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Too many people trying to get SOMETHING for NOTHING! 


Most of those who try this, get NOTHING for SOMETHING! 

The old woman, said "Everything must be done by somebody." Those who can do 
something well, will always have work and support. Intelligent skillful work produces 

The " Science of Accounts" teaches how. Mere bookkeeping from schools will not 
do it. Every man should have a course of scientific study in accounts; not merely to 
become a bookeeper, but to become able to investigate business and learn what he can 
best do, and how to do it^most successfully. 


28 Lincoln Square, Worcester, flass. 

Scientific Expert Accountant, 
Auditor and Teacher. 

Member of the Institute of Accounts, New York. 

Teacher of Business Department in W^orcester High School. 
Notarv Public and Justice of the Peace. 

What Many Successful Men say to me about my Course of Instruction. 

It is the most profitable thing I ever studied. 

It is the only study of practical profit that I ever pursued. 

I commend all young men among my friends to you. 

What Some Unsuccessful Men say to me. 

I have always been sorry that I did not take such study in early life. 
I wish I had known it before I commenced business. 
If I had learned such things I would not have failed. 



Show, Choj^ch & Co., 

Mercantile Reports . . . 

' l > — :ll Law and Collections. 

We have a credit department, and get reports up to date. 

We are the agency who originated the well-known "Draft 
System," now used almost universally. ..... 

We are the only agency using the copyrighted "Improved 
Draft System," which is far ahead of any, and was also devised 
by us. ........••• ■ 

Where can you find a more reasonable, yet prompt, just 
and courteous means of approaching a debtor for money than 
our copyrighted "Improved Draft System?" . . . . 

We have devised more and better methods of making col- 
lections than any other agency. ....... 

We employ competent lawyers, collectors and adjutors. 

We make a specialty of large and important matters requir- 
ing intelligence, energy and integrity. ..... 

Rooms 47 & 48, Knowles Building, 

Worcester Higfhlands, 
Northlands, and 





The Hiorhlands is reached by Grafton street Hne of cars. i 

Northlands by Chadwick Square and North End electric cars, and ] 
Bloomingdale by the line to the Lake. I 




Terms only $10.00 down, and four years in which to pay j 

balance. Salesmen on the gjrounds daily. i 

Plans, specifications and free, tickets furnished at the 

office of I 



15 Knowles Building. 518 Main Street. ! 





By franklin P. RICE. 





Copyright, 1SS9, 1S93, 
By franklin P. RICE. 


The plan of the Dictionary of Worcester comprehends a handbook 
of general information, which, as a collection of useful references or a 
guide-book to the city and its surroundings, will serve equally the resident 
and the stranger. The scope of the work differs somewhat from that of 
the "Dictionaries" issued in other cities, in being more full in matters 
relating to the history and chronology of the subjects treated, and in con- 
taining much that is not usually included in books of a similar character. 
Many of the facts and figures given are not readily accessible in any other 
form, and are of more than common interest and value to the inquirer. 

Occasional mention by name in the text of trades-people, business houses 
and other establishments, was unavoidable, but in no instance is such mention 
a recommendation in the interest of the parties named. 

The material for this second issue has been thoroughly revised and corrected. 

iHrniirii,Sminirr.^'|hiliuim (!In 

Established in 1842. 

What has made this the largest and foremost strictly 
dry goods house between Boston and Buffalo? 

Its Location ? No ! 

its Long Standing ? No ! 

Its Low Prices ? No ! 

What, then ? 

FIRST. — Because it has kept absolute faith with the 
people ; never deceived or misled them, nor con- 
sciously imposed upon a single soul. The rule of 
right and justice to all is the first and abiding 
principle here practiced in every procedure. 

SECOND. — Because of its superior merchandise and 
exclusive styles, at low prices. 

Orders by mail receive the same attention given persons 
present at the counters. 


Academy. — See IVorcester Academy. 

Adams Square. — At the junction of Lin- 
coln and Burncoat streets. North Park is a 
short distance from the square, which can be 
reached from Main street by the cars of the 
Consolidated Street Railway Company. The 
North End Street Railway, of about three- 
fourths of a mile in length, has its southern 
terminus here. 

Adriatic Mills. — The building on the Nor- 
wich railroad, south of the Junction or South 
Worcester station, at present occupied by the 
Worcester Woolen Mill Company. This mill 
was erected in 1854 by Eli Thayer, and was 
constructed of stone chips taken from Oread 
hill. The fine stone was mixed with mortar, 
forming a concrete. Wooden frames or moulds 
were made the height and thickness of the 
walls, and the conglomerate turned into them 
and allowed to harden; no masonry being 
employed in raising the walls. Mr. Thayer 
sold the property to Charles White and J. P. 
Southgate; later it came into the possession 
of Isaac Davis, who sold it to Jordan, Marsh & 
Co. This firm equipped the shop (which had 
been used as a fire-arms manufactory), for a 
woolen mill, and named it the Adriatic. The 
original building, before later additions were 
made, was 400 feet long, 40 feet wide and two 
stories high. 

Adventists. — A Second Advent church was 
formed in Worcester in 1 84 1. The place 
of worship was for some years in Thom- 

as street, and then after an interval during 
which the services were held in public halls, 
the society went in 1866 to its house in Central 
street and remained there until 1883, when the 
building was removed, and the site is now oc- 
cupied by a part of the Putnam & Sprague 
Co.'s warehouse. The Adventists now hold 
their meetings in Clark's block, 492 Main st. 

African Churches. — Zion M. E. Church 
was organized in 1846, and worshipped in a 
building on Exchange street, which was burned 
in 1854. The present brick Zion's church, 
opposite Cypress street, on Exchange, was 
erected in 1855. The Bethel M. E. Chtirch 
was organized in 1867, and for some time met 
at the corner of Laurel and Hanover streets. 
The present place of worship is at 209 Pleasant 
street. Mt. Olive Baptist Church •w?i?, formed 
in 1885, and in 189 1 a church building was 
erected at 43 John street. Refer to Colored 

Agricultural Society, (The Worcester). 

— See IVorcester Agricultural Society. 

Aletheia. — See High School Societies. 

Allen Library. — The collection of books 
formed by the Rev. George Allen during his 
long life, is now the property of The Worces- 
ter Society of Antiquity. This is considered 
one of the best representative libraries of the 
New England theology in the country, and 
comprises many rare and valuable works 
illustrating early local histor}' and religious 
controversy. Through the efforts of Senator 


Hoar and other prominent gentlemen, the 
sum of money necessary for its purchase was, 
after the death of Mr. Allen in 1883, raised 
and presented to the society. The collection 
numbers 2,300 volumes and 2,000 pamphlets. 

All Saints' Church. — See Episcopal 

All Souls' Church. — See Universalist 

Almshouse. — See Poor Department. 

Almanacs Published in Worcester. — 

Isaiah Thomas began in 1775 the publication 
of his "Almanack," which was continued 
until 1823; after 1800 by his son Isaiah 
Thomas, Jr., and by George A. Trumbull 
from 1820. In 1844 Henry J. Howland is- 
sued the first number of the Worcester Alma- 
nac and Directory, continued to the present 
time as the Worcester Directory, llie Grand 
Army Almanac, a very creditable production 
by Comrade Henry N. Evans was published in 
Worcester from 1879 to 1881. The Yankee 
Almanac was published three years — 1887-9 
—by F. S. Blanchard & Co. Robert B. 
Thomas, who established the famous Old 
Farmer'' s Almanac, published to this day, 
was a resident of Boylston, a bookbinder by 
trade, and was in the habit of taking books to 
bind for Isaiah Thomas, (by some thought to 
be a relative). Money being scarce he re- 
ceived his pay in almanacs, which he peddled 
over the country. In consequence of some 
misunderstanding with his employer, his supply 
was withheld, and he started an opposition 
almanac which has long outlived the original. 

Ambulance. — There is an Ambulance to 
be used in case of accidents, etc., attached to 
the Police Department. It was purchased in 

American Antiquarian Society. — This 
Society was founded in 181 2 by Isaiah Thomas, 
LL. D., noted as a patriot, printer, and 
publisher of the Massachusetts Spy. Dr. 
Thomas gave the society a valuable library, 
with funds for its maintenance; and in 1820 
erected a building (still standing on Summer 
street), for its use. This building being in 
some respects unsuited to the needs of the 
society, was abandoned in 1853, when the 
books and collections were removed to the 
edifice in Lincoln square. The library now 
contains over 90,000 volumes. An invaluable 

collection of American newspapers is here 
preserved and accessible. There are also 
many portraits, busts, with other objects of 
art and antiquity well worth inspection. The 
society has published seven volumes of " Tran- 
sactions," under the title of Archcvologia 
Americana: and the " Proceedings " of the 
semi-annual meetings since its organization. 
The library is open to the public week days 
(Saturday afternoons excepted) from 9 A. M. 
to 5 P. M. A cordial welcome is given by the 
Librarian, Mr. Edmund M. Barton, who is 
eminently practical in his administration. 
Other officers of the society are: President, 
Stephen Salisbury, Esq.; Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. George F. Hoar, Edward Ev^ett Hale, 
D. D.; Recording Secretary, Hon. John 
D. Washburn; Treasurer, Nathaniel Paine, 
Esq. The aggregate of the funds of the 
society is $115,000. 

American Legion of Honor. — A secret 
fraternal and mutual benefit order. Hope 
Council, Ko. ly, was instituted in Worcester 
in 1878, and now has between fifty and sixty 
members. The meetings are at Pythian Hall. 

American Mechanics. — Tlie Order of 
United American Mechanics is a social, fra- 
ternal and benevolent secret association, com- 
posed entirely of those born in the United 
States of America, or under the protection of 
its flag, and who have arrived at the age of 
18 years and over. The Order was instituted 
in Philadelphia July 8, 1845. It was intended 
at first to be a protection for the American 
Mechanics and Workingmen alone, but it was 
deemed advisable to depart from that rule, 
and to recognize everyone who works with 
hands or brains as eligible. It has no affilia- 
tion with Trades' Unions, Knights of Labor, 
Sovereigns of Industry, or the like. It is not 
a relic of the Know-Nothing family, and does 
not seek to proscribe the foreigner. It has a 
membership of 50,000 in the United States. 
There are three councils in Worcester. Co?)i- 
mon^uealth Council, Xo. j, was formed on 
Fast Day, 1889, and now meets at 566 Main 
street. I Worcester Council, A'o. jg, formed 
in 1 89 1, meets in Arcanum Hall. Indus- 
try Council, N^o. 17, is a junior council. 
Fidelity Council, No. 4, Daughters of Liberty, 
is a branch of this Order formed in 1891. 

American Protective League. — Eureka 
Lodge meets at 556 Main street the first and 
third Wednesdays of each month. 


Amusements. — The places of public 
amusement in Worcester are numerous and 
adequate to the demands of a city of its size. 
Besides the transient entertainments in the 
numerous halls, nightly performances and 
occasional matinees are given at the Theatre 
on Exchange street, (which, destroyed by tire. 
May 1 6, 1889, was rebuilt. See Music Hall 
for account of the first building.) with generally 
the best talent, and sometimes high-class plays. 
The Front Street Musee or Opera House, at the 
location of the Old Worcester Theatre, gives 
several performances daily. Lothrop'' s Opera 
House, on Pleasant street, was built by R. C. 
Taylor in 1890-91, and opened to the public 
August 17, 1891. This establishment aftbrds 
a good class of entertainments daily at popular 
prices. The various places of resort for out- 
door amusements are treated under their 
appropriate headings. See Theatres. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. — A mutual 
benefit organization, which had its origin in 
England. There are four courts in Worcester : 
City of Worcester, No. J 117; Damascus, 
X0.JS62; QuinsigajHond, organized, 1891; 
and Thomas E. Cunningham, No. 8076. 
Knights of Sher7uood Forest, Worcester Con- 
clave, No. gi, is a higher branch of this Order 
located here. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. — A secret 
mutual benefit and fraternal order. Division 
I was organized in 1867, Division 2 in 1871, 
and Division 24 m. 1876. The military com- 
panies of this Order in Worcester are the 
Hibernian Giiards, organized in 1876, and 
the Hibernian Fifes, Cotnpanies A and B. 
The rooms are at 98 Front street. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen. — 
Worcester Lodge, No. j6, was organized in 
1885. Meets at 405 Main street, second and 
fourth Thursday evenings of each month. 
Victor Lodge, A^o. g2, organized in 1887, 
meets at 566 Main street, first and third 
Wednesday evenings of each month. Clinton 
Lodge, lYo 2Q, appears not to be alive now. 

Anti-Slavery Sentiment in Worcester. 
— At an early time a strong feeling against 
slavery was apparent in Worcester. In 1767 
the Representative to the General Court was 
instructed to use his influence "to obtain a 
law to put an end to that unchristian and 
impohtic practice of making slaves of the 
human species," and to give his vote for none 

to serve in his Majesty's Council who should- 
oppose such a law. The celebrated Quock 
Walker decision, to the effect that slavery 
never had had a legal existence in Massachu- 
setts, was rendered here in 1781. On the 9th. 
of December, 18 19, a Worcester Co. Anti- 
Slavery Convention was held at the Court 
House to take action to prevent the further 
introduction of slavery into new states. Iiv 
August, 1828, Benjamin Lundy visited Worces- 
ter, and from a long residence in the South' 
spoke from personal knowledge of the feelings 
of the people there. He said that a majority 
of them, even of the slave-holders, were 
desirots of abolishing the slave system as soon 
as it could be done with prudence. Lundy 
influenced the formation of many anti-slavery 
societies south of the Potomac, and it is said 
that there were over 300 of them among the 
slave-holders in 1829. These quickly dis- 
solved after the Nat Turner massacre in 1 83 1, 
which the slave-owners claimed was incited by 
the inflammatory methods of William Lloyd 
Garrison. Garrisonism found an early lodg- 
ment in Worcester, and it was for many years 
a stronghold of those who placed themselves 
above the law in opposition to slavery. It 
was the home of Stephen S. and Abby Kelley 
Foster, and many others of that stripe; and 
was an important station of the underground 
railroad. Of the political movements, the 
Free Soil revolt of 1848, wkich sent Charles 
Allen to Congress, should be mentioned. An 
attempt to arrest a fugitive slave here in 1854 
caused a serious riot, the United States deputy 
marshal narrowly escaping with his life. The 
movement which rescued Kansas and con- 
vinced the South that it at last had met a for- 
midable power, originated in Worcester, and 
found active supporters in all the political par- 
ties, though it was denounced by the extrem- 
ists, and ignored by the proiessional politicians. 
The patriotism excited by the rebellious acts 
of the South in 1861 was not anti-slavery sen- 
timent, as the war which followed was a war 
for the Union, and emancipation a war 
measure rather than a philanthropic act. 

Apartment Houses. — Worcester has, 
within the past few years, followed the lead of 
the larger cities in the erection of Apartment 
Houses. The names and location of some of 
the principal ones are given below : 

/Etna, 722 Main st. 

Albion, 765 Main st. 



Boynton, 718 Main st. 
Brightside, 2 King st. 
Chadwick, 236 Main st. 
Crescent, 15 Charlton st. 
Dean, Lincoln square. 
Estabrook, 54 Pleasant st. 
Evans, Main and Hammond sts. 
Hart, 901 Main st. • 
Salisbury, Lincoln square. 
Windsor, 720 Main st. 

Apothecaries. — There are 65 Apothecaries 
in Worcester, according to the Directory of 

Aqueduct Company. — The Worcester 
Aqueduct Company was incorporated in 1845, 
for the purpose of constructing and maintain- 
ing an aqueduct to bring water from Bladder 
or Bell Pond for the use of the town. Stephen 
Salisbury and other prominent citizens were 
interested in the undertaking. The rights and 
property of this company were purchased by 
the city in 1848. See IVafer IVorks ; Bell 

Arcade, (The). — An old wooden building 
formerly located in Washington square, on the 
site of the Arcade Malleable Iron Works. It 
was occupied principally by Irish families, and 
probably was erected about the time of the 
building of the Boston & Worcester railroad, 
to accommodate the workmen. It was some- 
times called the Rookery. A serious riot once 
occurred here. 

Architects. — The IVorcester Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects, recently 
chartered, held its first meeting March 19, 
1892, and elected the following officers: 
President, Elbridge Boyden ; Vice-President, 
Stephen C. Earle ; Secretary, Ward P. 
Delano ; Treasurer, John B. Woodworth. 
This Association practically takes the place of 
The Worcester Society of Architects, formed 
Jan. 27, 1887, its objects being to unite 
in fellowship the architects of the city 
and vicinity, and to combine their efforts 
so as to promote the artistic, scientific 
and practical efficiency of the profession. 
The Society consisted of Fellows and Asso- 
ciates. The Fellows were practicing archi- 
tects, and the Associates persons not 
practicing architects who had served two 
years in an architect's office, and others in- 
terested in the objects of the society. Meet- 
ings were held in the offices of the members. 

Elbridge Boyden was President and Ward P. 
Delano, Secretary. The society was dissolved 
in 1891. There are fifteen architects in 

Architecture. — Worcester possesses few 
striking specimens of architecture, though 
there are many fine dwelling-houses and busi- 
ness blocks. Of ancient buildings, the Salis- 
bury Mansion in Lincoln square; the Baldwin 
or Eaton House, on Main street, at the foot 
of George; and the Trumbull House, in 
Trumbull square, may be mentioned. The 
Oread Institute, on Alden street, is a remark- 
able structure, resembling an ancient castle; 
and the Worcester Academy, on Union Hill, 
can hardly fail to attract the attention of the 
stranger. Mechanics Hall Building and the 
Stone Court House are the only edifices on 
Main street of classic pretentions. The 
new Armory at Salisbury and Grove streets, 
is an imposing structure. Among the 
churches, St. Paul's (Catholic), All Saints' 
(Episcopal), the Central, Plymouth and new 
Old South, are worthy of mention. Of private 
residences, that of Jonas G. Clark, on Elm 
street, is most noteworthy. As a rule the 
dwellings are neat and attractive, and the 
business blocks substantial and well-built. 

Area. — The area of Worcester comprises 
about thirty-six square miles, or 23,000 acres. 

Arlington Club. — A social organization of 
young men, formed in 1883. The club occu- 
pied rooms in Clark's Block. It was dis- 
banded in 1 89 1. 

Armenians. — There are about 700 Arme- 
nians in Worcester, and the number is increas- 
ing. As a rule they are industrious and 
worthy, and many are skilled artizans. They 
have been subjected to persecution and some 
brutal treatment in Worcester, as seems to be 
the case at first with every nationality coming 
in small numbers. Many Armenians are em- 
ployed by the Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co., 
at the Wire Mills. There is an Armenian 
Club by the name of " Haygagan-Gajar." An 
Armenian church, the first in this country, was 
organized here under the charge of Rev. Fr. 
Sarajian, who was sent to America from the 
Patriarcate of Constantinople for that pur- 
pose. The first religious service was held in 
Reform Club Hall, Sunday, July 28, 1889, and 
the church, called St, Saviour'' s, is located on 


Laurel street. There are a few Armenians 
who worship in the Congregational faith, and 
a society has been formed which meets at the 
building of Y. M. C. A. 

Armory. — The first Armory building in 
Worcester was erected on Waldo street in 
1875, and is now used for the purposes of the 
Central District Court, and Central Police Sta- 
tion. The land was purchased of Albert 
Tolman for $14,612, and the building cost 
$34,780, making a total of $49,392. It 
proved a bad bargain to the City, for the build- 
ing was so poorly constructed that it had to be 
abandoned by the militia as unsafe, and liable 
to tumble down when subjected to the vibra- 
tion incident to military drill. The new 
Armory, at the junction of Grove and Salis- 
bury streets, is a building of imposing propor- 
tions. It was erected on land purchased of 
Stephen Salisbury for $23,000, and was in 
process of construction from April 15, 1889, to 
Sept. 30, 1890. Fuller & Delano were the 
architects, under the special superintendence 
of Gen. Josiah Pickett. It was dedicated 
January 30, 1891. The cost (including land) 
was nearly $125,000, which sum was loaned 
by the State, to be repaid by the City in a 
term of years. 

The new Worcester Armory was constructed' 
under the superintendence of a State Commis- 
sion of three members: John W. Leighton of 
Boston (chairman), Josiah Pickett of Worces- 
ter, and Joseph N. Peterson of Salem. This 
Commission built six Armories : two in Bos- 
ton, at a cost of $600,000 ; one in Worcester, 
$125,000 ; one in Lowell, $105,000 ; one in 
Fitchburg, $60,000 ; and one at Lawrence, 
$90,000. It is a noteworthy fact, that in the 
expenditure of this large sum of $980,000, in 
no case was the original appropriation ex- 
ceeded — a record seldom made by public 

Armory Square. — The triangular plat of 
ground in front of the Armory, where Salis- 
bury and Grove streets diverge. Although 
not yet officially designated, the name has 
come into use with many. The " Square " is 
soon to be improved by curbing and other ad- 
ditions, to bring it more into character with 
the fine buildings in the vicinity. 

Art and Artists. — Art, like literature, has 
not flourished to any great extent in Worces- 
ter. Mrs. Helen C. Knowles left at her death 

in 1884 a bequest of $25,000 for the promo- 
tion of Art Education, either by establishing 
some organization for that purpose, or creating 
a professorship in some institution already 
existing in Worcester. This bequest, which 
had accumulated in the hands of her executors, 
Messrs. E. A. Strong of Boston and Henry A. 
Marsh of Worcester, to about $29,000, was 
paid over to the SL IVjclsiaii Soci e/y (^see title), 
in 1891, to be held in trust for the purposes 
designed. To this Society, Stephen Salisbury 
has also given in trust for Art purposes the lot 
of land comprising 25,000 feet, at the corner 
of Salisbury and Tuckerman streets, and made 
an offer of $10,000 towards the erection of a 

George L. Brown, the celebrated landscape 
painter, once resided in Worcester, and went 
from this place to Italy. His death occurred 
in 1889 near Boston. S. P. R. Triscott, a 
water-color painter of later fame, was in 
Worcester between 1870 and 1880. At 
present, Henry Woodward, Miss Helen M. 
Knowlton, Mrs. A. C. Freeland and George 
E, Gladwin are well known in local ciicles. 
J. H. Greenwood, in oil, and Fred A. 
M'Clure, water color, are rising to fame, and 
there are others of merit. B. H. Kinney was 
well known as a sculptor years ago, and 
Eugene A. O'Connor at present is taking high 
rank. See Art Society ; Art Studenf s Club. 

Art Society, (The Worcester). — This 
Society was organized Nov. 27, 1877, ^^i^ 
incorporated Dec. 29, 1887, its purpose being 
"to promote art culture." The first board of 
officers was constituted as follows: President, 
Hon. Geo. F. Hoar; Vice-Presidents, Hon. 
L. J. Knowles, Rev. E. H. Hall, Rev. C. M. 
Lamson ; Secretary, Miss Rebecca Jones; 
Treasurer, ]os. E. Davis; Directors, C. O. 
Thompson, 'S. C. Earle, B. W. Potter, Mrs. P. 
L. Moen, Mrs. J. H.Walker. The officers are : 
President, Rev. A. S.Garver; Vice-Presidents, 
Nathaniel Paine, Charles H . Davis ; Treasurer, 
E. B. Hamilton; Clerk, Miss Sarah Hopkins; 
Directors, J. G. Clark, E. B. Glasgow, S. Salis- 
bury, Rev. Daniel Merriman, W. T. Harlow. 
The Society has held several art exhibitions, 
and lectures have been given under its 

Art Stores. — The veteran art dealer of 
Worcester is Augustus E. Peck, whose store in 
the Lincoln House Block, 368 Main street, 
has for years been the resort of the art lovers 


of this county. Mr. Peck established the 
business in 1 86 1, in one of the stores on Main 
street, below Central, now occupied by the 
Putnam & Sprague Co. He afterwards moved 
to a store nearly opposite, and in 1870 took 
possession of his present quarters. Mr. Peck 
has seen all but six pass away of those who 
were in business on Main street when he 
began. There are several other art stores in 
the city, among them being The Davis Art 
Co., C. A. Boyden, and Brown, Hamilton & 

Arthur's Spring. — A pure and abundant 
never-failing spring in Dodge Park, noted in 
the minds of many of Worcester's aged citi- 
zens who often quenched their thirst there in 
youthful days. 

Art Students' Club. — Rooms in Walker 
Building. Meetings the last Saturday of each 
month. This Association was organized in 
1880 for practical work, and has proved bene- 
ficial, particularly to beginners and students. 
Occasional exhibitions of works of its members 
are given. The club was incorporated in 

Asnebumskit Hill. — The highest emi- 
nence in the vicinity of Worcester, on the main 
road to Paxton, about seven miles from the 
City Hall. Its height is over 1,400 feet, and 
a fine view can be had from the top. The 
summit and a considerable portion of this Hill 
have recently been purchased by Hon. George 
F. Hoar, who has caused a road to be con- 
structed to its highest point. 

Assembly Debating Society. — See High 
School Societies. 

Associated Charities of Worcester, 

(The). — Was organized in 1890 with the fol- 
lowing officers: Stephen Salisbury, President; 
Arthur M. Stone, Mrs. George Crompton, 
Vice-Presidents; Charles L. Nichols, Secre- 
tary; Lewis W. Hammond, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Eliza J. Lee, General Secretary. 

There is also a Board of Directors composed 
of prominent citizens and ladies. 

The objects of this Society are : 

" To secure the concurrent and harmonious action 
of the different charities of Worcester, namely : 
The various churches, charitable agencies, public 
relief and individuals charitably disposed, in order 

To raise the needy above the" need of relief, pre- 
vent begging- and imposition, and diminish pau- 
perism ; 

To encourage thrift, self-independence and indus- 

try through friendly intercourse, advice and sym- 
pathy, an(3 to aid the poor to help themselves ; 

To prevent children from growing up as paupers ; 

To aid in the diffusion of knowledge on subjects 
connected with the relief of the poor.'' 

And, to accomplish these objects, it is de- 
signed — 

" I. To provide that the case of every applicant for 
relief shall be thoroughly investigated ; 

2. To place the results'of such investigation at the 
disposal of charitable societies and agencies, and of 
private persons of benevolence, and of the Overseers 
of the Poor, so far as such investigation may be 
necessary for the accomplishment of the objects of 
this society; 

3. To obtain employment, if possible; if not, to 
obtain, so far as necessary, suitable assistance for 
every deserving: applicant from charitable ag^encies, 
benevolent individuals or public authorities. 

4. To make all relief, either by alms or charitable 
work, conditional upon good conduct and prog^ress; 

5. To send to each poor family, under the advice 
of a district conference, a friendly visitor; 

6. To hold j)ublic meetings and print papers for 
distribution, as may be found necessary." 

Or, in a general way, it may be stated that 
the objects of the Associated Charities are 
twofold : 

" ist, to be a central bureau of information for all 
the benevolent societies of the city and for all char- 
itable individuals. By this means we shall enable 
you to ascertain more readilv and more surely the 
most needy and most worthy recipients of your 
charity; we shall discover the unworthy recipients 
of present charity, and we shall prevent the f ver- 
lapping of the charities of Worcester in consequence 
of which so much money is unnecessarily wasted. 
Our information being strictly confidential, is open 
only to accredited representatives of the societies or 
to those personally interested. 

" 2d, to furnish to those whom misfortune, sick- 
ness or trouble have placed in need, a friendly vis- 
itor who shall personally advise and encourag^e such 
persons to make themselves once more self-support- 
ing and thus save them from pauperism. In no 
case will our visitors approach persons already in 
charge of other societies, except at the request of 
such society, nor are they allowed to use their posi- 
tion for religious proselytism." 

Office in Chapin Block, No. 37 Pearl street, 
Rooms 9 and 10. Open from 9.30 A. M. until 
I P. M. every day except Sunday. 

Association Hall. — The larger of the two 
public audience rooms in the Voung Men's 
Christian Association building, and can be en- 
tered from Elm or Pearl streets. There are 
800 seats on floor and gallery. 

Asylums. — See Home for Aged Females; 
Home for Aged Men ; Odd Fellows^ Home ; 
Children'' s Friend Society ; Tetfiporary Home 
and Day A'tirsery ; Insane Asyliwis ; Hos- 

Athletics. — More or less interest in Ath- 


letics has been manifested in Worcester during 
the last fifty years, but a consecutive or minute 
history cannot be presented here. The old 
Mechanics Ball Club formed over thirty-five 
years ago, and which played the game of 
round ball, was maintained several years with 
a good degree of enthusiasm, which gives evi- 
dence that the young men of that time were 
alive to the enjoyment and healthfulness of 
the sport. The Quinsigamond Boat Club, 
contemporary in its first years with the above, 
has at different periods numbered prominent 
athletes among its members. The annual 
college regattas at Lake Quinsigamond ex- 
cited an interest in aquatic sports which has 
steadily increased, and the reader is referred 
to the article on Boat Clubs and Boating for 
further information in this particular. 

Many Worcester citizens of to-day can 
remember Aaron Molineaux, a man of very 
dark complexion, who came here in 1856, and 
established gymnasia on Orchard and Main 
streets. His wife also instructed a class of 
ladies. After two or three years he left 
Worcester to become instructor in gymnastics 
at Harvard College. T. W. Higginson took 
much interest in the subject of gymnastics, and 
influenced the formation of the Worcester 
Gymnastic Club, which bought out Molineaux, 
and took his rooms at the corner of Foster 
and Waldo streets. Many bank clerks and 
other young men were members of this club. 
Samuel H. Putnam, after the training received 
here, went to Oberlin College as instructor in 
gymnastics, leaving there after a few months, 
to enlist in the 25th Mass. Regt. 

The Germans from the first have given much 
attention to athletics. The Socialer Turn 
Vercin was formed in 1859. Pedestrianism, 
Base Ball and Cycling have been given a 
large share of public .notice. Several athletic 
associations have existed for longer or shorter 
periods, with greater or less measure of suc- 
cess. At present the prominent successor of 
these is the Worcester Athletic Club, which has 
gathered to itself a majority of the athletes and 
lovers of manly sports in this vicinity. The 
first formal meeting of this association was 
held April 30, 1890, and officers were elected 
May 21 of that year. It was incorporated 
March 11, 1891. Samuel E. Winslow is 
President, Frank E. Heywood, Secretary, and 
Frank R. Macullar, Treasurer. The grounds 
at Lake View, known as the Worcester Oval, 
are equal to any in the U. S. in arrangement 

and equipment, with one-fourth mile track and 
120 yards straight-away. The grand stand 
has dressing rooms and lockers, and all the 
modern accommodations. There are Base 
Ball Grounds and Tennis Courts. The Worces- 
ter Club is second only to the B. A. Associa- 
tion in New England. 

The Y. M. C. A. gives some attention to 
athletics, and have quarters at the Lake for 
practice in the Summer season, as well as a 
room in their building on Elm street. 

Auburn. — This town was taken from the 
towns of Leicester, Oxford, Sutton and 
W^orcester, and incorporated in 1778 under 
the name of Ward, in honor of Gen. Artemas 
Ward. The name was changed to Auburn in 
1837. It lies about five miles from Worcester 
center, and can be reached by the Norwich 
railroad. Population in 1890, 1,532. 

Auctions and Auctioneers. — Auctions or 
vendues have been held in Worcester from ' 
the earliest time. The names of prominent 
auctioneers here are given below, with approxi- 
mate dates: Samuel Bridge, 1797; Thomas 
Stickney, Nathan Blackman, T. Farrar, 1800; 
William Eaton, 1808-1830; Reuben Wheeler, 
18 16; John Milton Earle, 1830; James Esta- 
brook, 1844; Thornton A. Merrick, 1845; 
T. W. & C. P. Bancroft, 1840-50; E. E. Ab- 
bott, 1852; Alex. Putnam, 1852; E. W. Vaill, 
1854; W. W. Pratt, 1856; E. B. Lamson, 
1856-65; Charles Hersey, 1858; A. E. Peck, 
1857; Henry Glazier, 1865-1875. B. W. 
Abbott, who came to Worcester in 1864, 
enjoyed a monopoly of real estate and other 
sales for several years. He died in 1886. 
W^orcester's most successful auctioneer at the 
present time is Henry M. Clemence, whose 
office is on Pearl street. His first sale was in 
April, 1875. Horace Kendall & Son, in 
Mechanics Hall Building, hold evening and 
occasional sales of furniture and notions at 
their place of business. There are several 
other auction rooms in different parts of the 
city; Folsom & Slaney, 580 Main street, and 
Frank Tracy, 162 Main street, hold regular 
Saturday sales of new and second-hand furni- 
ture, etc. There are sales of horses, cattle, 
carriages, harnesses, etc., weekly, at the City 
Stock Yards, on Summer street, by O. A. 
Kelley, auctioneer, and at Washington square 
by F. W. Flagg. 

Bakers. — There are IJ Bakers in Worces- 
ter. (1892). 


Balanced Rock. — About a mile and a half 
from the center of Shrewsbury, on the road to 
Boylston. It is a large boulder — an irregular 
cube of perhaps 25 by 15 feet, resting on one 
of its angles on the surface of a flat ledge, on 
the crest of the hill. It is very curious, and 
suggests an idea of the prodigious glacial 
forces which probably drifted it to its present 
position and dropped it gently and evenly 
balanced. Beneath it, upon the surface of the 
ledge, the stria: or glacial markings can be 
plainly seen, the over-hanging mass having 
sheltered them from the elements, 

Bancroft's Birthplace. — The house in 
which George Bancroft, the historian, was 
born, Oct. 3, 1800, is standing on Salisbury 
street, about half a mile from Lincoln square. 
It is occupied by Mr, John B. Pratt as a resi- 
dence. Mr. Bancroft died in Washington, 
Jan. 17, 1891. 

Bancroft Endowment Fund. — The Aaron 
and Liicretia Bancroft Scholarship was estab- 
lished in Worcester in 1886 by the gift of 
$10,000 from the late Hon. George Bancroft, 
in memory of his parents, for the purpose of 
aiding deserving indigent students in obtaining 
a liberal education. The annual income is 
$400. The first beneficiary of this fund was 
George B. Churchill, who went from the High 
School to Amherst College. 

Bands, (Military). — There are four mili- 
tary bands in Worcester at the present time : 
The Worcester Brass, which was formed in 
1868, with T. C. Richardson as leader. It is 
now conducted by L. D. Waters. The Bat- 
tery B, formerly the Cadet, and at first known 
as the French Band, under the leadership of 
E. 'D. Ingraham. Both the above enjoy a 
well-merited reputation from the: range and 
excellence of their playing. The City Band, 
formerly the Father Mathew, is now conducted 
by J. H. Martel. The Brigade Band, com- 
posed almost entirely of Swedes, is an organi- 
2atiDn of comparatively late origin. There are 
two or three other recently- formed organiza- 
tions that furnish military music. Johnson's 
Drum Corps has more than a local reputation. 
See under Music. 

Banks. — There are seven National Banks 
in Worcester, namely, the Worcester, on Fos- 
ter street, incorporated March 7, 1804. This 
bank has had during the eighty-eight years of 
its existence but four presidents, and only two 

names signed to its notes as presidents — 
Daniel Waldo, senior, who was for a short 
time the first president, and was succeeded by 
his son, Daniel Waldo, junior, who served 
until his death in 1845. Stephen Salisbury 
was then elected, and continued until his 
death in 1884, when the office passed to its 
present incumbent of the same name. This 
bank was organized as a National Bank, May 
9, 1864. The Tc'w/'rrt'/ Bank, 452 Main street, 
was incorporated in 1829, and became a 
National Bank May 18, 1864. The Qtdnsiga- 
inond, 318 Main street, incorporated in 1829, 
was re-organized in 1865. The Citizens, 425 
Main street, incorporated 1836, re-organized 
in 1865. The Mechanics, 311 Main street, 
(Central Exchange), incorporated 1848; re- 
organized 1865. The City, 406 Main street, 
incorporated 1854; re-organized 1864. The 
First Xational, 410 Main street, organized in 
1863. The Security opened for business July 
20, 1875, with a capital of $100,000, and 
ceased to exist in 1878. It was located at the 
north corner of Main and Pleasant streets. 

There are four Savings Banks : The Worces- 
ter County histittition for Savings, 13 Foster 
street, incorporated 1828; The Mechanics 
Savings Bank, (Central Exchange), incorpo- 
rated 185 1 ; T\iQ. Five Cents Savings Bank, 
320 Main street, incorporated 1854; and the 
Peoples, 452 Main street, incorporated 1864. 

See Co-operative Banks ; Safe Deposit Com- 

Baptist Churches. — There are ten Baptist 
churches in Worcester, namely, the First, in 
Salem square, founded in 1812; the Pleasant 
street, founded 1841; Main street, 1853; 
Dewey street, on Park avenue, 1872; Swedish, 
Normal street, 1880; Lincoln square, Highland 
street, 1881; Mount Olive, John street, 1885; 
South, corner Main and Gates streets, 1886; 
Adams Square, 190 Lincoln street, 1889: and 
the French, 170 Beacon street, 1890. There 
are three missions, the Jamesville, organized 
1884; Quinsigamond, at Quinsigamond vil- 
lage, 1885: and theGreendale, West Boylston 
street, 1884. The Free Baptist church, 
formed in 188 1, is on Wellington street, and 
the edifice was completed the present year 

Bar Association, (Worcester County). 
— An organization of lawyers in the county, 
formed for social purposes mainly at present. 
Col. W. S. B. Hopkins is the president. 

BA1>1— BEL 

Barbers. — There are 88 barbers in Worces- 
ter. There is a Bai'bers' Union, which meets 
the second Monday of each month. 

Barber's Crossing. — A station on the 
Boston & Maine and Fitchburg R. R's, north 
of Lincoln square. There is a postoffice here. 

Barnardville. — A village at New Worces- 
ter near Hope Cemetery. A settlement was 
begun here some 25 years ago by William C. 

Base Ball. — Base ball has always been a 
favorite pastime in Worcester. Previous to 
1865 the game was commonly called "round 
ball," and the old Common was the play- 
ground for everybody who wished to partici- 
pate, three or four games going on at the 
same time on holidays. For several years 
previous to i860 the only organized club in 
the city was the " Mechanics." They played 
a strong game but were no match for the 
Uptons or Medways, who reduced the game to 
a science and far excelled all rivals. After the 
war, the present game of base ball, first played 
in New York, was introduced into New Eng- 
land, but did not become popular for several 
years. The first professional team in the city 
was the Irvings, who flourished in 1877-8. 
The following year the game was loudly 
boomed, and the " Worcesters " were or- 
ganized to represent the city in what was 
called the International Association. In 
1880-81-82 the Worcesters were in the 
National League, and base ball prospered as 
never before or since. While in the League, 
a fifty cent tariff was charged for admissions to 
the game. The city was not large enough, 
however, to support a League team, and at the 
close of the season of 1882 the Worcesters 
ceased to exist. An attempt was made to re- 
vive interest in the game in 1884, and a pro- 
fessional team was organized, but after com- 
pleting half the season the team was disbanded. 
Base ball then remained practically at rest 
until 1888, when a team was organized to rep- 
resent the city in the New England Base Ball 
Association. The season was fairly successful, 
but the team was disbanded after two or three 
years. Previous to 1888 all the professional 
games were played at the Fair Grounds. At the 
opening of the season of 1888, new grounds 
were inclosed on Grove street and a modern 
grand-stand erected for the accommodation of 
the patrons. The new grounds were leased of 

Stephen Salisbury, Esq., by the street railroad 

Battle Flags. — The original flags carried 
by the Worcester Regiments — the 15th, 21st, 
25th, 34th, 36th, 51st and 57th — in the War 
of the Rebellion, are preserved in a case in the 
Aldermen's chamber in the City Hall. The 
flag carried by Sergeant Plunkett, who lost 
both arms at Fredericksburg, can also be seen 
here. Some of these flags are reduced to 
shreds, and were borne in the fiercest battles 
of the war. On rare occasions they appear in 
parades of the organizations to which they 

Bay State Bicycle Club.— Was formed 
Feb. 5th, 1887. Meets every Wednesday 
evening at their rooms, 35 Pearl street. See 

Bay State House. — The principal hotel in 
the City, at corner of Main and Exchange 
streets. It was erected by a corporation, and 
opened to the public February 8, 1856. The 
building cost originally $100,000, and $38,000 
was paid for the land. The present proprietor, 
F. P. Douglass, has recently refitted the estab- 
lishment, and it has now all the appointments 
of a first-class hotel. This location has been 
a tavern-site from early times. See Hotels. 

Bay State Poultry Association. — Was 

organized in 1888, and incorporated in 1889. 
Holds quarterly meetings. 

Beaver Brook. — This stream rises in 
Holden, and flows generally south to New 
Worcester, where it joins Tatnuck brook, to 
which it is a tributary. 

Bell or Bladder Pond. — Belmont street. 
It was from this pond that the first water sup- 
ply for the town was drawn by aqueduct in 
1845. The pipes were laid to a reservoir 
(recently demolished) 107 rods distant, and 
iron pipes conveyed the water through Pros- 
pect, Thomas, Main, Park, Salem, Mechanic, 
Pleasant and Elm streets. The Pond is still a 
part of the system of water works. Its name 
was given on account of its resembling a bell 
in outline. See Aquedtut Company and 
IViiter Works. 

Belmont Church. — The twelfth Orthodox 
Congregational Society, in Worcester, formed 
in 1889. The edifice is at 50 Belmont street. 


Benefit Associations. — See under Co- 

Benignus Conventus, (Worcester). — 

Branch No. I was organized in 1888. 

Bethany Church. — Leicester street. The 
fourteenth Orthodox Congregational Society 
in Worcester, formed in 1891. 

Bibles Printed in 'Worcester. — Four edi- 
tions of the Bible were printed by Isaiah 
Thomas: A Folio (the first in America) with 
50 copper plates; and a Royal Quarto, with 
and without a concordance, both issued in 
1 791 . An Octavo, with and without the Apoc- 
rypha, published in 1793. A Demy i2mo. in 
1797. The types of the latter were kept 
standing, and subsequent impressions were 
made. Isaiah Thomas, Jr., printed a Greek 
Testament in Worcester in 1802; and the first 
American edition of the Koran in 1806. An 
edition of Confucius was printed by Tyler & 
Seagrave, at the old Spy office in 1866, and 
published by Zephaniah Baker, the first city 

Bible Society. — The Worcester County 
Bible Society was formed Sept. 7, 18 1 5. It has 
a nominal existence at the present time, but 
appears not to be active. 

Bicycling. — See Cycling. 

Bigelow's Garden — On Norwich street, 
b)etween Foster and Mechanic streets. A 
place of popular amusement much frequented 
during the past few years, but whose glory has 
now departed. The Garden contains the 
building known as the "Rink," which was 
erected about twelve years ago for roller skat- 
ing. The property soon passed into the hands of 
Horace H. Bigelow, who inclosed the Garden 
and beautified it, introducing music and novel- 
ties to attract the crowd. I'ublic and religious 
meetings and political conventions, as well as 
fairs, exhibitions, theatricals, walking matches, 
and other athletic contests, etc., have been 
held in the building. On the site of the Gar- 
den stood the old Worcester Railroad Station 
or Foster Street Depot, which was removed in 
1877. This land was to have been the location 
of the monster Electric or Commercial Build- 
ing, for which plans were made for Mr. 

Bigelow Monument.— On the Common. 
This beautiful monument of Italian marble 

was erected to mark the last resting place of 
the distinguished Revolutionary patriot. Col. 
Timothy Bigelow, and was presented to the 
City by his great-grandson, Timothy Bigelow 
Lawrence. It was publicly dedicated April 
19, 1861. 

Billiards. — There are 13 pubHc billiard 
halls in Worcester. (1892 ) 

Bimleck Hill. — The elevation back or 
south of Oak Hill, was known by this name in 
ancient times, and frequent reference is made 
to it in the old records. 

Blackstone River and Canal. — The nat- 
ural course of the Blackstone River, which 
rises in Paxton, and flows south into Narragan- 
sett Bay, was made available in the construc- 
tion of the Canal from Worcester to Provi- 
dence. The project of a canal between these 
points was proposed before 1800, but the mat- 
ter was allowed to rest for a quarter of a 
century. About 1820 the plan was renewed, 
and after some agitation a company was 
formed, and chartered in 1823 by the legisla- 
tures of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 
Excavation for the work was begun in Provi- 
dence in 1824, and the canal completed in 
1828, the first boat arriving in Worcester Octo- 
ber 6th. The cost was $700,000. The canal 
was a losing concern, though it contributed 
materially to the prosperity of the region 
through which it passed. It ceased to be used 
soon after the opening of the Providence & 
Worcester railroad in 1847. The last toll 
was collected November 9, 1848, and the 
affairs of the company were finally settled in 
1853. The Blackstone River proper begins at 
Quinsigamond Village, where Mill Brook and 
Middle River unite to form the larger stream. 

Blacksmiths. — There are 47 blacksmiths 
in Worcester, not counting journeymen. 

Blocks and Buildings.. — The following 
are known by name in Worcester : 

American House Block, corner Main and 
Foster streets. 

Bank Block, Foster street. 

Bangs Block, Main street, opposite Court 

Brinley Block, Main street, corner Maple. 

Burnside Building, 339 Main street. 

Butman Block, Main street, between Pearl 
and Elm streets. 

Central Exchange, 311 Main street. 



Chadwick Building, 236 Main street. 

Chapin Block, Pearl street. 

Chase Building, 44 Front street. 

Clark Block, 492 Main street. 

Clark Block, corner Front and Church 

Crompton Block, Mechanic street. 

Cummings Building, 59 Main street. 

Dean Building, Lincoln square. 

Dodge Block, Park street. 

First National Bank Building, 410 Main 

Five Cents Savings Bank Building, 320 
Main street. 

Flagg's Block, 288 Main street. 

Flatiron Building, (Scott's Block,) Frank- 
lin square. 

Foster Building, Foster street. 

Franklin Building, Franklin square. 

Harding Block, corner Front and Trumbull 

Harrington Block, 173 Main street. 

Harrington Block, at Harrington corner. 

Knowles Building, corner Main and Chatham 

Lincoln House Block, from Elm to Maple 
streets, on Main street. 

Paine Block, corner Main and Walnut 

Parker Block, 113 Main street. 

People's Savings Bank Building, 452 Main 

Piper's Block, 419 Main street. 

Rice's Block, Franklin square. 

Rogers' Block, 424-426 Main street. 

Salisbury Building, Lincoln square. 

Sargent Block, corner Main and South- 
bridge streets. 

Scott's Block, (Flatiron Building,) Frank- 
lin square. 

Stevens' Block, Southbridge street. 

Stockwell's Block, Mechanic street. 

Taylor's Building, 476 Main street. 

Waldo Block, 271 Main street. 

Walker Building, 405 Main street. 

Warren Block, Pearl street. 

See Apartment Houses. 

Bloomingdale. — A station on the Worces- 
ter & Shrewsbury railroad at Plantation street. 

Board of Health.— Established in 1877. 
It is composed of three members, of whom the 
City Physician is ex-officio one. The Board 
also employs a General Inspector and an 

Inspector of Plumbing. The regulation of all 
matters that affect the public health, or are 
connected with the sanitary condition of the 
City, are properly within the care of the Board 
— Drainage, disposal of offal, contagious dis- 
eases, etc.; also the inspection of milk and 
articles of food. The Board also issues burial 
permits. The members are appointed bi- 
ennially by the Mayor and Aldermen. The 
office of the Board is in the basement of the 
City Hall building. 

Board of Trade. — See IVorcester Board 
of Trade. 

Boat Clubs and Boating. — In 1858 James 
F. Allen, Chas. M. Bent, E. D. Coggswell, 
H. A. Marsh and Nathaniel Paine formed a 
boat club, which was first called the " Wide- 
Awake." They practiced rowing on Salis- 
bury's pond, and employed an experienced 
trainer; afterwards the club removed to Curtis 
pond, at New Worcester, and August 2, 1859, 
to Lake Quinsigamond. The name was 
changed to " Atalanta " in April, 1859. Na- 
thaniel Paine was the first president. At the 
Lake a boat-house was built on the west side, 
and was occupied in common with a new club 
formed in 1859, under the name of the 
"Phantom." This, by change of name, 
became the present Quinsigamond Boat Club. 
The original members were J. G. Heywood, 
W. E. Hacker, H. H. ChamberHn, T. R. 
Green, J. P. Hamilton, Edward Hamilton and 
Edward Brown. It absorbed the Atalanta 
Club, though the latter still has a nominal 
existence. The Quinsigamond occupied a 
club and boat house north of the causeway for 
several years, and then erected the present 
attractive building some distance south of the 
causeway off Lake avenue. The Quinsiga- 
mond maintains the characteristics of a social 
club, and is exclusive in its membership. It 
takes no part, as a club, in rowing contests 
and regattas. In another way, however, its 
influence has been felt in rowing circles. 

In i860 a young ladies' boat club was 
formed, under the direction of Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson. The Lake became a popu- 
lar resort for boating. College regattas were 
annually held here from 1859 to 1870; and 
many amateurs and professionals have from 
time to time availed themselves of its superior 
advantages. The opening of the Shrewsbury 
railroad in 1873 largely increased the number 
of visitors to the Lake, and gave a great 



impetus to aquatic sports there, and interest 
has increased from year to year, until Worces- 
ter has become a rowing center. The eftorts 
of certain active local organizations have large- 
ly contributed to this result. Of the three 
boat clubs which have been most prominent in 
advancing the rowing interest, the Lakeside is 
the foremost. It was organized Feb. 14, 
1887, with a membership of 20, which has 
largely increased. The club is composed of 
young men, mostly employed in the banks and 
offices in the city. They occupy a fine build- 
ing, erected near the Quinsigamond's, at a 
cost of $3,000 ; and rooms in the city are 
occupied during the winter. Spring and fall 
regattas are held. The club was incorporated 
in 1887. 

The IVachnsett Boat Club was organized in 
the early part of 1888, and at once took a 
prominent part at the Lake. The regatta of 
the New England Amateur Rowing Association 
was held under its auspices. 

The IVoreester was organized in July, 1888. 
Its four-oared crew won the championship of 
the Lake, and Bigelow's championship banner, 
in a contest with the Woodcock crew. 

The JVashington Social Club has a large 
club-house on the Shrewsbury shore, and pos- 
sesses a private fleet of boats. 

Books about Worcester. — Peter Whit- 
ney's History of Worcester County is the 
earliest and one of the most reliable books 
which has reference to W^orcester. William 
Lincoln's History was published in 1837, and 
extended by Charles Hersey in 1861. Albert 
A. Lovell's " Worcester in the Revolution " is 
a valuable record of that period ; and Caleb 
A. Wall's '■'■Reminiscences^'' contains much 
miscellaneous matter of interest. Rev. A. P. 
Marvin's " Worcester in the War of the Re- 
bellion " gives a good account of the men, 
martyrs and deeds of the fight for the Union so 
far as Worcester's part is concerned. " 7 he 
Worcester Book,'' by F. P. Rice, was pub- 
lished in 1884 — a manual of dates and note- 
worthy events. " Worcester: Its Past and 
Present,'' published by O. B. Wood, is an 
elaborate and profusely illustrated book. Rev. 
Dr. Smalley's " Worcester Pulpit" is a valu- 
able work for ecclesiastical history. IVoreester 
Churches, by Charles E. Stevens, is a recent 
contribution. Besides these works of general 
history, there have been published many books 
and pamphlets on different occasions, and re- 

lating to special subjects, societies and events,, 
too numerous to be mentioned here. A large 
history of Worcester County was published 
about twelve years ago, and another has since 
appeared. Mr. Nathaniel Paine published in 
1884 a Bibliography of books about Worces- 
ter, which appeared in connection with the 
Account of the Bi-Centennial celebration of 
the naming of the town. 

Book Clubs. — Possibly the Associate-Cir- 
culating Library Company, in being in 1793 
(^see Libraries), was of a character similar to 
modern book clubs. The Worcester Book 
Club, formed in 1839, is the oldest in the city, 
and the Review Club, formed in 1847, comes 
next. The Worcester Reading Club, the Book 
Club No. 4, and the Waverley Club, with 
those first named, are the most important, and 
there are many others. 

Book-stores. — The oldest book-store ini 
Worcester is that of the Sanford-Sawtelle 
Co., in the Lincoln House Block, at the cor- 
ner of Main and Maple streets. This estab- 
lishment was founded in March, 1835, by H. 
H. Holton, and he sold to M. D. PhilHps & 
Co. in September of that year. In 1845 Ed- 
ward Livermore succeeded, and he was fol- 
lowed byZephaniah Baker & Co. in 1854. In. 
1857 Rev. William H. Sanford, who had 
recently retired from the ministry at Boylston, 
purchased the store, and the business still re- 
mains in the hands of his family. A fine stock 
of books is kept here. The house of Putnam, 
Davis & Co., at 389 Main street, was estab- 
lished by Jonathan Grout nearly fifty years 
ago, and has long been a popular resort of the 
book lovers of the town. Richard O'Flynn, 
244 Front street, and Henry M. Clemence, oH' 
Pearl street, deal in second-hand and anti- 
quarian books. 

Book Publishers. — Isaiah Thomas was 
the most enterprising publisher of his time on. 
this continent. Besides several editions of the 
Bible (see Bibles') he published most of the 
school text-books then used, dictionaries and 
lexicons, medical and law books, and many 
standard works in history and general litera- 
ture. He was succeeded by his son, Isaiah 
Thomas, Jr., who, during the early years of 
this century, continued his father's business 
with declining success. The following of their 
publications deserve special mention : Perry's 
Dictionary (the first dictionary published in 



America); Cullen's Medical Works, in several 
volumes; Blackstone's Commentaries; Whit- 
ney's History of Worcester County; Josephus, 
in six volumes (1794); Plutarch's Lives, in 
six volumes (1802); The Koran, in 1806; a 
Greek Lexicon, in 1808; and Thomas's His- 
tory of Printing. 

George A. Trumbull, who succeeded the 
younger Thomas, published a few unimportant 
books, and his successor. Clarendon Harris, 
in 1829 issued the first Worcester Directory, 
with a map of the village in copper-plate, and 
also published other books. Dorr & Howland 
were in business here for several years from 
1821, as publishers and booksellers, and S. A. 
Howland published in 1839 Barber's Histor- 
ical Collections. Henry J. Howland is well 
known as the publisher for many years of the 
Worcester Directory, now the property of 
Drew, Allis & Co. Mr. Howland also pub- 
lished other books. Other parties have occa- 
sionally issued publications, but for many years 
the business of "book-making" for the gen- 
eral public has been virtually dead. During 
the last fifteen years many historical, genea- 
logical and privately printed books and pam- 
phlets have issued from the private press of 
Franklin P. Rice, the list numbering more 
than seventy. 

Boot and Shoe Stores. — There are 25 
retail boot and shoe stores in Worcester. 

Boulevard, (The). — A projected pleasure 
drive, ultimately to encircle the city, of which 
only a portion, in two sections, is completed, 
represented by Lake avenue, along the shore 
of Lake Quinsigamond, and Park avenue on 
the west side. It was decreed in 1873, and 
the order authorizing it to cross Elm Park was 
vetoed by Mayor Jillson in December, this 
being the first exercise of the veto power by a 
mayor in Worcester. The order was, how 
ever, passed over the veto, and the road was 
built over a portion of the Park. 

At times the horse-racing fraternity take 
possession of the drive, to the obvious exclu- 
sion of those who regard life and limb; and 
efforts to confine the road to its legitimate use 
have been strenuously resisted by the votaries 
of the turf. 

Boylston. — A town seven miles northeast 
of Worcester, not accessible by railroad. It 
w^as originally a part of Shrewsbury, and was 
incorporated as a separate township in 1786. 
Population in 1885, 834; in 1890, 770. 

Boys' Club. — A Boys' Club for "street 
boys," established in Worcester in 1889. The 
rooms are in the building at the head of Bar- 
ton place, and were opened September 21, 
1889. These rooms are supplied with books, 
games and other attractions, and are open 
evenings during the colder months of the year 
from 7 to 9. They are in charge of a superin- 
tendent, who devotes his time during the day 
to visiting among the boys, becoming ac- 
quainted with them, learning their surround- 
ings, attending the police court and judicious- 
ly helping any, as far as possible,- whom he 
may find there, and in other ways keeping a 
general and friendly oversight of the boys who 
are most likely, if left to themselves, to grow 
up to lives of evil, and prove an expense as 
well as a menace to our city and state. The 
work is similar to that which has been tried 
with good success in other cities, and which 
the People's Club, some twenty years ago, 
undertook in the "evenings with the news- 
boys," and carried on for some time. It has 
been found that large numbers of boys from 
eight to seventeen years of age will gladly 
take advantage of the opportunity of having 
a place to spend their evenings. 

The work here is under the direction of a 
local committee connected with the State com- 
mittee of the "Work for Boys," of which 
Rev. Edward Everett Hale of Boston, T. E. 
Pierson of Pittsfield, William H. Haile of 
Springfield and A, C. Buck of Worcester were 
the originators. C. L. Burges is the local 

Liberal subscriptions have been made by 
prominent citizens to sustain the work. 

Brand Mark. — The ancient Brand Mark 
of Worcester, designated by the General Court 
in 1684, by which the cattle, etc., belonging 
to the place were to be distinguished, was rep- 
resented thus : 


Brigade Club. — A social organization at 
first, ■ composed of officers of the old Third 
Brigade and others. The club was formed in 
December, 1879. Rooms were occupied in 
the Odd Fellows' building on Pleasant street 
for several years, and recently the club re- 
moved to Clark's Block. The membership is 
limited to thirty. 



British Americans. — The census of 1885 
gave 2120 as the number of British born resi- 
dents of Worcester, but there are probably 
more than 5,000 of EngUsh blood in the city 
at the present time. The British-American 
Society, Branch No. 36, was organized here 
in January, 1888, as the result of a meeting 
held in Horticultural Hall, at which a number 
of gentlemen from the British-American So- 
ciety of Boston attended. Organizations of 
British- Americans in nearly all the states in 
the Union followed the ill-advised opposition 
of certain Boston politicians to the use of 
Faneuil Hall by the EngHshmen at the time 
of Queen Victoria's Jubilee in June, 1887. 
The British-American element is now an im- 
portant factor in politics. Although the pres- 
ent strong organization originated in Boston, 
Worcester was the first to form a British- 
American Society, which was organized Octo- 
ber 5, 1883. The inception of the idea be- 
longs to Joseph Turner, who was the first 
president. The society met regularly for sev- 
eral years. The Order of the Sons of St. 
George was founded in Pennsylvania about 
1870. Prince Consort Lodge, Xo. 2g, was 
organized in Worcester in 1872, and Worces- 
ter Lodge, Xo. 16^, organized 1890. These 
are mutual benefit societies. The Daughters 
of St. George is a similar society for ladies. 
Princess Alice Lodge, Xo. i, was organized 
here in 1882. All of the above associations 
hold meetings at St. George's Hall. 

Builders' Exchange. — Organized in May, 
1886, as the Mechanics' Exchange. The pres- 
ent name was adopted in 1889, when the by- 
laws were changed. Any citizen being a me- 
chanic or trader, or whose avocation is con- 
nected with the building trades or industries 
of the country, may become a member of the 
Exchange, but the membership is limited to 
250. There is an arbitration committee ap- 
pointed by the Board of Trustees from their 
own body for the settlement of disputes. El- 
lery B. Crane was the first president, and was 
succeeded by H. W. Eddy, C. D. Morse and 
O. S. Kendall. George Bouchard is secretary 
and F. H. Goddard treasurer. The rooms of 
the Exchange are in the Knowles building, 
corner of Main and Chatham streets. The 
Exchange hour is 11.45 -^- ^^• 

Building Laborers' International Union 

meets Tuesday evenings at 476 Main street. 

Building Trades Council was organized 
in 1889. 

Burial Places. — See Cemeteries. 

Burncoat Plain. — A level tract two miles 
north of the City Hall, through which Burn- 
coat street runs. The origin of the name is 
not definitely known. In the old records it is 
sometimes spelled Burntcoat. 

Calliope. — The steam Calliope was invented 
in Worcester by J. C. Stoddard in 1856. It. 
is an adaptation of the steam whistle to the 
musical scale. Mounted on railroad trains it 
was used with great applause in the Fremont 
campaign, and has since been popular on river 
steamboats, discoursing music that can be 
heard for miles. 

Camera Club, (The Worcester).— An 

association of amateur photographers formed 
in 1885 for mutual improvement. The officers 
were: President, Dr. George E. Francis; 
Secretary, Paul Morgan; Treasurer, G. H. 

Canal. — See Blackstone Canal. 

Canal Basin. — The Holman Machine Shop 
occupies the site of the main or upper basin 
of the old Blackstone Canal, between Thomas 
and Central streets, just east of Union street. 
In 1828 there were few buildings between 
Main and Summer streets, in the long stretch 
of meadows between Front street and Lin- 
coln square. Several storehouses and stores 
were located around the basin, kept by Gen. 
Nathan Heard, the Earles, George M. Rice, 
S. R. Jackson and others. 

"Carl's Tour in Main Street." — A series 
of sketches or reminiscences of old Worcester, 
published in the JVorcester Palladium in 1855, 
and twice reprinted in that paper. The 
"Tour" was the joint production of Hon. J. 
S. C. Knowlton and Clarendon Wheelock. 
The statements are not always in strict accord- 
ance with historical accuracy, and dates are 
lacking, but the descriptions of old-time men, 
localities and events are deeply interesting. 
Sanford & Davis published in 1889 an edi- 
tion of " Carl's Tour " in a neat i2mo. vol- 
ume of 246 pages, which was indifferently ed- 
ited by the compiler of this Dictionary. 

Carpet Manufactories. — In 1804 Peter 
and Ebenezer Stowell commenced the weav- 
ing of carpets here, and at one time had six 



looms of their own construction in operation. 
They made the first carpets used in the State 
House in Boston. There are at the present 
time two carpet manufactories in the city which 
make Wiltons and Brussels. The late George 
Crompton established the latter manufacture 
in 1870, when the Crompton Carpet Com- 
pany was organized. W. J. Hogg, Sr., suc- 
ceeded this company in 1879, and was in turn 
succeeded by his son of the same name, the 
present proprietor. In 1879 Mr. M. J. Whit- 
tall began the manufacture of Wiltons and 
Brussels, which he still carries on extensively. 
Both mills are at South Worcester. 

Carriages, (Public). — John Crosby drove 
the first passenger carriage i^ Worcester in 
1842. Fare from the depot to any part of the 
village 17 cents. See Hack Fares. 

Cascade. — A small waterfall near Tatnuck, 
on the road to Holden (sometimes called the 
Silver Cascade). The stream at some sea- 
sons does not flow in sufficient quantity to 
supply the cascade in volume, but in the 
Spring or after rainfall it can be seen at its 

Caterers. — Probably the first Worcester ca- 
terer was Alexander G. Vottier, a Frenchman, 
who came here in 1820. Augustus Marrs 
was well known in this line for thirty years 
from 1849. He had a restaurant in Waldo 
Block. C. Rebboli, on Pleasant street, and 
L. J. Zahonyi, 348 Main street, are the best 
known caterers at the present time. 

Catholic Churches. — There are nine Rom- 
an Catholic churches in Worcester. The 
names and dates of formation are given below : 

St. John's, Temple street, 1846. 

St. Anne's, Eastern avenue, 1855. 

St. PatiVs, Chatham street, 1869. 

Not)-e Dame des Canadiens, Park street, 
1869. (French.) This church edifice was 
built by the Methodists (see Trinity CJnirch^, 
and sold by them to the Catholics in 1871, 
The building has been made over and its ap- 
pearance entirely changed. 

Church of the Iniuiaculate Conception, Pres- 
cott street, 1874. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, Cambridge 
street, 1880. 

St. Peters Church, 935 Main street, 1884. 

St. Stephen's Church, Grafton street, 1887. 

St. Joseph's Church, Wall street, 1 89 1. 

St. Amie's Mission, Grand street, was or- 
ganized in 1886. 

Some of the above are noticed by their 
titles in the Dictionary. 

Catholic School and Home Magazine, 

(The). — A monthly pubhcation, edited by 
Rev. T. J. Conaty. The first number ap- 
peared in March, 1892. 

Catholic Young Men's Lyceum. — 
Founded in 1885. Meets alternate Tuesday 
evenings at the Church of the Sacred Heart 
on Cambridge street. 

Causeway, (The).-The road built through 
Lake Quinsigamond to take the place of the 
old floating bridge. It was completed June 
27, 1862, at a cost of $25,997. See Floating 

Cemeteries. — The first burying place in 
Worcester was on the site of the school house 
at the corner of Thomas and Summer streets. 
A portion of the Common was for a century 
used as a burying ground, till interments there 
were forbidden in 1824. In 1853 many of 
the bodies were removed, and the grave- 
stones of those remaining turned down and 
sunk below the surface. In 1795, aground 
was opened in Mechanic street, and this was 
used for about fifty years. The bodies were 
all removed in 1878. The Pine street ground, 
upon a part of which the Union Station and 
railroad improvements encroached, was opened 
in 182S, and used for some thirty years. Most, 
of the bodies here have been removed. A 
Catholic burial place near Tatnuck, first used 
in 1835, is still enclosed, but no interments 
are made there. 

Rural Cemetery, Grove street, the original 
tract (nine acres) for which was given by 
Hon. Daniel Waldo, was consecrated Sept. 8, 
1838. It now comprises 40 acres. It is con- 
trolled by a private corporation. Cars from 
Main street pass the gate. 

Hope Cemetery, at New Worcester, is owned 
by the City, and was consecrated May 22, 
1852. It originally comprised fifty acres, pur- 
chased in 1851 for $1,855. Additions have 
increased it to 89 acres. Street cars go to 
Webster square, a short walk from the gate. 

Other cemeteries now used are St. Anne's 
(Catholic), Shrewsbury street; St. John's 
(Catholic), South Worcester, opened in 1847 
(cars through Southbridge street); the Sived- 


ish, Webster street, (near Hope cemetery), 
incorporated 1885; and the Xotre Dame des 
Canadiens (French Catholic), Webster street, 

Central Church. — At the corner of Grove 
street and Institute road. This fine edifice, the 
second owned by the Society, was first occu- 
pied in 1885. The land cost $20,000, the 
building $90,000, and the parsonage $12,000. 
The first Central Church building is still stand- 
ing on its original location in Main street, a 
few rods north of George street, and is now 
used for business purposes. It was erected by 
Hon. Daniel Waldo in 1823, and presented 
by him to the society. The Central Society 
was formed in 1820, and the present pastor, 
Rev. Daniel Merriman, D. D., was installed 
in 1878. It is the third Congregational, and 
the second Orthodox society in the city. 

Central Exchange. — The building from 
307 to 315 Main street, erected in 1844 on 
the site of a former building of the same name. 
The Mechanics Banks are located here; and 
from 1844 to 1867 a portion of the main floor 
was occupied by the Post Office. 

Central Labor Union was organized in 
1888, and meets Wednesday evenings at 476 
Main street. 

Central Massachusetts Poultry Club 

(The) — was formed in 1882. 
Central Park. — See Common. 

Chadwick Square. — At the junction of 
Grove and West Boylston streets. The street 
railway through Grove street terminates here. 

Chamberlain District Farmers' Club. — 

Organized in 1873 for mutual improvement in 
the science of farming. Meetings are held at 
the residences of members. 

Chandler Hill. — The eminence to the south 
of Belmont street, sometimes called Reservoir 
Hill. The highest point is 721 feet above 
tidewater, and a view of the city and several 
adjacent towns may be had from the summit, 
which will well repay the effort of a few min- 
utes' walk from Lincoln square. The City 
has recently acquired this hill for a public 
park at a cost of $45,000. The tract pur- 
chased comprises about thirty -seven acres, and 
forms with East Park a public ground reach- 
ing from Shrewsbury street to Belmont street. 

Charitable Institutions. — See the differ- 

ent titles in the Dictionary: Associated 
Charities ; Children'' s Friend Society : Dis- 
pensaries : Einployment Society ; Good Sam- 
aritan Society; Home for Aged Females: 
Hospitals ; Home for Aged Men ; Poor 
Department ; Temporary Home and Day 
A'nrsery, etc. There are charitable societies 
connected with many of the religious and 
other organizations. 

Chatauqua Literary and Scientific Cir- 
cle. — There are three organizations in Wor- 
cester: Bryant Circle, Longfellow Circle, and 
Wide Awake Circle. 

Cherry Valley. — A manufacturing village 
in Leicester two miles from Webster square. 

Children's Friend Society, (Worcester) 
— Formed in 1848 to "rescue from evil and 
misery such children as are deprived of their 
natural parents, and provide them a home until 
new homes are found tor them in suitable fam- 
ilies." An estate given to the society by John 
W. Lincoln, located in Shrewsbury street, was 
occupied several years, until the removal to 
the present quarters at the corner of Main and 
Benefit streets in 1867. The Home is in 
charge of a board of managers composed of 
prominent ladies, with an advisory board of 

Chinese. — By the census of 1890 there 
were 27 Chinamen in Worcester. 

Chimes. — A chime of ten bells was pre- 
sented to Plymouth church in 1880 by E. A. 
Goodnow, who has been a liberal benefactor 
to the church. The bells cost $5,500. They 
are sounded on Sundays, before the Wednes- 
day evening meetings and occasionally on 
public holidays. 

Choral Union, (The Worcester).— The 
Mozart Society, formed in 1850, and the 
Beethoven Society, organized in 1864, united 
in 1866 to form the Mozart and Beethoven 
Choral Unioji, w'hich was incorporated in 
1872 under the name of the I Worcester Choral 
Union. It is auxiliary to the Worcester 
County Musical Association. See under 

Christadelphian Church. — The Society 
worships at 566 Main street. The Worcester 
Ecclesia of Christadelphians was established 
in 1867, and meets at 339 Main street. 

Christian Alliance. — Organized in 1891, 
and meets at 492 Main street. 


Christian Crusaders. — Headquarters 476 
Main street. See Salvation Army. 

Christian Endeavor, or the }'. P. S. C. 

E., was founded Feb. 2, 1881, by Rev. Fran- 
cis E. Clark, pastor at that time of the WilHs- 
ton Church of Portland, for the purpose of 
training young people for and into church 
work. The movement has had a marvelous 
growth and has spread over the entire world. 

1 88 1, less than 50 members and i society. 

1892, between i and 2 million members and 
18,500 societies. 

It is unsectarian and has all denominations 
enrolled. Its annual convention is the largest 
meeting of the kind known to have been held 
in the world, having from 15,000 to 20,000 
registered delegates. Its purpose is well de- 
scribed by its motto, "For Christ and the 

Each society is independent of the national 
body which levies no taxes, nor interferes in 
any manner with the individual society work. 

The first society formed in Worcester was 
in the fall of 1884 at the Old South Church. 
Soon after societies were formed in the differ- 
ent churches until a Union Society was found 
necessary and organized in the fall of 1887, 
Rev. W. V.W. Davis, President. At the present 
time the Union enrolls 32 societies and about 
2,000 members, and has extended its jurisdic- 
tion to some of the adjacent towns. The 
present officers of the Union are: President, 
George C. Whitney; Corresponding Secretary, 
Charles D. Nye; Secretary, Mrs. F. H. Samp- 
son; Treasurer, H. H. Roach. The largest 
society in Worcester is the Piedmont Society, 
having 146 members. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception. 
— The fifth Roman Catholic church in Wor- 
cester, founded in 1873. The edifice is located 
on Prescott street. Rev. Robert Walsh has 
been the pastor from the beginning. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, — The sixth 
Roman Catholic Church in Worcester, founded 
in 1880. Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, D. D., a 
clerg}-man of more than local celebrity, is the 
pastor. The building is at 340 Cambridge 
street, and the establishment cost $80,000. 

Churches. — There are 71 church organiza- 
tions in Worcester; and 59 church edifices. 
See under the different denominations. 

Circuit, (The). — The drive-way along the 

margin of Lake Park on the south, west and 
north. The road on the three sides of the 
park is about one mile in length. 

Cigar Makers' Union, No. 92, was or- 
ganized in 1882. 

Citadel. — The plan of the Committee to 
secure the re-settlement of Worcester, in 1684, 
embraced a citadel or stockade to which the 
inhabitants might retreat in case of Indian 
attacks. It was laid out half a mile square on 
Mill brook, the southern boundary coming 
a little below and including Lincoln square. 
Within the enclosure the house lots of the 
early settlers were laid out. 

City Clerk.— The City Clerk has the cus- 
tody of all the general records of the City; 
issues licenses for most purposes, including 
marriage licenses; records mortgages of per- 
sonal property and assignment of wages; 
registers births, marriages and deaths. He is 
ex-officio Clerk of the Board of Aldermen, a 
registrar of voters and keeper of the City Seal. 
There have been but three City Clerks since 
Worcester abandoned town government in 
1848: Charles A. Hamilton to 1855; Samuel 
Smith to 1877; ^rid the present incumbent, 
Enoch H. Towne. 

City Farm. — See under Poor Department. 

City Government. — The Government of 
the City is vested in the Mayor, eight Alder- 
men, one from each ward; and a Common 
Council of twenty-four, or three from each 
ward. The Mayor holds office for one year, 
and the Aldermen and Councilmen for two 

City Guards, (Worcester). — Company 
A, Second Regiment, M. V. M. This com- 
pany was organized in 1840 as the Harrison 
Guards. It was attached to the Third Battal- 
ion of Rifles, and was in the first three months' 
service in the Rebellion, under Capt. A. B. R. 

City Hall. — An unpretentious structure of 
brick at the corner of Main and Front streets, 
in which are located most of the local public 
offices, the rooms of the Mayor and Aldermen, 
and the Common Council. This building, 
now entirely inadequate for the purposes to 
which it is applied, was in its original propor- 
tions, erected in 1825, and known then and 
until 1848, when W'orcester became a city, as 


the Town Hall. It has been enlarged and 
several times remodeled. The police station 
was for many years in the basement, and the 
District Court occupied part of the building 
until the removal of both to the Armory build- 
ing on Waldo street. 

City Hospital. — See Hospital. 

City Missionary Society. — Formed Oct. 
i6, and incorporated Dec. lo, 1883, its object 
being to promote religion and morality in 
Worcester by the employment of missionaries. 
Rev. Albert Bryant was for several years City 
Missionary. This society had no connection 
with the one formed about 1850. Rev. Mr. 
Fox was the first City Missionary, and was 
succeeded by Deacon Moses Brigham. Rev. 
W. T. Sleeper followed in 1854 and continued 
till 1857 when Rev. Samuel Souther assumed 
the charge and also continued three years. 
The Ministry at Large was instituted April 15, 
1849, with Warren Burton as Minister at 
Large, and he was succeeded by Francis Le- 
Baron. Ichabod Washburn built the Mission 
Chapel on Summer street in 1854, in aid of 
mission work. 

City Treasurer. — The City Treasurer is 
collector of taxes, receives and disburses the 
public money, and has the custody of the 
same. Office in the City Hall. John Boyden 
was the first City Treasurer from 1848 to 1850. 
George W. Wheeler served from 1850 to 
1872, and was succeeded by William S. 
Barton, at present in office. 

Civil Engineers. — The Worcester County 
Society of Engineers is an association com- 
posed mostly of civil engineers, but to which 
mechanical engineers are admitted. Hon. 
Phinehas Ball is President, and Arthur J. 
Marble, Secretary. 

Civil Service. — The Board of Examiners 
for Worcester consists of three members, who 
are appointed by the Civil Service Commis- 
sioners of the state. 

Clark University. — Founded in 1887 by 
Jonas G. Clark, who has endowed the institu- 
tion with $1,500,000. Two substantial build- 
ings have been erected on Main street, 
opposite University park. The main building 
is devoted entirely to lecture rooms and offices 
of the faculty. The chemical laboratory is 
one of the most complete in the country, and 
contains about fifty rooms fitted up with the 

most modern chemical apparatus. The foun- 
dations of another large building, to be erect- 
ed between the main building and the chemical 
laboratory, are laid. Jonas G. Clark is Presi- 
dent of the corporation; Frank P. Goulding 
is Secretary; Stephen Salisbury Treasurer; 
G. Stanley Hall is President of the University. 
The full Board of Trustees consists of Jonas 
G. Clark, Stephen Salisbury, George F. Hoar, 
William W. Rice, John D. Washburn, Frank 
P. Goulding, George Swan, Edward 
Cowles, Thomas H. Gage. 

The purpose of the University is to aftbrd 
means and opportunity for the highest educa- 
tion and original research. Unlike any other 
American University it has no distinctively 
undergraduate departments. It will aim to 
increase the sum of human knowledge, and 
transmit the highest culture of one generation 
to the ablest youth of the next. The Univer- 
sity opened Oct. 2d, 1889, with the following 
five departments: Mathematics, physics, chem- 
istry, biology and psychology. Other depart- 
ments will be organized in the future. 

Publications connected with the Uuniversi- 
ty : The Jotirnal of Morphology was com- 
menced in September, 1887, and is edited by 
Prof. C. O. Whitman. From three to six 
numbers a year are issued, of 150 to 200 
pages each, with illustrations. The Atnerican 
Journal of Psychology was commenced in 
November, 1887, and is edited by Dr. G. 
Stanley Hall. Issued quarterly. The Peda- 
gogical Se/ninary. The first number was 
issued in January, 1 891, and is edited by 
President Hall. 

Clearing House Association. — Formed 
in 1863. Henry A. Marsh is chairman and 
G. A. Smith manager. Amount of Exchange 
for the year 1891, $61,366,423. 

Clothing Trade. — Benjamin Andrews, for 
many years a tailor in the town, advertised in 
1802 "Ready-made Cloaths." The names 
of some Worcester tailors in early years, with 
approximate dates, are here given : Calvin 
Foster, 1808; Thompson Kimberly, 181 1 to 
1830; Benjamin Kingman, 181 3; Benjamin 
Phelps, 181 5; Caleb Tebbetts, 1816 and years 
after; Varnum Brigham, 1822; George C. 
Dean, 1823; Asa W^alker, 1826 and nearly 
fifty years after; Leonard Brigham, 1830; 
Estes Smith, 1831. The oldest tailoring es- 
tablishment in the city at present is represent- 



ed by Brown & Estabrook. It was founded 
in 1824 by Albert Brown. L. W. Sturtevant 
and S. Parker began business in 1846. Henry 
M. Sikes offered "Gentlemen's Top Coats, 
latest London Fashion," in 1819. W. D. 
Lewis dealt in ready-made clothing in 1838. 
Handy, Luther & Co. opened a clothing store 
in 1842, and Bigelow & Longley are the suc- 
cessors of this firm, through Luther & Free- 
land and C. W. Freeland «S: Co. The house 
of the Ware-Pratt Company dates from 1847, 
when A. P, Ware started the business, and 
D. H. Fames began in 1851. 

Clubs. — The principal social clubs in Wor- 
cester are the JVorces/er, the Comnionivealth, 
the Washington, the Washington Social, and 
the Hancock. The Quitisiganiond Boat Club 
is largely socialin character. Several others, 
more or less prominent, exist under various 
names. (See the different titles). 

Coal Clubs. — Clubs to purchase coal at 
wholesale have been formed among the em- 
ployees of several of the large manufactories 
during the past five years. By combining, 
the members are enabled to obtain their year's 
stock of coal direct from the wholesale dealers 
at the seaports at a considerable reduction 
from the prices exacted by the coal dealers. 
Ivers Gibbs was the first to engage in the 
scheme, and during the winter of 1886-7 ^e 
purchased a large quantity of coal which was 
divided at satisfactory prices. His example 
was followed by others, and within the last 
two years a large amount of coal has come to 
Worcester upon the orders from these clubs. 

Coal Mine. — Near the north end of Lake 
Quinsigamond. Previous to 1820 plumbago 
was obtained here, most of which was ground 
in West Millbury, and used to coat the bottom 
of vessels. Coal from the mine was first 
burned in 1822 by William Lincoln and Isaac 
Davis in the presence of Hon. Levi Lincoln 
and other prominent gentlemen. The mine 
was worked in 1823, and in February, 1824, 
an act of incorporation for the Massachusetts 
Coal Company was applied for. The coal was 
first used as fuel by S. B. Thomas, who kept 
a hotel here; it was also used at the brewery 
and by the Grafton Manufacturing Company. 
In 1827 Amos Binney purchased the mine, 
and the next year a horizontal passage was 
made 60 feet deep, 12 feet wide and 9 feet 
high. Several hundred tons were sold at $3 

per ton. Failure to purchase the adjoining, 
estate, and the death of the proprietor, causedl 
the operations to be abandoned, and the mine 
fell into disuse. The coal contained 75 per 
cent, of carbon. In 1884 Joseph H. Perry 
of the High School found at the old mine a 
specimen of the very rare fossil coal plant, 
" LepiJo(lend)-on (Sagenaria) acnniinatnm,^''' 
of which a notice appeared in the Americarv 
Journal of Science for February, 1885. 

Coes Square. — New Worcester, where 
Beaver, Coes and Lovell streets and Park 
avenue meet. 

Cold Spring. — The entrance to the Sanc- 
tuary (see title) at Lake Quinsigamond has long 
been known by this name on account, doubt- 
less, of the coldness of the water as it issues 
from the pool within. 

College of the Holy Cross. — A Roman 
Catholic Institution of learning, situated on 
Mount St. James, Pakachoag hill, south of the 
city. It was founded in 1843 by the Rt. Rev. 
Benedict Joseph Fenwick, bishop of Boston, 
and was given by him to the Fathers of the 
Society of Jesus. In 1865 it was incorporated 
by the Legislature with power and authority 
to confer degrees such as are conferred by any 
other college in the State, except medical de- 
grees. "The object of the institution is to 
prepare youths for a professional or for a com- 
mercial state of life." The course of studies 
embraces in its whole extent a period of seven 
years, of which three are given to the prepar- 
atory and junior classes, and four to the senior. 
The last of these years are devoted to the 
study of Rational Philosophy and the Natural 
Sciences. The academical term commences 
the first Wednesday in September and ends 
the last Thursday in June. Michael A. 
O'Kane is president of the College. The 
College building is a conspicuous object when 
entering Worcester from the south. The grave 
of Bishop Fenwick, who died in 1846, is a 
short distance from the College. 

Colleges. — See College of the Holy Cross; 
Polytechnic Institute ; Clark University. 

Colonial Hall. — No. 34 Front street. This 
hall is much used for select assemblies, cham- 
ber concerts and the higher class of entertain- 
ments. It is furnished and decorated in the 
colonial style. The hall was publicly opened 
Nov. 21, 1890, with a piano and violin recital 

COL— CO-0 


by Mrs. Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler and T. 
Adamowski. There are seats for 300, and a 
Icitchen and retiring rooms are connected with 
the auditorium. 

Colored Population. — According to the 
census of 1890 there were (including mulat- 
toes) 976 persons of color in Worcester. The 
social condition of this race has not improved 
here during the past forty years — in fact, ne- 
groes are not treated with the consideration 
they were before the war, when Worcester 
was thought a paradise for the fugitive from 
oppression. There are a few well-to-do col- 
ored men here, but the majority are not pros- 

Columbia Cycle Club. — See the article on 

Common, (The) or Central Park. — A 
small pleasure ground of eight acres, bounded 
by Main, Front and Park streets and Salem 
square. This ground was originally set apart 
in 1684 as a training field, and was then of 
much larger proportions. It was encroached 
upon for other uses, and its territory curtailed 
from time to time. ,A portion was used for 
burial purposes for a century previous to 1824, 
and in the year 1719 the meeting-house was 
allowed a place there when the first edifice 
was built, an act of hospitality which cost the 
city a heavy sum when the church was evicted 
in 1887. The Soldiers' Monument is at the 
lower end of the Common, and a short dis- 
tance southwest of this is the fine monument 
in memory of Col. Timothy Bigelow of the 

Commonv(:ealth Club. — This Club was or- 
ganized in 1880 and incorporated November 
29, 1881; its object being mutual, social and 
political improvement. Oscar F. Rawson, 
Albert A. Lovell, F. W. Blacker and Henry 
T. Farrar were the prime movers. The Club 
occupies a fine suite of rooms in Bank Build- 
ing, Foster street. 

Congregational Churches (Trinita- 
rian). — There are sixteen Orthodox churches 
in the city. The names, location and dates of 
formation are given in the following list : 

First (Old South), corner Main and Wel- 
lington streets, 1 719. 

Central, Salisbury street, 1820. 

Union, Front street, 1836. 

Salem Street, Salem square, 1848. 

Summer Street, 1 865. 

Plymouth, Pearl street, 1869. 

Piedmont, corner of Main and Piedmont 
streets, 1872. 

Szoedes, Providence street, 1880. 

Pilgri)n, 907 Main street, 1885. 

Church of the Coi'enant, 1885. 

Park, Russell street, 1887. 

Belmont, 50 Belmont street, 1889. 

Hope, South Worcester, 1889. 

Bethany, Leicester street, 1891. 

Armenian, Curtis Hall, 1892. 

Lake Fiezv, Coburn avenue, 1890. 

(See Unitariatt Churches ; Tabernacle 

Congregational Club, (The Worces- 
ter). — Was formed in 1874, and meets six 
times yearly for the discussion of subjects per- 
taining to Congregational polity. The mem- 
bership is confined to clergymen and promi- 
nent Orthodox Congregationalists in the coun- 
ty, and is somewhat exclusive. 

Congressional District. — The State is now 
divided into thirteen Congressional Districts. 
(The number and boundaries are determined 
by the Legislature once in ten years, after the 
United States census.) District A'^o. j, estab- 
lished by Chap. 396, Acts of 1891, includes 
the city of Worcester and the towns of Au- 
burn, Blackstone, Charlton, Douglas, Dudley, 
Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Mendon, Mill- 
bury, Northbridge, Oxford, Paxton, Rutland, 
Shrewsbury, Southbridge, Spencer, Sturbridge, 
Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Webster, West- 
borough, West Boylston, in Worcester Coun- 
ty, and Hopkinton, in Middlesex County. 
The district, by the census of 1890, had a 
population of 171,484. (See Representatives 
for a list of Congressmen from 1789.) 

Continentals, (The Worcester). — A pri- 
vate military organization formed in 1876. 
The uniform is a fac-simile of that worn by 
the Continentals in the Revolution. This 
company made its first pubUc appearance in 
the Centennial Parade, July 4, 1876. Their 
armory is at the corner of Main and Foster 
streets, and the organization partakes much of 
the character of a social club. 

Co-operation. — There were several early 
attempts at co-operation in Worcester, one of 
which we notice under the name of " The 

Worcester Flour and Grain League,"" formed 



in 1855 to furnish its members with breadstuffs 
and other necessaries at first cost. Z. E. 
Berry was president and A. L. Burbank sec- 
retary. This, evidently, was not a success, 
and Hke the Loan Fund Association, formed 
about the same time (see next article), did 
not long exist. Probably the most notable 
enterprise in co-operation here was the First 
Worcester Co-operative Association, formed 
in 1867, and which at first had a grocery store 
on Southbridge street, and later moved to 
Franklin square. The association was very 
successful for a time, but finally, after twenty 
years operation, failed. The Sovereigns'" Co- 
operative Association, organized in 1875 and 
chartered in 1876, maintained with good suc- 
cess a grocery store on Pleasant street until 
May, 1892, when its aftairs were settled. It 
lately had no connection with the Sovereigns 
of Industry. Prof. George I, Alden and Jos. 
P. Cheney, Jr., were respectively president 
and agent of the association from the first. 
The Progressive Co-operative Association, 
whose store is at 60 Pleasant street, was 
formed in May, 1883, and incorporated June 
16, 1886. There are two Swedes' co-operative 
grocery stores — one on Prospect street, the 
other at Quinsigamond village. The Knights 
of Labor Co-operative Boot a7id Shoe Associa- 
tion has a store at 152 Front street for the 
sale of foot-wear and gentlemen's furnishing 
goods. During the past five years this enter- 
prise has been conducted with good results. 
The association has no connection with the 
order of Knights of Labor. D. F. Fitzgerald 
is manager and treasurer. The Worcester 
Co-operative Boot and Shoe Association was 
incorporated April 19, 1888, with the purpose 
" to manufacture, buy and sell boots and shoes 
and other goods, and general merchandise on 
the co-operative plan." This association was 
largely composed of British Americans, with 
David Armitage as president. The store in 
Franklin square, was managed by Thomas 
Jackson with good success, and the association 
finally sold out to him. There are many mu- 
tual benefit associations in Worcester connect- 
ed with the secret and fraternal orders, or 
maintained as such, some of the titles of which 
appear separately in the Dictionary. Prob- 
ably the oldest benefit society, pure and sim- 
ple, with which Worcester has to do is the 
Boston i5r Worcester Railroad Mutual Ben- 
efit Association, incorporated April 10, 1855. 

This was formed in Know-Nothing times and 
chartered by the Know-Nothing Governor, 
Henry J. Gardner; and article 2d of the con- 
stitution still reads: *' No person shall become 
a member of this Association unless he be an 
American born," etc. The purpose is to in- 
sure a sum to each member sufficient to pay 
funeral expenses in case of death. 

The efforts at co-operation, especially as ap- 
plied to distribution, have been numerous in 
Worcester County and City. A generation 
ago, a modified or joint-stock form of co-oper- 
ation spread over the state. The Protective 
Union, Div. 42, Front street, is a monument 
to the eftbrts put forth at that period, and its 
benefits are still shared by the lucky few who 
own shares of stock in an institution which 
has been exceedingly well managed for a long 
term of years. 

The Worcester Co-operative Grocery Asso- 
ciation was at one time an element of hope 
to those who believed that the system of dis- 
tributive co-operation, which has proved to be 
such a power in Great Britain, would also de- 
velop the same results in an industrial field 
like Worcester. Their hopes, however, were 
doomed to disappointment. Manager suc- 
ceeded manager in rapid succession. Some 
of them went into competitive business on 
their own account, whilst all of them carried 
on the business of the co-operative store dur- 
ing their term of office in the same way that 
most retail grocery stores are carried on — that 
is, in giving credit to needy customers. Year 
after year the position of the association grew 
worse, until the business was wound up. At 
one time the association did a business of 
$100,000 a year. Bad debts, which true co- 
operation practice makes impossible, are ac- 
countable for this and many other failures of 
co-operation in Worcester. 

While it may be proper to call attention to 
the fact that the recent co-operative associa- 
tions which have gained a footing in Worces- 
ter are supposed to withhold credit to mem- 
bers and traders, it is to be feared that the 
rule is not strictly lived up to in all cases, and 
hence the future career of some of these stores 
may be jeopardized by this false action on the 
part of their managers. The true co-operative 
idea is to buy and sell for cash. When this is 
adhered to successful co-operation is assured. 

CO-0— cou 


provided the volume of trade transacted is 
sufficient to sustain the enterprise. 

In proof of this position, it may be well to 
notice the result of living up to the co-opera- 
tive plan by the co-operative banks of this 
city. There are now three of them. The 
first, The Worcester Co-operative Bank, was 
chartered in October, 1877. The association 
flourished, and its outgrowth has been two 
other co-operative banks, one organized in 
June, 1882, and the other in March, 1887. 
These banks have issued shares to depositors 
and make loans amounting to more than a mil- 
lion dollars, without the loss of a dollar of 
principal or interest on any loan. Here the 
true co-operative principle has been carried 
out, and the result has been gratifying to those 
who believe in the successful workings of co- 
operation. Unfortunately the same methods 
can not be invoked to keep members to their 
duty as co-operators, in the strict sense of the 
term, in any effort made to co-operate in dis- 
tributive or productive co-operation. 

The Dictionary is indebted to David Ar- 
mitage for many of the above facts. 

Co-operative Banks. — These institutions 
*' aim to help people buy houses, pay off mort- 
gages, build homes and save money. These 
are Mutual Associations where the members 
lend the money they have to spare monthly, 
the borrowers giving real estate security and 
paying interest." An association with the 
above objects was founded in Worcester and in- 
corporated April 25, 1854, under the name of 
the Mechanics'' Mutual Loan Fund Associa- 
tion, with Hon. H. W. Benchley as president 
and A. L. Burbank secretary. It did not 
prove a success, though it was in existence 
some four or five years. There are now three 
co-operative banks in successful operation in 
this city, the Worcester, incorporated in 1877; 
the Home, in 1882, and the Equity, in 1887. 
These are located in the Walker building, 405 
Main street, and Hon. Thomas J. Hastings is 
secretary and treasurer of all of them. The 
First Sii'edish Building Association, organized 
in 1886, is somewhat similar in character to 
the co-operative banks. 

Coroner. — See Medical Examiner. 

Councilor District. — The State is divided 
by the Legislature into Eight Councilor Dis- 
tricts, the last apportionment having been 
made in 1886, and will hold ten years. The 

Seventh Councilor District comprises the cities 
of Worcester and Fitchburg, and the follow- 
ing towns: Athol, Auburn, Barre, Berlin, 
Blackstone, Bolton, Boylston, Brookfield, 
Charlton, Clinton, Dana, Douglas, Dudley, 
Gardner, Grafton, Hardwick, Harvard, Hol- 
den, Hopedale, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Lei- 
cester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Mendon, Mil- 
ford, Millbury, New Braintree, Northborough, 
Northbridge, North Brookfield, Oakham, Ox- 
ford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Prince- 
ton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, Southborough, 
Southbridge, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sterling, 
Sutton, Templeton, Upton, Uxbridge, War- 
ren, Westborough, Webster, West Brookfield, 
West Boylston, Westminster, in Worcester 
County, and Amherst, Belchertown, Enfield, 
Granby, Greenwich, Hadley, Pelham, Pres- 
cott. South Hadley and Ware, in Hampshire 
County. The above towns are comprised in 
the First, Second, Third and Fourth Worces- 
ter, and the Worcester and Hampshire Sen- 
atorial Districts. 

County House. — See Jail. 

Court Hill. — At the north end of Main 
street. The County Court Houses are 
situated here. There were formerly three 
parallel roads at this point, at different grades, 
like terraces. The middle road was discontin- 
ued in 1832 by vote of the town. The bank 
wall was begun in 1852 and completed the next 
year. The stone steps in front of the granite 
Court House, which descend into Main street, 
were provided by the County Commissioners, 
the City paying the expense of putting them in 

Court Houses. — The two County Court 
Houses are located on Court Hill. The brick 
edifice was erected in 1802, and is used mostly 
for criminal sessions. The Granite Court 
House was completed in 1845, ^^^ cost $100, 
000. A wing was added in 1878. Here are 
held the sessions of the Supreme and the 
Superior Courts, and the Probate and Insol- 
vency Courts. The Registry of Deeds, Registry 
of Probate and other county offices are also 
located in this building. 

The Central District Court occupies a part 
of the old Armory Building in Waldo street. 

Court Mills. — The buildings which long 
stood at the entrance to Union street, in 
Lincoln square, on the site of the present 



Salisbury building. These mills were erected 
and owned by Hon. Stephen Salisbury, and 
were occupied by the Ruggles, Nourse & 
Mason Co., later the Ames Plow Co., until 
the removal of the latter in 1874-5 to the new 
shop on Prescott street. The place of the 
Court mills is probably where Dr. Abraham 
Lincoln's " Trip Hammer Shop " stood, about 
the year 1800 or before. Later Earl & 
Williams had a shop here for the manufacture 
of carding and spinning machinery, and black- 
smiths' work, which was destroyed by fire 
Jan. 5, 1815. 

Courts. — The Supreme Judicial Court 
meets at Worcester (jury sitting) on the second 
Tuesday in April, and (law sitting) third Mon- 
day after second Tuesday in September. 

The Superior Court sits for civil cases the 
first Monday of March; Monday next after 
the fourth JSIonday of August, and the second 
Monday of December. For criminal cases, 
third Monday of January and October, and 
second Monday of May. 

The Central District Court sits daily for 
criminal cases, and every Saturday for civil 
cases. District comprises Worcester, Milfcury, 
Sutton, Auburn, Leicester, Paxton, West 
Boylston, Boylston, Holden and Shrewsbury. 
Samuel Utley is justice. 

The Court of Probate and Insolvency holds 
at Worcester on the first and third Tuesdays 
of every month except August. William T. 
Forbes of Westboro is judge. 

Cremation Society, (The Massachu- 
setts). — Organized April 10, 18S5, as the 
Worcester Cremation Society, and incorpor- 
ated in January 1886, as the Massachusetts 
Cremation Society. At the time of the up- 
heaval of the Mechanic street burying ground 
in 1878 the writer was, so far as he knows, the 
only outspoken advocate of cremation in Wor- 
cester, and probably the original one. The 
idea was then generally condemned as hea- 
thenish and irreligious. The prime mover in 
establishing the society was Dr. J. O. Marble, 
who in the latter part of the year 1884, began to 
agitate the matter, and spoke and wrote much 
in its favor. The first officers were : President, 
J. Evarts Greene; Vice Presidents, Edward 
L. Davis, Stephen Salisbury, Thomas H. 
Gage; Secretary, John O. Marble; Treasurer, 
P. W. Moen; Directors, F. P. Goulding, E. 
H, Russell, Rev. C. M. Lamson, S. S.Green, 

Waldo Lincoln, W. B. Chamberlain, F. H, 
Dewey, Jr., Merrick Bemis, Emerson Warner. 
The later organization was: President, Waldo 
Lincoln; Vice-President, E. L. Davis; Sec- 
retary, Dr. J. O. ISIarble; Treasurer, P. W. 
Moen; Directors, Stephen Salisbury', E. L. 
Davis, Waldo Lincoln, E. H. Russell, G. E. 
Francis, J. O. Marble, F. H. Dewey, W. B. 
Chamberlain, E. H. Brigham. The capital 
stock was $10,000, and the shares $10. Tie 
erection of a Crematory was contemplated. 
But recently a proposition from movers for the 
formation of a cremation society in Boston, to 
unite with them, and to dispose of a large part 
of the stock here to Boston parties interested 
in the subject, was accepted by vote of the 
stockholders, March 12, 1892, and the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Clerk, Dr. John 
Homans, 2d; Treasurer, John Richie; Direc- 
tors, Dr. James R. Chadwick, Dr. Henry P. 
Bowditch, Augustus Hemenway, Dr. Russell 
Sturgis, Jr., and Babson S. Ladd, all of Bos- 
ton; Stephen Salisbury and Dr. J. O Marble 
of Worcester. Two Boston Ladies are also on 
the directorate. 

It is expected that $15,000 will be subscribed 
in Boston in addition to the $10,000 taken 
here, making up the entire capital stock of 
$25,000. Then a lot will be purchased and a 
crematory erected as speedily as possible. 
This should be placed in some locality remote 
from any cemetery, where that which is mortal 
can be resolved into its original elements free 
from surroundings or suggestions of 

" Corruption, earth and worms." 

Those w'ho do not regard the method with 
favor because it is not customary, or are averse 
to it through tenderness for the dead, should 
consider that in both cremation and burial the 
process of resolution and the final result are 
the same; in the one case rapid, pure and 
complete; in the other slow, with all the 
horrible and disgusting accompaniments of 
prolonged decay. 

Cricket and Foot-Ball.— The Worcester 
City Cricket and Foot-Ball Club was organized 
in 1886. 

About the year 1855 the Worcester Cricket 
Club was organized, and was quite prominent 
in this section for a number of years, playing 
frequently on the Common, and occasionally 
going out of town. Nathaniel Paine, William 
S. Davis, Henry A. Marsh, Lewis W. Ham- 



mond, and C. M. Bent were well-known 

Crompton Park. — Between Millbury street 
and Quinsigamond avenue. Contains about 
12 acres. This land was purchased of the 
Crompton heirs in 1888 for $44,350. 

Curtis Chapel. — A beautiful building erec- 
ted at Hope Cemetery by Albert Curtis, Esq., 
and by him presented to the City, January 31, 
1891. The material is granite with brown- 
stone trimmings. The tower over the entrance, 
and the stained glass windows give it an ap- 
propriate appearance. The interior is finished 
with faced brick. The pulpit and seats are of 
polished ash. 

Curtis Pond. — The large sheet of water at 
New Worcester, above the mills of Curtis & 
Marble, between Webster aud Leicester streets. 

Cycling. — The brief furor over the clumsy 
and rattling velocipede of twenty years 
ago will be remembered by many. At that 
time a " riding school " was opened in the top 
story of Sargent's building, (since burned off) 
at the entrance to Southbridge street, and was 
popular for a season. The use of this cumber- 
some vehicle was, however, confined to those 
whose enthusiasm was far in advance of their 
judgment, and after a few months it disappear- 
ed. The modern bicycle was then an un- 
thought of thing. The idea originated in 
England. The first bicycle made in America 
was built in Worcester at Stowe's shop on 
Cypress street, in April, 1878, by W. H. 
Pierce, an Englishman. This was a 52-inch 
machine and was constructed for Hill & 
Tolman. April 9, 1879, the Worcester Bi- 
cycle Club was formed with F. S. Pratt, Presi- 
dent and Captain; W. H. Pierce, Sub-Captain; 
and Geo. M. Doe, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Another club of the same name has since ex- 
isted but is not now active. In 1882 the ^-Eolus 
Club was formed, and later the Bay State. 
Hill & Tolman, on Front Street, were the 
pioneer dealers in bicycles in Worcester, and 
carried on an extensive business in this line. 
Lincoln Holland & Co. also had a salesroom. 

The Cycling Clubs of Worcester at present 
are the Bay State Bicycle Club (organized Feb. 
5, 1887); Columbus Cycle Club; V.M.C. A. 
Wheelmen; and the (Y. W. C. A.) Hickory 
Cycle Club. The Bay State is the oldest and 
the largest club. The annual Cycling Tourna- 
ment, which has been held by the Bay State 

Club for four years past, and the Spring Meet 
of the Massachusetts Division of the League of 
American Wheelmen are the greatest cycling 
events in Central Massachusetts. Owing to the 
introduction of the safety type machine, the 
number of riders in this city has increased three- 
fold. The dealers at present are Lemont & 
Whittemore, L. C. Havener, L. M. Alexan- 
der, and John Lowe. The first named manu- 
facture a safety lock for bicycles that is much 
preferable to the chain and padlock. 

Daily Papers. — The Spy and Telegram^ 
morning papers; and the Gazette and Post 
issued in the afternoon, comprise the dailies at 
present. See under the different titles in the 

Dale Hospital. — A hospital for invalid 
soldiers established by the Government in 
1864, and continued for a few months. The 
Medical College building on Union hill (now 
the Worcester Academy), was occupied for 
the purpose, and in addition 14 barracks, each 
capable of accomodating 60 patients were 
erected, with a number of store houses, work- 
shops, etc. The hospital was in charge of 
Maj. C. N. Chamberlin, and at times 600 
were under his care. The establishment was 
first occupied Oct. 24, 1864, and formally 
dedicated Feb. 22, 1865. It received its 
name from Surgeon-General Dale. 

Daughters of Pocahontas. — There are 
two councils in Worcester: IVeetamo, A'o. j, 
organized in 1887; and Muinehaha, A^o ^. 

Daughters of St. George. — See British 

Daughters of Samaria. (United order 
of). — Supreme Council, and Lodge No. I, 
was instituted in 1887. 

Daughters of Veterans. — See Grand 

Davis Park. — A small open plot of ground 
in Clinton street, named in honor of Isaac 

Day Nursery. — See Temporary Home and 
Day Xursery. 

Deathville. — A village in the town of 
Rutland, now known as West Rutland, some 
ten miles from Worcester. There is a Post- 
office here. The place received its name from 
the circumstance that Foster Death, a promin- 
ent manufacturer, owned a factory there about 
sixty years ago. 



Deeds, (Registry of).— See Registry. 
Depots. — See Railroad Stations. 

Dental Society. — The Worcester Dental 
Society was organized in 1889. The Directory 
of 1892 gives the names of 48 Dentists in 

Debt of the City for each year since its 
incorporation : 

1848, $ 99,677 1870, $1,185,718 

1849, 95,633 1871, 1,899,808 

1850, 96,996 1872, 2,456,788 

1851, 97.241 1873, 2,687,910 

1852, 101,829 1874, 1,238,000 

1853, 108,758 1875, 1,711,000 

1854, 98,567 1876, 2,589,700 

1855, 98,435 1877, 2,492,300 

1856, 118,955 ^878, 2,509,200 

1857, 102,993 1879, 2,507,100 

1858, 100,188 1880, 2,542,300 

1859, 99,553 1881, 2,580,200 
i860, 99,429 1882, 2,582,300 

1861, 102,324 1883, 2,652,700 

1862, 129,319 1884, 2,947,700 

1863, 208,414 1885, 3,112,700 

1864, 214,759 1886, 3,389,700 

1865, 364,459 1887, 3,506,700 

1866, 424,418 1888, 3,383,700 

1867, 458,395 1889, 3>595,700 

1868, 619,946 1890, 3,930,700 

1869, 773,290 1891, 3,988,400 
The Sinking Fund, Dec. i, 1891, amount- 
ed to $1,287,501. 

Devil's Alley. — The narrow passage way 
from Walnut to Sudbury street, which shortens 
so much the distance from Harvard street. 
This narrow strip was conveyed to the City to 
be kept open for public convenience. 

Directories of Worcester. — In 1829 
Clarendon Harris published a Village Direc- 
tory accompanied by a copper-plate map. 
This was a "House Directory" similiar in 
plan to the one issued in 1888 by Drew, Allis 
& Co., which they have elaborated in the is- 
sues of 1890 and 1892. A Business Directory 
was pubHshed in 1843 by A. W. Congdon. 
Henry J. Howland began the publication of 
the present " Worcester Directory " in 1844. 
The first number was a 241110. of 116 pages, 
and contained 1249 names. Twelve hundred 
copies were printed. Mr. Howland sold the 
Directory to Drew, Allis & Co., in 1872, and 
they have published it continuously to the 

present time. It is now a stout octavo of 
nearly 900 pages, with 39,084 names. 

Disciples of Christ. — This church was or- 
ganized Aug. 5, i860, and for twenty-five 
years held its meetings on Thomas street. The 
present church edifice on Main street, at King 
street, was dedicated September 12, 1886, and 
cost about $25,000. 

Dispensaries. — The Washburn Free Dis- 
pensary was established in 1874, and first 
occupied part of the old Abijah Bigelow house, 
at the corner of Front and Church streets. 
When that building was taken down the Dis- 
pensary was removed to No. 1 1 Trumbull 
street, and is now finally located at the Wash- 
burn Memorial Hospital on Belmont street, of 
which institution it is a branch. It is open 
every day except Sundays. 

The Homixpathic Free Dispensary, formerly 
at 13 Mechanic street, and now at 11 Trumbull 
street, is under the management of the Worces- 
ter Homcepathic Dispensary Association. Pa- 
tients are treated daily from 10 to 1 1 a.m., 
Sundays and holidays excepted, and visits are 
made when required. 

Dodge Park. — A public ground of 13 acres 
in the northerly part of Worcester, situated 
between West Boylston and Burncoat streets, 
in the vicinity of the Odd Fellows' Home. 
This Park was presented to the City, October 
7, 1890, by Thomas H. Dodge, Esq. 

Dogs. — The law requires that all dogs 
three months old and over shall be licensed, 
and the licenses renewed annually on the first 
of May. The fee in Worcester is $3 for males, 
and $6 for females. The licenses are issued 
by the City Clerk at his office in the City Hall. 

Drainage. — See Sewerage. 

Drama, (The) — See under Theatres. 

Dry Goods Trade. — Capt. John Lyon kept 
a small dry goods store in Worcester in the 
early part of the century, and was succeeded 
by his widow. Eliza Bancroft (afterwards 
the wife of Hon. John Davis), opened a shop 
in 181 1, and dealt in the finer and fancy 
goods. She was followed by Elizabeth Denny 
in the same line. Henry M. Sikes was one of 
the earliest to engage in the dry goods trade 
exclusively. He was in business in Worcester 
from 181 7 to 1827. D. G. Wheeler began 
in 1828, and was the first to advertise exten- 



sively. Others of this period were Jonathan 
Wood, 1822; A. and C. A. Hamilton, 1827; 
\Vm. Manning, Jr., 1828; W. H. Swan, 
1829; and later Swan & Williams; Thayer 
& Daniels, 1830; E. & R. Sanger and E. 
A. Brigham, 1832; H. B. Chaflin, afterwards 
the well-known New York merchant, was in 

trade here from li 

to 1843, ^^'^ ^^'^s suc- 

ceeded by Hardon & Hunt. D. S. Messinger 
opened a store in 1834, and continued several 
years. - Among those more or less prominent 
from 1835 to 1845, were Richardson & Esta- 
brook, Orrin Rawson, (succeeded by Martin 
Stowe), Julius L. Clark, B. F. Mann, J. H. 
Rickett, J. H. Everett and C. A. Upton, the 
latter continuing many years. H.H. Chamber- 
lin, the founder of the present house of the 
Barnard, Sumner & Putnam Co., established 
the business in 1835. H.H. Dayton was the 
pioneer in the fine lace and glove trade in 
1849, and was followed by Gross & Strauss 
in 1855, J. H. Clarke & Co. represent an- 
other old house in the general line, founded in 
1847. The Denholm & McKay Co., succes- 
sors of Denholm & McKay, succeeded. Finlay, 
Lawson & Kennedy, and they J. S. Pink- 
ham, who opened a store at the corner of Main 
and Mechanic streets, some thirty years ago. 

Dungarven. — The region south of the 
Bloomingdale road and west of Suffolk street, 
well-known in police circles. The name is of 
Irish origin. Also known as Dutch hill. 

East Park. — By an act of the Legislature 
approved June 16, 1887, the city was granted 
the right to hold, occupy and control free of 
rent or charge by the Commonwealth, all the 
land belonging to the State lying between 
Shrewsbury street and East Shelby street, 
(part of the old Hospital tract) for the purpose 
of constructing and maintaining a Public Park. 
The tract thus acquired, containing from ten 
to twelve acres, has formally received the 
name of East Park from the Parks Commission. 
With the Chandler hill portion on the north, a 
public ground of nearly fifty acres is formed, 
extending from Shrewsbury street to Belmont 

Election or Voting Precincts. — See 

Electric Lights. — The public streets were 
first lighted by electricity in 1883. There are 
now 332 lights furnished by the Worcester 
Electric Light Co., which cost 55 cents each 
per night. 

Electric Railways. — Worcester was slow 
to adopt electricity as a motive power. The 
Worcester, Leicester and Spencer Railroad 
was the first to apply the agency, this road 
being opened to travel September 8, 1891. 
The Consolidated Street Railway, however, 
made the first trip over the short line from 
Washington square to Lake Quinsigamond by 
electricity just before midnight, September 2, 
1 891, and the road was open to traffic Septem- 
ber 4. The Laurel Hill line from Main street 
through Thomas was opened December 30, 
1891. The Worcester and Millbury Electric 
Railroad is soon to be constructed, and half a 
dozen other lines are projected. It is proba- 
ble that electricity will be used exclusively on 
all the lines of the Consolidated in the near 

Elm Park. — Bounded by Elm, Agricultural, 
Pleasant and Highland streets. March 15, 
1854, the City purchased of Levi Lincoln, 13 
acres and 70 rods of land, and of John Ham- 
mond 13 acres and 73 rods adjoining, for a 
public park. The sum paid for the two lots 
was $11,257.50. Hon. Levi Lincoln left at 
his death in 1868, $1000 as a fund for the im- 
provement of the park. The tract remained 
unimproved for twenty years, and was used 
during that time as a place for circuses and 
other exhibitions, but had few of the features 
of a public pleasure ground. Under the ef- 
ficient direction of Edward W. Lincoln of the 
Parks Commission, a wonderful transformation 
has taken place during the last ten years, and 
the park is now the most attractive public 
ground and the best thing in Worcester. In 
the winter the ponds are much resorted to for 
skating. The recent acquisition of Newton 
Hill, added to the original tract, opens to the 
public one of the finest prospects in the City. 
Cars go direct from Main street to the Park. 

Elm Square. — See Grafton Square. 

Emergency and Hygiene Association,— 

TJie Worcester Braiich. "In the winter of 
1883, the Woman's Education Association — 
following the example of the St. John Ambu- 
lance Association, organized in London in 
1877, and of the State Charities Aid Association 
of New York, which established courses of 
lectures on "First Aid to the Injured," in 
1882, — began a similar work in Boston. It 
undertook to provide, for both men and 
women, instruction which should fit them 


to be of use in cases of sudden illness or ac- 
cident. Seven courses of lectures to free 
classes, and three to paying classes, were 
given, the money received from the latter 
serving to defray the expenses of the former. 
As the value of these lectures became more 
fully recognized the work was carried forward 
with increased vigor in the following year. 
From January I to May i, 1884, twenty-five 
courses of lectures, with practical demonstra- 
tions, were given, of which eight were to 
policemen and two to firemen. Each lecture 
occupied an hour, and was invariably followed 
by conversation between members of the class 
and the lecturer, with further demostration, 
which often continued more than another hour. 
The close of each course was followed by an 
examination, and by the awarding of certificates 
to those who passed it successfully. 

The work above described having outgrown 
the limits imposed by the regulations of the 
Woman's Education Association, a new body 
was formed under the name of the Massachu- 
setts Emergency and Hygiene Association^ 
having the purpose to extend the work through 
the State, with Dr. Francis Minot as Presi- 
dent, Miss Ellen M. Tower as Secretary, and 
Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Many influential pro- 
fessional and business men were active in the 
organization, as well as several ladies well- 
known by their interest in practical philan- 
thropy. Mrs. Wells was especially prominent 
in the undertaking. Branches were established 
in different places in the State. The Worces- 
ter Branch began under very favorable con- 
ditions in November, 1885, and the following 
winter seven courses of lectures were given by 
prominent physicians to policemen, firemen, 
employees of several of the large manufactories, 
and others. This service has been repeated 
each year to the present time, with increasing 
zeal and interest in the work. Following sub- 
stantially the plan and example of the central 
organization, the Worcester Branch has, 
through its various and efficient committees, 
carried out the purpose for which it was or- 
ganized in a satisfactory degree, but for want 
of space a detailed account of its efforts, meth- 
ods and results cannot be given here. The 
vice-presidents and those associated in the 
management and direction of the association 
comprise many of our most respected citizens 
and best known physicians. The Chairman 
of the Executive Committee is Dr. William C. 

Stevens and Prof. George E. Gladwin has 
been the Secretary from the beginning. 

Ernmet Guards. — This company was 
formed in i860, and first paraded in public on 
the nth of July, under command of M. J. 
McCafferty. It was and is composed entirely 
of Irishmen, and took the place of the Jack- 
son Guards, disbanded by Gov. Gardner, 
during the Know-Nothing frenzy. The Em- 
met Guards served with the Third Battalion in 
Maryland, in 1861. The company is now 
known as Co. G. of the Ninth Regiment In- 
fantry, M. V. M. 

Empire State Society. — An association 
composed of natives of New York state and 
members of their families, formed in 1885. 

Employment Society, (The Worces- 
ter). — This society had its origin in the or- 
ganization known as the People's Club, which 
was formed in 1871, with Hon. Henry Chapin 
as president. The active work of the Club 
comprised three sections, viz. : Benevolent, 
hospitality and educational. The benevolent 
section was subdivide(Finto three departments, 
from one of which — the Employment Commit- 
tee — has come the above named society. 
From a report of the Benevolent Section of 
the Club in 1873 the following is quoted: 
"The relief committee sent women, whom 
they find in want of work, to the employment 
committee, and thus the way is opened for the 
flower mission to send its sweet messengers to 
homes of poverty, sickness and suftering." 
The reports of the club, in the three years of 
its existence, give abundant evidence of satis- 
factory work accomplished in all the lines 
undertaken. But through the reluctance of 
those who thoroughly believed in its methods 
to apply themselves practically to the work, 
the club through lack of sufficient support in 
this direction, was at last given up. The 
evenings with the newsboys were continued 
for some time, under the charge of ten ladies 
and gentlemen, who gave themselves most 
heartily to the work, which, though very diffi- 
cult, was manifestly accomplishing much by 
means of its civilizing, refining and educating 
influences; but for want of a generous re- 
sponse in the way of workers, this, too, was 
abandoned. (See Boys' Club.) 

The employment committee was organized 
into a society, and its first annual treasurer's 
report appeared as a single small sheet in 
1875-6. A board of managers was formed of 



ladies representing the different churches. In 
1883 an act of incorporation was secured 
under the present name " for the purpose of 
assisting needy and deserving women by giving 
them employment." The different churches 
are represented, the managers acting as solic- 
itors in their respective churches. Each 
church receives in return twenty-five per cent, 
of its subscriptions in garments suitable for 
charitable distribution, the garments being 
disposed of at cost of making simply. It is 
believed that offering them at this low figure 
serves also in another charitable direction, by 
enabling those who have much need for family 
sewing and little time in which to do it, to 
buy strong and serviceable garments. The 
visiting committee are allowed $100 worth of 
the same to distribute among these women. 
The officers may dispose of clothing to the 
amount of $10 each. The number of women 
employed is 55. The visiting committee num- 
bers II, each one of whom has the responsi- 
bility of recommending five women. As far 
as can possibly be assured each woman em- 
ployed must be honest and temperate. Most 
of those who come under the charge of the 
society are advanced in }ears, and left entirely 
to themselves for means of support, with few 
exceptions. Others are younger — widows, or 
deserted by their husbands — with large fami- 
lies to care for. Working naturally with the 
church benevolent societies, more or less, and 
in the absence of any association or bureau of 
charities, this organization has been able oft- 
entimes to supply in a limited way, this de- 
ficiency in our city. 

The society has funds from legacies and 
other sources to the amount of about $3,500. 
The officers are : President, Mrs. Theo. Brown ; 
Vice-President, Mrs. M. F. Pratt; Clerk, Miss 
Martha Hobbs; Treasurer, Miss Mary N. 
Perley. There is a board of advisors of five 
gentlemen, and a board of lady managers from 
the different churches. Rooms at 492 Main 

Episcopal Churches. — An attempt to es- 
tablish Episcopal worship here was made in 
1835, and the first Protestant-Episcopal ser- 
vices were held here on December 13th, by 
the Rev. Thomas H. Vail. In 1843, another 
effort was made which succeeded, and in 1847 
All Saints' Church v/as erected on Pearl street, 
on the lot now occupied by the fine stone 
residence of Dr. J. O. Marble, generally 

known as the Dr. Bull house. This church 
was burned April 7, 1874, and the society 
purchased the lot at the corner of Pleasant 
and Irving streets, and erected the elegant 
brown stone structure in present occupation, 
which was consecrated Jan. 4, 1877. Rev. 
William R. Huntington, now rector of Grace 
Church, New York, was rector here from 
1862 to 1883. Rev. A. H. Vinton is the 
present rector. In 1871, St. Matthew's 
Church at South W^orcester was consecrated. 
St. John's on Lincoln street, and St. Mark's 
on Freeland street were formed in 1884 and 

1888 respectively. 

Episcopal Church Club. — Organized in 

1889 for social and literary purposes, and 
bears the same relation to the Episcopal 
Church as the Congregational Club does to 
the church it represents. 

Epvvorth League, — An organization in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church similar in 
character to the Young People's Society of 
Christian Endeavor. (See Christian Endeav- 
or^). The Epworth League was organized 
May 15, 1889, in Cleveland, Ohio, from the 
five societies then existing among the young 
people of the M. E. Church. These five 
societies were: i. The Oxford League; 2, 
Young People's Methodist Alliance; 3, Young 
People's Christian League ; 4, Methodist 
Young People's Union ; 5, Young People's 
Methodist Episcopal Alliance. The first char- 
ter was given to the church in Plainfield, New 
Jersey, the church home of Dr. J. L. Hurlburt, 
who is General Secretary of the Leagne. 

Worcester Leagues were organized as fol- 
lows: I, Trinity, Oct., 1889; 2, Grace, Oct. 
1889; 3, Laural Street; 4, Coral Street, Nov. 
17, 1890; 5, Webster Square, April 21, 1890; 
6, Thomas Street, (Swedish), May, 1892; 7, 
Bethel A. M. Church, (colored). 

The number of charter of Trinity is 584; 
Grace 582; Coral Street, Haven Chapter, 
4206; and Webster Square, 585. 

Membership of the Worcester Leagues, May 
20, 1892: I, 168; 2, 120; 3, 60; 4, 102; 5, 
47; 6, 30. 

Total membership of the League at its third 
anniversary. May 15, 1892, nearly 500,000. 
There are over 8000 Chapters. These figures 
apply only to the M. E. Church. There are 
many flourishing leagues in the M. E. Church 
South and in Canada. 



Epworth in England was the birthplace of 
John Wesley. 

Eucleia. — See High School Societies. 

Exchange Hotel. — At the corner of Main 
and Market streets, is the oldest hotel in 
Worcester, known a hundred years ago as 
the " United States Arms." Washington 
breakfasted here in 1789, on his way to 
Boston, and Lafayette svas a guest in 1825. 
Reuben Sikes, a large owner of stage lines, 
kept the house from 1807 to 1823, and 
it was known during this period as Sikes' 
Coffee House. Samuel B. Thomas succeeded, 
and it became Thomas' Temperance Exchange 
Coffee House, and later as the Exchange. It 
has been much resorted to by jurymen and 
others attending court. 

Executions. — The Dictionary is indebted 
to Hon. Clark Jillson for the following list of 
executions in Worcester : 

1737, Hugh Henderson, alias John Hamil- 
ton, for burglary. 

1742, Jabez Green, for murder. 

1744, Edward Fitzpatrick, for murder. 

1745, Jefifry, a negro, for murder. 
1768, Arthur, a negro, for rape. 
1770, William Lindsey, for burglary. 

1778, William Brooks, James Buchanan, 
Ezra Ross and Bathsheba Spooner, for mur- 

1779, Robert Young, for rape. 

1783, William Huggins and John Mansfield, 
for burglary. 

1786, Johnson Green, for burglary. 

1793, Samuel Frost, for murder. 

1825, Horace Carter, for rape. 

1845, Thomas Barrett, for murder. This 
was the first private execution in the county. 

1868, Silas and Charles T. James, for mur- 

1876, Samuel J. Frost for murder. 

Explosions. — There have been several 
serious explosions in Worcester, the most re- 
markable of which was the dualin explosion 
on the Boston & Albany railroad, near the 
Junction, June 23, 1870, when one man was 
killed, thirty persons injured, and many build- 
ings shattered. On the 3d of May, 1850, an 
attempt to blow up Mayor Chapin's office, at 
the corner of Main and Sudbury streets, re- 
sulted in considerable damage to the bruilding. 
This affair grew out of the temperance agita- 
tion, and the principal of the conspiracy fled. 

Jan. I, 1859, an engine house in the school 
yard, corner of Pleasant and Oxford streets, 
was totally destroyed by an explosion of gas, 
and on the 22d of July, of the same year, the 
boiler at the wire mill on Grove street, 30 
feet long, 4 feet in diameter, and weighing 5 
tons, exploded, shattering the building, in- 
jured several workmen, shot into the air 300 
feet, and landed in a yard on Lincoln street, 
^ of a mile distant. Mayor Blake lost his life 
by a gas explosion on the i6th of December, 

Express Business. — Before the railroads 
were in operation every stage-driver and post- 
rider performed the functions of an express- 
man. The pioneer in this country of the 
express business as carried on to-day was 
Rufus W. Whiting, who kept a shoe store in 
Worcester as early as 1833. In the Spy of 
Nov. 21, 1838, he advertised that he had 
made arrangements with the Boston & Wor- 
cester Railroad Company to occupy part of a 
car, and that he would make daily trips each 
way, and attend to the business of his patrons, 
beginning Monday, Nov. 26. It is uncertain 
how long Mr. Whiting continued his trips 
between Worcester and Boston, but he proba- 
bly retired before 1840. It is said he was the 
first to engage in the milk traffic over a rail- 
road by transporting it from the country towns 
into Boston. On the first day of August, 
1840, Samuel S. Leonard established the bus- 
iness so long known by his name, and contin- 
ued by his sons. The same year Harnden's 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Balti- 
more Express was established, with Simeon 
Thompson as agent in Worcester; and soon 
after P. B. Burke and Alvin Adams founded 
the company which bears the name of Adams 
Express at the present time. J. B. Tyler was 
their agent in Worcester. Harnden run the 
first express over the Western Railroad, but 
abandoned it after a year's trial. Thompson 
& Co.'s express to Albany was early estab- 
lished, and the present American Express Co. 
is their successor. In 1847 Johnson, Mowton 
& Co. started an opposition express between 
Worcester and Boston, which was discontin- 
ued in 1848. William Ross's express from 
Providence to Worcester began with the run- 
ning of the railroad in 1847; and Liberty 
Bigelow established the express afterwards 
owned by Cheney & Fisk, and now called the 
United States and Canada, running over the 



Worcester & Nashua Railroad. In 1856 
Caleb S. Fuller, formerly a conductor on the 
Norwich & Worcester Railroad established 
the Norwich express, which was continued by 
his son, Theo. S. Fuller. 

In i860 Earle's Boston and Providenec 
Express, Ross's Providence and Worcester, 
and the Leonard Boston and Worcester, con- 
solidated under the name of the Earle Express 
Company, with a capital stock of $150,000. 
This company controlled the approaches to 
Boston from the south and west, and the 
Adams Express Company were obliged to 
forward their local freight for eastern Massa- 
chusetts in charge of the Earle company. 
After considerable effort the Adams purchased 
the stock and franchise of the Earle, and the 
latter ceased to exist. The present Boston 
and Worcester Despatch was established by 
T. W. Davis in 1872. Previous to this J. H. 
Osgood had made trips for a year or two. 
Gen. S. H. Leonard, of the old Leonard 
Company, is concerned in the present man- 
agement of the Boston & Worcester Despatch. 

Express Companies and Expresses. — 


Adams, 375 Main street. 
American, 30 Front street. 
Boston & Worcester Despatch, 18 Foster 

Eastern Despatch, 19 Mechanic street. 
Metropolitan, 10 Church street. 

Barre, 18 Foster street. 
Farnumsville, 404 Main street. 
Grafton, 24 Mechanic street. 
Holden, 154 Main street. 
Leicester, 18 Foster street. 
Millbury, 404 Main and 18 Foster streets. 
Oakdale, 18 Foster street. 
Oxford, 18 Foster street. 
Paxton, 6 North Foster street. 
Shrewsbury, 139 Front street. 
Spencer, 7 Park street. 
Upton, 6 Norwich street. 
West Boylston, 139 Front street. 
West Rutland, 24 Front street. 

Eyrie, (The). — The high elevation on the 
Shrewsbury side of Lake Quinsigamond, south 
of the causeway, improved and owned for 
many years by Mr. T. C. Rice, who main- 
tained a house of popular resort, much fre- 

quented in the summer season. A delightful 
view of the Lake may be had from this place. 

Fairmount. — In 1846 Dr. John Green 
purchased of Eli Goulding a tract of land 
north of Rural Cemetery, comprising 94 acres 
and 74 rods, for $7,000. This included the 
eminence known as Fairmount. Dr. Green 
sold a strip of this land to the Nashua Rail- 
road Company for $1,000; and in 1 849 David 
S. Messinger bought the remainder, about 90 
acres, for $14,000. Mr. Messinger improved 
the tract for building, laying out several 
streets, to which he gave names noted in lit- 
erature. He also gave the name Fainnoitnf 
to the locality, which is often, though incor- 
rectly, called Messinger Hill. Fairmount 
square, on the summit, was recently deeded to 
the city by Mr. Messinger. Street cars go 
through Grove street. 

Father Mathew Hall. — No. 100 Green 
street. This hall was erected in 1888 by the 
Father Mathew Mutual Benefit Total Absti- 
nence Society at a cost of $30,000. The seat- 
ing capacity is 1,000. 

Father Mathew Mutual Benefit Total 
Abstinence Society. — See under Irish So- 

Father Mathew Pioneer Corps. — Or- 
ganized in 1889, and meets Tuesday evenings 
at Father Mathew Hall. 

Field Sports Association, (Worcester.) 

— Was organized in 1891 with a capital of 

Fires. — The following comprise some of 
the most disastrous fires that have occurred 
in Worcester: February 18, 1815, the bake- 
house of the Flagg Brothers and house of 
Samuel Brazer were totally destroyed. Loss 
$10,000. On the same spot, on the 29th of 
January, 1854, was burned the Flagg build- 
ings, with a loss of $50,000. The old Cen- 
tral Exchange and other buildings were burned 
March 6, 1843. The Bradley & Rice car 
shops in Washington Square were destroyed 
May 12, 1842. Loss $20,000. Holy Cross 
College was burned in July, 1852. The Mer- 
rifield fire occurred June 16, 1854, and was 
the most destructive of all the fires in Worces- 
ter. The pecuniary loss was half a million, 
and many establishments were burned out and 
hundreds of workmen were thrown out of em- 
ployment, {^t^ Merrifield Buildings. ') The 



fire next to this in magnitude of loss was at 
Taylor's building opposite the Common, May 

28, 1875. May 16, 1884, the Pakachoag 
Mills were burned. Two or three lives were 
lost and many operatives injured. The loss 
was nearly $150,000. The Worcester Theatre 

on Exchange street was totally destroyed on 

the morning of May 16, 1889. 

Fire Alarm Telegraph. —Number and 
location of signal boxes: 

12 Chandler street, near Main 
121 Piedmont street, corner Davis 

13 Webster square 

131 Leicester street, corner Montague 

132 Webster and West Fremont streets 
134 jamesville 

14 School street. Hose No. 1 House 
141 Loring & Blake's, 19 Union street 

15 Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company 
152 Electric Light Station 

16 Southbridge and Sargent streets 

17 ^Liin and Foster streets 

18 ^.incoln and Catherine streets 

19 Grove and North streets 
21 Main and May streets 

213 Main and "VVyman streets 

23 Union street,' Rice, Barton & Fales 
231 Foster street, Cutting & Bishop 

24 Southbridge & Southgate streets 

25 No. 26 Salisbury street 

26 Madison and Portland streets 
261 Salem street, City Barn 

27 Pleasant and We"st streets 
271 Pleasant and Chestnut streets 

28 Millbury and Worth streets 

281 AVard and Taylor streets 

282 ^Vard and South AVard streets 

29 Tatnuck 

291 Chandler and June streets 

31 Main and Richards streets 

32 Exchange and Union streets 
321 Insane Asylum, Summer street 
324 Summer and Charles streets 

333 No School Signal, struck 7.50 A. M. and i P. M. 

34 Green and Bradley streets 

341 Fox and Ingalls streets 

342 Columbia and Arlington streets 

35 Winthrop and Vernon streets 

351 Union avenue and Batchelder street 

36 Front and Spring streets 

37 Highland and North Ashland streets 
371 West street. Polytechnic Institute 

38 Salisbury street, opposite Military Academy 

39 Vailev Falls 
4 City Hall 

41 Summer and Thomas streets 
416 Hanover and Arch streets 

42 Southbridge and Cambridge streets 

43 Qjiinsigamond W'ire Mill 

431 Millbury and Greenwood streets 

45 Shrewsbury and East Worcester streets 

451 Prospect street and Eastern avenue 

452 East Central street and Eastern .ivenue 

453 Albany street. Malleable Iron Works 

46 Grafton street, Hose No. 2 House 

47 Belmont street and Oak avenue 
471 Belmont street and Eastern avenue 

48 Southgate and Camp streets 

Cambridge and Canterbury streets 

Park avenue and May street 

Park avenue and Shirley street 

Trumbull Square 

Lincoln Square 

State and Harvard streets 

Prescott street, Richardson ^Manufacturing Co. 

Prescott street, near North 

Providence and Harrison streets 

Belmont street, AVorcester Lunatic Hospital 

Plantation street, near Di-aper's 

Plantation street, opposite Hospital Barns 

Coburn avenue, near Bolmont street 

Chestnut and William streets 

Hermon street, W. C. Young & Co.'s 

^Voodland and King streets 

Lincoln street, corner Green Lane 

Laurel and Edward streets 

Gardner street, Forehand & Wadsworth 

Orange and Plymouth streets 

AVashington and Gold streets 

Washington Square 

Bloomingdale road, Steel W^orks 

Grafton and Barclay streets 

Elm and Linden streets 

Pleasant street. Engine No. 4 House 

Pleasant and Highland streets 

Bloomingdale road. Tannery 

Norfolk and Ascension streets 

Grafton Square 

Orient and Division streets 

Laraartine street, Hose No. 7 House 

Central and Main streets 

Austin and Newbury streets 

Wellington street, opposite Jaques avenue 

Dix and Wachusett streets 

Windsor street and Harrington avenue 

M.ay and Woodland streets 

West and William streets 

Elm and Sever streets 

Lake Vie^v 

Irving and Chatham streets 

City Poor Farm 

Cambridge and^Pitt streets 

Park avenue and Sunnyside street 

Brussels street, Pakachoag Mills 

Benefit and Beacon streets 

Putnam lane 

Franklin Square 

West Boylston and Millbrook streets 

Chandler and Dewey streets 

Pleasant street and Park avenue 

Coes Square 

Charlotte and Clifton streets 

Adams vSquare 

Fire Department. — The Worcester Fire 
Department was established February 25, 
1835. Previous to that time the town relied 
upon volunteer organizations, the principal of 
which was the Worcester Fire Society noticed 
below. The Mutual Fire Society, formed in 
1822, was another body of similar character, 
and there was also a hook and ladder com- 
pany. The Town Fire Department was or- 
ganized by the choice of Isaac Davis as chief 
engineer and a board of eight assistants. A 
list of chief engineers to the present time is 
here given: Isaac Davis, 1835-6; Nathan 










Heard, 1837-9; Henry W. Miller, 1840-44; 
Joel Wilder, 1845-9; E. N. Holmes, 1850- 
54; L. W. Sturtevant, 1855-58; S. A. Por- 
ter, 1859; L. R. Hudson, i860; Alzirus 
Brown, 1861-65; A. B. Lovell, 1866-68; R. 
M. Gould, 1869-71; Simon E. Coombs, 1872- 
91, and Edwin L. Vaughn, at present in 
office. Before i860, when the first steam fire 
engine was purchased, only hand engines were 
used, and some of these remained ten or 
twelve years later. The Fire Alarm Telegraph 
was constructed in 1871 and first used on the 
28th of June. It has cost $17,000. Worces- 
ter has now one of the most efficient fire de- 
partments in the countr)'. It comprises four 
steamers, two extinguishers, two hook and 
ladder companies and ten hose companies, 
with a total force of 180 men. In addition, 
the Insurance Fire Patrol numbers eight men. 
(See P) otcctive Department.^ The apparatus 
includes two Hayes trucks. The sum appropri- 
ated to maintain the department the present 
year (1892) is $106,500. 

Fire Escapes. — The public halls, hotels, 
and business and other buildings are generally 
provided with fire escapes in compliance with 
a law of the state. 

Fire Patrol. — See Protective Department. 

Firemen's Relief Association, (Wor- 
cester). — Formed in 1874 and incorporated 
in 1878. Only members of the Fire and Pro- 
tective Departments are eligible to active 
membership. In case of injury or sickness a 
fireman draws $10 per week, and may receive 
further assistance. The association has a fund 
of several thousand dollars. 

Fire Society, (The Worcester). — On 

the 2ist day of January, 1793, twenty-two 
prominent citizens of Worcester, "influenced 
by a sense of social duty," and " for the more 
effectual assistance of each other and of their 
townsmen, in times of danger from fire," 
formed themselves into an association, with 
the title above given. Among the names 
subscribed to the first agreement we find those 
of Hon. Joseph Allen, Judge Nathaniel Paine, 
Dr. John Green, Hon. Edward Bangs, Dr. 
Elijah Dix, Stephen Salisbury, Daniel Waldo, 
and Isaiah Thomas; and many distinguished 
names have since been placed upon its rolls. 
Governors Lincoln, Davis, Washburn and Bul- 
lock, United States Senators Davis and Hoar, 

Messrs. Francis Blake, E. D. Bangs, S. M. 
Burnside, Pliny Merrick, Thomas Kinnicutt, 
A. D. Foster, I. M. Barton, S. F. Haven, 
Dwight Foster and Charles Devens are among 
those who have at different periods graced the 
meetings of the Society with their presence. 
The organization from the first was largely of 
a social character, and for the last fifty years 
has been entirely of that nature, its active 
service probably ending before or at the time 
of the formation of the Worcester Fire De- 
partment in 1835. From the first its bias was 
aristocratic, and it has always been maintained 
as an exclusive body. Its membership is lim- 
ited to thirty. The annu^ suppers of the 
society have of late years been occasions of 
much interest and enjoyment to the members; 
and reminiscences of deceased associates given 
at these gatherings have been preserved in 
printed form, and furnish almost all we know 
to-day of many of the prominent residents of 
the town in years gone by. 

In 1822 another society of similar order was 
formed, called the Mutual Fire Society, w^hich 
.maintained its organization some twenty-five 
years; and still another, called the Social Fire 
Society, was in existence a few years. These 
never attained the standing of the first society, 
though many respectable and worthy citizens 
belonged to them. 

Five Points. — A place in the northeast 
part of Worcester where five roads meet. It is 
a short distance from the " Summit " station. 

Flat, (The). — A name given the level 
tract in the vicinity of Dewey, Mason and 
Parker streets, running south of Pleasant 
street, where from 1852 to 1856 an extensive 
real estate transaction w^as carried on by F. H. 
Dewey, Joseph Mason, Samuel P. and Leon- 
ard Harrington, Ebenezei" E. Abbott and 
others. It was sometimes called "Abbott's 

Floating Bridge. — In 181 7, a bridge at 
Lake Quinsigamond, at the point where the 
Causeway now is, which was constructed 
somewhat upon the principle of a wharf, and 
then loaded with stones and earth, gave way 
and disappeared, after an expenditure of $10,- 
000. Sometime later a bridge was constructed 
on the ice in the winter and secured at each 
end by chains. This formed the floating 
bridge which was removed when the Cause- 
way was built. 



Flora. — A list of the Flora of Worcester 
County, compiled by Joseph Jackson, has 
been published in pamphlet form by the Wor- 
cester Natural History Society. 

Foreign Blood Population of Worces- 
ter. — (^Estif/iate.) 

Armenians 700 

Chinese 27 

Colored 900 

French Canadians 10,000 

Germans 1,300 

Irish 30,000 

Italians 200 

Jews 1 ,500 

Scandinavians 10,000 

Total 54,627 

The number of others of foreign blood is 
not known. Of the above the Catholics num- 
ber 40,000 in a total (estimated) population 
of 92,000. 

Fossil Coal Plant.— See Coal Mine. 

Franklin Social Club. — For several years 
occupied rooms at 98 Front street. It was 
disbanded in May, 1892. 

Franklin Square. — Where Main and 
Southbridge streets meet. The new Govern- 
ment building will face the Square if Scott's 
block (" Flatiron building ") is taken away. 

Rev. George Allen informed the writer that 
about the year 1830 an eftbrt was made by 
himself and his brother, Judge Charles Allen, 
to induce those living in the vicinity to sub- 
scribe the sum necessary to purchase the tri- 
angular piece of land comprising the part 
occupied by Scott's block and about half of 
the new post office lot, which could have been 
had for $40, and enclose it as a public ground. 
It was impossible, however, to raise the 
money, and the project was ai^andoned. 

Free Church. — A Free Church was organ- 
ized in Worcester in 1852, with Thos. Went- 
worth Higginson as pastor. The society at 
first occupied Horticultural Hall, and after- 
wards Washburn Hall. David A. Wasson 
succeeded Mr. Higginson. 

Free Institute of Industrial Science, 
(Worcester County). — Name changed in 
1887 to Worcester Polytechnic Institute. See 
Polyteihn ic Institute. 

Free Public Library. — Towards the close 
of the year 1859, the late Dr. John Green and 
the Lyceum and Library Association offered to 
give, upon certain conditions, to the city of 


Worcester, libraries containing respectively 
7000 and 4500 volumes, to form the nucleus of 
a public library. The ofter was accepted by 
the City Government, and an ordinance estab- 
lishing the Free Public Library was passed 
December 23rd, of the same year. The library 
was opened to the public in Worcester Bank 
Block, Foster Street, April 30, i860. In ac- 
cordance with a stipulation made in the deed 
by which Dr. Green transferred his books to 
the city, the latter bought from Hon. Emory 
Washbnrn a lot of land on Elm street, at an 
expense of $5,042, and began the erection of 
a library building. The corner-stone of that 
building, which constitutes the older portion 
occupied by the library, was laid July 4, i860; 
it was completed in 1861, at a cost, including 
the lot, of about $30,000, and thrown open to 
the public September 4th of that year. That 
building having become filled with books, and 
having ceased to afford room enough to the 
readers and students who wished to use it, the 
city bought in 1888 an estate adjoining the 
library lot on the east for $35,000, and in 
the summer of 1889 began to put up a new 
building which was finished and occupied 
April I, 1 89 1. The cost of the new building 
and furniture was $108,000 exclusive of the 
amount paid for the land. At the start the 
library consisted of 1 1 ,500 volumes; December 
I, 1 89 1, the date of the last annual report, it 
had 85,502 volumes, divided among the dif- 
ferent departments as follows : Green or refer- 
ence library 23,045, Intermediate Department 
23,177, Circulating Department 39,280. The 
books have been selected with especial ref- 
erence to the needs of the residents in Wor- 
cester, and the library, therefore, while well 
supplied with works in the difterent branches 
of knowledge, is particularly rich in the de- 
partments of chemistry, physics, mechanics 
and the fine and industral arts. According to 
the first annual report of the library, 31,454 
volumes were used by frequenters in the eight 
months covered by the report. During the 
the last year, which ended November 30, 1891, 
188,480 volumes were either taken to the 
homes of residents or used within the library 
building. The aim in the library is to establish 
pleasant personal relations between the fre- 
quenters of the library and its officers, and all 
persons having questions to ask, answers to 
which may be found in books, are cordially 
welcomed, encouraged to ask questions, and 
sympathetically aided in getting answers to 



them. There were used 58,720 volumes 
during the last year by persons seeking infor- 
mation within the library building. The library 
has become distinguished for the value and 
efficiency of the aid which it has rendered to 
the teachers and scholars of the public and 
private schools of Worcester. It has begun in 
its new building to place upon the walls of 
halls many of its valuable art treasures and il- 
lustrations of countries, and scenes and in- 
cidents in history. It is rich in pictorial col- 
lections and is using them for general enter- 
tainment and instruction, and in many instan- 
ces in connection with its school work. When 
the pictures have been put up on the walls, 
the public generally, or school children in par- 
ticular, are invited to examine and study them. 
A reading rocim was founded in connection 
with the library in 1865. It contains 359 re- 
views, magazines and papers. 

Dr. Green died in 1865, and left by will 
$30,000 to the library mainly to endow his 
department of it. One provision of the be- 
quest is that one quarter of the income shall be 
added to the principal every year. The Green 
Library Fund amounted November 30, 1891, 
to $44,766.06. Another bequest of Dr. Green 
to the amount of about $4,500 has recently 
become available. Hon. George F. Hoar 
raised by subscription $10,000 or $11,000, 
which constitutes a Reading-room Fund, the 
income of which is used in paying annual dues 
for reviews, magazines and papers. The ex- 
penditures of the last library year were $26, 
372.20 exclusive of $4,500 spent for furniture 
as mentioned above. The income was as fol- 
ows: City appropriation $20,000, dog license 
money $5,079.92, income from Green Library 
Fund $1,660.15, income from Reading-room 
Fund $434.70, receipts from fines, etc., $544. 
64. December 8, 1872, the reading rooms 
and library for purposes of reference, were 
thrown open to the public 00 Sunday. The 
Free Public Library was the first public library 
in New England to open its doors on Sunday. 
During the last thirteen years 13,404 persons 
on an average have used the library annually 
on that day of the week. Thanksgiving Day, 
.1889, the reading rooms, and the library for 
purposes of reference, began to be open on 
holidays. The reading rooms and the library, 
for purposes of reference, are now open every 
day in the year. The circulating department is 
open every day except Sundays and legal holi- 
days. The librarians have been Zephaniah 

Baker, Feb. 17, i860, to Jan, 14, 1871, and 
Samuel Swett Green, Jan. 15, 1871. Mr. Green 
belongs to the progressive school of librarians, 
and is a prominent member of the American 
Librarians' Association, and has recently been 
its President. He has originated and intro- 
duced new methods in library management, 
and is the author of several treatises upon sub- 
jects pertaining to his occupation. The office 
hours of the librarian are 10 a.m. to I P.M., 
3 to 6 P. M. ; Sundays 3 to 5 p. M. The cir- 
culating department is open for the delivery 
and return of books from 9 A. M. to 8 P. M , 
excepting Sundays and holidays; Saturdays, 
open until 9 P.M. Week-days, including 
holidays, the upper reading rooms are open 
from 9 A. M. to 9 P. M.; the lower reading- 
room from 8 A.M. to 9.30 p.m. Sundays, 
both reading rooms open from 2 to 9 P. M. 
The books of the circulating department can 
be taken to tiaeir homes freely by residents 
who have reached the age of fifteen years. 
Younger persons in the discretion of the libra- 
rian may have cards of an especial color to use 
in taking out books, but attendants are in- 
structed to take unusual care in seeing to it 
that persons using such cards get books suited 
to their age as regards quality and comprehen- 
sibility. Books belonging to the intermediate 
department can be taken out under certain 
conditions. Books in the reference department 
which were given to the Library by Dr. Green, 
or which have been bought with the income 
of the Green Library Fund<f can only be used 
in the library building. Every facility is af- 
forded there, however, for their use. The 
books of the Worcester District Medical Society 
are kept in the Free Public Library building, 
and may be consulted on the same easy con- 
ditions which prevail in regard to the use of 
the Green Library. The library building is 
Nos. 12 t > 18 Elm street. The former 
presidents of the Board of Directors have been 
Hon. Alexander H. Bullock, Hon. William 
W. Rice, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Hon. 
George F. Hoar, Hon. Thomas L. Nelson, 
Hon. Peter C. Bacon, J. Evarts Greene, Esq., 
Rev. Dr. William R. Huntington, Hon. Fran- 
cis H. Dewey, Hon. Francis A. Gaskill, E. 
Harlow Russell, Esq., A. George Bullock, 
Esq. The President for 1892 is Hon. E. T. 

Free-Thinkers. — Although Worcester has 
been known in the past by its conservatism in 
religion and politics, it has also been the birth- 



place of several noteworthy liberal movements, 
religious and political. The free -thinking- ele- 
ment has existed here in considerable numbers 
and force, in all degrees, from the Unitarian 
of high culture down to the iconoclastic Nihil- 
ist, " who is, but was not, nor to be." Con- 
siderable "Infidel" literature has been pub- 
lished here. The Lidera/ Tract Society, in 
existence some twenty years ago, printed hun- 
dreds of thousands of tracts, and employed a 
colporteur to distribute them, with Paine 's 
"Age of Reason," broadcast over the coun- 
try. Some of these tracts are very curious, 
adorned with strange wood-cuts to emphasize 
the argument. The Anthropological Society, 
formed in 1868, used to meet in Crompton's 
block, but did not retain its organization after 
1875. It had several able members and sen- 
sible men, but the ranting element was large- 
ly represented, and perhaps caused its down- 
fall. Prof. William Denton, Parker Pillsbury, 
IngersoU and other distinguished liberals and 
infidels used to speak often in Worcester. 

French Canadians. — The Dictionary is 
indebted to J. Arthur Roy, proprietor of Le 
Worcester Canadien, for the following concise 
statement : French Canadian population in 
Worcester, January 15, 1892, 10,343; number 
(>f voters, 677; business men, 178; there are 
three French schools — Xotre-Datne des Cana- 
dien s, St. Joseph and Ste. Anne^ with 1278 
pupils. There are two French Catholic 
churches, Notre-Dame des Canadiens and 
r Eglise St. Joseph de Worcester. There is 
also a chapel at South Worcester, called Ste. 
Anne. The first was formed September 10, 
1869. The second, April 17, 1892 — a chapel 
in the same parish (St. Joseph) was organized 
September 26, 1886. The church edifice on 
Park street was formerly that of the Metho- 
dists, but the appearance is now very different. 

French Canadian Societies — 28 as fol- 
lows: 3 benevolent, 9 national, 6 religious, 2 
choral, 2 dramatic, 2 literary, i commercial, 
I musical, 2 military. There are three 
Naturalization clubs, in wards 3, 5 and 6, 
and a French Republican club. The Garde 
Lafayette and Garde Nationale are military 
companies. The principal French Canadian 
societies are Societe St. Jean Baptiste, organ- 
ized 1868, and L Union St. Joseph, organized 
in 1885, both of the mutual benefit order. The 
former has 825 members and $7,200 in bank, 
December, 1891. Yearly receipts about $13,- 

000. The latter has 275 members with $1 ,950 
in bank, December, 1891. 

Of the two French newspapers now pub- 
lished, Le Travaillenr, founded by late Fer- 
dinand Gagnon, and now owned by B. Leuthier 
of Lowell, is the oldest, being established 
October 16, 1874. Le Courrier de Worcester, 
founded by Belanger Freres, February 11, 
1879, and now owned by B. Leuthier of 
Lowell. Le Republicain, founded by P. U. 
Vaillant and F. J. Laurie, in 1891. There is 
also a yearly publication, Le Worcester Cana- 
dien, founded by J. Arthur Roy, November 4, 
1886. There were also La Voix du Peuple, 
founded by late Ferdinand Gagnon, in March, 
1869. V Etendard A'ational, founded by 
late Ferdinand Gagnon, November 3, 1869. 
ELniperial, founded by M. Lanctot, 1869. 
Le Foyer Canadien, founded by late Ferdinand 
Gagnon and Frederic Houde, March 18, 1873. 
Lanterne Magique, (illustrated), founded by 
Dr. J. N. O. Provencher, August 13, 1875. 
Le Bien Public, founded by late Charles 
Gigault, January 10, 1879. 

There are two orphanages. 

There are 1736 families. There are about 
125 native Frenchmen in this city, but 
this takes men above 18 years old only. In 
January, 1891, there were 5,401 males and 
4,765 females. January, 1891, there were 
1,719 French Canadians working at different 
trades, and 145 laborers. 

French Catholic Young Men's Asso- 
ciation. — Rooms at 44 Front street. 

French Medico-Chirurgicale of New- 
England, (The). — Meets at Worcester semi- 
annually on the first Tuesdays of April and 

Friends or Quakers. — The number in 
Worcester at present probably does not exceed 
100. Meetings were held in Worcester as 
early as 1845, a room in Paine's block, at the 
corner of Main and Walnut streets, being occu- 
pied at first. In 1847 the Friends' Meeting 
House on Oxford street was erected, and is 
still in use. The first meeting held here was 
on the 1st of January, 1848. The land on 
which the meeting house stands was given by 
Anthony Chase and Samuel H. Colton, two 
prominent quakers of Worcester. 

Friday Morning Club. — An association 
of ladies interested in the study of the works 
of the great musical composers. It was formed 



several years ago, and has given on occasion 
chamber aad semi-pubhc concerts with much 

Frohsinn Gesang Verein. — A German 
singing society organized in 1858. 

Garde Lafayette and Garde Nationale. — 

French-Canadian mihtary companies, the first 
organized in 1878. 

Gas Light Company. — This company 
was formed on the 22d of June, 1849. The 
works were for twenty years located on Lin- 
coln street at Lincoln square, where the 
buildings still remain. The works are at 
present on Quinsigamond avenue, near the 
South Worcester railroad station, and the city 
office is at 39 Pearl street. The rate is $1.50 
per 1,000 feet. 

Gazette, (The Worcester Evening). — 
Published at 390 and 392 Main street by The 
Gazette Co. This paper was established on 
April I, 185 1, as the Daily Morjiiiig Tran- 
script. The several editors of the Transcript 
were Julius L. Clarke, Charles E. Stevens, 
Edwin Bynner, J. B. D. Cogswell, Z. K. 
Pangborn, \Vm. R. Hooper and Caleb A. 
Wall. The latter sold the paper to S. B. 
Bartholomew & Co., and the name was 
changed to the Worcester Evenitig Gazette 
on January I, 1866. In 1869 the paper passed 
into the hands of Doe & Woodwell, and on 
the death of Mr. Woodwell, Mr. Doe suc- 
ceeded. The weekly edition of this paper, 
the ^-Egis and Gazette, has been published 
continuously under the name ^-Egis since 1838, 
when the National .'Tlgis, first published in 
1 801, was re-established after four years' 
suspension. The Gazette is Republican in 

Geographical Position. — The latitude of 
Worcester is 42'-' 16' 17" north, and its lon- 
gitude 71" 48' 13" west. 

Geology. — The local geological structure 
consists of the St. John's group, Merrimack 
schist and fenruginous gneiss, in which occur 
steatite, beds of clay and peat, and iron ore. 

Germans. — According to the best estimates 
there are about 1500 Germans in Worcester 
at the present time. They are generally a 
well-conditioned people, and form a valuable 
portion of the community. In religion their 
liberal views have made it difficult to maintain 
any distinctive religious organization, and sev- 

eral attempts in this direction have failed. 
The latest is the German Lutheraji Church, 
formed in 1888, which worships at the Mis- 
sion Chapel on Summer street. Of the 
German associations the Singing Society 
'■'Frohsinn'" was formed in 1858. The Socialer 
Turn Verein, or School of Gymnastics was 
founded in 1859. Einigkeit Lodge, A'o. 44, 
Deutcher Orden der Harugari, a mutual ben- 
efit association similar to the Odd Fellows, 
was organized in 1853. 

Golden Cross, (United Order of the). 

— Worcester Commandery, No. %%, was or- 
ganized in 1880, and meets at 566 Main 

Good Samaritan Society of Worcester, 
(The). — An association for practical philan- 
throphy, formed March 4, 1892, with its 
principal object "to loan to the sick and 
needy such articles as may be required by 
them;" in other words to keep for use on 
occasion, comforts and conveniences needed 
in time of sickness which are not likely to be 
in the possession of ordinary families. These 
articles are loaned without charge, except in 
one or two cases in which a small fee is 
exacted. The society ^has a room at 174 
Southbridge street which is open every week 
day from 12 to I, in charge of the custodian, 
Miss Helen Taft. The loan of articles can 
be had only through an order from a physician 
or the District Nurse. Dr. Charles H. Davis 
was the prominent mover in the organization 
of this society. The officers elected are. 
President, Mrs. C. H. Davis; Vice-Presidents, 
Mrs. J. B. Stone, Miss Mary E. D. King; 
Secretary, Miss Mary E. Tatman; Treasurer, 
Miss Mary L. Nichols; Executive Committee, 
includes the above-named officers and Mrs. 
Chas. L. Gates, Mrs. F. L. Durkee, Mrs. O. 
F. Rawson. The Society has over one hun- 
dred members. The annual dues are one 
dollar, and from this source and gifts there is 
a present fund of $368. The room is well 
equipped with a good number and great vari- 
ety of articles needed in the sick chamber. 

Gounod Club. — A musical society formed 
in 1 886. Henry F. Harris is president, and 
E. N. Anderson musical director. 

Government Building. — The new Gov- 
ernment or Post Office Building is now erect- 
ing on the land between Main and South- 
bridge streets, bounded by Myrtle street on 



the south. For this land the Government 
paid $75,000, and it is asserted that a like 
amount in addition was paid the owners of the 
property by parties who were interested in pull- 
ing the city southward. A curious anecdote 
showing the value of the land at this place 
sixty years ago will be found in the article on 
Franklin Square. 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Free 

Church. — Walnut street. This church was 
formed in 1867, and for four years worshipped 
in Washburn Hall, under the name of the 
Main street M. E. Church. In 1870 a lot on 
Walnut street was purchased of W. W. 
Sprague for $10,000, and the present struc- 
ture erected at an expense of about $60,000. 
The corner stone was laid Oct. I, 1870, and 
the new church was dedicated Jan. 24, 1872. 
On removal the name Grace M. E. Church 
was assumed, as the old name was then ob- 
viously inappropriate. 

Grade Crossings. — Worcester is afflicted 
with this curse probably in a greater degree 
than any other place of its size in the country, 
if not in the world. There are over thirty 
places where the railroads and highways cross 
at grade, twelve of ^which are in the busy 
parts of the city. The estimated cost of ob- 
viating all these dangerous nuisances in 
Worcester is over two million dollars ! Meas- 
ures are being taken to change the grade of 
several of these crossings. 

Grafton. — A town situated eight miles 
south-east of Worcester, reached by the Boston 
& Albany railroad, (station at North Grafton 
and branch railroad to centre). This place 
was in ancient times' one of John Eliot's 
"Indian Praying Towns," known as Hassa- 
nainisio. It was settled in 1728 by the 
whites, and incorporated in 1735, under the 
name of Grafton. The boot and shoe busi- 
ness, and the manufacture of cotton cloth, are 
carried on here to some extent. Population 
in 1885, 4,498. In 1890, 5,002. 

Grafton Square. — At the junction of 
Grafton, Orient and Hamilton streets. The 
name Elm Square is improperly applied, as 
the place was officially designated Grafton 
square several years ago. 

Grand Army Hall. — At 344 Main street. 
Formerly called Brinley Hall, which was 
opened in 1837. It was many years the prin- 
cipal hall in Worcester. It will seat 300. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — George 
H. Ward Post, .Vo. 10, was organized April 
13, 1867, with the folowing charter members; 
A. A. Goodell, J. A. Titus, Harlan Fairbanks, 
J. Stewart Brown, R. H. Chamberlain, H. 
Elliott Blake, D. M. Woodward, J. M. Wood- 
ward, J. M. Drennan, Augustus Stone, Geo. 
M. Woodward and Chas. E. Simmons. Since 
the formation over 2000 members have joined 
the Post, 700 of whom are still active. 
$35,000 have been dispensed in benefits and 
reliefs. The lVoiiien''s Belief Corps, organ- 
ized in 1883, as an auxiliary, has 165 members. 
Daughters of Veterans, Clara Barton 7'e)it, 
A'^o. 3, was organized in 1890, and meets at 
Sons of Veterans Hall, 418 Main street. 
Camp A. A. Goodell, A'o. 2, Mass. Division, 
Sons of Veterans, was formed in 1883. Meet- 
ings of Post 10 are held every Thursday even- 
ing at Grand Army Hall, 344 Main street. 

Grangers. — See Patrons of Husbandry. 

Grant Square. — Bounded by Harrington 
avenue, Mt. Vernon place, and Windsor and 
Mt. Vernon streets. Laid out in 1854 or '55, 
and was known as Mt. Vernon square till 
1870, when the name was changed to "Grant" 
in honor of the General and President. 

Greendale. — A village in the north part of 
Worcester on West Boylston street. 

Green Hill. — The ancestral home of the 
Green family in Worcester, lying north of 
Millstone hill. It is approached by Green 
lane from Lincoln street. 

Grocers' Association. — The Worcester 
County Retail Grocers' Association was formed 
in 1 88 1 for mutual benefit, information and 
protection. Samuel A. Pratt of Worcester is 
president. The Directory of 1892 gives the 
names of three wholesale, and 255 retail 
grocers in Worcester. 

Guinea. — The name formerly applied to 
the region around Washington square, partic- 
ularly perhaps, to the lower end of Mechanic 
street, where many colored people lived. 

Hack Fares. — Within one mile 50 cents 
for one passenger and 25 cents for each addi- 
tional passenger. Between ten o'clock p. M. 
and six A. M. 50 cents each. Within one and 
one-half miles 75 cents for one; if more than 
one, 50 cents each. For greater distances 
special rates. Children between 3 and 12 



years, half-price. These rates were estab- 
lished by the City Council and any driver 
violating the provisions of this order will incur 
a penalty not exceeding $20. 

Halls, (Public). — The principal public 
halls are named below : 

Mechanics Hall. Seating capacity 1926. 
See under the title in the Dictionary. 

Washburn HalL (in Mechanics Hall build- 
ing). Seating capacit}' 552. 

Horticultural Hall, p'ront street. Seating 
capacity 650. 

Grand Ariny Hall, Main street, formerly 
Brinley Hall. Seating capacity 300. 

Continental Hall, corner Main and Foster 
streets. Formerly the first Universalist church. 
Seating capacity 750. 

Association Hall, in the V. M. C. A. build- 
ing, Elm street. Seating capacity 827. 

Father Mathew Hall, lOO Green street. 
Seating capacity 1000. 

Colonial Hall, 34 Front street. 300 seats. 

Salisbury Hall, in The Worcester Society of 
Antiquity Building on Salisbury street. 300 

Worcester Theatre, Exchange street. 1338 

Front Street Opera House, 1059 seats. 

Lothrop''s Opera House, 21 Pleasant street. 
1050 seats. 

Hamilton Square. — On Prescott street, 
between Lexington and Otis streets. 

Hancock Club, (The).— A social club 
formed in 1891, and at first made up of resi- 
dents of the North end, with rooms over the 
office of William H. Sawyer on Lincoln 
street. In June, 1892, the club leased of 
Stephen Salisbury the old Salisbury mansion 
in Lincoln square for a term of five years, and 
will occupy it from October I, 1892. The 
club has no political, social or religious bias, 
and its membership includes some of the 
staunchest and most popular business and 
professional men of the North end. The 
number is limited to 150. 

Hancock Hill. — The eminence which 
rises near the junction of Salisbury and For- 
est streets, to which the name has recently 
been appropriately applied, as this land once 
belonged to John Hancock, the revolutionary 

Harrington Corner. — The north corner of 
Front and Main streets. The name was ap- 

plied at the time of the erection of Harrington 
Block, and it appears cut in granite on the 
building. Harrington corner is the Charing 
Cross of Worcester, or the grand centre of 
business and travel, though the indications are 
that the central point will in the future be 
much further south. 

Hatters' and Furnishers' Association. 

— Was formed in 1886. 

Health, (Board of). — See Board of 

Heart of the Commonwealth. — A name 
applied to Worcester on account of its central 
location in the state. The origin of the term 
is uncertain, but it was used as early as 1820, 
then generally in reference to the County 
rather than the Town. The City Seal has the 
device of a heart, which tells its story without 
any Latin. 

Hebrews. — See Jews. 

Hermit. — Worcester once enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of possessing among other unrivalled 
attractions, a real hermit, who lived among 
the rocks near the summit of Rattlesnake hill, 
where Solomon Parsons many years ago built 
a temple, and deeded thespot to the Almighty, 
recording the conveyance by cutting the letters 
in the surface of a flat rock. The hermit lived 
in a small stone house, where he was visited 
by many persons from the City, and sometimes 
by those who were not to his liking, and who 
abused his hospitality Some ten years since 
he gave up his solitary habits, returned to the 
multitude, and is now a familiar figure in our 

Hermitage. — A romantic spot in the valley 
west of Millstone hill and north of the exten- 
sion of Forest avenue. The name was prob- 
ably given by William Lincoln to a wooded 
dell, the quiet and seclusion of the place 
suggesting the designation. 

Herbert Hall. — See Insane Asylums. 

Herdics and Coupes. — Several years ago 
a line of herdics was started in Worcester, 
and regular routes traveled through the prin- 
cipal streets, with a five cent fare. The effect 
was to reduce the horse-car fare from six to 
five cents. Most of the herdics were with- 
drawn after a few months. 

Hickory Cycle Club. — A young women's 
cycling club connected with the Y. W. C. A. 


— HIG 

High School. — The Classical and English 
High School was established by vote of the 
town in 1844, and the school was opened in 
September, 1845, in a brick building which 
had been erected for the purpose at the corner 
of Walnut and Maple streets. This building, 
which was considered when new the finest 
high school house in the State, was moved to 
the opposite side of Walnut street, in 1870, to 
make room for the later structure, where it 
still stands. In 1846 Hon. Stephen Salisbury 
gave $750 to purchase a philosophical appara- 
tus; and in 1859 Hon. Alexander H. Bullock 
established the Bullock Medal Fund by a gift 
of $1000, the interest of which is now used 
in making additions to the school library. In 
1870 the erection of the present High School 
building was begun, and it was dedicated 
December 30, 187 1. The building alone cost 
$169,691.82. The plans were drawn by H. 
H. Richardson, of celebrity as an architect; 
and Norcross Brothers were the builders. 
There are 19 rooms, besides the large hall 
and the basement, and the intention was to 
accommodate 500 pupils; of late the school 
has been greatly overcrowded. Gifts to the 
new building were: A piano from Hon. 
Stephen Salisbury; the bell and fountain from 
William Dickinson, Esq.; and the clock in 
the tower, and the electric system of clocks in 
the interior from Hon. Edward Earle. 

There are three courses of study, the Classi- 
cal and English of four years each, and a 
College Preparatory of five years. 

The Academe is the literary organ of the 
High School. It was established in 1886. The 
High School Thesativus was published from 
Nov., 1859, to May, 1866, but only 32 num- 
bers were issued in that time. The first 
beneficiary of the Bancroft Scholarship Fund, 
founded by a gift of $10,000 from George 
Bancroft, the historian, was a High School 
pupil, George B. Churchill, who received the 
income for three years. 

High School Societies. There are three 
boys' societies: The Eucleia. fotmed in 1859; 
the Sumner Club, 1884; and the Assetnbly, 
1885. The girls' society, the Aletheia, was 
organized in 1881. 

The Worcester High School Association, 
composed of past graduates, was organized in 

Following is a list of Principals of the High 
School, from 1844 to the present time, and 
their terms of service, with the colleges from 
which they were graduated : 

Elbridg-e Smith, (B. U.) Aug., 1S45, to Sept., 1S47. 
Xelson Wheeler, (Y. C.) Sept., 1S+7, to Sept., 1852. 
Georg-e Capron, (B. U.) Sept. 1S52, to Dec, 1S54. 
Lucius D. Chapin, (A. C.) Jan., 1S55, to Feb., 1855. 
Osgood Johnson (D. C.) Feb., 1855, to July, 1856. 
Homer B. Sprague, (Y.C.) Sept., 1856, to Dec. 1859. 
Harris R. Greene, (B. U.) Jan., i860, to July, 1S66. 
Tames F. Clatlin. (A. C.) Aug., 1S66, to Feb., 1867. 
"Ellis Peterson, (H. U.) March, 1S67, to Tune, 1S69. 
Abner H. Davis, (B. C.) Aug., 1869, to Dec, 1872. 
Ellis Peterson, (H. U.) Dec, 1872, to Tulv, 1875. 
Jos. \V. Fairbanks, (A. C.) Aug., 1S75, to'July, 1878. 
Samuel Thurber, (B. U.) Aug., 1878, to Nov., 1880. 
Alfred S. Roe, (Wes. U.) Nov.. 1S80, to June, 1890. 
John G. Wight, (D. C.) Sept., 1S90, to the present. 

Mr. Roe served longer by three years 
than any other principal of the school. The 
number of pupils increased from 350 when 
he came to the school, to 900 when he retired. 
Through his efforts mainly, the number of 
books in the school library were greatly in- 
creased, and the interior of the building 
adorned with portraits, busts and works of 
art, including two memorial tablets to the 
memory of pupils of the school who lost their 
lives in the Rebellion. 

High School (New English). — Corner of 
Irving and Chatham streets. Opened Septem- 
ber, 1892, with James Jenkins, principal. 
Cost of the land, $49,500. Cost of build- 
ing, over $100,000. Barker & Nourse were the 
architects. The building is 147 by 117 feet 
square, with a tower 130 feet high. The ma- 
terial is Greenfield brick with brown sandstone 
dressing, resting on a base of Fitzwilliam 

Highland Military School. — A private 
academy on Salisbury street, founded in 1856 
by Caleb B. Metcalf, who was previously for 
years a teacher in the public schools of Wor- 
cester. The studies here are similar to those 
in the high and scientific schools, including 
the preparatory studies, with surveying, civil 
engineering, and natural science. Military 
drill was instituted in 1858, and is still a 
prominent feature in the school, its purpose 
being to promote health, improve the figure 
and personal carriage, and aid discipline. 
There are two courses — English and Classical 
— of four years each. The Highland School 
is a boarding school, and a large proportion 
of its pupils come from a distance, attracted 
by the high reputation which the institution 
has maintained from the beginning. The 
uniform of the cadets is of a gray color and 
attractive appearance, and its wearers are 
often seen upon our streets. Mr. Metcalf re- 
tired from the management of the school 



several years ago. The Academy is under 
the charge of Joseph A. Shaw as principal. 

Hillside. — The home of John B. Gough, 
in the town of Boylston, near Worcester. It 
has recently been purchased by Mr. W. J. 
Hogg, the carpet manufacturer. In Mr. 
Cough's lifetime the house contained the valu- 
able library, with the matchless collection of 
Cruikshank's drawings and illustrations, and 
many other memorials of the owner's life and 
work. These were dispersed by auction in 

John Bartholomew Gough was born in 
Sandgate, Kent, England, 22d August, 181 7, 
and died at Frankford, Pa., i8th February, 
1886. His labors in the temperance cause 
have made his name a household word. He 
was a true reformer, for he reformed himself, 
and his example has besn an inspiration to 

Historical Societies. — See American An- 
tiquarian Society; Worcester Society of An- 
tiquity, ( The'); Massachitsetts Kecord Society. 

History, (Early).— The first grant of land 
located in the vicinity of Worcester, was made 
by the General Court of Massachusetts to 
Increase Nowell of Charlestown, May 6, 1657, 
and comprised a tract of 3200 acres. In 
1662, 1000 acres were granted to the church 
in Maiden; and in 1664, 250 acres were 
granted to Thomas Noyes of Sudbury. The 
rights of Nowell and Noyes were transferred 
to other parties. About 1673 Ephraim Curtis 
built a house here; he is generally considered 
the first settler, though some statements indi- 
cate that others were here before him. In 
the spring of 1675 lots were apportioned and 
a settlement effected, but the settlers were 
driven away by the Indians, and in December 
the buildings were burned by the savages. 
Another settlement was made in 1684, and in 
October of that year the plantation, which 
had been known as Quinsigamond, received 
the 'name of Worcester. The second settle- 
ment met the fate of the first, and about the 
year 1 700 the place was again abandoned to 
sohtude. In 1713 the third and permanent 
settlement was eftected by Jonas Rice, and in 
1 71 7 some two hundred were living here. A 
church was formed in 1719, and the town was 
incorporated in 1722. See Military History. 

Holden. — A town originally set off from 
Worcester in 1740. It is seven miles distant 

on the Fitchburg Railroad. Population in 
1885, 2,470. In 1890, 2,623. 

Home for Aged Men. — The Old Men's 
Home in the City of Worcester was incorpo- 
rated March 28, 1874, with the purpose to 
furnish aid to such respectable, aged and indi- 
gent men, who may be obliged by misfortune 
to solicit charity or assistance. In response to 
a public appeal, Albert Curtis, Esq., made a 
gift to the corporation of a fine estate situated 
at New Worcester, to be used as an asylum or 
home for unfortunate old men. The lack of 
sufficient funds prevented the directors from 
utilizing this property in the manner desired 
until recently. The Home at 49 Leicester 
street was opened in the fall of 1891, and 
later the name was changed to Home for Aged 

Home for Aged Women. — In his will 
Ichabod Washburn gave his home estate on 
Summer street, (subject to his wife's life 
interest), and fifty thousand dollars to establish 
and maintain a "Home for aged females, 
widows, and those who have never been 
married, who from loss of friends or other 
misfortunes are reduced from a state of com- 
fortable and respectable competency to that of 
dependence upon charity." The "Home" 
was to be under the direction of a board of 
twenty-four trustees, of whom one-half were 
to be women. The institution was incorpo- 
rated in 1869. Mr. Washburn's widow pur- 
chased for $11,000 the reversionary interest 
of the trustees in the homestead, and with 
this money they bought the Cleveland or Isaac 
Goddard Mansion on Orange street, where 
the Home was opened July i, 1873^ with 
seven inmates. Up to the present time more 
than fifty have received the benefits of a com- 
fortable home and support. Only those of 
good moral character, and such habits of life 
and deportment in manners as shall not ren- 
der them unpleasant or troublesome in their 
intercourse with the superintendent, and at- 
tendance on each other, are admitted. 
Applicants are at present required to pay $100 
before admission. The Home is in charge of 
an efficient matron. The fine mansion and 
grounds on Leicester street have recently been 
acquired, and the institution is to be removed 
to that place. 

Homoeopathic Medical Society, (The 
■Worcester County). — Formed in 1866. 



Holds quarterly meetings at the library room 
and dispensary, 1 1 Trumbull street. 

Homcepathic Dispensary. — See Dispen- 

Hope Cemetery. — See Cemeteries. 

Hopeville. — The locality between Cam- 
bridge street and Sutton lane, comprising 
Fremont street and Sutton road. It is within 
a short distance from Webster square at New 

Horse Cars. — See Street J\ailioay. 

Horseshoers' Union, (The), was organ- 
ized in 1887. 

Horticultural Hall. — The auditorium in 
the building of the Worcester County Horti- 
cultural Society, much used for lectures, 
concerts, etc. There are seats for 650 in the 
main hall, and there is an upper hall, which 
can be connected by removing the partition. 
See next article. 

Horticultural Society, (Worcester 
County). — Formed in 1840 "for the purpose 
of advancing the science and encouraging and 
improving the practice of Horticulture." The 
first board of officers was constituted as fol- 
lows: President, Dr. John Green; Vice- 
Presidents, Dr. Samuel Woodward, Stephen 
Salisbury; Secretaries, Benjamin F. Heywood, 
L. L. Newton, J. C. B. Davis, William Lin- 
coln, Dr. Joseph Sargent; Trustees, Dr. John 
Park, Isaac Davis, E. F. Dixie, S. D. Spurr, 
Thomas Chamberlain, Nathaniel Stowell, A. 
D. Foster, Lewis Chapin, J. G. Kendall, 
Emory Washburn. The first exhibition was 
held Oct. 13 to 15, 1840, in the old brick 
building which stood on the site of the block 
erected by Sumner Pratt on Front street. The 
society was incorporated in 1842. In 1851 
sufficient funds had been accumulated to war- 
rant the erection of the fine "Horticultural 
Hall" on Front street, near Main, the upper 
stories of which are now occupied for the 
purposes of the association. Annual exhibi- 
tions of fruit, flowers and vegetables were 
held for many years, but for the last decade 
they have been held weekly during most of 
the year, and liberal premiums are offered. 
The society owns a fine library of some 2000 
volumes on subjects pertaining to its specialty. 
Its hall is adorned with portraits of prominent 
deceased members. The present officers are : 
President, Henry L. Parker; Vice-Presidents, 

Stephen Salisbury, Geo. E. Francis, O. B. 
Hadwen, Secretary, Edward Winslow Lin- 

Hospital, (The City).— This institution 
was incorporated May 25, 1871, and was 
opened at the Abijah Bigelow house on the 
corner of Front and Church streets, Oct. 25, 
1871. George Jaques soon after gave three 
and a half acres of land on Prince street (now 
Jaques avenue) as a site for a hospital, and at 
his death left the remainder of his estate, in 
value nearly $200,000 as a fund for its sup- 
port. The Jaques homestead, at the corner 
of Wellington and Chandler streets, was occu- 
pied as a hospital from January, 1874, to 
December 8, 1881, when the present building 
on Jaques avenue was ready for use. At first 
there were only the main building and two 
wards, but in 1882 another ward was added, 
and later the Gill and Salisbury wards were 
built from funds given by Mrs. Sarah W. Gill 
and Stephen Salisbury, Esq. Mrs. Helen C. 
Knowles gave at her death $25,000 for the 
erection and maintenance of a lying-in ward, 
and this has been completed, and is known as 
the "Knowles Maternity." There are now 
seventy beds at the Hospital, and over i,oocw 
patients are treated yearly. A training school 
for nurses has been established at the hospital. 
The institution is under the direction of a 
board of seven trustees. Dr. Charles A. 
Peabody is the superintendent. The sum of 
$15,000 was appropriated by the City Gov- 
ernment for the support of the hospital for the 
present year (1892). 

Hospital Cottages for Children, Bald- 
winville, Mass. — Worcester Local Ladies'' 
Board meets monthly at 17 Burnside Building. 

Hospitals. — See the previous articles : 

Mei/iorial LLospital ; Lnsane Asyhuns ; S/nall- 
pox LLospital. 

Hotels. — All the hotels of Worcester are 
on the American plan. The Bay State LLoiise, 
corner of Main and Exchange streets, stands 
at the head. The charges here are from 
$2.50 to $3.50 per day, with first-class ser- 
vice; single meals 75^; cents. It has 130 
rooms. Distance from the Union railroad 
station about % of a mile on the street rail- 
way line. The IValdo LLoitse, on Waldo 
street, has 100 rooms, and the charges here 
are $2 and $2.50 per day. The Common _ 
luealth, at 201 Front street, is another larg 



hotel opened January i, 1892, with 106 
rooms, and a rate of $2.00 per day. The 
Lincoln House, on Elm street, just off Main, 
has 100 rooms, and the rate is $2.50 per day. 
The location is very pleasant, and it is a fav- 
orite house with many. Those who desire a 
place near the railroad station, will readily 
find the United States Hotel, on Summer 
street. There are 40 rooms here, with a rate 
of $2 per day. On Front street, at the corner 
of Trumbull, within easy distance of the 
station, is the Xe7v IVaverly. Rate $2; with 
70 rooms. The Exchange Hotel, opposite 
Court hill on Main street, is much patronized 
by jurymen and those who have business in 
the courts. It has 54 rooms, and the rate is 
$2. The Hotel Parker, on Walnut street, 
with 38 rooms, charges $1.50 and $2 per day. 
The City Hotel is located at the corner of 
Southbridge and Myrtle streets, near Franklin 
square. It has 47 rooms, and the rates are 
$2 per day. The Gennan-Anierican House, 
at 35 Mechanic street, is the only German 
hotel in the city. The Hotel Pleasant, Pleas- 
ant street, Hotel Adams, High street. Ken- 
more, Main street, and Hotel Prentice, Crown 
street, are family hotels. There are numerous 
smaller hotels with various prices. Good 
boarding-houses are to be found in different 
parts of the city. 

Hotels, (Old). — The oldest continuous 
tavern site in Worcester is where the Bay 
State House now stands. It was established 
by Daniel Heywood in 1722. It was kept by 
Moses Chapin in the early part of the present 
century, and in 1809 by William Chamberlain. 
Samuel Hathaway and Alvan Robinson came 
later, the latter being succeeded by Cyrus 
Stockwell, and the establishment for some 
years went under the name of Stockwell' s 
Tavern. In 1827 it was called the "Sun 
Tavern," kept by Lewis Lilley, and the next 
year the "Rising Sun Inn," kept by S. Banis- 
ter, who removed to the Blackstone Hotel in 
1830, and Stockwell, who had probably leased 
the property to Lilley and Banister, returned 
for a short time. Under the name of Central 
Hotel it was kept by Jones Estabrook in 
1832, and 1835 by Z. Bonney. The Sterne 
or "King's Arms" Tavern, on the site of the 
Lincoln House, was kept by Thomas Sterne 
and his widow, from 1732 till after the Revo- 
lution. In 1786 John Stowers, who had 
previously kept a tavern elsewhere in the 
town, took this house, which was then called 

the Sun Tavern. On the site Hon. Levi Lin- 
coln erected his fine dwelling house about 
1812, which in 1835, when he built the pres- 
ent Gov. Lincoln mansion on Elm street, 
became the Worcester House, and was kept 
by David T. Brigham, Lysander C. Clark, 
and others until the large block was built in 
front, after which it was known as the Lincoln 
House (see title). The old "Hancock Arms," 
on Lincoln street, also called Brown's Inn, 
was kept after the Revolution by Abner Child, 
Benj. Butman, Amos Smith, Simeon Duncan 
and others until it was closed sometime before 
it was burned, Dec. 24, 1824. The fire was 
incendiary, and Stephen Salisbury, the owner 
of the building at that time, offered a reward. 
Nathan Patch established the present Ex- 
change Hotel in 1785. It was kept by Wil- 
liam Barker from 1 790 to about 1800 or after. 
In 1807 Reuben Sikes purchased it, and it 
was known for years as Sikes' Coffee House. 
Samuel B. Thomas succeeded in 1823, and 
called the house the Temperance Exchange, 
and later it became the Exchange. He was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, P. W. Wait, in 
1840, who kept it until 1854. It has since 
been in various hands. The John Chandler 
Mansion, present site of the Walker building, 
corner Main and Mechanic streets, was kept 
before and after 1800 by Ephraim Mower as a 
public house. In 1818 William Hovey erect- 
ed a brick building on the spot, called the 
"Brick Hotel," and kept by Oliver Eager. 
Howe & White succeeded the latter in 182 1, 
and they were succeeded by William Hovey 
in 1823, who then called it the "Worcester 
Hotel," and later it was known as the United 
States. James Worthington kept it for several 
years. This building rented from 1818 to 
1822 for $550 per annum. It was moved 
back in 1854, when Clark's block was built. 
In 1827 Capt. Joseph Lovell opened his 
"Blackstone Canal Inn" at the corner of 
Main and Thomas streets. Samuel Banister 
took it in 1830, and Nov, 27, 1833, Eleazer 
Porter purchased it for a temperance hotel, 
and it was called the "Worcester Temperance 
House" for several years. Warner Hinds suc- 
ceeded Porter in 1835. It was kept as a 
hotel until 1866. S. Hathaway kept a tavern 
at Washington square from 1825 to 183 1, and 
was succeeded by William R. Wesson. Elliott 
Swan was landlord here for twenty years from 
1 85 1. The old "Swan's Hotel" was re- 
moved to make room for the Union Passenger 



Station. In 1835 Hon. A. D. Foster con- 
verted his dwelling house, corner of Main and 
Foster streets, into a hotel, which until 1857 
was known as the "American Temperance 
House" or the American House. On the 
other corner of Foster street, was kept for a 
time, the Railroad Hotel, also opened about 
1835. In 1833 a Boston company formed a 
project for the erection of a hotel on the plan 
of the Tremont House in Boston, opposite the 
Town Hall, but for seme reason it was given 
up. Other old taverns at different times were 
the Jones Tavern, south of Park street on 
Main, in the Revolutionary era; the Jones 
Tavern at New Worcester, kept by three gen- 
erations; the Baird Tavern on the Grafton 
road, and the Cow Tavern in the north part 
of the town. The length of this notice for- 
bids the mention of several others not as well- 
known as the above. 

House of Correction. — See Jail. 

Hussar Relics. — In the Museum of The 
"Worcester Society of Antiquity may be seen 
an iron cannon, and some smaller relics from 
the wreck of the frigate Hussar, the British 
treasure-ship, which was sunk at Pot Rock in 
the East River at New York, Nov. 25, 1780. 
This ship had on board specie to the amount 
of ^"960, 000, the three years' pay due the 
army and navy in this country at that time. 
Attempts have been made at different times to 
recover this treasure, and some forty years 
ago, Hon. Charles B. Pratt was engaged for a 
time in diving at the scene of the wreck, and 
the above-mentioned relics were brought up 
by him. Mr. Pratt began his experience as a 
diver, by volunteering, when a boy only four- 
teen years of age, to take the place of a man 
who had failed to appear in a diving exhibi- 
tion at Rochester, N. Y., in 1838. He re- 
mained under water an hour and was paid 
$50 for the feat. He afterwards engaged in 
operations at Key West, Gibraltar, and other 
places, and was well-known in connection 
with the attempts to raise the Hussar. It is 
not certainly known whether any of the 
money was found, and the idea still holds that 
the treasure is intact. A company has recent- 
ly been formed in Leominster in this county 
with the purpose to further prosecute the 
search for the sunken wealth. 

Hygiene Association. — See Ejiiergency 
and Hygiene. 

Indian Association, ( Worcester ). — 

Was formed in 1885, its purpose being to 
improve the condition of the red men. The 
association holds monthly meetings. 

Industrial School. — See Polytechnic In- 

Insane Asylums. — The Worcester Luna- 
tic Hospital was established by the state, and 
opened for patients in 1833. The building on 
Summer street (since enlarged) was occupied 
until the combletion of the new hospital at 
the lake in 1877. Some 15,000 patients have 
been treated, and about 800 are at present 
accommodated. The new buildings situated 
on an eminence west of Lake Quinsigamond, 
and about two miles from the city, command 
a fine view of the surrounding country. Dr. 
H. M. Quinby is superintendent. 

The Worcester Insane Asylum is located on 
Summer street, in the building formerly occu- 
pied by the Lunatic Hospital, and was re- 
opened in October, 1877. Only chronic cases 
are treated here. Dr. E. Y. Scribner is the 

Both of the above institutions are under the 
direction of a board of seven trustees appoint- 
ed by the Governor. 

Dr. Merrick Bemis, for many years super- 
intendent of the Worcester Lunatic Hospital, 
is the proprietor of a private insane asylum 
known as Herbert Hall on Salisbury street. 

Institute Park. — A public ground situated 
between Salisbury street and Salisbury pond, 
presented to the City, Oct. i, 1887, by 
Stephen Salisbury, Esq. The tract comprises 
about 18 acres, with a small reservation in 
front of the Polytechnic Institute, upon which 
the Institute may erect a building at some 
future time if required. Mr. Salisbury has just 
erected pavilions, stone tower after the model 
of the old mill at Newport, connected the 
island by a handsome bridge, and is otherwise 
improving the ground at his own expense. 

Insurance Companies. — The Worcester 
Mutual Fire Insurance Co. was incorporated 
February 1 1, 1823. John A. Fayerweather 
of Westborough is president, and Roger F. 
Upham secretary and treasurer. The office is 
at 377 Main street. The Merchants'' and 
Fanners'' Fire Insurance Co., incorporated 
1846. John D. Washburn is president and 
E. B. Stoddard, secretary. Office 242 Main 
street. The First Xational Fire Insurance 



Co. was incorporated in 1869. The president is 
Charles B. Pratt, the vice-president and treas- 
urer, R. James Tatman, and the secretary, 
Geo. A. Park. Office 410 Main street. The 
Worcester Manufacturers'' Mutual Insurance 
Co. was reorganized in 1861. George M. 
Rice is president and treasurer, and S. R. 
Barton secretary. Office 448 Main street. 
The Peoples' Mutual, Bay State and Central 
Mutual companies failed in 1872 in conse- 
quence of the Boston fire. The State Mutual 
Life Assurance Co., incorporated in 1844, 
occupies a fine building at 240 Main street. 
A. George Bullock is president and Henry M. 
Witter secretary. 

Insurance or Fire Patrol. — See Pro- 
tective Department. 

Inventions and Inventors. — It was once 
said that more patents had been granted to 
Worcester County inventors than to those of 
any other county in the United States. With- 
out asserting or denying the truth of this 
statement, it can be said that some of the most 
important inventions and improvements in use 
originated in Worcester County. The most 
valuable one in all its results is undoubtedly 
the eccentric lathe of Thomas Blanchard. 
This, with the typewriter of Charles Thurber, 
and the calliope of J. C. Stoddard, shows the 
verge of usefulness and novelty, and from 
them the scale runs down through an almost 
inconceivable numbef and variety of useful 
and curious innovations to a world of small 
notions. The limits of the Dictionary will 
not admit of anything like adequate mention, 
or even bare enumeration of the different and 
invaluable inventions introduced by Worcester 
County men. The Stowells, who made car- 
pets in Worcester in the first years of the 
century, were famous for their ingenuity, and 
received several patents. William Hovey was 
noted as an early Worcester inventor, and 
with the Stowells, heads a list numbering a 
legion. Brief mention of a few inventions 
will be found in the article on Manufactures. 

Irish. — The census 1885 gives 10,695 -^sthe 
number of natives of Ireland in Worcester, 
but this does not represent half the population 
of Irish blood. Indeed it was claimed recent- 
ly, by a prominent representative of the race, 
that there were over 30,000 Irish in the city. 
In general the Irish people have prospered to 
a greater degree in Worcester than in most 
other places. Although there are only a few 

among them who might be considered 
wealthy, there are many successful and enter- 
prising business men, traders, and contractors 
who have gained a competency; and the pro- 
portion of Irish who own their homes is quite 

Irish Societies, — The principal Irish soci- 
eties are included in the following : 

Ancient Order of Hibernians, a mutual 
benefit and fraternal order. Division i was 
organized in 1867, Division ^ in 1871, Divis- 
ion 24 in 1876. The A. O. H. Guards and 
two companies of Hibernian Rifles are at- 
tached to this order. The rooms are at 98 
Front street. There is a total membership of 
750. The Washington Social Club, the lead- 
ing social organization, was organized in 1882 
and incorporated in 1884. The rooms at 98 
Front street are fitted up with much elegance. 
The Club also has a fine house at Lake Quin- 
sigamond on the Shrewsbury side. Of tem- 
perance societies the Father Matheiu Mutual 
Benefit Total Abstinence Society stands at the 
head. The first Catholic Temperance Society 
was organized in Worcester in 1840. It 
lived about a year. Rev. James Fitton was 
president. On the 4th of November, 1849, 
the Father Mathew Society was organized 
shortly after Father Mathew's visit here. It 
is a mutual benefit society, as its name states, 
bound by the principle of total abstinence. 
Members when sick receive $5 per week for 
13 weeks, and $3 per week for the succeed- 
ing 13. Each member is assessed 50 cents 
for a Burial fund when a member dies. The 
society was incorporated in 1863. In 1873 
the house and lot on Temple, street were pur- 
for $4,200, and a hall of brick erected at a cost 
of $2,300 additional. This property was sold 
a year or two ago to Rev. Fr. Griffin for 
$9,500, and the new Father Mathew Hall on 
Green street, corner of Harrison, erected at a 
cost of $30,000. The lot of 6,310 feet of 
land was purchased of Mary Carroll for 
$6,000. The Society is now in debt about 
$18,000. The amount of benefits paid since 
1849 is $35,000, and 52 members have died. 
The present membership is 260. This society 
has paraded on several notable occasions and 
celebrations. The St. John's Catholic Teni- 
perance and Literary Guild of St. John's 
Parish, the Sacred Heart Lyceutn, St. Aloy- 
sius Society and Youjig IVo/nen's Literary 
Society o{ Sacred Heart parish, and St. Anne^s 
Society and Guards of St. Anne's parish are 



prominent temperance societies. The Catho- 
lic Order of Foresters, Court jg, was organ- 
ized a few years since. Tlie Irish Catholic 
Benevolent Society, formed in 1863, meets at 
98 Front street. The St. John's Cadets is a 
military and temperance organization of boys. 
The G rattan Literary Society and the Moore 
Club have been prominent in the past. 

Iron Hall. — Branch Xo. jgd was organ- 
ized in 1886. Iron Hall Sisterhood, Branch 
A^o. 601, was organized in 1887. Both these 
meet at Veteran Legion Hall, 566 Main 

Island, (The.)— The region west of Mill- 
bury street, which by the divergence of the 
old canal stream from Mill Brook is, or was 
at one time surrounded by water. Police 
Station No. 2 is located in this district, on 
Lamartine street. 

Italians. — In 1885 there were 150 Italians 
in Worcester. The number has increased. 

Jail and House of Correction. — In 1732 
a portion of the house of William Jennison on 
Court hill was used as a Jail, a "cage" for 
temporary' use being built there. In 1733 
this cage was removed to the house of Daniel 
Heywood, where the Bay State House now 
stands. The first jail proper, erected in 1733, 
stood on Lincoln street, a short distance from 
Lincoln square. In 1753 a new jail was built 
a few rods south of the former prison, which 
was used till 1788, when the stone jail in 
Lincoln square was completed. This latter 
was "judged to be at least the second stone 
building of consequence in the Common- 
wealth; none being thought superior except 
the stone (King's) chapel in Boston." It was 
claimed that it would not need any repairs 
except the roof for two or three centuries; 
but in 1835 the building was demolished, and 
the jail removed to its present quarters on 
Summer street, where the House of Correc- 
tion had been establisbed in 1819. The pres- 
ent jail building was remodeled in 1873 at an 
expense of $192,000, and was occupied in 
March, 1874. It contains cells for 194 pris- 
oners, though many more have been confined 
here at one time. There are three large and 
comfortable apartments in the hospital ward, 
and the sick are attended by the city physi- 
cian. There is a library of 500 volumes, 
accessible ever}' Sunday to the prisoners. 
Protestant and^ Catholic preachers alternate in 

Sunday worship. The number of committents 
during the year 1891 was 2,083. Of these 
131 were women, and 169 minors. The total 
cost of maintaining the institution for 1891, 
was $28,991.46, of which $11,828.89 ^^'^s for 
salaries. Amount received from labor of pris- 
oners $4,448.96; from other sources $359.40. 
Total $4,808.36. Sheriff Samuel D. Nye is 
jailer, ex-officio. Robert H. Chamberlain is 
keeper of the Jail and master of the House of 
Correction. The Jail building is about one- 
quarter of a mile north of the Union railroad 
station, or midway between Washington and 
Lincoln squares. 

Jamesville. — The settlement and factory 
village in the southwest part of Worcester, 
near the Auburn line. It is reached by Staf- 
ford street from New Worcester, and is also 
on the line of the Boston & Albany railroad. 

Jamesville Square. — At Jamesville, junc- 
tion of James, Ludlow, Bennett and Clover 

Jev^^s. — Various estimates give the number 
of Jews in Worcester from 1 ,500 to 2,000. They 
are increasing here, and are generally pros- 
perous. They have two synagogues — that of 
the Children of Israel, on Green street, was 
erected in 1888. The society was formed in 
1877. The Sons of Abraham Synagogue on 
Plymouth street, was erected in 1888, by a 
society formed two years before. Worcester 
Lodge, N'o. 4J, I)idependent Order of Sons of 
Benjainiii, a secret mutual benefit society, 
was organized in 1882. The Hebreiu Inde- 
pendent Political Club was formed in 1891 for 
purposes of naturalization. The Hebrew Ladies' 
Aid and Literary Society was formed in 
March, 1890. In 1876 the number of Jews 
in the city did not exceed 25. A society, 
called the "Worcester County Society for 
meliorating the condition of the Jews in Eu- 
rope," was formed here in 1824. S. V. S. 
Wilder of Bolton was president, and Rev. 
Aaron Bancroft an active participant in its 

Jo Bill Road, now called Institute 
Road. — The street leading from Salisbury 
street to Sunnyside. It was a travelled path 
two hundred years ago, on the way from 
Boston to Brookfield. Joseph Bill lived on 
this road about 1750, and the name comes 
from him. 

Junction Station. — See South Worcester. 



Junction Shop. — The large stone building 
on the Norwich railroad, at Jackson street, 
just north of the Junction or South Worcester 
station. This shop was erected in 1853 
by Col. James Estabrook, and the Wood & 
Light Co. took an interest in it. The propo- 
sition to build such a shop was made by Eli 
Thayer, but Col. Estabrook was disinclined to 
act, as he had much unproductive property on 
his hands, and did not wish to increase his 
responsibility. To encourage him in the 
undertaking, Mr. Thayer procured from Capt. 
Ephraim Mower a gift of twenty house-lots in 
consideration of the proposed improvement, 
delivered the stone to build the shop on credit, 
carting it from Oread hill with his own teams, 
and engaged Eugene T. Martin of Woonsock- 
et to do the masonry, paying him in part with 
some of the house-lots. After the building 
was well advanced. Col. Estabrook w'as able 
to obtain money on a mortgage to pay Thayer 
and Martin, and the shop was soon occupied 
by tenants who paid good rents. It proved a 
fortunate investment for the owner, and much 
increased the value of the rest of his real 
estate in that vicinity. 

Kansas Emigrant Movement. — The plan 
which saved Kansas, and ultiniately the whole 
country to freedom, had its origin in Worces- 
ter, in the brain of one of her citizens — Eli 
Thayer. Mr. Thayer first made his plan 
known at a meeting called to protest against 
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, held 
in the City Hall, March 11, 1854. The Emi- 
grant Aid Company was soon in full operation, 
and under its direction " four or five thousand 
of the most resolute men and women the w^orld 
ever saw went into Kansas," and largely out- 
numbering the slave-holding element, gained 
permanent possession of the territory. The 
South, convinced by this that slavery could 
not be extended into the new territories, re- 
sorted to rebellion, and suffered an ignomin- 
ious defeat after four years of war. Of Mr. 
Thayer's work, Rev. Edward Everett Hale has 
recently written: "When the resevoir of North- 
ern indignation was still a resevoir, with its rage 
wasted on its banks, one man saw where the 
spade-blows were to be struck through which 
the waters should rush out. He knew how 
to strike these blows, struck them wdth his 
own hands, and made the channel through 
which the water flowed." Mr. Thayer's ac- 
count of his work has recently been published 
by the Harpers of New York, under the title 

of The Kansas Crusade, its Friejids and its 
Foes; and this has since been supplemented 
by Ex-Gov. Charles Robinson's Kansas Con- 
flict, giving a full account of matters in the 
Territory during that eventful struggle. 

Kennel Club. — The Worcester Kennel 
Club was organized at the Bay State House, 
Monday evening, December 3, 1888, with the 
following officers : President, Harry W. Smith ; 
1st Vice-President, Col. Rockwood Hoar; 2d 
Vice-President, Frederick Kimball; Secretary, 
Edward W. Dodge; Treasurer, Fred W, 
White; Executive Committee, A. B. F. Kin- 
ney, Waldo Sessions, Capt. E. A. Harris, 
Capt. Levi Lincoln, Chas. A. Parker, Francis 
M. Harris, H. F. Littlefield, Geo. W. Patter- 
son. The first annual bench show was held 
at the Worcester Skating Rink, April 9 to 12, 
1889. There were 324 dogs shown, among 
which were an unusually large number of the 
most noted prize winners in the U. S. The 
principal objects of this Club are, to encourage 
the breeding and importation of thoroughbred 
dogs; to hold meetings at fixed times for the 
reading of essays and holding theoretic and 
scientific discussions on the breeding of dogs; 
and to hold annual bench shows. 

Kettle Brook. — This stream rises in Pax- 
ton, and flows south through Leicester to Cherry 
Valley, thence southeast through Valley Falls, 
supplying the various ponds there, then into 
Auburn, where it joins Ramshorn Brook, 
Kettle Brook contributes a large volume to 
the water supply of Worcester. 

Kindergartens. — On January 4th, 1886, 
Miss L. Gertrude Bardwell, through the efforts 
of Mrs. David W\ Pond and Mrs. Rev. Henry 
M. Stimson, began the first permanent Kinder- 
garten in Worcester, at 25 Harvard street, 
corner of Dix. The house occupied has since 
been moved back, and is now No. I Dix street. 
Miss Bardwell was from Shelburne Falls, and 
was educated in Germany, having been taught 
in both Berlin and Dresden. In Sept., 1886, 
she passed the school over to Miss Elizabeth 
Kilham from Beverly. The latter received 
her training in Mrs. Shaw's school in Boston. 
In the spring of 1887 the Kindergarten was 
removed to 35 Chestnut street, and the fol- 
lowing September w-as again removed to the 
Y. M. C. A. building, and united w-ith Mrs. 
Morgan's school. 

There is a Kindergarten at the Temporary 
Home and Day Nursery on Southbridge street. 


Mrs. Frank J. Darrah's Kindergarten is at 
4 Sever street. Kindergartens are to be 
maintained by the city as part of the public 
instruction from September, 1892; and i Kin- 
dergarten is to be opened as an object study 
for the students at the State Normal School. 

Knights and Ladies of Columbia, Hope 
Lodge, No. 23, has been established in 

Knights of Father Mathew. — Organized 
in 1879, and meets at feather Mathew Hall. 

Knights of Honor. — Bay State Lodge, 
No. 1S4, was instituted in Worcester in 1875, 
and Worcester J edge, Xo. 3220, in 1885. 
Meets in the Y. M. C. A. building on Pearl 
street. There are two lodges of the Knights 
and Ladies of Honor, viz., Pearl Lodge, Xo. 
I2J, which meets at 405 Main street ; and 
Puritan Lodge, 1208, meets at 566 Main street. 

Knights of Labor. — This order has de- 
clined greatly in influence and numbers within 
the past few years. The only Local Assembly 
at all active in Worcester at present is Xo. 
2353, though one or two others perhaps claim 
an existence. Local Assembly 785 was the 
first one formed here, as part of the old Dis- 
trict Assembly, No. 30, which had its head- 
quarters in Boston. There have been seven 
Local Assemblies in Worcester since the order 
was founded, this number including one Ladies' 
Assembly. The more recent Trades' Unions 
have drawn off many from the Knights' organi- 
zation. The order served its purpose, un- 
doubtedly, in modifying the views and tenden- 
cies of both employer and employe; and a 
better understanding probably now exists be- 
tween them. Strikes are not now as frequent 
as formerly, as their bad economy has been 
effectually demonstrated ; and arbitration is 
oftener resorted to. The order of the Knights 
of Labor never flourished as well in Worces- 
ter as in some other places, on account of the 
general good feeling between those employed 
and their employers. 

Knights of Pythias. — A secret fraternal 
and mutual benefit order, similar to the Odd 
Fellows. Blake Lodge, Xo. 4g, and Damas- 
cus Lodge, X^o. JO, were instituted in Worces- 
ter in 1 87 1. Later, Pegulus Lodge, Xo. yi, 
was formed. Sectioi iSg, Etidow/nent Rank 
was organized in 1878. Pythian Temple is at 
405 Main street. The Loyal Ladies of Damon, 
X'o. I, Pythian Sisterhood, is an association of 
ladies similar to the above order. 

Knights of St. Patrick. — Organized in 
1890, and meets at 98 Front street. 

Knights Templars (Worcester County 
Commandery of). — See J/aso/n'c Societies. 

Lake Park. — In 1862, Hon. Isaac Davis 
oftered as a free gift to the city, fourteen acres 
of land at Lake Quinsigamond for a public 
park, but this gift was declined. In 1884, 
Hon. Edward L. Davis and Mr. Horace H. 
Bigelow deeded to the city about no acres of 
land bordering on the lake, a tract admirably 
adapted from its location and diversified sur- 
face for a public ground. Mr. Davis also gave 
$5,000 to improve the park, and has recently 
erected at his own expense a stone tower, 
modeled after the ancient Irish structures, and 
built of rough stones gathered from the sur- 
rounding land. This is a striking and promi- 
nent object, and gives from its top a fine view 
of the lake and country about. A road called 
the Circuit has been laid out on three sides of 
the park and Lake avenue passes through it 
near the water front. The station on the 
Shrewsbury Railroad nearest the park is Lake 

Lake Quinsigamond. — A beautiful sheet 
of water lying along the eastern boundary of 
W^orcester, and mostly within its territory. 
"It extends from north to south, in crescent 
form, about four miles in length, presenting 
by reason of disproportionate breadth the ap- 
pearance of a noble river, with bold banks 
covered with wood or swelling into green 
hills." There are several islands varying in 
extent. Known years ago by the name of 
Long Pond, its natural advantages for boating 
and as a pleasure resort, if noticed, were not 
made available until within the past few years. 
College regattas were first held here in 1859, 
and the place has been growing gradually 
in popular favor to the present time. The 
many attractions during the summer season, 
and the easy means of access by the Shrews- 
bury Railroad, draws large crowds, especially 
on Sundays. At Lincoln Park, the terminus 
of the railroad, there are several steamboat 
wharves, and close by extensive boat houses, 
where craft in all varieties can be obtained. 
From June to October, band concerts are 
given here every afternoon and evening, and 
the visitor will find much to engage his atten- 
tion and furnish amusement and entertain- 
ment. The lover of nature and beautiful 
scenery should not fail to explore the mysteries 



of the lake by a steamboat trip from the 
Causeway to the south, or above Natural 
History Park. The best view of the lake in 
its entirety is from Wigwam Hill, near the 
north end. The station of the Worcester & 
Shrewsbury Railroad is on Shrewsbury street, 
close to the Union railroad station. Trains 
run every half-hour, and the fare is five cents 
each way. 

Lake Names. In the summer of 1888 a 
committee was selected for the purpose of 
naming the various prominent points and 
places at Lake Quinsigamond, the names to 
be permanently fixed and incorporated in a 
large and accurate map of the lake drawn for 
Mr. H. H. Bigelow. The committee con- 
sisted of Nathaniel Paine and Edmund 
M. Barton, of the American Antiquarian 
Society; EUery B. Crane, Thomas A. Dickin- 
son and Franklin P. Rice of the Worcester 
Society of Antiquity; and H. H. Bigelow, 
T. C. Rice and A. A. Coburn, representing 
the owners of property at the lake. After 
several meetings and a tour of inspection the 
following names were agreed upon : 
A'orth of the Causeway, SJirexosbury side : 

Jeseph Point and Bay, near the head of 
lake. South of this : 

Temple Point. 

The Sanctuary. (^See Title. ^ 

Cold Spring. {See Title.') 

The Kitchen. 
South of the Causeway, Shre^vsbury side : 

Green Brook. 

Quinsigamond Forest. 

Atalanta. See Boat Clubs. 

East Lake. 

Eyrie. {^See Title.) 

Jordan Brook. 

Jordan Pond. 

Club Harbor. 

Park View. 

Sagamore Point. 

The Narrows. 

Shrewsbury Bay. 

Matoonas Point. 

Powder Horn. 

Old Faith Bay. 

Round Pond. 

Half Moon Bay. 
South of the Causeway, Worcester side, going 
north : 

South Bay. 

Point Lookout. 

Leonard Point. {^Sce Title.) 

Park Landing. 

Islands south of the Causeioay. 

Ram Island. 

Lone Pine Island. 

Long Island. 

Blake Island. 

The Twins. 
North of the Causeway, Worcester side : 

Regatta Point. 

Half-way Pine. 

Pannasunet Point. 

Nannaswane Point. 

Coal Mine Brook. 


Paine Cove. 

Lakeside Boat Club.— See Boat Clubs. 

Lake View. — The settlement west of Lake 
Quinsigamond and south of Belmont street, 
and one of the stations on the Worcester & 
Shrewsbury Railroad, 2^ miles from the City 
Hall. There is a post-office, school-house, 
church, store, etc., here. 

Lancaster. — The oldest and one of the 
most beautiful towns in Worcester County. 
It was incorporated in 1653. It is distant 
from Worcester 16 miles, on the Worcester, 
Nashua & Rochester division of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad. Its fine scenery and other 
attractions will well repay a visit. Population 
in 1885, 2,050; in 1890, 2,201. 

Laurel Hill. — The elevated region east of 
Summer street, to which Laurel street is the 
leading avenue. 

Law Club. — Meetings are held every two 
weeks, when law questions selected for the 
occasion are discussed by members of the club 
before older members of the bar sitting as 

Law Library. — The Worcester County Law 
Library Association was formed in 1842, and 
the library, which comprises some twelve 
thousand volumes, is located in the Granite 
Court House on Court Hill. This library is 
for the use of members of the bar, but the 
books may be consulted by the public. 

"Learned Blacksmith." — At the age of 
twenty-one, Elihu Burritt began the study of 
Latin and French, and later learned Greek 
while toiling at the anvil. In 1837 he was 
keeping a small grocery store in Connecticut, 
and failed during the financial crisis, losing the 



little he possessed. In quest of opportunity to 
pursue his favorite studies and gain a liveli- 
hood at the same time, he walked to Boston, 
and from there to Worcester, where he found 
the desired combination in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society, and employ- 
ment in a blacksmith's shop. A letter to 
William Lincoln soliciting employment at 
translating was shown to Edward Everett, who 
soon heralded Mr, Burritt to the world as the 
"Learned Blacksmith." For several years 
Burritt lectured before lyceums, and becoming 
interested in philanthropic and kindred sub- 
jects, established in Worcester the '■'■Christian 
Citizen,'''' the first number of which appeared 
January 6, 1844, and was published seven 
years. Mr. Burritt for many years devoted 
himself to the interests of universal peace, and 
resided abroad for a long period, part of the 
time as Consul of the United States at Bir- 
mingham. He made extensive tours on foot 
through different parts of Great Britain, and 
published several interesting volumes of travel 
and description of the home-life of the English 
and Scotch. His last public appearance in 
Worcester was at a peace meeting held in 
Mechanics Hall, November 24, 1871. He 
died in New Britain, Conn., March 6, 1879, 
at the age of 69. As to Mr. Burritt's familiar- 
ity with languages, and the number he learned, 
many exaggerated statements have been made. 
His acquisitions in this respect were, however, 
truly wonderful, and his achievements worthy 
of great praise. That he should have a criti- 
cal knowledge of all the languages he gained, 
or even of a large part of them, was not to be 
expected; but that he had not such knowledge 
was the substance of a comment made by 
Charles Sumner, who appears not to have held 
the attainments of the blacksmith in high es- 

Leicester. — A town adjoining Worcester 
on the southwest, and 6 miles distant. It 

was mcorporated in 171 

The center of the 

town IS not accessible by railroad, and the 
nearest station is Rochdale, on the Boston & 
Albany Railroad. It is connected with Wor- 
cester by electric street railway. Population in 
1885, 2,923; in 1890, 3,120. 

Leonard Point. — The most prominent 
point of land in Lake Park, extending into the 
water. It is in front of the old estate of 
Samuel Leonard, whose son was captured by 
the Indians in 1697, and while being taken to 

Canada in company with Hannah Dustin, es- 
caped with that heroic woman, assisting her 
in her remarkable exploit of killing and scalp- 
ing the party of Indians. The boy figures in 
the histories as I.eonardson. 

Letter Carriers' Relief Association 

has been instituted in Worcester. 

Levels in Worcester. — The elevation 
above tide level of some places in Worcester 
is given below : 

At City Hall, 482 feet. 

At Piedmont Church, ^08 feet. 

At Salisbury's Pond, 490 feet; (surface of 
the water, which varies). 

At Elm Park, 498 feet. 

Top of Millstone Hill, 780 feet. 

Top of Chandler Hill, 721 feet. 

Top of Pakachoag Hill, 693 feet. 

Top of Newton Hill, 672 feet. 

Libraries. — In the Massachusetts Spy of 
May 23, 1793, appears an anouncement of the 
annual meeting of " The Worceste?- Associate 
Circulating Library Co/npany,'' Thomas 
Payson, librarian. Subcribers were notified 
that the books would be ready on the 4th of 
June. This association was later known as the 
Worcester Social Library, and appears to 
have existed some forty years, for the books 
belonging to it were sold by auction March 6, 
1833. We are informed by Librarian S. S. 
Green, in his article on the Libraries of Wor- 
cester, published in the recent History (f 
Worcester County, that an association was 
formed here in 181 1 called the ''JLilitary 
Library Society in the Seventh Division,'" 
and that it possessed a small collection of books. 
The library of the Fraternity of Odd Fellows 
was maintained a few years from about 1825. 
March 12, 1 830, the " Worcester Counfy 
Athemcuin" was incorporated, with the inten- 
tion of forming a library for general use. 
Thirty-four proprietors purchased shares at 
$25 each, and organized with Rev. George 
Allen as Pr,esident, F. W. Paine, Treasurer, 
and William Lincoln, Secretary. A good col- 
lection of books was made, but the association 
was discontinued after a few years, and the 
books went to the American Antiquarian 
Society. The Worcester Lyceum, formed 
November 5, 1829, and the Young Men's 
Library Association in August, 1852, united 
in 1856 under the name of the Lyceum and 
Library Association, and consolidated their 
libraries, which formed the nucleus of the cir- 



culating department of the Free Public Library 
in 1859. This library was kept in the upper 
story of the Bank building on Foster street, 
where also were deposited the private library 
of Dr. John Green and the Worcester District 
Medical Library. All these were in charge of 
John Gray as librarian. Dr. Green gave his 
library to the city and endowed it. See Free 
Public Library. 

The principal libraries in Worcester at the 
present time are here named : 

American Antiquarian Society. ( See title. ) 

Free Public Library. ( See title. ) 

Worcester Society of Antiquity . {See title.') 

Library of Cuirk University. 

Worcester County Law L.ibrary. — See 
L^aiv Library. 

Worcester District Medical Library. — See 
Medical Library. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. 
— See Mechanics Association. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society. 
— See Horticultural Society. 

The High School has a library of some size, 
and the Musical Association and Choral Union 
possess libraries of books pertaining to music. 
wSeveral educational and other institutions also 
own collections of books. 

Libraries (Private). — The largest private 
libraries in the ci^y are said to be those of 
Senator Hoar and Jonas G. Clark, Esq. 
There are large libraries at the Green Hill 
mansion, and at "The Oaks" on Lincoln 
street. The valuable library of the late John 
B. Gough at Hillside formerly, with its princi- 
pal treasure, the collection of Cruikshank's 
illustrations, some of them being original 
drawings and sketches, has been dispersed by 
auction. Of other libraries in private hands, 
several are not mentioned, in deference to the 
wishes of their owners. Of especially curious 
and unique collections, that of Mr. Nathaniel 
Paine is, perhaps, the most noteworthy, for a 
large proportion of the books bear evidence of 
the individuality or handiwork of the owner, 
who has spent much time, labor and money in 
elaborating and extending by extra illustrations 
many standard and scarce editions. Among 
other rarities may be mentioned the Biog- 
raphies and Portraits of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, with autographs 
inserted. Mr. James E. Estabrook has a fine 
private library, comprising many standard 
works of history and biography in the best 

editions, with a large number relating to the 
drama, personal memoirs, etc. In old books, 
Hon. Clark Jillson easily leads in these parts, 
and probably in New England. The printed 
catalogue of his library, issued from his own 
private press, informs us that he is the possess- 
or of eleven books printed before the year 
1500, and many others of great rarity issued in 
the 1 6th and 17th centuries. His earliest im- 
print is 1467 — said to be the oldest perfect 
book with a date in the United States. Be- 
tween Judge Jillson and Mr. Samuel H. Put- 
nam, of the bookselling firm of Putnam, Davis 
& Co., a pleasant rivalry has existed in the 
matter of old books, and the latter has suc- 
ceeded in obtaiping a volume bearing the date 
1470. Mr. Putnam's facilities in trade during 
the past twenty-five years have enabled him to 
gather a fine collection of books in standard 
and scarce editions, covering the field of gener- 
al literature, and the volumes have been care- 
fully selected. ^\x. Alfred S. Roe has made 
a specialty of Rebellion literature, and his 
collection is large and exhaustive. He has 
not, however, neglected other departments. 
Mr. Ellery B. Crane has a good private col- 
lection of books on genealogy and heraldry. 
It contains such works as the Domesday Book, 
Playfair's British Family Antiquity, many 
English County Visitations and Church Regis- 
ters, Burke's General Armory and many others. 
Mr. Richard O'Flynn has gathered during 
many years a private library illustrating the 
history of Ireland and of the Irish people, and 
his books have been well conned, for he is an 
authority upon the subjects of which they treat. 
The library of the compiler of this Dictionary 
principally consists of books upon subjects re- 
lating to the political history of the United 
States, in which he has a particular interest. 
There are other private collections worthy of 
notice, and which do their owners much 

Light. — A weekly literary and society paper 
in quarto form, the first number of which ap- 
peared March i, 1890. It was established by 
Nathaniel C. Fowler and Fred E. Colburn. 
Mr. Colburn sold his interest to Mr. F. E. 
Kennedy on the fifth of April, and June 28 
Mr. Fowler retired. The paper was pur- 
chased of Mr. Kennedy by Mr. A. S. Roe on 
the 20th of December and the latter continued 
as editor and publisher till March of 1892. 
The paper is now issued by the Light Publish- 
ing Co. The office is at 339 Main street. 



Light Infantry. — This company was organ- 
ized in 1804, in response to a demand for 
better conditioned militia. The first public 
parade was made June 6, 1804, under com- 
mand of Capt. Levi Thaxter. September 11, 
1814, this company marched to Boston with 
the Worcester Artillery to repel expected 
British invasion. They remained in camp at 
South Boston till October 31, when they re- 
turned. In 1861 the Light Infantry belonged 
to the 6th Regt., and quickly responded to 
the call for troops to suppress the Rebellion, 
leaving Worcester on the 17th of April, and 
passed safely through Baltimore on the memor- 
able 19th, when a portion of the command 
was massacred in that city. After three months' 
service, most of which was in Maryland, the 
company arrived home the 1st of August. It 
is now attached to the 2d Regt. and designated 
as Company C. 

Lincoln House. — A popular hotel, located 
on Elm street. The Main street block in 
front, now used for other purposes, was opened 
in connection with the present hotel as the 
Lincoln House, June 2, 1856. This estab- 
lishment not being successful, the property 
was divided, the rear portion only, which had 
been a hotel — the old "Worcester House'' — 
since 1835, being now confined to that use. 
The old part of the building was erected in 
181 2 by Hon. Levi Lincoln, and occupied as 
a residence by him till 1835. There was a 
fine garden in front, the site of which was 
covered by a row of low buildings called the 
Tombs, and later by the present Lincoln 
House Block. 

Lincoln Park. — The pleasure ground at 
the terminus of the Worcester and Shrews- 
bury Railroad, Lake Quinsigamond. During 
the summer season band playing and other 
attractions are maintained here daily, and 
Sundays especially. Steamboats make fre- 
quent trips from the wharves at the park, 
down the lake and above the causeway to 
Natural History Camp. Abundant facilities 
for boating are also afforded close by. The 
Belmont House is connected by a bridge with 
the park. The park is private property. 

Lincoln Square. — At the north end of 
Main street. Highland, Salisbury, Prescott, 
Lincoln, Belmont, Summer and Union streets 
all radiate from this point. On the north is 
the old Salisbury mansion, one of the most in- 
teresting buildings in Worcester. The wooden 

structure on the corner of Belmont street was, 
in its original form, occupied early in the cen- 
tury by Hon. Levi Lincoln as a residence. 
On the east side of Summer street can be seen 
the old Antiquarian Hall, erected by Isaiah 
Thomas in 1820; between Summer and Union 
streets are the substantial Dean and Salisbury 
buildings, erected by Stephen Salisbury, Esq. 
At the entrance to Court Hill is the hall and 
treasure-house of the American Antiquarian 
Society, while in full view in different direc- 
tions are the County Court Houses on the hill; 
the residence of Mr. Salisbury, on Highland 
street; the new Central Church and parsonage,, 
on Salisbury street; and beyond, the new 
Armory building and the Society of Antiquity 
building. The steam railroad and street car 
lines pass through the square. The station 
of the Boston & Maine a»d Fitchburg Rail- 
roads stands between Lincoln and Prescott 

Literary Men. — The atmosphere of Wor- 
cester seems not to be favorable for the culti- 
vation either of literature or the fine arts, and 
literary men are not inclined to take up a resi- 
dence here, although there are some apparent 
attractions and advantages. Nor in the past- 
do we find many names among residents of 
the place which can be enrolled with those 
entitled to literary fame. Rev. Aaron Ban- 
croft was a writer of some merit, but not 
equal to his distinguished son, George Ban- 
croft, the historian, who was born here in 1800. 
The elder Bancroft wrote perhaps the first 
life of Washington published in this country. 
William Sheldon, an Englishman and a littera- 
teur of versatility, resided in Worcester a 
few years previous to 181 2. He was employed 
by Isaiah Thomas to supervise the publica- 
tion of the History of Printing, was editor of 
the Spy, and wrote one or two books while he 
lived in the place. William Charles W^hite, 
"player, poet, advocate and author," was in 
Worcester more or less during the period 1797- 
1818, and died here the last named year. 
Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, a brother of the 
celebrated "Peter Parley," was minister of 
the Old South Church from 1816 to 1820. 
He was the author of several historical works. 
William Lincoln, the historian of Worcester, 
was a writer of elegance. Rev. John S. C. 
Abbott, best known as the author of the life 
of Napoleon, was pastor of the Calvinist 
Church in Worcester from 1830 to 1835. He 



was a writer of marked ability, and his produc- 
iions were widely circulated. "The Mother 
at Home," written in Worcester, passed 
through many editions, and was translated 
into nearly all the European languages. It 
was printed in Greek at Athens, and in Dutch 
at the Cape of Good Hope. Elihu Burritt 
(^see Lea7-ned BlacksmitJi) was a resident here 
several years* Rev. Edward Everett Hale 
was pastor of the Church of the Unit)^ from 
1846 to 1856. Thomas Wentworth Higgin- 
son lived in Worcester before the War, and 
was succeeded as minister of the Free Church 
by David A. Wasson, who will be remembered 
as one of the contributors to the Atlantic 
Alonthly of twenty-five years ago. Alfred 
Waites is known as a Shakesperean scholar 
and investigator, and his published replies to 
Ignatius Donnelly have been considered con- 
clusive in the Baconian controversy. 

Locomotive Engineers (Brotherhood 
of). — Worcester Division, Xo. 64, was organ- 
ized in 1868. Bay State Lodge, A'o. 7?, 
BrotherJiood of Locomotive Firemen, was or- 
ganized in 1877. 

Long Pond. — See Lake Quinsigamond. 

Lumber Dealers' Association. — After 
one or two preliminary meetings of the lumber 
dealers of the city, an organization was per- 
fected on the 20th of January, 1886, under 
the name of the Lumber Dealers' Association 
of Worcester, its object being to promote a 
friendly and social feeling among the dealers 
in that branch of trade, and to inaugurate such 
measures as might tend, so far as possible, to 
elevate the condition of all persons in any 
way connected with the business. 

Lunatic Hospitals. — -See Lnsane Asylums. 

Lutheran Churches. — There are three 
Lutheran Churches in Worcester, The Szoedish 
Evangelical Lutheran, Gethsemnne Church, 
on Mulberry street, was founded in 1881. 
77/1? Xorwegian Lutheran Church, founded 
in 1887, meets in the .Summer Street Church. 
The German Evangelical L^utheran Church, 
founded in 1888, meets at 205 Summer street. 

Lynde Brook. — This brook rises in Leices- 
ter, and flows south to supply the Worcester 
city reservoir in that town, thence to Cherry 
Valley, where it meets Kettle Brook. 

Magazines Published in Worcester. — 

The Massachusetts Spy suspended publication 

from 1786 to 1788, in consequence of the tax 
upon newspapers, and the Worcester Magazine 
in octavo form appeared in its place. The 

Worcester Magazine and LListorical Journal, 
edited by William Lincoln and Christopher C. 
Baldwin, was published in 1825-6. This publi- 
cation is now scarce. There was another 

Worcester Magazine, which was printed in 
1843, and edited by John Milton Thayer, since 
governor of Nebraska. Elihu Burritt printed 
for a short time the Literary Genii ncv, a maga- 
zine in French and English. (See Catholic 
School and LLome Magazine ; and the article 
on Clark University. 

Maine (Natives of). — This association 
was formed in 1882, and now numbers 800. 

Manufactures. — There are so many differ- 
ent articles manufactured in Worcester that 
a complete list cannot be given, but some idea 
of the variety of products can be had from 
those mentioned.below : Agricultural machin- 
ery, artists' plates, awls and machine needles, 
belting, bicycles, blacking, bolts, brass work, 
band instruments, boots and shoes, beer, 
brooms, brushes, card clothing, carpets, car- 
riages, chemicals, confectionery, copying 
presses, corsets, cutlery, dies, doors, blinds 
and sash, drain pipes, drills, drop forgings, 
emery wheels, elevators, envelopes, files, fire 
arms, fire-extinguishers, flexible doors, furni- 
ture, ginghams, horse blankets, iron castings, 
lasts, leather goods, looms, malleable iron, 
marble and stone work, moulding, organs 
and reeds, paper machinery, patent medi- 
cines, plating, pottery, presses, railroad cars, 
railroad iron, refrigerators, reed and harness, 
satinets, saws, skates, soap, stained glass 
windows, steam boilers, steam engines, steel, 
tacks and nails, tape, trunks, tools, turbine 
wheels, wood-working machinery, water 
meters, wire, wrenches, yarns. Some of 
the more important branches of manufacture 
are noticed below. Full particulars cannot 
here be entered into, and mere facts are 
stated without any attempt to digest them. 
What is here given refers more to the past 
than the present, and the reader must consult 
other abundant sources of information if he 
desires full particulars to date. 

Agricultural Implements. Oliver Weth- 
erbee made plows in -Worcester in 1820. 
William A. Wheeler also made plows and im- 
plements about the same time, or soon after. 



In 1833 Joel Nourse, who had previously 
manufactured cast-iron plows in Shrewsbury, 
established in Worcester the business carried 
on for many years by Ruggles, Nourse & 
Mason, This firm was formed in 1838, and 
occupied the Court Mills, making plows and 
a variety of implements. In i860 they were 
succeeded by Oliver Ames & Sons, and in 1874 
the works were removed to the new shop on 
Prescott street. The Ames Plow Co. now em- 
ploy about 1 75 men, and make all kinds of agri- 
cultural implements, wheelbarrows, meat cut- 
ters, etc. J. M. C. Armsby manufactured 
agricultural implements here some years ago, 
and mowing machines have been made by 
different parties. 

Boots and Shoes and Leather. The 
boot and shoe business has been and is an im- 
portant contributor to the prosperity of Wor- 
cester. The largest establishments at present 
are named in the following list : F. W. 
Blacker, successor to J. H. & G. M. Walker, 
Eaton place ; Hey wood Boot and Shoe Co., 
Winter street ; Bay State Shoe and Leather 
Co., Austin street ; Goddard, Stone & Co., 
Austin street ; C. C. Houghton & Co., Front 
street ; E. H. Stark & Co., Main street ; 
Samuel Brown, Barton place ; Bemis & 
Fletcher, Front street ; J. E. Wesson, Mul- 
berry street ; Whitcomb & Miles, Shrewsbury 
street ; David Cummings & Co., King street. 
The whole number of hands employed in 1885 
was 2,633. 

It is now ditificult to determine at just what 
time the distinction should be made between 
the shoQniaker and the mamifactiirer : for if 
a man made a few extra pairs of shoes and 
offered them for sale, he became a manu- 
facturer. In 1801, Lefavor & Blanchard ad- 
vertised " Ladies' Shoemaking Business,"' one 
door north of Barker's Tavern in Worcester. 
The next year they were succeeded by Doliver 
& Swasey. In 1807, Jonathan Martin set up 
here as "Boot and Shoemaker in General," 
and the name of John Sweetser, Shoemaker, 
also appears in the public prints. In 181 1, 
Aaron C. Coleman, "Boot and Shoemaker 
from New York," had a shop near the Court 
House. The "Boot and Shoe Manufactory" 
of Lemuel Snow was located opposite W'aldo's 
store, in 18 15, and the name of Wm. Tracy 
also appears in connection with the business 
about this time. Others were Howe & Smith 
(18 1 6), Thomas Howe (i 818), Miles Putnam 

and Benjamin B. Otis (1825), and Aug. Cow- 
din (1826). Later well known manufacturers 
were Ansel Larkin, Timothy S. Stone (1835- 
1871); Joseph W'alker and his sons (^1843- 
1888); Bliss Bros, (about 1850); Smyth Bros. 
(1852-1872); Hiram French (1852-1872), 
Rufus Wesson (1850- 1 873); Aaron G. 
W^alker (1853-I873); C. H. Fitch, Alba 
Houghton, E. N. Childs, Luther Stowe, 
David Cummings, H. B. Jenks, and H. B. 

Of boot and shoe dealers in the past, Oliver 
A. Hervey appears in 1813; Lemuel Snow, in 
I814; John A. Lazell, 1816; Seth Reed, 
1821. Miss Elizabeth Denny, ladies' shoes, 
1821; Johathan Wood, 1823; Earle & Chase, 
W^orcester Shoe Store, 1824; Putnam & Otis, 
1831; James Whittemore, 1831; Rufus W. 
Whiting, in 1833. The latter was succeeded 
in 1835 by Geo. W. W'heeler, afterwards for 
many years City Treasurer. Whiting started 
the first railroad express business in this coun- 
try <^see Express Busitiess). Other dealers 
from 1837 to 1845 were Amos Cutter, E. N. 
Harrington, John P. Southgate and James H. 
Wall, W. R. Whittaker,J. F. Edwards, Cyrus 
W. and Asa S. Stratton, Benjamin B. Hill 
and Aaron Stone, Jr., Samuel B. Scott, Cyrus 
C. Chickering, Otis & Baker, Baker & Thomp- 
son, Chas. B. Robbins, Jeremiah Bond, Am- 
ma Beaman and Chas. M. Foster, Thomas 
Earle, J. B. & Jas. D. Fuller, David B. Hub- 
bard, Olney F. Thompson and Chas. Ballard, 
Edward Southwick, Hale & Wright. The 
oldest boot and shoe store is that of Bemis & 
Co., at 421 and 423 Main street, established 
by Edward Bemis in 1846. 

In I 789, Palmer and Daniel Goulding own- 
ed the Tanyard in W^orcester. In 1800 it 
was in the hands of Andrew Tufts, and later 
owners were Samuel Johnson, Thomas Stearns, 
Asa Wilder & Co., Nymphas Pratt and Ebene- 
zer H. Bowen. The old tannery was in the 
rear of the Exchange Hotel, down old Market 
street. W^ell-known leather dealers in times 
past were Reuben Wheeler, (1819); Samuel 
Allen and Levi A. Dowley (1826); Benj. B. 
Hill & Co. (1835); E. N. Harrington and J. 
H. W'all (1837); and John P. Southgate 

A patent right for putting boots and shoes 
together with copper nails was advertised in 
the Worcester papers in 181 3. This was 
years before shoe pegs were used. India rub- 
ber overshoes were first offered for sale in 



1827. Thomas Howe, about 1830, invented 
improvements for cutting and crimping boots. 

Card Clothing. At the beginning of 
this century the town of Leicester was the cen- 
ter of card-making industry in the United 
States. The teeth at that time were inserted 
in the leather by hand, though Eleazer Smith 
of Walpole had invented a card-setting 
machine soon after the close of the revolution- 
ary war, and Amos Whittemore had obtained 
a patent for one in 1797. That these machines 
were not successfully used is shown by the fact 
that as late as 18 19, Joshua Lamb obtained a 
patent for a machine to make the wire teeth 
which were afterwards to be put in by hand, 
which continued to be done until about 1830. 
William B. Earle made one of the first success- 
ful card-sticking machines about 1829. Pre- 
vious to this date several different machines 
for making teeth had been invented. A col- 
lection of these can be seen in the museum of 
the Worcerter Society of Antiquity, and com- 
prises the following : One made by Pliny 
Earle of Leicester in 1793; one made by 
Eleazer Smith, in 1812 ; two by Charles 
Elliot, 181 5-1 7; one rotary, inventor and 
date unknown ; and an English machine called 
a Bednigo. The sticking machine made by 
William B, Earle in 1827, and the one con- 
structed under his direction since his blindness 
are also in the possession of the society. Mr. 
Earle, now living in his 87th year, built many 
machines in Worcester, and other extensive 
builders were N. Ainsworth, Samuel W. Kent, 
David McFarland and David O. Woodman. 

Daniel Denny appears to have been the first 
manufacturer of cards in Worcester. He had 
a factor}' in 1798 at the north corner of Main 
and Mechanic streets. In 1834 William B. 
Earle made cards here; and in 1843 Timothy 
K. and Edward Earle moved from Leicester, 
and established the business now carried on 
by the T. K. Earle Manufacturing Company 
on Grafton street. The Earle factory is one 
of the largest and best equipped in the country. 

The vSargent Card Clothing Company was 
formed in 1866, and the large factory built on 
Southbridge street, which, with the business, 
passed into the hands of James Smith & Co., 
of Philadelphia, in 1879. Howard Brothers 
began in 1868, and Charles F. Kent in 1880. 
Some forty years ago a Timothy Earle (not T. 
K. ) was in company with a man named 
Eames, and they made cards in a small way 

on Front street. Ichabod Washburn also 
manufactured cards in connection with his 
other branches of business about 1848, and 
Earle Warner was another manufacturer at 
the same time. 

The making of card-clothing is now a 
monopoly, and the industry is largely con- 
trolled by the American Card Clothing Com- 
pany, the Sargent and Earle factories in Wor- 
cester being operated by that concern. The 
Howard and Kent factories are still independ- 
ent. The pohcy has been to absorb the 
smaller concerns in the larger ones. At least 
one-third of the machines in the United 
States — some 500 — are operated in Worcester, 
about 125 hands being employed here. 

Envelopes. There are four envelope 
manufactories in the city: The Whitcomb 
Envelope Co., on Salisbury street; the Lo- 
gan, Swift & Brigham Co., on Grove street; 
W. H. Hill's, on Water street, and Emerson, 
Low & Barber Co., on Foster street. Hill's 
is the oldest establishment. About one- third 
of the envelopes made in this country are pro- 
duced by the Worcester factories; between 
four and five hundred persons being em- 
ployed. Dr. Russell L. Hawes, of Worcester, 
invented the first successful machine for mak- 
ing envelopes, and it was first operated in 
Worcester in 1852 or '53. Dr. Hawes began 
the business in the Earle building in the 
quarters formerly occupied by Mr. Hill. The 
Whitcomb Company was founded in 1864, 
and the Logan, Swift & Brigham Co. in 1884. 
James G. Arnold and D. W. and H. D. Swift 
tvere the inventors of the most important prin- 
ciples and features of the envelope machinery 
in use here at the present time. 

Fire-Arms. The famous Waters armory 
or fire-arms manufactory was established in 
1808 by Asa Waters, 2d, in that part of 
Sutton, now Millbury, and was continued in 
operation till 1845, and revived during the 
Civil war. Harding Slocomb, Clarendon 
Wheelock, Orlando Ware, Joseph S. Ware 
and John R. Morse were engaged in Worces- 
ter in the manufacture of fire-arms in a limited 
way during the period 1820 to 1835. Ethan 
Allen, widely known as an enterprising man 
in this business, came to Worcester in 1847, 
and occupied a part of the Merrifield building 
until the fire of 1854, and subsequent to that 
erected and occupied a brick building near 



the Junction station. His brothers-in-law, 
Charles Thurber and J. P. Wheelock, were at 
different times associated with him, and his 
sons-in-law, Sullivan Forehand and Henry C. 
Wadsworth, succeeded to the business, which 
is at present continued by Mr. Forehand, who 
occupies the stone building on Gardner street 
erected by the late Daniel Tainter. Mr. 
Allen made many valuable improvements in 
fire-arms, and invented machinery for their 
manufacture, and the making of cartridges 
of metal. Frank Wesson, Frank Copeland 
B. F. Joslyn, G. H. Harrington and William 
A. Richardson are other names now or for- 
merly well known in the business. The two 
latter continue under the name of the Har- 
rington & Richardson Arms Company and 
manufacture revolvers. Iver Johnson & Co., 
another firm manufacturing guns and pistols, 
bicycles, and other wares, recently removed 
to Fitchburg. 

Looms. Early loom builders in Worcester 
were William Hovey and William H. How- 
ard. Silas Dinsmore, Prescott Wheelock, 
Fitzroy Willard, and Phelps & Eickford are 
other well-known names in connection with 
loom building. Forbush & Crompton followed 
the latter firm, and in 1859 Mr. Forbush re- 
moved to Philadelphia, disposing of his 
interest in Worcester to Mr. Crompton, who 
conducted the business alone till his death in 
1886. The Cromptpn Loom Works are now 
owned by a stock company. The firm of L. 
J. Knowles & Bro. began to manufacture 
looms at Warren in war time, and removed to 
Worcester in 1866. The Knowles Loom 
Works are located on Tainter street. The 
Gilbert Loom Co., on Union street, was 
established in 1866. Several hundred hands 
are employed in this industry. 

Machinists' Tools. Machinists' tools 
have been extensively manufactured here in 
the past. The pioneer in this line was proba- 
bly Samuel Flagg, who began to make lathes, 
tools, etc., at the old Court Mills about fifty 
years ago. Pierson Cowie, at the Red Mills 
on Green street, was another early manufac- 
turer of machinists' tools. He was succeeded 
by Wood, Light & Co., and they built the 
large shop south of the Junction, later occupied 
by the Mclver Bros. Machine Co. Lucius 
W. Pond was a successor of Samuel Flagg, 
nd occupied the building on Union street for 

about fifteen years previous to 1875; he was 
succeeded by the Pond Machine Tool Co., 
recently removed to Plainfield, N. J. There 
are several large concerns in Worcester at 

Musical Lnstruments. In 1834 Stephen 
W. Marsh and Levi Liscom manufactured 
piano-fortes in a room in Central Exchange. 
Isaac Fiske manufactured band instruments 
here for nearly forty years, and the business is 
continued by Conn & Co., Crompton's block, 
on Mechanic street. Seraphines and melo- 
deons were made in Worcester before 1850, 
early makers being Milton M. Morse, a Mr. 
Jewett, and Farley, Pierson & Co. From 
these instruments the cabinet organ has been 
developed, and several large companies have 
at different times engaged in the manufacture 
in Worcester, of whom Taylor & Farley were 
longest in business. The Loring & Blake Co., 
on Union street, was incorporated in 1868. 
The Taber Organ Co., Brown & Simpson Co. 
(pianos;, and Mason & Risch (vocalion) are 
now making musical instruments. There are 
also three large manufactories of organ reeds. 

Railroad Iron. In 1857 Nathan Wash- 
burn erected the works on the Bloomingdale 
road of late known as the Worcester Steel 
Works. Mr. Washburn was the inventor of 
a car-wheel, which he had manufactured for 
several years in another part of the city, and 
built the new works to use in part to make 
these wheels and locomotive tires, but was 
soon induced by George W. Gill, whom he 
had taken into partnership, to engage in roll- 
ing iron rails, which continued to be the 
principal product of the plant for many 
years. In 1864 a company known as the 
Washburn Iron Co. was formed, and. by 
change of ownership in 1883, it became the 
Worcester Steel Works. Hon. Geo. M. Rice 
was the principal owner. Some years ago, in 
consequence of the general adoption of steel 
rails, the machinery and methods were 
changed to meet the demand, and steel rails 
were produced by the Bessemer process. Coal 
and iron mines were acquired in Rhode Island, 
which gave this company a great advantage. 
The enterprise finally failed, and recently the 
Bessemer works were removed to the West. 
A new company has possession of the plant as 
it remains. 



Wire. The Stowells made wire in Wor- 
cester during the war of 181 2, but it was 
afterwards imported at a lower price than it 
could be produced with the rude American 
appliances. The present extensive works of 
the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Co. 
are the outcome of the business established in 
a small way by Ichabod Washburn, who first 
began to make wire in a factory at Northville 
in 1831 or '32, in company with Benjamin 
Goddard. In 1835 Mr. Washburn occupied 
a building erected by the late Hon. Stephen 
Salisbury on Grove street, and this was the 
nucleus of the large mills at that locality. A 
mill was in operation at South Worcester, 
owned by Mr. Washburn and his brother 
Charles, the latter also being interested in 
establishing the. branch mill at Quinsigamond. 
In 1868 the present company was formed 
with a capital of one million dollars, which 
has been increased to a million and a half. 
The first piano wire made in this country was 
produced by Mr. Washburn, and the manu- 
facture is continued at the present time. All 
varieties and sizes of iron and steel wire, in- 
cluding card and telegraph wire, are drawn in 
these mills; and barbed fence wire has for the 
last fifteen years formed a large portion of the 
product. Copper wire is also extensively 
manufactured. The works of the Washburn 
& Moen Co. form the largest wire manufac- 
tory in the world, and the largest single 
enterprise in Worcester. Over 3,000 hands 
are employed, and the annual product is about 
75,000 tons of wire. 

The Worcester Wire Company manufacture 
various kinds of wire at South Worcester. 
This is an oft-shoot of the Washburn & Moen 
Co., and was established by William E. Rice, 
who is also president of the older concern. 

Wood Working Machinery. In 1803 
Abel Stowell, of Worcester, received from the 
president of the United States a patent for the 
invention of a "gauge augre," so constructed 
as to bore a hole of any given size from one 
inch to two and a half inches, with the same 
shank or handle, and by means of another 
shank a hole from two and a half to six inches 
diameter. In a paper on the manufacture of 
lumber, by Ellery B. Crane, printed in the 
Proceedings of the Worcester Society of An- 
tiipdty for 1884 (in Vol. VI. of the collec- 
tions), we find the following: "It is claimed 
that Worcester County is the locality in this 

country in which lumber was first manufac- 
tured from the log with the circular saw; and 
there are various stories as to who set the first 
one in motion in this vicinity. Mr. Lewis 
Brown is reported as having operated the first 
one at the old Red Mill, which stood near the 
spot now occupied by the Crompton Loom 
Works. It is also claimed that a Mr. Flagg 
was the pioneer; but from the best informa- 
tion at hand, I think the credit should be 
given to Willard Earle, a native of Hubbards- 
ton. Mr. Earle was an enterprising and 
ingenious man, and early engaged in the 
manufacture of lumber. While thus employed, 
about the year 181 7, he visited Boston on 
business, and going into Mr. Thomas Holt's 
hardware store in Dock square, his eye fell 
upon a package of circular saws, which for 
some time past had been an object of curiosity 
— an unexplained marvel. Mr. Earle's keen, 
perceptive eye enabled him to unravel the 
mystery. He listened to Mr. Holt's story, 
how some time before he had sent to England 
an order for hardware, among the rest a few 
dozen circular saws, meaning keyhole or fret 
saws, to cost about five pounds sterling: and 
on receiving the goods how astonished he was 
at finding these round saws, which no mortal 
man knew the use of, and which had cost him 
so much money. Mr, Earle purchased the 
saws for a small sum and took them to Hub- 
bardston, where he used them in sawing lum- 
ber. Previous to 1830, he constructed a 
machine, for which he took out a patent, 
using one of these saws for cutting shingles." 
William T. Merrifield used a circular saw 
driven by horse-power in Worcester as early 
as 1828, and in 1842 he constructed in Prince- 
ton the first steam saw-mill, with circular 
saws, in Worcester county. In 1834 Thomas 
E. Daniels, of Worcester, obtained a patent 
for a traverse planer, and soon after began to 
manufacture his machines at the old Court 
Mills, where he continued until 1848, and 
sold the business to Richard Ball. Mr. Ball 
took in partnership Thomas H. Rice, and 
after the withdrawal of the latter, Warren 
Williams, the firm being Ball & Williams. 
Later it was known as R. Ball & Co., and is 
continued in the present firm of Witherby, 
Rugg & Richardson on Salisbury street, who 
manufacture planing and moulding machines. 
Other firms and individuals in this line were 
Howe, Cheney & Co., 1850; Charles Price, 
E. C. Tainter and J. A. Fay & Co. The 



latter, formerly of Keene, N. H., and Nor- 
wich, Ct., occupied a part of the Junction 
(Col. Estabrook's) shop, for a year or two, 
and were succeeded in 1862 by Richardson, 
Meriam & Co., who continued until 1877. In 
1864 the latter firm opened a warehouse on 
Liberty street in New York, and built up a 
large foreign trade. Mclver Bros. Machine 
Co. were the successors of this firm. Besides 
wood-working machinery they made a variety 
of machines used in hulling and sorting coffee, 
for the Central and South American trade. 

Mr. H. C. Wight, of Worcester, invented a 
matching machine in 1848, which was the 
means of great saving of lumber. 

Maps of ^A^orcester. — The following com- 
prise the more important maps of Worcester : 

In the possession of The IVorcesfe/- Society of 
Antiquity, and unpublished : 

Map showing the locations of the settlers 
in 1675. 

Map showing the locations of the settlers in 

Map showing distribution of lots by the 
proprietors from 171 7 to 1733. 

/;/ the possession of the Amei^ican Antiqua- 
rian Society : 

MS. Map of the town in 1784, 

MS. Map of the town in 1829. 

MS. Map. Copy of the one in the Secre- 
tary of State's office at Boston. 

There is also a copy of the latter in the 
library of The W^orcester Society of Antiquity. 

Map of the village in 1829. 
" " " town " 1833. 

Both published by Clarendon Harris. 

MS. Map in the library of American Anti- 
quarian Society, probably made by William 

A small copper-plate map appears in the 
Worcester Directory, published by Henry J. 
Howland, from 1844 to 1857, and changes in 
streets, etc., were made from year to year. 
An enlarged map accompanied the Directory 
from 1858. 

Map of the town in 185 1, published by 
Warren Lazell. 

A large map was engraved by Addison 
Prentiss about 40 years ago, and S. P. R. 
Triscott drew three maps from 1873 to 1877, 
one of which, showing localities in old times, 
appears in Caleb A. Wall's " Reminiscences 
of Worcester.'''' 

Drew, Allis & Co., publishers of the Direct- 

ory, have for several years issued a map 
which may be had separate from the book. 

A real estate Atlas was published in 1870 
by F. W. Beers & Co., N. Y., and this was 
superseded by another in 1886. 

The City Engineer has several volumes of 
maps in MS., representing in detail the differ- 
ent sections of the city. 

C. W. Burbank has done much work upon 
some of the later maps of Worcester. 

Maritime Provinces Association was or- 
ganized in 1890. 

Markets. — The markets of W^orcester are 
not as good as they should be in a city of its 
size and pretensions. In smaller places in the 
eastern part of the state, provisions of much 
better quality and more variety can be found 
than are generally kept here, for the residents, 
if not satisfied, can resort to the Boston mar- 
kets; but Worcester is too far away to fear 
competition in the metropolis, except, perhaps, 
in fruit, which is purchased largely by those 
who go to Boston. 

Market (Public).— In 1868 a free pubHc 
market was established on the north side of 
the City Hall, on Front street, the sidewalks 
being roofed in for the purpose. It was 
opened August 29. It was intended for the 
benefit of country producers, and consequent- 
ly the city shop keepers did not regard the 
scheme with complacency, and sent their own 
wagons, with meat and produce from their 
private markets, to compete with and crowd 
out the others. Not proving a success, the 
market was discontinued after a year or so, 
and the roof over the sidewalk, which had 
much darkened the windows of the police 
station in the basement of the City Hall, was 

Market (Wood and Hay). — Formerly the 
wood and hay market was on Main street, 
front of the Old South Church, but was after- 
wards established in Salem square. 

Marriage Licenses. — Marriage licenses 
are issued by the City Clerk, and a fee of fifty 
cents is charged. Copies can be obtained for 
twenty-five cents after the certificate is re- 
turned by the clergyman or person qualified to 
perform the marriage ceremony. The appli- 
cant for a license is advised to put on a bold 
face and at once make known his errand to 
the young lady assistant, to whom he is sure 



to be referred if he applies to the City Clerk, 
for the latter rarely tills out the blanks. If 
the candidate for matrimonial honors feels 
himself too bashful to undergo the ordeal, he 
will be furnished with a form which he can fill 
out himself. The full names of the contract- 
ing parties, color, age, place of residence, 
occupation, number of the marriage, place of 
birth, and father's and mother's names of 
each are required. As some of the news- 
papers publish intentions of marriage daily, it 
will be well for those who do not desire pub- 
licity beforehand not to procure the license 
until the day the ceremony is to be performed. 
The Clerk's office is open from 9 to i and 2 
to 4.30. 

Masonic Societies. — Isaiah Thomas was 
the prime mover in establishing Freemasonry 
in Worcester, and mainly through his efforts 
Alorning Star Lodge was chartered on the 
iith of March, 1793, the charter members 
being Nathaniel Paine, Nathaniel Chandler, 
John Stanton, Ephraim Mower, Clark Chand- 
ler, Benjamin Andrews, Joseph Torrey, Sam- 
uel Chandler, Charles Chandler, John White, 
Samuel Brazer, John Stowers and Samuel 
Flagg. Isaiah Thomas was the first Master. 
This lodge was consecrated on the nth of 
June, 1793, by Most Worshipful Grand Mas- 
ter John Cutler and officers of the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts. A procession 
marched from Masons' Hall to the North 
Meeting House, where a sermon was preached 
by the Rev. Aaron Bancroft. The lodge 
held its meetings in early times at Mower's 
Tavern, where the Walker Building stands, 
and at the United States Arms, now the Ex- 
change Hotel; later a hall was built by 
Jedediah Healy, in the rear of where the 
Burnside Building is now located, which was 
occupied for many years for Masonic purposes. 
Morning Star Lodge continued to be an active 
organization until the great Anti- Masonic agi- 
tation of 1828 to 1835, when it ceased to be 
active, in common with many of the lodges 
throughout the country. W^illiam S. Barton, 
Esq., City Treasurer, has kindly favored the 
Dictionary with a list of the names of mem- 
bers of Morning Star Lodge in 1824 : Horatio 
Gates Henshaw, Lemuel (or Samuel) Wor- 
cester, Capt. Reuben Monroe, Israel Whitney, 
Harding Slocomb, Oliver White, Oliver Eager, 
Joel Gleason, Varnum Brigham, John A. 
Lazell, James Williams, Isaac Tucker, Ben- 
jamin Chapin, Simeon Duncan, Capt. John 

Barnard, Thomas Gray, Deacon Benjamin 
Phelps and Jonathan Wentworth. In 1823 
Worcester Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was 
organized, with Benjamin Chapin as High 
Priest. Isaiah Thomas, James Wilson, Jona- 
than Going, Otis Corbett and Ephraim 
Mower were others prominent in the forma- 
tion. In 1825 the Worcester County Coin- 
mandery of Knights Templars was organized 
in Holden, with James Estabrook as Com- 
mander; and PLirani Council, Royal and 
Select Masters, was chartered in Sutton in 
1826. It is probable that all these bodies 
were inactive during the political agitation 
against Masonry. 

In 1826 a remarkable excitement arose over 
the fate of William Morgan of Batavia, New 
York, who, it was claimed, was about to 
publish a book containing the secrets of the 
Masonic Order. He disappeared suddenly, 
and his fate has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. The opponents of Freemasonry 
declared that he had been murdered, and a 
strong feeling against the institution spread 
over the land, and nearly caused the exter- 
mination of the Order. The Anti-Masonic 
party was formed, and cast 33,000 votes in 
1828, 70,000 in 1829, and 128,000 in 1830. 
William Wirt was nominated for president 
as the candidate of the party in 1832, but 
carried only one state, Vermont. The feeling 
against Masons was probably as strong in this 
vicinity as elsewhere. New York State except- 
ed, and several prominent citizens were 
forward in the movement. Pliny Merrick 
publicly renounced Masonry, and Rev. George 
Allen, then of Shrewsbury, contributed two 
powerful pamphlets to the cause of Anti- 
Masonry. Mr. Allen had lived in the vicinity 
of Batavia, and knew Morgan and several of 
the parties implicated in the tragedy. He 
actively aided the efforts of John Quincy 
Adams, Samuel Lathrop and others in this 
State, but opposed Masonry and all secret 
societies on principle and not for political 

John Quincy Adams attributed to Isaiah 
Thomas, whom he terms the " arch-devil of 
Masonry," a great influence in the propaga- 
tion of the Order in this country. He says 
(Diary, Sept. 26, 1833,) that the power ac- 
quired by the institution "might be traced tt> 
Isaiah Thomas, of Worcester, and through 
him to Benjamin Russell, many years publish- 
er of the Boston Centinel. They were printers 



and made fortunes, Thomas a very large one, 
by their types. They made Freemasons of all 
their apprentices and journeymen." The 
Anti-Masonic agitation had something of the 
character of a frenzy, and died out as sudden- 
ly as it began; though to-day there is an 
organization of recent origin with nominally 
the same objects as the one formed in 1827. 

Morning Star Lodge was resuscitated in 
1842, with Horace Chenery, W. M.; Henry 
Earl, S. W.; Asa Walker, J. W., and Pliny 
Holbrook, Secretary. Meetings were at that 
time held in Dr. Green's building on Main 
street, opposite Central street. Masonry has 
continued to flourish to the present time, and 
this lodge has now about 300 members. The 
Worcester Cotcnty Coinniandery of Knights 
Templars removed to Worcester in 1845, ^'^d 
Hiram Council, A\ &^ S. A/., was located 
here in 1858. The former has 450 members, 
and the latter over 500. On the 9th of June, 
1859, Alontacute Lodge was instituted, with 
William A. Smith, Master. Of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite, Worcester Lodge 
of Perfection was established in 1863, and 
has at present 250 members of the 4° to 14°. 
Of this Rite Goddard Council, Princes of 
Jerusalem, 15° to 16°, and Lawrence Chap- 
ter of Rose Croix, 17° to 18°, were instituted 
in 1870. They have each about 175 members. 
Athelstan Lodge, F. &^ A. J/., was formed in 
1866 and Qtiinsigamond Lodge in 187 1. 
Eureka Chapter, K. A. M., was formed in 
1870. Stella Chapter, A'o. 3, Order of the 
Eastern Star, was organized in 1871, and 
now has about 300 members. This Order 
admits the wives and female relatives of Ma- 
sons, but is entirely separate and distinct from 
the Masonic Order proper. The late Thomas 
M. Lamb was prominently connected with the 
Order of the Eastern Star, and Daniel Sea- 
grave is the present Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Chapter. 

The different Masonic bodies (with the ex- 
ception of the Order of the Eastern Star^ 
which meets at Odd Fellows' Hall, Pleasant 
street,) hold their meetings in Masonic Hall 
on Pearl street, which is under the control of 
the Masonic Board of Directors, formed in 
1867. The Masonic Order may be defined as 
a secret fraternal and charitable association. 
The mutual benefit or insurance feature, com- 
mon with most of the secret societies, is not 
assumed by Freemasons in general, but the 
Masonic Mutual Relief Associations supply 

the deficiency. These are of comparatively 
recent origin. The Masonic Mutual Relief 
Association of Central Massachusetts was es- 
tablished in 1873, and has some 2300 mem- 
bers. The Dictionary is indebted to Messrs. 
William A. Smith and Daniel Seagrave for 
suggestions and corrections embodied in the 
above article. 

Massachusetts Record Society, — An 

association of several gentlemen resident in 
difterent parts of the State, formed in 1891 for 
the purpose of encouraging the preservation 
and publication of old records. Franklin P. 
Rice is the local representative. 

Mastodon Discovery. — On the 17th of 
November, 1884, the quidnuncs of Worcester 
were much excited by the announcement that 
the remains of a great beast had been discov- 
ered in a peat meadow in Northborough, just 
over the Shrewsbury line, and several mem- 
bers of the Natural History and Antiquity 
societies were early on the ground. Work- 
men, in digging a trench, had unearthed 
several large teeth and other remains, and 
these were identified as belonging to the Mas- 
todon americanus. This was the first authen- 
tic discovery of remains of the true mastodon 
in New England. The teeth are now in the 
museum of the Natural History Society — the 
gift of Stephen Salisbury, Esq., — and are fine 
specimens. The following year an attempt 
was made to recover the whole skeleton, but 
it was too much decayed. The search, how- 
ever, was rewarded by the discovery of a 
human skull imbedded in the peat, and bear- 
ing all the symptoms of intense antiquity. It 
was stated that a microscopic examination re- 
vealed the fact that the vegetable fiihrilLe of 
the peat had thoroughly penetrated into all 
the minute interstices of the skull between the 
plates; and from other evidences it was an- 
nounced that the owner of the head-piece was 
unquestionably pre-Columbian, if not sooner, 
and that he had probably perished in an 
encounter with the mastodon ! Notwithstand- 
ing all this and other corroborating circum- 
stances, which for a time made Worcester the 
cynosure of scientific eyes. Prof. F. W. Put- 
nam, of Cambridge, after a careful, thorough 
and exhaustive examination, declared in- his 
report that the skull had not been long in the 
peat ! An account of the mastodon discovery 
was published in pamphlet form by the com- 
piler of this Dictionary. 



It may not be generally known that the 
famous Newburg mastodon of Dr. Warren of 
Boston, now in the Warren Museum, was 
exhibited in Worcester in 1846, and that Dr. 
Warren's agent purchased it here, and took it 
to Boston. It was from this fine skeleton that 
the doctor mainly obtained his measurements 
and facts for his elaborate monograph on the 
Mastodoi giganteus, in quarto, with profuse 
illustrations, a copy of which was, through 
the efforts of the compiler of this Dictionary, 
presented to the Free Public Library of Wor- 
cester by the family of Dr. Warren. 

Mayors. — Following is a list of Mayors of 
Worcester from 1848, the time of its incorpo- 
ration as a city; the municipal year for the 
first three years began and ended in April : 

Levi Lincoln, 1848-49. Citizen. 

Henry Chapin, 1849-50. Free Soil. 

Peter C. Bacon, 1851-52. Free Soil. 

John S. C. Knowlton, 1853-54. Coalition. 

George W. Richardson, 1855, 1857. Know- 

Isaac Davis, 1856, 1858, 1861. Citizen. 

Alexander H. Bullock, 1859. Citizen. 

William W. Rice, i860. Republican. 

P. Emory Aldrich, 1862. Republican. 

D. Waldo Lincoln, 1863-64. Citizen. 

Phinehas Ball, 1865. Republican. 

James B. Blake, 1866-67-68-69-70. Re- 

Edward Earle, 1871. Republican. 

George F. Verry, 1872. Citizen. 

Clark Jillson, 1873, 1875-76. Republican. 

Edward L. Davis, 1874. Citizen. 

Charles B. Pratt, 1877-78-79. Citizen. 

Frank H. Kelley, 1880-81. Citizen. 

Elijah B. Stoddard, 1882. Citizen. 

Samuel E. Hildreth, 1883. Republican. 

Charles G. Reed, 1884-1885. Citizen. 

Samuel Winslow, 1886-87-88-89. Repub- 

Francis A. Harrington, 1890-91-92. Re- 

Mechanics' Association (Worcester 

County.) — The Worcester Meclianics' Associ- 
ation was in being in 1826, but probably did 
not long exist. The first action taken towards 
the formation of the present organization was 
at a meeting held in November, 1841, in the 
Town Hall, when a committee was chosen to 
consider the subject of forming a Mechanics' 
Association. The first formal meeting was 
held February, 5, 1842, and the following 

ofificers elected : President, William A. Wheel- 
er; Vice-President, Ichabod Washburn; Sec- 
retary, Albert Tolman; Treasurer, Elbridge 
G. Partridge. Others prominent in the move- 
ment were Anthony Chase, Putman W. Taft, 
William Leggate, Henry W. Miller, William 
M. Bickford, Levi A. Dowley, Rufus D. Dun- 
bar, John P. Kettell, James S. Woodworth, 
Hiram Gorham, Joseph Pratt, Henry Gould- 
ing and Edward B. Rice. Efforts were at 
once made to establish a library, and aa an- 
nual course of lectures was provided for. The 
first lecture before the Association was deliv- 
ered February 21, 1842, by Elihu Burritt. 
Another matter contemplated was the holding 
of an annual fair or exhibition, but it was not 
until September, 1848, that the first one was 
held, and others followed in 1849, i^Si? 1857 
and 1866. The Association was incorporated 
March 9, 1850, with power to hold real estate 
to the amount of $75,000, and personal prop- 
erty to the amount of $25,000. Later these 
amounts were changed to $200,000 and $50,- 
000 respectively. In 1854 Ichabod Washburn 
gave $10,000 towards the purchase of land 
and the erection of a hall, on condition that 
the society should raise a like sum, which was 
accomplished. The gift of Dea. Washburn 
was first invested in the lot of land in the rear 
of the Bay State House, now occupied by the 
Theatre. This lot was afterwards sold, and 
the money used in the purchase of the Main 
street land. The Association issued its bonds 
for $50,000, payable at different times, from 
five to ten years, and secured by a mortgage 
upon their property; $43,810 of these were 
taken and paid for by members of the society. 
The Waldo lot on Main street was purchased 
for $30,000, the corner stone of the building 
laid Sept. 3, 1855, and the edifice completed 
and dedicated March 19, 1857. {^See next 
article.') The total cost was $140,129.51. 
This sum was provided for as follows: Re- 
ceived from bonds, $49,960; donations, 
$28,320.38; first mortgage, $30,000; third 
mortgage, $25,000; total, $133,280.38. This, 
it will be seen, left a balance of $6,849.19 
still unpaid in the form of a floating debt, and 
a real debt of $104,960. The general finan- 
cial troubles of 1857 followed, and the 
Association found itself unable to meet its 
obligations. The holders of the third mort- 
gage took legal possession of the property. In 
1858 an effort was made to reduce the debt to 
$50,000, and to do this required the canceHng 



of $54,960. Hon. Stephen Salisbury gave 
$7000, on the condition that the debt was 
reduced to $50,000: Ichabod Washburn made 
another gift of $10,000; and the holders of 
the bonds accepted forty per cent, of their 
value in cash. The holders of the third 
mortgage of $25,000, and of notes of $6,849, 
discharged their claims for $15,000. This 
was a voluntary and friendly arrangement 
made by the friends of the Association to 
save its property, though it bore hard upon 
some who gave more than they could afford. 
The debt of $50,000 left by this compromise 
was gradually reduced, and was extinguished 
January i, 1892. 

The annual courses of lectures have been 
kept up from the first, and the library now 
contains 10,670 volumes. A reading room 
for the use of members is maintained, with 
daily and other papers, and the principal 
periodicals. In 1864 some 200 citizens of 
Worcester contributed $9000 to purchase the 
fine organ in the hall. In 1864 an Appren- 
tices' Drawing School was established, and a 
Summer School for boys at the Polytechnic 
Institute was opened in 1887. 

Mechanics' Hall. — The largest and finest 
public hall in the city, located in the building 
erected by the Mechanics' Association at 321 
Main street. The hall is generally used for 
lectures, entertainments, concerts, etc., and 
has a seating capacity of 1926. The yearly 
festivals of the Worcester County Musical 
Association are held here, and in the past 
many political conventions have met in the 
hall. The walls are adorned with many fine 
portraits (see portraits), and the great organ 
in front of the audience gives a good effect to 
the interior. On the floor below the main 
hall are Washburn Hall, and the Reading- 
Room, Library and offices of the Association. 
The ground floor is occupied for stores. The 
fagade of the building, of classic cast, is noble 
and imposing, and is best viewed in coming 
down Walnut street. Elbridge Boyden was 
the architect. See previous article. 

Mechanics' Exchange. — See Builders'' 

Medical College. — The Worcester Medi- 
cal Institution was incorporated in 1849, "^^^ 
went into operation the following year. Its 
founder, Dr. Calvin Newton, was for some 
years previous a practitioner in Worcester in 
that school of medicine called the botanic or 

eclectic, a modification of the early Thomp- 
sonian system. He instituted a medical school 
here previous to the opening of the college, 
with lectures given in Waldo Block. The 
college building was erected on the summit of 
Union Hill, John F. Pond, a large real estate 
operator in that region, giving the land. This 
building is now one of the structures on the 
Worcester Academy grounds. After the med- 
ical college failed, a female college was estab- 
lished here, and later the property was used 
by the Government as a military hospital (see 
Dale Hospital ; Worcester Academy). The 
Medical College prospered for a time, and 
quite a number of eclectic physicians were 
graduated; but after the death of Dr. Newton, 
in 1853, its prosperity declined, and within a 
few years the institution ceased to exist. 

Medical Examiner. — The functions and 
duties formerly belonging to coroners are now 
performed by "Medical Examiners." Dr. P. 
H. Keefe is the Medical Examiner for Wor- 
cester. His office is at 288 Main street. 

Medical Libraries. — The Hbrary of the 
Worcester District Medical Society is deposit- 
ed in the Free Public Library, building, occu- 
pying a room there rent free, the consideration 
being that the books may be used in the 
building by anyone entitled to the use of 
the Public Library. This library now con- 
tains 7,233 volumes, gathered since 1820. 
There is a fund of $7,500, the interest of 
which is applied for the purpose of increasing 
the number of books. 

There is a Homoeopathic Medical Library at 
the rooms of the Homoeopathic Medical Soci- 
ety, Trumbull street. It comprises about 
1,000 volumes. 

Medical Societies. — The Medical Society 
of the County of Worcester was in existence 
as early as 1784, and notices of the meetings 
frequently appear in the Spy. The Worcester 
District Medical Society formed in 1804, aux- 
iliary to the Massachusetts Medical Society, is 
still active, and has a valuable library (see 
previous article). The Worcester Medicac 
Association, formed in 1886, supplements the 
work of the District Society. 

T\itWorcester County Honiceopathic Medical 
Society was organized in 1886. Its library 
and dispensary are located on Trumbull street. 

Memorial Hospital. — The Washburn 
Memorial Hospital was incorporated in April, 



1871, and was opened in June, 1888, at the 
Samuel Davis place on Belmont street, the 
premises having been purchased for the pur- 
pose. This hospital, which is for the treat- 
ment of women and children only, was 
established through the beneficence of the late 
Ichabod Washburn. About thirty patients can 
be accommodated. The hospital is in charge 
of a superintendent, and there is a visiting 
staff of six physicians. 

The Washburn Free Dispensary, formerly 
at 1 1 Trumbull street, is now located at the 
Memorial Hospital. 

Merrick Square Social Club. — This club 
was organized in December, 1891, and is of a 
semi-political character. It occupies rooms at 
the corner of Pleasant and Sever streets. 

Merrifield Buildings. ^- The three-story 
brick structure occupying the square between 
Union and Cypress streets and Exchange and 
North Foster streets, erected and owned by 
William T. Merrifield. These buildings are 
used entirely for mechanical purposes. This 
spot was the scene of the great fire of June, 
1854 (see Fires J, when the buildings that 
formerly stood there were totally destroyed, 
with much other property. The old structure 
was four stories in height. 

Messinger Hill. — See Fairinonut. 

Messenger (The). — Established in Jan- 
uary, 1887, by James J. Doyle, as an eight- 
page monthly; enlarged January, 1888, to a 
six-column weekly. Published at 154 Front 
street. Represents the Catholic interests of 
the Diocese of Springfield, covering the cen- 
tral and western portions of Massachusetts. 

Methodist Churches. — There are nine 
Methodist Episcopal churches in Worcester, 
including two African. The list is as follows: 

Trinity, 650 Main street, formed 1834. 

Laurel Street, Laurel Hill, formed 1845. 

Webster Square, New W^orcester, formed 

Grace Free Church, W^alnut street, formed 

Coral Street, Coral street, formed 1872. 

First Swedish, Quinsigamond Village, 
formed 1879. 

Second Siuedish, 59 Thomas street, formed 

Zion {African'), 86 Exchange street, 
formed 1846. 

Bethel {African), 302 Main street, formed 

Some of these are noticed under their titles 
in the Dictionary. 

There are three missions : JVest Side, Abbott 
street, organized in 1891; Lake Vi eta, Anna. 
street, 1891; and the Mission Des Vrais 
Catholiques, at the Coral street church, or- 
ganized in 1889. 

Middle River. — The stream, formed by 
the united waters of Ramshorn, Lynde, Kettle, 
Beaver and Tatnuck brooks, which flows gen- 
erally east from New Worcester to Quinsiga- 
mond Village, where it joins Millbrook to form 
the Blackstone river. In the old records 
Middle river was called Half-way river. 

Midnight Yacht Club.— In 1878 Stephen 
E. Green, David Boyden, T. H. Blood, 
Charles L. Hopson, Henry E. and Frank H. 
Estabrook, Alex. DeWitt and John Howell 
chartered the schooner Midnight, at Rock- 
land, for a two weeks' cruise along the Maine 
coast. This experience proved so enjoyable 
that it was repeated with some modifications 
for twelve or thirteen years, others participat- 
ing, and the company changing until over 
fifty persons had taken part in the excursions. 
Messrs. Green and Boyden were, however, 
the only ones of the original number who for 
twelve consecutive years were constant in 
attendance. The expense of these trips was 
from $20 to $40 each. In 1879 the company 
camped at Deer Island. The Midfiight was 
used the first year, and different vessels later, 
the JLaggie for several years. The Club is 
now a thing of the past. 

Military History. — During the Indian 
troubles of 1722, Worcester furnished five men 
to the company of scouts under Major John 
Chandler. In 1723 seven of the inhabitants 
enlisted as soldiers and served during the 
winter. August 3, 1724, Uriah Ward of 
Worcester, in service at Rutland, was killed 
by the Indians. The town contributed liber- 
ally to the defense of the province during the 
wars with the French, and expended its 
means freely for the reduction of the fortresses 
of Nova Scotia and Canada. Benjamin Glea- 
son of AVorcester died before the walls of 
Louisburg in 1745, and Adonijah Rice, the 
first-born of our native citizens, was in a com- 
pany of rangers in the siege. In 1746 Fort 
Massachusetts at Williamstown was defended 



by a garrison partly of Worcester men. In 
1748, a company of fifty-three, all from this 
town, followed the Indians for seventeen days, 
but returned without engaging in battle. 
Seventeen Worcester men were in service in 
Nova Scotia, and seventeen more at Fort 
Cumberland. John Walker was commissioned 
a captain. Adonijah Rice and another were 
in the expedition against Crown Point in 
August. In September there were fourteen 
volunteers from Worcester. Many were in 
the ranks of the army that acted against 
Crown Point in 1756; and in the two succeed- 
ing years several were captured, and a number 
died of wounds or disease at Lake George. 
After the surrender of Fort William Henry 
the whole militia of the town marched to 
Sheffield, 105 miles distant, but the enemy 
having retired, the forces were disbanded. A 
company of Worcester men, under Capt. 
Samuel Clark Paine, was with Gen. Amherst 
in 1758, and continued in service till the 
peace of 1763. Worcester furnished to the 
provincial service during the French wars i 
colonel, I lieut. -colonel, 2 majors, 6 captains, 
8 lieutenants, 7 ensigns, 27 sergeants, 2 sur- 
geons, I chaplain and i adjutant. From 1748 
to 1762 there were 453 men from the town, 
not including those who enlisted in the regu- 
lar army. The name of John Chandler, 
borne by three generations, is prominent in 
the military annals of the town during this 
period, and the title of colonel descended 
from father to son and grandson. The above 
facts are from William Lincoln's History of 

In the American Revolution Worcester was 
foremost in contributing men and means to 
the cause. Lincoln says: "Worcester fur- 
nished a large proportion of her male popula- 
tion to the army. The exact number in 
service cannot be ascertained with certainty. 
If we include with the troops of the regular 
line those called out for short periods of duty, 
the following may be considered as a correct 
statement of the numbers of men from Wor- 
cester in military service during seven years of 
war: i colonel, 2 lieut. -colonels, 2 majors, 7 
captains, 10 lieutenants, 5 ensigns, 20 ser- 
geants and 389 privates." The name of Col. 
Timothy Bigelow will ever be illustrious in 
military annals. A history in detail of the 
revolutionary acts of the town will be found 
in Albert A. Lovell's Worcester in the Revo- 
lution. In Shays's Rebellion Worcester men 

were found on both sides. In 1807, when i^ 
was apprehended that hostilities with England 
would immediately ensue, the Worcester Light 
Infantry tendered their services in defense of 
the country. Adam Walker, a son of John 
Walker of Worcester, enlisted in the regular 
army, was in the battle of Tippecanoe, and 
was struck by bullets several times. In later 
service he was with Hull's army at Detroit, 
included in the surrender and sent to Halifax. 
After his exchange he wrote a book reflecting 
severely on Gen. Hull. This volume is rare 
and commands a large price. Copies are in 
the libraries of the American Antiquarian 
Society and The Worcester Society of Antiq- 
uity. The war of 18 1 2 was not popular in 
this vicinity, and not a large number of Wor- 
cester men were in service. Sabin Mann, 
oldest son of Joseph Mann of Worcester, was 
killed at Queenstown in 181 2. The Light 
Infantry and the Artillery Company marched 
to the defense of the coast on the threatened 
British attack in September, 1814, and re- 
mained in camp near Boston several weeks. 
In this war Massachusetts furnished 31 10 men. 
Thomas Gardner Mower, Surgeon General of 
the United States Army at a later period, was 
a native of Worcester. 

The Mexican war did not find much favor 
in the eyes of New England people. Pollard, 
a Southern authority, states that of 66,684 
rhen engaged, the South furnished 43,630. 
Of the New England States only Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire contributed, the 
former sending 1,047 and the latter i. The 
same writer claims that of the 155,364 soldiers 
in the war of 181 2, the South furnished 
96,812, and the North 58,552. New England 
sent 5,162 and South Carolina 5,696. In the 
Mexican war Capt. George Lincoln, a son of 
Gov. Lincoln, was killed at Buena Vista Feb. 
23, 1847; and Lieut. John Green Burbank, 
another Worcester man, fell at Molino del 
Rey Sept. 8, 1847. 

When the first gun of the Rebellion was 
fired at Fort Sumter, Worcester was ready, 
and on the 17th of April, 186 1, the Light 
Infantry departed for Washington. This 
company belonged to the ill-fated Sixth Regi- 
ment, but was with the detachment that 
passed safely through Baltimore at the time of 
the massacre, and passed directly to the Capi- 
tal. The Light Infantry's term of service was 
mostly spent in Maryland, and the company 
arrived home on the 1st of August. On the 



20th of April the Third Battalion of Rifles, 
made up of the City Guards, the Emmet 
Guards, and the Holden Rifles, under com- 
mand of Major Charles Devens, followed the 
Light Infantry. The battaHon was on duty 
about Baltimore most of the time until it re- 
turned on the 2d of August. On the 28th of 
June, Camp Scott, at South Worcester, was 
occupied by the Fifteenth Regiment, the first 
Worcester County regiment, with Charles 
Devens as Colonel. This regiment participat- 
ed in the disastrous battle of Ball's Bluff, and 
also in the battles of Fair Oaks, Antietam, 
Gettysburg, the Wilderness and others. It 
arrived home July 21, 1864, with its numbers 
reduced to 150 men. The Twenty-first went 
into camp on the 19th of July. The Agricul- 
tural or Fair Grounds were occupied, and the 
name Camp Lincoln was given in honor of 
ex-Governor Levi Lincoln. The regiment 
departed for the seat of war August 23d, em- 
barked for North Carolina on the Burnside 
expedition, and took part in the battles of 
Roanoke and New Berne. The next spring 
it was sent to Virginia, and was in the battles 
of second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Moun- 
tain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, the Wilder- 
ness and others. It was mustered out August 
30, 1864. The Twenty-fifth Regiment left 
Worcester October 31. It formed a part of 
the forces of the Burnside expedition, was at 
Roanoke- and New Berne, and remained in 
North Carolina till the fall of 1863. The 
next spring and summer the regiment saw 
hard service, passed through Drewry's Bluff, 
Cold Harbor, and other battles, and spent the 
last months before Petersburg. It arrived 
home (excepting a portion that had re-enlist- 
ed the winter before) October 13, 1864. The 
Thirty-fourth departed on the 15th of August, 
1862, and was in service till July 6, 1865. It 
took part in the battles of New Market, Cedar 
Creek, Piedmont, Lynchburg, Winchester, 
and others. The Thirty-Sixth Regiment fol- 
lowed the last September 2d, 1862, and re- 
turned June 21, 1865. It passed through 
Fredericksburg, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania 
Court House, and other battles, performed 
much hard service, and made many long 
marches. The Fifty-First Regiment, which 
enlisted for nine months, left November 25th, 
1862, and returned July 21, 1863. Most of 
its service was in North Carolina. On the 
1 8th of April, 1864, the Fifty-seventh Regi- 
ment, the last of the Worcester County organ- 

izations, proceeded to the scene of conflict. 
This regiment was in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness and numerous minor encounters, and 
spent the summer before Petersburg. It was 
mustered out in August, 1865. In the list of 
Worcester's martyrs the names of John Wil- 
liam Grout, who was killed at Ball's Bluff, 
Gen. George H. Ward, who fell at Gettys- 
burg, and for whom the local Grand Army 
post was named, Thomas J. Spurr, S. F. 
Haven, Jr., Dexter F. Parker, Rev. Samuel 
Souther, the Wellingtons, the Bacons, Thomas 
O'Neil and Henry McConville are prominent. 
Of those who gained distinction in the conflict, 
Charles Devens, Josiah Pickett, A. B. R. 
Sprague and William S. Lincoln are well- 
known names. Worcester sent 3,927 men to 
the war, at a total direct money cost of 
$586,054. Of this amount $245,653 was 
paid for bounties and expense of recruiting; 
$93,650 commutation and substitutes; and 
$246,751 state aid to families. 

Rev. Abijah P. Marvin's Worcester in the 
War of the Rebellion is an interesting and 
valuable book, giving a very full account of 
Worcester's part in sustaining the Union. 
Some hasty and unjust criticism followed its 
publication in consequence of certain errors 
made at the Adjutant General's office, for 
which the author was not responsible. These 
errors are mostly corrected in the last edition. 
Histories of the Twenty-first, Twenty-fifth, 
Thirty-fourth and Thirty-sixth Regiments have 
been printed. The Story of Company A, 
Twenty-fifth Regiment, has been much com- 
mended as a true picture of the daily life of a 
soldier. The history of the fighting Fifteenth 
remains to be written, and it is a matter of 
regret that Gen. Devens could not have per- 
formed that duty. 

Of Worcester militar}' companies, past and 
present, the City Guards, Continentals, Em- 
met Guards, Light Infantry, and the State 
Guards are noticed under their titles in the 
Dictionary. The Worcester Artillery Com- 
pany was an active organization here . from 
1783 to 1838. The Independent Cadets, 
formed during the threatened war with France 
in 1798, disbanded soon after. The Worces- 
ter Cavalry was in existence for some twenty 
years, certainly from 1813 to 1826. The 
white silk flag of this company is now in the 
possession of Albert A. Lovell, and has the 
State arms and the mottoes: "God armeth 
the Patriot," and "For God and Our Coun- 



try," on one side; and " Worcester Cavalry, 
ist Brigade, Sixth Division," on the other. 
The Worcester Rifle Corps, established in 
1823, was disbanded in 1835. The Jackson 
Guards was an Irish company suppressed by 
Gov, Gardiner, in Know-Nothing times. 

Militia Companies. — There are four mil- 
itia companies belonging to Worcester, three 
infantry and one artillery, namely : Co. A 
(Worcester City Guards), and Co. C (Wor- 
cester Light Infantry), of the Second Regi- 
ment; and Co, G (Emmet Guards), of the 
Ninth Regiment, Battery B, Light Artillery, 
is unattached. See in the Dictionary, under 
Emmet Gziards; City Guards; Light Infant)-y. 

Mill Brook, — This stream rises in Holden 
and flows generally south until it unites at 
South Worcester with Middle river to form 
the Blackstone. The first saw and grist mills 
in the town were erected on this stream above 
Lincoln square, and gave it the name of Mill 

Millbury. — So named from the numerous 
mills which it contains, was taken from the 
north part of Sutton and incorporated June 
IT, 181 3. It is situated six miles south of 
Worcester, on the Providence & Worcester 
Railroad. A branch railroad also connects at 
Millbury Junction with the Boston & Albany 
Railroad. The Worcester and Millbury Elec- 
tric Railroad was opened in October, 1892. 
Population in 1885, 4,555. In 1890, 4,428. 

Millstone Hill. — The eminence north of 
Belmont street and Bell pond, from which 
much of the foundation stone used in Worces- 
ter is obtained. Quarries have been worked 
here from early time, and of late years exten- 
sively. Aug. 27, 1733, the proprietors voted 
"that 100 acres of the poorest land on Mill- 
stone be left common for the use of the town 
for building stones." In 1763 it appears that 
the land in question had been sold through 
mistake to Daniel Heywood, and some time 
afterward it was recovered in course of law, 
and in 1770 he was given a sum of money to 
quit his claim. In later times, however, 
private parties assumed ownership and were 
sustained by the courts, for in 1824, in the 
case of William E, Green vs, town of Worces- 
ter, it was decided that the town had no right 
in the property other than to take building 
stone. The top of the hill is 780 feet above 
the tide level. 

Minerals. — Dana gives the list of minerals 

found in Worcester as follows: Mispickel 
(arsenical iron), idocrase, pyroxene, garnet, 
amianthus, bucholzite, spathic iron, galena. 
Mr. W. H, Lovell, who compiled a list of 
minerals in Worcester county for the Natural 
History Society, found the following: Calcite, 
graphite, vesuviante (idocrase). At the Coal 
Mine : Graphite, anthracite, pyrite, asbestos, 
fibrolite (bucholzite), Northville Silver Mine : 
Pyrite, arsenopyrite, siderite, galena, Tat- 
nuck Hill: Pvrite, pyrrhotite. Millstone Hill: 
Fluorite in granite. South Ledge (near Quin- 
sigamond Village) : Feldspar, mica (biotite), 
talc (soapstone). Also granite for building, 
and peat. 

Ministers. — The ministry of Worcester 
includes few distinguished names. Of the 
older churches, a list of the ministers of the 
First or Old South Church will be found under 
the title in the Dictionary. The Second 
(Unitarian-Congregational) has had but four 
pastors since its formation in 1785, namely: 
Aaron Bancroft to 1839; Alonzo Hill, 1827 to 
1871; Edward H. Hall, 1869 to 1882; and 
Austin S. Garver, 1882 to the present time. 
The Calvinist Church (now the Central) was 
organized in 1820, and Loammi Ives Hoadley 
was the first pastor, ordained in 1823. His 
successors have been John S. C, Abbott, 1830 
to 1835; David Peabody, 1835 to 1838; Seth 
Sweetser, 1838 to 1878; Henry E. Barnes 
(colleague) 1874 to 1876; Daniel Merriman, 
1878 to the present. The Union Church, 
formed in 1836, has had the following pastors: 
Jonathan E. Woodbridge to 1838; Elam 
Smalley (author of The Worcester Pulpit'), 
1838 to 1854; Ebenezer Cutler, 1855 to 
1878; Henry A Stimson, 1880 to 1885; Wil- 
liam V. W. Davis, 1887. The Salem Street 
Church was formed in 1848. George Bush- 
nell was the first pastor to 1857, and his 
successors have been Merrill Richardson to 
1871; Charles M. Lamson to 1886; and Isaac 
J. Lansing. The latter has the present year 
(1892) been succeeded by Rev. F. B. Vroo- 
man, Plymouth Church was formed in 1869, 
George W. Phillips was pastor to 1887, and 
was succeeded by Charles Wadsworth, Jr. 
Rev. Archibald McCullagh, D. D., is the 
present pastor, settled in 1890. Piedmont 
Church, organized in 1872, has had George 
H. Gould and David O. Mears as ministers, 
the latter since 1877. The second Unitarian 
Church, or Church of the Unity, was formed 
in 1845. Edward Everett Hale was pastor 



ten years, and his successors have been Rush 
R. Shippen, 1856 to 1871; Henry Blanchard, 
1872 to 1881; Roland A. Wood, 1881 to 
1884; and Calvin Stebbins. Rev. George 
Allen, a native and long a resident of Wor- 
cester, was noted as a scholar and an authori- 
ty in Congregational matters. He preached 
many years at the Hospital. His library is 
now in the possession of The Worcester Socie- 
ty of Antiquity. (See Allen Library.) The 
first regularly settled Baptist minister in Wor- 
cester was William Bentley, from 181 2 to 
181 5, and he was followed by Jonathan Go- 
ing, 1815 to 1831; Frederick A. Willard, 1832 
to 1835; Jonathan Aldrich, 1835 to 1838; 
Samuel B. Swaim, 1839 to 1854; J. D. E, 
Jones, 1855 to 1859; Rev. Lemuel Moss, H. 
K. Pervear, B. D. Marshall and George G. 
Craft have succeeded the latter. The Second 
Baptist Church was organized in 1841, and 
John Jennings was the first pastor. The Third 
Baptist Church was formed in 1853. H. L. 
W^ayland was first installed. The first Method- 
ist minister of Worcester was Joseph A. 
Merrill in 1833. Other early ministers of this 
denomination were George Pickering, John 
T. Burrill, James Porter and Charles K. True. 
The Second (Laurel street) Methodist Church 
was organized in 1845, and Richard S. Rust 
was the first minister. The first pastor of 
Grace M. E. Church was J. O. Peck in 1867. 
The First Universalist Church was organized 
in 1843. The ministers have been S. P. 
Landers, iVlbert Case, O. H. Tillotson, John 
G. Adams, L. M. Burrington, Thomas E. St. 
John, B. F. Bowles and Moses H. Harris. 
The latter was succeeded in 1890 by Rev. 
Almon Gunnison. Episcopal worship was 
established in Worcester in 1835 by Rev. 
Thomas H. Vail. All Saints Church was 
formed in 1843. The rectors have been 
Henry Blackaller, George T. Chapman, G. 
H. Clark, Justin Field, Nathaniel T. Bent, A. 
M. Morrison, William R. Huntington (now 
rector of Grace Church, New York), 1862- 
1883, and A. H. Vinton. Rev. James Fitton 
was the first Roman Catholic clergyman of 
Worcester, and worship was established here 
in 1834. Matthew W. Gibson and John Boyce 
were other priests here in early days. At 
present John J. Power, Thomas J. Conaty 
and Thomas Griffin are clergymen of more 
than local reputation. 

Missions. — The following missions are es- 
tablished in Worcester : 

Baptist Missions. — Jamesville, at James- 
ville, organized in 1884. Quinsigaino7td, at 
Quinsigamond Village, organized in 1885. 
Greendale, organized in 1884. 

Methodist. — West Side, Abbott street, 
organized in 1891. Mission Des Vrais Cath- 
oliques, at Coral Street Church, 1889. Lake 
Vieiti, Wesley Hall, Coburn avenue, 1891. 

Orthodox. — Siimuiit, organized 1884. 

New Jerusalem, founded in 1888, and 
meets in Burnside Building. 

Roman Catholic. — St. Anne's, Grand 
street, organized in 1886. 

Valley Falls. — Leicester street, organ- 
ized 1869. 

Highway. — 393 Shrewsbury street, organ- 
ized in 1890. 

Tatnuck. — Pleasant street. 

Monuments. — See Bigelow Momiment ; 
Soldiers'' Monu/tient. 

Moral Effort Union. — See Union for 
Concerted Moral Effort. 

Mt. Vernon Social Club. — A prominent 
association of young men. 

Museums. —See under American Anti- 
quarian Society ; Natural Llistory Society ; 
Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Musical Association (Worcester Coun- 
ty). — The Dictionary is indebted to the 
LListorical Sketch of the Worcester County 
Musical Association, by Samuel E. Staples, 
for many of the facts that follow relating to 
that organization : 

The first of the series of musical conven- 
tions, which preceded the formation of the 
Worcester County Musical Association, was 
held in September, 1858, under the manage- 
ment of Edward Hamilton, assisted by B. F. 
Baker of Boston, These conventions were 
held annually, either by private enterprise or 
under the auspices of the Mozart Society until 
1863. In consequence of some opposition to 
Mr. E. H. Frost as musical conductor in the 
Mozart Society, his supporters took action 
which led to the formation of the W^orcester 
County Musical Association. Mr. James D. 
Moore is credited with having suggested the 
new organization, and he called a musical 
convention to be held in Mechanics Hall in 
September, 1863, under direction of E. H. 
Frost, while another convention was an- 
nounced to be held the same week in the City 
Hall under the direction of B. F. Baker. 



These rival conventions represented two fac- 
tions which had divided the musical people of 
Worcester for several years, those supporting 
Mr. Baker being opposed to the Lowell 
Mason school. But Mr. Frost and his friends 
were too strong for their opponents, and the 
assembly at Mechanics Hall adopted the name 
of the "Worcester County Musical Conven- 
tion." An organization was eftected Oct. 2, 
1863, with Samuel E. Staples as President, 
William S. Denny, Secretary and Treasurer, 
and James D. Moore, Librarian. This socie- 
ety became in 1 871, by change of name, the 
Wo?'cester Comity Micsical Association, and 
the annual conventions have been known 
since that time as Musical or Music Festivals. 
Mr. Staples was president of the Association 
for ten years, and was succeeded by Hon. 
William R. Hill of WilkinsonviUe. Mr. Hill 
died in 1887, and Hon. Edward L. Davis 
was elected President, and now holds the 
office. The other officers at present are Wil- 
liam Sumner, Vice-President; B. D. Allen, C. 
M. Bent, Daniel Downey, L. M. Lovell, B. 
L. M. Smith, C. I. Rice, C. C. Stearns, Ben. 
T. Hammond, Directors; A. C. Munroe, Sec- 
retary; J. E. Benchley, Treasurer; and G. W. 
Elkins, Librarian. The annual festival is held 
the last week in September, and continues five 
days. Carl Zerrahn has been conductor for 
many years, and has trained the chorus of five 
hundred voices to a good degree of excellence. 
Eight grand concerts and seven public re- 
hearsals are given, and the programme gener- 
ally includes one of the great oratorios. 
Distinguished soloists are engaged each year. 
The Festival has become the great, and 
indeed the only, society event of the year in 
Worcester; there is an eager demand for 
seats, and the prices paid for premiums aggre- 
gate a large sum. The Festival draws visitors 
from all parts of the country, and largely from 
the county; it is therefore not entirely a Wor- 
cester city institution. 

Music Hall. — The Worcester Fruit Pre- 
serving Company was organized under a char- 
ter from the Legislature in 1867, with a 
capital of $50,000, for the purpose of erecting 
and carrying on an extensive fruit-keeping 
house under Prof. Nyce's patent. The officers 
were: President, Benj. Walker; Clerk, Elijah 
B. Stoddard; Treasurer, Harrison Bliss; 
Superintendent, John S. Ballard. The build- 
ing, which was erected on Exchange street 

back of the Bay State House, was on the plan 
of a huge refrigerator, in which the various 
kinds of fruit, foreign and domestic, as well as 
eggs, vegetables, etc., were to be stored and 
kept fresh indefinitely. The enterprise did 
not prove a success, and the following year 
the Music Hall Association was formed for the 
purpose of utilizing the property in the erec- 
tion of a theatre. The land on which the 
building stood had been deeded to the Fruit 
Preserving Co. by the Bay State House pro- 
prietors April 29, 1867, for $8,195, ^"^ ^^is 
having fallen into the hands of Benj. W. 
Thayer of Boston, was deeded by him to the 
Music Hall Corporation May 7, 1868. The 
latter had been incorporated April 14, 1868, 
and was composed of the following gentle- 
men: Harrison Bliss, E. B. Stoddard, Francis 
H. Kinnicutt, Edward L. Davis, Stephen 
Salisbury, Jr., Samuel Woodward, David S. 
Messinger, Wm. H. Goulding, Benj. Walker, 
Orlando Tompkins of Boston, and Chas. B. 
Pratt. The fruit building, which was in the 
rear of the lot, was extended by an addition 
in front, the new part costing $18,950, and 
the whole transformed into a theatre, called 
at first Music Hall, but of late years known 
as the Worcester Theatre. It was leased 
March i, 1869, for ten years to B. W. Thayer 
and Orlando Tompkins, at $5,000 per year 
for the whole building, which included two 
stores on the ground floor. A mortgage of 
$25,000 was placed on the property of the 
corporation, which organized with a capital 
stock of $26,800, divided into 268 shares. 
The theatre was opened on the evening of 
March 9, 1869, by the Boston Theatre Co., 
with the play of the Lady of Lyons. After 
the first lease run out the proprietors and 
others managed the theatre for three or four 
years, and in 1883 the late Charles D. C. 
Wilkinson assumed control under a six years' 
lease at $3,750 yearly rent. His widow re- 
tained possession after his death till the 
destruction of the building by fire in May, 
1889. Previous to the fire a lease had been 
given to F. F. Proctor for five years from 
Sept. I, 1889. The New Worcester Theatre 
was built on the site. (See Theatre.^ 

Music in Worcester. — In 1784 Isaiah 
Thomas advertised that he had procured "a 
beautiful set of musical types from England, 
by which he was enabled to print church and 
other musick." The '■^ Worcester Collection 



of Sacred Harmony,^'' "^xiXiXv^^^ in 1788, was 
probably printed from those types. In 1797 
Mr. B. Glaan announced himself as a teacher 
of the "piano-forte and keyed instruments," 
at Barker's Tavern in Worcester. Notices of 
singing schools and dancing schools appear 
early in the present century'. In 1809 a Mr. 
Mallet gave "harmony concerts" at Healy's 
Hall, which was where the Burnside Building 
now stands. A well-toned piano-forte was 
offered for sale in a notice in the Spy, and on 
the death of Hon. Francis Blake in 1817, the 
one belonging to his family was publicly sold. 
John W. Lincoln opened a "School for Mar- 
tial Music" in 1813, to instruct musicians for 
service in the war. A Mr. Lewis was a 
teacher of vocal music in Worcester in 1819. 
About the year 1820 considerable interest was 
manifested in this locality and in different 
parts of the county in the subject of mus'C, 
and several societies were formed which were 
active for a number of years; among these 
may be mentioned the Lockhart Union Socie- 
ty of Brookfiejd, the Templi Carmina Society 
of Sutton, the Beethoven Society of Millbury, 
and the Worcester Harmonic Society; the 
latter formed about the year 1825. In Septem- 
ber, 1822, an oratorio was performed here by 
the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston; and 
at the dedication of the Calvinist (Central) 
Church in 1823, the Lockhart Union Society 
furnished the music, and gave an oratorio in 
the evening. A concert was given here 
March 5, 1823, by Miss PHmpton, the 
"young Columbian vocalist," of Boston. 

Philip Brown, in a room over George A. 
Trumbull's book-store, advertised in 1823 
imported music and musical instruments. He 
was probably the first music dealer in Worces- 
ter. In 1 83 1 Aaron Leland opened his 
"music and umbrella store," and in 1839 
Samuel Reeves Leland came to Worcester, 
also dealing in musical instruments and um- 

A novel musical entertainment was given 
here in 1828, with a combination of instru- 
ments, the siren, musical glasses, bagpipes, 
etc.; and in 1830 Mr. and Mrs. Papanti from 
Boston advertised a concert to take place 
June 17. In 1834 a concert of sacred music 
was given in Mr. Abbott's (Central) Meeting 
House by Messrs. N. Allen, Colburn, White 
et al. of Boston. Ostinelli appeared here 
with Mr. Maeder in 1835. In 1836 the Cal- 
vinist Society . advertised theii bass viol for 

sale, "the church having procured an organ." 
In 1837 Emory Perry and Alexander (Ed- 
ward) Hamilton announced their "Juvenile 
and Adult Singing School." In 1839 piano- 
forte instruction was given by Miss Frances E. 
Rice and Miss S. Collier. The same year 
there was a concert by the "Tyrolese Sing- 
ers;" and the "Worcester Mozart Society," 
E. Sanger, secretary, is noticed. The latter 
probably was not maintained long, for several 
years later, as will be seen below, another 
society of the same name was organized. A 
"Grand Musical Soiree by the St. Luke Fami- 
ly," Italian Fantoccini, and the Nicholson 
Flute and Glee Club were the attractions in 
1839-40. In 1843 there was a "Grand Mu- 
sical Jubilee" in Worcester, to which the 
Worcester Brass Band invited all the bands in 
the vicinity. The same year the Hutchinson 
Family appeared here, and Ole Bull came for 
the first time July i, 1844. His last appear- 
ance here was on the 27th of April, 1880, and 
his death occurred on the i8th of August of 
that year. The following are some of the 
celebrities who have appeared in Worcester 
during the last forty-five years: Leopold De- 
Meyer, Madame Anna Bishop, Brignoli, Herz 
and Sivori, Julien, Parodi, Stigelli, Jenny 
Lind, Thalberg, D'Angri, Gottschalk," Gill- 
more, Parepa, Arbuckle, Blind Tom, Adelina 
and Carlotta Patti, Bulow, Carreno, Pappen- 
heim, Thomas, Nilsson, Damrosch, Joseffy, 
Remenyi, Rubinstein, Wilhelmj, Paderewski 
and De Pachmann. 

The Worcester Sacred Music Society was 
formed in 1846, and in 1852 the Worcester 
Musical Association appeared, but did not 
long continue. A. N. Johnson, George F. 
Root, William Sumner and Edward .S. Nason 
were prominent in this society, which must 
not be confounded with the Worcester County 
Musical Association, founded ten years later. 
The Mozart Society, formed in 1850, was a 
more permanent organization, and continued 
with varying success and failure until it was 
united with the Beethoven Society. The lat- 
ter, instituted in 1864, joined the Mozart in 
1866, to form the Worcester Mozart and 
Beethoven Choral Union, which later became 
the Choral Union. (See title.) The Shumann 
Club was in existence some ten years ago, 
and was similar in character to the present 
Gounod Club. The Orchestral Union ia, an 
active organization. (See the article on the 
Worcester County Musical Association.) 



Of individuals who have contributed much 
to the advancement of music in Worcester in 
the past, the names of Emory Perry, Rufus D. 
Dunbar, L. S. Rust, Edward Hamilton, Sam- 
uel R. Leland and William Sumner are prom- 
inent. Mr. Perry was a teacher of music here 
for thirty years. He instituted the Worcester 
Harmonic Society, active for ten or twelve 
years after 1826. Mr. Hamilton possessed 
sound musical taste, and was a safe critic. He 
was also a composer of merit. Of prominent 
musicians who have resided or now reside in 
Worcester, only a few can be noticed in addi- 
tion to those above named. Eugene Thayer, 
who achieved such eminence as an organist, 
had his early training here, and went abroad 
from this city. Matthew Arbuckle came to 
Worcester in 1857, through the efforts of 
Isaac Fiske, whose band he conducted for 
three years; and while here his subsequent 
fame began to dawn. Arbuckle was a Scotch- 
man, and deserted from the British service in 
Canada, induced to this action by members of 
a band in Troy, N. Y., who were impressed 
with his power, which he himself did not 
suspect. After playing in Troy some time, he 
was found by Mr, Fiske, who brought him to 
Worcester. C. C. Stearns, the well-known 
musical composer and teacher, has for the past 
thirty years resided in Worcester. The 
lamented Henshaw Dana was also a resident. 
Walter Kennedy, Ben. T. Hammond and E. 
N. Anderson are prominent as teachers of the 
voice. The useful work and long service of 
Mr. B. D. Allen entitle him to honorable 

Of military bands information is meagre. 
About 1840 two bands were formed, one 
located at New Worcester, and the Harrison 
excitement of that year afforded ample oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of their abilities. David 
Perry and Marshall Tenney were well-known 
band masters of the period from 1840 to 1850. 
The most notable enterprise in this line was 
entered into in the formation of Fiske's Band 
in 1857, which was the means of bringing to 
W^orcester such musicians as Arbuckle, Patz, 
Kendall and others of note, for the spirit of 
rivalry excited by Mr. Fiske in securing the 
services of Arbuckle caused extraordinary 
efforts on the part of the managers of Joslyn's 
or Goddard's Band, and competition was 
lively between them. Under Arbuckle, Fiske's 
Band attained a high degree of excellence in 
playing, and greatly astonished Gillmore when 

he visited Worcester with his famous Salem 
Band on their return from the democratic 
national convention at Charleston in i860. 
The two bands paraded together, and Gill- 
more soon after obtained the services of 
Arbuckle for his own organization. Isaac 
Fiske, to whom belongs the credit of main- 
taining the organization for four or five years, 
was a manufacturer of band instruments in 
Worcester for a long period. (See Bands for 
present organizations.) 

Mystic Brothers (Independent Order 

of). — Jerking Council, A'o. 6\ was organized 
in 1 88 1, and is composed largely of Scandi- 
navians. Meets at Integrity Hall, Pearl 
street. It is a mutual benefit order. 

Naturalization Clubs. — See under French 

Natural History Park. — The tract of 
land near the north end and bordering on the 
shores of Lake Quinsigamond, owned by the 
Worcester Natural History Society. The 
Natural History Camp and Training School 
for boys is held here every summer. The park 
includes the summit and eastern slope of 
Wigwam Hill, and contains about 40 acres. 
The money to purchase the land ($5,000) 
was given by Hon. Joseph H. Walker, ?nd 
Thomas H. Dodge, Esq., erected the pavilion 
known by his name. A well-equipped work- 
shop is one of the attractions of the camp, and 
Horace H. Bigelow largely contributed to the 
expense of this and other conveniences. (See 
next article. ) 

Natural History Society (The Worces- 
ter). — The Worcester Lyceum of Natural 
History, formed in 1825, was in existence 
three or four years. Dr. John Green was 
president. Some of the specimens owned by 
this organization are now in the cabinet of the 
present society, which can trace its pedigree 
to the Worcester Lyceum formed in 1829, for 
the instruction and improvement of the citi- 
zens of Worcester. In August, 1852, the 
Voung Men's Literary Association was incor- 
porated for the purpose of affording intellect- 
ual and social advantages to the young men of 
the city, by maintaining a library and reading 
room, and courses of lectures. Through the 
efforts of Rev. Edward Everett Hale, a natu- 
ral history department was organized in April, 
1854. In 1855 the Young Men's Rhetorical 



Society united with the Library Association, 
and in 1856 the Worcester Lyceum joined 
fortunes with the others, the consoHdation 
forming the Worcester Lyceum and Library 
Association. In 1859 the books belonging to 
this society were given to the city as a nucleus 
of the circulating department of the Free 
Public Library, and the natural history de- 
partment was the only active branch left, the 
Rhetorical Society having withdrawn and re- 
organized by itself. Interest was kept up, 
however, and the name of the Lyceum and 
Library Association assumed, and the work 
carried on so far as could be done with cur- 
tailed resources and objects. The courses of 
popular lectures were still maintained, and for 
some fifteen years received liberal patronage. 
When the City Library was removed from 
Bank building to Elm street, the society was 
accommodated with quarters in the basement 
for its natural history cabinet. In 1866 the 
name was changed to the Worcester Lyceum 
and Natural History Society, and March 6, 
1884, altered to Worcestc?' Natural History 
Society by legislative enactments. The society 
had after four or five years moved back to Fos- 
ter street, and taken possession of the upper 
story of the Bank Building, where it remained 
until Oct., 1891. The collections became very 
valuable as they increased, and among the 
acquisitions may be mentioned the John Mil- 
ton Earle collection of shells, and a fine cab- 
" inet of minerals. The society also had at one 
time a good collection of Indian relics and 
other curiosities, but these have been scattered. 
Interest in the work was kept up in a tolera- 
ble degree until 1875, but for the next five 
years there was a noticeable falling off in 
attendance and enthusiasm. Mr. Thomas A. 
Dickinson, who had succeeded Mr. James G. 
Arnold as superintendent of the cabinet, 
exerted himself in various ways to revive the 
old interest, and by his invitation Prof. 
Francis G. Sanborn, afterwards in charge of 
the cabinet, came to Worcester, and gave 
much assistance in the form of lectures and 
practical work and instruction. Mr. Nathan- 
iel Paine, after many years' valuable service as 
president, withdrew, and his successors were 
prevented by the pressure of other duties from 
giving the necessary attention, time and labor 
needed to revive the old spirit. In 1880 Dr. 
William H. Raymenton was elected president, 
and began his vigorous administration, which 
has made the society a living force in the 

community. He entered upon the work with 
much enthusiasm, which proved contagious to 
those about him. Under his direction free 
classes in the different branches of natural 
science were instituted, the cabinet or museum 
opened daily to the public, and field and 
practice meetings held at short intervals. By 
these means the membership of the society 
was largely increased (1300 in 1888), and 
new life infused into every department. Find- 
ing that the development and success of his 
plans required money in larger amounts than 
the membership fees and other resources of 
the society afforded, he appealed to the 
wealthy and business men of the city to aid 
him by contributions of money or otherwise, 
and the response was generous in a surprising 
degree. The first year (1880) $1,708.99 was 
received, and the sums given for each succeed- 
ing year, as shown by the treasurer's books, 
appear as follows : 


1881 $2,239.88 

1882 2,383.62 

1883 2,587.21 

1884 4,250.48 

1885 5,t52.78 

1886 5,091.03 

1887 6,788.89 

1888 12,204.16 

In addition to the above, gifts for special 
purposes have been received, which swell the 
aggregate sum raised for the society by Dr. 
Raymenton previous to his retirement from 
the presidency in 1889, to $55,000, the last 
gift being $3,000, to settle some obligations of 
the year before. The principal benefactors of 
the society during the Doctor's administration 
have been Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Hon. 
Joseph H. Walker, Stephen Salisbury, Esq., 
and Thomas H. Dodge, Esq. Three years' 
subscriptions were instituted, a certain sum 
being pledged each year for three years; and 
these have been renewed two or three times 
by some, and in many instances in increased 
amounts, the donors manifesting the utmost 
enthusiasm in the work of the society. The 
list for 1883, for example, has the names of 
three contributors who gave $200 a year for 
three years, five who gave $100 a year, eight 
$50 a year, and ten $25 a year. In addition 
there were ten subscribers at $20 each, five at 
$15, and forty-six at $10. Many of these in 
renewing their three years' subscriptions 
doubled the amounts and a few did better. 



The society has a permanent fund of over 
$16,000, and its whole property is valued at 
about $80,000. 

In 1885 the Summer Camp for Boys was 
established at Lake Quinsigamond, and a 
bond for a deed of a tract of land, which in- 
cluded most of Wigwam Hill, was taken. 
The money to pay for this land was given in 
1888 by Hon. Joseph H. Walker. ( See pre- 
ceding article.) This Camp or Training 
School has been maintained to the present 
with gratifying and increasing success. The 
plan of the work here is fully set forth in a 
communication written by Prof. E. Harlow 
Russell, of the State Normal School, and print- 
ed in the Fifty-second Annual Report of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education (1887-88), 
to which the inquirer is referred for particulars. 
The Camp is open from July i to Sept. i. 
Something of military discipline is maintained, 
and daily lectures on scientific subjects are 
given, alternating with manual training, 
swimming, etc. The subscriptions in aid of 
the camp amounted in 1886 to over $1,000, 
and its success was so great that Thomas H. 
Dodge, Esq., offered the use of a tract of 
land on the Shrewsbury side of the lake to 
establish a summer school for girls. In the 
winter, scientific work in the Natural History 
Society is carried on by clubs, formed by 
those interested in the different departments. 
The rooms are open to the public every week 
day from 9 to 5. 

By the will of the late Edwin Conant, Esq., 
the society came into possession of the fine 
estate at the corner of State and Harvard 
streets, and the collections were removed there 
in T891. Mr. Conant gave in addition 
$10,000, the income of which is to be used 
in providing an annual course of scientific 
lectures in his native town of Sterling. 

New England Village. — A manufacturing 
village in the north part of Grafton, estab- 
lished in 1826, at the time the New England 
Manufacturing Company located on the mill 
privilege there, the waters of Lake Quinsiga- 
mond having their outlet at this point. Cotton, 
linen, and other goods, firearms, boots and 
shoes, etc., have been made here. The vil- 
lage is about six miles from Worcester. 

New Hampshire (Sons and Daughters 

of). — An association, composed of natives of 
New Hampshire and their families, organized 
in 1880. 

Newspapers. — The Massachusetts Spy, 
established in Boston in 1770, was removed to 
Worcester in April, 1775, and a copy of the 
issue of May 3d, in the possession of the 
American Antiquarian Society, bears the cer- 
tificate of Isaiah Thomas that it was the first 
thing ever printed in Worcester. (See under 
Spy in the Dictionary.) An abridgment 
of the Spy, called the Massachusetts Herald 
or Worcester Journal, issued in 1783, failed 
after four numbers. The American Herald 
and Worcester Recorder was removed here 
from Boston in August, 1788, and was printed 
in Worcester two years and two months. The 
Independent Gazetteer appeared Jan. 7, 1800, 
and continued two years. The National 
.■Egis was founded in 1801, to sustain the 
principles of Jefferson against the misrepre- 
sentations and abuse of the Federalists of 
Massachusetts. It was published till 1833, 
and reestablished in 1838, continuing to 1857, 
when it was merged with the Transcript, and 
at present is known as the y-Egis and Gazette. 
Three numbers of the Scorpion, a virulent 
political sheet, appeared in 1809. The Mas- 
sachusetts Yeoman appeared from 1823 to 
1833. Jubal Harrington began the publica- 
tion of the Worcester County Republican, a 
Jacksonian paper, in 1829, which continued 
ten years. The Worcester Palladium, until 
1856 a Democratic weekly, afterwards Repub- 
lican, was founded by J. S. C. Knowlton Jan. 
I, 1834. The last number was published 
Feb. 12, 1876. The Worcester Waterfall 
and the Cataract were temperance papers 
published in Washingtonian times. Elihu 
Burritt began to publish the Christian Citizen 
Jan. 6, 1844, and the paper was continued 
seven years. The Daily Transcript, the first 
daily in Worcester, appeared June 23, 1845, 
and was followed by the Daily Spy July 24 of 
the same year. These papers were consoli- 
dated. The Worcester Daily Journal was 
printed from September, 1847, to October, 
1849. The Daily Morning Transcript, first 
issued April i, 185 1, is continued in the pres- 
ent Evening Gazett . The Worcester Even- 
ing Journal, a Know-Nothing paper, was in 
existence from Aug. 30, 1854, to May 26, 
1855. The Worcester Daily Press vf^?, pub- 
lished from April i, 1873, to April 27, 1878. 
It was Democratic in politics, and those who 
sustained it lost heavily. The N'ew England 
Home Journal, subsequently sold to the 
Times, first appeared Dec. 21, 1882, with 



Henry M. Smith as editor. The above com- 
prise the more important of the papers which 
have been published in Worcester, though 
many others have at different periods appeared, 
and enjoyed a brief existence. The papers 
pubHshed at present are noticed in the Dic- 
tionary under their different names, viz. : 
Gazette, Light, Messenger, Post, Spy, Telegrcnn, 
Worcester Commercial. See also under 
French CaJiadians, and the article on Szuedes. 

Newton Hill. — The eminence now includ- 
ed in Elm Park, known in earlier times as 
Little Prospect Hill. Its height is 672 feet. 
After several years' consideration the city pur- 
chased the hill in 1888, and it is now open as 
public ground. Of the tract acquired, some 
sixty acres in all, John W. Wetherell and wife 
owned 45.77 acres, for which they were paid 
$25,120; William S. Lincoln 10.25 acres, 
receiving $12,565; and N. S. Johnson and C. 
G. Harrington 3.87 acres, taken by the Parks 
Commission, who awarded them $6,700, 
which they refused to accept, and a jury award- 
ed them $12,227.71, which with $135 for legal 
expenses, makes the price paid for the whole 
hill $50,047.71. A fine view of the city and 
surrounding country can be had from the sum- 
mit, and the ascent is easy. Various improve- 
ments are being made by Parks Commission- 
er Lincoln to beautify the hill. 

New Worcester. — The region around 
Webster square. Main street ends here, and 
Mill, Leicester, Webster and Cambridge 
streets diverge from this point. The name 
appears to have been first applied about the 
year 1820. 

New York (Natives of). — See E/npire 

Night Lunch Wagons. — The night lunch 
business is said to have originated in Provi- 
dence, R. L, about twenty years ago, with a 
man named Scott, who at first accommodated 
his customers by going around with a basket 
of sandwiches, etc., and the increasing de-« 
mand in time necessitating a wagon, he found 
so many patrons gathering around it that he 
remained inside and handed out the viands. 
He is still in the business, which he has large- 
ly increased. Mr. S. M. Jones came to Wor- 
cester from Providence several years ago, and 
engaged in the night lunch business, in a 
"hand out" wagon, which he sold to Mr. C. 
H. Palmer Sept. 23, 1889. Mr. Palmer in- 

vented the lunch wagon in present use, which 
is arranged to afford both shelter and comfort 
to those who patronize it; and is capacious 
enough to contain the appliances and conven- 
iences of a restaurant. Mr. Palmer's enter- 
prise gave the business a great start, and night 
lunch wagons after his pattern have multiplied 
rapidly throughout the country. Mr. Palmer 
manufactures these wagons, and also his food 
supplies at his establishment on Salem street. 

Nobility Hill. — When Main street was 
first graded, a portion on the west side, ex- 
tending from opposite Park street to a little 
beyond Franklin square, was left at its orig- 
inal level and a bank wall erected with an 
iron railing on the top, giving much the same 
appearance that Court Hill now presents. 
This hill or terrace was occupied by several 
fine residences of the old style. A street 
from High street to the roadway over the hill 
was called Corbett street. This was in the 
line of the present Chatham street, but, of 
course, at a much higher level. The hill was 
removed about twenty years ago, much widen- 
ing Main street at that point. The Rice, 
P'ranklin, Knowles and Clark buildings follow 
the line of the old residences. 

Non-Secret Endowment Order. — This 
Order was organized in Worcester, and in- 
corporated Sept. 17, 1889. Its distinctive 
characteristic among the fraternal and mutual 
benefit societies is the entire absence of se- 
crecy, so far as dispensing with pass-words, 
signs, and a secret ritual is concerned. The 
Supreme Assembly has its headquarters in 
this city. 

Normal School (State). — "By the terms 
of a resolve, which went into effect on the 
25th day of June, 1871, the Board of Educa- 
tion was authorized and required to establish 
a Stat^- Normal School in the city of Worces- 
ter; and the trustees of the Worcester Luna- 
tic Hospital were authorized and required to 
convey to the Board of Education and its 
successors a tract of land of not more than five 
acres, to be located by the governor and 
council, within certain limits fixed in the 
resolve. An appropriation of $60,000 was 
made upon condition that the city of Worces- 
ter should pay the Board of Education for the 
purposes named in the resolve the sum of 
$15,000. This condition was promptly com- 
plied with. The tract was located by the 
governor and council Sept. 2, 1871; and on 



the 19th of September, 1871, the conveyance 
was made by the trustees of the Hospital to 
the Board of Education and its successors in 
trust as directed." 

The land was located upon a portion of 
what was called Hospital Hill, and the build- 
ing as erected now fronts on Prospect street. 
This building is a large three-story massive 
structure, of granite from Millstone Hill. It 
was dedicated Sept. ii, 1874, and the school 
was opened on the 15th. E. Harlow Russell 
has been principal from the beginning, and is 
assisted by a corps of seven teachers. "The 
design of the school is strictly professional; 
that is, to prepare in the best possible manner 
the pupils for the work of organizing, govern- 
ing and teaching in the public schools of the 
Commonwealth." Entrance examinations oc- 
cur t.vice a year, at the beginning of each 
term. Exercises of graduation occur on the 
last day of the summer term. There are two 
courses: one of two years, the other of four 
years. Tuition is free to such as intend to 
teach in the public schools of Massachusetts. 

North Park. — This tract of land in the 
vicinity of Adams square, came into the pos- 
session of the city January ist, 1889. It com- 
prises about thirty-nine and one-half acres, 
owned as follows by the parties named, who 
sold the land to the Parks (Jommission at $500 
an acre: Joseph E. Bond, 12.64 acres; A. C. 
Harris, 3.75 acres; Alfred Smith, 3.58 acres; 
A. G. Weatherbee, 2.53 acres; John D. Cur- 
tis, 16.89 acres. Mr. Curtis was allowed 
$112 to cover one year's taxes, making the 
total amount paid $28,265. 

North Pond. — The largest pond lying 
entirely in Worcester, supplied mainly by the 
waters of Mill Brook. It was formerly the 
head water of the Blackstone canal. The 
pond lies about a mile and a half north of 
Lincoln square. The area of the pond is over 
200 acres. 

Northville. — A village in the north part of 
Worcester, near North Pond, some two miles 
from the center of the city. The Xo7-th7'iUe 
Library Association is a literary society estab- 
lished here, and a mission is sustained. 

North Worcester. — A village in the north 
part of the city, on Holden street. The asso- 
ciation known as the Xorth Worcester Aid 
Society has its headquarters in a hall on Hol- 
den street. 

Notabilities. — A complete list of notabili- 
ties who have been in Worcester cannot be 
given here, but some prominent ones are 
mentioned below. General Daniel Gookin 
and John Eliot vusited Worcester in early 
times. Chief Justice Sewall was here several 
times during the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Whitefield spoke on the Common 
in 1740. The youthful Lord Howe, to whom 
Massachusetts erected a monument in West- 
minster Abbey, passed through here on the 
5th of August, 1757. He was killed at Ticon- 
deroga in 1758. Lord Amherst with his army 
of 4500 men halted in Worcester on the 17th 
of September, 1757. In Revolutionary times 
the place was visited by Generals Washington, 
Lee, Steuben and Burgoyne. Dr. Franklin, 
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Paul 
Jones and Lady Washington were here during 
the same period. Lafayette visited Worcester 
twice in 1824-5. The Duke of Saxe- Weimar 
was in Worcester August 9, 1825. Of the 
presidents, Washington, John Adams, John Q. 
Adams, Van Buren, Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, 
Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Arthur and 
Cleveland have favored Worcester with their 
presence. Of political notabilities we find the 
names of Oliver Ellsworth, Alexander Ham- 
ilton, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Thomas 
H. Benton, Stephen A. Douglas^ William H. 
Seward, Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson and 
many others; Dickens, Thackeray, Longfel- 
low, Collins and others eminent in literature; 
among noted foreigners feather Mathew, 
Kossuth and the Prince of Wales. For musi- 
cal and theatrical celebrities who have visited 
Worcester, see under Music and Theatres. 

Nurses' Training School. — A training 
school for nurses is maintained at the City 
Hospital, under the management of an effi- 
cient superintendent, and is an important and 
successful department of the institution. The 
pupils do the entire nursing at the hospital, 
and also attend patients in families outside. 

Oak Hill. — The rising land southeast of 
the Union Railroad Station, populated largely 
with French Canadians. The slope rises 
abruptly from the railroad, and the houses rise 
one above the other in full view up the decliv- 
ity. The Bloomingdale road runs along the 
side of the hill. 

Dungarven, or Dutch Hill, is a particular 
locality above the Bloomingdale road long 
known in police circles. 



Oaks (The). — The estate on Lincoln 
street, formerly the property of Timothy Paine, 
a prominent loyalist in the Revolution. It is 
now occupied by the Rev. George S. Paine, a 
descendant in the fourth generation. The 
erection of the house was begun about the 
time the war opened, and the place was aban- 
doned by its owner, who was for a time a 
refugee. The property was subsequently re- 
covered, and for many years was occupied by 
Dr. William Paine. His son, Frederick W. 
Paine, gathered a fine and large library, which 
is still maintained in the house by the present 

Odd Fellows. — "The Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows was introduced into the United 
States in 1806. Some persons who had been 
members of English lodges established a lodge 
in Baltimore in 1819, and this lodge soon 
received a charter from the Manchester Unity. 
The lodges already established in New York, 
Philadelphia and Boston accepted charters 
from the Maryland Grand Lodge. The 
American lodges have long since ceased to 
hold friendly relations with the Manchester 
Unity. The United States Grand Lodge has 
established grand lodges in all the states and 
in most of the territories. American Odd 
Fellowship seeks ' to visit the sick, relieve the 
distressed, bury the dead, and educate the 
orphan.' To become a member of a United 
States lodge a person must be a white male, 
at* least 21 years of age, and must believe in a 
supreme being." 

A social organization under this name was 
in existence in Worcester about the period 
1820-25, t)ut it had no connection with the 
present popular secret Order. Among the 
first Odd Pillows in Worcester were Samuel 
S. Leonard, George C. Taft, James Murray 
and John F. Locke. The first lodge of I. O. 
O. F., instituted in Worcester, was Quinsiga- 
mond, No. 4j, formed May i, 1844. Wor- 
cester Lodge, iVo. j6, was instituted Dec. 20, 
1844. Central Lodge, N'o. 168, was formed 
Sept. 17, 1874. Ridgely Lodge, No. J12, was 
formed Sept. 19, 1882. Anchoria Lodge, No. 
142, was instituted March 31, 1887. There 
are two lodges of Daughters of Rebekah : 
Naomi, No. 18, June 27, 1872, and Queen 
Esther, No. 3^,VizxQ}a. 24, 1881. There are 
two^ encampments: Wachitsett, N'o. 10, insti- 
tuted May 16, 1845, surrendered its charter in 
1 85 1, and was reinstituted Oct. 20, 1869. 

Mt. Vernon, No. jj, was instituted Sept. 27, 
1877. The Odd Fellozvs' Mutual Benefit 
Association of Worcester County was organ- 
ized Oct. 13, 1871, and incorporated Oct. 15, 
1877. It now has 1300 members and $14,000 
in funds. The Canton is a social and military 
association of Odd Fellows, but not of a mu- 
tual benefit character. The Shaffner Society 
(named for Tal, P. Shaffner) is a social club 
of Odd Fellows, with rooms at 377 Main 
street. The buiLling on Pleasant street, 
known as the "Odd Fellows'," is not owned 
by them, but a hall is used there, and there is 
another hall in Chapin Block on Pearl street. 
The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows is a 
colored organization, and comprises in Wor- 
cester Integrity Lodge, N'o. iy68 ; Patriarchal 
Lodge : and HouseJiold of Ruth. Rooms on 
Pearl street, in Warren Block. The Order of 
Odd Ladies is entirely separate and distinct 
from Odd Fello7os, though similar in character. 
There are three lodges: Worcester, N'o. <?, 
Goodwill, N'o. g, Hope, N^o. 11, all organized 
since 1886. 

The Dictionary is indebted to Mander A. 
Maynard for many of the above facts. 

Odd Fellov^^s' Home. — State homes for 
disabled members of the I. O. O. F., and the 
widows and orphans of deceased brothers who 
required assistance, had been erected in differ- 
ent sections of the country before the idea was 
taken up in Massachusetts. The matter came 
before the Grand Lodge in this State in 1874, 
and was put off from time to time till 1887, 
when active measures were taken to effect a 
practical result in the raising of money to 
build a State Home. Within two years 
$35,000 had been obtained, and the offer of 
Thomas H. Dodge, Esq., of a tract of eleven 
acres of land near Barber's Crossing in Wor- 
cester settled the question of the location of 
the Home, and steps were taken towards the 
speedy erection of the buildmg. The trustees 
purchased considerable land in addition to 
that given by Mr. Dodge, and of this 10,000 
feet was set off in garden plots to be allotted 
to Rebekah Lodges, which will assume the 
care of them. The site of the building is 
elevated, and the whole tract affords a fine 

The building was erected from plans by 
Barker & Nourse. It is four and one-half 
stories high, built of brick and brownstone. 
Forty inmates can be accommodated, allow- 



ing each a room. The cost was about 
$50,000. The corner stone was laid Oct. 8, 
1890, with appropriate ceremonies. The ora- 
tion was deUvered by C. M. Busbee of North 
CaroHna, grand sire of the Sovereign Grand 
Lodge. The Home was dedicated on the 
22d of June, 1892, on which occasion there 
was a grand parade of Odd Fellows from all 
parts of the State. 

" Old Compound." — A one-story wooden 
building that for many years stood nearly on 
the site of the Harrington building at the cor- 
ner of Main and Front streets. It was re- 
moved to the north side of Pleasant street, 
near Main, where it stood in an altered form 
until removed to make room for the Odd 
Fellows building. 

Old South Church. — In relation to the 
first church in Worcester the Rev. Peter 
Whitney, in his History of Worcester County, 
published in 1793, makes the following defi- 
nite statement : "In the year 1719 the first 
meeting-house was erected, and here a church 
was gathered." In the absence of any record 
to the contrary this testimony of one who 
probably saw and conversed with some of 
those who attended the early religious meet- 
ings held in the town would seem to be 
conclusive as compared with what are ac- 
knowledged to be matters of tradition. Mr. 
Whitney was a thorough investigator and a 
careful historian. This first meeting-house, of 
which he speaks, was erected on the spot so 
long occupied by the familiar " Old South 
Ghurch " on the Gommon. The first struc- 
ture was demolished in 1763, and the later 
one stood until 1887, when it, too, went the 
way of all earthly things. The new and cost- 
ly edifice, at the corner of Main and Welling- 
ton streets, was dedicated Sept. 17, 1889. It 
cost (including land) probably $150,000. It 
is of brownstone throughout, and of novel 
architecture, and there are few handsomer 
churches in the State. The amount awarded 
the Parish in 1887, when the old building was 
removed from, the Common, was $148,500; 
but a compromise was effected by which the 
city paid $115,395.25, and gave the old bell 
in addition. The amount received per contra 
was $320 for the old building and $75 for the 
foundation stone. Following is a list of the 
pastors of the "Old South" to the present 
time : 

Rev. Andrew Gardner, 1 719-1722. 

Rev. Isaac Burr, 1 725-1 745. 

Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty, 1 747-1 784. 

Rev. Samuel Austin, 1 790-1816. 

Rev. Gharles A. Goodrich, 1816-1820. 

Rev. Araetius B. Hull, 1821-1826. 

Rev. Rodney A. Miller, 1 827-1 844. 

Rev. George P. Smith, 1845-1852. 

Rev. Horace James, 1853-1863. 

Rev. Edward A. Walker, 1863-1865. 

Rev. Royal B. Stratton, 1867-1872. 

Rev. William M. Parry (not installed). 

Rev. Nathaniel Mighill, 1875-1877. 

Rev. Louis B. Voorhees, 1877-1880. 

Rev. Joseph F. Lovering, 1880-1889. 

Rev. Rev. A. Z. Conrad, 1890. 

Following is a list of clerks of the First 
Parish from Dec. 24, 1787, when the first 
separate meeting was held, to the present 
time. See Tozvn Clerks. 

Dec. 24, 1787, Theophilus Wheeler. 

April 21, 1795, Leonard Worcester. 

April I, 1799, Oliver Fiske. 

April 3, 1810, Asa Hamilton. 

March 21, 1821, Charles Wheeler. 

April 14, 1823, Enoch Flagg. 

April 7, 1824, Henry Wheeler. 

April 14, 1828, Austin Denny. 

April 12, 1830, Henry W. Miller. 

March 26, 1842, Harrison Bliss. 

March 27, 1843, WilHam C. Barbour. 

April 24, 1844, William A. Wallace. 

March i, 1849, Charles E. Brooks. 

March 15, 1851, Asaph G. Wood. 

April 24, 1854, James E. Estabrook. 

March 22, 1858, James H. Bancroft. 

January, 1872, Joseph B. Adams. 

April, 1873, Lorenzo Q. Spaulding. 

January, 1874, Lemuel H. Hammond. 
" 1875, George A. Jordan. 

" 1878, Henry H. Merriam. 

" 1880, Joseph B. Adams. 

April, 1881, Arthur E. Gray. 
January, 1885, Albert F. Smith to January, 

1890. Dr. C. A. Peabody, 1890. 
The Souvenir of the Old South, written by 
the compiler and issued by the publishers of 
this Dictionary, gives a particular history 
of the church from its organization, with inany 
facts and details not in print elsewhere. 

Orchestral Union. — A musical organiza- 
tion formed in 1875. It is directed by the 
brothers A. W. and E. D. Ingraham. 



Oread (The).— In 1845, Eli Thayer pur- 
chased of John Jaques four acres and ninety 
rods of land situated on the summit of what 
was then called Goat Hill, at $150 per acre. 
In 1848, Mr. Thayer began the erection of 
the north tower of the building called the 
Oread, using the stone of which the hill is 
composed in its construction. This tower was 
completed in 1849, and a college for young 
women established in the spring of that year. 
This was the only school in the country at 
that time which opened a full classical or 
college course to women, the other female 
seminaries fitting pupils to enter the Oread. 
Vassar, Smith and Wellesley colleges were 
much later. The name Oread was aptly ap- 
plied from the line in Virgil, 

'* Hiiic atque hinc glomerantur Oreades," 
and signifies abode of the mountain nymphs. 
The school was continued many years with 
great success under the plan laid out by Mr. 
Thayer, who was principal until he entered 
upon his Kansas and Congressional work. 
The south tower was completed in 1850, and 
the connecting part in 1851 or 1852. The 
diameter of the towers is 40 feet, and they are 
four stories high; the connection is three 
stories. Length of the whole, 250 feet. 
Other extensive structures were planned and 
some of them built; but the great advance in 
real estate values has induced their removal. 
The buildings were all erected without archi- 
tects' plans, but have been much noticed and 
admired; and a steel plate illustration of the 
main building, which is castellated in form, 
appeared as the frontispiece of a work on 
architecture issued some years ago. The ex- 
tensive grounds, which formerly reached to 
Main street, having been disposed of, a new 
street was laid out directly in front of the 
Oread, and named Alden street, which is 
reached from Main street either through 
Castle street or Oread place. 

Oregon. — The region west from Chestnut 
and Harvard streets, on the western slope of 
the hill and the meadow beyond, particularly 
in the vicinity of the lower end of John street 
and North Ashland street. This name was 
given many years ago, at the time building 
operations began in this part of the town, 
which was considered a long distance from 
the center. 

Orphans' Home. — See Children's Friend 

Orthodox Churches.— See Congregational 

Oval (The Worcester).- The grounds of 
the Worcester Athletic Club at Lake View. 
See under Athletics. 

Painters' Union. — Meets at 476 Main 

Pakachoag Hill. — The eminence in the 
southern part of the city, sometimes called 
Mount St. James. It is occupied in part by 
the buildings and grounds of Holy Cross 
College. The Indian name has been cor- 
rupted through various spellings into Boga- 
choag. It was here that one of the ten 
villages of Indian Christian converts was 
located in Eliot's and Gookin's time, over two 
hundred years ago. This hill is 693 feet high 
and extends into Auburn. 

Paper Mills. — In 1776 Abijah Burbank 
erected a paper mill in that part of Sutton 
now Millbury, and began the manufacture of 
paper to supply the imperative demand of the 
times. Isaiah Thomas drew most of his sup- 
ply from this mill. This establishment con- 
tinued in operation until 1857. In 1793 
Isaiah Thomas began the manufacture of 
paper at Quinsigamond Village, and sold his 
mill five years later to the Burbanks, who ran 
it in connection with the one in Sutton. In 
1812 paper was made in a building at Lincoln 
square. In 1836 there was a mill at North- 
ville, and from 1834 to 1856 one in Auburn; 
also forty or fifty years ago a manufactory at 
Cherry Valley. 

Parks (Public).— Worcester now has eleven 
public parks, the whole comprising nearly 
350 acres. See the different titles in the 
Dictionary as follows: — 

Chandler Hill, 37 acres. 

Common or Central Park, 7 acres. 

Croinpton Park, 13 acres. 

Dodge Park, 13 acres. 

East Park, 1 1 acres. 

Elm Park, 86 acres. 

Pair mount Park. 

Institute Park, 18 acres. 

Lake Park, no acres. 

N'orth Park, 40 acres 

University Park, 8 acres. 

See also IVatural History Park, 40 acres. 

Parks-Commission. — On the 4th of No- 
vember, 1862, the citizens of Worcester ac- 



cepted by vote an act of the Legislature 
creating a Commission of Shade Trees and 
Public Grounds. This Commission was to 
consist of three members, and the first board 
entered upon its duties with the beginning of 
the year 1863. May i, 1885, this body was 
re-organized with five members, and its name 
changed to that of Parks-Commission. Its 
powers and duties are indicated by its title. 
Edward Winslow Lincoln is chairman and 
secretary, his associates being O. B. Hadwen, 
William H. Sawyer, Edward L. Davis and 
James Draper. It is no disparagement to the 
valuable services of those who have been his 
colleagues to say that from his appointment in 
1870, Mr. Lincoln has been the back-bone 
of the Commission, and that to his intelligent 
direction, liberal views and practical sense 
Worcester owes much of what she to-day 
possesses in the form of public parks. 

Parochial Schools. — See Schools. 

Patrons of Husbandry. — An organiza- 
tion of those engaged in agricultural and hor- 
ticultural pursuits, having for its object the 
advancement of the educational, social and 
material interests of its members. It is com- 
posed of local, state and national organiza- 
tions having subordinate granges in every 
state in the Union. Worcester Grange, No. 
22, was organized Dec. 30th, 1873. The 
officers were James Draper, Master; George 
H. Rice, Secretary; O. B. Hadwen, Treas- 
urer. The meetings are now held on the 
first and third Tuesday evenings of each 
month, ^ at Grange Hall, No. 244 Main 
street. Present membership, 265. 

Peat Meadow. — The meadow known by 
this name lies to the west of Newton Hill. 
The formation is of this nature all about that 
locality, in the marshy places. Peat was 
once used to some extent for fuel in Worcester, 
and a company was formed over thirty years 
ago for its preparation, but soon collapsed. 

People's Club (Worcester). — This as- 
sociation was organized Jan. 27, 1871, and 
incorporated in 1872. Its leading object was 
to provide an attractive place of resort for 
those in need of companionship and recrea- 
tion. Its rooms, at first over the Western 
Union Telegraph office, between Foster and 
Mechanic streets, were fitted up with pictures, 
books, papers, piano, attractive games, etc., 
and were open every evening from 7 to 10. 

The club was divided into three sections — on 
hospitality, education and benevolence, and 
a member on entering was assigned to one of 
these sections. The club was in existence 
about five years and at one time had its head- 
quarters at Grand Army Hall. An attempt 
was made to civilize and cultivate the news- 
boys, in a similar way to the method pursued 
in the Boys'' r///<^ (see title) recently started 
in this city. The Employment Society (see 
title) is an outcome of this club. 

Pharmaceutical Society. — An association 
of druggists, with William Bush as president. 

Philadelphian Literary Society. — A 

rhetorical and literary society of young men 
formed in 1873, which occupied rooms at 460 
Main street. The association was quite 
prominent for several years, but interest in its 
purposes and objects waned, and after one or 
two futile attempts to revive it the organiza- 
tion was abandoned. 

Photographers. — The first photographs 
or daguerreotypes taken in Worcester were 
made by a man named Evans, who had a 
room in 1 841 at the north corner of Main and 
Central streets. He instructed Lucius J. 
Knowles, who soon after opened his " Wor- 
cester Photographic Apparatus Manufactory 
and Daguerreotype Rooms." In 1842, Mr. 
Knowles was located at 5 Brinley Row, hav- 
ing removed there from some other place. He 
was not long in the business. The names of 
some early photographers in Worcester are 
given below with approximate dates: L. 
White & Co., and White & Andrews, 1846; 
J. L. W'alker, 1846; Andrews & Babbitt, 
Waldo block, 1847; A. W. VanAlstin, 1847 
to 1858 or '59; Geo. Adams, 1847; J- D. 
Andrews, T. S. Hathaway, M. S. Chapin and 
Lewis Babbitt, between 1850 and i860. Of 
later photographers, C. R. B. Claflin came 
here in 1850. He was 29 years located at 
377 Main street, and then moved to the 
Walker Building. A. F, Daniels began in 
1 86 1, and Frank Lawrence in 1863. Milton 
T. Carter was located at the corner of Main 
and Park streets for more than 20 years, until 
his death in 1887.- E. J. Leland occupied 
the rooms at the corner of Main and Front 
streets for a long period, and gave up the 
business about ten years ago. G. P. Critcher- 
son opened his gallery about twenty-five years 



Piedmont Church. — The seventh Congre- 
gational-Trinitarian Church formed in Wor- 
cester, organized in 1873. The church edi- 
fice, at the corner of Main and Piedmont 
streets, was completed in 1877. The lot on 
which it stands was purchased in 1872 for 
$20,000; but being larger than was required 
for church purposes, a portion on the south 
was sold. The cost of church and land was 
$130,000. Rev. George H. Gould was act- 
ing pastor until 1877, when Rev. David O. 
Mears was installed, and the latter still 

Pilgrim Church. — The ninth Congrega- 
tional-Trinitarian Church in Worcester, found- 
ed in 1885. The church edifice, at the corner 
of Main and Gardner streets, was built on 
land given by Mrs. Helen C. Knowles and 
Mr. Frank B. Knowles, and was dedicated 
July I, 1888. The building cost $110,000. 
Charles M. Southgate is pastor. 

Pillory. — See under JVhipping Post. 

Pine Meadow. — A name early applied to 
the swale or low ground between Oak and 
Chandler Hills, extending a mile east of 
Washington square. Shrewsbury street, for- 
merly called Pine street, runs through the 
centre of the meadow. Many years ago a 
large Irish settlement was made here and still 
remains, though much improved over its for- 
mer condition. The Pine Meadow burying 
ground, a short distance beyond Washington 
square, was opened in 1828, and used some 
thirty years, but nearly all the bodies have 
been removed. A portion of this ground was 
encroached upon in the building of the Union 
Railway Station. In police circles Pine 
Meadow is familiarly known as "The Mead- 

Plumbers' Union. — Meets at 476 Main 

Plymouth Church. — The sixth Congrega- 
tional-Trinitarian Church in Worcester, formed 
in 1869. The church edifice, at the corner of 
Pearl and Chestnut streets, is constructed 
entirely of granite, and cost over $150,000. 
The corner stone was laid April 26, 1873, 
and the church was dedicated April 29, 1875. 
The steeple contains the only chime of bells 
in the city; this, with the organ, was given by 
Edward A. Goodnow. Plymouth Church has 

had only three pastors — George W. Phillips, to 
1887, and Charles Wadsworth, Jr., to 1889. 
Archibald McCullagh, D. D., is the present 

Police. — The Worcester police force has 
maintained a high reputation for its efficiency. 
W. Ansel Washburn is the city marshal, and 
has served fourteen years. The present force 
is composed of the city marshal, two assistant 
marshals, two captains, five sergeants, two 
inspectors and ninety-one patrolmen. The 
marshal receives $2,000 salary, the assistant 
marshals $1,482 each, the captain of station 
I $1,200, and the patrolmen $2.50 per day. 
The appropriation for the department in 1892 
was $95,000. The number of arrests in 1891 
was 4,060, and 5,146 lodgers or tramps were 
accommodated at the stations. There is a 
police t-lephone and signal service, a van 
or " Black Maria," an ambulance and two 
patrol wagons. A matron is employed at the 
Central Station. On the 28th of May, 1888, 
the Worcester police was made permanent, so 
that officers (excepting the marshal and his 
assistants) can now be removed only for cause. 
The Police Relief Association is a voluntary 
organization of the members of the force, for 
the purpose of aiding a sick member tempo- 
rarily and paying a death benefit to his widow 
and orphans of $400. This fund is supported 
by annual assessments of the members and 
the proceeds of their annual balls. The first 
paid policeman in Worcester was Alvan W. 
Lewis, appointed in September, 1848. The 
number of police at different times is given 
below: 1855, 5; i860, 12; 1865, 16; 1870, 
30; 1875, 50; 1880, 60; 1885, 80. 

Following is a list of city marshals since 
the incorporation of the city in 1848: 

George Jones, 1848-52. 

Alvan Allen, 1853. 

Lovell Baker, 1854. 

Jonathan Day, 1855. 

Frederick Warren, 1856-58. 

J. Waldo Denny, 1858. 

William S. Lincoln, 1859. 

Ivers Philhps, i860. 

Levi Barker, 1861. 

WilHam E. Starr, 1862. 

Charles B. Pratt, 1863-65. 

Joseph B. Knox, 1866. 

K. B. R. Sprague, 1867 — six weeks. 

James M. Drennan, 1867-71, 1880-82. 

Jonathan B. Sibley, 1872. 



W. Ansel Washburn, 1873, 1875-79, 1883, 

A. Davis Pratt, 1874. 
Amos Atkinson, 1884-85. 

Police Stations. — The basement of the 
City Hall building was used as a police station 
for many years, until the removal of the police 
department to its present quarters in the 
Armory building on Waldo street in 1885. 
Station 2, in the "Island District," was es- 
tablished in 1883, quarters being fitted up in 
the engine house on Lamartine street. 

Polytechnic Institute (Worcester). — 

This institute was founded by John Boynton, 
Esq., of Templeton, in 1865, and was incor- 
porated May loth of that year under the 
name of the IVorcester County Free Institute 
of Industrial Science. Mr. Boynton gave 
$100,000 with the purpose, as set forth in his 
letter of gift, to endow and support a Free 
School or Institute for the benefit of the 
youth of Worcester County. Its aim was ever 
to be the instruction of youth in those branch- 
es of education not usually taught in the 
public schools which are essential and best 
adapted to train the young for practical life. 
Towards the erection of the main building 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury gave (in addition to 
the land, about 5 acres), the sum of $22,000; 
and $61,111 was subscribed in all, which was 
mostly given by citizens of Worcester, the 
workmen in twenty shops and factories con- 
tributing $1,551. The grounds were laid out 
by Calvert Vaux of New York; and Earle & 
Fuller were the architects. The building, 
constructed of granite from Millstone Hill, 
with trimmings of Uxbridge granite, was 
erected by Tower & Raymond. The total 
cost of building, grading of grounds, equip- 
ment and furniture was $75,343.68. The 
main building was named Boynton Hall, and 
dedicated Nov. 11, 1868, and the school 
began its sessions at that time. The work- 
shop, one hundred feet in length and three 
stories high, was the gift of Ichabod Wash- 
burn, who, in addition to the cost of erection 
($12,000), gave $5,000, and the income of 
$50,000 during his life-time to sustain it, and 
at his death the sum of $50,000. In addition 
to the above gifts the Institute has received 
from Hon. Stephen Salisbury $176,000, and 
additional land; from the State of Massachu- 
setts, $100,000; from David Whitcomb, Esq., 
$26,000; from Hon. George F. Hoar, 

$4,650; and from Stephen Salisbury, Esq., 
$100,000, with which the Salisbury Labora- 
tory, completed in 1889, was erected. The 
total donations to the Institute amount to not 
less than $650,000. The grounds are bound- 
ed by the Jo Bill or Institute road, Boynton, 
Salisbury and West streets. 

Charles O. Thompson was the first principal 
of the Institute from 1868 to 1882, and was 
succeeded by Homer T. Fuller, the present 
head of the faculty. There is a corps of twenty- 
three professors and instructors. The course 
of instruction is especially designed to meet 
the wants of those who wish to be prepared 
as mechanics, civil engineers, chemists or de- 
signers. The training of students preparing 
to be mechanical engineers occupies three and 
one-half years; that of all others three years 
of forty weeks each. There are four classes: 
apprentice, junior, middle and senior. The 
school year begins in September and ends in 
July. The last catalogue gives 243 as the 
number of students at the Institute. 

By an act of the Legislature, which took 
effect July i, 1887, the name was changed to 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute. During the 
year 1889 an essential change took place 
by which free tuition to an unlimited num- 
ber of residents of the county was no longer 
given, but is afforded only to five students 
admitted at each examination — one from each 
senatorial district in the county. As there 
are five districts and seven examinations dur- 
ing the course, there can be but thirty-five 
free Worcester County students in the school 
at any one time. The expenses of tuition to 
all others (with the exception of those pro- 
vided for by the gift of Mr. Hoar, and the 
grants from the state) is $150 per year. 

The corporation of the Institute is at pres- 
ent constituted as follows: Hon. P. Emory 
Aldrich, President; Rev. Daniel Merriman, 
Secretary; Waldo Lincoln, Treasurer; Hon. 
George F. Hoar, Charles H. Morgan, Stephen 
Salisbury, G. Henry Whitcomb, Rev. A. S. 
Carver, Rev. C. H. Pendleton, Hon, W. W. 
Rice, Charles G. Washburn, and Mayor 
Francis A. Harrington, ex-officio. 

Poor Department. — The first tax assessed 
in Worcester for the benefit of the poor seems 
to have been in 1757. In 1763 the erection 
of a workhouse was authorized, and in 1772 
such a building was erected on Front street, 
40x18 feet, at an expense of ;!^70. In 1807 



it was determined to build an almshouse of 
brick, but after l&nd had been purchased for 
the site, and materials for the structure, the 
plan was abandoned. Until 181 7 the poor 
were supported by contracts with the lowest 
bidder at public auction, in the manner usual 
in the country towns. In that year the Jen- 
nison farm, situated on the old road to Boston, 
bordering on the upper end of Lake Quinsiga- 
mond, was purchased, with its comfortable 
mansion, for $5,500, and a permanent home 
provided for the aged and infirm of our indi- 
gent citizens. The above facts are from 
Lincoln's History. The almshouse establish- 
ment, as received by the city from the town 
in 1848, consisted of a farm of 240 acres, an 
almshouse, brick hospital and other buildings, 
which had cost $15,000. In 1855 a new 
almshouse was completed at a cost of $25,012. 
In 1889 the property comprised 203 acres of 
land, almshouse, small-pox hospital and other 
buildings and appurtenances, the whole val- 
ued at $131,401. A ward for insane was 
erected in 1890. During 1 891, 210 persons 
were provided for at the almshouse. Outside 
relief was given to 1815 persons. Amount of 
dole at the clerk's office, $4,333. Amount 
appropriated for the maintenance of the pau- 
per department (including the truant school, 
scavenger department, etc.) is $28,500. 
The poor department is in charge of a Board 
of Overseers composed of the mayor, super- 
intendent of schools, city marshal, clerk of 
the Board and six citizens at large. Freeman 
Brown is clerk of the Board. His office is in 
the City Hall. 

Population. — The population of Worcester 
at different periods is given below : 
A. D. — 1765 — 1,478. A. D. — 1850 — 17,049. 

1776 — 1,925. i860 — 24,960. 

1790 — 2,095. 1^70 — 415105- 

1800 — 2,411. 1875—49,317. 

1810 — 2,577. 1880 — 58,291. 

1820—2,962. 1885—68,380. 

1830—4,173. 1890—84,655. 


Portraits and Busts. — Mr. Nathaniel 
Paine gives in his monograph published in 
1876 a very complete list of the portraits and 
busts in public places in Worcester up to that 
date. To his pamphlet the Dictionary is 
indebted for the foundation of the following 
list. Only. portraits in oil are included: — 

In Antiquarian I/all : 

Portraits — Isaiah Thomas, Thomas L. 
Winthrop, Gov, John Davis, Increase Mather, 
Cotton Mather, Richard Mather, Samuel Ma- 
ther, John Endicott, John Winthrop, William 
Bentley, Aaron Bancroft, C. C. Baldwin, E. 
D. Bangs, William Burnett, Rev. Thomas 
Prince, Rev. Ellis Gray, Chas. Paxton, John 
Chandler, John May, Hannah Adams, John 
Leverett, Columbus, Vespucius, Humboldt, 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Samuel F. Haven, 
Robt. B. Thomas. 

Busts — Isaiah Thomas, Jared Sparks, John 
Davis, Charles Allen, Washington, Franklin, 
John Adams, Alex. Hamilton, Andrew Jack- 
son, Clay, Webster, Voltaire, Racine, John 
Winthrop, James Walker, Isaac Davis, Wash- 
ington Allston. 

In Mechanics HaU: 

Portraits — Washington, Lincoln, John A. 
Andrew, W. L. Garrison, Ichabod Washburn, 
Gen. Geo. H. Ward, Mayor James B. Blake, 
William A. Wheeler, James A. Garfield, 
Henry Wilson, Henry W. Miller. 

/;/ Horticultural Hall : 

Portraits — John C. Ripley, Geo. Jaques, 
Alex. H. Bullock, D. Waldo Lincoln, F. H. 
Dewey, Levi Lincoln, Daniel W^aldo, Dr. 
John Green, Isaac Davis, J. M. Earle, S. 
Salisbury, Dr. W. Workman, Clarendon Har- 
ris, F. W. Paine, J. Henry Hill. 

In possession of The Worcester Society of 
Antiquity : 

Portraits — John G. Whittier, Elihu Bur- 
ritt, John Brown, Jeremiah Stiles, Peter Wil- 
lard, James Oglethorpe, Andrew Jackson. 

Busts — John Davis, Washington, Lafay- 
ette, Isaac Davis. 

/;; the Court Room, Stone Court House : 

Portraits — Levi Lincoln, ist; Emory 
Washburn, F. H. Dewey. 

In Probate Court Room : 

Portrait — Ira M. Barton. 

In law library : 

Portraits — Pliny Merrick, Charles Allen, 
Benj. F. Thomas, Peter C. Bacon, Dwight 
Foster, George F. Hoar. 

There is a portrait of Dr. John Green in 
the Public Library building on Elm street, 
also a statue of him in plaster. The busts of 
Charles Allen, Emory Washburn, Isaac Davis 
and Ichabod Washburn are in the aldermen's 
chamber at the City Hall, which also has the 
portraits of all the past mayors in crayon. 
There are small photographs or engraved por- 



traits of most of the mayors in the mayor's 

Post (The Evening). — A one-cent Dem- 
ocratic paper, published week days, the first 
number of which appeared September 23, 
1 89 1. It is well established, and is published 
by a stock company. The business office is at 
24 Pearl street. 

Post Office. — The Post Office was estab- 
lished in Worcester Nov. 16, 1775. Isaiah 
Thomas was appointed postmaster by Ben- 
jamin Franklin, postmaster-general of the 
Colonies, and held the office until 1802. The 
Post Office was reestablished in the town 
under new regulations March 13, 1786. Pre- 
vious to this year the mail had been carried 
generally by post-riders on horseback, and at 
times without regularity. But from January, 
1786, when a line of stages was .established 
from Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, to 
Savannah, in Georgia, the mail was carried 
by stage coaches on the main line. The first 
mail on the new plan passed through Worces- 
ter on the 7th of January, from the general 
Post Office in New York to Boston. After 
twenty-seven years' service Isaiah Thomas was 
removed, and the Spy of Sept. I, 1802, an- 
nounced that " James Wilson, a foreigner," 
had been appointed in his place. Isaiah 
Thomas, Jr., then proprietor of the paper, 
complained bitterly of the change. James 
Wilson exceeded in time of service his pre- 
decessor, retiring in 1833. Succeeding post- 
masters were Jubal Harrington, 1833 to 1839; 
Maturin L. Fisher, 1839 to 1849; Edward W. 
Lincoln, 1849 to 1854; Emory Banister, 1854 
to 1861; John Milton Earle, 1861 to 1867; 
Josiah Pickett, 1867 to 1886. James E. 
Estabrook, a life-long democrat, was appoint- 
ed in 1886 by President Cleveland, and was 
succeeded in 1891 by J. Evarts Greene, at 
present in office. The Post Office was open 
Sundays for half an hour after meeting in 
18 1 9, and this was probably continued to the 
end of Mr. Wilson's administration. In 1844 
the American Letter Mail Co. opened an 
office in Worcester and advertised to send 
letters to Boston, New York and Philadelphia 
at 6i cents. During the service of Isaiah 
Thomas the Post Office was located on Court 
Hill; Deacon Wilson removed it to the build- 
ing which stood where the City Hall is, and 
later to his residence, about where the dry goods 
store of Barnard, Sumner «&: Putnam Co. stands. 

In 1833 the office was removed to Central 
Exchange, where it remained until Jan. i, 
1867, when the present quarters on Pearl 
street were occupied. The first "penny- 
posts" or letter carriers were E. W. Bartlett, 
1847 and more than twenty years afterward; 
W. L. Aldrich, 1851-52; Julius L. Eldridge, 
1852-53; and Charles L. Redding, from 1853 
to about 1865. The force of carriers numbers 
35, and the office force is 30. The govern- 
ment is now erecting a Post Office building on 
the lot between Main and Southbridge streets, 
north of Myrtle street. 

Poultry Clubs. — The Central Massachu- 
setts Poultry Club was organized in 1882. 

The Bay State Poultry Association was 
formed in 1888, and incorporated in 1889. 

Practical Mechanic (The). — A monthly 
mechanical paper designed especially to in- 
terest practical men in the iron and wood- 
working trades. Established in July, 1887, 
and discontinued in 1892. It was the first 
and only trade journal ever established in 
Worcester, famous the world over as a rich 
field of invention and the home of many noted 
mechanics. It enjoyed a wide circulation and 
had many contributions from some of the 
foremost writers in the country on the sub- 
jects treated. Published by F. S. Blanchard 
& Co., 154 Front street. 

Precincts. — See Wards. 

Presbyterian Church. — In 17 19 a num- 
ber of Scotch Presbyterian families from the 
north of Ireland came to Worcester, with the 
Rev. Edward Fitzgerald, and attempted to 
form a church. A meeting-house was par- 
tially erected on the road that is now Lincoln 
street; but the other settlers in the town 
assembled and demolished the half-built struc- 
ture. Some of these Scotch emigrants re- 
mained and amalgamated with the other 
residents of the place. In April, 1886, Pres- 
byterian worship was resumed after an interval 
of 150 years, there having been some preach- 
ing here in 1736. The present Presbyterian 
Church was organized in September, 1886, 
Rev. J. H. Ralston as pastor. Meetings 
were for some time held in Continental Hall, 
and later in the Y. M. C. A. building. The 
present place of worship is in their new build- 
ing on Kilby street. Rev. Thomas Atkinson 
is pastor. 



Princeton. — A town fourteen miles north 
of Worcester. It was named in honor of 
Rev, Thomas Prince, and incorporated in 
1 771 . The Fitchburg Railroad passes through 
•the town, which is much resorted to in the 
summer season, on account of its pure air and 
other rural attractions, the principal of which 
is Wachusett Mountain, noticed under its title 
in the Dictionary. Population of Princeton 
in 1885, 1,038; in 1890, 982. 

Printers. — The following is an incomplete 
list of Worcester printers. Isaiah Thomas, 
the first, is well known; he was in active 
business twenty-five years or more from 1775, 
and resided in the town till his death in 1 83 1. 
His son and successor carried on the work of 
his father during the first years of the present 
century, but finally went to Boston and died 
there. Leonard Worcester, one of the elder 
Thomas's apprentices, had a printing office 
here before 1800; he entered the ministry, 
and died in Peacham, Vt., after many years' 
service. Daniel Greenleaf, another apprentice, 
printed some books here about 1800. Samuel 
Cotting was the first printer of the ALgis in 
1801, and was followed by Henry Rogers. 
Isaac Sturtevant printed the Spy for the 
Thomases from 1806 to 18 14. Coming down 
later, we find the following names, some of 
them with approximate dates : Charles 
Griffin, Samuel Morrill, Moses W. Grout, 
Wm. Manning (1824), T. W. & J. Butterfield 
(1839), Spooner & Merriam, Edwin C. 
Church, Mirick & Bartlett, Lewis Metcalf 
(1842), R. B. Hancock, James M. Stone, 
Peter L. Cox, Church & Prentiss, Estey & 
Tl vans (1840 to '50.) Many of these were 
newspaper printers, job printing not formerly 
liaving the importance it has to-day. Henry 
J. Howland is the oldest living printer, in 
point of term of service. He first came to 
Worcester in 1831, and permanently settled 
liere in 1835. He printed both editions of 
LincoMs History of Worcester^ the catalogue 
of the Library of the American Antiquarian 
Society, and other books; and established 
and for many years printed and published the 
Worcester Directory. He was located for a 
long time in the old wooden building which 
stood where the Burnside building now is. 
One of his pressmen, James Carlisle by name, 
worked so long and pulled so many impres- 
sions on an old-fashioned hand press, that by 
the motion of his foot as he drew it over the 

floor, he wore through an ordinary deal board. 
Mr. Howland is still in the printing business, 
though not for himself. Asa B. Adams suc- 
ceeded Mr. Howland, and was located many 
years at 392 Main street. Edward R. Fiske, 
another well-known Worcester printer, died 
in June, 1891. He began business in 1841 
in the old Central Exchange, in company with 
Edwin C. Church, and was burned out at the 
time of the fire there. Mr. Fiske was located 
for many years in the building at the corner of 
Foster and Waldo streets, ^nd was afterwards 
in Crompton's block on Mechanic street. 
Charles Hamilton has been a master printer 
since 1849, located in the Central Exchange. 
Many historical and genealogical books have 
been printed at his office, and of late years he 
has printed the City Documents and the 
Directory. His manager, Benjamin J. Dodge, 
has been \yith him from the first. Tyler & 
Seagrave, who bought the Spy job office in 
1 86 1, were in business together over twenty 
years, most of the time at 442 Main street. 
They issued a large number and variety of 
books, besides executing much job work. 
After Mr. Tyler withdrew from the firm, he 
established the Mid- Weekly newspaper at 
Oxford, this county, which he still publishes. 
Mr. Seagrave has lately retired from business. 
Of later firms, among the largest offices were 
Snow Brothers and their successors for some 
twenty years at 47 Main street. This estab- 
lishment was recently broken up, and the 
machinery and materials sold to F. S. Blan- 
chard & Co. O. B. Wood, on Maple street, 
has good facilities for job and other work, 
and Maynard, Gough & Co., 187 Front street, 
print hotel registers and similar work. The 
publishers of this Dictionary, F, S. Blanchard 
& Co., succeeded to the business of Sargent 
& Wilson in 1880, and have probably the 
largest plant in the city and do an extensive 
publishing business in connection with book 
and job printing. Among their publications 
are the Practical Mechanic, Yankee Almanac, 
Worcester Conmiercial, and many special 
publications of an historical nature for this 
and other cities. 

There are many other printers in Worcester 
who do business on a smaller scale than those 
above named, but a complete list cannot be 
expected here. 

Probate Court. — See Courts. 
Probate Registry. — See Registry. 



Prospect Hill. — The higher elevation 
north of Newton Hill, the southern slope of 
which is known as Sunnyside. It has been 
proposed recently to change the name to 
Banc 7' oft Hill. 

Protective Department (The Wor- 
cester), or Insurance Fire Patrol. — The 
needless- destruction or injury of much valuable 
and fragile property in its hasty removal from 
Taylor's granite building at the time of the 
great fire of May, 1875, as well as the loss 
from theft, induced the formation of the 
Mutual Fire Association, composed of busi- 
ness and insurance men and others, who or- 
ganized for the purpose of protecting and 
overseeing the removal of property at fires. 
Members of this association were provided 
with badges, and as special police had 
authority and were recognized by the chief 
engineer. James F. Meech was the first 
captain, and George H. Harlow, clerk and 
treasurer. The association was continued 
about three years, and disbanded, probably 
partly because there had been no large fires 
in the meantime, and consequently little need 
of their services; and partly on account of 
the existence of the Instwance Fire Patrol, 
whose efficient presence at fires rendered the 
interference of any other organization with 
similar duties unnecessary. The Patrol was 
organized and incorporated in 1875, and was 
at first supported entirely by the insurance 
companies; but of late an annual grant to- 
wards its support has been made by the city, 
$1,200 being given the present year. The 
Patrol occupies a building in Barton place. 
The wagon, usually the first to reach a fire, 
is equipped with two Babcock extinguishers, 
165 rubber covers, brooms, pails, sponges, 
etc. Many small fires are extinguished by 
the Patrol alone; and by the spreading of 
rubber covers and other precautions, many 
thousand dollars' worth of property is saved 
yearly, and the Patrol many times repays the 
cost of its maintenance. The corporation is 
composed of prominent insurance agents, 
with Charles B. Pratt as president. The duty 
force of the Patrol numbers eight. Hiram R. 
Williamson is captain. The quarters of the 
Patrol in Barton place are handsomely fur- 
nished and equipped with many ingenious ap- 
pliances for quick hitches at times of fires, 
which are of much interest to strangers. 

Protective Union (New England), 
Division No. 42. — A popular and long- 

established grocery store, at No. 24 Front 
street. This store, estabhshed by the N. E. 
Protective Union, was first opened at the cor- 
ner of Front and Carlton streets, Jan. 25, 
1848. The undertaking was on the joint stock 
plan, and has continued under that system to 
the present time, with Samuel A. Pratt as 
agent, this being his 45th year of service. The 
rent of the store first occupied was $90 a year. 
In 1850, the association moved to the east 
store in Horticultural Hall building, the rent 
of which was $500. Another "Union" store 
was started at the first location, but soon failed. 
Nov. I, 1877, the present store was occupied. 
The business of the store amounts to $175,000 
annually. Edward I. Comins is president of 
the Union, and Theo. H. Bartlett clerk. 

Psychology (American Journal of). — 

A quarterly magazine, devoted to the publica- 
tion of original papers on scientific psychology, 
both normal and abnormal, and to the re- 
viewing of current literature, especially foreign 
literature on these subjects. It was begun by 
its present editor, G. Stanley Hall, in 1887, 
while professor of psychology in Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, and was transferred to 
Worcester on his assumption of his duties as 
president of Clark University. 

Purgatory. — A remarkable cleft or chasm 
in the town of Sutton, some twelve miles from 
Worcester, which as a natural curiosity attracts 
many visitors. The geological formation here 
is a calcareous gneiss, and the rock is opened 
as if by an earthquake for the distance of 
nearly half a mile, sometimes to the depth of 
sixty or seventy feet. The huge masses of 
rock present a wild and picturesque appear- 
ance, and the gloomy recesses of the chasm 
were formerly the favorite haunt of the rattle- 
snake. At the lower end is a cool and clear 
spring. The most convenient w^ay to reach 
the chasm from Worcester is by carriage over 
the highway. 

Quakers. — See Friends. 

Quinsigamond. — The Indian name of 
Worcester and the region around, by which the 
place was first known. It was applied par- 
ticularly to the Lake, and the name is various- 
ly spelled in the old records, Quansicavnig, 
Quansicamon, etc. Dr. J. Hammond Trum- 
bull gives, in a letter to Senator Hoar, the 
meaning of the word as follows : '■'•Qunnosu 
or Qiionnose (plural Qunqosuog) was the 



Indian name for pickerel — literally 'long nose' 
and — a ma ti^"- final, denotes a 'fishing place,' 
Qimnosiiogauiaiigv?, 'pickerel fishing place,' 
or where they fish for pickerel." 

Quinsigamond Boat Club. — See Boat 

Quinsigamond Lake. — See Lake Quin- 

Quinsigamond Park. — An island of 96 
acres at the south end of Lake Quinsigamond, 
recently laid out in lots for building. Full 
Moon Park and driving course occupy the 
center of the island. 

Quinsigamond Village. — A manufactur- 
ing village on the Blackstone river in the south 
part of the city. A branch of the Washburn 
& Moen Wire Works is located at the village, 
and many Swedes are employed. There is a 
post office here. 

Raccoon Plain. — The level tract at South 
Worcester, in the vicinity of Southgate, Camp 
and Cambridge streets, on which was located 
Camp Scott in the war time. The name was 
given by the early proprietors of the township. 

Railroads. — The railroads coming to Wor- 
cester are: 

Boston <^ Albany; opened east, 1835; 
west, 1839. 

Fitchburg, formerly Boston, Barre & Gard- 
ner; opened 1871. 

Neio York cf New England, Norwich & 
Worcester Division; opened 1840. 

A^eio York, Providence &^ Boston, formerly 
Providence «& Worcester; opened 1847. 

Boston (2r= Maine, formerly W^orcester, 
Nashua & Rochester; opened 1848. 

Worcester (Sr^ Shrewsbury ; opened 1873. 

Worcester, Leicester (5r= Spencer Electric; 
opened in 1891. 

Worcester of Millbury Electric ; opened 

See Street Raihvays. 

Railroad Stations. — The first railroad 
station in Worcester was located on Foster 
street in 1835, when the Boston & Worcester 
Railroad commenced running. This building 
(several times enlarged) was used until 1877, 
when it was demolished, and the site is now 
covered by Bigelow's Garden and the Rink 
building. The Norwich and the Nashua and 
Boston, Barre & Gardner Railroads also used 

this station. The Providence Railroad station 
before the Union station was erected was on 
Green street, a structure of brick still standing. 
The Union passenger station in Wash- 
ington square was erected by the Boston & 
Albany Railroad. It was completed in 1875, 
and opened for use August 15th of that year. 
Here center all the steam railroads which 
enter Worcester, the only one whose tracks 
are not in the building being the W'orcester & 
Shrewsbury, but this road terminates on 
Shrewsbury street, within a stone's throw. 
The railroad stations in the Hmits of Worces- 
ter are given below, with the railroads using 
them : 

Barber s Crossing, Boston & Maine; Fitch- 

Bloomingdale, W^orcester & Shrewsbury. 

Jamesville, Boston & Albany. 

L^ake Station, Worcester & Shrewsbury. 

Lake View, Worcester & Shrewsbury. 

Lincoln Square, Boston & Maine; Fitch- 

North Worcester, Fitchburg. 

Shreivsbury Street, Worcester & Shrews- 

South Worcester (Junction), Boston & 
Albany; Providence; Norwich. 

Summit, Boston & Maine. 

Ram Island. — The island at the causeway, 
Lake Quinsigamond, on which the Island 
House is built. The name is found in the old 

Ramshorn Brook. — This stream flows 
from Ramshorn Pond in Sutton, and its course 
is generally north through Sutton and Auburn 
to Curtis Pond at New Worcester, where it 
joins other streams to form Middle river. 

Rattlesnake Rocks. — The ledge of rocks 
on the elevated land some distance west of 
Mill street, owned by Solomon Parsons, who, 
many years ago, deeded the spot to the 
Almighty, and had the conveyance, or a part 
of it, recorded on the flat surface of rock near 
the summit. He also built a sort of a temple 
here. The Worcester Hermit lived in a stone 
hut at this place, in company with his cats and 
goats, ten or fifteen years ago. In early times 
these rocks abounded with rattlesnakes. 

Reading Rooms. — The reading room 
at the Free Public Library was opened in 
1865, and now contains nearly 300 reviews, 



magazines and papers. The Mechanics' 

Association, the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, and several other societies maintain 
reading rooms for the use of their members. 
There was a Reading Room Association in 
Worcester about 1830. 

Real Estate Values. — Many items of 
interest connected with real estate transac- 
tions will be found scattered through the 
Dictionary. A few figures are given 
below, which may be useful for comparison 
with present values. In 1846 or 1847, Anson 
Braman gave a bond for a deed of the new 
Post Office lot, just south of Franklin square, 
for $1,800. (See Franklin Square for an 
earlier value, and Government Building for 
price paid by the Post Office department.) 
The Trinity Church lot, at the corner of Main 
and Chandler streets, was offered in 1848 or 
'49 for $400. The church paid $25,000 for 
it with the improvements in 1870. 

The Barton estate, opposite the Common, 
where Taylor's granite building stands, was 
bought by Judge Barton in 1834 for $5,100. 
Mr. Taylor paid $37,500 for a little less than 
two-thirds of it in 1867. The estate of 
Nathaniel Maccarty, north of Maple street, 
165 feet on Main street by 375 feet deep, was 
sold by auction in 1835 to Benjamin Butman 
and George Brinley for $12,000. The estate 
at the north corner of Walnut street on Main, 
opposite Mechanics Hall, recently sold for 
nearly $12 per foot. Mr, David S. Messinger 
bought the lot at the corner of Chestnut and 
Walnut streets, where he now lives, of Gov. 
Lincoln in 1844, for five cents a foot. This 
was considered at the time an extravagant 
price. Mr. Messinger bought of Elisha Flagg 
the strip of land between William and Bow- 
doin streets running west from Chestnut street 
to the meadows, seven acres, for $4,000. He 
sold about half of this at the lower end to 
Gov. Lincoln for $100 per acre. A second 
purchase of Flagg comprised the square on 
Harvard street from a point opposite Bowdoin 
street on the north to Sudbury street on the 
south, and east to Eden street, for $10,000. 
Two lots at the south end he sold for 12 cents 
per foot. All this took place forty or more 
years ago. This article could be extended 
indefinitely, but the examples above given will 
suffice, as they refer to some of the most valu- 
able and desirable estates in the city. 

Prominent operators in real estate years ago 
were Nathan Patch in the early part of the 
century; Benjamin Butman, David T. Brig- 
ham (1830 to '40), Levi Lincoln, Isaac Davis, 
John F. Pond (1840 and after), David S. 
Messinger, Col. James Estabrook, Eli Thayer, 
Francis H. Dewey, Joseph Mason and Samuel 
P. and Leonard Harrington. 

Record (The). — An illustrated quarto 
humorous literary and society paper published 
weekly by W. E. W. Felt, 392 Main street, 
from July 31, 1891, to October 30 of the same 
year. The subscription price was two dollars 
a year, or five cents a copy. 

Records (Public). — Following is a list 
of the volumes of public records in Worcester : 

Proprietors^ Records, 1667-1788, I volume. 

Town Records, 1 722-1848, 7 volumes. 

Births, 1 714-1893. 

Marriages from 1747. 

Deaths, 171 7- 1893. 

Marriage Intentions, 1 796-1893. s- 

City Records, 1848- 1893. 

The above are at the city clerk's office, 
and generally in good condition. The Pro- 
prietors' Records, and the Town Records 
from 1722 to 1816, have been printed by The 
Worcester Society of Antiquity, and those 
from 181 7 to 1832, and the Births, Marriages 
and Deaths to 1848, are in press, the city 
paying one-half the expense. 

Of church records, those of the First or Old 
South are missing before April 5, 1745, and 
from September, 1790, to July 9, 181 5. The 
records of the First Baptist Church, before 183 1, 
were burned; and one volume of the Central 
Church records is missing. The Report on the 
Public Records of the state is incorrect in stating 
that the First Church records are complete 
from 1 71 7, as there was no church before 
1 719, and two volumes are missing as above. 

Court Records at the office of the clerk in 
the Stone Court House : 

Supreme Judicial Court, 1797 to 1893. 

Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 1 73 1 to 

Court of General Sessions, 1 731 to 1805. 

Court of Sessions, 1808 to 1827. 

Court of Common Pleas, 1784 to 1859. 

Superior Court, 1859 to 1893. 

Marriages in the County, 1746 to 1794. 

Many volumes Miscellaneous Records. 



The Records of the Court of General Ses- 
sions, from 1 73 1 to 1737, have been printed 
by The Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

The Deeds and Probate Records in their 
respective Registries are preserved from 1731 
to the present time. 

The volume of " Records of the Board of 
Overseers of the Schools of the Center District 
in Worcester,'''' from 183 1 to 1847, was found 
in Oxford in i860, in the possession of a young 
woman, who was using it as a scrap book. 
The volume of Center District School Records, 
from 1824 to 1843, was found in some rubbish 
in the store formerly occupied by Warren 
Lazell. The records from 1799 to 1848 were 
returned from the vault of the Worcester Bank. 

Red Men (Improved Order of). — The 

Improved Order of Red Men is a social, fra- 
ternal and benevolent secret association, 
secret in the sense that the privacy of a home 
circle is the property of its own members, to 
be held sacred and inviolate. 

Its primary objects are to promote among 
men the exercise and practice of the true 
principles of benevolence and charity, the 
care and protection of the widows and or- 
phans, and the cultivation of friendly relations 
among its members. Its origin is, as the 
name indicates, purely American, its history 
dating to the early hours of the Revolution, 
when its watchword was Freedom. The fra- 
ternal feature was added after the war of 
181 2, when the members had for a second 
time returned to the avocations of peace after 
their patriotic struggles against Great Britain, 
when the motto became Freedom and Friend- 
ship. In 1835 the present organization was 
formed in Maryland and added the benevolent 
feature, adopting the present motto — Free- 
dom, Friendship, Charity. It is the oldest 
protective and benevolent society of American 
birth and growth. 

The association existing in the early days of 
the republic made use of the Indian dress, 
ceremonies, symbols and nomenclature in 
order to hide their identity from the uniniti- 
ated, and most of these characteristics have 
been retained by the present organization in 
commemoration of the patriotic impulses 
which gave the Order birth. 

The Order numbers over 100,000. The 
last report from the whole Order showed an 
average membership of 85 in each Tribe. 
Funds on hand and invested, $1,100 for each 

Tribe. Average dues per great sun (year), 
$6, and the total amount of benefits paid 
brothers, widows and orphans for the past 
great sun averaged $3.75 for each member. 

The membership in this jurisdiction is about 
14,000. There is a branch of the Order, of 
which brothers of the Order and their female 
relatives may become members, which is 
known as the Degree of Pocahontas. This 
Degree is very popular, having a membership 
of 3,800. 

There are three Tribes of Red Men in Wor- 
cester, viz., Quinsiga/nond, No. 7, organized , 
1880; Iroquois, No. 8, organized 1883; and 
Massasoit, No. 6. Dr. J. B. Rich was a 
prime mover in estabUshing this order in Wor- 

Red Mills.— The Red Mills, at first called 
Flagg's Mills, were located on the water 
privilege on Green street, on the spot now 
covered by the Crompton Loom Works. A 
sash and blind manufactory was in operation 
there half a century agQ. 

Reform Club (Worcester). — One of 

the most prominent and useful temperance 
organizations in the city, was organized in 
1876. Its hall and club room for several 
years was at 460 Main street, but the club has 
recently removed to Clark's block on Front 
street, opposite the Soldiers' monument. 

Registry of Deeds. — Located in the 
Stone Court House. Over 1400 volumes of 
deeds are preserved here, dating from 1731, 
when the county was formed. There are 
complete indexes of grantors and grantees. 
Harvey B. Wilder is register. 

Registry of Probate. — In the Stone' 
Court House. The records are complete, in- 
cluding the Probate Court files, from 1731. 
Each volume has an initial index. Frederick 
W. South wick is register. 

Representatives in Congress. — A list of 
the members of Congress from the Worcester 
district is here given : 

Jonathan Grout, Petersham, Anti-Fed., 17S9-1791. 
"Artemas Ward, Shrewsbury, Fed., 1791-1795. 
Dwight Foster, Brookfield, Fed., 1795-1800. 
Levi Lincoln, Worcester, Dem., iSoi 
Seth HastinifS, Mendon, Fed., 1S01-1S07. 
Jabez Upham, Brookfield, Fed., 1S07-1810. 
Joseph Allen, Worcester, Fed., iSio-iSii. 
Elijah Brigham, Westboro, Fed., 1811-1S16. 
Beniamin Adams, Uxbridg-e, Fed., 1816-1821. 
Jonathan Russell, Mendon, Dem., 1S21-1823. 



lonas Sibley, Sutton, Dem., 1S23-1S25. 

John Davis, Worcester, Nat. Rep. and Whig, 1825- 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester, Whig, 1S34-1S41. 
Charles Hudson, Westminster, Whig, 1S41-1S49. 
Charles Allen, \Vorcester, Free Soil, 1S49-1853. 
Alexander DeWitt, Oxford, Free Soil and K. N., 

Eli Thaver, Worcester, Rep., 1857-1861. 
Goldsmith F. Bailey, Fitchburg, Rep., 1861-1862. 
Amasa Walker, No". Brookfield, Rep., 1862-1863. 
John D. Baldwin, Worcester, Rep., 1S63-1S69. 
"George F. Hoar, Worcester, Rep., 1869-1S77. 
Wrriiam W. Rice, Worcester, Rep., 1S77-1887. 
John E. Russell. Leicester, Dem., 1SS7-18S9. 
Joseph H. Walker, Worcester, Rep., 1889. 

Representatives in the General Court. — 

"Worcester sends eight representatives to the 
Legislature — one from each ward. The dis- 
tricts in the county are determined by the 
county commissioners every ten years, the 
last apportionment being made in 1886. 
"Ward I forms the i6th District. 

" 2 " " 17th " 

" 3 " " 18th 

" 4 " " 19th 

" 5 " " 20th " 

" 6 " " 2ISt " 

" 7 " '• 22nd " 
" 8 " " 23rd 

Reservoir Hill. — See Chandler Hill; 
Bell Pond. 

Reservoirs. — The old reservoir on Chandler 
Hill, which stored the water from Bell Pond 
(q. v.), has been demolished recently. The 
reservoirs now in use are Bell Pond, Belmont 
street, Lynde Brook reservoir in Leicester, 
Tatnuck Brook reservoir in Holden, and 
Hunt's reservoir on Leicester street. See 
Water Works. 

The dam at the Lynde Brook reservoir was 
carried away by a freshet, March 30, 1876. 
The aggregate damages paid by the city, in- 
cluding the cost of the new dam, amounted to 

Restaurants. — The principal restaurants in 
Worcester are those of Putnam & Thurston at 
381 Main street, Parker's restaurant on Front 
street, C. Rebboli on Pleasant street and L. 
J. Zahonyi's, 348 Main street. The two lat- 
ter are more especially ice-cream saloons. 
Other restaurants and eating houses are scat- 
tered over the city. Frank E. Marshall and 
F. M. Marble are well-known restaurant 
keepers and caterers. See Caterers. 

Revenue District. — The third revenue 
district includes all the state of Massachusetts. 

The twelth division includes nearly the whole 
of Worcester County. The salary of the 
deputy collector is $1,400. The amount of 
revenue collected in this division is about 
$75,000 per year. 

Rhetorical Society. — The Young Men's 
Rhetorical Society was formed in 1849, and 
incorporated in 1853, its purpose being mental 
and moral improvement, by means of essays, 
debates, and various rhetorical exercises. In 
1855 this society joined with the Young Men's 
Library Association, and later was merged 
with the Lyceum and Library Association. 
In 1858 the Rhetorical Society withdrew, and 
renewed its active organization, which was 
kept up until within a few years. This society 
is credited with having had considerable in- 
fluence in political matters in former years. 

Rifle Association. — The Worcester Rifle 
Association has a range on Heywood street. 
E. R. Shumway is president. 

Rink (The). — The large woeden building 
on the lot between Foster and Mechanic 
streets on Norwich street. It has been occu- 
pied by the U. C. Me Club; which see, 
also Bigelow's Garden. 

Riots. — There have been several riots in 
Worcester, but the consequences, except in 
one instance, have not been serious. In 1774 
Hon. Timothy Paine was compelled to resign 
his office as mandamus councillor by a mob. 
In Shays' Rebellion times a mob from Ux- 
bridge attempted to demolish the jail in Wor- 
cester, but were obliged to desist by their own 
townsmen. Stephen Burroughs asserts in his 
memoirs that he was released from imprison- 
ment in Worcester by a mob of apparently a 
thousand. In July, 1807, there were two 
riotous demonstrations, in which a number of 
nominally reputable citizens took part, who 
were afterwards obliged to account for their 
misdoings before the courts. One was really 
a huge frolic, and the whole town turned out to 
witness the discipline administered to an of- 
fender against public morals. The culprit was 
carried through Front and Main streets " on a 
wooden rail, with much noise and clamor." 
The " Angel Gabriel " riot of May 18, 1854, 
assumed a serious aspect and the military were 
summoned, but happily the disturbance was 
quited without loss of life. The Butman riot, 
October 30, 1854, was an outburst of popular 



indignation against Asa O. Butnian, deputy 
U. S. marshal, who came to reclaim a fugitive 
slave; and he was driven from the city with 
eggs and other missiles. On the loth of June, 
1866, Henry T. Weikle, an inoffensive Ger- 
man, was killed in front of the police station 
by an officer who fired a shot into a mob, after 
being hit with a stone. Weikle's widow was 
paid $1,000 by the city, and the officer im- 

Roman Catholic Churches. — See Catho- 
lic CJmrcJies. 

Royal Arcanum. — A fraternal beneficiary 
order with just enough of secret society 
machinery to make it interesting. It was or- 
ganized June 23, 1877, at Boston. It is con- 
ducted upon strict business principles, and 
has successfully promoted its main object; the 
payment of a death benefit of $3,000 to full, 
and $1,500 to half rate members. The insti- 
tution is modeled after societies . of a similar 
nature in London, where they have existed 
two hundred years. The total membership of 
the Arcanum is about 135,000, and it has paid 
in death benefits over $20,000,000. 

There are in Worcester two branches of the 
Royal Arcanum : IVorcester Council, A^o. 12, 
instituted September 4, 1877; and Conquest 
Council, No. gij;, formed July 20, 1885. Dr. 
L. H. Hammond was the prime mover in the 
organization of the older council, the other 
charter members being: C. B. Pratt, T. S. 
Johnson, N. G. Tucker, H. H. Marshall, 
Geo. E. Boyden, L. A. Hastings, E. D. 
McFarland, A. C. Allen. Both Councils have 
about 350 members ; $66,000 has been dis- 
tributed to the widows or families of deceased 

The Dictionary is indebted to Mr. Charles 
D. Nye, secretary of Worcester Council, for 
the above facts. 

Rural Cemetery. — See Cemeteries. 

Rutland. — A farming town, twelve miles 
northwest of Worcester, incorporated in 1713. 
The centre is at a high elevation, and a view, 
not surpassed by that from Wachusett 
itself, is to be had of the surrounding country. 
A fine hotel, the Muschopauge House, ac- 
commodates many summer boarders. The 
population of the town in 1885, was 963. In 
1890, 980. 

Safe Deposit Vaults. — There are two 
safe deposit companies in the city. " The 

IVorcester Safe Deposit and Trust Co., at 
448 Main street, was chartered in 1868 with 
a capital of $200,000. This company does a 
general banking business. Small safes can be 
rented from $10 to $50 per year. The State 
Safe Deposit Co., at 240 Main street, rent 
safes from $5 upward. This company was 
incorporated in 1887. 

Sagamore Point. — The most prominent 
headland in the southern part of Lake Quin- 
sigamond. It was formerly called King's 

Sagatabscot Hill. — The high ridge of 
land in the south of southeast part of the 
city, the northern end of which is known as 
Union Hill. It was on this elevation that 
Diggory Sergeant was living when he was 
murdered by the Indians at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. 

Saint Andrew's Benefit Society (Wor- 
cester). — A society of Scotchmen of the 
mutual benefit order, formed in 1871. 

St. Anne's Church. — The second Roman 
Catholic church in Worcester, formed in 1855. 
It Was located for over thirty years on Shrews- 
bury street. The present fine structure is on 
Eastern avenue near the State Normal School. 
Rev. Denis Scannell has been the pastor 
since 1872. 

St. John's Church. — The first Roman 
Catholic church in Worcester, formed in 1846. 
The edifice is on Temple street. Rt. Rev. 
Mgr. Thomas Griffin is the pastor. 

St. John's Church.— The third Protestant 
Episcopal church in Worcester, located on 
Lincoln street. It was formed in 1884, with 
Francis G. Burgess as rector. 

St. Mark's Church, Freeland street. — The 
fourth Protestant Episcopal church in Worces- 
ter, formed in 1888, with L. C. Stewardson 
as rector. 

St. Matthew's Church, South Worcester, 
is the second Protestant Episcopal church in 
the city, formed in 1871. Henry Hague is 

St. Paul's Church (Roman Catholic). — 

In August, 1866, Rev. John J. Power pur- 
chased the Earle estate, the second lot south 
of Corbett (now Chatham) street, on Nobility 



Hill, with the purpose of erecting thereon a 
church edifice. A prominent Roman Catholic 
advanced $3,000 and Fr. Power gave his 
note for the balance. In January, 1867, a 
meeting of Catholics was held in Washburn 
Hall, and $7,100 raised. About this time the 
project of cutting down Nobility Hill began to 
be agitated, and Mayor Blake protested 
against the erection of a church building in 
the manner first contemplated, and after some 
consideration it was proposed to change the 
plan so as to have the building front on High 
street, with the rear towards Main street. 
At this juncture the owner of the Rice lot at 
the corner of Corbett street offered to ex- 
change his lot for the other, and the transfer 
was effected, the church securing the right to 
re-purchase the rear of the Earle estate — 
some 14,000 feet. It was finally decided that 
the edifice should be built as at present locat- 
ed, fronting on Chatham street. Ground was 
broken in the spring of 1868, and the corner 
stone was laid July 4, 1869. Since this time 
the building has progressed by stages until the 
completion of the steeple or tower in Septem- 
ber, 1889, the latter remaining unfinished 
many years after the body of the church was 
completed. St. Paul's is the finest structure 
used for religious purposes in Worcester. It 
is of Gothic architecture, built entirely of 
granite, 185 feet long, 90 feet broad, with a 
basement of 16 feet in the clear, under the 
entire church. A superb marble statue of St. 
Paul, of heroic size, procured through Ran- 
dolph Rogers, from Rome, the gift of Mrs. 
Geo. Crompton, was raised and placed on a 
pedestal in front of the church, July 4, 1874, 
with imposing ceremonies. It is the third 
Roman Catholic church in the city, formed in 

St. Peter's Church. — The seventh Roman 
Catholic church in Worcester, formed in 1884, 
and located at corner of Main and Grand 
streets. D. H. O'Neill is the pastor. 

St. Joseph's Church, Wall street, is the 
second French Roman Catholic church in 
Worcester, formed in 1891. Jules Graton is 
the pastor. 

St. Stephen's Church, on Grafton street, 
is the eighth Roman Catholic church in the 
city. R. S. J. Burke is the pastor. It was 
formed in 1884. 

Saint Wulstan Society. — "One evening 
in June, 1890, several gentlemen met by his 

invitation at the house of Mr. J. Evarts 
Greene to consider the subject of forming a 
club or society for social intercourse and the 
discussion of such topics as might be proposed 
and approved. Those presen were Senator 
George F. Hoar, Judge Hamilton B. Staples, 
the Rev. Daniel Merriman, D. D., the Very 
Rev; John J. Power, D. D., and Mr. Samuel 
S. Green, besides the host, who read the 
names of others whom he had asked or wished 
task to join the proposed club, namely: Mr 
Stephen Salisbury, Judge Thomas L. Nelson, 
Mr. Frank P. Goulding, President G. Stanley 
Hall, Dr. Leonard Wheeler, Dr. George E. 
Francis, the Rev. Alexander H. Vinton, D. 
D., and Mr. Henry A. Marsh. To these 
was added by common consent the name of 
Mr. E. Harlow Russell. 

"Without formal proceedings it was agreed 
to form such a club as had been proposed; 
that the meetings should be held fortnightly 
on Friday evenings, and that the first meeting 
should be held in October, the time and place 
to be fixed by Mr. Greene, who undertook 
to give to each member timely notice thereof. 

"In accordance with this agreement the 
club met on Saturday evening, October nth, 
at the house of Senator Hoar. The members 
present besides Mr. Hoar were Mr. Salisbury, 
Judge Nelson, Judge Staples, Mr. Marsh, Dr. 
Francis, Dr. Wheeler, Mr. S. S. Green, Dr. 
Hall, Dr. Merriman, Mr. Goulding, Mr. J. 
Evarts Greene. A committee was appointed 
to prepare a plan of organization, and Mr. J. 
Evarts Greene was chosen secretary. 

"The subject of conversation, suggested by 
Mr. Marsh, was in substance: What disposi- 
tion should be made of the bequest of the late 
Mrs. Helen C. Knowles for the advancement 
of art education in Worcester? 

"The discussion of this topic may be justly 
regarded as the origin of the St. Wulstan So- 
ciety as a corporation. For at the next meet- 
ing Mr. Marsh, speaking as a member of the 
club and as one of the executors of Mrs. 
Knowles, said that in his judgment the ad- 
ministration of her bequest for art education 
might wisely 1 e intrusted to a corporation 
composed of members of this club, and that 
it was the earnest wish of the executors to be 
relieved of further responsibility by placing 
the fund which they held for that purpose in 
the charge of a corporation so composed. 
Mr. Marsh read to the club a letter from his 
co-executor, Mr. Edward A. Strong of Boston, 



heartily concurring in this opinion and wish." 

The corporation was organized on the sec- 
ond day of January, 1891, with the purpose of 
"the promotion of Hterature, art, historical 
and social science in Worcester, and holding 
and administrating the Helen C. Knowles 
legacy for the promotion of art education in 
Worcester, and such other funds as may be 
acquired for the same and kindred objects." 

The by-laws limit the number of mem- 
bers to sixteen, and provide that any one 
ceasing to be a resident of Worcester ceases 
to be a member, and if absent from four meet- 
ings without excuse may be considered to 
have withdrawn. An Art Commission of five 
is also constituted to administer the Knowles 
or other funds. 

The officers elected were : President, George 
F. Hoar; Vice-President, Stephen Salisbury; 
Clerk, J. Evarts Greene; Treasurer, Henry 
A. Marsh. 

Mr. Salisbury has offered a lot of land and 
a sum of money to the St. Wulstan Society to 
aid the erection of an art building. See un- 
der Art in Worcester. 

The society takes its name from Wulstan, 
bishop of Worcester in England from 1062 to 
1095, ^'ho was canonized in 1203. 

Salaries. — The salaries of city officers are 
given below : 

Mayor, $2,500. 

City Clerk, 2,200. 

\ (for all 
/ services.) 




" Engineer, 

" Solicitor, 

" Physician, 

" Auditor, 

" Messenger, 900. 

Chief Engineer, 1,800. 

Water Commissioner, 2,000. 
Water Registrar, 1,500. 

Supt. Buildings, 2,000. 

One Assessor, 1,800. 

Two " each, 1,500. 

Inspector Board 

of Health, 1,100. 

Supt. of Schools, 3,500. 

Principal, Classical 

High School, 3,000. 

Librarian, Public 

Library, 3,ooo. 

Salem Square. — East of the Common, 
between Front and Park streets. The ground 

here was formerly at a much higher elevation, 
and was known as Baptist Hill, on account of 
the location on the east of the First Baptist 
Church. The square was graded to its present 
level in 1867, at an expense of $4,173,28. 
The public wood and hay market was for sev- 
eral years located here. 

Salisbury Hall. — The audience room in 
the new building of The Worcester Society 
of Antiquity on Salisbury street. It will seat 
about three hundred. 

Salisbury Mansion. — The fine old man- 
sion house in Lincoln square, now the home 
of the Hancock Club (see title). It was 
erected by the first Stephen Salisbury in 1770, 
and occupied by him as a residence until his 
death in 1829, and has always remained in 
the possession of his descendants. 

Salisbury Pond. — The small sheet of 
water off Grove street and north of Institute 
Park, which forms a part of its shores. Ice 
cutting operations are largely carried on here 
during the winter. This pond was formed by 
damming Mill Brook, and served as a reser- 
voir of the water power for the first wire 
factory built about 1835, where the extensive 
Washburn & Moen wire mill now stands. 

Salvation Army. — The Salvation Army 
began an active campaign in Worcester with 
a public meeting in Mechanics Hall Sunday, 
Nov. 16, 1884. The next evening, having 
taken up quarters in the old Providence rail- 
road station, on Green street, a serious 
disturbance occurred, the building being sur- 
rounded by the denizens of that region, who 
resented this invasion of their bailiwick, and 
manifested their displeasure by throwing 
cobble-stones, railroad-iron, and other mis- 
siles through the windows. After a time the 
Army removed to a hall on Church street, 
where for a year or two the work of salvation 
was carried on with only an occasional inter- 
ference from the unruly element. This 
branch later took the name of Christian 
Crusaders. The headquarters are now in 
Taylor's building. Main street. There is a 
branch of the English order under the old 
name of Salvation Army with headquarters 
on Carlton street. Evening and Sunday 
parades and frequent street and other meetings 
are held. 



Sanctuary (The). — A secluded inlet on 
the Shrewsbury shore of Lake Quinsigamond, 
north of the causeway, the narrow entrance to 
which is known as Cold Spring. The name 
was applied by T. W. Higginson. 

Saturday Spectator. — A weekly paper, 
the first number of which appeared June 4th, 
1892. The publication was suspended after a 
few issues. 

Savings Banks. — See Banks. 

Scales (Public). — Public scales are located 
in Lincoln and Webster squares, on Mason 
street, at the corner of Tufts, and on Franklin 
street. Weighers are appointed annually by 
the mayor and aldermen, and receive half the 

Scalpintown. — A name formerly applied 
to the locality at the lower end of Gold street, 
or across the railroad from the lower end of 
Madison street. In police circles the name 
has an especial significance in bringing to 
mind former desperate struggles with the 
rough element of that region. 

Scavenger Department. — House offal, 
swill and other refuse, is collected by teams 
from the City Farm, The effects of this de- 
partment are valued at $11,674, ^"^^ the 
amount appropriated for expenses in 1892 was 

Schools (Parochial). — According to a 
statement published in the Boston Advertiser 
of November 12, 1889, the result of careful 
enumeration, there are in Massachusetts 
39,301 pupils in parochial schools, as against 
178,097 in the public schools of the cities and 
towns in which parochial schools are main- 
tained. Rev. Fr. Fitton, the first Catholic 
priest in Worcester, had a parochial school in 
1837 which numbered 90 pupils, and he 
petitioned the town school committee for an 
appropriation of money to maintain it. About 
1874 a large school house was erected by the 
Irish Catholics, and a parochial school opened. 
Five or six years later a French school was 
established. In 1888 a boys' school was 
opened by the Order of the Christian Brothers 
from Ireland, since relinquished. At present 
there are two parochial schools in the city, 
namely: St. JoJui's (Irish), with three houses 
and about 1,700 pupils; and St. Anne's 
(French), with three houses and 1278 pupils. 
Total number of pupils in round numbers. 

3,000. About half of the French-Canadian 
children in the city attend parochial schools 
on account of the French language being 

Schools, Private. — There are several ex- 
cellent private schools in Worcester. The 
following are well known: Mrs. Morgan's 
School and Kindergarten, in the Y. M. C. A. 
building; Mr. John W. Dalzell's School for 
Boys, at 66 West street; Mrs. Throop's, 141 
Pleasant street; and the School of English 
Speech, conducted by Mrs. Cutter, at 34 
Front street. The Commercial Colleges of 
E. C. A. Becker at 492 Main street and A. 
H. Hinman at 44 Front furnish excellent 
business training for both sexes. 

Schools and School Houses. — The pres- 
ent number of pupils in the public schools of 
Worcester is 11,991; and about 425 teachers 
are employed. Number of school houses, 55; 
number of rooms, 350. There are 340 schools, 
including evening schools. There are two 
high schools, the English and the classical. 
Amount appropriated for the support of 
schools in 1892, $300,000, and $32,700 addi- 
tional for the construction of new houses. 
Value of school houses and lots, $1,181,885, 
and of other school property, $183,360. 
Drawing, music and bookkeeping are taught by 
special mstructors. The public schools are 
under the control and direction of a committee 
of twenty-four — three from each ward; and 
the mayor is ex -officio chairman of the Board. 
One-third of the commhtee retire annually, 
and are replaced by those newly elected. The 
superintendent of schools is the agent of the 
School Committee, and is subject to their 
direction, all matters of importance being 
determined by vote of the Board. There is 
also a secretary whose duty it is to keep a 
record of the proceedings of the meetings, 
compile statistics, etc. 

Promotions in the schools are now made in 
accordance with an original plan adopted six 
or eight years ago. Promotion in all the 
classes is made by the teacher with the advice 
and approval of the principal. It depends 
upon the work and progress of the pupil tor a 
stated period. Written examinations are held 
in all the grades several times during the 
year; the result of these may influence, but it 
does not determine promotion, which rests 
not as formerly upon a single examination, 
for which the pupil has been crammed. It is 



the average of a pupil during the year, and 
not a final test, that ensures his advance. 
This plan was discussed at a recent meeting of 
the New England School Superintendents' 
Association, and adopted by them as advisa- 
ble; and the plan has been substantially 
adopted in several of the large western cities. 
The division of the schools into classes has 
obviated to a great extent the tendency to 
mechanical work common to the graded sys- 
tem, and gives greater opportunity for individ- 
ual teaching. Worcester schools were the 
first in which drawing was taught, and this is 
the foundation of all the much discussed man- 
ual training of to-day. Kindergartens have 
the present year been established in connec- 
tion with the lower grade schools. 

The evening schools are maintained yearly 
from November i to March i . The last re- 
port of the supervisor for the term ending 
March i, 1892, shows an average attendance 
of 471 at a cost to the city of $7,300. "The 
large immigration of foreign workmen of dif- 
ferent nationalities and language, who with 
their families are becoming citizens, creafes a 
greater need for this kind 'of schools than 
would exist with a homogeneous population. 
But beyond this need, these schools are highly 
useful for those boys and girls who are 
obliged to leave school at an early age in 
order to contribute to the family support by 
their work. There are many cases of a 
father and daughter, or son, attending togeth- 
er," and sometimes a husband and wife. 
"The Legislature of 1888 passed an act com- 
pelling the attendance of all minors who are 
unable to read and write in English." Of 
foreign nationalities, the Swedes supplied the 
largest number of pupils in the evening 
schools — 221; Canadians, 173; Hebrews, 88; 
Armenians, 86; Irish, 79. Of the 245 born 
in the United States more or less were of 
foreign blood. 

On the 4th of April, 1726, the selectmen of 
Worcester covenanted and agreed "with Mr. 
Jonas Rice to be ye Schoole master for sd 
Town of W'orcester and teach such children 
& youth as any of ye Inhabitants shall send to 
him to read and write as ye law directs." 
This is the first record of the employment of a 
schoolmaster in Worcester. In 1731 it was 
"voted that a suitable number of Schoole 
Dames, not exceeding five, be provided by ye 
Selectmen at ye charge of ye Town for ye 
teaching of small Childrin to read." In 1730 

a motion to build a school house was voted 
down; but in 1733 i^ was voted to build one 
"in ye center of ye south half of ye Town." 
Action, however, appears to hav^e been de- 
ferred until 1739, when it was voted "that ye 
school house be built or set up between ye 
court house and the Bridg below ye fulling 
mill." This spot was in the present Lincoln 
square,. about where the iron railing of Court 
Hill ends. It was in this building that John 
Adams, afterwards famous as a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and vice-presi- 
dent and president of the United States taught 
from 1755 to 1758. While in Worcester the 
future "Colossus" of the Revolution penned 
the following in his journal : "But I have no 
books, no time, no funds. I must therefore 
be contented to live and die an ignorant, 
obscure fellow I" 

It is the intention to erect a monument on 
the site of this first school house. 

In 1728 Benjamin Flagg was employed as 
schoolmaster. He was succeeded by Richard 
Rogers, who continued to instruct the youth 
of the town for eight years. The town was 
early divided into quarters or squadrons, 
synonymous to the modern school districts, 
and in 1740 ;[^ioo was granted for the support 
of schools, one-half to be appropriated for the 
centre and the other half divided among the 
quarters, "provided the body of the town 
keep a grammar school the whole year, and 
save the town 'from presentment, and the 
skirts do in the whole have twelve months' 
schooling of a writing master." 

In 1766 the representative to the General 
Court was instructed to endeavor that the law 
requiring a Latin Grammar school be repealed, 
and that not more than one such school be 
kept in a county." After the Revolution, in 
1785 to 1788, the town was presented by the 
grand jury for the neglect of its grammar 
school, and when it was maintained, it ap- 
pears to have traveled around the centre, in 
the circle of districts, until 1808, when it be- 
came stationary. 

In 1800 school houses were built in the 
several districts under the direction of a com- 
mittee, one in each quarter, as follows : In 
Tatnuck and Jones' quarter at an expense of 
$270 each; in Burbank's and Baird's quarters 
and at Fiske's corner and Burncoat Plain, at 
$247 each; in Gates' quarter at $225; and in 
Thaxter's quarter at $202. 

The school tax at different periods is given 

97 ^ 


below: 1727, ;^i6 los.; 1730, ^25; 1740, 
;^ioo; 1750, £/^b los.; 1760, ^75; 1770, 
£"]() 1 6s.; 1780, ;^3,ooo in Continental mon- 
ey. In 1835, the amount raised for schools 
by tax was $5,500. 

The names of some of the early school- 
masters were James Wyman, 1732; Samuel 
Boutelle, Nathaniel Williams, 1733; Samuel 
Marsh, 1738; James Durant, 1739; James 
Varney, 1744; Henry Gardner, 1752; John 
Young, 1757; William Crawford, 1758; Mi- 
cah Lawrence, 1760. Eunice Day was the 
schoolma'am of her time, officiating for some 
fifty years in that capacity. She died in 1828. 

In later years several distinguished names 
appear on the roll of Worcester teachers, 
among them Thaddeus M. Harris, Jacob 
Bigelow, Jonathan Going, Calvin Park and 

In the early years of the present century 
public instruction seems to have been neglect- 
ed, and no regular order or system was ob- 
served in the maintenance of schools, and 
particularly in Worcester they fell below the 
common standard. Several gentlemen inter- 
ested themselves to bring about a change for 
the better, foremost among them Hon. Joseph 
Allen, Rev. Aaron Bancroft, Jonathan Going, 
Samuel M. Burnside (author of the school 
law of 1827), Levi Lincoln, Otis Corbett and 
Samuel Jennison. The recommendations 
urged by them were adopted, and in 1823 the 
first Board of Overseers of the Centre District 
was elected. In 1824 authority was obtained 
from the Legislature to bring the steady sup- 
port of taxation to maintain the schools. Ten 
permanent schools were arranged in regular 
gradation and kept through the year. Of 
the lowest grade, the infant schools were 
first opened in 1830. Next higher were the 
North and South Primary schools, the Boys' 
English schools and the Female School. 
Highest was the Female high school and the 
Latin grammar school. An African school 
for children of color was established in 1828. 
This was substantially the system that re- 
mained for the next twenty years. See the 
article on the High School. Many of the 
above facts are from Lincoln's History. 

Schoolmasters' Club (The).— A club 
composed of the grammar school masters of 
the city and Mr. Charles F. Adams, a teacher 
at the Normal School. Joseph Jackson is 
president. The purpose of the club is mutual 

improvement in school work and management, 
and several pamphlets have been printed to 
elucidate methods of teaching. The super- 
intendent of schools and the principals of 
the high and normal schools are honorary 
members of the club. 

School Superintendents. — The ordinance 
authorizing the School Board to appoint a 
superintendent of public schools passed the 
City Council in November, 1856. Previous to 
this time the School Board had the direct 
supervision of the schools through its individ- 
ual members, who were paid one dollar for 
each visit made; and it was thought that the 
appointment of a superintendent at a stated 
salary would save money to the city. In 
December, 1856, Rev. George Bushnell, who 
had been pastor of the Salem Street Congre- 
gational Church, was elected superintendent, 
and entered upon his duties at the beginning 
of 1857. Contrary to the general expectation 
the expenses of the schools that year were 
considerably increased, and some opposition 
to the continuance of the office of superin- 
tendent (in which the mayor, Isaac Davis, 
joined) was manifested in the committee, and 
in consequence Mr. Bushnell resigned in 
May, 1858. After a year, during which the 
Board again had the direct charge of the 
schools. Rev. John Davis Edmands Jones, 
formerly pastor of the First Baptist Church, 
was elected superintendent, and heM the 
office from May, 1859, to some time in 1865. 
Samuel V. Stone was acting superintendent 
for a few months until the election of P. 
Bernard Chenoweth, who served from 1865 
to 1868. He was succeeded by Albert Pres- 
cott Marble, who has continued in office to 
the present time. Previous to his service as 
superintendent Mr. Marble was principal of 
the Worcester Academy, and master of the 
Dix street school. In his present position he 
has gained an 'extended reputation, and re- 
ceived high honors. In 1881 the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy was conferred on him 
by Colby University, and in 1888 he was 
elected president of the National Educational 
Association. Dr. Marble is the author of 
various pamphlets, lectures and magazine ar- 
ticles, mostly on educational topics. 

Scotch. — According to a competent au- 
thority there were in Worcester in 1889 from 
five to six hundred natives of Scotland. The 
number at present cannot be definitely ascer- 



tained, but the Scotch have undoubtedly in- 
creased as other nationaHties. The Sons of 
Scotia is an active social organization which 
meets at St. George's Hall. 

Second Advent Church. — See Adventisis. 

Secret Societies. — See under the titles 
Masonic Societies ; Odd Fellows; Knights of 
Pythias ; and others in the Dictionary. 

Senatorial Districts (State). — There are 
forty senatorial districts in the Common- 
wealth. The First Worcester District com- 
prises Wards i, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the city 
of Worcester. The Fourth Worcester District, 
Wards 2 and 3 of the city of Worcester, the 
city of Fitchburg, and the towns of Holden, 
Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Princeton, 
Sterling, West Boylston and Westminster. 

Senators (United States) from Wor- 
cester. — John Davis was elected a United 
States senator in 1835 and served till 1841 ; was 
reelected in 1845, and retired in 1853. George 
F. Hoar, elected in 1877, is now serving his 
third term. Levi Lincoln, governor from 
1825 to 1834, would have been chosen a 
senator in 1827 had he not positively de- 
clined in favor of Daniel Webster, which 
action opened to the latter the opportunity to 
make his famous anti-nullification speech in 
reply to Hayne. 

Sheriffs. — Following is a list of the sheriffs 
of Worcester county, from its incorporation 
in 1 73 1 to the present time: 

Daniel Gookin was the first sheriff, and 
died in office in June, 1743. He was a 
grandson of the famous General Gookin. 
Benjamin Flagg held the office from 1743 to 
1 75 1, and was succeeded by John Chandler, 
who served until 1762. Gardner Chandler 
was the incumbent until the Revolution began 
in 1775. Simeon Dwight of Western was 
sheriff for three years till 1778, and was fol- 
lowed by William Greenleaf, who in 1788 
was impeached and removed for misconduct 
and maladministration, principally financial 
delinquencies. His trial was held in Faneuil 
Hall, Boston. The next in ord«r was John 
Sprague of Lancaster, to 1792. Dwight 
Foster of Brookfield, who was afterwards 
member of Congress and United States sena- 
tor, served one year, and was succeeded by 
William Caldwell of Rutland. The latter 
resigned in 1805 and died soon after. Thom- 

as Walter Ward of Shrewsbury, a son of Gen. 
Artemas Ward, was sheriff from 1805 to 1824. 
Calvin Willard held the office twenty years to 
1S44, and resigned, it is said, rather than 
hang Thomas Barrett, his experience in ex- 
ecuting the law on Horace Carter in 1825 
having unpleasantly affected him. John W. 
Lincoln served from 1844 to 1851. He was 
noted for his strict construction of the law. 
Col. James Estabrook was the next incum- 
bent, and was succeeded in 1854 by George 
W. Richardson. By change of the law, the 
sheriff after this date was chosen by popular 
vote, and John S. C. Knowlton was elected 
in 1856, and continued in office from 1857 
until his death in 1871. Augustus B. R. 
Sprague was Mr. Knowlton's successor, and 
served to January, 189 1. Samuel D. Nye 
was in office the next two years, and was 
succeeded by Robert H. Chamberlain in Jan- 
uary, 1893. 

Sewerage. — There were in W^orcester at 
the beginning of 1892 80.94 miles of sewers, 
which had cost $2,782,296 63. The con- 
struction of the present system of sewerage 
was begun in 1867, under powers given by a 
special act of the Legislature passed in 
March, 1867, and accepted by vote of the 
citizens April 16 of the same year. Under 
this act the city acquired the right to appro- 
priate certain water courses recommended in 
a report of a special committee appointed to 
consider the matter, made to the City Council 
in Oct., 1866. These "main channels" com- 
prised the following : Mill Brook, Grove 
street to Green street, 9420 in its circuitous 
path, or 8,437 feet in a more direct line. 
This it was calculated would drain 1,552 
acres in the city; and its water-shed north of 
Grove street was computed at 5,024 acres. 
Lincoln Brook, 13,556 in length, rising north 
of Highland street, and flowing generally 
south to New Worcester. This is the natural 
outlet for the sewerage in the western part of 
the city. Austin Street Brook, about 2,818 
feet in length, rising in Clinton street, and 
flowing southeast to Mill Brook below Fox's 
Mills." Hermitage Brook, 5,090 feet in length, 
rising in the northerly part of the city, and 
flowing parallel with Hanover street to Laurel 
street, with a water-shed of 400 acres. Pied- 
mont Brook, 4,677 feet in length, rising near 
Pleasant street, between Piedmont and Sever 
streets, and flowing to Mill Brook, below 



Fox's Mills. Pine Meadow Brook, 4,356 
feet in length, rising near Shrewsbury street, 
and entering Mill Brook near Water street. 
The walling of Mill Brook, as the main sewer, 
was commenced at Green street in May, 1867, 
and was substantially completed to Lincoln 
square in 1870, — 2,238 feet opened and 3,669 
feet arched. The first sewers were laid in the 
streets in August, 1867.' The expense of the 
main sewer was included in the general tax, 
and the estates of abutters were assessed to 
pay for the street sewers, a method that 
caused much dissatisfaction and grumbling. 
At first the estates were assessed according to 
the number of square feet, but now the as- 
sessment is for lineal feet of sewer. The 
system of sewers has been extended from 
year to year, over five miles being laid in 
1888. Some twelve years ago the pollution of 
the stream below Quinsigamond Village by 
the sewage of the city began to cause com- 
plaint in Millbury and other places on the 
Blackstone river, and after several years' 
agitation of the subject, the Legislature in 
June, 1886, passed an act requiring the city 
of Worcester to purify its sewage within four 
years (by June, 1890) by some method not 
specified, before discharging it beyond city 
limits. In 1888 the Joint Standing Committee 
recommended the construction of an "outfall 
sewer," from the end of the present sewer at 
Quinsigamond Village to the land selected 
for the final treatment of the sewage before 
passing it into the stream below. The purifi- 
cation works have attracted much attention, 
and undoubtedly much of the evil has been 
remedied, but whether in a degree equal to 
the large amount of money expended remains 
to be seen, 

Shrewsbury. — A town adjoining Worces- 
ter on the east, and five miles distant. It 
was incorporated in 1727. There is no rail- 
road in the town. Population in 1885, 1,450; 
in 1890, 1,449. 

Sidew^alks. — The first brick sidewalk in 
Worcester was laid front of the Blackstone 
Hotel, corner Main and Thomas streets, by 
Ezra B. Lovell. In 1828 the owners of real 
estate on the east side of Main street agreed 
to lay a brick sidewalk from the jail at Lin- 
coln square to the Town House. One-half 
was completed by the first of September. The 
average width was over ten feet, and the 
whole expense was about $4,000. The town 

appropriated the same year $1,600 towards 
improving Main street, in paving gutters, etc. 

The sidewalks of Worcester are generally 
of brick, though concrete is used to some 
extent. On Main and Front streets granite 
slabs have been placed in front of a few of 
the modern built blocks, and the space under 
the sidewalk excavated and utilized for storing 
coal, etc. 

The Worcester city ordinances require that 
snow which ceases to fall before 6 A. M. shall 
be removed before noon of the same day; and 
if it ceases to fall before 4 P. M. it shall be 
removed within four hours. Neglect subjects 
the owner or occupant to arrest and fine. 

Single Tax League. — The doctrines of 
Henry George have received some considera- 
tion in Worcester, and a Single Tax League 
has been organized. Thomas J. Hastings, 
treasurer of the Cooperative Banks, was one 
of the prime movers, and will undoubtedly 
give information to inquirers. 

Sinking Fund. — Established by an ordi- 
nance passed July 24, 1871. The purpose of 
this fund is to provide for the payment of the 
city debt; $30,000 is appropriated annually 
from balances in the treasury, money received 
from sales of real estate belonging to the city 
and certain other monies to be applied 
towards the reduction of the city debt. 
Amount of the sinking fund Nov. 30, 1892, 
was $1,407,882.94, leaving the net debt of 
the city $2,857,718. See City Debt. 

Small-pox Hospital. — The Small-pox 
Hospital has for some years been located on 
the Poor Farm. A new building has recently 
been erected at a safe distance north of the 
Almshouse for use as a pest house. There 
were seven cases of small-pox in Worcester 
during the year 1888. 

Soldiers' Monument. — The first action 
towards the erection of a Soldiers' Monument 
was taken by the City Council in 1866, in the 
appointment of a committee, which cooperat- 
ed with a citizens' committee of 25, chosen at 
a public meeting held in Mechanics Hall, 
Feb. 10, 1867. Hon. James B. Blake, the 
mayor, was made chairman of this committee, 
and Hon. George W. Richardson, treasurer. 
The members actively canvassed the city, and 
in September a fund of $11,242 was reported 
as the result of the subscriptions. A new 

SON— SPY loo 

committee was chosen to select a site and a Sons of Veterans. — See Grand Army. 
design, and carry out the purpose in the erec- 
tion of a monument. Mayor Blake, noted South Ledge.— The granite ledge which 

for his advocacy of lavish expenditure, favored crops out near Quinsigamond Village. A 

the acceptance of a design of an arch, pre- quarry is open on Ballard street, and is owned 

pared by Messrs. Gambril & Richardson of by John S. Ballard & Co. 

New York, pretentiously set forth as similar „ ^, ,,, ^ r^, , ,.^ . - 

, /^ *u <<A A -v-^u A South Worcester. — The locality south of 

m character to the "Arc de Inomphe de ^, -t) . c mi ti -i j j- 

UT-.. -1 i. Ti • 5) T-u u ..1, the Boston ot Albany Railroad, extending: 

I'Etoile, at Pans." The arch was to be . r\ • • j . xt tt.^ . ^ 

, J \^ ^v, • ^ 4- f ^u • • 1 from Quinsigamond avenue to New Worcester, 

placed at the intersection of the principal ^^ ■ ,-^ ■ , .u o .i. 

*^ ^, ^, ^ , ^ ,,^. I he lunction is now known as the South 

paths on the Common, or perhaps over Main ,,r -' ^ ^^ ^• 

^. ^ ^ .. r <r T-u- • Worcester Station, 

street, at a cost of ^90,000. Ihis proposi- 
tion was rejected by popular vote in Decern- Sovereigns of Industry.— This order is 

ber, 1868. Nothing further was done till ^ow practically dead, though in a few locali- 

September, 1871, and m the meantime Mayor ties organizations are nominally in existence. 

Blake died, and Mr. George Crompton was Active work ceased in Worcester several 

placed at the head of the committee, which years ago. The Sovereigns' Cooperative 

proceeded to definite action, and employed Grocery Store (See Co-operation) was estab- 

Mr. Randolph Rogers to prepare a design for ijshed under the auspices of the order, but 

a monument. He in due time offered one of late years had no connection with it. In 

which met the approval of the committee, and ig^g the following Councils were active in 

was accepted by vote of members of the \^qxcq^x^x: Citizens Council, Xo. 2-, Harmony 

Grand Army Post. This design was for a Council, No. 29, and Webster Square Councily 

monument 52 feet in height, of granite and Xo. 54. See under Co-operation. 
bronze, nearly like the one erected, but the 

plan was changed somewhat, so that the Spiritualists. — The Worcester Association 

monument as it stands is 65 feet high. The of Spiritualists was organized in 1879, and 

funds had by this time accumulated to holds meetings at Continental Hall Sundays, 

$15,000; and the city was asked to appro- except during July and August. A gymna- 

priate $35,000 to meet the whole cost, slum is maintained by the society. Wood- 

$50,000, which was done. The monument bury C. Smith is president, 
was completed and dedicated July 15, 1874. There are many Spiritualists in Worcester 

The occasion was appropriately observed by a who do not openly avow themselves as such, 

military celebration, and the procession, some of whom occupy a high social position, 

under command of Gen. Josiah Pickett, in- The belief in Spiritual doctrines appears to 

eluded the City Government and guests, have increased in a great measure during the 

veterans of the war, nearly all the Grand past decade, and has even penetrated into 

Army Posts in the county, with numerous churches of all denominations. Spiritualist 

societies and lodges, and the Fire Department, meetings were held in W^orcester more than 

The old State Guard paraded for the last thirty years ago. 

time. At the monument addresses were Sportsmen's Club.-The Worcester 

made by George Crompton Esq ex-Gov. Sportsmen's Club was organized in 1874. 
Bullock, Gen. Devens and Mayor Edward L. '^ ^ '^ 

Davis; and Hon. Benjamin F. Thomas read Spy (The). — The Massachusetts Spy was 

an original poem. Vice-President Wilson established in Boston in 1770 by Isaiah 

and Gen. Burnside were present; $7,000 Thomas, and at once became the leading 

was voted by the City Council to defray the organ of the patriot cause. Just before the 

expenses of the dedication. The design of battle of Lexington it was removed by the 

the monument is generally satisfactory, but its proprietor to Worcester, he having the aid of 

location is unfortunate, planted in the swale Gen. Joseph Warren, Col. Timothy Bigelow 

at the lower end of the Common. It is, and others in getting his types and press out 

however, in full view in coming up Front of Boston. After a suspension of three weeks, 

street, though the Goddess of Peace turns her it re-appeared on the 3d of May, 1775, and a 

back to the stranger as he enters the city, copy of the impression of that date in the 

The center of the Common would have fur- library of the American Antiquarian Society 

nished a much better site. bears Mr. Thomas's certificate that it was the 


first thing ever printed in Worcester. In 
1776 Mr. Thomas resigned the paper into the 
hands of David Bigelow and WilHam Stearns, 
and the next year they were succeeded by 
Anthony Haswell; but the founder of the 
paper resumed its management in 1778. In 
1786, in consequence of the stamp duty im- 
posed on newspapers, the Spy pubHcation was 
suspended, and the Worcester Magazine, in 
octavo form, appeared in its stead until April 
3, 1788, when the original form and name 
were restored. Isaiah Thomas and son pub- 
lished the paper in 1799, and two or three 
years later the senior Thomas retired from 
business, and Isaiah Thomas, Jr., was the 
nominal owner and publisher for the next ten 
years. William Sheldon, a native of England, 
edited the Spy in 1809-10, and during the 
period of the troubles and war with Great 
Britain the paper was intensely Federal in 
tone, and bitterly hostile to the government 
at Washington. In 1810 James Elliott, for- 
merly a member of Congress, and "a Phila- 
delphia lawyer," came to Worcester, and 
opened an office for the practice of his pro- 
fession. October 17 of that year the Spy was 
leased to him for a term of years, and his 
name placed at the head of its columns as 
editor and proprietor. But his Federalism 
was of too mild a type to suit this community 
at that time, and Thomas was induced to 
rescind the agreement, taking the paper into 
his own hands again in February, 181 1. Isaac 
Sturtevant published the Spy from Aug. 12, 
1812, and was succeeded by William Man- 
ning in Oct., 1814. The office was then in 
Lincoln square (then called the Public 
square), but in December was removed to 
its original location on Court Hill. John 
Davis, afterwards governor and U. S. senator, 
edited the Spy for a ' short time just after his 
graduation from college. In 1819 William 
Manning and George A. Trumbull purchased 
the Spy property of Isaiah Thomas, senior, 
and in December, 1820, the office was re- 
moved to the corner of Main and Thomas 
streets. In Jan., 1822, Manning and Trum- 
bull dissolved, and William Manning and his 
son, Samuel B., continued until the following 
July, when the son withdrew. The fortunes 
of the Spy were now failing, and for a num- 
ber of years its destiny was uncertain. Fol- 
lowing the course of its party out of the 
intensity of Federalism, through the Era of 
Good Feeling, and into the vacuity that came 

after, its supporters fell away, one by one , 
simply through lack of interest, and the paper 
was well nigh stranded. Geo. A. Trumbull 
came into possession again Aug. 13, 1823, 
and soon after a company was formed, or 
perhaps its creditors took possession, for in 
November Charles Griffin began to print the 
Spy "for the proprietors," and the office was 
removed to the brick building opposite the 
Central Church in June, 1824, John Milton 
Earle and Anthony Chase with others were 
interested at this time in the ownership. In 
1827 Samuel H. Colton was associated with 
the others, and the paper was published by 
"S. H. Colton & Co." Pecuniary troubles 
continued to threaten its existence, and in 
1829 it was advertised for sale by Simeon 
Burt, who appears to have been one of the 
"proprietors" before mentioned. The office 
was removed to the opposite side of Main 
street in 183 1. John Milton Earle took 
charge of the publication in 1835, and con- 
tinued to edit and publish the paper until his 
failure in 1858. Thomas Drew was associ- 
ated with him as partner from 1850. July 24, 
1845, the Daily Spy was first issued, and 
soon overbalanced the weekly in importance. 
Mr. Earle was a Quaker, and introduced the 
form of expression in dating the weekly as 
First Month, Second Month, etc., instead of 
January, February, etc. In politics he was a 
Whig, but influenced by the brothers George 
and Charles Allen, changed his paper into an 
organ of the Free Soil element in 1848, after 
he had announced his intention of supporting 
the Whigs. Probably this course did not 
contribute to the pecuniary advantage of 
the Spy. At all events, it was afterwards 
evident that Mr. Earle was not a successful 
financier, though a man of the purest princi- 
ples and high abilities as an editor. In busi- 
ness management his partner, Mr. Drew, 
was no better, and matters went from bad to 
worse, till in 1858 the liabilities of the estab- 
lishment in excess of its assets compelled a 
refuge in insolvency. In October of that year 
the property of the Spy was purchased of the 
creditors by Foss & Farnum, the former one 
of the publishers of the Woonsocket Patriot in 
Rhode Island. The office and types were 
removed from the Butman Block to the 
"Printers' Exchange," the building which 
stands on the west corner of Foster and 
Waldo streets, where the forms were set, and 
for a year or more taken daily in a hand-cart 



or on a sled back to the old building to be 

The Spy supported Charles Allen for Con- 
gress in 1848, and as long as he remained 
there; and in 1852 advocated the election of 
Alexander DeWitt as a candidate of the Free 
Democracy. It did not countenance the 
Know-Nothing movement, but trusting in the 
well-known anti-slavery principles of Col. 
DeWitt acquiesced in his accepting the nom- 
ination of that party in 1854. In 1856, 
however, when he attempted to run against a 
pronounced Republican, it resolutely de- 
nounced him. From that time the Spy has 
unreservedly sustained the principles of the 
Republican party. 

The connection of Foss & Farnum with the 
Spy was only of about four months' duration; 
and on the i8th of March, 1858, the paper 
passed into the possession of John D. Bald- 
win, who associated with himself in its man- 
agement his two sons, John S. and Charles 
C, and it has been conducted by them to the 
present time, the two brothers continuing 
after the death of their father in July, 1883. 
The office was moved back to Butman Block 
in Jan., i860, and remained there till the 
completion of the Spy Building, opposite the 
City Hall, in 1867. In July, 1888, a radical 
change was made in the form of the paper 
from a four to an eight page issue; and at 
this time the publication of the Sunday Spy 
began, the first number appearing July 22. 
Hon. John D. Baldwin was the editor of the 
Spy until his death. Delano A. Goddard was 
assistant editor from 1859 to 1868, and was 
succeeded by J. Evarts Greene, who is now 
postmaster. The Spy is the fourth oldest 
newspaper in the country. 

Squantum Festivals. — Social and con- 
vivial gatherings held at Long Pond yearly 
about the period 1820 to 1830, by certain 
citizens of Worcester distinguished by their 
epicurean propensities and love of good fellow- 

Squares (Public). — The most important 
are mentioned below : 

Adams Square, junction of Lincoln and 
Burncoat streets. 

Ar??io7y Square, front of Armory, between 
Salisbury and Grove streets. 

Elt?i Square, see Grafton square. 

Franklui Square, junction of Main and 
Southbridge streets. 

Grafton Square, junction of Grafton, Orient 
and Hamilton streets. 

Grant Square, bounded by Harrington av- 
enue, Mt. Vernon place, Windsor and Mt, 
Vernon streets. 

Hamilton Square, bounded by Prescott, 
Otis and Lexington streets. 

Lincoln Square, where Main, Highland, 
Salisbury, Lincoln, Belmont, Summer and 
Union streets center, 

Stearns Square, junction of Southbridge 
and College street^. 

Washington Square, east end of Front 
street, at Union Passenger Station. 

Webster Square, at New Worcester. 

See the different titles in the Dictionary. 

Stages. — A Paxton stage leaves 18 Me- 
chanic i^treet at 4.25 P. M. The Shrexvsbury 
stage leaves 24 Front street at 10.30 a. m. 
and 5 P. M. daily. 

The Marlborough stage, which had been 
run over the route for more than one hundred 
years, was discontinued in the fall of 1888. 

Star and Crescent (Order of the). — Su- 
preme Council meets quarterly. Ionia Lodge 
was organized in 1888. 

State Guard. — In May, 1861, the Home 
Guards were organized, consisting of the hon- 
orary and past members of the Worcester 
Light Infantry, This company was composed 
mostly of elderly men, and performed escort 
duty, attended soldiers' funerals, etc. until 
June 17, 1863, when it was reorganized as 
the State Guard, and continued as an active 
company until 1874, its last public appearance 
being at the dedication of the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment July 15 of that year. 

Stationary Engineers. — Worcester Asso- 
ciation, No. 4, was organized in 1882, and 
meets every Thursday evening at 302 Main 

Stearns Square. — The terminus of the 
street railway at South W'orcester, at the junc- 
tion of College and Southbridge streets. 

Stenographers' Association (Worcester 

County). — Organized in 1887. 

Stocks and Pillory. — See under Whip- 
ping Post. 

Stone House Hill. — A hill some distance 
north of the village of Tatnuck, to which cer- 
tain Tories retired before the Revolution, and 
erected a small stone fort. 



Storage. — The upper story of Crompton's 
Block, on Mechanic street, is used exclusively 
for storage purposes, and is divided into pens 
which can be hired for a small sum each 
per month. The Worcester Storage Co. has 
a fire-proof building at 29 Gold street court, 
for the safe keeping of furniture, merchandise 
and other property, and the Metropolitan 
Storage Warerooms are located at 6 Barton 

Street Guide :— 

Abbott, Pleasant to Tufts. 

Adams, Shrew^sbury to Belmont. 

^tna, Providence to Cutler. 

Agate avenue, from Lake avenue south. 

Agawam, from 1022 Main street. 

Agricultural, Elm to Sunnyside. 

Aitchison, Shrewsbury to Plantation. 

Albany, Muskeego to Putnam lane. 

Albert, from Grand. 

Alden, Castle to Oread place. 

Allen, Main to Mt. Pleasant. 

Alpine, from Vernon. 

Alvarado avenue, from Belmont. 

Ames, from Vernon. 

Anna, Locust avenue to Coburn avenue. 

Anne, from Taft. 

Apricot, from Leicester. 

Ararat, Brooks to Brattle. 

Arch, Summer to Carroll. 

Arlington, Columbia to Winthrop. 

Armandale, Leicester to Apricot. 

Armory, Southgate to Grand. 

Arthur, from Union avenue. 

Ascension, Bloomingdale to Orient. 

Ash, Green to Washington. 

Ash avenue, Houghton to Grafton. 

Ashland, Pleasant to Elm. 

Ashton, Sturges to Lincoln avenue. 

Assonet, from Plymouth. 

Asylum, Mulberry to Summer. 

Auburn, Kendall to Catharine. 

Austin, Main to Dewey. 

Autumn, from Baker. 

Bailey, from Pleasant. 

Baker, from Lake. 

Ball, from Baker. 

Ballard, Millbury to Quinsigamond Village. 

Bancroft, from Kingsbury. 

Barber avenue, from North avenue. 

Barbour, Hollywood to Dewey. 

Barclay, Grafton to Union avenue. 

Batchelder, Union avenue to Jefferson. 

Bates, from Lyon. 

Bath, from Abbott. 

Beacon, Southbridge to Kilby. 

Beaver, Main to Park avenue. 

Beech, Winter to Pond. 

Belknap, Washington to Plymouth, 

Bellevue, Pleasant to Bluff. 

Belmont, from Lincoln square east, 

Belvidere avenue, from Burncoat. 

Benefit, from Main east. 

Berkeley, Eastern avenue to Shamrock. 

Bigelow, Lafayette to Endicott. 

Birch, Shirley to Beaver. 

Bismark, Fountain to Clayton. 

Blackstone, Exchange to Bridge. 

Blake, Harrison to Columbia. 

Bleeker, Orient to Plantation. 

Blithewood avenue, Millbury ave. to Grafton. 

Bloomingdale road, from Grafton. 

Blossom, Russell to Hudson. 

Bluff, King to Mason. 

Bowdoin, Harvard to West. 

Boyce, from Webster. 

Boyden, from Southbridge. 

Boylston, from Lincoln. 

Boynton, Highland to Salisbury. 

Bradford, May to Parker. 

Bradley, from Brooks avenue. 

Bradley, Green to Gold. 

Branch, Orient to Wall. 

Brattle, from Holden. 

Bremer, Dryden to Whittier. 

Briden, from Garden. 

Bridge, Front to Summer. 

Brigham, from Piedmont. 

Brittan, from Lincoln avenue. 

Brooks, from West Boylston to Maiden. 

Brooks avenue, from West Boylston. 

Brown, Beech to Grace. 

Brussels, from Crompton. 

Bryant, Bremer to Hemans. 

Buffum, Mill to Goes. 

Burgess, from Lakeside avenue. 

Burncoat, from Lincoln. 

Burnett, from Ludlow. 

Burt, from Grafton. 

Burton, from Millbury. 

Butler, from Ludlow. 

Byron, North to Millbrook, 

Cairo, College to Boyden. 

Cambridge, Main to Millbury. 

Camp, from Southgate. 

Canal, from Front. 

Canterbury, Hammond to Cambridge. 

Carbon, from Belmont. 

Carlstad, from Whipple. 



Carlton, Front to Mechanic. 
Caroline, Grafton to Plantation. 
Carpenter, Pond to Harrison. 
Carroll, Glen to Prospect. 
Castle, Main to Ely. 
Cataract, Mower to Olean. 
Catharine, Lincoln to Rodney. 
Cedar, Chestnut to Agricultural. 
Cemetery road, Grove to Prescott. 
Central, Main to Summer. 
Central avenue, from Brooks. 
Chadwick, from Grove. 
Chandler, Main to Pleasant. 
Channing, Kendall to Green lane. 
Chapin, yEtna to Union avenue. 
Charles, Summer to Blackstone. 
Charlotte, Woodland to Park avenue. 
Charlton, Main to Beacon. 
Chatham, Main to Newbury. 
Cheever, Chelsea to Woodward. 
Chelsea, Cambridge to Southbridge. 
Cheney, from Leicester. 
Cherry, Canal to Vine. 
Chester, from Holden. 
Chestnut, Pleasant to Bowdoin. 
Chrome, Orient to Plantation. 
Church, Front to Mechanic. 
Circuit, from Lake avenue. 
City View, from College. 
Clapp, Washburn to Kansas. 
Claremont, Main to Woodland. 
Clarence, Chadwick to Grove. 
Clark, Burncoat to Mountain. 
Clarkson, Coral to Barclay. 
Clayton, Kendall to Belmont. 
Clemence, Norfolk to Orient. 
Clement, Main to Beaver. 
Cliff, Millbury to Granite. 
CHfton, May to Charlotte. 
Clinton, Pleasant to Chatham. 
Clover, from Heard. 
Coburn avenue, from Belmont. 
Coes, from Park avenue. 
College, from Southbridge. 
Colton, Southbridge to Lawrence. 
Columbia, Water to Arlington. 
Concord, Grove to Prescott. 
Congress, Crown to Newbury, 
Cora, from Lakeside avenue. 
Coral, Grafton to yEtna. 
Cottage, West to Fruit. 
Court, from Court Hill. 
Crescent, Garden to Sackville. 
Cristy, from Grand. 
Crompton, Southbridge to Woodward. 

Cross, Shrewsbury to East Worcester. 

Crown, Pleasant to Austin. 

Crystal, from Main. 

Curtis, from Leicester. 

Gushing, Lincoln to Paine. 

Cutler, Grafton to Union avenue. 

Cypress, Exchange to Foster. 

Dale, Brigham to Jaques avenue. 

Daley, from Hemans. 

Davis, Piedmont to Queen. 

Dean, Highland to Salisbury. 

Decatur, Hollywood to Page. 

Denny, Dix to Highland. 

Dewey, Pleasant to May. 

Diamond, from Millbury. 

Division, Orient to Plantation. 

Dix, Harvard to North Ashland. 

Dorrance, Cambridge to Mitchell. 

Douglas, Grand to Cambridge. 

Dover, from Highland. 

Downing, Main to Park avenue. 

Dryden, Edgeworth to Hemans. 

Dudley avenue. West Boylston to Mount ave. 

Dupont, Hamilton to Chrome. 

D wight, from Cambridge. 

Earle, Edward to Elizabeth. 

East Central, Summer to Shrewsbury. 

East Shelby, from Eastern avenue. 

East Worcester, from Shrewsbury. 

Eastern avenue. East Central to Catharine. 

Eden, Sudbury to George. 

Edgeworth, Milton to Byron. 

Edward, Belmont to Laurel. 

Ekman, from Carlstad. 

Elizabeth, Belmont to Reservoir. 

Elliott, Carroll to Merrifield. 

Ellsworth, Millbury to Quinsigamond avenue. 

Elm, Main to Park avenue. 

Elmer, Lake to Ball. 

Elmwood, from Apricot. 

Ely, Davis to Castle. 

Endicott, Millbury to Vernon. 

Essex, from South Irving. 

Esther, Millbury to Vernon, 

Eureka, from Leicester. 

Everard, from Belmont. 

Everett, Cedar to William. 

Evers, from Hope avenue. 

Exchange, Main to Summer. 

Fairbank, from Ames. 

Fairfield, from Park avenue. 

Fairview avenue, from Plantation. 

Fales, from West Boylston. 

Faraday, Grove to Salisbury. 

Farwell, Elizabeth to Eastern avenue. 



Fern, from Park avenue. 

Flagg, Salisbury to Pleasant. 

Florence, May to Beaver. 

Fobes, Seward to Marshall. 

Ford, East Central to Gage. 

Forest, Salisbury to Grove. 

Forest avenue, Lincoln to Windsor. 

Foster, Main to Summer. 

Foundry, Vine to Canal. 

Fountain, Arch to Bismark. 

Fowler, from Mill. 

Fox, Water to Jefferson. 

Foyle, Millbury to Ward. 

Francis, from West Boylston. 

Franklin, Trumbull square to Grafton, 

Frederick, Lincoln to Crescent. 

Freeland, Main to Tirrell. 

Fremont, from Cambridge. 

Front, Main to Washington square. 

Fruit, Pleasant to John. 

Fulton, Summer to Millbury. 

Gage, Eastern avenue to East Shelby. 

Garden, Lincoln to Prescott. 

Gardner, Main to Southgate. 

Garfield, from Cambridge. 

Gas, from Southbridge. 

Gates, Main to Illinois. 

Gates lane, Leicester to Mill. 

Geneva, from Chandler. 

George, Main to Harvard. 

Germain, from Highland. 

Gertrude avenue, from Main. 

Gilman, from Lincoln. 

Glen, Orchard to Edward. 

Glenwood, Benefit to Hammond. 

Goddard, Green to Winter. 

Gold, Green to Sargent. 

Goulding, Dix to Highland. 

Grace, Winter to Pond. 

Grafton, from W'ashington square. 

Grand, from Main. 

Granite, Winthrop to Millbury. 

Green, from Trumbull square. 

Green lane, from Lincoln. 

Greendale avenue, from West Boylston. 

Greenwood, from Millbury. 

Greenwood avenue, from Plantation. 

Grosvenor, Lafayette to Lamartine. 

Grove, from Salisbury. 

Hacker, Cambridge to Southgate. 

Hadwen avenue, June to Hadwen lane. 

Hadwen lane, Pleasant to May. 

Hale, Grafton to Plantation. 

Hall, from Sunnyside. 

Hamburg, Ludlow to Heard. 

Hamilton, Grafton to Plantation. 

Hammond, Main to Southbridge. 

Hancock, Main to Hollis. 

Hanover, Belmont to Prospect. 

Harding, Franklin to Lafayette. 

Harlem, Millbury to Perry avenue. 

Harlow, Lincoln to Crescent. 

Harrington, from Millbury avenue. 

Harrington avenue, Lincoln to Channing. 

Harrison, Green to Barclay. 

Harvard, Sudbury to Highland. 

Hathaway, Gardner to W^yman. 

Hawkins, Norfolk to Orient. 

Hawley, Pleasant to Austin. 

Hawthorn, Main to Woodland. 

Heard, from Stafford. 

Hemans, Dryden to Whittier. 

Henchman, Lincoln to Crescent. 

Henry, Shrewsbury to East Worcester. 

Henshaw, from Leicester. 

Hermitage avenue, from Channing. 

Hermon, Main to Southbridge. 

Hey wood, Winthrop to Millbury. 

Hibernia, Front to Mechanic. 

High, Austin to Pleasant. 

Highland, from Lincoln square. 

Hill, Shrewsbury to East Central. 

Hillside avenue, from Bloomingdale road. 

Hillside, from Vernon, 

Hiscox, Fairfield to Fern. 

Holden, from Grove. 

Hollis, Kilby to Gates. 

Hollywood, Kingsbury to Oberlin. 

Holmes, from Cambridge. 

Home, Wachusett to North Ashland. 

Homer, from Park avenue. 

Homestead avenue, from Southbridge. 

Hooper, Belmont to Kendall. 

Hope avenue, Webster to Southbridge. 

Horner, Downing to Shirley. 

Houchin avenue, Chatham to Austin. 

Houghton, Grafton to Heywood. 

Howard, Summer to Blackstone. 

Howard lane, from Fowler. 

Howe, from Sever. 

Howe avenue, at Tatnuck. 

Hudson, Pleasant to Elm. . 

Hunt, from Shrewsbury. 

Illinois, Grand to Richards. 

Ingalls, Vernon to Fox. 

Institute road, formerly Jo Bill road. 

Irving, Pleasant to Chandler. 

Jackson, Main to Southbridge. 

Jacques, from Webster. 

Jaques avenue, King to Wellington. 



James, from Stafford. 

Jefferson, Vernon to Providence. 

Jerome, from Ward. 

Jo Bill road, Salisbury to Park avenue, now 

Institute road. 
John, Harvard to Sever. 
June, Pleasant to May. 
Kansas, Sherman to Southbridge. 
Keen, from Ludlow. 
Keese, from Grafton. 
Kendall, Lincoln to Rodney. 
Kilby, Main to Tainter. 
King, Main to Chandler. 
Kingsbury, May to Mason. 
Knox, from Webster. 
Lafayette, Millbury to Southbridge. 
Lagrange, from Main. 
Lake, Leicester to Mill. 

Lake avenue, bordering Lake Quinsigamond. 
Lakeside avenue, Lovell to Mill. 
Lamartine, Millbury to Lafayette. 
Lancaster, Dix to Salisbury. 
Langdon, Lafayette to Lamartine. 
Larch, Piedmont to Winslow. 
Larkin, Shrewsbury to East Worcester. 
Laurel, Summer to Eastern avenue. 
Lawn, from Orient. 
Lawrence, Kansas to Colton. 
Lazelle, from Millbrook. 
Ledge, Water to Waverly. 
Lee, Park avenue to Sunnyside. 
Leicester, from Webster square. 
Leonard, Mollis to IHinois. 
Lewis, Southbridge to Princeton. 
Lexington, Grove to Prescott. 
Liberty, Belmont to Arch. 
Lily, North Ashland to Pink. 
Lincoln, from Lincoln square. 
Lincoln avenue, from Lincoln street. 
Linden, Pleasant to Elm. 
Linwood place, Lincoln to Fountain. 
Liscomb, Shrewsbury^ to Belmont. 
Litchfield, Canterbury to Hacker. 
Locust avenue, from Belmont. 
Lodi, Lamartine to Lafayette. 
Loudon, Main to Woodland. 
Lovell, Chandler to Webster square. 
Lowell, Main to Freeland. 
Ludlow, from Leicester. 
Lunelle, Lafayette to Lamartine. 
Lyford, from Paine. 
Lyman, from Webster. 
Lynn, Salem to Orange. 
Lyon, Shrewsbury to East Worcester. 
Madison, from Main. 

Main, Lincoln square to Webster square. 

Maiden, from West Boylston. 

Malvern road, from Southbridge. 

Manchester, Union to Bridge. 

Mann, Chandler to May. 

Maple, Main to Walnut. 

Maple avenue, at Tatnuck. 

Marble, Main to Beaver. 

Market, Main to Summer. 

Marshall, from Shrewsbury. 

Marston way, Fruit to Sever. 

Mason, Pleasant to May. 

Maud, from Bath. 

Maxwell, from Millbury. 

May, Main to Pleasant. 

Mayfield, from May. 

Maywood, Main to Lovell. 

Meade, Lafayette to Lamartine. 

Mechanic, Main to Washington square. 

Melrose, Burncoat to Lincoln. 

Melville, Burncoat to Paine. 

Mendon, Grafton to Union avenue. 

Merrick, Pleasant to Austin. 

Merrifield, Belmont to East Shelby. 

Milk, from Franklin. 

Mill, Leicester to Tatnuck village. 

Milbrook, Burncoat to West Boylston. 

Millbury, from Green. 

Millbury avenue, from Grafton. 

Milton, North to Millbrook. 

Minthorne, from Lovell. 

Mitchell, Pitt to Dorrance. 

Mohawk avenue. Clover to Keen. 

Montague, Leicester to Barker. 

Montreal, from Wall. 

Moreland, Pleasant to Salisbury. 

Morse, from Lovell. 

Mott, Coral to Barclay. 

Mount avenue, from Brooks. 

Mount Pleasant, Benefit to Allen. 

Mount Vernon, Westminster to Channing. 

Mountain, northeast corner of Worcester. 

Mower, from Tatnuck. 

Mulberry, Shrewsbury to Shelby. 

Murray avenue, Wellington to Dale. 

Muskeego, Shrewsbury to Albany. 

Myrtle, Main to Orange. 

Nashua, Crescent to Byron. 

Nebraska, from Putnam lane 

Newbury, Pleasant to Chandler. 

Newport, Edward to Liberty. 

New York, from West Fremont. 

Nixon, Mountain to West Boylston. 

Norfolk, from Bloomingdale road. 

Normal, Prospect to Eastern avenue. 



North, from Grove. 

North avenue, from Burncoat to Odd Fellows' 

North Ashland, William to Highland. 
North Foster, Foster to Union. 
North Merrick, Pleasant to Cedar. 
Norton, Lincoln to Paine. 
Norwich, Foster to Mechanic. 
Norwood, Main to Woodland. 
Oak, Elm to Cedar. 
Oak avenue, Belmont to Catharine. 
Oakham, from Montreal. 
Oakland, from Webster. 
Oberlin, Woodland to Lawrence. 
Olean, from Mower. 
Oliver, Beaver to Park avenue. 
Orange, Park to Madison. 
Orchard, Arch to Bismark. 
Orchard avenue, Central ave. to Mount ave. 
Oread, Main to Beacon. 
Orient, from Grafton. 
O'Rourke, from Cambridge. 
Oswald, Stebbins to Perry. 
Otis, from Prescott. 

Outfall avenue, at Quinsigamond Village. 
Oxford, Chandler to Pleasant. 
Page, Kingsbury to Barbour. 
Paine, Frederick to Burncoat. 
Pakachoag, Crompton to Brussels. 
Palfrey, Bloomingdale road to Greenwood ave. 
Palmer, Liberty to Edward. 
Park, Main to Trumbull square. 
Park avenue. Grove to Mill. 
Parker, Page to Winfield. 
Parker avenue, from Mountain. 
Partelow avenue, from Highland. 
Patch, Elizabeth to Eastern avenue. 
Pattison, Vernon to Providence. 
Pearl, Main to Chestnut. 
Pembroke, Florence to Park avenue. 
Penn avenue, Grafton to Union avenue. 
Perkins, Lincoln to Paine. 
Perry, Quinsigamond Village. 
Perry avenue, Endicott to Sufifield. 
Phillips, Bloomingdale road to Greenwood ave. 
Piedmont, Main to Pleasant. 
Pierpont, Bloomingdale road to Greenwood av. 
Pine, from Jamesville square. 
Pink, Highland to Lily. 
Pitt, Cambridge to Mitchell. 
Plane, from Union avenue. 
Plantation, Grafton to Lincoln. 
Plantation avenue, from Plantation. 
Pleasant, Main to Tatnuck. 
Plum, Shrewsbury to East Worcester. 

Plymouth, Green to Orange. 

Pond, Green to Water. 

Portland, Park to Madison. 

Prentice, Shrewsbury to Belmont. 

Prentice, Clover to Keen. 

Prescott, from Lincoln square. 

Preston, Brigham to Jaques avenue. 

Princeton, from Southbridge. 

Prioulx, from Hemans. 

Prospect, Summer to East Shelby. 

Providence, Grafton to Winthrop. 

Putnam, Shrewsbury to Belmont. 

Putnam lane, Shrewsbury to Bloomingdale rd. 

Queen, Austin to Kingsbury. 

Quincy, Chatham to Austin. 

Quinsigamond ave., Southbridge to Millbury. 

Raymond, from Maxwell. 

Reservoir, Edward to Eastern avenue. 

Rice, from Mountain. 

Rice, Shrewsbury to Putnam lane. 

Richards, Main to Cambridge. 

Richland, Millbury to Vernon. 

Ridgely, from Wildey avenue. 

Riley, from Kansas. 

Ripley, Main to Tainter. 

Riverside, from Southbridge. 

Rock avenue, from Melville. 

Rodney, Belmont to Catharine. 

Roxbury, from Whipple. 

Russell, Austin to Elm. 

Sackville, from Crescent. 

Salem, Park to Southbridge. 

Salisbury, from Lincoln square. 

Sargent, Southbridge to Lamartine. 

School, Main to Summer. 

Scott, Lafayette to Lamartine. 

Sever, Pleasant to Highland. 

Seward, from Shrewsbury. 

Seymore, Millbury to Perry avenue. 

Shale, from Lawn. 

Shamrock, from East Central to Berkeley. 

Shattuck, from Lincoln. 

Shelby, Carroll to Eastern avenue. 

Shepard, King to Kingsbury. 

Sherbrook avenue, from Lake avenue. 

Sheridan, Cambridge to Sherman. 

Sherman, from Dorrance. 

Shirley, Park avenue to Horner. 

Shrewsbury, Washington square to Belmont. 

Sigel, Millbury to Quinsigamond avenue. 

Sigourney, North to Edge worth. 

Silver, May to Claremont. 

Smith lane, from Holden. 

South Crystal, Cambridge to Canterbury. 

South Harlem, Harlem to Whitney. 


1 08 

South Irving, Chandler to Wellington. 

Southbridge, from Franklin square. 

Southgate, Southbridge to Litchfield. 

Spring, Front to Mechanic. 

Spruce, Green to Washington. 

Stafford, from Leicester. 

State, Court Hill to Harvard. 

Stebbins, from Millbury, 

Steele, from Whipple. 

Stockholm, Whipple to Tatman. 

Stone, Ward to Perry avenue. 

Stowell, from Hey wood. 

Sturges, from Lincoln. 

Sudbury, Main to Chestnut. 

Suffield, from Vernon. 

Suffolk, Bloomingdale road to Wall. 

Summer, Lincoln square to Washington sq. 

Summit, from Gold. 

Summit avenue, from West Boylston. 

Sunny Side, from Park avenue. 

Sutton lar.e, from Cambridge. 

Sutton, Lake to Ball. 

Sutton road, Cambridge to Sutton lane. 

Sycamore, Main to Beacon. 

Taft, from Cambridge. 

Tainter, Benefit to Grand. 

Tatman, Greenwood to Stockholm. 

Taylor, from Millbury. 

Taylor, at Quinsigamond Village. 

Temple, Green to Grafton. 

Thayer, from Ripley. 

Thenius, Stebbins to Perry. 

Thomas, Main to Summer. 

Thorne, W^all to Plantation. 

Tirrell, Main to Freeland. 

Townsend, Russell to Hudson. 

Tremont, Front to Mechanic. 

Trumbull, Front to Trumbull square. 

Tuckerman, Institute road to Salisbury. 

Tufts, Mason to Winfield. 

Union, Lincoln square to Mechanic. 

Union avenue. Ward to Grafton. 

Upland, from Greenwood. 

Upsala, from Vernon. 

Uxbridge, from Lincoln avenue. 

Vale, /Etna to Union avenue. 

Valley, Castle to Oread place. 

Vernon, Green to Quinsigamond Village, 

View, from Vernon. 

Vine, Front to Franklin. 

Vinton, from Lincoln. 

Wabash avenue, from Granite. 

Wachusett, Home to Salisbury. 

Wade, Millbury to Ward. 

Waite, from Shrewsbury. 

Waldo, Exchange to Foster. 

Wall, Grafton to Norfolk. 

Walnut, Main to Chestnut. 

Ward, Vernon to Millbury. 

Warden, Shrewsbury to Plantation. 

Warren, Front to Cherry. 

Washburn, Southbridge to Cambridge. 

Washington, Park to Lafayette. 

Water, Grafton to Green. 

Waverley, Providence to Grafton. 

Wayne, Leicester to Baker. 

Webster, from W^ebster square. 

Wellington, Main to Chandler. 

Wells, from Plantation. 

Wesby, John to Home. 

West, Pleasant to Salisbury. 

West Boylston, from Park avenue. 

West Fremont, from Webster. 

West Oberlin, from Park avenue. 

Westminster, Catharine to Mt. Vernon. 

Whipple, at Quinsigamond Village. 

White, Baker to Gates lane. 

Wildey avenue, from West Boylston. 

Whitney, from Millbury. 

Whittier, from Edgeworth. 

Wigwam avenue. Lake av. to Coburn av. 

Willard, at Tatnuck. 

William, Chestnut to Sever. 

Willis, Bremer to Hemans. 

Wilson, from Seward. 

Windsor, from Catharine. 

Winfield, Tufts to May. 

Winona, from Shrewsbury. 

Winslow, Pleasant to Austin. 

Winter, Green to Grafton. 

Winthrop, from Vernon. 

Woodbine, Maywood to Beaver. 

Woodland, King to Maywood. 

Woodlawn avenue, from Brittan. 

Woodside, from Perry avenue. 

Woodward, from Cambridge. 

Worth, Millbury to Ward. 

Wyman, Main to Tainter. 

Streets and Street Names. — There are 
some 650 streets in Worcester — 150 miles of 
public and 60 miles of private streets. They 
are quite generally curbed, .and a large pro- 
portion paved or macadamized. The appro- 
priation for the Highway Department in 1892 
was $1 10,000. 

Main street is probably the oldest highway 
in the city. It was used in 1674, and con- 
stantly from 1 713. The Jo Bill road was a 
traveled path two hundred years ago. Front 



street, part of Summer street, Lincoln street, 
Salisbury, Pleasant, Green and Grafton streets 
were other early roads. Plantation street was 
in use at the time the place was called Quin- 
sigamond Plantations, and perpetuates the 
name. Front street was legally laid out March 
15, 1785. Of the other streets running from 
Main street, Mechanic street was opened in 
1787, as a way to the new burying ground, 
and for many years did not continue beyond 
it; Thomas street was opened and -given to 
the town in 1806 by Tsaiah Thomas; School 
street was laid out by Geer Terry about 181 4, 
and was at first called Terry street. April 4, 
1814, the town voted "to authorize the select- 
men to name such streets leading from the 
Centre street as they might judge proper, and 
to place posts and boards with the names 
thereon at the corners thereof." At this 
time the following names were probably given 
or confirmed: Main, Front, Pleasant, Me- 
chanic, Thomas, School and Back (now Sum- 
mer.) streets. In town meeting May 3, 1824, 
it was "voted that the street from Abraham 
Lincoln's store to Broken-up Hill until it 
comes to Barber's road at the guide-post, be 
called Salisbury street." On the map of the 
village published by Clarendon Harris in July, 
1829, the names of only fifteen streets appear, 
viz., Salisbury, Main, School, Thomas, Cen- 
tral, Mechanic, Front, Summer, Franklin, 
Grafton, Green, Water, South (now Park), 
Church (now Salem square), and Pleasant. 
Lincoln and Washington squares had been 
named; and part of Pearl and Lincoln streets 
and all of the present Market street were en- 
graved on the map, but the names were not 
affixed. Between 1830 and 1840 quite a 
number of new streets were opened, among 
them Foster, Elm and Exchange (at first 
called Market) in the centre of the town. The 
names of more than sixty appear on the map 
published with the first directory in 1844; and 
there was a rapid increase after this date. The 
town government appears to have had little to 
do with naming streets, and comparatively 
few were officially designated, unless the ac- 
ceptance of them with names already given 
may be considered a legal sanction. In Jan- 
uary, 1849, after Worcester became a city, 
Mr. Henry J. Howland, publisher of the Di- 
rectory, requested the City Council to estab- 
lish names for such highways and public 
streets as had not received them, for the bet- 
ter convenience of locating the inhabitants. 

particularly those living outside the centre 
district. This petition was referred to the 
committee on highways, who reported in Jan- 
uary, 1850, recommending the appointment of 
a special committee of one citizen from each 
of the old highway districts (12 in number) to 
report suitable names for all the highways and 
streets within the limits of the city, subject to 
revision by the mayor and aldermen. Mr. 
Howland was made chairman of this com- 
mittee. The report is recorded on page 51, 
Vol. I. of the Records of Streets, in the city 
clerk's office. Some 70 names were given or 
confirmed by this committee. In February, 
1 87 1, a joint special committee of the two 
branches of the City Council was appointed to 
provide for renumbering the streets, and to 
supply names where they were wanting. About 
thirty names were confirmed at this time. 

With the exception of occasional ofiicial 
recognition, the nomenclature of the greater 
portion appears to have been left to individual 
fancy, and names were and are applied by 
private parties without special authority. 
More or less confusion has resulted, and in 
several cases a name has been attached to two 
or more streets at the same time, thereby 
leading strangers widely astray. There have 
been three Waldo streets, and there are two 
Taylor streets at the present time. A large 
number of family and private names have 
been applied, in some cases by irresponsible 
and transient persons, who seized the oppor- 
tunity to gain a little glory for themselves and 
those connected with them, at the expense of 
the community. A great many absurd and 
inappropriate names appear, in violation of 
good taste and common sense. Some rule 
should be established by the City Government 
for the proper naming of streets, and some 
evidence required as to the respectability and 
fitness of the titles proposed. Of some of the 
reasons given for applying certain names the 
least said the soonest mended. 

The investigation of the origin of street and 
other names of any particular place leads to 
many curious and interesting facts of local 
history. An analysis of these names exhibits 
to a certain degree the tastes and tendency of 
mind in the people for a long period. In 
Worcester, family names have been used in 
large proportion. Of illustrious names we 
have a few, such as Washington, Franklin, 
Lafayette and Wellington. In opening streets- 
at the north end, Hon. Stephen Salisbury 


gave the Revolutionary names of Concord, 
Lexington, Prescott, Hancock and Otis. Of 
the presidents besides Washington, we find 
the names of Adams, Jefferson, Madison, 
Jackson, Harrison, Lincoln, Grant and Gar- 
field; of statesmen and generals, Hamilton, 
Clinton, Webster, Everett, Wilson, Seward, 
Bismark, Scott, Fremont, Meade, Sherman, 
Sheridan and Sigel. Mr. David S. Messinger 
in laying out Fairmont gave literary names to 
the streets there, and we have Milton, Dry- 
den, Edgeworth, Bremer, Hemans, Byron, 
Bryant, Willis and Whittier. Lamartine, 
Palfrey, Pierpont, Lowell and Waverley are of 
this class given by others. Mr. Messinger 
also named William and Elizabeth 3treets after 
his children. It is to be regretted that 
the names of the early settlers of the town are 
not perpetuated in more instances. Hench- 
man and Curtis are the only ones that occur 
at present writing. Indian names scarcely 
appear. To Gov. Lincoln we are indebted 
for such names as Elm, Maple, Chestnut, 
Cedar, Walnut, Linden and Oak. These are 
always in good taste, as are Woodland, Birch, 
Maywood and Hawthorn, named by Mr. 
Henry H. Chamberlin. The trees are well 
represented in Worcester street names; the 
fruits in Plum, Apricot, Mulberry, Cherry and 
Orange, and with these belong Vine, Fruit 
and Orchard. We find the four seasons in 
Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, and 
the months in May and June; the precious 
metals in Gold and Silver; and the gems in 
Pearl, Agate and Diamond. Milk and Water 
.are in suspicious proximity. Such names as 
Gas, Chrome, Bath and Carbon, as well as 
many others, are absurdities when applied to 

Many street are self-explanatory, 
as, for instance, the highways leading to 
several of the adjacent or other towns, such 
as Boylston, West Boylston, Holden, Leices- 
ter, Stafford, Southbridge, Millbury, Grafton 
and Shrewsbury. The situation of many gives 
the cue to their names, as High, Prospect, 
Vale, Valley, Cliff, Crown, Ascension, and 
-several others. In the following list of some 
200 streets the result of the writer's inquiries 
is given so far as the origin or source of the 
name is concerned. Other interesting partic- 
ulars have been gathered, but cannot be pre- 
rsented in the limited space afforded by the 
Dictionary. The compiler will gladly re- 
ceive corrections from those who possess 
.authentic information. 

Abbott — Ebenezer E. Abbott. 

Adams — Adams family. 

Aitchison — George C Aitchison. 

Albert— Charles Albert Allen. 

Alden — John Alden. 

Alvarado avenue — Alvarado A. Coburn. 

Anna — Wife of C. C. Coburn. 

Anne — Wife of Patrick O'Rourke. 

Ararat — Mount Ararat. 

Ashland — Home of Henry Clay. 

Assonet — Named by Job Lawton, who was 

born in Assonet, a place near Plymouth. 

Job's wife's name was Patience. 
Asylum — Insane Asylum. 
Austin — Rev. Samuel Austin. 
Bailey — Silas Bailey. 
Baker — Warren Baker. 
Ballard— John S. Ballard. 
Barbour — William C. Barbour. 
Barclay — Barclay, the Quaker. 
Beach — Henry J. Howland says he named it 

for the tree, and that it should be spelled 

Beech. Others say named for Lucius 

Beacon — Beacon street in Boston. Named by 

Col. James Estabrook. 
Bellevue — Named by George Jaques. 
Belmont — Suggested by Bell pond. 
Benefit — Benefit to Worcestei Academy by 

sale of the land. 
Berkeley — Berkeley, the Quaker. 
Blackstone — Blackstone canal. 
Blake — James B, Blake, mayor. 
Blithewood — Named b>; Rev. J. F. Burbank 

for a place in England. 
Boynton — John Boynton. 
Bradley — Osgood Bradley. 
Brown — Albert Brown. 
Camp — Camp Scott. 
Caroline — Caroline, wife of Fred. Greenleaf, 

hero of one of Rev. E. E. Hale's novels. 
Carpenter — Anthony E. Carpenter. 
Castle — From the Oread. 
Catharine — Wife of Ebenezer Harrington. 
Chadwick — Chadwick family. 
Chandler — Chandler family. 
Channing — William Ellery Channing. 
Chapin — Henry Chapin. 
Charlotte — Wife of H. H. Chamberhn. 
Cheever — Rev. Henry T. Cheever. 
Church — Formerly Salem square was called 

Church street and the name remained 

with the continuation. 
Clark— William L. Clark. 
Clarkson — Clarkson, the Quaker. 
Clinton — Dewitt Clinton. 


Colton — Samuel H. Colton. 

Crescent — Former course of the street. 

■Cristy — Cristy Weyer, 

Crompton — George Crompton. 

Crown — Crown of the hill. 

Crystal — Crystal Lake in Illinois. 

Curtis — Albert Curtis. 

Cushing — Paine family name. 

Cutler — From a resident. 

Davis — Isaac Davis. 

Dean — Salisbury family name. 

Decatur — Decatur C. Tourtelotte. 

Dewey — Francis H. Dewey. 

Dix— Dr. Elijah Dix. 

Dorrance — Dorrance S. Goddard. 

Douglas — This street was named by William 
G. Maynard, who renumbered the streets 
in 1 87 1. It was peopled with negroes 
and Irish, who could not agree upon a 
name. The negroes were told that Fred- 
erick Douglass was honored, and the 
Irish that it had reference to Stephen A. 
Douglas, Democratic candidate for the 
presidency, so both factions were satis- 

Downing — A. J. Downing, eminent horticul- 



Ellsworth — Ellsworth, the martyr. 

Ely — Lyman A. Ely. 

Everett — Edward Everett. 

Exchange — Central Exchange. 

Earwell — Simeon Farwell, who bought the 
first lot. 

Foster — Foster family. 

Fountain — From the "Water Cure" formerly 
near there. 

Fowler — Ezekiel Fowler. 

Fox — Fox family. 

^ . > Francis Fales Kneeland. 
Francis j 

Frederick — Frederick W. Paine. 

Freeland — Named in Free-i'c??/ times by H. H. 

Chamberlin and Henry Chapin. 
Fremont — John C. Fremont. 
Garden — Garden of Wm. Lincoln. 
Gardner — Named by James H. Wall for the 

Know-Nothing governor. 
Gas — Gas Works. 
Gates — Simon S. Gates. 
George — Gen. George Hobbs. 
Glen — Its situation. 
Goulding — Goulding family. 
Grace — Grace of the Lord. 

V Fdward Earle. 

Grant — The general and president. 
Hacker — W. E. Hacker. 
Hale— Rev. E. E. Hale. 
Hammond — Sargent family name. 
Harrington Ave. — Ebenezer Harrington. 
Harrison — Named by John F. Pond for the 

president in 1841. 
Hathaway — Dr. John G. Hathaway. 
Hawkins — D. A. Hawkins. 
Hawley — Wm. Dickinson's first wife's family 


Henchman — Henchman, early settler. 

Henry — Walter Henry. 

High — Its situation. 

Holmes 1 t,.^^ „ i 
p.^^ V Pitt Holmes. 

Houchin — T. W. Houchin. 

Hudson — Chas. Hudson, member of Congress. 

Illinois — Named by S. S. Gates, former resi- 
dent, who went to Illinois. 

Jackson — President Jackson. 

Jo Bill — Joseph Bill, who lived there in 1750. 

John — Dr. JoJni Green. 

Kansas — Named in "Kansas" times. 

Keese — Timothy Keese Earle. 

Kendall — Joseph G. Kendall. 

Kilby — Kilby street in Boston. Named by 
Col. James Estabrook. 

King — Family name of Mrs. S. H. Colton. 

Kingsbury — Family name of Rev. George 
Allen's mother. 

Lagrange — Home of Lafayette. 
Lamartine — Eminent Frenchman. 
Langdon — Name in Whittier's "Stanzas for 
the Times." 

"{ Lafayette — Eminent Frenchman. 
I Lunelle — Lunelle Sargent who lived there. 
[ Lodi — Bridge of Lodi. 
These were named by the late Perry Thayer, 
who laid out the triangle on the Island, 
and desired to comprise all the names 
under one letter in the alphabet. 

Lawrence — Amos A. Lawrence, Kansas bene- 

Lewis — Leivis Chapin. 

Liberty — Peopled by negroes. 

Lincoln — Lincoln family. 

Liscomb — N. S. Liscomb. 

Loudon— Eminent English landscape gardener. 

Lovell — Lovell family. 

Lowell — James Russell Lowell, the poet. 

Madison — President Madison. 

Mason — Joseph Mason. 

Mendon — Named by John F. Pond in com- 
pliment to Henry Chapin. 


Merrick — Mrs. D. Waldo Lincoln's family 

Merrifield — Merrifield family. 
Mott — Lucretia Mott. 
Mower — Mower family. 
Mulberry — First planted with mulberry trees 

during the silk-worm excitement. 
Nashua — Nashua Railroad. 
Newbury — Newbury street in Portland, Me. 
Newport — Native place of Mrs. Edward Earle. 
Normal — Normal School. 
Norwich — Norwich Railroad in the old Foster 

street station. 
Norwood — Henry Ward Beecher's novel. 
Oberlin — Oberlin College. 
Oliver— Oliver H . Blood . ~ 
Oread — Oread Institute. 
Oxford — Oxford street in New York. 
Paine — Paine family. 
Palfrey — John G. Palfrey. 
Palmer — Jonas G. Palmer. 
Parker — Mrs. Joseph Mason's family name. 
Patch — From a resident there. 
Pattison— Dr. R. E. Pattison. 
Penn Ave. — William Penn. 
Perkins — Paine family name. 
Piedmont — "Foot of the Mountain." Named 

by Cieorge Jaques. 
Pierpont — Rev. John Pierpont. 
Plymouth — Probably named by Job Lawton 

(See Assonet). 
Portland — Portland in Maine. 
Prioulx — M. Prioulx, who opened it. 
Queen — Named by S. H. Colton to mate 

King street, which see. 
Reservoir — From the old reservoir recently 

Richards — Richards family. 
Ripley — John C. Ripley. 
Robinson PI. — Dr. Jeremiah Robinson. 
Russell — Jarnes W. Russell. 
Sargent — Sargent Card Clothing Co. 

Seward — William H. Seward. 
Shepard — Timothy Shepard Stone. 
Sheridan ^ 

Sherman \ — For the generals. 
Sigel J 

Stafford — Turnpike to Stafford Springs. 
Sturgis — Paine family name. 
Tatman — Tatman family. 
Taylor — President Taylor. 

Taylor (at Quinsigamond Village) — Ransom 
C. Taylor. 

Temple — The church there. 

Thayer — Charles D. Thayer. 

Thenius — Moritz Thenius. 

Thomas — Isaiah Thomas. 

Trumbull — George A. Trumbull. 

Tuckerman — Salisbury family name. 

Union — Named soon after Webster's reply to 

Uxbridge — Named by John F. Pond in com- 
pliment to Henry Chapin. 
Valley — Its situation. 

Wachusett — The mountain can be seen here. 
Waldo— Daniel Waldo. 
Warden — Warden family. 
Wellington — Probably named by George 

Jaques for the duke. 
Wesby — Joseph S. Wesby. 
Whipple — Franklin Whipple. 
Wilmot — Wilmot proviso. 
Wilson — Henry Wilson, senator. 
Winslow — Lincoln family name. 

Mr. Charles A. Chase has given some as- 
sistance in the compilation of the above list. 

The following list of discarded and trans- 
erred street names will be of interest in this 

connection : 





now Kendall 






West (north part) 




Chatham (east end) 

Columbian avenue. 

Exchange (east end) 


Laurel (west end) 



Hanover (in part). 



South Russell ( ?) 



r East Central 
( Jaques avenue 


Clayton (nearly) 




Park avenue 






Park avenue 


Jaques avenue 

Queen (part). 


Quigley road. 

Park avenue 

Salem (part), 













now Belmont 




" Barclay 


Mt. Pleasant. 


" Penn avenue 




" Hanover 





Elmwood . 



" Eastern avenue 







now Silver 

Fairview avenue. 








Gertrude avenue. 



" Spring 


Parker avenue. 


" Chatham 


Parlin place. 


" South Irving 




" Eastern avenue 

Greendale avenue. 








Groton place. 



" Liberty 


- Princeton. 

r Richland 




" \ Grosvenor 



( Houghton 





Harris court. 


Hancock, formerly from Lexington to Gard- 







now Piedmont (north end) 


Smith court. 

Larch, formerly, 

now discontinued. 

Hillside avenue. 

Smith lane. 


" Hermon 




" Exchange (west end) 




" Maple (west part) 

Houlihan place. 



" Shrewsbury 


Sunny Side. 


" Reservoir 


Swan court. 


" Bowdoin 




" Oxford (south end) 


Towne's court. 

Taylor, formerly 

from Main, now discontinued. 



Waldo, now Boynton. 



White, formerly 

from Chandler, now discon- 




Kane's court. 


Kneeland court. 


Inforfuafion Wanted. 


Wabash avenue. 

Persons having definite knowledge of the 



origin of the 

following names, or other 



particulars relating to the laying out of the 

Layard place. 


streets, are requested to communicate with the 



compiler of the Dictionary. 


Wells. _ 


























Woodworth court. 









Street Railway, 
Railroad Company 

— The Worcester Horse 
was chartered in i86i, 



with the following corporators : Albert Cur- 
tis, Frederick W. Paine, Loring Goes, William 
H. Heywood, Joseph Sargent, John C. Mason 
and James H. Wall. The capital stock was 
$100,000. James B. Blake (afterwards 
mayor), who had been the prime mover in 
the undertaking, was elected president; and 
the following constituted the first board of 
directors: Albert Curtis, Geo. W. Richard- 
son, Joseph Sargent, Draper Ruggles, Geo. 
W. Bentley, Henry Chapin, William Cross, 
Edward Earle, with Charles B. Whiting as 
treasurer and clerk. Tracks were laid 
through Lincoln street from Harrington 
avenue; Main street from Lincoln square to 
New Worcester; Front and Grafton streets to 
the railroad station; and Pleasant street as 
far as West street. The Lincoln, Main and 
Front street lines were opened for use Septem- 
ber I, 1863; the Pleasant street branch on 
the 3d of November. The railroad did not 
prosper under Mr. Blake's management, and 
after a time the corporation failed, and the 
property was sold under the hammer. The 
stockholders lost their investments, several 
as much as $5,000 each. The Pleasant street 
tracks were finally taken up, as that line has 
not paid from the first. Henry Chapin made 
some efforts to reorganize and reestablish the 
company on a sound basis, but without satis- 
factory results. 

In 1869, Augustus Seeley of New York 
bought the property and franchise of the 
company for (it is said) $30,000. For the 
next twelve years cars were run over the 
limited routes, hardly to the convenience of 
the public, and the fare was stiffly maintained 
at seven cents on the main line. Persons 
changing from the Main street to the Front 
street cars were obliged to pay five cents 
more, making twelve cents to the Union 
station. In 1881, a reduction to five cents 
was compelled by the introduction of herdics, 
and this year the track was extended to 
Adams square, the residents along the new 
line contributing quite a sum to indemnify the 
company for the risk and sacrifice. In 1885, 
a new company suddenly appeared and gained 
a franchise that considerably more than 
doubled the miles of track. Hon. Charles B. 
Pratt was president of the new corporation, 
known as the Citizeti's. During the summer 
of 1886 tracks were laid in Pleasant, South - 
bridge, Salisbury, Grove, Trumbull, Green, 
Millbury and other streets. In the mean time 

the two companies consolidated, and the new 
management began to afford facihties more irt 
character with the requirements of the citizens. 
The following routes are now travelled, and 
others are to be opened: 

Adams square, Lincoln and Main streets, to- 
Webster square. 

Chadwick square. Grove, Salisbury, Main 
and Southbridge streets to Auburn square. 

Lincoln square. Main, Pleasant, West,, 
Cedar and Agricultural streets to Elm Park. 

Lincoln square, Main and Pleasant streets 
to Park avenue. 

Lincoln square, Main, Front, Trumbull,, 
Green and Millbury streets, to Quinsigamond 

Lincoln square, Main, Front streets, Wash- 
ington square, Grafton street to Grafton 

Union station to Lincoln square. 
" " " Park avenue. 

" " Elm Park. 
" " " New Worcester. 

Lincoln square, Salisbury, Boynton and 
Highland streets, to Elm Park. 

Chandler street to Park avenue from Lin- 
coln square or Union depot. 

Laurel Hill and Grant square, via Thomas,. 
Summer, Laurel, Belmont and Hanover 

The cars may be distinguished by the color 
as follows: Main street, straw; Grafton street 
and Union station, north, blue plaid; Union 
station, south, red plaid; Chadwick square, 
red; West Side, Elm Park and Park avenue, 
blue; Chandler street, light green; Quinsiga- 
mond, dark green. 

The stock of the Worcester Consolidat- 
ed Street Railway Company was purchased 
in November, 1892, by the WORCESTER Trac- 
tion Company, a New Jersey corporation. 
This company has a capital of $3,000,000, 
with $2,000,000 preferred. Much dissatisfac- 
tion has been expressed, publicly and otherwise, 
that a foreign corporation should obtain a 
valuable franchise in Worcester for nothing, 
but the public will undoubtedly be well served 
by the new company. 

The North End Street Railway Com- 
pany operates a line from Foster street 
through Summer and Lincoln streets to Green- 
dale, and is to be continued to Clinton. 

The Worcester & Shrewsbury Rail- 
road maintains a short electric line from 



Norwich street through Foster street to Wash- 
ington square. 

The Worcester, Leicester & Spencer 
Electric road (to be extended to South- 
bridge) was opened in 1891, and the Worces- 
ter & MiLLBURY line in 1892. Cars of the 
former leave Salem square at convenient in- 
tervals, and the terminus of the Millbury road 
is at the corner of Main and Park streets. 

Proposals have been issued to form a cor- 
poration to be known as the State Central 
Street Railway Company^ to extend lines to 
k Shrewsbury, Northborough, Marlborough, 
Westborough, Grafton, Auburn, Oxford and 

Sumner Club, — See High School Societies. 

Sunday Papers. — The Sunday news pa- 
pers published in Worcester are the Sunday 
Telegram, the first number of which was dated 
November 30, 1884. The Sunday Spy first 
appeared July 22, 1888. See the Spy and 
Telegram in the Dictionary. The Sunday 
editions of the Boston Herald and Globe pub- 
lish Worcester letters. The correspondent of 
the former is John Perley Munroe, and that of 
the latter Eugene M. Moriarty. 

Sunny Side. — The locality at the end of the 
Jo Bill road, on the southern slope of Prospect 
Hill. A pleasant settlement is built here, in 
view from Elm Park. 

Swedenborgians. — A few persons belong- 
ing to this sect began to hold meetings in 
Worcester some fifteen years ago, which were 
discontinued some time before 1880. About 
a year ago another attempt was made to es- 
,tablish a church here, and meetings have since 
been held in the Walker building. 

Swedes or Scandinavians. — There are 
about 10,000 to 12,000 Scandinavians (which 
includes Swedes, Norwegians, Finns, etc.,) in 
Worcester — nearly as many as Boston has. 
There are six Swedish churches — one Lu- 
theran, two Methodist, two Baptist, and two 
Congregational; several mutual benefit and 
temperance societies; three cooperative 
grocery stores, and several private stores. One 
paper — weekly — Skandinavia, was established 
in 1886. It is Republican in politics. The 
first Swedes in Worcester came in 1868, and 
found employment at the Washburn & Moen 
Wire Works. Since that time a large number 

of other foreigners have been supplanted at 
that establishment by Scandinavians; and the 
latter have come to be a valuable and desira- 
ble element among our citizens. There is a 
large Swedish settlement at Quinsigamond 
Village. As a rule Scandinavians are indus- 
trious, frugal and quiet in their habits, gener- 
ally can read and write in their own language, 
and soon learn English. They have little 
jealousy of wealth, and are not given to use- 
less or clamorous agitation which has so 
wasted the strength and destroyed the re- 
sources of others; consequently they are 
prosperous to a remarkable degree; a very 
large proportion own their homes, and have 
become permanent citizens. The respect for 
law and religion is inherent in them and they 
are little given to disorder or intemperance, 
though the latter is an occasional fault; the 
Finns, who are not, properly, Scandinavians, 
though classed with them, furnish the most 
examples. It is, however, comparatively sel- 
dom that a Swede or Norwegian comes before 
a court, and the newspapers recognize this 
fact by generally announcing the transgression 
in headlines as something remarkable. 
Minnesota is the Swedish center in America, 
but representatives of the race are widely 
scattered through the country. An effort, 
which promises good success, is now being 
made to people the deserted farms of northern 
New England with Swedes. The first Swed- 
ish Directory in this country was printed by 
the publishers of this Dictionary; and the 
Swedish almanac was also issued from their 

Tabernacle Church. — The church formed 
by the supporters of the Rev. Wm. M. Parry, 
who followed him from the Old South Church 
in 1874. It worshipped in Mechanics Hall. 
This church was recognized by a Congrega- 
tional Council, but that body refused to install 
Mr. Parry as pastor, and the ceremony was 
carried out by lay members of the church. 
After Mr. Parry's death in 1879, the church 
ceased to exist. A fine monument in memory 
of their pastor has been erected at Hope Cem- 
etery by members of the Tabernacle Church. 
It is of white marble in the form of a reading 
desk with the open Book, and below is a 
profile likeness in bas-relief, and the inscrip- 
tion : "Rev. William Meredith Parry, LL. D., 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature of 



Tailors' Union, No. 17. — Was organized 
in 1863. 

Tannery. — The "Old Tannery," promi- 
nently mentioned in the business history of 
the town from about 1800 to 1825 or later, 
was situated back of the Exchange Hotel, 
down Market street, and the vats in the 
meadow are remembered by some now living. 

Tariff Reform League (Worcester 
County). — The Worcester County Tariff Re- 
form League was organized Nov. 30, 1889. 

Tatnuck. — A village in the north west part 
of the city, three miles from the center. The 
name Tataesset was applied by the Indians to 
the western range of hills in the town, and 
was corrupted in Tatnick or Tatnuck. There 
is a school house and hall here. The Tatnuck 
Benevolent, Charitable and Literary Assecia- 
tion is an active body, as is also the Tatnuck 
Farmers^ Club. 

Tatnuck Brook. — This brook rises in 
Paxton and flows south to New Worcester, 
where it joins other streams to form Middle 
river. It is an important contributor to the 
water supply of the city. Beaver Brook is a 
tributary of Tatnuck Brook. 

Technical School. — See Polytechnic In- 

Telegram (Worcester Daily and Sun- 
day). — Published by the Telegram Newspaper 
Co., at 386 Main street. The 7'ehxrani was 
established as a Sunday paper on the 30th of 
November, 1884, by Austin P. Cristy, a mem- 
ber of the Worcester County Bar. The first 
daily edition appeared May 19, 1886. This 
paper has been very successful, and has a much 
larger circulation than any other newspaper 
printed in Worcester. Lord & Thomas' and 
Rowell's Registers give the average circulation 
for 1892, of the Sunday as 12,750, of the 
Daily as 10,238, and the same percentage of 
increase in circulation has been maintained 
each year from the beginning. The Telegram 
is a lively sheet, of inquisitive tendencies, and 
is prolific in news. It is ultra Repubhcan and 
Protection in politics, and has always advo- 
cated the cause of temperance. 

Telegraph. — The operation of the mag- 
netic telegraph was first exhibited in Worces- 
ter at Brinley Hall, on the evening of Decem- 

ber 9, 1845, by Mr. J. E. Strong, manager of 
the Springfield telegraph station. A charge 
of 25 cents was made at the door. The line 
of the New York & New England Telegraph 
Company was completed at that time between 
New York and Springfield, and the next 
season (1846) was carried through to Boston. 
In July, 1846, citizens importuned the man- 
agers to establish a station in Worcester, but 
they demanded $1,500, and it was probably 
more than a year later that an office was 
opened here. The first place occupied was a 
room in the building on Norwich street, where 
the paint and oil store of G. H. Clark & Co. 
now is. Mr. Strong of the Springfield station 
was appointed manager. In 1850 or '51 the 
office was removed to Warren block on Pearl 
street, upstairs; and in 1858 again removed 
to the Insurance building on Main street, 
opposite Elm street. 

The N. Y. & N, E., American, Franklin 
and other telegraph companies were consoli- 
dated with the Western Union, and successive 
managers of the main office here under the 
different companies have been Horatio N. 
Williams, 1853; John G. Tobey, 1861, and 
Edwin W, Bradford, 1863 to the present time. 
The latter has been connected with the tele- 
graph service in this city thirty-five years. The 
Western Union Company removed to the Spy 
building (442-444 Main street) in 1872, 
where it still remains. There are branch 
offices at the Bay State House and the Union 
Station. The American Co. had an office 
here in 1859-60; the Franklin for several 
years (about 1867-1878); the Atlantic & 
Pacific, 1880-1881; American Rapid, 1881- 
1884; Mutual Union, 1881-1889; Bankers 
& Merchants', 1884; United Lines, 1885- 
1888; and the Postal Telegraph-Cable Co. 
The office of the latter is at 20 Pleasant street. 

Taliaferro P. Shaffner, the eminent teleg- 
rapher, was in Worcester more or less from 
1857 to i860, and wrote some portions of his 
large "Telegraph Manual" here, receiving 
assistance in the translation of foreign lan- 
guages from George Jaques. After the failure 
of the first Atlantic cable, Mr. Shaffner pro- 
jected a line from Labrador to Greenland, 
continuing to Iceland, Faroe Islands, Norway 
and Scotland. A vessel was fitted out at 
Boston to explore the route and take sound- 
ings, and the principal expense of the under- 
taking was paid by Daniel R. Pratt (a broth- 
er-in-law of Mr. Shaff"ner), who built the 


mansion on Wellington street afterwards the 
residence of George Gill. Samuel H. Putnam, 
the bookseller, and Henry M. Sorell, the 
well-known Worcester hackman, accompanied 
Mr. Shaffner on this voyage, leaving Boston 
in August, 1859, and landing in Glasgow in 

Telephone Service. — The Worcester Tel- 
ephone Exchange was opened at 425 Main 
street in 1879, and a large number of instru- 
ments were soon in use. The Exchange was 
removed to 44 Front street in 1888. The 
present number of subscribers in the city is 
1,060. The Long Distance Telephone Co. 
has an office at 434 Main street. 

The Worcester Telephone Exchange ranks 
second in size of the exchanges of the New 
England Telephone Company, according to 
the report of 1892. In 1886 the exchange 
was seventh in rank. 

The report of last year's work in the Wor- 
cester district, which includes, besides Wor- 
cester, the towns of Clinton, Spencer, Webster, 
Westboro and Southbridge, shows that there 
are 1209 subscribers, who sent in 2,280,000 
calls during the year, an average of six calls 
per subscriber for each working day. There 
were sent out and received from these ex- 
changes 110,382 toll messages. Within the 
district there are 7456 poles, carrying 867 
miles of open wires and 239 miles of single 
wires in cables, an increase of 250 poles, 102 
miles of open wires and 58 miles of cable 
wires during the year. There are now over 
150 subscribers using the long-distance instru- 
ments, and it is probable the growing demand 
for this class of service on account of troubles 
resulting from the electric railways will neces- 
sitate nearly double the present wire mileage 
within two years. Arrangements are now be- 
ing made for a large increase of line and cen- 
tral office facilities at once. 

While the system in Worcester has had a 
more rapid development than any other city 
excepting Boston, and its wire mileage is next 
to that of Boston, it is now nearly the only city 
of size in New England in which the telephone 
company has no underground wires. Under- 
ground conduits are now used in Boston, Cam- 
bridge, Charlestown, Somerville, Lowell, 
Lawrence, Salem, Portland and Springfield. 
The fact that the telephone company has been 
allowed by the various city governments, 
after careful investigation, to place its standard 

system of conduits, seems to make some agree- 
ment between the city and the telephone 
people the more important. 

About 35 people are employed in and about 
the exchange in the winter, and in the sum- 
mer the force is increased to from 50 to 60 

In 1891 the number of calls was 2,041,440. 
There were 138 miles of pole line, 551 miles 
of wire out of cables and 4I miles of cables, 
containing 240 miles single copper wire. 

There were 31,260 paid messages sent to 
and 30,196 messages received from other ex- 

Temperance Societies. — Foremost among 
the temperance societies is the Reform Chib^ 
which was organized in 1876, and has been 
the means of rescuing many from the curse of 
intemperance. The hall is at 98 Front streets 
The Worcester Temperance Club was sub- 
stantially on the same plan. Of temperance 
societies proper, the Washittgtonian Division^ 
No. lyb, was organized in 1865, the Sons of 
Temperance, Anchor Division, N'o. 56, or- 
ganized 1882; Worcester Temple of Honor ^ 
No. 31; Katama Lodge, I. O. G. T., A^o. ^2 ; 
Worcester Distrikt Temp el. No. j, and 
Niagara Lodge, No. 3, O. of T. There is a 
Miittial Relief Association of the Sons and 
Daughters of Temperance. The Irish tem- 
perance societies are the Father Mathezv, St. 
John's Gnild d,nd St. Stephen's Lyceum; (see 
Lrish Societies). The First Woman's Tem- 
perance Union was organized in 1876, and 
meets at the Second Baptist Church; and the 
Second W. C. T. U., formed in 1878, meets 
in the Burnside building. The Worcester 
Central Temperance League was organized in 
1887, and is composed of the pastors and del- 
egates from the churches and temperance 
societies in the city. Its objects are to enforce 
the law against saloons, and to cultivate total 
abstinence principles. The rooms are in the 
Y. M. C. A. building. 

Temporary Home and Day Nursery. — 

Established in 1883 as the Day Nursery and 
Kindergarten, for the benefit of the children 
of the poor, and of mothers who are obliged 
to work out at day labor. Children can be 
left during the day, and will be properly cared 
for. A fee of ten cents a day is charged for 
each child. The home is at 176 Southbridge 
street. It is incorporated. 



Tenders' Union. — Meets at 98 Front 

Tennis Clubs. — There are two tennis 
clubs in Worcester — the Woodlaivn and the 

Theatres and Theatricals. — The first 
'dramatic entertainment in Worcester by pro- 
fessional talent took place in the year 1797, 
as appears by the following announcement in 
the Massachusetts Spy : 

< 'Theatrical. For a few nights only, 
Mr. Hogg, late of the Boston Theatre, re- 
spectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen 
of Worcester and vicinity, that the Hall over 
the School Room is fitted up for the purpose 
of representing some select and most admired 
Dramatic Pieces. On Wednesday evening, 
June 21, 1797, will be performed a favorite 
musical entertainment, called The Waterman. 
iBy particular desire, Collins' Ode on the 
J^assions. To which will be added for the 
second time, a dramatic romance in one act, 
called The Oracle, or Daphne and Admintor. 
The whole to conclude with a Pas de Deux. 
The doors to be open at half past six, and the 
performance to commence precisely at half 
past seven. Tickets to be had at the Worces- 
ter bookstore, at the bookstore of Isaiah 
Thomas, Jun., and of Mr. Hogg, at the 
house of Capt. Heywood. P"ront seats 3-9. 
Back seats 2-3." 

On the 28th of June, the play of "Like 
Master, Like Man," was given. 

More than twenty years passed before the 
people of Worcester had another opportunity 
of witnessing anything like a theatrical enter- 
tainment. WilUam Charles White, an actor 
and play-writer of some note, resided in the 
town some years between 1797 and 18 18, the 
year of his death. What influence he had in 
cultivating a taste for the drama in the minds of 
his friends and neighbors cannot now be deter- 
mined, but we are told by one who knew him 
that he was a man of free and elegant man- 
ners, and was often surrounded by those who 
Avere charmed by the magic of his voice, and 
the vigor of his understanding. But, however 
strong the craving, the opportunities for 
gratification in those days were few, especially 
in a country village like Worcester. We 
have contemporary testimony that the study 
of Shakespeare was one of the recreations of 
a small circle of cultivated minds gathered in 

the town in the first years of the century, com- 
prising such names as Allen, Lincoln, Bangs, 
Bancroft, Blake, White and others. The 
drama itself, however, had to be viewed and 
enjoyed elsewhere. 

On the 24th of April, 1820, a "Rational 
Entertainment" was given at Eager's Hall by 
Mr. Bernard, Mr. Jones and Mrs. Young 
from the Boston Theatre, under the title 
"Be Merry, Be Wise; or the World as it 
Goes," with songs, dancing, recitations, etc. 
Eager's Hall was in the Brick Hotel at the 
corner of Main and Mechanic streets, where 
the Walker building now stands. Most of 
the hotels or taverns in those days had halls 
for dancing, lectures and such entertainments 
and exhibitions as came along. Mr. Blan- 
chard's "Olympic Theatre" was advertised at 
Howe & White's (successors of Eager) Hotel 
in September, 1821. Mrs. Blanchard and her 
three children took part in this exhibition. 

It appears that there was a strong sentiment 
in the town between 1830 and 1850 against 
all entertainments of the lighter nature, and 
this was evicfently inculcated and emphasized 
by John Milton Earle, the editor of the Spy, 
who was not sparing in his denunciation of 
such "fooleries" which encouraged "idleness, 
cruelty and vice." For quite a number of 
years no circuses or theatricals were allowed 
in the town. About the time Worcester be- 
came a city, the gates were occasionally 
opened, but it was some time after this before 
dramatic performances were allowed to be 
given without protest. Brinley Hall was used 
fifty years ago for most of the entertainments 
of this character, until in 1850 the new 
Flagg's Hall, in the block which was burned 
in January, 1854, took a large share of them. 
This hall was provided with scenery and other 
stage appurtenances. Among the celebrities 
who appeared here were Geo. L. Fox, Mrs. 
Barrett, Denman Thompson and Yankee 
Locke. There was no "theatre" in Worces- 
ter until the completion of the one erected by 
William Piper, in 1856-7, which is now known 
as the "P>ont Street Opera House." This was 
first opened on the 9th of February, 1857, the 
play "Ingomar" being given by a select com- 
pany under the management of Wyzeman 
Marshall. This theatre was closed Nov. 27, 
1867, remodelled for business uses, and was 
known for the next twenty years as the "Front 
Street Exchange." Again altered and re- 
stored, it was re-openeti as a theatre in the fall 


of 1888, Many actors of merit, and some 
eminent ones appeared in this building during 
its first years, among whom were Edwin 
Forrest, John E. Owens, Mrs. Barrow, John 
<iilbert, Charlotte Thompson, Rose Eytinge, 
Wm. E. Burton, J. W. Wallack, Charlotte 
Cushman, McKean Buchanan, Wm. Warren, 
Laura Keane and Matilda Heron. John 
Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Lincoln, played 
here in 1863. Charles C. D. Wilkinson 
managed the theatre for one season. 

Music Hall, known after 1873 ^s the 
"Worcester Theatre," was opened March 9, 
1869. A history of this building is given 
under the title Music Hall in the Dictionary. 
Of the celebrities who have appeared here, the 
following are now remembered: Charles R. 
Thorne, John E. Owens, Mr. and Mrs. 
Barney Williams, Mrs. J. B. Booth, Wyzeman 
Marshall, Lester Wallack, Joseph Jefferson, 
Edwin Booth, Barry Sullivan, Anna Dickin- 
son, James E. Murdock (readings), Charles 
Fechter, Henry Irving, E. A. Sothern, Salvini, 
Sarah Bernhardt, Mrs. Larigtry, Lawrence 
Barrett and others. This building was burned 
May 16, 1889. 

The New Worcester Theatre, Exchange 
street, on the site of the one destroyed by fire, 
is one of the most elegant houses of entertain- 
ment in New England. First class plays are 
presented by the best talent. Rock & 

Brooks are the present managers. 

Theatrical performances have also been 
given in Mechanics Hall, in the Rink in 
Bigelow Garden, and in various other places. 
Bristol's Dime Museum, located in Washburn 
Hall for several winters, combined Sramatic 
exhibitions with other attractions. Private 
theatricals have been rendered by amateur 
talent on several occasions; the efforts of the 
Quinsigamond Boat Club in producing such 
travesties as "Romeo and Juliet," "Lord Bate- 
man," and the "Talisman" are deserving of 

Edmund Kean, one of the greatest lights 
of the English stage, passed through Worces- 
ter on the 2&th of December, 1825, to Boston, 
where he attempted to play on the evening of 
the 2 1 St, but was prevented by riotous demon- 
strations. He returned to this town well 
armed on the 22d, remained over night, and 
departed for New< York on the 23d. 

Theological Library. — See Alleti Library. 

Thief Detecting Society. — The Worces- 
ter Association for Mutual Aid in Detecting 

77iz>^',?j' was formed Nov. 16, 1795, and the 
organization is still maintained. 

Times (Worcester Daily). — An evening 
paper established Sept. i, 1879, as a one 
cent issue. The price was advanced to two 
cents. It was Democratic in politics, and 
claimed to be the organ of the workingmen. 
After more than ten years' publication the 
paper was purchased by the Prohibitionists, 
who failed to make a success, and suspended 
its issue. 

Toboggan Club.— The Worcester To- 
boggan Club was organized in 1886. The 
slide is at the Eyrie, Lake Quinsigamond. 

Tower Hill. — The elevation on the Shrews- 
bury side of Lake Quinsigamond, north of the 
causeway, offered to the Natural History 
Society in 1890 by Thomas H. Dodge, Esq., 
for a girls' camp. 

Town Clerks of Worcester. — Following 
is a list of town clerks from 1722 to 1848: 

1722. Jonas Rice. 

1723. Benjamin Flagg. 

1724. Jonas Rice. 

1729. Zephaniah Rice. 

1730. Benjamin Flagg. 

1 73 1. Jonas Rice. 

1753. Daniel Heywood. 

1754. Timothy Paine. 
1764. John Chandler. 
1768. Clark Chandler. 
1775. Nathan Baldwin. 
1778. William Stearns. 
1780. Nathaniel Heywood. 

1780. Joseph Allen. 

1 78 1 . Daniel Goulding. 
1783. William G. Maccarty. 
1783. Daniel Goulding. 
1787. Theophilus Wheeler. 
1792. Daniel Goulding. 

1796. Leonard Worcester, pro tern. 

1797. Daniel Goulding. 
1800. Oliver Fiske. 
1803. Daniel Goulding. 
1808. Enoch Flagg. 
1816. Levi Heywood. 
1818. Benjamin Chapin. 
1833. Samuel Jennison. 

1836. Charles A. Hamilton, who was the 
last town clerk to 1848, and also the first 
city elerk. 

Previous to 1787 the town clerk was also 
clerk of the First Parish — in fact the distinction 
between the Town and Parish was not made 


until after the incorporation of the Second 
Parish. See under Old South Church for a 
list of clerks of the First Parish from 1787 to 
the present time. See also the title City Clerk. 

Traders' Protective League. — Was 
formed in 1892. 

Tramps. — The number of tramps or lodgers 
accommodated at the police station in 1891 
was 5,146. 

Trinity Methodist-Episcopal Church. — 

The first incorporated body of Methodists in 
Worcester was organized February 8, 1834, 
under the name of The Methodist- Episcopal 
Society in the Toiun of Worcester. Previous 
to the above date there had been class meet- 
ings and preaching to some extent for several 
years. Joseph A. Merrill was the first minis- 
ter of the new society, and he was, within a 
short time, succeeded by George Pickering. 
The Town Hall was the first place of worship. 
A lot at the corner of Front and Spring streets 
was offered for $600 as a site for a building, 
but funds were lacking and the purchase was 
not made. In 1836 Samuel R. Jackson gave 
a piece of land on Exchange street (the east 
end of which was then called Columbian 
avenue, and the west end at Main street, 
Market street ;, the central portion not being 
open for travel) at the southeast corner of 
Union street, and a meeting house was built at 
a cost of $4, 1 50. It was dedicated and opened 
for service March 8, 1837. The situation was 
unfavorable, and the approaches, especially in 
winter and wet weather, not pleasant or con- 
venient, causing Father Taylor on one occa- 
sion to inquire, "Why didn't you build your 
meeting house in a cow-yard and done with 
it ? " February 19, 1844, this structure was 
burned, and in 1845 a new church was erected 
on Park street, south of the Common. This 
was of brick, 72 feet long and 50 feet wide, 
and cost rather more than $10,000. After 
twenty-five years' occupation this property was 
sold to the French Catholics for $32,700. 
(See Catholic Churches.) In 1 870, the 
Methodists purchased for $25,000 the estate 
of Thomas H. Dodge, at the corner of Main 
and Chandler streets, and erected the edifice 
known as Trinity Church. The corner stone 
was laid July 12, 1870, and the church dedi- 
cated April 25, 1871. It cost about $75,000 
in addition to the land. The clock and bell 
in the tower were given by citizens of Worces- 

ter of various religious denominations. The 
early history of this church is given by Alfred 
S. Roe in his paper on "The Beginnings of 
Methodism in Worcester," printed in the 
Proceedings of The Worcester Society of 
Antiquity for 1888. 

Trowbridgeville. — A village on Webster 
street, near the Auburn line. 

Truant School. — A school for truants was 
established at the City Farm in 1863, and the 
whole number sentenced previous to December 
I, 1888, was 416 ; 43 were sentenced in 1891. 
" The aim of this school is not to reform 
criminals, but to repress the tendency to crime 
to which truancy leads. Hence commitments 
are made for no cause but truancy." 

Trumbull Square. — Where Trumbull, 
Franklin, Green and Park streets meet. On 
the north side of the square is the Trumbull 
mansion, which was formerly the County 
Court House, erected in 175 1. It was moved 
to its present location from Court Hill in 1801, 
and the present brick court house was built in 
its place in 1802. 

Trust Funds. — The total amount of trust 
funds held by the city for specific purposes 
November 10, 1891, was $302,136.72. A 
list of these funds is here given, with the date 
of foundation and the amount of each : 

Name. Date. Amount. 

Bullock High School Fund, 1860$ 1,534-45 
Hope Cemetery, 1863 22,838.67 

Green Library, 1868 47,516.77 

Lake Park, 1884 

Dewey Charity, 1889 2,000.00 

Bancroft Endowment, 1885 10,278.54 


Jaques, 1874 194,558.48 

Curtis, 1876 1,051.86 

Shaw, 1877 2,000.00 

Tenny, 1881 5,000.00 

Salisbury, 1884 3'896.25 

Sargent, 1886 513-94 

Knowles, 1887 8,121.11 

Typewriting in Worcester. — Mrs. Edna 
I. Tyler established the first public type- 
writing office in Worcester on March 4th, 
1885, in Clark's Main street block. After re- 
maining there nearly six months, she removed 
to the Walker building, where her head- 
quarters now are, with a branch office in the 
new Five Cents Savings Bank building. Mrs. 



Tyler was the first teacher of stenography in 
this city, and has been president of the Wor- 
cester County Stenographers' Association. 
She is at present, by special appointment, 
assistant to the stenographer of the Superior 

Typewriter (The First). — The first 
typewriter was invented by Charles Thurber 
of Worcester in 1843, and the identical 
machine made under his direction is now in 
the possession of The Worcester Society of 
Antiquity, presented by Herbert R. Cum- 
mings. A writer in the Charleston News and 
Courier says: "I saw a few days ago a 
model of the first writing machine made in 
this country. It is a really amusing affair in 
its very clumsiness. It consists of a wheel 
about a foot in diameter, which turns hori- 
zontally upon a central pivot; the rim of the 
wheel is bored with twenty-five holes, in each 
of which is a rod bearing at the top a glass 
letter and at the bottom a similar letter of 
steel. The paper sheet is so arranged that the 
line to be printed is under the rim of this 
wheel, and the letter wanted is swung into 
place by turning the wheel; when in place a 
rod bearing it is depressed until the steel type 
or letter touches the paper. I should say that 
even the fastest operator could not write more 
than half as fa^t as a man with a pen. Yet it 
was a writing machine, and Thurber succeeded 
in getting people to invest $15,000 in this 
curious device." There are no less than fifty 
different kinds of typewriters at the present 
time. The above facts are from the Phono- 
graphic Magazine. 

Typographical Union. — Worcester Typo- 
graphical Union, No. 165, was instituted in 

Typothetae (Worcester). — An organiza- 
tion of master printers, organized May 30, 
1890, and which embraces in its membership 
all the principal job printing offices in the city. 
The local society holds membership in the 
United Typothetae of America, which has 
branches in all cities of importance in the 
United States and Canada, its object being 
" to cultivate a just and friendly spirit among 
the craft, for exchanging information and for 
protecting and assisting each other when 
necessary." Monthly meetings are held at 
the offices of members. 

Underwriters (Board of J. —The Wor- 
cester Board of Underwriters was organized 
in 1883. 

Union Church. — The Third Congregational 
Trinitarian Church in Worcester, formed in 
1836. The first edifice, at the present loca- 
tion on Front street, was dedicated July 6, 
1836. It was of brick, 90 feet in length and 
54 in width. Granite steps extended nearly 
across the front. The house was twice re- 
modeled inside, and was entirely rebuilt in 
1880. The names of the pastors of this church 
appear under the title Ministers in the 

Union for Concerted Moral Effort, or 

the U. C. ME Club.^ — An organization of 
similar character as the Tee-To-Tum clubs of 
London and New York. The history of these 
clubs has been marked by phenomenal growth 
and success. The name originated in London. 
It has no philological significance, being simply 
a "name to conjure with," the happy and 
haphazard invention of a Mr. Buchanan of 
London, who had in mind the name of a cer- 
tain kind of tea he was then laboring to put 
upon the market. He conceived the idea of 
organizing clubs of workingmen who should 
be privileged to buy their tea at prices surpris- 
ingly cheap. Soon tea was sold to non-mem- 
bers of the clubs at prices but slightly in ad- 
vance of those at which club men got it. To- 
day there are nearly a dozen such clubs in 
London with memberships varying from 500 
to 1000. 

The privileges of these clubs are, besides 
the best of food cooked in the best manner, at 
prices for which non-members can hardly get 
the raw materials, billiards and other games, 
concerts and a pavilion for dancing, and all at 
an extremely moderate price. Dancing has 
not been condemned by the religious people 
of Great Britain. The clubs are uncompromis- 
ing on the question of beverages. Nothing 
alcoholic is permitted. It should be stated 
that the clubs have no connection with the 
famous Toynbee Hall. 

Charles James Wills opened a Tee-To-Tum 
in New York lately with the marked success 
which seems to have followed this movement 
everywhere. The supplies of food provided 
gave out soon after the club opened, and the 
popularity of the club, on a scale much larger 
than was anticipated, was assured from the 


start. The New York club does not contem- 
plate concert or dancing halls, but is consider- 
ing billiard tables and a cigar counter. Mr. 
Wills feels reasonably sure the patrons of the 
Tee-To-Tum Club will smoke, and he sees no 
good reason why the club should not sell a 
really good cigar for five cents, instead of 
leaving the members to pay that amount for 
dried cabbage leaf. The New York club pro- 
fesses two objects: To furnish nutritious food 
at a cost for which, ordinarily, one could pur- 
chase only the raw materials, and at the same 
time educate and wean its patrons away from 
unnutritious food. 

Another arrangement which the New York 
club plans is the refunding, at the end of a 
year, of 5 per cent, of the purchases. Each 
family that is a regular customer, makes in the 
shape of a bank account. A coal club is pro- 
posed. Its members will be charged twenty- 
five cents a week, which will entitle them to 
coal enough for a week, with a box to put it 
in. The same 5 per cent, rebate, in the form 
of a bank account at the end of the year, is 

The subject of the formation of a U. C. ME 
Club in Worcester was introduced by Walter 
Vrooman in August, 1892. The purpose was 
approved by the W. C. T. U. and other or- 
ganizations, and Mr. H. H. Bigelow having 
tendered the free use of the Rink, the club 
was established there in September, with a 
great variety of attractions for the class it was 
intended to benefit. The nature of some of 
these attractions was considered too secular 
and worldly by a portion of the religious 
people, and the club did not receive the sup- 
port of the evangelical societies of the city. 
After a trial of two or three months the move- 
ment was admitted to be a failure, and the 
Rink was closed. A financial deficit of some 
magnitude remained, which was the cause of 
annoyance and unpleasant consequences to the 
founder, whose good intentions received little 
praise or reward. Probably the "universal 
brotherhood" idea which was prominent in the 
W^orcester movement, was one of the principal 
causes of the failure, as distinctions and differ- 
ences among mankind and all nature seem to 
be the results of the development from the 
lowest to the higher organizations, and all at- 
tempts to reduce to sameness operate against 
an inevitable law. 

Union Passenger Station. — See Rail- 
road Stations. 

Union Hill. — The elevation nearly south 
of the Union Passenger Station, to the summit 
of which Providence street is the leading 
avenue. At the top of the hill are located the 
grounds and buildings of the Worcester 
Academy. Union Hill is the northern end of 
the high ridge known as Sagatabscot Hill 
(which see). Many years ago real estate 
operations were begun here by David T. 
Brigham, who opened and kept for a time the 
Worcester House on Main street. (See Old 
Hotels.) A few years after Brigham's venture 
John F. Pond came into possession of a large 
tract on Union Hill and laid out many streets 
and made other improvements. 

Unitarian Churches. — The first Unitarian 
or Second Congregational Church in W^orces- 
ter was formed in March, 1785 ; and. the 
parish was incorporated November 13, 1787. 
" After this act of the Legislature, the First 
Parish had a legal existence separate from the 
municipal incorporation, and the support of 
worship was provided for, not by a general 
meeting of the inhabitants, but in parochial 
meetings. The Second Parish was the first 
example of a poll parish in any inland town of 
the Commonwealth, and it was regarded as a 
bold innovation on the usages of the times." 
Aaron Bancroft was the first minister till 1839. 
(See Ministers.) The church worshipped 
seven years in the Court House, and occupied 
its own house on Summer street, January I, 
1792, and continued there till 1829. This 
building was afterwards used for many years 
as a school house, and has within a year or 
two been sold by the city. A new church 
building was erected on Court Hill in 1828-9, 
and was destroyed by fire in 1849. The 
present structure, built on the same site, was 
dedicated March 26, 1851. It cost about 

The Second Unitarian Church, known as 
the Church of the Unity, was organized in 
1845. The name was suggested by J. Henry 
Hill. The house on Elm street was dedicated 
April 28, 1846. This has been altered and 
enlarged. Edward Everett Hale uas the 
first pastor. (See Ministers.) 

The South Unitarian Church, Syj Main 
street, was formed in 1890. 

United Order of Equity. — Brunswick 
Lodge, No. 3, formed in 1889; Worcester 
Lodge is more recent. 



United Friends (Order of). — A mutual 
benefit order for assistance in sickness or mis- 
fortune, and an insurance in case of death. 
Harmony Council, No. 8, was organized in 
Worcester in 1881. 

Universalis! Churches. — There are two 
Universalist churches in Worcester: The 
First, organized in 1 84 1, for many years 
worshipped in the building at the corner of 
Main and Foster streets, which was erected 
for the use of the society in 1843. In 1865 
the society purchased of Healy Baker the lot 
of land on Pleasant street, 10,800 feet, where 
the present church edifice now stands, for the 
sum of $6,250. The building was completed 
in 1871, and dedicated June 28th of that 
year. The cost of the building, including 
organ, furniture, etc., was $63,310. The 
names of the pastors appear in the article on 

All Souls Church, Kilby street, was formed 
in 1884, and Rev. Frederic W. Bailey was 
the first minister. The succeeding pastor. Rev. 
Francis A. Gray, settled in 1889 and resigned 
in 1893. 

The Adams Square Universalist Stmday 
School wsis organized in 1891, and meets Sun- 
day afternoons at 3.30 at 185 Lincoln street. 

Probably the first Universalist meeting in 
Worcester was held in the Town Hall, January 
27, 1834, when Rev. Lucius R. Paige, the 
well-known historian of Cambridge and Hard- 
wick, preached. October 22 of the same year. 
Rev. Thomas Jefferson Greenwood, the 
Universalist minister of Marlborough, held a 
meeting in the Town Hall. 

University. — See Clarh University. 

University Park. — The public ground on 
Main street, opposite Clark University, opened 
in 1887. The first portion purchased cost 
$21,000. In April, 1889, an addition of five 
acres was added at an expense of $40,873.30. 
Of this, 200,377 feet belonged to Alonzo 
Whitcomb, for which he was paid $37,500, 
or about i8| cents per foot. This piece has 
a frontage on Main street of 148 feet and runs 
back along Crystal street. 11,261 feet 
between the Whitcomb lot and Gates street 
(known as the Pickford or Leland lot^ was 
also purchased for $3,378.30. Chairman 
Edward W. Lincoln of the Parks-Commis- 
sioners dissented from a majority of his col- 
leagues in voting to purchase the Whitcomb 

and Pickford or Leland tracts. The original 
part was first called Crystal Park from Crystal 
street, which had its name from Simon S. 
Gates, who formerly owned the large farm 
through which the street was laid out, and 
who removed to Crystal Lake in the state of 
Illinois. He also named Illinois street. 

Valley Falls. — A village on Leicester 
street, near the Leicester line. 

Valuation. — The assessed valuation of Wor- 
cester, May I, 1892, was $81,213,482. The 
valuation and rate of taxation from 1884 to 
to 1891 are given below: 


1884 $50,773,475 $16.60 

1885 52,714,391 18.00 

1886 54,566,389 18.00 

1887 59,465,575 17-00 

1888 64,551,736 16.00 

1889 69,429,871 16.00 

1890 73,531,060 15-60 

1891 77,635,908 14.60 
The property exempt from taxation in 189 1 

amounted to $3,568,900. The wealth of 
Worcester can be estimated at $125,000,000. 

Vermont (Sons and Daughters of). — 
An association of natives of the Green Moun- 
tain State and their families, formed in 1873. 
Hon. Clark Jillson was the first president. 

Viaduct (The). — The elevated railway 
crossing Front and Mechanic streets, near the 
Union Station, which connects the Boston & 
Albany Railroad with the tracks of the northern 
roads. It was completed in 1876. 

Victoria Associates. — This association 
was formed in 1888. 

Wachusett Club.— See Boat Clubs. 

Wachusett Mountain. -The highest eleva- 
tion of land in Worcester county, situated in 
the town of Princeton, near the Westminster 
line. " This isolated eminence lifts itself 
grandly in the northerly part of the town to 
the commanding height of 2,480 feet above 
sea level. The ascent to the summit is gradual, 
through a growth of timber, diminishing in 
size. On the top of the mountain there is a 
good hotel, the Stimmit House ; and an ob- 
servatory which commands on every side a 
most magnificent prospect. Almost the whole 
of Massachusetts, with its varied scenery of 



mountain, woodland, town and village, lake 
and river, seems to spread itself as on a map 
beneath the observer's eye." 

On the evening of the 4th of March, 1825, 
an immense bonfire was built on the summit, 
and the mountain re-christened Mount Adams, 
in honor of John Quincy Adams, who was 
that day inaugurated president of the United 
States. A hotel called the Adams House was 
opened soon after. But the name was never 
popular, soon fell into disuse, and is now for- 
gotten, while the Indian name, which signifies 
" Mountain Place," remains. 

The story of Lucy Keyes, the lost child of 
"Wachusett Mountain, has several times been 
written. This little girl, five years of age, 
strayed from her home in the year 1755, and 
although diligent search was made, was never 
found. It came to be believed, many years 
afterwards, that the child was murdered by a 
neighbor, who had had some differences with 
her father, and that on his death bed he con- 
fessed the deed. Mr. Francis E. Blake of 
Boston has taken pains to investigate the 
matter and finds little foundation for the idea 
of murder. He has given the result of his re- 
search in a recently printed pamphlet. 

The mountain is easy of access from Wor- 
cester by the Fitchburg Railroad. 

Wards. — The city is divided into eight 
wards, the boundary lines of which radiate 
from the center like the spokes of a wheel. 
The City Hall is assumed as the central point 
and the wards are situated as follows : Ward 
I, north; Ward 2, northeast; Ward 3, east; 
Ward 4, southeast; Ward 5, south; Ward 
6, southwest; Ward 7, west; Ward 8, north- 

For convenience in voting the wards are 
divided into precincts or polling places, and 
the number in each ward is here given : Ward 
I, two precincts; Ward 2, three; Ward 3, 
two; Ward 4, two; Ward 5, three; Ward 6, 
two; Ward 7, three; Ward 8, three. 

Washburn Hall. — The lower audience 
room in Mechanics Hall building, named in 
honor of Ichabod Washburn. Its seating 
capacity is 552. 

Washington Club.— The oldest social 
club in existence in Worcester at the present 
time. It was formed at the Waldo House, 
December 19, 1865, and for about twenty 
years occupied rooms in Clark's block, now 

known as the Walker building. Its present 
quarters are at 38 Front street. The member- 
ship numbers less than one hundred. It has 
never been incorporated. 

Washington Social Club.— See Irish 

Washington Square. — At the east end 
of Front street, where Summer, Mechanic, 
Grafton and Shrewsbury streets center. The 
Union Passenger Station is located on the east 
side, between Grafton and Shrewsbury streets, 
and at a short distance, on Shrewsbury street, 
is the station of the Shrewsbury Railroad. 
Street cars go from the square to points north 
and south on Main street, to the west side 
through Pleasant street, and to Lake Quinsiga- 
mond. The square received its name about 
1828, the time the Blackstone Canal was 

Waterworks. — The cost of Worcester's 
water system has been to Februarj^, 1893, 
$2,486,061.63. There are three sources of 
supply, Lynde Brook reservoir, high and low 
service, and Holden reservoir (Tatnuck 
Brook), low service. From the first there is 
a 16-inch main with a pressure of 160 pounds 
at the City Hall. Low pressure comes from 
Hunt's reservoir, which is supplied by Lynde 
Brook reservoir by a 16-inch main. Low pres- 
sure from Holden reservoir is conveyed by a 
24-inch main. The storage capacity is as fol- 
lows: Bell Pond, 30,000,000 gallons; Lynde 
Brook reservoir, 680,000,^000 gallons; Hol- 
den reservoir, 900,000,000 gallons, and Hunt's 
on Leicester street, 3,000,000. The number 
of miles of street mains is 127 3-4. The daily 
consumption of water is estimated at 5,634,- 
365 gallons, or 65 gallons for each consumer 

Wealth. — See Valuation, 

Weasle Brook. — A tributary of Mill Brook 
in the north part of the city. 

Webster Square. — At New Worcester- 
From this point Main, Leicester, Webster and 
Cambridge streets diverge. The square was 
named about the time the horse railroad was 
started in 1863. A m.arble fountain has been 
erected and other improvements made within 
the past two or three years. 

Whipping Post. — The stocks, pillory and 
whipping post were familiar objects on Court 
Hill a hundred years ago. The stocks were at 



one time in the meeting-house "under the 
stairs." Whipping for minor ofifenses was 
common. The notorious Stephen Burroughs, 
tried in Worcester in 1791, was sentenced to 
receive 117 stripes on the naked back, to 
stand two hours in the pillory and to sit one 
hour on the gallows with a rope around his 
neck. He escaped before all the punishment 
had been inflicted. Oftenders were sometimes 
whipped in'court in the presence of the judges, 
as the records testify. A woman was sen- 
tenced to receive a public whipping in Wor- 
cester about the beginning of this century. 
Sheriff Caldwell, a humane man, disappointed 
the crowd that had assembled in expectation 
of witnessing the spectacle, by saying that the 
sentence did not specify when the whipping 
should be administered. After the gathering 
had dispersed he carried out the order of the 
court by laying the lash lightly the specified 
number of times over the shoulders of the cul- 
prit, and dismissed her with the injunction to 
sin no more. This was the last case of the 
kind. Criminals frequently had their ears 
cropped foroff'enses, as late as 1790. In 181 1 
a man was exposed in the pillory on Court 
Hill for blasphemy. Whipping appears to be 
a very efficient method of reducing crime, yet 
it is spoken of by a certain class of sentiment- 
alists as "brutalizing." The governor of 
Delaware, where whipping is common, re- 
cently stated that criminals rarely appear there 
for punishment a second time — they either be- 
have after the infliction, or leave the state. 

Wigwam Hill. — The high elevation near 
the head of Lake Quinsigamond and on its 
western shore. The summit and eastern slope 
of this hill are owned by the Natural History 
Society, and come within the bounds of Nat- 
ural History Park. A fine view of the whole 
length of the lake may be had from the top, 
and this view S. P. R. Triscott has preserved 
in an oil painting owned by The Worcester So- 
ciety of Antiquity. 

Winsor Club. — A social club of young 
men formed in 1889. 

^A^inte^ Hill. — A high elevation in the 
north part of the city. 

Woman's Club (Worcester). — Organ- 
ized in 1880. The constitution has the fol- 
lowing preamble: "We, women of Worces- 
ter and vicinity, feeling the necessity which 

the present and prospective status of women 
imposes upon us, of informing ourselves more 
fully, not only upon subjects of general inter- 
est, but also upon the more important special 
questions which are now pressing upon all 
people everywhere for a just solution, be- 
cause involving the welfare of humanity, do 
agree to form ourselves into an association for 
the prosecution and accomplishment of the 
above-named purpose." The club meets 
twice each month for discussion, or to listen 
to lectures upon subjects of interest to the 

Woman's Suffrage. — The Worcester 
Suffrage League was organized in 1886. 

Worcester. — "The name Worcester is said 
to have been derived from the Saxon Wegera- 
ceaster, meaning zoar castle, and descriptive 
of the military character of the place (in Eng- 
land) to which it was originally applied by the 
martial clans of remote antiquity." — Lincoln's 

Worcester History. — See Early History, 
and Military History. A large portion of the 
Dictionary is devoted to matters of Worcester 
history in detail. 

Worcester Indexed Information. — The 
compiler of this Dictionary has given much ef- 
fort during the past fifteen years to perfecting 
a plan for rendering the original and particu- 
lar sources of Worcester history, and all mat- 
ters of fact relating to the place, accessible and 
available for quick reference, by a system of 
minute indexes in connection with the compila- 
tion and arrangement of a large mass of in- 
formation and data in convenient printed form 
comprised in the following publications : 

The Worcester Book, a Diary of Noteworthy 
Events from 1667 to 1883. 

Proprietary Records of Worcester, 1 667-1 788. 

Worcester Town Records, 1 722-1848, in six 
volumes. (The fifth now in press.) 

Worcester Births, Marriages and Deaths to 
January I, 1849. (Now printing.) 

Dictionary of Worcester and its 

Worcester Annals. (In preparation.) 

Worcester Academy. — In 1832 "a few 

individuals desirous of founding an institution 
for education, under the patronage of the Bap- 
tist denomination," raised a fund of $5,000, 
and in November of that year "a tract of 



twenty-nine acres of land was purchased at 
the price of $75 the acre, and another lot of 
thirty-one acres at $65 the acre — $4,200 in 
all — about half a mile south of the village. 
Buildings were erected in 1833, and on the 
28th of February, 1834, the institution was in- 
corporated under the name of the Wor- 
cester Manual Labor High School." The 
buildings were located on Main street, nearly 
opposite the Piedmont Church. The original 
design was to furnish, in connection with a 
course of study, such employment as would 
enable the students to defray some part of 
their expenses, but this was never successfully 
demonstrated. The first principal of the 
school was Silas Bailey; and Isaac Davis was 
the first president of the board of trustees, and 
served in that capacity for nearly fifty years. 
The first board of trustees was composed of 
the following gentlemen: Otis Corbett, 
secretary; Ichabod Washburn, treasurer; Isaac 
Davis, Rev. Abiel Fisher, Joseph White, Rev. 
Otis Converse, Rev. Frederick A. Willard, 
Stephen Salisbury, Edward Phillips, Samuel 
D. Spurr, Perley Goddard, Daniel Goddard, 
Joseph Converse and Joshua T. Everett. 
Joel Marble was the first steward, and his son, 
Manton Marble, the well known New York 
editor and politician, was born at the school. 

Hard pressed for funds the trustees in Janu- 
ary, 1837, petitioned the Legislature for pecun- 
iary aid, and in response an elaborate report 
was made by Hon. Myron Lawrence, com- 
mending the plan and purposes of the school, 
but not recommending an appropriation. For 
the next fifteen years the school was main- 
tained under great pecuniary difficulties. The 
manual labor feature was gradually aban- 
doned, and in 1846 the name was changed to 
Worcester Academy. The sale of a portion of the 
land afforded such relief that a new street laid 
through the tract disposed of was called Benefit 
street. Succeeding principals to 1870 were 
Nelson Wheeler, Eli Thayer, Charles C. Bur- 
nett, Rev. E. J. Avery, William S. Greene, 
Harrah J. Reynolds, James R. Stone, A. P. 
S. Stuart, Albert P. Marble and William C. 

About the year 1850 the trustees disposed 
of the buildings and land on Main street, and 
in 1854 the institution was removed to the old 
Antiquarian Hall building, at the corner of 
Summer and Belmont streets. The sale of 
the south end property paid for this building 
and gave . a fund of $25,000, the in- 

come of which, and the use of the building, 
was given the principal in lieu of a salary. It 
was while Mr. Marble was in charge that an 
effort was made, influenced by Rev. David 
Weston, pastor of the Second Baptist Church 
in Worcester, to abolish the Academy and 
give the entire fund and proceeds to the New- 
ton Theological Institution to found a profes- 
sorship there. The project was favored by 
the president and others, but was effectively 
resisted before the Legislature. In 1869 the 
old medical college building and grounds on 
Providence street were purchased for $40,000, 
and since that time the Academy has been lo- 
cated at that place. 

The institution is now on a good financial 
basis, and possesses in real estate and invested 
funds a property valued at $450,000. Hon. 
Isaac Davis was a large benefactor, and Hon. 
Joseph H. Walker, who succeeded as presi- 
dent, has been a generous friend, while many 
others have aided to bring the school to its 
present condition. The Academy is under 
the control of a board of nineteen trustees, 
and the faculty numbers eleven. Daniel W. 
Abercrombie is the principal. Formerly both 
sexes were instructed, but it is now a school 
for boys. There are three courses of instruc- 
tion — a college preparatory, a scientific, and a 
special scientific in preparation for the Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Institute. On one of the 
highest eminences in this city its group of 
buildings of fine architectural proportions has 
a commanding view of the surrounding 
country. The old college building has re- 
ceived the name of Davis Hall, and the new 
school building, which cost over $70,000, and 
was dedicated Feb. 17, 1890, is known as 
Walker Hall. Dexter Hall, the new dormi- 
tory, was opened in September, 1892, and 
Adams Hall, used as a dining hall, was com- 
pleted at the same time. 

Worcester Boat Club. — See Boat Clubs. 

Worcester Agricultural Society (The). 
This society was organized in 181 7 and incor- 
porated in 1818. For many years the annual 
exhibitions or cattle shows were held on the 
Common, with the plowing matches in Salem 
square. These were great occasions fifty or sixty 
years ago, and brought together a large assem- 
blage of the inhabitants of the surrounding 
country. Generally some distinguished states- 
man or orator attended and favored the gather- 



ing with an address. In 1826 President John 
Quincy Adams attended the cattle show, and 
remained three days the guest of Gov. Lin- 
coln. In 1829 150 yoke of cattle were driven 
through Main street, and Harrison, Gray, 
Otis and Edward Everett made speeches at 
the dinner. Sometimes, as in late years, 
other attractions were secured which made the 
show the event of the year. 

In 1853 the society purchased seven acres 
of land on Highland street, and the next year 
erected a spacious hall. Later the tract was 
increased to about twenty-five acres, now 
bounded by Sever, Highland, Agricultural and 
Cedar streets. These grounds are still used 
for the purposes of the society, though the 
value of the land is many times the price 
given. Probably the society will in the near 
future dispose of this tract and remove to 
some other locality. A half mile track affords 
good accommodations for trotting. Base ball 
and other games and exhibitions are often 
held here. The managers of the New Eng- 
land Fair have generally, during the last fifteen 
years, selected Worcester as their place of ex- 
hibition on account of the facilities offered 
here. Street cars go to the fair grounds from 
Main street or the Union Station via Pleasant, 
West and Cedar streets; also from Lincoln 
square through Salisbury, Boynton and High- 
Ian^ streets. 

The American "Cattle Show," or Agricul- 
tural Fair, originated with Elkanah Watson, 
and the first one held was in Pittsfield, Mass., 
in 18 10. Mr. Watson was the owner of the 
first pair of Merino sheep introduced into Mas- 
sachusetts, of which he announced a public 
exhibition. He says that "many farmers and 
even females" were attracted by the novelty, 
and "from this lucky incident I reasoned thus: 
If two animals are capable of exciting so much 
attention, what would be the effect of a dis- 
play, on a larger scale, of different animals?" 
The result was the Berkshire Agricultural So- 
ciety, and the first cattle show in New Eng- 
land. Afterward he removed to New York, 
and organized the first agricultural society in 
that state. 

Worcester Board of Trade. — The orig- 
inal movement to form the present Board of 
Trade began with the issuing of a circular call- 
ing a meeting of business men at the Bay 
State House on Dec. 15, 1873, and in response 
a large number gathered at that time. Among 

those present and participating were : Hon, 
Edward L. Davis, then mayor-elect; Lewis 
Barnard, George T. Rice, A. D. Warner, O. 
L. Hatch, Sumner Pratt, L. H. Wells, J. A. 
Knowlton, E. H. Knowlton, T. W. Welling- 
ton, C. B. Pratt, G. Henry Whitcomb, Jerome 
Marble and Jerome Wheelock. A. D. War- 
ren called to order; Hon. Edward L. Davis 
was elected chairman and E. H. Knowlton 

In the discussion the failure of a similar ef- 
fort made a few years before was mentioned, 
and it was hoped that this effort would suc- 
ceed. The meeting finally referred the whole 
subject to a committee to report at a future 
meeting, which was held in Washburn Hall, 
Jan. 2, 1874. Hon. George M. Rice was chair- 
man of this meeting, and a constitution was 
adopted with a preamble as follows, giving the 
purpose of the organization: "To promote 
the business interests of the city of Worcester 
and vicinity, and to secure the advantages 
which the city offers.'to trade and manufactures, 
as well as to cultivate a more intimate and 
friendly acquaintance among the business 
men of the city." 

The name adopted was The Worcester Busi- 
ness ExcJiange, and oflicers were elected as 
follows: President, Philip L. Moen; vice- 
presidents, L. J. Knowles, Lewis Barnard and 
George T. Rice; treasurer, Charles B. Whit- 
ing; directors, Sumner Pratt, T. W. Welling- 
ton, E. L. Davis, George M. Rice, Jerome 
Wheelock, A. D. Warren, L. W. Pond, E. 
T. Marble, Edward Sargent, Edward R. 
Fiske, Charles H. Fitch, J. H. Walker, John 
D. Chollar, George L. Newton, John D. 
Washburn, L. M. Richardson, Mowry Lap- 
ham, Addison Palmer, C. M. Smith and Sam- 
uel Woodward. Rooms on Pearl street were 
formally opened March 3, 1874. The occa- 
sion was celebrated by a dinner at the Bay 
State House, at which President Moen pre- 
sided, and speeches were made by Mayor 
Davis, Dr. George B. Loring, Hon. George 
F. Verry, Secretary Little of the Providence 
Board of Trade, President Stevens of the 
Concord (N. H.) Board of Trade, Hon, John 
D. Washburn, Hon. W. W. Rice and Hon. 
Henry Chapin. 

The admission fee was fixed at $5 and the 
annual dues $3, soon raised to $10. In No- 
vember, 1874, the name was changed to the 
Worcester Board of Trade. The Board was 
incorporated May 14, 1875. In February, 



1877, new rooms in Taylor's building were ded- 
icated. Succeeding presidents were: Sum- 
ner Pratt, 1875; L. J. Knowles, 1876-77; 
Joseph H. Walker, 1878. Meetings were 
held in 1878, but no quorum could be ob- 
tained in 1879 and 1880. The secretary's 
records for the first period of the Board's ex- 
istence closed March 19, 1880. 

In the summer of 1891 a number of gentlemen 
interested themselves in a project for the form- 
ation of a board of trade, but on investigat- 
ing the matter, found that the old charter is- 
sued in 1875 was still in force. It was de- 
cided that the best method would be to revive 
the old Board and unite the new movement 
with it. A paper to support the new enter- 
prise was signed by 327 names. 

Accordingly a meeting of the old Board was 
held in the Common Council chamber October 
15, 1891, at which the amalgamation was ex- 
plained, and on October 22, the 327 who had 
signed the agreement to form a new organi- 
zation were elected members of the old body. 
November 5 at Washburn Hall a new board of 
•directors was elected. November 9, the new 
Board organized with C. Henry Hutchins as 
president and A. M. Stone and P. W. Moen 
as vice-presidents. 

The upper story of Bank block on Foster 
street, formerly occupied by the Natural His- 
tory vSociety, was secured as quarters, and 
fitted up to meet the requirements of the Board 
of Trade, as "a place for friendly and -social 
meetings- of the business men of Worcester." 

The entrance fee is $10, the annual dues 
35- The Board has now a membership of 362. 

Worcester Club (The.) — Organized in 
March, 1888, for social purposes distinctively, 
with a membership of 118, comprising some of 
the most prominent and highly respected citi- 
zens of Worcester. The elegant dwelling of 
the late Hon. Isaac Davis, at 59 Elm street, 
was purchased and refitted, making one of the 
best club houses in the country, perfect in its 
appointments. The following board of officers 
•was elected: President, Hon. George F. 
Hoar; vice-presidents, Hon. John D. Wash- 
burn, Col. W. S. B. Hopkins, Col. A. George 
Bullock, Waldo Lincoln; secretary, Charles 
F. Aldrich; treasurer, James P. Hamilton; 
■directors, L. N. Kinnicutt, J. E. Davis, Leon- 
ard Wheeler, Chas. A. Chase, Joseph Sar- 
gent, F. H. Dewey, W^ E. Cutter, R. W. 
Greene. The membership is now limited to 
150. Col. A. G. Bullock is president. 

"Worcester Society of Antiquity (The). 
This society was formed Jan. 23, 1875, four 
persons being present at the first meeting. 
Samuel E. Staples was the prime mover. The 
purpose as stated in the constitution is "to 
foster in its members a love and admiration 
for antiquarian research and archaeological sci- 
ence, and to rescue from oblivion such his- 
torical matter as would otherwise be lost." 
The career of this society has been a phe- 
nomenal one, and it has established a posi- 
tion as one of the most enterprising institutions 
in the country. The secret of its success is 
that there existed in the minds of its founders 
and active workers a definite purpose, which 
has been closely adhered to in the past, 
and its practical and often original methods 
in attaining results attracted and retained a 
strong corps of members, who were actuated 
by real interest and love of the work under- 
taken. To render accessible the original 
sources of history has been the main object 
of the society's efforts, and it entered upon 
and pursued its work with great vigor and 
success. Enterprises that municipalities have 
hesitated to undertake have been instituted 
and carried on, notwithstanding slender 
financial means and other discourage- 
ments. The thirteenth volume of the so- 
ciety's Collections is now in press, the volumes 
averaging 450 pages each, and containing, 
besides the Proceedings of the Meetings, the 
Worcester Proprietary and Town- Records, 
Inscriptions from the Old Burial Grounds, 
Records of the Court of Sessions, Births, 
Deaths and Marriages, etc. The printing 
of the later Worcester Town Records is con- 
tinued under an arrangement by which the 
city pays half the expense. A judicious 
and liberal distribution of the publications 
has been made, and they are to be found in 
the principal libraries in the country. The 
society has carried on and supported its work 
almost entirely by the contributions of its mem- 
bers, and previous to 1890 had received only 
a few hundred dollars in the way of pecuniary 
gifts. It now has a library of some 15,000 
volumes, and a large and valuable museum. 
The Allen library (see title') acquired in 1884 
and the Downes Collection of rare books 
and almanacs, are worthy of special men- 
tion. A large proportion of the general 
collection of books relates to local his- 
tory and genealogy. Over 250 meetings 
have been held, and many interest- 



ing and valuable papers have been read, 
which have, with few exceptions, been printed, 
for it has been the policy of the society from 
its early years to give almost complete reports 
of the proceedings in the printed volumes. 
Most of the papers are the fruit of original 
research, and furnish information invaluable 
to the student or writer of history. One im- 
portant contribution to general history has 
elicited the commendation of eftiinent men 
throughout the country. 

The society occupied rooms in Bank block 
on Foster street from October, 1877, to Novem- 
ber, 1891, when it removed to its new and ele- 
gant building on Salisbury street. October i, 
1889, Stephen Salisbury, who had been a 
good friend to the society from the beginning, 
presented the lot of land on which the build- 
ing stands, with $5,000 as a nucleus of a 
building fund. Other subscriptions enabled 
the society to begin the erection of an edifice 
in the spring of 1891. The building cost $25,- 
000. Besides the library and museum it con- 
tains a fine auditorium, appropriately desig- 
nated Salisbury Hall, one of the most attractive 
lecture rooms in the city. The society has no 
permanent fund, and relies upon assessments 
of its members for support. 

The library and museum are open to the 
public every week day afternoon from i to 5 
o'clock. Street cars to Lincoln square take 
the visitor within a few steps of the building. 

Year (The Municipal). — Under the 
charter of the city in 1848, the municipal year 
began the first Monday in April. In 1850 an 
act of the Legislature provided that from the 
year 1851 it should begin the first Monday in 

Young Men's Christian Association. — 

A Young Men's Christian Association was or- 
ganized in Worcester in 1852, of which Thom- 
as Tucker, proprietor of the American House, 
was president. A reading room was opened 
in Bank Block on Foster street, and main- 
tained for a few months, but the formation 
of the Young Men's Library Association prob- 
ably influenced the withdrawal from the field 
of the first-named society, for it soon ceased 
to exist. The present Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was formed June 14, 1864, 
incorporated June 4, 1868. Frederick A. 
Clapp was the first president. Rooms were 
opened in Mechanics Hall Building, where 
the association remained till 1869, when it re- 

moved to 279 Main street, and again in 1870 
to Chapin Block, Pearl street. In 1878 an- 
other removal to 411 Main street was effect- 
ed. In 1879 the first general secretary was 
employed, and the work and membership in- 
creased until the need of larger quarters com- 
pelled the managers to make efforts toward the 
erection of a building adequate to the require- 
ments of the association. In 1884 Albert 
Curtis had offered $25,000 as a building fund, 
and $4,125 had accumulated from several 
small legacies and interest. A thorough can- 
vass was made, with the grand result of $92,- 
138.88 from more than 3,100 contributors. 
The adjoining estates on Pearl and Elm streets 
were purchased for $40,000, with a small ad- 
ditional strip to ensure light for $3,300, and 
the present Y, M. C. A. Building erected. 
The corner-stone was laid August 27, 1886, 
and the building was occupied in 1887. It 
extends from Elm to Pearl street, with en- 
trances on both, and contains besides the suites 
of rooms in general use by the association, two 
halls — Curtis diV\d Association — which are used 
for religious and other meetings, public lec- 
tures, etc. A well-supplied reading room and 
a gymnasium are maintained. Cost of build- 
ing and lot complete $155,000, on which 
there is a mortgage of $55,000. The object 
of the association is the spiritual, mental and 
physical advancement of young men, in afford- 
ing proper and attractive advantages and in- 
fluences which will withdraw them from evil 
associations. Classes for instruction, a young 
men's congress, monthly meetings, practical 
talks and courses of entertainments are main- 
tained; and during the summer, from May to 
October, special work is carried on by the 'Out- 
ing Club at the Association'Athletic Grounds at 
Lake Quinsigamond, where are various attrac- 
tions. A bicycle club was organized in 189 1. 
Any young man of good moral character, 
without regard to age or religious belief, may 
join the association. The membership num- 
bers over 1500. Charles F. Rugg is president 
and Herbert L. Gale, general secretary. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 

— "Intent on benefiting in the most judicious 
manner, and in the largest numbers, the young 
women among us, many of whom have been 
thrown homeless, and largely friendless, upon 
their own resources for personal support and 
maintenance," the first Young Women's 
Christian Association was formed in 1865. 



Boston was the pioneer in this work, and has 
always remained in the front rank. Now, 
in nearly every large city, such an organization 
can be found. The Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association of Worcester was formed in 
1885, and incorporated October 26 of that 
year. Its financial basis at the start was a 
gift of $1000 from Mr. Dwight Reed. 
Rooms at 352 Main street were secured, and 
are still in use as a branch. A lunch room for 
women and children is open from 12 to 2 each 
day, and on Saturdays from 5 to 7 P. M., addi- 
tional. These rooms becoming too small for 
the rapidly increasing work, an effort was 
made in the summer of 1890 to raise a sum to 
be used as a building fund, which was carried 
to success. A lot on the corner of Chatham 
and High streets was purchased and work be- 
gun in October of 1890. The building was 
finished and dedicated September 22, 1893. 
It contains a boarding house for young women, 
a free circulating library of about 1,100 vol- 
umes, a reading room with about 40 papers 
and magazines, an employment bureau, a 
board directory, a directory for nurses and a 
restaurant for women. Memorial Hall in the 
building, with a seating capacity of 400, is the 

most beautiful hall of its size in this vicinity. 
It was the gift, with its furnishings, of Mr. E. 
A. Goodnow. The building cost $90,000, and 
there is a debt of $25,000. The association 
has the only gymnasium in the city for 
women, and there have been classes of women 
and children from September to June. There 
is a tennis club, the grounds for its use and 
the club house on it being the gift of Hon. 
Stephen Salisbury. The membership of the 
association is over 1500. The annual meet- 
ing is held the last Monday in April. Mrs. 
C. H. Morgan is president and Miss Sybil 
M (jray, general secretary. 

Zion M. 


E. Church. — See African 

Zo-ological Club of Worcester. — This 
club was formed through the efforts of Prof. 
Francis G. Sanborn at the time he was 
in charge of the Natural History rooms. Its 
purpose was the study of zoology in a practi- 
cal way, i. e., by dissection and demonstration. 
Rooms at 38 Foster street were occupied. 
The club was in existence only about a year, 
from 1883 to the time of Prof. Sanborn's death 
in June, 1884. 


American (The). — An eight-page weekly 
paper, "devoted to Home, Church and Coun- 
try," published by the American Publishing 
Co., at 405 Main street. F. W. Cum- 
mings is the editor, and Rev. Thomas Atkin- 
son, associate editor, with Rev. A. Z. Conrad, 
D. D., Rev. D. O. Mears, D. D., Rev. C. H. 
Pendleton, Rev. W\ T. W^orth, Rev. J. D. 
Pickles, Ph. D., and Mr. William W^oodward 
as editorial contributors. The following state- 
ment printed in the first number, November i, 
1892, indicates the purpose and character of 
the paper: '^The American is modestly and 
confidently given to the public, asking only 
such reception as its merits may fairly de- 
mand. It will be American in the truest 
sense. Non-partisan and non-sectarian, it will 
let its moderation be known unto all men. It 
will endeavor to promote and conserve the 
purity and sanctity of American homes. The 
American will present an uncompromising op- 

position to all attempts to form in this free 
country of ours that 'unholy alliance' between 
church and state so fatal to both. It will 
deal with all live subjects, religious and moral, 
and will endeavor to promote true American 

Corrections. — Electric Lights, page 30. 
Lights of 2000 candle-power, cost the city forty 
cents per light all night. High School, page 
43. Mr. John G. Wight, principal of the 
Classical High School, is a graduate of Bow- 
doin College. 

East Worcester. — The region east of 
Washington square, generally called Pine 
Meadow, or "The Meadows." Shrewsbury 
and East Central streets are its principal 

Express Business. — Page 33. It would 
appear that the first person to do express busi- 



ness over the Boston & Worcester Railroad 
was a young man named Prentiss Brown, a 
cripple, who walked on crutches. He began 
carrying packages and business orders in the 
early part of the year 1835 from Westboro to 
Boston, on each morning train, riding in a 
second class car to save expenses, and return- 
ing each afternoon. When the railroad was 
opened through to Worcester, in July, 1835, 
Mr. Brown extended his trip from Worcester 
to Boston, carrying his packages in a large 
trunk, and employing a man with a handcart 
(there being no job wagons here then) to de- 
liver his goods to his customers. Mr. Henry 
J. Howland writes: " I well recollect send- 
ing a package of 'copy' by him to Boston Oc- 
tober 14, 1835, which was printed and re- 
turned the next day." 

French Paper. — The first number of 
V Opinion Publiqiie, the new semi-weekly 
French paper, appeared Jan. 27, 1893. It is 
published and edited by the Belisle Brothers, 
live of whom are interested in the venture. 
It is independent in politics, and will be de- 
A^oted to the interests of French Canadians, of 
whom there are 50,000 in Worcester County. 

Market Gardeners' Association. — A 

meeting of the market gardeners of Worcester 
and vicinity was held at the Board of Trade 
rooms January 21, 1893, ^o ioxxti an organiza- 
tion whose aim is to bring those engaged in 
the business into closer acquaintance with each 
other, and to promote the interests of the in- 
dustry, which has grown to be one of large 
proportions. There were present : Ex-Alder- 
man J. Lewis Ellsworth, A. S. Wolfe, EHas 
Sprague, H. E. Sprague, Charles F. Stowell, 
Alden Rice, F. J. Kinney, H. R. Kinney and 
G. H. Rich of this city and E. A. Bartlett of 
Shrewsbury. It was decided to call the or- 
ganization the Worcester County Market Gar- 
deners' Association, and the following officers 
■were elected: President, J. Lewis Ellsworth; 
Vice-Presidents, A. S. Wolfe of this city, E. 
A. Bartlett of Shrewsbury, Park Webb of 
Wilkinsonville, T. F. Corey of Northboro; 
Secretary, H. E. Sprague; Treasurer, E. A. 
Bartlett. The initiation fee was fixed at $1. 
One of the aims of the association, as explained 
by President Ellsworth, will be the es- 
tablishment of a public market similar to those 
in larger cities. Mr. Ellsworth said if a peti- 
tion was presented to the City Council asking 
for a location on some one of the central 

squares, he had no doubt that it would be 
granted. The market gardeners could then 
drive to this place early in the morning with 
their loads of garden truck, and could be found 
there by the dealers when wanted. Such a 
move would make things much easier for the 
gardeners, who are frequently obliged to drive 
all over the city to dispose of their stock. 

Relief Funds. — Worcester has contributed 
to many relief funds in the past, the first, per- 
haps, being in aid of the Greeks sixty or seven- 
ty years ago. Within the last fifteen years 
money has been contributed to several funds 
as follows, Hon. Henry A. Marsh, as treasurer 
of all of them, having received the amounts 
here given : 

Irish Relief Fund, 1880, $4,357 00 

Forest Fires in Michigan, 1881, 3,126 57 

Charleston Earthquake Sufferers, 

1886, . 2,759 00 

Yellow Fever Sufferers, 1888, 2,117 00 

Conemaugh Valley Flood, 1889, 15,463 00 

$27,882. 57- 

Sleeping Car, Invention of the.— The 
following is from the Worcester Spy of April 
24, 1893: Asa Hapgood, who is referred to 
in the clipping from the Xew York Sun printed 
below, died in this city about 20 years ago. 
He was a cabinet maker by trade, but at the 
time of his death he conducted the sleeping 
car line between Boston and New York, 
through this city. 

Mr. Hapgood was also at one time a con- 
ductor on the old Boston & Worcester Rail- 
road, in which capacity he was well known 
and popular. He was the father of Miss Hap- 
good, the Russian traveler, who recently lec- 
tured in this city, on Russia. 

Osgood Bradley was seen last evening con- 
cerning the article in the Sun and said that 
although Asa Hapgood was not the inventor 
of the sleeping car, he was the inventor of the 
upper berth and of the peculiar elbow-hinge 
which made it possible to turn the berths 
up out of the way in the day time. Mr. Brad- 
ley also said that Mr. Hapgood was not in 
good health the last two or three years of his 
Hfe, and but for that he would have asserted 
and probably gained his rights. 

To the Editor of the Sun: Your issue of last 
Sunday, April 16, contained an article which I 
ask you, in the interests of justice, to correct by 
publishing- this reply; Neither Webster Wagner 



nor George Pullman invented the sleeping car. It 
was invented by Asa Hapgood of Worcester, Mass., 
and his cars were placed on the line between Boston 
and New York at the critical period in the history 
of those allied roads when they were in a very bad 
way financially, because people preferred a comfort- 
able night's rest on the Sound steamers. 

The great difficultv of profitable sleeping cars lav 
in the necessitv of ha^-ing an upper berth which 
would turn up "out of the way in the day time after 
doubling the carrving capacity at night. Asa 
Hapgood also invented the device, the peculiar el- 
bow hinge, which made this possible. Webster 
AVagner adopted this device, and George M. Pull- 
man patented it. About 1S7S a grand legal battle 
was approaching between George M. Pullman, who 
demanded the payment of royalty from Webster 

W^agner, on that upper-berth device, and the Wag- 
ner Company, which resisted payment on the ground 
that Pullman was not the inventor, had no valid 
right to his patent, and so forth. The Wagner Com- 
pany's lawyers, in making preparations for the bat- 
tle, went to' Worcester and took from the car shops 
of the Bradley Car Building Company there a 
model of the upper berth in question, and the hinge, 
which Asa Hapgood had made with his own hands, 
as all the members of the Bradley firm and the 
workmen who had been in the shop at the time, 
were ready and willing to swear. By virtue of this 
model, the Wagner Company successfully resisted 
the demand of George M. Pullman and continued, 
as before, to use the berth and hinge without pay- 
ing royalty. 


Abbott, John S. C, . 


Chandler, Clark, 


Adams, John, in Worcester, 

. 96 

Chandler, John, 

67, 119 

Adams, John Quincy, 

62, 124 

Clark, Jonas G., 

. 8, 22 

Agricultural Implements, . 

. . 56 

College Regattas, 


Allen, Charles, 

• 7, 37, 102 

Commercial Colleges, 


Allen, Ethan, . 

. . 58 

Conant, Edwin, 


Allen, George, 

• 5, 37 

Confucius, works of, . 


Allen, Joseph, 

90, 119 

Congress, Representatives in. 


" Angel Gabriel," 


Continental Hall, 


Anthropological Society, 


Cruikshank's Drawings, 


Anti- Masonic party. 


Curtis, Albert, 

28, 1 14, 129 

Archaeologia Americana, . 


Curtis Hall, 


Arbuckle, Matthew, 


Crystal Park, . 

• 123 

Baker, Zephaniah, 


Dam burst. 


Baldwin, John D., . 

91, 102 

Davis, Edward L., . 


Bancroft Hill, . 

• ^1 

Davis, Isaac, . . . . 

5, 23, 126 

Barber's Historical Collections, 


Davis, John, 

29, 91, 98 

Barton, E. M., 


Dayton, H. H., 




Deed to the Almighty, 

42, 88 

Bigelow, H. H., 

• 14, 51 

Denton, William, 


Bigelow, Timothy, 

• 14, 67 

Devens, Charles, 

68, 100 

Blake, James B., 

98, 99 

DeWitt, Alexander, . 

91, 102 

Blanchard's Lathe, . 


Dictionary, the first published in 

America, 16 

Boyden, Elbridge, 

• 65 

Dodge, Thomas H., 

29, 74, 119 

Boynton, John, 

. 83 

Downes Collection, . 

. 128 

Boys' Camp, 


Drawing School, 


• 65 

Brigham, David T., . 

46, 89 

Drew, Thomas, 


Brinley Hall, 

41, 118 

Dustin, Hannah, 



Brown, George L., . 


Bull, Ole, 


Earle, Edward, 


Bullock Medal Fund, 

■ • 43 

Earle, John Milton, 

II, loi, 118 

Burroughs, Stephen, 


Earle, William B., 


• 58 

Burritt, Elihu, . 

53, 56, 64 

Ears cropped, 

. 125 

Bushnell, George, 


Eliot, John, 


Business Exchange, Worcester, . 


Elliott, James, . 


Butman Riot, . . . . 

• 7, 91 

Estabrook, James, 


. 58 

II, 50, 98 

Camp Lincoln, . . . . 


Everett, Edward, 


Camp Scott, . . . . 


Card Clothing, . . . . 

. 58 

Father Mathew Temperance Soci( 

^ty, 48 

Cattle-shows, origin of, 

. 127 

Fenwick, Bishop, 



Fire Arms, .... 


Lincoln, Edward Winslow, 

81, 85 

Foster, Stephen S. and Abby Kclley, 


Lincoln, George, 


Foster Street Depot, . 


Lincoln, John W., 

20, 98 

Freemasonry, .... 


Lincoln, Levi, senior. 


Fruit-preserving Company, . 


Lincoln, Levi, 2d, . . 23, 30 

55> 91 

Lincoln, William, . . 16, 23 

42, 55 


67, 68 


Garrison, William Lloyd, . 



George, Henry, 


Lovell, A. A., . 

Girls' Camp, • . . . 


Lundy, Benjamin, 

Glacial marks, .... 


Lynde Brook Dam, . 


Goodnow, E. A., 

20, 130 

Gough, John B., 


Machinists' Tools, 


Greek Lexicon, 


Manual Labor School, 


Greek Testament, 


Marble, A. P., . 


Green, Samuel S., . 


Marble, Manton, 


Green, John, .... 


Marsh, Henry A., . 


Greenwood, T. J., 


Marvin, A. P., . 


Grout, John W., 


'' Meadows, The,'" 


Merrick, Pliny, ... 


Hale, E. E., . 

56, 73 

Messinger, D. S., . . -30 


Hall, G. Stanley, 


Metcalf, C. B., 


Flamilton, C. A., 

21, 119 

Mexican War, number of soldiers in. 


Hamilton, Edward, 


Molineaux, Aaron, 

1 1 

Harris, Clarendon, 


Morgan, William, 


Hassanamisco, .... 


" Mount Adams," 


Heard, Nathan, 


Mower, Thomas Gardner, . 


Heywood, Daniel, 


Music Festival, 


Higginson, T. W., . 

II, 56 

Musical Instruments, . 


Hoar, George F., . 

91, 98 

Mutual Fire Association, , 


Homceopathic Medical Library, . 

Hovey, William, 

Howland, Henry J., . . .17, 

. 46 
86, 131 

"Nat Turner Massacre," . 
New England Fair, . 
Newton, Calvin, 



Indexed Worcester Information, . 

• 125 

Old Books, .... 

' 54 

. 65 


Indian Praying Town, 


Organ, great, .... 

IngersoU, Robert J., . 


Otis, Harrison Gray, . 

Jackson, Joseph, 


Paige, L. R., . 
Paine, Nathaniel, 

• 123 

15, 16 


Jackson, S. R., 


Jackson Guards, 

. 69 

Paine, Timothy, 

jaques, George, 


Parry, W. M., 


Tillson, Clark, 

17, 64 

Parsons, Solomon, 

42, 88 

Jones, J. D. E., ... 


Penny Posts, .... 


Jordan, Marsh & Co., 


Perry, Emory, 


Josephus, Works of, . 


Pickett, Josiah, .... 


Kansas Emigrant Movement, 
Kean, Edmund, 
Keyes, Lucy, story of, 
Knowles Art Fund, 
Knowles Maternity, . 
Knowlton, T. S. C, . 



. 124 




Pillsbury, Parker, 

Plunkett, Sergeant, 

Poll Parish, first, 

Pond, John F., 

Pratt, C. B., . 

Pratt, Daniel, .... 




Koran, The .... 

14, 17 

Printing, Thomas' History of, 
Putnam, Samuel H., . . 11, 

17, 55 
54. 117 

Lafayette, .... 
Lawrence, Myron, 

. 126 

"Quock Walker " case, . 


Le Baron, Francis, 


Raymenton, W. H., 


Liberal Tract Society, 


Record Printing, 



Rice, George M., 


Rice, fonas. 


Rice, William W., . 


Roe, Alfred S., 

43> 54 

Rogers, Randolph, 


Russell, E. Harlow, . 


Salisbury, Stephen, 2d, 

• 43,65,83 

Salisbury, vStephen, 3d, 

45, 47, 63, 129 

Sanborn, F. G., 


Shaffner, T. P., 

78, 116 

Shays' Rebellion, 


Sheldon, William, 


Skull, prehistoric. 

• • 63 

Sleeping Car invention, 


Smith, Eleazer, 

. . 58 

Soldiers in different wars, . 


Souther, S,, 


Staples, Samuel E., . 

71, 128 

Summer Camp, 


Sumner, Charles, 


Stowell, Peter and Ebenczer, 


Tan yard, 


Thayer, Eli, . . 5, 

50, 80, 91, 126 

Thomas, Benj. F. 


Thomas, Isaiah, 6, 62, 80, 85 

: his History of 


• 17' 55 

Thomas, Robert B., . 


Thompson, CO., 
Thurber, Charles, 
Triphammer shop, 
Triscott, S. P. R., 
Trumbull, George A., 

Veto by the Mayor, . 
Vottier, A. G., 

Waites, Alfred, 

Waldo, Daniel, 

Walker, Adam, 

W^alker, J. H., 

Ward, Artemas, 

Ward, George 11., 

Ward, Town of, 

Washburn, Ichabod, . 


Wasson, David A., 

Watson, Elkanah, 

Weston, David, 

Wheeler, D. G., 

Wheelock, Clarendon, 

White, Charles, 

White, W illiam Charles, 

W'hitney, Peter, History Worrc: 

Wilder, S. V. S., 

Wire, .... 

Woodworking Machinery, . 

75' 9I: 









1 1 


















Incorporated May 13, 1864. 
Assets, Sept., 1893, - - - - $6,747,038.53 

Number of Depositors, ----- 14,962 

Deposits put upon interest on the first day of 
February, May, August and November. 

Semi-annual dividends payable February and August 
15, and added to the principal if not withdrawn. 

n addition to the usual hours, the bank is open to 
receive deposits on Saturday evening from 
6 to 8 o'clock. 


Prest. Treas. 

A Carpenter 

Is known by his cliips. 

A Tailor by the fit of his clothes, and so on through the trades. 

A PRINTER, if lie is a good one, ought to be known by 
his jobs. 

Do YOU KNOW Blanch ARD? 

Of course you know his jobs, for what person hereabouts has 
MERCIAL? — but what's the use of enumerating the long list? 
You have seen the imprint of F. S. Blanchard & Co. on hundreds 
of jobs, and you know they were good ones, too ; something about 
them that suggested at once that they were done at 154 Front 

That imprint would look well on your next Catalogue, and 
you may be sure the Catalogue would look well, too. 

If you want good printing of ANY KIND, go to Blanchard's. 

If you want it in an awful hurry, and nobody else has facilities 
to handle it quick enough, then take it to Blanchard's, sure. 

Morcester County 
ITnstitution for Savings, 


Officers for 1893-4. 



















Edward B. Hamilton, Gc7ieral Accountant. 

Frank L. Messingek, Linus Sibley. 

Luther M. Lovell, Teller. 

Ralph E. Stewart, Lucius W. White. 

This Institution was established February 5, 1828. Its object is to receive and safely 
invest the savings of the people and to divide the profits among the depositors. 

Deposits of one dollar or upwards are received. The limit of deposits is One Thousand 
Dollars. Deposits are allowed to accumulate to Sixteen Hundred Dollars. 

Money is put on interest on the first day of January, April, July and October. Interest 
on deposits is computed to January I and July I. No amount under Three Dollars is 
entitled to a dividend. 

The GoiiUiviBiflfi Tribute 

Has been pronounced by those competent to judge, to be the 
finest representation in paper and ink that the city of Worcester ever 

No city in the country has ever been more graphically or truthfully 
set before the world in print. 

It presents the educational, social, charitable, financial and indus- 
trial features of the Heart of the Commonwealth as they exist to-day. 

It is beautfully illustrated. No public building, institution, land- 
mark, manufacturing or business building ot note but what graces its 
pages in the popular and artistic half-tone style of engravings. 

It contains over 500 illustrations. 

It gives a complete classified list of the products of Worcester man- 
ufactures, the variety and extent of which no city in this country can 

It was issued as a tribute to the notable Columbian year 1893, 
under the patronage and endorsement of the Board of Trade. 

That Worcester gives a good account of herself cannot be gainsaid. 

The heart of every resident should swell with pride in not only 
having a copy for his own preservation, but should help to spread the 
fair fame of Worcester by sending copies to distant friends or corre- 
spondents abroad. 

Printed on elegant coated paper, 200 pp. folio size, 

Card Covers (in envelopes ready for mailing), 40c. 

Postage 15c. extra. 
Cloth Covers, stamped in gold leaf, - - $1.00. 
Souvenir Embossed Leather, round corners, 

gold edges, ------- $3.50 

F. S. BLANCHARD & CO., Publishers, 

154 Front Street, WORCESTER, MASS. 


We beg to announce that we have made arrange- 
ments whereby we can supply the beautiful process 
prints known as Art-Gravures, Heliotypes, Litho- 
types, Photogravures, and half a dozen other names 
which mean practically the same thing. 

fov irUustrating 

Genealogical or Biographical Sketches, Memorial 
Volumes, College Publications, Town and County 
Histories, Souvenir Editions, Machinery, Buildings, 
Groups or general mercantile subjects, this process 
cannot be excelled. The prints are soft, clear and 
distinct, furnished in a variety of colors of tinted inks, 
and for limited editions are much cheaper than 

These prints can be reproduced from Photographs, Paintings, 
Engravings, Etchings or Drawings, and our experience as pub- 
lishers has convinced us that there is no process for illustrating 
equal to them. 

Call and see samples, and get estimates. 


154 Front Street. WORCESTER, MASS, 

Worcester Storage Co. 

HORACE WVMAN, Pkest. , C. C. BROWN, Manager. 


TELEPHONE, 642-3. 

Storage for Furniture, Merchandise, Machinery, Carriages, Sleighs, Trunks, Packages, 
and Bulky Valuables. The warehouse has a powerful Hydraulic elevator, which raises 
goods l)y the wagon-load, thus saving extra handling. 


Rooms of all Sizes For Rent. 

Insurance obtainable at the lowest rates written for storage. Furniture moved from 
house to house or to storage warehouse. Covered van for wet or dusty weather. 

For STORAGE RATES, Apply at the Warehouse, 



Grand and Upright Pianos 

The recognized Standard Pianos of the world; pre-eminently the best in- 
struments at present made, exported to and sold in all art centres o< the 
globe, preferred for public and private use hy the greatest living artists 

A. B. Cliase Wonderful Pianos. 

The A. B. Chase Piano has come with rapid strides to the front, till 
today it stands with the leaders. 

Kranich & Bach Faultless Pianos. 

28,000 Pianos made, and sold. Endorsed bv all Worcester musicians 
Sold b_y us 27 years. 


The best Upright Piano at a reasonable price in the market to-daj The 
favorite piano of Mme Adelina Patti and other noted artists Cases in 
Mahogany, Rosewood, Ebonized, Cherry, French, Circassian and Ameri 
can Walnut, English and American Oak. 

C. L. (SORHAM & eO. 

454 Main St.. Worcester, Mass, 


A strong personality pervades the enterprise that 
appears to be so firmly founded at . . . 

32 Front St., Crompton Block. 

Here one notes the fulfillment of an original purpose, tenaciously adhered to 
during seventeen years, to furnish for the million, at moderate charge, substantial 
food — solid and liquid, on strictly temperance principles — of the best quality in un- 
stinted measure. Hence the .......... 

Popular Eating House, 

Fortunate in Location, 

Ample in Area, 

Perfect in Every Detail of Arrangement, 

equipped with the freshest, choicest, most appetizing selections from the markets, 
a skillful cuisine, the most luscious fruits in their season, all presided over by a 
genial gentleman, with polite and attentive assistants. 

A fitting climax is reached in the splendid 

Restaurant of F. 11. Marble,