCY {oscito, to gape; from os 
ciere, to stretch the mouth). Yawning, 
or gaping. 

OSCULATOR {osculor, to kiss). A 
name given to the orbicularis oris, or 
muscle forming the substance of the lips. 

OSMAZOME {hafirjy odour, t«Mof. 
broth). Alcoholic extract of meat. An 
alcoholic extract obtained from muscular 
fibre, brain, &c., having the taste and 
smell of broth. 

OSMIUM [oo-fii], odour). A new metal 
lately discovered by Mr. Tennant among 
platina, and so named by him from the 
pungent and peculiar smell of its oxide. 

Osmic acid. The volatile oxide of os- 
mium, of extremely acid and penetrating 
odour. 

OSSA ALBA. White bones. The name 
given by Van Helmont to the precipitate 
formed by the natural salt of the urine, 
in the production of calculus. It was 
called by Paracelsus, tartar. 

OSSICULUM (dim. of os, ossis, a bone). 
A little bone. Hence the ossicula auditHs, 
a series of four small bones contained in 
the cavity of the tympanum, viz. the 
malleus, the incus, the orbiculare os, and 
the stapes ; they are subservient to the 
propagation of sound. 

OSSIFICATION {os, ossis, a bone, /o, 
to become). The formation of bone; the 
deposition of calcareous phosphate, or 
carbonate, on the soft solids of animal 
bodies. 

OSTEO- (ba-rtov, a bone). A prefix 
denoting the presence of bone. 

1. Osteo-anabrosis (avd/Spcxxm, absorp- 
tion). A name given by Dr. Cumin to 
the simple absorption of bone, unaccom- 
panied by secretion of pus. It is by this 
process that Nature produces the re- 
moval of the milk-teeth, &c. 
221 



2. Osteo-geny {yeveaii, formation). The 
growth of bones. 

3. Osteo-graphy {'^pdc/xa, to describe). 
A description of the bones. 

4. Osteo-logy {\6yoi, an account). A 
treatise of the bones. 

5. Osteoma. Bony tumor; a calcareous 
concretion, occasionally found in the 
brain. 

6. Osteo-malacia (/xaXaKor, soft). Soft- 
ening of the bones, or rachitis. 

7. Osteo-pcedion {Ttaihiov, a child). Li- 
thopcedion. An osseous or stony mass 
into which the foetus is sometimes found 
to have been converted in the uterus. 

8. Osteosarcoma (<T(ipf, flesh). Osteo- 
sarcosis. The growth of a fleshy, me- 
dullary, or cartilaginous mass within a 
bone. 

9. Ost-hexia (efi9, a habit). Ossific 
diathesis ; an aflfection in which soft parts 
become indurated by a deposit of ossific 
matter. 

\Q. Ost-itis. Inflammation of a bone. 

OSTIOLUM (dim. of ostium, a door). 
A little door; the orifice of the perithe- 
cium of some Fungaceous plants, as 
sphaeria. 

OSTIUM {OS, the mouth). The door 
of a chamber, the mouth of a river. 

1. Ostium abdominale. The orifice at 
the fimbriated extremity of the Fallopian 
tube, — the only place in the whole body 
where a serous membrane communicates 
with the exterior. 

2. Ostium uterinum. The orifice at 
the uterine extremity of the Fallopiaa 
tube. 

OSTREA EDULIS {oatpaKov, a shell). 
The common edible Oyster, a Conchi- 
ferous Molluscous animal. 

Testce prceparatce. Prepared oyster- 
shells. The shells are freed from im- 
purities by boiling water, then crushed 
and pulverized previous to elutriation. 
They consist principally of carbonate of 
lime, and therefore possess the same me- 
dicinal properties as chalk. 

OTALGIA (oiV, WTO?, the ear, 0X70?, 
pain). Otitis. Ear-ache ; pain in the 
ear. It has been distinguished into — 

1. 'Externa, which generally suppurates, 
and forms what is vulgarly called an im- 
posteme or imposthume in the head — a 
term corrupted from apostcme. It some- 
times becomes chronic, and is then called 
otorrhoea. 

2. Interna, or internal imposteme. 
OTOCONITE (of/?, wt6?, the ear, 

k6i/j?, dust). A calcareous deposit found 
in the sacs of the vestibule, analogous to 
L 3 



ovu 

the otolites, or calcareous crystalline 
masses found in the vestibular sac of 
fishes. 

OTOLITES {oh, dirot, the ear, \i0ot, 
a stone). Calcareous concretions found 
in the labyrinth of fishes and fish-like 
amphibia, which, by being in contact 
with the membranous parts of the laby- 
rinth, increase by their resonance the 
sonorous vibrations. 

OTORRHffiA {oh, wTOf, the ear, pew, 
to flow). The designation of otitis, when 
it has passed into a chronic state; it then 
becomes an otitic catarrh. 

OTTO or ATTAR OF ROSES. Pre- 
pared from the petals of the damask and 
other roses, by distillation, exposing the 
product to the night air, and skimming 
off the fine oil floating on the surface. 

OURETIC ACID {olpov, urine). A 
supposed new acid of Proust and Berg- 
mann, shown by Klaproth to be bi- 
phosphate of soda. 

OVARIUM {ovum, an egg). An organ 
containing the ova of animals. The 
ovaries of the human subject, formerly 
called testes muliebres, are two small oval 
bodies placed in the substance of the 
broad ligaments. 

Ovarium, in plants. The hollow case 
at the base of tlie pistil, inclosing the 
ovules. It is said to be inferior, when 
the tube of the calyx contracts an ad- 
hesion with its sides ; superior, when no 
such adhesion exists ; consequently, an 
inferior ovary involves a superior calyx ; 
a superior ovary, an inferior calyx. 
When an ovary adheres to the calyx 
merely by its back, it is termed parietal. 
OVICAPSULE. The capsule of the 
ovum, which in many invertebrata is 
insulated from the proper tissue of the 
ovary, and may even escape with the 
ovum ; but, in the oviparous vertebrata, 
coalesces with the theca of the ovary, 
forming there what is termed the calyx. 

OVIPAROUS {ovum, an egg, pario, to 
bring forth). Animals which bring forth 
their young in the et'g. 

OVULIGER {ovulum, a little egg,gero, 
to bear). The name of a new kind of 
hydatid, supposed to be formed in the 
articulation of the wrist. See Hydatis. 

OVULUM (dim. of ovum, an egg). A 
little egg ; a term commonly used syn- 
onymously with ovum. See Ovum. 

1. Ovula Graajiana. Serous vesicles 
found in the structure of the ovarium— 
the ova in which the future embryo is 
developed. 

2. Ovula of Naboth. Small vesicles 

222 



X I 

found within and around the os uteri, 
and mistaken by Naboth for ova. 

3. Ovule of plants. A small pulpy 
body, borne by the placenta, and gra- 
dually changing into a seed. It consists 
of two tunics and a nucleus. 

OVUM. An egg; a small vesicle 
within the ovarium, containing the em- 
bryo, or rudiments of the foetus. 

1. Ocalis. Egg- like. Hence the term 
ovale is applied to a foramen between the 
auricles in the foetus. 

2. Ovi-duct {ductus, a canal). A name 
sometimes given to the Fallopian tube, 
which conducts the ovum to the uterus. 

3. Ovi-parous {pario, to bring forth). 
Animals which bring forth their young 
in the egg. , 

4. Ovo-viviparous. Animals which 
bring forth their young in a living state, 
the egg having been previously hatched 
within the body of the parent. 

OXALIC ACID. An acid existing, in 
the form of an acid salt of potash, in 
many plants, particularly in the species 
of Oxalis and Rumex ; combined with 
lime, it forms a part of several lichens. 

OXALIDACE^. The Wood-sorrel 
tribe of Dicotyledonous plants. Herba- 
ceous plants, undershrubs, or trees, with 
leaves alternate ; flowers symmetrical ; 
stamens hypogynous; fruit capsular. 

Oxalis Acetosella. Common Wood- 
sorrel, a plant which yields the binoxalate 
of potash, or salt of wood-sorrel. 

OXAMIDE. A white insoluble sub- 
limate, obtained by decomposing oxalate 
of ammonia by heat. The term is de- 
rived from the first syllable of oxalic acid 
and ammonia. 

OXIDATION. The process of con- 
verting metals or other substances into 
oxides, by combining with them a certain 
portion of ox)^gen. It differs from acidi- 
ficaiion, in the addition of oxygen not 
being sufficient to form an acid with the 
substance oxidated. 

OXIDES, formerly called calces. Sub- 
stances combined with oxygen, without 
being in the state of an acid. Oxides 
are distinguished by the prefixes— 

1. Proto (TrpwTor, first), denoting the 
minimum of oxygen, as jaroioxide. 

2. Beuto (Seyrepor, second), denoting 
a second proportion, as dew^oxide. This 
is also called 6n«-oxide. 

3. Trito (TpiTor, third), denoting a 
third proportion, as ifri^oxide. This is 
also called fer-oxide. 

4. Per {very much), denoting the max- 
imum of oxidation, as peroxide. 



ox Y 



OZO 



OXY- (ofi/9, acid). A prefix, denoting 
in some terms, the presence of acidity ; 
in others, the presence of oxygen ; in a 
third class of terms, acuteness of sense 
or function ; and, lastly, sharp-pointed- 
ness. 

1. Oxy-gen (^ei/vaw, to generate). A 
gas which forms about a fifth of atmo- 
spheric air, is capable of supporting 
flame, and is essential to the respiration 
of animals. Its present name was pro- 
posed by Lavoisier, from the supposition 
that it was the sole cause of acidity. It 
was called by Priestley dephlogisticated 
air; by Scheele, empyreal fair ; and by 
Condorcet, vital air. 

2. Oxygen Water. A solution of oxy- 
gen in water. This must not be con- 
founded with oxygenated water, which 
is the peroxide of hydrogen ; nor with 
Searle's oxygenous aerated water, which 
is an aqueous solution of the protoxide 
of nitrogen. 

3. Oxy-mel {/neXi, honey). A compound 
of honey and acetic acid. 

4. Ox-acid. An acid containing oxy- 
gen. The relative number of atoms of 
oxygen in different acids formed by the 
same element with this substance is in- 
dicated by prefixes and terminations. 

5. Oxy-chloride. A combination of an 
oxide and a chloride of the same metal, 
excepting the potassium family. The 
oxychlorides are commonly termed suh- 
muriates, on the supposition that they 
consist of hydrochloric acid combined 
with two or more equivalents of an 
oxide. 

6. Oxy-crat[K(Kxw,iQm\±). A mixture 
of vinegar and water. 

7. Oxy-croceum. A warm discutient 
plaister, consisting of wax, resin, pitch, 
turpentine, saffron, and several gums. 

8. O.xy-genation. A term often used 
as synonymous with oxidation ; it diflJ'ers, 
however, from it in being of more general 
import, every union with oxygen being 
an oxygenation ; whereas oxidation takes 
place only when an oxide is formed. 

9. Cxy-alcohol blowpipe. An apparatus 
contrived by Dr. Marcet for increasing 
temperature. It consists in urging the 
flame of an alcohol lamp by a blow-pipe 
supplied with oxygen gas. The oxygen 
may be furnished from an air-holder, 
a gas-bag, or any other vessel in which it 
has been stored. 

10. Oxy-hydrogen blowpipe. An appa- 
ratus by means of which a stream of 
hydrogen is supplied with pure oxygen 

-223 



as it escapes from a nozzle, and an in- 
tense heat thus produced. 

1 1 . Oxy-iodine. A name given by Sir 
H. Davy to anhydrotis iodic acid, or the 
compound of oxygen and iodine. Its 
compounds with metallic bases were 
called oxyiodes, and by Gay Lussac, 
iodates. 

12. Oxy-muriate of lime. Chloride of 
lime, or bleaching powder, prepared by 
exposing thin strata of recently slaked 
lime in fine powder to an atmosphere of 
chlorine. The gas is absorbed in large 
quantity, and combines directly with the 
lime. 

13. Oxy-muriatic acid. The former 
name of chlorine ; it was also formerly 
called dephlogisticated marine acid ; and 
by the French, oxygenized muriatic acid. 
See Chlorine. 

14. Oxy-prussic acid. A name formerly 
given to chloro-cyanic, or chloro-prussic 
acid, from its being supposed that the 
hydro-cyanic acid had acquired oxygen 
on being mixed with chlorine. 

15. Oxysalt. A compound in which 
oxygen is found both in the acid and the 
base ; thus, in phosphate of soda, it is 
associated with phosphorus in phosphoric 
acid, and with sodium in soda. 

16. Oxy-opia (6.//<f, vision). Acuteness 
of sight. Increased sensibility of the 
retina, by which the smallest objects are 
clearly seen, for a few moments, in an 
extremely weak light ; yet, excepting at 
such periods, even larger objects are not 
seen in the same degree of light. 

17. Oxy-phonia {(puvi], voice). Acute- 
ness, or shrillness of voice ; synonymous 
with paraphonia clangens. 

18. Oxy-urus {ovpa, a tail). The Ver- 
micular Ascaris; a parasitic animal, 
sometimes found in the uterus, or its 
appendages, the intestines, &c. 

OZtENA (off), a stench). An ulcer, 
situated in the nose, discharging a fetid 
purulent matter, and sometimes accom- 
panied with caries of the bones. In its 
early state it is generally termed catarrh; 
when more advanced, it is called cancer 
of the nostril or throat, as it occupies 
principally the one or the other of these 
parts. 

OZONE (ofw, to smell). A new .ele- 
mentary substance, to which Schonbein 
ascribes the peculiar smell evolved, in 
electrical operations, at the anode or 
positive surface. He supposes it to be 
a constituent of an electrolyte, small 
quantities of which exist in both air and 
water. 

Ii4 



PAL 



PAL 



PABULUM. Forage, food for cattle. 
The animal heat and animal spirits are 
called the pabula vita;, or food of life. 

PACCHIONl'S GLANDS. The gra- 
nulations found in the superior longi- 
tudinal sinus of the membranes of the 
brain. 

PACHYBLEPHAROSIS (Traxi? , thick, 
^Xecpapov, the eyelid). Thickening of the 
tissue of the eyelid, from chronic inflam- 
mation. 

PACH YDERMATA (naxvf, thick, dep- 
ixa, skin). Thick-skinned animals, as 
the elephant; the seventh order of the 
class Mammalia. 

P^DOTROPHIA (Tralf, a child, rpe- 
<pa>, to nourish). That branch of hygiene 
which treats of the nourishment of in- 
fants and children. 

PA'GINA. Literally, a page of a book. 
A term applied to the surface of a leaf, 
the upper surface being called pagina 
superior ; the lower surface, pagina in- 
ferior. 

PAINTERS' COLIC. Colica picto- 
rum. A species of colic incident to 
painters, from the use of lead. 

Painters' purge. A medicine used in 
painters' colic, and consisting of a decoc- 
tion of half an ounce of senna in a pound 
of water, mixed with half an ounce of 
sulphate of magnesia, and four ounces 
of the wine of antimony, 

PAKFONG. The white copper of the 
Chinese, said to be an alloy of copper, 
nickel, and zinc. 

PALATUM. Fornix palati. The pa- 
late, or upper wall of the mouth. 

1. Velum palati. The soft palate ; the 
posterior limit of the palate. 

2. Palato-labialis. The name given 
by Chaussier to the external maxillary 
or facial artery. 

3. Palatopharyngeus, or thyro-staphy- 
linus. A muscle which arises from the 
arch of the palate, and is inserted into the 
thyroid cartilage and the pharynx. It 
draws the uvula downwards and back- 
wards, and closes the back of the nostrils. 
See Salpingo-pharyngeus. 

4. Palato-salpitigeus. A designation of 
the circumflexus palati muscle, from its 
origin and insertion. 

224 



PALEA. Chaff. The term palece is 
applied to the minute colourless bracts 
at the base of the florets of a capitulum ; 
and to the floral envelope of grasses, 
which immediately surrounds the sexual 
organs. 

PALLADIUM. A new metal, found 
by Wollaston in the ore of platinum. 

PALLIATIVES {pallio, to be con- 
cealed ; from pallium, an upper garment 
worn by the Greeks). Medicines which 
produce merely temporary relief, thus 
palliating or cloaking the disease. 

PALLOR (palleo, to be pale; from 
ndWo}, to quiver). Paleness, pale colour ; 
the usual colour of those who quiver 
from fear or other cause. 

PALM OIL. The produce of the 
palm called Elais guineensis, and, ac- 
cording to Burnett, of some species of 
Bassia and other Sapotaceae. 

PALMA. The palm of the hand ; the 
internal soft part of the hand. 

1. Palmar arch. A branch of the 
radial artery, which passes over the meta- 
carpal bones. The superficial palmar 
arch is a continuation of the ulnar artery, 
which also crosses the metacarpus 

2. Palmaris longus. A muscle arising 
from the inner condyle of the os humeri, 
and spread out into the palmar aponeu- 
rosis, which is finally fixed to the roots 
of all the fingers. It is a flexor of the 
wrist. 

3. Palmaris brevis. A muscle arising 
from the annular ligament of the wrist 
and the palmar aponeurosis, and inserted 
into the skin of the inner edge of the 
hand; it is sometimes called palmaris 
cutaneus. It contracts the skin of the 
palm. 

PALMA CHRISTI. The Ricinm 
Communis, or castor oil plant. 

PALMACE^. The Palm tribe of 
Monocotyledonous plants. Plants with 
an arborescent trunk, covered with the 
sheathing bases of leaves ; leaves termi- 
nal, clustered, pinnate, or flabelliform ; 
flowers hexapetaloideous , stamens defi- 
nite ; ovarium superior, 3-celled ; fruit 
baccate, or drupaceous, with fibrous 
flesh. 



PAN 



PAN 



PALMINE. A solid odorous fat, pro- 
cured by the action of hyponitrous acid 
on castor oil. 

PALMIPEDES {palma, the palm of 
the hand, pes, pedis, a foot). Web-footed 
animals, as the goose ; the sixth order of 
the class Aves. 

PALMITIC ACID. An acid obtained 
by decomposing a soap of the palm oil of 
commerce. 

Palmitine. Palmitate of glyceryl. 

PALO DE VACA. The Cow Tree, a 
native of the Caraccas, from which the 
vegetable milk, or glutinous or milky sap, 
is obtained by incision. 

PALPATION {palpo, to feel). The 
act of feeling ; manual examination, or 
a method of exploring the abdomen by 
touch and pressure, for the purpose of 
ascertaining its form, size, &c. 

PALPEBRA. The eyelid. The ut- 
most edge of the palpebra, out of which 
the hairs grow, is called cilium, a term 
also applied to the hairs themselves ; 
while the eyebrow, or ridge of hair above 
the eyelid, is called super-cilium. 

PALPITATION Ipalpito, to throb). 
An increase in the force or frequency 
of the heart's contraction, or in both. 
When this affection results from loss of 
blood, it is termed reaclion. 

PAMPINIFORM {pampinus, a ten- 
dril, forma, likeness). Resembling a 
tendril ; as applied to the smaller veins 
of the spermatic cord, from their peculiar 
tendril-like arrangement. 

PAN- (neuter gender of irat, all). 
Panta. All ; every one. Hence — 

1. Pan-chrestus (xp»)0't6s, useful). A 
terra applied to a medicine in the same 
sense as panacea, from its general use- 
fulness. 

2. Pan-chymagogues {xv/jlo^, juice, aja>, 
to expel). The former name of purga- 
tives which caused evacuations mixed 
nearly equally with the humors of the 
intestinal canal. Thus, calomel was 
called panchymagogum minerale. 

3. Pan-demic (5^/ior, the people). Af- 
fecting all the people of a district ; a term 
synonymous with epidemic. 

4. Pant-agoga (a-yw, to expel). Medi- 
cines which expel all morbid matters; 
a term synonymous with panchyma- 
gogues. 

5. Panto-phohia {(polios, fear). A fear 
or dread of all things ; a term used by 
the old writers as expressive of some of 
the symptoms of hydrophobia. 

PANACEA {ttolv, all, uKeojuaj, to heal). 
225 



A universal remedy. A term formerly 
applied to remedies of high repute. 

1. Panacea anticancrosa. The name 
given by Mr. Justamond to the liquid in- 
vented by him for external use in cancers ; 
it partook considerably of the nature of 
the tinctura ferri muriatis, which, indeed, 
with an equal quantity of spirit of wine, 
was sometimes substituted for it. 

2. Panacea duplicata vel Holsatica. 
The bisulphate of potass. 

3. Panacea Glauberiana. The Kermes 
mineral, a sulphuret of antimony. 

4. Panacea lapsorum. This name has 
been given to Arnica, or Leopard's-bane, 
a plant of the order Compositce, from its 
long reputation in internal pains and 
congestions from bruises, or more pro- 
bably in prolapsus. 

5. Panacea mercurialis. Calomel ; the 
sub-muriate or chloride of mercury. 

6. Panacea vegetabilis. The croci stig- 
mata, or saffron. 

PANADA (pane, bread, Ital.). Bread 
pap; bread boiled in water to a proper 
consistence, as food for children. 

PANARIS (Trapti, near, oVuf, the^iail). 
Panaritium ; a term probably corrupted 
from paronychia, or whitlow. 

PANAX QUINQUEFOLIUM. An 
Araliaceous plant, the root of which con- 
stitutes the American ginseng, or radix 
gingeng. The Asiatic ginseng, or radix 
ninsi, is the root of the Panax schinseng. 

PANCREAS {ttuv, all, Kpear, flesh). 
A conglomerate gland, situated trans- 
versely across the posterior wall of the 
abdomen. In cattle it is called the sweet- 
bread. 

1 . Small pancreas. A small glandular 
mass, frequently found beneath the pan- 
creas, and of similar structure. The 
French term it pancreas d'Aselli. 

2. Pancreatic duct. The duct formed 
by the union of the numerous excretory 
ducts proceeding from the lobules of the 
pancreas. 

3. Pancreatic juice. The peculiar fluid 
secreted by the pancreas. 

4. Pancreat-algia (aXyot, pain). Pain 
of the pancreas. The term is seldom 
used. 

5. Pancreat-itis. Inflammation of the 
pancreas; from pancreas, and the ter- 
minal particle itis. 

6. Pancreat-oncus {o'^kov, tumor). 
Swelling of the pancreas ; the emphraxis 
pancreatis of Swediaur. 

PANDICULATIO (pando, to spread). 
Stretching; elongation of the extensor 
muscles. 

• L 5 



PAP 



PAR 



PANICLE ipanicula, the woof wound 
round the quill in the shuttle). A form 
of inflorescence, in which the flower-buds 
of a raceme have.in elongating, developed 
other flower-buds, as in the oat. When 
the rachis of inflorescence separates irre- 
gularly into branches, so as to lose the 
form of an axis, this is called by Willde- 
now a deliquescent panicle. 

PANIFICATION {panis, bread, fio, to 
become). The process of making bread. 

PANIS. Bread. The following terms 
are of usual occurrence : — panis triticeus, 
wheaten bread ; mica panis, crumb of 
bread ; panis tostus, toasted bread, for 
making toast-water ; panis furfuraceus, 
brown or bran bread ; panis biscoctus, 
biscuit ', panis nauticns, sea-biscuit. 

PANNICULUS CARNOSUS {panni- 
culus, dim. of pannus, a covering, and 
caro, carnis, flesh). A fleshy covering ; 
a set of subcutaneous muscular bands, 
which serve to erect the ' quills upon the 
fretful porcupine,' the hedge-hog, &c. 

PANNUS. Literally, a piece of cloth, 
or a rag. The designation of that state 
of vascularity of the cornea, in which 
its mucous covering is so loosened and 
thickened as to present the appearance 
of a dense pellicle. 

PAPAVERACE^. The Poppy tribe 
of Dicotyledonous plants. Herbaceous 
plants with leaves divided, alternate ; 
flowers polypetalous, single on long pe- 
duncles ; petals 4, or some multiple of 4, 
cruciate ; stamens hypogynous ; ovarium 
solitary; seeds numerous. 

1. Papaver somnijerum. The White 
Poppy, the capsules of which yield opium. 

2. Papaver rhoeas. The Corn or Red 
Poppy, the petals of which are used to 
impart their fine red colour to syrup. 

PAPAW. The Carica Papaya, a tree 
with a milky juice, containing fibrin in 
such abundance, that the juice bears a 
most extraordinary resemblance to ani- 
mal matter. 

PAPER COAL. A bituminous shale, 
which separates into thin laminae of coal, 
like paper. 

PAPILIONACEOUS {papilio, a but- 
terfly). A form of corolla resembling a 
butterfly, and found in all the leguminous 
plants of Europe. Of the five petals, the 
uppermost is dilated, and called vexillum, 
or the standard ; the two lateral are con- 
tracted and parallel, and called alee, or 
the wings; the two lower are contracted, 
parallel, generally coherent by their an- 
terior margin, and termed carina, or the 
keel. 

226 • 



PAPILLA (dim. of papula, a pimple). 
A teat, or nipple. The term papillcE de- 
notes the small eminences which consti- 
tute the roughness of the upper surface 
of the tongue. They are distinguished 
as — 

1. PapillcB circumvallatcE. Situated 
on the dorsum of the tongue, near its 
roof, and forming a row on each side, 
which meets its fellow at the middle line, 
like the two branches of the letter A. 
They resemble cones attached by the 
apex to the bottom of a cup-shaped de- 
pression, and are hence named calyci- 
formes. This cup-shaped cavity forms a 
kind of fossa around the papillae, and 
hence they are called circumvallatce . 

2. Papillce conicce Gi filiformes. Cover- 
ing the whole surface of the tongue in 
front of the circumvallatae, but most 
abundant at the tip ; of a conical and fili- 
form shape, with their points directed 
backward 

3. Papilla: fungiformes. Irregularly 
dispersed over the dorsum of the tongue, 
and having rounded heads. 

PAPILLA CONICA. The small flat- 
tened prominence formed by the optic 
nerve in the interior of the globe, at its 
fundus. 

PAPPUS (TraTTTToy). The down or 
mossiness of the under lip, the cheek, 
&c. The botanical term for the feathery 
appendage which crowns the fruit of 
many Composite plants, and which is, in 
fact, a reduced calyx. 

PAPULA ("of the matter or nature of 
pappus ; from Trdmro?, the sprouting of 
down or buds, and vXtj (ule or He), mat- 
ter." — Good). A pimple; a small, acu- 
minated elevation of the cuticle, with an 
inflamed base, very seldom containing 
a fluid, or suppurating, and commonly 
terminating in scurf; it is the ecthyma 
and exormia of the Greeks. The vari- 
eties of papulous eruptions, according to 
Bateman, are scrophulus, lichen, and 
prurigo. 

PapulcB ardentes. A term applied by 
Gotwald to the trailing vesications which 
occurred in the Dantzic plague, and 
which Goodwin translates fire-bladders. 
At first they were as small as a millet 
seed ; and, when larger, they were termed 
in Holland, grana piperis. 

PARA- (irapa). A Greek preposition, 
signifying, through, near, about, &c. In 
some chemical compounds it denotes 
near to, and expresses a close alliance 
between two compounds. 



PAR 

1. Para-centesis {Kevreu, to perforate). 
The operation of tapping, or making an 
opening into the abdomen, thorax, or 
bladder, for the purpose of discharging 
the fluid contained in them in disease. 

2. Par-acusis (ukovco, to hear). A pe- 
culiar state of the hearing, in which deaf 
persons hear sounds better when a loud 
noise prevails at the same time. Of this, 
"Willis describes two cases;— one, of a 
person who could maintain a conversa- 
tion only when a drum was beat near 
him; the other, of a person who could 
hear only when a bell was ringing. 

3. Para-cyanogen. A black coaly mat- 
ter, obtained by decomposing cyanide of 
mercury. 

4. Para-lysis {\im, to relax). Palsy; 
the total loss, or diminution, of sensation 
or of motion, or of both; the resolutio 
nervorum of Cullen. 

5. Para-lysis agitans. The Shaking 
Palsy of Mr. Parkinson; the scelotyrbe 
festinans of Sauvages ; and, from the pe- 
culiarity of the patient's gait, it has been 
called by Good, synclonus ballismus, a 
term derived from /3a\\tf&>, to dance. 

6. Para-menispermia. A crystalline 
substance, besides menispermia, found in 
the seed -coat of cocculus indicus. 

7. Para-morphia. Another name for 
thebaine, a crystallizable base existing in 
opium, and named from its being isomeric 
with morphia. 

8. Para-naphthaline. A substance 
which accompanies naphthaline in tar. 

9. Para-phimosis (<pin6(o, to bridle). 
Circumligatura. An affection of the pre- 
puce, when it is drawn quite behind the 
glans penis, and cannot be brought for- 
ward again. This is the strangulating 
phimosis of Good. Compare Phimosis. 

10. Para-plegia (irXijaaa, to strike). 
That species of paralysis in which the 
lower half of the body is more or less 
impaired in its nervous power. 

11. Para-site ((tItoj, provisions). Li- 
terally, a hanger on at the tables of the 
great. This term is used to designate 
animals which are found in the organs, 
intestines, blood, &c., of other living 
animals, and appear to live at their ex- 
pense, as the hydatids of the brain, intes- 
tinal worms, &c. It is also the general 
name of plants which grow upon others, 
as moss, misletoe, &c. 

12. Para-stata {'icnanai, to be placed). 
Another name for the epididymis. 

13. Para-tartaric. .The name of an 
acid resembling the tartaric, and also 
called racemic. 

227 



PAR 

14. Par-egoric (Trapa-yopeuo), to miti- 
gate). A medicine which allays pain. 
The paregoric elixir is the Tinctura Cam- 
phorae composita of the pharmacopoeia. 

15. Par-enchyma (eYX"^"' to pour in). 
A term employed by Erasistratus, from 
an idea that the common mass, or inner 
substance of a viscus, is produced by 
concreted blood, strained off through the 
pores of the blood-vessels, which enter 
into its general structure, or membranes. 
It is now applied to the spongy substance 
composing the lungs, the liver, &c. ; and 
to all the pulpy parts of plants. 

16. Par-isthmitis {laOfxd^;, the fauces). 
Paristhmia of Hippocrates. Inflamma- 
tion about the throat; the squincy or 
squinancy of the old writers, and the 
cynanche, or angina, of the moderns. 

17. Par-onychia (ovuf, the nail). An 
abscess at the end of the finger, near 
the nail ; a whitlow. When the effusion 
presses on the periosteum, it is a malig- 
nant form, and is termed felon. 

18. Par-otid {ol^, wroi, the ear). The 
name of the large salivary gland situated 
near the ear. Its excretory ducts, uniting, 
form the duct of Steno. 

19. Par-otitis {tzapuiTh, the parotid 
gland). Inflammation of the parotid 
gland ; the cynanche parotidcea of Cullen. 
It is called in this country, mumps ; in 
Scotland, branks ; and in France, oreil- 
lons and ourtes. 

20. Par-oxysm (o^w, sharp). A peri- 
odical exacerbation, or fit, of a disease. 

21. Par-ulis (olXov, the gum). In- 
flammation, boil, or abscess of the gums. 

22. In the following terms, used by 
Dr. Good, the preposition uniformly sig- 
nifies faultiness, or a morbid state. 

Par-acusis Morbid hearing. 

Par-apsis Morbid touch. 

Para-bysma Morbid congestion. 

Para-cyesis Morbid pregnancy. 

Para-geusis Morbid taste. 

Para-menia Mis-menstruation. 

Para-phonia Altered voice. 

Par-odinia Morbid labour. 

Par-oniria Depraved dreaming. 

Par-opsis Depraved vision. 

Par-osmis Morbid smell. 

Par-ostia Mis-ossification. 

Par-uria Mis-micturition. 

PARAFFIN. Petroline. A particular 
hydro-carbon produced in the distillation 
of wood. Its name is derived from 
parum affinis, denoting its remarkable 
indifference to other bodies, in a chemical 
point of view. 

PARALLINIC ACID. The name 
L 6 



PAT 



PEC 



given by Batka to smilacin, the active 
principle of sarsaparilla, 

PAREIRA liRAVA. Literally, wild 
vine ; the root of the Cissampelos Pareira, 
employed in discharges from the urino- 
genital mucous membrane. 

PARIES, PARIETIS. The wall of 
a house, or any other building. 

1. Parietal. Belonging to the walls of 
an organ ; the placejita of a plant is so 
called, when it is attached to the walls of 
the ovarium, as in poppy, violet, &c. 

2. Parietalia. The name of the bones 
of the cranium, which serve as walls to 
the brain. 

PARIGLIN. The name given by 
Palotta to smilacin, a principle of sarsa- 
parilla. 

PARKER'S CEMENT. A brown 
powder, which, when mixed with water, 
gradually sets, and becomes solid. It 
may be used for making the joints of 
chemical vessels tight. 

PARTURIFACIENT {parturio, to 
bring forth, facio, to cause). A medicine 
which excites uterine action, or facilitates 
parturition, as ergot. 

PARTURITION {parturio, to bring 
forth). The act of bringing forth, or 
being delivered of, children. 

PAR VAGUM (wandering pair). The 
name of the eighth pair of nerves, or 
pneumo-gastric. See Nerves. 

PASTILLUS. LiteraUy, a perfumed 
or sweet ball. A medicine in the form of 
a small round ball ; a lozenge. 

PATE. Pasta. A paste ; a prepara- 
tion of sugary and mucilaginous sub- 
stances. Pate de guimauve is a demul- 
cent lozenge prepared from the root of 
the Althaea officinalis. 

PATE ARSENIC ALE. Arsenical 
paste, composed of cinnabar, dragon's 
blood, and arsenious acid, and employed 
to cauterize cancerous wounds. 

PATELLA (dim. of patina, a pan). 
Literally, a small pan. The knee-pan. 

PATENT YELLOW. A pigment, 
consisting of chloride and protoxide of 
lead ; also called mineral yjellow. 

PATHETICI {irdBo^, passion). Tro- 
chleares. A name given by Willis to the 
fourth pair of nerves, because the eyes, 
by means of these, express certain pas- 
sions. 

PATHOGNOMONIC {ndeot, disease, 
"fvwfxwv, a discerner). A term applied to 
symptoms which are characteristic of, 
and peculiar to, a disease. 

PATHOLOGY {ndOoi, disease, \6yoi, 
an account). That branch of medicine 
228 



which investigates the nature of dis- 
eases. 

PAULINA CONFECTIO. A warm 
opiate, similar to the confectio opii. 

PAVILION. The name of the ala, or 
greater part of the external ear. 

PEARL. A spherical concretion 
formed within the pearl oyster. Sir 
Everard Home considered that the abor- 
tive ova of the animal were the nuclei 
upon which the pearls were formed. 

PEARL ASH. The name of pota.sh 
when it is calcined, and of a whitish 
pearly lustre. It is employed in making 
flint glass, soap, &c. 

PEARL BARLEY. Common barley 
divested of its cuticle, and rounded smd 
polished in a mill, so as to acquire a 
pearly appearance. 

PEARL-EYE. Pearl in the eye. The 
old English name of cataract. 

PEARL POWDER. A powder used 
by perfumers, and obtained from the ni- 
tric solution of bismuth, by adding a pro- 
portion of muriatic acid, and then preci- 
pitating by a small quantity of water. In 
this way it is obtained in the form of 
minute scales of a pearly lustre. 

PEARL-WHITE. Magistery of Bis- 
muth ; the sub-nitrate of bismuth. 

PEAS FOR ISSUES. These are made 
of tow, or flax, rolled up with gum water 
and wax ; to which are sometimes added 
powdered savine, cantharides, or verdi- 
gris : orange peas from the unripe Cu- 
rafoa oranges are also used. 

PECCANT {jjecco, to be in fault). A 
term applied by the humoral pathologists 
to those humors of the body which were 
supposed to be faulty in quality or in 
quantity. 

PECTEN, PECTINIS {pecto, to comb). 
A comb, or crest. A pyramidal plicated 
process, situated in the posterior and 
external part of the cavity of the eye in 
birds, and covered with pigment. It. is 
also called marsupium. 

1. Pectinati musculi. A designation 
of the muscular fasciculi of the heart, 
from their resemblance to the teeth ot 
a comb. 

2. Pectineus. A flat quadrangular 
muscle arising from the pectineal line of 
the OS pubis, and inserted into the line 
leading from the trochanter minor to the 
linea aspera. 

PECTIC ACID (TrnicTJr, a coagulum). 
A substance obtained from the carrot 
and other vegetables, so named from its 
remarkable tendency to gelatinize. 



PEL 



PEN 



PECTIN. A principle which forms 
the basis of vegetable jelly. 

PECTORA'LIS {pectus, the breast). 
The name of two muscles of the trunk : 

1. Pectoralis major, arising from half 
the clavicle, all the edge of the sternum, 
and the cartilages of the three lower true 
ribs, and inserted into the outer border 
of the occipital groove of the humerus. 
It moves the arm forwards, &c., and is 
a muscle of respiration. 

2. Pectoralis minor, arising from the 
third, fourth, and fifth ribs, and inserted 
into the coracoid process of the scapula. 
It draws the shoulder-bone forwards and 
downwards, and elevates the ribs. 

PECTORALS (medicamenta pectoralia, 
from pectus, pectoris, the breast). Medi- 
cines which relieve disorders of the chest. 

PECTORILOQUY (pecfMs, the breast, 
loquor, to speak). A chest-sound; a 
voice which appears to proceed directly 
from the chest, and to traverse the tube 
of the stethoscope. 

PEDICEL {pedicellus, dim: of pedicu- 
lus). A partial flower stalk. When 
several peduncles spring from the axis, 
at short distances from each other, the 
axis is termed rachis, and the peduncles 
are called pedicels. 

PEDICULATION {pediculiis,&\ou^e). 
Phtheiriasis. An affection in which lice 
are bred under the skin. 

PEDICULUS (dim. o^ pes, a foot). 
Literally, a little foot. A louse. 

1. Pediculus humanus. The common 
louse, infesting the head. 

2. Pediculus pubis. The morpio, or 
crab-louse, infesting the pubes. 

PEDILUVIUM {pes, pedis, the foot; 
lava, to wash). A foot-bath. 

PEDUNCULUS {pedo, one that has 
broad or splay feet). A person somewhat 
splay-footed. A peduncle ; the axis of 
the flower-bud, from the point of con- 
nexion with the stem, as far as the floral 
envelopes. The term pedunculi is applied 
to two medullary cords which connect 
the pineal gland to the optic thalami. 

PELLAGRA. An affection in Vi^hich 
a morbid condition of the skin is a pro- 
minent symptom ; it is very prevalent 
among the peasantry of the northern 
states of Italy. It is called mal del sole, 
from its being ascribed to the heat of the 
sun's rays; Italian elephantiasis, &c. 
The term is commonly derived from pel- 
lis agria, or wild skin ; but it would seem 
that the old Italian name for it was pel- 
larella. 

229 



PELLICLE (dim. of pellis, the skin 
or hide of a beast, flayed off). A thin 
skin, or film. Among chemists, it de- 
notes a thin surface of crystals uniformly 
spread over a saline liquor evaporated to 
a certain degree. 

PELLITORY. The root of the Jna- 
cyclus Pyrethrum, imported from the 
Levant under the name of Pellitory of 
Spain. 

PELOSIN. A colourless substance 
lately extracted from the root of the 
Cissampelos pareira. It is a powerful 
base, forming salts with several acids. 

PELVIS (TTtAi/f, a basin). The basin, 
or the large bony cavity which terminates 
the trunk inferiorly, containing the uri- 
nary and genital organs, and, in women, 
the uterus. 

PEMPHIGUS (7r6M0<f» TrefKptyof, a 
small blister or pustule). Febris vesicu- 
laris, ampullosa, vel bullosa. A term 
applied by Sauvages to vesicular or blad- 
der fever, a disease belonging to the 
order BuUcb of Bateman. A form of this 
disease prevails among children in many 
parts of Ireland, where it is called white 
blisters, burnt holes, eating hive, &c. 

PENICILLUS (dim. of peniculum. 
a brush). A tent, or pledget. Any thing 
which has its end divided like a painter's 
brush ; in this sense the extremities of 
the vena porta have been termed peni- 
cilli. 

PENIS. The male organ of generation, 
consisting of three lengthened bodies, 
closely united to each other, viz. the two 
corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongi- 
osum. 

PENNIFORM {penna, a feather or 
quill, forma, likeness). Feather-shaped ; 
a term applied to those muscles which 
have their fibres arranged on each side of 
the tendon, as the rectus femoris. 

Semi-penniform. Half-feather-shaped ; 
the designation of those muscles which 
have their fibres arranged on one side 
of the tendon, as the peronasus longus. 

PENNYROYAL. The common name 
of the Mentha pulegium. Under the 
same name, the Hedeoma pulegioides is 
highly reputed in North America as an 
emmenagogue. 

PENTANDRIA (Trevre, five, iiv'>ip, a 
man). Having five stamens ; the cha- 
racter of the fifth class of plants in Lin- 
naeus's system. 

Pentagynia {n^vre, five, yvvij, a woman). 
Having five pistils ; an ordinal character 
in Linnaeus's system of plants. 



PER 



PER 



PEPO. A gourd; a three- celled fleshy 
indehiscent fruit, with parietal placentae, 
as the cucumber. 

PEPPER. The berries of the Piper 
nigrum. The hot acrid black pepper of 
the shops consists of the berries with the 
pulp adhering ; the white pepper is the 
same thing, only the pulp is washed off 
before the fruit is dried. They yield a 
crystalline substance called jnperin. 

Long Pepper. The dried female spikes 
of the Piper longum, composed of firmly- 
united 1 -seeded drupes. 

PEPSIN (irtTTTO), to digest). A pecu- 
liar animal principle secreted by the 
stomach, and present in the gastric juice. 
It is usually prepared by infusing the 
raucous membrane of the fourth stomach 
of the calf, which is known as rennet. 

PEPTIC (ttsttto), to ripen). Any sub- 
stance which is digestible. Hence the 
term peptics, applied to medicines which 
promote digestion. 

PER-. A Latin preposition, which, 
when prefixed to the name of an oxide, 
indicates the presence of the greatest 
quantity of oxygen which can exist in 
a compound of such materials, as in per- 
oxide. 

Bi-per-. This double prefix is used, 
when there is more than one atom of 
oxygen in the base, as well as an unequal 
number of atoms of acid and base, as in 
the bi-per-su\T?hate of mercury, where 
bi indicates the presence of two atoms of 
acid, and per that the mercury is in the 
form of a per-oxide. 

PER- ACUTE. Very sharp; a term 
applied to diseases when greatly aggra- 
vated, or attended by considerable inflam- 
mation. Per is an intensive particle. 

PERCOLATION {percolo, to strain 
through). Filtration ; the passing of 
fluids through a strainer. 

PERCUSSION {percutio, to strike). 
The act of striking upon the chest, ab- 
domen, &c., with the view of producing 
sounds by which the state of the sub- 
jacent parts may be ascertained. This 
is distinguished into— 

1. Direct percussion, which consists in 
striking the surface of the chest, &c., 
with one, two, or more fingers, and ob- 
serving the degree and quality of the 
sounds produced ; and, 

2. Mediate percussion, which differs 
from the former chiefly in the employ- 
ment of a small plate of ivory, called 
a pleximeter, a piece of leather or caout- 
chouc, or the second phalanx of the fore- 
liuger of the left hand ; one of these is 

230 



placed on the part to be examined, and 
struck with the pulpy ends of the middle 
and forefinger of the right hand. 

3. Tlie scale of sounds which may be 
distinguished on the surface of the body 
are the following, beginning with the 
dullest :— the femoral, the jecoral, the 
cardial, the pulmonal, and the stomachal, 
the clearest of all. Besides these, there 
are the osteal, the humoric (when organs 
are filled with air and liquid), the hy- 
datic, and — 

4. The bruit de pot fSli, a sound heard 
on percussing over a cavity near the sur- 
face of the lungs, usually at the upper 
part of the chest. It resembles the noise 
of a cracked earthenware vessel, when 
struck with the finger. 

PERFORANS (perforo, to pierce 
through). A designation of the flexor 
digitorum profundus, from its perforating 
the tendon of the flexor sublimis. 

Nervus perforans Casserii. Another 
name for the musculo-cutaneus, or ex- 
ternal cutaneous nerve. 

PERFORATION {perforo, to pierce). 
A term employed to denote a solution of 
continuity, from disease of the parietes 
of a hollow organ, as of the intestines. 

Spontaneous perforation is that which 
occurs without having been preceded by 
any perceptible modification of function, 
local or general. 

PERFORATUS {perforo, to bore 
through). Bored through; a term ap- 
plied to — 

1. The coraco-brachialis muscle, from 
its being perforated by the external cu- 
taneous nerve, as discovered by Cas- 
serius. 

2. The flexor digitorum communis sub- 
limis muscle, from its tendon being per- 
forated by the tendon of the flexor pro- 
fundus. 

PERI- (ttcpO- a Greek preposition, 
signifying around, &c. 

1. Peri-anthium {a.v9o9, a flower). A 
collective term for the floral envelopes, 
when it is not evident whether they con- 
sist of calyx and corolla, or of calyx only, 
as in tulip. 

2. Peri-cardium {Kapdia, the heart). 
A fibro- serous membrane which sur- 
rounds the heart. 

3. Peri-carditis. Inflammation of the 
pericardium. Carditis is inflammation 
of the muscular substance of the heart. 

4. Peri-carp (xapTror, fruit). That part 
of a fruit which constituted the ovarium 
of the pistil. It consists of an outer coat, 
or epicarp; an inner coat, called endo- 



PER 



PER 



carp, or putamen ; and an intermediate 
substance termed niesocarp, and, when 
of a fleshy consistence, sarcocarp. 

5. Peri-chcetial (xahi], seta). A term 
applied to the peculiar leaves which sur- 
round the base of the seta, or stalk, of 
mosses. 

6. Peri-chondrium (x6v5por, cartilage). 
The synovial membrane which covers 
cartilage. 

7. Peri-cranium {Kpaviov, the skull). 
The periosteum or membrane which 
covers the bones of the cranium. 

8. Peri-did ymis [dldvfjiot, twins). The 
serous coat which covers the testes. By 
the older anatomists it was confounded 
with the fibrous coat, under the name of 
tunica vaginalis or elytroides. 

9. Peri-glottis. A mass of small glan- 
dular grains at the lower part of the an- 
terior surface of the epiglottis. 

10. Peri-gonium [yovr], generation). A 
term synonymous with peri-anthium, 
and denoting the parts which surround 
the organs of generation, viz., the floral 
envelopes. 

11. Peri-gynous {twij, a woman). That 
condition of the stamens of a plant in 
which they contract adhesion to the sides 
of the calyx, as in the rose. 

12. Peri-nceum (i/a«w, to flow). The 
inferior part of the trunk of the body, in 
which are situated the two great excre- 
tory outlets, the urethra and the anus. 

13. Peri-orbita. The fibrous membrane 
which lines the orbit of the eye. 

14. Peri-osteum [hariov, a bone). The 
membrane which surrounds the bones. 
In the recent state of the teeth, their 
root is surrounded by a prolongation of 
the mucous membrane of the mouth, 
called the alveolo-dentar periosteum. 

15. Peri-ostilis. Inflammation of the 
periosteum, or investing membrane of 
the bones. 

16. Peri-ostosis. A tumor formed by 
swelling of the periosteum. 

17. Peri-pheric impulses. A term ap- 
plied by Naumann to the influence which 
is transmitted from the nerves of any 
particular parts of the body to the centres 
of the nervous system, i. e. the brain and 
the spinal cord. On the other hand, by 
central impulses is meant the influence 
which is conveyed back again from those 
centres to the nerves of a particular part. 

18. Peri-phery {^e'pw, to carry). The 
circumference or external surface of a 
body. 

19. Peri-pneumonia {irvevfiuiv, the 
lungs). Peripneumony ; inflammation 
231 



of the parenchyma of the lung. The 
term is synonymous with pneumonia, 
although it would seem to imply either 
a more intense degree of the disease, or 
a more superficial alfection. 

20. Peri-pneumonia notha. Spurious 
or bastard peripneumony ; a form of 
bronchitis, termed by Dr. Badham, usthe~ 
nic. It is sometimes called catarrhus suf- 
focativus ; and, by Frank, catarrhus bron- 
chiorum. 

21. Peri-sperm {airepfxa, seed). An- 
other name for the albumen, or the sub- 
stance lying between the integuments 
and the embryo of some seeds. 

22. Peristaltic (crreXXw, to contract). 
A term applied to the vermicular con- 
tractions of the intestines upon them- 
selves. This motion is sometimes called 
peristole. 

23. Peri-staphylinus {(na<pv\ij, the 
uvula). A term applied to two muscles 
of the palate ; the externus, or the cir- 
cumfiexus palati; and the internus, or 
the levator palati mollis. 

24. Peristaphylo-pharyngeus. The first 
or upper portion of the palato-pharyngeus 
muscle; the second or middle portion is 
termed pharyngo-staphylinus ; the third 
or lower portion, thyro-staphylinus. 

25. Peristoma {arofjia, the mouth). 
The membrane, or series of tooth-like 
processes, which closes the orifice of the 
theca of mosses. 

26. Peristroma (arpwfxa, a cushion). 
Literally, rich tapestry-work, wherewith 
floors or beds were spread. This term is 
probably applied, by Pecquet, to the mu- 
cous or villous coat of the intestines, 
called by BUsius museum villosum ; by 
Bartholine, crusta membranosa; and by 
De Graaf, crusta vermicularis. 

27. Peri-thecium (OtjKij, a theca). The 
bag of fructiflcation in some fungi ; the 
organ in which the asci are immersed. 

28. Peri-tonceum {reivut, to extend). 
The serous membrane which lines the 
interior of the abdomen, and invests all 
the viscera contained therein. 

29. PeritoncBal fever. Puerperal, or 
child-bed fever, so called from its occur- 
ring frequently after labour. 

30. Peritonitis. Inflammation of the 
peritonaeum. It is acute, or chronic. 

31. Peri-tropal (rpeTrco, to turn). A 
term applied to the embryo of the seed, 
when it is directed from the axis to the 
horizon. 

32. Peri-zoma {^dyvw/jit, to gird). Lite- 
rally, a girdle ; a truss. It has been used 
to designate the diaphragm. 



PER 



PES 



PERIOD. The interval between the 
paroxysms in intermittent fever. 

PERIODIC ACID. Hyperiodic acid. 
An acid consisting of iodine and oxygen. 

PERKINISM. A mode of treatment 
introduced by Perkins, of America, and 
consisting in the application to diseased 
parts of the extremities of two needles 
made of different metals, called by him 
metallic tractors. 

PERL ATE ACID. The name given 
by Bergman to the acidulous phosphate 
of soda ; the phosphate of soda had been 
previously called sal mirabile perlatum. 
It was named by Guyton-Morveau, 
ouretic acid. 

PERMANENT INK. A solution of 
nitrate of silver, thickened with sap 
green, or cochineal ; used for marking 
linen. The pounce liquid, with which 
the linen is prepared, is a solution of 
soda, boiled with gum, or some animal 
mucilage. If potash be used, the ink 
will run. 

PERMANENT WHITE. Sulphate of 
baryta. At a high temperature it fuses 
into an opaque white enamel, which is 
used in the manufacture of fine earthen- 
ware, and as a pigment. 

PERMEABILITY {per, through, meo, 
to pass). That property of certain bodies 
by which they admit the passage of other 
bodies through their substance. The 
cellular tissue of plants is permeable by 
fluids, though at the same time imper- 
forate. 

PERNIO (jrepi/a, or mepva, the heel). 
A chilblain, especially one on the heel ; 
the effect of inflammation caused by cold. 

1. Pernio simplex. Simple chilblain, in 
which the cuticle is unbroken. 

2. Pernio exulceratus. Kibe ; accompa- 
nied with ulceration. 

PERONE' {-irepovn, a brooch). The 
flbula, or small bone of tlie leg ; so called 
from its resembling the pin of a brooch. 

1. Peroneus longus. A muscle placed 
at the outer part of the leg, and under 
the sole of the foot. 

2. Peroneus brevis. A muscle having 
the same form as the preceding, but not 
so long. They are both extensors of the 
leg. 

3. Peroneus tertius. A muscle which 
appears to be a part of the extensor longus 
digitorum, but may be considered as ana- 
logous to the flexor carpi ulnarls of the 
fore-arm. 

4. Nervus peroneus. The external 
popliteal or peroneal nerve. The internal 
popliteal is the tibialis. 

232 



PEROXIDE, A term applied in che- 
mical nomenclature to denote the highest 
degree of oxidation, of which a compound 
is capable. See Per. 

PERRY. A fermented liquor made 
from pears, as cider from apples. 

PERSICA VULGARIS. The peach ; 
a rosaceous plant of Persia, the drupa- 
ceous fruit of which has been termed 
malum persicum. 

Persica Icevis. The nectarine ; distin- 
guished from the peach by its smooth 
rind. 

PERSICUS IGNIS. Persian fire; a 
term applied by Avicenna to that species 
of carbuncle which is attended with pus- 
tules and vesications. 

PERSISTENS FEBRIS. A regular 
intermittent, the paroxysms of which 
return at constant and stated times. 

PERSISTENT. A term applied to 
those parts of plants which do not fall at 
the usual period, as the coroUa of cam- 
panula, the calyx of pseonia. See Cadu- 
cous. 

PERSONATE {persona, a m.ask). A 
term applied to that form of the gamo- 
petalous corolla, in which the limb is 
unequally divided : the upper division, 
or lip, being arched ; the lower prominent, 
and pressed against it, so that the whole 
resembles the mouth of a gaping animal, 
as in antirrhinum. See Ringent. 

PERSPIRATION {perspiro, to breathe 
through). The watery vapour which is 
constantly passing off through the skin, 
is termed insensible perspiration ; when 
it is so excessive as to collect in drops 
upon the surface, it constitutes sensible 
perspiration, or sweat. 

Perspiratory ducts. Spiral tubes which 
commence apparently in the corium, pro- 
ceed upwards between the papillae, and 
terminate by open pores upon the surface 
of the cuticle. 

PERTUSSIS. The name first given 
by Sydenham to hooping-cough, so called 
from the peculiar whooping sound which 
it occasions. See Hooping-cough. 

PES. A foot. Hence, the term is ap- 
plied to parts resembling a foot. 

1. Pes anserinus. The goose's foot; 
the name of a plexus of nerves formed 
by the facial, or portio dura of the 
seventh pair, on the side of the face, and 
somewhat resembling the spreading foot 
of a palmipede. 

2. Pes accessorius. A swelling on the 
outer wall of the cornu ammonis, some- 
what resembling the hippocampus major, 
but of smaller size. 



PET 



PH A 



3. Pes hippocampi. The extremity of 
the liippocampus major, which has been 
likened to the club-foot of some animal, 
from its presenting numerous knuckle- 
like prominences on its surface. 

PESSARY (necrabi-, a small stone). An 
instrument made of wood, &c., formerly 
employed to keep medicinal substances 
applied within the pudenda; but now 
used for preventing prolapsus of the 
uterus or vagina, or keeping up a parti- 
cular kind of rupture. The various forms 
of the pessary are the bung-shaped, the 
conical, the elytro'id or sheath-like of 
Cloquet, the cup-and-ball, and the ring 
pessary. 
I^ PESTIS (perdo, to destroy). A term 

[m applied to any thing pernicious, as plague, 
'^ calamity, ruin, destruction : it is seldom 
used by good authors to signify infectious 
disorders. Pestilentia denotes infectious 
air, or a contagious disorder. 

PETAL (TreraXoi'). A flower-leaf ; the 
name of a division of the corolla. See 
Monopetalce. 

Petaloid (ei3or, likeness). That which 
resembles a petal, as applied to the ex- 
panded filament of certain stamens, as of 
nymphaea, &c. 

PETECHIA {petechia, Italian, a flea- 
bite). A speck or spot resembling a flea- 
bite. These spots constantly occur in 
certain epidemic fevers, which were con- 
sequently described under the term pe- 
techial fever. 

Petechi(e sine fehre. A term applied 
by various authors to purpura simplex, 
or petechial scurvy ; also called hcemo- 
rrhoea petechialis, land-scurvy, &c. 

PETIOLE. The foot-stalk, or leaf- 
stalk, of a plant. The apex is the part 
inserted into the leaf ; the base, that 
which comes from the stem. Hence — 

Petiolate. A term applied to leaves 
formed with a stalk, whether long or 
short, simple or compound. 

PETRO- (Trerpa, a rock). A term re- 
lating to the OS petrosum, or petrous 
portion of the temporal bone, as petro- 
occipital, pe/ro-sphenoidal, &e. 

Petro-salpingo-staphylinus. An un- 
wieldy designation of the levator palati 
mollis, from its arising from the petrous 
process and the Eustachian tube, and 
being inserted into the velum palati. 

PETROLE'UM (Trerpa, a rock ; eXatov, 
oil). Literally, rock oil. Barbadoes tar ; 
a bituminous liquid, named from its 
oozing out of rocks. 

Petrolene. A ccording to Boussingault, 
bitumens may be considered mixtures of 
233 



two bodies ; viz., a liquid to Avhich he has 
given the name of petrolene, and a solid, 
which he terms asphaltene. 

PETUNTSE'. The name of a species 
of feldspar, used as the vitrifying ingre- 
dient in the porcelain of the Chinese. 

PEWTER. A factitious metal, the 
basis of which is tin ; it is commonly 
called etain in France, where it is gene- 
rally confounded with true tin. There 
are three kinds, distinguished by the 
names of plate, trifle, and leypewter. 

PEYER'S GLANDS. Plexus intes- 
tinales. The clustered glands of the in- 
testines, or aggregatfe, first discovered 
by Peyer. Each gland is surrounded by 
a circle of minute tubes, called corona 
tubuloru7n. See Brumier's Glands 

PHACIA {(paKla, a lentil seed). The 
Greek term for lentigo, or freckles. 

PH^NOGAMOUS (<paivco, to show, 
ydfio?, nuptials). A term applied to those 
plants in which the sexual organs are 
visible. All others are called crypto- 
gamous. 

PHAGEDENA (^a^w, to eat). An 
ulcer which spreads, and, as it were, eats 
away the flesh. 

PHALANX {(pdXay^). A battalion in 
the Macedonian armies, composed of 
16,000 men. Hence the term phalanges 
is applied to the bones of the fingers and 
toes, from their regularity. 

PHANEROGAMOUS (0avepor, mani- 
fest, 7a/iof, nuptials). A tenn applied to 
those plants in which the reproductive 
organs are visible. It is synonymous 
with phcenogamous. 

PHANTASM (.^aKTa'toj, to make ap- 
pear). A perception of sensation in the 
organs of the senses, dependent on inter- 
nal causes, and not excited by external 
objects. See Hallucination. 

PHARMACEUTICS {<p<ipnaKov, a 
medicine). That branch of medicine 
which consists in compounding drugs. 

PHARMACON (^apMaKO")- A poison. 
A medicine, or drug. 

1. Pharmaco-dynamics {?>vvanii, power). 
That branch of Materia Medica, which 
treats of the power or eflfects of medi- 
cines. 

2. Pharmaco-gnosy {yiyvtba-Kb), to know). 
That branch of Materia Medica which 
treats of the natural and chemical history 
of unprepared medicines or simples. It 
is also termed pharmacography, pharma- 
cornathia, &c. 

3. Pharmaco-logia (\6yor, description). 
The method of administering medicines. 

4. Pharmaco-poeia {■Roieoi, to make). 



PHL 

The process o! preparing medicines. The 
term is now used to denote a standard 
codo of medicines. 

5. Pharmaco-pola (TrojXe'w, to sell). A 
seller of drugs ; a druggist. 

PHARMACY {(pdpfiaKov, a drug). The 
application of chemical, and to a certain 
extent of physical, knowledge to the pre- 
paration of medicinal substances. 

PHARYNX (<t>dpn^, the throat). A 
musculo-membranous bag, situated at 
the back part of the mouth, leading to the 
stomach. 

1. Pharyngitis. Inflammation of the 
pharjTix. See Cynanche. 

2. Pharyngotomy (To/i»/, section). The 
operation of cutting into the pharynx, 
for the purpose of extracting any foreign 
body. 

3. Pharyngotomus. An instrument, in- 
vented by Petit, for scarifying the ton- 
sils, and opening abscesses about the 
fauces. 

4. Pharyngo-staphylinus. The second 
or middle portion olf the palato-pharyn- 
geus. 

PHILLYRIN. A substance obtained 
from the bark of the Phillyrea media and 
latifolia. 

PHILOSOPHICAL CANDLE. A bot- 
tle fitted with a cork, through which a 
slender glass or metallic tube passes. On 
introducing the materials for generating 
hydrogen, and fixing the cork and tube 
air-tight, a jet of hydrogen is discharged, 
which may be ignited by the application 
of a burning body, or an electric spark. 

PHILTRE {(piXTpov, from (piXeu, to 
love). A love-potion ; a medicine sup- 
posed to inspire love. 

PHIMO'SIS ((ptfxw, a muzzle). Ca- 
pistratio. An affection of the prepuce, 
in which it cannot be drawn back, so as 
to uncover the glans penis. This is the 
incarcerating phimosis of Good. Compare 
Paraphimosis. 

PHLEBI'TIS (^X6<ir, avein). Inflam- 
mation of the veins. It is distinguished 
by a hard, cord-like, tender line, pursuing 
the coiu-se of a vein or veins, from an in- 
cision or wound. It is termed — 

1. Suppurative, and diffused; and at- 
tended by typhoid fever, and abscesses. 

2. Suppurative, and adhesive; and ac- 
companied by distinct abscesses in the 
course of the inflamed vein, with pro- 
tracted fever. 

PHLEBOLITE(0X6./., 0\e/3oc, a vein, 
X»0oc, a stone). A small calcareous con- 
cretion found in the cavity of the veins. 

PHLEBOTOMY (^Xex^, a vein; toji'ti, 
234 



PHL 

section). Vencesectio. The opening a 
vein, for the purpose of blood-letting. 

PHLEGMA ((pXeyiJia). Phlegm; a 
thick, tenacious matter secreted in the 
lungs. 

1. Phlegm-agogues (aiio, to excite). 
The ancient name of purgatives, which 
produced glairy evacuations, from ex- 
citement of the mucous follicles. 

2. Phlegmatic. A term applied to the 
pituitous temperament. See Tempera- 
ment. 

3. Phlegmo-rrhagia (p^ywfit, to burst 
forth). Profuse pituitous secretion. 

4. Phlegma, in Chemistry, denotes a 
watery distilled liquor, as distinguished 
from a spirituous liquor. Hence the 
term dephlegmation signifies the depri- 
ving any liquid of its superfluous water. 

PHLEGMASIA DOLENS (0Xt7w, to 
burn). Puerperal tumid leg ; an affection 
depending on inflammation of the iliac 
and femoral veins. It has been termed 
oedema lacteum, hysteralgia laclea, meta- 
stasis lactis, ecchymoma lymphatica ; by 
Dr. Cullen, anasarca serosa; and by Dr. 
Lee, crural phlebitis. The term consists 
of a Greek substantive and a Latin ad- 
jective, and denotes painful inflamma- 
tion. 

PHLEGMASIiE i^Xeya,, to burn), A 
general term used by CuUen, Sauvages, 
&c., for local inflammations ; " but, as 
phlegmasia and phlegmatic import, in 
medical language, a very different and 
almost an opposite idea," Dr. Good pre- 
fers the term