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Compiled from the best authorities 








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This little book does not pretend to any literary interest, it is merely a 
catalogue, perhaps far from exhaustive, of violin makers past and present, 
which has been carefully compiled from various authorities. 

Ancient makers of lutes and viols of all kinds have also been included, as 
it was found impossible to draw a definite line of division between them and 
makers of the type of instruments now in general use. 

For purposes of reference by those who may be interested in the subject, 
a complete list of the works which have been consulted is appended. 
Naturally they are not all of equal value or equally trustworthy ; it is not 
always safe to accept an assertion as a fact, however confidently and un- 
hesitatingly stated, if no evidence is brought forward in support of it. But 
in the works of Messrs. Vidal, Piccolellis, Hart, &c., varied and valuable 
information may be found ; while books like those of Messrs. Coutagne, 
Berenzi, Hill, Ruf, and others give the results of much painstaking research 
into the history of individual violin makers. Step by step the story of the 
great founders of the art is being traced out, ancient archives are searched, 
registers examined, money and time freely given by enthusiasts who have 
felt the fascination of this branch of study. It was, of course, necessary that 
this small work should largely depend on the fruits of other people's 
labours, as personal research was out of the question. I am deeply indebted 
to Mr. Arthur Hill for the kindness with which he answered all enquiries 
addressed to him and the readiness with which he placed many valuable 
books at my disposal. My thanks are also due to the violin makers living 
in France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, and in this country, who so promptly 
sent me all the information I asked for, thereby ensuring accuracy and 
rendering it possible to bring the book fairly up to date. I should like also 
to add that I have had the benefit of constant help and supervision from my 
father, Sir John Stainer. 

Oxford, 1896. C. S. 


Abele, Hyacinth. Die Violine, ihre Geschichte und ihr Bau (Neuburg a/D., 
Berenzi, Prof. Angelo. Gli artefici liutai Bresciani (Brescia, 1890). 
Berenzi, Sac. Angelo. Di Giovanni Paolo Maggini (Brescia, 1890). 
Broadhouse, John. Violins, old and new (3rd Ed., enlarged, London). 

Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ancient Musical Instruments in 
South Kensington Museum, 1872. 

Coutagne, le Dr. Henry. Gaspard DuifFoproucart et les luthiers lyonnais 
du XVIe siecle (Paris, 1893). 

Dupuich, R. La cote du violon ancien. 

Engel, Carl. Researches into the early history of the violin family 
(London, 1883). 

Engel, Carl. Musical Myths and Facts (London, 1876). 

Engel, Carl. A descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instruments in the 
South Kensington Museum (London, 1870). 

Fetis, F. J. Biographic universelle des musiciens (2nd Ed., Paris, 1866). 

Fetis, F. J. Biographical notice of Nicolo Paganini, preceded by a sketch 
of the history of the violin. 

Fleming, James M. Old Violins and their Makers (London, 1883). 

Gallay, J. Les luthiers italiens aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles (Paris, 1869). 

Grillet, Laurent. Les ancetres du violon et du violoncelle, les luthiers et 
les fabricants d'archets (Paris, 1901). 

Grove, Sir George. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 

Hajdecki, A. Die italienische Lira da Braccio (Mostar, 1892). 

Hart, George. The Violin : its famons makers and their imitators 
(London, 1887). 

Hawkins, Sir John. A general history of the science and practice of 
music (London, 1853). 

Heron- Allen, Ed. Violin Making, as it was and is (London, 1885). 

Heron- Allen, Edward. De fidiculis'bibhographia (London, 1890-4). 

Hill. Antonio Stradivari, his life and work (1644-1737), by W. Henry Hill, 
Arthur E. Hill, F\S.A., and Alfred E. Hill (London, 1902). 

Hill. Gio: Paolo Maggini : his life and work. Compiled and edited from 
material collected and contributed by W. E. Hill and his sons, William, 
Arthur and Alfred Hill, by Margaret L. Huggins (London, 1892). 

Jacquot, Albert. Les Medard, iuthiers lorrains {Paris, 1896). 

LUtgendorff, Willibald Leo von. Die Geigen- und Lautenmacher vom 
Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart (Frankfurt a/m, 1904). 

Mace, Tho. Musick's Monument (London, 1676). 

Migge, Otto. Le secret des cel^bres Iuthiers italiens, decouvert et 
explique par Otto Migge. 

North, Hon. Roger. Memoirs of Musick, edited by Ed. F. Rimbault 
(London, 1846). 

Pearce, Joseph, jun. Violins and Violin Makers (London, 1866). 

Piccolellis, Giovanni de. Liutai antiche e moderni (Firenze, 1885). 

Pierre, Constant. Les facteurs d'instruments de musique, les Iuthiers et 
la facture instrumentale (Paris, 1893). 

Ritter, Hermann. Die Geschichte der Viola Alta (2ud Ed., Leipzig, 1877). 

Ruf, S. Der Geigenmacher Jakob Stainer (Innsbriick, 1872). 

Sandys and Forster. The history of the violin, by WiUiam Sandys and 
Simon Andrew Forster (London, 1864). 

Snoeck, C. C. Catalogue de la collection d'instruments de musique, 
anciens et curieux, formee par C. C. Snoeck (Gand, 1894). 

Starcke, Hermann. Die Geige, und die Meister der Geigen- und Lauten- 
baukunst (Dresden, 1884). 

Straeten and Snoeck. Etude biographique et organographique sur les 
Willems, Iuthiers gantois du XVn« siecle, par Edmond Vander Straeten et 
Cesar Snoeck (Gand, 1896). 

Tolbecque, Auguste. Quelques considerations sur la lutherie (Paris, 1890). 

Vidal, Antoine. Les instruments a archet (Paris, 1876). 

Vidal, Antoine. La lutherie et les Iuthiers (Paris, 1889). 

Wasielewski, Wilhelm Jos. von. Die Violine und ihre Meister (3rd Ed., 
Leipzig, 1893). 





Aachner, Philipp. A maker in Mitten- 
wald in 1772. His instruments have 
brown varnish. 

Abbati, Giuseppe. Worked in Modena, 
1775-93. His double-basses are well 
known in Italy. 

Absam, Thomas. Worked in Wake- 
field, Yorkshire, 1810-49. Made violins 
for a dealer called Pickard, in Leeds. 
Label: "Made by Thomas Absam, 
Wakefield, Feb. 14, 1833." 

Acevo. A maker little known, but 
Fetis has stated that he was born 
about 1630, in Saluzzo, was a pupil of 
Cappa, and made good instruments, 
prmcipally bass-viols. Fetis had seen 
a bass-viol dated 1693, which belonged 
to Marin Marais, whose signature was 
on the back. There is no other 
evidence in favour of the supposed 
existence of Acevo. 

Adam, Jean Dominique, b. Feb. 26, 1823, 
Mirecourt ; d. Jan. 19, 1869. Was 
the son, pupil, and successor of Jean 
Adam, a maker of bows. He made 
many bows for the trade, but marked 
with his name those that he sold him- 
self. His work is much superior to 
that of his father. 

Adams, C. A maker at Garmouth, 
Scotland, in 1800. 

Adani, Panerazio. A maker of cithers 
in Modena, 1827. 

Addison, William. A maker of viols in 
London. Label: "William Addison, 
in Long Alley, over against Moor- 
fields, 1670." 

Aglio, Giuseppe dall'. Worked in 
Mantua, 1800-40. His instruments 
are similar to those of Camilli and 
are varnished a bright yellow colour. 

Aireton (Airton), Edmund, b. about 
1727; d. 1807. A maker in London. 
It is possible that a workman of the 
same name, employed by P. Wamslcy 

in 1735, was his father. Followed the 
Amati model ; his violins and violon- 
cellos show finished workmanship, 
have a good tone, and are varnished 
yellow. Some instruments, of inferior 
make, follow the Stradivari model. 

Albanesi, Sebastiano. Worked in 
Cremona, 1720-44. Pupil of Carlo 
Bergonzi. His instruments are not 
much arched and both in varnish and 
make are similar to those made in 
Milan ; the tone is powerful. 

Albani, Mathias, b. about 162 1, Botzen 
(Tyrol) ; d. there 1673. His instru- 
ments are excellent, very similar to 
those made by Stainer, of whom he 
was possibly a pupil. They are much 
arched, with high sides, the sound - 
holes too widely opened, with dry 
brittle varnish, a reddish-brown colour, 
the wood is carefully selected. A violon- 
cello, of sweet but not powerful tone, 
had the label in large characters: 
• ' Mathias Albano, fecit in Tiroli, 1 65 1 . " 
A beautiful violin, with full, powerful 
tone, had the label in small characters : 
" Mathias Albano, in Tiroli, Bulsani, 
1643." Two other labels are : 
" Mathias Albani, fecit Bulsani, Tyrol, 
1651," and " Matthias Albanus, fecit 
in Tyrol, Bulsani, 1654." 

Albani, Mathias, son and pupil of 
Mathias Albani ; b. 1650, Botzen ; d. 
about 1715. Settled in Rome, probably 
remained m Cremona studying under 
the Amatis for some time, on his way 
there. His instruments follow the 
Amati pattern, and show beautiful var- 
nish and finished workmanship. Three 
violins known are dated respectively 
1702, 1709, 1712. In a pochette was 
the label, "Mathias Albanus, 1680." 
In Rome the label used was, " Mattia 
Albano, face in Roma, 16 - ." 

Albani, Paolo. Worked in Palermc 


about 1650-80. Is said to have been a 
pupil of Nicola Amati at Cremona. 
His instruments are made on a large 
pattern with good varnish. A violin 
known is dated 1659. A son of his 
continued making violins till 1720. 

Alberti, Ferdinando, A maker in Milan, 
1740-60. His instruments are fairly 
well made and varnished bright yellow. 
Label: "Ferdinando Alberti, fece in 
Milano, nella contrada del pesce al 
segno della Corona, nell' anno 1743." 

Alberto, Pietro. A celebrated maker of 
lutes in Bologna, 1598. The label, 

" Petrus Albertus.faciebat B ," was 

found in a large mandora made of 
maple wood, beautifully grained, with 
fine varnish, brown colour, the neck 
inlaid with ivory. 

Aldred. A maker in London, whose 
viols were celebrated in the 17th 
century. Speaking of viols, in his 
book " Musick's Monument" (pub- 
lished 1676), Mace adds, "Of such 
there are no better in the world, than 
those of Aldred, Jay, Smith, &c." 

Aldric. Worked in Paris, 1788-1840. 
Was well known for the excellent 
instruments he made, on the Stradi- 
vari pattern, of fine tone, with rich red 
varnish. He also constructed altos 
from old Italian viols with great clever- 
ness and carefully repaired old 
instruments. An early violoncello of 
his is dated 1788. In another violon- 
cello was the label, " Fait par Aldric, 
luthier, rue des Arcis, 16, Paris, 1792." 
Later he moved to 71, rue de Seine, 
Saint-Germain, where, in 1840, his 
nephew Aubry succeeded him. Label : 
" Rue de Seine, 71, pres celle de Bussy , 
Aldric, luthier a Paris, an. 18 — ." 

Alessandro, called "II Veneziano," a 
maker in Venice about 1540. 

Aletzie, Paul. A maker in Munich, 
1710-36. Is best known for his tenors 
and violoncellos. His instruments 
show careful work, but the sound- 
holes are too small, and the brown 
varnish is of poor quality. In a 
beautiful viola d'amore was the label : 
" Paulus Aletzie Hof Lauten und 
Geigenmacher in Miinchen, 1726." 
Two similar labels are dated 1710 and 

AUard, Fran9ois. A maker in Paris from 
1776 to 1783, in the place Maubert, 
then (1788-89) at 9, rue du Petit-Pont. 
Few of his instruments are known. 

Alvani. A maker in Cremona in 1750, 
who followed the Guarneri pattern. 

Amati, Andrea, b. about 1525, at Cre- 
mona; d. soon after the death of his 

second wife, Angiola de Migli (d. 
April 10, 161 1). Was descended from 
an ancient and noble family of Cre- 
mona, dating back as far as 1097. 
Was the founder of the great Cremona 
school of violin making, which includes 
such names as the Guarneri, Ruggeri, 
Bergonzi, and Stradivari. At first made 
the older form of violin — the viola da 
gamba — but gradually developed the 
modern violin pattern, aided, no doubt, 
by seeing instruments made by the 
older school of Brescia. While instru- 
ments of Gasparo da Salo and Gio. 
Paolo Maggini are still in good pre- 
servation, violins known to be the 
genuine work of Andrea are greatly 
damaged and badly restored, which 
makes it difficult to form correct 
opinions about them. They differ 
greatly from the Brescia pattern in 
arching, form, colour and transparency 
of varnish, but retain the stiff upright 
Brescian sound-hole. The whole instru- 
ment became simplified in Andrea's 
hands ; if, as is sometimes supposed, he 
was a pupil of either Gasparo da Salo or 
Maggini, or even worked as a pupil in 
Brescia, he advanced far beyond them, 
and shows great originality in his 
work. Another suggested "master" 
of Andrea is Giammaria del Busseto, 
who was probably trained in the 
Brescian school, although he con- 
structed his instruments on different 
principles. Andrea's violins are small 
or "three-quarter" size, the outline 
extremely graceful, the belly and back 
high, strongly arched towards the 
centre ; the wood, carefully selected, 
especially for the belly, was generally 
sycamore or pear-tree ; the scroll 
beautifully carved, purfling very neat, 
and corners carefully worked ; the 
sound-holes resemble those of Maggini 
and are usually too broad ; the 
varnish of good quality, but a little 
thick, varies from clear or yellow-brown 
to a beautiful amber colour ; the clear 
and silvery tone, though very sweet, 
lacks power, possibly because of the 
small size and high arching of the 
instrument, the fourth string being par- 
ticularly weak. But at that time the 
strength of tone demanded at the 
present day was neither expected nor 
required. In 1878 two violins were 
sold for ;^2o and £^'^ respectively, but 
the price now varies from £^0 to ;^i50 
or more, according to condition and 
tone. His violoncellos, some of the 
earliest made in Italy, are very rare; 
the varnish is dark reddish-brown 


with a slight tinge ot yellow, a colour 
probably copied from that of the old 
lutes which Mace, in his " Musick's 
Monument," says was of a " dark- 
black-reddish colour . . . the best 
authors did use to lay on that colour." 
He gradually improved it, givmg it 
more body, making it more transparent, 
of a reddish-yellow colour. A violon- 
cello of full, rich tone, was dated 1572. 
Tenors and basses are rare, are on a 
large pattern, with beautifully finished 
work, and of sweet tone. The earliest 
date, 1546, was found in a violin 
believed to be by him, in the collection 
of Count Cozio de Salabue. It is said 
that it was originally a " rebec" with 
only three strings, but the father of 
Mantegazza altered it into an instru- 
ment of four strings, by changing the 
neck and scroll. A viola bastarda is 
dated 155 1. There seems to be no 
evidence in support of the tradition 
that he made twenty-four violins, 
twelve large and twelve small pattern, 
six tenors and eight basses, elaborately 
decorated on the back with the royal 
arms, &c., and the motto " Pietate et 
Justitia," for Charles IX. of France, 
or that he went to Paris with them 
and finished working at some of them 
there. There is nothing on the instru- 
ments themselves to show that they 
were his work. Andrea was twice 
married and had two sons by his first 
wife, Antonio and Girolamo, both 
violin makers. 

Amati, Antonio, elder son of Andrea 
Amati, b. Cremona about 1560 ; was 
still living in 1648, according to a label 
found in a violin. Was in partner- 
ship with his brother Girolamo. His 
instruments date from 1589, and are 
generally small size ; several violins 
dated from 1591 till i6ig were in a 
catalogue, published 1791, of the in- 
struments of Albinoni of Milan. The 
pattern resembles that of his father, 
but is not so arched, the sound-holes 
retain the Brescian type, the work 
shows neat finish, the tone is sweet 
but not powerful. 

Amati, Girolamo, second son of Andrea 
Amati, b. about 1562; d. Nov. 2, 1630. 
Worked with his brother Antonio till 
1628. The earliest reliable date in 
connection with them is 1577. They 
produced the first form of the 
instrument known as '*Amatise." 
The pattern first followed, similar to 
that of Andrea, was more arched than 
that used later. Their instruments 
are few in number, but in good pre- 

servation, generally small size (the 
back often in one piece), of accurate 
proportions, slightly arched towards 
the middle, with strongly marked 
grooves at the sides ; the scrolls vary, 
often richly worked, the corners and 
the purfling are carefully done, the 
edges just overlap the sides; the wood 
generally maple or deal ; the varnish, 
deeper in colour on the earlier instru- 
ments (possibly owing to old age), is 
later of an orange colour, thinly laid 
on, and throws up the grain of the 
wood very distinctly. The tone is far 
more powerful than in Andrea's instru- 
ments. A violin signed by them and 
dated 1595, which belonged to Henri 
IV. of France, is of historical value. 
It is made on a large pattern, the oil 
varnish a brilliant amber colour, the 
purfling of tortoiseshell, and on the 
back are painted the royal arms of 
France and Navarre, &c. Labels : 
" Antonius et Hieronymus Fr. Amatus, 
Cremonen, Andreae fil. F. 1590" ; a 
similar one in a viola dated 1620 : 
" Antonius et Hieronymus Amatus, 
Cremonen, Andreae fil. F. 1592 " ; a 
similar one dated 1624. After 1624, 
Girolamo worked alone, making both 
large and small violins ; the former 
were the finest instruments, much 
arched, with broad purfling, good 
scroll, and varnish yellow -brown 
colour ; beautiful tone, but the fourth 
string was not equal to the others. 
Girolamo married first Ippolita Zuchi- 
elli (d. 1583), then Laura Lazzarini on 
May 24, 1584 ; she had nine children, 
the fifth child being Nicola, who 
became the most celebrated maker in 
the family. 
Amati, Girolamo, third son and successor 
of Nicola Amati, b. Feb. 26, 1649 ; 
d. Feb. 21, 1740 ; buried in San 
Tommaso. His instruments are pcor 
compared to those made by Nicola ; 
he follows an inferior pattern, the 
sound-holes being straight and placed 
too close to each other. The instru- 
ments made on a large flat pattern are 
the best, the sound-holes being wider 
apart ; but the varnish, though some- 
times soft and transparent, is generally 
of bad quality. Labels : " Hieronimus 
Amatus, fecit Cremonae, 1670"; " Hie- 
ronimus Amatus Cremonensis, fecit 
anno salutis, 1697"; "Hieronymus 
Amatus, Cremonen, Nicolai fil., 17 — " ; 
" Hieronymus Amatus, Cremonensis, 
an. 1700" ; " Hieronymus Amati, figlio 
di Niccolo Amati, Cremona, 17 — ." 
Instruments with his label dated 


1703-23 were supposed to have been 
made either by Sneider of Pavia or 
G. B. Rogeri of Brescia ; several in- 
struments dated 1729 are known. In 
an old Amati violin repaired by Bros. 
Mantegazza of Milan, m 1806, was 
found' written at the base of the neck, 
•' Revisto e corretto da me Girolamo, 
iiglio di Niccolo Amati, Cremona, 
1 7 10." Girolamo married Angiola 
Carettoni, 1678 ; his son Giuseppe, 
born 1684, did not become a violin 

Amati, Guiseppe. Said to have lived in 
Bologna first part of 17th century, 
he used oil varnish for his violins 
and basses, the tone was clear and 

Amati, Nicola, younger brother of 
Andrea Amati, is said to have worked 
with him, 1568-80, then by himself till 
1586. His basses are best known, 
slightly arched back and front, with 
oil varnish, the tone excellent, only the 
fourth string often weak owing to the 
instrument being too narrow and short 
in proportion to its thickness. Two 
basses are dated respectively 1568 and 

Amati, Nicola, son of Girolamo Amati, 
b. Dec. 3, 1596 ; d. April 12, 1684, aged 
88, according to the registers of 
Cremona Cathedral. Is the most cele- 
brated maker of the Amati family. 
His instruments resemble those of his 
father till about 1645, then steadily 
improve. The pattern is graceful, 
the thicknesses and arching accurately 
determined, the varnish a deep, rich 
colour, the tone clear, sweet and 
powerful . The ' ' Grand Amati ' ' violins 
are scarce and are worth ;^30o to/400 ; 
they are made on a large pattern, oi 
beautiful wood, the back of maple, 
and the belly generally of deal, of 
which the thickness diminishes from 
the centre to the sides (this, when 
exaggerated, makes the second string 
nasal in tone) ; the arching drops some- 
what suddenly from the bridge to the 
edges, with a slight groove where the 
purfling comes, this is said to give the 
noted sweetness of tone ; the sound- 
holes are beautifully cut, the varnish 
is of fine quality and varies from 
amber to red colour. An instrument 
with double purfling is a remarkable 
piece of work. He made numbers of 
tenors and violoncellos, £everal " three- 
quarter " violins, and perhaps three 
or four double-basses. Many of the 
small violins still exist, one dated 1668 
shows some of his finest work, and the 

tone is wonderfully sweet and clear. 
Labels . " Nicolaus Amatus Cremonae 
Hieronymus Fil , ac Antonius nepos 
fecit, 1630" ; "Nicolaus Amatus Cre- 
monensis faciebat, anno 1650 " (in a 
large bass-viol); "Nicolaus Amatus 
Cremonae Hieronymus et Antonius 
nepos, fecit anno 1664." Violins are 
known dated 1647, 1655, 1661, and 
1662, and two violoncellos dated 1669 
and 1670 respectively. Among Nicola's 
celebrated pupils were the Guarneri, 
the Ruggeri of Cremona, Montag- 
nana oT Venice, the Rogeri and Tononi 
of Bologna, and, greatest of all, Antonio 
Stradivari. He married May 23, 1645, 
Lucrezia Pagliari (d. Nov. 25, 1703) ; 
Andrea Guarneri, his pupil, was 
present at the ceremony and signed the 
register. Of nine children, only one, 
Girolamo, became a violin maker. 

Ambrogi, Pietro Worked first in Cre- 
mona, then in Rome. Label: " Petrus 
Ambrogi, Crem. fecit Romae, an. 

Ambrosi, Pietro. A maker in Brescia in 
1 712. His instruments are inferior, 
and the varnish is of poor quality. 
Label : " Petrus Ambrosi, fecit Brixiae, 

Ambrosio, Antonio d'. A maker in 
Naples about 1820. 

Amelot. A maker in Lorient (France) 
about 1812-29. His instruments are 
poor, the varnish is yellow colour. 
Label : " Amelot, luthier, Lorient, 

Anciaume. "Bernard Anciaume" was 
found branded on a violin. 

Andreas, Johannes. A maker in Verona 
about 1500-15. In the Museum Modena 
of Vienna is a lira da braccio with the 
written label : " Joannes Andreas, 
Veronesis, a di 12 Auosto, 151 1." 

Angelis. S^^" Vitus." 

Anselmo, Pietro. Worked in Cremona 
(about 1700) and Venice. His violins 
are made on a small pattern, slightly 
arched, with golden-coloured varnish 
of rich quality. His violoncellos are 
also well made. 

Antegnati, Gian Francesco. Is men- 
tioned by Lanfranco in his work, 
" Scintille ossia regole di musica 
che mostrano a leggere il canto 
fermo " (Brescia, Lodovico Britannico, 
1533)- But he is there spoken of as 
a maker in Brescia of " monochordi, 
arpichordi and clavacymbali." 

Antoniazzi, <Jregorio. A maker in 
Colle (Bergamo) in 1738. Label : 
" Gregorio Antoniazzi, in Colle, 
1738." S^^ " Gaetano." 


Antonio, Bononiensis (of Bologna). A 
viola da gamba, not dated, is in the 
Bologna Liceo filarmonico. 

Antonio, Ciciliano. See " Siciliano." 

Antonio, Cypriano. The label : " Cypri- 
ano Antonio, a fez en Lisboa, rua 
Largo da Esperanga," was found ina 
cither with twelve strings in pairs, of 
fine tone, probably made about 1725. 

Antony, Girolamo. A maker in Cre- 
mona in 1751. He made on a good 
pattern, rather arched, with neat pur- 
fling, edges rather thin, varnish yellow, 
of fair quality Label : " Hyeronimus 
Antonij, Cremonae, anno 1751" 

Ardenois, Johannes. A maker in Ghent, 

Arthmann, Johann Nicolaus, b. 1774 ; 
d. 1846. At first a joiner by trade, 
then became a pupil of Ernst at Gotha. 
His instruments are made on the Amati 
pattern, rather arched, with yellow 

Askey, Samuel, d. about 1840. At first 
a tinman, then a pupil of John 
Morrison. Worked for George Corsby 
about 1825. 

Assalone, Gaspare. A maker in Rome, 
1740. His instruments are made on 

the Amati pattern, but are too much 
arched ; the varnish is yellow, of poor 

Aubert. A maker in Troyes (France), 
1789 Label found in a guitar : 
" Aubert a Troyes, 1789." 

Aubry, a maker in Paris, was a nephew 
of Aldric and succeeded to his business 
in 1840, but his instruments have not 
the same high reputation. 

Audinot, Nestor Dominique, b. Dec. 12, 
1842, Mirecourt. Apprenticed to his 
father thgre. 1863-68, worked under 
Sebastien Vuillaume in Pans, suc- 
ceeded to his business in 1875 at 17 
Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle. He has 
experimented largely in varnishes. 
Has made about 588 instruments 
during thirty years' work, all of which 
reach a high standard of excellence. 
Labels: " N. Audinot, luthier, eleve 
de Vuillaume, Paris 18 — ," and "N. 
Audinot, 17, Boulevard Bonne-Nou- 
velle, annee 18 — ." 

Augiere. Worked under Clement in 
Paris. In 1830 he started a business 
with Calot He made good violins 
with varnish red or yellow-brown 


Baader, J. A., and Co. Well-known 
manufacturers of violins for the lowest 
possible prices, established in Mitten- 
wald. They send instruments to all 
parts of the world, America, Switzer- 
land, Russia, England &c. Some 
violins made after the Stainer pattern 
were exhibited in Munich, 1854, the 
tone was full and beautiful. 

Bachelier, Jean Gaspard. A maker in 
Paris, in the rue de la Tissanderie, 
1777, and in the place Baudoyer, 
1783-89. His instruments show inferior 

Bachmann, Carl Ludwig, b. 1748 at 
Berlin ; d. there 1809. Made excellent 
violins, altos, and violoncellos on the 
Stradivari pattern with amber varnish ; 
the proportions were good, the choice 
of wood excellent ; amateurs often mis- 
took his instruments for genuine 
Cremona work. He was a skilful viola 
player. 1765. was appointed Court 
instrument maker and Chamber 
musician to the King of Prussia ; 1770, 
founded the Amateur Concerts in 
Berlin, in conjunction with Ernest 
Benda, which he continued till 1797. 
About 1778 began to tune the long thick 

strings of double-basses by means of 
screw pegs, a method in use ever since. 

Bachmann, O., of Halberstadt. Was an 
excellent workman and particularly 
clever at restoring old instruments. 
He wrote a book on the construction of 
violins, &c., entitled " Theoretisch- 
praktisches Handbuch des Geigen- 
baues, &c." (Leipzig : G. Basse, 1835.) 

Bagatella, Antonio, b. 1755, Padua ; 
d. 1829. Was a very good restorer 
of violins. Worked for many Germans — 
Prince Waldestein, Laibek, Prince of 
Wittemberg, Krauss of Prague — made 
few new instruments, and they were of 
no great merit ; some violins and violon- 
cellos made on the Cremona model 
were good. Gained in 1782 a prize 
from the Padua Accademia for a 
work on the construction of the 
violin, which was published by the 
Accademia in 1786. Its full title was 
" Regole per la costruzione de' violini, 
viole, violoncelli e violoni. Memoria 
presentata all' Accademia di scienze, 
lettere ed arti di Padova, al concorso 
del premio dell' arti dell 'anno 1782. 
Dal Signor Ant. Bagatella, Padovano, 
E coronato dall' Accademia stessa. 


Padova, 1786." This work touched 
less on innovations than on practical 
methods of arriving at a perfect imita- 
tion of the instruments of the great 
Italian makers, Amati especially; it 
Avas translated into German by Schaum 
tinder title of " Ueber den Bau der 
Violinen, Bratschen, Violoncells und 
Violons " (Leipzig, 1806). It was from 
Bagatella's work that Maugin, in his 
" Manuel du Luthier," took his method 
of tracing a fine model of a violin with 
only a rule and compass, which may 
also be seen somewhat shortened at 
the end of Bishop's translation of Otto 
on the violin. 

Bagatella (Bagattella), Pietro. Worked 
at Padua about 1760-66. 

Bagnini, Orazio di Antonio. Maker of 
cithers in Florence, 1667. 

Bailly, Paul, of Mirecourt and Paris. 
Received a bronze medal in 1878 for 
work which, though not showy, was of 
good quality. Was among the Exhibi- 
tors in the Chicago (1893) Exhibition. 

Baines. Worked in London about 1780. 
Pupil of Matthew Furber. 

Bairhof, Giorgio. Naples, about 1760. 
Probably pupil of G. or N. 

Bajoni, Luigi. Maker in Milan from 
about 1840 ; was living in 1876. 

Baker, Francis. A magnificent bass-viol 
with six strings, of beautiful tone, had 
the following label: "Francis Baker, 
in Paul's Church Yard, 1696, London." 

Baker, John. A maker in Oxford about 
1688 to 1720. His work was in every way 
good, excellently finished, the varnish 
a light yellow colour, the tone not large 
but very pure and clear in quality. In 
Thomas Britton's collection of musical 
instruments was " a fine viol by 
Mr. Baker of Oxford." A four-stringed 
viola da gamba " made by John Baker 
in Oxford, anno 1688," exhibited 1872. 

Baker, William. A fine viola, varnish 
light yellow, by " William Baker ot 
Oxford, 1683," and a violin of his 
were formerly in Mr. Taphouse's 

Balestrieri, Tommaso. A maker in 
Cremona about 1720-57, then in Mantua 
till about 1772. Said to have been 
a pupil of Stradivari ; there is a 
rough general resemblance in his 
work to that done by Stradivari in the 
last years of his life (1730-37), but no 
comparison in point of merit. He 
made some good violins, a few violas, 
and violoncellos of fine tone. The 
wood varies, that used for the bellies 
was carefully selected ; the tone is 
powerful and becomes richer with 

age. He used two kinds of varnish, 
one resembling that of Guadagnini, the 
other softer and richer in colour. 
Label : " Thomas Balestrieri, Cre- 
monensis, fecit Mantuae, 1762." The 
work of his brother Pietro, in Cremona, 
1725, was inferior. 

Ballantine, was working in Edinburgh 
in 1850 and in Glasgow in 1856. 

Banks, Benjamin, son of George and 
Barbary Banks, b. July 14, 1727 ; 
d. Feb. 18, 1795. Was one of the first 
English makers to follow the Amati 
instead of the Stainer pattern, copying 
it very closely. Pupil of Wamsley 
in London, then settled in Salisbury. 
His instruments are excellently made, 
the scrolls perhaps somewhat clumsy ; 
the tone is good, particularly that of 
the violoncellos. The varnish is trans- 
parent and rich ; brownish-yellow 
colour with a reddish tinge is used for 
his best instruments, deep red with 
blackish tinge for others. He un- 
fortunately let it clog the fibre of the 
bellies, which gave them a white 
appearance, or, technically, "the grain 
was killed." His large violoncellos 
are best, the smaller ones are equally 
well made but have not the same 
amount of tone, the style of finishing 
is very marked and decided, so that 
his instruments are easily recognised. 
A violoncello made after the Stainer 
model, with yellow brown-red varnish, 
had a fine tone. The average price of 
the best violoncellos between 1790 and 
1794 was from ten to twelve guineas, 
but in this century they realised as 
much as £^0. Inferior instruments 
were made by him (probably assisted 
by sons or other workmen) for Long- 
man and Broderip, music publishers, 
the pattern long, more on the Stainer 
model, with red varnish. The names 
of Longman and Broderip are stamped 
on the back under the button, but 
there is no writing or label to show 
who was the maker. No double-bass 
of his is known, and it is doubtful if he 
or any member of his family ever 
made one. Labels : " Made by Benjn. 
Banks, Catherine Street, Salisbury, 
1773"; "Benjamin Banks, Musical 
Instrument Maker. In Catherine 
Street, Salisbury. 1780"; "Benjamin 
Banks, fecit Salisbury." " B. B." 
was stamped on the back or beneath 
the button at the end of the neck,, also 
"B. Banks, Sarum." 

Banks, Benjamin, second son of Benja- 
min Banks (1727-95), b. Sept. 13, 1754; 
d. Jan. 22, 1820. Worked with his 


father at Salisbury, probably 1770-80, 
then moved to London, to 30, Sher- 
rard Street, Golden Square; went 
later to Hawk Street, Liverpool, 
where he died and was buried at St. 
Mary's, Edgehill. Two violins are 
known of his, one dated 1771, the 
other 1775, and an alto dated 1778. 
A violoncello had the label : "Made by 
Benjn. Banks, No. 30, Sherrard Street, 
Golden Square, from Salisbury." 

Banks, James and Henry, fourth and 
sixth sons of B. Banks (1727-95). Both 
born in Salisbury, James about 1756, 
d. June 15, 1831 ; Henry about 1770, 
d. Oct. 16, 1830. They were in busi- 
ness together, Henry as a pianoforte 
tuner and repairer and James as a 
violin maker ; the latter was an ex- 
cellent workman, followed the same 
models as his father, used similar 
varnish, though occasionally the red- 
colour varnish had more black in it. 
181 1, they sold their business in 
Catherine Street, Salisbury, and went 
to Liverpool, to Church Street and 
then to Bold Street, where they died ; 
they were buried in St. Mary's, Edge- 
hill. A number of unfinished instru- 
ments in the white wood were found 
in the cellar of their Liverpool house, 
and sold in that state. Labels : 
" James and Henry Banks, Musical 
Instrument Makers and Music Sellers, 
Salisbury, 1802 " ; " James and Henry 
Banks, Salisbury, 1804." A violon- 
cello made by both of them in 1797 
was exhibited in the South Kensington 
Museum, London. 1872. 

Barbanti, Silva Francesco. A maker 
in Correggio, 1850. 

Barbey, Guillaume. In Paris about 
1717. Maker of a with six 
strings at Brussels. 

Barbieri, Francesco. A maker in 
Verona, 1695. His violins follow the 
pattern of Andrea Guarneri. 

Barnes, Robert. Pupil of Thomas Smith 
at the " Harp and Hautboy " in Picca- 
dilly ; a fellow-apprentice was John 
Norris, with whom he started a business 
in 1765. No instrument of theirs is 
known except a violoncello, which was 
probably made by E. Aireton, but is 
stamped with their name on the back. 
They first lived in Windmill Street, 
then Coventry Street. Label : " Made 
by Norris and Barnes, violin, violon- 
cello, and bow makers to their Majesties, 
Coventry Street, London." 

Barnia, Fedele, b. at Milan ; settled in 
Venice. Probably a pupil of Pietro 
Guarneri. A small violoncello is 

known, of accurate proportions, with 
yellow varnish somewhat transparent, 
and good tone. Label : " Fedele 
Barnia, Milanese, fece in Venezia, 
I'anno 1761 " ; one dated 1715 was 
found in a very beautiful theorbo. 
Baroux. Lived in. Paris, 1830, at 57, 
rue du Petit-Carreau. He was a very 
able violin bow maker. 
Barrett, John. Worked about 1714-30 at 
the " Harp and Crown " in Piccadilly, 
London. A contemporary of Barak 
Norman and Nathaniel Cross. He 
made some good instruments on a 
long and arched pattern, but they all 
have ink-lines instead of purfie, and 
the fluting where the ink-lines are is 
•very acute, forming almost the inner 
half of a circle ; the tone of his violins 
is sweet but not powerful, the wood 
well selected, the varnish a yellow 
colour. 1802, they were valued at 6 
guineas, later at 8 or 10. A violoncello 
is mentioned as of beautiful tone. 
Labels: "John Barrett, at the Harp 
and Crown in Pickadilly, 1722 " : 
•' Made by John Barrett at ye Harp 
and Crown in Pickadilly, London, 
Barton. George. Of Elliot Court, 

Old Bailey, London; d. about 1810. 

Barzellini, Egidius. Maker in Cremona, 

1670-1700. Label: " Egidius Barzellini 

fecit ecolle Amatius Cremonen, 1680. ' 

Basi, Florianus. A clever maker of 

mandolines in Bologna, 1756-81. Label: 

" Florianus Basi, in via S. Mamoli 

Bonone, fecit 1756." 

Bassiano. Lute maker in Rome, 1666; 

a theorbo with this date is in the 

collection of the Gesellschaft der 

Musikfreunde, Vienna. 

Bassot, Joseph. A maker in Paris 

about 1780 to 1802, at the Quinze- 

Vingt (1783), then rue Chabanais 

(1788). He made beautiful violins, 

with brown varnish, sometimes tinged 

with red. His earlier instruments, 

with yellow varnish, are not so well 

made. Label : "Joseph Bassot, luthier, 

Paris. 1802." 

Bastogi, Gaetano. Maker of cithers 

and lutes in Leghorn, 17 — . 
Battista of Brescia, about the end of 
the 15th century. There is a very old 
" pochette," with the stamp " Baptista 
Bressano," in the museum of the 
Liceo filarmonico of Bologna. 
Battista, Giovanni. A maker of guitars 
and mandolines in Naples, 17 — , accord- 
ing to a label in a raandola of fine 
tone, "Gian Battista, Fabricatore 
Napoli, anno 17 — in S. M. dell* ajuto." 



Baud. A maker at Versailles. A violin 
of his, made without bars, which he 
thought interfered with the vibrations, 
was not favourably reported on. 

Baumeester. S^^ " Boumeester." 

Bausch, Ludwig Christian August, b 
Jan. 15, 1805, at Naumburg ; d. 
May 26, 187 1, at Leipzig. Pupil of 
B. Fritsche in Dresden, then settled 
in Leipzig as a violin bow maker. 
Other members of the firm were 
Ludwig Bausch and Otto Bausch (b. 

Bausch was a celebrated maker of violin 
bows m Dessau. It is said that Spohr 
gave him advice as to the construction 
of the bow. 1840, he received a silver 
medal^t the Dresden Exhibition. 

Beckmann (Bekman), Sweno. A maker 
at Stockholm about 1700-50. His in- 
struments are roughly made. 

Bedler, Norbert. A maker in Wiirz- 
burg in 1723. Was appointed maker 
to the Bavarian Court. In a viola di 
bordone in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection is the label. "Norbert 
Bedler, luthier de la Cour de Baviere 
a Wurtzbourg, 1723." 

Bela, Szepessy, b. Nov. 30, 1856, 
Budapest. Apprenticed to Samuel 
Nemessany in Budapest, from August, 
1868, till May 24, 1874. Then went to 
Vienna and worked under Zach till 
Oct. 20, 1879. Was then in Munich, 
but left, 1881, to settle in London, 
where he has his own business. He 
has personally made and varnished up 
to the present time 104 violins, 4 
violas, and 2 violoncellos. He gene- 
rally follows the Stradivari and 
Guarneri patterns, but in a few cases 
that of Nicola Amati , he uses oil 
varnish of soft quality, a yellow-red 
colour. His instruments are much 

Bellone. Pietro Antonio, known as 
II Pescorino. A maker in Milan in 
1694. Label" '*Pietro Antonio Bellone, 
detto il Pescorino, fece in contrada 
larga di Milano, 1694, al segno di S. 
Antonio da Padova." 

Bello&io, Anselmo. A maker in Venice 
about 1720-80. Pupil of Santo Sera- 
fino. He made good violoncellos, but 
as a rule his instruments are not so 
well made as those of his master. 
M. A. Cerin wasapupilof his. Label; 
" /. selmij Bellosij, fecit Venetiis, 

Belviglieri, Gregorio. A maker in 
Bologna in 1742. His violins are 
fairly good. 

Benedict, Jose. A maker at Cadiz in 

1738. Label: " Compuesto en Cadix 
p. Jose Benedict, ano del 1738." 

Benedicti, Donate de. In Cremona, 1674. 

Benti, Matteo, about 1579. A maker in 
Brescia, was contemporary with G. P 
Maggini. His instruments are little 
known, but are fairly well made on 
the Brescia model ; a violin was dated 
1601. In a Paris museum is a beauti- 
ful lute of his, richly inlaid, and 
splendidly made. 

Beretta, Felice. Worked at Como about 
1760-85. Was a pupil of Giuseppe 
Guadagnini. His violins are inferior, 
he used bad wood and yellow varnish 
of poor quality. A printed label found 
in an alto of ordinary make was : 
" Felice Beretta, allievo di Guiseppe 
Guadagnino, fece in Como, I'anno 
1784." A similar label was dated 1782. 

Berge. A maker at Toulouse in 1771. 

Bergonzi, Benedetto, d. 1840. A des- 
cendant of the Bergonzi family, who 
worked in the same house in the 
Piazza San Domenico, Cremona. Was 
a clever restorer of violins. 

Bergonzi, Carlo, of Cremona, the first 
of the great Bergonzi family of makers, 
b. about 1680 ; d. 1747. He began to 
put his own name in his instruments 
about 1716. He was the most cele- 
brated pupil of Antonio Stradivari, 
whose pattern he copied very closely. 
Was also said to have been a pupil 
of Nicola Amati. After the death 
of Ombono Stradivari (d. 1742), 
Carlo inherited all the working 
materials which had belonged to An- 
tonio Stradivari, and in 1746 he and 
his son Michel Angelo (then aged 24) 
moved into Antonio Stradivari's old 
dwelling, in the Piazza San Domenico. 
His violins, which are more scarce 
than his violoncellos, are generally 
made on a flat model, like the early 
instruments of Stradivari ; he enlarged 
the pattern later on. The sound-holes, 
placed lower and nearer the edge, are 
longer and more open than those of 
Stradivari ; the scrolls, flatter than 
usual, are boldly cut ; the arching is 
decided ; the wood is always very fine ; 
the varnish, a beautiful red-brown or 
rich amber colour, is rather heavy, a 
sign of decadence, but gives the instru- 
ments a peculiar type of their own. 
The tone is sonorous and penetrating. 
The work is always beautifully finished. 
His violoncellos and double-basses are 
especially good, the latter being some 
of the finest known. Unluckily he 
made them on too large a pattern, and 
many have been cut down to suit 


modern requirements, so that in their 
original state they are rarely to be 
met with. The woik is careful, the 
wood well chosen ; the varnish, of a 
red-brown colour, much altered by 
age, is often rather thick The violins, 
altos and violoncellos (the latter being 
thought to equal the work of his 
master, Stradivari) are all characterised 
by a peculiarly penetrating sonorous 
tone, and are much sought after, 
sometimes fetching high prices, from 
;^20o to /300. A very fine violoncello 
wasdated 1746. Labels: "Anno 1723, 
Carlo Bergonzi, fece in Cremona " , 
the same m a violin dated 1733, and 
another dated 1731 ; " Carlo Baganzi, 
allieve di Nicola Amati, fecit Cremonae, 
anno 1723 '; "Anno 17 — , revisto e 
corretto da me Carlo Bergonzi in 
Cremona ' 
Bergonzi, Carlo, third son of Michel 
Angelo Worked in Cremona about 
178 and died there about 1820. He 
made a few violi is of little value, with 
straight, ugly sound-holes • but prmci 
pally guitars and mandolmes 
Bergonzi (Baganzi), Francesco. Is 
named as early as 1687. May have 
been the father of Carlo 
Bergonzi, Michel Angelo, son of Carlo, 
b. 1722 ; d. after 1765. Worked m 
Cremona about 1740-65. His work is 
heavy and altogether inferior to that 
of Carlo, he flattened the model and 
exaggerated the curves ; followed both 
small and large patterns ; the varnish 
is hard and thick, the tone is nasal. 
But his double-basses show better 
work and have a powerful tone, serving 
well in an orchestra. Label : " Michel 
Angelo Bergonzi, figlio di Carlo, fece 
in Cremona, 1740." Another is known, 
dated 1755. 
Bergonzi, Nicola, eldest son of Michel 
Angelo. Worked in Cremona about 
1755-82. His instruments show a 
great falling off; made on a similar 
model to that of his father ; his work 
is often highly finished but is wanting 
in character; the scroll is cramped, 
the wood often too close-grained, 
the varnish poor and thin. Label : 
" Nicolaus Bergonzi, Cremonensis, 
faciebat anno 1760 " ; a tenor dated 
1 78 1 is known. He made a great 
number of violins. 
Bergonzi, Zosimo brother of Nicola. He 
worked about the same time, perhaps 
had more ability ; some violoncellos 
and double-basses of his are fairly 
well made, but the work, like that of 
his brother, is much inferior to Carlo's. 

He used a label ornamented like thai 
of Carlo: " Fatto da me Zosimo Ber- 
gonzi, I'anno 1777, Cremonae." 

Bernardel, Auguste Sebastien Philippe, 
b. Jan. 12, 1802, at Mirecourt ; d. 
August 6, 1^70, at Bougival. One of 
the most distinguished French makers. 
He began as an apprentice in Mire- 
court, went to Paris in 1820, worked 
first under Nicolas Lupot and then 
under C. F. Gand, whom he left in 1826 
in order to start a business of his own 
in the rue Coquilliere. In 1859 he took 
his two sons into partnership and 
the firm was called ' Bernardel et fils ' ; 
he retired in 1866 so as to facilitate the 
association of the Gands in his 
business, which was then styled " Gand 
et Bernardel. ' He made a large 
number of excellent instruments, the 
violoncellos especially having a remark- 
ably fine t ne. Label : "Bernardel, 
luthier e -ouvrier du Sr Lupot, rue 
Coqu'l lere. No 44, a Pans, I'an 1826 " 
This was in a violin made by him soon 
after he left Gand , perhaps the first to 
contain his signature ; it is beautifully 
finished and has a fine tone. Printed 
label: " Medaille d'or et d'argent aux 
expositions de 1844 et 1849. Bernardel, 
luthier, eleve de Lupot, rue Croix-des- 
Petits Champs, 21, a Paris, 18 — . . . 
(Signed) Bernardel." Honours : men- 
tion, 1827 ; bronze medalb, Paris, 1834 
and 1839 ; silver medal, Paris, 1844, ^o'* 
an alto placed in the ist class ; gold 
medal, Paris, 1849 ; a medal of the 
2nd class, London, 185 1 ; and a medal 
of the ist class, London, 1855, for a 
violin copied from Maggini, a bass, 
and a double-bass. 

Bernardel Freres. Ernst Auguste and 
Gustave Adolphe, sons of Sebastien 
Philippe ; the former b. April 2, 1826, 
retired from the business in 1886 ; 
d. 1899; the latter b. April 26, 1832. 
When their father retired, in 1866, 
they continued the business in partner- 
ship with Eugene Gand, as '* Gand 
et Bernardel Freres." M. Gustave 
Bernardel is now head of the firm. 

Bertasio, Luigi. Worked in Piadena, 


Bertassi, Ambrogio. Working in Pia- 
dena about T730. 

Bertet, Joseph R. A maker in Paris in 
the 1 8th century. In an alto of a large 
pattern, with thick yellow varnish, 
carefully made, was the label : "Joseph 
R. Bertet, au Roy David, rue Neuve 
St. Roch a Paris, 1754-" 

Berti, Antonio. Cortona, 1721. A 
maker of dulcimers. 



Bertolotti, De. See Gasparo da Salo. 

Bertrand, Nicolas. A maker in Paris 
about 1686 to 1735. He made some 
violins of no great value, but is better 
known for various viols : a bass-viol 
dated 1687; another with the label 
" Nicolas Bertrand, Paris, 1720," 
well made, with a thick red varnish ; a 
treble-viol dated 1701 in the Brussels 
Museum ; a small five-stringed viol, 
dated 1714 in the Paris Museum ; and 
a bass dated 1720. His name is often 
branded on his instruments. 

Besler, Norbert. See " Bedler." 

Betts, John Edward, known as "Old 
John Betts," b. 1755, at Stamford, 
Lincolnshire; d. March, 1823, was 
buried at Cripplegate Church. Pupil 
of Richard Duke, senior, in London. 
He made few instruments; the sound- 
holes are rather wide, the purfiing 
broad, and the scrolls well cut; but 
he had great knowledge of Italian 
instruments. Clever workmen, such 
as the Panormos, Bernhard Fendt, his 
nephew Edward, and John Carter 
were employed by him, principally to 
copy old English and Italian instru- 
ments. Label: "Jo. Betts, No. 2, 
near Northgate, the Royal Exchange, 
London, 1782." He advertised that 
he "makes in the neatest manner, 
violins the patterns of Ant. Stradi- 
varius, Hieronymus Amatus, Jacobus 
Stainer, and Tyrols. Equal for the 
fine, full, mellow tone to those made 
in Cremona." 

Betts (Ned), Edward, nephew of John 
Betts, like him a pupil of Richard 
Duke. He died before his uncle, 
probably between 1815 and 1820. He 
was a good maker, his instruments 
had a powerful tone, and all the work 
most cprefuUy finished. He made 
very good copies of older makers, 
more especially of N. Amati. Other 
members of this family were not violin 
makers thf^m selves though they con- 
tinued the business as dealers. 

Bianchi, Nicola, b. about 1800 at Genoa; 
worked till about 1875. Pupil of 
Ceruti at Cremona, Guadagnini and 
Pressenda at Turin. Clever repairer 
of old instruments. Lived about five 
years at rue Croix-des-Petits-Champs 
in Paris, but having quarrelled with 
the violin makers there, he returned 
to Genoa, and finally settled in Nice, 
where he died. His instruments show 
excellent work, and bear comparison 
with those of good modern makers. 

Bindernagel (Binternagel), of Gotha. 
Was first a carpenter, then became an 

apprentice to Ernst, when Otto left 
Ernst in order to settle at Weimar. 
He followed the Stradivari pattern, 
but his instruments are not well 
made. He also made harps and 
guitars. He died in 1845. 

Bittner, David. A maker in Vienna, 
d. 1887. He did a large trade in 
America. Exhibited a violin and 
violoncello in London 1862. 

Blair, John. Worked in Edinburgh in 
1820 with Matthew Hardie. 

Blaise. A maker in Mirecourt in 1820. 
Instruments not particularly well 

Blanchard, Paul Francois, grandson 
of Francois Blanchard, a maker of 
guitars ; b. Feb. 10, 1851, Mirecourt 
(Vosges) ; apprenticed there (1865) to 
Auguste Darte (pupil of J. B. 
Vuillaume and successor to Nicolas 
Vuillaume) 1868, worked a few months 
at Marseilles with Daniel, and in 
October, 1 869, settled at Lyons, working 
under Silvestre neveu, until he started 
his own bueiness, 45, rue Ferrandieri, in 
1876, which he moved, 1890, to 77, rue 
de la Republique. Two workmen are 
employed, one for repairs, the other 
for new instruments Blanchard him- 
self repairs old instruments and makes 
all the new violins, which have his 
label: "Fait par Paul Blanchard a 
Lyon en 18 — , No. — ," priced at ;^I2 
each. Up till now he has made 379 
instruments (all numbered), he makes 
from 25 to 30 a year ; about the same 
number made by his workmen are sold 
at half the price of his own and are 
labelled : " Fait dans I'atelier de P. 
Blanchard, Lyon, 18 — ." Instruments 
made by his pupils are sold at £^ or 
£^ each, and have a label representing 
the Lyons city arms inscribed, " Lug- 
dunum, anno 18 — ." Blanchard gener- 
ally follows the Stradivari and G. 
Guarneri patterns, but does not 
attempt to artificially age his violins ; 
the tone shows great equality on all the 
strings, is powerful and clear, the oil 
varnish, very transparent, is a golden 
red colour for his own instruments, a 
lighter colour for those made in his 
shop. He first exhibited at Paris, 1889, 
and gained a silver medal ; was awarded 
the " Grand Prix " at the Lyons 
Exhibition in 1894; ^^'"•^ appointed 
" Luthier du conservatoire national, de 
I'orchestre et des theatres municipaux." 
Bocquay. See " Boquay." 
Bodio, Giambattista A maker in Venice 
about 1792 to 1832. The few instru- 
ments known show nicely finished 



work and have a fine oil varnish. 
Pietro Valentino Novello was a pupil 
of hjs. 

Boivin, Claude. A maker in Paris 
about 1735-53. A violin with rose- 
coloured varnish was well made and 
had the label: "Claude Boivin, rue 
Tiquetonne, ' a la guitare royale,' a 
Paris, 1746." Two similar labels 
were dated 1744 and 1748. A bass- 
viol is dated 1735, and a guitar in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection, made 
for the daughter of Louis XV., is 
dated 1749. 

Belles. One of the earliest makers of 
lutes and viols in London in the 
beginning of the 17th century. Mace 
(" Musick's Monument," publ. 1676), 
speaking of a good "chest of viols, ' 
says : ' ' Yet the highest in esteem are 
Bolles . . . (one Bass of Bolles's I 
have known valued at ;£"ioo) . . . 
these were old &c." 

Bomberghi, Lorenzo A maker in 
Florence towards the end of the 17th 

Borne, Thomas. In a violin of ordinary 
workmanship in the Paris Conserva- 
toire Collection is the following label . 
"Thomas Bome, Versailles, 1790.' 

Bongars, Simon. Only known by a 
bass-viol with six strings, dated 1655. 

Bonoris, Cesare. A maker of excellent 
viols in Mantua; 1658. 

Booth, William, b. 1779 ; believed to 
have died 1857 or 1858. At first a 
hairdresser, but 1809 commenced to 
make and repair violins. Label : 
" Wm. Booth, maker, Leeds, 1828." 

Booth, William, son of W. Booth, 
senior, b. 1816, Leeds; d. June i, 1856; 
buried at Burmantofts Cemetery. 
Employed by Henri Gugel, 1834-38. 
Returned to Leeds (1838) and began 
business as an instrument maker. He 
was a clever workman. 

Boquay (Bocquay), Jacques, b. at 
Lyons. Worked in Paris about 1705- 
35, was living rue de la Juiverie, 17 18, 
but went to rue d'Argenteuil, 1719. 
Made too many instruments to finish 
them with care. His violins are good, 
though inferior to those of Pierray, his 
contemporary. He followed the Amati 
pattern his instruments are small, 
slightly arched, the tone generally 
poor owing to the thicknesses being 
badly calculated ; the varnish, very 
transparent, is red-brown, sometimes 
yellow colour. His violoncellos are 
handsome instruments and have a fine 
tone. Label: "Jacques Boquay, me 
d'Argenteuil a Paris, 1723." An alto 

was dated 1709, a violin dated 17 18 in 
the Paris Conservatoire collection was 
one on which Baillot used to play when 
teaching. A violoncello dated 17 19 
and a violin dated 1730 are also known . 

Borbon (Bourbon), Caspar Worked 
in Brussels. A viola of his is dated 
1692. He made violins, altos, and 
double-basses, after the pattern of 
Gasparo da Salo, with perpendicular 
sound-holes, widely opened. An alto, 
curiously made, with yellow varnish, 
was exhibited at Paris, 1878. 

Borelli, Andreas. Worked in Parma 
about 1730-47. His instruments are 
liked in Italy, the pattern is similar to 
that of Lorenzo Guadagnini, but the 
varnish is not so beautiful. Label: 
"Andreas Borelli, fecit Parmae, anno 

Borlon iPorlon), Artus or Arnould. 
A maker of stringed instruments, 
principally cithers, in Antwerp about 


Borlon, Francois. A maker in Antwerp 
about 1680-1710. A bass-viol of his in 
the Church of St. James, Antwerp, is 
said to have a beautiful tone. 

Borlon, Jean. Worked about 1680-1710 
in Antwerp. 

Bortolotti, Luigi. A maker in Milan 
about 1810-15. His instruments are 
carefully made, with yellow varnish. 
"Luigi Bortolotti, 1815," was found 
stamped on a cither. 

Bosi. Sec " Basi." 

Bossu. S^^"Boussu." 

Boucher. Worked in London in 1764. 

BouUangier, Charles, b. 1823, Mire- 
court; d. Oct., 1888. Learnt his 
trade in Mirecourt till 1843. Then 
worked in Paris under Vuillaume till 
1846, and 1846-49 under Gand and 
Bernardel. Went to London, March, 
1849, and made violins for Edward 
Withers till 1856, when he started his 
own business. He made a great many 
violins, violas, and violoncellos, gene- 
rally copied from Stradivari or 
Guarneri patterns, and used a dark 
red varnish. He exhibited in 1862, 
1872, and 1888, and was awarded two 
diplomas and a silver medal. 

Boumeester (Baumeester), Jan A 
maker in Amsterdam about 1637-68. 
A violoncello of large pattern, with 
carved scroll and varnished yellow, 
was labelled " Jan Boumeester, me 
fecit in Amsterdam, anno 1637." ^^ 
a five-stringed bass-viol with carved 
head and yellow varnish was the label : 
"Jean Baumeester, Amsterdam, 1667." 

Bourbon. See " Borbon, Gaspar." 



Bourdet, Jacques. A maker in Paris 
1751-52. His instruments are fairly 
well made. 

Bourdet (Bourdot), Jean Sebastien, b. 
1530, Mirecourt. Was settled in Paris 
in 1555. Was one of the first of the 
celebrated Lorraine school of makers, 
possibly a pupil of Ty wersus. 

Bourgard, Jean. Worked in Nancy 
about 1780-87. In a violin, well made, 
with red varnish, was the label: " F* 
par moi, Bourgard, facteur d'instru- 
ments, rue de la Poissonnerie a Nancy, 

Bourlier, Laurent, b. 1737, Mirecourt ; 
d. 1780. Nothing known of this maker. 

Boussu. Worked in Eterbeck-les- 
Bruxelles about 1750-80. Followed 
the Amati pattern, used yellow varnish ; 
on the whole, made good instruments. 

Braglia, Antonio. In Modena in the 
i8th century. 

Brandiglioni. In Brescir. in the i8th 
century. He copied the Maggini model. 

Brandl, Karl. A maker in Budapest, 
he sent two good violins, made after 
the models of Stradivari and Guarneri, 
to the London Exhibition in 1862. 

Branzo, Barbaro Francesco. A maker 
in Padua, 1660. 

Bremeister, Tan. In Amsterdam, 1707. 

Brensi, Giroiamo. A maker of viols in 
Bologna, probably at the beginning of 
the i6th century. A " viola da braccio " 
in the collection of the Liceo filar- 
monico at Bologna has five strings 
and is labelled : " Hieronymus Bren- 
sius Bonon." 

Bresa, Francesco. A maker of inferior 
instruments in Milan in the i8th 
century. A label is known, but it has 
the name of the town partly effaced : 
" Francesco Bresa, fece alia scala in 
Mil . . 1708." 

Breton. J, F. Worked in Paris, 1740-80. 
His instruments are rather heavy in 
character, but are fairly well made, 
varnish a dark brown colour, " Breton 
a Paris" is branded on their backs. 
Label: "J. F. (V.?) Breton, citharae 
fabricator, facit, vendit et reconcinat 
instrumenta musica omnis generis — 
Parisiis, anno 1740." The same label, 
dated 1780, was found in a violin. 

Breton, Le, b. 1780, at Mirecourt, where 
he worked from 18 12 to 1830, the year 
of his death ; was there a contemporary 
of the eldest Nicolas. His violins are 
carefully made, of a good pattern, 
slightly arched, the purging neat, the 
varnish yellow, slightly tinged with 
red, his monogram branded on the 
necic. They are not rare, but though 

of no great value, are often imitated. 
Label : " Luthier de S. A. R. Mme. la 
Duchesse d'Angouleme.' 

Broschi, Carlo. Worked in Parma, 
1730-44. Label : •' Carlo Broschi in 
Parma, fecit 1732." 

Brown, Anthony. Is said to have learnt 
his trade under Joseph Panormo, or 
under John Morrison. He became 
celebrated for his guitars. In 1855 ^® 
was living in Rosamond Street, Clerk- 
enwell, but afterwards went to the 
" diggings. " He was not related to the 
other violin makers of the same name. 

Brown, James, b. 1755 or 1759; d Sept., 
1830 or 1834. Was a silk weaver in 
Shoreditch, London ; but, 1804, learnt 
violm making under Thomas Kennedy, 
and established himself in Wheeler 
Street, Spitalfields, as repairer and 
maker of instruments. 

Brown, James, jun., son of James 
Brown, b. Nov., 1786 ; d., i860, at 
White Lion Street, Norton Folgate. 
Apprenticed to his father, but was 
principally employed to make bows for 
the various instruments. After his 
father's death, he made violins, violon- 
cellos, and double-basses. Both father 
and son were good average workmen. 

Brown, son and pupil of James Brown, 
jun. When about twenty years old, 
ceased to make instruments 

Browne, John, a maker at the sign of 
the " Black Lion," Cornhill, London, 
in 1743. Made good copies of Nicola 
Amati, cut his scrolls well, but his 
varnish was hard. 

Brubach, Antoine, b. Jan. 22, 1847, Mire- 
court ; d. 1894. In 1884 appointed head 
of the business that " A. Klein et Cie." 
had just started in Rouen. Made a 
number of violins, altos, and violon- 
cellos carefully and well. Obtained, as 
" collaborateur," the silver medal at 
the Rouen Exhibition, 1884. 

Brugere, Charles Georges, b. Nov 10, 
1865, at Mirecourt; son of Charles 
Joseph Brugere, a maker of guitars. 
Apprenticed, 1878, at Mirecourt, to 
Etienne Drouin. 1882, went to Lyons 
to work for two and a half years under 
Paul Blanchard ; then after nine months 
with Paul J3ailly at Paris, entered the 
workshop of Gand & Bernardel, where 
he remained from Dec , 1885, till 1892. 
He succeeded Eugene Henry, Sept. 22, 
1892, at 151, rue St. Martin, Paris. 
As he and three workmen are almost 
exclusively employed in repairing old in- 
struments, he only makes about twelve 
new instruments a year ; these, whether 
violins, violas, or violoncellos, are 



consecutively numbered as made, and 
only when his own personal work are 
labelled with his name. He follows 
the Stradivari pattern, and uses good 
oil varnish, varying in colour from 
yellow to golden-red. He exhibited at 
Lyons, 1894, ^ double quintet of instru- 
ments ; the violins and violoncellos 
were reported of powerful and sweet 
tone, and the double-bass as equally 
excellent on all four strings ; he was 
awarded the first silver medal. 

Brugere, Charles Malakoff, b. 1856-7 ; 
d. 1894, Mirecourt; eldest son of Fran- 
cois Brugere. Worked a long time 
under Hel at Lille, then settled in 
Marseilles, where he made about a 
hundred good instruments. 

Brugere, Francois, brother of Charles 
Joseph Brugere, b. 1822, Mirecourt ; 
d. there 1874. Worked under Pierre 
Silvestre at Lyons, and under Daniel 
at Marseilles. Made a great many 
violins, violoncellos, and double-basses 
for J. Derazey at Mirecourt. Had 
three sons, all makers. 

Brugere, Joseph Napoleon, second son 
of Francois Brugere. Is settled at 
Mirecourt, where he makes a specialty 
of double-basses, and is well known as 
an excellent workman. 

Brugfere, Michel, third son of Francois 
Brugere. Since 1893 has been the 
chief collaborateur of Charles Georges 
Brugere. Besides making new instru- 
ments, he excels in repairing old ones. 

Bucchenberg. See " Bueckenberg." 

Buchstadter (Buchstetter), Gabriel 
David. A maker in Ratisbon in 1752. 
He followed the Cremona patterns, 
but his instruments are not much 
arched, the varnish is dark yellow or 
brown colour, the wood not always 
well selected, which renders the tone 
harsh; all the details are carefully 
finished. Owing to their powerful 
tone, his violins are much used for 
orchestra playing. One exhibited in 
Paris, 1878, with very dark yellow 
varnish, was dated 1752. Label : 
" Gabriel David Buchstetter, Lauten 
und Geigenmacher, Pede ponti prope 
Ratisbonam, 17 — ." 

Budiani, Francesco. A maker of lutes 

and cithers at Brescia about 1490- 

Budiani, Giavetta (more correctly, 
Giovita Rodiani). A maker of lutes 
and viols in Brescia about 1580- 1620. 
His instruments are similar to those of 
his contemporary, G. P. Maggini, but 
do not show the same skilful work. 
No violins are known ; but some 
large bass-viols, one converted into a 
double-bass with four strings, had a 
pleasing tone. 

Bueckenberg (Bucchenberg or Bueeten- 
berg), Matteo. German by birth, but 
lived in Rome about 1597-1620. Was 
one of the most celebrated Italian lute 
makers. A chitarone is dated Rome, 
1614 ; in an arch-lute is the label : 
"Matheus Bucchenberg, Roma, 1619." 

Buonfigliuoli, Pier Francesco. A maker 
in Florence in the 17th century. 

Burghardt is the Swiss form of the 
name "Bourgard," q.v. 

Burgle, Johann. A maker in Griezbach, 
1828. Label: "Johan lion Burgle, 
geigenmacher in Griezbach, 1828." 

Busas, Domenico. A maker in Vicenza, 

Busseto (Buseto), Giammaria del. A 
maker of viols in Cremona, about 
1540-80, was said to have taught 
Andrea Amati. His instruments are 
on a long pattern, decidedly arched, 
with large sound-holes and brown 
varnish ; one with deep yellow varnish 
was dated 1570. Label : " Gio. Maria 
del Bussetto, fece in Cremona, 1545" 

Bussolero, Luigi. A maker of cithers 
and mandolines in Rivanazzaro in 

Bussot. A maker in Paris, 1788. 

Buthod. A maker of cheap instruments 
in Mirecourt. Worked under Vuil- 
laume for some time. In 1839 was 
awarded a bronze medal. His violins 
are strongly made and are much 
used in orchestras and Conservatoires. 
About 800 violins, 40 altos, and 50 
basses were turned out of his workshop 
each year. Later, went into partner- 
ship with Husson, and the business 
gradually developed into a trade in 
instruments of all kinds becoming 
" Husson, Buthod et Thibouville." 




Cabresy. Is only known by a bass dated 


Cabroli, Lorenzo. Worked in Milan 
about 1716. His violins are not very 
good, he used yellow varnish. 

Cabroly. Was working in Toulouse about 
1740-47. His instruments are fairly 
good, he used pale red varnish. Label : 
" Fait par Cabroly a Toulouse, 1747" 

Caeste, Gaetano A maker in Cremona 
in 1677. 

Caesto (Caesta), Pietro Antonio della. 
Worked in Treviso, 1660-80, and 
cleverly imitated the Stradivari model. 

Cahusac. Worked in association with 
the sons of Banks in London about 1788. 

Calcani (Calcagni), Bernardo. A maker 
in Genoa, 1710-50. His instruments 
are carefully made, on the model of 
Stradivari, with beautiful golden or 
orange-red varnish, a few with yellow 
varnish, with small scroll and well cut 
sound-holes. Label : " Bernardius 
Calcanius, fecit Genuae, 1710" ; another 
similar label is dated 1750. 

Calonardi, Marco. A maker in Cremona 
in the 17th century. 

Calot (Callot],b 1810, Mirecourt. First 
worked unaer Clement in Paris, but in 
1830 went into partnership with 
Augiere. His instruments were beauti- 
fully made and had a fine tone. 

Calvarolla, Bartolommeo, of Torre Bal- 
done ( Bergamo) . Worked about 1753-67 
in both Bologna and Bergamo. His 
instruments are fairly well made, with 
yellow varnish, somewhat like those 
of Ruggeri in form, but the scroll is 
weak and badly proportioned. Label : 
' ' Bartolommeo Calvarolla, fecit Ber- 
game, 176 — ." 

Calzavara, Santo, of Padua, about 1764. 
The label : " Santo Calzavara, fece in 
Padova, I'anno 1764," was found in a 
small mandoline. 

Camilli, Camillus (Camilus di Camila). 
Worked in Mantua about 1739-50. He 
followed the Stradivari pattern, and 
used carefully selected wood ; his violins 
have a beautiful tone, and are varnished 
pale red, somewhat similar to Landolfi's 
instruments ; the sound-holes are wide 
and short. Label: " Camillus Camilli, 
fecit Mantuae, 1739" : a similar label is 
dated 1750. 

Camillio, Davido. A maker in Cremona 

in 1755 

Campion. A guitar of his, made of 
mahogany wood, with six strings, with 
ebony and mother-of-pearl ornamenta 
tion, was exhibited in 1823. 

Camploy, J. A maker in Verona. 
Exhibited two violins at Munich in 
1854, on which he had used a varnish 
of his own invention. 

Capo. In Milan in 1717, according to a 

Cappa, Giofredo (Gofifredo). Probably 
born at Cremona. Was working there 
under the Amatis about 1590, and later, 
about 1640, in Saluzzio (Piedmont). 
Made both large and small violins, 
more valuable as specimens of old 
Italian work than for their tone ; the 
large instruments are preferable. His 
violoncellos show some of his best work, 
but are too much arched, and the 
sound holes are badly cut ; the wood 
varies, that used in Cremona was of 
foreign growth, but in Piedmont he 
used locally grown wood, of coarse 
fibre ; the varnish is generally golden 
or yellow colour, but varies a good deal ; 
the purfling is carelessly done. The 
pattern was often too large and had 
later to be cut down. Labels: "Jo- 
fredus Cappa in Saluzzio, fecit anno 
1640" ; " JofFridus Cappa, fecit salutiis, 
anno 16 — ." 

Cappa, Giachimo (Gioacchino) and 
Guiseppe. Possibly sons of Giofredo. 
Were both makers, working in Saluzzio 
and in Turin about 1 661 -171 2. There 
are instruments dated 1712, but of no 
particular merit. 

Carcanius. A very old label printed on 
parchment is dated Cremona, 1500. 

Carcassi, Lorenzo Francesco and 
Tommaso. Worked in Florence about 
1735-58. Though not in the first rank of 
makers, their workmanship was good : 
they used yellow-brown varnish. 
Label : ' ' Lor^ e Tomo Carcassi in 
Firenze, nell' anno 1752, all* insegno 
del Giglio." 

Carlo, Guiseppe. A maker in Milan in 

Carlomordi, Carlo. A maker in Verona 
in 1654. 

Caron. Worked in Versailles, 1775-85. 
Was maker to the Queen. His instru- 
ments are not in any way remarkable, 
an alto, well made, with brown-black 
varnish, was labelled : " Caron, luthier 



de la Heine, rue Royale. a Versailles, 
1777"; asimilar label is dated 1775. A 

. ten-stringed theorbo in the Paris Con- 
servatoire Collection is dated " a 
Versailles, rue Satory, 1785." 

Carre, Antoine. A clever maker in Arras 
about 1790, but is best known for his 

Carter, John. Worked in London about 
1780-90 for John Betts, and made some 
excellent instruments, many of which 
were sold with the label of Betts. 
His own label was: "J. Carter, Violin, 
Tennor, and Bass Maker, Wych Street, 
Drury Lane, London, 1787." 

Casini (Cassini), Antonio. A maker in 
Modena about 1660 to 1700. His 
violoncellos were made on a large 
pattern, the varnish a clear chestnut 
or brown colour, the workmanship fair. 
Labels : " Antonio Casini Modenae, 
anno 1660" ; the same in a violoncello 
dated 1665; "Antonio Casini, fecit 
Muttinae, anno 1683 " (in a violoncello) ; 
" Antonius Cassinus, fecit Mutinae, 
anno 17 — ." 

Caspan, Giampietro. Worked in Venice 
about 1650. He followed the Amati 
pattern. His violins are small, with 
yellow varnish. 

Cassanelli, Giovanni. A maker in Ciano 
in 1777. 

Cassineau. According to an old French 
musical journal of 1770, "Cassineau, 
of Paris, rue des Prouvaires, near 
St. Eustache, makes, sells, buys and 
hires all sorts of instruments, violins, 
bass viols, pardessus, guitars, clavecins, 
mandolines, double-basses, &c." 

Castagnery (Castagneri), Andrea. An 
Italian who worked in Paris, 1732-57, 
at the Hotel de Soissons (which was 
destroyed 1748-9). He made good in- 
struments ; the varnish varies greatly 
in colour, from yellow-brown to a pale 
red. A violin dated 1 735 was not arched, 
but the varnish is of good quality. An 
alto dated 1741, with yellow varnish, 
has a fine tone. Labels: "Andreas 
Castagnery, Hotel Soisson, Paris, 
1738"; "Andrea Castagneri nel 
palazzo di Soessone, Parigi, 1740"; 
a similar label dated 1744; " Castagnery , 
rue des Prouvaires, Parigi, 1747" (in 
a badly restored violin). Other dates 
are— in violins, 1732, 1735, 1739, 1757 ; 
in a bass, 1751. 

Castagnery (Castagneri), Gian Paolo. 
A maker from Cremona, who worked in 
Paris about 1630-62. He was one of 
the best Parisian makers of his time, 
his violins had a sweet though not 
powerful tone. Label: "Castagneri 

Gian Paolo, nel palazzo di Soissons in 
Parigi." Instruments dated 1639 and 
1662 are known. 

Castellani, Luigi, son of Pietro Cas- 
tellani, b. 1809 ; d. 1884. Worked in 
Florence in the Via Calimaruzza. He 
was a clever restorer of old violins, but 
did not make new ones ; he made 
excellent strings, however, and guitars 
of fine tone. He studied music in his 
youth and became a good player on 
the double-bass. Obtained a silver 
medal of first class in 1877. 

Castellani, Pietro, b. Florence, second 
half of the i8th century ; d. 1820 He 
principally made guitars, which are 
much liked ; but also made some violins. 

Castello, Paolo. A maker in Genoa 
about 1750-80. His mstrun:cnts are 
fairly well made, he used yellow var- 
nish. A violin, which has since been 
carefully enlarged, was on a snail 
model, very much arched, and it was 
labelled: " Paulus Castello, Genuae, 
anno 1774." Small printed label: 
"Paulus Castello, fecit Genuas, anno 

Castro. Worked in Venice, 1680-1720 
His instruments are not liked ; though 
the wood is carefully selected, the 
pattern is bad, the sound-holes roughly 
worked, and the red varnish of poor 

Catenar (Catenari), Enrico. Was work- 
ing in Turin about 1670. His instru- 
ments, which are well made, rather 
recall those of Cappa, of whom he is 
said to have been the pupil. Printed 
label: " Henricus Catenar, fecit Taurini, 
anno 1671." See " Gattinari." 

Cati, Pier Antonio. A maker in Florence, 
1741. His "kits" or pocket violins 
are well made. 

Cattenaro. A maker of viols and of 
violas da gamba in Pavia, 1639. 

Cavalorio. Was working in Geneva, 


Cellini. Giovanni, the father of Ben- 
venuto Cellini, b. in Florence; d. there 
of the pest, 1527 or 152S. Was first 
an architect but then became a lute 
and viol maker. His viols, made 
about 1500-5, had a great reputation. 

Celoniati (Celionati), Giam Francesco. 
Was working in Turin in 1732. He 
made good violins on the Amati 
model, with a beautiful yellow varnish. 
Label: "Joannes Franciscus Celo- 
niatus, fecit Taurini, anno 1732." 

Cerin, Marco Antonio. A maker in 
Venice, 1780-93. Was a pupil of 
Anselmo Bellosio. Instruments are 
fairly well made ; he used pale yellow 



varnish. Label: "Marcus Antonius 
Cerin, alumnus Anselmii Belosii, fecit 
Venetiae, an. 1793" 

Ceruti, Enrico, son of Giuseppe Ceruti, 
b. 1808; d. Oct. 20, 1883. Worked in 
Cremona at 14, Via Borgo Spera. 
Said to have made about 365 instru- 
ments, amongst others several violon- 
cellos ; the work is good, and Italian 
orchestral players especially value his 
instruments highly. Was awarded 
silver medals at London, 185 1 and 
1870, for his violins, and a gold medal, 
1863, at Cremona. The last violins 
that he made were exhibited in Milan 
in 1881. 

Ceruti, Giovanni Battista, b. about 1755, 
Cremona; d 1817. P\ipil of Lorenzo 
Storioni, to whose business in the 
Via de' Coltellai, near Piazza San 
Domenico, he succeeded in 1790. 
Following the principles of his master 
he made very good instruments ; alto- 
gether, violins and violoncellos, they 
number about 500. He copied the 
model of Nicola Amati, using yellow 
varnish, sometimes with a reddish 
tinge; his work was carefully finished. 
Label: "Jo. Battista Ceruti, Cre- 
monensis, fecit Cremonae, an. 18 — ." 

Ceruti, Giuseppe, son and successor of 
Giovanni Battista, b. about 1787 ; d. 
i860, Mantua. He exhibited violins 
of good quality at Paris and elsewhere, 
but he has not the same reputation as 
his father ; he more especially occu- 
pied himself with repairing old violins. 

Challoner, Thomas. Worked in London 
in the i8th century. His instruments 
are similar to those of Wamsley. 

Champion, Jean Baptiste. A maker in 
Paris in 1783. 

Champion, Rene. A maker in Paris, 
in the rue des Bourdonnais, in 1731 ; 
in the rue des Odriettes, in 1756. His 
workmanship was extremely pretty, 
and carefully finished ; he used fairly 
good yellow varnish, similar to that 
of Boquay, of whom he is said to have 
been a pupil. Labels : " Rene Cham- 
pion, rue des Bourdonnois a Paris, 
1735" ; and " Rene Champion de St.- 
Julien, rue des Vieilles-Odriettes au 
coin de I'echelle du temple a Paris, 

Chanot, Fran90is, son of a musical 
instrument maker in Mirecourt, b. 
1787. Mirecourt; d. 1828, Rochefort. 
After being in the Ecole poly technique, 
he entered the French navy as engineer ; 
being retired on half-pay. owing to 
some satirically- written political verses, 
he went back to Mirecourt, and in the 

workshops of his father came to the 
conclusion that violins might be con- 
structed on more scientific principles. 
He made one, only slightly arched, 
with the sound-holes nearly straight, 
and the sides less curved in, more like 
the sides of a guitar, the idea being to 
keep the wood-fibres as long as possible, 
as being better for vibration. A violin 
of this pattern was submitted to the 
Academie des Beaux-Arts and the 
Academic des Sciences in 181 7 ; after 
three trials it was favourably judged, 
the tone being of superior quality. He 
was awarded a silver medal in 1819. 
Unfortunately , violins on this model are 
now of poor quality ; the tone, though 
excellent when they are first made, 
does not last. In 1824, he was recalled 
to active service and was shortly after- 
wards promoted to the higher grade of 
an engineer of the first class. The 
letters C.I.D. on his label are the 
initials of his title, " Capitaine, In- 
genieur, Deuxieme classe." A violin 
which he made in 1818 for Viotti and 
a violoncello are in the Paris Con- 
servatoire collection. 

Chanot, Georges, a brother of Fran9ois, 
b. March 26, 1801, Mirecourt ; d. 
Jan. 10, 1883, Courcelles, near Gif 
(Seine et Oise). He first worked in 
Mirecourt, but in 1819 went to Paris 
and for a year constructed violins on 
his brother's new model ; then (1820) 
worked under Clement, and {1821) was 
employed by Gand, whom he left in 
1823 in order to start business on his 
own account, living first rue Oblin 
pres de la Halle au ble, then Place des 
Victoires (1825-28), Passage Choiseul 
(1828-37), rue de Rivoli (1837-48), and 
finally quai Malaquais. He retired 
from business to Courcelles in 1872. 
He was twice married, the second 
time in 1859 ; his first wife also made 
violins, working with great assiduity 
and rendering her husband valuable 
aid. Chanot made a careful study of 
old Italian instruments, and was ex- 
cellent at repairing or modifying them. 
His new instruments are beautifully 
made and have a fine tone, they are 
chiefly copies of Stradivari and Guar- 
neri ; the former are the best, the wood 
being excellent. Was awarded: Men- 
tion honorable, 1827 ; silver medal, 
1839, 1844, 1849 (of the second class), 
1855. Labels: "Chanot jeune, rue 
Passage Choiseul, No. 15, a Paris, 
1825,'' and "Georges Chanot a Paris, 
I, Qua Malaquais, annee 1855." 

Chanot, Georges, son of Georges Chanot 



and his first wife. First worked with 
his father. 1851, went to London, 
where he worked under Maucotel (a 
brother of the maker in Paris), and, 
1858, he started his own business, 
making instruments of very good 
quaHty. He received a bronze medal 
at the Paris Exhibition, 1878 ; and a 
gold medal in London, 1885. 

Chanot, G. A., b. 1855. A maker of 
good violins at Manchester. 

Chanot, Madame. One of her violins 
was exhibited in Paris, 1827. See 
Georges Chanot, sen. 

Chappuy (Chapuy), Nicolas Augustin. 
Worked in Paris about 1732-76. His 
violins are fairly good, generally on a 
large pattern, the work well finished, 
the varnish bad, generally yellow 
colour (he used spirit varnish, like 
most French makers of that time) ; 
nearly all are branded on the button 
with his name and the initial N. 
Sometimes are labelled " Luthier de 
S.A.R. la Duchesse de Montpensier." 
A violin, which was used for 37 years 
by Fr. Habeneck in his classes, is in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection . Labels : 
" Chappuy a Paris," and " Augustinus 
Chappuy, fecit Parisiis, anno 1776," in 
a violin ; another violin was dated 
1732. A maker of the same name is 
mentioned in 1794. 

Chardon, Marie Joseph, son in-law and 
pupil of Georges Chanot, sen., b. 
May 22, 1843, Paris. He succeeded 
his father-in-law in 1872. In 1878 he 
exhibited two quartets of instruments, 
very well made, the wood chosen with 
great care. Was awarded a bronze 
medal. He is very skilful in restoring 
old instruments, owing to his great 
experience and knowledge. 

Chardon, Marie Joseph Antoine Georges, 
son of Marie Joseph Chardon, b. April 
22, 1870. Worked under the direction 
of his father. 

Charle. Maker in Paris in 1748 

Charles. Theress. Originally came from 
Mirecourt, but settled in London, in 
King Street, Soho, as a violin mjiker. 
On his card is printed ' ' from Maucotel . ' ' 

Charotte, b. in Mirecourt ; d. 1836. He 
settled in Rouen in 1830 and worked 
there till his death. His instruments 
are inferior 

Chastelain, Martin, who lived in War- 
wick, Flanders, about 1580, was born 
blind. He was a maker of, and a 
performer on viols, violins, spinets, &c. 

Chatelain, Francois. A maker in Paris 
about 1777-91, first at 9, rue de Braque, 
then in the rue de Berry. An instrument 

of his is dated 1783, with his name; 
two valuable violins are also known, 
in an excellent state of preservation. 
He sometimes made instruments in 
association with S. Renault, labels 
dated 1781 and 1791 having their 
names, " Renault et Chatelain." 

Chatelin, Adrien Benoist. Maker in 
Valenciennes, 1758, according to a 
label found in a viol. 

Cherbourg. A maker in Paris about 
1770. He was the inventor of an 
"improved" lyre, of which he made 
several, not without merit, although 
very original in design. Label : " Cher- 
bourg, dans le Temple a Paris, 
enventeuvre (inventeur) de la perfexion 
de cet instrument tans desire." 

Cheron, Nicolas. A maker in Paris, 
1658-91, in the rue Dauphine, and then 
in the rue de la Vieille-Boucherie. 

Cherpitel, Nicolas Emile, b. June 24, 
1 84 1, Mirecourt ; d. Feb., 1893. Worked 
first at Mirecourt, then under Grandjon, 
and, in 1859, entered the workshop of 
Gand Freres (Paris) , where he remained 
till 1870. He then established himself 
at 364, rue Saint-Denis, but in 1884 
moved to 13, rue du Faubourg Poisson- 
niere. At the Paris Exhibition, 1878, 
he received a "Mention honorable" 
for his instruments, which show clever 
work. Label : " Nicolas Emile Cher- 
pitel a Paris, 13, Faubourg Poisson- 
niere. N.E.C' 

Chevrier, Andre Augustin, b. in Mire- 
court. Worked first in Paris and then 
in Brussels. A well made violin with 
red-orange varnish was labelled : 
"Chevrier, luthier a Bruxelles, 1838." 

Chiarelli, Andrea, b. 1675, Messina ; d. 
1699. A maker of lutes and theorbos. 
He was also a celebrated lute player ; 
went to Rome and Naples for his 
musical education, then returned to 
Messina and tried to improve the 
construction of his favourite instru- 
ment. He made several theorbos and 
arch-lutes; one of the latter is dated 

Chiavellati, Domenico. Worked in 
Lonigo in 1796. 

Chibon, Jean Robert. A maker in Paris, 
in the rue de la Comtesse d'Artois, 
1775-79 ; and in rue de la Grande 
Truanderie, 1783-85. His instruments, 
which are not valuable, are seldom 
seen ; two altos and a bass are known, 
he used brown varnish. 

Chiocchi (Chiocci), Gaetano. Worked 
in Padua in the 19th century. Was 
clever both at repairing instruments 
and making them. 



Chretien, Hippolyte, b. April i, 1845, 
Sommerviller. In 1865 he succeeded 
to the business of his uncle, Hippolyte 
Silvestre, in Lyons ; 1884, moved to 
Paris. Under the name of "Silvestre 
neveu " he has maintained the ex- 
cellent reputation acquired by his 
uncle. His new instruments have a 
beautiful tone and are well made, the 
varnish is transparent ; he is also ex- 
tremely skilful in repairing old instru- 
ments Awards silver medal Lyons, 
1872; large medal of "progress," 
Vienna, 1873 ; silver medal, Paris, 
1878 ; gold medal, 1889 Label 
" Hippolyte Chretien, Silvestre neveu." 

Christa, Joseph Paul. Maker in Munich 
about 1730-40. Label : "Joseph Paulus 
Chnsta, Lauten und Geigenmacher in 
Miinchen, 1740." 

Christofori. See Cristofori. 

Christophle, Jean. Worked at Avignon, 
1655. An alto of that date, made on a 
large pattern, is in the Paris Conserva- 
toire Collection. 

Ciciliano. S^^ " Siciliano." 

Circapa, Tommaso. A maker in Naples 
about 1730-35. A mandoline, fairly 
well made, is known. 

Clark. A maker in London, living at 
Turnmill Street, Clerkenwell. Was 
a pupil of Matthew Furber. 

Claudot, Augustin. Worked in Paris 
beginning of 19th century His instru- 
ments are on a large pattern, with 
yellow varnish, the wood of good 
quality, and the work carefully finished. 
Instead of using a label, he generally 
branded his instruments with his name, 
"Augustin Claudot." 

Claudot, Charles, b. 1794, Mirecourt ; 
d. 1876. He made a number of instru- 
ments, of which few remain. The 
work is inferior, the varnish a yellow- 
brown colour ; his name is to be found 
stamped inside on the back. His son 
made some good instruments. 

Clement, J. L. A maker in Paris 
1783-1840, rue des Bonnes-Enfants. 
His violins are now much valued by 
amateurs, although it is said that he 
did little work himself, but employed 
clever workmen, such as Georges 
Chanot . Augiere, Calot , and Thomassin . 
His work is beautifully finished and 
artistic, he used red-brown varnish 
with good effect. He exhibited in 
1823 and 1827 and received a bronze 
Cocks (Cocko or Cocco), Christopher. 
Was working in Venice in 1654. 
There is an arch-lute in the Paris 
Conservatoire Collection with the 

label, "Christopher Cocks, all' insegna 
deir aquila d'oro, Venetia, 1654." 

Coelho, Joze Terreira. Worked in 
Lisbon, i8th century. In a guitar is the 
inscription : •* Joze Terreira Coelho, 
a fez em Lisboa, as Poco los Negros, 
a Cruz da Esperan9a." 

Coffe-Goguette A maker in Mire- 
court, who exhibited in 1834 ^.nd 1839 
and was awarded a bronze medal. 
Guitars of his in the Paris Con- 
servatoire Collection are tastefully 
ornamented and have a beautiful tone. 

Coincu. S^^"Comme." 

Cole, James. A maker in Manchester. 
He learnt his trade there, first with 
Tarr and then under George Crask. 
Until 1858 he used a label, but after 
that stamped "J. Cole" inside his 

Cole, Thomas. Working in London 
about 1672-90 Labels: "Thomas Cole, 
near Fetter Lane in Holborn, 1672," 
and " Made, 1690, by Thomas Cole of 
London, on Holborn Hill, who selleth 
all sorts of musical instruments" ; this 
last was in a very large tenor, which 
had a fine deep tone. 

Collichon, Michel. Worked in Paris 
about 1683-93, the former date being 
on the label of a viol with six strings, 
with transparent yellow varnish, and 
the latter date in a bass-viol exhibited 
in Paris, 1889. 

Collier, Samuel. A musical instrument 
maker in London, at " Corelli's Head " 
on London Bridge, about 1750-55. 

Collier, Thomas. Worked in London, 


Collin, Claude Nicolas. A maker in 
Mirecourt who died 1864. He learnt 
his trade under N. F. Vuillaume of 
Brussels. Amongst his pupils was 
his son (see " CoUin-Mezin ") and 
C. A. Miremont. 

Collin-Mezin, Charles Jean Baptiste.son 
of C. N. Collin, b. Nov. 12, 1841, Mire- 
court. First worked under his father 
there, but in 1868 settled in Paris, in the 
rue Faubourg Poissonniere. Though 
a very clever restorer of old instruments 
he devotes himself more to making new 
ones, taking those of Stradivari, Amati, 
and Guarneri as models ; his wood is 
of excellent quality and his work beauti- 
fully finished. Awards : gold and silver 
medals, Paris, 1878 (for the beautiful 
varnish and remarkable tone of his 
violins); gold medal, Paris, 1879; silver 
medal, 1889. Named " Officier de 
rAcademie"ini884. Labels: from 1868 
to 1876 — " Longueur : 9 cent, hauteur: 
2 cent. Ch. J. B. Collin-Mezin fils. 



luthier, Paris, Tan 1870" ; from 1876 on- 
ward — "Longueur : 9 cent, hauteur 3^, 
Ch. J. B. Collin-Mezin fils, luthier a 
Pans, rue du Faubg. Poissonniere 10." 

CoUingwood, Joseph. Worked in 
London about 1760, at the " Golden 
Spectacles ' on London Bridge. 

Comble. See " De Comble." 

Comme (or Coincu). A guitar known 
made by this maker at Blois. 

Contreras, Joseph, b. about 1710, 
Granada; d about 1780. Known as 
"Granadino" owing to his birthplace. 
He worked in Madrid from about 1745 
making such fine copies of Stradivari s 
instruments that they were often 
mistaken for the originals. A beautiful 
violin exhibited in Paris, 1878, was 
slightly arched, the sound-holes well 
cut, the varnish a yellow-red colour, 
very brilliant, the scroll rather heavy, 
the work beautifully finished. In it was 
the label : " Matriti per Granadensem 
Josephum Contreras, anno 1760." 

Contreras, son of Joseph Contreras. 
Label : "Matriti per filium Granadensis 
Joseph de Contreras, anno 1793, No. 

Conway, William. A maker in London 
about 1745-50- 

Cordano, Jacopo Filippo. Worked in 
Genoa about 1774. Label; "Jacobus 
Philippus Cordanus, fecit Genuae, anno 
sal. 1774." 

Coma. See " Delia Corna." 

Cornelli, Carlo. A maker in Cremona, 
1702. Label: " Carolus Cornelli, fecit 
Cremonae, anno 1702." 

Correa, Manoel, of Almeida, in the 
province of Beira, Portugal. Entitled 
" Maker to the Queen." In a guitar 
made about 1600 is the inscription 
" Manoel Correa de Almda Uileiro da 
Rainha, N.S. Morador na Ruadireita 
la Esperan(;a LXa." 

Corsby, George, believed to be a brother 
of Corsby of Northampton. A maker 
in London, in Princes Street, Leicester 
Square, who also dealt in old instru- 

Corsby. A maker in Northampton about 
1780, who chiefly made double-basses. 
See "Corsby, George." 

Costa, Agostino, of Brescia. A maker 
in Venice in the 17th century 

Costa, Marco dalla. A maker in Treviso 
about 1660-80. 

Costa, Pietro Antonio dalla. Worked 
in Treviso about 1740-65. He made 
some fairly good violins, following the 
patterns of Ant. and Gir. Amati ; he 
used yellow varnish of good quality. 
Labels: " Pietro Antonio dalla Costa, 

fece in TrevibO, anno 174 — '" ; " Petrus 
Antonius a Costa, fecit ad similitu- 
dinem illorum quod fecerunt Antonius 
and Hieronymus fratres Amati Cremon- 
enses, filii Andreae Tarvisii, anno 
1757"; "Petrus Antonius a Costa, 
fecit Tarvisii, anno 1760"; "Petrus 
Antonius a Costa, fecit Tarvisii, anno 

Cotton, Robert. The label, " Robert 
Cotton a Rouen," was found in a tenor 
viol or viola bastarda, which had six 
strings rather deep sides, the head 
carved, the varnish red colour. 

Cousineau, Georges (? Pierre Joseph), b. 
about 1753. in Paris ; d. 1824. In 1788 
was entitled " Luthier de la reme." 
He chiefly made harps and guitars, 
but an alto is known branded with his 
name, and a double-bass with three 
strings, which is in the Paris Conserva- 
toire Collection, was labelled " rue des 
Poulies, vis-a-vis la colonade dii 
Louvre, ' a la Victoire.' Cousineau 
luthier, fait et vend harpes. lyres, 
violons, violoncellos, contrebasses, par- 
dessus de viole, alto-viola, guitares, 
violes d'amour, mandolines, sistres et 
autres instruments de musique. IL 
vend aussi des cordes de Naples et 
tient magasin de musique fran9aise 
et italienne. Son epouse grave la 

Cramond, Charles. A maker in Aber- 
deen about 1821-34. 

Crask, George. Worked in various 
places, Salford, Manchester, &c. ; he 
made a number of instruments, gener- 
ally Italian in character. 

Cristofori (Christofori), Bartolommeo 
b. probably May 4, 1655, in Padua; d. 
Jan. 27, 1731. He settled in Florence 
in 1710. Was a maker of clavecins, 
but in the collection of musical instru- 
ments at Florence is a double-bass, 
quite possibly the only one he ever 
made, of which the workmanship 
leaves much to be desired ; it is 
inscribed " Bartolommeo Cristofori, 
Firenze, 1715." 

Cross, Nathaniel. A maker in London 
about 1700-51. About 1720 he entered 
into partnership with Barak Norman 
His instruments resemble those of 
Stainer, of whom it is supposed that 
he was a pupil. He made good violins, 
beautifully finished in all details, the 
fluting round the edge, where the 
purfle is inlaid, is very acute, and the 
scrolls are excellently cut. Violoncellos 
of his are known very similar to those 
made during his partnership with 
Norman , they are rather small in size. 



with soft light-yellow varnish ; the 
tone is clear and penetrating. He 
marked his instruments inside on the 
back with his initials N. C. and a 4~ 
above. Label: "Barak Norman and 
Nathaniel Cross, at the Bass-viol in St. 
Paul's church yard, London, fecit 

Crowther, John. A maker in London 
(Haughton Street, Clare Market) about 
1755- 18 10. He worked occasionally 
for John Kennedy. He died in 1810. 

Cuchet, Gaspard. Worked in Grenoble, 
1729. Label: "Fait par Gaspard 
Cuchet a Grenoble, mil sept cent 29." 

Cunault, Georges, b. 1856, Paris ; was 
apprenticed there, and worked with 
Miremont, 1874-82 ; obtaining, at the 
Paris Exhibition, 1878, a " Mention 
honorable" as collaborateur. 1882, 
started his own workshop, first at 
53, Faubourg Poissonniere, then at 
6, rue Clauzel. He is a clever maker 

and his instruments show experience 
and careful work. 

Cuny. A maker in Paris about 1740. 
A violin from which the label had dis- 
appeared was branded on the back 
"Cuny a Paris," it was of inferior 
work, with thick brown varnish. 

Cuppin, Giovanni. A name found in an 
instrument which must have been 
of an early period. It was a baryton 
with no edges or purfling, the sound- 
holes elegantly cut, the back of poplar 
wood, the varnish a yellow colour 

Cuthbert. Maker of viols and violins 
in London in the 17th century. Some 
instruments are well made, not much 
arched, with dark varnish, the wood of 
good quality. 

Cuypers (Koeuppers), Johannes. 
Worked at The Hague. Used yellow 
varnish. Label: " Johannes Cuypers, 
fecit s'haghe, 1779." 

Cyprianio. S^^ " Antonio." 


Daniel. A maker in Antwerp about 
1636-56. Two instruments of his are 
known, a double-bass which he made 
in 1636 to be used in Antwerp Cathe- 
dral for the Chapel of the Holy 
Sacrament, and a little violin, fairly 
well made, dated 1656. 

Daniel, Charles. Founded a business in 
Marseilles in 1762, was succeeded by 
his son Edmond, who was succeeded 
by his pupil Guerin. 

Darche, C. F. Worked in Brussels. 
Was a pupil of N. F. Vuillaume (a 
brother of the Parisian maker, who 
had settled in Brussels). He exhibited 
a very satisfactory quartet of new in- 
struments at Munich in 1854, but was 
especially successful in a work of res- 
toration that had taken him two years 
to accomplish. This was an Amati 
violoncello dated 1547, which had 
belonged to Charles IX. of France, and 
was handed over to Darche literally in 
fragments. In 1867 Darche's instru- 
ments were judged to be satisfactory in 
point of workmanship, but deficient in 
tone, and the varnish of poor quality. 
In 1854 he constructed a violin which 
was curved on each side of the button 
in such a way as to render it far less 
likely to slip from under the chin of 
the player. 

Darche, Nicholas. A maker in Aix-la- 
Chapelle, who has made a great many 
instruments. P. J. Hel was a pupil of 
his, 1864-65. 

Dardelli, Pietro (" II padre Dardelli"). 
Was a monk in the Franciscan monas- 
tery of Mantua, who lived towards the 
end of the 15th century. He was one 
of the best makers of his time of 
rebecs, lutes, and viols of all kinds, 
which he ornamented with especially 
beautiful inlaid work. A very fine lute, 
made for the Duchess of Mantua, the 
neck admirably worked in ivory and 
ebony, and painted with the ducal 
coat of arms, was dated " Pietro Dar- 
delli, 1497." 

Daum, Mathias, b. 1789 ; d. 1855. ^ 
maker in Vienna. Did good work. 

David. A contemporary of Pierray. 
Was working in Paris about 1730, and 
supplied the orchestra of Louis XVI. 
with instruments ; his workmanship, 
however, was poor. 

Davidson, Hay. A maker in Huntley 
in 1870. 

Davis, Richard. A maker in London. 
Began by working in the employ oi 
Norris and Barnes; but when N orris 
died, in 1818, he succeeded to the busi- 
ness. He knew little of violin making, 
and always remained more of a dealer 
in than a maker of instruments. He 
retired, leaving the business to William 
Davis, and died in Bussage, near 
Stroud, his native place, in April, 
1836, and was buried in Bisley Parish 

Davis, Wm. A maker in Coventry Street, 
London. A cousin of Richard Davis, 



whose business he continued till 
December, 1846, when he sold it to 
Edward Withers and retired to 
Bussage. He also was more of a 
dealer in and restorer of violins than 
a maker, and employed Charles 
Maucotel (a maker who came from 
Paris) to work for him. 

Day, John b. March 7, 1830; d. at his 
residence, 50, Gloucester Street, 
Belgrave Road, S.W., November 2, 
1905. An amateur mak< r in London. 
Was a good violin player. Devoted 
himself to reproducing the perfect tone, 
as well as form, of the Cremona violins, 
and is said to have succeeded ; a copy 
of a Guarnen del Jesu being especially 
mentioned as a magnificent violin. 

Dearlove, Mark. Worked in Leeds 
about 1812-20. 

Dearlove, Mark William, son of Mark 
Dearlove. At different times he em- 
ployed Thomas Absam, John Gough, 
and Charles Fryer to work for him. 
The latter he took into partnership. 
The label they used was: "Dearlove 
and Fryer, musical instrument manu- 
facturers. Boar Lane, Leeds, 1828.' 
Dearlove exhibited two violins and a 
viola in London in 1862. 

De Blosy, Nicola. Working in Naples 
at 13, rua Catalana, in 1793. In a 
guitar was the label: " Nicolaus De 
Blosy, fecit Neapoli, in rua Catalana, 
al No. 13, AD. 1793. ' 

Deckert, Johann Nicolaus. A maker in 
Grossbreitenbach in the i8th century. 

Decombe. A maker in Paris in the 
1 8th century (is not to be confused 
with De Comble). He also published 
music at his shop on the quai de 
I'Ecole, at the sign of " 1 Accord 
par fait." 

De Comble, Ambroise, b • at Tournai, 
Belgium, towards the end of the 17th 
century. He worked till about 1760. 
Said to have been in his youth a pupil 
of Antonio Stradivari at Cremona. 
His instruments are now scarce. They 
are extremely well made, of excellent 
wood, and have a rich full tone, equally 
good in all the strings, but lacking in 
brilliancy ; the varnish, generally red, 
is a little dry ; the purfling is always 
in extremely narrow fine threads His 
violins and altos generally follow the 
Stradivari pattern, well arched, edges 
and corners rather thick, the purfling 
very narrow, and the varnish, a beauti- 
ful red-brown colour, of good quality. 
His violoncellos are especially well 
made, generally on a small pattern, 
more arched than that of the violin, 

tne sound-holes and the corners are 
well cut, but the plates of wood used 
are too thin. One violoncello has 
yellow varnish on the front and red 
varnish on the back and sides , it is 
well made, although the details are 
somewhat neglected; it is labelled 
"Ambroise De Comble a Tournay, 


he also used the MS. label: 

" Fait a Tournay par Ambroise de 
Comble, 1750''; labels similar to the 
latter are dated 1753 and 176 — 

Deconet, Michele. Worked in Venice 
about 1742-79. Was a follower of the 
Cremona school. Two violins and a 
violoncello that are known are well 
made, with yellow varnish. Label : 
" Michele Deconet, fecit Venetiis, anno 
1754" ; a similar label is dated 1771. 

Defresne, Pierre. A maker who settled 
in Rouen in 1730 and was still working 
there in 1737. Label: "Fait par moi, 
Pierre Defresne, maistre luthier de 
Pans, demeurant rue Neuve-Saint-L6 
a Rouen, 1737." 

Dehaye (Deshayes). Was nephew and 
only pupil of Salomon. Lived about 
1775 to 1825 in Paris, first in the rue 
des Saints-Peres, then in the rue de 
Grenelle-Saint Honore. At the sign of 
the " Prelude espagnol " he sold 
" violins, violoncellos, basses, treble- 
viols, bass-viols, violas d'amore," &c., 
from which it will be seen that he was 
more of a dealer than a maker. 

Dehommais. Was an amateur who 
undertook experiments in varnishes. 
In 1870 he went into partnership with 
Emile Germain, which lasted until 
1 882 ; during this time about a hundred 
instruments were made under the name 
of the firm, " Dehommais et Germain." 
They were awarded a bronze medal, 
Paris, 1878. 

Delaborne He exhibited guitars in 
Paris in 1819 and again in 1823 

De Lannoy, N J A maker in Lille 
about 1740 75. His instruments were 
well made, with yellow varnish. Label : 
" N J. De Lanno)'' sur la petite place, 
au-dessus des Halles a Lille, 1747"; 
later it was, " Dessus les ponts de 
Comines, 1773 " Presumably his 
descendants continued the trade, as an 
L. Delannoy in 1828 is mentioned as 
restoring a violin made in 1774 by 
Fent, of Paris. 

Delanoe, Pierre Jean. A maker in Paris 
in 1754. 

Delanoix. A contemporary of Boussu. 
Was working in Brussels about 1760. 
Was a good maker. 

Delany (Delaney), John. A maker in 



Dublin in 1808, is best known by his 
labels, the one very small, the other 
very large. I. "Made by John De- 
lany, No. 17, Britain Street, Dubhn, 
1808." II. "Made by John Delany, 
in order to perpetuate his memory in 
future ages. Dublin, 1808. Liberty 
to all the world, black and white " 

Delau, Lucien. In 1836 (on the death 
of Charotte) he joined Jeandel in violin 
maki' -g and they continued the business 
at 36, rue Beauvoisine, Rouen, until 

Delauney (Delaunay). A viol maker in 
Paris in 1775. 

Deleplanque, Gerard J. A viol maker 
in Lille, I760-88. He was at first 
established at " Marche aux poulets," 
near the " Marche aux poissons," but 
about 1766 transferred his business to 
the rue de la Grande-Chaussee. He 
has left some excellent specimens of 
his work ; a five-stringed viol, dated 
1766, with yellow varnish tinged with 
red, was exhibited in 1878 ; a very 
beautiful guitar, dated 1768, is in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection ; also 
another magnificent one made of 
tortoiseshell, inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl and ivory, dated 1775. Two 
other guitars are dated 1770 and 1777. 
The label "Gerard J. Deleplanque, 
luthier, rue de la Grande-Chaussee 
coin de celle des Dominicains a Lille, 
1788," was found in a guitar; the 
same, dated 1772, in a guitar of eleven 
strings, which was peculiar in having 
the back of the lute or mandoline shape. 

Delia Coma, Giovan Paolo (Gian 
Giacomo). One of the earliest viol 
makers, who lived in Brescia about 
1484, and was mentioned by G. M. 
Lanfranco (1533) as being one of the 
best lute, lyre, and viol makers of his 

Demouchi, P. Was working in Lyons 
in 1618, according to a label found in a 
bass-viol of seven strings, with brown- 
black varnish, and the head carved : 
"P. Demouchi a Lyon, 1618." 

Dennis, Jesse, b. 1795 A London 
maker. Apprenticed to John Crowther 
about 1805, later was working under 
Matthew Furber. In Feb., 1855, was 
living in Eweherst Street, Walworth 

De Planche Pierre A six-stringed 
viol of this French maker is known. 

Derazey, J. A maker in Mirecourt 
On the death of J. Nicolas, jun., in 
1864, he succeeded to his business, 
with all the materials, &c., and so it 
happens that new instruments, not 

made by Nicolas, but bearing his 
stamp, are still to be met with. With- 
out being of great commercial value 
they are well made and carefully 
finished, but the varnish is rather 
harsh. Awards: "Mention" in 1839 
and 1844 ; a medal of the first class at 
the Paris Exhibition, 1855, and at the 
London Exhibition, 1862, for the 
cheapness and good quality of his 
instruments; in 1844 he was producing 
600 instruments a year, selling them 
from 5 to 1 50 francs 
Deroux, Sebastien Auguste, b June 29, 
1848 Mirecourt. Was pupil there 
of his father, also a maker. Worked 
at Lyons under Silvestre neveu fr m 
April, 1866, to August 1869. After 
serving his four years of military 
service, worked with Miremont at 
Paris, from Nov. 20, 1873, till July 15, 
1884, obtaining a " Mention honorable ' 
as collaborateur at the Pans Exhibi- 
tion, 1878. Then started his own 
workshop at 16, rue Geoffroy- Marie, 
Paris, where he has remained ever 
since. He has gained a great reputa- 
tion as one of the best restorers of old 
instruments in Paris. Up till now he 
has made 91 new instruments (violins, 
altos, violoncellos). He follows the 
Stradivari and Guarneri patterns, 
using rather dark red-brown varnish. 
He only employs one workman. Was 
awarded a silver medal at the Paris 
Exhibition, 1889. Label: "S A. 
Deroux, 16, rue Geoffroy- Marie, Paris, 
188—." Above the date, the letters 
"A. S. D." 
Deschamps, Claude. A maker in the 

rue de Seine, Paris, 1783-85. 
Deshayes - Salomon, Jean Baptiste. 

See ' Salomon." 
Desjardins. A maker in Caen in 1763, 
according to the label found in one of 
his instruments : "Fait par Desjardins, 
marchand luthier, grande rue St. -Jean 
a Caen, 1763." 
Despons, Antoine. A maker in Paris 
about 1610. He followed the Italian 
patterns closely, but failed to obtain 
a good tone. His instruments, now 
very rare, are much sought after, 
although one that is known is said to 
be badly made and badly varnished 
Desrousseau A maker in the i8th 
century at Verdun, at the sign of the 
"Luth" S<?^ " Nicolas." 
Devereux, John. He worked with 
B. Simon Fendt in London, but after- 
wards went to Melbourne. 
Dickenson(Dickinson), Ed ward. Worked 
at the " Harp and Crown," in the 



Strand, London, about 1750 90. His 
instruments, made on the Stainer 
model, are very inferior. Labels 
known are dated 1750, 1754, and 1790. 

Dickeson (Dickson), John. Born in 
Stirling, but worked both in London 
and Cambridge, about 1750-1780. 
There are instruments dating from both 
places He followed the Amati pattern 
and his work was excellent. 

Didelin, Joseph. A maker in Nancy 
about 1765-75, at the sign " de la 
Guitare des Dames de France." The 
few instruments known of his are 
inferior. An alto is dated 1775. 

Didier. See " Nicolas." 

Didion, Gabriel. A maker at Mire- 
court , d. 1881. 

DiefTopruchar (Tieffenbriicker), Magno. 
Worked in Venice about 1580-162 1. 
One of the last lute makers of the 
great family of which Gaspard Duiffo- 
prugcar was the head. Magno was of 
Bavarian descent, and his German 
name, Tieffenbriicker, became italian- 
ised into Dieffopruchar or Dieffopruk- 
har. His lutes were always much 
valued ; one of the earliest, made about 
1580 in Venice, with a back beautifully 
inlaid with ivory and various woods, 
has a label, much defaced, but in- 
teresting as still bearing his German 
name, " Magnus Tieflfenbruker." A 
theorbo was labelled : " Magno Tieffo- 
pruchar a Venetia, 1610." Anarch-lute 
has the label "Magno Tieffoprucar a 
Venetia, 1607," and was found in Castle 
Eisenberg, Bohemia, in the collection 
of Prince Lobkowitz. A guitar was 
labelled : ' ' Magno Dieffopruchar Vene- 
tia, 1606" A beautiful arch-lute has a 
large label: "Magno Dieffopruchar a 
Venetia, 1608." The same date is in 
a lute in the Bologna Collection. A 
similar label, dated 1610, with the label 
of the restorer, Jacob Rauch, below, 
was found in an arch-lute. A similar 
label, dated 1612, is in a lute in the 
Bologna Collection, and one dated 
1 620 in a lute in the Berlin ' * Hochschule 
fiir Musik" Collection; in the Berlin 
Collection is also a mandoline signed 
" Magnus Dieffenbruger, 162 1." A 
theorbo in the Museum Modena in 
Vienna has the undated label : " Magno 
Dieffopruchar a Venetia." 

Diehl (or Diel as it was originally spelt), 
Friedrich, son of Nicolaus Diehl ; b. 
1814. Worked in Darmstadt. Was 
awarded a bronze medal at the Paris 
Exhibition, 1867. Died 1888. 

Diehl (Diel), Heinricii, a son of Johann 
Diehl. Was also a maker. 

Diehl (Diel), Jacob, s,on of Nicolaus 
Diehl d. 1873. Established himself 
as a maker in Bremen in 1834, later 
moved to Hamburg. 

Diehl (Diel), Johann, a brother of 
Nicolaus Diehl. Was a maker in 

Diehl (probably always spelt Diel), 
Martin. A maker in Mayence in the 
i8th century. His father-in-law, 
Nicolaus Dopfer, was his first master ; 
later he worked with Carl Helmer of 
Prague. His work was not good. 

Diehl (Diel) Nicolaus, b. 1779 ; d. 185 1. 
Son of Martin Diehl, to whose business 
he succeeded. First worked v/ith his 
uncle, Jacob Steininger, of Frankfort. 

Diehl (Diel), Nicolaus Louis, d. 1876. 
Was a son of Jacob Diehl, and worked 
in Hamburg. He published a work on 
Italian violin makers, entitled: "Die 
Geigenmacher der alten italienischen 
Schule " (Hamburg, 1864). 

Dieulafait. A viol maker, working in 
Paris in 1720, this date, with his name, 
being in a 17th century bass-viol that 
he had restored. It is now in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection. 

Dini, Giambattista. A maker in Lucig- 
nano in 1707. 

Ditton. Amaker in London about 1700. 
In Thomas Britton's Collection was a 
" good violin by Ditton." 

Dodd, Edward, b. 1705, Sheffield ; d. 
i8io, London, at the age of 105. He 
was the first bow maker of this name 
and did a great deal towards improving 
the English bow. He lived in Salis- 
bury Court, Fleet Street, where he 
died, and was buried in St. Bride's 

Dodd, James, second son of Edward. 
Also made bows. 

Dodd, James, son of James Dodd, sen. 
Was a good bow maker. 

Dodd, John, eldest son of Edward Dodd ; 
b. 1752, Stirling; d. Oct. 4, 1839, in 
Richmond Workhouse ; was buried 
at Kew. He was first a gun-lock 
fitter, then a money-scale maker, and 
finally found his true vocation in 
making bows. They are made of 
magnificent wood and the work is so 
beautiful that he is known as ' The 
English Tourte"; their only defect is 
that they are sometimes too short 
He would never take pupils, preferrinof 
to keep secret his method of cutting 
the wood, and refused to reveal it for 
a bribe of ;£" 1,000, although he was 
often in great poverty. 

Dodd, Thomas, third son of Edward 
Dodd. Was first a brewer, then a 



violin bow maker in the Blue Bell 
Alley, Mint Street, Southwark (1786- 
89) ; and, about 1798, became a dealer 
in and maker of violins in New Street, 
Covent Garden, moving to St. Martin's 
Lane, Charing Cross (1809) ; and finally 
became a harp and piano maker in 
Berners Street Very good violins 
were made in his workshop ; but 
although they were 11 labelled 
" T Dodd, violin, violoncello, and bow 
maker. New Street, Covent Garden," 
they were almost without exception the 
work of Bernhard Fendt and John Lott, 
two extremely clever workmen, who 
were for a long time in his employ. 
Dodd himself had a thorough know- 
ledge of Italian instruments, and 
showed great skill in his varnish, the 
secret of which he always kept, for he 
would take the unvarnished instru 
ments — " in the white, ' to use the 
technical term — and varnish them 
himself unaided. His label especially 
alludes to this varnish : " Dodd, 
maker, 92, St Martin's Lane. Perfect 
copies of Stradiuarius, Amati, Stainer, 
&c. Note. — The only possessor of 
the recipe for preparing the original 
Cremona oil varnish Instruments 
improved and repaired.'' His violon- 
cellos are worth ^40 to ^50. 
Dodd, Edward and Thomas, sons of 
Thomas Dodd, sen. They both learnt 
their trade from Bernhard Fendt, and 
carried on the business at St. Martin s 
Lane. Thomas showed ability, but 
died early in the igth century, and 
Edward devoted himself more to 
making harps and pianos ; he was 
drowned, April 29, 1843. 
Dominicelli (Domincelli) A maker in 
Ferrara about 1695-1715, who first 
studied in Brescia, possibly under G. 
B Rogeri He copied the Amati 
pattern with great ability , using \ arnish 
of a golden-yellow colour, which was 
very effective. 
Dominichino, Giuseppe. In Verona, 

1700. Followed the Amati pattern 
Donate, Serafino. Working in Venice, 

Doni, Rocco. A priest in Florence, 
1600-60, who made lutes and violins. 
It is probable that he greatly assisted 
the celebrated G. B. Doni (to whom he 
was related) in working out his idea of 
the " Lira Barberina,'' an instrument 
copied from the ancient Greeks. 
Dopfer (Dopfer), Nicolaus. A maker 
in Mayence about 1750-68. His in- 
struments are well made, slightly 
arched, the sound -holes small but 

well cut, the varnisii is Drown. A few 
tenors of his are known. 

Dorant, William. Was working at 63, 
Winfield Street, Brick Lane, Spifal- 
fields, in 1814. 

Dorffel (Dorffel), Johann Andreas. A 
violin and lute maker in Klingenthal, 
Saxony, in 174^. In a viola d'amore, 
with twelve strings, yellow varnish, is 
the label: "Johann Andreas Dorffel, 
Violin und Lautenmacher, in Klingen- 
thal, 1743. ' 

Drinda, Giacomo. A maker in Pianzo 
in the i8th century. 

Drogmeyer, Hermann August. A maker 
in Bremen. He published a book 
called " Die Geige, ein Beitrag zur 
Aufklarung," 1891. 

Drouleau or Droulot. A maker in 
Paris at 35 rue du Temple, about 
1 7 88- 1 800. His work was fair, he 
used brown varnish. 

Drouyn, Dimanche. A Parisian maker. 
A little pocket \iolin is known of h.s. 

Ducheron, Mathunn. Was a contem- 
porary of Boquay and was working in 
Paris in 17 14, a> cording to the following 
label: " Mathurin Ducheron, a Pans, 

Duiffoprugcar (Duiffoproucart), Gas- 
pard, b. about 15 14 in Freising, 
Bavaria; d. about 1570, Lyons. Was 
the principal member of a large family 
of Germans, who were working in 
North Italy — Padua, Venice — till about 
the middle of the 17th century, and 
still later in South Germany. There 
is much variety in the way in which 
the farr^ily name is spelt, raui^ing 
from the German form " Tieffen- 
briicker," to" Dieffenbruger, " *' Duiffo- 
brocard," " Duiffoprougar," " Duiffo- 
pruggar," " Dubrocard," " Dufour- 
bourcar " " Duyfautbrocard," and 
" Diffobricard." The tradition that 
Gaspard was a viol maker in Bologna, 
and that, at the request of Fran9ois I. 
of France, he accompanied him to 
Paris, seems to have no foundation. 
He probably learnt his trade in South 
Germany, and then went to Lyons, at 
that time celebrated, owing to the 
large fairs held there three times a 
year. The first definite mention of 
him there is a receipt for some wine 
signed by "Gaspard Duiffobrocard 
allemand," on Nov. 23, 1553 ; another 
receipt, signed " Gaspard Duiffoprou- 
gar'' is dated Nov. 4, 1555. "Lettresde 
naturalite " were granted to Gaspard 
Dieffenbruger by Henri II., from 
Paris, in Jan., 1558 It was at Lyons 
that Pierre Woeiriot engraved, in 1562, 



his celebrated portrait of him, in which 
he is represented at the age of 48 years. 
Gaspard's instruments are rare, and 
are more valued for their inlaid work 
and ornamentation than for the quality 
of their tone. Instruments known are : 
the famous bass-viol with the plan of 
Paris inlaid in different coloured woods 
on the back, and the neck ending in a 
horse's head, now in the Brussels 
Conservatoire Collection ; the bass-viol 
with its back inlaid with the picture 
known as the " Vieillarddansla chaise 
d'enfant," the neck also ending in a 
horse's head ; the small bass-viol 
with the neck finished in exactly 
the same way, and the back beautifully 
ornamented; and inscribed with the 
Latin legend, " Viva fui in sylvis, sum 
dura occisa securi ; dum vixi tacui, 
mortua dulce cano " (It is supposed to 
be the viol that speaks, " I was living 
in the forest, the cruel axe killed me. 
Living, I was mute ; dead, I sing 
sweetly.") ; and the bass-viol, with 
Michel Angelo's " Moses" represented 
on the back. J. B. Vuillaume, of Paris, 
caused much misapprehension on the 
subject of Gaspard's instruments by, 
in 1827, producing violins beautifully 
inlaid and carved in his style, which 
were so successful that orders for similar 
instruments were at once received ; his 
example was soon followed in Germany 
and Mirecourt, so that now violins and 
violoncellos of this description are 
numerous. The " violins " known are : 
one dated 1510, said to have been 
made for Fran9ois I. (he only ascended 
the throne in 1515) ; one dated 151 1, 
with an oil painting said to be by 
Leonardo da Vinci; one dated 1515 ; 
another dated either 15 15 or 1539 ; 
one dated 15 17, with a portrait of 
Gaspard copied from the 1562 
engraving; one labelled "Gaspard 
Duiffoprugcar Bononiensis a. 15 15," 
the neck ending in an old man's 
head ; one dated 1521 ; and one 
with the label : " Gaspard Duiffo- 
prugcar a la coste Saint-Sebastien a 
Lyon." A "lyradabraccio," probably 
made at the beginning of the i6th 
century, is also labelled : " Gaspard 
Duiffopruggar Bononiensis,anno 15 15." 
It has only lately been known that 
Gaspard was not born before 15 14. 
He married Barbe Homeau ; he was 
in easy circumstances, but unfor- 
tunately his house stood on some 
ground required for the enlargement 
of a fortress (built in Lyons, 1564) ; he 
was turned out of his home in 1566, and 

it was pulled down ; he could not 
obtain any indemnity and died shortly 
afterwards, leaving a widow and four 
children in debt and in great misery. 
They were awarded a pension by 
Charles IX. in 1571. See " Tieffen- 

Duiffoprugcar (Duiffoproucart), Jehan, 
son of Gaspard Duiffoprugcar. Was 
a maker of lutes about 1570-90 in Lyons. 

Duiffoprugcar, Magno. See " Dieffo- 

Duiffoprugcar, Ulrich. A lute is 
known with the label : " Uldrich 
Duiffoprugar Lutario A. 1521." 

Duke, Richard. A maker in London 
about 1750-80. He made excellent 
copies of Stradivari and Amati instru- 
ments, and not quite such good ones 
of Stainer. Genuine instruments of 
his are very fine, but unfortunately 
his name was often made_ use of in 
extremely poor specimens. His violins 
and violoncellos were of rather a long 
pattern, very arched, with yellow 
varnish, their tone was very good ; 
some of his tenors are a little short in 
length but very broad, so as to obtain 
a large deep tone ; the result is good, 
although the two lower strings might 
be more powerful. Labels : " Richard 
Duke, Londini, fecit 1760"; similar 
ones dated 1767 and 1769 ; " Richard 
Duke, maker, Holborn, London, anno 
1768 " ; another dated 1777. These two 
labels were generally written in ink. 
He also used a printed label : " Richard 
Duke, maker, near opposite Great 
Turn-Stile, Holbourn, London." 

Duke, Richard, son of Richard Duke, 
sen., with whom he apparently learnt 
his trade. He was not so successful, 
however. Both father and son gene- 
rally branded their instruments on the 
back, near the button, with their 
surname, sometimes adding ' ' London ' ' 

Dulfenn, Alexander. Was working in 
Leghorn in 1699. Label: "Alexander 
Dulfenn, fecit Livorno, 1699." 

Dumenil, N. A maker in Paris. A 
violin of his, dated 1786, is known. 

Dumesnil, Jacques. A maker in Paris 
about 1655-C0. A curious little violin 
is in the Paris Conservatoire Collection, 
with a MS. label dated 1655. The 
back and sides are of maple wood, the 
front of cedar, the purfling inlaid with 
silver and whalebone, and the head is 
carved into a woman's face. The 
varnish, a red-brown colour, is ex- 
cellent, and all the details show a 
clever maker. 



Duncan. Working in Aberdeen in 1762. 

Duncan, George. A maker in Glasgow 
about 1875-87. 

Durfel (Diirfell). J. G. A maker in 
Altenburg, 1778. His double-basses 
are especially valued, and are con- 
sidered to be some of the best ever 

made in Germany ; his violins, very 
arched, with brown — almost black — 
varnish, of bad quality, are said to 
have an excellent tone. 
Du Riez, Nicolas. A French maker. 
In a bass-viol was the label : " Nicolas 
Du Riez a Abbeville, 1663." 


Eberle, Johann Ulrich A maker in 
Prague about 1730-60. He was a very 
clever imitator of Cremona violins, but 
his instruments lacked the full round 
tone of the Italian instruments ; they 
were of excellent workmanship, with 
amber or sometimes brown varnish 
Label: "Joannes Ulricus Eberle, fecit 
Prague, 1759." In a viola d'amore that 
hehadrestored was thelal^el : "Joannes 
Ulricus Eberle, me repara\it Praga-, 
anno 1749 " ; another viola d'amore was 
dated 1730. 

Eberti, Tommaso. An Italian maker 
about 1730-50. 

Edlinger, Joseph Joachim, sonof Thomas 
Edlinger, d. May 30, 1748, at Prague. 
He made excellent lutes, and was a go(^d 
workman ; for having first learnt his 
trade from his father, he lived for manv 
years in Italy in order to perfect his 
art, and visited Cremona, Rome, 
Naples. Boloqna, Ferrara. and Venice. 
Hi:; instruments are much \alued. 

Edlinger, Thomas, b. 1662, Augsburcr, 
was living in Prague, 1712-29. Said 
to be a pupil of Siainer, made very 
good instruments, using varnish resem- 
bling slightly that of the Bergonzis. 
His lutes are finely made. 

Eesbroeck, Jan van. A lute maker in 
Antwerp, 1583-85, son of Josse van 
Eesbroeck. He also made clavecins. 

Eglington. A maker in London in 1802, 
according to a label " Eglint^ton fecit, 
Drury Lane, London, 1802," which was 
in a violin of very good tone, but poor 

Element, Jean Laurent. Working in 
Paris in 1783. See " Clement." 

Elsier (Esler), Johann Joseph. A maker 
in Mayence about 1715-30. One bass- 
viol with seven strings, the head of a 
woman instead of scroll, and with 
varnish of a yeil(jw-brown colour, was 
dated 1728. Label; "Joann Joseph 
Esler, Lauten und Geigenmacher, 
Meyntz, 1717 '" 

Emiliani, Francesco de. A maker in 
Rome about 1715-29. He made some 

beautiful instruments, rather arched, 
the wood of excellent quality, the 
varnish a golden-yellow colour. 
Label : " Franciscus de Emilianis, 
fecit Roma, anno Dni, 1729." 

Engleder, Andreas. Was maker to the 
Court at Munich. In 1854 he ex- 
hibited there a quintet of instruments 
made on a new pattern of his own ; 
they were of beautiful workmanship, 
and of full excellent tone ; he was 
awarded medals. He was well known 
for his great experience and good 

Engleder, Ludwig. A maker in Bam- 
berg. Exhibited at Munich, 1854, a 
violoncello with bow, and two violins, 
well made, on the German pattern, 
of excellent tone. He died 1873. 

Erikson, Knudt. .-\ maker in Norway. 
Inside a sort of viola d'amore of the 
Hardanger peasants in Norway was 
the label : " Fabrokert of Knudt 
Erikson, Helland, 1872." 

Ernst, Franz .\nt'»n ; b. Dec. 3, 17 f5, at 
Georgenthal, in Bohemia , d. Jan lO. 
1805, (iotha. Was a celebrated 
violinist, but also the maker of some 
very excellent instruments. His First 
work was done in Prague, where he 
went for purposes of study about 1763 ; 
but in 1778, being appointed sold 
violinist to the Court of Gotha, he 
there found leisure to devote himself 
to the making of violins. He had at 
first working with him J A. Otto, who 
later became one of the best German 
makers. When (3tto started his own 
business at Weimar, .\rtmann and 
Bindernagel, both carpenters, left 
Weimar and V>ecame apprenticed to 
Ernst. He followed the Stradivari 
model, and the tone of his instruments 
is •:>aid almost to have ecjualled that of 
the Cremona instruments. In 1S04 
he published in the All<remeine Musik- 
alische Zeituiif^ (Leipzig) a very 
interesting article on the construction 
of violins. 

Esler. See " Elsier." 



Eulry- Clement. A maker in Mire- 
court at the beginning of the 19th 
century. A mandoHne of his is known, 
with eight strings arranged in four 
pairs ; it has the back inlaid with 
different woods. 

Eury. A violin bow maker in Paris 
about 1810-30. He was working at 
20, rue des Lyonnais-Saint-Jacques in 
1820. His bows are justly celebrated, 
and are thought to rival even those of 
Francois Tourte. He generally marked 
them with his name. 

Evangelisti. A maker in Florence in 
the iSth century. Violins of his are 

Evans, Richard. A maker in London 
about 1742-50. Was rather illiterate. 

judging by a label in an instrument 
reconstructed by him: "Maid in the 
Paris of Anirhengel by Richard Evans, 
instrument maker, in the year 1742." 
Eve, Jacques Charles. A maker in 
Paris about 1770-90. His violins look 
as if they were made on a German 
model, very arched, with small sound, 
holes, and red-brown varnish ; rather 
heavy effect altogether, but the work 
is carefully done. In a violin with 
spirit varnish, rather transparent, was 
the label: "Eve, Me Luthier, rue 
Neuve-Ste-Catherine, au coin de celle 
de St-Louis proche la Place Rovale 
'a la Fortune."' Another violin is 
dated 1770. In 1788 he was living in 
the rue Vieille-du-Temple. 


Fabris, Luigi. A maker in Venice in 
the 19th century. 

Pacini, Agostino. Was a monk of the 
order of Saint Jean de I.)ieu, at Bo- 
logna, 1732-42. Several violins of his 
are known, well made, on a graceful 
pattern, with remarkable yellow 

Falaise. .-V French maker, whose work 
was similar to that of Pique. He 
followed the .\mati and Stradivari 
patterns, u.sin;.; thin yell(j\v \ arnish. 

Falco. P. Worked in Cremona about 

Farinato, Paolo. Worked in Venice 
about 1700-30. His instruments are 
not without merit, tlie pattern is 
elegant, of the school of Santo Sera- 
fino, and the varnish a yellow-red 

Faron, Achille. Only known by a MS 
label, stating that he was wnrking in 
Ratisbon in 1701. 

Feldlen, Magnus. Working in Vienna 
in 1556. In a viola di bordone in 
the Colhiction of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde, Vienna, is the label : 
'* Magnus Feldlen, Wien, 155').'' 

Fendt, Hernhanl. a nephew ot Franc^ois 
Fent, of Paris: b. 1735-6, at Innsbruck, 
in thii Tyrol . d. 1S32-3, in Ayltsbury 
Street, Clcrkunwell. a<4fd 57, and was 
buried in Cltn-kiMuvtll Churchyard. 
Whtn sfven years old he left Inns- 
bruck for P.iris. 10 live with hi,^ uncle 
there ; later he winit to lui^land, and 
entered the employ ol Tlu)nias Dodd 
in Jan., 1798, remaining with him for 
eleven years. He persuaded J. F. Lott 
(also a German) to leave his trade of 

cabinet-making in order to make violins 
with him under Dodd; their instru- 
ments always have Dodd's label in 
them, the latter invariably doing the 
varnishing himself. Fendt. on leaving 
Dodd, worked for John Betts, making 
those e.xcellent copies of Amati which 
are so highly valued ; they all bear the 
name of Betts. Betts died in 1823, but 
lendt continued t(; work for the same 
firm. He had four sons, also violin 
Fendt, Bernhard Simon, or Simmon ; 
eldest son of Bernhard. b, iSoo in 
London ; d. .March 6, 1S52, at 7, Smith 
Street, Brompton. He learnt his trade 
from his father in the workshop of 
John Betts, where he remained till 
Betts' death {1S23) : then he became 
either a workman for or a partner 
with Farn, a dealer in violins in 
Lombard Street. Farn dying, he 
joined George Purdy, " Purdy and 
Fendt " commencing business in Finch 
Lane in September. 1S32 ; in June, 
1843. they opened a shop in 
Oxenden Street, liaymarket ; ab>.»ut 
1850 these two simps were closed and 
they movetl to -4, 1 )ean Street, Soho. 
He made many very good double- 
basses on the model of (iasparo da 
Salo, using varnish much superior to 
th.U on his violins ; he made an 
extraordinary number of violins, those 
on the model of (.iu.irneri alone num- 
bering sf>me hundreds ; but the work 
is not very c.irefully finished, the 
varnish is bright red colour. He made 
an excellent quartet of instruments 
for the London Exhibition in 1851. 



Fendt, Francis, fourth son of Bernhard 
Fendt. Pupil of his eldest brother, 
Bernhard Simon. Worked for some 
time for the firm of Purdy and Fendt. 
In 1856 he was residing in Liverpool, 
gaining a very precarious living. 

Fendt, Fran9ois, best known in France 
as Fent. A German maker who settled 
in Paris and was living there " cul-de- 
sac St.-Pierre, rue Montmartre," 
about 1763-91. In bis time he had 
the reputation of being one of the 
cleverest makers in Paris ; he carefully 
studied Italian instruments, particularly 
those of Ant. Stradivari ; he used a 
beautiful red-brown oil varnish which, 
with the progress of time, has become 
almost black ; his instruments are also 
much worm-eaten, but have a rich 
tone. His label, ' ' Fait par Fent, maitre 
luthier, rue Montmartre, cul-de-sac 
Saint-Pierre, a Paris," was found in a 
violin which might be mistaken for a 
most beautiful Italian instrument ; the 
dimensions are exactly the same as 
those of a violin of Ant. Stradivari ; I 
the work is carefully finished, the wood | 
excellent, and the tone very good, the 
original neck and scroll are still in 
place. An alto has also been seen and 
a violin, dated 1774, repaired by De- 
lannoy, of Lille, in 1828. 

Fendt, Jacob, third son of Bernhard 
Fendt; b. about 1815, in London; d. 
about Oct., 1849, in Blue Anchor 
Court, Whitecross Street, Finsbury. 
Pupil of his eldest brother, Bernhard 
Simon. Was employed occasionally by 
W. Davis, of Coventry Street, and also 
by Turner, a dealer in violins. He was 
almost the best maker among the sons 
of Bernhard, his copies of Italian, 
especially of Stradivari instruments, 
are very fine, the work being beautifully 
finished ; unluckily he considered it 
necessary to give them the appearance 
of age and usage. 

Fendt, Martin, second son of Bernhard 
Ffendt ; b. July, 1812, in London; d. 
July, 1845, in Bell Alley, Coleman 
Street. Pupil of his father ; he had 
talent, and was one of the good work- 
men employed by Arthur Betts, brother 
of John Betts. 

Fendt, William, second son of Bernhard 
Simon; b. 1833, in Finch Lane, Lon- 
don; d. 1852, at 7, Smith Street, 
Brompton, and was buried in Brompton 
Cemetery. Pupil of his father ; he 
became a very clever workman, making 
excellent violas and double-basses. 

Ferati, I'ietro. Was working in Sienna 
about 1754-64. His instruments are 

inferior, and he used brown varnish of 
bad quality. In a violin of very 
ordinary make, with broad purfling and 
thick brown varnish, was the label : 
" Pietro Ferati. fecit Siena, 1764." 
Feret. A pupil of Medard, who was 
working in Paris in 1708, according to 
the following label found in a violin 
with brown varnish : " Fait par Feret, 
eleve de Medard, 1708." His instru- 
ments, following the Medard pattern 
generally, show good work, and the 
brown varnish is fairly brilliant. 
Ferguson, Donald. A maker in Huntley, 

Ferguson and Son. Makers in Edin- 
burgh at the beginning of the 19th 
Ferrari, Agostino. A maker in Budrio 

(Italy) in the i8th century. 
Ferrari, Alfonso. Working in Carpi 

(Modena) in 1738. 
Ferrari, Carlo. Was working in Siena 

in 1740. 
Ferrari, Gasparo. A maker in Rome in 
173 1 5 1 . In a mandoline was the label : 
" Gasparus Ferrari, Romanus, fecit 
anno 173 1." 
Fcury (or Ferry), Francois, son-in-law of 
Leclerc the violin maker. Was working 
at rue de I'Arbre sec, Paris, about 
1750-60. His violins are on a small 
pattern, the sound-holes are small and 
well-cut, the varnish is a thick red, the 
work is good for the period. A guitar 
and a double-bass of his have been 
seen, but he devoted most of his time 
to making wind instruments. Labels : 
" F. Feury, rue de I'Arbre-sec, vis-a- 
vis Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris, 
1755 " '» 2md " F. Feury, rue de Fosses, 
St-Germain-l'Auxerrois proche la rue 
de I'Arbre-sec a Paris, 17 — ." 
Fevrot. Worked in Lyons from 1780 
to 181 3. His work was poor. In an 
old Italian guitar was the label : 
" Racomode par Fevrot, a Lyon, 1788." 
Feyzeau. A maker in Bordeaux in 
1760. A lyre of his is well made, with 
varnish of a pale yellow colour. In a 
quinton, or five-stringed viol, also 
well made, with a pale brown varnish, 
was the label : " Feyzeau a Bordeaux, 
Fichthold (Fichtold), Hans. A German 
maker of fine lutes, who lived about 
Fichtl, Martin. A maker at Vienna 
about 1706-68. His instruments are of 
large pattern, he used wood of good 
quality, and excellent varnish. 
Ficker, Johann Christian. Was one of 
a family of makers in Markneukirchen. 



Lived 1735-80. Work fairly good ; he 
used brown varnish. For trade pur- 
poses, sometimes dated his labels 
from Cremona. 

Ficker, Johann Gottlob, of Markneu- 
kirchen, b. 1744 ; d. 1832. His violins 
were excellent, but he also thought it 
necessary to use " Cremona " labels. 

Fiker (Ficker), Johann Christian. Was 
working in 'Neukirchen (Saxony) 1700- 
22. Label : " Johann Christian Fiker, 
Lauten- und Geigenmacher in Neu- 
kirchen, bey Adorf." 

Filano, Donate. A maker of mandolines 
in Naples, in the rua di S. Chiara, 
about 1782. In a mandoline of very 
pretty workmanship, inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl on tortoiseshell, with 
purfling of ivory, was the MS. label : 
Donato Filano, fecit alia rua di S. 
Chiara, a.d. 1782, Napoli." 

Findlay, J. A maker in Padanaram, 
Forfarshire. He died 1896. 

Fiorillo, Giovanni. Working in Ferrara 
in 1780. His instruments are made 
both on German and Italian patterns, 
the sound-holes are like those of Stainer . 
His violoncellos are among his best 

Fiorini, Giuseppe, son of Raffaele 
Fiorini, b. 1867. He early showed 
signs of having inherited his father's 
tastes, and when sixteen (after having 
received a good education) commenced 
making violins. He made rapid pro- 
gress, and the instruments which he 
exhibited at Milan and Turin show 
that he is one of the best Italian makers 
of the present time. 

Fiorini, Raffaele, b. 1828 at Pianoro ; 
d. 1898. When still a child, his parents 
moved to Bazzano, where a certain 
Tadolini, of Modena, brother of the 
violin maker, remembering what he 
could of his brother's methods, used 
to make small violins to amuse young 
Raffaele ; the latter soon became 
interested and endeavoured to assist. 
Raffaele gradually gained knowledge 
and experience, and in 1867 went to 
Bologna to work seriously for several 
years, finally opening his own workshop 
in the Palazzo Pepoli there. 

Firth, G. Was working in Leeds in 
1836 according to the following label : 
'* G. Firth, No. no, Briggate, Leeds, 
1836." He was a pupil of William 
Booth, sen. 

Fiscer, Carlo and Giuseppe ; two brothers 
working in Milan together about 1760- 
64. Their work resembles more that 
of German than Italian makers, but 
their varnish is better ; it is a yellow- 

red colour and, for that date, very 
satisfactory. In a well-made violin is 
the label: "Giuseppe Carlo fratelli 
Fiscer, fabbricatori d'instrumenti in 
Milano, vicino alia balla, 1764." 

Fischer, Anton, b. 1794; d. 1879. A 
maker in Vienna. 

Fischer, Johann Ulrich. The label, "J. 
Fischer, Landshut, 1722," was in a 
tromba-marina in the Collection of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 
A viola da gamba was dated 1720. 

Fischer, Zacharie, b. Nov. 5, 1730, 
Wiirzburg; d. there Nov. 27, 1812. He 
announced, in 1786, that in making his 
instruments he employed a new method 
by means of which they equalled those 
of Stradivari and of Stainer. This 
was the method of drying the wood in 
an oven, which has since often been 
tried but never found to answer, as it 
is impossible to make the process 
gradual enough, the result being that 
the tone loses all brilliancy. His 
instruments are liked. 

Flac, Philippe, b. about 1532. A maker 
of lutes and guitars in Lyons about 

Flctte (or Hette), Benoist. Worked in 
Paris about 1756-63. Few of his 
instruments are known. 

Fleuri (Fleury), Jean Francois. Was 
working in Paris, 1783-5. 

Fleury, Benoist. A maker in Paris in 
the rue des Boucheries about 1 751 -91. 
He made fairly good violins. An alto 
dated 1751 is known and a guitar. In 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection is 
a bass-viol, well made, dated 1755. In 
1791 he was still working, repairing 
violins, double-basses, and altos. 
Label : " Benoist Fleury, rue des 
Boucheries, Faubourg Saint-Germain, 
Paris, 1774" 

Florenus (Florinus), Guidantus or 
Florentus. A maker in Bologna 
about 1700-60. His instruments show 
a distinct decadence ; the workman- 
ship is heavy, the varnish alone is 
satisfactory ; he followed the model of 
Nicola Amati. Label: "Guidantus 
Florenus. Bononiae, 170 — "; a similar 
one dated 175 — . St^e " Guidantus." 

Fonclause. Joseph (called "Le Mayeux"), 
b. 1800, a la Conte ; d. 1865, Paris 
First worked with Pageot at Mirecourt 
then, about 1825, went to Paris and 
entered the employ of J. B. Vuillaume 
He became a very clever maker of 
violin bows, and later, when he started 
his own business, first in rue Pagevin, 
then in the rue Montmartre, always 
marked his bows with his name. 



Fontanelli, Giovanni Giuseppe. A 
celebrated maker of mandolines and 
lutes in Bologna about 1733-72. In a 
magnificent lute, purfled in ivory, the 
neck inlaid in tortoiseshell, mother-of- 
pearl, and ivory, in every way a 
superbly made instrument, was the 
label: "Giov. Giuseppe Fontanelli, 
fece in Bologna, I'anno 1733-3 Xbre." 
Two mandolines, dated 1771 and 1772, 
are in the Paris Conservatoire Collec- 
tion. Another label is: "Giovanni 
Giuseppe Fontanelli, Bolognese, f. an. 
17— " 

Forcheville, J. Baptiste. Was working 
at St. Omer (France) in 1673, according 
to the following label found in a 
pochette or little violin, made with a 
pentagonal back: "Fait a St. Omer, 
par J. Bte. Forcheville, 1673." 

Forster (Foster or Forrester), John, b. 
about 1688, at Kirkandrews, on the 
Ksk ; d. Oct., 1781, Brampton, Cum- 
berland. He was the first member of 
the celebrated family of Forsters to 
make violins. He early settled in 
Brampton, and was a maker of 
spinning-wheels, also a gunmaker ; 
"a very ingenious man, and occa- 
sionally made fiddles." A violin, said 
to be his, is made on a very high 
model, resembling that of Stainer, 
although the outline was some- 
what similar to the pattern of an 
Amati, but the work was rude and 

Forster, Simon Andrew, son of WilHam 
Forster (1764-1824), b. May 13, 1801, 
London; d. Feb. 2, 1870. He carried 
on the business first at Frith Street, 
then at Macclesfield Street, Soho. He 
learnt his trade under his father, 
Samuel Gilkes (a workman in his 
father's employ), and his brother 
William. 1828-40, he made several 
instruments, very much arched, of no 
great merit, using the label: " S. A. 
Foster, violin, tenor, and violoncello 

maker. No. , London." He used 

spirit varnish for his second-class 
instruments, and only inscribed them 

"Foster, No. ," at the tailpin. 

His name is well known as joint-author, 
with William Sandys, of "The History 
of the Violin," published in London, 

Forster, William, son of John Forster, 
b. 1713-14 ; d. March 4, 1801. He was a 
maker of spinning-wheels in Brampton, 
Cumberland, merely occupying his 
spare time in making and repairing 
in.struments ; but his work shows a 
considerable improvement on that of 

his father. He used spirit varnish, 
and did not purfle his instruments ; 
the work altogether is not highly 
finished, but the tone is fairly good. 

Forster, William ("old Forster"), son of 
William Forster (1713-1801), b. May, 
1739. at Brampton, Cumberland ; d. 
Dec, 14, 1808. Having worked for 
some time under his father, he went to 
London about 1759. Was first a gun- 
stock maker, only occasionally making 
violins and selling them to the dealers 
About 1785 he started his business at 
348, Strand. In 1762 he was making 
on the Stainer pattern, using brown 
varnish. These instruments are not 
equal to the later ones made on the 
Amati pattern. This he followed from 
1772 till the end of his life, copying 
sometimes from Ant. and Gir. Amati, 
sometimes from Nicola Amati. His 
violins and altos, though of fair work- 
manship, have not such a fine tone as 
his violoncellos. The latter were 
much liked in England, especially the 
" amber-coloured " ones (the dark red- 
coloured ones were really equally good) . 
For a time they were neglected owing 
to the large number of Italian violon- 
cellos sent to England, but they still 
sell at high prices. He only made 
four double-basses, three of which 
were for the private band of George 
III. Labels: " William Forster, violin 
maker in St. Martin's Lane, London, 
1762 " ; another, " William Forster, 
violin, violoncello, tenor, and bow 
maker. N.B. The above instruments 
are made in the best manner and 
finished with the original varnish ; and 
a copy of every Capital instrument in 
England may be had." 

Forster, William ("young Forster"), 
son of William Forster (1739-1808), 
b. Jan. 7, 1764, London ; d. July 24, 
1824. His instruments are good but 
not equal to those of his father ; the 
varnish is of good quality ; some 
instruments have a fine tone ; the 
work is well and neatly finished. A 
few double-basses, made chiefly for 
letting out on hire, were the same 
shape as a violoncello, and of inferior 
workmanship. Labels: "William 
Forster, jun , violin, violoncello, tenor, 
and bow-maker, 1810 ; also Music 
Seller to their Royal Highnesses the 
Prince of Wales and the Duke of 
Cumberland, ' No. 43 ' " ; and "William 
Forster, violin, violoncello, tenor, and 
bow-maker to their Royal Highnesses 
the Prince of Wales and Duke of 
Cumberland. London." To this latter 



label were added in manuscript the 
number of the instrument, the date, 
and the 'jun.' He married, 1786, and 
had two sons, both violin makers. 

Forster, William, eldest son of William 
Forster (1764-1824), b. Dec. 14, 17S8, 
London; d. Oct. 8, 1824, Cheltenham. 
Pupil of both his father and grand- 
father ; he also worked with Thomas 
Kennedy. Probably only made twelve 
or fifteen instruments: two or three 
violins and one violoncello were well 
made, the work being beautifully 
finished ; the others, made to supply 
wholesale orders, are inferior. 

Fouquet. See " Lecomte." 

Fraiser, Giorgio. Was working in 
Cremona, 1666, in the workshop of 
Nicola Amati. 

Franck. Working in Ghent, 1800-30. 
Was a sculptor before he became a 
maker ; he was extremely clever at 
repairing instruments, but made few 
new ones. 

Frankland. Was working in London in 
1785, in Robin Hood Court. Shoe Lane, 
and was occasionally employed by the 
William Forsters. 

Frebrunet, Jean. A maker in Paris 
about 1750-60. His violins show care- 
fully finished work, with a yellow- 
brown oil varnish of good eftect. In a 
violin was the label: "Joannes 
Frebrunet, 17C0." 

Freeman. See " Hare." 

Frey, Hans, b. about 1440. at Nuremberg ; 
d. there 1523. A maker of lutes and 
viols, also a clever performer on them. 
The lutes of the old German makers 
were very celebrated and fetched high 

Fritsche (Fritzche), Samuel. A maker 

in Leipzig about 1787. Was a pupil 
of C. H Hunger He made good 
instruments, following the Cremona 
models, and using amber-coloured 
varnish, he was also very clever at 
repairing instruments. 

Fryer, Charles. Worked in London and 
then in Leeds, becoming a partner 
with ^1 W. Dearlove there He died 

Furber, David. Was the first member 
of this family to make violins. Learnt 
his trade from John Johnson (1750-60), 
a maker in London. 

Furber, Henry John, son and pupil of 
John Furber. He continued the busi- 
ness in Grafton Street, London, and 
has made many good instruments. 

Furber, James, eldest son of Matthew 
Furber, sen. It is doubtful if he made 
new instruments. 

Furber, John, third son of Matthew 
Furber, sen. Pupil of his father, be- 
came an excellent workman and clever 
repairer. Made numerous violins, 
following the Amati pattern. He also 
worked for J. K. Betts at the Royal 
Kxchange. Label: '"John Furber. 
maker, 13 St. Johns Row. top of Brick 
Lane, Old St., Saint Luke. 1813." In 
1841 he was living in Cow Cross, 

Furber, Matthew, sen , son of David 
Furber. Pupil of his father He died 
about 1790, and was buried at Clerken- 
well Church. 

Furber, Matthew, second son of \Iatthew 
Furber. sen. i'upil ot liis father He 
died about 1S30-1. and was buried at 
Clerkenwell Church. 

Fux, Matthew A maker of tine lutes to 
the Court ot N'iennain the I'^-thcenturv. 


Gabrielli, Antonio. Worked in Florence 
about 1760. He made good violins, 
with golden-coloured varnish. Label ; 
"Antonio Gabrielli, fece in Firenze, 
1760, f." 

Gabrielli, Bartolommeo. A maker in 
Florence about 1730. 

Gabrielli, Cristoforo. Worked in 
Florence about 1730. 

Gabrielli, Ciioxanni Battista. A maker 
in Florence about 1740-70. Many 
well made instrujnents are known, of 
good tone; he used excellei\t wood, 
and a transparent yellow or pale red 
varnish ; his violoncellos and altos are 
considered his l>est work ; thev are 

often branded with his initials, Li B. G 
Labels : "Johannes Baptista Gabrielli, 
Florentinus, fecit 1742", and " Gio. 
Battista CTal)rielli, fece in Firenze, 
1757" ; a similar one dated 1763. 

Gaetano, Antoniazzi, b. 1825, Cremona ; 
d. 1S97, Milan. A good maker, gained 
medalb c^f honour. His son Romeo 
was alsi) a maker. 

Gaffino, (iiuseppe .\n Italian, a pupil 
of Castagnery, who worked in Paris, 
rue tics Prouvaircs, .about 17-45-83; 
his widow was still li\iui; at the same 
address in i7S>). His violins are care- 
fully made and he used pale red or 
vt'llow varnish. .\n alto of larije 



pattern, the only one known, is dated 
rue des Prouvaires, 1748. Label : 
" Gaffino, campagno di Castagneri, 
rue des Prouvaires, Parigi, anno 1755" 
Perhaps he was more of a dealer than 
a maker, judging by the advertisement 
on another label : " At the sign of the 
' Musette de Colin,' Joseph Gaffino, 
maitre et marchand luthier a Paris, 
rue des Prouvaires, fait, vend, achate, 
et loue toutes sortes d'instruments 
de musique, savoir : violons, basses 
d'orchestre, violoncellos, alto-viola, 
violes d'amour et toutes sortes de sa 
fa9on," &c. 

Gagliano (Galiano), Alessandro, b. 
about 1640, at Naples ; d. there about 
1730. At first studied music, in leisure 
moments making a few mandoHnes 
and lutes. Having killed his adversary 
in a duel, he was obliged to leave 
Naples, and went to Cremona, and 
there entered Ant. Stradivari's work- 
shop. He remained about thirty years 
and showed great ability. It is possible 
that many of Stradivari's instruments 
were prepared by him. He was able to 
return to Naples in 1695, and started 
a business there ; he soon became 
well known. He made a number of 
instruments, generally on a large 
pattern, which, in the arching, in the 
thicknesses, and in the carefully finished 
work, recall his master. He used a 
good strong varnish, greyish-yellow 
colour, and good wood, that of the 
bellies being of wide and even grain 
and very resonant ; the scroll is rather 
roughly cut, the sound-holes are wider 
and more perpendicular than those of 
Stradivari, the tone is powerful. He 
made some remarkably beautiful violon- 
cellos; a violoncello and a bass are 
known which might almost be mistaken 
for the work of Stradivari. Labels : 
" Alexandri Gagliano, Alumnus Stradi- 
varius, fecit Neapoli, anno 1725," and 
"Alexander Gaglianus, fecit Neap., 
17 — ." He had two sons, both 
makers — Nicola and Gennaro. 

Gagliano, Antonio, third son of Nicola, 
grandson of Alessandro. See ' ' Giuseppe 

Gagliano, Antonio, son of Giovanni, 
grandson of Nicola. See " Raffaele 

Gagliano, Ferdinando, eldest son of 
Nicola, grandson of Alessandro, b. 
1706, in Naples; d. about 1781. His 
work shows decadence, although it is 
an imitation of that of his father ; it is 
not so arched, the thicknesses are not 
accurate, the work is not so carefully 

finished ; the varnish is richer in colour 
than that used by other members of the 
family. As he also worked for the 
trade at low prices, some of his instru- 
ments are not of much value. Violins 
and basses of his are known dated up 
to the year of his death, and a very 
good alto dated 1753. Label: " Fer- 
dinandus Gagliano filius Nicolai. fecit 
Neap., 17 — ," and "Ferdinando 
Gagliani, me fecit Neapoli, anno 1730." 

Gagliano, Gennaro, second son of Ales- 
sandro, brother of Nicola, b. about 1680, 
at Naples; d. 1750. He was the best 
maker of this family. He made few 
instruments, but put excellent work 
into them ; the pattern is good, slightly 
arched. He imitated his father in 
general outline and in thicknesses, was 
therefore really following the Stradivari 
pattern, but the sound-holes are shorter 
and wider. The wood was carefully 
selected, and the yellow varnish is 
beautiful, the quality of tone very fine ; 
his successors never succeeded in pro- 
ducing varnish equally beautiful, 
although a recipe in Gennaro' s own 
handwriting remained in the family ; 
he either purposely kept secret some 
essential ingredient, or forgot to make 
it known. A magnificent violoncello, 
of perfect workmanship, dated Antonio 
Stradivari, 1732, is generally supposed 
to be Gennaro's work ; the back and 
belly are more arched, the sides lower, 
the warm red-brown varnish darker 
and thicker than in Stradivari's instru- 
ments. It was bought from Gennaro 
himself, about 1740, by an Italian, who 
sold it in 1765 to M. Champsor, a well 
known violoncellist in Marseilles ; on 
his death, in 1826, it passed from an 
amateur into the keeping of M. Bonnet, 
so that its tradition remains un- 
broken. If it could be proved that 
Gennaro made it, it would place him 
at once in the front rank of the great 
Italian makers. He seldom used labels 
for his instruments, and very often 
omitted to date them, so that it is not 
known exactly how many years he 
worked; but in 1730 his work was 
already excellent, and it steadily im- 
proved. Labels : " Gennaro Gagliano 
fecit Neapoli, 17- ", and "Januarius 
Gagliano filius Alexandri, fecit Neap., 
1732 " ; another similar one is dated 
1741. He sometimes pencilled his 
name on the inside of the belly. 

Gagliano, Giovanni, fouith son of Ni- 
cola, nephew of the great Gennaro, 
lived also in Naples ; b. date not 
known ; d. 1806. He did not make 



many instruments, and is said to have 
been superior as a maker to his three 
brothers : but some vioHns are of 
poor workmanship. Label: "Joannes 
Gagliano nepos Januarii, fecit Neapoli, 
1 8 — ." He had two sons, RafFaele 
and Antonio. 

Gagliano, Giuseppe and Antonio, second 
and third sons of Nicola, lived at 
Naples. Giuseppe, b. 1726, Naples; 
d. 1793. Antonio's dates are not known. 
Their work was ordinary, but they made 
some good cithers and mandolines ; 
also some violins, of which one dated 
Naples, 1789, was sold for £^q in 1852. 
Label : "Joseph et Antonius Gagliano, 
fecit anno 1787, in platea dicta Cer- 

Gagliano, Nicola, eldest son of Ales- 
sandro, b. about 1675, at Naples; d. 
there about 1745. His instruments 
are smaller and narrower and his work 
is superior to that of his father, for he 
copied the pattern of Stradivari very 
cleverly, both in outline, in thick- 
nesses, and in arching. His varnish is 
very transparent and rather deep in 
colour, the tone is very brilliant, the 
scroll is generally well-cut ; round the 
purfiing is sometimes an ornamentation 
of diamond and lozenge-shaped pieces 
of ebony ; he also sometimes copied the 
Maggini design on the centre of the 
back of his violins. He made a great 
many violins, violas, and violoncellos, 
the latter being especially good, with 
a fine rich varnish, not often seen on 
instruments of the Gagliano family. A 
certain number of his instruments 
contain spurious labels of Stradivari, 
others have his own label : " Nicolaus 
Gagliano filius Alexandri, fecit Neap., 
17 — ," or " Nicolaii Gagliano, fecit in 
Napoli, 1711." He had four sons, all 
makers — Ferdinando, Giuseppe, An- 
tonio, and Giovanni. 

Gagliano, Raffaele and Antonio, sons 
of Giovanni, grandsons of Nicola. 
The dates of births are unknown ; 
Raffaele d. Dec. 9, 1857, ^"^^ Antonio 
June 27, i860. They worked together 
in Naples, but their instruments are 
inferior. After a few years they con- 
fined themselves to manufacturing 
strings, their factory becoming one of 
the best in Italy. 

Gagliano, Vincenzo, son of Raffaele, 
d. about 1886, was the last of this 
family, and never made instruments, 
but continued the manufacture of 
strings at Naples. 

Gaillard-Lajoue, J. B. A maker at 
Mirecourt, d. about 1870. First an 

apprentice and then first workman in 
the workshop of Gand. About 1852 
he started his own business, and in 
1855 obtained a medal at the Paris 
Exhibition. He made a great many 
violins, of fairly good proportions : the 
varnish was rather harsh, but the tone 
was good. 

Gairoud, Louis. A maker at Nantes 
about 1740-70. 

Galbani, Piero. A maker in Florence 
in 1640. 

Galbicellis, G. B. Working in Florence, 

Galbusera, Carlo Antonio. At first an 
officer in the Italian army, then settled 
in Milan, and began to construct 
instruments on the principles of 
Fran9ois Chanot. In 1832 he was 
awarded a silver medal by the Milan 
Academy of Sciences for a violin very 
similar to that of Chanot ; it was a sort 
of violin-guitar, with the stringing, 
sound-holes, scroll, and borders of an 
ordinary violin ; but recalled a guitar 
in having no corners and in the 
lessened curve of its outline. Although 
completely ignored now, it was con- 
sidered such a great success at the time 
that the Leipzig paper, the Allgemeine 
Mnsikalische Zcitung (Dec. 23, 1832), 
concluded a laudatory article by 
saying "It is indeed surprising that it 
should have taken centuries to give 
the violin this more simple form." 

Galerzena. Was working in Piedmont 
in 1790. 

Galland, Jean. A maker in Paris, rue 
St.-Honore, about 1744-50. He died 
before 1761. His widow continued the 
business at the same address till about 

Galram, Joachim Joseph. He was 
working in Lisbon in 1769. In some 
violins and altos, four instruments 
altogether, of very good workmanship, 
with yellow varnish, which formed 
part of the private collection of King 
Louis of Portugal, was found the 
following label: "Joachim Josef Gal- 
ram, fecit Olesiponoe, 1769." 

Galtani, Rocco. Working in Florence 
in the 17th century. 

Gand, Charles Adolphe, eldest son of 
Charles Francois Gand, b. Dec. 11, 
1812, Paris; d. Jan. 24. 1866. Pupil of 
his father, succeeded him in 1845. 
He had great knowledge of old instru- 
ments and cleverly repaired them ; he 
made few new instruments, but they 
show good and sound workmanship. 
Was appointed " Luthier de la musique 
du Roi et du Conservatoire de 



Musique," and later, " de la chapelle 
de rEmpereur." In 1855 his brother, 
C. N. Eugene Gand, became his 
partner, and at the Paris Exhibition 
that year "Gand freres " gained a 
medal of the ist class. He received 
the cross of " Chevalier de la Legion 
d'honneur," August 19, 1862. Labels: 
(i) "Gand, luthier de la musique du 
Roi et du Conservatoire de Musique, 
rue Croix-des-petits-Champs, Paris, 
18—. 1845-1848, A. G." ; (2) "Gand. 
luthier du Conservatoire de Musique, 
rue Croix-des-petits-Champs, No. 20, 
Paris, 1854. A. G." ; (3) " Gand freres, 
luthiers de la musique de I'Empereur 
et du Conservatoire Imperial de 
Musique, No. — . Paris, 1855 a 1866." 
Gand, Charles Fran9ois, eldest son of 
Charles Michel Gand, b. Aug. 5, 1787, 
Versailles; d. May 10, 1845, Paris. 
First worked at Versailles with his 
father; in 1802 was apprenticed to 
Nicolas Lupot, of Paris ; he remained 
for four years, returning to his father 
July 17, 1806. In 1810 he again went 
to Paris, and started his own business 
at 5, rue Croix-des-petits-Champs ; in 
1820 he bought Koliker's property at 
No. 24, in the same street, where he 
remained till his death. In 1824 he 
succeeded Lupot, whose daughter he 
had married. He followed in Lupot 's 
footsteps, making his instruments with 
the same care and ability, never 
letting an instrument leave his shop 
which was not entirely made by his 
own hands ; he used brilliant red-brown 
varnish, rather thick in quality. 
Lupot left unfinished an order for the 
Royal Orchestra ; Gand completed it, 
making 6 violins, 3 violas, 5 violoncellos, 
and 4 doul)le-basses between 1824 and 
1828 These beautiful specimens of his 
work were unfortunately destroyed 
when the Tuileries was burnt down in 
1871. He was especially skilful in 
repairing old instruments, owing to his 
great knowledge of Italian work. 
Appointed" Luthier du Conservatoire," 
he for some time made the violins and 
violoncellos given as prizes to the 
pupils. Labels : " Gand chez Lupot, 
rue de Grammont, 1805," used when 
in Lupot's workshop; " Ch, F. Gand 
fils, luthier Versailles, 1807," used when 
working with his father ; " Ch. F. 
Gand. eleve de N. Lupot, luthier, rue 
Croix-des-petits-Champs, a Paris, an 
1812"; "Gand, luthier, eleve de 
Lupot, rue Croix-des-petits-Champs. 
No. 24. Paris, 1820 a 1824 " ; " Gand. 
luthier de la musique du roi et de 

I'Ecole Royale de Musique, rue Croix- 
des-petits-Champs a Paris, 1825 a 
1830;" "Gand, luthier du Conser- 
vatoire de Musique, rue Croix-des- 
petits-Champs, 1833"; "Gand, 
luthier de la musique du roi et du 
Conservatoire de Musique, rue Croix- 
des-petits-Champs, Paris, 18 — , 1833 a 
1845." He had two sons, both makers, 
Charles Adolphe and Charles Nicolas 

Gand, Charles Michel, the head of the 
Gand family, b. 1748, at Mirecourt : d. 
1820, Versailles. He established him- 
self in Versailles in 17S0. at 71, rue 
du Commerce ; later moved to 32, rue 
de la Paroisse, at the sign of " aux 
tendres accords." He had two sons, 
both makers, Charles Francois and 
Guillaume, the latter succeeded him. 

Gand, Charles Nicolas Eugene, second 
son of Charles Francois Gand, b. 
June 5, 1825, Paris; d. Feb. 5, 1892, 
Boulogne-sur-Seine. He studied music, 
at the same time learnt his trade under 
his father and brother. Entered the 
Paris Conservatoire, Nov. 19, 1834, 
being admitted to Baillot's special violin 
class, Nov. 28, 1840, and not leaving 
until Baillot's death, in 1842. He 
joined his brother Charles Adolphe as 
partner in 1855 ; Adolphe dying in 1866, 
the two houses, Gand and Bernardel, 
became one. " Gand et Bernardel 
freres" were first at 21, rue Croix-des- 
petits-Champs, then at 4, passage Saul- 
nier in 1883. Instruments were no 
longer carefully constructed by the 
maker himself, workmen had to be 
employed to make the quantities of 
instruments required for orchestra 
playing; during the Ir'aris Exhibition, 
1878, the firm " Gand " supplied 52 
violins, 18 altos, 18 violoncellos, and 
18 double-basses for the big orchestras 
playing there. These instruments all 
have " Palais du Trocadero, 187S." on 
their labels. Though clever workmen 
had worked on them, all instruments 
that bear his name received the 
finishing touches and were varnished 
by Eugene himself. He also made 
very good bows, the violin bows 
especially are noted for their li;4ht- 
ness and perfect balance. Like his 
father he was a great authority on old 
instruments. Between 1.S66 and the 
year of his death. t,5o() violins, 460 
violoncellos, and 190 altos passed 
through his hands, the last violin being 
finished on Au.i^ust 14, 1891. In 1889 
he and (justave liernanlel exhibited a 
double-bass, noticeable as being of the 


ordinary size, but having five strings. 
The firm was awarded the silver medal 
at the 1867 Exhibition ; in 1878 they 
exhibited a double quartet, which was 
reported on as being of great beauty, 
harmonious proportions, careful work- 
manship, with red varnish like that of 
Lupot, excellent tone, everything show- 
ing a skilled maker ; they were awarded 
the gold medal. Label : " Gand et 
Bernardel pres, luthiers de la musique 
de I'Empereur et du Conservatoire, 
No. — . Paris, 18 — ." Eugene was 
made Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur 
(Oct. 20, 1878). He was appointed a 
member of the jury at the Exhibition 
of Amsterdam, 1883 ; Kouen, 1884 ; 
Antwerp, 1885 ; Havre. 1887; Barcelona, 

1888 ; and of Paris, 1889, when he was 
made Officier de la Legion d'honneur 
(Oct. 29, 1889). He also received the 
following orders and honours : Nicham 
Iftichar. Oct. 20, 1885 ■ order of 
Leopold of Belgium, Feb. i, 1886; of 
Isabelle la Catholique, March 18, 

1889 ; and " les palmes academiques," 
Dec. 29. 1888. 

Gand, Guillaume, second son of Charles 
Michel Gand, b. July 22, 1792, Paris; 
d. May 31, 1858, Versailles. Was a 
pupil of Nicolas Lupot. Succeeded to 
his father's business at Versailles in 
1820. His instruments are similar in 
work to those of Lupot, they are much 
liked, and always fetch a good price. 

Garani (Garana) , Michelangelo. A maker 
in Bologna about 1680 to 1720. He 
followed the pattern of Stradivari ; his 
violas were particularly well made, but 
his instruments, though of sweet tone 
and careful work, have little value 

Garani, Nicola. Worked in Naples 
about 1700. Made fair instruments on 
the Gagliano pattern ; used plain wood 
and yellow varnish. 

Garenghi Guiseppe. Worked in Brescia, 


Gaspan. A viol maker of early date. 

Gaspare da Salo, son of Francesco 
Bertolotti, b. 1542, probably in Salo, 
a small town in Brescia on the shores 
of Lake Garda ; d. April 14, 1609. 
One of the earliest of the great makers 
in Brescia, and probably among the 
first to give the violin the form 
afterwards definitely adopted by the 
Italian makers; he certainly assisted in 
the transformation of the ancient viol- 
form into that of the violin. His 
violins have more of an historical than 
practical or artistic interest ; the pattern 
is primitive, and one must realise the 

early date of his work to appreciate its 
merit in spite of its imperfections ; for 
it is not to be compared with that of 
G. P. Maggini, who came soon after 
him (1580-1632). He was famed for 
his viols, l>ass-viols, and tenor-viols; his 
bass-viols have generally been re- 
mounted as double-basses ; one, admir- 
able for the equality of its tone, 
belonged to Dragonetti, who refused 
;^8oo for it, and bequeathed it to Venice ; 
another, with four strings, is in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection ; also a 
little bass-viol, of rather clumsy work- 
manship with very dark varnish. 
About 1570 this form of his work 
varied a good deal ; the lower plate is 
quite flat and the upper plate arched, 
whilst the upper part, instead of having 
the round form of the violin, sinks on 
each side, similarly to a viol ; the tone 
is strong. His tenors were unquestion- 
ably his best instruments ; one that 
was exhibited in London in 1872 was 
sold in 1894 for £81 ; the varnish was 
a beautiful golden-yellow ; true four- 
stringed tenors, made with only two 
corners, a very primitive form, exist, 
but are very rare. The violoncello, 
with a head with four pegs, was made 
in Italy from about 1520, but the first 
authentic specimensdate from Gasparo, 
and are extremely rare. Only about 
ten viols, viols da gamba, and other 
instruments are known, and of really 
authentic violins only six or seven, 
which are much prized, chiefly because 
of their rarity. They are made on a 
longer and more arched pattern than 
the Cremona instruments (his viols are 
generally on a flat model) ; the sound- 
hole is straight, long, pointed, and 
widely opened ; the centre bouts often 
short and shallow ; the scroll rough ; 
the wood well chosen (pear wood and 
sycamore wood are often used), the 
grain of the bellies usually very regular 
and even ; the varnish sometimes rich 
brown (probably darkened with age), 
sometimes very clear brown-amber 
colour ; penetrating, strong tone ; the 
corners not very promment and much 
rounded ; the purfling generally single ; 
the workmanship heavy and not highly 
finished. This pattern was partially 
revived by Giuseppe Guarneri (1686- 
1745), owing, doubtless, to its great 
tone-producing capacity. The cele- 
brated violin that belonged to Ole Bull 
was made of light wood, with rich 
varnish, paler in colour than usual . it 
had a beautifully carved head. Another 
violin, which belonged to Dr. Forster, is 



said to have been dated 1613 ; it had 
beautiful varnish and very good tone, 
but had a new head and neck. Two 
other violins are said to be dated 1566 
and 1576 respectively. Gasparo's 
usual label was undated : " Gasparo da 
Salo in Brescia ' ' ; but his name has 
been much used in modern altos and 
violins made in imitation of the early 
Brescian type ; many instruments with 
his label were really made by G. P. 

Gattanani. A maker in Piedmont about 

Gattinari (Catenari), Enrico. See 
" Cater ar." 

Gattinari, Francesco, son of Enrico 
Gattinari. A clever maker in Turin 
about 1700-5. A violin of excellent 
tone, rather arched, with effective red- 
brown varnish, was of good workman- 
ship and was labelled ' ' Francesco 
Gattinari, fecit Taurini, anno Domini 
1704." An alto with thick red varnish 
was also well made. 

Gautrot. A maker in Mirecourt. His 
instruments are strongly and well 
made ; he started a factory for instru- 
ments of all kinds at Chateau-Thierry 
in 1855. 

Gavinies (Gavanies), Fran9ois, b. about 
1700. Lived first at Bordeaux, but 
about 1730 moved to Paris with his 
son, and was living in rue St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre, 1734-63. He made two 
very different kinds of instruments ; 
the one inferior, the other, for which 
he used varnish and wood of good 
quality, was much liked. He generally 
branded them with his name. Instru- 
ments dated 1734, 1735, and 1751 ; also 
a six-stringed viol dated 1744 in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection, are 
known. The Conservatoire also has, 
for the use of its pupils, one of his 
double-basses with the head sculptured 
to represent King David ; its tone is 
excellent, it was made in 1757. Label : 
" Gavinies, rue St-Thomas-du-Louvre, 
a Paris. 1734" He had a son, Pierre, 
the celebrated violinist. 

Gedler, Johann Anthony and Johann 
Benedict. Two brothers who worked 
together in Fiissen, Bavaria, about 
1750 to 1796. They made inferior 

Geisenhof (Gaissenhof, Geigenhof), 
Franz, b. 1754; d. 1821. A maker in 
Vienna. He made fairly good instru- 
ments on the Stradivari pattern. 
Sometimes branded them with his 
initials, " F. G." J. B. Schweizer was a 
pupil of his. 

Gemiinder, August, b. 1814, Wiirtem- 
berg; d. Sept., 1895, New York. Pupil 
of his father, who was also a maker. 
Went to the United States, and settled 
in Massachusetts in 1846. He made 
excellent instruments, much used for 
solo playing. He made such an exact 
copy of the Amati violin belonging to 
Serior Sarasate that it was pronounced 
to be equal to the original. 

Gemiinder, George, brother of August 
Gemiinder, b. 1816, Ingelfingen ; d. 
Jan. 15, 1899. Pupil of Vuillaume in 
Paris. Went to New York in 1849. 
He made excellent copies of many 
celebrated violins. In 1881 he pub- 
lished "George Gemiinder's Progress 
in Violin Making." 

Gennaro. Worked in Naples, 1785-1820. 
He made very beautiful guitars, in- 
laid with mother-of-pearl, ivory, &c. 
Labels: "Gennaro fabricatore, anno 
1802, Napoli, Strada S. Giacomo, 
No. 26," and "Gennaro fabricatore, 
anno 1820, Napoli, Strada S. Giacomo, 
No. 42," found in a large guitar. 

Gerans, Paolo. Working in Cremona 
about 1 61 4. 

Gerle, Conrad. An early maker of lutes, 
b. at Nuremberg ; was living there in 
1461 and died there 1521; was buried 
in the Church of St. Roch. He was 
celebrated both as a lute player and 
lute maker, his lutes, called " Lutz 
d'Alemaigne," were well known in the 
15th century. The Allgevieine Musik- 
alische Zeitung (Leipzig) published the 
old notice of his death: "An St. 
Barbara Abend starb der erbar Conrad 
Gerle. Lautenmacher. Dem Gott 
gnaedig sey. Amen." 

Gerle, Hans, (?) a son of Conrad. Date 
of birth unknown, about 1500 ; d. 1570. 
Lived in Nuremberg. Was a lute player, 
composer, and author, and as early as 
1523 was famed for the lutes he made. 
In 1532 his portrait was published with 
the inscription, " Hanns Gerle, lutenist 
(lute player) in Niirnberg, anno 1532." 
He published a work on the lute in 
1532, entitled : " MusicaTeusch auf die 
Instrument der grossen und kleinen 
Geygen, auch Lautten, etc. , durch Hans 
Gerle lutinist zu Nurenberg auszgan- 
gen, 1532 " (" German music for instru- 
ments of large and little viols, also for 
lutes," edited by Hans Gerle, lute 
player at Nuremberg, 1532) ; a second 
edition appeared in 1546, entitled : 
" Musica und Tabulatur, aiiff die Instru- 
menten der kleinen und grossen Geygen 
auch Lautten, etc. Von newen corri- 
girt und durch aussgebessert durch 



Hansen Gerle, Lautenmacher zu Niirn- 
berg von 1546 jar " (" Music and 
Tablature for instruments of little and 
large viols, also for lutes, &c., revised 
and corrected by Hans Gerle, lute 
maker at Nuremberg, in 1546"). Both 
the I St and 2nd editions are in the 
Imperial Library at Berlin. These 
two interesting editions are most rare 
and valuable. 

Germain, Emile. son of Joseph Louis 
Germain, to whose business he suc- 
ceeded in 1870; b. July 24, 1853, Paris. 
In 1865 he was sent to Mirecourt to 
be apprenticed to the trade, returned 
to Paris in 1867, and, until his father's 
death (1870), worked with him. Went 
into partnership with Dehommais, 
living first at 12, rue Croix-des-petits- 
Champs, and then at 5, Faubourg 
Montmartre. Dehommais retired in 
1882, and Emil continued the business 
alone ; in ten years' time he made more 
than 500 instruments, nearly all personal 
work, showing talent and care ; he used 
a good varnish. Was very experienced 
in repairing old Italian instruments. 
Labels : " Dehommais et Germain a 
Paris, 12 rue Croix-des-petits-Champs, 
1878," and " Emil Germain, a Paris, 
5 Faubourg Montmartre, 1888." 

Germain, Joseph Louis, b. July 23, 1822, 
Mirecourt ; d. there, July 5, 1870. 
A-pprenticed at Mirecourt, went to 
Paris, 1840, and worked under Charles 
Francois Gand, till the death of the 
latter (1845). Was then employed by 
J. B. Vuillaume, for whom he made 
several excellent instruments, till 1850, 
when he became first workman under 
" Gand Fils." In 1862 he started his 
own business at 364, rue Saint-Denis. 
He retired to Mirecourt in 1870, and 
died the same year. He was a maker 
of great talent, and his instruments 
show superior workmanship. He was 
especially skilful in repairing old in- 
struments. Label: "Joseph Louis 
Germain ; a Paris, annee 1868." His 
son Emile was also a violin maker. 

Geroni, Domenico. A maker in Ostia, 
Italy, about 1800-20. Made inferior 

Gherardi, Giacomo. Was working in 
Bologna in 1677. 

Ghidini, Carlo. A maker in Parma 
about 1746. 

Gianoli, Domenico. Worked at Milan 
in 1731. 

Gibbs, James. Worked in London about 
1800-45 ; probably died in 1845. He 
was employed by J. Morrison, George 
Corsby, and Samuel Gilkes. 

Gibertini, Antonio. A maker in Parma, 
1830-33. Made a number of violins on 
the Stradivari pattern, using rather 
dark red varnish ; his work was care- 
fully finished. Paganini, the great 
violinist, sometimes employed him to 
repair his violins 

Gigli, Giulio Cesare. Worked in Rome 
about 1730-62. Label: " Julius Caesar 
Gigli Romanus fecit Romae, anno 176 1." 

Gilbert, Nicolas Louis. A maker in 
Metz about 1700. In the Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1878, a very pretty five- 
stringed viol — dated " Metz, 1701 " — 
of his was shown. 

Gilbert, Simon, son of Nicolas Louis 
Gilbert. Worked at Metz about 1737- 
65. A five-stringed viol, dated 1744 ; 
another, dated 1749; and another, dated 
1765, are known. Label: "Simon 
Gilbert, luthier, musicien de la Cathe- 
drale a Metz, 1737." 

Gilkes, Samuel, b. 1787, Morton Pinkney, 
Northamptonshire; d. Nov., 1827, 
London. Apprenticed to Charles 
Harris, sen., in London, afterwards 
worked for William Forster( 1764- 1824). 
In 1810 he started his own business, 
labelling his instruments with his own 
name. He followed the Nicola Amati 
pattern, and was a clever maker, 
although his style showed traces of his 
training under Charles Harris. He 
used varnish of rich quality, and his 
work was beautifully finished. He 
made various classes of instruments for 
country dealers. Label: " Gilkes from 
Forster's, violin and violoncello maker, 
34, James Street, Buckingham Gate, 

Gilkes, William, son of Samuel Gilkes, 
b. about 181 1, in Grey Coat Street 
Tothill Fields, Westminster; d. 1875, 
London. Taught by his father and 
succeeded to his business in James 
Street, but afterwards moved to Dart- 
mouth Street. He made a great many 
instruments, of various patterns, princi- 
pally double-basses, but did not gain 
the same reputation as his father. He 
ceased to make instruments for some 
time before his death. 

Gioffreda, B. A maker in Turin in i860. 

Giordano (Giordane), Alberto. A 
maker in Cremona about 1735-40. A 
little pocket violin with rose-coloured 
varnish is beautifully made, with the 
label : " Alto Giordano fecit Cremonae " 
(the date illegible). 

Giorgi, Nicola. A maker in Turin in 
1745, according to the following label : 
" Nicolaus Giorgi fecit Taurini, anno 



Giquelier, Ciistoioto. In the Paris 
(.'onservatoiie Collection is a viola 
bastarda with five strings dated 1712, 
made by him. 

Giraniani. Working in Leghorn in 
1730. according to a MS. label found 
in a violin, fairly well made, with 
yellow varnish of good quality. 

Girod, Claude A French maker of 
whom little is known. 

Giron. Si'i- " Villaume." 

Giuliani. A maker of viols in Cremona 
in 1660. He was a pupil of Nicola 
Amati, and made some excellent copies 
ot his instruments. 

Gobetti. Francesco. A maker at Venice 
about 1705. Said to have been a pupil 
of Antonio Stradivari ; he used splendid 
wood, very beautiful red varnish, 
rather transparent, and made on a 
large flat pattern, with sound-holes 
similar to those of Kuggeri ; the 
purlling is not very neat, and the scroll 
is rather weak in character ; but the 
workmanship throughout is carefully 
finished and the tone is of a rich full 
quality. A very beautiful violin was 
exhibited in Paris, 1878, with fine 
go!den-red varnish, with label : 
" Franciscus Gobetti, fecit Venetiis, 
1715." A similar label has been seen 
dated 1705. His instruments are much 

Goffriller (Gofriller), Ant(jnio. A 
member of the family of this name 
working in Venice at the beginning of 
the i8tli century. 

Goffriller, brancesco, brother of Matteo ; 
probably worked as his collaln)rat()r in 
V'cnice. He made few instruments, 
and seldom put his label into them ; 
they were of fairly good work, with 
u^ly yellow-brown varnish 

Goffriller, Matteo A maker in Venice 
about 1690 to 1740 He had great 
ability, and his work is peculiarh- 
beautiful and c;riginal ; his pattern is 
slightly arched, the sound-hole well cut, 
the golden-yelluw varnish very trans- 
parent. It is the exception to find 
violins and violoncellos in which the 
wood was carefully chosen ; as a rule 
he was careless about his material, 
seveial \ioloncellos ha\ e the back made 
of po})lar tree wood ; but the same 
accurate and skilful workmanship is 
always shown ; the tone was powerful 
and even in (juality. His whole work, 
in arching, proportions, and \arnish, 
is so unlike that of Stradivari that it is 
absurd to insert Stradivari labels into 
his instruments. His violoncellos are 
especially liked, two being known, most 

beautifully made. Label: " Mattheus 
Goffriller faciebat Venetiis, anno 

Goldt, Jacob Heinrich. Amaker in Ham- 
burg, 1700-54. A lute is known of his. 

Gonnet, Pierre Jean Was working in 
rue du Temple, Paris, 1775-83. 

Gosselin. An amateur maker in Paris 
about 1814-30, whose work is little 
known and little valued. He learnt a 
great deal from Koliker He made 
violins, altos, and violoncellos of 
ordinary workmanship and good tone, 
often using for the back and sides a 
speckled wood, which gave them 
rather a peculiar look. Label: " Fait 
par (iosselin, amateitr, Paris, annee 
1826," in a violin of sonorous tone; 
and " Fait par Gosselin, luthier, Paris, 
annee 1830." 

Gosset. A maker at Rheims, who, in 
1769. proposed to alter the frets on 
the various kinds of viols and guitars 
in such a way as to produce, instead 
of equal semitones, the major or minor 
semitone which was required. 

Gough. John. Sir " Dearlove, M. \V." 

Gough. Walter, d. about 1830. He was 
not a particularly good workman 

Gouvernari, Antonio. A maker in 
Cremona about 1600-10. 

Grabensee, J. A. A maker in Diisseldorf 
about 1850-55. Label : " Reparirt 
{Re{)aired) von J. A. Grabensee in 
Diisseldorf, 1854." 

Gragnani, Antonio. A maker in Leghorn 
about 1741-80. His work is a little 
rough ; he used inferior wood and the 
varnish is poor, but the tone is 
sympathetic, sweet, and clear. He 
generally branded his instruments with 
his initials, "A. G " A fi\e-stringed 
viol exhibited at South Kensington 
Museum, London, in 1872, had the 
label : " Antonius Ciragnani, fecit anno 
1 74 1." In an inferior \iolin was the 
label : " Antonius Gragnani fecit 
Liburni. anno 1780"; a similar one 
was dated 1752. 

Gragnani, Gennaro, presumably a 
relation of Antonio. Was working in 
Leghorn, 1730. 

Gragnani, Oiiorato, son of Antonio 
Gragnani. His work was inferior to 
that of his father. 

Granadino Sec "Contreras. Joseph." 

Grancino, IVancesco and Giam Hattista, 
sons of Giovanni and grandsons of 
Paolo (Jrancino. Worked together at 
Milan, 1700-46. They were the best 
makers of this family and made a great 
many instruments, using generally 
spirit varnish, very clear, and an ugly 



yellowish colour, and wood of poor 
quality ; their work was rough, but 
the tone of their violoncellos and 
double-basses was fairly f?ood. A 
violoncello, of fine powerful tone, was 
made of plain wood, that of the belly 
only being fine ; the light yellow 
varnish had become darkened with 
age. Their instruments generally were 
not beautiful to look at, but had a 
good tone. Labels : " (jio. e Francesco 
fratelli de Grancini in contrada larga 
di Milano. 17—-," and " (iiov. Hattista 
e PVancesco fra. Grancini in contrada 
largo di Milano, 17—." 

Grancino, (jiovanni, son of Paolo 
Grancino. Worked in Milan about 
1690 to 1730 Pupil of his father, and 
did similar but better work ; his instru- 
ments are not so arched, with yellow 
varnish, and the wood was more care- 
fully chosen ; they have a powerful 
tone ; the details are not very carefully 
finished. Many of his violins, violas, 
and violoncellos are to be met with, 
usually made on a large flat pattern. 
Labels: " Giovan Grancino in con- 
trada larga di Milano al segno della 
Corona, 1692," and "Giovanni Gran- 
cino in Contrada Largha di Milano, 
al segno della Corona, 1721." He had 
two sons, Francesco and Giam Battista, 
both makers. 

Grancino, Pa(;lo. Worked at Milan, 
1665-90. Pupil of Nicola Amati at 
Cremona. He made a large number 
of instruments; the altos and the 
violoncellos are generally liked. He 
used poor material, often making the 
back and sides of poplar tree wood ; 
followed a large pattern, slightly 
arched, with large sound-holes widely 
opened, and a dry varnish of an 
effective golden-yellow colour. The 
scroll was often rouglily cut, and the 
purfling and corners carelessly worked. 
His work on the whole was but 
moderately good. His son, Giovaimi, 
was also a maker. 

Grand-Gerard. .\ maker in tht; Vosges 
alioiit 1790-1810. Also worked in 
I'aris. Made a great many instru- 
ments; the work is inferior, the varnish 
a dull brown colour. He l)randed his 
instruments with his name. Label : 
' (irand-Ge'rard a I'aris." 

Grandini, Gcronimo, .sen One of the 
well known makers at Mirecouit 
whose instruments have merit 

Grandjon, sen. A maker at Mirecourt. 
^\'(lrl•: only moderately good. 

Grandjon, | , son of (jrandjon, sen ; also 
a maker at Mirecourt. Was awarded 

medal of the ist class in 1855 (Paris 
Exhibition), bronze mecial in 1867, 
and a " Mention honorable" in 187S, 

Gray, J. A maker in Fochabers, Banff- 
shire, Scotland, in 1870. 

Greffts, Johann. Was working at Fussen, 
Bavaria, in 1622. 

Gregori. Worked in Bologna about 1793. 

Gregorio, Antoniazzi. See " Antoniazzi." 

Griesser, Matthias. A maker in Inns- 
bruck in 1727. A viola d'amore, with 
seven strings for bowing and twelve 
harmonic strings, of which the nineteen 
pegs are all in the head, which is very 
long, is in the Collecticm of the Liceo 
filarmonico at liologna. Label : 
" Matthias (rriesser, Lauten und 
Geigenmacher in Innsbrugg, anno 

Grimm, Carl, b. 1794 ; d. June, 1855, at 
Berlin. A musician who, showing great 
talent in making violins, started a busi- 
ness in Berlin, and was soon considered 
one of the best German makers of his 
time. He made a great many experi- 
ments, combined with a serious study 
of the work of the old Italian makers ; 
and his instruments are celebrated for 
their powerful tone and for the beautiful 
(juality of their varnish. The firm 
ne\'er made more than thirty instru- 
ments per year, thus devoting much 
time to their construction and finish. 
A quartet of his instruments was very 
generally praised at the London K\- 
hibition in 1862 for their rich and full 

Grimm, Ludwig, son of Carl Grimm 
In association with his brother-in-law 
Hellmig, continued his father's busi- 
ness in Berlin. 

Griseri, Filippo. A maker in Florence 
in 1650. 

Grobitz, A A German who was work- 
ing in Warsaw in 1750, and made good 
violins on the Stainer pattern 

Groll, Matthew A maker in Meran, 
Tyrol, in 1800. 

Grosset, Paid Francois. A maker in 
Paris, 1747-59. Pupil of Claude 
Pierrajv lie made few instruments ; 
the proportions were generally bad, too 
much arched ; he used a good varnish 
of brilliant Nellow colour ; the wf^rk was 
fairly good. Two five-stringed viols of 
Iiis are known, onv, dated 1749, the 
otVier T752. In a violoncello was the 
lal)el : " P. F. Grosset. Au dieu 
Apollon, rue de la Verrerio, a Paris, 

Grossi, Giuseppe. Work(;d in Bologna 

in 1S03 
Grou A maker in Paris about 1752. 



Grulli, Pietro. Was working in Cremona 
in 1883 ; ^6 died there in 1898. 

Guadagnini, Antonio, son of C^aetano, 
grandson of Carlo Guadagnini, b. 1831 ; 
d. 1 88 1 at Turin. He made a great 
many instruments. 

Guadagnini, Carlo (?), son of Gaetano, 
grandson of Giambattista Guadagnini. 
A maker of guitars at Turin about 
1780. He also repaired instruments. 
His three sons, Gaetano, Giuseppe, and 
Felice, were all makers, but chiefly 
worked at repairing old instruments. 

Guadagnini, Felice, son of Carlo 
Guadagnini. A maker in Turin about 
1835. His work was excellent, he 
made good useful instruments, with 
well-cut scroll, but the varnish hard 
and cold. 

Guadagnini, Francesco and Giuseppe, 
sons of Antonio Guadagnini. Makers 
at Turin. 

Guadagnini, Gaetano, son of Giam- 
battista, grandson of Lorenzo. Worked 
at Turin about 1750. He made few 
new instruments, but chiefly repaired 
old ones. His son. Carlo, was also a 

Guadagnini, Gaetano. Sec " Carlo 

Guadagnini, Giambattista, son of 
Lorenzo, b. 1711 at Cremona; d. 
Sept. i8, 1786, at Turin. Possibly 
worked under Antonio Stradivari in 
Cremona before he accompanied his 
father, about 1730, to Milan. Later 
he went with him to Piacenza and 
worked there many years, but left 
when his father died, and went to 
Parma, where he was appointed instru- 
ment maker to the Duke ; but when the 
pensions to the artists of the Duke's 
Court were discontinued, m 1772, he 
went to Turin and worked there till his 
death, 1786. A pupil of hii' father, his 
violins and basses show the same form, 
the same qualities, and the same 
defects. He followed the Stradivari 
pattern, and his instruments stand 
high in public estimation. He often 
suffers in reputation from having the 
same Christian name as his uncle, 
Giovanni liattista, Lorenzo's brother, 
whose work was much inferior He 
used wood of the finest (juality, and 
the varnish, which shows unmistakable 
signs of inferiority to that of the 
great makers, was that brilliant golden- 
red colour which is often considered 
a characteristic of a "Guadagnini" ; 
the tone is not large, the work is 
well and carefully done. Labels : 
" Joannes Baptista Guadagnini Cre- 

monensis fecit Taurini, 1776"; a 
similar one dated 1775; and "Joannes 
Baptista Guadagnini. Cremonensis 
fecit Taurini. Alumnus Antoni Stradi- 
vari. G.B.G. 1780." He had two 
sons, Gaetano and Giuseppe, both 
Guadagnini, Giovanni Battista, brother 
of Lorenzo Guadagnini. Worked in 
Milan, Piacenza, and Turin about 1695 
to 1775. He made a great number of 
instruments, of ordinary workmanship, 
but some violins are well finished and 
the tone is good ; they are made on 
a small pattern, slightly arched, the 
sound-holes long and well cut, the 
varnish a rich dark red colour, very 
different from that used by his nephew 
Giambattista. Labels : " Joannes 
Guadagnini fecit Placentiae. anno 
1747," and "Joannes Baptista Guadag- 
nini Placentinus fecit Mediolani, 
1 775 ' ' ; another label in a violin is dated 


Guadagnini, Giuseppe, second son of 
Giambattista, grandson of Lorenzo, b. 
about 1736; d. about 1805. Firstapupil 
of his father in Turin (about 1751), 
then worked at Milan, Como, and 
Parma (about 1793). Had not so 
much ability as other members of his 
family ; he made a quantity of violins, 
altos, and violoncellos on the Stradivari 
pattern. His work was much inferior 
to that of his father, whose label he 
often used, and consequently have less 
market value ; but his instruments 
generally have a good tone. 

Guadagnini, Giuseppe. See " Carlo 

Guadagnini, Giuseppe. See " Francesco 

Guadagnini, Lorenzo, b. at Piacenza (?) 
about 1665 ; worked till about 1740. A 
well-known pupil of Antonio Stradivari 
at Cremona, he worked there for many 
years; later went to Milan (about 1730) 
and then to Piacenza. His instruments 
are much liked, especially the violins; 
generally made on a small pattern, 
slightly arched, of good proportions, 
the wood of good quality, with very 
beautiful golden-red varnish ; the purfl- 
ing and corners rather heavy, the 
scroll not so well cut as that of Stradi- 
vari, the tone rich and powerful. His 
instruments, when in good condition, 
are of a high commercial value. 
Labels : " Laurentius (iuadagnini Cre- 
monae Alumnus Stradivari fecit, anno 
Domini 17 — ,"and Laurentius Guadag- 
nini pater. Alumnus Antoni Stradivari 
fecit Placentiae, anno 1743 " ; similar 



labels are dated 1742 and 1743- 
His son, Giambattista, was also a 

Quatini, Joseph, b. at Geneva. A 
maker in Germigny, Vosges, in partner- 
ship with Jules Martin. His violins 
show thoroughly good workmanship, 
they have double purfling, are not 
much arched, and are made of carefully 
selected wood, with a full and powerful 

Guarneri, Andrea, b. about 1626 at 
Cremona; d. there Dec. 7, 1698 ; was 
buried in the Church of San Domenico 
the following day. He was descended 
from an ancient and noble Cremonese 
family, and was the head of the cele- 
brated family of makers^ known by the 
Latin form of their name , ' ' Guarnerius . ' ' 
Pupil of Antonio and Girolamo Amati ; 
later, about 1641, of Nicola Amati, a 
fellow student being Antonio Stradivari. 
He was one of the witnesses at N. 
Amati's marriage in 1645, but was not 
with him in 1646, but was again there 
in 1653. While influenced by Ant. 
and Gir. Amati he made on a large 
pattern, but then for many years 
followed Nicola's pattern. About 1670 
the character of his sound-holes 
changed, his model became flatter, and 
the scroll showed much character ; this 
was probably when the influence of 
Stradivari began to be felt, one of 
whose earliest followers he became ; 
but throughout he always retained a 
quite original and distinctive style of 
his own. Some of his instruments are 
beautifully made, especially his violins, 
which, in good condition, are very rare ; 
violas, of which three are known, 
suggest, both in size and in a general 
way, Maggini's work ; a violoncello is 
known, very beautiful not only in 
wood and varnish, but also in tone. 
As a rule he used good wood and 
excellent varnish, which varied greatly 
in colour from a golden yellow to 
orange, or even darker rose colour. 
The sound-holes also vary, but are 
generally straight ; the pattern is 
slightly arched, the sides often low ; 
the tone is brilliant, but does not carry 
well ; the work is neat, but not highly 
finished. Labels: " Andreas Guarne- 
rius fecit Cremonen sub titulo Sanctae 
Teresiae, 1650" (similar labels are 
dated 1670, 1675, 1690, and 1696) ; 
"Andreas Guarnerius Cremonae sub 
titulo Sanctae Teresiae, i6gi " ; and 
" Sub disciplina, Andreae Guarnerii in 
ejus officina sub titulo S. Teresiae 
Cremonae, 1676." He married, in the 

Church of San Clemente, Dec. 31, 1652, 
Anna Maria Orcelli (d. Jan. 13, 1695). 
He lived in Piazza San Domenico, now 
Piazza Roma. Two of his sons, Pietro 
Giovanni and Giuseppe Giovan 
Battista, were makers. 

Guarneri, Antonio. Two labels, of 
doubtful authenticity, are dated 1722. 

Guarneri, Caterina (?), daughter of 
Andrea. Is said to nave worked with 
her father and brothers, and to have 
made some violins in which were MS. 

Guarneri, Gian Battista, son of 
Bernardo, who was a younger brother 
of Andrea. He married Angiola Maria 
Locatelli, Aug. 3, 1682, and had six 
children ; four were sons, the eldest, 
Giuseppe Antonio, b. June 8, 1683 ; d. 
a few months after his birth ; the 
second, the only violin maker of this 
branch of the family, was Giuseppe 
(del Jesu), b. Oct. 16, 1686. This 
is mentioned because the date of the 
eldest son, Giuseppe Antonio, is very 
frequently quoted as being that of 
Giuseppe, known as del Jesu, the great 
maker. Gian Battista himself was 
not a violin maker. 

Guarneri, Giuseppe, known as "del 
Jesu," because of the mark of a cross 
with the letters " I.H.S." beneath on 
all his labels. Was the second son of 
Gian Battista Guarneri, b. Oct. 17, 
1686, at Cremona; d. there 1745. 
The date of his birth is entered in the 
registers of the parish of San Donato, 
at Cremona ; his name also appears in 
other archives till the end of the year 
1702, when all trace of him is lost ; 
but " fecit Cremonae" on all his labels 
proves that all his work was done at 
Cremona. Was said to be a pupil of 
Antonio Stradivari, but the character 
of his work does not authorise such a 
statement ; it is impossible to say 
from whom he learnt, he worked on 
such totally different principles from 
those of contemporary makers ; but 
his work sometimes resembles that of 
his cousin Giuseppe, son of Andrea. 
There is a tradition that he led an 
irregular life, was finally imprisoned 
until his death, and made violins in 
prison, with wood and varnish obtained 
first from one maker and then from 
another by the gaoler's daughter, who 
afterwards hawked the instruments 
round at miserable prices, to obtain 
money for him. This was probably 
invented to account for the number of 
inferior violins which contain his 
labels, probably all spurious, for even 



early imitations, which are well made, 
are numerous. Giuseppe del Jesu was 
the greatest maker of this family, his 
violins are especially celebrated for 
their powerful tone. Paganini played 
on a particularly fine one, of grand 
tone, dated 1743 ; he bequeathed it to 
the City of Genoa, where it is now 
kept in the I'alazzo Municipale. An- 
other very fine one, dated 1714, 
belonged to Ole Bull, the great 
violinist. Another magnificent one, 
dated 1734, was nicknamed " Le 
violon du diable," because it was the 
instrument played on in an opera of 
that name. A most beautiful one, 
.which belonged to the violinist Alard, 
was labelled " Joseph Guarnerius fecit 

Cremonae, anno 1742, I.H.S." A 
violin, dated 1741, which formerly 
belonged to Vieuxlemps, has not a 
single crack ; the wood is very thick, it 
is not arched, with high sides ; the 
varnish, thickly put on, is a splendid 
brownish-red tinged golden colour ; the 
work is carelessly finished, but the 
tone is splendid. The " King Joseph " 
violin was on a large pattern, made of 
splendid wood, not arched, with 
peculiarly shaped sound-holes, and rich 
amber-coloured varnish ; it was sold for 
700 guineas. A violin, made with the 
back in two parts, with brownish-red 
varnish, was dated 1723. A beautifully 
made viola was labelled: "Joseph 
Guarnerius Cremonensis faciebat, 
1724." His W'Ork is generally divided 
into three periods : the first shows no 
originality, for he either imitated 
Nicola Amati or G. P. Maggini, 
reviving the pattern of the latter, which 
is arched from the purfling, with semi- 
circular middle bouts, pointed sound- 
holes, and short corners; the tone is 
good. In the second period, the 
pattern is small and slightly arched in 
a gradual rise from the purfling, the 
thicknesses vary, but especially 
increase at the centre of the back — a 
delect, in so far as it prevents free 
vibration ; the proportions are accurate, 
the sound-holjs well cut (often sharply 
pointed top and bottom), the tone is full 
of r)rilliancy, the rich golden or 
brownish-red varnish is of fine elastic 
qualit}-, very transparent, and rivals 
that of Stradivari. The work is most 
carefully finished; the wood, generally 
sycamore, varies both in quality and 
appearance ; it is thought that he used 
the same large piece of pine for nearlv 
all the bellies- a stain or sap mark runs 

through it, which, though sometimes 
faint, can always be seen. For this 
reason three violins of Carlo Bergonzi, 
with bellies evidently cut from the 
same piece of pine, were for a long time 
thought to be Giuseppe's work. In 
the third period, dating from about 
1735, to which Paganini's and Alard's 
violins belong, the instruments vary 
greatly in pattern and appearance, but 
show his originality and ability ; they 
are equal to the most beautiful work of 
Stradivari. Made on a large pattern, of 
excellent wood, with accurate propor- 
tions and thicknesses, and beautiful 
varnish, as remarkable for its fine and 
elastic quality as for its colour, either 
rich amber or rose-red, slightly darker 
and thicker than that of Stradivari ; 
the quaint head, very characteristic, is 
entirely different from Stradivari's; the 
purfling is embedded, the sound-hole, 
losing its pointed form, is rather open ; 
the edges are heavy, the tone is power- 
ful, mellow, and rich. It was at this 
time that the so-called "prison" violins, 
already mentioned, suddenly appeared. 
All his variety of work — the different 
sized patterns, sometimes arched, some- 
times flat ; the sound-holes, long, 
perpendicular, or short and slanting — 
was a continuous effort to increase 
the tone of his instruments, and he 
finally succeeded in obtaining a notably 
pure and powerful volume of tone. 
He made more violins than violas. 
About fifty genuine violins and ten 
violas are known ; no violoncello is 
known. His instruments have steadily 
increased in price, no doubt owing to 
the strong wood he used ; it depreciates 
the tone at first, but with time vibrates 
more freely, the quality of tone becom- 
ing stronger and more refined. In 
1876 a violin was sold for 600 guineas 
in a sale-room ; another was recently 
sold for /500. 
Guarneri, Giuseppe Giovan Battista, 
second son of Andrea, b. Nov. 25, 1666, 
Cremona ; d. soon after 1738. Said to 
have been a pupil of his father, but 
showed much originality ; some of his 
instruments are very similar to those 
of his cousin, Giuseppe del Jesu, but 
the tone is not so powerful and round ; 
others follow the pattern of Stradi- 
vari: His violins are numerous and 
show good work. They are generally 
made on a small pattern, the waist of 
the instrument narrow and rapidly 
widening fnjm the centre ; the sound- 
holes, placed lower than usual, are 
widely opened about the middle ; the 



brilliant reddish varnish is of excellent 
quality, the wood well chosen, the tone 
\ery lull and rich, the work carefully 
finished ; two beautiful instruments 
were exhibited at South Kensington 
Museum, 1872, dated respectively 16S4 
and 1707. Many of his best violins 
have been given labels of Giuseppe del 
Jesu, since the latter's name became 
well known, and some good imitations 
of Stradivari have been labelled with 
Stradivari's name. He also made 
tenors and violoncellos ; the latter are 
very rare, the wood generally plain, 
workmanship rather careless, but the 
tone always excellent. A very fine 
violoncello, with back, sides, and neck 
of beautiful small-figured wood, belly 
of fine-grained wood, with rich red 
varnish, and of good tone, was dated 
1713. Label: "Joseph Guarnerius, 
filius Andreae fecit Cremonse, sub 
titulo S. Teresiae, 16 — "; a similar 
one dated 1706. On Jan. 4, 1690, he 
married Barbara Franchi (d. 1738), 
and had six children. Of his three 
sons, Pietro was the only one who 
became a maker. 
Guarneri, Pietro, son of Giuseppe Giovan 
Battista Guarneri, grandson of Andrea, 
b. April 14, 1695, at Cremona. Worked 
first in Mantua and then in Venice till 
about 1760. He followed the patterns 
of his uncle I'ietro, and may have been 
his pupil while in Mantua. His work 
is very good ; his instruments are 
rather arched, have splendid varnish, 
and a fine rich tone. A most beautiful 
violoncello is known, the sides and back 
made of maple, beautifully marked, the 
varnish admirable, a golden amber 
colour tinted with rose, rather similar 
to that of Montagnana. In it is the 
label : " Petrus Guarnerius filius 
Joseph Cremonensis fecit Venetiis, 
anno 1739"; a similar label is dated 

Guarneri, Pietro Giovanni, eldest son of 
Andrea, b. Feb. iS, 1655, at Cremona; 
d. about 1740. He remained in Cre- 
mona till 1680, then went to ^lantua ; 
he visited Cremona for a few months 
in 1698 (the year of his father's death), 
but returned to Mantua and probably 
lived there, 1700-40. Said to have 
been a pupil of Girolamo Amati. His 
instruments differ from those of his 
father and brother, but he used their 
labels for the violins made before he 
had left Cremona. His work shows 
great originality ; his violins are on a 
large pattern, very arched, made of 
good wood, that of the bellies being 

wide in grain and very even ; the 
breadth between the sound-holes is 
increased and the corners are delicately 
worked ; the purfiing excellent ; the 
scroll very characteristic ; the trans- 
parent varnish, of beautiful rich quality, 
either warm yellow or pale red colour ; 
the tone is full, but lacks brilliancy. 
The \ ioloncellos he made when in Man- 
tua are often of exaggerated form, and 
were intended for use in processions, 
the performers having them suspended 
round the neck. His work, generally 
excellent, had some serious defects 
Though quite correctly making the 
backs and bellies of his violins of 
equal thicknesses, he made them too 
thin, which rendered the tone veiled 
and dull, and also gave too much 
flexibility to the instrument, so that 
the tension on the strings is great, 
it is difficult to keep them up to pitch, 
and they are liable to break. His 
instruments, however, are much valued. 
Labels: "Petrus Guarnerius Cre- 
monensis fecit Mantuai sub. tit. Sanct?e 
Teresiae, 1695," similar ones are dated 
1690 and 1710 ; and " Revisto e corretto 
da me Pietro Guarneri Cremonese in 
IMantova, 1697." ^^ i^77 he married 
Caterina Sussagni ; had one son, Andrea 
Francesco, b. Jan. 29, 1678, who was 
not a violin maker. 

Gudis, Hieronimo. A maker in Cremona 
in 1727. A very beautiful viola d'amore 
of his is known, the belly made of good 
pine, the back and sides of beautifully 
marked maple ; the carved neck ends in 
a woman's head with eyes bandaged, 
it has 17 pegs; the varnish is light, a 
golden yellow colour, and the work is 
carefully finished. 

Guedon, Jacques Antoine. A maker in 
Paris; working, 1775-77, i^ rue de la 
Tissanderie ; and, 1779-83, in rue 

Guerin, Alexandre Sauveur, b. Aug. 20, 
1834, HN-eres ; d. 1897. Pupil and 
successor of Edmond Daniel. Worked 
at Marseilles, 18 rue Paradis. Repaired 
old instruments and made new ones on 
the pattern of Stradivari ; used an 
orange-red varnish. Exhibited at Mar- 
seilles, 1861 and 1886; Nimes, 1863; 
and Paris, 1889 ; and was awarded gold 
medals, i silver medal, i bronze medal, 
and a diploma of honour. He was 
assisted by his son Marius (b. 1871) 
who was a pupil of Darte a* 
Mirecourt, and then worked under 
Gand and Bernardel in Paris. 

Guerra, Giacomo. A maker in Modena 
in 1810. 



Guerrero, Juan. Working in Malaga in 
the i8th century. In a guitar is the 
label : " Juan Guerrero me fecit en 
Malaga en el ano de 175 — ." 

Guersan, Louis. A maker in Paris about 
1 730-69 ; was living in rue de la Comedie- 
Fran^aise in 1 760, and in rue des Fosses 
St. -Germain in 1769. Was one of a 
family whose members for more than 
a century had been violin makers ; he 
himself was one of the best French 
makers of his period. Pupil and suc- 
cessor of Claude Pierray . When he left 
the latter' s workshop he made various 
experiments in altering the arching, the 
thicknesses, &c., using spirit varnish 
on his instruments ; the result, however, 
was not good, the tone produced being 
harsh and shrill. He was appointed 
maker to the Dauphin and to the Opera ; 
in the archives of the latter is a quaint 
memorandum of repairs done by him 
to the double-bass of the Opera, 
which proves that at this date (1749) 
there was only one double-bass in the 
orchestra. He made many instru- 
ments, and they fetch good prices. 
Made on a small pattern, the propor- 
tions, depth of the sides and thicknesses 
vary continually, especially in the 
violoncellos ; the alcoholic varnish is 
hard and dry, either a pale yellow or 
rose colour ; its great drawback is that 
it dries too quickly and paralyses the 
vibrations, doing a great deal of harm 
to the tone ; the work is beautifully 
finished. A viola of middle size, with 
the back in two parts and a brownish- 
red varnish, is known. Several five- 
stringed viols of his are in the Collection 
of the Paris Conservatoire ; two are 
dated 1747. one 1751. and one 1755. 
Two six-stringed viols are dated 1755 
and 1763. A treble-viol, in beautiful 

preservation, with pale yellow varnish, 
and of very careful workmanship, is 
dated 1752. A handsome violin is 
dated 1737, another 1744, and another 
1766. Two violoncellos were dated 
1740. Labels: "Louis Guersan pres 
la Comedie-Fran(;aise a Paris, 1730," 
and " Ludovicus Guersan, prope 
comcediam gallicam, Lutetiae, 1766." 

Gugemmos (Guggemos). A maker in 
Fussen, Bavaria, in the i8th century. 
His work was poor and he used 
varnish of bad quality. 

Guglielmi, Gio. Battista. A maker in 
Cremona, 1747. 

Guidantus, Joannes Florenus. A maker 
in Bologna about 1685 to 1728. Was 
possibly a pupil of Nicola Amati. He 
was an excellent workman, his instru- 
ments look well, are on a high model, 
with long sound-holes ; but the purfling 
is carelessly done and the tone is 
rather poor. A viola d'amore, exhibited 
at Milan in 1881, ornamented with a 
beautiful head, artistically carved, re- 
presenting a blindfolded Cupid, was 
labelled: "Joannes Guidantus fecit 
Bononiae, anno 1715." Another label 
was: "Joannes Florenus Guidantus 
fecit Bononiae, 1724." A viola da gamba 
was dated 1728. See "Florenus." 

Guidomini, Lorenzo. In Milan, 1740. 

Guillami. A Spanish family of violin 
makers who worked about 1680-1780. 

Guillaume. A guitar of his is dated 
1789. A Fran9ois Guillaume, a maker 
of harps in Paris, was working in rue 
de rUniversite, 1783-86; and in the 
rue de Beaune, 1788-89. 

Guiton, R., of Cork; clever maker. 

Gusetto, Nicola. Worked in Florence, 
1730. Was later in Cremona. 

Gutermann. A maker of good instru- 
ments in Vienna in the 19th century. 


Haensel, Johann Anton. W^as maker 
and chamber musician to the Duke of 
Schonburg, at Rochsburg, about 1800- 
15. In Jan., 181 1, he published an 
article in the Allgemeine Musikaltsche 
Zeiiung (Leipzig), called " Ueber den 
Bauder Violine," in which he described 
a new form for the violin, which he 
said he had invented as early as 1801. 
The invention did not live. 

Haff. A maker in Augsburg in the 19th 

Hamberger. Joseph. A celebrated 
maker in Pressburg, Hungary ; he 

died i858. His son also worked in 
Pressburg ; he died in 1891. Another 
son is a maker in Vienna. 

Hamm, Johann Gottfried. A German 
maker who worked 1780-1810. Instru- 
ments are known, with ivory edges, 
in which his name is branded. 

Hammig, W H, b. 1838. A maker in 
Leipzig, who turns out good instru- 

Harbour or Harbur. A maker who 
lived in 1785 at Duke Street. Lincoln's 
Inn, London ; in 1786, at Southampton 
Buildings, Holborn. 



Hardanger. For instruments made by 
the Hardanger peasants in Norway, 
s€e " Eriksen" and " Heldal." 

Hardie, James, and Sons. Makers at 
117, Nicolson Street, Edinburgh. 
James Hardie, b. Aguhadley, Ellon, 
about 1837 '' grandson and pupil of 
Peter Hardie. Started his own busi- 
ness in Edinburgh, where he is assisted 
by his four sons. They have made 
between two and three thousand 
instruments, on the Maggini, Stradi- 
vari, and Guarneri patterns, using oil 
varnish, reddish-yellow colour, of good 
quality. Exhibited in Edinburgh, 
1887 ^^^ 1890; received bronze medal, 
1887, and gold medal, 1890. 

Hardie, Matthew, b. 1755 ; d. 1826, and 
his son, Thomas, b. 1804 ; d Jan. 19, 
1856. They worked together in Edin- 
burgh and made good violins, violas, 
and violoncellos on the Amati pattern ; 
his instruments have a fine tone, and 
the work is neatly finished. 

Hardie, Peter. A maker in Dunkeld, 
b. 1773 ; d. 1863. He turned out 
excellent instruments, and his violon- 
cellos have an especially fine tone. 

Hare, Joseph (or John). A maker in 
London about 1700-30. He made the 
innovation of following the pattern of 
Stradivari, instead of that of Stainer 
as his contemporaries did ; he also used 
a rich red varnish, of very good quality, 
more transparent than that generally 
used by English makers. Is said to 
have been in partnership with Freeman. 
Label: "Joseph Hare at ye viol and 
flute near the Royal Exchange in 
Cornhill, London, 1726." 

Harham. Working in London, 1765-85. 

Harmand. A makerin Mirecourt in 1772. 

Harris, Charles. A maker in London, 
1780-1800 ; lived in Cannon Street 
Road, Ratcliffe Highway. He was a 
Custom House officer. He was one of 
the best Enghsh makers of his time, 
and was noted for his violoncellos and 
the excellent varnish that he used, of a 
particular reddish tinge. He copied the 
Stradivari and Amati patterns, but 
seldom labelled his instruments with 
his name. Samuel Gilkes worked for 
him for some time. 

Harris, Charles, eldest son of Charles 
Harris. Was a fellow apprentice of 
Samuel Gilkes under his father, and 
also worked for John Hart for a little 
time. His work was well finished, he 
used yellow varnish. 

Hart, John Thomas, b. Dec. 17, 1805, 
London; d. Jan. i, 1874. In May, 
1820 he became a pupil of Samuel 

Gilkes. He made few new instruments, 
but had a great reputation for his 
experience and skill in repairing old 
Italian instruments. Label: "John 
Hart, maker, 14, Princess Street, 
Leicester Square, London, anno 18 — ." 

Hartung, Michael. A maker in Padua, 
1602. A lute of his of that date is in 
the Collection of the Germanic Society, 

Hassert. A maker in Eisenach in the 
i8th century. He made very good 
instruments, not much arched, used 
beautiful wood, and an amber-coloured 
varnish ; his imitations of Italian 
instruments were excellent. 

Hassert. A brother of Hassert, of 
Eisenach. Worked about 1790 in 
Rudolstadt. His instruments were 
not so good as those of his brother ; 
they are much arched, of excellent 
wood, and finished with great care, but 
the tone is rather harsh. 

Haudek, Carl. S^<: " Lembock." 

Haynes, Jacob. Was working in London 
in 1746. He followed the Stainer 

Heberlein, Heinrich, jun. A very clever 
maker in Markneukirchen, Saxony, at 
the present time. 

Heesom, Edward. Was working in 
London about 1748-50. He followed 
the Stainer pattern. Label : " Edward 
Heesom, Londini, fecit 1749." 

Heidegger. A maker in Passau. 

Heinle, J. A maker in Paris. Only one 
violin, dated 1761, of his is known. 

Hel, Pierre Joseph, b. Feb. 8, 1842, at 
Mazirot, near Mirecourt ( Vosges) . Was 
apprenticed for seven years in Mire- 
court, was then for two years with 
Sebastien Vuillaume in Paris, and for a 
year (1864-5) with Nicolas Darche at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1865 he started his 
own business at 14, rue Nationale, 
Lille. He was an excellent workman 
and made all his instruments himself; 
the pattern is very beautiful ; the tone 
is good ; he used oil varnish ; all the 
details are carefully finished. He also 
showed great skill in repairing old 
Italian instruments. He had a special 
method of seasoning the wood he used, 
removing, without the use of fire or 
acids, every element that interferes 
with the tone. In 1886 he invented 
an ingenious method of fixing the 
pegs, which enables the strings to be 
gradually tightened, and prevents their 
suddenly running down ; the shape of 
the head remains the same. Was 
awarded : gold medal, Lille, 1S82 ; 
diploma of honour, St. Omer, 1884 ; 




gold medal, Antwerp, 1885 ; gold 
medal, Liverpool, 1886; gold medal, 
Paris, 1889 ; a member of the jury at 
the Munich Exhibition, 1893, conse- 
quently unable to compete ; the same 
at Chicago, 1893 ; and at Bordeaux, 
1895. Made " Officier de 1' Academic" 
and " Luthier to the Lille Conserva- 
toire." Label: "Joseph Hel, luthier 
a Lille, 18 — ." He died 1902. 
Held, J. J., b. July 17, 1823, Flamers- 
heim, Rheinbach (Cologne). When 
only 14 began to repair old instru- 
ments, and a few years later made new 
ones. In i860 started his business in 
Euskirchen ; moved to his present 
abode at Beuel vis-a-vis Bonn (Rhine), 
1871. He makes from 12 to 16 violins 
and violas a year, assisted by his son 
and one workman, but always does the 
varnishing himself ; copies the Italian 
patterns. Was awarded : Diploma, 
Vienna, 1873; medal, Diisseldori, 1880; 
diploma, Detmold, 1881 ; silver medals 
at Krems and Wels, 1882 ; Milan. 1884 ; 
and medal, Gorlitz, 1889. 
Heldal, A., of Bergen. In 1862 he 
exhibited in London a " Hardanger 
violin," more interesting for its 
nationality than for its musical merit, 
as it was one made by the peasants in 
Hardanger, Norway. 
Hell, Ferdinand. A maker in Vienna. 
In 1854 he exhibited in Munich a 
double-bass of rather small pattern, 
but of powerful tone. He is also the 
inventor of the trumpet-violin, an 
instrument which can be used as a 
trumpet or as a violin equally well. 
Helmer(Hellmer), Carl.b. 1739, Prague; 
d. 181 2. Son of a maker there. He 
was working under Ulrich Eberle for 
some years, and made some very good 
violins, with red-brown varnish. The 
earliest date found in his instruments 
is said to be 1769. Label: " Carolus 
Hellmer me fecit Praga?, 17 — . " 
Helmer, Jehan. A maker of guitars in 
Lyons about 1568-72. Was of German 
Hellmig, son-in-law of Carl Grimm, 
whose business he continued with 
Louis Grimm on the death of Carl 
Henderson, D A maker in Aberdeen. 
Hence (or Henocq), Fran9ois. A maker 
in Paris, rue Jacob, 1775-77, and rue 
des Saints-Peres, 1779-89. 
Hence (Henocq), Jean (? Georges 
Bienaime). A maker in Paris from 
1768 to about 1790. Lived in the rue 
Henry. A maker in Paris in rue Saint- 

Andre-des-Arcs. A bass of his dated 
1737 is known, of good workmanship, 
and with red-brown varnish. It is not 
known if he was related tc the present 
Henry family in Paris. 
Henry, Charles, called Carolus, second 
son of Jean Baptiste Henry; b. 1803 ; 
d. 1859. Pupil of his father, to whose 
business in Paris he succeeded in 183 1 ; 
he made a large number of violins, 
altos, and violoncellos. The pattern 
varied, especially in the violins ; he 
used yellow-red varnish, and his work 
was carefully finished. In 1847 he 
made an instrument called the 
"baryton," which, though played like 
the violin, sounded an octave below. 
Awards : bronze medal, Paris, 1849 ; 
' ' Mention honorable ' ' and second-class 
medal, 1855. Label: "Carolus Henry, 
luthier, rue Saint-Martin No. 151, 
fecit Anno Domini (1831 a 1859)." His 
son, Eugene, was also a maker. 
Henry, Eugene, son of Charles Henry ; 
b. 1843 ; d. Sept. 7, 1892. He succeeded 
his father, and was one of the best 
Parisian makers of his time; was 
especially successful in repairing old 
instruments. Many of the new violins 
that bear his name were not entirely 
made by him, although made in 
his workshop. Awards: "Mention 
honorable," Paris, 1878, and bronze 
medal, 1889. His business was 
continued after his death by Charles 
Henry, Jean Baptiste, b. 1757 at Matain- 
court, near Mirecourt (Vosges) ; d. 
1 83 1, Paris. He was the head of the 
present family of makers. Was appren- 
ticed in Mirecourt, then went to Paris, 
and established himself in connection 
with the St. Martin Monastery, thereby 
obtaining exemption from certain fees 
and penalties he would otherwise have 
had to pay. He worked there till 
1788, when the ancient privileges of 
the monasteries were abolished. Then 
moved into No. 175, rue Saint-Martin ; 
the number was afterwards changed to 
151, but his family always continued 
working in the same house. A violin 
is dated 1781, but he did not put labels 
in his instruments, and those that bear 
his name were labelled by his sons, 
Jean Baptiste Felix and Charles, who 
were both makers. 
Henry, Jean Baptiste Felix, eldest son of 
Jean Baptiste Henry; b. 1793, Paris; 
d. there, 1858. Pupil of his father. 
Worked first in 1817 at rue Montmartre, 
Paris ; in Bordeaux in 1822, and in 
Marseilles in 1825. In 1844 he returned 



to Paris, living in the rue Flechier 
tUl his death. He made a great 
many instruments, but never signed 
them. His son, Octave, was also a 
Henry, Octave, son of Jean Baptiste 
Felix Henry ; b. 1826. Worked first 
with his uncle, Charles, and then with 
Maucotel at Paris. He settled in Gre- 
noble in 1854 and made a great many 
Henry. A violin bow maker, b. 1812 at 
Mirecourt ; d 1870 at Paris. He left 
Mirecourt for Paris in 1837, and first 
worked with Chanot, then w;ith Peccate. 
Was partner of Simon, 1848-51, then 
worked alone, first at 8, rue des Vieux- 
Augustins, later in the rue Pagevin. 
His bows are excellent, he marked 
them " Henry, Paris." He was no 
relation to the Henrys of rue Saint- 
Hetel, G. Maker of lutes and cithers in 
Rome in 1763. Label : " G. Hetel 
fecit Rom.'c. anno 1763." 
Heubsch, J. G. G. He published a 
work on the making of musical instru- 
ments about 1764. 
Hieben, Giovanni. A maker of lutes in 
Venice in 1581. In an arch-lute was 
the label " Giovanni Hieben e Martine, 
faciebat in Venezia, Ao. 1381." 
Hieronymus, Geraldi. A maker of lutes 
and cithers in Brescia about 1574. In 
a cither, remarkably well made, is still 
legible" . . . onimus Bresciensis." 
In a cither in the Hof.-Museum at 
Vienna, beautifully worked and de- 
corated, is the name " Hieronymus 
Brixiensis" and the date 1574. 
Higgins, P. H. A maker in Montreal, 
who exhibited some of his instruments 
in 1851. 
Hildebrandt, Michael Christopher. A 
maker in Hamburg about 1765-1S00. 
Good violins, violas, violoncellos, and 
double-basses of his are known ; he 
was also extremely skilful in repairing 
old instruments. 
Hill, Henry Lockey. son of Lockey 
Hill ; grandson of Joseph Hill ; 
b. 1774 ; d. x\ug., 1835. Worked for 
some time with John Betts, was 
probably still with him when he took 
patterns (still preserved by the firm) of 
a Stradivari violoncello, sent by 
Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia to 
John Betts in 1810, to be sold in 
England. He was an excellent work- 
man, and some violins, violas, and 
violoncellos of his are exceptionally 
good instruments. Of his four sons, I 
Henry (d. 1856) was a fine viola player, 1 

Joseph (d. 1837) and William Ebsworth 
were both makers. 
Hill, John. A maker who apparently 
worked in Red Lion Street. Holborn, 
was there, at any rate, in 1794. 
Hill. Joseph, b. 1715 ; d. 1784. He was 
a fellow-apprentice of Banks, working 
at " Ye Harp and Hautboy," in Picca- 
dilly, London, under Peter Wamsley, 
about 1740-42. Then worked in High 
Holborn (1753). then at the sign of 
"Ye Violin," in Angel Court, West- 
minster (1756). and lastly at the sign 
of the " Harp and Flute " in the Hay- 
market (1762). Later on. his sons 
became partners in the business. His 
instruments are of great merit; his 
violoncellos and double-basses are 
especially liked, some have a fine oil 
varnish. Label: " Joseph Hill, maker 
at the * Harp and Flute ' in the Hay- 
market, 17 London, 69" ; similar labels 
are dated 1772. His sons. William, 
Joseph. Lockey, and Benjamin, were 
all makers. 

Hill, William, son of Joseph Hill. 
Worked in London about 1740-80. He 
made some good instruments, rather 
similar to those of Edmund Aireton ; 
the varnish was a beautiful yellow 
colour, rather transparent ; the tone 
though good was not powerful. Label • 
" William Mill, maker in Poland Street, 
near Broad Street, i74i,"and " W'illiam 
Hill, makerin Poland Street, near Broad 
Street, Carnaby Market, 177 — ." 

Hill, William Ebsworth, son of Henry 
Lockey Hill; b. Oct. 20. 1817; d. 
April 2. 1895. A maker in London. 
Learnt from his elder brother. Joseph. 
Began by making violin-bridges, always 
beautifully shaped and designed ; quite 
200 are still preserved by the firm. 
He worked for a year with Charles 
Harris, at Oxford, returning to London, 
1838. First worked in Southwark, 
then in Wardour Street, and finally 
removed to 38, New l>ond Street. 
When he began to repair and deal in 
old instruments he did everything with 
his own hands, and had no assistants 
until his sons grew up. He exhibited 
some very beautiful violins of carefully 
finished work and an excellent viola 
of large pattern, with full round tone, 
in London, in 1862, obtaining special 
commendation and a prize medal. 
Probably few, if any, of W. E. Hill's 
contemporaries had such a wide and 
thorough knowledge of the art and 
craft of violin making as he himself 
Those who had the pleasure of knowing 
him personally found his conversation 



full of the most interesting facts and 
reminiscences, while at the same time 
a kindly, straightforward, and un- 
assuming manner, peculiarly his own, 
made him the object of general regard 
and respect. His death removed one 
who was a prominent and charac- 
teristic link between modern times and 
a bygone type of personality. His 
four eldest sons became members of 
the firm : William Henry, b. June 3, 
1857, followed the musical profession 
for some years, before joining his 
brothers in the business ; Arthur Fred- 
erick, b. Jan. 25, i860 ; Alfred 
Ebsworth, b. Feb. 1862, who worked 
for some time at Mirecourt (Vosges) 
and was the first Englishman to go 
there to study ; and Walter Edgar, 
b. Nov. 4, 1871, d. 1905, who also 
worked at Mirecourt. They employ 
a large staff of assistants in their 
workshops at Han well. 

Hiltz, Paul. A maker of viols in 
Nuremberg, 1656. In the collection 
of musical instruments there is a viola 
da gamba dated 1656. 

Hircutt. A maker working in London 
about 1600. 

Hochbriicker. A maker in Donauworth, 
Bavaria, about 1699. Later he worked 
at Augsburg. He made some fairly 
good violins, but is chiefly known as 
the inventor of pedals for the harp, 
about 1720. 

Hohne. Worked both in Dresden and 
Weimar, in the 19th century. 

Horlcin, Carl Adam, b. 1829 at Winkel- 
hof, near Wiirzburg. Pupil of Joseph 
Vauchel ; later he worked for three 
years in Vienna, chiefly under Anton 
Hoffmann, but also under Gabriel 
Lembock. In 1853 he settled in 
Kitzingen, Bavaria; but in 1866 moved 
to Wiirzburg. where he remained. 
Both as a maker of new instruments 
and as a repairer of old ones he had 
a great reputation. In 1875, under 
Professor Hermann Ritter's direction, 
he made a " viola alta " exactly on the 
principles laid down in the little book 
called " Die Geschichte der Viola 
Alta" (Leipzig, 1877); it had a full, 
sonorous tone. He died 1902. 

Hoffmann, Anton. Court maker in 
Vienna about 1850. 

Hoffmann, Johann Christian, son of 
Martin Hoffmann. A maker of lufes 
and viols in Leipzig about 1720. He 
was an excellent workman. His 
younger brother, who also worked in 
Leipzig about the same time, made 
good violins and bass-viols. 

Hoffmann, Martin, d. in Leipzig, 1725. 
A maker of good lutes and viols, who 
worked in Leipzig from about 1685. 
He also made violins and violoncellos 
of good tone, although the inelegant 
pattern (the cut of the sound-holes, the 
sharp corners and weak edges) has 
caused them to be neglected. In 1720 
he began to make the ' ' Viola pomposa, ' ' 
a small violoncello with five strings 
tuned C, G, D, A, E, the invention of 
which is ascribed to J. S. Bach. It 
was never much used and seems to have 
been merely the reproduction of an 
obsolete form of violoncello. A 
specimen was exhibited in Paris, 1878; 
it was on a good model, very much 
arched, the head ending in a scroll, 
and the sound-holes well cut. 

Hofmans, Matthias. A maker in 
Antwerp 1680-1740. He made beauti- 
ful instruments on the pattern of 
Amati and Guarneri del Jesu, he used 
a warm dark red varnish, similar to 
that of Italian instruments of the same 
period. In a little pocket violin was 
the label : " Matthys Hofmans tot 
Antwerpen, 1740." 

Hollo way, John. A maker in London 
at 31, Gerard Street, Soho, in 1794. 

Homolka, F. A maker in Kuttenberg, 
Bohemia, about 1850. He exhibited 
two violins in Munich, 1854, o^ beauti- 
ful workmanship ; the wood was rather 
thick, which perhaps rendered the 
tone a little harsh, but otherwise 

Hopkins. A maker in Worcester, who 
exhibited a double-bass in London in 

Horil, Giacomo. A maker in Rome 
about 1720-50. 

Horlein. See " Horlein." 

Hornsteiner. See " Neuner." 

Hornsteiner (Hornstainer), Joseph. A 
maker in Mitten wald about 1730. He 
made some good double-basses. 

Hornsteiner (Hornstainer), Mathias. A 
maker in Mittenwald about 1770-1800. 
His instruments were better made than 
those of Joseph Hornsteiner. Label : 
" Mathias Hornsteiner der Geigen- 
macher in Mittenwald, 1770." 

Hosbom, Thomas Alfred. A maker in 
London in 1629. A bass viol of this 
date was exhibited in Paris, 1878. 

Huel, d. in 1845. A maker in Rennes. 
Pupil of Lacote. He made some fairly 
good guitars. 

Huet, Henri. A maker in Paris about 
1775-90 ; lived first at rue Saint-Martin 
(1778), then rue du Grand-Hurleur in 
1783. This latter date was in an alto 



of his, of good workmanship, with 
yellow-brown varnish. He made at 
the sign of " Au Roi des Instruments." 

Hulinski. Worked in Prague in 1760 ; 
his instruments were well made, with 
small sound-holes and gracefully cut 
scroll, the varnish red-brown colour. 

HuUer, August, A maker in Shoeneck 
about 1735-76. 

Hulskamp, G. H., b. in Westphalia. 
Settled in New York, U.S.A. In the 
1862 London txhibition he exhibited 
violins made on a new pattern. Instead 
of the ordinary sound-holes, was one 
round hole in the middle of the violin, 
just below where the bow sets the 
strings in motion; other innovations 
were also made, but the result seems 
to have been that the tone suffered in 

Hume (or Home), Richard. Born in 
England, but settled in Edinburgh and 
became the great viol and lute maker 
there, about 1530-35. In the Scottish 
Treasurer's accounts in 1535 is "Item 

to the Kingis Grace to Richard Hume, 
Inglismanne, quhilk suld mak violis to 
the Kingis Grace, to by stuffe for the 
samin xx lib." 

Humel, Christian. A maker in Nurem- 
berg in 1709. 

Hunger, Christoph Friedrich, b. 1718, 
Dresden ; d. 1787, Leipzig. Pupil of 
Jauch in Dresden. He made very 
good violins, violas, and violoncellos 
on the Italian pattern ; the wood was 
of excellent quality, the varnish amber- 
coloured ; his instruments are some of 
the best of that time. 

Hurel, Jean. A maker in Paris, living 
in 1686, rue des Arcis, at the sign of 
"A I'image de St. -Pierre"; from 1689 
to 1717, rue St. - Martin, near the 
Fontaine Maubue. He was maker of 
instruments "pour la musique du Roy," 
and is said to have been a very clever 
workman. A Charles Hurel is also 
mentioned as being a maker of musical 
instruments in Paris in 1636. 

Husson. See " Buthod." 


Indelami, Matteo. A name found in a 
very old mandora, with no mention of 
town or date. 

Ivrontigni, Wougelli. 

A maker in 


Jacobi. A maker of lutes at Meissen, 
Saxony, in the first part of the i8th 
century. His instruments were much 

Jacobs, Hendrik. A maker in Amsterdam 
about 1690-1740. He made a great 
number of good violins, altos, and 
violoncellos ; he copied the large pattern 
of Nicola Amati so faithfully that his 
violins are often taken for genuine 
Italian instruments ; the wood is care- 
fully chosen ; the red-brown varnish of 
good quality ; the scroll and the sound- 
holes are not very well cut ; the purfling 
is of whalebone ; the tone sweet, but 
not very powerful. 

Jacobs. Worked at Amsterdam rather 
later than Hendrik Jacobs; was 
probably his son. He used dark red 
varnish of very good quality ; his 
work was not carefully finished. 

Jacot, A., eldest son of Jean Charles 
Jacot. Is working in Paris. 

Jacot, Jean Charles. A maker at Metz, 

b. 1811; d., about 1887, at Pont-a- 
Mousson. Had two sons, the elder a 
maker, the second, Lucien, a bassoon 
Jacquot (Jacquart), Charles, b. 1804 at 
Mirecourt ; d. March 29, 1880, at 
St. Maur-les-Fosses near Paris. 
Although his father was not a maker, 
but an army tailor, he was descended 
from a family of makers, who dated 
back to one Charles Jacquot, who lived 
in 1645. In 1819 he was apprenticed 
to Nicolas, sen., later to Breton, both of 
them makers in Mirecourt. He went 
to Nancy, 1823, and worked there till 
1827, when he started his own business 
there; in 1854 he transferred it to his 
son Pierre Charles, and went to Paris. 
There he started another workshop in 
rue des Vieux-Augustins, moving to 42, 
rue de I'Echiquier in 1857. His work 
is very good ; the violins that he made 
in Paris are especially esteemed for 
their careful finish and regularity of 



form ; he was also learned on the subject 
of old instruments. Label : " Medailles 
d'or et d'argent, Charles Jacquot, 42, 
ruede I'Echiciuier a Paris." Awards at 
Exhibitions; bronze medal, Nancy, 
1838; silver medal, Nanc}', 1843; ist 
and 2nd prize, Paris, 1849 ; 2rid class 
medal, I^ondon, 1851 ; silver medal. 
Paris, 1855 ; gold medal, Bayonne, 1S64 ; 
bronze medal, Paris, 1867. 

Jacquot, Etienne Charles Albert, eldest 
son of Pierre Charles Jacquot, b. 
Sept. 18. 1853, Nancy. Learnt under 
his father, and was associated with 
him in his work. He published two 
important works: "La Musique en 
Lorraine," in 1882, and " Dictionnaire 
des instruments de musique," S:c. He 
is Officier de I'lnstruction publique 
and member of the Society " des 
Beaux- Arts des departements." 

Jacquot, Jules Victor, second son of 
Pierre Charles Jacquot, b. Aug. 12, 
1855. Also learnt his trade with his 
father and continued to work in associa- 
tion with him. 

Jacquot, Pierre Charles, son of Charles 
Jacquot; b. March 10, 1828, Nancy. 
I'upil of his father, to whose business 
in Nancy he succeeded in 1854. He 
was a clever maker and gained a great 
reputation by the instruments he sent 
to various exhibitions. Honours and 
awards : ist prize, Metz, 1861 ; prize 
medal (for the good quality and 
moderate price of his instruments), 
London, 1862 ; bronze medal, Paris, 
1867 ; great gold medal, Lyons, 1872 ; 
silver medal, Paris, 1878 ; diploma of 
honour, Bar-le-Duc, 1880, and at 
Algiers, 1881 ; silver medal (awarded 
to Jacquot and Sons for their instru- 
ments, of a beautiful pattern, varnish 
copied from that on old instruments, 
the equal quality of the tone being re- 
markable), Paris, 1889 ; he received the 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, July 
14, 1892. He died 1900. Had two 
sons who worked with him ; they 
exhibited instruments at Moscow in 
1891 ; Vienna, 1892 ; and Chicago, 1894. 

Jais, Johann. A maker at Botzen about 
1775. His instruments are varnished 

J 'Anson, Edward Popplewell. Worked 
in Manchester. Learnt from WMlliam 
Booth, jun. 

Jaspars, Jean, b. at Coesvelt. A maker 
of lutes at Antwerp about 1568. 

Jauch, Johann, b. Gratz, Styria, but 
was working in Dresden, 1765-74. He 
followed the Cremona pattern, making 
very good violins ; he used excellent 

wood and amber-coloured varnish, 
and showed great knowledge of the 
correct proportions and thicknesses 
of wood required in various parts of the 
instrument ; the tone is occasionally 
weak and shrill. His instruments were 
signed with his name. C. E. Hunger 
was a pupil of his. 

Jay, Henry. A maker of viols in London 
about 1615-67. A viol, that had been 
converted into a small \'ioloncello with 
four strings, was e.xcellently made and 
of fine tone, the varnish of good 
quality, the head well cut, the purfling 
very fine ; it was dated "in Southwarke, 
1615 " A small bass-viol dated 1624 is 
in the Paris Conservatoire Collection ; 
a tenor viol was exhibited at the South 
Kensington ISIuseum, London, 1872, 
with the label " Henry Jay in South- 
warke, 1667." It has six strings, tuned 
one-fifth higher than the bass-viol, 
catgut frets, and a beautifully carved 
scroll. It is probably this maker, alluded 
to in Thomas Britton's Catalogue of 
Musical Instruments: "a viol said to be 
the neatest and best that J ay ever made. ' ' 
This passage, from Thomas Mace's 
" Musick's Monument " (published 
1676), also probably applies to him : 
" Your best provision (and most com- 
pleat) will be a good chest of viols . . . 
of such there are no better in the 
world than those of Aldred, Jay . . . . 
these were old .... yet we chiefly 
value Old Instruments before new; for 
by experience they are found to be far 
the best." 

Jay, Henry. Worked in London about 
1746-68. He was best known for the 
small violins or " kits " that he made, 
which were used by dancing-masters ; 
the varnish was a red-brown colour, 
•the work was neatly finished, and he 
received £5 for each one — a very large 
sum for those days. He also made 
some violoncellos, often signed on the 
back " Longman and Broderip." Two 
labels are known : " Made by Henry 
Jay in Long Acre, London, 1746," and 
" Made by Henry Jay in Windmill 
Street, near Piccadilly, London, 1768." 
He is supposed to have been related to 
Thomas Jay. 

Jay, Thomas. Working in London from 
about 1690 May have been related to 
the other Ja\s. He made some excel- 
lent violins. Was possibly in partner- 
ship with Edward Lewis, but there is 
no proof of it. 

Jean. A maker in Paris, rue Saint- 
Martin. A guitar is known dated 



Jeandel, Pierre Napoleon, b. 181 2, 
Courcelles-sous- Vaudemont (Meurthe) ; 
d. May 10, 1879, Rouen. Appren- 
ticed at Mirecourt ; went to Rouen, 
worked under Charotte of Mirecourt, 
1830-36 ; then, in partnership with 
Lucien Delau, succeeded to the busi- 
ness at 36, rue Beauvoisine. They 
separated in 1848, and Jeandel worked 
at 51, quai de Paris till 1878, when 
his health failed, and he was ad- 
mitted into the "hospice general" 
of Rouen, Dec. 27, 1878. He was a 
clever workman, and his instruments 
are well made and have a good tone ; he 
used red varnish. Awards : bronze 
medal, Rouen, 1854 ; ist class medal, 
Paris, 1855; silver medal, Rouen, 

Johnson, John. A maker in London, 
1750-60. He followed the Stainer pat- 
tern. Two labels, one undated : ' ' Sold 
by J ohn Johnson , Cheapside , London ' ' ; 
the other, " Made and sold by John 
Johnson at the ' Harp and Crown ' in 
Cheapside, 17 London, 53 " ; a similar 
label was dated 1759. 

Jombar, Paul. A maker in Paris. He 
worked for some time in the workshop 
of Gand and Bernardel, but started his 
own business in 1892. 

Jorio, Vincenzo. Was working in Naples 
in 1847. Was a good maker. 

Joseph, J. A maker in Vienna in 1764. 

Juliano, Francesco. A maker in Rome 
about 1720-70. Label: "Francesco 
Juliano in Roma, 1725," in a well- 
made violin. 


Kambl (Kambl), Johann Andreas. A 
maker in Munich in 1740, according to 
the label: "Johann Andreas Kambl 
Churfiirstl. Hof Lauten und Geigen- 
macher in Mijnchen, 1740." 

Kambl (Kambl), Johann Cornelius. Was 
working in Darmstadt, 1635-40. 

Kaiser, Martin. A German maker who 
settled in Venice ; was working there 
in 1609. There is an arch-lute of this 
date in the Paris Conservatoire Col- 

Karb. A maker of viols in Konigsberg. 

Kempter. A maker in Dillingen about 
1725-75. He followed the Stainer 
pattern ; his violins are arched, of a 
good pattern, with varnish, sometimes 
yellow-brown, sometimes pale red 
colour ; the wood is excellent and the 
purfling well done. 

Kennedy, Alexander, b. in Scotland 
about 1695 ; d. in London, 1785. Was 
the first maker of this family. He 
followed the Stainer pattern, and gained 
a great reputation in England for his 
beautiful violins (no other instruments 
of his are known) ; the work, both of 
the interior and exterior, was good 
and neatly finished, and the purfling 
well done ; the spirit varnish was of 
a brownish-yellow colour. Label : 
"Alexander Kennedy, musical instru- 
ment maker, living in Market Street, 
in Oxford Road, London, 1749." A 
violin is dated 1743. 

Kennedy, John, b. 1730, London; d. 
there, 1816. Was buried in Shoreditch 
Church. He was a nephew and pupil 
of Alexander Kennedy. The only 

instruments he made were violins and 
violas, all very arched, on the Stainer 
pattern ; he chiefly worked for the 
dealers. He lived first in Cobper's 
Gardens near Shoreditch Church, then, 
after various changes, in Long Alley, 
Sun Street, Moorfields, where he 

Kennedy, Thomas, b. Jan. 21, 1784, 
London ; d. 1870. Was a son of John 
Kennedy ; pupil of his father, also of 
Thomas Powell, to whom he was 
apprenticed June 17, 1795. He worked 
at times for William Forster (1764- 
1824), but his own workshop was first 
in Princes Street, Westminster, and 
then at 364, Oxford Street. He retired 
from business in June, 1849, having 
made at least 300 violoncellos as well 
as other instruments ; all his work 
was well and neatly finished. 

Kerlino, Joann. A maker of rebecs and 
viols of all sorts at Brescia about 
1449-93. He is one of the earliest 
makers known, and was probably the 
founder of the Brescian School. It 
has been suggested that he originally 
came from Brittany, as many family 
names there commence with the 
syllable " Ker." A viol of his, which 
had had the neck changed (probably 
by Koliker, of Paris, in 1804), and was 
mounted with four strings like a violin 
— only instead of a tail-piece it had a 
piece of ivory pierced with four holes 
to which to attach the strings — was 
very much arched, and had a soft, 
muffled tone. Inside was the inscrip- 
tion : "Joann Kerlino, ann. 1449." 



Kiaposse, Sawes. A maker in St. 
Petersburg about 1748-50. 

Kiesgen, Louis. A maker in Paris, 
first at 84, boulevard Magenta, and 
then at 134, rue de Turenne. He has 
not made many instruments, but those 
known are of beautiful workmanship ; 
he followed the pattern of Gand and 
used red varnish. 

Kirschschlag. Was working in the 
Tyrol in 1780. 

Klein, A. In 1884 he founded an im- 
portant business in Rouen, at 65, rue 
Ganterie, under the title of "A. Klein 
et Cie," reviving the trade in instru- 
ment making that had entirely dropped 
after Jeandel's death in 1879. He 
placed Antoine Brubach at the head 
of the workshop, which has now 
turned out about 200 violins, and 
numbers of altos and violoncellos ; the 
work is carefully finished and the 
varnish good, of a brilliant red colour. 
Label: "A. Klein, luthier a Rouen, 
18 — . A.K." Awards from Exhibitions : 
silver medal. Rouen, 1884; diploma of 
honour, Evreux, 1886 ; silver medal, 
Havre, 1887. In 1887 he was made 
Officer of the Academy. 

Kloss, Ernst. A maker in Breslau, i860. 

Klotz (Kloz), Egidius. Was probably a 
pupil of Stainerin Absam, returning to 
Mittenwald, his native place, to work. 
He was the first member of this family 
to make violins. He followed the 
Stainer pattern, using good wood and 
amber-coloured varnish ; his instru- 
ments have a fine full tone, are well 
finished, and are signed with his name. 

Klotz, George. Another member of 
the Klotz family, was working in 
Mittenwald about 1750-80. He also 
followed the Stainer pattern. His 
instruments were well made, but the 
spirit varnish, sometimes yellow, some- 
times red, is of bad quality ; it is thin 
and brittle and laid on a coat of size 
which prevents its penetrating the 
wood, making it opaque and perishable ; 
the wood is often worm-eaten. In a 
violin of beautifully finished work with 
red varnish was the label : " George 
Klotz propria meamanu feci in Mitten- 
wald ,1753"; another label was ' ' George 
Klotz in der Mittenwald an der Iser, 

Klotz, Johann Carl. Worked in Mitten- 
wald about 1740-55. He died young; 
his instruments are rare and but little 
known, but are said to be among 
the best of those made by the Klotz 
family. In a very well made violin 
with dark varnish, almost black in 

colour, is the label : " Joan Carol Klotz 
in Mittenwald, an. 1750"; a similar 
label was dated 1753. 

Klotz, Joseph, son of Sebastian Klotz. 
Was still working in Mittenwald in 
1774. Also followed the Stainer 
pattern . He was careful in his selection 
of wood and his instruments have a 
very good tone, but he used varnish of 
poor quality. Label: "Joseph Klotz 
in Mittenwald an der Iser, an. 1774." 

Klotz, Mathias, b. about 1650. Worked 
in Mittenwald till about 1735. Is said 
to have learnt his trade from Stainer 
himself; in his instruments he closely 
followed the Stainer pat'ern. He 
travelled in Italy, visiting Florence and 
Cremona, before he finally started, 
about 1683, his great work in Mitten- 
wald. The small town was then in a 
state of great poverty, but Mathias, 
taking advantage of the famed pine 
woods around, in which he found just 
the material he required, employed 
numbers of workmen to make cheap 
violins, which were afterwards hawked 
round from house to house and sold at 
extraordinarily low prices. As a rule 
each workman made one and only one 
of the required parts of the instrument, 
other workmen were employed in 
putting the parts together into one 
whole. Mittenwald soon rivalled 
Markneukirchen in Saxony and Mire- 
court in the Vosges in this industry, 
and the fortune of the town was made. 
The tone of the instruments is not 
bad, but the yellow-brown varnish is 
of poor quality and the sound-holes 
rather small. In a viol, of which the 
neck and head had been changed so as 
to turn it into a viola, was the label : 
" Mathias Klotz Lautenmacher in 
Mittenwald, anno 17 — ." In the Paris 
Conservatoire Collection is a viola 
d'amore with seven strings and fifteen 
sympathetic strings, dated Mittenwald, 
1732. His three sons, George. Sebas- 
tian, and Joseph, were all makers. 

Klotz, Michael and Carl, two brothers, 
working in Mittenwald about 1770. 
A great many of the violins with 
"Stainer" labels are made by 
members of the Klotz family and their 
imitators, the "Klotz" labels having 
been destroyed by the dealers and 
spurious "Stainer" ones substituted. 
Probably, also, when these makers had 
turned out a specially good instrument 
they used a " Stainer " label instead of 
their own. Authentic instruments of 
the Klotz family are consequently not 



Klotz, Sebastian, a brother of Joseph 
and George Klotz. Worked in Mitten- 
wald about 1710-40. He seems to 
have been the best maker in the 
family. His violins are of a large 
pattern, not much arched ; as a rule 
the varnish is excellent, the tone is 
clear and full, and the work is carefully 
finished. Label: " Sebastian Klotz in 
Mittenwald, an. 1730." A similar 
label in a violin, with yellow-brown 
varnish, was dated 1740. 

Knichtel. A maker in Liibeck in the 
i8th century. 

Knilling, Philipp. Was working in 
Mitten w-ald in 1760. 

Knittle (Knitl), Joseph. A maker in 
Mitten wald in 1790. 

Knoop, Wilhelm. A maker in Meiningen. 
Exhibited in Munich, 1854 ; his instru- 
ments are made on the Stainer pattern ; 
the tone is good and full. 

Koeuppers (Cuypers), Jean. A maker at 
The Hague, 1755-80. Many of his 
instruments are to be had ; they 
are excellently made, but the yellow 
varnish is ugly and of thick quality. 

Kohl, Johann. A lute-maker in Munich 
about 1570- 1600. He was appointed 
maker to the Court of Bavaria. 

Kolb, Hans. Was working in Ingolstadt, 
Bavaria, in 1666. 

Kolditz, Johann. A maker in Rumburg, 
Bohemia. He died there 1796. He 
made excellent violins and violas. 

Kolditz, Mathias Johann. A maker 
in Munich about 1720-55. Label: 
" Mathias Joannes Kolditz Lauten und 
Geigenmacher in Miinchen, 17—." 

Koliker, Jean Gabriel. Worked in Paris, 
1783-99, in rue des Fosses-Saint-Ger- 
main-des-Pres ; in 1800 he moved 
to 24, rue Croix-des-petits-Champs. 
Ch. F. Gand bought his business in 
1820. It is doubtful if he made any 

new instruments, but he was an 
extremely clever repairer of old ones. 

Kram, Andreas Ernst. A maker of 
cithers in Nuremberg, about 1765-85. 
Label : " Andreas Ernst Kram, Instru- 
ment Macher in Niirnberg, an. 1767 " ; 
a similar one is dated 1781. 

Kramer, H. A maker in Vienna in 1717. 
In the Collection of the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde there is a viola di 
bordone dated " Wien, 1717." 

Krebar, Giovanni. A maker in Padua 
in 1629. 

Kren, Franz. A maker of cithers in 
Munich, 1833. 

Krigge, Heinrich. A maker in Danzig, 
I ''56-58. His instruments suggest the 
Maggini pattern, in the general model, 
large size, neat edges and work, and 
double purfling in ink. Three violins 
and a tenor of his are known, the latter 
with a fine tone. 

Kriner, Joseph. A maker in Mitten- 
wald about 1785-95. 

Krupp. Pierre. Worked in Paris, rue 
St.-Honore, 1777-91 ; he also made 

Kiihlewein und Tetzner. Makers in 
Markneukirchen. Exhibited in Munich, 
1854. A violoncello of theirs, ex- 
cellently made on the Stradivari 
pattern, not much arched, had a fairly 
good tone. 

Kiintzel, Laurent, b. 1790, at Hof, 
Bavaria. About 1815, after rather a 
chequered career, settled in Breslau, 
and worked for some years under 
Fichtel, an instrument maker there ; he 
then devoted himself entirely to violin 
making, producing good imitations of 
Italian violins and violoncellos. Later 
on moved to Berlin, where he died in 
1864. He exhibited a quintet of 
instruments in London, 1862; the tone 
was excellent. 


Lacasso See " Lavazza." 

Lacote. A maker of guitars in Paris 
from about 1820. His work is very 
good, but it varies, and it is possible 
that his labels are to be found in instru- 
ments he had not made. In the Paris 
Conservatoire Collection are two 
guitars, one made with six strings, dated 
1852; the other "a heptachord," the 
seventh string being placed like the 
lower string of the theorbo ; the label is 
dated " 182 — ." He patented a guitar 
with ten strings, a "decachord," in 

1826, and exhibited it in 1827. Ex- 
hibited a guitar of seven strings, beauti- 
fully made and of very fine tone, in 
1839, was awarded a bronze medal. 
In 1844 his instruments were also 
placed in the first class, and a bronze 
medal was awarded him. He branded 
his guitars with " Lacote a I'aris." 

Lacroix, Salomon. A French maker of 
the 19th century. 

Lafleur. A maker in London, brother 
of the Parisian maker. 

Lafleur, Jacques A bow maker in Paris; 



b. 1760, at Nancy ; d. 1832, at Paris. In 
1783 he had been settled for several 
years in rue de la Coutellerie; he had 
moved to rue de la Verrerie by 1785, 
and to 30, rue de la Juiverie by 1788, 
there he probably remained till his 
death. Pie closely copied the bows of 
Francois Tourte, and his work has a 
well-merited reputation. In the Paris 
Conservatoire Collection is a bow of 
his. His son, Joseph Rene, was also 
a bow maker. 

Lafieur, Joseph Rene, son of Jacques ; 
b. July 8, 1812, Paris ; d. Feb. 19, 1874, 
Maisons Lafitte. Was living in the 
rue de la Cite in 1835, probably moved 
there from rue de la Juiverie after his 
father's death. Pupil of his father, 
and a very clever workman, producing 
bows which rival those of Franc^ois 
Tourte ; a very beautiful one is in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection. Since 
about 1840 the Lafleur firm has been 
established in the boulevard Bonne- 
Nouvelle pres de la porte Saint-Denis, 
and has added a music-publishing 
business to that of instrument making. 

Lafranchini, Jacobo de. Was appren- 
ticed to Gasparo da Salo at the same 
time as Maggini, and afterwards (1615) 
was living with Maggini as workman 
and assistant. 

Lagetto, Louis. An Italian maker who 
was working in Paris, 1745-53. at the 
sign of " La ville de Cremone " in the 
rue des Saints-Peres. He followed 
the pattern of Andrea Amati, using 
spirit varnish ; his instruments were 
much liked. Label : " Louis Lagetto, 
luthier rue des Saints-Peres faubourg 
Saint-Germain a Paris, 1753. ' A la 
ville de Cremone.' (Signed) Lagetto," 

Lajoue. See " Gaillard-Lajoue." 

La Loe. A maker in France in the 
18th century. A six-stringed viol of 
his is known. 

Lambert. A maker said to be living in 
Nancy in 1750, who was called the 
" Carpenter," because of the extra- 
ordinary number of violins he made ; 
they were of no particular merit, 
Saunier is said to have been a pupil of 

Lambert, Jean Nicolas. A maker in 
Paris. Was working in rue Michel-le- 
Comte about 1743-85. The date of 
his death is not known, but in 1788 
the business was being carried on by 
his widow. He was possibly a brother 
of the maker in Nancy. The label : 
"J. N. Lambert, rue Michel-le-Comte, 
Paris, 1750," was in a violin of flat 
pattern, with badly cut sound-holes ; 

a similar label, dated 1759, is in a 
violoncello in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection ; another violoncello is dated 
1752 ; " Lambert a Paris " was branded 
on the inside of the back of an alto, 
and " Lambert a Paris, 1782," was 
inscribed in a cither ; a guitar was 
dated 1784. 

Lambin. A very clever repairer of old 
instruments in Ghent, 1800-30. 

Lamy, N. Alfred Joseph. A bow maker, 
b. Sept. 8, 1850, at Mirecourt. In 1863, 
apprenticed in Mirecourt ; 1866-77, 
worked under the Gautrots at Chateau- 
Thierry ; then went to Paris to work 
with F. N. Voirin ; the latter dying in 
1S85, Lamy started his own business at 
34, rue Poissonniere. He is a clever 
and conscientious workman, and his 
bows are as carefully finished as those 
of his old master. He brands his 
bows below the nut with " A. Lamy, a 
Paris." He was awarded a silver 
medal in 1889, a gold medal 1900. 

Landi, Pietro. Was working in Siena 
in 1774. 

Landolfi, Carlo Ferdinando. A maker 
in Milan about 1740-75. He made a 
large number of violins, which vary in 
character ; some carefully finished with 
brilliant red varnish, very transparent, 
are much liked ; others have a yellow 
\'arnish, thin and hard and not of good 
quality. He used fine wood, the outer 
edge is generally grooved, the sound- 
holes are badly cut, and the scroll is 
weak ; the work is often unfinished, 
only one coat of varnish being used 
and no purfling. He occasionally 
copied Giuseppe Guarneri very closely. 
His violoncellos, generally of small size, 
are extremely good, and rank higher 
than his violins ; they are rather 
similar to those of Pietro Guarneri, 
but not so arched ; the proportions 
are more accurate ; they are worth 
from /30 to /50 ; a remarkably fine 
violin was priced at /50. Labels : 
" Revisto da me Carlo Ferdinando 
Landolfi, I'anno 1744 " ; " Carolus 
Ferdinandus Landulfus fecit Mediolani 
in via S. Margarita;, anno 1755 " ; 
" Carlo Ferdinando Landolfi nella 
contrada di Santa Margherita al segno 
dellaSirena. Milano, 1758" ; "Revisto 
da Carlo Ferdinando Landolfi, I'anno 
1 77 1." Two violins were dated 1752 
and 1753. 

Lantez, M, E., son-in-law of Grandjon, 
sen. Was a maker at Mirecourt. 

Lanza (Lansa or Lausa), Antonio Maria. 
A maker in Brescia about 1675. He 
followed the patterns of Gasparo da 



Salo and Maggini ; his instruments 
were well made, with red-brown var- 
nish, and had a good tone. 
Lapaix, J. A. A maker in Lille (Nord, 
France), who from 1840 to 1855 made 
various attempts to improve upon the 
usual violin pattern. The first instru- 
ment, dated " 1840, No. i," was of a 
very exaggerated character ; he con- 
tinued to make other instruments, 
which differed less from the traditional 
form, and tried the experiment of 
cutting the sides out of one piece of 
wood, hollowed out and carved in the 
usual shape, so that there were only 
six pieces instead of the usual twenty- 
four to join together. In 1848 he was 
awarded a medal by the Society for the 
Encouragement of National Industries, 
and in 1852 the merit of his instruments 
was noticed by the Imperial Society of 
Lille. He obtained a medal of the 
2nd class at the Paris Exhibition, 1855. 
Label : " Fait par Lapaix luthier a 
Lilleeni843, Brevete." 

Laprevotte, Etienne, b. Mirecourt ; d. 
1856, Paris. He worked first at Mar- 
seilles and was still there in 1821, but 
from about 1823 was established in 
Paris. His violins were admired for 
the beautifully finished work ; one is in 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection, its 
varnish is a very good colour ; he 
received a " Mention " at the 1823 
Exhibition, and a bronze medal in 1827. 
Soon after he began to make guitars 
and gained a great reputation, he and 
Lacote being considered two of the 
best French makers of this instrument. 
Two fine guitars of his, with the label 
inside of " Guitare Laprevotte, dediee 
aux dames," are in the Paris Con- 
servatoire Collection. He received a 
" Mention " in 1834 and a bronze 
medal in 1844 for the guitars he 

Larche. A maker in Brussels, 1847. He 
copied the instruments of old makers, 
and endeavoured to gain their quality 
of tone by the use of acids, but unfortu- 
nately the wood suffered thereby. 

Larcher, Pierre. A maker in Tours, 
1785 He was a pupil of Guersan in 
Paris, but his work is very dissimilar ; 
he used a brown varnish of poor 
quality. Label : " Larcher, Pierre, 
luthier de Paris, eleve de Guersan, 
Grande Rue au Grand Dauphin a 
Tours, 1785." 

Laska, Joseph, b. March 18, 1738, at 
Rumburg ; d. Nov. 30, 1805, at Prague. 
Was a pupil of J. Kolditz, later he 
travelled a good deal, working under 

some of the best makers in Dresden, 
Berlin, Vienna, and Brimn. In 1764 he 
settled in Prague, and proved an excel- 
lent workman, his instruments, violins, 
altos, violoncellos, violas d'amore, and 
mandolines, were especially liked in 
Bohemia, Saxony, and Poland. 

Laurent, Louis Sigismond. A maker in 
Paris about 1773-90. He worked at 
the sign " Au Cytre Allemand." In a 
theorbo with yellow varnish was the 
label : " Laurent luthier passage de 
Saumont, rue Montmarre pres I'egout 
a Paris, 1774." 

Lausa. iiee " Lanza." 

Lautten, L. W. A maker in the Tyrol. 
One" fine and handsome "violin known. 

Lavazza (or Lacasso), Antonio Maria. A 
maker in Milan about 1700. Followed 
the Stradivari pattern, used a good 
varnish, pale red colour. Label : 
" Antonio Maria Lavazza fece in 
Milano in contrada larga, 1708 " 

Lavazza, Santino. Was working in 
Milan at the same time as Antonio 
Maria Lavazza. Label: "Santino 
Lavazza fece in Milano in contrada 
larga, 1718." 

Lavinville. A maker in Paris in 1777, 
especially known for his mandolines. 

Leb (Leeb). Worked in Pressburg in 
the iSth century ; was one of the best 
German makers of his time. 

Le Blanc. W^as the name of a family 
of makers who through four genera- 
tions worked in Paris. There was a 
Le Blanc still living in 1819, whose 
work was fair, he used brown varnish 
and branded his instruments " Le 
Blanc, Paris." 

Leblanc, Claude. A maker in Mire- 
court in the i8th century. 
Le Blond, G. A maker in Dunkirk 
about 1775-90. A five-stringed viol 
with yellow varnish is dated 1789, and 
a cither, 1779. Another cither was 
signed " Leblond, Dunkerque." Label: 
"Fait par G. Le Blond a Dunkerque, 
Le Camus, Pierre. A maker of lutes in 

Lyons, 1573-75. 
Leclerc, J. N. Worked in Paris, 1760- 
80, in connection with the " Quinze- 
Vingt," thereby enjoying various 
privileges, such as not having to pay 
certain taxes, &c. Besides making 
new instruments, he was a clever 
repairer of old. Labels: " Racomode 
par Leclerc au 15 vingt a Paris, 1771," 
and in a violin, "J. N. Leclerc, luthier 
aux quinze vingt a Paris, 1770." Other 
labels are known dated 1761, 1768, 
and 1777. 



Lecomte(orFouquet-Lecomte), Antoine. 
Was working in Paris, rue des Fosses, 
Saint-Germain-des-Pres, about 1775- 

Lecuyer, Pierre. A maker in Paris, rue 
des Fosses-Saint-Jacques, 1775-83. 

Leduc, Pierre. Was working in Paris in 
rue St.-Honore in 1647, is therefore one 
of the oldest makers there of whom 
anything definite is known. In a 
small violin or "kit," fairly well made, 
is the label : " Pierre Leduc a Paris rue 
Saint-Honore au Due dore, 1647." 

Leeb, J. Carl, b. 1792 ; d. 1819. Was a 
maker in Vienna. 

Lefebvre (Lefebre), J. B. Was a French- 
man who worked in Amsterdam about 
1735-70- He followed the Amati 
pattern, using good yellow varnish ; it 
is supposed that he gained experience 
in Italy before going to Amsterdam, as 
his work is superior in merit to that 
made in France at that date. In a 
violoncello of small size, with yellow 
varnish and of carefully finished work, 
is the label : "J. B. Le Febvre fecit in 
Amsterdam, 1770." 

Lefevre (Lefebvre), Toussaint Nicolas 
Germain. A maker in Paris in rue du 
Cimetiere Saint-Jean about 1783-89. 

Legrosdela Neuville, Nicolas. A French 
maker who exhibited in 1823 guitars, 
violins, and violoncellos. 

Le Jeune. A family of makers who for 
several generations worked in Paris. 
About 1 8 19 there was Le Jeune (aine) 
working at Cour du Commerce— label 
in a guitar : " Le Jeune, luthier, Cour 
du Commerce No. 19 faubK- St- 
Germain, Paris " ; and Lejeune (fils) 
working at Passage du Saumon ; and 
Lejeune, rue du Marche-Palu ; there 
was another member of the family 
living at 13, rue Boucherat, 1836-46 ; 
and finally one established in 1862 at 
rue Claude au Marais, who died about 

Lejeune, Benoit. A maker of lutes, 
living in Lyons in 1557. 

Le Jeune, Francois Worked in Paris 
at the sign " a la Harpe royale " from 
about 1745 ; he was still living in 1785. 
His instruments are rare and of not 
particularly good work, the varnish is 
of poor quality. Two violins are 
dated 1747 and 1754, a five-stringed 
viol in the Paris Conservatoire Collec- 
tion is dated 1755, another 1757, and an 
alto also 1757. Label: " Fran9ois Le 
Jeune rue de la Juiverie, a Paris annee 

Le Jeune, Jean Baptiste. Was a maker 
of harps as well as of violins in Paris, 

rue Montmartre au passage Charot, 
from about 1775 ; he, or a maker of 
this name, was still there in i8ig. 

Le Jeune, Jean Charles. A maker of 
violins in Paris in 1776 at the sign 
" Au Dieu de I'Harmonie" ; worked in 
the rue du Four Saint-Germain till 
1783, and was succeeded by his nephew, 
Guillaume Martin, in 1822. 

Le Jeune, Louis. A maker of violins in 
Paris, rue de la Juiverie, 1783-89. 

Le Lievre. A maker in Paris about 
1750-80. Label in a violin, fairly well 
made, with yellow varnish : " Le 
Lievre rue des Noniandieres a Paris, 


Lembock, Gabriel, b. Oct. 16, 1814, 
Budapest; d. March 27, 1892. Pupil 
of J. B. Schweizer in Budapest, 
then worked with Fischer in Vienna. 
In 1840 he started a business there in 
Canovastrasse. Was appointed Instru- 
ment maker to the Imperial Court. 
He was celebrated for his skill in re- 
pairing old instruments. He exhibited 
two violins, very good copies of Guar- 
neri, at Munich, 1854. A quartet of 
instruments, exhibited in London, 1862, 
were also made after the Italian pattern, 
and were admired for the beauty and 
fulness of their tone. Carl Haudek, 
who had worked with Lembock, until 
thi death of the latter, succeeded to 
the business. 

L'Empereur, Jean Baptiste. A maker 
in Paris in 1750, who left few instru- 

Lenk, W., b. 1840, at Schonbach bei 
Eger, Bohemia. Worked under Kessler 
in Markneukirchen ; then for five years 
in Berlin ; also under E. Liebich in 
Breslau'; in Vienna, Budapest, and 
Munich. He finally settled at Frankfort 
a/M. in the Promenade Platz. Was 
awarded a silver medal at Frankfort, 

Lentz (Lenz), Johann Nicolaus. A 
German who came from the Tyrol to 
London ; was a friend of Bernhard 
Fendt, and thus probably gained some 
knowledge of violin making. He began 
his own business in Chelsea about 
1800; he was a good maker, generally 
used a close-grained maple- wood, and 
varnish similar to that used by Dodd 
and J. F. Lott, sen. Label: "Johann 
Nicolaus Lentz fecit near the Church, 
Chelsea, 1803." 

Leoni, Carlo. AmakerinTrevisoin 1861. 

Leoni, Ferdinando. Was working in 
Parma in 1816. 

Le Pileur, Pierre. A maker in Paris 
about 1750-55. He worked in connec- 


tion with the Abbaye Saint-Germain, 
thus gaining certain privileges, it no 
longer being necessary for him to go 
through the expensive ceremony of 
being received into the Corporation of 
Instrument makers; he was also exempt 
from taxes. His instruments are not 
particularly good, of rather a long 
pattern, and with ugly brown varnish. 
Label: "Pierre Le Pileur, privilegiez 
du Roy dans I'abbaye Saint-Germain A 
Paris, 1754 " ; a similar label is dated 

Le Riche, C. J. A maker of cithers in 
Lille, rue de la Clef, about 1765-85. In 
a cither with eleven strings, four 
double and three single, was the label : 
" C. J. Le Riche Me. luthier rue de 
la Clef 1768 " ; in another cither was 
" rue de la Clef a Lille, 1781." 

Lete, Simon, b. about 1768. A maker 
at Mirecourt, who made instruments at 
very cheap prices for the trade ; in 
1823 he was awarded a silver medal 
for a very satisfactory violin, which 
was priced 25 francs {£1). J. B. 
Vuillaume entered his workshop in 
1821, and 1825-28 was in partnership 
with him. He married the daughter 
of Pique, the violin maker ; his son, 
Nicolas Anloine, b. March 29, 1793, 
Mirecourt, became an organ builder. 

Levalois. A maker of all kinds of 
instruments in Paris, ruedelaCalandre, 
about 1760. 

Lewis, Edward. A maker in London 
about 1700. His work was most 
excellent, showing great accuracy and 
finish ; he used good wood and very 
fine varnish, generally a light yellow 
colour, but sometimes red with golden 
ground. His violins are rare, but are 
very beautiful. In Thomas Britton's 
Collection was an " excellent tenor by 
Mr Lewis" and a " rare good" bass- 

Liebich, Ernst, b. Oct. 27, 1796, 
Reibnitz, near Hirschberg (Silesia) ; d. 
1876, Breslau. Pupil and successor of 
his uncle, Johann Gottfried Liebich. 
He followed the Stradivari and Guar- 
neri patterns ; and also made harps and 
guitars. He was the father of 

Liebich, Ernst, b. 1830. Breslau ; d. 
1884, who succeeded to the business, 
and continued to make instruments on 
the Italian pattern His son, 

Liebich, Ernst, b May z^. 1862, Breslau. 
learnt from his father ; later worked 
with Bittner in Vienna. In 1884 
succeeded to the business at 2, Cather- 
inenstrasst*. Hreslau He was especially 
skiltul in repairing; old instruments, 

about 300 a year passing tnrough his 
hands ; but also made from six to ten 
new instruments per year ; they have a 
fine full tone, and generally follow 
the Stradivari or Guarneri patterns, 
with transparent varnish, reddish- 
yellow colour. He also copied the Amati 
and Maggini patterns ; he employed five 
workmen in his shop, but varnished 
all instruments himself. Was awarded 
silver medal, Breslau, i88i, and a gold 
medal, Posen, 1895. Appointed instru- 
ment maker to the Duke of Saxe- 
Coburg and Gotha. He died 1896. 

Liebich, Johann Gottfried, b. 1752 ; d. 
1 81 3. Son of a maker who left 
Bohemia to settle in Silesia. He 
founded the business, 1790, which has 
remained ever since in the family. 

Liedolf (Leiiolf), Joseph Ferdinand. 
A maker in Vienna in the i8th century. 

Liessem, Remerus. A maker in London, 
1756. This name and date were found 
in a cither of old-fashioned shape. 

Light. A beautiful arch-lute was found 
to be inscribed "479 Light, Foley 
Place, London." 

Lignoli, Andrea. A maker in Florence 
in the 17th century. 

Lilly, James. An English maker, work- 
ing in 1821. 

Linarolo (Linerolli). Francesco. The 
first maker in the family. Worked in 
Bergamo, later in Venice. -\ tenor- 
viol was labelled " Franciscus Linarolus 
Bergomensis Venetii faciebat." Was 
probably the maker of an "accordo" 
dated 1514, beautifully made, the back 
inlaid with tortoiseshell. 

Linarolo, Giovanni, son of Venturo 
Linarolo. Label: "Giovanni D'Ven- 
tura Linarol in Venetia, 1622." 

Linarolo (Linerolli, Linelli), Venturo, 
son of Francesco Linarolo. A maker 
of lutes and viols in Venice, worked 
there till 1581. Label: "Ventura di 
Francesco Linarolo in Venetia, 1581." 
Was then in Padua: label, "Ventura 
de Francco Linarol in Padova, f. 
1585 " ; but probably returned to Venice 
shortly after, for there is a label " fece 
in Venetia, a. 1591." Two tenor-viols 
exhibited in London in 1872 were 
probably made by him ; they both 
had a scroll with four pegs substituted 
for the ancient head with six or seven 
pegs ; the great breadth left between 
the sound-holes shows that the instru- 
ments were originally made for six or 
sjven strings. 

Lippold. A family of makers in 
Markneukirchen in the i8th century. 

Lippold, Johann Georg, b. 1739, 



d. i8z4 ; made fairly good instruments ; 
used yellow-brown varnish. 

Lister, John. Leeds, 1727. 

Lolio, Giambattista. Bergamo, 17 — . 

Loly, Jacopo. Was working in Naples 
in 1627 ; followed the pattern of 
Grancino ; used yellow varnish ; his 
instruments were not arched, and the 
wood was of too hard a quality. He 
made some large-sized tenors. 

Longman and Broderip were not violin 
makers, but were instrument sellers in 
Cheapside, London, about 1760, and 
many of the instruments they sold, 
marked with their name, were made 
for the firm by Benjamin Banks, or 

Lorenzini, Gaspare. AmakerinPiacenza 
in the i8th century. 

Lott, George Frederick, eldest son of 
John Frederick Lott, sen. ; b. 1800, 
London ; d. there, 1868. He was an 
excellent workman and was for a long 
time employed by Davis of Coventry 
Street, London. He copied Italian 
instruments with great cleverness. 

Lott, John Frederick, sen., b. 1775, 
Germany ; d. April 13, 1853, London, 
and was buried in the Churchyard of St. 
Giles-in-the-Fields. While still young 
came to England and settled in London. 
He was first a chair-maker ; but forming 
a friendship with Fendt, he began to 
work at violin making under Thomas 
Dodd, in March, 1798. He showed 
great ability and made many excellent 
violoncellos and basses for Thomas 
Dodd, in which were inserted the 
latter's labels. He was especially 
famed for his double-basses, which 
rival Italian instruments ; the work is 
beautifully finished, both inside and 
out ; the scrolls are well cut, but the 
varnish is not of good quality. His 
two sons, George Frederick and John 
Frederick, were both makers. 

Lott, John Frederick, second son of 
John Frederick Lott, sen.; d. 1871. 
He worked for Davis, of Coventry 
Street, London, and made skilful 
imitations of Italian instruments. 

Lotz, Theodor. A maker of good violins 
in Pressburg, 1730-40. 

Louis. There was a maker of this name 
in Geneva. 

Louvet, Jean, brother of Pierre Louvet. 
He worked in Paris about 1730-60. 
His violins were not well made ; they 
were varnished brown He chiefly 
made hurdy-gurdys and harps, and 
was one of the first to make pedal- 
harps. In the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection are two hurdy-gurdys, one 

dated 1733, made by Louvet, rue 
Grenier St.-Lazare ; the other with 
the label : " Fait par Jean Louvet rue 
de la Croix-des-petits-Champs, pres la 
porte St.-Honore. Paris, 1750." In an 
alto was the label: "Louvet a la 
Vielle Royale rue Croix-des-petits- 
Champs a cote de la Porte Saint- 
Honore a Paris, 1755 " ; a similar label 
in a hurdy-gurdy was dated 1757. 

Louvet, Pierre, brother of Jean Louvet ; 
also worked in Paris about 1740-85. 
He chiefly made harps, which he 
signed "P. Louvet a Paris"; but a 
five-stringed viol is known, and two 
hurdy-gurdys, one, dated 1750, is 
prettily ornamented, the other is in 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection 
and has this label: "Fait par P. 
Louvet, rue Montmartre a Paris, a la 
Vielle Royale, juin, 1747." He later 
moved to the rue St. -Denis, and was 
still there in 1783. 

Ludici (Ludge), Geronimo Pietro. An 
amateur maker, working in Conegliano 
in 1709. Label: " Hieronymus Petrus 
de Ludice anima causa faciebat Cone- 
gliani, a.d. 1709." 

Lugloni, Giuseppe. A maker in Venice 
in 1777. 

Lupo, Pietro, of Antwerp. In 1559 he 
is said to have sold to a musician sent 
by the town of Utrecht, " five violins 
enclosed in their case," for the sum 
of ;^72. The services of a pro- 
fessional player were called in, so that 
the quality of tone of the instruments 
might be fairly judged, before the sale 
was concluded, and for this and for the 
wine drunk on the occasion £^ more 
were paid. 

Lupot, Fran9ois, son of Laurent Lupot ; 
b. 1736, Plombieres ; d. 1804, Paris. 
First worked with his father at Lune 
ville (1751-56) was appointed Court 
maker by the Duke of Wiirtemberg, 
and for ten years (1758-68) lived and 
worked at Stuttgart. A document is 
still extant, signed by Jomelli, Director 
of Music to the Duke, attesting to 
Fran9ois having satisfactorily fulfilled 
his duties for ten consecutive years up 
to the date at which he was leaving — 
June 16, 1768. He then moved to 
Orleans, rue Sainte-Catherine, probably 
to join his father ; but in 1794 went to 
Paris with his son Nicolas and remained 
there till his death. His work shows 
great ability and is superior to that of 
Laurent and Jean Lupot ; he was 
certainly one of the best French makers 
of his time, and is said to have been a 
pupil of Giuseppe Guarneri. ■ He made 



a number of instruments on rather a 
broad pattern, with dark-brown varnish 
of poor quahty . In the Paris Conserva- 
toire Collection is a splendid violin 
made at Orleans in 1772. Labels: a 
curiously-spelt one, "Francois Lupot, 
luttier de la coure de Wirtenbergt a 
Stoutgard, 1765," and "Francisco 
Lupot fecit in Orleans, anno 177 — ." 
He married in 1754, at the age of i8, 
and his two sons, Nicolas and Francois, 
were both makers. 

Lupot, Fran9ois, son of Fran9ois Lupot 
(1736-1804); b. 1774, Orleans; d.Feb. 4, 
1837, Paris. From 1815 until his death 
he worked in Paris at 18, rue d'Angi- 
villiers at making bows only. He in- 
vented the " coulisse," or metal groove 
attached to the nut, and carefully 
fitted to the stick on which it works, 
a very useful contrivance, which has 
been in use ever since. He made 
beautiful bows, closely copied from 
the Tourte bow ; they are still much 

Lupot, Jean. A maker at Mirecourt, b. 
about 1674; d. March i, 1749. His 
violins are not particularly good. His 
son, Laurent, was also a maker. 

Lupot, Laurent, son of Jean Lupot and 
his wife, Laure ; b. 1696, Mirecourt. In 
1747 he was acting as a schoolmaster 
at Plombieres, but in 1751 established 
himself as a violin maker at Luneville, 
where he remained till 1756. Later he 
moved to Orleans, and was working 
there, 1762. His instruments are only 
interesting as showing the sort of work 
that preceded that of Nicolas Lupot. 
His son, Fran9ois (1736-1804), was also 
a maker. 

Lupot, Nicolas, son of Fran9ois Lupot 
{1736-1804); b. 1758, Stuttgart; d. Aug. 
13, 1824, Paris. He was the most 
distinguished member of this family, 
and exercised a great influence on the 
French School of violin making ; he 
carefully studied the work of the Italian 
makers, especially of Antonio Stradi- 
vari, and finally combining theory and 
practice . in an extraordinary degree, 
made instruments far above anything 
produced up. to that time by French 
makers. In 1768 he went with his 
father to Orleans, and there learnt his 
trade; in 1792, while still living there, 
Pique, the Parisian maker, who was 
already well known for his violins, made 
an arrangement with him, by which 
he was to supply a certain number of 
violins ' ' in the white" (r^. , unvarnished), 
at the rate of 30 francs each, to Pique, 
who had not the time to make them 

himself. This was good pay, for later 
J. B. Vuillaume only gave 15 or 20 
francs (12s. to i6s.) for violins in this 
state, and now the price is about 40 to 
50 francs {£1 12s. to £2). Nicolas 
went to Paris in 1794, but did not start 
his business in rue de Grammont till 
1798; in 1806 he moved to rue Croix- 
des-petits-Champs, where he remained 
till his death ; it was there that he 
produced his famous copies of Italian 
instruments. He did not attempt to 
be original, but worked until he could 
produce exact imitations of the great 
Stradivari violins ; a few copies of 
Guarneri and Amati are known ; they 
are very beautiful, but it was the Stradi- 
vari pattern that he was most success- 
ful with. The result of his large 
experience of the methods employed 
by Italian makers was incorporated in 
the Abbe Sibire's work, entitled " La 
Chelonomieou le parfait luthier," pub- 
lished in Paris, 1806. He made many 
violins, altos, and violoncellos, which 
now fetch high prices ; his earlier violins, 
those dated Orleans, and the first part 
of his time in Paris, are worth ;^2o or 
more ; those made between 1804 and 
1824, from £50 to ;^6o or more; his 
violoncellos are rarer, and a fine speci- 
men is worth about ;^8o. Some quintets 
of instruments (2 violins, 2 altos, and i 
violoncello), which he endeavoured to 
make similar in appearance and tone, 
are now very rare, and fetch fancy 
prices. It is said that every instrument 
that left his workshop was entirely 
made by his own hands ; he was a real 
artist, and every small detail was 
beautifully finished. He used different 
varnishes, the usual one with time 
becomes cracked and lumpy-looking, 
which though a defect does not affect 
the tone. It is of good quality, free 
from hardness, but often too thick and 
heavy, especially on the violoncellos. 
The colour varies from yellow to dark 
red ; the tone is always very fine 
Spohr used to play on one of Nicolas' 
violins during his concert tours ; this 
instrument passed into the possession 
of Matthai of Leipzig, and when he 
died into that of Ulrich. Nicolas was 
also famed for the skilful manner in 
which he repaired old Italian instru- 
ments. He had several distinguished 
pupils — Aug Seb. P. Bernardel, Nicolas 
Eugene Gand, and Charles Francois 
Gand, his son-in-law and successor. 
In 1815 he was appointed maker to the 
King, and in 1816 maker to the Paris 
Conservatoire ; this latter post involved 



making the violins and violoncellos 
given as prizes to the Conservatoire 
pupils. In 1820 he undertook to 
entirely replace the instruments of the 
royal orchestra with new ones of his 
own ; but his death cut short the work, 
which was completed by Ch. Fr. Gand. 
Labels : " Nicolas Lupot, filius fecit in 
Aurelianensis, anno 1776"; "N. Lupot 

Fils luthier, rue d'llliers, a Orleans, I'an 
1791 " ; "Nicolas Lupot luthier rue 
de Grammont a Paris, an 1801 " ; 
" Nicolas Lupot luthier, rue Croix-des- 
petits-Champs a Paris, I'an 1812 " ; 
" N. Lupot, luthier de la musique du 
Roi et de I'ecole royale de Musique, 
Paris, 1817." Many instruments were 
signed with his autograph. 


MacGeorge A maker in Edinburgh 
about 1800-20. 

Macintosh. A maker in Dublin about 
1830-40. Pupil of Thomas Perry. 

Maffeotto, Giuseppe. Was working in 
Rome in the i8th century. 

Maggini (Magino or Maglino), Gio: 
Paolo, son of Zovan or Giovanni Mag- 
gini and his wife Giulia ; grandson of 
Ser Bertolino or Bartolommeo de 
Maggini of Botticino, a little village on 
the hills not far from Brescia ; b. 1580 ; 
d. before or in 1632, as in a schedule 
presented in that year by his son Carlo 
he uses the words "filius quondam 
Johannis Pauli." It is possible that 
he died of the plague that in 1632 raged 
in Brescia. His parents left Botticino 
and settled in Brescia. Gio: Paolo 
-was apprenticed to Gasparo da Salo, 
according to a legal document, dated 
1602, signed by both Gasparo and 
Maggini, the latter calling himself 
"garzone" In the first period of 
Maggini's work one finds much that is 
characteristic of the work of Gasparo ; 
there is the same heavy model, short 
blunted corners, and purfling carelessly 
inlaid. The head, although showing 
a great deal of character, is also 
carelessly worked, one side often 
differing from the other, and the face 
very deeply and unevenly cut, while 
the' fluting of the back of the head is 
also irregular The wood is generally 
maple, and is frequently cut on the 
slab ; the wood ot the bellies being 
also cut on the slab forms an interesting 
link between the viol and the violin ; 
afterwards he adopted the method of 
cutting the \v(;od with the straight 
way oi the grain. In the s(>und-holes 
he undercut (jr be\ tiled their inside 
edges like those of a viol occasionally 
he ornamented his violins similarly to 
viols, with inluid purflin-, or the 
"clover-leaf" device at top and bottom 
of the back, or with an ielaborate 

design on the centre of the back ; the 
two latter ornamentations are never to 
be found on the same instrument, 
unless it is a forgery. In the second 
period of his work the influence of 
Gasparo is not so marked ; there is a 
great improvement in the construction 
and work of the instrument ; the 
arching is slightly higher than in his 
earlier or later work, and is usually 
associated with a pronounced raised 
border ; the purfling is done with more 
precision ; the sound-holes, though still 
original in character, have more grace- 
ful curves, and are better cut ; so is 
the head, which is more symmetrical. 
The wood, of very fine quality, is 
seldom cut on the slab ; and is never 
so cut for the bellies; the "Dumas" 
viola and violins are very fine specimens 
of this period. The beautiful instru- 
ments turned out by Antonio and 
Girolamo Amati may possibly have 
influenced the third period of his work, 
which shows much greater accuracy 
and a more beautiful form. The purfl- 
ing is distinct and finely done ; the 
sound-holes are well cut and carefully 
finished ; the arching is not so great, 
and the edges are lighter, which gives 
the instruments a more graceful 
appearance. The curves of the scroll 
are quite symmetrical, while the fluting 
at the back of the head is not so 
hollowed and is beautifully done. 
Stronger corner-blocks and.linings are 
also used for the interior, and the 
thicknesses are more accurately cal- 
culated. The varnish is always of 
remarkably fine quality, but varies in 
colour ; he usually used varnish of a 
clear brown colour, similar to that on 
Gasparo's work ; but by degrees it 
became more brilliant, of a trans- 
parent golden colour. Nearly all his 
instruments are double-purfled, but 
three violins and one viola are known 
with only one line of purfling ; and 



also a very fine violin, which though 
double-purfled on the belly, has only 
imitated purfling on the back, the 
double line being drawn in with pencil 
or ink. The large size of his violins 
makes the sides appear low, but at the 
neck-end their height is almost identical 
with that of Amati violins and some of 
Stradivari, though at the tail-pin end 
they are about one-sixteenth of an inch 
lower. The great length and breadth 
necessitated relatively low sides, and 
Maggini obtained exactly the right 
proportions for producing that great 
volume of tone, so full and mellow, for 
which his violins are famed ; their size 
prevented their general use, but De 
Beriot, the great violinist, played con- 
stantly on a magnificent specimen, 
which eventually was sold for ;^6oo, 
and is now in the Collection of Prince 
de Caraman-Chimay, as well as a viola 
and a violoncello made by Maggini. 
As a rule Maggini violins are worth 
about ;^ioo. His violas are of very 
hij^h model, the arching rises from the 
inner line of purfling, for the latter is, 
as usual," double ; the border is high, 
and the sides are set close to the edges 
of the back and belly, leaving but little 
margin; the corners are short ; the sound- 
holes, placed higher than in the violins, 
are short, wide, very upright, and under- 
cut on the inner edge. The wood is 
most excellent, the varnish of very fine 
quality and a rich golden-brown colour ; 
the tone is very fine. His violoncellos 
are made on exactly the same pattern, 
the sound-holes placed rather high, the 
sides made rather low. Stradivari 
learnt much from him, both in 
the making of violins and of violon- 
cellos ; the latter have almost the 
same proportions. Giuseppe Guarneri 
was another maker on whom his 
work exercised a strong influence. 
The amount -of work done by 
Maggini was comparatively small, 
probably about fifty of his instru- 
ments are now existing; only seven 
or eight violas, two violoncellos, 
and one double-bass are known, 
the latter of very small size and of 
poor workmanship. He probably 
made some viols as well. In England 
only twelve violins, six or seven violas, 
and one violoncello are known. The 
label used is; " Gio : Paolo Maggini in 
Brescia." It is never dated, a fact 
which often helps to expose a forgery. 
Maggini married Maddalena Anna 
Foresto on Tan 20, 1615, and lived in 
the Contrada del Palazzo Vecchio del 

Podesta ; by 1626 he had also a house 
and shop in Contrada delle Bombasarie. 
His only surviving son .Carlo Francesco, 
became a silk merchant, and his son 
Pietro died in his infancy, so that 
there seems to be absolutely no ground 
for the statement that his son, Pietro, 
or Pietro Santo, was also a violin 
maker, especially as no violin, viola, 
or violoncello is known made by any 
other Maggini than the great Gio : 

Maire, Nicolas. A violin bow maker in 
Paris; b. Dec. 28, i8oo, in Mirecourt ; 
d. July 17, 1878. Paris. Was apprenticed 
to Jacques Lafleur in Paris, and con- 
tinued to work there in rue Mont- 
martre. He made excellent bows. 

Maldonner (Moldonner). A maker 
in Fiissen, Bavaria, about 1760. 

Maler (Mailer), Laux. A maker of 
lutes in Bologna about 1415, mentioned 
by Mace in " Musick's Monument" 
(London, 1676). He says, "There are 
diversities of Men's Names in lutes ; 
but the Chief Name we most esteem 
is Laux Mailer, ever written with 
Text Letters : Two of which Lutes I 
have seen (pittifull Old, Batter'd, 
Crack'd Things) valued at ;^ioo a piece. 
Mr. Gootiere. the famous Lutenist in 
His Time, shewed me One of Them, 
which the King paid ;^ioo for. And 
Mr. Edw. Jones (on-e of Mr. Gootiere's 
scholars) had the other, which He so 
valued ; and made a Bargain with a 
Merchant, who desired to have it with 
him in His Travels, (for his Experience) ; 
And if he lik'd It when he returned 
was to give Mr. Jones ;^ioo for it ; but 
if he Refus'd it at the Price set, he 
was to return the Lute safe, and to 
pay ;£'20 for His Experience and Use 
of It, for that Journey. I have often 
seen Lutes of three or four pounds, far 
more Illustrious and Taking to a 
common Eye observe the 

Colour ; which is the Dark-black- 
reddish-colour ; though I believe it 
contributes nothing at all to the sound ; 
only the Best Authors did use to lay 
on That Colour, especially Laux 

Maler, Sigismond. A maker of lutes in 
Venice in 1526. 

Mann, Hans. A maker in Naples 
about 1720-50. His instruments are 
rare. He followed the Stradivari and 
Guarneri patterns 

Mansiedl. See " Maussiell." 

Mantegazza (or Montegatia), Pietro and 
Giovanni. Two brothers working in 
Milan about 1750 to 180c. They 



made many good altos; the varnish, of 
fine quahty, varies in colour, some- 
times is almost black, the wood is 
rather too hard. Labels : " Petrus 
Joes. Fratresq. Mantegatia Mediolani in 
Via S. Margaritae, anno 1757" ; similar 
labels are dated 1760, 1763, and 1780 ; 
^'Pietro, Gio. e fratelli Mantegazza 
nella contrada di Santa Margharita in 
Milano al segno dell' Angelo, 1756" ; a 
similar label is dated 1 770 ; and ' ' Petrus 
Joannes Mantegatia fecit Mediolani in 
Via S. Margarita, 1790." 

Mantovani. Was working in Parma in 
the i8th century. 

Maratti, Giambattista. A maker in 
Verona about 1690-1700. His violins 
are of fair workmanship and have a 
good tone. 

Marcelli, Giovanni. A maker in Cre- 
mona in 1696. Label : " Joannes 
Marcelh fecit Cremonae, MDCXCVI." 

Marchal (Marechal). A maker in Paris 
about 1790, A viola d'amore and a 
lyre-guitar of his are known. In a 
theorbo was found the inscription : 
" Marchal a Paris." 

Marchetti, Enrico. A maker of good 
instruments in Turin in the 19th 

March! , Giovanni Antonio. A maker in 
Bologna about 1740-95. His violon- 
cellos and violins are good instruments ; 
the latter are of high model, with very 
beautiful maple-wood used for the 
back and sides, and varnish of a golden- 
yellow colour. Label : " Joannes 
Antonius Marchi fecit Bononiae, anno 
1774" ; similar labels are dated 1760 
and 1792. 

Marco, Antonio. A maker in Venice in 

Marconcini, Giuseppe, son of Luigi 
Marconcini. Was a pupil of Storioni ; 
then settled in Ferrara, where he died 
at a great age on Jan. 17, 1841, His 
violins varied in workmanship, some 
equalled those of his master ; they 
are well made, slightly arched, with 
brilliant red varnish. 

Marconcini, Luigi. A pupil of Omobono 
Stradivari, who worked both in Ferrara 
and Bologna. His instruments are of 
good workmanship, with pale red 
varnish. Labels: "Luigi Marconcini 
f. Bologna," and " Luigi Marconcini 
in Ferrara, 1767." 

Maria, Giuseppe de. A maker of man- 
dolines at Naples, 1779. Label : 
" Joseph di Maria di Napoli in Strada 
S. Pietro a Majella f. Nin apoli, a.d. 

^779-" , . _ 

Mariani, Antonio. A maker in Pesaro 

about 1640 to 1700. His instruments 
are not of much value ; the work 
suggests Maggini, but is very rough ; 
the purfling is generally double. 
Labels: "Antonio Mariani Pesaro, 
1646," found in an alto, and " Antonio 
Mariani fecit, anno 1694." 

Marino, Bernardino. A maker in Rome 
who worked up to 1805. 

Marins. A small pocket violin of ivory 
and coloured woods was inscribed 
" Marins," and was probably made 
about 1610. 

Marquis de Lair. A maker in Mire- 
court about 1800. He made violins 
and violoncellos, and followed the 
Stradivari pattern ; but his work is 
very poor, the wood is not good, and 
the varnish, an ugly yellow-brown 
colour, lacks transparency ; the tone is 
of bad quality. He branded his in- 
struments on the back, " Marquis de 
Lair d'Oiseau." 

Marshall, John. A maker in London 
about 1750-60. A mandoline of his 
was dated 1758. He followed the 
Stainer pattern, and his work was 
good. Labels: "Johannes Marshall 
Londini. Fecit 1750"; "Johannes 
Marshall (in vico novo juxta Coventam 
hortum) Londini, fecit 1757"; and 
"Marshall: London, 1759." 

Martin. A family of makers in Paris, 
who chiefly dealt in and repaired old 
instruments. Guillaume Martin suc- 
ceeded to the business of Lejeune in 
1822, and was in his turn succeeded by 
a nephew, Charles Martin. Alexandre 
Martin, son of Charles, took the 
business in 1890. 

Martin, Jules. A maker in Germigny, 
Vosges, in the 19th century. 

Martin. A maker in London in 1790-95, 
who lived at Hermitage Bridge, 

Mast, Jean Laurent. A maker in Paris 
about 1750. His instruments are very 
well made, the spirit varnish is thick, 
a dark brown colour, which has be- 
come almost black. He branded his 
violins with "J. L. Mast, Paris," both 
inside and outside. 

Mast, Joseph Laurent, son of Jean 
Laurent Mast. Was born at Mire- 
court and was still there in 1820. He 
was apprenticed to Nicolas there at 
the sign of "A la ville de Cremone," 
and then settled in Toulouse. Several 
of his violins are known, and are said 
to be of better workmanship than 
those of his father. They are arched, 
the sound-holes are not well cut, and 
he used two varnishes, one yellow- 



brown and the other reddish colour. 
He branded his instruments with 
" Mast fils Toulouse, 1825." There is 
a violin in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection which has the label : 
" Josephus Laurentius Mast fecit 
Apollini Deo Harmonise 1816, repare 
chez Schubert Epinal, 1831." 

Maucotel, Charles, biother of Charles 
Adolphe Maucotel; b. Nov. i, 1807, 
Mirecourt. Was first apprenticed to 
Bloise Mast ; in 1834 went to Paris 
and worked under Gand ; in Dec, 1844, 
moved to London, where at first he 
was employed by W. Davis, of 34, 
Coventry Street, but then started his 
own business in 8, Rupert Street, 
Hay market ; 1851-58, Georges Chanot 
worked with him. He retired from 
business in Aug., i860, and returned 
to France. He made some excellent 
instruments, the work, varnish and 
tone were all good. Label : " Carolus 
Maucotelus fecit Londini, 185 — , 
C. + M." 

Maucotel, Charles Adolphe, brother of 
Charles ; b. 1820 at Mirecourt ; d. Feb. 
6, 1858, at Paris. Apprenticed in 
Mirecourt ; then went to Paris and 
worked for five years (1839-44) under 
J. B. Vuillaume. In 1844 he started 
his business in Galerie Vivienne, but 
later moved first to rueCroix-des-petits- 
Champs and then to rue Princesse ; it 
was there he committed suicide in 
1858, by cutting his throat during an 
attack of brain-fever. He made excel- 
lent copies of the works of Stradivari 
and Giuseppe Guarneri, and his 
numerous violins, altos, and violon- 
cellos show good work and have a 
fine tone. In 1844 he was awarded a 
bronze medal for an alto placed in the 
2nd class, and in 1855 a medal of the 
and class. 

Maussiell (or Mansiedl), Leonhardt. A 
maker in Nuremberg, 1720-50. He 
copied the Stainer pattern, and made 
good instruments, carefully finished, 
with yellow or brown varnish. 

Mayr (Maier), Andreas Ferdinand. A 
maker in Salzburg about 1740-80. Is 
said to have made the small violin on 
which Mozart learnt to play. In a 
lute was the label : ' ' Andreas Ferdinand 
Mayr Hof Lauten und Geigenmacher 
in Salzburg, 1741 " ; a similar label, 
printed in German characters, was 
dated 1777. 

May son, Walter H. A maker in Man- 
chester 1875, who began as an amateur, 
but adopted violin making as a pro- 
fession. His instruments are excellent, 

and the workmanship beautifully 

Meares, Richard. A maker of lutes 
and viols in London in 1677. In 1872 
was exhibited in London a viola da 
gamba with the label : " Richard 
Meares, without Bishopsgate, near to 
Sir Paul Finders, London. Fecit 
1677." His son, Richard, also learnt 
the trade but soon abandoned it for 
other work. 

Medard, Antoine, b. 1621 (baptised 
Oct. 28, 1621), son of Henri Medard 
and his wife, Anne. A maker at Nancy. 
A little pocket violin is known, very 
carefully made, \vith the carved head 
of a woman instead of a scroll, and 
red -brown varnish of fine quality. 
Inside is the label : " Anto'.n^. Medard 
a Nancy, 1666." 

Medard, Frangois, son of Claude 
Medard. A maker in Paris about 
1690 to 17 15. Is said to have been a 
pupil of Stradivari at Cremona. His 
instruments are on rather a small 
pattern, slightly arched, the sound- 
holes are well cut. the pretty rose- 
coloured varnish is very transparent, 
and the work is carefully finished. 
He was commanded to make the instru- 
ments for the orchestra of Louis XIV. 
Label : " Franciscus Medard fecit 
Parisiis, 16 — " : a similar label is 
dated 1710. 

Medard, Henri, son of Claude Medard, 
also a maker. A maker at Nancy and 
Paris about 1620-30, there • being a 
record of his marriage to Anne Pier- 
esson, of Poiresson, on Oct. 2'3, 1620. 
Was generally considered to be a pupil 
of Nicola Amati. His work was 
extremely good. In a violoncello was 
the label: "Henry Medart a Nancy, 

Medard, Jean, son of Claude Medard 
Worked at Nancy. 

Medard, Nicolas, son of Claude Medard ; 
b. about 1598, was living in Nancy in 
1658. He followed the Amati pattern, 
his instruments are small, and the 
tone, though soft and silvery, lacks 
power ; the varnish is very beautiful. 
Labels are known dated 1615, 1655 
and 1660. 

Medard, Sebastien, b. about 1576; d. 
1636 ; probably another son of Claude 
Medard. A maker, first at Nancy 
then at Paris, about 1600-36. 

Meiberi, Francesco. A maker at Leghorn 
about 1745-50. 

Melling. A maker in Paris, in the rue 
Fromonteau, place du Louvre, in 1753. 
at the sign of " A la belle Vielleuse " ; 



but in 1771 was in rue des Orties, aux 
galeries du Louvre. 

Mellini, Giovanni. Was working in 
Guastalla, Itajy, in 1768. 

Meloni, Antonio. A maker in Milan 
about 1670-95. Followed the Amati 
pattern ; his instruments are small, 
with well cut sound-holes and yellow 
varnish ; they have a good tone. Label : 
" Antonius Meloni Mediolani fecit 
A.D. 1690." 

Mennegand, Charles, b. June 19, 1822, 
at Nancy; d. Jan. 9, 1885, at Villers- 
Cotterets. Was apprenticed at Mire- 
court ; in 1840 went to Paris and 
worked with Rambaux for five years 
and there gained the experience which 
rendered him such a clever repairer 
of old instruments. 1851-52 worked 
with Maucotel, and in 1852 left France 
for Amsterdam. Returned to Paris 
1857 ^^^ settled at 26, rue de Trevise. 
He made a large number of good 
violins, altos, and violoncellos in 
Amsterdam ; but after his return to 
Paris principally made violoncellos, 
which rank among the best work of 
the time. He was awarded a medal of 
the 2nd class, Paris, 1855, and bronze 
medals in 1867 and 1878. Labels : 
" Mennegand, luthier, 26 rue de 
Trevise, Paris, 1867," and "C. Menne- 
gand, luthier, 26 rue de Trevise, 
Paris, 1877. (Signed) C. Mennegand." 
Some of his labels .have " eleve de 
Rambaux " on them. 

Mennesson, Emile, b. March 15, 1842, 
Rheims. Lives there at 10, rue 
Carnot. Worked with Mennegand 
and Deroux. Had large workshop 
at Mirecourt, 1876-81. Has made 
2,380 violins, following the pattern 
of Stradivari's "Messiah" violin; 
varnish, first red, later yellow-red with 
amber ground. Exhibited at Paris 
(1875-78-94), Philadelphia (1876), 
Rheims (1876-89-95), Rome (1884), 
Epernay (1884 , Charleville (1894), 
and was awarded gold and silver 
medals and numerous " diplomes 

Merighi, Pietro. A maker of mando- 
lines in P'arm§. in 1770. Label : 
" Petrus Merighi fecit Parmae, anno 

Meriotte, Charles. A maker at Lyons 
about 1730-60. Several of his violins 
are known, made on the Stradivari 
pattern, with yellow-brown varnish, 
and of good workmanship. Label : 
" Meriotte, luthier, sur le pont, pres le 
change, a Lyon, 1755." A later label 
was printed in Latin. 

Merlin, Joseph. A maker in London, 
Princes Street, Hanover Square, in 
1770-80. His violins and his mechani- 
cal pegs for violins and violoncellos 
were at one time very fashionable. 
He followed the high Stainer model, 
his instruments were well made, but the 
tone was not good. Label: " Josephus 
Merlin Cremonae emulus. No 104. 
Londini, 1779. Improved. 66, Queen 
Ann Street East, Portland Chapel." 

Messeguer. A Spanish maker working 
about 1646. 

Mettal. A maker in Freiberg. In a 
lyre-guitar of six strings was the 
label: "Mettal, Instrumentenmacher 
in Freyberg." 

Mette, Fran9ois. A maker in the South 
of France, who sent instruments to the 
Paris Exhibition in 1855. 

Meusidler (Hans Neusiedler), Johann. 
A maker of viols of all sorts in Nurem- 
berg about 1540-50". 

Mezadri (Mezzadie),Alessandro. A maker 
in Ferrara, 1690- 1720. He followed the 
principles of the Amati school, but the 
pattern of his instruments is not 
graceful, the sound-holes are placed 
too close, and the workmanship is 
poor. Label : " Alessandro Mezadri 
fece in Ferrara, anno 1713." 

M ezadri (Mezzadie) , Francesco. A maker 
at Milan about 1700-20. In an alto of 
small pattern, with pinkish - yellow 
varnish, very light and transparent, 
the back made of poplar- wood, is the 
label : " Franciscus Mezadri, Milano, 
anno 1712." 

Mezin. See " CoUin-Mezin." 

Mialfi, Joannes. A Spanish maker 
about 1769. His instruments are of 
average merit. 

Michaud. A maker in Paris about 1788, 
rue Guerin Boisseau au coin de la rue 

Michelis, Pelegrino (or Peregrino) di 
Zanetto, son of Zanetto de Michelis ; 
b. 1520. A maker of viols and lutes 
and other instruments in Brescia. A 
tenor of his was exhibited in London, 
in 1885, which is described as "essen- 
tially modern in model and detail, 
though with remaining touches of 
archaism." A splendid six-stringed 
bass-viol is in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection, dated Brescia, 1547 

Michelis, Zanetto de, b. 1495. Probably 
a native of Montechiaro, a village near 
Brescia. Was a maker of cithers. 

Michelot, Jacques Pierre. A maker in 
Paris about 1780-95, at the sign of 
"A la Melodie," 255, rue St.-Honore. 
In the Paris Conservatoire Collection 



is a little guitar dated 1781. He also 
made five-stringed viols, and violins. 
Label : " J . P. Michelot, rue St.-Honore, 
' a la Melodie,' 179c." 

Mier. A maker in London in 1786. 

Migge, Otto, b. June 16, 1857, Coblenz. 
Has made about 80 violins and 14 
violoncellos of good tone. 

Milani, Francesco. A maker in Milan 
about 1740-60. Said to have been 
a pupil of Lorenzo Guadagnini, he 
followed a similar pattern in his work. 

Milhet. Was working in Bayonne about 
1820. His instruments were of ordinary 
workmanship. He used yellow-brown 

Mille. A maker at Aix-la-Chapelle. A 
small pocket violin is known that had 
been repaired by Remy. 

Miller. A maker in London about 1750. 
He worked at the sign of the " Citern," 
London Bridge. 

Miller, A. A maker in St. Andrew's, 
Scotland, in the 19th century. 

Minozzi, Matteo. Was working in 
Bologna in the i8th century. 

Miraucourt, Ludovic (or Joseph). A 
maker of viols at Verdun about 1740- 
50. A six-stringed viol is dated 1743. 

Miremont, Claude Augustin, son of 
Sebastien Miremont ; b. 1827, Mire- 
court ; d. 1887, Pontorson (Manche). 
Was first a pupil of his father, then for 
three years of Collin-Mezin. In 1844 
he went to Paris, and worked first with 
Lafieur, then with Bernardel until 

- 1852, when he left France for America, 
and settled in New York. In 1861 he 
returned to Paris and established 
himself in rue Faubourg-Poissonniere. 
He retired from business on July 15, 
1884, and went to live first in Belleville, 
then at Pontorson, where he died. 
He made a great many instruments, 
chiefly violoncellos ; they were all 
made with extreme accuracy by him- 
self alone, no workman assisting ; they 
show good work and have excellent 
quality of tone. He made some excel- 
lent copies of Stradivari and Guarneri, 
and also several instruments of excellent 
tone on the Klotz pattern. Awards at 
Exhibitions : medal of first class, New 
York, 1853, and Paris, 1855; prize medal, 
London, 1862 ; and silver medal in 
1867 and 1878. Labels : " Expositions 
universelles de 1853-55-62-67, quatre 
premiers prix. C. A. Miremont, 
Brevete S.G.D.G. Paris, an 1875. 
(Signed) A. Miremont," and " C. A. 
Miremont fecit Parisiis, anno Dni. 

Miremont, Sebastien. A maker at 

Mirecourt, b. about 1810; father of 
Claude Augustin Miremont. 

Modessier (Moitessier). A maker in 
Paris in 1810. His instruments were 
made on a large pattern, the wood 
was generally excellent. 

Moers, Jean Henri. A maker in Paris 
about 1 77 1. 

Mohr, Philipp. Was working in Ham- 
burg about 1650. 

Moinel, Charles, nephew of N. E. 
Cherpitel. A maker in Paris. On the 
death of Cherpitel, in 1893, he assisted 
the widow to continue the business. 

Moitessier, Louis. A maker at Mire- 
court about 1780 to 1825. He made a 
large number of instruments, mostly 
violins, of ordinary workmanship with 
brown varnish. One violin, fairly 
well made, was peculiar in having the 
belly as well as the back and sides of 
maple- wood ; the tone was good. In 
it was the label : " Ludovicus Moitessier 
fecit, anno Domini 1781." Rambaux 
was a pupil of his for four years. 

Moldonner (Maldonner). A maker in 
Fiissen, Bavaria, about 1756-98. 

Molinari, Antonio. A maker in Venice, 

Molinari, Josefo. A maker of man- 
dolines and theorbos in Venice about 
1735-65. In the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection are two mandolines dated 
1762 and 1763 respectively. Label : 
"Joseph Molinari, Venetus, anno 1737." 

Montade (Montani or Montaldi), Gre- 
gorio. A maker in Cremona about 1690- 
1735- Was either a'pupil or merely an 
imitator of Omobono Stradivari. His 
work is fairly good. 

Montagnana, Domenico. A celebrated 
maker in Venice about 1720-50. One 
of the most able pupils of Antonio 
Stradivari at Cremona ; it is said that 
he worked with him for twenty years, 
then went to Venice and settled there, 
at the sign of " Cremona." Labels 
dated Venice, 1725, are known. His 
work is admirable, and shows great 
knowledge of the qualities of wood and 
of the necessary thicknesses to be 
obtained ; he made on a large pattern, 
rather arched, with the corners promi- 
nent, the sound-holes gracefully cut, 
rather like those of Guarneri ; the scroll 
showing a great deal of character, and 
both purfling and corners carefully 
finished ; he used most carefully chosen 
wood, beautifully figured, and very 
transparent varnish of a rich golden-red 
colour, which recalls that of Carlo Ber- 
gonzi ; the tone is admirable. Although 
the influence of Stradivari is noticeable 



in every detail, Montagnana's strong 
individuality also asserts itself, and his 
work rivals that of Guarneri or Ber- 
gonzi. His violoncellos are especially 
liked, they are most excellent for solo 
playing ; they are nearly all to be found 
in England or Germany, only three or 
four are in France. He made few 
instruments ; about twelve violins and 
five or six violas are known — the latter 
are mentioned as having a peculiarly 
solemn and penetrating tone. In 1875 
a double-bass of his was sold for /82. 
It is said that spurious labels of " Guar- 
nerius filius Andrese " and of " Carlo 
Bergonzi " are often placed in his 
instruments. His labels are : "Domini- 
cus Montagnana sub signum Cremonae 
Venetiis, 1729," a similar one dated 
1747, and " Domenicus Montagnana 
sub signo in ab prope CEnipontum fecit, 
anno 1730." 

Montechiari, Giovanni. A maker of 
viols and lutes in Brescia before 1533. 

Montegatia. See " Mantegazza." 

Montron. A maker in Paris, rue du 
Grand Hurleur, about 1780-90. 

Morella, Morglato. A maker of lutes, 
rebecs, and viols about 1510-50, who 
worked first in Mantua, then in Venice. 
Very few of his instruments remain 
intact, as his viols were often utilised 
for making up altos or violoncellos of 
small size. Labels : ' ' Morglato Morella 
Mantuae, 15 15," and " Morglato Morella 
fece in Venezia, 1550." 

Morona, Antonio. A maker in Istria 
(Istrien) in 1731. Label in beautiful 
handwriting : " Presbyter Antonius 
Morona Insulanus ex Istria fecit, 1731." 

Morrison, John, b. about 1760; d. be- 
tween 1820 and 1830. A maker in 
London, first lived in Princes Street, 
Soho, then, in 1819, in Shadwell, and 
finally at Little Turnstile, Holborn, 
where he died. Most of his instruments 
were made for the dealers and were of 
poor workmanship. 

Mottenhaver, Edward. A maker in 
New York, U.S.A., who has taken out 
a great many patents for inventions. 

Mougenot. Was working in Rouen in 
1763, at the sign of " Sainte-Cecile." 

Mougenot, Georges, b. June 23, 1843, 
Mirecourt (Vosges) . Was apprenticed 
there to Deroux (pere), then worked 
under N. Darche at Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
was his head workman, 18C4-67. He 
established himself in Liege, in the rue 
Pont d'lle ; but 1875 succeeded to the 
business of N. F. Vuillaume, for whom 
he had long been working, in Brussels, 
at 23, rue Montague de la Cour. He 
employs two workmen to make new 
violins and violoncellos, he himself 
always finishing them, determining the 
thicknesses, doing the varnishing. &c. 
He follows the Stradivari and Guar- 
neri patterns, using brown-red varnish 
for the former and golden-red for the 
latter ; the tone is good. Was awarded 
silver medal, Paris, 1878; gold medal, 
Amsterdam, 1883 ; gold medal, Ant- 
werp, 1885 ; diploma of honour, 
Antwerp, 1894. 

Mougnet. A maker in Lyons, who in- 
vented a lyre-guitar in 181 1. 

Muelevoets, Jan. A maker of cithers 
in Antwerp, 1584. 


Nadotti, Giuseppe. A maker in Pia- 
cenza about 1760-70. A violin of his, 
exhibited in Milan, was dated 1767. 

Namy, Jean Theodore. Worked in Paris 
about 1755-1807, Was especially 
known for the clever way in which he 
restored old instruments, showing rare 
skill even in the smallest details. 
First worJjed in the business carried 
on by the widow of Salomon, for in 
one of his violins is the label : " Fait 
par Namy, luthier chez Madame 
Salomon a Paris, 1772." He lived in 
the place du Louvre, 1783-89. 

Naylor, Isaac. A pupil of Richard 
Duke. He worked at Headingly, near 
Leeds, about 1778-92, 

Nella. 5V* " Raffaele." 

Nermel, J. M. A maker in Paris, living 
in rue St.-Germain-l'Auxerrois in 1777, 
rue du Pot-de-Fer in 1783, and rue du 
Vieux Colombier, 1788-89. 

Neuner, Ludwig, b. Aug. 21, 1840, 
Mitten wald (Bavaria). Grandson of 
Mathias Neuner, also a clever maker 
of violins, who worked for some time 
in London. First learnt in his father's 
workshop at Mittenwald, afterwards 
with Andreas Engleder in Munich 
and Gabriel Lembock in Vienna ; 
then worked for five years under 
J. B. Vuillaume in Paris Left Paris 
for BerHn, 1867, and there established 
a business at 6, Kurstrasse, working 
there assisted by two workmen till 
1883. In February that year, through 



Neusiedler, Hans 
Newton, Isaac. 

about 1775-1825. 

instruments, but 

the death of his brother, became 
partner in the firm of Neuner und 
Hornsteiner, Mittenwald. He had 200 
workmen there, and from 15,000 to 
20,000 instruments were yearly sent out 
to all parts of the world ; these all show 
excellent work, considering their extra- 
ordinarily low price. He himself 
made instruments for solo-playing, 
closely copied from Italian models ; 
was awarded a silver medal in Berlin, 
1879 ; and the large medal for Indus- 
tries, founded by Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV. His work was commended at the 
Bologna Exhibition, 1888. He died 

See " Meusidler." 
Worked in London 
He made fairly good 
used a dingy yellow 
varnish. Sometimes made violins and 
violoncellos for Betts, but these were 
always varnished by the latter. 

Nezot. A maker in Paris about 1730-60. 
He principally made viols, but also 
a few violins. A beautiful viol of his, 
undated, is in the Paris Conservatoire 

Nicolas, Didier, I'aine (known as 
" deaf Nicolas"), b. 1757, Mirecourt ; 
d. there, 1833. His business was 
carried on at the sign of " A la ville de 
Cremone." He was a clever work- 
man, and made large quantities of 
instruments, fairly good, although de- 
ficient in some respects. They are 
generally on a large pattern, slightly 
arched, the varnish either red-brown 
tinged with yellow or bright red 
colour; the sound-holes rather peculiar 
in cut, very widely opened in the 
middle ; the tone is large, and the 
instruments are suitable for use in 
orchestras, those with red varnish 
being generally superior in work. 
They are branded, just where the 
label is usually placed, with the in- 
scription: "A la ville de Cremone, 
D. Nicolas, aine." He first exhibited 
in 1802, being the first maker of Mire- 
court to do so ; he received no award 
then, but in 1806 was awarded a silver 
medal at the Paris Exhibition. At 
the time of his death about 600 work- 
men were employed in his workshops. 

Nicolas, Fran9ois Nicolas Fourrier 
(was known simply as "Nicolas"), b. 
Oct. 5, 1758, Mirecourt ; d. 1816, 
Paris. Began to work under Saunier 
in Paris in 1770, was appointed maker 
to the Royal School of Music in 1784, 
and maker to the Emperor in 1804, 
and made all the string instruments 

used in the private orchestra of 
Napoleon I. He is especially to be 
commended for the careful choice 
of wood and the good proportions of 
his instruments ; the latter he had 
closely copied from beautiful specimens 
of Cremona work His instruments, 
though much used at one time, dropped 
out of fashion, but good violins of his 
are still to be had. A MS. label found 
in a violin: " Repare par Fourrier 
Nicolas, luthier de la chapelle de S.M. 
I'Empereur, pour son ami Julien, chef 
d'orchestre des bals de la Cour, 

Nicolas, Joseph, son of Didier Nicolas ; 
b. 1796, Mirecourt ; d. 1864. Pupil 
and successor of his father. His- 
instruments are branded "J. Nicolas 
fils." He was awarded a bronze medal 
in 1834 ; in 1855 he constructed a 
violin which could be played on both 
back and front, being provided with 
two finger-boards, two bridges, &c.— 
the utility of this instrument is not 
obvious. After his death his widow 
sold all the stock-in-trade to the maker 
Derazey, of Mirecourt ; the two stamps 
with which Joseph and his father 
had branded their instruments were 
included ; these were apparently made 
use of along with the other material by 
Derazey, consequently new instruments 
have since appeared not made by a 
Nicolas, although stamped with the 

Nicolas, Mathieu. Is mentioned as a 
maker in Mirecourt. His instruments 
were of ordinary workmanship, some- 
times with yellow, sometimes with red 

Nicolas. In a five-stringed viol was the 
inscription " a Verdun par Nicolas des 
Rousseaux, 1755." 

Niggell, Simpertus. A maker of viols 
and violins in Fiissen near Hohen- 
schwangau about 1743-66. His instru- 
ments are well made, on a flat pattern, 
with brown varnish, and are branded 
on the interior with the letters " S. N." 
In a viola d'amore, with a carved head 
and red-brown varnish, was the label : 
" Sympertus Niggell Lauten und Geigen 
Macher in Fussen, 1744 " ; a similar 
label was dated 1765. 

N orborn , John. Was working in London 
about 1723. 

Norman, Barak, b. 1688; d. 1740. A 
maker in London, lived first in Bishops- 
gate and then in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
He was probably a pupil of Thomas 
Urquhart, his earlier work having 
much the same appearance as that o£ 



the latter ; but later he copied G. P. 
Maggini to some extent, using double 
purfling and ornamental devices, such 
as the " clover-leaf " design on his 
violoncellos. He is supposed to have 
been the first English maker of violon- 
cellos. They are of large size, the 
wood being of good quality, the 
thicknesses correctly proportioned and 
the work carefully done ; the varnish 
is dark, the tone is very good ; one 
made in 1718, was valued at 15 guineas 
in 1790, but now the price is higher. 
He also made beautiful tenors, probably 
at an earlier date than the violoncellos ; 
they are of a different pattern, being 
very much arched. They are generally 
large size, with very dark varnish and 
of fine tone. No violins of his remain, 
but he was well known as a maker of 
viols. He marked his instruments 
with his name enclosed in a design of 
purfling or with the monogram "N. B." 
in purfling, under the wide part of the 
finger-board, or sometimes in the centre 
of the back. He entered into partner- 
ship with Nathaniel Cross about 1715 ; 
they worked at the sign of the " Bass- 
Viol." In a viola da gamba was 

found a label in the handwriting of 
Cross, "Nathaniel Cross wrought my 
back and belly " ; the sides and scroll 
were the work of Norman. Their 
label was : '* Barak Norman and Nath- 
aniel Cross at the Bass- Viol in Saint 
Paul's Church yard, London, fecit 
172 — ." Three bass-viols were ex- 
hibited at South Kensington Museum 
in 1872 ; in one of them, which had 
been converted into a violoncello, was 
the label : " Barak Norman, at the 
Bass- Viol in Saint Paul's alley, 
London, fecit 1690." 

Norris, John, b. 1739, London ; d. 
March 10, 1818. A maker in London. 
Was a pupil of Thomas Smith, and 
did very similar work. Went into 
partnership with Robert Barnes in 
1765. S^^" Barnes." 

Novello, Pietro Valentino, brother oi 
Marco Antonio Novello. A maker in 
Venice in the i8th century. 

Novello, Marco Antonio a brother of 
Pietro Valentino Novello, who worked 
in Venice at the same time. Their 
instruments show good work. 

Noversi, Cosimo. A maker in Florence 
in the 17th century. 


Obbo, Marco. Was working in Naples 
in 171 2, according to a MS. label found 
in a violin of ordinary make : ' ' Marcus 
Obbo, Napoli, 1712." 

Obici (Obue), 13artolommeo. A maker 
in Verona in 1684. Label: " Borto- 
lamio Obici in Verona, 1684." 

Odani, Giuseppe Morello. Was working 
in Naples in 1738. In a violin fairly 
well made with very dark varnish was 
the label : " Giuseppe Morello Odani 
in Napoh, 1738." 

Odoardi. Giuseppe. Was working until 
1675 in Ascoli, Italy, according to one 
authority ; according to another was 
born about 1740. He was a peasant, 
and, though without any teaching in 
the art of violin making, showed great 
ability in the instruments he made. 
He died when 28 years old, but left 
about 200 violins, which are much 
sought after in Italy. 

Ohberg, Johann. A maker in Stockholm 
in 1773. His instruments were fairly 
good ; he generally used a yellow 

Oneda, Gio. Battista, b. 1529. A maker 
of cithers and violins in Brescia about 

Ongaro, Ignazio. A maker in Venice in 

Orlandelli, Paolo. Was working in 

Codogno, Italy, in the i8th century. 
Ortega. About 1840 was a maker and 

repairer of instruments in Madrid. 
Ostler, Andreas. A maker in Breslau 

in 1730. A viola d'amore of ordinary 

workmanship with yellow varnish was 

exhibited in Paris in 1878. 
Ott, Johann. One of the earliest makers 

of lutes in Nuremberg ; he was born 

there early in the 15th century, and 

was still living there in 1463. 
Otto, Carl August, fourth son of J. A. 

Otto; b. Sept. 26, 1801, Jena; d. 

May II, 1883, Ludwigslust. Settled 

in Ludwigslust ( Mecklenberg) in 1832. 

Was appointed maker to the Mecklen- 

berg-Schwerin Court. 
Otto, Carl Christian, second son of 

|. A. Otto: b. 1792; d. about 1853. 

Established himself at Halle, and gave 

up his time to repairing old instruments. 
Otto, C. W. F. Louis, fifth son of J. A. 

Otto; b. 1805, Jena; d. Feb. 3, 1884, 

Stockholm. A maker in Stockholm. 
Otto, Georg August Gottfried, eldest 

son of J. A. Otto; b. 1789, Weimar; 



d. July 2, 1857, Jena. From 1818 
worked in Jena, succeeding to his 
father's business there. He made 
good instruments. 

Otto, Heinrich Wilhelm, third son 
of J. A. Otto; b. 1796; d. 1858. 
Worked first in Amsterdam and later 
in Berlin. 

Otto, Hermann, son of Ludwig Otto ; 
b. March 9, 1859, Cologne; d. Sept. 20, 
1884, St. Petersburg. Worked with 
his father in St. Petersburg. 

Otto, Jacob August, b. 1764, Gotha ; d. 
1830, Jena. Pupil of Franz Anton Ernst 
at Gotha, later settled in Weimar, 
and was appointed maker to the 
Court. Worked also in Halle, Leipzig, 
Magdeburg, Berlin, and finally in Jena. 
Was especially skilful in repairing old 
instruments, and made very good 
violins and violoncellos ; six violins, 
one alto, and one violoncello were 
made by him for the Royal Orchestra 
of Copenhagen. He published two 
books on violin making: " Ueber den 
Bau und die Erhaltung der Geige und 
aller Bogeninstrumente " (Halle, 1817); 
and " Ueber den Bau der Bogen- 
instrumente und iiber die Arbeiten der 
vorziiglichsten Instrumentenmacher " 
(Jena, 1828) ; the latter was translated 
into English by John Bishop in 
1848. His five sons all became violin 

Otto, Ludwig, son of Georg August 
Gottfried Otto; b. Sept. 16, 1821, Jena; 
d. Feb. 9, 1887, St. Petersburg. First 
worked in Cologne, but after 1871 
settled in Petersburg. He exhibited 

three violins, a viola, violoncello 
and double-bass in London, 1862. 
They were all well made and were 
moderately priced. 

Otto, Louis, son of Carl August Otto ; 
b. July 15, 1844, Ludwigslust. Pupil 
of his father in Ludwigslust, 1860-65 ; 
worked with his cousin, Ludwig Otto,, 
in Cologne, 1865-66, then went to 
Hanover, where he worked with Aug. 
Riechers till 1872. In the same year 
started his own business in Diisseldorf, 
at 16, Schiitzenstrasse, where he still 
works, assisted by two workmen. He 
is very skilful at repairs, and has 
repaired about 850 fine old instruments. 
For his new instruments he uses 
beautiful wood, not less than twenty 
years old, and follows the Stradivari 
model, large pattern, using good oil 
varnish, orange colour, of his own 
invention ; the tone is of fine, full 
quality. He himself accurately deter- 
mines the thicknesses of back and front, 
cuts the sound-holes, places the sound- 
posts, carves the scroll, and does the 
varnishing. About 238 violins, 13 
violas, and 33 violoncellos have been 
made. He gained first prizes at the 
Exhibitions in Diisseldorf, 1880 ; Mel- 
bourne, 1888; and Chicago, 1893. His 
son now works under him. 

Ouvrard, Jean. A maker in Paris about 
1725-46. Pupil of Claude Pierray. A 
violoncello is known, beautifully made,, 
with very fine golden-coloured varnish ; 
also a small six-stringed viol dated 
1726, and a five-stringed viol labelled 
" place de I'Ecole, a Paris, 1745." 


Pacherele, Michel. A maker in Paris 
in 1779. He followed the pattern of 
Guersan. His instruments were fairly 
well made, slightly arched, with yellow 
varnish. His name is branded on the 
top of the back, and he used a MS. 
label : " Michel Pacherele, luthier rue 
d'Argenteuil a Paris, 1779." 

Pacherele, Pierre, b. 1803, Mirecourt ; 
d. Dec. 31, 1871, Nice. Was a fellow- 
apprentice of J. B. Vuillaume at Mire- 
court. After 1830 he moved about, 
working first at Nice, then at Genoa, 
then at Turin with Pressenda the 
violin maker, finally returning, in 1839, 
to Nice. He made a great many 
violins, altos, and violoncellos, all 
of good workmanship, but the 
varnish was thick and heavy ; he 

often took Stradivari for his model. 
He was also a clever repairer of 

Pacquet. A maker from Aix who was 
working in Marseilles in 1785, according 
to a label : "Pacquet d'Aix, luthier a 
Marseille, 1785." 

Padewet, Johann. A skilful maker of 
violins; d. about 1874. He started a 
business in liasle, 1844, t>ut moved to 
Carlsruhe (Baden) in 1846. Was 
appointed Court instrument maker by 
the Grand Duke of Baden. Awards : 
at Munich Exhibition, 1854 ; Paris, 
1855 ; Carlsruhe, 1861 ; London, 1862 ; 
Paris, 1867 ; and Freiburg, 187 1. 

Padewet, Johann, son of Johann 
Padewet ; b Aug. 23, 1851, Carlsruhe. 
First a pupil of his father, then v/orkcd- 



in Hanover and Berlin under Aug. 
Riechers till 1874 Succeeded to his 
father's business, at 132, Kaiserstrasse, 
Carlsruhe. Assisted by two workmen, he 
made forty to fifty instruments (violins, 
violas and violoncellos) a year, on the 
Stradivari pattern, using oil varnish, 
of reddish-yellow or golden-brown 
colour. He was especially skilful in 
repairing old instruments, of which a 
great number were sent to him from all 
parts of the world. Awards : gold 
medal and diploma, Carlsruhe, 1877 ; 
silver medal and diploma, Mannheim, 
1880 ; gold medal and diploma of 
honour, Strassburg, 1895. He died 1902. 

Pagani, Gian Battista. A maker in 
Cremona in 1747. ^ violin is known, 
well made. 

Paganoni, Antonio. Was working in 
Venice in the middle of the i8th cent. 

Pageot (Pajeot), son of Louis Simon 
Pageot ; b. Jan. 25, 1791, Mirecourt ; d. 
there Aug. 24, 1849. A maker of bows, 
he obtained a "Mention honorable" 
in 1834 for the finish of his work. In 
his workshops about 8,000 dozens of 
bows were turned out at prices varying 
from 6d. to 14s. 

Palate. A maker in Liege about 1710. 
He followed the Italian pattern, and 
left some excellent instruments. 

Palma, Paolo. Worked in Lucca about 

Pamphilon, Edward. A maker in 
London, on London Bridge, about 
1680-90. His instruments were of 
small pattern, very much arched, and 
generally of stiff, inelegant outhne ; 
the work carefully and delicately 
finished; the sound-holes small, some- 
times finished with a drawn-out curl 
like the volute of a scroll, the bottom 
curve running out almost at right- 
angles to the axis of the violin ; the 
heads too small, an ordinary failing of 
the early English makers, but artisti- 
cally shaped and often deeply scooped 
in the volute. The purfling is often 
double, and he used a very fine yellow 
varnish which looks extremely well ; 
the tone is clear, pure, and penetrating. 
He also made tenors of small pattern 
but of good tone ; no violoncellos of his 
are known, for at that time the bass- 
viol with the flat back was still in use. 
His instruments are much liked ; their 
similarity to those made in Brescia 
led to labels of "Gasparo da Salo" 
being placed in them, a deception all 
the more easily carried out as few Pam- 
philon labels exist. Label: "Edward 
Pamphilon, April the 3rd, 1685." 

Pandolfi, Antonio. A maker in Venice 
about 1700-20. His work is good and 
he used a yellow-brown varnish ; a 
violin dated 1719 was exhibited at 
Milan in 1881 

Panormo, Edward, d. 1891. Was a 
grandson of Vincenzo Panormo ; he 
worked both in London and in Ireland. 

Panormo, George. A maker in London, 
probably a grandson of Vincenzo 

Panormo, George Lewis, second son of 
Vincenzo Panormo. He was a cele- 
brated bow maker in London, and 
lived first in Oxford Street, then in 
High Street, Saint Giles-in-the-Fields. 
He made very fine guitars (one was 
dated 1833) and some good violins on 
the Stradivari pattern. 

Panormo, Joseph, eldest son of Vin- 
cenzo Panormo. Was born in London, 
lived first in New Compton Street and 
then in King Street, Soho ; he died 
in great poverty. He was a very 
good workman, and his violoncellos 
especially were excellent: 

Panormo, Vincenzo (known as "old 
Panormo"), b. Nov. 30, 1734, Mon- 
reale, a village near Palermo, Sicily ; 
d. 1813, London. When only sixteen 
he began, without aid, to make various 
kinds of musical instruments. He 
went to Cremona for a short time and 
probably worked there under Bergonzi. 
About 1753 went to Paris; in 1772 
made a short visit to England ; 1783-89, 
was again living at 70, rue de Chartres, 
Paris, but soon after removed to 
London. He also worked in Ireland 
for a short time, and there converted a 
maple-wood billiard table into some 
very beautiful instruments. He was a 
remarkably good workman, especially 
in his fine copies of the Stradivari 
pattern ; his instruments were rather 
small, the sound-holes and scrolls well 
cut, the varnish a clear yellow colour, 
sometimes rose ; the tone is very fine. 
A few violoncellos made on the Stradi- 
vari pattern are generally of handsome 
maple-wood for the back and ribs, and 
have an extremely rich and powerful 
tone. His violins, violoncellos, and 
double-basses are all much liked for 
the pure and good quality of their 
tone ; his guitars have a high reputa- 
tion. Some of his work is poor, but 
he made a good many instruments for 
the trade, using the wood (often of bad 
quality) supplied by his employers, and 
generally had to finish these instru- 
ments within a given time. Labels : 
"Vincent Panormo, rue de I'Arbre-sec 



a Paris, 1730 " ; a similar label is dated 
1780 ; " Vincenzo Triusano Panormo 
fecit Parisiis, anno 17 — " ; "Vincenzo 
Panormo di Palermo fecit, anno 17 — " ; 
" Vincenzo Panormo, me fece Marsiglia 
1760, Sicily"; "Vincenzo Panormo, 
London, 179 1." 
Panzani (Pansani), Antonio. A cele- 
brated maker in Rome about 1735-85. 
Paquotte Freres. Henri Felix, b. March 
II, 1857, ^^^ Placide, b. 1864 ; d. 1900. 
Sons of J. B. Paquotte, to whose 
business they succeeded in July, 1888, 
at 99, faubourg Saint-Germain, Paris. 
They were awarded a bronze medal at 
the 1889 Exhibition for the beautiful 
tone of their violins, but they chiefly 
worked at repairing old instruments. 
Henri was also a violin player, and 
was in Sauzay's class at the Paris 
Conservatoire, 1873-78. 
Paquotte, Jean Baptiste. Nephew of 
Sebastien Paquotte, under whom he 
worked for eight years ; he then worked 
under Lafleur for fourteen years. By 
the time he succeeded to his uncle's 
business he had gained great ex- 
perience in his trade, and may be 
ranked among the best Parisian makers 
of his time. In 1877 he settled at 
99, faubourg Saint-Germain, but re- 
tired from business in 1888, and was 
succeeded by his sons, Henri Felix 
and Placide. He died 1900. 
Paquotte, Sebastien, b. 1800, Mire- 
court ; d. 1863, Paris. In 1830 he 
founded the business in Paris, at 51, 
rue de la Harpe, afterwards moving to 
20, rue de I'Ecole de Medicine. His 
son, Sebastien, b. Sept. 13, 1843, was 
not a violin maker, but studied violin 
playing at the Paris Conservatoire. 
Paraldic. The only instrument known 

of his is a violoncello made in 1722. 
Pardi. A maker in Paris in 1788, at 

412, rue St.-Honore. 
Pardini, Bastiano. Worked in Florence 
about 1700. Label : "Bastiano Pardini 
in Firenze." 
Paris, Claude. A maker at Paris, in the 
rue du Roulle- St.-Honore, 1775-91. 
In 1816 was joined by his nephew. In 
a violin, on which the purfling was a 
2ig-za^ pattern, both back and front, 
with spirit varnish, a red-yellow colour, 
was the label : " Claude Paris, luthier, 
rue du Roulle a Paris, 1780." 
Parker, Daniel. A maker in London 
about 1714-85. He was a very clever 
workman, possibly a pupil of Urquhart 
or Pamphilon, but made a step in 
advance, improving the pattern of his 
instruments, making them more similar 

to those of Amati. He used red 
varnish, a disagreeable colour, rather 
thickly laid on ; the wood was excellent, 
often handsomely figured ; the varnish 
rather transparent and soft ; the tone 
clear and powerful. He made largely 
for the trade, consequently his instru- 
ments are often sold under other 
names ; no viola or violoncello of his 
has ever been seen, only violins are 
known. About 1793 they were valued 
at five guineas each ; about 1805 they 
realised as much as fifteen guineas each. 
Parth (or Perth), Andreas Nicolas. A 

maker in Vienna about 1750. 
Pasenali, Giacomo. A maker of man- 
dolines in the i8th century. 
Pasta, Domenico and Gaetano. Makers 
in Brescia about 1700-30. They are 
said to have followed the Amati instead 
of the Maggini pattern, traditional in 
Brescia. They were probably pupils 
of G. B. Rogeri. Their instruments 
have not a good tone, the varnish is 
brown colour. 
Patzelt, Johann Ferdinand. A maker 

in Vienna about 1850-66. 
Pauli, Antonius. Worked in Tachau in 
1723. A viola d'amore of large pattern, 
with flat back, twelve strings, pale 
yellow varnish, and without any trace 
of repairs or alterations, had the label : 
" Ant. Pauli Musicus instrumentalis in 
Tachau, 1723." 
Pazzini, Gian Gaetano. A maker in 
Florence about 1630-70. Little is known 
about him, but according to his label 
he was a pupil of Maggini. His instru- 
ments are very rare. Labels : ' ' Giovan : 
Gaettano Pazzini, allievo dell* Maggini 
di Brixiae. Fecit Firenze, anno 1640." 
Pearce, George, b. Nov. 16, 1820, War- 
minster ; d. July 3, 1856, London. 
His parents moved to London in 1824, 
and in July, 1834, ^^ ^^^ placed in the 
workshop of S. A. Forster as errand 
boy, but showing talent was taught 
violin making and became an excellent 
Pearce, James and Thomas. Two 
brothers working in London, in Peter 
Street, Saffron Hill, about 1780- 1800. 
Their work was poor. 
Pearce, WilUam Robert, b. 1833 ; d. 1897. 
A maker and repairer in London. Used 
a brilliant amber-coloured oil varnish. 
Awarded medals 1884 and 1885. 
Peccate, Charles. A maker of bows in 
Paris. Obtained a silver medal at the 
1889 Exhibition. 
Peccate, Dominique, b. July 15, 1810, 
Mirecourt ; d. there, Jan. 13, 1874. In 
1826 was apprenticed to J . B. Vuillaume 



at Paris, and worked with him until 
1837 ; then Fran9ois Lupot died, and 
Dominique succeeded to his business 
at i8, rue d'AngivilUers. He remained 
there till 1847, then returned to Mire- 
court, and continued working there. 
He ranks next to Francois Tourte as a 
bow maker, even rivalling him in some 
of his bows, which were finished with 
especial care. He sometimes marked 
them with his name ; they were at first 
sold for i6s., but now their price is 
almost quadrupled. 

Peccate, jeune. A brother of Dominique, 
who also made bows, and was for some 
time working in J. B. Vuillaume's 
shop. His work is inferior to that of 
his brother. He died in Paris about 

Peccenini, Alessandro di Leonardo 
Maria (known as "del lento"). A 
maker of lutes and viols in Bologna in 


Pedrazzi, Fra Pietro. A Dominican 
friar, working in Bologna in 1784. 

Pemberton, Edward. A maker in 
London in 1660. His instruments are 
ugly, but the tone is good and the 
varnish of quality. It has been 
suggested that a Pemberton was the 
maker of the instrument presented to 
the Earl of Leicester by Queen Eliza- 
beth, which has "J. }^ P." engraved on 
the tail-pin — supposed to be the initials 
of the maker and the date of the year 
(1578) in which it was made — if so, he 
was the earliest English maker to 
make the violin of four strings. 

Perault. A maker in Paris, 1775-77, in 
the rue du Petit-Muse. 

Peregrine, Giannetto. See " Michelis 
Pelegrino di Zanetto." 

Peron (or Perou), Nicolas. A maker in 
Paris, living in rue de I'Arbre-sec, 
1775-79; rue Mauconseil, 1783; place 
de la Comedie fran^aise, 1785 ; and rue 
Richelieu pres la Comedie fran9aise, 
1787-89. He was appointed maker to 
the Duchess of Orleans. His instru- 
ments are fairly well made, with yellow- 
brown varnish. In one of his violins 
made on the Gagliano pattern, was 
the label: "Peron, luthier de S.A.R. 
madame la Duchesse d'Orleans rue 
Richelieu pros la Comedie fran9aise, 
1790, Paris." He was also the maker 
of the " Spanish lyre " invented by the 
Abbe de Morlane. 

Perry, Thomas. A maker in Dublin 
about 17 '>7 to 1827. A large cither is 
known, and a cither-viol labelled : 
*' ^lade bv Thonias Perry, Dublin, 
1767 He was in partnership with 

William Wilkinson, and they turned 
out very well made violins of good tone. 
Their label was : " Made by Thos. Perry 
and Wm. Wilkinson, musical instru- 
ment makers, No. 4, Anglesea Street, 
Dubhn, 182—." 

Persoit. A maker of bows in Paris; a 
very clever workman. He made for 
J. B. Vuillaume, 1823-41 ; but then 
started a business of his own. He 
marked his bows with the letters 
"P. R. S. • 

Peters, Michael. Was working in Wey- 
berg in 1801, judging from two labels 
in a bass-viol of seven strings ; the first 
runs : " dieses Instrument ist gemacht, 
anno 1627," the second is "arranschirt 
von Michael Peters in Weyberg, anno 

Petz. A maker in Fiissen, Bavaria, in 

Pezzardi. A maker in Brescia about 
1580-1610. His instruments are some- 
what similar to those of Maggini, his 
contemporary ; there is the same 
pattern, the same double purfiing, but 
the varnish is clearer and the sound- 
holes are different. His instruments 
are often sold as being those of 

Pfab. A maker in Hamburg, 1852-1902. 

Pfretzschner, Carl Friedrich, son of 
Johann Gottlob Pfretzschner. Was 
presumably a German, but worked in 
Cremona. His instruments are of no 
special merit. 

Pfretzschner, Johann Gottlob. A maker 
in Cremona. A label in one of his 
instruments is dated 1794. His work 
is not good. 

Pfretzschner. Makers in Neukirchen. 

Pichol. A maker in Paris. 

Picino. A maker in Padua in 1712 ; 
his instruments are very arched and 
have dark varnish. 

Picte, Noel. See " Piete. " 

Pierrard, Louis. A maker of excellent 
violins, with red-brown varnish, and of 
good tone, in Brussels, at 23, rue Le 
beau. He was a pupil of Mougenot, 
but started his own business in 1883. 
Exhibited instruments in Brussels 
(1888), Paris (1889), and Antwerp, and 
was awarded bronze, silver, and gold 
medals. He published " Traite de 
lutherie " (Brussels, 1890). 

Pierray (or Pierret), Claude. A con- 
temporary of l^oquay, he worked in 
Paris about 1700-30. He made a great 
many violins and violoncellos, the 
former on a large pattern. He some- 
times copied the work of Ciirolamo 
Amati rather closelv He ust-d good 



wood, though not very beautiful to look 
at, and red varnish. The proportions 
of his thicknesses varied too much ; the 
tone is excellent but not powerful ; the 
work is carefully finished In Thomas 
Britton's Collection of instruments was 
a violin by "Claude Pieray, of Pans, 
as good as a Cremona." Some of his 
pupils became good makers, such as 
Jean Ouvrard, Paul Grosset, and Louis 
Guersan. Labels: "Claude Pierray, 
rue des Fosses-Saint-Germain-des-Pres 
a Paris, 1710"; a similar label, dated 
1714, " Claude Pieray a Paris, 1715 " ; 
" Claude Pierray proche la Comedie a 
Paris, 1725." There is a bass-viol, 
dated 171 2, in the Paris Conservatoire 

Piete (Picte), Noel, b. about 1760. 
Worked in Paris till about 1810. Was 
a pupil of Saunier. Made violins and 
violoncellos of beautifully finished 

Pilet. See " Pitet. ' 

Pillement, F. A maker in Paris about 
1790-1820. His instruments vary very 
much, as he often changed his pattern ; 
he used dark varnish. He branded 
his violins n-side with "Pillement, 
Paris " 

Pilosio, Francesco Was working in 
Gorizia in 1748 

Pique, Fran9ois Louis ; b 1758, at 
Rorei, near Mirecourt ; d. 1822, Cha- 
renton-St. -Maurice Was a pupil of 
Saunier. He went to Pans in 1777 or 
1778 living first in " rue Coquilliere 
au coin de la r le de Bouloy according 
to a label in a theorbo dated 1779 , 
then, 1787-9 in the " rue Platriere 
vis-a-vis de I Hotel de Bullion," ac- 
cording to a label in a s'\teen-stringed 
mandore dated 1787; and finally at 
36, rue de Grenelle-St -Honore, where 
he remained till he retired from 
business in 1S16. He made some 
beautiful copies of Stradivari, the 
workmanship being ol a >'ery high 
order the scrolls and sound holes are 
well cut and the wood is of excellent 
quality. Some instruments have the 
backs cut in one piece, and the pro- 
portions of the thicknesses are some- 
times exaggerated ; he used a dark red 
oil varnish, rather opaque. In 1792 
he applied to \ Lupot, then still 
It AIiic Uit. for a certain number of 
un\arnishcd violins which he then 
varn.-lud hinisr'lf and sold with his 
label. His instruments \ary from a 
moderate price to as much as £50. 
His violins are mentioned by Spohr 
(Methode de ^'ic)lon) as being some of 

the best of the period Label: "Pique, 
rue de Grenelle-St. -Honore, au coin de 
celle des deux Ecus, a Paris, 1790 " ; a 
similar label is dated 1809. 

Pirot, Claude. A maker in Paris about 
1800-20 He nade good violins on the 
Italian pattern ; the bellies are slightly 
arched, the backs hardly at all ; the 
sound-holes are well cut ; the varnish 
IS very thick, sometimes red-brown) 
sometimes pale yellow colour. Label : 
" Cde. Pirot fecit Parisiis, anno 1803." 
Similar labels have been found in 
violins dated 1808, 1810, 1813. 

Pitet (or Pilet). A maker in Paris in the 
latter part of the 17th century. His 
instruments are more curiosities for 
collectors than of any great value. 
His name, encircled by a Latin motto, 
IS often found written on the sides of 
his instruments, most frequently on the 

Pizzurmus (Pozzurnus), David. Work- 
ing in Genoa about 1760. 

Placht (Plack), Francis. A maker in 
Schoenbach, Bohemia, about 1740-80. 
He is best known for the good violins 
that he made. 

Plane, W. Working in Glasgow about 
1850 60. 

Plani, Agostino de. A maker in Genoa 
in 1778, according o this label : 
" Augustinus de Planis fecit Genuae, 
1778." His work was commonplace 

Plainer, Michele Probably a Swiss. 
Was working in Rome in 1747. His 
instruments show very fair workman- 
ship , they are rather arched, the scroll 
is veil cut, the varnish is a golden-red 
colour Label • ' Mchael Platner 
fecit Romae, anno 1747. ' 

Plumerel Was working in Paris in 
1740, for this date was found in a 
violoncello of rather poor work, with 
yellow varnish ; his name was branded 

Plumerel, Charles Was working in 
Angers, France, in 1822 

Poiros, Louis A violin of his is known, 
he was a French maker. 

Poirson, Eloph Worked in Paris. At 
first took up violin making as an 
amateur but in 1878, having received 
a ver> flattering verdict from Marsick 
on one of his v iolins, he decided to give 
his whole time to it. In 1889 he ex- 
hibited some of his instruments and 
was awarded a bronze medal, a violin 
bein.< spec;allv remarked as of very 
good qualitN and of beautifully finished 

Polis, Luca de. A maker in Cremona 
in 1751 



Pollusca(Pollusha), Antonio. Was one of 
the principal makers in Rome in 1751. 

Pons. A maker of guitars in Paris. His 
instruments were rather shorter than 
the ordinary pattern, but of a large size. 
He branded them inside with " Pons a 

Pons, Cesar. A maker in Grenoble 
about 1780-1820. His violins were of 
large size, very arched, the work not 
very good. 

Porion, Charles. A French maker about 
1707. A cither of his is known with 
eleven strings. 

Porion, Peeter. A double-bass used in 
the Cathedral of Antwerp is labelled : 
" Peeter Porion tot Antwerpen f. 1647." 
It is said to be still played there. In 
1847, its 2ooth anniversary was com- 
memorated by the following inscription 
on its back : " Antwerpiae in Sanctae 
Mariae Verginis uno alteroque aevo 
JehovaeLaudesCanui." See "Borlon." 

Possen, Laux. A maker of viols and 
lutes in Schoengau, Bavaria, about 
1550-70. In 1564 he was appointed 
maker and repairer of the instruments 
of the Munich orchestra, with a salary 
of 405 florins. 

Postacchini, Andrea, b. in Firmo, and 
was working there in 1824. He was 
excellent both as a maker and as a 
repairer of instruments. Label : 
" Andreas Postacchini Amici filius fecit 
Firmi anno 1824, opus 214." 

Postigflione, Vmcenzo, b. July 14, 1835, 
at Naples. In 1847 was apprenticed 
to Vincenzo Jorio for five years. He 
then devoted much time to studying 
old instruments ; some important work 
in the way of repairing and restoring 
some instruments belonging to a certain 
Signor Fummo also added to his ex- 
perience He became a good maker 
and made a great many instruments, 
which v/ill gain every year in value. 

Powell, Royal and Thomas. Two 
brothers who worked in London about 
1770-1800. They were employed about 
1785-7 by "W^illiam Forster (1739-1808), 
and his son, William Forster. Their 
work was always neat and good. In 
1800 they were living in St. John's 
Square, St. Luke's. Label: "Made 

by Thomas Powell, 18, Clemens Lane, 
Clare Market, 1793." 

Pozzurnus. S^^ " Pizzurmus." 

Presbler, Giuseppe. Was working in 
Milan at the sign of the "Sun" in 
1801. In a mandoline was the label : 
" Giuseppe Presbler in Milano nella 
contrada della dogana all' insegno del 
sole, 1801." 

Pressenda, Giovanni Francesco, b. 1777 
Turin ; d. there, 1854. Was the son of 
a strolling fiddler, Raffaele Pressenda, 
who generally lived in Lequio-Berria, 
a village near Alba, Piedmont. Gio- 
vanni also learnt to play the fiddle, but 
finding his way to Cremona there 
studied violin making under Lorenzo 
Storioni, and probably learnt there to 
make the varnish for which his violins 
were afterwards noted. In 18 14 he was 
working in Alba, combining cabinet 
making with violin making ; then went 
to Carmagnole for a short time, and 
finally, in 1820, settled in Turin, where 
his ability was soon recognised. He 
was especially patronised by the cele- 
brated violinist, PoUedro, who was 
appointed Musical Director to the 
Royal Orchestra at Turin in 1824. His 
violins are generally made on the 
Stradivari pattern, not much arched, 
the sound-holes well cut, the propor- 
tions of the thicknesses correct, the 
wood good, but the scrolls rather 
roughly finished ; the red-brown var- 
nish was of excellent quality. Label : 
" Joannes Franciscus Pressenda f. 
Raphael fecit Taurini, anno Domini 

Preston. A maker in London about 
1724. In a guitar of small size was the 
label : " Preston, maker, London." 

Preston, John. A maker in York about 
1785-95. Labels: "Preston, Pavement, 
York, 1789," and "John Preston, York» 
1791, Fecit." 

Prevot (or Prevost), P. Charles. A 
maker in Paris, working at 102, rue de 
la Verrerie, at the sign of " Au Dieu 
Apollon," from 1775 to 1789. 

Prieur, Claude Ldme Jean. Was 
working in Paris, in rue de la Pelleterie, 
1775-77, and in rue de la Calandre, 


Quinot, Jacques. A maker in Paris 
about 1660 80, who was mentioned in 
1680 as being " one of the most clever 
of the honorable luthiers of Paris." 

In a little pocket violin, with carved 
head, inlaid purfling, and yellow var- 
nish, was the MS. label- "Jacques 
Quinot a Paris, 1G70." 




Racceris. A maker in Mantua in 1670. 
His instruments were very similar to 
those of the Gaghano family, with one 
of whom he is said to have been in 

Raffaele, Nella (or Delia). Was working 
in Brescia in the i8th century. He 
followed the pattern of Maggini, his 
instruments generally have the sides 
ornamented with inscriptions, and have 
brown varnish ; they are not of great 

Railich, Giovanni Worked in Padua 
about 1690. Label : " Giovanni Railich 
lautaro in Padova." 

Rambaux, Claude Victor, b. Feb. 25, 
1806, at Darney in the Vosges; d. June 
25, 187 1, at Mirecourt In 1820 was 
apprenticed to L. Moitessier in Mire- 
court, and remained with him till July 
12, 1824. Then went to Caen and 
worked under Thibout, 1824-27, and 
then to Paris, where, from Aug. 22, 
1827, till June 7, 1838, he worked with 
Gand. In 1838 he started his own 
business at 18, faubourg Poissonniere. 
The new instruments that he made 
show great ability, but he chiefly 
devoted himself, with infinite patience 
and care, to repairing old instruments ; 
he was especially skilful in "cutting 
down " the old Italian violoncellos, 
which vary much in pattern, and 
generally have to be reduced in size to 
that of the Stradivari model, so as to 
meet modern requirements. After nine- 
teen years' work in Paris, he retired to 
Mirecourt in June, 1857, having gained 
silver medals at the 1844 and 1849 
Exhibitions, and the first class medal 
at the 1835 Paris Exhibition. Label : 
" Claude Victor Rambaux Brevete a 
Paris, 1846, C.V.R." He had two 
sons, but neither of them became 
violin makers. 

Rambouts. vS>^ " Rombouts." 

Ramftler, Franz, b. May 23, 1834, 
Munich. Pupil of Andreas Engleder 
in Munich ; started his own business 
there in i860 Principally repairs and 
deals in old Italian instruments, but 
has lately made some very good new 
violins on the Stradivari pattern, using 
a varnish of his own invention. Was 
appointed Court violin maker. 

Ranee, Thomas. A maker in Brussels 
about 1680-85. A. violin of ordinary 

workmanship had a flat back, the 

sound-holes rather wide, and purfling 

well executed. 
Ranta, Pietro. A maker in Brescia in 

1733, who followed the Amati pattern. 
Raphael. S^^ " Raffaele. 
Rasura, Vincenzo. Worked at Lugo in 


Rau, J F. A maker in Nuremberg. 
Exhibited at Munich, in 1854, a violin 
of good though rather coarse tone, 
which would improve with time 

Rauch, of Breslau, and Ranch, of Wiirz- 
burg, were two brothers working about 
1730-60. They made good violins on 
a model peculiar to themselves, using 
varnish of a red-brown colour ; the 
tone was full and powerful. 

Rauch, Jacob. A maker in Mannheim 
about 1720-50. He produced some 
very good work, the quality of tone of 
his violins is said to be very similar to 
that of Stainer violins ; he also made 
excellent altos, violoncellos, and double- 
basses. In an arch-lute of Laux Maler, 
which had been restored by Rauch, 
was found the label: "Jacob Rauch 
Hof-Lauten und Geigenmacher in 
Mannheim, anno 1740. Zugericht." 
Another label was dated 1747. 

Rauch, Sebastian. Is said to have 
worked in Hamburg about 1725, and 
in Leitmeritz, in Bohemia, 1742-63. 
His instruments were much arched, 
and the work was not carefully finished. 

Raut, Jean. A native of Bretagne, who 
worked in Rennes till about 1790. A 
few violins of his are known, made on 
the pattern of Guarneri, with red 

Rautmann. Makers in Brunswick, 1870. 

Rawlins. Was working in London in 
1779. Label found in a viola : 
" Henricus Rawlins, Londini, 1779." 
Another label : " Restauratus Henricus 
Rawlins auspicio Giardini Londini, 
1 78 1." (Giardini was at that time 
leader of the orchestra at the Italian 

Rayman, Jacob, b. in the Tyrol, but 
settled in London about 1620, living 
first at Blackman Street, then at Bell 
Yard, Southwark. He worked till 
about 1650 He seems to have been 
one of the earliest makers of violins in 
England ; they are of small size, of 
rather an ugly pattern, not arched. 



with small sound-holes ; the scroll also 
small but well cut ; the varnish very 
fine, its colour a yellow-brown tinged 
with red ; the tone, clear and pene- 
trating. He also made some fine 
tenors, the workmanship good, although 
the purfling is sometimes defective. 
His instruments show ability and 
talent, and are greatly valued ; they 
have many of the characteristics of 
German work, and differ greatly from 
the work of the old English viol makers. 
In Thomas Britton's collection of 
instruments was an " extraordinary 
Ray man " and also " three others 
ditto." Labels : " Jacob Rayman 
dwelling in Blackman Street, Long- 
Southwark, 1641," and "Jacob Ray- 
man, at ye Bell Yard in Southwarke, 
London, 1648." 

Razenzo, Carole. A maker in Barcelona 
about 1690. 

Realli, Cosmo Battista. A maker in 
Parma in 1667. In a little pocket 
violin of very narrow pattern, with 
brown varnish, was the label ; " Cosmo 
Battista Realli in Parma, 1667." 

Rechiardini, Giovanni (called " Zuano "). 
Was working in Venice in the 17th 

Regnaut (Renault), Jacques. A maker 
in Paris, 1665-85. A little pocket violin, 
with silver purfling, was dated 1682; in 
another little pocket violin was the 
label : "Jacques Regnaut a Paris, 1666." 
He succeeded Nicolas Renault as 
maker to the King. 

Reichel, Johann Conrad, brother of 
Johann Gottfried. Was working in 
Neukircheii in 1779. 

Reichel, Johann Gottfried, brother of 
Johann Conrad. Worked in Neu- 
kirchen. He was a pupil of Stainer 
and copied his pattern, but his 
work is rough, and he used red-brown 
varnish of poor quality. Label : 
" Johann Gottfried Reichel . . . 
arfunden von Jacob Stainer in 

Remy. A French maker who left Paris 
to settle in London about 1840. He 
made on the Italian pattern; but his 
violins have not, it is said, gained in 
quality of tone with age, possibly owing 
to his method of artificially maturing 
his wood before using it. 

Remy, Hippolyte, eldest son of Jean 
Mathurin Remy. Was working about 
1835-70 in Paris. He made some 
violins of no great merit. 

Remy, Jean Mathurin, son of Mathurin 
Francois Remy; b. 1770, Paris; d. 
1854. His work was of much the 

same merit and type as his father's. 
He used oil varnish. He removed 
from rue Tiquetonne to 30, rue de 
Grenelle - Saint Honore, about 1817, 
and remained there for thirty-seven 
years. His two sons were both violin 

Remy, Jules Hippolyte, second son of 
Jean Mathurin Remy; b. 1813, Paris; 
d. 1876. He carried on a business at 
60, faubourg St. -Denis 

Remy, Mathurin Francois. A maker in 
Paris, first in the rue Sainte-Marguerite- 
Saint-Antoine about 1760, and then in 
rue Tiquetonne, 1775-91 He made 
instruments similar to those of 
Guersan and Gavinies, with yellow- 
brown varnish. 

Renaudin, Leopold, b. 1749, at Mire- 
court ; guillotined May 7, 1795. He 
settled in Paris, living in the rue St - 
Honore from 1776 till his death, at the 
s'gn of " Aux arnateurs." He made 
fairly good instruments, but they are 
too much arched, the scroll is badly 
cut, and the varnish is ugly, almost 
black in colour ; he made excellent 
double-basses, several of these, how- 
ever, were destroyed by the fire at the 
Opera House in 1873. A violoncello is 
known made from a bass-viol. In an 
alto was the label . " ' Aux amateurs.' 
Renaudin, luthier, fait toutes sortes 
d'instruments, rue Saint-Honore pres 
rOpera, 1783"; in another alto was 
the label: "Leopold Renaudin (the 
address illegible), annee 1789." 

Renault, Jacques. See " Regnaut." 

Renault, Nicolas A French maker 
about the end of the i6th century. Is 
said to have been a pupil of Tywersus 
(a maker in Nancy), and afterwards to 
have worked in Paris. 

Renault, Sebastien. A maker in Paris 
about 1775 to 1805, living in the rue 
de Braque. Cithers of his are known 
dated 1779, 1786, and 1804 ; a violin 
is described as made on a good pattern, 
with yellow varnish of fair quality. 
He was in partnership with F. 
Chatelain for some time, he then used 
the labels : " Renault et Chatelain rue 
de Braque au coin de la rue St-Avoye 
a Paris, 1797," and "A la renommee, 
rue de Braque, au marais, Renault et 
Chatelain, luthiers, font et vendent 
louent, achetent et raccommodent 
toutes sortes d'instruments de musique, 
etc., a Paris." 

Renisto. A maker in Cremona about 
1735-40. Pupil of Carlo Bergonzi, 
whose work he copied rather closely ; 
but his instruments are more arched, 



and the details are not so care- 
fully finished Label : " Renisto, 
Cremonae alumnus Carlo Bergonzi, 
fecit 17 — " 

Resle, Andrea. Was working in Fiesso 
in 1740. In an excellent violin, made 
of beautiful wood, with dark varnish, 
was the label . " Andreas Resle fecit 
Fiessae, 1740 " 

Reynaud. Andre A maker at Tarascon, 
1754-66 In a violoncello, slightly 
arched, of a very graceful pattern 
with beautiful yellow varnish, was 
the label: "Andreas Reynaud ohm 
canonicus fecit a Tarascon en Provence, 
1754"; another label was "Andreas 
Reynaud, olim canonicus Tarascone in 
gallo provincia, 1766" 

Richards, Edwin. A maker m London. 

Richelme, A. Marius. A maker in Mar- 
seilles, who greatly modified the curves 
of the upper and lower bouts of his 
instruments, almost returning to the 
ancient viol-shape He published in 
Marseilles, 1868 : " Etudes et observa- 
tions sur la lutherie ancienne et 

Ricolazzi, Lodovico. A maker in Cre- 
mona m 1729. 

Riechel. S^:*^ " Reichel." 

Riechers, August, b. March 8, 1836, 
Hanover ; d. 1893, Berlin. Was first 
a pupil of L. Bausch at Leipzig, then 
travelled from city to city gaining 
experience, returning to Hanover in 
1862. He moved to Berlin in 1872, 
at the special request of the great 
violinist, Joseph Joachim, who recog- 
nised his talent and ability. He 
made excellent instruments on the 
Stradivari and Guarneri patterns 
and was especially successful in le- 
pairing old instruments About 1,000 
violins and over 200 violoncellos 
were made in his workshop. He 
published a book on the construction 
of violms. 

Riess. A maker in Bamberg about 
1740-60. He made fairly good instru- 
ments on the Stainer pattern, with a 
nice quality of tone. 

Rimbouts. S^^ ' Rombouts." 

Rinaldi, Benedetto Gioffredo. Was a 
pupil and fellow-worker of Pressenda. 
He was still working in Turin in 1886, 
but died about five years later. He 
published : " Classica fabbricazione di 
violini in Piemonte " (Turin, 1873), 
which is practically a short biography 
of Pressenda. 

Rivolta Giacomo A maker in Milan 
about 1822. His instruments show 
good work A viola was dated 18 0. 

Rocca, Giuseppe Antonio. A maker in 
Turin about 1830-55. Worked at one 
time for Pressenda. His violins are 
generally made on the Stradivari 
pattern ; the work is carefully finished, 
the scroll well cut, but the varnish is 
of poor quality. Label: "Joseph 
Antonio Rocca fecit Taurini, anno 
Domini 1841." Other violins are 
known dated 1839, 1851, and 1855. 

Rodiani, Giovita See " Budiani, Gia- 
vetta " 

Roscher, C. H. W. Was working in 
Bremen about 1871. 

Roger, G. Was working in Montpellier 
in 1820. 

Rogeri, Gian Battista, b. in Bologna 
about 1650. He went to Cremona to 
work under Nicola Amati , Stradivari 
was a fellow pupil of his He then 
settled in Brescia and worked there 
about 1670 to 1725. He made adniir- 
able instruments, generally following 
the Amati or the Stradivari pattern , 
the wood was chosen with the greatest 
care ; the varnish is very beautiful, of 
a golden-red colour , the sound holes 
resemble those of Amati . the purfiing 
is accurate, the corners elegant ; some 
of his violins are so excellently made 
and have such a fine tone, they have 
been sold as the work of Stradivari, 
Especially penetrating and robust is 
the tone of his violoncellos ; he some- 
times used poplar-wood for the backs — 
perhaps it was then thought that this 
rendered the instrument more sonorous , 
or possibly he received but low prices for 
his work, and was obliged to use the less 
expensive wood — but whether of poplar 
or maple the violoncellos are always 
beautifully made and are now much 
valued. Label: "Jo. Bap. Rogerius 
Bon. Nicolai Amati de Cremona alum- 
nus Brixiae fecit, anno Domini 1671." 
(The word Bon. simply means Bononi- 
ensis. of or from Bologna.) He always 
used the same label, it is sometimes in 
red, sometimes in black letters ; other 
labels seen were dated 1705 and 1725. 

Rogeri, Pietro Giacomo, son of Gian 
Battista Rogeri ; b. about 1675 in 
Brescia ; worked till about 1735. He 
made on a similar pattern to his father, 
but not quite so broad, and used fine 
varnish. His violins are not equal to 
those of his father, but his violoncellos 
are splendid instruments ; a magnificent 
one was in the Collection of Count 
Cozio di Salabue. He also made many 
fine violas and double-basses Label ' 
" Petrus Jacobus Rogeri fecit Brixijc, 



Roismann, Johann. Was working in 
Breslau in 1680. A violin of his is in 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection. 

Rol. A maker in Paris in 1753. In a 
large pocket violin in the Paris 
Conservatoire Collection is the label : 
" i753,CourSaint-DenisdelaChartre." 

Romano, Pietro. Worked in Pavia in the 
i8th century. Label: "17 — Pietro 
Romano in Borgo di Pavia." 

Romarini, Antonio Working in Cre- 
mona in the iSth century. Label . 
" Antonio Romarini fecit Cremonae, 
anno 17 — ." The date is effaced, but is 
probably 1705. 

Rombouts, Pieter. A maker in Amster- 
dam about 1705-35 He made violins, 
violas, and violoncellos, much arched, 
with a brilliant but rather thick 
varnish. In a six-stringed bass viol, 
of which the work shows neat finish, 
was the label : " Pieter Rombouts, 
Amsterdam, 1708. '•' 

Rook, Joseph. A maker in London 
about 1777 to 1830. His instruments 
show good work and follow the pattern 
of Forster. 

Ropiquet. An amateur maker in Paris 
about 1810-30. He was an orchestra 
player by profession, but made some 
violins of no great value ; he signed 
them with his name. 

Rosiero, Rocco. Worked in Cremona 
in the early part of the i8th century. 

Ro^io, Paolo A maker in Verblanuova, 
who exhibited an excellent double-bass 
in Brescia in 1857. 

Ross (Rose), John. A maker of viols and 
lutes in London about 1560 to 1600. In 
a collection of airs called " Tripla Con- 
cordia," published m London, 1667, 
by John Carr, is the following adver- 
tisement : "There is two chests of 
viols to be sold, one made by Mr. 
John Ross, who formerly lived in 
Bridewell, containing 2 trebles, 3 tenors 
and one basse : The chest was made 
in the year 1598." In the instrument 
known as Queen Elizabeth's lute, in 
reality a species of guitar known as 
cither, with ten strings to be tuned in 
five pairs of unisons, is the inscription : 
"Johannes Rosa, Londini fecit, in 
Bridwell, the 27th of July, 1580." 

Rota, Giovanni. A maker in Cremona 
about 1800-10. His instruments show 
rather rough work, the purfling is care- 
less, the wood not particularly hand- 
some, the varnish is a yellow colour. 
Label : "Joannes Rota fecit Cremonae, 
anno 1808." 

Rota, Giuseppe Antonio A maker in 
Turin about 1825. His work is very 

similar to that of Pressenda, perhaps 
not so carefully finished, the varnish 
is red-brown in colour. Label : 
"Joseph Antonio Rota fecit Taurini 
anno Domini 18 — ." 

Roth, Johann and Christian. Are both 
mentioned as working about 1675, the 
former at Darmstadt and the latter at 

Rottenbrouck. A maker in Brussels 
about 1700-25. He followed the pattern 
of Amati and used fine red-brown 

Rovetta, Antonio. A maker in Bergamo 
about 1840-70 He exhibited a good 
violin at Brescia, 1864. 

Roze. A maker at Orleans about 
1755-65 His instruments show fairly 
good workmanship, the sound-holes 
well cut, wide in the centre, the scroll 
rather heavy, and the varnish a yellow 
colour. Label : " Roze, rue Sainte- 
Catherine, a Orleans pres le Martroy, 

Rudiman. Was working in Aberdeen 

in 1769. A cither, with inlaid wood 
ornamentation, had the inscription : 
"Rudiman, A. B. Dn, D. G." 
Ruggeri (Rugieri), Francesco. Was the 
first of a family of makers in Cremona, 
very often confused with Rogeri of 
Brescia He worked in Cremona at 7, 
Contrada Coltellai, from about 1645 to 
1700. He was one of the celebrated 
pupils of Nicola Amati, whose pattern 
he copied, slightly enlarging it, and 
arching it more. The outline is very 
graceful, the sound-holes beautifully 
cut, rather short and open ; the purfling 
broad ; the varnish varies from a deep 
orange to a brilliant yellow-orange 
colour, it is very light and transparent ; 
the wood is generally maple, of tine 
quality, often beautifully figured ; he 
sometimes used poplar for the backs of 
his violoncellos, but always obtained a 
sonorous and penetrating tone. The 
violoncellos are often made on too 
large a pattern ; he made a com- 
paratively small number of violins and 
violas, but some are exceptionally 
good, the work beautifully finished, the 
wood and varnish leaving nothing to 
be desired ; they greatly resemble the 
work of Amati and are often sold as 
such. His instruments deservedly 
fetch very high prices. Labels : ' ' Fran- 
cesco Rugier (or Ruger) detto il Per in 
Cremona, 1686 " ; similar ones are 
dated 1645, 1665, and 1O97. Rugier or 
Ruger is the Cremona patois rendering 
of Ruggeri ; the word " Per" is similarly 
the equivalent of ' ' Pero. ' ' ' ' Francesco 



Ruggeri detto il Per Cremona, 167 1." 
Three violins are known dated 1684. 

Ruggeri (Rugieri), Giacinto Giovanni 
Battista, son of Francesco Ruggeri ; 
b. in Cremona. His work is s'milar to 
that of his father, but has not the same 
value he made several v oloncellos of 
large pattern rather arched, generally 
of plain wood and with dark brown 
varnish of good quality , both the 
sound holes and the scroll were cut 
wider than in Amati work Label, ' 'Gia- 
cmto filio di Francesco Ruggeri detto il 
Per 1696 ' ; another was dated 1692. 

Ruggeri (Rugieri), Guido. Worked in 
Cremona about 1720 

Ruggeri, Pietro Giacomo. See " Rog- 
eri." Violin exhibited 1885 with label : 
" Petrus Jacobus Ruggerius fecit 
Brixiae, 1735 " 

Ruggeri (Rugieri), Vincenzo, son of 
Francesco Ruggeri. Was working in 

Cremona about 1700-50, is also said to 
have worked in Brescia. He made 
many altos and violoncellos, the work 
is somewhat rough and careless 
He was the last member of this 
family to make violins. He also used 
" il Per " on his labels, for the same 
reason probably — viz., to distinguish 
his work from that of the Ro^'eri of 
Brescia. Labels 'Vincenzo Rugier 
(or Ruger) detto il Per m Cremona, 
1714 " ; a similar label is dated 1720. 
Ruppert, Johann Heinrich. A maker 
in Erfurt about 1720. His violins, 
altos, and violoncellos were of a very 
flat model, without linings, corner 
blocks, or purfling, had a powerful 
tone, and dark bro'vn-amber varnish. 
Label: "Johann Heinrich Ruppert, 
anno 1719 in Erfurt," in a viola da 
gamba, with neck ending in a beauti- 
fully carved female head. 


Sacchini, Sabattino A maker in Pesaro 
in 1 686 Label: " Sabattino Sacchini 
da Pesaro, 1686 " 

Sacquin. A maker in Paris about 
1830-60. His instruments are well 
made, especially the double-basses ; the 
oil varnish is of good quality ; he gener- 
ally followed the Stradivari pattern. 
His name is branded on the back in 
the interior Label ; " Sacquin, luthier, 
rue Beauregard, 14, a Paris, 185 — ." 

Sainpra, Jaques A maker in Berlin in 
the 17th century. A viola di bordone, 
or baryton, was exhibited in the South 
Kensington Museum, 1872. 

Saint-Paul, Antoine. A maker in Paris 
about 1765-90. He was son-in-law and 
successor of Louis Guersan, and worked 
at the sign of " Au luth royal " in the 
near the Comedie Frangaise, where, as 
his advertisement says, *' il fait et vend 
toutes sortes d'instruments de musique, 
S9avoir ; violons de Cremone, violons 
de sa fa^on et de toutes sortes d'auteurs ; 
alto-violas, basses et contrebasses," 
&c. In a five-stringed viol, with a 
carved neck and yellow varnish, is the 
label: " Antonius Saint-Paul, prope 
Comoediam Gallicam, Lutetiae, anno 

Saint-Paul, Pierre. A maker in Paris 
about 1740. A violin of that date is 
known, also a six-stringed viol dated 
from the rue St.-Andre-des-Artsin 1742. 

In a violoncello, with yellow-greyish 
vainish, and of rather poor workman- 
ship, is the label : " Pierre Saint-Paul, 
rue de la Comedie fran^oise, Paris, 
1741 • 

Sajot. Was working in Paris, 1730-35. 
He made his instruments with flat 
backs, using varnish of a yellpw-brown 
colour ; the workmanship was poor. 
Label : " Sajot, a Paris, 1734." 

Saline, J. B. A maker in Rome in 1760. 
His instruments were very arched, with 
varnish of bad quality, brown shading 
into black in colour ; the work not well 
finished. Label: "J. B. Salino fecit 
Roma, anno 1760." 

Salle, le Pere. A maker in Paris about 
i^'^'^o-SS- He made a few violins, which 
are very beautiful copies of Guarneri ; 
but he was chiefly noted for his clever- 
ness in repairing old instruments, and 
his extraordinary knowledge of the 
work of old Italian makers. 

Sal6. Sec " Gasparo da Salo." 

Salomon, Jean Baptiste Deshayes. 
Worked in Rheims till about 1747, and 
then in Paris at the place de I'Ecole ; 
later he settled in the rue de I'Arbre-sec 
(about 1769). He died before 1772, for 
in that year Namy is mentioned as 
working for the widowed Madame 
Salomon. He made few violins, but 
they show good work, and are on a 
similar pattern to those of Louis 
Guersan, his contemporary ; they have 



yellow-brown varnish. A viola d'amore 
of his IS in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection; he also made good bass 
viols. A few of his violoncellos are 
of excellent wood and have a fine 
tone, but in others the varnish is 
hard and the tone poor. Labels : 
" Salomon, luthier, a Ste Cecile, place 
del'Ecole.aPans, 1751, ' and"Parisiis 
apud Salomonem ad insigne Sta Cae- 
cilia Scolie Palatio, 1752." He also 
sometimes branded his instruments 
with " Salomon a Paris." His widow 
continued the business for some time 
after his death, moving about 1788 to 
quai de la Megisserie 

Salsedo, Luigi. An Italian maker. A 
beautiful mandoline of his was made of 
rosewood, with fluted back, and inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl. 

Salzard, F. A maker in Paris, 1830. 

Sanoni, Giovanni Battista. A maker in 
Verona about 1740. His instruments 
are much arched, with rose coloured 
varnish ; they are of good workmanship. 

Santagiuliana, Giacinto A maker in 
Venice about 1830, according to a label 
in a violin . " Jacintus Santagiuliana 
fecit Venetia, anno 1830 ' 

Sante. A maker in Pesaro about 1670. 

Santc, Giuseppe. Was working in Rome 
in 1778. 

Santo, Giovanni. A maker in Naples, 
1700-30. He generally copied Amati ; 
his violins are of a small pattern, fairly 
well made, with varnish of poor quality 

Santo Serafino, b. at Udine. Worked 
in Venice about 1710-48. Some of 
his instruments show German charac- 
teristics, the sound-holes and scroll 
being similar to those of Stainer ; but 
he generally followed the Amati pattern. 
His work shows great ability ; the 
model is much arched, the wood very 
handsome, of small figure ; the varnish 
brilliant, of very fine quality, of a rich 
red colour, or yellow tinged with brown, 
but dry and easily cracked ; the scroll 
is well cut, and the workmanship 
almost as beautifully finished as that 
of Stradivari ; the tone is clear and 
strong. A beautiful violoncello was 
exhibited in the South Kensington 
Museum in 1872, its tone was very 
equal and sonorous ; but his double- 
basses are especially excellent in tone. 
All his instruments are branded with 
his name above the tail-pin. Label ; 
" Sanctus Seraphin Utinensis fecit 
Venetiis, anno 1730." 

Sanzo Santino (Santo Sentino). A 
maker in Milan in the i8th century. 
He made fairly good instruments ; his 

work is rather similar to that of 

Saraceni, Domenico. A maker in 
Florence in the 17th century 

Saraillac, Fran90is. A maker in Lyons 
about 1678-1712. In a six stringed 
bass-viol, made on a narrow pattern, 
with brown varnish, was the label ; 
' Fran9ois Saraillac a Lion, 1711 " ; a 
little pocket violin was dated 1679 

Sardi A maker of viols in Venice in 

Saunier Edmond. Was a pupil of 
Lambert, of Nancy, the " Carpenter," 
but did superior work. Lived in 
Bordeaux 1754-64, according to his 
violin labels, but by 1770 was i ; Paris, 
living first in the rue Tiqu tonne, and 
then (1775-83) in the rue des Prouvaires. 
He IS best known for the beautiful 
guitars he made, but his lolins are 
also good Piete, the maker, was a 
pupil of his. In 1889 was exhibited in 
Pans a mandoline-alto dated 1780. 
Label : " Saunier a Bordeaux, 1754 " 

Savani, Giuseppe. Was working in 
Carpi in 1809. 

Sawitzki (Sawicki), Nicolaus, b. 1792, 
Poland , d. 1850. He settled in Vienna 
and made some very good violins. 

Scarampella, Angelo, son of Paolo 
Scarampella; b. June 2, 1852, Brescia. 
Was a carpenter by traJe, but also 
made guitars of good tone. 

Scarampella, Giuseppe, son of Paolo 
Scarampella; b Aug. 25, 1838, Brescia. 
Pupil of Nicola Bianchi in Paris; 1865, 
returned to Brescia In 1866 went to 
Florence to work with Luigi Castellani, 
who thought highly of his ability and 
gave him much important work to do 
in repairing old instruments He re- 
stored the viola and the famous 
violoncello of Stradivari, kept in the 
Istituto Musicale of Florence, and in 
1884 succeeded Castellani as Keeper of 
the collection of instruments there. 
He also makes new instruments, follow- 
ing the Stradivari or Guarneri del 
Gesu patterns, which will increase in 
value with time ; their tone is clear 
and strong ; the work is accurately 
and carefully done ; he uses a reddish- 
coloured oil varnish Label' "Giu- 
seppe Scarampella fece in Firenze 
anno 188 — " 

Scarampella, Paolo, b. Sept 25, 1803, 
Brescia; d. April 7, 1870. A carpenter 
by trade, but made many violins, 
violoncellos, guitars, and mandolines. 

Scarampella, Stefano. son of Paolo 
Scarampella; b. March 17, 1843, 
Brescia. Pupil of his brother Giuseppe. 



Settled in Mantua, at 8, via Vescovado. 
He has made many good violins. 
Schaendl, Anton. A maker in Mitten- 
\ aid, 1753 Label: " Anton Schaendl, 
Geigenmacher in Mittenwald, an 

175.3- ' 

Scheinlein, Johann Michael, son and 
pupil of Matthaus Friedrich Scheinlein ; 
b. 175 1, Langenfeld. He followed the 
large Stainer pattern in his violins, but 
avoided the exaggerated arching ; his 
instruments are neatly and carefully 
made and had a good reputation for 
their full and pleasant tone ; but they 
do not last well, the wood not being 
thick enough. 

Scheinlein, Matthaus Friedrich, b. 1710, 
Langenfeld in Franken (Franconia) ; d. 
there, 1771. He was a violinist, but 
taking great interest in violin making, 
began by repairing old instruments and 
finished by making excellent new ones. 
They are much arched, with dark 
brown varnish, the work carefully 

Schell, Sebastian. A maker of lutes in 
Nuremberg in 1727 One with that 
date is in the Pans Conservatoire 

Schelmayer, Christian. A maker in 
Cologne. The label : "Christian Schel- 
mayer Musik-Instrumentenmacher in 
Koln No. 602 " ; was found in a 
little pocket violin. 

Schlick. A maker in Leipzig. 

Schmidt. Was working in Cassel in 
1817. His instruments are made on 
the Stradivari pattern, but the edges 
are larger and the purfling is not 
placed so close to the sides ; he used 
spirit varnish and the wood is of bad 

Schmidt. Was working in Vienna in 
the 19th century. 

Schonfelder, Johann Adam. Was work- 
ing in Neukirchen in 1743. Label : 
"Johann Adam Schonfelder Violin- 
macher in Neukirchen. An. 1743." 

Schonger, Franz. A maker in Erfurt 
in the i8th century. He made fairly 
good instruments, of large pattern, 
very arched ; but the wood is not thick 
enough and the tone is poor. 

Schonger, Georg, son of Franz 
Schonger , he also worked at Erfurt. He 
was a better maker than his father, 
and left some very good violins, made 
on the Italian pattern ; he was also 
considered a clever repairer of old 

Schorn, Johann Paul. Worked first in 
Innsbriick about 1680-90, then in 
Salzburg about 1696 to 1716, according 

to labels so dated found in his instru- 
ments. He made excellent violins, 
much arched, and used a fairly good 
varnish. In the Collection of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 
Vienna are two instruments, a Polish 
cither dated Salzburg, 1696, and a 
viola d'amore dated Salzburg 1699. 
Label: " Joann Paul Schorn, H. F 
Musicus, auch Lauten und Geigen- 
macher in Salzburg, A. 1716. 
Schott, Martin. A maker of lutes at 

Prague in the 17th century. 
Schunemann, Otto, b 1837 A German 
maker, appointed Director of the 
School of Violin Making at Schwerin 
Schulz, Peter. A maker in Ratisbon. 
In 1854 he exhibited .at Munich three 
excellent violins, made more after a 
German than Italian pattern , one was 
of especially beautiful workmanship, 
but its tone was not so clear and 
Schuster, Gebruder. These brothers 
are the makers of extraordinarily cheap 
violins in Markneukirchen, Saxony ; 
they are priced at 75s. each , though 
not beautiful to look at, they have a 
fairly good tone. Some were exhibited 
in London in 1862. 
Schuster, Michael. Was also connected 
with a violin manufactory in Markneu- 
kirchen, Saxony. 
Schwartz, Bernard. A French maker 
who settled at Strassburg about 1785 ; 
he died in 1822. His two sons were 
both makers. 
Schwartz, Georges Frederic, b. April 7, 
1785, Strassburg , d. there, Dec. 29, 
1849; and Theophile Guillaume, b. 
Oct. 13, 1787, Strassburg ; d. July 29, 
1 86 1, sons of Bernard Schwartz. 
Pupils of their father, and at his 
death succeeded to his business, which 
became " Freres Schwartz." They 
made very good violins and violon- 
cellos ; their first violin was dated 
1824 ; between then and 1852 they 
turned out about 80 violins and 30 
violoncellos. Label: " Freres Schwartz 
a Strasbourg 1833 No 15." Theophile 
was chiefly concerned in the instru- 
ment making, Georges gave his time to 
making bows, he gained a well 
merited reputation His bows are 
generally marked near the nut with 
" Schwartz, Strasbourg." 
Schwartz, Theophile Guillaume, son of 
Theophile Guillaume Schwartz ; b. 
Sept. 3, 1821. In 1852 he succeeded 
to the business in Strassburg at 2, place 
Saint-Thomas. He was chiefly occu- 
pied in repairing old instruments, but 



also made new ones, using the label : 
" Schwartz a Strasbourg, i8 — ." 
Schweizer, Johann Baptist. A maker in 
Budapest; b 1798, d. 1875. He was 
a pupil of Geisenhof in Vienna. His 
violins were made without arching, 
the workmanship was neatly finished ; 
he also made some tenors 
Segher Girolamo, b. 1646. Was a 
pupil of Nicola Amati, and was 
working under him, 1680-82. 
Sellas, Matteo. Was working in Venice 
1630-40 at the sign of " Alia Corona." 
In the Paris Conservatoire Collection 
are two of his arch-lutes ; and at 
Bologna, in the Liceo Comunale di 
Musica, is a large guitar with the label ■ 
" Matteo Sellas alia corona in Venetia, 
1639." A theorbo was dated 1639 
Seni, Francesco A maker in Florence 

in 1634. 
Senta, Fabrizio. A maker in Turin 
An instrument of his is ment oned in 
the catalogue made by B Cristofon 
(Sept 23, 1716) of the nstruments 
belonging to the Duke of Florence. 
Serasati, Domenico. A maker in Naples 
about 1710-50. His instruments had a 
good reputation at one time. 
Shaw, John. A maker of viols in 
London in 1656. Label : " John Shaw 
att the Goulden harp and Hoboy nere 
the maypole in the Strand, 1656." 
Siani, Valentino. Said to have lived in 

Florence in the 17th century. 
Siciliano (Ciciliano), Antonio. A maker 
in Venice about 1600. A tenor and a 
bass viola da gamba are in the Modena 
Museum, Vienna. 
Siciliano, Gioacchino, son of Antonio 
Siciliano. Was working in Venice 
about 1680. 
Silva, Joan Vieira da. Was working in 
Lisbon about 1700. A cither is known 
of his, inlaid with tortoiseshell and 
ivory, with six pairs of wire strings. 
Silvestre, Hippolyte, b. Dec. 14. 1808, 
Saint-Nicolas-du-Port (Meurthe) ; d. 
Dec. 3, 1879, Sommerviller, near Nancy. 
Was first a pupil of Blaise at Mire- 
court, then of J. B. Vuillaume at Paris. 
In 183 1 he joined his brother Pierre at 
Lyons, and worked with him till 1848. 
On the death of Pierre in 1859 he 
again took up the business, and con- 
tinued in it till 1865, when he trans- 
ferred it to H. Chretien, his sister's 
son, and retired to Sommerviller, 
where he died. 
Silvestre, Pierre, brother of Hippolyte ; 
b. Aug. 9, 1801, at Sommerviller, near 
Nancy ; d. 1859, Lyons. Was also a 
pupil of Blaise at Mirecourt, then went 

to Paris, first working under Lupot 
and then under Gand In 1829 he 
founded the business in Lyons. Hippo- 
lyte was in partnership with him, 
1831-48; he afterwards continued the 
business alone until his death in 1859. 
He copied the pattern of Stradivari 
with great ability , his instruments are 
always handsome, owing to the beautiful 
quality of the wood used, and their tone 
is often remarkably good ; the varnish 
is very fine and the work most carefully 
finished, consequently they are in- 
creasing in commercial value. It is 
said he made about 350 instruments 
bearing his label : "Pierre Silvestre a 
Lyon, 185 — " When working with 
his brother the label used was : 
Petrus et Hippolytus Silvestre fra res 
fecerunt Lugdun 183 — " Bronze 

medals were obtained at the Paris 
Exhibitions in 1844 and 1855. 
Silvestre nc eu Srr " Chretien." 
Simon A maker of viols in Lyons, 
in rue de la Pomme-Rouge, 1568-73. 
Only his Christian name is known, as 
in all the documents in which it 
appears, a blank space is left for the 
surname, which has never been filled in. 
Simon. Was working at Salzburg in 

Simon, Claude. A maker in Paris, rue 

de Grenelle-Saint-Honore, 1783-88. 
Simon, P., b. 1808, at Mirecourt. 
Went to Paris in 1838, where he 
worked for some months under D. 
Peccate ; then went to thewoikshop of 
J. B. Vuillaume and remained there 
till, in 1845, he started his own business. 
On Peccate's retirement, in 1847, Simon 
succeeded to his business in the rue 
d'Angivilliers. He was in partnership 
with Henry, 1848-51, and afterwards 
continued his work alone, moving later 
to rue Saint-Denis, passage Lemoine. 
He made most excellent bows, and 
generally marked them with "Simon, 
Paris," near the nut. He died 1882. 
Simonin, Charles, b. at Mirecourt. 
Was apprenticed to J. B Vuillaume at 
Paris, and became one of his most able 
workmen. He then married and re- 
turned for a short time to Mirecourt. 
In 184 1 he settled in Geneva, remaining 
there for eight years; he left, Sept., 
1849, to establish himself in Toulouse. 
He sent various instruments to the 
Paris Exhibition in 1855, amongst 
others a copy of Giuseppe Guarneri 
of remarkable tone ; he obtained a 
" Mention honorable." Since then he 
has obtained various awards at other 



Simoutre. Nicolas, b. 1788, at Mire- 
court ; d. 1870, at Metz. He began 
his business as a violin maker in 1820 , 
in 1844 settled in Metz and worked 
there till his death. His son, Nicolas 
Eugene, was also a maker. 

Simoutre, Nicolas Eugene, son of Nicolas 
Simoutre ; b. April 19, 1834, at Mire- 
court. Was first a pupil of his father, 
then of Darche, in 1852, at Paris; then 
of Ch. Roth, in 1856, at Strassburg. 
He worked in Strassburg for four years, 
and in i860 founded workshops both 
at Mulhausen and at Basle; since 1890 
he has returned to Paris. He made 
various suggestions for improving the 
tone of violins , in 1883 he published 
on this subject, " Aux amateurs du 
vio-lon histonque, construction, repara- 
tion et conservation de cet instrument ' , 
this was followed, in 1886, by " Un 
progres en lutherie ' ; and in 1889 t>y 
a " Supplement aux amateurs du violon 
et au progres en lutherie." He was 
awarded a " diplome d'honneur " at 
the Basle Exhibition in 1877, and again 
at Zurich, 1883 ; but at the Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1889, only a bronze medal was 
awarded, which he refused to accept. 

Simpson, James, and Son. Were musical 
instrument makers in London in 1794. 
Label: "J. and J. Simpson, musical 
instrument makers at the Bass-Viol 
and Flute in Sweeting's Alley, opposite 
the East door of the Royal Exchange, 
London. ' ' The following label probably 
belongs to the son: "John Simpson, 
musical instrument maker, at the Bass 
Viol and Flute, in Sweeting's Alley, 
opposite the East door of the Royal 
Exchange, London." 

Sirjean. Was a maker of bows in Paris, 
at 31, rue de I'Ecole, in 1818. 

Sitt. A. A maker in Prague, d. 1878. 
A violin exhibited at Munich, in 1854, 
made on the Stradivari pattern, showed 
fine work ; only the wood was rather 
thick and the tone slightly rough and 
dull, but both these defects would 
naturally wear off with time. 

Slaghmeulen, Jan Baptist van der. A 
maker in Antwerp about 1672. A 
violoncello of that date was exhibited 
in Paris in 1878, its proportions are 
good , the sound-holes much opened, 
but well cut ; the varnish a pale brown 
colour ; the scroll is pierced and re- 
presents a carved head surmounted by 
a gilt crown ; within the purfling on 
the upper plate is a black band with 
a design in gold. Label: "Joannes 
Baptista van der Slaghmeulen tot 
Antwerpen, 16 — ." 

Smith, Henry. A maker of viols in 
London in 1633 In a collection of 
airs called Tripla Concordia, published 
1667, is an advertisement of a chest of 
viols made by Mr. Henry Smith, 
who formerly lived over against 
Hatton house, in Holbourn, con- 
taining 2 trebles, 2 tenors, 2 basses. 
The chest was made in the year 1633." 

Smith, Thomas. A maker in London 
about 1740-90. Pupil and successor of 
Peter Wamsley. He had a great re-^ 
putation as a maker of violoncellos, 
his instruments are much liked in 
England ; they are made on the Stainer 
model, and some have a powerful 
tone, though not of very good quality ; 
the varnish is rather poor, of a 
brownish-yellow colour ; in 1799 they 
sold for £^ 5s. up to /8 ; more recently 
two realised /30 and ;^40 each. It is 
doubtful if he ever made any violins 
and tenors. John Norris was a pupil 
of his. Label : " Made by Thos. Smith 
at the harp and hautboy in Pickadilly,. 
London, 1756 " ; similar labels were 
used until 1766. 

Smith, William. A maker in Hedon, 
Yorkshire, in 1786. Label: "William 
Smith, violin maker, Hedon, 1786." 

Sneider, Giuseppe. A maker in Pavia 
about 1700-25. A pupil of Nicola 
Amati. His violins are slightly arched, 
the sound-holes gracefully cut, the 
workmanship carefully finished ; the 
varnish is a rich yellow colour. Instru- 
ments made by Girolamo, son of Nicola 
Amati, have often been attributed to 
Sneider. Labels: "Joseph Sneider 
Paviae, alumnus Nicola Amati Cre- 
monae fecit , anno 1 703 , ' ' and ' ' Giuseppe 
Sneider in Pavia 1718, alumnus Nicola 
Amati Cremonae." 

Snoeck (Schnoeck), Egidius. A maker 
in Brussels in 1731. Instruments are 
known of his, which are well made on 
the Amati pattern, with beautiful red 
brown varnish. Label : " Egidius 
Snoeck tot Brussel, 1731" 

Snoeck, Marc. Worked in Brussels after 
1744. The following inscription was 
found written in a violoncello, which 
had undergone important repairs : 
" Cette basse par Marc Snoeck, 
reparee pour faire voir a ces envieux 
mon adresse, icy pres de I'Eglise de 
Saint-Gery a Bruxelles.ancien luthier." 
There is no date, but what is pre- 
sumably the original label is dated 
1744, viz.: "Jean Christophe Vetter,. 
Strasbourg, 1744." 

Socchi, Vincenzo. Was working in 
Bologna in i65i, according to the 



inscription in a little pocket violin in 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection. 

Socquct, Louis. A maker in Paris 
about 1750-80; he worked at the sign 
of ' Au Genie de rharmonie." His 
instruments are not well made A 
violin and a five-stringed viol dated 
1755 are known, and an alto of 1769 
Two other labels are dated 1765 and 
177 1 respectively He was living in 
the place du Louvre 1775-79. 

Sohn, Walter Worked in Vienna. In 
a guitar is the label • ' Walter Sohn in 

Soliani, Angelo A maker in Modena, 
1752 1810. 

Somer, Nicolas. A maker in Paris 
about 1725 50. 

Sorsano. Sec " Sursano " 

Speiler. A German maker in the iSth 

Spicer, John. It has been inferred that 
he was a maker of lutes and viols in 
London, from a token which is 
inscribed " John Spicer In Crown 
Court, in Russell Street, 1667 — His 
Half-Peny," with the device of a 

Spilman, Dorigo. There is a viol of his 
in the Modena Museum in Vienna; it 
looks like the work of a Venetian, and 
probably dates back to the i6th century. 
The sound-holes are similar to those 
of V. Linarolo, the scroll looks as if it 
had been added at a later date. 
" Dorigo Spilman " is written inside, 
but no date. 

Sprenger, Anton b. 1834, Mittenwald. 
Was there a pupil of Anton Hornstei- 
ner, later worked under Tiefenbrunner 
of Munich, and Kindl and also Fischer 
in Vienna. In 1870 >^e settled at 
Stuttgart at 23, Hospitaistrasse. He 
made violins and violoncellos on the 
Stradivari and Guarneri patterns, using 
oil varnish of good quality Died 1900. 

Stadelmann (Statelmann), Daniel Acha- 
tius, b. 1680: d Oct. 27, 1744. A 
maker in Vienna, who showed great 
ability in imitating the Stainer pattern ; 
he used thin varnish of a deep amber 
colour ; the work is well finished. 

Stadelmann (Statelmann), Johann Jo- 
seph, son of Daniel A. Stadelmann. 
He was a very clever maker, who 
copied the Stainer model to great 
perfection ; he worked till 1764, possibly 

Stadl, Michael Ignatius. Was working 
in Vienna in 1770 He did fairly good 
work; and used a yellow brown var- 
nish; he sometimes substituted a lion's 
head for the scroll. 

Stainer, Andreas. Was working in 
Absam about 1660 He made few 
violins, if any ; he is supposed to have 
made barytons 

Stainer, Jacob, son of Martin Staint rand 
Sabina Grafinger: b July 14, 162 1, at 
Absam near Hall n the Tyrol' d. 
there, 1683 Li. tie is known of the first 
part of his life but there seems to be 
absolutely no evidence in support of 
the statement that he went to Cremona 
to become a pupil of Nicola Amati, 
married the daughter of the latter, and 
afterwards passed some time in Venice. 
A violin with the inscription . ' ' Jacobus 
Stiner cremonia fecite 1642," which 
was in the Monastery of Stams, is 
generally thought not to be genuine 
Stainer work. He would no doubt 
have studied the Italian instruments 
used by the Italian musicians, who 
assembled at Innsbruck at the Court of 
the Archduke Ferdinand Carl, Count 
of the Tyrol, and this would account 
for his earlier work showing traces of 
Italian influence ; the thicknesses of 
the wood and the disposition of the 
blocks and linings being similar to 
Cremonese work. The old German 
viol-makers, as is known, used no 
linings at all, and did their dimensions 
and thicknesses by guess - work. 
Stainer's instruments soon showed 
those distinctive characteristics known 
as " Tyrolese " ; he was practically the 
founder of the Tyrolese or German 
school of violin making ; the large 
number and great excellence of his 
instruments, all made on the same 
high model, and the reputation he 
gained in his lifetime, causing his 
work to be copied in Germany, 
England, and even in Italy. And it 
was a long time before makers realised 
that this high model was in any way 
defective An old tradition says that 
instruments dated as early as 1639 are 
known ; if so, they are extremely rare. 
In 1641 he was already selling his 
violins at the large market-fairs of 
Hall. On Nov. 26, 1645, he married 
Margarethe Holzhammer (b. March 10, 
1624; d. 1693), in Absam, the witnesses 
being Michael Pamperger and Hans 
Grafinger, the latter a relation of his. 
He had nine children, eight daughters, 
and a son who died in infancy. In 
1648 he travelled in Austria, and 
remained for some time working 
in Kirchdorf, living in the house of 
Saloman Hiibmer, a Jew. He unfor- 
tunately left in debt for a small amount ; 
but though, in 1667, when called upon, 



he paid part of it, the debt seemed to 
grow rather than diminish for in 1669 
it had reached the sum of 24 gulden, 
and in 1677 he made a vain appeal to 
the Emperor for its remittance. In 
spite of this he had bought (Nov. 12, 
1666) a house and garden from his 
brother-in law, Paul Holzhammer so 
at that time his affairs were going on 
well. Though later there is no doubt 
that money worries helped to throw 
him into the state of profound melan- 
choly from which he suffered for 
four years before his death, and 
which ended in his losing his reason 
entirely in 1681. The Archduke 
Ferdinand Carl had sent for him to 
Innsbruck, and, Oct. 29, 1658, ap- 
pointed him violin maker to the Court. 
Jan. 9, 1669, he was appointed violin 
maker to the Emperor Leopold I. ; 
the same year he was imprisoned on 
suspicion of being implicated in the 
Lutheran movement, but was released 
in 1670 He made an enormous 
number of stringed instruments of all 
sorts ; for his violins he used a par- 
ticular kind of wood from a tree called 
the " Haselfichte," of which there 
were large quantities at Gleirsch ; 
he used to wander from tree to 
tree tapping with a hammer until 
he found one which pleased him, 
and was suitable for his purpose 
His instruments are small ; the belly 
rises abruptly from the edges to 
the foot of the bridge, and then 
keeps nearly fiat ; the breadth of 
this flattened part is about the 
same as that of the bridge , this high 
arching necessarily renders the tone 
thin, in spite of the fact that the wood 
is left very thick. The sound-holes 
are shorter and narrower than in 
Italian instruments, the upper and 
lower turns are completely circular ; 
the purfling is also narrower and 
placed nearer the edge ■ the scroll is 
smaller and is particularly round and 
smooth, it is sometimes replaced by a 
lion's head, beautifully carved ; the 
sides and back are made of very finely 
figured maple ; the outline is extremely 
elegant, although the body is rather 
shorter and broader than in Italian 
work ; the work is always beauti- 
fully finished ; the varnish, of rich 
quality, varies in colour from a red 
mahogany, embrowned by time, to a 
golden red equal to that of Cremona 
work ; the tone is not powerful, but 
has a sweet flute-like sound , it is not 
generally considered suitable for a 

concert-room, but a violin, played 
by Sivori, is said to have had a 
charmingly sympathetic and unusually 
brilliant tone. His violins were made 
in three different sizes, large, medium, 
and small and are his best work ; his 
tenors are not so good, although one is 
mentioned as being perfection both in 
work and in charm of tone His 
double-basses are of great rarity, one 
was in the Collection of Prince Moriz 
Lobkowitz at Castle Eisenberg, Bo- 
hemia. A viola di bordone, dated 
1660, is in the Collection of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde at 
Vienna, and in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection is a small pocket violin, 
inlaid with silver, with a finely carved 
head of a faun. There is record of his 
having sold a viola bastarda, in 1643, 
to the Archbishop of Salzburg, and of 
his being again in Salzburg in 1670, 
when he sold some violins there. A 
viola da gamba was dated 1667. In 
1677 he made two splendid violins for 
the St. Georgenberg Monastery, but 
they were unluckily destroyed when 
the Monastery was burnt down on 

iune 21, 1868. The tradition of his 
aving retired to finish his days in a 
Benedictine Monastery after his wife's 
death, and having made there sixteen 
exquisite violins, of which he presented 
twelve to the twelve Electors and four 
to the Emperor, is quite untrue. In 
the Hall Cathedral a violin is pre- 
served with the label ' ' Jacobus Stainer 
oenipontum fecit in Absam, 1653," 
which was made for the " Damenstift ' 
in Hall, which was suppressed in 1783 
A violin that belonged to Mozart was 
dated 1656. Stainer had many pupils 
and imitators, among them Mathias 
Albani of Botzen, Egidius and Mathias 
Klotz ; these makers if they had turned 
out a better \iolin than usual, would 
use a Stainer label for it. The date of 
Stainer's death not being generally 
known, imitations are often post-dated. 
One is known dated 1684 and one 1729. 
Though at first Stainer's written labels 
were carefully imitated, later on printed 
labels were used with the date 16 — 
or 166 — , so that figures could be added 
in writing. These printed labels may 
always be taken as a sure sign of copies 
or imitations ; labels are rarely found 
in genuine Stainer instruments, but 
when there, they are always ifvitten, not 
printed: 'Jacobus Stainer in Absom 
propetEnipontum, fecit 1647 " Really 
genuine instruments, whether violins 
or violas, though at one time much 



depreciated, are now steadily increas- 
ing in value, a fine viola having 
realised over ;^ioo. His brother Paul 
was not a violin maker. 

Stainer, Marcus, brother and pupil of 
Jacob Stainer ; he worked in Laufen, 
Austria. He was a maker of moderate 
ability, who, after his brother's death, 
made poor imitations of his work, with 
labels carefully copied from those of 
Jacob, thusgiving rise to the impression 
that Jacob was sometimes very careless 
in his work. The famous Florentine 
violin player, Veracini, had two violins 
that he much valued, they were 
christened " St . Peter ' ' and " St . Paul ' ' , 
unluckily Veracini was shipwrecked 
sailing from London to Leghorn in 
1746, and both the violins were lost. 
His instruments are rarely met with ; 
they are made of fine wood, the 
pattern of large size, with dark varnish, 
the tone sweet but not powerful ; a 
violin is known dated 1683, and a 
viola, which is said to have a beautiful 
tone, has the written label : " Marcus 
Stainer, Burger und Geigenmacher in 
Kiifstein, anno 1659." 

Stainmist, Jacob. A maker in Mayence 
in 1777. In a viola d'amore, with 
fourteen strings, was the label . 
" Jacobus Stainmist Churfiirstl Mayn- 
tzl Hof Lauten und Geigenmacher, 
1777. No. 5." 

Stanza, Giuseppe, b. 1663, in Venice. 
In 1681 was a pupil of Nicola Amati 
at Cremona. 

Statelmann. See " Stadelmann." 

Statlee, Anderl. Was working in Genoa 
about 1714. Was a pupil of Girolamo, 
son of Nicola Amati. 

Staube. See " Straube." 

Stauffer, Johann Anton. A maker in 
Vienna in the i8th century. In a 
guitar was the label : " Joh. Anton 
Stauffer, Wien." 

Stautinger, Matthaus Winceslaus. A 
maker of viols and lutes in Wiirzburg 
in 1617. In a lute was the label : 
" Matthaus Winceslaus Stautinger me 
fecit Wirceberg, 161 7." 

Steffani, Carlo. A maker of mandolines 
in Mantua about 1712. Label: "Carlo 
Steffani fece 1 anno 17 12 in Mantova ' 

Stegher (Stregner), Magno. A maker of 
lutes at Venice in the 17th century 
In the Liceo Comunale di Musica, 
Bologna was a lute with the inscrip- 
tion ■ " Magno Stegher in Venetia " 

Steininger, Francois .V maker in Paris 
in 1827. He made excellent instru- 
ments, the work finished with care, 
the varnish of fine quality. In 1887, at 

a sale in Paris, two violoncellos ot his 
sold for ;^i6 and ;^26 respectively. 
Label: " F. Steininger, Paris, 1827." 

Steininger, Jacob. A maker in Frank- 
fort about 1775. Nicholas Diehl was 
a pupil of his. He married the daughter 
of the violin maker Dopfer. 

Stirbat (Stirrat), David. Was working 
in Edinburgh about 1810-15. His 
instruments were considered good. 
Label: " D. Stirbat fecit Edinburgh, 

Storioni, Lorenzo, b. 1751, Cremona; 
d. there, 1799. Worked at 3, Contrada 
Coltellai. He was one of the latest, if 
not the last, of the celebrated makers 
of Cremona, and his instruments, 
though of great merit, show signs of 
decadence in the art. They are often 
taken for the work of Guarneri del 
Gesu, whose pattern he imitated with 
great ability. His violins are hand- 
some in appearance, slightly arched, 
the wood of the belly very fine, that 
of the back rather plain ; the varnish 
is very dry, of a deep yellow colour, 
with a reddish tinge ; the tone is full, 
rich, and silvery ; the sound-holes are 
very seldom cut in two instruments 
alike , the work is not finished with 
much delicacy ; the narrow purfling is 
roughly done, and the scroll has not 
much finish. His violins are highly 
thought of in Italy, and are rising in 
value ; for many years Vieuxtemps 
played on a very beautiful one. He 
did not begin to sign them till 1776, 
and none are known after 1795. No 
tenors are known, but his violoncellos, 
which are rare, have a powerful tone. 
Labels: " Laurentius Storioni fecit 
Cremonae, 1789," and "Laurentius 
Storioni restauravit Cremona, 1780.' 

Stoss, Bernard and Martin, b. in Fiissen, 
Bavaria; worked in Vienna about 1824. 
Their instruments are not arched and 
are well made, but have poor varnish. 

Stoss, Franz. A maker in Fiissen, Ba- 
varia, about 1750-98. 

Stradivari (Stradiuarius), Antonio, son 
of Alessandro Stradivari and Anna 
Moroni. There is no definite record of 
his birth, but in a violin with a genuine 
label as follows . " Antonms btradi- 
varius Cremonensis faciebat a ino 
1732 " was added in Stradivari's hand- 
writing below " de anni 89 " ; this was 
at first wrongly read as " de anni 82 " 
Other dated instruments are now 
known which prove that Stradivari 
was born in 1644. Fetis's statement 
that Stradivari was born in 1644 was 
based on the report of a violin said 



to be dated 1736, and to be inscribed 
"annoaetatisga," which was formerly 
in the possession of Count Cozio di 
Salabue. Stradivari died Dec, 1737, 
and was buried Dec. 19, 1737, in the 
Cathedral of San Domenico, Cremona, 
which has since been pulled down. 
He was descended from a very ancient 
Cremona family, whose name, at that 
time spelt " Stradiverdi," appears in 
records as far back as 12 13. While 
still very young he became a pupil of 
Nicola Amati, and was probably with 
him till 1667. When Amati died, all 
his tools, patterns, and models passed 
into Stradivari's possession. His earlier 
instrumentsbearlabelsof Nicola Amati, 
and may be recognised by the beautiful 
scroll or by the characteristic sound- 
holes. About 1666 he used a label 
■with '* Nicolai Amati alumnus" on it. 
Up to 1690 the violins signed with his 
name are very similar in pattern to 
Amati's ordinary full-sized instruments, 
and are of high model compared to 
those he made later ; the wood is 
generally plain, the purfling very 
narrow, the oil varnish, a more or less 
pronounced yellow colour, but other- 
wise very similar to that used by 
Amati, is of soft and penetrating 
quality, and permeates the wood to 
some depth beneath the surface ; these 
instruments are known as ' ' Stradivarius 
amatise." He steadily improved in 
his work ; the model becomes flatter, 
the sound-holes more graceful, the 
scroll more striking and original, the 
purfling slightly wider than before ; the 
varnish varies in colour from rich 
golden, very soft and transparent, to a 
light red, equally fine. This thicker 
and more lustrous red varnish was what 
he subsequently used exclusively. In 
1690 he began to make the violins known 
as ' ' long Strads ' ' ; they are quite unlike 
N. Amati's work ; measurements by ex- 
perts have conclusively proved that 
these instruments are quite a quarter 
of an inch longer than his usual 
pattern. These "long Strads" were 
inspired by Maggini ; in length of body 
and length of stop they are practically 
the same as Maggini's violins in his 
latest and finest period. The modelling 
of the back and belly, the shorter 
corners, the bolder and more open 
sound-holes all recall Maggini's work. 
The tone of remarkable power — has 
much of the Maggini quality. Stradi- 
vari also made some narrow violins, 
dated after 1690, which, though not so 
in reality, also appear to be of extra 

lengcii, owing to their narrow pattern , 
this narrowness is particularly notice- 
able in the middle of the instrument 
between the sound-holes. The work 
is most carefully finished, everything 
proportioned to the modification of 
form. The tone is brilliant and 
powerful ; the varnish is sometimes a 
beautiful amber colour, sometimes a 
transparent pale red. These instru- 
ments are not so uncommon as the 
"long Strads," which he ceased making 
in 1700, probably because of their 
length causing them to be difficult to 
play. The period of his finest work 
began in 1700, which culminated in 
what was practically perfection in 1714; 
the thicknesses of t he wood and the lines 
of the pattern are all determined with 
scientific accuracy ; the varnish, in 
brilliancy of colouring and in delicacy 
and transparency of quality, has never 
since been equalled; the tone is splen- 
did, invariably bright, sweet, full, 
and equal. The wool is chosen with 
the greatest care, and is sound and 
sonorous, the pine being of the best 
quality from Switzerland and the 
Trentmo ; the willow (of which the 
blocks and linings are made) taken 
from the banks of the Po, near Cre- 
mona. The arching rises in gentle 
and gradual curves, the purfling is 
executed with wonderful precision ; 
the sound-holes show a master's 
hand and remain a model for all ; 
the scroll, of severe character, is 
exquisitely carved ; the whole of the 
work (including that of the interior) 
shows the most beautiful finish in the 
smallest details A splendid specimen 
of this period of work is the so-called 
" Messiah" violin, dated 1716, which 
was bought for /i,ooo by Alard, the 
distinguished violinist, and on his 
death (1888) was sold by Messrs. Hill 
on bcihalf of the heirs for ^2,000. The 
workmanship is perfection ; the arching 
of the back and bolly exquisitely 
proportioned ; the wood of the back 
beautifully and regularly figured • the 
tone strong, mellow, ani delicate ; the 
glowing ruddy varnish wonderfully 
beautiful, both in colour and quality • 
the sound-holes most perfectly cut ; the 
neck is the original one, but has been 
lengthened by a piece added at its 
junction with he upper block of the 
body ; the scroll is very graceful ; the 
curves and outlines extremely beautiful. 
The letters " P. S." are very distirct 
on the peg-box end of the neck ; they 
are sometimes found on the violin 



which still have the original neck ; they 
were the initials of Paolo, his youngest 
son, a cloth merchant by trade. There 
is a violin, also made in 17 16, in the 
Istituto Musicale of Florence, with 
the label : " Antonius Stradivanus 
Crem'onensis faciebat, anno 1716." A 
violin, dated 1714, called the " Dol- 
phin," owing to the extraordinary 
richness and variety of tints in the 
varnish, is made of splendid wood, 
and is of perfect workmanship It 
formerly belonged to Alard, later 
passing into the hands of Adams for 
/800. The prices gi -en for Stradivari 
violins have risen in a most extra- 
ordinary way ; Stradivari himself sold 
them for ;^4, but by the end of the 
18th century they were selling for ;^ 15 
or £16 ; a little before 1824 Lupot sold 
a violin for ;^ioo, which was considered 
a large sum; in 1875 a violin, dated 
1714, sold for /300, and, after 1881, fine 
violins were sold for ^^ 1,000 or more — 
in one case for double that sum. The 
violin, known, because of its perfect 
state of preservation, as "The Maiden" 
(La Pucelle), dated 1709, fetched 
^885 at a sale in Paris, teb. 14, 1878 ; 
it was of beautiful workmanship, 
the sound-holes exquisitely cut, and 
the sci'oll strong in character. A 
most perfect specimen of the earlier 
work of Stradivari was exhibited 
at South Kensington in 1885; it was 
made in 1679 and was bought by 
Sir Samuel Hellier, of Womborne, 
Staffordshire, for /40 from the maker 
himself about 1734 , it is of large 
size, and is one of the inlaid 
violins, of which there are only about 
twelve in existence. Another inlaid 
violin is dated 1687 and was originally 
made for the King of Spain. Another 
violin dated 1690, which was originally 
sold for £2^, next changed hands for 
_;^240, then for ;^i,ooo. Violins sold 
at sales do not, as a rule, fetch such 
high prices ; one was sold at Christie's 
for /290 ; that was in 1872, and it is 
now valued at / 1,000 The " Ames " 
Strad , a beauiiTul violin, in excellent 
preservation, was sold at Puttick and 
Simpson's in 1893 for /860 ; but this 
was a record auction -room price. 
Stradivari only made a few violas, they 
are of a large pattern, and the quality 
of their tone is most rich, penetrating, 
antl sympathetic. A very fine viola 
dated 1723 was in the jan/e Collection ; 
one of the most beautiful known— the 
Viola Medicea dated 169 1, is in the 
Istituto Musicale of Florence , it is of 

large size, and is interesting as showing 
that, at the time he made it, Stradivari 
was not yet experienced enough to 
make the thickness of the upper plate 
sufficient in proportion to the size of 
the instrument. When the viola was 
recently taken to pieces it was found 
that Stradivari himself had strength- 
ened (doubled with new wood) the 
parts originally too much thinned ; 
that only Stradivari himself had 
touched the work was proved by his 
inscribing it with the words " Corretto 
da me Antonio Stradivari. ' One viola 
is mentioned as having the back made 
of poplar ; it had a most beautiful tone 
and showed most delicately finished 
work. Few of his violoncellos are in 
existence ; they were made on two 
patterns, one large one small ; the 
large instruments are now as scarce as 
the large violas , they have an enor- 
mously powerful tone, but it is perhaps 
more difficult for performers to play 
on them owing to their size. One of 
these large violoncellos was in the 
possession of Professor Servais, of the 
Brussels Conservatoire ; the tone was 
of silvery sweetness, combined with 
extraordinary power A magnificent 
instrument dated 1720, which belonged 
to Signor Piatti, the great violoncellist, 
was known as the " red " 'cello, 
owing to the very rich colour of 
Its varnish. The immense superiority 
of Stradivari's violoncellos to all 
others owing to the excellent choice 
of wood, the correctness of the thi k 
nesses, and the accurate proportions 
of the whole instrument, which results 
in a tone unequalled for fulness, 
brilliancy, and power, causes them to 
fetch extraordinarily high prices, if, by 
any chance, one comes into the 
market. The smaller violoncellos are 
too narrow ; in proportion to the 
length, violoncellos require a greater 
height in the sides than violins do ; 
Stradivari omitted to take this into 
account, and thus sometimes made 
instruments which have a thin quality 
of tone, which is only to be improved 
by increasing the height of the sides. 
A very beautiful specimen of this 
small pattern formerly belonged to 
Duport, then to Franchomme, who 
sold it for /lGoo One of the finest 
known, formerly belonging to .Vlexandre 
Batta, of Pans, who paid £^^0 for it, 
was made in 1714, and is in excep 
tionally good preservation, without a 
crack, and with no trace of any repairs ' 
it was bought by Messrs. Hill in i8j3 



for /3.200 ! This same firm of violin 
makers also had one dated 171 1, which 
they priced at ;^2,8oo. A violoncello 
in most perfect preservation, dated 
1689, was bought by Professor Delsart, 
of the Paris Conservatoire, on Feb. 3, 
1887, at a sale for /800 ; it is especially 
remarkable for the beauty of its wood ; 
its equal is perhaps only to be found 
in the violoncello, dated 1691, which 
is in the Istituto Musicale of Florence; 
it is of very large size, and the work- 
manship is absolutely perfect. A great 
many of the violoncellos dated between 
1698 and 1709 have the backs made of 
poplar- wood. A very beautiful violon- 
cello which was in Madrid, dated 
1725, was more arched than that of 
Franchomme ; the wood was pine of 
excellent quality, the sides of finely 
figured wood ; the brilliant red varnish, 
on an amber golden ground, was very 
delicate and transparent ; the whole 
instrument was in perfect preservation. 
Stradivari's double-basses are rare ; 
Dragonetti had one ; Count Ludovico 
Melzi had another, a very fine speci- 
men ; it was on a broad pattern, very 
much arched ; the lower corners of the 
middle bouts are rounded off, apparen tly 
to avoid injury. Two things strike one 
about the work of Stradivari — the extra- 
ordinary number of instruments that he 
made and their great excellence ; it 
is said that there are no less than a 
thousand of his violins, violas, and 
violoncellos; he lived to a great age, 
and worked incessantly all his life. 
In his time, viols were still being used 
in orchestras ; he made many with six 
strings and with seven strings, also 
five-stringed viols with flat back, high 
sides, and arched bellies. Viols, bass- 
viols, violas da gamba are known with 
the backs made of poplar-wood. A 
viola d'amore, with the usual six gut 
strings and six wire strings, is dated 
1716. A mandoline, dated 1700, which 
formerly belonged to J. B. Vuillaume, 
was remarkable for the finish of the 
workmanship and the beauty of the 
varnish ; the head was most delicately 
carved. A harp is also known made by 
him A guitar inscribed on the back 
of the peg-box, "Ants Stradivarius 
Cremonens F. 1680," was supposed to 
be the only one made by him ; but the 
Paris Conservatoire claims to have 
another in the Collection there. In 
the same Collection is a beautiful 
fragment of the head of a viola da 
gamba and also a kit of large size, 
dated 1717, signed by Stradivari, which 

has a graceful scroll, the sound-holes 
excellently cut and varnish of wonder- 
fully delicate and brilliant quality. A 
viola da gamba, "alia gobba " {i.e., 
hunchbacked), made in 1684 foi 
Countess Cristina Visconti, had the 
violoncello scroll and sound-holes ; 
double-bissss had long bssn made 
with violoncello sound-holes, but 
Stradivari was probably the first maker 
to effect this improvement in the viola 
da gamba. It is interesting to notice 
how, even in his lifetime, Stradivari's 
instruments travelled all over the 
w )rld, his reputation was so great. 
0.1 Sept. 8, 1682, Michele Monzi, a 
b inker in Venice, sent him an order 
for a set of violins, tenors, and 
violoncellos ; these instruments were 
afterwards sent as a present to 
James II. of England. In 1687 he 
made a set of instruments for the 
Spanish Court, inlaid with ivory 
purfling, and with beautiful scroll-work 
running round the sides and head. 
Some of these fine instruments, richly 
ornamented with small figures, flowers, 
fruit, arabesques, inlaid in ebony or 
ivory, executed with the greatest skill, 
are still in existence, as well as the 
tools which he used and the original 
tracings of his designs. In 1690 he 
finished making a "concerto" — viz., 
two violins, one small and one large 
tenor, and one violoncello, for the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany. One of the tenors 
is in Florence and is inscribed on the 
interior of the upper plate, "Prima 
20 ottobre 1690 per S. A. da Fiorenza." 
In 1707 he made six violins, two tenors, 
and one violoncello for the private 
orchestra of Archduke Charles of 
Austria. In 1715 he made twelve 
violins for the private orchestra of the 
King of Poland (Elector of Saxony), 
The instruments, relatively few in 
number, made by Stradivari between 
1730-37 vary a good deal in character; 
some are very fine and of beautifully 
finished work, but others do not attain 
the same perfection ; they are more 
arched, resulting in a less brilliant tone, 
the delicacy and finish of the work has 
changed, the scroll is heavier, the 
varnish is sometimes a brown colour, 
like that used by his sons for their 
instruments ; there is no doubt that, 
after his death, much of his unfinished 
work was completed by his sons or by 
his pupil, Carlo Bergonzi, labels being 
used with Stradivari's name on them. 
Instruments that were made simply 
under his direction are inscribed ' sub 



disciplina Stradiuarii," in very small 
type. Many of his pupils became cele- 
brated makers, such as Carlo Bergonzi, 
Alessandro Gagliano, Lorenzo and 
Giambattista Guadagnini, &c. Stradi- 
vari had married, July 4, 1667, 
Francesca Ferraboschi (b, 1640, the 
widow of Giovanni Giacomo Capra) ; 
she died May 20, 1698. She had six 
children, of whom four were sons: 
Francesco, b. Feb. 6, 1670, d. six 
days later; Francesco, b. Feb. i, 1671, 
he worked with his father and d. 
May II, 1743; Alessandro, b. May 25, 
1677, he became a priest and d. 
Jan. 26, 1732 ; Omobono, b. Nov. 14, 
1679, he worked with his father and 
d. July 8, 1742. On June 3, 1680, 
Stradivari purchased from the Brothers 
Picenardi, for about ;^28o, the house 
formerly known as 2, piazza San 
Domenico, now as i, piazza Roma; it 
was there that all his famous work was 
done. He married his second wife on 
August 24, 1699, Antonia Zambelli (b. 
June II, 1664, d. March 3, 1737), she 
had five children, of whom four were 
sons : Gio. Battista Giuseppe, b. Nov, 
6, 1701, d. eight months later; Gio. 
Battista Martino, b. Nov. 11, 1703, d. 
Nov. 1, 1727; Giuseppe, b. Oct. 27, 1704, 
became a priest and d. Nov. 29, 1781 ; 
Paolo, b. Jan. 26, 1708, d Oct. 19, 
1776. Stradivari is described as a tall 
thin man, incessantly working, in his 
white leather apron and his white cap ; 
he made a great deal of money, for in 
his time "ricco come Stradivari" (rich 
as Stradivari) was quite a proverb in 
Stradivari, Francesco, son of Antonio 
Stradivari; b Feb. i, 1671, Cremona; 
d. May 11, 1743. Was a pupil of his 
father and worked in his workshop 
until Antonio's death ; he then con- 
tinued to work with his brother 
Omobono. He made several violins 
and violas, in which he placed his own 
label, from about 1725 to 1740; his 
work shows the excellent school in 
which he had been trained, and has 
genuine merit, but is much inferior to 
that of his father. The varnish is 
very beautiful, though quite different 
from that of Antonio, it is of brownish 
hue; the scroll is heavy, the work 
not very carefully finished, but the 
tone rich and penetrating. Label : 
" Franciscus Stradivarius Cremonensis 
filius Antonii faciebat, anno 1742." 

Stradivari, Omobono, son of Antonio ; 
b. Nov. 14, 1679; d. July 8, 1742. He 
worked with his brother Francesco in 
his father's workshop ; the label they 
used was inscribed " sotto la dis- 
ciplina d'A. Stradivarius, Cremona." 
But he made few new instruments, 
and chiefly occupied himself in re- 
pairing old ones. Label : " Omobonus 
Stradiuarius filius Antonii Cremonae 
fecit, anno 1740." 

Straub. Two labels are known, the 
one : " Simon Straub von Frieden- 
weiller, 1706," in a viola bastarda of 
light and delicate ^workmanship ; the 
other: " Mathias Straub zu Friden- 
willer auf dem Schwartzwald, anno 

Straube (Staube). A maker in Berlin, 
about 1770-75. His instruments are 
seldom seen, but they are of good 
workmanship, made on the Cremona 
pattern, with amber-coloured varnish. 
He was an excellent repairer of old 

Strauss, Joseph. A maker in Neustadt 
about 1745-50. 

Strnad, Caspar, b. 1752 at Prague; 
d, 1823. Was a pupil of Hulinski, 
a maker in Prague. His violins 
and violoncellos show good work, the 
sound-holes are generally small and 
well-cut, the varnish a yellow-chestnut 
colour ; his guitars also were much 
liked. Label : " Caspar Strnad fecit 
Pragae, anno 1789." 

Strobl, Johann. A maker in Hallein in 
the i8th century. 

Strong, John. A viol of his, of peculiar 
shape, with double purfling, was ex- 
hibited in the South Kensington 
Museum in 1872. The old head and 
neck had been replaced by the work 
of one of the Banks, of Salisbury. 
Label : " John Strong, Sommerset, 

Sturge, H. It is doubtful if he ever 
made new instruments, but he cer- 
tainly repaired old ones ; in 181 1 he 
was living in Bristol, but in 1853 was 
settled in Huddersfield. 

Sulot, Nicolas. A maker in Dijon, 
1825-40. In 1839 he took out a patent 
for an "echo" violin, made with three 
plates instead of two. 

Sursano (Sorsano), Spiritus. A maker 
in Cuneo about 1714-35 ; the little of 
his work that is known is very inferior. 
Label : " Spiritus Sorsano fecit Cunei, 





A maker in Cremona in 

in Modena in 
See " Fiorini 



Tadolini. A maker 
the 19th century. 

Tanegia, Carlo Antonio. Was working 
in Milan about 1725-30. Label : 
" Carolus Antonius Tanegia fecit in 
Via Lata, Mediolani, anno 1730." 

Tanigardi (Taningard), Georgio. Was 
working in Rome about 1735. Labels: 
" Georgius Tanigardus fecit Romae, 
anno 1735," and "Georgio Tanigardi 
fecit Romae, 17 — ." 

Targhetta. A maker of guitars and 
other instruments in Brescia towards 
the close of the i6th century. 

Tarr, William. A maker in Manchester, 
said to have made very good double- 
basses about 1829-55, "when he gave up 
violin making to become a photo- 

Tassini, Bartolommeo. A maker in 
Venice in 1754. His instruments, 
similar to those of Testore, show fairly 
good work . Label : ' ' Opus Bartholomei 
Tassini Venetia, 1754" 

Taylor, b. about 1750. Worked in 
London, in Princes Street, Drury 
Lane ; was said to be a pupil of 
Panormo. He made good instruments, 
principally double-basses, and was 
clever at repairing old instruments. 

Techier (Tecchler), David, b. 1666. 
Lived first at Salzburg, then went to 
Venice, but owing to the ill-treatment 
he received from the makers there, left 
Venice and finally settled in Rome 
about 1705; he is said to have stopped 
at Cremona on his way there. Some of 
his work is very German in character, 
but instruments dated from Rome are 
generally of fine workmanship, and 
follow the Italian pattern very closely. 
His violoncellos are especially good ; 
made of excellent wood, on a large 
pattern, much arched, but the thick- 
nesses are often inaccurate ; the sound- 
holes are large, they vary, sometimes 
being widely opened, sometimes not ; 
the varnish, of good quality, is generally 
reddish -yellow, sometimes yellow- 
brown in colour ; the tone is very 
powerful, the work beautifully finished ; 
one was sold at an auction for ;^5o. 
His double-basses also show good 
work and have a sonorous tone. A 
violin of highly finished workmanship 

was made of beautiful wood and had a 
very pure and sweet tone. Labels : 
" David Tecchler Liutaro fecit Romae, 
anno 1703," a similar one is dated 
1706: "David Tecchler fecit Romae, 
1733." 3-nd " David Techier fecit, an. 
Dni. 1743, ietatis suae, 77." 

Tedesco (Todesco), Leopoldo, b. 1625. 
Was a pupil of Nicola Amati in 
Cremona, 1653-54. Afterwards worked 
in Rome ; a violin dated from there in 
1658 is made on the Amati pattern, 
and has good varnish, but the work is 
not highly finished. 

Teoditi (Teoditti), Giovanni. A maker 
in Rome in the 17th century. 

Ternianini, Pietro. Working in Modera, 


Testator, " II Vecchio." Is said to have 
lived in Milan about 1520, and to have 
been one of the first to modify the 
viol into the violin shape ; but there is 
absolutely no evidence of this. 

Testore, Carlo Antonio, eldest son of 
Carlo Giuseppe Testore, from whom 
he learnt his trade. Worked in 
Milan, in the Contrada Larga, at the 
sign of the Eagle (dell' aquila', about 
1735-65 ; according to one label was 
associated with his son Giovanni in 
1764. His violins are made on the 
Guarneri pattern, of excellent wood, 
though not finely figured ; the varnish 
is golden-yellow in colour, the work- 
manship is good. His violoncellos and 
altos are especially fine instruments ; 
the varnish, rather thick, is generally 
brown in colour. Labels : " Carlo 
Antonio Testore figlio maggiore del fu 
Carlo Giuseppe in Contrada larga al 
segno deir aquila, Milano, 174 1 " ; 
another label is dated 1736: "Carlo 
Antonio e Giovanni padre e figlio 
Testori, il qual Carlo e figlio maggiore 
del fu Carlo Giuseppe Testore, abitanti 
in Contrada larga al segno dell' aquila, 
Milano, 1764. 

Testore, Carlo Giuseppe, b. at Novara ; 
settled at Milan about 1687, and worked 
there till about 1720. He was a pupil 
of Giovanni Grancino, for whose work 
his instruments are often mistaken. 
He was the best workman in this 
family, but did not make many instru- 
ments. His violins, of excellent wood, 
show good strong work, but not highly 
finished, and are plain in appearance. 
The pattern varies; it is moderately 



arched , the varnish is dry and of a 
brownish-yellow colour ; the tone is 
good, sometimes very powerful and 
penetrating. For his violoncellos he 
generally used pear-tree wood for the 
backs and very fine wood for the 
bellies ; the tone was very powerful. 
When the well-known Lindley " Gran- 
cino ■' violoncello was repaired in 
1844, by Andreas Engleder of 
Munich, the original label, in good 
preservation, read as follows : " Carlo 
Giuseppe Testore allievo di Gio. Gran- 
cino in Contrada Larga di Milano, 
1690." A double-bass of his was 
played on by the celebrated Bottesini 
at concerts ; it had a splendid tone. 
Label: "Carlo Giuseppe Testore in 
Contrada larga di Milano al segno 
deir aquila, 1700." He had two sons, 
Carlo Antonio and Paolo Antonio, 
both violin makers. 

Testore, Giovanni, son of Carlo Antonio 
Testore, (j.v. 

Testore, Paolo Antonio, second son of 
Carlo Giuseppe Testore and the last 
maker of this name. First worked 
with his brother. Carlo Antonio, but 
separated from him about 17 10, and 
continued working alone till about 
1760. He made a great many instru- 
ments, but did not do such good work 
as his father ; the varnish is lighter, 
a yellow colour, and of inferior quality. 
Few of his violins are known, they are 
not much arched, without purfling, 
and follow the Guarneri pattern. He 
made many good lutes and guitars, the 
latter, especially, being some of the 
most beautiful known. Labels : 
" Paolo Antonio Testore, Milan, 17 — ," 
and " Paolo Antonio Testore figlio di 
Carlo Giuseppe Testore in Contrada 
larga di Milano al segno dell aquila, 


Tetzner. See " Kiihlewein." 

Theress. See • Charles." 

Theriot, J. B. A maker in Paris in 1783. 

Thibout, Aime Justin, b. Feb., 1808. 
He worked till 1862 at Caen. 

Thibout, Albert, son of Gabriel Adolphe 
Thibout ; b. April 27, 1839 ; d. Dec. 
25, 1865. A maker in Paris, who 
succeeded his uncle, Gabriel Eugene, 
as " luthier de I'Opera," and was 
succeeded in his turn by the Brothers 

Thibout, Gabriel Adolphe, son of Jacques 
Pierre Thibout; b. 1804, at Paris; d. 
there, June 14, 1H58. He assisted his 
father a long time and finally took the 
direction of the business in 1838. His 
instruments are good, though the 

work is not equal to his father s ; the 
backs are generally of one piece, the 
varnish a red-brown colour. His son 
Albert was also a maker. 

Thibout, Gabriel Eugene, son of 
Jacques Pierre Thibout; b. June 11, 
1825, at Paris. Succeeded his brother, 
Gabriel Adolphe, as " luthier de 
rOpera" in Paris. In October, 1861, 
left Paris and settled in Boulogne- 

Thibout, Jacques Pierre, b. Sept 16, 
1777, ^t Caen ; d. Dec. 4, 1856, at 
Saint-Mande, near Paris. First worked 
at Caen, then, in 1796, under Koliker 
at Paris ; was married in 1800, and in 
1807 established himself at 24, rue 
Montmartre, after 1810 moving to 
8, rue Rameau. He was a remarkable 
maker and his instruments are much 
liked ; his violins soon came into notice, 
for by a certain treatment of the sides 
he gained an improvement in the 
pattern which produced an excellent 
quality of tone. The price varied 
from /lo to ;^i4, relatively high for 
that period, but greatly below their 
present value. The workmanship and 
varnish were so beautiful that his 
instruments will bear comparison with 
the best Italian work ; two magnificent 
violins of his show peculiar richness of 
colouring in the varnish — a red on an 
amber ground. He was awarded a 
silver medal, 1827 ; a silver medal, 1844 ; 
and a first class medal at the Paris 
Exhibition in 1855 for an excellent 
violoncello. Label; " Nouveau procede 
approuve par ITnstitut. Thibout, 
luthier du roi, rue Rameau, no. 8, a 
Paris, 1825." 

Thibouville-Lamy, Jerome. A little 
before 1867 he became sole proprietor 
of the various factories at Mirecourt ; 
he gradually substituted mechanical 
for manual labour, and while increasing 
the number of instruments made, at 
the same time reduced their price, so 
that at last he was able to exhibit at 
Vienna, in 1873, his famous violins at 
4s., 8s., and i6s. each. By 1887, 35,000 
instruments had been made by *^'i 
firm. He was awarded a medal, Viti-na, 
1873 ; medal of honour, Santiago, 1875 ; 
prize medal, Philadelphia, 1876 ; and 
gold medal, London, 1885. He was 
made Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour, April 10, 1877, and Officier, 
Jan, 15, 1892. 

Thiphanon. See " Tiphanon." 

Thir, Mathias and Anton. Makers of 
good instruments in \'iennain the i8th 



Thir, Johann Georg. Was working in 
Vienna in 1791. A violoncello of good 
work, made on a large pattern, had 
dark ellow brown varnish. Label : 
• Johannes Georgius Thir fecit Viennae, 
anno 1791" 

Thomassin. Worked under Clement at 
Paris, rue des Bons-Enfants, was a 
clever workman and made good violins. 
He signed them with his name about 

Thompson (Thomson), Robert. A 
maker in London, at the sign of the 
"Bass- Violin," in St. Paul's Church- 
yard, about 1749-64. His instruments 
were made on the Stainer pattern. He 
was succeeded by his sons, Charles and 
Samuel, who worked about 1775-85 
Labels • " Robert Thompson att the 
Bass-Violin m Paul's ally. St- Paul's 
Churchyard, London, 1749," and 
" Made by Thompson and Son at the 
Bass- Violin, the west end of S*- Paul's 
Churchyard, London, 1764." The 
printed label (two were dated 1775 and 
1785) IS, " Made and sold by Chas. and 
Saml. Thompson in St. Paul's Church- 
yard " In the musical directory of 1794 
were also mentioned Samuel and Peter 
Thompson, instrument makers in St. 
Paul's Churchyard. 

Thorowgood, Henry. A maker in 
London in the i8th century. Printed 
label- "Made and sold by Henry 
Thorowgood at the Violin and Guitar 
under the North Piazza of the Royal 
Exchange, 17 — , London." 

Thumhardt is mentioned as working in 
Munich and Straubing in the 18th 
century. His work was similar to that 
of Buchstadter. 

Ticffenbrticker (Tiefembrucker) , Leo- 
nardo. A maker of beautiful lutes. 
He was a member of the family better 
known as Dieffopruchar or Duiffo- 
prugcar, and worked in the i6th 
century. He may possibly have been 
related to Gaspard Duiffoprugcar. 

Tieffenbriicker, Magnus. See " Dieffo- 

Tieffenbrticker (Tiefembrucker), Ven- 
delino Venere. Is supposed to have 
been a son of Leonardo Tieffenbriicker, 
according to the inscriptions found in 
some of his lutes. Worked from about 
1572 to 161 1 ; his lutes were celebrated. 
An ivory lute was inscribed " Vendelio 
Venere Padova, 1572"; a lute in the 
Modena Museum, Vienna, was labelled 
"In Padova Vvendelino Venere de 
Leonardo Tiefembrucker, 1582"; an 
arch-lute in the Collection of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna, 

similarly inscribed, was dated 1587 ; 
it was repaired by Martin Stoss in 1832. 
A lute in the Vienna Hof-Museum was 
dated 1595. One of the finest lutes 
existing is inscribed " Vendelio Venere 
in Padova, 1600." Two instruments in 
the Modena Museum, Vienna, are n- 
scribed, the one "In Padua Vendelinus 
Tieffenbriicker," the other " In Padova 
Vvendelio Venere, 1611." A unique 
instrument, a " lyra da gamba " 
mounted with si.xteen strings and fifteen 
sympathetic strings, is signed: "In 
Padua Vendelinus Tieffenbriiker," and 
has a label probably written by the 
maker himself: "Vendelinus Tieffen 
briiker f. in Padoua." 

Tielke, Joachim. One of a family of 
makers who lived in Hamburg from 
about 1539 to 1 70 1. He was celebrated 
for the lutes, theorbos, guitars, and 
especially the viols of all kinds which 
he made, of very fine tone, ornamented 
with the richest and most varied inlaid 
work; one violin of his is also men- 
tioned. The following instruments, 
given in their chronological order, are 
known : a lute in the Paris Conserva- 
toire Collection ; a lute known as a 
chiterna, with the label: "Joachim 
Tielke in Hamburg, 1539," in the South 
Kensington Museum, London, which 
is inlaid with designs in tortoiseshell, 
encircling mythological deities in ivory, 
richly ornamented with precious stones. 
A guitar dated 1592, a marvel of rich- 
ness of design and beautiful workman- 
ship, is in wonderful preservation a 
bass-viol, dated 1669, was exhibted in 
Paris in 1878 ; a violin, dated 1670. men- 
tioned by Fetis ; a guitar inscribed on 
the back "Joachim Tielke, Hamburg, 
1676"; a very beautiful viola di 
bordone belonging to the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde, Vienna, was labelled, 
"Joachim Tielke in Hamburg fecit, 
anno 1686" ; and a viola da gamba, 
dated 1701, entirely inlaid with ivory, 
with the edges, head, and pegs all in 
ivory, the tail-piece also charmingly 
designed in ivory. 

Tilley, Thomas. A maker in London 
about 1774. 

Tiphanon (Thiphanon), Jean Fran9ois. 
Worked in Paris, in rue St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre, from 1775 to 1800. 
Label : " Tiphanon, rue St.-Thomas- 
du-Louvre, a Paris, 1780." 

Tirler, Carlo. A maker in Bologna in 
the i8th century. 

Tobin, Richard. A maker in London 
from about 1790 to 1840 Was a pupil 
of Perry of Dublin. He did a good 



deal of work for John Belts. He was 
an excellent workman, and cut most 
beautiful heads or scrolls to his in- 
struments ; he usually followed the 
Stradivari or Guarneri patterns. The 
tone of his instruments is good, and 
they are much liked in England. He 
died in great poverty in Shoreditch. 
A son of his was also a maker. 

Todesco. S<7^ " Tedesco." 

Todini, Michele, b. in Saluzzo about 
1625. He lived in Rome, where, in 1676, 
he pubhshed his " Dichiarazione della 
galleria armonica eretta in Roma." 
He made a few violins, but is chiefly 
known as the maker of very ingenious 
mechanical musical instruments. He 
has been also called the inventor of 
the double-bass, but there is apparently 
nothing to support this assertion. 

Tolbecque, Auguste, son of Auguste 
Joseph Tolbecque ; was born March 30, 
1830, Paris. He was a distinguished 
violoncellist, but also worked at violin 
making under Rambaux, in Paris. He 
made a small number of new instru- 
ments, and was extremely clever at 
restoring old ones ; he collected some 
fine instruments, which he sold to the 
Brussels Conservatoire in 1879. In 
1858 he settled in Niort, Deux-Sevres. 
Label : Ate. Tolbecque fils fecit Parigi, 
anno 185 1." 

Tononi, Antonio. A member of the 
family of makers in Bologna in the 
17th century. 

Tononi, Carlo, son of Felice. First 
worked in Bologna, then settled in 
Venice. His instruments \ ary a good 
deal ; they are generally of a large 
pattern, not so highly arched as those 
of his brother Giovanni, and show 
beautiful workmanship ; his varnish, 
somewhat similar to that of Santo 
Serafino, is a yellow-brown colour. A 
pocket violin, with beautiful inlaid work, 
was exhibited at Milan, 1881, its label 
was; " Carolo Tononus fecit Bononia; 
in Platea Casta^tionis, anno Domini 
1698." In a violin in the Collection of 
the Liceo filarmonico, Bologna, is the 
label : " Carolus Tononi fecit Bononiae, 
annoi7i7." Another label is: "Carolus 
Tononi Bonon. fecit Venetiis sub titulo 
S. CecilicC, anno 1739." He often 
branded his monogram near the button 
of the tailpiece. 

Tononi, Felice. A maker in Bologna 
about 1670-90. He worked in associa- 
tion with his son Giovanni ; their 
violoncellos have a great reputation in 
lialy, and are beautiful instruments, of 
fine tone and carefully finished work- 

manship ; the varnish is a yellow-brown 
colour. Labels: " Tononi di Bologna 
fecit, anno 1670," and " Tononi di 
Bologna fece, anno 168 — ." 

Tononi, Giovanni, son of Felice. Worked 
in Bologna till about 1705. Very few 
instruments of his are to be found ; he 
followed, and at the same time enlarged 
the pattern of Nicola Amati ; his work 
is superior to that of his father. His 
violins are slightly arched and have 
varnish of a beautiful yellow colour ; 
the tone is very fine. A violoncello 
had the following label : " Joannes de 
Tononis fecit Bononiae in Platea 
Paviglionis, anno 17 — ." Other labels 
are "Joannes Tononus fecit Bononiae 
in Platea Pavaglionis, anno Domini, 
1690," and " Joannes de Tononis fecit 
Bononiae, anno 17 — ." 

Toppani, Angelo de. A maker in Rome 
about 1720-40. His instruments, which 
are rarely seen, are similar to those of 
Techier, but are more arched ; the 
varnish is a golden-yellow colour, and 
the sound-holes are cut large. Label : 
" Angelus de Toppanis fecit Romae, 
anno Dni. 1740." 

Torelli. A maker in Verona about 1625. 

Toring (Torring). Was a maker and 
repairer of violins in London about 

Tortobello, Francesco. A maker in 
Rome in 1680, who followed the Mag- 
gini pattern. 

Touly, Claude. In a five-stringed viol, 
with the upper and lower plates both 
arched, and with yellow varnish, was 
the printed label : " Par Claude Touly 
a Luneville 1752." 

Touly, Jean. A maker in Nancy about 
1730-47. Label : " Fait par moy Jean 
Touly, a Nancy, 1747." 

Tourte, Fran9ois (" le jeune "), b. 1747, 
Paris ; d. there, April, 1835. Was a 
younger brother of Xaver Tourte. For 
eight years worked as a watchmaker, 
and thus gained sureness and delicacy 
of touch ; he was not educated, and 
never even learnt to read and to write. 
He settled at 10, Quai de I'Ecole, and 
began to make bows ; for his first 
experiments he used the staves of old 
sugar hogsheads from Brazil, but 
afterwards always selected fine Per- 
nambuco wood of perfectly straight 
grain, strong and elastic, without 
excessive weight. By subjecting this 
in a state of flexion to a moderate 
amount of heat for some time, he 
obtained a permanent and regular 
bend: to do this without making the 
exterior brittle is always the great 



difficulty of bow makers. He was 
able to definitely settle the correct 
length and curvature of the stick, the 
gradual tapering towards the point, 
and also invented a method of spread- 
ing the hairs of the bow and fixing 
them on the face of the nut by means 
of a moveable band of metal, fitting on 
a slide of mother-o'-pearl. In fact, he 
practically invented the modern bow. 
and has well been called the " Strad 
ivari " of the bow, for his skill has 
never been equalled. Most of his great 
work was done after 1775. Viotti, who 
arrived in Paris in 1782, is said to have 
suggested many of the improvements 
that were required from a violinist's 
point of view. He worked until he was 
eighty-five, when failing eyesight neces- 
sitated a rest. He himself charged 
12 louis d'or (about /lo) for the bows 
mounted in gold, and 3 J louis d'or 
(nearly £'i) for those mounted in silver, 
but they now fetch from ;^20 each ; 
for Tourte's bows are always preferred 
to any others by violinists, and as yet 
show no signs of wear. Violoncello 
bows are rarer; at a sale in Paris, Feb. 
5, 1887, one was sold to Messrs. Hill 
and Son for £^^. Several of his bows 
are in the Paris Conservatoire Collec- 
tion, they are never marked ; only two 
are known with small engraved labels : 
" Get archet a ete fait par Tourte en 
1824, age de soixante-dix-sept ans." 
His bows were so closely imitated by 
other makers that it is not easy always 
to distinguish between the original and 
the copy. 

Tourte, le Pere. Settled in Paris about 
1740. Was a clever bow maker ; his 
work showed great improvement on 
that of his predecessors ; he used 
lighter wood and proportioned his 
bow more accurately, giving it the 
backward bend indispensable to its 
elasticity. He invented the nut worked 
by a propelling and withdrawing screw, 
the nut and head of the screw were 
generally of ivory. The bows are 
elegantly fluted for half or the whole 
of the length, the head is lighter and 
more elegant. He had two sons, Xaver 
and the celebrated Francois. 

Tourte, Xaver (I'aine), eldest son of 
Tourte pere. Worked with him for 

some time and finally succeeded to his 
business. Although inferior to his 
father as a workman, he made some 
excellent bows. It is said that he was 
in partnership with Francois, the latter 
making the sticks and Xaver the nuts 
and fittings ; but they quarrelled and 
separated, each one continuing to work 
alone. Xaver reproduced as much as 
possible the improvements made by 
his brother in the bow. 

Trapani, Raffaele. A maker in Naples 
about 18 10. His workmanship is good 
and original in character ; his violins 
are on a large pattern, with prominent 
edges, and heavy purfling ; the scroll is 
heavy and of the i5T escian type ; the 
varnish is rather thick and of a red- 
brown colour. Label ; " Raffaele 
Trapani, Napoli, No. — ." 

Trevillot, Claude. A maker in Mire- 
court about 1698. 

Trinelli, Giovanni. An Italian maker. 

Trunco. Worked in Cremona in i66o. 

Truska, Simon Joseph, b. April 5, 1734, 
Raudnitz, Bohemia ; d. Jan. 14, i8og, 
Strahow Monastery. Entered Strahow 
Monastery, Dec. 8, 1758, taking the 
vows, Jan. i, 1761. Became proficient 
as a musician and composer, and then 
began to construct instruments, making 
violins, altos, violas d'amore, and bass- 

Tubbs, James. A maker of excellent 
bows, who lives in Wardour Street, 
London. His father and grandfather 
were also bow makers, their work 
being very similar to that of Dodd. 
James Tubbs' bows are made on 
scientific principles, and are of elegant 
appearance ; they are much liked by 
players for their lightness and good 
balance, and rank among the best 

Turner, William. Was working in 
London in 1650. In a viola di bordone, 
or baryton, of beautiful workmanship, 
and made of splendid wood, is the 
label : " William Turner, at ye hand 
and crown in gravelle lane neere 
Aldgate, London, 1650." 

Tywersus. Was maker to the Prince 
of Lorraine at the beginning of the 
i6th century ; his instruments are very 
similar to those of Andrea Amati. 
Nicolas Renault was a pupil of his. 




Ugar, Crescenzio. A maker in Rome in 
1790 His work is German in character, 
he used brown varnish. 

Ungarini, Antonio. Was working in 
Fabriano in 1762. 

Unverdorben, Marx. A lute maker in 
Venice, probably about 1400-50. A 
lute of highly finished workmanship, 
found in the Collection of instruments 
at Castle Eisenberg, Bohemia, was 
inscribed : " Marx Unverdorben a 

Urquhart, Thomas. A maker in London 
about 1650-80 ; he was probably a 

Scotchman. His work resembles that 
of Jacob Ray man, with whom he may 
have worked, and shows great merit 
for the period at which he lived. His 
violins are of two sizes, some on a 
small, others on a large pattern, very 
arched, the corners not very prominent, 
the purfling narrow and placed close to 
the edge ; the oil varnish, of a yellowish- 
brown or sometimes red colour, is of ex- 
cellent quality, and is similar to Italian 
varnish ; the tone is clear and silvery. 
His instruments are rare, 


Vaillant (Vaillot, or Vaillaut), Francois. 
A maker in Paris, who, according to his 
labels, was living in the rue de la 
Juiverie, 1736-38, and according to the 
old almanacs in rue N.-D.-de-bonne- 
nouvelle, 1775 83. His instruments 
show good workmanship, but the var- 
nish is poor. Label : " Fran9ois 
Vaillant, rue de la Juiverie a Paris, 

Valentine, William. A maker in 
London, who died about 1877. He 
made some good double-basses. 

Valler. A maker in Marseilles in 1683. 

Vandelli, Giovanni. Was working in 
Modena, 1796- 1839. His violins are 
fairly well made. 

Vanderlist. A maker in Paris, living in 
rue des Vieux-Augustins, 1788-89. Is 
said to have copied the work of Gua- 
dagnini, both in pattern and varnish, 
with great skill. He branded his name 
on his instruments. Label : " Luthier, 
rue des Vieux-Augustins, pres de I'^gout 
de la rue Montmartre, Paris." 

Van der Slagmeulen. See " Slagh- 

Varotti, Giovanni. A maker in Bologna 
in 1813. 

Varquain. A mater in Paris, rue de 
Bussy, about 1742. 

Vauchel, Joseph. A maker in Damm 
about 1840 ; before that date he was 
appointed Court Maker to the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany He exhibited two 
violins at Munich in 1854, which had 
a fine tone, and was awarded the medal 
of honour. Horlein was a pupil of his. 

Venere, Vendelino. See " Tieffen- 

Venzi, Andrea. A maker in Florence in 

Vcrbruggcn, Theodor. Is known as one 
of the makers in Antwerp in 1641, by a 
double-bass which he made for use in 
the Cathedral. 

Verini, Andrea. Was working in 

Verle, Francesco. A maker in Padua 
about 1590. Label : "In Padova 
Francesco Verle." 

Vermesch, le Pere. Worked at Beau- 
mont-sur-Oise in 178 1. A violin, very 
arched, badly proportioned, with pale 
yellow varnish, had the written label : 
" Fait par le PSre Vermesch, rel. 
minime, a Beaumont-sur-Oise, 1781." 

V6ron. Antoine. A maker in Paris in 
1740, in the rue de la Juiverie, according 
to the label in a five-stringed viol in the 
Paris Conservatoire Collection. 

Viron, Pierre Andr6. A maker in Paris 
about 1720-50. His violins show good 
work; he followed the pattern of the 
Italian makers. 

Vetrini, Battista. Worked in Brescia 
about 1629. His instruments are on 
rather a small pattern, the wood is 
excellent, and the yellow varnish of 
fine quality. 

Vettcr, Jean Christophe. Was working 
in Strassburg in 1744, according to the 
following label, found in a double-bass 
which was repaired by M.arc Snoeck : 
"Jean Christophe Vetter, Strasbourg, 




Viard, Nicolas. Was working in Ver- 
sailles about 1790. Label: "Fait par 
Nicolas Viard a Versailles, 1790." 

Vibert, J. B. A maker in Paris, 1775- 
83, in rue de Seine. 

Vibrecht, Gysbert. A maker in Amster- 
dam about 1700-10. 

Villaume et Giron. In a violin of 
fairly good workmanship was the 
printed label: "Villaume et Giron, 
Troyes, 170 — ." 

Vimercati, Gaspare. A maker in Milan 
in the 17th century. In a mandoline 
of beautiful workmanship was the 
label : " Gaspare Vimercati nella con- 
trada della Dogana di Milano." 

Vimercati, Pietro. A maker in Brescia 
in the 17th century. Is thought to 
have been a pupil of Carlo Ton on i in 
Venice. His instruments are much 
arched, he followed the Maggini pattern . 

Vinaccia, Antonio. The head of a 
family of makers. He worked in 
Naples about 1766-74. He made a few 
violins, on the pattern of Gagliano, 
but also made excellent mandolines ; 
some of these are in the Museo 
Spagnuolo (Palazzo degli Studi), 
Naples, and have the backs beautifully 
inlaid with ivory, mother-o'-pearl, and 
tortoiseshell. Label: " Antonius Vin- 
accia, Napoli in Via Constantinii, a. 
1766." A similar label is dated 1774. 
His two sons, Gennaro and Gaetano, 
were also makers. 

Vinaccia, Domenico. A maker of man- 
dolines in Naples about 1730-80. 

Vinaccia, Gaetano and Gennaro, sons of 
Antonio. Makers of mandolines and 
guitars in Naples about 1776. In a 
mandoline, beautifully inlaid with tor- 
toiseshell, mother-o'-pearl, and ivory, 
was the label: "Januarius Vinaccio 
fecit Neapoli in rua Catalana, a. 
Domini 1776 " 

Vinaccia, Giovanni and Vincenzo, sons 
of Gennaro. Worked in Naples about 
1765-85, making excellent mandolines 
and guitars Labels: " Joannes Vin- 
accio filius Januarii fecit Neapoli alia 
strada della rua Catalana, a.d. 1770," 
and " Vincentius Vinaccio filius Janu- 
arii fecit Neapoli alia rua Catalana, 
A.I). 1775"; "Vincentius Vinaccio 
fecit, Sfeapoli, Sito nella Calata de 
Spitalletto. a.d. 17S5." 

Vinaccia, Pasqiiale, son of Gaetano ; 
b. July 20, iSof), Naples; d. 1881. 
Was a maker of c.vccllcnt mandolines, 
and was appointed maker to the 
r)n('cn of Italy. Was the inventor of 
sict'l wire strinijs instead of the gut 
ones formerly used r)clisario, the 

celebrated mandoline player of Naples, 
always used his instruments. 

Vinatte, Andre. A maker of viols in 
Lyons in 1568. He was a Protestant, 
and was murdered in the St. Bartholo- 
mew Massacre of Lyons in 1572. 

Vincenzi, Luigi, b. 1775 A maker in 
Carpi, still working in 18 11. Label: 
" Aloysnis Vincenzi Carpensis, 18 — ." 

Viorillo, Giovanni. See "Fiorillo." 

Vir, Hieronimo di. The following label 
is known : ' Hieronirno di Vir in 

Virchi, Benedetto, b. 1520. A maker of 
viols in Brescia. 

Virchi, Girolamo, b. 1523. A maker of 
lutes and other instruments in Brescia. 

Vitor, de. A maker in Bniscia in 1740. 
His instruments are similar in appear- 
ance to those of Maggini ; they are on 
a large pattern and of fine workman- 

Vitus de Angelis. A maker in Bologna 
in 1609. 

Vivoli, Giovanni. Was working in 
Florence in 1642. 

Voboam. A family of makers of guitars 
and mandolines in Paris about 1673 to 
1730. In 1770 an allu:>ion is made to 
an excellent guitar made in 1675 by 
the "celebrated" Voboam. A guitar 
dated "d'Alexandre le jeune, 1673," 
was most probably made by a member 
of the family. Another guitar is dated 
1676, and two beautiful guitars made 
by Jean Voboam, dated 1676 and 1687, 
belonged, it is said, to Mdlle. de 
Nantes, daughter of Louis XIV. A 
mandoline dated 1682 is in the Musee 
Cluny. A guitar inlaid with ivory is 
dated 1688, another is dated 1699 A 
guitar, in the shape of a tortoise, with 
the body made of tortoiseshell and 
the head, feet, and tail of coloured 
enamel, is in the Paris Conservatoire 
Collection ; it is dated 1693 A bass- 
viol, incribed "Voboam, 1730," is in 
the Collection of the Conservatoire 
des Arts et Metiers. 

Voel, E. A maker in Mayence about 
1840. His instruments follow the 
Stradivari more than the German 
pattern ; the sound-holes are large, the 
varnish a red-brown colour, the head 
is well cut, the general workmanship 

Vogel, Wolfgang, d. Feb. 17. 1650, at 
Nuremberg, where he made instru- 
ments which were much liked. 

Vogler. johann Georg. Was workmg in 
\Vur/.bnrj4 in 1749 Label " Johann 
(ieorg Vogler. Lauten und Geigen- 
macher in Wiirzburg, 17 His son 



was the celebrated Abbe Georg Joseph 

Voigt, C. Hermann, b. 1850. Pupil of 
Lembock. Works in Vienna. 

Voigt, Martin. Was working in Ham- 
burg in 1726. His work is similar to 
that of'Tielke. A bass-viol, the back 
inlaid in ivory, having Apollo, Venus, 
Mercury, and Diana represented, was 
dated Hamburg, 1726, and was ex- 
hibited at the South Kensington 
Museum, London, 1872. 

Voirin, Fran9ois Nicolas, b. Oct. i, 
1833, ^^ Mirecourt ; d. June 4, 1885, at 
Paris. After working at Mirecourt, he 
went to Paris in 1855, and for fifteen 
years made bows for J. B. Vuillaume ; 
he obtained as " collaborateur " a 
" Mention honorable " at the 1867 
Paris Exhibition. He separated from 
Vuillaume in 1870 and established 
himself at 3, rue du Bouloi, where he 
worked till his death. He had great 
ability as a bow maker ; he followed the 
Tourte pattern, but made the head of 
his bow less square ; his workmanship 
shows wonderful finish and elegance. 
He was awarded a silver medal at the 
Paris Exhibition in 1878, the only 
prize given to bow-making ; and some 
of his bows exhibited after his death at 
the Antwerp Exhibition were awarded 
a gold medal. He branded his bows 
with " F. N. Voirin, a Paris"; to this 
was added, on those bows exhibited at 
Paris, 1878, "Exposition, 1878." Bows 
sold by Madame Voirin since her 
husband's death have also been 
branded in the same way. 

Vuillaume, Claude, b. 1772, Mirecourt ; 
d. 1834. H® ^s the first member known 
of this family of violin makers, and 
made cheap instruments, branding 
them with his name only. He married 
Anne Leclerc (b. 1767) and had four 
sons, all makers : Jean Baptiste, Nicolas, 
Nicolas Fran9ois, and Claude Francois. 
They all learnt their trade under him, 
and the instruments they made at that 
time were branded " Au roi David, 

Vuillaume, Claude Francois, fourth son 
of Claude Vuillaume; b. March, 1807, 
Mirecourt. First worked at violin 
making under his father, but later 
became an organ-builder. His son, 
Sebastien, was also a maker. 

Vuillaume, Jean, b. 1700 ; d. 1740. A 
maker in Mirecourt. Is said to have 
been a pupil of Stradivari, but his 
work shows no sign of it. A violin 
known is of very ordinary workman- 
ship ; the way in which it is arched is 

similar to Maggini instruments ; the 
sound-holes are badly cut, the edges 
are too thin, the pur fling painted, and 
a little design in black runs round the 
body; the scroll is carved, the varnish 
is yellow in colour ; inside is the label : 
" Fait par moy, Jean Vuillaume a 
Mirecourt, 1738." Although the 
Parisian family of makers may have 
descended from Jean, the connection 
has not yet been traced. 
Vuillaume, Jean Baptiste, eldest son of 
Claude Vuillaume, b. Oct. 7, 1798, at 
Mirecourt ; d. Feb. 19, 1875, at Paris. 
In 1817 was employed by Fr. Chanot 
to make violins on his newly-invented 
pattern. Went to Paris, 18 18, and 
was a pupil of Georges Chanot for two 
years. In 1821 he entered the organ 
factory of Lete and soon became a 
partner ; " Lete et Vuillaume " settled 
in rue Croix- des-petit-Champs in 1825. 
They separated in 1828, and Vuillaume 
started his business at No. 46 in the 
same street, where he remained for 
nearly thirty-five years, moving to 3, 
rue Demours, in i860. He tried at 
first to sell his own new instruments ; 
but finding that the demand was all 
for Stradivari, Guarneri, and Amati 
instruments, he changed his methods, 
and one day produced a splendid 
Stradivari violin, signed by the great 
master and having a fine tone, for the 
sum of /12 ! Orders at once flowed in 
and Vuillaume's fortune was made. 
His clever copies of Stradivari violon- 
cellos originally sold for ;^2o, but all 
his fine instruments have now increased 
in value four-fold. In 1828, having seen 
and studied a bass-viol of Duiffoprugcar, 
he began to make instruments in the 
same style, with beautiful inlaid work 
and heads quaintly carved. The wood 
used was of the finest quality, obtained 
from Switzerland and the Tyrol, and 
the varnish, especially on the instru- 
ments made after 1859, was extremely 
beautiful, no doubt a result of the care 
and time he expended on the study 
of the Stradivari varnish. He was 
awarded : silver medals at Paris 
Exhibitions, 1827 and 1834 ; gold 
medals at Paris Exhibitions, 1839 and 
1844 ; the only large " Council " medal 
at the London Exhibition in 1851 ; and 
the only large medal of honour at the 
Paris Exhibition, 1855. Vuillaume was 
also decorated with the Legion of 
Honour. At the very first exhibition 
of his instruments, in 1834, the jury's 
verdict on his copies of Stradivari and 
Amati was that not only in external 



workmanship were they exact imita- 
tions, but that also the quality of tone 
was so perfect, even the most practised 
ear might be deceived. Vuillaume also 
made very fine bows ; he had studied 
and accurately determined the propor- 
tions of those made by Tourte. He 
invented the fixed nut, which, firmly 
fixed to the stick, has inside another of 
brass to which the hair of the bow is 
attached, the hair, as usual, being 
tightened or loosened by the screw of 
the button. In 1834 he began to make 
bows in metal, and for ten years 
turned out 500 of them annually ; they 
were originally sold, as were the wooden 
ones, for £i, and were very successful. 
He employed a large number of work- 
men, and at the time of his death 
nearly 3,000 instruments had been 
made in his workshop. He also 
invented, in 185 1, \\ve octo bass , a three- 
stringed instrument, tuned four notes 
lower than the double-bass, to C, G, C; 
the Contralto, in 1855 (both an octo- 
bass and a contralto are to be seen in 
the Paris Conservatoire Collection) ; 
and the pedal-sourdine , or chin-mute 
(1867), a contrivance by which the 
player has only to press his chin on 
the tail-piece, instead of placing a mute 
on the bridge. Labels : " Jean Baptiste 
Vuillaume a Paris, rue Croix-des-petits- 
Champs"; "J. B. Vuillaume, no. 21, 
rue Croix-des-petits-Champs. No. 30, 
Paris, 1829"; and "Jean Baptiste 
Vuillaume a Paris, 3 rue Demours- 
Ternes, 1844." He married Mile. 
Adele Guesnet, of Clermont (Oise). 
Vuillaume supplied Fetis with all the 
material for his work on Antonio 
Vuillaume, Nicolas, second son of Claude 
Vuillaume; b 1800; d. 1871. He first 

lived at Mirecourt, but losing his wife 
in 1832, he left Mirecourt and went to 
Paris, where he worked with Jean 
Baptiste, his elder brother, for ten 
years. He returned to Mirecourt, 
starting a business there in 1842. His 
instruments are of ordinary work- 
manship ; he exhibited in Paris, 1855, 
violins at low prices, called " violons 
stentor," and was awarded a bronze 
medal. His son, Antoine, died at the 
age of 21. 

Vuillaume, Nicolas Fran9ois, third son 
of Claude Vuillaume; b. May 13, 1802, 
Mirecourt ; d. Jan. 16, 1876, Brabant. 
He worked with his brother, Jean 
Baptiste, in Paris, till 1828 ; and then 
went to Brussels. He made good 
instruments, of finished workmanship, 
with red varnish ; an exact copy he 
made of the Stradivari violoncello 
belonging to Prof. Servais was very 
fine. Awards : silver medals, Brussels 
Exhibitions, 1835 and 1841 ; medals of 
first class, London Exhibition, 1851 ; 
Paris Exhibition, 1855 ; Dublin Exhibi- 
tion, 1867 ; and Vienna Exhibition, 
1873. The Belgian Government also 
made him a Chevalier de I'Ordre de 

Vuillaume, Sebastien, son of Claude 
Fran9ois Vuillaume ; b. 1835 '> d. Nov. 
17, 1875, Paris. He founded a business 
in Paris at 17, Boulevard Bonne- 
Nouvelle, to which Audinot succeeded. 
He was the last maker of this family, 
and continued to make bows on the 
same pattern as Jean Baptiste Vuil- 
laume, having in his possession the 
machine for cutting bows which J. B. 
V. had invented shortly before his 
death. Awards : bronze medal, Paris 
Exhibition, 1867 ; silver medal, Havre 
Exhibition, 1868. 


Wagner, Benedict. A maker of lutes 
and violins in Ellwangen in 17C9, 
according to a label found in a violin, 
much arched, with red varnish, of 
fair workmanship. Label: "Benedict 
Wagner hochfiirstlichen Hof Lauten 
und Geigenmacher in Ellwangen, anno 

Wagner, Joseph. A maker in Constance 
in the i8th century. 

Waldaner. Was working in Fiissen in 

Walmsley. See " Wamsley." 

W^alter, Jean. A maker in Paris about 
1775 to 1800. 

Wamsley, Peter. A maker in London 
about 1715-51. He had at one time a 
great reputation, especially for his 
violoncellos. He copied the Stainer 
pattern very closely, and also made a few 
imitations of Stradivari instruments ; 
but in his attempts to obtain an Italian 
quality of tone he thinned the wood 
too much, making the tone sound 
hollow. His violoncellos with thicker 
wood have a fine tone ; so have his 



double-basses ; the latter are rare and 
generally have red varnish His work 
varies . some instruments are badly 
proportioned, with ugly straight sound- 
holes and brownish-yelloW varnish ; 
others are well made, with thick and 
brilliant red varnish ; but those with dark 
brown varnish are to be preferred ; 
they generally have ink lines instead 
of purfling. He also made viols. In 
a violoncello was the label • ' Made 
by Peter Wamsley at ye Golden Harp 
in Pickadilly London, 1727 " , a similar 
label was dated 1733 Other labels 
are : ' Made by Peter Wamsley at the 
Harp and Hautboy in Pickadilly, 
1735 ' ; " Made by Peter Wamsley at 
the Harp and Hautboy in Pickadilly, 
London, 1737*' ' Peter Wamsl- y, 
maker at he Harp and Hautboy in 
Picaddilly, 17 London 51 ' 

Weaver, Samuel Lived in London 
Known by his printed label, "All sorts 
of musical instruments made and sold 
by Saml Weaver on London Bridge " 

Weickert. A maker in Halle about 

Weigert, Johann Blasius Was working 
in Linz in 1721. A viola d'amore in 
the Collection of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde at Vienna is labelled : 
" Joann Blasius Weigert Lauten und 
Geigenmacher in Linz, 1721." 

Weisz (Weiss), Jacob A maker in 
Augsburg about 1733-61. Label : 
"Jacob Weisz Lauten und Geigen- 
macher in Salzburg, 1733." 

Weisz, Johann Ambrosius. A maker of 
lutes in Basle in 1621 . Label : "Johann 
Ambrosius Weisz in Basel, 1621." 

Wenger, Gregor Ferdinand. A maker 
in Augsburg about 1750-60. Label : 
"Gregorius Ferdinand Wenger Lauten 
und Geigenmacher fecit Augustae, 

Wenger. A maker in Padua in 1622. 

Wettengel, Gustav Adolph. A maker 
in Neukirchen, Saxony, about 1828. 
He wrote an excellent practical treatise 
on violin making, entitled' "VoU- 
standiges, theoretisch-practisches auf 
Grundsatze der Akustik, Tonkunst 
und Mathematik und auf die Erfah 
rungen der geschicktesten italienischen 
und deutschen Meister begrundetes 
Lehrbuch der Anfertigung und Re- 
paratur aller noch jetzt gebrauchlichen 
Gattungen von italienischen und 
deutschen Geigen" (Ilmenau, 1828). 

Weymann, Cornelius. Was working in 
Amsterdam in 1682. 

Widhalm ( Withalm) , Leopold . A maker 
in Nuremberg about 1750-80. He 

made very skilful imitations of the 
Stainer instruments, the wood was 
carefully chosen, though sometimes 
worked too thin ; the varnish, a trans- 
parent red colour, is of good quality. 
Several of his violins have double 
purfling and are branded with his 
initials inside ; the work was carefully 
finished He also made good harps. 
Label in a large alto, beautifully 
made : " Leopold Widhalm, Lauten 
und Geigenmacher in Niirnberg, fecit 

Wightman, George, only known by his 
label "George Wightman, Wood 
Street, London, 1761." 

Wilkinson, of Dublin. Sec "Perry." 

Willems, Hendrick. A maker in Ghent, 
Belgium, about 1650- 1700. An alto of 
large pattern has remarkably fine 
wood used for the belly; the corners 
are prominent and squared at the ends ; 
the sound-holes, rather straight and 
stiff, are similar to the Brescian model, 
or those in a Stainer instrument ; the 
neck ends in a lion's head ; the outline 
and the beautiful finish could almost 
be mistaken for Italian work, but the 
varnish is too dry. It is labelled : 
" Hendrick Willems tot Ghendt, 1651." 
For a bass-viol made for use in Saint 
Bavon's Cathedral (Ghent) he was 
paid, on March 28, 1670, a sum of £5 
(Flanders). A small pocket violin, 
with a pentagonal back, with the neck 
ending in a lion's head, was signed : 
" Hendrick Willems tot Ghendt, 1679 ' 
In 1698 he is mentioned as the repairer 
of the bass used in the rood-loft of 
St. Bavon. Nearly all his instruments 
have beautiful wood for the belly, but 
walnut, lime-tree, or plane-tree wood is 
frequently used for the back and the 
sides, especially in the case of the 

Willems, Hendrick. A maker in Ghent 
some time after the Hendrick already 
mentioned. He made a violoncello or 
bass with five strings, labelled . " Heyn- 
drick Willems tot Ghendt, 1717. ' A 
violin, dated 1743, had the belly made 
of carefully selected pine, the back of 
walnut, and the sides (very exceptional) 
of maple Many instruments maile by 
this family have genuine value and 
show work of great ability. The Amati 
pattern (especially that of Antonio and 
Girolamo) was generally followed, but 
characteristic touches were given 
which render their work easily recog- 
nisable. The arching is always 
correctly calculated, and the wood 
used for the belly carefully selected. 



Willems, Jooris A maker in (jhent 
about 1630-65 The first mention of 
him is in August, 1634, as player of the 
cornet in Saint Bavon's Cathedral 
(Ghent). His instruments are generally 
made of finely figured maple- wood ; the 
corners short and thin ; the sound-holes 
are graceful and more like the Italian 
model. A tenor- viol had the back 
made of lime-tree wood and was 
labelled : "Jooris Willems tot Ghendt, 
1642." In 1658 he supplied two viols 
for use in the choir of Saint Bavon. 
A violin of small pattern, with yellow 
varnish, was labelled : ' ' Jooris Willems 
tot Ghendt, 1659." The last mention 
of this maker in the Cathedral archives 
is in 1662. His son, Nicolas, was ap- 
pomted viol player in the Cathedral, 
Aug. 5, 1671. 

Wilier. A maker in Prague in the i8th 

Wise, Christopher. A maker of viols 
and violins in London about 1650. 
The few instruments known are of 
small pattern, not much arched, with 
yellow varnish of good quality, and 
are carefully worked. Label : ' ' Christo- 
pher Wise, in Half-Moon Alley, with- 
out Bishops-Gate, London, 1656." 

Withers, Edward. He succeeded to 
William Davis's business at 31, 
Coventry Street, London, in Dec, 1846. 
Both Charles Maucotel and Boullangier 
worked under him at one time. 

Withers, Edward, eldest son of Edward 
Withers, b. Oct. 22, 1844. Pupil of 

his father and John Lott Com- 
menced business at 31, Coventry 
Street, London, in 1856 ; moved later 
to 22, Wardour Street. He employs no 
workmen, and makes about twelve 
instruments per year, on the Stradivari 
and Guarneri patterns, using good oil 
varnish, an amber colour. 

Witthalm. S^^r " Widhalm." 

Witting, Johann Georg. A maker in 
Mittenwald about 1775. His instru- 
ments are fairly well made, with a 
dark yellow-brown varnish. 

Wolters, Jean Mathias. A maker in 
Paris in 1749. In 1759 there was in 
the Savoye Collection a small six- 
stringed viol, beautifully made, with 
double purfling and yellow-coloured 
varnish, the head ornamented with 
carving It was labelled: "J. M 
Wolters fecit Lutetiae Parisiorum, au 
faubourg Saint- Antoine, Paris, 1749. 

Wornum, Robert, b. 1742; d. 1815. 
Was first a musicseller in Glasshouse 
Street, and then, from 1777, at 42 
Wigmore Street, London. He is 
mentioned in the " Musical Directory " 
for 1794 as a violin and violoncello 

Worle, Mathias. A maker in Augsburg, 
1639, according to the label found in a 
small pocket violin : " Mathias Worte, 
Augspurg, 1639." 

Wright, Daniel. Lived in London about 
1745 ; is only known by his label : 
" Made by Daniel Wright in Holborn, 


Young, John. Said to have been a 
maker of violins and other musical 
instruments. He and his son, Talbot, 
lived in St. Paul's Churchyard, at the 
sign of the "Dolphin and Crown." The 
son was a violin player and assisted in 
founding the Castle Concert in Pater- 
noster Row in 1724. The following were set to music by Purcell, 
published in the " Pleasant Musical 
Companion, " 1726: — 

Yoj scrapers that want a good fiddle well strung, 
You must i^o to the man that is old while he s 

But if this same fiddle you fain would play bold, 
You must go to his son, who'll be Young when 

he 's old. 
There's old Young and young Young, both men 

of renown. 
Old sells and youn» plays the best fiddle in town, 
Young and old live together, and may they live 

Young to play an old fiddle, old to sell a new song 


Zach. A maker in Vienna at i, 

Karnthnerstrasse, who makes good 

Zanetto, Pelegnno See " Michelis." 

Zanfi, Giacomo. A maker in Modena 

about 1756-1822. 
Zanoli, Giacomo. Worked in Padua, 




Zanoli, Giambattista. A maker in 
Verona about 1730 ; his instruments 
are roughly finished, they are not 
arched, and suggest German work. 
Label : *' Joannes Baptista Zanoli, 
Verona, 17 — ." 

Zanotti, Antonio. Worked both at 
Lodi and Mantua. Was in the latter 
town in 1734 according to a label : 
"Antonius Zanotus fecit Mantuae, 
anno 1734." 

Zanotti, Giuseppe. A maker in Piacenza 
in the i8th century. 

Zanti, Alessandro. A maker in Mantua 
about 1770. He followed the Stradi- 
vari pattern, but his varnish was of 
poor quality. 

Zanure, Pietro. A maker of viols in 
Brescia about 1 509. One of his instru- 

ments was exhibited at the Soutl 
Kensington Museum, 1872 ; it had om 
round sound-hole, placed in the centre 
with four strings, and was labelled 
" Pietro Zanure, Brescia, 1509." Fev 
of his instruments are known ; label 
are generally : " Petrus Zanure 
Zenatto, Pietro. A maker in Trevis( 
about 1634, according to the label 
'• Pietro Zenatto fece in Treviso, ann« 

Zimbelmann, Filippo. A maker i: 

Florence in 1661. 

Ziverger (Zwerger), Anton. A make 
at Mittenwald, 1750. He chose goo 
wood, used dark yellow-brown varnisl: 
and finished his work carefully. 

Zwerger. See " Ziverger." 

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