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DIET IN HEALTH 
AND DISEASE 



:\ :.::■• : : :•::■: :. 



By 
JULIUS FRIEDENTALD, M.D, 

Ci-IHJCAL rhUFHaJOII OP DISEi\^E:i OP THB STrkUA^M IN THE COLLBGK 
OF rHVSlClAN'< AND »ir|t(^||0 Hin, PALTIHOPB 



AKD 



JOHN RUHRAH, M-D. 

CUWICAL P|loFirS!«ir OF lilatANF.S nK HHILIrhllF^ 1*^ THF CDL1.KGK 
DF l-HV:tLCJA:4S AND Sl'haEONS, bALTIHOkb 



" These fi'w mios of dirt he thai keeps, shaH surely 
find great easo and tp^edy remedy by it." — Burton 



PHll.AnK.l.rHIA ANf LOXDUN 

W. B. SAUNDERS AND COMPANY 

1905 






CoPVRiOKT, 1904, BY \V. B. Saunders £c Covpany 



KBG1STER£D at STATIONEkS' HaLL, LoNDON, £NGLANI> 



Reprinted M;iy, 1905 



(tcarnoTVPio m* 

WtlTCOTT h TfOHIDPI. PHlLApA. 



mm or 

V, p. SAUhDCH li COHPAHV. 



L ^ ^ V 



^ C 




TO 



Mt[[fam ObIcv, /D.a>, 



AS A SLIGHT TOKEN OF OUR APPRECIATION OF HIS PERSONAL 
FRIENDSHIP, OF MANY FAVORS, AND OF THE EN- 
COURAGEMENT HE HAS ALWAYS GIVEN THE 
MEMBERS OF THE PROFESSION. 



3^5*21 



PREFACE. 



Tuna })oolc hatr \w^n ptvpiiroti to moct the ncoda of tlic 
gv4)»ni] iiniditiikncrr, iKf^pIdil intcmt^, am) mctlionl BltKleut^ tm 
veil w torn rcfcrrtjcc linndbonk for tminiii^-achoolA, 

The nini i»i' ihe bttok ir* cuilri'ly prncticaL \\V liavi- t-ii-» 
ilmvikivil lo giv<.Mi nniMniiibly iinn-iM.' aoeijiiru uf Uh* i!ifiereiit 
kiinb <pf r<HH^ th<-ir <NiiTi]iri»itimi iiiuJ tuHv^ ;in(i ulso to &et forth 
ihr |>rit)i*r]iU^ of *lk't both in Ih-iilUi niuX 4li«i.-ajtc>. TIip j^TcaiU^r 
]orl of tlie IxMik iji fU'A'4>UHJ lo (ht i^ick, hikI wv have tried in 
tell tl>e «Jool4>r how h> fi^<<l hii |KLhcntv We hnvp ginie over the 
HrtfRittirc of the ^ubjc^t^ nineh of which h inacn'^ikle to the 
p?iirnil |>nMtiti'*ti(T» jiikI lave izWvn what »ieemfi I" us to i>e llie 
riHWi useful. We im^t tliut the IxKkk ir^ ^lmple enough to be 
UseJ firt" rapid refereiicv Uy the biiny pnulitioner, atnl ifinl th<*re 
i^ giifficieni detail to nmki' the way clear for the medical fitridenl 
I ami the uninitiateii hospital interne. \Vc h^vc ^ulieml Uf 
fgether many diet-IUT« :in<l rpclpe*;, whiMi we trust uill be of 
«Tvice both to tJ»e physioian nnrl to the nunift 

In the pitrpeimiion of thw work we linve c"on«ii!teil mnny 
books and J^hiirnal nrtiok^, and we arc nmli^r obligution to tbo 
many aiillnii^ wlm^e name^ are mcntitxir^l ihroiighoiit the tK>ok 
in ditiiwetion with tlu-ir contributions to the TK-icnre of Jiclctic^ 

Wv nrr es(»ecinlly irnleht<Hl in Pn W» O, Atrtuler niul his 
oolla1x>niton« for tniich valuable material. We vh\i to e:tpTesft 
»rtir Ibiiok^ to Uie publishers. Mtv*n^ W, B. 8(uii)ilers & Oo<, 
for the ec4inefiy tbey have ^owu iii il* prepaintif>u. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Chemistry and Physiology of Digestion. ... 17 

DigeatioD and Absorption 20 

IMgetition 20 

Al^sorptiou 26 

Peculiarities of the Digestion iu Infaul^ ^0 

Metabolism 31 

Al)sorptioQ of Foods 40 

Quantity of Food Required 44 

American and Euro|>eati Dietariei and Dietary titaud- 

arda 48 

Tbe Influence of Various Factors u]x>u the Digestion . 51 

The Relation of Food to Various Inherent Conditions 55 

Classeh of Foods 60 

Animal Foods 60 

Milk and Milk Products 60 

The Modification and Preftervation of Milk , , , 66 

Egl» 73 

Meats and the Meat Preparatious 75 

Fish 82 

Vegetable Foods 86 

Cereals . 87 

I-egume^ 89 

Roots and Tuliers 92 

Green Vegetables 93 

Fruits and Nuts 96 

Fruits 96 

Nuts 98 

Fungi, Algie, and Lichens JOO 

Sugars 100 

Spices and Condiments 10,1 

Fats and Oils 104 

Baits 109 

Be^'ERAGES and SriMfLANTS 110 

Water 110 

Mineral Waters 112 

Tea 121 

Coffee 122 

9 



10 O/ATA'A'y^", 

BKVJ!WAi;E8 AX» RriMtTLAMTil (Oniiinttftt). !■*«» 

Ojcfia 123 

AlcohoJ 124 

Ak'jholic Beverap:e8 I!i4 

Sinril*^ lU 

l-uMjAiirs unci ]titt«ra 135 

Mall Uquort IS5 

Wiuce I3ft 

Artkni nud Therapeutic L'fO of Mnlt Liqiium »ail 

Wiiiw H4 

a^l^r U6 

VAKtUlfl FAf'I'^PltH IN TllhlU BkAULNU OX DlKT , . , , 1*7 

C«nct>ritrnrji)ii ok' ImukI , 147 

Prewrv»ri<'n of FiJOii 148 

Artific'ul KiHJil Prrpiiniliniw 150 

Arfilioinl I'nmnolttry JbixKl* , , . 152 

CxxtkjEi^ ol" K^icxIh ^. 154 

KH<-tTi ur t ouliiii^' 156 

r>ijipju,pii ( "niiMsl ]ty KrTor* in T>irt nnd hy \^*iriaiitt Poml- 

IK>is*»iis 15^ 

ji^r Forms of FiXKl-|Kjiaouiii^ IftH 

Miu^yncra&iffi 172 

Fo-mI AiIuUTTutioit ,.►.<.., 17S 

Die! iLd II Mc^HTm of Din^ri'i^iH ,-:,-, liM) 

Dii'l for ?^nger3 fttnl Sp^ejilirre , , , . , IM 

Di*l During Athletic Triiiuin^ Ift4 

ISFANT FlllIHtMi 193 

Milk MixliticiUion 203 

Merl»HUof I'nu-Uai] Vulue ill Moaifyiji^ Milk , . . :«3 

Anifinnl Fi'Mii-jr - - 222 

Ft"o<Hftp I>iirii>ff ibo KovumI Y«ir .,,..,... ^25 

D'tfi of School i1»i|c(n*n , . 'i:i2 

Other Fftctoi^ in Irifiiiii F(v(iirig 236 

The Fwiing t>\' Sick lui'taA^ 239 

Gavnpe 242 

Dio! m K>ww« of Chiltlpcn . . *_JI3 

Diet kor Sria-iAi. CosniTioss , 264 

Diet fnr ih€ AjthI 254 

EKi<t During Prj?^inn(<y and the Puer|¥*riuni . . , . , 2S6 

IhH irk itipSin-cinl Disejwe* of Fregnnncy . , . , . 2fi7 

6rKeiAL Mtmioi>n op Feehiso . . 260 

Re^nl Fw^linff . 2BS> 

lii^iirrtlioii" for the Use of Sutrimil Kncmrtii . , - . 272 

KorijK* for Xutneat Eneiumn 273 

CHhor SIpLlioiU of Nourishing' thi' liody 275 



coNTEyrs- 11 

PAOE 

Diet is Diseabg 277 

Fee^liDg in Fever 281 

Feeding in Infectioua I>isease8 285 

Tvphoid Fever 285 

'Atypical 293 

Coniplicated 293 

Tvphutf Fever 293 

Small-pos 294 

Starlet Fever 295 

Measles 296 

Mump* 297 

Whooping-cough 297 

Influenza 298 

Meningitis and Cerebrof^pinal Fever 298 

Diphtheria 299 

Eryfli|*ela8 301 

Rheumatism 301 

Asiatic Cholera 303 

YeUow Fever 305 

Dengue 306 

Mnlaria 307 

Telanws 307 

Kahies ^08 

Tuberculosis ^08 

Diet in Disoasefl uf ihc Stomach 319 

Special Cnres in the Treatment of the Diseases of tiie 

Stoniacli 335 

Dysphagia 336 

Acute (vitslritis 336 

Chronic Uaeiritis 338 

Atrophic Calarrh of the Stomach 341 

Hy|>«?rpecrelion -^42 

DiUUiUioD of the Stomach 343 

Atony of the Stoma<'h 34C 

l"k-er of the Stomach 349 

Htrmorrhage 354 

(*arcinoma 354 

(iaatro ptosis and Eiiteroptosis 356 

NcrvouB Diflordera 357 

Hyperchlorhydria or Hyperaciiliiy 358 

Diet in Intestinal DipeaecM 362 

Dyspepsia 364 

Acute Catarrh 3«4 

Chronic Catarrh 3fi5 

Dv*enterv 367 

Ulcers . ■ 368 



12 



COyTEXIS. 



Mei!i^]iiuii Ofvittlhs 36A 

Ai-iiUi liiU<sLiiinl Oli^tntitioM 368 

('hrouit; InUsttuial OluLniciiuu 369 

A|>j>eii'lidtm 369 

^ltii:uuivtutira»uu(t OoLiarrli 3T0 

KurvouK Afli*<r|toui , 373 

HrmnrrhiM^lt. .,372 

i'lirituu' Uinri'lu-'a 373 

lluithiml i'tiLkHtipnlioii 375 

Diot iii IViJt<jiiiii» 377 

I>]H iu Uv^r Dip-i4LM<a , ............ , 377 

Catarrlml Jautidiet? 380 

('oni»e«iion 391 

Acute YtlJow Airophr 3ft2 

Abet^ew 3«2 

I'nav hivor n^2 

Arnyloiil Liver Il8t^ 

SypliUis .1^2 

fialWloue llisea^iA '6^^2 

<."irrh-wi* mo 

D'uiL in ] Iih^'n4>»> of tbc IViiurHw 3^0 

lJl*t 11] Dtpciww* uf tho tl**|jiraf<»ry Organs 3S7 

Pleurisy 387 

£inf}yci]ifl ,, 38fi 

LrirynirismiwStruItUii* , 3^8 

IjiryngiiU 353 

AAil'imn , p , . . 389 

Fmplivspinn . . . , S90 

riinmic Hn»m'hili> 390 

Hti(iii>rrliJtgi' frtim Liiiig» 390 

I^K-iiiiiuriiii 3H1 

Dirt in DiatHtfes of the CirL'ulolory Syaitiii 394 

Diitciue*^ of tbc Ht'urt 3i*4 

Hi-Jtri l^Mmisi m Cliildrtii . , 398 

t^^Mv Hiurt 393 

Ar(^ri^.8.'lrri«is , . . 402 

AiiturvMn W2 

An^'itiu Pouturiif ,., 403 

Antmm , 404 

€hloro*ift 405 

Leukt^mia 409 

ri>r|>um Ha-morrlm^jica 409 

Hciiiupliilm i ,...>... . 4]0 

l>Ui iH DiwmM^ of the GenitiMiHimry S\-icl«tni . , , , 4)0 

Acnri^ NVpliritiH 415 

(1jri>iii<; rumichyiualou» Ntphridft 417 



CONTENTS. IS 

Diet cj Disease (Continued), tage 

Chronic Interetittal Nephritis 418 

Floating Kiduey ■ 421 

Amyloid Kidney 422 

Pyelitis — PyelonephritJB 422 

R^nal and Vesical Calculi 422 

Litheiuifl — The So-called Uric-acid Diathesis . . . , 422 

Gonorrhea 426 

Diet in Di^asefl of the Nervous System 427 

Neuralgia 428 

Gaatralgia 429 

Visceral Neuralgia 429 

Af igniiue 429 

lueonuiia and Disturbed 8leep 430 

Vertigo 431 

Epilepsy 431 

Chorea 432 

Beri-Beri 432 

Apoplexy 432 

Diet in Various Toxic Conditions 433 

Chronic Morphiii-poisoning 433 

Alcoholism - 434 

Chronic Lead-poiaoning 435 

AVeir-Mitchell Rest Cure 435 

Diet for the insane 44'I 

Diseases ld which Diet is a Primary Factor 445 

Diabetes MeUitus 445 

Dietetic Treatment 452 

Substitutes for Bugar 465 

.Substitutes for Bread 466 

Gout and Goutiness 475 

Rheumatoid Arthritis (ArtbriliB Deforniaus) .... 483 

OlK«ity 483 

Diet for Leanness 504 

Scorbutus or Scurvy 505 

Hemorrhagic Purpura 507 

Exophthalmic Goiter 507 

Addiaon^s Disease 508 

Osteomalacia 508 

Diet in Diseases of the 8kin 509 

Eczema 509 

Urticaria TjII 

Acne 511 

Acne Rosacea 512 

Psoriasis 512 

Pruritus 513 

Furunculoae 513 



14 coyrssTS. 

Spectal Cvkks SH 

>(ilk Oirc I, , , . 514 

Wht^yTun- 515 

KumiM(*iirc 51^ 

iJirl luro Sib 

TlIK DlKTKrK- MATlAftlCMr.ST Or BURUICAL C^ftK» .... iVI& 

Vici After Oi*rntioti 529 

Army am> Nav\ IIatios** 5.*tU 

Army KuiiotiP &rtO 

RiLtWb of Fomini Armic* , 5^^) 

Rt-iiiurkK 54^ 

Niivv UnllnuH 543 

Tiie (k'ui'ml Mt** , 5^5 

The ConiiuiiiMiiry Store - 54ft 

TLo PrqwirHti'jU of FcxkI , . , 5G0 

DinTARira jy I'rnLir IxsriTUTioxs -.._..,.,, ool 

IVlHin I>ktane8 . . . . Ti.Vj 

IlOflpituI l'il'l"l"K-*- ... . . .»(>.'"] 

Till' Ji>Ii[iii Iliipkiikp H<iA|»itnl Mu 

Irf^kt'niiit^ ll(.fh|iiijil, Clei"i.4«ij<lH Oiiio , . 567 

F\i\i DiH'lnUk- — NuvT II*)»|)iiMJi- , , 571 

Cmg L'oloiiy of Kpili'|iiit« <^7/3 

Dirt for (.■ln>ri!ilor lk»_vs iti &^t, Tnur* Hi'l"h>l, iJnlliinore p^Tti 
Tul)*»rf*ttl<isi* Infirmury, Mi*(ro|M>li!mi HtitpiT^il. Ulni^k- 

uelVf licliiiiil . . , 570 

Tuberriihif^w Iiilinuary 577 

!S4r(^iMf hl<b|>itiil l<ir Uie Insane of Marrlund fbr the 

MmiiiIi of A|iril 57H 

UiitU^I ?^lnloii <';ovcrtirn<»i^t Hwpiul for ih** JnHnn«^ 

Washiiiu'lon, T). r, 67** 

Tniuil Stiiiri* r-Hvcrntneiil Hn^itAl fSir llic Inmne, 

SK KUmip^Tii. 1). ('. bm 

Bsiy Vivw Ahvluiii : - ^^^ 

Uo'brrt (rnrrrtL Vrw U(m[nxn\ for ChilJrfn, BnlUmoro 5M 

Chiiam/KH.wjiiral of Jlo*t*»i. 58t; 

GmilOrmcnidtkreeill'wpitulfijrHickt'UUdren. I-orcli>n 58*f 

Kkcuw fifty 

]>ri>xo1 Inntilutt Formiilflj" .., i ....... . 589 

Tin^M-nMt'lortVxikin)^' \VtiaWr*ni Water . » . , 5«!» 

Gftuml HuWfoT <:VH>kiup Vc^^^iihl*^^ 58!> 

Soup*Wiibout Mcflt fiSO 

Birk'Tmnn K<H^'i|x* 581 

Iteciiwo for Fnofle for DinMic* 60» 



- I 



CONTENTS. 15 

PAGE 

The Chemical Composition of American Food- 
materials 614 

Explanation of Terms 614 

Cuts of Meal 618 

DiET-LIHTS ., 650 

AlhuniiDuna GoU 

Anemia and Delnlity 650 

(.^oQstipatiop 651 

Diabttea 6oti 

Diarrhea / 653 

Dvspe|Ksia ^5ti 

Fevers 654 

Gout 655 

Obesity 656 

Tuberculosis 656 

W'EKJHTrt AND MEASL"Rt:,S 658 

A ^^HORT List of Book^ on Food and Diet. , . . . . 660 

Index 661 



Diet in Health and' Disease. 



I 



THE CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF 
DIGESTION. 

Food U the mtiiter timt id talura inu> the \iody to BU|>]>ly 

ftimiini4->i !i |ieiri of i\w fiirtv lli;it liit« Ift'n iliTivinJ fn^in fiwJ, 
Tlw maintrratuH* of th^ l>nly-hirut ix)n--«iimi-^ .imjilur [wiit, and 
i& ^ntwing iiuiivicliials a cvrtuin tLmouni U uiilixctl in building 
up Ihi' nvvr Ui^^ue^ 

FiMnI a--* it ii* l»k<»n int-> iho body diflers vtry miirfi in eom- 
pcttitiitti Ironi ilu- muunal iliat mn l>euiJli3!ed iu cell-growth 
uiul in n^pbclh^ liw ti<"iue*wuHU'- Tiie ftniruon of di^ref^tioa is 
!K> Ui nltvr the f^Hiil llmt it tiuiy Ih- aU>oHHt.l W the bloody and 
prvparr il for it-^HimilntiMn and titilbuttion hv tlie variuuft ti^ucv- 
Thc fi>i>d of nmnkitid m oKut viim>d iti mititix*, diSt^ring uitb 
ihi* M'ltwtnw, iini) willi rlitnnk--s raw^, und (smnfrin*. 

Tbo fUu\y of fiiodx i* u in<i-*t oomplrx onr, und until rox^ntly 
few ^wititic iDVi'f*li^tioiL'< tiiotii; this line liwl ht^n mude, 
Fonunatvly, howfvor, vxperimontH nrr now Ik^Iii^ i*!irric<I on 
till- world oviT, mui It i.^ t« \k Jiojwd That On* Htitijirl nf ilit-t in 
b«allb nud in di^^sv uiU soon \k lifti.^) i>til of i|iv vak' <if em- 
plrkiMu where k Ivuh mi lung n>to<l. 

The dicDiic dt-u)(^ut.^ irf which th<r Unly !« conipcwd iin? j»iru- 
iW to tfaotfc o^niainiHl in thr fofid->liilT% generally <-m|>lnvcd. 
Of the flJ\cm <ir twfiiry i^hoiont^ o*>ntiun«l in th<* JxmK- ih^ 
prinripal nnti* ana oxyp-n, hydn*gpn. t^irlion. nilmg^'n, mlriitni, 
phmpharuii, iind ^iiljilinr. Tlicm^ und otii€r<; tbut an? prpsent id 
imtull ()UAntiti<^ form a lar^fi* niuidri:r of onipoaniU, In fixnU 
tb«^ comjxriimU an* nio^t (^nwrii<-ritlv ^n>iq>o<l inidf-r die hcttd* 
inffi of pri>lem, fzil-s i^arbohydi^ie.^, nimc^ml miitUT, nnd viau-r. 
AltfeoQ^h \'anott.4 elnSf^lUc^ionii ^rv in im-, tht.-> 0114^, owit^ to iXt 
flimplkrity, i9 iIjui ^nerally ai(lopt<*d. 

Water. — Wuc^r «nt«n» into tike coinp(Kiil»on t>f «verv thsfut 

3 IT 



18 CffK^rSTBY AND PltYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTIOX 

in ihcbtMiv and form* more than CO jter rrnt. if thr ruling lH>dy- 
wi:nj>-)it of :i fiil]-^>wa uiiiu. A£ it \fi not IxiriiL^I uji iu tlic 
ni^fnU.lir |ii^ ir(-s*fflS, tf dn™ nntj hriwr-vtr, fiiniinh imy r-iu^rgy. 

Salts. — Tiie wirlliy >«ill*, wliicli fcrni alx>iil *> [wr <'enl. ttf 
the bmlv-wii^^ht of mi nduh innii, furnish luilc if nuy invrgy, 
They are nin"! iLbntiiliint in iIk- Imne^ ,inil it-clli^ Iml llit-y «Uo 
«>Ilt4^^ inlii (Ik- i't»iM|H>,-<iti4iii iif fiUu*r iL>^iK^ itnd IliiirU nf Ui(< 
botly. Thr j)ri]u'i[ml <i1tK of the bixly are cAloJurn jthiRiphale 
iin<l lh(' v;tr-ii>ns i ompniiulr^ *>f untii^Um}, s<AU\mj mii^nt^iiim, 
ninl it^Hi. Thi- luini-nil :*a]l-t an- vt-ry ntHoa-wrv ttf HFl- iu»il bc^Uh. 

Protciti. — ITmlcr ihij* licjiiUnj^ nrc iucJuOt'U imwt of the 
Ditr<)^'n< in> fiHnl-con>|K>un<l»^ VunoiiiS torm^ Unvt! l«vn »pp1i(<<) 
to ihi* r^hiK* iif ffi^Mjt, the fi-niiiiicilopv bm* i'm|»l*»y4Ki lH*in^ ihnt 
r«<»nuTK'n<U'*i by llu- Anirri<un A>'j^iN.'ifUinr of A^rii^iltuml Coi- 
kpi ■* uii'i KxiH-rhnrnf. .S(«li<ius 

Proleiii U thiin<l in both iininml Ami Vi'^tabh* furHl, tiiiniliur 
vx»iii>l<'-<< <»f it bi'in^ thf* [fan and (rnsth- ^f moat, iht- wbi[(* ()f 
**^jf, ftnil tb<' ^'biliii of ^niia, rnit^ins are lUvUKtl int4> albn- 
iiiii]'iid>'» ^»lauinntl><, uiid I'Mitji'ii^eA. 

AlbuminuiJa indudc ntidi ?7ub£itauci---< zin (Ik- vrhite of ^cg* 
the lean ]>art of mcnlj tho curd of mWU^ tind the gbitou of 
wht'jiL 

(lelattnolJ^ ((billed albtimhinids by Home writrr^) iKviir 
cbierty in the <Hmneeiiv'e tiswue.s as iht "c^dlnjit-n*' of U-Tidou» 
and skin and the ossein of the bniies. Oolalin i?4 ii favniliar 
rxumple of this da*s of jiroleius. 

The extractives cootain nitrogen^ but differ widely from 
borb uibuniinmdh and ^Intinoidp^. They are the prinnjml (H»n- 
stJ^lU'^lI^of b(vf-ie.uuiil iiie:i1-e\iniels. Vt^'luljletciiut:du hul>* 
^NuK'^v-' kmiwn a^ amid»— for example^ u»|Tara|^] — vihich have 
fimilur pri»[jert(e^. 

Tile priUeins. esj^ecially the albumiuimU. aiv of tlie ^ri»a1e«t 
itii[x}rtaiL<^ to the animal economy, Tht-y help to hiiihl up new 
1i>su4» and X<t re|>air the wa^te of tlie e|d ; they are also bunit 
uft in the Ixwly, an<I are tmiKirlaiil as a souive of ener^v and of 
heal» Furlbcr, tbey may be eonverlinl into fjii and stored in 
the body fir fniiirt* use, tbii* hiJ*l function, iiowover, being of 
minor impnrtJiiHv, 

I'mteiii-* form an es^ieiilia] part of tbo diet, for witlioiit them, 
or when they iipe stippliisl in ttwi small ^^nantity, tlic l>i>dy 
wni^ld'*^ '.tui\ El eoikcbllon f»f midntifrilicm liiifh'rvi'ncf^, f'nr1h>hv- 
dmtes nnd \\iU ean m»t rephu^i- pn»l<»ins. A?* will In* >ilK>n-n t'lir- 
tiicr oil, they roay^ by supiiiyin^ a sourw of ht^t nnd t?ncno% 




ifSTRY Ayn pnrsioLoor op d/gestto-v. 



protect tiM' |in>tdi] iimirrlnl Iviit ilicy (ran not lulfi] the lituction 
of rc^fitirin^ or buildmi; uji li>ntjr.%, wi[li iIk* vxivjitioii *>f lottv 
tiMue* Pbiitci liifTrr front unimHU In iltiu thr tVirmcr can buiM 
uj» tli*-ir MnU'turi' Irirprlv <rri nnn-pmtiin >^uWi[ii^'Qa ami cJ^riv© 

Tbe u«lutiiK)NU ^rv <if compli^ic <H>in|»j»it]nn, and i?vi<]pnt)y 
mn r>i>l Ih: tj^u) :is iilhtmnnoid^ iii t1i<< );n»wtU atid rtpulr of 
the Ixwly. Tlu-^' ii|)|>t-iir [n hitvr a foiKl-vjiliK' Mmil^ir to tLut 
of Uie ruriMihvdniK.*^ mill iuU. Thv i^Wnutiw* an- pn»l«ibly 
of no ytt\uc dtbiTana A>ur\,'« of ^^ncrgy or m xhv fonnjitif-n of 
tjwuv^. TlH!y act hh stlmulaab^ and iih ii|»p<*ti/4-r4, and it Ibik 
l>M-u r-tiiipd tJiat tlic irniviiig .-mmir individual-'* hnvc fur mmt ii*^ 
ill nitHtv, zi di'r'iro fur thi' c-xtnietiv<^. 

Carbohydrntes i^ftntitiii no nitrr^n, Th#-y air*- i^umpoMid 
of mriH>ii, hydni^-n, iuhI nxyiri'ti, thr l:i^t tvn> in ihr propnrlion 
l<j fi)rni milir — (m^, lor excmipU', f<tan'li or dexiro«**. <.",Hj„<Jt; 
lionoc ibc nantc, (.iii-lMiLydnitiT*- Tlirv iiioIikIo die ^tantu'?', tljo 
Mlgnn^ and v<-plril>!'' liU-r i.r (yllnlowt-. Ciiiiniliydnni? t\n* 
Ifirnil up ill thf body, und tlii^ir HK'if^v iP rhaii^nl into lutil or 
iisfv] up ia miwnlur >V4irk ; tiny may nl^i Ik* o>hv<TU<f) into 
fal nixi l»p Kton^l aip in tin- IkhIi'. TIkt rtniK-rficbl fatty titwDcr 
of tbr InnIv M*r\'<-?< n.% a dirr'Ct protection n^jin^^t coM iind n--- n 
«.t»rcln>UM* fnr ln*at nnd oih'T^". Ktnrtrh fi>mtiB only nbnat 1 p^r 
<!ont. of llw lMwly*wt*ight, Thr- nirlH-liyilratm, fin ni^'inint of 
tlirir ca^v dip>ti<ui arL<l ax'ailability.nrc- tli4^ mwt |iniliiio M>urce 
of hml and 4<lll-^g^^ 

Fat, nr liydricarlfm, if< an imp<irtaiit cl^'nu-iil of fnod, M»r\"- 
iii2 lW -'^HK* |H]r|Hit«v an tiic i^arlioliydmUt^, but nmri' valuable 
wH^it fnr wt'i^tit m» a s^tourtc of oimtj^' tluiQ the btftor, Init 
ln-ioir iw itlior ^^ easily dljrcsu<l nor k> availalb^ Fal is fniind in 
aiunial fiHid--, :«ijo1i ;u« mint, fip^b, tiud Imtler, in vi-^^etidilt? l!iKK]?<, 
Aji «il5, in dn- vnri<iti[* i-rrvul-f. nnd in tbr kt-rm-U of niitK Tnk*^ 
ajK fc4id in noncH of llio ni'4'dtf of the orguriiHni, fat ii* u^uully 
'kiAnii in tlit> IfiFly tlw^iN*. It fornix abi^iil I'j ]h'T 4vnt. nf the 
wri^hl of an iivi<mi!T fnim, bnf tlK-n: are %^'iile varijilioiif* in 
hmllli. *A|tfirt fnmi tli'- <-l1<-i'i--^ of (^^miiti dUi^n^t^, dir tea* 
di-ney Inward l<«niH*M *>r mwanl the aivtiniidalioii of Ihi i-* de- 
prndrnt upon pfT?«xiiuil luibii, li-'n^liEy, ete., more Ibaii n|MkTi the 
r|uaDtity or quabry of tin- iimtl taken. Individual with a leri- 
dwirr to tike f«i fit l>e«r>m4- ritouter nn Ikeing overfed and on 
lokiDg loo litdt- miiBcTilar eJton-ijH*. 

Kl>r«tfrin maintains ibut tlH> iaif<^*'m of fat i^ a factor in 
pTPvunting muii47u]ar Giligne. ft h ah id that during llie 



20 CUBMlSTIiy ASD PRYStOLOQY OF BIOBSTtOy. 

Fmtiro- Prussian M'jir, with (hi* *'inl in vii'W, Uk* '^i^'Tman 
Km|x.'mr or(lf.'n.il llirit uuth miKiitT I'tytrivi* :2-'>0 gfiuii?! uf fat 
hacon a day. 

DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION- 
DIGESTION. 

TlifT dSgi'siion of food vxki'S jilaiie llin»iigh a nuTiitxT i>f 
vln^rnur rlmii^c?^ Iin>u)^lil aUmi lu llic ulimi--iilui'_v liticL \>y \\w 
iictioii of riTtniii uuorgimixcd forracut^ UHimlly kifciiWii us imi- 
zymcw, Aluug rtitb thtwt' chcmk- dmi)g(» iJn^ro urts of wjui'm?, 
ii]lrrrLti<HiK tn th^ iiliy^ic'nJ jifiip'rtii'Ji of th<^ IVhmI, thi* two com- 
btiK*<l ttllowlug ilii^ Ur-^-ftil piiri, Ui W a^isimilalitl wljilo the K'* 
inriiTnIrr piissrs «»!!' ih relasi*, 

£iizyme3. — E(ixyiiii?4 are the produeU nf pn>Uj|>lii.<<mi4; 
chnn^>.'j<T mid ai^ not (mdowt-i) Avith life. They are n»iji|jh*x 
nitrogenous ?-i>U*tAnotr<, tlip exaoi cheiiiie nature of which has 
not hwn di'kTMitKHh Howell luaken ibc followiug ela***i- 
ficuiliiti ; 

1. Proteolytic encymes, or thoet acting U[h>u proU-iurt, ccm- 
veriing iht-m \i\U> n s-oluhU iub-^tinu."'.' — peptone or prol«o«L', In 
jininialH Uw fifjuthi of tin? ^^a^t.r^^ juiw ami llio iri//n<ht of thr 
p;mcreaiK' julf^^ aivt r?iait)pl^s i»f lliis cW^ A similar i-uxymu 
iF^riiurul ill plaiiU, >'■ t'^* jntK-nfipU- family (hrouu'liu) ami in 
ihe {ia|Kiw (|kii|»aiiiV 

2. Amylolytic enzymes, or tha^e acting upon ^tarohen, C4jn* 
verting ihtui ioto soluble fiirm-"j — hUgar or huj^fji- ami di'Mriii. 
Ah (-■iaiiiplti.n of lhi?> durts w*; UaM-, hi \\w anii'ial ho<ly : in lUc 
Miliva^ plyaliii ; in thv luiicreatiL' JuIcl-, uuiylopiM ; nm] iii ttic 
)iv4>r, Ode ou^whlu of eouvurtiu^ glycogen into tiugiir, lu plaiiLt 
there is u «iiiiilar fii/yiiie. known- uh diiista^if*. 

3. Fat-spllttJn5E enzymes, or thusc' aclinjr iijioii ihi^ iiiMiml 
tk\s, rtplitliu;; tltviii up into j^lyci^^nn am) ihi' I'ttrn'-HjHiticlirjif 
fatty add. Sieap^in, preHvnt in thtr jiancrnitic }u\vt% i* gn 
4^xample of Chiacla^-i. Similar tmvme* iH^cur in a nnmUT c»f 
seinU. 

4. Siigar-s(rilttlnff enzymes, or thow h»viui;tli<^ iin>|>erty 
of roiJvi»r(iii^ dit' douMt^ i[jfo the singk" ^iipir? — tin- iii--*iiiThiir- 
ids, such a» «ugar-caii(-- imd tiuiUow% into dto jiiim<XiU4.vhandrt, 
as d<-xtTv>b^ niid Il'vuIo^s T>v'r) i^uob 4.^11 xvmt'^ firu fotu id in tho 
small inU'Stiiiiv Oneof ihtsc* iioti nn nuu^-sLigarf iiml ]?* ku*'wn 
art inrertin or inrorta^e; whei-eas the other act** on nialUrM*. un<l 
is known aa maltabe. 




VWKtfTlOS AyV A£:iORPTiQX 



21 



)S. Cofl^ulotins: enzymes* or tho^e noting upoD &olu Mo pro- 
teins, jiEiA'^^iTatiMg iLi^ni in an in)^1ii1:ik form. IConDiu, ibe 
milk-rurdliiig ferm«ot of the gastric juifi^e, h a» example of tlua 
class of eanineA. 

Enzvmes have certaiu propeniee in crunmon. They ar^ fop 
example, j^luble in water an<l glvcerin. Thev are dcsir^ved at 
tk teiKi[>eralijre of fnmi GO" to 80^ C\, and their actioi] is re- 
lanlcil or eotirely stiijwncleJ by low temptniture«,^> g.^ by 
rrti~'ziii)ft — wilhoiK, hrtwtvi'i', acliiully ilwtn'viujir the ttizyint*. 
Thfv arc cluir:iotvrij>:iJ fiiritRr Ijv the i\nt that after & (vrtain 
dr^rtv <>f trbatigo hau Ux-ii ettViU'd tlie product44 of tbc^r aetivity 
pi^^*ctit AirliK-r uotioti, ^o tbnt most of iheni may bo i-aiil to 
bt' im^Miipli-ft* in ibis* rftipeet, 

AiHi*her ciiri<ptH fart in iliat the ai-tivity of nn en/ynie in 
[ioT ill prr>]x»rli4kn ti> rite aiikouut iirc^euL A iritlin^ i|tLantuy 
may eflL*ct enorniudti cb^iti^, And iDcreoMiiig ihv. aiiKJUuC of 
Hi^ynie augment,'* tJte ebiup* prodiicKl, but only Ui a et^rtain 
)H>ifit, aiVr wliicti tlie aelioi) i» tb<- .'^itnij' wlirthcr niiidi or little 
be a4k)««L vUi rii^viiii' ^^Jin nor. Ih< ijm.iI over imiJ iiVcr uptin, 
fw it jj« filterrtl U) Mmie Viiiy iiuil au ixu(irre<l ]pcii|Kiblc uf 
iTKicfitiite act ion* 

It is oommonly beb'ev<^! iHat enjtym<^ ^ffeot llkoiroban/j^rft by 
bt^ilrnty-*!^ ; ttml i.^, lUoy *w\Ht^ the ^ub^taiK^e ncxod u|Hiti fi> take 
fi|i one »>r more awileeiiles ttt water, the result bcmp tbat the 
cKiniplex l>ody wparatiis into in-o simpler one^ Take, for 
e?tamp1e, the familiar example of the chan^ in caae-^ugar : 



H«w (Hi* cbnti^ h bmii^jht about h xhA known. 

With this |nvllmin!in.- onn^iil^ration of tltf etiiymee uw may 
HAW prmewl to tbo itiidy of digestion. 

SalWaiy Di£:esti0l].— On being taken mUt the niouth, 
solid food is ma8ticnte<l and bmiijfht into cx)n(aet with the 
lialira, wbieb U a mixture of tbc Mt^retions of the &i1i\*ary 
g)an<l^ and of the smaller nmcoQ* or eemus glacds that opeo 
itilt* the monlb. 

Tbe active ptinctple of tJiL- eiilivu i« the etucyme j^^Uin, 
Thi* ftrrment cv^nverts atareh into ^ngar, a ehrtr>^ that is not a 
eimpk- nnxte*, but oi>e aoromgili^hed thivkuph s H-rw^ of inter- 
rnelbte ohnnpe>7. Tbc^v aro mrt at present tboiviiighly imdor- 
sicN-d, but they prtibably con^ut in tbc etareh taking? up ^ater 



22 CU£MISTIiY -IA;> ntYStOLOOY OF /J/CjBST/O-V, 

nnd 1>nytmirig u]liiblt< fiLiN>1i — ntityloilpxirinr wlilrH ftplitu up 
into 4lextn"fi mu\ nm\Uy^\ Tho Jpxlrin ngsiin ijikw np wal^r 
and more fiuilto*<o ir^ furmotK Tlii« iirr»C('^s n>iitimir]« until all 
the ilextrin Iiu;^ Imx'Ii converted rilo nmlti^Mre, or until, ovrini* to 
iinfuvumlile or o)iun^<4l i-oriditiniii*, the lermenttttitin in nnv^itcd. 
Hie iJcxtriu* loni»*<l iluniiK flii« pnnH-JK^ cttllVr H>nu-wlmt in 
tbeir n-Litioii lo UAuXf and jiiy ealiwl ervthnnk*xtrin, wliicb 
eivvtt n wil re&etioii n-iUi IchHib, iinil iii.<hnHklexi.rin, pnvent* 
ing no color n^etmn. Ol" thr Inltrr — tlii*:*r- ]ire:*cnti*ig no 
ooT»r rmclion — tln-n^ nri' pmliahly ^si-wntl |nvH*iit, Tlw iiniy- 
]i)|Km rtf til*' piiiH-re^iiir jui™* n*"U in a ^innliir wiiy. 

Tlio norninl rL-uction irf (he s^itivu if t^lij^Ittly alkaline-, but 
it will aet jiij-t a* well in u neuiml rni.<<)iun)* Stninyly »ilia- 
line Mi1nlii>n-« K'ti\n\ *m <itii\n-\y inhihit il^ m'timi. Stn>n|jly 
uclil MiltitioHFi [io( otilv inhibit iu action, hur iJrMniy iIj^* JW- 
ttwiit- Tln^ action <»!" |»ytHUii nm-t» ilKrelnn't (rjirn* a(W the 
frxMl liaA been hi the ^lomaeh for a eiTiain len^h oi' linic, 
Itaw Hliirtih ia iicteil miuu veiy hluuly, nheivn?« in wcil-^'nokvil 
Mar(<h tiipir itmy Ik; dutccttd itfter evtii »iie miiutto. Thi^ in 
dui* to the fjifrt (lint rlj<- f<bireli-)^ranuk-s tire -inrroundMl l^v uii 
envelop nf vr>?i'lahli» filHT (eelKilrwie) fhal |irofiH*u it fmm tb4! 
neti<>n of thy fornienl. On bf>tiiii)f, ihi^ (vlluhK'ie c^tvering ht 
bn>krn, and the ?<taroh it n<»i only lilieraleil, Imt aUo tak<« 
Up water, retwlering it ca*y of ilige^tion. (See section oa 
CtM'kintf,) 

Ga&trlc Digestion, — On enierlnp fiie s(oDiQch food is 
a^^liil ujMin by lUi^ ]iJ\>irttr )utcv mid t^ ihrLii^il hiUi rljyme, being 
tMi^«tei) into tliL* rimiill inii'viliue a^ ciii.' lurd i^ liqucfieih Attcn*- 
tion nitty heiv ln^ tuJlul U* the tnel thai /'Xtd iifn»>rjtfioii tio^a not 
/rt/v jitfire ih thr HUtmm'h. Il i*- believetl by inLniy tlirit even 
water is |wi**«i into die >niall inie^^linc for abwHiniori, 

Ve owe onr fir>t iieciirnte knowlwl^e of the |ir>ieevH of cUgos- 
tion to the rxiM-riments of IVuinnonr, ninde npm Alexis -St. 
Martin. Tlie littrrhiid Urn shot in the xtoniaeli^nnd exlithii(.Hl 
a gxifttric fistiJla that waj* wi-II f^itnaied fur pliy?ii(>logjc eii)eri- 
nient^. Iti ullier reBj»pct» he wa* a fuirly hniltby nmn.' 

Normitl Kitittric Julc^ i-^ a thin nitnovi o<tliirle«>4 }i<|imh with 
a eliiirai trri-nr *"l"r j*ii<I '(ti^^'ilf "*'^'^ rikiion. The Ufullty 
vririoe normuUv fn»ni 4tl In '»0, \\\i\i Iw'ini; tlir nninlier nf eiilM<< 
oenlimfltofK of teet-aolulton re-jnin-d to uHiimlirr HMi e.c. of 

' F.it thf n««Tit»t» t^t thw obu-w e*pwliw^m; tlw "nUj-r U ivfymHl lo 



moBSTfoy Ayn AmoRmoy. 



23 



ric filtrau*, Irtil un<W tJ»r> iiif1iipiKH> of rvrJain i1iH?tiK<^ llu* 

iJity iiHiv Iw very nmrU iiicn^nr^l. jrreally iliminiKhefl, or even 
cntin.ily iIkm'IiL XIk* aeiflity of tlic f^^^tru: jiiirc it^ due to tlit- 
prcwnco of frw liyJrxicli^Tic' ucid- L^mltT certain coDdilioTiPf, 
botli in li(9illli anil in (li^.■a^^ lectio ucid n»uy ht fotitul in ii\ts 
stomach. In ud-liiion U} fnv hylnjchlork* ;id<), tin- ^j«trio 
juice <^onfuiii8 pepsin, ii |>n>lt''.»Iyiio ciuyim' wlini^ only in nu acid 
medium, and rmnin, aii (aucyiiii- iJutt rurrlK^ii milk* 

Pr^f^ri vhnn^icf* |>rf>CciiiJ* into |H'jitt>iiv>, Tiic |>rnc<:^j** i* n 
<x>nip)ivated oik-, nnil 1* cffc»*lv*il prsidiifllly. Killmc't iiiv*sU- 
gaHi>n« lii*vv don^ miioh to eii!ijj;hie]i us on this poinu IIU 
tnetluKU and u^nninol*^' liavi' bwii adopt^^-d irxi*?nBivfly hy 
reneat n-riters, TIip prow** is de^ribod a* follows : Tho pro- 
tein mntenal i.4o)ianir^l fii^t iiiti» ntftth/iin orfiHd-nlbtiniiii, If 
tlie ^>lutton is reiidercH) alkulinf. ac!d-:klt>umiii will lie precim- 
tati<«), Tlie iwvt p-ti-p is llic tnking up of wnicv liy hynlniiifif 
vrhidi ffpltlA up into •«\'em1 Miluble proteiwt calletl €t>i)e(1]V€ly 
jnTi6tifni — silbiunosie frrmi slljinniti ; plobalose from globulin, eto, 
Tlt<H»f in lorn titkf up iii'>j>.' waier, iind I'plit np iuio another 
H*ri4*« of -udiildi" proteins kjK»wn a? tho «Mx>ndar." prolt-o?^!* or 
il''Utr'riipn>rei ■M'S. Th4*6e a^ifSLin niKl^rgo ibe Biinii? proMr^i md 
form peptoaes, GeUlinoidH ar<* acted iip<>n by p^^pKin in muoh 
tlie Mme w«y b« are proteiuf*, Tb<> inlermodiatv pr>duHs bavc 
becTi lennwl f;vibi/o«ra or y rii/owv, Tlw end-product U known as 
gdiitin*i>cptoDe, 

/fntftiA ciinlltM milk very rapidly at the body-lemperaiure. 
The <T»,«<*in i* eNwnx'rtf?*! fmm a FM>b]ble proleiD into a more or 
liTw rM>lid clot, irbii'li ^ntdually Iioooiih-s firmer and expre-i**^ all 
ihc whey th.it tva* o<niUin<id in the mLu^> Tin? cji^-iio of cow's 
fQilk jir^'ipitatfM in Ur;^* limi olot^ ; that of liumai^ nillk, into 
%vrytiap Acw^rnlem pjirricle^, udndi explaiiH the preai ililTifrenoe 
in Uie dif^'stibility of lite luo mi1k>^. 

Action of the Gastric Jui« on other Food Elements, — 
IS^^^'ond the nitvliatiioal altenitiou>^ timt tak^ pla>>- from the 
prei*enee of fluid :ind from the churning movemtnt? of the 
piUiauK'h, ihe «tiircbe< are not acted upon by the |^»tnc juicf. 
[juA bclii^-vc:* tliat sugar is inverted in ihe ^oma^-h. wlM^rpair in 
mdity it inidL-rp>o invei^ion niudi dioi>* eookplett^ly in die i^mall 
iii1<<«uno< la the ^loraacb fatti are, for the ini.>f^t part, dts^dved 
by ihft body-hesit and become ihorou(;bly mixtHl with the ocher 
f<ioA rl^mPnU by the moveitK'ntH of the »tomaj>h- [Jeyond lhi« 
tliey r»m:'iTt ttQchans:e<h 

intestinal I>lge8tion.~^Vh?Q the food bas been pa^^ 



24 CBEMUiT&y A^ii rursioLOOY of dioestioj^. 



into the amatl intestiuf!, it k ati^ on simultiiKOiiflly hy three 
f*ecpetionf* — the pancrwitic juice, the iuleatina] jtiice,and tie bfle. 
Although these M^crditmSf u^ Mated^ aot to^'elJuT, for the sake 
ot" simplk'itT Kioh Avill be consulere<l hcparatelv, 

Pancrentic Juice* — <^)ur ktiuwlcd^ of the functions of the 
panei'ftUit' Jiifw is olujiirtFtl ]iirp?ly from exjierinient^i xniidv on 
the lowf.']' niiiiuul''. Ii^ iikui k cDtc-i'^ the iuie&niie R>^etlit<r with 
t>r oloM'ly following or prixvling th<- hi\^^ bein^r mixed with tljc 
latTet ee?rel)on nn<l the fo<Hl-rn»t4?riftl at the rAine tinM>. Ic w 
alknline in ronetion^ nrul roiitnln)^ Ftl least three, and prohshly 
more, enKvmeH — vfic., ti^iwio, amylopfiiLti, ^teapifiD, and, it is 
said, a inilk-cEttxIling terniciit i^innkr U> reiiain, « 

Trypsin. — Tryptiin i* ii nion? iirtivc ferment tlimi is pepsin, 
and acts in nlkalinc^ iicutrul, or own in ^^llglitly aciil mi-<lia. It 
is most active, however, in atknliin* !*ohiiioH&. The pi\>ees« bv 
whieh iwptoiies iire lormwl I'mni pmlrins h similar t(» that t>f 
peplie di^eMiou^ hut differs «>mcwhr»l in dct:iil. Trypsin^ how- 
ever, id <^pable of carrying on the digestion <>f peptones furtlicr 
ihttu 13 pepAin. Tlie ^tep« nf th<» pwie^^M conuint in i;e|^niting 
rhe p*?pfrne inlo mi tfnfi/irfitfivr,'.i |K'p1onp tliat oan not liPHfteil on 
further hy the fermenU and hi'miitrjtttm'\ ^^'hich is £ptit up into 
I'arious simpler siihrftaiKx'^^ tfiicli uj< amtdo-iicids and iiitn^*itoiis 
babies. Amon^ the*e Minpler :4iiWtaii<N*tt are leiioin and tyrosln, 
Ju*t what r^le K\\v^' end'pr»xiinrLH play in tin- animal t^i.-»nonjy 
ha» not hi^w liirnuU'ly iletiTmined, They d" noi if pliicT ti^ne- 
vraLfte, iind urr l""^-" wH-fid wmroes of eut^r^-y ilmn is |tejit(»ne 
Ttjfwif, whitih 1-* alwirWI an auch ond ntiltze*! l>y iht Ijoily, 

irovrcU giv4*A the following scheme, nKidified from Xeuniei^- 
t«r^ to fixplaiD i^phienlly trypticr digiwtian ; 

Froteid 
rviibrrcHilbuTiiow 



All<lptT|>iCilH> 



r" 



— 1 

||«D)1WplMl« 



TrnaiD AvparttcocU NilniKtiioiB baaiA 



The difcvfition of (relalinoidi* ia AiniiUr to that nf the proteins. 
Tryi«n pwdnccs grlarin-|H'i»u>ne, w hcrx-nn p-^i^"*, iw ppeviously 
ftfa'ied, ceasw to act with the fnrmjUtt>n i»f gi0iiui^\ 

4mvfopw"* con^'^rt** i-tareli into ?*Mj^Tir in the .simr KViiy ihat 



DtQBSTIOy ASD JfiaOiJMVOy, 



26 



filxitliti tltc%. [iu-innHi n* f»tynlin 4li^'i>ilion <va«»s wUIi fli* 
t'Tilmiiix* ^f ihc iiKxl iiitf> the p^toitiacli. ii i^ ]m|Mtnnnt thai the 
i<Uirr)i(% »]iiinM 1m^ ounipli-tt^ly ili^'«ti-<l in thi' smM 'mUi*t\ni\ 
e^iKViJilly a.-* a lui^- |uiti nT ibc Ikvii and cn^i^' eon.'iuiiked by 
Uic b<«tly ;,■» 4lt'nv<?tl friiin w>ti^." fi>mi of ctUircliy Io(hI. 

Su^t^Nfiii. kiufwr rtlM> us li|j:iw', i^f>lit« up ihe nculntl fiats into 
glywriii ttitt] IV"*' fiilty a<-i<l>*. ThU <^'iniiltitic]i1ion is of fiara- 
niouDt uiip«*rtjiti4^ in fnt-ili^c^tinn find uljMjrptioD, Tlie procu^ 
pr>w Ix^cnifncs again rtni^ of liydrnlv^]?. The iiit tukfti up witter 
find »\ihu lip mUi otWr iiihmIucU. Tbe followmg ionuiUa 
4fjcpbiii?i (hr proce*** : 









'ri»ore are two views concomiiig ihe abftr»q>tM»n i>f fat> 'flic 
akkr view ip? that the fat tpliui or is ^jxinjlted *mly to a Miiall 
vxitul> the Itirger |iui1 W K teiog tiiiulnllit^ l\v die f»lly ucid» 
fonued during the spliuhi^-up pnK-t-M. ThU einulhitied fat iit 
tlK-n dtn<ctLy a1jt*ottH^1 a* iiuuirul fht. Ttiv vk*w moiv rironfly 
ni]'i|>te<l i^ tliiil nil ihi* liil if^ s^j^Ut im into glyet-nn ikn<l flirty 
iiciiU, u'lM-thrr UT n<}% i*un\Uii}<'a\u*n nvkf j^revioui^ly c-crriirnHj, 
The tatiy ncids are sipnniHed hv the iiciimi of tlie ulkalini- ^ult« 
in tlie intc^ino, tlje prt>diKtfi lieing tlieu Hl>5orbeiIr nitd brought 
into onmbinatinik agiiin i^ form a neiiiml fnl. ThtR recomliiTia- 
tloii may oeotir in Ibe epithelUl eelU of th<' interline. 

EniuUifieatioii taken phiee more rapidly in the presence of 
biU- und paucn^Ltic tluid ibau iti the preM'ncv erf jJuiK't^eulic fluid 
^onc. AUlKxigh bile )IM.-If euii4C!4 ao emulni^oution, it aidd 
VMy niiit^Tially tri thi* pnxx**, 

tiite«tinal Secretion. — Thi< iiitc^i^linal juice exerts no artir>n 
0[i either [n^^U^in* r>r fat*, txCTpt ft* tW widiiim carbonate eun- 
taini.<4l in It mar aid in the oniiiNiReatiaiiof lut. TbeM^retion, 
however, eoutjiinrt nwyme!* ftijittblr of PODverting t^tareli into 
iiiignr, und firnii iiu <^|inbU* <^f eotivi^rlinfr »^c(<hiirose into dex* 
truie and Icvuhwo and mnlt'rr4<- iutodcxtro^. The sugam are 
atip^rt>nl IVotn tlM> Int^^r^iini^ la Ibo forni of ilejitroee, und prob- 
ably idrM" uf liiitiw. As ttr df?*<*vii4l llw inltatina) tract tbe 
ijiiuntity of cii/vmr?* cfinttnncd in the intr-itiiml [*ocreliun beeomer* 
ffinalh^r. Tlic lurpe mt»tiai^ iot-rtrti** rnw-titi but no etixymoM. 

Rftctdrial ChMfiz^' — TUn eb^nfftv ]inMhiei<il liv luirT^ria an\ 
an extrenK*ly !inix>rtflnt factor in dttfi'siiitfi, i.'vfifH-inlly from llic 
palb**!' ^io ^tani||>oint< Tlie Mdij<*c< mu nM, lukwi-von Im- entfred 
up>m J'uily hvTVf and /ur a coi»[>Ieto knowl<i]gi> die sttideut 



2C CUEMISS'Sy ASD PnYSlOLQQV OF DlQBSTIOSf, 

FilmitM nui«i]lt t|L<* A|H.'c-inl ti-xlH-KHikr^ <m lxirti*riiiln^y. K^ir utir 
pri?^-i)t iHirixri^c if i-> ?«iiffi<'k*rit ii> Niy tUiil, in rhc ^iwwW \\\Wa'u\\.\ 
buct^rin eluiiiiH'-* iirtr iJi>4wil>iy limitHl m tti*- ojirli<ihyiinitt^. 
UndtT ubiiuniml i'<iti(iiti<>n^, nr wlioii (-xw^ssive i|iinniilK-H fif 

frotciD f*MMl jvrt' iak<"n, pntivlarlioii nf the pmleins may <)criir, 
n the liir^* inii-jsEine, however, ilie oxireme alkalinitv ovcr- 
conie^ Oil* itt'uHcVj iiinl iillowr* imtivfziriioji of ih*" (tiv^ tn Uik<* 
place. The prcKltlcLn of l«iirt*'piul iiftii-ii arc ruaiiy, and cnuniat 
of Iriitnti, lyivwin, plicuol, Kkntc>[, iind varloiirt i\mA» and gnt^tw, 
Sm>o nf rht^r^ aft^r Imviiij; iirni<*r;rtiiir (vrliiSii rlitm^r^, im* nlw 
ni>rl«^l ntul rxrrt'liil Ji^iin in tlu- Tiniic. It i* nut ilrfitiili^ly 
knoHTi jii^t uliiii ji^irl tlir<y jiliiy in ilx- initriiion \\\' i\\\* UkIv. 
Juiljjiij^ rnjrii lhi» rxiw'riim'ut-^of NiituII, it is ix^jiftoimbly ct-r- 
tain, huwevvTf thai hia-tt-tHal ariiikti i.^ iiol e^&entml 1<> nutrition. 

ABSORPTION, 

In on-k-r |»n»i>erly to undersljinil di^-itiitn un<l a-vii (nihil inn it 
U nwH>-iMiry lo knu^' ^iriptliJiiir of iibsin-jiiiciu, ThU inn^ui^; In 
twi Wiiyn : eilfiH' fiy th<* nialfrnil iih?u>rhcHl fiitiTing din^^tly 
inr*) flie kLml iui<l |i;i«*ing tlience tj the livi^r, nr hy ifi* cnt^TUig 
tJie lEicteiLl.t aiid |>iL4Ain)^ theiu^- llinm^li i\xe thumdr duct to 
enter the hloiTcl-cnrwnt of ihe loft jugiilnr and Hiilii^liLviun vt'iiii^ 

Ahrtorpticm wa^ formerly bolieveii tj> (iik(* piiin^ t" ii very 
fuarki^d **xteiU in th<' storaiicb* Thb view U n^w held to be 
erroneoiiSf probably little or ito absorption fiiUtii)^ \>\\\cv in tlii^ 
Ol'iffili, Wjit^^r, :l« WI.-II ji^ luoml othtT juiuitb*, iimy Ik' nil* 
florlK^ 'plii-hTly fn'in ibo t^toniack. Alcohol nuiy bi' flbHi>r1>iHl 
in it, niul ^oliiiionH of varioUri "Jidt^ niny be iilwhrUftl f-I'mly- 
f^nndimenL-4, by Hlinniljitiiig the inticnii^ n>i^iiibnihc^ fkf the 
fltomaeh* and increasing the secretion of gaMrir jiik^, aid in 
fltomacli iibwrpiiftEi, Fats are not alianH>ftI by the xtoniaoti. 
Proteins aiul nti^rs, if taken in nuffiHently rona-ntnitf-il !*<du-- 
tions. may be ^Tijsorljed, the congestion bronjjht iibniii bv tbe 
u^ of alcohol or CiTKlimeiitH aiding Uie ah?^)r|)tion, On the 
wkole^ however, jib?Mnpiiou from tli^ Mnmach i-< of fritting tm- 

Absorption in the Intestine.-— Abttorption tnkr_H plii^^f^ 
priin'ifKilly in iht- flmull mteritin*^, FiN«i |irii!M.>!< from ihi- smnll 
interline m from Jive to twenty bour^. On (-ri^Tin^r fhi' \ivv\iv 
interline tlio (ikkI \» still in a very flnid condiUon. notwith- 
standing the laiye amount of al>sorplioii of vrator Jind sjilu tbat 
takes place during it^ pat^age ihrouj^h the Amall inte;<[itie. 



DIGSSTWH A SI} AfSSOMITIOX 



37 



T\w nb»^*rpt>on i»f wiili-r it^ n »jK*iTml riin<:iioTi of the intoe- 
final ^jkllUolitim, and uai n *\myt\v qac^tloti of rb^mru^i^. f^>lu- 
liotif^ tlml di^ely nwemble the biotni st» rvgnrin iilkuHnity may 
rapidly l)e aljw.irl>wl. Th<* ttwt<.'r iibsorbtd i;; Uxkvn n|» ilirectly 
hv ttM- oipilliirics wit)kiuit liM iinj!«in^ tliruii^li the ki-tcuU, 
although \f vm" hiri^- ']iiiii)t]lK« ?irc t^in-u, ihis la^i nuiVMOtrur, 
(hir kiiowhv)^- of intcr^itiiiil abeurptJon ie due hii^dy to the 
cx|ti-nmoTit.-< i>f lU-ftWiilimii. 

Thi^ »lKwir[>LU'ii iif wutrr 19 lurj^-ly ir-pliicH*il by lIr* ahuudaiit 
WCTviion %A' thr ?<i)ml] iik1f^tm<*. 

TUp pmtpiD foiMl-miilci'lul I* ah>iiirh4-i1 ohiirHy a>^ pcptoho or 
]in>t«H>«, hnt it U vrry |brolmhio that nynlotiin. fliii) rv^n prik- 
teio^r like «gg*4Ll)>u[iiiii» may be ab^trbed diiv^tly. Pejitoiit'S 
tnA tlic like are fiu1yx3bK\ :ti)<l rikiy jiasM thruu;;h dt-ud Lminml 
iii«inbrat>ets 1^"^ the rule of ali^oriiti^m !>< ^PL-atcr than t^n be 
explainal io ihU x^;iy. Dmly^uibl^ ]»n>teins, likt- cgg-Eilbumhi, 
may be ibftorbE^I dirvotly^ hj thiit ttK^orptiun a« it lukci^ plac» 
ill the iTi(4;r«tiiic is u t<piH.<Juliz4il fiiiKlioii ijf the inte^tiniil qn- 
tbeliiiui, and init a eiiujilL- pr>h]f-in in pliyr^lor^. 

Tlte pn>ieui>» ab^^jrljcd an poptoitc« or pi^:>ter>M;!i paaa directly 
iuto the ciapillarl««, or, at leont^ th«y io ao under certain ex|)eri- 
menial *v»n<iili*«'4. Their presenre enn not. however^ Im> demon- 
strated in rhe blood, and if sohilionn of them aiv injei^ted 
experimentally, they prodtice poi^onou^ eflecis. From this it 
may Ite fcen thai a change luust l)e crtected ia the^ enhiitaiiees 
duriof tbeir pof^ajire thn^u^b tlie imet'tinul epithelium. It i^ 
the belief of K»nie lli:i( ihe peptones and proteow*! an? ehangeil 
into terum-alhiimiiiSy htit \\wve ]» no detinfte proof of thifi. 
The |ip*eww «x>u]d W the n'vi'ree wf rlie dE|>v»live pnjcower^ — 
tlie abstraction of water and iiolymorijeation. 

The cnrbohydraled are absorbed a8 dextrose or ad levulotte. 
IVxtuwe ran he demonHtriteil in the blno*!, mtt\ if flolntiotn of 
ihU substance are inji:Hne4) directly into the circidation, ii may 
be ntilijDed by the lirv^ue^. Tlie obeorptif>n of dextrose fr<im 
the intertine U pP)lMb]y nuire tliaii a simple process of diffiiHioa 
thri^igh an animal nK'inhrane, and tt i^ pof48ihle that a r^jtceial 
activity of the hiie?^tine i?^ here bnxi^ht into play, 

Tbe ftiB are ubeorbet] either dia'<^^tiv as sudi or in the form 
of fatty aeids and »oap0, Thtr absorption of the ffiuall droplela 
of fat din-ellT ir^ tlioughi to he a pxirely ineehamcal proceea?. 
The ^itty ncidf^ are chanf^l iDto netitral fat^, a proe«*48 tlial prob- 
ably taken plncein the epiibelial nel)^ of the inte«tjne. Thetaty* 



2S cjinMrbTJir asd puysioloqy of 2>joBifrios. 



jtti^ fur lhi< miisl ivirt ilin^ly iiiM tlio Uirl<*<iU nnil i»tn tho 
bltJrtl by wiiv i)f ilir tluntn^ic iliii^L 

Alit^^rpiii'ii iJikiM jtliLoc ill chc htrgt' iiiK^iiiir, I>ii1 it ih chidly 
an ahj«)qitiini of wafer, l^hc feoea <aiUT in a wry lli[ui(l <siii- 
dicion, aniL, afi^r mukitig Aow pro^i^e^ tWr aliiKtit Lwt^ho hoitr^ 
tlu-y reiich ibe rectum In an almof^l f^oUcl pondiiioii, Tbt* hir^ 
inu-Hiiuc jKJH'^eMi*. ix'imkrk^ibti' [Histir^ of aljMir[>lit>ii, &iiuT i'j!;g' 
iilbuinm, milk, awil tbt liki.", given iu llw fdrirj 4'f nutrient «nc- 
imUzi or L-X|VTiEnc-utully, niiiy U? alnorlKHl in1i> (Ik* ^vMrro, 

Ziver. — TIh' livci* jiIuvj^ nn im|*<»rtnnt pfiri in the* imtrilion 
of xlu* IhhIv. Thi-"* iinpi^riuiu-i' Ls iUiv Ihi^Iv Xu ihv liili- whirh 
il ^<'i.'ri'tr-*, untl wlufli i^ mi niljiiviini lo iTitr^^tiiml (liyx':<tiori,ui]f] 
to the aelion of tho livTrn^cIN on the iil»:^rlK<<l fcKKl-nintorinl as 
it Ia foiiiid in ihi' |>or1al rirviilj&tion. 

The bile roniiiiii^ Ijile-pigmeiil^, bile acids fglyciiclioUc and 
taurorh<j|ir|, dioleMicriM, ki-Jihiii, fat^. and inicleii-allHiiTiin. 

The fuiKlioi) uf the hik-plymaUK i^ iil>?*cui'e. Kvi<.le»tly 
thfv nn.- wa^'tto-proclntrU of in ela holism. The htlc add^ urt 
hcliL^vnl U* plav uti imjyirttiiLt phyf^ioloffR* i^lo. Tli4.*v* <)ta- 
H)lvc> the- i-hoh'^riTtTt iiikI tiicilifatr tlu- alKi>q>trm <A' IbTi^. 
dwlMrrin is ixi.TH(hil as n wayt(*-piVMlni-t fdriacnl in vnri'iii.'i 
ti^uiY, «n<l i,* exeri'U^l iiy the livvr-ciJIs, a;* wlJI o> by the 
»f[cin ^Intiilrs find the niammary ^kml. I^ithin tt^ ali^fi a waj^t^- 
fkivxhii't. Antir*e|>lir pnijH-rtitn Eiave bc^en a^'erihnl to the bile, 
II jirr-jxTty that bar* never Ikvh demoiisimt<Hi. Wlien a hilmry 
lUiubi iK'Curs and (he bile is diverte^l ibmi ihe intestine, the 
fcT.^ avf M'vy lij^hl in ci>tt>r aod )^ive oflu iVliJ wh^r^ tapi-riatly 
if Inrgt-- i|Uaiit]ti<?H of meat and fat are tnkcD, Thi< oiitiputro- 
taf-liv<' action lyf the bilf> i- priibiMy an in<lir*vt '^ne. In thos^ 
|uifienfj& ia whi»m the ^m^iily of bile is eiil off' fivim the inteii- 
tine a (XHisiderable amount of iindisrested and unah&orbiK] food 
ptt**0!* iht^Jnjrh ihe inte^jfine. It Uat- Invn [mfV^d, however, 
that in ht^iltby animal?; the entire i^iipply *>f bile may be 
divrrti'd nnil ilie aniinat-' ^tiU contiiuie ht-althy, whieh Mhnw£ 
that the fancliotifi of the- bile can. To a <*«'nain extent, be 
roplnoi^K The bile biIn* help-* lo arnv't [K'|iile iligtt*lion in ihe 
intdinr. 

Olyoogen- — One of tho' moiit impftrtant fuiiHionM of the 
liver ie lh« si>-i'alle<i ^Iveopi'iii'' fimrtron- In isr>7 Olfiiid^ 

Bernard de j^trao^l rbc pR^i^n^^ of ^lyeocen in the liver. 

Oiveo^n i^ ftolnble in UTiter, and has the same ^etienil chemie 
formiilfi ns stareli- Townnl dip<stiv'e jnieefi it al?^ behaves 
like siarclij and the eiHl-prixIocl* are the same sa in the owe 



DiGSSTIOy AlCD AmORFl'IOy. 



29 



of fiUinli, iiAJiicIv, maltuc^e and dt'sitnQ, (iIvimj^th Is tM>mim>jtlv 
kuowi) tt^ uuiiuul ftturt'h. M'Uli iixliu it given u rvJdi^t imtuatl 
of tl» bliw rol«r wf onlinary aUii-eli, GtyoigOD U i*lul>uml4.<<l 
by tht^ ViVi'T and can bo (V>nu>u-Hirateii in tlw' livi*!*-**^'!!^ ]i 
occtiis in grmtc^t ijufLiiiity niier mraU, aiid (li.-('n«.-*i.'?> with 
fasting. AlYer f>r(»]uti>rt'ii iai^ta it may dL'^ajiiM'ar alto^erh<*r. 
The carijohydniU's aid directly in tin? f(>rniation of glycugeii. 
Tlwfte reach tlie liver in the tbrra of tl^'Stro.^ie and levulose, and 
are convcrlid into gly<:»»gen by tbc abstrat-iion <if a molecule 
uf water. I^rt-j** ]-> not wi ea?>ily cbaiigi^l, and if giv<n in 
exce»tivi> <juuutilii??^, inu be demount ratc-d in tbe ni-iue. whk-b 
ehowA tbat it bar not ht^a utlli^H), During iufaiicy. bowtv<»i-, 
WtoBMT, or mtlk-?ii]^r, fiinnv an iTn|k<^riiuit nddltioii iit l!if> diet, 
and in n4<d u\% in ihv UnIv in i^irtr^idtmiKIr <|imnrieiKK. 

<ilyccq?^'0 niay W foniud dinvily fnmi |>rotein-% a jinfcocRi' 
dial oonini palholi^indly in diabeti^). Acc'trding to t^ome 
ftni)u>fs fel ean not liv <'i*nv*^ii<Hl into ^ly<?ogcn ; oihi-r*, how 
€v<Tr^ lu'lit've ibat, muler cenaia giiitliologie oonditioDr^, llii?* may 
take [>lace. 

Tbe ninrti'in of glyci^'ii Jwih U-t^u a imitter of jnnch dif*- 
put«. Bcniard't vitw wan tbat ii luminlit^i a tueanr^ of ntoring 
ti|> tlte rUf^n-H until llit^' uru iuh<<Ii.-<I, tlio glyo<F|j:oti l-oi^i^ cK>ti' 
veru*d iato ^ii^ir (dt^-vrntM'^ and hilo^n tigi liy the blitod. Ttio 
sain«> amount of si])£ar U found in tbo hKK)d wlicihff the iitdi" 
vidual L* fiL<tin]£ or ti lii'in^r on pt^tein frod. If tbe nmmint 
of mmr in ll»e blood eioeedr* a certain |*f nvniajre, it U ex- 
cwtea b%' die kidn^n. Acoitnlinw: to home autbors, glycogea 
la chnngofi into dexiro^ by Ihe action of aa eiizAiiU', 

GlycQgeti 16 al*o found in the inUKlcp, Htoiv<l up, in all proba- 
bility, for imnu-diatc umt. The dJITM^iKV ituit esiH^ l^ivreeii 
the uku^cIc iuid liv^T HU|ip1icH of ^dyri>^-ii m^v Ih' Cfnii^mred t'> 
the ditrcn:-t»ce tx-'twcvn rc'iail etjiip^ vvhrn? nuittfrtid i:* TiU|>|.^ticd 
immediat'-ly to tlie w>nsunn-r, and lb*? ivurt<bo(iw.4. wbert* it in 
stond in lur^ qnantiti^.^ TIm^ ely<^'^'> "^ ''^^ iniLscIe k 
oxidiwd and ii^ encr^rx' oonvcrted into muscular fiircc, 

Ure« and the Uver> — Anofher function of thf liver I* the 
formation of urea. After tlfco nitn>^^)ous eU*m(^nU bave been 
ooDi'uinv'l Aa a souixv of tissue-supply and em-rpr, ibey are 
climmntcd from tbe body, prJncijiaUy by ibc kitbtey^f in the 
form of urea, Tbat urea w fuiiut^ in tbe liver has been 
pn>\x>d exp«4nnjentally. 



3U CliEMSTJtr AXD PBVStOLOGY OF IfWESTIOS. 



PECUUARmES OF THE DlGESTnON IN INFANTS. 

Diirliif; XW'. fiist yt^jir <if \\\'v {\w iitfiiiit Ijikc*^ ili^ I^hmI by 
i^iK-kin^. If Uk'i't' if* itriy tletWa of ihc Ji|ki or i»f ilir |>;ilutOf or 
if naaiil otHtruciion oec-urM IVom any cau,'<tf% niiiNiTi^ iiiuy bo 
(lillk'uil nr im|H>hMl]|(.-. It '\h imptirlaLit, llirrrloiv^ In rxuinltic 
ihv iiifzuU (unx'iuUy to iim^f^rluin if U i--* cnjmbU' of taking Mjfli- 
oUfHt cout'Jsliriii-it1 l>v iiiiliinil mi'djcitU. 

The SalivA. — At birth l1i<- unioitnt nf t^ilJvn K<vrrU<il i« 00 
trjtliri^r tliiit u» 11 ftuTUir in tligi^htiuii it nTiiy K* t<Miklly <lifiiv- 
pinli-(l. It iiiciyjif**."^ gnulujilly, JKiwi-vt-r, Iwitli in quaiinty 
iiii<] ill ilitjiT'iivL- i'n|Njliility, SliHw bsis 4k Lrii>ii»lnjti.'<l llmi it was 
cjUlU* arJivc cvcii in very yoiin^; infjuit^. At {\\v loiirth nioNtli 
tl!4 uniyKilylio |r»wit i» wi^ily <K'mon^tniliii. Wiih rlio i^rtip- 
ti<'ii vf H'Cth tlKTfr U u com^klcniblu n»ciT«H' in i|imntity, imj 
tlim an infiiiii ijf fnmi lipht lo li.-i] miirjtlin or n y«ir of iigc ie 
fililc to ilipc^t n sritill ijujintitv *tf >tai'oli. 

The Stomach.— Iloli jtivoa th<> lollnwing liihli? rt'j^Hing 
tlu- c,ii>rti'i(y of tlir infnnt «tom»oh : 

Blrili ... '• LSOouncco. 

2 twki 7 l-fiO " 

4 '* 4 200 ^' 

e " U ±27 " 

8 '* , 4 a37 " 

ID " 2 4.25 * 

12 " fl 4.W) * 

14-18 wccltf 12 fi.00 " 

6- tf mniilH , H fi.75 " 

7-8 " , e 6,88 " 

10-11 '* 7 8.U '■ 

ii-14 " la eiig - 

In infinitiA (^ip^tm- 4li(fr*-^ti<'n is ]in>lmhly of no vm- prwit, 
iin[nirlJiiioi'. In \\\i- virv vnimtr ll»* >tiiiniu*li i\i'\% vXiWAy iir^ si 
ri'-MTviiir fr<nn wliicli llic Wn-A i^ (hismiI into tfic iiUrMiiio. 
Ttk' Kn^h iif liiiR' the IikmI ii'Fniiins in the inlnnt Htiin»ic)i 
incmi."<c^ with the agt^ of the child. Holt Htiit<'> thiit in hi^-illhy 
b!t*a?l*f«l infaotA one montfi oM the etfmuirh i^ fotjnil <'n»]ity 
«l the I'lul ("f an h^uir tn- an liour luni :t half jilV-r nni'sin^. 
"VVhrti fi'il u|Hi:i i'<m>' milk, the fiKxl nruiain^, mi un «iveni^', 
hnlf oTi hour longij". In iiifiint." from two to oight mcmlbs nhl 
thc< fiH^I r(*nifiin« xoinvwhiit hm^^'r — tu'ii lionr^ fj>r hreagUlV-J 
fiml tn-ii iinil fnn^liulf to tlir<i< hours for iK^itth^fnl hnhii.'^. 
Ci]t>rrio (liir:iv«ti<»n i-* prolonj^Kl jn all case? ^vh^-re thiw i*^ any 
Ot'ningi::u^iit of <hg;^:^tioti. Tiie uiilk, liowever, l>egins to 



MhrABOUSM. 



31 



tc*v€ the i*t<nnacli vcrv' vooty o€%t^T fccdiug, olid continue?* lo do 
«'> ^mluiilly until it hai; all ]Ui£f<il into the intfrtmi^. 

Pepsin ix pfwj^t in the infant «^i>mach n1 birllh The ko^ 
tHui "f tilt ^tomIK'Il-eontent■^ in acid. <le|ieiidin^ on tb<^ in^^ritw^ 
o( hvdrvn-hk»ric iicJd, ami in caHv iDlunc^' of lactic avid as 

Rennlf] pliiVK an intpi^rtunt piin in tnlant digestion. It 
ivnf^utiitt'K mothrrV milk id Ioom.' thiki*^, wlicrcas cow^' milk is 
<Hingiilnt(*d in liirgf nia-Hi'H. Tliin fiu-t niu*l Ik- U»rne in mind 
in tWtliii^ i<4iwn* milk Ut y<aiti^ trtriiril>, and ihr milk fehoiild Uf 
tH> miHlifif^i II-* to prc-vi-iu i-urdlin^ m tnr^ niaMv». 

Ifitestinal IHsestion. — T\w fltarcli-<!i^j<>*itiiip form^nt of 
tlw jKinrmu i< not v<'T^" ni-tirt ilnring oarlv lifp. In nmonnt 
aii<l ]>..\»vr ii Minis ti>oiri>.-<p<»nil liirg^y lo pyialin. 

Absorption dltrenc ^umicwtmt in jiituDt^iif do|>eiidini: on 
rhi*tbrr tbi-y htv bniiAt*- <>r boltI(f-ft*d* In bnaxt-f^l infantB 
'fhim 2 lo ptT wot of (l*c prutiinif and fats jkl*,*- dircvtly 
tlroflgh ihi- tnti^tftim*. In iK-tlk^-fi^l baiiit!^. rOVInmnn ^tates 
iJuU tlw ivtidnt' h fnini 1 1»> ;J |>cr wut, nK^ri- lor tti€ fiits, 
wbcrviu for tho prott-iupt tiitrc ii< a Mill jjR'alvr iiicrcuiw. 

Nnnicrone bacteria arc pn^oent in die intc^ltnoj^ tkf infant^ 
und while tb^y may piny ftinj*" (mrr in ibe dip'=tivo proceta, !c 
ifi on«* ofi wbifrh neilb«'r li{»' nor biidih d^'iM^nilri. 



METABOLISM, 

Food is required for two pnr|iutr*> : (o Uiild uptbe bixly nnd 
repair tisfiue-wasto, and to !«ni')kly encrt:y niul linU, 

F'tf" |uir|«jMw of M.inty f*Kt*l nmy W cUw^-Ifit-d intJ» proteins, 
fal, carlfoliydrutcf^, niineml na\\€, and water. Tbcsc nrc more 
or l«fle compK'X eoaiKiiuilion^ nf tU« vamut^ «lc>mnntfi, ^ixy^rcn, 
nilnijfi-ii. hydn'flyn, etf. During ili^'p'ition, n*>innl3ti<<n, r<*pirn- 
tic^D, and ('3CcrHi<»n tb*' fiKx] taken nndc'rg<.>c7« many chan^^rv, 
breakini: down \nut ^limpler cnni|K>iindt^ ot iKun^r tnmKformvd 
into others, Tbew cbanpe^ an- termed tnttaMijpn. Wldb' uut 
B food, the oxygen of i1k' air plays un imjHirtart [miH in tintn- 

tWiU, 

Id youlb, tintil ihc IkhIv iittaiii* ttit full ^i:ce, innU-ml h 
Denied Axmu ivlijcb to buiM the tJeeuc^ TliU nmteruil is d^ 
rivi.-*! fn'm the fooih Fmnn l>irtb nntil dcatli tbt^ lifr-prtK»ea»c» 
^^ailM' u oi>iiflt:inl wa-^le of tbc li«i>^t)e>^, nnl tbu UA»^tf* riiiiHt tk« 
rppl»ee<) or lb*> h-idy will l>eo»imp iinabh* pn>p*»Hy h* i^rry nn 
iUi fiii»ctiunfl* Only pnrlein 8ub^auceN lliat i.s to i^y, fuod 



32 CHEJilblRY AND PlfYSlOLOGT OF DXOESTfOX 

containmg oitnjiprn, <tm Iw ui->l for tlnn puqHBto-. Fat nmy bo 
h*ih1 t*i *tiin* niJilrrliil in ih*' cirtinivtiv*- tistiio ii»r future* «*« 
UK fttcl, nml ulso tc» protect ilie IkhK from cuM. 

Kvory "ct cHin»inin.vf vTKTi,'y, If u imm life a |Mjiin*I n foot 
hi^h^ lio tniHt ri'itniclmv in his IhhIv tluit aitiount "f i'lK'i^. 
This rnt»r^'V i> t*hui\ttit\ \rnm tin* i\ni\. Tlif H^rvr lluil )jold?i 
tbe f«KKl (.-ktmcriiU lugiaticr iii cimihinatioii i» ctLlU*t) {)r>t(^Dlial 
ener^. In breaking »|i The fii»)t\ into 3ilm|ftler eomjioundA the 
h*n\\ sctjt tliin ciirrgv frin- ur, oliaii^ft^ il luUi kinc*tu< t-nei^v. 
The chnn^ios hy whicli tlii^ ib hn>u^ht nhunl urv not vcr^v wv.41 
ULii1en;t(HHl at pruwnt, bijt Uk-v may In? Ilki-iiiHl lo ofkiiihuatioii ; 
thiis Vfc H|Hiik itf ** l»iirning" up Hio linifUiimh'riul in t\w IWy, 
ft-S if tlw htAy wcr*' a wry ^upt-rmr ktiid nf fiiriiftcv, i<>r ihe 
changes ihut gi> on ans inr tlir< tihiM jmrt, mtv pn>h^il>1v n :«»rt 
of co[n))U-x tixiJutirm, PmUinr-, faU, and eapJmhydniU'Ji tuay 
all he i>iirnl ii]i to furnbli heal and ener|c^' ; ibe iju"! iw*»^fatfl 
and mrlH>hyiJniles — are uhhI exclusively for (^ne or the other 
purpose, if Me rejjnrd ihe fui stored iu the hotly merely a* fliei 
for future u^. 

Tiie ^lld aid in tho dige>^livc and oth<-r |>ro<!eQa?*4, and arc 
Utilized in the «mip4j«ition of tht 1x>ne« and teeth, Wmtfr 
ifl probably not used t*> furnish ener;?y. hut it servft* a^ a 
menslninm, if (he U-rm be allowable, for the prooe?*ies, 

At\vat<.'r pveK tho followiup (able to illu^lmte the iisea of the 
diflVrent fi".«i elenR-nls : 



conuuna — 



yiiffitivir Itttjr^iilmi* vf /IwdL 
Wntor 






Xmri'HTfH 



I-W. 
. Mmi^rnl nmltirr. 



RvfuBC— ^' </» limvA. vntrmiU, tJiull*, hran. ttU: 



tht9 lij Sufrltntt in tht B<i4^. 

ProUriH^omn li«ic»— ^-v-. ***''** (nniHniin) of ciop*. 

<(jpd (aiBdn> i»t milk. Khii' iiu-j<1, jfluifci ol vUupf, etc. 
FhtH— Ai^ rtFjrwl a* fnt— ^- tj.. fin ^'1 ""'^u, bimtr, oHre 

^iiK mU of i-imi. wheal, oi*:, 
rarlxtbvill'aiffl — J"v Uin^forjiK.-*! Into ftl—#. j.^ «!»«», 

Min*^n>l mmwn^u^l-ftb*"- m f.*min« hnnr, -j-iM In 



All VTTIJ AM flltfl 

l*» yifUI i^ntrgy 
in ili« fijmiK tjf 
ht^t Jind iiiiw* 
i-iilur jKiwer. 



METABOLISyf. 



After tlw? body lia* iwik^IjoiI \l* full drviOofiDicnt, the body- 
lATlpht niiHiini* nnnx* or le^,** tHinstiLiil, nml tin- IimhI that liilf« 
br<:<i ti*ol t-< 4-!iEcr<'N^l by mrjiu^t uf iHc n-;^j>irati<i[i jiul llic 
wriuf, ftiid, t'> a birp* extent, l»y tli<' ft^H:-^. 

3i|^i»iTiitiy appli^ tn nictJilKilii^iii in iinTmal UxlW, nml thin hjiJ4 
bvcti iimcticailly pn«vwi. iiltliruig-h llit- i'X|H-rin)i.iit* imvc ni-virr 

3piitc micli^^l i\w ul«il uwiM^ io ttk' ainiiwt iiir^urmmniUiMr 
]|ticii1lk<4 timt ,ilU'n<l sMt'li cxiH-nniiiirx, In oiIut woitLs, (iwHi 
t)iA( iTt iis*ii iu llie b«ly fnniUJu^ tin* Aiiinc unioimt ejf enorgj' 
dint it wimlii tltniii-li if Imnit in it fiinmo- or n ciUorinii't^r, 
pmvidiiig ibr uu S-jirtHlLii-Lt tti ^m'li <'£i--^ in^ tlit* Niim'. Tlip 
iicnt-valuc» of TcHKl.t iimy thfTcfon^ l>t* tjikm Jt?t a .-iijimlnn) of 
tlieir roiMj-viJno, l-iit it muitl alunvA t>n rt^mrmbmMl tliat in llio 
pmnirtLl 3ip|>]iiTilinn of ibiK furt iti working ont <)[t-tiiri<« the* 
dif^iibililyam) ntlaprnliUity of :i ffMxl i\xv of ^n-nt iHi|>oitaiicv, 
2B well sji llu* amntJiit "f i-rK'r^- it cLnttaiii^. 

The hdt-vaUK'i.if variuN^ tV^jtU may be 4l(li*miint'*l cS|>ori- 
mcnlally by tlic uiv i*f an itM<trtiiiK'ut known us a lionib cul^r* 
imeteTf the result ln'inji «.'Xj>r('-*w*! id ^ihrirK A mloric if* tlio 
nmonnt of hcai ibat i?* mvrswiry i^i nii-'H' thv U*ni|R*niiiire nf 1 
liiUi^mni **C wnU-r 1 ib-jjctv C. (It ij* iK^iirly llir .-simc ii^ the 
ani'Hiiit rrriuircil to nu.-«c 1 jMniml ofvratcr I ^Iq^nx^ F^ Tlii*^ 
<*X|>nvi8cd in nirchnnii^al ff>roo, ni«ui« tbnt n mlon<T wniild niiifo 
n ton n^MXtt ].^ii iVt-t, nr tliai it i*^ ■'fjimt in 1,54 frKkt-toiiii. 

Acconiinj^ to Atwutir, tlio fiitl- value of t lie various ela,»«j4 
of tootl as onliimrily ^npplii^ i> um follows ; 



] gnn fd ^Eni«>ui fiinii«ltm 4 <nhria ; I pound fUfniUiM I8£fl <nloriei. 
1 



<«rtM)hril»tp funii»lm 4 ?aiori«>; 1 inu&d riimivhof lt<20 iftloiicN. 

Tbetw? fljjnrvn are .v^mewbal lower llmii iht- Jigun« given by 
older t*tftiinuti4knH, and art^ biuct) iipnti tliv taa^i n-ccnt c^pcri- 
ment*. The fucl-N-abioi. fornu»riy gtv^-n W4Tv : [imlc^u aiul cnr- 
U ill \ tint hs, 4.1 ralnru'T* |m*p trnim ; fai^ J"*.M iTiIom-»t j^-r ^nin. 
It will Imj ol)ftcT\'iil th«t fill \m%^ r\ vrry tiigli fnocl- value, whidi 
€kiiibtlcs.H explatu.4 wliy it i* i^ton-d a> a ifsaiTVi' fiid. 

Ex|>*^riBM*nt*i in nn-tobolUm have l«*fii miide^ u^ flr4<*miin4' 
many tbinjn*, but tbi* relation -^"f emq^v t\u*l fiiod itt lut-nial 
labor H a problcin thai liji.^ m-v^r l>^n wurkti) ttxii. Th« 
wupe awl Uii|Mrnuii<.-i' of ^tit-h t.'X|M;niiu^nls imvi^ t>e«n £aAt<*il by 
Atwvler, ib« tmdin|f Amrriian aittlnri-ily un tJn» frckii«e, aa 
foUowai 



31 Cii£Jt^TRY AyD PHYSiQtOOr OF DlQESnOIT. 



"Tli^B«w» of nutrition miist fce stu^iod frftm ihv. r^antl- 
poinU of tlie tneijihn -lihii; (pf nmtter and **»ert>' 'f it» ftinda- 
m<iilai laws ar^ l<» J)e thuroughly loariK^, The ifli-al ex|>t-nnKiit 
for the (letiTiDJ nation of mttiLboJic balance woiiUI include- u 
respiration exp<.*nment, a <lietar>" ^UiJVf nnti a digestion f'xjif'ri- 
ment in whkh tbc tlicmiEd viiluc-;^ uf fixxl and excreta arc 
deiermiiHAt. It witiiM u1m> iMclmk' n nKitMiivment, with a 
oilt^nnict^rrT or by other eiiit4ib]c mcnn^^f of ihc htut )>roduoe<l 
t» tliv or^nism. If vrork i>] al^> |M^rformc<1, It must uIb» be 
mimnred. No c-xpenmeni bnh yet he«*n mnde vhifrh i¥iic)M*ti 
i\\h iileiil. M«»re often t^peeial problems connecte^i with nttliilK 
uli^m liave tM-en the p^uttjcet of ti]V(T¥-ti^tti<»n, ^ii<.-li ai^ ihe fol- 
lowing : The functions of the ntitriciitt^ of fiwd ; the forroarion 
of fat from prtjteiu and from cnrb<*hydnitiL« ; the di^e^tibiliiy 
of fowls of varkaip^ kind^ ; ihi* itftKlynnmic values of nutrientj^ ; 
Thi' fuel-value tpi>teiHml cncrp't of fi"."l ; the itiHuence of 
nuUiU^libiii of various di^catc?, of alci'hol, dnigfr^ ci.>odiuieut», 
UDtl Iht- like, and of various forniit of trcjitincnt, medical or 
ollierwW*, ae, for in&t^iTice, hot hatli*^ : the influence of prolonged 
huTiffiT iir thirst on metnlx>li>^ni ; and the quantities of nntnentA 
conttiimcd ami approprinie for peiiple of difleivnt cla^e^, tx*on- 
pationF^, and conditions, and for aniniaU of different kind^ or 
animaU fed for different economic pnrpobes." 

[u raetal>oli^ni-es[>erinienU the ri^ult^ an^ usually expressed 
in temiH of ibe in-c*>mf and the out-p>. The terms used 
4U'-"*ignate tlie amounts of nitro^n and of nitmjrcn and cartKin. 
TJu-.'ie ajv the nlo^( ruudilv ascertained and are of the gix'atvbt 
importaDoe, The thennul vah^e <*f the foml and excreta niu^t 
\w rtr<e<rrtuinedf aa well aa the nniouni of energy need during 
iW- rx]>erinir*nt. 

Tb(* ltK*ori<?* conct^raiog meialioli.Hm held by the anciienls «nd 
by ihe <»lder wnlern are both curicaiH and interestiu^. .hOin 
Mayow, who in U3G8 advanced the belief t'liat fooil ih to tlie 
body what fuel \h Io Riv, came o«ir the view as held tn-day. 
This wsH for ;i time forgotten, but has since been revived by 
Inter invettli^tors. Ilaller, in I7ft2, fornuiUuwl a nieclianit^l 
tbci>ry, vrhieh was ihuL l>otli lii^nld ami Wltl ]Mirlick*h wt-rv 
niMud to^tlier until tliey Ix^eiirne 4-\lmuMeil, inid thiit thu 
d^hriii fmni this pru^e^A wa^* then excrfl<M.I. Luviiisii-r, in 17^0, 
Atated tluit conibufition occurs in the innly in a way auab^^nis 
to c4)mbni4tion aa we ordinarily know it. hiebi^ (N^ntrilnitid 
much to this subject, and many opinions which he advam^d 
have siiKv betn ])ri»vcd to l>c oorrect» In 1?*40 he piiblisluil 



METABCLS8M. 



3S 



II (]lctan' Fftuily that was an utU'nipl at a curbon Utkncc 
ilVtu-itkiklVr I^vl-iiUhJ ihc n.-f^]>inttjf>iL-tt]>|jiLni1up, iiehI diiriu^ 
pl86'>-liG Wb In? und Voii |>i>bli'thc<l the ix-Milt-- <*f chcir cla^^tio 

TIm^ prinoipnl work along t)i«se lineti is mm* being clone in 
tlie United Stutee. Eitpecial mentiou muft be maiie of At-' 
^WAt«r, who, with Lsu^worthy, CLilloctccI dutn arid piibli^hcnl a 
Biim6 of ulmoet all the ktio\iii mc'tubi»ii-[i]-cx)K.Tinictite uf 
\'ft1u« in which ihp Uihinceor in<HinicaniJ i>iit-ji-<> hai<; 1>ciii ill!- 
UrntiupiL Thit was lattT publUh<.il by the Lhiit.Hl Hrait*'* Do- 
mrUn«^*nt of Agrictjlttins iL?t liiivi- brfii many iff hi^ ^'Xiicriiut^^iite. 
\Vt(li hi* i.ii>wi»rk<_'rt he ha* comhwtotl niinivr-'ii* iavc»tigntii>i]!i — 
to<" (mmcT\>ii" to rrToivc cvod men' mcuti'm here. Of <Tjq|>pcial 
iiiU>ftM arT» bi^i ex|K'fimeiit*i on ntnih^l, mtuvming \\\\\A\ moiv 
will 1>e Haiil in anf>tfk<>r jklac^. The hiiihiing nf a n^i^pirati^ry 
<vlorimetor and the ex|teriment? miiJc^ with it, the etTert of 
tntL^ctiliir labor on nn tiiboli-im and f>v\ the di^^stihilify nf fooil, 
the relaUxl wi^rk on tlie chcmic oiinjH^^itiim ui vVtiierk^an ^'HHlp^, 
etc,, are amung the inUTolin|{ rxpcrinK'ntv c^ndiieUxl by tbii^ 
ank-nt wnrkcr, II. \V. Wiky, of tho Divii^ion of CI»oniifilrj" 
of the L>e|virtnittil of vXgrktdiiire, ami hi»^ iP*MK:iatts have *wn- 
. tribLiiocI iian)ereii» Vftluabh: jxipers on lUi- rhfTwic com]Ki*ilioii 
of food an<J \yi\ the aw <>f pn«cr«i1iv<v jind adrdtemntif. The 
resnita »f m^taholiKni-utUfliea fumiAhed l^y Americans ]>r(ibably 
fiir vXGfiecl thf>« of any other countn*. Mueh creilit is <hio tbc- 
Govemnient for It* effort'^ ah>ng tin'se lines ns well as to private 
individiiab who lutve lalioreil in this Held. Of these, mention 
miisi be made especially of Prof, Chittenden, of Yale ITni- 
versity, 'I1te Rn^^iuntt h;iV4- alnj dtnie a biv;e amount of x'aln- 
Lable work, which, h^iwever, w iinfortnnalely lieyond the reaeh 
rtiftnohi Mu<kni>^ Annai^ tlivw workers Tebndnov^ki, l^a8hu- 
tiiif ]\inilcv»ki, na<l T«ikb:trliev may be nienlioned. In Geo 
Oiany the rm>«t pmmziient worker? nrv Itanke, Ptluprr, Zf^ntJE, 
faod von Ximrilm. The hist name<l hnfi aeoi:impli-JuH[ a jfreat 
twDOunt of work liaviriir a direct l>eannp on the manaj^nif-nE of 
rdiscose. In -liipan. Kellncr. Mori, ami Oi ; id Italy, Malfeiti^ 
Albertoni anil Xovi; in England, Xorlh and Paton, and in 
Swnicfi, TiiT^r^Ieil!, mav ho mfnttoiK^t. 

Methods of Ifxperimenting in Determining the 
Functions and Nutritive Value of Food. — Tlie *»I<ti--t 

app:in(UJ-' <.>i iiiijrt.ntaoot- i> ih*- rr*rj/cVx/'jry i.'AfrW>rr devi*»_tl by 
Pefienkof^r and Voit of Munich, Many ^lifrerrnt fbrma of 
lbi« apparatus kavo been rnaiio ^nd \^^ by vurtiru* ohMOfTore, 



d6 CUEMrSTRY AXD PHYSIOLOOi' OP DIGESTlOy. 



AmoDg the mosl important of these are the so-callinl ri.'»[>in*- 
torj' calonmeU?re, Rubnor and I^J-*^llt^^ll uwJ Atwuti-r ««(! 
Kosa have devis*tl u-hl-IiiI Jbruw of Tlu-Me, The carlli-r oiht* 
wtix* meUil citaiiibers \ar^t.* ouijugh to iktiuiI a nifui ur aii mii- 
Kiol lo live i.-t>nifiirlnblv in tWiu. Air wn« pLijii|>cd tlmnigli t\to 
a|>]unLtii^, aijJ m^*fl^urt*d aud i^nalvxLH) ; lijod iiml cxorvtu ijihI^t^ 
^fiil .tiniljtr iiivi-Mi>;iinoiis, 

Aft tin o^aniph' of tUo nioro rcf^ont mul rtihorutt* ri.?«pir!itory 
cnturimetvra or cx|K-rnn<*Mt chainU-TN the one ut thv Wwsli-van 
University, nmde hy Atwater and Ha^ may hrii^-fly l>e de- 
eorilHXJ. It lake^'^ inln iM>n-<idi>ratioii not ntdy iJic nir aiul tlje 
fwrtl and escrela, but al:*L> iI)g heat ^^MfraKHl hy ihc IhmIv ; and 
it j& fiin*ishe(i with appliances for niu--K^ular work mid for rt'- 
oording the ^nie. Tliv- a]>|ramtnn con^i.-^tA of a im'tiillk' duirri- 
bcr BO eovorwl ihut the iiitt^riop is unaffected hy ihr ont^'idc 
teo^jM^nUunv lu ihU n uimh li^'tw, eate, drink^ worlcA, and 
»«l<H'p!4. Tin- air thai vcnttlnu^ tlie chHinlHT is wurnKtl ar 
(xx^led us tiKT^^iirv t*^ bavt- it always of a ivrtain Icmperature^ 
•ltd lht< aiLioinit of inoi^iinix- witEiiii it jh ix^daU'd. The cur^ 
n?ntH uf nir pa^^-ing into and t^nl vf thf ehaiid^T utf im-asinyxl, 
and theauHiUEit td coi'lHjn dioxid and ujiti-r {?■ awxTlairKnl by 
analvzing: f<im{>1os 'if JL Tlie f(jf>d and <]nnk, \hv iirinc and 
tlie fertH, an* wtiglitd and analyzeil, thi-ir |H»u?alIal i-aor^" is 
det^rmiii«l, aad the kinrtic t^m-rgv an giviii off fnttn tin.' IknIv 
in iho form of lunt aad t*sirrim] inu!M.'idur work is hIso tisccr- 
taih<*d^ Tho anangi^mc'nu fr»r nK'n-^uriiig i\n' hrnt are verv 
completfl^ and e4'>i].-ii^t of d<'vior?4 for previ^itiii^ ^in or h>^ of 
halt thnni^h the walU op hy ventilnlion. Th*» h«it given off 
hy ibe man in the oliamber is carried off ihnn^di a wries of 
pi[H'-' hy means of a (-urrent of water. The quantity of the water 
and the n?* in temperature itidicate the amoitnt «d hmi that 
has been g^ven olf. The niea»iuremmitJ« of the tempnilnrt* «f 
the interior* of ihe inner Wpilb^ of the inooniia^' and <iiitpiiiiig 
air, and i»f water rtre mailo f**r the most poit by cb-ftric means 
whi«b aiv r*o delicate that difl^'iviHvt of u Innidrfdili td'ii <l<>*^)?c 
an* e^u^ily deterniined. The jip|MimEns is provliled with Jippli- 
ftnoe^ fitr pnssini; food and drink into the dmmher nnd for re- 
moving; the excreta. It if= [d*o ^-^tipplied wilii a leb jilifine. 

The accuracy of tin?; apimnitus was del*'ntMni.Hl by pat^-^iitjr 
an electric cnrrent tliron^li a rtsistane*' ei*il and tiy bnrnitijr 
alcohol in the chamlR^r. Tn the* electric Tf^is th*' amount «f 
heat defected wa^ found (o l>e alnnwt ld(*uii<vil with the ainonnt 
gen«ratvd. In tlic alenbid te^t^ the aveRi|^c auiouatA totintt by 



METABOLISM. 



37 



AOtual cxpcrinifnt were: fur cartxm, 99.9 pa* cenL of tlie 
ninf.«tmt p^ftic-rattHl ; fi>r hydrogen, HH),!) fter cent.; and far 
^ciiC, 9il<!* |RT TL-nt. The tiKm^iirtmenlpf i)!' lw«t ^ivtii [>RTrom 

rUie iKxIy <jf It maji inside die chnmlKTJirr *<> tlclJcale ibiit very 
iilight bodily moVciiK-[iti«, i^itoh a« Hmiij; fnun u eliair or turning 
oriT ill Uil, urr n(iu*<[ l>y ihv <>I>«tvit wlii> is vulcbiii^ tlit gal- 
VADKUK'icr mid llH<n]ioiLi(<t<^m. 

Tbc px|>criiii<-iitA nn* tii^iialU' mmli)ctc*1 fnr a {tcnVl of nboilt 
ie^^tX <lay>^, <h<^ l^i>~t fimr dnv'i^ nnd fi^'o ni^ibtfi Win^r ifpent in the 
oliiiirilw-r. Pnritijr tlw entire time fW di*'! is uniform. The 
pridiTidiian' l^cri^jd of ftiur iliiy^ is f*ceupii?d in brin^in^ the 
biiily, lit li.-:i^t :tp]iroximnt('ly, into ni(m;^-n hii<] <:urbi»n eqni- 
libriucn witb the ffrtjd, utid tu m»kc tbe dotermmatton of tb« 

^Dutrieitt? at><i>ri>nl a» miirly ji<<ciini1o as practtcflbK The 
acttial and thi_' tbTOretic resi.dtj< obtained were i-en- dt«e, 91> 

tpjT <ynt. tif tbc tlKHirT'tic IW |m.t cent, beinp iicconnUnl for. 
Thi^, witli a physioV.igic cxperimcEK, i* pmctieiilly a dcoioEi- 
stnUiQii of thf law of conecrvntion of ctici^. 

It i& inpii&jibl?, in lb<> prei^^nt volnmr, to piv^ nnythinff 
like %xi adcqitfite i<lea of tli^ d4>tni]K r>f mrl»boll>^nt-pxpenineDts, 
ADil for R(^rc« and ixviilt^ the ffludait is referred to tbe reports 
of ilie invt^tigntor^ und to ibe exeellent j^ummniy ef Atwater 
a&d Lan^nrtby already referrei! to. X T^vf of the results 
niuy Ix' ctf intere'-t. 

Vegetarian Diet. — 0>nelii»ioiiH arc \vsi quite in accord, 
Voit timrhnKtl ibiit wbtl*- it i« nrrfwily jiuwible K> Mjbi^it^t on 
a vn^lnl>]c diet, a njix*^! diet i^ to W pi^ferrcd. Oranwr 
f<iuDtl that a ve^able diet widi milk nnd egg* fumigbed siiffi- 
dt>ffit nfiiiriribinent ft>r the body, hut if th^ ndlk nod egge u-^re 
amitted, the Urdy biid to do uuneeesHun' work to ^et ibe 
required amoimt of protein. He found tbnl il was aUo objec- 

^Ijoaable from an economic' ^andpoint. ICntfn-rs determined 
it tbe animal protein could W entirely re|ibic«-<l by vc|retalile 
pntiein wiTliont any jippr^'cmbk* rbaa)^ in thi- iritritj^N balflnce. 
Uilk Plet. — Kubner found that tlie ^yWii pifirt of the 
milk fv» not «i completely dt^m^tid by adults it^ tliut of meat or 
v|>^, ITc fixmd ibnl %i*nng children ilige?'t milk more completely 
tliGiii fldiill^' Tbc iliAV'rciieoi mnvKcdup |rr tbcnmiiiii:t of atb in 
the milk, mnch <if uliich in not m^cd^l by tbcndiift but wbich 
is '>f )n^:at 11^ in the lHine-fi>rmaiion of the growing l)ody, 
Marico fouiMl that tbe nitro^^i meliilxdir^m in Iwiltby penMms 
wa^ rc^nlatfHl by tleiimiiunt taken i it viin lowered wIrii much 
milk wa^ tukvii jiiil inere-a^'d when llie <junnlity w^ Ica^M-nrtl, 



38 CHUMISTRY A2fD rursiOLOOY OF oraissTiox 

Whtii an exclnsivc nilllc <lipl wna w^, there were tin mcrmj;^ 
Id ihe MK-<tniihtirin and a iXt^reofie in the iirio arul. 

The Amoant of Protein Required. — As *tat*xi before, 
a certiiin aiuounl of prottJin is aljsoJulely OKsenrial, aotl tlii:^ 
eeeiti^ to beeir a relation To the ammint of inusciilur work |ht- 
forniHi. A man may clu cmifeklrrahlc work on piciily ul" air- 
bobydrat<r» and fat and a ^mult amoitnt of prutiL^n, hut hr will 
be m much l^etti-r condition if tht* food dcmvnt« art- corrtclly 

firoiKirliuntil. ijijknkanii h(u* stftic<l that tlic niulnln>lir»ni of 
Wl in i\h3 Tiv»jjio# w noi <]iiniTn»?hp<], mid th^U KumjuTan*; who 
live in ihe tropics con&nmc aiii ranch f*Mi<l :ifi thn«^ lining the 
samr work in tRmpi^nit^' oiiniates. The difficult)' of gcUitig 
prop?r meat is uiJnaUy the rea?*oQ why ic is not u*ixi. (Q". 
Wo'»!ruff, in the Hivtion, Diet and Trnpiwi and Army ItatioHKi.) 

Fasting. — During the conlinnance of foi^hti^ the daily 
loss of weight in tlie individual diininisher^ The law workvil 
out for animals, that the inteo^iiy of nietalH>IUm is iuvci>>et\' 
proportional to the ilM of the or^Linisni, Hrems to bold good for 
man. A<jo>Hin>; to von Xo^rilen, the excretion of nitro^n 
during a fjietin^ experiment wa^ jtd follows : For ^v<} days 
before the failing the daily avemge anionnt 'if nitrogen excreted 
ill the urine was 1 6.2 ^ms- On the firsj five days of the fait 
the a\"erage ^laily output m\s 12.9 g^'anii^. The amount diniin- 
isiicdf and from the twenty-first to the twpnty-fifth day the 
average was 4,7 ^-ranis and frnm the twunty-sixth to the 
thirtifth day it wa« 0.3 grams. The c\xi>eriment lasted thirty 
days and wus made hy Lueianl on tii*^ ])rofc:s^ional iBst^r 
Suuci. 

The Inflacnce of Drags on Metabolism. (8t^- aim 
FVhI Adulteration,) — F<*rteter found tluil boric acUl did not 
infln^ne^ the nietjiholUm of protein. It diminished the 
absorption of nutrients in the intestine, liowi-ver, and is not 
raxMiimenflcd as a food -preservative to l*e ;riven any exteuilwl 
WH^ 

Bromid of Potassium, — Ohttt^^ndeD and Cuthltert »^tate 
tlitti tliif dru)^ incmiSL*<l Xhti metalRili^nt of nitn.>)^n and 
slightly diminijshnl tho t^xcrelion of phiMphoric* at^d. Ammo- 
luum hnmiid iurnvtr^cil tlu- nitmiren nulnhidi^niT whilr tlie 
anionnt of phrtr:plioric n^id cxoivi^hI remained about thf iuimc* 

CJnchonidin Sulphate. — riiittt^ndtMi and WlijfehoLieo lUtcr- 
miufHl that thiK dni|^ l'^udum) a diminution of the esEcretioti of 
urt^U an<l that tlie dr<-<'t hu^eil for some days after the la-<t drwc 
bad buen ^ivcu. The excretion of uric acid was not a)rpe- 



METABOLISM. 



38 



v^ii<Iing)y iiwmL^cd. The ^xcrclion of plfonphorif? acid vcxut 

Arttipyrin. — Wnlti^r >ui\'!4 timt iho tiiflntMi^H' of nntipyrin wiim 
(0 OtTPtu^c ihc mHulxiliMii "f pmt^iii i« ull Mihj<"cf-s i"id that 
tW iLvimibklioii i»i' |in>trifi was impniveil in fevi-r hi1>jk-U mid 
«UH uiK'hjiiij:i-il In h<^llhy individual. 

Lithium CarbofiAte.— Uor?<ky hIjUi^h lliaC the metatK>liHni of 
uiTn>jrrn ami ihi' <iiianlity of urea and uric ac-ut were ooa**ider- 
Bblv iiivrrftrtrtl iitiOiT the influepee of Iftbium cariKinnte, The 
iiK-nni-ic Iff titKx waj» ?*till jtrviLter «fcr llic pt'rU^l whwi lithiDin 
was Uiki-n, whcTwin ibtr qiitLutiiy <*f uric aeld wuh ltr»s 

Ci|pir«tt«^molcitis- — (.imtuatchikov and Owk^iuJovuki dmw 
ilic riilloifl-in^ (uiiti-lu-^iiitis : Smoking Hj^Mti** l»w<»rit thv niMo 
of llii^ luThi^-ri iif thr uriiii' to that as^iiiulaiiHl, — r. r., lowers 
the mi.'tiiU»li^fn, — t}ii-<« d^frt-asc^ bt'in^ i'>|>etua)ly luiirketl in tli4^ 
caw of iioii-9^nki>kcr4 on tlicir fint atieiiiptH at smoking, Ci^ttr- 
etti^^mokin^ al^r lowers ihe a.^iiuitalion of the nitm^iimiii 
cim^lituent- of die finwl. {'flHTr were no condui'ioiiA drawn 
UH t*i tin- iiilltjeiuv on luKjy-Him^hi.) 

Mu3£uUir Work. — It hu-^ Ijitii ,^Lown Umt tW eurrpr for 
viuwulnr work niny he <lcnvod fntm futn nnd mrbolivdmtcs, 
snd for tke mo^t part t1ii> en^i^' for work Is >iiipp]iix] hy ^^uHi 
food. Work may l>i> done nn a noji-nitr»^'noas tVxH, but it 
mu^t not be inferre'J tbat nitmireu is unnecc^san'. In exiJori- 
meoto with non-nitro^nouH dit^ta it vrtiji found tliat Ihe tneu 
tinxi verj" <juickly and «»oii beeumc exIiauKtcfl. It may be 
lh»c witli Midi SL ilk't tlw nitroj^n of the b*xly \» utili^-d. 
PmiMktilIy. nitrr.>pi-E> mu*t Ix* ^upplieil in ibe fiwul w )inj]K)rtion 
to t)>e amount of wurk ikme, 

MentAl Work- — There Jiavr l>evn but few ^'Xprrimmi* aWnj^ 
thin line. Atwolcr wbowod tkut thrrc wit* iw mor^ mctib- 
4i\i*m iif mattpr with Hr\>'n- nu^ntal labor tbnn with tluf nioitt 
cufnph'te n^wt jvwvibV, 

Ma&sacc. — Ma<s;i^> iiK'rva>«« die iippelito and llie nitrog«i 
liietaliob>in, 

Batlis- — Kranl^uiK bfi-< dniwu the ro]lc)win^eonelu!«ionM fri*ni 
hift. exp<.-rimi:iit'* : I'adi-r ibe iiitbicnce i^f warm mliK^ral ttfilbw 
tlie m^'talyilUni cud a«^iinilaiion of nitn>^'£i wen> iiierciL-^iH). 
Under die iiifluenw of fn?>l)*wat<T iMttbi^ Uicre waa^ no u|i]in*<n- 
nblr i-ffcct on tJ>r mtnip-'n metitholinm, hut th»* A^-«i million of 
niln^rti wo* lnlp^>v^Hl in moe<t euH^. Thf' iiicnsajy* *>f wrlghl 
in flnl^fnii was gm*li-r wilb ibe u*^ of raineml IwtbH t)mi) with 
ill-water \mOi» at i\h: muiim* tt^niikenture. 



40 CIlEMlSTny AyD physiology of DIQESTION, 

Metabolism In Disease. — For variotid reaaoDs this can not be 
(lih(HisHet1 here. Whore exi>erimeiit» having a pmetical bearing 
on tlic Hiihjc>ct of diet in di^ctLse have l>et!n made tlie results will 
l>e Htatc^l with the c^nsidenition of that di^tease. 

Fnmi their oX|>€rimentH Hnpjwrt and Ric^ll have drawn the 
eiuiehi^^ioii thiit nuu"e body protein is ounsumetl in fever than 
during fastings 

ABSORPTION OF FOODS. 

FihkI absori>tioti tjike^ place chiefly in the small inteBtane; in 
the sioiniu'li and in the laiye intestine it takes place only to a 
liiniieil ilegnv. In <letemkining the degree of absorbability of 
^hmI. the unHnint of the cU■me^tar^' food principles ingested 
\\\\\>X first K' aM*enaine<l, aiul the proportion that \\3a not been 
alt^irUnl tIeterniimHl fnmi the ftxvs. The degree of absorbabil- 
ity of a fiHul indieati"!*, in a nieaj?iire, \i» nutntive value. Ac- 
4*t>rtliii^ til Atwator/ fnun an orilinary mixed meal an average 
of !» J jHT iviU, of ]>roteiii, 0^* per eent. of fats, and 97 per cent, 
of rtirUkhyilmtes i> akMirU-^l in the Uxly, '* The proportion of 
ihe M*vc*r!il nutrients whieh the UmIv retains for its use are com- 
monly ittlliHl p^'lX'^'nt«>^s or i^)eftieients of digestibility," The 
lolh>win|r iahli\ taken ffonj Atwater, givi*s thi-se co^cienls of 
dip'siibility : 



KMU.'f fn'.^l 






■17 




rt" 


\ *■*>'! > 


-> 










\,i:\\ iM,' sN^;^ .-'. 




' '\,\l ,'.. : 


>4 






■ ^ . . \ 




*4':. I - .,-. V . ,, :\',v 


.'• , 



I'ln 


Km 


(^rbubr^nm. 










Fi»l- 
f Alnv per 


•.\x'<^^f*. 


!>-.-%:. 


KJi'.-^'ft. 


ly^rr^t^ 


fhtthiM. 


nui* 


^^^ 


^T^^^ 


rtt 


1730 


n^^k 


t»'» 


^-A* 


il^ 


1730 


l;MO 


*i.\ 


:^V 


^s 


1730 


h^i.* 


^i.\ 


4.C-1 


yl> 


1730 


T''"* ■ 


*^^ 


^'^r'' 


l»s 


lS6i^ 


; \"i^ 


^\^ 


,V>'** 


*J7 


1?U0 
17^'iO 
1S«0 


: lo^ 


m' 


;*-'• ' 


V-^ 


1^^ 


: -y 


*>■ 


v'i^* 


^l' 


16M 


>*^ 


«k> 


j*'^ ■' 


.-- 


l<30 


*^> 


^., 


< ''■*■ 


»i~ 


}i!» 


1 


:■ 


,, y.,.. 


.> R. 


I'v^hi N<x 



ABSORPTION OF FOOI>S. 



41 



COVPOeJTlON OF UILK AND <>TUCB POOr-MATritlALS. 






rwl-«iln 



<W-rtm, 



A"atM «ivi|KrjjniU '^ ff-, Icati nf mwt. whiE« «r «kc, cueia icufdl of milk, And 

■lutes uf wbt«r, ma^M mutrlA liUuid bout, «(f- 

FmU. *^ f- fiit af iQCQt. butlvr. au<1 nil, r i«rv4> u fu«) Utyield h«iJtt and musouUr 




42 CnHJilSTRr and PBYStOLOQY OP DIOESTION- 

Rflhn^* givei tbe following tflble, dtoiriog die abaoTl»bU!ty 
of various foods : 



rucd-iianti. 



Mmi 

KtfKT" 

Mk 

MilkHTtdchmw 

BUck braid . . 
Micaroni ^ . . 

Inrliiin onni - - 

LVrni nmK'hpei* 
Kiiv . . . - . 
I'i* 

Polatuw - . . 
UbbiiK* - 






Abvorbctl tn pcrvcnufe of 



DIM 
24T0 

13«0 
760 

flOO 
3930 



37$ 
S47 
316 
420 

7W 

7Sr> 
ma 

7S0 
All 

M9 



•UlsUOM, 



Albumtn. 



95 

til 



97 

n: 

W4-W* 
f>6 

8» 
08 



fu. 






9h 

05 

95-97 

*7 



04 
S3 
9] 
U3 
03 
90 
04 
01 



100 

100 

90 

8» 
9D 
97 

m 

82 



Aih. 



31 

OS 
61 
74 
03 
51 
7« 
70 
81 
85 
08 

91 

7« 



The aromfKiiiyiiig chart, iu\cm fnmi Atwaicr, iiKluuUif tlie 
niitritivt* ui^it-^lit^iit,-^^ iWri-^c, ami fiicl-valm^ ty\' ]>riricifwl fo-xlj*.' 
Absorption of Proteins. — Eighty jht tvm. <if jH-otoio* 
aiv al>s{irlMxl in xht* ^mM inU'-siiiio; iitnl 14 |K»r iviit, iti tlw 
lur^t- iiitvalUtt'. Tlt<? |in>tHtis i>f animal AhhI an* uinAi titun; 
Ocmplt'lel}" alMoHii'd llirm arr tlio^ wf vrgcUiUlp i^rigln. Tlic 
folloiA'ifig^ tahlv, lalcoti fmm Htitchif^mi ([». 164), givcw the rcla^ 
tiv<* flliM^rptmn of pniti^in in varioiiH ftuAi 

I'rototn notabnrbfd- 

Mi'nt . S.3perc«t, 

Ijmiil iWr ia5 " 

[>m-^ltH.vi^. - 17.0 " 

IVtniH 3J-:S " 

V\nur . 30.3 ** 

iVlaCuM , ^.0 " 

r«m>WAn(l InC 30^0 '' 

UnliU -10.0 *' 

Absorption of Fats. — Fat^, liki? ]>ni[eir)H, un> ahMLirlnnl 
mainly in the Amall inlc-^iiiie* TbU abfHirptioo of fal ir* vtry 
ooinj>lo1e. A<Mv>riimg lo HulchtMou* IjO ^^niM t-uii l>r uK-ojirli*^ 
in one day ; wlien mow tJiaii ihi* aitiount i^ ingasrcil, tU» ixtH^H* 
is thrown ciff in the i(ves. 

Absorption of Carbohydrates fVrhc»hyt!ralc* art' iib* 

t;i^uc*iitly these lixxjn leave but a Hmall re*<i<luo iti tlio int4>^(iuc. 



■ Famivni^ Bulletin Xix NIf, Tniu^l .^tnlm l)«paniii«rnt of A^IcuUiiiv, IW)"! 



ABsoRtn'iOjf or roons. 



43 




Afl Ttubnof. Atwat«r, nnd others \inve j^oinled oul, food^ 
taken ilk mmhinatmn nre at>siiH>e<l inoiv mmplrlely than when 
lakni alone. Atwater hsth shown that the following prop^rtimii* 
of the alimenlary principles are ab^rbed when tlie imlundual 
Uki-!^ a mixed diet : 

AiumnJ TnU ..... 08 |wr tvnt. 07 fwrt^iiL lOOporcvnL 
V«fwt»bl«<niriruitt. . HO " W - flft 

Foixl tlmt kskvoB R email quantity of i]imbscrl>ed rei^idtie ill 
the ititft^me i^ tiat i]Tiitf^inkhlt\ in ihnt thin rr^idico ntimTikteA 
jierUtaUi^ nml thuti if'^:"!"'''* t^'*^ coinlition of the howeU. 

Absorption of Meat* — Meat leaves a very small retddiK^ 
ill iIm> ialesiiiK- — a\^mt ."i [kt ttnt. oj" tliut inge*^ted is not aln 
florfied. Oil tliii at<*oiiiu meat is a most valtiable article of 

I Old. 

Abtwrption of Fish. — Ush is very oonipleiely alM4orl>ed 
in tile inttraiint-. AccoixliD^ to Lanj^woTlhy, 95 ptT waU of (uial 
aoli^L^ 07 perceiic. <tf pr<>toii^ and !K) ]ver<x-iit. '^f fut arc u1>forbe<l. 

Absorption of Hillc. — When milk i^ taken alimc*, unly 
IN* pM" n'nt- <jf Ihe roii.^liiii^tit^ are id»orhed ; if two Yilvr* nf 
milk are taken daily, the Iom of dry mihatanee, accordin;^ t'> 
Kflbfier, I** 5.7 to 7.S percent,; if three lit<'rs, the hi^ h 10.2 
to 11,6 pereeiit, IVhen taken with other ffxxl, howj'v*-r, milk 
ia miN'b more compkiely ubeiiirbwL Wait' fimiid ihjit oti a 
milk diet alone n2J per oenl, of protein and 8<i.:J pr cent, of 
carbohydrates were ahflorbtn!, bui that nj>ori a brrad-and-milk 
diet 97.1 |»er i-^-iit. of protein and 9S,T }Hrr creiit. of tarlxfhy- 
draleif were ulnortHd. 

A& fttaitn] eZH4-^'h«'rt*, infanlst and chiMreti iibtt(>i-h milk much 
more <Hiniji)Mety than flo ndulla. In chtldluKMl, milk IcnvMi 
a miidne u( only 4 |>rr oenL, wliereitK In udnlt* 10 iH?r wtiIp in* 
not alK^HM<L AeoLirding to ]ItKi'hi-«>tu l^oihii^ <Iwj* not inter* 
fere with llie nlisuq^tfon of milk. Knnii,--^ and kdlr are ah 
coiDpletely al)irorl>e*i as is milk. 

Absorption of Bggs. — K^gs are very ihoroii^ily ab* 

iri>ed in die iiites^tint*. Huhner Htutt*« (hai haitl-lKuItd v^^ 
a)i^?orlK-<) a|iu<"^ a^ c»":npitrle]y iLH meal, <'»ly 5 jw-r ornt. 

Will* li>'1. 

Absorption of Vegetable Poods. — V'e^TtuhW an* 
more i>r !*■»• <v«ijpletely ilIuoHkh) in th*- inl^^tine. If llie hulk 



nMit ri AirHcvliare^ Bulletin Na A3^ ISUS, p. 41 



44 tnEMJUTHy AXD PHYStOlOGY OF DtG£SriOS\ 

of the vegetable i;^ not too great nnJ tlie nmouiit of odIuloiMi U 
not t'W lar^, Uiey will be nlni[>sl entirely abfiorbetl. On ac- 
o>uiit t'{ tlioir bulk uih\ thi? lur^'i.' proporiit>UB of cc■lltlllk!^? whioli 
ilwrv c>>nijiiii Vfp-l«blf!* tiiv, Ih^wcvct, iDoumpleit»ly nbHoiixHl. 
Tho prot*-!!! Is hen- iW' t4i"nH"iU rhaC ip» uot ab«Ti>i'Lf.*il (;it]ii|ilt'Mjr| 
tho 'Tfji-bobyjiniTo? nijd Jliu iiTuJcrpi^in^' cM.>m]ilok* ol«K»ri*lioii, 

Absorption of Cerealg, — Sncli ccreah aa riw aru vtiy 
o>mj>l*'tt4y abf*r.rl)od ; ttio sUrch if* entirely nbftorbcil, nncl 19 
|icr lent. >*f rhe protpi<l i& loj^t. 

Absorption of Legumes. — The- l^ume.'^, .su4<ti ha )icns 
anil beaii^, if given in a fiiK-ly divided slate, an* verj' com- 
pleteJy ubAorbeU. Kubntr fimls thnt even wlien pven in 
aniounFt* of C^K) jj;nini« iluily the ki**^ U but *^]i^tif. He cAl- 
cviliiieO thi>^ at: 

DfV itlvinnir . . . , 9.1 

IViIvIh ... ... 17,* 

CBrl"»livilr!iro , , . 3L^ 

Minc'inl muEU'r .....-..- , . . 32.5 

If, hott'pviT, ibi-M' i;u|jtftnn(*<"s on- not ^vcii in n finely <)ivMcJ 
fttatp, th^ lihjt in |>nit4'in"4 if^ very grrat — iw^ronling (o Kfllwer, 
a^ high iiJ* 40 JUT (.Till. 
Absotption of Roots and Ttibeis.— The absorption of 

mi>t>^ iin<l ltibt'i>, eiicli a5 <.TirniI-i, iM»tnlo<.ti, eti%, JupeiKis npnn 
the qiinittily uf iTllnlnx* the)' coiit;uiu Inti*iiiiieh as the p4>tato 
I'onTaiiL^ bijl liule <i'iliihns<.\ ii is very t-otiiph'ttly rtl>^i.'rbeil. 

Absorption of Green Vegetables* — Mi^ f^nKm vvg- 
eTable-4 art- very ineoiiifjlek-ly iiI>?'<»i'IrhI Iu iIh- inie.^titif. They 
lyave ;k lMr;:c i-e*i<luf, whl^^h n<"t,s an a sllnnilaDt Eo intestinal 
perintal^?!-- 

Absorption of Fruits. — Fmits !'*=<• giw»n v^fri>table);,ar« 
nnually ineomtiletely abeorbocl ; acconfinf^ to Htitchiran, 80 
[H^r eeiH. of the prntein, \H^ pi-r wnl. iif tho fat, and 95 per 
ceni. of the carljohydnite*? iiP' onlinarily nhsorlwtl. 

QUANTTTY OF FOOD REQUIRED. 

This vnries iie*\>sarily under fiperini rf>mlini»n'-, Thr ftdult 
re<iuire» more food than doe^ tbe child ; u nmn nt work, more 
than one nt n-st ; an cnuipiiiNHl indiviiliut] !<.>* limn whi-n he 
\V'a> in mlmst condition. Tl)e i^-let-tion of a ]>ni|wr <li<'t L- d<»- 
pendent \}\¥«i a kniMvlnliji' i>f tbi.' anioiinl of tb*' ihn.'r iiHnu'iitary 
Milwl;in*HN, pr(ik'in?«» *!jirl>olivdmtei*, »iul fal*. iu*<N'?v*iir\' to main* 
tain till' nntrilis'e oiptilihnam anil n»nM'f|uei]tly the IxHty^^vi-iglit. 



^ ^ 



tfVAyrrry of food REQriRED- 



40 



DietAfie^ are fi>rji)u!at4Kl by <rnm[Hiting ihc ijuaiitittcft of tlic 

Protein. — Tbi- ijimiililv of inutclti lUainl^-^riil'ii dnily hy n 
liLitinjc JH-ultby iadiviJuiil vt-igbiog "0 kilogruni,-^ ir* tJO gnimai ; 
it IK obvious, tlicrc'tbrt-j tliut ul luuiit liiiM miKHint a)iouIi1 ul^ravii 
l>p prrHiit in ovi*ry iMuiipulcf] dioljiry. Ortlinarily fnun lllO tn 
\2'} j^rarn* i»f [i^^kirj arv iH>n*iimftl <liiily. jV» buf* Wtiw Trlateil 
cW'wJKTi% L sjrj[ii of Hit ("an ivjtW'*; 2.1 );mm? of pmfoin or 
oirlw^bvilmu**, ami t\w pmuin wii^ r<*i>Iiuv uiul In* [artly n*|>lucnl 
by llw witb<.>liyilrat'.'."* ami fat*- Fat* aiul «irUjl»yiii>itcs arv, 
iJutnfiiri', protf^ii tfimomiwrs, Tbrit |itm i>f tin- pn>U-iii, how- 
<'\vr, nT|tiin*il f'»r tir^inimtion of l\w bi.jtiy tail not 1)0 rcpljiowl 
by tlw 47irb(>by4lruli'> or fnlt. 

Carbohydrates and Fatd. — C^irUilivdnit<» diminish 
piiro^<Dour< wii>U< nn<l aiv uli^t !^|mnTf^ of ibi- fat^, 2-10 ir^^ni^ 
of cnHuibydniN-iL U-irt}; >i|i(jil in Ion j^mnk*^ of fnt Tf HK) 
giUK of |in»ioiii an.- uiktii ami alK^ifHud with ijnO gmmt^ of 
CArbohydnik'tf, the ain'tuiit »f ial on hi- c>>inp!Lti:Iy pmlcctct]. 
Fat alon<^ can not dK<<;k tlic wii»to of the nitro^noue ti^fiues 
and can «n»l ix-nliux' rarboliyilmtir^^ in UK*ir }injUin'*iKiriTi^ power, 
Tbc inp.^Moii of lapj^' tjiiariliitf.^ f*r fiit i[jen*as<.-* thL> iux?urua- 
lallmi of fat in ih<- tuMly, aut] tUi:< nrntiaiK^ until tlio qtiantity 
Qtbiiiiiuitrixtl rwii'liit^ 3<*n ^nnij», wIk-ii »•> iiion.- can bv di^csteJ. 
Gflnlin » a \iiliinblc pmtoclor of pt"t<-in, 11)0 ^raau?^ of f^latin 
boiDg ««piivfl)cdit Ut aUau t^h ^^m^ iff pfiiti:'iM of 'J<X) ^raniH of 
cariwhrilrot^ ; it <Iom not. however, pnit^v^l a^^ainnt fat lo^*ii ao 
W4>llafltliccarb(ihy<tralr«orf:it, ](>> (rram*^ of f^luiin l>ei[ii: eciuiv- 
nlFnttoatxpnt 2o ^iniM of fmt. OixJinarily ab<Kjt 5(>0|;runi»of 
c»rt)r>hy<l rates anj -iM prauj> of fat arc <x>n«nnie(l <iaiU\ 

Proteitis, Carbohydrates^ and Fats in Combina- 
tion. — if fat 16 roaibinoJ wl[|i tbe pn*tiin, k-r^ ibaii bait' tlx' 
quantity of protein is n^|uirvd to mniiitain the nitmgenoiiH 
c«tuilibnuni. If m<.>rv pntlctriT fat, or cari>oliydmti* W MJp|iliMl 
uihUt thfvc ronditionr?, fat ^lill be ilcpo^itoil Iti ilu- tirt?U(-?i. 
Ina^iiiiirli ai^ ffnx} i-ouiuinh s variable pn>|wriion of prolLMiiri, 
mrlMiltytlrtito^, amt fttU cv»Tnl>]ni?il, lh<^ fiHHl*v;tbi<- imi-it Ih< ilt-ti^r- 
Diincd fmni the &tBn(l|»oint of the (xmiliiniHl ^tfiin i»f tbo thtvc 
alinifiitary pr!ooipl<-s oontain(<<! llionin. 

To repeat, the pnj(>er forai of dk^ is a mixed oue, the exec^ 
of any fitffd prinnple in otie lioing ooiiuteraei^xl bv a dofioioiKr 
tn atM>ther. Hutcbi^n cites the ca^e of l>r. Stark, who livtd 
fitf focl^'-fniir ftavH on bniiil ^lud water, for a mf>ntli on bn^ii, 
'W&t«r, &im] ftu^ar, £Lud fur tlia'fr wnrks uu brtad, w^ler, and 



40 VHf^MI^TBr Ayo PHYSIOLOGY OF MOESTiON. 

iAivis oil, and wlio lIiL*r«After becamo fL<vblv in bvfLttti udiI uld" 
ruali>1y <\i^\ with eynipt^tmn re.^enililing rif-nri'y, Humtiiinifl ' 
AlU^mpted to livo on \vmvt and 1 J prniacU tvt stiLri*li tluily ; on 
the l^Dtb titty, on account of extreme debility, ih; ex]K*niiii>rit8 
had to he di^contiuiieil. 

la ripder to supply the rt'f[iiirenientf^ of tb** nr^nUm a a*rtain 
amcpiiut of potential energy i^ iifrclwi to overlinlance tlie amuutit 
dis^paced m waste and in the pixKluciion of bo<ly-hen!- More 
[KHi'ulIal euiTgv j& euiip^iiiiied dnriii); wurk rliuii wlicn tin- Inili- 
vidtifll If* at rvtii. Tlio fullowirifr uiUr^ (70Tii]mu*<.l Uy Hul>m-r, 
tfbuwrt thi- *]iil\\ htKit-tX'iif^nTWjAi'iU, in unil8 of heat (caloriun), 
iti an iithih \wigbiug iU't kilogi'aiiiH : 

INiriiiK tiwt tn tiol , lHii»i:nluri<«»r:!»c«]«iHMpQr kHo^ 



In liiefiL 






, a:iO0 

31CM 



48 



From Ri^bner^D !uvestigati4>n8 we Wrn that — 

1 iiitJ, of tax = 11,3 " 

1 ^rii- of («rU>h/(lnEifli =^ 4,1 " 

It bu;s ti\m Ix-en dvtrrniintHl thut I ^iim of aleoliol LX|iiuh 7 
caloriej'*^ In cither w<»ni-% ihi' niimher of gninia of j>roInn)<, Kit*, 
and <'nHMihvdnilirs niiuiretl (Ijiilyiuin be oaiverH^I into tlicir 
oili>riiiu'Trie tHjuivalenfH, j]n<l inariniuch aw we have ictii that 
tile \*flrioUH alimentary prineiplen can in a degree he t^ulirEii* 
Xixu^l for oiii! anot.h<T (/««■ i/ Motlt/itrrmirfi), the daily fooii n^ 
<]ui[xrnit'iit^-t Cim brr tusily enUiiiattHi In Liilurit-* of beat. Tims* 
in iinkr to mlcailnte th*' mlorie vuloi- *»!' miy food in |ii>.-]uirin^ 
a dietary tho number of gnium of pi'ott-iii^ eontiiiiiiHl luv ainlti- 
pliet^ by 4,1 ; tbo nnmher of grains of fat, by O.-'S ; and tlu* 
intmber of ^mmj< i»f earln^bydmte:*, by 1.1 ; rbe tetnl U dien 
fLFCertnincil bv adiling, Iti^ariii^^ tlie wei^clit itf (he Jti<llvidiial 
in mitid, a dirfiry cim «L*iIy Iw eonstriiettxl aee>»rdijkg lu tbu 
followin>; mdli'id : 

The ciuaatily tif piotvin oon^inn^il diiiy ui lOOmiL X 4^1 ^ 410 
" " CHi-»x)hv,liiiH* " '' yXJ -' X J-l = 2(160 

" « fow ' " " 60 " X»-'i- -W-'' 

Tbenvcni^ iiimilHT of udorii'j^ i-i-tjuii-L-il daily by an Indiviihial, 
iKxHirtlmg Ur tbir* ciilriilnti<»iit Ir- tbfrrf'UHr IIOOO, Tlit? loliowiug 

> Jflir. .Imrr. -l/i^r. ,|-^y., IA.-5T, p, -"^n. 







QUAyTITY OF FOOD REQUIRED, 



47 



table, taken from Hutchison (p. 30), illustrates the method of 
constructing standard dietaries : 

STANDARD DlETARJEa 

{Daihf diftaria, Food-maUriais /nmUhing approximaiett/ tht OJBS pound 
(^ l£S aramg) o^ pivUid and SSOO raiarUt t^ tn^gy of the standard /or dajh/ 
dietary of a man at modcrtUe muKular wyrk.) 



Food-malerlali, 



I. 
Be«r, round Ht«ak , 
Butter 

Bread 



II. 

PoHc.ibU 

Buner 

BainH 

Biwl 

111. 

Be«r, ni?ok 

Butler 

Milk, one pint ^ . ^ 

Pnuiutw 

(Jaim^al 

Bread 

Sugnr 

IV. 
B««f, upper vhoulder 

lUm 

Egps iwo . - . - 

BntifcF 

Mitk, one pini ■ ■ ■ 

Polaroei* 

Flour 

Sugar 

V. 

ifBiivefre . . ■ ^ ■ ^ 

rnd-Jwh 

BiLiter ...... 

Milk, one pint - . - 

Heann 

Kico 

PoIal.iCH 

Breail 

*^*igBr 



Amount. 



J3 

3 

6 

22 

44 

4 

2 
16 

8 
30 

10 

I 
IG 
16 

4 

16 

__3_ 

~6ft~ 

10 
6 
3 
2 

16 
12 

ft 

1 
59" 

4 

14 

'J 

Ifl 

<* 

iS 

9 

3 
71 



ToUl 
organic 
mmUrr 



Pioteld. 



Pffands. 

0.26 

0.16 
0.17 
0.89 
1.48 

0.21 

o.n 

0.84 
0.33 
1.49 

0.19 

0,05 
0.13 
0.17 
0.23 
0.67 
_ai9_ 
1.63 

0.22 
0.19 

0.(6 

O.n 

0.13 

0,12 
0.44 

aw; 

1.32 

0.14 
■ (1.07 
0.11 
0.13 
0.26 
0.11 
0.24 

o.:ti 

_<119 

l.:>i^" 



0.14 

0.02 
0.12 
0.28 



0.23 

__0.04_ 

_a27j 

0.10 

ao4 

0.02 
0.04 

0.09 

~b.'29~ 

ao9 

0.06 
0.03 

0.04 
0,01 
0.05 

"072H^ 

o.ai 

0,07 

(1-04 

0.01 
Ojll 
0.04 

0,27 



F«l«. 



Founda. 
0.12 
0.16 

_oj^ 

0.30 

0.21 
0.11 
0.02 

0.01 
0.35 " 

0.09 
0.05 
0.O4 

0.02 
0.02 

0.22 

0.13 

0.13 
0.02 
0,11 
0.04 

o.oi 

0.11 

OJl 
0.i)4 
ri.oi 



0.01 



^l.2H 



Ckrbo- 

bydratei. 



Pmndi. 



0.15 
0.75 

O.90 



0.59 
0.28 
0.87 



0-06 
0-15 
0-17 
0-56 

_aifl_ 

1.12 



0.05 

0.11 
0,38 
0.06^ 

0.60 



0.18 
0.10 
0.23 
0.2H 
0.19 
1.03 



Fuel- 
Tftlue. 



(tato»T«f. 

695 

680 

320 

1760 

3455 

880 
450 

1615 
640 

3685 

550 

226 

325 

320 

460 

1280 

_345_ 

3505 

800 
6-50 
135 
450 
325 
240 
H25 
_ U5_ 

510 
140 
450 

325 

rm 

206 
420 
640 
345 
3540 



48 



CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION, 



Food-nutcrLaLi. 



' TouL 

Amoual. organic 
maLtcr. 



VI. ■ Outtfti- Pound*, 

Beef S ' 0.18 

Muokerel, hqU . . . . 4 O.OS 

Two cgg» - ' 3 I 0.05 

Butter 25 I 0.13 

Milkf one pirn - . . . IG 0-1<f 

PottttocH 8 , 0.09 

Rice » O.U 

Breiii] y ■ 0.38 

Sugnr I U OM 



Prole Lil. FaU. 



CMbO- 

hydran^. 



F^muii. PtmtuJK 1 i^»fi^ 



55 



0.08 
0.04 

0.03 

0^02 
OM 

0.01 
0,01 

o.a^ 



I.flS 



0.28 



0.10 
0.04 
0.02 

ai3 
ao2 

0.04 



0.01 



0.36 



0.05 
0.08 
0.10 
0.32 
0.00 



0.64 



Fuel- 

value. 



(MoHa. 
560 
230 
135 
565 
130 
325 
160 
205 
720 
175 
3205 



AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN DIETARIES AND r«&TARY 
STANDARDS. 

"Many iiiterestitig tilings come to light on comparing the 
dietaries of |)ersonrt with ditferent occupatiou:^ and incomes and 
l)erforming diiferent amounts of muscular work, A compciri- 
won of the dititaries of the inhabitants of different couTitrie:^ is 
also interesting. Such c<3m|Miriji;on3 are made in the following 
table, which includes as well the commotdy accepted dietary 
staiulartis The %nrcs !*how the quantities of both total and 
available nutrient,-;. The fuel- value represents the actual 
amount '>f available enorgA', and may be c*>mputed from either 
the t<"tal or the digestible nutrients by use of appropriate 
facl*)rs," ' 

The followinjr t;ible, taken fn)ni Atwater,' gives : 

^ A I water. 

' Famien*' Bullfiin Xo, 142, l'nii<Hi ^U\ii.v, Dopanment of AgrLcLiUure, 1902. 



QUANTITY OF FOOD REqUlRED. 



49 



J^ood-eonwmptioH of Peraojif in IHffercftf Clrcumatanceej and I^opoaed 
lQu*niUles r^r Mnn iht finyi 



Sl^i Actuallyeftlvn, PlgeftLble, 



rEB5i>^9 nTTH AfrrlTK WORK. 

Bowliuf cLiibelnKvv Kajriand 
Biryrir^Uin NfW \nrk , 

4D'l ''nllf'TlllB 

PriLj?LATi inii''u^nj»i 

PKKIONR Wn-H OKUJHAKT 
WOKK. 

nnnen' fhmJlliA Jn eut«ni I 
Viiittrl ^tttcn 

5l>'Chiinli>' Ikmlllc^lnVnll^ 
swtea. . 

Lubiitvm" fBinille* In Targe 
nlllM or UnUi^tl Statin . , . 

LabDTVn' nimflLat In Ignited 
^iMXv^ imiiri' ccmirortiibU' 
CJrruiintunci'M . . . . . 

RwiKlmn pi-AAAnti - 

SvedlsJ] mtrcbAiiLci 



X*wycr», ipai'Ui'f*., *.'tc.. In 

TuUed l^lalBi . . ^ . . . 11 i IfU 
*V.llL-,ie ct«»wtn Vniicil StoU-8 15 1(17 

Jmv«iiv«t profv4mi)r . . . - - 1 IJQ 

HK:r vnrn mttlk ok ao ek 




Hvn fAmcHriLTit in reap!:*' 
tion calrtilmettr . . . , . . 

MfQ rG«miin) In ivsplmllon 
apr*'^tui 



rkBwztn i^ T)EmTiTTRcrB<t'H' 

Pnor fftmlUn In Nuw Y<irk 
f'liy 

I^lhiren'' fmnilln in Pllta 
burn, P* 

^crmiiQ laborer^!! Ibiailj- 

Ilahftn inpch«ti[cfl . . . . 

Sc^To ninilllcfl In AUtiamA 

ftiitS Virginia . . . - , 

ItHlLin famiUi^ In rhk>pi 
Freii'h <^nii4lliin^ InCblrAffrt 
B-hi-Tfliftii fdinllU' In rhl- 

<-«ri> ....... 

InhabltAM^ Java vEElnyf. 

^'ohimblAn Expoaliiun. liS^i 
RiiAflaii Jptf fi In rhiraifi> . . 
Mexfnn ramlllva In N'tw 

Mexkru 



OMN> 



aaw 



v.-o ' 


117 


l-.-rl 


:W 


t^ 


TU 






11R 
21 



423 

3-J7 
41« , 



39 
1 



1 
10 






llEt 
IIH 



3h 



Ill 



*i7 






7(1 Jti 3K4 .Vjri 



7!" 

]iri 



HI.-. 

i.vi 



;i7ii j^iftTi 



101 3(Vl Klfi 



yri 313 2M"> 



If 



lis 



f.n 



(A 



^ 









e 



1: 

G 

3.3 



;it].'^ I &3 



7.5 



'JSIO fl.S 



7^ 
:i4 
5.5 



W ■ IIB 4Hi wjn 7,t 
IH , Ul 44'> I l~>Hn i.S 

ll:j lU IlKl ^dlo 4 



112 


Ki 


3(i.-» 


103 


7(j 


'.-Jfl 


?rw> 


4.5 


127 


» 


302 


117 


7G 


2iO 


:J4:b> 


4 






ii.5 

:^^ 

1.7 



5!i"> rvii» S 7 



60 CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION. 



1^1 
■HE 

^* 



Aptu»]ly taien. 



("hiiiv'-e 'IvHli'-l hi Ciilifipriila 
^ll|lu'^^ lUiiiKlrfmHU Jii i'nii- 

f"riiiH 

rhiiH-fii,' fiinu liit-irtT In i'Hll- 

foniltt ' 

I'lilU'i) stHit^ aniiy rmlim, 

jn'm'v - . . . . 

iitTninii Hnn)' raiion^ |n.-Bcv - 

L'IKTAHV bTASlPAR]>S, 

Mrtii M liflnl w<irl[ iVnll^ 
Mnii 111 miHk'T-uu- viork O^o^l^ 
>[nii uiih viTy hnrilmiJai-iilHr 

Wnrk lAlWUllTh 

Mail A'lih Imnt ulukouIht 

v*itrk iAlw«t<.'r) 

ftliiii Willi iii"iU'rdli'tv rivlh'v 

miir-i'iiLiir wurk (AlvvHioh - 
Maii u'illi LIkIiI 1i' iiMkU'niU- 

uia-T'iilAT M'krk l.VlwnU'ri , 
Miiii III '^svilviitary" i-r 

WMiimii with iw^WniWiy 

Hi'livr xviprk iAlw*ittTl - 
Woimiii 111 Mtflii U' nnhU*™u' 

iiiM^i'iiljir work, (ir iimii 

w1ihou[ iim^i^Mlur I'xor^'lsi' 

1,\lW(l(lTl- - 



n.'i 
13j 
144 . 

lU 

l4o 

175 
150 
1^ 
11-2 



I 



DtffCBtible. 




i 






1 


f 


' 1 


•c 




>> 


a 


JZ 






c -^ ^ 



6'Bi. [ Qm. Qm. Gjh. . Om. Gm. 



113 
lAl 



Iftft 
56 

(■) 



100 (i> 



2W 
5«(t 

50a 
(') 

IV 



106 I 

124 

132 

110 
105 

I 

13S ' 

IW 

ICI 
136 
115 
103 



107, 

«l 
90 

IW ' 
37 



fi3 

(') 

I 
(■) 

IV 



200 
549 

440 
4M 



S4B0 

' 3960 

37» 
2725 , 



4(7 8270 
485 29^ 



(0 

[*) 
{'} 
(V 



5500 

4150 ' 

30M 



1: ' 
19 

5.7 

6.2 

7.1 
5^ 

4-9 

7.2 
«.2 
6^ 
O.l 



yit 



1^1 lO 



92 Cl 0) "-^TOO ^l 



S3 (■} (V MM fi-1 



.U hietii Rutiofi "/ Soful rtuxL—iMr*. E. H. Richttrdi.) 
MrtUrUI. 



Animiiit>. E'TiitvUt. 



Fal. 



Cnrb<»- Calor- 
hviirfttrt. ie». 



■iiW. 


"^ 


'^p'l. 


'^. 


fiW. 


Or 


I7m. 


'Jt, 




i-i;: <L 


Iti 


:ll -^ 


1 1' 


■J.lV. 


*yn* 


i">7.a^ 


4,IM 


120R.«^ 


L'-jTi > 


s 


M."^ 


1 ^1 


IL.i^ 


o.*> 




, 


24a. 72 


'-"■-^i ■■ 


s 


l'_\,v: 


44 


J."i 


'>.<i; 




, , 


70.01 


■"> ;* 


L 


l'.T>l 


1" _M 


7. .'■Ik 


O.lVh 


^.«o 


O.ltk 


135.42 


u:; 1 


4 


;:.'-;i 


11 |:i 


4 4J 


iMi> 


4.W 


0. i; 


7.">.55 


J ■^■<i 


IP- 


1^11 


ot4 


l^.lt 


O.l'vl 


^i7'i 


a.20 


613,21 


:•> :t 


1 










-r.B6 


O.Qti 


U2.17 


n.i7 


1 


nil 

\'k. ^1 




IJL'7 

,''T.^>7 




3s'J,hli 


, . 


118.62 
2.174.60 



UKflklil'.l 
Milk 
nrn.tli 
Simur 
Iliilli r 

T.^liil 



ll >l»*njlil In' ninlot'^^lniHi lliat sl:uiilai\l flirtjirk'ji, r^ucU as hflve 
ill"! KiH^ii ijivi'ii. iini.'>l 1h' niiHlitinl to tntvt imlividuiil condi- 
ti<Mi>, W'iihont lUiHlirii^^itiou ilu'v :nv iiM'fiil in preiwiring 
(lirTiini''* fur ihtm.ii^ livinir ^*;^^llu■r ii^ Irn^* niimbeis, as for 

' l';ii^ ;mii| r irl','lis.lt;»tt'x ill -uIHiIt ni .inioimi" ii' lurni^lu ii-pvthep irnh the 



ISFLVESCE OF VARIOUS FACTORS UPON DIGESTION. 51 
Ah I'iail Ration of Liquid Food. — (J/r*. E. H. RicHnrdK.) 



MaterUI, 



AiDounl. ' Protdd, i Fat 



hiSf.'S.l ^'i'-'-' 



Beef bmlb or c^onsolnm^ I pint ■ ■ 
To which hHK been ndded | 

one Urge egg mmtm 

Hh^U ........' 2 ounces ■ 

Driei] fmk sflup , . - , 1 <iuart. . 
Lemon jetlv. , . . . . A pint - . 

Whole railk 1 qunrt. . 

Rice or arrowriKJi , . , 3 oe, (dry) 
C.rRiii&*<u^r nr ^^nne one | 

of tlie prepiired fomlrt 

(.Iry) £tffij<lry) 

Total , 5.5-3 t|l.' , 



Qm. 
20.5 



4,1 

e-3 



2,5 

70.H 



0.5 



6,8 



36.0 
0.3 



43.ti 



Gta. 



100.0 

44.0 
67.2 



100,0^ 
323.7 



91.67 
410.00 

77.1H) 
651.00 
304.11 



420.25 



2043. *S 



While diot-li'^ts are &L^\iy prepared aecnnling to the niethcMl 
just outlined, il niust ahvay.s be remembtred tbat the digestU 
bilitv and :ib?^(>rbabJlity of fcxKl play a mof>t inijwrtant rOk-, and 
are not to be neglected in formulating tlie dietar}' ; for whlk- a 
(x^rtain food may eontaiu a great many more Oidoric^ tban an 
eqtial weight of another fo(Kl, yet Its relative indigoHti bilitv 
and nou-absorbability may render it fur lefi^ available ari an 
article of diet. For example, \vhile 4 ounces of sausage pn>- 
diire 510 calories^ 4 ounces itf chccf?e o"20, ami 4 ounces of 
be<.*f only 280, yet the beef is far mnre digestible than either 
the fsausage or cbe<\se, and thua more vahiable as an article uf 
food* As has l«*n aptly t^id, " We live not u|M"n what we 
eaij but upon what we digest.'* Thoretbre, a diet-list giving 
quantities c>f fiMxl principles or calories is useful onlv as it 
su^;ests general principles that may 1>o mcHlit^iHl t<» meet indi- 
viduid conditifms in health and in disease. 



THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FACTORS UPON 
THE DIGESTION. 

Apart from the selection of a pro|ter diet, im|)ortant factors 
that es]»ecially affect the digestion are the lltllcwing: 1, The 
hourSf order, and frequencv of nu'ids, 2. Vnrietv in iliet, 
3. The appetite. 4. The tem|H'niture of f<M)d. ^. liest and 
exercise before and after me:ds. fl. Emotion. 

1. Order and Frequency of Meals Tt is usually 

customary to fix certain hniirs iiir the taking of meals; these 

^Acc<>nHng til bow ilie mf ii^ (riven. 



52 CHEMISTRY AXD PHYSIOLOGY OF niGESTIOX. 

hours van" with the occui«ition of the individual. In lai^ 
cities, when^ the nrx^ii hour U taken up largely with active 
business pursuits, evening i,'^ f^lected a:^ the most oonvuDient 
hour for dinner. Sir Henry Thompson states that three gen- 
eral systems arv in use, according to which, two, three, or four 
nie:ils are taten daily. The first system, which consists of two 
Dieskls a day, is followed in France and other countries on the 
c«»Rtinent of Euro|K'. A substantial meal, omsisting of fisb or 
me:ii and other court's of sidid foods, is eaten about noon ; 
no f~Nid is taken before the no<in meal, except on arising, 
when a cup of c<»ffoe or choc^>late and a small quantity of 
bread and butler are taken. The second meal, which is dinner, 
is eaten between 6 and 7 nVhick in the evening. This meal 
is the Lirgi-st meal <>f the chn% and consists of soup, fish, meat, 
vegetables, salads, desst-rt, and black coffee. The second 
sy,<tcm, commonly in vi-^u* in Enghiud, omsists of four meals 
4l;uly. The ^rsx meal, or bn^kfasi, i^ taken at alkout 8 A. M,, 
and coiisi>is of ("oo^, ti'a, or iv>t!tH\ bread, butter, Ikicod, fish, 
or ej^ : ilinner is eait^n iK'tw^vn 1 and :*, and <X)nsi^ts of 
soup. meat, fish, vep^tables, and juiddiug: tea is taken at 
5 !', _M., and sup|>or is stTvtnl at S, and consists of meat, fish, 
vej!:etables, and s^cwo^l fruits. Dinner is taken in the evening 
by the wfll't<wloHajisi.'<, and a substantLil lunch is usually taken 
at n*«>ii. The tliini s\\<ttni. prutis^O in the United Slates, 
consists ill tiikini; thri'c nu^ils iLiily, In many towns it is ens-* 
lomary to dirjc at uixui ; in otliors, in tbo evening. The u^^al 
briakta^t, taken U'twi^en T and S a, m., ^'imsists of fruits, 
breakfast i\<A or ivri.'als. Ci-p., Uic^kn, or s;iU fish, tea, i-ocoa or 
<H)ti"ee, and bn^d and buiUT. Luiioht'im, ciitcn between l"2-30 
and - oVl»»ok, i-oiisists of o»ld meat <>r u chop, vegetables, 
s;dads« and <less4*rt. Dinuor, ealcn Utwtvu <i,oO imd S p, m., 
is the hcavio?ii nic:il ot" tlio dity. and ii^u-i^'ts of si^up, fish, 
meals, v*HT^*tal>hs, Siilads, and fruii, 

Tho i\mvi*ntioiv.d orrK-r ol" takin-; f.v^i at dinner apix'ars to 
U' most national, naiiu-ly. s^^up. tish, entnV. mh-m, v('g\'tablcs, 
Sidiid-, fruiw. Sniiill iiuantitii-^ t>f Mni)^ -linmhue the gastric 
stvrt^tion, do not iutorh o* wiih dip>iioti, and p;is<i rapidlv 
fri»ni tlie ^tonuu'fi : tlu' t\A\ ;itid cncrxv aiv iln-n |tirtaken of, 
lvloT\' the aciditv ot tKo iri-'n*'' M^nviinn ha^^ rt-^u'lu-i) its 
lu'iirlif ; ncNt lolli'W'i i\\v lus'-M, x\w ^foniach now stvreting 
liU-nil i^uantlnt's "i iii\^tr\K- Wu^- \\ht'T\-\\iiU to I'iirrv ou the 
(liiri'-riw i^Hv^'M'* ■ fiti;illy omio tlh' <'arU>!iv,lr;Ui's. whirh do 
not underii>> dic^Mion iu [1*^^ Mi'ioiioh, and whtoh cnUT this 



IXFLirx^X^ OF VABIOl'S FACTORS VPOJf DiGESTIOy. 53 



oripin wlion llio (bod alrviidy takva i* nbmit to px«K frnm the 
Fifomskrli inlfi tli^^ iTkUsti»(\ The Liiltng "f lM>iinfiriil ilmn^r», 
niffde ij|> of many coitr^ji, wIh'il lWY|iiontly iu'liilgcc] in, ii 
likely to lead to jitjri?stive dUturtian<!e-^. Cliiklron x\\\A iiivutiils 
6h>4ilil altvavH oat diniKT at muldiiy, U^twtvri 12 ami 2 oVln'k, 
and f^oukl never he allo«e<i to tike this mt-al ut \\\^h\. 

The /t'cfjumc}/ of mtiafr mui^l l>e rtrgulutwi arei>rtliii|; lo indi- 
vidtml cuDditiouiT, Patience puflorin^ from cllgf^tUv dirdtiri)- 
nixxTf^ iilid ihoMT utio t;kke ^ltv Himll i|iiarilitlt?« of Iihn) &L h 
lime n-ijiiire iiouridhi]i<.Mt at frt-qiKul und n^iikr intcrvaU; 
vh«flr«a^ lhoM> nhfi-ic* di^L^tion L> fot-hj**, Kb<»iik1 allow mix or 
ff^x^a koiiT^ to ela|i74^ hctwii-ii ni<^U ; onliiinnly thi* inirr\'nl 
bHw«et) meals should !>*- al^mt *S»nr or fivij hi^ni^, tliis U^Iri^ 
aliont ihe time necessary J^r n»mi>lfi*- <n>:T-*ibu o\' a nilxi*"! 
mod in tbe j^toTnaeh. Thf^ liahii of lmbiii]:illy omitting the 
nin>€i Linieliefjn, to oommoidy pracii^^J hy htb^y AimrimiDt, 
»^hould l)e dif'o>ur3gcd, 

2, Variety in Diet.-^lD onler ihomupldy lo ^itlafy ilir 
nefds ol' ll»e Unly tin.- di<4 mo^t be varied. Allliou^h a diet 
rratnolo') to bnt a \<>w urtieleo <it' Toott may eaiit^dii n pitifBcJciit 
qmnltty of llie altRioutaty finnei|ilv4 to suatahi tlK- ImkIt nutri* 
tion, ye» the monotony ut mrh a diet bet-omiH no ohjertion- 
ahl<? that it oan not Im> diice^tisl thorfing-hly. vVroimling lo 
WfKxis and Merrill,' '*it if^ a maIt*T nf eimiraon observation 
tlvit dij^tioo eiperiroents made with one kind of food-niati>- 
rial (to not give on (he whole a^i reliable re^idts an tbcwe io 
vrLi<?h two or more footl-mnterinlj} nre u^hI. In oilier wonU, 
it ap}>eanT (hat ^llh a niixcil <\'\ct the same |iersi>ii will tligeM a 
lai)£er pro|Hfriii>ii of itutri<^iil« rbuii with a diet com|H>F-inT of a 
*^iiglc frMMUtiiattrial.'' CV-rtinn raeo^ ruMrict the variHy of 
fnrd ftttra n^ligtoiH motives, ^neh as the Jewish rtstrierion of 
liarn, i^irk. [inil "vster*, 

^. Appetite. — A|»peiite is the desire for forKi, and is 
tlependrat u|>on various rondilions. It is eontndled by the 
sem^ation of hunger, and is often icdueed \yy the sijihi, smell, 
and taste of food- \^ Tawlow bus siiown,' the smell or s^ht 
nf ffHwl will I'xcile iIh* llow of the ^rastno secretion, and this in 
turn will (inHb^ii- mt a|f|felite. Sioiuk- bitiiT^ or uniw form 
■if aleoliolic drink will at tiwt* induce this wenAation. TIm- 
nft;^*araDce of liodlv prepaivd or improperly sct^'^I food will 
ofini di^fH^ tl>e »|i]H'ttle. In rhiklren the nppetite is imually 



54 CUKMISTRY jyj? PUYSIOIOOY OF UOBSTIOJT, 



good, whereas in die a^ ii ia tesiteDci). Si>me perMQii Itavo 
voracimis a[i|x?tiU*h, and nUuormnl craviug for foixl. T\m w 
tiRfiQ tbt- cube in iItalH.-iio and other cDiKlitiDD^f wlicn, at lJim<e^ 
theapltetice can ikH Iw saiirliixi, 

4. Tefflperatore of Food. — Tbe teniiicrniiire nf fcMtii 
vrbm (aktHi in ul' luii.-uL ruble iuipunance. Tlie W«J Ufu- 
]K^ruiur¥- lA thai t.f ibt l)..dv, fi-om Dft"^ (a 100^ F, (fOVJ- 
mami), iho limil^ i>f Mtviy Xii-iu^ Iwt^'CMrn 45^ and 130* F- 
Aoooniiug V> Huti-biMni, vxm-iutH of U-iiii>erati»v of food an* 
apt to t^i\x' ri^^e to giL^tHr rlihtitriNiiKu'^, »tirEj &? gafiiric catarrL 
L'flt-linauii MrttrH cbrii :i <lritik at a tcmix-i-atiire of 12*2^ F- 
incn-ju4^ tin* iiiifly-li-niiH-miiiiX' OJ l<> 0.:{ degree C. Il w 
elieviKl t>y nuuiy tluit uUht of tho ^il'^mach, so comnnfii in 

)bi, U ohi^n <bir Ur il)(* lakiii^ ^^i' loo lio< ffHKb, llutcbisoti 
ocm^ders that the i>n-»pf'r tcmpenituro of wau'r intended to 
(jufiich ibL* lliii-^i ilnhtilil Ik' hti^fi'H ^tO'^ and Tn' 1\ 

o. Rest and Qxerciae before and after Meals, — 
It id oAvii udvJsaMu to rest, hut not to elwrp, iiWvr lucals, Tiw 
largr>r [uirt of rh*? Wi^rk of iIh* *h>omrh itlLouh) W onEniftletMl 
befipn- n'liring at night, c»ih<'t-\vUr tin- :*U't-\t i^ apt to 1>^ <]U- 
tarl>e<l. Ah<mt oik* nr tw<i Ikujis Hlnmiii U' allow^l to <-hi|)si> 
between a lig;ht evening iiK-al nml tWtiiik^* and three or four 
boura between n heavy meal and »leep. From |>en(onal ol>^ter^ 
vatioUA (?iee the section on Kent aad Sleep in GustTic I>isturl>- 
ances) tJie aiitii'»ts have r<»ndude<i that di|*^tion U iaiproved 
by rt'sl ailer nn^aU, hut itiJ|min^d bv .Jeep, In laauy hihlamt^ 
a |>crioJ <if rvat bt-forc t-atln^' meaU !-■< a vJihiaUlf ;iiil u* digt**- 
tSoiu V'ioloni exort-'W immLHlintvly iifter mouU inliihU^ digi^*^ 
tion» ihfi^iviK mof1*'iiii^ deiH'ii^e onit or tvro honn< at^er lucnlA 
tnaltrially aitlt* ihU jimre^. 

6, Food and Emotion. — fn-ver*- mental .strain add sti^tine 
emotion dwturfi tlip ili>n"?*tiou, ami fi>i" thU I'eason fiW ^bimld 
not l>e taken iiniil a peiicxl of re*it and oomjiosiire ba^ inter- 
vened. On the >itber hnnd, jOofinnrahle seii^tioii>f aid the 
digc^'tioHf and j>lea^nt conversaiiou at tbe table b tbo^fore 
to be reooni mended. 




A£IjATioa\ of food to VASIOUS COSDJTtOy& 6^ 



THE RELATION OF FOOD TO VARIOUS INHERENT 
CONDITIONS, 

In(|uimf4 are often nindi- ivmetTiiiny: tiie relation nf SkhI to 
varioite otKliiion^, wuch an ibe iniliience of ntyc, ra<x\ nml the 
like. Tlie^^ coiuliiioni* will now be brieHy diftcunsed- 

HetCdity. — CeilaiEi jiyf*teDiio cotiililiorifi and diw?a-'ies, or Uie 
trtKlenctes t*i tbem, aiv iiiherUecl. ThoK? of especial iplerei^t, 
fiTfUi tlie fitundpoint of Jic^i, ure Icanne^, otx^ity, djal>€!t^, 
gout, him] alcofioliMu. Ffflid idiuTryncra^K'?? nrv al^o ofion 
tnhcrilciL Aiiiootg ihoi^ are lUo liability to tW <]cvclopitiout 
of urtionria or jkui-inQic^ fr^oi ibc* oatiug nf slruwberrii^, orabit, 
etc. In tlw *?a^ of fihcsity, gpoiit, anrl ihi^ lik*v !b<^ dirt -ibould 
be nfpilmHl witb u view u* (nwentitur tbcw (li-H^uf^eft. 

StX, — As a rule, women cat :nid recjuirt' le^^ fo*Kl llian 
moL Tbin is )ir>bablr due iit lar^ meanijre* to tlie indoor and 
eotery life Ie<t bv so mftny wx>i»eii. Under *^<)iial cofuittiuna 
buA little iiifliieiice on food i^iurementn, A twatcr states 
tbat uiKltf fimilur eumli dons women re<|uirv f<>uMit\]m a^ niiicb 
ioud a4 ineUi 

Age in ii^mc mi^u^urv influencc^t tliij i^nmitlty of for^l lak^ii ; 
i <*hild rwjnirv* |»ro|M>rtioiiaifi4y n lnrjji*r aunoiiut of f>M»d than 
in :idult. Acwalir^ ihiH oomjuirt^ tlienniitinit of fiuHl rt^i^iiin^l 
ui diitdlicK>d witli (Iw qimntily nt*f*li>l by a man at miK]<Tntdy 
■dive muscular u'i>rk ; 

15' K yt. rrquirw O.O Uto food «f a nun at modemto trortu 



Bt^ 


15 K 


(Kri 


lfl-I« 


BOT 


13-U 


Ui^ 


la-M 


B.^ 


IS 


Oiii 


Ki-lS 


Ba* 


]o-n 


Cl.lt.! 


(^ 


Cliiki 


^-^ 


OtHd vtAfT * 



A gmvinj^ active l>or u^nally rt^juin.-^ more animul food ppo- 
potiionatcly (linn an acbdt> ^vberui^ a tiuin <»r muldle age 
retfliiErx-s mori^ ibaii au old insiri. 

Race* — Till' to'id i.'f dilT[.'r<"ot mix's varieii widely, but Ibis 
w due, for Uw mo^t pcirl, to theranriag ondilionfl iimler which 
thin' live, and efi|H¥idlly to the foml-fsuppty that L« mcdct avail- 
ah\r by rt^amm nf rout ttml xIh> ea^e with whieh St ean W prn- 

■ Prtnrtpifi ^ .VttiVirim o*f ^Viirririiy Fo/w y /W^b, Funni-fV BuHKln Ncjl 




56 CnSXIISTRY AyD PUYSIOLOQY OF PWESTWtT- 




<'«HxI. TIk* Eshimiks »!itMl£t largely upon raw or i«irlly cookt*cl 
m«il :in(i usi.- Uir^ amntinU of ftiU In tlic Utrr'u\ xim\c ihe 
italivi.*^ wit Inr^ly >.»*' iTrwI?*, tVuits, uiwl Vci;i'iiilik'?'. In tin? 
U-miK-mU: zoiJtK \W' *lu't U iiiixisl. and it* dtpvinU'Dl Inr^-lv 
upon K»ciitl and riimnml iximitliim-*, In-ing of the insist vnrk*tl 
rharurler in tin- oilm? of iIk- w4*11-1"m1c*, wIjitwi-* an^nig iW jxior 
it L<i ii|)l til \>c iiULiIc up of tlic clK-Jtjitr PieutT^y Iji^nilr', tin<l vt^i- 
tfiblt-r*. SriMii-rs un<) ImvclWn* fnim th*; irmpcmU' Kotu-?*, g^'ing 
4*!tfii-r Durtii or Mititlif iijiimlly ri'ijiiiiv iip|>ri>xi mutely iW t^imv 
vnnolittt iif food thry hnd :)t liomi*, Soldiorfi h\ xiw 1n|>ir« 
fniv« and iiu mviit, when they «in obudn il, in almost a« 
liiriiv i|uaiititl(*j< n-* tlicy would jit home, nnd even nfttr year* 
<>f lifi> in tlio tiM|>](;»i do not injikcnny gn-nt chancre in their 
diet. 

Mjtjar (."harh-* E> WonlnifT, Sur^^ii U. S. A., i*xnrtt*i?<« 
the following o|iiiil<>u: ** All niiliv*?* of iIk" lTi'jiii'f< (whwi* 
tnvilijutioii uiiir^i-a ovtT-po|mIatmn ) (ire in a conditiun of 
iiitnif^ii Murvuliou tiiid uoctl much more iiilrogen than Uicy 
cixn |M»i4j(ihly gH, Tlu* old ifundiinlji nf U'Ui'liing that wo 
r^hotild I'lLt li* tlu< Tifilivf»E IK iiHtJtt vinoiiri. Thi-y i]o iiirt ait 
niwd Ik-wuin' ihcy a\n not ^vt it» lluv cmvc iu iU'<'d it, and 
«it it when tliey nnu On ncronnl vf iiiv des'triKiit e ell'i-cU of 
the conwnimtiHl frDpiad iirtinii* my» on prot^iiiWrn we iwxii 
more nitn>^i»n Thun flt lumK. PleiJ-'*(' don't copy ihe old falf«*- 
IrmhI that vtv iitxd hs.< It is alwri frne that we nceil fat, as it 
furni^JK^ energy lH'lt<*r than i-arhnl lydraU^. It is t^ilen in 
prcfcrenre Ut nxavt-\ir?^ ni;cl Mi^ar.-t {ar thi? purpose l>y tvorkcta 
when eh(^y <^u iifflird It, but tWy (alco to vlatysh (rioo) bot'jiii*c? 
it i** ehCT|>er. It i» iiu'orrcet fit wtiy thiil il ov<*rh<"«t?*. It doc^s 
not ov^rhcnt ni*, and it In faW* to j*ay that fat ii< nut tKH-dinl in 
the tropic,^" 

Climate. — In fh^t* illation lo the ()iiestion rf race i* the 
question of liTii|K^ratnpe jind diniali'. Thrn^ are many diHer* 
onc<« of opitiiou, a^ one i-tin pilliei" from Major \Vo(nlraff's 
wonK In n-i^id to ilit* nubioct he ^ayn : •*<1imate aflV-otiJ diet 
miuuly hy tlic xuE>pIy it uflVudti." The main ditroTviicv Uo in 
thi* nmoiirit "f heat ant\ onor^- that luimt In- rnppliwl. In oold 
idimiitf'K more ft^od, (win-oialty lat, I.-* m^-iIihI, hi^-nuE«4' the amount 
of hiiit nM|tiln4l ro nmintain tln^ uarinth of tli** h<Kly \k fin^aivr. 
If the imlividiial \^ doing a lar^ amount of work, a proper 
(gnantJty nf foi>d mveft be -oippliefl whether tlie cliniale is hot or 
e-»hK V'*U<^ thf individual i- in a hot cliniaie and b doing 
liulo or no work le^ (<««! is rc<|uired. 



REI^iTWS OP FOOD TO VABIOUS COStHTIOSS, 67 



Season. — WTiut hasjiifitl>«n Aald n^nHo^dtDuit^^apiJieA 
al^» to ?wiH.ii]. Suncwhal mort' fixwl is re<^iiin?d ill winter tliaD 
ID "iimnwr, in iinkT to >-n|>hly the cxtni lu-sit. Pt'^'pie who am 
well clail eiikI wdl i^lieltorrd nc^itl 1^^ tboti in coUl weuUier aiid 
in coUi climate* than tlui^- who nw poorly oLi^L and i*x|K*^d to 
ibe ekaient^, i^^ the a1>f^lract from AWMMJmff In tli<; #ectioD 
i't% Anuy Uatioux.) 

8izc and Weight. — Other ihin^ Wing crjiial, tlic lur^r 
li>v ImkI^ thv m*>vv iXxxl U dc«(1w1, Tliit^ is an ini|>orcimt |x>iiit 
in liiyling riifnnt^^ nml i^ <1isoLi»«pr] in tW flprriou i>ii Infant 
K<<<ilin)f. If ihi* ii«j(l-?iupply in childhood is ia^tiffim'iit, ihe 
diilil will U' iindt-THi/eO, A^ applii^l to mco>, however, thU 
nil* is theort-lic, ami, since pvideuce to llw contrary cxUt«, the 
.^uKjec-t reqnir^ further Mu<ly. 

The weight of ihc individiial is y^ry inip<»rtniit in The mamigc- 
mmt of di««n:^«« xlwi iire int1iK-nci*d hy diet. TTio wd^hiu^ of 
pcttientB m a pntcnoc thai i» ntuch iio^leiu-d. Weighed with 
the ittKW acttlc« at different times durinp- tJie day the wcij^ht of 
tn tdult will ytirVf on th^ xii'eni|t«, two poumlri. nnd in htany 
iiHtani?es a-* miioh a*i three. With changes in clnthinj; ih<* van- 
atnvi may be much mort^. The differeiK-es in weight are 
j|:ov«fned by die amount of fo^wi and ilrink ingesU^i, and by 
iho otwidilion of the Imwcls and hiadder. wlietber they Iiavo 
been emptied or art full. It 'i» ea^y to ^^oe how errorn m^y 
irbe nnlfffA all tht^vc things be con^i<lcrp<l. Pnlicnts ure efinrly 
buoyed up or dcprt^^t) n« a n^snlt <»f wiij^hin^, nnd care should 
be c3Lerci»«<l to iivoi<l ihc Inttcr, If the pnlicnt j« wei^lKt) in 
hiA clothes, the wimc parrncnt'^ >ihr>idd l>c worn at oa^^h weigli- 
mg. The relation to mciiltimi* nnA x^ rlie voi.lir^r of Tiriuo and 
lera shouM ^\m\ ^y far a^ pof^ihle, he tlie <inw at <-ach wH^h* 
ing:. The patient should be instracted not U> drink water for 
llie fljike i»f inrrciisin;; Iiie weight. 

Rest and Exercise. — Much Irts food If required dnring 
net than during exerci^. In e.xcr^^'ise the miiscriLar a<.^ivtty 
inoreAfiefl oxidation an*! ti&^uc-wiLste, and this waste mu&t lie 
cnonUTbolance^l liy an incrt^K'<1 omsnmption of fiiod* Acvotxl* 
{t^ ti» Atwater; A maa at hard work rc<[uires l/i of tliv food 
nf a mait «l moderacc work ; n man at ]i<-ht mn^onlar wr>rk re- 
(jtliriH 0,?l t^ tlio food of a man nl m'.idi^rele w-^rk : a man of 
iedmtary habits reqiures 0,8 f*f ilie fo.xI of a man at modemt* 
work. Kilhner states xhru: (I) At rest a man requires 25O0 
ealorie^ ; f2| at profei^.-ional work a tnan rei^uire^ *ti'M calories ; 
(3) at mmlemte muM^ular work u man requires 3131 calories; 



58 CUEMrsTtiV AyD PHYSiOLOGV OF DSGESTIOy. 

(4) at fievere muscular work a man re<|ijired 3*559 calf>rj«» ; (5) 
at hard labjr a man reijuin?* 521^ calories. 

Individual tendencies imvc K>nii> effect on tl^e am^mnt 
of W^A Vi.'i\\\\v*\\. 'I'lK'a' ar*" many jwi'&oris wlio eat very 
»[kai-iiigly imd who uovcrthclcBA become fljeH?; otli4.'t> |)Artak<- 
of un miiip^iially larpc •|njmtity of for>*l ni>*J ncn'^r tatcctu Ttii* 
ift due pi'fihably, ai^ JluloliiflOii jkiUK- «iu, to the fact that tho 
■ aoti\'ity of x\w ct^lls in rertfiiti indivklunl^ U greater than in. 
ot^ei>, and lend^ to a more nipi<i lireakiu^-Jo^'ii of fmnl aad a 
greattr wufte of heal." 

The great tenileiiey with mo^t pertH>DS is to overeat , iti eon- 
SOijuoneL* of whidi fat^ an* stored up ; at a result, obesity or 
guMro-iiit*rs;inal i»r other i.liMiir}xiiK*€s ooeur, und thus the estx*?* 
yf '[mA i?^ cttmiuuti'd. vVi limes ihe rL'T<.'r*e <x>ndilioii — thai of 
coniiuniing too little uounsbmcut — occurs. The periled during 
which iin indivMuxil can Hib^iec without food vnrict-, and de- 
|i^iid>^ liirg»*ly ii|w>n the amoutit of etercisip tiiken and njH)n 
armoftphprii.' conditionR. such as moUtnre and tempei-ature, A 
condition moiv fref|uetnly met with ihau actual starvation b a 
oue-^ided or inipn»perly balanced diet^ — tliat is, one in which 
one i'P the oihfr of tho f lod clenienlji ts taken in excess while 
the other clcmcnJ-j arc iliminishetl or lacking. Tims if an indi- 
vidual cuts excLTs^ivc (|im(ilitics of meat and no vc(^'iHblc*i» the 
diet is lo«j rich in prntrin,-* and loo poui in c^irboliydratc^ ; uj^iiif 
if larpc rpuuUilii'T* of biitlcr and rich cako* be eaten and no 
fn<fl! nr vcpctablcrt, the diet will l>t- too rich in frit* and carbo- 
hydrjtti^ und too pjor tn pri-»ti>iii"*, Lind may, thprcfnrc, prove 
harmlid. Asa rale, in & badly balanced dfet the number of 
calories U too »=niall to mwt fho requirements- The following 
diot-li?*t, pivcii by Mrn, K. H. HichanU, sbowa a oommoa 
invalid diet too low in pnit^ins: 



A Vommwi Inmiid Biii'm/t 7w> Ijox^ in Fntttln.—l MfM. E, If. i^f'eftflrdi.) 





pnitltu. 


Kirt. 


hfdrMiM- 


(ttLOrlM. 


1 i^iil of hiH^t hmiili or 4XiiiHinini4 > - 
) |Hnl of (Irli.'O-rniU Hiiiij>, . - . • . 

1 ^nt or litrppriiil OniTiiim cMmtftti> 


■ ■ 


0m. 
0.4 




8a7 
tOCkO 

£040 


^ilUArUor UtjuUL Tolftl . .127,30 


m 


193 


II09>4 



f 



UELATION OF FOOD TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS. 69 

Tobacco and DigeBtion. — Tobacco frequently playg an 
>ii3portaDt r6le id luflueDcing the dige^tioD of food. It h a well- 
I^xowQ fact that the chewing of tobacco increases the salivary 
Secretion, frequently reduces the appetite, and increases the 
cnovements of the bowels. As a rule, it is better to smoke 
^fter meals than before, the irritating effect of tobacco l)ei»g 
XhoB lessened. In acute gaBtric disturbances tobacco should l>e 

interdicted entirely^ and in chronic forme the smoking should 

lie limited to a verj' few cigars a day. 

Tobacco acts aa an e:][citaDt to the nervous system, and ^liould 

be prohibited in all nervous diseases. 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 

ANIMAL FOODS 

Akimae. fiio(?>. ronuitn miirh iti^cstibl^ ninttrr, <?hicfly pn>- 
twtiJi, 11 coTuitlc^nJilo ^jtiantity of' liit, m Hinut fixtds carbo- 
hviiriitr>, HHil, in ii<)<1ilion, wjjUr ntnl intTh.-nil milt/*. Being 
tln"rogglilyiIijr»L-^itHl, tlirykuvelnU littir nTiiiJiio in tW mtc«titie. 
The vuriou* lorm* Ml'niiimjil dajth* — milk, iiip*. mwH, fish, and 
gelatin — will now be dt^iTibctl uiuk-r tlic^^i' laadiiig^. 

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS- 
Milk, tb^ mor^t im[Hiitiiiit ff auiiMAi tWids, conraiiid nil tli» 
elonu'ni*^ iiwoiwanp' for lUv mjiiut^mtiKt oi' Uf^v ^ii<^ cocBiiiuU'rt 

ComiK»sitJon. — Milk ocuitains vorying prcuxntioas of *ynli 
of i\w four clasT^T^ of fixxl iirinciplcs — |>i-taeititi, fats carb^- 
hyilmte^, ami niiii4*ml -^alt**, Uimibilteraloil, it e^^iiiainj^ fruai 
90 to >*4 per cent, of water, varying wiili the cjiuility of tlie 
milk. It fonns the exclnsive diet tor young, giv>wing mam- 
malia, Inil owing to tbe fact tb;it the proportions of proteinn 
and flit :trv i[j exix-^M of tbe c:ii'boliydnitt-p^, it la uDtuiuible an 
an oxohiHivc <li<.-t ior adult<4, 

Tlie prinotpal Dftrogenoue <x>na|>oiind of milk irf codvin. Il 
clifTeis from tiie other protein eompoiimU in that it coiiliiin>c 
hoib phosphonw antl sulphur. Caf**-iii Ih not o<mi£nhiUH) hy 
beat, bnt tbU elmnjr*^ nmy Im? I'ttW'ttHl by mbliny arid or by 
rennet. The cji^ein clot tormeil I jy adding a<'i<ls may Ik* dis- 
solved by Eieiitralixing tbe aeid, while that fiirmed by rrnnel iit 
not aflfected by the addition of alkalis Milk mntains, Iwv«i4ii>j< 
<»«ein, lactnlbiiniin, whieli in* similar to the M?mnwilbumiii of 
tbi; bloiKi, The li»ud pnitejun averages uImkiI 3.-! \hv <rm. cjf 
the bnlk of the milk, or alx»ut '2^> ]n'f oeiii. of tbo f>tal fuiluN. 

The fatA of milk v<mr<\fil of the glyeiAi'idii of ^Kdmiiic*, 
fitfarin. and oleio fie^U. In a<Mitioii to rlu^se. milk oontjiin^ 
*ievend other fat.^ in nniatler pr<»jmi-tions> to wUhAi the tlnvor of 
butter is due. The fat is ^iH|H>nded in the milk in the form 
of minute glftbules, which give the milk its white color and 
opacity, t'at averages abfait 4 per <*cnt. of the milk or alK>at 
31 per cent, of the total «olKLf, 



ANIMAL FOODS. 



61 



The chief carbohydrate of milk ia kcUMe^ or milk-sugar. 
Milk-sugar is not nearly so Bweet as ordinary sugar, and id 
less soluble in water. It reacts to Fehling's solution like 
glucose. In the presence of the lactic acid bacillus it is con- 
verted into lactic acid, wiiich causes the milk to turn sour. 
Lactose forms about ;!8 i>er cent, of the total solids. 

Milk contains about 0,7 j>er cent of salts. These salts exist 
chiefly in the form of phosphates^ chlorids, and sulphates. 
Potassium salts occur in larger qiiantitieji than do sodium salts. 
Calcium salts are very essential to young, growing animals, 
inasmuch as they play a verj- important imrt in the forniatiou 
of bone. The relative percentages of salts in the ash of human 
milk arc shown by the following table : 



CbIciuiu fboaphate 23.S7 

■' Hulphate 2.25 

" carbonate 2.85 

"* ailicote 1.27 

PotAriuimi carbonate 23-47 

chlorid 12.05 

" dulphatc B.3ii 

MaHnetfium curbonnfe 3,77 

Sodium chlorid - 21.77 

F«mc oxM and aluiuitmm ■ .,-....,..... 0.37 

100.00 
Variations in Milk. — ^Thero are wide variations in the com- 
position of the milk of different animals. ^Vhile human milk 
contains more sugar and less protein than eows^ nnlk^ the fuel- 
value is about the same. D€>g's milk seems to l>e the richest, 
whereas that which eomcs from the horse is exceedingly ]K)or, 
as may he seen from the fallowing table : 

(hmpamtiv*' fhmpo^ition of Varioti* A7nrfj* of 3fiU\* 





Water. 


TnUl 

jfoUdB. 






ToUL HolldB 


. 




1 


Kind of 


CsKeln 

Prret. 


TroWln. 




Fat. 


hyrlmn'rt 
imtlk- 

Arrt. 


nmlU'n 


1 ¥\xv]- 
p«iiind- 


bilk. 


Altni- 
mlii. 




Ptrft. 


JVt<*. 


Prrct. 


C'tt'irffi. 


Wnnun 


K7.1 


12.fi 


hn 


1,H 


'*^ 


a> 


e.'2 


n.:E 


S19 


<"<JW . . 


K7:2 


r*H 


3.0 


ft..'. 


s..-» 


3,7 


A \l 


0.7 


31 If 


I>"tf ^ ^ 


V'A 


2trA 


fil 


M 


Uri 


■1.1 


21.1 


0.7 


fiiJ 


Kwe 


m.*i 


IV,2 


-'>,'» 


l..'> 


€,.:> 


fi.tl 


4.'.l 


O.'J 


JW 


Bumio. 


BM 


lK.fi 


-'i.K 


>i:i 


n.i 


7.r. 


4.1 


o.u 


fJWi 


<%i. . . 


Bii 


i;.n 


ni 


r.i} 


y.i 


»J{ 


4y 


0.6 


1 4"n 


<ki«t . , 


Kt.7 


H.M 


3-Z 


1.1 


i.A 


4.H 


-1.4 


irh 


:Wo 


LUdu . 


Pfi..^ 


U.'i 


a.11 


111' 


Hr-i 


i.l 


fi.fi 


n> 


■M-2 


An. . . 


Hf.fl 


in.4 


1}.' 


!,■; 


2.A 


l.fi 


fi.O 


n.i 


•^^1 


Hare, . 


»^ 


S.3 


1.:: 


"i.i 


\.i 


1.-2 


&.7 


ii;i 


ivi\ 



^ Kdnift^ Chemie der mvituchlichtn Xiihrutitji^ uml (Jmuaiftiiilfffj 3d vd-j vuL i^, 
pp.267-3ti2. 



63 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



Not only is th^re a wtJe variatbn iu tlie milk of diiTi^rent 
uniniaU, but cows' milk itself is subject to great cfian^<s in 
the inrtyntn^' cuin|x*tilinn of lis ingredients, Tlie.^e may Ix' 
uttnlxiied lo miiuy cjiiihET^f ihc breed aiul condiiion of ntilnial^, 
ADiL the frxxl And tW cure iXk\' rcvcivc Ix-iiig rv^jxijiniblv* iii u 
^^^nc ck^rec for tbeec irhattges. Xi a ruU% u youn^ oimv ^vc* 
octtor mtllc lliBti an oM ono, and a well-fe<l aiiimiJ yi<4<]« Hcbor 
milk tfinn ouo tbat is ]MH*rl_v f^l. rh*r uiilk flow ts ^*flt<'*t 
shortly atiei" calving, but tbe milk inen'asps in ricltti049 is tbt 
t|Ua[iiiiy Ifeconu'a T-maller. 

AduiteratJon. — Milk Is often aduIteratiMl by uosonipulons 
dairvmen by rbe iuldition of water. ThL* is the niowt romuion 
tuelhot] of adulteralioH, anc!, if tbe wattT umhI for thi.-* (>nrjKj!!<e 
U pure, pn>4lui^s m» ill efft-ct other than to dilute the milk and 
tlieivipv leadeu the jiercirtiUtge of ifci iiigre^Jti^iils. UiifurUimitdy, 
hovkcvcr^ ^sator u.-^-d fi>r ihi^ purjKJnc is iiol alvmyn |rtirc and in 
friHjUoritly a *tnir("v of fytntafniniition. Other nicihcidik of «ltpr- 
i«g thiMpmlity id" milk *'oiHi«l in \]m- rcriMval i»f thr fiif*; — the 
incix-av' ill tbr f*[K.vifu* jrrnvity which i.'^ pnHbui-il tbcrtby is 
ountunicltHl by the fLirther addition ol' ^(Ate^ ; ar<l In fbc nddi-* 
cioii id |iiVM.TViitivtv. The hut**r iLK-th^n), whiU* i1 (I(»t« not 
dvtnK't from ihi.* nutritive vaJih' of the [jiiJk, n»iy, if the milk 
Ik* Mwd rt'^nimly, pnnbiee dek*1»Ti(nirt iy^mIls. 

DI)[«Sllon of Milk. — Whin milk i^iUefH the st^Jtuacb, It h 
ijtm^xUiU^l by thi- livthihddi^rLr iirid iitid dir rcuiuu of tlitr ga.'^tric 
jiiioc. Tbi'pr oijni'*^ ot vi'n^iila, tymtist <if |iiv(<]|)irnt(H^] <'ji7t.'in 
ami a pf>rtion of th<» fat thut has b(?p<>mo crit«tiglwl tii ibc cunL 
They vary in si/e and c<>nfiihtence ac^mlitig t« the nnioimt nnd 
the dilution of the milk takenn Tiic casein nwn tind^Tgf.ws 
chaiipt', bcin]( converted into some form of |>cjiloiie, and llie fat 
U Jifjnin lilK-nitctl. Tbealhuioinou* onvelojie of the fat-^Iobules 
i.-» di^v'lv*Hl, uacl the lat C'nile>a'-S f(»rn>in^ lai'ger dropb, in 
which ci>ndiiio[i it [insM<s int<> the duo<IciinnK A portion of 
lhi,t vvalm- and sotue of tin- sjilt-* •ire al>a<>i'l>id in ihc titoiuacb^ 
Tln' cuni that \tiv* not bcpit art*xl a|Kin hy the j^^trir juice, 
toj^:thi:r with tin? wiit<T, snUtt, nxid wirbdbydnUcB that still 
ri'iijjiiri, n!*ci fMiA« inln (lu» intfiitincr wlu'tt' tlu'ir di|jf<>stion la 
c<iiii|iii-k-(l Hoiliiiijf LucnvutC'S the digf^ihility of milk, the 
pltHlpiTate heiu*; de|>"Hlte<I in n nwn- tli^eeulenl fi»rm. If the 
milk i* prrvioii?*ly diliiti.il with litin'-wiit<r, bftrh-y-waler, or 
one <*f tlic iitTaUHl waten<. vikU iw Vieby, the i^inds fi>rmod are 
j^Rialler ami softer, and the milk oilen readere<! more palatable, 
Brt^id or enckcni added to milk make a good tuechaulatl 



ANIMAL FOODS. 63 

diluent by mtngUng with it and maintaining a soft condition 
of the curd>4. The addition of alkaliu may be resorted to with 
a view to neutralizing tiie acids. This has the effect of coagu* 
lating the casein more slowly, and forming flocculi rather than 
cheeky masses. 

Cream. — When milk is allowed to stand for some hours, 
the globules of fet rise to the top, and, together with consider- 
able milk, are removed as cream. This product contains about 
18 per cent, of fat, and some protein and carbohydrates from 
the milk mixed with it. According to Letheby, as quoted 
from Yeo, the followiug table shows the average composition of 
cream : 

AVattr 66.0 

Profein 2.7 

Falfl 2ri.7 

Carbohv^trHies 2.8 

Salts l.S 

Skimmed Milk, — The residue remaining after the removal 
of cream from onlinar}' milk is called skimmctl milk. The 
amount of fat has been greatly nHluoo<l by creaming, hut the 
Ijercentage of protein remains almost the same. It irt more 
ea^ly (ligestc<l than whole milk, inasmuch as the fat has been 
removed. The compi^sition of skimmc<l milk, according to 
Letheby, as state<l by Yw, is as follows ; 

Wnler 8^.0 

Pn.k-in 4.0 

Fats 1.8 

CurhniiT<lnitv^. - - hA 

Salif* ,' 0.8 

Devonshire cream is a r^oliJ cream obtained by skimming 
milk after it has be*^n bcatevl r-Iowly to not over 150"^ F. It 
i*: more nutrliion^, bnt not :^> eJi>ilv digestible as onlinarv 
creimi. 

Batter. — Bnt(cr i^ raatic from (he cream of milk hy the 
proeei^s of churning, which canoes tlie fat-^'lolniles sus|)entle*l 
in the milk to cialesce, thns f'»rminpr a siijid mas.^;. IJntter 
is occa.si'inally made from milk <kt]icr than that fn>m the 
COW", A varying proptirtiiin of comninu siit is always added 
ti> it to cnliance it^ }>atatablcncss and its keeping t\\\w\\- 
ties. The flavor of bntter is dne to the trn^vth of micro- 
oi^anisms. Pure cnltures of certain organisms arc now 



64 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



iitttm-d to ri]M>ii hiitler luid iki iiiiFKUt q i^on^tmit fitivor, Ap- 
pr\»ximAU*Iy, biitkT may be i*akl to <iniifi>t of: 



Oueiu ' ^ 



WO 
0^ 



On utviHiiit "f tli<' rtL**" with wliicU ii ii* dip?8f«d bnttiT, when 
fn*j*h, U Olio nf tlir nuiHt Mikinhlt^ fatly fiKHl^, The iitiicuiity 
wliidi <K^rur» wlieii htifter Ih ki>]it ton I<»itg t^«<?ms lo Ix^ due to 
l)h- c<n,<«i>iii, which, *m \U]*\t'v^m%^ tbrwi^ilatiiii!^ llU^mttT* lutty 
aeid-^. On thU a<:eouiii that Inuter kc^jvi lx'.< uhuh rojituiii8 
tlK* Imttt c^.se'm. Butler ia bt^t jnt^^frveil hy ki^-piu^ it ut luw 
tcinjK^nUuTv, uinl ^'hhI i^csultf> are hImj ol>lamtf<l t>y smiting. 

BottermUk. — Btnu-miilk, whi<.-li in iormod during tfiv 
maTnirn<'(uiv of [>ntt<*r, i.^ jnmtht'r millf JcTivuliw of Tin litil<i 
i]ii|K»rLiiirc. Il U iDwd 1Xt4!n^iv4'1y ibi u In-VMiifrt*, nnii tx highly 
nutritiouEi nnil easily di^^'tunl. It oont^nii.- th^- i^rH'iri uf thp 
milk in a finely roa^uktod fi)riii. A«r<inlinjj to Pavy, ii> i|UoUtl 
frwrn YrtJ, tl»e e<)m[h>p-iti"n 'if buttermilk it* a^* tollowr% : 

U'ntrr 88uO 

^ircvipjnotM niDtlor - - > 4.1 

Fhri^ niiilU-r , 07 

LnirnnQ , , , , , C-4 

HiliavrtialFor - - 0,8 

Cord and Whey. — Vim\ is tito coajftdntcil <?a'<i'in of milk. 
Thi- I'oa^^iilaiiim nniy Iw bmught al>f>ti( hy n<intiii, i\ fornK-nt 
fiiuiul in Un' giifllrii- juiit% or hy t*in'h m'ld .■<olj>tjiriiv< ut* lemon- 
juice, white vincgjir^ etc. Whry In ihp fliud pirtiou of the 
milk rvmuiriing ii|nn> Uh- o<i»^i[lntion nud pcmovnl nf thi' <yi»iciri. 
Wlu*y \* an t'Xf>f-1h>nt ilnnk unci food in thoo^ «iMr*i tn which 
milk iH not wvil \ttm\v. 

Cheese. — (.Visc' i* mudt* up of iniril ;ujd a wrtiun imji>or* 
tion i>f tfu fitt of mill:. C'h*.H'?ii--* vitry in <*rnii|Mi.'*ilion and ron- 
ftistt'iioe aot'oTtlinj: to thoir pri'iKiiiitirin. Samv clurw?* iirc wift, 
whih' otlier-" lire hartlrnrtl into cHkirt hy pn^winv, Thu fliivnr 
of elieest^ U due lu the gn)Wili "f certain inioi'rmrgtini>mrt during 
ilw rifpeniug piXMx-nn, Tlie hnnlc-r cheet<eft kevp luneh kmgi<r 
than the **oft hiioh. TIio av^^mgr t'omiHvtit.ioii of chers^i-, ns 
^lawii by Park<te/ is as fnlluw* ; 

Wna-r - 8(1.0 

Pnricia 31.0 

Fftt» S»^ 

£bLi» 4.5 




ASIMAL FOODS. 



66 



Clt«v«c Is a nuUitiotu» unil a^reea1>li- food, bul il b oAe» (tif- 
fUrall nf <li^4»tioD, llie haixlcr chcem-H are tjutt-h more iiidi- 
g^viiblc- tJum ihode of soft c^^^iHist^iioe. Lik*- milk, olitn***? may 
i-Kintftiit nt-rtHin fMiHiiur>u^ ^uIj^Liik^^, duh lo nrgitrntuiiri ihni 
^nti-r Ihr tm\k; nf tliiHc, one of tlic WMnl comuion i.« t\iY>Ioxi- 
cx«j. I*i>U<miiijf may foUfnv the rating of Mu-h finest-. 

Kumiss, Kcfir^ and MaUoon. — Kumiss U q fer- 
mHiUd drink [irepuvd i>y [iii!li liirlu A^^id ami aWliolic fer- 
meut;ilkiD. For miiiiv ctnUirioi !i has Ih^ii mndi- fn^ni nian?s' 
uiilk by (Iw uaiivtv living ueui Uif nlioreh of the Cii^pma I^a. 
Tbt* milk » obtaiiitt.1 fixrin u i4|Kfcijil bix<etl of luure^ llie uuimalft 
being fwl vi-rj' vurvfidly. Tin.' uiilk if mixoil with a kumUd 
fvnn^-ui^ the W'lie Hc^id fc'nikt.-iil isinvortiitg «oiuo of ibe *ugur 
into I:k^(^ ndd^ utiik^ utioilur |mrt nf ilu- Mignr i.s (*f>nv('rti-fl 
ill i» I alcohol a[>d cuirl»tiio acid; a .^rnall ijimmUy of oii>eiii 1^ 
<li^eit«d. The milk i^ eoiiHtiiTitly ii^itatod, and the fi^riKiJlu* 
tion allow^ lo proc(H*d for u period of tw^iily-ffmr hours or 
mr,ro, 

Kumisa ia an aeid, ef Vrvee^elnff drink, and eontniiis a very 
fiooll proportion of akt>hol, Ii \i^ very easily di^MtHl, iH-iiig 
much more digc?itibl<- dxnn milk. The cvi»c-in iH wt finely 
divided itiot liini[iH ecui tol he firrmfn) in ihe ntompeh, hck] it \s 
umly ttcUt] ti|Kin )ty thv frfi^trif* >e4*hMif>n. In ihe t*inf«fl 
&tat«^ ir hm Ih.1-11 |ire|)nTed frnin cnuV mLIk In iwhieh an nrti- 
ficiiil ferniint U a<likt]. 

AumuN Cifrf. — lu tHTfaiii \y^n> of Rnri^iA thi»* form of cure 
14 not uiiooinmoi), h omHi-^in in drinkin}; j^mnll i|nanr!lie4 of 
kamiKH and gnuhmlly inerensing tliv-ni until lai^ c|uaniil]eii 
are taken. Ktindw eiires have been pi^eKTilx^ In chronic 
l^.^tru-iuie^tiiud ealuirlL-* utid <-hnJiik' uiiairli^ of tlie rt?*pinittvty 
trait. 

Keftr n:<u*iiihlt-s knintT^, tnid if* oAt-ti xsaod u.9 a itulxHttiute 
for il_ It wtt» originiilly nmili' in tlw* funeuntis fnjni eow*' 
milk fermented with i^nfi^firontpt'ts tnj/rodmna, belie ooid 
rerm4:iitsti<«i t^^tio^ on at thi- T<\nw time. Aleohol, laetie acid, 
and aHuTnmiH an- f»rn»Hl n^ a iu-*iill of the fermentative frtH** 
efis«. The casein w |ardy di^sttrd. 

M«Uoon. — hi thiH lonn of milk hiclic acid i_4 produi:<ed by 
fi^nneotaiioQ wJih a femient (fliiain^^^l fVi»m Syria. It is thii*ker 
ihdn kumif^ uw} doev^ not oi-ntain alcifhul. 

Kunii'U, kofir^ mid ruat^^»n nix- (i^rtt-ahk- formfi of milk 
foodi, arc caaily tli^>^tiMe, and ure t*fi|>«*<*ially n-«efiil in thinto 
in wbiHi milk nm not \to tiiken or u not \e<*ll hornr. 




! 



66 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



Ttie followii^ Inbte U taken from HiitchtfiOD (p. lS7)aDd gives 
thv: com pi.iTti lion of kuiiii^, kciir, etc, ; 



Kumiv 

Kofir . . . 

Ootn^ milk 
Dmtcmiilk 



?RAfid-' 


Snik*' 


PHL 


flttitt. 


AleoboL 


lACOO 


/VtcthL 


iirrfnt. 


J^OM. 


i*r«iu: 


itr nc 


fvCtmL 


2.!i 


i.r> 


2.1 


a© 


1.T 


0.fi 


3.1 


1.6 


10 


0.$ 


S.1 


o.a 


2.0 


&0 


3.5 


ad 






3.3 


4.8 


a.fl 


a7 






M 


as 


1^ 


ao 


' 


as 



THE MODIFICATION AND PRESERVATION OF MJLK. 

The chemic o)m|>i)Hition, variation in, mul Jidiiltonuion of 
milk, as well as of wime of the uiijk-ppotlucu, Imvi* alrauly 
btwn crtiihiiJeix'd. It ni>w i-ufimiut^ to (li**ciiM* ibc mi^lbiwU of 
modifvltrg and jiroderviiig milk nnd luilk-tbotk. Innj».iniicb 
08 milk lA ur^imliy tiikuii in iLi- mw -ItiU*, it U hrghly im|»irtHiit 
that it l)C' fi*eo from :tll HiM-i^ "f i_'<>ti turn inar ion. 

Contaminatloa of Milk. — Ati imjtortant ^^ource of oon- 
lamiiiHtion of milk i?^ tliniuy:li *lifk^i,*i* of tho ud<l<T nf the oavf 
or oarelessne?*^ in liuiuUinp tliis (Hj:!ii]. Oott"i uto. toi:i ofU'ii 
kojit in filthv fitalfloft, froni wlik-Ii ilu^t ami pxert^m<*nti lions 
m^iner find their w-ay into the milk-}»iiil. The ((erms of diftpo**© 
that do not gt't iiiM the raillc in tlie stable, frequently do sta 
ihriintih the agency uf tht- Imlllfd ur oinw in wUitrU thu milk ta 
nhipptHl, juid whif^h are often unclean or clt^aaptcd with puUtitcJ 
water, t 

Cowa shoiiH not Ix^ aHi>wi-d to eat the tiry l«iv«i on whif'h 
th^y an? m^tfitly hitidi-d, le^t thr*ir <N>lort iwlor, or cvon piiismioim 
pro[>erties he im|)nrU*<l to the milk. Hour milk and milk fi'om 
poi:»r cow_4 is unfit lor food and --^luinld nm \n- n^tii» 

At tinier? luhercnloF^ia or irifianknuihiry oondirioii^ dnt^ to 
mtctxH organisms may exif^t eirlier in the inldfT *»f iho eow or in 
eomc di^tnttt orjjan, and may l^-e so slight as not l»» attract the 
ntlvntiuti *jC the milker, Kaslt--, in a rr|"»rl in tin- British 
Medical Association in 18DJI/ <li,--«cnU"<l hi-* aiialy:Mr^ of ifiQ 
wim|>led of milk obluIuM iVi>ui vniiooa ^oiirop^ ; of those, 
tnbonde bacilli were |irf\*<*ri! in 1 1 ; |>ii* in 47 ; sli-eptocvwv'i in 
I<>»j ; ilu' fKTi'eniajtP-"* werv a--< follows ; o.:t |mt cnit. ominiiMH) 
tuht'rcl** bacilli ; 78,7 p«^r cent. coiitiiiKn) \n\s. At times micro- 
4»rg?ini*im6 are iutpoduccil inin milk from an adder that has not 
been prciperly olean^ More milking or from the unclean 



JSWAL FOODS, 



67 



huftdft of the tutllccr. Among tht* |)»lhogrnii- gomig that Doav 
tbttfigmiti a<we«« t^ tW milk an' (fu* Iwirilli rii" ij-phoiJ fover, 
tuben-'alofiis, iliphtberin, aud chulcm. On «Dt«riDg the milk 
tbe^ orir]Uii>^iaf? oontiuuf' to gn.>w aind in u f^hurt lime multiply 
eiMirntiHitly. In wlditK>n to imtho^t-nlc or^nihiii^, ul}i«r micro- 
OTgaoumfl which pixidiRMr f^iiiiring hut &rv otbenviM* hamileiiA 
may (caiii u<x4-?>« tu tht- milk. 

De :vhwcinitz, id ibeSixt^yndi i\iiiiu;il n<'[wrt uf tJic Bufblu 
iif Animul Ii)thj«in', l^K^, iTtlU mtoJiUcMi at ihi- ffu^t lluit in 
our oitie* milk c-xiuiin* Ironi WCH} tn S^OO hKtom in a cubic 
««iim<^tcr; in *omc in^^laiioc* there nrc a*i muuy ha 1,000,000 
tn -l,(>(H).()00 ill 31 cahiiy ccnrimpt^r. Tht^ in:tXLniiini limit of 
the nuinhcr of OTvanUm^ in niilk that in fit to be u^ U 50,000 
in II L-iihic cL-ritimetcr. Apptyinf; tlii^ ntlu to the »implra 
ohtained by Jc Schwcinilst from ^2 dofLlcr*, hut 13 were tit 
for itM.\ In 130 ?ainpl«« cxamirit^ by Jc Sobwciuiuc in which 
tbe ^■atv«t ciirr was taken M [mvcut omfnmiuution, Troui 2W 
to SOjOiKJ hiicteriu wen- fonuil in ii cubic eentirai'ter; in the 
lar^«»l pm|».*rUon, howewr, hm fiymi :*00 ti> 5()1.H) wca* tbuiid. 
From ihie it will l>c seen thj'Lt the grcntcvt ctlfc id rccjuiied id 
IniMlling milk irom the time it comes Irom the oo%<^ udUI it is 
4*TV<?d iw fcMxl. 

At BiirTi.'-idn Farnj, Green Sprintr Vnlle>'. Md., the farm of 
Sir. Samuel Sclioem«kor, fivnn wbifh the Walker-<^ii>r<lrin milk 
»lil in BAllimore ia ohtainnl, ibe following precaiitiotiK U> pre- 
vent coutaniiantion are taken : Thedairj* is nmna^l hy traineJ 
pi-rsons, ami is l>eiit).' ctin»itantly in'^[>ecteil bv eXfierU* in their 
respective departments- Tbe numJ>er of Iwtcleria in the milk 
U n^eorded tbilv m the laU>ntlory. T)je covrs are le^ttxl' for 
tvilH*rcti]oett at frcijiietit iiil^TvalM. Tlic flablee arc kept iu 
a tlK>rr><i^hly liyj>icTiio condition, the floor and walb l>einK 
cemented and well scmlibeil eaeh day. The milker U reqiiirtHl 
In senib bis han<U llioroiighly before milking, am! to clothe 
him^lf in a white sterilized suit, The crws are thon^u^hly 
pDomed one honr before milkinir. and the udders of ihe 
CODT are cleansed just befere milkini^. The e<»wa are milked 
into special milk-]k:u[h h> arrati^jed iw to prevent dinn inmi 
entcrin);. The fivrt milk drawn, which unuully coatain^ any 
|[prma that iikay iiavc cii(cred the milk-chKl»T ia diacurdetl. 
T1»e |ttils, bcttlo^ and mhor appdimtu^ ore sterilized at a tcm- 
|»erMinre of 'J12* F, The niilk it* pn*»-od from the pail into 
canH, and i^ ilw'n tiken to the milk-houKe. wherp it ifi strained 
liiniiiicb sterile cutUin into a Gterilizetl cooling tank, after which 



CLASSES OF rooits. 



ti cli« mOk jK'''^ vii'» *4<^ Inole. 

Modified MUk.— Modtfel nflk k |n|«Rd fnm tbewv- 
fullv kcWtni ur«B tff uide for igrikiiMg uUc Unt ^ to br 
^fMud ajxl riKombimd iihihImi^ Id the prvcripciuo cf tbe 
p lyAiia . Tlw wjMntkm cf die bU nd ctnua ttaoooai- 
liliftbfld bj^ flMMitt of tfe tf artrif i i g i l lawhJiML TW wjvtBml 
miUi and omn, u «d) » the «rb<jle tnilk, wbkli bM bns 
gj o l i u d at a teoiperatiire uf -!*>"' F. or tirt«j«, nr^ ibrti -vnt lo 
ibc ckj labow i tofy, vliet^ tb« ddlnit^ |ic:rcviii4^^ of cvtACa aod 
tofMliS«d milk iifv rKixubiiK^L 

II U vbr i£*-ii#Tml Ij^-lief rLat iov'ftlifL-i aod infint* !(»»%> U>lter 
mon mixM milk ohiAined (r>«n a noiaber uf mm>, than upoo 
thr milk '-f ■ Muicle oiw, vtiMi 15 apt O rair with tlio o»Ddi- 
Vftu "{ ihr aniEoaL Atconling to Kotdi, *'c«i-iain bnv«l^ of 
tnvM arc IiHIt llun other:- ff>r or>|iyiu]|: human milkif.'' Ttie 
felkiwiiig ll^t iif hnwtU t*(^t a<b|)tcd fi>r niodiliitl milk, with 
aaal^fm, b takrti from IU>1ch : 





au. 


■Miar 


laUMtai. 




T«t»l _.^|_ 


DmMi 

Ajnkirr . 
llolMai>-Frii-iwi , ■ 
AnHrlowD cndM ■ 
Cmumm ofttivci ^ ^ 


KremL 
4.01 
4,<W 
3J99 

2.88 
4,01 
3,00 


4.M 
4.32 
4.41 
4,83 

4M 
4.36 


4.17 
4M 
4M 

4xe 

4j09 


0i73 

aT6 

0l73 
4174 
0174 
(^.7S 


I1.<>4 itiKm 
IIW 87.14 



Stcrilleatioti and PadtcarLcation of Milk. — Milk ia 
MrriliJ^l Uy Njilin^, uml i>^ ilni» ivudcrcd lev? di^-^tlblc for 
drxfjcrfrtio jHiticiitfi : itn Li-<ti> i^ also ultoixd ; on the Mher luiDd^ 
al^Hliawtion jh-ntiNA'^ ull niioro^i^imm^. For persons wifh 
iMMinid (li;,i-Tiit<Mi milk i^ iiMiJilly mort' easily ili^r^t^iible wlien 
boiled. The ili-<a4vanraffiN of stcrilijeation are in a nuaMire 
ovcroonif* l*y I'iLHiiiiri/jLiH>i). By thin pnx>efis the milk is 
kqvt flt u tempemliire «f 7n° C. (158* F.) for fmm twenty 
In eliirty mimiii^: diii-* mnAt nnrnwu^nintnn are killfd, the 
ni*i>n'», hr^wevcr, not licing; <ioHiroye<l, allhoujfb iheir growth 
ill iiihiliiui}. The t^^U' irf tin? rnilk ip imt t^o iimiketllv lilleivd 
a* in >>lerili»e(1 milk, and it ir fsii<l to be more easily digestible 
for pntienifi Hufieriii^ from Kindtro-Iittt'r^tinal clir<turliunoe8. It 
iUn** mrf, hoWi'Vi>r, k#^ep ho hniij. and '•oni^ in i^tiv nr two davflL 

While iKictona aiv Jt'-itroyo*! hy ■<t*^ri!iwUi'»ij, flmr ft|>orMi, 
wliidi nrv also prtBcnt, arc not killed, and if kept at ordhiary 



ASIMAL FOOIiS. 69 

tanpentore, they ooonone lo incrca^ Ui^y in namber umI 
thus rendtf the milk QDfit for u^^ Tbe^ <»gaiiUms frequently 
dei^troy the prot^ of tbe milk rather than the Iftcto^, and a$ 
there may be an abeettce of the cti^i^man.- coming, the &ct that 
tbe milk k coacanimat«d may thu^ be oveH(M>ke(L The db- 
advaDtages that acrme fir^n T^ieriliziDg milk are manife^^ied in 
the cnu^pathig ^ect and in its altered taste. As tbe rcenlt oi 
sterilization \^ui<jit< cbemio efaai^^ take place ; tbe lactalbnmln 
is somewhat ccagnJated, tbe ca.<^n U ro changed that it L^ te^ 
easily aeied opoo by the rennin, and pan i»f tbe laelitse is 
changed into caramel ; ^^-me *>f ibe soluble ^^alL* are converted 
int'i insd^lable ones. A Large pr*ipr>nv>n of these changes are 
nr4 yei tbrinM^ly nndcfsioiid- According ti> H'»lt, the greatest 
objection to sieriliziag milk lie^ in tbe fact that many iniants 
fed upcm it for l-rtig peri-id- "f time are apt to stiffer fnnn 
Hmrvv ; be reports that at lea.'^t a d<»zcn surh cases have come 
under his nf^rice. By Pa-t^unatii'ii all (htse diflicalties are 
overcome, ami fr'>tn ^^ to ^H per i^nt. "f all micnxfreanisms, 
inclnding tbe bacillu-^ of 1^'pboid aD«l 'if tiiU*rciil<>sis, are de- 
Etrrived, altboi^fa their spores are not kill^l. Sjtecial care mu-^t 
be eierci^ed in Pa^iteii rising milk, and a-* ^^n as it is Pasteur- 
ized it sboald lie pbce«l «>n i'-i-. 

Process of SterilizKtioa. — By m^n« of tb*:- Arnold sterilizer 
milk can ea^tv be slenlized io small b>»ttli:7^ in <|uantitit--^ jiM 
sufficient for each feedittg. Sterilizanon niav al^o be effeitCil 
^implv by exposing tbe bottle^ in a vosel that is tiirhtlv cuv- 
ernl and open at the bottom, and alU-uiitir the sttiiim from 
boiling water U> enter from below. The milk i-^ ilien kept at 
a temperature of '212- F. for one b^ir. 

Ad excellent appcxiatos for Pasteurizing milk is that devisee] 
by Freeman. '' Tlii- appamtri* ciin-i>ts "f two ports, a pail for 
the water and receptacle f"r tlie l"»ttlc-^ of milk. The [lail i* a 
simple pail with a c*"ver: th^rre is a ET*i^»ve extei>ditiir arriiiiHl 
the pail to indi^-atc tlie Wei i<i which it i^ to l>e tillci] with 
water, an<l T^upium- in>id*r f-r (he rt-cepticle for tbe ln>nlf'* i»f 
milk to rtst "n. The n^^ptaMc fiprtb*.- K-nl'-i "f milk o^n- 
8i:-ts iff a ^ric^ ^-f b-ll'-w zinc <^ylinikT- ta-tcnol t'>tr>-rber: 
Ibis fitj* int*i the fiaib ^* that t1i'- 1'»""»t in<"h nf the cvbinicr^ 
is immeiM-d in \\v wafr. Tbi- n-'*pracU' ki- tw» -ci- of 
hiirizontal ^upji-^n-", th*- upper ^-et "»nrintiwri- ar>>und [h*- rev^p- 
tacle, for n-* whil*- the milk i* I^^iol' li*-jt'^i : the liiwcr inter- 
mpted *et i- n-«l for rai-ini.' th- ix^^-eptiHc diirinc cooling. 
Such recepiacle> are mad#- f'.r t^-a 'i--»uD<:t U^ttle^, seven ^--.mnce 



70 



CLAS$B8 OF FOODS. 



bottles, three l-pini, luni oik' ^•pint tjottW.^ ^i^d tu^l*qiinrt 
bottlea. There i^ aluK* a lai^ appairaliL'^ f»r thf* uh* of ljr>s;>itald 
or ]iiil>1Ic institutioiin whjoh ha^ a reoeiitiicio f<tr fimy-chn^v 

** Til*? a{>|iamtuB la umhI in the fi>I]ovrjn|c vmy : Thr jmil b» 
lilU<l to tile It'vvl ot' tlio giTK>vi' with ^(itir, t'ovt»r*Hl Hutl pm i»n 
the _^tovo, tht* rw!(*|>tjii'Kt for tlK^ lj»»tTlei* Uc-tu^ Ufi mil, Tli*» 
bottlefl of milk aro tlit^ti tilUni, MopiM-rcnl wliti c^^tfiMi, «iid 
drop}ked iat/i ll^eir [ilatHji iu die rvlimlt^is, SuHWihiI wuKt U 
poured iulo t^i i?ylii)fier i<i siirnmnd tije Inidy of ihi' U>ttlv- 
As sooQ aft Oie water in t\w pail tioils tharonghly it is uikcn 
from the stove oikI set on a luat or lalile or othi^r nou-ccmdiirtop 
ia a p1a(^ w*h(.>re thtre i* iioi a tJmrt of wind blowing tm it. Tlie 
lid ttt iiw jMjl lb nri]invt\l luid tlif rLH^fpta*;le rvaia uii tlie upjier 
coiitiuuoug riup[M>rU<. Tlic lid ip tlioti mpldly put ou tlie |Hitl, 
and iUq |>]iit ik tbiH allowed Ui titA\u\ for t]ir(*i>^(|iiaK('i^ of au 
hour. I>iinfijc Jln^ fir^t lilWn iiiiiiiit*^ tho u*m]n'iiintvi* c»f ttii* 
milk ri.'Hr* tn al»oiit iU inaxiaitiui, i»r abnvp i>h'^ O., the ijoirit 
de^inxl for lVHteiin/iaK> ^^"d a^miiinh thete the reinaiiiinj^ mitlv 
minute During the last ftneen minutes the cover of the jiail 
i« removed, the nfeptiide if* liih^I and given a turn so as to 
ront on the ii|»pr ^^uj^jjortjij ihuf Imnjjinj: the lop of the erlin- 
ders ctnataining the Ixnth's aiwive the level nf the j)ail The pfiil 
IS tliL-ii jJiil uiuh-r a n^ld-wntpr fautu-t atjd th<" iv^li'T li allowed 
10 ruji into tht* jmil and ^ivcrilow^ hut it should uot rim iuto tli© 
cvliinh'^i, Tho?^ ^]t^- hot wati-r in rt-jiUuvd by (.■uhl wuter, xmd 
in fitlrrn miimti's tin* milk in ihc holth-?* i* of nlmnt tho lem- 
|)cnitiin' of the eold wnti-r iKt^I. The IxittU-n may then lie |)Ut 
into a i-efri^ralor iinlil rcf^nin-^l for feeding. This rajiid eo*>l- 
ing Is a ni(>st imiiortimt |«ni iff a low tem|HTatnrc stmli«itif<u, 
thr importaiKv of which is apt le l>e overlook«l," 

»sinee hosting dit^s not de.-^trov the ><|Mii"efl of bacteria nor the 
tdxinn In milk, It is e$«enti:d that the niUk Ik' a^ fre>Ji and as 
frrv fi'oru di-**e:L<4' g^rins an iMJHHblt' l>efore sLTiliKiti^Hi la iinder- 
taken. Ar* Holt jmiiitf* "Ot, it i-c uUo iniportimt to bt-fir in mind 
that " KU'rtltfA^i] milk ri.fjir'i]Vi the hanit' nKHlifif^ati'in fur infant 
fec^ling n.< plain milk. TluTe is no < videnre to ^ how that ita 
digeiitibility it in any way cnhaiieed by the proonss of heatings 
but nitlier to the enntrary." A qnestinn frequently a^^kwl of 
the physician i.- wbeiber all milk should be pterilize<i before 
using. The milk nsnally wM in large cilieh is, u^ a nile» tmn^ 
poried from considerable <listances, and is often Tiot cnnsumetl 
for from twenty-four to forty-ei^ht hours; it is tlnis apt, esj)^ 



AyiMAL FOOVS, 



71 



mlk b hot wcatber^ to be cvntaminated with nitoro-nrgaQiani.4. 
Ituiliu^ is t]i€ oulv Bafe nieiliod of destroying such ot>Ka]]i^^H. 
Ill the |>ast few y«ir?i iIrtl' \m» Ikt-n :i j-n^wiiip tctMlt-my, es|>e- 
cially ill lai^- cities, nmun] tUv i-^i^iublishijic-ut urOairio^ ^ucli aA 
die W'jilkiT^iordoii LnlM"»rjnorie?»^ frciti) which |»crfectly |>iin* luilk 
mmy be obtrtinotl, iho?^ ohviatlii}* the neoowiit^fc' for ^teriliziition. 

Prcdigestion of Irlilk, — Milk may be partiv or wholly 
predigf^Ied in order to render it niriiv ejL^ily di^i>fihh' fitr tndi- 
vidoaU eufleriDg frt^ni ga'^tro-iate-iiual disoi-deis- This pntc- 
&^ is readily acconipli>*hed by £i<Klm^ at active prfpamtion 
of pepsin to acldulattxi milk and allowing tin? fenneiitatioii to 
pru'.x^'d under the intluence of heat at the b<Hly-tciiiperTitore by 
mimcr>^ion in hot water. During' tbi* fenuentmion the aiwiii 
U [Hinly or ctiuiiiletely coiiveit^ iiiLo ulbtinio^s. If^ the 
ivroL^eas is allovrea to continue Coo I<>i]g, the milk becomefl 
bitter. For tbif^ reason it is onlinarily remox-ed from the hot 
water after n few miruite^. atiil is pliieed n]xm ice, whirli pre- 
vents fiirtbcr fermwilafion. In order to pretiij^tst milk in 
alkaline solution |>aiK'n'atin is aibflitiucd for }K'|»iin ; pancrea- 
tixution of milk hafi now lai^ly replaced peptonization. In 
ordiT to effect fiaiJciY^tizatioti of milk Fairchdd'e [>e|itonixing 
tubeA are ordinarily employed, Thc:^ tiibe^ contain live ^^nna 
of pancreatic extract and fifteen ^fraiiis of sodium bicarbonate, 
£acb lube contains t-uflicieut |>owder to tH^^t one t»iui of iiiilL 

Wbenr the taMe itf jinuoreaCirAd lalllc prt>veA object ioiiabl^, 
the addition of ciurbonut<d M^tern ur of small ijuaiititicB of 
coffr« may render ii noirv fxiliiiiibt^. 

Tliv di^ec^tibility nf nuik nmy W inerefmed by the addition 
of hot or rc»Id vk-aler, earlM>naled waters, ,«ucb a* Vichy or 
Ap'JIifuirii-jliTiu-ivatcrT oatmeal- or Imrley-w'ater, or farinnoi'oua 
fofHis Mich x-< rtmiw*nK>t or flour ; ooca.'^ionally small quantities 
nf <vilt i*r iMKlium bi>^rboim1e are helpful. 

Humanized Milk. — By ibe term " hutnaidzed milk " u 
tnrant cow/ nulk tlml ha^ Ih^^ii yitt uiodiOeil as to Mp|inKicJi 
hncnAD milk a* nenrly nr* |rt«r*ibk-. Thi.-^ i^ aeeompIiphi.Kl by 
dcvreiv>inf* tbecarcin and incrico--:iiijc tbt fats niul ^ugiirp. Tb« 
mttk 19 partially prc^tigc^t'tl eituI Piu&teiiri&e>i). Tlie folUtwin^ 
dinctionfi of Ijeed^ for tlic pn^piimtiiifi of htinuuitM'd milk are 
^v^n by Pairehild : 

"Onr-ha^f ilM<J puMMU vaur. 
Omt in?Awn> of fiopifl^anLe milk (i4w<kT, 
ifnr-lifllf fto or mk cM milk. 
Four ttkhkmpoaoM^ of WM fttah ttmok. 



72 



CL^^SSFS OF FOODS. 



" Firat diffiolve the p<iwcl<r in th<» water l»y riiW>ing »ml 
9tlrrtii|^ with n t^^kktij, tIki» uiM ilw mtlk aiu[ rrtntu ; mix well ; 
lieiit in n miiio.<|miii witii riiii--«Uint r-lirrinp tmtil l»liniil-wiinii — 
ii»t t<K> Imt to Ih' 14-rfHTiMy l>oni<.' Iiy tW nioath; Icc-t-p jit ubmit 
thit WniiK^ratiir^* for u-n miiiiitc>)&: th**ii liriiig qiiiplilv to lioil- 
itig-]x»iiil : junir iit i»mv iiitu n I'Wn ImHlr, ''Imki' (honmglily, 
i*ork tig^irly, nnd g>boc clirttrtly on ioe or in a very cold 

" WLen It ft'iHlinj; i* minirtJ, (M^nriiiil iIh' ]mrtion ninl warm 
it Iti tie |kn^|Kr triii|H*nLtiin\ liikewjirni ; ahvftvn nhjike l\ivi 
iKJttle thonm^Mv iK^fcire and iilW )i(>urin^ iml a fei^ing/' 

Condensed Ullk* — X^*riik'ii<<*(] milk t^ rmuiufiiuiuriHl by 
vvrt|H'mTiiij; rows' milk in 4 vwoimm unlil it Ix-ciHut^ tJiJokT^ntil 
ami jcHv-lilcr. Il is Uft'd lurp'lv iiDioii^ Un> piviror olasj^x for 
inrmit l'«.'<linjj, Alilmiijffi ili^-y ^i|>|»-'<ir h* liiftin jmuI thrive on 
it, iiilfititA fctl oil fhi^ turiti iif iriilk rin^ oth^i |k)ctrly iIf>vrlojKi1 
unil RU'Iiilie, TIk' twu priurifiiLl (iirniN <if <'nrLilr»:<4Hl milk lire 
tb>^e ^Mnrninin^ I'^iiiliiiniiivi'Iv link' ^ii^^ir iiihl tIuimMi> whieh 
mne-^iii^ir Iijh U'i'il n<M<<i). T\w tiiNt form ointjunii fniin I-1 
to IS ixT ot'nt. of mUk'Mignr; the latter, Ipom 1-^ hi IH ])er 
Cfnu of iiiilk*9ug;ir ami from -"Hi lo 40 |)it cent, of miie- 

(VmIi?n«H| milk is tmt^'i <-ii--*ily *!ipr#l*-"J, hut ip* apt t" contain 
tt*o littl* Jait ; ihi' unKwi.vt4?[io<l ODiidL^n^tl niilkT^ iiw the m*>*t 
^tHfttctorr llirms for infant frt^ling. C*i>n<l<*ii*iHl nulk \* u> 
Ik* ti:*wl only ulu-n fi'ish milk U not ohtj*inrtlih», nr l4'm|Hvmrily 
when imxlitiril nr hum.tniz^l milk U iu*t well U>rn<'. The 
iiv<'nit>' '■'^n^l^^^inou i*f iia^wceteaed and swft>tene<I cond<n?H'<l 
luilk is 0^ t'oltows : 



FtmrM^pncil ciMuleiunl milk 
!4«in?l#iH«l t7<*ii1i)fv4 milk - 



M>lid» 

40 
. SO 



rwria^ ft. 



JVtam^ Beroai, ftrcnr. i\r«M(: 
13 1!! ]H 

it 1'2 16 40 



1 



For ii><- in infunl f^'cilln^ eftnden^ milk p^hotiUI Ik* tlihtt<«I 
with wiit«r nt k^i>t 4i|n»l in amomit to that which ha^ been 
i'\H|>rtmU'<l ; thi!* i* iiMuilly twuv it* voltinw*. For a chiW ten 
M>«tith-4 iikl Siarr itilvb4*« Thiit eonilitiMil milk U' ilrtiiti.^] ten 
tiaii*^. (S(v IntJnn Ftttlin^.] Then' are iiuiTiy ohjix^tionuble 
fomu i>f conftccisvtl tiiilk on xU^ luurkct K>mi^ »f which «re 
maniifiiotiiTVHl from ^kiinnH^d milk. Ainoiit; rl»c lv?<t hmml?^ 
of ot>nili^n«4*<l milk miiy Iw iiienlioiu<<l H»ri4on*« Kii|i;lo Rmnd 
CVnck^nwrtl Milk, An^Io^vinss llmml, am) the hh^L 




ANIMAL FOODS. 



73 



EGGS. 

Eggs, like milk, form a complete food — that is, they contain 
a projx>rtion of each of the fundamental fooil eiemenls neces- 
sar\' for the preservation of life* ^gs and milk are the only 
complete food*product« furnished by the animal kingdom. 

The e^s of the hen are consumed in largest niimberSj but 
those of the duck, turkey, guinea-hen, and of some wild fowl 
are also eaten» The eggs of domestic fowls var)' in size and 
appearance, but their composition is about the ^amc- 

The i<hell of a hen's e^ constitutes 11 i>arti^, the white 57 
jiarts, and the yolk 32 parts of the entire weight of the eg^. 
The following table, taken irom I^ngworthy,' jshows the com- 
[xtflition of hens^ ^^!^7 cooked and raw ; of white-shelled and 
of brown-shelled e^i^ ; and of the yolk and white of the ^g 
of the duck, goose, turkey, and guinea-fowl ; 

Average Conijjonltion of Eggs. 



a 

s 



it 



^A 






Whole e^v u purrhfuir^ . 

White 

Yolk 

Wh«ple ^RR botlvil, edible 

ftrtlon . , . . 
Ite-BbL'ILr'l e»nrH ai^ pur- 
fho^vit . ... 
Brc^wn-Abell^ i-'gfEPdFiltur- 
cbmieif 

Wb'^le epff ftp imrrhH^pd . 
WhrilepM^ediblf' porlion 

WhUe - . - 

Ynlk 

Wh''>le e(Cf an piirrhnsctl 
Whole enr^p'lnile portion 

White 

YfiU 

Tiirltey : 
Whole ejnt B* pun-hflM'<1 
Whuleemt^eclibli? porlk^m 

White 

Y.illi 

"Jnlnrfi-fowl : 
Whole fTTK AJi ("irrhn**'[ 
Whole ^M.tilibLe pfirtlim 

White 

Yolk 



Ptrrt. I PtTfi. Pn-rt. P^- rt. Per rt. I Pir rt. 



11.2 



' 73.7 

' 4y.o 



I 



IflT 
3.1.7 



L4.2 



lAH 



Wk'J 



fills 

4">J4 

«!'.» 
41.1 

7^1.7 

iK.i 

7J ^ 
4!' 7 



1^.4 

U.K 

ll.<4 

I.?. I 
lil.S 
11.1 

ir».H 
1?.*> 
im 

17 :i 
m 1 

n..'> 

17.1 

11.^1 

!?.'» 
lfi.7 



10..VI 
IHifi 
11-20 
'Mi:s 

12.m 
IL in 

II J> 
ft! in 



0.0 

I. II 

O.G 

1.1 
ll.s 
o.« 

1^,7 

II. K 
I.M 

li.H 
1.:; 

0.?i 
I. II 

u.s 
IJ 

OS 

O'.l 
fl.* 

l.L! 



1 J 



^^ 
Tl-O 

7fi:i 

vrji 

21 n 
ip»"i 

TfpO 

;.'i^ 

CJVi 

7,"n 
nio 

AVI 
T.Vp 

■jir. 
i.vi.-, 



A^ may l>e nx^ti fnmi thi^ fim'^'oin^ table, the op^ contains 
mainly protein and fat.-^, in a<lditi*in to wutor and mineral 
matter. The white nml the yolk diflVr In <'om|w>siiinn, the 

^ FannerH' Biillfiin No, 12S, T'niU'd Sinlt^ IV-jmrtment nf Agriculture. 



r 



74 CUSSES OF FOODS. 

wlittt* conliiinm^ \f^ pmtcm uml Mut^r tlinn the yolk, aittd 
scarcely sny l«t mul ii-^ii, wlK*n.-»* the yulk coniuirifi 4;oti8ideni1)1e 
Tiki uiid <nfli» Tin* uliiU' i:" will l« Ix* |nin- pfuioiii ; il i^ ttmi' 
nosvd mniiUy oi' lour iilhiiniinj* nud a >lij;|Kr timrtunt of wirW- 
nvtirate. Tlko nllnitniiir? uiv (iVAlltnmiti, i.vinn1i>iiniir> ovi^niuoii), 
atij) ovonkiiroiil. tho ovjiMuiniiii hnng tli? main conxiirnt'tkt^ 
The yolk of tlw epg is ver>* complex iu imposition, and ron- 
Uiiuf; 15 |Kr cent, of protein (vitellin), 20 |>er eent. of pulmi- 
tin, olcin, um\ 8t«'iirin (tbe fiitty denient^^), and 0,5 |>er icni. 
of cokiri[ip-nuitti'r, Ik-mi1cw 1wu1uo» Eiuclein, «ilts r»f imn, i.'al- 
ctuin, [R>Ia8»]uiu, jiiul init^iic^luin ; tb^^^ totui phm^phorm ec^niva- 
liiit ill Uio yolk i« «i]if{titly uvlt 1 per cent, ubile that of ibe 
white i^ but 0.0*1 |«"r CL-nt, The tlwH of ihe bi/nV i^j; iui*' no 
foinl-vnluc ; it Mn.^Utr* mainly *.f mineral manor ooniainitig 1*4 
per c««t. of rnlcliim cnrlionato, 

Tho flavor of the c^ ik dejiemlent in hirge measure iipiMi tlie 
fijod t^teu by the Inying hen, Fiv^h i'ff^ have the tiller! flavitr. 
LttDgworthy ' grive^ the following nieihrnls for n^tiiit iho fr^h- 
nefis of eggT^ : " ' C*inidlin^%' as ii is c^lli^, is one of ihe ateihiMl^ 
moat commonly tollowed. The eggs nre belJ up in a flaitahle 
device against a light. The fresh e^ a]ij»ears iinelominl and 
alnutst iranslnceni ; if ineuUiiiin hat Ih^iu], u diirkT^jioi h visi- 
ble, whidj im-ixtijo in fii/e »Lx<4>rdiiig to ihi' U'o^-lh of luue incu- 
lialion has cxmiiaued. A rolit-n egg um>eiirs ilark eolotvd. The 
agv of rygK nmy \w approximately jiidj^Hl by taking advantage 
of thn furi that !i» tln-y ^«v old th*'ir din^jty de(-re»se> tlin.ngh 
cvai^nition of inoKnn\" Aecordin^ to SieM, :i new-laid 
t'CT |>bw.vl in II vewrl of brine made in the [»n)]H*rnon of two 
oimtv^ of Hilt to otw pint (»f water will at once sitk to the 
bottom. An i^ one day old ^ill ^ink lielow the >^arface4 but 
not to the IxMiom. while om* three <h»ys old will iiwim about just 
immer^etl in ihe Ui[nid. If more thiin three days idd, the eg^ 
wilt fl(.>nt on the >nrijioi% the Amtnint of pitvii r:t|XM.-d increafi* 
inp M-ith n^. If tW c^ U two u-eok?> old, only tt little of llio 
fIk'II will dip in tlie li^fuid. Penxoldl ' ^Wti tlie following table 
showing the diipwuhili:y of P^g* : 

i tWl^nilkrl «fUf!» Invv llir vioiuiicli ill t) WuPk 

2 nw ftp Imvp tfu^ >foinAo1i iu 2\ liourv 

S lytnl4iiiUf^T|QV* Imvo th* aiowach iii 9 bckiin, 

&•« om«]ct Imvm tfa* Mnodi i» Shoun. 
< Farmer*' Rnlhtlh No. ISft. 



I 



AXfATAL FOODS. 



7a 



TIk' fnot ihat rmw i*^pi remain in tli<- i^fymach l<4i^-r llutii 
euft*boiled v^^ \j* tlue to tin* fni^t that tht'y an* »a blnml thai 
tljt'V cxt'itr iJottluT llie mouir nor tin.' secivii^ry funr'Uoii ; if 
tLi.>rv»g*ily niact^niUnJ, ImiU-boiled *^jr* are aw digr'-Hiiblc an 
iM>ft-botLo<l oneii. With bomo [ter^n^ i^^ m any form are 
iiHli^^liliK', and produce uuplcu^oui eructatiuiut), uau^-a, ami 

Raw o^gs art- bi'jt [aUc*ii (Hi*M.nly from tW ■lull, or thcv 
may l)r* inunliiiti^l wiUi Fiiilk [irorb.^ or with i^oflWv In varioiw 
(liM-o^ei^ ac^^in[Kii>ii!«l l>y Kws of flwh and ^trenjftti raw t^gir* in 
large nimiln rf« nn.- )m^mlH*d, a,^ many a^^i 24 e^^ liein^ ^iven 
in ivcriTv-^Kir luinm/ 

Egg-illbamin U luM ahj^orlrt-d wiien eaU'ti t:iw und jihjih 
eriy dilijitsi, Ii-* nQlalability may \w iniTea^.-^! Uy tluMirinir it 
Miih ^lierry wiiu-, i»ran^-, lenion, or grajje juitv, or by M-rviiig 
it in rr«iin, trH-.m, ur eoirCT*. 

]Sg:g<*nos U prt*]mr4-d fiMtn tnilk and v^^j fljtvoiv-d with 
tfODK alcoljolir itrirk, and fiwwtointl y\\ih i^tignr. 

Wlifii nllowiil In n*aiain in thi* nir, o^^ 4W)inpit<rfr fiv^m 
tlie entniaoo of treriiH rlin>a££h t]u*ir ^Ik'H. I>t.H^im|K>«iti''n 
may In- pivvmu-il in v^riini" v^ay.*, T*indi as [>y cmitinj: iliwn 
wiih oil or vanii^hf |Ki<-kiii^ thnu in s-iwriuMt,- or pWiag lliciu 
tn o)ld iicorage or in cerlaiu »>lutiims, snob as ^UcylkaL-id 
and glyoerin. 

HEATS AND THE MEAT PREPARATIONS. 

Heat formi* the tU'Hhy or muMulnr [lart" nf tJk^ Uxly, It b 
one of tJic rn<»L im]ton;ii)l nrrii'lc:* of 1>Midr nnd i^ ttie rbief 
murctf of niaii'H jirtrrriii iUpidy. yU'iil may W' cailcn raw 
or CEHvkf'il. Ilaw inmt, wbcn widi ^>ua4J, i^ xtrvr «iHly 
digiMUMl, 

Mf.xi i* <v«nj->M<l iif nin>rl«"*fii>i>r* li<4d li»p»>flipr l>v cc>nn4<o- 
tiv(vti»*iM' )i]ind<i ; Ih'fwifM ibi' mnKlr-tiWr>i uro hit* of faL 
A* ordirmHly Men, mitit <Niii1]iin» mu0(?le tissue, connet-tive 
tt4*m'i4, l>lf>fHl-ve-<^U, ntrv^r*. and lyni|)lmtio^, top^tluT with a 
varying anKiunl ui'inx. Tlw* more fat tb<rrL- ip* in iuimU ibe Ir^s 
w^ater and uitni^^i-noU'* niattrr 11007* if or^ntain, and vit^e rr/'jrf, 
Ofokin^; han tbi' i-iTud of rrodi-rm^ xIki *H>nii«'tivf li^-ne* wdii- 
ble, tlkox-liy tiuLHiu^ a M-iioration of ttir inn7>coLir fd)en«, ullow- 
10^ ibc dl|rf«livf rMxn-tion in mia^lr more ihurowijblv wiib 
them. Cuokin|f a)>o I'likiiK^t's lU- lluvor mid app^^nintv cf th« 

> Kly, - F«btf or E^," ymt I'ari JML /w^ NOTCUiticr 14, mift. 



76 



ClA.SSFJi OF FOODS. 



mejitf btii, on ihc other kind, cnii^-^ n Um«!< in hi iiml cxtnuv 
tivc*. tWkin^ likewise' ilv>tn>y« tht' inu'itMirgnnTstnjs tlmt 
umy Ix- pn-^-nt in ihe jnent^ and thus renikr^ U aioru whok-r* 
mi in p. 

Mint nuiy W i^iokti-l iu viirioiiH \>,ny^ — iL mar U- biill<<4l, 
etcw^"*!, nmr-tini, or frii.!<l. Mi.!iil iw JkiiIciI bv pluctng It in cold 
wfltor ntid »ii1i)e4TtIti|; it t<i u modrruti? hout fi^r M>mo tiuuv In 
fhi* wriy tl»r oirwn-Hivr ti"«i' Iwvom*-!; gv'lnhnirj'<t^ ninl n |H>r- 
dou uf iIk- i>rg!iiik" ^Its yli"iii>iiii> ami cxtmctivcj* \» dis?jjlveil- 
The lunger tiic pnx^c** i* ullov'(*tl to ci>iittnuf?, ll>c nioro tiL^te- 
1a<0 doo tlio iiK^Lt IxvuiiK* and rlir richer ir« the hrolh. This 
!a(ttt'lc?%s iiiiiN"* <»t" iiHiii h\s a lu|:li nutrifivi' vjiiiK-, iiiid, udrii- 
[:>iiH.'i] uitb tlie brciili, LH>[]stmili^.^ a iiiirriTintL^ fixid. Th(» 
piXHA'M of till.■^\'iIkg tiiciU in a<*ixiii][»Ji?ilK>i1 l>y phu'iiif^ tin* meat 
m boiling wiiU-r^ \>y nu^jiiiA nf which ditt idbuiniii tm llic^ aurlaov 
i* f[uioUly i^wguinttiij thit,-* pri'Vt*tiiing ihi* juW from i-rtniping 
aikI *4> ivtiLinjiig t[\o thivorlng umltcT ; tti<t bn>ih ihcil 1% |ir<>- 
r-un'd in thi'i wiiy i* v<*r)" pour in ipuvlltv, Mr^t. \* nuT^tod by 
phicing it in ^l very but oven, tlie Mi|>erficial layers* tlius Ix^ 
coDitnt; imiiKdialely oum^iiIakHl, ;nid »o prt^^vinting i^M?jipc of 
tho jnic*c. To broil uiciit, t-^imiH biL-i are cwjkotl over an ojH-it 
fitx', tilt- iilbnmiti of the jiiirfiwe being thus not only c*"iig[ilaU>l, 
bin tlie hintT tiborjt being <t>oked at the winie timo, Frjtn^ 
i;* ncc-omplifibeil by pkcing the meal in boiling ml ; t\w surfiiw 
alboitjin ii« at oiutr o i:L}^adaU.-il, the juire ia piWL-nteii from 
Ceotpin^, nritl tbo nicni in nipMly i'iH>kcd. 

Digestibility of Heate. — Tb* digcetibility of Tnmi» fa 
go\*erned by many I'ntidilion-i : The nge nt whioh (he HnimaU 
eate-n were kilW, the Ii-ngth of iinie the meat is kept before 
enting:, the care Ix'stowtnl u|>on the animal?^ ihirinK' life, and the 
metbo<l?i of |iiv}>riring the nieati* f^-r the tabic, Meat*^ are mosL 
t?tt*iily dige^itcil wlien stewed: frying renders llieni mohl indi- 
^tible. The flavor uf mesit varies with the condition of th* 
animal from which it wn* ohlaincil. Tlie meal of matnn* ani- 
malrt is nkort.- prMnoiniceil and ai^FLvable in flavor thuti lliat i^f 
younpcr cattle. 

The tlJIowinp table, taken from Penziithlt. gives the relative 
fiigeflriinlity of meat foo<!H : 



Ohf to ta\r fvnit ■ ; 

200 gm. twf^Jdoc. 



3Vfl bi thnr iimm ; 
SAO tern. n\t\ >in!n \w\^ 
'ibO iCMu awt^lbraid boiled* 



AytMAL FOODS. 



77 



TlWyv Ut//mr hmn : 
£3(1 jcn^ <it«irtfd tvuiij^ pltit^ki^u. 

IWVgin- itttMt pjvnm. 
2MPniL titor(m« or bolted). 

160 ^11. haiti k'lM. 
101) pii. U^I'kU ~ 



2a0 gru, ruiiM thick. 



100 pii. u«rKk«kpulpL 
nmbMfT 



» Beef. — TliC' i*<*ni|KHitifin nf hivf varii-?f gn^ftlly, (^spfrhllv in 

llifec l*j fix'e y*«rs <fld v>ii[>|>lu^ ihe b<st \^, Tlie in*at of ;i 
\ffry lean luiimiil will <YJiii:iin ulxtiu 7o jur <ml. of snxwv i\\\^ 
alxHit '.^ [K*r i<<tit. «>f lai. Thi- Wiiii-r iu I'ltt iii^tf It* ixhIikh-<I tit 
Itemc^i ^\) arid 'lA |K*r <riit., ivhili- tlio fsU nuclKT* 'J.^h \wv t'i.-nt. 
4>r t»\t-r. The niiii»iiiil nl' iiiLnigi-iiuDn liuljTiLiiiiiN,*^ L■^ ii]h> <?uii- 
vklerublv rcdiKx^d \\\ fiit iii<<iit. Bt^cT-fnl i-i (r»mpnjH:<) of tbi- 
gly4?4<ru])( of tW liitty ik'iMi, tlu- nUu* }>oin|^ ihrtir jntrt* of ^iwiric 
tin^l iHilmitic- lU'uU Ut t'U** jvirt of oli'lc nri<L 

Meat Preparations. — NtiTnt-rr^Uh m^ai propiLratioDs^ ImiiIi 
SoIM ami liqitul, art- iij>w on Ok< iimrlcct, the uim bein^r to ptVf- 
diicv n w»iir<rntmUti ffhui tluii will U- i\*inlily ili^'titcd. The 
diffcmil W.-f-jiiici-* \m\v hm v\'\^\\\ iititriliv*' value, niosr of 
Uirin c<<fririiinin|; tmly I <>r A |h»i' <H'n^ <»(' pnitr-in; (heir chid' 
vuitw Iki* III iIk- Gut tli.it thi-y sthnuliin- thr HpjH'lite. 

Bouillons. — It'iuillorir* niT iin-jiun-il l\v cuiiiii); moiil into 
mmll blfA, hr^ilirif; hIuwIv hi wiitcr f^ir a time, uiid then hoiliiig 
it i|ijict:ly, TW Hiiiii \\\w piHidiKtHi hat^ a vm- a^rxniihli^ flnvor, 
l>ut iu niitrii-iif vnlne U f^tiH^HlmgU- ^niiiU, n* it (^mtain-i untv 
«]ttrflic4iv€«, salts, and a wr>- minute quantity of gelatin- Ikiuil- 
litn^ iiM^re-aN^ tho flou of the diifestive ^^-retroni^* itud a\u l>v 
reiMl<iW more nutriiioii^ l>y the addition i>f an eg^. (^^'rtiiin 
ivrealjH, or vcget^Wt-fi, 

Beef^extractS. — lierf-extracle are coiKjeiitnilfx) bf>uii!on« 
tliat are to he dihit^I at the time tht>y are taken. Their nutri- 
tivv v«^hK- i^ ;tUi<it tilt siLJite at- itiat of lioiiillfiii, 

Bccf-jnice. — ^To piN^hiix- a niiinti<>n§ Iw^uid beef prcjiftra- 
Ikou (he moot Bhtutd l>o l>oiled i^li^hily sitkI then rut into uxxtxW 
pi«<M>4 and i^re^f^il thr^iigh a |pmon-Hjuoexi>r nr a nmit-i>rc«. 
In this M-ay oKMimdemhlo quantitieii of pn»te!n. in achlition lo 
ihe salts am) estraclivt^, an? olrtaintii. The Ijwf-jni'***^ m^UI on 
the market, soch as YaleniineV, an.- [kiV[Hirtxl hy ^uhj<vriii^ the 



78 



CLASSB3 OF^yOOM. 



mmt lA ^-trong pn>Miii^. The^^ prepiratinn^t cmftatn from 6 
tft 10 f)er ct-nl. nf prnUin. 

Heat Powders. — TIie^ nuiritive N-alue of ihese |krc|iamtion4 
vnni'> gr«*tly. Tho^e ph»hi frequeuily ii^ hiv ai imniber of 
pi'ltCoiitTs Stirontos*', an*! the MuF^<|iU'ni " B«*f Xk-al." 

Meat -jellies. — M(?iit-jellie*i arc frtijiK'ndy ^Wvu to iiivnlids, 
aixl ar<' an ii^ret-abl** nK-aiiis of admini^fcrin^ pixitdn foofl, 
AltbiKj^lj ilie>' d<* in>t ailirely n^pla^-*.' tlie firutcin in ilic ti»»uca, 
lliev pnKJiio^ 1% c<jn*i<.ltnible fHia»IKy of cnct^y. According to 
J{(tu<-r, '* Bv ilio :u](ltii'->ri of j^-laiin very Inrgo itmntitW of 
iilliumiTk <'mi Jn> «|)tiriM) in tlic luxly ^r (levoi^nl t<> incn^niie <if 
inilk, jiiM ii:< l*y ilir Mipply i>f fain anil carlxil ml rates/' Meat^ 
jelly ix, llH'rc*fi>ro» a |in»tein-f«pan-r, Amonff those motit oom- 



Tin* fiiUowIii^ tall* 


\ (ak<^n 


h^m 


aimivndeiiy 


jivce the 


per- 


Ct-'lltlLgt* <<i>RtjX billion 


' be<>f-pnMlarlfl: 












/Vrnfn'av 0"npotitian 


</ B^/-i*ruJui^$ (Jfifi/yVA/, l^j). 






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An oxAmmntion into tho ohc^inio composition of Wf prrpnra- 
tion^i hiu: n-cfTitly W-n mafU l»v Dr. E. L, Wliitiny, IV»i<'*sor 
i«f I'by»iinIi»ffjo <!1ic»mi'"lry in ilie Ilnliin^nv Mnlii^nl CitlU'^p, 
ami hi? ;i>*?iiHrant. Dr. C A. tlajtp* A refKirt of th^'w vnln^ible 
rnalyw,*^ in ndv;ince of their puhlieatioii has I>een fiirm>lK-i| tlje 
Authors by ProfecAor Wniiiney ; 

' Ptucmiins/t ^ PhUitiittphw CW»/y ^t(ltiftfJ Soeittfy 180], pu 160. 



AmillAL FOODS. 



79 



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60 



ClASSnS OF FOOIfS^ 



tahR-<l from aiiiiualhi that nrv kill&l lo<> young. It tlitroj** 
w^aHulorably iu flav^ir fmiii Wl", and routuiiir^ more jrciatm than 
the latter. As in mniiy jtorsoiit v«il ha* a teDclency to ni-oduoe 
incli^^tionf it i« to l>e uvuiikd in all canei^ of illative uebilily. 

Mutton. — Mutton i* t'uii'*idcrt'<l nn^rt' di^-p^ilible than l)eef 
by Kiij:li^l» writ*'r», |inih»hly U\^ni«' in Knglund the average 
oiutloD u iDorc u-iiiW t\n\n flml ohtuincd hi the Uuitt'd Stxiti'H; 
the bccff however, if; hifcrior to tliiit rai>iixl h) thi* <rnnj|rv, Ita 
tiWr i* liner, hut it rontointi inoix* (at than doe& heof- Muttuu 
fat contain'^ a hir^«»r prnportion nf ^lyo*Ti<U f>f >ttt<ni-ii' iicid, 
wliich iDaUes it more &olid and less digestible thati ihc tat nf 
beef. 

Lamb. — Lamb, when of the ri^fht a^ and If^nderoe^A, U m 
digei^tibk- an hLi'f or nintton. but it contains entirely too much 
fat, 

Veoison. — Utilise clilainL^ from yuiing animaUj when ii 
is Itnder. highly rtavoix.'d, and fthort-fibei\'d, VL-ni^on if? ajit l« 
t>e diffit'uk of dif.'Oeilioa* Oa aceonnl of ift* htininlatinj^' urtioD 
it fhouhl Ih? av(iidc"il by tlyhpeptios an<l oIIiopfl with v<Kik 
Htnmaohft. 

Pork.— Pork U the moM indigestible of all meatrt on ae^ 
count "if tlu^ laiy I«?rc4'ntage of tilt that it eonLtiuN, Thi,- fat 
oon?'i-*f-'* chiefly of tV irlyt^'riils *if jialniiiic and oleic aeidti, and 
rnuy be |ir(w<*nt in tliu pruportion of -17 per eonl. or more> 

Ham and Bacon. — Ham and bacon are \xnh more digo*iii- 
bb' than jwnk. In some i^irls of Cjtrniany liam plays quite an 
irii]x>rtriiLt jntt't in invalid diftiine?^, hut In Kii^laud diitl Anirnen 
it ii* sebli»m prfT^iTiKcHi. ]!uo<rii is un.'<I hii'iftly as ou army 
ration. M'JKia cooki^d en^ji, thiu kIjci^ of Imtvrti ure csxily 

Horse Meat. — TTurw meal is not nf*e<l for ('>*»] in ihc 
Unites! Sr.'iU''^ or in Ejn^lamd, hnt i^ i-oasnansl in larp* i|nrinti- 
lles ill Fmntv and liermany, aad to a Iwis extent in some other 
EuntiK'sin rfinatrie^. 

Rabbit, — Wlicii ynnn^, i^hbit meat i^ <)uite digestible, but 
it TK n'^niiHv omilt<il fi-ouj dittl-*li?»U. 

Fowl. — CKirkin i-» on*' nf tlic most digestible and agree- 
able Vftriedos of mrat^. Thr mrat of young pigeoaw also id 
ee|)eelilly digfstibl*" ; ibul of Jtjok^ hikI g«?se iroutain? too 
mnoh fat. 

Tlip flc^li of game l- easily dig<>tited, the meat of th« breast 
being be«t udxiptwl for invniid ase» 



ANIMAL FOODS. 



81 



The following table, taken from Atwater/ gives the general 
compositioQ of the various meats : 



Food-roai«rl«lfl lu pur- 



RefUK.. Water. 



Bnf, IVeab : 

Chuck rLU 

FUnk 

Lola 

Porterbouflc Btflftk . . - , 

SirLola reak . , . . . . . 

Neck 

RIbfl 

KIb roll! 

Round 

Rump 

Shank, fure 

Sboulaer and clod . . 

ForeqiuirliT , . . . . . . 

Eliniiquarur . . . . - . 
Bwf, cwfnul, catmedj plck- 
K-d. Anil drked; 

fiiniiHl JnHnf . , . 

ToTiiUf, [pickled . . - . 

liriod. luUcd, nod Ktnoked 

(■*niit.'d bollt>l beef . . - ^ 

r'ltnn^'il i^oniiN] tiMf . . . 
Vi"»I; 

BtVMAl 

U-g 

LegcuUeli . . I . k , , 

Fiircqtiarter , . , 

HLndqiiftrctrr ....... 

Hiiltun: 

KlftQk 

Uk. hind 

LdoJo chnpia ... 

FoT^uarter . . 

II iDd quarter, irlthom ul- 

li>w . . . 

LHmh: 

Brvnui , . 

T*g. hind . . - . , . - . - 
Pork, frcBh ; 

Hftm - , - , 

Loin chupe 

Shoulder .....,.., 

Tendtrloin ........ 

r<>r)c. Ffllted* cured, »wl 
plrklrtl : 

llBDi, iimnikfld 

shouldeT. pmoked 

Sill p.irk 

Bat-un, Bmoked 

SALi.-4ffc : 

hohiRTia . . ,-...,. 

ivirk J . , 

Frankfort 

<'t'lciy, crenm nf . , - 

B«'f 

MeM ilew . . . . 

TomMo 

P-.uUrv : 
'"'hU'keri, trollem - - - 
Fowls , , . , 

Turki^j' , . , , , 



Ptrri. 

1G.S 

10.2 

IS.8 
ia.7 

12J 



7.1 
30.7 

aa.9 

IM 

U,7 
Jfi.7 



h.4 

a.o 

1.7 



21.1 
14.? 
3.4 

3>.: 

1A.4 

17.3 

1».L 
17,* 

10.7 
1S.7 



]3.« 
l^C 



aj 






4fi-» 

60.7 
45J> 

49.1 



4fl* 

SH.tt 

53. T 
AI^ 
02.0 
6».3 

M.; 

42.0 
4La 

4a.4 

4S.5 
&Ii 

4fi.O 
41.A 
■U-? 



7,1 
17.4 

M,2 

hi.'! 

M,."> 

47hI 

4'J,4 



Pre- 
Uiin. 



la.A 

16,1 
1V,1 
16^ 

n.9 

1U.3 

ly/) 

13J4 
UL3 

Ift.l 
l*-o 
15.4 



14J 
110 

%.3 

154 
ISJS 
31.1 
1.1 1 
10,2 

ISA 
LSI 

i^.a 

V^A 

15J) 

13.5 
13.4 
12,0 
tH.0 



14.2 

n.n 

LP 
1J>,2 

III.M 

ii'.g 

2.1 
-1,4 

1^9 

I2fl 
1H.7 
h''i 



Fax. 



dm 



£.. 



ISfl , . . 

10,0 , . . 

17,5 I . . 

17.g [ . , 

ie,i L . . 

ILO [ , , 

21,2 , . . 

ViA \ . . 

•JOM I . . 

75 . . 

H.rt " . - 

175 » . . 

1**3 , . 



23^ 

es 

tb,T 

IIJ] 
7.9 
7J> 
nrt 
aft 

«t.B 
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2&» 
24 5 

Z12 

10,t 
l&ft 

25.B 
21.2 
2!d.H 
13J} 



33,4 
20« 
W.2 

ei2 

10.7 
44,'i 

]?A 

2& 
0.4 
1.3 

11 

14 
I2-T 

2y.a 

IM 



1.1 
1.1 

6.1) 
1.1 



AAh. 



OJ 
0.7 
0.0 
0.S 
OJ 
0-7 
0.7 

la 

0,7 

a.B 

0,tf 
0.7 

0.7 



4,6 
1.3 
«,9 
13 
4.0 

Oft 
0,0 

li) 

0.7 
0.8 

Ofi 
0£ 
0,7 
0,7 

07 

0,0 

Ojt 

OJt 
0,7 
LO 



4.2 

3J^ 
4.1 

S.8 

2,2 
HI 

1.5 
1,2 
LI 
l,ri 

0,7 
0.7 
0,7 



I Fuel' 

I vAlue 

I pound. 

Qilot- 
itt. 

fllO 

iioa 

1015 

litn 

075 

iiu 

llSfi 
105& 

m 

low 

545 
715 
»6 
lOU 



injo 
TDO 

i4in 

1270 
745 

53fi 
5S0 

1770 
S90 
HIS 

1?35 

1^10 

in7s 

MO 

laai 

12iS 
14M 



27ia 

]1V> 
ll5iS 

1A5 

7Vi 
1475 

Lceo 



Principlti of A^uJn'fibn, United States DcpArtment uf Agncutturci p. IG. 



VLASiSES OF FOODS. 



Animal Viscera, — Aninml vi^^cni urv not go nutritions, 
altlKftiicli w>ni« iiJ' tlt(*ni nvv ([iiicc ut^ iligf^tiblc s^ mo»t meau. 
Trijw, liviT, kitliwy, im*! Iiniiu^ ttrv vatvu vi-i^- pxten&ively. 
TUi; JK^irt i^ tonsil, indi^i^siibk^ flud but M^ldoai vuuu. Tlte 
li]ifi^i<] of the pig baj^ been mm)c mto a torm <>f pudding uiid la 
tvJihbod liV eoiiie, Swc^etbivadfe — <.'ither tbi^ piucroaii or the* 
ibymiii; gland of the calf — are wimIv rligcmed. 

Tbe fitllowin^ tiible, cuin|iilecl b\' Huicbi^ii,^ giv^ei tJio 
gen^rai corujKfsitiou of aiiiiiiid vi^oera : 



Kidney |nx) ^ . , 

Kniut^.T (Eih««pi - ' ^ 

iJVVt <C2) 

liver 4ihoqi> - . . . 

Hevt io%) . . . i r 

Il«n <ahc<]») . , . k 

l-iinif (ox J 



]aii\x Icibtcp) ^ > T6.B 

^wmbrtnds --•■<•• 
Bluod - ■ , _ 

Trip* 

Tonv"c i^^)t tfvm)> . 

Tofuiwv smi>k«d «iid Mikd 
Bniv 



7flL7 


ffttro- 


Pi*. 


Qkrbo- 


16.d 


4.S 




Cl4 


7&7 


16.8 


&s 




TL2 


sa? 


AJI 


1,^ 


«1.S 


sai 


9.0 


^0 


62.6 


I&O 


20,4 


' 


tt.6 


17,0 


12,C 




' ».7 


ItLl 


3,3 




76,9 


2a2 


±% 




TU.fi 


ie.8 


12.1 




S0.8 


lai 


as 




7-1.6 


1^4 


l&A 




ea,« 


I" I 


tS.] 




S\7 


1\.Z 


3i,a 




tlO.4 


&8 


CLS 





A«lu 



1^ 
1^ 
1-40 

L70 
1.C0 
0,fO 
LO) 

a» 
asa 

1,00 

&» 

1-10 



FtSH. 

The rlilTen^nl kiiul'^ of fir^h vary widely in their iiiiJritive mid 
digestive niiflHlit^ For <?xample, the flcamtir and the oyster 
nre rnU£*h <*fl-*ifr of digestion than thw* that f-nnlain a larf^ 
amotinl of fat, like the ^Imon nm! the berrinff. Kel* injotain 
the ijrL'aledit proportion of fat^ wbieh nmy rcjvcb 28 jntr cetiti 
Wbilt^flfsbt-d tl^h, a* a mlc, contain?* little fat, 

AH lUh are bo-t in i^eason ; out of fcflAon they lo-ic flavor 
mid !uiv« a diinini*^h4»fl nntririve valtie, and In >ioinc *»afios de- 
v(»lop an offennive odor. These chanpe* are dne oliieflv to tbp 
rhniijLn' in foo<i, Fi#b Jire in l>wt n.MidilEon jiiht iK^fim* spawn- 
h\^\ after ihi?* protvii*^ \\.\v\- bets^me thin and luifjt fur foof). 
Thi- flavor of H»me vtiri<tiejs sMieh an ib<" my und the turliotj i» 
iinprfived by keepiiip. 

On ;ioei>niit nf thr^ ripid eliani::e-« they niuK-rpi by wny of 
ilt-coin)iObitIun, fif*b j*!nHjld ulw;xj> W' «i!fii In ai* fn*b a coudi- 
* ibrf niii/ Frinfiplt' a/ Iftft^rn^ |k 7P, 



L 



^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^H 


^^^^TSSs!* po(*iM<*. Vari^ni!* iH**tluKl>* lmv#' Iw^n ro^nrtw] t„ with ^^H 


^V a vit^w til |in*wittinf; ih*M* chun^^. Tlirrt* iin* many tiifKlorn ^^H 


coQlfivan<H<?« for |>n'^^rviti(^ tiAt, and drying, Hiiiokiti^, pioklini^, ^^^ 


salting, Hh<i eaimm^ an- |inu-tUed on r large mul*'. Tlu^se ^^| 


iui'iIiimIt^ all iiMKliry the tlavnr more <~»r le^^. ^^H 


Tlii'tv an> ^ove|■at variKks of fifib ihut at^ |M»i,noTKni,< TJj<*e ^^H 


ai^, however, i.imliiLecl Wiiedy lo iriijiii-al vatcrs. Thr ]farasiiuii ^^H 


Uiat uiay Ik itrt^aciit in fi^h arv tlt^truyej thirlti^ tlu' i'<K>kiii|j. ^^^| 


^H ] 'villain -fN>]d<i»m^ Is of ratWr raro ucciirrmci-. ^^H 


^f Thi.' fulloiA iu^ tahle, uikt*D Irum Laii^fwortby/ ff\'c» tius oom* ^^H 


' position of tlie iK>4h mom i^t^mmonly eaten : ^^H 


I Offnpmtion ^ /M. ^^H 




r i 3 


1,1 


J^ 






'1 


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iWM 


JW^ 


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1 By. J^gpa^noqUwt black. 


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1M 




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0.1 


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lU 


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^^M 






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Ift.T 


^^H 


L HKkmr drr^VMl «nT 


U.7 


IM 


LA 


, , 


01 


1A,<1 


^H 


^^H llfc-krrrl. M^r^Uh, 4r«»rr1 ^*«4 


M.* 


1M 


73 


. . 


u 


143 


^^1 


^^B TJ«.V<rT'l 'i«ii[-t., i.W> ■t': 


UA 


it,t 


Ul 


IJJ 


MA 


^^^H 


^^1 UtilUl >Lri«M<l '^^' 


i*a 


M 


U 


a« 


!U 


^^1 


^^1 Mfil»<i, «>«l4 ^:> 


SL/l 


A.I 


aui 




OA 


104 


^^M 


^B Fbif h, whfte. 4mvc-] ^'■^ 


UJ 


P,? 


fjt 


, , 


<U 


11J) ' lU ^^H 


^^H Pvn^h. while. wlKFir '^ ^ 


»■.« 


t.» 


tA 




04 


iM ^^m 


^^H pVrrh. tcilow. ilnwitvi . i^i 


fi*J 


lyji 


0.1 




o.» 


H3 )&1 ^^H 


^H ntlirrrl. rilrrwl ^^^i 


r.i.l 


in 


01 




«lV 


DjO 3V ^^H 


^H FVkcpfl. Vhoir 


lli 


».i 


03 


^ ^ 


0.7 


IM ^^H 


^H nu. iin^iHtf^ «> 


M.« 


1)14 


04 


41 


vtt ^^H 


^H P1I«, filiolc 


•V7 


lar 


OJ 


H , afi 


310 ^^H 


^H n4i^b,>i<*M»i 


u;i 


IBJ 


oa 


. 1-1 


IIA ^^H 


^H * With 'V ^omT, Fftmvrn^ BalkUi^ Xo. ^ LT»iuil BUUp Dqwrtimni of ^^H 


^B A^riraUuiv, 1801^ p. It ^H 



^H (4 CLASSES OF FOOhS. ^^M 


■ 




j.^ Ill V 

PIMM' 3 


^H Kind or food-vilHllL 


5-j 3 


1 


1 


g^; 




i^_^ ^— -■ 




^^1 fVvMjtol. 


Jvrck 


CWh 




^^H I^VHTXOp df**M-1 


tf^ 




»ji in^ 4J u iJ^o 1 no ^^^H 


ACT 


_ _ 


5L« HA 2.4 1 . . «.T 11,7 1 MV ^^H 




loo 




9» T,« <^a |(L] 1 m ^^^H 








4300 ^4 04 
•M lU I7A 




«4 3.1 IB ^^^H 
1 N.t lofi) ^^^H 


^^H lunOb, UKln«. dta«Ml 














SO.I 




»^ 9J if 




979' ^^^H 


^^H Mni4t, wliiik - X ' ' 1 *^^ - ' 


4«.l fUl . IjO 




iu> too ^^^H 




«;,« iM tfi 


;a IM AU ^^^ 




^H T»»i. bnK.k.<lrf«o] . ' nj) . . 4M 11,7 U i - «.? >. yTft ^^H 


^B Troui, brook' *lK>k-- . . . V^l . , 4U4 *j ].i oji 1)^ tan ^^^ 




AH 


. . , «t.O 1^4 fij> *iM li^ , 310 ^^H 




1T.T 


, . 1 g:j 0.4 T.^ 1 •i? lA'^ «w ^^M 


iKf 


. , 1 «.l 11.3 u *' 1 ^^' 


3tA ^m 


^^H Woakflili, wholo ^ .,•••! 


11.9 . . 1 58.0 ■-4 >4 Ofl 1 IW 


wo 




■vt*j . . io,( 1 iia aj» ' - - '■.B iTji 


EI4A 


^H WhfiGn»Zi.4hQk ' kut ■ ' VIA 


loa U ; ^ «■' 


lUJ 


430 


^^H iiciitT«l*t*nMnof rnMo Uvb i 


HA 


uu 


ts 


- . ' u> 


140 


aeo 


^^H f^rvnyrf jUh- 












^^H Mack?rrl. "tijo. 1 - Htiutl . ^ 


asji T.I 


A.I 


:«,T 10,1 


, , 


l-T 


SLA no 


^^H Cod. nlir^l ■ml 4rlci1 , . . . 


i4J> 1?^ 


•0^ 


]U» IM 


, , 


U 174 ^ SIS 


^^B C«1. ' Ix^m-lvaci UMirUli/'a«|^ 






1 








H t 


lU 


M.4 7J.I 01 




L7 :4.l ; 43ft 








aiki aui . 1LT 


TJI 


l,A out 1 U30 


^^H Ut^^. Mticd. smtikMt «Tid 


*M 


«J 


IM 


>e^ 


U 


W 


tU 4« 


^H HAddoch. "ati'l^n ba'l-ilr" 


















^^^H 9aII«4|» vmukv^ KiiO 'Irltffl . 


MX^ 


1^ 


40,3 


i«.t 


ai 


, . 1^ 


ITS ' »> 


^^H ItAtlbul. HLllcfT. fDiokeil. And i 














^^B -iTfix) a^ iLt 


4«.4 


l«1 MO 


, 1^ 


»^,n 1 941 


^^H ^ariV»rJi< nfliinM Ul i . . 


«M 


Z4jI1 1X1 


aj ' 11,4 i »u 


^^^H Udlllirni, I'lmibinl Uf 


lA 


Mil i(»;i iJLa ' - 1.1 n* ' imk 


^^H Mvctf M. miiufi .,» ^ 


1.9 


eU l»,A , AT . . . . Ul 3,» 1 TM 


^^H MitVk*n<1.4nl1, «nriw1 .L (9,7 


U 


«U 


IM 


aiji 


. . 1 flJ ' Rf-ft 1IU 


^^H Tnitny hli»nt>-iiiJirk?r«1|, 










I 




^ , 


n,r 


ns 


4h1 


. , 1 IhT sT-ft VU 


^^M HftdfliMk. «DiL>k«d, c«iui«d , . . 


u 


9$.7 


tiJi 


u 


, . 1 14 30.7 «tt 


^H Cmstaceaus* — TZie most p<>|>alar of the oruj4jiooikn«i lire 


^H Hi*' orab ;in<l tln' lolwt^r. They ai*' lilpltly nntnliiiiH, IiilI nt 


^H the *«iiuc linK" hi>(hU- iiidi^fMil>lif< lu !*(irnc» |K.-rM»it^ tli*- inib 


^H anrl tlio loJwttr arc cHjH.'cifllly apl iu Imiig on naiL*«ca, v«ii>iliiig, 


^^m aiiil 'kthor rnd mr>ro HUtiVHuiDg ootiditiuUM. 


^H Shellfish. — Oy^t^T^, olsnm, And intiH<i-l3< nrvt the form« f)f 


^^1 ^hi-lltisli chiefly eiHen. Oysters, whfii iiiUn fn**!! nml niw\ 


^^M cniiMitiito the mint <)ijfe«til>le :minml fixn), 1>iit wlirn ^SMtk^fl, 


^^1 their itt^^livc vMtK- i^ much lowcrnj. The foifi fuirt U |ip>|i<>r- 


^^H tionnicly Ur>!cr nrd more niitntioas tli::jn iIk" ccim.'^p'iiidiii;: 


^H ]»ortiou of tbc dull], Tliv hard i>r mu^ciikr p^>rtji:'U 19 tmij^h 


t ^ IL 



AXIMAL FOODS, 



85 



aDfl rather m<li^«til>t«*, and iV bof! omitted ^tii mva1i<1 dieU- 
rioe. O^velore sIkxiUI novcr be friod f'»r iht cick. It nmy bo 
w«ll h«Pe to csll nth>ntion to tti« pm^^sice of ^'Iktt^ning*' 
oysters for tbe market: th!s U done by jilndog theni in either 
tmb or snlt \v»k-r tor st definite tcn^h of lime, whieb ^ivfs 
tlnni n fre^h nnd ]ittinip itp|x^im]ir«*. If the w»ter us/ed for 
thi« IMtrmiN; c-jititiiin« bewitgi^ coiilunjiiiutiim U itiire to Ibllow. 
Oy«t<TSDiive in munycasi'* bt'ca thv carrier?? of tjphoid fever, 
ud Dmny pcrHin^ bive bt:vu iiHV-ctisI in tbi:« wnv. 

CWniJ> nn* n jKrjtuUr urticlr *)( diVi, und arvii!; n^i^^ecablc to 
ttumi pnbitc:<L Wfi osrt^-rs. Muj<t*cU nrc ootiAum^ chiefly by the 
piKtivr chiif^^ in the Mwp'irt towtii* of EoglniwK 

Ijiiigworthv * |pv«w the folUm-ing taihle of the average com- 
poMtioit of tuullui^lt!^, crustnoeans, etc : 



Otmpontion a/ 


JiofluJtkM, 


(Vim/acvitju 


, rt^ 








1? 


s 


31 


A 


1 

i 1' 






ll 
1^ 


JISflTklltfL ^'<* 


Ar<i 


tkrU. 


J^«1JV«L 


f^d. 


/^rH 


ftrA 


r44L 


CiTMcn.KilM 


^. ^. 


xu 


4.1 ^ 1.4 


i^ 


Ol» 


u; 


En 


OT*b:n, Initfrl! 


«1A 


, , 


UU 


1.1 a.t «;< 


014 


tJ% 


OS 


i.iT*t^rv mnncl . , 


. . 


1 . 


«ui 


;,4 , LI 


a> 


1^ 


H-i 


w 


^V«|l0|B 


',' 


, , 


M> 


Mf 


0^ 


14 


L4 


IV ; 


MB 


LonsebniiiL In iti<>T) . 


*M 


. . 


«U 


4> 


M 


1.1 


Uh 


Wl 


13ft 




^ ^ 




UA 


Ur 


1^ 


t> 


2Jt 


lILd 


tM 


Rev ml c]«m«. rvin(iVT4 ftOB 




















•bfll H 


. < 




IM 


IOlI 


l.l 


AhI 


U 


lU 


U4 


fU>un4 olftiD*. In •licll , 


AJ 


. ^ 


XI4 


%1 


>,l 


IJi 


OJ 


1-4 : 01 


Bonnil rlaiDt, mniort . . - 




. . 


8V> 


104 


M 


u 


u 


nj) 


HI 


NllVrl* 


itj 




A? 


«4 


44 


u 


1.0 


no 


144 






















K^t'lulvp of r*iinod| ^ - , 


•u 


*4vO 


U 


4.4 


u 


0^ 


u 


too 


f\««VMH. 


1 
















|j>t*- '■■,*.? 


coil 


' 


ai.i 


AJI 


4lV 




0« 


CI 


m 


U'l ■ 


^ , 




T?J 


1A.I ' II 


OlC 


1:4 


tt3' ava 


Ct*- 1 


wu 


. . 


l«^ 


£> ' ft) 


at 


0.1 


u 4a 


Cr- 


aj 


• 


>^l 


?J 


«il> 


flLl 


1^ 


lai ' iM 


Cr^ 


_ , 


_ , 


■B^ 


IM 


14 


OJ 


u 


wo r* 


ftii ... 


, , 


, , 


MJ 


914 


to 


OJ 


1:4 


»^ M> 


Oriivmi nTcmn" '*f i hhIm.^ 


















Afla r«1cll|llV« ■>( lABIHil) , 


fiLf 


- - 


Ml* 


4JI 


4l4 


OA 


1^ 


Bi4 KO 


T*rrnptn^ tirwiSr^ r*t. 
















■ 


Tnrnpln, tn il)?n , . . ■ . 


mft 


. ^ 


1&4 


CI 


1 


. , 


at 


9l4 llfl 


■^rwn tnnlr. invhvU . , - 


Ta.» 


. 


m 


O 


A1 




01 


(ft M 




■ 


IT.4 




4l; 

4l1 




a7 


11 1 lOfl 

MA 314 


OffWrmJ ATtmr nf ft"h. mol' 
















tgakt, nwfjimuw, vln. . -1 *U 


*u 


UU 


U 


4Ll 


Oft 


li« M 



1 Foi a* Fhii/, Fbrvft^ BaIMn No. SS^ CiUiwd SioH* 0i|wlmcnl of Agii- 



CLASSi^ OF FOOI>& 



VEGETABLE FOODS 




M 



Vcgotabk* fixxU <liffVT fmni aninml tiH<)^ 4<}^|M-cmlly in tliat 

|inmhV4'ly ii ^itibiII luimtiiU of |in>u^n. V«>j ' |^ivo« ttu' n4ln\v]iig 
mbk' 10 :thow llu- (Ll^ert^iUiO l)t'twi!fu v^'^tubk and animal TixkI^ 
ill Uiift regard : 



Fbbccf * 

l\-n-i1ihiir . 

Wheal . - 
Uice < ■ 









91. S 



Vf^tJtMm il4tp luiwrvrr, ronlaiii a oertnin nnimitit nf proteins 
and fitt^ ; i^>nio im* ru^li in |fi'oti^]n^» ntljrrs in fiilj^. 

Carbohydrates of Vegetables. — ^Thcj^e ah? t^tiiTvWflnd 
MtgnTS. Starch i^ fimnd in ull [>[an1^ nnt) Is iHinNvrh<<] Ititn 
iU'Xtriii by means of Avy litiit or l>y ow»king. Tiie start'la- 
gniiinK-w in vegotaljl<.''- an- liuM t^tgt'tluT Ijv a c<-llul(»?c fromc- 
w<irk. CVlluIn** U a carboliytlroUv l>iit \^ ven' insoUiblt: it 
can Ik? luiliw-rl as a Hfod only whni vohur ; when oI<l, il if; 
refiiBtant ami cvti not 1m? digmted, and liinden? di^re^lirtu of 
tiie slarchofr cnvi*1(»|HTl bv il ik^idc-:* \\\v T^titrch and celbilorw, 
anothiT fiHin <d' i.-arbtibydralt\ kuown a* |Hrlir>, i>* prtwnl iti 
wiiiir vfgi-tabK' fi'iitli, WLcn fn»lt ift oiMtkcil, lliis |>L<oiiii go!- 
iitinlztv, and fbt* jt'lly wlicn digi'*n>d U conveH-Nl iim* a eorraln 
fomi i»f «uirnn Sugar* !»tv!tl«> inUfcortailt carlWiydrate?. fimnd 
in vrp^nddc^, CVU^ ffadcr i* referred to p. 1(H) for w detailed 
clewnpTii>n of t-uit^t^O 

Protein in Vegetables. — T\k^' proUin.* l>elong mainly 
to llu' j,^lo1jnliM.'', Init in additioa vi^'lable** iv^ntiiin a lai^ 
iiiiniliepof nitptuftnmi** jiiil>*itances thrit are mil pmteiiiK Amonir 
the vnrioiH proteins in \'eirrtable«i arc' plnnii, \i^ fnmid t'?»jHvia1ly 
In iTi^iiTf Ii-^nm<-ti tfiuiid In the Je^umr-*, nnd vt^ciud'li' prt>lriii 
found in v^p'tabli- juiiv^, 

ExtractiveB in Vegetables, — Th<*rp U a fv«i*iih*rab1*' 
.amount o'i' i-xU-^wixv*' nintter in n-rtnin vi'getabkw. wiioh ^^ 
asparagti»p whidi U not utili/etl in tW l>ody. 




rsoETABLB mot& 



87 



Fata in Vegetables, — The fals id veg«tAbl«n are cbiefl/ 
tn tiic form uf oiia. In ucicilition, vogotubW coDtaiu a ooubiJoi^ 
nb1<i amuiint of water lui^l salt. I'ii^ amount of wutor varitn 
Wwivn 70 un<} 1*0 i)er (X'lit, The main mineral (v^o-HtjiuHiu* 
art- the mUa of |NrULviiuni unA sixliaru unili'd with ui^jik luiilr*. 

Digestibility of Vegetables. — The dige^iion *>f vf^- 
tublcw tukus |>l;Loe mainly in the iotentine. Oi^-jng to [lie 
IfTwitor bulk of vop^'IahU- food and to the cellulose that siir- 
mtilKi^ vti^'fiiblc ci4U and thus ]>rovi.'nte. tlie ready at-cess of lh<^' 
digcstivi' jukv*, vegetable food le nut hu«i^ily di^jorlt'dn^ auiuial 
food. (For All Mocount vf thv uboorbability of vegetable loudd iho 
rwnloT \» rcfcmcsi trt ]*. l-*JO For etmi'enieuoe of dMcription 
ttie tbllovi-iiig <?ItLfi4ili^tJoii of vegetable foods bas bc4>n adopted : 



1. (tresis. 
S. Irfpiimcj*. 

4, Green ve^ubl^. 



o. Fruit*. 
7. Ptmgi. 



CEREALS. 

Cereols are the nio*?l iin)Ki[-tant fix •d-profhict-* <lvnve(I fpiim 
tlfce vegetable kuifftluni. Of tliifi rta-i?^ (»1 fiH»d> thn?**.- in tynu* 
mone^^C ii« are wheat, com^ lye, *mi!^, barley, rice, and buck- 
wheat. The cereals are eaten cineily alW having Ixn^n ^rroand 
into flour or uiL-al. Fluui' is must commonly nimh^ fiinn wliiiiL 
£t>d rje, wberoM coru and oats are iht (^LJef jwHirrrs ^►f mcnU 
Com id jJso eat«D in tar^ f^uantitiee whoK*, And bnrM- And ricv 
Art* jdw> 4<Aten in thbt way> The followmg tnhlc^ givtv* the 
^heaiic eocn|MXi]tion of flie moi^t eominoi] M*r<>jiU: 











L'^rbd|i;<1rai«*- 






Wmt. 


PfoWn, 


FVL 


eic. 


fliwr. 


A«h- 




Nrtrat. 


JVwar. 


P^Mnf 


PVMVl 


iWn^ 


JVrtwar, 


BMrby 


10,9 


12.4 


ts 


e0.4 


17 


2^ 


BiDokwhfltt . . . . 


116 


]ft» 


2.2 


A4.S 


a7 


£.0 


Com(«uiiB«l ^ ^ - 


ft.3 


0.9 


«R 


7f9 


JJ 


U 


KsUr cuni ^ . . ^ 


lfl.9 


0.6 


3.M 


ni).-i 


1.1 


2.i 


0*ia 


ILO 


11 A 


5J» 


w.r 


9,5 


3.11 


Bin 


1SJ 


;j 


0.-I 


rfl.2 


tU2 


1X4 


Wlifiii: 


u.a 


l&ft 


1.7 


72.0 


1.7 


1.9 




10.4 


1^ 


2.? 


n.s 


U 


1.9 


lOA 


11-8 


2.1 


TfiJ) 


I^ 


1.9 






i«fit of AsrinittQra^ Office of fiiwilfomi 8titlna, 



88 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



Wheat U tli*- mu*t im|K>rtiint »«>ui"oi> of flour, «wing U) (bt 
i'iH'l tlmi it iiin hr niioiHl lit iwy t<»ii]i>r'm!** dinuitr nml yuUlx 
iho lx*»t tloiir hC iIk* k*iirl <'X|K'n:*i>\ II irt rich in ?u)IhU und con* 
lain* liltk' watrr- TIk- wliwa-gniin h oftverrtl hv '^ix liiyor^ 
whirli lonii tilt- hraii. Of ihi^c 7»ix, ih^ thrt* (inUTniTWt i^nili* 
firm (he t^kin, hikI the n^mniniuj^ three kven* the «ivt'lo|i of 
tho grain. The initeniU'M inyer b* caUeil Ihe te^ta ; the iiinet^ 
moHt, or wreal layer, tJikes iw name fri»m the cerealin which it 
ONitaliin^ Within ihf (^tivaliii UiviT, ami atlj^iotiiL to ihtr eui1j]yO| 
lieu iW I'luWfK-rai, whirh rontaiua iho f-lnrcL. Tin- t'lubryo 
litt ut the lowt^r i-ik1 uf the ^^raiii. TIh' live* outi-r luycr* are 
€r>m|uiM-il ohirtly iif ri*lhihKi>. Thr i^^rml tim-r i* thi* riduwt 
ill nitrogenous JttibsiniKrs. The c^riJosjK'rni (■oii(Aiii<« a lar^ 
ariioiiiit iif r^tarch, n iiilrfi^^n^itis :<uk-'taiioe i^ulletl glutoti, vi>me 
hiigiir, aiul llt<- (<elliih>M* cif jr> (^lUwalL 

Flour i.-i nuidi* iiv ^iikIJii^ the gvani of tht; varioiii^ a*re:il». 
Although flour \^ iniiiie ehiofly iVcfiii wheat aik<l no, Uirtc^', oat», 
tiiiiixe, He., urt' nl>i> nmiiullKtiiml inii> Hour. 

lUrtnl iM niiidr In' luhlin^ to fl^xir a ileriuiti* ]kn>|iortiot] of 
water, a Uttic K>lt, ami the Icuvcntnp ngcm. The mixture or 
tloiijrh i^ then Icneadocl, oither ttith the haivU or, better, with a 
fipcKin. In the larff*> unirlr'ni hakeriei^ (he kne^iding is *Ione en- 
tirely by maehinery. After thj-* the d^mgh is net aside for a 
number of hours, during which lime fermentation takoH pinee* 
It is then inoble<I into |<javefi and bakeil. The leavening ia 
dependent U|)on the action of the yeast on tile ttarch, some of 
^hich it iHJMvertfi ititL> ^iipir. and then into ak^hol and rarlxm 
dioxid gas The pis "in^cv bnl>bk'?i t" appear :hn>ughoui the 
donifh, aod renders it light nml '^[^^^"Ky* r>iinn(; the baking 
|>rocet^ the ycu?it germs arc kitlof) luul th** nlt^fbo] mi<! carbonic 
aoid pas are driven nffl H'»t or fr^h breiid, wh^-n niastioatod, 
(r>rmji a temtPioiiv. donphy m«jw, nnil hritn- i.< not ao digentiblG 
as &tale brciid, or br«i<I that luis Utw ulhnved to i\ry slightly, 
fttT tile latter will onnnbh' iai<> tbie partiel*^ ami so is more 
thoroughly niix^.-*! with ih<- j^iLHtric jiaoe, Ti-^siini; bread makes 
it more <H^''<tif)lc. A ^liw of bread remains in the stomach 
abi>iit lw<" anil oM*'-half hour*, 

Next to wbrat bn-itd, wbieh thus fjir han aluu« iKrn men- 
tioned, T^'c bread ix the in^l iiti|>ortant of l\w l>r««dHtnffs, 
While it U not sr> iligtfitible for invali<U ai^ whint brea<l, it ia 
more Inxative inid k«-jw frenh lonfi^-r than wheat brc^d. AVbeat 
and rye floor are often mixed in bix'ad-nial%in(r. 

Purapcniickt) id a wb^jl^vyc broad mude by the Germanfl. 




V£GETASLB F0OD& 



89 



It U ^]!^uty UxHtivt-. (ilult-ii bmul i?* miuk? fn>iii glub-n BintT, 
aiul U usfil chicd^v \ty d'uAyviivrK The Ik^I btx-ud oonlutnn frvm 
40 tu ^jO jh-r 4.vnt, o1' ^liium. Itl«ruiu, |uu>tm'», uiul [kujdingw 
are nmil'- l)y ii<l<liii^ lo ihi* Hiiuj vuryiiiy; i]imntitti*7< of ^^pg*, 
«iipir, milk, buiti-r, fniil, Hiivurin^ t-xtnicl?*, etc. Thcv vary 
wKlfly ID ru'hri4'-v^ uml tlip^nbtlity, miil iltc to be nvoiilcd by 
p('rsi>EL^ with wi-ak liigvstiop. 

Backwiicat flour is ol^n iniulo into batlpr*<nk€« in the 
Uiiiti^] St^iUti, tint in ditiiit^ \\uitn of Kiiv«i:L Imrkwhoui |v>rnijge 
fonu-i thf |intirt|vtl ct-rvul ItamI. Hmiii jujidc Innn buckwhcot 
cnimlrK'^ ami lUicn intt kc^^p wdl. 

Millet U 1argi>ly im^t in IntliA, Chinn, anri HiiMift. 

Sorg^hlim U cM^^aMtjiifklly mwlt^ int^t lirp:i<l, but in America 
it i>t )fnku-ii tunitlly fnr the rtii>lji>^-« fin<1 M'nip tlmt may I» 
obminotl rix>ni it. 

Rice coDTftitiitt^ tlie j^Uiple fofx] f>f nmny of tbi' |H.*op1i!« <^ 
tlw OriuiL It i^ ^rowii etiioRy in A^in, bnt U al#o miff-tl in 
Bonw parti« of l-^trv»|>i\ In tkc L'uiuil SiuU-h m^* nilturc w 
CODfini^l (liidly to S^illi Oimlina- Kicx.- coiitnin* n Inrp' pro- 
port >oii vf «turch iti vcn.' iligi<»tibk form, btit it ir^cimifiunitively 
pof^r iji ollirr cofifttkuditsi 

Barley bread w-nn u^cd frr food by (l»r rnrly Grecl;*i ami 
RiMiitiiiK, who al?o u-«l barley rrnnil fi> :i \nrffp ^Ktcfit in the 
tniiiiinff f^f ilwir athlelf^. Since the intrndnrtioii rf |iolHt'H?A as 
fifil, and vritii tli^" cbfiipeniu^ of wheal Qmir, harhy hr&Kl ha^ 
grwinnllv fallen inb» liif^UK^, IJarley-waier U iimxI si?< a U^venigc 
for iiiviiliiU and infj^nU^. 

Oats omtrtfii lilieial proportiorf; of fat, protein, and will*, a 
h^f;^ amonnt of F4tarch, and ciHi^idcrablc imn}rca4tib1« oelUihwEC. 

Oatmeal U iisc-^l m ihe 1x>>^i :idviiutji^< in making gxirrklf^ ; 
owing to \ln bck cf glui^ii It mjikcA fnW the |>oorc:^t kind of 
brvatl. ^\'bat is knuwn us S<M>Eob ^roikfi^ i^ prej^ared by frccinf* 
tli<^ gniin from it* oat^r liUT<k. (Itntnioail porridffe h »aid to a«t 
M a mih) laxatiw in smme peisna-, and to excite dx'^peptJO 
«ycipt4im« in otiiers. 

LSGUMES- 

(>f tin* l^^imi*^, ibc pf'a aekI the l>«an are the mo^t itnponant 
ffK."l-Iin>dnot.< In the midilk aiMl northern part^ (>f fciimpe 
iIm- iM-n h tin* lua^i jv>|iMlar It-tpinie, while in ebe Mnliierrnni^m 
euUutriiT^ tbi- Ijftiu prnK'tiiujatT'-', In Anicmit [ioit utid U-ana 
are ext4*n5JV(dy rainrd. Tbe fM«nut i? uii AmentAn favorite^ 
but tbe kntil u tat^n only to a v*ry AtmiW exieat. 



90 VLASSiis or rooD& 

Tho lo^nif-^ oontuin a libL-nil |irM}>fjrtir>ii <>f prntHn [Ir^i- 
meti), (^i-buhydratu-., und a liitle fat, lio^lJei; u largo ainoimt ■>£" 
vr&U<r. Although legume-* oonlaiu a |irri[»nrllnD *»f jmitrin in 
e^xw^-i of that of nieai, a large aniouni of tat, anJ innsMrntUW 
staroli, tliry are h^s i>a-*ilv ^li^jft^teil thiui animal fiMnl>. At* 
}Mjint<Hl <«it liy AM/ this w due to tliret rea?^JUf* : 

"(l) Ah geiierallv i>re|Kin>il aii*l used, the outrienm of \'*^go 
tattle foixln are iiiclctscJ in wlU compoHeit of celluloM" or woody 
fiWr, whkh U mnre or Je** luird uud gn-atly iuierfera'^ with 
thviir tiLBurptiou- 

"(2) Vejijt'iablo food U prom.- to fi'mioiitatiou in tlio inlvs- 
Une, liiTir* iii<<r(<a«iM^ llie ^n?n'4taltip tnovenu^nt'*. ;ind, if \siv^ 
amounts are i^Un, lia.'^teiiing ihe food onwai'tl botore fhi^ro Im* 
been siittiWont time tnr t^lt■ ab^orjuioii of \u c^ontaintHl nuiru'ut«. 

"f:t)The cellulose preseut acts as a k»ciii irritant and pru- 
diice^ tho name elffcl/' 

Legumes are apt to produce fermentation, and in tbU vray 
occ^ioii flatulence and gastro-inte^iinal distress. The dip?sti- 
hility uf the 1ejj;ume>> de|f(.4]ds-^ lar<^flv uftou i1h- [iiaiiUL-r hi w]i'nj\i 
the/ an.- pre|>iireil and tlie amrjunt that is eiUeu, A laigi- |ku^ 
tion of the lvgtinie« ortliiiarily eaEC'ti U iiu|)orfoctIy tibaorbnl hy 
the inte-ifiiii.'. Srri^irift^ll ' hzH shown that abiiiit 10 |>er 4X?nt. 
of tlie i*oiitaiiuv] j>ri»i«'in hi r<"nikKl bi^ann i* lell mi:ib,f<irlml, tlje 
l>ean'i beinjt eaten with the ^kiii^; and tliat wifli a iotir mode 
from lentils only S.2 |)er cent, of the origiiml aimttnit ol" prol'^ln 
]£ left unabflorbed ; so that when eaten siniply ooobnl, a murli 
lat^r pruiRHtiott i^emains i)nab?rorbed ibao when finely dividi^l 
into a powder. 

Beans tbrm une of the ol<le»t furin?< of vejfL^table food-*, liav- 
iiig \tcvn cuhivuti-d bv tbc ancient Greeks, Koniann, and Epv]>- 
tlanK. The Diiriier4>U8 varieties nee*! tor foiwl have al) hc<»n iin- 
piNive<l by (*n)tnnd nietWU. Th<^ Windsor Ijean, flu- one which 
wa* tii^t rultivat4^1, i-* still gmwii in Er]ro|>e, hnl drn\-* nut thrive 
well in America. The kidneyliean, the most important s|>ei^ies, 
\ii easily cultivated, gTt*wi"g nipidly smd j^eetlitij; early. Tin? 
Lima bean is a great favorite, csjwially in America, It is u 
short flat bean, H»nn'\vlmt like ihc kidney in ^haj>e. Tliif* vari<*ry 
is a climljer, although bush Limup^ have Utii developed by cul- 
lural niethHlfh, 

ThtTL' art? p»everal varietic* of peflSr th** mnst im]>ortnnl heiag 
the field and the garilen [>e:i. Tlie former i^ penerjilly n>*eil for 

^ I'^inuvni' llidlDliii Ntt. 121, Unilod 8ucn Dp[artnicni of A^ricuHarc, 1^00, 
p. tS- 



VFGEt'ABlE FOODS. 

fixUer; bat one viirietv, tlie Catiinliau iMi\ jnai, i* gixjwu for 
IuIjIc u^". Tiit'ro are luaiiy vant-ik-- ul" iW ^irdc-ii pi^. The 
iclu'Uiug pi-u«, tho kind m mo*t luuimon u*v iu AiiKtriut^ siti<l thi* 
Mignr jxti are tli^^ inn^^t im|>nitAin vunciii'!*, 

Tlie lentil, a^ ha^ bt-en iilulitl, U l>nt little ii>fd in tite 
UnitiKl Sintttc The oliiof ^u|i|)ly of KnitiU O'Hui'-* from Kirypl, 
rm- ftw iK'ing jfrovrn in Emxiin^ Tlit^y iorm » lii^lily nutritiniifl 
fo(xi, Intt tlu' fliLVor in tlUi^^n^iitilt- bj itmny ]M^r>oii^, nml fher 

The peanut, aUhough |>i'i:iiJiaj- in iiH gr*.»wih^ i^ a kgume 
ns woll iH Uiv pai and Ix^aa. It UifTmi (-bi.-micjilly rit»in the 
other 1«^im<!:< ill that it ooutolnA a liirgt* umixint of fiiu 



OM>^Qf«f»0H ij/ J'VwA ohd PrM Ijegnmrt rt/mpnr^d mih that (^ other 



MMi?rlftl 



Jiatfi (cniiiR* ; 
flflffMOftEU 

<I«U« ----- 

0ilC*r Ptfti « trlni^-pr** 

ttdled kIdiwT bnn« . ^ 
Abctlol LlnihftWtt** , . - t . > . 

tenoeA Uv* bAii* 
Om*d kMncy 1wau 
<toiHie4 pc** ^ 
ihlMiiMl nktU tiAiu . 
rMml tutUr ^ ^ - 

l*ii(ib 

Iici*4 pAU - - 

OVirpm 

Siwlmna - ....... 

Chnk-fCtta 

hf«ii'«(> ,...--,.-- 

iUtMf 

IVrihvtnH - . , . , 

tnlMotU 

Whv4l bfviilM ftvdt 

Wl«tv-whm tt4ur 
PMbner 



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IP. 17, 






92 



VLAissi:if OF rooi>s. 



ROOTS Mm TUBERS, 

Ror»tA and lul>ers coiistitme auuiUT L'la^>* of v<<^fable f^Mv\s 
UiBt are 4>f j^roit iiu|>oi-iaiii-x^, Thtv i-oiiuiiu lK>tli -lUircb ami 
8ij^r> ami tu llii^nv <^DRtitiientn in tJut? fhi^ir oljipf vuIir- uh a 
ffHjtt, On ai?<»ii]il of' tlu< !iiirmli |>r(tj>r>riioii <if ]>riiU<iii Hii<l the 
lar^ anioiinl i>f wator limy C!orLtain, they an* inlerior in Dutri- 
tivt' valiif lo iHttli l^ifMiiu^ and tvr<^il.< 

TliP potato i^j tor several n^isonft, the mewl imporlftiit 
lucmher of tlie grouji. It i^ a tuU^r or thickeiiwl under- 
ground stem <tt' '"iofannm tul/tTOHum. It (frow-- I'ljually well in 
a variety of soils, antl when }»n^j)erly coc^keil in ea^-ily digested. 
Wlit'ii i*t>okt%l in water* tin? ^alla jut* into the wal*"r, but 
wlien f<ji>Uvd in their ^kins this lo^ \a lai^i'ly j)n"Vfatnl. By 
luiking ur fjii^tiug the saXu are \yesi rcluined and ihv potato 
ri'Dihtrvnl rnri<>f i-asily ili|2^>?Ltihl<>, 

The sweet potato omiiiiu* mcire wnt*T \ii\A mgur but k-*** 
i«Unvli tiiiMi iLr whiti.< [Kiljtto. \ViK'n tHfik^l, it it^tnaUy hec<ini<» 
mcidy, liiLt U 'ti\vn (»nvert<?it into a ^triiig)'^ r^dvu iiuun^ that m 
diHicult of di|;e»tir>D. 

The yam i^ n tn1>er gomen'hfit re«ombliug th& pot&to. Ft is 
growu and ciiien chiefly in tht trnpicA^ hut alK> in sjmo jmrts 
of Kuri>|K'- 

Thi^ Jerasaletn artichoke i^ eotnmonly nseil hi Knglani). 
It 18 8wct't and wntcn', rontjdnw littl<r r*t«reli, in only e^lightly 
nntritivi*, hnt *|uite easily digc^tiliip. 

The beet onfjiina a vrry liirgr |M'n*ent«^i* cif *^n^ch :mfl sngiir- 
It i« miwHl extensively for the Hipir In*]|istry, nnd i« nlsu largely 
eniplr»ye<l iW nijii^iiii^ ^d:i(N to lend vune'y lo the ilid* 

Carrots, ^Inn younir and trnd'i", funn a very nntntiuus 
fi>iii, iiihl an* Ejri'uflv reh,*he"l hv n>any |>erw>nr*. Thi^v iHintain 
from >^j Ut\u) |Hr fvnf, uf wnten 

FaT&uips when lH}ile(1 tisn^ einat^h form a gi:Kid ftHxl ; like 
wirrciipi, ihrv t^'Hitnin a larpe pn»[K'rtj«n of water aad a (?f»n- 
Hiilenildp ninotint of Mipir. 

Ttirnip* luiv*> ven- slipht nntritivo valn<% Iwit an^, nevr-r- 
thili^s vi'ty |iii|nilar an a vegetable. They luive ii ten(ien<y to 
cMiiw (lattdence. 

Radishes are nwtl chiefly to pive a relish to the food. 
Thry f*'t\Uihi Utile *l^ireh nnd n laip' pereentagv of \^^ter, 

TliL< ftilhkwing tiible, taken from Atwarer,' gives the avemf^ 
coni{xiHiit<ni of ih« common ro<its nnd tnbem: 

* I^inrtpUM of yatrilim nnd ^uirilive Votut of Focrta, Fknuenc Hiill'.-tin, 
lOo. 142. ma, p. 17. 



VEGETABLE FOODS. 



03 



Food'iaairrLAlL 


$ 


1 


B 


i! 


1^ 


3 


23 




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20 


62.0 


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65.2 


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0.4 


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110 



GREEN VEGETABLES. 

TIk- grwii Vi^liiUli^ are \:ila!i*jlc i]oI odIv on account of tlie 
aixuMini of i»itriitir-iit pi\-?H-nt in lliriti, l>iit for t\w VATMy uiicl 
TvViti} they give t.* ttic diet. TIkt otntaiii u lai^ nnioiiul of 
inlt» nml Uiwv viiliiiihlr aiKi'Ki>rlKitif- pn>jx-rlii"a- 

Krynnt iinil Miltivr, in si very mrHiti wtk^ of oxpcrinients,' 
Imvp amvttl ai Uir fi'llimin^ C'*iiiHii?»K'IIp coiictTniti^ th* di^^ti' 
bill!}' *'f ncTXiiUi vi^'tiiblo? ; 

"So for as Muns^ n£ protein or fot ore «>nccnic(lf the v^f^ 
tlUoH (potJlto#9:» mhUi^, ikikd lect*) fn<'lu*le<i in tlw»*o ^llldi^ 
maj Iw conwil^^Hii a* i-f little \^Ih**. Tliey ^la, however, ofm- 
lain caHM>hyilnkte> whk-h uw well Ji^rotL-d and alM^>rho(l : and 
tJiev may tbcrt-finv )yc considenxi iit of vulue ae toiirre*^ of 
«iiei^', a lar^' pr^ix^rtion of which a[>|Hnirh to be uvaitahle to 
til*- b'"ly. The chief vnhio of many vcj^etable^ however, is, 
[xTlk!!]!^, asidt' from (he ijutrinienl or cntT^\v ihry fnrni?^h ; they 
add a pl^i^iu^ vaneiy and jwlnfuUltty to liie diet, #^U]>[»ly 
ur]|iiuic zLv'nif liiid luineml #altjs and |;ive flic \'*nx\ a \m\\i\n&^ 
thAl f>r<.'m?i tu \tv <>( iiu]>i>i'tAneo in it« meehunienl netion in 
nmiritnliiiikg u h^-nliJiy aotiviiy *-if the nlimentary trm^t, Pi^&- 
tiildv ih<- n---4]ilf iif ilu-.M' t^oiuliticiTkH \h a fnvomhlc inthii-iK-e njtoo 
th*" dij^r^tion nf olh^r fix>d eaten Mrjth the vegetable." 

Cabbages coiitiiin a con^iderahlecinaunty of ^ulphnr, and 
on i)n7> milium ari' apt to ttiii^' flatulence ; where iligestion i» 
Iffxkii, li'jwevcr, tUev are e*>n?»iierfd a wholesome torm <»f foiKh 
-SawfTjtr'itff U cahbajBte prefored by placing Kilt between layers 
nf ehred^led cabWjre leaver anil then eiibjeciin^ the tnaM« to 
lirvsMire. ThiF^ firejiM-fr onl tW jnicv, al^er which acid femirn- 
lati»n nt't* in. <>wiuj- to che fermoiitaiion it prorhice*^ ^^ner- 
kraut U (.*<in-ich'red ]Tkdi^*fMblf\ 

Cauliflower i" the mo'it di^e^tiMe lueiuWr of the cabbage 
faruily, ll may lie eaten either as a wla*! or Ixtiled arwl sensed 
wtlh a millc-Hauce, 



94 



CL,ISS£S OF FOODS, 



Spinach JH a poptilar form of vc^table and in ii^ to a 
great oxtent* It Is valuable clilc^y for itA kxative effect. 

IfCttacc is \he uioQi uujKirUiit rvpniHtaUilive (if n group 
of vrgeUtblt^ u^tmliv tuteu row. It Ui rowk into oulid aiid 
dnwHod wUb viuugor, Tbc vurioua cn^^eod also bi^oDg U> UiU 

SOTTCl H <*ab*ii chu'dy in Kuro|>c- II hm* n ]>e(!uliar acid 
ta^le, <iue U> jioid <ixalan?s, on acaitint nf iht' pre^-^iu* of which 
it is lo l>e avoidtxl by itwse r^ubjei^ u> pml or rbinuuatiflni, 

Celeryi whioh U ur^iiatly eaien raw, U stringy and ha^ 
licarcelyanv mitriiivo value. tAwked in milk it foTmn awbole- 
Boni« and digestible article of food. 

Tomatoes an- *^il«m S^jlb raw and cooktd, and arv rtfresh- 
ingt (^t'lierally liki-J, iiod ttxs'ily ditftsU-d. Thoy art- iitc<l lo 
iUivor brotbfi and uiv viiluublu for t^TiiUDg j>nrpo-««j inasmuch 
Hit thvy n-tiiifi fbi-ir llEivor Ix^tti-r ihtin iii<isr. vi^tnhb'K. 

The eggplant* a vloK^ rebuivo "f tbe tomato, i& les^ dige*- 
tibb-. ojh-ciitily wbi^ii fried, than the luUt-r. 

CuctitnbeTS an- calea raw, and wben youag an^ often 
piekliil in vinegar. They are very indige^tibla 

Aaparagns in highly esteemed for iU deJicate flavor. It 
U (^.nily dijje.Hted, even by Invalids. It ha.H a ?*ligbtly diuretic 
acliou^ atid iru|i:irt^ n tH'M ulfeiiMvi.? <Hbir Ui the urtiie, wbivb 
pcTflisttf for fiMiii twrlvc to twenty-fcfur boiirr>. 

Rhubarb, when thon>iighly cookod^ in quitt^ digestible »nd 
iu*tM ns. a Iii\!ilivL-, 

Pumpkins »re uwhI largily in the making of picB^ eta^ bat 
they havt' no ^jK^iul fmMl-valtie. 

Squash, vchmu youn^, in quite digestible. 

Onions, garlic, <-te,, are usi^l both lu vegetable's and us 
condiment.". While <^Hit1M^ are nwil larj;e!y for flavoring mt^l- 
tftewg, Ailad^, and ihc likr, tlii.^ artt HlwMtauot for their mildly 
laxativL- |)iiif>vrLitv. 

Thv following uMv., taken frmi Huttihi^ofi (p. S39), ^Wvn 
ihi comjHj^ttiou of tb<> vuHou* vt^-tuble> : 



I 



VEGETABLE FOODS. 



96 



hHi-Lili\ oookol 
H|iuucli - , 
\fVUNv marrov . 

ccKibod 
Braneb vpcouU . . . . 
TimttUHw ^ . , , 

TqnwUms coofccd . . -. 
Uftdw <--,.,>. 
Lhiuiv. ....-, 
Lclt«cv. ccwiiod . . > . 

Lnfa . 

CdefT 

CcleTT, conkod - - - ■ 
TundiiQibbR^ > > ^ ^ 

KiiuWrb 

)fAi<t<(lcidn«(|iniiO(1) . - ' 
W>irm<tii» - . ^ ^ 

Cttnxfutvr 

Cucvmtvr, ccKilc«d - 

End|r« 

Kiutvluint 



ft9€L 

mT 
91,1 

97,2 

**M 

uin 
(111 
w-i 

i'1.7 
,H7.i; 

PT,0 

oao 



III 


^ 


ii 


i^ 

-? 


ii 


^u 


£ 


5^ 




Arfi 


j*f*i 


iVrA 


i^4. 


ftvrt. 


1-80 


0.40 


5.8 


i.:to 


I.IO 


aiw 


K.10 


a4 


0.13 


IJK) 


aia> 


0.40 


4.T 


O.80 


1.20 


t40 


0.40 


3u9 


O.AI) 


0.D0 


tttt) 


(U17 


0.3 


0.20 


LtO 


%m 


O-W 


%.^ 


1.T0 


O.O0 


aoa 


0.20 


2.6 


a» 


1^ 


ftOO 


0.OI 


0.2 


0.0A 


o.ftr 


1 1.61) 


(110 


3.4 


\JiW 


0.37 


i;(o 


0,20 


SlO 


OTO 


1.10 


1 lOO 


t<.30 


0.1 


0.70 


1.A0 


K.1SU 


t*,!Hi 


*^ll 


:*..'w 


J.W 


1.4» 


(».40 


2-6 


1.00 


o.Aa 


0.50 


0.1 G 


a.'v 


0.40 


0.90 


1,30 


c,r>o 


■IlS 


(I.7P 


o.ao 


1-U1 


0.10 


,i-:i 


OJM 


a9f> 


(130 


0.0(> 


0.^ 


O-W 


1.00 


2.60 


<L30 


"1 


1 ^ 


1.30 


n.70 


ft,70 


i.3 


aim 


1.10 


1.40 


(<J0 


AA 


I.OO 


1.10 


7O 


■kW 


3,7 


l,.io 


0.10 


Ml 


<M0 


3.1 


0.40 


0.fiO 


1 "ri) 


iKiYi 


0.7 


0.20 


0.90 


■I'JI' 


0,20 


2.9 


aflo 


£10 


l.:n} 


OIW 


90 


O.TO 


as) 


1.00 


O.*--^ 


.; -1 


1 -,0 


Q.^ 


a,3o 


0,:.. 


'. <\ 


•\ .\* 


1^ 


; iM 


0.]» 


TkS 


v.7y 


1^ 


\ 1.40 


0.70 


2.9 


1.70 


O.90 



120 

10& 

l(t& 

27ft 

105 

105 

1» 

4« 

«fi 

140 

105 

110 

110 

70 

70 

110 

no 
no 
no 
no 

110 



Vegetartanlsm. — It will not be oui of plnce hen? to point 

out the clifiadvantap^s <)f an exdiuihx' vc^^UiUIf iliet* V"f?gt^ 
tllriani^ are \.h*>^y ulio ^iiI^it^I iiJnii:ift cmm^ly <j[M»n vi-ijelablei*, 
censK rniitK ninl nol^ ; c'XiTt-pliijiiJktly milk iiikI e^g^ tire luldixl 
t4> tWir (lict-ll^T. 

It i* unite ]>o*#iWe. hy the mting <if vep^tftWrji nlonc, to 
enpply aII the fo^l rntiidittKtnt^— <^rbohy4lniti>ii, fnu, ami pm- 
teiii^-^-lhiit arf n^jitirpil hv rtie ImmIv, Pfotpinc nro oVitninml 
jvirily from vct^-utbles, milk, ami e^n?^; tboee 'im\'e^l fnitii 
vefceUiblcs, however, un* di^ef^tc^] vrith mueli mi>re diflicully 
iuh] aliwrbnl lo a mvwih ftliglilor Jc|-Tt4> tbun ttit^si' dtriv^'i] 
from animal fiKnl. I*ens*m«i T^ubl^i<ting im w purely vtyrliiWc 
diet ffjf any trr^^it lenptli *'f tim« are ii|i( ^> 1'H4* 'ttmij^li, jw 
veil ii« p^y^i<'3ll iiid riK-tilul vi{^r nnd ciiiluniiKi*. I^tHm^r^ 
«n uniiMe !<■ ]>i-if<.mii Hk fame mnoiiot i^ wt^rk tliey <x>u1<l 



% 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



aocomplUh on a dkt ci:iiitiiiniDg oiiimal food* Wliik vi^gv^- 
bl«A omuni hr^ jimporttuDH of |initdiis in nnler to Mipply 
tbem m »ulfi<7)(riu atmtjtiiit vcrv lurgr 4^tiatititiic« niu^t W «ati?ii. 
Thi* ov^HeediD^ u* apl In mam- iti^tuiicc% it> prmiiKv <lipwtivc 
«]Uliir>iniif*««, ptrtictibirly ixi Uk)*^ mifferuig from gn-^tn^-mtorti- 
Dal iliMinien. A |t4jn4y V4'gi'tfiMi* dirt, if |itT>Mi4 in, t* bLao 
Mid' to leaeen tbe jjuwer of ttvlMini; ilim^se.* 



FRUITS AND NUTS. 

FRUITS. 

FniitJi mre of little vsXut oa titilnmentts and are ufieful 
ndplr to give variety lo the diet. Jlwy are lu^ extensively 
n flavorii^ a^rmr^, Tht- chief nuiriiive coDtiiitueQi of fruits is 
0ugirr uniJ Uiey nbo omiAiu n sniuU amoutit of Ditrugei>outi 
niatt«r^, eellidii^', ntarvlxs, ur^iik a^idr^ and u vi-gH'tubtc^ 3*^'^'/ 
mll4<<) |ic<Tliii, uliioli <aa*ev Jnttt tt> gt'liiti[iizi> \tltirii Lf>ilm). 
The Ki^r prt?^rit in fruit in mninly fnut-?(iignr, nr levnUe*, 
but jwme fmit.i contain, in additio^v nxknidenihle iiiniVHuc&r, 
In genenl, rniit« <x>ntain a larye amount uf vaier, hut \ii^ 
earthy Halt>4 than other fi">d*c The niineral element.- of fruit 
cr>nritHi of [M^ta.'^h, iiniteil with tartaric, citri4\ and wMc aehi. 
To tlw^w ealtd is diie ll*e atilihcortmtic po^iieny cif fraiL Id 
addiitixi to ihi» firoperty fruits aUu act ah diureiii>. laxaiive^^ 
and (Tollrarticp^ The fluvcr ai>d "xl^T of fniils are due to the 
prcvctiotr of nwrntuil oiIp uud <H»oj|iwiind ethere. 

The di^vlibjlitv of fniiti varit^ with the kind of fmit enlen 
jiimI itM niinh' uf pnimration ; stewed friDtfi are Qion' t«!>ily 
dig«^ihle lluin rmw fruitn. Amon^ the more easily di^i^tflile 
fViiits are iinm^<ft, lemon-s grspe^, and peaches; raw apple*, 
pt-,ir*, and IrtiuiLir* are fiomewhat ]f->- ■li^re^iiihle. 

Lemons^ limes, and shaddocks, i>u*^sessiDg ^milar 
pn»;KTti<*n, an\ for descriptive purpo*<«. cla?^ together. 
Thty art- \-Kliuiblt? aiiii??curiniurs, and liavc aii acid, imiigent 
Hnvr>r tluit tnay U' iaipartt^l to i>tl>erwi?*e ta^ule^- food^ A 
<^>oling mid rofn-^htu^ driiiL may W iitade from letuon-jiiioe 
dilmni wiih W7ii(rr ami f<^t'pet(-riei^ nith a ^mnll (^tmntity of Mi^^ar- 

Orfln£^9 nn< umhI in invalid dietaries, tlieir jtdoe allaying 
thirst vcr>- i^flKiirelv ; it can l>e ln>me often by e^'cn tlie iiioiil 
irritable i^loiiiack, 

' RutrliMm. JMrfMft. p. 109l 

* Vat ft complete diMiMuoit of v^tmmnima the retder b rt^tnd i» F. 



FMUSTS ASD KUTH 



97 



Apples lire wUnlwrimi\ digt'slibli', am! iJJgUllv Irixtitivr. 
Fix^U ji|>plo cYiutuin »pjin>xim!iu4y S jut i'i»ut, (kf Migiir iiml 
d5 per ctmi, vf water, hut in drying twiKliirii>4 of tlii> Mauler i« 
Wt (iml tlic Mi^r ir* iiirroft^<^Kl tn almut J-^ jkt *\'ut. 

Pears aiv. il-^ » mU', mi»rt* (^-<ily di^stiMi- tliati u[>{4<«Lp 
iMvin^ t'< i}ir' tiu't tlihl iht'ir tlt^l] i» Mkl> ami ilK'ir !-kiii not »k (ongli. 

Peaches im- wlu»k\Mnucaii<l digvr<tiblu. Thiy i^-aumiii Uvw 
»iignr Llijui millet fVuiiA. 

Bananas im^ llir luu^l imtriUdun uf Uit* mw fruiu. Tliv 
routiy viirioiicj* (ilffrr 111 iiig»:'?ilibHity itnil in Uavor, The c»nli- 
nrirv tninnna, ii« obtiiiiiMj in the (.Jniti*d Stuliv, tx <Hini«i(lenHl 
imligf'Kiililf^. Thf' fl<iiir wliirli ih |)roi)ai<4>(] troin i1rii*<l ImniivuLft 
U viTV «i*ily <lig«^til>le. 

Grapes (-oiiuiiti a lurjjc niTionnl uf Vp"iiI<t hihI 4'*nL'<i(li.'nil>K» 
0Ugar, Ik-^k1c« Miltn ikf Mxlitinii |>f>UL-v>iiiiii] iiuigiK'--<iiim, I'iLlritini, 
ftDd injii, WImi lh"ii*ii^hly ri|n' tbov nrc vorv ili^?4ti]»kv :iiid 
fonn a iiiH-ful iiililJIiim to tlir iiivulid dk'L Th<- liai>lt of ^mv^I- 
IcM'iiig ibe iiklun :inO soi'^k of i?rii|K^-4 U mi»?^ ]ienkTcious a» 
iutcntiiul irriuitMiti 1^ <tlVu hrtmghl nlioiil in tItU ^«ny. 

Raisins nrv prrium'il hy ilryliig grnp*^, thr* wiiitv onc^ 
Wn|r tlioM* luo^t umkI. Th(>y an> ifuli^cvtiblif iinltw wnll 

Plums :iN<L green gaires :krcMLmk-i]ii:L->lil>lc when fully 
riiM'. 1*hi-y wwa uvtTri|wn, howevL-r* and then jire a> Imrmfnl 

Prunes nrx* dried phini^. Thcv oiibiin much imgnr and 
ar- iimrkiilly bijilivc* in thi'ir <'fit*ct. 

Olives liaVf'u hiitiTiii^U', ami iLivcuUMichicAvfi!!^!! roli^ch with 
^iil^kil-t. Tlii-ir j]UlritL%'i! vahir i^ iltiv (» tlic oil ilirv <v>nniiii. 

Strawberries nn very ivti<di.-Ai>mc iiidcs4 lahnt ui rxccea. 
Tlioy Art- fjtiiu- Htrh in nulu of HKliiim, ]>olHwtum, «nd (raldnm, 
sine] Uiiw iiiii<l iliiin'fir niid lri\riT(V<" pr<»jn r(i-'s, 

CurrantSt eooseberries* raspberries, huckleber* 
ries, mulberries. «nd u fi'W ottn-r iK-rrk'* M>uinin cv>iu;i<lirra- 
hlr miKuinU i>f fnv iic'id>, Thry hnw ?^ligbtly laxniivc ]nx>)>- 
erlH% 

Melons f^iintaiTi i>vrr ''-"i [M.-r fvnt. of wahT »nif iilxxtt -^ per 
(ml. "t'ofhrr i"^ni?*titin"nti* ; thry iin' ('•■rif'Sdi-n'*] imltgr^lihlr. 

Pi^ luA dates contain large (jiijiiittttn* iff .-tiignr. In tlic 
etutrm porl of the I'nit<Hl riUit^^ ih^^y rtn- ^h-fi only in iho drioi 
fbrni, altbnngb In t'lilifomia, whrn* ihoy an' mtwi'*!. th«^' may 
W nhtBiiiotI fn-?«h. Tlw vnluc of thr diU? a> a TumI ti» tlie 
Anih it vFi'll knvwiip 
7 



* 



98 



a^SSES OP FOOMi. 



T\w r<4l>vring tsihh, taki^n from HiitchieoD (p. 24-l)> giv» 
the c'(>m[><:»^itit»n i*f tbt varioiij' Truiti": 



3 



/Af^Uif dned 
'Ti'*™ . . . 
'Apj-ioriu , , 

VUmn ^ . . 
Noctnrlnu ^ 

Curmnli* , > 

Miilb«rrie« . 
,(3n|H.-* - . . 

M«loTi« , . - 

^Banunaii . , 

TA'Diim-jiiiM 
/^Ihilc^ flrlnl . 

C'TirrantK '\ry 



$4.00 

saoo 

70.30 

8S.tfO 
K4,40 

S4.70 
Tfl-OO 

T-LOO 
3.44 

K4a 



a* I 

1,40 
QAO 
1,10 
0.50 
0,-iO 
1.00 
MO 
0.80 

0.40 
CM 
1.00 

a70 

1.O0 

O.50 
O.30 
1.00 

0.70 
0.»Q 

tm 

l.flO 
1.00 

ao4 

1.50 
2.40 
OJ40 

1.20 
2.50 



0.5 
3,0 
art 
o.fi 
0.2 

o;2 

0.K 
iiA 
08 
O-S 
3,0 

ii 
3.1 
0.7 

0.7 
LO 
0.3 
0.1 

0.7 
0,fi 
0.9 

03 
2.1 
a.» 
0.» 

0.S 
0,A 
3.0 
4.7 



ArfT. , 
12Ji 
4»1 

]]..? 

1114 

ia.4 

14,?t 

lao 

7-V 
t3 

ao 

llA 

r.d 

6,5 

ja 

ao 
0-7 

04.2 

G40 

74T 





^i 


J 


, 


n i 


o 


X 






4 


i- 


^ 


JV«. 


Ar«& 


Air*. 


A.4 


2.7 


1.0 


1^ 


4.0 


3.6 


0.4 


X.1 


0.1 


ii.:i 


11 


1.0 


{1.0 


».4 


0.7 


CI 


4.1 


1,0 


(],A 


4.3 


1.0 


a6 


4.3 


T.0 


do 


is 


¥0 


<i..S 


2.7 


l^h 


0,5 


4.6 


1.4 


a: 


■t 4 


I.O 


0.4 


1^2 


1.6 


0.6 


h.^ 


1.^ 


0.6 


7.4 


1.4 


0.2 


6.2 


2,2 


ae 


0.9 


1.9 


0.6 


2.^ 


o.r» 


aft 


1,0 


M 


a2 


1.0 


0.& 


0.& 


02 


05 


M 


1.6 


1.9 


u 


L5 


1.6 


0.4 


IJi 


7.0 


03 


1.5 


7.0 


L5 


5.6 


7.0 


!UI 


7.3 


1.2 


fl.6 


7-3 


h2 


].fl 


7.3 


2.7 


OS 


T-3 


2.7 


2.5 


1,7 


2.7 


4.1 


1.7 


2.7 



NUTS. 

N"ule (<4>ittnin n l«rgp *nutMtity <jf fnt nml u tionu'wliftt lurgt-r 

imigwirtion i»f pmh-in, Tln-v linvc but little f(KKl-vjilin% liinl nrf 

mt(*n miniilyiw a dcwort, TIk* *ivvni)ir<* ooiii|x>Mtii«n of ihe 

uui^ i^ : 

Water 1-4 p*-f C<nL 

Prtudp 6-lft " 

UtriM>hv>li:trw '»-J0 •' 

Owiiii; I<i the luriTt' ftTiiount of eollulti!«e, aft wA\ an ihe Inr^ 
])r<>|Kirtii>ii ">f fat tlit-y O'lnlnin, miU are iwit easily <!i^ofj|iHL 
Till* iiruM' (vlkilot^c framework wbicli mukt-ii nuts so iiKiigit-ili- 



FRVtm A^V yUTS. 



99 



bio «in Ho destroyed by pT"i*l'"Pj and thus tho nut maJo more 
«nr^il;'<)i^eiiJtiMo^ Mich [>ivp«ntli(>n'?a§Nuiro6e^Bromo^f find Nut- 
meal, of the SanitoH Niit Food Coiuptiiiy^ am [iretwrvd iu tbm way. 

Almonds t^mt^iiD much flit, but no tiarob and very liitio ^ujenr, 
and \hey iiro. lhor<loi\-. <.»ftoii iitilixol u^ a bronci for diiibrtics. 

Chestnuts <^^»iiiain » ymall anKiunt of oil and a lar^ 
utiiount ol' i.^rbi'hydRitc!. Tlicy utx' gl^n ealeu mw^ and :irc 
quite itidtgo^tiblo. 

Walnuts rikiiiiiTii » lur^* prrifM.irttfjn nf |in>toiti nnd fiil, Xtxti 
aK' 'jijiti' iiiOip.->Itbl<- ; in ^laiic Individuals iUvy pi'iKbK'c a 
markodly laxutivr cflTtvl. 

The cocofi-tiut oihiiirtitw ii Inrgo ninonnl of fat ami oarbo- 
bydralo^ but h exroecliD^ly iDdige^tible, 

The following table, taken fn>m Bulletin Xii» 122, Knited 
Staii?4 Department f»f A^rri^'iibi^r^'T give* the conipof^ition '>f 
nuts afl ctmipared with that uf otbor food-f^ubetiuices : 



Alsiunik '-.,..... 

Bmiil nou 

FXIbenn 

nirlutfj Mili 

Pteam . . ■ 

Ef^liUtnlvut* 

CVsCXiaH. rMi 

Oi(MiiW«, rlrivd . . . - 

Arwn« ^ 

BMK'knoti 

Bvuemiiu 

Wabiilt- , . , 

<!bc«D»iil 

Pi^nrlii" W«-nkvl» . .' , , 

f>BllUt^ niir 

FcAn*!^ n4U|#il 

Uu-lii Eiiitn 

BfCfiiMk 

Potolfl-* 







<-.r. 


L- 'If, 


'1 Bifil lUFlirklqo nf Uv 









cUible imrtloii. 




1 


1 


i 

3 


.4 


1 

AvM 

2J) 


4 

i 






4> 


2k0 M.W^ 17^ 




4a.fi 


.w,» 


&J1 


iT.o 66.8(1 :.o 


ay 


3329 


KLI 


■iT.tW) 


3.: 


lf.*i e*-!ki 13.« 


£.4 


Mm 


ftl£ 


fl7,8rj 


a-: 


1^4 C7.4U 11.4 


2.1 


M9^ 


fUlS 


4aa> 


3.0 


11.0 71,20,14,3 


iJi 


a43:t 


W.0 


4-£.0i> 


SL*1 


)fL7 fti,40 1LM 


IJI 


:i3ovi 


IM 


UM 


^A.^l 


a2 .V40 «2.l 


1J4 


113^' 


^,0 


:ii,(i> 


AJi 


ia7 ! T.ttI 74.2 


2.2 


i«7i» 


avfi 


(Hj'> 


i.t 


Kt f7.40 1^,0 


2-4 


'2711* 


40 » 


:ii>,&) 


4.0 


^1,V &7J0 18,2 


:i5 


:!;»» 


M#j.4 


IM^fitl 


4..^ 


-7,V <^1.'J0 44 


3J> 


»37l 


T-tJ 


:!\90 


iLr> 


:>7.(j Mi.rHi 11.7 


iJ> 


:no^> 


■*«.* 


5l.Si> 


14.1 


fw i(»,lK« 27.i* 


1 " 


;ffi>« 


ins 


K'lXW 


:iA 


fOi A7,S0 31. U 


IJ1 


aiss* 


4».* 


loaoft 


4,2 


-».rt U-JV) 1.'i,ll 


SLl 


aoio* 


m6 


5.M 


3.4 


Urt CIO 17,H 


ift 


3MH 


Z%A 


7^> 


y,s 


S,V5 1MK> :il,4 


£D 


2V»' 


^^ 


e7.-|rt 


1*; 


:Ui:, 4V-'J'i ir.,2 


±A 


ai77 


I1.A 


&a4f> 


17.^ 


ii* (L^,' 77,.'> 


lA 


l-M 


I^A 


fl7.31 


(1.9 


tKV l?t.X» 77.^ 


IJ> 


1130' 


1?» 


ioa(i> 


l!tH 


Iti8 LtO, 74-K 


OA 


I640< 


:fj).o 


Hauo 


:&3 


^ aiOjiM 


tJ> 


«' 



< T1iv«T tulim xrnsGAkobkil; onion abontW Indhaml ih* Ai«4-rftlDc« 



IDO 



CLASSES OF POODS. 



FUNGL ALGAE, AND UCHEPre. 

Fungi. — Tilt ihixf vurit-liw c>r' niii^ Usually calen ure ibe 
mu^ljmoTiif injt1l(\ and tiK^n.*!. 

Mushrooms nrc |»TiM:<l cliit-fly for tWir o^m:«b]i? UMtm 
Tlii^v fx.«ei*'.^A" *.<imo nntririvp valtw', t»eing ricl» in ititrvgonoiiJt 
imilt^r, l}iH iLi:(t^riu1, l^wvrr, iKftirriii^ in mk-Ii fWrni llmt it ir^ 
hill nlif^htly iiI)H->rlit'<l. Tlioy ar*.- \\\%X to |iixhIikv giu*tiv-iiik^tiiuil 
irritjition, ami di^^nit' with iiijiiiy jkhm'!))^. 

The truffle j^niM-fi uticIcrtfTruinr], uml i:* it!K|KHiiilly M>ui:hl W'V 
on account of it^ delicate flavor ; tlio blutik viirii*iy \» «i>a<itlered 
Uje fiiwrtt 

The morel is ii!(iiu!1y obtnin^Hl fnmi Fnimv. Ii \> xAA in 
the dried sialc, ;iiid it* uli1i2J.H) diielly lor wTir-miti]^ purjuis*!-?*. 
The foUowinp inble, by Ki^ni^, B'^^ *^* c"ri>pwilit>u ol' iht 
mushroom^ trufB(>, uitd ni'>rel : 

Wil« 91.11 75.80 90.00 

NilmfE«^ffliii iiiA||«f S-S7 »M X\^ 

Vnl. . ^ ......... 0.1-1 aet! 0.24 

rrnip«-4j|£HrAnd iiiannite .,.,.. l.ii») . . , 0.7! 

CHIior ii<>(i-]klirii|ti?n(Jiijt tiibaUnivM . , . .X7I 7.54 3,9Ji 

\V<"«l7 IlJwr 0,«T 7.1>S O.ftT 

A»l) 0.7tt i'il *>.0* 

Munv luiigi ar« |K>ii40t]oiuif and lha*o uvc usuiilly ^liMinfriii-'het) 
l>y n di-*-igr(H'nhle odor and t^ate, nnd otbiT p'onlirtritini in 
slnictiirc, cli\ (For an oxcelh^nt (k-j^criptiiin i»f the varions 
fiiii£Fithi' ntuhr i^ rofiTHHl lo FaniK-n*' BnilHiri No. 1**), United 
Sfati'^ Ilr[Nirtnu'ni oj" A^'ni-uhnn-.i 

Algs. — T\\v iiiily mif^ o\' tlii.'* ^n>ii]> that ia iitilir^ ai* food 
is IHsh moss. It^ most iiii]MirTrmt ("•mxtilijeitl is licheiim, a 
miii'il;ijr(. It inmndi^intoa^Xithin^driiik fur [Hitieiitit Mifferiiig 
fniiiB llitxHit irrit£ilii>n. 

I^ichetiS. — Tin* oidy uij]w)rlJint lichen unrl ^i*- t\ fiMxl Is 
Iceland moss. It onDUiitir^ two ofirlxihyilrutc^ : (I) licrht^nin, 
a p'kliiirttii> Kiib^rniic<«' ; (3) iMilirhpnhi, wlnr-h ivsemhh'.* stluri'li, 
Joolaud moKTi f* iitib^H na a finul in tht Arctic R'jtion*, II ha.* 
lu'tij TniiJf iiitu 11 \jTi.nit\ lluit ba>i bt^ii n^cimitQcndcd by Senator 
for diulK'tiof^ 

SUGARS. 

Supir^i ai*o nirbohydratcs tijat contain hy^iro^-cii and nxy^'U 
iu a pmporlion tn fnrm water, Stiffar is one of ihc mo^^ vaUi- 
able and jiopiilnr formi- of fowl. Thin poimlarity fs t\iK- mit 
only to it« nuiritlve value, but aW to Us pleaMint tu^lu Ae- 



€UOAJt& 101 

ootding to Ahol,^ 86 ]>otinrts of sitp^ar pvr <^|>ilA n^re consumed 
in Enfcland in I^!fo and r)4 iHtiinrlA in iho I'nit^l Stales in tlio 
aami- yeir. Fn»«i 7,iK)iMHH) tfl 8,O()n,H00 toiu* are consmmKi 
onmially in the differedt countries nfibe Mx>rlcl. The prim-ipal 
vftrie^ of [rugar in us© U aint'-Mij.'jir ; Ixwida- this, gnii>c-fiugar, 
fntit-AU^r, Hrid mtlk'^i^r alK> inter into tho conijwifriEmD af 
tMir foodie ^^ugll^ k obuUiixl id u fluid etne^Ufi iu lioue}'| aa 
well as in cfy«tulUii9 ibmu 

Sii^r 16 very faiioiiing And nt tlw tam^ ttmv i« also a l^ft 
ftonrc«? nt nii]§cuhr rncr^fv, Tho fiegivo8 working iu Hm RDgBf 
plantfltioiiH in t\w Went Iiuliee show the eflVot of eating flu;n»r 
during the biin'ohl sexson ; ihey chew the f^ii^r-eaiie ooii* 
stantly, in wmseriuence of y^hwh clieir weight and muscular 
develofnnent lEicreQtie nuwt remftrkal)ly, 8u^i> aud starcli are 
said to Im' identical in nnlritive v:ihie^ owing to the fact that 
bo4|i must be L^uiiVfTled into dextniM.' hcfore tbey can l>e uh- 
wrbed. Mof^t of t\K ill effects miribiitcd to the use of sanar 
un- due to the tuct iluii mi>re tlian one-Hjiuini'r of a |>ouiid is 
o>ii»iunod duily (iliitchi^in) ; tljifi ainoiinC tii;iv hi- taken vrilh 
]in|iuiiity by iht* h<^lthy adult, hut if m**t\r W iuk*'n, it will tjc 
excrc>t4H:l m]>M!ly by llio kidnL<yv, giving riMt to n ooadJtii»Q 
knnvrn lift t^miMimn' or iitiuu-rtAry ^1yi<rMnm. Hnlf^hitton (p, 
270) jri^v>L the fijIliiHiiig Itpin-s ji« thr iimxinmni » mounts of 
the variitu^ Mtj^rs aeceMar^' to imHlucv uliiia-iitar}' ^lyooauriu : 

For Uil'i^ ...........,,,, i . , V^'i KKi. 

" cunr^riKiir - . . IfiCl-^ftO " 

■" IVTIlViV .., .., ^ m 200 " 

" rfrtih-w - aw-iw " 

RnfEHF «in W jtb^irhrt! only at^ dpxtr™*e and as levnlone, all 
xikrictiiM of Mipnr Iwinu couviTteil juto tlicm* (*tTms before they 
are iibfK>rl>cd. In Mn>nf> solulion mj^ir irritates the mucous 
mnohninc "f tht -<iom:irli, iml \f ni)t io iindergc» fermentation 
and ihiif pnHltii-c pisfn>-int4'*tinal uistrpw^. Kobt*rt«»n' giv*H 
thr tiillotvin^ tahU'. iirranpil ncx<'>niing to the rupklity with 
whkb :<n^t[> niv riju t^i ftuniMit : 

L«riilwp Inii^ U-'T- lA^rtiU:^ imcplfcT- Maltnv imttit Ter- 

Ri«0|>bl«). nivnuHv)* mtnbitili*}. 

l^Xtr^HT. DrxlTni* Cmipviiiouv 

Iiivcrt^ijjtnr. Inrvrt-^Licar, Tiiritrw^. 

MaUcw. LacMMi IaH^iv. 

* Pannn*' DiilMEfi N<x 03, rtiiinl Slnir* DniirliiHTitt uf Apicbllitrr, latKL 



102 CLASSES OF FOODS. 

Cflnc-Stlf ar i^ ihe mcMt common niid mo^t pxleit^ively uwd 
fonri of Mi;rjr. It U matlo t'hii'Hv fmm hiijpir-aine aiKl fn>m 
the? Hijfar-lM^t- When |Hin'T it couniflte of ii masA of white 
crystili^ li i* soluble in oiie-hali" its weight of culd water and 
in even lew of hot water, Iti order to obiaiu the t^i^far fpora 
the caoi' the cADefr aR* criishi.'d ant] tlie fluid oljiauiLi] f]vci1f<d 
with f*n)|>hiiri>ii[' acid^ »oulmti/eJ ivith liiiit, and lii<iliil ; it m 
tlieit fihvr«<l and eva|.tomlLd, wlii-u iho ^ngtir or_rstuUixi.-» out. 
Th'^ ^riffar i>^ snll further retin^ hy reniiOtLng ami Ulleriug 
tliroutfh charcoal. 

Caramel is made hy heaiiu;; r«>ti»ef] eane-nii^ar 1l> 400*^ F^ 
w\ivi] it L' melted ixxA hrowjuKl. Tlje n'Hnltii>g Itrovn sub- 
stnnci' if* call«I earamel It ha* a biuer la?^ie, and i,s often 
umlhI s\s u t1u\'<>rin|; agi'iitf e^peciaflv for invalid ti:>odK 

Candy eontainr^ a lai^ amount oV r^u^r, besides liuiier and 
otlK-r fui*, *mn4i, mil"-^ fluvurin^ cxtmi'ts, i^l*:- Tht' chit'f 
VftHctW'* of candy ai* nuulr up larjji-lv t»f ^■liici>^ luid ^larcJif 
colotvil wi(h floilin dyot*, Tfjomp-^ir wivk : *' children a»iini)1ate 
rundy helt<T thnn adidti^ lu'cause they are \vha linhle to ilys- 
pcpsia, and l)eoaa^e of their relati\"ely active niuscdar eneiiry 
and rcWively larp" UmIv snrfacefnr losing hejii, in |ir(i|HM'tion 
to their fciJEe. They do not, oir a nile, care for fat numt, and 
iWffiT sweet* tt* a nntuml Mihstitute/' Ci)ntniry to |io]H]lar 
nelicf, tlicrt' \^ no cvi<leni?c to thow that t^andy produecs any 
injun<HiFiL elfwt on the Icrth. 

Molasses, Treacle, and Synipp — MolavK-^ nnd treacle 
iin* by-prodiici:» fonncil in the manufoclarc of mnc-Hij^aiv 
Moluib«K formA n hi^hlv niitritimim food. On ncoouni of th^ 
impurities it iN^nniiiiM molasses luu a more pnuiointrrd aperient 
ctTtvt llun) ntinid ^yrup, Be«ide» c^ine-f^ugar and certain acids, 
ctc>, niohi«<\« omtaini about 30 per cent, of invcrt-?*npir and 
the ruime aaumni of MAtcr. 

Hiile[u:<on (|>. 26-1) givi'^ the following tahle ^lovriii^ tlic 
coDi^HM^iiiim of ntolas^cAp trfttcle^ and Hyrup: 

C^ne-xiflnr . 47.0 ^tA SM 

Ftaii-MitfDr 3a4 37^ S&O 

ExtracUrvKA) MlnriIl|^^nITer - . . £7 Xfi 18 

r^tb » M U 

Winpr 47J fflL4 S2.T 

GlnCOW, or grape-Sngar, i< chidly mtuit frrim Fitnrch hy 
invei>iion i>r hydi-oly^is, li ia m>l nonriy «> swwi a* canr^ 
filler, and cmtalllicv with diffictilty. It l^ pret^it in a^cuall 



SPICES Ayi> coyDmESTS, 



103 



qoutities. in combiruilinn witli uXher vATiHio^ of Mipir, in 
mofft fniitj^. Wh>Mi t^ikcn iu i-xcvs^ yliaiif^r uppt^ar^ in the 
uritic undiaiip'il- 

Lactose^ <>r sugar of milk^ \a the natural rarholminite 
for tlio V4iiii|;, }fnnvia^ infant. Il k^ }&^ abnnilanl in cnwtf' 
milk iliiin in liiimmi milk, mn\ for itiio rea^n it r^lu^uM be 

U{)c|<%l li» tlir milk uf lhrlt|t--fiHJ inf^Liit^ 

Honey i« tm^ir iu u concvmr^lt'd F^oiutiiiLi. Il is made by 
lje<M ftt>m tb4^ »ec-tur gatbotwl from varir>iL- tlowi?Ts. It conlnin^ 
a en tallis^ilili' v^iii^ir, rt^.4Cfiibliiig ^1ucas«» ami a non<cn\'itHt- 
lizable form. H'Hu-y wa.* forni*Tly iiseti as a ^weettiiiiiLr a^nt, 
but c^nio»iLf:;u\ on luvnnnt <if its oh^npnesa and abiuulana-, Uvua 
biv^ly )fu|K'n«(H]i-it it. Iii*;ildeit ^ngtir, honey e<:*nlAin& vpax, gtim, 
and coWiii^; «ib,'*tam*i»H. ^ 

Saccharin is u^ii ki^^y a^ a f^ubHlitiile for su^r in «i»ed 
nf rbcuniati^m .-md itblftt-r', AtVr limg-^-untiuut'd u^ uf lai^ 

3uaDtilK-?< <«f ;yif*'kiriii digu!r*tivr diBturbup<%i u,rc apt to be j>ix>- 
iicfd. 
levnlOK, or fralt-sngar, i.^ aUti utilucod aa a form of 
sugar in oerlain ckm-jii »f dl]il>ct4.t^. 



SPICES AND CONDIMENTS. 

Spices and cjndiiTiriiU {day an importiiiit nAv in iiicr^af-ing 
tlic apptrlito iki)d iiitlltii^ the di^i-^tlvn lutiff ion.-* : ihcv have- |>tiK>* 
ticttlly 11" ntJtritivr valtn'. By ibr action uf Ok-m: .^uWuiiicc-a* 
on the cr^n of tu:«tv bl* well a.t <>ii the mu<»U!« mcnibmno of 
the i^tomncU the Appc4iti- in iictniulatod awi iht? MTCtctitin of 
gastric jiiW int*n*a^*d. In cv^rtain ^^tn<* di>inirb!iti(?p<^, a^ v*A\ 
m in disRKf^ of the l(iibi<-yif^ tljt^y at^^t a^ irritants and t-bonli] 
be BVoidiv], 

TIk' peppere an* acnon^r ibc favorite apicM ; there are two 
varit'tif^, the wUiXi* and liua hhvk, 

MtlStard. — >[a-*!ahi i» iiM.-d HiicHy in Niladi* fir nttli ntdt^ 
f<HKL^ .md lun* a nmrfctni ti.Mjdiriloy to iucntim: tbo appetite. 
TliL*n- an- ivru fc^niis uf niuslani : tliAt whi(*li i^ ubtain«l from 
the bWk mtutar^t plant ami that dcrivc<i from the wliiic 
lUin-tnM plnnt. In lapp€ <^imntitic''i and dilntM M-ilh Moter 
latMtanl aHa ajt an trritjint to the Htomaob, pntdncinj^ nniiftea 
and vtjniitins:. 

Vinegar i^? produ^vd from various alooholic drinks and fn>ni 
fruii«. It contains 5 jxr wnt, of acetic acid. By it** action 
on the cellulo^ of \ t^giiablevi viuvgar eotlenp? thv til>er, so tliat 



104 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



it not only acts n« u ctrntttniciitr but sJ^o afiHJstA in the <ligi?Atio<i 
of th<' LX'llMkio^e ; for titijc |mrpaep ft U atkki] to »iich vegftaUU» 

Horseradish \i^ a vuntlimait tbat i^ mtich Uf-e*l vriib various 
fmtd^ ; it Jiiinmlntcj* tlur fl(>H' of mIi%^ m well a» of ibe ^uAlm 

SAUCes, ftirh :u lomntn, cat#ii|\ Woive^tershiro, uikI the 
lik*;, ini.T^.^st- th<? n|k|>olitc iiml give a rcli^^h tu <*ertain fr*i»(if< 

Spices art tii^rcly by adding a flavor to foojs, in tbi.s KB,y 
'm*'Tviw'mg ihc nj>iH.'titt* ior fowi tli«t wonld otWrwifie be insipid, 
Tli^jM- mi^t ill iiM! niv ginger, ciuimmuti, iiutiu^ and cloves. 



FATS AND 0115. 
ft 

Om?-fiAh of the body-weigbt i^oii^iAta of fiit. This In ub- 
taltiod in pnrt fntnn fatty fixxl and in fan IVfjii^ tbc- uirbo* 
hydrat4'ti and tbi- pri'ti-irit^. Mo^t nf the bf.-at oik^tija- fiiriu«b<-<l 
die Ixxly U Nnpplkf] by fat : ic oxiijii-c^ very m|iiJlv% nud in 
tbi> wiiy ^pjin*^ ibe protein elements* that wouH oihrrwise Iw 
reijitin^l to fiirnip-h ent'rjjy* Fatu are digested in tlit- inti-^tinv, 
u'JK'rt' tbrv ixYi' i-miilHiiiixl previoiiti to btiiig; HbwiHx-*!, Tbt' 
nur^i iiM'fiil fiirms of tat are cream and butter ; <ither fono^ are 
Ihh^hi niul (tfHl-liver oil. H'hcn enleii too liberally, fats ure n[)t 
to aiiic^c iii<lig«wiEi)ji, ami wbt-ii ibift exiutri, they sImhiUI bt? luki ci 
oiilv in vrrv ix\ilricl*Hl i|uaniitiv9, 

KiMwl? fripit ill lilt are iodi;>e^til)le, and hot fntw iiiv more 
in<lip<stiMp thjin ix>l<l. Fatn. and "iIk have a teinK-ut-y t** rrliov'o 
tsoDAtipflticiii, Init nn- rnnmerinilirated in diarrhen. 

Tbe most im|H«rtnnl animal tiil^are butter, en^m. lard, «uet. 
oleomar^ritij eot('ib-ne, hiitterine, wxi-liver oil, and bn[ir-niar- 
pow. Of the ve^t'tablc fiit-s those most e^iamionly eninloyeil 
are olive oil, colt^iii-setil "ii, liiisee<l oil, cacao-butter, ami tln' 
oile obtaiiici:i from atit*, sucli as ooooaaut oil, peanut oil, am! 
almond "11. 

Indications for the Use of Fatty Foods. — Fjitty 
fixiiltt ai*<" indicated especially in ^Tu-titig dl^wnh-rM umi lu c<jn- 
x^leeoence fmni pertain acnte dia4«K^, Tbi^- are nci^lod jmr- 
ticiibirly in hibercnWipi, raebiiis, cbr*ii»io KninoUiliK^ and thnuiiri 
diseases accomjumieil by ibe formation ef nbr^ceiwi^. 

There are many p*ro|m<.'tary tatty lt>ods »n the market, ^nme 
of which arc worthy *if meation. In rauf^t of tbe^* tbe l:ili% 
nsually aiiUliver oil, have 4>een emulpsificd ; thii* ernuIsihaiiioD 
iifn« to make the 6il k^ ubjectmable Co the tai^tc and al^o to 



FAJ^ AXD OILS. 



10^ 




reaJ«r il more m^ily dtgi-^iiUK*, Tlu* phipri<»f(in' fiilty f^vvh 
mo^l in iiflf* Are : [^i|mtiiii ; Jlnrrlmol ; iinj>nu'i»<i E^ilWn Cocl- 
liver OU(Parke, DavL^ ACo.); V^ KjnnlM.m CVxI-liverOil 
(Piirk<*. Davw ^ ('*>.); Wino of (.'(^d-liviT Oil with Malt, 
WiW Cherry and Hy|iophog|)hiteii (SliarjK- A' Dttlimel ; Wara- 
pole'tf l'erl«i4Nj unH Taeteles.-* EVe|»ariiti<»[i of iIk- Kxtmct of 
CV»<l-Iivcr Oil; ??teme's Wine of LVid'Uvtr Oil; :tiid i|ji^;oe'B 
CcnI-Ijvct Oil. 

The Vac of OHtc Oil in the Treatment of Certain 

DifieaaeS.^ — The external jiihl --uljcmiumm^ ii.-^' i>r i.Ii\>.- mi] 
will lie tlii^iip:?^! furlhf>i on tp, tiT-j). CbfluiTonl niul I>«ipre 
.were ihe tirnt lo odvrMaite the iiw of ftliw oil in liie rr«4itnieDt 

cholMhhMts, They re«>iiiiin<-ntUil tliiit two do«es of 400 
ktWDH <*:kclj l>c jfiveii At lmlf-lti>ur inirr\'iiU, the patient beintr 
Qtrecled to lie for tbree hnurs on liis rij^lii •i*It\ Tlic ii*k- of 
i)Uvt* oil in the tmiiuient i*f tbU comliiii^n Ua^ Milip^t^iK^iitlv' 
boen fldvcicaK-fi by Walker, VHt-^f^iutr, uiid *nlirm 

R<«4*iil)iHm Uns advinetl the ii_-*t' of uMw oil hi the imitnw^iit 
of «tn4-turr of iht f^fj/fta</uff lUit' in e^trx-m^mii. Ai\i-t nllnwin^ 
n ^mM qujiotiFy of i«l Ut rti»w Inti* tJir ct«<ipbngOT«, ]viti<'iiCj« vh^ 
vfiiT^ rinubU to wvniUow Ift-forc have frci|tn.-ntly b(<<ui rnahled to 

R«H*nlly 0"hnlioin> ' ha.t ndvoci^wnl th<» itM of Inr^* quunti- 
ti<^ of olive oil in tin* tniiitront fif crriiiiii form* t>f r/a/tric 
tttfnnler. In i.':ikt< of gnstrir ilihitntii^ii hr nr>ti:illv adminUlcra 
ihe oil once daily, in the Ri^irnin^ Ikefore bniikfii^'l, in <imc^ of 
from UH) to I^Oc.o.; in ibu-^ in^lanw^ in ^^hieli Iiiviip.- i§ 
pmritftH] ihr oil l> givt-n linaifdiuii'ly uAcr ihi?' gmMHikirT, 
Afit^ tiikinf: thr oil llir |Kiik-iit m rvt^uircd tu li<' uti lifc* n^lit 
eJ'Ie for fpr»m fiftocti l« twcnty-fivv minutoM, und ii* not pcr- 
mict^ ta ptrtak^ of nny food for art botir. Tito oil t>^ admin- 
ii^prei) u-nmi, nt nl>otU the lHHty-ti-nip<<nUi^n-. If, notwilb- 
standin)- this pnxit'birc, (he |J!iti<-m ^lill cmiunw* to ftiflW 
imin, 50 0.C- »ro ;tuain ^Wi'n At night, iH-forr mirinfr, I^lor 
(ohnbeim orders tkit a winpglfiw^ftd be taken om* hour before 
bfvsikfji^i and tivo d4i^^rt.-<|HH>nftiU fiom orM^ to two hoiir>» 
Ix-ioTt" clintx'r nml Ufort* f*up|»t'r. In Mmpte forms* of nWr 
lio ivoommini<l> tbiil tit*' olivr oil 1h' ti!4c<d ouly in the niorniiiff, 
antl the cflnul.iktn of «wcct almonds (kn* btb>w) at noon and 
id^ht ; romt fwticnU do not objt^ to ibr Iji:*!^ of tho citU 
Acv^inUhK I'* dthnlu'tm, in lh<M> iii«lAnr<'« in whioU tbf* l9itt«> 
of the 4mI i« ol>jn-te<l U\ M* may be <treTroi»c by taking a 
) Z<^tMhf,l UU, Mrti^ r<A. liL I-1L 1 jijhJ * p, tlO. 





106 



CLASSES OF FOODS. 



]imcli i>f ^t, d siwallovr iif branJy, or liT Bllf>wnng a i>oi)i>cr- 
iriint ili'iJii to dU-«>Ivc in iiic nii»utli. TLt' (kil lix^utiiK-iit cMiiKt 
l>eo*nitinut'cl over a )>eriiKl of we(^ki4 or monthTi. C<>liuiuiii^.i 
ooiicliLKioiid Are s.'k lollfiw>4 : 

** L Ca^ii of tlilatuilim of the stomach du« tn sjiafim cuiiskI 
Ijv an ul<.t*r or ftv^iiix' ui ibejivKn-UM art o.iircMl ur ai K«^i irmrk- 
edlv ii:rli(?ved l>v lUv iiae of \av^ i|ua]itit!<;a of oiJ (UK) t^j IW 
gmroa). 

" 2. Cases of jstiTjosi^ of liie |jyloru* diw- lo orfraDie diMx4>« 
with #«<>omlrLry dilitatlou nre aUi> usiinlCy tx*lutivi*1v c^iinMl )>y 
tho <]!<e of Uli^l' i|i]jintili<5?4 of oil ; ihiit t-s liu'>c juiticnt^ ure 
freeil fixfiii lli^tl]^lm1K'ls wliik< leiulinj^ jin tib^U'niiiHiic life. In 
thft*eca*t'-s lilt* oil iii*t^ inwhanioJilly Uy tvlieviiig frieiiinu 

'* ^. C\i^>.^ of ivbtiv<- HtaHHH Lit' the pylonu^ iitirl iLiUKlmuni 
vrhit'h are cliiiimlly murked liy n conirmons hyiH^i-sei^roiioii 
ami pyliM'o."»|«jfiiii wevtml lumrs ]it\»"r tlir pnucipiil iii(iiK-<, aro 
mm'h imj>rov^l or oiitv^i liy tht; oil (n^atmt-nt. 

"4. The pylom.<prL^iii fmind in ciiee^ of dircinomn of the 
pylnniM Is mwcU ciimini^licH] m" n-ImviMi hv llji» oil tivsitmont, 

" '). Crti^'w of iilcr^r (if the pylonis !ifi«(>c'ijit(Hl with (»r without 
hyiRnhlorhviiriii \ut^ ipiiokly otirwi by iitt*iin» of the oil treait- 
lueiit or liy an (»miilskm of swwt nlniOTulaH 

" 6. The oil is l>est taken thrtH- timi?!* daily, hiilf lo one hour 
tipfoh* meals ; aa a rule, it Ih ho-Ht to iiilmini^tor u wine]:las.?jful 
early la ihe morn lEig and twodi-^irX'rupoonrols iK^fuiXMlinncrnuJ 
Mj|i|K-r. Ici niMiJ iu^ed an «fumlMoii uf sf^wi-cl nlmutnl^ may be 
duUHtttulcil frir iti 

" 7. The oil fulfiU tlinw uidic»tu>n« s it ovw^iomos pyloro- 
HpaHin ; it relieve* friction, unJ U^nda t<i improve the general 
nutrition. 

" S. Th(^ nil acts as n nartnlit- in ras^-g of pyloroeparim, pro- 
ducing, however, no uiifavorahle effwl — neither eructations nor 
diarrhea. 

** 9, \o tavomhle cfleot of the oil treatment has boon fonnd 
in purely hynieric gastric eolirft. 

"10. In that form of gantric neuroeU maiiifesteil hy [kiui 
when the atoiunoli U empty very favorabl(> symptomntir relief 
haa beon obtainc>d fn>nk th^* ii8« of olive oil. 

" IL A <'^rlatn nninlier of ^-oao-^ of ^t^nofiis of lln^ [lylnnfa 
accomjmniiHl hy a t^oit'ieqoent gafltrectaaia can often Im* s-j hitkIi 
relieved by the oil treatmenl that no operative proet^urtr iiewl 
be undertaken. Atrial should be made of the oil treatment 



FATS AyD OILS. 



107 



in nil cflites of stenosis of tb^ pylortH before ndvigitig ojwrativ? 
prooeJiire. 

" 12. The Irealmect prex'eiite prophyWiically the |iroiluc- 
tion of i:a<<trecta!^i]L and preveota rclaistes when utllueed in 
favorable ca*e«»" 

Olive Oil in the Trcntmcnt of Chronic Dysentery. — Kiitli- 
erfoixl' gives hi* rc^alt^ wiili ulive oil in the iixmlmeiii of 
dirvDic dysentery. Accr>rdiu^ lu liim^ " U|>oii the internal 
odiikiulslnitjon of olive oil typicnl cabcs of chronic <ly>^nlcfT 
praolRxklly without e:Eceptioii nhow oliongee in tlu^ir ooMtlitkiU 
aa folloW]^ : 

" L Paiitive evideuee of incrcaAed qimntitio^ of UUe in the 
feceA. 

'* '2. Deoreaw in the nnmlHT of daily b'>wel movements iind 
marked improvenkeDi in the ehiknieter of the ^uime. 

*'^. Gratlunl ce^^ition of signs of femtentfLtion und pUEn^ 
iaction aloii^ ihe inu^xtinul iniec and oou^eqiietit Mihsfdeuce of 
pato and uiiderne^. 

" 4. Getienil ty^teniic iniproveiaeni ; ^in in appetite ; iV]uir 
of digcHtive fi^ullic^ ; Hyrnjrtome of iroprovol norvoiM system ; 
Aod rapid ^iii in weictht and Hirength. 

" ^. Apnnrent pa«iiive cure after on average lime of two 
montkn nmi upward, with few iviurrenee^/' 

Thi» nietlu>d of 4?aiT\'iMj; oiil the taxtimeut h as follow?* : 

" Fii'tt Ptri'ifM. — The ]iatient i^ jjven one ounce (:J0 <'.c,) of 
olive oil three tiint^ a day for (he first three days, when the 
ipiantiiy U inrr<«se<l lo iwo ounces (00 c.e,) threi* tiine^ <luily, 
unil cm l1ie--<i\th iUiy lln? wtUf ipuiniity i^ gjvt^i t^wv time?* a 
€jay- Diiring llic fifst ihntr Oay^ tin: |tuliVnt ih !*> In- ke]tt on 
a mitk <li('t. During the lottif Imlf one to thnrc oun<.*eh (.ItU 
9fl c.e-) of iscra|>wi IwM^f (»r it* oqnivulvnt uf vjqr^lhumiu will 
beiuIcW dftily, Diiring thin rrentnienc n ^li^ht Ukw iu weij^lit 
may be leni|M.irarily n^tiaHl. 

" ikrcntt PrrM. — During thi* |wri<id the amount of oil \n 
given in ^n.::tler ipinnlilii^ (not h^* llian three ounces — Ofl e.e. 
^'three tiniest a day vIlhMnl di^c-iinfoii to the imienOi 'ind 
inn.'<t Tie ki-pt up fir a h-nefh of lime In ?<ev<Te and fhronic 
fii«et<;|>i<rlui|)^fi>rlvii luouilLMorhin^T, Thiring whieh |ierii.Hii:i»fi- 
YuJctfcenoe will laiw 1>een <^ablUl)r«1 and the weight Ty^gaitie^L 

" Thirtt Ptri^. — During this poricnl the jntient i--" gradiudly 
nvtnre<l In a fnll dii*', and tht* nil dn^nQv^l in nmount until \\\<* 
ulcvrn have iirrmaik*utly h^^ilcxl nad ji Ti^nrn^nee not prolmhle." 



10B 



CLASSES OJ- FOODS, 



Blum lint advocaU^ tho ueo of olivp oil by rectal iiij^tioa 
for Tilt* tn.yifmL*nt ttf f/nlf-ftfonr. i«/i>, an) cluims j^kxI ivsnll.s ftvmi 
its Mw, FKiruT Hi>t ri^Hm]mi-mli.-<l tin.- i]!«<? ol' copious otl ii^- 
j<'Cti<jii7^ — 100 Ut -jOO i\»\ — in iJn* tixqihiK'itt <if (H.'rULiii forms 
of fhtniiv fwtntijHitiuu, Keiuarkaltli* rx'MilU »re pruliKxyl in 
llie- wjwwljr f(>mi.-« "f t'brtiiiiL' i^rtt^lipitlimi wlmi lUin qimtilitv of 
r«l is iiijivtwl im> *tr llifvt^ ttiin's w'rt-kly- Tln' i>il <<hi^iil(l l>t' 
ht-atc-ii to flic- b'Kj_v-U'm|>rmtun--, uiui irijot'Nfi liigJi nt Wllimf 
un^l rc-tuim-il during iIk' night ; ibcr ixxu\^ prtM^aiLlirjiB vhoulil bo 
tjlwTrvi'tl H*i ill giving nnlrierit. i-nrnmta- |S<^' |k '270.) 

Tbe Use of Emul&ioii of Sweet-almond Oil in the 
Treatment of Certain Gastric Disorders. — Cohubrim^ 
rtTiiTmiK'niis nil rniiil?^ioiL of itlmmid^ in tbnsccii«:s in wbkli 
olive uil is not wvU boriu\ Iti rftct't if is i<l(.'iitii^til lo olive oil, 
|irevioii?'ly tle^TilH^fl, ivlit'viii); ^iimmti :ni<l irritutioii ; r>n tlio 
ulbiT bunil, it lirk?* llir nitlnlivr vnliif "f <»livo nil- On nc* 
tKHint of iU iniFtc |)lca-"«nt flavor il ii* pix-finnl by womc- 
Cohikheini gives the iMIowing lUn^ctirmj^ for |iro|wirinp rm emnl- 
giiiii -if hIiiioikI ni] ; A i1(-i;H(trt»i|Vjrinfnl of" nwci-i -ilnioncU rtw* 
gi-<>nml intif n p(»\v<i<'r Jind pljifc*! intr> a nip of iMiiUtig \viit<>r ; 
tliifi inixlnro !>; next mhWI by nii'Tm^ of i\ ?(|Mii.>n, iiml slmiDi^i 
through a piece of guuiit'; a cpiantity tninwl fo Inim 200 (o 
250 grains sbouM bt^ ohiuincci fmm it iW-<f*rr^])oimfnl of al- 
m<m<ls. The cmiiNiiui jibonld U* tnkm \v«riiuil ii:kI ?i\v(v1'*TUKl 
one-bitif lii>ar lH?foiv m«iU, in onKr to nlii-vt- \\\\\ \tn\i\U\'i\ nt 
the pylorus and to prevnit spnsm in \\tU jxirtion nf tlir Hionijidi. 

Tlie varioiiji frtt^ Mill to W mpntinrwHl iirv butrcrim', olcomur- 
gHriu and bon<vnnirmw. 

Btitterine i^ a tiit prepar^nl fr^mi h*H.*f nnd bng'n fnl, tind ia 
frrtpjrnily iiw^l in this eountry inNkiid "f biitlrr; oleomar* 
garin ii^ a &imiliir prepomtion made fn)m Iw'cf fiif, Bulb bnt- 
terine and oleoma rgnrin art* wboWnne fiitcy fomU^ tli<- nnly 
obj^H^iioii again^jf (htm being thiit (hoy ^w <A\fi\ wold frtuid* 
ulentty lor hotlcr. 

Bone^maiTCW is a fat obtJiinwl from ilie lairgo bftneii of the 
ox. It i9 U«A in t1i4; InnilmiMjt of (u1ifn:uloMt> m\t\ \u tlie 
VftriouB forms of ancmin, e-"»prri"llv in ptTHieionH nnoTnia. Tbc 
tuarrow cd* yiimp nnimalf* is niiimlly preH-rrod, A prejKinition 
known a* the glvrerin i*xtr!»et r»f luifif-mjirntw ik nfN-n ufih/wi. 

' 2«(Ai^r. / iHn. SM,^ vnl. lii., Nn* I nnil i 



SALTS. 



10» 



SALTS- 

TIiu various ^nli* thai tiilrr im»* (Ik* com]iot«]timi of iIr' (!(*- 
Miei oT UkMkkIv 3IIV iiktMjIiiivIv rutN^^irv lor th(> imitiitonuiioo 
of life. The mo>l iin(N)rtAiit, nnd liy fiir (bat umihi uiu\vi-!«i]|y 
fouml, >A aodiam chlorld, or (xtmmini uit>l<- ^nU. It eitu-r« 
into (Ik- foniuition ■>[' M ilit- iiFt^no uiul M.H:retiiiij-« of lUv IhkIv 
with th<< t^xccptioii vf tbr rimmrl <jf the tcrth. It tomi_s aUjut 
HO |Krr oont- nf the aaiUf <A* t\iv IiIhikI. Wlien tiihcD tn tn.^til- 
fiet<-iit <|iiiiiititic'A ivr iimittiHl (>iitin'1y iiiiirk4<(1 »yin[»tijrn>^ iif muU 
ntilrilion mcmiii itppttir. Th^' >pHniiL ti>i^^ of MMlititn r-}iluri<l in 
the hcxly UR* iniimfoltL Ai* a oi^niUiiioiil, it gWv^ ixMAi to tlio 
IIkhI uimI pmiiiiiu<a4 n]i)H-tIlc. By fiin>ij*liin^ chlorin fur the hy» 
(]rr)phloric acid of tlio ntomiirh it iiti).'^ illp.->ii(>ii. It |>l»yii an 
ini]K>rtsitC W>k in x\iv itiLvn^hun^- irf tiiiltU in the boilv, unci 
]>ru(lucct^!ilkiiliiiiiy in (Ih-MikhI. T( iiI.-^i 7<timLihitv*s ttii* kidiK*)'^ 
uml iict^ tL-4 u iiiild ijixativt. Siilt !?> Lined v\ii.'ti<i\vly iii i\w 
ptwrviitii^D of lHx-f, pork, iL-tli, etc. When k^ipt tn briiK- ni<9t9, 
iiowvvor, luM? a hirg*' |i»rt of ihoir nutntiw viihjo. 

Potassium chlorid nnk« nrxt in imiioit-nnce io i^nilinm 
chl>rid. It i* wi'ldy (liatributoil in the IhhIv, l>Ht dcciip-^ iu 
miK-h ttmAllc-r uinoiititi^ It i^ most uSiimUiit id the muActts, 
Uit i^ nUo foniid in iIk' livitiiL-^ and ^rocrctions, 

Calciam salts am.- important chicHy oil acoiiiunt of the 
CXI'-nt in uJiioli th^-y t-iili-r into tbc eom|Kj?iiticin of th<^ bonr^ 
ami ibf uvtii. They «re e^^i'iKbl to cell (jrottth nnd divelop- 
mvuif iiml nn.* intrmlui'tnl inio the' hiMly thrcni}|;U The foixl and 
inrutf^ in w}iirh tlmv mv ContaiDiHl, 

Phosphorus (Kvnri in t1u> mu-i'lt?--, I»i>nt-^, nnd l>loo*L It 
U f»nm1 n-i f»it<i-phuif» in l»o(h :(niniit] itnd v4>gi>liiMi' f'nA, 

Th<^ SUlphtir of the body h deri\i*d from <$^aUMimiu, 
milk, imd cyrtJJn vc^tuhW, in wKioli it oorurs an HidphiKe-^. 

Iron ii* an imiKirtmit constituent of the homo'^lobiu of the 
idoofi, .'iiid i^ found ;i1p^o iu nntsole-filxr^. Very little imn i» 
nv<v^*Ar\ for the nuiintenaiiee of healih. S^me c:ises of nnemin, 
hijve\tT, :\rv tUit in a delioinK'v of imn. These o^teA are 
beiM'fiitil by ntx-iviDg iron ib various furrus. 



BEVERAGES AND STIMULANTS. 

WATER, 

Water is the chief coofltitueiit of all l>4'v<*ni(rf?i. and alBt> 
euWTf iui^t'ly inti) the competition of wilid fixMl, Tlic hurimti 
IrkIv itiwlf IK c«imiK.wixl of uoout tJO per cent, of wnti;r- \Vliilc 
nuiu van Jive lor wivk« wiihiHit food, he cun uhsiain fntm wiiUr 
f'ir but II fi.w (Iflvii, WjitiT is aU<ohitely iiece^ary as a tw>Ivt-i»T, 
uiid Ji^ it i^ (^loiii^tuinly bt-iug cllmiiiaii^ by the skin, lungs, ami 
kitlncy^^ this low must be r(-pfacc<l by ^onit' ehi^utia i[i order ti> 
mnintiun the ftiDotioni* of the boily- Tfii^^ id m<>*t i-onv*ri»ii^ntlv 
Aonf rlitNHi^h i\w ngenoy of the various Ut-verajic*. Tho Wat 
nit^fbixl, however, of replwiif^hiiig the wator-supply i* that of 
driuking the water ia it** ]Hite state, when it reliiinH nil Iti^ eol- 
veiit properiiefi. Some waters are taken for tlieir kxiUive or 
HUi^Uive action, and otheni^ for the sdts which they <>tjn(iitii. 

The amoiini of water coiirfumeti iljiily by the aveni^- jrivod 
it* from six U> eight ^Ins^es. Thi** vuries, however, with the 
:iuiouiit ikiiil varifly of fmnl and esen-ise taken. The agt-, sex, 
imd pti/p of tht* ind)vidu»] nad iW fHranoii of tlir ytiir ;iIm) iu- 
rti»rn<v di<* tf>tnl daily ('<m.-<iimptii>n of wut^'p. In Vfry wnrm 
rtvatlirr, lor fx^mplr^ uml nrulrr -severe phyiLi<-ii1 Eirixin, mnch 
wnn-r thnt would not Im> lo^t in the cold neaioii of th© year xb- 
i>liiuii::ated in the* fibrin of (Mrf^pi ration and nuisst Iw compen- 
mic^ for. 

Wnh-v if* fllworlM^! I'liij^Hy in Ihe intestine ; a .^niall nrnoiint 19 
Tilworbe^l in llu* Mum.ieli, jind but a very tntiing aiuounl, if 
any, in ihe month. The water abeorbwl in the imestine lA 
|)a^Hel] itiiu lyniphaties, [ini.1 tarried on into the c-iiviihitton, 
wjjfncc it ifl rJiminaU-fl. Thn* Ky removini^ the wnur fn-m 
thdilootl and flfuding it thnaiifh the ]iidni>yh jnio k[u^ bludilt-r, 
T«|>ac*e \r* nia<I(^ in the eirf.'ulfition for the eatnuice of more Huid 
fmm ihealimmtjiry tract. 

As previon?*ly f*taie<l, wat?r U oliniinated thnmirh the ?jl<ln, 
kidnej's, Uings and feee**_ The nmoiuu of w;ittT 1 senate*! daily 
v«rie*i prt^tly under special condititmv In cold wcaHur the 
skin i* inactive and the kidneys excrete a pn^ter amount 
of water than in hot weather, when die sweut-^lauds fiino- 
no 



WAT£& 



in 



'■tiotwte more at^tiv^ly, WbeD there is m ti?'Dclei>ev tovmni 
Jl^id jiKivementK frrtm ih^ lionel. the ('Imiinniion E>v tin' kul- 
neys is loMeued. In warT» waither elimiDatJoii by the lung^ 
if i^liniiilsted. 

Tbe lemprattire of drink ing-nater is a matter of sonio im- 
portance- IcM>*l w-iiter will p^timuUte u nit>re rapid and a ^iiTor 
Mvrution of ^tiric juice, but k%^n§ the motibty of the ^tonuicb. 
I<wl wattT iu excx^M i* iDJunout^, and shoiiW not be taken when 
oac ie ijvrrh»tiod. lli>t water bnji a verr beueficm) effect un an 
irritated «Jioiii»cb. 

Water iii n mn^it valuable iliurttio ami dbij^borelie, \Vht?o 
tbe fltomueh can not ivtain it, it is often >^ivfji by ibc nnv 
tam. A pint of salt irolittion, if iujected by tbe n^ of a ivcial 
t^be, wilt if IIh? o^lon has previiMinly In-en i'm|>tie<), be n'^iTKn] 
lou^ enoiigb to bt abt-orbcd. If a lialf-pint or even a piTii uf 
Mil dilution be tnii^Mliicctl under tbe skin, it will he abf^»rl>e(l 
npidly and uv^ nipidly l>e eliminatc^l. Tlii)^ if one of the luo^t 
lu^rl'id im^iMin-?! tor prtxludii^ mjkid elimination tbpiu^'b the 
kiilncyn, 

Acrcording to the nmonnc of minem) water they contain 
wuteru an* rbn^t^^vl a^ banl nml -<kfi, Kaiin-Wiiter i-* pioft, and is 
ihe pnr^&t fnrm of natnm] water, Tbe hartlties^ of tt-ater i* 
diK' to earthy carbunalo* ; by lKiilin^% tbe carbotiic acid fcran is 
driven oiT and the eailjonate^ are preeipitatwl, and tbe water 
tbns rendereil morv Miimble ar^ a btveni^\ Boiling ba« tbe 
additional advaat^ige that it di^tniy^ mo^t of the luicro-^rgan- 
bm^ that may i>e prt^^nt In d^ uiiter. 

Water of(eii o^ntam-^ inipiiHiii':-. Murb a» llrne, aia^tKia, iron, 
and other ^1t«f or niioivt-or^iii^^tn^ ami it <>ftcn iKTotiU'V or-ccf^ 
sorv to pnnfv ic for drinkini; purpoM^*^ Ty|i]^oid fc-v^r iiitd 
cholera are cnmmimioaTed rhinfly thnmgli the tt|p»aoy uf (Hjhit^Hl 
drmkiu^waier The l)est nietJunl uf parituatidn in by dij^tilhi- 
tion, hy which meaiiF« lx»tb inori.'tnm' and ort^iiiiic iiiipiintit.'i^ 
can )>e p«iinve<l or renderwi iiini-ciiHir'. Tbi^^ tiiclbml U riow 
ti^ lai^ly on ^hi|>t. \Vl]<-n diMtlled and uenled, M^i-u^att-r 
makes a mo*! pli-JL»int twvtriip^ Water inny a\Mt \w purifl^^l 
bj' moan^ of filtnui^n^ char»"<>al iind wind Wm^ nwd cxtennwly 
(itr ihi*- jiur|H)EW. I''»i\vhiin oybudi-r* aiv aU"» in ri'fiinwn «w. 
Wlmlevor (W filtering u^int i-mploytHl, nnle*^ it \»: k^-jn vWii 
11 ih lUble tn hpcome » >u>anv of oontani inn firm mllier ihan of 
purltWatinn. Owin^' Ui th4< fttH that nolnbli^ itiifxiri(ie>4 often 
pais thmu^i the filtrr, fil(«>rfd water i* rot murly «i n-linblo h* 
obUUed water A vr-rj* fvHmomie and cmivi'nicnt im^ibud of 



lU 



BKl'KBAGES Ayi> STIAfULAyTS. 



piirifriDg irator U to diewK^e one ^ni of alum in a little \rfltfr 
sihI jHJur thiH Wiiliou iiitu unv gallvn of iIk- water t» Ik- piin- 
fic^l. AlVr nT.LiKling for twciity-fuur Loui^ ihc* iiujiunEius will 
be jJiwpitak^ 

MINERAL WATERS. 

MioeRil waters sirv Ircf^iieiilly tuken u^ tcub^littiu-^ Trir fmli* 
naiy water; at ltDK-« tlior proiluuen mue: markfit sttmuUtiiig 
cffvct on variolic orpiur?* Tbeir cffieinicv is greatly cnhanctfl 
wbcu a *' drinking euro " is oonibiiioc! vt jlh propor diet^^cic tc^i- 
lalione, Mifieral wator- <lifr*?r IV»nj oi-iiiiTnrv ^ratrr^ in ibe 
l^reat^r ainoiint of j^^^^us and ^ilid nmttcis tbcy nmrain. Tlii^ 
guM^a?i froiwcitiieiiU of miiieml watrm are mainly carl>ou dioxld 
and .Hulfihiiretlod Uydl'o^'di. Tlie ^filtd ('oiip^tilu^'iitA ure hiII^ uf 
Mxliuni, ix^tiuviuni, ma^icsimn^ aliiniiniim ami culciuni^ iron, 
iodin, bmniiii, dilorin, and •^i[l|>1iiir. Taken t)etore mcaU, 
waters roiiUUDiiii; carbonic add have a HXJihing etToet on an 
irrirated Moniach. Taken in exeess, all turbinuUnl uator* are 
a[>l To pnxlnot.^ tndi^Ptii.>n. 

SoiDc ^'atei-y liasx- a jjui-pilive cffi!ct, othen* a laxative, aiKl 
Btill otliera dinrelie. Tljennal uTiter^ is^tte lio! from *|*Hnpr*, 
their virtue IwinffdEie tn iheir lum, Sf»nie mineral walert* have 
no moilieiimi virtnt? whatever, and are utilizeil nieivly as drink- 
in j:- water. 

Clasftificatlon of Mineral Waters,— The following: 
rla^itiration and description of niiiiera] xtateps are taken from 
CVihen'^ PUyahfnrjh". T/}fnrj}e*Uic«f voh \i., \). 41*1 j^Kin:-!!, Ilins- 
dalv, and l*eule) ; 



L Atkallno miiKrml wflt«tii: ' 



AllulW itiLrrinfi^l ;ii-Eiliilnim. 
I .Alkullnv Kuliiii' :u'LiliiL"LiK 
f S{tii|t|i> M>fliiirii <nJil..ri»l. 

IT. 8iHiiiim rli]->rii1 T^atcr*: ! SihlLiiih i^hlorl^t with \odlv\ nnd bromia* 

l8aLJn^ wnirr or brine t??ooloji)< 
III- TtllNnr Wilt*'!*. 

!ri»rhnnnt^t inm vn(*-M, 
SuliiKiinilnl irim wnCi^iw. 

VI. KMriFiy rniiH'nil w^iU-it. 

Vn. Acninithemml vmh^nt. 



I, AlkKlirw Mineral Waters* — Tht'K' water?* are dividt^l 
inio; (I) fSimpk- a<:i<liiloUfs wntei> ; ('i) alkaline aciihdona 
mit<rr4 ; ^^)a)k:diiii.- mariuUiI airi<lidou« ^:tlrr«; :ind (4)iilk:iline 




WATER. 113 

ilial rifitiinin l«i)n' iiHioiiiifs of t-^trVmii tlioxul ; (In* itignvili'iil 
iiHTiiUM^ the iMTwtalti^ ftrlion *if ilio motimoh nml iiilwline, 
ITw^* wati^rs aru iitilU^Hl larpcly in ihc (n:*ntim*ijT of iDinor jjaw- 
tric ilUiiirlfiiiKy?^ and in catarrhal <<oni:litii>nF4 of tlic ri.'T^pi niton' 
trad. Among the nirHt iitk|MirIant nf the?**' W7iM>is iii^: A|n>U 
linam water; dn^ I>iroth«Hii|Uoll(?, at (.'arl^bid; tUt- *n*j>cr 
Spring in California ; and th« Mimiu>ti ^la Spring in 
OJi'iTidiir, 

Afkotifu AehliUotM Wiifii'it,- — Thcs4? ivtit<rRt cimtnm, in nddt- 
tiofi Ut lurgi* 4|iumtilicv nf carlxtn dioxid, viirritig ]>rciponioii4 
at Mnilmii nirttiHiiiliv In inmlfmii- '|nimtilir*A tlicv ik.iirnii]nt«* 
the n^^tivily uf :hi- ^liHrixHintCf^tiiial rntcl ; the rt^jiInUnrv, and 
tlic uriiian' orpuiH, Tk-y diswiKx' niueii^ unci noiilnih//* lh<? 
exeo44^ of acid ifi Thi< T^t^tiiuih. 

Th(* follr>witi^ uMi* ' givf!^ the chemic vr^iiijRHKiuti (in 1 liter) 
of the nii>!<t imimrtutt alknlini" iieiduhiii^ wat<-m : 

KJIin^of aoJiuoi bicArhi>iin[o ....-- SJtl 

Fkelunm^of vodiumUrarbotiuic ^ . ^37 

?t«u«v0lir, oT wKlium tiimrlKjimU' ■ ...-.,.,. l.tW 

SiWrnmn, fif •fJiiini hioBiKmnli^ . . . . , '2.1^ 

Sol^-alor S(in£i^ uf HxUurD bioutiOEmic - - - ^ t^M 

Vih, <ff ttwiiuui bitnilwiialr . < • .7^ 

Vlrlif, of HkliTiiii }iimrkvi(iAle * , ^ , I.BB 

BlEbdfdi f V'ichv^^ of *t>iJiuni liicTirbfmatc .... . tiSO 

Ckltfomia t^llJUT. <:rf ffuljum l>kv'fiiiiu[t- , - . , . O.lH) 

Idui-lin. Iff iraiiiim and nLKgntvjiini l>ii'AH>fj(uifv9 . , . 1_-0 

Sajtt Sjcifl ( hipodaK (ff ntlium irnd iiijiBri»tni"ni nrbcinfite* 

iri'l IntnHirnjEitr* . . - . (iTO 

SintMtni i ViHn f. of »dium bifiirUmalr ],42 

Iwnuign ( \'iciii ), of otldam %nd mu^-DfAtum blun^talia . 2^ 

AObfttinf Jfunat^ Arithdooji Waters,— Tiuc^ witer* fH>nlAin, 
in ftddiiioii to tt^nVtam 4;tkvif>oaXv and earlHiik dioxid. lar^L* ijitmi- 
liti^ of hortiiin) ehloild. Tiny rxi»rt n nmrkinily M»lvi<iit i-ITcct 
on iirie aoid. ami liijUffy thi* ^in^i-f^lioitK fmni flio n':4|>lnitory 
tract. Tln-y HTi* ('TiiKvially iL-rful in calarrlud (*<mditioiii« of die 
n9|>iratory traot, Mieh a» vhnmo hmnt'liiti^ and in rhroiitc 
chIaitIi of the sinmneh, of the biliiin' [)n»<af^M, and i>f llie 
urinary organs, Tluy are u^-^l fi>r gai^ling and inhidnti<fn 
pnqxto^v, iiihI al^^n for hitln. To thl^ rhiw U'lung tliv U'al^'n> 
of ItoYat> KuL^, 8«^1lerti, and Sonuttiga Vicliy. 

TI>i>^honikM'<>ni|HH4ittoii(in 1 lilc-r) of tht* nioHtt iini>»rtantn1kii- 
llni- innriaUH) nndnloiin wuti^r* i.-* nhown hy tlii' follciwlng luhk- 1 ' 

* TmLcd f m Cohen'* l^yaio^K ^HmmMtOmt vdJ. U-. p- 4^ 
> IW., n>L ix^ p. 122. 
S 



114 RKVERAUES AXI) RTlMVLAJim. 

MdiuiQ Sodtetn Sodtttn 

otFUmiiltf. ttfFArbuniLlA. fhlorld*- 

fyiiiTiiK OraKj. fTmML 

.f^Hmi l:i^ 0.41 

AfuT<< 1,0 0.13 ].U 

rAtv- ro a,03 i.*w 

(J]riHirul>oii- , , , 10 £.64 l.SS 

Glm Alj^int- ... JO 0.66 O.U 

l.tiUiiihifimviri J.O 0je 4.46 

Rftili-in 1,0 a.01 0.«] 

Roklorf , 1.0 1.24 1.U 

Buvnt * . 1,0 L35 1.T3 

^luUiu 1.0 aoe 1.40 

^rt(cj»uVkhf 3,0 1.44 2.20 

K-ih-r* 1.0 i,aa iis 

^wAwiLiiii-n ).0 6.44 4.<1 

W^Jlbncli 3,0 l,3JS 1.26 

Alkti/int: Stifhiv AcUiulous Waftm^ — Tlitw watcn* otrutaiii ftul- 
phftt<< in n<!<lilioTk 1o hiourtHiniiU' mai cMonJ of hoillum* They 

a marknlK- diiimio ftfi^t, nml whi^n laktn iu lurj^c (|tiLuilUiaH 
act aa jmrgnlivt-i. The \«iriii waU-rs ilimiiusli the uriimry 
secpctiou. The cold alkaline- p;iline waters are ii^fiil in rtronjf 
imlivicIimlH for roiliiciiig tie&b ami foj" iho relief of consiijwitioD. 
The warm wulers are useful in tfa*tro-intc&tiiial eiiturrli, ulcer 
of ihc ?'toniai:'b, gout, rat:irr)ial Juuiulice, con^sticn of the 
liver, ('hi>]eittLiiL»i>, anil iu oimtliEion?^ a><M>ciateii with uriiiury 
concretions. Amon^ i1ii»i cUi^s of naUrs are it> be mentioned 
C^rUbad, Maric'Dbculi EUler, Keysi-r S[>a in California, Crtt^tle 
C're^k^ Ho! Sj^ringy in AriKonii, Lhlio Hot Spnojip', and 
Mnnitou Sprinjrs- 

The fol|)jwing table' t"^"*"'* 'he ehemie eom posit ion of im- 
[>iirlant alkaline *aline Mater ; I liter of water conuiins : 

PMmm ffndlvm f^him en^Inia 

At : Ofnmr^ iframi, (rfmi& 'Vnmu 

A4|nnaQ VldnfUworSprio^J . . 0.24 OM . . 0,05 

Bortrich O.SH . . 0,72 0.^1 

OiMmd X.4U ' . 1^ 1.M 

Ei«ior , . . 6.1K res a82 

[-WincnsUd S.SO 0.07 M4 

Or^t^T^im ... . , P . 0,04 O.0ft 0.34 &14 

Mfl'nitiHi 1 \lnnilM]t<;piriTL£^ . > ft^ 0.03 040 

Mi>rknt«d 0.04 \.f^ 2.04 

iE<>iLii>cii 3.03 i>oT aor 

itovul lionrcilronDulM&iTJnf:) . OJO 1.24 IM 

Si>riiiiHnk^ilJ»r 1.T4 . > 0X19 a08 

T!km»\ ilO - - 4.67 a«T 

■ CbbM** f^fHnh^k Hknftufk», vol. Ix., p. 4^4. 



WATJiH. ^^~ 115 

Th*? cliemio compoeiiiii^p of tlie milta of CnrWMwl Spniclol 

and Marieubad Spring on complelo evaporation U ub followe' 

(3 to h gmiuH (-IJ> ti> >tD ^in>i) arf* clJta^alved ia a giftw of' water 

when ummI) : 

CtertaibBd f pnid*] MaHeubftd Bpriiif 

SfKtiuiii bk>arfc'ni;]tv - 315.^ " :f3.^l " 

tfodlum <ailoTia . - . IBSl " 90l4O ^ 

II. Sodium Chli>rid Waters. — To t\m cla«s belonj; the 
fiini|ik' ^>j()ium cltlorid vtitor^, sodium clilorid waters contuiiiiiig 
um]u\ imd broinin, and hrioo or sjiltne ivaUrs. 

ShnpU Sortitoit Ciilnrid \\'atrr». — Th^* waters o»>iitairu in 
addittrm f> Hxlium rblond and otJicr elihmds csrbon diuxtd m 
laiyt^ ■jtiaiuiiit'^. ^^>diuIll t^-hlorid iwreaMn ibc s0.'raH4oii of tliv 
mucioii^ iiK-mbmii4'B, o--|>o<:ially of iIh.- alonincb. Thr^e waters 
bav'e a markc-iUy diiiivlk' uml laxaiiv'<r t-trtHrt, and are useful in 
chi«ini<* catarrh of ttto reriptracory tni^t> and of the fitrtmooh^ 
intestine, and biliary |Ki-'i«a^'A. 

The follf^winjr tabb'/ ^ivts the ohemic (■ompo^ition of simple 
Mcliutn chlorid waters ; 1 ]iier of water ct-itiainr^ i 

eadtun cblMia 
Ml Or^mK 

ikdeA-Dnflcn • - 2.01 

&11I1 . » U30 

BjrioD S^prinp I In-er Atitl ki-lntrf 10.«4 

BvKm ^rui^ ^ DjrroD Kiirprvv' . . . , , 3'>1''J7 

C^nMndt - - ■ i-45 

Coiiffn?«!^ntngii Sprinff* ^ • > fi,45> 

Drwlwwti . . SlfMtO 

(tkHiiTiAiil S|>rin|pi (Vninpa) . . JT,W 

llombtjiv u^ 

Kimin^t^i . .V>'3 

KruDltuil ,,,.,..,. 3,^ 

l.ibprt^ lltlSprin^i^ . . O-'^ 

Munri>rf ... S-Tl 

rvmunt ^ - 7.<p5 

filler •! SnnTnc* Sprinir* -I *7 

Smlifn \u \\w Tannic ^.-t^ 

rpiwrBliit i;»rk >*A7 

U'Mwli-i^ a^ 

/fK'f'n 'in*/ lif^imttt ll«/^(-«, — Tlic?*c wafer- oriKain loiiin and 
broiutii ill utklitixii f'> ivHlinm cblorid, Tbo loilin <.K.vLir9 in tbv 



llt^ 



BEVSRAU^ ASl> :iTIMULAS17i\ 



f>i-m t.if inopiK^iimi io*I»l^ culcium ioJld, and ^Klium iwliil ; ihf 
bmniin, Iri the form of ^ocliuni and n\i\f^nvfnium brouutl. Tbi^xv 
wntera uicpoifie the activity of the lympbatic ve^Mrlfl taai hnxUm 
jtb^rption ; they an? indicated in css&, of M^rofula, !^y|>liiliH, aikI 
ill iliM-aM<i« of tlic ^landfr, il^ in guitcr. Tlicr iirineticd ioditi 
^'at<-i> aw Hf-ilbruniir Krcuzuurh, ^mtLkga Ki^ngen and 

The Hicmic ef}m[H;«itiui] of the imjKirtiint irnliii atid broniin 
vnitcr^ ifl iw follows ;^ I liUT of vrati-r c»7iiluiMf« ; 



ditoJid. 

riuiiiifiuiu A|MJUiiii)c Sju-jug ' . 12AA 
Kranklin Anndjin W<U > . - 11.S3 

Hull lai: 

llriJhnirtn 4.V8 

Ivonitrh . 8.3" 

KnuLk*:nU(Ll O.W 

KfvtiinaHi > - 10,A2 

LL|ipik ... , . u.t;i 

K«l 8urini ♦Tu^'Jiii >*|irtrigy i}.--\^ 

fTBlfft-hlirf \iXA 

Solibrun . . , , , ].«0 

Twratu^ (Kivlngcn Sming] - ^f'd 
UikirjH:^ , . ]0,02 

Woodi;!]! |4pa ]0.50 

iUlOll 0.^ 






0miH. 



C.0430 
0.0300 
&O10O 

o.ooia 

0.0209 
COOoU 

O.D1&0 
0.0160 

aoo75' 
aooio 



0.009U 

o.u;os 

0.0040 

0;OO«O 
0,0010 

aoo40 

0,0040 

o.o::uj 
0.07SO 
0.0006 

o,ouo« 

aooos 
aooo6 



brouJd. 

(K0410 
0.0610 

O.oeio 
aoeio 

O.O01O 

aoflio 
o.o«io 

Q.OQ10 
0.0610 

O.Ut-10 
0.0010 
O-OfilO 
a0300 

aoaoa 

0.O30O 



SpFctal importance has been attached to litbiuni, which is oftwi 
pnwent in S'xiitini chlorid waters, and which i^ believed Ut hav<> 
afijHviJil effect in diftsclving uric acid. Il i* ven" doiihiftil jf 
»ach an action occnn-^ yet these wiit**n* |w*!*o^ a markedly 
dtiiretJc action. They nrv uiNfflil in fhe tn»lJiLcnt of gout, and 
of renal iiml nrinary nnH^nnions Amonj; tbt- ri(>jst important 
simple i»i^Uiin» '^hliind ^mtrrr* mny Iw meiitiinicil iboM]- of Iluni- 
biirp, Boib'ii-Itidon, Ki*«iiigtti, Wit"-lKuJ<*n, Pyrnmnt, tivrr^n 
Springs in Odifi^riiia, Cfjugre-ss, Kv<u'lftior, Hiilliorn, Hif^h 
B<»ck, and SeUor at ^ratogii. Amikng ihc litliift waters are 
EliKibethbnjunen aJ Hc*mhunr, El^trr* Ki,i.Mni;t'n» T^mdonderry 
1-itliia S]>ring>, (icnev:i [-ithia Sprinjp, and Jlntfalu Liiliiu 
Spring*. 

111. Bitter Waters- — Ihe^e waters are oharacterir.M by the 
larp^ Iimjjoilion of w.kIIiiiu suipbate and ma^n^Hum ^nlphate 
which ihcv omtain ; i\ir} iil'^f *>«jtaiii ^arkil pn^poni'itif- nf nmg* 
ntsiuin chbjrid, civrb'»tiiit<^, and nitrato, oalciiiin airboiiutv, und 




WATER. ^^^ 117 

prxlmm rhloride. The nifl^iu'^iiitn -inl)tluit4^acts Afl a pargifttEve. 
Th*se wiUeiv are intlifau-d in ^tuall *li»(s a^ MiiuulantA 10 the 
iMtc^titial ptiip^CaUis ; 1 hey are u>ieru] in lialmual roiinti|ialiuii, 

Hnnvfiili J^noti^Fri^mbsbaflf Kiwiogen,CraljOTcbanI Springs, 
iuhJ lktHbn.1 fSprin^, 

Thi- fnlloAitic tnlile' gives llie cliPinic! comiHi^ition of the 
mo«t importaut hliU^v n«tcr» ; ] liter of water coultujjb : 

Orattu. iJraiKM, 

Alnp 1P.14 2.D0 

fli<(J?»rl ^itririgh , . . ... CLM 

laftHPiKorf .... T.OO 2.20 

A|>r«»ln !6.«) UM 

llimvnJi Jiiu^ Sl£6 2ZM 

KmniJo-vf ttie :;iJH, 

Vict-'Hu - - - - 33.60 24.10' 

t^nltnii AliticiiiJ S^njp . . . , 1U4 • . 
C^b <knliiiM Spniifi^ (£iboiu ur Fol«r*s 

»|iriii^) . . , - :,01 3S-6I 

Fri«dricli<^U ... 0.Oa llfi 

KWnfvii mcEen|iiL'l]« h.m MO 

LoBoyepriii^ , . , . SM (.4S 

Mcrgcfitbcim . ^ 6.f7 5l43 

HwMi HoCSbriufiH ... 3^7 . . 

PoL-lhiB .,«.«! 10.85 

fthUJuK fi.Otf lOdB 

IV, Sulpliurous Wat<rs. — The**? ttfttei^ ruutuiti byclixtjp-n 
piilpliid or .-*ituc oihcr oiilphur romjx>uiid, sucli tt^ bodiutn, cal- 
cnim, lUAgiics^mnt, or ]>utu^utti ^ii)|hh]<I. Tlie «u1phurcHiH waR-m 
an- iithtntn^nl U>tli lioC niul cold ; ihty arc* I'HiKvially M-4*riiL in 
till' tr\iitiJH-t]| of ^-ivpliilis imd M cliixukio laii)-|>oi^>nin}f, ami iti 
tM-mfirrlKiiclnl ciiixUtion^ and congestions of ibe Uv«t. Tbe 
jirinriitil Hiilpburoii^ waters arc The Anclffwini Sulphur Sprinjfii, 
OiliioniLa, fn-nrb Lick Springs, KicbfieM Spritigii, ami Cjld 
fSn]|>t]iir SpnnL'-- 

V< Iron Waters. — These i*-an?n; coiiTnin laf^ proporti^mHof 
inui ; ihu^ nrv tlivM)^ into ilii; au-bouainl iron wat4:r», «u1phaivd 
iron waters <^'>d iron aixl jirH«nio wntcrH, Tlie carbonated iron 
wnt4'rK ooiituin )ar)*ie i:|Uftnlilii«4 <*f carbon dioxid ; iho^e watc^rs 
iaerMH> llu* luiRilH^r of (be r«l Moo(l-<^ll>< and the amonnt of 
hccnoglobm. T)»ey stiroulaie tl^e appetite, but are apt to pn>- 
ilucv or>nt*ti]ntion. Th«y are imlicated ii cbloroeift aorl in 
anemifl- Among tb«^ principal carbonated iron wat«r& arc those 



lis ^EVBJLiQES AN^ STIMCLAMTS. 

of FranjwiftliaJ, Pvrmont, Schiffa1W.<U, RtcJifidt!, Crwsoo 
(Pa.)* Ji"*i Rawlev (Ya.). 

The chemic ci»Di|>oHti(m of oirbonatetl iron water is ai» ful- 
lows;' 1 liter of water contaiuA : 

bonale boiutc. dlo^d. 

Orfliu. Oram*, C.<. 

lUnfflW 0,0fl7 . . Ifl83 

BtchU 0,0fi7 . • 160fi 

Cmwn i<iiiingi 0,<M6 ■ . ISOG 

c,^ldo«» ao63 . . 1200 

J-DUti^r D.084 )3G0 

rmiucnnLriul O.OTD J6S8 

Imnu^ii COM »87 

Iron irit Spritig 0.0fi2 0.057 9S7 

KociUtfqiriui , 0.065 t)M7 116S 

Krynica 0.029 0.057 1513 

liebcn^eio 0.100 O.or>7 ftOfl 

M&rionbad 0.1titi 0.067 1173 

(MoUliciHc OJIW 0.102 1173 

0««» Spring. 0.273 OMJfi 1173 

ndfio ConjETOw SiTinn v . . . «).231> OJ03 1173 

Pyittont . 0,077 0,102 1466 

Kobfield Xrai Springfl 0.085 QJ02 }4m 

BookBnoD9pm«> OlUSfl 14M 

BehwBlWh O.OfiO 0.245 1571 

B^ • • , . . 0.070 aM3 304 

8pulM Artflau Woll . . . . . 0.010 0.343 304 

Bttbra 0,OflO 0.243 KWS 

8b1Iw9 -XUO 0.243 804 

ft, llorita . 4 ......*. . OJKiTt 0.?43 12Sa 

Vihnyo 0.O16 0.245 337 

Sulpftaicd Iron Wafers, — These waters eonlatn principally frr* 
fOQs «)ul]ihiite, iu addiUiui to mhIIuiUt mugiic^iuin, ami i-alclum 
aulphate, Ma»y of lln«e wat4>rB alw> LHiniuin iir^nK, alum, and 
Rulpburio acid in iiiuill aiuouul^. Tht^y art* <*pi-tniilly imli^'utcd 
in caM» of chronic diarrhea, in aiu-m>r eliildn-n, m ehrmiii* gnx- 
tric catarrh, in ulcer of llie stf^rmioti^ aiul iri elironit^ miilrtrial 
cachexia. These watei'?i nbould Im' j^iven cautimii^lv, a-* at lirn-s 
tiiey |>TV>duce indi^^^tioik ami naiiM-a. Tht^y an^ Ix^r tiila-n in 
«man iiulividual do?4&^ Aniou^ the ]mii<-liui] f^tilphat^J iron 
waters are ihoae of SharftD ChBly[)eate ^^pring, Bedford Alum 
fl[>ri»g, Fiutmiier While Sulphur Si>riiigis and IC(M:khrid^ 
^Iiim 8prin)j;a. 

The f<i]l»wiii<; tahk-^ ^ivoe tho o1ic*mio eouipOBitiun of the 
moBl importiinl ■^olplinterl iron waters ; I liter of water conlaina : 

* < ViliL-ii'« i'hjA\f/lti'jit' T/fntjfrfitirj^ rol, In,, y. 444, 

* C^tu:m'i4 PKifiin4'j<jif Therape^lia, vol. ii.^ p. M^ 



WATER. ^^^ J 19 

Iron aiiliihtto 

Ibbid 0JH4 

Cbmi<rii Uilt Alum ^pnnf^ * SlTIS 

KiHuring llinemi ^pnj^g . . . . (L410 

HittoriNid am 

Mii«kai] aim 

Okk<M'1]anl}^n[igH iiJM^ 

nimd . 1,100 

Knin.-* U.»0II 

itodDebf i.4yo 

Miujkr Cuuntx spring 1-lur 

Ir&n fljiW rln*''«i/^ U*'//ri*. — Th^.ae trat<*r* contain roiiMclera- 
ble qaaiilicie^ of an^eiiic in addilkm lo the iron; tb«^* are 
indicated enpeoially in cblorotic iind auemic coDdition^, in 
chrT>iiic mrilarin, aod !ii neuraldo^s Among tliose waten* may 
t>e mciitiom-d ll»rbih llol Sulphur t>priti^f Crockett Arsenic 
LithJA :>|)riug>^ und •Swinolorrl Ar^iik* Litliiu ?Spriii)r. 

Tlie JolJowing isiblc ' ^ive^ the chemic cH>iiij>u><itioii uf tJi^ 
most iniportaot irouuiidurMriiiewAtcrvj 1 lilcr of wulcr contains; 

ifrtuHi. tifvmt- fffjmt. 

OuvlHmu(<M? (Srv^K'mik) - - a37<l0 O.OOai 0.0003 

HaH:imHijlSu]plixirStihnK< - .1X0300 O.OMl O.OOW 

Uwfick . . - . 4J«00 aOUOl 0.0050 

LcTk» &6600 0.00» 0.0060 

Beooilo 3.2O00 aO03« O.DOJiO 

JkOca^O _ P - r ».00(n ULIAOU CMHIJ^ 

VI. Barthy MincraJ Waters. — Thf-sK^ wiitcn* iipe dmraotor- 
}xM hv ihi* (in-.-ct-iKv of Ui^- :iiii<iiiuFf^ of oalc-imu und mH)>iti>* 
^iiim -uiit"*. Thi'V diminish flu' [mMhu'tinn of arid in iW f*iom- 
ac^h. and also tti« wm'tion* from (he n-.-*pinu<ir>% diffft^tive, and 
urinan' lnn<-s 'Hka' are indu^at^^l r_-i|N»eially in ohrowir ratarrii 
of thi* iirinarj' oi^ns in nrio a.^id diathfftia^ p>ui, ^^crofuLi, 
aud mrhiti?^ In drinkinic ilic.***^ waters f^nnW i|iinniiii('H j-bould 
be taken at firet, and gradually increaj*eii umil the flow of urine 
b mork^Hlly iitcrcai^l* Among ihese waton* arc ihiise of Con- 
ti^^si^ilU-, Marit-alad. Wildun^ni. M^milou t^|)nug:»» Mount 
Oli'cnt'ii- Miiwrul Spring-, Itt-df >ril l^pnngy, AlWhrtnv SpHiij;*, 
Capitn Springs, and Gn>enbrit.'r Whiu* Suljdinr Sj»riT)gw, 

The t'h^'taic «imiioi*ili(fli »f ibo m*wt im|Mirianl earthy mill- 
era! waUos iA ^ follf^wa ; ^ 1 liter of W2t«r nmtaim : 

* f\i|K«'a rAyM/fw- Thtrmprmtia, toI Ix., p H7- 
' /W.Tol ix..p. 4a> 



120 BEV£RAQES A^D UTillVLAyTS. 

OilcluiD c^rclum Odclom 

til I phut*. btvarWiutv. ouImiuIo. 
Gfm* Q/^HU t^'OHU. 

AUoOMSllrjt^roJ N>nu|pi . . 1^0 0.4:2 1X47^ 

Ariuiw* Hoi .Spring* 1.80 O.lft aid 

Biith ].&0 0.42 ai3 

SifriiiB*! . ." , \M M2 0,ia 

riift^n Sjirmjfa ...... ]J» CU3 0.14 

ioiuro:iiTvit]v ...... ijo 0.46 0.18 

XhiUtwv 1 (H }.44 a.H 

tjiiun [tiipiij VolU 0.77-0.94 1.44 0.»t-0,7g 

Sprinu 1^ 1.44 fhli 

tii*i^ShiKr OJIO 0.12 

LcLikiMlml 1.43 0.00 0.12 

U]i|«l>riii|rr ..... aS2 0.41 0.]|> 

Jlaiuinii Sjivina 0,^42 n,41 0.40-1.11 

Unhi iitxuL rEiid(ilfM|Uo]l« , . U.82 0.00 0.40-1.1! 

Olfl Swii/i St.ririff» . U.22 0,60 0.51 

J^kli-im ... W2'Z 0.10 051 

Wurm t^iilpJiiit t*jPiingB , . <M!4 010 O.OB 

Wi-i'**»iibun! o.a4 1.27 aoo 

Wil.h»ii£^ 100 1.27 ao8 

VII, Acratothcrmal Waters. — TbeM; i>iiLt.T.if ult^M kiiuivi) 
tir* siinplo or " mUiflVrt^nl " wiiters, arc churaotoriwd by Uie 
fnrf timt tluT urt." ikLiuiim-d ut ii tten |«>r.ifiirp of H'j^ F. or over. 
Thry lid lint, lut«'rv<T^ I'oriLiin luiy ncfivr mijicnil ingi'Hilrnls*, 
They arc rartiy uM.il for ^Irinkitig piirpwcs, l>iit njv in*".-*! 
ominly lor iturniiil Uilhs. (For u mure cutn|»Idt- liiwriplioii 
of mineral waters and their tiw^s ihr r^ihUt i?; rt*fcrrwl to tlie 
recent aiiii mo^t oxeelkiit volume on " ISdlrmjInp)' i)ii<[ Criuio- 
(lierain''" by Ki^^cii^ JIiiiM-Inle, Jiml Pi'ttlOj in ColieiiV ^^ifuffm 
of Phtj^ii^fitjh^ TtifTffjjrutkv, vol. ix.) 

Bpi«uI«*« wflter, th^rc iirt> u immb<»r of bt*voroges tlmt serv<^ 
n'>t imly l<» mcfi the pliysicnl tkh**!?* «»r lli** IvkIv^ but an- fll*ci 
takea to pnjdiiet* a TFliiiinlmit effect. 'Diey iiIja* i*er\'e \\t<' pui^ 
pose of a j^timiilunl wlirn.' siu li U iieiNLSMm' fn>iij tiiin> lo time, 
iw in the ciiw of <li7^«ii»e. Tlie Imbil of iiMug htvemgt'j*, either 
for tbt (>Tir[io>!ic of relieving fiuigne or for wniviviality, u oiosl 
{HTiiieiotiN, UK it i> apt to induiv it hnbit fnr t;ikiii^ r<ndi ilrlnk^f 
which ill liHir U-tith t'> ex<T«^?*» We :*b[|ll ii*iw t;ike ii|i in 
onlcr ihtr otlirr hovcm^es — t*n, coffee, cocon, «ml thr various 
ulcohoiic iitimului3t<. 

* Ma^iivdiifu bicii.r1)nni&ir. 



TEA. 



121 



TEA- 

Ttu i-H n |Jr(j'aniti<rn niaiie from the I<«Vi5i of nii cv4'rj;nru 
^Ijtnc kixiwn a.s Tk^i* It h grown iu Chinn, Jn|KLii, Imllu, 
Ce>*U>n, imrl in North Carolina. There are many vanetifti uf 
rlio plant, and the flavor *^f tea varies with it?* wiiirc*^ and rhe 
variety id' die pkmt. There are two j:reat L'lafsses ot' u-nf^ tlie 
gTvt*n and tJit- bWk^ the dii^Lutciiou belweeii ihe two licliig due 
Iff tilt iinlli<nl of jtrepanitiifi), ^voml timea durm^ tl*e yisir 
(ho phiut Bt^Tub out youn^ vhootff, which 2W pioUiHl n^t ul\i*u tut 
l\uy Aji|>enr, fllark ft^ is |iiy'|>nn><) hv ex|KKifi^ tlu^ frtvii 
lcflV(9 t" the rays of ihi^ Min ; atter they havt* l>ivi>nn- \\-illi(»n*d 
tlie oaiii>titfieiiti are liheraied by rolling and hnukirii; ii[i iW 
filxTH iiihl t*ell[* of the leaf- The hri>ken-a]i leiives nrf* thf'U 
o>IlKt4?il ami alloH~eil to ferment ^'hile still mni^t; dunn^ this 
[yrtKic*^ [he tannic acid H rt'odered k-tw M>hdde while tho (W^^ii- 
iM oiU art inerea^d. After again e-xpsdn^ iheni to tin* jjiun 
tlic ImvvTt HIV drietl in an <jveu. In the prrH^wi nf pirjuHritig 
Ifrevii tm tW Clduf--o '' witlwr'' tlio l(sivt« in |mDH nl a tom|»<r- 
uturtTof IfiO^ F. ; tli<> Ja|>uiioventt.iim thvia. Tlii'diiid urim.'iph'ji 
iin* lhi»n lii>*'mt4^1 hy l>r<iik!ng U|> ihi* Wv<* ; fiimlly thry nny 
iigiiin ^vithc'rwh :<w<.>ftKHl hi hr^, amd ,-*luwly rcfij«k-<1. T\w 
cWwf ilttlV*n'n«? Iietw^i-ii hiark and jfrfs^n Iwi )\v> in the ihet 
that hhw^k un irt feiTiH-nitM] whil- \^u^-i\ U not. As in tin- 
|inicev« of fermeulati^^n \\i*^ Xnxuny arid lurtmn'^ h'w «idiihk'f 
blick t«*a cmtaii)'* much Uw* lanaie acid than grwn 14^1. Tlie 
fiillowinif table, fruru BaimL^ter/ ipve» the oomjxkt^'tiou 'tf Idaek 
auJ vf ^ret-ii Im i 

Wii(tr - - . . t K"2(} S,ft6 

lUTdn . 3.74 233 

AlbiHitUi (injluhlr) 17.3l> 1<i«3 

Albiimin fvihibk) aTO 0.80 

AlnJiuUc viinci - - d79 7»oa 

DMlriit . - - . . OM . 

Pevijniiiil T>«vtJcnd-l 2,Cf) mH 

TVimic n*i^J , . ^J.-|i> 3T.14 

diloTDphTtl ftnil rwifi . . . -1.60 4:20 

C«Uti1ow u.m tMQ 

Af.li 437 CjOT 

T*n IiiiH]>ra<'t!f*aIIv no iititrient-inirredieotf*. Its primuiiad OOQ- 
HlitU4-Ql4 are cafleiH and tannic acid, and it- .^Ktial aroma is 
line ti« a vrrlatile oil. It owl« ttn iftiniulalin^ elK^t to the |irv±^ 
enee of caiffein. A« the action of tanfitc acid i» detrimental to 



123 



BEVERAGKS ASD STtMl'LASTS. 



the prowwft (if liigi-ftfiiiij^ t^-u vlmnUI Iw ni% prv-pim^I n*t i^ rvmrain 
aft larfe ^ i»rc)}K>rlicH) i>r i^itftVin g> iHiw&ililc tiimI l\tr Aiimllrwt 

Wlien thf* Ii'flvo.-* tiw plaitil in lynling m^iiUt, nitVrin i* ex- 
tracU'd ri*ry ra[ii(lly. T:iiinic iin<\, hnwrwr, i?* iiitU'U lew:* 
soluble; U follows, rbfn'foiv, llmt in oHcr to Imv*' a« little 
tannic add in the lea an j»iis;<ihlt', tlu- IwiviTi ^h<mh1 1m* ImiU^ in 
water for its ohort a lime mi [M-ai'lu^bKs Tu prcjmiv Uu* iufu- 
*<ioii pour boiling waU-r ou tlit- tiMi-lcavt'-i mid aU*>w ibi- mixture 
h* ^taod wbupt* it will kwp bot. tb^ugb not WJ, for fw-in thrtii 
til *!v** mJrintiit. TU' w»t*'r ustnl in pnTjKiriiij^ Hm should Tiot 
be \\iinl t'T Male*. 

H'h(.*ii tbo tannic ncid wbicb tea contains oc(-iii> in Inr^^u 
quant it ii-.-t, tbi* ]>f'pf*in oi" tbi' ^iritrii' jin*v i.i iir<i'i[>iTati.-{l ; iu 
wtfikiT ^>lmii»ii-L toa n-tanl?* ili^^.^tjon. K<tr tlu-M- n^^L-^^us lea ii* 
not a Auiiable lu'V^nij^i* for jjot^ons niiftM-inj; fnim ^b<1n<^ ili-s- 
lurbanoes. Aaiong tbe niort* pronilnt»nt hvinpioni?* of cxcost^ivo 
!eu*drinking an? jjiunuii- di7M»r(b"i>», ^tnliar diniiv--*f», and a vanelv 
of nt-rviiTm r*vm|it'Hii-s t?iicb ne cxoitability, sl<'oplt'rttin<\ss, un4 
mn^oular iuixurilinatioa. 



COFFEE. 

C<>f!W' WH,-* intrfxliKwl ini^i Etirojie in llio wnme «*ntiiry iw 
tt'U, ami ouiv ji ti-w yi-ais lati-r. It i-4 pri-|uinii fp>rn ttii' rst-tH\n 
of <.hffivi tirahhir J whirli was oHjiinally j;n»wii in Ambia, bnt 
luL* Mniv b(i"ii cuhiviitiMl iu Java, CWlon, diMii Riiti, and 
IJmrib The fruit of ibc pltiUt^ wbi'-b Ima ibc (i|>|x'umnr<' of a 
obrrrv, wbcu <i|k>iui! cli.-iojo.-it^s tbt* oofll-t^^n^sin. In onb'r to 
pn'|iTin* tlii* l"fni* fnr iHf du^y (in* ilri«l at a Injjb fi'aijvrntmv 
vid tbcc mn*t*'d nad ^roiaab In n*i8ting, oiio^fiftb of the 
cntTcin and onf-tiiiili of \\k* fat present ai\r liij^b TIk- imnnii 
of ootfK" is dui' til ibo ]jn'?«'m«» nf nitHH>l, mi oil liln-nilnl ia 
nvL<«tiii^. Affiii^nTtt; lo HtJtc'fkir^ai [ji. 310), a nijt nf bE;u*k 
vtitToe contain^ abtait il^ lar^^ a qiianlily of taiuii(< add and 
cftffi*iii a« n cup of tm. Cotft'e if* ofcji a<lnltf*nit4Hl, <:hir*iipy, 
ut^Hirn^, nud oUut wnbLiUnor.-* tH'in^ Tiddnl fnr tbi?* |»ur|»(ifli*, Tlie 
nduhrration muy art Ik" lujurinnR in itn Hti-ot, but jjltci-w, ftnmt*- 
titliet: rvvii [ijjiVL'ubl V » tln" Ibivor of tin* <*fit!i*t». 

Preparation of Coffee. — Ta imbT to obtain i^itlVn' of tby 
tini'^st flavor^ tHi' In-iin?^ :*ln*ijld Ik* rmsUsl atal irrnnail sbortly 
before thi-y an' lo Iv n-Mil, as tin- Haviir i> itapiiiii^l by cxfKJs- 
arc to the air titier grinding. 'J1ie water nhiitild have reach<^d 



cocOii, 



123 



tW lv>ilin^-p<<int hcfnrc Jt i« |>ouro<l ovor the ooffeo, Tb« pot 
shoTil) thrn lie pl'K'eil for a ftw rDom^nt^ in a hoi pUce, hut 
boiliDi; luii^t ni»t be allowed to coDtintie, or the an»ma will be 
lott amd thf* c-^^tTvi! contarii t'>o Ur^ a |)on>cnUi(-e of tannic acid, 

TUr dlWt of oofloe on ttiL- sysU*m U lliiit of a fitimiilfint. due 
to ih*' cwftV-in pr(*<*nt ; it jkI^ dirwily un the €<.'n?bnil ocnlcrs, 
j«liiiiuluU% till- liciirt, and dcciK^Tis the respirations. It U au 
cxdtunt of tlie ncr\'ou:< svt^d), udcI in Home piTsoDfi producE-4 
ncnoiisiu^Vf cxritdbiliiy, iind buoimim : id lUbi^tv it act« uir an 
agTt^^hk- j^tiniiilmit. In por»oii» suftcrinc; fmni dypfjX'|K>ia it 
hiu« a t«iidenoy lo disturb dlgce^ioiii It lof^ii^^ns the strnin <A' 
tktlffie, and wMiem frfv|nently depend n)>on its ^imiitnting 
«&ct daring large mrirche^f. 

Tile following table, taken from Bannif^terV ranli»r I^eclnres, 
givc4 the coin [K)&i lion of luw oihI of roasted coffee : 



<M«rlfl IM 

fticclmnni* nalti.'r . . » . . Ml 

OiffeU Mid*. . a46 

Aliuliulic txUscf (iiilJiMi^ui-Miit simI rulw^ 

Lrw-iittit«*r^ - ^ - 6J0 

Pkl «nEl oil 1160 

l4;!fiifnia . - . ^ , , . | 9-ST 

Dvitrin .... Ol8T 

<>]ialn«e«i)d lfMri1(ihl« LV>1i>rin)r<nLiitter . 37.95 

AA. . I 3,74 

UolKiuv . . * , . 1 HLd« 



tlocli*- 



Bmi tudkn. 



0.91 
0,43 
4.T4 

lil4 

11,33 

l:M 

3K»I2 

a63 



Btev. 


ftcwMi. 


1.11 


i-oa 


aw 


Ml 


MA 


U2 


4JAI 


IMT 


1M1 


IMl 


11.^ 


i«.ia 


o,» 


1^ 


SS-fW 


4:.42 


3.i« 


uw 


9.W 


\M 



COCOA, 

Cocoa was introduced into Europe long Iwfore eithtr coffee 
or tea. It U preiKirtHi frtim tiie wetU uf tie L^amo iree, 7?<*vj- 
iroma ccnwo- The ^e^^ are contained in a |Miljiy fniiit some- 
what re«e»iiblinjf a encumber, from whicli they arc extracted. 
The fniil U gatlierwl into heaps and allowed to ferment, when 
tile (Hilp tieeoEuefi lonwued. Dnring this procc** the *evds 
bemoie dark :ind Imi* F4>nie of thi^ir l>ittfmcM. Tbey nre tli^ 
rmuiteil, by wlii^'b prtNt'^sr tbfA' arv broken inio t>it^ eoru^titiiti»|^ 
the fl<v<<al]4<l ^'eiWHw mb?i." A d«<(VK*tioii of eooia nib^ i>« made 
by boiling ibo N^cds in watitr for i*everal hours and remorinjif 
Uu* rcHJdiio by Mraininjc, C>ci»a, as onlinarily prepared^ is 
nude by ijriiidinir the -ertU into a pasle, to wliich supu* or 
MskTCilt h mUM ; if Htarcli U U--<ed, tlie cocoa if boiled for u few 



124 



SEVJSXAGKS AlfO JiTlMULAMV. 



minut^jt, I>ii1 if sn^ir is nd<W^ ihv cocoa niily requin>« the adili- 
tii.m ttf Ixtitrng waliT i*r milk, 

Th€i>l>:umln, tli(! chief alknloKt pre^cDt in cocoa^ oocuk in 
Amounts of from 1 to 2 \wr «?iit, Oicua alw> eontninr^ DitrtH 
tro]ii»ii« ifnb*laiict¥!, 15 jkt wnt. ; tuiinic acid, -j [wr (x-iit- ; 
?itarcli, 5 to lo pt-r criit* ; fau known a* cm^on-butterj 4o to 50 
]Krr t'ciit, ; mineral (itn^titiicnt^, 2 to '^ jH.r tent. 

T]RK.^bromin, while a Miniulant^ i>^ \vir^ n\n to induce nc^rvoua 
eyinptonif, i^ndi a;F^ T<lee|ik^^iK's*< iiml |jalj»tia(ioM, than t*itlier Kul 
or coffbc. By rcjwioti of the loi^o projH^rlwui of *ugar uu*} i'aX 
oont4iiac<l in it, bott'ovoi", wlicfi n^o*! in oxcuarf, cocoa id likely 
to prwhiw* :TH|ipi>tifm. IVhon not ti:»o rii>h, il fornin a nntri- 
tioiw drink especially Uf+eful for clnhhvii ami for ronvalcsicpiUa, 

Chocolate is prepared hy adiling ^lait-h, f^iig^^r, and .muh 
flavoring substances as vanilla, lo ei.H?oa, It contains 1_.^ |>er 
cent, of iheubromin, lo j^er cent, of fa!» o per ecnip of nitro- 
genoufl suljstaiic*e>i^ and about liO per cent, of *^ngar, 

In addition tu their r^tlmiilant effect, cocoa and chocolnto 
]>o>^Hes<d a marked nutrient Milve not po»«efMed by thither tea or 

The kol& out possesses pi'o^ieriii*^ p^iadlar to those of ooooo. 
It contain-^ nn rdknloid, catfein^ thein, or ili^'iibivjmin- 

The following table, taken froai Kwell,' give?* the* isliHuio 
analysis of variniis cocoa prepamii<>na : 







Fiber. 


Cnnc- 


Ajtta. 
4J±4 


AdM itnrch. 


FiVaotwoauxiniirt . - . 
8lctLni1lt«AcucoAliiJa . . 


^ ■ 


Now. 


3U3 


3.70 


■ * 


tM " 


\'Liri l[4rri(4ti*s cocfln - > 


2V^I 


4.38 


■ ■■ 


8.04 1 -' 


hlouki-rH Dlltpli uyro* 


:n,4H 


3.76 


_ 


6.0fi " 


RoiintW» i-JHMu vxiraol 


27M 


142 


. , 


448 - 


Kounirpi>'M pivrlfFfti 










i'licii>c>ln1«i - . 


2SM 


\.m 


51 


1 ,rt'i Vvry linlo nnvi»-reot. 


Kry'* itlumrtod awe*! 


25.94 


\M 


2fS 


S.!-'" Much unvfW-rocii. 








Mijdi whtEir-niorch and 


i>hiir<r>1^i1i> , - 


mno 


QJll 


AS 


Irin v-mv nrn.iW-rool^ 


Limir-n fiH'ini ( unknfJWn 












11.13 


113 


32 


1**^ Much nrrow-rooc 


CliwiilHt-lI'^Tiii'r - , 


21.1 M 


MO 


!i8 


t.40 


yantk 



ALCOHOL. 

Alcohol i>^ prochieerl by tho fc-rmertnrfon <tf 4uynr!< with 
ywBt< The princifiai con&titnent in all alcoholic Iw^verap^ \n 
ethyl alcohol. The glucose eontaine<l in friiKn is fermented 



I 



ALCOirOl, 



lij 



directly into nWh<)l, whereas rh^ starches \n nocli Rulj^tanwH nft 
]K>taii)(<s, ^raiiiK, flo-^ Jiro cmvcn*Hi inM H**ttnn anil maltti^e, 
and iherij l>j' the aid of diasutic IbrrueDU, before tlie a!<^^holic 
femientation can take i>lace^ they aiv amvertftl into ghicojrc. 

The f(HK]-valiie »'f iihi>lj«*! lias Ixvn a ^iilijwl for di^^oiiK^ion 
for many yt^rn. Although nil admit ilmt akn^bol t^km in 
ex<xf^ is a piibon and in Jitrimt-ntal to lic^lth, VL-t opinitktM 
dider widely a^ to tbe food-\'alu<^ of ulcohol tukeri in iji'Hl(.>nitc 
c|iiaiiliiifN Tlitrre are tht^^cr whfj muiut^in that ulobi^l, even 
in sriidll ijuatitit]<>«, ij^ dttriini^iiitil to btraltb aixl aoti^ »>f a 
|ioi?«'iii, wlK'nuri iMhoni bclievt* tiiat, on the ev>ninin', nboit l^kon 
in siniill qiianthicji, it po^4i4e^«4f« a confide rabli" nuirieiu valu^ and 
h to \>e n^fHtmmcudi'il a> a valuuhle food- Tbe nin%l rpceni, an 
w*-ll aj* the iiiofli fxliaur^live, work Mirinff on thin tuibjwt has 
b«-u dwne liy Atwaier in his <^x|K'rimi'nl^ on **Tlio Nutritive 
Value of Aleob'il^* in 'Pii J'ftifni'iloffic Af^ircfs of Ow IJqtior 
QuGfthrt, i903. Tliis \xTiier sums up bb ixkuIu under the 
foUouiu)* beodiiipt: 

X. Eficct of Alcohol upon the Pigcstion of Food. 
— Ac-Viirdinu to Al\nit*r, iIh- i-tlivl <>!' :iIoi*biii in .-riiriH <jumi* 
titicH is itlightly 1o int^rtuiM? the- digi'«iii>tlity <»f |m>tein, but not 
to alter fhi' dip><tibitity of other nnlni^niit^thitt is i^rlHt* 
hrdnitfK luvl f»t^. 

2. Proportions of Alcohol Oxidized and Unoxi- 
dued. — AlWiiUr tin«l'' tlmt at brji-^l i9S |ht ivui. i.f iht: nhiAuA 
inf^i*!>ti'd i* »xiiliK<d in tlie lK>iiy, whemiH ortlinan'Iy W )K*r 
ccnt> of the i»rlv>bydratj'T«, U^t jH-r it nf. o{ th<* faK and tKt jicr 
cv»t, of lh<* [>n>tt*iu an- oxldi»il; ibe iih'i>Jinl in lbi;n*fr»iv 
oiidia^l nitin* (.i>*[i|)lett^lv limn ure tin* nii1ncnt» of vnliOTirv 
roo<!^. 

3. Metabolism of the Energy of AlcohoL — Atuiitd-'fi 
iVinrhih'iolu rr^T'inliop tlw* mi*tjitrtili%t»i inul riM-r^v of nirohol 
arc : '■ Thi* energy whirh wn* lulent or |>"UiUi[i! in tbe alcohol 
wu^ wholly lmM'«fiirme<I 111 the Iwnly, w^it* »i.^iiully jfivoii off 
fnim the Itiniy, aixi wasaeliiully n.^eftvi-reii u> hf^til or heat and 
mittMrtdiir wfiifk.'' ** K Tbe hvr of the omHerviiiion of erKi^ 
nbtaineil with ibr aI(H>bu] dirrt n^ wUU the i>nli[iurv iftri. '2. 
The jmleiUial cmi)^' "f th<.» n!(*oh"l 4ixidiwii in X\iv h'Av Wiw 
Itun^ormixl (Nimplrtr-ly rntn kinrtio rnei^' am) appnirnl either 
nf ht*at or a)L mti^fidor vri^rk, nr bnih. To ihiH i^xtcnt, at any 
rate, it witf n«-<l like tbo cm*!^' of iIm' prvtti'in, fsrt*, nod mrbft- 
hvdmtf-i if ibf fitoil/' 

'4. Protection of Body-material by AlcohoL — (a) 



126 



JtEVBMAOEs ASD smivLAyrs. 



Protection of Body-fat. — Tlip (viTU'liitilon rrsicd"! by Alwatcr^ 

tlir in*c ut iilonhol U vun" ^li^'Iilly <liffLT(nl tmin tliat follinving 
llio tnl^in^' i»ron!injiry foinl, und that alcohol pn^ti-cts the Ixniy- 
l!iT ijiiilo uj^ (■JTiH'tivdy ns iJ<i \U.- WxU and wirbuliydniles of ihc 
j'ltiid iVir wlui'li i1 i-^ ^[ll1^lilM1<1l. 

t''J Prvuction of iSody Frutein. — '* Tlic jicwtr of filcohol to 
pniUKH tlie prcrtvin uf ftmil <»r boily tissue, vr both, from oon- 
Mimfitinn irt (dnirly dcnioimtmUnl- Itj* firiEion in ihi^ rL-s|)cct 
ttp|Mqii-- til 1k^ t^itDilnr to thnt of tlic c^rhohvdmic^ mid fats; 
tJini i*i t*> *ijir, ill it*i oxidntion it ri^ldw en<>r^fv nwlcl In' th^ 
IkxIv, and ttiii^ siivp^ otlicr f^iLh^aiicc's from oxidation. In thm 
way idfobol wrves the body afi food. Just how modemte 
4|iiiut!tk-fi i»f alwihdl conijmrc with iHulynaniit amounts of 
ttug&r, starch, and fal in the ]"ott'cr to protect protein from 
knliiboli^rti it^ not yot >iclt!fd, Apiwircntly it is in ^omo cajrc* 
ojnal, in otbcn* inferior to thoc^^nMance*- It is ly no mcana 
cvriaiii ibat Ihtis aiul uirhobydrate^ art uIwbvt^ ocjual to cucb 
other in tin* |»>vi-or." 

** Alcobol iip|>f--Lr» nl«> to <iXort »t tinnw a j^ficcial action as n 
drag. In liir^h? ^iinuli(ii?ri it Ta |wwitivply li^ixir, and may retaixl 
or pven pri'voin fnctabolisni In general and prt^tein metibolUm 
in imdicuhir. Id small ilo^ee it scem^ at times to Iiave an 
oppofiite influence, tending to incrcjise ttn^ disinte^mtion of 
protein. The action^ though not eonchisivLly dt m on st rated, is 
very probable. It nft'ers a satisfactor}' explanation for the 
occaeifanil failure <»f ak-ohol to pniteet proicin^ tlie as^nniptiou 
bciu^ that llic twi- teiidcnrif^ ei.inou-nu-l each r>(lieT. The ■*Tily 
jaeii^tciUiiiii for rallinj; alci^bitl a protein ]>oi3on ii* f'^und hi this 
disititetjruliii^ tcudcacy Thii^ phai'niacKJynarnc action of 
alr>oboi appeara to he teniporar\\ and most apt to (wonr with 
lit<ople Httl(> aoeiistomerl to its iiw, The eircuni-^tano^ under 
whifh fltieh action occnr^i can not he fallv defined" 

5. Effect of Alcohol on the Radiation of Heat 

from the Body, — Al^vater finds that alcohol taken in 
niodenite ipiantilie^ i^nnluce^ no consiclcrahle incrcnw in tlie 
stmoiint of beat radiated from the bcKly; iu larp' r|uantitie« it 
nuiH"*- :i diliilalirMi iif die ve?*(.N of the ^bi", uicix.ii>in^^ the 
circalnli<»M aud iha^ incrca-in^ the heat riidljiti"ii, 

6, Rapidity of Comhttstlon of Alcohol in the 
Body. — Hy AtwjiliT^^ r'X|jf'nmentfl it U j-^Mi\vn that **rtI<'«thol 
iH not MuldHdy or nipidly oxidized : but if there Iw sudden or 
mpid exidaiion, tbert is a corre;*-|>ondinp dtvreasc in the oxida-* 



ALCOHOL. 



127 



itfm of tlio ffirbohyclmli'?', f«l«, (►r prf>tcni ; in other wtircU, 
of etk'rB>% «) tbnl u one U <jxwiiziii tlir othirr i^ <'t>nx':-|MinJiai;ly 

7- Alcohol as a Source of Heat in the Body,— Al- 
wjitor fi.Kiml iliat in iii<i>t <»!' tlie ex|>t'riment>i *' alcoh^jl was cep- 
tflitily a ^rumr "f heiil f'T fbf hHiy," 

8. Alcohol as a Souice of Huscnlar Bner^^. — 

Tlw I'imrlTiMi^nn rtaidiwl by AIwuUt iv^anling tliib are 
cxirrnirlv luipiirwnl ; " Tlw hyf>otliLHis ibut tl»i.' al«>liJ>l l»ii- 
rriUutiHl it* libiru «»f i'in*rgj' f<kr miiTii'dliir work ih imtural and 
rxtrr*rnj*]y imilmM*\ but mit ali-*nliiMy (jiyivkI, TKi* liy|iotli(-*4H 
tliat thcenL'rg>' I'f iho alnilMil wa^ not ^mo ii^^l is iiot chI W for 
OS uii ex[>hLn.'iti'^i of run- ih*'f. nbw^rvrrl in lh*>se e\|>eriim'iitfl, 

" It ^iioulil iu)t W' tiir^lteii ilwit iho (lewirabilily of alcohol 
IL« |iart of II iJiH for Tiiti-^nLir vvf>rk !:« not decided bv* the nar- 
rower r|ii(.v-«tioii hf r<» cli■^?lJ,'<?MHL There if* a vi^ry e-vscnlial difllpiv 
o«o« Ixrlw'cvii th(.^ iran^formalion of i!ie jmrential <*oerg}' nT 
nh»hi>l luUi iht' ni'^rb^uiii-til rm-rg>^ of iim^^uhir \vi»rk nuO llir 
Oilvruitn^ *yr ihrnnWuninge *A' nlooho) iu tho itict of jtroplc 
ongag^ in miiM^jbir hi1>or Kvtm with thi* nmM Aoi^^ in the^« 
i>rp<>nm4^iit'i tUt-rt^ ^vvn^ iiulirntutn* t.hnt tin* <nbJ4v-b« w*fcrkr<l fo 
•lighlly bcUcr lulvinUaL'*" ^vifb lli^- cmliiuiry mtioDs timn with 
tlic nWiiiol- TIk' n.'T'iih'i <if prEircii-:!! U^l-* on :i lat^ *cale 
ciwwhi-n? ojiiicitk' nitli tlHu-^^'if irf-nt-nil oliwcrvaiioii in iinplr- 
in(j iJiat thv ihc of uny c<iiHitl<*nibb- <[uantity of alcoholic 
bcV4-nips na psivi of tiM* tlii-t f<rf miiM^iUir hiltor i* gi*^ieniUy of 
douhtitil VEibK- ami i»h<-ii |MHitivL'ly iirjiirloiit.'* 

Atvmirr giv1*^ tlic fulbrwing |iixi|xrrti»ii^ ».<< U> ihi' avnihibility 
oiiJ fucl-v»btc' of iik<otiol in niilritiikti aji oomixnt^l with c^rbo- 
hyrlniU-s nml fats: 1 gm. of ah^cibnl, 1} ^ni, of t^irbohvdrntei 
aoi] J gm. iif fat yii'h! llir «ime amonitt of rnrpgy to the tody, 
and hi*n»v :iir isiHlvimini^' om(? with ibe otIitT. 

Alcohol as a Pood. — Ina^maob at^ akn^hol cont^iin^ ro 
niin>j^-niiu--* iiiiisLJiiii'nr^, it vnn n«t be h>okoil ii|M>n a^ a fowl 
toiKiia^ 111 r<-|Kur ti*Mif*, hut rm-roly A'^ n fui.-I that i>n oxidicinjrf 
fornix anini-t] hi^i. 

Al<H>}ii»l in v^-xily digi^t4*i1 and mwlily nb^uHtcil m (lie alt- 
DMfitary tmct; l-i a fttotb bowcvrt-, U U co«4ly, ami th(^ dnn^^ 
of wldi<.'t4on and <*3E<^iwi in itf^ hm" v* civnt. The hiLbitiinl OM^ 
of alculk>>l «*vMi in i»<ini*i(h"Tiihh' (|iiiiitl!l]<-4 thx'* ntti i(<nd to pr<i- 
iIhi^o injuHoii4 I'fTii'^.-* in many |n*r»iins whrf-reap in irtl»*m 
Dgt^ t:dpt«ially (»f a cit7liot!<r natiin\ in ihi* tiMUGe> 



12S 



BEVERAGES AND STlMUZAyTS. 



cprt;iiii ilis4n!M^», 4^|)eciiilly Uiim* TK^MiinimiiirHl by uialiiutritiofi, 
CJ(tn.'mo tW>k*iU'>N iind «*ili»iit^tii)n, ulwihol m'tj* qa t\ i\)od and 
M<rvL'-'< nil r:cct*11criL pitr^M)!^* in ix^litrin^ ^lrt'ii^}k k> u wmk and 
I'lifw-Miti Ixjcly, 

<2iiiu* ns iniponanl a.-* AlWiUiT*?* txjxrirm-fiL* mi "TiieXii- 
trilive Value *»f Ali^olu*! '* U tlu- v;iliialiK rt-vicw nf Al*cl mi 
'^ The PJmrnuii^tlogiv iiud Vliyttnthjgtvi Aistiou iif Akn^bol,'' 
pllMi^^1^ ill the- I'/itfti'fio^c Att^^tvU of tht tJfjuor Ptrthirm, 
AIk-I Mtmniari£L?( tlio autioil of uWtuil on iIk- vai^-ulur i^y^tofEi 
ill th** ton*>rt'itig wuy : 

*' Si fflr 11-* [irt^'iil vxjieriTiK'iitnl n-idoTi£v ^^-^^ wi' nuiy «iy ; 
1. TIml iiUh>1ioI u> aik-Ii — tint i>, wlic*n it is iiitnxlTKH^J ititu tlio 
ctn-tiljiti^«ri with tlio avoidaiKH' of local imtiition — !!< not ft cir^ 

Clllutuiy ' ?«UMllllllIlt.' 

^' '2, Aliv>lu»] m iijoik'mli' <^iiniititioJS ^^v ti ]niii of win<.% hiw 
DodircHTt a<.'timi <>M tlir ht^rt it^oll^ citlicr iti tlic way of »tiiitu- 
liitlng or (Uprc-rwin^ it. Thl^ 6tu1viiK*tit U Ij:lxi1 tiii itio rcAiilt^ 
of l;ilK>rati>rv ('XjH'riTiK^iit--*, rxtctidiii^ over short [>crio<b* of tinio 
oiiK% ami tW* not hnpty ihni it hnhlt^ for thr MojkIv dflily use 
ofalooliol in iht-i <iii:uirrty. Tj]]r|ri> (jiinnlitit?)^ of alcohol weaken 
the hmrt. 

"It has q1»o no notion either on tlie p<»ripheral or central 
entU of (he nerves which control the Kite nod foive of tlie 
h<*aTt, except prolwihly hi uQUf-uul circumstances, such as pro- 
long and severe intoxication. 

" 5. Alcohol in modenitc iiunntilic^F ha» B}m no direct nction 
ou ihi" Mullf- of the ljhi<KUvcwM;'ls, cipher on llicfr niur^ciibr j>or- 
tion or on the jn?riplHnil tirminfitionfl of their vasomotor 
O«rvoa. Thi8 etsilomoHi riUo rofcrt only to tlie ix>iiilt^ of elngle 
admini&tmtimifi. For iht^ juilhoh^c <floK* nf (lie eontiniioij 
ttr^e of * modemtc * ipiantitJc^L the writings of pathologists miut 
be conMili^^iK 

"4» hi moderate quantities it has also no appreciahte effect 
on the arterial blood- pressure. AVlicn a change in this becomes 
apparent, it if^ ulwuys in the dircctiun ol^ a lull nod not of a 
rise. An exception is w^^n when tlic sptiml onl is wavered in 
ite npj)cr |h>rtitni. In thi^ chm; a ■•mal! inul tcm|ioRin' riK: of 
nrcesuiv follows tho rapid injection i»f dilnl^xl alcohol, except 
in thow* inptfln<N]<s when ihp hloo(Up!v*fiiir<i ic vcrv low^-*aj^ 
3<) mm. or i>c]ow. Tt is afi»iim*Hl th.it nn nnoinalons cnnditioii 
of some |Kirt of the cirtHilatory :ip|xinttiis aceoimts for ihifl 
unu^unl ctlcci. In the early stag*^ of its action it uifuaUy 



ALconoi. 



129 



I 8DIIIP d^gr^e of flii4iitig iif the vkin ami Umii). am] hittr, 
vfan Vtry Imgv qLuntitk-^ Iihvc be^ii taken. vnMriilnr dilatitioti 
of tlie abditfniimt ve«i;olM w.'C\itk, TIio Inll of bUxjcl-i^n^^ure 
duo to Yifry large ^tmutitic^ i» u toxic [ilicuomcnon iurI ih never 
niiri tt'itli iimk-r unlttmrv rimimitUinoiw. It in due to the de- 
|>n>suii nriiim of ihe nlivluJ uii iIk- ntTvons <c'nU'r> vrhich 
ciritilji>l the rtiliUTw i'l'lhc iirtrrii'* uml idi«» Jii jkiH to the weak- 
i-iii-ij hnirt. 

•* '^, It Ifi i>nt to 1(0 inferred thnt the alwwe Mfttemenlj* forbid 
n rrt9>^ttiiditi< nn<) ]inul(>nt iim» of ulcohol tn thc^nkpc^itie". TIte 
thiv ij» hupiiily |i!riAl whni Hir dn^mjipittist pliwl his patient with 
» iiiiriiUT of t.M>ttliL« of wine a day in ilie Micf that be emilJ 
stiuudau* (Jh- he»Tt> lower the tempemture, ^pply nutriment, 
iiid i*ffrt*t *4hvT i^k^hI ^od* without detriment of anv kinJ, l>y 
giviiij^ thtx' Ijirp- c|nantitiej^ Tlii* t>n»i(i gue^tion of tlie 
tli<-Rt]>i'tJiio iiw of vtinr enn not l>e enteRtl "n in detail iit (hi^ 
|iuiiit. U may Ik- nmiurkedf liowevtT, thai the cprehral effects 
of iiloohol, iu nutnercmis hidirect htttiien^xv^ lu netion hi eaufi- 
in^ a difT^Tpput Wiftooe in t\w pnrt* and fiinctinn>i of the va.sGii- 
hir np|URthiA, oftoii jii-itify it*i mo<ter«te oae hi therapetitie*. 

" l(, Aleohoh hy virttie of itn Utcal aclurn on miieoiis meni- 
bmneH, and also hj virtite of its cerebral action, is capahle of 
atTivtiitjE the flewral irarlH of the \'ascu!ai' app^imttis in a nund^er 
of trsv^T die re?^uliing effect* often hein^: f-«eh that the term 
"cir^laton* stitnnhnit ' i« olU'n api^Ui?it>le. Stidi indirect 
eflecc^y which are shown by all "f the pharnuieologic eon- 
tfeners of alcoliol, are tiimihar in [lie iim^ of alcohol in daily 
life and in nkedieskl pmetiee. 

" C>f lhni<t- indiivt't effects, none i?* more ofien i>t>tcrved tlian 
n quioki>nmg ur *h>wiii|r in thv puL^e^nte, as U ftv<r|iiently freeti 
in oimIhmI pm-li^T^ TheM^ indirrd influences must not be 
allovred t« hiitt^ the Inn- chnnictrr of alwhul. which in alu-avs 
depnv^anl in kind, ami which i^nilr p^tfl the upper hand <if the 
effectiiju-il nntnL In ii w<inl, «lw»h"l, in re^peol to lU inherdil 
action, wbt-n onct* tti dit^ bluxi and tiHriUe^, must be clafiM?d wit)i 
tlie nnei^tliptic!* niid mvrcHities/' 

The aetiim of ideitbul on tJa^ m<ptmtioii is tbii* ^iiinmarixt^ 
by Abel : " I. Ah^dud in a n'spiniliirv Miitialant of moderate 
|>r»w#r Tur himiun hciti^. During ix fHrrlod of an hour or more 
fiAer it<i adminivtrntion it oun*<>-« nn iii'<reu-<e in the volume of 
air ivL-«!on^ tkm])i;li the liin^ sind in tlie ab4orption of oxyK^n 
(3-0 \H*r (viif). 

'2< Highly lluvorvd wJiien, bmndy, and other nhxiholio 



* 



130 BBl'ESAGES ASD STiMCLAyn 

bereiagee irhidi oofitain larger lunMint^ (»f v^tiiDUlating eetera^ 
have a more pnHioiiDo^ action tlian 4-thyl alcobu]. 

" 3* The siiniuladn^ actioD of Klooboik bvvcngcs U grmter 
In ikve vaac of tkli^uul persons than in tbo9c wbo orv in no 

'* L ]iK.-rv«kwd Ixoit-dissipMti'ui ft1vitr« socorti]mni^ tli« above- 
imuiimI vflV^ofsL Thi> €Ofnpen<?atoTy iTM^TVAjEtf* in bpnt-pmdtH-iion 
rc^uirvH aii iiioreftfie in the oxidative prcice»9C» of ihe tis^iej^. 
Tbe iiwreowd clemaiHl for oiypeo U the ciin-ct cat»c of the in- 
cresL4«<I artiviiy of the respiraton" cciHer Sinall or 'purely 
excilmg* du^w^ of aloobikl lave si\f** Wk «<SVct of incita^iDg the 
taovemenU of the dig^ive tract and of oau^ing a BUkXv of ■ tin- 
rt^l ' IDT ten^ii^jQ in flie *;keLeial miii^ck^, uihI tlju^ fimluT adding 
to iIm- ilt'iuaud for •>sv;0^pj. Ace**rflin;i to ihij* vicWj alcohol it» 
Ud indiroci ^timuhiiit of the rmpiratikrt' oonter. 

"5, It Tibould he borne in mind iKflt theM? phynologio 
eflertM arB teea pronoimeed in man tban in the rubhit and othor 
aniDuK wliicb differ fri»ni him in re^-pect to ihe eHse with uhicli 
the respiratory and heat-regulating mechanUma are iiifliieuced, 
Singer^fl explaoation of the action of alcohol on the respiiution 
and on the heat-regulating mcohnnt^nip^ of tlie bwly at once bii^ 
gents comparison with one or aiiotltcrof the nrttipyretios, BUch an 
(piinin or antipyrin, and calU lo mimi the dif1jcul[i<?6 thjii liam* 
per the atudy of thow drugr^ Ili>w far the action of alcohol ou 
the central ncrvoua eyatein, aiul how far lU inflnerioc a^ a * pro^ 
tophumic poison' niay roodifv \U o[>er»tion ^n ^n anii|tvr^ie; 
how far TarialifHiF^ in the external temperature, in tlw' humidity 
of the air^ ami in the lempemture of the Iwxly itself luHurnce its 
action, mur^t all receive further siudv. In a word, dt^tiiled 
chemic and phrt^iologic t^tudies similar to tlion? that have 
been made on other antipyretics am demanded. 8uc*h stadic^ 
will eillier strengthen (»r disprove the al>">vi> theory-, and will 
tvDil to ^lannonize the conflicting vlew>4 at preHrnt entertained 
in rcgnnl to the nw of alcohol in fever. As th* tlic^iry now 
fllnmU, <TApM?bl[y when taken la oonneetion with thf fiieU 
l>rnnght out in Mlher heelionii of tbis |Kiper, it atfoNU a Niri^'iif ifit* 
OJiplanation of tlie more delcleri<iU,"i <^1!"eols of alecihtd in ]H>Inr 
and trrpical as comfuinxl with tem^terate reiriom." 

AWI lhii# F^ummarixeH the work on the action of nicohol on the 
ner\'onr< i^yrtcm, with sptTial reference to its psyrh^flogic action : 

*'Thc jwtyetKilopic expi.'Hmunt'i fhus far made appear \o 
pTavt thai njinlcnitc i|nunlitic?^ of nieohol (15-30-4*^ gnims) 
vhortpn the ^^iaiplc n^ietion linu- ; the lime requiretl in a ci^riain 



ALCOUOIm 



181 



Mw^UHM^^^'^ ptvic^^ uikI lit cHTlAiii niiii^ t'L^mifitiiry nicn- 
ttl fil^^ctVf inch Ori n-^Jii)^ in ji wiu^iHT uiul adiliiijr <'uhjiiirj^ of 
ft)m|>Ie figvrtfl; that i-i, prno^wieh in wlni4i ii'innil tm^u^r irmtT- 
vation is an important factor. This effiH!!, Uiai w, graiter br*'v- 
ity of cen!l>ral tiaic, is tacitly ajij-miKxI liv iDVestigatAi? u> irnli- 
caile that the meuiaJ o|>erutiouT* in ijiK-ftti^m are perform*-*! with 
grt-utcr euAe uiiU with lean friction; an a»uiu|iiiij(i fur wliicli 
tlii--re iH u<» |>ri.K(i", 

"A grtuU-T Irndoucy to prvmiitun.- iiud crroiioou** rooctions i» 
Men wlwni tlio N*uot4jp has r4HH*ivt-il nlf-<khriL Thr maelor oiVu 
1w-)iiA'<-K thjit )k- tH ly'jtt^iitjr riiori' r|inok1y than tiMiial eveu when 
ihc ccr»-hnO lime i-" l<njgcr, 

"In uo ix^ittvt iH tJttrnrtitjn of alrrohol in niixlentt^ quantities 
mow f^triUn^ tliuu In iu mfliicit<*o *a\ ttic a^iK'iation v»f id«u*. 
TJk' tinur f^iiHinnnl in a^O(iuli<rni^ iuv-tlvinj; u ^ubf^imiption 
jihlgiiiMit i.'*, for r?citi»i1i\ oi»ly a Uttk* flii>itrr than normal \ 
hut tilt time n-tjiiin-il to fuid u rhvim? lo a givL-n woril i» con- 
ffiJrmhiy »lH>rt<^nc<i ; and tliin Mato Xt^ii^ for w>n]^^ tiroc after the 
ulcoliftl \\9kP. 1j(M>n tiilcpti. 

*'In |£it»iu>ml, thun, mmtut pnHN>Ju«4 whirh involve the work- 
ing \\\y uf coiKvptiutl mnk'ml art not favored by mixlcrati^ 
ctuantJtiefi of aloohi>h 

*' It will he* M^•\^ (hat alcohol ifl not foiind by {isycholo^iftt^ 
to iDcTKi*!!' the qnnntTty or vip>r of mcniiil o|ie rat ions ; in fact, 
it clearly tcnd^ to Icswn cIk- fwwcr of clcir and consecutivft 
rm»>nitig. In many n:'b|x.Tl« iu uctioi on the higher functions 
uf ihc mind renK^mhlc^ that of fati^^ni* (d^thc t>rsin ; ibough with 
thU action ipf aA#ocial4xl a Ii-ndency to 'gr«at«T motor energy aiid 
QBde,* There has been miii'li ili>^ii^ioa as U> wbciber alcohol \n 
in any sense a slimulauT for the hrato. We luvo sveo llmt 

Eharmarvilo^sbi of high repnte deny Thai it has this aetion ; 
iildin^ that aloohol is a swlnti\"e or naK'otic substance which 
Wonp* to th'^ «»roe t?lfts?< a.^ paraldehvd and chlomforaj ; that 
\U Miinuhiling action is bin linitions; and that even the earlier 
phenomena of its action art- 1'> l>e referred to a |»mlyEing action 
Km wrebml (inhibironj fnoctian*/' 

The Action of Alcohol on Moscalar Activity. — 

Alx'l p^hoq?- ; '* L Tlutt ;il>^>iii>l tiiL^ ii fjt%<>nkble Ai.-Iinfi on tti>e 

]ierf<jrTUuucc of tnu^ular work, both when the ri]Urr'.-I<'- are 
vigoroiM and when they are cjcbuuHted. 

"2- Till* favorable and stimulating action J*^ f^een almoc^t im- 
nieiltali'ly afttT tin- administration of the akohol, but lasts only 
a vc-iA' nhort time. 



132 



BEVEHAOKS ASD STtMULASTS. 



**\\, A iKirtily/ifigni-lion iilmkyK mky^^^iU lW HtitiuiUtiou, 
itNiijI \m\f [tu Iiit^r jifu-T i\v ailmmUlnili'in of tlu^ »)ivih'>l 
Vfurk tiiHir nTii'h<*» n itiiiiiRitifii ; aiul fr^i lUtM^ nf itlcoh<il sj»4iv 
itu\y a f^lij^hi Mimulatinz ik'li->n. 

'*4, Tliif» liiK*r )uinily/fri^ iK'ii«>n of ■li-t>hol 4)\vrl>ul:iti«^ the 
pritimr)' MitiinlaTiiijf oflV^'i in .-^iirli u uray ilmi ihe scim loml uf llip 

"ft, Bimilar depr^-^-in^ *-flc*rta arc uol ^ceu <o follow (he ««; 
of itUf oriflV<4*, (ir kdU.'* 

Thf* vHWl of uliM»h<il iiri tilt* di|ipi>^cion and Mcretinn if tliit^ 
niinnmrm^l hv (."liiiit-inlni :^ 

■* rfKiTi ihi- Hi-<*rt-tiii[i iif Milivn the presetit^e uf stronj^ nlcvtliol 
4»r an :ilc<k1i*>1ir lMi\X'nigp in the nK>utli fms:i direct ^i(iniiiluliii|; 
4'f\\HJt, Imiliiig til a xudtUii iiK'ntij^ in the flow of ^livu. TliH 
noodemtiun of iwcrf^inii, how<*ver, i" of brit-f dnrifjun. Tlu* 
Minmlatiii^ vtTn*i 'i> intuiifi'-M«il nr>t nnlv l>y nn inrmL-^' >ii the 
vohin*f <»f the .M-<'n-ti"H, hui iil?«> l>y nn mrmt-*t' in both i>rg;i»ic 
Atid inurgiinio iH>ii»titn(-ntf<> Tbe efli-(*t |>ro<lut*«i i;i In no r^n^c 
fHHiklhir III nlenho!^ Imt w ^NUijmoh tu miiny Mi-i'tfilbHl «limiihirit>i, 
Mieii Jis dihile iieid (vimjpir). etlior va|><^r» fie. Imlf^l, ibo 
dUvt i* |HHi'iN'ly nnjihik!^iti-> to th^t imliuvi) by an iiicr«i*i*" in 
inteni^ity of .-^timubtion when tht? olivary glandn are electricallr 

*• IlfDf^, so fiir tw owr n**iil!* p«. nU*cho1 nm) nleohf»lir fluids 
»it' without any >|nvirie rrtWl upon the t^wri'thwi «f saliva, ex- 
wM U> |if»itnee a initi.tUory Mimuliuii>a of pc^rvtii^n while ia 
tbn nu>iith ciivity. 

*' UfKOi pinine Micntion aleolwil anil nb^aliolio llinds linvi* a 
marki^l rffivc, inci^pflsinp very pit'Qtly Ixiih iho flow of gnstric 
jlliei* iml nNii it- CMiil4*nt «>f neul nmt liilul hiIkIk Fitrlfacr, 
thi*i action t* e\rrliHl nut only by ihf i»n^«»n<^* of aleoholic 
fliiUU in ilw ftttnineh, (Hit a1^ ttHtirvetly Ibtvugli ttie iuflueoc« 
rf alc^iM alwi^rbed from the iiiloa^tiDr, 

" \Vhl*ky, brnwly, *hrrri-, dnrrt, ln'w-. ami |H>rtiT all n^ree 
in ht\^uein)e ?vl«BuUlii»n of ipmrie t^^erHioti. Furtlkrr. a;* nl* 
Tv«4y F4at^l. iho p»»<rio jimv -*v'ri*i**l nn-i-r rihx>tK^lio i^timuU- 
t^itn Un»t^^ nrkl. ciintains nw^rp nA'tti n^nurr aihI cuiiry nvnbin.^1 
K%-iln¥4ibirtc ftcwl than the nfxlinan' «Yrrtioiu It i^ likevlM* 

ptn^ih:!^' |*n^***ly*i<'- 

" If iIh>^ n^nli*^ a» i»u^lcn'd m oodoortito with our pr¥<- 
TtckWi AtM^^tiiM-^ «l*«i *l>i' intliH'Wv of ale«ih.«l ami »1oi^lke 
dmk9 tti»iii th*> pwnriy ebcmie i«>oe-«> of |:v<rv di(:wtk«i. 



I 



ALCOirOI^ 



133 



it is «ioou thnt *:if1^ hv ^id^ urith the grpntor or 1c«W? rvtnitliilioii 
j>f (ligfvtivp pn>l<><)ly*i* riUiM.ll hy rU^oIii'Iio bevmige« thore 
ir» an ition-jWHl fl<»w of ^i^tric- jnW rich in acrid hxkI «f 
ni]C|iieftiuDnblv liif^^tivi' jmiwit. The tw<» et!«*(# :u«y ihiis 
]u»rmAl]y oitiiiurlmliiiiiv wioh *>th*T, ih'Hi^h il i?* (.-viik-iil Umt 
iiiuflifviiig oiiHlitLi»ii« iiiuy rt-flu)ilv ix-fjirtl or Mtiniihitr the priMs 
««m.^ in ihi* f^lnmitch iict^^rdini; lo riivuuiMiuH'f-T'. ?*ort-:imje>C 
uui>iig the ktUT in Uie nipiil UiNipiK^miiicc of ah\^!iol fruiii llit? 
alim^iitiin' mirnL 

"8im'c nnv hifliirnoo vxcHcd l>y alo^ihol or ul<^hnlio In^vt^r- 
agra il|n»Ti lh<> iolvi-rl nr liip^tiv** |Mivvor ai' tin* pT4*.trif' juirc m 
lh(?«toniac*h timp^t dqiend upon thi* pn.\<ciKrc of iil<xihul in tlu: 
eU>macli cnntent^ tt folluwi; that thp t«;iKk-ucy Uiwunl rupid 
ivni"\"al of ihi- iihr«»hul fnmi tht- «IitiK'nr.'iry Iniot by iil>M»rption 
[i)U*t ii«*f>«irily iiinnciiTsh orir^ixHidiii^ly ihc rxtciit. of miy 
rHiinbtiiin nf Kiistrie digi-*hrni which iIr* pri'tH.iKv of !i1<h>1iiJ in 
th*' M'Hiwdi miiy fK-cui>ion. 8iiKV, how*r\"i'r, the i^liiunlutioiJ of 
nMrio mvn'tiiJii hidiin<'1 by nliMhuI if^ bnnijfhl ubmt imt only 
Iiv tin- (linnet. urlh>ti nf ntnili'i] !n the >roni;ftcfk, but hImi hv t\ic 
indiixvt urtion of ii]roh4>| nhM>rlhr<l fri^in thr int^^titio, it folIowH 
th-^t jkiKsildi' iiiiiibilttkh <kf the itig«-Ktivf> urfion nf the i^^lric 
juW vh'oiihl |>ri»kibly l>e of nhon^-r diimtion than the ^imula- 
tirHi t\f M^*n.-fiiii, aiLi) th»( oon<Hxttiprtt1y tn the IhxIv alct>hcilic 
fltiiils n-oii1<l h^nlly li^il to miy R-tsmlnlroit of j^U'^lric dgz^r^tion. 

'■ I-^iM^^iHUy worthy of nut*' >> the nipid <li>^ppearuitcie of 
alcohol fmro the ^lomu^h oikI lUtnifntury tru-t when alcoholic 
fltiid-^ant taken. 

" lu vi*'w of thn lupid ili:«ippi^inifioe of ulcohol from tlie 
alimrnUir%' inici it irt phtiii that ulri^holic Hiii<U <fln not have 
miurh, if ttnVj tliroc't influc-octr tipija tbo secretion of either piui- 
mvtiV or inti<;<Liiinl juirv." 

Use of Alcohol as a Remedy In Hediciue. — Id eon* 
iliiionn of ln^iri ^n^jkn*'H> -m-l jirtcnal relaxation aloohol stimu- 
liit*^ the lieiirt, t<«»es u\> llic an*Tie*, iind tend* to brin^ about 
a nonitul otndjtkin. In febrile OHutiiiorto it loM^rs llie lenipei^ 
atiire an^l Hii^^k^ rfs.-iiuw|<-Tiirneti(rn. fn prutmet^tl ttiteuHe it 
sliRiuhitc^ H i^'<^.kkeMt<d i)igi?iti(iii iind, bv n'plnein^ a certain 
i|UiiiUlly *.4' oir)*'»h_vdnit4% "firn nrrvr** il-« ii fo'Mh 

Coastunption of Alcohol. — Aiwmliii^ to Thoaip^ofi, 
ibv totid wnwi:iii|>tii'n '»r iilf*»h-*iii' IwvempM n v^ar iti America 
i!« miOT* tlnn 1 ,0O V>00.4>00 pilloh-i. The following tnble, 
lak^n fr»ini Tluieip-iinV lfi*^»iliv. \>. 2-19, ^\x\^ tlw annuiil per 
cnpita eun^an)[>t>oti ni idoklmlie bi'Veragi> in 1830 : 




13-1 



£SrE^AQES AyD STIll VL^U^TS. 





»«f. 


Wllw, 


c*Hrt*i* 


Eiijflaml . - 


. 3IU1 


0.3V 


MX; 


KniDcc . 1 ' 


. J>.IO 


it^M 


IM 


GmiULnv - . , - . 


. - . 2h^% 


IM 


\,^ 


Loitcd 9tNt« . - . 


. . . 12.3W 


Mi 


atH 



ALOOHOUC BEVERAGESl 

AlcoUolic Ijovt'ras^i* are divuKi] ]ie[>i ^•I'^inil clsfiaes, c y^ 
i«])ii iliip lii^ueurH and bitters, ninlt liitunrs, \t utL-#, «^ 

5FIRJT5, 

Spirits are prrxluwil by fi-mieiiting ^cchuriiie «ub#tnooes 
and obtaiDiDg the aWbol by diHlillaciim. <.)i' tlti-sc «nbf^lJLiM?ciJ, 
atTiij riw, Ijarley, nioIas*(*H, and pniat(>t> aiv lUox mopt i-oiu- 
moiily utiUze<l dfv ihh pui'pu^e. In addition i» tlir ulnitio], 
by-[)r(Miuft* are luriutrl, uiid it i>i U> ihtsc tlint r^i^rits nwi* ibrJr 
chfttucjUrUitic flavor and <xloi', TW bypriKliK*!;* contuin llie 
higliL^r «loolio1:f, 0iioh on prt>p}'l, butyl, and niiiyi nl<H>holT thia 
rnivdiiv forming wUiii h Ictiowit a* fiua'l «il. 

Whisky- — TIm- riiiiinl StitrK Ph3mja<vip<vin (U*fin«* wliUky 
as ■*mi .'ilcflMiltc lii|niTl obtainoti bv disrilliitiiiii of iln^ iiiii'^i 
of ferniciiteti grain (usually of mistun>^ of et«rn, wbc^l, arnl rvc) 
and at l*?ast twu rears old/* Whisky poft.m^-^os nti aWluJic 
!*liVTLgth cif from ')0 to o8 per c^nl, bv voliimK It r<hoiiUI \u* 
fn-i» Unm Jisiurn-i-ablo <wlor. The ether and aMebydn <Mniiu]M>d 
hi whisky heooiiie ^ilierfnl in diaraeier as h ages, and the tbivor 
i> ibitn i*emlei"ml iii^n,' a^rix^cnbU'. 

Braady. — In tbt? I.jnitwl Sf«i*rv Pharmu<-<ipt-m bmndy 19 
drfiuf^l jL^ iin "ab'iiholK' lu|Mui <ibiiiiinHl by tbc dlftUbiti'^n uf 
fhf ff>rmrriti-'l HnTiu»ilifiiHj jiiii-*' nf in-%\\ jjmpr^, nml nt b*!»«tt 
ffiiir y^'an^ oM." Bmndy o<>ntu)ni« fmm Hi to 55 |kt cent* by 
Vi^hirne of nl^-nlio], Thr< i|iiiLlily nf bmndy dj>|u-iHb ii|k>ii tbo 
variety of i^nipis iimhI nud ii|toh tbi^ b^n^rth uf time the bnTu<lv 
i!«nl]iiv«<*<) to j*tiiMd: tin- i»l(!i-r rbe bmiidy, tbc b<-it*^r flteqimliiy, 
Witb brandy, jiiM an wiiii whisky, on siambn^ other* nud aUlt»- 
hyd-H are produced rn wbirli the ft|>eeial flavor nf tbo bmndy 
in doe. 

Tbe eob>r of bnindy l*< due to tbe tnniuc acid extmrlMl fn<m 
tbe r>ak (visk.* in ivbit^b tbi* bnmdy i* eoiitmrn?d. Tlu-rt' aro 
many inferior jrvades of lirandy (in ihv nmrki-t, winie Mng 
niei-ely alcohol <x)Iored and flavoreil witb vari^^mi* t**wencHw. 

Rain. — Bum i^ tbe prodnet of tlie distillation of f(.TrnL*ntrHl 
mola^es, iU flavor biing due lo certain liy-proibid^*. Some uf 



ALCOHOL, 



1S5 



the Hh-rallet) "mm*' of tbe market b made by adding xTirioiift 
efisences lo alcubol. On staiKiiD^^ by the devtdopineiit of 
e|>eoia) aldchyiU ard ctlierSf rum inipr-ivc^f^ iit i|ti:ility, Ii txnU" 
taiD^ about Uk same pcrceutage of alcohol as do braiidv aiul 

Gin. — Gill u ]>tx>duo€d br tlie dt»tiLUtioii of m* imtl nmlt 
ituMh, il# davor b<rin^ due To jnni|>er borrk-e wbivb an- adiU*t) 
dariiif; ferEiionlAtinn. IiHVrit'L- ^rnirlt^ of gin nrt* niunufuL-tun^l 
by adilinf! juniper bernes tiir|teniine^ eto., to a)(>>bol. fJin 
oontaJus fmm l-i t> 'JO per oenT. of alcohol ; but the Mrength m 
fiunietinies iiicr»i>^ by X\» aihlitkon nf alo>liol, w> tliat it may 
^cootaiu SkA uitteb ae 35 per L^tit, of alcohol. 

LIQUEURS AKD BITTERS> 

Liqueurs or cordiuU and l>itr^!> i^ontniu a iai^ pmportioD 
of oloobolf and a bi^i ()erii*jitnia' <*f Mtpir mid c«wiiiial oils, 
Ibe followiD^ labW pvc4 tlir roin[w:«it»ou 1^ 0ome of ihi' more 
ComoMni liqueurs nnd bitteTA : 






KAlMlwl 

I'tpiienninl • 
Angnton . 

llrtivHciioe • 



Ak«lioL 


SUlWtt* 


8n«u. 














Oub, 


Or<B«. 


55jQ 


410 


u 


1.1 1 


«M> 


3M 


su 


3lK» 


31S 


SAft 


«A.» 


ai.2 1 


a&o 


S&O 


44.0 


4as 


48.0 


aai 


13;0 


7.5 ^ 


fi2J^ 


«rt 


lT.ft 


SM ^ 


rao 


4i4 


30.0 


31.4 1 


44^ 


UdL^ 


3M 


M.0 1 



SilL 



O.S3» 
Ol310 

ao90 

0.I40 

(KllO 
olobi 



MALT LIQUORS. 

Fndvr dfcO brtjihnp of miilt iMjirnr-* are inebidixl lie^r or ale 
aiifl Moiit i*r pinl<-r. Tbi-^ Wvcmg*'.-' an- Limk' bv fi.'ftiiuUing' 
null and bopsi, Mnlt i;< pTc()uo4il by »lb>wing m4>iF-iciKd barW 
tn gcrroifuilfl at n nKHb-mtif tc-R](>emiur« ; in ibir* proo<^*^ th« 
diaMalii^ frnm^it iwt* hjwjh tb^ >«mwh, «>nvftrting it inwi Mi^r 
nml <li'\lnih Afkrr lining and t'Hhdinf, ibc nrnli l^ hiivhI 
with wwWT and i)iti!« made int.t a mJi!«b, vbirh is a>,'aiii heated, 
thiio miftv i*irimplf*telY f'hantpng tb«- Miirchen \\tXf% Eiij^rm 

Beer. — The 4|aalily of the Uht dejsemt hr^Iy it|>on the 
ti*m|H'miin? >t whidi itii.< proce^ ot nuinufacture i^ eiirriol on. 



136 



BKVKRAOES ASD STr}iL'LAXTS. 



Pale bwr is iirwlnowi hy Jr\-iiig tbe m»sh at low tempenturey 
wbemu ih? tUrkrr Im^rs un* tin* result of dn'iii^ tbi> malt at a 
li^brr tviniimtuiv. Tlic intuitiitn of nuilt i» teniwJ " niaeh/* 
Tbe dUstotic at^Htn nf nuill U inbibitol hy Ifnliit;; ttie " t[ia«li " 
with lkO]>« ; ui ihU ^^ay tiiQitkr »ckl aixI cxtniHivi^ jiro with- 
tlrawn. The m^i U now c«K4e<) ami tWmentotl witli ye<wt. 
Id iwdtr 111 nvotire a pure beor^ great caiilion must be f^^friwcl 
to t^r^'i'^ire pure yaisl. The rmi.^t lliiil ri^^^ to tbo siirfjcf iitxvT 
fVnnt^iation U ii^kimineil off, ibe reouiucler ^uhtk|> at ib'^ 
botttttL Bcvr ifi D<m' jibKnl tii tiisk^ tbe yei^t Kbicli vras 
allowetl bb remain cMtitiuain^ to prvduce fenueutatiuu. Tbe 
tonjerf tbis )ir^re^ b allown) to (<ominiM% the htrnnp^r is the 
nernmtagt of alo4K>] in W**r. Tbe mild or bittcf bnrrs am 
ifinrifipunhril b^ the relative ))n>pirtj<iu of br>|i» ixMitaioed io 
tbtm; %hf miUIrr fomid (xNitalD cottBiilermbl««|uaatiti«iof bops, 
whervA4 ibe butvr ivims fx^nukin Uii n&ittU aiaocint«. 

Vohntr biHlirs nTv aluttt pnxhionl wbidi, 10 mliSlkiD tn the 
oirtx^nii' jkc-bil ipas ft^ntHtl, Htl<l lo tbi< plcwit flavorof tbe hevt, 
la i-tiLt m »U u> iIm' kr^jiin^' 4|iuititir:i t^ bvrr x'^iriuu^ pfv» 
scrvativ^ ar? adJ^t, sucfi a,^ i-uUniiia ^uljiiiaer, ^alicylk' tcvl, «<c 
Ikfir «ilM:>ti«vs Dt>i aDiy atK'n ibe Baxter of the berr, Imt t^hcn 
ttkcft ici Uiyt^ 4uautiiki^ tttv*^ a tlrlecrrioo^ HRcC on tbr >ysuca. 

Rirter and Stout* — i\>n^r aim! Mhui an.- nwle H- letw 
akntfu^ uub, ibr Ultrr^ bu«r-\cf« bcioe niK4cil, tluriii|; wbirti 

^Wfcaw ibat tb» dufc c\4tir U dihr. Bf«r as v^U ^^ ^"cit 
cfMtaSxtt AuBi 3 tAt 9% |vr rvat. <if ■ln4vJ. tfrnui ^ l>i Ti |«fr mil. 
t>f ^xtria, mti fhim o..> ut 1 ytp^ rrnu of sn^r 

Tbr IbUairkag; table ^ ^t^'T^ tbe c^impivJtiQO «f save laalt 



s 
■I 



J In I 1 I I a 



I 



Ihiiifii ii ■ 1 liiB 


»tJtt 


Ml 


4« 


ASI 


«M 


i« 


aiH MB 




•■in 


tm 


3^«t 


•l«» 


^?C 


\jm 


afttt^an 


TTTt^!?^. 




^3» 










[ 


IVH^it 




:l^ 


4JC 


«S? 






at«i ajft 


M^MBvcMht 


V* ; 


4*r 


rs 


»ri 


aw 




airt aff 


ttaibA kJbiBd|Hf»r 


t<I.W 


4* 


4«S 


«a 


a^ 




aiM aa 


^^••*^*^ 




»1 


4» 








« 



.rw» 



ALCOJiOL. 



137 




" t| - ill =1 ?5 



b b h k bk i^-^l. 
^ ^ K r. ti i^ n s ■: 






^ £ & ca^^e 



: ; . : ■ : I 










i- — — — i ^ -^i 



EST — M^S^ff 



i^££ - - 



'?^f:?^: ::::?:; 



^w 






5 !ESi!>ttK 

irllllf 

tmtu 






I 

s 



dB> '• ^9^UlE>* 






^rkl oum- 
Xumlwr fif 

Akobot by 






AiCAhoI bx 



flliSllJJilJIJI i -1111111 11 iilllir 















i'p p p* CO so p^ p SipoccJ 



AibniBln- 
oUa. 






Ph. 



hnmlioi 



rlo 






m » 

I £ 



fiff!! 













I3S 




liEVERAQKS A\'t> STIMVLASTS. 



The tobU oa p. 137. taken from Crampion, FcrmndM Atco- 
*rfr Bfrrr<jfff9, U, S, IVpatimoiU of Agrk'ul(«re, ItuUetm Xo, 
13, )M7» giv<« an iDalv^is of Americaii malt lx|ur)r&. 



VINE, 

WJDc M pTTxIoccd by xiw tVrnieDtaiioo of i^pe-jiiicr^ llic 
juice bctit^t fir?t j^-9«iHl fivni tlif K^a[»r by crufihii^. Tht'tc 
an- a numirr or Actors, »jch as the chanurtrr of the gmpc 
utilubctl. it> rtiltivati'ii, u&d the lueikod of wana&ctoring, timt 
rtju-r into iIk' pr»"i"rn<»» of a p>oil wiiM% 

The fftlWvinp tnSK\ IaWmi fn>Di FXijw^,^ pvw! tl>e main mu~ 
i4iim-»t» of gr:i|)r-jiiW and tht" vnne that U manufacturod 
tbrrcfnun, Gnipe^uite or must coutain^^ — 



Baova^adii. 
Baiy&mkvM 



6 IV SS |*H n«iL 



lK3lAAH|ictrv«t. 



Mlnmi uImukh. 



Rt Wt^ 1^ fiMTCc^ aloihob aod Bckk 

TnoNlhTbBikb 

tMlt |*ate«d In IcnncQiatioiL 

\ vpwtaali HMmib 
rnfrniia a^tiir 
Tkw«ife»«bL 



AtiKWt! ihc iHUiMitttrni* */ tln^ j«kv *>f %W^ crajv are alhu- 
niiv«tt4 M\Uiniv^^^ iji'ni*^ iitut fniii^ib^r, vimI tartanL* aiki tzmaic 
ftpaK Th^ vt-n-'i thtu t;T>»\^« M)h«Hi tiir aU>ucuiii« ftnnftits the 

VNvrlim Mt|far imt> nK\tUJ, in (Hv««\im*iuv t^ v\\Kh. tbp vm 



ALCOHOL. 



1:^9 



^pr^liiot^ U aweei; <iu th<* other liand, if therv^ U nwuAx nlUu- 
minna)^ iii£tu^riu) |ireAenlT ^^<' .Vi'^nt conlinue^ lu ^mw until all 
th^f sugnr {« coDvcrt^ into aWbol, in ooo.'^-ritieuce of whic-b a 
dry or ac'ul vriiie i» jHvxliK^vd- 

Onliiiutnly, wine ik*^ not i^oDUiii moYQ titaii Iti por cent- of 
alcoholi ioitsniiu'li an the action of the ytani is inhibited by t\m 
prroaiCag« of EiKviboL Fre^iUL^ntk, h"Hever,tviae is "fortified" 
bv tlic mlditivu of uloc^bol ; tlii^ true uf port, wliicl i& ulvrava 
"fortified." 

The yiwut iw»(l an tbo fcrmcEitaUon of ^rajwjiiic^ i^ obtuiiit-d 
in pnre (niLtures and nddnl to tin- jtiit?« to |m>dti(>e the iiH[utri**l 
iLivor. 

The mctJiods of wJue-|>r)dtictiofi vnry gpeally, ami rt*i(uirv 
tio doc'riplion here. SuBicl- it t-* svy thai iIk; fenufiitalion m 
first i!i*l>- fmm ihiTp to ^\x wwk*; (he ulljriininon* iiiat<^ml is 
nMnovc*! u nrimb^T of timers and iho wine i^ then plaw<l in 
ca«lu; hci\* itw ]K*]xx'rimire of aI<x>hol incnu-**'!^, and the color 
of tiitr muv Uxjunti* tixi'<1, Frnnnitaiioii nill j^n^ i«i. how- 
ever, Jind nmy i>*iainTic for mftRV y«irff, thiu iacn-iL^ing tJio 
iH'rpciitilp* of iil^otial. 

Kth^^rs lire nl>ui iirixlnml, M'htrh (<i>titititie to 1»i> formal ?ven 
afl^r the wine lia^ t>een placed in t>oltU«. TIte color of red 
uiue i^ diic to a coIoriti^-niatCtT contaitied in the ffkin of the 

Of the itnportttnt in^tlieiit:* of wino, tiiay be meatioued 
waU^r, acitU, atoobol, T^i^tr, L-thui>, f^iyfrenn, and extractives. 

AtidB^^—Xlw most lm|x>rtAiit ai'id-t e«intaincd in wine nnp 
tartnniT, malic, inwl liinnic ; othcis uf h*^-* iin|>oTl]iiici- ;•!>.- mx'tic 
and :mc«:inic Tiirfiiric nnid *Kvur?< In oombinntion wiili p-ttn*- 
Kkum 9u pfifta^iuia bitAitntte. Th« loud fimount of ncids \n 
winp varir*, hut rarely <»inM*»dH 0,5 per cent, 

Atcohot. — Tbcre art wveral ak^oltoU present m wine ; etliyl 
alcohol <icvur» in br^.^t <jn:iEility; atnyl, [Uijrpyl, :tnd bntyl 
alcifhrjl Rre^ al9i> pre^ni in Vjtri'm}- nmotintfi. Ap< hu?" Iicin 
stuhij, iiatiiRil wine dcvtf eontAiu^ moiv* tbau l^ per L^eut. 
of atoohol ; if it ccntainK more thaa tbifi Ainoiuil, it ha« l>een 
** fortifiol." Thi!* i- oficn done, (^jtjKViBlly when the wiue U to 
lic:ihip|ii*il fn>m wunn countries to foivif^n dUtricie, to pnvcnt 
it M>ijring, 

i>nffar. — Sonr wine*^ <'j>nt»iii*i :ibnnt I por c^nl., and fw«4 
vriiMW aboxit 4 prr (vnt„ of «^n^r ■ it U e^'tdent, (hertrfon^. tliat 
>Lii£fjr is present fai too sttiall a qttaatily to be of any food- 
valiK-. 



140 



Bh'VUnAGES ASD STrMVlASTS. 



fWrt^,— Many vnneaic* of rtk-n* bpo pit^nt in wiiio; they 
are prodiKHtl by the nclit>i] of the alootu^lit mid twkU ui^yn Kwh 
ittbtv. Il U i*' tilt' olmr;4cu-r aiwl i|ii»mily of tlit> elhrr* iim* 
tained in ihc-m <hur the davor ot~ varkHi^ kind^ of >vinc-^ is 
larffely due. 

(Sltfcerin. — tilj-cer!ii ia present in wine in about ou&-(bur^ 
Iv^utUof thd Yolumi' of ihi' uU^W. 

Kriravf!v4ii. — A lar^rc ptirt uf tht* :^1i<l tuuii-ml uf (hi* huk^ 
U ma<l- u|i nf twLT^'tivt'A, mainly the carE)oliydr&b», jlh |ii*ciinfl 
and ^iinL^. 

Varieties of Wines, — From h tWemk Atandp*>iiit the 
i^bLvtitiuuinij of CliumlK'is i.n jiix»hal>ly ilie iimtit pmcli«d ; ao- 
cording to thin author, wiueti are divided into seven clashes : 

1. Strtrng dty wines. 4. Avid wmee. 

3. Aromutii? \s'iti*w, 6. lVrfw?l wtues. 

7. Kougb or lutringeut wmej^ 

L Stronc Dry Wines, — Theite are win« that contain ft 
brj^ per<:«ii1aj£e of aloibol, to which^ aji n mlo. nddilional 
alcohol haa been adeled ia llieir production ; iu other words, 
they sre " fbrtiti4<d." Gxampla^ of tbm class of vinefi are 
port, fihem% and Madeini. In cases of fever these wines are 
utilisteil in place <»f \chihky. Port omTjiititi from 1-5 to 20 per 
(■eiil. iif alnth'il Jkiid (.'otiftideruirlL' t;inuic ikrid. Sherry li a 
fortittcd wIiK.' ; it. ohiIaiup i'nmi l^> to 2tf |>er ivnt. of iik'ohol, 

2. Stronff Sw^et Wln^s. — These wines contain frnit-^iigar 
in fptrntfirii^ f»ijfticient In iirt us h prraervative and pivvent 
fiirth*'!' fiTimiitatJon. Under i\m head mny b*^ iiniiiioiH-d 
Tokay, Malnjra, and nweet ehanjfiairni'. They contain fmm 
18 In 22 ]>rr cent, of alcohol and Iriim "t to 5 per cent, of 
fiiignr. Owing t*> tlieir swretne?;* fhey are taken in small 
<)uantilie.H. 

3. Aromatic Wines, — Aromatic wme»! posses* a 6Uf>crior 
(tuvor ami contain essential oil* and (x>n»idenibh- alc*»hol ; cx- 
nnipU? ^f tliLt chiss of wijii^q are M^^scUt-, Cnpri, and some of 
xhv Hliim' \vhu>H, 

■I. Acid Wines, — The dlHiin^ni^iiin^ feature of this class of 
winibt is tin* lar^- r|uantily of arid ihey contain. 

6. Sparkling Wines, — S^parklin^ wines contain considcrabU) 
^nantitiei^ of <^rU>nic acid ga?*, lo which their exhihiraiin^ 
tl!ect i^ due, 'fhc chiej" variety nf this clai* of wines b^ 



ALconoi, 



141 



UjHin iIh* jinjjHtrlimi of i^jiiK'-^ti^nir ati<l oi^Ti»r ikIiI^hI during 
Uie |'Ti>ce.s* iif rtdiiiiltK-liii'c* In iht* munufuctnrc of dry' tbam- 
pngiie S |*er tvnt- i>f xiif^iir i* iiil<lo«l, while tlio swcfl br^uils 
eontaiD aa muoh a.4 ll> (u^r oeiit. Sinci* dvy cliunipii^i' doeK 
not contain Jiir^' tjimiililie^ of r^upir, and rfina^ ihc Inr^T |Mirt 
of tJie »u^r it ori^iii^llv ctmiainiHl \iii^ tHMi|i|x<urctl dtiriii;; iVr^ 
mcniUiuoii, It b (3i>rnU]iHW \v^ likeU' li> jiriHliKv flntiilouci.^ tind 
ia tbtTcforc pi*ftrn*d liv invulid^. Dry cliiini|in|:no U n pure 
iriiie ouiilniiiin^ rrr>iii 9 t^* 12 |>tT cvdu of nlt'tjltol nnd iVom I 
to 4 |ii>r <*i'n1. iif Ttiignr 

*j. Perfect Wines.— IVrlWl Miin^ Eire defined by Ciiiim1>i'r» 
as tha^ ooiiluitiiii^ nWliol, wuUt, Migiir, etht'rciil lluvor*, fmity 
e-\trartiv*?<, and iw'hU. Under tliii* liefiJ v*mK' BiUj^mdy tnni 
JV*nleau\. Burgundy tiiiirsiinis u mtlicT Ijiitji:- [wnHrnliij:!' of 
alcuhul und fxtnuiive- TiiotUr; it ir^y llienlurv, a<iiid to lmv(* 
oiiiitiidenihle "IhmIv/" GijckJ ISonlwiux wine:* iirt* llKTOUglily 
feriuviitk-i]^ nml, li^pi'tbir witli ihe Bnr^'ninlieiri* contain vitv 
liltlc Mi^r ; tlicy an-, tliertfin^, wi-ll liomc by in^iliiN, iind uri- 
cepocially iiwful n^ Imiio^ tUirhig rnnvnlrrioriico froni pn^tniolcd 

Roiifh Wines. — Itouj^h wiii«f^ ooEitnin eoneid^mblp qimMiticft 
of tannic acid, to irhich tlioy owi- th*^^ir a^triiii^ciit cHecl. 
They contain )itlli? alcohol, and an* of plight value for nicdicin«] 
porpoKv, 

Tfae folLovin^ table, taken from I>u]>r(\ givuf the cli^^mio 
cOEupofiition of HMnc vrintiv: 



WIpft, 



Atek ahnt Mmplvn . ^ . . . . fl-?3t 



llnnnrtui »tiiv iilirr^ Mfiii>l<9) 

Of*«^ «r1fiP rchtiia AKinfiilH ' 
*ibff7T «*-r*u *Tiipli-* 

kUfakl* - 




L_..l 0(*J 
rt^ II OH 



Thp fnlloiiinj: tables' (^ve the avemgv oinpiwitinii of mme 



IM> 



K'«»[ilkil ft«ii TV OmipoMtiirn of Amfrifttn fl'iiHB, VT. V. I^gptow, tl» & 



142 



nKVf:iiAGf^:s asd ^tjmclaxts. 






3 
I 



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TP15» »inni'»A 



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144 



SEVERAOES ASi> STmVLAh'TS. 



ACTION AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF MALT LIQUORS AND TTNFS. 

Mult li<([u>i>r kvliL-ii tukt'it ill iiKHlrnitL' <|imiit ilu-?*j m^iji tc u!<l 
4ig<V4tioii, int'tvaPe tlie ap|>ctito, ami etimulalr ^^trii? stHTction. 
(V«i».|otittlly, <»s|ioni!illy in tl»c»m? who IwuJ a ?jc'ik>iit.ir_v Itfr-, i\xvy 
^vr T\*\* fo tnilig«-*Jttikii nni) giistrir m-idily. On m^iNxint of ihi? 
hirgt' quuinitie'f of ciirl»li>clraikT* lljey CHjiitaiii they Imve con- 
^idinibli' f(".Hl-v;iliip, Tii^ 11*0 i»f miilt liquors i^ 4H>iiimin«li* 
c?iti"*i cs|K*t'iallv in ?*iK"li (.inHitlioiis ur* j^'iit, oIk^^iIv, iliaU-U"*, 
and ilix'iLsi-H of tlif itriniirv intft. 

M^cretiun. Tukt^u In dkhJ^iku* (iuiluiIiivh, however, \\y uicn-i]?>hig 
tilt u|i[>«tilc ami ihr DioU^r function of ihr nb>niiurli, tliin de* 
|n>'Sr^iiig c^ffpft trt not only (>vttvnmc, hut tho tiIgt'^tioa is iiI^lo 
grejilly in^[^^^vpll. 

.\uslle ^ givt^ the ffilh^WLiig (ninc'lnAionH aa to the use of wir<! 
in \\m\\\\ : 

"AVini** for ilnily \\f^- by hnihliy mlults ^hniiK! not on the 
avcmgi' (*4intiiiii inon* lliiin H« jH^r a-nl. al)wohiU' aleohol (hy 
vrelghl) ; S or St jn-r tn-wU i> l«-ltvi'. 

" If vim- U' «><hI n^ the daily 4lrink, it i^^ hef^t, ns far ns may 
|jC| U) U7*r \\u\\ out- kind lit u tiuit- and no other i^tna ofuk'obtilic 

" Soiiml nnttiral wine* nn^ to Ikt ol>tuai»l at the beat e<x>nomic 
a<ivatHap:f» fr-mi ih*- 1ti)nl<tnj\ (iistri*.-! ; ll»- ivtl wine^ are to he 
pr^lcrmh Kliini- wm-^ (whili-) nrc ortiially excellent, btit more 
€^x|>cnpive. 

*' lliin^trian winr."* mv uUo in niaoy infitances excellent, but 
they arc iiii(.<i|iiul in qimlity, oviiig to defects of munutacture. 

"Gnyk winc< laUir nrid^^r the wim*? defeote. 

"The f'>rtifti*<l winof^, n** a claP3> deveh»p i>o proper vinoua 
qunlilic'' till iIm'v Jiuvt l^ecn for sour- ynn> in l»o!tIc. f^htrry, 
however, i;* grt^lly .-"opeHor to the otht-r wines of thi^ do«6 in 
the TApidity with which il di*v4H|op*4 the voktile ethtTs. 

^'Fortifii^l w>n<w in r*Tnail ijuantifies, especially fhcm-, for 
the TX>aiw>n jn*t niiTiRHl. hr^ (h*^ ap|W^>|)riate i^imnli of certain 
kiii<l» of iafiiruile ninl y(»n!bful debility, suid of the vnfeebltil 
uervpns ^vsIotii d uVX |ien*ous, 

" Half n bottle of a natural win*- a ilay for a «.ilctitjirv mid 
a boirk' a day for a vigciron?^ and actively einpU^vfil udiill ulfoid* 
El n-tiwumblf- and prudent alloWEince of ah-i^hol, itod ihl?* ipmntiiy 
of wiiif, eiihi-r alom- <»r with wntiT, will Im* tnou^h to stttli^fy 

■ Cn CAc Vmm ^ If^fuv in J/no/rA nW D'tmtr^ 16T7, p. 39. 



I 



ALCOHOL. 



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s o ? o p o o 

15 i3 5 ^ - ig ^ 

31 -c -3 H i» lo S 

] 1 :3 o s> o o o 

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146 BEVERAGES AyD STIMULANTS. 

the ueeda of moderate iwrsons for a beverage at hinebeoD and 
<limier, the only two meals at which alcohol i^hould, as a rule, 
be taken." 

CIDEIt 

Cider U a be\'erage prepared from the fermenteil juice of 
ripe apples. The amount of alcohol contained in this beven^ 
varies between 3 and 8 per cent, by volume. It iilso contains 
malic acidj P4ilts, sugar, albuminoids, and extractivef>» Cider is 
a diuretic drink and acts as a laxative. On ex}>ofture it under- 
goes an acetic acid fermentation, whereby it is rendered unfit 
for drinking purposes. 

The table on p, 145 ' gives analyses of American ciders, 

1 Cramptnn, Fttadu and Food AduUei-antf, U^ H. DeparUneni uf Agriculture) 
Bullelm No. 13, 1877. 



VARIOUS FACTORS IN THEIR BEARING 
ON DIET. 

CONCENTRATION OF FOOD. 

CoscKNTJUTED foods are tho^ frtim whiih the lac^r por- 
tion of ti>o water prcr^nt ha^ been nb^tnicted, and thu.^ the 
weiffhl ami iIk- bulk of the fcxxl tliniiiiihhrd. Then? are 
many put^ited ccmtviitRitotl fiifxl^ on the- market. Tliey find 
tbi-ir cliicf Ufv in ibe trviUmnit of patknU* who take too little 
of the u#UAt furni? of IVtocJ to mainbiin ^itFciigtb, and, i;ecoDd, 
ill cn^KT^ ubvre it M im|x>riuiit tliail n lar^- i^aantiiy of iiourUh- 
mi^fti W ijikori. 

Food cftD b© ronoontralod in varionw dt^rrecs. D««ioofited 
m«it ta the niwt <y»ncriiltTiti?d form of protein ; snjsar, the most 
€ono«rtratcfi form of carfaoliydmle ; and olive oil, the nnje^t 
ciinocrinitfii furni n( lat. 

L Concentrated Proteins. — These foods srv pn^pared 
fponi milk, m«U, riri;«» und veifv-tuble^ Matt is ootictriit rated 
hy dryui)!:, jind in ilii* form it \^ jrencmllv JndiffeHtible ; wliioh 
can, Iwjvivvcr, Ikt *>v<Ti'iim*? by prcili^ii^tion or [wwdering; m 
ifais diws of ftx^J.-* urir ini;b)dc^ M>oinlo:<<', |teiiiinicaf), and 
Mo«qii<frfe*M " Bwf il<?ai" (=*v p, 150). Among iho t*OD- 
«M»tntD(l foofi* d4<rivi*d (rttm tW 4TW4*in of wiVJt are imlroae, 
enr^K^in, He. t^-e p> 1 r>0). ^r/* arr *lri<'d in rai^tto : siitjar U 
tiMially aii^lwi, and ftp egg« afi' iUvn {wivvritf^]. Of the 
rYfffiabir pmtnnpi ulilinnJ in cvnoviiiniu-<I fomi are aleiironat 
and h^tmiin. 

2. Concentrated Carbohydrates. — f^iigar is the m<wt 
imjiorr^nt of iIk- ri>nn>nirun:'d carbr bykiniK?^. In this form, 
hitwrMT, it i?* ajil Ut di-Jigret and i-au-t- fiLifiirutaiion. To tJiia 
rlikw of cutiirciilnilr*] <«H»->hrdrnir-' Ivlon^ xUv naUt oxtmct«, 

3- Concentrated Vegctable8.^Mau_>' vegetables, mhtU 
«« |H>tatn(*¥, rmmtfb, rtibliii4t4\ nm) iIm^ tike, an^ eitnoentraied by 
ilmn^. T!ii?y are ut>1i)riil -mly in \U*r^ in^tancf^ in which it 
is impo«*ible to wntn* fn-i-h vt^'tabkn. 

Bread i* fRvgm'ntly (h-i€vl and enten in the form of *^ hanl- 
tack," when it i.4 icnpoaHibIe,a9 during royagcs, to obtain frcftb 
brad. 

147 



148 VAJUovs rACToss /.v rnicut SEARiyo o-v diet. 



PRESERVATION OF FOOD. 

By preserviitbn i*f fixid \a nieaiu the ]>n»ce-s l>y wliicb the 
foo(J i^ i^t fhangiHl thai U oan I* kejn fui' a longt^r or i^liorier 
|h*i'uhI uf UiDe witlumL iin«k-rgiiitig [mifvfuctioii. The [tn>L^e?i.3 
of rcrrocnUiioii la iiiducHjd hy micro-<>f^nL«ur* present in tlw 
ntmuApli<Tre t*omirig iut*> c-ouUk*! with iiiv food aod ouuimmultn^ 
it- Sinrr jmLn'rariiV*- grrmr* rMjUir*- u n-Hnin anKfiini uf moiiii- 
un> and ii<'jit for tikcir gr^iw tli, mkIi fiHHl?t uri contain Utile water 
And tJiftt are not k<'pt too warm arc not m) likely Ut uDdei^ 
decompf tuition ; i>n ih^ ntWr hand, iWtdi* containing miuh waiter 
undergo ferntentation vm' lapidly. To prevent ibJA pnxw&s 
four methtMU of preservation are, aocording to Veo/ available : 

1, Drying. 

2- KxcIlisiou of tbc air. 

3. Kxposuro to ci>li], 

4. TreiUment whli antiseptic diemic agt>"t>^. 

1. Drying. — By tlii-* iiroces.* ii hir^r** pro|n>rfi£>n nf tt»* 
watCT i> alMnirtvil. lVnimi<un i^ u funn of iiK-at j>rc^Tvt'd 
by thii* rn(*th(Ml [m^- p. l-'iO), Vi-p^UibW, biicIi as rjirroti?, )was, 
patutt>efl, <dU\, an* aUo pn^serv^nl by dn-inj^. Milk. Iti tlic form 
of Dtitroj^e, e^g?i, a?* *^ ]wwdor, iitkI fniiu lire nfn^u prt'scrvt-j 
in ihU manner. 

2. Sxcluaioa of Air. — Air mav Ix* prcventril fn>in com- 
ing iut<* cimtat-t wJlli fcuHi hi u »ijmlK*r of wuvs ; bv inj[a€r>ing 
the* fiHxl ill oil <ir flit ; by beating th<^ fmd^ io ns to evaporate 
thtf cxttnial laycrii ; liy tNiating wtih some im|»t'rmpflHe nnb- 
rttnncy, a* oil, wilt, mwdnAi, varnifih, or pamffin. Fish are 
ftrqncntly prosc^rved by immersion in oil or by smoking. Ham 
and bacm are pn^Tvtnl by fmokin^', by wbicb process the 
outer jinrface beoomt:^ con^uLiti.*<! and impermeable. Eggi* are 
preserved by covering :be fn-di egips with »ome impermeable 
iMibstance, such as oil, fat, beeswax, or wiwdnst. In oMer 
prr>|wrly to pie-trvt- tood by i-xc-tiiMim (if nir h \s Ingldy im- 
]>orlant that tlir fotx! bi- pc-rfct:tly fre>b, nnd tbal any air that 
muy bo pri'-^out bo fxpilloiil. 

In fviititintfj iIj<- fiHiil Ut \>o ptv*ervwl it; hritlod la (in cans 
until ftteanied, when, all ibe air biiviiig lH"<>n expelb'd, tho can 
ifi soldered and rendi'h'^i air-tig-bt. Various methods have been 
re^nrle*! to ti> ohviati- the nreevifv <if ni'tkinj; in preserving 
fomb MeCalt advises the piirliai exclaitiikM of air nn<l (be dis- 
infection of what remains with **odiTim Milpbite. .\ method of 

* FihkI in llttUlh liit'l ItuV'iMf pH 176. 



rBESEBVATIOy OF FOOD, 



149 



tlif> air by mtrogttn anil MilpfatiroiiA icid liag alio been 

S. BxposUTC to Cold. — F<>ihI can W pivr^n-ed inckfi- 
pUfly by iue. Mi'iiT aiu) fi^h, wliicli are often pivt^ervtid by tbii 
in4<fiJi^, should t>e cookeil ai onco alii^r ibawing. Knizen nw^t 
i»>ses atMut 10 per cent more of iL-< nutritive valwe in cooking 
ihau fiv^ii cieuc. FnN[ut'iitly dxtd i» nut ke|>ldireeiiy on ive^ 
bat in tvfrigemlm]; dumber? ; it <^i% tbas lie ^iipfinl many 
tboiiHhii^lii <ti' iniic'6 i>n Jan<l or wiicvr vilbuut eliowiti^ iIm 
hIigbuMt u>Ufl*-ibcy c^i d«fHtin[Kj«itiiiu- 

4. Treatment with Antiseptic Chcmic Afr^nts. — 
1. SaltiniE- — Tli« Rultirii; of fixxl i^ :i rii(ih"(i tltui luis been 
pmcci-^ lor maQy of-Qtnrie^ In tliU way meat and tifih are 
cosily prft^rvftl. Th<^ )>ide eol<tr of tbe n)«»t pnHjuce*! by 
laltin^ i$ overcome by adding a liirl^ ttaltjieter in addtliou to 
common j<»lr. By silting, coii>idtnible pn>i«inri are extracted 
fnjm tbe lurul — aec'unliii}; Ui lAMg^ oue-tbinl of tJie nutriiiv« 
value of tlie iii«nt U Wt in thin wuy. After the dttltiiig baa 
been acootuplUlii'd ii U oHvn fullowed by nmokin^. 

5. Sufar ii^ strong nolmion actK tkn an ^ntii^cle, iitid fniits 
an> (bti- i>ft4ia preserved in oncciiirntiHl synj|w. 

^, VKne^ar net:* a* an antiwptic in pn-scrvin^ etirtimbenv 
pirkliH, oyntcrs. He. 

4. Other Antiseptics for Prcserring Foods. — Among 
thir« iiihj*tiHK-rH »n- ^nlpliiir va|Mir : v^^k <^»rboIi(? aei<l ; Mnmg 
iC!4*iio aebl ; Injections of alum and altinduitim cblorid itito tbe 
b)aml*ves;<eI-< ; txirif: acid ; Ikvivx ; wili<:yl)e ui^id ; fr>rniaUIel^ydi 

Cliittvaileti ami <Siea' bave utmlictl tbe dfeet of borax aiul 
of l>oric' ur}d <m the j^'tieml uutntion- Tbey cH>uc?lud* lliut» 
fflken in «mnl] iIom^n for a long Itmr, Iriinix diii<^ nut alter 
nietabidi^m or di-*tiirb natrition. In br^r (liiek? httux TvitirxU 
protein uml lai a-v-imlliilion. In ver>' lari:e iln^v it euiit<o« 
mLn!4.-ti, vomiting, an^l diarrbe^. (Sn; Fo<mI Adulteration, p. 
177.) 

TIte n^ of antiseptics to preserve fooil^ I* tuimlly coadeinnedt 
aoci laiTA have Ikeen enaciKl lo prevent t}ie adalteratlon i)C »tjcb 
food>» s» milk. Imht, He,, wltli mitiftcpti<^ an naJicyUr n^rid, l»r> 
cnaldctiyJ, etc Wlulc timull i|iuifilili«< of tli<!«<- miWlanm^ 
i-i'L-ii takt'fi for a «>n.*idt'ft»b3(' Wigib *>( tirin', nwy not ilwitvA 
prove injuriotUf In lar^ qimnfitiet iIm^' an* ibin^*rtiti«. Somi* 
autlioritieH, auob au^ I'Wb*^,' maintitin ibat " ibe cni^dc agaiDHt 



160 VARWL'S FACTORS ly TUEtR BEARtSO ON DIET, 

di<fnie pRfservrttJon of food \» not exactly nlional. That 
LVtiain cWmk ?«u1i^UtU(¥» tn^y be injurioiiTt v* UDdfwliCoilIy 
true. It vntulil \k mort- tu tW |iuinl \o v:<lAb)i>b irliich nnr 
iDJurioUfi am) whicb ure not, rutl)(,<r thun ihJiMrnmtnati'lv co 
invctgb ngiunr^f uU fitwl |nv«^rviifivn*. Aw n mfltU>r of f»c(, 
llitiAcr who object so <«l(H|imMrly t<> Jill rbwiiir finxl pw^erva- 
livt« wcm Ui forge! tlial s»i]]iii]i di]r>ri(l, bct^Iio acui, ami dliyl 
nlc^obrJ lire cbeoucaU.'* RoHei< lU^lomU ibo vt^c of »aiie\']>c 
ft^id, an<l attomptfi to jirove ibat {ihmU i)rc».Tvc<i witb it arc not 
only Dot injurjou^, but are really siifor tbuu (ooiU not h> |>ny 
»erv«d. ^See Food Adulteration, p. 178.) 



I 



ARTIFICIAL FOOD PREPARATIONS 

To tbi« oliW* of J^Kul* UOnng tho«' prep:! rut ion ^^ tbftt »re «» 
com'mtrnt<*(l ns to ftinii^}! a lar^« mnouiit nf fotx) in f^mall 
bulk ; Iwiri^ of t^mall bulk, llu-y nin W n<1(3r'<l to liqnul fuijils, 
aiu) thii!* llu- nutritive vahuMjf i)ir )niti-r increav.d without in- 
L-n'axLii^ tbir trital ipiantity of liipiiil taLf*n. A ntiniWr (.iftlit-se 
prqmrut ions bave [>oen mpnlioneil under the heud iff becf-jincc« 
un<l iiit^l-|iow(!eiH. Tbe varioim «isein prqmnilion'^, ninong 
\^bicb may U^ uieiitumeil muruhe, eiKra^-inn, ^aaoM:, und pJaj^niou, 
Eire ortifici-il f*"nl?<, 

L NutroHe jm |iT('|»artHl fr*>m ibc <<UM'in nf milk combinod 
with an nikali (»uM[luni)r ^binb <<tiiiv<'r1« tbc> i-nM'in intf» n eolor- 
lesfl, fciPti'lcfi* jv>wdtT iH>nij>ldfly wibibU- in wntcr. It oontaini^ 
from Ki to IX ptT tf'til. of niliTkp'n, :uhI In iist-d a» a iW>'3 in 
di^'ei^tive dititiirlKnnt'^ It i^ a<bnini>trrH] in R>npi^ (onMhird 
to oDe-half ounw of Dutn^-H' to <'JU'li ajpfiil), 

2. Bucasein i^^ a similar pn<)mration, in whitb, bouvvcr^ 
amnioiiiu enters instoail of r^iMliiini, 

3, Sanude is a TimhI c<oiiiiuiiing 80 [wr <vnt. of pur*- r«M:m 
aoJ 20 |»er cenU of e^^-^ilbumio- It is a roWlc.ss ^>.iwdrr It 
emidaifiLM in water^ fi>nnin|' a whito lLi]iiid, and cati be tulcrn io 
cocoa, milk^ or broth- 

■*. Plasmon i.* prt'Tiared from tht* proteins of milk, iind is a 
mor*t n-**!!!] i'iiM^m j)n»duci. It is a while tasteless powJer, 
fiolable in warm water. It is administereil in water, milk, or 
bn>thw. It eimtain^ about 70 per (^eni. of proteins, 

Artliicial Proteins made from Meat. — AmimlKrof 

tbe*e pr(!parations have jilreaily been dc^cril^eii- To tbi^ chi?<* 
belon)!:: 1. reniiukau. 2. i'e^<oce*pruducte. 3. Mueqacm 
"Beef Meal." 4. Sojwilose, 



i 




AUTIFWTAL Ff>OD PiCEPARATIOXS. 



11(1 



1. Pemmlcan !» prqvirrd by mtlmir znnat inin tliin trices 
aoi] nlli>nin^ these ii* <\ry ; siijjar and ilrii-J fniitji an? adtietl, 
llw outricive \-nUie of the meat Uiii): iWrebv iaon'a'^l. Forty 
part* of fat are adJod to oO [lariti cf meat,' 

2, I'cptOfie-prtKlucts. — rpptone-pmilucifi are j>redi^4iie<) 
protein i^xxK When jjiveii in lai-]^ (juanntie!^ iliev leml to 
prtMjuoe ilUrrbea, anil aro objt*ctionahte to many |ialk'iit» oa 
mc«o(iti< of their (1ir^zi^nx.-ublL4 lui^le. Amon^; the [>niii.-if>Ltt pMv> 
lr)D«*I>Foductjt r]iiiunrue1un.Hl mny be mentioned KemmeriebX 
KodiV Ht'iJin^r's* Savon," & Moore'-^, Cornrick's, AriiiourV 
AViue of Keef Peptone, anil Panopeptnn, 

The fi>lIowin^ talJe» takeu from Konig, gives the cli«mio 
composition of -tonte peptA^ne preparatJODfi : 



hVpAIVtlAO' 



KnniMrtcli'i inciit p#ptork« idi?] 



il 1^ 



I 















771 

Am 
an 

U10 



3, Mo«quera E5eef Meal U pre|iared by [KinljiUy d^cstiitg aiftit 
by inmn?< tt£ », tVn»t-nt oi>Uuii<^i frmii |niX4-zippl<r jtiitiv- AcconU 
tng til Chklviidcn, tbU product contaiim !'U per ccui. of Dutri- 
tii'i^ matter (13 |)er vent, of &t and 77 per oc»nt. of protein), 
Th»' ppi)t<'in-< at* maifily in tbi' f'irni af alhiinKih<>«i nml popioiie^, 
Tlti:* |)r<'p;intlioti ha^ a vi-ry high nnfrtliv<r value aiid mav be 
m\t.M ft OM^iia. milk, or bmth. 

4- Somatome, — SomaHMt' is a prt'dijresfed meal oonsistin^i of 
albutnibc^. Ic U a ycllov^Uh )K>i\dor, lat^lele^s, <>f!orl<r?.s nnd 
highly numtiou>i, and is asually well borne even in gastric 
dbtnrbances. 

Artificial Proteins prepared from Vegetables. — 
Tbr two pnnci[ial furuis of tbm elart od' fnxis am 1. l^-guniin 
or Kmbryonino. 2, Alenmnat. 

1. I^ecumin iY>n»ii;tJS of the eA<iein of the leigtinnv, nnd i% a 
b^bly iinlriiiiiij^ protein food. 

'2- AJetironftt if* a brownish powder chiefly iititlx^nt a» a food 
for diuW-tW. Ii omtain'i ^O prr cent, '>f prou^in. 

Artificial Proteins prepared from both Animal 
and Vegetable Foods. — o\' this class, ore pixKbKi e^j^"- 

ciallr must be iiameil — i. f., Tropou, This lA prcpanxl mainly 



162 VARtors FAirroRs /.v trfir rkarixo oy diet. 

from firth and v^reUiblw, anJ ns suld on tfae market &i>|teai^ as 
n hn>\vQbfh taKtrlc^is jxiwflcr It \» i-nten miied with DroU»« or 

ARTtFIOAL PROPRJETARY FOOC6. 

A liit^* ijuiuIht of j>rujirieUiiy tootle, <)i!Bignei] us ^ubeUtutea 
for milk f<ir infiitit^ finil invalids ^tv ^^ ^'^^ mnrko4. In&nui 
ftnl upon »udi t'lUMi-* filciiK* rtiv ii)»t to Itcwiiw nidjilic. S*n«c 
of licfic fy^ls linvi* Vtxth tiHHi-valiie, eJrL|>ociuIly the aniy1»<?eoih4 
fo<xU in whirh tin' :<lan*li haa not Ik^^u jnodii^-sU'd. JIany of 
|Ik'-'«(- ])rc[mniiu»iiti contain tto little tkt and tkr tJH>|^iTtit a pro- 
piirtion of carljoiiyilratfti. Aconling to Hi»lt, " wh<*n <-Jii1iJivn 
art: M iijHfH fotfiU lacking in l:it the tenh i'4>inc lui<% the honra 
an." M.ift, tin' mum-Iw* Jlnbb}/' ^^IiiIi* '*rliiMn"ii fi.il u|H»n loijtla 
CODtjiinitig too much :«Ligar arc frcr<jiicntly very fat, hnt their Hc?«h 
i= %"cry w»ft ; ihoy walU Into arul llioy fH^nipirc nttdily .'ihi>m the 
head :mil fi<»rk/* Aii Hnllthnrtfin hit* n-tn'olly jHiinrpil (mt»* 
**mere chemic analysis \s no cnk-rioii of finnl-vjihuv ^*^^ the 
(li^eetibtlity of tlie looil i^ tk' itll-im|>oilaiit i|iieatkrn. Inve^t!- 
gatiotiFi into the value of foiMl-^tuils tnij!*t Iwooncluctfd and con- 
trolled Imth in I'iro and it* W^'o — both in tlw U.mIv uml iu the 
teiit^tiibe. The resiilitiof tett-tnheexpennients areof valiii-. i>iit 
ihe filial te*it fif food-atuH's tmisT he made on animalr^, ami prefer- 
ably oa aiaii. Tliese ex|HTii]i(^ntH are Ik'Ui te^lioiis and diffioidt^ 
but tlicro i^ a gritwlng appreL-laiion of their vidur and an in- 
crcnxtn^ retort to ttit'Sr um?." 

Hut<*l»isfa» ' dividi's proprietary f™>dK into ihrw clawiee : 
K Poods prepared from eowg' milk witti varton^ 
additions or aherniioii^, and requiring only the addition of 
wafiT io fit \\M}ti\ for immediate nse, T<» this cla^^ft belontj 
MattKl Milk. X<Atlf-V F.kkI, I^ctal^nl Food. Carnrick's Food, 
Cer<rfll Milk, Wyelh*!i Pre]-iare<l Fxnl, and Wampole's Milk 
Food, ria-^c firt.nis nro pn-paixil fn>ni flour baked and raixtxl 
wiili milk or eix-am and then dn(^l. hy means of Mie malt 
whieh if* adihil flir slan-ht''* rin'i^oiivrrU'd iiilu di-itrin and mal- 
tose* TK<? g<'ricTtil compo!«Uioii of thwc foodn ia aj^ follows: 

l\ir iT?ni. 

WntfTT w,r> 

Pnitcin 10 

Vni a-^ 

?u0ir -,,........,.. - - 0.0 

Miticml nintlcr 0.(f 

^ " IHctetio Value of Pitcnlod Foods." Sfw T«rk JTooL Jovr„ Janu&Tv S3, 



AltrtFlCiAL FOOD trtKi'ARATlOSa. 



154 



Tlw (^ii'mic rv>ni[i<>»iftr>n nf Maltvfil Mtllc and of Xeell^s 
Food U thu^ given by Cliitlctitlcn : ' 

Vk'aivr . . . . , . . Bi±.40 WiTB 

VtMtt\n 1.3* a«I 

Tai - ^ - atin a.s6 

MtomI nmil^T , _ - O.i^ ai3 

2. PaHnaccoti» foods prepared {torn cereals of 
which the starch has been partly or ^'holly con- 
verted ftlto dextrin or sugar, :iml whiMi r^Tjitiro rlu- mldi- 
lioii 111' miik V> rit llicnt lor iih'. T<* chi'^ duv^ )»elo»^ M«-lliii*4 
KuocI, S&ivorv i& Moorc^-'^ Inlant Fwul, iiiul Bcng'cr's Food. 
Tl""**' fiMnh nil- )^rt<|ictriHl [iy inixini: <h|ii;i1 |»!irts ut wln-^jt flonp 
ami lxiH<-y limit uiiti linin niid |M>i;iN>iiiri liic^rlx>nflto, Tbe 
mixtiirt* is mndi' into u |«i."*t4- wiiii u;iirr, inul kept ;it a warm 
imj|H.'mtun- uniil cho MiiMi i» e4>iivvrtul into dextrin and 
mtiliufii*. jV-^ ilir:^ ftunh atv jHNir in fill, |in>leint iiml tninend 
nkJiit<^r-% th<-y nrt uddi^l to mUk in ont^-r to render tijcm nioi'o 
i>utritir>ii)j. 

3. Farinaceous Foods In which the Starch has not 
been Predige»ted. — To ilii* cli!*^-- i^elor^ RftJ^^V Fowl, 
X«ivi'» FofKl. Imjwrial Cininmit, niul RiA>Uwoxi\ Patent Uar- 
W. Tlu'.M" f.i.Hi'- arv p-'F iu fin. pn-teln. iiivl mineral inatter?^. 

Other Proprietary Foods- — Crackers aix iirc(>!iml from 
Soar, vctxet or milk, mid arc ludtnl into vamuie fiHcue. 
Il(ikinff-|iowd«r und v^odA, nnd fkv(|iirnt]y milk. bitttL-r, i^agir^ 
amt flavi'riiiji: I'Xtroctp, are nddwl. Otiek''i> ai-e, iip^ h nile| 

Malt Extracts Mall extract-^ arv nianufcHure*! by beating 

« Mjlnfjoii iif midtnl luirW at st m'^i>mfo tempc^nitiin* in ivrv^o. 
Til*- nvi-nip* <Nini|Hwitiiifi of nialt extracts at^ jjWen by Klero- 



Soar 

Sotitbir tfvrrJi 
|*niidn . . 
A>li < ■ 



pur c*rH- 

- 10-15 

- .'>-f, 



M^tll exlrad^ aro r^piviidly iiHrful il* brverap.*--* for iWc 
wnkenin] tiy vbn>ni«' iIImhicc. si-^ lulHTOiikwU f>r aiii'niia, and in 
tbc DoD^'alfteduv fmm aiiite di»*iu*cii^ af« aftvr typluMd fever 

> AW V'lr^ ^Xr^i .X"nr., Jul* 1ft, 1MW. 



161 VABIOVS fACTOnS IS' TilEtn SBARJSG 0,V mET. 

or pticdmuniH. Among llic vnrifwi* mult prffanili^n?! mav b« 
mentioned Multinrr KrpkTV Kxtruci of Mutt, ntid H^ttl'^s Mult 
Extfict* 

The foll>wJng Utb\i^ give^ tike cheroic «»ni[H>^Jtion of vanoitii 
propnrtary food^ maTHifaclurctl hy the Battle Cn^^k Saiit- 
uriiim Cg. : 



BrMkftil AMd««ltdo«n»l». 



Albdinl- 



uieat^ •■*^- dmus. 



TouUd whcnl lUktti 

nmniitik , . . 
GrmfJa ...... 



QlLUcm: 

Stilt fckods: 
Ftp)[iic«ae , . . . . . , 
MHlK'tJ nain 

Sul biUUrP 

Nm Tiicvl . - 

AlmrtiMl biitlfr . . ^ 

Almnnrl nutil 

Pr^U**' . - - 

MviN*e 

FVduio ntm\ . . . 

Itiillc?* b«ina .... 



6-fJO 
11.401 



a.7o 



13.40 

2.(10 
3.00 

3.00 

4.«0 

4.80 

40. DO 



31,17 
T.IO 
3.70 



1140 
11.37 



4M0 
-11-111 



10.00 
2a70 

2fl.ao 

1-0-30 

2L00 
21-00 
u,l^ 

21,00 
3,87 

a50 

23.0S 



10.00 



as. no 

43. Ml 



mM\ 



TftAO 


1.4.^ 


78^ 


1.4S 


T&SO 


1.90 


77-S7 


2-2S 


72.63 


2.S0 , 


47.90 


I, Iff 


47-90 


1.10 


44.ft0 


M.00 


48.90 


27.-W 


17.10 


40.>S0 


17.10 


4fl.5a 


17-30 


5(.y" 


17.30 


.%4,SI0 


0.91 


ia-1<> 1 


±H*^ 


lo.fifl 


t^AJi2 


, . 


Kti,UO 


0,40 


&14U> 


2.an 



2.S0 
2.50 

LOO 

1. 00 



1.20 



1.10 

iA\} 
1.10 
2.00 
2.O0 
1.51 
1.4il 
0.-14 
^ID 
S.10 



COOKING OF FOODS, 

The oookiriK of fuoil is an art practised by eiII racers e3\*^g^ 
as tteJl as cnHlia:ed, FfXhi U cooked to iraiin>ve iu flavor^ to 
soften it so that it ran li*- inuKtk^tlc<] and nrnre easily di^^ted, 
and finally w dcfiiroy all pimiflitfH aiul di^^m'^e uonii^ that may 
bt j}rc*<;nl in the raw A>in1. Uv cuiikin^, <<i^rluin flavors are 
dtvdopcd, which by tlicir ^mvonnc*!* incrcjsp the appciite and 
the tofit^ for tlio fo<HL Cf^oking, moiv<>v<T, df>itn>v>i ih*.* t^nigh 
fibrous envohiiw tiiat finrround many ff»o<t>i, lhii« p*»raiitTinp the 
foiid to In- muri.' etitily acted npon by the varioti>^ dijre&tive 
fluid-^. Varu»iih |Mini»itio organUms present in many foods are 
destrf»y(Kl liy cookinjf, nrd rbc fwnl tljiia freed from one of itfl 
mr»st dan^roii-s elomrnU. On coi'kitip, the pn.>t<'in id food 
ooQ^ulatefi; under the infltieiiec of dn.' Iimt the t^tiirchcs are 



cooKtsQ ot room. 



IM 



h«i! thi? grtiimIcA gfuduuUy ^w^ll iimil tlx-y niptiiro 
Iheir envflopt. Sugars. W boiliDj; are changed gmdiially iiit<i 
caramel, vrhicli \* tlio sourct? of the odor fivfjut^nily given ttfC 
ID U»e cuukin^ uf f<xx). Wbcn fuls ara limtod, they untier^i a 
<iiAi]ge, with ih(* |ir<Hhicli<>n of fire futty ucidi^, which ore often 
r^pODJlible for i^w lAttr* ilmt i-xi«l in Uir kitobcn. 

Cookiog of Meat, — BollInK- — In bulling moits the tem- 
pcmturr of tbf^ waior ^liouM u*n (-x^^whI ihc tomi*crjHDiv m.'oc*- 
fcury Inr iho om^uluiioii iif tlie pivitt^iiiii. In orilcr tliat the niottt 
mny rwnin n^ mtioh of ii^ flavor h«^ pof^ihU iCt^houbl (m? immerM^i 
in boiling water fi>r a few momtnt^ ; in thb way the |>riiti'ia 
oD the Aurfucc immeihately errngtilutet, tbuM prevcntiaif ei?ca|)e 
of th« ormslilticnl^ and f^> n-lidnin^ all the nntriTive o]enieiit»' 
in tJ>e meat. AIUt thm liar^ tK^enncx^^trnpli^lKil the lemm-niture 
of rlH' wiiter may l*c loworwi and the pnioe*** »»f eookirg cwn- 
tinuctl. Thu hrotli whiuh ir< )<u prodLic4<d i» tliiu and ]K>or. If 
a hell, ntitritkiurt bmth i:^ di^virrd. tbo mttit ^h<mlil 1h.< ini into 
^fDAll pieces and placw! in c.dd w-alrr, nnd ihe tciopcmtuiv 
grQ<)iiaily inerwxfo"! to 150^ R Id rliiF^ way tlic ontntioiia 
eleiDOnts of ibo moal |iii<« out into tIu* hrolh. 

Roasting. — -In roaniinj?, ilie mwii ir* first i>xpor*i*cI to a high 
tempcmiim^ and afterward orwkHl slowly ; ihiw the oMii>r hiyfrr* 
coe^ctJlal« at om^ pivvetitinj: esf^pf i»f rhi' juuvk. Koa-Min;; 
iKPt oolr prevents ova|HiT3ti[>D of the flavors of meal^s hut by 
its effect on the extmctives deveJopn wirory odors and flavors*- 

Baklni;. — Flahinir tnuch rft^eniblw nka-tinif. pxivju ilmT by 
the UtttT proi^f-s-i ilie b*^i i-i apidit^l all round dii' mt^l. in- 
slettd i»f only i<> imv pid<"» 

St^w'iQ^. — F(>r thU purposM* rncnt U cut into nmall pw»o<« 
and plftLvd In a vmnU ffuatititv of waU-r. The wntcr u htiili-d 
slowly, hut not allowf^l ti> Imil ; a ci^rtain imumnt of the niitri* 
lions Huh^taoc^^s ilius ftuwe-'* iiiM the ivar(*r, whifli (hen b^ntimes 
rich, and to trhJi^h flavrtrinp sulistances and v-i^4abW are 
add^. Inx^^much a» tW juict^ in eaten with the mrat. Dune of 
(be Dutmiouf* ingn*dientfl is lost. 

Brazing. — In this pr^cefts the meat is placed in a small 
ve^M-l iiiirl cnvervi) i^ith a Htnmjf Ihjuor uf vep^iahle an<l 
ftninuil juioM; it in then h«t«dt but not Ixtiltfil. The touf^h 
Iil>er3 of the meat arv thud looaoiKHl ai>d made tender ; the 
meat alf^ tif^eonien tmpregnatMl with vegetables and spie«« 
presi^nt in tlw* juifi-s, ulurh fiihnme.s it* Havor. 

BroUins.^^IiptiliDgaud no.'itingare similar procesaea^ except 



IM VAniOVS FACTORS AV TJIE/H HI^AHiyG oy DIET. 



tlidt in llip fiirnwr rtni.illrr |M>rtions nrp iililt^i^d : x\\v pro<v»*H u 
lliiij< moiH' nipi*i, II Ijirgrt Mirfice b?inj expo?i«l (o The din^*t 
iicti<>n "f tlie lii'at. 

Frying- — \\\ \\m pnn-cw flic meat U put into bnilin^ fat, 
\\\[\\ wijidi it lnriHiKw Kftdmu^'ii; JoHy uculs aiv tlms jirc>- 
<iu('(H], wlik'li lirtvr a tt»tideiicy to irritnk' ibe »-t«macEi and cauiiv 

Cooking of Pish. — FieH may Ix^ botM, bit-ilcd, liaktO, 
and fried. It<iit«<[ ti^h Ip nio,<t i^ui^ity di^^lcd* Iiini^inuch ab 
thp 1l:Lvor!ri|^r ^^idn^^t^no^j^ iirt* moro ^n^^ilv ilii^udx'^d nut into the 
wiili-r mid lii>t, K^ifi litiii:- should 1h^ ron-uniptl in iHtiTlnj; ti«h 
rbuik ill iHilllitg iiK<;U. Sir Ptoiin' Thompwfi ha^ fbown that 
e\x*n witli wirrftil boiling; 5 fwr rent, of tbc* R>Hd nmttrr of fish 
H ape to 1m^ hist ; ft>r this reusoii sl^'funiiig \» oJWn prefemble, 

EFFECT OF COOKING. 

The effect of cooking on meat i^ to diminUb it* watery 
tHinMitm-nt;', tims c*«'inviiimlin^' ;ttid reridrriiip it rnorc niitriiiuiiji; 
bv ibi^ pnrt-<.Ti< ul>n \\\\y rxinic'tivi-s^ as well in* wmc of ibe fiitaj 
nrc |iiirtiy rcniovt-d. 

Tlic following tnl>lc, lalccn frfini Konig, ^hows th<r chcmic 
cnnif>o»^it]on of c«ri-iin mvtnt^ before iinrl atWr oooking ; 






iiulli^r. 



11,35 



(HO 

€.0H 



WiTlBTSi 

1,23 
1.1$ 
1.45 
1-1 G 
L43 



Beef, mw 

Bwf iw»i:<^i .... 

Kftf r-wfliwi , . 

Ywil ciiilem, rurt - - 

BfiFect of Cooking on Vegetables, — Tho iTn]>ortant 
objert in rh*» rfmliinir i*i" ^'<*^[jd»h"^ i.^ to niptiire ibe cellulose 
^velop and ?o (o H\\\v^n \\w <'f)MtiuihHl rijiixrh-^rra Dales. Under 
the infltienee <*f bi'iit and moi-^tnm tbr- starch ^'-wellw and ImrstA 
its envtb»|). fnrmiiiirn |wist^' ; this |ia.«te, in it** turri, expands 
and nifitnn-i the r(liulo?4(> i^nvidop ; omking, tberpforCj rcndcre 
v^etable f<Htd^ more tii-^dy digt'-iible. 

A« litiJ> Uti) pointtHl out, in the cooking of iiich1j<; a curtain 
pnip<jrfii»i iif iJii* in|;n-<lioiiIn if* b»l, TTnlikt* mcat^, howf*v«r> 
vcpcUiblc:* brromc m^pc vrutrn- in t<Hikiup:. In this (H^ndltion 
ibev nre morr Piisilv sit^ted iifMiri tiv ibi» ^kstric 'i*'(^reMon ; »m lb** 
tf^tber blind, tli*' jiddltion nf wntiT in conking ^ inrreasw their 
biilk rbal fhc motor fiiT(?tin[i <^f the :<tomacb is apt to be ov€r- 
taxe<b 

When fuod if* e(x>ked rapidly tliere ib a teodency to overcook 



COOKiyO OF FOOhS. 



157 



tbeoiit^r luT^TS and to Wvo tht^ inner uD<k'rdane. Tlie hetUT 
|>bii, therefore, is to a>ok tbod ^Jo\^'ly far n lon^rr |)eriiKl of 
time at a h>WT.'r tempcruliiix. VarioitFi uppliiitii^cs aw i>ii tlK' 
market which have ior i\mr c>hjc(.*t iht' pnxluctiou of a cod- 
tJnijoUB action of a modemto beat, ut the expc»«<> of tib littk 
file) 15 possible, the **A1a(l<lin 0\-i-d" of l>r, Edward Atkin- 
tt>Q' ia au a|>[Niratu» of thio kind. " It ia a »mi[)lf? iruii txtx, 
cloHvd in frvui k^y n do<.kr^ and Imviiif; iiit o|>eiiiii]^' id tfie lop 
llmt oommuui<Mt04 uilh si ciiW to lot off" any flii|H?rJluoii^ siean), 
ThU 1ki!c if* .^urniiimloil Uy iini.ilher^ whose top and &ides iire 
made i»f iiou-eirtiilitcEiiijLr maiomi, for the piirp<)ti« of holding 
die he»l. A MaiidanI, nn whirh lhi.4 \xtx U f^t, ^tid a lamp 
umlefiidith ooiupletr th^ aj^immitin." Atkinson claims that 
ordinarily two p>QitiU *>f fiM are reriuired for every pound of 
fixid ^m>ked. wher(fl-'J with hjx oven two and one-lialf i>oundb 
of fuel will enok ^ixiv [niiiiuls of ffwxl, Cunon Moif Lfle, of 
Kuj^taod, iuveiiled u ^huikir u}>[iui-;Ltu.4 for th(^ eo«vkmgof [K-uuy 
vacaU.' Hi? deserib*.'* bts appartttua as fallows : 

" II oouitut^of a box 3 f\H.'i h!^h, 2 fiMrl wkkv I fool 9 fnohiM 
deep, with an oiii4*r va^o nf ^hfol irv^n. 'V\u* iiiiii*< iind ]i<l nre 
lim^l witli 2} iiktIh---* of fdr, uml insithr this, ii^^in, in il furilit-r 
liniDif 4>f tin, L'liJonH.'ath thin l>ox, Khlfli will hold .'Jti gulhtus 
are pUcerl two of Fletoher'r* ntmoAphrric ^a^^-bumeri^. Tlw 
felt f>eing a Don-conilnotor« nt<»rly all Uie ln-iil fi^mi ihe ga^ ix 
utilize-*!, and a oomparalively Moall expi^nditnre of gru^ Tiiif}i<H<^ 
lo raise the tempetanire of the <^>meni>i of the Imx Uy txiilinjf- 
poinl, or to Uk- beat rei|iiirv^ for thi- finnl which im Im^ui^ o<xike<l. 

" Wlieu once tie do^inxl t<'Jiip(!ni1iint U i>hliiiiir<l» one of the 
bum*-rs <.to b<- tMrne<1 off" nod ibv *>thfr h^wrft'^l, when, owing 
lo the nn V4-nCi>ro of rafliali<'a by tUt* f«*lt. it will W foiinil thiil 
a roe«4y nominal exfienditnre of giM will enable the tempora- 
larc to be maintained for lionrx, and ev^n when the ^^ \^ 
totally extin^funhnl, many hmr* will cliipTV Itefore fotwl citoked 
will lnvy^nie cmoh 

" Itut, except in tiiv cst»e of pmldinjr^ which require rapid 
U>iliiiK, thi* v^Hjkinif i^ done in an fniHT pan, whiob i^ placed 
hi»i*lc tlie Iwx, :(iid whirli oiot»>iui mllirr n»«»rv tlian livfiuv 
pilliin^. TUe upptiraiu* mny W l><**>t do**^!!*^*! a^ a Ul^^• Wjir- 
n.'oV f<o4, with thf.< fj<1fiitiim:il !idv:intsifi' that th«< whoto of tb« 
laner pan U Mimiumk^tl by wwrm water." 

*Eilr»nl Alkin^ncv T^ S^mw '^ Sirtritim ond dit Arl t^ Voaki^ n iki 
Aim/UU Owrw. B^on. T^niTv^l A t>h»m. lSI>fl 



158 rAMIOVS PJCTOSS IS TUEih BEA&ISG OS DfBT. 



DISEASES CAUSED BY ERRORS IN DIET AND 
BY VARIOUS FOOD-POISONS 

I>i««ft4e may lie f^uw^l by liking (<-> link- or too niturb fo^l, 
liv adiet iJuil L^ ii4Jt nvtl ItalnDced, — titai iF,i]oes miti»iituin ttic^ 
tf>ni1iifuiri»n o( G^-iA^mentB to coirwi proportioiH, — and hy 
irfhtT Intiiir^ am) inlluemx» the pn«bc naitire t>r raany of 
yih'wb U oJjstijjv. li may al^> W caoMrd hy cerlaiii i>oiM>tifi 
lit (ii.'-e*'if--j:iTia-* *ir jfiirtutite* tukcn inr<» X\w ludy with the fit)*! 
or drink. Dbeasc mny fi«x-Uk»ioaiiUy \k* prcxluml by a personal 
food idiiwyijcnisy. It U nlw fn^|iienily ivumxI by cenaia 

Tin.- f JiMUMW diic to tiie taking: of itP'iiftu^icni food are f-tarva- 
tion, midniilritUiri, iii«ni«tnii!i;, hikI utwe iVmiR of nnefiJia. Cldo* 
fwi* i» A]it to itrcur in umlerff^ ?''■''*- 

Ovcrmtini^t '»r llii* taking of taipn>pfT food, give^ riw to a 
|rreiit variHy "f dijM?uji«:<r €«|»TCialIy in llio^e who have heredi- 
biry t«[id«iiiHi.*3« to ixTlain di«^fl*i>i. Tlit* fui^nl, by pruducing 
iniutiiin in ihuulLmciibtn- tncl, ituiy be Cbe directcaii^of dis* 
<A#o, AM in luniu* indi^wttiti), di^trriii^, iiml the like, Di^ea^e 
mav al^o be prf**iiKxil by ili*' I'xccwivc nmuiinit^ of fixnl asfiimi- 
Lttf*] t'Ltbtrr bviu^ deposited m fal and t^u.^iui: ubcsity, ur bv 
<.vt-nvorking Uw.- organs of cxcrotioii, producing dnB\'0i-niti<iti9 
i.r ft'k'n»j*ft*. The kidm^Sj liv^r, and lieart ore llie orpins most 
bki*ly In Miflt»r, hut iW nf-rvou?* 7<VHfi»m may aU> liv uffecrtAl. 
In cpilcptirs JinJK'ki* rnrtv ln» hro light mi tiy (»verfi.'(Hiing. Gmil, 
lithcmiii, ami tlio liki.* iivt' umonir tlit iliMii!>»v f-nuM-^l liv a loi» 
ffenerouA <)iot, Dit^r^iHOx <»r Thi> ^kiii, aiicIi il-'^ ncni*, K^zttun, iiiul 
Ttrtioarifi, mjiy aUo Imv** Mur njimt* niiwd fiirtor. 

<^>v*»rt^itinjr IK pri.ibubJy n> pn>]ifK< ar^onroc of dis(^*4e a-* over- 
drinkiitj;, a lUct tliitt U not ^n<*mlU' adnilttet). The oommoii- 
eft ('flVvlj' of ovi^nlrinkin^ nvf tlit- iirrv(»UA <'<nniitjuii.< csiiised by 
oifXF*iv<* ton- nr rt>lfff--H<!rinkmg, and tlw all t<n> fumibur <x>ndi- 
tiofi, with it* wp||-knnwn tymptomat<flogy, i»f iioati- or olironte 
nlc^lvilUni. 

Acute food-pDl&Onlnfe: m due to tbeaotinn of pConniifis, 
and bofton knourt am ptoinaiii-|Kii)<»n!n^. PtomninA, or toxins^ 
are piJifinrou* tfnb*tantv* (.^aiMsl by tln' flrtinn of Iwwrteria, and 
mav 1m? p*iK'nit'*<i in ni(r*>i;i.*noiH ifXHU or in the :alimenlary 
tm*'t, Tlu'V ri'^-rnbli' idknl<«id.-«, and wlien al>eorljed are par- 
tiully dc»tn»\*il in the bvcr. 



DISEASES CAVHED BY FOOiMPOJSOSS. 



ir>o 



Parasites in Food or Drink. — <^nitc a number nf (lig- 
nites urvc^immiinic^tcd lo mjiii thrcmgh citluT Uk- [itiniMtc or 
itf^ irmltn'o Iwitig islctn into ilie MoniaHi vitli ilit* ttuKl or in 
ilrinkiij(;-w^iUT. Yor s thiirough knuwletl^^ ol' ihe?* iiaraHiti-H 
and tikcir Hfei.> on cW hiimaD nvAtviu tlie ^tudt^Lil i.-i rvfi-nxil in 
the i<'xt-l»ih.k>. on baoiori<ilo|^v. 

Tlu^ AmccbA coli, M'hicli o»u&«« a form of cbroDio dy^^-'Dtc'rv, 
ia pmlmiilv taken in with the drinking-water, Iir* lifi^hiiiKtry 
18 not tlctiiiitcly known, 

Coccidium Oviforme. — The fi|M>res, known as i>!*on-wii|H*rTnia, 
Irave been found in the liver, pleura, ami other or^ns of man. 
They |>rr>lMttih' ^jain cntmnw into the s\>tem from water, grven 
vegctahU^ t»r fn>it) handling nnimaU mch a« doga and mbbit^ 
The lif(>hi»uny wf (hi* "i^iTii»m is obwriire. 

Trichomonas^ nnd ccrcomnnAS are rfitmll pArasiteT- at tiinw 
iottnd in tho >;N>oli^. 

DistoRM hcpAticum. or Ijv^r flnke^ ii&u^lly infcstt^ tie ^11* 
ihict or the ^lUhlmldcn The emhrvofi are attached tn ar|ii:tlio 
pl^intf, uiu) hemT are Wlievcd to l>e Taken in with diem or with 
driuking*wiitcT. Several olhcr ^iTecief^ are dei^L^ril^ed as occur- 
ring to Chinn ami in K^^)])!. 

Bilharzu btrmatobia, or biwid fluke, is found in the urine. 
1l IK n iisitlvr III' Kf:y|>t, Mnilhcrn Africa, aikI Anihia. The 
embryos nrc )>n>t>abK laken into iIk- IkhIv wiih dnnking- 
wsier. 

r«p«worff».^-Sex'end «|Hv>e« of tapeworm have been de- 
Benlx^i. Th<' neok nml hmd of thit womi, ml1f><l the scniet, 
may l»eco«De encx-sted^ imd the wiirm U then known as the 
cy^ticptrns, 

IWniii Sf>Hjim, — ^The pork tuiiewonn i» a somewhat rare 
form, infection nstiaily tnkiiif^ pLun.* bv tncani«i of the ernhmm 
pi^f^nt in mw or iiddnxlone juTk. The i*iidir>'o?< are «^*n in 
the lueal af pintail white spotM, und* from iu motiW) iipfR^jirunofl, 
lite meal ounuinin^ them \f- u^vtnWy cvlli-^t numbly [xtik. Gov- 
eniment inhpoction <if nvcal hnf done muHi tn prevent infeecion 
bv ihii4 Ant) otht^r tV»mju i\f panu^itei?. 

Ttrnin mr^liorttnMitrt or mifftH/iUt ip the in<«t rommon tagie- 
worm in the United Slater. Infection is jinxltieed through 
CQitiafT nv or undenkine lieef. There nxv eeveinl irtlirr rare 
varieties: 

■ Far ■ J««!Hiiiiofi of ihc imbiunoiuif, ve Ihitk, A»fr^ Jnur. JtnL Sn.f 



160 VARKJVS I-'ACIVRS IN THKiR BKSRJSO OS DIET. 

Tirnin ruf-umfrina ur MjM^ft^ a V'ery Amall ta|M^wornfi, U 
found in thi' diyg uud occa^onally in man. Its embryos occur 
in ttiL* iliig liiii^^e. 

T<mia ttanit and ittad<i^/<t^'aricrt&M are form^ oocasJoimUr nici 

liofJiri'U'rjJittlajt tatuM U a la|ievi>rm fotiml in flit> north tjf 
EtirqR'. bin i- iHva-Mminlly irniNmi^l into the l'nile<I Suiti^. 
TIk' Inrvir txrr i'*>niu\ in tir*h. Twn nihor formis /f. marithna 
and W, mt/nlfij-t \mv** Ih'i-» found in man. fi, ror<l/tto», seen in 
Gix^^tiluml. and H. n-rVfl/w* are either rare fornix ; the tV>rmer 
wa7( foinuf in an immature ^tate in Ici'laticl and the latter 
iLsuainy oa^uis in traU or do^, 

Tifiiitt Erhinot'in^'up, — Tliifl ih found in ihe inlefriim« ofdop*- 
Tn man it may fin-ui singlo or mulliluotiW cystrt, Jnftx^tlon 
octnin* fnun luiridlini£ dn^hi .»r fr»im iruliii^ f^Pt>en vi*gi4ublo^ It 
IK mri* in Amf-nc^ri, bitl not untHmiuKJii in Kiirofk*. 

Ascaris lumbHcoldes. or round-worm, fr^a comtnou inint-Hitc 
who>t; liri--lii-l'»ry i^ unknown. 

Oxyuris vermlcularjs, or ]Hu-worm, a muall jianiHitt* oHt-n 
found in rUildi'en, is believetl to \te taken iu ^\'itl1 tniit and 
olUor raw WhA, 

5ironsylu5 duodenale, aNo ealltd Anchylo^tcmium duo* 
Jctule, x^ a piirii?>iit.' aiimoiiug ojUFiidiraljlr^ aut-utiuii iu Anjcr-* 
ic»- Fonaorly but littlt kmivvn in tlio fnitisl Htul^;?*, nurnr-r* 
ouje iniGtiu]i-t-T( i»r infW'liiiii l>y tfii^ |Jiira->ito buv<> V(.-<<ontly bct^n 
n*[M>rhil, II N :i ^mM |»iim>(iit\ from d to 10 inillimi^t'r-H long^ 
nnd i:4 |ire.^i4il iu rbe u]t[ier ^mrl nf []i<> intt-siiiK*. It 0Jiu>e:4 
H.^v<.'rt* anMuin. Tlie <»rubrynr* uf dut |mnt?itt- arr* inolrtd^ly tukcQ 
HI with <lrinkinii- water It w apt to occur in brh-k-niuki'r^ 
FJiiucr-, imd tli^^e tolliiMin;^ ^iiniljir o^'rupitr'ni^ 

Filarla bangutiils Mominis. — Tlii^ juinisitr i^ lonnd In the 
Southern States, and is |)ro!wil>Iy id-M> ljik*^n wiih impUTv water 
It cauBe*> hcnrnt-K-hvUii^i nnd i-ertnin P»rmj* r»r i-]<*[>1iunil;i,-4]3t. 

FUarlA or Dracunculus medinensis. or ^ninoa-worm, do- 
V4.4opH in tbo oyL»lri|»^, :i small mistm-i^jin. The larva* am |>r<>b- 
ftbly laketk into the ^iiminHi xrhli ib-inkiuir-^vuti'r. It r^n^Jt 
ve»ieUi«nnd iiKjers. Ca>i»j* nf infct'tiou that must bavc oci-iirrtxl 
in AuMrira hjn-' U'ru dc^-«>TilMHl, 

Trlctiocephalus dUpar. nr wliipwurm, is roimd in the iwcuin^ 
and if^ alx^ui A i>r -'i o'littmiHer^ iu Lon^li. It kUh^ tK*i,i^ A 
rule, oiiUfic anv '^vmptonis. 

RtuilMlonema tntc^tliiiUc i^ u ?imall ]nl^a^ill^ ofWu ^[Niken af 



i*t:fHA8i:S CAVSHO BY FOOF}- POISONS. 



161 



lth& f-V*ot"ii-f1iiwi iliarrlw»n worm. Il it^ ^ijtk? in (Iw* int<»»^ 
ibm^ and cnuhc-f a Ibrm of tropit.'dil tliatrhtra* ]| han \m'n 
dUtovtrc*! ill niiiiiy \^r^ uf \Ue w*>rM. 

Parasitic Diseases.— Trichmiasis.—Tlu^ is a <]i^-a^ 

ctu^t-^l bv i^itiri^ iIr' hj-<ii!Iih1 ''iir-twIv" jn»rk, nr [M>rk in* 
t'vti^y with Trirfiin't r^ftiiofij*, TJii? pjimMto Miwi.snnr* l--> mil- 
limtUT* in li.'n^tli — (Ik- fcniair, ^ lo :i.-> rniUiiucli.'r»f »i») ihf 
cmbrvcwi fi^ia 0.5 U» 1 milliirn'-u-r# The embryo* ai'c (EcncraUy 
o^ilod up mid ciioo|»*nilatixl, oml oa- seen in the volunlnry 
miii?cl««, Ifiv'ing ri«> ti» flin tiTime mciUiorHvl rifvive- TW ]uii-n- 
ftite in alft'^ fiiijml in rhe rut, Jiiirl Tl<)rk lM>lii^vi>t llint tlip <ii*rasc 
ifi commmiicnt<x) ti> the huj; by eiiriu^ intoctvil nit-i. 

'When Ukcn into tbi>]nTe!<4inal(^niJ, tlieenrclup^iitroiin^lintf 
tbct^rubnr'o i« <)!^^>lvi<<),:iiiil in fniiii ibno lo F<i\ ilnv)^ the luITer 
develop?* int'j » fiill-f;n>wii Irieliiii!!, Tfir temulc |>n»tiie».*» the 
<*nbry*j* by t)k<>tif«tii<li(, iiml tli*^o work tlmr tviiy ibnti^b ilw 
inte»liiinl wall Jii»l cucer itifi tbt- vc^liinmry niUM^kr?, wljctv ibey 
may l»e found ncveral week.-* nO^r infcvtini). If Uicy arc to he 
tWml at all, tliev iire piwent In th*- <)inplirngni, %rhioh, owin^; to 
It^ proTinilTy tn tbp Iiit4v|ionl enivil, i)i ih^ fuvorlie «ite. In tbd 
tiiu^^-lts (he fiur:i?^itc« an? Miirrutuuk^d by a zone of irritatioDt 
and tioally beo>me cnerip-iilaleiL Hme salts i)e!n(; deposited iD 
the uip^le. Tbn^ ereap'^iilnted, the |vimsite may live for 
years. Its prenenee ^fivey rise to ^Htri^-inle^tinnl irritation* 
fi-ver, pain, aiid pTvmtnitron. There i« tn-<]U4*ntly a pit-iurp 
^imulaiin^ typhoid. A marked ec^^inophilia is nsiially prew-nt. 
am) iJh- di6eu»« proves fiiXRl in many ca->^eR, 

Owing to till* greater tVvijueaey wiib vrhirb ra«r f^Hc it> eoten 
ID {jemimty, trk-hiniaAiK U e<>nitnotier in that e-niii1ri- than in 
tlw TnitL-d StaiL*!*- A twnptraiur** of HC*^ K kilU "tli* |mni- 
Mf^, and the only Mire way of pmri^nt; lh<* diw^nsw* i« to em>k 
nil |>ork- The pre^enoe u( ibo iianL-^ili^ i.-i «(^IIy detdvtfxh and 
111 plaivs wh^'H* nu«t Ij* iiiiii|»0!Ol<Hi inil'i'UHl mt-ni .^^h^uM he n-jected 
by the Govemmrat tnHpiH<E(M\ Piekllnir And curin]^ meat may, 
if the piw^-^ are thin, kill ihe parasites, but they aiay survive 
if the (neofls of meat are lar^*, 

Biseascs from Hllk< — Numerous i)i.-Ri>4eH nre iRniPfuittM 
itiruugli xhv a^'iK'^ uf tiiilk, th** o<>^v tt^tclf bdng ilinit*«d or 
eub<ko<|uvnt ooittuuii nation of tbi^ milk taking plaee. The oitw 
may ti(< -^iifTmng i'nrtm diwa^ed lulden or from dome afleetioti 
nf the manitmir>' irhnHk 'I1ir oryanisni iu4Mt conamoiily present 
in infi'ct*^! milk U the ^trt^pto-vw-eu"^, Taberele Vaeilli may find 
itieir way into the milk from a dtpieased gland or inbler. Asa 



162 VARiOtrS FArVifRS /V rNKlR RRA^iS'O OS UIKT. 

nlU^ it m»y l>c fttnie<) tluit if \\w tlii^cu:^. whaiover it may b^, 
i^ not in ilu^ imunmiirv ^litnit <ir in \\\e utMer, h b^ unlikely that 
cli»' hu'ti^ria vhirli pivr rw (o tbc Hi7*cii>c will fiD<l tbeir way 
into thf milk. It ^Imuhl h^ l)>»rm» in iniiKl, howcv(?r, that milk 
fnifu a [*i('k tt)w, i-v*'p if il kU^^^ run t-nii»t* (]i^n»^ i]iiT?ctlyt U 
npt to t>r |HH>r ill rjtmlity^ anil U not dc^imblc for (VhkI. 

Milk infcctioti IB! mi>*t cotuou^uly rlio rc«n1l of impure oiilkp 
ni.-ii)<< 4» Ity im|mi[>i'r ojin- nn<1 cHtnt.niiiliifitirin Mitli toiciii-i 
pmiliK'inj? IxR^tiTPJi, Tlio <fi#*^ii;*c rmiy be tbo result of loxinfi 
formed in the- milk, or the luirf^^^t^ii itM-nirK^lves may be ibi> cau&e 
of the dii^itirlmiiiv. (Fi^r ikutiU as to tbe pn^gxr tare of this 
fo<n), M^' tW Mvtion oji Milk.) 

Tubeixulo^ls. — Milk a^ a wuis*- of liibtronUwis hni^ of lute 
ymi> iH'i'h till' .-^tibjeet of imali (Jirscur<^iuii. This discuiwion waa 
liirgrly the ivnult «f a ^lutel]J(rnl nuwlr by Kocli, in 1^01, that 
bnvidc tuln'rcul^air* i,H\n\A not be tmii*milt^ (o man, nnd that 
thrf fliHc'ju^o a>; fnuml in man find in nnlmaU wn^ cine to two 
(liiff^rvni, itrgsinitmvi. ThiK wtMtj>Tnpnt l»u not b*v>n U-irtip oiit 
by factir, iind it may with mtVly he s\siU\\ that ihe di«e£iBe in 
both man and aniriialii is due to tlie T^me or^ni^tiL, althoufth 
mmii' <IiHVTi.'n(H.> in the di^n-tc' and {\\^> in ihe or^iriij^m as 
foiintl ia nmii ami in animnls exi^l. If a cow has tiilitrttiiloHS 
of the marnmnry (^'luiiit or nf the ii<lik-r, iiltbiij^li tbo dii^cose 
may uol Iv upjuiixnt tu ibi* naked vye, Ihe milk will itoniain 
liibetcle baeilli. If the diiHiiiK' 4*oriin* eW^vhrre in the ImmU", 
tnbcrele baeillL arc not ni>t to finil dieir wny into ibe milk. 
The tubercle baeillii8, moreover, drK^ niit multiply in inJIk. 
TnbprcnloHifl may be pirKhiced in mnn by tbe «iinp Imrilbii'i tbiit 
oaUAeA bovine tLdien^aWii^, Where this ha^ oeciirred* it tm^ 
usually been tbe n-fUlc of aceiJert, ihe di^ense following heinf^ 
of a local nature and of no great inten?tih". Wttli what drjrree 
of frequency the tubertOe liacillui- i^ found in milk, and win llier 
it baa ever caused tuberculosis from the use of milk <rontjiining 
it. an? f[ii('«lions tbjit can not \w dcfiniuly auNwenil ?it this time. 

Diarrheal Di&fsa&es* — The i|iie>tioik of <liarrh«il Ji^nirtcw as 
cflU^wd by milk i?* of the irrealo^t pmctie«l iRi|Virtan<'c. Diarrheal 
diAeaae it commonest in tbe warm mimths anri 97 ppr t^^nt, nf 
th^ easeti that occur in children are in hotlle-fe*l Iwhieff. Whetr 
the milk i^ |iure and where pn-per care has k^ti olmcrvtHl in 
trnnsmtK^ic^n from the cott- to consumer^ tbe diw-jwe i-" rare, 
Where tbe milk i^ impure and is cJircUj^sly liaudbK), many ra?*ei* 
of diarrhea and death arc the result. Tht'^cdiKt'aMv niny I* pro- 
duced by ttixjns ^neralwl in tbe milk by tJie bacteria, or by 



DISKASHS CAVSKIf Bl' POOI^-POtSOXS- 



193 



l)ie hart^s lhcniKolv<^ being intmalnrf^l into th@ intestinal 
tni4?t. It in Dot Jefinitfly knowa jii^t what liacteria i^ve rij« to 
Htimm^r darrbea. The dt^^fw 'a probably tii;e to tUflerent 
omnismf. Recent inve;.^tigHtioD» jwint to BnclHait dtftaikrit'ttM 
(Slii|^^) as t\w oTffimani niuMt ix^mniunly prt^ent. Tbtrro is no 
greMer lesson b> W Ictiined in the wbok mugv of milk IiifectbDJi 
thaa that impure viiik cau^rx 'tinnhnu 

Dlpbtbcria- — Dipbtlierui bacilli luayfiml tbcir way into milk 
from the uiilkerp wbo uiay liavc tbc ^U^cmso In i\ mibl fonn, or 
ffom dtibt««|noLt 4v>DUk mi nation. A riimbcr ol' epirlemic^ LaVQ 
ow4*i) iheir ori^n U\ infecTed milk. 

Scarlet Fever* — Wbere epidemics of this disease have 
occurred as lite result of milk iniec^ion, tier have usiuitly 
lieeti Iracftl to a case of the (iieea^-t ic a milker*-* fumily. 

Typhoid Fever — This has al^o been <.*aused \\y infected 
milk. Till- inti^otion in many cases lias l>een traustnitted hy a 
milker who tia^ had ■' nuking " or arabulunt t^phoul, but more 
frti|iitfu(K it i?i the result i4" waahlii^ i\w milt.-i'au& wiih wat^^r 
<!<>iitainin^ typhutfl tuic-illi. As tb^- or^atsm multiplie^i ru[ndly 
iu milk, it is vt>ry u|>l t>> <<^uf« iht^ di»ou?^t<, 

Aftiatic Ctiolera, — Thi.4dUea.He may U^ iraniniultod ttmnigb 
the a^^noy of milk, but tlie tisiia] mode of infection i.^ through 
drill kiDt[^vraler 

Mllk-polMHiinj; (Qalactotoxlsiniis). — In I8!^'> tyrotoxicon 
va? fimtni iti milk, and in 188G Newton and Wallace rcjmrU'tl 
iniereEitin^ series of rases of poisoning; iJne to tbe pre-ienoe of 
this toxin in milk. The milk was obtained intm a dairy in 
uhidi (h« milking wa» di^ue at miduigbt and ut mNTti. Tlic 
Win>ii latlk was tlw cfho lliat wm |H>LHt)nons, Whilr Mill v.Timi 
it WHS placed in mnv, und di?livi<r«d to ihv cuni^tunvnii in the 
heal of the day. The h^t iiermittiH) f}i<> growlli of trnfrt^^ia 
uhiHi I'aiised the fortimiion offixin, Thi*n: have been nuiner-* 
ctis in.'itances vher\^ \i^ pref(en<Y in milk \\\a oatJ9<^l poisoninf]:. 

Vaiigben and Xovy Imve al?*i> found it in icc-on*Hm and in 
OQSteid, Slieerer has demofutrat^Hl \\^ prt^iefjtr in vanilla und 
letDon ktt, Ikuules tyrotoxieon, other toxins Imve bi*en fi^irml 
ia milk. Vaii^'bmi a\\*\ Pt'rkins lj;ive iNtlated a ni\iii, miL^eil 
by 4 cvlun-likr biarillu--i, wlndi prt-fbKTH inarknt iymjjt'»ni-'*, 

Cheeee- poisoning fTryrotoxlBmuB), — \s eitrly as 
1>*27 Uie»»r»p5< ^>c^jn to Ixr diHW-minalvil »* to ihc n>sKoii why 
wcne ebrv?u^f u«iL<illy !tp|utrently iinnltonHt i^i far a^ ordinary 
4)h#erv«lion w-iit, •ibouhi ainw p<»i^ining, Hfinneft-bl and 
etlicra after him IxUi-vcd it M be dae to the &tty adds. 



Ifr4 %'ASiOVS FAVTOBS IN TBESB SKiJOSO ON MET, 

Xumema^ eww were TVportcd ancj diviifticd. In |Hft3 »nd 
18J*t aU«it 300 ewx^ of cl»tTV^in)i>"niiii: wi-iv n'|N>r1o*i to the 
Miiliipin Suto IVianI nf Hmlth. All wlm aU' f>f Uk' ciK«>w 
V('n< .-LttjickMlr and iIk' >yni{rti>ni!^ variiil uifh tbc i|inrilily 
ukfD, lititi^ mi>re t^everr ulu^re lar^ amtmnU luict U<oit in<- 
p?<t*'tL Tbt"nvin|iUmiH wtn> vutuiiiti^ jitiJ {tur^hi^, with wulcr*' 
atiiuLn ; ibc (iHi^iiT-, at tir*t uhiiv. iheu Im^-juuc rtil iiiul vi*rv 
di-v, ttiid tlitrt' wupi |Kiin in thv riyjoii \^{ (ho Monuid). The 
|)uUl* u'cu f^oLK' uihI inv^jtiUir. und in Mtywd iuMEiruxK tticm wit»i 
cyanosis. ViLtigliiui .Htiiilii^l tluv-«4- oji3k<H, mid futinil tlinl tli« 
|viiw>nm^ wa.-* *liH' to twdvr diifrrml varieM*'-* "I" (Ik^m', In^>^t 
of wliicU o;iHh- IWirn oik- fiiet<ny. Tlje rlkr^' JHvrm'd lo dilli-r 
but liltU* Inmi oi^tliimry ginxi oheft*t\ Imi if ofli*mJ fo Cflit.-* or 
(logH togcUi^r Willi fpMxl c-hci^eT tlu* iimruaU uiviirmbly chu^^c 
tlie good. If fwJ lo biuigry taU, thev woijld oiii it. niul A[i|Kir- 
etJlly witli no ill HrtrK Tin- |H>i?<fiEi \\:\» jM>lnUHl, ami oon- 
AiMvd <»f n (TrnUiUiur, liijjUiy |h»-ioiiou--( ^tiii7<tmuT, which 
Vaugban culW tyrc4i»xicuu. Tyrotoxit^on, however, itppoan 
ti> 1m» li oi>T(\\xiVi\lWi'\y rsiH' ]H>iKim, mid afbt^r tnxie )^uhAtAno«6 
hav<' In'in (li'i(M>vpTrM| in p1i«»**, Viin^'huN Kolrttpil nn nlbn- 
lu'wr : V«iii:hiiri !ind IVrkins two l>;u-illi ; nnd Vstiijrfian and 
Mi-Clyi])oiidfi, u Uicilluj4 of the colon ^roup, ii)l of which were 
loxicf. 

Typhoid Fever and Oysters, — Typlioid i^xtv Im* l>een 
Iransmiilni l»y inlL*ct*il i»yjtt<.T>, tho oyftU^r* luivinjj iiMJiilly iH-cn 
growTt wry iiwir ibc "Ntlcl of a f^rwer or on ;irrilk'inl bwl*. In 
Nc*' ITovrn, P«>nic" yrar* apv). ihiny stddcnl* wore infocled with 
typhoid by cueitig raw oy^Icrs suppli<»«l hy n dral^r who niad(« a 
pmctire of pinrinp xhi- frv'^b ovst^is in Hif riv*^r f*>r .1 ilnv or two 
aft*>r receiving them. Running from his houp^e to the river, 
near where he ha*l |i!ared the oysters, was a i]rain-pi|>e, IIU 
diitij^htc^r had typbntrl at the time, and hi^ wife had dinl of the 
disca^ie vhortly befori?. Instances liave be**n re]w>rte<I in otlier, 
coiinrn*>, bnl il i-^ xxtA a very oinitnon tingle of iiifeelion. 

Fol^on from Mussels (Mytilotoxlsmos). — Accord- 
ing to Vnn^'han and Xovy, tbcix* aif ihroe kind* of mnvwl- 
]>rn--<i>nine : 

1. Wh*-ro tlio principal tymptomn nri> ^i^tro-int^f'tiiml, nnd 
of var^'ing inlraiiry, Thi^; form mnv fit tinifm U- f*holenforfn 
(CoinbfV Deatli may follow verj" rapidly — in CoiubC-s case it 
oocijrred hi lwf> djiy*, 

2. Thr m<»«t frocpiont form is tlml in which i^ymptomfl are 
princi[)ally iktvuii>, coming on >l]ortly after tlic musMls ira 



DISKASKS CAVSED BY FOOI^POlSOys. 



1«S 



CAt^n. Tliori' U 9 t^nKiition of li<nal nml it-^limg ; a rash of mn 
iirtioanal tiflttire, aixl ^onjotime"^ v<Ntoalar, appftirs. There 
Dtay be dysi«ien, and death may resull from cimvuUive tn*- 
Dif*r>^ or coiofl. Deutli lifi» fullowod from this form to three 
4lny«. 

•f. In t\tv ihinl lonti iho i^ymptom^^ are Xho^ i.<f an intoxioa*- 
lion 1^74^^111 bliii|; uU'oholi^m fulli^wai by iKinOyEi^ und deaih. 
OjuIiA lu 1827, n^jjortLil ilvtiih a« nu^ly im thnM.' houm after 
«ntiD^ iIm* mui>:irlA, iiiid otlici> six or wvt.ni hourv^f nod frtill olhere 
oJWr loDgrr iiUrrval)^ 

VarioiiK tiu'i^ric^ Uhvp IhV'n mlvnncjHl fo ^X|^laln the cmi&« of 
mtn^vl-puimming. Bricgvr h/ks isolati-d a loiin fmni tntiHAelfi 
wliii?]i W <*u]t<4 inytilotoxiD, wliich <!£iii^ a fatal ca^ of pi>UoD- 
lEi^f. FiinlRT r^tndy i> iUH'^lttl h) decide the ijiia^tioa of tlic 
I'.ixin prifuripk' iu iht otiwr form*. 

iiSWil-fMli iJiki-n fn>m filihy wnt^r h apt to he poi»>D<»iN At 
Havrt, Fntioi% ai>^c^ of ikobonin^ fX'ciirrtHl from tlio miiug of 
cTilvDi taken fnioi Ptsir iW ouUl*! uf a ilnLin frvim n puhlic 
vailcr-cloKrt (Pa«c|iiu;r). Viiri<iii^ ndw for rcoogniiing poti><>n- 
ouH tih«)]-fii?h hav*- been pivcii, Init they arc nM, n* n nilc, rcli- 
ahle. 8bt'll-^sh that U frirvJi, thiit hit< Ix^en tnWn fmm rlenn 
vatff, ani) that ha^ Iteen wa-^hcd with clean water, U ^ncrall^ 
safe. Kept at a summer tern pent tijr'\ nh^ther ct<jki?<.l or not, 
il i>- uiiHt f »r foot]. 

Poisoning dae to Fish (Icbthyotoxismtis).— Ft^b 
may be poLmnou# under ^~ariou» Cfmditiofi^ : 

(L) Some ai\< nlwayit poi»oivfU-. ('2) Soae art pobonouH 
duri»i; iIk- p^iawniii^ M^-^c^n* (^J) ^mw miiy W ijili-K-iJ-il with 
bfideTia] dii«iTCf^ which rany ca"*<* dincnw m mmi, i-t) I-ikc 
oUitr iiitro}!eri<Mi^ ftxHl-, (i^h laiiy \a* lult'cttd wrth (xiottTrui 
«rhic*h prodiie«» toxiiuc, 

KoU^t. n<.-eon)ing tit Novy and Viiigtian, nudces t)m follovr- 
ioff ela^iiionttMH of fKitonout fiAi : 

L Where the ti*h tin- *Lip|>tiol with fxiU'»n pUimIh (Y>nai<c<€d 
with barbed fin*, witti which the}' wouml iheir "-iirmie*, like l!*c 
iioiwnof fnakc<. TlH^*€rttii*eprt«tmlioa,t*iHivid!?K*n», nn<N«'«(h 
ID man. 

2. The pintL* Trinnton^ a Japutif^i* fxrU which liai potwvnuuN 
orariefi, which art- lr?w fHtiitticiouA in winter, wIhta xIk ovutIgh 
tuv innotiv?. Kalckf, » diAraM* of Jii|iun nnd other Kcuitorn 
eoontrips l< IM-Ilev***) to liC due to die esklin^ of 4<ert.iin varieties 
of the ■'vmuiAnW/r fiimdy, 

3. CefUiin either \\^\i wtiow fle^b and glaiulH utv iionnltw 



16*5 VARTOf^ FACTORS IS TUEfR BKARiXG 0-V DtKT. 



may l>e (laLngt*r(»iii<i tn\ iio^^xint ut tlw (IceomptHttiig MiWtaiKe^ 
or <*oraI?', vie, <«> viiirli itu'v ftxHi, 

4. PotHHiiii^ <liir til [iti>iitn'i]w, of utnoh Aiirr'p lin.4 imiIhIi'iI 
two. Tbc?«i: iirr iluf tn llu' It-tli U-iii^ inlWttxl uith papni|ilivtic 
t)a<*U^ria. TIk- nyiuplmn?^ un< pnunimtty ilur li» iiivolvvmrttt 
of llic^ ga;«tn)-ititc>liim1 Irui-I ttml ii<-rv<^ii,-< fivMcin — nnUTK-tip 
voiiitlmjf, diarrhwi, |>iviiiinilKiiij ni^hf^ii, <tio. 

In RiHriin atul ftornirtm' tliprt- nrr- pi-rliiiu B>ih thiil, If t<»t«n 
mvr, may invKlik-f* dbeiiMr. but iliai, wJjai tliorouglily cooked, 
are harmless. The <^U!i>e is pniljubly funnel in a bnctonal din- 
<?«w of thc! fi.-h. 

Meat-poisoning (Ereotoxismus). — Many fotnu^ of 
meat-|Knr*«min^ lias'e heeii do>>oribGil, and mihk' liuvt- \kv\i given 
Rpeoial u;uiiO-<^. Certain diHt<a>fs the result *>f (JirinM trtiiKnih^ 
t*ion *ill U^ conKidernl *<?jiiirately. Tbt mwit iif niiiiiml-* that 
1mv« di(<d of di^fVL-^t' "f diiv kuul ii^ unfit fov fixxl, and tbr uld 
MuHaio law, *■ Vp t*\m\\ not t*a1 aTiythin^ lh*t <U4>tb <-f iu*?lf," ' 
u n i^hkI h%yi€»iTiL' rnk*. Tlit» Jowiili laww oim^vming what 
wen* r(*j^r:iriliil 3i> (»|i':iii ami iitioU'an mmt^ are *ei forth ill tl*e 
fiinrtfonth I'lutpii-r of ihc liook of Deuteronomy, 

Puismiin^ lia» fnUowed the ingi'Hti<>Ti of meals of vanoiiii 
kind.H 111 whii'h loxtr siibM^nce^ Imd tormefl. Somt? meut^ 
underfTO chan^(^H that can ho ckteeU^ by nnliiiary mmnrt, ^\'li]lc 
in still otht^is putri'facti VI' (*haiijre-s are nni a]v|^ivnl. The 
jioinoii-* vary In [latiiits anil in -tctrni' vii^v Uix'm^ and Imrtvnn 
have Iwrn i?t<rlAt<'d. Amon^ tin- m«ny I^Mnlrt thiit hnx'c itiiijw<1 
inoEi1-]ioi.-4r>niiig may b*" mrnti'int'tl i<auni'(i nifftts— pig>i^ ton^ic^ 
pottitl ohir'k(>n, nn<l tho Itlci*; h^m, t«nii)cagc, hniwii, v«d and 
jw irk pk'w, rih« of Inrf, |f<M)*.^gn*a«t' — ia fact, ahnori evpry kind 
and forrrj of incfit fiMxU- 

Sflu^se-poisoning, k[inwn .-d^ boltilUmii^ nr allantia^U, has 
Utin km»wn fu *iver a lLuri(ln.-il ycnrp^ Jt is hecnming less 
frc'quent a?* tiK' ennNt^s that give rij*c tn the di*«i>n> aR' hw^.miinp 
IjeUiT known tn san«i^i.-nutkciN, In Builcii, Ocrmany, where 
very faulty nicLluHU nf |trepHrln^ and enrin^ saiwi^v were in 
vogmv thp diftiTLsi* vthI* fonmrly fre<incnt, lllnrnl tK^t had 
beoomt; dct.'omiMitiofl wmh ofti?n n>jc<l, anil in other ini^tiiiiceA the 
saasagi^ Wft» ini|K»rf('Hly f»uri><l, tlip ontsklf hohip i^rnoked and 
renderw! liArniU'x<4, the ceuttr riTnainiiiK soft and hiplily poiHon- 
oiw. For thw iviiKoh th<>ftc wlio ate the oatsidc of the Hiu»aife 
exhibited no ill rtfi^ts, while Iboj^ wh'» partook of the wnler 
vftre made ven.' ill and many flioil. The M'mptorn.'* vury with 




DISEASES VAVSKD BY rt>OI>'POiSOSS. 



167 



die Und of pobc^u that has J^'volivpcnl in tIic miwi, but ihiTe 
are m eharaoteristic k^tiions in ilui^ ^bu dii^. 

"Villi Kal*er, in 18'J1. observeti stxteen jwrH^n.^ ^Im ivvre 
inafle tick by eating fretih uii&iuoked sausage madf" fnnii tbe 
fie^h ot" a |>i^ wbicb had r^iiHef^t fnmi an abscesa on Us De<ik. 
Five of the [>a!ii?iitft *ii<HL The KVinptoni-s were aw follow>i : 
Tturre wvrv etMi-irk-iiuLi i.<r ilit^ ibTxmt un<l dilliailty iti ^wul- 
)i*witig, rtrtchin^, vooiitin^, o<>Ik<-blie |wiiiis, vertigo^ hourwmw4, 
ibiniiMid of vidioi), anil h«adaobe- I^aUT on, m B«^'c*ri* cuh^h, 
ihvrv u-BFA 4?iiniptek> exhaiinlioii, aiid. Ilnally^ |HLriily*4iK. Tho 
(wUil!?* wen* r^'tra*^!"!. tht- |uipiN wt'iv snmelinn>H cl[la1t*d nnd 
tU^n rtminiounl, uiid ibry (hit imi n^|Hiiid li> h^^ht \ tljfi>- vjlh 
pamlvAU of the upiieT lidsw The I'lnr^ilh were swollen, bm \u>t 
»»^ in toni^illitiK l>iqnidt^ wliich wre Dot irritaiing lonld Im- 
carTii*d it-* far as llie esujiha^ii.-i, \\heii tliey were nJtH^il fn>m 
fix- nioTiih uihI ih>m:» with outL^hhig, Solid ib<»d oinUU nnt W 
fiwalltju'tH], Ou iht' bai'K of ihv Couj^uv uiid iii ihe |ihaiTa.\ 
lEicTP \«t«9 ob^t^ntsi u |turif(>ntL L-xudaU'. OIntiuate conatipatiuu 
(^xL^uhI in alK vrbilL< liie -tpiiiiKrii^r u»i \i^rL^ pamlyv:t<d, Bruiihinj^ 
vikw '^itv^y, bill ull haJ 11 (-rorj|HiiH iHitiuli, Tbi* ^Uin wUh ilry 
mid tbi'n.* wjh iniH>iilincii<'i< of uriti^. Tlieri' was n'> doliriiiin, 
ami tbe inimi rminJiuHl rWftr to thv Ll^I." ^ 

Si'bu;^ nU<F c\t7K> of potsnnihg coiimvI by tiitinj^ liver sausn^^. 
Tlwn? wcrre \oi^ of voi<r, lypbukUlikc f^t<x*ls miirkiil ilehriiim, 
and mental disHirbaHrf thni iKT^i-iifHl ft»r wwk^ afti^mard. 
The onwi 'xviirrt^l in fmni i<ii*hr<ni to twiiity-foiir hoHr< aftor 
rating th*- «iii?q^s and luM^il frfim oeh* Ui fnur wtwkv^* Thcix? 
\ierv no 'Jcatbi^. 

Tri]X' lisu* rc-ivirt'ii fiv*>r HO nmo?^ ^vIhtt- tbon> wcpo fn?r|npiit 
ftlooU, m^k nni] vAy'ul hpart^ Aiitl ih^liriLnii. The itiipiU were 
iifiiiaUy dontracted but n^ct4.Hl to ligbt. 

Bollard rtportoil 494^ death*^ due to pnriimnnia, raiiBpd in 
moet of tbe ca«*s bypjitin^ infwUil bncon. AtvonlitiR to this 
*>Jifien"cr, liio>H.- who bad the dU«iiTH* i'i>nlil rniDr^mit it To i»tlu'r« 
who bad u*A vnicn of tl>o mi^t, a laot that Iiaa Uyn noUtl in 
many other iti*lMncc», \fi*'T having Iwn ko]>T «'Vi.-r*] inondH 
the iiiu'i>u h.M hj* toxicity. This t^iidvniic wa;* known o* ihv 
X!l<ldh**boroi>i;b pnctimnnin rpidrmic. 

Another Ininro^liiiff e|>i<^en^io (^f ntt^t-fioi^oniii^ orc^irrrd at 
MHldUlnny, Holland. M<^t from » row t.\cU with pn<>qu>ml 
i^xer wa> eaten by 256 soldirrA and 36 citixcim, tbe »yn)]>u.nnj« 
ouDMlJDfE of vomiting, pnrcin^* dixxirK-^, «IcT'plcwooM, dilaUi- 
' VuuAhdu ami Notj, CWfaJor ^Wiiwl 



168 VAtitUVS rACTOILS AV THE/n fiKARISO OS DJBT. 

tiun of the pupils, and in some auea an ucceoLatouj^ iTuptioo. 
There were oi) fatalities. 

<)iirtiK-r fotind I^uvUim f^iteridlth Ed jh^mf* IliiilniiiH^ itf mi-ut* 
iHiJH.iiiin^, uikI Miln/fh Ijuvl' iilwi ileuuui^trati*d its piv-H'tux"- 
Viii)|:iifii) unci fV'i-k)iif< i^<>lut6<l tm» ImctL-rm — a liurillL?* nn*l a 
iitrepioc»oc-u& — i'rofii pi-uwd oktiokcti tliat |h>if4MI(hI u lorg<^ nuni- 
l>er of peisrai^ at Siuiyi^, Micliijraii, fTufl'ky utkI Pmik Imvi' imw 
liifi^l a biirilliis res^mtilin^ ltie(N>loit-hi<'itlan. Vim Krnnujri'm 
tlir^ooverHl a bmrUlii^ Mmikr lo ih^it l\>ui)il in othir nutJinuikf^ ; 
it \s\\*^ pn'^iit in tuotiC tliut, Hpimri'iitlv^ lm<I not tiiulrrpmo 
putrdactive oluiiigwi ; -14 [x-rKin.- wort^ nfttH-mi and -"1 clittl- 
The jvmutonis c-on^i^tp^I of ileliriiim, fevvr, jain in the alxlomrn 
juh] hewi, ami [liViMraiiiiTi, Hllb-i^fllcr', *.if IM^itim, ftmiwl an 
tirpiUtHEii in liain tlmt iiit^Hnin^, frc^li. IiilI flml lia^l jiroditta-il 
pi^HOuiiig ill HouiL* witli fatal n^ults, TIk- jxttlt'Litft \vx<\ Di»rk<.Hl 

uplia.Hia, :L]ilkiMu;L. mid minm. OfluT |Mirii<iii!« of \\x\* pig u'tra 
mifu withuut I aoHiJi^ any ill et!W<t}i. Tln' lutni liitd Utn rtirt-d 
in brine, wliiK' the i>thc'r jiai't of the pijf Ind not. An aiia^rolnc 
oi^nii^ii] K'aM ^earrhocl for and ftiuud, and tliU v:^» naniEtd 
Jiaviitrt* botufMnnfi. It \h a8 virulent aa the telantiti bacillus. 

OTHER FORMS OF FOOD-POISONING- 

Mushroom-poi zoning. — Poii^ctnonF fun^i nrc ofu^n miA- 
lali**n f'lr iiIIIjIc nuir^linioms and leiwl ta to\ic tymjitiim**. If 
tliiTi' i<^ » riiL^' 'ilioni tlif stalk and llie mushnM>fti ]K'rl wuily 
and hn* pink gills, it U .-^id t*i !)*■ non-jxiUoaons, Tin* nde i« 
not a wife "rn-, sineo some of the moet dan^t^nnu* fornii* of 
fimjfi atij*wrr to Hii-t deberi|ition, Theactivo prinnple in lh«6e 
|>oisiinoiir« fiiii^i i.-i iiiiisi\srin or tJume allioil nlkntnidp The 
viVrnplimH prodiKH'tl nre vortiUin^, diarrhen, c^rarnp^, and ^reut 
pni^Uittioti, The |>u[iih wr* <N>mi'actcil, and ia chiklnn ihcrp 
niiiv Ih- f*invnNi*ni^- The ircatment i-on^^iVt* in cniptvinp ihc 
)>iti>mii(-li utid Iiowi'Ip IX-- piH^niplly ns jio^rriblf?, ixuA ia giving 
iitr>>piii nn<\ '\i\irr iT-'tni-aiive^. 

Grain-poisoning.— There ape three formfi of grain»p<ji*on- 
uiir. ffi'inndly d<-serilMHl as ^MTrotism, pellagm. and hilhyri*m. 
Tliev arv* ili.-^ra-M-h **iy'ii Eilrnost exclusively niiion^ the s^jiinlul 
and de?<tiliU*', the rlf<'c(>i being due to in^urtU-icnt TumnKlifiu-at 
4*omi>iiie<) in eaili <'iisc with the ^-jteciHr |>oiw»n fr»in thu ^'min. 
Most cases and i.^>ideuuej^ laivc oe^urriHl among tlu* |)OVtrrt/* 



I 



DISMJSES CAUSED BY FOOIf^POlSOyS, 



ie» 



fttrk^ken Ennipenn |>ftwaiit4, Tho uTll-tonlo aud prri|)erly 
n<KirL->lM>i] niv niurli Iv^ MiMvplililt-, 

Erjcotisra fSUotoxismusl.^Tbo liUtorr of «'rgiiti?iiii i^ tnM 
aUi>"*iiiig. It U vrry (inflMMi^ iliat many «iM-ii of **Sl- 
Lnihtiny'i* Are/* (k-scrilx'd iu \hv tweJt^h <vQtury and inter, 
I CHJH'^ *if gi^u-iKHHiminj;. It U alb<> |>ixjbuMe Lli;it nv|iliiliH 
ind~ir&niMir> fitrnin *'f ultx-r- uiitl gHtigiviif werv <.-iniruitijil<<<l wllb 
it hikI with OIK' nnotlicr. It le-. not witliiii iIk' ]ii^fvin<<4.' ol' lliin 
bnrik l« <lpu*rilx' the twirrifik- epidt'inii'^ 'tf ihv niidflli* Hgtv, with 
ihtf'ir wak<* nf miililntioit^ ilikI lUiMry. Within rt^Tont yoare 
«piJpmir* have iH'ciJrrn] in l!ii><in. 

ThtiilliiT wiif^ ihr tir»1 to iliM^nvr thiit tin- nm>*o of tli(> di^ 
fam* cxwtct) ill ifpiirrcil rv^*. HraUii |H»int<-i) oiii that tin* rye 
i* fimiTXxl in tW 'bnip, w.ihl wtl^his 'aw\ llial llic th^^s? of 
vinitoTioc <lqH*mI« n|Hiii t)ii* itnirxiiit of the )hf>i>«iti taken. He 
|»r"V(n| hi* llnv^rii-^ b_r unmuil t--\|M'nriii-iiIaht>ri. I>«i]ni, in 
Il37iJ, o;KX'rmiiwil ihjii rrgot *vh.m nio-ii adivtr vh<-n iVt'v'h, umJ 
tliai it loMH in vinilcncc ai« it ngrpi. It in pnKlLirc-d hy tL mt- 
rrrH^OO^O |)eLnuitr, Ifn^twn im iiiwief^M piWjMirrtt, gn>wln(f nn 
tJwF rri^- Tlii* dinwi'** i* rmriMxl hy (vitinir tli*' irniin mi wliirh 
(Ik- peiraMt^.- \\ui< i;:n«wij, Awortlin^;: h« K"U.rt. t^j^A rinjtiiina 
tw<) piii»ci]j^, »]il]iu^-ljnio arid, whtoli whijh.?^ iniiijfn'iu'^ iiml tvmti- 
liii, wliirh |)f\)*iiki^ ihi.* itm-f^tlu^iiL und i\>nvnl^i^ji)v. The siis- 
ccfitii>ditv iif diflVr<-iil iiiiiivifliini* vuni'?* *rrwillv. Tin-re are 
twii l<>nn'* »*!' llir di**^if*i\ mih- in which ^ruiiirrciR' i* tin.- [^roiui- 
Wiux ft^stlun-, mid ii !H.M-rnid iu whii'li thrrt- na' viitivnUions and 
n nr?*c |]<Trtui. An nnii^* and a chrtmio fiirni ol' the dW*ui-<' <i«.vur. 
In tlir pingTi'iiout form tlirrr- nre, nt fir*-!, liii^lin^, aui-vtlkf^^ia, 
Kpn-^nxhiin iiiov^nu»nf«^, iind \x%ut Mond—JtA'^i^. fol|i>n'<.^i Ijy pni- 
gn-iM.' of the cxtrc-niini-*- In (lie ciinvnlfivE* form fhcni ar** 
pfudrotnal ^-niptmni^, bi^^ing fiir a week or ten days «M>nf<Uiing 
aT hcttdadie, wt-aikm^iu, niid tin^Iin^ ^n^itioiif^. Fntlouinj^ 
tbvw there nre cririi|i* in tht- muhde* and (onviition**. The 
■'[tfiMn^ tiiuy hi*t lor ijoiirs iir <iay'i, ami ai*e apt t<i iw-ur, Mi^i* 
tal diftiirliaiK-^ and ^'mptom^ of eon) involvemt^nt may tiupt-r^ 
vimr. Tbcdiwiw j^inmld mrt he mistaketi f<jr ery thr«>mrJalfj:lii, 
RavnaiKlV diMa>4% nr Aoro<I_rnl), wlio^ Hviij]>loin*i it Friinulatr^ 
Aix^>r<linf» to Hi'iiip.p, nr^^t may Im* di-f4»-'t(^i in fl<*iirhy mix- 
ing a wnail <|nnntity with I'tWr and nd(iiti;« a JV'U' cty«tjiU of 
oxalic acid. Tli* mixture is then I»iik4 and alh>w4Hl to -*i"ttlf 
iml T-k«r. If en^'t ii pres^it, a revl tinife vnW l)e ini|virtH] to 
Ibu fltdtl. 

Lathyrtem (Lupinosis). — ^This is a milder fnnn of grain-* 



p 



no VARtOVS FACTOIiA /.V TUi-IH Hh^ARISO OX MET, 

|»isoiiing, the poinoncKitt agent Mug the ^^ of I^rMifrru 
sativum ai^ L, ciccTfi, coDimoul}' known a8 the chiok-jioi. t\ii- 
Bouing'^rour^ from ibe niciil groiiiul fn^m these seeds, which has 
be«*ii ii-rcil to utlulit-niii' Hour. Tiw dif^v&iw wu^ iiote<;l ajr> euriv 
A-^ file bc*veiilee:il1) ix-niury, And wiiPi ^tnlJielj hy Jatik-a Irvinj; in 
lodm. A& the result of div faihire of iho vrhoai ctm|i ut Albi- 
liabat) ibe uihabitAni^ ii^e'l the diick-jten for food, imd :in vpi* 
tlemie of biihryi-[ik iollowiHl. The di--*ahe afl'i^cu thi- lej^s, 
producing' a snrtin.-s.'^ i*r rhe joiiitf*, ami may i-aUM? a &p:t-^tic 
|>:ini|i]ei:ia, 

PdlA^ra (Maid Ism us). — This is also » disea>w of extreme 

tovcTty rtiid tiiiF^en'f and ha^ been i^^qk ]Trinei]>ully in Itsiv, 
'rant^', r>pain. and Koittnaiiia. It has nercr been obwrvecl In 
AniL^ricji, li i^ eatiHxl by c?3ttiiig fLM'niented niaife. The exuct 
nature of the changirs in the grairk ore not fuUy ijndt*retiM*d. 
The early 8ympIom»^ are inde8iiitc wo4k1nieAfir |>niik9, and di^cet^ 
tive dUUkrhikikre*?, Tfio KkiTk i-i iiHtinlly aflWe<l^ h*»nee ibe naiiu-, 
[jelljp^a { Jiff iix (Iff ria — [, t\, ulct-r of the hkin). An ert'tWma, 
with swellJTk^; am] \}oUtAt\w^ apjieari. l^Lill;^ are fivrjneiit, mid 
when they break they leave iiloeiv. The .«kin Kyniptmis dU- 
a|k|iear, hut a {kigmoTited <k)n n-niaiiu^. AWvv m^wi'jiI MLoiith« 
the !<yinptomM Mibside, u^iuilly In nvnr the ft»llouin;; pipriiig, 
In Ihe siverer eiHCj* ihcn- may l»o ikriHiounotd niTX'niiji *yfn|>* 
liMtks siK'h iL* emiviil.<ion?«, ^'ninijin, hemlaches, and evr^n prindyriiA 
nnil mri)ta1 di.-*liirlmiiei'. The hi.-'l dn not gt^H-ndiy i^tiju^ on 
until tln' (li!«.-n--"c lm> biTO pn.'^t'nt fur i^ovi-ml yivir^. Mnny of 
thv r^xiit^ in tht* inwtii** affvlnuifi in v-uni»ii^ pirts nf Jt:tly nn> 
ra^Jtw of |>olhi^^ iisiially with eithr*r nir]iLii(r]i<rliu or » Aiiieidul 
lunnia. In thi< Majji' lh<- rondirion ir^ [ic)|)e1o< 

Phosphorus-poisoning.— It ha-* U-»m i^eoauncndiil ihiit, 
oHer acule ;i1iofiphorn-<-|>olF^oniiiir< all fat Ix* e^ci-hidinl from th(? 
diet, on the |irinei|ile that fat will disi^iilve any jthipspltomii 
rt^maimTi^ in the T^tinnueli nnd -^o lui^ten itii abM>r|)iloii. For 
this R7iakii ihp urtirh'^ exdmb-d -honhl W not only tin- IniHer 
find othor fiits, hut rvt-n nulk iind tlu' yolkr^ t*f r^g^. Th<' ilict 
nhould fH^iriist <*hicfly *>€ ct-^wnh, j^tih-I?', aud lliu likt'. After 
*wv<"ml *1iiy* th** orclinar\' iH<*t may jicnidnally In- hvanii-d. 

In rhnmie phcwiphords-pti^oiLin^ Ma);itf»t, of [*arl*. nvfaii- 
men(]f« nn ex<-hrsive milk oiet« ei>mbitiif I with the itilialniiou nf 
Oxy^-n, (^I'litlo exi'Pei:*!', ami n^ix-jitiil Hmall dones of titqtentrne. 
If Mi|)|>iinition has oeetirre^i, a Mi|k;>ortin^ diet of the nioi^t 
nutritionTi eharaeier, similar to ihat uk^I for other Mijtpumtive 
oonditbikt', flbouKi l>e pn'serilied. 



ntsEAsas CAVSKi> by food-j^oisoxs. 



171 



Beriberi.— This <lb«ap^^ !« oocadonally f*fn in theUnitAl 
Statei atifl is pmUilily of nilcrubic oriifin. It lias, however, 
\m^i ttXinUixivii rodict JiJi woll iif^ t" olher caiirvr-. Diet (>rolsil>ly 
aci» only a?: u |irwli-*^MJMnj; factor, impr^jjxT food tondiii^ to 
loKpr ihc p.-iu*nd lu'idlh of ilit- Jiidividiml. Thr thtftin' tliut Ui*. 
db4«A< ii* of dii»!urv origin i^ Uir r(.>iilt of *'bH?rv'aiion^ made m 
Jii]jnii. Ai<(?4>rdiiig 0- Miiiimhi, u|i (u l>*K:i ovi-r ont^fiianli i»f 
ihv ctitirt* miiAlor of Jikjitirir:<^; Niilot-^ w<tc ortVvttHl wiili Ivcriljcri, 
111 1Hh:i t)i( to w«iv l^.'U; oa^'A nmong 534!> men. In IXM 
iiiorv nitmgcnori^ fttoi\ wari nddt?*) to xhv diet, and the followinf^ 
yvnT only 11 ca^cs were re|>orle<i. Iv. IXK" ihe dir^eo^e had 
|>mili«i!iy di^p[R^n?tl. OtJjcr hygienu' rt-formK bixm^hr abuHit 
ut tiic mtnr tinie pn'Uibly )md a (ltx?ide<l inflnencc' in extt^rmi- 
tk^tii>)^ iW di>4W^\ It lia> been attributed to rlie ti>« of an 
cxct«» "f airb(»liy<Jnuc fowl or tpoiiwi ri(*c. 

MnnM-ii kUI4^ that witl: |'r"|H'r iiyj^ietiic m«M*nrra and a 
bbcnd and varie<l dit-iarA' x\t*y diM^i^K- may U.- iirevented. If rifu 
i« ii0cd| the amoaut inkea i^lioald bo decrca^txl, and wbcnt, bar- 
Icy, r«tt, or l^iin- ^ati-itilat«d. 

Actinomycosis. — This di^ea^e U eonipamtii'ely rare in 
Am*irica, Then? is u" evidenee to _^how that it hat e\t*r l>een 
IntnBmiiled by arlicle^ of diet, but co^i^ are recorded wliero tlie 
infer-tina ha^ txen Imcpd to biirley-»Jicatlis, to i^i'ain ctiewf^l 
raw, and to ^iraw being carriisl in Ihenkontli. The maLmimtry 
^laiid, Ixtth in eo^^^ lual ia witnu-u, miiy k' inf«.-ctixl, but r^i fur 
DO ca!*e biL? })een iniii-ci! ilircftly in milk. 

Poot-aDd*niOutb Disease. — ^Tbif* di^nv^e taay be trnm- 
utiit4Al from iTifi'tiled oatrlc by mean§ of milk or bnlter nia<l<* 
fr»»m till- milk of oow* ^iiffVHr^ from the disMlso, ae well at hy 
dinn-c n)!!!^!^ wiih iIh' animals. The diiwfljte was Mudied a^ 
<fiHy A-t I«;i4, when three German veterinary tupgeoiin drunk 
t)]i< iiiitti from iafeeted cnwA. All developeil tlie di^^eusi?. Iii- 
GinU and children have ul^> l>een infected by drinking con- 
taminated milk. Tbe conlajjioii^i princifd^ i^ <h>triyeil l>y heal, 
but the flesh, milk, au<t niilk-produi.'ljt »f animals with foot- 
piid-Bu>uili diiwnw flluitdd ant Ih- iim.^1 for IoimI. During e|>i- 
(leraiea especial care ^Ifrould be taken to as'oid tht- pT>Hltie1^ yf 
mrh ttnitnali?, and in oa«^ of doubt llii^ milk >-bou|d hr ^KiilM 
before UHii^. 

Hydatid Disease. — Hydatid cysts^ catis^ by tlie eggs 
of Vrrtin f^hiit'y'ff^ux^ may alM> be cla#j^l wHth the diMii^tvf 
caused by diet. Tbe imnuile gr>WK in the nmall intestine 4>f 
dop) liod tht ova are uken Into tbe aliiuentan' eatuil i>( man 



173 VAMIOUS FACTOSS /.V THh'tM til'AItiya OX DIET. 

by flrinkiiip vater oontuiiiiifr tl^cm, W handlinf; dog^ tnd 
cnrryiu); tlit irfetled hands lo ibe mouth, awl by muting raw 
^**'i\ vi^Lil>li--u The (iis<tiAe k run? in Aiiktkti. In xht 
nWtoU wnnU of tbo Vionim lio-^pitals ;i n>iitiiR* <|iu^tioD w, 
" Da you kwp dogs, ami do you tat t:T>.Tj» siljid?*?" 

IDIOSYNCRASIES. 

In cotBitlcring food-|xjijHjninfr, tW oxisWnoo of fixwl kHoeo,'n- 
ora^Cfi murt bij Gome in miml, fur, lu^'nh irnm iJh- riitiil fonu.-*, 
there Jirv nmny irt.TJ-ont' iti whom *'crtjiin iirticK-' "'' "lict givv 
riflv !« i'lirioiis oflpci*. Many of thrn^ »iv imagiMary or |»artly 
iio, and it i!* not iiiin>timt for jxitiontj to il<4<hin* titfit tUU i>r 
llml ariiol«'i4* ^hkI <]i**-h not ai^rw* with them, Ttii* i* I'nix'Cmlly 
triH' of milk, A^ a miiu-T of (aot, ihf idiosyntTa'^y h^-* 1r*cu 
[larL iifthc im^nul i-iiiiiE>Mu-nl of tbe imlividiiH! ft»r ji Km^.' tinie^ 
ami in nuiny ca^i's hjut been f^t^ml by phyF^iciiins who jJny 
U]>on the iiua^ination of their patients; <?s[jeciiilly i* ihin w> 
with rcganJ to drups. It ie, however, liiidonhiCTlIy tnic (hut 
fomj j(]»o^%iiL-niyies do t.'\i?-tf ami ilt:it in (.H-Ttaiu [k.-u|i]c gmi'tk'ii* 
lar articles ■.*f diet will [multice bvmjttonm ulwn of an &larmiii|; 
oAturOk The motit ilhiiuL [imnife^Uitioii U the production of 
ra^htrtj, g^ni^rally nf an nrtif.'arial ty|H>. The eatiii;^ of atraw- 
bi^rrie*', ovr^ien-, e^lil^, and other shtdUti-h U a fi^iiuent (raur«. 
In iXhers artapk.-* of voinJthijr, gastric \mi\ diarrhm, faintnt^s^, 
or a^mbiuatioMs of thetie, may Ixr iiixxbu'&i. Among other 
aptidei mentioned as nccaHioDally prodiicitjg thin tfleel on- the 
wbite or the yMk of eggs^ coflce, tea, tat, honey, .infl, mdeerl, 
alm<^>fit any artide of diet. Amblyopia has been ultribiiu-d to 
ihe iJ*e of chix;olitte. 



FOOD ADULTERATION 

The adulteration ef food i* a subfct-t of i?.nrh widr scope that 
it can not be entepnl into h<.n' in di^iail/ Thi.^ •subject ttt one of 
the greatest ii]k|K>rtiim!i.* to ihc eoniniiuiilv ni hir^t' : and wliere 
Irgul rewtrieTi(>HH do not i-xi-'*r, Inwi* shonid he I'lim-t^^i vhfcti will 
ini^iiix.' the projx^r ln!«|>Hrtioii nn<l n^idation of the j^de of all 

^ For !in i^)if»'n<li'il •ludy nf ihi» mibjcct (Jii? renAt-r i" mfpmt! to ilKlirn 
Uh>K on /*»rf*, »ml jil-ii \o lL(* ext-oilenl bullHim nf ihe l>ivir(i*wi of nitHimiry 
of die I'TiittHl Sinii- fkjtiirtnionl nf AfrricriUiirv^ The Vpiiliclin --n F^^mS 
Adullcmtkjn, Umiwn «« Su. Kt of whii'li •*aav Ion pnn» IiiiVl* nlnnulv hci-n 
iwrnj. nn be foitnil hi ilU Lb» lurjo-r Jibrtritf^ hut, iitfr<]i1urihU-lj> tliv nu'lJur 
pnilk An> i-nt aT firiiil. Il ih to bv liopvl tlml rliu hitllvlin will Iw f«|irinUi] M 



FOOD AIWLTRrtATiOy. 



\n 



r<kOil-i4MilT-^. The o<i\^ irf injnrioiK arlul^'.^ ntirmld }«* iiti^MnlpK' 
jinrhitMt^l.andndulienttedbiH iioii-injiiriou^coDtmtxliTiv^^botiM 
Ih" phijierly bramled 8i> that the piiivbiuier may not i>e c*nii|>ellttl 
u> |»ay An exorbiUiut prioe for nii iuferior article*. The !aw» 
hh-.iuM apply tfi Ixidi Dative and im|HtrtiH) fotnl-^tiiSs, 

In the L'nifwl r^tatc-e the law eiiiictt'd July 1, lyiKi. )>n>hibit^ 
the iiiiT>NliJctiun %\t — {n) foixl^ c^nl.-iiinug Hilist^ttict'^ (k-kiorioUM 
to Iwalth ; (6) thv*«c niiAbiiindml ; nnd {<*) ft>i.Hi» tlie ^le uf which 
is pfiihihit<il in the country fn-ni which they niv !^hi|i|>e(l. 

Alaiont all ihe States have ^-iincle*! fixnl Uw^ of m->ro or leiM 
fflioifnry, but the law« shoiih) lie viitticieiilly nnilonn aiul 
htnik)|:t'nl to prevent the sale of f'UKl-^itiiflp* deleit^riotis to hetiltli^ 
and to prevent mUhrandinj;. Althoiij-h under the pi^e^nt law 
im|>oKtA] articles an- juirt- and pn>|K-r]y branded, there are ^t%it 
op|>»rtunUiet^, aiWr tl»e articles have ciitere<l ihe ciiuutry, for 
tht- per]>et]iitioD ol Tmiid ; the Niue J» true ot^ native foud- 
6tuftk 

FikkI adub^-'nitioii i» tjt two kinds: tliat itbk-h is Iiijunou.*^ 
aiut that whteh \a non-iujorHiuiH, Tlio latti^r Li pmrtw-d when- 
tli'Tv- iiiv itrt jlxc^i HtundiLr<ln, ftr, v.'hvn< twvh i\*i ^xiKt, iti <I(*liaun^ 
%\u^\U frtifii tlicM* flvi<d maiidurdA. AdulTi-nttkmii mny lw< clo^ 
«fi<^<l a« fuUovTH : 

1. (_hitt*t^ihuii/ — h» Mill (he Inste iitid demands of t)u< public. 
f^K'h adiilt4'nrli*'n^ an- ii^iirillv eiViifi'd l»v ji](.<ini> of <'»)lonni;- 
nuitcfv, iijauy of which arv harfufiil, nnd by lilfnehuig etTtaiti 
pfVHtuct)^ 

■J. Afriffmtnt or inrittfnffit — arij^fnjT from envlrr»nmmt, ran*- 
lr^nrM«t "<■ bu'^mipcrtrncy *ni xUv piirt of ibc j>nKjii*vr, timuu* 
fartur^T, r>r bir* oprtit-*, ThU u^mdly <N>nnL«t.i in an ndmixtarc 
of MiUK- fcireign tail»tanci% Kueh a» biii^kv, Atcni>, It^vtv^ t^Te. 

3. ArhiSrrtrif — t<i eomply Willi or lake ailvjiitbige of ivrtniri 
filled urbitnirv -tanLlanl^ 

4, luirtttiitmti — i\\Y ]>itr|Hty:-« of giiin fiiul cfiin petition. 
Alcoholic beverages im* frv^jueatly adnltentwl \\\mA 

or nHibyl abvlml ij' •^iinwlinaT* *nb*titiit<."d fur ji^ruin or ethyl 
«l<*>lioJ. Tlii* IT* 4*|K^iaIly :nii* of the flavoring exirtetiif whieh 
an- iemhI in ,'<innll (|UanlilTi's. \Vood idei>bol It iin e\oiv<din^1v 
tiiin^enitiT^ adult^nint. llliiubir-in anil rvrii death haM' ri>lh>\^»l 
itii usT- Tb*- higher tbi'A" Mmul in iIk' «-ri<^ ibe more Uixvo 
tJw alcohtdit lt<«i»fn<-. Hunt ba* »bnu-n that ii larger vingif* d^uii^ 
of methyl sWbol than nf ethyl aln>b<>l i* n*ipiir<il In kill, but 
thil the alef^b**!" <lilfer wi-«h'ly a* rejpml^ their pffeiHj* witb <tni- 
Ijiiiieil ufe. A (|tuiility of efhyl ak'ohol Mimewhnt l^ebm clw 



J74 vAPFotrs FjrrrjTO rx their nEAitiyQ ox dimt- 

lethal i^Of^ may !■« taken day »fter day mtlnml cuusiii^ <li-tttlir 
vrh4?rms repeat4<<l lui^e tKispfi <>r methvl alcotiol nmv Hpe<<()i1r 
ro^ult in iJ^ith, the rtsiviii \m\\^ that \\w cnO-piTHliKiH of ^nin 
alculiol air ttwtic ;i("i(i and water, wherea?* the einl-jirtKluctA uf 
wimmI iik<ohul art f^^nnir adiJ uiid water. 

Adiiltemlcd alcoholic liquor- crjnluiii fibril uit, tanuin, log- 
\^ikhI, wttior, colorin^-niAllcr, and hiimt i^u^r. Vanonr gmdcia 
i»i' i'Ih';i|» wbUky and bnimly Hre iiiaunfat;tnnHl hy iiti!-rru}t<iliui« 
rectifi<*rs hy niixiDg tit»wly made aWlul with wil^^rin^ and 
flavoring matters. An imitation of gtn ifi fre^jucntly made 
fri^ni c[\vx\]> ^|^i^it-, tiir|Kittinc, siip^tr. and wattT. 

The Adulteration of Beer. Wine. etc. — Wittr fln<] /'orr are 
tii>|)Eii>-ticat4iJ by ihc addition of varioiifi finbatanoeii usnatlv 
addcil ah [>rE.->«-rvutivee, Chief amon^ ihcw H t^licvlic add, 
wliieli ia adilcd to ai'rot the jictiriu of femieutH. Iti^ use 16 
forbidden In France iind (IiTmuny, aUhiitii^b in ibe latter 
einnilry it may be :Kldo<l to Imhtn that arv to Ix- oxporl^d. 

frtrrnrtJfonnd that^msi litoi\ winecontainefi UJ^5, K60, 1.48, 
L41, \^^'^. n»Kl, ami in ont- riisi- as muoJi as ^.h granui of 
r*alifylic acid ; synip contaiiinl in the same qnanlity, (),r>0-l,50 
(Uninif*; heer, 0.'Jo-l,2*') ^ran.'- ; milk, 0."J"j-i,H5 grams. In 
Olio caw it will W notwl that a liter <jf wine coiitaine<I a full 
1 w I'll ly- four hourn' dot^e of salicylic acid. 

Crampton found salicylic acid in almut one-lhird of the sam- 
plw Iff AuK'ricau WikJ beer wlacli h»- exiiininetL lit did not 
jind any in dnift ln^-r, Snlplinri>iir atid is c»nt of tbc oldv^lvf 
pr<*st'rvativi.*a. Its iiHir L-* forbidden in bt-rh France and Gcr- 
nmny. IV>ra« is frr^iiuently n*<Hl, and ifl al«> forbidden m the 
rtuniiricA mentiomHb Smliiirn biejirbi^niitc is usihI in beer to 
cvirn.-it tile jii'idiiy caiiMHl by im|»roper hrev^in^:. and al^^o to 
c'linm- an ineri-jir^- in the cnrl>onie acid content, so that the beer 
will have a bettiT '* lieiul/* 

Wine i* adtdtcraled by addin^r sugar, jftimmy sub^tances^ 
eolorinp-matterf, and salicylic acid ami mineral ncid^- a^ pre- 
T<crvativcr<. In Fiiiijee wine i*i freijuejilK ithii^tvrtd by ihe 
anMitioci of ^-p^inin, or^einm sulphate. Aa Crampton 8ay0 ; 
''Tliv «id]djum ueid i>f the time rudtH reiiJaet.'^ ilk- tartaric acid 
uliieb i« eonjbiiie^l w'\iU poln.'^li. and f^rnin an acid Kiilphateof 
|Nkia.Hh, \^liiK^ iIk- tartaric arid sej>aratei out as a tartrate of 
lime," This gives the wine a brijrhtcr ccdor, clears it» and 
makes it keep liettor. 

Adiilteraicfl liecr mny contain burnt ti(ifr<ir, licorice, trcac]e> 
c|na»ia, coriander, caraway seed, Cnycniie IK-pper, soda, ^ali- 




FOOD ADVLTimATIOS. 



176 



cg^ add, wit, onHiomc ackI (urliflmlly ii)tr<tflii04Hl), ^'minrt 
Otlier llttn harlvv, K'y'**'^!"! gUu^w, w;it»'r ouidttl hy rr'tiiilor), 
|iilia<H*o, and ('tHf^iiIit.^ imliciiK 

Mi/iT \» frequfiiily adulterated bv tlie addition of whUt mid 
l>iVHerviitivt-Ht and is alsfi nmniifn<-iaml atlifioially. 

Many of ite /w/wiV^ ;H/r/^ t^xttvtdJt nre merely Ix^rs, ai^J nuv<t 
of iln^m imve litilv ur im diu^tahiL■ u^'tii>ii ; iliey Ijuvc iu* ?|K'(*iid 
fiMxI-vuluL-, nor du ^ucii L^xttacts aid d[^-»tion. Soiiw are uclul^ 
tt^niu<t imd liuntifuh 

IJi/utiirr lift* rris{ii^nily a<liilu<raie<l and imitau-d, uml miw 
<vn)i.iin injiiriiin.i oiloriii^-niarUT. ManL-rhin<» ami <?n^ini* d<' 
iiH^nihi! olu'iritrrt may U- coIokhI with aailiii ilvra, tiiid Ihcy 
5"mHimt-.-i ooatAui itri aHDmUhin^f amount of (xiloriii^iimttcr. 

Tea. — I'ndiT tiie |)re!^nt law teas imported into tlie Unit<yl 
Sutes are |>molical!y frre from ndultemlioii. ilany inti-ritir 
teas are s-jld, h<iwev*»r, i\u*\ tlieir s^le U not rftitrlcieil. Tfii 
lu^y btf adiduniti-tl by lulxlug e\bau>Inl or foreigu k-aviti with 
iCi and addin|f culorm^-nuittt-r aiid aridrin^utf*. " Fiicing*' 10 
^omMJines prai-'ti^cO, ;md cvhipl-^^ of Insitiii^ iIht huvcM witli 
plnmbiigo, indi^^ or PriL-<^?iutn Kln<% tU.< uliji^ot Ih^Iu^ tn make 
mt iiifi-nor l<ii ri-?*<.-mlilr a Ik'Uw |ii>h1iu-I. 'Hk- tinuill iniiotint 
of ihr- jidnlteniiiU iisi-d i> n<il injurioiiA, aiu] iIk' adulteration is 
easily ikterUtl. 

Coffee. — ^iretn ami ni/ifit"! niflVi* may W imiTuted. An 
iiitmor ^ndi^ of oofl'eo i^ fnH|nt-iiily l»nuuK<<] ami MJda^a 
belter anlde, aiul roju-iHil <iifli-e nuiy W- juliillrratni by the 
;»V1iliiiii iif !■» nuirh ^hu^tig. ()n>iii)d rvifRt- i* tVei^ncntly 
udultcmtcHl, nnd may pcmlain little »r iiu o>IT>r-. diicfirv' i^ ttw 
(Nitniri'iEKwt adiiit<'nmt. 

Cocoa iji fntftK-ntly •ulnltt'mtni Ta' lkMiii}!; ^tiimh, >^iigar, 
clay, bri4*kHlii*t« ooloriii|^-miitt<T, ami fl:iv<*ritig matemU. The 
H^a-bultor nuiy Ih^ citravUtl mid r:illiw or vtlicr fato and otlj» 
iib^^tiuuiHl. 

Flour i< riifnlter;it<-'i hy ikMlii^ irflier ^miiirt Iwfor*' prind- 
io^ or by niixin;; other Hour^ uf an iiift^rinr grtulr- or from a 
difTen-nt gmio. In the United StaU*^ the sale of '* mixinr' 
rt*«<r» ia reguUced by law. Tliv mixrr iiHir«t |i«v a ?]ni*ial tiiJi, 
rtiid the iiraluct miint 1w r<Trrrtly htWUf^L Vnrio^ij" mincnd 
i-iifH-tunee* tiAX'v Ihvii fonml in Knritpuii Jlnniv, hut euch 
adulterant?! sn^ M-hlum ii«<(1 in ltti> T'nirryt Stalj-^. 

Bread.— TbiH ha^* l«ni ntlMltc^mtcvlby the u^eof inferior flour, 
and by ih-* arldiiion of other i4tili«lan<x-<. lustane^ hnvc h«n» 
rr[^>rted of the um; of Mil]Jiatc<if ciit|i[K?r uml (if ajuR^^)iuni|and 



i76 VARIOUS I'ACTOMS AV TIIKIX SB^RIXO OS' DSKT 

nitim h ilI^ iis<rrt. In fureigri <uiimtri<v «OAp uikI g:)'p«iim Ikivq 
Im.vti iisihIi ijiut Maut^i»iH olilorul hjrs \a^^\\ nAiV-iX to birad iim^i.- 
tVi'tn mi iufVrinr flotir, lor ilii- jhLii|MiM' i>f iimking it ix-Minblv 

Butter* — Thi» iiuiv \w. wAwXwv^iiA with i:lf<uimi^mn, \mU 
liTin wjiti-r (" ^(lt'U■lu^.l liutu-r"), lai'tl, iHittiin-«'iHl oil, iMrfT^iit't, 
imcl iilivc oil. J^ulItT unci i.i!c<uii:ii'^inii Irnvr nlmtu tW ^tziiiH* 
t'ttmixRiitirtii^ nrul |>ik-^s4->&^ iiboiit t-^iiiul di^'^tihilUy, with the 
tuiUiLOif *lightU' iu tuvor of ImtUT. OltH^ni^rgTirin J* not 
injurious, but Lu jtiwnit friLiii) r<hc>tilil liv- lUirn-i-Ely l;il>i-lki(], 

Lard. — Tlii^ mny W mirilt»*niU-il ^viili >tt^inn, CH.ittoii-^eed 
oil, jinil water Tfu^ uciuln-niui^ nn- iiHiMlIy liiinnK^^, 

Olive oil, — Thi* i^ InHjiu-nily iiiliiIii*mT(-il witlj c-<>ttou-H?^ 
oil, Ltc, Fomj^n ^*\\^ am* m-i su n»itim*>nly ii<liilu-mi(-<J as 
t'i>rra*?rly. bul tbivign lal^'ls i\iv fnH|U»nitly [iIiirL-^l on inipirv 
4>iK, rln- biH-llitJg lii-iiig *\%\i\v in Hit- Vniml Smii.s. 

Confectionery i;* ^imntimrs ^i^phi-lnnti^l with tariark 
iKiid^ glucoec, starch, s*«patoiic, nnJ othtT t^ubdlancr--^ It^uri- 
tiWH r'iKtrjnji-mait-'i'& ni:iy Iw ii-.wlr 

Spices. — TJn^\ |»:irti<^Tilrir]y the giviiinil npifv*^^ are fiv*» 
qiK'iilly :iihi1t('muiK B!ji*'k |«'p|>er hi\s l>wn exU-iisively uJtil* 
tenit^^il with a \nv^- viirii-lv of ^nhr^tuiic^K 

Honey. — This ir- fhimently aduhL^nilwl with |rlM(^>,'^, Cflne- 
sujpir. niiil invi'ileil niM**-sng:ir; the eomh tr* maniifiinnriHi 
artiHoially lW»m |mriilliii and otiier wiixw, ]l<»iiey may rotifnin 
[toiMm, PliiJ^ foniul liiat rhe htHiey fmiij UtifKtoiJcnfh'on /mt' 
ik'ttm i'-4 |unMt]iiiutf, mtd Xoaophmi, in \i\rs Aiialm^in, (h-M-Hlicv 
tittwfc* cif tntoxk'iition *lnc !*> ctiting hnnov, Altliongh ilrutli 
ftHCUJinl lU'.'ir, iH'tM^ <'f hU H^hlirtv -svprc lcUl«l l>y it, Str!il>o 
nriil l)in«i*oi'ul(-« liiith 'j|H^!ilc of lutn^y n>^ jmulnHng mmlre^ 
or iiK'hincholiu, In Aby^iiiia honey fnim th^ vu^tn't tree ta 
u^ a^ an nnrlkclniintic. Tlit* Ihinc^v from ^Iwmuim i« nUo 
poi»f.>n(>t]>. In ItniiK'hvillo, 8- C, twenty |ktsoiis Mvre 
made ill ntui ihri-c diwl fmni eallni^ hoiuy (lorive^i from this 
s.inrt'o- 

Glycerin. — This i^ adnllcrated with ^hK^ow snii] water. 

Infant Foods. — Tln-^e arv iVfjuently f*iliilU'nW<'<l, many 
of ihrni l»ein^' ni* nly ccnal mi\t"r<^ f"r which an exorbitant 
priei' irJ e)i!ir^fnb 

Bating: -powrder. — Sl.in^fi in Jnrp' r|iiantiti^ i>i oft^n 
QiUlod Id tvtkin^'iH'iwiW. AliiDi may be iiildotl in jiIjk'O of 
*Team of tartar ; Unt if the pcwfler ir^ rorreetly lalwUwl, and 
the addition in ulloweil by tlie state* luw, it U not to hv eon- 



i 



FOOD Ai>VLTERATlOS. 



177 



ftMlcTHl nn n'1ii1t(>rAiit. Miillnt irgank nlum lulciiifE-powd«*rM aw 

Canned Vegetables and Meat.— These rre<iiiently cou- 

laiti ^tib)^t»tiLVf^ ili.ktti'rkm^ tu hf;4lth. Ci.i|>)R-r and eiqc, eA]>^*i- 
nlly tlio fonurr, iimv Ik- ii^t^d to ei»lor [hei^^. Li<ii<J, tin, and ziik^ 
miiT bo pn'iK'ia H^s tin* ix'sult of iininTrutJMtidt conluruinatJoD, 
liWid nuiy gtiiu rntnimi- fniti* iIk' H»M'.-r, wbich i* frnjueotlr 
U3*<1 ijt large f|it»ntitic?t ntid allovrtd Xo drop juio the uia 
Lend-rtopjx^rvd lx>ttl(*^ nrc ali^o »oinctimc# used, and accouui 
fiir the |>rp»«n»> iif Imd In ih? fiXH], )[etal1ic lead is objwtioo- 
ahl*-, nnd the pr*»serwv of lead wiltn is highly injoni'iuh, TIi<*tip 
arc lwT> kinds of \\n plitte ii6e(i Id the tnaiuifacture «t" cani» — the 
" bright^" in which pure tin is useil, and the *' terne," in whieh 
1 mixture i>f l«id uml tin is iifred. Thi^ l/itter i^; em|doyed 
for rttotiix^ purixi^^^, although it is Mimctinii-s wrongly used 
for cuntf. Prc-^Tvatiret, tiich vih ^ulphuroii«i add, Htltc;('lic 
acid, Uiric at'k), and uther^, anL- fn^qtientlv added to ranued 
foods. 

Preservatives. — Vanom ohemioaU are mixed witli Iboda 
lo pr*^'rvt tln-rn- In many mnntrie^ (he nddilion of Mioh 
|>re«-'ri'ativff* i^. forbidden by law. Sometimes only one iire* 
M-f^ative is used, but iifteii mixtures of two or more are added 
in coinhinutioD. Bwrax and lx>rip acid are the m'»t frec|neni 
cofubiiialioD. Thrse gub^tanccF^, toother wiili >^ul|)]ii]mu- ai^id, 
siil))lmeA and Mulphates, salicylic arid, Wnx-iic acid, and r*^rniul- 
dehyde, are most frequently employed. A hir^ uumber of 
nllH*r Hii'Diieiilh an^ UH.'d, chietty to e\'udp law» that forbid 
the ur« of tho- dni|fs jtiat DK-ntioned. Ii may F<afi*ly b« 
eCalcti tlrnl tbo ;iddiliiin ^f any olicniie pro^crvativo lu l^rod 
in und<^imbl<\ Tbi^rt* are ditfereuoefr of opinion regarding the 
H<>tiial eflVet-H of tlie I'arioiw premier vnlivea upt^n the hnmnn 
IhmIv. 

Borax nod boric acid a^ prv-^ervatii'e^ are the subject nf 
nnnieri>np conHiotin^ opiniunn. Ii in ])n?is)ble that -tome of the 
favornhle opinion* haw Ih^ti i^nenl by thoi*e who draw their 
.■4i]arH-« an<1 their o]iinion> fhim tho name Boiirce. While it 
U litsit^l hy ninny drai tht^ U!«(- of the^e rliemiciiU h^ not jii- 
jun^io.H, ibriv arr iDitiUHx-^ on rvo»rd when- tlu-y hiive cvur^Ml 
frverc nymptomH orul i*vi-u di-«lh, Burio ucid and borax 
■myr brm'oi-iT, fin-l their prt^^x-T tiM* in ppewrving ni<tifi< 
ftiich iL« haiiiH, fur exporting ptirpiiH!--*. Mc^ct vprinklM with 
hi\T%\ or l»*irie avid dcH^H wtt Ixvonki- ■■limv, a.-* it do*-^ uithotil 
It, Bi-fon- flK' mrat i* n;«ed. (lie boric arid f-botiM U* wa^iiefl 




17« VARtOUS FACTOW DT TJIEIR BK.iRiyG OX DiET. 



\ifi\ Tho German Gcivoninu-iit lift* expnwJv forbidden the u»c 
of ^iM'Xi ]K)W()rr« (kit u\vi\\A \m\w>nfi\ ieiIo that cuimtry. ThU 
nMtrk'tii-u inav, lituvtAvr, liiivj' Ihh'ii iiif*|'ii'e<i l>y the Agnimti 
party, am) not ly rniiMck'niTiori fr»r ihe jmblic healtb. 

Wiley ' foiiclndes as the ixsiilt of Jiis cxperiiat-nl* Uuil boric 
avid ami Iwrux ntiuLiltl uui. be utknl excvpi wlietv jircT^crvutiiMi L-* 
it [ivoe«?iUy, ziiul wbeiT It bun It'v-u nbown tbi^t other mt^cbo^lr* »f 
|ire?4Tvnlii>n <un not bo uoipbtvod. Articles oonliiinin^ (xjrtt^ 
ik<<i<) rtr boTikx ?iboii|ii Lm> propoi'ly branded for the protH<iinii of 
Uie roupfT, the Mc-k, and tie debilitated, hai^ down (4 or 6 
jnuDiM a <kyt caiiR' Imis of appetite and nf ability tn fxTfortn 
wiirk ; mihlerite doaevi (-1 grains a dny) curiH.- p^ym|^U>a)% bui the 
0ubjfrif^ urv able I*) continue work for soini- time; Hiiall do«>ed 
(} to 'Z grams) limy tw' Uikuti for a limitoi) tiim* without rcault, 
lutl iinlavonible p^ympt^iiii^ \ix'nc phkIuixh) in ^mwv east^ " It 
«p|H^r^, ibcjT'forr, cb»l li(»ri(.' iioid uiid b<inix,«lir» tHrtitinumifrlv 
«tdmmifltpiv<l in buulII do**w (or » long |wriod, ur whiu giv*eii iii 
Urge il<>ie-* fur \i ^b^irt pMi*>d, cr«it« (lL#1ur4)iiu>cv!t of appeltio, 
of digestion, aixl of liecdlL* 

lUrrini^iot] ' ha« ^h-^un tbat bi^ric acid may be Uw dintl Gniii«u 
of Mibotratto and rbroDic iK^^^iritt-. Food pn-^-r\>^l witb tbe^ 
dnijr* «* tln*trforc t*fli]Hvially iiijiirioii-i to individuaU ^mffcring 
Willi Brigbt's dii<^L-^. 

Siilphlu and Msulphata ol sodium nrx? ti!^ for pr»erving 
alt *<*rt^ <»f ti»*i, ami t-|nvLillv fi»r |>iv^"<Tvin^ iIm* cok>r <>f ti>«aL«. 
TtKMT u>4.- U R^itled ois ttaiigiMvto^ ainl Eu^ bcca |>rt^>litlnit^ in 
<»»*n tinny, 

SulpliurDus acid >< I'mitn^itly i»nl, <¥)K-rially fiv piWT\-ing 
wint^ III !*>un" *>vm:nrit^ a <x-rt^in amount i>f ^n]|4iur is allotr- 
ablv ill uriw\ but iIm< rnniiiini u oi^en ctore^lnL 

Sallc>-lte acid U wi^Wy ii>od as a pnwrvati^-ci. It w ex«^- 
lii^ly j«.\\vrrti1, «ittt i^ utmxI only uherv tb<> ia$4e of ilir article 
n !»<•« in«)<airri), A^ iu brvr, malt exinctj<, |i07«rrv^ ftuil aod 
ibf llk<\ Im uMov iik^Uini'n the aicu^ni .if ^arvlcc attd ooo^ 
tainnl in Aul Ui hr ««imi tn- iio^ imlivhliHl ui tw^^t^-^cmr 
WViT^ ha^ Uvti f.wm) nt t^oal tW muimnm mc4ieiiHi do«« 
nvv««<nKxl l*^' the -<iimr hroKlh t^ tiacs. It U uMloHlitf^v* 
highly ti*y«<ii^Mhli\ an^l «x u^ *b.iKiM \» |«\4itb<tv^t It it*- 
b>Nt> dist^*t« w\ imtatt« ih-^ kidaryi: ; fm) pmmrd vitk 
#alicylio ac*d b ^^vcvaUy uijttTHi*>s ia ^^^v*, 9i BrMl':^ < 




A 



FOOD ALVLTERATIOS. 



179 



rorrtialdehyd is rntnivHily umhI for pn.-jaer\"ing itiilk. A« 
it lijinli'iif itiontj^^ it \< iiDi tiHitully iiiipliiviHl i\% n in*nf |in'*i'r\','*- 
dve. In general, k may iM> ;<tiiUHl timl xXvk whih of rornmMohvtl 
m a pre^tTvattve U iintU^xiraMv and tlaii^tnaiit, AtU'm|>lA Xww^ 
tcecMlf Ih-^^h nuitlo Ui Tihow tlml \i\ milk vm' srnull ainoiiTits 
1 : 100,0CK) and lew, w<rul(l Inhibit the gniwih of liafrUria, ami 
nt tbe same time n<tt lie prejudicial lo hc-altb, e^'ell to that fit' 
iofonL-^ Thifi a^^ertioa n^edii careAil and prolonged inveHti* 

Hydrogen peroxU i- urM^d to a alight ock-ul, and in prv^ihly 
iIk* l«Lit iiijuri-iiis oi iiW |riN--<er\'£Llivt-f. 

MetAllic Poisons and Food.^^nmll nmcitniU nf mHaU or 
Oteir >all'4 may find tlittr ^^'ay ititj> food. Tho metiillii; Nilb« 
an? hi^ity mjurimi?', and nv:iy |>nHluce tether actiti* ni' chninic 
IHfi^min^. Many ca^'s of li'ad-]*' tinning are tiacrable ixi con* 
(arainfttti) food. 

Lead hafi lieen consider^l in oonnectiou with rannnl ^>odA. 

Copper may Ike a<ided inieutu>r>sl1y a^ a colon ikg-nuiu<-r or U 
may ^iii riitraiux- from tlit? u.*^ of cup^tcr or hm^ ki^llc^. 

Nkkd i« wmctimc wi^i u^ oKir gn^n pttf, nml niny be 
fonul to food voolc^ti in nxckA vctu^Ib. In Uio lattKrr «\*c<nt iho 
nmnnnt found ik m^ (^nij^ll rhnt it m!»y pmc^HrAtfy 1m» lUh-rvgnnhH), 

Zinc i^ HometinioA fonnd in trHKl. esiK^cinlly in ilrinl a|>jik'«. 
It owes ilP prf?seii<n? to the ^ilvani/e<1 inr-n nicks n|M>n wliioh 
uppity are frrvjuently dried. Tbi.- amount prtiwiit i^^ howcn-r^ 
m ^mall a^ to do unimportant. Zinc may alwi enter fixxl fmm 
ccriiiin kind'i of PHkltU-r, hut the?* ixw now nir<*h" a^^^d. 

Tlw fi*lhAvinjr inlile* a# prew^ntt-d hy Prof. ?>har[>kw.,' given 
the food nrtjckn likclv to he wlulteTatctI ; 



ArTDv-ru«l. 

BDltM. 

r^nf^d nvHM' 
lil«« iu*| Mii*i- 

CWw- 
iWiliiiK-nrH 



/bWrrtowf 



^lltli>*rr (rf fttnm. 






oof9cr. 



Halt* uf viPTCury t ii 
tb« rtnd- 

■ rltloUl «•■ 



OtJicr itMifhu which 
%n kUiAlHiitMl In 
whole or Lti lart for 
ih» ifrniiLiii- tirtlirCv, 

WAt^r. ^1lrnE «^»r, 
Mutir* cttim ihitn 
wbcnL InlCTllC flour. 

W^t^r. 4licr Ikt*, n- 
rv«i of uiHji. ittrr^- 
BiOfH of waic«. 



Olnqinaf^ajln. 






.i*h« from f'mk 

tfTti rrrPiD mlll- 

3lTfit<l«nuvTilla 
ih* pmoctti of 
flU&lav, 

riDiir- 



■ Knim Jfaillrlio Nch Sfi, ])ii i>«an oT Clurmldrj, Ciiiud lutein Def^ftooit 
4^ A«rirtikluf«. 



^H 180 VARIOUS FACTons i.V 


?7J/;/« itKAttfya 


OiV Z^JJKT. " 


^^m Atua^ 


tJtMerimt 


/VsBifkiM 


jioMnMI 


uiutiwnxMt. 


(VJkjrrraHCf, 


ottwOmutfi. 


^^^^ CUflto^ 




CJilcory. p«m*^ fro. 














1'Ut'llUlt. 4llll"ff4l i-F 








i}t brr rMJt-rhvHi. 


















^^H Gr««a and chooiv 


Olid of Irtm «i>d 


Aniiikil thii, tLardi. 




^^H IMO 


r>lh<ir rolurlng- 


tlnur. and vDcar. 




^^H Oiycnrw prppor. 


Kvl UhiiI. 


»lE, «hlp-brc«il, tn- 


Ottd of iroih. 


^^B FliHir. 


iUum. 


Grouud ncv. 


Orli And Mad, 


^^H Oinfer. 




Tiirinr ric, (■peninf 

fufVNor vnriciiCB uf 
jniwcr. 










^^H 


WturpcgllDV- 




^^^H Elouvj. 




<?luco*Vi c«iit-auiBr- 


roller or vortoii* 






f^Hiiiln. 




CaiiiBlii' tiiiit-.nlEim, 


march, M^hjIHh vtU-' 




^^H lIuiLUnl- 


I'hnitiiHtr tit l^^ttil. 


Ydlcrw lakrt, flour. 






■uJitbalu <>r Jlinv, 


Ititxnr^dc, '^j t'ltnv 




^^B 


V*Ut. 


Ikitnt nifHt.uiiinUu. 


ftni1.d]rL 


^^H 


liifnUnl vrllh itHEm- 




Itlmvd. 




Tiimlp, 




AjillLii (ii>lar>. liitl- 






lU'LqE rwviirvk^ 






^^^H rmtmiNit- 






Old fthd ««mT- 


^H 








^^H PfHCTfEi. 


AnllLn roUin, 


An|i1 n , |iii aifklto, mt' 










^^U 1"l-|i1>*^^ 




Floiir. ttiLp'lirMd. lln- 
*fHn1 l»*«1 


)(«ihL 


^^H ^fci. 




1>iii»iii-*Uirh, 




^^^H RiffD.. 




VkntPr. 


BDrniftUjir 


^^P 0vupr. 


arntt of iiri 4ti(] 


Itlri^flout. 


tMiiid And dirt, in- 




liiMil. gy|Bibm- 




vru d«*d iiifl 
ftl[V«, 






Flniir, ntftrrlii^ 






AfhJW-rwil, 




rinnhmon. 




itpvnl luirk. 




]1in*ni4i. 






IM. 




WK piunituuEu, ram. 


f «TT1IBln01l> 






tflttb. 






Iiiiliffu. Pruhhlan 








Uhp. Chlnn el*y, 








hidltfloiii!, nT«um. 




Vlncv^r. 


#»iili>hiirlc. bTdW*- 
rnlurir. ftiiil jry- 
n»ltinkcu(ift ncliU' 

;k II IMn i-rilornH 






^■l 


Uii«r 


Hiil]>hll< of n^ 


^ 


crtTdo braEiLlf, 




lAulum- 


i DIET AS A MEANS OF DIAGNOSIS. | 


Tcict-mmU ttn* i^Ivou fKlot^rmine Hw fniif<tii^Ti] 


al diMltirhonci^ H 


of llio itUimnA 


1, »xt*\ 1i> a^eitjiin whether iir i»»t jufhnlu^r <*i)n- H 


ditloriM vxiM, 


Thei>- are many fi>nns of tesi-mmU iiihI they | 


EKT\<* VurinilH 1 


.Mir|>ohe^, 




■ 


Test-meals Employed 


to Stimulate 


the Gastric ■ 


' II trw rudfljilj nn 0T>™sht to 1 

1- 


iittVi? fjjiiill«l ('u«i»ii-K.*od f»U nti<i water H 



DIET AS J MEAyS OF DIAOyOStS. 



Ml 



Secretion for the Purpose of Determining: the Se- 
cretory Function of the Stomach, — K The Tcst-break- 
imsX of Ewald and Boa&. — Thif^ cvtii-ii^Uof ii mil or a t^licc 
i>r wiinii Ittx'iul [ll'> lo 70 )im*) and 4U0 c,c, of \^~aUT or I<*q 
v'ithotit Mt^T'^r or milk, takon hi the iiioruiDg on a fik^tiiig 
»tuiiuK-h. The oouteDU of Uie Btomadi are irmoved one hour 

2, TLo Cc5t-dinncr of Rle^ t-oii^ii^t;^ *>f 400 cc. of acHip, 
201) gm. i>r iNH^ff^luik, TO ^o]. of l>rt«il, aiul a ^lase of wutor 
(:l4kO 4<-r*.), tnkni M d<ni(i. TIk- aUimaoh tn «*mpLi«H] of iu mm- 
Irtifji in IWnn T'Hir U* nix liuiir^, 

.3. Test-meal of Germain S£e,— This c^u^iitfi of 60 to 
80 ftn. of rBrm[M>d U^f and 100 lo 150 gm. of whe&t brmd, 
Thci^»nUnLH are ri^inovt^l nftor two houi>i, 

4. Te^t-Rieal of Klempcfer. — Klrtiiperer given J liter of 
milk atMl 70 ^m. i)f wtieat bread ;iii(l empties Ibe t^tornaeh ttt'O 
buurx aAv^ruLinl. 

B* The Double Test-meal of Salzer. — TIii» ciJOHiHto of 
40 gtn. of bi.*vf -H:ra|M.xl anr] itniknl ; 'IM t\<\ of foilk ; &0 gni. 
«if biii1«Nj riro, and I f4otr-tKii1i-<l i-^^. 1*hi-4 in IoUou^hI iii 
frmr Iv^iirH by an K^ald u^t-mi^iL and the coi3h*nlA uf tlie 
»u>nuH<li ar«> widulrnwii oni> liour nfter, 

4>. The OatnieaJ Test- breakfast of Boas. — TliU hn>iikra4 
if- eoin)XL4'd of a |»lat*'fHl **f uitmeal bn'tli ]>r<']ian"d liy Ixnling 
ihwn Xt> I liter 1 liltT •■!' waler to wtiidi ;i it^-K|M»nlij| <,>f 
mtrueol and a }iia<.h t>f ><ik liave |)revi«>tjsh Itoeii aikkil- Thte 
tn»t luvi JW iUi olijeiH (lie ilt-k-nutuall<>it <^ luirlnr aviil, ijuLnniuHl 
aa Inctio avid ta |»n-»cnt in all urJiuitrr hrcudn iitilinHj fnr tc^ 

C>fi ammiBt of itt hiimpli<<iU% tin- FwAld-Huiti tivt^lirmkfiMt 
U nioTii u^u I, although ofrm^ioiially a Kiefn-I dinner if> found 
iin'ferahle ; the only ohji-(-tiiMi to (he buirr li^ in the fatt that 
la withdmwing the ^lomaf^lw^mTentj* hil.'^ f>f mi-ju thut mny n<it 
tiav*! I>^'en t^onm^-hly ili^-HtMl nn* npt tn "hwinU't the ]«UNlf^ 
of tiie coateol-H ihrongh th-- tiiU-. In oxuntinin^ for Inoiie add 
iIm- Bciftfi nattDfml te^t U pn-ft-mtl. (For a ih*»(*H]>i{oii of the 
varioUA ui-tthfxbt of examining llii- (-iTiiU-iilf* **( tlic *ttoiniich fi»r 
aeidi4, ferRK'nl^, ri<.\, tlio rtsuJrr U prfrrml tn thr t<'x('b'H>kA on 
dL-i^am^ of ihd' Ht<^mru-h anil i^n rlitJiiTil diu^ivwtH.) 

Dietetic Tests for Determining the Motor Power 
of the Stomach.— L .*Wthod of i.eut>c. — Tlii^^ test <'nnnisr« 
in having ilw foilietit laki- loo r.r, nf M'tip, 200 ^ni. 4if Ivc^f- 
Mt«k, oO gnu of Lntnl, at»d '2oO <-,.', «f wul^r. Thi- btJMiiucli M 



182 VARtor^s FAcroRs rs nsmn ukarixq o-v dtft. 



wiu«Imh1 out at the t-nd id' >ix hoiin« ; if it U found U> be empty 
at Tim timo, thore uin he. no motor in)]>airment of tlie 

:i. Mtflhod i>f B4>a», — If tlit- sti>uiaL-li be n^it^ out at tlic 
rinl nf two h'>iii> aftt-r an (inliiuiry Kwal<l-lS<iart tr>l-br«ik- 
fnAl, uudcr uorniul cunkditiuutf tlic ntoouioh *buuld be fuiiiuJ 

^. Test-supper of Boas. — Tins ^|]|>|K*r t^nM^t^ of rrild nii-iit 
witli bri-;iil jLitd imttrr siitil u t;ir^' t<ap nf h-n. If, nti wii^Uiii}^ 
oiit the st'.imuch i\\v fi)ll'>\iiiig iikr>rtiing, IimhI U .hiIII fniiiid to l>e 
|jrt'«*nt, n t\\\itUiu*m n{ tlio !JtiTTii;»i'h <*xi>t^. 

Dietetic Test for Detennining: at the Same Time 
Disturbances of both the Motor and the Secretory 
Functioa& of the Stomach. — Method of SahlL — In diis 
test siiljeliiiK'o not uUrtorbt-d Uy the i^t^tDiucli iliv uHtU-tl tu a tt'-st- 
moul- AftiT witlidniwiJ of th<' stoiniiolnKiiiU^utu it U |M>ftsiMo 
ti> dofrrnutii' liow Tniii*li <if llu* t*sl-iTnyiI li]i> pi'isfnl into flu* 
mt<."^tiiK'. liow rrnu-h rrtimni^ tu iIk- sfiniuicb, Jirid how much 
of the wiihilniwii uivj.] vou^ibU i)f (lastrio jti-TrL-liun- The Ilxihli 
test-m^ ccMisi^f*; of xhu Mlttvsm^z 2-j pm- of ordinan' ilour 
and I't pm, nf biittLT nn- pliiri"<l in n miU\\i\t.' vewel over a 
flatne iind ulloiveil t<* nKif>l nulil l>rowii, To thh are *lowly 
added ;J-jO <\c. of \t-aUT, :nid llie wh(»le *itirr«l consiaatly ; a 
piiK'h of iahf Hillickikt for H.^uf<oiiiu^, \h addc-df uud ihe mixture 
is ftll^rtvtil to boil for c>nc or two ntiinile^. Afit-r fbe Atuma<-^i 
bod bet-n thi^nnij-ldy w^j-hi**! out iho fmtiont if ^ivon 300 <.'.<*. 
of tin?* soup, anil iho renijiirdiig oHo-o. iirc* rL^tiiiiKit n* n ««f»nlT<»L 
Aft^r one hour the *4t<»mfleh ennt^nt^ nre wtdnlrawii nnd llic 
quantily is iiotnl, Thn* huiidi'ed riibii' cen(inirt<-r-* of wirtcr 
ftix- now nitTiidii'XiI ihroujjlj tiie tul>e, uud ihi* ."tiiinueh i.-* pctilly 
niasMyed ; iviiliin a few minuter this dihit<il misil is with- 
drawn auci \i.^ i|Ufliitify uot^^l* 

Dietetic Test in the Diagnosis of At3rpica] Cases 
of Ulcer of the Stomach. — in *^l^^■-^ of iitypir-ii foruu-* of 
uletr of the sUanath Lroin" iidvi.M-.-' UU dlrti'nr ii-Ltitmrtil (see 
p. rUO) as iin iiid li" dia^tiot^i?'. If n bcin-lipirtl ri-^iuh f*dl(iw*i 
thr^ treiltitirnt* llu- pn.tt'iire of mi iilivr U iiiilif-jili-d. 

r)iet**tif^ lesU an* often of vnhjo ns n mojiujt of diit|riioj<iK and 
jtnmTKihi-* ill diahrles. Tiiesu test* are descrilx'*! in ih(' ^i-eUon 
ou Diabetes (p. 450), 

* FW llu* mrtlkid nf pxiLrtiimnir [1i(* onnttfnU mv ^hli, Rrrtin. Wil 
WorJumKkr,. 1902; Sob. Iti aiiJ IT ; luid Afmimi, i/rt«wi Jitford, Dw, i, 1903. 



MET FOn SrXOEBS AXD SPEAKERS. 



US 



DIET FOR SINGERS AND SPEAKERS- 



Tlic dk-i 



I he 



A full 



ris <**insidenU>le iiiHi»-iuv on the voice, 
mcaJ timv imjiair ihr ivspirntion to .^iiueli an extent an to inter* 
forv Willi sin^iti^ or even to inako it entirely im|>n}^il>]e. TU> 
cuucAtioii of xht vi'oal c<>Ttls srhich may follow tlie tnkitig <»f 
fonder ■)rJ:ik or .-^inokinjf oi^oH liiis wn injurious efTivt on the 
\'onw. Irntallu^ jH-lHes of jVmd ami clriuk uimv uImi i]n|>uir 
tlie voi<?v, ami flmuld ulvii^v^ l>e avi>idc<I l>y niiigi^rfl iiiul npt'iik- 
vn. f^xt^rjf iA\i'ti jtu^^^vfld iniri^rnt* iditnym-nuitTv, ivrtuin urtLelv?^ 
of fiHkJ iinpuirin^ lU^ voieo of fuinit* uliiU' tTrijtrrtvtng timl 4^f 
olhi^'iv. \\\ 0. Kiiw^ll, in Rr)/r*i*f.nU\tivr ,\ci"n*, ^ivt'?* «ri iiittT- 
Cfttii^ Ibit of ani(*k^ taken In* proniineiil actors ]H*fi»re ^}\x\\i 
on tkc ^Xa^. lie Matr^i ilmi F>]iiiiJii<) Ki-nn, Kiiu-n', niiil 
Heovi* itmiik eoM water aihf hniiuiy ; Ji^liK Kenil>!<- \\n\k 
o|iiii)tt ; Ij<avIp, iimllttl wiiU' aiifl iiy-<ti-iN ; Maenwiy with mvit*- 
t4inK^I \\> i«ii ihe lean of a niuiton t-ho|i previous to gi>]ii^ on 
the !<Uip-, IjiiI Miiiwuiieiitly liviil ulmuftt i-xrliLHively mi a ve^p** 
tJiUe dW ; Oxhiiri' ilmiik tt'tt : Hror\' Hti.-ftll iitf a h<iilHl 
tKK ; W. Smith ilnuik n»fl"oi» ; Bmlutm ilraok iHjtlhti |-»rtpr; 
MtHif^iitr^' i(ri>k litiTti'i'il N'a ami MAtlr-im ; If. F. (VhiL \iviii1ii 
drink unytliifiir; H(-ri<lrr;«ori u^^\ triim antl>]0 And 4k rry ; 
IiK')ei|f>n (Irtirik Afaili^im; Mr^. Junlaii ate i^iKW-fixiC ji'lly 
and wlierry ; (\ Kitiii l'H*k lieef-uu ; Mr*, \Voo<l sanj: on 
ilnti^'Ut |K>rTer; Hurlt^v touk nothintr diiriiifr a |>ertorinniin<. 
Malibnui, it i* j«i<), ale a lunch in hi^ dre^-^injc-Moni half ^n 
Iwwr Jieforc j*hnrin^. 'HiU ronsist«tl of a cmlei and half a 
iHHtIr of vrliiti- uim-, nAtr ^'hich lie Miiuknl u <;ig3rvtlf until it 
wiifi ttm<^ In cippmr. 

\f- a nilv, »<»tli>ii£ i^IkiiiM Im> i^Fen bdore Hinging or »[)r«iktrig. 
The prifiHpal mi*fil wliouM tu* taken two or ihref* tioLirs Moiv, 
and it nhimld W^ •uimt-^hat H^'hliT than tinnak Muiiy Mngvrs 
est Irtit iiltle iHi tln' (ky of their f^ffiirinan<n*, htit [lartuke of a 
good nioal ;iO'-rwHn), A f<>ixl nnieh n^^d hy sin^r?* is the m^- 
xmWrA "jL-niiy Liml Min|i," Thiic is very hiand and iloes not 
ulter the vaW. It Ih tnmle i^f lawllon and Ht^% to ^vlneh a[\* 
iwldfHl, U*foTV serviog, thi' vi»lk-< of t^fi t'JOT* Iw^iten |[|i In a 
Wf-pint i-f rrrtitii. A Ijnlf-lf.i-^iHHHifid of -ii^ir i-^ mhird, and 
it in flavort^l with Fsjm^-'i- Oila*r* take raw *-gg*t *.-^ and 
rfiprry, nr nlbiimiu-vratvr, wldh- jrtill oth4'r« |fcrt'fi>r j**!!!!** of iIk? 
^-lalin iTiriirly, (>r i've-ii Jiimry, Orangi'-jnii-** lmn il* iMlvfrf^it*^*, 
and ttie ehe^inir nf dHftl phiTH" liii.< \^^\ ri*rN}iiiin(.'t)diHl, MEinill 
Amnifi lint k'fon.' tir |HTtomiancH< the singcT shoalii take a 



184 VXRWVH FACTORS TX TlUCUi BiU^/AY; O.V J}r£T. 

fow l^tce of hraul or clKitxiliiti* Hn<l rin^^ tW moutli witli <'4»ld 
water. If tlit' *tiii^ is U-n^liv, cvUl watiT oi- 7*iigiir watrr inav 
W luken ilurin^ llic iHrf'jnimiicc. 

In the interval Ix:twwii iHiiKvrti* tlio fting^r ^h^^uKL live on a 
general mixed dk-1, nvoKliiig irrlmting fnod?*. MuHt mgc^ni 
haw a temleiicv t^i Ih'i^hhc pUhiU TIut gviifral nilc^ fctr dieting 
the oIh'?h! iiiay Iw enforcc'l t'» pnvcnt ^>r to rtiii«lv tliirt. 

AWiiol, in tbe fomi iif tin- >»in»tJm-r 1m-v<-tj^*, i* !innnfi.il to 
die voice ami ^honUI ;ilw;tVA Ix' iivimli'iL Li^Kt wiiif'st Jind 
Ik^t, cxei^iit when taken to excc*^. nrv Dot gent'niHy iiijiiriiiiirt. 
Tliey are l>^r avoScW, trmvever^iLe ihirir iij^ iiiuy luu) to tbe 
fonnation o( ihe litjiior habit, 

Smoking is injunotB to the vokv. A«x>niin^ lo Mai'kni/ie, 
however, many liitiious singer^) utftd t4»l)iu.<cu J'rcely iititlioiit up* 
|>arent liarmful efl"pct*i. 



Dirr DURING ATHLETIC TRAINING. 

The eoiirse "f diet und exerciKe wlaeh siihletes, both amateur 
anil (irole^oiial, luidei^i to lit them phyfrJoillv fiir fruii^!^, eon- 
te.-l^. "t feat*i of enihimmv, U known a^ athleiio tminiiig. The 
mx"<^-iity fer sndt tniininj; i* fully recogniKed by all athletts, 
and while opiiiiirriH dilfer a« to mutlioil^, there h perleet Hceiiixl 
in the kleal that is "-oii^hu 

i'l'Liff^ii'iml athleli* who are conMantly |ierforadi]^ feat^ of 
uli-enj^h^ i-kill, or t'OtUimno:', arc, tor llio niopl ]K\rtj iiiiire or 
IcBS eon?tautly in training, and recogarrA^ iho itiifMirt^iioo of 
keejnng in peHVet trim. While oc?enAionnl indulipiiw;* nmy 
not Iw harmful, eimTinne<t di^ipation h abvay> dihji>rn>iix in 
iif4 i<on!^'r|iic4u-«'s. This ik o*|>a^ially true whci'e fiinr -^kill and 
jiiil^ment are rtH]nir*.'d and ^teady iiervew are a nea'ss^ity. 

The idiimale obje(*t of all training i^ to miiie<" the Ixwiy- 
weight until it will renniin constant under the reffular n>urinc 
of life ilurini; the training ptrioih There Is u^nally a lo*w of 
wei^lit for lilt llj>t i\i\v WLvkp-, varying with the pri'vioii?* <\tn- 
dilion of the inilivkluah In aixmt three wceki^ the wi-i^lit 
beoom«H eon^lant. TIm> io^n of wc^ight !■» aiHTomi^liKheJ al the 
expen^ie of the fat and wmer ia the litisnes. Irk weD-trainf'ti 
men the niiiwle'^ are hanl nud firu), the iai in rednee<l to ft niini- 
nmm, tbe ^kin is clear, tin- eytn are hri^ht, tlie exprftwimi i** 
tmlicative of perfeot health, the body w aetive, svell, und full 
t>( vcr%"e, and the '* wind " is (jood. In the nnderti^inwl indi- 
vfdiuil the ti^uee are not haideiied aad the "wiud '' is nrit m> 



DItT DVRIXO ATHLETiC TRAimSQ. 



18$ 



j[ooil. Ill liio rtviTtRiiiKil xWw x^i 11 riirtiuiT^ ciirxlition, duv tu 
overesiiTlion (»r u IkhIK *"h<iKru tlirtnr^', nr liinli^iiud tin? iii<ii- 
\iJit3il !<«-':* \^rigln uml vn<.T^y, :in<l U in v\'vxy way iiiifilu^ 
for \\\v ciii)Uv-it lor wiik'li he wh.<> im^jMring. 

Thv )tit|^li of tSnx* ivi|uin*rl in imlri nii hutivitliial varU<s 
grratlv, 1>iil n n<>lli-x<' yimlh of ihv. uvcmgtt athMio lyp<< am 
iimiaIIv Ix^ put ir ^h>rl .^tlinjx- tti mx wvtJt.-^ Tlv- tnin^linn 
fmm onlmnry Iifr Ui titnl cif (mmiii^ Mhoiihl bv ifnulunl. TIiia 
1% t.ntt< lurtl) of ilirl itml iff r:(i*n<l]i^^ 

TIm? dirt-fnMcj* of v&ri<iii»( traiiK-r* ililVcr ci.>n-"»i<U'niMy. As a 
penonl niK^ it niuy he niuI lluU lie dk-l j<h(mUI rminii^t of 
wli(>li>i>iii<< fiHHl, ^U(-h u,^ ^^Hitl titirt Xns^i or niiittonf Ik'M ^vxrli 

tuUltv of nil kiniK Aiium^ tlu- )»n'^nixil iinirlc^ jiri- nil 
wilrto, |iu4]Jii]^, |wiT*Trit^, j<jiuot-?i, [lic'kli.'H, ^jikr**s,"a(i[H'ii7*"JS," 
mil) III! fiincv uu^) *i«ii|Jcx dL--bi.T*- TwK'<'-tHHikttl mtiit fh^uM 
W eivnidtd. All nplnt-f <mJ rftrun^ uIihJimIJv <lrmk--i, uri well iis 
tcOf iXftfi'Ot sif i<] fiiTN'e >timi)ljinU «f any kiml, vhould br pn>- 
hi1>itML Some tnin'^rx alUw a iiKHJi'mle iinioiiui of light, wiu^ 
or beer, while others forbid their use entirely, On the whole, it 
would Hccm best to omit them. TobaecH) in nil formn '\^ torbKhU'n. 

M'ater IB usually ullowe^i in cva^idcrable fjuaDtitv — geiieraUy 
sfi much aft ifi de^rod—airly in the traimnj^. If tliere U a 
temleney to obesity, the nmonut i^ «>me*hat timitcd. The 
(tiuuitity is rc«iaee<l f^nidnidly, only Hillieicnt l>ein^' allowed to 
allay ibint \ it t^hoiild be ?<ippe<l !^)oiv]y. The iDjjK^rtHiKV of 
limiting th« amount *>( wocer iii(:eMed fi*r a few day?* before 
any crmie^t i» reoftgnijWMl by »ll prr^fesp^onnl ittblete^ ai>d 
trainers 

Foml ia beet given \n thre^ meals »t fll>oiit equal inten^U 
of lime ; Breakfa-^t between * jumI 9 ; dinner l>etween 1 and 2 ; 
simI ^tipper between 7 and 8 or H an<i 9- 

The Illation of sn^r to training » of D«|vcial ititere«t, and 
opiovniF coni*eniinj; its ii4e differ. Men in trtiinin^ ^eem lo 
cmre su^^r, iind are tiAen a])r>WTd u reo^^onable amount of 
rermli^, or in len ^ml eolTee tfhtn the tittttr nrr itivt/, but it b 
generally deemed odvtrable to forbid its nee in pa^tne^ and 
rjikes. Further '^tudy i» needled to deeidf* thh qneslion. In 
lhi>i eonneef ion it ii< interesting fn eonsider the re^Kirt f^neerning 
the addition of &ti^r to the dkt of two etub crcw> in Holland 
daring the training for a raoe. Alwuter und Ilnaut ^ cite the 
fbUowiog ewe : 

> i>Httiry AwKai ^ IM»nnniy Ami ChM 



I8S VARrOVS FACTORS IX THEIR BEAStyO Oy I^IET 

"Two j'i^uiig meD with oaly two hours a day for i^mctkis al 
the end of two nicnth.'^ eiiftTeil for the race. Xif rhange liu<l 
btH-a niude from tlieir ii&ual liict except thai thoy at*^ as mndi 
^upir a»i tht^y wi^^bed^ Minieiimc^ as nuu:h a^ a thinJ of a pound, 
ai lilt tiHioof tk-ir daily eiereise. One of tbem, hovrcv^-r, did 
not mnkc tliU addition lo hia dii'-t uatU tlit ttiini vrrek^ vl)c:i) 
he bcpin lo show uU the ti^^e of ox'crtnaiuing — lo«i of wi'iglit 
anil a heavy, dull fwling, with mi dt-siw for study, t)ii th<> 
third day after lie^uniiiijf (he u** lif siiiKsr fliesf ^yrn[iT4>ftu di** 
appeared. At tlie time of the rac« both yt»iilh.-< were victorious 
over their jintagoDi&tN, who did not believe iu the »se <tf Mijmr. 
No had etlVvI* wvrt^ oht^rved," 

The a<x(Hti|mnyirig iutere^tiDg table (p. 187) i& taken from 
Uic rr|>ort ' miMitioricfi 

Thi>in|UH>ii ' givi.^ tlie following nrport of tlie Yale orew. oo 
thr noliiMrily of Dr* Ifartwell, ffiraiei'ly a tsiptain of the Uni- 
V(*r>:ity <ir4"W und of the Univernity ft>ot-ball tetini : 

'• 'Phr Imininp r<u'ere<3 n penod i>f ten and t>ne*ha]f week< 
Breakfast, at l.'M x, h,, eounihleil of fmilfi (orangi's, lamarind-it 
fijP^, and grapej^) ; cereals with rich Diilk and sugar, ete, ; be(-f- 
Bteak, usually rare; chop;^^ stown, hai^h^ with once cr twice a 
week some salt mejit. a^ Ikiwii or ham, u&ually accompanies] hy 
liver ; stewed, bn)wntnl^ or biikcd pr^tatoes ; ^gs served in dif- 
ferent ways; oalmcal'Wntor and milk a* bevenigc, with tea oo 
Hpec'ial i.KH.'a;jjonH forborne purticidar indiviilujil. Diuner con- 
sisted of *«>Tip«, jncal*. fi^li, vcp'liilJcjj, with a riimplc tkssert, 
BUch as rice^ bi"«iii, or tnpioca pudding, e^imo I'rnil, and the 
same beveraj^ as at hreakfaf^t were hIbo n^. Tli^ menta 
included roast bt^f. mutton, or chicken, two kind^ \ie'mg alwaya 
served. But little ijmvy was nsc*l Fif*h wus ^*erved twia- a 
week. The \"cpc»tabl« inehulc^l fiotntoc*. nui>h(^i or boiled; 
tomalow, |H.ii:*. hiaJi.*, nnd ei»ni. Two vt-^tables besides 
ptitatoe** were UHimlly served. vSiipfHT (** lo S,10 p. M.) coo- 
Mj»led of ivrwdf*, as iil hntikfu.'il ; ehojw*, Mew*, or i**»M meat 
from dianrr ; rarrly bii-fnt<-ak ; putntom, r-tf^wr*! or bnUoil ; and 
Cggft ab<mt three tinitt! n wivk. u^uully not <»n tlu' .-^nino dovs 
that they Wi-ro werv^i far breakfast, Soimtmn'-i alp wnn \\er- 
mitltnt to ftome individual. After the en^ws nvn? in final 
propunilion fir the race at New Lrtndon the diet xiinrd ?*ome- 
what. Hn^kfaat and dinner remainetl about the riimir, hutu 
light luncheon of coKI meat, st<fwed or baked jjotatoe^, milk 

" lhin«tia No» -ft. United Slate* Diimriincnt i.l Aijrri-iiltur^ Kiperimtnl 



^^^^^^^^ DIET I>VRiSa ATHLETIC TRAtXiyc, U7 1 


^^^^^^^^^3mmarp qf Rrmiu ^ Dwtar^ Stttdvt ^f VtUwrtii^ Boat Orttc* oiuf ^| 


^^^H Ofhtr IHttttiy StvdU*. H 


^^^^H rNotrvnti in foal arluoUj' mUu fivr nmn per cbj,) H 




1 


^ 


4,1 J 




* 


« 




^H tUKTART ffTTDleS Of L'^rVCBflmT BOAT OtB^I 


Oh. 6M. 


^^1 IUn>-inl riurtrrHiir omr ni Camfjriilinr (N<i.32T) 


103 175 


44S 


413) ■ 


^^H nirv&nl FroliniEin m-w dI CtiiiibriiJffi? i Ndl 2SA| 


ISA 33ft 


4BS 


4m> ■ 


^H y»lc rnirrrsiiv tt^vi »t Ni-w llu^-eti ( ^V 2211) h 145 ITD 


37S 


370S ■ 


^^H lUrvinl ['tiivonifyctvt nT<iiil<^^Vrrr iNo.'i£:W) i 1G0 I7i> 


449 4075 ■ 


^^1 Y«W" rniT<'™i_T t-rrw nl l-iilcn Kerry (Noh 231") , , 171 171 


4IA ail75 ■ 


4%4 4070 ■ 


^^^^^^ Oi|iUUn of lEutiarO Kiv<hiiniri tjvw i Nu. ^^) - ' 1^ IHl 


4?S7 4^]^^ 1 




105 


177 


~4io" 


40W 


^^^^^B srMHAUiJC«;pftt>ivi^piiik'(n-iiKn t*i»^.in\ffri'tiiiK 










^^^^^f Fbulbil] ruuii, (.^^llctiv >iiultfii^ CotiikiM?tlL-ul< 


1S1 


SOS 


5^7 


5740 


^^^^^ Pi>ochall lowi, r>)Uq[v tiiidciiii, Qilifnnm * . . !£T0 41(i 


710 


T8ft^ 


^H ProfcAiiHipJ ftibk-i«.^^nilowV , , . !-ii \:tl 


:>ir^ 


44WI 




sa 


£SA& 


V^ 


dooo 


^H ATvngaof 14fnevb«iii<y fiunLl!«B' , 1U3 l.-^U 


-10:; 


S40-'j 


^^M Ar^rngvof 1Q hnni-iW bmitiia* . . ^ fiT l^ 


44.7 


SAL'i 


^^1 Arvmsr of S4 mrchoni^ nnH fiirmcV ffunilwni^ IW . 141 


4^' 


8440 


^^1 AYcngeof 14 profiMoiuil iiiai'* fHniin« . > - 


IM 


ISO 


423 


33SA 


^^B Pll.-TABT [fTAAllARtiH^* 










^^^1 &!•» villi iiimleniio nku«4?ulAr vork (Volt) . ■ 


111 


ce 


CDO 


»IXS$ 


^^H Ujin vitli mattcmcrouviilar Botk f PlayfAir) - - 


119 


51 


fiSl ' SHO ■ 


^^H Jim «itli moderiM mtuculftr tmtk (Aivntcr) ^ . 


m; . . 


- - :i-VMi ■ 


^^H M*D villi lurd QkiHCQlAr vnrlt (\ail> . . . { 145 


IDV 


4r,o , :«»7o ■ 


^^H Um irirh haH iimiciiUr «i»rk (fbyTftir) - - - 


IfiS 


71 


508 1 3030 ■ 


^^H M30 «ilb luird luu^'uhr iiork (AtvMcri • . ■ 


lao 




1 4500 ■ 


^^^H Mam vilh MrTv-rv mriff ijIat vork j Playfair) , - ' 
^^H Man vilb ivrctT miJvcuUr work 1 Aifnitrr) . . . 


iss 


Ti 


d<W I rt7A0 ■ 


wr . , 


. ^ r^XitQ ■ 


^H and Intst nw aprrcil nt 4.30 in tlH^ afternoon. AAm* rhis die 1 


^H 4-vmng i-iem-M? wan in^gcHl in fi»rul>r»iit twn h^xiiy. Furty- 1 


^H five minuter after thl^^ wiif< iH>m|iMol ih»M >4Uimiil or oihW ■ 


^H cereal vritli milk fm<\ ti^^t vcn^ H*ni>^), A Hj^il ^uppi-r (£^:)U) 1 


^^H WW »erveJ jutt( bi*foR* tlit nicn rrtirct). TIiik diirt woji tnucb H 


^^^H • Cbwwfikut mom) Stju Kfit^. 1S91, p, 12& ^^| 


^^^^^H L*npuiliUiJi«d ninii-iinL ^^^H 


^^^^V * ir«d»m/ 7%Ma ffwi Oavlfr. ]^a, vol. L, pL 4-S9. ^^H 


^^^ tt^ilu Jin^ rsunuum^d from ('iiiiLoi>tii-iii lS[»ir<> Sta. Kpti4.,l^l to lJ<VT,auiJ 1 


^^H ihv (Killrtii>« i>f Ihr t'diicd Siaiv?> iVfiiiiifncrfl of AffHciiliiirr. 1 


^^^P ' I'runi 11 «antniiiry in L'nili^l StJlt^ Dvim rTiiiriil of A^rJcuIlolv, <.Wi<cor H 



188 I'ARfOVS FJCTORS fy TUEiR BBARJSG OS T>IET, 



noK libinil tluin tlnit n^rvM ion yt^tti* U-fon?. TW lui^n were 

AiwatiTKiui Krvniit * jrivi* llic foll'twin^ nciviint of the <liot 
of ilk" llarvsml imui *tx^w »t (■aiiilirMgt', in l«l*.S, in !i>e ilo 
jteriptinn of the iHimiitlons of ihoir dieuin' Aikif]i«4. The fliet 
wjir* Mmjilt', hikI o<in?<tMi'^) of ruiu-ii niui lin>]le<] lieef ai*d I«nil», 

tunicUirtl, tjr l>i.»]liH.l iij tlio ^luJK vhvirt.- u>^-4] plr'DlitnUv. Ijur^- 
jimiHiLilTi iif milk hm<\ civani w<^n» iil-u) fH>n-suiTkt*iK Oiilnini), 
hoininy, utiil ^hiWiln) wheat wvrv oiiK'ii <*xtf'n!iivi^ly, nn<] cfini 
mkv^ Were? .^■rvi'il oociUHifHjally. Iln-sid wn.-* iiliiumt iihiatys 
tJik^'ti in the limu ol' dry inasi, l^lfall<'^ WiTi' mtvhI twioo a 
d]iy, eiiluT kik*^! or biilwl and maMheii ^itli rho addJtum of 
;i litlK' milk niul Imiler ; dtH-iifii^nally iliey were "ireaiui.il." 
BuiIch] ritv, |>re|Kirt-'d with a liule affliiii and »u^r, wju* starved 
iii^U^id uf |iiituti>t^H ;it B(.mic mealn- IW-Lm, [iaTwiii[>Bj grt^-u |iivih, 
mid ti>mu1tit*-( wutv iiHod to fiirtiirli u viirk'lv of vi'^t^diM <>.-«. 
MiK'uroni wii* MC't^Ltinii^itlv k^ctvihI. For <)i^«iiL'rt, iippU-. fu|>hR<a, 
rii-^Tanl, ur otliiT |iii(ldin^ i^mfjiiiim^ rx lar^r* pro|x>rtioii of milk 
iind vi£^i wiw ,*cri"Hl. 'fho nuniUrH of llio crv^v were nllowxsl 
^(.••■r <rn<r Jt diiy. Milk «'a!* i>ht.iim'<) from one nf ihc liir^ 
jTOiinioHf-'* sijp[j|yin^ tlmt vieiiuty, and was rf unusmilly puid 
qimlity, containiiifT o,>* jht w*iir. <4" bntler-trit- A wry lln<rk, 
lu^vy eream wa-^iialHo {}Mt\y ililiited n!>nit one-half witli milk. 
Thi?* [Titxiart% or thin cruttUf ronbiiuini uIhhk It5 |>cr tn-ni. of 
l>uitrr-fin. 

The bwf n-"*t*tl diinii^ the t^tndic!! wa* cntindy from Uic l<«n< 
The Ttxi*U wort'. *rtt\\ift\mt^ fmm t1i<> fillot, ami at othi-r 
liimw ttn- ordinnry linti rojiJif wifli (ho lumr \mis iii«il. Thi* 
meiit wii^ sI!cmK fiw^l fnnn pruolicallv all iho rioar JiLt, rind 
t*ent T*i the l«hl<» in a lari^.- |ilrifti'r, from whidi the nn'ii 
wvn' J^rvcd iiidividiiully, Tho IkvJ wan i*en"eil rare, Init not 
loo nnderdunr; ^oiae of th<^ other eliib tableii in the ^nip 
hoiijie servwl mu<'li mnr m<^il. The Heefnteak vras fVeod 
fnuu Ikiui* ;iiid I'nmi n<iirly ;ill i\w visible fal Wf^*re Winy 

Liiiiih clii>p^ ^vf*re iierv«I wiili ilio Im»i^, l^^tmU and nniHon 
roMut"*, wliic-li wore all tskm fiN^rn the* l*?p, wow nlso rlmr nwnit, 
IriMinu-d Ml n^* I" lie pnictit-atly fif.v from vi>il»]o tht. Thi* 
turkey nytnl \vil< r-lii|)p«it fnini a diHtuiK*e, and h:id t^ecn ke|»t in 
cold Htorajr*'. It wiis lKik<Ml with foiwmeat, — «,*■., "t^tulting" 
or "divftsing," — althongli Imt lillle of this latter waj^ served 



DtBT DVrUSQ ATltLRTW TRAtStSO. 



idu 



^R^ Ihe rivw. CliKlcpn Ha« always TVirai^ftWHt, aiwl *ierve(I frw 
"■-TRwn all bones, M'ith the cxceixion of thote of tlie log and 

Broitc^l f}«h, tiftually blu^li'^b or SpunUh mackerel, uhp^ c-otn- 
monly ft'ni'cd (i>r l^rvukla^tf a* wtTir ako c^gis, ertber raw *»p 
pTNiebi<4L No jKWCrx" tt-o* nlloweil^ and the [niddi»(r^ vere, 
:w pn-v>f>ii»ly stated, c<mi|K>*f<l larfp'ly of pggt ami milk. A 
^mal) amount of cofTw jelly wns pcnttl, aud at uik' intal 
(tiiring tbc Ptiiily icc-crcaiu w«^ nllowe^i. N<> frtvili fruit, with 
th^ evceptiiia of oninft^^ i\\T hrc^ikfa^l, was b4.TV*d» j^li^wo! 
prunes, rbnltcirb. or applet uen^ alMn tiilr^n^ jniin^-^ nioHi abini- 
Jajitly. Xo l>e\x^nig<?* other ihan water, milk^ and l»eer woiv 
allowed. Brcak&i^t w-as iien'etl a< 8, lunch at 1, and dinner at 
6 oMock, althou^-b one or iho olh*-r of th<^ crews was usually 
late at dinntT, Atwati-r aiul Hiyaiu' ^vc the following 
^taiUticfi of the Jlnn-ard orew at Canibrkl^, lKy« ; the po-ri- 
lions &houTi iti the table are tbobe occupied liy tbe diflereni men 
«t tbe CiitR- of the mcv: 



Pf>!iioit 


. 


ifjtra- 


UatM. 


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u«rtt 


*^ 












0»n>K 


After ! Before Afirr before 


Alier ' Btfora 


Aft*f 






vii>«iiur- 


pnvtctK- rfiklnij. ruwfug Trntiiy; 


mvluf- 




ruwtrfli 




IVju 


t'lm^dK 


/V»f«.' /Wodf. Pkmmdt. 


J^Mb/f 


/H^ndfj 


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PA 


, , 


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IM 


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an 


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, 


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tv 


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33 


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144 


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.. . . k— On U«y 31 irolclit iv>t iaIhh lA^r rwtfiff. Mwr W. medluM vorfc. 
|l«;2V,kud *[irL'4ljhtnil]tijmof tvry li«»d irort Mitf 'Alvbtwork, 



"The loffi of wdght ditrio^ the period of exercist is due 
princrfpolly to water of ]K-rsjHmiion and the vntcr and earlioi) 
dioxhl i.-\en»t«l iu (hv Lreatli/* 

It i^ mtrre«liii|f, iu tbia eoiineetiun, to iximpare tlio diet <»f 
tbo Kttf^lUh Uiat nvwi, a"* }fiv«n by Y«i.* Mat^laren pivi?*. fli^ 
followinj; N^bemffi of training bs- carrii'd out at Oxford aud 
Cambridge: 

• Fjcf ii H^m •lui ihmm, IN SSI. 



190 VABlomi FACTVRS Zy TBEIH JSEARiyO OX Dier. 



X DAV8 TR&G?n?0 FOR 

«^ A. M.: BiwltfdM <ir tinil<intiiii« 
iBont^ cnj4l '"kf lirvoj] or ilry 1i»hh1, 

2 P.M.: Irtimi^r; iHt^l i:!* tl Wjik- 

strictl/ adhtrul lo|, I pint nf hvor. 

orom. I piniof t>wr, 
lU P»M. ; tCvtin? tu ImnL 



THEStrMMER RAiES. 

CAMUmiMilL 

A run of 300 yanU u Aut wt poivibla. 
t.'nd«idotic meaT. dry mui, (ca 2<-i][a 

{hxi^T *tnly ]|), vDUvrcTMi ^oiv^ 

tiantdlj). 
MiTiii (U.4 n[ bfieiiknitii I, brvud, uuUi- 

LVv*4^ii: «imikf;rv>t liiriCLiit, or lif^ - 

Ifliwv* uf nlmx 
Bovrinic liXVR-lw. 
VM n»«ftf, brni<J, IvIiiKC iir wnlciv 

i;cw> I pint tC Lrcr- 



A DAY^ TRAIKISG FOR THE WIXTEIt RACE. 



Ta.H.: Fti niTi » fiTniimiriOTilow 
8.30 A- V- : Htinkftui hh in sivnmn'. 
A liirU' mUl mmr^ brKt^l, nnd } pint 

Ahfrn 1 t^iiTLt'liiiJin yolk oi «m( ^<^ 
Rowing vxcruUk 

$ to tt p> u*: Dinner, os Sn fiummer- 



7,30 A. M. : Riv. A nlnu-t wHlk ur run. 
1} A. H. : BratkrnftU nt in htnnmor 
I P. M. \ ],\xiii'\ivim : bivnrl or a mnd- 
wirhnml ^ t>Jm of bc<T. 

;£ P, >l. r Ri>win|r CtvlolML 

5 P. M. : I>imifr : iii«fl1 n> in Mininicr, 
brt^nO, HftiTifi rijl^ au in untimicrn^to 

vi^ifi-lnftttw, no- piirttliiiff or jvllv, 

ami i I'lni "i b>^^r. 
in r. M,: \W^\\f irt hiYl. 

l^ulJ tu bv ilnmk a>' fHiFf^lhlfv 

Tn suTumin^ up the rc^iiU* of tlic-ir 4>li?K-rvaiioiif- Alwalcr anJ 
Brvont ^l^ti^ thsiif in n "gomral wiiy, the flirtcrcnc*} lK?twi-ou 
rhi? f'>i'»rl nf llip flth]i>t*?c nnd thut *if" otiicr |ioi^|ilo r^i^reaont* li 
iliflifrcnce in uetiml phv?-!!-;!] no«I even if in/itljor U an acfi]mr«^ 
inea^iire af that lit"*.-!!/' One' of tlio chief dilftrtiict^*; lies in the 
Ihcl tliat the fixxl Iff athlete^ is pnxliictive uf tt lai^r amount 
of energy than that o.^n?iiim<?<.l tjv orxlinnnr' wnrking-pwple or 
cv*IIr;;(^ ntoTi. Thf J:nly cxce^f (jvi.t tho onJinarv i\m m-oj* 
uIkhiI 4W ailories, or ubuiit 10 ]>*t tt*nt. The utnLUiiit of prt^ 
ivin coiiJium^ wns 45 per ctmu iaiyjer. " In other wonli*, th& 
(lifTcrcnof in protein was four and one-half timcj* a?* prcat iia tho 
tlifforfin-c iit fncl-v:ilue, nn<l the csf^j=& in protein w^uih] jiceount 
fi^r i\ cc>n*idonible part *>!' the excels of enei^v of the diet of 
the atlJetes an compared with men in onlinary cx-eiipalion," 

Atwiiter and Bryant ' clo^ the account of tht-lr experiments 
with the foliowin)^ interesting oljstrvarions: 



DIET DUBISO ATHLETtC TJtAISJSO. 



in 



"In ihi* f*>nn<>r-tion it in intcreitiTig to oWrrc tliat many 
pbyfi<klti^,-itA arc (.*i>iinn^ to entertain th^- vuw thnt tiie uruount 
of melAlx»li--4n in the InAy U n'^iibt^nl tmt :«ini|i1y liy the tuuj^ 
mlnr work, but aUi by rhe iicrvi>i].'< t-ftort n^ipiirtHl In die |>er- 
fortnaiioe of ihia work. The f-!4|ieciai)y Iai^ proportioa t^f 
|injiL'iti 4>l>^rvtil in iho tliHarv stmli^-Ji of ihi* univvr^ilv Uuii 
in'W?s <if f^hil-ball ti^ini7<, "I" tin* [>n*fitwi"Hiul atlilrlv, ami <>f 
Uw pu^lLntf ns cTomjMirvd wiih tdc diptiiry ftuJic^ of *s>llr^ 
nw^fi with otxliniiry t*x**r<"iH', jmil with orditijiry InmiLip^ of 
U'lirking-mrn luid i^mftWionjil incii^ AooonI wHI with u vi^vr not 
iim'oiuQh^n of lalv am'>Ui^ ph\>io]Mgi¥t*- Acforciing to this 
vit'w, fiwn wIm iHn'fonn (^fHitiTinul mtiwuliir labor, tveu if it is 
n^-livv oiimi^li (o rnitkt' t\\K total amount lur^^ do not r^uire 
4A|tcciuUy lur^- ani<iuiit'T< of protein in their food &y long m 
ttivv under^k no tsiM-ciul inenml fttntiu or mu«;culur fatigue, the 
|inii<ripnl n'({iitri-im-nL?i Uviii^i nn nhiindant supply of easily di- 
gevtcil f<xHt-mat<-rial. On ilic couintry, ivlicD a [uan or uuiukzd 
miJAt perform intoiiM maecular work for a ahort priod of time, 
aiifl \<f tlkerofoi^, iiiKler m^^ro or 1«tA iiervoud ati well a^ muscu- 
lar entrain, a con-^iili^ralily larjrer supply of proinn w?^mH to be 
r^nired ihan iin<ler nornial cnHdilion*^ of slow, loDG:-<:i'n tinned 
vork. In other words, if a large amount of work must be done 
in a ?ihort time a oonsidemWe exwt^ of pn>te!n b re<jtiii^ in 
(he food. Tbifi view, which \\a^ been e^|kocially atlvocatefl by 
Zunte/ t^eems to be favort.^il hy the re?^iilt« of diet^in' i^tuciiea 
above discuswd- 

" Koi'CTit experimenui made by DunIo|), Patou, Sluekmaiit 
and MaecadAHi ' bavo U* d't with the amount of protfnii re(|uirecl 
Then ^'--vi^re mn^oiihr wurk U perf»rrae<l, Tlie result- an- dii*- 
(iL4Hil with ejjpecial n-ft^reaei- t« training, tmt\ are h«'Ii<-viHl lo 
" show jhe iraponanee of two points long known to athU'lfT:^^ 
and others doin^ exci\^ivo muivular work. The <nie U llio im- 
portance of prr^'per ii-aininjTT f»>r by it an alxMraetion of prfjteid 
matter trom tissues other than muscle nin I* avoide<i ; the other 
is the importance of there being a *infficienc\' of protein in the 
diet to oompenwile {t*r tin- lo^ whieh oceurs. An almndancr 
of proteia in tlio dii-l of an ^tthlfle ha?* uitx'r functii>ni^ to fuhil 
txviid^'? ihia. It ip rr*itUT\A tluriti;; Iminioj; for huilJiuj; up tht* 
«<m-t^y-tilMrr>tiir}f n]i.v[kuui<ini — tho |iro<o])lin£m (kf inuw>lo; nnd 
it li almt n*f|uirrH) afoT work to repair that nK^'hani^i. Tfii> 
IjcnefiCii of iiminini^ are well known in other wim, tuifh a^ pn^ 



INFANT FEEDING 

Thk sobjet't ori[HUtit feecUiig, itiiring ln>th iH-iiltl* and cl'ii^eA^, 
U one of extreme imp^iinnee, und <jiie on vliidi siioas^ in 
pnliatric pniclkv kt^clv dr|>eitd^. JMun- talking iijt ibc studj^ 
of tufunt fiWiii^ tiiL- aludoEit plioulil ntad Ganfullv the iMCtion 
on Milk. 

Tnfiinry U thnt pr^ri**'! of life tUitin^ fmin birth U) xWif two 
Am) i^ni-lialf vi-an*. Clnldh*x»'l i^ xht- ]Hr'ux\ Irnm tUii !tij<l <nio 
IwiH" yi.'iiT^ t«i jml>rrly. Tlu' th<-niy thai iiituiicy eiuU ut two 
nni) orMvbair xvars in an arbttmrv one. 

Thi-r<- are four methods of feeding ififnnt^i : L Bmwl- or 
niattTiiid feediit^. 2. Wet-nnrsing, ■'5. Mtxin] fvrclinir — j. f,^ 
bnuHt-iV-cdiiig MipjdtriiienU^l bv boitlc^ft^ing. 4. B<ntU*- or 
aitifK-bJ rct.<ilitie- 

1. Breast- fee ding. — Tho inilk from n lu-alcln' mother ia 
br far ihr- bt^t nourUftmciit ft^r uii inrmit dtiritii- the fir^t vcur 
of lU lift', jiihI f«n no! U* ftdly rephionl by »tiy other form <»r 
fi^^nling, Inlnnti< foil on tlio bn-j»t-milk of a healthy wonutii 
iii\' »tn.»figcr Htid Ix'tter able lo poixt dista:?^. While il U inie 
\\viX btd>i<'?' iiniv Ix' n-ftn.-*! "i> jinilicial fitods and n^main ht-iilrfiv 
aniE i^n»w ^tr>"iijj> thi' ]H'ixyiila^' of r>}bii8t ln»ttle-fHl hahk<s in 
mtif'h r^niiiiU'r tkiii x\u>i «d' h<ubfiy breiLHt-fetl inliint^. ThU im 
{vnieuliirly Iniv of the pKjrer rlaww, wlio oftep laek both the 
lintv Bti^l the intrlligciicc rcqulinl lo rear a beuUliy ijjfunl Uy 
bftttlc-fcctltnff. 

Contniindicjitioni; to MntemaJ Nursing. — Th<* f<tllowjTig 
ml^ aitiptc^i frikm iloli, will f>i- totiE>d n ri<liabK* guide in 
(k'tetmiiiini; whether or not a moiher U fittinl lo nt]n< her child : 

I- If the mother lui> ridfercuhnsi^ in any fortii. Intent i>r 
aclis'e, she should not nurf^e Jier rhild, A tnU-nnbwH moiher 
iwl only ex]M]p^^ her ehild to intVctiun, but liaMenK the proi^wi 
uf ilw dbciifw in herself. If the mother hii.'^ pulmoiiciry tLdHT-* 
ctdww, nur^iDg b iiliiio*^! certain to prove fatal to her, 

2i nhcfi the tot-vther liaa luul jiiiy w*ri(M]» (^im|iltolIi>ii, -**iioh 
4M nephrit^ convid^opB, .^i-von.' hemorrhage, ur :<cptk infcotiuD, 
during preftnanoy or |iaHurii»on, dhi> alti>uld tint be alk>wed to 
none ber intfint. 

U 101 



3. If the motW U ohorvio nr ^lpptk% mireiof u oontmtn- - 

4* If ihi? nwiihcr h \'cry f<i^>lc or hi# aoy ^tiona chronic 
di^««^, the diiUl vill dcrh'e lilttir, if any, hetiefit fmn hrcnet- 
fiwliiig aiiil ibe irjoth«?r will lie grtiuly ifijiiri.*d. 

i>. Narking T^bould nni Xte nXitfm\AM nikrrv eiitmence ha« 
«bon-» im two ]>reviou>i ocv^s^ionrJ, iiitiler favorvbie conditioEiSt 
that Uie intillit;r in uimblc U) uuuii-ili her diilit^ 

6. When Di> iTiilk i-ni^erreu-J, focdmg U, of coanw, iuuoMblc^ 

(}4xh1 iirtifiml fivd'uig li (o Ur pref^rrx^d lo poor brcuat'fdvd- 
ing- If iiHitic-iikl ftf*linjr mri.%1 !«' prricirtn) tn, it is well tu hc^n 
t-urly, for the infEuit'rt ilr^t^tivi* i^rgnn^ an- tlien apt to he in 
cvmiMinitivi^lv goucl rondition. Tlie qtH<«tion hss two ^(k*^ 
howvvc*r, nikii luiu^l (.^n'fiilly Ih' omsiik'nifi 

JUiiy tiioiiirrs with ap alnmdance i>f maU^nial love and 
tiKiiiifold good iutealJoDii an* oH^^n hiking in intollig^iiceaiKl 
nin not l)t> lau^it the jmiper oaiv of an Infant. 

if the pniitju-ctivu iDoilit-r U uudvr tTbe*rTviition ditnng P*^^^ 
naocVf ihc hrciiM* i»houU be rarrfnlly fxaEnim^, auti if the 
nipples arc found tr> l>t- »hoK or n?1ractod, tnco^urcs should be 
talc4*n to eorrcet this condilion. Tbu may be done by oxvixsia- 
ing gi*»(ip fmrtion upon (h** nipplp d;\ily. In <*i£trpfnp r^^es of 
ri'tniriiun n brt-.i7>it-ptimp itrny ht- ini'fWI. I>iinng ibe entire 
nni>iTif; ]xri*nl lh<' brt-iiMfj* wIloljIiI rcoi^ive otrcfiil attention. 
Cli^nlinpHi^ is imt>onin vt% ^iml al^tr mvli nunsirifr tltc ItniiL^ ^houkl 
be cur^ftilly nnsDod, prcfvmbly with a KolutioD of boric acid. 

During tlw firtl forty-eight hoiir»< iW child rtwiv^ pra<-ti- 
cally no nonrifihtneiit fmm tht* bR*:isl, the only fluid trecretrf 
during this limv being CfjIoHniniH This^ Im* a laj^nt^v^ efli'rt 
npao llic infant'« WwcU, emptying thctn of thr durk bn-wnif*h 
mftterinl, known a>« moooniiim, whit^h hn^ aociimnlated in the 
intp^tinjil fanni dnrinp iiteriop lifp, Th<* child shoriM, howovi^f^ 
bt put to the br*«rt at regular intervals, so as to t^iablish n 
free flow of milk : this generally bcginn on the thinl day, bnt m 
sometimes ilelavfd. 

Oaring the ^rst two daj-sof il« existence the difld (re*B aimul 
>*ix ounces of coloMrum a day, whirfi i* all vhat ir^ nee<)ed. It 
may, how<!ver, l}e ;riven a t«is|M>oiilnl or two of warm boUnl 
vi'aler or of a & per cent, solution of tnj^r of milk. In uis* 
n--(iia]ly ntbiiac bat friifiil children, or when there ]» kv&r, a 
iiinall nmoiint of nonri^hmenl may be required : this flhoutc) ba 
giv4'n liivording to rho rules for artificial feodin)^:. Tf tke milk 
tfi deluycil beyond forfy-ei^ht houfA, it becomes ncc«aiar\' to 



£Ii£AST*rEICI}tyO. 



195 



»■] flic i*liiM liy thi* \vm\t* nnlil thf flow in established. The 
eliilii slioulii Ur pitt t" tilt UrraA rvgnhrly, or the hraL8t-pnmp 
iiy U* U;«(l lo Mimtiliit<- tho ^^r^ioii of the milk. FeDDet, 
Itnip lea, aiul iIk- likr .<hiuilc] U- L'xcta<le<l from the child's 
di<r(iir>'. {Foni c^tv/ul CH>ii!<i()cnitii>ii uf the cjiiestion of feeding 
during i>aHr infiiiioy, arid for oMkt i|iu.^hon^ coiiwniiuj: infant 
putriiion, tht Hauler I'* ref^^nxHi Hi iU' vxwllt-nt work uf Czerny 

Before entering up<in a ^Hin^tuli-rnlion of hreaj^t-lc-ciiin}; iD^clf 
i>nf or two |>oiuU in cH>nm!<<tion with the pubjcK't must Iko ex- 
pliiin<il. Mnny nn^hrriL do not niir^v- iheir infants because 
Lb4*y liavfi nut bti-n ^n^fXTly in^tnidet.! u^ to the importance of 
doiog it ; othi^r^ be<«u^ tlir mnttcr is left to the nur&e, who^ 
after (wo or ihrw- irials, dwiilp* thai the mother !h incapable of 
our«iog her Ixiby ; in the lutti-r c:i>^* the pn^h^billties mv that 
DOfbing it- wnrni; \TUh the mother. Ot^rti, too, the attending 
phytlcuin, ca^jx^Jally if be 'i» &j) obstetric specialist, ia apt to 
givv lii.-« nitration whully io the mother, leuving the ebild to 
I be iHirPK's oarc. 

rh« mental atthnr)<» of the mother has n marked eiFect on the 
milk Ae^relion. snd if nhe h«« been pro|>erly inecmotef) and 
i*n»Hira^ed l>efoivhan<i there Is usually no difficulty. If. on 
till' i»ther tkand, she has gruvp donhts as to her eaiwbility, aod 
imnicrilarly if ."^he hears both physician and nurse di>^Lis^ lier 
prxilxihle JDcompelency, die milk secretion mjiy be inhibited. 
Tb(^ mental isoiiditioo or the mother i« oAen alfected as the 
result of weighiag the child. It Ik very desit^le tbiit the 
ebtld be wetghnl r^nlarly and the wt-ight recorded; but if tho 
EDothiT LH at all nervous, or if the child is cot doing well, the 
wc-ighing Ahr>uld not be don« W the mother or io her presence 
A lo«« in vrcight,or even the fact that there |a no material gain, 
may «i affiHt die mental eondinon of the m-xher as to prove 
delelemrtjs l^ thi' f*crHioD of milk. With pn^per encotirage- 
nu-iit and by stimulating ihe breast by placing the child at it at 
r^ibr intervals tlhe How of milk i^ prc>rooleQ< 

The flubj«:t of ihe titne»i of mothers for nursing their infants 
i» receiviog more attention of late years, and in Germany im 
attempt lia^ In^n made to shijw tha[ the daughters o( a1cc»Iiolic 
parenirt or anowtr*' Sktv apt to be iDca|iable of nursinjr their 
in&ntri. M'hilv ibic has lie^^n proved HtaTiKtically, an aleoholie 
ancewtry ii^ of Mt iMinmon ofvtirrenee thai almrv^t any existing 
evil mfpht In* ntiribnted to it and itn n-Utionsliip proved, 

BftftMt-nurT'iiig often piuves a failur*.' because Ike mntber docs 



196 



v^fAyj rEEDiy<j. 



not aiiij«ntan<l hov (o fiW*^ ihe broist to tlie t^liiM. Witli tbe 
incTVftM' in L-ivili nation l1ii>iv not^-m^ in l>e a ditniniilktri in in- 
etiiKl, Eintl careful direeiinn^ t^hould be given in ever\' ta-^. 
The clsild should lie on the right or left ami, ai^cordinjf to 
wlu-ther riK- child is to nurse at tlie right or at the left hrt^i^t. 
If tlic njiithi-r w in a PiUing posture, her body rJiould be in- 
cJiEKd ^Itgblly forward. WitU her lre« tmntl she should gra^ 
tbo brea^M near the nipple between the first t^-o fingei^ If, 
uwing to ibe (rtv fli>\r of tuilb, tht' riiild lakvs the milk too 
mpidlvp ibis may Iw (.'ht'cktd bv ?]i^ht |nv-«urv *>!' ibt tingnv- 
Tlki^ cbild iiBoubl iitin^ atitil paliHfivJ. Tbo contenU of one 
bn*tut nrv ^^nrmlly Hii11ti*ii^m for one nLir^in^'. and the bnnstA 
sUoiiId lie 11^ alt<'nialely. When fwti^fied, the in&ni will 
ii^imlly fnll Li?<Wp al the bn>«i3t. Under ordinary cooditioDa 
tin* nnr?imjr should h^t for from alK>ut ten to twenty mmuted. 
Ef tilt' milk xsi taken tiK> lapidly, vomiting may en&ne immedi- 
au-ly after or during feeding. If loo much is taken, it U re- 
gurgitated almoi^t immediately. If the inl^m conpriimes mure 
ihun luiJf uu Iiour in nursing, the bi-ca^-^t and lie milk should 
bo cxnmirMi As ibe infant g^powM older it n.'(|iiircfi und tuke^ 
more food, und con^^t^nviitly vtiW n^imm a lon^r time U* uiwie 
llian il tVul during thu twrly ibiy* of lifi\ 

Tbr ifiiid<attonof phxl mirstng-hnbit^eim not Ire roostrongly 
in^iMinl n|M»n. Many aitat^k.^ of indit:i>>rtr>n, ca\K\ and <li.'trrhe» 
may be tnii-vtl to iinpropet' niirr^ing. When gtxxl iiubii;« arc 
onoe &«tabltrthed, ttiere i^ gi^nerally very little trouble, ibn «qg- 
oefifl of the traminsj de|H^nd!ug largely on the manner in whioh 
il i» done, l^ular bour^ far feeding rOionld In- f]x<-(] imd 
adbt^rvd to; and if the- diild is a>iltwjmt the: itT^Hng-Imnr, il may 
bu arourwd, i''*r it will ulm^^^t invnrinbly go to ;docp uftor nnre^- 
ing. AftLT iho last feP*liHg, which >lmidd Ufiuidly (nko plAce 
at It o!* 10 o'i?lu<'k, the HiiM ftfiftidd biw^ui^tc^J and allowed 
t4) f<lt<e|J it?^ l<*ng HA it ohorxse?!. 

Dtinng the Rrnt month or \\fO thi' in/Iuil uill. ii^ a rule, 
airaken Ixrtween 1 or 2 o'cKK^k and n^uti ut atx>nt -1 nr -^ 
o'clock. Alter two or thrr>o taonth?' it ^vill nv^nire but one 
niriit feeding, aud aft<'r lu<- nKmth,* r>f age the average infam 
will skfj) hU nigbl wllhont niirriing. 

When lh«f change in t>ring made and the child awakens for 
Its a<iouHtf*in4Hl nnr^ngf it r^hmdif be givon u liltio wnrm water 
from H boltliMind iMMjuif'Nnl, but not taken o|i. Rfgnlarnnwing- 
babiU indiit*!- ivgnhir howH iTiovrm-ntj* and 'ilifp, mid the f.hm* 
combined insnrv iK'^ultb (ui<E coinfurt not only ibr the inlUnC, but 



I 



i 



i 




BREAST-FEEDIJUa. 197 

for the mother as well. A healthy child, if trained to do so, 
will sleep without rocking or coddling. Three things are, 
however, essential to secure success in this training ; a satisfied 
appetite, dry napkins, and a quiet, darkened room. The infant 
must not be nursed each time it cries. If it has colic^ the 
warm milk may soothe the child for a time, but later aggra- 
vates the trouble, which in many cases is due to overfeeding or 
to too frequent feeding. 

The following table, from Holt, may be used as a guide in 
breast-feeding : 

let day ....... 4 ti boure. L 

3d " 4 ^- 1 

3dto28chdaT . . , . 10 I '* t 

4th iol3th wwk. .8 -1\ •' 1 

'AA to oih month ... 7 A '* ] 

5ih to \1\\\ " . . 6 A '* 

In case of siokne^ and when the infant i.s feeble and U'low 
the average, espeoial rules are rt-quired, and directions >*hould 
be modified to 5uit each individual oase. A py*A gi^neral rule 
is to feed the child according to the yge to which the weiglit 
eorresiponda. The ebild'rf weight is the \ye^\ index of its nutri- 
tion. During the ftr^i four months it may [ie weighed twice a 
wetk J after that time once a wt-^^k is sufficient. The average 
minimum gaiu for an infant is four ounces a week. If the 
weight &lls below this for ^veml weeks r-*msecu lively, it is evi- 
dent that something is wrong. During illness, of course, there 
may he no gain or l^rss acoonlint: to the severity of the f»ndition. 

When the breast milk i?- insufficient for, <jr un^uite'l t^i the 
need» of, the infant, it l>ecomei fretful, e^^lic "ji-f.urs and the l>al*e 
appears to be "en>='*.^' Di^turlianw*^ of the alimentary' tract, 
diarrhea with greenish rt'jol.s C(/nlaining a V^ry^ amount of 
mucus and undi^^e^ced cnn)-, txike place ut times. At timeH the 
fftoolft are brownish, and c»niain fou'u- and numer'n-^ eurd.^ tlie 
si^e of a grain of wheat '»r larger. In 'jthcr «ih-- then- may 
be chronic c*in:Tti[iotion with small, hanl. dry ^tf^il-. 

If the infant i- g^'tiiuir t'"> Utile nnlk, it ]■; fn-tfnl and gain»f 
slowly f>r not at all. bm ther'- i- mnly any di-tijrli7in':e of the 
stomach ut Ix^weN. In llur-^- *a-j- tli*- nur-in:; i- '''rhtinui-<l f-r 
over ibirtv minni^r' without -;iM-iyio;.' th*- ''hild. or it mav nur-^ 
a minute or tw*> and ih<-n refn-'' t" iiur-*- Ije'-an^- ihe ^-upplv i- 
60 ?«antv, Wli^r*- ll*e bna-i milk i- o-'arly nomi;i] in fjrianriiv 
and in quality, f;ertam mj^'»jp+, whi"h will l>? di^'u--*-! furth'-r 



198 




IXFAST FKEMSG. 



(Ml, may be tdcen to ati^ent ibe sap(p)y atid enricfa tbi> qiulity, 
crt" it nay be dU]>|ilc!UK'nlet] by anificia] )V«4)iD|f. When the 
milk \s very poor in qualitA\ ^ for example, when iW sjipcilic 
gravity 15 from L015 to 1.U25 aad when only ^ or ^ per cent, 
of erevti U pTQEciit, tbe cliikL should be weniied al ooce, for ibe 
euiuliliun i- Dot anjeoablL* lo treatment. 

Mother » ntilk u\i%y m^ilr be tested by mean» of Uoira milk 
fiitrt, which coD^tH of n lactom^-ttT an<l a en^m gau^J With 
lhi& tbe ^[)eoitic ^^vity atid tbe amonni of enmiu may co&ily b« 
vAtiniata). Ct^tuatetl i;ntli this itiMnimeiit tbe erenm itt to iha 
flit as 5 i.H to 0, The follotrin^ table iffill kelp in ei^umaliDg 
tbe 4(iiatity of buniaa milk : 






Pnariwk 



rnhrtlUtv vartftUiViu 

VnriftUoM 
V«rtall«u 

VfttteiioDi 

VariftlLiiTiia - 
ViirkalLrPiia 



i«cn 



* per c<rat. 
*-rfv 



ptrtfHiiL 
I. CEO-ton A-iEptrrHnl- 

JkUm\ttji> llhr^UtoTftiOiwr^prLL^ 

IMH Ijaap Lmt (brio* 6 |«r rriit,)- 



AbffWtJOn 



Eliidi- 
Lcn. 



Konbftl (Ikir 
milkl 

I bvtiMr, 

Vrry Ift* *v<ry 

fXHtf iDlIk^ 
\rT7 h\t\t iitr) 

rtfbDilki- 
Hbrb. 
, Sunfml ur tto4rlT 

I 9^ 



When l]i« motb<<r*8 nnlk im f-mnd to nx^t agree with tbe infaftt, 
it may oft«n be minlitie<l hy tb*' fillijwiiif! nu^tu"^ : 

1, If tlie milk !» tm> rich, the diK should W limilefl, espe- 
eiallvaH to U»cam<Hincof meat taken. All alcoS>olic and malted 
drinks pfhouM Im- probiinled. With plenty of fresh air and 
exercise, such at walking, the d.?^i^^■<^ elf'ect will generally be 
brought about. The exercise gjirndd be carried to ihc point of 
fiitigue, 

'i- ^Tn-n Ih*- milk is pond but defideni in quantity, ihc 
ftujiply may l*c nngnieuted by racrssnge of llie broael^ three 
timc^'n day for fmm (ive to ten minnli'*. A fs^\oA malt extra<«t 
mav ho givon with the nMsUs. and fn-jih air and ejtercifie pre- 
ftcriheri, HnffifN-iii fluid should In* driven, preferably milk. 

?u Wbt'Ti the milk ik <lefii'icni in <|tJftntiTy Ami poor in quality, 

improvement iiuiv lie brou^'bt siiioui ]>y variou>^ inenu> : Mns- 

wige, malt, nJid in^n iirc ttj W prtMrnlxxi if rhen* is anemia. 

An ahroWu- mall eMn»ct mwnbined with r^cptonuteof in>n or 

^ This Bi»> \k bad fmm KUuer A Aroctwi, >\-w Vurk 



WEr-^'UItsiyQ. 



199 



of iriin aijrf nmu^nede h a st'xmI combination, and may l>c l»ml 
iti vory |>:tl:t1ul)lt^ tV>riii. The diet f^hoiikl W aaifilr, ilihI c^titniii 
«uflk-ient nitrojt^ii"u-i fttod. Milk AnnM U' luk<-ii wUli the 
tiM^h, ilurifi^ ibe intervals betwi>tn incul^, and ut bcdtiiutv If 
U)c tuilk interiVreri niiti di^cftion^ u^ it oHon iJck« in tlie^' Ciij^o^, 
the folKjwing mixture mny bv tiw^J wiili utlvjintii^i* : 

Fill a jfl^tHH iliTV4>4|tiurlL-rf^ JnlJ i.if milk, miil ikIi] a tabic* 
r-IWH^iful of tlnie-'n'aUT and t\v<i fAibli.-spocnifiiU of crcatn ; clicn 
fill tlio f{:liB»a wilU wator. Tb<> li^1^^>h-9t<lr nmy in mHiiy <:sM^^s 
W oinltu^ and tlu^ gWn ni4-n>1y tilled uith pluin u-ater after th& 
iwldif ion iif till' iTi"«im. Anotlj^r eA*«uiiul is frt^li air — driviug 
i>r WHlking \( till- moilKT U stronjjf eaoutrli. It i?* very ini- 
|M)rlaul that iht* niothtr oliUiin siifficieDl re^t. During tlie iiiKbl 
tli^ child should U- oared fi»r by the nuiw, and Im? given the 
\HtnU- infitead of Ih^ breant. 

4. WIk^ii the (|fmmi(y is jHirniclent hiu ihe i|uality i^ ]H>ur, 
litlh- <:xm lie doue, and ihe cliiM mii&l ^meiiiUy be weajied. 
Tlic forvguin^' lut-aHiiw* inay bo trifnl, but not for too loug & 
IXtHihI, tktt t\n* cbild tuuy tufTer in ix>n-*ei^iK-iiop> 

A ituitti jxiiiiit \^ viht'ihev it in wi>^' lo aIIow thi> ^btld nno 
)ii>tl)i- n <lay a-< u r^iuliue iiraolict, Tli<^ authors iilwiiy.^ folhiw 
tbl-* plaH ai^r ihe wcond mi>nth^ and where propc-x |in*iiiiitioTis 
rvj^trdiiij^ch-anlineH^ and I*ast4'iinc»tmn have been taken, no ill 
n--'idf?i havt^ Ix-en swn to (bllow. The advaoia^ of tbU 
nirihtid are a-H toilow?- : 

The rhild leams to lake milk from a bottle, rdU if, owing u> 
i\te illoL-M of lilt- loothtr, it iHtixuL-a iKHx^waiy ai any liriH" to 
rfub^titott- tl»e t>uUle, ibifi may Jh? <hiLie wiibout inuoh ditficalty. 
Oa the uIIrt hiuiil^ if th« child Jjiia takvu itikifon^ but thi^ 
bnibi4, ii limy otfoii refa**e ibr Jrt>ith- ^n:ir<*ly, with di^ji^imim 
rvMilta^ fV\<*te csute^ of antn^ inanition luiviii^ bo<-n known to 
follow. ThiftmelhMl faciUiati^ \Teaml1f,^ If iheinotlirr»« weak, 
it allows her to obtain an undi^tnrhtit ai^ht'fi nnt. Amon^ tlw 
tijf|i*-r clavteh tlie t-hild is otVn wwrniHi early S4> that nursinj^ 
may nox interfere with the mother'** .social iih^A.-iUPtN and dutit^. 
If tbe breost-fetding be supplementctl t>y ihe bottle, niany of 
the&t wonitfu may be iitductd !u mitst [brir cbildmi during the 
grvnter part of th^' Hrr-t year, wlit;n tl^^v would fitbrr^-tM^ gi^'c 
it u|j wry early niid abanilon tht- chihl to ih<» oan< of a nur»e. 

2. Wct-ntming^. — Wirb the arlvent of a ninn- thorough 
kiK>wled^' of infant fcedinjf wet*nur«in^ lui-^, forttinately, Imv 
eooie le-fl frequent. Nevertheless ther« are j*omt infants lliat 
will thrive ou mUbing but breart'-feeiling. Wht^i ibi^ it^ iiw 



900 



iXFAST FKKDr^'0. 



CBJ^, a wet-nun« munt 1»e cliown a^^^^nlinj^ to tlic followtofr 
ntl€8: 

Tb? wnmnii -hniild bo hoilthv ami of ^mvl babiti^ TtiQ 
ttbfreticeof tvphili^. nilK-rciilu^i^, iiIcoIioIIf^di, and 4>ther djs(fij<^ 
i^tiuuld be <)i-ienniu»l by cun-ful exnmjnaijon. The nipples 
eliould be carefainy (rxamiu^-d for li>«uiv-t uiid uli^rutioii. 'Duy 
t>ron^t hh-iTiU) be cxnmino*! VitYoiv and after nutsin^, uiul iIk^ 
tviilk t<^»le(l ii§ prtviwihty ile-erib«l. Tbe ^m* <jf ib* brc'SMt 
alont? U »ot ii gfiod j^uide as ta the anujiint nr qtialtty i>f tlw 
tnilk it ^ecreteH. The (iiiantity mny U; jml^ by ttic ^axe of 
the brt-ast l»efore and iifter uursin]; or by wei^biii^ tbo buby 
Ijefua* uihI idler nutvinj:. This lati^r mefbiH), uUlioiigb a ^>Oil 
one, is mu usually rehuried U*. Tbe wet-imr^ ntioiild alu-nyi* 
be cue who hiS Hunted hep uwii diiU *iR*<TH*fiilly for at Iwint a 
luuntti. If po8ftible, ^he »h^uld be 41 pniiii|).'ini l>eiwn*ii cwcnty 
luicl ihirty-5ve ywirfi uf ajr*"- ywiiigvr i>r older wunwu rilioubl 
iiol, Ofl ti rulv, hv vm|)loy<?d- If tb« iDtaiit'a eundtiiuii pcrmils, 
tlu^ uLilse ^bnuld be ^iveti fit leunt a Vt*ek*F4 (rial, ('»i' ofteij the 
djMiiire in Tier nnHli* ut' hviii^ may eaiise a M^anty titnv ^if milk 
or rt-:idcr it "tbcTwiH- im^i!i:*fncEory. When ?*iie bji^ Iwvnme 
aivin^ltmioii Irk btr *-iirr<>iindiii(r'T i'h* rolll* ni:iy liectune |Terff<"dy 
DomiaU Owing t** idlone?*^ and n loo a hu ml ant ilicl the milk 
luny become too rich. In tboM* vii^ei Ihi* niU-^ jirt'X'ion^ly laid 
(l<jwn may <*»)rrtH"t tI»o wntlifUm. Snlwiblo wi'i-niirse* nre not 
v.mW lyhxn'mvi]^ an* ex|n'iHivc, aiul :tn- i»l\en a ^imn^e '»f oyn- 
»tant iroitbic nn<] iinnovnii<-<'. A woman wbn will ^iv«- up tbe 
core of her f»wn phild for |Kiy ift iiTiiiiiIly a vrry unpleasant 
)>erson to bave aUiat. For the>aj» n^aw^nit, r^e*»pt ^i-hrre tlioro is 
severp aente inniution.othrr rm^inj^ »Jjiiiild 1m^ triril before a wet- 
nnn^e i* renirted lo. WetHiiir*inir '*^. how(»vfr. ven" p4UCoeH&- 
fally earrkd out in CJermuny iimi wimc other i.-'Hinlriej'- 

Jj\ Mixed Feeding, — By i\u^ meih<Hl, a^- pn-viou^ly de- 

Bcrit»e^h the t'bihi i* ftti [Kirtly on the bnii^r mid |mrtly on the 
lnKtle. TliiA mrtbod i?* imlieaii^ when th>< inoibiTN milk is 
pinir or ?*«Hih", owini; lo j^hm^ iiJiervi-u'in^ illin!:*!*, or wlien^ 
owin^ to defieient qMnntiiy, the mother cwn m-t rntWlv nnriK!- 
the child ; it U nl>^t iiM-fnl in w(<anin^, M'ciinin^ Vi «or>om* 
|>li'^lk€Hl with lev*; ilim^nmf'trt to mothfr nin\ cliilil if doni* fzrnidii- 
ally. If tbe inntber i» nnrwinjr Hie rhild i>nt oikh* or twieen 
day, her milk may iwiHrnje very fwwir, an<l eon^TC[H<M]tIy should 
he vxuminpil frf»m time to tim<*. In thi^?^ ea^e* the chil<l k 
n^iially witiNfi^'d after ;i bottle, lun not aOer lii(> broa^t-fwdini*. 
-t. Artificial or Bottle-feeding.— \V lien it becomtv nee* 



ARTtFtCtAL OR non'LK.FF.RHlSfS. 



201 



eaeary to feed the child artificially, the phyk-ian niustunder- 
btand the nature of tlie milk mixture that \\v presrribes, so ihal 
he n\xy viixy it to ^uit iIk- cl]il<r?i <li^'«tioiL uml nifxIUy it to 
meet iixK fx.v|nircDiont!f *.>f thi- ^rr^niiig; iiilxiiit. 

In tlw (Jnitctl 8mt»!^ tliv i>iily mitk Hvnihibl^ fur infuiK teeiling 
ia <*>«>' milk. To hiMirc mk-ixti* hy nrtificifll IVt^diiiji;, uji atvumte 
kni>wlcdf>v of xhv oompositioii of iho milk, nn*! lu Ijow iiiucli il 
fliff4>r>< frnrn ninltu'r*** milk \f* rw^'iiliiil. A kii<i\vltHl|^< of llio 
tDech^xb. iV^r overcoming these differences is aUti neces.H.iry. Il 
bbould tt»ni^t«iitly be binie in uiind that while tt^eml dedm- 
tioiiB iniiy bo made and avem^ tiguret giveiif the element of 
pefvoiml etjtiation enten^ Ur|4cly vi\U\ ihe ]MVihleiii, ;iiid T'ncli 
infant mw^X hv ci>n^iderLxi a law unto iiK'if. Children Jiviikg in 
\iw country' and in (he *^ma]lcr lowtis, where tltere it no over- 
crtiwdin^ ami whert- an ahundj^uee of fresh air gvm Ije h^id, 
Bevm vi thrive on coviV milk that bos been mtxtified but little, 

rrrbaf>T^ merely by ihe adilition of waler in vaHous |>ro|>ortioiit% 
n ihe larger towns, where overomwrling i.^ freijnent nnii fre^ 
ftir nod Aunli^cbt are not ewsily .secuR-d, the i|iie_-ittr>ii iji a more 
diflicidt one- Children witli tliese environments r*?qniiv n more 
i*XM*t milk miictnre aiwl niMiiional care. Another jXTini tr» be 
r^iB«mbef«d in tlijir in tbe c<»iimry milk it- ^^enerally obtained 
mofre or less pnre aad Ire^b, uhereu^i in the twwu it iHotleii con- 
tamioared by dirt und baoteriaf and when shipped for long di^ 
lancet ih ^Uile uikI ^Hen prewrved hv the mhliiitin uf C'he[nir.ilN 
The firr?1 cban^^i^ miidc in milk to lulapt il to the intinit'i^ dl- 
pviriirM) M'cre lo add water, barley -water, or out nkeat- water, aa 
ui^jp-^te*) by Jn<y>bL Liebig Mi^gfesteil tbat a malted^ <Iexirin- 
imil rmid U- niixt^I with the milk. Mei^ employed a milk 
tnivtnre lh;it Is still iL-^wi in the feeding f^f ^iek infants, llie- 
A-rl, in tJermany, CheadU-, in England, and many <it)iers have 
made AujE^<^ti(>ii-s but the method in ti\t\^t common use to-<lay, 
ihnt of pereeniai^ fe<?dinjr, is largely of vVmerican origin, ami is 
ttT<mUlv kmrwn ap ihe ''American meTho<]/* Although a number 
«f urll-ktiuviiL [mhutncijLn?^ ^lili ti»e i\w nhhr uiethi.>d>, ihe 
Am<Tricun nn-tliod i-, in tlie mithor^' opmit^n, chv lte«i. At one 
time it vrQjt believed thut die milk T^lionld be mude to rori-c* 
Kpi>iwl in tliv pereefitatco of its various eli^ments wifli ihal of 
btiman milk, and this ih the ba-^is of the melhoil nf perventaife 
lefding- nK'n- an', however, several difficulties that must Iw 
ovtrconuT, and il wfts foiimd neceseary to Itegin with percenia^;*^ 
lifk>wil>i*ieonlinarily fmiml in motlfer's milk.and increase them 
luk ihr child s dige?^tton bccaaie adapted to the cow«' milk. 




202 



lyFAST F£i-DiyQ. 



For oiir proMCTit kDowlod^ of Am subject we are ii)cIol>U-d to 
tlie exjwrimeDts of Dr. T. M, Uoicb, of liuslan, who fir^ ndviy 
uiUxt the e^^abli^hniL'nl of a milk hboraii>rv iuv filling plivi^idnnif' 
milk pi\^cri|iniin?<^ a |4aa thai \ml& vtvrW*^ uul l>v luui ittiil hv 
the Wallvcv-I^iorrlon CV»m]*any, 

In urJor t'kn'la|M oowb* milk to tLc iiifaiu^i< Ji^<»tion ■^f^voml 
clunj];e4 mu?it tn- niaile in it. Thtfie be(v>me npjuiriHit l>v i<lu<lv- 
inic tlie nature anA (Him |Hi?*i lion of tlie milk. 

The proteinfi difler not only in amount, but «Iso in ohunit-UT, 
(n Imrnan milk the pnteiu-i c^uiisi^t <>f Imialhumin and i^^-in, 
in the projwrtion of iwo-thirfU ot* the former to muMhinl of 
the UttiT< ]iif*m-.h' milk one-MXibof IheprtJlein U huniilbriinin 
adJ tlie reniain*l4?r i^ oast'jn. The loial pr»>tein uf Ininmn inilk 
ItiH'ripiUitt^a iij liut" IlalvL-^i that of (.in%'-*' iiitlk, in htsivy cunL-^* 
The? totxil unioiint of prol-:in mutt^rial al^ti vurk'ff, boiuj^ tuva 1.5 
U> 2 per eent, in luirnnn milk. :imJ, on the iivomgi% 'i.^t [kt eont. 
in oowj*' milk. The moilillnition f^on^^L-* in dihttin^ the millc 
nntil llu- prot^'in is from O.d per o*'ur. fo moiv, iiwimiiiii,' t« the 
tt^* <d' i\n* infaijt mid iu ili^ri'^tive al^iliiy. In ?H>itie cjith'S of 
diHiontt filling the lai^hilbLiniin and i^'^'in miiy l>c Tv>panit^ 
and addeil in the ref|nin"il amoimu. This is nut, howi^ver, 
Msimlly iieft'Hsary, The p^Jlein-* may lie |n\'VfJkl4*i] fnnu form- 
ing taiX" cimis hy the addition of lime-water r»r of Imrk-v- or 
ijutmctil-fcruch With tin? -HiauHei- f>c*rcc-i]Uitp-A thi^ is not oixli- 
nurily reqiiiml, Wht-'U necHis^rVfUa during illao:*--*, thr prolcina 
may hi» [ir*Hllp.«ilwh 

Sugar. — Tht ndlk^iigar of human milk i^ pn^piit in a 
very ronstjint pro|>ortion — fri>m d to 7 )wr eeat» In (\>ws' 
tnilk it avi'mi^i.** alHiut J. 5 per o^nl. Dilmint; Thr mtlk. i^f 
CMHirsi^ deerttW"?* the pro]>ortKin, and ilie amount nin.st Ix* nmJe 
up hy adilint: either milk-sugar or cam^su^ir. Thr former, 
bt'ing that mirmally pi'e^ent in the milk, f^eem^ the mo-^t suit- 
able. Cane-^upir ha-s however, many advocat<*i, ami>ng iJn'm 
beiiiff JrttTihi, Caur- ^ii^ir, i>\vin|a; u* it* escewiive flV)^■(Hne.^-s, Is 
Um-d in juf^t half lUr quaiuity of milk-?iij)-ar. Ab it U iiif.\- 
pcQvivf\ it is iisi^'ful m pniL-t](N> amon^ the ]>o<ir. 

Diiriug ilir iir;*i few day.s of life puguT may be ^iven in the 
pro|>orli'Ui of 5 to 5.5 per cent, ; from the se<*ond week lo the 
third mc^ntli, fi |>er rn^nL. and fmm thai time until the elevf^nlh 
month 7 jut oent. may 1m? useil. At (he eleventh montti it 
nniv 1x3 rednoed to o and a few utimth^ later to 4,o jier eiMit. 
There is no advantage in giving ovtr 7 |>er <ynl»» and it majr 
give rise lo Myaipt<.>EUs <.>f excessive* S'ligur f*.t,x3ing. 



MILK JiODirJCATIOX, 



203 



Pat. — The fill of humiin milk avennrfs -J jx^r c^nt. ; that i>f 
oohV milk U Th« <^nie. \\\im lh<i milk hnn liKt^n ililiikil, tk' 
jimoijdi miLHi t'iiiior Ik- rii;t<l(- u|> by atliling tivtini itr liv UMiig 
ilie upit^r <int>Uiii^l ur ij{>|Kr \m\( of ihe milk ntW Uu? cL't.^am 
ha:!< riseii- It ih pivlVi'ahlc m tLne fr^h cream tlial hiui risi'ti liy 
Uie gravity inetlirnL or iW io]Mii]lk iiieiljinl, 

of oofitrilu^l orcum ; ih<.w*t- huvir biH.-ii lut^olioniHl in thr ni't^tiim 
oil MiLlc^ aati ure of ]<•«!& prat^iif-ul iutei'v^l in iulkiit tttsltug thiii) 
yrvoi fornu'tiy >cii]>iH>s4*<t. 

Tlu' Jtuniini i'{ lilt to be ^MVHi varit^ witli tliJ- sips wt-igbt, 
aoti ilij^tivo nl>ility of ih^r itifahl. For an avem^* infnut, 2 
]>er «al. ihe (iini week, 2.5 jK^r cout. tliesoouiid, lind 3 |ht 
ct'ut. the third week ui'e Ihe amotiiiiii u.^iialiy )in-.-<(*rilxil. At 
four monlli^ the amount may be increased to 4 |»er (runt. ; after 
tluit liiue tliL-i uiiu>ruit iiiii-ni iiuL lu' evi^-t^Ii-'d, or thi- infarii is apt 
to di-veUf|> indtga-ifauUf wUh tbo iiir^L- wUitiah atiM^Irt giving c^ 
lliL* i?hantc-1i-*riMic odor of tlie tatty tu-id^, 

Sftlts. — Tin* minrmi f^inuflliK^nu of liiimiin milk make up 
about 0,2 por cent, of \\> entirr* Imlk ; lho,-**r of t'owt' milk are 
three or tour limo* gT*^ater, Thivn- inor^pnic «iltfl vary in about 
ihe iiame |;ir'*|>^»rtion as the proteins. When the milk U modi- 
fied for th^ jmrjtoftc of incrmi^ing or dimiaUhin^ the |>*'rtH"nla^' 
of pnit'inH^ it is. at. the tame time, nio^lilie*! tor the salt< 

Reaction. — Tlie reartjon *>f human milk is aluiiy.^ alka- 
line. SJnee <*ow.h' milk is u^^iially add or neutral, ibis addiiy 
tuuflt be (M>ri>vlLnl b\ aihliti^' i-ilhtiT ^i [ttr eeot. of lime-walvr or 
Nxlium bimrbimatc. Tlu' FMHlium mh \s Ufted in the pft*i>oriion 
of I gmin to tlu' otnwv, A^ ihv lime uriWiiilatft* at tbi* higb-^-r 
t«»iti|ii'nilori<«, U'bini (In* milk 1% to Ih* boilHl it i?« hftn^r In aiM 
the birttrbonii1«*. For ymiiig infant-i, when there in a liyfierucid- 
itv of iIk' j>t<imar'b orarate illnri^, InrfiPt t(nanlitur:4 (bun those 
just m^ntioniit intLv Ik< tiseiL Colt recommeiul-s the uj<' uf 
pOtaaAiiiin biutrU^nat^*, 



MILK MODIFICATION, 
METHODS OF PRACTICAL VALUE IN MODIFYING MILK. 

Then- are a numl>cr of UKjtlioiU of milk imHhfiaition tlmC 
liny be UM*d with pKx) n-^oltM in the nrtifioial fft^linjf of infaau. 
A pmcttoil kDo^)e>lp^ firtlK-!?M? mc<lio<lH i" a desideratum in the 
reuing of liottK-li^l infanU Thoa<^ m<»Ht in use are: 



204 



ISFAXT FKKDINQ. 



1. Laboraton* f^ing. 

a, Tojwmilk method. 

a. Coifs decimal method. 

4, MateniH gmduate. 

^, According 1u Min imiil IjidilN toblr (ilI\<t Rutch). 

6. Bin^rV mc'tliod, 

7, Ac4.Nhn][Qg to l-tiuU SUirrV lati]<»^ 

H, Chlt]mr^ Tnt-tllful. 

1. Laboratory Feeding:. — In ritie« the be^t eubstitate 
for br«i^t-lceding w funiisli(<d by milk labonitori««, where inodi- 
ficatiouh are lundtr acrmxling to llio pLysician's prt-i;(*riptJon. 
The M'idkeMiitnliHi litbnrutnriof^* new c><tMbli^ho4l in manv 
oitic?^, supply an idenlly (b^oi) milk, iinF^t^rilt/AHi, pji^tcuri/i^l, 
or --[erilised al anv i<in|K'ratur<' do^^imK Tlit- milk is »upjili€ti 
il) iiur»iiifc-t>ottlnt, itich b<»tt]i< Loldiik^ <Dou^b for otif A.'fHlm^ 
und Lwiti^' rttidy Tor uw. R<*ytni<i wnnnin^ tho boUlc und 
ptJtlii>g OIL n ijippK- D<> fijrtlt4>r prvjqjmtlon i»^ i^e<H'^^^ry, In 
^^tTitrr rbf- iTillk i-^ ilrliwrHl in hHt^kc^rs ^tnd in summer in timall 
rcfnt:4'mt"r*. When ctoncmy nmi^i be practisod, tbe milk may 
be ohiaiiK.'d in Iiirv<*r jars and divider! into the requisite number 
ttf fnHliiip^ \\y ibe iinnber ur ntirpre. Uliink fornix nil which to 
wnU' pn'*eriptii>n* wre fumi^bed phjsichiiifl. The fcillowiug 
lh an cxampJi- of such a prci^Tipiion : 

R 



I^XM. 



Fnt 4 

MrXk-ettjfnr - - ^ 7 

ProUiris S 

Linir-tviif^r S 

Oiher Dilrtfui 
J/€at€d at 167* /, 



} 



Ji'uTnber of 

feedinS^ - 
Amount at 

frich feeding 
lufnnt'x age- ■ 
Infttnt's weight 



e 



I , , 7 DUrtCAS. 



0«»tllCB fOH- 



0*Tt. 



..—_.,- 1>0 



M. O- 



TbiM- i^rr^rriptiony nro fillH at Itie lalioraior\' by mixiog 
Uig<'tbrr milk, (tc^id, T<tuiidurd ^ugar Mjhuiuub, and n«ter ip the 



MILK MODIFICATION. 



205 



proper proportioDS. In sorae cases a 16 j>er cent, j^ravity 
cream is used, and ia others a 20 per cent, centrifugul cream. 
Other thiDgs beiDg equal, it is more desirable od theoretic 
grounds to use gravity creanu The following tabic, from the 
Walker-Gordon laboratory records, is a g*njd guide to the quan- 
tity and quality of the food required by the average iufant : 



SAoudnff the avtntge percentaga emphytti, and the a^iouni of M&dtjkd milk 
Jtd to a large 7iHmi/rr of iii/aiifg. 



WMkB or Uf^, 



nm 

l^ecoDd . . . . , 

Third 

Fourth . . . . . 

Fifth 

SLxih . . . , 
Seventh . . . 

£Fffhth 

N'LlLlh 

Temb 

EtvTcnUi .... 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth . . . 
Ffmrievnth . 
Fifttenih . , , . 
fJlilwnih . . . . 
SpTentwnth- . . 
Elghieenih . . . 
NIneivenih . . . 
Twviitleih .... 
Tw^ntf-flnt . . . 
Tttenty-Hvnnd . 
Taenty-tblrd , . 
Twenty -f'ltirih 
Twetiif-flfth 
Tvent^'fllxih - , 
Twenijr-sevi'nlh . 
Tvvnty-elvhlh , 
Twenty-Dint b . . 
Thlrtleih .... 
Thirtf-flrhl , , . 
Thlrtjr-fieeond , , 
Thlri>-(hiM , . , 
Thirtr-rfmnh . , 
Thirty-Hfth . , , 
Thlrty-Mlxth. , . 
Thlrty-settfUth . 
Thin>-«it:li(h . . 
ThLrty-nlnlh . . 
Fanlelh . . . . . 
F-.rty-rt»l . . . , 
FunyHuwond . . 
FoTtylhird , . 
Fony-fi'iinh . . 
Fony-nah . . . 
Forty -sixth . . . 
Fony-sereiiih . 
Purty-elRhlli . . 
Forty-nLntli . . 

PLftJelh 

Fifty 'An>l 

Fl ft y-nt-cund r . . 



ADioiinl 

fed 
Ln imn<T9, 



s 



^ 






i 
Si 



]*urc:i'ntaf!L-!i. 
Fa I. MiKMr. Tf Ottilia. 



!^ 




■^ 


;l<ki 


^ 


;i.<Ht 


:i'is 


:! 


-.vi- 


:s 


;vrrt) 


:[►, 


-.i.r^t 


:.S 


::.rft 


:' J 


X1" 


S 


;E,r'>it 


:i.r,i. 


i:.r"rth 


-1 


:i,"'"> 


-•'.' 


:: 71 


■I' 


n--- 


i'.. 


:i.:.i 


4>. 


;i.7o 


^^^', 


;i 7," 


4^; 


J i.7.^ 


^.'^1 



a 7-"> 

■ ■ 'n't 

:! ;.■» 

:<,7o 

4r'J" 

4. 'I I 
4 iHl 
J,i^l 
4. ml 
liin 
4. 'HI 
4i><| 
4 'HI 
4 mi 
I ml 
4iiii 
4.iH( 
4I» 
4nft 
4.iH» 
■I rni 

*."" 
4.0' I 
4IIIJ 
4.110 



1.1 

fi.fl 
.l.*l 

'^1 



r>.i 

■r ."> 
il ."► 

li 1 
a T 



HI 

li."i 



fi.ll 

■Lil 
t'-.i* 

I'll 



'1,7.". 
IJHI 
LEHI 

L^Hl 
l-<i'l 

I •a 

l.'i'i 
3 J.'t 

^.■_^"* 
i.j5 

i/j.i 
i.j.i 
I.J.I 
I r* 
\ .r^i 
I ..^rii 

I .HI 

I 'ill 

1 ."Ul 

I ^i 
I .'ill 
I 7;i 

1 7.1 
I 7,^ 

I ::. 

I 7"* 

I :.'> 

I 7.1 
1.7."> 
i T.T 

;'iHi 
V.*>" 
L'.-Hl 
J 'HI 
±'*l 
I^IHI 
■.'.«l 

■-'.il 

■_'.r»*i 
'J ..'HI 
■-'■^1 
■J^-i 

■J .">ii 

J 7.'j 

:t.iH> 



2oe 



lyfAST FEEDING. 



junouni f»4 


ftl. 


r^offu. 


imd^ 


MdrtMi. J 


1JM 
IAD 


4Jn 





Th« fwrrvQUf^ at? ilrcn ]a th« round nbmtwn nvxi iirKr«nL Utt mctutki percent' 
«ff« rmjiIOfcU. Uid arc bppTiiKln)M«. 

RiiHNMilIy (HIkt motlific'ntioiis hnvv hn^ mmlo by Tn^jin?* of 
wlitry. Tlif^ wli^y i» <jl>tu!iKnl Uy atlding n<nijiii lu the tinlk, nr 
FnircJiiltl** Esience ^f JVp:*iii tiwiy be u«-<l. It ?*hoHld Iw hrnli^il 
to loU^ F. IVir five minute* l>oii>r*T Ijf-ing lulOtil n» tlio milk 
mittiire, in onlpr In doitroy llir rn/ym<? in flit- intik nml *ii 
prtvent coa^ubti'^ji "jf tl)u wim-Jik WU'ti wLt-y is oniL*r\"d, tbw 
protein c-oDstitueut is iodiuuti^l iu the piv^Hni'tiMti, for cxumpk^ 
as follows t 

(.^i»;o . - , . - - clM 

Lflttnlljnmin ... 0.75 

Rotrh gives llie following formula, vbowinj: iht* proportiotiB 
iif whey aiiJ laHeiu -^ a guidr fur fi-er.liug hk.-^iU]iy jutauU? wlieru 
it 10 ttu>ught def^nilk' to «plit llie proteins; 







i 

3 


1 


rroWna If 


h 

jl 


1! 

*5 




AgV. 


i 


fi^ 


II 




i 


^ 


^£ 


1^ 




1"^ 


PfVIIUlflJEtT . . ' 




4.00 
4.50 


0.'J5 


as5 

0^50 


OSS 


}M 


1-1» 


S4-1« 


Al (4<|'lll - ■ 


2-00 


^M 


0.60 


a«o 


0.'J5 


] 


2 


10 


EtiiI oi 'il woelf . 


2^50 


S/)0 


0.50 


0.A0 


0.2S 


M 


S 


10 


Knd of :VJ wwk 


3.O0 


ti.«l.l 


0.75 


0.75 


0.-J5 




2 


9 


ICnil cif -lili wwk 


3.MJ 


fl.60 


1.00 


o.:r> 


QJiO 


24 


n 


« 


End 'if (till w<i>k 


H.OO 


7.00 


1.00 


a9o 


aiw 


3 


t 


7 


Knii tfif 8ih vwk 


J.OO 


7.00 


V2b 


ay» 


0,7.'. 


54 


t 


2^ 


Kiul of 1-jOi Ht'ck 


l.*^Kl 


7.00 


1.50 


aw) 


TOO 


4 


Z 


ll 


Kiiil ^if -Ich mnnth 


4.00 


7.00 


IM 


aro 


IJS 


■1* 


31 


In 



In m^ist ruftrr.'j whf^y niiitiirr's nrp imiifr^ssary. In aoiile ill- 
ntv'w *jr v'lieii llit-rf i;^ decklrti iuwering of the protein digestive 
p>w*rr tliey inoy he of p^t service. According to GniW,' the 
albimiin content nf whey varies with tlie kind of rennet used. 



M/LK MODIFICATION. 



207 



The more perfect the curdling of the casein, the more desirable 
16 the vrhey for feeding infants. 

The following table, from Botch, gives the possibilities of 
such modification In the milk laboratory : 



F*L 


Cueln. 


bumln. 


Sugir, 


FHt, 


CMein- 


Lflftal- 
bumln. 


Sugnr 


1.00 


0.25 


0.25 


■J--? 


2..50 


0.25 


0..50 


4^7 


1.00 


0.25 


U.50 


4-7 


i'W 


0.25 


0.75 


4-7 


1.00 


0.2.T 


0.75 


4-7 


2.50 


0.50 


0,-50 


4-7 


1.00 


0.50 


0.25 


4-7 


2.50 


0.50 


0.75 


4-7 


1.00 


0.50 


0.50 


4-7 


2.75 


o.a"* 


0.25 


4-7 


liOO 


0,50 


0.75 


4-7 


2.75 


0.25 


0.50 


4-7 


1,50 


0.25 


0,25 


4-7 


2.75 


0.25 


0.75 


4-7 


1.50 


0.25 


0.50 


4-7 


2.75 


0.50 


0.h50 


4-7 


1.50 


0.25 


0.75 


4-7 


2.75 


o.w 


0.75 


4-7 


IM 


0.50 


0.2^^ 


4-7 


3.00 


0.25 


0,25 


4-7 


1.50 


0.'» 


0,50 


4-7 


3.00 


0.25 


0.-50 


4-7 


1.50 


0.50 


0.75 


4-7 


3.00 


0.25 


0,75 


■1-7 


2.00 


0.2.5 


0.2.5 


4^7 


3.00 


O.;>0 


0.25 


4-7 


200 


0.25 


0,50 


4-7 


3.00 


0..tO 


0..50 


4-7 


2.00 


0.25 


0.75 


4-7 


3,00 


(I..SO 


0,75 


4-7 


2.00 


0.50 


0.50 


J'7 


3,.iU 


0,25 


0.-50 


4-7 


tJ.00 


0.50 


0.75 


4-7 


3 50 


0,25 


0.75 


4-7 


2.25 


0.25 


0.25 


4^7 


3.-50 


0-50 


0,.5O 


4-7 


2.25 


0.25 


0-50 


4-7 


3-50 


0,,V) 


0.75 


4-7 


2.25 


0.25 


(1.75 


4-7 


4-00 


0.25 


0.25 


4-7 


2.25 


0-50 


0..W 


4-7 


4.00 


0.25 


OM 


4-7 


2.25 


0,.'»0 


0.75 


4-7 


4.00 


0.2--. 


0-75 


4-7 


2.**5 


0,75 


".50 


4-7 


4,iH» 


O.'jO 


0-25 


4-7 


2.25 


0.75 


0.75 


4-7 


4.00 


o.:>o 


0,'H) 


4-7 


2.50 


0-25 


0.25 


4-7 


4.00 


O.jO 


0.75 


4-7 



In order to obtain satisfactory rt^nU?^ die subjfi t of labora- 
tory feeding: must be thoron^^hly studic<l. Tiie authors have 
adopted Hcilt^s sclierae of having weekly n.'|W)rtH made ou all 
artificially fed infants and on manv *ithors. These n'|H)rts are 
supplied in blank form, in |>ads, tn the mntlior, who fills out 
one each week and send,'^ it in tin* plivsi<^i;ni. By this method 
part of the responsibility is placed on the mother, and tht physi- 
eian is kept informe<l as to the infant's comlition and nee<lle:>fi 
visits are thus obviate<l. The icilltAving ' is a S|>efimcn of such 
form : 

' From iUtU, DuftxtJ^ev of Irtinnfj 'ind Chi/dhtntil, p. 1>14. 



208 



INFANT FEEDING. 



& 
fe 

^ 






k 






3 






s 












06 



'IS 









<; -2 -t: s 

^ 2 ? i 



(h 

Q 



s ? 



a 



g 

^ 






^ 



^ 
Q 



<a^ 



I. 



7:^ 









St 



1 



c 
u 



I 



■^ 


t 


■iid 


Vk 


iK 


ri:' 


^ 


■*^ 


^ 


^ 






b 

J 



E4 






^ 



=3 



^ 



t 

I 

■2 






MILK MomrwATiox 



209 



The iieiTe]iUi)£C of fat, [irototii, Jind supiv required by an 
infunt of Any p:ivcu agc^ luii^t Ih? ttomc iti mind if ooe is to ti^ 
any niL-cWi *'t' [HTCcntw^* f<H-t)tiig. Tlie f»:»ll<>wing wlicsliilc 
uill be fouMi UM-AiI :t* at\ iiii) tu tlK* luiiimry. TLe figun^is tor 
iotcrmc«liate agw nrc- ra;*ily iiikulntcd ; 





ScJtfduU 


/©r .^itfTO^^ Jn/antt. 






■ Jhn 


ftrtrntUK^. 




Nnmbor 
dltitnitv. 


iTlMnftl 


^ 


fbl. 


tmtnx. 


1 


OflVOIA. 


Pn;i»tii»UiftDti 


1.0 


4.0 


1X25 


H 


ll^SO 


IS-SO 


1-U hoQi* 


Irt-Jtl <luv . . . 




tkO 


, , 


i-M 


30-49 


4-0 


<M 


2<Mih tiay , . . 


10 


6.0 


OM 


u 


U 


10 


'i M 


Uwwk . . - 


S.5 


0.0 


0.71 


s 


fiO 


10 


2 


9d IU9lllJ» . . ' 


A.0 


0.0 


1.00 


z 


>0 


9 


21 " 


U monfJi - ^ . 


3.0 


BJ> 


1.2/> 


^\ 


im 


B 


r " 


llJi iiuiuth . , . 


U 


7.0 


1-M 


4 


135 


7 


3 " 


5l]i iii(iitil) - - . 


a5 


7X» 


L7i 


^ 


180 


T 


3 " 


aUi-lOlh inontb ' 


4.0 


7.0 


100 


7 


2S0 


6 


» '• 


nUi ro^^ih . - . 


-1.0 


6.0 


IL£0 


S 


S» 


6 


4 


ISlh luinilb , - 


4j> 


6.0 


3.00 


9 


£W 


A 


4 '' 


Laler . ^ . . 


10 


U 


3^ 


9 


300 


fi 


4 



The fiaiLutity slioitUl b« inonvsed half an ouacenr an ounce 
at a time. Ijaitirr, ns the t'liiUr^^ a]>i>elite growA MroDger.-^that 
iSf whpn Ih* irvr^im tWj^t^tUWM iil^vr hU bottle, — tho qiialiix* i» 
rsbct). The fat muy ii^uully Ur iikciv^Hi-i) 0,^ jter ci'iit« at ft 
time; the Mif*iir, 0.>> to 1 per oent. uE n fiiiie; flit- |>rr>tFiriA, 
ffviQi fl.1 To 0/2>^ por eoTit. ac a time. Simvigf lM*uUh\, hr^ 
bullies require more hik) rirhr^r nnlk thnn tlioM* of fmilor i<oii* 
St i tut ion. 

S^iittkin, nf Sr, I'f'ler^lmrc, hfls e?4timnti:*(l tli{' Amount t*^ be 
fed Ut a ehild ner^rdiii^ f*> rbe weiglit. He asi^erlnituil tluit a 
hati}''.^ idtomacli betd a1>r^;U one-tiUDdre<)t)i of ilh ueigbt ai birth, 
and timt the inerea'« nmotinteil la at>ciui a gmm a fbv. By 
takiujf <nie-[niiidrv>4l[h of ibe injiuil woi^dit jii binb ami ^iddiiit: 
a ^Taiii fi»r I'ai.'b day tb*? a\i-ni^" u:iH>iitit ni|uii*e<I fur ntK-U IW*"!- 
iiiff; H ^i^crrUMiK'fL Tiiir^ i^ h iWir working nile, but pmctivaLly 
Ibciaiiiouiil iii eufiily dvtcnikiDctl by tho mvtb(Kl« alrtwiy d^ 
*enl>td. 

^. Top-milk Hctbod.— Mcuiy tEi't)i<HU bare boni ilevin-tl 
for olnaininjf tIm- ilt-.-'inMl jn-n^nUj^' from milk tk» it is bm^I in 
the borne. No jdftn Is utmpUr or mere prai'licnl tlinn Holt's 
to{)-Dtilk mcrthrx). Similar plana have been dex'Med by f'tiapia 
UhI other writers. \Vbcnvver ilie intelligent cNio|>eration of 



210 



ISFASr FKKDIHG. 



mother or nurse <mn be secure*!, Holt's method will be foiinci to 
work admirably. The milk used mu^t Iw pure, fresh, ami 
nioi'e or te^ itnirorm in chiLnicter It \^ a gocHl plan lo .<4h\ 
au(l evtn to tDiike a rough aual\>if^ of, ihe tiiiJk \x^^, (>cm- 
frional lailnrc may be tlue (o tho lui.'t that a \ei'y iioor uulk U 
being tiFicik Fur this roaecn thi.^ iLuthui> advi&tr that \\\t milk 
for the infatt he prooure<l from n r)»irv that id kiiowu lo aupply 
i^'rHid milk. 8<'inic* iliiirymen furui-li milk lliai ban lieni fX- 
aitiiDctl and its <iuaiity teriitieJ to by a wjni]w?ienT oxamim-r; 
thi^ iti sold Qtider the name of certified milk, and i-4, a« a mle^ 
quite reiiahlo. 

TIr- lop-niilk method coneists in lining; the mixture of cream 
aoil milk in the npppr tUK-third or ii[i]wr ont^half of a jar of 
milk [hui liu^ Ijec'ii idlovri^I lo r^iaitd Jor »>me time. Later, ihe 
whole tailk may 1>e U!4e<). This ni«rhod n-ork^ attisikctoL-Uy 
only when the milk U hoilM ^>ion after milkiiij^, before ibe 
ereiim \\i\^ ^[>anile<l- For thoi^e vho ear not obtain such milk 
the uecor^^ry ndxtiin^ of cream and milk may Ik' made aj indi- 
cated liy the (able (p. 'Ill), The top layer of < i-eam may be 
removeil from (he bottled milli with a *^poou ; the remainder, 
hy lui^m.- of n tniall ili]iper : for tliis puqiose a Cbapin milk- 
dipjK r, which may be obiaincii at any drug-store, will be found 
very Uf<eftiL Another metbcKl ii? to uk* a siphon. Tbe plan of 
]Hmriifi; idVihe m]i|iit one-third i^ not nearly t-o reliable. Aft^rr 
it ha.-t luen tvimtvcd. i\\\<\ bcfun- the rcipni'ed ^lortion is tnkeu 
mil, t\\v rtitirv nppi-'i' one-tbird or one-hutf^ ae the case may be^ 
»hoidd lu> Tbi>[-oit]^[dy mixecl. 

Thr f^lhivvinif lahles i-Hfube uo explanation, Wien desiretl, 
the iH'n'eniji^rt' <d' lime-water may he increase*!, or il may be 
rephi-ed Uy -H^Mliuin UiearUniaie, 1 grain or more iier otmee, if 
tb*' milk i" T" U" Soilnl. If llie quantity i*equirod exc^^ds 20 
ou!^ei'-% thi- tmialkr Mqipienieutary tahkf* may Ik? Use<l, or the 
qnantity may wu^ily !» calculami hy adding au additiimal oiie- 
fiuirih ti> wieli Item far 2o minee>, i.»r Mni--huir nKTc for 30 

PUIHV?, f Cc. 

Tht' p*i4^ir tuay Ik? luea^-nrttl by meanp "f n pilldK^j: lw>bHnp 
j'Xiu'tly nn ouufi*. or very I'Anu-eniciilly hy alkoving tW" niid nm-^ 
half hvi'l tnblespirt^infuU of milk-^u^ir to the ounce, When ctine- 
Hi^ir in UTiCii^oulynnc-half th«*f|imiitity iKiv<|iiired. Dry mra^un* 
of Mijjiiri-i juKt twieetbat of \v<'ig;hing. Thu?>. one 'HUKvuf Higsu" 
by weight would measure twn onntrt in a mwisiiriri^:-|rlas^. 

The following formula?* have been tukeu fnun Hidt;' 

^ IhM^i^r^ '>j Jfijancif nint ChiUihuttd, pp. 18L», !«], I9i 



AflLK MODIFIVATIOX 211 

FiHffT Sbbies op Foemdlas, — Fat to Proteids, 3 : 1- 

Frlmary Formuhi. — Ten per cent, milk — fat, 10 per wnt, ; 
Bugar^ 4.3 per cent, j proteids, 3.3 \}cr cent. Obtained — (1) 
flfl upper one-third of bottled milk or (2) equal parte of milk 
and 16 per cent, cream. 

Derived Jormuimy giving quantities for 20-ounce mixtures: 



■I . 
. Vwil 



Fai 


Sugar 


Protfldl 


pvr c«nt- 


per wnc. 


per cent. 


. 1.00 


5.50 


0.33 


. 1.50 


5.50 


0.-50 


, 2.00 


0,00 


O.li0 


. 'i.m 


aoo 


0.S3 


. 3.00 


6.(K> 


1,00 


- 3.50 


G.50 


1.16 



{MUk-HU|B;aT - 1 o^ 1 

Lime-wiiler - 1 oz. V vilb 3 oe- 10 jlc- mlLk 
Water,q^a<l. 20i>x.J 

2. '* " " " 3 rfz. 

3. -1 nz! 

4. " " ■' " hirz. 
6. " " " " Tifiz. 
a " ^* ^* " 7oz. 

ThbU Giving in a Condentett Ffit^n the QuaniUki Utualftf Required /or 
Obtni/iinff tht Different Faf-/ierfrnf'iifes. 

ABc:>EF(iHlJKLMNO 
To obtain ftt, perJyjj^ ^^ j^ .^,^ g.o >.s 2JS i:i a.i> ;Lo 3.o 3.il aJi 3J 4.0 
cent t 

^ounVii*' '^'"*"'" [o.^ M.O 20,0 20.0 K.U IVO 3^.0 iHtJO M-0 :!3,0 ^0 36.W 3T,0 3a,ft (0.0 
^raSk^tSnctV^"^ I"'^" ^-^ '-^ *■** ^"^ ""^ ^■'* ^''^ 9.0 Ifl,i> 11,0 12.00 13.0 14.0 IG.O 

Pmleidfl: Tlie pen.i.'ntii(je in ench oiwt will Iw nne-liiinl fal. 

Si»Knr: 1 nunii- in 2*), i»r 1 laWf^'jwionful in » oum-vs, ffix-pH S.5 jwr cent. 
for (hv L'twcr nml O.o for- ihe bii;bt.'j- fonnuln,'^ 

Lime-water: 1 [Kirl to 2i^ i>f llie fihxl, (be uvomi^u nijiiinN]. 

AValer; Snffirtent In bo a<UlL><1 to The lun.^^^ iLnff incrtilicnj!* ic> brin^ ibe InlnJ 
to the number of oimcc^ s]>tTitLi.iL ; in [niri nf lliLs w:iEer tlio milWuf^ar is Ji?^ 
■oLveil. llarlev-water tn nnr i>[bi.'r ililul^nt may be iiiliie*! in tW >^me manni-r. 

Secosd SERih> OF F<>BMri-AS — Fat to Pi^rrRins, "2 ; 1, 

Primarif Formtih. — kScvcei p€*r cent, milk — fsit, 7 jht c^'iit ; 
Riipir^ 4.4 |KT ct'u\. ; prfiteids, 3.5 |kt oenr. Ohtiiincnl — (1) us 
iip]>er on(^f»alf of ImUW milk, or (2) bv ii>iny: 3 parts of milk 
and 1 Yitirt c.f 113 |x»r coiit. cmmi. 

Drt'ftv'f Joriivi fit", i^ivuiil *[iuintitics f<ir 20-mmce mixtures: 



( Milk'>i»irir 1 nz. ) 

1. ■ iJiiuMViiUT 1 i-r.. ' with .1 nt. 7 p. 0. milk 

:;. -I ni. " 

:i * " o i.i. " 

4. " tM«L " 

- - ■' i' " 7 tM. " 

»i. " ■' ■* x*>z. " 

7- *' ■' ■ " W *'Z, *' 

W. - " '* Uii'Z. " 



Flit 


^11 Ear 


l*rfitio(l!i 


|H-r *vnT, 


PIT li'iit. 


Irt-rct'tii. 


. 1.IHI 


o-.V> 


O.'iO 


1J0 


''»-7''i 


0.70 


. 1,7". 


fi,IH> 


0>7 


. 2.\*\ 


r»JM» 


1-^-. 


■J.''rf» 


*:Mi 


1.1'.^» 


. -J^'i 


it.'iO 


1.40 


. :M.'> 


7,m» 


1.:m 


, 3..-,o 


7,<iO 


1,75 



[■ ^lilk->iiir;ir . \ ••?.. ^ 

'.* ' T.illHMV!l(»T . 1 *1K- > 

I \V:ii.'r,*|.i*.a*I.2lMii. ) 



12 oi, " " . . 4.O0 "00 2.00 



sia 



IXFAXl' FKKDI.W. 



iJhUttiiintj t/ir ViffrrtHf ihl'pi^rrv/ilaffet. 

A ULpEfli U IJKLJI 

To nbtnln fJiM«r nnt . . 1_0 1.0 M i'i Zf ZXt ^Tft 17S A] aA ^ 4.n ifl 
or loll! infl mtait* . . 3f>.n :ui,o sn.o Ei.o m^ mjx> 3A,m lO-W utA ma uo w,u I4j4 
Tajtc 7 per cvnt milk. ounce* s-o ijd &jI) ej) 10.0 i^oa i<ou iu)o iA;a ao-u asj) ia.u suu 

Tu tibuiin Ibv i-iai.'i Fnl'ivnTeMuct- Inki? onc-lliiitl tli« mtmbcr of uiiiiK^ nf 
ir-it-inilU in n liiVoijiirr mixmi^^ nrihl add O.lo lo <ht rwult. In pnipiiot U^b 
aUuhl «rn>r i»nr bv dLtrvgnnJiHl, 

tViteul": TIi*^ pi-rLvnta^- lit vavh ol-w will ^-qunl onHiaU <)f the ht. 

Sii^^ir; 1 ounov in ^ <tr 1 oivu Liitilc«'[MH)iif(il in ^ ouncfT. until the food 
beo>niM Uf milk ; ckfivr thai 1 omu-c in 2'>, nr ] v\-vn tabUvpiMmfiil tu each 
lUouEwisof tlicfood, trill jfivt ihi' iitoixr nnnnmt. 

I-itli«-Knl«ri l'»4iiLilly in ll^^- jiro^^ortiuu of I |*ikrl to 2U of iW talal f<x>d, 

lu njuku the iuul nnnilwr of ouiKVitpcciicd; it itnrt of tJuiilhovu^riii dii» 
■olvcft 

Third Seeiek of F<»kmitijut— Fat to Pkoteids, 8 : 7- 
PHnuijy Foi'vnUa. — l*lain milk — fet, 5 per cent. ; sugar, 4»5 

/MiVctJ formufa^f giving quautiti^ for 20-ouucc muKtureo; 



Ltni«-vriltfr 1 ■«. .^ vbIiU S <«. Litaiu milk 
Wmr«|Xiul.t!Oo£. ) 

S. » u <i ^* ll ckC ^ " 

i! 8ui! *' 

4. lOtg. " 

fMilkijtiTir }*>*'} 

ft. ■: T.t[nistta(i>r j -«. > " 32 1* " " 

fl, ■' ^' <* " N I* " " 

7. • Iflflt. " " 



Fill finaaT f*n4ti-lj1« 



l.OO 



6.0O as7 



1,20 


7.W 


1.00 
1.40 
1.75 


2.40 


&C0 


aif> 


8-20 


aw 

6l^ 


£50 
£60 



7bifr tfm"n<v ^mnt'ttif* qf JfJ fifr cmt. Miik Hcquimt /or OfrtniniAg 
Fhrfnu/at tvilh IH^h F^i atid JLow Jyvfetd*. 



ToobtAln fhl. r^r rvnt . . 
TiLkulApVr et^Jit^ milk, ouniw*- 



ABCDHPOQIJlf 

. 14 1.4 10 £a &11 ua \a u u 4.0 4ja 

TOO vao Wi.o >s.ri nLo «7,0 tOJt MjD »,D mlo 44jI) ■ 

2j» a.0 4.0 5.0 <.o :,o a.0 aj» 9,0 tao itj) 



TVoN'iJj* in alt ctium i»iU Ijc ^.rnL^fl^h tin: tat. 

Sdipir; 1 tv^'M ijiMi^fHVinfiil f*>r r^i'li S niirir''* will (rirc i.S ppr ccul. fflr 
ihcT l<*wri' f(imiiiU> ' A. II, r, I'lr- nnd G pir cent for lliv liiffn*-**' formnb* 

Litii**"i\iiit'pt t <>nnc ii> 20 ontifft* nf lh# ftW will pvo 5 pr^r i^^nt. 



3< Coitus Decimal Method.* — Tlii^ i^ hmfd on lioeim&l 



MTLtC MODtFlCATtOS. 



213 



nTKt irot(imGin<? mHliitiU. Tin' inv<'n(*'r rlnimi tlmt it i- r«*ily 
m(*jnorii;<H), 1111(1 tloo not n'i|am* iinv bitt V4-r} .siiiiplf ^^ Ion In lion 
to work out whiit i> ikh'i1i*iI In ^iw the; m|nin-rl rnrmulu. TIiith? 
^lamlanl i^rojcimtiunsafv nil tliftt urv rxH|iiin-(I : (1) A (loci Dial 
or 10 jKT ti-wi. crt'iitiu (2) A t^tC(-li»nLl4*il skiiii-inilk for intnj* 
cluojn^' {>rot<^iii^ ii-H carrittl liy the m-ani. (;J) A i^tuiitJnrtl 
tuigar *H*linion for iiitroiliicing iiicl<>w imt nirru'd by tlic vrc'utu 
or ^ui-tullk. Ouly Wx^. tItTJiiiul irtviui) uikI flu; fugnr i^iotiitjon 
lire re<|QirriI ^turiii^ tlu- Bmt few inoTitk-i. Thi* 10 per rent. 
L-rmm 1* lK'*t obtttiiM-d hy ulluwiii^ e liuitk* of milk t^i nuiml for 
tifin<n WlPM. n^U' ii|i|M'r 6 mitioc.-t of iiu'h qtirirl^ wlirn inix<«il 
Willi Iniif il« votuuR* of fU-rilr w;H(-r. givf rlio ii-quircil ^tTLiigtli. 
Thwe lire ilii!vn*rirL'» in llii" gmvily cmim, f jp*Ttiilk, nikl <ron- 
trifugal vn<am, u» «li»wn bv the frllfming tublc^ prepiitri) liv 
C6it: 

/VrcrttojK- Cbmi*wiYwi o//knjHal tVrffm, 

Nrwl.OnrUv 10.0 2.3:^ 2.M 8.V01 

Ni.. S^Tflpmilk - . . 10.0 3J'\ 4.W) ttlTr, 

Nci. 3. C^iimfiwnl - lO.O 1.50 iOO ^6,50 

The frtllowin^ table shows the approximate jjertTiitiigi* of 
piOtHn anil lacrioso airriei] by ibn^t' dcciimil ('n-iiuiP!^ wlit^i ihcy 
are uwfii iv introduce defiuhe bt^valu^A into milk mixtures; 



Xo. I. Gfiivifirerwim. IROo* (ft fl.oi^ • mter, 00 r,^, (S lt.i».V 

Nb. 3;, Cciunftignl iTwaiu. 20 iitr cwiL liti - vAtcr, v<|ual TokiocL 

Mb t rjirrle*— 



»l tn^m 



No. 3 . - 



fFoT incrodiidDE miJk-fin. 4.0 
" - " i5, 

* - 10. 

" - - IB. 

I " " ^ * . 

For imndodng luUk-bu 4.0 . 

« - 3L«, 

« • - JjO. 

" - *- « 

'- - M. 

Far intTMlticaiv ■nilk'bt, iJO , 
' « " 15. 

"JO. 

- to. 



-pTKivLn. b{^ I^rtoM, IX) 

0.8 * Ofl 

aT - 0« 

OH - 0.7 

- OA - 05 

1^ " Ij6 

1.1 • 1-4 

. " 0.» * IS 

. • 0.7 * 0,11 

, Prf4vii^0^ LArto«*,09 

■* 0.^0 - 0,7 

a4.'i ' 0« 

ajo •• OiA 

030 <* 0,4 



214 



lyFAXT FEEOnrQ, 



griiniK of inilk->iig:ir to 1 lit-T ot' r^kini-iiiHk, which ir* t-«|ii)vuh'iit 
tf) u<I(lJitg 1 oimoe Ui 20, The j^kim-rnilk hsm a fonnula of 4 

(XT <x-tU. prtiteirj irnd ft per tent- hii^'ar, or a ratio of o lo 4. 
iVitlj till' nfldtiloii of the Mi^r the hitrodiietioa of ihe jimteio 
H Mmplr. A [TivPii aujoimt of foinl niahi|klie(i by 0.1ii> wouUi 
fniHeuli^ ontMnmrter of iu bulk, which^ if hkim-milk, wnulJ adJ 
Ut Uie iiiixliiix* 1 |H<r <vuL of ptuu^jij. Thia naiiie dtH.-iiua.l oiuUi- 
plicr would itkdlmU the |>cn?i'rjUi^- of t^u^r thuj^ inUxxluoiil Ity 
li 10 prr <*<tnt, >:(>hiti-^o. Thv i'fdlowing T^tbU wUl eLow the 
hic-fo«i> '■jirrii-fl hy ihe *necluim(*'fl skini-niilk eorres|wndHig to 
dcliniUr jmitein vuIul-s: 

MDCbBntcd mklQI-Vklll:- 
Aiihiimt uf (i^h\ in cv. ' 0.l2r> iv | - Prutvlit 0,& LacCvaq l.SS 

Ann M»rf(Kiilino,o, i^0,2-M*wr| - " J-0 '* 2.50 

Ain<.iinti>r f>i4-l in i-.c. - U,;i75or| - *' J.6 *■ 3l7$ 

Aiu..i»iH of f^'f-l tH ti-c ■ 0.500 or J - '* 2.0 ** iuttO 



The standard ^ii^nr fk>hitiun i-^ easily prefiared hy dir^nlving 
100 ^nims of hiclo?*' in sufficient water to make meo^^ure I liter 
(or ill |nxi|w>rtion of 2 oinu^fl hy weij^ht to 20 ounces of water). 
The onJy dillk-ulty wiJh the j^Mtpir i" found m oeeafiional impu- 
rities, wiieli H!^ fnv liK'tic :u'id. which should W ^larded agnitiHC 
beoHUrse of its u-iidtijcv to pnxMpilutt' llie oaM.-]ii of tlie milk. 

For the cfilcnlntion of fornuihi^ three |K^iht« odIv are to 1>« 
boroe in inind, noinHy : Tlie jx-reeDtaj-e foraiuln a^teipecl ; the 
qiinnlity nf fi»™l nHjiiire^l^ nnd xUm llie ntiindard^, except f»r 
protein, represent pereentaffe value*j in ratio of 1 to 10- Given 
the^e constant factois, the problem of adJuHtiu^ percentage com- 
position beL*oraes an easy one : Tlie quantitv of IVmhI lecpiiri-d h< 
rc<lnwd to L'uhic centimeter* (OGnoes multiplied KyJiO), ami this 
pnwluct i:<Tuulfipliti.l by tije [lert^entatre tentii of the element to be 
intr(idu<is.h Tht' following table will ser\'eto illnstrate: 



fif LilO c_o- 
300 
BlnDtlanl^ngurEol. . . 33.00 &e. 



VnUraL ProMHi. IdMloM. 

Rcquiitd pttT«ntago 

foTDiula . 2.0 M 11.0- 

DeHmnl rmm !ntro- 

during 2.0 0,5 0,.^ 

Siu^nr voliitloQ ... ■').ft 

IntmdLidag ^A 

Wfifhinff f'jntiiifn: 

rvviiiml civam - ISe.ft 
Htiindpnl luirnr m1. 3Hc-r. 

WiicT. I5p,c- 

2fl.oc. or - - - OOc* 



XILK MODIFICATIOS. 



215 



36fl.<K. X 3U 

DcdluJ CRUD 



OwdAjT'ifwd. 






SCuiduid RigMrtiiL ^ . 577.-50 c-c- 



Sfi.oc.x30 -J40.U0 cj^. 

Decimal ct«UD - , . . M.iJfJ ex. 

13iA* 

24* I.*"') t'.c. 
t2iHi 



Hllt^L 1>TT4«iD. LAAoe, 
Rc«|Dimlfi.nniib , . 4,0 \M rt.5 
U^ciiiBJ i-r<eAm . 4.u l.M 1.0 

Decimal onam . 43j c-& 
Staixlani tuga:- 

^<luiv>D ■ 577 c-c 

B(4Unt vaivr i in- 

clodift^ alkali ■ 53 c-c 
T'^hediridtd idUj 
7 f«dine^ t^f 5 
CHiDns vsirfa . ■ '^> d.<.£, or - . 1050 c.c 

UUk-fAi, ItxtieiQ. Laccone. 
DecLiuaL ortaui - ■ - 4.0 



ii» 


7.0 


Lo 


1,0 


ho 


G-U 



>bin 



T^aifrhaialttl 

niiJk . . . 

^kandani fUuur ajL 



\M 



i5 

Ileciiual civam . IHii-.c 

^rcharattd ^kim-ruilk <•<* c.c 

Siaivbrrl ^ngar roluliun H-l t-.C- 

^ ii-'it or . , . , , :i4U c-c* 



4- Katema Graduate Method. — Tlu* vcr>' simple ;md 
useful apparatus knowii a,^ tlit ET^tmiis Mut^rnu Gradiiiitr U 
of great vahit! where one oan nm stvure intdlipent otTjiH-nt- 
tion in the hunie, and also wht're there are no faeilitie*; f^ir milk 
preparation. This method i»f infant IW-^ling has U'eii triM liy 
the authors for sev<-nil years in the Ri»Url Garrett Frv Hos- ' 
pital for Chihiren, Baltimore, luid tiHi nuieh can nut Ix" sjiid 
n^rding its piniplieity and ettieti.'nev. AVith its Ax fonnnlas, 
however^ it is m.i adaplahk- to all t-ii-e?;, some infants iM'ing 
totally inoapahh' of faking the step from i>ne fiTninhi to another. 

The ap|iaratns Cim^isis of a pb>> jar « iih a lip and seven pan- 
els, and a eapaeity of 1 fi oupf^'s. One of the |ianol- rxhlliit- an 
ordinar}' oune<.' jrraduation ; the other sis I'ljinels present sis dif- 
ferent fornndas lor th<' nnHlifieation of e<»ws* milk, i^aeh tormnla 
being so arran^l as to kwp |Mice witli tlu^ infantV ^mwtli, \-\z. : 

Fal . - 2 \*eri\'nX. 2^ |>^r rem, ,1jht cent, -U ]h.t i-vn\. 4 iKT(\'nr. !U (H:r<^nL 
HuKB^r.^ " ti' '' fi '* 7" ■' 7 " oi ■* 

Protein 0.e " O.H " I " IJ " 2 " 2J " 

For Formula t> tm t{vt-ia1 in^iruclioov below. 



316 



ISFA^T FEBDIJfO. 



€ 



Milk . . , p-fl* f |U 

l,lm'-nilt«r *' 1 

V^nWT . . . " J ISW 



^i 




■Jt 


3« 


3* 


r 


^■ 


3 


ijK 


'i* 


1 


t 



Ad 
■3? = 






?^ 



Jlltfc piM 

Hmun - 
: llitrli*r-Kmi>l " 
7K J(inuni»Ut«llUSV, 



'1 



aw 



H»viii^ (IwitUMt which Tormnla ib to be iiwO, the pane! con- 
Uitohj^ diAl toniKiln if« thr only oii^ 1o W follo%ivil. 

The i^imntity <k'8ircd I'or t«oiil_v-ftMir lioure ie? lu^xt t<i be 
orm>^i(lorKlr nii<] tin? iipjmratiH iilloJ — uut^, if 1 6 oaiio^ or less 
are i"(H|iiire<) for the IweiUy^tiinr h^iiry ; fwiw, if fmm Ifi 1<» .15 
i>iiuce44 art' re^jinred fur tin- twcuiy-rnur Iinur* ; Uini' tinif^, if 
from ^2 to 4S ouDc«ti an- rH|iiinHl for tl»- iw^ity-frtur hour^ 

DiBEcTioya, 

(The lincif K.-noat]i tho wokU imlloutv tho |¥>iQtB to which the 
%'arioii!^ iiigrt^lii-nl?; an- to Im' HIM in.) 

1. MUk-itnyftr. — lMtro(hi(!eiiiill(-sutpir l^ the line ?*n niftrkrtL 
W)u*re ^mmI niilk-si!^::ir t'un not Ik* obtainnlf ^mniilatHi Kii^ir, 
in juMt tiiilf thi* <|i»aiiliU", ^htmld be used. A ^iiiiiU cRisson the 
ii[k|>iinLtiH hulii'jito ihifl point- (S«e dirwtioiih for Fomiula 6.) 

2, Wnlcr. — Add boiled wat<r (hot) to the water-mark, ana 
iitir until ihe Mi^^ar is di^-solv^-d. If auv jinnicles are hecn 
Aoutni^ ill lh<" fuftltilionf it frlioiild Im' ilhert^l eiUitr ihroiigli ab- 
M>rl»rnt e<>tbjn or through two thiokueNfen of dean nuialin. 

3. TJmr-ti^tff^. — Ordiujuy liino-waU-i', Nueh as U obtained at 
drno^ton'f;, i^hoiild ibcn he tilW to tb<' Ij^water murk. 

4, Crwjn, — Tliis j*houM U* tht* ordinary iix^ru (l<i-2f> per 
cent.) n& ohtniiKHl iti Utiili-d milk; it should be pou]-ed in to 
ihi- cnam mark. If thf» rrmui i-* puHinsed spjwralelv, ordi- 
twiry crwini, anil rmt o<<]iti'ifii^l ejvam, sluuild be iwed. 

0, .1////'. — (Irdiuiiry jri^ml ^ow^' milk should be iised and 
tho jar lili*.Hl m ilu- milk ajark. 

6. Tliu entirv mixture xhould next In- Mirred. 

7. Thr \vh<^lc should tlntu be pfumil inti* at'(>amte bf^tth-H and 
^ti'HHi'^'fl if <h'vin'd, nr sti>|»|»erod with cotton uiid inimeilialety 

plrininl npnii lOr. 

DtrMiom for fonutdn 0^ — 1. Sjtf/nr. — In this formula 
^rttnulattd m0\T slionld be u,st*d in plaoi* of milk-sti^r, and 
the ^upu irjtnrtluitil into ih*^ vessel to tlie line thus marked. 

2, IkirU-^-ynuL — In this fiirmula barley-gniel should be used 



XILK MODIFICATiOK. 



217 



in^trnd nf wntc^r, ntirl tho ghiss filli-d to tho line (hriK nmrkvil, 
IJarJpy-gnwl nhoiilii l*^ ]>iv[i!iivcl ns iMloiv* : To 1 t»l)l(*«|MM»i)ful 
of pearl barley, ntW wHiking for Twvoral liourxi u<ld 1 |uiit 
of wut^r, a j»incli of ^^ilt, »Tt<l IhiiI f^r Hvc or ^ix bouT>, wlJing 

metliod mav be ti^xl : 1 riiiiiuh<<L ral>k--<|Mtaiirii] i>f Kol>in^fir:4 
barW Hour ; nib up whli <-4>l<L unicr^ uiu) lultJ m 1 piiU uf butt* 
ing water; cook for tilWti miiiuics, ftiir, anil siniin if lumpy, 
3, tVmm, 4. J//7A, — AiUl Uitr sunw uff in «hIht fortiiulux 

5, Masmard l,add*8 Table.' — Anothrr mcilKx] of motli-* 
fyiD); milk is nvconliiig t» Al^vrninl I^»il<r8 tabia In thiA thn 
4)UaiiIttie>« have E>een esrimiited- This lucthod ij; Ufii^ful id bos- 
tiiiaU where tli^re i^ a milk kb>.inUoiT. Iii ^eDeral pnicticc it 
I- ol' slight valiH^ for !t nece^it:ites nimiorisiiii)^ a lengthy tuhle, 
orcarryiDgitahQUt, botiiuf which iiiL-th<Mj-^ureopen to4jbjcctiL>ii, 



lB|fer«IQl>Um 



13^ 



0.76 

l-TO 

IM 

100 
100 
lAO 



CKam U ouan*. 



h! 



B it B 

£ :a a a 



100 
1.0U 
0.75 
0..V3 
0175 
I.OD 
.00 



MO 
0.00 
■\0<* 

■LW 

&00 

COO 

CLOO AM 
f^QO|0L7« 
r^.ixi f^m ii^oo 
:i^ Ojil.OO 
8^ A\f 1 .yi 

7.00 
7.00 
7,00 

T,00 



3.00 

&O0 

3.O0 

4_00 

4AHI 

-too T.W 

LiM 

4.1MI 

4.1 m iviio riAw 

4jOa,. 'LOO; 3,00 

4jD0 5.0US.5U 



Z.O0 
\M 

1^ 

100 
7.00 I i.=i« 
7.00 ' ::,0'i 



I 

I 

S 



i! 

H 
4 









I 

1 
It 

-> 

'I 

3 

:t 
3 
3 
4 

S 
5 
5 
't 

& 
5 
(k 
5 
S 



ru-frw mllt in oiiii««a 



*£ S3 ^S 
- eg =3? ^ 
6 p ii £ 



tlf IS lU 



J* 



14 

16 

15 
IH 
14 f2l 

isi;i 

IS4 ^ 

m 2 

II £ 

m ? 
11 s 

6 ,2 

ails 



(■) tndk«i4<4tbiiiibccftfiibl>aikinbiiupnMb1w «hh tilt |>cfcvitl>gc<ircnuD 
■It**. 



218 



isrAyr rt'EittsG. 



ft, Bflner's Method. — Mmiy mu^rnpU Iwvo Iwm mn<\p 
from tiakct lij timi' h* <v>iii|*uU' a til>lr nf niimiioitx fnini whiHi 
die <fiinDtitiei4 of milk, cmun, vtc. nmy l>o tkli-miiiKHJ fi>r jmy 
^ven mixture; tlie &bk|>lest of ilio^ i« ibut of Buiiur:' 



QuHDclu dorirad (in otuK«!*> 
l>Vtrcilp«ivcnu«e <^ int 

Dourod peitciildgv of imttviii 
To dod In ounccd — 

Crvnm (IC |ivr«TiL) 

Milk 

Waive 

Jhy iTkt!k-*u|pr 









Example, — Su]>poj^e it in iWitWI to mftke 40 ocD6«0of a 4 

IT cent. fat. 7 per oent. -iii^r, "2 |ier <*nt protein tiiixtiire. 
y (iuhHtitutiiig the tigiires lu tW equations al>ove we have — 



Uilk -^^ - 0( - I3i outuo. 
Watrt- - 40 - 20 - 20 ouncoi. 

£4>vff Stnrr't ThLfe of In^rfifi^nft, ffovn.^nd JntftraU of AvAiA^iltf 

Tf^tai t^uftutity „f PiMffi /fir 't JFfflJrfi;/Jrti^fi.i/fy Ffd fn/ant from JUHk 



Ai*. 




^ 






S Hminferi""^':*'* TiiCl 


1 




i 


V 1 


3 , fifHlkha- 


rvvilLiTf- 


<inkm]ij. 
















1 


















[>1]lUUIlt«fc. 


r^ 


oau 


' » 


Lt.n 


■ k - 




niu 


Prom « ia\ 
61b wt«k j 


r>U 


. - 


IkH iBT>Xl ■ plnoh 




[^hAun' luvtj 


to end ofV fl« 

Vi] tnoiilhj , 




nt 


Sw n plDcb 


ItK 




[ Vhmin 


fnsx 




Oa 


. . 


i^iS 


>} 


• pln«4i 


flln 




I^Hh* 


axExQ 


Durlntf ntbi 
ttihl Ttb J- 


nM 




QtUw 


>J 


t pinoh 




Uhonn 


OxiSfl 



' Xrv Y«rl Mut Jnut., Mnnh 12. iSm 

'tVom Dimaa vf the Diqatirt Uy^ns inChiidrrht p, 91 



MiLtC MOMFtCATlOy. 



218 



7, I^nis Stflrr'ft Table (m^' |mg<' 1l\%\ — TH^ ie n fi*- 
4jiu*rLlly us^l guiiie lo mk]k-i>n?4-n1ii]ig. ft may Ke employed 
a^ a txiiuii for uKiillticalioD liy th^»M- ^ilio objivt to the iwroentage 
in4^h<>d. Tile latter roelliodp lii>wcv<'r, unc« ajasteml^ will be 
found more ^tUfactorj* for general |>ur]>i);«cH. 

T^rouuboui Ui« dgliUi ftDil ninUt montbi At« n«ttLa aitoj «HI] bemiffirkal, 



!K 



Milk - - , 

Ovnni 

Jdilkj^uvr £ 

WaUr fgW 

Xbia aUuw^ 4" Huid«unc«« of food a dtj. 



8. Chapin's Method. — C'hapm i^ugjcvfiU tW remornl of 
t}w toit^fuLlk ur ctvuiii imm lH>rilL*cl tiiilk by mccmit i«f & *mit1l 
tnitk-<)i|it>er liotdiu^ one 4»iiq<ki. Hf n*inoM^ ilii* pn*!iin :u( 
fi^in «» iKe milk U AOivervil if ilie ori-am Iul-* ^<|iiiniU'd. ?\>r 
\oiiiig iufmit^ lie remove-4 \i ounces fivim the top of u i|iiiin of 
milk (lilt to protein, 3 : 1). For older infanu \\^ mlvi^-^cvt th« 
Twwoviil uf lt> ounces (fill to jirolein^ 2:1}. Hi- dtluti^ lliij^ 
with wluiat-. hark-y*, riei>-, or ojitnieal-wacer, lining [ or 2 
ttblflSpooiifuU of fliMir and a ({uart of vl'skt, uikI Imilhtg for 
fifteen minittr^ TIti.-t i^ dexiritii£«Hl if de4red, sitruliK-d, auj 
iiaU«<l, atui pugnr ]-■< udd<*il. 



PftOGARBCVK TirCKKlJUt: OF QPAXTtTV AVT» HrftWivm <«r MlKTt-ftOkl 



IS <iQiic»— Qnv-«{jriith lop-mllk. 
Eiiihi 2"*.<*> fw«l"4C*. *»"■ <^i'7 i*»o 

21 ooiwwr— ■JH»^«*"»ifolli Uipnulk. 
Elcbt Sf-ot. (wttinifx. imp wot? two 
boon. 

^ ouBon— on^xih loTJ-tnilk. 
£il^ $«t. f««din^ on* 0T«t7 two 

8Q ooppw onHifth Cij^nlllL 

and iio^hftlf to iIifm haui^ 

38 MiBr«— oiw-foiiril» ii>]>-f»Ilk, 
fix lUc fMiliiip^ ont- trtrf Uirw 



2 M. <ir ft-ui. topflitlk (atiAr WE«g 
tvDiofed froiK bottle «pd mixed). 
H ni. af diluent. 

1 oc of ntfan 

3 DX. uf 1k>t. tcOMuilk (lLfl«T bcInK 

r«movtd frenu bulUo ftod mixed). 

I m. or B»ff>r. 

4 M. of 9^. loMillk lififT bdii0 
mDortd butn uoalc ftttd mixed), 

SccdiloNM. 

1 ««. «f xwr. 

OS. of Dhoc ia«viui1k (rfior Wn^ 

removnl fvuin bottle I'jil uiUcdi. 
'<^A trL. of ililavni. 

9 Oft, cif to|>mill: from ofic qomrt 
UkiIp. 

27 oL of ilitiioal. 



>t:iiR|d&,/i^te»<^Wf. 



220 



JSFANT FEEDINQ. 



^ii T-ox. foeilingi, one every llircc 

hi 111 IV 

1(J imni-c*— oiM?-h«lf lci]Huilk, 
pvvrr thive lo ihfvc an<l oti^bjUT 

«rvrr thrw Ami oni>1ulf Uuutel 



H nft. of tni>4nilk froiu one ijuiirl 

2 I tt- of «(j|fn r- 

!iU u2. uf lt>^>-iuiU fruit] 011V qilAiX 

bnUlc, 
*J0 ntx of dltUifDt 
I OL iif Miiieur. 

1 quiirt of milk. 
1 pint of ililitisnl. 



Clinpin f^\'f^ die cimjuKilictii of tlw> miicti]r«4 in tlie follow- 
ing table ; 



■ 


Lovrni »ximaa 


Hljthr^i cxinme. 




ftivi. idp-mlllG rn>m mQk 


944. Iwivtn till frvira milk 


itorccp-mllk. 


■A 


iwrcmt. 


fitt. 


i 


percent. 


D^l- 




VM 


L'rutulfi 


^Ljuitr 


FHt 


I'rutei 1 


i^mtitt 




per opnl 


pcrcrni 


p<:r o«ii1. 


pvr i-c^nc 


|ftT CPIll 


KT CAtlL 


IKIiiwd S iifius < . . 


, 1.10 


n,38 


O^OO 


iW 


0.&(l 


ik:^ 


" 7 *' 


. L:^n 


0.43 


u,rir 


2.30 


0.^7 


0,A7 


" *' . - 


. 1.50 


o,r.o 


0.ti7 


26T 


0.fi7 


il.tJ" 


« 5 " 


. L81) 


l}.tiU 


(l.(W 


3^ 


at«^ 


1I,N(J 


U J tl 


a,a-5 


a:5 


1.00 


■too 


l-thj 


i.on 


" 3 « ! ! 


3.i>n 


1.00 


IM 


£.60 


]^ 


1.33 



It i$ imi>o^Hil>Io to givi^ thp <TXAr!t oompci^ition of mtxtiircv, 
&fi ihU vrill (lepeiul oil the ri(*iiiK*r^ uC the ori^nal milk ; but 
the range of comiMi-^ition will iilwny?* full within the followiug 
limit's M'illiotit the mVnU of thi.- tlihicitt aiul the giigar. 







LnWi<Jil *MM-iue, 


II ill hut pKlrvtDO* 






lO^j; ii-iji'intJk fTLimnilJk 


)n<u,_E<n>-jntLk Cni 


m milk 






a 


|tair<?l:El(- inL, 


if 


fict Ci^nl- ftL 






rwt 


l*nilpj(l» 


*>i»a*r 


riki 


Pri>tPUll 


f^ueur 






TWr vt}M 


por rtnl. 


|X*t i.'Vftl. 


pur ex lit 


liLTWHi iwrcvnL. 


Diluted S timcfl 


0.7 


iy:tH 


(liSO 


1-19 


aso 


0,50 


7 


«k 


ae 


0M3 


(1.67 


1.30 


o.fir 


0,57 


" 


" 


0.D 


0,dO 


(I.IJ7 


\J>*} 


0.ti7 


ae7 


" A 


It 


It 


o.rto 


0>0 


1-KO 


O.S0 


0,80 


« 4 


H 


1.4 


0.75 


1-00 


S.25 


1.00 


1.00 


" 5 


« 


. . 1.8 


LOO 


1.33 


S.00 


1.3» 


1,33 


* 2 


tl 


i7 


I. SO 


100 


4.50 


?_00 


2.00 



Malted Gmels, — Muhed ^rnel^ are advr^tifl hy .-mmc, 
especially in preparing milk tV^r infani^ with wi^k <U(rt'j'n<>n. 
They are prejmreil in the follnwing niatmer: A Uil)W]toonfi]l 
of Imrlev flour or uf anv -^tlu^r (lour ilraireil is hoihxl \n n litth* 

t r 

niorotlmii ii pint "f watrr fi-r tlUiTii iiniiati>*. Aw r*ooTi iv* il has 
fvviWi a C4m»|>'><jiifii] of n gofwl uiult evtmet i>r a loji-< put m fill of 
clLaiiifjL^ is ;i(hlfil- rhUritixriire if* f^lirrwl ihomiiijlily, iitkI may 
then W ii,n*<l in the plftr<* <<f ordinary Ixirlev- water. Diastase 
pi*e|>arations an' T\m<h hv mo^t of the leadini: mEinnlh^^tiirin^ 
clieniirit.s DinHinidj made by the Jiriu of Ilnrltck, nmUiQej 




MILK MODiFlCATIOX 



!21 



and diaayme urc |iri*|iaruti>oiis <if ihitt <*lii»«. T\w thi(*k nm)t 
eitra«^ are H»tn(^iQii'» given ti> JiilUnte jui^t bef(.>r« u iiHiding. 
Ol' ibcsPf ^AM'pnil dwcfi inny be gjvirn dnily for liwlii^rfttioii atid 
coo«tii»tioii. 

Chdi|>in ftii^^;^C9t^ citat n lionio*titai)c (lcc<>ct]<>ii t.>f nuill lio 
tiA^d m ukakiDf; malted ^rticl- IIi>^ diivctioiiM anr a^ Tilluwr^ & 
*^A tab)«i>^|MK>iiriil i>f nijilt^l Uirlc-y-gniinii h put m » cup, mid 
ETKHj^h i-i»td ^vait-r ncldcd ru i<»\vr if — u-ii;illy Iwa lulilt^jurDD- 
fiil;*, a^ the Dialt qiiK^kly itbsorlw* some of tlie v^-aier, Tbifi is 
jirppuml in the ex'eiiinj;; aiiJ ijlatx^il in a nrlri^ft-mtor over- 
nigiiu lu ihe tuonniig tlio w-atir, looking like tliin tea, tJ* 
removetl with a Mpocm or F^kimnioil oH', uiul ih it^ady for ub^, 
Abriuta iiLl>k-s|Mxii]riil of tlii» ^■>liition cnn U- r^^x-un^l and 14 
^'ery active in dia^iji^c-. It is ^itllidcDi t^^ dL-xirinin* a |iint 
ofgnicl in tell to fiA««n minutes* Thifl should be pn.-jiui'i.'d 
fr\'-li tVi."rv *l;iy-" 

Bnttcrmilic as an Infant Food. — From time to time 
bultermilic iia.^^ I>«?n aiiwH^anxI an an iofant frnKl, It \^ Ur^ 
tiitK^t frti)iiontIy in HolIanOr aiiO iuka rect'iitly Iiad mauy ex|M»- 
nentA, amonjf tlie moMt prominent of nliich i^ Tt^ixt'ira de 
Matttx^, of ItMfleixlam* 

The imll^rmilk i* pro]jared by mixing a ^jciart of tik<^ milk 
and a tablefejvMifiil af riw, barley or any other Hour dt^irwL 
Jt sJuHiId be bi-uttvl gnLduuUy, i^tirrin^ coHHiautly uiiill it Iiah 
WIt-d up K'\i-nJ tinier. Two or Uiree tublenjHNii'ifuls of nnpir 
arv then udik-J, At>oiit half tiu bttur Is rt^|uin.-d to |>rc|un; 
till- mixlinv. Wbt-n fiiiinbcd, tl i* ^jt a yrlbiwiab t-cJuf. It 
»Ju>tibl Ih- |MiiinHl i»to botltpHfir jnrn, ami if it tM<<Hinie« lumpy, 
it r'houUI \m' ^h^ker lhnrr>i)trhly. Tb>> Miixtiin< Ijt ixiwl for 
iiifimt--^ itf all a^^ nml in altout tbt- thuii\ i|imntitie!!<. It i« 
very highly 4-j[U>lkd by il^ adv#icral<?s tx.< a fiwxl far i>>rmal 
babies and ahiO for tho^ wiih digr^livo iliMurbaiioua luid 
mara-HitiUfL 

If btiiTt^rmUk feeiliii^ M i<t>iiimenr<-d rtud<l«iily, voniitiii^ and 
dlarrbru may folU>w. J f, hovr I'vtr, it* u^^ ir* (ttT^iMoii in, tbc 
digtBti<m EMion n^curiH to tbi* normzih It >4 alm^ said thui an 
fpv'i^fvion to *»-iH*l milk H'ill miiM* a similar di»tiirli(mn- in biil- 
ti-miilk*ft'<l bcibicH, uid dial x\u* Hmn^ *<liiniM hI^tav^ he 
maik* ffrailiLktly, by mi.viti^' bntti^niiilk niid ^vmt't milk to^lhcr 
before |^^|alnl1J^ ihr ffHHl, Tbe autlKir^ ttuxt- l^d ni> c:c|>rn' 
rrKT wiib (hl.i form of fcvtlinp. 

Gartner's Milk. — TikiH> ]> a pro[>rMtari- mixbtiid tnilk Jir^l 
{irei^unxj by (rnntier. It i^ made tiy ix-mrifujf^diiiiii; a mixture 



323 



lyFAST FEEDISQ. 



of ef|iial piirU of cows* milk atui of ttpriliatcd viiter. The imxU 
(ire U put into a p^pcLial macliiiic mul ruiateti so rapidly ihat 
it is «eparnt<^l iLt'cliaiiicull^^ into u civimjy niilk ami a bkiiii* 
milk. Tlic trciiiii tiiu;;^ dniwn oH' oi'iitaina about the mm« 
nmoaiit of fat iv\\*\ |>rriiein a* tn average ru-:>tLoi'^?< milk, and 
fril};ar is :i<Mf*cl to It lo hriiig ihe ])ercentaf(& ii|t to aboul 7 |kt 
oent^ When fre^h, it has been uaed v-ith hikhx-j^ iq flooding 
tN>th ^iVIc ami lioiililjy infants. 

Backhaul' Milk. — This b a ceutrifii^liiuHl milk that \\m 
been .Hiihj«K-'t*d lo the action of a naistuit? of renuet, iry[>^in»an<l 
RHlium rarl)oiiate. It i-s m(Mlified with cream aotl mptv of 
uiilkf and srerilizfvl* It is made in iliree dii)«reiii arejigthfl, 
buying, it ih tvald, the following i\>aJ|xiBJciou : 



Fit . . 



L 


IL 


nL 


3,1 


3.2 


34 


ti,0 


h-A 


4.S 


IC 


2,1 


3-5 


(J,4 


0.4 


0.7 



The fiivt mixtiint orttifains 1 per tf^wU of luHnllmmin nntl H.lt 
per I'eiit- of cjwriii. 1'fjf' <»thrr« cunMst chit-lly of ui^^t-in with a 
MDall perx-nla^- of lat'tidUinun. 



ARTinCIAL FEEDING. 

In the methods of feeding ju^t dt>si.'rilK>d the additioD of fari- 
nmvons gmels — \. r., harley^ tmlmeal. am>w-riiot, nci-, elr, — to 
some t»f liie fciml> lias heoii ntyimmende*] liy ei^rraiii observers. 
Th^t snt^li luKlitioii V) the ini'ant'Ti ilii'iary liiiring tfie first year 
is advisuMe h u (|Ue.^non thai lio^ not been fully decided. 
Wlien deeuiwi neoi's^ury, it is |mil)al»ly best to tje^in the 
nd<iilii)n '>r a .-itarcliy (jnul r<i the milk al ahoiit theei^dith or 
iiinih month In normni infjiits. In tliose inf;mls w)io eX{>e- 
nnuv diiTicnlty la digi'rttlnjr tlir protpiti-*, »?* will be {-xplaiiied 
under tlic heading <»f thr Frcding of SioU Jiifunln, uial for the 
puqx>i^ of [»rrv<'atiDg WJng^dation <»f tho milk into hit^ clotti, 
dir- aildirioa may Iw* nuuh» o!irlii*r. It is wi-ll lo fiegin by 
mldin;^ a IisiIfHUirici' or nn ounce for (.aoli fi^t.'dinjr and, a?^ the 
infnni** stareh-ilij^t'wting powLT increiwei<, to im'r«i--*e tliifl amount 
pmjmrtioiuilvly. 

Beginning Bottle-feeding. — In oitler lo Aucceod k la 
nwef<iiry fhiit \\\\^ raeflmd h«- W-^wn pnfyerly. Tbe f>ercentage 
nsei) tu U'^^tn with should always be well vitlin tlie infanlV 
tligcAtivv power, utul nii^inl n^ niptiUy i\^ |Kj^^ihle to a milk 



MJLK MODlFrCATIOS. 



233 



tniittd to the age of tlie iii^ittu It i« n pym] plan to tUM with a 
milk given in Uio K^hi^iiik for a buby dniMUinl the a^^ of the 
ODO t<» Ik* f"l. Kioh <liij', cir c\^i iiI )imp.'r inUrvuU if ir-cc*- 
Kin', the milk taiLV li<* nimlc ?«ltg]itlv Mnni^cr. 1l\tlic milk i» 
tnnilc ton strfnig oi lirst or tli<- pcrqrutnpr niiMnl u>'> mjiullv, 
inJifft'ntion, {Htlio, mill o1fi-nMv<- id4H>N uill 1if thr i-<i^iih. On 
tlip oth^ lian*}, iW fipiKwiie mist^iko^ that of ftHMling nn intkiit 
on a milk U»y weak, should itWi l>.* iivi>i<W, Whni this mis- 
take is i]>u<U*, tho iufiuit Ix-wiih"* (Mile, *Tiv^t »"<! *W'a in»( in- 
cft'jitfp in woighL Suvire lutiigcr muv ro^iilt, und ^^ymptomA of 
ititinition nmv follow. 

Tcchnic of Modifying Milk at Home. — To injure 
^iKXr^i* iti KuriKt JiKnlilii^ilJoH n vrry cun-tal u-chikio tnii^t W 
folliiw<^l liy the moihrr or the? mirtc. Id the ahiMriKT oC a 
uiiw- specially Iniinvtl for tlii^ puqtoe^ it JHHMimcv notr^-Mian- tor 
thp pliy>;i<<i:Ln to pivo cfin*fiil wnt(*»n nml vrHnil iiiKtrni^lioiti;, 
nn*l tia-ii to »ec jtenumHlly that tlK**c an' t-Arrkil out. Ktrnttl- 
<iigv oil iIk' jKirt of iha m'>thcr or iitir«c' ^^h'^nM ni.»t lie os^iimt^l, 
lor, Off a rulf, "hr il»"'i* Dot pow^w it. Thtn* nri' iniiiiv mii"*c% 
l*olh i^uluatv ami othiTwini*, wliow* 04>ravption« of infiiiii fc«i- 
ing luxl milk prf[Nimrion An* pnv'iinilly asele*^ Like- niHiiy 
meili(r;il ;iitiiirnt.« ami n^ot^iii ^mdiiaK's iIk\v ii rulers tarn I more 
iil»oiil liqicinilcHiiir.i iluiu iht-y iln ;t1>ou( inilk. If tliiiri if* Itome 
in mitvl, m:iny tinplcuwnt i^x]>cri(^tk(>-# mity U^ avoiilocl- 

Thc v<4t;oU and iiiMnini'^ittrf tii^ocl $hoii1d be kf*pt irCrnpiiloii&Tv 
ch-aii. and Iw (i«hI *»»lrly f'tr ihc piirjHKi- intr-iukil. ,\fter n**, 
or, what tt^ »hvi(l«lly Wltrr. jii:*t pn-viou^ to Iting n*i«l, th»-y 
fehoiiki Imj oithor UnUnl ot K^Ukx) with U»iliiig wati-r, prpfenihly 
Uh' former, 

TIh* niirstn^-lxittli'!* ^hoiikl hik\v roiimlt^l lK>tt')ms i^iJ that 
llH*n* um mi i'i>nK'rr4 for hoMuifr ilin^ hihI nliMi that tlii^y am not 
tx* 4t<*iil alxtut the n>om. If mily our* or two hotilt^ ar*^ iisihI, 
ihry r>li'niKi br x^ikhil nftcr n\ich tiriliiig aiul fi\\i<} rither 
with bori<! ooid or .-etxlntni himrfHtiiute ,-uJution, nia<le hy it<)<linj; 
a t4«uipoonfu] of (*itlier Jni^f to a pint of water. Whc>o tho 
lK>tf7r U to Ih> U4I'«I a^in, th«- Ht>Intion ^limiltl ltf> ponn^l out 
ami tiK botik' rin*c<I with plain T^trrilf n^tiT. 

TbtT nippk*^ ?himkl he of tktr onJiiinry «bort tilack-nilflwr 
varirtr, Whiir nipples, whiMi an* wii<l to nwititin k'ail. lu 
wdl a« nil complntiFHl nipplfit ami tuU*<, .-^hrnilil 1m- avoi^knl, 
TIm*^i< laltrr mn not Ur kept rlt^n. and :iti' ji T<Mnn\- of infivtif»n 
in iliarrhm. In Noiae ciiit^ ihi'tr niIi* U |>t^>hihik'<l by Uw. 
After viieh f<^<liii|^ the mpplo hhouM \*e waitbctl, turning it 



224 



JSFAST FKKDtSG. 



tnsicle *mi to do tlii^ tlkoivinglily, mid tlien pTncecl in a glaBs of 
boric acid Kjliitiojj (sj lOj). It i* n giKKl |Hsn to luii'c st'vcrnl 
iki|i]>1i% on liiind ami tn boil tht-iii before iimii^ liiciii for the 
fir*l time, aikI ibcn for Hve lalniilc^ every <^iv» The \\^\e <ip 
hr^lei^ in tlio nijijili? sl»onUl l>o jiip^t lar^ eiir^iif^h ttMilb'^v the 
milk to drop mii ^i^inewlmt mpidly. It shutibl not fitiw out in 
& atream. If the hole are to<> small, they may be etilnrgeil or 
new oue*T made by using a red liol drirDin^-neei.lIt*. S»uie 
ni[iple>^ lire made withi»iit liolej^, and thtw may be perfonitfi in 
the j*ime nuiiuior. Wbt-n «fveml bole-* ixw so mado in w 
nifiple, the milk m;iy mit dnL>p very fiiJ*t, hut Ibc fUxl rcak-iies 
the Hiihi mpidJy enoujjli^ a (net that may «ii»ily Ik* deintm- 
Tstrnted if the nipple in ^-ni^jn-d bctwitn the finger?* and Eliciting 
muwmentfi ioiit;Lle(l. 

Prepdrfltloit. — tt is b<?*it ti> prepare the entiiv (jimntity for 
twenty -iunr hfinis at one time. If the weatlier is warm, the 
milk must be Pai^teuriKed or f*teriliKid immetliately (tee ftcclion 
on Milk). If neillier can lx> don*?, then, uult«4 tlie weiither i« 
enid iitid a deau milk mn be obtained, biit one feeding shuuld 
l»e prepared at a time. 

If the (ii[Hunlk method is iisefl, the mi!k *hmiM be received 
In bolt le^. In all eiiies there an- reliable dsiiricn that .supply 
milk in biiHli---, Wbi'iv thin i^ mil du' i-iif^e, the butilL-^ f-brmlJ 
be furnished the intlkiiuinT niul urriin);fmi"nfs tun ^■nenilly be 
miuUT by which tho milk will Ih? |uniivd int<t them os f^iKiu as 
j>*i.Hsihb' nfliT milking. vVOcr the milk hns sIuchI fur at h^jist 
livi' iioiir^, the llr^t onni-o of c*rr.'iim miiy be n^ninvi^d uith ri 
H|HHin and the renijnmli.T of ilu* npiHT untMhird i»r r>iie^!ia]f, i»3 
tile ea'ic may lie, with a (.'bujiin milk-<tTf>|HT, Another metboil 
i^ tii ii^e A l>ent ^dn>-< (iiW and .<*iphon oil' rhe lower p;irl of tho 
milk fp'^m ibf botiom of ibi' Ixittle, f'r the top-milk may be 
iniure*l off with r'-ji^onLible iitTiinjey, 

Tbr phvrtli'i^ni ^hiiuld nh^ays \^rilt- f>itt thr i|n;intlli4.'s 1o litf 
UfM'd f"r propdrini^ thr milk. The milk- nr eHiK-siigiir is* dit^ 
sioKviI in hot Hiiter. Cnw »:hniiM bi' tnkon to ii.^e ii *iig^ir that 
pvc?i n rkvir «>hiTiim without fdtrrti]^. If tlu* 'icilntion i'^ not 
dear, however, it should lie filten-*! tlinm^li a wad of e"H<jn 
plaeod in the bottom of n fminel or thronifh a ptet*o of drug- 
gibt'ri filter-pa|K'r. Thii« M>TitliiHi, together with the* lime-wnttr 
ordinal bienrboniite, should Ik* |Him><il into u ptleher. Into 
thiK the* milk, or milk iiiul ereain, should be jimii^h and the r*^ 
maiiickT of rhe \r^tt r mhUtk The w:iler ,»lniuld always Ih? UwUhL 
The niixtun* ;ibould thtn h\.' ^timnl and iKrunn] into the uumug- 



FEKi>iyo Duaxyo tuh skcono yeab. 



226 



bottl^A, The (>ottlefl Bhould tht^ii be stnpp^iwl wiiti fnoJ^*mte!y 
tight plu^ of i3oo-abeor1>ert €f>tti>n* tn ki'<'p out lxn?teria. The 
iMittlesaretlien Ftt^tcurizeJ urfetcrilixf^i and pUoed in a refrig- 

At tile Iti'tliDg lionr tlio 1»ottk i« tuken mt of the r«rngora- 
Xtyr, plnrcHl ii* n piu-htr or tsill ve**cl of hot wuier to *-arm it, 
ihi- cottou plti^ n'niovi-i), iniil u lujipit- ^LJb^liIu<e<i. Thi_* mitk 
ftliouhJ be h«itc<! until it h lukoM-flrm -about fl8°-0f>= F. 'JV 
nipplo >;lioiiLil nov^ bo plac^l In the month to t<¥'t tho beat, 
birt ihe m!lk may Ih? allowed to drop nn the uTisI^ where it 
eboukl feel HHrm, but not hot. 



FEEDING DURING THE SECOND YEAR, 

Duriu^ ibc !?«v'»tKl year of litV- as mudi l^uiv If- ]\.'i|inre(l in 
foeding Vk^ during the tiret. Tlitr fear of lh<^ Mcoud buniiiior 
would liiTp>ly be overoome if the oliiM vere iv>l allowed 10 4*At 
fotxl tiaiiuitt'i) to its di^^lion. The fiu-t thiit Home ehildren 
thrive on nlmocit any kind of PhkI is no exeu;* for pf^rniiiling 
A cliild to Imve llu> «inie focxi as it"^ el<lers, as iw ^ <»rten done. 
yXit^i of the illiK'M and tnany of the deaths of childhood £re 
tnuHnble to iinpn^iKT iliet. 

During the f^eo>n<1 year milk ehoold form the bafiU cf the 
diet. In eiiieii or where the milk-BUpply iif not iil>ove mispi- 
ciuu^ it in \rv^\ i\t Pasteun/e tin- inilk unfit the Mr^md ^uunuer 
lias tvecfi |i;iFvttHl, or evt'u longer if cireuitt&tjkn»^ warrant. As 
u rule, the milk n*quirt!J but little tnodiflontii>n, and after tbe 
«^gtiin>i)tb i»ontbf and often lief'ire. may generally be taken 
iintnodifled. Aa the child U now able to diget^t ^fan hy food, 
milk^^iignr may Im- imiiiied. In va^f^ where the milk h not 
ihoroiTghly digesitd, a.** is evidenoet! by eurds in the ^toolgi, 
lime-water may be lu^ed, and may be added in ^uantilies of frnni 
6 to \y\ JKT oenC, or even more if net'e^^an". if the milk 
b verj' rieh, ir Mionld lie diluted eitbcr wiiJi linie-waier or 
UHUnllv «iilb plain xteriUf water — tln^ev fxirta uf milk lo one of 
wutv^f. If the milk ii* |KH>r, or if ndllc tlmt ia not nVh doea 
not Rgr^*4> with dio olJld, it may be prejwred an follows: Fill a 
gtfl!^ ihnH^-Jiujirtj'r* fall of milk, add one or two lablr^poonfulA 
of creftm, and litl to the lop with plain water. If this doea 
not iin«>wcT, ndd a tablespaoaful cf lime-water. During ill- 
Dwa and often under other eircumstaneer; the alkutine carho- 
natfd w«t€r» will be fonud usetiil for diluting die milk. If 



226 



iXPAXT FREDtSa, 



the milk ia poor, another ])luii U t^ lue ihe upper two-chirdi uf 
the milk. 

t^tarchy foal luuy Ik* j;ivon \\\ tije form of gruel, pitlier alone 
or, wlial is lM.^tltT, niixi_iJ witli tht' milk. Birlcy-gruel or, if 
there i8 a tendency to const iiHition, (Uitimml-^uet i^^ a<]de(l, oue- 
rtftli or one-fourth |>art of |p"iicl being luldc^l \o «acli tiMHliuje. 
TW ^riK'l should he freehly i>r<?|>iirrtl nml mixod inim<.H]iuU<ly 
with th<» millc. A pindi of tiilf. anil !i vory mniill <jnanrity of 
cai}<v-*nitar may be addi**! to render it moi'e palatable. Ji may 
then be Pasteurised like ordinary milk. 

During; the second ymr live nieaU at about four-hour intei^ 
X'al-s ahoidd he given. The Ix^ttle should be d]^[>enM>d Mith, 
and the food [)e taken from a cii]> or sjxxin. If the l>ottle i.* 
not taken from the child <«rh', it mav lie difficult lo brtiak it 
of the Ijottle bahlu The following diet-lists for cliOVi'eut a^-j* 
will bt- ioutid UAei\il ; 

Tuvffth fo J-^fit-^nth M(mth, — Milfc ; barley, uatiuoal, whtsit- 
tloiii% fmiia, or arrow-root ^riiel ; barli-y or uutmeal jelly ; 
lightly UiiW yolk of egg, given with state hri-ail-cnimb«i. 

Hft*\\ fniitton, and ehickeu broth, chiekcn jelly, lnvf-jniw. 

Onuige-juit^- or the mice of mher ri|>e fmil, a-< of pt-acht'^^, 

Fiist iiusil ; On waiting, the child sbould nivivu a eup of 
warm raJlk, modified a-i pi'eviously sng^st^'d. If tin* ehiid is 
aeciisloraed to waking very early, tnore milk may W glwu at 
ab'>nt 7. a. m. ; otberstiM? thin lant may be regarded ii?^ the fiist 
m«ah 

S<w[)Dd meal, 10,30 a. m. : Kigbl ounoee of u-aroi milk and 
barUy-grnel, Tliirfl meal, 2 P, «. : One of following — 

(d) Ei^ht oinico!* (a cupful) of l>eef broth, 

(/>) " '* •' » ViK\\ -' 

(e) *' " '' " mutton '* 
(r/) " " <* « chicken « 

(e) Yolk of a lightly boiled egg with ^Jlale bread-cnmibs, 

Fourth meal, 5 p. «, : Kiglu oiuices of milk and l>arley- 
gruel* 

Fifth mail, 10 p. m, (if required): Ei^bt oiincep* of mtlk. 

Orange-juice, ono or two tabl(<ipoi.>nfuU at a time may bo 
given one hniir b«»tore iht- ltl,riO a. m. feetlinff. If ilien> is a 
tendency to hiose Imwels, this shonld he omitieil. 

If ihe childV appetite is very iroo<l, a small piece of zwie- 
back may be given with either the second or the fourth menl. 
This should not l>e soaked in the milk, but the child should be 
allcweJ to nibble ut it dry. 



FEEDXSG DVRiyO Ttlt: HECOSb YKAB. 



327 



Fytfm ffi Elt/htfTH Mfinthi. — Sime as shove, frig'elhpr with 
zvrieback, wtale hreod (ovtu-drieil), whole eggs verv t^fi iM^iUiI ; 
>4tniine<t iKitrnml, hurli^y^or xiheat |iorrid^; breailantl tnilk, thin 
bi^uit icrackers), junk^tf H:raped raw beef ar muitoji ia veiy 

/I Suftpff LHH for n f^^if/f of FJfrtn to Eighteen Months. — 
Bfyiff/r^t, 7 A. M. — EithtT (n) tw«t tahle^pornifiilFf of a cerwil 
jdly (^laUiienl or other ^^io a^ desired), wiUi ^dt aud two 
tahlf^ipoonfiil^ of crcatn, nnd ei^t otiiKX"^ of milk lo drink \ or 
(6) A howt ikf bn?nd n»'l milk cuiilaiiiiii^ eight ouncet» of oiitk 
atHi a *ili(*e of tititle Krend. 

-^^tyn*/ JUWi/, !0».:K.* A. M. — Mi!k, with a cracker or thio slice 
of staJe brEud or a ^aece of £wiehaok* 

Thii^l J/rti/, 2 P. M. — One of the follovring ; (tj) Very aofi- 
boileil e^ vrilh >1ulc hreud-crimib?«. (&) Kiglit ounces of broth 
{Wvf, vml, iiiuilou, or chicken) vith tiaio brt-ud-cninilis or a 
little barley addtd lo it. ^c) A mblc^ixionftij of tua^ed bakinl 
|N>tuto with Dii^nt broth or ^ra^y (one to two ■jtiuc'^n), or wiUi 
two tubl4.t?]K>ou fills of (rrcaui< Milk lo drink. {</) Sorupcd raw 
ln-rf i*r niull'>o, Iva itT thn-^? inl>|4»|irK>DfiiU on m " UiD4|ii«t 
wnfr-r/' with n nip nf milk. A riihk-^prftitfiil of jiink^. may 
iK^adiW to any '»f th*^% 

Supper^ i>.30 or 1 p. M, — Kiir)i( oun<»>^ of milk with a }>i<<ce 
of /Mi*-h:irk, a jtiicK* of MnU* bn-fl^l, or a omcker or twou 

Fiffi Mnti, Ifl p, M, yif MvvW), — Cup of mtlk. 

Fruit-jui*'** may W given, iw previoutjy directed!. K^tgi^^oiiM 
hut Ik' gtvon otVner tlian fwW a weekpascJiUdrvn tire of tliem 
ttf-ily. 

Kr'fhtf/7t J/'^PiM^n fo TVyj ci«*/ ^^f^ftlf Vffirv, — Milk in t** lie 
rr^rdf*\ at tin- ohief urtif'lo of iJu^t. Many vliildiy*!) haw no 
iWirp fi»r other fiwHl* until after tht» ^^^^ond or ihini vfiir. Tlir*(> 
ehililr^n irill iri'iimliy Ik> found i<i thrive on milk jlIhim* nr wirh 
flight ud<liti<^i?< rii liio liif't. Aa iheeliihlV ilitrvt^live iiowr in* 
onn-4^, tlm followini^ iirtii*h.*?< may, hovrm'iT, l>e addotl one at a 
tiin^. 

Fniit : Jiiire nf rip fr<-.Hh fniit, that of omniE^ii and peaches 
ln-Jn^ ht^i, \i\\v rre?.b gniyn'^ :<kii>ited and peednl. Bukeil 
ii|>|d<< — J'^dp <Mih, tl«- ■'kin *nd ?*r<Hl?t to he oatvfully n.'in<fv<'"h 
Stc'Wt**! prudics, llie ekiiis to hv r«inuvvd by pOH^ing through a 

MniU: SrmiKvl niw b<*of nr mutron : mroroitMdwi'f f^r fiml* 
ton ixmiihIh) X" ft |H]lp. Chick^'n »r inrkoy, ilie t^an white n»«t 
minc'ol to a pul|K 



228 



tSFAyr FEKiitsa. 



Vf^oUbW? Ma^iwl Iwiliin! jMit:it/i with rrwrni op oi>\"*r«l 
with itrav-y from pulhi mtjiih. If the latlt-r is very fat, the fat 
should 1a< rani'ivcil hy i^kiiiiijiin^ nr hy iiiciiiih of u |>Lece of htot- 
ting-piLper, Very wt4lK'<hjki'-J T^piniiohi wWy, ami otulitlikiit-er 

tO)>S. 

Oreals ; M'olUlK»iW<i riw ui)d odicr wdI-c(K»ki*iI €vrcttli*nlrcndy 
mentioiRHl. 

IV*wi1** ; Ik^iUil ('(jMiini, milk nn<l Hoc piiJilii)^>, jochkcl. 

Kour mraU will goncmlly suftifi.' nftcr iIk- oigh(ocinh montli. 
Tb(> following diohtrii' Mill ncrvi^ :t»^ a Atif2p?^t!oa : 

If ih^ chiUI wnkc* i^ttrly, n cu^ <-f warm milk (ns oiiiir*s), 

BmtiftxM^ 7 A, M. — {it) Four [:iblci^i>ooiifuU nf f-attDcal prtr- 
ridjc« or (rtiier oirml wiih salt ami two uiUfwpooofuU of cream ; 
milk toilriiik, {h) Yulk of a liglitly hoilot) ^g with ^alt aoil 
Umid broken into it ; tiiilk to drink, 

Stvmit Mnsi, in.:UP a. m. — tup *'f milk uiiii iwu wxia bi^ 
cults (^cmckcrt), iJicv of brtail> or a ynvw of zvrieljack, 

VinMtr^ *Ji I*, u* — Odc- of the following: : (n) A bowl (^-tght 
ounc^v) of iiMflil bn>Oi with rice, IwirW, t»r brw»il'*Totobi? uJiUi) 
to ill. 81itf« of hvaU' hn-itjl l jnikkov or r»ro »nfl n»ilk jAidflini;. 
(&^ TjAbl<r»ptHinfiJ of white mnit nf olu4*ken or of nre l>ef>f or 
luutlofi, oilher K*ra|»ed or pounfl^l lo a jHilp, Slice of stale 
im^iii iliinly butieiv<l» jniik^t, rkv or milk pitdilin)?, nr a boilfd 
CiKtanI- ^^^ Prrf«*tiy iroh Kvito*! ti-^h nhi- white m«ii» wiih 
a t^ik9|>onikful I'f iti3.^hul Imkt-^l [vt^ilo nioistdicd with t-riiim. 
Tk«»n IS in prtwdii^, 

Stppnr, Wia^ i\ 31. — A U>wl of brvnO auJ milk or ft 
cop (if milk «ihI a ^lic*- i»f brtaJ or a |>iwie ^-f *wiebeK-k. A 
' cap ««f Tuilk may bo giv<n at abttn 10 r. x. if oi^-v-^r^rr. 

Kium two ami nn^vhalf y^nrs up to iW sixth y<nr the cl Set 
nf the rhliA may jpnuliully be iDcrpa:tf<iL Milk »bouki still* 
bovcrvft be takm in lan^e i|uaini!tii«^-AlMtui « ijttafi Jaily— 
ftfi well ttt <>ociie firtTO of cereal fi-T Km*kfaM, with rir witlwul 
w> r^y t*r frv»ih fruit if tbm* is a tPoAttcr to oui-^rinnlioo. 
Mmt |ire[ttred as a^^ve sbctiM be ^veD twcv a liiy, aftd 
prHWably at the tnaltby hm*], togeUirr with [ii>tat<* atxJ ^«wDt 
greeti vv^^eiable. &« >f«Dra, *»|MCi(«9t «r cwiUiomr lopk TW 
v^-tninic oKal sboukl he li|:bt, and toowt of hrmA mhI vulk. 

It »9 wrll to pivfVPF twv^ IvT't^ whtrh mat' \tp i^^'^m %i the 
Dvrn^ <^ cKifher Si<^ ft ptWle. One 1^4 ^^luU <>o«itan> tke ^omd 
aUowrti ami the ocIht )vt tkvv IMvhUrtt. It » nut «tll to 
it|iw< on T«tid lafftractMS ^ they are esjUr ; 



FSEDiyo ifvntyo the sbcosd ymab. 



22a 



Tlir hltt JrQjH Tu» nati fhirJiitff h Six Vtttnt. — Milt may 
be jilloivii) willi eviTv imml (niiiy \h- omiLTfl^J froiu ilimivr if do* 
Mri'fi). TW Jiiv4-ni^< ^liild ^IkiiM tnkr it i|iiar( a iLty, nlain or, 
vrlK'ti gilniii milk \> not ihorouj^hly iligi^-^ml, moctifieil n^ for 
twelve* to tiflrt'll tivmlli>. 

rWtr-n. — Twv !o fjghl ■luiioi's a tlay mixed willi tl^e milk, 
lakru a* II iH'wmjfi^, wiih u-niilf^ Hi*. 

/irrtul and hlticaii lonj" \v a\U>wvd vrilh c\'crr misil — sul« 
bnwl, 4lri€fl hrciul. Tlj(? nii-iiilltHl "jiulltH) bruul/^ zwiolwck, 

fWfti/n. — Alnii-t niiy kiail ol" cmmiiiI for brmkfiu*t ; ^jnliiuvLl 
nad wliiAttcn ;^ilf> ait* the k-??l. Ki(v and liimnuy (or iliiUKT. 
Birifv \i^ useful in mjiiir< 

Vtt/tiMfM limy Iw^ nllowfHl 1>ir (Heiimt — potnlors in sumo fono 
ur n cx*n^il with uru' ^mn^u ve^'tahlc ; .-^piimulj, cauliJiower 1op*p 
■ml iIh' likr are tU* lK*7«t. 

/^yr/K lire VLTv giHfll, but ehil(tn-ii an? n|>t t» tire of thtnu 
cai<Uy. Tlioy i«lintiUI be gtveo fnr 1>mikra;<tt a* u ru)«<, but 
iii^vvr clay iirtt^r j^luy. 

,1/iYi/. — All<tvri^l 01MV n (Iny fop iltnnor ami in ftUI(*r cliihliv'ri 
fur hpiiikfa^t inxtL-^ionnlly, BoiU^I ur hruilii] *!:*h mny be gi\Tii 
fijr bntikliist or fliniK-r, 

/fj-otiU and Motip of simple o"ai]WM*iti<w iiuiy \u: eat^Mi* >r«it 
h^>tll-■< H'ilh enjiiin uikI cyrttfd?^ ui^- r-tjKH'ialh^ Miiiritu>ai<, 

SktwrU. — i}t\t.\' a day, with dlniK-r. I'luiii i-iblan), milk 
and rice jaiddin^, hiviid uikI i^ti^timl [MkMlii^, and jnaket uro 
xXvt" lietft ; kr-eimia uikv* u niH-k, Fruit plHuild hr pvrii oiiev 
dikily, iiihI Muly rijH^ fri^di fruit. In »icftM>n, ^honld W uis«tb 
T\w bvwt are iinuigo«> lMik<«1 nj^pW, niid ^tc^inl pruni^ Kipn 
|iniHa^ p<?irft, fEnijxv wiihitttt xkitu or mh^U, nmy aliui h^ 
givea. Frr4i jiiiot^r of K'rric?« in i<^imkll ijimntity, eirawberrietf in 
Itcrfif't eoiiditi'iii #]iinnnirly- KifH- '.^tiitalotL|>e and watf*rmoI<>n 
ill rmidi'niie i|ii^Lniiiii-« may al»*u Ix' !ilkiw«]» Grcit ran? -^Iiould 
h<* iM^I in eli>K»inir aixl^lvirif; fruit M ehiklrf-n. It 1* a vm' 
im)Hinanc aniele i»f di(.'t. litit ifribilef !*jk>iIc"1 or imrigic*, i* capa- 
ble- <if iliiioj^ miK'h harm. Tim* much p^hoiild not tic inven iii 
1>ot wratbi?r. f^-mormdi* u tiMrful (hinti|; wtx het wtiUhcr. 

Aocioninxo Ti» Mkm^. — ItrrfiJh/iuit — Kvrr%' day, milk to 
drink. A w<-l)-v<i>i>k4«r1 iH-iMtl, with wilt arul c^niaiii, bnt IStcl^t or 
till *4ignr. Bri^ad iiiifl hitUi?r. 

In iidiliti'^n fi> tile uIhjv*?, one r>f the fullun'tii^ every day; 
Kjqr* l^trhtly lyxM, punelM^I, and for older <+ildtyii *mimliled 
(>r auuUr into a |ihiin t^ntelette. i^>il»l ^>r Imiileil tii<h- fW 



230 



IXFAST FEBLIXO. 



older chitclren n vcn* little finely diopfwd beef, nuitton cbop^ or 
berfsti^k. For vonn^fT cliililrci) meat it br^jtktii^i U not, u^ 
a rulo, iit^H.T*Nirv, Kmit miiy iw pivcii U-fcrt or after bntik- 
fiLst, durLiifr llie Uuuf part of the iiiornii]^, or ut about noon. 
Oiic vuri(Tly ilnily, (iml if tlicn- i?" u ^^jxriitj tcnclt-ncy to couftti- 
piiliciti, .-iU'uinl |tmn(-ft i>r bnkiil u|ipb'?« iimv bo tillownl witb ibe 
^liiim-r, hill iK't Hii ilic^ ibiv?< i>n nliioh lb<.'V \m\*: l>c(^ii ii*ttl 
rairlkr. Onin^^s, InUr-il iip|tlf>'^ sU-wihI jmiiu-?*, jwtiohr>, pn*i^, 
gT3i|HW uitbttut tc4-t]t> or ^kiiifj ; rijtf iippbvi (tliu A<>Acr vnrioli^^ 
nmy bp irivt-Ti ; tli<»K» kncwn by iWlrrH N»i ** bnn!" applet iin> 
not MJitablc iw*il niw). 

Dinwr. — Hniiil luul biillcr up* (k'*in'<i vwry day — not t(» be 

eUtoll to Hk' OXcIl^sk*!! of OtluT ffHuls, 1k>W(^V<.T- 

O/k' mup i-aeb (Liy, Ituiiillon, iR-tf, vtiil, nuiltoii, chickoTif 
or oyster brntb^ wJiirb iimy Ix- lliickeiKil m itb luirley or **tber 
t^mil!* (t'itber ^miii or rt<iiir). Milk nuH cinini niny Iw mbk^l 
where dri»iniblr- 

Ont mcti tlitifif — rtMistt^l ^r bmilal. Bcvrfittrak, bc^f. Inmh 
or Tiiiitt/m difi|i, mr<^ n>jtvi bi^<f nr niiiTToti, oliu^k^ vbite iii«<it 
of niiiHt tiirk<»y, 

Tico vrfjctrrUfi' titrih — i»Tie i^rwn vt'^jetablc* uiiJ one other 
dieli, usually p'bito in *>onie fi.irm, etioult! be given- Potaloe*, 
\}ti\ivi\ or iii:i*;be<b ttUiUHowcr top*, iis|Hiragii$-ti|i«, btewwl cclpry, 
»piTiik\bf bniniiiyf pbiti mnuinkiii, niiD^lii-il p(iu^, young s^trin^- 
iR'iiTi^, jiikI iilomM jiiiy pn-en ve^etnl^le in ^'Jisoii. 

Driuv^f.^fmikvt i* the l>e*T, uml may Iw ^^iven most fre- 
(joentlVr 1>i]t rice- mid milk piidibn^, plain t^iiMarrl, nnd pbtin 
Tapiora podilinp nmy aUo He iwwl in email <fOj^iktiiie(?, !«*- 
oream onoe ji w-eek. Fruit iii M»me *^t^" in«y bo usocb 

i^upjiei'. — Yen- Ilpht Htnple siip]>ers ^h'>ubl be pven every 
day. Milk, milk-tfm^l, brea^l and butter, jind. for olclerchildpen, 
a little stewed fniit or bakcnl iippli-, withiuit t'>o nuiHi sujjnr, 

Aifi'icLES FonarmiEN (:ifter Ilolt), — The folb*wing articles 
ebonld not be allituvd cliiMivn fniiler four ye^ir^ of a^e« ami 
with few exception^ tiity may be witbbelil witb advantage up 
to ibo seventh yean 

Mttrts, — Ham. taoM^, pr>Tb m all fnrmn, rKilted fi«b, comed 
beef, tlried heef, pTiflf. ^^">K*, kuliicv, livor, biiix>n, nieal-etew^ 
and dn^i^iio^ frmn iv^M-le'l iiKfiN, 

Vcfjdabh'j*. — Vvm\ veji^'lableji of all varietieiS cabbu^, pota- 
toes (except wbun IkiiWI or nau^ted), mw i>r fried oinon*. ruw 
celer}", nulif^lifs. Ietlnct\ cuciimlwrw. tornato(v< (raw or cooked), 
beettf, t^-]>laat, anj green etjni. 




J-EMDiyO J>UJtiyO THE SBCOiTD YEAR, 



231 



Brtaflmut Oiir. — All hot broad nntl roll* : buckwli(^t afw) 
all oilier gniWle-nik^y ; all suh^l i.'Hkit*, [KiiUrulnrJy \\\om: wn- 
taiDiii^ drioci fniil^ snA lliurie heavily t'nji^t^H]. 

Dmerta. — All iiiiU, candi^^, pies, larLf*, and |]««in' of every 
deficnpdoD ; alM> naiads, jellicH, hyrugi^ and prei^rv«^. 

Drtnh, — Tea, coRet, win<^. bwr, and cider. 

Frvits. — All dri«i^ t^miutl, und prwML-rvtd fruiu ; Inuiiiiia:^ ; 
all fruilfi out of dcaaoa and auda i'ntii^, purttculurly ui f^ni- 

Tho meaU .ibmdd h<> /ix*en al &xi<i Ii<mn4, wliirli practi^^* should 
b;> siriotlv adberKi (u, Fenlin^ IjfMvr^n^n mvaU, lAt'u ^hvii iH>n- 
MMin^ of the miif^t tnlling ihin^, ^UodU] Ih^ avifirUnl. Ifllio 
chiUt can not ^r #ri>Ri one raeal to nnoiher \rUtiout diriccitnfiin, 
tj>e intervals i^hould be nlicirtened. In <*rtain cast-^ it may Iw 
advisable to give a small ciip of milk or hmib and a oraok^^r 
bL'tuet-ii the mcfilF^ at AUtitl interval a* ta tmJuig yunugiT 
eliildrvfi. 

Candice, oake, aiul the like should hv ke]>l froni yi>iiug diil- 
dren. In w^-U-rf^fidBtHl liomi^, if lie nnee I4*arni4 tliaf h** ran 
n^pl liav<- diem, th** child will aoou cea* ii> di-matid -^wivu, 
1'he frer|net^t indnl/eutv in &vreetr* of varioin^ kinds vreates a 
cUtiire for them to the exclusion of other fof^l. This craving \n 
analogoUH to that for alcohol in adutta. Overiadidgvnco in 
sweets cauM'fi in<lige»tia», headache, and the like, ailment^) that 
may easily t>e pivvetued. 

Tht' I'luld rihould he laujcht V> rat slowly and lu cht-w llic 
ftjod vrt'lh Ti> thi?^ Olid, tonic older indiviihial flbouUI always 
bo pmeut at iiH<ul*limtia u* r4<e th^t sufli(>L<nt lime \h.* tukvii for 
{}»* m^al, and fhni the tVxxl be tiiuly dividi^d, u^ yomij^ cbiMn-ti 
tin lint, a}4 ii mlr, iiu^w vftvy uell. The ([iiantily ^viii U^ u 
lioAliliy child F^)io[dd de|>i<nd on hU appetite. In -^ick cbildrt^n 
thi^ ih n*>I a Mi^ble ^iiidt.*. and, where jxHsilde, ii?£4^I amounts 
may Ix- given (i-ee Feeding of Sick Chihlren). Theohihl i^hmild 
Diftt be forcwl to i^al, nor should \^ lie ^\ven s|vcial articles 
to rempt tlie appetite. If the food offered is not taken, it is 
v/viX to wuat uiilil ihe next raeaJ, wlic-n it will ^eiieially he 
fonml (hot th*" up|>etitc hjit* rt^turiKtl. Low ufapinHile is often 
nw^'ly mi iiHlicHtiun tlmi ibe dif^'Ative orgaiir* ix^^nihi- a slight 

During tin- heiled |MiTlioii!i of Ibe year ihe diild will reqnire 
U'm Holid and more li<|iiid food. Die sajne L^ tnie during sick- 
ness, Slany of the ^.^u^rm-inrestinal dL-tiirbancft^ attrihutnl to 
teething are the result of improper feedin^i. 



232 



Tlip ri>llott-ii4c 1aI>1c« taki-D from Freemao' give- the diet uUtr 

one year of ago : 

Ditt <tf the Srcimd Ttnr. 



At 19 



• A.X. 



('lOut.llLlk- 









AlUmoft. 






butur. 



S01.UJUU <o«.doat*oiiT^ ^o&mtlfc/ 
. Suft-bolled on. ao«,[iM. 
Socnitt, ' 



' i4oLoi«n|»-|iili 



SOL milk. 



« «■. Clair vouiL ^ « o«. mllE. 
^1 at. « n « | ii4 I • (4. vrurl. 



Dt. M ia i iiii I • (4. vrurt 
..-If, I Bn'MMil 



lMpf9hB IhM Year. 



<4.IL 



10 ofJ mt1k» 

fl Of. |E*ii«l. 
Soft-lii'iUnl ret 
Brva'l n;ti) biiiier. 



»*,«. 



ir,v. 




8 OL milk- 



Mttit, I 40. j£ni«l. 

BriAii Auil butler, BrnuTaiiiJ bullae 



/>iif| ^fleriif ttirW r"**-. 



1imiiib<t 


KDwr. l£-l r. m. 


eiin-«t.« r K- 


Kniil, 

OrkI, 

Ullli. 

Bft^ Awl butter, 

1 l*Tl<^ggK 


llmil ami biitl«r, 

l>««wt. 


MLlk, 

Bmul and btUicr 



DIET OF SCHOOL CHILDRH4 

The peruxl iiMially s|Hilci*n of ad "wluxil Jay»" is an <rx- 
treinely a<live one ]»liyr*i(TiilIy. The \'n-*t ininilM^r •»f mt-'tulK^io 
change** gi>inp on nuil ilie ^mwth nf tie Uxiy Joinaiid a plenti- 
ful nml a ^itiiahlE^ iVwi. B^itb in and out <^f H-hool uiid in 
setniuarics careful attention i*bi>u]d be given to fcKxl, frx^sb ulr. 



MET OF SCHOOL cniLDRKS. 



233 



and ex(Tris«. In nthpr ux-nlT^, ihv ]>liy!fkail dcvelopniotit 
BhmjUl rcreiv4> ii« iiiiivh ailtiMtliou fu^ flic me-ntal irruvvth. In 
Iwmrtliiip'H'lio*.*!* <'*|>*.i'ijiUv tin- diet »<h(iiiKl Im' tin- ^nbjti'l nf 
Ciiri-tnl »uidv, iho aim k-iii^ l«» iiV"id mouutijin' iukI t" ]>rjvi<!<! 
a siilfioii-iu tmd i^tl^fyiii^ dk-t. In miiny m^WjIi^ the dietiiry 
it left to iW iliMn-iiiiii of tlio tvffk. In roiiMdcring i<chrHil 
dicfurif* sovcrnl poiutK-* nrc worihv of cf>n'lil< mtioii. 

^[ilk, lM>iij^ o;L»i1y di^^^rHl in nii>ht ojim<«, i> nf |;n?nt VfLlii«\ 
«jt]ieci:i]ly for diihlivti wIkiko niifritinii i< \uAnw iKtrnijil. It 
6lh>nl<l Iw furni^ihi-d iuj u Ixn'cnigi^ diitly for broikfiut and 
stippcr^ iinil i* julvi^iiMr even will) <Iinncr. It itiiiy aNo Iw 
UHtd in thf |n\'f«nmli"n of f»iiil<lLiipv :ii]d MMj(»f, tWiin it^ v<ry 
vuUiiibk*, nml wiiiTK-v(.'r jMJiv<ililr ^liimUl Ih.' ^Lipplinl in Mitli- 
cient 4|t]iiiititi<^* A ^*u|i of wiirni milk «il)i liH^ul <>r nwkuPB 
h lu-lpfii) during iIk* niuldU- of tliv morning luul n,i u suU-^tiLatc 
f<>L' tm ni lliv iilXniicHtn. Drliojil*' I'hildn-it unci nt}K-m iimy wilU 
nj|vaiiU|!r tntcr-ngloAN <if warm milk ii j<h'>n timu U^forc ^■■ii^j^ 
to b«d. If tti^ riieitif; hi>itr \n i^imo timr )>ofnri> thiil H>t for 
brankfvtp n oiip of milk or nf hi^ni) adiI milk vlt4)iil<l l>^ |rjvt-n 
cm tisiit^, 

Egg^ may 1)c rivcrl alon^ or in the |U¥|>arali'»n of vnmua 
(EdtO0. They niay be unid in,almcht any viiv ejcept frie<L 
Fried 6f^ »n* apt to he very indj^e^^fibie. The)* are on«D 
pTfiNin^l in tWif n-iiy In onler to <ii^u]^ die stale taf4e of an 
v\zi£ ihiu bii* bei-n in Monit.'e ior ^yinie lime, 

Mctit i> n vi-ry ]m|x>nn»t i^irt i-f die diet, il4 it contuin» d 
laiytiT <|Ucntity of pn>teini from which the li^^duei^ are built iift, 
fliu) in a more avnilnhle form, tli^^n in any other f'irm uf foo<]. 
Milk nnd epB:< are hIko vnlunble ^vinrees of pivrtein. Mtfit. 
ehouM be |>rovidid, therefore, in -^tiffieient (|iin]ilit]e>^, lialf 
IxHind n day hein^, perhap?", a iTood avem^ allo^rance for a 
^runtn^ boy, the hir^r ntid more robu?^l taking that iiiiantity 
or iQOFf, tlic ^Dialler at^l mfire delienle children taking ^tne- 
wlt'it U-**. Steak, cUopr^, and nxt^t- nf beef, Dinlton, Iamb, 
ibwl, ami Imetin nre the nnv^t Miilable mtal^f althnii^h pr>rk, 
lo^^her With mmt pTcia^^, tueal pudding;:*, Kinsn|;e, and bn>bef^ 
mny be alhr^-etl in AmaUer <|nantilief^ Tlie^e Im^t, whil^ ^n- 
erally relidic^l, nre m*i ^o ()ipe«ti1ile nor i=ncli pynl wmrceft of 
milriment ap thtif^e first nnnieth Witheare ami propter prriuira- 
tion many of their ill effi.vT>i ean be obviated. More meat i^ 
r»v|ii]rK) in winter tltim in enmmrr, ami mart in cold climates 
than in uiirm. Yw »tiiuv tlmt too mtich meat okay pve rise 
to l«3U7llia. 



234 



lyfAyr feboisg. 



yUai may be giveo twice a (I>iy, and egp or fresh fish may 
be sutwitilutt?*! for it about tiiree times a week. AV'lien tlie«^ do 
uut slti^fy tilt a|)[H-tite» nuiit mny be addvd. For this pinqH-se 
cold tilioed mtut i* u^duL 

liivrtd and buttrr p-huiiid be piv^n with wil-Ii iii«:«), Uivinl 
tootle In.nti the wlxile-whwit Hour niav be* uwhI in the Im^gt'st 
<|uantityr but it if w«<ll to Mi|>)>ly v»rir>ii^ kinds of bread, to avokl 
monotony, " Rn^wn brwul" ^iven <y>niiii lumpily IvcxMrncH very 
tiresome. Rye brwul may be given ocr^fiioaally, ami bretid 
mnde Irom mixture's offbeat niid rye t^ vvvy )>jilatable, Itu^kp 
bUciiit, and crackerB inay iiUo be F^u]i|)lie<i. Corn-bread, when 
]»n*|RTly inaidr, mny l)e giwii once n week or ofi*'iier, and 
grtdille cakes uf b(K'k"beaT, com. or wboit rtonr two or three 
x'wit^ :i week, TUtk' ki&i may be wrveil with syrnp or fniit- 
joicca. 

Ccretd porridfK*ft of all kind& mny bo given for bcvak&dt, oat- 
meal bping priklvdily the mn>^t de^'irnble, 

Vegelables of almost nil varietie.c may lie used. For flinner 
two varieties sluuild be given, one green vegetable and |k)Ui- 
toes. Salads mnde of the green vegetaibles^ witb the ver}" sim- 
plfwt dreii*iinp^, are uwful adilitioii?^ tn llio diet. 

Frnit slumtd inviiriidjjy le grven on«' u day- 
Sugar shonld Ix* prnvidi^l Tor in the <lietiir}'- Candle* and 
many t>f tbe >woft* ^iven U* cbildren ore bnrntAil and raun; 
indigi'?*lioo and dvApcjwia, If proper ^we^-t** were ]ir<>vided, 
tln.*re woidd l>e ftlij;l»ter tende«»ev ti* iTidiilp<' in tho Ipa^ de^-ir- 
:ible form* whenever opjwirtnniry artbrdcJ. M'itli tbi> monlK, 
and when the ap|>elite demands suti^fying Wtween meaU, tluy 
may be given viitli or wilLoul a pln^^ of nulk. Re(;nl,irily 
Kb<»ni(b however^ lie observed, and they f-bonld not be given 
ilumediaUdy bt^Ibro <»r nfter a nienl Fnnl-svn]p!<, 'sugar 
syrupf*, honey, pp.'^en'ed trints, ami jitm mny be eaten with 
br^cL Caramels^ clioeolate, mnpW^iignr, and plain ntgiir 
taffie* ure the best of the oilier foinir* *if rweets 

Sini|ile des.^ertjr, sueb m* niJitnrd>, milk poibling^ with nee, 
tapioi^i, anil tEi<? Ilkr*, UixikI pn<kling, plain tviko^, uml pr<)p(>Hy 
pi-ppiircd |>!i«m' may be n?ie<l. 

Tbe lK!\'erage^ >^Iioulil be water and milk. NVwik «>eosi or 
choeolale may be given after tbe seventh year. Tea and (MllVe 
»^hotild not Ix- givL-n M^fl^ the thirt<*euib ywir, anc] juny 1m> 
withbeld mlvantugeonsly "till bingL-r. Alndtiil in not to be 
uj^wl exc'pt bv a j^livsirian's dii'eetion, 

G:s]H.<eml care nboidd Ih' taken t" avoid a monotonouti dietj 



DIET OF SCHOOL cmLl>SEy, 



S36 



fur tlierc iin^ mafiy iiiHtaocee vthtxit Hi^ rv>n«tan1 r«pctiti(>i] of a 
<vrlaiii funii of Wk) hlu< i^tAlcd s r)islik<^' r.>r it thiii \n\^ |tfr- 
siiUnl tlinxi^lLiitit \\(v (.»r Ihtii nvrnnniK? only wicli cliflindiy. 

A mK*i>ii(i }Kitut V} hi' r(.-inin]ilH-rc<(J U timt lIk* IWkI ^liotilil W 
W'cll pn^wintl uti<l nttniiHivcly wpvyd, Tiii:* hiis nmiv in do 
witlt MifltK'iioiit^ tlu' Hji|K;lili< vf <Mi<iit(^, ikTVtriiH rhildr^ii tlnm 
U gt'iM^nillv Mi]»jH>3i*<l, iiud ciui ttitc lie iH?ti.-«U<i) ii|]ini ton 
Btn>tigly, 

OvpTvatiitg AKf>ul4l \h^ iiv'ok1(hI, :ii)i1 tii ibiiii <'utl un oltlvr 
pcTHVi pElt4»it]tl a1w7iypj Ih' |»iv^*nt wlii^ii |iituiini1ilr ; iii m^IuhiI^ 
\h\» nhouM be idsUukI u}\tu^ On the otln-r liiind, u oliil^l 
idiotilcl not, ihrougli cnpriei- or tisiLvit, l>enliowi.Hl to I'itt toolitlli:. 
By oxcrcUiii^ n littU* tart, iium of tht* dUlike^ which ai*e not 
(liH'ply rvHrtod, Imt whioli nny U'Oiiut >f> if pei'^tMixi in, may 
giiR^nlly U* ovcrcixiie. Th(.*.-«ti di^likeH are ofieii the I'e^ult of 
iniitaii^ici. 

SiifticlrnC tim^ jthouhl be nUowvt) not unly fnr th« mral, biit 
(or the iK'rfnrmiuior of vrhotcvcr xmnll <Iutitfja may bv rcquirfil 
of liip MiiUL A tlim- i^hmili) Ik* >ir-t fnr on*' or two fitkuW 
ihuly vmXf to thf wat*»r-fri<v«'i. Hurrying in !H*hm*l >hi'jiilil Iw 
AvniilcJ. ItiaJiug ami Miitlyjn^' itnnietliiiuly iR-folv uml iifu*r 
mctiU should be prohibtU-il, ii« ^tiould Uithiti^ or any very 
acti\'e tx<TTCiw'. Some lipht form of rtrniiiion mayp however, 
W iiiiiiil^l in. The lioiits for nitjaln ?<hould be so arningixl 
thii thr <'hihl uin\ Iihvc frr^hly prci)An-d iniiil», luid tiot ivdd 
binchi.*on-« i>r wiirttuHl^over ilintun?. Iviwfly, nibbling; ami wil- 
ing U^tw^i-n niniU^ <'X«^jl undor the cnmliiions prcvionrtly 
dcm.rfib«<l, fthimU be Mrii^tly [mtliibited. In i^|>it<^ of fftnng<<(it 
ruh**, hnw**\vr, m^uy itifri»ip'ti»**iit»i nnll oe<*iir. 

It U by iicf^tect uf tlie du't, frc-'^b uir, and exerci?w tbut riudv 
QBM^ of tnbereubwu gaia bo»il^'ay ; aiienm may ix^*ull from 
•iiob iicplf<*l, otnl Ik fii lit^ritr. ner\-oiifi ebild be the <nile"aie of 
one thai j^hould, bv HirliU Ix- limlihv. 

Diet List for "a Boys' School — firmkfifM,7:M) a, m.— 
Hftlf^b^'ur aUow*:^!, Fniii. A frmil wiih crc^nm. Brrtid »ml 
bulCrr, ^Uiik, chi>p»r W^h, *rr t-gg?*, the laht )K?iK-i], jnittchfil, 
or U-* ora<-let. Fi*h iHX&Hionally. t-'om bntid once a vr^'clc ; 
gridOh' c<iil;e« onn* a wih^^U, Milk to drink, 

Dinurr, I K «. — Th^M-ijnariJ'n* hour aUctWinL Snip ; 
miiil — nKwC-l)«'f or multoti. .«teuk. nr ehirki'n ; fip<b oiiee a 
week ; jtotatiw^ mid a irrw.*" vi^retiible. Hoititay or iicr oatv a 
WH^k. A liiRipIe <iewri ; fruii. 

S*tpjin\ 7 ]\ u. — Hiiir-*hoiir nllovcd. Hai^h. cold itwat, lUli, 



236 



lyrAST FEKpiyo. 



or omelet, ilreacl aod buttor witli eymp nr ^irvserved fniit or 
fruit-juice, Plain aike. Milk to drink- 

OTHER FACTORS IN INFANT FEEDING. 

Feeding in Infant Asylums. — The feeding or infiintis 
in o\Trt'mw(Utl wihut iisyiuni?;, with their liiok of frMh air and 
pHliettv fif ik1ti.-iidjuil>, i^ ;t imuk-r uf jf['eal tJirticuUv. Any 
ntteoipC at 8('ientil^c ftx-clini; under ^uch oir<.-umt<tAiioe^ will uUi- 
m^toly lear! to fuilare, ihe nielho^l in iIk^^o <.4L^c^ being liekl to 
blnm^. The ]irim»ry eniii^ of itinlnnrrifkin ami rnanL^n^im in 
iiiHtitutbn^ is the lack of fre>^h air and individual eiiro, anil 
until thfjw are ebtainable it it^ useless t" uittmpt t(* aeiom|)lish 
auything by frpecinl f^^edin;: methods. In smaller instiluiions 
th(^ use of the Materna ^niduiite will he fnund satisfactory. 

In thu lni)jer ;i^yh]Di!^ it In well to have two or three general 
working fciruuihiK^ Mich as tat ^ per c(.*ni., »ugar U (kt uiu., 
piTMcin 1 per ceul. ; and tuc 4 per cent*, Mi^ar 7 per tvut., 

iffotein 3 per ecnt. Th^^sc mny be \i»ricil W adding more or 
ess water to iheni to adopt ttieni more el<wely to Kfieeial needs. 
The yonngiT infants may, when juiKKihle, receive ^-iieeial mi^tt- 
urei^ I'^or f^ubhliliito feedini:. onmleiised milk, harley- and egg- 
wntcT will Ih.- fotind mo.st tL<<fti). 

The ullowanw uf n fvvc cent^ ,i dny penmdly made for nn 
iiiOint^s entire nin* it (jnifi.- imuh^)na1e to ae*"r.nn])li>h nnv gowl. 

The Infant's Stools. — A v<ry ihir eoueqitioi/nf the 
(nfnnt'4 difc^v^Tioii can Ir- ubiiunrfl fmrn an <<\ami[)ntion of the 
et<Kib. ThU .should lie ilont: In all nu-^^r^, innl jt< a^ in]|»orliint 
a jMirt of tbp mtitinc na the exominntinn of tU*.' hnxrt i»r Inng?, 

TIk' vi/o of tlic* f^t'inl shodld bt- notitl fir."-!, ultWtph thijj is 
not <if very gi'r!if injjM"»rl;iniH>j a* it vari**>J Willi the rnnnikrr (»f 
tflnoU and the r-ite ami pendiaritif!* of the rhild itself. 

Tile inmdHT iff ^XtMi]'- is always Vt l>e nuijiidrrt-cl, but ij* not 
nearlv ^o Lni]if>rtaMl ;ts ihe ehiraiHcr of the r^tnol. Ati infjmt 
may bnvr om- or iwty MtViU a day, *>r as many a^* four, live, or 
six. but -M» lon^ a* the eharaoler of the stool retniaian j^ikI, tl 
may be ri^ird^tl n-^ i^rtVlIy normal. In dianbca the wairHC 
of ill** di-"<*iaM- i:* Iw'tli'r [old by tin- (jiialily of the bUhiI?* than 
bv thr iiumb<r, iind thU mny to n cvrtuin ext^^iil be said to be 
tnu- cf piM>*tt|mlion. 

The niij*t:*H'nce of fhe *ff>ol of iinrsin^ infants *ihould nor- 
inrLlly br about thai of butter, althoaifli flight variations either 
\\t\y are not li Ih' n^tranl'd a?* di'^tiaetly abnormak The otool 
should besinooiti, ami contain no cnnb or ^ulid mu^«»4. In 



OTHEit FACTORS IS /-VfJAT FERDtSG, 



237 



mnfltrpation the ntooU ar* tianl imtl dry, wliil** in rliiirrluw ility 
are scjft or Iu|iiui 

Liimpa aro frequently ?^*n in ihc sti***!. Tbif*<^ are ilmiuII}' 
cuwU or iiia*wes of iindig<e^le<l lal. Thev mjiVj h<iwever, be 
clnni]»i of niuciiK 

MaciL>i is jiref-cni normally in ibe sUiol, and iu pre.^nee U 
va^Wy denxMi^tmiei] ; h !-h<*iil<i, liowevor, \)€ wo tiuimutf^ly 
Diix«-<d w\t\i tile fri<jifl iImiI it vau noi Iw ^«?eu willi llie iiakt>il 
eye. Any irrilfltioti of the iiilfbtinttl wall <au.4ii^ a pixTit 
in<-rofl^e in th« aaiomit of imioufi m iUv &toi>l. In diurrlKHi iiiul 
in intesiin.Ml in<lif^^-iVion iIk^iv nmv 1m- lurp- titiioiim-*, ninl in 
iiint:lipauun cxia-iiiL'rable inucii^ may cover Um: luird iim^^N;^ of 



Tli^ reflation of tnfanrV RtooU in iiaiiaIK Add or ncutnU 
although K>me[)iJieH it is iilkaline. Ktfher nrid itr alkaline 
HtooU may be alterpcl in color. A n-nini lo a normal color i^ 
ttsially brutiglit about in tlie^c cqk-s by the admlnihiraiioii of 
anidkali wben tbe bt^K^LH aw avid, and rim- nra^i. Alkaline 
stfKfb, f-rocn in vctlor^ may l>e urodiiwd by giving alkalin in 
larffe doeoM for M>v<-ral dayti. TJit- wilvr of tbo Ktoo) ufttii 
fumishf^ conf^idcmbl*' ititimnfition at^ in t\w nmdiiton (»f Hw 
infam. Normally the ortlor i^^ a li^ht hiitlor vi^IIoa, but tW 
ftt<K>1> niav vary Kiiuewluit in lljis respect, and be lij^hitr or 
darker. In yoimg breasi-f«] infuiiis ide MnoU may U-u dnik 
yellow, like tiM' yolk of an c-gg. Iti artiliiijdiy f«il iinlm'.-^ ilii' 
t^cxd^ an* api to Iw very light in color or eveti dfcicle^Uy wbilirili. 
Kliubnrb imjian^ a yellow color to the stool, 

It'j^fV^ «A>(i/' art' ftven tvunu-liiiUT^ in arlificiallv fed children 
that r^ct-m in \tr otbrrwiBp in n'^mml (nrnditittn. A.-* n rule, 
Iu>vrc\'vT, wbito »t<H>U nrr uther tin- nvuU of tht- ing<u»tion vf 
ejEDAMtve <|iuimili<<* of fnt or indimti- an albM>n<*r of bile. In 
the former wik'> iIk- *lwd* are lorp% wbitisli, imd hav(- tlir 
cbaraeleri^fio (kW of f^iUy a<riil)>, uhicb n-MndiK'^ thai **f 
nincid butter The 4<vd amy U' drif*i| and l>nrnl with tlic 
fuuneiriior ami the fat may he dL^oIved by ether. When bile 
b abiM^t, the »touU are white and have a very foul, almost cadar- 
erk", o<h>r. 

Rett jfiiK^H ujar tnvv thnr color bi the pre^nce of frei^b HtnA 
from tlw-' r<t?tuni or the lower imri of iho inlo«tiitul trftct, Vlun 
it oonuv frivm ihir np|kT |iarl<i, lh«- blood U filurays blu<*k. Tliv 
iitTv>akf* of fn^h hlofxl ln<<|uenlly ^u^eu wlit^re hard ^onU aro 
INtAstnl o'oie Iroiii A\^\\i «-xomution> of the amiH. 

Hlack fititvii are C(Ius<hI by the |>n>td>ce of blood. In rliis 



238 



ryFAST FKKmms. 



ftiw tlH> «to»U ftri- Ijlack nml tarrv. The blfMn) may oomc fi*om 
t)w iiiU'T*lintw or T^tmimt^h, or fn>m \>\otxl ^wiJInwtd, t^j^jMrcinlly 

fit'tt'k ur blirA-ij<h*brotni Mtf/ofu may aUo be c^iisi'd by ibc 
mliiiUiixtmtion of bUiimcli^ iron, or tannic acid. Brown Moolit 
niv ln**(m'iitly:s('('n iLi the rfPiiUof Wuu-ial aiul chcmicdmagc* 
ill rhc infi--*tinc in ihr. iT-mrw! of intc<4tiuji1 intlige^licTi and into^ 
tiiinl inli'^'ium, Hnw \n.vf-yn<.x' may give riw U* fonl-emellnig 
hniwiii^h* <yr jjravishM-iilnn'iI sTihiIk 

Grtm WWhM aiv due to n lui^< ttunibcr nf cnuAe^. TbU may 
ri.'Hiilt fnim iitloiinjil iiiiliirf,''licjn niid inttH^ion due to improper 
fi"icl, nsuiilly rilinT nil i-\('t'M of riu^rtr or of fat, or to llie pres- 
t*u<'i' *if lja(rt<>ria. <'al(»rni"! t-aiiM^"* jrnvn ftooU^ ami alkalis i^ 
e^itilimRHl and not nentrali/iil ux iho inta*itiiie, nmy prudutx- the 
?^iti(" WU^'l. 

Symptoma of Dietetic Srrors. — Tou miu-li *tret« cxa 
»<il \w Liiil iip'Hi tin- itnjwH-liUHv "f iiivtvli^Uiiig llie BOUPt* of 
dUuirbaacH!?! dm? t.i dit^lctie unoh*, Thery i* ample room fop 
fiinhrp Hiiiir^d :*Tudy of ihi^ stilijeet 

Too Low Protein. — TIk' ritoolsare small and ei»nsti|>ated, if 
tln' ollior foiwl I'lfiiMUlr^ iHv low, fl-H iliey aiv i\\n (o W\ The 
ebiid clot'j* not gain wt'ijrht ^> rapidly as a iioiinal cliiM, or it 
may remain stiitionary or even loj^e weight. It is anemic, and 
if i\n' low proiein is n-ntiuTU^l, the chil<l t>c'eomes muramic. 

Too High Prulela, — The ehikl U ajH w have colif, vomiting 
any timv, but usually Imlf an hour or tinnv atW fn^tHn^. The 
pt^mU iHkiit4uii uiidigi-^U'd eui"^U, oud uiueitBi atid iiiuy be yd- 
lovvisli gp<»i*n op (flh*Twi-'M» difteoloiwl. 

Too Low Su|:8r. — The t^'^i" in WHjrlit is apt Ut hr» *low, juul 
thv I'hild m;iy Ix- ('uaslipabst. These iidant-H mv nxitully ihiii. 

Too High Sugar. — Vomiting an lioiir or Iwoafli-r iiiwd;*, the 
voaiiii'd niuttL-r usually lining sour. Add eruetationH uro 
cfiramon, Colie U fiv<iiient. The stools are genemlly ^niw 
green and very irritating. (Iv* bnttoi^ks often U-ing exeorlatid. 

Tow Low FaL — The oliiM jridnr< vwighl sh-wly, ^nd i.-> apt to 
be ooET>iii{Niivd iiiile^ nu e:<c*'>B of niignr w given, a* iti oc»n* 
do II SOI t'l id Ik frui.lhk^. 

Too High Fat, — Tho ehihl vomits an hour or two aj^er fi>ed« 
ing, <_"olic is conndoii. The stiH'l-. may be thin nnd jjinh-u op 
gi'eenish yellow, and contain small masses of nnditTP^tHl fat and 
ooiisidepahli- mneii^ Thew small hiinfw are ofien mistaken fop 
cunls. They are more or less tninnhiceot. and when liunit pve 
off the odor of tiitty acids ; tliey may be dis*roIved in ethor. 



TItR FKEIilSO OP SK'K I.\'FAXn\ 



23Q 



C«pds are Dc*r, howin'er, Oissolvcd in elber, Another type 
more cirminion j» Hk lar^^ while, rather ilry stools having the 
odor of niDciii bultiT. 

It must be rL-meinlH^n^vl that tiic condition of tlie stools miky 
W (liic t^ ODr or tuc^rv nf the fntHl d«.-nicnitSf unil i-xpericnce in 
ihtw cawTsus in im»t otbersj U iW \>v>^i itaclKT- It is ouly hy 

timrtirr niiH cnrcfiil ohiEWTVAlioii t\\iti ihc fwdinj»of inlhnii^ mny 
»o nmdtiet'H] prupeHy. Aticitln'r liicl to h<» ix'niembered i^ ihut 
lh* fiwxl ni?*Hl nol W 4'hrtngeil to niwr every fnfl!iig»lt4?ratioii in 
the ti'mjJ^T of tht child or tu the chanict*»r of iu p*tool&. 



THE FEEDING OF SICK INFANTS 

The Feeding of Dlffictilt Cases. — J'he fraliag of cer* 
tain infuniA ofi«ii Uncoined a diflirult laautr, uot so niuvli oii 
aocouut of actual o^iiditJoup' *A' lMik'hm:, an aAwin|£ t^i per«onJil 
idiopyDtrntsy, Otiivrs a^iun are diflioatt w ivw hccuu^ of 
acuial (lis4tt^' f*t the digestive orpine or on aL-ooiini of the 
lowtiin^ of nijtriibn dxiv to the exif*ti'na> of oilier dir<*ai*erk 
Tht-r^' oaHC* will be cronsidert<I in f»ro|ier (init-r, 

At thf' oijiw-t it nui«i Ih' r('m4-!]ilM>ri<il iliat tlic friTilt niny not 
ixdik* ti»thi' fi.Nul ilH'lf, hiir !*> il< pn:paniti'>n or tin.' m»Kle or 
time ':>f aidministnitiof), nii<l to im|iroptT siirroiin<)iii^ nnd can*. 
To rticcc«l in th**sM? diffit^iU caM^ it U nct&tsftnF" to Wk dih- 
p-ntly into tin- niincitc^ dvtiiiU of ibr infiint's Iffr. 

Loss of Weight. — IjOiv of M-eiffht in an infant shonU 
alv»'«y^ be con.?i*lcTicd a very seHon» i^ymjttoiii. I>nnn^ an ac-ii1c 
ilhit-r*?, tueh a» pneumonia or diarrhea, thij^ ih to be eX|t«etod. 
In i*l>ronio miMlitionK the wei>;ht may flnctnnto, frninp up aiwl 
down, or remainini: more or less gtationun'. If, however^ in a 
periiNt of a month or two ihcri? i^ no ^^neral tendency to ^in, 
in s|tite of the Hiictuation. tlii^i iiulieution if; a ^^nous mailer. 
When? nn itifant is lo^in^ wcit^ht without any iff>ocial caufie, 
tliif^ mav be attrilniled to ifiMilticient foml. If the infant is 
nnr^iu^, ilic hreaj^i milk mny l>o \t**tyv or iiipiiiflic-jcn^ or both. 
If tlie hal>c is bi.4t)<--fcil, the milk mav not lii«ve l>cra incrcaso) 
in sliT'njrth in pro(*orti'>n to tlie ohild'^ growth. 

It fif^Hently bappen-* that diffieHlry is rx|»erieiiced in obtain- 
ing a f'HKl Hiiireil to an infart'^ <ttf.fesiii>a. This eiul, howe^vr. 
once attaineil. the phynciaii nuiy incTea»« the c|fiantity» but t>ot 
tlio qaality, of tlie ftiod, ami the infant finally ettuH^ to iucr«u« 
in weight, remain*; ftationan', and then luf^e^. Lo*^ of wcigdt 
may alFH> ht- due to st 1>xk1 Vm ridi in pmUiii« or to one nnsuitt-d 



ihir iufnnlV <lip^tmn. TIik 1ii1t«-r oiupto uimallv, Init not 

In till mxw tt *'«iTfiil pIuiK of tlu- fij<nl ii* c9KH'»tuil. Act'u- 
nito (^hiirt^ nf tTic r|UiLiitity of tixxl laktm, the Itmc, u'lu^Uicr tlio 
c\\i\<\ %v»mitii Hinl Mt wkit Timi\ ninl tlii* ntimWrund i-bjinK-fcr 
of flic *('h»ls \'U\^ HIV Tif (rrt-at iR"l|i. If tli** fiHid iji im-n^inN) 
c*r iWrL-BH-Hl. fi> tilt' wi-K- niiiy l»c, U> an avcnigc^lreiiirlli for a 
chiUI <if llir MJM* iiiui woipht of the oik- niuW oon.^^iilrmlion, 
an<l lliMv ir« (lion no rlmnkn* in flio cliill's <vmliTion, tlic fiHitl 
^ll<lnU^ Ih' ]>i*|>t'>riiiWHi, citlii'i- iwittially ar iiiinpU^rrk, or rnixiil 
with iiik iiltjutiiini/iHl or miildtl r<NHl ttr with harlvv -vater. Tlie 
ndcUlion to tlie ^liviury of iiUnmnn-w»t4T (»r»f miiuJI tgiiatititit*;* 

of out- I'f tlir j»roi|i^twtnl iHt'f [nv-[«irt»tl"iJft ( I*»I»o|if ptoo, 
git, V-KXi ; Ui|ai(l Uiif l*o|>li»iu»iJpij gtL v-^ ; or oiio *if tliv 
othtT Ut-f |in<|i(inLtt4m» 111 slrnilur lUv^-s mix^l with water) ia 
itiilif-at4tl, Miniitr (K-^e^ of uu\ votniira i>r Mn-i'huiii, with or 
wirltuiii an atkjilt a^ hicarl>otialo of fio<la, or of creawte (LiqiiitI 
BiH'f iVj^tonoiJs with crftifiote, git. v-xx^ of the vVrlington 
Chcniiuil CiHiijiany, if ;iii txi^ll^ni form in wLicli t« givv crea- 
w>ti'| an' oOdi nf vahK\ t^^i^x-ially whcnt- mtx^rmilti^i* is jiue- 
pot*twK !-<»** of wcii:hl tony U' raiiHxl by pcr^ii^U'iil voinititig 
(mv VfwiUiii^V 

Stationary Weight. — Thi* frvqnr-ntly foUows when «n 
iiifuiu IP4 u'rtiot-il or vhni uuv U f<<i) :irtilir-eilty fri«oi thi- <>iilj^et, 
Ev«m if the ehShl 1* iTori\iiig rt^prrrt pnrrntJigr of f»*i*l it niny 
not iritn for ^-voriI wivkn. So li>ti^ :i* the in£mt i# vn-II sncl 
tho ivrmitup* ami ijtiiiittLty giv<*n (X»TTi^>ntt to tlio^ *lin.*i"t^ 
for WW iiifnot of thi- ^^nn^ ii^< »iul weiijhi, ii4> alurtii mnn) U* fi<lt, 
cvon if i\ month ^liouM ola{k^' withimt ?h*»ffitijf iuoreo^ in 
wi'iiiht. Hown-vr, i-nw tlw repibr gain la weigiit is esiab- 
IipIhO, It ^ln>oKl uiK nronhi MaiioUiar>% but aliuuhl itu.-riEa^ 
]en>fhmtly fri><ii w<vk t<^ ^'r<*k. TV* avtTaijr wcflily jpiio ilur* 
iM^ \\\v JiM yi-tti-f^f tifV \fi Iw^Mivti finir awl Mi-ht winotH. Tl>e 
M^"ij;hl miiy oix\i-tiwviUy, witlbitit any Hppareni »s>i^Able cau.>4c% 
W the itumo ni oim* mvkly wrif^hin^ »< tt wafi «t the prereitu^ 
Oho. If thU jieriiMs a curv^ol -*^rv\\ fi>r tlio cau«e mvat be 
iun«W, iintl \xill 0IV0 W fikttml ii> 1>f inMitluk^it food. 

CoUc. — This i* io»n\' a|»t tiMHVor in hrv^M-frt) tli:>n in U»<tl<s 
fnl twhir^ on ibt* |H-rvviiia;n> u^tuiUy nx^vnowtHlixl. It i< vi^pe- 
t'mlty Ukvly 10 tsMMf %M\ \luniitr thr fiiM thrt<e luiifiiby. Tq 
btx'ttft'ft^I inRiot* It \^ ot>eii a tUAieuh autl^r lo ovm-onic. If 
oi\ v:CAniiiialit^i thr |ii\itriik^ 9tX' foio^l to be too b^i, ah <*f1^>rt 
!iho«tKi hi* indi<W tu tyttiMV tbmn, Hrnl the tnr^r\^U of nur^iog 




TUK rEKDiyO OF SICK ISFAXm 



241 



niuy Uflrn^lii'iitHl. In lioUle-M inbntii colic is tHiialtydia* to 
ihr fiut ihat ilio iH^ni'iUiip^ of jirotein is M* liigh. The condi- 
tion tniiy al-^o l>e causmI Uy ilu- fixxi U'iti^ jn^'^^i l*^> <^>I<'i A3 
woll fls In' a hmt of eauftes (hat bear no reliiiion ta the Imnl- 

Vomiting. — J}Mn^htf/jf ttfier /•\fHtin^,—{n) Fmni tlie looil 
U'itiimivrn hi Vni liu^r cjtiaiitilit^- Kvdnt-e <iuaQtily, 

[tr] Frijm (1"m1 Uujj: (fiwn hkj tliluUr and to Docvr^itatliig 
iIk' mlcitig of ii^> 1[ir^< (|uuuiiiie4. lii'duov ibo (juuuticy anu 

(e) Fn»m taking Icxx] Xtm rapidly. Give iiiore liluwly — i[t 
braast-fi.'i) cluldnn, by re^ulaliiijf cho flaw hy ^r:i.^piii^ tlie i)i]>- 
plc bvlvvi.i-i] till' tiii^<rs ; In Ixxtle-llHl lalnef^ Uy u.^ug a nipple 
with a Aniiiller hole-. 

At mt^ T^iitr. — Due totbe abdominiil bmdcr beio); Uw llglie, 
or io nluikiiig i>r liolOii^ tlw iufiitit wUIj the head uver the 
nun«'*?* fluiuldtr, }iattiiig <>« th<^ Wck, ■■i<", Fnmi i*n> hljfh |iri>- 
tiriiLi-^tUb: In moro ttpl to \k VkC<sHii\Tnmv*i hy other r^yniptuuj*, 
hfi colio, oiinl* in MtnoU, i-tc 

f Aw or Tu^n Hfnti'» nftrr fm/fwf/.— Tlw* ViJiiiitrtl injitci'inl ii^ 
tt^niilly :<A>ifr:im1 riintUiltOr tt riuiy U-ivutcry uiulo^rilaiii iiiiu'iij^ 
Thi- in diir lo tlu- [HrftH'titH^' of fiH or Mi^r iK'in^ i«n' liiirli, 
Thi' fiti, or b'>tli fin mid Mi^ir, i<h<jiihl U' dt-crww?*!, wmI th<* 
foot] bo ^ivt-n r^lowly mid at loti^r intervnl^ 

VumiiUiiT hImi ocvurs in many dl'^*a:H<l oondltlrmri- Tt S- « 
frt^furiit it<'vi>iii|>3U]ii]ient ofjca-'^trtcaiKl inU^liiuil i)i^>[xlri>, iufoo- 
tioii, *im1 nil HCDU' diHi-iu-M-.-i ; it fwirtir-* iii in-rvmis ilnctL-HT*, nud> 
ucfc mcaihgiriri, ami in bruin tuiuor, in |)4'nti)riitis ^^i^ in intcs- 
tineil obftirui^ioii, with rmii^iing ic|w>IU, tut u linliit, or reflfxly 
(tiim intj>lin:il nr plciryn^fiiil irririitii>n^ or in toxic rf^nditionH, 
gueli iL-* nr;ini;i, Thi.- iri'UtntrtiE dcptiidp u:i removal of ibe 
ani.-M:' whrH' ix^oihK When it ntviir* in miliimnF" urate di*- 
tn^'S, Ik>h'<-\'i^, much oaii \tc Amr in u pt-ni-rsil way toovprorrtne 
vomiting. Th^rfiHwl ^ihiiiiUI Iw^rivt'ii in MiRictt^itly i^mall tguan- 
lirii's at tvhTi-bour inUTX'aN, nf In vnnu 4*ii^-<^ a U-.i-iK-oiiftil tif 
food may iw. givrii t-vi-n" lnMir, or fvrii i-^x-rv hall-ht>ur wln-rv 
lar^i^r <fiiunlit*r?t mn not rrCain*^!. If th^' m^c i* Ortrtc, it nwiy 
be n<,<viuar}' to jt<y<iirv u wf1-niir«<T {t4}4i Inaniti(>tt i. Wa^hinp 
mK tl«" -it'itnurh iini] pivajir nm two vpiy ini|iort!in( ni^^nn^ of 
In^linir pi*r*i*t<'nt voniiliEi;^ wliob «liotild not W f'>rffritt^»n. 

Tlw tihyMiolo^i^- li.i^i* that LK*.tir» (lunug Uii* lir^t Ibny-vigbt 
booro ol lilo sIkmiUI iint be tbT)^t4*ii. 



1« 



^2 



IS FA XT FEEDfyo. 



GAVAGE. 

Gaviipe, or fetnling by iin-un^ -if a •t<»nw»di-tiilie^ is n rrethod 
iiM-il 111 Viirioiir* (lUe^VH^* niuJ c<nitliti4pns of inlniicv mii:) t*liHd* 
IkkhI. In **fL-^<^ wht^H' tbr uhiUl is nol able to lA]ir nonrirthmcntp 
r>r rtrily Ui iri>TiiAictenl iitiioiiiit, nii<l in cntitfn lA* tmoitntrollabl^ 
vomiting, this mftboil ntny W lYsortH ta It U used in the 
linniiiij* of pivmatiirt- inlinit*. wlu'tfirr in iin innilutur or not, 
iiiuj 111 Ciw* nf ?^(u:ilb wiiik, rn:ininti<; iiifSintrs wlio, owtnp to 
w<-«kin'.t.H c»r lin-k i»f ii[>|H'tIU\ ilii iiut taUe Miilirk-iu iiikiinF<ltEiiait. 
It i> aUo ('iiipliiy^Hl ;ii\vr Mivgmil ii|H?mii<jtr^ fihout tlk' liruiJ or 
Deck where swannwiiig is imcrlVrt'^i witli^ ami in nrww tli^-a^**, 
»ui.'1j a^ jim^tiiiKJiiiii, in fi^vt^rr*, uiid in iWlirhmi or corim. 

Tlic wsulu* tbat fctilow this nittliml fit" fifiling nrv ^nrprUini;, 
ojKH^xuily ill cwin'ji wUcn* th<'iv i* (H>it«tflitt voiiuting nr whrrc 
th<» *torTia<*b hit"* II \'ory *nvi\\ tii\mc\i\\ In th** lonurr n\rn> the* 
vomiting injiy Cfitn* ninl iIll* \\nn] he it'iniiii.tl ; in the hittiT, tbo 
(^:i|nicitv of a r*toMi;icli ihat (ni'ViiKi:<lv lu'hl only un onnoc or 
\wt iiiiw rapidly lie incrwLMHl until im uvcrjgc^sixod feeding i« 
relaineil with €a-*e- 

The tcc'liiiic of the mc^tlnKl is ^iinj^Io, nn<! tlic piiicMirc oon* 
diU'U'il \vi[b<(iii diflii'iiliv in cliiltjn-n nmlcr two vtvir* of age ; 
HlM>vr tbiit ii^t' it Miav W dilVrrnll, iniil » Enouili-^:!!^ mav Ik* rf* 
r|tni-rfl ; in :<ome cji^m:-* niwnl feeding' nilir't br *iib*titutr<i. The 
iippnnnns employtvl i:? tho Mimf that U ii#nl for wiiMhing otit 
the «ifom:irh, anil tiriiH* It U irt-tyionlW <lpftirablr tn wh^^Ii mit 
the iitoaiach U't^rt iiitrodnt-tntr ih*' niwih tlic *ai]io tubing' niiiy 
wrrvo fi>r Uith piirpoM**;. Il tvnifjists of tx ^iWiibbtT Ciiihi-ttT 
ooniR'CitHi, by mean? of ai |ntvo <jf phi^ tubing, to u pitve of 
rnblitT tiihing to iho other eml of which n fuiin^-l iif iLl(0rht<(b 
The nurse bold?' the ehild on Iht hip, with the lini<l behl stmifj;lii 
ami nor ineline^I in i-itlier <llmti-»ii. Tbr i'iiili<-t''r if nioi^tt^nnl 
\xith w^inn wrttor uml heM :M.'V4.<i'al niebe^'* fn>ai ihr riid, ^f il^ 
to .ill-.\v cnoiiph of it t*> pa«* into tli<^ rj*nphnptir* wiib tho first 
nttonipl uT inrrudiifiioii. The nioitih i*; opcm'd, if n<Hi<?wa:7, 
And the ralhptor po^M^I mpjdly info fhi> phuryiiv : there i*^ usu- 
ally IL ^\v:illirtviii^ movement, imd the tul>e i^^ ixadily ikinmhI iiito 
the sfcmiaeh. If the proct^dun.* i* curricfi on Uh} slowly, the 
t(iii^-uc tmiy iniirforc, or if the nithet<T if* li'-hl ti>f> xwar the md, 
it niav <tnti!*e piir^'iTi^. IVfore iatriMhieitip flie fiwnl it i^ wHI to 
\i'ti>h (>iit tilt- ?«tomach witfi mtrmat Ktlt Milotion. An <4noii as 
nil the fixiil ha> t^ulfrrd thv .■«tJ>iii:ii-h, thf aittielcr if pinehtd and 
nipiilly withOnnvu. If it i» witbdraft'U tvlovrlVf ib^^ food lunjr 



DIET tS DISEASES OF dT/Z-MfiX 



au 



enmv dp with i\w iiiIm^. If tW onthctor I^ lelV open aj4 it ift 
wilbdlnwiif tlio dripping into tbo plmryiix mt\j oauMe votiiltiu^. 
If t)i<* cJiiUI JH youn^ it iH A giifril pliin to ke^p th^ flnjpT k<* 
twiHii tin Jaw-H fopii few intmK'titA to prevent gating. If tW 
J*mmI odijt^ up, tbc ftiiliii^' iiiii^l )x' rt|>eat«l. 

Nasal Feeding. — For UiIa ]*iirpo*-e & catbeter in propor- 
tion U> !l>i- -iizt^ of the ohiM hIhhiIiI Vk* ii^tnl. TW pronxtnre is 
iW asimt' ui^ ibat for aduhfi. {^ee Forocd Fcoiling^,) 



DffiT IN DISEASES OF CHILDREN, 

Cyclic Vomitinjf.— This is & (lifficult comliiion to comM- 
Tliouctjivk^ r'oTTKMtii :ir inoiv or If-^ re^ulvir intervaU, nnd nre 
<iiie u* Muni' tli'rnii^i'iiient *.*f meliibc^tii^m ; tli^y have l>e(^n -laicl 
tu Ijl' afijil»^»iH to ntltickis of mi|;Riint\ In thir^ ci:tmhtion the 
raii^i of ilir i^xrrt'tioii of uric uckI to urea is f]i>fCurt>e<l. 

I>ii[ injf till- »tl»rk it i» urll to give thv i^toiu^icb abr^olute msi. 
htnA ontl drjuk Icrnl to n^'^mvnie tbe coniitlioD. In tlw curly 
vingv of cIk- <]U(iim' oormnl klIi iKtliilion mav be ^iven £<.*iit or 
liv«' linN** It (luy hy the ra>rtiim^ the fjiiATiiKv vnrvinp from 
3 to 8 o«not^s iK*r*oniinp to eimimsiiinet'SH If the mtaek is 
pn*l4)Oj:!vil, it U well to fnd the- child by (lie rectum ; eveti in 
tmse* of onlitiurv »* vi-rity il ih lU^tmbk' lo give the food for a 
d»y or twii by rile lyvliim. Whei) tbc voitiiliug diHWtttinucsi 
the »touiuc-h »]joul<l hjive n>t*L lor Kurie hoiirn before feeding is 
re'^umt-tL If lhi-n* i" any iloiiht i\p* to lUr n^lvi^jibUity of jiivfng 
foml by the Mirii»K-h, it ii* well X*> iijotinm- tin- oH[m'Ol eu^-iiiata 
f<ir a «hoTi tinw!-. AVIieii ff«liup l>y the mouth ir* reAiitncdf die 
fiioil should be piven in tmall (|iii)ntitH« at intervnU (»f thnv or 
four lM>Tirs. Milk to vrbirh lim^^-M-nter bu* t>n'ii ndrk^l. pep- 
liiiixed milk. :ili mm iti -wafer burley-wafer, and rbe lik^.' tbotjld 
oi*n*'Utiiie iht di^-t for tJiree or four day?*, Aikr thut a return 
to ike ordinary diet muy be made. In rbc iiiuniil the diet 
niay bi' tbe ^me n^ tirat dirteted for migraine, Plnity of fn.vh 
nir and otit-of-4UH»r i-xer«*iM.* are ibdimtHl. Holt vdvi^-^ that 
Sllgan anil f^wert^ l>e e^cbxkil fnmi fbe dielnri-, and dmi tbt> 
BtUTibe« be limited. The din ^bouM iiin«!nl of meitt, gm-n 
vej^etabU-s*. milk, nnd ^lole brml» Wluit hiij* bc*>a fuUl rcgnnl- 
tDfc ^ny^peeul nrtleleof du^t nnd itK relfltion to mtgnunv applivn 
to lliepe cnM"*<, 

Stomatitis. — In ttornatiti}^ tl»e fw^line; often l>e('<niK'?' A 
mailer i}{ ^rwA inipcrtfince. In tbe wilder Funus tbcrt* i» not 



S44 



lyr^yr reEDiyo. 



bumIi (lifivnitv in grttirtff xhf^ rliil^! ^* talcr lipoid 
■»paeiallv if it U j^vm ck^<L Ia tbt^ sit=vTfrr fbrowfiwli 
i4ttfmu%'r «iciiaihiv, ilie child tiny rtHtHK all f««L In tl> 
CAMS it ^Kolii he offtfed food in tb? fiinn of »n>«nhi millc, 
albitmm-water, and tbr like. If oil fmid L^ ivfu.<^l, or if ui* 
MiScwfil 4UinUtk^ ar^ ukt'n, rv^tal f^ediD^ muM tn- iiiT^ntuutt. 
In pooe CftHes [ia?«l f««<diii^ niay lie Rwirutl ti.>. tiut id many 
pitirEit?< whrrv thLi ^ tadidttfd it nut nuC br cujjjIuvmJ btraustf 
of ibc inftun motion extcmliii^ intu tbe oiuva, in «U <a4e» ife 
diet nliooUI be- MmiW ti> ibdi u^^il in avuT\'^. Fr«i& fivlt*- 

vUorstr n( puLivign) d^r minr-nil ;tr><L-- ari- u-^^TuL 

Acute Gastric IndigestioQ — Acnte Gastritis. — An 
tbne di-tra-i^ ^n mic, il-^ a nU--, 1^ dMiwai^bcd froai udi 
4icber &t tW (<uLv<, iml :<iDi¥ thr dirtecie iMMflCiDDd ire aloi^ 
vifDtlar Uno, thrr nny, Air a>o\'ceitfficr^ be ooosideRd togefJwr. 
The Duin iodkatJoikJ axe t^ empty die ssooach and to pxjt 
it i«iL If puHitde, il abrjuld U: r)(3ui.-icd br i«^alii^ wkb a 
m^K and OS afaoadoDoe if wvni imti^ ; wbrn- tliL^ b t>ot (n^ 
fiblc, vrarm vater caajr l)r pv«Q &i drink, uid. If ac^eniarry 
mmilJi^ itidti»d. 

Fowl dwoM l«> dt^c^AtiBned cotirrly fyr ^ boor^ ami 
danos tin* ioim'^il ^null ^uiniiiiit^ of br>c v^ter taar be ifti'eo. 
At tbe end of thid tanc, if tbe i-ooutitig Im^ ocbsmI, ^n^ 
aoMitDb^^l to 3 oamna — 44" albiuuliHvalcr or </ bariey-w^t«T 
wax be adaloL-ien-d. Milk in any A^nn dvoakl be aitlilwfcl 
for twmiy-tior briars, when, if tbe babjr t* bcvaFt^fvd, il ur 
}ie D»r)>cd f'T ak fc« Eninutt^r At tbn«-bntir iotcrvalh If tbie li 
fbood to jt^nr witb tbo c-btM, ibr ilai« ^jf aarroag mar bv 
lefi^tbfuod and tbi- mtt?rraU betw^wn Ivnlin^ MbortkiMl. If 
tbe bahj l« (nCtlp-fMl, it » wll ti whbhrUd mwV milk, and to 
MvealbmiiHiratcr or rioe*«BSeTmit*smii; wbeo tb« i4oaBact 
has bcGone tnlcraii, ntbcr artieh# aair be^ miM. At Cr^ 
ltfotb», frr*- fnicn £it, and nwat jgwe mar Ir irinl. f>4k>«Tvl by 
malced mUk. Only ^oall qaamitiea ahaakl be ^\tu at &Tvi, 
aod at iai«m]» of tbn^e <3r fiMr bom^ As ia^tfovrcneM 
occnr> ibr fmil mty li^ given iifteoer aad ia ii)m:4?«iafe qua^ 
tiiMs^ la tbc jiwcrr ca?v9, wberv matitlBfr ppr-^<<fv f^fyo i r J 
fond^ rorb V pMMptptun «tr L^atd Beef ISpc^^o^U^ ililutrd 
vitb «at«r, nuy be- tvtsiivJ. Fi«r ihi^ y >n utti yf in&nu and ftr 
older tn&nti> tf t^ Ouoiarb is at aD imtatite, it is aell tm jvp^ 
tooiae tbe ctm^ mSk mbe^ it w fnt pT^n- For oUer mnate 
aanS aoMnil of milk d^ be added lo a laip ^Mliiy of ft 



J>IET 2.V I>IS£AJSES OF CUlLDBSy. 



246 



<4emkl wat«r, suc-li a^ harli-y^uiit^HT. Ji nay Ih^ u'«<II u^ t>oi1 tlir> 
iwv* uifcreilitT fi»r a tVw miiiiiU'^. Thp ixn\o\\\\i i»f milk nwiy 
jETiHliially be inoreaAtdf an (-(jiiiil vtitiinu- nf limt-ivnU*r U-iiij; 
a<l<led to it at fii^t. If tb*r ^iuuia<*h U vf^rj" irrirnblc, «rritiil 
do^erf of h<»t Wilier freciuciitJy mpoatiHl nmy tx* trknl, i>r, wUiu i* 
UMially of gttatcr serx'ice, ti?£U^[3oi>iifLil du^ of <^jual jianA of 
Umt^waitrr auil d» nam on- waiter. 

Chronic Gastric Indigestion — Chronic Gastritis. 
— W'bilf (lillVrt^nt |)tttltiilM]^io otuiilinoii? urv |kix?Mrikl iu llkCT^o 
fU^^LM^it, tlu^ tn«lukt*ikl U |iro(>tir«lly tho ?iiiriir, iiml for tliin 
mwi'ti ilH-y iiuiy l>e cr>ii>iiIonHl titifi'fhfr. In Iwuli <iiM«.*i»s iIkt 
fiHHl \^ apt to lie retaiiml in tli<' >ti>fiutrh foru hii^ i\n\v\ it 
JA al>o iikf^ly to be imi>erfectly diffVAb^d, iho \m\^' nninuiit of 
miK'tL^ whirb ir^ iiHirilly pro^ni in it.->^lf im>'rf(-rifi^ \tith diges- 
tion. TW rtomacb should l)e washtfl out oium- or M-veml timcH 
11 d»v \sitb niuni water or witb a iiv:ik ^>lmiun of .^KHliiiQi 
liiiuirbiiimti^ (] dram lo ilie |»inl). The IihhL nbiMild be glvrii at 
iiitrTr;il,i rif tbnt*-, four, or ^\^n iU'c boura, tiocNinlmg lo tlio 
iif^- iif (hr44ilKL It »boidd bo ■^uiti^l in tbit mfuntV di^wtion^ 
and what h;i>^ Ik-ph ii^id nlHnit ii)1'!int t^vvltng In tft'iK^ml und llic 
teeding of diffiftdt c:l=<l4 :i|tplier^ Lere. PatittitT and jiid)fni«-ut 
are ii«5W*wary to determine what is the lient foiMl for th»^ infnnt 
and jtL-^t how lon^f it nhmitd be ei»ntiniml wtthimt ii chmi^. 
IiT tbi-s a-" in 7*0 niany other ei»ndilioiis ei|wneiKH' i* tbt' safo^t 
Ik'iiide. 'V\n' milk iiiav be [uirttally |H'|itj»»ixftl or a rnilk low in 
proteinft may t>e given. A Diitk low in fai4 ii* often atli'ndi.vl 
by prfkl rc^ilt^. Oei*nHii>nnlly tlie ^nirir may be n-fliKiHl wiib 
iLdvikuUi^*, or (Miitdrn.-M^ milk or *»fir i>f tbi- pntjirii^tnrv finNl?* 
fouy Jk* trir<li li(irlt-y-wjitrr mid milk in viirving pr<iporiinn*, 
but tiMiaUy with \ lai^^ uribkiipt of ULrb-y^watcir, mux h4» 
AxjSVfUA, Rjirlcy-waii'T nnd 11 Wf«k, firt-fre*' vr?il hnrfb mny h*» 
tnixoi] togtlh<>r in njnid iinnntitii** «nd ii?ml lo advanbi^\ In 
»*"ime nis'w wbcv miTi*il with UirliA*- or riw'-wittiTr lOiiv Ije Iriin), 
and if it i« |>ii-4^ihli< to ^V4< Ihl witl>ont caiHtn|^ vomiting, <;fviim 
in <niall itiiutnnN nuiy he addt^l in llie mtxtnre, 

ri^eml hygi^'nic iii«t*nnH ^h'^nld mn-fally \w oWrvwI. 

Dilatation of the Stomach.— Th<- nii-tbo-Uof diufni^Mij^f 
»n^l iriMEni'^iit of \\u^ c<<im]l(ion i\%\- ■■imibir lo iIhim^ wbrii ihc 
dtK-n^ Kv.-BiiM ill mhilt-c Tbu i^vu>rtiuU nf tlio tmilm^it nro 
■t44n.-ir*U-w:uahmif, *in.nl1 mrailK il fiifEcirnliy \*n%^ inti-rvalVf nnd 
tnnir^, mwIi 11& •■trvHinin nnd nuT vomica. Th4< Hiam^'trr nf 
Ihr- fixxl 4khiM be idnHit tbi^ Mime as tltal adviiK-d for dironic 
pulriti'^. 



246 



iXFAyr FKKDISG. 



Diarrhea In Infancy and Childhood.— l>i<> acute 
diarrheaur "f intaiioip- and cliJldiiood may he divided into iwo 
cla^it^e^ ; In tlic lir^t, the ^t<)ol« cuntnlD ouly ^n*'h iKir-tcm iw% 
are fbtind iu ibe iiorniol into^nual tmri. Tlit^H' luv iIil- ^ii-4-:dMl 
Aimplc ditirrhcn^, unA nn.- iivAiiany bvoi);!), t^iinpU' <lmrrlui« i^ 
canM.ll by the mgi?i4()nri uf nrticliM of food ulikh the cLiild U 
!iirA]iat>Ie of di^atin^, or by eoaise^ nl>nidiit4Jy indigi-vlildp 
adif^tam^e^ Midi a-^ mpeds, ?ikins of fruit, aind tlic- likt*, Tlit* 
diutThoL may alfe<» be dup to iK^rvtiiiH iiitliu'mfs, U> drn^ or to 
**xti*mcft of tcmpemttire. In i\w flec<«wi cla^.* arc tliu^f' diur- 
rheas in which juithogi^nic beict^^rta are present in t\v* init^tiiml 
tni<-t ; tlii^se are tti<? ^rwi^utletl iiifi^ctioib^ di:trrheuE% The Uu'1i-na 
iiicliKle ihc ShitrJ'l'lt^^nc't dy^ritcry ha<'dJus, rc-renilv frtimd in 
iiiutiy cai«Bf Mn:'|>Uic>:H.vt and uih^rr |>iih-rifrniin^ iuioiu-i.iiv;iit- 
iempi. lafoctious diarrhea is also Iciittwn tut "duinmcr diar^ 
rliea " : whtn it l»ei><iijR>ii olioUTiiorDi, ii id termed ■* cholera 
infantum." Ii i^ ulwui> n j^ritju-. di-^^en^ii*. 

Ai ihe onset of any diarrhea <Kvurriii;r in an lulruit tfn-re i« 
no niethoti, t^hdTi of a liaeteriolnj^io examiuatioti, i»f dvleruiiii* 
in^ M'heilier one ha^ to deal with i\ simple 'ir with jin iDfeclk>n» 
diarrhm. It is well, therefore, to adopt dieletie ni<-a>iirt*^ siiit- 
Ahh to eifhi*r e*tndilion, and to make ^luh chani^efl fmm day lo 
day H*H till* 4^ind![foii of tlu- rhild directtv Many Infanis are 
»KTilic«d every ytur IffeaUf*!^ ihia rlwple rult; Jri uul eurrk-d into 

III odditirin to ilns;** vom-lifn thi-re un* aUi» *e%'er<- *''nidjtit>n» 
wid) marked lx»w<»l h'j*ions whirh muxw wriliTw sfpjiniii* ehni- 
eally : the dietetic indication?* am Ii<*wevi-r, pnietieidly chc£ami% 
and the entire ^^nhject may Iw ei^umk^vd nmhr one head. 

Infectious diarrlit*a i^ nirc in h»hif?* fhut are M exeln^iveh' 
on the hrea^i- The*e chililR^Uj nicn>Kivrr, wIhu aftluliii with 
the dj?feaie, arc niort^ aincfiuhle to iRalnjeiii tiiaii nw hottle^fe*! 
babies. Ninety-seven |K*r er-ni, iif ihe dt-aih,'' due 10 diarrlieal 
di^t-at'i^e (.>CL'iir in UntK^fid hiibint. In miih<» nf ihe niurt- ns,rut 
r<'|>"^rl^ n uiach Uir^» v peiYienhip'- *•€ ^ai^cj^ wn^ foiincl In hreust- 
fodbahie*. Th»* j^rivjif^r niimht^r of th<>B(> <*hndr*ni hiid h('oiigiv'4-ri 
aidHiilwl water lo drink. From thi^ it woidd Mini thai tlie 
dit^ea^e tnay lie caused by infoclcd water, atid in warm weather, 
therefrtre, all water piven to infnnt*; y^liould he l>nikd. 

When a hreaj^il-itil liaby i« fn7x}i\ witli a ilitirrhea in winlor, 
the ilipicuw in alniortt mre Iu be of a simple nntiire, and a d<we 
ot (^t^tor nil or of '.'alomol, fo1lft\ri*<] i>y a Hide biF^ninth and 
chalk, 10 usually all that \» r«.M|uircil for ndief. The dietetic 




DIET IS DlShASES OF VHILUIUSX 



347 



naiiigcnfiit cunnbifn in ^^hi-trt^jDirijU; iti« iLii^ih of time th(*rliil<l 
DuniOH «tid )cii^lK'nii)g tin.* interval bctw^vn iLe fe<*rUng*^ to 
six hmiT%. hi till- mi^armhilc plain boiled water, or albunim- 
u^t^T. riw- or Uirl<-y-u'nt<»r. or M'he>", may be given, Plaiii 
tta(<.T is \\w Ih">i, ih-iIuii*^, imle^ ilie t'bild is vert' bijujjn.-, 
After <>»c or two day?* ol sucb treatment tbe ordinan" ri'giiiie 
iiifty jiciicmlly U* n'?*utiie<i. 

Ill ^iitiuiicT, however, a liiarrbea, (^[leobUy ii severe, sUoukl 
iirotL-M* sui«|»Jcioa, mid for tweniv-foiir b<mT>, or until tbe cliild'tf 
OJiidillon WArmtil.-*, tiulk ib'»uld be ^^i1bbetd. The breswtA 
fih'»t]l<l l>e |UHn|H^i out ^nrd'uUy at rejEiilur iuiervaU, i«.» prevent 
iliii1n-)iA or li jxMuibb* 4H-vL.4iuf<>D of ibe Beorelion. Tlie ebild 
ftlionki bf giv'Pii pUiii Iwiilcil walor, or jionie one of liie articles 
previously it^iitiom^l, ;i1 fri<r|iK*nt IntvrvAU and in .Hiuall dn-t.^-^. 
If tbere is groul lIiiiM, '>nc "r twi» t^«>[M»iinfuU f^bould l)e 
giv4?n e\wv ftlUvn ^vt tbirty niLnnte*. If flnid isi well iv- 
taiDeil, ?Be?on) oiin<x'$ may be ^vi-n at a time at int^rvaU of 
two»r three b*>uTs. If ttii* obild h vrry feeble, it hhoubl Uk^ 
it\\n\\xhiXv%\ \\\\\t V'hi-iky and ?-irydmiii, or --iinan diHi^ of ?«oiiie 
*iX tbtr Hi^uiii lit^'f pn-|i[inkli(*i)-i uvx\ l>e Iritrd, Midi ii.-* Puno* 
pcpton, Li<|uul \lvvi W\>\rti\i->\*\^^ funic; Xnxiy iuhI etimiLir \yfv\y- 
«r»tu>iis diliitrtl and ijivoij eold/ Stnidl d"«r* Abi>uld hti giv*m, 
nnd if tbr ^hhI i« diluli-il «nlHeietitU% the liix^tivr .vtion thev 
an-«up]xucH) hicx^^rl will not IxM^btfuiKHb If by lliewc*judday 
vonitiii^ luLi ev»M<«l intd tW t'bild ^rni)' ln'tler, it may W put 
li> the brwi»t for a fi^" iiiiriiik-s ami iIk' effect uoteiL If the 
ndlk '\j* wt'll boiEH', llir rliiUI rnav bi* pveii tbe brcn»t iverv six 
hours, «)i4>r1enia^ die inUT^'al frum time to Unie rintil the rbild 
b»A n-tunic^l u> \\H n^uJEir ^IkhIliUv 1i i-t \vrll to ninke a 
gmdual rrtum, iirid if the milk n^cgnivate^ cbe duirrlieii nr ^ivcs 
t\fit; to other nympIf>nLs, it dbould a^io l>e diMxntiniird- When 
riiu iinn.^1 milk i*^ of g<vKl (|imliiy, tbvre ia mivly any difEetiltv 
trith thr** ctw**. 

Id bnitb^Vtl babii-s ev<Ty iliArrbca, cs|>tctal1r durtni; warm 
wwiher, ^b^iidd Ir' ln.-iit*^l a^ serious, and certain precaution*; 
l>e tjik^ii. For the tir^t tweuty^foiir hu«i> it is a jtimh! pbn ui 
wirhbobi all IIwnI .nnd ^ive plain w-afer, a* previously siipi^st«L 
Milk u ab?Kt|iitely (^^niraindtiTititl, and most not l>c f^ven iiniil 
rwoverv U etimj^kle- Under dii-^ pinti, if ibc dlarrliea is a 
dimple irtie, rec^jverv !-■* mpUI. The child's appetite and condi- 
li^i mufi ^vcni tlu- iiK^rcase in diet. Albnmin-wnter, rice* <tr 
iTarW-water. and vrlicy an* oTteellent fimtU to l)^n with. If 
tbe«e are well lK>rue, malted tuilk may be given. follow^L if 



MB 



tXFJXT FEEDtSG, 



all |-oe4 wdl, hy or^wt' anlk. It U n gnoi] pltn, if t>M* child » 
<4il i-iM>ugh tu <iij*u^ it, U^ mix ti|iial P^^n^^ *^ burlt'^'^wutrr 
jui<l milk t(i[n^-ih<T iirnL in^il tbi-rn fiirnUsv minuter, Thi« w 
iMially ttvll lH>nM-, uiul iimy U' tin* fii>l Mci> iti Uw reuirn to 
llic iti^tuniary dnt. 

In (he itifwrimi* fnrmi-, Mt lonn A» the t1ifv«9c ia* m ito acitvc 
f4af.Vi niilk, Kiiioe it fumithc^ uu oxcpllent ctilturr-grouiKt for 
the [itithinr<t>i<' lirirloria, nrl* a<i n imwn, Iti (hpAr m^vptv ra»i<** 
DO Iwl ^oold be givcii lor twviity-tour hounc. I'lain lxbtl«l 
waiter or vcr>' wotib ulbumin^n'ateT niAv be pcifKTilKtl in tfmall 
<lo-v« lit fn^tieat iiitcn'ak. AVhi^kr in \-en' ^liliUo rT>rn> «iid 
Mn'difim nmy In- ^wn su^ n^iiirrtl. If tin* wliUky i(* vom- 
ili^l uml th^ chlM i* vurr ^<*iik, ten drogue nf hnimir may be 
nilminUtcrLiJ iu i t«tL<*[KN>ulU) i>r noi of wiiti-r. ^nii-tiait« 
Ivni^poonfu) iloc* r»f ii-vtl cluim[iiigiir will j^cttJc tl»v :«louiaoli 
Trti<u notliin^ Hi>^ oaii Ih* rrtiiitii.xl- \\ ii'thiiii^ *mt th<< Atoouoh 
un*\ ^iviiii^ ii nSi^'lut^^ tf^i will In^iUt^Dtly i^l^vk iW vnfoitiiig, 
A oomitK^n nii'iT,ike i* ihat of piirtmg too ninny dnjpi nml fnniU 
iiilo an jrrilal>li\ nau^^ait^l Momuch. Ab^lute mt for wvcral 
hoiirn will frrtimntly allay lliip^ irritability. In many c&'^h 
a|iial fiart.-^ of lin)tvw:il(T nnd rittiiamon- water in teo-'^pooDfiil 
d<i^s i* an HlW'fiiT mi'tlKni of relieving naiLMQ. 

if the iliarrliwi conliniMs while the sttoniach t at rest, there 
1^ apt to be. great tliitst, Thifi raay id a niea-Hiire be allayed 
by ^uluU bits of iiv cbt|i|>t«l <ifr with a m^-vlb' and |ilaoe<l in th« 
€<lnM\ mifulli, or tbt- mouth may W »]>oiij^l o«t with water to 
vrhidi a litllt- Icmon-juicv hiu^ ln«ii addtnl. 

If the amoAint of fluit) aWra<i^ from th<^ tiocly remlffiii 
ni]|ji|»i' |kn>lNiblr. or if thi* chiM *rt-m?( irn-atly wmki^mvl, ihi* 
^iibi'MLUK-oii-^ iiifit!<](^a of ii^>rMi:il <^i)t M>h][iiin i> imlinittil. This 
^hotihl. of aMii><s In* ^iveu undiT ii>e]iti<^ jin'oaiilioiis. One or 
tnorv i>nn(*e» nmy be given ul a lime, eiglit '>ti[iee-^ l>eiiig Ihe 
ftv*.»mg*.* afiiounl t^>r iwenty-four himrs, Ii is a^^toiiUhing how 
nipiill) ihU mixture Is alwf»rlHfl, 

When llu" viiniitiii^ tt-ci-M.'^ ami the L-biUl l>er4ji:io.-A more oom- 
f.>rtnblr, font! will Uhually U- retiuDt^l. AltHmnu-^ntizr, RiiK»- 
|X!pt-»u mill «"ritt"r, whty, rio*'-vvaTvr^ ami bsirley-u-ati'r aPe th* 
mtt^t Miifnbb- fiKxl.it. The rerf-:il vrat-'iN npvf^ ailmiriibly with 
w>mp c'liilflrciK bat ii-it \vitb others, [f rhe diihi <h^e* not take 
tlu'TiJ iilfliti, Wny may be sweetener!. 

The return to milk sWihl bo miule vm' gnubmlly. In die 
severe cases cotvs' milk ^houl<i Ik* wJlhlield f"»r a \v<X'k, when, 
if the child's cuBdition [XTiiiib*, it may Iw tried in ono^niail 



MET ty OISE,iSES OF CUtLDItES. 



249 



fiNKliiiff. If it I'ntiM'Ji Dii rhiiiMi\ if miiy ^t?*<!nully }h* mliM 
until tW ti^iml ilii4 i> rt^hiiiEn^l. 'Hir n-rtini i> Ixr^^t mukIi- Uy 
nlKrnia^ first tlir unirk'T< |»tt*vi(ni»1y mi^j^'pU^L 'thru maltnl 
rtiilk, or ont nf tin- ilrv tiHxK ilmt b to tie luixtnl vltli ^%»tl-r, 
miiy Ih- givt'11, ftiUot^'nl l>y |eiriinlly »r wIi^tIIv )Kt|>U>ni)UHl milk 
or ila* lKirley-w:*u-i*ainl'inJlk irjixturr |iiv\i*rtj>iT dc^rrilH'd, 
Pliiln ti'^'ll^kimtiuH) nitsu-bn-tli^, mk-H ii?' vriil Unitl), iimy l>e 
«8kI. Oirc iiitu<l In.' Uiki-ii U* rfiiiovv ull ilic fat, »s lhi» i>;i 
im|m*Tit w>uix%- of trouUk. Tbt- milk .-lu^ulil tiol iit fir.^t <<(iii-^ 
tuii) tou |£rral II |K*rcvntu^' ot'.tnt. Tlii^ UiUi M.irviition |)Ui»« 
n* it i* t^kTiK-liniiv <yill<sl. Mir<<<<iH]k !M-M<'r thnn tiny otlu-r 
I^l4.T, h*Jwe^"l^■, taiv i«u»t b<* tJtkcii iliui llii- |K.n«Ml> iiJ' hikUt- 
f«^i]in^ Ix- not t'K' jm>inu'kHl, iW vrliilc it i* iUvintl>k- to *'i^t«rv^ 
iMit Till* iliiirrlim " tlir fhilrl inii'^t ikjI h* ^{unn.] Id tU^ith 
<liinii^' ihr imKit^-*. A tliiy itr ttvo uf iiljf^.thUc Jili^tiiH-iKV from 
Toih) rlot^ thi liiiriiif ]|7> iri tin* ^'Vi^iv niK^ tomi i^ ii<»t rfiiiim^l, 
or. If ndjiim-tl, i.-* not n>:«iiiiil»U^ ; on iht itlhi-r liaiv), a niJiicrifl 
Uivt, iXJiMiinii<il litr H<-t'k^ utid loimtlir^, ti> ir* n<it iufrt^iiiM-iitly 
([miii.% i^ a|ti 111 pntvr di-tnHtn*ii--«. It !:« n pHHl plun to kcr-p an 
H<v'iinitc< rr-oor'l f>f »ll ihc frnx] rnkm wIhIi- the r-TilM Ia on n 
nf4lr!ot4?fl <Vu'{. Till* aimoitnU t:Lk>>ii itiirittg i-uc)i twi-iity-fntir 
hours may be A<l<kHl tcvctlwr, and ln*tii ihf**- it riiiiy rradily l>e 
»^een whether or tif>1 the rhiUI U ^Htiu^ Mifficient iioiirir^limfnl. 

Diarrhea in Older Children. — WUn <imrrhc« i^rt'ors 
ill i-hl^T (hilJreiu the curiy difii.-tir tn.titfiKMit i?^ ?<iiiii]Ar (>> that 
r^coni mended for intnots. At tlic child rccoxt*r» u itliini to 
\h(r ordiDiir)' <liel may l>c made, xuttn^ <*HP*i tml hnrtlw of 
vaHoii»^ kiiid-t Ucin^' j;ivi"ji At lii>t, toUuui-il Uy U>ili.-d milk wml 
1*JrtBi fir dry brood. \'es<-inJilc* anil friiitj" *h<>wld Ik^ pivpn 
only JkiW reoovon' la t^inylei^.^j jind cheir elfoet ahunld carvfidly 
h* u'aiekof). CVrrals may ali»" ean«e a rcviirrrtice <«f th^ 
iriiuhK and 4io<j|<) lie m^isl thoiouiriilv ooketl nnd ^iv^n in 
snull quantities at first. 

Ileocolitis. — Thi'i term i^ u^l to inclmle ilM»e b-wd 
<^iuditii>»^ in which tbene are fierioUF Jef^iotifi in the iiileetinv. 
The thKttfM^ iiF^imllv follows a suniiuer diarriiea. The dividing- 
liiie liefwcm the l«x> ii^ liard m draw, aiwl il i* vm' pndwdile 
ihai ihT>>>>liti» i^s mcrety a H?vere fonn of infivlioii whh itvc 
8iiipi-Fti'xnor baeilln^ or i>llier l^actirria. ilir term dvH^tiiery 
i* alii^ rrvH|ni'ntlv ii)>[>lk<l to iht* affe^'iion. CondiiioDi? rwwm- 
hiinff thia di<^-a>^ may eiiirie on in the eoiir?^ of ehroniis 
di*w»nleiN, 

The fceilinp of these eases i« a difficult problem. In (Ef^i>eral 



3i0 



tSFAST fUSDiSQ. 





At dirt i» <icubr Ui Uat giv>ti ui dimnfatt. A* all 
mdH i» tttOftlir nfttntl, bowrvcr, when tbe <l i Tg* i c tt pP^ 
tiadtadv m k u'mj^ tn br, it i» cxutBrlr di6kvlt m -^t^iBia ifar 
eUU, anl tk dciU Kod tect of lotk umw nd [iiv^knn «r* 
trvtrd tnflv ttnoQt. 

!& tbe ^^ntr CMM, vbn tfavfv ir^ ^noMnf^ hUm pnd fdvtt 
te vitUoU all faoJ £«- the fir^t day 4v tww Wmirr nay be 

hnft d«w vitlt a tohe. In la lildv (WUna it i» ifC to < 
«Dd don Mere bami dMn eaa l . WiA 
Ifa pwmjM m enalv ctfhrd ««L A ^h» cf 

■ W Iwt wmar tifftd JpAt wgl n4ir«Y iW 

^n— n-ffilf r irrnTiTff nirMiA 

WW« tW 4M«4 «MMH IRibytv k » UM |» $h« MM 

«M «r Ike K««d hmf |i iiiili ■ > mAm I^it hiIw w 
i*MFir^XAd M»l m iciB^bK i^«d«. IV 

|ii|liilfii i\\ ■ iiiijlfc^, Je ■>! mjmml Tht ^tm 

Hot'< «idi ^-ifcg. r«vvv twi» ««■ 4v«« lM>*r» ^ In> if 





DIET JS DtSBAsES OF CHtLDItlcy. 



2AI 



fitooK E^g» cookcci in \iiri>itiH v\-uytt nml Inff-r pl^iin UiM 
milk may be given. Zvriebflt'k, rnu'k*.T*, ntnl l^w^t may W* 
ikI<Io<I oiiitioit-^y {** l\»- ilk'tar>', tmtl tlir n^ttini tu the noniml 
iillou-aDoe Ix- mmU* grmiimlly- iirviiX caw ^Imuhl silway* \k' 
tx*rrciw*l (luring nud nlii-r uiiiiv»k-*<viii\-, nf^ tliiliiiy irrnr* iia* 
u|it U> be f<klk»w<'4l l>v f'iNH'flv Hii<i ;<i'vciv n.-lHi»i*<."*. Kn^ii t'niit, 
cvkHT>o vi^-rnblr^ iiikI nil iirilatin^r aii<l iinJtgi.T*libIt Jirticlw 
i^bouU) bi' pr^kbibiUHl. 

Chronic Ikocolitis. — The lUvUiry of n cliiUI with xUh ili^tn^e 
i# not 4'jiMily <'itu>>lviirt<'iL Tbr itnuU ilii>!i(*tel fnr iicutc oam^ 
niv nil iiird'fiil, aiitd 31 iiW--ir\" mii U' fi>nniilnt»Ml Trnrn tlipiii. 
The fdbct nf any fx^d on (iic -^(ixtls ^li<nilti be >v-aicb<'(i, but 
obT^n'albiif^ »<houlJ nol be niadi- in cW prtM-nccof ihL* |)atH-nt, 
a:» dnklnni of fmir yv4irK or more mtxy UiHmwr vt-ry niorblj 
from H'atrbiti^ rn-(|iiL*itl (:xnmiiiiiliiai-x of thr'ir T-t'H.tU, 

The iirt^iligi'MiiJ I'ikMir*. »ncb u^ Uu* Un-f |>ro|Hinitimis, ]n.|it"o- 
inxl iftilk^uiul iht' likt-^ iin- iiiming: Oic nii^l vtiltubli* uniclc» 
of diet ill ibc^ caiw.-*, but lairlcy- ur ric*<^rncl, with or without 
jDllk, ami (*g^ lUAV uUi Ix^ iimhI. MiUtcil milk nnd tho intilt<-d 
foodr^ app of ftervioe at timcT. Al<*"»biil, in the iWrn of whii^ky, 
brandy, j»4>rt or shrrry, ami in wliiit<?ver sliagie it is niost |iAUit- 
able, may In* ^ven. 

Inimetion.^ wnh coconmit oil or cocoo-butter arp ii^fnl in 
]mimotin^ niiirition. A change of air is ofttii follotved by 
exoellenl result-^. 

Chronic imestlnal Indigestion. — Under ihit head 
njsiy Ije itidud^l ibi- vnilinary^ foiiu of ehniiiic intc^tiuut iiidi- 
gCBtioDHi »p wvW a^ p-rK^i ^pivial forms a« fttatrli indijkrvBtiiMi and 
the do-callod niHr->u_- di°cik^. 

Wbvn till- (<(>rtfic'mtioti nf the mother or name can be secnrod, 
iIm" re^idts of tn^lQi^^t ore very satisfactory. If the diet ean 
not U' erriilri>lkN) ab.'^kliUi-ly, it i^ difficult or imi>(»iaible to ao- 
coiaihlbJi miicli in the?* ea.^^fs. 

Chronic inte?^iimii imliue^iion ncciir« at nil ap>». In yonii^ 
infants it is frMjuenily d«y to improfter fetsling, nnt\ *\iiiap\mif^ 
vrbeti the child i*^ [tut ii)>on a )m)|>er diet. It miiv be >K*en in 
biHb breaM-fed aod )>oith--fo«l icibit^ Ir biv»«.t^rnHnfaii[A It 
JH fm^ocoily cau»<.'^l bv an *"vei^riob ntilk, in wliH^h cn*e a 
b>m|tUT dii*i for ihv moiber with t*)iemH* out of iloote will !)*» 
all tint w rofjuired, (S<« Mao:i^nient of Xnrainp Mnthi^r<) 
In iHthiT iD^tanceH. where the mother ha^ l>eeD takinit varioiM 
uticke in oilier to increase the flow of milk, a reCnm to a 
proper r^uien briagH relief. In -till other cu^ea the < bild is 



252 



/.VFJ>T FtEWSO. 



riiiM'tl ti)^ oft€»» or Irto Innjf, Tfw iliiMQee may como ^n aii the 
lv#iilt itf albwiuj; ihc chifd to eWp ail iiight at Us mrrthtr's 
brcti^c, with ihr mtiHi|iiont lri'<|ii(.'nt anil im'gnlur night fi^^l* 
in^ I» nui>U><?r iriMiliK><'iJK- el^nxfr ■>!' ca'H.'Ft no cuii^t- can Ix- 
mnil<^ oni> Xn ihc^^, it' tlic «»n<)itj»n i^orvipM? an<l tbi; chiUrn 
geiH'r:k] hi?tfilth iu fltre?teil, w^liuqj* should bv coiibhL«iW ; Hk<-ti, 
however, ihf rliild c<mthiiieA ra thrive and ihe 04>f»litioii vnit not 
be relirvwl, nur^hitf mtiv Ih^ «Il*»we<l to oimrimics fw|i«-iii]y 
the?* i^ses ivcov(."r iu a "^hort time. 

When the <Ii-<fUK.' tRrnrf* in iMitfle-teil l^nhioft, tlu- child [ins 
tTMiaUy been given, lor a vnnriilevahln |>eriiH), a fiHxl i^mj high 
hi i*tie or more of the liKid elemeott^, (TJiU nnhjeot h]U< l)wn 
^Ji^ctlSM^'*.^ inuK'i Inthtii Fttiling. lo ivhieh f-ec-iioii i)ie n-mhT is 
ri-ferreih) AnothtT iVeiiiiL-tit ean^e in Iji'tlle-Jeil iiahii-?* i»i tli«; 
use of a |iri»|>ri clary (o*A iin^iiit^l to iht a^* or o>nd]tif>n of the 
<>hilit, or the n^ i»f ini|hi'opor nrtiele^ uf diel, ^Apt*cially Mtnrvh4^ 
(ind ■^nfinrs, 

Siiirar and st;mrhy ft)o<l in exc*e^ive qTiantitiis i^ ii fiu-tnr in 
tin- oati^alinn of thir 4li?*ea--<e iJtat U nfiea nvi^rlooki.'tl. (.'arcful 
lttl4'^tio^in^ fn^iieiitly iirings otit the (koi that ftwev!-* of various 
Jiimb have Inen jriven Co the infant by imhtl^-nt i^annt:* or 
friend-?, iVrii^»(lk' lUt^n-k--* of vomiting and jiain or of malaise 
and disronifiiri. luiiUo^ns in tlie hili'^iH atlnrks of older Imli- 
viduaU. may Uf<naUy be rvlievi^l by rt^diit-ing the oarUihvdrato 
tifi II iniiiinnnn. TheiH? atiack-> are nLH^uai^imdlv so ecverc and 
nn^leadin^ n« to ^Ive rise tM The* diuj^MotiiM of midnm^ tuli«rcit> 
hir*!'*, lyphold fi-vi-r, and many ntlur disi^aM's. even liy nrtnii)4»* 
ti-nt iibyM^'iniiH. In aljno^T I'^very in^tiiniY^ » rom|di'Tt* enre cun 
Ur i^iiiekly brou^rhf al)ont by rlielcrtio nuitn^ alone, 

BeiwfW one Vfl-ar und eight*>eii mr»ntJi^ it \^ eoromoii for 
nviflier^ to dt-firo Eo inorea*e the diet of tlieir eliildren. Milk 
sliiiidd iibvjivr' form th»* Iwsis of tJie ^lit^t, and ii riiher articles 
dis-i^rtHv :t diei of milk and broths exehiaively may bring alroul 
u stair of |»Tfeet ronifori. 

In O/f/rv ( 'hihh'vu. — The munagoiuont of tlk'sc Oflflft* U, as a 
ruh\ fjiLLie >atUfaeforv, Tlu-v n<i|iiiiv individual >1udv» how- 
ever, lin- in i>ni- ea-^e the fai jnny lie ilie mnw of the iri>nJjle, in 
another it may he tlin curd in (he milk, nud in -siilt aEiotlx^r ihe 
eiirln»hydrati"-i mav lie the disturbing rh'meiil. The <lirt r^lionhl 
aim to jfive the intestiue as little work to do as |HK-*.Mb)e, To 
this end, the carb»»hydmte»j should hv. (ilneontinneil altog^llier at 
first : and when they arx' begun again, it should ht auitioUKly, 
«nd ibf eHeet sfiould be earefullv viutchefl. The futf^ tthould l>e 



WAT ly DISEASES oy cwldhe:^. 



2^ 



greatly rwluocJ or tvcti "miu<xl flltoEotli<»r iVitcin «)imiiM l>t» 
gWi^ti in n? di^titile -^ form us fo^xUl^f aoU i>cpiorujst*d i( it 
i?ftitM^ indigestkjiw 

[)i rtevt're oise^ ihe child may l>o fi-d upon ])f^pU>ut&vI i^kiiu- 
tiiilk. ThU may Iw c(im|deT<^ly rn- jxiriially |>e|>ronize(), li." rir- 
cumHlan(*« deniaud. It ^IkMiitd lx» given in moderate <jnniktitu'^ 
e\'erv two bours, KtimiT^fi may In? u^<d to vary the diet, ami 
buttermilk, if the fhik) will tiiko it, fomifi an ugreesible ciniiige. 
A Ihii 111 ill- water aiid liquid ]irv<1i^'^eil hwf |kiv|mniMoLir? oiuy 
^Hf Ire u?tud. ObJcki-ii ■<!' v^<al broth frc^m wLii.<lL ibc tlit lias 
be^i rrm<>%'eil timy Iiki.^wise Ik' ^ivoii. 

Haiv or mu' ji.hi.ivi ii ii*iiia1K' ivell Utnie. It hbfiuM be 
itt-ra|MH] fine ami fnvcn immediately after pre|wriiiit it. If 
di^in'tl, it may br r*Mfi\ int'i funiill ball.n. Of thia, two or 
ihrH' tabU-^pf-oniub an- an aven^^v daily all<iwam't\ hvt-f ia 
lo l»e pMVm-"d, btit niuuoii may l>e |>eniiitt*'d, Di>h gravy 
from which the fat has been ^kimmpd may \>c- given, and may 
l>e servetl iu a green gla^^ if the vohn of the fltiid excirrs 

AfWr a wcvk or two, if iin|>ru\-ement ba» Ix^n, a nmlirtl 
food amy be edded to tlit- milk. Eskny'* Food U of imrlictibr 
valiH* in tlii*to iiifeHniiul ea<4.\4, niid ih r>eeafiioTiaUv wi-W Uji-ti^ 
when L*vt*n (H-[itoNi>:iHl milk U not. TIk* fii^Hl ^houkl U- givi » 
at n^br-iiniiHi inrervaU ; ami if one mm! i^ nu well l>oniiv 
nothing siionld W git'im itnlil the next ri'^ubir feiHlin^Miint*. 
Ab^ioliitely uo ThmJ ^ould lie given WiW4t»n miniK Wnler 
may f>e anr>w4'<J n?* ilc-iwil, l>tit should Ix' given Iwlwi^en nn-aU, 
mt as noc lo interfere with digt*ilion- Four miiiN ii tby, or 
e^'eti Imt iLree, Hbiiuld l>e all thai t^ |H-nii)tted. 

Art im[>rovtMKnt B<"L-» ia ihv diei-lUl may \tc extendi! vt in- 
clude jimk^i Eind rim|>le dinhtM fm'ixmHl with milk nr ogi^A or 
l>oih Ui^tWr. Tlu-n n liltii' 7%vii'liiLt<k, n«*l, or thin or:ickers 
may l>e alli'wnl. Of i!h- meals, chiekrn. I>eef. and laulton are 
file iin»t*t preferable- The white inffll of IkhM or ixioet Gall 
may t^e alloWrd, wiihont any rich sjincr*, howTvcr, arid oysters 
tnay W driven in ^*eaf<^»n. Tin* diehrv itm-t n^»t U.* iner«iM.«l 
to<t rapidly, and it is well tn allow n numili to go hy Itefore 
mnktog any de<ideit chimge^. 

Cereals amy 1h- adtlinl iu the forrii of n little ven' itvjniU^hly 
o^iki^l rice or Iwirby hi the l>rt>lh, I-flter, j^r^'O vegetabb**, of 
wljirft tl** biM art' .^tpuiaL'li. i"nnliflow**r Ut[tat, iu|KifAg-iiri-li|w, <*r 
thort»ig4ily r*tewnl ivb-ry, m»y \v )z\rt^n. 

If imprrA^i-meJit \s^n^ on. wellH^noked een?aU, Mich ns rice 



261 



LViUAT FEEMSG. 



•nil ^ritH, nmy be ^ven ac bnakfaM. Th^r jthouUl W llior^ 
ouf^ily v4Hikfil mid ^tniiit*d if iKv^w^in'. (hiUiK^iil nluiuM nt»t 
bcgivon until the cli^r^liim lui-i t»T-«'-ntn" uoriimJ. Wcll-cnokcd 
ruiuurr»iii inuk^'s « |i!iiiTtjini *-li:i[)i:i'- :hiiI i'ri.<>h'rruit jiiiPiifi mav 
Ik* givt*rj, jin'f(»mhly ftii hour U^Jiin' nn^iiU. Of tin* tiiti*>r, 
oraiip'-jiiit.v U Ih^i, Imt tn t^>a^l)^ Uu* jiiUv <if fully rijioDnl 
pcflclww i>r grii]»o?t, witlimil nkins or n^^s, iiuiy V jfivon, 

A vt-ry ^■*inrill |x>rtiori of woU-biiked, mealy |Milab) luuy b<* givm, 
with tIic niidjiiciu i*f cmim, Pouiiot's shrmld lu^ver tw givi-n 
mrly lu tht' truuiutJH, uufl, wlteii iliU tioxi i.h added Uk* 4^ilk;( 
kIioiiIU mn?ruUy be walcbed, 

The tlieiiiig um&t h*y <Niutiiuied for n yc<ir or more^ and for 
Bcvrnil VL-arv IuUt itiv dk'l itui^t tie o:in>f'ully ^UfverviH^I. Tina 
Tuii^i l>e iu--^irtUHl u|x>n, und U ii^^ually cioi a diflii^uh tniiiier iifl<T 
iiiipn»|w'r iW-diiij: hiin biT)ii;:bc on a n'bi}if<t\ AIlbaiJ|;h fwry 
cnta vhould 1)0 Uikeii lo avoid rel])]>^^, when tboy oociir tbcy 
form till- niant [H>n'erfal incentive for vigilance on th^: part of 
tbi^ iiin'.-v' i>r motlier, 

r>irH'tioiiM ji?< io (|uiiiitilieK and j>rc'|mrnti'>ti of foinl and tlio 
lunirs of ft-evlin^ ^hruild Ik* writttui "iiT. ami a careful n'cord 
kept of U'liat the fhild mk<:9, und the ciu^nliiy, a* wtU hs the 
nnniljcr and chaniftrr of ihe j^tool*, Jiy thirt plan it i-i fre- 
fjiiently ettMX' to ilet'?<-t idi'iftynorask**, and to learn wlial ii^rtHH 
nnd whnt di?ia£»ri'eii with the |wrlifnhr patient in eharge, 

A point of no ?mall inip<jrunice is the nvoiOaiu'e *>f Rtar\*ji- 
tion. tTnlefts a pbyMcian tbnivmghly nndeMamU (he feeding 
of infants he may starve a chibi ;ind rentier it weak, anemic, 
and nnable to withstand the eff(?cl*i cf the di'iea--e» ('ase^ that 
hav€ been 6ot clwn as intractable catarrii cf the intestine are 
often merely tlie resulls of »<1jirvaiioii uv due to an uni^nilable 
niilk ikiixtiu'c. In hueb eaF^e«^, i^tth I'etnrn to a ratioiml diet 
ri't'nvtTv |)r''»rnplly follnwi, 

ConstipfttioQ. — C1iri>oie constipation ik the caut^i? of mont 
worry and ili!4tre>is than almoM any other condition. In ordvr 
to relieve it, the diet nm^ be recnlatwl carefully and correct 
haidl*i Ik" fonnetL The ftrmation of c<»mx:1 hnbit^J i^ of m* 
mnch iinporlnnce as the diet in the prevention and correcli<Hi 
of thi^ condition. Intkitt^ a^ youn)£ ojs tbn.-c months of a^ 
n>ay be tntipht to have a stool regularly by pbicinp them upon 
a >4niall chamlier at a i^iatcfl hour. In older cbihbt-n a tixcd 
iliac <?h<'ukl be mrt for the daily vi^lt to tlic cI-jscI. Th<* hcfit 
titnc for tliia is jn»t nft«r a m(«I, prrfembly brcnk&jtt, os at 



niRT rS' hfSRAKES op emLf>KF.S\ 



S55 



thw time there i» a waive uf i^enKtalf^ir^ of wtiicli advanla^ may 
bf taken, 

OiiiMiptiuii JA <]iiiU' ooiiLiiioii in f>n.7i^l-ri'*] inf:ititt^. and u* 
ii^miUy ihie to the i-)iil(r>t ^-itiii); u iiniitmittn ftriioum of tWxI 
or a milk tluii b( 1<m' in fnt iidJ p^^rii^illv liipli in iimicln. The 
qnaliiy of llio motltrr'-* milk i(hi»ii]J be im|>rovcd if |Hj_*«i1>k, 
tVJJ^iwm^ the <lirrctirin« ]>iwi<»us1y WkI down. llctw(*(<n ih<? 
iiiifsmp^ fW iofzini «;hriiilrl lu- ^^vi'TI u»t<^r. If this in not «|]ffi- 
oieDi aod ihf: ui<»thei^^ milk if^ tWnd ilelicieni in fnt, 1 or 2 
tvAfipovmltiU of cream may be mUM to eacli mtmtigt or tvxJ-livcr 
or olivt' oil may be piveii iii luilf to tcaf^jKHinful dow***. An 
t'flident ehan^e ii> iIk- di*-t i-iin^i^t* in t:ivjng I or 2 lofl- 
(■jHMinluU of !hor*ni^hly i'4H>ki-«l tmtmc^iL Tki*< f-hotiM be of 
abotit the Ciyii^\*wnix' of cniim, will ^Mx-etoiii-il x^ith ^ugur, anil 
9lniini<il if Dwn»j*ry. Thin iimy he Riven once, twice, or 
ofteiKT n <liiy, iw ihi-' niw r(y|iiin^, awl \f> be*l giv<>n with a 
noi>inj:- Oranpe-joitv wt'll laiffot'ienc^l mny be pre^erihcd in 
do4>«> of a t(^aNp««*nfiil to a tnH(-^[M)4iofiil> ^iven nn liMir or ^ 
before a oiitving. Sieutnl prune-jiiioe may lie nt^ in the !«me 
manner, and in seat^on any fniit-jfiiee from perfectly frci^h ripe 
fmif miiy 1>»* utilised. The very iirid fruits nbould not \>e 
alloweiL A tenH|)nonftil of ix ninltMl Ifwxl prcjiured with harley 
niay he piven, nud ^^ninll iiinoinitp* of the thiek sweet malt 
extracts may l>c useH with advuntii^. Mellm'^ F'kkI may be 
UM^ Uf tiwceien ihe fi-iid in [>ln<x- of tnptr. Oinr nhoiild Ijc t.-iken 
n'ft fo di->uirh iht- infanlV di(;jr»itioo hy (lie t»«> fre<|uent ute of 
any of the urtielvH juPl meDli'>iio<l, or by the nee of too lar]^ 
«|iiiitilitf(**i ; only one arfide shotild l>p tried ai a time. If thm 
mcan^H fail, drnp* or ^apposit^irieK mii^t tein]»rajily be ws*jrred 
to. It -■'lw»nl<l be \^>nn- in nund that the coii>tiani n>*e -jf drufffi 
roav ch'fc^i any ffR'rtf* alone dietetic linej*, 

la hottU^twl b<il>it->s if the milk is moiiifieil properly, con- 
Mipation \vill UHiially l)e overcome- If relief is not <>biain«l 
by thiH mi^an^, mea^nr^'s nmilnr to th(«p diixft«<il for bmut*ft-(l 
lubo iiiu^t be ktki.-ii. A ^rojiH ijii^ntity of barley^ ■>l' <iatfiieal- 
wairr mav t>e Diiaicd with the roilk <tT a maltitl f<Kid Adilc<) to 
il, Louit^ Starr jpvefi the follriwio^ di^t-liet for coi>-iti|iatioa 
in a child frrim ^'i^liieen niontbH to two snil one-lifilf yearn 

Find itt^L 7 A. X— A breakfa^tcupful (fSvjij) of new 
milk, with an additional tablefpiHmfnl {iiB») of cream ; 2 to 4 
t*ible<ipm»nfii}H of thoron^hty cooked (oitmeal or cmckftl-wheat 
pirrid^'c, H'ith vtmvx and salt; "l fJict© of wtMilc-uboLt or 



256 



ISFAyr FEfJUSO. 



bniii bivwl, butit*reO : flie juiw nf m ri|*r iintngi', or ImJf nf a 
tniHU-niti'-^i/ctJ Hjh: np)>lc M'm]»i:il witli a «|KKiii, vT a Mnall ripe 
]>«iri M-mpotl, iir a pcuch. 

SwPiJ .lAviA " ^- ,W,— A tiwiipfnl (fSvj) of milk, with 
an ackUtimuil tubk^poonful (f.W) of cream ; a slice of bran 
brwwl. 

Thtfd 3/01/, i/ /'. .V. — A l»rL'ukfup^Urii)ifut (fSviij) of mutfnti 
or chicken limtli^^ir 1 Mr 2 tubli-^ixiorifii)*^ of iinderHikiic n«i4| 
nnittioif beef, or chicken iniiiL^I tine aii>) jioiiiided coapsiMt-; 
]iur^' i»f ^pinucli : m^iisbeil nmlitloMcr toi>s ; n^|mragi|4*tij(r^ j 
RUrHX"*! c*i"lrrv ; \%'tK>U-^%ilicat i»r Kr«H hii-ua, biitU'reil ; jiinkei 
and cream; i'ioe*amUniilk pudilin^ vriih «towcd ]ii'ui]c«*juj«v ; 
Ijakt-Hl ;i)>|>lo wiili rreniii, 

I'ouith ,1/W, CJO P. 3/— Milk, I or 2 bw^akfartcupfuLi 
(fSviij-xvj), witli adiltlioiml crami ; wliob^wheat or bran 
bread, btiuered ; ?teu>Hj fmit. 

For flrirtk: piiie wator only. No coniliiiietit but m\u 

In older cliiljreii, fed a^MYirding to tlic rwliv^ iili^-ndv laid 
ilii\\ii, fy»h.^iipaiii-n is iurt h* fre<]uent, biu when tin- dlti i% lu-^- 
loctixl and fhe rlilKl iilkmed lo do as ii ]i]ea^M^, ii i> a vrry 
o<miTiii>u iiJiij|)luuiu A gliih-> of wau-i» vhhvr hot or c-olil, MioiiM 
Ih' givt^ii an h-.Hii' bofi^re brcukfii^t. Creain» hs wpll a:* wau-r, 
should Iw* mkK*J 1« ihif milk. RirU-v- f»r oulnwuI-wnt'T rauv nt 
tUnf* 1m* nihl*Hi t'> ihi* milk with lu-iu^ftt. Mv^it hr<»th>^ nr*^ hiica- 
fivp in flicir i-flH^fr* wlini jihhnl tci thi-* iHiL Pmler cightJ.vn 
Titorjlhs fniil-jiiicc>, or albr flint riiiu- |K»riWlly ri|>c *ound fmit, 
c^prcinlly when t:tkcn »n hour hcfiin* n tth-jiI, i* wrv wrvico* 
!il)lf. Ki;:'* nm! |»niH<':* >irw<fi ioL"'ihvr aiv hd|ifiil, uji aw.' mM- 
incM ond breiid nnvl*- Ir-mi niilHi1t<.-i] limir. In rondi older 
chiMmi the numngemeiil is mniUar to Umt roa>mnK'n<tcd for 
adnlts. 

Holt mannpci* an nvirrag*^ m^' of t-lmmio conjitij>aiion tn a 
chiM "4' fimr vonr^ <>f tijzc a* fidkivr»- : " Mnssngt' f*>r eight tnin- 
nies morniikg uod tii^ht ; tlu- jtii^r of hull' :in orange find a 
plara of Vichy i mined lately n|»i>n n^in^ ; u hmikfast of mt- 
meal, with one ounce nf ereiini, drii'd hrejid with Ijnttcr. an egg, 
linlf ^laf^ of milk with tTe;in» nod wtitrr addnl ; 11 diniiiTof 
80Up, one fitarehy ve^^'ctidik' — /- *\, |h»Uilo with crt^ani — intd <ine 
green vegetablt. kvlMcJik. htik*.tt n|"|»k' or jrtinK'*^ driid bn-nd 
and butter, and wnUT lodriidc: for *ii[»jht, ("rtnin toiiwi, eg^, 
driol bread ;nnl biilt<-r cir ftnihnni enndvcr.', hiilf plas?* of nnlk 
wiih cR^im atnl WHOM- added ; n j<up|»<wit<>ry c"titiiiniiig lux 
vomica and hvo^e^^uinm? nl Uxltimc." 



DIKT IS DISEASES OF CHlhD&ES. 



257 



Inanltlott. — Iminiti>n U a term Iook^Iv npplTod to v&rioua 
conditio rEi>: ; it ^-lioulil, hiiwrvcr, W rcAtru'ttil t'> tboAO oases of 
anitf^ fitnrvAtion oiiming <m in v^ry f»jir]y lifo. It is ofmntrtor- 
ke<I l*y a low of vfijriit. ami ti^nnlly by frvcr a* well, and th^ 
Cikiiilitioii ie imt intK^nn-utly mi^^tiiW-ii i»>r ?*oii>l' other <liKiaH.\ 
It lullcm:* ii1i:4tin<:-iK-i< triini fiHhi^ Midi its iK'cun* in iIkhmi* «t*f?* 
wlicix' iiitlintn un* (ibmKl<»n(.sl ii» (Iihhv<H'|ih, or urt* gnj»ly ir'i^* 
IcclH iitid ?<(iLrve<i. OtIwT tiiiw> ar^* Tiuh^in^ at n dry ur iiwirly 
dn' bnuM. in wliirh ca-*"' tlu' rhild Mi-?*'.'* ilw- ni[>nli' <'ii|a*rty juid 
ttfu-r M^v^i-nil vigiirutirtnlli-inpt^ ixi t*ui.-kmg dixi|)> thr Mi|>jiik% cnc^, 
iknd Mrr-iiu to be un<N>in1ortubb\ (Sni?v( errors in iVcding, tw 
whofi' II child \f givt'U a f«-<>il n1iM>hitTly uiiAuitml to it^ \\^tH\i^ 
itiny nbd» bring nimiif' rbi« n>Tiilition. It ni:iy ikontir in inlnntrt 
wilh cnfo-bKiJ di^^'Mion— imiIiit tb*.h*r <.i.>njfonitfilly debilitated 
or tbw*e n'lKk-ixd nj l>y diM^^UM-, iMiddcn cbuDgc^ in food may 
aha occtiJ-ionjiUy oaii^* it. 

1 Q tlu? inani^-nji^nt of tliOM com^. wbicb is apt to be diffionlt^ 
tiie sunic gvnk*nd Mntin^ :^bould ix* rollMvred ii# is BittgcB te d fbr 
Djamniic bidiii^s. If ]»(i,-<stbU, a wL-i-nnr^e f^bmild be secured. 
HqU ndviM^ ttiaC tbc brca^t-inilk Ix* dibiU-^t witli an Li^ual Vi>l- 
ijQ»c of water or of licnc-^iikCer. lie also eu^^^hi^ itiat if ibere 
is dinrrbc4if tb«> milk lie |>TnnfMxl from iho brttintd and the crt^m 
reinovtHl. Tbe priijxirflan nf fai may ffmdinilly Im- !h<'ri<iijuid. 
V^bca a wet-tiursc caa not be stTiin^d, Hie diild ^butdd fir*t >w 
l^ivon vm dilul(? tnixFuren, as nu^i^tixl in tlw tabbn on ])[i. 20*t 
and 209, or a milk ^ nit-difieil us to be iiidicaf«*d for a cbild 
niiieh yoiinpor than tbe on<? in hand. These milk niixtur^^ 
should be )>!irtiaHy or orimpletelv peptonized, 'llie aniborv 
tia\'€ ti^ w(^k milk mixture?! to whtcb IVpIc^renic Milk Powder 
bas brni axldt^^f, wkJi l>enel!l. TIivm? ma* U- giv(-« \n- lutnuH 
of a bottlOf «ir if tbe child will iii>t stick, by tneaob of a medi-> 
<'ine-<lnkpper or s|KN»n. or by ^\'ajf« if tuHH?»L-airy, Iri all <*tt*tyi 
in uhich a child reftt.-«es to lake food a Mfmitaeli'iluU' .-ihuuld l>c 
pas0od in order to aaceriain if tbe i<«oi>liiiguA i^ imtc'DE or tKrt> 
and tlic faticvs abould aim be examined can.^fiilly lx>!b by ^\^% 
and by touch. 

If the peptonized milk U not well borne, predigrsled l^rf 
ptt>|xinUmEia, dihilcd ciiudented milk, nialtnl or farinatt^uuii 
hjods, albumin- water. Imrley-water^ in fad, any form of forxl 
that can Ix- ^ivcn, may \^ tried. TImi^^' jubi meniiuin-d are, 
bowcver, iho mf«^t Jipt (o pn.>ve L^ful. Water, if nctrded, nmv 
be f^ven by f^nbeiitaneon^ inj<<etion or by tbe rectuiiir a nortnal 
nit fiolution being 1m%£ for tbU piirpoiu*. 
IT 



r 



258 JNFAM' FEKn/yfi. 

Children very j^mrtll ut birth arc b^t trmtecl in tbe mine 
moriuer ii« |inMniiUin< Ixibk^ limnition in older inlsints may 
t>ft<.'n \k- vomhiiiji] hy nlluwiii^ f^Mul timt winiM ii'»t hv |R'rmittal 
innieronluiary coii<iitii'Tit^> N^li*j fiHx] MiiU'il torn cbild twice 
liiQ age of the out; uniler tr^^uttnint wimi-iinicji t^uco«-il« wlien 
cvirvthlug Am* hjis r7inc<<L 

Marasmus. — Nrnni--^niuj*p known niso inulcr the namci of 
" wjwiing diewise of (:iuUlrpn/* nthrr|>]^][i, aiu\ i^im|>k' nirophv^ 
1* ht'st i]«sorilH>(l a.'i ii oimditidn of j>rrnirii«is atrophy- The 
term iTinnitioii shoiiM be iiiHid cnly fur tlio^c ca^cs of aciiie slar- 
viitioii, witli ibeir clmnirtorij^tic j^yinptoniti and causes, oc^iirrtDi; 
in itiihiit:>. 

,\t^^pily in infunt^ niuv Ik- tlividtxi into two claims : The 
prlmiiry ciie^c.h, Mln^ri.* (lie caiis^ is unknown, nnd t^ie secondary 
ctiNt?, or thoMT ibnt follow (lefinitt^ [i!ithid*>^it' cf.nniitions. The 
ilividing-litir tmi n<t iit |>ri'«*tit dHiniu-ly \m.- dnnvn. All gum's 
(M'curriug in the course of the cojiilv rrt^opniKC'il tliironwj^ mav nt 
niJW be plue*<l in tbe j^roup of liee'indiirv eni^e'i — th<^»e follotving 
tnlferenloBipi, f^.r pxnmpk\ Mo8t enH*<i ^-of-n diniratly <Kviir in 
inf intp^ who have not had proper food and care. Some autliors 
wtxild pliiey these in the list of tecondiiry ea^ei^. and ci>nf"idi?r 
them from aui>ther i^tamlpoiutf re;pirdiuR the process of nutri- 
tion tm twofold — digeetion m the liret i^tcp. una ar^imihition jui 
the ftfcund. lender the head of ]>rinmnF" ntmphv tlicw nnthon; 
woaUi place only ihoj^e caw?* in which the [«i.<>rid fuetor \\i\s nt 
fanlt J or, in t>i\wv word?*, thi:>w coses rceeiving proficr ewre nod 
A phyfiiolojfiefllly correct diet- Thi* div!'*ion iny for pmeticnl 
pofpoees, Uiiele^s; and &inoe we laek definite infnrmut.ion on the 
Mihject, the <'ase'j shonid lie divi<le<l. from n pjithoh^gio ha^i^ 
into tliose thaf exhibit lesioii!^ of definite difea^«, and thom? in 
which tJiere are no special and constant Icjiioiis beyond ^^^still^ 
of the muscles and iKwly-fiit ami jitrophy of the thvmne gland. 

If care is taken to exclndc tidwreulosis as well as other di*- 
COM'j^, the diagnosis of the; (condition prei^ent!^ no t'^jx'eia) diffi- 
cult ii^. 

In ^ome inAtanccA the eanw of the die«iJ*c can not hv ninde 
oot, whoroae in other iii);taneei* it is trnwable to improper 
fe<ilin^', lj*ek of enn>^ iMsnAieient exercise, and, roost imporlant, 
lack of fr4>h air and ^imhhiue. 

When cases are seen reiisonabiy early and if the cause*? can 
he rts^gniz<^^] and remt^ilied, the outlook is ^food. In private 
praotiw oajR*s amon^ the welUt'wIo n>^nally do wolK If r«een 
late, the prognosis is nearly hogiekss^ aiid in Jisylnnis and infant 




MARASMUS- 



3W 



boocuB the oiitTook U m<>*t gloomv. If, when ihc infimt i» firwt 

cltetury meanurE^ thr nntlrutlE in moro hii|K*fii1 Hiikn in thn>^ 
fgiH£>4 wlioro ^uffici«iit food is takvn aiuil ili^t-^^Unl l>nt therliiUI 
tn-vi-n heltsji (Njtitiniie* tu wji^te- In the ivnMy typiail fonii* 
this i*i ibe case, ami tlic Ji-<liirb»rcc j*iviiu* tn 1m? iluf to im- 
pmjier utili^sation i»f the tixxL SiillicieDi fcHxI amy Iw taken 
and f>noii^h ili^r^^ed imtl uh«firbo<), but in the hiiniing-iip of the 
fooii in the IxkIv ML>mo rhiirj^^ iali<^ pla^t that jx^rnittA It to be 
dJKpiiM^ i.if willioiu ]»r«.>|>i.'r]y iioiiricJiii)^ die ^yntcEii. 

Tlic trwitmcTit of tlievw wisca is <:T*M.^itiiilly tiioUrv »i)il 
hygienic!, nnd <iitJ]i?r men^itro nh^n^ inui^t tiiih Thi'vliihl mii»t 
ht kept wiirm. nn<l ifi :t wrtl-nirerl nvim : if |Ni«Aih1f% if wluiiihl 
l>e given ^iin-hatb? and hv Ui\n.n into thi_- ft\wh stir. In |irti[Hr 
eeaftitts of the year it i^n>uld be oal-<.>r-d<M*r* mtjtgt uf tbv lime, 
preferably in Uie mUDtir. The child*i« body i^lioiild \x* niAK* 
saged ^utly once or twice daily, u^wtr pintle frirtioH and a 
lubricant such 34 coeoa-biitUr or iHWJviiiut oil. The nibbing 
movements ^liouM alwuvi« tie ()iri.-c-t«il tJ^wanl ilic bi^^irt^ »t vl» to 
Gic-ilitiiK- cireulation. Th<r rbihl r^iouk) l>e onrricil about and 
coddled Ai much n* po^^^ibli^^ fnr many of the^tc infants &re 
£tarviiijf fop wnnt of a m'rth*»r'p love as mnr^h aa for w^niit of 
PrOfl The child nhouhl he finl while lying oa the niiis^^a Inp 
or arm, and not a* it lies in the crib- This la-nt is, of iy>ur«e, 
impmcticable in many infant h<ii]u*#^ iirid ho^pitaR The f<wl* 
ing should be the -eune as lia» been '>iu^;ge&ted under the h<^ding 
of LoM of Weiidit- Of dnip, creosote, beet given in the form 
of Ijiquid Bi^f Pcptom^ids with onafiote, cdi4>onate of crrea^ote^ 
or c&rf>oniite of &;uaiaci»l, \!^ the most n^ful in tite condition, nux 
vomica and alcohol nl^o Wln^ of f^rrvtoe. 

NvrviiiK HoBi«£ fi>r Murftsmus Coses. — If h<tm«?< CHmkI t>e 
c^tnhlif^liei] for the nnt^iine: and raiv of irmruulif^ Imbi*^, tlw! 
infant morlality from this dii<ea<^> wotdd Ih> nrrnitly diminliihM). 
This nur^nir-home plan ho^ bei*n cnrricd into (AV^ct in 90me 
of the citiej^of Germany, In lhe.*e iailitutinn^ ^onw^n who 
luve rerently been <]elivereil are mn\] fiir oFi nrndition that 
they nourish one or more infnnt?>. The *^|uantiiy of milk 
»C4^9Vled by these wotncn un<ier die eotiAtanl ^limulation of 
eeveral sucking chiUIreti i^ remarkable. 

It roost be remcml>rnxl that a lfln."e peiT«nUge of the oiaea 
of tiMUitemus oci.'tir in children who have bovn abandoiwd by 
their motberc at birth. Tf a child Is nurried at the brcABt for 
two or four week-s it is more likely to improve and Iiv* than if 



250 isFA2kT ruEDiya 

it iH tt\V*'tt (Wun the SrvmL immixliiitely and giv^o uDoc-rUin 
milk tiiixmn?4. 

Halnntrition. — MdtniCnltori In a lerm ii|kplii^l to c-anc^ of 
dffi-irlive initrilion tkii run a more chronic coiirse tlian tliow 
sufliring from iiianilioii c»r mara^^runs. It oraum iu infant}* und 
in olck-r <^hiLtiren, In the farmer tlie nutTinj^meiit is similar to 
itai of marasmus ; id tho laitor, the sjimt gcucral niJe* i4>ply. 
Tht? lift- uT the cliild luu^t, so fur »«• poMible, be can^full/ 
r<<>;ii)uU^), und nn abundance offreth air ami aan^hiac. together 
\^Uti tip propria le exercisob and iutervaU of U[itlLi!>mi'bi*d rc«t, 
enjoin<*ii> The dk-t i^. however, the nio^t ini|h>rtant i^k-nioiit in 
tlie treatment. Tlie food i^hould be jikiu an<l wliiflc^>ijie-, <xirc* 
fully prepared, and given at regular but not too frequent inteiw 
valfl. In ^>ine ca^ea it may be found advif^ble to give smaller 
tueul^ at shorter intervab. The ft>ud should be such n^ is 
reoommeuded for normal children; a hst of these arliclfti bt 
(pven i)U p, 230, whore the details of the Iccding will alf*o be 
found. 

Feeding after Intubation. — U^ually this i.^ uoc*im- 
plish^l with but little t*r un ditlieuUv'T but in somo tutiinnM» 
^wailh)V-in^ imiy nt firat 1>o difTionlt, ami in th^^se (mftmi semi- 
&oti(l>i, ^ich as junket^ soft-boilpd pggs or a very light omelet, 
wimvjelly. or milk-toast* may lie euWitnted for the liquid. If 
the seminDlitls fail, it ha^. I»ei?n sn^^ted that the child be placed 
Mitli it> head lower than it^ budy, and that nourishment be ^iveu 
while m this position. As mon a^ the child learns; to swulluw 
with the tiibo in place the ustial light diet umy Ix* ^ivcii. 

BDUre&is, — BesiiK's the training and the nK-ilicinal treat- 
ment, a plain, initrition^ diet is of great service in these casea. 
In the majority of <*xiwe of nocturnal pnuresie, on ijoestton- 
J ing it will bo fnimd that the children have been getting large 

I quantitien of cuffeL- or tea. or that large amounts of water have 

( been taken during the evenintr, or that the bhi<lder liae not been 

J emptied before going to bciL In the*iC case* the treatment is 

obvious, and consists in excluding coflee, 1^^, and stimulating 
foods (ripiceff and (he like), nud in limiting the amount of tlutd 
lAken after f<inr in the alVrnnon. Much cjim be done by pmjH?r 
traiiiuiic. Whrn dr|)cnde»t iiju'n oilier enu^^'s, thf tri^iimeut 
moflt be diroi'icd t»wanl thciic conditiena* 

Rachitis or Rickets* — Uicket* in a dJ^wnsp of nntrition^ 
hut nno t)»!it ik n>»t wrll underHtooi]. Most of the f'flses ooour 
in die tempemlc Knjie, and southern races tmnsp<:»rted north 
seem especially |>redit<pu»(,d to iu It ia %'eiy common amou^ 




RACniTiS OR ttfCKETS^ 



261 



the n^pro« of Bciltlrocre. Tlir nrthon? h^ve foiin<1 that 
nturly I()IJ p^r cent, oF the infnrtK in aifvlnmi* for mlored 
children wctv itflect4?<] with rickets wlietvaA in flimtkr instita- 
tious tor wliito childn.-ii in the Kime cit_r the ili»eii>i<^ was rurc. 
Itali&DB living; in AnuTion <vm pn^li^iKM^ to it, »bd children 
with bjiJ hygienic Mirrnnn^hnvs jirt more apt tn be ii1feet«l tban 
tlio#e nmul umid lK'lt(TcH>iuiiUuiir^. It is n diseaM* of theeity. 
Tb« majority' of tht.' ijum^i iiccur bvtwcfm vix m<iritb» &iid fwo 
TCiuv of age ; it ii* not un4Mi >oen lu hn-ik>t-fe<l ehililren unkas 
loctatioii OM been (^>ntinucd for too loiig n periwL lIoltHtatee 
thnt nrcon^ tljt* Itailijtnii in Nrw V^^rlc City it IH not unoonnnon 
to Iiik) it in chiKlix.D who are hnnut-riil. 

Kieketfi nmy be pnxiiK^I experimetitully in uniinolK, as luis 
beeu proved l>y Bltmd Sutton in hi^ f»moii» exgiennK'ntf^ ; ho 
feii lion wbelps rm im exeUnivc <liet f»f nivr ineait, and in a fhort 
time iln-y <lovdi»|R'4l HVere ricket-*- They win* given niilk^ 
pouiitUil l>c)Ui>, aniJ axl-liver oil, and in that- inontins witliont 
jioy ehungi' in their ?urmLin<lin}p<, tliey wen? eiiix^J. Qruriii 
e:c}>eriini-ntefl on a litter i>f pn]>:<, and found that ihat^r who 
6iK.-klc-<l i)i«l well, whi^refiF thoF^"- fed (»n raw nmit clcviOopcd 
rioketB. Xi)rn4>rou«t pxppriment^ of thU kind have \ttt^n of>n- 
dnet^, and white dedtiettons ^I'ere nnt jilwuyit in oouord^ tL«y 
tended, neverihele«e^, to ^liow that the di»eaH< may be pradcKM 
by wiihhoMintr milk from yoiinj^ aniinal^^ And ^nb^tituting for 
it olber ariivlefi of diet. 

In children f«d artiiicially by impro|ier methodi ricketa id 
apt to develof), A f"od low in fnlia Iw i^invially liable lo pro- 
da*.^ (he diffea^r parttcnUrly if, at thi' wime time, tlir prutclm 
kar« alw d«fiolenU la Mich a diet there U almost certain to l>e 
rritber All exn<>H^ "f th*- earbohydmt©*; ar of oonic wah«latie« 
iiaftiiit4<d fo The chiM'^ digestion. Among foodtt that ran»Mi 
rieketf< nmy he mentioned Mime of the pn»pneury food^ and 
eonden.'>^t) milk. 

The lime piall.« are, nnder certain cf^ndilfon^^ Apparently »b- 
9ort>ed with difHeulty, and thi»= vouki *«eeiD Uy K' cJte ca.'te 
wh^o llie food is deficient in fuL Hence if the child'ii diet 
I lacks fat or if the lime m.\xs nre deftckiit, ihr lx>n(!s will lie 
liiipn)[>er1y nt>uri«<bed. Ii ha# Ik^imi thi»Uf^ht thai tliin vraa due 
t<i an exee*i of hictic acid, and lhen> utp u number of otlter 
t]ier>rit*f that n^od not be ooof^idered li*-rft. 

Diet. — Tho fe*-<hn^ in rieketfi U very Mznple, sad wlw^n it i» 
|KJH?(ibli- to combine with it outdo'.*r life and pro tier care and 
nurwiig, is very efficient. If the child latut be fix] artiliciully^ 



2^5 



iXf^.VT FKKMSG, 



ud if it esUhilA ii>inptj>m4 tliflt nre HUggr^tixT, moh m aweit- 
ing, iem]fm&is, or re-HtleiLHn<H.-4 m nif^hi, il ^loiilrJ Ix' ipven 
cream i»r c*itl-liver oil lu a<Htiii>n ht rln- imiiM-r rlii-T, In ihia 
way the diHeos^? may l>e pre\"enled. \V'h*?ii ih^* di-^iiiM; ha« 
develojxHJ, the diild Hhuul*] bo pinred on n dii-t F^uitnbLc to IIja 
14PT, ji-n MU^^i'stttl iti tlif f+eL-ii(»i oil ilie Filling of lufatiL^ ; die 
iiKjd Abmtld o>ufiij^l in freftti milk, <"^:gj*, nu-ut, VT^g^nabK-rt, nittl 
fruiL Thi? ImsiH <>f liic* diH ahoulJ Iw ihiIUt wluch should can- 
tain i [MT ot*iit, of fal iJ" tin* t'bild ruu digi'Jit ibat umcjunt and 
1-4 i>M Muni^fi til r<H<<*ivi:t it. Fat in Mtne Wivm inn^r lie Kti|>plie<1, 
nnd wln.^ri.'omim i* not wi-ll Ihjiiu', oilior ftyrms iiuiybo irieil or 
tbt*y uiiiv Iw ^iwii in ri>mbi[iati<m> Of ibcfto, <.fj<i-ltver oil 1^4 
one of UH* ni'iKt valuably nn<l may Ik* jrivcn plain, in tcaspoon- 
fiil ilm^ or loAHj ,*> iL-4 not [n ili*uirli tbt- di^fi-stion. If tbe 
plain oil l"* not wdl It'jnic, it in!iy lx>r ^ivtn in tbo fomi of nn 
i^iauliiou or widi malt jirrpanilims Vnl limini browiu^i Uj a 
crirtp by droppitiji -ntmdl pin*!?^ m l>oiling grciwc moy be rrittl, 
aiul will oiloD ogrco wiioro other fiitj< do not. Bnttc-r may l>c 
iiittvl, bnt. Ill Inr^ nmnnnU thi* mny nnf \>o *o Wi^ll Ivirn^ ng the 
iiUmt fiirm^. (^in* slunild Ui^ tokph tlirtt too miifli In? not^'iven 
mid th« cbild's <liir'''5ti<»u disiurbr*! by extcw^ of fiit, 

TIk* hypopbo<pbilt.»*i nuiy Uv i\sc*\ for ib'.-ir tonic action, but 
pro!*iilily t'xert no >|hii:il eillrt on the- di«^iMr. Iron or axw^ic 
urn" Im- n>^M if t!ua' is uTicmicu 

Tjonis Suirr' give-^ iIk' f>lboviag di^H-list forn ubild uf Hgh- 
Ir^ML iih?ntli5 in wbit-b tbv ilifti.'iL:^^* i^ um^omplir'alitl bv dfuHKii : 

Fir^t Mrtil, 7.40 A, JA — A brcakfiislrnpfid (« rjunwfl) t>f 
milk" with a t4iI>liKpo4jafiil (*>or-bnlf ouncp) <>f pr(*am ; on altcr- 
nati> cbiyj the yolk of a snfuboilod ^qr, witb ji lltllt* bni(<>rr Halt, 
ami ba«<i-cruml>^i, and two to four tiiblc^tHxmruU of woU-tyioked 
ADf] «trjiin(^l i.'nic'kwUwbeut pt»rridge witb crt'iim and silt. 

SrroTi'l Mmly It A. M. — A brenkfiislciipfiil (8 oiirccs) of 
milk witb u tnblwp^wnfnl (one-bwlf ounce) of crt'ani nnd a i^Iioe 
f>f wboU^^vbwit brcsui 

Vdrd Mmfy ^ i*. }l. — A good tJibk^poouftil of woll*mince<i 
mill p>nnd<.-il cbickni or nintton, with gRl^'y^ndn little* rnimblcd 
stale br*^nd ; a tablc^poonfnl of piirfc of pjtinachf *t<'Wc<l cclciy, 
or rnoHHow^r lopp ; diia broal nnd Imttor* 

F'iurfh }fivif, ft /*, H. — Milk andor«^m an at fiwt nnd s^rond 
tnc^U ; tbin hreid and butter. 

For tirhk, pure water. 

Avoid <sxcvs» of fiirinawon* fn<Kl. 



RACHITIS OR RICKETS. 263 

Should there be a complicating diarrhea with liquid oSenmve 
fitoolsj a diet containiDg a miDimum quaDtity of caBetn Bhould 
be adopted. For example : 

I^rst Meal, 7 A. Jf.— Veal broth (half pound of veal to a 
pint of water) and barley-water equal parts (3 to 4 ounoed). 

Second Mealy 10 A. M^ — Ocara, half ounce, whey (freshly 
prejtared) 6 ounceB. 

Third Mealy 2 P. M. — Same aa firat, with chicken broth in 
place of veal broth. 

Fourth Meal, 5 P. M. — Same as second. 

Fifth Meal, 10 P. 3f--^rae as fiwt. 

If feeble, one meal at 4 A. H., same as second. 

In extreme cases with diarrhea Starr limits the diet to raw 
beef*juice in one t<) three tablespoouful dose« every two hours, 
with a modified brandy-and-egg mixture twice each day. 
(See recipes for In&ot Brandy-and-^^ Mixture, in the sec- 
tion OQ Kecipes). 



DIET FOR SPECIAL CONDITiONa 
DIET FOR THE AGED. 

Whkx a man Iul'^ ]M.<^fI his fiftieth ymr his diH ^houM tjc 
guanlecL Dii^cary indiscrelions or a Um* |»lentifii) diet will 
resHlt eilher id the pulling on of flenh and the con^^ijiuoit <Jis- 
ci'iuforu of oln=til_v t»r iu i}n' dvMfU>\mwtii of j^nit ur allic^l 
ajTectiuua. Ill o»DEiJ<!ring ihr diet of the ap-tl the old dictum 
that a niun h a^ t>ld a^ hiJt arturU^j itpjfht>s, ^(/«* cviu not eitv^ttiji 
ftf i^ountrtl hi/ t/rar». In ihf Hjftil there is « le«;«onmg "f aII 
|ihyHi(*al m>iivilii*s. The ohi mini uiki-s \v»* txvTv\t^t Iws 
difiihiishr'd powers uf iH^ri^jiiJoij, aiid tr* li"-vi nbK* to absorb the 
Diilrjmeiit fi(^ han digL'^tinl. Hi> rirtnilalion ii« ]HK>r and hm 
bowels are eoniAti|>atj<d, L)t^nomt[ve proc^f^'^cs have taken [ilace 
in his ot^n^ and he is more apt to feid the etfi-etfl of iiidi!*- 
creilons in diet. For ihas<? reat^^nn iIk- di^^i t^houKi i>e Hglurr 
than ill j"oimg;er vciirs, and tlit- antoual nf f<H.id i-aten shtndd 
vary with the nct^la <»f the; individuul. The- food nhuuld \k- cif 
ui 4«iMilv digestible variety ; it should be given in Brualler 
ipinntiti^^ii &t ii time, and the iutervalsi K-lx^-een rawils shmihl be 
"burti'iiwh If theri^ is a tendency tn i>U\-^ity, ^hhI that is nj)t 
to Ix* converted Into fat sliouhl Ik* iri^vn in diEiiiiiUlied aniifiinte. 
Th(.* proti/ius ^liouhl Iw si.>me\tltal Icsstneil fmui Time to time. 
Tlie i)nuTtic>e tif eating heavy supper* luteal nigbl and of eat- 
ing Iwtwei^ii meali* j-hoahl be dijsef.mtinnf^l. The pi-rw»n should 
learn wliat pariimlLr iiriieh-?* of fcHnl disagree wiih Lini, and 
refrain from uatiiig TchkI?! that tend to cjinse flaudence. Yeo 
pu^'gi*9tfl tlmt in thi' aisc nf c<xjkrd fniitti a small rjtiantity 
(alxiut a tt*a*|wwmfiil to tlit* pound «f fruit) of ^hJiuiii hii*ar- 
lioaat*' he ^trvt^i] with them, to ojrrect the nciility that causes 
flutuk-iict\ 

In tht apfd ^mhI Ixurs u cIoM relation to ^Icep. A cup of 
hot milk, hot twldy. or *«inc hot li^aid forwl taken at l>ed*time 
will often ovcrconic trf>iibh*oine ^WpW^nes'*, A few sips of 
milk orn rn'tM Mimalant taken diirhij: the early morning honrs, 
when thi.< aged uri; ajit to uwuktn, will fre4Ueiiily liiburt- tJeep 
again* 

M 



DiET fOH THE AGBD. 



2jGb 



Fdod SnUal)lc for Ih^ AgM (Vm). — Yonng and tender 
chi(-kei) and jruui.' uiul "tln^r u-nder meats. Potted chicken, 
gamct and oih(T |><^ttai meaU. Sweetbread?, While fif^h, as 
«o!i.\ whiling, smelts, flounder, etc., bosx when boiled. Baooo 
l^ill<d- EggH lightly cooked, or l>eaten up with milk, ele, 
NiJtrilioiL^ f*onps, such ajt fhicken or fish (>iiii6&^ beef-t«i, ruution 
nnd diioken hroiK^, Milk in all forms when es^Wy digeftied, 
W^ivii it i» iiuL wt-il iMtnie, Uie aiMitioii of aa equal utmuUty 
of warm Vithy, or of w-arm waWrr, will ofton prove iielpfHl, 
Roof-tcA and milk >u|>ply ibt* iio<?ded Jiiiueral litibtituuoe, aiiJ 
lh<' formrr \» hti (>yiK>ll(<nt iitimidaiit. 

Tbt- fuUowing focKJ-i jirL* all ^iiitabU* : Brt'od-^nil-milk raado 
wiih the cruQild of stale hnnd und without lunip^ Por- 
ridge and oAtmcnl gni<jl. l^iiddioii^ of ^nmd rice, tapioca, 
arrow-root, *agi», oiaaironi, with milk or t-g^, and flavored 
with jfpictjt nr servwl with fruit-juico or jirlly ; breitii aod butter, 
iht bftiid ID J>e at \va%\ a liay old ; ni*k, lo Iw i^jakoi jti t«i or 
milk iukI water. Pi'i-]iurvil foods, conjsf^tiiig of prcdi|^^tvd 
ittjircbi^ ; at tlil.sagc tbcdigcativ^ fcrmrnt?* niv pr"»vidc4 scoii* 
tily by tlie digestive organs, and eoliihle <^rl>obydrat€rt arc vnU 
lUiMi^ for mflintninmg ttip bcifly-hent. All fiiriiiftoei>ii*( ftwxU 
»hoiiIil U* Mihj<x:(iHl txj a high l^m|K'nitun? for ^ome time during 
ibc cKikinp pn>ccs«, si.t *s tt> rcivier tlw <tdrrh*graniika taore 
d^cetible. 

Vegetable jturte^ of all ktods may be taken in moderation — 
t, g,, potutoc», earroU, ^pinikcli, and other ^icculent vegetable. 
P<nat<)fr* and fVe^b vogi^tabI<^ an^ a iiea-^ity : if omittofl, a 
.■>ct>rbutir :>lnt<< nmy be I'tJK^tnicn'd. Si(»wttl eelerv and stewed 
SpnniTdi or Porttignl onuipri Inid vnrictv to ibe dieC Stewed 
or bak<^l fruit*, frail-jfUi***, imd the polp of perfectly ripe mw 
fmitii in Amnll qiiRnlity may W lAkeii. 

Dr. George S- Xi*itfa, in his Fads of nn 0!tl Phystdanj givea 
the following account of In*; diet !n his old z^ : 

"For bmikfoKt I Unw a large cup of tea, with milk or 
crcwn ; brown breuil from tvro to three ounces ; and iiFiOall^ 
one and a half oun(VJt of li§b, or ludf that quantity, and that 
ve»y randy, of lnu^>ii, SimetimCT for a few days I take a cup 
of rnffvi: with bjilf iiiilk. but no fii*U or bacon, Liimb '\t* a 
cup of cocoa or chooolntc, if the weather be ci»ld : if it L* WAm, 
ft ftnakW tumbW of milk, about &\x ounces, witli the name (juao- 
lity of biTAfl aft at breakfari^t At both m»il4 T iine txitt^r, not 
a quarter of an ounce, and quite as macb j^-Hj" or marmaUdo. 
Thi^ la my u«uid Itu)cb» bat ooca^ioDilly instead oi' cocoa I 



I 

* 



26G 



DiKT FOR SPRCtAL COSDITIOSS. 



liflv« a hnkofl a|>|>K i^r Anmi^ f)n]ri(^ with milk, or j<tmwt)erri<« 
with cream .^ \\>n^ us I «iii (prt tliem, or ver^' rurt'Iv vc^*tiil»lc 
hf)up. WIk'Ii I Imvi? no milk I lake Uiiiiallv n mor^] (nnt tt^tf 
an ounce) of chifse. At 4 v. iL, a fintall clip i>f lea, and some- 
tiiDa^ bincuil or cake. Vor dinner, at 7, which in my chief 
meul, I have ftoup, frrnu jm."!!?^ leutilw, poiat^MJa, ct-lm-, t^arrol*, 
irtc,, the first two tuude with no rnoul ht-ick, luwl the others 
with a lit ill* from lainh 'W iv l>on(- ; or fi<>h .-cotip, tht* ^dIv animal 
*M>u|» I indulge ill. V\ii\\y i\\mi\y white i]iH'|>-SHa #isfi dtn^ 
from Montrf}^; of thi,<« I lake im mon^ than tliroc otinoc>«, witli 
ft |Mitjit[» and alrtuvfi another v<^^tahle fre>h from the pirden- 
If tlu'n* i* no fi?*h, I ni;iy take once or twioe a wivk an ^>tinoe 
or two, i'j*rtainly nol nn*n-, of lamb, ganie, rabbit, or tripe; 
but often I have neither fi.^h nor iie:*h. The dinner ends with 
8tewtNl fruit wiU» ci-ftinj, or pudding, or fruit tart; of these I 
taktt a fair holplng. I>uriug llie winter r«aeion, instead of fruit 
or puddiugf 1 oftva buvt- oeler/T witli ehott*e, oaiuakc oud biittpr< 
On ihiM diet 1 v*iy(JV tht' b*«t of health, x\m\ for tny wgc (*c\'» 
entv-iriffht) am Lip to a fair lUnonnE cf <*x<''rt^tN(% walking thrM* 
to six miles <Iuily in ^y(}A ami Kfrnictimei^i in hiid wrather, and 
usually [mrt of this is up a ^teep roaJ with a riw of 2oO feet. 
The only confession I have to make is timt when at home I 
do not ri^ till I have had breakfast and read the newspaper. 
ThU ia a habit I have recommemled lo many approaching my 
own ape, and tho^e who have triwi it admit that they are 
filroiigtT for i\n' n-^l *jf the day- 1 eujoy hiiNikla**! jut*l at* 
ninrh uj* my otbi^r njeulr^ though 1 never ftt-1 what can be 
cuHmI hunger, and Imve n«t done *o for miiiiy yearn, I eould 
omit a mp.'il at any timo wiiliont di-w-rtniforL This I have 
htng IcKjked u|K«n as tln' bt^l |)n>i)f of |>ertVvt digei^tlon. Da^ 
\i\\r vcr\' warm months I tjik*- rather lew hv^^A and butter, and 
I do not try to make this tip by taking anything etse/' 



DIET DURING PREGNANCY AND THE 
PUERPERIUM- 

Diet during Pregnancy. — Xo diet other than that to 
M'hi(.*h iIr< tmliont i-^ a<'eiiF<tiim<Nl ii^ advtF^ble, The f«*<>Ti Khoidd 
lir* ph'niifal anil mmrishing. All highly sunsum-il f'hid ntid in- 
digestible articleri of diet nre to l>e avuide^l When there i.> a 
morbid eraxnn^ for UD5uitahle tbingri, the frntient should be 
gnanled earefnlly again?it indulging her a]ii>eiitr. Aecitrding 
to Procbownick, Morsclmt;^, and otherii, a diet dtlicieJit in oar* 



2J/A^' DURSSG PBSOyAA-CV AyD THE PUEBPERiUM. 2Q7 

hi^UTcIratPH an<) flnidft will ivhuIi in a ^m»lL <^lit1i1 without 
<>ihf*rwise inflii^-ncing itf* d^-velopnifnt, a \wv that liii.-* Ixtii 
<H>]if]ri[ied by I'aU*u in EittclamK Fi»r ihir^ r^isou .-^udi a tliH 
b U> be advised during che laftt iwr> or thi>'«? months i>f ]>rv\^- 
nancy in women with alight pelvio c-ontniotion or in thowe wlin 
have previously borne umiMially heiivy chJIdivn. Hy ihJs 
means a difficult lubt^r mny oi\en Ix? obviated, and even <he in- 
diictiou of preuiatiii'e \nlnjr bv luadi; tinneu.>!<Aary. 

Diet during the Pucrpcrium, — Konntrly greai rt\-*tric- 
lions were i>lai:'od *Mt t\w dkl of u rtHri-iitly duliv«>refl n'oman, 
thiiM :u!x^nimnnf;, in iiarr^ for fb<> Ium of wright that hiii& Iwi*!! 
nottnL ir there is no nauK-a and the patient dt-^]rr>j< it, a ctip 
of ten or a |flaB» of warra milk njay be given siwn aflrr dt'livcry. 

The appetite ir^ generally jioiir f»r a fi-w ilavs aftiT didiverv, 
but tbod j^boutj lie given ai n-gijlar intervaU mil t<^ wiflely 
M'piLmte<L The first day, milk, mi]k-tj«ui1, or, if d*^iret], dry 
ur butteroil loa^t, with eirflVe, tea, or oueoa, a*-"C^*rding ui the 
IftAle of Uie jialieiit, ntay U.- uiveu, Wali-r may be allowed a;* 
de»!nr<l. On the r*(^>nd utid thiid davw pim|dy w.upe or any 
of On* f**lliiwl«g nmv \n- addctl l<» tht- divtary : Meal lin^the, 
lu'^f-N'fL, sort-lmiliH} iir iMuietHfl tf^p*, raw or *1ewi"*i o\>,t*^ 
and H>me :<iniph* dcKH-rt, >u<*h a-^ wint.*-jelly, lioiltnl cn.^tanj, ur 
junkets Diiriiijr the lu'xi few day^ chieken, sora|ied U-ef or 
l&utton in Hinall qimiitiTii-^, baked jtotalo, riee, and ty^n-cLU may 
be given, nnd by ibe end t^f the u^eek a gradual rvturn to the 
ordinarv diet mav l>e made. 

w r 

DIET IN THE SPECIAL DISEASES OF PREGNANCY, 
towered Urea Oatput. — During prf-gnanoy thr urine 
fihoubl Ik- waUrbed iO<>M.']v, omi nn exiintination fi»r albuitim tw 
made veoklv. ^^pecmlly if tbf^rp \a ibe jdigbt^wt reanon ti> jkua* 
|)ect kidney Ai^^e^a^, If albumin \f fonml or if any nntoward 
ttyrnptoms ari^e, the urea output for IweiUy-fJair hmn* >h<>tdd 
he rstimattil. If tbe (quantity excreted i* lu-biw iiorinab the 

Client iibrmid be |>ut at once on a milk dict^ the milk geitemlly 
ing skimmed (p^ee Milk i'ure And Diet in Xe]>hnli?«). if tlie 
fntient tirei^ of this lettnee •alad and bn<ti<l and hntter may 
hi' alliiwed in addition, ln>?.-thi.-r with KwtiOxick or bUcruitn 
(cmcJceTH). Viry ^nKdl 4fiinntiti(>« of l*prring mv may l>e given 
§i» m relish. An ubimibnirv of water, ptlhi^r plain wntvr or 
vhftt M known il^ Itnlfiil'> Lithi.i W^itrr, HhoukI l>i' draitk, 
Cmmw^f-tiirtar lemonade (one drain to the pint) ii* al«o i»eful 
ia a bc\'enig& 



288 



DIKT Fon SPKCUL fT>\/J/rfO,VA 



SaliTftdon. — If this oeoura, the itttiejit sliould l>e i>ut 
uputi a ri^nms milk diet. 

Gingivitis, — li> thi^ cxtaditi^n a gemroH^^ well-mi:ice4l diet, 
incluiJing fruit nnd fa-^h vi'getaJJt*, it imiiratcd, lu adtiiiioii 
tODics iind afttriDgefiC moiiih-wiuht^ t^pccially iba^ ooDtaiuing 
the liiicUirt" '»r iiivirh, aw 1-j be ^jn'scritM^t. 

Pernicious Vomiting,— Thia in viuu uwifictnt^cl with 
ftl^v.-'t^l i*t«Kliiii>n^ <ii' tli^ kulmy. \V'lmtA-v*T th<t cnii^e, tlie 
pMtival xluuiLl Ije kopt in Iwil luiil pliit-i'd npoii » rci^tricl4Hl 
ciivtr oonniMin^ it( YK*\tiftmiQd milk uml r>iaiilar preparalion^, 
pii'wi in T*niall «|uniilitie7* al int^rval^ of three- or four hour*, or 
(>veu oft^'ner ltt^:liil fin^iliii^' imiv Ih' riiinloye*! ior eevoral 
dayti, the ]»atietit l>ei[i^ given little or nftthing by the inouih. 
High injiK'tiona of sfllt ruiliitioii help t^* iillay thirst iind to 
control <he comliiJmi Jl^elf. Whcii tlic vnrniting hn^ cvuecd, 
iht- n-tiim tuai) onliimry diH )ttioul<l Iw slowly niul caLn.'fnl]y 
nuidc\ 

Aberrant Mental Conditions daring Pregnancj. — 
Thr pHtii'nt tlicnibl In* pl!i<**xl in Ih<], if pii^ihlp, am] <>Tcretion 
pDmotc^l hy rminiH of iHith^ riTid ilir like. An ^xHuf^ive milk 
diet (or on*.' tliut i-> nwirly wj i^ geiK'mlly lo be pivfvrrvd- 



SPECIAL METHODS OF FEEDING 



RECTAL FEEDING. 

Nutrient ^nematiL. — Tlie juiuiiiiiFitratiou »r food by tbe 
rectum » a metliod of riiHliiii; uf ancient ^nj-iu. iEtiiD aad 
otliii>4 mention it, atrid wnti-r^ durint; tbe MiJille iV^<^ huvc re- 
ferred ((J il, OiuDgli uot ill verv flowing i«.Tri)h, (Iii-ir irii|H'rfwt 
tcchtiic i>n>biibi_v nT*»ltint; iit |»nK-ii«il tUiliirx'. Voit ;ut J Buiier 
found thui a i)o^'7< nvtniii wuuU not DUn>rb r>rg-all>tmun aud 
water uiiIcjv* r^Mlium cliLoiid wrrc iiiiArO v.-i(li it. Miwt'jijkcv 
and |>epioiR* .v>lu(ioii(i Ijavc htx-n retximmcndi'^ti Imt mi iici^tunt 
of tljvir oost ATv iwt ill i.H>mni[>ii Mmt. Vr>n Ix-ulio :uKn»o<l tli4^ 
ll»e <>f nibmniu to whicli r.lioji|)r<i jwitKT*';i>: Iiiim iK'en iidd^nl. 
Hi« fimniilii wiis as foUo\T8 : 150-;JO0 \^mma (5-10 oat.) of 
»cni|>o<I mid fini-lv t^iopjietl beef; 50-100 ^atns (1^-3 ot) of 
fintdy c[iii|i|i(vl immrmus (tif the euw niid liogj^ fn-c fn^m fill ■ 
Ij'iO tM', (ri nx.) tif lukewarm \vatf*r- The mixture U to Ije 
fttimHl until n hikewiirm mii.'i?^ retniiltr^. If il«!4in>l, fat tnay be 
added — 2i)-^'>iJ i^mmH (idHint l-IJ or..). It U Ix'^t ii> allow 
Uio [uixtun* to ^tand i\tr sunn* time in u warm |)la«^' U'tnrc 
tiM»^. Thr prf'iKiRrd piinrn'a-'i cxlmrLn, eUhcr dr\- or Uqoid, 
now (Ml ihc nuirlcf^f mav be stilk^tilntnl for the ebo|>|xHl pon- 
cnuu. Ewidd wboWMl tbnt thi* pmi?fvluiv vrwi imntMVRVAr}^, 
ami ihsit idbtimin tlml whs nnt |>c-|itonT/rd or iiatw-reiiti^^ 
could l>e ib^orlxnl, eii]>oei»lly if a tiaall i|iiiintity of ^ilt wa^ 
added. ThU Uv^i w^em* lo oiuw n'VciM- iKTij^l-iUM^and Grul^ner 
jjoi^ «bon'ii tlmt »id>4tAnociL intn>du<.^il vritli tbe ^It solution may 
be found in tbo t<tomA4;h, a fact that hn^ bei-n ei>iitinm\l by 
Swic/nnkt. 

All die varioiL-4 cIomix of food may be iitili/ed In ix^i-Ltd feitl- 
ing. PmtcJa may Ix^ ^ajijilif-d in tW fonn of itrtrdij^t^tc^l meat 
or «*^-all>umiti 1o wlileh Mdt ha^ Ixvin niMf^d. XuIt^jdm: lUid 
Ajmiliir prt'|uir?4linti>b luivi> \M-**t\ wWImhL Pi^pt^mi^ funr be 
addtnl, frtym 50 to ^0 pr;i[o?< ( I J— 2 v/..) in 250 irram* (aUmt 
4^ oflL) of water Ix^ing ibe im.i|>i.-r ^In-nj^h. Of tbe airlK>by- 
dmt^ frmpo^ut^ir luu< bei'ti recommcndo^l Not morv tluiii 3CKI 
cc. (6 OK.) fif a 10 to 20 jv.'r cv-nt. nidation ^lnoiibl Ix' Allowed. 
[If too luucli gnipe-^ugiir is given, it may causi* pdii in tJ>e 



270 SPKCIAL MfiTHOm OF FEUDiyO. 

abdofacn and loo&enesji of ihe bnwel*. Starch has been c&ed, 
and [;olulions <Nintamiii^ it are readily dipe^tod and al>*orbed ; 
it iti ul^o t^id to be k'A4 likelv ih;iii gnLfn'-saifar to give n^ to 
»yitiptonifi of di*trc»% >"at omy be iij*e<l, not more than 10 
gruiiij» (J ojc) being given in twenty-four hvmvh. It is best 
^ivL-n ill tbfr forni ofy^^Lk uf egg, bitt uiber fHt-i-oiitaiikiiig ?71iIm- 
Manoc^, Fiiicb ,aji crnim or even oils, tm\y Vt^ uwd. If rvotal 
iV'^'tbn^' \^ tj» be ciirrioU *>hi for any li>ngtli of time, it is advifis- 
ble In (combine vaHrtiis ariides, and for tliii< purpurea Dumber 
of reci|>es have beea irfveJi ou pap* 273, 

Biiuer believes that but fme-fnurlh *»r the nutriment needed 
by the IxkIv i-nn be abhoibiHl Ly the n'e[iini, and both he and 
other earlier wriierw placed tiie limil of lime ilnriiig which 
rectal feeiiiiiy wa* pnuticable at from one to two weekK The 
avemge litue during whieJi an individual may [m? t;u^tajned by 
lhi» laeth^l nf feeding^ laav Ix' eoiiBervativL-lv placed at fri»iti 
four to M'Vcu svt.rk?t; von l^'ubf.- ha?? kept a ])atieul allvi' for 
BIX mouths, and Kii^gd *or tcii loontliH, by exclusive rectal 
feoilinpf. 

The siie<H-Ki* of the metlKni dt'|M*jKU hirg*Iy on pn>per technic 
With [Mior lirlmiu thr i^fctuni wk^ii Iw'come;! irritable, and for 
thi.^ re^-^>n n:*etjd tmlin^ ^ImuM iiitt \ie intrusted to the nur^ 
nr tin* family, bill l\w physician himself should see that it is 
[irf>|N'rly eomhiete<l. In fjospiiaN or in private practice where 
the mir^c 1i;m bi-iii fpreially tnniied general directions may 
MilTii'i', bill ill jiny cjim' explifit w rilten ilirLi"ti'»n* an^' advisable. 
Once the n-ctam bt-oojufft irritiible the proeehn ia conducted with 
.lilli^iilty. 

Procedure. — Thr ri^*tnm should be eh«n*ed M»orf»ughly by 
adiniin'ntrritijj: a liijrh itiji.ctiiin of normal ?«ilt solution one hoar 
bcftift' tin* enoina i* to l>e given. Tins eli-ansing should be 
I>nicli«ed at hiu-i onw a day^ and if mneh nmctis is present, it 
may Ite well to prtvvHk- i^ach fe<Hling by a cleansing enema. If 
the rt<etiini U iiilhinml, ii -Joliitinn iif horie aciil may Ik- tiK-d 
int^tead of the Siilt jiohition, or if Hiciv is much mucni-, a mjIu- 
lioii «f soduuii l>ii*arboniilu may W i^aiployed — a tea^jKionful 
of eitht^r to thi- pint of natrr being suflideut. For the first 
ont^ i>r two 4-](>itn^]ii^' 4>iifma1a tli^ bouvl nhnuM l>e f1iishe<l by 
the ordinary Tni-lliciit ; hiirr ii ri'tiini-flow i^thrler may W ined ; 
with ihia .H'veral riiiarL'* of solution may Ixr ustxl; without it 
} 10 1 pint will be Eiuffieient in mo^t cades. 

Thi^ temperature of the cleanMing enemata sbmdd be between 
85^ and o;i° l'\ ; that of the enemata whiL-li are to be retained, 



V 




BBCTAL FEBDISQ, 



271 



tHvvn flO*^ nnd fir»^ F. SnlulJoiirt tluit An> too hot or too «old 
will pmniptly Ik* r-jw-ThL 

T)io jmtk^ni -^louM lie on his side, with tW lii|%^ well cle\'ated. 
Od ucvoiint of 4liM?L3k- this jviAitinu timy he iiiLpruecicable. A 
TOotitl tuln< '>r A lai^ catheter t^oiild he u.-^l. This shfuild 
not, however, W loo lui^; a Uib«- 1 cro, (alnrnt half aD inch 
nr k'W') l^'iiij: ilit? j>ru|N-r ^"ms f<>r an tululi. Fvr thildnrn the 
iiilirvhnuhl Itc |>ropi.trciuiiuti^ly amallr^r. It [*hould be lubri«ilcd 
thoroti^hly, hut glyci-'riLi nhoultl not U- uwJ for liiU |«irpo8€. 

In intnMluiHng th*' tiilu\ it -tlionli) lio Iwi-^tMl shghtly, whioh 
Ifwirn^ thi' liAhiliiy 4if it?* lun^omin^ iit](KU-(4*(l in ihc nx^tal foMs. 
If il i^ not fuir^l eiLMly, i\ Hnmll tjujiiiTity of ihtt duid should 
t>e allovre<] to flow in, which will ^we^ lo Ixilloon out the 
rcHutn^ nArr vrhirh the tiihc may UE^nally t>e passed with ea^ 
for cij;ht or ten iitcht'S or rn*>iv. Tlie tute should in all cases 
l>c intro<)iioed a^ high up a» ^t^jble, aa the i^ueina \^ thus more 
likvly to bi' rvtaiutil and ahttijirbi'd. Thcoifliodly, tuu, il Lt 
nrg^ tlut the IiUkn] from the lowest |vrt of tbi; rectum ia 
nTtum^-d thtvHigh tlw VL*ua ouva, w.ht.'ivii# that from tli« higher 
ptirt* Mum* by wny of tlw jmrtitl -(yjihin and [louw^ dipf*i"lly 
Uimii^h the liver, Thij* U of no pmeticul mi»rniMit here, a» 
«ig:ir MihilidUi^ absorlxnl from tW PiH.niim, even wbuii introduced 
into the U)w<»r portion, <I() not cau^w glycoHuria, ThiJ* i»* ex- 
]»]vintHl hy iht- fail that the lower portion of the rec'luni hai» 
II iMnall i^[kac)iy and ab^orb^ but little^ 

The floid ti)M>uUl l>e allowed lo flf>»" in slowly from a ninnt-l 
ur II futmtaill-^y riofEv. lu putue iuvlacioi'^, wlicTv vrrv nnmll 
inj<-ction-i aiv Uring^ UfKxl, a iimall liard-ntl))>rr ^vrinj^ may be 
attarhoti lo the tnlw. Care Khuuld he tukco lo uvnid injooting 
iiir with ihf* fluid. Tin* mwhitd nf nilniiniiiT^ti); nutrient 
entinata by inmnr^ of the cld-ftt3<hioiied :<hort hanUnibbor noizio 
«f <itln^ a |iiM'wi or a ]hivid>^m *yrinp» can not U* loo *ironj;ly 
ooniU-nuitHJ. In ilto hantU ij' tht> niwkilful it may ciuiac injnry 
t<i iIk- r<'<<tnni, and fv<^n if ii?ml fiy a tmin«.Hl nur^sun1y»ni> 
oecds in [ilaeing the tlutd in the lower giartof the reccuju^ wlic-tv 
it lA apt 10 h^. expelled. 

AAtT ihr injvc'tjon the f)ali«?DC ?<htrnld 1ii<a^ ipili-tly a^ pcwiiblu 
fur At \vt^l an hc»itr, %n<\ W initr[Kti.-L] to tnr Uy rrtain thr conlmt« 
of ih* IxiwcL A |Kid of gauze uf a ti>wi*) ^honld b** pri'wioci 
ov«T lite nniiK for rwi^niy minnte.-4 or litilf iiu hour, aivd tlm mind 
rthouH, if powiibK be divertnl from the rtibjert, Aftrr % few 
Any^ the Ixiwel olten aor^uirt^ a tolenimie for the injcvtioon, and 
they niay W- iviainM without diflictiliy. 




313 




7W 




9,m w^ 

ru>^ ■■iTiiillp^wieufcgW^i^Ae 

2 iMr «Mt «xifa volatM. ad terem thr 

Tlw lOKMuit to be f;nrcD >t f*rfa nj i rti a t& «■ wpofrant 
bnlnr^ A» • mle, it •bndal dU rs<«i;d J nf ft litvr. (| piiM). 
1/ tbM bi ArX wHl bcn^f tbe ■imtnt oxtr br n«loerd m fioa 

Tb« Domlwr of cDn&aU tr> br umJ viH drpi«d Mmrafcat 
vpofl ibe iMtMC't oMtttittrtion ; m ■ gcoml r«k^ fiTe* «r 
Wtir dx, bom sboiaM b«- allow^ to «bpM iMUrmn «Mfc 

It U wAl io mncifltM-r tlmi |nrkmj; id tbe ra^^ a&^ other 
^ti«Grj|¥jjfjc flr4'H»iit;c>* Q>^>' interffre toatcridljr witb tlw injectim 
of flui'l bb> (W U^wcl. 



lNDfCATK»« rOR THE USE OT NUTRIENT ENEBIATA. 
Nutrient eiKiaaia arc itulkatod ; 

1, In 4-xtn-ffra4y wr-iik4.-nHl coiHlinoiifif as «]unti^ the [i r ug r o aa 
of fcvere, wlxfi lilt- f|iuiutity of ft^A tatvu iLnjugli ibe uimiUi 
ii ii>tfiifK<-i«'ra 1" HiKdkiti life- vr when even ftrtxligi^^ud food cui 
mt h* n?Ui]M*fl. 

2, In dwHM* of tbe iittnn'nx uml <st>]il»tguw in vdiieh ob* 
utmoliorin tu tW' (m^^jfi* of fiMic] rxi>t, oh fmtn tiiDkor!«; iJi^t 
OMxidonatlj in *|MmnK>rlir- coDrirrirtion^ i»f ilji> K4}pliagu8 uml in 
|nnilyli<t fou'ljfioim of tti« pbnniix wlieii the ]Kilicnt is uikal>le 
to nwallow JV»j(J. 

3, In (liM<n>«^ of ih<^ Momach, da in cnnrcr o^^en^rooiiig 
ctrkture of tlie i.-anliur oiifla-, with SimliSllty tu »wit1]4>w .<iifn> 
cienl DOoriAhtn^nt, In dir^-aiMr?* uf dii- rtliiiiiiicli in >vhub il 19 
iiii|i'>rUfit I" rolit'Vi^' ilu- Blunm<-li of v"rk — f. <7., in <?urt"ioora«, 
ill noii-m»Ii|fiLnnt »itru'Uiri<ii of t}u> jivloniK willi of»iivquont 
ililatntlon, iiii<) al»cj iu iik^rr (»r tin- Htiiiniirli, \Hyih wli^^i hi^mrir- 
rhafp^ haf ot*L*iirrwi nnd when liijuidi* ai>» Ivadlj bomc. In tbftt 
form of iH-rvonn flyMjH'pqin known aa irriuiblc stomach, wbidi U 



SECTAL FEEMSO, 



273 



aocomp«iui«d by *e\"erc vomiting, nutrient eu«nuit4i may be giveu 
to supply nouriehment to the body when liwj stomach can not 
nHAiu food* 

4, In delirifmi*, ooiiiatofif. or iiutane perMiDs who can not be 
fed through the month. 



RECIPES FOR NUTRJEPn- ENEMATA- 

Dujardin-BeautnetJi's Nutrient Bnema, — 
A rijiiful of mWU- 

Two or Tbn<(* tfiblt^iprionrul^ of liquid or two or thrrc 
teaspoon fit Is iif (irv iiqiUnii". 
1 yolk of ^2p. 
ft dn»p:< fit' laiidAniim. 
7 grniiit* of Nodhmi biairl>onate if thi^ |)cptoiit* U acid- 

Von I^enbe's Milk-peptone Enema. — 

250 f'.i.\ \ s I*/,) milk 1 7U oaiorie*. 

60 gmiu^ (2 w:.J i^'ptoiit - - . 1 00 " 

270 calorie*. 

In phid^ of tbf' |H>|itniiff « ^0 to AO [M'r mil. dilution 
of Eolublr pnitciii may Iw ii^4* 

Bsg-and-milk Enema. — 

250 o-c (8 o«.) millc 170c«Wio«. 

3 egg* 200 " 

3 grantt^ of adt 

370 calorie«. 

StaTch-and-iuUfc Bttema. — 

G0-7U gTsms(fltMMit ^<»l) «tAR*h 2-^ onWioA. 

2Mft*,<8oj!L)mak 170 " 

420 onlorio«. 



&it£ar-and-milk Bnctna. — 

<>0 gmin^f (2 CJJ^) (:ni|)i.'-BU^r . 
3^0 cc. (S az.) milk .... 

Pancreas Enema*** 

50^100 gmmfl (Ij-S ot) ptm- ( 

150-3*«) grams ^i-ft ox.) incwt , \ 
30-45 gram- (l-lj oat-)fnl- . ( 



240 ujhloneit. 
170 " 
416 catorii^A. 

300 calories. 
350 *• 
&60 caloric. 



II 




274 



Si'tXlAL MhTJIOVH Of rtEi/iytt- 



Singer's Enema. — 

l2o ^nim*^ (4 ox.) niilk. 
12fi grams (4 oz.) wiup. 
1 or 2 yolka of eggK 
SilIl 

1 t^a8p(K*ntut of Wittc's peptone. 

May Im^ ^ven ihree, or poeeibly lour, times a day and is 
well lx>me. 

RlegeVs Enema. — 
2J>0 a«\ (J< gz,) milk 

2 or 3 eggf% 
Sail. 

1 or 2 ioaepoimfuls of rwJ wiiifc 

RJegel cloe4 not u^ jK-ptoiin, u« he fvur^ tliflt it might irritate 
tUe rectum und <^nn^ iliarrla^i. 

Ewald's Nutrient Enema. — 

2 t^T :i eggs. 

1 table^pooriftil of wnt^r, 

A «ma]l amoiiut of Hour is boilct) in linlf a ciip *y( 'ZO 
per cent ^^olution of dt'Xlroj^t' mid a nijicgliiN* uf n**! wire 
added. Tho ej^p ^otiilinn is :*iirre<l in, can* being t«kcn not to 
have the ^oliidun too hoc Icat ihoslbnmin bo coihguJat<<I. I'^nttre 
amount, 250 c.c. (8 ex.). 

A Frequent Army and Hospital Formula. — 

ir,0-'250 c.i\ (.V8 ox.) lo lo 20 per cent. soUitiou 
of dextrose. 

Add a Hltlc* &tArrh i^olutton or mnoilage to inalce it moro 
vi":4*id and A f*^w drops nf tiTK^tnre of opium, 

Boas' Formula. — 

'^Mi c-c, (8 iiK.) niilk. 

2 yolka of cgg^» 

A atn»n <]t]:iiitih' of enlt, 
1 tnblrs poor] fid of rwl wire. 

1 twble^poonful of ** Kraftmehl " (Ilealtli Flour). 

Jaccoud's Recipe. — 
HM c,c. boiiilbhu. 
120 CO. wine, 

2 yolk* lif effpr*. 

4-20 grums (1-5 dnunf) dry peptone, 



OTHKIt JtTETnODS OF yOVEISntyO THE BODY, 275 

Rosenheim's Enema. — 

I or :: ti-iL-'^jHii^uttil-* ■ir|)4'[»t')nriir u ^^elt-Mlrr^I mwogg. 
lo gmtiLs \j\ (it-niii-i^ (if iK'Aln\-«<r if inrbnlivdniUa lire 

Zontr's Recipe for Administration of Pat. — 

I'mi-liviT oil- 
Stxla soIeiiKjii. 
2<»-260 CJi. (6-d «6.) wiiUjt. 

OTHER METHODS OF NOURISHING THE BODY. 

Food suppositories l^iivi.* Uvii wu^^'?iii>l, but rln-ir «m' ii* 
upfii t^tnioiv 'fly<'<'iit*iir», i\w I'luvf unr, tln'T iiiEiv tioC bu ni>«irl>i'd. 

Nutrient inunctions, i^fh-cijiUy wlfh mt^ havi? bn^i imi|^ 
gc^^Uil, nii-'t in iHntiHttoiiK <il' ^nuit I'miuuitlion thry miiv pmvv 
iiHofiiL Tlk<- ImhIv i^ niiituit with i^\\, Mirh iim utivr ^tl, <<iiil- 
Iiver oil, or t'"K'4»am« dil, or wiili cijo-oa-hutUT. ThU kt*cps the 
flkin ^i.itl, (he iiia.-4«n^* oIm* |>nA'ini^ lielpfuL It i^ of |iurticijliir 
value in iiiunuitiir inluniA, t\it<\ liiis Imh^i iia-<I »:« u rmitint? priK^CKH* 
liT iIk' aniii*ir* in nil ■•noli i-.l*i^^. with wn (fniiifyin^ ri'MtlK 

Intravascular feeding h:L^ Ihyti rrii^). Af^ronlin^ tu 
Tlium)ir«on, H<Nlik*r, uh itiHy iw iS-in, i»wil intniMir^iilikr inj<'<y 
tKHin (»r milk l^ir the o4b|>i!<< af A^inli^^ ohoU-nu Othcn* hav« 
ii^ed milk anil i^eptono H>lnti<^ii4i Xf>nnAl »u1l ^ohitioti would^ 
however, fieoiPi fo l>o a -alep awl n Tm»n» pmoticail iikIIuhI of 
Ififttin^c fluid into the J>n<ly. Intrnvnaoiilnr W*lin^ will alu^ayfl 
U- ;itt€ii(le<l witli too mnny U[ffiouli!«« aDt) (bnffcrs to be of I'alue 
to the pr3rtili<''tior- 

Soboutaneous feeding h a sulije(i of considerable m- 
t^ivst, aihi wa?* ii=»xl a^ earl v us 1**<j1^ b\" MeiiJcel an*! I'erko. 
Kat^t, Krug, ^Vitlhakcr, oikI otht-ps hiivo also einployeil this 
method. fSie of the most importaEit TOUlributioiifi to the sub- 
ject bas lK*cit DtAile by vi»d LcuU-. TIjt^ ifbK^-rver couM ubtain 
no jTMxl iv?*nll>^ fn>m ih*' uw <»f cilhor prc>t4.-ina or of carbo- 
hydrate^ He \^ of the t>pinii^u, however, that i"jerti»>ii*i of oil 
art*^ of piwtionl vahie in nounntiinjt patienU [iniler Niioh rion- 
diiions a>* redder it neoeflsar>\ as in the (ailiire of rectal eaemata 
l>eoau>« of the presence of homorrhoitU or irrit.ition r»f the reo- 
tiini. lli^ aiteation wan flir^rfitl to the fuct tlmt liit^' miAti- 
titiefl of oil wcrv u.^t<c] in ^'ivin^ <^m|jhor iDJcctioa^, whirn Arc 
more widely u*ied in (itmiany thuu in AnK^rica. F«t enibult 
n?^tili m nrcly as to lie pRicticnlly no obji<ctio«i lo tTic mvlhod. 
Von Lrubc iih« tbe purest olive or scaiuuuc oil, und a 10 c.c* 



275 



SPECfAL UtETHOnS OF FEEDinO. 



Hj-mi^r, omtlt' ufti-r t)ir or<!in.ii y hyTuxiorninlio syrinjco pQttt4rm^ 
or u ucvdlf>ii ttilic, (iitd iL tiinncL From 'M h> 40 c.c* (l-l J o£.} 
of oil mjLy Ih* uhiiI ^Uiity. Plif i^uiMittt offho syrini^ (10 c.c.) 
vhfiiild Iw iiij*x*tf<l in tliroc diffcrt'iit jilHcef. and ilie wound** 
M^iii'i] wilh *:<incMliiHK Tlic oil ftlunilLl Ix- injeoicd v<»ry fJnwly, 
and, i»r rcniiNi', fin.* ^l^irI^^*I ;iM'[»i* miK Ik." ol»*rveJ, 

Saline Irrigations and Infusions.— L Saline Rectal 
Irrigations. — KivUl sjilim- inji-t'tiiHift are espocialiy u^-riil in 
ail roiiilitiniis il-v-mhmuU*<] with iH-niiM'rhn^rtT^i^' i^ (he vuriim^ 
iufrt'tiiMLn iILsi^i.^-^^ arr urJl IL^ iii ii)|i>^k'uli<i[ii- null in tliutc l-oii- 
ditionn ill wliic-li it i^ iiccOA^ury to nllnv djint. 

Th(t Ilui<l ii^tn] «(i(>uM 1m» n noi-inal Knit eoliition^ ond elioiiM 
tx* mvMi Ju^li. with tl»i' rcrliil hihr ; if it iv npcf'i»ijny ti> pri?|wipe 
Aiidi a Htilntluii qiiakly, ii uiiMfxHUilnl of ^ah niuy be uddc^l in 
a pint t}f waUT^ uiul nipUlly injtH'U\i by means of an urdioary 
fi>ttiitAin MTin^s The fluid iJiijulii Ixr ut alHjiit tlic tcnitxTUliirc? 
of itif* IxkIv, ami shttuld Im^ n<lnnriisrrr<HJ &k>wlVf whik' the 
|mti<-nt i-t in a ii'<'linin^ iHtHttiniK A^ miidi u^ k ijuzirt to n 
i|Unrt of lliu fluid ivui \h- niilir^'il ^it »nr Iiitk-. 

2. Saline Infusions. — Sulhic inrn--<ii>n3 arc ^'ven »ul>ctJ- 

fano<m^ly, und iirc c^pi^iMiilly tL-^cftd in c^i:^^^ tn wlilch n^^lid 

WLliiitf irripili'iiis (-uti not lioiitilixctl, as in t^rrtain tntcKtinal dii^ 

e:tH?A or whi-n an itiimt'iliiitr I'fTrrl t-^ rnpitn^l, am in Kiidilt-n n\\- 

lapi^e from ln-morrliiii;* or fnmi shiK-k. Tlicy arc also useful in 

ca»eH when lan;tMjniuititi<.%"rilind* Ijjiviijwn l»)stliy t|jc*body, us 

in the diarrhedi!^ </ dy>(.'nt*'ry and of cliolrni, in varicais inft*cti<>u» 

•oiidilions and iritt'xiraiiriiiK, ii^ in piifMiirmnia, rryf'ijK-b^, an<l 

typhoid fever ; and in tin- in-i-nua nf HiMnii- Bri^btV di^wi;^. 

The most conv<*nieiit loealiun ihr udiniiM?iti*riiijf tlio infuj^ion in 

betwtcn the chot-vynll and ihr niannTuiry ^lund, <ir doepiv into 

6ome mn^cte, a^ in titr lunilmr ix^i'm, ulMlominul wjkll, ur bnt- 

to<^k- The injertinn kboiild \»' jfivni nnd<T llic mo*I .im-jjiIo 

|>rH^iition>j, Xo apjmnilii,^ is WHjuini! hryimd u fonnniin 

ftvringo tn which nn iwpinitiny: ni'HiIr i* aUm-hed. Tlif in- 

fnMon yjhonid l>e warm, and ^houhl Uc ulhtwcd tn ran tiiidowly; 

frw^tu-nllv ii;» nuiHi a^ 1 »»r 2 i|nartH iiin Im' iiijertnl into one 

plucw. The mixtiiiv uswl in a normal— IK'i jif-r rent,- — r*alt ,"*ohi- 

tioii. In ti^rlain rase^^Casbing' prefers iIjc folbwiug Aulntiou; 

SwUrtin I'lilorM - * O.MKI 

r^lHnm i'lili>n-l_ , iiM'IV^ 

P{i|;iviiifiM']il')nd ..4A><i>i.*««< ... tXHtO - 

DM]M WHtvr ^ . . . «»,O04 



lOlXoOO 



1 Cbbcn'i P^i^Mo^ia Tbn^Miittftt, voL fx., p. 3K9. 



DIET IN DISEASE. 



P 



General RuleB for Feeding^ the Slclc. — Tht^ ntn»^ And 
famiiy >;hiiiilii ix.* WiWy iiii|»r»>^^il witlj thr tm|Kirtflnc*? of the 
pr4>}x.'r ft^ivJing i»f ihr patient. Definite directions a^ to hnw 
much r>XKl, iT^ lonn, it« pri^punition, unci hnw oAon it i?^ to be 
givcd^ »WjUI Ix' wnCt4.-tL otir. In uU ut'iile (riTumscoEKlitionswi 
m piieunif>iii» ■>r in typh<:nd tcvor, n recvinL of Urwi' dHniU 
AhmiM be kept, li>f>i*tl)vr wJUi tti« n*curd uf tlio ^jnantity of 
fluid iiiknif tlic muliciiiCTf ^'ivvii, He. 

Then* 14 (P-tinlly u Uuh^ik-v t" err in cither extri'inr — llint of 
^ivin^ either too muoh «ir t<Hi liillc IboiK Cure filiould b*? titken 
Uial ihe patWtV wIaIicm are, wlierevr-r |knirti<<aM(^, curried into 
effect. The niir>;e miil fiimily *hnnl*l hp i|iK>ii<itted Mirthfully as 
Ic the pfttient'e likes and diiilike^, uml aU> ;is to Lik i<]]OAyuciB- 
flte«, A tiK-tfnl, ub«ervinK inirT'^* ih i*f int>?^umalile vnlii€, but n 
cbn-iess <ir sliipid i>ne is iiu cver-piy^eiit w)urt*e of dari^r. 

The tminiiif; of iitirscs i» regsuxl tA focdinjj; i» often faulty. 
Every iiun^ slmuld b*.* iniftniclwl in tlic subj«ec of practical 
dietetic*, and »ho«ld knov hf>w rnueb food ij* rtquin^l by Uie 
ddferetit ty|x^ nf patirnt^ The details «f fectUng jmticnto 
«hould nlvrays be ^ne into, 

Th« fon<1 should W iipven nt iN^tlnr inierviilft. Tn unoon- 
seinus or *ipfnittin«-ion» paticnM tbi* i^^ of grpat impc^rt-'mw, but 
it i^ jurt n^ importimt tti the con^ious, as die appetite ii^iialiy 
comes on at ccnaio times^ and if tlie meal is iH^t f'jrtfafx»TD]ii|f, 
mnv dii^|)pcflr. 

'Jli« appetite of llie ci^nM-ious patient antl of the convalescent 
should bi- fii^^tenHl, atxl ni»tbin^ {lone that iimy in any war dis- 
turb it, PaiiiMkl-^ v:iTy miicb in ihtn |Rartieular, Inil am n ndo 
individoAls ^ho arc n^t ovcrfhstidions When they are wtJI, 
b«MMne so when weafcoiipd by rli>ie«w. 

The fliek-rrfcom -boiild b» ordr»rlr, ni»d no dishes, iitensHs, or 
ffMM] lie alloweil to »tan*1 about iIm* room eitlipr f>efore or afler 
UtfiDt:. All food and drink should be rtffend fmm ^nipuloii^ty 
ckui ^aa^es or di^fbos. These should be as <tainly as posMbl«| 
and the food mnM be made altnK-tive in appeamiKM* ; vrben th« 
dish perDiit>, it iruxy be gftxtiij<iivd with a '']>rig of ^n-cri. The 

JTT 



278 



JJJET IN t>lSEASB. 



napkins arul Wuon sh<iuld be 8pfitli?ht. TIk* ext€ri<yr furiaoe of 
glasses and cups should \}e wiped dn' before rhey are offered to 
the puiient. 

Foud thai H stale or iliat has acquii^ aa unpleasant lasle 
from ainndLEi^ in a ii.-rri^vrali>r t<ijj;cil]i_*r with olWr UiiiijiEb ahuiild 
uut hc' ^ivoE>p A etniH]^ v^ iu an e^iioj^ tnny he (he lueuui^ of 
tuminjj; 3 jialiem foivver s^inBl <his form of iioLriiJimonu 
Thi* IWhI nhoiild In- ta--«leii by the luiri^e, hut never, when fiosAi-* 
hie, in tlio |>atient'*^ prt'seiioe or with the same .HpiM>n. If tlw^re 
is amthioK wrontr >*'ilh a clif-h^ this should be dip*oovered anJ 
rcmc<lie<l before it is bmughr to tbe patient* 

A nurse f^hoiiM alwuys remcnil>cr the eternal Illness of thingak. 
Kten^ils and disht** should be n>eii muW for the purjXK'* for 
whiob they are ictouded, and ni.rt as uiakesbiiU for other articles, 
After uirin^ for th*^ patieut or removing cvjicu^iiionji fiuAici^^Dt 
lime Hhould bo allowed t'> elajive hef^^re feeding i^ Ix-gnriH Th<^- 
ptitieiit shoiiUI ))o tiiEuk' to fool tluit the utmost oWtilitu'sri untl 
oftre liavi* U-i-n i4>SiTViHl. The* hamU and Ikf^e' of (ho |iafi<*i]t 
«honM Ik* M'i[>Hl with a moisl rlotli and tlicn dried h(?forv fiHid 
h s'lyi't^i itnd the lifin <-le-an.-«'d uller ihit rnoul i^ c^omplcti*. 

TUr (lositloa of tIk- |iiiti<-iit .-should be as (^iaifi>rtahli:T a one as 
]H>ssihK-f aiul oiu' in wliicii hi* wtll iir>L tiro hc-fitn- iho mcsl i)f 
ended. If the |iaticvit in wc^ik, tlu? fxHl xhoijlil Uv ^\vvn in 
>iie1i form that he nmv tiiiki* enough uf it without inilni'in^ 
fatigue; otherwise he niav IweoMic tiixtl i>f tiiaMif'jiting am] 
Hwallriwin)^ mul take an inMtifHriont Hinniint. Pjiti<'nt3 who oun 
sit up in hed -hoiilil Hi> pivn'i<l<^! with a iMHUtriiy on whioh tn 
place the food. The Ipp* fihonlil Im' plaood high trough for the 
patient to cat comfortably from it. 

If the putient if* hclpli'<i*, care ^hnulil l» exortM»tod in giving 
fowl ^o that it will not Iw drawn Into the Inugs during inspira- 
tion or couijhin^. This nisiy Ije avuidetl by pving the fi«d 
ftlowly, and by ?R^*ing that twh inouthfid i.** swnlh^wxil Iwforc 
an^ilher i^ pivrn. TIh'?^* paiients may Iw fi-il ia varitni* wuy». 
The i"'»\ ninv br given from n spoon* nr, whnt is iisnallv pre* 
fem^d, fmni n driuking-cnp with a s|«ait, tir by ti^inj^ a licnt 
fnhe nnd alhiwing ih<* jvitient to tiik<» tho fihid from a gla«^ 
When thi* pjiticnt i* taking briwl ami »iimilar ffl>li(ls» great care 
should \ic exe^ci^^*^l not to aHow the crumbs tr> fall inti> tiie ImxI, 

111 most »*evcn.* illncsw* it is ncce»<ir\" to awaken thi' pati(-nt 
during; the night lo admini-^rr fiK>fh Tin^ i« a jioint that 
Tr<|uire;« sjHvial jndjrnK'fit. OJh.^n the fKitieiit is* nior>Mn n«"d 
of ^Kep than of fr>o<I. If the |>atieiil iloi's not drop off to 



FEKDISG rSOOSSCIOVS AXD RKPRAfTORY r.ini?,V7X 279 



9\(xf vory Hfmn iifier tnking fiKMi, it nuy U- Inciter t" vniil until 
he awnkeuii before givmif it. A.-« n nilo, lunvi-vcr^ in K^vorc-r ill- 
Ut^-i lJ)i^ ,-i]ei-p U di^turlHil for Inii h fi'U^ tntimtt?* hy t^ikin;; ritnl. 
A cup uf warm nulk or Huitlar ligUr iihul imiv olU'ii iniJuiM* 
<tkx-g>w 

Tliv |Kiiieiil*ft luouth 9li4<uJd ulwuy.i ht- Itc|>t cWn. If dry 
ainl gKin-)iL<dr it ^b'tiilil E>l> riuewO Wt'i^rt* mid nl^cr tnkmg fcHxl. 
A KinUiliU tiKimli-wji^h U ^ivrn iiiiik*r llki> bidding nf TuIh*ivii- 
KhL< (!►, ■Ill), bat any of tin* ^dknlmc nioiitlwvji>liu7 Duiy Ix* 
U'iHi ; L>«mc and ami water al*n nuike an dlicicnl wu^li. If tlie 
mouib \a dry, it should t>e dioi^I^iihI from lime ti» liitic^ and for 
thU |>ur)»>t4t- a litcb' giy<<t*riri, nntcr, iiml Icinon-jtiioi' will be 
found u.^eful. If Lite patiHit U hi*l|dii7v<, tiu' tiionlh may lje 
BWabtked <>m wiib cotton f^^uind to tb<* end of a Mnut pntU^or 
wotiiid abu4il tb(- fii^r. Tbi^ tdiould bv DiuL«lriitd witb Mtinc 
aDli7i<[itie M>bitii>n< 

Jii ull uLww wbi-n> tlir Ulmvtf U Itlcvly to bo pnitnit'ted, 
arniit}^'m('ul> ?«hoiibl U- nimlr tn niri' for iitw) iirr-iMLTt* tbr fUid 
uiti xL« link dt^^^iidoTi in lb'* lniiiMdiob) m» ptv^-^ibk** Fur Xhi* 
piiqMjcH) a di<-t kitdKni nay \h' iiopn»vi^*<], |>ix'rfnibly in a room 
adjiupiug till' |iitiri]|'?*. If tb^* |tfttii'iitV tniiui--* ulkiw, a Miiall 
8iek*rociin n'fri^c-nli>r xl]4>iibl Ik' |»niviil<<<lf and n tin reot-[»1iUTle 
fi>r ^toriEk^ (tuxU tbiu ilo not tiiT<l u> In* kopt on ici*. A gaii or 
alcohol lump will m.-tvi- f >r hi'atjii^ fooil. A tla-nnomt-t^^r, s 
graduntc, a fuinid, ai»il lUirr-jiaprni iirr tH<n]<Hl, nad a nioil- 
tniitcii^ uadiinc will Ik- futiiiJ a iit<-ftd itddition. ^tiocjiuas n 
diflb-pttitf and n «ttpply of t«ti towi4« i^luruU) al»ti Im> provititnl. 
Borio Doid or ttorax and Koditini bimrimintr will bol|> to k«vp 
things fm^b and dean. In cutk^ of itiKi-tioij^ hnd okmrnnni- 
cabli' dl^tv-L^ies a oovercj IxiiItT fi>r di^iiifi^lin]; nil rlidii<?< atul 
uU?ni'i]H «^hould W tuddcd. The Ai%hi^ nbrmld Ih- iHiii^H] in water 
to wbi<'b li or 3 jwr cent- of ^inni bu^arlxiajit^^ Iul^^ i»it"ii iiddtnl, 
and tile boiling ^hotiM be uIIowihI to rontinut* for fully twenty 
lainittcfi after (he watcT In* bcpin to Unl. WIhti- bi^trurtton?! 
uiv lilirlv to l>r caix-lvwlv follnwiil ojit, it t" \ta*\ U> direct tbat 
tbc dixlki'^ \if Ixiilcil J'or on boiir. 

Feeding rnconadoag and Itefractor7 Patients. — 

TTneijn*ieio*i*i patients may oAea lanly he M by mfiin- iif n 
teoj^ioon* Eaeb ^iitxtiiliil »ih"nld Iv nwiillownl IxfiTn* a ,'*i'<*oim1 
is (fiven* \\\ Gilmun Tb<»m|woti ^hIvIh.'^ timt, in rbe case i>f 
oomatcse ehildreo, tbe DOtiridimcnt 1h' jifmri'd into tlw* tMHtril 
instead of into tbc mon!b. The Hnid tbux pivMi in swallowed, 
uod any exce^?^ relunn^d hy the oiber no^trib If ary dillleuJtjr 



S80 



DIET SX DISF^iSE. 



is exptriuKtit iii fwulliwing, it h )x<«£ to report to dUicr lh« 
stomzwrb i>r the iiuniI tube-. With u littlv |iiiKlkv moc<l {KtnotkU 
can Im? fwl wilfi thr inlw.* iiuuv iii:»ily l\mu i:i uiiv <»lhcr wuy. 
A moilth-^^ TthnuM W intiMiliitH'il or n nilli-r hjincLi^ xnay l»c 
|>Iacc(l between thi: ttxtli hikI h<'Ul in pWe l>y iiii a^M^itimt. In 
iulanU who Imve no Iccth thU prrc'aul.ion i< nnmvcviary, lu: the 
finger answers the piir|Hiw |HTfi:i'tl}\ The tuU\ prcvioiw^ly 
moBteii€tl, is ]ia»TLxl into thv pLiLrynx iiml ni^mlly uHo th« 
Etnmach, II' the iiibe \y not pii»?H.^i nipi<lly thmiiph tho phurynXf 
cmtniction may follow anJ the tube be prcvi'iUt^I fixfmeiiler^ 
itig the ewphu^iiSp in orJer to ))7i«» the tiilx* Jiit<) Ibe ixiph* 
agns it Ls ncee^yiry to hold it siiffioiciUU" well Vuiek fn^m the ukI. 

If imsnl lV-t\lhi^ \s to be Ubvd^ n nasal tiiU.% or in vuj^ of 
infante a catheter, is well oiW and fluently [loi^j^eil ihrvtugb th« 
no6(.' into llie e>H:»|>hi\^iL& and thon into the stomueb. Ciirc 
ehonld be taken not to pa^e the tnbe into the larynx. ThU 
accident can alu-ay^ he avoid^^l by waiiin^ a Tuomeiit liefope 
pouring in the fo<}d. Either ntomaeh '>r na^l lube ^hotild be 
pro^'ided with a funiieli and as ^oon as the tube hiis been flatia- 
faetorily introduced, the nourishraent — milk, milk and t^, op 
whatever liquid food is de^ir^l — tnay !x' [)oumil slowly into it. 

In ortler to prevent air from entering in advance of the food 
a small quiiutiiy of the food mav be f>i:>ured down the Mcie of 
the funnel until the tube h full, la many euBt-s it uiav Ik 
desirable to wa^h out the «tomai.^h befotv irktriMluHiig lh<? fi>od. 
The tube should be withdrawii rapidly, to ii-* not fo <»xtnte 
vomiting, FothI so inirodue^l may itf' retairnH) when it would 
otherwUe l)e vomited. This is true both of infants and Adult8. 
(See the settiona on Gavago, Forced Fet^Jing in Tulterciilo:*!!*, 
and Lavage.) 

In the ca^e of refnictory jmtients — the inrane, the hysterio, 
anil others who refuse to cut — toreetl feeding Ix^eoraes neoeA- 
snry. In this e^i^ enongli aitendant^ should l>e present to con- 
trol the patient. He should l>e held Onuty iiud the nut^it or 
the stomach -tube Ije intrcHhieei). In onler to provent ngufgi- 
tiition of thr* rn*-»fl, which s'>me paiiuiit^ manage to do quite 
skilfully while it is being introduced^ tlw rili* may Ik* ticklo<l. 
This prevents fisiatioti of the diaphragm, without which the 
Tioil can not bv ejeeteil. This should Ite done only when ocOQ." 
Bion demands. (*See Diet ibr the Insane,) 



FKEDISQ IS FEVEk. 



281 



FEEDING IN FEVER. 

BefoTV ilimrtiDg ittcentioD to the diet in F^ieclal fbrmii of 
jiyr(*xiii it will l>e well to cotiiiiUer bnefly tl]€ gmemi dietetic 
jirtiirljilt^t iiivulvcd aud tlieir u|>plicuuon t« Lhi^clanH uf tlia- 

Tbi-rc 4!isi9l(H4i in fiinwcr vwiiv, mnnv diflVivat vic-ws o<Jij* 
cwrning thv <s>rTxvt im-'lbud tif fctHliu^ loVcr ctt*it*. Prii>r to 
lilt" lime uf iJmvt-a* (1848) ii w^w tlw ^'lu^nil pniMioo to 
"(fljirvc" fi-vcr*. Gr«^xw \x\\\^\t llmt u IVvvr laiiktit rf^iiiircJ 
irHxl niu) i^lioiiM b* tVd, niii) iu Iji--* U-<ftiiiv:«f juiblLslRtI in is48, 
tlwre api>curcU (ho imi<;!i-i|Ln>utl w.'iit**iK"c ; ** If you ^bmjld be 
ID doubt fk» to iiii rpitupli to b^' phu'C?!) iipiiti my ^ntvt>, tnke 
llii*— '//r/rfZ/frrrrf,'" With Tliv kTirhiiig i.»f Murohi»uu and 
olhcn* thij< view ^uliiaJly n?|iliK'i.tJ the nldrr t>rn.*, Jiml lonlny the 

Sr<>fi.-Mua an? in accord rt'^urdiu^ the dkx indioatcil m lebriLo 
iMfUWSi Min<]r diffcrcn<:i«0 in oninian oxiat and various tbco- 
rivB b*v« b«cu pf^mulguto], but iL« praciioiLl application \a tbe 
f«m« in all enfteii. 

In fi'Vi-r fbe NH-labolic pnK*c«se« arr incrraR-d, ithile at the 
i«nie time the power of a^^imilatton ts lowered. Thi« r^ults 
ID the bumiD^'-up of the l>o<ly pn>te>ii^ ns ^-ell as of the fntfi. 
Id'UoI, it i* rtnfed that the pn>teins MifTer a ^renter Iw? pro- 
portiiitmtely thnn the Tuts Tlie iip|H?tite tx ihiiiTnlshod or 
entirely )n«t, there is a miirke<l letc:«eood activity in all the 
g^luni]?- coiioenKnl tti di^tbn, iiml, n« previ^^tixly noti^d, abM>r}>- 
I ion a nil the a#^imiUtioii of food are much bulow tlie norntal. 
Tliirvt !i1f*o ii? mtirh iiiij*ment4yT. 

Footle appn^priate lor benlthy individna1>i fir« not, o^ a 
ftAe, Miitol for fever patients, and H^lid toods nmialty cauw 
vi>initintf or ?<-vere inditre^titia. In urtU-r prti|>eHy to nonrifth 
a fever iwlieni it if* n«»tiarv that the fiwil be eanv to take, 
ra.«y m dice^^t, qiu) e3*<y m au'imilate. Any ftiod thnl does not 
posfiesK these three qiiaiitie^ is not suitable for a lever palient. 
yCXwn tliie di^sea^e runs its course rapidly, the diet m of no great 
imprirtaiKv, fur e\%iu If thi- ^luiieiit laktf btit little IImkI, the 
periiHl of eiMiijriuative fuflini* ia u bm-f iine and any 1o«a u 
a^Hily made up while n<euvery \^ in or'-j-ww*, In protracted 
diAettBea, on iht- olhier hand, ^leh a^ typhoid fever, xtiwl in ehrr>nio 
fevers, the diet t>i of primary imponanoe and bhould be the 
physician'^ first eare. In ehronic diwftws and in tho--e fevera 
where remiadonti otx-ur, the [>t>riods wbeo digestion is oompara- 



'^H'2 



MET rX DISEASE. 



tivdy good.shotild lx< tiiWn mlvauCiM^' >A\ tinci tW [kjitienc iH>ur* 

In tJ'Vfis tin- iiiciiith !\*i|iiir\*s ^-ninriiil vixtr (sei* T\|»biii<l FrvtT 
and TolM*nnilc»i.-ij ; ihr Ix'weU Ult^wiBc ^lioLil** be ix^uktli^l, aud 
ooiuiij^tiou avoitliHl. 

Suiuibltr Ix'vi'ntgv'^ T^liciiiltl \tc givrn to nllnr tliii>t> nml if 
tilt- fKitic?iit )M iu>t ^rltiii|^ Mitticicnt lltjuiJ with \u^ fWl, lie 
KhoiiUI In- iitlrttHl wulcr i>r sotiu' oiher drink tA-<»n" ihtv^j or foiir 
h<kiir<. This xhouh) \w dniK^ whcth*>r or not Jhr piripnt t»i <H*n- 
MiioiLs for a puticiit tvcmingly coDeciou^ 10 ofk^i hi tin u|jurltetic 
coiidilioih Tlic ttjiUT is ixt|nirLJ not only to qiicnc-h thfi>l, 
t>ijl to iilt.1 in iIk' i.-liii]imLti(in of waslf-proiluct*, uhii-h, owing 
U> tho incn.'U»iHl iiictuholi'^m, iirc auj^mt-nuyl. TLc dioM. »uit- 
ublc* of nil diiuk^ i)f dain wiiUt. \Vhi.-n thir* dwj^ not fif^rti^ 
or to nicct *]H?uiul indications, minonil wiittr^ aire often c/f pn-iit 
urn.*. Tlic tijitiirtd wutiTft, PiiKf tlK'V do not. (H»iitEiiii MK'h lar^ 
amounts of carbon dioxid, are Uv*^U It" thr nriilicial H'«ti."r^ arc 
ueod, — and llii>? it poiiornIK tho <5ii^, — they should he nllowoil 
partially to efier^^^ioe heforp Wing given to the patient, lerf the 
gas in ilie stottineJi cause iinpleasmit symptum^. The "Iin|>e- 
rial Drink " (i*e Ap|>e&dix) ]^ vm uj^eful, and i^^ pcTJcniliy tnkea 
with a relish. To this mux l»e add^ the white of an eggt 
hoiii^n up and fltrained, if the jiatient is not taking much ibod. 
Iloth lemonade and orangeade ^nre UR'tul, :ind the former iji par- 
tif'uhirlv valuahle. Since (iic liydi'oehlorie acid id" the ftiomacli 
in dt-riciont during tevei>, i\i)tcr aviduhilfxl with hydrochloric 
nr phurtphoric acid i?* of sen'ioe, ti^ it incroaj*e*- the powers of 
dig(vtion, lin Hey -water, oatmeal -water. toaet-Viat^r, and albu- 
iTiin-ivali^r nn- all of ^er\-iep, eontainin^. as they do, nonrish- 
inenl witli drink. Albumin- water i* nunle by beating up llie 
white of a fr<*<b ^ar, Atiuiting it ihrongh a dodu and then 
iiddin|r nix or eight oiinees of water. This may he Havored 
with k'TUon. oranjie, ^heriT, or eogiiac. Wire whey is also of 
value, aud under eeitain circnrnslnnccs, a* in attection^ of the 
bimhier, Haxseetl tea or gum-waler may bcpiven, Ita.fely, beer 
or STtiiit? other beveraK*^ it |>emiisail}k\ To tliofre accu»tonii>d 
tn taking Hv^ ^viinxhlt-h of beer daily ibis may he the only 
nKUiiBi of ^'ttintr the (latiL^nt to takci> uoiiriNhmenL 

Th'' foo<i tVir iVver ea-ii's F^houhl nhvays l»e liquid. Milk, as 
it conlainfl various ti>ni elements iu a stiilahle c<»mbinalion, 
18 the beat of this eUiss of foods, and if properly administered 
igrees with most patients and is easily digested. It should, 
as a rule, be diluted, ^uid a »inall tjuiiutity of lime-water or 



FEEDJKQ ly FEVER. 



383 



CfKllnm liirarhmtutv >liiHiIfJ bi- iLiIdii.1 to it. Liim'^utiUT may he 
:i(l(!(il in iLnioiint-n viiriui^ iVtriii ^ to -jO }K:r ci?»L mTVinliiig to 
oiraiiiintiiDco»- Vi<*h_v nr ^cltwr wnttr, nr ev^'n vrdiimr^" wnt<*r, 
mar Iw um^iI, nnd may Ix' fluvoivil if tU- |ULtic>nt pivft-n*, Burlcy- 
waI(T iy? itatim*aU«niU'r iiiuy lie mixitt uith ii>i»r, wliat L< mhiliv 
timcfi of great stTvi<w. L^qnul parU of u ci-itii! w»ler um! milk 
\m\y Im.' lH>il<.'fl tftj^ilicn If rlio inixTitn.? in<^iiliiMK<l (to tiot 
ii|^ri.r, the milk islj«'iil<I Ix* |H'|ii'iiji;r4-<K Milk ^hcaikl u*>t* liowovor, 
l)c |k-|iCoiiixftl if ttir fMiii nt <nn iiiki' ihkI tii^-^t il wtilioul ]h.-|h 
uiiii^tiitiu BtilUTinilk^ kiimirt-H, or uiiey may al=<o U^ \\^i'*X. But- 
termilk, Lttwvv^r, c<>iil«iit4 but little iitMiri^mifCti ; kaiuL-«< luajr 
tint be rcli--ilK<tl nt lir>l, but m^iriy |ittt]t'iits miou leurn lu Itkf- it. 
LoKlly inianu' luitl iiivLilidrc* ToihI may Im^ f:iv<n, Malt<.<(l itiilk 
may It0 4^njoy«<«l by l)u* |)eitioiil, anil i* iiiaefikl in thcu^* naM« in 
whicb ttu-i\- IK dinrrhca. 

t^gg* may lie ^wvw nw f>r in tlie form of iJhmnin-wiUvr, uml 
An <'x<H<1li<nt ii)<i(tt< [>r u<bn iiitMlralion, tri|Hviiillv if tbe |mtii*nt 
m|airr^ H ^tiintiLiat at llio ^amo liim-, li* to |fivc iW time-bonMnxl 
f^Uikt^ brandy '^iuL-«*^ mixlLiix-, (livi-n in ihU form, the i^ 
generally agree*. It may Im' wi'll to make up the mixittrv with 
<ititx|tJ2irltT iir inip-balf ibt- juntiiuH of bnintly, 

Mrtrt-jiiiotvH iin-1 bnillH, Tor wliicb r(ci[ii'Tt will Iwr given ftirtber 
■Oil, may !>« \imA- Ti»- m«it-«'xini<"iH an- *»*s»i givon hvU 4btut(<d. 
The vari<*ly «f brtth ^Ixfiikl Ik? oliait>ri*() wu^h Any, uving Ikurf, 
vcnl, million, and rlilck^'ii in turn. ti> avnifl monottmy in ibc 
^Ik't- Tin* vjirJon* pr\Hli^-iUil btrl" pri'iKimiinHH ninl lMTf-iui<;ft* 
>ic>l<l ill ibi* !4bop-« may U^ ii^il at ttnii^, atict :irt* nfUTi nf ^m\\ 
value, 6S|K*cially vlu*ib Uk* |iati<'nt can not rt'lain other fonus of 
food. Strained v^tiible brutb.^^ are tiM-fuI ivccaHJiinany in k>ng* 
4^nlinne<) fi-v*>rs^ and ^laiiu prepare rlon.n, suob a.^ o«lvt-***-ftK»t 
jelly, rtiiH'-jelly, ur fruit-ji-lly ittitbr wiib j^i-l^itii;, lua* al?<ii Ih' 
4?m|>loy<xl- Fruit-iwiocri, <.-»|«'rmlly lomotf, nrnn^', und rasplicrry 
jiii4u<A, iu\- geiiL-niiiy nliithul. 'riu?M- hIiohUI bi; dUut(<d, and 
arr^ Im^i given ruklf^ruriib <*nirk<^l itv, ScvluTiritiH 4^ gni|ir* 
MJgar al'KM' 'ir drink ■*wn'l(-tu'<i with Brap^Hiugnr an* t/> In* rec- 
<immi-iiib'<i. (iniriitbti'^l t-xtmii of mall diMolvi.il in water or 
milk h nlii^li^l by w>m** mtient< 

Alcohol. — Ttie qn^non aa lo tlw v-aliie of aleoh'il in feverri 
is ooe that ha.-* t>**n widely disous^. The nafe^t view, [►PDb- 
ably, lA ibai which lakfs ibe middle ^nnmd, fof while nlo^bcil 
taay Imvt l>«'ii, ajid Ttill im, crtttdy abiine^l iti ftickiHf#», tliere 
con be nn doulit that it rvatb-TB great eerviee, e«|iecHilly aa 
m. fiwMl aixl a AiimuLint in feip'erv. Siuee alcohol in not u«^ed 



384 



BTET jy J>JSEASE, 



P 



In nil ct%ju^it, tilt grfiwine t^ndi^ni^y U tr> nvtrirt iu iik^ to fTvw9 
ifljtC'rt ill which it \^ Ai-f\nluly indiriUHl. It *ho(iki not U? pm- 
|)]ii_ve4l na n mutim* rut^jL-^un^ in iniy ili><';iKL\ nor vbmild it l>e 
iijiixl for niiy length n( linn* whtre ihiri' In a likdihtKx] uf th? 
[■ntient notjiiirJng rhi^ habil. lu aciitt- fc^vei^ in ntrcmg )mtiontJ4, 
where \ht ilinea^e isajn to t>c r>f slutrr {Innitinn, H t^honUl iiut 
lit' um-O. If the iit](rr in u|>{mn^]it iin ihi* brt^lh of llio |uiti^)tj 
or if it cdUf^trt exoitcpittnt, (ielinum, or anr ra^nUil nymptomji, 
h fthoLild bo tiritn) only lu ItmJU't) iinuTititk'ir. 

AU*rihAl, it should in* rcmi'TnU'rc^d, i-i no! only it v^inni)u»t, 
htit II f<HH) »N wrll, eacli gnini nf it furnishing u-vi-n r.-ilonoior 
Lfut or tliutwiuivttieiitofent'ivy tc) tl^'ttcKly. It slmnM not be 
^vm Uk> wriy in llie dij«*!*e lest iL* pdinnilnlinj; tfiVrt be lo»t 
a^ iIjc piy^teiii U't'omes mvustomofl Ut \u On the other Imnd, 
j«tinnilutton^ eiilier fkv itlcofiol or any nther ^tJnmlunt, stiuulil not 
Irt- <ieliiyeU cm long. A." .-'*'oii a?i tlie jmU* !>*■<■< mn.-i eoniprensihlv 
anil wetik iho Miniukut nhouU In.' aUniiuitileitth Wln-n otuj Ia 
MilTiciently <'X|f(-rt in uiiM.'ulldtioii, the need fur ulohtil cnn be 
h'tinuHl from tlii? hi>art'b<!ut. Wliun tliu fir*l sonrul ht-oomf* 
MVJik iir linie^ its *.lmrpni-sa:, it. is n *iign that ilw IhtiH is in^gin- 
ring to fliip. Sir IH'cp Uiickwortl) *lL'>enlK-> tins /!« follows: 
*' The canliac indtuLtionH fi»r the use of nltxibol in fever arc a 
rotable Un^if of tone in the lirat i^tind, eitpootiLlly if thiv |>v in* 
appremhle at the bn^e (Sti^ko't* Mp»). nnd the ii*sfKriftt4'd <K>ridi- 
ti<»n of the jmli^' — timt of low iirt- riiil jtrp<Mir4? nnd the phase 
af it known tin dioniiiitni/' 

In Jiv|icrpvi\.'x«i alcohol i^ nf gixiit viihn', for when the tcni* 
peratiire rnns very liiph *]ig<*j*tir>n ni»l n??*ioiiljition niv npt lo 
eomc fllmr»»it to a «l«ncUtil]. In thi'i^e rai^^c^ nh*<'»hoI itz m*jilv!ib- 
wtrbei) Ht^d :iet>^ A^ A ^rininhmf nnd i\^i\ f<K>d. Tn^vintinn'-ti liyiier* 
pyrexia large amounts «kn be piven, and it seern^ t^j be entirely 
niif^l lip in the Iwwly without pro<Iiiein^ any menlnl f^ymptomj*. 

In the H>-ea]ltHl ji*thenic fevers uleohol in 'fmall iimonnij^ itnd 
at quite frx'<|iiont interviils U iiwtfiih In the v<r_v feeble and in 
liie apt'*! il niny gen^ndly lu- taken with ^nsti ln'nefit. 

tu prolongeil fr\'er* in eblldren atteiideil with diffieulty in 
fettling nJeoljol in nht* of vnhic. In th<':*u cn-'^'-"* (la- hnirt imii- 
rotion> Jirc u^ujUly well m:irk(*il imd nrr n^lijibltr j.nn*[& to the 
do^ngfl. In giving idt-ohnl to chihln'ti it thonld W w<'ll diluted, 
»nd i;m«li fre*|(n»nt rnth*»r thnn hirg^dow^ jit long*T IntiTvabi, 
^hotdd be mlininiF(len'd. I^airge ilo<tw nrt* nirely needed. 

In tlKh^e imbilnnii*<1 lu ihi* djiily iiK* of idcohol it nniHt l>e 
^vvu in r^oine form when thi^ei>cri>onH heii^me ill wilhfeverorj 



FEEDrso ly tyyi^riovs diseases. 



285 



imict-il, wlirn f'ltiirimt) u* l*nl fnmi any caitiffi-, Wla-u alcoliol 
iH witlidruwn Pudtli^iiK' iri'm ttmr^c tii^UHtfiiDcd to lurgv thiity 
iiiiM>imU nutririijti ni|»]il1v i'alU urtJ Jvliriuia not itifrt^qiiotiUy 
«MHii In. 

It ^)lO(llcl U' nfiK-rnhLTiil that innny cf»n(liiiom tii vrlikli 
aloiliitl \Ku^ thoiivhl ti> Im^ imlin|H'n?*at)U* a few years agi* are 
treali^l jiiAt as r^iti^factorily mtw without it. 

'ITh* fnnn in whjf^h al(^>lK>l i?* to b* given fever piticnta 
depi-ixifl ""111 iiidjvijdul last*-. A?^ a niU% (lure whif-ky or brar»iy 
diluied wUh plain or with a iiUTunil wati-r U [n-eferuble. Jl" 
tliere if a iltirldcd pn-ftriviiuc for wiues, a ynw old vrini-f dtlirr 
li^lii or rttl, idiiy lie |ir**<*ribc*L 

TJh' fiuaniity to I* ^ivpij <)o|i«<ndK ujion cirowoutunoo*, and 
tbt^utn'i <f>ndilii>n, hjtbiu. mid 1i>h-nii)rcof rbr jmlii'iil nil play 
ftD imjHirtaiii ^lan iu di>pidiiig ihi?* cjiu^tiiHi. In infants und 
young children from ( (Hiikh* tn 'i ouikts <A' whisky diviiU*d 
over tw*'iity*lVnir hotii> muy in.* n^irdwl an a reasonahlf limit, 
in old^r tljiEili>'n fnjm i m 4 rMiiiccA id twi^nty-li >ur hours, und 
in adults fRiui 4 to f^ oitnci^ in the snme length of tinte, fomi 
a good avt-nigv^ III llie imi^t of liidMlii6> und ulno wlwu «>tJier 
drcumstnnrrn, to(> mmuTnufi to m<-nti<jn here, wornuU, tlMrte 
iinKiunU Duiy be iuctvu««d* 

FEEDING nv INFECTIOUS DISEASES- 



TYPHOID FEVER. 

Thf* mann^emi-nt of the diet'U otio r>f the most important 
liKtorH in III'' irt*Him«'ni of lyplnn^ f^er, mtd ilie t^tudi^ii! and 
tlu? practitioncT f^houhl, tlirrcforr. itcrk to learti nio^t tJjor- 
onghly how tfi fi^ n typhotd [tntiont- Fortunately, the l«tiidin|* 
mjl1inr]ti<<« tin* in iirt-rux! n*- 1o th«* pHn<*i|ih'' jrnviriitn;; ihe diet 
in tlm dt>4ti^, und the miiny ?^vvhl dii-l-ltj^L-* (hjit a|i|tear from 
time to time in the nied»(*iil journals an* Ust t^ntirely di^r^ 
ptrrln). 'flio pmhlern lK:fi.>Pc the phyi^ieian w the feedinjc of a 
fovtT |Kkiirnt who i^ liki-ly Xo lic> ill for ^fOCtir w<^ks. wFio IjskS 
» dL^'jiMi] ivindiriim oC the iH^trd'^, and wrb<»e <^inV3leiieen(v \s 
apt to Ih; i-|ow iind to mjiiire <AM-ful aitciitiou. It should be 
Wnie tn iiiimi ilmt, uwin^ to thi* pr4^?«'iu'>u of tlit- frver, there ia 
mi actual dini!uution in th** dif^r^tivr mid aWiTftfivu p^w^ra^ 
n»e digwtivc juiiH<>^ an- lo** notiv*', and tho BiuuUDt of hydro- 
chh>nV iwirl in (hi* ^tomnt'h \a diniinidirfi Thi> livi*r i^ nM*re 
or Ux^ ttiiftarixH), and th<- laic U le^ uelive tttau normuliy. 



2a« 



DIET AV DISEASE. 



ulct-'rtitiou^ »cviir in t\u' mtc»liiic uiiU urc ]ju1>U< In g^i un t'j |M*r- 
fomtinn. Il sliuulil nlwnVK U* luinir in mimt flmt ri titild mJO^* 
of typboul i* jui <liiiigtnHi>t d* a wvvn^ tinv, tM»th b*^^!^? liie 
toink-npy lo i«*vciv ukmuinti is jiiM uh gn*t in llie one itn iii 
thi; other, am) n\jK> Ikviiii-h' a iiiilil i.:a^< U more apt l4i Ik* le<s 
Qiivfiilly man;i);eH), ivirikHilnrly in rogard to ihe di<tl. It mu.'it 
be R'nicinbt'iT'*! tliut during IVver the metaboUo pTocefl?4te4 are 
lid^hu-n«^1, and llint, ut ilu- ^mie litiie, ub^orpdon i^^ Icj^sened. 
A* 11 i.*i»nM'ijUci(w, ibf biwly |«rui*'iji 'n* btinit ii|». Oiber lhiiig!9 
being equal, iho Ic'^ui I^hhI-riuU^HelI U urt^imibtt-d, lIk' imirc \ntdy 
pr<>t<*in will !h* d^^ttrnyil. It in vyUU^iil, tWn, that tin? I'tlVirta 
tthiiTiM !>«' dirvrlffll towan! Mipplvin^ tin* pafii-nt with asufllWlit 
smv^Miit i?f vii^Wy ilt^i^{^-i\ mid ryiulily a^tirniliiliHl toml. Miimr 
dij^turbaiK'ctt ol" digettiou sh<juld be watchrd lor uut), »*> tiir aa 
powi*ible, corrected, 

Wbilo tbt> "*tiirvntion treatnionl" of fonncrdny* bagpOiriilg 
t> till' lalHim t*f Gravo find .\[art:bi«oii, Ix-tijiiU' ()b!<ol6lV| Qftit 
mii>t U' Tiikon Etiif li> i^rr '>i\ xUt: oiIkt lidc — ibc [mtieilC niu^t 
ii(>t bt- nvrrloacW wSlb fix\h 

Food and drink should l>c ^vcn nt regular intervale both by 
iii{fht nni\ by day ; iha »p|H^itc of the |uilicn1 flb^old Tkot be 
ivmMilttil, fur l1ii>;i^ juitir^rit^ .'irf> utVii apithii'lir or have no 
d(^in< fl»r f'MHl, The fwxl i^hotdd be given at intervals of fn>m 
two tu four hours, awordiii^j to the eondition nf the patient and 
Ih(t fjtuiniity tiikePi nt a liinc. Tho«' wh" arc jitrrnifl; nnd tn 
ntnipanitivi'ly ;;o'mJ c^^ailiium tuTiy takv their luuiriTtlinicnt at 
fnur^-honr inier\'iLl-"i claniig \\u- nif^bt, <'ven il" il i» given at more 
frt<f]ueat intvrviil.^ during ihi- dn v. 

The qu('j»lion of drink i:< nlso of grr«l miportnnoc m 
tbe^^ o(iw*rt, for iu w>aio palit^titcs r^evrre rhirit is a vorv du>- 
H|ji**^*iddc' ^vniptnin n> *^>tnkit. Pun* wiitrr, givon with nr 
without iiN\ is lo l>e dopendc-<I n|>()n, but if th^re an- no <Mnini- 
]tidiiT3i lions, tbii* riiiiy \tc varie<l in many ways. The utttural 
spring; watt^n*, <n\ if the?* «in not Ik* idiliiini'd, the urlifiriat 
«iiiCH, are orteu UHifnl. The nrtifioird waters icniiaiti hin^» cpian- 
litits of rarl)on dii»xid, and to avoid n-onhh' tliey ?*h(inld nhrav:* 
be alloweit prtially lo eflVrvr-^ce Wff»n^ thcv are given lo iJic 
pLlient If tliere in nu marked bi>wel ili^ilurbaiKv, fruit^jiikv iniiy 
be addod U> tin? walrr* I^monadi?, oran)rni<K-T ni-''pb<-rry juu'c, or 
ni-ijiberry vint'pip and wat**r are oft*?n Wi-leonio i-huMir*""' \V«ik 
tea, eh|K^ially if a little re*\ wine U addt-^l In it. U an mhninihle 
tbir»t-<inencher. Cold weak coffee is aUsIuhI by some. Itc-d 



FEt'DryQ m ryFECTJOvs diseases. 



VHl 



wiue mid ^al<Tt whil*? wines, or even aherry ur I>nindy and 
vuUt UMv \k- gis'vu to tM>iQ« poli«nU», cH]>ivially if ]>bii]i wukr 
LiitiFie^ un]Jm4uiii iivniptoini- Wbcti ihvrv urv imtnbility **f 
iW inlejitine aiul r«^v<'re diarrhea, ret! wim- nml w*tik tm an- in 
iv pn^rerred. AlKumin-waier, Hiia' It i^>mUiiu^ i^niA jLnd 
driiLK, U nnJiHt iif^etul. It nuiy W flavored wiih knir^it- i»r 
orange-juice, nr may l>e ^haketi up with a liitle wlieny or bniridj 
aud ice* (The c^gs, which should alway.H be perieolly Tirrth, 
^tioiild be beaten uud then ^trained rhnvtigh a rlivth,) The 
\-ariuub imicilagiuDUt driiikf^ may bt- UM.-d, but art n»>t gL-m-nilly 
rel&fUed. Ouia-fimbic-w&tcr, arn>w-n"»t-w atvr, bn.'ttd- water, 
bark-y-water, oatmoal- water, uiid ^iDiiW bc-vuiigt** h^vo their 
plaiv ill tiie physieian^^ liit uf |xi«vibilitio%. 

The (inn\ \KiT exviAU'iict.* iti tbi-H <iiM'ji-He is milk. Thi^re i* no 
one fiiiKl ibiE Dieet^ r^ laaiiy indict t it >iij(. It pit^^'^irH.'X grcal 
nulritiv^e valiie^ h easily )imruivd, ah a nile, niul ii4 freiicnilly 
ctt^ily adminUtenxL It iiau>^t \^ liorne in mind, h<^wever, that 
tJiere are .-untit' [KitieutA uitli wlu>ut mJIk disij;n-«->, and many 
wIk' do not like it- Milk, however, di^ign^^ U-^r^ <»inmonly 
timn tii ^t-nrnilly inmpm^k Tl>c iiaiuuiU to 1w given dtuly 
varip* Ixl^vcc-n I »mJ •* qttartji, awnnlinp to the pfiCirnt. 
There nrv vol many pnii*'Ht> who ran tnko ;t ([imrt** "f phdn 
tnilk, and it ih p^nrnillv a ^fUHl pt^m !■> \^iry irn form of Ad- 
min iritmti'tn , and oTfti Clonal !y to siih^titnlei for it other nrtirleA, 
vrhit^b will lie mcntione^I further on, m> tlinl the* |mtient muy 
continue to take milk diinn;; the cnlire entire of tl»e di>«aAe, 
If milk i^ jnvE^n |>Iuin. It U only £i ijut^tion of time uben it 
vriJI disn^rree with iinr jnuioiit. Children are more apt to take 
it over lon^ f)erro(U vf time than aro adulti^ At the GamXl 
Hovpiial fur CliitOrra in I^ltimore the a(ithor» fwhWi ii;«e any- 
thing l>ptii<lr?* milk for t)i»hoi<l oi**-", and Ho not find it nwr** 
nary tn mnkr^ cbpint^fi in it. For older chihlrcn nr ndnltii it 
(ihoald nlwny>i Kp modified. \Vh«n milk form> tlu' dic^t, the 
mmtth refjuirtr^ jKirticnlar eare, ai4 the little milk that remaiDS 
in the month ol^cn tuni^ the patient a^in^^t the next fee<hnc. 

Ther\' are nnmy wny?- of mmlifyin;: milk nnd ronilerinjj il 
mt*n* ii^^xsMt.* and more- di^tlbleto the pjHienl- The i<iiaipkvt 
ini^ihiHl i^ u* wl*l fnun I to ^5 ounw)* if linu**watcr toe-nHi ^lajw* 
of ndlk, or pbiin venter or h niinrral Miiter innv tx* ii><h) En^tubd. 
If milk \n v>-vi\ Ii>ni4- and ir. in di'Mixnl to inc-n*Ji-<4' tin- uniouiit 
iif anlrin]<-Dt, <Tmm mny Ix^ ndiW to it. If ihi-i enn.tcE« nn* 
plcamnt «ympt4>ni#, it rhoulU l>o i1iA<niitint>rd at onoe. But* 
Irrmilk may I tr given cirf'ni'innnlly, bnl U &r infrrW En nntri* 



288 



J>mT ly DISEASJL 



F 



tive voliio to plain milk. Kuaiiw or ki>fir may be iiftert, an 
vliile t\wy may imt l>e re-lishwl at first^ most jmtieni^ If^ni Tn 
enjoy them. A jiincb of salt may render milk m<jre ixilutuble 
to some |>erson>i, anJ the addition of a sjioonful of brandy may 
be reliJitnl l>y others. The milk may he given cold, l>e Havoi-c'd 
witij fmit-juices, vanilla^ or imtmeg, or it may be given iu the 
tbni] of ic-e-crc-atii. Wliea Diilk i> uot well borne, it h a good 
plan to pte|>are barley- \^'ater nud add to it an equal qUiiniTiy of 
Diilk, boiliu^ tbem to^vthor for a few nijautef^. I'bdiL boiltid 
luilk limy sho l>e n^'d with Ix^neflL 

Amim}^ tie dii^greenbW Hymptomn tu nliidi aiilk ^ive8 rine 
may be mentionetl a Imi<1 la^te in thi' mouth, which, howovtT^ is 
apt to be pre^tit in any case ; a eense of fidn**?. or prewiure in 
the nlnlomen ; t^niflaiiou^ or even nyto^jis. When ihr? milk le 
not well dig^^'sted, it may oanse (liarrhea, wiih colicky pains, 
and the undigested cunls uill Ijc foumi in the stools. To 
obviate tiieee symptoms the nieasin-es ]»revioufily suggested may 
be tried (see al^^o Milk Cnre;i). Malteil milk mav l>e iifttl. or 
iiie milk iruv Ik: mixt^l willi M>mt- of vhe iiivalid focd», or it 
mny hv jiurtiidlv or ei>nipk-toIy |H.'p[ofiizt'd. For tlte [a&i piir- 
|K»;te the* fH*|>iugt*ni(-' Liilk |jou'd(<r will be found oAefiil. 

Wlun milk if* found h* di«*gi^% other fomiH of nntrimont 
mn?«t U' iih'cu. If can* in laketi U^ .supplement its iir^e by odier 
food.H i'tttm ilu' Ix^^innin^, the milk will be 1^^ apt to cauiie 
di^tnrliann'. 

Th*' earbohydrate*! are vahjablo foods in typhoid, and may be 
W*<h1 in many dlffiTi^ia foniif*. Of the^ie, the various gruels are 
tin- [ii'»>l tii^Wy di^'ey^u-d, aad may be givt^n [ihiiu or mixed with 
milk or lMiuiIk»M. OaUuwl, thoroughly nn-ked (ihrvc liouiV 
t)Oj]i»g at leant) tind ^^truined, \a bost, but inny not agreo with 
tile ]iatient. Barb^y-wuier (Hol»in*oaV barli-y (lour is an excel- 
lent ]irep:iraltim f^ir making luirh-y-waler), arrrjw-ronl. sa^o, 
tiipiix-Jt. a[id the prefKired ^khIs may Till Ih' ushI. In Geruiany 
ulmriitiat floar is mhtcil lo lioiiillon orK>ii|i^. 

Of the pr<kt4'iiis and allinl Mib^lances tlicre are a mimlMT tliat 
may In* uneiL M«it in to Ih' forinddea ^o lon^r as fu^vcr occurs. 
Fat must lie ^kimme*! from soups, ln'oth;*, :md bouillon, as it is 
apt to disturlj tlie [lalieiK'n iligt-htioii. Hei'l'-juii'*', made aLty>rtl- 
£ng to any of the rt^cipcn gi\"cii iii the Appendix, may be 
0!*ed, or beof-juiee oxpn^-viHl from vfry slightly broiled boef or 
Nlcimmi-d di*h jinivy nmy In- u»*fMl. TWt^ loay l)e ^tv^hI in a 
(nxx-Ji iflav* if the i^olor of ihe Joicv i,^ objectionable. Bottle 
lx>uillcu may be eaipluyed, o.'^ nmy al.'^o the various liquid beef 



i 



FEEDiyG TnyFECTIOUS hlSEASES. 



289 



[>re|iiiniUi.Hi^ uriil iiieut-jiiLoc^ uuw mi 4Ik' nuirki't. Mp^jlu'IU 
Mml ^vWy runl V alt initios Bt<-f-juicr nrc U'*rful but cxitcnMvc- 
Bwrf-iiXtriK-^Cn urv more gtimulntin^ tliun imtHiioiu- 

Si'Uiitor r^oomEii<<(uU gK'liUiniXtH ^nli-iTji noil's *-iirl» i\^ ^>l.-iHti, 
t*Ah*<.V-f«i>l jelly, Ijottle Umillon, anil tlic like. (Xvuis may 
be servwl witli if^latiii. The gclatiu jellies may l>c rt!iv.jnj 
wtlh rriiit*JDi<H>^ or wilb vine, 

''^?ir* ^l*"il^l 1^* t*wd 6l>anngly, Egg-water, huwi.'x-ii', wlK-n 
^perly prt-jwirod, xwwW faut*"^ <lif-tn-^*- Riiw cgp^ niny 
iiecudonally l^e given, or llie yolk of uu e^g hi IjoiiilUm vr 
broUi. B!g{^ auJ uiUk livelier may c^aiiuc iudi^tlon, but if 
tW putTtnit ift in nt-*d of a htiuiuUtil a* well o^r a fo<xl, 8l*>kc^' 
brbmlv-iiii<)'Og^ iiuxtiiri\ ulritiity tkt^ei'ibei], muy W tif^otl, Ami 
ill nuKk'nili' <|mintiti<*H i^n-ly ■liwi^nv-i. 

SimmloM-, etif^aHin, ntiinx-M^ aiu] ?«ifni1ar prepamiionii may be 
inixo*1 with U^nillon or titber fiirMU. 

Al<u>lic»l bold* ail tmjxirtant jilnce as a fi>o(l as well o^ a 
^tinmUint in l(Mi^H>>nliiiit(<l fevers Tbe itudewcv tn-diy L^ lo 
pre.-^^ril>« it in smaller quantities than foriwrly, and many Imve 
alKindimed iih U:*e allo^^ther. li in, nevertheless^ a \'aiiiable 
ally iu O^bting lypltuJdT ujiil sbouUl not be tliM-aixW, It 
fJiouM not l>t ^vtti lo rbiMn<n i\^^ a nuitint" In-atrnt'Dt, but 
«vvn ill younjj |Hitii?]it!^ Il it* oft^ru of the^^rwiti'st T*ervico. M'hen 
giv«ii to aduh-s il in well l'» lH<gin wiib x'^ty Mmall ib»c», ami 
lo ntcTTQito tbe*4e lu* the pliont griiw* wwik^^^r i»r a^ \\\v ft'vor 
(KtQtimjt^ to |>rt>^n,^<]<. T<hi miieb T<hc>ttlil n"t, lumwi-r, Uf 
jdvrn, aDfi if tlu' ilostijrf bnH Uh'^i iibo bir^' at lin<t, it <<:in not 
be incresM^l an im'hM Uu-r on. In liabitt]6<, alcroliol mil lie 
needed fn^in the ou1m;L 

Tbe fonn of aWhol to l»o nnrnl ia larffrlv <Ie|xi»l<*iil "ii tlie 
paticut'» lasle, ,Vh a nth', ^hhI uM ^^'lli^ky, |»r<JiM.T]y ilibiUNi, 
IS bvfet. Old brautly i-t gt-ml^ )>nt nuicli of llw brandy j»<»ld 
ifl of V'er>" inferior (|ua]ity. The rwl winw nre iiir^fn I, especial ly 
when there i^ diArrfim, aiul tbp oM wliiti> n'iiie«i ar^ etcelk'nt if 
the parienr rar*'-! tor thi'm. The brandy-and-efry? mixture pre- 
viously ineaiiomil \* vrry n^^fab 

Rieb ca^e of typhoid Kbould Ix* made an indi\Hdual study 
An<l ihe tliel arranp*d iM*nfr<bn;;iy, A physician wlio ]»i^ecrjl>flfl 
a rontitte treatment in ii\<\i rtiw i« turt doin;; hia ddly. The 
ainituni of frt»x] should W inon-aKMl or ibrn.'a^oi and tbe char- 
acter "if It zilu-rtd an tK^tiNHiu drninnd*^. If ibc |Mitieat receives 
infvffioient food wirly in the di«cA^, the 1*W8 of ^"cight will bo 
modt (fPHitt-r tbau it Mfwultl bu. 
IP 



MET a 




fir A time. 



firm iktr btiwl acW% 
4qW^ AftfT 



FEEBiSG !S ISFBCTiOi'S DEBASES, 



291 



hfiiirii thi' fuUWt miiy lw» gtv^n ii rr-«M|M ton fill nf etAA millc, 
uml till* niny )m* n-jH^nTc't) ov<-n' tvr<» nr xhvtx- hniir*. H<'ytiiii) 
lliis if the M<^Hliiig r* M?v*iv, the iuu^iiiml imrt shoiiUI Ih? 
pwii o<M]i]ili'ti? r«wT <l"r rw<nly*foiir JwfUis iir longer, <>|niim 
or iimrphiii nittv uU'* Ih* it?ii'<L The n-tuni to the n'Rulnr tivrr 
ilici .-li"tiUl tw- ni:iiU- ^nnhuilly and vi-iih cauriun. 

Perforation.— \Vhfa |H*rforaiiiin m^curs, all fumi xhouUl he 
iliMHitiliiuu^tt luwl Mirgitvil Irmdti^ut lUHiiiultd, or wliere liim i« 
tioi pr>fi^l>1r, Iiirgt? J<wcH of wdiqihii) "r opium may Ih? pre- 
]M?rifH<>h F<Oh»wiuj|: u^K^miion ilit- vVha wili U- ihat of nny 
Imiwi'I EifHoriilioTi lliat Iium Ihh'h o|u-rut<il i||hiii. IT Mic |iHlu-nt 
nillw^ witlioiit ^iiP^'iviJ inurviMition* (*r when ihis lia^ Uvii 
fu4tml iniprH'^lifvilik, fWl may Ik* ^veii Hfli'f nn interval of 
[umty-foiir hotir^, but only in \\*ry ?<ninl1 iguantitios a1 i^nfli- 
t'K'Otly ufi<U- iiiUTViilii. It i?i- Ix-^l to iH-^in wirh tctuijiottiifnl 
liof^es evT^ry tlire*' h"un*, iind il" tbe fo^Kl i^ rvtainKl, this nmv 
^nulually be increajiwl. V'snally IV*oU l" rtjeciHl, an<l when 
(]it4 i^ tijv ULM", du.' btoiiuu'h r<h»ulc] Ik-' ^ivi:<n uiiti|jlid<- rvHtj for 
fexliif^ ■iitv IvtkIn Io a^nival^ thr^ njiHlitioii- 

Convalescence. — 'Wv <\m dtii-inj; iho fm w^'lu <tf cod- 
vjiU-^^-iK*!' M'ijiiin*! us miirh fiin* iitid ntlrnlion af* il pw»iv<*<l 
tlinm^hoiil ihe ft^hril*' i*en<xl ; in fact, f^ince the*e jiatientA often 
cle\'oli>p a mven^iii.-^ apju^tite, l>oni nf ^veml weeks' milk dirt 
arnl fever, even greater eare is aeeessary. The pntient^ft wishes 
should in imwi-e g'»V(Tn liifi diet, ami reljjtive-^ and friends 
should be caiiti<ined agnini^ j^iving il»e patient anyihinj; not 
ordered Hy the phv^^nieian* Mitny u re1u[>M* smd dertth liu« beoii 
rauF'nl hv iLc tnififuidtij kitidnir^ 'if friendt and relativi-T^ iii 
this n."Bp<vi- 

Wlien there hart heMi severe boM'el disturijaoee. th« (wtient 
b In he kept nn a Ii4|iiid diet uutil the ninth or tealh day of 
the afehrile (leri-nl. After mild ea-^en. where there hss in*eri 
hnt little liowel di^^tnrhanoe, ehanj^e* may lie made in the diet 
lifter the fifth or sixtli afclirih day. In these mild ca«* the 
greatest caution is ret^uii-ed, as they are ohen quite a^ a|it to 
do luully U£ are the !4e\'ere one^, and the atK^ntLmtj^ are tniich 
more likely to l>e carelo« iit carrying (Mil inp^fnlctioI]^- 

The tirAl niMltioD to the dietitr%' should lie made by living a 
pieee of zwieback over wliieh hot tnilk or oriMni )m>i l>een 
poniwl. If deHirerl, milk-toa'it, milk and onu^kers, or junker 
may be siibstitiUett for this. If this is well Imme, other arti- 
cles, filch !is soft-btiled <ia^ or the M>ft part of ovsteiN if ihc^" 
are id f«a^in and can l>e obtdned fm>li, may W adiled fmiii 



2112 



rji£T ly DisKAjiK 



day to day. Thickened meai broib^ containing wo|]*boil«d 
rice or vermicelli may be given. Finely »cniiiej niw beef, 
reduceil to u |>iilp in t}w umniier eugf;;tsted for lubcrcutoHW 
jialient^, ul&o leuJ? vuricly. 

Temler mmU, vogL-tablia, nnil bnciid^tulTa in iiicrt-u^jn^ 
quautitivj^ may be nllowtxL IIoilaI clkickcn, Hjuab, ^tv |kunridgv, 
boiled (white) fi'^h, hmqU aif tK>iH ; *>f the vcgciablc^, epiuaoh, 
cfluliAower tojfcK, n'^puni^'nh-fip'i, ])Oi'^e>i nf l^n-^, carrotfl. or 
tender ^tring-lieaUf- or artichokes well-oooked rice, and hakeil 
potato manbed ami served with cixani or ilish gravy; i<jast, 
zwieliack, cmckerh^ and tbt' crust of brmd may all Im? |»er- 
mitled. If tie coiKlitloii cif tlie l>owol [Knoits, fruit-jiiiceft may 
be allowe<l, as well a* a l^ivcti apple, apple-saticc, or junket 
Havnrod with fruit. Other r^ick-rooia dclic-acic^ may lie onlered 
at tliedi^L-it'tktii i.>f the phyeician, Cbo|)», tvudcr M(uk,aod iiKitt 
bwf may gi'iicr.dly Ik- pvtn in llit tbird afebrile week (verv 
Jint<ly dividef^l wwat mny i»e ull'^w^l tuuoli i-fLrlier)^ «ud tlio di«t 
^nidubtlly ebangeil until the ni-dinni'V di^t is resumed. Kor 
.«OTnit tiniir after an attack of tyjihotti the patient sboitkl Ik- 
in-*tnieled to exercif^e care m the selection of hi.* diet, iind 
esjfcecially t^' avuid all fiKnl such as green fniit, green cnrn, 
orahfl, and the like, that is likely lo can^ diarrhi-a. 

The fi>llowing tnena lor the rtrit week of con%*al<-*ioenee may 
serve as a piide to the inexperienced physician, and may Iw. 
altered to ^ilt the indiviiliial t.^ivrv. It joay be begun aiiout che 
tiiYlk or ^ixlh nfehrile tlay In mild ca^-?. oik] alvut'tbi- ninth 
or tenth ia wv^rc caGOS, Miik ahouM form xbe bulk of tho 
diet at tbi<4 peritkd. 

l^rttt iMi/, — Milk-toast or zwieback covered with hot inilk 
or cream or cmckers imd milk. Beef-jtiice. 

Second I ki I/, — Chicken broth (hickene<l with rice or vermi- 
celli. (The rice should be boiled thoron^hly,) Soft \xinA of 
several oysters, or u vt»ry lightly boiled CKiJ- 

Titirfi D'tth — 'Timkrt, n nn^t bn>th rbickcned with well- 
cooketl liarlcy (biMU""! wX leji.< fhm- hmir.<), m ilh l^arlcy JliMir, in" 
vrilh etole hiT^d-criinihs. Wino-jolly, 8*'m|icd raw l»cef. 

Pnnrfh Dili/. — f.i^htlv boiletl or |H>nclicd «igg. Arr^w-root, 
barley prucl, or milk-t^mst, Cliickcn -jelly, 

Fiflh At'W- — ilnnkel. a Ittllc wcll-hoihtl nw with a p^niall 
amount of fiuely thvidrnl roant chirki'a, ^qiudi, or piirlrid;^, 
preferably the white meatn Appk*-»*nue*.* if bi>welw ]»ei"Diit- 

Sij'th rhtf, — IiJcnijRHi Ixcf. iHXichcil i-gg. »'idv^«'-foot jolly, A 
buk<)d cu»tnr(h A piece of toast or zwieback. 



FBEDTSO /A lyFECTICVS DISEASES. 



293 



Ihttf. — A nmM [Jic-^v of Bru'ly divi^lfnl I>riiln1 rhnp 
cream for hreakfi.4t. Juiik«t for <ufi|>cr, 

ATYPICAL TYM1t>lD."COMKUCATll> TYPMOII>> 

Th<*rtj an- two cIujwi'-h iff cti^v in which <*?*jKrial ultniCigD to 
j}iv fiii'l iF^ ivijtiirt^h TlifTv? i\n : ((/} ntv|)icvl h'jiluiid, CASOS 
wJierv liio fuvcr [wr-iiBln f(tT wtpks n-* |>moticii1Uvt]K< only evmp- 
toiD ; und [/') ihut^e vn**** tJitit liiivc* ntit tlimr courw, hut whoiv^ 
owiiiff b^ Etfinae <Him]>li<vLtmn» riiii^t fn-tjiirntly ilw procure uf 
|>UM, m<* ft'wr rc*i)tain.'4 high. 

TliC lirst I'k^-* itro "fun a?v^o<*iiit«l nidi cxCn-mc* i-iiuiriacioUp 
mid tlk* fi'Vor nmy U' ivgariUil :w a im<- iiiiiiiitiun fo^'er. in 
4iihn^ ihc- emaoiatinn may iio[ 1)e cxtn^me, l>iit Xiu: fcwr inny 
|Kn>j-'*t, uiu) nmvnoid]sa]>|Kiir until Ibe |>nti<-iit ih ttlkiwi^ to »Et 
i]ji> In ili'vi,' rn-M--^ jil^^-r ^iiflli'if.ni frint- Im> r']it|Hi^l for hf*uling 
of llic inU:r<iitiaJ ultrruUtniP to lukt |j]u<-i-, nnd if (Imn' niv no 
other i(j'm|>to»i6 foHiiddlnfE *U ^1"^ di^^t may be incixtimxl in tbc 
^mo wj»y lu* iliirin^ an onliimry i^>nvri!<»*iriinf*i-. Tf nn pxAc^-r- 
bntion of thr f;ym|iroin,« rnviirn itEul ftw* ft'vrr iiktwij^*, it i* nn 
iniliciiTi'jn ibjit t<*> mnrh fiwitl i?* WAi^ ^iven, 

III tbt fv<.*tnh\ oI»w of im-ifti ihera nmy bc*^xtrciDoiiiiaeiatiimf 
witli the (fcvdopmwitof iilisfvft'*s or fiirnnrW. Th<"*c patient 
may be l»riK'tiU'«l by an iiu^m^e in the diel, for -mittic uf tboni 
do n<t iHHMn t'> (k* able lo a-^inutate MifHci^m nouhKbtm^nt fnkiii 
tbr f(HHl'?n|ip1y tir Jiuikr xiyt fi»r (be wii.itc-. 

Ill liny ui-<r wb^rr tWn- in fpvrr ibc diet rOiinibl Itr- vatcbtd 
ouvfuUy and no oIuii^'a bo mttdc iiiiiHlviMLHlly. 

TYPHUS reVER. 

The did in thl^ dimw^^- i^t tlic faimi' aw in aII Hciit4! fcvCT« ; 
ty]>bu» rwniirc* n^ c-*i»<fijil pn-i'^intion^ -iwh tin nrr iK'i^k'<) in 
ty]»lH>if]. Dtirinn tbo arnle *-rjn^* nf \\w iii»»ni^- tbo <liet *bi»u!d 
he Ii(|tiiil, milk toeing Ur^u Wbcn tin* i^ nii( wril iHtnu*, liijiiril 
Biibp«ttt LitOf*, MH'h iL^ are usc<l in l\']>biiid, may Ix* pvcn. The 
fiind Tth4>4ild In> a<lnnni«ccred at rc^ul-ir ani] t«unicrUiit1y fm|tH^t 
iut^rrvnl-' — every tw'>, tln-e, or f**ir boun>T acoi^nliii^ U* llw^ 
qiuuiiitv tb*- |Hiti<Tnr i^ itblc to lake at one! liri;i.\ A <(tmrt «f 
milk ami n [»itit of nniinul \trsAh iiittv ln< omiiiidorcil a fair 
ainniint i»f fiKul for cmh* day. WaU-r i*hr>uld he ^x'cn fny-ly. 

CiiDH^hitiiinn cnlls attention t" the (tut thai 4*^^ nrr Utter 
bnnK in typbiH Mum in typhoid, and recommend* tliat -tt^vnil 
Ik* given evi-n' ibiy, 11^* >lsu udvi«es tl*e tue of ><>li(] TimmI^ 



S94 



I>If^ ly VtSEASE. 



ovett {1i]riti]|( Hi** |v*nrt(l of fwoT, if Ihi- |iMti*'fit i<i hWp tft mjiiafi- 
raif and Hwnllow. Ht- ullow,^ njll*, zwiolmoli, rhicktn, niic] 
ohnpiHxt nuat. 

As a ruk, the [wlient^ rtwiirc a Mip|»>rlLn>; uml u i^timiilutiii^ 
diet from the ouiJ*et- AWlioI may U' givwi wln*n llu' piiln? 
aod liie geuemi condition cleniumi il^ n--*c> Bbu'k (Hifli.r, t*|»e* 
cially when there b a tendency to stupor, is* tiUo lo be reemii- 
aieuded, 

ComjiliontionH are treated in the r«iDe -wax tu^ vlien thcr 
Oocitr in typli<jkl. Ihtrin^' i^hiveiIom^c^uol' llio lUot fthould l>r i:i- 
erea^^^l ?ih nipidly an. |)i)<i4iliU\ the ui>ijji1 oun- iH'iti^ oUwrvcf] 
(«*e die ftectioii <tu the jJk-t in FVven*), Ah'oliol iiiMmje iorui 
18 ^^enerally neee^Aar>' at ilii^ lime. The form in v.-htc'h it \f 
to be given uiay Im- ^^>vl'm<■d liy ihi- [mlieiit'rt la^n', and the 
amotmt Ahuidd be eareiully rc^tilati^l by tlie pitlenLV condition. 



SMAIX-FOX. 

The diet in en^Alt-jvijc i^j-iTnilur to that reenmmcndcfl in nther 
acute fevers Th'' only point t" Ih- noTi'd (7*|«'<-i?iliy !« tluit tV 
aupportiag dkl slumld Im- iK-gini cjirly, u^ in thewvcrt cjiw^ the 
exieneive mppunitioa mako» a hir^ drum uu the putieDt':« 
system. 

Oiirin^ the fit>t Mn^re r>f il»c dlni^'^e tliere is UltUMle>iiv fiir 
food, The diL-t ^honhl hi- liipiidi and eon.-<Ut of niHk, bmth^ 
albumin-water, and tht* like. ImIi-um' thir^l is petK^nilb jm^?'- 
eiil, and thih may l>e I'iOievtHl by water, l«'l]umad<^ or thr ear- 
Ixtnated water*, 

Wlion the luilral lev-»r ^tilwide'^ iind tlu* ]wilirnl f^'U iniproviKl. 
it w wiOl tonllow any light rntritioii-* Ci»k\ lif may desiix* — milk, 
i^g^f chn]iss '^((^ak, or rare rm^t tntiil ; bn>ad or t«m-M ; and the 
more enjiilv dijo'^led vepettihh's, sneb as well-^'iHik*^! potato, 
^piniicb. (I'leiy, aspanigNs-ii|H, eauliflower top-, ami the like 
ttr*.^ all naUjble. 

When the rreonnd |ient*d of fever oomes on, a return lo ilie 
lifpiid diet may a^jain Iw inndc. Tlie diet should Ive aa ample 
lis |»oMtitik-, and lUr food l>r gfw-n at rt^dar iut<-T\'alfl e%'ery ivro 
or lhrt*e ho<iPS daring thv ilny and i'V(*n' llirw or four lioKirrs at 
nijfht Milk, phin or |H>|>ioniir<H|, inilk-|nnieb. raw e^pi, e^ 
and hherry, and the various t^mdn nations and dishes made of 
(X%^ and' milk shouh! Iw ^iveii. Brcith^ bevf-juice, and the 
like may fll^io be mUM fw^e Roeipes in ApjhWik). Wlie-n 
tbe«j 18 marked dy?tjduigiu, ari tliere i* apt lo be in all severe 




4 



FKEOlh'Q ly lyFECTtOVS V18ESSES. 



2S5 



cwfii, tbe food H Iwflt ^vim cold, ut more fmnieiit inien^al-s 
and iu smalls «)uuiuiti€fi. BectJl feeding mar be reswried to 
in Hume com-s, 

1 u t«v<.'re cauee slcoliol » re<^iiired, autl may be |i;iv<!]i 
IVom liino to ttnio &§ the ooudilT/^u i-f tbe patk'nt tU^iiuuidrk 
WhUky, bramly, and port wiue are, ar^ a nile, l>i>rne Imnc ; iIh^ 
whisky \>T brandy ^ould he trWen in diluted form, conibin^^ 
wiih a small amount of clyoerir or ftyri}\i in avuld irriufing 
ibe ihroaL Snunilaiilj* may be addt'd lo (tie milkr or tboy may 
lie given in the lorm m(' niilk-|Hiiicb or <^-nog, aix<r»rdiii)f u> 
the patient's taste, Ateohol yliould not l>e given as a routine 
practice in all casw, w^ v,-a8 fomierly done. Mild caften and 
even iho^'if mmleraie i?evtn(y, in |jutieui> under iweuiy, usu- 
ally rnjuinr lict)« or im F^tinoilalinn. 

Duriu^ die oonvaletioeuc^e the dii-c may bo ircnurvMl i-upulK'. 
A* «oon 3!* the fi-ver decbm*?*, meiit nmy U'adde^) t>i the diHnry, 
mild wlit'ii the appetite and diirf^tion alloH-, other luiiek'^ i>f dit^t 
may Iw given. 

SCARLET FEVER- 

Scrrae difTern^u^ of o|iiiji<»ii oxi.Hi?> re^iitliug the viilm- of 
diet in prvvi'Dtin^ nt^phritb ia Hcnrlc^t fover. A mndul ;«UKiy 
of tlicrfc cttiMTf, howL'ver, bap W l"> tbe l«Jii"f tiuil ii r<trii*t rnilk 
diH dnrinjf ihi* hnglit of ibe dL-M>fL->e inid n niixctt milk niul 
GirinA<H*»ii)* dJt-r diirinic eonvaltsryiice ar^ by fnrthe tnf^^, Tbe 
milk .should In* dilut4<d wilb lime-water or wiih :i mrbonatnl 
water ; if it dij*agr«^, it may he |>e|>toiiizeil, eidier )nrtial!y or 
c'ompleli'ly, Kuminn or bnttcnnilk, giunirnlarly tlw* lomier^ 
may iw* given a"*ae[tniigi:'. AltiuHigb they nwiy r\*fuH' it at lir*l, 
diildren often h-arn lo like kiimistt. If milk l)i^'nn>e>« di»la«te- 
fnl or dif*t!ifnrv?*T it lujy be mixed with 1jurlry*w"»irr or arrriw- 
n><»< prutlj or ll>r-* may be ^vi-ij pluiii. Oyntrr or rj.-im hrolh, 
(Ik* ivy^usm or cinnu huving iH^eu [itnimsl our, nuiki-* a plrn^tfiat 

For ih4^ thirst, which la generally ^ri-al, |>Iiiin or (^trlii>iiat4^) 
wat^^is, barlt-y-watiT, omn^^'atl'^T or lemr^niide may l>e ^iven 
fnvly, A liAvl itQH|-H»nfid of rream of Ijirtnr T*(ini'*i into a 
gUti-H of lemonade is a (weful diuretic drink if albuiniDnria ia 
present, 

I'laiu vanilla ice-cream or a plain lemon lee mav he ^fiven in 
amftU i|Luoiiitir-^. Finelv ^havM ice, aUo in ^'er\ Mtiall ^jtiiin- 
tltke, and llavortyl uiib a iitde lemon* r>r oriin^<-jtii<*tr, olVni 
nnkeii a mo^c gn(efnl addition if an^ika U nmrked* 




2m 



DIET ly i>ISEASE. 



Jacroitd ami D^|*iTl^kv insifei that warbtiiml [i<:r|>}irilL'« ninv 
gcncm!I_v l>e nvcrT*-") if ji milk ilict i^ udWrtil to ior r*evi.-nvi 
w^ek^ in nil caji«». ll is a ^'hmkI plan Iji k'l iho ilioC in all cui^dtf 
be 03 flimple as po^ible fr>r :hree weeka, and thon in miiki^ addi- 
tions to it from (lay to cijiy. If tbere ip ftlhiimiiiiirln t>r nephri- 
tis a milk jitid llirijia»-vinis (lic-t. as reojmmfJulKl in nvfikriti^, 
iiboiild be adbcrcd to. If tlieiv \)a^ been a ?*ev€re aUiuniiimria, 
witbotit c^sU, or if M'mptoni^ of iiepliritifi havo appean^d, the 
did i^lioukl bv Jimiid for a nioiiTh or pmx woelc^, ibe urine lieiog 
niivfviUy wiiU'liHl iti dw i]tfatiitmi.\ Owin^ to carelcfv-iicte in 
rc^ijnl to tilt' "licr, mil*l cjip-t* of >carltniua may be iollow<?d by 

III nil «ii4es rhp tlipt siioiild \tp pradnally inciVEi^^ from day 
to day during convHlesi'pnffl? ; the following may sen'e as a ^lide 
to tbe onlor in wliich tbi^^ innt'n^ie may be made : Srilk-HiiL-^i^ 
junket, iMir^tiird, fariiia piaKlint;, oniugt^, rice-pudding, liakej 
upple. bR'aid und milk, «]go or tapi<^cn puddings with or with- 
ou( nppip, ct>ni-^tari.'h pudding, bi-ik-d cu^laitl. 

Tlu* r.'tuni to mwit i"* bt'st nmde by allowing a email quantity 
of l^'iUtl iw hi\\i*.'d 1^»^^l, iIr" t>ot\ ymrifi uf iiytttrs^ very ?ufi- 
boilcil cpg^ tir^t am] then ihc lipblest and mi*t eiisily dig«Aled 
mmti^, chiok^D, luw nr very rare beef in tninuie ijuaiiUtie^, and 
tbe liTip, 

l>uriDg tbe height of the diseflae and throujrhont oonvalei*- 
ceiiee meal-es tracts f^hoidd l>e avoide<i, a^ thev (nintain larire 
ipiaiititit-5 of meat cxlrattivee, which are liable to irritate the 
kidneys, 

Ke>^r i» bdi ^iiouUl l>e in^i^kKl ii|Mjn nnlil rhe fever ha^^ heea 
absent m \vn^l a wwk, Iti uirld rai<t*s of K*urlel fever elimn- 
laiit** are noi re(|iM'ri.^l ; liiit in the !»cvere ea>e>, where there ts 
adcTiiri?, marked nr^inu, or «'p>iis nicoho] may be uoed a^ the 
heart and general comlition indintte the need for ii. {S«e 
Aleohol in Fevers.) Strychnin and digitalis are also useful. 

MEASLES. 

In m«ir*les the diet is ^imila^ to that of any apui«' tVvtT. The 
fiiod t,( inlanrs, if l>oif]e-rHh ''hniild l>e more dilute than usual ; 
f<>r older children an exHu^ivt-ly lii|nid dit-t i^ inditated. 

Milk. -fonp^ ami broth-^ may In- Lillnut^l. and these may fw 
]>epiiMiiz4Hl if neoeT4f<irv. The fnod rlioiild b<< ^ivou ut ro^ikir 
intervaU, these depending ^m tlu' anu»nnt given at vai^ii time — 
g<»nemlly two, three, or four bourtr ajnirt, 

Tliii'fit may be allayed by M-ater. jjlain or carbonated, onui^ 



FEEDING /-V ISFEVTSOUS DlSKiSES- 297 

If, l^iuoitaile, and iLt? Iik<-. Hit- n-turii to n mjIuI iIiH vhtttild 
W nwie cnidiudly. Akohol may \te xi^d if in-oi'.-wnr>". Wbcn j 

tQ lie cimtnauiry way- (Sen* Fonling u\ Fcvcnj 

MUMPS. 
Vlnlr> fM-r-r nr «ivc*llii))f i*XMl)i tl]<^ divt lil^ndd 1h> li<|ti»K 
T*ttrint o»nvaIi>4vtKH* imichc m»IuI fiwwl mjy W tuken, Car&J 
L*bi4Hx'i'Wrvwl tn nvoUl aill iivi<UiiiL<l ii?<tnn^nt«, afl lhcs< 

VHOOPiNG-COUGH- 

lo dU c$tie!» cf w)ionpir)^-<x>t]^h the diet ami \h^ l)oi 

""'pipplh^clas^ft alieiiiion, 

" tiif i-hiM ha« any teniJenoy to the so-talleti " rotiroua db- 

5^" ''^r lo iutvMiinil diHiiirUmtv, ihit* is «i1idubc sure t« uiiuii- 

' kbflf during tljo <x>ur»e of tie dit^.-lL^e, as all ibc muoHid 

^. ^lintDM arvr ap|jnn>iitly iktledinl, Attack?i vf iudigvntion tiiiJ 

f^ ^' QMominal di.*teiiiii'n dim tisimlly fiJln-.v.'* iiuiy liu-niii** rlw 

^1 '^ibcr <>f pnroxy.Hm>. Thtre b» alwiiy.H a iHuifncy Ut vomit, 

Ij^ *^Mi«raIly oecnra with nr after the rarrix^'Bina of cou^hinj^, 

'v*^ the pdanrnx may h«x>mc *«> irritaVle tfiat vomiting' may 

^^^_ piHtwl l>y ihe faking of fixxl, drink, or me(hcine. Any 

^^Xij* iluii lend^ if* [in'xUK^e i]iiu^«a ehruild carefully l>e avuided. 

X TIfc- dit-t fiir cliildn'ii midvr two yt-ai^ uf a^v sJiuuld lje fluid. 

» liU, dilntril vriih liine-wuior or a carboualcd waler, or ]>l'j>- 

^^ 'iiizrd, &l><uilf) 1»! thi> niAinFitiiy. Brrtrh^, allKtmm-wiklor, uiid 

Vrfry-wiiiff firr iil«> tLM-ful. In chiKiren who aiv weak i»r in 

|\i'hrtm Vfmiiiiiiir if* *»<>vere, some of the pre<li;:esied liquid lnvf 

Y^rqumtion*, well dilutf^I with wattr, may be given, The^^ 

HIT Mimtilauii^ aru) cH>nialri otmi^tdenible nutriment. 

Clitldren over two yrai^ of age, if the case if- wvere^ t^houUI 
hr put on a lipoid ditt, 11' foo<l i^ relaineil and vomiting is 
Dot trt)*iLltf?<u«>e,.»eiuistil>J food may bv giv*n ; if thiw oaur^ea 
Dr> dHtnrliaace. easily digefletl roIkI foix] may bo fl1to\vi?<i. 
Krmiu« U fAortirtimAi^ of value, nnd ni^lanU, KirKn', ojitoK^aE^ 
(«-.im»w-nkit emeLs broths, junket, and the like are useful in 
vnrvinj^ tliedi.-t. 

[ if hiiicl> difficulty IB ejjperieoi'K) in fewling the cliikl. tlie 
ToihI should l« |£JVL>n in small qnarilitie>t evm' Iwo or thne 
hotarv. If vomiting pemstSj the nie»f^nr(r-i rre^'rn mended in Ihc 
aetiiiiii <«i Vomiting may bi- incib If a nu^l i» vomiti.^], j( 




i 



298 



TJIKT IX DISEASE. 



iijttv l>e iviieate<! after a sIiDFt inTeniiL Chihlreu with maocnia 
tlLteoM? shoaM rewiv<i the liiet ixromincDdt-d for that cxmdiiiaQ. 

In weak children ami Ili pi'ijlntcml ni7<f^ uKh^IioI may be 
tieeclecL This may be yivtn m ihe Ibrm of \h\u\i\ beef pejrto* 
noids, pttnopploii, iiiilk-iHineb, ef^*ni»g, or ^Uerrv niul iilbumin- 
watei'i Iti nu\i\y Ciiae^ it in desirable t<i giv<- odIv tbo ^timu- 
lauU, Aiid ili tbet-y cases whiykv an<l >i%Vf>clein^l water or wino 
niuy Iw jjivt'H, A ^khI matiire^l whuky i- imii^lly tlie nio4t 
RHlirtta**tory, ik-i the dosagi* h easier to manage aiul the eftect 
more constant. Id very severe aaeB nulmnt enemntu may be 
nme?«arv. 

It lias heen held by *wirae that diet ha^ a ^pecilic uifliieiice oe 
the roiiive of thi?* di?iGa**, Hannon claims to have cured c:i*es 
ju two weeks by a "tonic diet" thai eonsisteil of roabt-lx.'ef 
^\Ith lou>t and puie Madui'la or |H>rt wine in tlie uioniicijf ; bl6* 
cuit and >viike at Doon ; meat bixrlli, ix^»<t meat, toa^i, «nd wTdo 
ill the an<-rnifon ; wine in the ovening. utid eohl uator at Dight* 
He allowed no milk, vegetables, ^m3I]|If<, or ]>iidilin^ 

INFLUENZA. 

Thrdiet in tlii?* dHeti->e slundd In- that r**o*>nirn<'n<W in nil 
ai'iiti' febrile ooaditionn, r>unng the iKighl if llie di.H-Jiiw tho 
ti>o<l should he licfiikl, and be gii'en m i^mM qimnlitie^ nnfl at 
re^Uar intervals. As the condition imprnven a return to a 
seminoHd diet and then lo wiUd /i.nxi may l>e made, dmva- 
ICfKWnocr in apt li» Iw ^l«w and titlitm-, and during this i^riod 
4<!nrtily digt^lod nutritioiiB food --(hrfuld l>e gi^'c^n in Ub large 
«jiinnlilies us the )viti<*nt (?an digivi. Milk and fgg*, ctth^f 
iiloiK* i»r comliiiied in the furm of c^ or eir^^-nog, mny be *^iv(*n 
l)ilu'i-f'ri [nrnls. Alr»»h*>l in nsUTdlv iuilimtctl lin'oli^hoiit tlit* 
di.-ioaM', and m:iy In- giv<-n in flu- f-nni of whi>ky3iiu1 watrT| 
wine, or inultt^ lii|unr^ ncr^onling lo tin- eoiulitinn and ttwte 
ftf the patient. If ci*nvalesrent^ ix slow^a chaiip:' of air will 
often facilitate recovery and rejiore ilw? ai>]viit^ and Htrenglh- 

HENINGrnS AND CEREBRCSPINAL FEVER. 

In tho^fic liisesite^' dw^ diiH i* tluil of all nciHc fovrn*. The 
fwMl may hv H^juid or «^pmiMili<l, iintl >;hotdil l>e givi>n »t r#*gnlar 
infci'vaU. If die fxitient i» able to fiw^Uow. ?jev<ml oiinoeM 
may W irivcn at a tiiju' ev^ry two or thrw honr*. If swnllow- 
inj^ Tsdifficnlt, ^niidl ijiimUTtit.^ of prcili^\*Jt<Hl f»nid inuy In.- givon 
nt vm ^liori intervulr* — t»vrry hrdfdionr, oi If it is ^ivcn ouly 
a tui^pooiiful at a Uinc, as fntjiienUy ha every lift<.vn tninutea. 



rEBDlSG X.V rNFECriOVS PtSHASES. 



2Q& 



Tn tlio«^ rtus*« th^ fruiii inny \ii» gWi'tx with n tcsLf^pion ot » imnl- 
iriin>Hir">pi>CT, In jw^rnr *'Iim-s wbrn* il dof* nut wtrif* <n«ivii1- 
t?iom, a i^itjaiaAi-' (T mif^iil t»U' r»iy lir iio.-tL 

If tht' puticnt i* ubk' U* ?*vrull"W, lii|iiid^ niid ^cenWlKl?* iim 
ijuliciiloil. Wnler iimv \k' ^ivon Im^ly, aiul :h Uir imiit'iiw :im 
oflcn iinron-*H'iinifs or oiilv M-niii'cuiM-ion^, \v«li.'r ^lionkl 1m- ^nveP 
U a P.iiUiiK', Thi* is u insitur tiinl i? fn^jui-iiliy iK-gki'^nt 

Al<<<jltul limy hv ilkxI n-favu tbe pulmr ixuA ^ixvml c-utKlitii^u 
indicate iKo nccil Tur Mimuliition. Diiring tlic aniir -<<tiLgr it irt 
u^DitlEv in>l r*Hjiiiivil, mill wht^n givim t**<» <"urly tiiny iiiiviiAtly 
tbo r«ri>hml >^ymptfkri)K. Ac iht> [tfiiifmr* wtrcngth fuiU it u^ 
dcniaD<U?4l in mi'roni^jng qtiantirir*^. 

The tt>nviiIi*scccrG U to In? m^tim^cd a* after any noulc fever, 
and an abiitiflance of fi^n] piIkhiU W alluwi'd. 

DIPHTHERIA. 

The feeding of diphtheria patii'ote U carried out alon^ the 
Butoe lincf? as xho^c laid down for acute fevers in geiiemi* 
Owing to the tocacion of the Wii>n and xUf fin^nenrv with 
whioh intubdition or tTOcliootonjy' U jwrlViniK-d, ppooi:*! diftioul- 
tiei arUe, and nuinr be met proniptly jind intellif^ntly^ or the 
patient may ^nccunih rapidly. 

The earefid manaj:ement of the diet ill diphtheria lh of the 
greatest imporbnoe. If the patient's iiiitL'itioEL is not main- 
tained, thcr tx>dy Hill not 1x- nhk to withstand the eSecttj of tbe 
poisons that are intn.K)uoed into the circulation, 

tf tbe diF4^*4e 04.vnm in !i nnr^inif ir^fant, Kopltk advise that 
tUe milk W ilruMfi front tlie bri.-a^t with a ljit;a>t-|uiakp aiid led 
t<i die child from a (xill)c or spoon. Thi« i^ doae to 4Vi>id 
jof^rotion (if the hrea^i. I f the motiier hoi^ lx*t.'n rendered immune, 
the danjuer of brenrit infeotioD is very slij^ht. 

In all »5i**»H. if there U any fever, the foi>d shmiM \n^ li'pnd, 
and should ^te j^iven in ninall ^pianlilies at Ttx"l^r iiitervtiU, 
TliG mo^t uwful of tlie liquid f^iodn an* milk, ptiin, triih lime- 
water or a cartM>naled vater, or peptoniiwl atburain-water ; 
eiime form of preih^ted lieef, as LK[Uid Heef I'ept^moids 
or Panopepton ; -->ii|i& and ^fTHfU and the various preparwl 
fiodh of wbieli lEiuheil milk, F2»<kiiy\ or Mellin*^ ftK)d^ itxv, 
exampiee, 

OccasM>nally semi^lids arc ^wallowe^l with cn^ter «we tban 
lujilidli; \n thiit ear^ any of i1m< foTHls jiwt mi>niu>nH] mciy li« 
thickened with w^eli-oookcd oereaV-* or ip-latin, or cu^tanU or 
junket may be ffiven. Ice-cream, if plain, may be allowed in 



3U0 



DIET ly DISEASE. 



mall miantifu^. R^-nog nnd milk-piinoh nre flom^tim*^ ti»e- 
f«l, alttioujrti, us a role, ^timulaiil^ are best ^iven alone, aocl 
Dot couibiiifil with til'.* fmxl. 

If tlie pGiticiii van not !t«-alltiw. nutricDt eneinala may be 
resorted to ; or, rw moinmcixltHl bv Ctilmim Tliomji^itm, a nofial 
or a ^lomai'Ej-tiittr- naty iny vtn\}]<>\'v*\. li" tbe laller mode of 
fi-vtliiL^ \y ii<h*iHi.-<\t cjiiv 'liiMilii !«■ mkca to avoid btru^lee with 
piLtU'iiU \^b<JM- lu-sirts arc wcnk* 

Intubation. — ^AtWr imnbatWi htv^ been done there mayor 
may mil Ikt ^ime liilViniily in ^w:LJ]ritvin^, Ah a mie, trh^n tb« 
Hiilil ^w3iil**\T* ri>r the first time, there muy l>p a hlipht r-oii^b r»r 
Kniiv hi'?icali(>n ; i» ibe majority of cubcs, however, thi'^ ili«i|j- 
pon> Jt4 the upi)n*bcuj^tr>u ijf tb? ohdd i> allayed. There may 
\h' a lirl€ diHiiMilty for the tir^t dny, but rbit pa^«er^ off ^du- 
ally a* the iiiLiMcle^ Ixi'<>:ik* aeini^loriud to work uti<jer the U€W 
conditi^nH, 

Sinif chthlrvn find it tlijlirull lo cUw<r tbu i<|»ig]otti^ witJi tbe 
tiibc in pTMitinn, ni>il bcitcc during deghititioit sBc^tnr of tbe food \b 
tikvly t(i hi- dmwit into iho hirynx nr even irtti tW liing^K. Tbu 
niay <^iii>;e <]yiipiieii anil vinlrnt iHin^hin^, or wht^i clrawn into 
iImt bing may |-ivo rip^^ U* [mt-iiniMnin. Thi;^ ffcc'idciil i« not 
^tr^" likely to inmir if iK-rfci'lly inaile ruUt» jiix- ttw^tl, and if the 
|)n>«iiition le tukf?n tn prt^ ilio ttiW uvU iiitn jilare before the 
niiiiitb^ir:!^ ij* ri-Mnoved, 

()']>ny>r Wlirviil that foo<) ihar enters tlif tube b idwaya 
coii^luHt i]|) and n^wr eaQse:* |m«imi'>ii!a. lie recommendocl 
tiait, if tin: elitid tct old t^iioiigh, lie \k iiif<lrLicleil (o take ibf finM.! 
n> ni|i]4lly a^ |>ci?«ihl4.' ami iben (<► eoujfli aftt'rward, iii^ti^nd of 
afit-r ciich aH of dirgbitiiioa, as be k npt lo do. In »4>ttiv idul- 
dn-n thiTc niay he a dipbt repir^-ii;!!!**!! thnwgli th<- iwir^-, 
Takvn all in all i)tt> diffinmy ex)>eHenced in feedm^ i1m^« cas«>« 
i» i^inali in>ni(inn^l fo che enormous l>enelit the obild dmvea 
fixwn the ojfceratii^D. 

If ihtTi^ U ibffif'idty in p;u:ilhmin^ licptiiLs :«»lhl or semisolid 
fiUMi may be given inst*wi. la-tvllvrry, of (Ideogo, ;^i^gots 
thai the child W itlami with bin liml I-mvr than bi:i Ixdy. In 
lbb> popitii>n ^walfyswin^ bo'ihuiint ctiHy. T1t<- cbiUI inay nho lie 
iu<rw« the miT>4*V U\* vriih IiIn ht^fid thn^ivii \ivt1 tmok aod <km-D. 
Il should nU-ay^ U^ n-mmiU^nd that fivul nuiy tte reftEMvI 
bemnse of iulumv, or bivauM^ the child has no tksire to tak^ 
aiiytiiiD^', a* vrll a* hwiuie lo any actual difficiilty in t^vrallowiiM* 

The di«t »ho*iId U> the *auii*a» in non- ; - " ■ ' ^Ti?r« 
If f<vttttAdid> ur wdhU an-* i\^|uinil. «»1Mh*i: 




d 



rKEDISQ IS iyr£CTlOCS PJ56"A5fiSL 



301 



milli-toast^ oii&Unfs jiinl^^t, hri*n4] ami milk^ oatmeal porriil^, 
niKl -ihiiiUr food* niny Ik* givcri. 

If s^i'allowiDs liceimies imiH>!4rtiblr, an evonl that iKTitr* vrrv 
rarelVf the child may W M with (lie stoniaeb or nasal tube or 
b)' moan^^ of tititrii'iit cii^'nmtii. 

>o uf^peciol clk'tviu: rules are newsflary for feeding traclMv 
Olomy ca^i^s, 

FoHtdiplitheiitic Paralysis. — I" ijanilvKi* of ihc mii*- 
c]e« of i]ir'„'liililu>[i wliirli ituiv otcur after diptillioria. Iiio^t of 
the {tyoA nii*v return tlirmiirh tht* nii*t*; ur if the iiiimeli^ of ilio 
tongiif^ as veil jiA ihp -^iift iwibir*' nw iiivoN-rtl, il^hitttioii 
beoiimfa ii]i]>K**ible, Wliin thin iKrui>, lli(» ebiki raiul be fed 
vith the (itomach" or mm\ tube or by tbe recttuu. (Sw 

ERYSIPELAS 

The diet in ervfiipel^ui is the Kime fl>i !ti other a('tit4> frver^. 
Dnrin^ the ht-i^ht of the din^pre :i ]i<|aid di4?t, givc-ti in r«iTiii1l 
quiiiititie^ ao'i re|MQtvd at ^hort nml ri'^ulnr inicn'uU, i» rv^hii* 
DietKled. As the patient improves a ^adual return muy be 
Diflde to the onlitmrv diet. 

Aloohol h U'^ful. ititd imients until en-sipelas, like tlio^ wilb 
wplicemiu, uifiy mk*.* liiri^.* qiiiintiliif^ whbtvit pnHliiciii^ tin 
inuisicalin^ cffi^l. In ihc wrvere fornix wbij»ky <fr bramly iii»v 
bo f|pv<ii mi rv^il^r intcrvnis in do8M euftident i*> nmiutnin llio 
hi-sirt iirrtinn, Th^* eflect ol* the <itiniiilatiork ^tionld !><* watohed 
carefully and the annumt I'e^iilated uotxirdinj^ to ride-i previi^iiuly 
laii) dort-n. From ?§ixteea to twenty-four ounces u ihiy miiy be 
r»iujred. 

RHEUMATISM- 

Acute Rheumallsm- — The ^^xmct rvblion that diet Imafs 
to rbeiunatisni liaf^ not Iteen pnive*!^ aod the statemeut Ihat any 
epedal diet may act a- a pivdis|Kisinff factor U conjectuniL 
Improper anil in^JiifTicient food are rt^^prjut^ible only in fo &t as 
lltt»y i*>wer the rraij^tanoe of ibe body- 

During the ncnt«> attack the maiiapentent of rhe diet i^ simi- 
lar to that of iiThi.T acute fc\-eT^- JSoine diversity i.if f>piniijti 
cwtf n* to -whai conMitnl-** the bc*t did in thc^ «m€*". 
C1ica>d)e allows aiiinu^l b»\*ihs and «iye ihnt he Jia»* never >*wn 
aay ndranln^ Pwvnlt from cutting them off eiitinely. Senator 
Ifft^^ribe^ a somewhat more tilteral diet than is ^ven in other 
,aeutc fvvern. 

Durii^ the acute eta^ the mttxt pluoe i« to ptit thtr iMtienl 



»)2 



DIRT IS' mxRASE. 



on II milk or <m u mtlk uiii3 HirinjitHHtiiit iWeX. If tht* |iutietit 
can mil UiUf milk, ov^Ut nr climi brotlj, pn.'furnbly wMjmit tlw 
oyj*tt'r»< <ir olnmsf mw My-t^*r*, mill(-lfi:i-»t, hrirky or nrrow-n.Mil 
^iiH, liutteniiilk, kniiii^H, uiul, if flii.<M- iim.' iioi jtiifHoiorilr m<-<u|)^ 
lltuX l>r(ilkn, |]i:lv Ih' givuii. It is wt-il, «o Inr n!« jMns^ilik*, to 
iiv<ml juiitiinl liroth^, imJ mMit-crxtnurt* lire et»>itr(iiii<liciltc(l. 

Thirst U UKimliy a [>ron)Ui<*iit aiyiojitom, nnci fikr thin l>1an<l or 
m^id tlritiki^ iriiiy Iw giv^^n frn4y. Lriii'*M!ul*- ik gi'in-Rilly *er- 
vkitiWf. i>iK'ciuIly fitiw Itnions buvi- W\x\ iKlvfKTikil in the 
trcflUiicnt of" rlt' 4Uim^im\ rnrloimrt-^l wakT or Vitrliy nmv be 
usiil. ]Ln<] milk UD<] c^trbi>imU*i] vrntcr, hiirh;rmilk, or kuniW 
nmv Ih' tririJ. 

Until *'otivalft4i*cnce i^ fully tT^fabli'^bcd, — i3ml i^j Ibr a w<.vk 
ur U'li ikiv'> iitXi'V i\w fttVi'V hun ,-:iiWiikil, — tlieputii-ut nliutild \k 
Icfl only mtlk siml fjirtn:iCL*ous Ti^kh). TUe rrttirn t4] «oIi<I fooil 
i^honld 1"? grmliinl. VUh, ovj^Uts, and cg^ slinnld bo ncklf^il 
fir<;t, tnllowrd l»y i-luoki'n ami later by otlu-r tmuiU. Vt^talil** 
m«y Ih' nddiil :it flit funxv time, tho more <7isily dig<'vto<^ ntn^h 
^ ^^vlUlnikc^l |K>t»tunn(] H^-II-OHik^i) >i|>in:icli, o4iuliikw<*r tupr;, 
Mcwi'tl MtTy^ and tbt? Hkc. lK*i«tf cliost^n first. Sw«U are to 
\»' 3ivf>id*Hl, liiit fre>li Tniit nuiy W takon. The jwitient'* 
Mnrngili -honld be Ib^lt-riil, and if there is unetnin, the return 
to the mon? easily dij^**!*""! unimal fowU ^brtnld not bo lUdayed 
t£Ki lon^. 

Tin- tui'nh >^hoidd nol Iw or i^iiflliHinir *ij» to iux lh<? jmlirntN 
dijitiiliioi, nml ni;iv bf -siip|il<^m(.'ntod In* rwr or tkn*o i'Xim 
gbiftios of milk a djiVj sc-rvoil witb :i pieoe of toasi or a biscuit, 
nr by jin epg-mjg or & cnp of vi^tabJe brolh* 

Alr^tml ih (WifraiiKliwited in tbe acute i^lagc of th^ di^wise, 
bnt iniiy \w ]>rtM:r)l>L'<l for wry weak panenN und where eurdiao 
ciniplimtidnTi indirjite iti^ vt^\ Dnrinp c^'HivaleiH^enOT, if (bore 
U I'lintinucil wt^ikni'^*, ii tmi\' Ir* ernpkived. 

Chronic Rheumatism. — Wbereibe di:*«wc i* cbronic, 
lb*' did wlioidd hv ris nniiii^liine; a* |Hissibj&. As? ii rijli% wm'trti" 
And nn-jil are br*r«t .ivoldod. Fi.-b, og^j^s, ov,*tprs, and fh*' lipbfcr 
niC!at^, idl farinjuvHiii-s foods, iin<I iJk' mori' di^^'MJldi' vop'tublr.^, 
|uirt)onlarIy tbc privn f»u-^, may br alU.w^nl, \Vhf*n the pa!.i**nl 
h- very \vn\U and anprnie, aler)bid may be jjiven if desin^il ; In 
otbtr ctiM-<, fl'li<.-n.- ibi.* t-mif or p(limnlant ctleet if* not t^jxt^ially 
indiratwl, it i> to Ik- jivoiib'd. Care i*li"idcl bt^ tuken not to 
mi.HUikf* thi^ I'onditioTi for ^iit or for urtliriti^ fk-forniaii^ m»- U 
ft(j fretjuenlly doiK', 




FSEMSO /,V tSF£VTiOL'S DISEASES. 



303 



I 



ASIATIC CHOLERA- 

Infection with lh*» ilnflt-ra ■i|*irilhim Uikes place through tlie 
nioulh«anil ij^ uMially L-atineil by (Imking eontaminatetl vater. 
InftNMioi] iiiny alw U? c*»uveyc>d by TtiiJk ni»J by niw vegetables, 
by tniicliin^' a c»i)t;iiiilnnl4><] obji-ot, and by ^iimibr nieth*xK 
Tlir 'Jir-iuH.- timv In.* <i:»TkHl by llit's ttn^J ibii^ loilk ami uilit'r 

Dnriuf^ II rtjo1(<ru epulcmic- tho foMowin^ propby luetic meae- 
nn^ an* Ui U* (^mnl oiit. Only x\w mrin^ im|>ormnr oiieA will 
Iw iiicntLMiiL-^] lure: for a <I<riailetl Mm}y of this f^iibject the 
rra<kT i* rtftTrwi lo works un Ilyifiene aiui on Public Health ; 

Fati^ic, niruta! worry, and anything tbat lower* the mental 
or phy«i<cil toiK' v-hoiihl lie avoiilcil. 

All oxb«iii*rinK ex€rci»*ji Tfh<iTjld l>o e?cchuled, und alcv^hol 
teikrn btn -^|iarlnply» if zti ull. I>i»>tnrlmnrt"^ of tbt 6ionmch i>r 
bowvlr* ]<li<jrjLd ixk^ivi- pty>Di^t tit-aitueui, mid uctivc purgalicn 
»h('[ild be nvoUtxL 

All IVfril HhouM be cooked flnd fill l>ei'em>-»F; hoil^l, with the 
exception of iho^e boltW ami kn-<\rn u^ U' absi>hitely free from 
ftny |>os?.ihle con ta mi mil ion wiili the choUfa -pirillimu O'Bee 
and Cither hlmihir l>everair<* hbonld Ije made from boiled w&Cer, 
Ice *ih(mhl l>o made fruni dUtilled WEt^r, or when this U not 
[W^icticiible -rhotild not be iifietl in any article i>f food or drink. 
Only \Hti\M water ^hi'Uld l>c up^l^I for cleiin*;in^- Ihc teeth. 

All mw v<^>luble« and all ftHnl, p^uch a^ li^t ur ^hell-fi^th, 
Uuit niay in: jwrtly dceon)]X'«<<d, ^IkhiKI be avoidcil. Cntc 
sliouM Ix^ lakcu to secure pure milk. 

Any article of food liable to pro(}uce indigestion or diarrhea 
fihoiikl n<rt l»e eaien, 

Sioee the miem-nr^nHrn eau.'^in^ cholera will not thrive in 
an acid me<l]um, acid drinks are a useful preveniive mcjbiure 
^inHi infection. Ixnmnade made with aromatic sulphuric 
arid «>r <)ilLire ^idpiuiric aciil ha^ been widely reeomincndccl. 
Tea or fifteen dropB of the !ici<l should be vaUUd to a pla^ of 
wata-r. Pb^|ibonc acid and limivjuicc, as well as vinegar and 
f»i< kti--. ATv uIhv QM^k Care ^Lotild be luken not to disturb the 
di^'-iion bv iakii>^ too miurh acid, and It T^honld be taken 
thnaijfh a taW. bt proloct t\n* tivth. 

The diseaM* L* imually dividwl into four f*tape*i ; tliih divii§ii<m 
!»*, however, arhiinm'. The**e ^ta(Ees are : a premonilor>" clinr- 
rhcn^ H M^'ere dl-irrhea, n f-mjc^ t\f oillap^. and a reactMnnry 
Kt4igv. The mildest oi-seR pat^ through only the first aod the 



304 



DIET ly IHSKASR 



fteooni] flta^ The diet for «ioh ntajr*' will bo iivlicnt*^! furtlier 
nn. In iiJdiiiiiH lo \\w diel, CH^naia ^'iR^nil imlirntion^ for 

The patient uhould l>e |uit lo IhhI and kepi at>s<>luU-ly 'jtiirt. 
Tlit^ prtUiiiiniirvdiarHn.'UhliouUi be diei-ktil -j-i whui ai?* [Hi?v»il>li,% 
As (he tirL'uliiti'ui iails ^tiin«lur*ln _nhituM In- givi'ii. If llu* 
tj>ni|vmturt' is cxotA-^ivo, it r-houM Ijc redu«\^ ; if tJic lnnitlv 
heat if* loworwl, it should W nii*«i. 

Any |K'niiKU*iit dmrrlim nhnuhl Ik* oJa-t^kcvl ; any ti<ndriioy to 
vomilhi^; ^ll(>llh) Ih.* nticvt^l if ixv-^ililt. Thin^l sliiKild be ul- 
bycn], mni \Kilii ami dinin^^ allcviiitMl mi far ar< f>n-«Mh)(', 

Diiring the :«tage of diarrhea Iitik*nr no fiK)d ^hnuld be given, 
Aeid drink-i, and sitlphitrio acid (^^piriallVt Riiw tx' iKhuinUterciL 
If footl i^ taken, it MimiUl be pvi^n In very Nninll i|nHnttiy, and 
ill the form of alhtiiiiiii'iAntfr, txTf-jiiu'e or jintJip'slffl bet-f 
Kohition-f, Iwrley- or ^mtnimU water, (»r whry. Milk is l>cst 
avoided, fur if it i» not digo.ftt^d or tihsorlial, it fitmis a most 
«!xrWloiii (<Lilnirp-ntft)inm for thr di'vt»lc»|im*'Mt of the eh<»h>rn 
«)iinllnm. If i[ \* ^dvrii, it Ahoidd firMt In- |>i^pton]r^>d, TeA 
in Mimll fjnantidt'fl may br alhiwed if deairtnl, or a little veil 
wine (clart't) may lie atlTainL^lireih 

In the i«ecana stage <Nintiniam!* ptirxiii^ and vomiting jr^n- 
erully oeeur. Mor|)hin hyju^ilenjiindly \>^ pn>l«ibh' tbr bftit 
mf^ans fif elurkin^^ the-ie >yia]>t'iniH. A nuisranl-plnster over 
the ulMliHiiru fiiay pvc sunit- ix-lief, i»r UirfM:filiiie tttJpcT^ mav be 
applioi]. DdHtig thi-H stagf tui f<"xl ,«hi>ald he ]*iven, t\jr it will 
hr ivjortinh Thiivt r^hould he alluyrd na Fnr w* jwwaiWe bv nnv 
of tho fidlckwing article*, given In very Aniall ijniintitie^ and at 
ten- or fifti-ea-iniiuitt^ lulervalf* : Cnicke<l ire, eold water^ eold 
add water (dilute phosphoric ur sulphuric acid diluted with 
water), cjiriMJiinle^l water, iccnl lemnaade, or lime-jiiice, AVeak 
tea or !*tronj^ blnrk <.^yffv*: may alw> afford relief. If vomiting 
*xintiniiw, thirj»t may be a*j*na;red by allowinjr thi? |iatient to 
hold a little iued Jenionudc or ici'd water in the mouth without 
swallowing it, 

If miiq^hia does not eheolt the vomiting, h may sometiiDCtf 
be rfli<?V(*<l by wnsliinc nut the fitonia<*h with normal salt sohi- 
iinrt nr with wrnk bririp nrid ftnlotion. If ihe Hnid in th^ 
patient's IkhIv h mueh redueed and the patient p;i£^s into the 
tJiird, or alpid, stage, injeotioikfi of normal rait fiolution may 
be ^ven MjbrntaiiPoii>ily or intravenously. By thi? means a 
pflLtient is otloii revived, btit, nnfortiinately, the jR^rmanent 




FEEitlSO ly li^FSCriOVS VISEASBS. 305 

irJi^f hop<*<l tfir liy tlib mf^liod of trmlnient hiii' not t!<*i'ii 
ftUaintxL 

When llii* v*>miiing ot^ancH ai«! ihe f^vere ti-ym|Homr^ liogiii lo 
^ub^idif, 5inatJ t}UantLti«^ of iiKxl may be givt^n. At lirnt n tea- 
i]M»nful even* fifteen mitiiile^ niay Ih> iried ; iiikI if tliU m 
r^uiliit^t, i!ie fiuaiitity uiay lx» iia-rea*^ and ilie ijiCfival U-ii^ib- 
viu*<I, Al]>ti[iiiii-n';iti.'ri jHjHoiiu^ milk, amJ In'H-jiiKTe or pi-e- 
<lagi'?1wl li^vi' roJnliuiis nliouM be f^ivL'ti at tiKt. Tbc pilt^muvb 
ofuii rt^miuiu imtalik- lor dtiv-t aud wei^ki* afti'raii atlaok, aud 
gftnE viiTc AiouUi \m* i*\i'Tf*\MU not to exinlo Jiiirrbm nr vomit* 
ing. Stimiilaiit.^, in tin- fona of r^iiiall At'^^^ of itx^d eliflin|ia^ne 
or ililuht) bnimly i»r wlii^kv, niay Ih? admin isl^reil. 

Tlie convale<*nc't- :«lK>itld ix^ cinichicu^l s^^* after ly|>boiil frver- 

YELXOT FEVER. 

Tin* *li.*ois<* U iisMJully d<'jKTrilR*4l »>* piH^i-iitiuj^ three f^)*e8; 
the |«'ric«l t}( iiiv^>i(>n and ft-vrr, fiill<iV(.-<l }>v a fHiriotJ uf calm 
or n'mi"*>i*>ir Muny inilil t^u.-H'si rtHvivrr wjlhutit pa^ffittg iut(> 
the tliird $(Ugt, vrhicli J8 tDcMy nn i^xneeriMUiori of the second 
rta^L', and i* accT»m()aijio(l hy bhwk vomit nnd frwjucfllly by 
tiremia and ooIhtpN^. 

Almitf!! all writer* a^rcr at* to ibe noi^essity of wiihli'hUnjf 
all fooil for the Ar?>t >ovcnty-tvn> hourt of tJic dbtu^e. Al tbe 
out^t it h H'oll to ^vp All Diienin and tvo or tbive ^ratii? of 
culoniel, fikllouii?r1 by a1>^to1nto rt*Ht of the ^foniaoh 4i» far n» tbo 

g'vinjt of food is coikcenied. As miM of ihi- f^iibjw^t-iof yi^Ih«w 
VPf are in mhufit lii^lth when Hrricken, the ,«Kirvntion U wril 
borne. If food U piven» it i^ aliiuMt certain to be rejeeted nnd 
to :i^Rivate the finnptonif*. During ihif- |»riod ScernU-rg 
rvcommeudi^ tlie followiug mixture: 

Sndfmik tiiraHniiiiiti- - . fiO (trtlntf 

Mcrcur? bioliU-r^l l^cnJB 

W*t*-T. ... ..,,..,.. -10 Mincer 

Of thi^ tJiire tabletrpoonfiilA are lo lie ^ven kc-<*»W every 
hour ; a Intilmeut ibat \nv* Imi-ii highK pmM<<l. Toiiutix- bi ft 
Bffii Iwlievor in the t-IFicacy of Vichy *<-V4<-M>nfl), nnJ admm* 
inters oii^ or twyi Ix^ttl^ n duv. A^mohiKr tt*t and an nlHoi- 
Ainrr of rn*!<h air are i<-tN-nlial luljuaef.^ t« the trt^tim nl. If 
Viehy can oot \n^ obmiitotb jMHlft-vater, ouc dmni ti> tt quart "f 
cold water, may U- ii'^ed instead. 

If v'omirinj; ir* !*even\ \\w »liinmoh Jilioidd 1m> (rfven alK^boIute 
r»il and -nkh M4uiioti be mlmini:«tert>d by the reinuiu } or if the 



:illft DTRT /.V DtSRAfiR 

nvliim lHx'c»nK'« irritublc iind the jKiticiit ^boukl bEctme alffid, 
%\iv iiijtM'tiMiJ(i may he given iiUrtivtiiiHiiiilv. ae Rcommeiicied ID 

Durinif flu* Uiinl ilay^ if ihc lciiJ|Knimro fulls below 102' 
F,, a '•iimll <|ijiiiit!ty(if milk mul limtr-wnuT may bc^vtii ever>- 
funr hMiim. Thi:* I* nn.irc likely to be rctiuoctl if taken eoW. 
GntcU, P^pS niwl tbc like •'hfiiil<l Iw ftvoule*!. ivn<l nolbin^ but 
niiTk rtml lim<--wntj^r rir Hlhiimin-wnter may bo allowM. Tedi 
miJ uther bevemp* may exeite vomitiDg. Aiulerson, however, 
suiffiifetH om 6iimll ctip (if frOffhly i>Teparei] tca^ drawn but m 
niinitte or lwi.\ to b^ Inkcn in tb^ morning to refit«b the jmttent. 
All ^-olid WhA AmuM W foibuKltti mitil convalef-cenw U well 
erilalili^bi^l, y^ wry slight indulgeiieet^ hove ref^ultcd tatally. 

If the |>ulieiU ^vlr^ woi>e hiMead of iK-tler^ uiu) if vomitmg 
bi'^iiii^ ji)^i!n ;ni(.i ihi.' <]iurrheaL it Bievere, uU Tckh.! will be rejected. 
Iee*l oliifcnip[i;;nr, Rhine wine, or brandy nnd water may be 
U(Iuiini>^teivd in >^mnl\ riiinntitieH at frecjLient in1<*rv4U, Black 
criffee roiiy alto \v employeil Craekerl iee, Mxla-water, lime- 
waler, Viehy, or the cnrbonated waters ni»y lie given a trial. 
Tliirjii may be somewhat relie\-ecl by alluwing lemonade or 
dilute aei'l H>lution^ tu l>e held in the nimith ratlier than swal- 
loweil. SiiboiiiiUieoii^ injections of normal rail r^olufion, or in 
very m?vere «i*e6 intravenous iojectionp, may 1^ tried. Muhiard 
j^f^te may l>e a|>]>lie<l over the eplgairlrium or ttirpentine stiipea 
may be iinleivtL MMq>t]in liyjHHlennicrjlly Ih m'ire ellieient in 
rvlirvto^ tlievomiiin^ tliark any other druu^. 

If the eevi-ro gynipt^nis abate, nonrii^iriient may again b€ 
ntttHiiptiHl A teaspoonfal of albiimin-n^rer^ with or withont 
It little dilute brandy or ebampagne» or tlie -anie rfUAUtity of 
iH'ptoiuKtHl niitk ttr *'f pmlij^^^KHl Ux't-w^hition, may W (ri\*eD. 
If ibis is ref3ine<V it niay l>e rejM^ted in from twenty minutes 
to half an ht^tir, the nuantity Ijeiu): ^dually increased and tbe 
intervalleugtbened to two hours. 'Hie stomach is apt to be 
irritable for days, and the foot] must he liqnid and olten predi- 
^e^ltnh IVji1f>n]£e<.l milk, album Jii-vsali-1% ebieken-brotb wiib- 
out fill, and nmilnr tluidr^ may b^ j^iven. The e«>nvnlc^eence is 
to bi* eou4luote<l a^ nfler lypLoid iever. 

DENGUE. 

Tbe 'llet III this disease is that of an acute fever. For the 
thirst, freshly prejMred and iced earbonated water may be given. 
Alcifbol U uot usually required, except in habitues, and m best 



FREDiSG IN IJiFECTtOVa DSSBASES. 



307 



in tKe nirly >1»^w. 



Sovfritf camw «thould be traiU«l liico 



MALARIA. 

During ilie attack of aii ini«rni)tt<*nt tc%'or tlie fiooueb il 
Ceiierallv irritable, and if IVkI i> givi-n it UUkfly mWvomin?*! 
If tlie iKiticiii \\^^ JUiv ilt-^in- lor AhmI, milk, ljn>Lb?i, i»r|^tteN 
maj be altuw^ Wlicn the u|>{>vlil*r nHitni^, the cufiUmiarv 
diot ma^ W rcsunKxI. Tlic diet nh^uild Ik.> voncd, udO I'ruJC 
And green veffetnhle^ xidni!niAt4>r(^l Ut rtmiilc^niirt tlu*ivkii9iti|wli€m 
thiit L* nemiLtly |»re^ut. Th** anemia tliiit fi41i»wx n'litttU'fl 
AlUiclu of malaria often reijuin?^ an c»jH*ciully initriuuii^ Liud 
in\-]gonit]iig diet^ such as is preficrjb^ iu (he vouvnl^vct-Doe 
from feven in ^neraL 

In due prtlongml aod mow or less contiDtious tnalarbl feverw 
the dU-t i^ p!in»lar to that *>f any ai^ute fever. Almhol miiy be 
given ill the convale^rcerice following the severer fonns, Whiskv 
IB H jritp*^'^'' Hdjiitirt u\ trvauuent, and OLrv tji»idd be exerciml 
ihut toii mudi be uoc Lukc-u mid mjurtow Imbitfl formed, 

TETANUS 

In nil raM>^ <>f tlim di]«fA«c tJie 4-HVit1« should he directed 
Toviird Hupulymi: ihi' [nlinit with tlip Ini^-^t jxjwiblp amonnt 
i>f ii-tiiri^buH-tiU Many ro«^ die fr^nn r'xhuii»ti<iii, due, in pirt, 
to lack of fotxi. The dilfieultif^ of feeding a lock*javr patient 
ran ho apprvc-fnted only by i>n<- vi\\t\ hn^ mann^ed u ifi'ven- cw*e, 
Bxtnmir ri]i:u:ii4li4>n and mnrkcti iitM^miu, the rc^till nf ini^iiffi- 
rlrnt niitnmrnt, nrt geniemlly pr«*^iit- 

Wlu-n the ilivvtiw iH nui M-vi^n^, liquid Donnehment »a 
□AiiHlly Ih* given tvitltftnf ilit^nilty by sillowing the food to 
|)diM Ix'twei'ik the teeth. This ia rendered vv^i^v when a tootfa 
i» miutii)^. If the tK-th are «> re^lar nnd fit ^o clor^ely 
fif!etlRT a» til k<<ep idl fiHul iMit, it tiuiy iKvome ueoenuy to 
extnket H trauine or u bieur^pid tooth, when thi» \% poflvibk. To 
ftctMinplt<h tIiLr«, ehlonjlbrm antwtlH^ia may l>e nciCQiaMy* In 
ihtve (5irM"H fiMnl should bt* ipven every one or two boun*, ami 
fnmi *mr t»j ■^-vi'tid <njnre* fhniild be tiikni at a tiniv. Milk, 
M'hieJi idK>uld Iw ijartiully |>q>4>jni».-fl, miik-pnoeht r]VK~'*'V> 
mttnimin'Wiaor, panopirpton and Aaier or .iny reliable Itqnid 
priili^'CKti^l Ixrf, nu-at )>rotli!', an<1 ^trmiilarttA ^^hmdd l>e aflratn- 
iMtinfL Milk, if it i^re» widi the patient and can be given 
in sufficient 4|uantitietf| u vc^ ae«fuL 



306 



i>u;r J.V DISEASE, 



In Ai-vi>n« ofUPit mny Attempt ti't liaTullo tW- imtient or tn ttf>i 
him \>i liMy lo lirlng on i <y>iivuUioii. ThU l"^ an true of iy*i-cal 
fewlin^ II* "f iHtiiuli-lW'tltn^f. In sunie ni:i<fs recial THxIing may 
be i*uaiw*fiil. Ifi (ht-M' iJiftimlt cases ane&thega ruay l>e iii- 
diiciKl by 'lilintffiirm, ami if ibe jaws Max miftideutly, a 
i»U*rmoli-mlK- UVAV l>e |wis^(hJ aiwi a pint ol" |>r«iigp*^l«l fixxl 
luid TititiHiluiu jHiiti^U htti> Ui4- stomach. In muiiy cas^s a iia^l 
tiitn^ imii l>e iisvd b> ^Kxi udvaiiUi^', tbi^ lixnl bt^iug lUe mom !■ 
all rjL-«<3i. 

Tbe maim^rtnimt of tW <liH in ratne* 19 »nb«ttaiiiin11y tbe 
»ine a* in icUuni;*.. hi ino?t c»M-* oven the iSiligbl^r'l move* 
m4?nt« nbmit th<.' imncnt iimy f'xi-in* vi<»kiit spflsni.-*. Wb<>» lUi* 
is llie «i?^', aM aif*TU|>i:< at ft-ttUng, wbethi^r by mutitb, ua>al 

IJiai tlie ibii^it Iw <"'»wiinij"^'<l no ua Ui It-rv^ti tb<' >^|>ttflnis nuJ 
tiermil the patient to iiwallow. Whcnov^T jxirtHiblc, tbb ^liuuld 
bo iloiie, but it oan Tu»f ^rtiiiorntly tv* at'oitniplkWi. If tbi^ 
piillonr i^ ^uftVnnp frmn linn^<*r, chloroform may 1h> aclmirki^- 
tL'ti-<\ by iuhalatiori to ihi' |Mjiiit of rtlasation, and ff«xl U- ifivea 
by ibc .stomach- or iiaKil tut)*^ or ljy the rectum. Since all 
«if*e?* "f mbicfr nw fautl, the |Kilient'.'* siificniigA .'ilionbl noi l)e 
iiii^^rinf'nlcd hv inotii^i'tual cffurlA to a^lminntcr fomb Out- who 
hft-H lU'ver socn a ms»' of rabit'^ cjin nor r^lln.' the exE«u of ihe 
fi u Her ing that aitc^mptsat feeiUng may Induce. 



TUBERCULOSIS. 

Tliu impfirtanro of pnjp^T tVu-l in iMlx^rtniWU htu ln'on 
flwvit iijMni ntutH- the timr of Hij>|MM'niU'><- AiT»l»ii* iTwnt.i<niA 
the 11^' of aiilk in the ImitTuinl of pbthiMnil iw»ti<.-nt'*» Quo- 
tJitioHK [iro^MiunV with tiii^N ivlutiiij; to the vaiui- i>f pn^jHT fo'xl 
miglil bv uflde*] frt>m iilirnKt every iiii<<li4rjil writer vf [ii'onii- 
neiict^ 0*ler p«nm.'- n|> the mjirrfr ni* follows: ** A^* a ht'alinir 
of a titbcrenb^n^ pro*'(t^^ ir- bir^rely 'Ii'itetuhnl }}]xni the i*fnte 
of mitnlion, rhc fjiie^iou of diet hcix)!!)^^ of tlie vory lirat 
iin]n»rtiinc^." 

In u ili^tviriu with piidi pnitruti nmnifn^tfitiotipp there ar<^ many 
points that must )ie L*onj(itIt>r<'<l, A.< the nmlady inually iitt:iek« 
the Iiing!i, x\m M*rtimi vrill deal )irinei|Killy with jtiihiictimry 
tubeivul<fsis, for if ibo dietJ.tie nmr»iir*-nieiit of a ejise of pul- 
moDarj' pbthini^ i^ undcr^to<Hl thor^uighly, tbei'e will Ix- tio cljlli- 



FEEmsa jy tSFMCTIOUS mSEASES. 



30» 



€uliv m modifying it in meet ih^ rofjiiiivmviiDt of otlier fortutt 
of The di^iiiw*. 

Vwm iIk' oui.-^'t ilit^ paiieur luimt be imprr^vi^tl hHIi x\w Ijk* 
ilial (Im-! i-^ of primary im|>orianoe in ihe trcarmrrii of the 
dbea^, «n*l wJienever he displays a leudency to Iwromc oitM^ 
1t---v< iu tltif regartl, tW injunction a omoiTitittg dirt inuM t)C 
n'jfc-iilnl, Dm*cli<>tiH shou1<l not Ift givi'n iti n gi*ivnd way, 
but liht'oltl Im.< ii|M<*II]o, L*uX'orui^ b<^tli tlu' iirliolr*L to (m^ 4*utt?ii 
ftiid ti}f>4* la ix- avimlM. Thf* timi< ff^r Hiking f<HK] imd thi^ 
iuti4>iint to Ih? tiikvn fihouii) bo nut-fully cHitliiictl. T)k-«o poiuto 
vary with difT^reiic pali«'tiL-i, but i^rli riiM.* must Ih> i^tudit.^! in* 
divii)ua[ly if suooftwi \^ in l>e atiaiiK-«l. J I i^ jri-iu^dly UtUir in 
give uritt*'!! instructions ooncfTniiiij the diet» as tin* iKitieiil tA 
apt to be forgetful, enj^eciallr if he has e<*rtjui) ^tr^mg lik^ iind 
dU>Like». 

Oire nh^iuld Itv tiikt-ii t4» give only t'uch (lirrciinuf* a^ (lie 
oi>i]c]ili<m tjJ' th*-' [Hitiont will warmnl ciirrying out, A gutod 
di<*t and fnwL uir at hoiiU' iirt l*» lv» profcm'd to ^tarvutioa in 
!t tniiiY" lOiitidiii* i^Iinuitr. Tlie |Kitii-iit vbiiuld not he girnnittrd 
to f^iH^nd <tHi nitidk i]f ]ii!« money on milnjafl Ijirc mid trH> little 
Ml ftHxI. 

Th<r nutrition of the juiti^nt [» a reliabK'' giiiik^ &» to the 
prr>f;n'?<'> nf ttie dii^eaiie. If ht* is taking .-^iiftii-it'iit nutritioiw 
fomlf U dijfiittin^r it, aiul iii gaining in weighty the prrigtin-tis ia 
^■mI, ir the n'vi'i>i' Ih the (iJi^e, the |ir<jgiiiJHi> U Uid. A jier- 
filMcni inaluUty t" digt-nt f^tnl ih ahvnyn an untnvcruhlc symp- 
tom. Core ><hould \w taken U* av<«id di^turbiii^ tbe Momach 
hy iIhi DKp nf nsiUMviting drug)>. Paltr*iiu lire 1ni> frr<)n('iitJy 
dnw^l <»xfv>«ivrly with en^n^rtr, <*tMl-li\fr nil, o>ngli mixtiirOVp 
aiiil hyp()pbc»>|>hiies wrhiU' tnilk nnd e^'g« arr^ not ^'ivi*n nrten 
etif^ti^h 'T f>tdy in inMulltnent fiininlillc^ 

[rritJihilily of tW rf<>miirh ^JKiuld n^nive nirly "iwl the ntimi 
i<at^ftd r(Ki^idrm(i«>n. It i^ itAually due to fever, anemia, the 
8Vt-nlh>vrin^ i>r ^pntiim, or ]mpro|K*r food or drngs. If dn^ to 
frvi-r, c-jin* in M-hiiing llir *Iiei, a* will \m- dp-MTil)*^! In-itiiftvr, 
fibt>iiM 1ir rxrrr-ir^'d. Wkcn thf^re ih mArknl anemia, fnvh air^ 
ffiin&binc, ^Ktc] frxul, nijiru^gr, nntl imn in iin^ii^ily amtnubbUf 
form nrr Wlpfnl. In ill mM*« th** p«itii*nt ^hiknld Iw iaKlnw-i^'d 
n*.A Xu ^-wallow dir <tpi|]iiEn, a>^ irntfihility id' tlir ^loiruu'h nilli 
vrtfntttn^ i* almo>t wrtuin to fotlovr himuhvt or Inti-r. He should 
be qi>c«(ion«<) ehw4y rrpinlinp tlw fiio*l and dni^ he w takins, 
Om^- whould 1>eeertain iluit he t»not tjtkintr a pat^jit medinne m 
addition to wiiat luu Uh^u pntMcribed lor hiiu. '* ^uiek curee'' 



0^ 



_^ 



310 DIET ry DISEASE. 

arc always urtratdivc, untl «it often indulgeil in sreredy, to cbe 
gn^at cleirimi^iE ut tlit.^ piiinit. A p^iL^penKion tyf all clnig^ from 
iJiiiv tu Univ Mill \\i' tijiidk [o tvlic^'i* i1i<t i.iv<.'ix1i>m'c1 f^loriuicb. 
lo souiG indivifliiiils irnbil-IIiiy Ami nausea may \k broiij^lit on 
}>y ibty loo (v>ii(iiiu<m* iKlmmiHirsLtion of any one <lnig. 

The npiN^filo. «ini7<' it \* gciirmlly |x>or and cnpriciou?, i-k uot 
a good ^uide as to the unioiiDt of frwd to bp tukeD. In moAt 
r.L?^^ more fo<xl i'iiu Ix* tli>^'ffT4^ than the np|>elTte d<?mmids. 
While thb ii? ^o, the do^m-f uf (he jKtticiit should, neverthele^ 
lie coii>uhwl ^My i'nv ii* p'i*#ihle, »nd mi)re ^rK»d «in j^iiertilly Iw 
accc<mplUhed ly huEitoring tht* jialivDt'e rojifiunuhle (IcnmDds 
titan by cxifii baling; tlicm. Thecljaracteror4.-ucb [mik'nt Mioiild 
be ^ludiedf ami m \\ih ei^nditf^o |>cir<K-idaily Xi><j{ |thiy« na 
imjiortanl Wilc< A mitvc or n jkhy^nk-inn ^viih natnml i^ot and 
sympathy will ol^fpn nium^i.' to p-et siiHieient fi-rbd into an ln~ 
tractable- or <^prinoiifi lenient where skill Aiid wnnt of tact 
\\ritlld fail com|>leU.-ly. 

Olber factJir* U* he c^jJisiJeiXs;! are ihe nnili iimliiy and ibe 
UHiml Miiwle <>l* life of the fHttk-nt. M:iny ^if thf d[<»t-li?^ls iw- 
temk^l lor tubert-nlntiH |mrienl!K uf^ t^ik^n from the works of 
(ierman rtriioi>, A (k-nimn or a Ciennati-AnK-rican might 
thrive njwm tlu"*4.% \\bcmi?* mi I'^n^^Iii^liniaii, a rreuchoian, or 
an Ainr^riejin wiHild finJ it diflicult to take aome of tbt^ Hrtielt» 
aJvifH?<L 

In tW choi<*e iinil piv^Kinttiitii of food tl>o utmost wire i^hoiild 
1)0 exorcisL-d- DetvmlerV »<iying, "My kiioheu w hit phnr- 
iiiaey," lH>ld»^ In th<-t4.' (Tjibes- The finxl should lie |nv|«ire<l 
mniply, and yot i<bunl<) 1x* varied and made as tmiptin|f a^ 
]>os>*ibk'. 

The ifdoimteh mid ii)tj.v<tine idionld l>o uiitc-hed, nml oon^* 
]XiTi<»n pnnnpily rrli(.»vo<U Patinit* whmire takirijj; Jar^c qiian- 
tilii".'< <if TinhI iiiul n'.-^iiiijr tiniHi -if (lit* lime aiv apt to l»e 
otfcttive. Buf^r;* and ^tnrehft* iirr mrelv well bt^iriic. Thia 
may be? du4- fi ibo pr\-M>-iKH' of mtnrrhfil otn<)iti>ii>^ of the howeli 
btit fimy hIaii be f.nie **vrn whi*n r7ilTirrh i^ nnt present. Youtu^j 
^rniwin^ girU *iftvn enive f^wwt*, luid wheti this onivinjr ift 
iiidnl^il in U* rxtn-s^, the ?fti.iniuch and diice^ftion Ixvume di»- 
op*kn?<l. 

While 4iuffiei(-rit foixl sh<mld W given, an oioes* i^ injunons, 
ami eaeh iMitleni --hoiild t>e watched naretVilly, Not inoiv jshould 
be ^veii at one lime tbim the pntknt (-an ibp-.^t with eiiw, 
Banhfwell and Chapman, in tl»eii- Hudii'n on tnelalxiliMn m 
tTi1>oret]la?]s, found that j^omc jiatientd who were taking x^ 



d 



FEFDtXO iS ISFEfTlOrrs m.^EASES, 31! 

i^rge quaotitietf of foful tmi] \r*^vv icninin^ in w^'i^ltt wvre 
excreting ex«Wvu nmuiiufi^ «>f urta^-over SlW f^iux <h\]y, 
Tbese paticnl^ i^'jirnilW iLLiitirniihsl ihi-ir normal wui^rbt, iimJ 
tlie diflOiJ^ a]>|Kiin-tl i«i W t|iji<*MViii- Fur t-nniniiik- iviL>oiir4 
Uiey wtro fibligtil tn if*liKV iW *Hel uf ilii' |iKitH"»i?*, hihI found 
lliai, Iii»t4!fl(I ot" producing ilLsi^trmts n-T^tilu, ii ^lin m wcijjlit 
ttiid ffWKTnl im|:»rov<>niciU t<>n«W4'(J. 1liv%<* |)ulu<m*;, of oouix?, 

It^sl is iiii|>orumt, aii{l ilie i>uti(-ut I'hrmM U- in»truct»l to 
re»t lieforp nnd nt\^ iik-iiIp-" ; if he i« not rc-ccivni^ iht cHunUiiHMl 
nvt and diet curt*, to hv j^\}"kvu of IiiI^t^ lie* i^buuld lie dovrn ut 
Wht liulf nil litiur bi.-lon' uml Jifr r iih'jiU. 

C<iu^liin]j; i?^ HJ^u■tinu^* cxviltd l*v tlit Tiikini^<>r ('o<hI- If 
tlii» it^ due In biyii^i-ul uiv<ilvi-iiKMi1, il sijuuJd In: iimitu^l 
acwnliii^ to dirv-criun:* gi\-cii uiuKt I>i^cni>e9 of tlu* J^in-iix* 
When it i* du<- to ih<* prc^siuH.- of (in oviiiillc<i ivtoninoli, dw 
niKiU inuy b« pmalit-i' and rKi^or togv-tWr, Guvti^u or iWliiig 
bv iiK'iiiiB of M 8»>fi-mhl>pr ttJ^x* tnny he *'ri]»loywl in tln>* c«*w 
tliat vnniit <>vprythiDg the>' eat Ijertiuso swallowing brings on :i 
epa.'^ioodio cou^li. 

The nm- of tin- tiioiitli 1^ of grrat im]>orrun<^^ It i** well to 
rimre the uioiiili U-toiv nnti afior 4^ting, Tit' teeth al^» nhoultl 
be kejit scrupulnii'rly clean. Kiinj*! advUe^ the use of the ibl- 
lovriDg mixture iifter mealft: 

it t\Mciioi> fif |ir^ix>finiiit - , , , 1\i. 

Oi!orf « ini(.-r^rn-n y\xr. 

Tll^lflol ..-.., , UT-ST. 

Bt^Mtrat *ri<| xiij. 

Tlm-tuj* of pui«lr]>tu* . jy. 

j\|c(illol ..... SVf- 

Jd.. Hair a Nflj^hifOifiil tu A i-tiiA fif a-ak-r lit h? nmt u ■ mmilb-nuh. 

Foods to be Used by Tuberculous Paticntft. — 
Milk, — This is one of \\» most important artiele* of d»'t for 
the uiiien'iiloits jxtticnt. Uide:^ ^ociie F^]MM:-ial rEtuwii ejclsrs, 
milk shuuki alwuvfi fv>rni a |Kirl of ibe diet, U mav \v cakeii 
witb lb*' tmals f>r W iriveii i>etwveu tin- iuten^uU vf f^^liajf. It 
in of ibi' utmost inj]KirlaiH*i' thai thv milk bv riip|M<l Jowly, and 
not KwaMowed i|itiokly m Inrfpe 4|imi>tirif-^ Tli«< milk nuy tw 
(lAkrn pl»!n« i»r nuiy U? morfifie*! in van<rtis vav^ Lim(*-wal<T 
iiiay \m- add«l. with or without the addition of t^iiiii ; mr- 
liouated wster uiay \te niixetl ijtith it, or the milk iiuiy b^ pc^H 
toui/ed. ItuttcrDtilk or kumi<v may |je taken if desired, 

£gg:s, nbiu tli^y vau be lakm in suIlicieDl cjuaiuities, ore 




812 



WiT L\ IHS£AS& 



iiUo of llie grenteftt value. In cerlain case^, however, tliey nuy 
not be well borne. If the enlire egg ran not be ihke\% i\vo 
whua; iJone mar lie given, Kgg-nlbmnin t^ften reiiderrt nu"--.! 
t^lK^'Ji'iit MTvic^ in liT.']piu^ lit iiourltii iIil'h; ^Mitit^ntn. 'V\ni 
wbiu-a of i'T*»m ^i\ vt twtiity-four t:^^ \K.-nivn itj» ligbtlv uml 
ittrfkiDe<l thrcjii^fh a cli>tli may bo lukon Jaily. A vt-n' titiuH 
pinch of ^alt ami a liiile letiMin-jiiioe or <A}»^r Havorin^ miIi- 
t^lance may 1m- fiililetl. (Jivi-n in tbU way, u Iflrgi- ntiminT of 
eggs caj: wimIv be taken, ami are almost invariably wilt ln^riR-- 
If the |uitient ran digest ihe eggs entire, llu-y may U- vrry 
lightly boileti. or, as a change, they may be ninde into a light 
omekt (tr poachwh Hard-ljoiled au<l fried egga ?ibouId not lie 
eaten, 

M«at> — Slnit of all kiiJ^K 'E' j»n»]K'rly pix*|Kiivl, limy be 
cateu; but "high" gunie, highly ac'^Leiouctl dipbe^, mid twic^ 
ccioketl mtatri nhoiild be a\'oiik*<:). B(vl' and tnntt^n nrr tlie 
mo< ?<niljilile varu'tk**. Itjnv niPnU, r>H|h-fiiLl1\ mw Iwtt', hrivi* 
Inrn biy:hly i^xlolknl by Kh-neh wiitt-rs. Tlw ox|H'nmt>n(nl 
Work of Kicliet and H<rk\iLirt on (k^, tentUng to show the 
value of raw iDeiii, ban l)een much erilici.-^. T'Ornil and 
ClBintemes.*(* I'eeently oimtrilnit^Hl lo thi^ ftiiiyoi-t by their ex- 
|M.'riin(.-tils mi dogs, IMuck] unikv similar Lvmditiou.a, some of 
the iinimaU were fed on nuv inent ami ^hUcin on <*ooked» and 
l>otb ^'ri*-n wt-re ino^Hilated wiih iLniltriit tuhi^ivle ImcTilli, The 
dngv fe<] iin cttoki^tl nirat fill din) in it nbort limv nf tiibor(.'ulosia| 
u-hile thcjft.* ful i*n nt"' incut livM. Soiin- ttf the animals, at 
thf^ tinu- ht npiJiirrnt ginwl hrnllli, vrii* killcil nnd sinewed 
rrilieivnjoiiK ilogxmlt'*. OtheiN lived In »}i|iitri*ni gttoti healtl^. and 
on Ih'Itis; liilli^l it year kiter p^bnwtd TulH-irulon^ ileiiositn in a 
oiMiilitiriii iif lu'jiling. 

(imnclKT sugp'sif* that for Inh'ivuloiiK j^ttit-iits ihe raw meat 
U^ given in the jorm of a finely iliviikn] |mljK Thif^ \s prepared 
by Mcra|nng the niimt with a kiuti-, which will result in a maK.-i 
of >lnxHkJt^l uu-al-fibirr, Tliir* is phK-tsI in a mortar and [KuindiHl 
iukI rnbboj with ii pe.'^tU' until <|nite ^m<,>'rth. It ip thon prt-seed 
gi^Mltv ibniu^h a »ic»vt' to i-finovo auv^ larjjt-r [mrtiek-s. Thi* 
rasv m<<at-pul]) is very t^ii^ily dig<<«tei] anti highly nutrilioup. It 
may in^ ;:iven in varions wttyft,a!* spptwl on Hinilwiehefi or given 
in milk or in warm lionilkm. It miiy be inixe<l with jmrf-es of 
variraiJ* kinds or uiih v<^eiables, or, in the casi^ of chikirvnj 
with small <iimnlities of preserve?, li may lie iv.ileil into L>all9 
and w> easily swallowed, or it may he served with an egg, with 
anebuvie^, or with pickled hvrrinj;, 



FMh'DiyO ly ISFhCTIOUS mh'EAS£S. 



313 



,Uirrf-_;>jW is aliwi nf (rrrot tiilnc. Thi« may In* prqmred 
acrtffdinjf lo any ftf lU^ nviiH'.^ ^\\ini in the ApiH-ndix, wr 
the jiiitv may Ix? oX]»reftse<l fr'nn Ix^'f hy rit«aiiH '»f a nieat- 
prc'is, Irtwx! rounil ^eak f^iiouJd be very sliglitJy bmiled^ eul 
jutu Hinall cuWn, and the juke pre^tf^tl ooi. \Vitli a good 
pr«?:«4 aliuut el}^\il uuiioes of juice <^n In.' t'Xtracifcl froin u pound 
4if meat. Tbi^ »tti>uJd be f?^»*>[](:^I nn<\ beuici) by |>Ucin); llie 
Vttfr^I octiitainin^ it in warm uiiler. Care nliould bo lakoii not 
in Itetkt it tiMi tboruuifhly, or the ^Ibnmin wtll eoa^ilate and the 
Jui«; be HpoiW. Fivr*hly prepared beef-juiei- Ih aK-aVft prefeiv 
iUe. hiu wht'ii tbi?* can i>nt l>e obUtineiL Ikiniil Ui-f [wptonoicli, 
pre<iig**-^bHl lH»ef, or Mn^qtiera IWf M«il nuiy be cnipWe^l. 

J- C. lioiix anil Jo^iari have used the raw-meat cure in 
chiUren with good re^tillit. No cooked pieat waA allowed these 
pa I ten L4. 

Fur |NitiealH who (Tan u"t or >\ ill ur>i mke rnv bt-ef, vvvy rare 
tilf-idc, HJiiHi-htH", or btcf w)Uj> r^lionhi Ih- pn^r^TibixL 

Fifth. — FV^nh fi-nb, b»ilw!, broiled, *>r Uikt.'il, mtty be allo^iwl. 
Btiili uy*u*r* and rhuiw from whti'b dn> hnnl portion ba^ Ix-^mi 
rt^novi**! rniiy }m< ittton, [iri'ferably niw, Uiil ih'y may iiIm> Ik 
iHvtfi HtcHiNl, ncL'-i^-cl, or brrnlo<h 

Cereals. — Whvrt- \\w-<' ttaii Iw dijre*T<*d, thr-y are nf value. 
Ill die rarly ^ta^**' of the di«iu« they mTve no* otily a« nutri- 
ment, lint iilwt aiil ill rf^dnling t1h> Iwtwrl.H. and an:> iirinully 
easily ili^-^ti^b ir iIkti* \^ o>ti^ti|Kinoii, ih<'y nrtr fif ojHviiil 
Tidtie. Ojilimnil, wln^inii gni^y t^i^viutu^n] inni<h, and ricv und 
milk nn* ib'- mint ?(uitiiMr form.*. 

V«2ift«bles. — Any uf thv oiuily dig<vtMl ve|f(rtiiblv» mny lie 
milowiNL Tbry dimdil lx> ^immf'ft nr nxtkcfl with ax Httl* 
Wfitrr a* ifoKj-iblr, to nvoiil dip^jlviug out ttio <^<iltK, vrbich, 
tiifcthiT with mtieh of the DiitrimeEit, are tbrou-n awiiy with 
the water- 

Bread. — \VIi«ii or rye bnrail, or mi:iturr« of both, may be 
iiMfl. /wiHviok i- iti criiit value. All hot brt'ail«, [Ni<lri', aud 
(nki^ should Ihr iiV'Mde^L 

Fruit* — All frt^h niid |ireri*nib1y n|«' fniit mny lie allowfd 
ia m<M.[4rmti<in. It sTii^iild Ih< tnkcti the fir*t thin^ in the morn- 
ing or ap 9 cl<wflnrt. Ikikotl flpplrM nni) nmn^ri.^ urc wdl l>onM 
and U4i>fn1, titvl ^tprv, |tf«irbpM, jipiirA, and either frurt In xeo^rt 
may lir allow^l. 

Fats, — In tRbiTcijIoM', wheii fat- and o\U r»» be tjiki'n niHl 
alMi>rl.Kxl. the pn>j;niwi* it aUiiyf^ muoli U-tler lluni wlwn tbc^w 
(till not U- ti*hrjti^h Wiiih" (Wy an? uf tbv grmie»t vuhK- iu 



314 



ntET ly ntsFAsE. 



lmuim.»iil, catL- AivwUi U- tnkeii not to ilkurlj llio imiieiit's 
di^(.s-«tioit Uy foix-i»^ uloiv fiLtiy t^fnli^ mio thi- dk'biiT tliau ll»e 
st<im;irl) \vill tolti-uU'. McwT iKitiriiN, ]ii>w<-v<t, sfKiu af^rjiiii^t^ a 
dl-ilik*' f'>r fau* itf :iit klniK. TJit-y aiv Im^i g\\'i-ii in the f^na 
uf ori'iiiu Mid biiltt^r; tlu' ynlk?> irf i^:)£9, (rri>ji fai Ijacmir and 
otivc oil arc uL«i> u^^'tViL Cixl-Hvcr oW ict rciillv a-* miK^li u |1»h] 
Oft a nKHlicinr. Kithcr tbc plnin oiL ur uti iimtUlou may l>c 
iiHii, tiiicl tlio {loM>A^ i^hitiili! In- siEiull fii Ih'i^mi witb niifi gnuhially 
bt' iiRTLaf-ai- A common uii^tuki' is to ndmiuiT^tcr tb*; oil in 
cxcc»(tve 4jiiaatiliw. Only ptrfiitly rtvccl fn«h oil i« tt> Ijo 
UM't!, !i* lanc-id <jr >Talc oil may fli^stiirEk tiw (li^o>lioi)> II* um* 
pIuhiM l«- (li.*i"i'iitiiinoMV"iii liiin' M liiiKv Ohiklix*i» Ixtir uil 
k-riiT (han d*i adults, Jf tiit-iv t-^ u iMnVacy to diarrbcUf latJi 
and iiil> iikii:«l W- tiMnl with i-jititioii, 

Alcohi>l. — Tliriv IS much divri>itr of <r|>iiJii)n tvnccTiiitig tW 
iTiflui'Eicc iif nirohol on tcilirnMiIii*!.-*. Thrt^ vipws Lnvc lK*i*o 

K Tliat. iilntlhilihrn t>i jnit'iginii^lii- lo tnln'r.-ii]o'-i'., 
2, TJLMt nlooboliF^m vx£-i-t& iiu ^pirml iidluciict< <>u the inOi- 
vidiial as ifipirclH tuherculosi*, 

rj, Tliat alcdlirtliMii ili'finitcly preJi^jioHi's ti tuIieri-uUisifv 
Tlu' last vu'W liiH llie Inrirt-st niinilHrr of >^u])ponei>, ah ulco- 
liolit^rn prolmldy n^aders the bndy more tiiiProp|itible to all ic- 
fecrioa^. <)j4ler bas stated bts opinion a?* lollow*^ : "Ii was 
li-nmrly ilum^dit lliai akitlml was in **('iije way an taiffi miotic to 
liifH^nalour- diMt:l-^Pf l>nt ibf oW^rvalion;^ vf lati; vi-ur^ rndtaite 
cli!Uiiy tbm tk* revoprw w the case, atid ibat obr^nio driiiWra 
npp ti)iiHi nior** liabl<» to boili af^nte atid pDlmonan- tulM^rt'Eil'Mia, 
II is iuvjIimMv ulicifri'Tlicr a i|iiest]on of altt^rtil tiKsin>^-4>il. tlie 
al"»b(»l lottdini: thr vit;iiily nnd onablin); llio barilli mmv ivmlily 
to dev^-lop [uul ^>w." 

CorKXTiiiii^ the UK' nf a)(<(>liu] in tbi- tivaliiK'tit t*f tulnivu- 
Io*i«, it may l>e J^iid that, i^xivpt iii the last sta^a* of iIk- ili.^viso, 
it is \h-M avoidi-d, X;ilioualily and habirs, liowevi*r, miiM nol 
Irt- dinivganhHl, To iIiom.' ladiiuiaU^I lo ihi' u,'*f i»r a plaj** <jf 
wine "r beer with tWir dliiTii-r, tliin imiy In.- allow<*«]. Tkt 
qaandty tak<ui mii^t be liiiiiKHl to tbi* Ka^alWt ivuMinMdc allow- 
ance. Tht« will vary with i^H* ladividiiak 

I'aEifiilf- who nn' jriiiimtr in m-i^rbt or «ho mv in powl con- 
dition nn> Ix-flcr off" witlnmt »K^)hi.iI, Thw:c wb<i an? ^*iu^ 
dowvi-bill may ofton take M^ht wiiK\ l)wrj <jp wtll-diliitf^l spirits 
M-ith luKaiiUij^.*. or iIk' la^l, w*»lUmuliinHi, pitix' \vbi?^kv ij« 
thi U-st, 



FREhiya IX ryFKrrioi's msEASEs. 



315 



PntioiitM wnh lii^'b frwr wlui iirc ik an oxIukl^IccI condition 
may U- ^ivcn ulrnlnjl Tri't'K, rolUjwitJp i'il- *ainL' riilis »^ were 
]ui<l cUiwii in Thi.' p'Dcnil i*«*n:*iilr"i"nliou of tl»vti>. In tlK»if 
iii«^ ii1(*<ihi)| L-« jriv<>t] iL> a fixKl^ iiiiil i^, tin a nilc^ vi*rv iix^ll 
U>itir. Ill ilivtfv iulvuiic\t) nm.^ jiuiv iiliUky trdl ililuicnf i^ 
prrhupfl the \>cM^ Innu of a]fi>Iii>1ic >tiiiniliiiiff I>ii1 thr jviticiU'.i 
tojitc tony Im» nttij<iiliiyl in tliu ix'^^wyt. 

fHhtfr B^vem^es. — Tin- iiumil hiAw-rjigj-^ nmy hr pivfti in 
lUMkniiioi}, Iti i-Iin>iiic HjlKTciilii^i* ctKxm may Ik tnk^ night 
and inuniiiT^ with ^^oud etTLTt. Ttit ur coAW may 1x> nllowcJ 
ill ririkaU <i(mnt»ti*.^ Hnlt';*,'* (Ijt'V tirMluw iinfjivonibk' ?^yiti]itoiii». 
Milk euk) iiiilk-|MiiK'li. I)iiirr:rinilk> lfiiMinnik% or iinHiL-L-iuk- mtky 
he nr<iil, iiii^l nnill i-Kti^u^l^ tin- oflni of iK'iirfil. 

Number of Meals.— F'kmI mny Ix- givi'ii Dum tlirwto hIx 
tini^'s "inily* On liMnj;, tnHk mny l*r Uikc^ii, or, if *k?*in'4i, a 
cn]> of tMJiiilliin in^NToJ, TliU iniiy Ik- f<>]k>wr<) by Itrr^ikfn't, 
:im! jil»oiit the miflcllf of tlir nioming :i glau of milk, *'^g- 
allmniinr l>prf-j iiJr*^, or tirofh mny Iw given u'ltK a cmrk^r or m 
piwe of t'lur^t. 

A miilday dinner )^I)oit1(1 br tlic rule, nii<l ilurini; thi'iuitkllc 
of the BlVtTm*>n a li^bt liincli "f wnijucl bwC milk, or khuc 
similar f<.>o<i ujuy be ^'ivni. 

Sii|>]icr may Ih» tnki-n ul n t'juivcnkin ivtMiin^ \u>\\i\ tintl 
before ^>iti^ I'> UhI ii jflaiw of milk iim\ W tiriink. If (1e»in.i] 
or if ikt-iiKtl iK-crviin', <i »nmU aiii<-niil of Inprn) |ll>u^i^bnlellt 
iiinv l>c tnkcii ibirinir ibi- iiif;1it if tike ]Kinent »u.iki-ri?<. Ami 
rtik, lioM<*x"er, it i* w^'ll I** giw ibo ■itonij^b n fiill DigJitV it-«t» 
To »«verip caiHOfi, n-berr only Hmnll igiiaitlitivn of liqiiii] or «*'ml* 
f-oMd fooil ure tfikcu, tht' iiitfTvah i-LouId be ^^bortcneil to every 
Iwo or ilin.r lnrtn>- 

Feeding Advanced Cases. — In nifvauoecl rsix^i intiente 

may jfcnenilly be [lirmitt'tt to Mi'lrtl ibeir iU*A. Tbcj-e |cilien1i( 
can o^n cnt hi'Arty nivaU with n iv1t4i uiid iipgiunnitly i\\^t^i 
them without dirtieuky. A?* a nile, tU-ir die! iim-t U* llfrht, 
l!<|tii(]. <.ir MTiiu^oEid, The sjime prUniple^ mny t*e iipplietl here 
aa III feeding fever cikM^ WJtb the exn^ti'>n timt the imlientV 
d«'?<ir('-' e-botikt. n* Inr a** |>oB»<ib1e, Im' f^rvli^L 

Phthisis Cures- — Variowf* diet enn*** biivc b«*n aiJvo- 
nite^) for the relief of pbthiriiB. ami the^ ai^- refrrrril tf» tiinkT 
the b«w] of r>iet Cnre*. The benefit whirh follMW> tlieir n*e 
\» due lai^y to the fn^li lur noil fLbundimv ol' forhi tlwy 
prescribe. 



318 DIET LV DiSKASE. 

Daremberg^s Dietary.— In 1883 Darcjiibwg tooob- 

mciKkd ilic iblluwiiig diet for tiitH-rciilosw [mtienifl : 

Mvat - . - . . 0OOgma«> 

Bmul _ , . . , . . , . 800 " 

Twuegpi, bmicrorrnl - - - - , - -* W " 

iViiflitjw , - IW) " 

Kic*, miirtitoni, mai*r, pw»» UJ lentila SOO " 

bL-vT I hiVT 

Milk i " 

Detweiler's Dietary, — The foiIowii)(5 i;* the j^cIkhIuIv in 
u« in LVttt'iiler t Siiuitariiiiti : 

7-« A, M. ; CotR'c. Uii, or Hiik^iIhU', hisiciiit nntl l»ilU;r or 
biTiu) jitiil biith.-r> A fiUvtsi of milk r^ikt-Ti in i<:iin\\ ^Eg)^ 

10 A. .M. : Oner ur t%w.i ghE?M^■« ol' tnilk Uik^-ti in ?itrinll >i[K4, 
or botiilloii ^'ith ao c^^ brcnti hikI Imttcr, or c<M meat v^ith 
brc-nil, hiiTtiH', and wine; if f»o«iMo, j* ^his^ of milk. 

I I*, M. ; T)iimfr — rfwiwl, Vi-gi^hililp^i, ilcwicrl, winfMiml nflfjwr, 

4 P. M. : Milk, kumiss, or brcml ami btittiT with wiiie or 

7— 7i30 P. M. : Ilct moat with |>otjitt>^a, rice, mwxUo^, cold 
tneatf fine wiiij^ims jmnltry with kiViiI, (iR'wrvi*^^ iintl vint-. 
Liitc rn cvcttini/! A glaiw ol" milk with two or llnxr »|Mii>nfnU 

uf C'OglUlC. 

Aom»nliiip Ui Miiuk nml Ertuld, tin; ITuv^iiuj; (lii.i n.'|m-T^*ntj* 
nboiit -lO^lO mloHc?* r\ <lav. Such a jUct is mnoh better ?^uite(l 
to a (iirriuiii tb-iri lo :in Aiiii~>r[<':in Atoitinoh. 

Weber's Dietary. — Tlir (ollowin^ U taken *W>m tlie 
CfiNmiHin I.-ociiirt'*^ fur 1^85 : 

At 7 ijVlinrk. or «irlier. while ^till in beil, a Clip of milk, 
with A <It'^«4*rlf^jKHinfnl or u tubU>|KK>nltil <tt cogiiuo, or witli 
linir-vviUcr, "ir viHi i\ <rmi\\ <\ntw\iiy of Kw or c^og<ni, and ii small 
pii^r of biTml uiul butU.r. 

At lidlf |>nst K or I), ufttT dn%«ing^ braikfiiftt of milk^ with 
i^mir ^liplulv ^limnlntin^ iidOIlnrn, a« tcti, coffin, ^r coixm, brmd 
nn<l hnticr, *'r bjir^>n, b^^ni, or Hjih- 

At 1 ] , n tumblf-rtal of milk or knmi^iA, or ^onKiiinos a (*np 
of broth ur l^^^cf-ti^n, or n ^inilwieh imd i\ gInKv of winp. 

At 1 or 1.30, a etib^tantiul mcnl of meat, |nniltry. R^h, or 
pini'\ M'ith fn-«:h wpiiiblf^ mmio li>tht puddiiij; or woketl 
fniit, ami u plav-^ of wiiu\ 

At I nVkkck II ^la-*^ of milk or knjuir>?s "^ " ***ip "f K'n or 
c^itfi*c n>i]lninii]^ \in ubiindarLCc of luitk, and $oin<> bruul und 
UitUrr Lir jilRtn bi-icnit. 



risJiOXA'G lA' iytttnovi/ WW-*^£»'- 



317 



Lt 7 p. M.T ant>tbt-i' bub^tantml meal, t-imiliir to that in ihts 
nuddle of clie day. 

At 9^10 ot 10 p. M., on going to l»cl, a cup of milk^ linwl 
aiH) milk, or milk Kiih wnoe farinaeeou^i fiM>d, a^ Ilan's, Lie- 
bi/s, Ni'stl^'f*^ or MilliaV- At iliis time, if there are uighl- 
^TVeatTi, llu' a<Uiitii»u ofa tablefjHHinful of hnindv is ven' uwftil, 

Gastric Irritability. — (.iuf^tric imiability is a troubJe*umo 
i^^|iUini ill timiiy i.^mp8 tif tiibt-rciilusi«. Care in avoiding nrm- 
«eou« dni^ and iin^juimciuhF^ will liuve niiicli lu do tn prevent- 
ing it. TJii' jMriL'ut timr^t ftl*o W tiiji>infd f*trietly not to *wnlluw 
tlie ^iHttuio. If the attnek is eevero, the jiaticnt i^lionld Ik* 
plao«d on a li<[nid diei, eon^isting ehit'^y nf milk in K^nie form^ 
dilntM or jM-i>roiii?ecl. Ituttermilk and kunii-v-^ are valuable in 
this eonditlon ami ai'e often \»t11 lM>nit\ Fre.^li meot-juiee and 
bnitli^ may l»e allowed], and tlH? variouh [tepioni^ed dihlies nieii- 
tional ill tlie Apiiendix may !» given to lend vantly to the diet. 
!!vra])ed Dieat uuxetl \rilh milk or pre])areft in tbe form t.tfHiiall 
LkiIIm iri <»neii iif ^rvit^. The pre<li};e«l(^I lii|ind l>e(f prcfirna- 
tiouit «tn.' n-L'fuIf and liia} Ur given diliitL'vl «itli vater. Pan<i- 
pqitun jioan.'d i>vf-r crii?^lied iee ip? ^onietiaie^ re<^iac<) when 
c^'erytkiug elw ia rejeet«d. t^g-fldbumin B olsa uaually re- 
tainer! . 

Aleiihol muy lie LiHi'd in the hiter ^tn^' of the dii^L^^ or wIiE^n 
tbe ])atienl in n*n vr»\c. Old t>mndy iniMKl ^^itli n .-^innll 
qnantity of a rokl cnr)H>n»ted naler or ti-it^[>oonrn1 doNt^ of mnl 
clianijuifrne are jwlviseil in the very Sf^rionr* rti-M'A. I-arpn- dft^efl 
tniiy 1m' given in ilie lev* si-i-en' 4'ar^-- 

Food ami dntjk r^hiinld 1h' ^dven in ^niall t|imntilieA ai ^hort 
imen'airt — <ine lo fonr ouihv'* i*ver\" two or ihriH^ h^mr?', or [wi<7c 
a^ imie.h ftl lon^r itiliTN^iU. Tbe- <gLiantity Uiki-n r^lnniLi) itc 
tovftfttTcd tunefully and nvonk^l, nt othiTwirk' tl»- (nltrnl may 
nni'ivi' an in!»oilii"li*nt dii-t nr In* gi^vri a Miix^iiilnnnlm^iN*. In 
Aoven* <3i>rH wiishing ntit the ^toniHeit giv<*^ iiK^ii' n^lief than 
any other |)nH^Hliin.\ In Ii^ wvi-rr ciwes a gla«*i of h»t water 
until or witliont <>Mli{im biearlionate may lie taken on riMug, 
And lit kiL-tt half iia Wir in^foif enting, or {tn^fenibty an hour 
l>etoH\ 

If no food U ivtainecl, forced feeding by meanft of a stomach- 
lube may lie tried. Tlib ia knowa aA Dfliove'a iiietl«>d. 
Ijargi* ipuintitii.-v — ft t<» IB ounoe»^inay aotai-tiiue* be recarntHl 
VfUvti gtvi'ii by iliv tubir that, if avrallowvd^ wotdd Ih.* r(.jeeli.t] at 
onee. If ihr iM^vero fomi of irr^Iabilily (lersiHtA, rectal feedinj^ 
may Ix? nw>rted to. 



316 



DtET fy DISSASE. 



FeT6T. — If tken.* i^ f^vcr^ the fjiu^t!ou ot' fix>iiin^ flie patient 
shoiilfl b<* rarelnlly *'tniH<]or<ii. IT tliH-e i-i mndi irritaliility ttt" 
the eloniach, llw general rnU---* tor Imliii^ fever [tauentF^ may be 
follnved. If tli^^tfiin is nfti di-*tMrbt'cl nnd the a|i])t-tite m i^ooA, 
the pilieiir niny tie iitlr^svetl ii lijjiii Oui, of \vlii<*li milk slioiil*! 
fi»rni a lai^ part ; an a rule, ii is Ix'-t givHi cold The u^nal 
lirjukl Wfoti may aUo l>e alluwetl. SoujiTi, while rue;it of chicken, 
raw or rare nmsi-heef, w uinlerdooe muitou jire indicatctk 
IVtikil, bruitLiJ, **r haUvtl iir-U antl M;^eit'i> aiiJ the uiuiv cu^lly 
di^'t'^U'il vt^nj'laUlt'- ai\' jHi-ini^^ibK*, Tlic |Kiticiit's Kiiri^f^uudin^s 
have ei^nri*leniKle iiiKnetirL' on his npjK»!iU\ and whi-ri ]H:>8>?iblc, 
be shoiilil tak*- hih meals vbile nrlinin^ on a jumb or in a 
fiun-jarlor, aiaul i>ertm quiet. The excitement ami fatigue of 
H iiieul in tl»eiliiii[ig-nH->m an' lu-st avoided. 

If sofid ff.io'i if'ivH ftiit "//"'■, th( p'lticnt tthoiiUI bt placed <m (t 
liijuifi liirt. Ciciicmlly, howe\er^ ;i tnlieivuloi]« patient with 
fever will do remarkably well on a graeral diei. Milk, lemonade, 
uud Htrilaf pri'|HimtionE are nuefidf nrijx-j^ for \x\\k\\ will be 
ibriuil iij the AjipindiA. 

TIk' ilki fnr the m.irc advanced co.-h?* liitv^ Iwen iadicaitod. 

Forced Feeding {SuTflUmentation). — Dfbove dii^cov- 
ered accidenlally tliat fiN^l iiiiroiiiuT-d )iy me^ni^^ of a i-lomaei- 
IiiIh' whk retiiineil when, if taken by the ntiriifb, it would be 
rejected. He fliei-cfore turned hi« attention lo [he trratmeiit 
of tahei'culon^ patient*^ by meiuif^ of tbijt ineihoil, nnd met with 
a meipiurable eueces*. Tbis form of li\iitment i* ta-iu-cinlly 
ap|dlra1>le in tliu*** eu^'j" wlicpe thtre nn* eim IrriUible i^t^miacli 
and iiiia}>|M'tik-. 

F<"id 1* infrfdnoed uit"» the »'t**"iarb bv thr tube at n^gulnr 
inter^'aU. Milk, |)eptoiii/c4l or ililnied, grgijud-nii-jit inixtar^, 
^(r* and milk, aibnnnn-water^ lieef-jnice, pn^iligtwtiHl l»Mf 
prepamtions ami <dnnlar lu^uid fLNxls muy be utilis'AKl for tliis 
purirfise. 

When, diirini: tever, llie patient'?^ ap|»etite and vsill-pciwi-r an* 
erpial to it. feN.lini; may In- <Hin*bicte<l in the ii^nal way, witliout 
the tidie. M'Kkntte <pKiiUitit'» of iii^ily dipi.'»tcd \\ha\ may W 
given ar frtijuent intervaU, T«" or ihnr nilhcr Mjl}s[anii;Ll 
meal? forui ibe l^ii^i,-* f»f ihr dii-l, whili' on i'i?*inj:, i\\ ln-tllinn-, 
and ibinn^- the Intervnls U-tweeii moiils litpud fi^itl is to be 
onlen'd- I'^uder tin* mi^thml nf treatinc>nt <*ertajn ra»;t>* guiu 
very mpidly jind ri'i*over their n^inl wei^fbt ia ii >i]iorf lime. 
Af^ »iour) a< ifie <-ii-:tomary wi-i^dit of llje icuient h TOiefad, it \< 
well to dJniini>h tbi' f|nainity *if fiMul iriwn, so wa to avoid ihe 



Dmr IS lfISEA:fES OF Tilt: htqmach. 



319 



a li«ivy brmth, u»ri>i<iity, arnl the iiuin ot" symptoms popularly 
knot^n as hilioiisnefiti. 8I1011U) thow gymiktoms ari«(.% a ^line 
or »Tiui]l itofiefi of calomel, together with a i^-diictioii in the 
amount of f^Kxl f^iveii, will givL< )mimpt w^Ywf, Gnstno cularrh 
and lev^r are coutraiiHli€£itiimj< To buniliineutiition. 



DIET IN DISEASES OF THE STOMACH- 

111 dieefl^ctt of the ^tomuuh the tieluetion of n pmper diet is 
often of more impirtnnw ihiin the ehi*tee nf dni^. X<> ah*o- 
liil« dietetic n*^itiition.-< \\\\\ l>e tl»rDiuIate^l m lhi« claK^^ of diti- 
£0.469, but it i& important lo refiilate the foo«) m coDfonuily with 
the partioular <H-*'a«' with whi^h tlie jwitieiil is affected, imd 
alnj to consider the individual t^iAle?) and |>efidiaritie^ of the 
pntieiit ; e\'en in the refrtihilion of a diet in i\x\y ^ynn^^iA dit^JiM; 
of the etoniuch ctiun^>i are oOen rendered neeer-tiary ; tlie^w 
muM be madv gradually ;tii<l aoconlin^ to the pLitieul^^ poircr to 
ilip>t the fo<>d. 

F'xhI %•=•■ <tid Ut he easily dige<4tible when il produces no gaa- 
tro-iiite^tiiial dipvomfoil, i^ jia^^^id from the liiomach into the 
itite^ine al a normal rate of ^pced, and U easily ah*jrbed. 
UihW normal coiidirionn the (Hgi'?<tibil!ty of ff>oiii \s easily 
iiwcrtninc<i, for the raotJ»r and tecrelort' fnnclion»of the etom- 
a<'h U-iii^ Di^nnat, the cfiVvl i»f the fi>o<l njwo nuc or b<nh of 
these fnnetions itin n^idily he dctermme<l ; in the XTiri^ni^f f^a^- 
Iric diMnrUiiHx^, however, ilni* pmhleni in »K»rc diJIicniltr for 
Iwrc tl*cn: may be a motor nr a «<rretory di^^lurhantT, or l>olh 
fnnnioiiii mi\y Iw impain-<i la (Iri^Tmiuinj; the Hiel for a 
ft|)i<fMn] giutrie 'liitnrhflnoo two |>i>iiir>4 moil be Iwrne in mind \ 
fip%l, tbc |H>wer to incfense the nutrition of the patient, and, 
Ht^inidly, the neoe«.^ity i>f jriviut; fiiMl in a di^:B4ihte form, ew 
a* t" h^*en (he work fff the «toniach, Lmhe has devi?ie<i a 
Ktile of the vnrii>n>* artiolen of W^A^ piven in the <»nhT <*f 
their <li;^ubilitv. Thi^ seule fonii» tlie lju»i« of the wit-known 
l^ulw " nhvr dirt." 

X^nbe's Diet Scale.' — W^ f. — Tf the dipv^tion U v«Ty 

miH'h rrthjrvl, djf foll-iuinc- artirlc.* of ffMx) nrr m*ft piL-»ily di* 
giTntihht : tHiuilhiii, nxiit H)lnti<»n, milh, mw ctr >M>tl-lrfolnl <''^^^ 
IHri ff. — Sonwwluit If-^^idij^^'xiihir than ni**t Lan-thrfolhivr- 
tng »n>chv of fcHHl : boili*<l eiilvi^M>nin, boiled thymus Ixiihil 
efaickcD ami pi^tou. The dilfen^nt fonn» of meat are cninner- 
> 2A|nlr./ ktim. JM^ rot. vL, p. 10L 



330 



1>IET IX J?ISEASE. 



nieA in theoixlcrof ili«h'Hi^tiUiIity, GnieKund in !h<*in'Cfw 
ine milk diii'^Ik*!* nm<k* wiih l;i|)i*Hru iiihl whin; of t^^, mav alno 
1r' iihtixil ill t]m li?^i- TIk* iniijitrity of ]inti(*Qt.-i i^an digest 
tH.>iKil cjilvv>' ttri-t ill uthlitiou to tlic various meat tixHU alrejidy 

4ltUlU€ratENl> 

Wd III.— I? Pict IL i>* well iHinie, Diet III. may W 
givciJ- TliU oiin^i:?L^ ill utMiii^ ivwjlu'fl ur raw' ln^f' to ]y\vi I. 
rx:iilic gives iIk* fiillowin^ mctJifh) nf |>rt<|mrii)^ UtrfsUiiU ati<l 
boliovfw ihat l>e^f <iJolc4'tl iii tUiK wiiy i* vory «isily (]])j>i'*4tei.) : 
Tlir TiK-nt hlioiilt) lie kwjit for mihu- tirius und i,"* then ?*cr«jKxl 
with u iluU lipoon ; in (bi;* way a y\\\\\\ h olrtiuiuil, ooMM^nhij: 
only of tla- dL'lu'iiii- (wriMif iIk- iiia^di.', and mil itaitaiijiai: any 
of tbt' tough, lianl, ami f*inwv ix>rtion. This |iulp is n>aftl<Ki 
in frv'sli Initri.-t'. i&iw imtn t^ nl^k ro lie rci^inniiieiid^MJ, 1q 
HiMifii»n to luwit a ^riiaH ijnanliiy of inaMiwl (>oialoefl may l>e 
givnii :«()tn(' :<lah' wIk'uI hrtmii, aud Miiall atuouiita uf c<ir!!w or 
ka \nih milk irauti'^i^^iy). 

/)fV /T'. — ThiEt li^it iH Hu urrungvd thut if llic- jHttiint uiu 
di|i>*k-t thp artirK"* nf \W\A nu-utiiMU'd nridn' ihi^ Ix^ad fuc *(inw 
titiu% hc4-jiii tlu-n In-^'in wifh Wis n.^imtly ii(:rii>lonu*<] <]iot : KfniKL 
eliirkon. i-oajil pi^nLon, vraii^on, |xii"(rid^T, ixxi.'-t-lKrf — lutilinnj 
to mw (purtit'ularly cold), veal (from (lit- l^-g), iiidii-a-l^ l>uik<d 
Mind (truut, i'v<^n when yuunp;, U very difiiciTlt k> digi^t), nmo* 
umTjiT Iwniilon willi lit-f. Small cuiantitio:* of wiiio niiiy Iw 
taki.'n iirn: t<j t«o lumr* Ix-foiv catintj ; gr!ivit':*iih' tHUilniiiwli- 
<"J4U'd» V'Miii^^ jiii*l lint^ly Hi"|)|H.'ii ^pinarli if» nllovaljK- ; cnhcr 
vrpc((iblc*j surh n.s it^'^jutrnffii*} mnv In* Tnc<l miition^ly, iillhou^h 
Tx'IiIk' timsidoiv liii?^ a milt't ri-iUv |n*ocnJnrc. After tld*; foiirtb 
diet lliG j«itipnr-i sire rtllmvpwl Jn tnkc :i nicir** lilkr-rd dior^ Imt the 
int*r«Lfe should lu» ^Ty^luiil. TIm^v >hoiild nfrain fi\nu I'aiing 
VL^prfables salad>^, prt*«L'rvt'e, and fruits for wnie timi? ; [iml wht'ii 
tla-y arc rt^iimiHl, u hak^Kl apjilc ij^ the ]ir<t of thi's-o urtiole^ to 
he oaten. 

Beaumont^s Table. — Thi?^ -^Ikiw* iIu^ mean tinicof lUp*** 
tioii ijf iIk' <litlt-ruit unk'lw iif die! — mituriiUy, in iheMonuoh, 
and artttioi£d)y, in vial«, on a vratiT-hnlh, Tht* jm>jHrrl 11711 of 
gn-ttri<' jniot' to nlimeat In Artificial di^stion wo.* jrt-nt^mlly oaU-ii* 
Inttd at one <mn<H' of the former h> <*no dr.im of iIhj lultor, the 
h:itli Ih'inij hi*|it a* I'hw Oi th»' tiaftiral U'lnjieratinv— l(X>** F,^ 
m prauti<.'aL>lo, with rnK^neut agitation. 



DIET IS DISEASES OF THE STOMACH. 



321 



Mean T^me of Cftifftiijicaiion. 



ArtLolvfl uf dki. 



Hi>w pTvparvd- Time. 



Id vJulb. 



Kice 

^K^^ 

Tii|ii*n.'a . . . , 

Jtiik-v 

Mjik' 

Milk 

<fi-Litin . - - . 

TrilH', 50U»lli 

Ttmm^ nniiual , 

i^yiuu amnt'W, aiiinial 
Turlitfv, ilonu^lkiilMi 
Turkt-v, ili>itit'Hlicaie<l 

Turkt'V, wild .... 
(iiM-v, wild- .... 
]'in> Mji'klin^ .... 
Lix'tT^ U-ef, frwh . . 
Ijimlt, fn^h . . 
riiR'knu fntl-gniwn - 

Kfftn'i fiv>h 

K*fK*, frf>li , . , - . 

Hkl-n fr^'>ii 

Fa'KN f^'^ll . - . 

Kk^, whi|»|ied . , . 

i'nstani 

rfxlh^'Ut riirvi] i]rv . . 
Tiiiiil. *4iLiiici]i. fn'>l] . 

RisH, MrL|H.il, frvsJi 
?'l(jnmltr, frvsh - - - 
r.iLlivli, (n-^U .... 
Suliiii>Ji, Kikini . , , 
' Ksti'iN, fn-^li .... 
* h'<.H'r** fn^h . . 
Hv-tfr-. frn-h . ■ . , 
Fiii'f. In'^Ji, \v;\t\^ mm 
lii"<"f, fn"«li, k-iin, dry 
lUvHi^ik 

lilH-t'sll'lLk 

lU-f-u-jik . . . 
iwr uiili sjili <»rdv . 
I'x'vf. witJi iiiib«t[inl. I'tc 
l^i-f, ih^T-li, l»-nu . . 

Iki'f 

rwf 

JWf. nil), liunl. <ilicsl 
[\.rk Ki,™k 



I'ltrk. Tal ;ind loan ^ - 
J'ork. Kitntly htilled 
21 



Boiltfd 



Raw . 
Bulled 



nniiLetl 
l^^iled 

Rwmli^l 

Itoii^ 

Boasted 



BmLM 



Friea*e«l 
Hani ht tiled 
?lof| lH>i!ed 
Frii'<l 

KiKLsled 
Knw , 

Haki-il . 

Frie<l . 
Bmik-d 
Friwl . 

u 

BoJi^l 
Kdw . 

Hicistvi) 

Sttwrwl 

Ktm^ed 



Raw . 

Ikiiltd 



Fritd , 

Boiled 

Broiled 

BoaNted 

Builnl 



A. m. 
1:00 



2:00 
2:00 
2:0(1 
■2:lo 
2::W» 
1:00 
1:00 
1:4'> 
1:-V> 
i40 

■2:^0 

'>:2i> 

2:18 
2:S0 
2::tU 
2:00 
2:S0 
2:45 

:*::W) 

:t:00 
»:30 
2:15 
2K>0 
1:30 
2:4.T 
2rfK> 
1:30 

:f:00 
3:.H0 
3:30 
4:lM» 
2:.V> 
3:15 
3.30 
3:<>0 
3::t0 
3:00 



2:45 

3:30 



4:00 
4:15 
3:15 

5:15 
4:30 



Hnw prepared. Tlme^ 



Boiled . 


3:15 

3:20 


BuiIhI 
Knw . . 

Boiled . 


4:15 
4:45 
4:45 


Ih>i1ed . 


4::«) 


B<iiJed , 


5:25 



Cut fine - 



Hard Tioilei] I 
Soft boiled 



Raw , . 
WLkiiiHid 

Boiled. . 



6:30 



8:00 
0::J0 



4:15 

4:(I0 

5:110 
3:30 



Boileil . 


T:45 


Raw, entity 


7::*0 


Stewed . 


»:2r> 


Roustotl . 




tt 


7:45 


^Iflhticated 


S:]5 


Cut due - 


M:()0 


il 


8:15 




«:30 


MaHticttted 




Entire piec< 


^ 9:00 



Mastimed . 6:30 



^K 3^ J}IET IS PISEJSB. 


^H 


^^V Jftfin TTffir 1^ {"h^ifieation iContinne*^). ^^^^^B 


^^^^F A7tJ0l«a<rfdL«t 


ImtcttiMii. 


In TltU. 1 






^M 


^■^ 




Tlui«> 


Howprtpuvd, 


TimcL ■ 


^^^B 




Jt m. 




^ 


^^H PbriE. mvtillj ahIu^I - . . . 


Fri«l . . . 


4:15 




H 


^^H i'ork. (vcvniU ruiltvd 


. . Hroiled 




3:15 




H 


^^H I'oik. rrHL^'hlLy nitittt 


. . K«s* . 




3:00 


Kiw . _ 


8:30 ■ 


^^H l^ll-k, m-onllr wltol 


. • StClH'tHJ 




3^ 




^^^H 


^^H MilLtoii, frv-hh - . « . 


• . }C<ttPCMl 




aifi 




^^^H 




- > BtuiW 




8:00 


Mnnit^icd . 


^M ^H 


^^H )Ij](l4ii, Cri-^h ^ - - 


1 " 




. 


UtunMnlimicd 


H:30 ^H 


^^H iln([*m, fiv^li - - > 


■ . BoiH 




3:0(1 




^^^H 


^^H Vml, Tiv^li ...... 


. - Btvt]«d 




■l;00 




^^^B 




. . Fnnl . 




4;S0 




^1 


^^H Fi>wU. JbiiitAtic ' > - < 


BtiUcd 




4HKI 


MoAicmtod . 


tkSO ^^ 


^^H KowK il«in«lic , - . - 


- ^ , Rofl-^lvd 




4j<*0 




^^^H 


^^H I>lLt^k^ doiiivstimlVil . . 


. . i " 




im 




^^^H 


^^H IhK-ki^ wiM . , . 




*■ 




4:3<i 




^M 


^^H Su«i« hvt^^ frwh 




B^lcd 




ChSO 


Koilrc pioo& 
Diridixl . . 


tdioo ■ 


^^H Snd, mutlOD - . - 




■1 




4^^ 


10:00 ^H 




■ 1 MvlL«d 


3:aci 




^^^1 


^^H i-'nuni - - 


- - 




t£a» 


2.^.:W. ^™ 


^^H CbiTiHf, eld, dtjDpi^g 


. . Raw . 


3.30 


M]i>iicjiird . 


7:15 ■ 


^^H Chvcw> okl^ vtroniE 


, , 


ICniire iiiM'c, 


L'^OO ■ 


^^H Ckitw. rtcv, iiiil'l 






^:30 ■ 


^^H Oil, olivt 


1 - • ' 




, , 


Baw . . . 


60:00 ■ 


^^H 8ou|>, l>eirf, t'TWiubkiv B&d 










H 




BfAUd 




4.-0Q 




^M 


^^H Kc^upH iru)rn>« Ixiium - , 




■I 




4:16 




^M 






II 




3r00 




^M 






u 




1:80 




^M 






H 




8e30 




^M 


^^H «rtL-n citm AEii] bvnna > 




■1 




iM 




^M 


^^H Chicken t'Miii ..... 




U 




ftOO 




^M 






II 




&3D 




H 


^^H ifuTihi iJirnt nml Vi-^nblc 


• n . 


WwBMWl 




SiW 




^M 


^^H Hflvuuurc. freih ^ - - , 




Bndlcd 




ft» 




^M 


^^H Hcsitr. uniiiuil . . 




FWtd . 




4:00 


Kntiic plwt. 


nM ■ 


^H Tcndoik .... 




Boiled 




MO 


Mji«iji'fi(ixl 


V2:4:i ■ 


^H TctulrHl . 




. ■ ■ I 




, 


Kniliv jiLFf'ti, 


24:00 ■ 






Boikd 




4^5 


^fn)iti^t(i*d 


]0:i»0 ■ 




. . ■ , , , . 




, . 


IHvi.W . . 


l:^i>0 ■ 


^^1 ApcinL-iiT»i« . . . 


. . 1 MM 




3:00 


|t.il.d , , 


ikm ■ 


^^H olynv. Insvf *9vi]kI . . 


1 




. ^ 


l<jiliic pioc«. 


80:00 ■ 


^^^B ITirtlp. U<Hr*«' uiliil . , , . 




^ , 


Eoiirc piec*. 


80:00 ■ 


^^H HmM<s pud Boilrd. 




2^10 






^^H llmMl, whiU', fnnit - Bakifd , 




3tS0 


Mii*tir«tM . 


4:30 I 


^^H Urt^'l, onm 


u 




3-15 




^M 


^^H Oikv. p . . > . 


li 




3:W> 




^^^H 


^^H i^ki*« -ifiripf .... 




" 




£30 


Broken . . 


^^M 






Boiled 




HiOa 




^^^^ 




Raw . 




aw 


Eniiiv pioTft 


la-oo 


^^H Applet, Hiiur mellow . 




If 




3:fio 


Mtuikaiod . 


Se30 


^^H Appl«>. fWiH't. fEip1lt>tr , 




i( 




lt30 


*i 


MS 


^^H [^ir>njpv 


! Boiled 




2:30 


M»htd . l 


ft4fi 



DIET Hf DB5£dSES OF TffE ST03fACIl. 



32$ 



ifm Timt tfC%i/m^miiM (CondiMGd). 



AiUcla ol dkt. 



InnloniMli- 



1iiTlal& 



Uom pKpond. Time. Ban pnpuvH 



]>U«lt|M I B&ilwl 

i1uwiJ|a . . ' Rjtir , 

C^itri'i* oAOgQ . ■ . ■ K>1W 

L'ATTDtT orange ^ 

Cbrrol, onuigv 

B-** BwW- 

TumipiS Sai 

picttiuvs Iriiii *- 

1\iTj|lfH«« Irinfa 

i*oi«iocs \n^h Bout«d 

|\)iUItiu, Irir^ ]fak4«t . 

Ubbi9v,bi^l liiii 



IV-ocbi atrilow . . . , . 



Kfitt 



imr 



3:16 



3:30 
2:30 

S:30 
5:30 

100 
4:30 






nmc^ 




, Kniiiv pi«M^ 14KI0 



Slinvnl 

Cut small . 
Maifaed . 



IfhDO 

6c00 



mairl^? upon Si, Martin sirwe IK^^o^takiitjt 'ho iivri-miftf* from i«n^b 
as were fivncnOly [ictformeil under i\w naturally hdilthy coiidi- 
rioD of th* stomach aod with onlinan' cxerci.-*-" 

Th^ menu tinies of artificial chyitiitimtion havo 1>eeii tnki^n 
fnnii aich e\jM?rinif^mt4 as wcn> ur^nfTally mnd*> witli thi^ jmre 
gaslric juiw, or Viitli euch Jiiioe a^ was t-wt ^li^ilt]y vilintt^t lo 
iDipQir tte M>lvefit effwl in any e^^^entml cU-j^re^, They exhibit 
li»e avvrn^t "* "W »» jiracticablv, for (he tii^^ti'Jii of oiw *Irani 
of alimentary tuuiler In ooo onnco of gar^Iric jnioe, ur lu attout 
that pn>|t«rriAr^ talcing tho len^^th '>f limo thi' fiNx) jukI gSfitrio 
jui«» w<*r»- iirtitet), Kx(vpiiiiii.% h<«wcv<'r» niiivi In* maile Sir th* 
hoot>, oil, cream, ami one or Iho other anioh*^, wliich oliymift' 
fnnrh dlowi'i" and with innrt^ diflienlty than tin- lei« ooixH^tratM 
aliments. Several experiim-ot** vlwrrt- the meih'xlft wen- the 
^mt *-in4l the insults urre similar have betti oiiiitltiL 

IVa/oldi Itff* devL^il the folk^wing table gj\ing the digesti- 
bllity of food. He exjierim^Mited oil Donnal case^ achievin|f ]w 
n^ultN hy n»uun4 of tlie ploiiiach-lulje, by tlet^rmlnin^ tl>e 
prtiffrvw* of dijev-^iiiiu and the oxaot time at which th^ st'-n^aoh 
WTu fiitinly itnirty nfUsr cnttn^ a i.x-rtain (piantily of a a^Nvinl 
f'MHi. "rill* tahh'' »ihnvA tike pt'noi) of time it lakes a given 
fpiaiility of fiwHl to h^v^ thi- ^loinm-li : 

> ZlMtoA. JrdL/. kii%. M^, ]«IS, p. ''^78, Na £7. 



^H 324 DIKT AV ^^^^^^^^| 


^^B Ofui^iwohovn: 


TViiv titfiAir itoun: ^^^H 


^^^^ 10^200 KTiL pure irnler- 


230 icitL voiiTtff rNlckvn, boil«d ^^H 
230 fEin. wntldw. bolloJ. ^^1 


^^^^^H £W inii, oirNirutfif rmttr. 


^^^^B 'JlH^i iruL tL-1, jiuiir. £20-200 Rm. H^iMn, liollfd. ^^H 


^^^^^H ^'JO ictiL «j1Tw. aloiir. 


165 gin, lufrrvm, hiva. ^^^H 
2>V) gni. Wr, RIM . Ik.ll<i1, leui. ^^H 


^^^^^H 200 iQii. ctcixi. nltniv. 


^^^^T 21X) inii^ 


250 iinu fnliV f«vl, UnlAL ^^H 


^^^P 'i'H^VUL liiclit vmo. 


160 «ni. Iain, bi^Jvl, ^^M 


^^K^ ICIO-lXiO^u, WAM milk. 


160 gTk. liaiDi raw. ^^^| 


^^^^^L 200 em- iiuvt hrtiEU. alone. 


lOO inii, Ti'al.vriirTii ani) roll!. I^IL ^^^| 


^^^H IW gm. e^fi^ wft 


100 jpiL Iwr^i-Hk, ^jMilol^ (xifd or ^^^1 




^^H 


^^^^P TWff firt £Jkneir Antfj: 


100 KTi^H (hW-IvhI^. nvr, Hrn|ii^. H 


^^^F 200 gm. t-otft« with ovftiiL 


10^1 |[DL t<-nrlfr]i>iii- ^^ 


^^H SOOgiiL ruxn wllli lumE. 


SOU niJi. rtliiiLc mt»iim, iFciilird. ^| 


^^H dOO ^L MbIujes viiuv 


TA lEiiik I'nvjiirc-, -ahvi), ^| 


^H 2(M K\ti. " 1 tTnor" vine. 


200 ga^. Minliiith in vinomr, b][> H 


^^m ^iM^-'Mi jcm. v^tvr. 


|x-rd lirrri(i|{, ^^^H 


^H 3CNI-^l> eni. ti»r 


1A0 gun, MncbbmiiL ^^H 


^K^ S0O-.r>Ol)gm. Uiit«f milk. 


lAO gm. tnrWy Iwuil. ^^^H 


^^^^^^L 1CH}|(||L ri:>£^, niH Jiii*! vniiiJ>|i?d, 


I'Mi jfin, wlu«( ImwiL ^^^| 


^^^^H li]iii-k>ilLHl 111 ji>oiitdoi, UK)-l-'>i^2">- AJhi'n N»<riribt. ■ 


^^^^^H lOOiEin, b(4.'t4«ii«^r, nw- 


I^^ giu. i^iiniK :i» vii|f«lAbl«. H 


^^^^^M S60siu. calvtv' tiniin«, Urito^i 


I5i}fpn- nrt, l»til(«l. H 






^^^^B 200 F>i^ t^n^ bf^ica. 


I'lit irm k^iii niirli , IhiiltnL ^| 


^^^^P SOnirin. r>ik>r, iHiiti-fL 


1-Vl inn- <'i^ciiriilKT mhid ■ 


^^^K^ 2(Kr ifiii, ^x.ilrd. 


I^Hi ^m. mrltMlki^H. mw, ^| 




TTtO ifiii. .ipj»lt*v ^^^^1 


' . ^1 


^^^^^H l>>0Kiti4 rHiiliHi'Hiii. JL> vilnd. 


r-tfar riijif mmrr: ^^^B 


^^^^^^H loO|;ni, iii-p(i nif;i»« L.lk<J. 


ttlO fTiU' |>itf«<iii. hrniltnlh ^| 


^^^^^F 100 Kill, }>i1ul\^^ IttdM in MlU 


^■>(k ^m. IUI--t i.f (>i«r, kiioilvd ^^M 


^^^^^F 


2>Vi ffni. bMrfHli-Ak. bci'iM, ^^H 




-oil ^iti. Ixwf lonffur. Kiiir>kvd« ^^^^| 


\(K* jrin, 'titiokpti \fvi m ■•licttf. ^| 


^^H 15UKI"' Tn^' dierrl44w 


S/W ^1- h^Tiu l>ThUv<L H 


^^^1 70 ^, tvhitv liniml, r.lil or f^wah/ 


^0 gill- f4r1rtilK*< Imijifd. ^M 


^^H vr viilh tw^ 


"1^ itn, iriHiw. iinriM. H 


^^H TO u«^- ytvXivXn. 


'JMI IfTlk dwk, hTyAU\\. ■ 


^^^B 7r>j{ni. xnif-hvi'lr frr^li OF ital^ 


^iHf ^Mi. Ii'*rrtriif -^iIIihI- ^| 


^^H ilrv iir wtih rv*. 


l^^irm. Iniifk imi'lii.HL H 


^^H GO unriH ALlwri IiWijEiil 


20(1 icjtL jHiLk jjti ponV, ^1 




]/i() iriii- "Iriiiti-lntiiis ^M 


^^B i'etiEoIdt hji£ :lUc> L<un»tn]cttHl 


u Fmc« of four dif*t-]]«t.-« ImMnl 1 


^^1 on ttie k*ti^b of tinu^ ut whidi vEirioii^ fo<xU letivc tlic &t<>nuidi^ H 


^^B Oeix-tKliii^ n|Nifi tliHr m<Kti.- of lux'pnrathin 3.Ui] on othrr (|nnli* H 


^^fl tie? of tho frKNl. Tlu^v n^^ri?4- In the n);tiit with l^nbcV diet- | 


^^B VtBis, bnt ar« more oompiiftv un<l 


eXflOt, H 



^^^^^1 DIET ly DiSEASBS OF TUB STOMAdL 326 ^H 
^^^^^^^K Dift I. {a^uS Tm l><Mfth ^^H 


^^M VDOderdftDk, 




^^L^ Waur ..... 


OO... 
li-40sn. 


^ QOtaillcd. ■ 

IftoU boAc^ «rE>UlfV nllk {ori/^vln^. with a ■ 

HOHIImL ' I]n»-vOI« k; UtQc Mil ■ 

Vm Boft. jujitFTCikb. iriftten rmw, ilKiiild ■ 
hoMbd ar mm, b« «Una bio Uu ■ 

wim, nm bolllni, ^^H 
1 1 moAtbroUi^ ^^H 




only * •Atsbt ■4lm4l In m«ai ^^^| 

OrilliiHf} kVftifT KotloocQliL ^^^H 
1' iiamnil car-' ^^^^H 

lilib * tinalti ^^^H 




iKef //. (46o./ 


n-A Dq}^). ^^I 


^^1 TaplMiiA . . . 


100 sm, 
1 

Aa l«tv«a 

MOlVl- 
)0|m. 


Ik4l«il |Pnr4 from k|1 Bai lAkcn In mc«t ^^^1 

nHSbpafiH. >jf«Lh. ^^^^1 

ftollvil. Ooir If r>UTir Bnt (ftfccn la mail ^^^1 
■rUlHMl ahlji. bnui. ^^^H 

[killtd. ;Am iiioiT inn tK- BnX tftkuD Id b»I ^^^H 
n]ofpT**4 nne orirtciinUctaailcT-;T»b*«*c«-nv1Uk ^^^| 

<PrmH<1. wttb 111 iMn 1 tf«lH>- ^^^H 

WlOioni aoy w1-4iii<tt«4ii tlltlA. TalM«*l«n vrlih ^^^H 
in HAktf vrui-l ^^^H 


^1 AW ///, (<jAoii/ ^i^A/ Dny»\. ^H 


^H . . . 

^H MllkbnwUffl*- 
^^H titTrvr prHUlt 


1 
1 

loops. 
BOctt, 


Crv*a butter. 
BnilM with 

WLihrn«bbntt«r 
Ajil/-rii» iKiNt' 
U«b:v 

Hair, «ionpv4 
film. 

Qrlvpfd. tated. 

(■It MHh«-1» f^l 
inlM la iaU 

ntAibdl 

Ai a *r«TUblp 


oniTyniiiiblM. 
OnlrromiibipL 

tttn. rtc. 
FniDi ibo lcn■tc^ 
loJn. «¥|J 

^SookM A ItRlr. 

wHbodi tb« 
SUklo |>»4ftU«d 

Tbc pMttloca 
■boiiM b« 
iiKtttr«o4 

Dfwbuifc 
t'MOftlrw* 

0*Tffc 


WtltNKllximTr ^^H 
«t|tittk||«bfw4, ^^H 

To bt oircMIr bio- ■ 
tMaflwdvtU __^ 








J 



p 


DI£T DISEASJL ^^^^^^^^M 


t 


DiH TV. {ahoui £iffht to AuW<m /^yiV ^^^^^ 


Pocid ur driuk- 


qUAinityti Method or SfjccUl fvi;u]n- 


flow Ic b« oiUeo. _ 1 


V«tllAUU .... 


100 KTD. iRouitO. iFKntboWrk. 


J 


^^^^M 






f bouM amntt 


^^H 


^^^H^ 






^r » ami- 




^^^H 


Putrldse .... 


1 




^ 


^^^^^^^H 








tcUdOllt. ICff) 


■ 


^^^^^^^F 








eic..*huiild 


■ 


^ 








h»TiiE for ■ 


■ 


^^^H^ 






lUto, 




^^K 


Bout bc«r . . . 




Vimtm or cold. H 


^^^^H 


PlUciof beer. . 


100 la. 


Utdium lotatc- rnimjiE'ffjd. 


IViinn ur cold. H 


^^^^^B 








btalcu. 


■ 


^^^^^^^r 


V*m] 






D&ck (fv Jcjr. iWanu otcuLd. ^M 


^ 


Pifai . - - . f 


Boiled IB Mil 


All niii b.>i;f« 


^ In ibo a>ii rnvr. H 


^^^H 




»hi>uli1 Tict'an' 


^^H 


(liUr r*noT«d^ 


H 


CftTlftra . . d . 


Ot^pa. Raw. 


nighi^ iftii, 

BuHua 
cAVUirc. 


1 


^^^H^ 


JllCC . . , . . 


aURDL 39«jU(QO, puilicd 






^^^^^^^^ 




nirikiLgh 11 


1 


^^^^^^^K 




1 KlotC. 1 




^^^^^^^f 


l»ptMC1U - . ^ 


Wun. , Bulled, -^ciR. wUh^mtnuy 


Vt'Uh H litilv indtod H 


^^^^^^^r 






' u1 Ihv liaM 


budvr. ,^^H 


■ 


K'(aiuljlt;i) *^3Bt 


a 


1 lATlB. 
fTVJ>.tl IlllltPt 1 


4 


^B 


Onivlcl (nonniek 


3 WUh4*Mi13J \)ll\W hiivo r!a«Q 


Tob«««t«ttMOW«< ■ 


L 


Fnili uooo , . . 




1 


^^^^ 


fted wiuc , . ^ - 


UWfm. Lifht pure Bur- Ot hmo conv- HllKhLJjr wuia, ^| 


1 




' * or n^l wlnw- 


^H 


Tlifse tallies nfPcnxoIdt ari* valimMc u* a tm^b* for \\m* hcIoc- 


^V 


ikin of footi in jm^trio dUtiiHmiia'n. In iIu-m^ «!?<*> it I* im- 


^^^B 


pdrtrint thai ihe ftunj Im? quickly <liiv*nlve<l i» tlie ^.^^tric sirre* 


^H 


lion, that it l>e readily al>florl>t<l, thui it l)e neither fcmientocl 


^H 


nor deromiKWftl while ]mn^ i\\ffi'!^u-i\ or nliwirWl, nint iliat ihc 


^^1 


FUlire pnx.-L'sf' \tv filU'iKlt'i) whh no Oiw* unfurl. It imir-t Ik* 


^H 


th>nje in mind tlijit tlit- <ligi5-tlhiliiy of r*>-nl varji.-^ wiilrlr witli 


^^1 


iho imlividmil ta-.to, fi>r no mtlttr how <U^'«tlblt' u llw^l may 


^H 


be, if it \^ unpkbtaMe^ ii will m>t 1h.< llig(^t<tl■ll pri>|)rrlv. -In 


^^1 


general it may he said: Ftist — thai iii jieiil rifJiiion!^ the 


^H 


{(hm\ shouUl be of siieh a elmi'aoior llmT the Mi>irm<h .diitnli) I* 


^H 


R[Kiretl as much Horfc an poK^ihle; fief^md^ii clinmie diKtiirl)* 


^H 


ancp? it is imfKirtiint to ^iipply tjutticient qnantitie^of jinurif*h- 


p 


meut in au easily di;^G^l)l>le ionu, ^o a^ in niaimaiu the hodv' 



DIKT ry PTSEASKS OF THE S'TOMACtf- 



327 



weif^ht w Tar ah pct^i^iblc. In delemiiniDii; tbe quantity of fnrjd 
(hal IS necewan- iluritig twenty-four houm the nmount ia esti- 
matctL in ealories of heal, As i§ voll knonn. a buman being 
ni re*i RHjuircft ;J5 <aJor!C5 per kilo of weighi, whereas wliile 
Iw tf^ |>cHbrnnng li^^ht work Ir' n^tiulre^ 40 calories. In order, 
tbcrcrnric, to tlctcrminc xhe ex^xct oinoUDE of iioiinfiliin«t)t it in 
only iiro«wan' tn know the weijrhi '^•f tti<^ iudividuak Ido»- 
nmrh ;ii tlir pmii-in*^ «in l»p replnf'^l iu a m^uure Uy lb* «ir- 
iKvhydi'Ufefe nnil fntf, nn interchaD^ of any of t)>ese three food 
eli-nient« cati tiL- niuJe ocouitliiig to tbe patient's con<litiiiD. 
Till* faUowitii; taUc-^, taken fn»in Kotiif;/ fpve the coDi|iOfit]oi] 
of diifcrent iootU mnd xlw nuniKT of befit units they |i]-o>Jt)ce, 
AVben ibt- weijrln "f i\w fwr^nn is known, it i^ un easy matter 
to detemihkc wbeclKT ttie amount of nourishment ^\X'n im suffi<- 
ctent til iitalutain tJir U>Jv-woi^ht. 

It i^ well tcKi to W4 igh cvm' ]nti<-iil •ufforin^ with n Moniocb 
dMofxIer whtfQ 1n-:ilDiriir i>; ttv^i minigiLiTitixi. and to rep4>:tl tliia 
fmm limo tn timi- in orrh^r tct ilt*T«>rniiiie wbotber the |)aHent iH 
giining or lor<iug flc*«b. 

Tfir tlid must Ix* i^nn^ich^reil fmm the ataiKlpoint of tbe ga^' 
trio r*corot)iin; tWiv may t-xi't. on th^- oik* huiKl, (h(' i^^ndition 
of hyjvrclilorhvUna ami hy[*i-n*tH"rction : vn iho ulbrr, by|x>- 
eliloHn^ria iiml aiindiliiy. 

In niM'-*« of b\'|K*nrh1orhy(Init un ubnn<1unt pn»t<riii iliet i» 
Uw,\truic*\t itiA-ninncb a:* ibr cxix^'^ of hvijni-hlorlr urUl i'-« nvu* 
tmlixt-cl by tins oLlsh of ^•(mK. On tbo olbcr lu^mlf a* Hii-|,ii'I 
piintj^ out, (wrtAiin <mi*o* of br|ii-ivbb>rbydri:i nt tinn* do WHt»r 
iiptm n^ilk, hr<«i], nnil »mylAorNtU!« l(V)dpG than on pmU-in ffUKin, 
OnlJnnrily the |in»tcinf tbjit are bwl a<]apUH| for patients 
untfirin^ fpini hytHnblorhydria art' \hv v^i niwilw ami 4-^p<, 
w)h^*iu iln' ftarfT-iliyilrat*^ iiui=-t l>e piven in llw mo*l ewj^ily 
digotible fonu. 

Id co^m^ of hyjMxIiLorhyilrla tbi^re i-^ a dimiaulion of the 
|EnHri4? MHTi'fi'm ; i:i>iiMi|iM-nlly th<' pmlrin foutlt* are iligt'st^d 
with (iifliniby, wbcrrn" the rarbohydnti^ arer o»ore ett.-»iJy 
d^cvtinl. In tbiK o^militiimr th<T<'forCr imly very trmU-r iiicotrt, 
pr^embly ibrni|u<ilT un* tn In* pivMi, wh4»fvji* *in*h fia>iily iltgvvt* 
ibk^ vegetnbW a^ i^pia-ielj, llJl|lSR^!M^ maKhcl \ytt{au^*», and 
farinne^^iiu^ foo^U nmy he oaten in ijtjitM Ur^:*' qtuunitit^. In 
both hygn-ixlilorhyilnu mul hy|»H'blorhyilria a rraMinnhl4^ 
amount of (at uii^t Ite ealen, |>n*fcmbty in the form of giKid 
butter. 



328 



DIICT LV DJSEASE. 



LXJimjtUTION' OF THE MlKl' CUMMoy tXWD WUBSTAKCBjL 



Vtiiltta. 


Tbc 


Cu^obr^MU^ CidoTi**. 




iV*nrf. 


^ML 


iVnof. 


iVIft). 


CoWmllk .... 


4.0<M^ 


3.00-3,80 


3.70 


64.00 


Crarni 


atii 


2fl.75 


3,53 


S7fi.OI 


Butter 


0.AO 


ftXOO 


o.ao 


837.00 


Wh«y 


aao 


0.30 


3.00 




Ttiit(«rmltk ' . . i 


3lOO 




3.00 

0.70 

luetic ftcid 


as: 


Kiiiiiij*> [of cowV 1 


3.35 


2.07 


1.00 
olcohal 

oarUmlc ncid 


3S.V9 


l'lin«« (L*raim] . - 


fifliOO 


W»0 


3.00 


394.00 




a&«i 


!P.I)U 


4.00 


940.00 


KW 


12A0 


liW 


0.A0 


WlOO 



//. J/fvU vw/ Otan€. 



: f I'M) 



BMf 

VmI (£it) , 
Voa] Cl««n) . . . 
Million (TV17 fat] 
Million (l«aiwr) . 
K.rk (f)ii) - . - 
Pork(l«Aii) . ' . 
HtMD ^w«mn1uHnn) 
fhnH bwiil .... 
Pulverised meM . , 

TuiiliT^ 

K|irinfc I'hickfin . . 

Duck KiW> - . . 

I^IUhl) ...... 

(Jama 

Itie 

Virii!»oiE 



PJke . . . 

Hmli-lli'M - 
Ktit hcrrini . 



17.10 

sars 
lasa 

14SD 
17.U 
1464 

2a2a 

33-97 

64.50 
SlOO 
MU9 

2114 

saoo 
3a»4 

1RT7 



1«.00 
2061 
17,00 
15.01 
22.^10 
4D4 
H».50 
2f4M 



SAM 
\M 
T.4I 
oyi! 

3413!) 
4.77 

3T.34 
6^1 

30.48 
0.40 
b.U 
I -00 

111 

1.0U 

t.oo 

1.13 
}M 

lU. >M- 

nm 

1.00 
9.34 

6.42 

221 

0,37 

17.00 

Irt.!?6 



floor . . 
ftye flour . . . 



aso Thic* 

8,50 1.25 

lano ^.m 

ftOO 075 



0,07 
ILOfi 

1.60 

1.20 
3.53 
0.7« 

1.42 
0.76 



2.8& 
0-45 

oio' 

7.82 



fi«w50 

73.00 
OW.OO 
5?JX1 



315.81 
09.15 

]4e.6i 

86.97 

140^ 
153lW 

oa.» 

322.5S 

iOU.UO 

131.36 

100.07 

ios.ro 

107.08 
103,44 



83.57 
04.«4 
156.93 
I32.»3 
113,«S 
114.00 



356.70 
345.78 
343,50 
2(5.00 



DIET IN DISEASES OF THE STOMACH. 
CertaU and VtgftabUa (CoDtiDoedV 



329 



Rye bread . • 
Bon . . 

Zwieback . . 
Oiuliflover . 
Cbrrola . . . 
A^pamgus - . 
Riw - , . , 
BefliH. . . . 
Pe«H . . , . 
Poiaioes . . 
Oaixueat . . 
Barlef meal . 
Spinach . . . 



PrauiD, 


F*L 


CvbobTdrKtet. 


Qdorlet. 


PeranL 


iVrcmf. 


FtTcerU. 


Per too. 


4.50 


1.00 


46.00 


216.00 


6.82 


0.77 


43.72 


213.S7 


y.50 


1.00 


75.00 


356.00 


2.0O-5.0O 


a40 


4.00 


S5.00 


1.04 


a2i 


6.74 


33.85 


2.00 


a30 


2.50 


21.00 


5.50 


1,50 


76.00 


348.10 


10.50 


2.00 


52.00 


311.75 


19.50 


2.00 


54.00 


319.95 


1.50 


. . ' 


2000 


88.00 


12.50 


5.26 


66.77 


338.80 


8.31 


0.81 


75.19 


323.00 


3.49 


ao6 


4.44 


3aoo 


1.02 


0.00 


0.95 





V. Saup9 and Baeraga. 



Milk soup, with 

wb^at flour - . 
Meat broth (ordt- 

nair) 

Mflii-juic^ (prewed) 
Beef-leu 



I.«ijbe'r< ruf^t boIi»- 
tion 

Malt extTBi't . . . - 
Barley wmp - - - - 
Hiee'pap, vlih milk 
Coffee. , . , . , 

Tea 

Beer 

Porter 



5.00 

0.40 

6.00-7-00 
0.50 

9.00-n.oo 

protein 

+ 1.79-6.50 

peptone 

8,60-10.00 

1,50 

8.80 

3.12 

12.38 

0.50 

0.70 



3.25 

0.60 
0.50 
0.50 



1.00 

3.50 
6.18 

6.25 
6.00 



16.00 



55.00 
11.00 

28.60 



0.30 
0,30 



112.00 



25a30 

60.96 

182.61 



6.00 



VL FthUj^ 



AppltK 
Peiirs . 

rifini^ 

(?ni|>e?i 
SlniwJicrrit'* 
Clu^tniils 
S^li^a^^'ant 
Hontv . . 



Free add. 



ProteiD. 



JVTrfwi, 


Frr mt. 


0.82 


0.36 


0.20 


0.36 


1.50 


0.40 


0.92 


' 0.6.5 


0.79 


O..59 


0.93 


0.54 




5.48 



Fat. 



Ar eetU. 



0.45 
.37 



1.20 



Carbo- 
hydratei. 



Armc 

7.22 

a54 

4.68 
7.17 
1.96 
1.01 

38.34 
3.40 
5.28 



^^^ 330 DIET V^^^^^^l 

^^^V Tltc f<»llovring dict-IUtis dcvi^eil by \-<in Noorden,^ iodioile 1 
^V how nri c^^ily dtgi^iitibk- diet, <.HjTii&ining u »iiI1ici^Dt uumber 1 
^H of oalorii-H of h<at t<) ninictuin tin- Ij^^lv-nTiglit, a.m bt> |tr^ ■ 
^^K^^ purrd : H 

^^^^V / di /Vin0;w% ifii/£ i)iW ip<M Adilitiotv ^ Carhohydtnitt in H 
^ Li'jfiid Form. H 




mtota. 


Fit. 


1ijd»t«i. 




^1 Uilk, ITOOf^r^ 

^^H Boup «f tspjuca flour 30 gm, ind 10 

^^B Soup of 40 ^. wheat Hour. witJi Mime 
^^H 01 (^iv inilk, 10 gta. iugar, anil 1 


JVt cent 

70.2 
10.0 

7.0 


5.5 


40.0 


lt0S 
244 




&T.2 


71.* 


130.7 1 ITOS 1 


^^K II. Prin^pfiilp Milk Did tnth th^ Addifion t^ (hrbahyihoiit an^ Fat 1 
^^H ib Ptp Form ami >Soup*, H 




PfoiriQ. 


PKt. 


Oubv- 


GU«t1«. 




6S 


&a.5 

ia5 

6l5 




106S 
S57 
89« 


^^1 SoTTp of 15 ipii, ws^f 10 gm. binter, 
^^m 1 «SSt 10 gm. Al5aiuu«e 

^^H Pftp ^80 gm. FDTU tlotir, ] i*ggj 10 


T 




8« 


nji 


168 


1711 


^^ ///. 3fi7t i?.W ttJfA Addition of UffU Ihttry autt Broiht. 1 


^^H Protrin- 


Pal 




CalorlM. 1 




/VfffU. 

51 
10 


fvtL 

49 

14 
IQ 


A2 

00 
30 


S7S 1 

S37 ^^1 
2^ ^H 


^^1 M^( broi)i vith 1 i?gg; 10 em. of 

^^H Imlirr; W gin, i)f Anv innnled wheal 

^^H i.^kiV4, TOurii. ; builtfr, 15 i:iu. ^ - - 
^^H Soup itT !UJ ^m. |A|ilom lli^ur, 1 egg. 


^H Tout 


73 


S9 1 16S 


17»] 1 


^1 t Rwlifvr ATfrnii. 1 
^^1 MO icniH.Albimi(>«ofti-« contained inMcAMD^nnyeT'fl {cpKjnc prcpnraUcn, ■ 
^^H hi 22 jrriJ- of KuiiiiLU-|-ii'1j'\ ur in 30 gm. of EochV ■ 



J>S£T ty DISEASIS OF THE STOMACH. 



331 



2 r Mith if«A Tnd^r Mat, lUur, B^tftr, md St^p^ 



^nMA. Ui. bJSSS* t»*«»^ 



a" irinff chicken, lOO (pa, - - 
allied pcitAUios 100 pa, ^ . 

Twotwp 

TouUkI vlittt bmii, 100 gro. 

Baiur, 30 gn. 

TiQutlOOjpi- 

3Clk.l2»c;c 

T*rt«l 



7J> 



4-0 

n-0 
ai 

4gL0 

USA) t2.4 



10^ 
6U 






117 



10ft4 
ia7,4 
i6ai 

:eiao 

100.4 
8T&0 



1S61.I> 



F. HifA. Nqi IrrUatift^ Did, 



Tieoder nmU^ S£0 gn. 
Cboc«,SOgitu . ' - . 

TbFM«lEfi 

100 giu. iBitLnck • ■ 
100 j^EU. whoi bivid ■ 

fiO IPIL CttlCM ■ > > • 

50fin.boU«Er* . . * 
40 ipa. ViMoA fiour . 
40 fm. oam ftour . . 

VgllLMMT . . . . 



TmaI. * 



1*^^ 



ibjdntci. 



ArMtL Artf^. 



4» 
4 

21 
8 
7 
4 



U 



7.0 
0-0 
llU) 
IJ 
OlA 

44i) 



4M 



Ar<nit 



7!t 
BO 

40 
40 



144 Ifla^ft 89a triT 



l^girlM^ 



100 

407 
104 
104 

ot 

079 



The (livt ia luutor diifturlnDoee of the Htomficli, ^m in atony 
or in ilibitsitum, fii>jk>iu)« grciilly ii|Hm wliHlior un exot^r^n t>r a 
(lofideiicy of g»i»trir juici* i* R*<'rvt^'4l ; if (Iwn? is an iiu'iva**', 
an VXCCS8 in protein fiKxl ^vi^ ibe ht^X nwulta ; if, on tW other 
liaotl, tiM-'n* i^ a iliuiitiiKum of xhhs H.*cretioti, pnntciu ftfMl mwit 
bp Riven the jtttknil iii the Tno(«t cu«ily (U^til>k' form-^-^.y., 
a^ tile iilbutntvvr^ mid gieploneA. The* nirtKkhydr:iti^ .nui rim 
lifter vt^-tobk-!^ itiny l)c given in mtnewhai tnrger jinwir- 
iwo. Id tmth cuiiditioni!' tin ingoition of fliiiJe Hbouw lie 
rtthlorJ A? far »9 p-iev^iblo-, 

Xormally the ni)|Ktit«> u a lab- inrlicalion of lE>c tiumUrr of 
cnliini^is of holt lh«t tnny W rpiqninwl ; in <^mJition'' of ^aMrio 
diKonler, howcvfTp iiii^ U ikm tliv ctLt«: these iiaiipiii.^ ht^> lh«ir 
apiwttte, and ron^tju^ntly oftiit tflke in^itflicienc timrition. Id 

■ M«A( ol vAriom Hft^ Anolf «lKkpi*i>d. luv or Mad tn boUBTi <dU or 
vtnn, ukcn ai nook 



332 



tUET ty IfJSEASH. 



traclwl and awomjNinicH by j:reat loss of wa^ht, and in >ihioh 
the ]»a<ieut rnkf-w inMirtifient noiiriribmcntT it need only he 
home in niiiKl ihat ^uch a |MilieDi, resting quietly in l>ed, 
rer|uir^ only about one-t*ixih of the number of calories Deoefi- 
sary (or « patk-iil wh<i h not n.'*tiu;i;< This jjlau may, there- 
fore, Ik? up4.h1 with advatita^ in lW- irt^-niment of umiiy patientd 
Mifferini; frutti ili-tordt^rM uf ihe^^tiiink^rh. 

Liquid FooiU in (lirMric Dimrden. — In ihosf- oaft<^ in wfait^b 
it iii ]iK-e»kATy to sf)flre the ^toniacfa n^ niiieh H^ork hh pw«ible 
milk is the foi^ HmX is UHudly most easily l>oriie. In ortler 
to ^ip]i|y a sufficient nimiher of c;dories it must l)e taken in 
large quantities, freqiiently dilut<^ with lime-water or barley- 
ttTiter in orilcr to add to its ilige/^tibility, ur flavored with 
cotfev, lea, or c-uc-va lu lejid variety iiiid add to its pHlatabLliCy. 
Ill thoie o£i*ef> lu vklik-1i inUk in nut well borne buttermilk^ 
wht^y, kuniipi^ uufl koHr fuay wrvv nr^ tubntituteu. Among th& 
other foriu*i mf fluids thai may be given are brotbft (ohtekeo, 
hwi, million), hoiiiilonf Ix-ef-tea, and meat-juiw- Of rhft*, 
moat-jtiirt.- U \\n»*i cituriiion^. 

(ythihxnnti F*'tinn ft/ Fmtt. — tirliitiii<iu.-« arii<'h?* of f*n>il, ^^ 
^-lalin, t-alve*' ftvi, ete, nrt- t^^^^ily digt^teil «nd tnniily al»- 
fii^rlK-d. 

MmU. — Tli(» di^[*-^Tibility of meftl ran bo inrTea«e<! by ohop- 
phiv:* iM'iiliri^, grimlin^, ?<riii|>iii^, fie. 

ICfjf/f*. — The dipT'tiliility *>f rggr- di.'|n^iuU \i\»m ih^ir mode of 
]>n<|iumliriii ; raw and wft-b<ji]ed *^^ "^' ur'nally ihc mcwt 
ftirtily di|rt'«lihltt form*- 

/'mA. — In ri'piml to (inh, tho»tp ("nntuintng but Uttli* fnf are to 
Ik? i\*uoinnK*ndod for |ki lion U si i tiering from inu'-lricdi*lurlwnoo=*» 
*iin*h fl> slKllftnh, pike, tr>iU, carp, nml halibut. 

<hff/oht/rfrfit*K — The nunibf r nf vt-gi'inbk^ from which m'Uv- 
tion may Ir* inailt* i< large, Tlio ^tHiMiom* from the inoiitli and 
intesiinc-i |iluy an important nMe hi the digiMion i>f the^e miU- 
Mjiniv?*, They .-ib'mld In- nui^limlinl lliunmghly. In thof*f 
airti-7« iu whtrh thrrr^ {» dangrr nf furtni*nUitiun tbcy .nhouid he 
pivi-n with cYiation. Th<" 1m*I tonn in whit4i to givo amyliicvoTin 
fiMxl ill in fh*' form of xwirbnck, t/ia^l, ».1iil<* whf'iit brtmd, tnpi<vy» 
Jlitir, oatmnd, i.*(r. t^liMfin hjtft liijddy nvummcnilf^l nieuronat 
t^iiiir, whi*K <fJMtaiTi?* alKjnl 80 jrt v^nt. of proU'in. 

LefjHmimn^ /oo<i/r contHin a con»idembIu nmimiit of protein, 
much of w[ii<*ii, however, ir* not absorlk'il. They are apt to give 
rihe to consiik-rahk- IVrnumtaliua, PotJitoc^ are Ik-aI given ina.^ie(l 



I>IBT ry DISEASMS OF TBE STOUAOI. 



3;i3 



fnmi iIk- (iirt of all pitlcrnU ^nflVring fnnn MoimiLti ilJ-M^rrU'i^. 

FruiU iiiv III' -li^ht inilririvr viilm*, Init ^ve u tvWAx lo olber 
IVkhLs iiml iiicniLM' liiftTSTtiinl [>eri.HtiiNi:i. 

Fiit M to be ivortniiiuidcH] lN*mur^ of its teti<leiK*v to incrtinw 
tht^ weSghl of tlu' |i»lit'nt, uluI uUo tH*L^iiiw- of iLn liigli cgitime 
vsliic. K<jiin: olt^-rvi-rr- rlaini, lji.'wc\-i-r, ihoA. it art* u* uii 
irntjmt to tlir Titcmmcb. It U ti'tiL' thol iTmity [luticul^ liiul lUit 
fut iD4'^it, ifH'iE^v gr»vH**, ctt'., givi' n*e to Indtgiwlum »ml o^^n 
to nAiiM^i niid vmiilin^. Mui'h tli^jM-mU, how*'Vri'r on tin* iimvIv 
of pn<|nnuii>ii. A <'<>riH<Irnil)lv iioi4»i>n1 of fal timy W g:^\i?n in 
tiK- fi>rni iif fn^li bulii r s]ir\?iLl <*i] wlhiit liresid or kqihL (Vt- 
tsin fftmit^ of d]i>oi»bi(' o>ntiii» <)iiile » lur^ pivenbi^r itf lat, 
and on this imvitmi iirr vm' inilritiotiH. Of the^, Mvliriu^'s 
Vigor ClwKVilaK- t* lo l>e enjiwiany iv<v>nKnendeii, 01iv<> oil 
Iwf n^vnily Ikt'o rtvotiimoiiilit) in tlie tn-ulmtiil of ciTUiin 

Concvniiiifr tlit< rrlntivc di^44ibility piid iiutniivo vnlur of 
vnrUrUA IkjiiM nn<l wilid fixi^U. tilt' fttidi-r i* n-fi*rrt*ii to tlio iMtv 
lioit dmiiiip wilh ffii.-* miSJ<h*I. 

Si>ecia1 Factors bearing on the Diet in Patients 
Suffering from Gastric Disturbances, — L \"rm Xifl^nkn * 
dcrnoiiMlnilfil iht* hvi tbiil lii*' intf^-tim' iviU vic^riouiily [K^rfnna 
tile work of \\\v MomHch IH o»iitlttiiku< in vhHi tin- .-4vn-t<»rv 
ftUKlloii of thr latter i-'* liM. Thii>, u^ hi^ iH'in ^boun by KAiild^ 
Lm>I»p, uih! HbriN, lu 4\4m?< of atrupliy "f iIm- )£u>itm' iijiK<<Aut 
mtmbmn^Mii whirh tbcrc i.t no Icmgrr nity f£ju--tnc wcrHM^) lb« 
pnlirfil iniiy infimtiiui \\t% yfvx^xX, for tW i»U<stit)u niwitm<^ tlio 
dqrin^tiw fiou'tion norm^dlr mrrii'il 4>u by lb** hIoiiuHi, Fjh- 
l»w liki'ni**' di'moiisirmwl tliin fiict ii) <vmt^ of ntliytiii 
gimlrica. Tb«! [Miinl lo k- born4> tn niind i^ iliut «*veii in ou-^«8 
in whicli ihr* mvretnry iwlim of ibe >i1onuidi ii* l<wt Miiin-ly, tbe 
intc4in^ nmy a-^^^unie ibl* fiitH'(i<«n of ibt- stoiiiRcli. 

'1, 111 tb*>«" (^uxt* in wbirJi it \> rn*rt-*wan" to wjwiiv tim Moon* 
ni4i, aT< wIk-ii tWI mil not 1h^ ib|!\:^tiHL or ih vointttnl, i itJicr |»r^ 
digv^tvd fiHidff muy tir uliliJivd or forKlc* rrLiiy If mliiiiuiMt-r^l 
tbntu^b ohamnj* ^>!bM- than tbe kIocukIi. Amoit^ tbc- uiiifiirial 
|>n'*lig*»l*Hl pr<'|«nitiT^w* iirr* tb*» nllHitiHwrv anil |^H^|>toii4*«, W^x- 
uyrrV Alltunior>r^|ii'[ii04ii', StifHiaopM*^ Nntro*i-, am) Mi»«iiiii-m 
Bw'f JU'aL Fur tbi* vari^u^ nKlboiU fif Iniliiig, ibr mb<i>'r ja 
rrfi-rriNl u» tl«" wvtiotfc- on Ri^otnl F«t(iing, SidK'miiiKoiis K^^ii]- 



334 



DIET IS DISEASE. 



3. The followmg rnltfi for calinf: ^^hauld be carried out : 

(a) FochI <4hoiilcl be tbomuKlily riiasticate<l ; ibis is es|KfiaUy im- 
]>ortant in th-i*^^ cuw« in >vliioh there are nmrked giifitric cH^turb- 
aucea. Bieroacki' and ihe authors ■ have shown the impor- 
taiu?e iy[ the effect of the i^livary digeEtion upon tlie g3>^tnc 
(feci'eiioa m so far ibai au aW-nce uf salivar)' fet'crtlioEi not 
ouly rcf-tilld in an abKDci.' of amvloly^ie, l>nt thar cht^ prott*- 
olynin U miiolj roUirdw). 

(b) Tb« iiiomIs should be taken at regular intervft]p4 and in 
nioflcmif- i^nnutitief, a(H>^rdiii^ to the natUTv of the gancric dis- 
ertjie ; tbU rule miif^l be v'arif**! umler oertiiin conditions ; f. ff*^ 
*4iTmll frefjneiit meals Mioiild be taken in atony, whertss under 
other conditions, surb as hy^Krchlorhydm, ?n>iuewhut larger 
nieaU -hould l»e g^ve" but three timen AaiW. 

((■) The cenn»eratare of rbe fi.xKl is aW an tDi[K>rt:i]it fsulor 
it! the ut'-atiikentiif pi?<i]'iv.'dif<tinb;iiH'eb; a^ [Jlll^htimiti \\ii> |KniiK-d 
oLit, ilie IVhxI -hiutUI \te lukiLi at a teiii|Kinliirc lictwtcii f<8° and 
100* F, The injre^tioo of very hot food ia believed to be a 
frfi|iient caii^ of nloer of the ntonmeh. On the other hand^ 
\\\-)ft*le aitribntefi the dyspepsia of many Americans to the 
taking of ice-t-nUl water ami other drink?*, 

[<i) The (jnention of rest or exerci>e atW eating ia one that 
is of eonsidemble im)>oitaj]Co to thonc fiu3ering from gastric diiw 
t«rl)ances* It is geiieraUy adiiiiite<] that violent exercise should 
m»t Ir' inclnlge^l in after (.'aiinR;. A^'n^nlin;;: tii Srbuk*^' patients 
bMllVriiij; ii\nu *ii|«.'ra<.ridily ^bjiikl ik>i >k'fp afier taliii);. Fivjin 
c^KIHTimeiLt^ not a& vcc ]iiil]bp^b(x1 tlie Mnthui^? havo dirtermiiK'd ; 

(1) Under normal (y^iidilioua the aecreiory a^ well oa the 
motor fimetinns of tlie atomafb are not interfered with during 
rest; 'luring slee|i aftera me;il, however, the secretory tutieiion 
remains nonnal, but the motor funeiion is ^lij;htly disturbed, 

(2) In oites of liyperehlorhydria with normal motor fnnction 
the acidity is reduc^etl and the motor function remains normal 
while rc'itin^, svherea»i ilurin); >lecp the acidity remaiiiH abmt 
the same and the molor fiutclioii is inijKiired. 

(Ji) In conditions of Iri'pcreblorbydria with motor in^tfli- 
oioocy the acidity is lessened and the motor function imj^aired 
during teat, whereas dnring -^Wp the aHdJty is fitill further de- 
crejiHxl and the motor function still further inijmireiK 

(4) In conditions of hypochlorhydriu writh normal motor 



I>iET I^ JCXS&iSfiV OF TJJE STOMUCH. 



3^ 



Aorivity th« ad^itv sf^ma to he ini^reftAcd anfl llio matter fnii(*ti<in 
r^Qiain^ nornml during iv-^^t, wlii-reaji diiriiiij^^-Wii ilnMU'idity is 
iDcn^-^l iin4i liie iiioti>r function U tli^tnrl>eil. 

(o) In couJitions of hvpochlorhyilria wiih ilInimb^hcH] mot^^ 
activity the acidity feemn to be iucrcat^etl and die raoti>r fiino 
tlcn improved (luring rest, whereas durini: sWj> the acidity re- 
ituiiii» iLbuut die »«iiiv »ml tlie tiioun' func-duij U ititerfen-d uiih. 

From di€x obdcrvaliou8 it ap|>cfira that In eonditiuUB of ^u*- 
trio tli^nri^nceH aooomgnniiK] by Ly])en.4iWhydtia and liyj>n- 
ohlcirhviiriji aatl in motor distil rf^:Liioi<« of ihe vioniuoli tlu- 
gaucric digestion i» imprm^ed during re.'^t, hut iniinunxl hy slMfi, 
after uteaK 



SPECIAL CURES IN THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES OF 
THE STOMACH. 

Anuui^ lh(* s}Hvijd fnnii* i<]' in.-iiinu-iil nixnuniriuliHi in ffiv^ 
trie ^^iJ^^lH«lnc-r■-■^ nmy U* mrtitionf.'tl iUv n-H cure, the milk cuwr, 
tbc fEtn|K* onn*, clikI f<itvo() fe«dii)§^ nr gnviigc 

The rest curCj fir*it dcviMnl hy \\"t-ir Miteholl antl Rih«(v 
r|iienlly r^perirtlly ilevrh>|>rti liy Rurkhnrt, in fJermany, fcir the 
Ireatnieiit of guMrie condilinnH, plays an imp-irtaut r^»Ie in the 
treatment of Btomach di*onler>% This troitmcnt is er^peeiaUy 
useful in caws nf nciiraMlieuia with ii^e^'ore anon^xia nuci cinact- 
Rtion, It i^ nl^J \\ir*^ixi[ in die trpiitmeiit uf ulcer, ^a^lritlst 
ato»y, aiMl ga?tn>pl*ifii*- 

Tlie re^t tivatiueiit in ^i^tric di*<»nlerv shotild bf< c^irrTed mit 
for fn>ni six lo 01^111 weck#. Thv n-Mtli*- ihni tollow thib plan nf 
trmtoKfit nrv often inArvelloiir^ Por n further oon^iiileraiion of 
thi' iui-iIuhI uu*\ |»lrtn rtf (.vtndiirting the n^^r trr-^itmeiii sy*i|fmat- 
ienlly t\tf rviuli'T j^ rv'tern^l to ihe t^^Iuhi dt^hn;; U'lth tlii^ HufijeeL 

The Milk Core. — The underlying principle of the milk 
cure (^ihsjMp- iu ilie inire^tiou of brpe <|iiaiitities of milkf iitlier 
aktne or T'lj^rilhiT viitli i^ther f<Mkd^. Under nom]al eondiiioDS, 
vrlien taken alitnc In LiTyetiuantitief^^-Aay, tliree hti-rv zi dity, — 
milk doe-i not rufltee as a food ^ in eertain dij;e¥iivc disturb- 
ances however, ndik gi\Tn Blone for a time foniw n iMvftil food 
iLpd allows tin.- F^tomaeti to ic^in hi* normal tone ^nd fnnctioim. 
Milk ih i**^jKi^iullv (i^fid iu i\w tpwitinent nf uloer of ihe nIoki- 
lu-'h iind iu L^t-rlaiti fonnnof chn^Dic ^^tnti^ : it !s partieiilflrly 
ujiH^iit in die i^'conilark' form--* of ga^Jtritin, m th<** ilepetiding 
np»»n tiihen"ulo«*», an^onia* etc In some ca^es of ner\'ous d>"*- 
p^'p^ia ndlk chhm i^metimes effect remarkiihlc riMiIt*, wliereis 
in otlhTw milk dirfigree^ am), a^ a cony^iiwiM**, ibe milk cure 



a3fi 



IHET IN DISEASE, 



f^n not W undt^rtalc^i). Whni tlu^re it* n dimiiuirion or nn nb* 
seuceiif at'kl in the stoinat^h, milk is uniiiiMy not \\<ll l>fin)e- 
ll is aUo (HtntiaimiioatHi in iieit^re (iiw--« of nbmy nud ordiliUn- 
tiotif in iniet^tiual ctiinditioiiR accomjianirHl l>y e:ct]x-itke1lAtiili'ii<% 
and ohrouic diarrheuis, 

Wlien milk is ffiven in krge c|iiautitK'.n In addirtoii (o mher 
liKhU, it U uiurL' fmiiKMtly t*init'j" borui' unJ U K'» «]H lo di?^- 
a|free, Ont- of tlic iHsndvantaigoa <»f tbe milk cure in thr <iWi- 
nata ooD8ti|>alion ilk- milk in a^t io iiulu<.'C'- Milk tun olU'u lie 
n-ntk-recl nuiiv cH^kitIiIp Uy iho riil<lilion ol" ljarli»y-wnti*r, 
linie-watt^n milk of ma^ncMii, ihkI tlu' liki-. or liinall qn^inriiirA 
of r-iifti-e, lea, or wlii*>ky may Ik- mVM I" it. \\'ln-ii milk <ii>- 
agre*^ cream, Ijutteniulk, kefir, knmi,^-^ or mam^n may Im' given 
as 11 huh^titiiii? for ii. {Si-e Milk t^lIv.^ 

Forced Feeding or Gavage.— 'rhi* method was tii-st 
JntHHluci'd by l>ihr»vc, and c^iiMsi-i in introdiKing milk, i"^^ 
anJ uii:i<[-t^Ainiirlp iato llie ^t^^nmdi h^ uifsiu^ of ihi.' siouiiit^ti- 
tube. It lA t<?|H^ally usc^riil ia n^rvoiiH anorvxiu, iu which ca^a 
ihmn: \m great lUm^tr of niur^Btion fi-om Wk uf noinxthiudit. 

The Grape Cure, — In liii^ furm *>!" fiv;i!nK-T:t itu' |i»nf-Fit 
livcr* ex(;lM>ivtly n|hiii irnilM't* ; it is ("riHi'iiiUy nsifnl in jOi'iIjuHp 
individiiftls, ii} wliuiii it i> hnfKirtant to diiinnish the uoij^hi; 
in ddiU'Dtir gn-\^ ^nrtV^nng with ily?i|H'iL^m, luul in certain casts 
of norv«u.*i ily!4|>q»-tja. 

DIET IN DYSPHAGIA. 
Dv&plia^iu iimv bt' iluf to any olf-iinu'iidii in ll»' iiiuiithf 
pharyuxi or c*i>phn^»*. Tlit^ dil!k?iilly and |Mnn iiidu<N**l hy 
nwallowinp nni'^l In? ohviati^il hy It^^-iiiny: tho I'lVortp at dtrtflu'' 
titi.i>ii a* much ji** ]>n'iiiihh-^ fur ihi* ii-n^m W^hI ninst bi^ jjivi'ii 
in a oon«*ntriifcd form, and only In a liijnid iir «-mirinliil !*tate; 
milk, eg^-albumin, aiiO the (■"►nri-idnitnl liijuul lun-f iii>-iinr:i* 
tions areetipec'iallv ti^i^fnl in ihis <H>ni1ino]i. In iIk)^'- wm-^ in 
which fo<Kl am not hi- sw:in<rtvc<l in ^nfticii'til 4[(mTititi('S (he 
IKitiont Tnu*t be fed lliRm^li tht- >ioni:icli-ltd«\ In thjji way 
linitliK, ^nid, milkf tiiul ihi* lik(* can Ih< ]mtisc*d into the Momacli. 
In vtrv a^ravati'*! ni?H'-^ gnstitrtoiny niiL-<t l*c [ferfimaed to 
prevent 5turvalioii» 

DIET IN ACUTE GASTRITIS- 
0?+cr ha* T-«id that "cAvry <s^^ of wnte cjitarrh of the 
stomach ha* a mitnml k^uicnoy to h(^1 of ir.^ o^vT^ accord inilo-^ 
a chmniu turni i* pnHhK?*-d iry a luislukon din or wrong niKlira- 



DltTT IS DISEASES OF THE 6T0MAC1L 



337 



tion." ll i* « p-ni-mlly u<lriiittt<d fml llmt in tin- ri'L-fitim*iii of 
ihi'^ cniwHtioii the liu't \t\ayit tlir hviling h">l<'. Tin* tin*! f<i<»]i in 
die tr«itRi4>Qt c<>ii«i«u in Mf^iirinj^ nlNnltitv rc^t W the j^l^nimoli 
and a totail ulMinena- fnim fiuK) f(»r at W-<t tvwuty^foiir lK>itr>. 
This procxHliiiT' i* Hum'iJJtH'^ vi-rv ilitlirnll to <^rrv <»iit, lor 
nianv patK'iitj* liclii.*vc tlint f hkj i.i nw^e^v^ry tur ilif-in, liml rliiit 
th^^^y mil Mvuix* i^Vu^f nmn.' i|ui<kly tiy lakin^r iiouriHlkniL-nt, 
The iiatutni and voniithig which are [^^iit in moro f^r li^^ 
iU*}j^v iit tliirt etiiHlilioij, uml A'hirh un- uj^gnivHlc^) hy ihetnkuig 
of foorl. Will »oon ef»i>viiioc the |nitictit of tlip mH^-rwity of nl>- 
^txiinin^ from f*^xL Th<' ihin-t it, Jiowpvcr, wi ^evi'ix* in tln>*r 
cn-ipA tlml pnthmU mny U' aIIowM fii Tin>>«* tin- iniitilh wilh wnli^r 
rtvqu4?nllyp to rptuui tiny Wt* of ie<' in the month, or i"i"oii to 
ilriok very ^mjill (juaoUtie* of c;irlMni:ik'*l wiiU'n». With ihi"* 
plan of iri^tmeiil nt'ov<-n,' |»v*TK'riliy follows tiL lw*i or tlm-e 
<h\s. AWtr ihe rii-*t IworTty-foiir h(*uw fn-tliiij; mny I*e \x%\tn 
hy fnvhi^ cntitiotHty sm^il) tjiiaiiiilirw t*f milk ilihilo] v*i\h ]imi> 
vi'aior, hrc»this luvl <*pr^ilhiitiihi ; tlii.>v cjd ^rathmlly Ih- hi- 
crvftjwl ill i|iiiiiii!tv, uiit) ihirlii^ thi- iit*-\l dziv nr twti U>iK>l 
diteken, !»weethr«i-l^. r<i^m|Ksl href, in adililtou to toUMt, nrnv lie 

Thi^ niithoriL nro iKH^ii^^tnoKHl tn pn*Mf'nhp t\w fnlU^winj; dUi. 
uhoiit \\w xi^-oiul or ihinl ihiy after uii tiltiuk of tiotiU- ^t^iriiir* ^-^ 

Ta.x.: l-yiirvk. inilk villi liniCHVftUfr 101 

9 A.X.: loo gin. vqj^lbumin lUi-orvd with onuigi^ or IcmMi-jaice A3 

1La,U.: IAO ^o. bniK wtth f^ff ^1 

I r. M.: I'W jpn. milk vilh linto-miU'.r- . . ]l>] 

^f.x.: A^i, Atinimi*<K>lubk Uvf in iimleT .10 

ft V, M.: 100 flVD. ccvalbiiinin rinTc^rvd iHlIb oniiflV- oit l«nion-juice ^^ 

7riL: IAOrvi. milk viih lidir'HJitor ... .... . , , . 1l>1 

After ilie liiinl th\y llic ilict ifi iiH-n<wvil us ftillom : 
7a<u.: Wtm-tnnk MOn vUiTOim ln<M ll»t*) 289 

9a.)|.T 2»fTi*ifl.h>jl40 rCKi. . |ib» 

llj»>c.: 9>0sni.' IkniLlK.it trilii 1 t-mi T^l 

|p, u.: 10nimi-rkvnxjk<*l Imullk - ^ - . .... 1T7 

711 jwi. umm , . . . , - , JK! 

Sp.k.: 100ipii.#ier«l^min I&1) wiih M]rfn.rfnflktfti(1«T| . ,.^41 

dr. Mh: Kri) cm. mtlk «itli TOkul km 2&1 

T rut iw fnk iflMlbiwIo btoffij wtih amngo- or tonHm-Ji^oe &3 

> tn eom|iaHnir ifac«p dlr[-T1iM ilhrhi rllttcrrinikrlp* in ih? nlfiri« n)u«* of 
tbp Trnd* vjU hv iMi(«]. 11m*«* iliA-rmn** Uavi- arlvn fif^n >rtor AiJllwin 
wine <lw dlmie Taliiw n( riw ConAt^ vhil* <rtb«ci bnvc f^nipiUfii iht tiIihm 
oT cooked kioiK Inthvdlvt^bttclTWi bj ilie aMlmrv «)tirM valnaoif ixrJ* 
ii pnpar^l for itie tablr ire eiv«tL 



838 



IMET jy DtBEASE. 



Tli(> riillo^i'in^ Inlklcf tjiltt^i fixjin R<4i><' }fiifffiil'r*fiilft4^if^it, 
givvn 11 iliH-li.xt (o \h' ful]uwi<) nfitT ilie ^wvnJ or ihinl day 
l\illo\vin^an tittaek of iicuCi; ^^tritm; 



Sa. M,: 'JOO ^m. iiiilk (wllti m) lAlhO 

nift (lYii, iwiolmrk - . , 17S-fl 

JOa.U.: 'JifO ^im. UmilUvn ^^ilhcKit J^fj.O 

li M. : UiWf^iri, milk "^fiif !£S7ia 

Mgrrul-cihlvil Ifiini] 1S94 

3p.N.: laOgni.nillk . . _ , . . . lOU 

4O ^n- i^kw . - -,....«.. U7<0 

7p>W.: i!00 ^1. initk HXip wltli rit-e 285.1 

&0 irm. iwii^hftck - - . 178.9 

DIET IN CHRONIC GASTRITIS. 

TliL- ^liL'fttio trvHtnient of" <4ironic (^tritib i^ of far ^rvnlcr 
)ra|K>rtuiK'0 tlizni the t ri-arnk^^nt of thi^f diHCU-^o Ijv tbo Vb** of 
(lrtig!ii. The tVwi rniisl lie v:iri4^l ruHMinlin^ l<i tVi^ aIa^c hV the 
rlLsoL"*^. InaiJiuuch as the motor fiinotion of the AWTiiHrli in 
iji^judly iniimpain^l aiul ojily tlie secit-tory function nftw^irtl, iIjo 
iijiist ciiiily bonio fornix of foucl arc lujuhi-s ^^nt-li as Unti\i»\ 
unfortUDately, tbc^^e ffH>dfi do not fiimiBh •^iifHcient iiutriinotii to 
HiBIJiin the {katient Their imtriljve value may 1m^ incrcaMHl by 
the addiiioii of bt^ef-oxtractj^, e^ti, l)arley lunl ricx^, |m-[>I<h»-s, 
eiorii;it<)>e, Hl\ The lUrt fllioulj vury arcirnlinj^ Ui i\n'. I'hiinirUT 
lit* tbr gai^ritih ; in ihitsc caBC't^ in wiiirh thr piMric- H*crHion 
itns entirely <nt eilmunf entirely ili!i(»j>j>i^inKl, pnjt<ju f'HM.1 Is 
iW^viU-i] with yii>flt difK(*iiltv ; it ^olI^I, th'^rcfcuv, hi* jrivi*n in 
the iiuwt dip^slibh' fonn ; of tlie:*o fiiruK, K'nijx'*! )ierf, slrwrtl 
lR*ef, litvwt'd ehickrii, brinlnl j<t<.3iUi ninl lioihil swifthh^ads jire 
e«|>e*'iiiny to be rtHM»iiinn-mIe«l. Vep'tublis Jmiibi aUo In* ^rivrn 
111 the im^'t (bjj^Htibh' t\m}^y l«\^l a?* n miisli. .Milk i"* iL^'fii! in 
nii>it e;iHi-s ; iu'ea-iioimlly, howt^viT, Jt in not wi41 luinu" ; when 
thip* i.-i ilit! CiifM?, it (im h- made more a^nH.-Jible by arUlin^ ftnialJ 
4|uatttitiL-H uf rice, ]»>tal<R->, or ein*iiri to it, or kefir, kLiiniw, or 
nmlKOf^ii may l>f sul>Hf!hit(-(1 for it. In tbosf ci.iu(liiionH in 
\vbioh e^iiiniJcrublo neui still r<'niani> tii the stimuK'b nit-iitp in 
v.-iritnu fiirni* ?m» wry jui-cptriMe ; in thi-< li*<t may he iKkkn) 
RAi t\tii\ <^ip< ; \Tt;etabIe>r urn^i as iti;L^h(.Hl |>otaf(>4!,-«, ^jiiimoh, 
inn>^ho<l («rrot.% ^^.^^iH-cially in the form of piiKi^, are to be 
n^*oinmeiififil. In all instanoft-^ fat TOimikl l>e ^Wcn in an ^^nsilv 
tligiNtihh' form — as go<Kl huiteFj owoaniU- butter, or Mohriiijfa 



DWT iH DISBASBS OF THE STOMACH. 339 

Vijr^r dioonlalr. It I* impowtbl^ to fornnilate cjuict roles bb 
U> tbr iiiinilM-r *>f mciiU that r^httuM be €<it4>n liiid the c|nAiidty 
llmt fihoiiUI 1h' tjikk'ti nt i-urh rk-qI ; in vt gpri«'ni1 u-av, etnaW fre- 
([lU-Dt nii^ilv^ an? b(i«t Ixirnc. Mineral M'ateis are oAon iJ>«fiil in 
tlic treatment of dimnJe ^n»<trilU, imd tlie inline wntcrs unci 
Hlkrilinr wilirw.' ttTiter* are especially to be recomm€ndc*<l ; of 
Uhx', tlie wiiters **( KU«in^Mi, Hombnrfr^ 8umtngA (Cnnpre«^), 
CnrMxiil^ Mnru'nUul, innl Sumti^^i {lliitlioni) upe cspvcialTy 
inHnl fur Clu-ir UHiHnliiejw iti ibe tn'jitment of chronic gnKtrilb. 
W«li-i- nlmnl*! l>c lukni in unnW i[imTililic> belweiii niwilt* Al- 
oi>honr fftimnlontat or any Mronp; »lin>ulant0 f^boiild^ m o nil«, 
W omittrrt ; when nlillstoil, they t-WlM be f;iv«n in Kinnll cjiiao- 
titifv Hn<1 Ivfit flilnt'^l with mineml ir8t(»r4. S»lt .iiir) ttplre*; 
niay \w i\]hv.\tl ixr-u^ioriilly in fjuijill quantilii^t. 

Ewnld rfef>ninK'iHk the follfr^iinK diet in elironic i£n»triti^: 

■vieWk. 
10 A. H. : -^0 gm. braid, 10 j^n. buKvr, TiO ^i. o^lil mtt. trr ori:*idotulljr 

iHiv iHrtv* of lijlhl wiif "r ntuMliirtl iJ ii lifrr i>f niillu 
Sp. U. : 160-'JW|-ii]. VBlvr. milk. Mt tvuJIitiri frMrii iihil.^ ihcafji: 1O0-124 

ffa, iD«al ur1iT<b; tKHlCKl ri"- ti-i?i^Miii; Au cm. rcnipoU. 
4 or & K IL : <>Dr-fourth to i^tir-lhinl -jf n VtWr of *4nit lullli (oecMiHuIly 

tniivd wJili o(Ka uroolTt.-vi. 
7 lot r. M.; :^)OKm, •4ii)|><»r |«p; .'iOiejii whlU' )>nii<1 ; iOf^m. Wut, 

'i'he amhtus Imve found the lollcm-ing diet-list useful iu i»»u« 
of chnniie tfaf^trilis ; 

«A.»,: l>l)OicuL ruilk1Iav<i«tfdiH(b M 135 

IKIjrn. •lii|p»<Ttnii(]44l vhh 40 ffo. biitt«f (2S6) 4H0 

1 ^.^JhhIcI ,xit W> 

10a,«.: 10l)ieiii. ^TniK-A »iHff lll»k viUi 40 pn. aaIc bmdor Uiwt 

i|/r|i J7a 

(AT rh»'L<fi iiikI- ii-h i£60t «r SO gni. nU^tj (DO) wiUi ««; (90) ) 
llA.lC.: tb-tiilW villi vnji - . - 94 

ifx) ffnu diiiki*!! . n»a 

|<4- I<>0 ipb, Umh clio|* f S30V 

V IWpn. biDlMrtnk tdOA)) 

100 pn. i|iharh - K^n 

IMI ffm, niHiibtd fMlxIdiH - 1ST 

lUOisn. t4<««d«fiFiUit - . . 53 

Oiym. ton«4 - - ^ . KH 

4 r. W.' 1?Urn> milk «!ihl#« . . , »1 

90 inn, ftxhrn ... . . - Wi 

TKM-r CiiKta- >ulrbn«d{IA4) villi tOgiu.lmimiSSO) 4M> 

SAicoi. milk J3fi 

»5$ 



^H 340 mi'T jy i/isEASh\ 


1 


■ 


^^^^K The ftillowing (W^^lt) N tli^ i\m in irJjroiiK< ^<4triHs : 


^^^^B 


^^^^V ProlvLu. 




^^1 

^^H 


^^K Monung: 150 ^. cmn . H,DO dM 


:.M> 


^^^1 


^^H !£3 gm bvitltroutiHurt^d 




^^^^k 


^H . . _ . 0.1A '^^ 


0.10 


^^^^1 


^^H ForvtXiion: 1 b^fi-lijjkil i-ur - , 0-00 iVil 


, 


^^^^1 


^H 200 giQ. ualmivil broth - lt£.&U O.H 


18.00 


^^^H 


^H Koon: J-^a jriu. vliickt-n . . - 2«hOO 13,n 


1,80 


^^^H 


^^1 20l> ffni. inrt^iLd . . . - :t.\A i)A 


UM 


^^^H 


^H Attntvum'. 1-Vi gni. uicoih ^ . . . 8.00 iS.ii 


7,ftO 


^^^1 


^^M 3Agm, buutfi' , < H . i>.\» .iOs» 


U.1& 


^^^1 


^H SOO gm. larky broth . . 3.^ 6.U 


17.00 


^^^1 


^H tCTGniiig: Icgff 6.00 0.0 


- . 


^^^H 


^H 300 gm. actmyc^ ham - S->.lX} 8.11 


. ^ 


^1 


^H lOOffin. RMcimni . . fl.OU 0.3 


Tfi.ro 


^1 


^^1 During the dny: 200 gm, vlnt 


fi.00 


mo ■ 


^^^^^ TAglUn EwJrrback . . . 9,00 1 ,A 


rt:i.l*o 


^1 


^^^K Tor>b 


'j:Hi.iil 


llf.O 1 


^^^^B Otiono . . . H ^HU 


^7(^ 


)l)0 1 


^^^^^B >:ntm' numbtftof iaIoHw ' - ■ 


. . . - 


. 243U ■ 


^^^^^ Boas' diet fur diroiiic jputtritii^ : 


CBl->rlr4. H 


^^^^_^ 8 o'clock: ^) jfiii- >"illc uml B4>ur Hoiip llQOgm. intLk) . . 




I!£U 




- . T - 


1SU.4 




- . , 


2IS.Q 


^ 10 (/dock: Sqcg* . 




imi.o 


^^f &U ^n^ irliJIt t»iVB(l - 30,j^ui. buLiur 




34.\3 


^^^ or 50 gni. whilo hrvflii t 30 (pii. biitlor -+ 00 gm.H<ntpvii trnff 






- . , . 


227.2 




, , . , 


3J^4 




, _ 


44.0 


^^_ 3 o'clock; 20(1 gm. milk mvi u^or uiUk and ouflev ( 150 gm. milk) , 


10LS 




1 • r t 


I2ft4 




« t « ' 


.■i35.4 






17^9 


^^^^^ Dii'l for t'hronk' Eii^itrilij? fBoas) : 


Si37.« 1 
Ca;or1«i. | 


^^H 8 o'dook: ^} cm- milk vtillt 40 jfrn, <uifiia *- 30 gni. «u|pr - 


- . . . 


4<mi 


^^1 t>0 ^n-inkn ciroO^ni, f^'icWoh (ITJt.D) . , . 


. . > . 


1S7.0 




.... 


fttao 


^^1 ]0u ffm. onlMtntm or l^^t ifrn. Mwiwtbrenfl (90\ of 100 mti, 








MO.O 


^^H ]2(^oliKk: f^oiipof ilO »:m., lAi'Iuen, 10 giti, Inittri mid ] c^K ■ 


] . .. . 


^y^o 


^^^ 10 irm. nrKxIW .,...,. , . . 


- . , . 


a^':.6 


^^H or ll)t)|,'ni, T^piimch (105.03^. lUO ifin. puv6c 


f>f bnuiH 




^^H loo >Eni- brvuuit or young chir-kcn 


1 |M>1uCl>Cll 




- . . . 


106l4 


^^B inO ifin. VHil chobt (330\ or 100 gni. -tt^wnl ?oo 


1, Jl V-W. 




, pEinnikv 






. ^ . ' 


iMKO 


^^H SoVWk: 100 ffiD. milk flTii] Ion vub '^ gifi. Miffttr .... 


■, - - - 


H7,a 




. . . . 


fllft 


^^1 7i>'cbuk: A<iuJn> itbcuUrrrud wittiSOgm. buuor , , . > 


• - - I 


M^ 






50.A 






sea 



DIET IS I^ISEASBS OF THE STOXACit. 



U\ 



DIET IN ATROPHIC CATARRH OT THE STOMACH. 

lu c<>ni)ilit>u;< of iiln'pliy nf ih<- guntrU- muvoim mcJnhmnc 
tboro \& n einnplpt4? jiW-noe uf itn- gui»lric srvrctirin. TI»o ciw- 
ililiiin hwjt- »1h) !x4-ii UTiih-il ni'hyliii gii-^Crii'ji hy KiiLfmni. fn 
tlii^ (liwiL-^f- rlio iuU'^iiiic lU't.H vi4<uriiiu-«K nut) iligi>:s1i<i the f<Hxl 
fiTT tfi^ nUmiiiHi. Ii iH iiiMM-irtftnL lt» nrimnuo iho dU-t >l»> time it 
am t^iu^ily W a^^U**! u|Htu by ihe intistiiun jukh^. Tlio r^fwl 
niiJ.M be bmken up inu> jui line paniclfs a^ |>oAsiUtn, iiiul lOioijUi 
to a lui^ I'xii'Dt \^ givcri in li<(iiitl and M-nailljn'u) fnrni. Of 
tilt* 1it|utd-i, Ijoitljf, ^ueli as burky, rloe, trr t:birlii,*ii bmiL, nnt 
t«i Im* mxiciniivnJMli 

V(^(iilil<* aw iinually vo]l borne; ceivalii ftbmiM In- t-iiii-p 
uA^-r till' ivlUilitM^ Ikii* bivn rvmoi'Ml. Hmi^ ihhI b<.?iiir« ^inLirml 
am] itiU'ti ii!« A ptir^-, il« in brriili, tirr 4-!«|Mi'iaUy tisi^ful, 
U;i tlk'V omtain <|tiib' a Ia^et^ |ftcrt!«'a(akri* lif pnilrin. l'iitai<^>es 
aiul riov arc tn )xfcaienov>|c(r()with bmtbnrmilkrora^a miif^h. 
K^^ an^ tf> 1>e iitkeii soIl^l^oilH). Mttiti* innM W ^vi>m in the 
MTtit <lip-*tibU* fomMt a* btain*, ^mpi'*! hi-^{\ W*x\i<\ r-rtcet- 
bri'ail^, :\iv\ imlv in j^\t\\\\\ iiiuf>unf ; nin' oV[<1t.*rH aihl Iniiled h^h 
an' iiImj |H'niii»Mb1r. tii vm' ^■wri' fi»riiiH H>ii»itii»v jukI Mo?** 
fjii4:ni IVrf Meal hfc to l*c mM<il to tbc milk or bn4b. Milk 
b< iwrajuotuilly imp<*rfrrllv *l(tr<'i^^^l in tbih o^trnlition, iiuJ t-ivaai, 
ki-Rr, ktiiiitHh, iir miiu/Htii nmv }io hiil>sliiiiUHl f^tr it. Hatft>r 
may bemtononoTau^lvorft, stale breafl, or t'tn^.. Stidi iM'vcra^j* 
ajfUh, rv>flV^\coc4>a,am) pirnall(|(iaiititie6of wine may l)e Alliivrv4t. 

Small lacal^P^h'MilillK? taken atintL'nali^of tuoortlircchoun^ 

T)k- rulkmini; ()ii-t-liistr advUed W Wci;idL% ^ivL-« Uii- dit^t in 
atn>ptnc c^atarrb : 



Nomlafr: IfiOjrm-cnma . . . , . , - - 

SO imL tnttief (<iB lc«ri«l lrrv«il] - . 

loo RBI. «n«flMl lotolow. 
10 ^, Muli psinict , . 

1 iMtp 1M f villi ■VJDhai'l' \ 

AAeruoon: fiOicni. biilirr . 

lbc£v:^:£^RaL mUk 

alaighl: f l*^*™ '^^wn*- 

TouJ . . , ... 

t^loHcn 

EDtirr munhvr fif nbrif* . 



Prntvln 






COO 


4X10 laao 

1.00 


12X» 


O.IA 


14;00 all 




S^ 


aio fLso 




2040 


«jD0 




110 


060 S1.» 




0^ 


fiuOO 




ai5 


trtrto <its 




aio 


, . 33LOO 




23;Q0 


&2$ ri.oo 




«lOO 


IJ50 OlOO 




v^xa 


9;^ I&OO 


TO 


:£Tft 


. 4 k * 


■ ■V 

laid 


400 


BOO o«> 


130 



ItiSO 



'34i MET ly VISKAffK. 

Kiiihorn' ju]vij«« the following diet in ca£«B of 
trial : 

^Sum,i Uuimml wkb i-rrfljii ..... lAO 

Cr>ci3n will] milk ^ ^k 

Toi^ltd timid 60 

Bultt-i 20 

12 X.: I'w-.jup lW 

8i'ntpwrnictil (brgihdl orliiU 100 

Uakvd oL-niDftbod |>9iatom. , . £0 

Spiauchor turnipH , . . ^ <^0 

Wlimivn hrrftd .... OO 

HuHor JO 

4p. M^r TVoci^Ri itKift-bniW^orw-'niniblcil . 

FjiniLiL uilh milk £00 

WliiNitcik hrtful , . - - , GO 

Butter , . 20 

IV-ii (i^iilkandmiDTj 2\Q 

^My.Ht Kiiin>« a»0 

Cnt'kpn ^ .'^0 

Biillvr JU 

or ft wiiHttKilk with «Pnia «r caviare 



DIET IN HYPERSECRETION. 



ac^livli. 



la 



ga*- 



las 

ilHk 

213 

C3 

»2 

]^ 

1€0 
-132 
ISS 
1G3 



ssa 



dM7 



By IjvjH'T^-i'Tt'Uon is niiaitir a contiiiii<M]>^ ex(f«.ive Hccntion 
of gri^irii- Jidiv; tl»»' i-r»u<liniiii m:jv he inkTmiltent or dinniic- 

hi intermittent hypersecretion tit- i.'X(i-«vivc jitcntioii 
(K't'iii> |k'ri(H]ifuillv :mtl is lurot^iniiiiks] l>y cstrtmc di*(R'iw. 
Thi.-* flir^int-ri uiuv <»l>r-H In- li-r*M-iu'd if it MiiKill ijuiintit}' cif milk 
or ft ljHixi-l«»il(Hl i^ if* tftkcti at tlu- wry iK-giiiniuf^ uf uu 
nttack. limMuuHi it? lluid-t in liii'f;v ijtmritiiiL-<i k-rH) tii iridviusc 
tLc Vr^mUingr tlif'ir u^- ^^ImuUI In.' |kroliil>ilc<]. It* tliiivt U 
8<»Yort^^ Mnall Uhs of ioo may bt- givcii or rroml injoi^timis 
n<lniiniKtL-ri:<1. Tlie 'lli^t during thf irilei'vnl ]H-t\t-4v>n nltiirkti ih 
»imiW ti that prfftcnl)ed in liy|ierclili>rbydria (9. v.\ 

Chronic HyperMcretlon. — In tliii^cHmiliiioii uu K^xnv^ 

ivc cjunntity of iiastric Jiiiw i* Mt^rtlud c"<>ntnMi'insIy. In tlie 
trefllmont nf thifi tliiiunkT ull fooJs llirtt ti-iid lu iin-nii?**' llie 
ecerttion oi hckI in tlit' storiuich. such a< spict'.'s rondinnntw, 
and ^rinmlunlf^, are to W pr6wcril>cd- Tlu* diet >lioulcl W made 
ii]i laijifly "f tbc ["nkteinj*, !*iinv da^t' fiwjd»» aiv j^r-iu-ndly «ull 
iKtrnc ; tlie carl>oliy*lrntc'» nn.- jMh.rly dip-rtcJt ninl hcntx* njunt 
lio g]V4>n only in ^miill <|imnllT]r>i iinrl In thr mi»1 nuulily 
aMHtmilriMp tonni^ Flnid^ >ilii)nl<i he ndmintKtf^rcd i^|>:trin^]y. 
K(>ixJ aIiouIiI be pivcn ill inlervjd* of twu or three liinim. All 
fonu» of meats ure ullowflble — chicken, rua^t IxvP, lumb ctiopis 



SM 



X>1ET IS DtSBASB. 



one-half liters a (lay. The fluids that are pormi^!hli> are milk, 
cneiini* c^tFce, t€£L. hikI hmiillon, all in Minill fiiiantitip^. The 
ihirsl tliHl nif.'oJTifninit-s IIjU <liwiiw rnuy In.* rfltcwd liyiill4>w]ng 
thu imticiit tn ^iick Uli* ol' w or In' jovJap rL-t-lal iiijt-clioiis uf 
wnt4-r <»r mirniul i*uU isolation. Sinct mitriiiun » ununlly vcrj' 
llnilry ill thtx <liMiL>i-T niilrk^nt oiK-ruila must ftt^jiuMUly Iv em* 
|kl<>M>l. Wlu-ii ijiilk i:% iii1rniiii,->U-ivil, Kiidi nuli>LtTici.:H n^ lii|fliH^j| 
ami ric^ ^hoiiUI Ik^ u<lil('<1. Kgg or c^>nccntmtc^l mwit-cxtnicl» 
^hiMiM Ix" a'Mi-') Ilk WiHIoii tik inrr«A>c» ii8 nutritive viilue. 
M«^tf» rthuuM }k' givf-n only in iho mo^t <iig*'>lihK" forms ; of 
llit'-e, *JtcvvtsI cfii<'kei)» I".mI(.h! ^wtxthrcads, wilves^-bniiti'^, and 
st*ni|H'il Ixvf unL* ti» K' |irHi.Ti^ii. W^jt'tablc*, such :ie c-airrots, 
spiiuich, pi'ii*, poljiliH'?!, ^hoiiM U" adTi)itti.-«k'i\-<l in tlic form of 
ijiirfk-v^ Bmul T'hoiild hi- «it<ni sbilc; wliwu bn.-iKi or Nwiffl ir^ 
be«t* Sti-wcd tViiit?f, sudi a?* !*iow<h1 prunts snu! Iiiikf.il »(if>V9, 
Hrt* iilw> juTMiiwihlv. Siun' ihli* iirc fij« to <viiisc rcniu'niiuioiij 
Ijullor S'lminld l>c alK.iucd only in ijuiu* -smnll qiiantitirs. Ak'f^hol 
18 not to bo rccomnicndiHl in thi» condition ; if it must be iiivodj 
it i* bo^t given in (he fnrm of fsnme light wine. Strong *|>icw* 
Fihiiuld nh\m»^ be iiv.]ide<t. 

The s(>ivial i'eatiire iif the iFHilmcnt consists in giving frctju en t 
otJiicfiiTratwl nieaK Putieuu with tliUtation of ttie wtomach 
fihotild hi* uititioned agnin^^t VL^ilinj; vkiiKriii^pW^e^ for iho 
(kiir^Mige cf drinking the waters. 

The following i;^ tlie dichliM iiM-d by the anchor*^ in dilatation 
of tlic str>tnueh : 

Otlorto*. 

SA.w.r 110 ^nn- rsiilk with lofl 67 

oO gin. link' *'hoiit \tf\^*\ .,.,.. 130 

10 gm- lnnier . . , - . • . m 

lepx W> 

IOa.M.; lOOpn, niw*cniix^l>cer , US 

^^«TUpU>ai£ . 130 

10 «m. b««pr . . . ' ^ flO 

■XI c,c. iJicrrv wine ...... 60 

]3u.: I^'gm. broifixl Mmlt .... , 31S 

or 330 jfEii. tinil> chnpM or dnckrii 

100 icin, MnisX pn(atiH<< . 127 

1<>0 gat. <pjnncli .... 16^ 
or 100 Rni. m^pniiiftii* (1^*>) 
or UiOjIfni. iK**, ninibnl nnd simincil (31?^) 
or 100 iriFi- cmrnnTA, mB«h«l nn^ «itrninM (41] 

4r,>L: lOOprm. frcum . 214 

■'lO ffiLj. BiiLit bniiil . - i i 180 

lOirm. buiiiT 80 

7p.m.: UiO umjif>i1i-il rnck >i>fl ^ < . * ■ , i > BO 

'lO |;[n> ^utl« wWuL bjcvd -....■>>., 180 

10 itm. biillcr SO 

2067 



mUT IS DiSSABBS OP TDK STOXAdT. 



M6 



lOO ^m^ u^i Mill niLik imccliAHa, tiM sugar) vUh 50 gK. 

kiL<t4tl bniftd [■■■VOO 

1411, K,; 14)11 fill. Aniir . iHTiK) 

auiE»>' t'ii»u<UirM>l (7T.70)-*10gm.bull«r(71^) . - - 14*^00 

1<VJ|pii. brtiilnl nvtni . A^,70 

:A0 fih, trmhliml tHiUtfl«« «:i70 

Off ^ rm. gihmti <R2.3), «) gnk. ctfrate (21X4), <ir 

A'>riu. cniiiu - . ..,,,, JOT.SO 

IIX) Ku^- tva willi milk (i«(x-barin, not lu^r) «hli OO jfin- 

i4.u>iitl limul \9^.TjQ 

77.lf.: lOl) cm, Vin*i1nl |imh , , , , 7IJ6 

Aiir"-«iH3Ebiirail4]2U^)<lOnLbiMrCTI*30) - - - S00..10 

lUCIiciiL. i-mnn ..*,.,. -Jl-UXt 

'^Okhi. traun lCi,3U 



Ba-ii.; 



12 ILt 



3 K H. : 
4r. X.: 



9r.)t.: 



Toul 



:i\llfiT, 



Wt^% IM'ihi far ^Uot^wn ^ ihc Cjim*ir/* 



MomiBg: IDO ftn. icopftt luiia ■ , - SJ14 6^4 

Tb« viib ^ (iiL «mua .... 1^ 113 

Fvivnoon: ti^B* ^ • - • - 110 IOlO 

20 gv. Ki|ffr - ■ » * - 

^ Rm* ooiffuic 

Noon : 1MI pn, annp«^ bn-f 20.7 li^ 

ItMciD. ttia»lwil |H4iito« , . . 3^8 0>5 

Aftonvoii: Tn vith '^Km- rrvmii .... 1-8 13.3 

KTcning: lOO^i. nw^ cliJt^en (budicd) 3(L7 L$ 

100 ^u. Aour ^pi»l1 |wae) . . . <Ld 4.3 

^^?f»'»''}?0^,.-i.b«ok M U 

N'Mli't: SOOgsi. nnk M _7.2 

Toidi 'HMjt das 

CkJono -127^ 645.0 

Ciitin- tnimher of imlarim - , , . 



IS 

ido 

S1.3 
1.S 

»lO 

M 
137.6 
7210 



Alrobdn 



IS« 



13J 

100 
t«00 



ititdrrf* t>itf'iut far IHioiatUm ^f the t^omtt^. 



4 4,11.: aoOm milklOtfttiH kmM .20.3 

8a.m.: HaitnicalKAip with I^Kni'^inMlBuldllai hA 
10 A, v. : <'r\iiiti mitiufv it:^'i im*. uf i-nrnm aocl 

Ifni. «r bruni'>, 4^) inn. losHl ^ ... 7.0 

I^H.: BiifT4^ymiiii «Jiliy«>lk iif I ^np: 4-0 

Ml(<l clM|>p<d l«vr, or fi«h 4t« 

40jrnn. ifoM - - S.3 

2S|im i^MituHiUEQ nkct ^iA% <:«k«i coJIra 
(^ke, Inwuit, vmalL cup hbck ctillEee , . 2.0 
4 r.v.? S-Wc-.c. of iiiiJli, w«ier, ur cocca, 3 twW- 

t»di<30jcip.) M 

Tr.iL: LrgiunlnnipMnqiiriili 15 Km. c^nwttl ■'>li>' 
\km or foup made Ovai } tJMipv h>vii 
Idomk* ... 7M 

Rk« ^ur mnli . . \M 

13X4 

TtsUX viiliM\ ftbuttl 2J>21 ntirivh. 



J2.g 
as 

ia4 

014 

115 



iA 



|iTilnl«k 

A\A 
7.7 



14.0 



13.^ 
0B.1 



346 



DiEt IX bJSEASK. 



SkdtrCt /Hff'fUt /or Dilatation tff tht Stmni^K, 
(More Nounihing clkui tUf PrKwIinft Lut] 



6 ^ 3a. : £50 tu. tnllk, 30 gtti. Ujiiti . . . . 
8 A. M. : 2 c^tp^ 20 fm. of t4MM . 

10 A, 4.; 135 i>,(^, eream, 2zwidw*'k - - - 

dioppod boc-f, or fiitli - . , 

40 KKu imii 

25 gia. EtoJa cukr, L-imwijiuii lakv. 

ci>fitf!« cnkfi. biAL'iiil ---..., 
J K 31- : SfiO f.c. Tnilk-otwiin, II iwii^hnck ultb 

friiii jcllv 

7 P. X-: Huh* luiiuli, 2 t*ii^l)M-k, caikix^ - ^ . 
IOf. ».: 3Mic,c. niiJk, 2 xwwiMck ... 



TiiIaI valiHt, «1)ULU 2341 L<aloric<e. 



frotifin. 

^ 11.0 
1:1,7 


10.2 
HO 


hjrdniQL 

1&4 
1&8 


4iH 
3.3 


10,4 

0,4 


sas 


• 2.0 


1.5 


l-UD 


1».^. 
118 

10.0 


15,8 

ma 

10,5 


44.0 
7&7 
2&3 


116.^ 


&Zfl 


2U.Z 



DIET IN ATONY OF THE STOMACH. 

Sinoe Atony U frt'ctueiitly <<^[L^ed by iiijti(liru»iii^ :in«) t^xi nipid 
^.-atiiiii, |>prsons with feeble (lijrestive ]M>w<-rt slimilil oxcm«e 
i^yji^^ijii ftiulinu to eut slowly, niafifWt*' djciiMi]|rliIy, (mil uvoit! 
iiiili^'T*til>le f'KKJ, l'ei"win^ suffering tmiii :iti>iiy i^f tlir <t».irnrirb 
^ttould tat iiioall qiiantUiE'^ of food at fiVf|U4'nt inlcrvjiK Stnoc 
wukT In not absin-btil hi X\\v ^Ujtnuvli Ui miy rxUnit, it it! hiIvI^ 
jibU< tliut llir i|uiiutily uf H\iidt< lakt'ii f-houlil not i*\irrc<l I \ liters 
II ilny ; tbir* uni'.-iint riiioiild iiuiKkIo nil Miiitls — <'^>fHv, U^w^ siaip;*, 
^Xk: If tlio thir>t U very jfivul, i-m^imilu ni" wiit<*r i>v nutrient 
etiemntn ntny bir ikdmiiiHtoiixb 

Thf use of milk ill larjr*^ qiinnlitU**, a* hu?^ Iwvn n-om- 
iii(^inlcil» {"i imt ^tienilly to In- udviM-d wlun tin- juitK-nt is 
nble to 1^1 abiitit, Miirc- thi- wri^^lit i>f biip- {ftmiifiiic-* nf milk 
inuv ovordi^U'iKl tlic i^iotiindi ; ^vhcn, Ikivvcv^'I', ri U'^i nii^- 1^ in^ti- 
tutr<l, milk i< ci^iwiuonly wi-ll b<)rin*, <vc» in v<»ry larp- (jiinii- 
tilii-«. Till.' dJH ill titonv of ibr .-^hmiiK'b vari(-.H lu^'^titltii^ tu 
thi.' nntiirr nf ilic giir-trii- rtct^vtiiiti. In itv^vi^ of ?u|)cruci4)ity 
n lilfcml mciit dit't, oonHi^^ting t-i^pnoUdiy i>f cbiokon, b<H'f, nnil* 
ton, nr born, U tr> b<' rvoiiniiiH>nd(>d ; IikIi, <^g|Z>p liunl nml Wift 
Iw-iJixb fire also pcrmijwiMp: th** ve^t;ib|ps rthmild Iw* ifi^lwtwl 
with oare ; f'ai'nit*^. |>ca>i, t>«m)'. imd raiiliflowcr tijuy be piven, 
but nuiat K- riKiFhetl luiti ?^tniiticfl w) ns to rid tbeni nf Mlii- 
liwf : potaitots, ricT, uiul prit-i may also bo allowed. Butler 
i« the tbrm of fat bi'^t ?!uitcil Ui tbw condiliou. AW'liolic 
^rnidmit^ nxv, a^ u rtile, not woll bonie, and tbiir u^t sbottld 



DIST /A" DISEASES OF THE STOMACH. 347 

bo probibiuxl ; in a limiltHl numtwr i>f l-uam alooliol lu ihv 
f(>rin of A li^lkt y\[ue a<-iA a^ n ^Tonm^rlilt*, an<l niny l>e piv- 
i^cribed. 

In thnne c&ftefi in which there U an ab^nce or a diminution ciT 
aoici in tho gastric ^eoretion the lijfhier forms of tucfll, sufh as 
the uhilo meat i>f i-'hiek^ii nr hnh^ ^woetbi\>udr-. stewed chicken, 
or raw scra|MHj l>eej, ehoulil lie allowed ; vi^tablet, on the oiher, 
banti, must be given in somewhat larger quantitie»«. The ircal- 
nii'iit of the t'hnuiiu om^ti|Mlt<>ii uci^(>iii|iaiivkii)E; ^lAtrit: atony, 
^iuc4* ii ifl one of tW ime-X coiif^tiLiit ^viiiptt>iUf, rt'ijuin-A spc-ciul 
mention. In ib^- irttitment of ihU ixiniliiion tijo tnain I'eliano? 
niu^ ]*<' jiJAii'^lon ihr ilid. Such foniM of fotMU ^hmilil Iw 
given B,^ will, m i\w couriti- of ili^-Mioii, |tnH]mv ^nlw^laneifs 
that cXL-il<' iiiti'Hriiiiit iiiTir^riiKis; amoiif; tlu^' foixU may l>e 
tDentioiie<l (imliain bnwl, rt-rtain vcfri'tahlc-s ^^c\i iw oattoIs 
beams tomatoer^ |>m.% jitkI tufnijM, macarvnii. k«*wc(1 iiikI raw 
fruitjs buttermilk, hoiiev, uihI cider. Till'* form of iViH will 
oOen overconie the 4NiriHtI|vuion of ul'nir witlKmt tin- itid iif 
diiijj''- (For a uitHV fA(rii?tivr C4>tL^i<!cnili(kib of iW iUHHi^j 
tfYalrtM'Ut *if chr')nu' 'H>Ti:iti|»utioii the rc(»»lcr is wfcrrrd to the 
tiiectton (lonliiig with ihir^ jfi)hj<<otO 

T)h> ftilUiwing li^l \m* Ikm^h iiuhI hv ih^ aiiitbnrv in the ttmU 
tDciit of atony of ilic ^tornuL<b : 

7 A. K. : 40 r<iK nnnRi>jtjl<» , , . , , ** 

9 A, M. : W(*iem. milk .... IV. 

1 «-ifl HiiUyI i^K^ ... HO 

dOpnc- tava . . . . . t'>| 

40«uj. buUcr . . :i£f 

JOji,)t.: lOOiEv. nw •rni|H<>M-^' MR 

fiO|!i>i. fUk nhmi l>n^u) 151 

ISil: l'>UuitJ, broikd tUnk . . 2UV 

or IOl> |rn>- l]uii'> rhitpa fStO) 
or ion sni. «lni«1 L-hkk«« (lOtt) 
300 gm. iiirni9|tut n? 

<irlor>ioi»^ •]>iiuii)i U<^> 

lOOi^, muhoil |M-tnK>* . 127 

lOOjfm. niiptc^-^iiiv Mi 

iVlgm, htvad »nEjU , 19I> 

3r. M,; SMOiciu. wUk . . . . \^ 

OO^m. vliMittiitAit ^ - r , . , ir>| 

^ft pn, hrrtn-r , »S4 

7r. x.: tonidiL ULI«I rut^kiili. ...,..,, . «M» 

lOOcm, tuiLk . . V7 

AOmu-Uivtl I&4 

^Km. bulfcr jl*fi 



^H 348 mST IX DJSEAS£. 


1 


^ 


■ 


^^M Diti^iUt in AhKtj of St^noch on'M HffpoM^hydria. — (4/f«r Wffftff.) ^^H 


^^^B TroLtlit, 


rnL 


ItyilfnUsK. bnl. ^^^1 


^^H Homing: 1M> gin. Ie^|i:ufiilnii«p edooit 


0.0 


4.U 


13.0 


^^^B 




U 


13.S 


1.8 


^^^^ 


^^H I'urcnoon: 1 i^>fi-Si>Llinl f^Kg ^ ^ - 


0.0 


0.0 




^^^1 


^^H £u ^iij. «wivUidi , . . 


■L* 


a4 


lfi.0 


^^^H 




17.1 


ti^O 




^^^H 


^.3 


a.J 


^;16 


^^^H 


^^H t^ ^IIJ- IlUitt C-llRll-t ^ - 


]j) 


, . 


n^ 


^B 


^^B Aft«moon; l^f nf^- IfAuitiiiuiH- i.-i>t>rdi 


«.o 


40 


lad 


^1 


^^H I'HJ f-m. rrwtn ^ 


hii 


IZZ 


u 


^1 


^^H £v«iiln|f: :^U> gm- in|jifii4 |)iil 1 . . 

^^^1 [h >Eiii. i1lJi>[j|!«f iiiJi t VTi' 


iia 


Ail 


11.0 


^M 








^M 


^^U mttH . - 


O-S 




U.0 


^B 


^^H 1(J <iVux;k«t m^J^l: ^kH> |£iii. milk . . . . , 


(LU 


1.0 


It^O 


^1 


ti,4 


'JS 


9.6 


^1 










09 ^^B 


^^^K 


7\A 


tf-J-U 


i\m 


^^1 


^^^H ClnlMrie^ 


iflO 


<K)U 


«70 


^H 


^^^^^1 l£ivtirv nniabor of (hIoKm . , 


. . - 


- - low ^^M 


^ IHtft'fi4t in Atnny i}/ r/tf Stomach mfh /fiji^rrhforAt/rlria and yorwti ^^H 


^H Acidi/y,~^J^f^tf n'f^it.) 






^^H 


^H 


ProuiiL 


Vnt. 


Vai\>o- A\o- ^B 
ll>-llrHlV4. lull. ^1 


^^H M<irEiing^: l-V^Rnu pvpionc ^icjh 


s.n 


6.0 


7.^ 


■ 


^^^H iVl Kill' <'niiiii 


lA 


10 


L» 


■ 


^^H Fomifvjn : SOitrit. iiiilk>ii:akM - - 


S.0 


0.2 


J0.0 


■ 


^^H ^ Kill, bitni . , . . 


11^ 


U 




■ 


^^m . . , 


fl,0 


5.0 




■ 


^^H Noon: ] 20 92111. njnht fnrai . . , 


m.o 


St,{J 




■ 


^^H ^0^111. riiiihli<>il |Hi(nlf>«« . 


4.2 


^'.7 


42A 


■ 


^^^B Aflcmnnti : J'>(> irm- jH-pfifiv i-ih^vi - . 


EUI 


11.0 


7J 


■ 


^^H 50iriii> ovniii , . . 


I.H 


13.3 


U 


_■ 


^^H Kv^^nlnfi; I*20l^ii, oilil riin»L mvot 


2IJ) 


S.U 




^M 


^^^H -CHJ j^k. rill* 


^0 


ac 


2^« 


^M 


^^B I't (K-l'x-k : 100 iTTii, ^'mv . . . . . 




, , 


as 


^M 


^^H Ihinnif Itkc i\ay: dOipm- iwJrrlnok 


fl.o 


L6 


4]jO 


■ 


^^ Tnifll 


UI18 


74.7 


i^ai 


1 


^^^ <^ftli>rlfi<f --.,,, 


J'JO 


700 


dio 


«$ ■ 


^^^L Rntiiv numbt-r fif oolorli 


tv ' - » 


- ' 


leoo ^^H 


^^^B iMff'Urf //fr Atony of iht <Srr)nir|i"A, 


<u aiivitfti h'j 


Moan. 


^H 








OiiotittL, ^^^H 


^^B 8 A, V. t IM) tfin. mitk Ami u>n. 5f> ittti- wh<wt linnd, ^0 


giTi- hiifli^r 


^^H 


^^H (in mniripntioTi, -V) xm. niJIkt. 








^H 


^^H 10 A. H, : .V) vEu, whnit liruiiK ■») ifjTi biicirr , 


. - - 




, 


3-13,7 ^^H 


^^H \'A\ (fill. K'rrJfH^ (lu^t. ntw , , . , 


^ ^ 






■ 


m 11!02.2 


1 




■ 


^^H 11 V : 3rV0 ^lu- LHnrki-il l>n:f, sriil JJO i^iii. ijinivl-inll 




. , , 


430,3 ■ 


^^H |i>r UK» urn. Hiiir, finririji. iJtnHli«f1 


iK-tHfXt^l 




H 


^^B n r. v.: 100 pi), milk nnd U-i, -V) irm. whc^t bnul, 30 


' ffin. hut fur 


«01.2 ■ 


^H jp. M.: ]Ll0^iij.«oMbn^ ... 


, , , , 






3ia9 __^ 


^^1 50 tcai. wliiu* bvnid, 30 nm. biilUrr . 




^ 




343.7 ^^ 




4 




^^M 




WAT iS DI^iliASBS OF THE SmMAClf. 



DIET IN ULCER OP THE STOMACH- 



^9 



Pmphylartkiilly much niii U' iIutr' by a rjirvfdly si-Wted 
diet lo prevent tlie oii^-i «it" hli uk-tr of iIk- ptviimdi. Af NX>n 
na ihi- vm first sym]U-irnn Iwhti>iih* niiiittle>t^ ihc jnli^nt 4i<>uM 
)m* |iIikh*iI ii|N>it an :i\t^t\nu- milk <liM. 'J lit* u*ni|ii.^mUir(' of ibc- 
foiHl '^liijiiM t>c i\'^nla|4'()| ^■<i> iliai It lie iH>t gnvn tfr<j U*.*\ or 1oi> 
(*»)4l. Aiiemiui vrliidi mj Imittuully Boc»m|«»ii«9 tbc iIi^Msaei 
mu^t Iw c<iiulvt1<*<] ; hy|>i^r(<Iilorhydntt, wliicli I* »o )nk|>orlji>it nil 
eliolfigu* fjtctor In lliU vontJiti'itij mufti hImi W ovcn^-Ric* 

BcHi«' Jtvidiv tho tn^tifmciit of uloor of lh^ vi<»mftc1i into 

*Sfa/^ of Unnftrrfniffc.-^lu t\m **ii{r<' Boas mlvi-cs sib>olut^ 
wwl In \K'i\ \ llw iMLlH'iit iiif! l^'iiijii ''von hUoivwI to uri«r for pur- 
pose* of lii'tWiiiioii or iiriiiiiiHm, N<> iioiirMinK^nr iihaU'ver 
^hr^nlil )"< ^ivi*h by llit* itxiiiih. In tviUu^^r iiuliviiliuli* uv^ii iHitri- 
Vlit viicituitri limy 1)M>rnitmt. If ttii? {hulK-iit i» vkv^k or ill IVicble 
cpniiitioji, rcctliii^ liy Ok* itT*uiiii miiy Iw inMiluMl, (8nT ibc 
»ootion no Xiitnctit Km-tiuitu fur the tni-thi*J of prc|Nimtii>ci 
iuhI iil!l!3^ti'in of thiK mmlo of fueling.) Only t^'o or throe 
niitriont oi]4^iiiit:i An- t<k lir- giv^^ti ilnily. Ritnv <<jkrrW uni Hiifi 
|daii for tbn?e nr four duy^. AtWr tliin lie (rra'luailly b^ifiB 
tniiiith-fWditijf, tile iiouTixhtnctil i.H>ii>i-tiojf txclu^flvely of AwuU 
jriven at a temi>enitQrr of W^ to 100^ F. lie pivfei> milk 
diliJtcil witti lintcwwatrr, nitJi t4.11, or with loUcf. In adJUiuu 
be permits bed-tcUf fn^^hly rxpntsiiixl or urtificial Ivecf'jiiice, 
aad egEr-^1ti<^Ti>>'^* '^'^' r9irhr>n!irt*<l ifntvD^, vucU w^ VidiVf upe 
alM> ii*fcfn1. 

After the firnt «vck Hnn.^ iM^pnn the rcpibr T^iilje and 
j^ioiof^i.^n ulcer tmitiiiettt, whii-b lir vmidiM^M at^ i\t^]ovti : The 
patient is fpv^n J liler of CiirUlaiJ wnler, wlorli be drinks id 
U?<d mf^nimj^imd rvenint;. IIoUwiIlt ii|»pIkTatiottH are plueed 
oil the alKl»m^D. Tlie diet during tliU stitp? (H>ii5i»tft niaiiily of 
milk in Aildidon V* other fliiidf^. If iIm- jMilient la very weak^ 
nutrient eoematn muy occii^iormlly be ^*ven. 

In ibc trt«(metit U')nnuin|* with iIil^ tbml n»d continiimg 
diinn^ the fonrtb w(rk IJoiw |>crmit" tbo jwiUitl i*» nx-line 00 
11 ciiudi, and (*<»nlione^ the om' i»f lU* C^irUtmd wiKer, vrhicli 
6b<wld l>e pvrn for lv>ur w«-rk» fmm tlu* time il i# flrvl 
taken; he ndviw** that tlie diet' ■till wiw*! mainly of milk, 
ftltho<i>fh Iv nf>w jtirfnitM the n<lrlitioi) *>f ^)aked /i^'lelmek, 
ficnlcled cniekers and iH^ft rolU. M«flt« (»w«etbreads hmios. 




850 



DIET rX DISEASE. 




mont bjilU)^ fit*li (fiercli. nr»ttrn* in liiniill rYtiantifios), in ndfli- 
tioii U' iIk* Hl'IiI ntl wine and <-]irlK>rtaiHl watvr^, nrv aW 

AltiT tlie foiircla wet'k, if the patient is doin^ xiell, ifoaM ad<ls 
fptim 60 lo 2fK) ^. of niaflhol potatoes, filew<^tl fruits, and 
vejfttaMtt, Huch an -i|j]juu:h, tairRiifi, |M!USt and lumip*, in ihe 
form iif puK-es, lo tlit- dii-'t previ-jii^ly giveu. The meat* — 
broUcHl Tileiikf I'liojw", titui n>ii!^l IjLn-f — if ux'l! o^Mjkwl, win finjiUy 
hty givt^ri ti»or(? iilj*?rally. Aoi.^oi'din^f (o IJiiaw, tlii> pntleiU nhimld 
nvcnd m\v fruit, lu-id and hi^fhly seiLscned fwKb, and alfio very 
hot and v<^ry c<>\d driuk-H, fi>r many ycairs. Even in those 
ca^?H ilk which tht-n^ ha?- \ivca n*) henkoriiia^o B<ms n(?^trl^leIes« 
advisfj* the rt-st Irpatmcntp It ih pciicmllv admitted thnt the 
ref*t cure is (he only satihlactory plan for troutin^ «ifk.^ of nicer 
of the stomach. IjciUx? and Pcni^oldt havt^ devi^ dictarici* 
for ihL'^e ^:ii-i"l'S ; iIh-mt Iuivo Itt-cn ^iviu t'WwlK-n* (ik'i* jj, ^125)* 
The lirtil dietary nhoold bv followed for tt'n (Uy^i ; the j^x^nd, 
fi»r the eacoeeilinp! ten days; ihe thir*l, for about eipht days. 
The severity of the eondilion in ea**h i-a.M? nuij^t, of minise, 
determuie tlie len^i of time <!imng whiclj each dietary ratwt 
he oaiiliuuedp In all instant'e^ milk seemti to l>e the nif&t useful 
form <)f food daring the first wteks of diis rest treatment. 
This plan was earrit-d out many yvsir^ ugo by Cniveilhier in 
hif? Irc-utnieiil of nk*er of tlic etomaeh. Oi?wiMoiially milk does 
not :ipreL\ and »>ulwliTiitcj* nHi*t W ^ivrn in its *ileiiil, t)f these, 
bnHfimilk, koiir, niaT/ix>n, oncl komjM aru (v-|H.'<'iid ly lo Iw 
retv.nimcntlctl- Anmiig other prcpjiralionir that have Ik^o fniind 
nttcfn) 014 f^Miditnro tlu» wpll-lcnowii T^nbe-Itownthal hoef boIii- 
ti<»n, a* re<?i>mnu'iuh'd by Txidv and lUi'^r-nthal, sind ehieken 
and ea!ves'-*riH>t jelly, iif. mlvliiod by Fleiner. 

lu tho«r ci\j*v^ in which milk is not well Ixirne Dcbove siig- 
gn^ti? tluit the nulk Ik.- ]«bwr'd into the stomach dirt.«ngh the 
8toniacEi*tiibe. He fnnid that vhcri >rivcn in (hi* way the milk 
\Ki\^ iieV voiiiitnl. Ftoiiveret itWi reinmuneniltf ih'tn mode o( 
fiHHliii^ in intni['t:ilde oji?<i<n of uk^T. 

Thrrc art' n nunibrr <'f cu»p^ «f nicer of the ?(tomrirh that do 
not yield U> the ordinurv n^i trpulm<»nt iu ontlincMl bv Boae^ 
I^eiihi', iiTid PcitKoldL PoTdciii ' fir'^t dirrHrtl ufU'iilion to th© 
fjiet fhrit exrrlleiit rr^TfulU roiild h' obUttKsl in llit?^ class of 
VJ^^\K by eic<'lri^UYj rcirtjd alinif ntutiini, Hij* traituicrit extended 
over twenty-three <iayfl; *»iree llien Mi<'ali Anderson' and 
Boa'*'* have obtaine<I ejceellent nwnlt* by this jtfan '*f rirut- 



DIET i2S DISEASES OF THE STOMACH. 



'^bl 



moiit in obfitTnace and recurrent ooa«« of ulcer (*f the >itr>tiia4*h ; 
Uk'iffl, toi>, nppmvffi of ihk plan- Hoat4 (rurn(>4 out ox<'lit<iive 
FKial alimentation for ut l«Hf<t ten dtiy^ \ \w then allou.-i lluiiU^ 
sitoh as itiiik, ten, botiilVin, red vinet for 3ome days, and JiDally 
permilf the ]>atieDt to resume liU utuul *liet. 

Tiiere an? a certain iiiiHibiT of light forms *tf ulcer of the 
tftoniacli ill which it is im|H^if^)<iblL- to earn' out the rcbt tmit- 
mcut* Id mch ni»i« Buos iiiivir%tf an umhulufjTy trmtmeiit 
together with ibe a»c of «ilvrr nitmttv Tlie silver ia admi»- 
i»4erod ill eoUition on im 4"m|»ty r^looiAch in from J to J ^rain 
<Iq6««; at the «ame ttmn a rair<?fiilly rrtrolfili?<l *^\i-t ia ^riv*T>, 
' Th^ food coDHip^bH chiefly of milk ami other tiiiids ; in additioa 
he allows teiKter tneab« and HAi, iDa^hcd ik)!^!!!.^^. and vegeUihles 
in the iomi of luiK-^.-?^ (i.^uUion^ly |, all in rnfNlemti' qituniitieT% 

Mtikemi waicr* arr often iittllxisj m ih*: fivatmeulof iiloer 
of the -lotmirli : of the-'^\ CiirUUwl uat(-r« haw hw-n e^p<««illy 
rvt-imirn<iiik*d, hut 8cinit'>^i (Hathoni) mm al^o be umhI witli 
Ix-tu-fit. Thv niiiicnil wulvr in^ilim-Jit rhcmid hv ujiJrrtJilu-ii 
only nt the ^iprin^', iiftrr thr nU^r-v lui-* hc-.ilrti, find iiflcr the 
pnti'^nt hiw iiiHlerp>no iho fc«i cwre» Thr trcjiimmt Jit O^tUUid 
or Sjiraiopa will oft^n prevpni tiip |)4h>^ibi1ilr of rtlnp^eA. Ai^^r 
the ulcer ha« healed, it ir^ important to overcome the anemia 
which if^ iif^nally present in nio^t niM'^ »f enstric ulcer. This 
may l>c aceompli^heil by means *jf the diet t?sec DiH In Ant^mia) 
ft< well a^ by scndii^ the patient lu ponie invif^milinj^ wuicrin^- 
fdiiccor to the inotintBinfl. Iron and anMMiic nhotdd also be 
gjV4m tft «v<»roomc thi» coiM)iclon> They rOiouId iiot> howc\"er, 
bcr |rn'*«rril>c«l until Ujc tilvcr i* bcailctl. 



DlET-LE^rs OF WEflELE FOB LXCER OF TllE STOMACtt 

Lift L— To h€ fnOsv^ ut ifad in iittjf. 







PfolcEtt. 


ru. 


Cwko- 


Uonuif : 


3A0|[fn. aiitk 


. %.m 


11,00 


110 




:£ (mk«« {h mD^ «^^h » 
35A0III. Bulk 


1 ii> 


o.Aa 


7.3 


lOi^clocrkT 


. M-VI 


non 


110 




lnk« . 


. iy.m 


o,2i 


3.7 


Uc/t^lftfk: 


IfiOgnt-bcmflkdi . . - ^ 


0.7ft 


0.45 


0-0 




fta gm. moBi Mlntioa lor mw^ 


. %m 


:too 


X6 


4iyclvk: 


250 0& milk . 


^50 


^m 


110 




3i<ko ■ , ^ 


} 10 


060 


TJS 




]SO|!m. koQiLlon 


. 0.T5 


a-tt 


tlS 




fio froi' ■"**> kjjuiMMi or 1 tfflse - 


. e^ 


3.00 


M 




a«kc. 


. 1.10 


OJW 


7^ 




Total 


J7«l 


»«s 


7ft4 




CUoriM . . 


. 30O 


»» 


SSO 



ib^ 



S^IKT tS DIRKASK. 



Did IL — 7b 6f JoUwvd at itatt wtn dutff. 

Mtoing: S50sm,im1k ,....&( 9,00 IIQ 

StKluH U 0T5 UA 

lOoVIciok: SOO jntj. bouillon »-fl 4.« 3.2 

1 f^jf 6uO a.wi 

Ngou; MivlW iiiK^m , . . , , .22.0 1,00 O.T 

pbciut ^HOirm. nL'ein tx>uilioa . . t>.€ 2.00 i<lQ 

4tfdook: :^0^«-milk . . . S^ fi,0O ja,0 

SoikcH . . . ja 0.6O 7^ 

Stfdock: 150 imj. bouillon 6.1 tiJO 9.0 

100 |:ui. iitttH^r«a*l4 > i8.<) _ 0,*0 

1'^m;iI ._.,.... 90.0 3aJd »0.3 

l^lnri«H. ..,,370 SAO 390 

J^itiiv ituniber of calorics 1100 

Dilt fU.—T'i hf /oihuYxI at Iftat ^m thyf. 

Morning: 2 cup* of ttu aicaSbewaix 100 am. 

of milk a4 3,fiO « 

aOffni iiigd] . . ' ' afi 18.!t 

Sc^k« * . . IJ D.T6 IJJ 

lOo'cUck: SUOf^ni. bimilW U 4M 3.S 

1 CQ^ . . . , t . G,0 6.00 

Noon: SOOgm. «oup _ . . 3.S 0.00 ]'.€ 

ir-OjciiL ki<r«reab ...... 31.0 191 

1(N| Kiti. ini^nboJpotJilow 3.1 0.»5 SM 

^o'clock; i:cuiHtcnwUh lOOKnLmilk ■ ^ S.4 S.GO 4.S 

*JDKm, tuttur . . < t 0^ 18.S 

S^kpi 1.H 0.76 11.1 

£v«zUi«: 101) ^1. K-nipcd him ^U H.10 

20iigm. Hriii ^2 ji.00 lyi 

TotAl W,i Jl.a5 130,7 

f-kloriw 350 sm d^ 

Entire number of aIofIm 1200 

Horning ; 2 cujw ti*[i or rufTi,^\ 100 giDn milk ^.4 3l6 4,8 

^giH, ftugir a* . . 1».S 

miLk-l<ixMl |50|nn, ] 4.fi O.h W.O 

10 o'clock : *Ji)Ogm. I^ouillm S.£ 44 3.2 

1 *CT 6,0 0.0 

NOMI: 21KI ^1- i»iiii . X.!? [Vn 17.0 

160 gm. i^Mirt fowl ?7.C H-O l.T 

lOOgni. aumtAfir Fpt»»ch - . . . l.O Hi «-! 

200 gfTi. Ui^ltF floor rtx-l ..... S1.0 a4 4^0 

ioTclock; 2cknMr.f imwitli tOOiciu. milk ^.4 aa 4^ 

W Kill. sM^jr aO . , 18,2 

iiiilk-iu^»«t 45 a5 29,0 

Emilng; Htf) gin. <^lil ronsi mwii 38.4 2.8 

IMI mil. iitj>Wn 7.0 TaO 8lO 

lOo'clopknt nigli: iSupHi. Miilk 8w3 JU) 3g>0 

ToUl ....,.., IS0.5 03,0 1H9X 

UloHd 40d n^ rM4 

Rnrln-niimlwrAf mloHfA HHMI 




rrncT ly diseases of tub stomacb. 363 

The f^illowiiig lUt, ukeii fiviu Boos' itagmhankhfitm, giv^s 
hu diet in ulcer of the stomach : 

8jLH. : SOOgm. nllkand Aour atfup. , . . 1SL6 

10 A. X. : 20O iciA. liotillLuft wUb 1 cgS SDlO 

13u^dit<t;r aX)icni. nwnaikimiit S8(.-l 

fnrifu mUkbOLi|>[;:±r.-t>»»a|iof 80gm.bp«a>l«n, 

lUfoi. buiur (S82) 009,4 

'IF.H.: auORm.iDllk4134i.«)pn. lC«i4l/^<iroo(l|l49.df . . . . 884.^ 

7i'. H. : 8nii]i nf M> ^11- »H|ji-n biuI 10 gin. atbune^ 164.0 

DtiringUicdajr: 1 tiU«i milk Ul 2, (^ 9 c^dock, SSO itmO 90T.G 

„ . , Tuid J498.9 

Thcmtaeti'M with xhe »^iX\<m <i 100 (mv, nriobnfk. 

„ ^ Total I85t7 

»A, X.. WOgiu- fliilk IW,0 

Vifm. iv^hw^ )7R9 

10 a. 1l: 60ciu.iicrip(i1 nMt(5a5),l rg^ (80) I89l5 

50cm,>«k*l.U. (17^91.3*1 fim, buitct (U&O) 3ll>.8 

«Uli -Jf» jnii' iTiilk , , .ISSlD 

l'i</ck)cki 8oi^ol3(>ifin- Ut>i<xv, 1 iWi lOgm. butler $910 

100 |n. cs]v4*' bmin, awwilirTttil. tml chop, HiklKvi, nlki 

pifwm ]4ao 

3 r. u. : SX> fni. mflk ami tm with 30 ^. Hu^r ISBlO 

50 gm. KviclMok 17R0 

7r. K.; 50 gn. kan liAD . . 2012 

ao gua. twWfaock , 178.9 

SDO fftn. fnilk MIS 

Total ^ Sfil.O 

Lcnhnrbc^ recently l^uuikiu^ a^iiist tlic titriot aWIncuce <liet 
in tho trvntnK'iit of uWr of rht^ ■toniocb, ovi^n lu tlio«t« tD«taDciw 
in whirb (hpn- ih licmttrrhnin-- Hi^ Iia>u« hiH mtk^iutiorifi on 
the fiK*l titiit F^incc iilcxT of the HUmiucli U iu«aC frnfueDtljr 
acr'>in|tnnk-<(] hy rtiiprnirvdily niui *[?«> by nn rtifwlJwl condi- 
tion, it u* In-*! to jrivr pniU'in fot>d cirly lo ovtrtioiDo tbo Jinilitv 
as well nj* to Imil-l ti[» tin- svM<>m. The a<N?i>m[KhDyiTig labfe 
illiMlnitt*? hi^ fti^tliiMl of feeling. 

Dif Aftar lut tfer- 

Km sa4ft«T » » « » » « • a 

NUk .. ..3Do>»i0DUo«»7(n An n*iwnnioaiHniMin» 

SSktZ^ w«r » ^i& a:<» 3X* «-« 3x» 3x» ix» axift 

tli^ iBtiODvtMavuaMw 

/wlf^bHk . . 9> « « <A •* M iO 

lUv lra« •• n M M «9 

Auuer « «a « «o «> 

otiortM ..- .tismarTTtnsiiKiMimi nii «:■ rni »» wov »n 

IV c^pi and millc are giv«>o ice cold Kod in tcaspooaful 
doocfl. Bv meao^ of tbiti method be bos trf«t«d OO cases with 



3M i'XCT /-V DiSEASE. 

gnuifvii^ nr-ulu. In ibik^ In^tAficcs in vbk'b tb«re ha^ U.*i^ 
heworritag^ Uie |tatieiit U kepc ui bed far founeeo day^, and 
an ioe-bag b {>lami uti tbv vXtdum^tt fi^r i«d dav^, Tbia Miinr 
obeervcr *!<« aUvvcat]!!? tbe u^ ^' lui^ (Luh;^ of biamuUu 

CASTRIC HEMOf<RHAG& 

A* *cM)a a-4 hen)""rrimtfe from (lie -^KifiULL-li ijociirs, the patient 
j>lx>iilil U' \'Ui to btd ai>J no* allowed) to Hfc, tvm fur pir- 
|m«?ji of fletecatiit^ or iiriiuilin^. A li^hl ifi-^ljoi^ «l>ouJ(t Ik^ 
plaa.4 over ibe region o( the *tmaai-ii, and u^i fixni ar drink 
whatever prhotild be tiltovcti; in oitW to i|ucnch tbc Uiir^t 
Mrmll tjiLiDtilio^ of Ric 11U15 be ^rivcn the pntU-Dt to BUck. 
N«Kjri-linvo«it raiM be eiittivly hy the rvoiuni ; htit ev«D ihid w 
tiMully iinii«v>'H«r>- fi»r ihe first few iky^. In otxler to combnt 
the wi-akne^ follifwiitg gr«it lo^ of blood xih KitntioDt^ nui^ 
lie injecteil iuto the rertuoi, or if the patient is very wmk, 
foffee, m«it-jiiipe, or whi*ky nmy be added to the etiema. In 
very grave cuse^ salt JnfuAiuns musi be re^jirted u^ 



DIET IN CARCINOMA OP THE STOMACH. 

Bom diviilc^ iho In^jilmritl *ii' »';mivr of iIh' *<totit:ii^h Jnlo llie 
irftttnuoi of <^iT»rt-r nf \\u^ axnUin^ jHirtion of dke ^lomacb und 
ihflt of (he body nf the *tnniJK*H. 

In thi? rmamciit uf cancer of the cardiac portion of 

the stomach llie <ii<-l ^IjtHild i>e i;nch n^ will I'nvi-iil, Mt far 
41* l>i^\h)i% mty irril-'inoii t>f t\w tWirva^x] uiid Hiefi-iisii<l <?>i)p!ui^nis 
mid ^tom:lelu SuHd^ ^himld, tlien-fore, l»e avoitletl. Milk is 
tile food lliut ij> UMDiilly t»ei<t liome in thii; disevse. It nui be 
rrndcnd rnoiv' Tiiifrillon^ In' the ii<1(]itioti of ^oiatc^e, Xirr^tlf* 
ffKwI, ".'Pir*. niul tUr like, Ik-^iflt-"^ ibis broths of »It k[i)d#, 
em«Ki, milk with t^i ttr oiffco, or biitu-ntiilk may \k gi^-vu. 
Sleliring'i^ Vig«r Chor-olatc U tiH^ful for tujiplyioj; fut, 

A« lUHin nA difRoiihr nn>i«q m swallowing lii[ni<l>t, ^putrnt- 
omy frfaould l>o ]>erfnrm€tl, in order to si]|>|>ly thr nimrii^hni^U 
which it IP ini|H»'*:ilfl<.' lo jki^ in dipint'h eIk- r«i|kim^i^ If 
Ibi;* lim^ihm- i?i deemcfl inadvisable, nuiru^iit eiH-mntji mar be 
r^irt'd to. 

la \ht* ilieieiic trtiitrnciit of cancer of the body of the 
stomach niitk liktwl-c^* (arniii the moM iinfHjri^int artirk> of 
tiJi-L Hji* niun- i.-n."*ily di^stiblc fvrius i)f nifal, such u* swcet- 
hrc«dr<, Jicrn|)td href, bmiiKi and stewed ehickai, are permits- 



DIBT ly I>tSRASES OF THE STOMACH. 



3fi^ 



filth may U* ?^iitKtittiri.il fur il ; of thtN'^r iHtilMl m:u<ki<n'tf nx-k, 
))Ad<Wk, lip tftnil «re in l>e nvinmiiHjikJ, t*f Uw vi-p.iabk-*, 
tn;L--«hi.Hl [itiUtKH.'^, Hpinaclk, wftrn^ta*, |)rtLs Ixati!*, iyiiilill*AvcT» 
if ma^lii^^l niiil r^lmiiUHl mi iu Ui rid clK<m 4»f <vlftili>Hi% nro 
iidtni^i-ible ; rm% tnrinn, and f^rni-^lun^h with iitilk ^irt' 31U0 
vidtiablf fi>rmp» of linid. Milk wUh t<?*t» roflir, nr <Hrf*<iu, <-r 
wuw ur wUUky, m:t^ l>e givcu fur lb« tljin*U Fluids ?djim)d^ 
liow<rvci', be lukeri iu f«nia)) (|U4iititic^-< at a timr. In urd^r tc» 
supply l!ic» n<HM*«Miry <juiiuiUy uf lUl, ImCti-i' or AI*'liniig'* \"ig<*r 
Ct^ickljiu* t% ut bt? ri'CKiiniiit'n'U^L In iln-*4> «ij«** It iit nftcti 
ini[Hfrtunt to prouiotir tlie ^'titrml niilritJui liy nuaii^ iff rtvtal 
ttliiiK'nliiluiii. la cOMs of muocr of Uk- etoinucb ttKj Hbuudiiiit 
n dU'i Mli4>iild imt V* iii^i^tMl ti[)nn, fw itc bc^t but little ivn 1>c 
g-Atiied by thU mcUiiMl uf tmitrnt-tit. 

Duf'tiii firr C^nftr o/iht SomacAt iw ^ivtH bjf Book 

di*V.: lOTJifTii. niilkftntl («« (07^'l),Msin. Ewictvck (ITlFfi, 10 

KOI. biltta 171.3) . 336.00 

M m, iDCuUil bmkil - ■ 129,V0 

or im i^L talrcv' brmlli (MO), mvwtbnwl (1K»», S 

ISo'cbck: taOfnMElIk ;>na rkv . ^ 1^*0.00 

JOO^L vwl H2,i''i 

M am. xnnnirmi , ... 1^.30 

3p.m.; ieOgn.inuMliu»k {«7^V50pn.«lpwrl'47t . . . 2M.A0 

It^tLi 100 ifin. riTviii - - . 211-40 

A0Km.nrittbirk.iatDi.boil»rfT]J).30 rit.btmM31t 3T&3I> 

(p.«.: 50«m.fmm - . I0T.:K> 

TottJ aOlft^TA 



J^-Iul 9/ lyf^tjh^ OtMrr 0/ Mf- Stomofih. 



Mximipg; 
Voons 

Erinia^ : 



I'Mj inn. rfiAlTnlvKUDiIcKMie fvun . OtO 
200 jcm, Ufir. . . 0-fl 

1^ irijk. iimhott«ijniriKH-)nU|i ■ 1.0 

tOOcui. wmif^Uwf 31X0 

]'>0 rm- mallolaniMiinav cima . M 
tOOsria. wnjivd biiD ^ ^ - 5S,0 

IfiOlCm. laiiiaiiM .,-..... 7,0 

SOOxra^beAr 04 

with llkv kvttr» ^ K*^ <^W*c - - ■ 

^im. xwidnck .,.._&.« 
T*ital » . . ,*.,,.. iC4 

Ckliirt«* 3ito 

&itin immher of cwlonM - 



AOinmii, VM. 
UO 

ai6o 

&O0 
4.00 
&» 
5.00 
4M 



Ch4«- AIm- 

hrlnM hoi. 

8Jt ].0 
9.8 

las 



3T/U 



(».0 

as 

E2.0 

460 



14J) 

too 

13A0 



Sfi6 MKT jy PEiSASE. 

Tlie atithore lia\'v f<.>iiiKl the followtt^ di^t-Iut luefu) in mftny 
caiM^ of cAucer »>f the stomach ; 

B A, iCl 150 ffa. EniJk with to lOaO 

Kt fftn. t<knic lAaO 

IOjlM.: 100 gm. l«kod troui _ , tCNLO 

100 gni. vUk (N 30 gn, tSnopvpiuB (57^) 6TjO 

lOflm. batiar 8U) 

ftO gm. loM . _ . 1300 

50 BTQ- fliorrr ., ... ...,..,.-. 6(10 

lljc; houillon viiu'-^gm. Kiniflio«e IILO 

100 gm, diidcii) lOftO 

or lUQgiu. mlvto'MMtftbivwljBO) 
<ir lOOffin- mlTt*' bnli]« (140) 
u^llK)^|||. H^iuh llW) 

BA Alii- mnmriHii , - {120 

100 gm. nmnfiix] |iriUl{<^ ' -,..->. \Tt-0 

Of loo ffiii. tplrnrh I IfifiJ 
or IftJ lETn^ i^jminjfii* 1 18) 
25 gni- »Jtnl^ whrai hty^aiti -..-.,...,-' 090 

4nMii ^ ^ru. Lotihi lao.O 

aOgiH-burtiT . , . . ! L6ZD 

^0 gm, fnvinrf - - - . - - 0^0 

Tr.M,; UiO ictji. iiiilL V 100) BiOi '>iriij, HiiimUw (16). - - '116.0 

IIHJ ein. rirt? (.^I'lhrtt in milk 177^ 

"11 pii- wiu-fii hreftt. ...,......,.., 130.0 

V l\ M. , 30 gin< ?au^>]fv^j|vii ^7.g 

DIET IN GA5TROPTOSIS AND ENTEROPTOSIS. 

AMiilc the trcaitiiK-nt of g;i*.ih'ptn>t> ;md l■n^l'^^.ip!o^L^ is mainly 
1]ii^''ljiiiLicul, — ixxfiiinik^ iIr- iim.' of \:d]-B[tin^ nliiloiiiuiA] baiuf- 
agef<, lUiWiwige. ami clcctriciiy, — imich can Iw nccomplttLoii by 
pp^jwr care in ihe tl'wU Ui.>mnrkiiblc I't^tiltt^ are Innjiionlly 
ohUitnfHi from refit r?iiK«, tli(* ivitient beinj; compelled In i-emain 
in ihi^ rwamben! po^itiuu fr*r a long |ieri(xl of lime and to take 
liii^M] Hunt i ties of tcKHl. Pntient*^ aEHicicfl with tlie^^ cimHitioiiH 
shouM lie down after eating, Tlio diet i^liould bo very noiirMi- 
injz;, and should contain f^omcwbat large pruj^trtionn of fattv 
foodr^. IMdk 1?^ tm excellent food in nmny ca^^^ and, where 
it is well Ixirne, nuiy Iw taken in largi' quantltk'K M'lien milk 
IH not ^ttl Ikji'Iii.', M>liil t'MrtU iiiUMt be adi)>tni>li-rvd. Of tlie*e, 
all formA of dii^^tiblo ineol^'^ cjtn n^unllv be allowed, Hieh a^ 
<rhiek«fnT roa^l-l>wf, broiie<l fctoak^ nod lamb cbojw ; fjhh nf 
various kindn and dipwriSle vegelabW are al^o permts^ihl^; of 
the vegetables efpociolly to l>e r«x>mniende*I are ^pinaeh. car- 
rots, a5parag!U?^, ami caulifli*Mer: of i]u» fats, butter, eream, and 
MehringV Vigor Cliocobife nrv |>urticuiariy iisefnh 

In onler to ovcrconiv tht wvor*> i.<oDF^1i]iaiion accompany log 
tbcfio coDditioiitf, tVxMl.^ thcu L*xcitc iut<;!4ttiiut perUtuUn ar« esp^* 



!>tST ry DtSKASES OF THE STOMACff, 



357 



cially to be re<vhmm<^nflHl ; nnmo^ thew mtiy be mentioned 
cider, biiilemjilk, gnipe-juice, fniils, nncl honey. 



DIET IN NERVOUS GASTRIC DtSORDERS. 

Nerrous Anotexla, — In ihi?^ ropditiou il U important W* 
imlate the pati<.'nl fn>ru fiih liimity* Jlilk, in giwIualJy increjis- 
iji^ (|U3Utitiu% mud, if |K>««ibk-, otLt-r f^Kls^ »lmuld be giv^u. 
If t^tv pacif^t iioen Doi fako sitfficieul thkiinF-biuenti nutrkut 
«iM^matu -iliouI<l b<^ Aflmmitrti^rttit i>r tbc |ioti(*tit luay l>e fi-J by 
iiMiiti^ of th4> E^tonmob'iiilie. Tbe (oftA should ho |fLv«*n in a» 
o(ftiUT*uiril«<l and ntJtrititWH a form &4 |Misdible; for thU jiurpo»e 
<^;^ are Hiiitable- Soniat^)^ should be added try t)te luilk, 
Frequ«itly chmb of anorexia are c<*m|>Iolcly cured by a well- 
rc^kted rest care of fmai mx to teu week-H' dnmtiou. 

NcrvotlS Vomiting. — Thif* in often overcmoe merely by 
W>l»tj^»n and cimugt- of ^eene. In ^verecai^f^ jxatieoui should 
Ik platvil iu beil ; ilvy are btwi M on wuu-<ilid or litjuid 
f<wxl, since iho latter ia imitv i-o^ilv rvtaini'tl ibiin nolid food. 
It nbouM Iju pvLii in v<tfy Htiiall f^iumiitiL^; i^-'mpt'd l«Hrf, oggit, 
ru*p, nml tua-*! are ft^|M<oially nsefnl. Cnu'kiHl w will oftrn 
aiTrin) rvlirf- The most indigestible form** of focnlM are fro 
'ineittly \n'll bonie vbeii the mri^t di^cestibir nrr x|N.vfli]y 
Vi'miced. In w^-en? caj^^s ibe pnlietit t«boulfl (je fed for M^ine 
dars exflhuively by reetal alimentatii>n, 

Nerrous Sttbacidlty and Anacldity. — Tlie food nbould 
be ^\v*'l\ in sfiiali ijriamiiies an'I freijuently. The diet need not 
be limited to narUjbydrate food, but should be a inixud uiw;, 
rtince tbt' iiiU'?4Jin.' iak<-^ up the wirlc of t\w r^ronipcb in iligtwt- 
ing fliv |irntein fuod. A nM^n* ext4ni]-i%'e diitrripci'm of liw dirt 
to Ike UH*<t will tte fimnd in tbe wtf^on on llie Diet in Arjiylia 
(itft^ti-ii^i- 

Dict in NcTTOas Dyspepsia. — In tiiU c^niKlition the diet 
flbi^ild i»ot lie t<xi rwtridwL Stn-nt'tbenifi^ f^iod, without any 
altempt at a loo rigohmn di^t, ^h^jiild \te preficribed. In tbo^e 
ra^^en in which milk in well lolerated it should be driven in large 
qnantititn; wJwn if \^ mn well borne, IniUtTEnilk^ keflr. or 
KUniisd mny Ik- nuti^titiil*-*! f^r il, Tlte pvtitriit'Ft £tpj>oti1c! aljitold 
be humored, iuhI ho nlkonlf) be atlou-^l t« ocit any fotnl hv vun 
dij^ptct vVle-jholio vtiniuliinffi abould be pn^hibiu<d, or ^jvmi 
only in very Mmnll f|iiauti(ie?^ In ieven* eim^ a writ-cfia- 
dticteil rwrt enre will |ir*Klu<'(' the Uert rewlts. 



3^ 



DiET IS DtSEASK. 



( FL»r ihe fin« hii dnjr* (if tiuaiiuunL | 
7.^ A, It. : 4 lil^i' milli anil 2 Kri^Nick. 



10 A.tf 



5h3(1 
dr. 



r. 31. : t 11 



_ lltttr milk anil 1 ivIcbacL 

A film* <if -i^iip tvlth I ^'gg, -ll) gnJ- lirnilnl mcnl, iitvT numliivt 

lUi-( iiillk jmJ I vKlt-Wick- 
YiU't (iiUk hint 'i Rwl^hiirh- 
VilifZ milk, ^ trni. bratud lUMt, nvitJi hrvo^ uid l>utt«r. 



[Vitv nSi^h U) nn^nth lUy or tmUDt^ni.) 

7.3D A, tf. : { lii'<r milk hiuI '2 in m>Iiu>'1i, 

&30 A. M. ; O^ffw jiml i-^Hirtm, l>ri^il »ii(l Imik-r. 

10 A. )L : } lilri utilk uiiil 'I f wic<bnc:li. 

1fi¥. ; I Ul><rNiilk. 

1 P. U. : 8(ni|> 4itJi l'£)f, KNI >riil rJLJ<^1, ltt:i>illL-d |M>taUx<e, TfigUL pnUHSk 

^30 V. M- : 4 Ulri' iiiilk- 

H P. H, : I ViWv rnilk. 'W* ^iji. m«il, bixwl anti iHiiier, 

9.30 f. M- - i liU'i milk, I JLWiL-Iiui-k. 



7A.Br.: MOmiL, milk . . . . . , , . IT.O llLS 24^ 

HUiBlTviift r>f (uiliv or un i20 ifiii, ciratn) 0.7 ^0 1X7 

SOjoH. *=oU mat SU.?< 10 

8A.kL: Milk-tMLHi 4^5 O.ft ^0 

SO»fin. bntu-r ........ t}.^ IM 0.1 

100 Kin. UkiHl potdiooi \A 10.0 25.0 

]0a. iL: 300|u:i|]. Miilk . - 10;2 10,^ 14.4 

KooDi aOOini, milk - - - 10-2 10.9 11.4 

20(1 (fiii. wup «i Itr lU 

Ml Kiu. iKH^f . 7tt.4 M 

) p, W. J aWJipn. iminloT^ ft,3 K7 42.« 

l^'j^ni. fimiiw 0,4 . H.S 

200inii. u1 fiirtTuimju« twAot nxjy hM l^H -il,^ 4'^," 

aSOp.K,: AOOffm. milk K-0 1<3 24.0 

SDOieni. milk lOJi 10,9 U.4 

G.30P. M. : HOuiii, ruia mt^t - . 30.^ 2.0 

niilk-(i^«hl, 4r> 0,ft 29,0 

'itigi]]. IiikUt h ..,,*. - 0^ 119 O.l 

Bp. «,: finiriij, I.R.(lr-liTn.'«i - 30.9 2.0 

4ff|Eiti^ aiwi#-lvirk ..,,... (iA Ti.^t 3^? 

BOO^. luilk - 17.0 J4S LM,» 

9»30f. M.: W)ifm. ihilk . , 17.0 Ifi^S '.MO 

!i<)gi]i. Kwii.-TKirk tu _a.rt n;,fi 

205.0 10^8 ShO,2 

DIET IN HYPERCHLORHYDRIA OR HYPERAaDITY. 

Dy the term Ijvperchlorhvilria h meant an ircrea^p in the 
■weretioii ofmurmiie ackl in the Biomach, In tlit treutmeiit of 



DIET is I>JSEA8ES OF THE STOMACH^ 359 

this conditum tbc ni^un object u lu pr^'eat thU iiicTnLflo in 
acid ; \\\i^ b In^t iK-dimpii^liv*) by rt^gulatiou ofttie diet. All 
irriljuin^ f-nU, >*ik-Ii i\* *[»i*x'-* or (^i.tuiliim'iit^ (["t-pinT, miisianl, 
viiK^r), ^'ilitruKI In- uvuuk^i, itiul \hv lUc of hit Htrong akf>holic 
bcveiiip-4 ami of luinl Mjlititiincn^i^, which ttrc»|Tl to iiTitiit4< llu^ 
.■•UicnuA^li, HuHi iiK nul--«, fthimti] 1h- iiiU^rdicU-^l- FihxI ijiujiI be 
tl>i>niu^)ilv ni^L''tI(<»i4i[. HiiU ■■1i<iLd<l Im* ukiHi iH-ilWr 1ix»cnlil itor 
to» hfit. The cbh&e of fcKHli ilint MX'iii Ui he l>e't tmilctl arc tke 
prtjUriiiM, tfin<w tWy f^omUttic with nm) thort'fnr^ ii«uti'nllz<' the 

rxciTKA of iK-u] ; for I hi" rt^i^iti iUxlK f^mtiiinin^ an n1 dnnoe 

of jirouiri, Mich ii* ("p^, m«H, uiwl fi*li. tiuiv Ix' given quilo 
frvi'lj' ; mH>o}iy<lmk'-^ *hoiiIil he ndintiiUk-rfU Jti tumuli qimitUtit?^ 
ai)d in llic niu^t di^'!T^ih)c fornia. 

ftruchfr'9 Tk^lt.* shotting the /^iiyf t^Pbodt to (hmltinf vritK JfCt, 

airt^ bniiif, brilcd 066 160 &'J0 

Lir«r MDMi^ 080 &tO I5.«> 

€hlv«^ tk^mtv. WUd. ■ 0l9O :tA) T,W 

ll«t«un0B LOO -JOO KOO 

Cerr^iM Mome i.ltf 4.-I0 ».»> 

Jtliioil mimm IM «^ 10 Ul 

Ptork^bwlrf IM MO ]i80 

l^bidkd }M 7,33 M-IQ 

Hum,ni« }M 7jtt 3^^ 

Mutton t>uiftsl 19(1 7.ft) 25.20 

B«td;bofM -^OO flUOO 14X0 

VoiLMli^l tLSO fi^ ]7ja> 

Lmbe-BoHDiliilinHtt «»lutiuc . - . . 2.30 ttW }7M 

IVrr aiO a40 QJiO 

Miik lanjilvwofdilTcnriil kiDKb), . • OM 1.41 tM 

While hraii) OM IM S.4> 

4»i>ih.m hf^il ^..040 IpA) S:4» 

Black Urrmd \mj ImJ) <U0 MO AM 

Puinui-midwl .,....,.,. ,^ (LTD SLSO IjG^ 

"IUnd"«liMM 1 ^ . . . IJIO 4jM &a> 

l-VrngvikBrifr . . IJO &.» 30^ 

EiknchMW 1.4U AlRO 1L3> 

-'DNbftMn'*tiltM«« l-TO lUO !It«i> 

Pm ■«««« 1.70 U» 10^ 

ReMwrovt £10 1140 Jfl.|B> 

SoW cli«*ii» 2^ ta-lO fOJO 

Chom 4 m 10.411 ^m 



Flciwha- ii]i« invrHtiKtitc^l tbi- wibjcrt of ll»e coiiihmiitij 
effpcl of mitri»tic lu-iti wilh vnnoii*- fotxU; Iw* Ji^^ovonHl 
tluti \M^i\ w^l, hum, iktiil mnft'in hind tuler a-« cui<'h tnn- 
riutio ncid tUi do ailv<i»' hndiin nad !*w»x-ihiv"il?t ; the fin*- 



ttO JitET ly DISEASE. 

namoil oJit*<« of mo^ti^ are tlu-ivfuiv most suitable iii oo»(iitions 
of liy|)er<'hli»rliy(lnn. In luldilion, Fleischer mentions llie fol- 
lowing jLTlii'leii of f'W-i t-apjibU^ of himling tai^^ qnaiitiues 
of miirialic acrki : ]K>rk, cbeej*e, saii-^agej liani, Gmliani brttid, 
milk, mid €OQoa* Farinaceous foods are not well lolpmted jo 
thiti condition, ujid lutial Iw ^ivni eilbvr In a vtTv dige&tible foro> 
or, bct*t, ciimblniHl with pn^Kiu f-h^d. Only i\\v more digVHtibU 
vcgiWik-* art* to l>t^ ullovvoil, such tA% iimvh*^*.! pnliilfie^, ^piiiaeh, 
ft«|uirajcii's iHiiMi and i^inut^, ^lniii)r<(] and mU'n to the form of 
piirto^ Fiit^ tond l*) l^'*7^.■n Uionridity of thftpLitric s<^relion, 
Uid arc therefore t^i bo recoiiHik-rulfil ; tliey nrc lH'.Ht i^ii'en in ibe 
fbrm ofbutUTjercsimf olive oil, And lli<likt\ Of iheHnkU, ulka- 
Eineminr^rat wau-is, thwU as A|MillitiAns, Vichy, and Selixer, are 
€iipecially u^fiil ; the ^arlHin dioxid conluitiKl in ibe^ waters 
[iroduoeH a TtHladve efftHi and U'-««^as llic stHrretion of lu'idjif. 
The.-H.- wiitc<rA uiav Ih; u.hkI i« ddnle milk ur winr. The tabic 
on }', 3.'SJ*, taken from Fleisoher, abowe the ability of \"nnoiia 
focKi* to eombinif witti muriatio wcid : 

In nrrnn^ing tbt? dirt for jintienf^ with byjicrrhlnrbydrm it hits 
been fifund lM><tj in ti»e authoiH' cxiwrienw. in dtidin^ with p(L- 
tienfii taking Imt Wuh noiiri^hineiH, to all*>w tlii.-m t^ ejit at 
frtHjiient inttrvnU ; if, however, lar|re mcuU »re eon?*uriKHl, it \$ 
advisable to permit only three tneal^ n day^ nllowihjr the gtonnioh 
to rest during^ the IntorvaU. 

The following diti Iulh \h^vu ii>ed wJUi advantage by tlie 
autliofs ii: ca>*titt of bypt-rclilorliydriu : 

CiloriM. 

8a.b1,: 200 i^. mill: Anvorvd with l«ft ISA 

2 wfl^boilul C!g^ 100 

6(' ITin, Ifuuit - - 1U 

■lOictn. biiiler - , . - - . H26 

IDa^N.: 60giii. r>hmrv (^) vthUl ckk (SO) 140 

t2 M.: lOOcm. chicken for liroileilmMt of BoniekMI . . lOG 

lOOgm-m^shHl potniiM^ . I2T 

100 Em, ?pirincti . ]€6 

i^r 101) i^Mi, nAfiamiciiM (18<^). 

1Wh1ii> ftt'fl'od np|>l« M 

c^r 100 j^i. ^^itfwrJ j-niTw* >■<«.>«.... 44 

(k> c;!!!' fTJilo vhiuc brvfttl ...,., 1G4 

4PpM.i 150 ^Ji. milk HW 

&0 ifniH orvokvtv . , . m^ 

C^i.buitcr . , 4UT 

7 KU.: lOOirtn JEiilk dnror«d wjlh t«a 1^7 

1 h^fi-K-iluil e^v fiO 

50tnri tfiwl i:iO 

2Q jpi. buLter J^ 

2470 



^^^^^V DIET iS DISEASES OF TBE STOMACH. 


301 1 


^^^H IH<UiitJt>r f^MlknU Kith Oostric ifyprrm^iity.MMMtrt) 


^M 


^^^^^^F f-rmtti 


AniH 


Cfjm 


C«J- ^^1 


^ tttittttu 




OrtCL ■ 


^^U Inlhvmondn^btivteuTaudSuVWk; 50Oc^ 






J 


^^M of tnilk, 40 kul lont SCU 


IM 


&&.8 


4(3 ■ 


^^U In ihtf mureiiuE ^ lOc/floclr: TO tfiQ- of broiln] 

^^U tmI (or 100 m. of "leutil ivnT withoui the 

^^K or fowl, 30 jniK uf toaM, 1 tfv, J xvii-dnL^k 






^1 






^1 






^1 






^1 


^^1 (JO nu. 1 1 4ir u LUer vf win* : . . , . S2.S 


no 


90L9 


3W ■ 


^^H Twivv u'clopk ni>a«i: Frrocti toijjt, viih ^qIIg 






^1 


^B 4>f«vig M 


9.3 


7*7 


lU ■ 


^^H 140 lem. ol broKM <ir boitnl f>>wl, ruiKl niMl, 






^^^B 


^^H p>1^« or hii4<b^. sod sm. of mir nit«l a« 
^^B bwffCcflk, or 100 cm, of djmJj HiopiittJ bfiilti] 






^^^H 






^^H 


^V b««r or flUa <I2.S 


10.4 


4 , 


STS ^H 


^^H Aaf4nun» wi<l> nvam ftniT^ (■ Uw hc*^ of 






^^^H 


^^K MMinguBudlmlf aapoanriiti>f gnTjr^SOfm- 


1.2 


IM 


67 1 




IM 


&.a 


250 ■ 


^^H ( Htv nmill Clip of bWk <«i0«^- 








^^H In thv anrnioHQ it 4 i^dock : SAO ipn- of milk- 






H 




13.3 


44,6 


385 ■ 


^^1 In tb« evmtntf m 7 o'elock : 70 gm, of oold 








^^H !>«■< with 100 gm. vT UKArjvHv, SO ^. of 






1 




&4 


IM 


2!3 M 




e.1 


M 


^H 


^^^ Tottl IfiM 


9M 


idi^ 


33ce ^^M 


^^^H I>UtM$t/or JfypfraeitiU^.—iJVhffU), 




H 


^^^^^F rt^'tin 






^^V Morning: 100 (BJ- le« «iib milk X4 


3.6 


l.» 


^^^H 


^H 3 fvft-lbiM riQP 110 


10.0 




^^^H 


^^B Foftttooa; lOOfw-nvfauu - . 3&.0 


B.0 




^^^H 


^^^^ Micnui . 10 


13w& 


1.7 


^^^H 


^^^^^^B SOO cii^ AlrtiRJCOt uiv*\ broth 






^^^H 


^^^^V 1 lOnU'AUunMinlioSOOlirvUi) 






^^^H 






^^^H 


^H [20Km,D«tiiw«lt4>S60bn>tli) h tO.$ 
^H Noon: IMI jrm. hedbl«>k 5&.0 


1.7 


&0 


^^^H 


1.7 


8.0 


^^^H 


^^H JOo jnu. mubod polsiom . ^ . 1LZ 

^^H inOfni- whtiv vinv witli Sun- 


ao 




^^^H 






^^^H 


^^1 t^a. Vl^liyor DiUner vitcf 




3Ji 


ao ■ 


^H AJI«flVM»: lUOffm. IM -....., 3.4 


3.6 


4J) 


^^M 


^^B lUtgnLcmm - ... :1.0 


13.« 


K7 


^^^1 


^^1 ETfnleg; ^ftn-mUmmK ■ ■ <0^ 


4.0 




^^^1 


^^m S WT«mhM«iiiFSlOO^.wii»o 


3^ 




&0 ^^ 


^^H AtiDviiltinm: 1^0 in. AUamonlliflft ^.3 


1.5 


«17 






fkO 


1£0 


^H 










^H Total . . X3SL3 


«a.t 


14^1 


i&o m 


^H flilttriM MXO 


7«ao 


iinoo 


1120 A 


^^H Eblin ABnibef of cnloriev . 






:m42 m 









362 



DIET rS IflSKASE. 



DIET IN INTESTINAL DISEASES. 

The diet play* ijuit*- a^ important a r^»lc in iIk' iroatnwnt of 
diB^aaoe of the intvenne as it thu^ in ih^ tr«atm<?nt of gn^lHe 
HiMirilpiv, 111 T»)flnv iiUP-tinnI rlUttirliaiirv*^ tinrli a^ anite ITI- 
f«^titi:il catairh, ilmrrht'u, etc,, c^ln?^ vnw <'\\vn Ix? etft-cletl hy 
diet alone, when without thU mtxlc of treutui^it the dihea*^ 
iiii]H:ht become itttnictuble. The diet in inte^tirifil clnease.s 3f^ 
in piitric dfsorden*, niH^t be ^uch as will pnxhice no annoying 
Mmptiini^, Tile |inii:i.-is of (li^">lioM in tlu- iitt^'^tiiie it^ ex- 
ceedingly CifDipliHileii, aiiii iheixrtore the dige?ftihility of foods 
ID this part of the nlinieiitJiry tmct i» nnW difficuli lo deter- 
inii^c. This eiibjeiTt wa« stiidlixl by Kfibner,' who dHcnuined 
the do^rrtx? of abt^orption of vario[|« f[x>de in the iiit^tiue> 
The following table gives hi^ rwullii : 



I'Otid-UuJTk 



W#l|ffacafuqw 

mtrwD*. 



AbioitMa In ivrwaijff* vr~ 



U«fi 



Milk tlMl\ t>lKt«» 

While bitud . . 

Blavk hrvEul < - 

Mttnirinii . . . 

lodlun ortm • . 

Hicc 

Fgq 

Potntoa- . - - 
OibbMB. - . . 
OuffOii .... 



VS4 

2470 

m 

1360 
760 



63S 
000 

3ors 

3S30 



376 
247 
^\^ 
420 
753 
7m. 
G2fi 
941 
?80 
5fi£ 
521 

40fl 
363 



^1 








(v; 


97 


95 




96 


97 


95 


, , 


n 


94-99 


96-97 


109 


94 


9^ 


iff 


100 


9^ 


81 


J , 


n 


ftJi 


«8 


, a 


09 


m 


ei3 


« 


90 


BS 


S> 


Kfl 


VT 


90 


m 


91 


va 


9« 


80 


Kl 


09 


PI 


ftS 


, , 


00 


91 


rt* 


90 


00 


86 


^ 


91 


S6 


7» 


01 


M 


S£ 



OS 
61 
» 

oa 

M 

TO 

:o 

00 
SI 
01 
7B 



Tl is tliu#sbown tbat certain forni'^ of focxls contain vht Iai"^ 
pro[M>nions of protein muiterj bin tliat Uiar jib&arbabilitv is m> 
slij^'ht thnt (heir initriiive ^'alue ia far lower than ihat oi fouda 
c/»utaiiiing lo^^ prfiteiii- Thus, while peas contain ooiiflidera" 
bly mori? prot-*in (7 |>er eoat.) than does milk ('J-7 |H-r eent,), a 
much smaller |>i"oi>rrtiim <*f jkri>teiii is ab^iirlMHl in the cfist of 
the former than in ibat of the latter ; on the other haiui, ihv 
abM>rbubiii(y iJe|>e]i<lH greatly on the mode of prei>aration of 
the foml ; vrhtji} vegetable?" lire maF^hec] aiul then strained ho tu 



DSBT IS tyTESriSAL DiSKASBS. 



3ti:S 



to rM tWm o1* tlirir cx^llitKbH' t-iivrlikpi^ tliry an* miioh inirrv 
rcfiulilr libfrorWil eI»m> whni otitciii witb the o<4Iu1<iav*. TW 
dig^tiljility iif cfn-tjiin 1<hhU in thr intiwtiiu- vnrii^grmFly wirlt 
diRercnt iiulividnnl)^ For tlii* n-jsoii cxiict niW in]UU'>t l>o 
forniuliLtc^ iu unv i-ii>(% but tliv ilict mn>^c Ik* vurk^l iu<cutiUii^ 
to indivicluul (xvaliiiri(i<.^. ikxi.-^^ lia:* e;cprc«wi kii^ o}iiuion 
on \\m fvulyivt u# folluvkt : 

" I. Id « number of iniv»utui] dia^^u^i-^ it oliaugv of diet 19 
niiti(oe*e>«in' »r iimy ovci» Iw luiriiifiiK 

"2. In Tftinw i.-nj>t* :*|HvLiI ilicttlM? n^^trtctioiM mv ciirtclly 
indictttcil, biit tlw^w ?i!>ottM be a-* few <w |»o*<iblc. 

"3. In annilipr M>ruw i>f <*:tM^ nil abtmtlant, hwvy, ttot 
PORily ilt^'stilklt' or ji1iMirKil>le <Uot Im imliVrnli^K 

" 4. The irvMiTTil aitit i>f inir Inattucnt ^loiilti alwuvn Iw.' l« 
40 tuaua^ the o;i«4' Wfon- ti« time ilig«>lt(tii i>f n iioniml JJet 
will nU':iy« oc<!iir ill tlu* ulimeiit^in' i*uiki1 without any MihJM-- 
tivf or ol>j<:Vliv<" clii^turlwina'*. Uivlcr tbum.* i-ircniiiirLUuiwv oi»ly 

Aroonliti^j 10 tiK-ir rfRvr on }nu*%tin»l iktimhUj*, l\»od* may 
l>c (Uvicl'ii into thixv chivn** ; chi»M" iDiUiring ntnMJ|Kilio]i ; 
iluwf |>rvKlncitig a laxative (•ffcot^nml llioi*c ^xcrtinj^ now|K'rial 
c^<vt in either (ltr<y<lioEi. \x\- tW ItiMt oUms are fhcM? louiti 
cnniJiioitij- ail ;tAlring(-nt, miHi :ui t.nnniii : Aiiu>ng th^^^ may \w 
mt^ntio&ej <?cnniti nxl vriiit^ oxija, unil tea, Ri<^, Ta|>iooii, 
bttrlt*y, xipj, nia<^^iroiii. timl ixXut^H-s huvi* a 1<-ndeoc>' to |tro- 
dQocc.inH|i|Maioii in many iiKliviJun)?^ 

Aii>«iii;r th'- hi^iitivf finxi- miiv U^ niL-nti<fik-il fniii* anil <vr- 
Uiiii vi.^-mbli'^, a^ onoiiinlH'lS ImuutcK-*. and ^'ubba;^- ; cul^ft 
buttcniitlk, Ik*i-t, iiik) tift- ciirboiuitetl n-iitcn> iil'fo tXi*rt a Lixa- 
tivc effrtt- 

In \\u-. ihinl oIaju, fnmU that Iwivc no cflpcnal cflWx od the 
iiiri-<tiim1 riH>v<"Tiw']it*, in:iy be Jilac-i^l nK«(ji, fi-ih. f>?Ki*. toaHt^J 
br(.^hl, sn<l irt-M'Imrk, It nin«i t* lY^trmbcrtil, howov^^r, that 
ecrtiuii RxaU ih»t ]imvi< Inxative in oiie indKndual tnay )h> oon* 
^IMitiDK in niiotlK-r, >*> tbut ii4> precise nile^mu be fortuiiUi<Hl ; 
tti i^ochcHfti- in(livi<biiil t(*iii(i.-nn<^^ mn«1 lit* cohhulitrfl. 

In lipvorv fi»no* of iiiii.-T^tinnl <h>tnrl:raiicv» rccial a li mental ion 
muHl oftiii lio i\*-€>rntl to, Foru rtinbt-r i-on«i<]^ratioti of tlie 
tci.-]iuiriiii«[ forit)^ of AhjiI toln'nUliJu.^) m ihi* mnhod offending 
the PciuUTr 1^ rcfcnvil ti thr .^rvtioa 00 n«<ria1 Ft^lia^. To ili^oe 
Oi>M in viitoh f^Nkfl <m]iii'>i tti<giv4'n o«tlK*r Irv the- mouth or l>v 
the rM^um Milkeutaiio<iii« fonltng b«coinm DK«Miiy- tot this 



34H 



DIET IS J>ijfKJ£i:. 



porpoae r>live oil may Iw Ii«h1; one omikh* nm- In* injoct^i 
twice dftily iindiT the Hkin, beM in tin- rt-^itin of tiu' thigh ; in 
Bome iarteii normal Hult iufiihion-H nre in<Ii(^u^. 



DIET IN INTESTINAL DYSPEPSIA, 

In itit^i^tiial fly-^i^pMa food hIiouM heaven fnijuvntty ami 
in von' t^ruull {[tiantiiier^. At tir^t only Th(* ti<|uii) Irirnix KhoiiUI 
be ii>^l, Mich as weak fta. |K>pionizc(i milk, nialUnl rnJIk, 
bttiiiUrrii, uekI ri^g.iilbiimiii : ntW a tVw ilayg the palienc may 
^'miltuilly Ik' pliioitl *.'i\ ihe folIowitiE^ ilit-t : calves' bmins, *wei't* 
brtTuU, Ijniikil f^tt-ak or \ui\iU t-liop*, ^fjft-boiled *gg^, boiliil 
tJF^h, »iii;h 11^ mackerel «jr rock, hiikfsl }>otHtocv, f^pinaeh, ai^pam- 
gii!^, iiiul »l4!VtL'tl rrnits. 

The following li^t givej> the gciK'ml ]>lnii of a ilict u^ by 
tile authors in thie oondittoii : 

8 A. M, 1 150 imt- milk Hiili IfA 101 

iWlErit. iMi-uit ^tJK^i>irvnrl (IVi^ with Sn ftm. biilt«r(lB3) 218 

ISji.i B.Hjillrin whh 5 nm^ Arr>^mrBSi>liiblFjiwf 10 

100fi:m. bn>kl«l ehickmi 106 

or IlKl i^iii. broiW MtqI: ^SOTO. 
or 100 Kill- Inmbdi-n* ii20^. 

fiO^em. miinlifll |>ntnioc4 or KtO^. vjiinuch (1S6) .... $4 

100 pni. iii>pli>muco . . , , . , . . . . 4 , , 6& 

'SOjfm. vnofli biTiul, hIaIc (V ■* UaM i .'■■.... * 130 

3p.M.t SOOffni. milk . iS3 

7l*. N.f 200 ifiiu milk wiiH Hi^ £39 

I MjfT-lH*i1ttl cRir -,«,..., 80 

lOOgin- fflimt brawl BudfiOgro, btairr 66^ 

"mi 

DIET IN ACUTE INTESTINAL CATARRH- 
AL in iicnt** ^strio raiarrh m) al^i in ncuio inti?stinal catarrh 
the rctnlalinn i»f the iVwt i^ |H'ohahly ihe nn»>t iin|H>rtant facl^r 
in the rrenimt^it of the ili>^on>^\ The patient «lioulcl bo kept in 
beil ; aft<*r the bowel has l«*eri ibonmeMy ernpli*^ by a cathar- 
tic, U<\n\*\ fwdn, hitch jif* ch^r bnith'*, — at first without, and 
then wi(h c^*, — thin pnicU, It^lit t^^i^i'onvi i^u^ki^l in water^ 
aiivl i"^;^j-«lbijmin, ^billIM ho pivru cxelnHvely for ^eve^ll ilay^i. 
In ihip erniditiori milk f^honbl not, ni? n rule, lie piveu. Wheu 
there is extreme thir>it, lh4* carl>onrtte*l w-rttirn mny lie allowed, 
but iiuly in ->rniill i|UniititifH. The tbir-^t it hcit relieved by 
placing lutfi of enT^hoil ir*^ in the patientV month. After the iiain 
and dibCuDilbrt have di^ppearcd, toa«t, crackers, stewed chicken, 



hlET IS iSTESTSSAl MSP.ASfS. 



aiu5 



to llw (li«*t ; iiKlip'^Hiiblc ft»>tU. *ilcIi ii* niM' fruits, heavy vt'pe- 
tiibU's HMil f:iity iiimI jwriil fi)oiU «i)'>ulil ht- iivoiiktl for u ci>t»»iil- 



DIET IN CHRONIC INTESTINAL CATARRH, 

Tiie clii^telii' tr<'nti»i-iu iu c-Uvxnuc luu-yXlmA nUnrrli ilcix^iifk 
ii|Kni lie (Hmdiiioii tif lii*' fecal movemi^nTri ; ilt<*M* art', in a 
moa>4urf, an iudex an to die {xirlii-in nf tW Ikitwcl involved. 
Ac4x>rtlinff to Noth&agel/ ca*ift*of chnmic inK^inal cntarrli uiny 
be ciivicleS inti> fimr gnvups ; 

" K CajiC's cliarainerized by iirouoiinceil ft>n*'n|iation. An 
eva('ii»(ioii ajip»ir> owlv mnv in iwi»t ll'^vcj or (bur ilavft ; ^t»ui<j- 
lunc« only witli tbe a!d of i-Atiiaiciv^. Tlic fiK-ul matliT ia 
aviially bawl, Aj^ a e«iit-e '»f tUf v<jn4tipaiit>D, Ni>ihuog«l a*- 
liimiiM a ib^<r<iiiMil artivity 'tf i\u- iiLit^miatk^ ik^rvmis a|i]mrnTit!4 
of the intwIiinH, tbi-i lu'lnir tbr ri-?*iilt 4»f dn' ojitarrlml |*nKH->?ii. 

"2. Cii-'ej> ill wbicb niLiHriftfiiioii :ni't iliarrbm <vjnMui]|ly 
sllemnte. For two or three (layn there may lie a daily evacua- 
tion (>f verx liani »loje*'fa. On llie f^llowuij; day i here may lie 
fiiur lo .*ix very tliin or iiiu?*by mi*vein**niH mixed wUIi oiiieiih, 
accom]iAiii«i] by violeui ]iaiii«, ami then a^in oftn^tipitioii for a 
(Liv «r Lwtr, tic. Or l1i<:J>! uiay h^ <|uUi' a normal t>\-ucuutii>u 
(onei^ inHy) for u fc-w dayd In Aucwntioa tiiiil tben again Amr to 
««v<'n dmrrbnil movem^'nU bi oue (iay^ aucl aflor tbi* oi>n^ti|ia- 
ttnn. Th^ priiM'i|Hil fi*tilure of tluha* 4V>mv U iht^ ^ULHUjMUiim, 
but th& oxcilAbility of th(> rKTV'ous a|ft[<iratiH lieini; <[nite vihk), 
the deci.tn]|Kwe4l «l»^iAnl e<«iiirn<H n^^n tvum; liKtcur^ i>erU* 
taltfiB and dbrrh<«. Soiueiimn* l\\v^ altcniatii^ jierioan of 
ciin>:1i[vitioTi and dmrrbfti onitinm- lor a loii^ lime. 'J1iuk the 
putktil may U.- e<>n''ti|icU"'<l f'T f"ur or fiVf weekf^ or even for a 
lew monchs and tbcii agida tlu- dbriii^ ntay set m, laMiug 
several wwk:» or nvrntb". 

** S. In n vorv Hndf/^^l number of 4«is4vt there U a daily eva&- 
iiatioQ, whieh w ii^imliy not fomiod nr mn«hy. 

■' -4. Ca:w« in wbkji eIktv- an> fur uioiitliit Mnvvul ituirrlnvil 
evacuations daily, Tbc <li.-|i*ota, a* a rule, liliow the b])iar>' re- 
action, ur tbev niayn>:itain v<'lln\T fftiptm-atj* of mneu?*, y<-I)«in'- 
tin^red cjiitlu-liiim, and r»inid-i*rlU In tbene ea^es ibe catan-bal 
|iriKH-<4 alTivt* ii'it only \\iv hryat !i">wel» bnt al'io the itiiiuL] itt- 
tt*»Line. TW at>M>r)>tion .■<uffer>«, awl there are more abuormal 



a«6 



DIET IN DISEASE. 



protinct^ in iho miitonti* (jid(U)^ whidi give rwc to incrcuBei 
|)enAtalsi» in the ^nmll kh well a^ [flrgc l»W4d,"^ 

Th<- in^tmeiit ul' ohroiiio inrtstiiial <-auiiTh lh<»n»f nv rt'sulvw* 
it^rlf iiilir ihv Ii-^^Uiitt'tit of tilt: jiriviiijniiivJiig I'linmic i^mihlijiu- 
tion, riiiimic (Hirrbce, or a condition of «>U9ti|iatioii alternating 
\vtt.li (Imrrh^i. 

Diet in Chronic Constipation. — In thiv t^>i]4liiion ji 
inixod diet, contiiiniii^r, h> far a-s iHi^Mb!*-, lliorK* Ti«Wmnce« 
iJiat stimularo ihv itiifsTinul [KTi^r.-tUiN, should Ih.* t>R'*tTibcd, 
A^iriDp?nt« un'l aii}'tliiji^ tliiil tiMi<l^ to piiHliKy oniMiputioii, 
>!Licli at tsjcwa^ cliocvbto, Iw, rt^i wim^, lifV^ Titrnirt, ott\, Bbould 
hv avtiidttL 

Tlic follnwiiisr liHiiN fhoidd Iw ]jr*--.mlKil la i';i«'a of ohrorih; 
ri>nMi|i!Ui<>ii : Onihaiii and rve broud willi bnlU^r, friiil, liuUcr- 
milk, kefir, cidvr^ Ix-cr, fr«*[i vrgtdiblrfl, it* cnl>linpi?, r'niipr-kmul, 
ftjifl iialndi^. Fflt»i arc <'*|n4nally t'> Iw* m<'onimtTidiil, and houry 
U :d<u> nMifitl S.ilt-i ?tliinii]ati< the inrit^tinul rurtVL^nki-ntis lli<-n-» 
l^reftKMUcoDtainin^^llsare fiidi(.-ut4^] in tliis (.'unditiiin ; auiong 
this cLis^ may lie ineiuiiiniil herring nml rjiviaiv, Su|^ir. t'*f>c- 
cially milk-Mipir, hiti ii iiiarla^l t^-mlciny to inor«L*c intestinal 
jK-n^tnUis, \Viiter t^ik^-n cold or on ail onijity tft'inmch wiU al^o 
?*tiniMlutc inte?itinjil niowimnit^. 

Diet In Chronic Diarrhea. — Vk\u-ii t^^v^-n? T^XTtiptom^, 

HJi.-ti att iuU'l^:^^: ili:xrrln^a and jNun, |»aw.'iit t!K'niJ«.'lvtfl the 
pnlitnl xnuM bo put to \»^\ imd kept on a vrrv rigtinHw tlict ; 
the ixtJ'kI *>f rp*t may Iji* It^ngtluim^l ar shortf-np-I iiwonling lo 
till? 'i4»vpnfy of llu' dlir'jiM', In tn-xlrral^-lv M'V(*ri' vn^t^A M*vi"nd 
wwk?* will n!^ual1y Miffi<*i', Nonri^lmunt Tfhoiild Ik.- taken in 
small ifnantltit-* every few lionn*, wnfliclent nin>l, iiowever, l>e 
Ifiver* to maiLiTian lliu Ixjdy wvi^liK All ''old dnnkw or oarl>f>n- 
flU'<l w:iiers, fniil--*, <'al>lmj:i% and r^idad?* art- \n l»e avoidwL The 
ini^i^C 'fiiitjihk fomU in dn.<<disiir(k>r are hMt})--^ rotitaiinii^liarley, 
t\ci\ xnd fiirinn, tioA-1»ilt-d v-ggt*, Hwvetbrtiid^ ntewetl ohickeii, 
tiroiletl T>tvnk, Imiled fi>lj, t'irMt, eniekers 'viki-d pitaEot^, tea, 
milk (biiileil), nnd cvm ; in many t'upf^ port vriiic is *|iiitr nat- 
fnl, AM it cHintiiin*; tnnidnf wJiirh in*l* ii* iin n*trinjrt»iii if* tho 
IxtwelK- In tin*' oiaidtlion milk evon when bolltil i^ oflea a<>t 
veil home, and inn*t then Ix* avoided. 

The followinjj dii*tdi'*t,t*ikvn from Roas' illn-Htratc** tUf mcthiid 
of prescribing Tii>urii>hnienl in chnitiii^ catarrh of the intestine 
aoocnipnietl by diarrhea : 

^ Einhorn, iJww^ff «!f ifiieptfhtt. p. lOO, 
> Disaua ^iU InMbut, p. 324. 



3tst ly viTGiTiyAi ihsh:asb3. 



afi? 



10 A- V-: Ouv <:iii> l»O0 ifni-i Ho<* vmel. buckwbtfit, or ual«n ktiIi in voil 
totlilFoii fivuid f^tt). Li AilililioD: 'V> ift"- TWi(4«4l tvAl nt livrf 

!jcr%|>ni), rri<vl ^L or tttM ni«At [firi»itl Hill or ^ron^lT pickird 

1 P> M. : 8au|> of (K'fit* (it lifntvi Of pur^ »f (MttMiilt frriat, <ir comMvc^j, di-> 
(ndililK'H uf tii^m^v tir riim>iii ftll->«n1; immiilivw fofhiddeii ) ^ In 
MtDuier huckMiFrry iv»ji 4 »ilh Ki<.L'}i;ihti tf dnin-tll. 
3WiiiJ-urHo*bniltbnUv<jM hovwiiiimUhjorfarhiu boaillaii, ntU 

Onvii rwltt&k^ <jr pi.iUtU» in giur^ fotrn (*>0 U> 100 ^<{. innt 



MMl IWb UU iXtx'^iUih tAO in IIK) tr^j,) (biMtvr MOW i 
«Tt«iu taiici*! IT hujMv wfiKiiiKl wiiOk'* fiirhiilclrti), 
^Uweil fhilt^ with tb««ior|iliunor buclLLrbvirin aiidcnnbtrrio^ 



C^tCarrU (^tAm^mrtih, irllh n lillt(> rulk iil* tmr niul mvtyhtm) 

AlliivvtL (Avoid fniitjiii^VKk 
A» Ivvrnitfv*: IlniAlrb^ry vfiir« lIunrJiiilT. ItuiuiHle, Mnunih* 

win*, iilil BcinlnMUK. (Hww( vlntk* whirr mn^-v uiil plT«rvnn?n( 

4p. M*: Ttn luii^uiii inILk) vub laurliftrin m civttt, t«kn, IiimI, iwiclvck 

tmJlli hijiur). 
7 P. )L: ^tnin^fl cnj«t (oAUwd, etc), colder mrm nmi (50^uj, tua»t| 

|>IJl(rr \'^t JCi>-^ 

Up. 31.; One kUm uJ kiickletm-fj IcnonMlfs wsn&nl iv kol luutlnl «iiie 
(fiUKhoriii), or !«■ witboui ivil viEW* 

In oon<IIiinn8 of chroolc intestinal catorrb In which 
diarrhea alternates with eonstipfttioQ iIk- ^m*> plait r.f 
lriium*'in fMiiv Ik' fi*li"WMj flki hji-^ Jhi-ti <l<'-rnt>*il tor tli"-t* ■'sth^i*:* 
DcoompojiiKl by coa.sti[«lioii or <|]nrriien : it ih *rip«nally inipor- 
tanl ti* lr«il by diet the more prominent ^ympUftupi, whetk-r it 
be diarrijea or constipatiun* MitierBl vrarore are fre<ju€ntly 
utilized in caws of ehronie inlo^iiiul wifxirrh. F<»r rapM« 
Accompunied by eoti^tiiKiHori the wfttcn* nf MnntnliCKl mid Df 
Sinitopt (Coi^pTi'ss a<i<l HathiTn i^pringv) «rr mi»*l lierK-fidjiK 
Where diArrbcfl le i be prom iitcDt symptom, Ciirl^bnd and Viehy 
are to be rtcomiDcndefl. 



DIET IN DYSENTERY. 

The diet m acute dysentery i^ Minnlnr to duit pre-^crilwl 
in acute jiile^^ligal rtiUirrh. The palieiit i» |xit In br<l nml only 
liqiiiJ fwitU are AdminUlen<l. Ot' tboM* thr nwi«l suitable »re 
Ivniiilhiiu, brolb, efq^^^Jbrnitin, aikI t«si ; ifreMhially, fi« the enn- 
fliliim iinprr>\'i^. Henii>nlidh. «neh as mtlk-UKir^t. riix' ecvikeil in 
milk *>r bn>tb, gnieU <->f to))t'x^ tie,, may be |>rewril>ed, .S-^lid 
KxhI ^louhl lie (if)«tainc<l fnvu until a ftfvc ihys iiAer the rli^aonkr 
hsvi nbalfd. 

In chronic dysentery the fot'd Hhonlil be given in Mittll 



S64 



DIKT ty DISEASE. 



quantities ai frequent inier\-aR Atl cur^, iiKligi^til^lc dtoti 
hJiould be avmdea. In otli^r ivnirK-ib ibt' ilit-i U siuiilur tu tlut 
alpfaciy givcu uuJet Cbi-ouic luU^ntiTirtl (.'iilurrli. 

MET IN ULCERS OF THE INTESTINE. 

K Diet in Ulcer of the Daodcnum, — 'I'litMlict in ulcer 
of [licdiUHUtiuiii tn thr <uue3L<- Umt "t (r-i-irii'iil'tT, imtl thinader 
la refured for ijje dumU^ lo th<- ^^ction <k*»liiifr uitli tlih isubjoct. 
Ju uises iiu4<4iti)]>iiitiiti bv lic-morrliui^ iiltmliiti* n^t in Ih-^sI luiiT^t 
Ik- irv-itnt<^l ii|>*>tif uiul nM.-ia] nJimniULiion mbiilnitK-rcfl if ntcc>* 
Kary. Af\<i" tbf first ut-i-k Xho I^uIk' n^t 4'utv •^liotiM bp iufitU 
tlirftf), mwinling To tin* nn-fhinU ilr^t-rilnsl (*Wwl«-rp. The firi^ 
ft>n« of fw*l I" Ih* iilliiw4<! if* milk ; after tbc first week Claris- 
)»kI uuur t'luniM 1"^ pivt-n t-jirb luoniin^. In vi-rv *t'v<rre cases 
IJ<jiL"< iulvUi's t'xciu>iv*' ixvial Imliuj; f<»r one or two wi^ek?^- 

2, Diet in Other Forms of Intestinal XHcers. — In 
ndflitloii to iil<vi> iHX'urnii^ in tin* ibiiMfHioni, tulitrn'uloit'f ukvrv, 
ti\)ihiiUtr iilars, ioxu' ulri-tSj niMvlniil iiU^^'rw, tan] ih>t*nWTic 
ubt^rn iiiiiv mrnr ui tlic iiil<--'*lim'. In niiv ionn of iili.vr the 
dirt sboiild be [loii-irritnliiig qivJ rvinily ibgir^tiblci Among 
thcwo forxU tliut iiiAv W givi*n niv inillc, t^^gK* nir, fsrinii, «agOj 
rtll fiirm* of Krofh. r"fjw'<"u»ll_v i'liirkrn ;unJ niotinn broHj*;, fiweet- 
brmd^, ^tewci! diicki.<ii, laketl [x^tnlixw, muftbL-U |>o[;ttoc£, teu, 
cocoUf crackers, nnd tofi^t. 



DIET IN MAUGNANT GROTTHS OF THE INTESTINE 

The niiMlk'ul ti'catmt^nt in niali^[inTil growths of the inteatiuo 
it otilv an iidjuiu'l !o tbv ?-Hr|^icnl tiy^oTnienl tihvay-^ hidicikted, 
nut\ (v)U-sisia r^My in iivntin^ the fiympiofuh as tliey aru«', Tbe 
diet should b*- lii^lily nutritioufi and at tbe satiie time easily 
dil^e^tibW ; sniiill (jnuiintipfi of fo*id should W ^iveii at freoiient 
inleiA^nls, Milk, hrodis, sf>ft-I>oiIed e>rg*, raw H?i-a(>e(i l>eef, 
Hw<'tthi"ead?"» Iwikod and mnnhtil |>otalf>eH, vpirHnMcs, ricIi ha 
earrof and jHras, that bave Ix^n linelv dlvi<le<l and E^rauied^ 
stewed fhui>^, toa^l, and crackers are prniisi^ible. 



DIET IN ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. 

The trmtment of arute intestinal obhtrurtioii^ except when 
due to the impaction of a foreign l>ody, when it may ]M>j*sibly 
bt (wiN*ed ihiiJUj;L itie bowtl, U purely hui;^iuLl ; as Ti-eves liad 
iftid: "There i^oue measure for a<-uk iutefttinai ol>»Tr[fetioD| 



Mhn i-V iXTESTiyAL 1>ISEASKS. 



^9 



nnJ tbut is by means of lapafutomy," Prtvii>uH to opi^ration 
the follou'iQK dioti-tk neifiilationp^ ifhould be curried out : Tbe 
ptient $ltoaUl be l;c{>t in bftl^ ^itxl id ilic zicute atbteki^ all (*hhI 
should be wiiIiIkM. rtiinft luuy l>e queuelKd by siiiiiU biti^ of 
ice kept id tlie itiouth or n few fln>p# of hoi wuter nifty be gtveu 
ai rrKiueut iiilerval^. If the Jie«:u»L' entewk ovt^r a [icHmJ I'f 
Fwveml d^v», re^Uil iiIioientali*^n or tbc admini^tnitioii of mil 
eolutioiu^ mu8t be reported 1o. 



DIET IN CHRONIC INTESTIISAL OBSTRUCTION, 

In thU eoiiditiuti ll»o di<l tbouLJ eliieriy l>e li<|ui<:l or eemi- 
ikolid«. All iiidigvtitibltf louil Jjould bv avi>ii.led^ e^pe<iiilly tlH»^ 
formK tliat aiv apt lo Wvi* a Inr^ nnioiint of residue iu the 
bowi'l. Tbe fiwijis t" l>i^ avoidwl an> Aalads heavy ve^jetables, 
and fruits. Milk bmtbts <'^t^t broiled nieal^, ebickeik and 
«we«tbreQ<Ls boiled linb, riee, farina, toast, crackers, and butter 
are permitsihle. In ad\~aDced cose** rectal leeding tnii*t l>e 
cirrifd out. 

DIET IN APPENDCaTB. 

The dietetic tri^^ilttiinii ia ibi,-« ili^u^- unL^t l>e^venict] b^ 
tbi* Aympt4>ms, {*tr Mir^ii<»t Ireatau'iit U a-^iially iiKlieati*d. Tbe 
{MitieDt Miould be put tr» bed, aud tinder no condition be allowed 
to risi' imtil reetivery ii* eoniplete. During ihe first day* Sahli 
aud IViifJckbIt reviJEotDeijd tluit nil I^hxI Ik* wilblu-M ; litjiiid?', 
flucli ;ip< t^j^-alhomiii, H'Tiik ivxi^ tbm bnHh, ImrW- ttr vu\^vsiiiK^r, 
or indk dilnfiHl hIiU limi<-\vutiT, may W ^ivcn iti unudl cjimnti- 
tj^ wbi*ti <U-etiinl ii<*rt*»«iTT. ^V!^e^ tlip aooto *A'mplo€nK have 
m]baod<<4lr ibU dirt f-aii In* iiu-n-;i^4H) MMiii^wliat : the milk may 
be taken iindibiUHl, ami i*^'^ iimy \k whM to <lie bn>tb. When 
the pain and fever liave ili^ipjMTircd entin'ly. grtieU made of 
rict' iir UiHey, ^d\-lN>ib<J eg^*. p<-ru|>e4l Invf, '■tewed chicken, 
toast, ami erftckifs niay Ix* lulded to the \\»i ; *till larer muj^bed 
|w>tai4kef^ ajid ve^euddiT^-^finely dividnl ;nid ^traiiKH) — may W 
allont'd, mul ftoidU, ^bi^n tbr |]nlii-in i?> >ve]], thr u^im\ diet 
may be re&ume<i 

Oobvper* ndviMM thp folUiwing plan of trmlmont in nil cnne« 
of npftf^ndtf^itU m wbiHi o|wniti(ii3 u u^ W ]w*riiirnw<l, ht?1i«viQ(f 
that it hhIuco the mortality and elaiiigt??* tbe rlaw of rai-^ in 
which the lut^rtulity ii* g^rxnte?^! iiitu am>thcr chbu! in which the 
mortality ui wry wmll ftfW o])4-rati<tfi : 

'* In everj' ea>e of anite appt^idicitis all food by moati and 

H 



370 



DIET ly DISEASE. 





all fBlhiitiea are prohibited. In a«v ibp patient i 
maam or ^-caumif:* ^^^^ hv^gc I* n ooor UBplny(il 1b 
Ifae BiUer eutt tke |aiinit is peitttatd to rin--- the nw^ith 
viA oaU vats sad n driak nd «qK of vrr;- bi-i ««tr^ «i 

»^un utfrrrttlA. Id tbr Mrx^nvrcBflv dH ptlMt i* |irmuttMl to 
riaitf ilie flMvih vnh <uU ««i«>, btn ie ma p^nrnttnl Ui drbik 
be ar ooU aater !<«■ tlw firnt l«v ^v^ tntil tW arai« 
MaabsUed, akntbeaiefd' enafl si|ttof boc aatcrk 
IS ikt BMMa penaas^ aa rtrie Iwaac is nptattdooca 
rf two I'k fr4ir boors ni <^>r^ to icokmv 
bad le gaigiui gd isio tbe ttanarb man 

iMUilul W atriiai I niwfi cooriiciic cT 
^ »r rf thr MMJWtiaaiT |aii J^uwaJ li^iaJ faA fa 
,'fewdT t d IB tbnv ooacw of nnn aonntl nit w Ja 
I MbMrr vrbaeb id inH«wd » dirtaaca 
la tlaae Jaebf . In <«» tbii |:n>^ mr ta 
r OMMa. it t> iu ft w ia p iBd tit vmtivr to 
t a ine. In <b» ie vba* ao wMt ■# 
pintn br MMak «a <«tta of H^ ooxKvf t^ aunnal ^^ ool»> 
' la « tiMS a drr n wUtMila Ibe HtiMM 
lacwofiiMi dnm^ tbe wMa anack lUs trai^ 
V r a daa t d ftr 9pvml diT« iftfr tbr t^rfataaL** 
^AAtr tbr pitim iat» hrm hrr ftwn fman aad ixbcrwiee 
" onTMl fi< imr di5> br t^ tr** ^^^n hr^t nnr t» 
of avilc hnef tctt. |m4rnUr prt^n-H lt«a eam- 
I hnf «ctiv«, M^rr r««« bn«r^ la a f^ d«vi <a» «f 
la tdiltjwl fa^ dMdml » «>Afr/a 
IT. cqail paits of aib lad 

, fbD dvi t^ ciVffL." 






WHUCOHBIBRANOUSCATARIU! OF -nVSrrSrKE. 
bavr hcvn wcooaaiaAd a tbt« abca^cr b;- 
FVmradvwe» a l ImjiI l m ^ i rrkata if Jw; 
«v* X<v«<dc«, ptrfmammi a r-crv nvrw «fai — «•* 
«iH kmv « Wt^ MKK«at ^ T ^a iiag «a tbr naMUw- TW 
vab Galwcik dm a wdAr^ mp<r i> bei. aad 
pnM*av a aanMMS attxrd £«libat » art «i* < 
a&<^MmaiW«f^bM«bl 
ad tbr ^4«*ny<W« of am(«fr h tmmmA \m Snmim 
a«0<w»Ma^ -Wx^fd^OiahM lawl— 3W 
tD a ^rral \-anrtr «f 




VIET ly tSTESTiyAL OtSE.iS£S. 



371 



I 



liM*: fruit iritli mihiII %t:t.\iti iind tiiii-k *-kiiis, likr riirnint^r 
jfiMTM^^lHTiiws jrmjK^. IkviiI^w lurgc 4)ii»iit)tk*T< of fat. in purticii*- 
Irtr of butUT ttiJfl l»K*Mi. Tiro iR-rm;iii4'iil 4'fffX't "f tlit' ditt U 
cliiorty i!wv to tlir tunoiint nf Mmlow wliirli it (^>nliuiw ThU 
oUEilo-te iiniier^M*^ (l<^ikiii|H.i^iii<>ii in tla* iiit(^tiiio# and tliits 
M^lti^s the njuvenientH.*' <>f tift4H-n |iatii-n:^ wim wei% ttiutMl 
bv viru No(>rdi*ji in tht^ way Mrv4-ii wi-n* ciin^l mttl vcvvti im> 
[>ri»\'c^l. lu conjiinctttrn nvkh tlil^ dirt miiicml vrntcr* Are tiNC^I ^ 
of Ukt^'t wiiU-rx cMmuining MvJiiini rlilorid nrv €>\t<-Aa\W to Ik* 
ni-^'niTDi-i"!"!, in |iorti<mliir liu»c rif Ki^in^n :iml of W>4*»*- 
tiuikni, (Kor II iliM-n^ion of tW trnitnu-iit of nnjconipmbi^noiis 
cvtnrrli other than by the diet — f, y., by oil ciumntji, in'i|^ti<^»iiff 
ul' tlie Imiial'Ijs t'U*. — the student i>; referred to ibe tcxt-buulu 
on iiil<.*i!Ltii)ul diK!iu<eK.) 

KwM ' iuK-ii4« the following dii-t in eertjiifl cui^cs nf mi-ni- 
bniiioiiM croUti^ : 

" ti i^ only ntiotiiil timl !n tbivc oues^ n miUI, iuniri>liii)); diet 
should l>c iti--<ti1uleil» i^blrb thiXMii^li Ir^ mturl.^hin^ i|ii4i]itief^ 
pnxlu<H« St Inxnttve ^rflbet. This diot mny Ik^ fiJl4>tt'4Hj wheii- 
ex*«r coTmtipeitioii itiie*^ nnt «»xUt— a AiH-^Ll^^fl lni-tj>Vf-|£tl»l)h- or 
even oc-n^tipstiD^ diet. The follawing diet sehume reeoniiDeikda 
itwif for thirt |tur|H.i-« : Bmikfa^t : Swci-t milk, eoeoii, iKitmeal 
with coeoa, wliite or <)nrk bread, with Ivmey. jsini, or fn^h 
fmit. Dinner (preferably al mklduyj : Vc^i^lubliv ^r fniit^ ai} 
Applet, phttDA, blaeberries, nispberricfff ehenieiB, u hro4Ji of 
W'^t^ihle- FMkiip, <Tfdn.-ieh, tomnt^h, or be<^ H.mp, si milk ^>iip, or 
tnuxlei.! milk, hulier, :nMi u lilkiTit EHiniiiiit x>f frv^U ve}^abU'ff 
am r]«tirubli<, or pen, rice, *>r lemil M>up, Mewe*! vcpetnblen 
with dnmplii^;, mut-nironi, pucMinjirti, blni)e-mun^><' with frtiil- 
juif^fta, oto, ; Hiliidii, and eftjr* varhiiiftly pr^psred, brea*l with 
biitb'r, HiiJ n li((hl elicr*^, ,*^ip|*«'r: A lhi<'k ^^i^ip, tnmio with 
barley, riet*, lapiixa, €ii\, bakinl |x»taioo«^. c^iT^. hrtwl, btitter, 
chee^^t oiilk, elc. 

'* Aeeordinj^ to the needs of the patient tiie forvginn^ diet 
will he mofi' or less carettitly fidh>vrcf), aihI un certnir ilays u 
small aniotinl of meat may !«■ allowc^l by w»y of variety, 

" \Vliilt diiH dk'i ift dinxiMl i.**|»«:U]It npiin'»t ihe loenl 
ible^tiiial cyiodiliofi, ^till il servei^ well tn rciipiH-n nnd improve 
thv jreneral nutrition, Itecau^eof the hif^ percenlAge of carlxt- 
hydrates and fau, wliieli is very important/' 

■ ^lurWtfil J/«4m^ 1004, t^. tU,. |k ttl. 




372 



i}WT ly j}i:it'ASE. 



dietetk: treatment of nervous affections of the 

intestine. 

1, Atony of the Large Intestine. — Tlw ilii't*»Hi* tK-nt- 
mL>m uf tl]i^ Jiv.inicr t^ idrinuul in tlmt tnJicntpcl lijr ttubitunl 
t%nt^ti|KitKiii, to Im' lU'M'rilM?'! fiirllu'r on, 

2, Flatulence or Meteorism. — Ttii'* tHjinliti»iii i* ch^iir* 
«ctvnz4.yl hy uii ixltxmvc luVHinukihUi of pi> iit tli*- iukr^titii^ 
In the iJteUaic Iri-ntiiKnit, tlica-fort', li^nU thnl Wud lo jimdijcif 
lurpt (|itantitktt of p»N "iiHi »> lMt% t-nlcr, i-Lirh<»imt(-<1 wau^n*, 
fniilT <atbUi^, ry<:' u>i<l Crnilijuit Kti^id--^, and potnlrK^^ t<Ijoii1i1 Ih- 
fltoitlcd. The jiftorcirr U orteii of piirclv ricr%"'jiifl origin, niMl 
wh^Ti this i>* th^* <yi>io, nnrf>;triotr-l flifi i% lo Im> roooninumli'tl — 
one that. xtiH Ioup up iIl4' jviti'^'nt'ii <yM<'m nnc) ihiii* r.-iii«^i> Th<> 
flatulence to tlisapiK-fir. 

S. Diet in Intestinal Neurasthenia-^TIiiji? flif^tw-e 
resembles m^fvoue dv>;pci>£ia. At liim-n ttie mof<L tndm^Jtilci 
food is well hornc, wIktcti* (lie *ii^r<(il>k' f<)nii* cTt-att- aiiHriiiri- 
fort ; 111 L*uch CUM- i< i^ impfjilaiil that iIm- diet Ik< n-|^iliitod 
aworilinf^ lo the piilk-olV di^'twtivf juiwitn <!itm:nilly :i lib* 
vral i-liet ia irulicnicil in tlu^^i.- t-JL>c* ; in tunny iiii^taucu* n ity«* 
tcDifltic rcfrl curv i« needed ^J bring fibaiit relief. 



DIETETIC TREATMENT FOR HEMORRHOIDS. 

Since e<iiiwti|HLtic»M if* t^fuii u frt*i\urui (tiii«' and iK-corti]Kini- 
metit uf liviiioi rill ■111'* ii i?« tinjiorliiiji lliuf l.liis eotidilion be eor- 
reel, Aj* hnn lirrti [x»inU^] oat rWwWn-, pro|»cv diet plnvs 
an imprirttml rMc in tht.' pn^vonlion of ohnxiir e<>ni?lipntiuii. 
PjtipiiU atmrtJMl with homnrrhoul* *hc»a]d psit in fn<Ml4?r:i|ion. 
but slioidd Jivoid nil exi.*e*i>e»i nf fi.*«id iiikI driuk. An ahnnd- 
auee of outdoor ixereiw, t^^.'n:^i,*fing of ^valkintf nnd sim]>le 
gymna.<<tie>r f^boiiM Ik.- iridiil^^l in, vir>leiLl }:>'[nniif-~tief^ and 
hor^tlKiek-ridin^f sh'udil bi* nvoideil. A dailv eviieuatioii of 
the bowel* *b'.nild he Kt'nrL>d. Pjilient^ with hemorrlioidA 
Rhoiild nvt.ml rth*oh<»lic beveniire*, spiced ffmd?<. strong eoflee 
and tetiy chcew, cvbb:Lg(\ und benii^. TKk? fotid?^ moist »<iiited to 
this condition A^•c ]H>f;itf>e*i, uimjls, ■■phmrJi. jk<-|KU'o;;iL«, and 
even MilmU, Ancf lh<y -timnUtc- iut4>-liii)d |H.'i'i-ij]H" f>nd thua 
hplp fo kiM]"!) (ho 'itool-i s*>rt- Stvwetl ami raw fruit**, ineUid- 
ing gn|>e^, omiigpf^, jiear*, and apples, are alto l>eneiirial. 
Water is the best Ijeverasre in this c<tndilu>n< The waters o( 
OiHdkad^ Kipsiiijifeii, and .Sarai")ura are most beneficial j they 
act best when taken at the ^prin(js. 



DIET IX lyTESTiyAL I>iSEAS£S^ 373 

THiifar PUihork fhltrnU vith if<marrhouU,—i Jflfr JfiffA.) 
Mnniinir : Mifk <ir wmk t««, (inlum hrmil nm) Uit^tr with houj. 

Nuuii . ^ii[J^ TcKelNbla, T*vu]io(« ImM), jiijiI l^ui ui«aL. 

A^moiin ; Binu-niiiTk at fnili Aiin Gnhviii brt«d. 

/>irf /or iVVrvouji rtJi«/ 7%tn Ih/icnti teitK Iic'nofrht/idA.—l4flir fVe^tt.) 

Forrnofdi -. Biitirnuilk tir kt'fir n dftjr old- 

Koi>ti : .Soup, ntmtt uu^K ti^t TClJcUblvf^ CDmpOtlL 

AtWrtuxiO L Kvlir or Ivo aixj bivui. 

Ertoiagi BjcvaihI milk. win|KiCc, imd U^hi vkitc wioch 

DIET IN CHRONIC DIARRHEA, 
flkf JuTjAc^*' ihrt'titt /vr JioderaSt OtMt o/ Ckravif DUtrhtn^ 

B A.H.I SDOgiiLof ovctt (unkod fD «>lirr) 4&J> 

S w/i'liriilnl rffgn 160lO 

50 gm b«*i . inOlO 

IOa,m,i 350 giHH brvili villi 1 v|fg SOJ> 

30 fut. iSnapt-iiioa - - • . &'5 

12 iLi SOOcriLbrciilirdchickifn £12,0 

AO ifin. tc«L»E 13<X0 

SUCI CHI- nmibt^l |n4sio» ^M 

I K M. : 50 f^. PftnorH'|<ion 5T,^ 

1 Mifl-luilnJ ruE > 8^0 

2U0||rii, cix<tt {nxiJcfillii wbUt) 4A.9 

AOinn-tmwt . . . . IHaO 

7r;M.: lOOgni. ik«c»'>k«ltnliuiiJllMi :H 

:Wpii. frrabmiil 18W,0 

>Vf Rnt, ithmx licvftil UH>,0 

Op. V. r l'>0|;iii- ni«r vnpvil bvrf 1)9.0 

<VJ i:ni. Phiio|wpUin ^^ . . , hiA 

^ gni. MM UftO 

3021.9 

Tlie (iM'K-tic tr«ilmenl of (tuirrh<a miist vary aomrOin^ in 
\\w lyiH- of the (lin^nW, Fn the i»en"i»08 varirty the imltont 
fihoulil be iR^^-inuie^l to rfsir&iD his b«>wel tno%*ements except at 
a cfrtnin hoiiT in tie ntominiv. ['uder :il1 rifiiflitidfis it i^ im- 
portant to exchiiie from ib« diet all tood?; tlmt have a tcndenci^,,.--^ 
tn ffijmtilate the iiiiL-^iinra, Cmrse, mcli(ictiiWefowk,es|>tTially 
ihoae contahiing A t«r^ fiertvnlaj^eof ccltuk«ef ran^t be avoided; 
ill this oliv^ are '.--^M^mlly ii> t>t- Rtf^iitioneil cabhai^e, f>ickl<«^ 
(uiU<^ tiirni|M. <.iirri(>4^, all oold drinks, carlxkiiAted waters, and 
heveragrs (inoludinir irhainpn^ne aud hferV Amon^r the fooik m 
he rvoommeoded are bro<hfi. tea. red niDes. fiirioa, rice, and 
iKiHey pniek Raw milk u^ially ha^* a laxative effect, hut 
when lH>ilt^l or diluted vfilh lime-water nv brandv it is ounsti- 



^K 874 Dier IS IHSEASB, 


1 


1 


■ 


^^m pcitit^. nltliuitjrli in a ivrliiin nttinlx-r < 


nf (■a)fi(.T» 


it tiiuaI hp «iit 


lin^lv H 


^^M i'xdtuM H7' it iiion^u.Ko tin- niiiiiU'r i>f muvcnx^'Titf^. 


III u ntiDi- 1 


^^M Imr of ctiM-^r>f ehrohiodmrrlim milk < 


riiivj* linvc (r^'U eivcn with 1 


^^M guoti re^iUUi. The aulhor> Utiw »uix*^\itsl 


ill irlicviiii^ 


CaJ!«l4 1 


^^M of ohrooic diarriica bv svHU-iuatio ix^t iiin^. 






^M 


^^^^ DUi'IiM /w (^rv/iie Diarrhea {Srtvre Gt9ft). — (^tr 


l<VJr,) 


^H 




rtiMUi- 


ni. 


hrdniiH. 




^^B^^ MfimEnir: 200|tni nrom cooot IbollKl 


Ln 






^^^H 


^^B VHU'TI .... 


. as 


£tao 


1S.0 


^^^H 


^^H 1 «ift-iH>jttHL oior - ^ . ^ 


^ «.o 


J).00 




^^^H 


^^H FonOtJun: 200 irm. «l(.-Lix<lkMU>f vluiMlrlH-rdfV 






^^^H 


^^B fmiji t^u inu. dried Iwxrii^ 


. 0.B 


L»0 


4.7 


^^^H 




. 5-& 


4.W 


7.C 


^^^H 


. *5hO 


•\0i» 




^^^H 


^^^^^^ ]0U ^u. pirnitivil iiiKil (lean) - 


. wi: 


1.50 




^^^H 


^^^^^^ 50^11, r'u^t til lx.>ui]l'>ij 


. 4.0 


o,yj 


3^.<l 


^^^H 


^^^^^^ AfUraooa; 354Vg:rii vrfaimlrVirnilrvH-iiim . 


, rj.r- 


1.30 


4.7 


^^^^1 


^^H EfCniH^: iaOgtn. mAlloIi-Kumirxi^' v:iu|> 


. Cvo 


0«o 


}M 


^^^^1 


^^H 1 i.<i£ir , . - , , , . 


. (ill 


'Vmi 




^^^^1 


^^H 1''>0 lEMi, ntinml rhichcn ^ ^ . . 


, IS.0 


OnrtO 


ISO 


^^^^M 




. «.« 


l.^) 


4::.!; 


^^ 


, - , 


. - 


7.0 


^J 


H ^^^'^^^J[,}260pn^^ 


. 6.0 


AA)0 


K.O 


^H 


^^H Tuuil 


. 87.2 


42m 


lii.Hn 


^^ 


^^H Oilurii^ - . . , 


- 3ao 


3$0 


OWJ 


ISO 1 


^^H Kntire nuibber of enh 
^^K Ditt4Ut fof Chrauit Diarrh^ {Leviku 


in^ I 










}--{4/ 


l-rr iKfyri 




PFoii'in- 


TK- 


hydnid. 




^^H Moffiiiiff: -00 irm. nj<t>m 4X>rc»a ..... 


2^ 


3.tf 


12.0*1 


H 




AhW 


M 




V 


^^H KonHirjin: 'i4<* ^tri- kuAr (four dnyf aM) . . 


8^^ 


ft-T 


3.00 


3.a J 


^^1 Noun t 2-Vf ffm, vonp - - ^ 


5.5f< 


4.0 


7^ 


^^^H 




fl.W' 


0.U 




^^^H 


^^H IM) i^m, rr«At4^ rliiikon ■ . 


2<,O0 


10.0 


].sn 


^^^^1 


^^H S>VI gm- mp»h<fl fHimiotv - - i 


6lOO 


1.: 


43.70 


^^^H 


^^H 2c^c1<ick: STfU ij^m. ni^^ni oh'iiQ . . 


2^(* 


IE, ft 


12,00 


^^^H 


^B 6(^iloik: £-Viiri(). k^^T 


S,2ft 


'tj 


3.0<1 


3.2 1 




3.30 


0.0 


17-00 


^^^H 


^^H 1 cfi^ .... .,.•.. 


coy 


firt 




^^^^H 




23.00 


(«.3 




^^^^1 




&^o 


a.7 


:;oo 


SJ ■ 


^^H During ill V Tr, am. t.*if\mck ot Trktutcd ' 
^^H tluv: Imitrt 


9,00 


U 


4i^o 


^J 


^^B 2»»^i. buUL-r 


t>.u 


laa 


OJ^ 


^^^H 


^^^H %'fif tpu- wlufulcbcrry wine » . 






*,75 


3U ^^1 




127.00 


7errt 


160^ 


^^1 


^^H (^IoHh 


_ .ft20 


740 


ei6 


sio ^^1 


^^H Eniinr niimlicr'of color 


icK ■ . • 






3086 ^H 


,\ 


L 



i>XikT ly lyTESTISAL DISEASES. 



375 



DfflT TREATMENT IN HABITUAL CON5TIPATI0W- 

Iti tli<- <liel4-tio iTvatm^Dl i>f Ii:iImUia1 o>i)Hti|ialk>ii K i> t'-'^rM'n* 
tuil ihiit tlif^ fo4>J itiat it* ii)gest<HJ .^houM Ih? -^ucb il-« \\ill mrcxsm* 
tli4' intt^tiicil njoveiiK'uU. Those (cHuh Uiai Ituve a large* bulk 
of iVmil miiUer ave ii^-fiil for thU parju^e, Tlio?ii' Uiat l*flve a 
^rnall residue iire iii'ihi apt ui j>rrxluco clipuiic cimMi|>atinii. A 
Jiut tx>n.-ibfLiiig pnii<.'!|>uUv' uf c^g;*- aii«l milk willi uul^v u fiiuall 
i|imiit]ty of v<^-ta1>lv» ami viTiit'r h out- tli»t is oi>iipli|Kttiiig, 

A gl(u* "f t-HJd \vuf4?f tukcu before W*ukliuit will tirtcii iv-gu- 
Jiilr ihi- Ijowrl*; ocatMomHv, iK^ordiii^ lo Pon»»1df, a piiiHi 
oi f^lt adiUil to ihe yyixier will iiicrciiAi^ iia eHinury ; raw or 
cvoktxl fniit, tALcii on an ciii(>ty -^Mmat^li rnoniirt^ or evening, 
ul'€tl^iollally ^Vi^ g*"**! ri'^ulK Ii U a w('ll-km>vva f:K-r tlint 
tlio ^iii^king of a ligar in th«* moniiu^ wtU otteu .^nmuluri.' ]>eri.'i* 
tal-'tiK. The [KitiMit i^linulcl i^e^^ijriiiJEe Lht- iiu]xirum<-t of haviLig 
an ovacitalioiL of tlie IxmeU :it tlio ^auie lime eacli tlay. 

<<hn>iiir ut>iLMi|Kilti>n ly* ii frt-<|iiviil »on>tujjauiiu«-cil of dytt" 
|»cpllc ^IU<^rOt-rs, amt rimy Ix' rvluiv«l hy appn>|>r!jito troaliiM^iit 
of tlio giLe«trir- dlM>r.k'r. It nliiHild iioi 1>L- fi>iyt>iU*n iJmt liuKituiil 
ouiksciijiatioii U fnH|ii(>titly jnjltiH<l hy the |M*isi.it«<nl tin* {»f 
cat)unie<, am] tW u^ of i)rug» should be avoided iU4 mticli 
&^ |KH.MhIe in the trt^atPK'Ht of tbU ilisunler Stdoiilary Imliite 
are i^tftca the caii^ of cH>u.4ci|iatioii, aivl for ilii^ n>a^Hi iiroptT 
ex^rciw should alwavF^ bo pre^Tilitnl alr>uj^ \i)th cfi« uh.-lKio 
Ot^atiuent* Tbe v-egebLble^ that are e£|>ecianr ii^ul in itie 
treatment of chmnic cooetipation are ^jiiouirl), pca^, <nulill<>w-<-r, 
c^ilxigir, a*[>arajK«--. naiads »Miii>iJB, lelrry, mid loajalo^^ Tlir 
«vnaU itiat Atimuluto iIk tnUviiiml TuovetueutH uv uatrui^il utid 
ctirmneal. Grahum, rye, oorn^ u'luilc wbuil, mini bniD bn-iidri 
ATP abka iii«lul. Oth^r food.^ da^AAl aa luxaliVfH ftr^ hon<y, 
«i(ler, nM>ii<!^«f^ and ncid fmiH ^>cli ah a|)|ib>. |tr>aM. jKnirlti^, 
cherries, and onmge^ On account of tin* m-id?* and M^di* tln-y 
€ont4LinT l>erne6 are effective laxatit'eK Prunes, dute^, riu<l fl^ 
are also to be rrcommeoded. 

llubttiuil oi»n?ti|Kilion h often thic to tiie fad thai wati-r in 
lakeD in iDMilTk-itrirt uuaniJiit-^ ; ibt-refure, iu (he crtatuieni of 
xhv iii#'>n)4rr, nii AUmdaiKX- of water um-t \k pref^-^rUied. Tbc 
foodd lo be avoided are tm^ eUret^ ooooa, eboeolat^, riee, bnrW, 
and faHna fcnieU, and huclcleberrie^. In aonic eaoei imlk iiotx 
&fi a la^iaiive, wlierea^ in othen* ii ha."* ibe opiMitite efleeL Far 
ihiH r«i.Min it^ efltvt -^h'»ulH l>c tt^itfl in we^ry caw. Boiled 
milk U!4tially mnt-tipate^. BuiKroiiik i.^ prt^ferable to livrtt-t 



37« 



PlhT ly DSSKASK. 



milk fift A laxniive. Most ca****** of Iiabimal ccmJrtipntion cnn be 
relievai 4>r curhI by ilip dktt^tk- trtfirincnt here laid down; it 
w oot within i\\v provinco "f ihU Ixiok To (li.<'iiKs the valii<' of 
lua^tf^^ ap*i electricity ; auttce it to «ay that thej' are reliitble 
ftdjuvautd to the trefltmeot of consLipation. 



UoTviDi^: 900 fm, 

30 gm, 

Futvduun : 30ti icrii, 

N<Kin : 300 irrn. 

300 ^m, 

200 cm. 
300 giQ. 

Aftvrntwn: 300 fl^ 

KvcEUiig: 150giiK 

300 Km. 

'J.W ^m 

After cTtuiag mod : T^O gm. 





I'rat«tn, 


r«- 




Aieoa< 


uillk anU oofl^ 


a2o 


4.40 


3.93 




1mtu-r . . . . 


OSl 


UM 


0J& 




Inmcv . , , , 


o.sa 


0.03 


17,00 




Timtirmnk - - 


i:!.15 


S.80 


U.S0 




1ii<(iilN-ii , 


\m 


D.i;o 


1.20 




milt toll ' • 


2i;0 


mM 


0.70 




curlf i-abl'D.p' 


4-^ 


M.-IO 


2L0O 




|>Umj» . • . . 


OLtfO 


. , 


11.00 




w]iiii-*iue or 










cidfT. - ' - 


. , 


, 


0.0O 


^T 


buticniulk . . 


12.1J& 


1^ 


11^ 




lumi ^ . - - 


28.30 


11.00 


0.10 




UlllfM , ' ' . 


OJL 


2*.ft0 


Clfi 






IJW 




3D.00 




22.50 


2.0O 


125.00 




bvcr . n 


-12.(10 


e.50 


4.70 


'2M 


Tolftl . , 


11^.7? 


I0i.50 


2«5.80 


59.5 


CoWkv. . 


ADO 


laoo 


1000 


:)T& 


Eniiiv ni]ml)»r of «luriw . 


r , , , 


3776 



The nuthor^ tmiucntly ]>a'?^crib> the following diet in casea 
<if chronic coTistipation : 

ftA. X.T 40^1. ifmtiFft^jiii4-o ............... §$ 

8a,h,: 30(» ifin. Eitilk villi t^itltv -. . . 1W£ 

2^-fi(M>fcj.ii rin> 100 

40gin. bmtvr 32d< 

10 A. u.: 4(HJ|fni. cider 280 

13 JL: t!Ull ^11. lm<lh, «itk 1 ««» 84 

IOOKn,.i*iej>lc SU 

1(H><m. >'^ti>ri> 4t 

imU'tn, lH:iin* Ift3 

l.'iO ii;ml. IJnharii btvnrl 375 

-On jfiTi. *U"K'i>tf iititpli?! .■«•.* .•«,ki'*,, 109 

4r. M.: 4'K)irin, hmurmik IfiO 

7r.X.: 1<K)tfm. wntpt^llxi'f IIS 

irri)in»' Clriilinm lifx^d ATA 

SOOfni, *u»w<tl imif»i>< - - 1T6 

300 Km. oidrr , £10 

Or, M.: 40 Ku>. tls^ (of luo 1,-Eii. biiltcnulllij - ■ . . _46 

3ajift 



DIET ly UVEB V/aKASE& 



a77 



I>ki /or fiahitmti Chfutipaiwn.—(4/tft Sim^'i 

8 A. U.: A libml brmkluM, with Avi't'iifivit ojfliv, jJi-mr ctf butter, honey, 
An<l Umhaiti tim^l t-r |)Ui»]>i<ttiitkvJ, ullrr whiib lliv pallvul 
«1lfHllil ICO lo Vtool- 

1 r.M.: Mi<lJjiT m«l of iii«<«i« a Iat^ i|iiAD(tlv oT v^tabh*, nbd, Mvwcd 
fruiu. 6iriiucc«»ir foinjj Irnlrii \h*UU of wbiif wini* I Mofclltj ur 

7 P. Jt. : M«l villi a lunrc inuninl nf buiier, Unhom brad, ilmod fhiit, 

10 K IL : Bufot* rviirin^ fnpth or Mtfwnt fniU. 

DIFT IN PERITONmS. 

Acute Peritonitis. — The diet in ucute |>entoiittifi is purely 
of w'<'(nni«rv imiwmiinoo, Jiud rwiinrce contitleration ooiy until 
qpeniiiv^ |iroo<'ilim< ^iin l>^ Ktuk-rt^km. Xo RkhI wliauv^r 
muulil W ^iwn l>y tin- motiih : irmvc»«an% rectal alim€Dtati<jo 
lOimilil be ri'^iiritHl ta If n|K-nitiun \f not TiDdcriuken and 
viiiiiltin^ lm.-< (^itM^i, t\\i\iU m»v l>r pivr-u in a tew dnyz^ Foods 
l!i£it miiv Im^ jin*9>i-rilwl im^ milk uiid Jimr*wHUT, diluted brothSp 
und c^^dbinniii with or witlumt Lnm^Iv itr *hcm' : odIv voiy 
pmnll fjtiHiiiiiif^ fihoiikl l>r tiikcii nt n time but at frtyj»€tkt iu- 
tj^rvxU : fp^^dnidiv plain milk, firi^lh, iin<l gnif>U mny l>e nddt^l 
Ut tiK- lift ; iwHd footl should rml W allonrd for wveral UM'ks. 
WIk'h Mimiikmf^ iiw n^qiiin^l, lh^' should be (civeD id the tbnu 
of wliisliv, lintnly, or fham]*ii;nK". 

Diet in Chronic Peritonitis. — Th^ <Lct in olironic peri- 
tonitU «lkould voD9]»ct of UaW rmits f^Vf milk, «tnip breid, 
lon-t, or crackers, «i>d \Tp*-talil<s, *vnlv, bowr^wr, in llic f<»nn 
of jitir^i^ ; cnrbtfliydnitc?! .-ilioiild !■' fnirn !t[iiirinjzlv, on ico^unt 
of iWir Icmkn^-y to torment. Fr<»d .tl^-uld be cotcn i& r^mall 
i|UAntitio( At tvguUr but frvqiicut intcrvuU. 



DIET IN LIVER DISEASES. 

Trt prvvent nH-<lle<-* rv|>c>iiti<>n, c^-rtiiin titnTil dlHHic ttilc* 
will Ih'Iv U- givfii for lb«- niiiniijr^moiit of liwr diKv--4*7« in g^'D* 
rnil. Tlic tltmrc^ljc dl-^u:v(»i>Df< bearing on lliii< Mib^cct hiive 
l>i:coro(- vo niini<-n>iij( Afi Ur roivl^r even bn«f oonKuUralion <ff 
l)»-m impfbvibltf*. For thU r?A'^>n ihf* Kabjfipt will be dralt with 
licn* (tnly fmm ii pnetJcnl Htdii<lpf>int. 

ni' unjtip of *ym|)totn?i fieiiemlly claw^ a# " b]lioti«np»«*' 
arc UiHislly ibc n^ulc i>f ovtreflttng, and (lie fo-culM "biliuiiJi 
attack " h nothing more tbi^ ti cr>' of tbe liv^r for relief. 
> tAstoma ^ tkt /motf m^ pL M7. 



378 



mKT IS DISEASE. 



Maiiv iiKlivirfualf* wln^n thw bcw>iiie Cf>nfitiiuited *4afftr fiv>ra 
iIh'.m.' utfaoks- The^e two fucXi^ furtii-^h tL^' iiiilic<atiiin,<< tor tiyjii- 
in«ul: n^c aiid n|K'n Ih^wt^n. lu ibe arun^ aunrk^ alt timt i» 
neoc*»flry is a n^iricteil diet f»»r w^veml dayft> ttigeiher wiib the 
iKlininintnilioii of i-^ilomel, ft>llr>wed l>y a atline. The object of 
iRiif iiK'tit in Jill lU^^t-aft^ of ilie Uvcr r^lHmU Ije m jp^f iht* ur^a 
n:< little witrk Itj do iiw |>o^?•ilJle< It nhouM m^l, bowcver, bo 
put ut nljsoKiU- n>--*t» mwl it Ia piijlHit>ly Dot pow^ihle to aot-om- 
plUh thU cn<l <m :uivnini u{ \t% iuiuciket* un gonoi'ikl iuelzibL>Ii>«cii. 
In gi^ncnil* n Mm]>l(% vrt-IUiiiixi^it ilit-t con tinning |tn»t<4n, ini, 
jmil ttirboLydnite* i,* iniHait^ti. Ih tiertaiii ilLsi^ix-.* in uliich 
tlio Aiiirtiori of tlie \Wvv is innnifistly iin|iiLi]i>ti, Hit Ami oarbo- 
Imlriilo* mnsl Ik* n.*srri(-ti*il or <-vvn nnittttHl entiivly iVir n few 
duyi^. Boll), !!' not iii»iii]>th' i]i.-^|ioeitHl of, aw ajil t) tindery 
f:li]ii)}^'4 in ihc ii)tf-->liti»l L^innl. 

CiTl--iin urticli"^ uf dirt iin* kni-wn, wluk* otlicr?* un' lH"li*'V<'J, 
lo \)*^ hijuntni,* iti ih.scjLdrd a»nditiiinF< of the livi-r. Overeating 
U injnrious, first, tm oocount of tlic overwork it iit^oondtatcfi ; 
nnil, •JiTvitully, hpi'mi*i* t\\t* <n^H'r^\u^ii* faiuX l* uyfi to undergo 
pTitTvf^irtiiin, Till" n-'tnltni;; li;irli"ri:d |ir™lu("tj' un- holifVtHl b> 
ut't on the liver in muHi tW >[itiie iminrKr its doc nkH>hol, 
Tbe exc^s^^ive tuft- uf uIcmIioI iiroJme^ m7irk;.Hl eliau^-s m the 
Vxvur in ci-rtnin iiidividtmU Tbi* lias been i>mvwl by experi- 
mont* oil unirmU- In :i ^*^■^il^* of I'X |H.'rinn'nt* ])crf<inTitHl bv 
tb<* [MitlHii^ irk ibe P:nhi»fo|TK' l/dH>nitorx' of the Jolni*^ llojv 
ktn!4 Ho^piliil^ RiUinioiVf ndnid rirHioLto Himii^'*' in ihe livE^r 
wci'T iiidn4i,*<J by tlir admini-^t ration t>f idrobol,* Some jiei>on» 
may ttikc ideobol ooiitiiniotuly ^vilb im|)niiitv. If t»kcn in 
exiNXistivp (jLijintitiew, br*wevi*i", over sulliriently pndon^l |Tetlods, 
it pn»l«il)ly inxTiriidjly pr^hnv* ehnnne ti^jno chAii^'^. VHien 
;i oeilain uinoiint i^ taken, it «'erii» to he burnt up in ilie l>ody 
04 fihul ; wh(.*ii thin Uniir i^ iwn'H'fl. it bw'^>mef^ a poi^^mu In 
cx^rtiun ft'V*'!"."* eTiDnrinti-* ipuinttlie^t mav otlen be enn-^inm'd wtth 
jrn'jit ben*»*il. Jn-"! whut nrnoiint may Iw t;ikeii witb ^^riletv bv 
any <ait^ individual \^ not known, tinJ i;* dejK'ndeiit in lur^ de- 
sire oTi idi* >rtyncraM". It lin* btwn c^tbiintn! tlint two unncn 
of ab*oh')l (Ml tb<j avenvgr miiv l*e ouisninni tt* a fi>i>d in twfnty- 
four hours. Tb-^ form ntjd (bo :itnonnt i»f (n^ne^-nt ration nf tke 
aUi»bo] nri* inijiortiiiit fuc^ron" in eiinMcbTiii^j the viVi^t of nb'rdiL>l 
on tilt' livor. Wln^ky, hnindy, and niinilur sj>iritn'>uK b-|Tjoi:fi, 
taken in n eonocntnitc<i fi»nn, nndoidttedlv pnHbiee tnore marked 
tissue chan^-« in tlw Hver th:in U^bl wiriei* or lieer, 

^ Soi ^^V]ch, The Phif»i'iioffic Arf>€rtf of the Li^aat ^ui^tfuo. 




VtBT IS UVMR DiSEASJSS, 



;J79 



in ftH fivrr tlliiaijtvjt nf^Jwl ••tuiuhl ht nt>oit\til uiilr-Hi Hpcviallv 
indioiiliHl ii« II Tj>iiu- i>r «liiniihtii. In nny (?iw* It aIuxiM 1h> 
given \K-v\\ dilutixl. A wcll*timciin.-d \\\itv wlii>ky well fliliunl 
witli wuter U to be prerorr(.«il, aii<l rliU unly m Uw mi]u1U?4 

(Vrrniii (inAii hav<- l>t<pn n*jfwnlt*d il-* "Miiimblih^'* itr " irri* 
tiling" to tilt' liver. Anioti^ xh^-M^ an- j)e)>;>eTs nf vanmH 
kiaii^, q>UvH, niii.siard-s ci>ii<'eiuratKt lumt i?xiract.-i aiK) ni<<at 
bnfilL% uiid i\w ftuIi-<Iuih^?i ri>nii<-<l \\\ rt,i;L-44*il ami Imk^nl imnitt, 
T« W proTHTrilMHl i»rf |M^]ijH'r-i, i-udUbf^^ lioix^ni'lLth, oniifii:*, 
wnl<,*fi*fvj»*, ami n-Ur}". Suit in lou lat^ i^iiuutuk"* U uU" t« 
Ih^ (>im!f-mms). Stning <*iil1»- nin) t4« ur<* Imrnifiil, but "KvtAa 
t«H «vni* (o Jk' w(»1I l»f.jn^<r in iniiny mr<5*> 

III wvcn* iltH^i.-iH <»f till* iivrr tin* Am iiin^r ii>imllv l»e 
r(.-«trk't<^tl til mitk, iJiliit<*i) i>r {K^phmi/ed, ^ui-l.-^j iiliiuiiiin*v^^iti.r, 
ktimi^, biiitvrinilk, iiml blaiiit k>njt]i.% furb zs oynu^r bnXli, 
Oniiiirt'-jui*^' a:* well a^ leruonadi* may ^Derally be allowi^I. 

Ill ilut milOfT ili.-i<a.'4> and dtirin^ crMivalt^rJoerire the din iit^l 
|]4>t Ix- ?«■ ri^ii!« ^itkI Kmi tiK»l, I'ltixt, jiinkH, brt^fl, lifitM, /^iii<<' 
back, trc*ii fnui. or fniil M-*w-ctl witli litilf nr ni> Kiiptr, muy l>c 
allowed, T& tW rrhronio ramv stntl Iighl4>r fftruii; lli(> Iriltowiiig 
artioWmay help tomjik^ikpih^^iliftAry, AHIk. v.irii»ii>^ly ililtitnl 
aial pr«[iar«il, btiltemiilk. ciinU IcuniiK, cat^1:ln^ juiikcl, <-^;pi, 
lean meat, if Iwef or miftturu pr:-tVnibIy rarv, »wwtbr»*»d*, 
clm^kea, AqiiJib, livrr, the >-uii |virl <>f oy^tt^rs nml tlie mon^ ili<- 
ge»iible forms of fi^h. Fru«h j^rocn ve^rrHjibln^ ain] f;rei-n ;s:ilacU 
witliotit "il an* pf-miiwiible, Sinnll 4|nanlJti4-« i>i wrll-litikeil »ir 
\yiA\vA m«ily potato imiy !»' ullouitt oikh* a <iay, fiir mam- 
peT>«>n« ilo Txrt n*li«l) ii nii-ol ilmt Jih"!* n<»t riHiiJiiu |x>lalo iti 
mmic r«>nii. TIk' Atnrchy ftHHtrt fihikulil f»r partiikca of A^miv 
what fl)Ktnnfifly ; brc*n<l, tnci>l, xwii^bnck, ptillnl bnad, nofl bi^- 
niitfi (i'm<'kpr«^ may Ih* ikpmiitteil, Sto;ilt ipiniititii^ ol' ivr<*?il 
fo.xi* tnay be taken — rice, rap** an»I rapiocu, wlun Mifliciently 
weM-cuokc<lf inrtv U* allottisl, Vm^x Iniit i« n valuable ailjunct 
to the Jiet. Oraiif^^* pmiH-fniit, ripc' pc9<7lif# or [K.tii>i, cnipes, 
rtniwberrif*, rif**' plum* ol'tlie tinwi ttvaliT varietii-i* may all l>e 
takciK ^tew'^il fruit--* onlv -^lljjhtlv ^wi.>'I<tk'<I ami Ixikftl a[ip]t4 
niay lH.Mdl<fwn1 niih ailvani;»c^\ irthen< iff OQii'<ii|Kiiir>n, -t^^rd 
pmnr^ vre iiHrfuL I.«nionBil^r nuy l>c taken ii# n lirvrr&i^. 

Mim-ntl waton* mnr W dmak freoly if dn>|»y t* nM pn^'tit^ 
aiift nrv lio«t Uiko^i rm rising ami tH>tW4'<<n incaU, W*A lAiilc-r \a 
A valimhir .«it1>^titaif<- for x\\^ miai^nil u^ler^- It im fvjif^nally 
uscriil to albyiiig tliii>t whfii tlu.'re Iji dmp^. 



3dO 



Dt£T jy DiSEASB. 



Tire fxxJ p^houlf] be taken slowly, well masticalt^, and wcwp 
Ia tCH) Ijtrgc cjauntitic:^. If ncce?ifeiiry» more milk may W tpvt'ti, 
90 114 t<> [lutke large iimoiint^ of olhcr fi:KMl iiniiix^oe^wry. 'l*lie 
pAtkiil plioiiUI Ik' down (iiix-c'tJy before anil a^cr meaR In no 
OHH^ tfliouM the p!i1i<-nt «(it Ln1n)edtnl4^ly titter taking active 

Iti ciTUiii chrx^rnc otnditioiiK, v^iich n? Iiy{}creuiia. fatty <le^n- 
cmtioni and chrotiic lu-paritt!*, cxcrci«c b to be taken at prcrprr 

In Hiimmrr atml in uiirm rlimntea more ve^ah1» are to be 
ullowt-^l and lets ineatr. If patrefa<7tive ebatigv^ ifike plaoe in 
iUv inte^fMnt', n <iiet (.'imsislinp uf white t>f e^ aiul «ator slir>nld 
bt- inairituiiRHl iituil thi* eimditiwn i» overoome, Wben the 
piicri-fiiotiiiri JM (siiwrd hy t^-rpidily of tbe lii'er, it mav .^ome- 
tinirs be ]>n*\Tin«1 by inerea*iiig tlio aiuuu[it of vegetables and 
bv xi\€ iiTW of laxiitive^. 



CATARRHAL JAUNDICE. 

During thf :icnto ittngf', »j<> I'Hijr ok rl»*ri* w jiny ti?ndrnry to 
vomil or whiii; <ly^j>rpviu is iimrknl, tb<' j>:ttivnt i^lioiild ]ir kept 
ipiicl in iTtnK Tbe dirt ?tlicndcl W- very liylit and flniil. Fat t» 
i»spet*ially t^» be av^iidt'd, lu aroj t>r oturn*^ nil foodfi that are 
eitlier t'liemioally or nueliunioaily irrilntinf?. 

Milk^ wliii'ik imiv ritbfT hr ?^kinirneil or diliileil wifli linio 
waler or mtncriil wutrr?* i>v iM'\t[im'i7A^\, w imtlmldy fbr uutfi 
U)^?fiil urtii.<le of diet. On iiecoirnl of ilir fat wlilr-li \vhole milk 
oontolns it ii*, however, open t" rertiitn tb^tfrctir objcciiQjuH, fii 
practice, n evert UMc*^, il i* pjaemlly well Ixinie. Biitlcrrmilk 
or kumiss mny also l>e niird, a* mtiy lM'*'f-jiii<v*, nyvt**r-l>n»fli, 
riam IxHiillon, albumin-wnler. and viTll-t<ixiki.*d cmd T^lniiiutl 
barley pruel. If the r^tomacb is irritable, fivKl ^b<■llld Ix- given 
in -imall quantiticH and rt re^Iar intervnls As ilie i«tom«di 
becomes tolerant and tlje apjK'tiH' ri'Uiras, bread, zwieback, 
tnast, k'Ein mt^tlj *iich a* tl»r breri?-! <^f chicken, HW<H>tbread*, 
and tender stwik or chop?* itiav Ih' adininisiered. Soup^ itdek- 
ened witJi Ijarley nr fltnir may l)e given, luid the lighter tortus 
of fif*b nmy aW be allowed. Fmit, well c^xikiil and wiihoul 
too milch ^iigar, may bo adfhn] m* ciin\'alcwrm><' progreseiw. 
All f^nrm* formt tii' vrgi'tnbli-»i mnsf Im» avolik'd, hnt t^pinaoh, 
a^pam>nis tip«, Jind rtuilifkiwir U-tyvi may In? givt*iu Well- 
eodkeil mn4ie<l iM'tahH.-^ may Ik' nlhkwe«l in modemte qmrntitieii. 
The meal* •ilicmM be j*mnll and, if ni^'*'-<'*ary, may bo given 
frecineutly. During coiivaleAt-uce. wboa the apjielile returns in 





DiET LV UVFM msEASES. 



381 



full force, tin.* i^tk-nt i^tioiilil Ir* wuiii«no«l iipiiiiH oven^niinif. 
For ^votul months Uio (llu i^lmaM hi.- guiinli^l mid nil irriiatiug 

Ooffee iLn<l tcu ;<h(iiilil in* forbuUUn duriiig tbt' ociile ^ta^, 
but fluriii^ ct»nvAlvsoe<icN; tliey may be allowed, but ^louM bo 

f;ivi^u ueilbcr Ukj ^U'c>ng iu>r in lofr gival t|uauutv. AtcK>kf>l b 
«r?-t flVoi<fc<l. Fnt», ^\\c\\ a.-* hnttor and erotuu^ ftbould l«' wilh- 
lu<1d 1i.>iig(«?t in tXui tvluni to u lull divl. If uts 4>xo<!» iff Alanc^b 
or of sTi^r lA taiff^, <1UtiirhmK<4>?t un- ivTtmii tn fi»1liiu' ; H' fiibi 
are ^ven io too gr^t iil>uiidjitiLY i^r too mrly, j>iiirtrfiutivv 
chang^e-i are ai»t to occriir. 

MitiomI iVTiter mav Iw <lriiiik fni4y during tbi- txHtn^e of tti* 
disease, ami tbt' bowel:* -ibiiuld W kk'jil o]h^ii. I'ttrl4md luid 
A'ichy are t'^pct'ijilly t** Uc ixs^mniK^iKliii, but irtbr<r wiiE<'r> iii;iy 
be iifii*<L Pluiii curl^iKiUil wuUt i> UM-1\d an u lA*v«m^-. 

Catarrhal Jaundice In Children. — Tbi' diM.-a-r i* niix? 
ilk chil'lri.'d nndcr iwik vr^r^i "f "g**- Tbi* siim^ gt-tk^nd |}rniri- 
ploi^ of di«1 mnv be 9t<lh<*nxi to lu wbni (htt ili^^iuc oi<c()r« in 
adults. Fat. slarrbi^ him! T^ngar 4ionl<L U* n'rinord in unnn- 
tity, ard mn? nical, truk, mid milk nioro jdcnlirully !<n)i|dio<l. 
If vomiting 'K"cui%, milk iliUtti<<l witb iJiiU'-^'atiT or a <tirk>' 
nated water^ or iw[»toniwd milk may Iw.' ti^^^d. If llic go^^tric 
symptoms ui\- ffev^re^ ibe diet ^lionUl W tin* «ame a^ tliac for 
acute pi»lrlo tiulii^^tion, Cnbrnul, ibf- imUiKis^, and mln<ni] 
Wttleni ftliould W |»i\^'rili**il t*» kirj) tb*' lw»vr(»U upiL 

CONGESTION OF THE UVER- 
Acute Congestion, — Tlie tnmtmput depcinU lai^y on 
tbo i^aiH".'. A\ hon tbo rtinjfefiti^ti ocoins in tb*» course '»f aonie 
disea^^s, lite ditt in priK'tii^^iIlv tlie kiuic as tbat of tbeaf^>cmi<Hl 
disease. Wbetj there U jmiti. x^t i» e^^nentiab If the palient'p* 
c»tiditii)n wamtitSf tlie d^t ^^hotild I>e luiv^ly restricteib 
Diluted Diilk^ tbiii ^u|M, albtmiin-wator, and the like may l>e 
givon in small quantiliv^, lo weaker jialienlA the diet ^li<iiild 
be n.'gtdated aix'oiding to ilie general eouditiou ; if eruaciatkm 
i* excrfiiH!, a lai^*r diet ^loiild be ordered, ean* being laken 
not to disturb ibe Moiimcb. Milk, Mrutm, Iraa meatr fruit, 
cooked fruit, ni)i) brcmd or tijaet t^boiiM form tbe bulk nf ib« 
Hi«»tnry. All irrilittiii^ fixnU, i»flet*. T^troDg tea, and aloohfi) 
are to be AVoi<WL Salin^*^ are iiidir^ted in niorit cases. 

Passive Congestion of the Liver. — Tbe diet sboald 
l>c revtricted and the same fEeiieral prtneiples observed as 
dirwk'd tn li\"er disease in gei>eRiL 



d82 



DIET LV DISEASE. 



ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY. 

The clift £ih(.iiiUI l>e reAtrii^al; UMUilly only lt<jiiid# cuit be 
giv<ii, sur^h a? uiilk, dilutixl u.h in catarrhal jmiiHlin-, nllnimtit- 
vater, etc. Ill g^jueml ilie zaaiio^iiicni res^mble^ Uiac of ud 
acute feviT. 

ABSCESS OP THE LIVER. 

In the early ^tajjes ibv ]>jitM]t niii»ii]iL Iw jmt at re^t am) 
rectivt a veiy light diet of milk, gruels, albumln-wftter, and 
the Jike. AiXer ii|H.-niiIoii iht- dk-l luiiv Ih.- ns unlniiou--* a?* |MBr- 
HiLK-, 1M^uriug m miud th<.' ^-m-ral |>riuci|ik-» 4if ilict bi liv^^ 

lli'UlACM. 

FATTY LIVER, 

Tlw diet will ilepctwl u|xm th*' oxritiog cniiiac- When (lie 
fiitty livi-r in lln" n^Mili of jfi^iU'rid olw'Mty, the tniitTiviit >ho)ild 
b^ along tilt.' UwvA indifiil^-fl \\it thiil romliti^m, AVhni it i>* *hw 
tf» lulwivuluKis iir 111 i>i1k T cliniiiic intiKrlions the diet ?J»inild Iw 
iiniiujinl JKx-iirclinijly. In tlu'M'V(.Ti.^ cachexias tlmt mark inour- 
iiMi^ di^iiM> linlc mil W il'nie iii rlie wny of diet. 

In ^n^nenrl the i'o'ni i*houJd lie easily di^i*^(iMc ; mitk, loan 
meiit, riml cj;^:* lire rnninly tip he rciierl ou. Pri^Ii^eM***! milk 
unil iikiiIts may lie of vnlac, Inti f:if* uiul oil* i^hinild beavuided. 

AMYLOID UVER. 

Thi^ U u^iially oaut^etl by lorig— 'tantlin^ piipintration. The 
(tnul AutiM \w n-i ea-'^ily dig^>^tihKi ii- ir i^ |>o!v<iMe in make it. 
At ihe ^xnif time the iarfft'.Kt iiinniiai of |HN>Tein material oou- 
Miilent with the imtieiit'rt di^^live powers, slmuld be ^ven. 

SYPHILIS OP THE LIVER- 

Tlu- diet should Ik? ;uT!itit^'il na*onHii^ (o the gi-neml prin- 
ei{il<> liiitl down )<ir iivtr di^ra*<.'s in ^a^nemh 

DIET IN GALLSTONE DISEASE. 

CliolelithLij»i* i* a Mihject of evcr*iiicrcaHi»p mt^rerf- It is 
<«timak'd that alxiut 10 f^r cent, of the pfiptilnlioii of G«r- 
many havo ^ll-Atnne^. Kehr *t-ie^* thnl only Jihoitt -t |»r 
eent. of the^c e^*er pive rif*e tn serioris diftliirbain^e*, >"nTnennw 
theories have hpen adviinerd rcsiii'^^'uff dn- '-.mse of tlic Urina- 
tion of tptll-*itoiiev. Errorp- iii diet ami tlie viirioii* f<Mid ele- 
ment* hnvc tn-en cennidcrwl etmwuive, ami hrivc Inl to tho 
i*1abli*bnieiit td' eari<ni« dietarie*, M<Kt olwrvers* an% how- 
ever, ttichiieil {it ciinj'ider the |)n>|»hylaetie mciLiiirc;^ about lo 



W£T ly LIVER DM'JtiSfisT. 



383 



k* tIo*cribed of value. (For ud exhaustive diflCOfleioD of this 
BUbjttt the student U relVm^l to the article by (iuinoke aii<l 
Hi)[>|H'-8c_vlt'r in N*>thna);fer^ Kn'-itcif/j^Un nf JWr>/nr, wfiich 
ha." bccD My t-dited bv liie latt Dr. Frederick A. Packard.) 

The two factoid thai in all pruluibiliiy t-xcrl the tntt^t influ- 
ence on the formalifn) ot* ^Jl-utouua afv tlw ttittfiia «f hWv ai»(l 
the tnHiimtnation of the bi]e<pAft4a)i<M uivl ^idUblmldi^r. Tti 
thih eud atiytlnn(; that will iiier(»(u* tin- Ihiw nt' btk' i^h^jidd Iw 
enciHini^^ed, and aiiythiii): that rt>tarcU if, iivoidtHL To '>hviato 
thelutu-rall fo»J that i^ liable to (*iiUHe inf[i^'>tii>ii, with the 
atlcndnnt duiigei>^ of piitretactii'e chaDg«» -^ttlD^ up intiniiiiiui- 
tory pr<H*<>frf*, sh<rtild be caretiiUy a\'oided. 

The jKilieut sbuuld lead an zirtlve, if po^Mble ai) oiil-olVh^^r, 
life ard pbyj^iml exea-ipv hlioidcl iie a |jflrt of the iluir naiitiiuv 
Iloti^tJwek-nding for those wUo arc in cumlitiou und who ctiii 
Afford )1 h oxeellt'Mt. Walking, lonoinE;, f^^lff tennis E^'^d 
avrimniin}; arv ht^lpriil, and whore tlu"*** an* nnt inj^iw^l, ity«- 
lenmiie ^fymna^itie lyciwi^te^^ itlionld Ik* i>rcj*criUt!, kxf-nwt 
if the motiop*^ an? violeut enou^fh, at't* direelly by foivinp the 
bile from the liver and gall-bladder, and indinvlly by iiierea^ 
iniE ttie movenieut8 of iIk* imc^iints. 

The clothing should at all umest be rorafonably lonw- 
Womeii e^peciallv i^hoiild l>e oautioiie<l in r^Rird to thl^ ptinu 
Thr ei>rMtA shi>uld Hi 1oo?oly and be Bii^|K.-iidcd from tlie r^hiiul- 
<ler% »o sd to take the pres^irc from the waist. After i»r«ilB 
the elothifk^ should be Inowned, so as to telieve the abili^miTwl 
ttrf^nA fnaii pn>suure, 

Constipatinn Hboiild t<tiuliousIy Ite avoid<«l, The diet should 
he arronjccd with thi^ object in mind, and the iim' of laxative 
wline^ U to l>e rec«iniineiicled where their use ii Reoen^-anp*, 
E^>>oin s-ilts anil ^'titiihate of s(>iJa are iff «^)iecial value iu thia 
COiine^-tioR. If liet^ired, tbe.-^line miiwral waters may !« hiIk 
dtUutvil, or, for tbote who cao affon] it^ ooca^onat viiiitA ntuy 
lie math' !<> varioos niiaeral ttpnitf^. 

Thr nifttl^ nhirtdd \m- tnUrTi ai w^hir intor\iilb not loo wiJeljr 
<io|uim1wi. Prtilrtii^Hl f^Mting vlv>i>ld iu»vpr In- perraitiiyl, ior 
eiitlng liirn-aM-s tlic* flow i>f bilj* while fn^^tinj^ iniusi^ tlte biU* to 
be fton-d up in tlie sTtll^bhfMen SiJEne yont^t^> Frericbi «iih 
T'*ii<h'<I that in rlv^Miiliwui^ the intidi^ ishunKl efniH- elittie t^ip-ther. 
CxiTV niu*t, hiini'vcr, iw exerci?^! tn ?Ht' ttral iIh- finni i^ Uing 
thiinajkrhly diiri-'tti^l mid uioveil alntig the- inte?<tinal inirt nor- 
mally. Kt4ira<1vi>i^QMip)ier to be lakt^ lateai ni^t. Ottter 
AUthorct have ndvfx^itKl unking ihe [mtieiic in llie middle of ibe 



384 



I>I£T IS UfShASlL 



P 



tii|{lit til arlmmUtcr nouri^timeiil. ThJTi ItLti wrnild m^eia in lie 
entirely iiiineceMan'. Nhiidvii iusUts on the im)Mirtatitic ol' a 
siiflicieudv lar^' lirmkffu<t uuO, iiidfi-d, a bi^ tTK«l uf^ci- any 

Inrgo in ahm^^^l uU lustjinoor*. Cure photild hi' t»kiMi iioi Ui err 
ID the opjio^ite lUreotiuii by ^viu^ mure fuoct tLnii cnii 1h- ili- 

In the elKJk'e of food ttu^rt" aiv utTtain lliiii^ U' l>r avf>ictinl. 
In tlic firet i>kce, all (Vkj tlmt t-* nut <-jitirt-ly atmve r>iis|iioi<iii 
or that ii* liaMi- ki s-d up [lutre&aive chuni^e'^ niiHt be intcr- 
f]ict<Hi. Jn rhiit aitc^iry firt- lo lie placed --<iale t'ruitii, itlale AMi 
ami t^1idl-liK)i. (>vTrri|»o cIich^.-, and ibe like. 

Fat «Jiiiii]i!, 7t,<nniK-, W-n^iiuffil itm miutEiuiuiT r>r llit-it* b* (jfni- 
e«icral>lc Hini<vil ovidmo' t" ?<h"W thatati olmtiibiiu'c nf fat U 
Injnrioii!^ in ^ull-fai^^iu' itimin^, uk wA\ jim hi ntlior tlWnlcrs of 
till? liver, WhiHimr tlii* fn( aol* iri «n_v i>th<-r wuy ihim in prtK 
dueing bowel <li>t!irb!in(.\'* i< n f)ik'«n<»ti llia( Iul-* not vct iKt-ii 
dwdcd. Herlcr has r(.*tvnlly jminknl mil rl»»t <l(^ fwl tor 
months on a dirl rich in tat i\n*\ Inw in iinit^'ui* *lnkwcd oncn> 
tionj^ hi their gall-hlwdik*rv Fiit, *liouln, however, not bo i-limi- 
natwl from the ilieUiry nlto^lbrr. 

Exot-Mcs in rarliohyilnnc-*, ciiIut in *u;i"clies or m MJgur, 
fihuitld Ix' <.artTtilly avoiiW. Anvihhi^ ilirit " iU irriuih.' the 
liver j^honlil i)c i^rnhibiUrtl, us «boiikl nil riob jind coniplic&t4-d 
diflhedp Any fnntl thut IK apt to c-ueisc itirl}^ofriioii ifl to be re- 
gfinj^ as iiiifiiirtiihb' furtlir pHtinU witb ^ll-^toneK 

Prc'tehi. carholiydnUo*, ntid Jul ^^lionhl po t<i inaki^ up the 
dietaiy, which ?*lioiii(i ouo^ifFt of simple f<NM|, pininly prepared, 
with cjirc, liotti^ver, to avoid st inonntotioiu dit-in Meat frhmild 
not he eaten Xim freely, and mily the leaner varieties *ihf>nkl be 
u»ied. Milk amU-jriT* iLrcidlnwable. hnt if the milk is extremely 
rich, i\ jiortion of the civtnu ^^hunld l»e R'lnovcil. Smie :iiivhors 
forljid the yolk of egjiJ a* c<rntnuitni£ tot> inneli faU 

The preen vegetables and fresh fruit* are snit^ible articles of 
footi and m.iy be jwrtaken of freely. CVrealn^ and |»otiitoeft may 
l>e U"e<l in mmlpraTion, hut not where there U *Utareh indi)(eA* 
tion/' Turnips tieet^. and the like may he |kartaken of sparingly* 
While various authon^ forbid the a-^e of some of these, it ig 
|^r<^l)ably net the ehoi«\ Imt the C|i]antity, that Hioukl lie ron- 
sidercil in this eonneetiin. 

Brciid, nilU, and the like may he tuten lus de*in.Hh heiinn^ in 
mind that in '"T'tareh iiidiiicMi<)M " the amoinii ^h<juhl Ik.- limii^ 
Piutr) and any Uit the phniK-»t cake^ should be otnitftd fr^m 



DiST IS Ul'klfi DISEASES. 



3g5 



the diet. Hurley made lli^ ?<iat«^i-(ii tliut tie lielievr<l tliut 
t-tarrh pud<liiig8 and fat baccni caiiM-d move ^IWtuiK^ In Kii^- 
laod Than all father i'ooih put t'^ikT, AI(H>hol Autuld hi'. 
ftvm(t(-d> l>iit w>irw and tea may In? uIIuwlhI ifi i:i<:>d<'ralK>Ti. Tiiv 
druikiti>; of but wnivr on rifling and at bedtime ha^ l>een od- 
viwd, 00 w^ll M iW vftriouft tuitiifral waiets uieutioiKd iu cun- 
uoction with c<»n8ti]uiii<>D. 

CoerxiAtiTi^ dl^en^e^ are be1ie\'ed lo txetl j»r>me iuHiiHici? i>ii 
the formation of ^l-?<tones and when gmii, [limniir rtu^iimntWo, 
diabetes obesln, or dx^spepHta exiEits, like diet ^littulJ W n-gu- 
lated accordingly. In few diM^^ien are tbere *<i many t*i>nini- 
dlctory i>])iiiioDfi concvrnin^ diet as ia ^-all-^tone, and for ilii,-* 
rra^oD tboir diwny-ion liu^ been DOiilctd entirely. 

ORRHOSB OF THE UVER. 
H3rpcrfTOphic Cirrhcdis (Hauot's Disease). — Ilaiiot, 

the »iibjeet of cbe diet almo^i in a wurd. l^i- i\xovrim]vud» a 
milk diet lor w«i*k4 al a liine wbrre 11 is ui<il Ixinn-. U'hi-iv » 
more exton^ivi? diet i» imiieaT*^! rb^ sami* Uiu*?* muy i»r fV>!li'^\Hi 
a.-- wen- laid dijwn for rirrii^wi-* in ja'*n'mL 

Cirrhosis. — So fjir :h diet i^ <>nu'rnH^I, all form* of rir- 
riu)HiH may lie tnmTcd In much %hv «in«j ^nirral way. Since nn 
tvrtt cane** are t^siieily aliki-, it njiwl D<*ver Ik- fJ>rp.lie» ttrnt tacli 
CRM* r<-i|uin^ indiviiliud i'v>ii:«i<]entlii»n- Tbc iKan, the kidnev*;, 
or tlw alimentary <iimd mnv l»c involved, and a*iruew m;iv Iw 
|>rtwrnt. Tb(* cxImpih*<* of tlw*^ <»mii1icntion» tnolcH«lly aflcctJ^ 
tb*^ maaagc^mmtt nf thr» on«e. 

Certain <^*p« r>f rirrluBtiK an' dtn> 1i> tlie brnp-c^nnliaiMnl (Ihh* 
of alc<»bol, biphly *e:iw>ncd f'Mid in cxc?**ive iinantitiei^, and, 
prrklxibly, to cbn^nic intoftinal femieDlalion^. Cert:iin metallic 
]Hii#<>n» may alM» cauH' tt» 

All iDdivMiiah wbo are prfvltspowd tn eirrl»f>iiif — thow nho 
eiiiD« fr»iin fiimili^'* wbene liver di»>eiiFie or i*ther form^ of nr- 
riiotk? diwiiM are fRi|tierK. — -boabl l»c <3Ulioned id regard 10 
tbc diet uid llie iifr of atonbo). TbfMe la r^ enters a ad Jnivker^ 
or tbortp vho Hilfer fr<»m imli^cffttoOi diwomfort, or even fiain 
ovpr tbe repion of llie liv^r, abonld be pt" on n simple diet, 
lYimpOf^ tartrely of niilk : tlie U>u'el<j vboiiUI lie kept open by 
tlie uw of saline mineral vraier^ : aloiiol •ilioubl be n-iihheld 
abi>^ber or reduced to the gmaller*: pti««i1>le amount. All rieli 
fririU ami tbo«e mentioned n^ irritatinf;: tite liver ^ihotild lie 
avotdeil. If aleoLk>l is pven upand tl*e patient livt^o^rrtH-tly, 



38a 



Di£T ly VIS£ASE. 



muoh can ofTen lie iloiie in llie early stages to avert, or at leo^t 
to po^poiw, the tli^^troUA confluences. 

CaseB witboot Ascites, — Wlieo the Ui^ea^ ha^ bc«n 
(lEagtioAetlr nml if a^oiit^ ih n<jt |iri>t-nt» ciie paiit^iu may be put 
<i« » niUk tlivt or » dWi eumpuH^I Im'}^/ of itiilk uiul mJIk 
IixkIf^. Kutoi^hiirJ butiiTiiiUk are ven' Ufnt'^ul, Kfpr-ullHiailn 
and eereul jj^nieU may aW lie iu4hI. UikW a binipli* divC af 
ibL-^ kind tin- j^n-itrif ?*ynijit(>ri|j^ may almUM>rt'ven<Ii^|i]Miir. Tln^ 
nalint' niiiitTiil waiters ami jHita^niuni uaVhI aiv valuriUK- :irljnneL< 
ill Hie in.'aiineiH, The oonsideralion <»f other tIriijfH useful in 
Ms coudiiion cWs iK»t aiine wiihio ihe hoo|ie of (hi> work. 
When rpoovery hiL** j^et in a simple diei, comjM'f^Hl of milk, the 
lean, easily di^^iiilik' Toent^, preferably broiled ^leak and ohops, 
chioki'D, and the like, <^g6*i breiid, green vegetables, and IhiU^^ 
jwitwi-n"*. and eerealf*, if desired, ai'e aUuvable. Tlie luealn 
i^WilJ he j^iiudl and tiiken at n-^tliir intorv'uU. Hot ^vat^r or 
the ^iilme u'ittezs amy Ih> laken on rUing and an hour nr ao 
l)efore nuin^. Tin* p-nrrnl prineiplcs for di.*<"ase<I eondiiioaH 
of the livei' alivmlv <lef-rrilM'<l mn?*t Ik' foll<iwed- 

Cases with Ascites. — The se]t?ctiod of a diet for the» 
cmM.'^ irt fivum^ntly :i matter of c<'nhi<k»nible diffinilLy, Rest, 
wiiine.'*, :in<i a rf^lrii'linl, Kfouwlnit dn' diet often gives great 
ivlivfp Whi-M die kidneys arc in reasunably gixnl rondition» a 
dry diet, ^ueh an in iv<.onnm*nde<l for senile heart, may be lri*Hb 
IIiiT \*TiIrr may Ih' TiipjKHl tni rihhig uiid at varimi? intervals 
during: the duy, und \n-\\sr^ to Ihi^h out thi.- wiiffli-prodnt'tpi <if 
meljiholii-nu Should kldiu^' -ivirtpf^iiif uri-t>_' :ind x\te 4|uantily 
of nritie ht> gi-ently Ir>*s^*n<-d, it is l»etter to inereaN? the allow- 
ance of Buid- 

If kidney dit^cuMH are ]>reMiit, it i^ not U'l^ to rittempt to 
relicvf then^-itc^r^by withholding flnida. When kidney ponjpli- 
eation« nrin^rf, French wnter» and others recommend a diet com- 
]Ki«e<l lur^'ly o( milk, on the ground that it is a good diuretic, 
excreting not only the fluid itfielf, l)nt a portion of iln- Huid 
Iwld in the b<^ly cut well. 



DIET IPJ DISEASES OF THE PANCREAS- 

Lhtlo has been vriltcn on tin* *nbje<*t. Atiinjpt.^at feeding 
jKnicmis by the month and by n^'lnl enernata have not })een 
pnwhiclive i"f gtwtd n.-*nlis. It ha? been Augi:este<l that when 
the diagno?(U of jmneu-atte diMtiftt* hft.H hei-n made, l>oth fats and 
carboliydnitv.'* be wltlidmwn from the diet, aw they are apt lo 



DS£T IS MSKASES OF THE nKSPtRATORV 0R0Ay3. 387 

iimloryit ft^nu^n lilt ion in llie nh-^noe of tlif* pancrealiV jiiio^. 
Tin- \i\h nmy, htiWi-ver, asnirt in ilie eDiiiUificfUioii of fui, and 
IBincrailic exinwCfi or tak:i-<lia6tart? umv bo ^ivoii bv llio nioutb, 
wilh A view u> aidiug f^tarch dt^^E^tkuu. Pdncreitic cxtRici i» 
Ixsl ]fivim in 'yilol -coaled pilU, 

The iliei should om^tl lui^-lr of niilk, wliidi mny br- |M'|>- 
lonizeil, prtilige^^tei) meiit i*alution-«, cgfr^iilUuiitn, ami l\u.* like. 
Alniliol muy Iw ^Evtrn as recjuirc^lj botli a# a fcKKl luid n:< a 
ntinHiIaut, 

Atvt>pdiiiir to tWilinr^kl, tW (wncnecitic s^relion i* inrn3i»ieil 
by tbe in^r^^tion of acifU inrl m'ul drinks Alk:i]in** <lrink« 
dlininisb tbe secretion <>f ib<^ |xincreiiT^ An abuB<iaut diet 
caiiM« an increase lu tbe amount of the secnlioD. 

DET IN DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY 
ORGANS- 

[MET IN PLEURISY. 

The ftiet ^iiiuhle in Ow trtntmont i»f ploari**y wirli efTu^ion 
hiis 1i«H-D the ^ultjecl of many t-xperinit-nts. Tlii' Iwk princrifud 
meibofl^ ;uKv>c<ule<l ure: (1) To ^\\'t tbe imtietit as t]ry a diet oa 
t» ]HHtfible, in ibr lione that, by rt-«lrictini; tbe atnoiiat of Dnid 
«l][>)iIi4Hl l<f tlir HKhkI, Ibc «I>Miq»fi<m itf ibf fliii<l efinmon will 
hf Jui-M^iinl. It bii-"* iilw» bit»n rvpiiiutnrniii'tf ibat <^i>linnn' table 
^ill be nikeii In bir^ qunniiiif^^ on xhv |irinrl|ik< llial, owm^ to 
t)ie iiK-n-»^ driwily nC die bliMnl, u num' nijmi ab^irption will 
take place. ScbrolliN "drr t-iirr^* hnit «(><> (hxi» reeiMnmvnJiJ, 
f!i) Tbo eceond plan, ndvM^nHl <»*prciaUy by o*Tiain Fn-ndi 
wntiTA, iM til plA<v tbr |vtt)Kit oti nn pxAuw** milk di«l, in 
mucb liie «am« nuinner lis il4-:«ribefl lu the Milk Cure. Thin 
U Mwl to inert<9w tW cxcn-lion of nrine« and nlwt to oiiiiv^ 
the ab*firption i>f tiir ctrnMini. Tlie irtnrn to a fE*n^fnl diet 
»hou1d be LTaibmb Prw^iiaiUy rit.'i^r pkin may 1«? follnwed, 
auxinliiig III Tbr eiioditi'in vf llic |uitii.-iit. If there is lever or 
ciint]iliv3)iitiK kidne>' or hnirt flii-<ufuv the milk diet i« to be pre- 
fem-<l. If tilers An- no eiuuplisnlin^' dirH-aM-vi find no fe\'er, 
oriinary dit-t with Ji b-w^'nc*! iimonnt of fluid* nbould bo pre- 
H-TdwiL \o Hotipa, bnt litdt- 04»flcv, l«i, or other bevompc*?, and 
Hit iijnnll an amount nf n^trr ju tI'ip |ieilf<>nt mn romfortAblv ^c 
idim^ on ohonbl U< »lt(>wHl, I^nrgt efTuT^iojitt are better i^niovcd 
by tt^mtion than by diec* 



3«8 



DiET IS mSEASE. 



DIET IN EMPYEMA. 

Tli<* liu-h-tir- tniiimgj'iTirnt of piiipvcnm iw thp Kanie as that of 
any semic ci>mliti(iEi. If tlicix* i?^ f<r\-i-r, tlie iliet sliouUl be that 
advi»iOU in tin? tuiiinuiir nf iVvtrs iu ^-ntral If thero i» little 
or no fever, flio dU-t MjoiiKI k* ^i^lib^ to rlmt iWDnuiictwiwI iu 
the early sfiiges <»f' iiilu-ri'ii Intuit, (iilninn Tiu^mfn*<.>n n<lvisi<?f a 
ili<t mDTainiu^ a.-* nuioh fiiitv tl.Kxl Il;^ ibr i«Hienl iTin tnki* M 
beat utt'vtiiiif tht< th-'fiiinuU itiuiU* uii tlK< ^vftu^ni hv the iMvrt'iUkti 
of siirli luTgi? muiotitift* '»r jHirt. F'H^*!-* thni (Tiu*o tlic geiicm* 
tiou iff U1U 111 thf' iitlf^tioc i^lioiih] W nv')i<l<Hl. Tlii^ usually 
nris«9 fftun HU t-xccft* of (^irlmfiytlnite ff«"K ^*iU itiHV nlw> Iw 
caLiA<il Ity tin- in^^tii^i uf lai'u:e qimntitics *'f tiit- If tlwnr is 
marked tyni[mniu-^, \\^ oniburni««(uetit of the respiration !« 
incr«iiii?rl, 

LARYNGISMUS STRIDULOS- 

Attaolcfi niny 1m» btvmjrht im l>y ovi*rfi*f*ding, liy lh(* iiL^^^titm 
of indi^^^tihi' Hrlirltr^ of ftio<l, nuti l>v ciiHr^Ujmtifirj. Tlio dirt 
tdiould he cnrefiilly ^iiiR-rvi^c"*!, and tlic ?*amc ^uJcnd indicu* 
tions met A» in melLici^. 

LARYNGITIS. 

In elirofiic iiiHiimmution*, ej*|M^'ially tilK-n-uloiiA tnn.*n^itL«, 
certain ilirU-iie Tin-JiMiirr-* luay htt emiiliywl that :vill |riv'»4'iMi- 
«I<ler.d>le R-lirf lo llu' {KUimi, \\-M\\ \\\\i\ dry loaMr* nnd tlic 
like dicuiUl (Hit Ih' t'-itteti, an thi'v f^ive iW l<> \>\i\x\ <iti hriii^ 
AWidlowrtU For \\\i- wiuit* rtvi-tiii) InjfTdy .-<ira^<ii)c4 fiArtls uiv ti> 
he tivoMftt. Only M>ndM>liil <\v lu|(]!d fixw] should W c^Uvn, 
Mi1k% cuiiliovl^t jiTi»k**t. */iu|>* !ind pniH*, niw nysti^r*;, nxw **pp*, 
serTUxnl herf, x\u\\ x\w WW Jire the nni^'^t jtnitahle jMlirU-i nf ilict. 
To allay the irritnlion in llie lin-vnx l^.)oriii> udvirt-jf thut a niw 
€TO he sn<'kt^l fMni tbe .■»hi."]|. If tlieiv i* innrh \m\\i\ on i^wryX- 
lowiiLp oixlein or roc^aiii .'<ohitiiuis sluiuld In: 3ip|>lie<l ]ih<:iIIv 
Iwfoiv fiviiin^- A Inhlri roiiiaitiutu ^j of n ^-ijun 'if *'*'Oinn 
niiiv Ik' |»lur'i*<l <*n thr lun?k of tlio toii^ni' jmd ulUi^viii in dt^- 
solvc. TItitf IK gvLicrdly eHVctive, anil Ijas the HtIv;iniiLgr ihnt 
the patient fmx iirn* it InnL-it^f. 

liiflit'nhy in *wiill<>rt'iiig mny iH»motinjR* bo i>vrr<v>nio l\r llift 
following' ftv.i MM'thmU ■ By nllowin^^ iIm* [nifu'n! to llo flnt on n 
loun^a- with hi" fiioe over iIk' nlpe, F<"ul i» to lie r^urkeJ 
thrcniffh n tnho fnim a v»'^h*I i>Uiwil immf-diiitely Wlovr. The 
M'i-oitd luethtnl (on^isU i» dini^lliip tin- p;itifn! to Vk\\\ r<nWT»rtl 
^hik OIL ting, ^ajiiiis ((jiuxei) finm Thorn{i,«<in) ]«uy>f tli:i1 thU 



OiBT iy DiSt'ASES OP THE Jtt^SPfRATOKY OEOASS. 389 

latter posture oiu«ev« die food <o (hiHt tiawn iilong Ui<^ jivrilonn 
einii»e«, ihutt avoiding ibe upper jntIioii of tht birynx, oontuci 
wiih which ciiuHrt the »o^■<*^ti |rtiiii vxiwrniuW during degluti- 
tion ill advanced ca?ie>< nf liiryii^itK. 

DIET IM ASTHMA. 

Asthma usunlly o(x*iirs in luarkt-dly luninicio individimU, v^'bo 
nre upl to exhibit othf-r n*^ur*>^e5, aich «w pi?*trii' and iiitiL-^ltn:il 
dis"nlei"«. Various Jornw uf f-fnl — *■. //,^ tin- r^turclk<r« n»<i 
eugar»i^have been sii<l dihcr tt> caib-e or to predUjKije tlie 
ludividuul iu auhiim, 

Aa ft mftiivr of fiit'l, iiiaity atturk.-* of asdima are brought on 
by iniligi^eiiou, thi^ (if<ii£iUy bt-iii|- dirc<-t1v 1ra<H<nh1o in Mime 
mxfr in tliel, ^so palii-ut i^ thi* iiw-t tluit wTtnin ciuv« iin? 
da>i^ a*4 "peptic" en' *' gastric" a:<liiinn. 

Auy fotMl ihat i*uur«fl indi^;estion r^Imuld i)€ avoid(<d. l^tivnt^ 
iiJ^ually learn l>y ox|M-rieii<v \vl*al tl»cy<^n aud wliat iIjpv caxi not 
digor<l. Some i-uriouT- iflin^yncrasies ixvur: For exumfde, iu 
ofn* jiatient ri«> nu»y caa^e indijft'Mion — even when the most 
mimite 4pianiifieH jire inim()uce<L mio lii^ food uitliout hiii 
kiiuivlmljire an aCUick of iijJigiT>lioii ami »u1j<M-ipi4'ntly of iu^lhniu 
may Miiwrvrut-. Thi-^ idin-ynorapie^ fxUt, *>( c^unx; lu i-iliei^ 
bodidc^ »Hthn)uiic-*, aiwl lutiiiy n^jukoMe wti>riTO, rontt- H<dl- 
ant bent ioal4Hlp are toM in ihi« tsmnwlion. 

The a»thmari<* '«hr>»Id liv^* a ijukt, welI-Tv^]lAl4<<) life. If 
there i* any |trn:-trio or intestinal deran^'mcnt, it ^ln^uld eare- 
fidly he In-urinl. Tlie diet di^iild U? Ij^dii :iihI tnarilifkiis, aind 
^h1ftdd Ik' taken at regular inleival^, Tlw mml** ^Ik'IiUI be of 
a r^ize to lie ecb4ly iligesteil. Violent exercif« uf all kiuiU should 
be prohibited. 

The fiHHLi fnt)i»! ^uitalJe for ilie aathiuaiie are the lighter 
kind^ "f finli and m*«t — tin- while nieal of t-liieken, rotfiJ>i-l)e€f, 
U-ef-^titkk, <;b(>}>H, ai») muiifin. The ntoHi ^^hIv dige^o<l vpg«- 
Inbleai, irtieh an vpinneh, a^imniKu^tipi, eaulit^ower to^wi, baked 
ni>taiiit\-^, and the like, amy U- taken. (VreaU and whole-vheat 
dread may U> ii-hxI in nKMlemtioD. In mopit cases plain des* 
fen* oiay W allou-M. Pork, cht*ese, b^avy cake»s pastry, aud 
»ll similar intlige^iible articles oj* diet, ^liouUI be flvoidwL Fate, 
tugani, ami siarehe^ should be taken in mo<leration, if at all. 
Experience will p^erallv prove the btM (juide nt* to what b 
>uital>U.-. Foi>df- that arc apt 1^ can>e f!alidi>ncc arc best 
avoided. 

Dinner ^fraitld b« Uken in the middle of the dav, nnd the 



3d0 



BtBT ly DISEASE, 



9H\>\*or fihoiild Ih* Vt^ht- Fjitiiig nt flight hIuhiM ht- f)JM*r)im> 
(enniioed. Ten airnl ("oflu^ il" lUi-y do not hhim- gii^irio ill*- 
turUitice, may Ik- Taki-ii i» ni<Hli*nuioiL, Sirtuig o*>trir iut-* lw<'H 
cTHiiteti witli wnnliii;r otruMiu^k--*; fur ilil-* piiqHiM- Iw" <>r tlmn? 
Clip?* of titnjii;; *.N>lViv nri' I" Im' uiWu juj*t U-fmy a tljreatviud 
attack. 

In till* Nve»k<T |Mitu*iit-t :i1o(i1k>I iiiav \h^ nllowed, best ffivMi 
in the form of go<Kl iniitun**! v^lunkv. Ikvr ui>i] aleft hiKmlJ lit* 
avoitlcl hv n^t^M patient-*. H^-i-iy cas^' *'t* a.-<tluuu ?i)ioiild 1)^* 
enidiotl cArrfiillv In 4>nlor U> K^irii wlmt tTxxl U rutJ vrliut Sh not 
hAmirnl, All niibnuKU'* nr<>h:il>K' ^iv<' np itinny urliolei* of 
diet that are id iv^Iiiy iudk^tcnl iu thvir L-uDtlilioii. 

DffiT IN EMPm-SEHA. 

Pnllnil-'* with ciii|>tn><-'inu Mumld Mi^k tu i»["eveiit flatuleuc« 
anil oonstipitiniK All imll)ftT<^tiM<' J*"«Jr^ .-^Ikould Ih' uvokIwI, 
ntid (Ik* <)ic't ithouM W ulung iW ^imn* Ihit^s il-< iiKiimtixl iu 
n«tliiiiu. St]ir<4if4 iiinl Mii^r mLoiiIiI Ih' t:iki<ii only in nirKlcmb* 
c|iinntitiw, ajt otlirrwiH- \\k-\' iniLV iVrnicnt niu) pvr rw to 
flalnltnt.'*.' ; thr dy^^ptirn ilmi it i> npl l'» hiitij; i>ii niuy In- ;i 
wurc*' of great <iiw(»Ttjf<n1, In t!i(* latrr Maav^ milk i^ f<i*n»l 
to UffTt^ WtttT cliuFi nny Hlwr fcwKl, Ut^UHviT i>il, when it 
ajjr*?^'* ^*^tk till' patiriu, ir* lo l>e reo<miiiiemlnl. Tlu- n\mU 
^hipiild in' ^ni:ill r^tiiiu^li hi 1h' i'lMllv ilj^-^ltilf iiin] till' IiilVkM 
QMnl nWilil ln< takf-n in tlu; miildlu of the tlfiv. 

DIET IN CHRONIC BRONCHITiS 

The diotnic maiuigt-meiit of clirtMiir l>rimi*hiti:^ h i^tTnilnr to 
thnt mivUod m the early ^ty^.-* of itiU'n-ii^Htr<. Tn iIk' Orvix 
foniiH ilomulfeiit drink.-' ntv 1l^f'Ad, niul hi>i rtax^Mnl uii^ >wn'i- 
t^nvtl with nu^jr ami llav^JifU niih Icituni-jiiitv, nlioidd tjc t;iki^n 
in fliiHit'iL-nlly larp' qimntiticfl and is |wirti<'ulurly fl'ffiviivc. H^t 
di'ink^ of vuriini* kimU ttmy Ik* uwl^ nnri an- i'*|K^<'iiLlly UK-fnl 
io Ii^rn|iM7iri1y n'lii'vln;r ir(mhli"<nmi' <"*'nph, Itnl milk nr Imt 
h-taot]nd*N '>r. if stimulants are iiidi^iu^tl, M'hi>ky und glycerin^ 
may be given. 

C3ET IN HEMORRHAGE FROM THE LUNGS. 

When a |vLtt<.-nt hiw kml a htmorrliap' from tho hiDgTt he 
^loiild iinnjfxliiitrly Uv put to riM lind k'?pt iih»inkilf.*Iv quiet. 
If the heiucirrhagi? lias Urn M^vi^re and iIk' piuirnl jfs in danger 



iffHT is UREASES or TUK REspiKATORY onoAys. ;J91 

of i^>11a|k4e. in adtlitmn to the u^tia] rnnrphfn iiijtH'tiiirH, mkimnl 
salt solmioii may bt given by die rt-cnim "T rtiboiuaneoiisly. 

The iood should Ik- Iu^ikI in form* Pe|Hijnizwl or plain 
milk, li<juici Ijwf pe|>loiioidfi or similar pn?pamti<ni&, fresh Uef- 
juice, boiiilluii, nniJ l)ie like msy hv li^, aiul should Ik' jfiven 
in -^nuill <juuDtitte« ut rc^uiur intervul-; — two nr three oUDre?« 
may W pvtn I'Vtrv two tjr three liour>f. If tlien- iw n fendeiicr 
to Tnokitf foiMl titay Ije^^ivtrn by the ivutnm. 

To allay thil^^t only ^ninll i|tiiiii lilies of Hnid ehonid l>c ^ven 
at fl tiDie^ Lflter, wlieii liie stmi)»ch i« tolerant, Ur]^r i|iiauiici4te 
may he prweribcii. 

If there is no reeurrenw of the benntrrbaire and tln' condi- 
tion of the scomach permits, a rapid return sboiald be made to 
Of) ordiikun.' diot. Meftt t^bould l>c given in uhiiiKiauct &> vouii- 
lenirt tlic anemia. 

Alci'bitl i?, :l>^ » nilr, lte»t iivoliUiJ. If it iH nivnletl n* ii ittiiini-^ 
biit, it ?JJiii]lil Ik' pivin in mhiiU <[tmiLtitk«. In \XTy ift.'xt*rc 
€9^^ larger 'jiuinuiifs may be n>{uir^t lo Mipport the hcnrt. 

DIET IN PNEUMONIA. 

Id pneiimania, feediajr i* <*f 'be t^ivatfTit im]>ortance. The 
putietll's streiijctb must be fustereib for the better ibe uutrilion 
K niuintsin^l. the tnoiv likely will the (latte&t be m ^rith^uitd 
the efieeti^ of llw liiMO^^-. Fnrmerly, owinj- tu i'ii*'r;fi'ti<\ liiit 
ut^eit miHlirecteil, trcntmeni, many palieul^ died in the earlv 
ftii^fff of cHivalff^HTftKv, Tlie Frt-ndi writem Juecribed their 
potiriit^ All h»viit)r *■ dird i^nrptl ** — mori gufri. 

The p^ntc p^nr^ral pnnt^lplw of tee<lin^ >^hoiild 1>e l^>lb>vred aa 
■pe indicat4^1 in iil) wnT4» fever*, fbirinjjr \\\^ e»ur*e of th* 
disRiM the patieat should receive sn abnndaoee of water in 
n<tilition tn tile liipiid fufHl stippliet). Plain water or any ear- 
Wiated water ibat the patient may desire shiKlId [>e jfiveit. 
Milk and scltM-r mny lie alloweil freely* I>(*ai< -tinde, (\t ot^a^'^ 
acie, or n^ter (lavorcd with tamarinds may 4er\'e to lend variety. 
The " in)|iennl clriak " (tlie recipe fi^r wbieh appears at ihr t^nd 
of ibis book) may aln* hv ^ivi^t). 

Durinft the heii-hl of tlie dt-e^^e milk iJiould form the hoai^ 
of the dw*!, Thi* mny \n} |K*ptriniiiefl or dibi1«.it with ltm<>- 
wnter. A I hum in- water, wine wb?)\ malteil milk, lieef-juiee, 
&kiiy'e food, aiid similar prejiarations may lie empb^'ed when 
DJilk ts not well borne. Pn?<lii;e<te<1 W\mi\ Iteef prepafationa 
may be used botli fo«* llieir stimulating etledii and as a TomL 



392 



DIET ty DiSEASB. 



of voitiiting» n concyi)tnif4-il fiKKJ u indicated. 

F<km) »li4iiiht bi' j^vt^ii lit rr^ilar intorvals of from two lo 
four iioin>, acH^inliiig {» i\w imlu^nlV coiiditiua and tbe atnoiiDt 
lie i» Mv tu Uik« lit one timr. 

Ci»iiML|uiiiifii, fliiti]l<*iKri nikd voiiijiinjraivlii Itcnvoidcd where- 
ffVtT jHiwiliV, ir llw»v do nmir, i^fluri-t i-htuill at oik*o be mmle 
U» relieve the c<>nilidon. 

In nicmt ixi^<e^ i^tarehes nnil t^i^r^ »n^ l>e>(i nmittr<I fmm tho 
tti^L Fniit mux \v ullnwijal nt ftny (Im^ during tin- 4)i^i?;i»«, 
EiTiil i:< of >ppnnl Wni-fit iliiring nmvnlpsmin-, Mn<it pi^iteftd 
Jiiiiii^ llie ftovero »l»^' niv "nmj^L-juiw, k^monade. gni|>f-fniit, 
anJ j;nip4*ff, Duriiip coiivul*^j«ein^e ripe pciirhe« or pnirs ia 
Mimini nmv U' t\(UM to (he dul. TIk' n*tnni to a ^-iK-nd <lwt 
«h<.mlrl hi.' miidc ^niduulU% iind tin tuMd i\}t^} ^hotihl Ix' allowed 
iiDlil fbe iVvi-r J»i.% »i]l>.Hi(KKl Tlirii tht- geiicnil diHvlic rultn 
lor I'tJiivHU'^ei.'jit-'* tiijiv Ih' fitlln^ii^l. 

Piieiimimia |i»tteiitA !<h<iw n woiidcrAd tolcrnuee for alcviliol| 
jind il U npfmrinuly utili^-iTd by tbt- iKrily :ui n fiio<l »>j wrll sii^ n 
>itiini)1ui)t, Lnrgo <|ifnnti(i<--^ iniiy n^i-ti he tnkrii without ]»m- 
ducing any i^mptoms tjf iiitoxkittton, SlioiiUI they iKvur. it 
IB an evkkncu dint the dcsc hu* Irvh to<j larKt-- Alcohol 
sIioulJ not lie piiwriUtl Ji^ a rtnitinc iu«wm\ bnl '^lioulil be 
<>rdfrwl a*i mkhi jk the Iiuirf lKnr»"j* *" ^l^ip- l be iiulk^tioii for 
it** HR- may pem-mlly U- ib-tcmiiniHl by a<iMndia1ion Ufore 
dtlicr iJu* i»ympti>ms or tbe pijls<* |K>inT t<i tbe ai-t^l for It, It 
^bmibl be ^iveti al oniH' wUrn die fii^l Miutiil of tbe fa-^rt 
beeoMie* iiiNfliin^iJ jind wvjxkcr. In wrtik indiviilurtN, whatever 
thi-ir rtpe, o-iK'i^inllv in |>niieiitfi owe fifty, iilt*cthol m:iy Im^ bepua 
eArlv. Tbe do^^? fnv A(Eidt>i U one-bnlf jin onnei' n{ jane wbitky^ 
mifflciently diluted, every four houn^ : tbi>^ may bo incrt^se^l 
when necpftiity nrit^er^, Stn-chiiir and i>tficr hwnt '^timnlaiits 
have obviate*! the neetl for tbe enonnoiis d*rtC^ of alrwbol for- 
merly i>r>*ribe<l. In nk*i>holirsnbjecT^ it -bniibl be givi-n tv^U' 
lai'ly. If it is w'ithdniwn, ddirinm or collapw may cn«uc. 
The iiBUJil care ^liouU) be obwn'ctl iti <leTt4nnlntiig whethiT t!» 
Ntiaiitlant i^ deiii); fpAn! or \mrin* It. v lx"*t fjiven in tbe Jonn 
of pure mntnreil whisky, but diamimRne, bmndy, or mm 
mav oeeai^ioTvillv' l>e flnbii(itute<l wb^n tb^^hP nn* l>eTtev ImTiie. 
In all eji^e« they i^hritlil be welldlbit^i] witb plsiin or ejirlicuint^^l 
water. 

Pneumonia in Chlldieti. — The ^ime p^merd j>bin i* to 
be folloved uf< when die diMiuM.^ occurs in iKbiltx^ and both 



ii/£T iS i^lSMASHS OF THE £^rmATORY ORGANS 393 

lobztr pn^umriitia and bTODtThopDeiiinoiiia rH|iiW the suro^ 
<)i«tt'lio niitiiKgi'titentv 

The f>od should he given at regular intervals, or if ibe cliilJ 
is at the bn?a^, it should be nursed at repular intervals. If a 
<^hild at the Un'n^t \^ !<h> weak t<i n\ir^, the milk may be 
[>um]^) cm and i^^iven bv nieattr? of a »tomneb-iiibe or a spoon. 
The jitoiiiiK'li-tid* Hhiiidd not, huwevcr^ be u*c<l in pDCumoam 
except as a Ia.Ht n^^n, 

Wlitii lutaiji!^ ;irf M on mi.idifie<l onV niitk, the milk 
ahi>it1d 1h' fiirthi^r dilutt!<L wttb lluu^wfttor. V*xfl ^b<*iil<l not 
be given i.>rit'in.-f than tvery luio honr^, and if a &Mrti<*ient 
i|uanrity i?i laki>ii. the inU'nal maybe lenjjihened to three <ir 
four hoiir^ Milk i^ the ma^i ]m|>ortant food, and niay be 
dilutf'^) niih lime-wator or with oirbonateil water. It may l>e 

Steptmiizeil paniolly <tr wmpleteiy, nt l)e prepare*! with the 
Vpiogenie Milk I'owder, with l>kay's, Mellin*% or similar 
foods, or malted milk may be used. Buttermilk, plain or pre^ 
[Kire<l after the ineihod direoteil in the secuon oii lutaiit Fwd- 
in^, mar l>e trieil. Kmni» if* oHen rvrraiiki^d whuiv |>huu milk 
M ixJ^vCnL If milk ii uoc wt-ll Utnu-, tinrli'V <>r oaimeiiiJ jfriieU 
may be ii^eil by vmy of variety. If tlu^^e nni-Mr flatulvnee, 
t\wy tifould tie avoidr^L Albumin -water ami fri^h iM^^f-jniiv* 
an- n^fiil foods and surh pn>|)aration?i a-n Pano|>i-pron, lirjiiid 
\n^f |K"(>roni>itU, and pi¥iii;:e.-te<l Ix'ef are of ^t^i vn'in' whm 
otl*er (tMiU an? iu>l well retained or a^itiiilated. Beef hrodi '»r 
other meat brotlis may occasionally be f^ven. 

Tbe pn>blein of ft^e^liii); ehildren sufferiuff fpnm pui-iimimm w 
nviiueuily a very ilillWuh uiie, for wliiU- tliey may cikr w (tttA 
nttdily^tlH'y mav rviu-e it ilie iwM tiim- it 1-* i"ffi-n^l <'r vomit it 
if taken, WIhtd milk i-^ ^vM borrn-, it rJiould t*ouniitnt<' tin- di<-t, 
bill where it U iii»c, the pbyviciaii mu4t frnve m^ uwiiy rr«>arvfc'»: 
an |M»il>kv Ft>mi one to hx imnt-eH. an^irdin^ b) the n^^ and 
f>»wlinoa of the jintient, may tiiiually W utIvhi at a tinns l>iit !t 
nmy at linits (fe mnvMsan- to give the fnoi in teai^poonftit i*r 
tAl)Iefl|Hionlid <|Uantitie.4. 

if thr-n* is muc4i vomiting, oc^tul \uiTU of linnvwaier an^l 
einnnm-jn-water m.iy U- yiwn !i» gml adv:miiip-, A liii- 
upmnftil of this niixinn- nHf-n niimiti'^ ln-forr Iti^aling umy alloiv 
the food U> lit retaif»ed vrl>enr it vouhl othcrwi-'H' be rejcctecU 

Wat<*r «hoiiM in all ruseit bp ofFr-ml the frhthl from tinie In 
tlra<-r nrut th«- miklfiki* of f*inning tUi- rhiUl tn t;iki> fixvl u-tii.'n it 
wsint* *iidy a drink tA' wrtl-^r <^hoir]d lw» avoiiltnl. If fhen* U 
DO Hutulenois the cirtionntt-d watt7> are often ver^' will bonie- 



394 



i>/£T ty I>tSiidSh\ 



Wlii?<ky "r br»iinl_v tliUilttl with nl U-h.<e lifcrln |«irL-^ itf vuti-r iiiny 
he (pVHi, a liilli' Mi^ir or glyir<'nn Ih^iujc uoilMi M ia'itithhc iJk* 
fibarp t;L-^te aiiti n^iuler il more juilatalflt?. lit |iTieunuH)Ui, a^ in 
i>tber djj^eancs uk-oh'>1 U l)ome bctiifr wbeii it ih given iu small 
^uaiiiicira aud riii|utuily, clian vbeu lar^^r ilwter* :« jrrwit*^ 
ititcTvaJa ajw pivscnW-J* The avuragv iiitvrval i* t^^*^h^nn>, 
bill il may Iw ^iveji b<Hirly or c%ViD uiorv fnHjat'irtl^F' whcio 
ocoaajoD demands 



DIET IN DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY 
SYSTEM, 



DIET IN DISEASES OF THE HEART- 

Generol Directions for Diet.— TIjc Jiet for paticiita 
w!th ii("jrt (}iM>iiK> ti>;iiiiUy m](i)n« mon* 4>r lcs$ cari>l\il rvfnila- 
tion- Thf Mihjn-t may Im* i)ivi<!(^l into n nmsitK^mfioTi of ilie 
diei siiilahlc lM.'i<.*iT, uml lliiil itnlk';itu(l aJWr. tijii]]H.'n^atii>n is 
lost. 

While omiipenflatioii is good, the diet re(|uires compratively 
little cou^idemtion beyond the <ibsen"aDce of certaju gtiiemi 
ruh's, M'hen enuij-eiiyatioii i> lioitJering on niptiirfs howevi^r, 
the diel aiUM be *.n]>ei'viH(\l i-arefiiHy, t\- iu this wiiy mnrb di>* 
Limiforl luav he ^|Klll■d ihi- prUivut aud <;vvu the lime of rupfure^I 
c(>m|H-ii.sttitkU be |>upl|Hi«t'd, 

Tbr meuU should be Kiimll — iiiopt ftboTd<) never l>e glvun 
tbnn ibc- |tBlii>ot rsTi i'!i**ily i}iKi"<t. If iht* stoiiirtoh i* owr- 
hmdeil, the diapbm|.in i^ fui^ied tip and i)ii4pln<^s tbi- U^irCi iLud 
llii^ may oeoiL^irin tial|ulatioa and dy^piu*n. If iW nit^nlA are 
liHj lar^*, the iX'^idiK- af nny dijp'^lwl f<wn] in ibe inlt-^tiiie may 
naclei-irti f<-rnu-ntalion and caitM< HatnlHiee, with it^ attendiinl 
{li!<jL|jiri-al>b' f!iym|»t»»m-. 

The meals ^hould Ix^ simple am) well eiHike4L Impi'operly 
pre])urei1 TikkI Ia a eaune nf iiidfge^li'riii aud aiay pixnluee llutn- 
Iciicx^ rir dirtcv*mfort. The fi*iid tdioHcii ^himld hi- uf a kind tlrnt 
i* <^uy of tli^^'sliiiti, A wiifli^'icritly looj* inli'-rN'al diouhl Ik* 
allowed to eliipw* hehv^TH im^ds nnil en tiny brtWH-n nU'iiK 
Ahmdd he Mrietly pTi>lul>U<sh ti:^ evru ^uiall ]HvrtiiirH nf fiHhl 
taken while diirt'Mum {*■ in pix>{frc^ iimy ^ve ri^e to Hntulrncv 
io iluse |uiti('nt>. 

The mealf^ .-^bouhl all be of nimut e(|iial ^ize; uhik* ihe even- 



DIET ly DISEASES OF THE CtRCVLATORY SYSTEM. 30o 



Ing mul mny Ih* a ItriK- ^nmlW niv) ll^Iiti^r ihnii ihi? rvtWrfi, 
uid tho |knm-i|irn mml ,-«hmi]d U* takt-n ar mitltby, llicr^ i^liiiuUI^ 
10 liu been Hikl, In* l>iu (Tiritfiamtively liiilt* difloreiice in tlu'ir 
use, &n(i the (xirii-nt sliouM be ia^tmcted carefully in this 

Thi* amritmt of dnuJ Uikeii should imt l>e Uk» i.ii^, nor. on 
Uie oiber hjnul, HboiiUI it he khi mii:lII \V|k-u ronjK'nF^rioii 
Uiih bwii tort, [he ^ite^tiou aa Iv ilie uiuouat ol' ClMi<] <u Iw takru 
(>eo^ii;c:2i Iff umch im]x>rlniice. At uo itnie Kh^ihl it Ik forj^iU'ii 
thul thiijK cli[>u*ikJ the vu»r4'lvr Tairtv urU^riul tonr^iifti, and iiii.*reiipe 
tht- WLirk of ih*.' hi-nrr. IT The cpianniy nf tliiids ifivi-i) \h' hut 
i^tiiull, i-litiiitijitiot] i-< (h^yi'd and the irritiilive efTV-ct of ihe 
reLkiiKHl )in|>uriiin4 In the b!(Mxl }irov«s linniit'ul. Fluicb .should 
U- iiiken I)etwcvo meals atnl nri- U'?*t ^iiijH^I slowly, Weak 
t*^ and eoftee way bf alK>w<'d in wiiall 4jtijmiiti4>^ U^lwi-en 
m^b; if they do not i-aiiw flntiiletirL; hiiwever, they uia)" l)e 
allowed a< uieal cime^, but alwavi^ in yreat mtHleration. 

A]o>Ivvl U 1>ej<l iivoiiUtIi If, M'^iti|f Ur tlie fc<?iieni1 nt«ki»'W 
of iIk^ p^tieiilf Its vjpe !--< ii»^u^ttH), It e^iouU) )h' givuii in .-mull 
<fUftii!iti4», and in ihv f^ntn *ff pare ^vhiicky vr liramK' wvW 
dilnidil, Wiiu* ami htvr an* <H)ntni)mlic^iHl. 

In general it niuy l>e wiid ih^t a <ii<i of plainly [*rt]K4nxl 
fowl, tiiieik*umbeft"d Iw hxy ninny ffttriclion*, U hwi ia iheM- 

Al] highly ^LvinM fofxl jinij the ei^^iuliinent^ in f(enenil 
sliouH Ije omiticil fmiii tlie diet, ii» they tend to fttimulatc the 
a|i)K-tiie of iK> jnllent, ami tnay imiMir Iiijii to take iimre tbix) 
llutti It U iitHitTtAiuy' frr dt-MHiblc fur liiai to havi-, 

Bti^wr« and fanov didv^ should nUc> be omitted, tt»i ;*houtd the 
fixtdH iiMially rliiuK-il aii ^litlirtilt of digtMtioD, eucliat* frk-d JooiU 
iind the liki*. 

^iirrlMT«, >mgai>, and fatM should, a^ a nilv, Ih- inti rlati^l ; 
thij* n**tririion# bowexir, r^Wiild Jm? eiif^>rn-<i nirieily only when 
iiuah' nciY-Hsin' by ci>ni]»1ieating stomach di--^>nlrr« ntnan^ on 
aj< <'om|ieji^t»'>ii ruptan^ when they arc apt to raur^e fermenia* 
tioii >nd flatnli-noe. 

BrndWni dnvlU rtn tlie ncoe^t^ity frtr giving a <\'uA contain- 
itig nihriil ih*' n-iial pntji'irlion nf i'ihhJ iirn^liinriilH, iSinrt-hv^ 
AJiit vr^eijihlr* are useful uddjlivaa to tlie dirt, ihey help to 
kt<ep it fmm hpin^ too birf^ly iiilrng^'tutti?-. If lim nitioh \^r*^^ 
tria material is taken, it U inip^erlly uxidia**! aixl tin* uiuiu- 
aocumiiUtiii}; in the bhhd inemiMM tlie vrark of the lii*art, Juf<t 
as ulien to» much iuud b taken. 



3d6 



DiKi' iy msBASE- 



I 



Hie diot fthrtiilf] oon^Ht lai^ly of milk and of iSkfhe^ mnrfe 
fipom Ihb foul, eeg?^, rare meat^j. <^|>wialiy nnitimi and beef, 
poultry, fish, ami oysters. \Vi:'ll'l>nkt'*l bn-jJ, rulls, or bis- 
cuit*, vfiiich aro nt-v^r li» b<? wituii warm, ami oi-rcaU m mod- 
erate quanrjtios tiiuy be nllnwcd. \Vil)-oiMtk(^il iiritJitiH?^, J^pia- 
acli, ru?par»irn>' iiii«i»<.wiMrton(.'r in|H, »ihI «mibr vi^mljli's may 
Iw Uikeri, all Miilk^ Iw'iii^ avoiiUnl, 

Tike ilieMi^t ^ihtiiiM W »ini|kli:', ami M^A\ ida will not rcql1irl^ 
burdouing the patent with romplif^ftti^l dim'tinn^ 

A4 csim{>eiiK:it]oii lH*rv>TTi<K tiii|rjiiE-ixl nrimt^nritP^ di^onletN of 
digestion i.>eciir anil pe<|nire cart ami altemion. The }>atieDt 
wirh h^nrt ili^'^i>it> may tievelnp a flUtaste (nr rfUHl^ and this ^lU 
often tiix the injteiinity of the physinan. 

A^ bI<N^I *.tnfis *i-t> ill. cmt^liiuttt'iii i^t apt lo (x*cup, Hy|50- 
statie conjfcstion of the ItvtT cimt^ on, mii«iug loi^^netl inot- 
aholism and (imm.^pipiilly inti-rfmaj^ jjRfllly wifh [he ^nenil 
outi'iii'Jiki Thr Monijich iinl liiU'>tiiie arc -iflwr^^i, and a 
cbrr>aic catarrhol coivlition of h<ith \t^ griu^ndly prc-^^ni, 

Tbi* qoftntity of flnid ijiveii should now l»e r«^ilate<l <Mire- 
fnily, neither too miieh nnr trxi linle hcing pvm, A ^\ii^ of 
Vicliy half an h^iir htforL- imtiiijj "ill Ik*1p t^> prepare the 
Htoniach for a meal, and will, a» ii rult, l« p.xcreted proniprlv- 
Fluid is abwlutely nein^-Msary f<."*r nietnbiklif? ohaiige^, an<i may 
be taken iu the form of ihe "imiKTial drink,'* eh^ewhew 
dedCTtbed. IkIwpi'H lai-nl'^ A jfln»;* "f h^il water Hushes nut 
the bo<ly, anil, i\f it ii» nipiiUy exrrt-Uilfc d"e» not sidd marerially 
lo the amount of Hiiid pri*?vnt. 

Ill the Ocnel tnraitmi^nt r.f ht-nrtdUeaw die fliUfU ore nllowt'd 
oulv in a verv limitfcl (li^prtn*. If th** |>!itioni i- *t\\ a milk di^ 
other t^uiil?^ lie-^iih^j^ milk j^houM Iw git'en in t^injuirafively 
BJnail quantities. 

If cfle^imt is severe, llit^ food nwy Iw giveu in ak conventrattKl 
a form as |xw*-ihle. 

\i ftaMft\\:r is tnmhlcrtomOy ftts^ ttareho*;, and sugar*, a;* 
welt as beer, pa!<iry, ainl ^towj-, are to l>e aviudett, S'o niKd 
food should \k bik^i betwi.rn nmil^. dilfee or tm Inken nnch 
the nieaU may pive ri?*c t*» HjiluI'-ncc- They nmv, however, in 
Pome eo>i^»3 Iw taken tlnnup the tiny, nl fi time when thi- ntom^ 
aeh \^ emptv ; thev i^honhl \v^ frpahlv pivpnr*^! and *ihouM 
never lie strong. Only such qnnntitie^ of fooil as the |)ntient 
mn A\\c^aX should lie nllowttl, and. if nore^snry, dii^ef^tioii may 
be aided by pix'in^ csM.^ncr of jx'pAin or other di^*tiveflp In 
some oases n milk iliet may bcicomc ne(x.'r^«ar)'. 



MKT ly DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SrSTEJi. 31*7 



iSH'Mm dilfttaihn of tW Iidirl ncriimn^ during or foUovrinK 
tny uuiLU' ili^mm* rH|iiin'.-< w^i niul a milk dii-l. 

I'ttfpititthu *inii ffifHjitint an- <"»fteii caii^ by itw ii))i;o^1]oii nf 
ICMi nlHuxlatit inenlH ; If {tersi^ti^ut^ the food f^hoiild he given in 
smullt-r 4|uaiiltnf^H ftud iit ^h<irler iotervaU. Four or five ntiiallj 
iiiHti^ut of ilirtt' huTir^^, mtalfl luay Iw iakt*u a( I1?^ula^ uiu-rvala, 
<»r u milk did niay lie <>nJi'tx."<l fwt a U»k\ Tbt' ^-ii^nil fiiatui^:^- 
LUeixt Tiuiy \jv i^iioli »- hii^ i^oL'ti HU);;;i.^tL-d jof HutnloiRv.'. Ttfi, 
c.v>flw, mid tobao^Nt diould be- avoidtxl, mid i-ttV'rx'wriii^ drinks 
rtmy al-^n be oinill^Hl. If there M cuiiM i|katiot], aIvwikI frmio, 
eT*|H'cinll_v |>miieft or fig*, are iifeefiil, 

iiiiMi-if *ii«h(9'hunciJt an? be^I mt't S_v n-*l aii<) a Qiilk di<'t for 
a time, with a gradual return to tlie cixlimiry diet or a diet sucb 
AS U advisfti l'i»r cases of ^Mric oatarrli* Miioli reliH" fre- 
qaemly folk>wh die driuktu^ of a gla.-^ uf hi^t nutcr or of 
S^'ichv half an \i^>y\T Inrforv ;i iiK-al, 

\n ruj>tu]vd L^oiiiix^iisittoLi ir- ac<:otu|KLiiinl hv efiuaion, dome- 
tbi»K muHl be bauI with 6|>ocial refcrvnee l-i ibe niaovul of 
flniiU fiv»m tbi' Intdy. Hert<, iiidc^l. fatvliiig i^ ii <1ifbrit]t tiuk, 
for 1 hi* iKUifiil iiMiiilly ba^ h dis^nt!^! fi>r fih>d. A^ llr^uillH-iit 
MVrt, thr obji>ct ir> III krcpdiiwu the VMliiTriL* <^f ttii* hlLunl ubilc- 
muiiitniiiin^ ii> (lanlity. If <b^ [mtii-nl h vm' ill, jtodndtiuciit 
omy Imt lubnuiiMond cvt^ ilirr^* Imtir*. If he i* nWe tn be 
aU^m, il ulH olVn Ih- well ti' utiow liiin to ttikt* bi« tmi\U vith 
dM< fuaiiiy III thi' n-giibir m<ml*Emi«% Hi* iitEiy In^ ^iwii ohirkvii, 
li.'itilt*r tiii'Ut.'t, ll'^li, ctVAler^i, jimkK, and inhc^r form^ 4»r U^ht 
ftimb When but littlr ik tak<-n at tlir ri'v'tibir lui^l-timr, foiHl 
nuiy hi? |riv«ii ln-lw-wn tin* nivul*. ul n-mibir [K-riiKU, time t>4<ing 
iilhtwi-il W (Hnii[ib-i<' (li^-.itiiia tn rub*- phiit*. Milk, nllMtmin- 
waier, i-s^ir awA milk, m»U|i, '>r iMrf-uii iit ^inidl qn:intiiie>' uiv 
UMfid for tliH |mr|ir«^*. Iinui<l1»'nl n4imniU'ii<l'< meat or 
chicken jelly or ini>nt extmet.-, lor tlu-ir Miinuliitin^ i^Vh*! un 
tho ImvU. I'oftetl-ineat >amIwiHiiH or mcnt |hiI|>, ]in*(icuW x\» 
dmH*tiH| Jbr mlH^'iiKniff jiciiifiu-. may Ik' ;n^'^"i»- In ("Tiiinny 
raw lum i^ ?ii»moriiiK's pre^Hlwxi, (<>iisti|miioii may often Iv 
nvoiikt) by midiii); Mi-weil fruit, |>riinr», or fi^, "r vtyrtAlik? 
pur^'-x, all in r^uiull ipuintitUr^T to the Ji<-L If titV)eH.'«ry, pn-* 
ilip<«t*<l fi*iiii* niiiy U* iiriLKl, 

Kbiid^ iitbrr timn milk uiul Tti>u|H Tihoiibl ho taki^ii in n* 
#uull ignjiiitihe^ n^ IK^v^ible. " Iai|K*riuI drink '^ <^r l»<>t water, 
fty |ifr\'ii)a-iiy .^ugsf^^lt tiuiy bt* fc^veii to tjuenoh the r^iir*t, 

Siiinnlant^ art- a'^nally iit>ecl^, bul ^lioiild U' jrivi-ri only 
iitkliT tlu* MifMTvi^ion oi' the physician, ar^ iherv i^ u l«-ndi'iioy* 



398 



I>tET SS DS8BA8K 



In tftko ton much t') rolioro faiitntc^ or otbor symptoinft. In 
mm-alortluilii-^, fnmi orK'^lialf lo two al]1]cc^4 of whbky a clay 
iimv liiMillimn) ill llic l"'i:i"ninirt tlit* ntn<>niit bcin^ iurreasc-d 
a* iKTJi,"*ion ik-iTinmls. Stininlaitn^ iinjg« have largely buj^er- 
8c«lvd the U!<e af alcohol in iIk^' vtxm^ 

HEART LESIONS IN CHILDREN. 

Hie diet b e^i^ntially the ^ine a^^ th»t tor adultv. Childivn 
wh<» are iibl<? to l)e ubcmt refjuin? i^n^Ail fta]»(-rviskni, t\w rix'JU* 
meni being along the tame general lint'* aw wertt laid liowii lor 
Hclulta i#t*w IVkkI b nx|uired Uian in ht^Ui, uiul ihc m»il« 
photili] bt" Miialkr. Care should he oxcrcbn^ U> ,-»ci' thitt llw 
ioinl i^ t4iu.'ti flowly ami \ViA\ wux^imxU^l, Thi^ du^t «lioiiUI o^m- 
liiM largely of milk, (^4^*, nml tmiit, with or wiihoiii n o**piii], 
and vegtf'tahli*, the Ian: iHJng di' \\\v nuirc t^L^ily ihgr^UHl vjirk^ 
ti<«, Mich n^ well-cttoked >f>niaoh, aT*THini^iH-ti[M, aivl ctnili- 
Hnwer ii-p-*, a>* ihe^e are leaM apt. to rjiii^^ llatiihntyt- Fa^th 
young [lea?, niafiheil anil MniiniHl, aivI l"iv?-h, IftuW string* 
In-nns may alsn l>e allowe<i l'onittx'?% dther wHl liak«l ur 
wrJL U>iled mid mn^heil, uiay be eaten \i\ ^nvM i|nmitiLu-i'. All 
tMKiiv't" find Malkv vt'geiiibh*! are V* b(? avi^ildt-^l. If iIr-r' i» 
fhihdrnc-c, tlif ciirbtihyJmU-p, as wi-ll a^ the fSiIrt, rtmy be very 
niiH'h U'^H-m*il (»r tiniiltt-d tounw>mrily» 

In thi* morr wv<*r(' c^»«* milk agret-A Ix-fter than hhv hiIut 
Forni iif toirih jiikI .should W |jivi-n In ^mall qitEinlitiO'-* nt rc^lar 
intcT\7d*H A"* :i nih% it should not \w takiii toti c^ild. The 
varioiiit rii(>rli1ii^ilioiir4 ef mitk and nlluT lii|L]id fifxln lluit hn^'C 
Ix^n niiriiioni-il in ertn^eeiion with pneiiiuoaia may bi; eni» 
phiyed. Ill ji«»nit cases, eiipeeially when dropsy is neveix', th<»re 
i» no desin^ for food, and the problem <)t' feeflinjr (hen beeoinea 
u diftk-nlt oiif. In ihi-w.- caw-t [ii^di^L-Mnl iinMls of vitdi>iin 
kiiidr», raw Timtt-f^ulpT i\a advlwd ia lubc-rouWic*^ iind beef-leu, 
lH*f-i*xtraet, and ilic like, may bu tried. 



SENE^ HEART. 

&ilibiir's liftlf hix>k oti Thr ^lih H<ft.ii will pmvtr a valu- 
able guide to the eart^ and management of lh<^' a|>i:'d. In hij4 
ehapt*r relating (o dit't he saVH : **C'arrlijic ironbles are alw'aya 
alarming, partu.nlarly in old jige, hit mrieh may lie done to 
relieve the palieal and lo pniloug his life. Attention is to 
bf |>aid ti> the little thiiitrs of tlaily life — the little thing* of 
eating drinking, and doing — that inHuenoe the jmient^i comfort 



DIET ly ItSSKASES OF THE aRVULATORY SYSTHM. 399 



and ^RHlutilly uim the tactile of b«tlth in bU fi\^>r. Tlie pl^'si* 
cian'fl rt^i))ali<*us are ofU'D |iiiie<J aK^iu-M the lialjit«i of a iife- 
liine, aou iliUknliy muy be had hi '■ecnnii^ u<:ijiiieHX*iice. All 
ht^rt affceiiau^ i>l the vlil are not Liti:'i?>j^riiy H-nik- in diamctor 
or im^iQ. Many i-nnw may Iw of vor^' lung »tan<liDg. Stinilc 
carOiac fAilutv i& t-f^»c»liully baaixl npun ini]«erf«ct iuctalKOi«fD. 
Thv liu-C nuibt Ix* n^*iiIuleJ to ^iit iho |yotk-Rt, aif^l oeruiin 
thiDff* mtiil Im? oon^iik-rvil, MohI oI' the ]jntk<i]l-i arv Wkiw or 
Hi tikir usual wpi^lu. These require careful rei^ukition of a 
QonikAl (lit-iary, ti> be ^ven pivtieuEly. A MiuiUer nuiuberam 
rtVir ibeir normal Wi^i^lit*, ami Miffoi' mope fn*in ljr«iil>l*'flf*nf^ 
tbaii l\w \>TV<^\\\\^ Hflfv* of tiL^e^i. Tlie-«> i^|iiin? to be H|ii.frially 
dieietl am caivd for, so as to rcmov'e ibe ohe-ity without (limiii- 
iflhing tiLe Qanllat3 energy or the strength of the mvocjuxliLim. 
Lai^Uy, there are ibose in whom there is iinnv eviJeiit f»ihire 
uf the un'iivanluiiu. Tlii-re aixr more evUkncv.n rif Jihiiaiir>ii of 
the Wi\T\ iii]<l of ^^i4s tir^^ui^ Satrh cn^c*! rei|turt- u ?i]K.viallr 
i\Ty diet/' 

Four Important Rules. — l. An mler\-:il of live bourn 
»hoidd hft allo^^ett tn ela|)tie lK-tw<"en inml.<<. 

"1. No solid f'"Kl ^h»'nhi ix? i:ikeii lielwc-eii imtiU, 

3. All jK-rsoii-' with W4^k heans shoidd lake tl>eir |>nn€i[kGd 
menl in the tnicMIe of itw day. 

4. Persons vrith weak hearts ^uM lake their meals in » 
Jrv a form a** |>o?*ible, 

Alt iij<lii;e-til>k f<>od r^boiild Ih* :kVi.*iikth K.-i|ifrcul)y \*t l>0 
mentioned in ibi^ class aiv drk\), KiUe^l, -ir oiberwt^e pfvw*n'ed 
olfvitA, cheaw, nirilir, all other fordn Ui wliiob faity matter has 
underiroike prolonj^eil exposure lo heat, aud nil ^wi^^^ am) uuts; 
owinit to their iimbiljly \i\ oau?^ Hatiih-in**-, vi'ift-iable rfKul piust 
be ebo^n w'idi ostre* VegPtablei of the o«l>l)aj>i- Cuuily, and 
cnrrot4, tttmipe^, and purNni|»« are re^nle<l with <h.Hravor by 
Ualfour Even potatoes should be eaten sparin^y. Kruita 
>ibi>iild not l>e cnmdcd int" a niwil a-* a det^^ri, bnl niay Ije 
allowml to forai jort of ihe meal, R-|>ecially at brvakf^mt oral 
a mi<l)ay dinner. 

Xo gotxl U io Im> iniined by altcmptiu)* to eitforee diHi^tio nih^ 
roiin'k<l on the niiuilker of firainA of earl>on or inirogeii rHpiir^I 
Io carry on the procesK'^s of life. 

The foodfi to he allowetl persons with wcah tiAirfs are the 
tender varieties tit white li»b, rhicken, t^bbit, gniue, muttt»n| 
or well-groiin lamb, all of vrliich Ilalfour jfive* id preference 
to tough beef. One wel)-)M>]kd, ripe* mealy potato may be 



400 



biET IS DISEASE. 



allowed at dimwr. S|iiiuicli, ^noe il dom uot vaum flatul«)c«p 
u tli« Bufeet vi^nblv; a«)Ninigus-Topf^, onkii^, aud louuit^Ks 
limy Iw toki'ii in inotk^nilmH. Pl^uv^ bt-an^f and itEber If^uiui- 
tHuts tVnxUf nbcn fn^ftli, yuuu^, uiid grcvUr ui^y '>^ ]ianakeu of 
i» En<Kli:mtji>i). 

Xoc tnoro tlitU) five otinocw af tiaiil^ niifl if po^ibW k-^d, 
shuiild be taken with ft mfAl. If Hater ir^ d^ired with tlie 
riiealis it sliuuld be taken hot and ^ipjind duwly. If uii u» 
used, it filioulci W wwik — u (€tispooDfuI t>f the tea to liveoun<<^ 
of water, fitee]je*l for uot more than three miniiu^. CoHoe iimy 
bp sweeteutd to Uitk-, iiiul taken lilaek or wiUi cream. Choco- 
late^ and oooiju aiv t'-J rit-li for tlv*?^ vritli Wv^k Ih'artn, but if 
taken abiie mny ocaif-ioiially be u^luL 

Aleiituf) jJiould Ikt jiretcriUMi only iis \i is needo^L So mniiy 
IKLticriL-t buvc^ lH.-eu aci-uMonic^ tu tto lirt? all their livt^ ttmt it 
cniinot l>c <'iil off iilt<)^"ther. For tbofn: lu whom aWlxO ih 
|h'rniiit<vl half tin oiuiee of whUky. l^ruiidv, nr gin muy Iw 
l^ix-eii ni ihTVi- *iT four oiiiifH--* irf' wnfi<r twine i\ t\i\\\ t«^*tb«»r 
with tlieir fiHxi ; or ii ^hij^lo glans of 7*liorry iir i>ort or itt'o 
ghL*.*eft of niiy litrlittT winej MH-h lu* biK'k '»r rlort't, wii'h plajw 
to liold two fliiidotiiices iiiny K* onk»i"e*l, Hk' ^inmjr^T wiue*' 
arc bcist ountTed, ui* (Ik'V iin- huble, if lal^eii in kii^.r niizititi- 
lic«, lo give mc I" dy-*jKr(Hin. tluiMipnpie l^, a* a nife, for- 
bidden. I<li'wynonii*i('i* occur in retpiul \i> ibc effw^t of wine, 
»o that iIk" imliviibuil ea*o miMl Iw conniilrn-d btfinv il is 
anierwi. Aleiih"! i* l»e.?t j--ivcTi in chc form of pure wbibky 
and water, alwaiye in extreme niMenition. Ai? a ^ticiRiLint for 
B it'oak heartj small <jiiantili^ of alfvillol are frer|nently nre- 
seril>ed, to be taken at various tim<'> lUiriiig tli*^ day. Thi--< is 
niasi inJurionH trvainnMir fi»r all]iuii;;)i tijo primnry eflVi"! of 
alejiht»l U liiimu latin ST, w^oiukmly ii is depressani. A Jx-tUT 
plan is ti^ *iircet Mitb a patient to take Iwn <<r three aips of 
\>'ater^ a* hat as eati i>e swallowed, oecasioiially throughout tlw 
day. AjMirt from tbaf lakeii in tfie foiMi fijleen niinee?' of 
water a dav ni-e all ihitt hlioahl hv iillov^.'d. hut W •■evet^ (hir?t 
irt oompkiiit^l i»f, a half ]>iui of hoi w^ter tmiy U- ?ip|>etl about 
fi-iiir liourr« atWi' eaeh niHil or only al't^'r iTie pnuelpal nietil: 
Tlii* t*Wu"*efl fill* !4iom[ieh and prepare-, it for w-st. Hot wuK'r 
4|in'iicbi'?^ the thirst belter tbnn Joe-* t^»bL The tlnrst ir* iK'^unlly 
due to a i-atarrii:il dys|iep*ia, and ?ioou dIsipiH'iri'h after tbe 
diet has been nyulatHi. Tbe f^llowiag U BalftHir's dietary^ 
which ifi easily nio^litied : 

•* ISrenk/dfi HJSO: One Email slice of dry niast, weighing 



DIET ty W^ATMAS Of TltK CiRCVLATOf.Y 8\iSTEM. 401 



n^KXit All riiincN? nti(] ;i hnlf, Willi Initr^r ; ni)«> uoft-tioiliHl or 
|Ki!iclip(l ogg. or hiilf n tifiiall luKiihtrk. or it-^ ei|mvAteni in any 
wiIkt frt-sh wliiu* fi^h, wUli from thni.' lo tivi? oum^i-t of i&i or 
G(.kSVtrf with cn^am uiul Mi^in If tlii^rc tK'niiy tiiflicnliy aUiul 
the Uax^ it t)i3y Ik' ri'iiliu^.^! by n r<iiiiiUr i^iuiutity of iufuF^ion of 
oucou-iiil>^, or milk iukI h»fl wiUrr, or crmni and K^^ltzei- waicr 
Same (iri'lVr f>£iCiiH«l iMirri'lge, witti imlk or craim, utid in orxlt- 
uarr drcimi^Uini**^ Oiis iicvil not beobjfcieil to, provided iiut 
moiv tluiti four or fivr oiijm^it< of milk he Ifikeiii nnd i\\t |)or- 
ri(L^< U* u<«t mon- in fjuiitittlv tljiin ihrotf or finir oimco" ol' <hiu- 
ijif^iU ^*«'ll hoilifl ; |>roviili-d, al*o, dint |>oi'ridp4* nl*w»<' W (£il\('iir 
luid t)i>l |H>rrktf^- Jir^-t, foUontx! Iiy tea, I'ni^tp etv.. \t'hii-ti U 
diytriietive of nil coinforc, IkjiIi fi.>r &ti>niaeb and lie»rt. 

"Tile jiniivi^i/ iiif'tf of ili"^ *liiy, whaleviT it i* ndloil^ luiicb 
or tlintKr, ^ii<*tj|d hv tiikcii ulniiit 1.30 f^r '2 uMork. uiid may 
OJiinUt ol' tn» niLirK^^f tioC more — iUli n»i] iiK^t, or tii^ti and 
|uidill»g, or inmt mid [mcklitif;. $i'U|v«, |viMr\', |>tckk-% unci 
vIk-^'m; iiiv uljniiliiiely |4iH>idik*iK AVhiir lUli iiml ri>eui mtli 
!*ln.ri filnr^ iirr i^ivferreil. Hnlf n lijuldiick, or ii,« v^|uii'nl<Mit 
i» nriy olWr wIjJu- fji^h, l>oilc<i tti inill;^ Menmril, or l>ro]led, 
novcr rri4d ; wing nod \iati uf t\w l>n?flAt of st eliiekt-iT, or its 
cijtiividetit ill FM'cet I trends. tri|)e. mhMt, ^ime, or routroii ; rtoe 
tin^\v |iotu(o or u little tpiimeb. For |ui(U)iiig. any form of 
viiiiple milk jnuldttif; may Ik- t;iki^i. or aluttit Iialf a i^mml of 
such fruits as jiear^, iipjile^, ^nipe^, ek-., eiikcr c<x}ki-d ^r iiu- 
cooked, DuriDii; tliU meal fonror live ounces of hot uuier nmy 
be Ai]i[>e«l if dL->^iriHl. 

'*rV»ni 'I to 15 ibn-t.- or four ounce* of l«i may Iw taken if 
de<irt4l, iiifiiMxi, »^ in the Dkorniot:. not longer than four min- 
iwv^f aihI with ermm ai>il uti^r if uUbc^l ; bni no m>I)<I i*jodi 
miiAl be tnkeii with ft'-^iiot ^ven il niorwl of enke or liifeiiit. 
If tliere U- any dJffif^iiby ab»»ni the tt«, fonr or five oon<x> of 
hot water may Ix^ Ful>itiiiiieti for it. aud if ihere h^m :iny m-ed 
for A fitimiilnul nt tins time, a tes^f^Kitifiil of Liebij-V extract 
of beef may !» stirred into it. 

"8«tppi?r, or the litp^t HMtil of the iby, mu^t ulwn^ii be n li^ht 
meul. It should W taken alw>iil 7, and mny ttHJ*i*t of white 
Ml ami ;i potato, or h*a*>l, widi butter, or M>fne milk pntltlin^, 
or thread Aiid milk, or Ri-vjibotn, made with aiilk or vrrili Lie* 
Mf^-i extract of l>oef. At U^ltlme, four or fiv*> oune^ of ho* 
vrater will Miothe the T^fomaeh. promote sleep, ami giave tlie imy 
for a comfortable brealdast next momioif/' 



AO^ 



piET ry disease: 



Willi! ihr^r** U lumsnren, thefoUowtn^ ''dry Jiot" U reimtn- 

** iinyik/fiitt, — IW ^iiijjle slire of lir^* toaeU wei^'hiug iiIhiiic 
an onm."*' an<l a half, with no hmter, but wit!i u sm);;le cup of 
tea tnl'iisMl not huiger than four minnrefi, Mith or«om amt »ii^r, 
amotmtiog in all u> not more tliau four oiiiicas and Doibiitg 

^' Dinner. ^^y<tt more ilijiti tlw lean of two civopsj or it** 
cquivuliMii in Huokt-n or thh \ no vt'^e(ablt<a ; ag inudi drj- 
IfMint »-<< riiav ^< ilc^inv] : half nil <mnr>e of bnimlv, whigkv, or 
HoIIaikI jriii, in tlinv iMmi'<\"* i>f water, ami nothing ol^. 

*^Siif,f„'r. — As miK'lj Hr^" U^n-^n umy lx> taken a** is deslrtil, 
jilon^ wifh half an oinic* of lurandv, wUiskv, or gin in three 
oiim^>i of wnur; and nf»thin^ more," 

It H not ilt'^irahh? tliat apafient in thJTiormdilion drink mitchp 
eVi'H Iwtwi^en mwils, frtii if tliir^ty, hn may Ih> jkprnuttfd lo t*i[> 
!^lo^^■K thret or iour uiiriLv^ uf hot vrater about uii hoar before 
«Acli meal. 

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. 

In most casefl of artoiio-^ ]<-i-osi^ .tyiLk|>toin!« of acmiIIo lii-art 
'K-vLji- ;it UiL' fiuui' timo, and the r^nw )fi-[irnt] |iriii<-i|iUTi itinv l>e 
toHowuil ar* w*'i-L' Jii\'<'tcd for that ci>ndiiiMn. The I'^rcuoh par- 
tiotilarly ^uli-ooaU' a milk dii-t in the tixuituKiit iti' arti:rit^v\t^v*vih^ 
and ^vhero th^ro ktv h<'H<lriehc»jt, iiiNninnii, and «th*r untoward 
iiyfa|itnm.s :in ah*ohilr milk <lirt nwy In* ii^L-d Avith udvanta^fe. 
As ftoon a?* the sym)>lont^ di-^apiMvir n t]ii:i^il diet miiv Ix^ *ub- 
-tiiiJiixU (See Milk f*ure for ni>'thotlH <if ifivinp milk.) Min- 
eral water may lie prcrterihi'd, i»r \v\\t> umy lK^ nm<k' uniiii^illv to 
mitioral springs. Whoever poH^-^ible alc<jhol bhould \y(* pro- 
hibiicd. 

ANEURYSM. 

In moftt caj't* of anciifi'^im that are provintf tiYiiihl<?i«om« the 
f ivulmenl ^jn^l^ts iif rest, a rcMricteil diet with a liiaiied :iinonnt 
c»f Huiil, Ifi^ther with jwjtii^iiiim iixlid. J^'roni ten to twi-ntv 
grain-'k of the hidid threi^ time* :i ilny arc siifficieut. 

Certaia eanp* <if niK-iirysm mny be relicvwl by n^oninri flirt- 
ing. Thv muTuhir fovnif*, ami o^pccinlly oaww of aortic anriit vmu 
with rinnill -iiH'iiinpi, ixn^ nv.sl npt to iniprovt under thin trmt* 
tneTit, Dii'tin^ i^ hIm* helpfnU ir is ^aid, in tmnrkatio aneuryMu. 
Tutfnell, of Dublin, advised the followini; diet : 

Bt^ml{ff\Mt — Two ou[i<.T« ot* hrtad with a little butter and 2 
omiceb of laijk. 



DIET IS DISEASES OF TIFi: CIRCtfLATORY SYSTKH. 408 

Dinnrr. — From !2 to 3 ounces of mrat without Milt, ii tut 4 
ounces of tnilk or claret. 

iiitpfttr. — Tliosiniens bivakfiu-1. 

AbpH^lutc ]ih\>icHl mid nioiital rest mu^t be secured for tlie 
[Kitieiit, mid ii <^»ttipelL'Dl iitirv? viu:< nill mv thut tJic diet in 
strirtly ndbcrtd to is L*?H.MiUnL Tliir*t mwv Iw relievwJ by 
«mii1] (|iiuiititiL-« of acidiilnteil drinks or liy *i|>» of Ijot witter. 
PoiA«»iuai iodid may be |»re?<'nl»c<], {w niayal^o niorpMn, Few 
poticnt^, however, nrc willing to ulkIpi^ the irtiflermp llut mioH 
treAtnient entnild, mul not tnuny will |>er«t«^t in it for more thau 
wversi wecki- THffuell n^vjipil tlijtt it is to \w followe^l fijr 
wvera) tuontb^, and he and oiliers report cures in cenaiti cafiee. 
The anemia that follow** may be extreme, «nd may lave the 
patietit in a Acrioii?^ condition. 

liixmdbent jhIvim^ n<«i and T^xnalt^ eqtial^i:ced mealsf tAkea 
at rt^ulnr inlennU. The niwiU i:inM )k' nmei-ntmttd. iind 
btilk)' :^ub»tanix':«. ^udl a« rice, iKiinVK'.-s ii^hJ brt^d, «re to be 
cxclu<lctl from llie dietary. Tlie nmount of wnler tidten iu 
tweniy-fiHirlKHira should not exee<.Hl forly oiuioc^f and m miicfi 
tan aa i^i^iblo li lo be taketi. Twenty-four ounoce be places 
na theiDinifiuim. 

Tlie oi^jeci <if tite Irmlnirnt i^ to prodiioc ilif< t^Iow etmthi- 
tioii of s cnndoniiied IiIihk] id tIi(Th>i|H< that fibrin tnny \h^ i\>rn\*.^\ 
in the sac. Bumey Yei> dm^ not tavor -■*ijeh -■is<*vi iv dii-tiii^. 

Wlien ilie ca^t in ixit a Mntaf>h' one luid U ikot ^ivin^ i?«|HHMtfl 
trouble, it h protmhly best to recommend a quiet life an<l a 
Mmple ilier., avoidina; inrli^^^tible artlcUa of flMxl and tiKwe that 
<'aiUM- llatideiKv. -Am O^lrr \%a^ Niiil, thi' nKT.U<:al prt^frsaitwi Ima 
fnmi-htd tiiimori>(i.-i cxiuiip)» nf iiK-n \\itb ai-rlio mu-ijr\>ni liv- 
iii]^ for coiiT4!di*mbt^ iwricdft an^l doing g^iud work. Of tbeiic 
tlM- lati" Hilton F«^^ wa»t a nmtabh* exAiupte. 



ANGINA PECTORIS. 

In ttiiii diseosie diet t* of tho ^rftite^l ini|x>rtnaee. The 
majc^rily of rasH-* <Mxnir in " lar^* *Tit<'r?«," ;ind, an Itiler wiy*, 
lliere iri "ileaih in thr [*it." .V* a rule ihe^e palientA reative 
iIkiI (t^'erentiri^ in kiniifiil !■> them. 

The mcaltf ah«)ul<l lie ^^vuill anil ea-><ily di)fe--4ihte, and oJI rieli, 
hifrtilr Mraicon^d Pwnl^ ua wr]\ as anything thot <«um>s fcttmiitii- 
tion, sh^Hihl bo rtiivftilly av'<4iirtt. KliitTih'fuv 1% a !ii%'iu|>tofit 
that ini^it, a<i for u^ |B>viiblr, be avoj<)Ht. for »-■* -om a?* lbi» 
stomach lMTonu« dbtemhH) ilt^lri'^ folkwd tliaimay produce ao 



404 



DIBT ly DISKASE. 



titack. Tlu! evcntii^ iin.-a\ »liuulcl lx< aamXlt and t^tiug late at 
ni^t t«b4>uld be pi>'liibiu><l. 

If Mic jKiticDT i^, ill ni]iiilim), tin- Mibjccl vf pjiil or glyco- 
i<furui, hif* liirf «m?*t Ik- ixguUuwl iwn>nliiigU"H TIk* 4bet«iitabl^ 
for vnrliiiis cii>w Olffew M-SOeI\\ and [HT^nnul iili<j#yiicnL#y must 

tti hi-* l«^lurc* on nii^itm OKlrrcnll?* t" miiid timt Pr. Smol- 
l^, in Hfim^Jtrtif fintle/-, uiaki'*- oiw tii' liU rlinracteiv, Mntl 
Rminblc, Kty r *^ fW my own jnirt, 1 Icivo had a lin«|iilal thc^ie 
fcMitl4.->eEi ymr* wiiliiii Diy^'lf. »ml ^tmlietl my uwii caae witb 
m<>T*t piunfil atti-ulLoii, onnm.'fUKntly may Im? tiiip|io»ieil to know 
TfiiiiKiliiii^' nf Uir imilti.T," All itjuni);i."m j^itient tlioiiM knuw 
wlul IWhI 4W^ jlikI wimi *Ws not ciiwih? HatuleiK^e- Flatnlenc* 
i> iiiiLxt iipt Uf i»('ciir ill fill tiablry pitR-ifl^ nntl in ihtm^ wiili 
wwk bcsu-tH iiitil tirtmiiHrkn'oi^i?!. H*U water Wkcii bnlf nn 
Ijiair Ix'finv mmji* inav Ik- iwrfiik 

lu ibitM wLtb \vlu>iij thf- ilrinkin^ nf Rtiniuljant^ i? n liA'-long 
liubit alcoh<4 nmy !»*> ulloww), Iw-tt In tbc form of bol ri><l<ly »t 
iKiUimf. To ijiiiitr O^iliTiijfiiin tlii» may |in>von1 tli<' Hntuk-iier 
tbiit i^ apt to ourtii- on (liirii}ir iIk' cnrly uiorning btiurK 

ANEMIA. 

Acute Posthemorrhagic Anemia. — Tbi^ rtacW U re- 
ferred lu llie WH'tion nil Did nlW O])ei";ition* for ^^upct-Uon^ us 
to the diet ill tbi^ iliw^rdcr- In ibe ra^it' of tbe Miuillcr tKiimr- 
rliages, wliicb are rajiklly rec^jvereil fnTiii, tlic tiMi;il dk-i nmy 
be f»>lloweJ. In tlie more p-cvci'o forni*^ &|>c(ial ^-arc mny be 
re([uired. If the avienim thnl follows n fCAvre beniorrlinpc he- 
conieH elironio. iho puti^iit is tf» l>e tnniui^il tli(» srimp n»i iii 
phmtiie F^eeoiulary nneniiA. If iiiitdi IiIckhI luir^ lieeu kif^t, fluid 
sboiild be supplied to the body in the fi)rni <*f iionDal i^ah H>Iut]un, 
by tl'aiiHlU^ion intu a vein, *-iilK-iitrineoiis[y. by tbe rectum, ny by 
tbe mouth. aeei>Ming lo tbe ciiiKlition of the juiticnt. In niriftt 
ai^^i? tlie fluid part of tlie blooii i^ ntpidly rcpliet^L If tlic 
hemorrbage lias l>een frem the Mtniiaeb HfF lj<Mvel, special runn- 
B^inent, iifi detailed under their reiT[)eetivv betidmgv, i» min^«* 
Miy. 

If tbe potieiit ia very weak, w»lcl milk i^ ii*iimUy the mcwt 
auvpplAblp form of fo^d, Ilot milk U prefprivd bv •irmie, aiiH 
i* be?st for majiy ea^t. Fresh l>eef-juiee aud weak l*eef-t«i are 
^'sUlublo, a^ ik aiUnalbiiniiD-water. As Mx>n a^ the putieiit J« 
«bk* to t-at, i\ diet comjituiiiif con^'idendde protein and the fre*h 
green vcgetablcu^ jJiuuId W ndniini^^leivd, 4u; well as milk, eggic. 



DIET ly 



OP TSIE CmCULATORY STSTEM. 405 



rare of raw meat, with «|iinzu'lK a^iMinigns-liin^T »j>l'lt^, ntniw- 
bemes, antl olbor frc^h fniic^ nnt) v«-gotiihlcv«. 

And rbe lunoh conncntmtefl lHV»t-1m*i Khntitrl mtt Ih* liiki-ii, t«p^ 
ejally tD the acute Ki:tg^, 

Acoonling ro the mwiiTpr experiment* atJ*l olxH>rvntiorii* that 
have betdi innde oii this siihjoci, the mrtnlMJu* jjpiuh'vw?* of the 
boily ar^ dihcr about normal or Hiuihir to th<iM<' going on in a 
cuudiiion of hnnger Iron in Ac^mv form U wivisable in Uie 

Chronic Secondary Anemia. — EfToriH nh«iil<l iv nuiJe 
to locate aui) remove tin* eniiM?. The <iiet ^lioiild W nlK>uC tho 
Mime as lliat recoiiiiii*a«3e<l (or ehWotiu, Fr<*h fvMid, milk, 
^V^r tn«»t'*. grt-pii v^'p'tiMv'i, and fri>*h fniitu nn» thi- nut^t 
important anicles of di«rt> Fre»h air aud ^ufljcieut redi are 
al»^> essential. 

Pernicious Anemia.— In spite of the ^ve anemia tlie 

boiiy fill and [ni»M'l<> I'l'too n main for n considerable time hul 
littU* diminislkHl in size, Thr hlttf^} de^tntetion^ hi>wever, is 
pn^^iT^sivi-T and iiihI)!! to a fiiud ending. Ri-^t, Temo\*al to a 
diffenrnt clininte, fn^h air, cuid iltention to ihc diet mat m H>iue 
cnjM^ prolonp life. Xevcrtlirh^H the tendcney of the disonse ia 
to l»<v*i*iie priigft-ii^lvrly wor*e. 

Owing to the nnorexia. vomEHng, and diarrhea thnt are apt 
to be present, the diet i» a mutter of impon:inee. Cotipland 
Eind Hunter claim that a earl>ohydrHte diet is l>etter borne timn 
(»ne cimpovtfd laip'Iy «if jinitrin*. As tlK- result i»f rx]>erinirtit, 
Hnuter luM been W*t\ to Mieve that intestinal putrefaction occura 
\tM ofWn on a milk utid inriiohytlntie diet. 

Pn.tii^ea«iwl fc»B!>, |irc|HinHl inOint^* or invutids* food^, raw 
in«t-jui«?, and ntmihir anicK^ r>f foml may be allowed. Suudl 
quanlilira of alwiho! may also U- y>rcsenl>ed. 

During rM"^nty«in* the Ixme-marrovr of long bones of ani- 
mals tias Iteeii rr<eonimfnded highly in cai^a of fuTnieiotiN 
aiK-niift. The mLtmiw !« eaten raw. in doses of from oni^ i'> 
thn^fr taldespoohfuls {vk^* <bily. The attthorn Ikave ohtjiii>ed 
good results in seN'eral cnsi'K from this fonn of treaicn«fil. 

CHLOROSCS. 

The d>H for clitorf>tie |miieutF« i?« mil ^nrmny iinclvffttood^ 
and iht'frfon.- n?i|uirod i-^pi-ciu) Mudy, 

In ehloro^U no ehange« oeeur in L*ilhcr fat or mtiwlco. Some 
IwtienU are hi while otb^rt ar<< thin, this driM^tuling for the 



40G 



DIET IS PISEASK 



iTKHf (irirl 11(1 nfTitVntiil pirrMawTfltn-i'T-. »|]<1 tw^niig only un 
imliixvt ri-Iatioii ti> the atii-itiiji. 'Jlu' thtn |utif'iiin iin^ iiKimlly 
tlidtk' indfvicltiiil> \\\\\i firo nf [lint liAbil : tlnw- i^lia ba\x* co- 
ejci^tin^ di^n^-^' ui iIk- .-lomni.ti ; tlioi^ mIai tiikc Mti litllv food 
and niio un^, in uHtM'<|Li<'iici-, Kiilleriii^ fi^'iu multiiitricir>u ; i>r 
IflsUy, thft^e wl"> mu.-*i nmUrijt) oimsidf^raiiLe txKlily «X€rtion, 
UMuUIy in gLtiing Uit'ir livcHluKi^l, 

Tlu' fut [mlieLil» aiM iIim.h? w Ii<> art uf\tii txJtumtoUb lookUi^ 
nw- mdivuluul--< tvho arv oiiljcr fat bv nature or whu aro rvttivuijf 
b>o nmcl> milk ur LTltK^r Huld with iht-ir divt. 

IIiuIt Ik f>ni)H'r dit'C no c'hiiri^'T' in i)m- weight rrmvfinrnr; or 
\\\ tlio vtx^ of i]io fut, iHlt-i]mtoit*f-Wkiug iiatknt:', there iimy Ik.* 
a Iom» in \Te)Kht while the miemia \s improvinj