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CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



BIBLICAL, 



THEOLOGICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL 



LITERATURE. 



FBXPARBDBT 



THE REV. JOHN M'CLINTOCK,3.D, 



AMD 



JAMES STRONG. ST.D. 



Vol. IV.— H, I, J. 









NEW YORK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISIRS, 

FBANKLIN SQT7ARB. 
1883. 



« • 






U-S.Sc^ 



kitered according to Act of Congress, in the year 187 1, by 
' HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In fc Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washingtori. 

I - • . 

J ,. - .. . ■. 



i 



3^mnriaL 



In sending out this volume, it becomes my sad duty, as co-editor, to pay a 
tribute of affection and respect to the memory of the late editor-in-chief, Dr. 
John M'Clintock, who rested from his earthly labors while these pages were 
still in preparation for the press. As an accomplished scholar, an eloquent 
speaker, a clear writer, an able divine, a skilful educator, a consummate critic, 
an ardent patriot, a genial friend, and a devout Christian, his loss is deeply felt, 
not only in private association and ministerial and literary circles, but in the 
community at large. 

Dr. M'Clintock's life was one of extraordinary activity and usefulness. He 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1835, at the age of twenty-one, 
and entered the Methodist ministry as a member of the New Jersey Conference. 
A short time afterward he was elected Professor of Mathematics in Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, Pa., and was soon transferred to the chair of ancient lan- 
guages, which he filled for nearly ten years. During this period he was en- 
gaged, with Professor Blumenthal, in the translation of Neander's " Life of 
Christ ;" and commenced, in company widi Professor Crooks, the preparation 
of a series of elementary Greek and Latin class-books, which still maintain a 
deserved popularity in our schools and colleges. 

In 1848 he was chosen editor of the Methodist Quarterly Review^ and held 
that office until 1856, when he went abroad as a delegate to represent the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church in the English, Irish, French, and German Conferences. 
On his return he was elected President of the Troy University, then recently 
founded, and, pending the organization of the college classes, assumed the pas- 
toral charge of St. Paul's Church, in New York. In the summer of i860 he be- 
came pastor of the American Chapel established at Paris under the auspices of 
the American and Foreign Christian Union. In 1866 he was appointed chair- 
man of the general Centenary Committee of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
In 1867 he organized the Drew Theological Seminary, as president, a position 
which he^retained till the time of his death, March 4, 1870. 

The closing years of his life were occupied in the preparation of the present 
" Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature," a work for 
which, he was peculiarly fitted by a comprehensive and accurate scholarship, and 
a catholicity of judgment which enabled him to survey religious questions in the 
broadest light of Christian liberality. The first three volumes of this work were 
prepared and published under his immediate supervision. The greater part of 
the present volume also received the benefit of his labors and advice ; and be- 
fore his decease, he had collected and partly arranged a large amount of import- 
ant matter for the succeeding volumes. J. S. 



PREFACE TO VOL. IV. 



Is consequence of the death of DivM'Clintock, which occurred when but a small 
part of the present volume was in type, the entii'e editorial responsibility of the re- 
mainder of the work has devolved upon Dr. Strong. In this task, however, he has 
been so greatly aided by the preparations and memoranda left by his former colleague, 
and by the labors of the able assistants and contributors named below, that it is hoped 
the reader will not find this volume inferior in completeness or accuracy to its pred- 
ecessors. Professor J. H. Worman, whose previous connection with Dr. M*Clintock 
in this work peculiarly fitted him to take a part in its completion, has devoted his 
time, since the death of the late senior editor, to assisting in the department which 

that event left to be supplemented. Professor A. J. Sohem has continued to fninish 
the articles on the ecclesiastical history and statistics of all the countries, and has 
rendered valuable assistance in other respects. The same plan has been maintained 
in this as in the preceding volumes, and is to be carried out in the remainder of the 
work, which will be issued as rapidly as the mechanical part can be well executed. 
The impatience of the public for the speedy appearance of the successive volumes, 
while it is gratifying as showing an appreciative demand, might nevertheless, if un- 
duly indulged, injure the thoroughness of the work, which requires for its completion 
an amount of labor that can be properly estimated by those only who have been en- 
gaged in some like undertaking. 

Throughout this work it has been the aim of the editors to inco]*porate into it all 
the suitable matter found in similar works, especially in the great recent dictionaries 
edited by Aschbach, Fairbairn, Herzog, Iloefer, Kitto, Smith, Wetzer und Welte, and 
Winer, and these names have been prefixed or appended to portions so cited. If this 
has in any case been omitted, it has been by oversight. At the same time, it is due 
to the authors of those works to state that the matter borrowed from them has rarely 
been used without large modifications and important additions. Full one half of the 
matter in this CydopoBdia is wholly new, and much of the rest is entirely remodeled 
in form and expression, while many aiticles contained in it are not represented in any 
similar work hitherto published. 

This work is in no sense denominational, either in its scope or in its execution. 
While the editors and their collaborators have not sought to conceal their personal 
opinions in any respect, they have never obtruded them in their articles, nor allowed 
their own ecclesiastical relations or dogmatic views to interfere with the catholicity 
of the work. This Cyclopcedia has not been undertaken, written, or published in the 
interest of any sect or party. Hence the contributora have been selected from all 
branches of the Church, and their statements have been left untrammeled by sectarian 
dictation. Their names thus far, which are subjoined in full, are a sufficient guaranty 
in this regard. Scarcely more than one third of the entire number belong to the same 
communion with the editors themselves. 



vi PREFACE TO VOL. IV. 

^V. J. As — ^William J. Allixson, editor of the Friend^ Review, Burlington, N. J. 

W. W. .A The Rev. W. W. Andrews, Wethersfield, Conn. 

J. K. B.— The Bev. J. K. Burr, A.M., Morristown, N. J. 

D. C. — The Rev. Daniel Curry, D.D., editor of the Chrittian A dvoeate, New York. 

G. F. C. — Professor George F. Comfort, A.M., Syracuse University, N. Y. 

T. J. C—The Rev. Thomas J. Conaht, D.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

M. J. C. — ^The Rev. M. J. Cramer, U. S. minister to Denmark. 

G. R. C—The Rev. George R. Crooks, D.D., editor of the Methoditt, N«w York. 

D. D. — ^The Rev. Daniel Devinne, Morrisania, New York. 
R. D. — The Rev. Robert Davidson, D.D., Huntington, L. I. 

(J. B. D.— Professor G. B. Docuarty, LL.D., of the College of the City of New York. 

W. G. E.— The Rev. W. G. E aston, of the British and Foreiffn, Evangelical Review, London. 

F. W. F.— The Rev. F. W. Flocken, missionary to Bulgaria. 

E. Y. G. — Professor E. V. Gerhart, D.D., of the Mercersburgh Theological Seminaiy. 
J. T. G. — The Rev. J. T. Gracey, A.M., late missionaiy to India. 

H. G.— The Rev. Henry Graham, B.D., Lansingburgh, N. Y. 

H. H.— The late President H. Harbaugh, D.D., of the Mercersburgh Theological Semiiuury. 

W. E. H.— W. E. Hatilvway, editor of the Herald of Peace, Chicago, 111. 

\y. P. H.— The Rev. W. P. Hayden, Portland, Me. 

R. D. H.— Professor R. D. HrrcHcxxsK, D.D., of the Union Theological Seminaiy. 

C. H. — Professor Charles Hodge, D.D., of the Princeton Theological Seminary. 
J. n. — The Rev, Joseph Holdicii, D.D., Secretary of the American Bible Society. 

G. F. H.— Professor George F. Holmes, LL.D., of the University of Virginia. 

J. F. H.— Professor John F. Hurst, D.D., late of the Martin Mission Institute, Frankfort, Germany. 

R. H. — ^The Rev. R. Hutch eson, Fairbank, Iowa. 

^r. S. I.— The Rev. M. S. Isaacs, editor of The Jewish Messenger, N. Y. City. 

J. K. J. — ^The Rev. J. K. Johnston, of Canada. 

0. J. — Mr. Oliver Johnson, late of The Independent, New York. 
S. M. J.— Mr. S.\3iUEL M. Janxey, Loudon County, Va. 

D. P. K.— Professor D. P. Kidder, D.D., late of the Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, IlL 
J. B. L.— The Rev. J. B. Logan, editor of the Western Cumberland Presbyterian, Alton, DL 
J. W. M. — Professor J. W. M.vrshall, A.M., late of Dickinson College. 

T. V. M.— The Rev. T. V. Moore, D.D., Nashville, Tenn. 

B. H. N. — The late Professor B. H. Nadal, D.D., of the Drew Theological Seminary. 

E. A. P. — ^Professor E. A. Park, D.D., of the Audover Theological Seminary. 
J. N. P.— Mr. Jules N. Proeschel, Paris, France. 

S. H. P.— The Rev. S. H. Platt, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

W. E. P.— The Re%'. W. E. Park, D.D., Lawrence, Mass. 

W. K. P.— The Rev. W. K. Pendleton, D.D., President of the Bethany College, Virginia. 

W. R, P.— The Rev. W. R. Powers, Norfolk, N. Y. 

E. de P.— The Rev. E. de Puy, Madison, N. J. 

A. II. Q.— The Rev. A. H. Quint, D.D., cdLtx)r of the Congregational Quarterly, Boston. 

H. B. R.--The Rev. H. a Ridgaway, D.D., New York. 

A. S. — The Rev. Abel. Stevens, LL.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. J. 8.— Professor Alexander J. Schem, late of Dickinson College. 

E. de S.— The Rev. E. de Schweinitz, editor of The Moravian, Bethlehem, Pa. 

L. E. 8. — Professor L. E. Smith, of the Examiner and Chronicle, New York. 

^I. L. S. — The late Professor M. L. Stoever, D.D., of Pennsylvania College. 

P. S.— Professor Philip Schaff, D.D., of the Union Theological Seminary. 

C. C. T.— The Rev. C. C. Tiffany, A.M., Fordham, N. Y. 

G. L. T. — The Rev. George L. Taylor, A.M., Hempstead, L. I. 

W. J. K. T.— The Rev. W. J. R. Taylor, D.D., late Secretary of the American Bible Society. 

N. v.— The liev. N. Vansant, Newton, N. J. 

C. P. W.— The ftev. C. P. Wing, D.D., Carlisle, Pa, 

H. C. W,— The Rev. II. C. Wkstwood. D.D., Princeton, N.J. 

1. M. W. — The Rev. Isaac M. Wisi-^ D.D., editor of The Israelite, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

J. H. W. — I^fessor James H. Worm an, A.M., Librarian of the Drew Theological Seminar}'. 
J. P. W. — The Rev. J. P. Westehvelt, Paterson, N. J. 

M. J. W The Rev. M. J. Wvlii-:, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

T. D.W.— President Theodore D. Woolsey, D.D., of Yale College. 

W. F. AV.— Professor W. F. Warren, D.D., of the Boston Theological Seminary. 

R. Y.— The Rev. R. Yeakel, Secretary of the Sabbath-school and Tract Association, Geveland, Ohio. 



LIST OF WOOD-CUTS IN VOL IV. 



Ancient SSTP^ linen Coralet, Page 
Egyptian Manner of wearing tne 

Ancient EgrpL Female Head-dress 

Anrrian Manner of wearing the 
Hair 

Grecian Manner of wearing the 
Hair 

Ancient Egyptian Ladies with Fil- 
lets 

Hap of the Vicinity of Hamath. . . . 

Ancient Bgypiian Carpenters 

Tools of an B^yptiau Carpenter. . 

Ancient Egyptian Masons 

Ancient Beyptlan Handmaids. .... 

Priaonenunpaled by the Assyrians 

Hare ofMonnt Sinai 

Hare of Moont Lebanon 

Andent BgypUan carrying Hares. 

Modern Sgyptlan Lnte. 

Andent E^Tptlfui I^res. 

Various Egyptian Harpe 

Varioos JEteyptian Lyres 

^yptian Grand Harps 

Assyrian Lnte and Harp 

Ancient Assyrian \jr^- 

Modem S^ptiau Khot^ud 

Cermi BaroamtM 

Egyptian Harrest Scene 

Per^^e Falcon 

FaleaSaeer 

AvmadalvB CommvunU. 

SkaUB of dllTerent Races 

Arabian and Turkish Head-dresses 

Modem Egyptian Head-dress 

Various Forms of the Tnrbaa 

Bedooin Head-d ress 

Egyptian regal Head-dresses 

Ancient Persian Head-drosses 

Ancient Assyrian Head-dresses. . . 

Thelbntufw 

Eerie. 

Modem Egyptian Asses 

Andent ^Imets 176, 

Andent Egrptlan Axes 

Deformed Egyptian Oz-herd 

Andent Egyptian Herdsmen. 

Coin of Herod the Great 

Coin of Herod Agrippa II 

Little Golden Egret 

Golden Plover 

Coin of Hierapolis 

The Roeetu Stone 

Hieroglyphic Alphabet. 

Assyran nctnre of a Temple 

Representation of a "High-place** 

Priest's " Linen Breeches^* 

Priest's " Broldered Coat" 

Priesrs Linen Girdle 

Higbi>rle8t*sRobe 

Higfa-priest*s Breast-plate 

Jewish Prje8tl7 Tnrban M6, 

CosUune of High-priest 

Female Deer. 

Andent Egyptian Hinges 

Hip Roof 



S3 
28 



26 

46 

69 

60 

60 

6^ 

68 

72 

72 

73 

86 

86 

86 

86 

86 

87 

87 

90 

90 

93 

101 

102 

106 

110 

112 

112 

112 

112 

113 

113 

lis 



Monk of St. HIppoly tns Pago 

Chase of the Hippopotamus 

Hippopotamus Anipnibius 

The " Tomb of Hiram" 

Ancient HiUites 

"Holy Cost" of Treves. 

Canon of Order of the Holy Ghost. 
Nnn of the Order of the Holy Ghost 

Holy Water Stone. 

Ancient Assyrian Hook 

Hieroglyph of Hophra 

View of Mount Hor 

Hair of Sonth Africans 

Heads of modem Asiatics. 

Assyrian Homed Caps 

Head of Alexander the Great 

Oriental Horned Ladles 

Ancient Egyptian Horse 

Ancient Assyrian Horse 

Ancient Persian Horae 

Chariot-horse of Rameses III 

Ancient Assyrian Stable 

Assyrian Rlaing-borse 

Month of the Leech 

Egyptian Prince, with Charioteer. 

Ancient Assyrian Horseman 

Egyptian Princes in their Chariot. 

Antuine Fignre of Horaa. 

Hour-glass^tand 

OrionUlHnt 

Model of andent Egyptian House. 

Hut of Greek Peasant 

Modem Nestorian House 

Ordinary House at Beiront 

Front 01 Egyptian House 

Entrance to House in Cairo 

Court of House at Antluch 

Court of House at Cairo 

Interior of Hoqse at Damascus. . . . 
Ka*ah of House at Cairo. 



113 Latticed Windows at Cairo. 



114 Flat-roofed Houses at Gaza 

118 Ancient Battlements 

177 Modem Egyptian Houee-tops 

178 Ancient Egyptian Flat Roof 

196 Ancient Assyrian Flat Roof. 

197 Andent Assyrian Huntsman 

213 Assyrian Lion Hunt. 

216 Ancient Egyptian Hunter 

217 Oratofiia Si»9iia. 

218 Hyena 

283 Hyuopua OMeinalis 

236;Cancasian Ibex. 

237 Sacred Ibis. 

241 Coin of Iconium 

241'Ravine in Idumsea 

243 Interior of Temple at Medinet-Abu 
248 Impost at Barton Seagrave 

243 Modem Oriental Writing Imple- 

244 ments 

244 Ancient Egyptian Writing-tablet. . 

246iPIan of Khan at Idalla 

246 Egyptian Hieroglypblcs. 

260 Figurative and Symbolic Hiero- 

266 glyphlcs 

267 Engraved Bocksin Wady Mokatteb 



270lChristian Inscnptlons. . . .Page608, 610 

270: Ancient Egyptian Irrigation 661 

271 iModera Egyptian Shaduf 661 

273 Gnostic Gem of Isis 689 

2S0 Map of Issachar. 700 

305'Map of Ancient Italy. 704 

310 Elephants' Tusks brought to 

310 ThothmesIII n7 

312 Ivory as Tribute to Assyria 717 

328 Hedera Helix 718 

332 Column of Jachiu 725 

336 Eastern Jackal? 726 

840 Coin with Head of Janus. 778 

840 Valley of Jehoshaphat. 809 

840 General View of Ancient Jerusa- 

340 lem restored 837 

341 Assyrian Delineation perhaps of 

346 Jerusalem 839 

846 Jews' " Wailing Place" &42 

345 Map of Andent Jerusalem 844 

846 Probable Contour of Ophel 846 

846 Section of the TyropoBoii &46 

346| Modem ** Gate of Gennath'* 847 

34S Street in Modem Jerusalem 850 

348' Remains of Bridge at Jeni^alem.. 850 
348|Pier of Arch across the Tympceou. 851 
349 1 Passage below the Movqne el-Aksm 851 
850' Jcrasalem from the " Well of JoHb" 852 
367 [Map of the Environs of Jerusalem 854 
368 Interior of " Golden Gate"" 860 

869 The " Castle of David" 857 

370| Quarries under Jerasalem 857 

870 Map of Modem Jerasalem 858 

370jChrist's Joumeys during hislntro- 
370| ductory Year 888 

871 Christ's Journeys during his First 
87ll more public Year 889 

872 Ruins of "Synagogue** at Tell- 

872 Hum 889 

873 Christ's Joumeys during his Sec- 

8T3 oud more public Year 890 

374 Ruins of " Synagogue'* at Kerazeh 891 

874 Christ's Journeys during his Third 

ST5 more public Year 892 

376, Christ's Journeys during Passion 

376' Week 936,897 

411 Map of the Valley of Jesreel 913 

411 , Tomb of the Prophet Jonah at Mo- 

412) suL 989 

418, Terraces of the Jordan 1007 

429 Upper Ford of the Jordan, near 
451 Bethshan 1007 

454 Lower Ford of the Jordan at Wa- 

455 dy Nawalmeh 1008 

463 Joseph's Tomb 1017 

489 Map of the Tribe of Jndah 1051 

602 Tombs of Seid Yehudah 1054 

623 Roman Judgment-seat 1082 

Julian the Apostate 1090 

687 Coin of Julias. 1092 

687 Julius Caesar 1093 

689 Juniperus Phoenicia 1096 

606 Genista Monosperma 1096 

Head of Jupiter Oly mpius 1099 

606 Medal of Justinian 1111 

607 






CYCLOPEDIA 



OP 



BIBLICAL, THEOLOGICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL LITERATURK 



H. 



Haag (Hague) Apologetloal Society, a sci- 
fBtific lociety in Holland, founded in 1785 for the purpose 
of calling Ibfth wdentific works in defence of the Chris- 
tian religion. It annually offers a prize of 400 florins 
far the best work on a topic proposed. (A. J. S.) 

Hafthash'teil (Heb. with the art [which the A. 
T. has mistaken for part of the name] ha'-Achaihtari^ 

^RwpnMl, ue.tAe AdkattarUe, prob. of foreign [? Per- 
sian] origin; according to FUrst, an adj. from the word 
adtattior, L e. eowrier [compare Q*^3'nrtl9ni(y "camels,'' 

Esth. viii, 10, 14] ; according to Ciesenius, mule-driver f 
SepL o 'AffSifpa v. r. 'Aaa^qp, etc, Vulg. A hcutkari), 
the last mentioned of the four sons of Naarah, second of 
the two wives of Ashnr, the founder of Tekoa, of the 
tribe of judah (1 Chron. iv, 6). KC post 1618. 

Ha-ammonaL See Cuephar-haammonai. 

Haan, Cabolus DE,was bom at Amheim-Aug. 16, 
1530. Becoming acquainted with the Reformation, he 
resolved to leave the Roman Catholic Church and his 
kgal studies, and repaired to Geneva, where he studied 
theology under Calvin and Beza. In 15G0 he became a 
minister <^ the Reformed Church at Deventer. Driven 
fiam thence by persecution, he was invited to Ham by 
William^ duke of Cleves, and exercised his ministry 
thoe fijr axteen years, until persecution again compel- 
led him to depart. Count Jan of Nassau, stadtholder of 
GoeUcrland, and his son, Lodewijk Willem, stadtholder 
of Friesland, then secured his services to effect a reform 
mation of the Church in their respective provinces. He 
aftenrards returned to Deventer, but was again com- 
pelled to leave it in 1587, when it fell into the hands of 
the Spaniards. He repsired the same year to Leyden, 
where he was temporsrily i^)pointed professor extraor- 
«y naiy of theology. This position he held for four years. 
He was then called to Oldenbroek, where he exercised 
his ministxy till he had passed the age of eighty. He 
died at Leyden Jan. 28, 1616. He wrote an exposition 
of the Revelation of St. John in Latin, and a work in 
Dutch against the Anabaptista. See Glasiu^ Godge' 
lard Nederland, I (J. P. W.) 

Ha-aralotfa. See Gibeah-haaralotil 
Haaa, Gkbabdus dk, D.D., was bom in 1786. Af- 
ter completing hia theological studies at Utrecht, and 
receiving the doctorate in theology in 1761, he was set^ 
tied successively at Amersfoort, Middelburg, and Am- 
sterdam. His works are chiefly exegetical and dog- 
matic The most important of them are, iiofnNerlaini^oi 
ewr het aevende Bods der Godtpraahen van Jaaia (Utr. 
1773) : — Het vijfde en drie voigende hoo/dttukhen uit Pau- 
in$ brief aan de Romemea verldaard (AmsL 1789-98, 8 
paits) : — VerkoMkHmg over de toekomende werdd (Amst. 
1798) : — Over de Opmbarwg van Jokannee (Amst 1807, 
8 parts). He also completed the coihmentary of Prof. 
Nahnis on the Epistle to the PhiUppians. It was pub- 
Usbed at Amsterdam in 1788 in 3 vols. See Glasiua, 
God^leerd Nederlandf u (J.P.W.) 

IVr-A 



Haba'iah (Heb. Chabagah', njan or n'^T^pro^ 
teeied by Jehovah f Sept '0/3aia and 'Efiaia), a priest 
whose descendants returned firom the captivity with Ze- 
mbbabel, but were degrsded from the priestiy office on 
account of not being able to trace their genealogy (Ezra 
ii, 6 ; Neh. vu, 68). BwC. ante 459. 

Hab'akkuk [many Ilabak'kuk] (Heb. Chabah- 
kuk', p^t^^ri, embrace; Sept 'A/A/3aKovA<,Vulg. Ilaba" 
cue ; Jerome, Prtrf, in Hob, translates m piXifi^cc, and 
Suidas 7raTt)p iyipoiu^ ; other Gnecized and Latinized 
forms are 'AfificucovfA, *AfxPaK0VK, Ambacum, Abacuc, 
etc), the eighth in order of the twelve minor prophets 
(q. V.) of the Old Testament 

L As to the name, besides the above forms, the 
Greeks, not only the Sept translators, but the fathers 
of the Church, probably to make it more sonorous, cor- 
rupt it into 'AoajSoKovK, 'Af>a/3acovpoi, or, as Jerome 
writes, 'A/3acovpoi, and only one Greek copy, found in 
the library of AlcaU, in Spain, has 'A/3/3aKovc, which 
seems to be a recent correction made to suit the Hebrew 
text The Heb. word may denote, as observed by Je- 
rome, as well a ^^ favorite" as a ** struggler.** Abarbanel 
thinks that in the latter sense it has allusion to the pa- 
triotic zeal of the prophet ferventiy contending for the 
welfare of his country : but other prophets did the same ; 
and in the former and less distant signification, the name 
would be one like Theophilus, ** a friend of God," which 
his parents may have given him for a good omen. Lu- 
ther took the name in the active sense, and applied it 
to the labors and writings of the man, thus : *' Habak- 
kuk had a proper name for his office; for it signifies a 
man of heart, one who is hearty towards another and 
takes him into his arms. This is what he does in hia 
pn^hecy ; he comforts his people and lifts them up, as 
one would do with a weeping child or man, bidding him 
be quiet and content, because, please God, it would yet 
be better with hira." But all this is speculation. See 
Keil and Delitzsch, Comment, ad cap. i, 1. 

2. Of the facts of this prophet's birth-place, parent- 
age, and life we have only apocryphal and conflicting 
accounts (see Delitzsch, De Habacuci vita et cetate, lips. 
1842, 1844). The Rabbinical tradition that Habakkuk 
was the son of the Shunanunite woman whom Elisha 
restored to life is repeated by Abarbanel in Ms commen- 
tary, and has no other foundation than a fanciful ety- 
mology of the prophet's name, based on. the expression 
in 2 Kings iv, 16. Equally unfounded is the tradition 
that he was the sentinel set by Isaiah to watch for the 
destruction of Babylon (comp. Isa. xxi, 16 with Hab. ii, 
1). In the title of the histoiy of Bel and the Dragon, 
as found in the Sept version in Origen's Tetrapla, the 
author is called ^* Habakkuk, the son of Joshua, of the 
tribe of Levi." Some have supposed this apocryphal 
writer to be identical with the prophet (Jerome, Procem^ 
m Dan,), The psalm in ch. iii and its title are thought 
to favor the opinion that Habakkuk was a Levite (De- 



HABAKKUK 



HABAKKUK 



litzschi Habahuhj p. iii). Pseudo-Epiphanios (ii, 240, De 
VUia Prophetarum) and Dorotheus {Chron. Poach, p. 
150) say that he was of Bf^^^ocjjp or UtiBiTOkrxAp (^- ^* 
BifiZoKftpt BidZ^x^p) {Btihojcaty laid. HispaL c 47), of 
the tribe of Simeon. This may have been the same as 
Bethzacharias, where Judas Maccabeeus was defeated by 
Antiochus Eupator (1 Mace vi, 32, 33). The same au- 
thors relate that when Jerusalem was sacked by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, Habakkuk fled to Ostracine, and renuined 
there till after the Chaldieans had left the city, when he 
returned to his own country, and died at his farm two 
years before the return from Babylon, RC. 538. It was 
during his residence in Judsa that he is said to have 
carried food to Daniel in the den of lions at Babvlon. 
This legend is given id the history of Bel and the Drag- 
on, and is repeated by Eusebius, Bar Hebneus, and £u- 
tychius. It is quoted from Joseph ben-Gorion {B, J, 
xi, 3) by Abarbanel {Comnu on Hah,), and seriously re- , 
fute<l by him on chronological grounds. The scene of 
the event was shown to mediseval travellers on the road 
from Jerusalem to Bethlehem {Early Travelt m Pcdes- 
tme, p. 29). Habakkuk is said to have been buried at 
Ceila, in the tribe of Judah, eight miles east of £leu- 
theropolis (Eusebius, Onomastkon, s. v.) ; where, in the 
days of Zebenua, bishop of Eleutheropolis, according to 
Nicephorus (ff, E. xH, 48) and Sozomeii (//. E, vii, 28), 
the remains of the prophets Habakkuk and Micah were 
both discovered. See Keilah. Babbinical tradition, 
however, places his tomb at Chukkok, of the tribe of 
Naphthali, now called Jakuk. See Hukkok. 

Book of Habakkuk.— A full and trustworthy ac- 
count of the life of this prophet would explain his im- 
agery, and many of the events to which he alludes ; but 
nnce we have no information on which we can depend, 
nothing remains but to determine from the book itself 
its historical basis and its age. 

1. The Rabbinical traditions agree in placing Habak- 
kuk with Joel and Nahura in the reign of Manasseh 
(comp. Seder Olam RabUt and Zutct, and Tiemack Da- 
tid). This date is adopted by Kimchi and Abarbanel 
kmong the Rabbis, and by Witsius and othen among 
modem writers. The general corruption and lawless- 
ness w^hich prevailed in the reign of Manasseh are 
supposed to be referred to in Hab. i, 2-A. Kalinsky 
conjectures that Habakkuk may have been one of the 
prophets mentioned in 2 Rings xxi, 10. Carpzov (/n- 
trod, ad libr. canon. V, T, p. 79, 410) and Jahn {fntrod. 
in libros sacros V, T, ii, § 120) refer our prophet to the 
reign of Manasseh, thus placing him thirty odd years 
earlier; but at that time the Chaldsans had not as yet 
given just ground for apprehension, and it would have 
been injudicious in Habakkuk prematurely to fill the 
minds of the people with fear of them. Some addition- 
al support to our statement of the age of this book is 
derived from the tradition, reported in the apocrj'phal 
appendix to Daniel and by the Pseudo-Epiphanius, that 
Habakkuk lived to see the Babylonian exile. Syncel- 
lus {Ckronoffraphia, p. 214, 230, 240) makes him con- 
temporary with Ezekiel, and extends the period of his 
prophecy from the time of Manasseh to that of Daniel 
tod Joshua, the son of Josedech. The Chronicon Pas- 
chale places him later, first mentioning him in the be- 
ginning of the reign of Josiah (Olymp. 32), as contem- 
porary with Zephaniah and Nahum ; and again in the 
beginning of the reign of Cyrus (Olymp. 42), as con- 
temporary with Daniel and Ezekiel in Persia, with 
Haggai and Zechariah in Judsea, and with Baruch in 
Egypt, Davidson (Home's Introd ii, 968), following 
Keil, decides in favor of the early part of the reign of 
Josiah. Calmet, JSger, Ewald, Rosenm tiller, Maurer, 
and Hitzig agree in assigning the commencement of 
Habakkuk's prophecy to the reign of Jehoiakim, though 
they are divided as to the exact period to which it is to 
be referred. Ranitz (Introductio in Hab, Vatic, p. 24, 
69); Stirkel {Prolog, ad interpr. tertii cap. Hab. p. 22, 
27), and De Wette {TAhrbuch der Historitchkrilitchen 
Emkit. Berlin, 1840, p. 338) Justly place the age of Hab- 



akkuk before the invasion of Judssa by the ChaldsanSb 
Knobel {Der Propheiism. de Hdfr.) and Meier {Getch. d. 
poet, nat Liter, d. Hebr.) are in favor of the commence- 
ment of the Chaldsean tera, after the battle of Carcfae- 
mish (B.C. 606), when Judeea ¥ras first threatened by 
the victors. Some interpreters are of opinion that ch. 
ii was written in the reign of Jehoiachin, the son of Je- 
hoiakim (2 Kings xxiv, 6), after Jemsalem had been 
besieged and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, the king 
made a prisoner, and, with many thousands of his sul^ 
jects, carried away to Babylon ; none remaining in Je- 
rusalem save the poorest class of the people (2 Kings 
xxiv, 14). But of all this nothing is said of the book 
of Habakkuk, nor even so much as hinted at ; and what 
is stated of the violence and injust^ of the Ohaldaeans 
does not imply that the Jews had already experienced 
it. It is also a supposition equally gratuitous, accord- 
ing to which some interpreters refer ch. iii to the period 
of the last siege of Jerusalem, when Zedekiah was taken, 
his sons slain, his eyes put out, the walls of the city 
broken down, and the Temple burned (2 Rings xxv, 1- 
10). There is not the slightest alluaon to any of these 
Incidents in the third chapter of Habakkuk. 

But the question of the date of Habakkuk's prophecy 
has been discussed in the most exhaustive manner by 
Delitzsch {Der Prophet Habakuk, EinL § 3), and, though 
his arguments are rather ingenious than convincing, 
they are well de8er\'ing of consideration as based upon 
internal evidence. The conclusion at which he arrives 
is that Habakkuk delivered his prophecy about the 
twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah (B.C. 630 or 629), 
for reasons of which the following is a summary. In 
Hab. i, 5 the expression *' in your daj-^" shows that the 
fulfilment of the prophecy would take place in the life- 
time of those to whom it was addrcsed. The same 
phrase in Jcr. xW, 9 embraces a period of at most twen- 
ty years, while in Ezek. xii, 25 it denotes about six 
j'ears, aiid therefore, reckoning backwards from the 
Chaldneau invasion, the date above assigned would in- 
volve no -violation of probability, though the argument 
does not amount to a proof. From the similarity of 
Hab. ii, 10 and Zcph. i, 7, Delitzsch infers that the lat- 
ter is an imitation, the former being the original He 
supports this conclusion by many collateral aigumenta. 
Now Zephaniah, according to the superscription of hia 
prophecy, lived in the time of Josiah, and from iii, 5 he 
is supposed to have prophesied after the worship of Je- 
hovah was restored, that is, after the twelfth year of 
that king's reign. It is thought that he i^Tote about 
B.C. 624. Between this period, therefore, and the twelfth 
year of Josiah (RC. 630), Delitzsch places Habakkuk. 
But Jeremiah began to prophesy in the thirteenth year 
of Josiah, and many passages are borrowed by him from 
Habakkuk (compare Hab. ii, 13 with Jcr. U, 58, etc.). 
The latter, therefore, must have written about B.C 630 
or 629. This view receives some confirmation from the 
position of his prophecy in the O.-T. Canoiu 

On the other hand, while it is evident, from the con- 
stant use of the future tense in speaking of the Chal- 
dflean desolations (i, 5, 6, 12), that the prophet must 
have written before the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar, 
which rendered Jehoiakim tributary to the king of Bab- 
ylon (2 Kings xxiv, i), B.C. 606, yet it is equally dear 
from ch. ii, 3 that the prophecy did not long precede the 
fulfilment ; and as there seem to be no references to the 
reigns of Josiah or Jehoahaz (RC. 609), and as the no- 
tices of the corraption of the period agree with the be- 
ginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, we cannot be far 
astray in assigning RC. 608 as the approximate date of 
this book. 

2. Instead of looking upon the prophecy as an organic 
whole, RosenmUller divided it into three parts corre- 
sponding to the chafiters, and assigned the fiiBt chapter 
to the reign of Jehoiakim, the second to that of Jehoia- 
chin, and the third to that of Zedekiah, when Jerusalem 
was besieged for the third time by Nebuchadnezzar. 
Kalinsky ( Vatic. Chabac. et Nah.) makes four divisionsb 



HABAKKUK 



HABAZANIAH 



md refen the prophecy not to Nebuchadnezzar, bnt to 
Esarhaddon. But in Nuch an arbitrary arrangement 
the true character of the composition as a perfectly de- 
veloped poem is entirely lost sight of. 

The prophet commences by announcing his office and 
impmtant mission (i, 1). He bewails the corruption 
and social disorganization by which he is surrounded, 
and cries to Jehovah for help (i, 2-4). Next fuUowd 
the reply of the Deity, threatening swift vengeance (i, 
5-11). The prophet, transferrijig himself to the near 
future foreshadowed in the divine threatemngs, sees the 
rapacity and boastful impiety of the Chaldsan hosts, 
but, confident that God has only employed them as the 
instruments of correction, assumes (ii, 1) an attitude of 
hopeful expectancy, and waits to see the issue. He re- 
ceives the dn-ine command to write in an endiuing form 
the vision of (^I's retributive justice as revealed to his 
prophetic eye (ii, 2, 3). The doom of the Chalda^ans is 
liist foretcJd in general terms (ii. 4-6), and the announce- 
ment is followed by a series of denunciations pronounced 
upon them by the nations who had suffered from their 
oppression (ii, 6-20). The strophical arrangement of 
these " woes'* is a remarkable feature of the prophecy. 
They are distributed in strophes of three verses each, 
characterized by a certain regularity of structure. The 
first four commence with a *'Woe!" and close with a 
verse bediming with "^9 (for). The first verse of each 
of these contains the character of the sin, the second the 
development of the woe, while the third is confirmator}' 
of the woe denounced. The fifth strophe differs firom 
the others in form in having a verse introductory to the 
woe. The prominent vices of the Chaldieans' character, 
as delineated in i, &-11, are made the subjects of sepa- 
rate denunciations: their insatiable ambition (ii, 6-^), 
their ooretousness (ii, 9-11), cruelty ii, 12-14), dnmk- 
enneas (ii, 15-17), and idolatry (ii, 18-20). The whole 
concludes with the msgnificent psalm in chap, iii, ^* Hab- 
akkuk*s Pindaric ode" (Ewald), a composition unrival- 
led for boldness of conception, sublimity of thought, and 
majesty of diction. This constitutes, in Delitzsch's 
opinion, ** the second grand division of the entire proph- 
ecy, as the subjective reflex of the two subdivisions of 
the first, and the lyrical recapitulation of the whole." 
It is the echo of the feelings aroused in the prophet's 
mind by the divine answers to his appeals ; fear in an- 
ticipation of the threatened judgments, and thankful- 
neas and joy at the promised retribution. But, though 
intimately connected with the former part of the proph- 
ecy-, it is in itself a perfect whole, as is suflSciently evi- 
dent firom its lyrical character, and the musical arrange- 
ment by which it was adapted for use in the Temple 



3. The style of this prophet has always been much ad- 
mired. LoMTth (De Poen /lehrceor. p. 287) says : ** Po- 
eticus est Habaccuci stylus; sed maxime in oda, quae 
inter abeolutissimas in eo genere merito numerari po- 
test.'* Eichhom, De Wette, and RosenmUller are loud 
in their praise of Habakkuk's style; the first giving a 
detailed and animated analysis of the construction of 
his prophecies {Eudeitung in das A, Test, iii, 383). He 
equals the most eminent prophets of the Old Testament 
—-Joel, Amos, Nahum, Isaiah ; and the ode in ch. iii 
may be placed in competition with Psa. xviii and Ixviii 
for originality and sublimity. His figures are all great, 
happily chosen, and properly drawn out. His denunci- 
ations are terrible, his derision bitter, his consolation 
cheering. Instances occur of borrowed ideas (iii, 19 ; 
comp. Psa. xviii, 34 : ii, 6 ; comp. Isa. xiv, 7 : ii, 14 ; comp. 
laa. xi, 9) ; but he makes them his own in drawing them 
out m his peculiar manner. With all the boldness and 
fiervor of Ids imagination, his language is pure and his 
verse melodious. Eichhom, indeed, gives a considera- 
ble number of words which he considers to be peculiar 
to this prophet, and supposes him to have formed new 
words or altered existing ones, to sound more energetic 
or feeble, as the sentiments to be expressed might re- 
quire; bnt his list needs sifting^ as De Wette obser\*es 



{Ewleitung, p. 889) ; and *)ib{^'^p, ii, 16, is the only un- 
exceptionable instance. 

4. The ancient catalogues of canonical books of the 
Old Testament do not, indeed, mention Habakkuk by 
name; but thev must have counted him m the twelve 
minor prophets, whose numbers would otherwise not be 
f'ulL In the New Testament some expressions of his 
are iiitroduceiU but his name is not added (Rom. i, 17 ; 
GaL iii, 11 ; Heb. x, 38 ; comp. Hab. ii, 4 : Acts xiii, 40, 
41 ; comp. Hab. i, 5).— Kitto, s. v. ; Smith, s. v. 

5. Express commentaries on the whole of this book 
separately are the following, of which the most impor- 
tant are designated by an asterisk [* ] prefixed : Theo- 
phylact, Commentariut (in 0pp. iv) ; Bede, Exponfio (m 
Worh, ix, 404) : Tanchum of Jerusalem, Commentaire 
(ed. Munk, Paris, 1843, 8vo) ; Abarfoanel, Commentarius 
(ed. Sprecher, Traj. 1722. Helmst. 1790, 8vo) : Luther, 
Ausleffung (Vitemb. 1526, 4to; Erf. eod. 8vo; in Latin, 
Argent. 1528, 8 vo); CapitOj Knarrationes (Argent, 1526, 
8vo) ; Chytrwus, Ledirmet (in 0pp. p. 364) ; GniTieus, 
Hyponmmiata (Basil 1582, 8vo) ; De Guevara, Comment 
^finW [Rom. Cath.] (Madrid, 1585, 4to; 1593. foL; Aug. 
Vind. 1603; Antw. 1009, 4to) ; Agellius, Commmiarws 
(.\ntw. 1597. 8vo) ; Tossan, ParapkraMs (Francf. 1599, 
8vo) ; Garthius, Commentarius (Vitemb. 1605, 8vc) : Tar- 
novius, Commentarius (Rost. 1623, 8vo) ; Cocceius, A nafy- 
sis (in 0pp. xi, 657) ; Marbnry, Commentarie (Lond. 1650^ 
4to) , «De Padilla, Commentaria [Rom. Cath.] (Madrid, 
1657, 2 vols. 4to; Sulzb. 1674, 4to, Rome, 1702, fol.) ; 
Hafcnreffer, Commentarius [including Nahum^j (Stuttg. 
1663, 8vo) ; •Van Til, Commentarius (L. B. 1700, 4to) ; 
Biermann, De Prophezie van H. (Utr. 1713, 4to) ; Esch, 
ErUdrunp (We8el,1714,4to); Abicht, i4 (iSwrfa^iofie* (Vi- 
temb. 1732, 4to) ; Jansen, Analerta (in Pentateuch, etc.) ; 
♦Scheltinga, CoinfM«i/artH# (L. B. l747,4to); *Kalinsky, 
lUHStratio [including Nahum] (A^ratislav, 1748, 4to) ; 
Chrysander, Anmerk. (Rint. and Lpz. 1752, 4to) ; Mon- 
vtiA^Anmerk. (from the Danish, Giittingen, 1759, 8 vo); 
Anon. Traduction (Paris, 1776, 12mo) : Perschke, Versio^ 
etc. (Francf. et. Lips. 1777, 8vo) ; Ludwig, Erlduterung 
(Frkfl. 1779, 8vo) ; Faber, Commmtatio ((hiold. 1779, 2 
vols, 4to) i Wahl, A nmeikung. etc. (Hanover, 1790, 8vo) , 
Kofod, Commentarius (Hafn. 1792, 8vo) ; Tingstad, Am- 
madversiones (Upsal. 1795, 8 vo); Hanlein, /n/«77>refa/iV> 
(Erlang. 1795, 8vo) ; Bather, Application (in Sermons, i, 
188) : Plum, Ohservationes [including Obad.] (Gotting. 
1796, 8vo) ; Conz, ErUatteruntj (in Stftudlen's Beitrdge) ;. 
Horst, A nmerkungen (Got ha, 1798, 8vo) ; Dahl, Observa- 
tiones (Neustr. 1798, 8vo) ; Wolfssohn, Anmerk. (Brtsl. 
1806, 8vo); Euchel, »/;afu/. (Copenh. 1815, 8vo): Justi, 
Erfdnt. (Lpz. 1820, 8vo) ; Wolff; Commentar (Dannst. 
1822, 8vo) ; Schroder, Anmerk, [including Joel, Nahum, 
etc ] (Hildesh. 1827, 8vo) ; Deutach, D>ia'in, etc. (BresL 
1837, 8vo) , *BHumlein, Commentarius (Heilbroim, 1840, 
8vo) ; •Delitzsch, A uslegung (Lpz. 1843, 8vo) ; Von Gum- 
pach, ErJddrung (Munch. 1860, 8vo) ; Robinson, Homi- 
lies (Lond. 1865, 8vo). See Phophkts, Mimob. 

The following are on chap, iii exclusively : Barhrdp 
De equitatione Dei [ver. 15] (Lips. 1749, 4to) ; Feder, 
Canticum Hab. (WUrzb. 1774, 8vo) ; Perschke, Commen- 
tarius (Francf. 1777, 4 to) ; Busing, De fulgoribus Dei 
[ver. 3, 4] (Bremen, 1778, 4to) ; Nachtigal, Erkldr. (in 
Hcnke's Magazine, iv, 180-190) ; Schrckier, Disserfatio 
(Groningen, 1781, 4U)) ; Schnurrer, Disserfatio (Tubing. 
1786, 4to) ; Momer, Ifymnus Hob. (Ups. 1794, 4to) ; Hei- 
denheim, DSISi'^n, etc. (Rodelh. 1800, 1826, 8vo) ; Anton, 
Expositio (CJorl. 1810, 4to) ; Steiger, Anmerkungen (in 
Schwarz, Jahrh. 1824, p. 136) ; Stickel, Prolusio (Neust, 
1827, 8vo) ; Reissmann, De. Cant. Hab. (Krauth. 1831, 
8vo) ; Strong, Prayer of Hab. (in the Meth. Quar.Jiev, 
Jan. 1861, p. 73). See Comm£NTARY. 

Habazani'ah (Hebrew CAaiatete%aA',n;3S2rr, 
perh. lamp of Jehovah ; according to FUrst, collection of 
Jehovah ; Sept, XajSatri v), the father of one Jeremiah 
and grandfather of the chief Rechabite Jaazaniah, which 
last the prophet Jeremiah tested with the offer of wine 



HABBACUC A 

in rhe Temple (Jer. tjo-v, t). B.C oonadenblj uiie ' 
689, 

Bab'bacuo {'Aii0aaiiii: Vulg. //uiomc), the form 
in which the luune of the prophet HAttAKKuit (q. v.) i» 
givGD in Ihe Apocrypha (liel, 03, S^ 85, 87, 39). 

Habergeon, an old English word for brtatlplale, 
appears in the Auth.Vera. aa Ihe rendering of two lleb. 
temu : n^^S, thiryah' (Job xli, 36, where it is named 
by saiffnia n'ilh offeueive weapons), or ^^^^SJ, t/iiryon' 
(ichron.xx\-i, U; Meh. iv, IG}, a imU o/wiif (aa Ten- 
dered in 1 Sim. xvii, 6, 3S) ; and K^nn, la(Aara' (Exod. 
xxriii, 8S ; xxxix, 23), a mililaiy garment, properly of 
linen urongly md thickly woven. Mid fumi^ied uuund 
Ihe neck and breut with  mailed coi-eiing (aec Herud. 
ii,ltt2; iii|47j and comp. the Xivodupqf of Homer, /{. 
ii, 529, 830). (See Smilh's Die*, of Oaf. AiOiq. b. v. 
Ltdra.) See Ahhob. 




HABOR 

* tnrmanAia (Ptra, 1640) i—De aUludra m pri- 
3. Pan (Paiia, 1645). He lnniUt«d alK> into 
Latin tlie ceremonial of the Eastern Chuii^ under Ihe 
LibfT pOfUifiailu, Crane tt Ijitme c not. (Paris, 1648, 
.— Heizog,A«i/-A'iKyUopdrfir,T,4e9; Ha«fer, A'mr. 
Biog. Gi»iealt, xxiii, 13. 
Habeab. See Abyksibux Cuubck. 
Habit. See Dhess. 

Habit, " a power and ability of doing anything, ac- 
quired by frequent repelilioti of the nine adion. ' Han,' 
uys Dr. Palcy, ' is a bundle of habits. There are hab- 
entioH, vigilance, advertency ; of a 
prompt obedience to the Judgment occurring, or of 
deliling to tlie first impulse of paauon; of extending 
MIT views to the future, or of resting npon the ptraenl ; 
[>f apprehending, methodising, reasoning! of indolence 
and dilatorineas; of vanity', self-conceit, melancholy, 
partiality; of fretfulneas, suspicion, ctpCiousncas, censo- 
of pride, amlution, covelousncsB ; of over- 
reaching, intriguing, projecting; in a word, there ia not 
a quaHly or function, dlher uf body or mind, which 
(Inca not feel the influence of this great law of animolcd 
nature.' " " If Ihe term attaAmral seems too good le 
be applied to habits, let us, ifj'ou please, call them liea. 
llabita, in fact, are tics, chains. We contract them un- 
awaiTS, ol^n without feehng any pleasure in them ; but 
we cannot break them witliout paiiL It coets us some- 
what we have always been, to 



Habetkom, Pktkr, b (lerman 
Butibach m ir,n4. Afler filling various other posta, he 
was made profeeaor of theology at (iiesBen, ud died 
there, April, IG'G. Ho was distinguished as a polemic, 
especially againM the Somaiiists and Sj-ncretists (q. v.). 
He wrote (1) I'lniKnirtn /.nrt.jfifci.— <i) IlrpUa iHtpv- 
toHoRum ArOi-WattnAvrgimrvm (1650, 1652,2 vols. 
8vo) Tholuck, in Herzog, Seal-Eacgklop. v, 438, 439, 

Habert, Isaac, doctor of the Sorbonne, the first 
Parisian theologian who wrote against ' 
was a native of I'aiis, studied at the Soijwnne, was ap- 
pointed canon of the cathedral of Paris, aiHl in 1645 
biabop of Yabres. He filled this post for twenly-tbrae 
years, was r^nileil a very pious man, and died at Pi 
de Solars, near Kodcz, in 1068. In 1641 he accused 
Jinsenius of holding heretical doctrines on forty points, 
and thereby provoked Anloine Amauld ' 
In his Apoloffif^ in which he sought to i 
tity of the doctrines of Janseniiis anil 
Ilabert nevenhelem remained a declared enemy of Ji 
■enlus, and t« him is ascribed the authorship of the let- 
ter sent to pope Innocent X in 1651, and signed by 
eighty-five btshi^w, pra}ing him to decide the question 
finally. The most uotewonhy of his works are: Ve 
graHa ex parlHiugracu (16*6):— IM 



oing n 



self, u 



t of lit 



The 



duties, have often given way l)efore the 
power of habit. To liave the loins girt about, then, is 
not merely to distruHt our attachments ; it is to prevent 
our habits fmm striking their roots too deep within. 
Nothing, Iherefofe, which is habitual shpuld be regard- 
ed as triviaL The most invifflble lies are not Ihe weak- 
est, and, at all events, their number renders them inde- 
structible. We must remember that a cable is com- 
posed of threads. It is impossible to diqiense witli 
habits; a life without habits is a life without a rule. 
But in regard to these, as in regard to everj-lhing else, 
it is necessary to say with the apostle, 'All things are 
lawful unto roe, but I will not be brought under the 
power of any'" O'i'*'. GoiptI Stu-Ka, p. 810). See 
Felluwee, Body of Thtotogs, i. 68 ; I'aley, Horal I'hilo— 
ojihg, i, 4^ ; Karnes, Klatt. of Criticumj ch. xiv ; Jonin, 
Sf™oM,voLiii; KaA,Aaael'<menof.\f<m: UUUer, 
On Ikt ChritHaa Dodrw )>J Sin (see Index). 

Habitation (represented by several Heb. and Gr. 
words). Cod is metaphorically called the habitation of 
his people (l*sa. Ixxi, 3) , in him they find the most de- 
lightful test, safety, and comfort (Psa. xei, 9). Justice 
and judgment are the habitation of Uod's throne (I'sa. 
Ixxxix, 14), all bis acts Iteing founded on justice and 
judgment (Psa. cxvii, •!). T)ie land nfCanaan, the city 
of Jerusslem, the lat>eniacle and Temple, are spoken of 
as the habitation of (iod ; there he does or did signally 
show himself present (Psa. cxxxii, 6, 13; Eph. ii, ffi). 
Eternity is repreeented as his habitation (Iss. Ivii, 16). 
He " inhabited the praises of Israel," a bold metaphor, 
implying that Jehovah is the object of, and kindly ac- 
cepts the praisea of his people (Psa. xxii, 8). See 

DlVELUHO. 

Habits. See TESTXE-vra. 

Ha'boT (IlebCAahir', "^ian, ifnf Shemitic origin, 
Irom ISn, to /ffin, meaning the uMfed stream; iforPei^ 
sic derivation, from i^iiip(!r = iu(pfruvaf,with£nnih/st 
banks [Furet, /-«. s. v. J ; Sept. 'A/3<ip and Xo/Stlp), « 
rivet, and apparently also a district of Assyria, to which 
considerable interest is attached in connection with tbe 
first captivity. We read in 1 Chron. v, 26, that Tilgalh- 
pilnescr carried away " the Keubeniiea, and the Gadile^ 
and the bolf-tribe of Manaoseh, and brought them unto 



HABOR 

Halah, and Hdbor, and Hara, and to the river Gtozan." 
About Kventeen yeai« later, Shalmaneser, the successor 
of the former monarch, *^ took Samaria, and carried Is- 
rael away into Assyria, and pkced them in Hakh, and 
in Hdbor, the river of Gosan" (AV., «*6y the river Go- 
zan," 2 Kings xvii, 6 ; xviii, 1 1). There are two rivers 
still bearing this name, and geographers are not agreed 
as to which Is here referred to. See CAprmTV. 

1. A river called Kkabur rises in the central high- 
lands of Kurdistan, flows in a south-westerly direction, 
and falb into the llgria about seventy miles above Mo- 
sol (Layaid, Nimveh and Babylon, p. 66 ; SchiUtens, In- 
dex Geogr. in vitam Saladtaij & v.). Many suppose this 
to be the Habor of Scripture for the following reasons : 
1. It is within Assyria proper, which Ptolemy savs was 
bounded on the west by the Tigris (vi, 1). 2. It is af- 
finned that the Ass3rrian monarch would place his cap- 
tives in a central part of his kingdom, such as this is, 
and not in the outskirts (Keil on 2 Kings xvii, 4-6). 3. 
Habor is termed " a river of Gozan" Cijia nna lian) ; 
and Gozan is supposed to signify "pasture," and to be 
identical with the word Zozan, now applied by the Nes- 
torians to the pasture-lands in the highlands of Assyria, 
wh^ the Khabftr takes its rise (Grant, The Nestorian 
Ckrutian», p. 124). 4. Ptolemy mentions a mountain 
called Ckabor (Xapupag) which divides Assvria from 
Media (vi, 1) ; and Bochart says the river Chabor has 
its source in that mountain {Opera, i, 194, 242, 862). 
Some have supposed that the modem Nestorians are the 
descendants of the capti\'e Jews (Grant, L c): See Go- 

2. The other and much more celebrated river, Kha- 
Wr, 13 that famous affluent of the Euphrates, which is 
caUed Abarrkas ('A/Soppac) by Strabo (xvi, 1, 27) and 
Ptocopius (BelL Pers, ii, 5) ; Abura* (A^ovpag) by Isi- 
dore of Charax (p. 4) ; A hora (Aptitpa) bv Zosimus (iu, 
12) : and Chaborat by Ptolemy (Xo/Jwpic, v, 18) and 
Pliny (H. N, xxx, 3). « It rises about Ut, 86^ 40', long. 
40^; flows only a little south of east to its junction near 
Kaukab with the Jerujer or river of NisibLs, which 
comes down from Mons Masius. Both of these branch- 
« are formed by the union of a number of streams. 
Neither of them is fordable for some distance above 
their junction ; and below it they constitute a river of 
inch magnitude as to be navigable for a considerable 
distance by steamers. The course of the Khabdr below 
Kaukab' is tortuous [through rich meads covered with 
ibwera, having a general direction about S.S.W. to its 
junction with the Euphrates at Karkesia, the ancient 
Circcsium]. The entire length of the stream is not less 
than 200 mites" (Rawlinson, AncUnt ManarchieSy i,286; 
see Ainsworth, Travels in the Track of the Ten Thou- 
«wl,p.79; Layard, A«i«rcA onrf ^aftyfon, p. 304). Rit- 
t€r {Erdkunde, x, 248), Gesenius {Thesaurus), Layard, 
Rawlinson, and others, maintain that this ia the ancient 
Habor, There can be no doubt that Assyria proper was 
confined to the country lying along the banks of the 
Upper Tigris, and stretching eastwaid to Media. But 
Its territory gradually expanded so as to include Baby- 
lonia (Herodotus, iu, 92), MesopotamU (Plinv, //. N, vi, 
26), and even the country westward to the confines of 
aha* and Phoenicia (Strabo, xvi). At the time of the 
captivity the power of Assyria was at its height. The 
Jewish captives were tA secure on the banks of the 
western as of the eastern Habor. The ruins of Assyrian 
towns are scattered over the whole of northern Meso- 
potamia. « On the banks of the lower KhabOr are the 
ranains of a royal palace, besides many other traces of 
the tract through which it runs having been perma- 
nently occupied by the Assyrian people. Even near 
Semj, m the country between Haran and the Euphra- 
tes some evidence has been found not only of conquest, 
but of occupation" (Rawlinson, Ancient Afmarchies, i, 
Mi ; see Chesney, Euphrates ExpediHm, i, 1 14 ; Lavard, 
Sm. and Bab. ^ 275, 279^800, 312). There can be no 
^^ »*»* the Khabftr was in Assyria, and near the 
centre of ths kingdom, at the time of the captivity. 



\ RACKET 

Further, Ptolemy mentions a province in Mesopotamia 
called Gauzamtis (v, 18). It lay around the Khabdr, 
and w^as doubtless identical with Gozan, henee the phrase 
« Habor, the river of Gozan" (2 Kings xvii, 6). Chalci- 
tis, which appears to be identical with Halah, mention- 
ed in the same passage, adjoined Gauzamtis. It is a 
remarkable fact that down as late as the 12th century 
there were large Jewish communities on the banks of 
the Khabftr (Benjamin of Tudela, in Earfy Travels tn 
PaL p. 92 sq.). The district along the banks probably 
took its name from the river, as would seem from a com- 
parison with 1 Chn>n. v, 26. Ptolemy mentions a town 
called Chabor (v, 18). The Khabftr occurs under that 
name in an Assyrian inscription of the 9th century be* 
fore our lera (Layard, Nin. and Bab, p. 354). See Cu- 
neiform Inscriptions. 

It seems doubtfid whether Habor was identical with 
the river Chebar ("i^S), on which Ezekiel saw his >-is- 
ions. The latter was perhaps farther south m Babylo- 
nia (Ezek. i, 3, etc.).— Kitto, s. v. See Chebak. 

Haccerem. See Beth-haocerbm. 

HachaU'ah (Heb. Chahalyah', n^bari; according 
to Gesenius, whose eyes Jehovah enliccns! according to 
FUrst, ornament of Jehovah ,• Sept. 'AxaXm v. r. X«X- 
Kia), the father of Nehemiah, the governor after the 
captivity (Neh. i, 1 ; x, 2). RC. ante 447. 

Hach'ilah (Heb. Chakilah', tib'^^n ; according to 
Gesenius, darksome; according to F\ii8t,'drouffht ; Sept 
'E^cXa V. r. XiXfid^), the descriptive name of a wdl- 
wooded hill (H^ia) near ("on the south of,'* "before," 
"by the way of*') the wilderness (" Jeshimon**) of Ziph, 
where David lay hid, and where Saul pitched his tent 
at the information of the Ziphites (1 Sam. xxiii, 19 ; 
xxW, 1, 3). This is doubtless the Tell Z\f reported 
by Dr. Robinson {Researdies, ii, 190, 191) as "a round 
eminence situated in the plain, a hundred feet or more 
in height," with a level plot on the top, apparently once 
inclosed by a wall, and containing several dstems ; ly- 
ing a short distance west of the site of the town of Ziph. 
See Ziph. The identification proposed by Schwarz 
{Palest, p. 113) with " the village Beth-Chachal, 2J miles 
west of Hebron," is unsupported and out of place. 

Haoh'moni (Heb. Chahnom% *^3b3n, wise; Sept. 
'Axafiavi v. r. 'Axa/4t,Vulg. Hachamont), a man only 
known as the father (or ancestor; comp. 1 ChroiLxxvii, 
2) of Jashobeam, the chief of David's warriors (1 Chron. 
xi, 11, where son oflfachmoni is rendered "Hachmo- 
NiTK," for which the parallel passage, 2 Sam. xxiii, 8, 
has "Tachmonite") ; and also of Jehiel,the companion 
of the princes in the royal household (I Chron. xxvii, 
32). ^ B.C. considerably ante 1046. Hachmon or Hach- 
moni was no doubt the founder of a family to which 
these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam 
was Zabdiel (1 Chron. xxvii, 2), and he b also said to 
have belonged to the Korhites (1 Chron. xii, 6)^ possi- 
bly the Levites descended from Korah. But the name 
Hachmon nowhere appears in the genealogies of the 
Levites. See Kennicott, Diss. p. 72, 82, who calls at- 
tention to the fact that names given in Chronicles vrith 
Ben are in Samuel given without the Bet», but with the 
definite article. A less probable view is that which 
makes this term a title of office, q. d. counsellor. See 
Jashobbam. 

Hach'monite (1 Chron. xi, 16). See Hachmoni. 

Hacket, John, ah English prelate, distinguished 
tor his talents in controversy, was bom at London in 
1592. He studied at Westminster School, and entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1608. He took orders 
in 1618, and soon after became chaplain of the bishop 
of Lincoln. At the beginning of the Civil War he was 
one of the divines chosen to prepare a report on Church 
reforms, to be presented by a committee of the House 
of Lords. This plan failed from the opposition of the 
bishops. Hacket was & aeilQus partli&n <Q^harlcs, anci 



// 



I 



HACKET 



6 



HADAD 



his house became the head-quarters of the Royahsts in 
his neighborhood. This brought hitn into trouble, and 
he was even imprisoned for a short time. After the | 
Restoration he was made bishop of Lichfield and Coven* , 
tr}'^, and he caused the cathedral of Lichfield, which had 
been much injured during the war, to be repaired, most^ 
]y at his own expense. He died at Lichfield in 1670. 
Hacket was a Calvinist ; yet his writings abound, says 
Coleridge, *Mn fantastic rags and lappets of Popish 
monkery.*' He wrote also A Sermon prectched b^ore 
the Kv^ Mardi 22, 1660: — A Century of Sermona upon 
teveral remarkable SuhjecU (publishetl by Thos. Plume, 
with a life of the author, 1675, foL):— 7%« L^fe of 
Archbishop WiUiama (1698, foL). See Bioffr. Britim- 
tdca : Wood, Athena Oxom/enaeg^ voL ii ; Gentleman^s 
Meufozine, voL Ixvi; Hook, Eode», Biography^ v, 471 ; 
Allibone, Did. of A uthor»j i, 752; Coleridge, Worki (Sew 
York edition), v, 128. 

Hacket, William, an English enthusiast and fa- 
natic of the 16th oentur>'. He was at first the ser^'ant 
of a gentleman named Ilussey, but married a rich wid- 
ow, whose fortune he soon spent in dissipation. He 
next appears at York and in Lincolnshire, giving him- 
self out as a prophet, and announcing the downfall of 
the papacy; that England would suffer from famine, 
pestilence, and war unless the consistorial discipline 
were established. He was whipped and driven out of 
the county, but continued his prophecies elsewhere. 
According to Bayle, he was a very ready and grandilo- 
quent speaker, so that many among the people thought 
he had received a special gift of the Holy Ghost. He 
affected to place great reliance on his prayers, and as- 
serted that if all England were to pray for rain there 
should fall none if he prayed for dry weather. Edmund 
Coppinger and Henry Arthington became associated 
Kith him, the former under the name of Prophet of 
Mercy y the latter Prophet of Judgment. They pro- 
claimed Hacket the true king of the world, and next in 
power to Jesus Christ. On Jan. 16, 1591, he sent his 
disciples through the streets of London cr^'ing that Je- 
sus had arrived, was stopping at a certain hotel in the 
town, and that this time none should undertake any- 
thing against him. They ended with the ct}'. Repent^ 
England, repent ! T^y were finally arrested and put 
in prison. Coppinger let himself die of star\'atlon ; Ar- 
thington published a recantation and was forgiven. As 
for Hacket, he persisted to the last, and was condemned 
to death as guilty of impiety and rebeUion, and hung in 
l»ndon in July, 1591. Even on the scaffold he prayed 
God for a miracle to confoimd his enemies. See Henry 
]Fitz-Simon, Britannomachia Afinistrorum, lib. ii, cap. vi, 
p. 202, 206; Camden, AnnaleSj an. 1591, pars iv, p. 618- 
623 ; Bayle, DicL hist, et crit.; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog. Ge- 
nerale, xxiii, 31. 

Hackley, Charles W., D.D., a clerg;>nnan of the 
Protestant EpisooiMd Churchy and late professor of math- 
ematics and astronomy in Columbia College, New York, 
was born March 9, 1808, in Herkimer Comity, N. York, 
and died in the city of New York Jan. 10, 1861. Prof. 
Hackley graduated at the Military Aoidemy, West 
Point, in 1829, and was a^istant professor of mathemat- 
ics there until 1832, when he engaged in the study of 
law, but subsequently abandoned it for theology, and 
was ordained in 1835. He was professor of mathemat- 
in the University of New York until 1838, then became 
president of Jefferson College, Mississippi, and subse- 
quently rector of St. Peters lSt>testant Episcopal Church, 
Auburn, N. Y. He was elected professor in Columbia 
College in 1843, and continued in that post mitil his 
death. He was the author of several excellent mathe- 
matical works, and a contributor to scientific periodicals 
and weekly and daily journals. — A merican A nnuaX Cy- 
dopadia, 1861, p. 862 ; Allibone, Did, of A uthors, i, 753. 
(J.W.M.) 

Hackspan, Theodor, an eminent Lutheran theo- 
k)gian and Orientalist, was bom in 1607 at Weimar, and 



died at Altorf Jan. 19, 1659. He was educated at Jena, 
where he studied philosophy, and then went to Altorf^ 
to profit by the instructions of the able Orientalist 
Schwentcr, and thence to Helmstadt, where he itudied 
theology under the famous Calixtus. In 1686 he re- 
turned to Altorf, and for many years filled the chair 
of Hebrew iu its university, where he was the first 
to publicly teach the Oriental languages. In 1654 ho 
was appointed pivfessor of theology' in that institu- 
tion, retaining at the same time the chair of Oriental 
languages. His dose application to study and to the 
duties of his professorships so impaire<l his health that 
he died in the fifty-second year of his age. Hackspan 
is said to have been the best scholar of his day in lie- 
brew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. The liberality of 
Jodocus Schmidmaier, an advocate of Nuremberg, who 
established in his own house a press, with supplies of 
types in the different languages, enabled him to publish 
most of his learned works. Among these we name TraC' 
tatus de usu Librorum Rabbhticorvm : — SyUoge IHspu- 
tationum theologiearum el philologicarum : — Interpret 
Errabundut : — Disputaiiones de locutionSmt sacris (Al- 
torf, 1648) : — ObBervatumes A rabico-Sytiacte in quasdam 
hoa Veierig et Xori Te$tamenti (ibid 1639) : — IM Ange- 
lorum damonumque nomtnibus (ibid. 1641): — Fides et Ae- 
gea MohhammetUsj etc. (ibid. 1646) i^Miscellaneorum Sa^ 
crorum Libri duo (ibid. 1660) ; — Erercitatio de Cabbala 
Judaioa (ibid. 1660): — Nota philologico-theologkae in 
varia et difficilia Sayrturte loca (ibid. 1664, 3 vols.). — 
Rose, New Gen, Biog, Diet, viii, 169 ; Hoefer^ A our. Bio^ 
Generale, xxiii, 34. (J. W. M.) 

Ha'dad, a name which occio^ with considerable 
confusion of form in the Heb. The proper orthography 
seems to be THil, Ifadad' (acconling to Geseuius from 
an Arab, root signif^dng to break forth into shoutft ; but 
FUrst makes it ='^1lO, A Imighty), which appears in Gen. 
xxxvi, 35, 36; 1 Chron. i, 46, 47, 50, 51 (in all which 
passages it is rendered by the SepL 'ASaS, and Vulg. 
A dad), and in 1 Kings xi, 14-25 (where the Sept. haa 
'A^ap,Yulg. A dad). Tlie other forms are T7r!, Cha^ 
dad' (1 Chron. i, 30; Sept. Xo^a^,Vulg. ffadadj'^ ^"^r^^ 
J/adar' (Gen. xxvi,39; Sept. 'Apa^,Vulg. Adar, EngL 
"Hadar"), ^I'ln, Chadar' (Gen. xxv, 15; Sept Xodav, 
Vulg. and Engll Ifadar)^ and T|?Sj|, Adad' (1 Kings xi, 
17; Sept. 'A^ap, Vulg. Adad), It was the name of a 
Syrian idol, and was thence transferred to the king, as 
the highest of earthly authorities, in the forms Hadad, 
Bcn-hadad (" worshipper of Hadad"), and Hadad-ezer 
(" assisted by Hadad," Gesenius, Thesaur, p. 218). The 
title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh; 
and perhaps it is so used by Nicolaus Damascenus, as 
quoted by Joscphus (Ant, vii,.5, 2), in reference to the 
S>Tiaii king who aided Hadadezer (2 Sam. viii, 5). Jo- 
sephus appears to have used the name in the same scns^ 
where he substitutes it for Benhadad (^1 nt, ix, 8, 7, com- 
pared with 2 Kings xiii, 24). See also Hadai>-Rim- 

MON. 

1. Adad (q. v.) is the indigenous name of the chief 
deity of the S>Tians, the sun, according to Macrobius 
{Satumal. i, 23). Moreover, Pliny {/list, Nat. xxxvii, 
11, 71), speaking of remarkable stones named after parts 
of the body, mentions some called " Adadunephros, ejus- 
dem oculus ac digitus dei ;** and adds, " et hie colitur a 
Syria." He is also called 'ASuiSoc j5aoi\ivc 6tutv by 
Philo Byblius (in Eusebii Prttpar. Eton, i, 10). The 
passage of IleHychius which Harduin adduces in his 
note to Pliny concerning the worship of this god by the 
Phr^'gians, Jablonski declares to be inadmissible {De 
Ling, Lycaomca, i). 64). 

This Syrian deity claims some notice here, because 
his name is moat probably an element in the names of 
the Syrian kings Benhadad and Hadadezer. More- 
over, several of the older commentators have endeavored 
to find this deity in Isa. Ixvi, 17 ; either by altering the 
text there to suit the name given by Macrobius, or by 



HADAD 



HADAD-EZER 



yHapring the name he gives to his interpretation and to 
the reading of the Hebrew, so as to make that extract 
bear testimony to a god Adkad (q. v.). Michaelis ha.H 
aigoed at some length against both these news : and 
the modem commentators, such as Gesenius, Hiuig, 
Boucher (in Proben AUegt. Sdkrifterklar,), and Ewald, 
do not admit the name of any deity in that passage. — 
Kitto. 

2. Hadar (q. ▼.), one of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 
XXV, 15; 1 Chran. i, 80). His descendants probably 
occupied the western coast of the Persian Gulf, where 
the names AtUei (Ptol. vi, 7, § 15), Attene, and Chateni 
(PlixL vi, 32) bear affinit}' to the original name. — Smith. 
See Arabi.1. 

3. H ADAD, king of Edom, the son of Bedad, and sue- 
eeasor of Ilnaham: he established his court at Avith, 
and defeated the Midianites in the inter\'ening territory 
of Moab (Gen. xxxvi, 35 ; 1 Chron. i, 46). This is the 
only one of the ancient kings of Edom whose exploits 
are recorded by Moses. RC. ante 1618. See AviTir. 

4. Hadad, another king of Edom, successor of Baal- 
Hanon : he established his palace at Pai, and his wife's 
name was Mehetebel (1 Chron. i, 50). He is called 
Hadar in Gen. xxxvi, 39. From the fact that with 
him the list of these Edomitish kings closes, it may be 
oonjectured (Tumer^s Companion to Geneaisy p. 326) that 
he lived about the time of the Exode, and in that case 
he may be the identical king of Edom who refused a 
passage to the Israelites (Numb, xx, 14). RC. prob. 
1619 ; certainly ante 1093. See Pai. 

5. Adad, a king of Syria, who reigned in Damascus 
at the time that David attacked and defeated Hadad- 
ezer, king of Zobah, whom he marched to assist, and in 
whose defeat he shared. RC. cir. 1040. This fact is rc- 
cocded in 2 Sam. viii, 5, but the name of the king is not 
given. It is supplied, however, by Josephus {Ant. vii, 
5, 2), who reports, after Nicolas of Damascus, that he 
carried succors to Hadadezer as far as the Euphrates, 
wliere David defeated them both ; and adds other par- 
ticulars respecting his fame. — Kitto. 

6. Hadad, a young prince of the royal race of Edom, 
who, when his oountiy was conquered by David, con- 
trived, in the heat of the massacre committed by Joab, 
to e^a^)e with some of his father's servants, or, rather, 
was carried off by them into the land of Midian. RC. 
cir. ICMO. Thence Hadad went into the desert of Pa- 
ran ("Midian," ver. 18), and eventually proceeded to 
Egypt (1 Kings xi, 14 sq. ; in ver. 17 the name is given 
in the mutilated form n^H). He was there most favor- 
ably received by the king, who assigned him an estate 
and establbhment suited to his rank, and even gave 
him in mArriage the sister of his own consort, by whom 
he had a son, who was brought up in the palace with 
the sons of Pharaoh. Hadad remained in Egypt till 
alter the death of David and Joab, when, although dis- 
suaded by Pharaoh, he returned to his own country in 
the hope of recovering his father's throne (1 Kings xi, 
21, 22). RC. cir. 1012. The Scripture does not recortl 
the result of this attempt further than by mentioning 
him as one of the troublers of Solomon's reign, which 
implies some measure of success (see Kitto's DuUy Bible 
lUmsi. ad loc.). After relating these facts the text goes 
on to mention another enemy of Solomon, named Rezin, 
and then adds (ver. 25) that this was « besides the mis- 
chief that Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel, and 
rdgned over Syria." Our version seems to make this 
apply to Rezin ; but the Sept refers it to Hadad, read- 
ixKg Dn», Edow^^ instead of DIK, Aram or Syria, and 
the sense would certainly be improved by this reading, 
inaamoch as it supplies an apparent omission ; for with- 
out it we only know that Hadad left Egypt for Edom, 
mod not how he succeeded there, or how be was able to 
trouble Solomon. The history of Hadad is certainly 
very obscure. Adopting the Sept reading, some con- 
dude that Pharaoh used his interest with Solomon to 
aQow Hadad to reign as a tributary prince, and that he 



ultimately assertecl his independence. Josephus, how- 
ever, seems to have read the Hebrew as our version 
does, "Syria," not "Edom." He says {Ant. viii, 7, 6) 
that Hadad, on his arrival in Edom, found the ter- 
ritory too strongly garrisoned by Solomon's troops to 
afford any hope of success. He therefore proceeded 
with a party of adherents to Syria, where he was well 
received by Rezin, then at the head of a band of rob- 
bers, and with his assistance seized upon a part of 
Syria and reigned there. If this be correct, it must 
hate been a different part of S\nia from that in which 
Rezin himself reigned, for it is certain, from ver. 24^ 
that he (Rezin) did reign in Damascus. Carricres sup- 
poses that Hadad reigned in Syria after the death of 
Rezin ; and it might reconcile apparent discrepancies 
to suppose that two kingdoms were established (there 
were more previously), both of which, after the death 
of Rezin, were consolidated under Hadad. That Hadad 
was really king of Syria seems to be rather corroborated 
by the fact that every subsequent king of S^Tia is, in 
the Scripture, called Ben-Hadad, "son of Hadad," and 
in Josephus simply Hadad, which seems to denote that 
the founder of the dynasty was called by this name. 
We may observe that, whether we read Aram or Edom, 
it must be understood as applying to Hadad, not to Re- 
zin {Pictorial Bible, on 2 Kings xi, 14).~Kitto. The 
identity of name su^ests a common origin between 
the Edomitish and Syrian dynasties.- Josephus, in the 
outset of his account, appears to call this Hadad by the 
name of Ader. In any case, however, the preceding 
must be reganled as dutuict persons from each other 
(see Hengstenberg, Pentateuch, ii, 288), the last prob- 
ably being the son, or, rather, grandson of No. 5. See 
Sybia. 

Hadad-e^zer (Heb. id., ^T^nnn, ^doK^ is his h^ 
[see Hadad, No. 1] ; Sept A^pas^rp in 2 Sam. viii, but 
'A^api^ip V. r. 'ASadiZfp in 1 Kings xi,23 ; Vulg. A dar- 
ezer in both passages), less correctly Hadare'zer (Heb. 
id., •^tyi^rn fsee under Hadad; vet some MSS. have 
Hadadezer throughout] , 2 Sara, x, 16, 19 ^ 1 ChrooL 
xviii, 3-10 ; xix, 16, 19 ; Sept *AZpa^ap v. r. 'A^paa^dp, 
Vuig. still .1 darezer)j king of the Aramitish state Zobah, 
a powerful opponent of David. He was defeated by the 
Israelites in his first campaign, while on his way to " es- 
tablish his dominion" (RC. cir. 1035) in the neighbor- 
hood of the Euphrates, with a great loss of men, war- 
chariots, and horses, and was des|)oiled of many of his 
towns (2 Sam. viii, 3 ; 1 Chron. xviii, 3), and driven with 
the remnant of his force to the other ude of the river 
(xix, 16). The golden weapons {"^Av., A.y. "shields 
of gold") captured on this occasion, a thousand in num- 
ber, were taken by David to Jerusalem (xviii, 7), and 
dedicated to Jehovah. The foreign arms were preserved 
in the Temple, and were long known as king David's 
(1 Chron. xxiii, 9 ; Cant iv, 4). A diversion highly 
serviceable to him was made by a king of Damascene^ 
Syria [see H.U)AD, 5], who compelled David to turn 
his arms against him (2 Sam. x, 6-14 ; 1 Chron. xix, 
6-14). The breathing-time thus afforded Hadadezer 
was turned by him to such good account that he was 
able to accept the subsidies of Hanun, king of the Am- 
monites, and to take a leading part in the confederacy 
formed by that monarch against David. n.C. cir. 1034. 
The first army brought into the field was beaten and » 
put to flight by Abishai and Joab ; but Hadadezer, not 
yet discouraged, went into the countries eaBt of the Eu- 
phrates, and got together the forces of all his allies and 
tributaries, which he placed under the command of Sho- 
bach, his general. The army was a large one, as is evi- 
dent from the numbers of the slain ; and it was espe- 
cially strong in horse-soldiers (1 Chron. xix, 18). They 
cn)88cd the Euphrates, joined the other Syrians, and en- 
camped at a place called Helam (q. v.). To confront so 
formidable an array, David took the field in person, and 
in one great victory so completely broke the power of 



HADAD-RIMMON 



8 



HADDOCK 



Hadadezer, that aU the small tributary princes seized 
the opportunity of throwing off hia yoke, of abandoning 
the Ammonites to their fate, and of submitting quietly 
to David, whose power was thus extended to the Eu- 
phrates (2 Sam. X, 15-19; 2 Chron. xix, 1&-19). 

But one of Hadarezer's m<»« immediate retainers, 
Rezon ben-Eliadah, made his escape from the army, 
and, gathering round him some fugitives like himself, 
formed them into one of those marauding, ravaging 

"bands** 0^*11^) which found a congenial refuge in the 
thinly peopled districts between the Jordan and the 
Euphrates (2 Kings v, 2: 1 Chron. v, 18-22). Making 
their way to Damascus, they poswssed themselves of 
the city. RC dr. 960. Rezon became king, and at 
mce began to avenge the loss of his coontrymoi by the 
oourse of *^ mischief* to Israel which he pursued down 
to the end of SoIomon*s reign, and which is summed up 
hi the emphatic words, ^ He was an adversary (a * Sa- 
tan*) to Israel*' .... "he abhorred larad** (1 Kings xi, 
28-26).— Kitto; Smith. 

Ha'dad-rlm^mon (Heb. Hadad''Rimmon% inn 
^itt*^, the names of two Syrian idols ; Sept. Kowtrdc 
pota»voc,Vu]g. Adadremnum), the name of a place in the 
▼alley of M^ddo, alluded to in Zech. xii, 11 as a type 
of the future penitence of the Jews; probably by a pro- 
verbial expression from the lamentation for Josiah, who 
iras mortally wounded not far from this spot (2 Chron. 
XXXV, 22-25). (There is a treatise by Wichmanshau- 
aen, Depianctu Uadadr, in the Nov, Thet. TheoL-phU, i, 
llOi; ex^etical remarks on the same text have also 
been written in Dutch byVermast [Gonda, 1792, 1794], 
in German by Mauritii [Roet 1764, 1772], and in Latin 
by Froriep [Erf. 1776].) According to Jerome {Corny 
ment, on 2ech. L c. and Ifos, i), it was afterwards called 
MaxinUanopolia (see Reland, Paleest, p. 891), which, ac- 
cording to the Jerui, liitu, lay 17 Rom. miles from Cana- 
rea, and 10 from Esdraelon ; being situated, according 
to Dr. Robinson (new ed. of Researcfux, iii, 118), a little 
south of Megiddo (now Lejjun) (see Btbliotkeca Sacra^ 
1844, p. 220). The name has been thought to be de- 
rived from tlie worship of the idol Hadad-rimmon (Hit- 
zig on laa. xvii, 9 ; Movers, Phim, p. 297) ; but, accord- 
ing to the Targum of Jonathan (followed by Jarchi), it 
is an ellipSLs for Hadady son of Tab-nrnmon, the alleged 
opponent of Ahab at Ramoth-Gilead. As it contains 
the names of two principal S>nnan deities, it may have 
been an old Syrian stronghold, and hence Josiah may 
here have made his last stand in defence of the plain of 
Esdraelon. Such a site, therefore, does not ill agree 
with the position of the modem Rummaneh, a village 
''at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley 
about \\ hour S. of tell Metzellim'* (Van de Yelde, Me- 
moirt p. 338 ; oomp. Narrativey i, 355 ; De Saulcy, Dead 
Sea, ii,81 1). Schwaiz*s attempt (Palest, p. 159) to iden- 
tify Hadad-Rimmon with Gath-Rimmon of Josh, xxi, 
25, as the Kefar Uthni of the Talmud (Gitim, foL 76, 
a), and a present Kafer Guth, said by htm to be located 
idx>ut 24 miles from Lejjun, beyond Sepphoris, is with- 
out foundation. 



I'dar, a various reading of two Heb. names. See 
also Ets-Hadar. 

1. Ciiadar' (^^H, perhaps chamber ; Sept. XollSdv ; 
Vulg. Hadar), a son of Ishmacl (Gen. xxv, 15) ; writ- 
ten in 1 Chron. i, 80, Chadad' (nnn, Xoviav, Jfadad) ; 

but Gesenius supposes the former to be the true reading 
of the name. It has not been identified, in a satisfac- 
tory way, with the appellation of any tribe or place in 
Arabia, or on the Syrian frontier ; but names identical 
with, or very closely resembling it, are not uncommon 
in those parts, and may contain traces of the Ishmael- 
itish tribe sprung from Hadar. The mountain Hadady 
belonging to Teymk [see Tema], on the borders of the 
Syrian desert, north of el-Medlneh, is perhaps the most 
likely to be correctly identified with the ancient dwell- 
iDgs of this tribe; it stands among a group of names 



of the sons of Ishmael, oontainmg Domah, Kedar, and 
Tenia. — Smith, s. v. See Hadad, 2. 

2. Hadar' iyy^^ perh. ornament ; Sept 'Apdi v. £ 
'Apo^; Vulg. Adar)y one of the Edomidsh kings, suc- 
cessor of Baal-Hananben-Achbor (Gen. xxxvi, 89); and, 
if we may so understand the statement of ver. 81, about 
contemporary with SauL The name of his city, and 
the name and genealogj' of his wife, are given. In the 
parallel list in 1 Chron. i, he appears as Hadad. We 
know from another source (1 Kings xi, 14, etc.) that 
Hadad was one of the names of the royal family of 
Edom. Indeed, it occurs in tliis ver)" list (Gen. xxxvi, 
85).— Smith, s. v. See Hadad, 4. 

Hadare'xer, the form of the name of the town 
mentioned in the account of David*s S^nian campaign, 
as given in 2 Sam. x, and in all its occurrences in the 
Heb. text (as well as in both MSS. of the Sept. and in 
Josephus), except 2 Sam. Wii, 8-12 ; 1 Kings xi, 28, 
where it is more correctly called Hadadezeu (q. v.). 

Hadas. See Mvin-LE. 

Had'aahah (Heb. Chada*hah\ nt'jnynew; Sept. 
'Aiaffa v. r. 'A^crerav), a city in the valley of Judah, 
mentioned in the second group between Zenan and Mig- 
dal-gad (Josh, xv, 87). It has generally been thought 
(Winer, Bealw, s. v.) to be the same with the Adasa 
(ABaoa) of Josephus {Ant, xii, 10, 5) and the Apocry- 
pha (1 Mace vii,40,45), and likewise of the OnomaMt" 
con (s. v.), which, however, must have lain rather in the 
momitains of Ephraim, apparently near the modem vil- 
lage Surda. See Adasa. Schwarz (Phps, Deacript, of 
PaL p. 108) inclines to identify it with a little village 
el'Ckadcu, stated by him to lie between Migdal and 
Aahkelon, the tl-Jora of Van de Velde's Map, Accord- 
ing to the Mishna {Eruh, v, 6), it anciently contained 
50 houses only (Reland, Pcdatt, p. 701). See Judah, 

TSIBE OF. 

Hadaa^'aah (Heb.//a(f(z«aA',r\^'1il,m^rt2e; comp. 
the Gr. names MyrtOy etc. ; Sept. omits, Vulg. Ediua), 
the earlier Jewish name of Esther (Esth. ii,7). Ge- 
senius {Thesaur, p. 866) suggests that it is identical 
with 'Arootra, the name of the daughter of Cyrus (He- 
rocL iii, 188, 184). 

Hadat'tah (Heb. Chadattah't hr)*?)?,, a Chaldaizing 
form=fMt9; Sept. omits, Vulg. nora)j according to the 
A.y. one of the towns of Judah in the extreme south — 
"Hazor, Hadattah, and Kerioth, and Hezron," etc. (Josh. 
XV, 25) ; but tbe Masoretic accents of the Hebrew con- 
nect the word with that preceding it, as if it were Ha- 
zor-chadattah, L e. New Hazor, in distinction from the 
place of the same name in ver. 23. This reading is ex- 
pressly sanctioned by Eusebius and Jerome, who speak 
{OnomoBt, s. v. Asor) of " New Hazor** as lying in their 
day to the east of and near Ascalon. (See also Reland, 
Palast, p. 708.) But Ascalon, as Robinson has pointed 
out {Researchet, new ed. ii, 34, note), is in the Shefelah, 
and not in the south, and would, if named in Joshua at 
all, be included in the second division of the list, begin- 
ning at ver. 88, instead of where it is, not far from Ke- 
desh.~Smith, s. v. Still the total (29) in ver. 82 re- 
quires as much abbreviation in the enumerateil list of 
cities in this group as possible. See Hazor-Hadattau« 

Haddah. See En-haddah. 

Haddock, Ciias. B., D.D., a Congregational min- 
ister, was bom in SaUsbun*, N. H., in the summer of 
1796. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1816. 
Immediately after graduating, he entered Andover The- 
ological Seminary, where he remained two years. He 
was then compelled to desist from his studies, and made 
a Journey to the South. H£ returned in 1819 invigora- 
ted in health, and was at once chosen the first professor 
of rhetoric in Dartmouth CoUege, which position he 
held till 1838, when he was chosen professor of intel- 
lectual philosophy. In 1850 he received the appoint- 
ment of charge d'affaires at the court of Portugal, which 



HADES 



V 



HADES 



he bdd till 1855. He spent the remainder of hie life at 
West Lebanon. For about twelve years he preached at 
White River Village, YL, and for several years he sup- 
plied the pulpit at the upper and lower churches of 
Korwich, Vt. For a year or two he preached at West 
Lebanon, and for the last two years and a half of his life 
he preached at Queecby village, Y t. He died at West 
Lebanon, N. H., Jan. 15, 1861. As a preacher he was 
always acceptable, and never more so than during the 
last year of his life. — Congregational Quarterlg, 1861, p. 

2ia. 



a Greek word (ft^ifc* derived, according to 
the beat established and most generally received ety- 
^^i^'^'Sy' ^fom^ privative a and ictiVy hence often written 
at^ifc), means strictly what is out of sight, or poenbly, if 
applied to a person, what puts out of sight. In earlier 
Greek this last was, if not its only, at least its prevailing 
application; in Homer it occurs only as the personal 
designation of Flute, the lord of the invisible world, and 
who was probably so designated — ^not from being him- 
idf invisible, for that belonged to him in common with 
the heathen gods generally — but from his power to ren^ 
der mortals invisible — the inviable-making deity (see 
Cmsiiis, Homeric Lexicon^ s. v.). The Greeks, however, 
in process of time abandoned this use of hades, and when 
the Greek Scriptures were written the word was scarce- 
ly ever applied except to the place of the departed. In 
the rlassical writers, therefore, it is used to denote Or- 
cHt, or the infernal regions. In the Greek version of 
the Old Testament it is the common rendering for the 
Heb. ^ist^, sA«d/, though in the form there often ap- 

pean a remnant of the original personified application ; 
for example, in Gen. xxxvii, 35, **^ will go down to my 
son," cic fcovj i. e. into the abodes or house of hades 
{io/iovc or cUtcov being understood). This elliptical 
form was common both in the classics and in Scripture, 
even after hades was never thought of but as a region 
or place of abode. 

1. The appropriation of hades by the Greek interpret^ 
ecs as an equivalent for sheol may undoubtedly be taken 
as evidence that there was a close agreement in the 
ideas conveyed by the tvro terms as currently under- 
stood by the Greeks and Hebrews req)ectively — a sub- 
Mandal, but not an entire agreement ; for in tliis, as well 
as in oUier terms which related to subjects bearing on 
things spiritual and divine, the different religions of 
Jew and Gentile necessarily exercised a modifying in- 
fluence ; ^ that even when the same term was employ- 
ed, and with reference generally to the same thing, 
shades of difference could not but exist in respect to 
the ideas understood to be indicated by them. Two or 
three points stand prominently out in the views enter- 
tained by^ the ancients respecting hades: first, that it 
was the common receptacle of departed spirits, of good 
as wdl tts bad ; second, that it was divided into two 
oompartments, the one containing an Elysium of bliss 
for the good, the other a Tartarus of sorrow and punish- 
ment for the wicked ; and, thirdly, that in respect to its 
locality, it lay under ground, in the mid-regions of the 
earth. So far as these points are concerned, there is no 
material difference between the Greek hades and the 
H^rew sheoL This, too, was viewed as the common 
noepCade of the departed: patriarchs and righteous 
men spoke of going into it at their decease, and the 
moat ungodly and worthless characters are represented 
as finding in it their proper home (Gen. xlii, 88 ; Psa. 
cxxxix,8; Hos.xiii,U; Isa. xiv, 9, etc). A twofold di- 
vision also in the state of the departed, corresponding 
to the different positions they occupied, and the courses 
they pursued on earth, is cleiurly implied in the revela- 
tions of Scripture on the subject, though with the He- 
brews leas prominently exhibited, and without any of 
the fantastic and puer^e inventions of heathen mythol- 
ogy. Yet the fact of a real distinction in the state of 
the departed, correq)onding to their spiritual oonditious 
on earth, is in various passages not obscurely indicated. 



Divine retribution is represented as pursuing the wicked 
after they have left this world — pursuing them even 
into the lowest realms of sheol (Deut xxxii, 22 ; Amos 
ix, 2) ; and the bitterest shame and humiliation are de- 
scribed as awaiting there the most prosperous of this 
world's inhabitants, if they have abused their prosper^ 
ity to the dishonor of God and the injury of their fel- 
low-men (I'Sa. xlix, 14 « Isa. xiv). On the other hand, 
the righteous had hope in his death ; he could rest as- 
sured that, in the viewless regions of theol, as well as 
amid the changing vicissitudes of earth, the right hand 
of God would sustun him \ even there he would enter 
into peace, walking still, as it were, in his uprightness 
(Prov. xiv, 32 ; rsa.cxxxix,8; Isa.lvii,2). Vlmt sheol, 
Uke hades, was conceived of as a lower region in com- 
parison with the present world, is so manifest from the 
whole language of Scripture on the subject, that it is 
unnecessary to point to particular examples ; in respect 
to the good as well as the bad, the passage into sheol 
was contemplated as a descent ; and the name was some- 
times used as a synonym for the very lowest depths 
(I>eut. xxxii, 22; Job xi, 7-9). This is not, however, 
to be understood as affirming anything of the actual lo- 
cality of disembodied spirits; for there can be no doubt 
that the language here, as in other cases, was derived 
from the mere appearances of things ; and a» the body at 
death was committed to the lower parts of the earth, so 
the soul was conceived of as also going downwards. But 
that this was not designed to mark the local boundaries 
of the region of departed spirits nuty certainly be in- 
ferred from other expressions used regarding them— as 
that God took them to himself; or that he would give 
them to see the path of life ; that he would make them 
dwell in his house forever; or, more generally still, that 
the spirit of a man goeth upwards (Gen. v, 2-1 ; Psa. xvi, 
1 1 ; xxiii, 6 ; Eccles. iii, 21 ; xii, 7). During the old dis* 
pensations there was still no express revelation from 
heaven respecting the precise condition or external re» 
lationships of departed spirits ; the time had not yet 
come for such specific intimations; and the language 
employed was consequently of a somewhat vague and 
vacillating nature, such as spontaneously arose from 
common feelings and impressions. For the same rea- 
son, the ideas entertained even by God*s people upon the 
subject were predominantly sombre and gloomy. Sheol 
wore no uiviting aspect to their view, no more than 
hades to the superstitious heathen ; the very men who 
believed that God would accompany them thither and 
keep them from evil, contemplated the state as one of 
darkness and silence, and shrunk from it with instinctive 
horror, or gave hearty thanks when they found them- 
selves for a time delivered from it (Psa. vi, 5 ; xxx, 8, 
9; Job iii, 18 sq.; Isa. xxxviii, 18). The reason was 
that they had only general assurances, but no specifio 
light on the subject; and their comfort rather lay in 
overleaping the gulf of sheol, and fixing their thoughts 
on the better resurrection some time to come, than in 
anything they could definitely promise themselves be- 
tween death and the resurrection-mom. 

In this lay one important point of difference between 
the Jewish and the heathen hades, originated by the 
diverse spirit of the two religions, that to the believing 
Hebrew alone the sojourn in sheol appeared that only 
of a temporary and intermediate existence. The hea- 
then hail no prospect beyond its shailowy realms; its 
bars for him were eternal ; and the idea of a resurrec- 
tion was utterly strange alike to his religion and his 
philosophy. But it was in connection with the proe- 
pect of a resurrection from the dead that all hope form- 
ed itself in the breasts of the true ])c<>|)le of (iod. As 
this alone could effect the reversion of the evil brought 
in by sin, and really destroy the destn>yer, so nothing 
less was announced in that first ])romisc which gave as- 
surance of the crushing of the tempter ; and thougli as to 
its nature but dimly apprehended by the eye of faith, it 
still necessarily formed, as to the reality, the great ob- 
ject of desire and expectation. Hence it is said of the 



HADES 



10 



HADES 



patriarchs that they looked for a better country, which is 
a heavenly one ; and of those who in later times resisted 
unto blood for the truth of God, that they did it to ob- 
tain a better resurrection (Heb. xi, 16, 85). Hence, too, 
the spirit of prophecy conAdently proclaimed the arrival 
of a time when the dead should arise and sing, when 
sheol itself should be destroyed, and many of its inmates 
be brought forth to the possession of everlasting life 
(Isa. xxvi, 19; Hos. xiii, 14; Dan. xii, 2). Yet again, 
in apostolic times, Paul represents this as emphatically 
the promise made by God to the fathers, to the realiza- 
tion of which his countrymen as with one heart were 
hoping to come (Acts xxvi, 7) ; and Josephus, in like 
maimer, testities of all but the small Sadducaean faction 
of them, that they believed in a resurrection to honor 
and blessing for those who had lived righteously in this 
life (A tit. xviii, 1, 3). This hope necessarily cast a 
gleam of light across the darkness of hades for the Is- 
raelite, which was altogether miknown to the Greek. 
Closely connected with it was another difference also 
of considerable moment, viz., that the Hebrew sheol was 
not, like the (xentile hades^ viewed as an altogether sep- 
arate and independent region, withdrawn from the pri- 
mal fountain of life, and subject to another dominion 
than the world of sense and time. Pluto was ever re- 
ganled by the heathen as the rival of the king of earth 
and heaven ; the two domains were essentially antago- 
nistic But to the more enlightened Hebrew there was 
but one Lord of the living and the dead ; the chambers 
of sheol were as much open to his eye and subject to his 
control as the bodies and habitations of men on earth ; 
00 that to go into the realms of the deceased was but to 
pass from one department to another of the same all- 
embracing sway of Jehovah. See Sheou 

2. Such was the general state of belief and expecta- 
tion regarding h(ides or sheol in Old-Testament times. 
With the introduction of the Gospel a new light breaks 
in, which shoots its rays also through the realms of the 
departed, and relieves the gloom in which they had still 
appeared shrouded to the view of the faithful The 
term hades^ however, is of comparatively rare occurrence 
in New-Testament scripture; in our Lord's own dis- 
courses it is found only thrice, and on two of the occa- 
sions it is used in a somewhat rhetorical manner, by 
way of contrast with the region of life and blessing. He 
said of Cai)eniaum, that from being exalted unto heaven 
it should be brouglit down to ha^s (Matt xi, 23) — that 
is, plainly, from the highest point of fancied or of real 
elevation to the lowest abasement. Of that spiritual 
kingdom, also, or chiurch, which he was going to estab- 
lish on earth, he affirmed that " the gates of hades should 
not prevail against it** (Matt, xvi, 18), which is all one 
with saying that it should be i)erpetuai Hades is con- 
templated as a kind of realm or kingdom, accustomed, 
like earthly kingdoms in the Kast, to hold its council- 
chamber at the gates; and whatever measures might 
there be taken, whatever plots devised, they should nev- 
er succeed in overturning the foimdations of Christ's 
kingdom, or effectually marring its interests. In both 
these passages hades is placed by our Lord in an antag- 
onistic relation to his cause among men, although, from 
the manner in which the wonl is employed, no very 
definite conclusions could be drawn from them as to the 
nature and position of hades itself. But in another pas- 
sage — the only one in which any indication is given by 
our Lord of the state of its inhabitants — it is most dis- 
tinctly and closely associated with the doom and misery 
of the lost : " In hades^" it is said of the rich man in the 
parable, •• he lifted up his eyes, being in torments" (Luke 
xvi, 23). The soid of Lazarus is, no doubt, also reprc- 
lentcd as being so far within the bounds of the same 
region that he could be descried and spoken with by 
the sufferer. Still, he was represented as sharing no 
common fate with the other, but as occupying a region 
shut off from all intercommunion with that assigned to 
the wicked, and, so far from being held in a sort of dun- 
geon-confinement, as reposing in Abraham's bosom, in 



an abode where angels visit With this also agrees what 
our Lord said of his own temporary sojourn among the 
dead, when on the eve of his departing thither — " To- 
day,** said he, in his reply to the prayer of the penitent 
male&ctor, ** shalt thou be with me in paradise** (Luke 
xxiii, 43). But paradise was the proper region of life 
and blessing, not of gloom and fo^getfulness ; originally 
it was the home and heritage of man as created in the 
image of God ; and when Christ now named the place 
whither he was going with a redeemed sinner paradise^ 
it bespoke that already there was an undoing of the 
evil of sin, that for all who are Christ*s there b an actual 
recovery immediately after death, and as regards the 
better part of their natures, of what was lost by the dis- 
obedience and nun of the fall. See Paradise. 

But was not Christ himself in hades? Did not the 
apostle Peter on the day of Pentecost apply to him the 
words of David in Psa. xvi, in which it was said, " Thou 
wilt not leave my soul in hades, neither wilt thou suffer 
thine Holy One to see corruption,** and argue apparent- 
ly that the soul of Christ must have indeed gone to 
hadeSf but only could not be allowed to continue there 
(Acts ii, 27-31)? Even so, however, it would but con- 
cern the application of a name ; for if the language of 
the apostle must be understood as implyuig that our 
Lord's soul was in hades between death and the resur- 
rection, it still was hades as having a paradise within 
4ts bosom ; so that, knowing from his own lips what sort 
of a receptacle it afforded to the disembodied spirit of 
Jesus, we need care little about the mere name by which, 
in a general way, it might be designated. But the 
apostle Peter, it must be remembered, does not call it 
hades ; he merely qugtes an Old-Testament passage, in 
which hades is mentioned, as a passage that had its ver- 
ification in Christ ; and the language of course in this, 
as in other prophetical passages, was spoken from an 
Old-Testament point of view, and must be read in the 
light which the revelations of the Gospel have cast over 
the state and prospects of the souL We may even, 
however, go farther ; for the Psalmist himself docs not 
strictly aiKrm the soul of the Holy One to have gone to 
hades ; his words precisely rendered are, ** Thou wilt not 
leave (or abandon) my soul to hades'^ — that is, give it 
up as a prey to the power or domain of the nether world. 
It is rather a negative than a positive assertion regard- 
ing our Lord's connection with hades that is contained 
in the passage, and nothing can fairly be ai^ued from 
it as to the local habitation or actual state of his disem- 
bodied spirit. See Inti^irmediate State. 

The only other passages in the New Testament in 
which mention is made of hades are in Revelation — ch. 
i, 18, where the glorified Redeemer declares that he has 
the keys of death and of hades ; ch. vi, 8, where death 
is symbolized as a rider, smiting all around him with 
weapons of destniction, and hades following to receive 
the souls of the slain; ch. xx, 18, 14, where death and 
hades are both represented as giving up the dead that 
were in them, and aAem'ards as being themselves cast 
into the lake of fire, which is the second death. In ev- 
ery one of these passages hades stands in a dark and for- 
bidding connection with death — xQvy unlike that asso- 
ciation with ])aradise and Abraham's bofom in which 
our Lord exhibited the receptacle of his omi and his 
l)eople's souls to the eye of faith ; and not only fo, but 
in one of them it is expressly as an ally of death in the 
execution of judgment i)\9,t hades is represented, while 
in another it appears as an accursed thing, consigned to 
the lake of fire. In short, it seems as if in the j^rogress 
of (iod*8 dispensations a separation had c<«me to be made 
between elements that originally were mingled together 
— as if, from the time that Christ brought life and im- 
mortality to light, the distinction in the next world as 
well as this was broadened between the saved and the 
lost; so that hades was henceforth appropriated, both in 
the name and in the reality, to those who were to be re- 
served in darkness and misery to the judgment of the 
great day, and other names, with other and brighter 



HADES 



11 



HADOBAM 



employed to designate the intermediate rest- 
ing-place of the redeemed. It was meet that it should 
be so ; for by the personal work and mediation of Christ 
the whole Church of God rose to a higher condition ; 
old things passed away, all things became new ; and it 
is but reasonable to suppose that the change in some 
degree extended to the occupants of the intermediate 
state— the saved becoming more enlarged in the posses- 
sion of Uias and gloiy, the lost more stmk in anguish 
and de^Mir. See Dilvtii. 

3. Such being the nature of the scriptural representa- 
tion on the subject, one most not only condemn the fa- 
bles that sprung up amid the dark ages about the lim- 
bus or antechamber of hell, and the piugatorial Hres, 
through which it w)is supposed even redeemed souls had 
to complete their ripening for glor}% but also reject the 
form in which the Church has embodied its belie! re- 
specting the personal history of Christ, when it said 
** descended into helL" This, it is well known, was a 
later addition to what has been called the Apostles' 
Creed, made when the Church was far on ite way to the 
gloom and superstition of the Dark Ages. Though the 
words are capable of a rational and scriptural explana- 
tion, yet they do not present the place and charactei of 
our Lord*s existence in the intermediate state as these 
are exhibited by himself ; they suggest something pain- 
ful, rather than, as it should be, blessed and triumphant ; 
and, if taken in their natural sense, they would rob be- 
lievers of that sure hope of an immediate transition into 
mansions of glory, which, as his followers and partici- 
pants of his risen life, it is their privilege to entertain. 
— Fairbaim, s. v. See Hell. 

4. There are two other terms so often associated in 
Scripture with hades as to render their signification in 
some measure synonymous. 

(1.) A bjfS8 (dfivoooc = ai3v9oCi without bottom). The 
Sept. uses this word to represent three diflerent Hebrew 
words: 1. •iVlS'Q, a depth or deep place (Job xli, 23); 
or nb^a, the deep, the sea (Isa. xliv, 27). 2. nn-, 
breadth, a broad place (Job xxxvi, 16). 3. Q'li^r, a nuus 
of waters, the sea (<ren. viii, 2, etc), the chaotic mass of 
waters (Gen. i, 2; Psa. civ, 6), the subterraneous waters, 
''the deep that lieth under*' {Oan. xlix, 25), "the deep 
that coucheth beneath" (Deut. xxxiii, 13). In the N. 
T. it is used always with the article, to designate the 
abode of the dead, hadesj especially that part of it which 
is also the abode of devils and the place oi woe (Rom. 
X, 7; Luke viii, 31; Rev. ix, 1, 2, 11; xi, 7; xvii, 8; 
XX, 1, 3). In the Revelation the word is always trans- 
lated in the A. Vers. ** bottomless pit," by Luther "Ab- 
grund." In ix, 1, mention is made of " the key of the 
bottomle^ pit" (r/ Kktic tov ^piaroc ri/c <i/3*f ff^ hey 
of the pit of the abyssy, where hades is represented as a 
boundless depth, which is entered by means of a shaft 
covered by a door, and secured by a lock (Alford, Stuart, 
Ewald, De Wette, DUsterdtcck). In ver. 11 mention is 
made of ^ the angel of the abyss," by whom some suppose 
is intended Satan or one of his angeU. — Kitto, s. v. See 

ABY8S. 

(2.) Abaddon (afiaidutv, from the Heb. yi'^^V^ de- 
struetionj the place of the dead. Job xxvi, 6 ; Prov. xv, 
11), the name given in Rev. ix, 11 to "the angel of the 
abysa," and explained by the writer as eqiuvalent to 
the (yteek avoXAvorv, destroyer. The term may be un- 
derstood either as a peraonification of the idea of de- 
traction, or as denoting the being supposed to preside 
over tlie regions of the dead, the angel of death. The 
Rabbins frequently use this term to denote the lowest 
regions of sheol or hades {Erubin, fol. xix, 1 ; Sohar 
A'ajn. foL 74; Sohar Chadeish, foL 22; oomp. Eisenmen- 
ger, EtUdedetes Jud. ii, 324 sq.) ; and the addition, " an- 
gel of the abyss," seems to favor the supposition that 
the president or king of this place is alluded to here. 
But it may be doubted whether the angelology of the 
Rabbins &ids any sanction from the N. T., and it ac- 
cords better with the general character of the passage 



to suppose a personification here of the idea of destmo- 
tion, so that the symbol may find many realizations in 
the history of the Chiu-ch : as there arc many Anti- 
christs, so doubtless are there many ApoUyons. The 
identification of Abaddon with the Asmodsus of the 
Apocr>'pha and the Talmud rests upon no solid basis. -^ 
Kitto, s. V. See Abaddon. 

6. A full view of the extensive literature of this sub- 
ject more appropriately belongs to other heads; we 
here notice only a few treatises specially bearing upon 
the opposite states of the dead : Jour. Sac. Lit. October, 
1862, p. 35 sq. i April, 1853, p. 56 sq. ; July, 1853, p. 418 
sq. ; Bickersteth, Hades and Heaven (Lond. 1865). See 

HiCjiVKN. 



'did (Heb. Chadid'j 'T^ntJ, jxmded, [jerh. from its 
sitiution on some craggy eminence, Gesenius, Thesaur, 
p. 446 ; Sept. 'ASwd in Neb. xi, 31, elsewhere unites with 
preced. wonl, AoSaSiS ; Vulgate Hadid), a place in the 
tribe of Benjamin, in the vicinity of Lo<l and Ono, whose 
inhabitants returned from the captivity to their old seat 
under Zenibbabel (Ezra ii, 33, where some copies read 

T^'in, Harid i Neh. vii, 37 ; xi, 34). It is probably the 

same with one of the cities called Adida (q. v.) by Jo- 
sephus ( War, iv, 9, 1), but not that of the Apocrypha 
(1 Mace, xii, 38; comp. Josephus, Ant. xiii, 15,2). In 
the time of Eusebius and Jerome {Onomast. s. v. Adi* 
thaim), a town called Aditha (Aici^d) existed to the 
east of Diospolis (Lydda). According to Schwarz (Phys, 
Description of Palestine, p. 134), it was identical with the 
present " village el-Chaduki, situated 5 £ng. miles east 
of Lud, on the summit of a round mountain ;" probably 
the same with that seen by Dr. Robinson, and called by 
him ^^ el-Haditheh, a large village just at the mouth of 
a wady, as it inues from the hills east of Ludd into the 
plain" (new edit, of Researches, iii, 143, note). This disr 
trict, although within the territory of Dan, belonged to 
Benjamin. The same place is described by the old 
Jewish traveller ha-Parchi as being " on the summit of 
a round hill," and identified by him, no doubt correctly, 
with liadid (Zuiiz, in Asher's Benj, of Tudela, ii,439). 

Hadj (ffadffi, ffaj, Arab.), pilgrimage, especially to 
Mecca. The name hmlj is abo given to the body of 
pilgrims to Mecca; and the word is defined to mean 
" aspiration." Every Mohammedan, male or female, is 
bound, once at least in his lifetime, to make the fiadj to 
Mecca. Some Mohammedan authorities, however, hold 
that a substitute may be employed; while lunatics, 
slaves, and minors are free from the obligation. The 
solemnities at Mecca are held in the twelifth month of 
the Mohammedan year; and the male pilgrims, arriv- 
ing at certain jwints near Mecca, put on the sacred hab- 
its and prei)are their minds for the ceremonies. Arriv- 
ing at Mecca, each pilgrim walks seven times around 
the Kaabah ; next he visits Mount Arafat, twelve miles 
from Mecca, for prayer and instruction. The next night 
is spent in devotion at Mogdalipha, and the next day 
the pilgrim visits a sacred monument at the spot where 
Mohammed went to pray. The ceremonies end with 
sacrifices. Every returning pilgrim is styled Iladgi 
(Haji) thereafter. 

Had'lai (Heb. Chadltuf', ^inn, resting; Sept, 'A^^i 
V. r. 'FASai, Vulg. Adali), the father of Amasa, which 
latter was one of the Ephraimites who opposed the en- 
slavement of the captives of Judah in the civil war be- 
tween Pekah and Ahaz (2 Chroii. xxviii, 12). B.C. 
ante 738. 

Hado'ram (Heb. //adornm', Bniin, "defectively" 
D*illl in Chron.; Fllrst suggests yUeb, Lex. s, v.] = 
D^ *y\l!r\, Hador [ L e. ^4 dor, the fire-god ; see Hadram- 
mblech] is exalted; the Sam. at (ien. x, 27 has Ado- 
ram; Sept in (Jen. x, 27, 'O^o^a, Vulg. Aduram; in 1 
Chron. i, 21, Kc^ot>pav ; in 1 Chron. xviii, 10, 'Adovpafi ; 
in 2 Chron. x, 18, 'AdutpdfA ; Vulg. in all these last, A<kH 
ram)f the name of three men. 



HADRACH 



12 



RADBIANUS 



1. Ai>ORAX, the fifth son of Joktan, and piogenitor 
of a tribe of the same name in Arabia Felix (Gen. x, 27 ; 
1 Chron. i, 21). B.C. poet 2414. Bochart {PhdUg, ii, 
20) compares the DirmaH or Drimati on the Persian 
Golf (Plin. vi, 82), and the promontoiy Kopoiafjiov (Rae 
el-Had) of PtoL vi, 7, 11. Michaelis {SpUileg. ii, 162) 
de^>aire of all identification of the tribe in question. 
Schulthess (Ptwad. p. 88) and Gesenius (Thea, I/eb. s. 
V.) think that the AdramUa are meant, whom Ptolemy 
(Adpafiirat, Geog. vi, 7) places on the southern shores 
of Arabia, between the Homeritn (Hamyarites) and the 
Sochalitae, an aocoont with which Pliny ('M/raim^ce," 
HiiL Nat, vi, 28, 32 ; xii, 14, 80) substantially agrees.— 
Winer, i, 4o3. Fresnel cites an Arab author who iden- 
tifies Hadoram with Jurhum (4^ Lettre, Joum, Asia- 
tique, iii serie, vi, 220) ; but this is highly improbable ; 
nor is the suggestion of Hadhura, by Caussin (Essai i, 
80), more likely, the latter being one of the aboriginal 
tribes of Arabia, such as 'Ad, Thamiid, etc — Smith, s. v. 
See Arabia. 

2. Haooram, son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by 
his father (with valuable presents in the form of articles 
of antique manufacture [ Josephus], in gold, silver, and 
brass) to congratulate David on his victor}' over their 
common enemy Hadarezer, king of S^Tia (1 Chron. xviii, 
10). B.C. cir.\084^ In the parallernarrative of 2 Sam. 
viii, the name is given as Jor\m ; but this being a con- 
traction of Jehoram, which contains the name of Jeho- 
vah, is pecidiarly an Israelitish appellation. By Jose- 
phus (Ant. vii, 5, 4) he is called 'Aiupafiog. — Smith, s. v. 

3. Adonirax (q. v.), as he is elsewhere more fully 
called (1 Kings iv, 6 ; v, 14 ; Josephus constantly 'A^w- 
pafio^) the son of Abda, the treasurer of taxes under 
Solomon, and who was stoned to death by the people of 
the northern tribes when sent by Rehoboam to exact 
the usual dues (2 Chron. x, 18). 



/draoh (Heb. Chadrai\ T\^*^^, sigiiif. unknown, 
but possibly connected with Ifadar — see Hadorau; 
Sept. £f^pax,Vulg. UadracK), apparently the name of 
a country-, and (as we may gather from the parallel 
member of the sole and obscure passage where it oc- 
curs) near or identical with Damascus (Zech. ix, 1). 
The meaning seems to be, " The utterance of the word 
of Jehovah respecting the land of Hadrach ; and Da- 
mascus is the place upon which it rests." On the local- 
ity in qucsti(m, great division of opinion exists. Adri- 
chomius says, "Adrach, or Hadrach, aliat Adra ... is 
a citj- of Ccclesyria, about twenty-five miles from Ros- 
tra, and from it the adjacent region takes the name of 
Land of Hadrach. This was the land which formed 
the subject of Zcchariah's prophecy*' (Theatrum Terra 
Sanda, p. 75). Rabbi Jose, a Damascene, according to 
Jarchi, declared he knew a place of this name east of 
Damascus; and Michaelis fULVS {Suppknu j). 677), "To 
this I mav add what I learned, in the vear 1768, from 
Joseph Abbassi, a noble Arab of the country' beyond 
Jordan. I inquired whether he knew a city adled Ha- 
drakh ... He replied that there was a city of that 
name, which, though now small, had been the capital of 
a large region called the land of Ifadrakfij** etc. The 
two names, however, are entirely different (~*11J1, Ha- 
drach; Arab. Edhr'a)^ and there is no historical evi- 
dence that Edhr'a ever was the capital of a large terri- 
tory. See Edrei. Yet corroborative of the existence 
of the place in question are the explicit statements of 
Cyril and Theodoret in commenting on the above pas- 
sage. But to these it is objected that no modem trav- 
eller has heard of such a place in this region ; (lesenius 
especially (^Thesaur. Heb, p. 449) lurges that the name 
could not have become extinct. Yet no other explana- 
tion of the word Hadrach hitherto offered b at all sat- 
isfactory (see Winer's Reahc, s. v.). Movers suggests 
that Hadrach may be the name of one of the old deities 
(compare A dwt*^ Justin, xxxvi, 2, and Ateroatis) of 
Damascus (Die Phonizierf i, 478) ; and Bleek conjectures 
that reference is made to a king of that dty (tStudkn u. 



KrUOoen, 1852, ii, 258). Henderson {Comment, ad loc) 
supposes it to be only a corruption of Tltl, the com- 
mon names of the kings of Syria. See Hadar. Jarchi 
and Kimchi say, ** Rabbi Juda interpreted it as an al- 
legorical expression relating to the Messiah, Who is 
harsh (*in) to the heathen, and gentle ("^"l) to Israel.'' 
Jerome's interpretation is somewhat similar: "£t est 
ordo verborum ; assumptio verbi Domini, acuti in pec- 
catores, moUis in justos. Adrach quippe hoc reisonat ex 
duobus integris nomen compositum : Ad ('in) acutum, 
RACH {"yS) mottfy tenerumque significans'* (Comment, in 
Zack, ad loc). Hengstenbeig (Christol. iii, 872) adopts 
the same etymology and meaning, but regards the word 
as a symbolical appellation of the Persian empire, whose 
overthrow by Alexander Zechariah here foretells. He 
says the prophet does not mention the real name, be- 
cause, as he lived during the supremacy of Persia, such 
a reference would have exposed him to danger. See 
Zechariah, Book of. 

Looking at the passage in what appears to be its 
plain and lutural meaning, no scholar can deny that, 
according to the usual construction, the proper name 
following I'^HK is the name of the "land" itself, or of 
the nation inhabiting the land, and the analog^' pre- 
sented by all the other names in the section is sufficient 
proof that this must be the case here (Hengstenbeig, 
iii, 875). All the other names mentioned are well 
known— Damascus, Hamath, T\Te, Zidon, Gaza, etc ; it 
b natural to infer that Hadrach is also the name of a 
place known to the prophet. Its position is not accu- 
rately defined. The words of the passage do not con- 
nect it more closely with Damascus than with Hamath. 
It is remarkable that no such name Ts elsewhere found 
in ancient writers. The translators of the Sq)t. were 
ignorant of it. So was Jerome. No such place is now 
known. Yet this does not prove that there never was 
such a name. Many ancient names have disappeared, 
as it seems to be the case with this (see Alphens, JJitt, 
de terra Chadrach, Tr. ad Rhen. 1728 ; also in Ugolino, 
vii). — Kittto, s. V. See Damascus. 

Hadrian, Pors. See Adrian. 

HadrianuB, P. iEsnuus, the 14th Roman empe- 
ror (from A.D. 117-138), was a relative and the ward of 
Trajan, and married Julia Sabina, the granddaughter 
of Marciana, suter of that emperor. In regard to the 
place of his birth, the statement of Spartianus (Derifa 
Hadriani, i) that he was bora at Rome Jan. 24, A.D. 
76, is generally reganled as the more reliable, though 
others name Italica in Spain, where his ancestors had 
settled in the time of Scipio (see Eutropius, vm, 6, and 
Eusebius, Chronicon, No. 2155, p. 166, ed. Scaligcr). Aid- 
ed by the preference of Trajan's wife, Plotina, and show- 
ing himself capable in the positions intrusted to him, he 
rose rapidly, and on the death of Trajan succeeded to 
the empire, ba%nng been either really adopted as his suc- 
cessor by that emperor, or palmed off as such by Plotina 
and her party. For a statement of the conflicting opin- 
ions on this point, see Spartianus (De vita Hadriani^ iv) 
and Dion Cassius (Ixix, 1). '^lien Hadrian assiuned the 
reins of government (A.D. 117), he found the quiet of 
the empire threatened at several points, but, adopting a 
general policy of i^eace, he succeeded in preventing out- 
breaks and invasions in nearly every instance. In fur- 
therance of this peacefid polic}', he withdrew the legions 
from the conquests of his predecessor be}'ond the Tigris 
and Euphrates, and would have also abandoned Dacia 
had not populous Roman colonies existed there. 

Impelled by curiosity, or, more probably, by a desire 
to see for himself the condition of the empire, he jour- 
neyed extoisively through it, lea^nng everywhere mon- 
uments of his mmiifioenoe in temples, aqueducts, and 
other useful or oniamental works. He made many 
improvements in the laws, and the Edichtnt perpetuum 
Hadriani (a codification of pnetorial edicts made by his 
orders) marked an mm in the historical development of 



HAEMORRHAGE 



13 



HAEMSTEDE 



the RontB Inr. Hadruui, though a voluptuary m pri- 
Tite life, was a patron of the arts and of learning ; was 
iond of the society of artists, poets, scholars, philoso- 
pben^ etc, and even aspired to nmk among them; but 
his iiiferior taste, his jealousy, his overweening vanity, 
and his impatience of rivalry and contradiction led him 
oftffl to acts of cmel injustice towards the learned men 
he gxtherpd about him. 

Hu conduct towards the Christians was marked by a 
tease of justice. The proconsul of Asia Minor ha\nng 
oomplained to Hadrian that the people at their festivals 
dfflonded the execution of Christians, he issued a rc- 
aeript forbidiUng such executions, and lequiring that all 
complaints against the Christians should be made in 
I^ fonn. Though this edict failed to secure immu- 
nity to Christians from persecution, since the fourth 
penecution occurred during his reign, Hadrian was not 
dassed by Melito, Tertullian, or Eusebius among their 
penectttorB, and his reign is regarded as ill general favor- 
able to the progress of Christianity* JEJiua Lamprid- 
iiB {Aiexmder SeceruM, 43), indeed, mentions a report 
that Hadrian purposed to erect temples to Christ, as 
one of the gods, but was deterred by the priests, who 
dcrlared that all would become Christiana if he did so. 
This story is, however, generally ivganled as unworthy 
of crnlit. The tolerant ^irit or indifference of Hadrian 
tovanls religious opiniotis and practices disapproved of 
aad eren ridiculed by him is shown by his letter to Ser- 
rianua, preserved in Yopiscus {Severua, 8), and by the 
isct that though a zealous worshipper of the /Sacra of 
hi» nitire country, he also adoptetl the Egyptian Cultus. 
The peace of his reign was broken by one serious 
va?. Among the Jews a spirit of discontent had been 
kept alive ever since the capture of Jerusalem by Titus. 
^IshinK to eradicate this spirit by the destruction of 
the Jewish nationality, Hadrian issued an edict forbid- 
dinji; the practice of circumcision, and determined to 
erect on the ruins of Jerusalem a new Koraan city, to 
be eaJled aOcr himself, ^lia Capitolina. Conseqiient- 
Ir a furious re\filt of the Jews broke out under the 
kail of Bar Cochba, a pretended messiah, and it was 
ook after having suffered great losses, and having al- 
iBOrt exterminatetl the Jewbh nation (500,000 Jews are 
■ill to have perished), that the imperial armies suc- 
ceeded in crushing the revolt, although the able gen- 
enl, Joljus Sevenis, had been called from the distant 
vuves of Britain to lead them. iElia Capitolina rose 
WTff the ruins of the Holy City, but the Jew was forbid- 
dn, on the pain of death, to enter it, and from that time 
the race was dispersed through the workt Antoninus 
fias annulled the prohibition of circumcision. Hadrian 
died at Baic July 10, 138; but his last days had been 
■talked by such outrageous cruelties that Antoninus, 
^ nicceaaor, with difficulty secured the customary hon- 
•o to his mcnior>'.— Spartianus, I>e vita J/adrkmi (in 
Saipiorrt J/ittoruB Auguataj Teubner's edit.); Smith, 
/*/. ^fGr^tk imd Roman Biog, and Mythol. ii, 819 sq. ; 
Hoefer. A oirr. Biog. Ghu i, 301 sq. ; Herzog, Beal-Kncy- 
y»pddie, V, 446 ; Sharpe, History of Egypt, xv, 14-31. 

BaBmoirluice. See Issue. 



t'oxThoids (Q^'^ITO, iedtorim', prob. tumorts 
Ai, i. e. <4e pUn, so caUed as protruded [the root is 
T??. to ttrttchi from the fundament, or from the strauh- 
^ or tenesmus with flow of blood, which the Maso- 
nus have everywhere inserted in the margin for the 
textaal [bat apparently more \nilgar and less proper] 
vrml S'*^B7, opkalim', liL At/b, spoken also in the Arab, 
cf a "-faiaor in ano viro rum vel in pudendis mulierum** 
,'«e Scbroeder, Orig, Jieb, iv, 64; Scholtens, ad Meida- 
«B Pror, p^ 231 ; Sept. and Vulg. understand a tore in 
f^met parts), a painful diaease with which the Phi- 
^fOaea were afflicted by God as a punishment for de- 
Uasaof^ the sacred ark at Ashdod after they had cap- 
tBied it in battle (2 Sam. v, 6). The word also occurs 
inoog the physical cuiMi denounced upon the Israel- 



ites by Moses in case of apostasy (Deut. xxviit, 27). 
Interpreters are not agreed on the exact signilication at 
the original terms, nor on the nature of the disease, al- 
though most think that those painful tumors in the fun- 
dament are meant which sometimes turn into ulcers, i. 
e. the pile$ (Fsa. Ixxviii, 66). Others regard it as the 
name of the fundament itself, jsociex (Bochart, J/ieroz, i, 
382; see Fuller m3ftice/:<9a&v, 3; Kanne,Z>ie GoMms 
Aeraeder Philiit. Nnrimb. 1820). The Sept. and Vulg. 
add to ver. 9 that the Philistines made seats of skins, 
upon which to sit with more ease, by reason of their in- 
disposition. Herodotus seems to have had some knowl- 
edge of this histori', but has assigned another cause (i, 
105). He says the Sc>*thians, having plundered the 
temple of Venus at Askalon, a celebrated city of the 
Philistines, the goddess, who was worshipped there, af- 
flicted them with a peculiar diseaae (3/;X£ia voooc). 
The Philistines, perhaps, thus related the stor}*; but it 
evidently passed for truth that this diaease was ancient, 
and had been sent among them by some avenging deity. 
To remedy this suffering, and to remove the ravages 
committed by rats, which wasted their cotuitr\', the 
Philistines were advised by their priests and soothsay- 
ers to return the ark of God with the following offerings 
(1 Sam. vi, 1-18) : five flgures of a golden emerod, that 
is, of the part afflicted, and five golden rats; hereby ac- 
knowledging that this plague was the effect of divine 
justice. This ad>'ice was followed ; and Joeephus (Ant, 
vi, 1, 1, iuffivTtpia ; Aquila, rd t!)c ^ytdaivrfc cXco;) 
and others believed that the five cities of the Philistines 
made each a statue, which they consecrated to God as 
votive offerings for their deliverance. This, however, 
seems to have originated from the flgures of the rats. 
The heathen frequently offered to their gods figures rep- 
resenting those parts of the body which had been dis- 
eased (see Frey, De more simulacra membrorum corue- 
crandi, Altd. 1746) ; and such kinds of ex votit are still 
frequent in Catholic countries, being consecrated in 
honor of some saint who is supposed to have wroi^ht 
the cure : they are images of wax or of metal, exhibit- 
ing those parts of the body in which the disease was 
seatecL The Scholiast on Aristophanes (Achant. 2Sl) 
mentions a similar plague (followed by a similar subse- 
quoit propitiation to that mentioned in Scripture), as 
sent upon the Athenians by Bacchus. The opinion 
mentioned by Winer (s. v. I'hiUster), as advanced by 
lichtenstein (in Eichhom*s Biblioth, vi, 405-467), that 
the plague of emerods and that of mice are one and the 
same, the former being caused by an insect (aolpuga) as 
large as a field-mouse, \a hardly worth serious attention. 
Kitto thinks that they were rather taUsmans specially 
formed under astrological calculations for the purpose 
of obviating the effects of the disease {DaUy Bibte lUust, 
ad loc.). The words of 1 Sam. v, 12, '*The men that 
died not were smitten with emerods," show that the dis- 
ease was not necessarily fatal It is clear from its par- 
allelism ^nth ** botch" and other diseases in Deut. xxviii, 
27, that D'^^&9 is a disease, not a part of the body (see 
Beyer, De Juemorrhoidibus ex lege AfosaicOy Lips. 1792). 
Now 1 Sam. v, 11 speaks of the images of the emerods 
after they were actually made and placed in the ark. 
It thus appears probable that the former word means 
the disease and the latter the part affected, which must 
necessarily have been includeil in the actually existing 
image, and have struck the eye as the essential thing 
represented, to which the disease was an incident As 
some morbid swelling, then, seems the most probable 
nature of the disease, so no more probable conjecture 
has been advanced than that hmnorrhoidal tumors or 
bleeding piles, known to the Romans as mariscat (Juv. 
ii, 13), are intended. These are ver^' common in Syria 
at present, Oriental habits of want of exercise and im- 
proper food, producing derangement of the liver, consti- 
pation, etc., being such as to cause them. — Gesenius, s. 
V. ; Calmet, s. v. ; Smith, s. v. See Diseask. 

Haemstede, Adbiaan vax, one of the first preach- 



HAENDEL 



14 



HAFFNER 



en of the Reformeil faith in the Netherlands, was prob- 
ably bom about the year 1625 in Schouwen. The iiar- 
ents of Aclriaan seem to have been among the earlietit 
in Zealand to embrace the Reforme<l faith. He under- 
stood several modem languages, and vrrote in Ixith Lat- 
in and Dutch. His Dutch style is remarkable for per- 
spicuity and strength. Adriaan was in 1557 minister- 
ing to the Reformed church in Antwerp, and his labors 
there were eminently successfui Deeply ^empathizing 
with the persecuted Protestants in France, he wrote in 
Latin a letter to Henry the Second of France, in which 
he remonstrates with him and pleads with him to ex- 
ercise clemency. This letter is dated Dec 1, 1557, and 
is thus in advance of the measures set on foot bv Calvin 
and Beza in behalf of those persecuted followers of 
Christ. Van Haemstedc in this letter suggests a con- 
ference such as was held at Poissy in 1562. Van der 
Heiden, sent at his request by the church at £mden to 
assist him at Antwerp, having arrived, he took occanon 
to leave for a time (Feb. 1558). During his absence dark 
clouds gathered, and soon after his return the storm burst. 
Van der Heiden, whose place of preaching had been be- 
trayed by a woman, escaped. Van Haemstcde rcmun- 
e<l, though a price was set upon his head, and certain 
death awaited him if captured. His two faithful help- 
ers, Gillis and Antoine Yerdikt, were both burned at Brus- 
sels. He left Antwerp probably in March, 1550, and 
sought refuge in Ost Friesland. Subsequently he la- 
bored for a short time at Groningen, and was thence 
sent to England to take charge of a Reformed church ui 
London. He espoused the cause of the better class of 
Anabaptists, so far as to maintain that they should not 
be punisheil for their doctrinal error respecting the hu- 
manity of Christ, since they acknowledged his divinity, 
and depended on him for salvation. This view was in 
direct conflict with the views and practice of Cranmer 
and Ridley, who had in 1551 condemned to the flames 
Joris van Parre, a Netherlander of irreproachable mor- 
als, simply on account of his doctrinal belief. As the 
churph which Haemstede served was at this time under 
the supervision of Edmund Grimlal, bishop of London, 
he was called to accomit for his views, and, adhering to 
them, was banished from the kingdom. On his retum 
to Holland he was deprived of all his property. Em- 
den, too, refused to receive him. He bore his trials and 
privations in a truly Christian manner. At the earnest 
xequest of many of the London congregation, he finally 
went thither again. The bishop of London demanded 
a recantation. He refusecL Again he was banished. 
With a heavv heart he returned to Friesland, where he 
soon after died. His death occurred in 1562. In his 
views of religious libert}' he was far in advance of his 
age, and fell a victim to the reigning spirit of intoler- 
ance. He was the author of the first Book of Martyrs 
published in the Netherlands. It is conjectured that it 
was flrst published at Antwerp during the persecution, 
and is8ue<l in sheets as it was prepared. The origiiud 
edition, which is extremely rare, is in small quarto, 
bearing the author's name, but not the place of its pub- 
lication. It met with great favor, and for two centuries 
it was the manual of thousaiuls, having passed through 
many successive editions. See an able and interesting 
monograph of Rev. Joh- ab Utrecht Dresselhuis in the 
vith vol. of Kist and Rayaard's Archicfvoor KerkeUjke 
GescJiiedenUf inzondfrheid van Nederkmd (Leyd. 1885) ; 
Glasius, GodgeUerd Xederland, D. ii. (J. P. W.) 

HaendeL See Hakdel. 

HsereticL See Heretic. 

Hseretico comborendo, a writ which, in Eng- 
land, "anciently lay against a heretic, who, having once 
been convicted of heresy by his bishop, aud having ab- 
jured it, afterwards falling into it again, or into some 
other, is thereupon committed to the secular power. 
This writ is thought by some to 1)e as ancient as the 
common law itself; however, the conviction of heresy 
by the common law was not in any petty ecdeuastical 



court, but before the archbishop himself, in a provincisl 
s}niod, and the delinquent was delivered up to the kuig, 
to do with him as he pleased; so that the crown had a 
control over the spiritual power; but by 2 Henr^' IV, 
cap. 15, the diocesan alone, without the uitervention of 
a s^mod, might convict of heretical tenets ; and unless 
the convict abjured his opinions, or if, after abjuration, 
he relapsed, the sheriff was bound, ex officio^ if require<l 
by the bishop, to commit the unhappy \ictim to the 
flames, without waiting for the consent of the crown. 
This writ remaine<l in force, and was actually executed * 
on two AnabaiHists in the seventh of Elizalicth, and on 
two Arians in the ninth of James I. Sir Edward Coke 
was of opinion that this writ did not lie in his time; 
but it is now formally taken away by statute 29 Car. II, 
cap. 9. But this statute does not extend to take away 
or abridge the jurisdiction of Protestant archbishops, or 
bishops, or any other judges of any ecclesiastical courts, 
in cases of atheism, blasphemy, heres}', or schism ; but 
they may prove and punish the same, according to his 
majesty's ecclesiastical laws, by excommunication, dep- 
rivation, degradation, and other ecclesiastical censures, 
not extending to death, ui such sort, and no other, as 
they might have done before the making of this act." — 
Buck, Theological Dictionary, s. v. 

Haevemick. See Havermick. 

Hafenreffer, Matthias (also UaffenrtjJ'tr), a Lu- 
theran theologian, was bom Jime 24, 1561, at Lorch, in 
WUrtemberg, and died Oct. 22, 1619, at Tubingen. He 
studied philosophy and thcolog}' at the last-named place, 
and in 1590 was made court-preacher and counsellor of 
the Consistory at Stuttgart; in 1592 became professor 
of thcologA', and in 1617 chancellor and provost at Tu- 
bingen. To a profouiul and comprehensive learning, 
he united a sweet and peace-loving disposition, which 
led him to keep aloof for the most part from ihe theo- 
logical strifes of his age, and to And his pleasures in di- 
recting and rtimulattng the studies of his pupils, to 
whose affectionate appreciation of him VaL AntlreH and 
others bear testimony. His chief work, l^ci (heologici 
certn methodo ac raiione in fres Ubros tributi (Tubingen, 
1600; an improvetl and enlarged ed. 1603). publishe<l at 
the request of Fretlerick, duke of WUrteraberg, for the 
use of prince John Frederick, was regarde<l as a model 
not onlv of Lutheran orthodoxv, but also of clearness 
and deflniteness in conception, and expression and sim- 
plicity in style. It was the text-book of theology at 
Tubingen up to the end of the 17th centurj', supplant- 
ing Heerbrand's Compendiuwy which had long been of 
almost s3'mbolical authority there. By royal decree it 
was, in 1612, made the oflicial text-lxMik of dogmatics 
in the University of Upsala and other Swedish institu- 
tions of learning. Charles XH is said to have almost 
known it by heart. Hafenreffer wrote also some con- 
troversial works against the Romanists and Calvinists, 
and a work entitled Templum Ezechielis (Tubingen. 1013, 
foL).— Hensog, Real-Encyllopadie, v, 469. (.1. W. M.) 

Ha£Eher, Isaac, a French IVotestant muiister and 
distinguished humanist, was bom at Strasburg in 1751. 
After studying at Paris and visiting several of the (ver- 
man universities, he was ordahted, and soon acquired 
great reputation as a preacher in Strasburg. He be- 
came subsequently dean of the theological faculty of 
that city, and died there May 27, 1831. He had been 
instmmental in restoring in part the old university of 
Strasbuii^ under the title oi Protestant TheoUu/iccUA cad- 
emtfy which was afterwards changed to Protestant Semi' 
nary. At the inauguration he delivered an address, 
printed under the title Des Secour* que Vetude des kuh- 
ffuea, de Vhistoire, de la philosophie etde la Uttirature nf^ 
fre a la theologie (Strasb. 1803, 8vo) ; he wmte also De 
VEducation litleraire, ou essai sur Poiyaniaatum eTun 
efabUsaemeni pour les hauies aciencea (Strasb. 1792, 8ro). 
Discourses delivered on the aimiversar}' of his 50th year 
in the ministry were published under the title JubiU 
dkHajfntr (French and German, Strasb. 1831, 8vo). See 



HAFT 



16 



HAGAR 



Oberiin, Abiumach d'Altaoe; M. Heimoni Atmales 5to- 
grapkiques (1831, 1854), yoL ii; Hoefer, Aouv. Biog, Oen. 
xxiii,80. 



(233, mt9l8ab',firm)y the handle of a weapon, 
e. g. of a dagger (Jmlg. iii, 22). See Knife. 

Haitorah (also Ifqftaroih) is the name applied to 
fiAy-foiir portions or sections of the Pentateuch selected 
by the Jews for Sabbath reading in the synagogue, un- 
der Antiochus Epiphanes, who forbid them reading the 
law. Previous to his time the Pentateuch was divided 
into ndras. In Palestine the number of sections re- 
quired three yeaxs for the public reading of the whole 
Pentatench, but in Babylonia, the reading, arranged as 
above leforred to, was done in one year. — ^FUrst, KuUur- 
gnduchie, i. 60; Etheridge, Introduction to Jlebr, Lit, p. 
201. See Haphtaraii. (J.H.W.) 

Ha'gab (Heb. Chagah', njiH, a locust ; Sept. 'Ayd^), 
one of the Nethinim whose descendants returned from 
Btbykm under Zerubbabel (Ezra ii, 46). B.a ante 686. 
SeeHAGABA. 



(Heb. ChagaW, HSJTT, a locust^ a Chal- 
daiz'mg form ; Sept. 'Ayafid f . r. 'AyyaPd,Yu\g. Hagaba, 
Neb. vii, 4«) or HAG'ABAH (Heb. Chagabak'y T^Vn^ 
id. ; Sept. 'Aya/3a,yulg. Ifagaba, Ezra ii, 45), one of the 
Nethinim whose descendants returned ttom the captiv- 
ity with Zerubbabel. B.C. ante 536. See Agabus ; 
Uagab. 



J", John B., D.D., an eminent minister of 
the MethoiUst Episcopal Church, was bom in the citj' 
of Wilmin^on, Delaware, August 26, 1808, of Metho- 
dist parentage, and entered the itinerant mini-stry in 
1831. His ministry was from the tiret very success- 
fuL During his long career of tMrty-«our years he 
fiUed many of the roo^t important stations of his Church 
in the MidiUe States, among them Pottsville, Pa. ; St, 
George's, Ebenezer, and Trinity churches, Philadelphia ; 
the Vestry Street, Mulberry Street, St. Paul's, and Bed- 
ford Street churches. New York City; Sands Street, 
Brooklyn, ami Thirtieth Street, New' York, where he 
dosed his labors with his life, Jime 28, 1865. 

Dr. Ha^any was an eloquent preacher. He had a 
sweet-toned voice, a calm rather than a fervid temper- 
ament, a quick, tender sympathy, by which he was 
readily affected himself, and could readily affect others 
to tearsL His memory was retentive, and enable<l him 
to oomman^l instantly all his resources In the early 
Methodist literature, and the English classics of the 
17th century, he was unusually well read, and his cita- 
tions from his favorite authors pleasantly spiced his 
conversation. Withal there was a vein of humor run- 
ning through his speaking and writing which gave a 
flavor to both. His literary remains consist chiefly of 
emayn contributed to religious and other periodicals. 
One of these, on John Wesley, furnished to Harper's 
Magazine^ is one of the most striking characterizations 
of the great reformer extant. On the last Sunday of 
his life, June 25th, he preached to his congregation from 
the text, ** Let me die the death of the righteous, and 
Irt my last end be like his." Not having finished his 
dxscourae, he aanoimced that he would conclude it the 
next time be preached. On the evening of that dav he 
was too unwell to go into the pulpit. On Wednesday 
afternoon he was sitting in his chair, reading from the 
sermons of Rev. Jonathan Seed, an old favorite of John 
Wesley. Meeting in Seed with a passage which greatly 
leased him, he called his wife, and began reading it 
aknid to her. While reading he was seized with a 
pfamok of pain in the chest; the book was dropped, he 
leaaed his head upon his hand, his arm upon the table 
before him, and in a few minutes if was all over. He 
had nearly completed his fifty-seventh year, and the 
(hirty-fourth of his ministry. (G. R. C.) 



(Heb. FIagar\ "^^, flight, apparently from 
feer afaandonment of her mistresB; but aooording to oth- 



ers, a strcmgeTj fVom her foreign birth [comp. Hagah- 
enk] ; Sept. and N. T. *Ayap), a native of Egj^t, and 
ser>'ant of Abraham (Gen. xxi, 9, 10), perhaps one of 
the female slaves presented to Abraham by Pharaoh 
during his visit to Egypt (Gen. xii, 16), although she 
properly l)elonged to Sarah (Gen. xvi, 1). The long- 
continued sterility of Sarah suggested to her the idea 
(not uncommon in the East) of becoming a mother by 
proxy through her handmaid, whom, with that view, 
she gave to Abraham as a secondary wife (Gen. xv). 
B.C. 2078. See Abraham; Adoption: Concubine. 
This honor was too great and unexpected for the weak 
and iil-r^ulated mind of Hagar; and no sooner did she 
find herself likely to become the mother of her master's 
heir than she openly indulged in triumph over her less 
favored mistress. The feelings of Sarah were severely 
wowided, and she broke out to her husband in loud 
complaints of the 8er\'ant's petulance. Abraham, whose 
meek and prudent behavior is strikingly contrasted with 
the violence of his wife, left her ii\'ith unfettered power, as 
mistress of his household, to take what steps she pleased 
to obtain the required redress. (See Kitto's Daily Bi" 
bU Illiut. ad loc.) In all Oriental states where con- 
cubinage is legalized, the principal wife has authority 
over the rest; the secondary one, if a slave, retains her 
former condition unchanged, and society thus presents 
the strange anomaly of a woman being at once the me- 
nial of her master and the partner of his bed. This per- 
mission, however, was necessary in an Eastern house- 
hold, but it is worthy of remark that it is now very 
rarely given ; nor can we think, from the imchangeable- 
ness of Eastern customs, and the strongly-marked na- 
tional character of those peoples, that it was usual an- 
cientlv to allow a wife to deal hardlv with a slave in 
Hagar *8 position. Left with this authority over her 
dotal maid -^servant, Sarah was neither reluctant nor 
sparing in making the minion reap the fruits of her in- 
solence; but whether she actimlly inflicted blows (Au- 
gustine^ Epitt, xlviii), or merely threw out menaces to 

that effect, cannot be determined from the verb n?9 (to 
*^ajlicr), there employed. Sensible, at length, of the 
hopelessness of getting the better of her mistress, Hagar 
determined on flight ; and having seemingly formed the 
purpose of returning to her relations in Egypt, she took 
the direction of that countr}', which led her to what 
was afterwards called Shur, through a long tract of 
sandy uninhabited country, lying on the west of Arabia 
Petnea, to the extent of 150 miles between Palestine 
and Eg^'pt. Here she was sitting by a fountain to re- 
plenish her skin-bottle or recruit her wearied limbs, 
when the angel of the Lord appeared, and in the kind- 
liest manner remonstrated with her on the course she 
was pursuing, and encouraged her to return by the 
promise that she would ere long have a son, whom Prov- 
idence destined to become a great man, and whose wild 
and iiregular features of character would be indelibly 
impressed on the mighty nation that should spring from 
him. Obedient to the heavenly visitor, and having 
distinguished the place by the name of Beer-lahai-roi 
(q.v.), "the well of the visible God," Hagar retraced 
her steps to the tent of Abraham, where in due time she 
had a son ; and, having probably narratetl this remark- 
able interview to Abraham, that patriarch, as directed 
by the angel, called the name oi fhe child Ishmael, 
"God hath heard" (Gen. xvi). RC. 2078. Fourteen 
years after the birth of Ishmael the appearance of the 
long-promised heir entirely changed the relations of the 
family, though nothing materially affecting Ishmael 
took place till the weaning of Isasc, which, as is gener- 
ally thought, was at the end of his third year. B.C. 
2061. Ishmael was then fully capable of understanding 
his altered relations to the inheritance ; and when the 
newly-weaned child, clad, according to custom, with 
the sacred symbolic robe, which was the badge of the 
birthright, was formally installed heir of the tribe (see 
BibHoth. BibL voL i ; Vicasi, A nnot. p. 32 ; Bush on Gen. 
xxvii, 15), he inconsiderately gave vent to his disap- 



I 

J 



HAOARENE 



la 



HAGABENE 



poinieA feelings by an act of mockery (Gen. xjd, 9 — 
the Hebrew word pns, though properly signtfying ^ to 
langb,** w frequently used to express strong derision, as 
in Gen. xix, 14 ; Neh. ii, 19 ; iv, 1 ; Erek. xxiii, 82 ; ac- 
companied, as is probable on some of the occasions re- 
ferred to in these passages, with violent gestures, which 
might very justly be interpreted as persecution, GaL 
iv, 29). The procedure of Abraham in awarding the 
inheritance to Isaac was guided by the special com- 
mand of Goil, and, moreover, was in harmony with the 
immemorial practice of the East, where the son of a 
slave or secondary wife is alwaj's supplanted by that of 
a free woman, even if bom long after. This insulting 
conduct of Ishmael gave offence to Sarah, such that she 
insisted upon his expulsion from the family, together 
with his mother as conni\'ing at it. So harsh a meas- 
ure was extremely painful to Abraham ; but his scruples 
were removed by the divine direction to follow Sarah's 
advice (see Kitto's DaUy Bible JUttst. ad loc), <'for," 
adds the Targum of Jonathan, ^she is a prophetess" 
(compare GaL iv, 30). Accordingly, ^Abraham rose up 
early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of 
water (and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoul- 
der), and the child, and sent her away" (Gen. xxi, 14). 
B.C. 2061. In spite of instructions, the two exiles miss- 
ed their way. Overcome by fatigue and thirst, the 
strength of the young Ishmael first gave way, and his 
mother laid him down in complete exhaustion under 
one of the stunted shrubs of this arid region, in the hope 
of his obtaining some momentary relief from smelling 
the damp in the shade, while she withdrew to a little 
distance, unable to witness his lingering sufferings, and 
there " she lifted up her voice and wept" In this dis- 
tress, the angel of the Lord appeared with a comforting 
promise of her son's future greatness, and directed her 
to a fountain, which, concealed by the brushwood, had 
escaped her notice, and from whicfi she now rcWved the 
almost lifeless Ishmael This well, according to the tra- 
dition of the Arabs (who pay great honor to the memo- 
ry of Hagar, and maintain that she was Abraham's 
lawful wife), is Zemzem, near Mecca. (See Weil's BibL 
Legends^ p. 82.) Of the subsequent history of Hagar 
we have no account beyond what is involved in that of 
Ishmael, who established himseU in the wilderness of 
Paran, in the neighborhood of Sinai, was married by his 
mother to a countrywoman of her own, and maintained 
both himself and his family by the produce of his bow 
(Gen. xxi, 20, 21). — Kitto, s. v. See Ishmael. In Gal. 
iv, 24, the apostle Paul, in an allegory, makes Hagar 
(r6 'Ayap) represent the Jewish Chureh, which was in 
bondage to the ceremonial law, as Sarah represents the 
true Church of Christ, which is free from this bondage. 
(See Bloomfield's Note, ad loc.) Some commentators, 
however, have discovered an alliteration in the name 
here vrith the Arab, word for ttont (hajar). According 
to Mohammedan tradition, Hagar {Hajir) was buried 
at Mecca! (D'Herbelot, Bib, Or, a. v. Hagiar). Mr. 
Rowlanils, in travelling through the desert of Beershe- 
ba, discovered some wells and a stone mansion, which 
he declares the Arabs still designate as those of Hagar! 
(Williams, iloltf City, i, 465 sq.). See Abraham. 

Hagar^ne or Hag'aiite [conmnonly Ila'garite] 
(Heb. Ilagri^ '^^yt], fugitive [compare Hagar, from the 
same root as the Arab. Hegirah, i. e.Jlighi] ; but, accord- 
ing to Fuist, s. v., a patrial from some ancestor Hagar, 
otherwise unknown; 1 Chron. xi, 88, Sept. 'Arapat, 
Vulg. A garni, A. V. "Haggerij" xxvii, 31, *Aya(Hrrf^, 
Agariiis, " Haggerite ;" in the plur, Hagrvn\ O'^'ifil, 
Psa. Lxxxiii, 6, 'hyag/ifvoi, Agarem, ^'Hagarenes;" fully 
Hagriim', tT^^yjn, 1 Chron. v, 10, 19, 20, SepU in ver. 
10 irapoiKoi, in ver. 19, 20 'Ayapalot, Vulg. Aagarei, 
A. Y. M Hagarites ;" Bamch iii, 28, vioi 'Ayapy^i Agar, 
^^Agarenes"), occurs apparently as the national or local 
designation of two individuals, and also of a tribe or re- 
gion» probably the same Arab pecipLe who appear at dif- 



ferent periods of the sacred histoiy as foreignen to the 
HebrewSb See Arabia. 

I. Of ituUaduait it is twice used in connection with 
the royal staff in the time of David (q. v.). 

1. In 1 Chron. xi, 88 of Mibhab (q. v.), one of David's 
mighty men, who is described as *^'1!llj*')^vc6f 'Ayapc, 
JiUus Agarai, ** the son of Haggerij'* or, better (as the 
margin has it), ** the Ilaggerite," whose father's name is 
not given. This hero differs from some of his col- 
leagues, '^Zelek the Ammonite" (ver. 89), for instance; 
or " Ithmah the Moabite" (ver. 46), in that, while they 
were foreigners, he was only the son of a foreigner— a 
domiciled settler perhaps. See IIaogeiu. 

2. In 1 Chron. xxvii, 81 of Jaziz (q. v.), another of 
David's retainers, who was ''over his flocks." This 
man was himself a ''Hagarite," 6 'Ayapinic, Agareu$, 
A comparison of the next paragraph (H) will show how 
well qualified for his office this man was likely to be 
from lus extraction from a pastoral race. (''A Hagarite 
had charge of David's flocks, and an Ishmaelite of his 
herds, because the animals were pastured in districts 
where these nomadic people were accustomed to feed 
their cattle" [or, rather, because their experience made 
them skilful in such emplojnnents], Berlheau on Chron' 
icles [Clarke's ed.], ii, 820.) One of the effects of the 
great victory over the Hagarites of Gilead and the 
East was probably that individuals of their nation en- 
tered the service of the victorious Israelites, either vol- 
untarily or by coercion, as freemen or as slaves. Jazis 
was no doubt among the former, a man of eminence and 
intelligence among his countrj'men, on which account 
he attracted the attention of his royal master, who 
seems to have liberally employed distinguished and 
meritorious foreigners in his service. See Haggeritk. 

II. Of A peopk three times who appear in hostile re- 
lation to the Hebrew nation. 

1. Our first passage treats of a great war, which in 
the reign of king Saul was waged between the trans-Jor- 
danic tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh on the 
one ndd, and their formidable neighbors, the Hagarites, 
aided by the kindred tribes of " Jetur, and Nephish, and 
Nodab," on the other. {Kindred tribes, we say, on the 
evidence of Gen. xxv, 15. The Arab tribes derived 
from Hagar and Ishmael, like the earlier stocks descend- 
ed from Cush and Joktaii, were at the same time gener- 
ally known by the common patron^'mic of Ishmaelites 
or Hagarenes. Some regard the three specific names 
of Jetur, Nephish, and Nodab, not as distinct from, but 
in apposition with Hagarites ; as if the Hagarites with 
whom the two tribes and a half successfully fought were 
the dans of Jetur, Nephish, and Nodab. See Forster'a 
Geog, of Arabia, i, 186-189.) The result of this war 
was extremely favorable to the eastern Israelites : many 
of the enemy were taken and many slain in the conflict 
(ver. 21, 22) ; the victorious two tribes and a half took 
possession of the country, and retained it until the cap- 
tivity (ver. 22). The booty captured on this occasion 
was enormous: *' of camels 50,000, and of sheep 250,000, 
and of asses 2000" (ver. 21). RosenmUller (BibL Geogr. 
[tr. by Morren], iii, 140), following the Sept and Lu- 
ther, unnecessarily reduces the number of camels to 
5000. When it is remembered that the wealth of a 
Bedouin chief, both in those and these times, consisted 
of cattle, the amount of the booty taken in the Hagarite 
war, though great, was not excessive. Job's stock is 
described as " 7000 sheep, 3000 camels, 500 yoke of oxen, 
and 500 she-asses" (i, 8). Mesha, king of Moab, paid 
to the king of Israel a tribute of 100,000 lambs and 
100,000 rams (2 Kings iii, 4). In further illustration of 
this wealth of cattle, we may quote a passage from Stan- 
ley's Jet€ish Church, i, 215, 216 : " Still the coundesB 
flocks and herds may be seen [in this very region om- 
quered from the Hagarites], droves of cattle nioving on 
like troops of soldiers, descending at sunset to drink of 
the springs — literally, in the language of the prophet, 
< rams and lambs, and goats and bullocks, all of them 
fatlingsofBiahan.''' ^y this conquest^ which was stiU 



HAGAKENES 



17 



HA6ARENES 



fiimly ntified in the subsequent xeign of Darid, 
the promise^ which was given as early as Abraham's 
time (Gen. xv, 18) and renewed to Moses (Deut. i, 7) 
and to Joshua (i, 4), began to receive that accomplish- 
ment which was consummated by the glorious Solomon 
(1 Kings iVy 21). The large tract of country which 
thus accrued to Israel stretched from the indefinite 
frontier of the ]>a8toral tribes, to whom were formerly 
assigned the kii^gdams of Sihon and Og, to the Euphra- 
tes. A comparison of 1 Chron. v, 9-20 with Gen. xxv, 
12-18. fieems to show that this line of countr\', which 
(as the history informs us) extended eastward of Gilead 
and Bashan in the direction of the Euphrates, was sub- 
stantially the same as that which Moses describes as 
peopled by the sons of Ishmael, whom Hagar bore to 
AtoOiam. <<They dwelt," says Moses, *'fn>m Havilah 
unto Shur, that is before Egypt as thou goest towards 
AaarriA^ — in otlier words, across the country from the 
junction of the Euphrates with the Tigris to the isth- 
mus of Suez ; and this is the spacious tract which we 
assign to the Ilagarites or Hagarenes. The booty taken 
firom the Ilagarites and their allies proves that much 
of this territory was well adapted to pasturage, and 
therefore valuable to the nomadic habits of the conquer- 
ors (Numb, xxxii, 1). The brilliancy of the conquest, 
moreover, exhibits the military prowess of these shep- 
benis. Living amid raoes whose love of plunder is still 
iUnstrated in the predatory Bedouins of Eastern Pales- 
tine, th^' were obliged to erect fortresses for the protec- 
tion of their pastures (Michaells, Iaxiob of MoteSf art. 
xxiii), a precaution which seems to have be<9i resorted 
to finom the first. The sons of Ishmael are enumerated, 
Gen. XXV, 16, "by their towns and by their caatlea;" 
and some such defenave erections were no doubt meant 
by the children of Reuben and Gad in Numb, xxxii, 16, 
17. See IsiiXAEUTES. 

2. Though these eastern Israelites became lords par- 
amoisnt of this vast tract of countr}', it b not necessary 
to suppose that they exclusively occupied the entire re- 
gion, nor that the Ilagarites and their kindred, though 
ttdMkied, were driven out ; for it was probably in the 
same neighborhood that ** the Hagarenes"^ of our second 
passage were living when the}' joined in the great con- 
federacy against Israel with, among others, Edom, and 
Moab, and Ammon, and Amalek (Psa. Ixxxiii, 6 [lleb. 
7; Sept. Ixxii, 6]). When this combination took place 
k of little importance here ; Mr. Thnipp {Psalmg, ii, 60, 
61) gives reasons for assigning it to the reigns of Jeho- 
ash and of his son Jeroboam II. The psalm was prob- 
ably written on the triumph of Jehoshaphat over the 
trans-Jordanic Bedouins (2 Chron. xx). See Psalms. 
The nations, however, which constituted the confeder- 
acy with the Hagarenes, seem to confirm our opinion 
that (&e»e were still residing in the district, where in the 
reign of Saul they had been subjugated by tlieir Israel- 
iUah neighbors. BosenmUUer {BM. Geogr, [trans.] iii, 
141) and Gesenius {Tke»aMr, p. 365) suggest that the 
Hag a r en es when vanquished migrated to the south-east, 
because on the Persian Gulf there was the pro%'inoe of 
Hagar or Uajar. This is the district which the Ara- 
bian geographers have carefully and prominently de- 
scribed (compare De Sacy*s Chretiomathie A rabe, ii, 128 ; 
Abulfeda [by Beinaud], ii, 1, 137, who quotes Jakut's 
Maektartk for some of his information; and Bommel's 
Commentary on Abulfeda, De Prov, Uagiarj aive Bahk- 
ram^ p. 87, 88, 89; D'Herbek>^ s. v. Hagr). We wiU 
not deny that this province probably derived its name 
and eariy inhabitants from Httgar and her son Ishmael 
(or, as Kabbi D. Kimchi would prefer, from Uagar, 
through some son by another father than Abraham) : 
but we are not of opinion that these Hagarenes of the 
Peniaii Golf, whose pursuits were so different, were 
identical with the Hagarenes of the Psalm before us, or 
with the Hagarites of 1 Chron., whom we have identi- 
fied with them. Nothing pastoral is related of this 
maritime tribe ; Bommel quotes from two Arabian ge- 

u and Bakiu, who both deacribe these 
IV.— B 



Hagarenes of the coast as much employed in pearl-fish 
ing and such piursuits. Niebuhr {Travels in Arabia 
[Engl, tr.], ii, 151, 152) confirms their statement. Ge« 
senius is also inexact in identifying these maritime 
Hagarenes with the 'Aypaiot of Ptolemy, v, 19, 2, and 
Eratosthenes, in Strabo, xvi, 767, and Pliny, vi, 28. If 
the tribes indicated in these classical authors be the 
same (which is doubtftd), they are much more correctly 
identified by an older writer, Dr. T. Jackson ( Worka 
[ed. Oxon.], i, 220), who says: *'The seat of such as 
the Scripture calls Haganau was in the desert Arabia, 
betwixt Gilead and Euphrates (1 Chron. v, 9, 10). Tliis 
people were called by the heathen 'AypaToi, Agnei, 
rightly placed by Ptolemy in the desert Arabia, and by 
Strabo in that very place which the Scripture makes 
the eastern bounds of Ishmael's posterity, to wit, next 
unto the inhabitants of Havilah." Amid the difficulty 
of identification, some modem geographers have distribt 
uted the classical Agnei in various locslities. Thus, in 
Forster's ma^is of Arabia, they occupy both the district 
between Gilead and the Euphrates in the north, and 
also the western shores of the Persian Gulf. The fact 
seems to be that many districts in Arabia were called 
by the generic appellation of Hagariie or Hafiaj^ie, no 
doubt after Hagar; as Keturah, another of Abraham s 
concubines, occasioned the rather vaguely-used name of 
Ketureans for other tribes of the Arabian peninsula 
(Forster, Geog, of A rabia, ii, 7). In the very section of 
Abtdfeda which we have above quoted, that geographer 
(after the author of the Moahtarek) reminds us that the 
name Ilajar (Hagar) is as extensive in meaning in 
Arabia as Sham (S^Tia) and Irak elseirhere; ui like 
matmer Bommel, within a page or two, describes a Ha- 
gar in the remote province of Yemen ; this, although 
an unquestionably different place (Beinaud, ii, 1-187, 
note), is yet confounde<l with the maritime Hajar. In 
proof of the uncertainty of the situation of places in 
Arabia of like name, we may mention that, while Abul- 
feda, Edrisi, Giauhari, and Golius distinguish between 
the Hagarenes of the north-cast coast and those of tho 
remote sonth-west district «which we have just men- 
tioned, Nassir Edin, Olugbeig, and Bllsching confound 
them as identical Winer, Heaho. s. v. Hagariter, men- 
tions yet another Chajar, which, though slightly differ- 
ent in form, might be written much like our word in 
Hebrew K12in, and is actually identical with it in the 
Syriac (Assemanni, BUMoth, Orient, HI, ii, 753). This 
place was in the province of Hejaz, on the Bed Sea, on 
tho main route lietween Damascus and Mecca. Such 
being the uncertainty connected with the sites of these 
Arab tribes, we the less hesitate to place the Hagarenes 
of the Psalm in the neighborhood of Edom, Moab, and 
Ammon, in the sitiuition which was in Saul*s time occu- 
pied by the Hagarites, **near the main road which led" 
[or, more correctly, in the belt of country which stretch- 
ed] "from the head of the Bed Sea to the Euplirates** 
(Smith's IHct. of Geog, s. v. Agnei ; see also Bochart, 
PhaUg [editViBemandy], IV, ii, 225). The mention 
both of Ishmaelites itnd Hagarenes in this Psalm has led 
to the opinion that they are separate nations here meant. 
The verse, however, is in the midst of a poetic jmralUU 
isnif in which the clauses are 9t/nonymou8 and not anti- 
thetic (corap. ver. 5-11), so that if " Edom and the Ish- 
maelites'' is not absolutely identical in geograplucal sig- 
nification with "Moab and the Hagarenes," there is at 
least a poetical identity between these two groups which 
forbids our separating them widely from each other in 
any sense (for the ditpersed condition of the Hagarenes, 
see also Fuller, Misc. Socr. ii, 12). 

Combinations marked the unrelenting hostility of 
their neighbors towards the Jews to a very late period. 
One of these is mentioned in 1 Mace, v, as dispened by 
Judas Maocabeeus. "The children of Bsean" {viol Bai- 
av) of ver. 4 have been by Hitzig conjectured to be the 
same as our Hagarenes; there is, however, no other 
gromid for this opinion than their vicinity to Edom and 
Ammon, and the difficulty of making them fit in with 



HAGENAU, CONFERENCE OF 18 



HA6GAI 



any other tribe as conveniently as with that which is 
the subject of this article (see J. Olshausen, die PscUmen, 
p. 345). 

8. In the passage from Bamch iii, 23 there are attrib- 
uted to " the Agarenes" qualities of wisdom for which 
the Arabian nation has long been celebrated* skill in 
proverbial philosophy (comp. Frey tag, A rab, Prov. torn. 
Hi, pnef.) ; in this accomplishment they have associated 
with them " the merchants of Meran and of Themau." 
This is not the place to discuss the site of Meran, which 
some have placed on the Persian Gulf, and others on the 
Red Sea; it is enough to observe that their mercantile 
habits gave them a shrewdness in practical knowledge 
which rendered them worthy of comparison with ^ the 
merchants of Theman" or Edom. Forster makes these 
Themanese to be inhabitants of the maritime Bahrain, 
and therefore Hagarenea (i, 303) v but in this he is fla- 
grantly inconsistent with his o^vn good canon (1,291) : 
'* The n unc of the son of Eliphaz and of his descendants 
[the Edomites] b uniformly written Tema» in the orig- 
inal Hebrew, and that of the son of Ishmael and his fam- 
ily [the Ilagarenes or Ishmaelites] as uniformly Tema 
[without the n]." The wisdom of these Themanese 
merchants is expressly mentioned in Jer. xlix, 7, and 
Obadlah, ver. 8. The Ilagarenes of this passage we 
would place among the inhabitants of the shores of the 
Pendaii Gulf, where (see 1) Gesenius and others placed 
**the Hagarites" after their conquest by the trans-Jor- 
danic Israelites. The clause, ''That seek wisdom on 
earth^' [that is, *' who acquire experience and intelli- 
gence from intercourse with mankind"] (the Sept. oi 
ixi^firovvTiQ Ti)v cvveffiv oi irrl r^c y^^i i* surely cor- 
rupt, because meaningless : by the help of the Vulgate 
and the S^nriac it has been conjectured by some [by 
Hilvernick and Fritzsche, ad loc., for instance] that in- 
stead of oi iiri we should read rijv iiri, q. d. ** the wis- 
dom [or common sense] which is cognizant of the earth 
— its men and manners ;" an attainment which mercan- 
tile persons acquire better than all else), seems to best 
fall in mth the habits of a seafaring and mercantile 
race (see Fritzsche, doe Bueh Baruch, p. 192; and Ilav- 
emick, whose words he quotes : *' Hagarcni terram quasi 
perlustrantes dicuntur, quippe mercatores longe celeber- 
rimi autiquissimis jamjam temporlbus'^).— Kitto, s. v. 

Hagenau, Conference oC a theological confer- 
ence called by the (xerman emperor in 1539 in order to 
bring about a reunion between Protestants and Romui 
Catholics. IlaNnng originally been convoked to Worms, 
it was transferred to Ilagenau in consequen<^ of an 
epidemic prevailing in the former city. It lasted from 
June 12 to July 16, 1540. As it was not deemed safe 
to send Luther without a special protection, and as Me- 
lancthon fell sick during the journey, the Protestants 
were represented by Brenz, Osiandcr, Capito, Cruciger, 
and Myconius; and the Roman Catholics by £ck, Fa- 
ber, and Oochbeus. The conference led to no definite 
results. It was agreed that an equal number of repre- 
sentatives, chosen by the two parties, should meet at 
Worms, and resume the negotiations for a imion. — ^Uer- 
zog, xix, 589. (A. J. S.) 

Hag'erite [or Ha'gerite'\ (Heb. with the art. ka- 
Tlagri', *^*^ann, the /fafftHie; Sept. o 'AyapiViyc, Vulg. 
Agarcus)^ a designation of Jaziz (q.v.), one of David's 
agricultural officers (1 Chron. xxvii, 31). See Hagak- 

ITE. 

Haggadah (Heb. anecdote, legend), in the Talmud 
and with the Rabbis the name for traditional stories, le- 
gends, etc. used in the interpretation and elucidation of 
the law and the prophets. Many of the haggudoth in 
the Talmud are absurd and preposterous, and they are 
not held by the best Rabbins as authoritative. Mai- 
monides says of them : ^ Beware that you take not these 
words of the hachimim (wise) literally, for this would be 
degrading to the sacred doctrine, and sometimes to con- 
tradict it. Seek rather the hidden sense ; and if you 
cannot find the kernel, }et the shell alone, and confess ' 1 



cannot understand this'" {Peruah Hctmmuiknay<jih).'-* 
FtUst, KuUurgesckichte d, Juden, i, 74 ; Etheridge, Intro-' 
duction to Ilebr, Lit, p. 182 ; Jost, Gesch^ d, Juden, i, 178 ; 
ii, 313. The Haggadah frequently refers to the Hala- 
chah {rule, nomC), the oral hiw of tradition, Iwief sen- 
tences established by the authority of the Sanhedrim, in 
which the law was interpreted and applied to individual 
cases, and which were designated as the '' sentences of 
the elders." See Midrash. (J. H. W.) 

Hag'gai (Heb. Chaggay', ^tlfl, /egfive ; Sept. and 

Joseph. 'Ayyaiog ; Jerome and Vulg. Aggmus or J fag* 
gatus), the tenth in order of the twelve minor prophets, 
and the first of the three who, after the return of the 
Jews from the Babylonian exile, prophesied in Pales- 
tine. Of the place and year of his birth, his descent, 
and the leading incidents of his life, nothing is known 
which can be relied on (see Oehler, in Herzog's EncgkL 
V, 471 sq.). The more fabulous traditions of Jewish 
w^riters, who pass him for an assessor of the Synagoga 
Magna, and enlarge on his literary avocations, have 
been collected by Carpzov {/ntrodudio in V\ T. iii, 426). 
Some interpreters, indeed, taking in its litx^ral sense the 
expression TX^TV^ Tj^lbp {malak Yehovah) in i, 13, have 

imagined that he was an angel in human shape (Je- 
rome, Comnu ad loc). Some ancient writers assert that 
he was bom in Babylon, and while yet a young man 
came to Jerusalem, when Cyrus, in the year RC 536, 
allowed the Jews to return to their cowitry (2 Chron. 
xxxiv, 23 ; Ezra i, 1) ; the new colony consisting chief- 
ly of people belonging to the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, 
and Le\i, with a few from other tribes. According to 
the same tradition, he was buried nath honor near the 
sepulchres of the priests (Isidor. HispaL c 49 ; Pseudo- 
Dorotheus, in Chron. Pasch, 151, d). It has hence been 
conjectured that he was of priestly rank. Haggai, 
Zechariah, and Malachi, according to the Jewish writ- 
ers, were the men who were with Daniel when he saw 
the vision related in Dan. x, 7, and were after the cap- 
tivitv members of the Great Synagogue, which consist- 
ed of 120 elders (Cozri, iii, 65). The Seder Olam Zuta 
places their death in the 52d year of the Medes and 
Persians, while the extravagance of another tradition 
makes Haggai survive till the entry of Alexander the 
Great into Jerusalem, and even till the time of our 
Saviour (Carpzov, Jnirod.). In the Roman martyrology 
Hosea and Haggai are joined in the catalogue of saints 
{A da Scmctor, 4 JuUi). See Ezra. 

This much appears from Haggai's prophecies (ch. i, 
1, etc), that he flourished during the reign of the Per- 
sian monarch Darius Hystaspis, who ascended the throne 
B.C. 521. It is probable that he was one of the exiles 
who returned with Zerubbabel and Jesliua ; and Ewald 
{die Prop/u d,Alt, B.) is even tempted to infer from ii, 
3, that he may have been one of the few sur\'ivors who 
had seen the first Temple in its s()lendor (Bleek, Einkit. 
p. 549). The rebuilding of the Temple, which was com- 
menced in the reign of Cyrus (BwC 535), was suspended 
during the reigns of his successors, Cambyses and Pseu- 
do-Sraerdis, in consequence of the determined hostility 
of the Samaritans. On the accession of Darius Hystas- 
pis (B.C. 521), the prophets Haggai and Zechariah urged 
the renewal of the midertaking, and obtained the per- 
mission and assistance of the king (Ezra v, 1 ; vi, 14 ; 
Josq)hus, v4 n/. xi, 4). Animated by the high courage 
{magni tpiritua, Jerome) of these devoted men, the peo- 
ple prosecuted the work with vigor, and the Temple 
was completed and de<iicated in the sixth year of Da- 
rius (RC. 516). See Tkmplk. 

The names of Haggai and Zechariah are associated 
'• in the Sept. in the titles of Psa. cxxxvii, cxlv-cxlviii ; 
in the Vulgate in those of Psa. cxi, cxlv; and in the 
Peshito S>Tiac in those of Psa. cxxv, cxxvi, cxlv, cxlvi, 
cxlvii, cxlviii. It may be that tradition assigned to 
these prophets the arrangement of the above-mentioned 
psalms for use in the Temple ser\- ice, just as Psa. Ixiv is 
in the Vulgate attributed to Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and 



HAGGAI 



19 



HAGGIAH 



the name of the former is inscribed at the head of Psa. 
cxxxW in the Sept. According to I'Mudo-Epiphanius 
{I)e Vitis I*roph,), Haggai was the first who chanted 
the Hallelujah in the second Temple: *' wherefore," he 
adds, *' we say * Hallelujah, which is the hymn of Hag- 
gai and Zechariah.' ** Haggai is mentioned in the Apoc- 
lypha as Aggeus, in 1 Esdr. vi, 1 ; vii, 3 : 2 Esdr. i, 40 ; 
and is alladed to in Ecclus. xlix, 11 (comp. Hag. ii, 23), 
and Hebb xii, 26 (Hag* fi, 6). — Smith, a. v.; Kitto, s. v. 
See Zbchakiaii. 

HAGGAI, Prophecy of. These vaticinations are 
oompiised in a book of two chapters, and consist of dis- 
counwis so brief and summary as to have led some Ger- 
man theologians to suspect that they have not come 
down to US in their original complete form, but are only 
an epitome (Richhom, Eitdeitung in das A . T, iii, § 598 ; 
Jahn, fntroductio in Hbro$ sacroa Vet, Feed, edit. 2,yien- 
me, 1814, § 156). 

Their object generally is to mge the rebuilding of the 
Temple, which had, indeed, been commenced as early as 
RC. 535 (Ezra iii, 10), but was afterwards discontinued, 
the Samaritans having obtained an edict from the Per- 
sian king (Ezra iv, 7) which forbade further procedure, 
and influential Jews pretending that the time for re- 
building the Temple had not arrived, since the Hcventy 
yean predicted by Jeremiah applied to the Temple also 
(Zech. i, 2). As on the death of Pseudo-Smerdis (the 
** Aktaxerxks" of Ezra iv, see ver. 24), and the conse- 
quent termiiuition of his interdict, the Jews still contin- 
ued to wait for the end of the seventv vears, and were 
otdy engaged in building splendid houses for them- 
selves, Haggai began to prophesy in the second year of 
Darius, ac. 520. 

His first discourse (ch. i), delivered on the first day 
of the sixth month of the year mentioned, denounced 
the listlessness of the Jews, who dwelt in their " panel- 
led houses," while the temple of the Lord was roofless 
and de»>late. The displeasure of (jod was manifest in 
the failure of all their efforts for their own gratification. 
The heavens were **8ta>^ from dew," and the earth 
was " stayed from her fruiL** They had neglected that 
which should have been their first care, and reaped the 
doe wages of their selfishness (i,4-l 1). The words of the 
prophet sank deep into the hearts of the people and their 
kadera. They acknowledged the voice of God speak- 
ing by his serx'ant, and obeyed the command. Their 
obedience was rewanle<l with the assurance of God*s 
pre?»ence (i, 13), and twenty-four days afterwards the 
building was resumed. The second discourse (ii, 1-9), 
delivered on the twentv-fint dav of the seventh month, 
shows that a month had scarcely elapsed when the work 
seemA to have slackened, and the enthusiasm of the peo- 
pfe abated. The prophet, ever ready to rekindle their 
xeal, encouniged the flagging spirits of the chiefs with 
the renewed assurance of GocVs presence, and the fresh 
promise that, stately and magnificent as was the Temple 
of their wisest king, the glory of the latter house should 
be greater than the glor\' of the former (ii, 3-9). The 
third discouise (ii, 10-19), delivered on the twenty- 
Iburth da}' of the ninth month, refers to a period when 
building materials had been collected, and the workmen 
had begun to put them together. Yet the people were 
stiU comparatively uiactive, and after two months we 
thus find him again censuring their sluggishness, which 
rendered worthless all their ceremonial observances. 
Bat the rebuke was accompanied by a repetition of the 
promise (ii, 19). The fourth and last discourse (ii, 20- 
23), delivered also on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth 
month, is exclusively addressed to Zerubbabel, the po- 
litical chief of the new Jewish colony, who, it appears, 
bad asked for an explanation regarding the great polit- 
ical revolutions which Haggai had predicted in his sec- 
ond discourse: it comforts the governor by assuring 
him they would not take place very soon, and not in his 
lifetime. As Zerubbabel was prince of Judah, the rep- 
resentative of the royal family of David, and, as such. 
tlie lineal ancestor of the Messiah, this closing predic- 



tion foreshadows the establishment of the Messianic 
ki'iigdom (see Hengstenberg, CkHMtology, iii, 248 sq.) 
upon the overthrow of the thrones of the nations (ii, 23). 

The style of the discourses of Haggai is suitable to 
their contents : it is pathetic when he exhorts, it is ve- 
hement when he reproves, it is somewhat elevated 
when he treats of future events, and it is not altogether 
destitute of a poetical coloring, though a prophet of a 
higher order would have depicted the splendor of the 
second Temple in brighter hues. The language labors 
under a poverty of terms, as may be observed in the 
constant repetition of the same expressions, which Eich- 
hom (tOnleiiunffy § 699) attributes to an attempt at or- 
nament, rendering the writer disposed to recur frequent- 
ly to a favorite expression. 

The prophetical discourses of Haggai are referred to 
in the Old and New Testament (Ezra v, 1; vi, 14; 
Heb. xii, 20 ; comp. Hagg. ii, 7, 8, 22). In most of the 
ancient catalogues of the canonical books of the Old 
Testament Haggai is not, indeed, mentioned by name; 
but, as they specify the twelve minor prophets, he must 
have been included among them, as otherwise their 
number woidd not be fuIL Josephus, mentioning Hag- 
gai and Zechariah (A nt. xi, 4, 5), calls them ivo irpoipij' 
rat, (See generally Bertholdt, Eudeitunff, iv, 169; Da- 
vidson, in Home's Introduc, new ed. ii, 972 sq. ; Hasse, 
Ge9ch, der A . B. p. 203 sq. ; Smith, Scripture Tettimonjfj 
i, 283 sq.)— Kitto, s. v. ; Smith, s. v. 

Special commentaries on the whole of this prophecy 
exclusively have been written by Rupertus Titiensis, 
In Afffftrum (in (7/7p. i); Melanchthon, ^ r^m«vi/f<iii (in 
0pp. ii) ; Ecke, Ojmm^ntarius (Saling. 1538, 8vo) ; Wi- 
celius, Enarrafio (l^fog. 1541); YBremvis, Exerciiationet 
(Rost. 1548, 1550, 4to) ; Draconis, Erpiicatio (Lub. 1549, 
fol.) ; Mercer, Scholia (Paris, 1557, 4to) ; Pilkington, Ex^ 
pontion (London, 15C0, 8vo) ; Brocardus, Jnterpretatio 
[includ. some other books] (L. D. 1580, 8vo) ; (>rynieus, 
Commerdarius ((>eii. 1581, 8vo; translated into English, 
Lond. 1586, 12mo) ; Keinbeck, Exercitntiones (Brunsw. 
1592, 4to) ; Balwin, Cammcntai'ius (including Zech. and 
MaL] (Vitemb. 1610, 8vo) ; Tamovius, (\nmnentariiu 
(Rostock, 1624, 4to) ; Willius, Commentanus [including 
Zech. and MaL] (Brem. 1G38, 8vo) ; Raynolds, Inteipre'- 
fation (Lond. 1649, 4 to) ; Pfeftinger, AWa (Argent. 1708, 
4to) ; Woken, Adnotationes (Lips. 1719, 4to) ; Kail, IHm- 
itertatitmes (s.L 1771-3, 4to); Ilessler, JUustratio (Lund. 
1799, 4to) : Scheibel, Obserraiiones (Vniiisl 1822, 4to) ; 
Moore, yofes, etc [including Zech. and Mai.] (N. Y. 
1856, 8vo) ; Kohler, Erldantng (Erlangcn, 1860, 8vo) ; 
Aben-Ezra*s annotations on Haggai have been transla- 
ted by Abicht (in his Selecta Rabb. Lips. 1705), Lund 
(Upsal. 1706), and Chytneus (ib. eod.) ; Abarbaners by 
Scherzer (Lpz. 1633, 1705) and Mundin (Jena, 1719); 
Kimchi*s by Nol (Par. 1557). Expositions of particular 
passages are those of Stiiudlin [on ii, 1-9] (Tub. 1784), 
Benzel [on ii, 9] (in his Syntagm. Dissertt, ii, 116 sq.), 
Sartorius [on ii, 7J (T«b. 1756),Ve8schuir [on ii, 6-9] 
(in his Diss. Phil, No. 6), Essen [on ii, 23] (Vitemb. 
1759). See Prophets, Minor. 

Hag'geri (Heb. rfagri% '^1|irT, a Ifagarite ; Sept. 
'Arapai v. r.^'Ayp/,Vulg. yl^/iY/i). "Mibhar, son of 
Haggeri,*' was one of the mighty men of David's guard, 
according to the catalogue of 1 Chron. xi, 38. The ])ar- 
allel passage— 2 Sam. xxiii, 36 — has " Bani the Gadite" 
(*^*19iil). This Kennicott thinks was the original, from 
which "Haggeri" has been corrupted {Dissert, p. 214). 
The Targum has Bar Gedd (K^» na).--Smith, s. v. 
See Haoarene. 

Haggerty, John, a minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, was bom in Prince George Ounty, Md., 
in 1747. He was converted under the ministr}' of John 
King about 1771. He began to preach among his 
neighbors the same year, and continued to labor dili- 
gently for the Church, under the direction of Straw- 
bridge, Rankin, and King, till he entered the regular 
itinerancy in the "year 1779.". He preached both in 



HAGGI 



20 



HAGIOGRAPHA 



English and German. He was instrnmental in the con- 
version of not a few men of ability^ who became orna- 
ments of the ministrv. He located, owing to the sick- 
ness of his wife, in 1792, and settled in Baltimore, where 
he continued to preach with great acceptance. He was 
one of the original elders of the Church, and died in the 
faith in 18*28, aged seventv-six years. — Stevens, Hilary 
of the M. E, Church, ii,66, 496; iii, 144, 140. 

Hag'gi (Heb. Chagffi'^'^ir^^fisHvt; Sept. •A77i'c), 
the second of the seven sons of the patriarch (lad (Gen. 
xlvi, IG), and progenitor of the family of Haggites 
(Numb, xxvi, 15; Sept, Ayyi). B.C. prob. ante 1784. 

Haggi'all (Heb. Chaggiyah', nn'n./e^wal of Je- 
hovah ; Sept. 'Ayyia), a Levite of the family of Merari, 
apparently the sou of Shimea and father of Asaiah, 
which last seems to have been contemporary with Da- 
A-id (1 Chron. vi,80 [Heb. 15]). B.C. ante 1043. 



^'gite (Heb. only as a collect, with the art. ha- 
Chaggi'j •^ann [for ''!'>nn] ; Sept. 6 'Ayyt, Vulg. Agi- 
tte, A.V. "the Haggites"), the family dtle of the de- 
scendants of the sou of Gad of the same [Heb.] name 
(Numb, xxvi, 15). See Haooi. 



jf'gith (Heb. Chaggith'y n'^ari; Sept 'Ayyc^ v. 
r, 4>£y7i^, but 'Ayyii^ in 1 Chron. ii,3; Josephus 'Ay- 
yi^rjj A nf, vii, 14, 4), a wife of David, only known as the 
mother ofAdonijah(*2 Sam. iii, 4; 1 Kings 1,5, 11; ii, 13; 
1 Chron. iii, 2) ; but apparently married to David after 
his accession to the throne. B.G. 1053. See David. 
** Her son was, like Abudom, renowned for his hand- 
some presence. In the first and last of the above pas- 
sages Haggith is fourth in order of mention among the 
wives, Adonijah being also fourth among the sons. His 
birth happened at Hebron (2 Sam. iii, 2, 5) shortly af- 
ter that of Absalom (1 Kings i, 6, where it will be ob- 
served that the wonU * his mother* are inserted by the 
translators)" (Smith, s. v.). The Heb. name is merely 
the fern, of the adj. that appears in the names Haggi, 
etc, and seems to be indicative of festivity in the relig- 
ious sense [see Festival]; FUrst renders it "bom at 
the Feast of Tabernacles" (//eft. I^x. s. v.), and Mr. 
Grove (in Smith, ut sup.) regards it as =" a dancer," 
from the primitive sense of the root aan. 

Ha'gia ('Ayia or *Ayia, Vulg. Ayyia)^ given in the 
Apocrypha (1 Esd. v, 34) as the name of one of the 
"servants of Solomon" whose "sons" returned to Jeru- 
salem after the exile; instead of Hattil (q, v.) of the 
Heb. text (Ezra ii, 57 ; Neh. vii, 59). 

Hagidgad. See Hor-ha-oidoad. 

Hagiogr&pha, ' Ay wypaipa {Holy Writings'), a term 
first found in Epiphanius (Panariuin, p. 58), who used 
it, as well as ypatpua, to denote the thinl di\Tsion of 
the Scriptures, called by the Jews D"^ain3, or the 
Wrifings, consisting of fee books [see Meoilloth], viz. 
the three /www (ncX), Job,Ph)vcrbB, and the Psalms, 
and the two books of Chronicles. 

These divisions are found in the Talmud (Baba Bath- 
ra, foL 1, cd. Amsterdam), where the sacred books are 
classified under the Law, the Prophets, And the Writ- 
ings {Ketubim). Tlie last are thus enumerated (/. r.) : 
Ruth, the book (sepher) of Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Eccle- 
siastes {Koheleih), the Song of Songs, Lamentations, 
Daniel, and the books (inegUloth) of Esther, Ezra, and 
Chronicles. The Jewish writers, however, do not uni- 
formly follow this arrangement, as they sometimes place 
the Psalms or the book of Job first among the hagio- 
grapha. Jerome gives the arrangement followed by the 
Jews in his time. He observes that they divided the 
Scriptures into five books of Moses, eight prophetical 
books (viz. 1. Joshua; 2. Judges and Kuth; 3. Samuel; 
4. Kings; 5. Isaiah; 6. Jeremiah; 7. Ezekiel; 8. The 
twelve prophets), and nine Hagiographa, viz. 1. Job; 
2. David, five parts; 8. Solomon, three parts; 4. Kohe- 
leth; 5. Caatides ; 6. Daniel , 7. Chroniclea ; 8. Esdias, 



two books [viz. Ezra and Nehemiah] ; 9. Esther. ''Some, 
however," he adds, " place Ruth and Lamentations among 
the Hagiographa rather than among the prophetical 
books." We find a different arrangement in Josephus, 
who reckons thirteen prophetical books, and four con- 
taining hymns and moral precepts {Apion, i, 8); from 
which it would appear that after the time of Josephus 
the Jews comprised many books among the prophets 
which had previously belonged to the Hagiographa. It 
has. however, been considered as more probable that Jo- 
sephus had no authority from manuscripts for his classi- 
fication. 

The earliest notice which we find of these divisions 
is that contained in the prologue to the book of Eccle- 
siasticus, written B.C. cir. 140, the author of which re- 
fers to the Law, the Prophets, and the other hooks ; by 
which last were most probably meant the Hagiographa. 
Philo also speaks of the Laii-s, the Prophets, the Hymns, 
and the other books, but without classifying them. In 
the New Testament we find three corresponding divis- 
ions mentioned, viz. the Law, the I^phets, and the 
Psalms; which last book has been supposed to have 
given its name to the third division, from the circum- 
stance of its then being the first in the catalogue (Luke 
xxiv, 44). Havemick, however QJfandbuchj p. 78), sup- 
poses that Luke calls the Hagiographa by the name of 
Psalms, rather on account of the poetical character of 
several of its parts. The " book of the Prophets" is re- 
ferred to in the New Testament as a distinct volume 
(Acts vii, 42, where the passage indicated is Amos v, 25, 
26). It is well known that the second class was divided 
by the Jews into the early Prophets, \'iz. Joshua, Judges, 
Samuel, and Kings ; and the later Prophets, viz. Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, Ezekiel (called the major prophets), and the 
book of the twelve (minor) prophets. 

When this di\'ision of books was first introduced it is 
now impossible to ascertiun. Probably it commenced 
after the return from the exile, with the first formation 
of the canon. Still more difficidt is it to ascertain the 
principle on which the classification was formed. The 
rabbinical ^Titers maintain that the authors of the Ke- 
Uihim. enjoyed only the lowest degree of inspiration, as 
they received no immediate oommmiication from the 
deity, like that made to Moses, to whom God spoke face 
to face ; and that they did not receive their knowledge 
through the medium of visions and dreams, as was the 
case with the prophets or the writers of the second class; 
but still that they felt the Divine Spirit resting on them 
and inspiring them with suggestions. This is the view 
maintained by Abarbanel {Prc^, in Proph. priores, foL 
20, 1), Kimchi (Pn^/I in Psalm,), Maimonides {More 
Nebochim, ii, 45, p. 317), and Elias Levita (Tisbi) ; which 
last >vriter defines the word -IPS to mean a work writ- 
ten by divine inspiration. The placing of Ruth among 
the Hagiographa, and especially the separation of Lam- 
entations from Jeremiah, seems, however, to be irrecon- 
cilable with this hypothesis; nor is it easy to assign a 
satisfactory reason why the historical books of Joshua, 
Judges, Samuel, and Kings should be placed among the 
Prophets, and the book of Chronicles among the Hagio- 
grapha. The reasons generally assigned for this, as 
well as for placing in the third class the books of Psalms, 
Daniel, and Job, are so fanciful and unsatisfactory as to 
have led Christian writers to form other and more defi- 
nite classifications. It will suffice to mention the reason 
assigned by Rabbi Kimchi for excluding Daniel from 
the book of I^phets, viz. that he has not equalled the 
other prophets in his visions and dreams. Others as- 
sign the lato dato of the book of Daniel as the reason for 
the insertion of it, as well as of some historical books, 
in the Hagiographa, inasmuch as the collection of the 
prophets was closed at the date of the comporition of 
this book (De Wette, § 255). Bertholdt, who is of this 
opinion {Einleitung, i, 70 sq.), thinks that the word ^e- 
tubim means " books newly introduced into the canon" 
(p. 81). Hengstenberg {Authentic des Daniel, etc., p. 
25 sq.) follows the ancient opinions of the RmbbiiUy and 



HAfflROTH 



21 



HAHN 



mainUms that the book of Daniel was placed in the 
Hagiogtapha in consequence of the lower d^pree of in- 
fpiration attached to it; but herein he is opposed by 
Havemick {Hcmdimck, p. 62). I>e Wette (§ 13) sup- 
poses that the first two divisions (the Imw and the 
Prophets) were closed a little after the time of Nehemi- 
ah (compare 2 Mace, ii, 13, 14), and that perhaps at the 
end of the Persian period the Jews commenced the 
formation of the Ilaffiographa, which long remained 
'^ changeable and open." The collection of the Ftalms 
was not yet completed when the two first parts were 
fonned. See Kkthubim. 

It has been concluded from Matt, xxiii, 35, and Luke 
xi, 51, compared with Luke xxiv, 14, that as the P&alms 
were the first, so were Chronicles the last book in the 
Hagiographa (Carpzov, ItUrodL ir, 25). If, when Jesus 
spoke of the righteous blood shed from the blood of 
Abel (Gen. iv, 8) to that of Zechariah, he referred, as 
most commentators suppose, to Zechariah, the son of 
Jehoiada (2 Chron. xxiv, 20, 21), there appears a pecul- 
iar apfiositenesB in the appeal to the first and the last 
books in the canon. The book of Chronicles still holds 
the last place in the Hebrew Bibles, which are all ar- 
ranged according to the threefold division. The late 
date of Chronicles may in some measure account for its 
separation from the book of Kings; and this ground 
holds good whether we fix the era of the chronicler, 
with Zonz, at about B.C 260, or, with Movers, we con- 
ceive him to have been a younger contemporary of Ne- 
hemiah, and to have written about B.C. 400 (Ki-itwAe 
UwUnuekung uber de BiUiscke Chromk, Bonn, 1834). 
The circumstance of the existence of a few acknowl- 
edged later additions, sach as 1 Chron. iii, 19>24, does 
not militate against this hypothesis, as these may have 
been supplied by the last editor. See Chronicles, 
Books op. De Wette conceives that the genealogy in 
this passage comes down only to the third gcnention 
after Nehemiah. See Canon of Scripture. 

The word llagioffrapha is once used by Jerome in a 
peculiar sense. Speaking of Tobit, he asserts that the 
Jews, cutting off this book from the catalogue of the di- 
vine Scriptures, place it among those books which they 
call Hagioffrapka, Again, of Judith he says, ** By the 
Jews it is read among the Hagiographa, whose author- 
ity is not sufficient to confirm debated pouits;" but, as 
ID the latter instance, the greater number of MSS. read 
Apocrypha, which is doubtless the true reading, it is 
highly probable that the word Hagiographa, used in 
reference to the book of Tobit, has arisen from the mis- 
take of a transcriber. The two words were in the Mid- 
dle Ages frequently used as synonymous. See Deute- 
RO-CAXONiCAL. **■ Hagiographa"* has also been used by 
Christian writers as synonA'mous with Holy Scripture. 

The Alexandrian translators have not been guided 
by the threefold division in their arrangement of the 
books of Scripture. The different MSS. of the Sept. 
also vary in this respect. In the Vatican Codex (which 
the printed editions chiefly follow) Tobit and Judith are 
placed between Keheroiah and Esther. Wisdom and 
Ecclesiasticus follow Canticles. Baruch and Lamenta- 
tions follow Jeremiah, and the Old Testament concludes 
with the four books of Maccabees. Luther (who intro- 
duced into the Bible a peculiar arrangement, which in 
the Old Testament has been followed in the English 
Authorized Version) was the first who separated the ca- 
nonical from the other books. Not only do the Alex- 
andrian translators, the fathers, and Luther differ from 
the Jews in the onler of succession of the sacred books, 
bat among the Jews themselves the Talmudists and 
Masorites, and the German and Spanish MSS. follow 
each a different aixangement. — Kitto, s. v. See Bible. 

Hagiolatzy. See Saints, Worship of. 
Hahlroth. See Fi-ha-hiroth. 

Hahn, Augnst, a distinguished German Protestant 
theologian, Orientalist, and opponent of rationalism, was 
bom at GnflBosterhauseni near Querfurt, in Prussian 



Saxony, March 27, 1792. His father died before he 
was nine years old, but his pastor, Stossen, generoush* 
instructed the orphan with his own son, and secured his 
admission to the gymnasium at Eisleben. In 1810 
Hahn entered the University of Leipsic, where, he tells 
us (Preface to Lehrhueh det christlichen GlaubtrUf 2d 
ed.), he lost his early faith and peace, the fruits of a pi- 
ous mother's teachings, and became imbued with the 
prevailing rationalism. After a three-years' course, in 
which, b^des adding to his stock of classic and theo- 
logical learning, he had studied Oriental languages and 
literature, especially Syriac and Arabic, he engaged in 
teaching. In 1817 he entered the newly-established 
theological school at Wittenbeig, where, under happier 
religious influences and inspirations, he regained his 
lost faith and peace, and was henceforth active in seek- 
ing to impart them to other minds and hearts. In 1819 
he was iq>pointed professor extraordinary, and in 1821 
ordinary professor of theology in the University of 
Konigsberg, and during his occupancy of that post pub- 
lished BardesaneSj GnosticuSf Syrorum primus hymnolo* 
gua (Leipsic, 1819), a work which earned for him the 
doctorate of theology. This was followed by several 
other publications in patristic literature, viz. De gnosi 
Marcioms (1820) '.—Antitheses Mardonis, etc. (1823) :— 
Das Evangtlium Marcions, etc. (1823) : — De Canane 
Marcioms (1824) : — Chrestomathia Syriactt, s. S, Kphra^ 
miy etc (in conjunction with Seiffert) (1825) ; besides 
treatises in several periodicals. Being called in 1826 to 
the professorship of theology' in the Univemity of Leip- 
sic, Hahn was thrown into the midst of theological con- 
troversy, and gave expression to his antagonism to the 
Rationalists in his treatise De Rationaiismi, qui dicitur. 
Vera Indole et qua cum Naturalismo contineatur rations 
(Leipsic, 1827), in which he asserts the necessity of 
supranatural revelation, and the inability of man by 
nature to attaui "certain and complete knowledge of 
religious truths," and aims to show historically that 
rationalism had always been regarded by the Church as 
hostile to Christianity, and that it was the offspring of 
naturalism and deism. He developed this antagonism 
still further in his Offtne Erkldrung an die erangeliscke 
Kirche zundchst in Sachsen und Preusstn (1827), where- 
in he maintains that Kationalists cannot be considered 
as Christian teachers, and ought in conscience to with- 
draw from the evangelical Church. His efforts in favor 
of e%'angelical orthodoxy were continued in his Lehr^ 
buck des ckristlichen Glauhns (1828; 2d ed. 1857), and 
Sendsckreiben an Bretschneider uber die Lage des Chris^ 
tenthums in unserer ZtU und das Verhaltniss christlicher 
Theologie zur Wissensckaft Hberhaupt (1882). The last 
work Especially led to his call to Breslau in 1833 as pro- 
fessor, and his appouitment as consistorial counseUor, a 
position of great importance in the direction of ecclesi- 
astical affairs. In 1844 he was made general superin- 
tendent for Silesia, which post he filled until his death, 
May 13, 1863, and in which he was able to exert con- 
siderable influence in behalf of the evangelical party 
among the clerg>% The most important of his writings 
not already mentioned are, Bibliothek der Symhole und 
Glaub&isregeln der apostol.-catkolischfn Kirche (1842) : 
—Theohgisch'lirchliche Amalen (Breslau, 1842-44):— 
Das Bekenntniss der evangelischen Kirche und die ordi' 
natorische Verpjlichtung ikrer JHener (1847) : — Daa Be- 
kenntniss der evangelischen Kirche' in seinem Verhaltniste 
zu dem der romischen und griechischen (1863) : — Predigten 
und Beden unter den Bewegungen in Kirche und tStaat 
sett dem J, 1830 (1852). Sec obituary notice of Hahn 
in the AUgemeine Kirchen-Zeitung for 1863, No. 75-77, 
and an autobiographical sketch of his life up to 1830 in 
Dietzsch's I/onulet, Journal^ 1830, vol. ii, pt. i ; Herzog, 
Beal-Kncyklop. xix, 593 sq. ; Hoefcr, Xouv, Biog. Gene- 
rale, xxiii, 164 ^ New A men Cyclop, viii, 634. (J. W. M.) 

Hahn, Heinrlch August, eldest son of Augu!<t 
Hahn, was bom at Konigsberg June 19, 1821, and died 
Dec. 1, 1861, at (ireifswald. After having studied at 
Breslau and Berlin, he devoted himself to Old-Testa- 



HAHN 



22 



HAIME 



ment exegesis and theology. He was tutor (privat- 
(locent) at Brealau in 1H45, went thence in 1^46 to Ko- ! 
nigsberg as professor ad interim on the death of Ha- 
vemick, and in 1851 became professor extraordinary, 
and in 1860 ordinary professor at Greifswald, succeed- 
ing Kosegarten. He edited Hftvemick*s VorUmngm 
aber die Theologie dea A, Testaments (1848). His chief 
works are, a dissertation De Spe unmortalHaiis sub Vet, 
Testam^ etc. ; Veteris testam, sententia de Natura homims 
(184(5) i^Commentar fiber das Buck Iliob (1850) i—Uber- 
setzung und ErHdrung des Hohen Liedes (1852) : — Kr- 
kldrung von Jesaia Kapitel 40-46 (forming voL iii of 
Drechsler's commentary on laaiabf 1857) : — Commentar 
iiber das Predifferbuch Salomons (1860). His works evince 
the care and lidelity which characterized the man, but 
his criticisms are sometimes marked by great boldness. 
He was a man of mild temper and great purity of char- 
acter. Sec A Uffemeine Kirchen-Zeiiung for 1862, No. 26 ; 
Herzog, Real-Encyklop, xix, 597. (J. W. M.) 

Hahn, Michael, a German theosophist, was bom 
Feb. 2, 1758, at Altdorf, near Bdblingen, WUrtemberg. 
The son of a peasant, he was ftom early youth under 
the influence of profound religious convictions, and de- 
voted himself, in retirement, to the study of the Bible, 
and of the works of prominent theosophists, as Behmen 
and Oetinger. He claimed to receive from God special 
revelations, and wrote down their contents. As a speak- 
er in the meetings of the Pietists he attracted large 
crowds, was several times summoned before the consis- 
tory to defend himself against the charge of heresy, but 
was Anally allowed to spend the last twenty-four years 
of his life without fiuther annoyance upon an estate of 
the duchess Francisca of WUrtemberg. There he died 
in great peace in 1819. The followers of Hahn, called 
the AfidtelianSy constitute an organized communion 
which has never separated from tlie State Church, but 
the members of which annually meet for considtation, 
and, in particular, for making provision for the poor. 
The celebrated colony of Kortithid (q. v.), near Stutt- 
gard, was organized under the direct influence of Hahn. 
The works of Hahn, which contain a complete specula- 
tive thcosophy, have been published at Tubingen in 12 
vols. (1819 sq.). Several of his hymns were receivetl 
by Albert Knapp into the hymn-book which he prepared 
for the use of the SUte Church. Like many of the WUr- 
temberg Pietists, Hahn believed in the filial restoration 
of all things.— Haug, Die Sekte dtr Michelianer^ in Stu- 
dien der evang, Geiatlickkeit WUrtenAergs, vol, xi ; Ill- 
gen, Hist, tkeolog, ZeitsehriJ}, 1841 ; Komer, Kirckl, Ge- 
schichte WUrtembergs ; Herzog, Real-EncykL v, 472. (A. 
J.S.) 

Hal' (Gen. xii, 8 ; xiii, 3). See Ai. 

Hail. See Bex-iiaiu 

Hail ! ix'^Tptj rfjouxj as often rendered ; " farewell" 
also), a salutation, importing a wish for the welfare of 
the person addressed (Luke i, 28 ; in mockery, Matt. 
xx\'ii, 29, etc.). It is now seldom used among us, but 
was customary among our Saxon ancestors, and import- 
ed as much as "Joy to you," or "Health to you;" in- 
cluding in the term health all kinds of prosperity. Cal- 

met, s. V. See Greeting. 

Hail Cl^a, barad', x^o^o), or congealed rain, is 
the symbol of the divine vengeance upon kingdoms and ; 
nations, the enemies of God and of his ])eople. As a 
hail-BU)rm is generally accompanied by lightning, and 
seems to be produced by a certain electrical state of the 
atmosphere, so we find in Scripture hail andjire, i. e. 
lightning, mentioned together (Exod. ix, 23 ; compare 
Job xxxviii, 22, 23; Psa. cv, 82; Ixxviii, 48; cxlviii, 
8; xviii, 13). See Plagues of Egyit. That hail, 
though uncommon, is not absolutely tmknown in £g>i>t, 
we have the testimony of Mansleben and Manconys, 
who had heard it thunder during their stay at Alexan- 
dria, the former on the 1st of Januar}', and the latter on 
the 17th and 18th of the same month; on the same day 



it also hailed there. Perry also remarks that it hails, 
though seldom, in January' and Fehruary at Cairo. Po- 
cocke even saw hail mmgled with rain fall at Fium in 
February (compare ExoiL ix, 34). Korte also saw hail 
fall. Jomanl says, " I have several times seen even hail 
at Alexandria." Volnev menticnis a hail-stoim which 
he saw crossing over Momit Sinai into that country, 
some of whose frozen stones he gathered; "and so," he 
says, " I drank iced water in Egypt." Hail M'as also 
the means made use of by God for defeating an army 
of the kings of Canaan (Josh, x, 11). In this i^assage 
it is said, " The Lord cast down great stones from heav- 
en upon them" — L e. hail-stones of an extraonlinarx* 
size, and capable of doing dreadful execution hi their 
fall from heaven. Some commentators are of opinion 
that the miracle consisted of real stones, from the cir- 
cumstance that stones only are mentioned in the pre- 
ceding clause ; but this is evidently erroneous, for there 
are many instances on record of hail-stones of enormous 
size and weight falling in different countries, so as to 
do immonse injury, and to destroy the lives of animals 
and men. In Palestine and the neighboring regions, 
hail-stones are frequent and severe in the mountainous 
districts and along the coasts; but in the plains and 
deserts hail scarcely ever falls. In the elevated region 
of Northern Persia the hail-stones are frequently so vi- 
olent as to destroy the cattle in the fields ; and in Com. 
Porter's LetterBfrom Con^arUinople and its Knrinms (i, 
44) there is an interesting account of a terrific hail- 
storm that occurred on the Bosphorus in the summer 
of 1831, which fully bears out the above and other Scrip- 
ture representations. Many of the lumps picked up af- 
ter the storm weighed three quarters of a pound. In 
Isa. xx\-iii, 2, which denounces the approaching de- 
struction by Shalmaneser, the same images are employ- 
ed. Hail is mentioned as a divine judgment by the 
prophet Haggai (ii, 17). The destruction of the Ass>t- 
ian army is pointed out in Isa. xxx, 30. Ezekiel (xiii, 
1 1) represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar 
as being destroyed by great hail-stones. Also in his 
prophecy against Gog (xxxWii, 22) he emplo\'8 the 
same s^nnbol (compare Rev. xx, 9). The hail and fire 
mingled with blood, mentioned in Rev. viii, 7, are sup- 
posed to denote the commotions of nations. The great 
hail, in Rev. xi, 19, denotes great and hea>y judgments 
on the enemies of tnie religion ; and the grievous storm, 
in xvi, 21, represents something similar, and far more 
severe. So Horace {Odes, i. 2) ; comp. Virgil {.En, iv, 
120, 161 ; Lx, 669) and Livy (ii, 62, and xx%'i, U). 

Hail-stone (1*i3 *j5^> «'^ barad% a stone of hail). 
See above. 



}f Joux, a soldier in the English army, and 
one of ]VIr. Wesley's preachers. He was bom at Shafles- 
hvLTv, Dorsetshire, in 1710, and was bred a gardener, and 
afterwards a button-maker. From early life he lived 
in great wickedness, and in constant agony of convic- 
tion. In 1739 he enlisted in a regiment of dragoons, 
and some time after he was converteil ; but, being very 
ignorant^ he alternately lost and regained his hoi)e, but 
constantlv labored to save others. At last he heard 
and conversed with Mr. Wesley, much to his comfort. 
The regiment was sent to Flanders in 1748, from which 
time till Feb. 1745, he was in despair and great agony. 
At that time, while marching into Germany, his eW- 
dence of pardon returned, and, encouraged by Mr. Wes- 
ley's letters, he began to preach in the army. At the 
battle of Dettingcn he sho\»'ed great gallantr\'. In May, 
1744, the army went to Brussels, and here his bibors 
were the means of a great and remarkable revival in 
the army and city. Part of the time Hume had six 
preachers under him, although the regular cliaplains 
opposed him. But the duke of Cumb^and and gen- 
eral Ponsonby were his friends and iiatrons, and his 
piety of life, and the valor of his " Methodists" in every 
battle, commanded universal admiration and respect. 
On the Otli of April, 1746, he fell into despair, and from 



HAIR 

tlut lUte he lii-ed for twenty yetn " in agony of »oii1 ;" 
y*l nil the time, in Germmy, KngUiiit, Iceland, he 
cev«l not with ill the energj- »r dcBpaii to labor, 
prearhing ollen !^ or 30 times a week, and seeing thou- 
aaiidn of euula coni-erted under liis effort*, while his own 
aoul HIS liUed with anguieh and darkncst. At the enil 
of Ihia lime he once mure obtaiited the evidence of oe- 
cepunw wiih God, He died AoR. 18, 1784, at Whil- 
chureh. in Hampahirc. — Jackwn, l.ira of Karli/ ifrlh- 
vditl J'rraeirri, i, 147 , Slei-en», iJiilorg of Htlkodam, 
ToLii. 

Hair (properly *l9b, teSr', ipiti i> frequently 
tioned in Seriplure, chieHy with reference lo the 
In Bcarceir aiiytliing has the caprice of fashion 
more MrikiiiKly ilisplayeil than in the rarious forms 
which [he taste of diflereut counliiea and age» haa pre- 
Bcnbed fat dispuung oT this natural covering of the 
be«L See Head. 

1. Of the more ancient nations, Ihe Egyptians ai>pear 
to have been the moat uiufonn in their habila regarding 
it, and, in anme respects also, the moat peculiar. We 
lewn from Herodotus (ii, Sia, ill, IB) that they let the 
hair of their head and lieanl grow only when they were 
in mourning, and that they shaved it at other times. 
Eveu in the case of young chiUreji they were wo 
abavc the head, leaving only a few loclie on the front, 
aide*, and b«ck, as an emblem of youth. In the ca 
n^-al children, those on the sides were covered an 
cl«e<l in a bag, which hung down conspicuomly 
hedge of princely rank OV'Ukinson, ii, 327, 328). 




"SJ'offl'c^" 
British Hdh 

particular were they," aaya Wilkinson, "on this point, 
that to have neglected it was a snbjerr of reproach and 
lidicsle; and whenever ihey intendefl to convey the 
ides of a man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the 
artists represenled him with a beard" [Aneind HgsF- 
(ta», iii, 9o7). Slaves aim, when brought fnii ' 
countries, having beaida on Ihem at their arriv 
obliged 10 confomi lo the cleanly habits of 



; theil 






ailn)iied a close cap." This universal practice among 
the E^-ptin^ explains the incidental notice in the life 
of Jdwph, that before ginng in to I'hanoh he ehaveii 
hinuelf (Ucn. xli, 14) ; in most other places he would 
have combed his hair and trimmed his bcaid, but on no 
accMint have shaved it. The practice was cirrieil there 
to such a length prob- 
ably fhnn Ihetendcn- 

generate t he tieas and 
other vermin which 
nestle in the Itair ; 
ami hence aba the 

be the highest em- 
bodiments of clesnli' 
ness, were wont to 
shave their whole 
bodies every thiril 
day (Hetod. ii, 37). 
Kejptlan It M ringular, how- 




3 HAIR 

dicate that notions of cleanliness did not atone regulate 
the practice, that the women still wore ihiir natural 
hur, long and plaited, often reaching down in the form 
of strings to tlie bottom of the shoukler-blnks. Many 
of the female mummies have been found with theichair 
thus plaited, and in good preservation. The modem 
ladies of E^-pt come but little behind thtir sisters of 
old«i time in this respect (see Lane's Afudem Xgsp- 
Ham,!, ISO). Yet what was remarkable in the inhab- 
itants of a hot climate, while they removed their nat- 
ural hair, they were accustomed 'to wear wig«, which 
were so constnicted that "they far surpasscil." pava 
Wilkinson, " the comfort and coohieis of I he modern 






e of 111 




which the hair was rasteiie<l allowing the heat of the 
head to escape, while the iiair efTectuallv protecteil it 
from the sun" (Am. ErffjU. iii, 854). Jwphus (/-i/c, 
§ 11) notices an instance of false hair {tripiSfril Ki/iti) 
licing used for the purpose of disguise. Among (he 
Medea ihe wig was worn by the upper classts (Xenoph. 
Cyr-ip. i, 3, 2). See He.\t)-iibks3. 

2. The precisely opporite practice, as reganls men, 
would seem lo have |irevailed among the ancient As- 
lyrians, and, indeed, among the Asiatics generallv. In 
the Assyrian srulptures Ihe hair 
alwaj-s ap]iean long, combed close- 
ly down upon the beail, and sh( 
ding itself in a mass of curls on t 
shcmldeia. "The lieard also w 
allowed 10 grow to its full length, 
and, descending low on Ihe breast, 
was divideil into two or three rows 
of curis. The mustache was also I 
carefully trimmed and curled at^ 
the ends" (tayard's StBtrrh, ii, Assirlsn Wanner nf 
827), Herodotus likewise tesliflea wearing the Hair. 
tl«i the Babyionlarai wore their ^^iSTh M'uJ'enm " 
hair long (i, 196). The very long 
hur, howei'er, that appears in Ihe figures on the monu- 
ments is Bu]ipoBed lo have bren partly false, e sort of 
head-dress lo add to the effect of the natural hair. The 
excessive pains bestowed by Ihe ancient nations in ar- 
ranging the hair and beard appears aiinuKt fopiiish in 
contrast with their stem, martial eharscter (Layard's 
Nmerrh, ii, 254). See UKAni>. The practice of Ihe 
modem Arabs in regard to the length of thdrhair va- 
riesi generally the men allow it to grow its natural 
length, Ihe ttesscs hanging down lo Ihe breast, and 
sotnetimes to the waist, aflbrding substantial protection 
lo the head and neck against the violence of the sun's 
raya (Itiirchbardt'a Koitt, i, 49 1 Wellsted's TratrU, i, 
33, 53, 73). 

9. Among the andent Greeks, the general admiration 
of long hair, whether ill men or women, is evideneed by 
the expression I'aptjico/idwvrir 'Axnioi ("well-combed 
Greeks"), so often occurring in Homer; and hy Ihe 
saying, which passed current among the people, that 
hair was the cheapest of ornaments; and in the repre- 
sentations of Iheii divinities, especially Itacchus and 
Apollo, whose long lochs were a ^inbol of perpetual 
j-outh. But ihe practice varied. Wliile the SpsrlaiiB 




(Hope's CVwhimei.) 



e the hair long, a 
have it tied ii 
It a later period Ihey w 
rt. Among the Athcnii 
ter practice varied some 



HAIR 



24 



HAIR 



the earlier, though the infonnation is lesB speciflc. The 
Bomans pamed through nmilar changes: in more an- 
cient times the hair of the head and beaid was allowed 
to grow; but about three centunes before the Christian 
lera barbers began to be introduced, and men usually 
wore the hair short. Shaving was also customary, and 
a long beard was regarded as a mark of slovenliness. 
An instance ev^en occurs of a man, M. Livius, who had 
been banished for a time, bemg ordered by the censors 
to have his beard shaved before he entered the senate 
(livy, xxvii, 34). See Diadksi, 

This later practice must have been quite general in 
the Gospel age, so far as the head is concerned, among 
the countries which witnessed the labon of the apostle 
Paul, since, in his first epistle to the Corinthians, he re- 
fers to it as an acknowledged and nearly universal fact. 
''Doth not even nature itself teach you," he asked, 
''that if a man have long hair, it b a shame to him? 
But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her; for 
her hair is given her for a covering" (1 Cor, xi, 14, 15). 
The only person among the more ancient Israelites who 
is expressly mentioned as having done in ordinary life 
what is here designated a shame, is Absalom ; but the 
manner in which the sacred historian notices the ex- 
travagant regard he paid to the cultivation of his hair 
not obscurely intimates that it was esteemed a piece of 
foppish effeminacy (2 Sam. xiv, 26). To the Corinthi- 
ans the letter of Paul was intended to administer a time- 
ly reproof for allowing themselves to fall in with a style 
of manners which, by confounding the distinctions of 
the sexes, threatened a banefid influence on good mor- 
als; and that not only the Christian converts in that 
city, but the primitive Church generally, were led by 
this admonition to adopt simpler habits, is evident from 
the remarkable fact that a criminal, who came to trial 
under the assumed character of a. Christian, was proved 
to the satisfaction of the judge to be an impostor by the 
luxuriant and frizzled appearance of his hair (Tertul- 
lian, ApoL; Fleury, Lts Maurs de$ Chritiennes), See 
Shaving. With regard to women, the possession of 
long aud luxuriant hair is allowed by Paul to be an es- 
sential attribute of the sex — a graceful aud modest cov- 
ering provided by nature; and yet the same apostle 
elsewhere (1 Tim. ii, 9) concurs with Peter (1 Pet. iii, 9) 
in launching severe invectives against the ladies of his 
day for the pride and passionate fondness they displayed 
in the elaborate decorations of their head-dress. See 
Plaiting the Hair. As the hair was pre-eminently 
the " instrument of their pride" (Ezek. xvi, 89, margin), 
all the resources of ingenuity and art were exhausted to 
set it off to advantage and load it with the most daz- 
zling finery ; uid many, when they died, caused their 
longest locks to be cut off, and placed separately in an 
urn, to be deposited in their tomb as the most precious 
and valued relics. In the daily use of cosmetics, they 
bestowed the most astonishing pains in arranging their 
long hair, sometimes twisting it round on the crown of 
the head, where, and at the temples, by the aid of gum, 
which they knew as well as the modem belles, they 
wrought it into a variety of elegant and fanciful devices 
— ^figures of coronets, harps, wreaths, diadems, emblems 
of public temples and conquered cities, being formed by 
the mimic skill of the ancient friseur ; or else pliuting it 
into an incredible number of tresses, which bimg down 
the back, and which, when necessary, were lengtliened 
by ribbons so as to reach to the ground, and were kept 
at full stretch by the weight of various wreaths of 
pearls and gold fastened at intervals down to the ex- 
tremity. From some Syrian coins in his possession 
Hartmann {Die Hthrdtriim am Putztische) has given this 
description of the style of the Hebrew coiffure; and 
many ancient busts and portraits which have been dis- 
covered exhibit so close a resemblance to those of East- 
em ladies in the present day as to show that the same 
elaborate and gorgeous disposition of their hair has been 
the pride of Oriental females in every age. (See below.) 
From the great value attached to a profuse head of hair 



arose a variety of superstitions and emblematic observ- 
ances, such as shaving parts of the head, or croppuig it 
in a particular form ; parents dedicating the hair of in- 
fants (TertuUian, De Ammo) to the gods; young wom- 
en theirs at their marriage; warriors after a successful 
campaign; sailors after deliverance from a storm : hang- 
ing it up on consecrated trees, or depositing it in tem- 
ples; burj'ing it in the tomb of friends, as Achilles did 
at the funeral of Patroclus; besides shaving, cutting off, 
or plucking it out, as some people did; or allowing it to 
grow in sordid negligence, as was the practice with oth- 
ers, according as the calamity that befell them was com- 
mon or extraordinary', and their grief was mild or vio- 
lent. See Cuttings in the Flesh. 

4. The Hebrews were fully alive to the importance 
of the hair as an element of personal beauty, whether 
as seen in the " curled locks, black as a raven," of youth 
(Cant. V, 1 1), or hi the " crown of glory" that encircled 
the head of old age (Prov. xvi, 81). Vet, while they 
encouraged the growth of hair, they obscn-ed the nat- 
ural distinction between the sexes by allowing the wom- 
en to wear it long (Luke vii, 88 ; John xi, 2 ; 1 Cor. xi, 
6 sq.), while the men restrained theirs by frequent clip- 
pings to a moderate length. This difference between 
the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, especially the 
Egyptians, arose, no doubt, partly from natural taste, bat 
partly also from legal enactments, and to some extent 
from certain national usages of wide extent. 

(a.) Clipping the hair in a certain manner, and offer- 
ing the locks, was in early times connected with relig- 
ious worship : many of the Arabians practised a {)eciil- 
iar tonsure in honor of their god Orotal (Herod, iii, 8), 
and hence the Hebrews were forbidden to " round the 
comers (HKD, lit. the extremity) of their heads" (Lev. 
xix, 27), meaning the locks along the forehead and tem- 
ples, and behind the ears. (See Alteneck, Coma •lie' 
&r(Borum,yiteb. 1C95.) This tonsure is described in the 
Sept. by a pecidiar expression, ctadfi (=the classical 
<raca^tov), probably derived from the Hebrew n'^3C*^2C 
(comp. Bochart, Canaan^ i, 6, p. 879). That the prac- 
tice of the Arabians was well known to the Hebrews 
appears from the expression HKB *^2C^2C|^, rounded cu 
to the locksy by which they are described (Jer. ix, 26; 
XXV, 23 ; xlix, 32 ; see marginal translation of the A. 
v.). The prohibition against cutting off the hair oq 
the death of a relative (Dent xiv, 1) was probably 
grounded on a similar reason. See Cokner. 

(&) In addition to these regulations, the Hebrews 
dreaded baldness, as it was frequently the result of lep- 
rosy (Lev, xiii,40 sc].), and hence formed one of the dis- 
qualifications for the priesthood (Lev. xxi, 20, Sept.). 
See Baldness. The nde imposed upon the priesta, 
and probably followed by the rest of the community, 
was that the hair should be polled (DD3, Ezek. xliv, 
20), neither being shaved, nor allowed to grow too long 
(Lev. xxi, 5 ; Ezek. I. c). What was the precise length 
usually wom we have no means of ascertaining; but 
from various expressions, such as DK"^ 9?B» lit. to 2e< 
loom the head or the hair (^=iolvere crw«», Virgil, jEtu 
iii, 66 ; xi, 85 ; demUtos lugentis more capiUo»^ Ovid, Ep, 
X, 137) by unbinding the head-band and letting it go di- 
shevelled (Lev. X, 6, A- V. " uncover your heads"), which 
was done in mourning (compare Ezek. xxiv, 17) ; and 
again ^{UK nbfi, to uncover the ear previous to making 
any communication of importance (1 Sam. xx, 2, 12 ; 
xxii, 8 ; A. V., margin), as though the hair feU over the 
ear, we may conclude that men wore their hair some- 
what longer than is usual with us. The word 3?'^0, 
used as = hair (Numb, vi, 6; Ezek. xliv, 20), is espe- 
cially uidicative of its free growth (see Knobel, CVwun, 
on Lev. xxi, 10). In 2 Kings i, 8, "a hairy man;" lit^ 
erallv, " a lord of hair," seems rather to refer to the flow- 
ing locks of Elijah (q. \X This might be doubtful, 
even ^-ith the support of the Sept and Josephus — av- 



HAIR 



25 



HAIR 



6|Mnraf iaaiv — >nd of the Tugum Jonltbin — '^'M 
l^JO— the aamewordiuedforEsWiinGsn. xxvii,ll. 
^l its applicMion to the hiir of the head is corrobon- 
led by the word used by the cbiUlren of Bethel when 
mockiiig Eliiha (q. v.). " Bald-head" is a peculiar term 
(n^^), a;)|ilied Duly tu want of hair at the back of the 
bead ; uul the (aunt wis ealled forth hy the difference 
between the bare shoulders of the new prophet and the 
shaflgy lof ks of the old one. Long hair was admired 
ia the case of tduii({ tarn; it is e^iecially noticed in 
the description of Abealom's peteon ('^ Sam. xii-, 26), 
the ioconcelTahle weight of whose hair, as given in the 
text (200 shekels), has led to a variety of explanations 
(oMDp. limner's ObierTationi, iv, SiV), the more prob- 
able being that the nomeral 3 (SO) has. been tumod 
1010 1(300); Joeephus(^tif,vii,8,6) idils thai it was 
•nt every eighth day. The liair was also worn long by 
the bodv-guard of Solomon, according io the same au- i 
thorily '(/!■/. riii, 7, 8, /iijitioroc ™eH/iivoi xai'rac). 
The rare requiste to keep the hair in order in such 
eaoes must have been very great, and hence the prac- 
tice of wearing; long hail was unusual, and only resorted 
to as an act of religious observance, in which case it was 
 "ngn of humiliation and self-denial, and of a certain 
religious slovcnlineaa" (Lighlfoot, Ertrcti, on 1 Cor. xi, 
UX and was practised by the Nazarites (Numb. vi,6; 
Jadg. xiii, b; xvi, 17; 1 Sam. i, 11), and occaeioiully 
by oiheiB in token of specisl mercies (Acts zviii, IH) ; it 
was ml uuusoal among the Egyptians when ou a jom- 
iwjr (Diod. i, IB). SeeNAZABire. 

(c.) In times of affliction the hair was altogether cut 
air(Iaa.iii,17,!4; x\-,!i xiui,13; JeT.vii,29; xlviii, 
87; Amos viii, 10; JoMphus, War, ii, IS, I), the prac- 
tice of the Hebrews being in this respect the reverse of 
that of the Egvptiaiu, who let their hair grow long in 
tine of mouniing (Herod, ii, 86), shaving their heads 
when the term was over (Gen. nJi, 14); but resemblinf^ 
tUt of the Greeks, as fiequently noticed by classicsl 
writem (e. g. Soph. Aj. 1174; Eurip. Elrclr. 143, 241). 
Tearing the hair (Ezra ix, 3), and letting it go dishov- 
dled^ as already noticed, were similar tokens of grief. 
Job is eveii represented as having shaved his head, to 
make himself bald, in the day of his calamity (i, JO) ; 
probably more, however, as a sj-mbo! of desolation than 
as an ordinary badge of mouming; for It is in that re- 
ifiect that baldneSB is commonly spoken of in Scripture 
({Eia.iii,S4; sv,2, etc). The call in Jer. vit,!9 to cut 
off t be hair — ^Cut off thine hBir,0 Jerusalem, and cast 
it away ; and take up a lamenUtion on high placea" — 
is addressed to Jerusalem underthe symbol of a woman, 
and indicates nothing as to the umal practice of men in 
times of trouble and distreaa. In iMr case, we may 
rather suppose, the custom would be to let the hair grow 
in the season of moumuig, and to neglect the person. 
But the practice would naturally differ with the occa 
lion and with the feeliivgs of the indii idnaL See 



may infer that it was not uaual among the Hebrewi. 
The i^iproach of age wis marked by AtpHiiHiiff (p?1, 
Hos. 1-ti, 9 ; camp, a similar use of ipar^nv, PropcH. iii, 
4, V4) of gray hain, which soon overspread the whols 
head {Cien. xlii,a«; xliv, 29 ; 1 Kings ii, 6, 9 ; Prov. 
xvi, 81 ; 7CX, 29> The reference to the afmomJ in EccL 
xii, 5, has been explained of the white blossoms of that 
tree, as emblematic of old age: it may be obsetved, how- 
ever, that the color of the flower is jmb rather than 
white, and that the verb in that passage, according to 
high authorities (Gesen. and Hitzig), does not bear the 
sense of blossoming at all SeeALUOM). l>ure white 
hair was deemed characteristic of the divine majesty 
(Dan.vii,9; Kev. i,14). See Gr.\y. 
j The chief beauty of the hair oouusted in curls, wheth- 
er of a natural or artificial character. The Hebrew 
terms are highly expressive : to omit the word IBS- 
rendered "locks" in Cant, iv, 1,3; vi,7; and Isa. xlvii, 
2; but more probably meaning a rftf-we have n-ip>rt 
(Cant. V, II), properly pendulous flexible boughs (ac- 
cording to the Sepl^ JXdrot, the shoots of the pim- 
tree) which eupptied an image of the oataa prndula ; 
f'^^X (Ezek.viii,8),B similar image borrowed from the 
cun-e of a bkissom ; pW (Cant, iv, 9), a lock falling 
over the shoulders like a chain of ear-pcndaut (i'n mho 
crine eoSi (ui, Vulgate better, perhaps than the A.V., 
"with one chain of thy neck") ; B^KSTn (Cant. vii,6, 
A. V. " galleries"), properly the channels by which wa- 
ter was brought to the flocks, which supiilied an image 
either of the conuijIuRW, or of the regularity in which 
the locks were arranged; Ht^ (Cinl.vii, &), again an 
expression for coina paidula, borrowed (rota the threads 
liatiging down from au unfinished woof; and, lastly, 
rn^JSB nbjO(Isa.iii,24,A.V."wellBethair"),pro(k. 
erly plailnt Kori, L e. gracefully curved locks. With 
r^ard to the mode of dressing the hair we have no 
very precise infoimafion; the terms used arc of a gen- 
eral character, as of Jezebel (2 Kings ix, BO), 3B"'P, L 
e. she adamrd her head; of Judith (x, 3), ^limEf, i. e. 
amm^ (the A.V. has " braided," and the Vulg.rfis- 
crminaril, here used in a technical sense in the refer- 
ence to the diKrimiruile or hairpin) ; of Herod (Joseph. 
Ant, xiv, 9, 4), Kiioaiaipipos Tg avvSioii tIjq ffli/iWr 
and of those who adopted feminine fashions (H'or, iv, 
9, 10), Kofiat iruv6inKoiitvoi. The terms used in the 
N. Test. (rXiy/ioaiv, 1-Tim. U, 9; f^irXoeqc rpix'^'', 1 
Pet, iii, 8) are also of a general character; Schlcuaner 
(f^fx. B. V.) understands them of curUag rather than 
plaiting. The arrangement ofSanunn's hair into seven 
lochs, or more properly ftroWj (riiBVn^,from "^'1,(0 
inlfrcAange I Sept. mipai; Juctg. xvi, 18, 19), involve* 
the practice of plaiting, which was also fimihar to the 
Egvptians (Wilkinson, ii, 335) and Greeks (Homer, IL 
xu I'fl) Tlie locks were prohablv kepi m their place 
byafiUel as in Egypt (W ilkmaon, I c ) 



The usual and favorite color of the hair was black 
(Cant. T, 11), as is indicated in the oompansoiis to a 
"flock of goats" and the " lenta of Kedar" (Cant, ir I 
1,6): a similar hue is probably intended by ihe parpU 
of Cant, vii, b, the term being broadly use 1 (as the 
Greek Topf upioc in a similar Bpplidlion— /ifXnj Ana 

by sjirinkling gold-dust on the hair (JosephuB, Ih/ mu 
7, 3> It dues not appear that dyes were onlinanlv 
used; the "carmer of Cant. vii,& has been understood 
BS =i^^'73 (A.V. "crimson," margin) without good 
feaaon, though the similarity of the words may hB\e 
subsequent reference to purple Herod 
a hai'e dyeil his gray hair fur the purpose of 
;^(.4nr.xvi,8. 1); but the practice may 
wed frem the Greeks or Romami, among 




Andenl EgTpUsn Ladles 



their hair bonnd by lllleli. 



HAKE WILL 



26 



HALAH 



Ornaments were worked into the hair, as practised 
by the modem Egyptians, who *' add to each braid three 
black silk cords with little ornaments of gold" (Lane, i, 
71) : the Sept. miderstands the term D'^D^S© (Isa. iii, 
18, A. V. "cauls") as applying to such ornaments (t/i- 
irXoKia) ; Schroder (Vest, MuL Heb, cap. 2) approves of 
this, and conjectures that they were ntnshapedy i. e. 
circular, as distinct from the " round tires like the moon," 
i. e. the crescent-shaped ornaments used for necklaces. 
The Arabian women attach small bells to the tresses of 
their hair (Niebuhr, Trav, i, 133). Other terms, some- 
times understood as applying to the hair, are of doubt- 
ful signification, e. g. D'^a'^^H (Isa. iii, 22 ; actu ; "crisp- 
ing-pins"), more probably purses^ as in 2 Kings v, 28 ; 
ta'^'i^^p (Isa. ui, 20, "head-bands"), bridal ffirdles, ac- 
cording to Schroder and other authorities; D'^'^KQ (Isa. 
iii, 20, Viilg. discriminalkif i. e. pins used for keeping the 
hair parted ; comp. Jerome in Rtijin, iii, cap, ult.), more 
probably turbans. Combs and hair-pins are mentioned 
in the Talmud ; the Egyptian combs were made of wood 
and double, one side having large, and the other small 
teeth (Wilkinson, ii,343); from the ornamental devices 
worked on them we may infer that they were worn in 
the hair. See each of the above terms in its place. In 
the Talmud frequent references are made to women who 
were professional bair-dreasers for their o^^m sex, and 
the name applied to whom was PPII^ (probably from 
il^j to twine or plait), " femina gnara alere crines" (Mai- 
mon. in Tr, Shabbath^ x, 6 ; comp. also Wagenseil, Soia^ 
p. 137 ; Jahn, Archaol pt. i, voL ii, p. 114). 

The Hebrews, like other nations of antiquity, anoint- 
ed the hair profusely with ointments, which were gen- 
ally compounded of various aromatic ingredients (Ruth 
iii, 8 ; 2 Sam. xiv, 2 ; Fsa. xxiit, 5 ; xlv, 7 ; xcii, 10 ; 
EccL ix, 8 ; Isa. iii, 24) ; more especially on occasion of 
festivities or hospitality (Matt, vi, 17 ; xxvi, 7 ; Luke 
vii, 46 ; comp. Joseph. A nt, xix, 4, 1, •xpitsapLfvoQ fivpoiQ 
Ti^v Ke^aXiiVy wc 'i^« avvovifiaQ), It is, perhaps, in 
reference to the glossy appearance so imparted to it 
that the hair is described as purple (Cant vii, 5). See 
Ointment. 

It appears to have been the custom of the Jews in 
our Saviour's time to swear by the hair (Matt, v, 86), 
much as the Egyptian women still swear by the side- 
lock, and the men by their beards (Lane, i, 52, 71, notes). 
See Oath. 

Hair was employed by the Hebrews as an image of 
what was least vciuable in man's person (1 Sam. xiv, 
45; 2 Sam. xiv, 11 ; 1 Kings i, 52; Matt x, 80; Luke 
xii, 7 ; xxi, 18 ; Acts xxvii, 34) ; as well as of what was 
innumerable. (Psa. xl, 12 ; Ixix, 4), or particularly /Sn6 
(Judg. XX, 16). In Isa. vii, 20, it represents the various 
productions of the field, trees, crops, etc ; like ofiOQ iccco- 
fitf/ievov vXy of Callim. IHan, 41, or the humus comans 
of Stat. Theb, v, 502. White hair, or the hoar}' head, is 
the symbol of the respect due to age (Lev. xix, 22; 
Prov. xvi, 31). Hence we find in Dan. xu^ 9, God takes 
upon him the title of " Ancient of Da}V (comp. Rev. i, 
14), the gray locks there represented being the symbol 
of authority and honor. The shaving of the head, on 
the contrary, signifies afiliction, poverty, and disgrace. 
Thus "cutting off the hair" is a figure used to denote 
the entire destruction of a people by the righteous ret- 
^ributions of Providence (Isa. vii, 20). " (J ray hairs here 
and there on Ephraim" portended the decline and fall 
of the kingdom of Israel (Hos. vii, 9). " Hair like wom- 
en's" forms part of the description of the Apocalyptic lo- 
custs (Rev. ix, 8), and is added to complete the idea of 
fierceness of the anti-Christian troop of cavalr}'^, bristling 
with shaggy hair (comp. " rough caterpillars," L e. hairj- 
locusts, Jer. li, 27) ; long and undressed hair in later 
times being regarded as an image of barbaric rudeness 
(Hengstenbcrg, ad loc. Rev.).— Kitto, s. v. ; Smith, s. 
V. ; Fairbaim, s. v. 

Hakewlll, Gboboe, an English theologian and 



philoaopher, vras bom at Exeter in .1579. He atodiefl 
at Exeter and at Alban Hall, Oxford, where he gradu- 
ated, and entered the Church in 161 1. He became suc- 
cessively chaplain of prince Quirles (afterwards Charles 
I) and archdeacon of Surrey. His opposition to the 
prince's plan of marriage with the Infanta of Spain 
caused him to lose his chaplaincy. During the Civil 
War he kept aloof from parties, and in 1648 he was one 
of the first in accepting the rule requiring all members 
of the University of Oxford to sign a promise of obedi- 
ence to Parliament He died in 1649. Besides a large 
number of sermons and occasional pamphlets, he wrote 
An Apology^ or Declaration of the Power and Providencs 
of God in the Government of the World (in four books, 
1627, fol.; augmented edit. 1685), a work written with 
great strength and clearness, if not a]wa\^ in good taste. 
See Wood, Athena OxonienseSf voL ii; Prince, Worthies 
of Devon ; Gorton, General Biog, Did, ; Rose, Xew Gen, 
Biogr, Diet. ; Hoefer, Nouv. Bioffr. Generate^ xxiii, 123 ; 
Allibone, Diet, of A uthorSj s. v. 

Hakim Ben-Allah orBen-Hashem,8umamcd 
MoKANNA {the veiled) and Sagendk Naii (TOoow-woifcer), 
the founder of an Arabian sect, flourished hi the latter 
half of the 8th century. He began his career as a com- 
mon soldier, rose to a captaincy, bnt subsequently be- 
came the leader of a band of his own. Having lost one 
of his eyes by the shot of an arrow, he constantly wore 
a veil to conceal his ugliness, as unbelievers assert, but, 
according to the belief of his disciples, to prevent the 
dazzling brightness of his divinely illuminated counte- 
nance from overpowering the beholder. Hakim is said 
to have been an adept in l^erdemun and natural mag- 
ic, so as to be able to produce grand and startling effects 
of light and color, in virtue of which he laid claim to 
miraculous powers, and asserted that he was a god in 
human form, having been incarnated in the bodies of 
Adam, Noah, and other celebrated men, and, last of all, 
in that of Abu Moslem, prince of Rhorassan. On one 
occasion, to the " delight and bewilderment of his sol- 
diers," he is said for a whole week to have caused to is- 
sue from a deep well a moon or*moons of such surpass- 
ing brilliancy as to obscure the real moon. Many 
flocked to his standard, and he seized several strong 
places near Nekshib and Kish. The sultan Mahadi 
marched against him, and finally captured his last 
stronghold; but Hakim, ** having first poisoned his sol- 
diers with the wine of a banquet," had destroyed his 
body by means of a burning acid, so that only a few 
hairs remained, in order that his disciples might believe 
that he had ^ ascended to heaven alive." Remnants of 
the sect still exist on the 9hores of the Oxus, having for 
outward badge a white garb in memory of that worn by 
their founder, and in contrast to the black color adopted 
by the caliphs of the house of Abbas. The life of Ha- 
kim has been the subject of many romances, of which 
*Hhe best known and most brilliant" is the stor}' (»f 
"The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan" in Moore's Lalla 
Rookh, — Chambers, CyclopcBdia, s. v. ; Hoefer, Nouv, 
Biog. Generale, i, 82; D'Herbelot, BibUoth, Orientale, s. 
V. Mocanna. (J.W. M.) 

Hak'katan, or rather Katan (Heb. Katan', "j^)?, 
with the article 'fOIJil, the little gt junior; Sept, 'Aic«o- 
rdvf Vulg. Eccetan\ a descendant (or native) of Azgad 
and father of Johanan, which last returned with 110 
male retainers from Babylon with Ezra (Ezra viii, 12). 
B.C. ante 459. 

Hakkore. See En-hak-kore, 
Hak'koz (1 Chron. xxiv, 10). See Koz. 
Haku'^pha (jChakupha\ ^t'^'pf},. crooked; but, ac- 
cording to Furst, incitement^ a Chaldaizing form ; Sept. 
'Ajcov^d and 'A^i^a)* o"® of the Nethinira whose de- 
scendants returned fh)m Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 
ii, 61 ; Neh. vii, 53). B.C. ante 536. 

Ha'lah (Hebrew Chalach', nbn, signif. unknown; 
Sept. 'EXai and 'AXaCjYulg. ^ai^.-'but in 1 Chroo. v. 



HALACHA 



27 



HALDANE 



26, Sept XaXa,Tulg. Lahdd)j a city or district of Me- 
dii, upon the river Gozan, to which, among other places, 
the capdves of Israel were transplanted by the Awyrian 
kings (2 Kings xvii, 6; xviii,ll; 1 Chron.v,26). Many, 
after £ochart {Geog. Sacra, iii, 14, p. 220), have con- 
ceived this HaUh or Chalach to be the same with the 
Cal«\ii or Kelach of Gen. x, 11, the Calacine (KaXa- 
uvii) which Ptolemy places to the north of Assyria (vi, 
1), the Caiachene (KaXaxnvrf) of Strabo (xi, 580), in the 
plain of the Tigris around Nineveh. But this is proba- 
bly a different place, the nnxlem Kalah-Shergat. Ma- 
jor Rennell, identifying the Gozan with the Kizzil-Ozan, 
indicates as lying along its banks a district of some ex- 
tent, and of great beauty and fertility, called Chakhalj 
having within it a remarkably strong position of the 
aame name, situated on one of the hills adjoining to the 
mountains which separate it from the province of Ghi- 
Ian {Geog, of Herod, p. 896). The Talmud understands 
Ckolipan, five days* journey from Bagdad (FUist, Lex. s. 
v.). Ptolemy, however, mentions (v, 18) another prov- 
ince in Mesopotamia of a similar name, namely, Chaki- 
tis (XaXxiTig), which he places between Anthemusia 
(compare Strabo, xvi, 1, § 27) and Gauzonitis (Gozan) ; 
and this appears to be the true Ualah of the Bible. It 
lay along the banks of the Upx)er Khab(ir, extending 
from its source at Raa el-Ain to its jmictioir with, the 
Jemjer, as the name is thought to remain in the modem 
Ght, a large mound on this river, above its junction 
n-iih the Jerujer (Layard, Nm. and Bab. p. 312, note). 
Halah, Habor, and Gozan were situated close together 
on the left bank of the Euphrates (Rawlinson, Ancient 
Monankiesy i, 246>— Kitto, s. v. 

Halacha. See Haogadah ; Midrash. 

Ha'^lak (Heb. Chalak", phn, mootk; Sept. 'AaXa'c 
and XtXxa), the name (or, rather, epithet) of a hill 
(pjrrfl *^>i^, both with the art = the bare moutd) near 
the territory of Scir, at the southern extremity of Ca- 
naan, among the conquests of Joshua (Josh, xi, 17 ; xii, 
7); so calleil, doubtless, from its bald appearance, making 
it a landmark in that direction. Hence it is used bv 
Joshua, as Beersheba was used by later writers, to mark 
the southern limit of the countrv — " So Joshua took all 
that land . . . from the Mount iluUiky that goeth up 
to Seir, even unto Baal-gad, in the valley of Lebanon, 
under Moant Hermon." The situation of the mountain 
is thus pretty definitely indicated. It adjoins Edom, 
ami lay on the southern border of Palestine^ it must, 
consequently, have been in, or very near, the great val- 
ley of the Arabah. The expression, ''that goeth up to 
Seir" Cl^rto ribrri), is worthy of note. Seir is the 
mountainous province of Edom [see SeirJ ; and Mount 
Halak would seem to have been connected ^nth it, as 
if running up towards it, or joining it to a lower dis- 
trict. About ten miles south of the Dead Sea a line of 
naked white cliflk, varying in height from 50 to 150 
feet, runs completely across the Arabah. As seen from 
the north, the cliffs resemble a ridge of hills (and in this 

aspect the word ^%^ might perhaps be applied to them), 
shutting in the deep valley, and connecting the moun- 
tain chain on the west with the mountains of Seir on 
the east. It is possibly this ridge which is referred to 
in Numb, xxiv, 8, 4, and Josh, xv, 2, 8, under the name 
"Ascent of Akrabbim," and as marking the south-east- 
em border of Judah ; and it might well be called the 
bald mountain^ which ascends to Seir. It was also a liat- 
ural landmark for the southern boundary of Palestine, 
as it is near Kedesh-bamea on the one side, and the 
northern ridge of Edom on the other. To this ridge, 
bounding the land in the valley on the south, is appro- 
priately opposed on the north, " Baal-gad, in the valley 
of Ijebantn^ (Keil on Joshua xi, 17). The cliffs, and 
the scenery of the surrounding region, are minntelv de- 
scribed by Robinson {Bib. Res. ii, 118, 116, 120).— Rit- 
to, a. ▼. Still, the peculiar term, *^ the bald mountain," 
seems to require some more distinctive eminence, i)er- 



haps in this general range. Schwarz thinks it may be 
identified with JAel Madura^ on the south frontier of 
Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and 
wady Gaian {Palestine, p. 29); marked on Bobinson*8 
map a little south of the famous pass Nukb es-Sufah. 

Haldane, James Alexander, brother of the 
following, was bom at Dundee July 14, 1768. Having 
imbibed the family passion for the sea, he was appoint- 
ed captain of the Melville Castle in 1793. The vessel, 
however, did not sail for four months, and during that 
inter>'al a great change took place in captain Ilaldane's 
character. He became serious and thoughtful on the 
subject of religion, and, having determined to follow the 
example of hb brother, who had already relinquished 
the seafaring life, he disposed of his command for £9000, 
and his share in the property of the ship and stores for 
£6000 more. With this fortune of £15,000 he retired 
with his wife to Scotland in 1794, and gave himself up 
to those religious inquiries which now engrossed his 
chief concern. Several years elapsed before his views 
were established ; but at length he attained to a knowl- 
edge of the troth as well as peace in believing. Mr. 
James Haldane, having plenty of time at command, oc- 
cumed himself with many plans of Christian usefulness; 
among which the opening of Sabbath-schools, and itin- 
erant preaching, at first in the villages around Edin- 
burgh, and afterwards in the other large towns of Scot- 
land, were the chief. His principal coadjutor in these 
labors of love was John Campbell, the African traveller. 
In compuiy with that zealous Christian, Mr. Haldane 
made successive tours throughout all Scotland as far as 
Orkney, and those who were awakened by their preach- 
ing were, through the liberality of Mr. Robert Haldane, 
accommodated with suitable places of worship. Mr. 
James eventually accepted the office of stated pastor in 
the Tabernacle, Leith Walk, Edinburgh, and in that 
capacity he exercised, without any emolument, all the 
public and private duties of a minister with unbroken 
fidelity and zeal for a period of fifty years. Although 
he vacillated on some points of Churoh government, ho 
and his brother remained steadfast in their adherence to 
the general principles of the Scotch Baptists. He died 
in Edinburgh Feb. 8, 1851. Besides a number of con- 
troversial tracts, he published A View of the social Wor- 
ship of the first Christians (Ebinb. 1805, 12mo) : — Man^s 
Responsibility and the Extent of the A tonement (Edinb. 
1842, 12mo) : — Kxposition of Galtttians (Edinb. 1848, 
12mu): — Inspiration of the Scriptures (Edinb. 1845, 
12mo). — Jamieson, Religious Biography, p. 242 ; Kich, 
Biog. Diet. B,y. Haldane; Lives of the Brothers JIaldane 
(1852, 8vo); Belcher, Memoir of Robert and James Air- 
exandei' Haldane, etc (Amer. Tract Soc.) ; New England- 
er, April, 1861, p. 269. See Independents, III. 

Haldane, Robert, an eminent Christian philan- 
thropist, was bom in London (of Scotch parents) Feb. 
28, 1764, and inherited a large property. His early 
manhood was spent in the navy ; he was afterwards an 
enthusiastic Democrat in politics, and w^elcomed the 
French Revolution. Ailer this excitement subsided he 
was converted, and resolved on dedicating his life to 
missionar)' labors. India was the chosen field, and, 
having secured the promised co-operation of Messrs. 
Innes, Ewing, and Bogue, of Gosport, to whom he guar- 
anteed adequate stipends, he applied to the Indian gov- 
ernment to sanction his enterprise. The East India 
Company directors, after much deliberation, resolved 
that the superstitions of Hindostan should not be dis- 
turl)ed. Mr. Haldane now determined to employ his 
resources in spreading the Gospel at home, and, in con- 
junction with Rowland Hill and other eminent evan- 
gelists, he was instramental in awakening an extensive 
revival of religion throughout Scotland. The (icneral 
Assembly (1800) forbade field-preaching, and discour- 
aged the revival. Mr. Haldane therefore seceded from 
the Established Church, and at his ovm expense erected 
places of worship, under the uam^ <>f Tabemadesi in all 



^ 



HALDE,DU 



28 



HALHUL 



the large towns of Scotland, and educated 800 young 
men under Dr. Bogue at Gosport, Mr. Ewing at 6Ia»- 
goW| and Mr. Innes at Dundee. He alao organized a 
theological school at Paris. His attention vna subse* 
quently directed to the evangelization of Africa. To 
commence this undertaking, he procured thirty young 
children from Sierra Leone to receive a Christian edu- 
cation at his expense, and gave a bond for £7000 for 
their board and education, which, however, the friends 
of emancipation in London undertook to defray. This 
is only one specimen of his munificence. His personal 
labors in awakening a religious spirit in the south of 
France were successful beyond his own most sanguine 
expectations ; and both at Geneva and Montauban he 
sowed the seeds of truth, which are bearing good fruit 
to this day in the Protestant churches of France. Mr. 
Haldane took a prominent part in the management of 
the Continental Society and the Bible Society of Edin- 
burgh; and in the painful controversy relative to the 
circulation of the Apocrypha by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, which led to the establishment of the lat^ 
ter. He was the author of The Evidence and A vihority 
of divine Revelation (8d ed. 1839, 2 vols. l^tmo):—An 
Exposiiion of the Epigtle to the Romans (Lond. 1839, 2 
voK Vhtio)'.— Verbal Inspiration (6th ed, 1863, 12mo); 
and various controversial pamphlets. He died Dec 12, 
1842. — Jamieson, Reliffiotu Biography j p. 240 ; Bich, Bi~ 
ogr. Dictionary ; Darling, Lives of the Brothers Haldane 
(Lond. 1852, 8 vo) ; Belcher, Memoir of Robert and James 
Alexander Haldane (Amer. Tract. Soc.). 

Halde, Du. See Du Halde. 

Hale, John, a Congregational minister, was bom 
June 3, 1636, in Charlestown, Mass. He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1657, and was ordained first pastor 
of the newly-formed Church at Beverley, Sept. 20, 1067, 
where he remained until his death, May 15, 1700. He 
published an Election Sermon (1684), and A modest In- 
quiry into the Nature of Witdurci/l, and how Persons 
guilty of that Crime may be convicted, and the Means 
used for their Discovery discussed, both negatively and 
affirmaiively, according to Scripture and Experience 
(18mo, 1697).— Sprague, Annals, i, 168. 

Hale, Sir Matthe^v, was bom at Alderiey, 
Gloucestershire, Nov. 1, 1609, admitted at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, in 1626, and at lincohi's Inn in 1629. In 
1653 (under the Commonwealth) he was made one of 
the judges of the Common Bench, and in 1671 he was 
elected to be chief justice of the King's Bench. He died 
Dec. 25, 1676. He was a teamed lawyer, an upright 
judge, a pious Christian. The only spot upon his mem- 
ory as a criminal judge is the notorious fact of his hav- 
ing condemned two wretched women for witchcraft, at 
the assizes at Bury St. Edmund's, in the year 1665. 
Hale, in the course of the trial, avowed himself a believer 
in witchcraft, and the jury found the prisoners guUty, 
notwithstanding many impartial by-standeis declared 
that they disbelieved the charge. No reprieve was grant- 
ed, and the prisoners were executed. Hale was a volu- 
minous writer. Of his legal publications we make no 
mention here ; besides them he wrote An Abstract of the 
Christian Religion: — A Discourse of Religion: — Contents 
plationSf Moral and Divine: — The Knowledge of Christ 
crucijied (new ed. GUsg. 1828, 12mo). These and other 
minor pieces are gathered in his Works^ Moral and Re- 
ligious, edited by the Rev. T. Thirlwall, M.A. (London, 
1805, 2 vols. 8vo). See Bumet, Life of Sir M. Hale 
(London, 1682, 12roo; also prefixed to his Works, above 
named) ; Baxter, jVotes on the Life and Death of Sir M. 
Hale (Lond. 1682, 12mo ; reprinted, with Hale's Thoughts 
on Religion, Lond. 1805, 12mo); Campbell, Lives of the 
Chief Justices ; English CyclopoecUaf Allibone, Diet, of 
Authors, s. V. 

Hales, John, of Eton, usually called the "ever- 
memorable,'* an eminent English scholar and divine, 
was bom in Bath, 1584, and educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. In 1606 he was elected fellow of Mer- 1 



ton College, and was employed by Sir H. Savile in the 
preparation of his fine edition of Chi^^sostom, published 
in 1613. His attainments in Greek gained him the pro- 
fessorship of that language at Oxford in 1612, and in 
1613 he was ordained and become fellow of Eton. In 
1618 he accompanied Sir D. Carleton to the Hague as 
his chaplain, and attended him to the Synod of Dort (q. 
v.). He went to that celebrated body a Calvinist, and 
left it an Arminian, as is shown by a letter of Farindon 
(q. v.), prefixed to Haks's Golden Remains, in which he 
says* "At the well-pressing of John iii, 16 by Episco- 
pius there, / bid John Calvin good-w^ht, as he has often 
told mi^ (see Jackson, Life of Farindon, p. xlix). In 
1636 he wrote for Chillingworth a tract on Sckism, in 
which he rebuked the claims of high Episcopacy. Laud 
sought to gain over the great Gredc scholar, and ofTered 
him any preferment he pleased. In 1639 he was made 
canon of Windsor, but was deprived in 1642. Refusing 
to subscribe to the " covenant," he was compelled to 
wander from place to place, and at last he had to sell 
his library for bread. He died May 19, 1656. No man 
of his time had greater reputation for scholarship and 
piety. Bishop Pearson speaks of him as a ** man of as 
great a sharpness, quickness, and subtilty of wit as ever 
this or perhaps any nation bred .... a man of vast 
and iUimited knowledge, of a severe and profound judg- 
ment.** He wrote unwillingly, and published but a few 
tracts in his lifetime ; but after his death a number of 
his sermons and miscellaneous pieces were collected un- 
der the title of Golden Remains of the Ever-memorable 
John Hales (London, 1659, 8vo; best ed. 1673, 4to) ; his 
Letters concerning the Synod of Dort are published in 
the edition of 1673. An edition of his Whole Works 
(with the language modernized) was published by lord 
Haiks in 1765 (3 vols. 12mo). See Des Maizeaux, L^fe 
of Hales (Lond 1719, 8vo) ; General Biog. Dictionary ; 
Jackson, Life of Farindon (prefixed to Farindon's Ser- 
mons, voL i) ; Wood, A theme Oxoniensis, ii, 124 ; Herzog, 
Real-Encyklop, v, 476-7 ; Allibone, DicL of A uthors, s. v, 

Halibuxton. See Halyburtox. 

Half-commanion, the withholding the cup from 
the laity in the Lord's Supper. " This practice of the 
Church of Rome was first authorized by Innocent III, 
and then made obligatory by the Council of Constance ; 
and one motive for the innovation appears to ha\'e been 
to exalt the priesthood by giving them some exclusive 
privilege even in communion at the Lord's table. Tran- 
substantiation and half-communion, or communion in 
one kind only, are ingeniously linked together. Ro- 
manists believe that Christ, whole and entire, his soul, 
body, and divinity, \b contained in either species, and 
in the smallest particle of each. Hence they infer that, 
whether the communicant receive the bread or the ^-ine, 
he enjo3rs the full benefit of the sacrament Therefore, 
to support the monstrous dogma, the sacrament is di- 
vided in two : transubstantiation justifies communion in 
one kind, and communion in one kind proves the truth 
of transubstantiation. In thus denying the cup to the 
laity, the institution of Christ is mutilated, the express 
law of the Gospel perverted, and the practice of the 
apostles abandoned. The withholding the cup was one 
of the grievances which induced the Hussites to resist 
the usurpations of the Church of Rome" (Fairar, Eodes, 
Diet, B. v.). See Lord's Supper. 

Half-'way Covenant, a scheme adopted by the 
Congregational churches of New England in order to 
extend the privileges of church membership and infant 
baptism beyond the pale of actual communicants at the 
Lord's table. Stoddard, of Northampton, vindicated it, 
and Jonathan Edwards opposed it. This struggle caused 
Edwards's removal from Northampton. It is now aban- 
doned by the orthodox Congregationalists. — Hurst, Ra- 
tionalism, p. 538 ; Upham, Ratio Disciplvue, xxL See 
Congregationalists; Edwards, Jonathan. 

Hal'hul (Heb. ChalchuV, bsinbn, etymoL doubtful, 
but, according to FUrst, full of hollows; Sept 'AXovX v. 



HALI 



29 



HALL 



r.AJXoiia)f a town in the highlands ofJiidah, mentioned 
in the fourth group of six north of Hebron (Keil,Jb«A.p. 
S87), among them Beth-zur and Gedor (Josh, xv, 58). 
Jerome {Onomast, s. v. Elul) says it existed in his time 
near Hebron as a small village (" vilula"') by the name 
o( Alula. Dr. Robinson found it in the modem Ifulhulf 
a <«hc«t distance north of Hebron, consisting of a ruined 
mosque (called Neby Yunas or ** Prophet Jonah") up<m 
a lung hilU surrounded by the remains of ancient walls 
anil foundations (Retearches^ i, 819). During his last 
\T4t to Palestine he visited itagain, and describes it as 
situated high on the eastern brow of the ridge, the head 
luvrn of the district, inhabited by an incivil people ; 
the environs are thrifty and well cultivated. The old 
mosque is a poor structure, but has a minaret (new ed. 
ot Retearchefy iii, 281). Schwarz also identifies it with 
i\\\* village on a mount, 5 Eng. miles north-east of He- 
bron" {Palestine^ p. 107). So likewise De Saulcy {Dead 
8tfu i, 451). The hill is quite a conspicuous one, half 
a mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, 
the village somewhat at its eastern foot \ while opposite 
it, on the other nde of the road, is Beitns&r, the modem 
representative of Beth-zur, and a little further to the 
north IS Jediir, the ancient Gedor. In a Jewish tradi- 
tion quoted by Hottinger {Cippi I/ebraicu p. 88), and re- 
ported by an old Hebrew traveller (Jo. Chel, 1834 ; see 
Carmody, Jim, //eftreir, p. 242), it is said to be the burial- 
place of Gad, David*a seer (2 Sam. xxiv, 11). Hence it 
was for a tinae a place of Jewish pilgrimage (Wilson, 
Jjinds ofBible^ i,d84). See also the citations of Zunz 
io Ashei'a BeaJ, ofTudtla (ii, 487, note). See Chellus. 

Ha'U (Heb. ChaJli', ^Tl, necklace; Sept. 'AXi v. r. 
'A\f^ and 'OoXit). a town on the border of the tribe of 
Asher. mentioned between Helkath and Beten (Josh. 
xix. 25). Schwarz thinks it may be the Chahn (Cy- 
aroon) of Judith vii, 8, opp<»ite Eadraelon, and there- 
fore near the range of Carmel {Palest, p. 191); but the 
reathng of that passage is doubtful (see Amald, Com- 
menf. ad loc.), and such an identification would place 
Hali far remote from the associated localities, which 
seem to indicate a position on the eastern bomidar}', at 
(Dme distance from its northern extremity. Accord- 
ingly Van de Vekle suggests {Memoir, p. 318) that 
" perhaps the site of this city may be recognised in that 
tsi Alia, a place where the rock-hewn foundations of a 
large city are seen, on the south-east side of the village 
of M'alia, rather more than five hours north-east of 
Akka; the tell of l^raUa would seem to have formed the 
acropolis of the ancient city.** 

HaUcamas'inu ('AAumfpvairiroc)) in Caria of Ana 
Minor, a city of great renown, as being the birthplace 
of Herodotus and of the later historian Dionysius, and 
as embellished by the mausoleum erected by Artemisia, 
bat of no Biblical interest except as the residence of a 
Jewish population in the periods between the Old and 
Kew Testament histories. In 1 Mace, xv, 23, this city 
is specified as containing such a population. The de- 
cree in Josephus {AnL xiv, 10, 28), where the Romans 
direct that the Jews of Halicamassns shall be allowed 
their national usage of proseuclue, or prayer-chapels by 
the sea-side (rac TcpwnvxoiQ iroiHtrOat irpd^ ry 9a\de' 
fry atrd to vdrpiov lOog), is interesting when' com- 
pved with Acts xvi, 13. This city was celebrated for 
its hariwr and for the strength of its fortifications; but, 
having made a ^^gorou8 and protracted defense against 
Alexander the Great, he was so much enraged that, 
upon gaining at length possession of it, he destroyed it 
by fiore^— a calamity firom which it never recovered. A 
|dan of the nte is given in Ross, Reiten aufden Griech. 
Inadn^ i, 30 (copied in Smithes Diet, of Clou, Geoff, s. v.). 
The sculptures of the mMisolenm are the subject of a 
paper by Mr. Newton in the Clatncal Museum, and 
many of them are now in the British Museum (see also 
his full work, Discoveries at ffoHcamassus, etc, Lond. 
1862^). The modem name of the place is Budrum,— 
Smith, a. T. 



Hall ocean in the A.Y. of the N.T. three times; 
twice (Matt, xxvii, 27 ; Mark xv, 16) in reference to 
the TrpairuptoVrprceiorium, or residence of the Roman 
governor at Jerusidem, which was either the palace built 
by the el<ler Herod, or the tower of Antonia; his usual 
abode was at CsBsarea (Acts xxiii, 23). Mark adds to 
tl^e word av\ ^ , as he is wont in other gases, an explana- 
tory plirase, 8 iart ifpairtapiov (Vulg. atrium prcetorii). 
In Luke xxii, 55, ai/Xfj means the open court or quad- 
rangle belonging to the high-priest's house, such as was 
common to Oriental dwellmgs. It has the same mean- 
ing in Matt, xxvi, 69, and Mark xiv, 66, and in both 
passages is incorrectly rendered " palace"^ in the A. V., 
as the adverbs tK*»» and Karia plainly distinguish the 
avXii fh>m the oIkoq to which it was attached (Luke 
xxii, 54). So in Luke xi, 21. In John x, 1 , 16, it means 
a " sheep-fold," and m Rev. xi, 2, the outer " cow W" of 
the Temple. The avXri was entered from the street b}' 
a vpoavXiov or vestibule (Mark xiv, 68), through a mt- 
Xwv or portal (MatL xxvi, 71), in which was a ^vpa or 
loicket (John xviii, 16 ; Acts xii, 13).— Kitto, s. v. AvXrj 
is the equivalent for "^izn, an inclosed or fortified space 
(Gesenius, Thesaur, p. 512), in many places in the O. T. 
where the Vulg. and A. Vers, have respectively villa or 
ricw/w*, " village," or atrium, "court," chiefly of the tab- 
ernacle or Temple. See Court. The hall or court of 
a house or palace would probably be an inclosed but im- 
covered sjiace, impluvium^ on a lower level than the 
apartments of the lowest fioor which looked into it. — 
Smith, s. V. See House. 

HaU, Charles, D.D., a Presbyterian minister, was 
bom at SVilliamsport, Pa., June 23, 1799, and graduated 
at Hamilton College in 1824 with great distinction. 
He passed his theological studies at Princeton, was li- 
censed in 1827, and appointed soon after assistant sec- 
retary to the Home Missionarj' Society. In 1852 he 
went to Europe for his health, visited most of that con- 
tinent, and returned after a short absence to his accus- 
tomed duties. He died Oct. 31, 1863. He edited for 
several years The Nome Missionary ; and published .4 
Tract OH Plans and Motives for the Extension of Snh- 
bath Schools (1828) -.—The Daily Verse Expositor (1832) : 
— A Plan for si/sfemafic Benevolence ; and A Sermon on 
the World's Conversion (1841). — Sprague, A rmals, iv, 730. 

Hall, Gordon, a Congregational minister and 
missionary to India. He was bom in Granville (now 
Tolland), Mass., April 8, 1781, and graduated from Wil- 
liams College in 1808 with the first honors of his class. 
At college he had formed the acquaintance of Samuel 
J. Mills and James Richards, afterwards missionaries. 
He commenced the study of theology under Ebenezcr 
Porter, afterwards president of Andover Theological 
Seminary, was licensed to preach in 1809, and supplied 
for a time a church at Woodbury. But from the time 
of his acquaintance with Mills it seems he had purposed 
to become a missionary. In 1810 he went to Andover, 
was ordained at Salem Feb. 6, 1812, and sailed on the 
18th from Philadelphia with Nott and Rice, arriving in 
Calcutta on the 17th of June. The East India Cum- 
paii}' refused them the privilege of laboring or remain- 
ing in its territory, and Messrs. Hall and Nott embarked 
for Bombay, where they arrived Feb. 11, 1813. Orders 
from the governor general followed, commanding them 
to be sent to England ; but by the courage and wisdom 
of Mr. Hall's memorials, the governor was influenced to 
repeal his order, and Mr. Hall remained. He labored 
z^ously and with great success luitil March 20, 1826, 
when he was suddenly cut off by cholera. Mr. Hall 
possessed fine abilities, ardent piety, great courage and 
self-sacrifice. His indomitable spirit, and the ability 
of his appeals to the governor general, did much to open 
the way for the success of Christianity in India. — Amer^ 
ican Missionary Memorial, p. 41. (G. L. T.) 

HaU, Joseph, D.D., bishop of Norwich, was bom 
at Ashby-de-la-Zouch July 1, 1674, and educated at 
Emanuel College, Cambridge. >VhUe rector of Halstcd, 



HALL 



30 



HALL 



In Suffolk, he composed his " ContemplatioM^ which pro- 
cured him the patronage of prince Henn' and the rec- 
tory of Waltharo. In 1616 he went to Paris an chap- 
lain to the Enghah ambassador. On his return he was 
appointed by king James to the deanery of Worcester 
(1617), and in the following year he accompanied his 
royal master into Scotland, when that monarch made a 
progress into the northern part of his kingdom to prose- 
cute his imprudent scheme of erecting Episcopacy on 
the ruins of Presbyterianism. None of the unpopular- 
ity, however, of that measiure fell upon Hall, whose char^ 
acter and principles secured him the esteem and respect 
of the most eminent Scotchmen of the day. He was 
commanded to go over into Holland to attend the Synod 
of Dort in 1618; but the protracted meetings of that 
convocation made sad inroads on his health, and after 
two months he returned with an impaired constitution 
to England. In 1627 he was raised to the see of Exe- 
ter, and afterwards, without any solicitation, to that of 
Norwich in 1641. Amid all the ecclesiastical tyranny 
of Laud, bishop Hall preserved his moderation. The 
bishop, however, had his season of triaL When the 
popular outcry ** No bishops" was raised, and an armed 
mob marched against the House of Lords, Hall, with 
eleven of the lord.«i spiritual, joined in protesting against 
the measures which were passed in their absence ; and 
this document ha\'ing been made a ground of impeach- 
ment, he, with his protesting brethren, were consigned 
to the Tower. He was released in June following on 
giving bail for £5000. He continued for a year to ex- 
ercise his episcopal functions in Norwich ; but the pop- 
ular tide again set in, his house was attacked, his prop- 
erty sequestrated, himself insulted, and in meek resigna- 
tion he retired into a small place called Higham, in 
Norfolk, where he spent the remainder of his <lays in 
acts of piety and charity, and at length died Sept. 8, 
1656, in the eighty-second year of his age. Bishop 
Hall was a " man of very devotional habits, to fortify 
which he made a most rigid distribution of his time, 
having sot hours for prayer, for reading divinity, for 
general literature and composition ; and so intense was 
his ardor In the pursuit of intellectual and spiritiuil im- 
provement, that for a time he obscr\'ed the strictest ab- 
stemiousness, taking for a while only one meal a day." 
For his depth of thought and elegance of language he 
has been cifdled " the Christian Seneca." His writings 
consist, besides the '^ Contemplations," of sermons, po- 
lemical and practical thcolog>% and correspondence ; the 
best edition is Works^ icith some account of his life and 
writings (edited by Peter Hall, Oxford, 1837, 12 vols.8vo). 
Many editions of the Contemplations have appeared. 
See Hughes, Life of Bishop I fait; Hook, Eccles, Biog- 
raphy ^ V, 514 ; Rich, Cgclop, of Biography^ s. v. ; Jamie- 
son, Religious Biography , p. 245 ; Wordsworth, Eccles, 
Biography^ iv, 255. 

Hall, Peter, an English diWne and theological 
writer, was bom in 1803. He studied first at Winciies- 
ter College, and entered Brazenose College, Oxford, in 
1820. He was ordained in 1828, and became successive- 
ly curate of St. Edmund's, Salisbury ; rector of Millston, 
Wilts, in 1834 ; minister of Tavistock chapel, Drury 
Lane, London, in 1836 ; and of Long Acre chapel in 1841. 
In 1843 he removed to Bath, and became minister of St. 
Thomas's chapel, Walcot. He died in 1849. Hall wrote 
Reliquice lifurgicre : Documents connected icith the /liturgy 
of the Church of England (Bath, 1847, 5 vols. 18mo):— 
Fragmenta liturgica : Documents illustratire of the Lit- 
urgy of the Church of England (Bath, 1848, 7 vols* 18mo) ; 
and a number of Sermons, Mr. Hall published a new 
English edition of that valuable w^ork. The Harmony of 
the Protestant Confessions (1841, 8vo), the two previous 
English editions of which (Carob. 1586, 12mo ; London, 
1643, 4to) had become very scarce. He also edited the 
best edition of the works of his ancestor, bishop Hall 
(Oxfonl, 1837, 12 vols.) ; and wrote Congregalumal Re- 
form, four Sermons with notes (I^ondon, 1835, 12mo). — 
Darling, Cydopadia BUblxog, i, 1373 ; Allibone, Diction- 



ary of A uthors, i, 764 ; Gentleman's Magazine, Novem- 
ber, 1849. 

Hall, Richard, an English Romanist writer, was 
bom about 1540. He studied at first at Christ College, 
Cambridge, but was obliged to leave it in 1572 on ac- 
count of being a Roman Cathohc. He then went to 
Douay, and aherwards to Italy- Having returned to 
Douay, he became professor of theolog}" in the English 
college of that city. He became successively cjmon of 
St. Gery of Cambray, then of the cathedral of St, Omer, 
and finally ofilcial of tlie diocese. He died in 1604. 
He published several works of controversy, such as De 
pritnuriis Causis TumuUuum Belgicorum (Douay, 1581): 
— De qumque partita Conscieutia (Doiuiy, 1598, 4to). 
But he is especially kno^vn for his Life of Bishop Fish- 
er, the original MSS. of which was kept hy the English 
Bene<lictines in their convent of Deeuward. in Lorraine. 
A copy of it fell into the hands of Thomas Bailey, son 
of Bailey or Baily, bishop of Bangor, who sold it to a 
publisher : the work appeared under the name of Bailey 
(London, 1655, 8vo ; Lond. 1789. 12mo). See Chalmers, 
General Biog, Diet. ; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog, GhUrale, xxiii, 
149. 

Hall, Robert, one of the most eloquent of modem 
preachers, was bom at Amsby, Leicestershire, May 2, 
1764. His father, who was also a Baptist minister of 
good repute, early remarked his talent, and gave him 
every opportunity for its development. It is said that 
" Edwartls On the Will and Butler's A nalogy were the 
chosen companions of his childhood, being perused and 
reperused with intense interest before he was nine years 
okl. At eleven his master, Mr. Simmons, declared him- 
self unable any longer to keep pace with his pupil !" 
In 1773 he was place<l under the instruction of the 
leamed and pious John Ryland, of Northampton. At 
fifteen he became a student in the Baptist College at 
Bristol, and at eighteen he entere«l King's College, Ab- 
erdeen, WiifTe he took the degree of M.A. Here he 
"enjoyed the instmction of Drs. Gerard, Ogilvie, Beat- 
tie, and Camnbell, and also formed that intimate friend- 
ship with Sir James Mackintosh which continued 
through life. Mr. Hall was the first scholar in his class 
through his collegiate course." In 1785 he was chosen 
as colleague with Dr. Caleb Evans in the ministry' at 
Broadraead Chapel, Bristol, and adjunct professor in the 
Baptist Academy there. Here he attained great popu- 
larity. His father died in 1791 ; and the same year a 
difference with Dr. Evans led to his removing from 
Bristol, and accepting an invitation to become pastor of 
the Baptist congregation at Cambridge on the departure 
of the Rev. Robert Robinson, who had adopted Unita- 
rian views, to be successor to Dr. Priestley at Birming- 
ham. HaU had already acquired considerable celebrity 
as a preacher, but it was not till now that he appeared 
as an author; and the impulse that sent him to the 
press was rather political than theological. His first 
publication (unless we are to reckon some anonymous 
contributions to a Bristol new^spaper in 1786-87) was a 
pamphlet entitled Christianify consistent with a Jj>ve of 
Freedom^ being an A nsteer to a Sermon by the Rer, John 
Clayton (8vo, 1791). Like most of the ardent and gen- 
erous minds of that day, he was strongly excited and 
carried away by the hopes and promises of the French 
Revolution. In 1793 he published another liberal 
pamphlet., entitled An Apology for the Freedom of the 
Press, and for general /^iftiprfy, which brought him much 
reputation. The impression that had been made upon 
him, however, by the irreligious character of the French 
revolutionary mo^^ment was indicated in his next pub- 
lication, Modem Infidelity considered with respect to its 
Influence on Society, a Sermon (8vo, 1800). It was the 
publication of this able and eloquent sermon which first 
brought HaU into general notice. From this time what- 
ever he produced attracted immediate attention. " In 
1802 appeai«d his Rejections on War. The threatened 
invasion of Bonaparte in 1803 brought him agaui before 



HALL 



31 



HALLEL 



the public in the diMOtirse entitled Sentiments guitabie fo 
tkepreaent Crittt, which raised Mr. Hall's Teputation for 
laryre views and powerful eloquence to the highest pitch. 
In Xo^'exnber, 1804, owing chiefly to a disease of the 
spine, attended by want of sufficient exercise and rest, 
the exquisitely toned mind of Mr. Hall lost its balance, 
and he who had 00 long been the theme of universal 
admiration became the subject of as extensive a sympa- 
thy. He was placed under the care of Dr. Arnold, of 
Ldcester, where, by the divine blessing, his health was 
restored in about two months. But similar causes pro- 
duced a relapse about twelve months afterwards, from 
which he was soon restored, though it was deemed es- 
senttal to the permanent establishment of his health 
that he should resign his pastoral charge and remove 
from Cambridge. Two shocks of so humiliating a ca- 
lamity within the comiiass of a year deeply impressed 
Mr. Hairs mind. His own decided persuasion was that 
he never before experienced a thorough transformation 
of character; and there can be no question that from 
this period hb spirit was habitually more humble, de- 
pendent, and truly devotional. It became his custom 
to renew every birthday, by a solemn act, the dedica- 
tion of himself to God, on evangelical principles, and in 
the most earnest sincerity of heart. In 1807 he became 
paMor of the Baptist church in Leicester, where he soon 
after married, and where he labored most successfully 
for nearly twenty years. At no period was he more 
hsppy, active, and usefuL The church, when he left it, 
was larger than the whole congregation when he took 
the charge of it. But his influence was not confined to 
the limitd of his parish. He took an active )iart in all 
the noble charities of the age, and by his sermons, 
speeches, and writings exerted a wide influence on soci- 
ety, not only in England, but on the continent of Eu- 
rope, in America, and in India. His review of Zeal 
teHkovt Jrawcatitm, his tracts on the Terms of Commu- 
tdon, and his sermons on the Advantages of Knotpledge 
to the lower Classes, on the Discouragements and Sup- 
ports of (he Christian Ministry, on the Character of a 
Christian Missionary, on the Death of the Princess Char- 
iotte and of Rer. Dr. Ryland, with several others, were 
given to the public while residing here. Here also, in 
1823, he delivered his admirable course of lectures on the 
Socbdan Controversy, partially preserved in his Works, 
At last, in 1826, he removed to the pastoral care of his 
old congregation at Broadmead, Bristol, and here he re- 
mained till his death, which took place at Bristol on the 
2lst of Feb., 1831. Besides occasional contributions to 
various dissenting periodical publications, Hall published 
Tarious tracts and sermons in the last twenty years of 
his life, which, along with those already mentioned, have 
since hia death been collected under the title of The 
Works of Robert ilalL, M,A.jtcith a brief Memoir of his 
L^e by Dr. Gregory, and Observations on his Character 
as a PreeuAer by John Foster, published under the su- 
perintendence of Olinthus Gregory, LL.D., professor of 
mathematics in the Royal Militar>' Academy (London, 
1831-32, 6 vols. 8vo; 11th ed. 1853). It was intended 
that the Life should have been written by Sir James 
Mackintosh, but he died (in May, 1832) before begin- 
ning it. Dr. Gregory's Memoir, from which we have 
abstracted the materials of this article, was afterwards 
published in a separate form. See Gkexsory, Olinth us. 
The first volume of Hall's Works contains sermons, 
charges, and circular letters (or addresses in the name 
of the governing body of the Baptist Church) ; the sec- 
ond, a tract entitled On Terms of Communion (1815, in 2 
parts), and another entitled The essential Difference be- 
tween Christian Baptism and the Baptism of John (a de- 
fence of what is called the practice of free commwiion, 
irhich produced a powerful effect in liberalizing the 
poctice of the Baptist community) (1816 and 1818, in 
2 parts) ; the third, political and miscellaneous tracts, 
extending from 1791 to 1826, and also the Bristol news- 
paper contributions of ]786>87; the fourth, reviews and 
nnaoellaneous pieces; the fUth, notes of sermons and let- 



ters. The sixth, besides Dr. Gregory's nlemoir, contains 
Mr. Foster's observations, and notes taken down by 
friends of twenty-one sermons. The American reprint 
(New York, Harper and Brothers, 4 vols* 8vo) contains, 
besides what is given in the English edition, a number 
of additional sermons, with anecdotes, etc, by Rev. Jo- 
seph Belcher. 

Robert Hall was one of the greatest preachers of his 
age. His "excellence did not so much consist in the 
predominance of one of his ]iowers as in the exquisite 
proportion and harmony of them alL The richness, va- 
riety, and extent of his knowle<lge were not so remark- 
able as his absolute mastery- over it. There is not the 
least appearance of straining after greatness in his most 
magnificent excursions, but he rises to the loftiest 
heights with the most childlike ease. His style as a 
writer is one of the clearest and simplest — the least en- 
cumbered with its own beauty — of any which ever has 
been written. His noblest passages do but make truth 
visible in the form of beauty, and ' clothe upon' abstract 
ideas till they become palpable in exquisite shapes. 
* Whoever wishes to see the English language in its 
perfection,* says Dugald Stewart, 'must read the writ- 
ings of Rev. Robert Hall. He combines the beauties of 
Johnson, Addison, and Burke, without their imperfec- 
tions.' " He is distinguished, however, rather for ex- 
pression and exposition than for invention ; he was an 
orator rather than a great thinker. But as an orator 
he w^ill rank in literature with Bossuet and Massillon. 
For critical estimates of him by Mackintosh and other 
eminent men, see Life of I fall, by Gregorj', prefixed to 
his Works; also Eclectic Magazine, vu^ 1 ; North Brit- 
ish Review, iv, 454; North American Review, Ixiv, 884; 
Methodist Quarterly Review, iv, 616; Quarterly Review 
(Lond.), xlvii, 100; English Cydopadia; Jamieson, i?e- 
ligious Biography, p. 246. 

Hallel C^\^i Gr. vhvoq), the designation of a par- 
ticular part, of the hymnal serx'ice, chanted in the Tem- 
ple and in the family on certain festivals. 

1. Origin of the name, contents of the servicx, etc. The 
name haUeV, ?isin, which signifies praise, is kut tKoxov, 
given to this distinct portion of the h^innal ser\-ice be- 
cause it consists of Psalms cxiii-cxviii, which are Psalms 
oi praise, and because this group of Psalms begins with 
Hallelujah, Jn^Jlbbh. It is also called '^'?X53n b^n, the 
Egyptian Jfallel, because it was chanted in the Temple 
whilpt the Passover lambs, which were first enjoined in 
Egj'pt, were being slain. There is another Hallel called 
b'iian VtT\, the Great Hallel (so called because of the 

reiterated response after every verse, " For thy mercy 
endureth forever," in Psa. cxxxW, which is part of this 
Hallel), which, according to R. Jehudah (Pesachim, 118) 
and Maimonides, comprises Psalms cxviii-cxxxvi (Jod 
Ha-Chezaka, Hilchoth Chamez v. 3faza, ^nii, 10). Oth- 
ers, however, though agreeing that this Hallel ends wth 
E^lm cxxxvi, maintain that it begins with Psalm cxx 
or Psalm cxxxv, 4 (^Pesachim, 1 18). 

2. Titne and manner in which it was chanted. — This 
hjnnnal sen-ice, or Eg^'ptiau Hallel, was chanted at the 
sacrifice of the first and second Pesach, after the daily 
sacrifice on the first day of Passover (Mishna, Pesachim, 
V, 7), after the morning sacrifice on the Feast of Pente- 
cost, the eight days of the Feast of Tabernacles (Mishna, 
Succa, iv, 8), and the eight days of the Feast of Dedica- 
tion (Mishna, Taanith, v, h), making in all twenty days 
in the year. " On twelve days out of the twenty, viz., 
at the sacrifice of the first and second Pesach, of the first 
day of Pesach, of the Feast of Pentecost, and of the eight 
days of the Feast of Tabernacles, the flute was played 
before the altar when the Hallel was chanted" (l^f ishna, 
/'e8acA«m,ii, 3), whilst after the morning sacrifice during 
the eight days of the Feast of Dedication the Hallel was 
chanted without this accompaiviment of the flute. The 
manner in which these hymns of praise were offered 
must have been very imposing and impressive. The 



HALLEL 



32 



HALLELUJAH 



Levites who could be spared from aasisting at the slay- 
ing of the sacrifices took their stand before the altar, 
and chanted t^ JJaUd verse by verse ; the people re- 
sponsively repeated every verse, or burst forth in sol- 
emn and intoned HaUdvjah* at every pause, whilst the 
slaves of the priests, the Levites, and the respectable lay 
people assisted in playing the flute (comp. Petachim,^ 
a; /Crackim, 10, a, b; and Tosipka on Gap. i; Soto, 27, 
b -, TaanitAy 28, a, b). No representatives of the people 
(^laSQ "^'rSK) were required to be present at the Tem- 
ple at the morning sacrifices on the days when the Hal- 
lel was chanted (^lAhna, TaanUhf iv, 4). See Sacri- 

FICK. 

The Egyptian ITaUelwBa also chanted in pri\'ate fam- 
ilies at the celebration of the Passover on the first even- 
ing of this feast. On this occasion the UaUd was di- 
vided into two parts ; the part comprising Psa. cxiu and 
cxiv was chanted during the partaking of the second 
cup, whilst the second part, comprising PSa. cxv and 
cxvi, was chanted over the fourth and finishing cup 
(iinn nX •I'^b? *^Oia ''5ia^Mishna,Pe8acAtni,x,7); 
and it is generally supposed that the singing of the 
hymn by our Saviour and his disciples at the conclusion 
of the Passover supper (Matt, xxvi, 30 ; Mark xiv, 26) 
refers to the last part of this Hallel. (Dean Alford 
[Greek Testament^ ad loc.] strangely confounds this Hal- 
lel with the Great ffaUel) In Babylon there was an 
ancient custom, which can be traced as far back as the 
2d century of the Christian sera, to recite this Hallel on 
every festival of the new moon (TanmUht 28, a), omit* 
ting, however, Psa. cxv, 1-11, and cxvi, 1-11. 

The great Hallel (bl^^in bbil) was recited on the 
first evening at the Passover supper by those who wish- 
ed to have ajifih cup, L e. one above the enjoined num- 
ber (Maimonides, Jod Ila-Chezakoy HUehoih Chamez u, 
Maza, viii, 10). It was also recited on occasions of 
great joy, as an expression of thanksgiving to God for 
special mercies (Mishna, Taamthy ill, 9). 

3. Present use of the Hymnal Service. — ^The Jews to 
the present day recite the Egyptian HaUel at the morn- 
ing prayer immediately after Ike Eighteen Benedictions 
(immv naiQ«) on all the festivals of the year except 
New Year and the Day of A i<mement, omitting Psa. cxv, 
1-11, and cxvi, 1-11, on the last six days of the Feast of 
Passover, and on the new moon. Before the Hallel is re- 
cited they pronounce the following benediction : " Bless- 
ed art thou. Lord oiur God, King of the world, who hast 
sanctified us with thy commandments, and enjoined upon 
us to recite the Halld!** At the Passover supper, on 
the first two evenings of the festival, both the Egyptian 
Hallel and the Great Hallel are now recited ; the former 
is still divided in the same manner as it was in the days 
of oiur Saviour. 

4. Institution of this ffynmcd Service, — It is now im- 
possible to ascertain precisely when this service was first 
instituted. Some of the Talmudists afiirm that it was 
instituted by Moses, others say that Joshua introduced 
it, others derive it from Deborah, David, Hezekiah, or 
Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah {Pesachim, 117, a). 
From 2 Chron. xxxv, 15, we see that the practice of the 
Levites chanting the Hallel while the Paschal lambs 
were in the act of being slain was already in vogue in 
the days of Jusiah, and it is not at all improbable tliat it 
was custemar}'- to do so at a much earlier period. 

5. Literature. — Maimonides, Jod HorChezaka, HUchoth 
Chamez u. Maza^ sections vii and viii, voL i, p. 263-265 ; 
Buxtorf, Lexicon Chaldaicum Talmudicum et Ralbini- 
cum, s. V. V>n, col 613-616 ; and Bartoloccii, Bibliotheca 
Magna Rabbbaca, ii, 227-243, have important treatises 
upon this subject, but their information is most uncriti- 
cally put together, and no distinction is made between 
earlier and later practices. A thoroughly masterly and 
critical investigation is that of Krochmal, More Neboche 
Ila'Seman (LeopoU, 1851), p. 135 sq. ; comp. also Edel- 
mann's edition of the Siddur with Landshuth's Critkal 



ArmotaOons (KSnigsbexg, 1846), p. 423 sq.; Herzfeki, 
Geschiehte des Volkes Israel (Noidhaiuen, 1867), ii, 169 
sq. — ^Kitto, s. y. 

HaUelu'jah (Heb. haSelu'-yah% r\^'^V?ri, Praise 
ye Jahj L e. Jehovah !) or (in its Greek form) Allelu'- 
lAH ('AXXiyXovVa), a word which stands at the begin- 
ning of many of the Psalms. See MtkUer, De notione 
JIalkbtjah (Cygn. 1690); Wemsdorf, /)« /ormafa Hal- 
lelujah (Viteb. 1763). From its freqaent occurrence in 
this position it grew into a tprmula of pndse, and was 
chanted as such on solemn days of rejoicing. ^See Chit- 
ica BibHcOf ii, 448.) This is intimated by the apoay- 
phal book of Tobit (xiii, 18) when speaking of the re- 
building of Jerusalem, *< And all her (Jerusalem's) streets 
shall sing Alleluia" (comp. Rev. xix, 1,3,4, 0). This 
cxpres^on of joy and praise was tnuisfened from the 
synagogue to the church, and is still occasionally heard 
in devotional psalmody. — Kltto. The Hebrew terms are 
frequently rendered *^ Praise ye the Lord;" and so in the 
nutfginofPsa.civ,35; cv,45; cvi; cxi,l; cxii,l; cxiii, 
1 (comp. Psa. cxiii, 9 ; cxv, 18 ; cx>n, 19 ; cxvii, 2). The 
Psialms from cxiii to cxviii were called by the Jews the 
Hallel, and were sung, on the first of the month, at the 
Feast of Dedication, and the Feast of Tabernacles, the 
Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of the Passover. See Ho- 
SANNA. On the last occasion Psa. cxiii and cxiv, ac- 
cording to the school of Hillel (the former only accord- 
ing to the school of Shammai), were sung before the 
feast, and the remainder at its termination, after drink- 
ing the last cup. The hymn (Matt, xxvi, 30) sung by 
C}farist and his disciples after the last supper is supposed 
to have been a part of this Hallel, which seems to 
have varied according to the feast. See Halleu Tlie 
literal meaning of '* hallelujah*" sufiiciently indicates the 
character of the Psalms in which it occurs, as hymns of 
praise and thanksgiving. They are all found in the 
last book of the collection, and bear marks of being in^ 
tended for use in the Temple service, the words " praise 
ye Jehovah** l)eing taken up by the full chorus of Le- 
vites. See PsAUf s. In the great h}nnn of triumph in 
heaven over the destruction of Babylon, the apostle in 
vision heard the multitude in chorus like the voice of 
mighty thunderings burst forth "Alleluia, for the Lord 
Grod omnipotent reigneth," responding to the >^ic8 
which came out of the throne, sa^Hng, " Praise our God, 
all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and 
grei^" (Rev. xix, 1-6). In this, as in the offering of in- 
cense (Rev. viii), there is c^ddent allusion to the Ber\'icc 
of the Temple, as the apostle had often witnessed it in. 
its fading grandeur. — Smith, s. v. Allelouia. Sec Rev- 
elation, Book of. 

HALLELUJAH, a doxology used firequently in the 
ancient Church, and derived from the Old Testament. 
The singing HaUelujah sometimes means the repetition 
of the word, in imitation of the heavenly host (see Rev. 
xix) ; at other times it has reference to one of the psalms 
beginning with Hallelujah. In the early Christian Church 
^ the more common acceptation of ' hallelujah* is for the 
singing of the word itself in special parts of divine ser- 
vice, as a sort of mutual caU to each other to praise the 
Lord." In some churches the Hallelujah was stmg only 
on Easter day and the fifty days of Pentecost; in others 
it was used more generally. Augustine says it was not 
used in time of Lent (Augustine, Epist. 119, 178). In the 
fourth Council of Toledo it is mentioned under the name 
LaudeSf and appointed to be sung after the leacUng of the 
Go^ (jConciL Tolet. iv, can. 10, 11). It was occasioii- 
ally sung at funerals: St. Jerome speaks of it as being 
sung at the funeral of Fabiola, and says the people made 
the golden roof of the church shake with echoing faith 
the HaUelujah {Contra Viffilant, cap. 1, and Epist^ xzx« 
cap. 4). The ancient Church retained the Hebrew word, 
as also did the Church of England in its first liturgy ; 
though now it is translated ** Ftaise ye the Lord," to 
which the iieople reply, " The Lord*s name be praised." 
See Bingham, Orig, JEodes, bk. xiv, ch. ii, § 4 ; Ptocter, 



HALLER 



33 



HALLOW 



OmCommom Prater, ^212; Coleman, ^iiden^CAraf^uM- 
»^, ch. XT, § 9. 

Haller, Albreoht Ton, one of the greatest of 
modern physiologistB^ was bora in Berne Oct. 16, 1708, 
and displayed, even in childhood, the most extraordi- 
nary talentA. He studied medicine first at Tubingen, 
and aAerwarda at Leyden, under Boerhaave. After ex- 
tensive travels he became professor of anatomy, surgery, 
and botany at Gottingen in 1736, and remained there 
imtfl 1753, when he returned to Heme. There he re- 
sided, honored by his fellow-citizens, for neariy a quar- 
ter of a century; continued to benefit science by his Ht- 
cruy labors ; filled sevenl important offices in the state, 
and adorned the Gospel by his life. He died in Octo- 
ber, 1777. A great part of the modem science of physi- 
ology is due to the labors and gmiius of Haller. But 
his place in our pages is due to his steady religious life, 
to his constant recognition, in his works, of the great 
troths of Christianity, and especially to his religious 
writingsi, vi*. Briefe ikber die vkditi^en WahrheUm der 
Ofepharung (Berne, 1772) ; Brirfe zur Verikeidiffung der 
Qfembanmff (Berne, 1775-77, 8 parts), consisting of let- 
ten to bis daughter on the truth and excellence uf Chris- 
tianity. See Zimmermann, Ltben HaUen (Zurich, 1755, 
»vo) ; Biographie de HaUer (Paris, 1W6, 2d edit). 

Hall er, Berthold, one of the Reformers of Berne, 
was bom at Aldingen, WUrtcmberg, in 1492. At Pforz- 
heim he had Melancthon for a fellow-student, and grad- 
uated bachelor at Cologne in 1512. After teaching 
some time at Rottweil he went to Berne, invited by Ru- 
bellus in 1513 (1518?). He became assistant to Dr.' 
Wyttenhach in St-Yinceufs church, and in his society, 
his knowledge of the Scriptures and his religious char- 
acter were greatly cultivated. About 1620 he made the 
acquaintance of Zwingle, who was always afterwards his 
fiuthful friend and counsellor. Shortly after he succeed- 
ed Wyttenbach as cathedral preacher, and soon began 
to expound Matthew, instead of foUo^inng the usual 
Church lessons only. His eloquence and zeal made him 
extremely popular. When the strife began in 1522 
HaUer was a member of the commission, and distin- 
guished himself in the conference by his opposition to 
tlie bishop of Lausanne. His hold uix>n the popular 
mind was so great that in the subsequent years of strife 
he held his place as preacher in spite of aU opposition, 
and contributed greatly, not so much by hb learning as 
by his personal force of character, to the establishment 
of the Reformation in Berne. Even with the Anabap- 
tistM, on their appearance in Berne, he obtained great 
inflneiiGe. In 1525 he courageously abandoned the 
llaa^ In the Grand Council he defended himself so 
▼igoroaaly that he was still kept in office as preacher, 
though be k»t his canonship. In 1527 a number of Re- 
fanneia were elected to the << Grand CouuciL" The 
▼enenble Frands Kolb, full of fire and energy, was now 
in Betne, ready to aid and srimulate the more prudent 
Haller. The *" Mindates" of 1523 and 1526, the former 
for, the latter against the Reformation, were submitted 
to the people, and they decided for the first. In the 
*" Conference" of 1528, at Berne, HaUer took the leading 
part, aided by Zwingle, (Eoolampadius, and Bucer. It 
was finally decreed by the Conference that the Mass 
should be abolished. In 1529 he married. His labors 
far the Refcmnation extended to Solothurn, and to other 
paita of Switzerland ; but his chief activity lay in Berne, 
where he held his pre-eminence as preacher and Re- 
Anner until his death, Feb. 25, 1536. He left no writ- 
ings See Rirchhofer, I/aUer oder die Reform, r. Bern 
(Zurich, 1828); Kuhn^DieReformaioren Betju (Berne, 
1828); IVAubigne, Histonf of Reformation, ii, 849; iii, 
886; iv, 296, 808; Herzog, Real-Encyklop, v, 479. 

Haller, Karl Lnd^g von, was bom at Berne 
Aug. 1, 1768. In 1795 he became secretary of the city 
oomidl, and in 1800 emigrated to Germany. In 1806 
he returned, and became professor of history and statis- 
ti« at Berne, hx 1814 he became member of the city I 

IV.— C 



coundl, and in 1818 made a journey through Italy and 
to Rome. Having secretly become a member of the 
Romish Chureh in 1820, he joined it openly in 1821, 
and was discharged finom his office. He then went to 
Paris in 1824, and was employed in the ministry of for- 
eign affairs. Having lost that situation in consequence 
of the Revolution of July, 1830, he finally went to Solo- 
thurn, where he was in 1834 appointed member of the 
lesser council. Here he was at the head of the Ultra- 
montane party, and died May 20, 1854. Haller was ax 
ultra-conservative in politics, and was drawn into the 
Chureh of Rome by his fanatical hatred of all liberal re- 
forms. His chief work, entitled Regtattraiion der Sfaata^ 
wineruekajien (Winterthnr, 1816-1834, 6 vols.), was writ- 
ten with the design to annihilate all revolutionary prin- 
ciples in politics. Even many Roman Catholic writers 
expressed a decided dissent from the antiliberal doctrines 
of this work. The most important among his other 
works are, I^ttre a sa famiUe pour lui declarer ton re- 
tour a Viglise catholique (Par. 1821 ; in German by Pau- 
lus, Stuttgard, 1821 ; by Studer, Berne, l&2i) i—Theorie 
der ffeistL Staaten u, GeselUchq/ien ( Winterthur, 1822) :— 
Die Frtimaurerei u. ihr Einfluu aufd, Schweiz (Schaff- 
hausen, 1840) :—Gesch. der kirckf, Revokit. de$ Cantont 
Bern (Lucerne, 1839, 4th ed.).. See Tzschimcr, der Utber^ 
tritt des J/erm von H, «. kathoHtchen Kirche (Lpz. 1821) ; 
Krug, Apologie der protettan/ischen Kirche (Lpz. 1821) ; 
Escher, Ueber die Philoaophie det Staaiirechtt mit bet, 
Beziek. avf d. Haiier'tche Rettauration (Zurich, 1825); 
Scherer (ultramontane), Die Rettauration der Stuatt" 
wissenech, (Lucerne, 1845). 

Hallet, Joseph, an English Nonconformist, was 
bom at Exeter in 1692, ordained in 1718, and succeeded 
his father as co-pastor vrith Mr. Pierce over the Inde- 
pendent congregation at Exeter in 1722. Here he dis- 
charged his pastoral duties faithfully until his death ui 
1744. As a writer, he was marked by industry, learn- 
ing, and critical sagacity. He wrote a number of con- 
troversial tracts on the Evidences of Christianity in reply 
to Tindal and Chubb, and on the Trinity. Besides 
these, he published A free and impartial Study of the 
Holy Scripturet recommended^ being notes on peculiar 
texts of Scripture (Lond. 1729^-86, 3 vols. 8vo) i—A Par^ 
aphrase and Notes on the three last Chapters of the Epis- 
tle to the ff^ews (London, 1733, 4to). In theology he 
was a semi-Arian. See Bogue and Bennett, History of 
Dissenters, ii, 179, 222 ; Jones, Christian Biography, 

Hallifax, Samuel, bishop of St. Asaph, was bom 
at Mansfield, Derbyshire, in 1788. He st^idied at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, and at Trinity Hall, and became 
successively rector of Chaddington, Buckinghamshire, 
in 1765 ; professor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1768 ; pro- 
fessor of jurispmdence in 1770; chaplain of George III 
in 1774; master of Doctors' Commons in 1775; rector 
of Warsop, Nottinghamshire, in 1778, and bishop of 
Gloucester in 1781. He was transferred to the see of 
SL Asaph in 1787, and died in 17£0. He wrote An 
Analysis of the Roman Civil Law compared tcith the 
Imips of England (1774, 8vo) : — Twelve Sermons on the 
Prophecies concerning the Christian Religiony and iti par- 
ticular concerning the Church of Papal Rome, preadied 
in Lincoln's Inn Chapel cU Bishop Warhurton's Lecture 
(1776, 8vo): — An Analysis of Butler's AnuUtgy: — />«- 
courses on Justification (Camb. 1762, 8vo). See Rose, 
New General Biog. Diet. ; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Generale^ 
xxiii, 197 ; British Critic, voL xxvii. 

Hallo'heah or, rather, Lochesh (Heb. Lochesh\ 
dnft, with the arUcle tt5niir», hal-lochesh\ the whis- 
perer; Sept. AXXoi^c and 'AXw^p, Vulg. Alohes), the 
father of Shallum, which latter assisted Nehemiah in 
repairing the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 12, where the 
name is Anglicized ** Halobesh"). He was one of the 
popular chiefs that subscribed the sacred covenant with 
Nehemiah (Neh. x, 24). B.C. cir. 410. 

Hallow (©t?U» in Piel ; aywa'^w), to render sacred, 
set apart, consecrate (Exod. xxyiii, 88 ; xxix, 1 ; Lev. 



)* 



HALOHESH 



34 



HAM 



zxii, 2; Numb, v, 10). The English word is fiom the 
SaxoDi and is properly to make kobf; henoe hallowed 
penonSy things, placefl, rites, etc ; henoe also the name, 
power, dignity of God is hallowed, that is, reverenced 
as holy (Matt, vi, 9).— Galmet, s. v. See Holy. 

Halo'liesh (Neh. iii, 12). See Halu>hesh. 

Halt (?^3E, x<^^^c)} '^^f''*^ on the feet or legs (Gen. 
xxxii, dl;P8a. xxxviii, 17; Jer. xx, 10; 3Iic. iv, 6; 
▼ii, 1; Zeph. iii, 19). Many persons who were halt 
were cured by our Lord. See Lamk. To halt between 
two opinions (HDB, 1 Kings xviii, 21), should, perhaps, 
be to stagger from one to the other repeatedly; but 
some say it is an allusion to birds, who hop ftom spray 
to spray, forwards and backwards, as the oontrary in- 
fluence of supposed convictions vibrated the mind in 
alternate affirmation and doubtfulness. — ^Odmet, s. v. 

Halybarton, Thomas, professor of divinity in the 
University of Sl Andrew's, was bom at Duplin, near 
Perth, Dec 25, 1764. He was in early youth the sub- 
ject of frequent but ineffectual religious convictions. 
In 1689 he began to be perplexed respecting the evi- 
dences of revealed religion, till, after having experienced 
some relief from Robert Ikuce's FulfiUinff of ike Scrip- 
tureSf he received further aid from Mr. Donaldson, an 
excellent old minister who came to preach at Perth, 
and paid a visit to hip mother. He inquired of his 
3roung friend if he sought a blessing from God on his 
learning, remarking at the same time, with an austere 
look, '* Sirrah, unsanctified learning has done much mi»- 
chief to the Kirk of Grod." Thb led him to seek divine 
direction in extraordinary difficulties; but this exercise, 
he acknowledges, left him still afar off from God. He 
studied at SL Andrew's, and became domestic chaplain 
in a nobleman*a family in 1696. His mind, long disqui- 
eted about the evidences of Christianity, was finally set- 
tled, and he wrote an Inquiry into the Prwcipke of mod- 
em Deistey which is still valued. In 1698 he was thor- 
oughly converted ; in 1700 he became minister of Ores 
parish. In 1711 he was made professor of divinity at 
St. Andrew's, and died in 1712. He was an excellent 
scholar, and a veiy pious man. A sketch of his life is 
given in his l^orib, edited by Robert Bums, D.D. (Lon- 
don, 1835, 8vo), which volume contains the following, 
among other writings, viz. The great Concern ofSaha- 
Hon: — Natural Religion mtuficient:-^Easay on the Na- 
ture of Faith: — Inquiry on Justification^ and Sermons. 
Halybiirton's Afemoirst with an introductoxy Essay by 
the Rev. Dr. Young (Glasg. 1824, 12mo), has been ofloi 
leprinted, both in Great Britain and America. 

Ham (Heb. Cham, DH, hot [see below] : Sept Xa/i 
[Josephus XdfiaQt Ant, i, 4, l],Vulg. Cham), the name 
of a man and aiso of two regions. 

1. The youngest son of Noah (Gen. v, 82; comp. ix, 
24> KG. |X)st 2613. Having provoked the wrath of 
hi« father by an act of indecency towards him, the lat- 
ter cursed him and his descendants to be slaves to his 
brothers and their descendants (ix, 25). B.C. oi, 2514. 
To judge, however, from the narrative, Noah directed 
his curse only against Canaan (the foiuth son of Ham) 
and his race, thus excluding from it the descendants of 
Ham's three other sons, Cush, Mizrairo, and Phut ((.ven. 
X, 6). How that curse was accomplished is taught by 
the history of the Jews, by whom the Canaanites were 
subsequently exterminated. The general opinion is 
that all the southem nations derive their origin from 
Ham (to which the Hebrew root DBH, to be hot, not 
unlike the Greek klBioirii, lends some force). This 
meaning seems to be confirmed by that of the Egyptian 
word Kem (Egypt), which is believed to be the Egyp- 
tian equivalent of Ham, and which, as an adjective, 
signifies "black," probably implying warmth as well as 
blackness. See Egypt. If the Hebrew and Egyptian 
words bo the same, Ham must mean the swarthv or 
son-bumt. like kiOio^, which has been derived from the 
Coptic name of Ethiopia, eUicp$, but which we should 



be inclined to £race to thope, **tL boundary,*' nnless the 
Sahidic tM^ may be derived from Klsh (Cash). It is 
observable that the names of Noah and his sons appear 
to have had prophetic mguificaticms. This is stated m 
the case of Noah (Gen. v, 29), and implied in that of 
Japheth (ix, 27), and it can acaitely be doubted that 
the same must be concluded as to Shem. Ham may 
therefore have been so named as pn^enitor of the son- 
bumt Egyptians and Cushites. Cuih is supposed to 
have been the progenitor of the nations of East and 
South Asia, more especially of South Arabiat and also 
of Ethiopia; Mizraim, of the African nations, including 
the Philistines and some other tribes .^nrhich Greek fab|e 
and tradition connect with Eg\i)t; Pi^i/, likewise of 
some African nations; and Canaan, of the inhabitants 
of Palestine and Phoenicia. On the Arabian traditions 
oonoeroing Ham, see D'Herbelot {BibL Orient, a. v.)u 
See Noah. 

A. Ilam'i Place tw hit Family, Idolatry eormected 
vfith hit Name, — Like his brothers, he was married at 
the time of the Deluge, and with his wife was saved 
from the general destraction in the ark which his father 
had prepared at God's coomiand. He was thus, with 
his family, a connecting link between the antediluvian 
|M)pulation and those who survived the Flood. The sal- 
ient fact of his impiety and dishonor to his father had 
also caused him to be regarded as the transmitter and 
representative in the renovated world of the worst feat^ 
ures of idolatry and profanencss, which had grown to 
so fatal a consummation among the antectiluvians. Lac- 
tantius mentions this ancient tradition of Ham's idola- 
trous degeneracy: **Ille [Cham] profugus in ejus terns 
parte consedit, qua) nunc Arabia nomiimtur; eaque ter- 
ra de nomine suo Chanaan dicta est, et posteri ejus Cha- 
naiuei. Hiec fuit prima gens qiue Deum ignoravit., 
quoniam princeps ejus [Cham J et conditor cuUum Dei a 
patre mm accepit, maledictus ab eo ; iiaque ignorantiam 
divinitatis minoribut suit rtlvquiT {De orig, erroris, ii, 
13 ; De faUa Relig. 23). See other authors quoted in 
Beyer's .4 cWi/. ad Seldeni Syntag, de Diit Syrit (Ugoli- 
no,' Thet, xxiii, 288). This tradition wan rife also among 
the Jews. R. Manasse says, "^ Moreover Ham, the aon 
of Noah, was the first to invent idols,** etc. The Tyrian 
idols called D'^S^H, Chamamm, are supposed by Kircher 
to have their designation from the degenerate aon of 
Noah (see Spencer, De legg. Ilthr. [M. Pfaff ] p. 470- 
482). The old commentators, full of classical aasodap 
tions, saw in Noah and his sons the counterpart of Kpo- 
voc, or Saturn, and his three divine sons, of whom they 
identified Jupiter or Ztvq with Ham, especially, as the 
name suggested, the African Jupiter Amimon (Ap/ww 
[or, more correctly, 'Apoitv, so Gabford and Btthr] ydp 
Aiywirrto* KoXiovn linf C^ia, Herod. Euterp, 42 ; Fiur 
tarch explains 'Apovv by the better known form ^A^ 
/iwv. It, et Otir. ix. In Jer. xlvi, 25, ^ the multitude 
of No" is Kip iSqK, Amon of No ; so in Nahum iii, 8, 
" Populous No" is No-Amon, y^'Qlf Kl For the identi- 
fication of Jupiter Aramon with Ham, see J. Conr. Dann- 
hauer's Politiai Biblica, ii, I ; Is. Vossius, De IdoL Hb. ii, 
cap. 7). This identification is, however, extremely 
doubtful; eminent critics of modem times reject it; 
among them Ewald (Ceachichte det Volket Israel, i, 875 
[note]), who says, "Mit dem ilgj'ptischen Gotte Amon 
Oder Hammon ihn zusammenzubringen hat man keinen 
Grund," u. s. w.). One of the reasons which leads Bo- 
chart (Phaleg, i, 1, ed.\111emand, p. 7) to identify Ham 
with Jupiter or Zeus is derived from the meaning of the 
names. DH (from the root QCH, to be hot) combines 
the ideas hot and swarthy (comp. AiBio^) ; accordingly, 
St. Jerome, who renders our w^ord by caHdut, and Simon 
(Ononiasf. p. 108) by niger, are not incompatible. In 
like manner, Zct''c is derived afervendo, according to the 
author of the EtymoL Magn., irapd rrjv 2^effiv, dippora- 
roc yatp b ahp, fj iraptk rb Z^w, to teethe, or boil,fervere, 
Cyril of Alexandria uses deppaotav as synon3rmoi]s (L 
ii,' Glaphyr, in Genet,), Another reason of. identiftuH 



HAM 



36 



HAM 



tnOf aooofding to Bochart, is the fanciful one of oom- 
jMiative age. Zeus was the youngest of three brothers, 
and 4o irctf Ham in the opinion of this author. He is 
not alone in this view of the subject. Josephus (/la/, 
i, 6, 3) expressly caUs Ham the youngeat of Noah's sons, 
o viwraroQ twv waiSwv, Gesenius {Thes. p. 489) caUs 
him **lilius natu tertius et minimus;*' similarly FUrst 
(//f*r. WOrterb. i, 408), Knobel (dU Gen, erkL p. 101), 
Delitzsch (Comment, uber die Geru p. 280), and Kalisch 
(C/fR. p. 229), which last lays down the rule in explana- 
tion of the "i^l^n 'l3a appUetl to Ham in Gen. ix, 24, " If 
there are more than two sons, hv^l "p is the eldest, 
yop "p the youngest son,** and he aptly compares 1 
Sim. xvii, 13; 14. The Sept., it is true, like the A-V., 
rniders by the comparative— 6 vtiartpogf "his younger 
soil' But, throughout, Skem is the term of compari- 
BOO, the central point of blessing tnan whom all else di- 
vei|:e. Hence not only is Ham "i^jSri, 6 vciurfpoc, in 
comparison with Shem, but Japhet is relatively to the 
ame ^il^H, o fitU^uv (see Gen. x, 21). That this is 
the proper meaning of this latter passage, which treats 
of the age of Japhet, the eldest son of Noah, we are con- 
rincird by the consideration just adduced, and our con- 
viction is supported by the Sept. translators, Symma- 
chos, Kashi (who says^ ** From the words of the text I 
do not dearly know whether the elder applies to Shem 
or to Japhet. But, as we are aiterwards informed that 
Shem was 100 years old, and begat Arphaxad two years 
lAer the Deluge [xi, 10], it follows that Japhet was the 
ddn^ for Noah was 500 years old when he began to 
have chiklren, and the Deluge took place in his 600th 
jrear. His eldest son must consequently have been 100 
)reais oU at the time of the Flood, whereas we are ex- 
\tem\y informed that Skem did not arrive at that age 
until two i-ears after the Deluge"), Aben-Ezra, Luther, 
Junius, and Tremellius, Piscator, Mercerus, Alius, Mon- 
tanufi, Clericus, Dathius, J. D. Michaelis, and Mendels- 
sohn (who gives a powerful reason for his opinion: 
''The tonic accents miAe it clear that the word bl^SM, 
Af elder J applies to Y<ipheth ; wherever the words of the 
text are obscure and equivocal, great retqiect and atten- 
tion must be paid to the tonic accents, as their author 
understood the tme meaning of the text better than we 
dor De SohL, Lindenthal, and Raphall^s Trans, of Gene^ 
Ctf, p. 43). In consistency with this seniority of Ja- 
pheth, his name and genealogy are flrst given in the To- 
Math Bern Koah of Gen. x. Shem*s name stands first 
when the three brothers are mentioned tc^ther, proba- 
bly because the special blessing (aiterwards to be more 
fhlly developed in his great descendant Abraham) was 
bestowed on him by God. But this prerogative by no 
tneans aflbrds any proof that Shem was the eldest of 
KQah*s sons. The obvious instances of Seth, Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, Judah, Joseph, Ephraim, Moses, David, 
and Solomon (besides this of Shem), give sufficient 
l^mond for observing that primogeniture was far from 
ihra3's securing the privileges of birthright and blessing^ 
and other distinctions (comp. Gen. xxv, 28 ; xlviii, 14, 
18, 19, and i Sam. xvi, 6-12). 



R Descendants of Ham, and their locaUtg^-The loosb 
distribution which assigns ancient Asia to Shem, and 
ancient Africa to Ham, requires much modification; for 
although the Shemites had but little connection with 
Africa, the descendants of Ham had, on the contrary, 
wide settlements in Asia, not only on the shores of Syi^ 
ia, the Mediterranean, and in the Arabian peninsula, 
but (as we learn frcxn linguistic discoveries, which mi- 
nutely corroborate the letter of the Mosaic statements, 
and refute the assertions of modem Rationalism) in the 
plains of Mesopotamia. One of the most prominent 
facts alleged in Gen. x is the foundation of the earliest 
monarehy by the grandson of Ham m Babylonia. " Cush 
[the eldest son of Ham] begat Nimrod • . . the begin- 
ning of whose kingdom was Babel [Babylon], and Erech, 
and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar^ (vers. 6, 
8, 10). Here we have a primitive Babylonian empire 
distinctly declared to have been Hamitic through Cush. 
For the complete vindication of this statement of Gene- 
sis from the opposite statements of Bunsen, Niebuhr, 
Heeren, and others, we must refer the reader to Kaw- 
lin8on*B Five great Mimarckies^ voL i. chap, ill, compared 
with his Historical Kridenoes^ etc. (Bampton Lectures), 
p. 18, 68, 355-357. The idea of an "^ sialic Cush'' was 
declared by Bunsen to be " an imagination of interpret- 
ers, the child of despair** {PhiL of Umv, History, i, 191). 
But in 1858, Sir H. Rawlinson, having obtained a num- 
ber of Babylonian documents more ancient than any 
; previously discovered, was able to declare authoritative- 
ly that the early inhabitants of South Babylonia were 
of a cognate race with the primitive colonists both of 
Arabia and of the African Ethiopia (Kawlin8on*s //•roci^ 
otus, i, 442). He found their vocabulary to be undoubt- 
edly Cushite or Ethiopian, belonging to that stock of 
tongues which in the sequel were everywhere more or 
less mixed up with the Shemitic languages, but of which 
we have the purest modem specimens in the Mahra of 
southem Arabia and the Galla of Abyssinia (ibid., note 
9). He found, also, that the traditions both of Babylon 
and AsBjTia pointed to a connection in very early times 
between Ethiopia, Southem Arabia, and the cities on 
the lower Euphrates. We have here evidence both of 
the widely-spread settlements of the children of Ham 
in Asia 9S well as Africa, and (what is now especially 
valuable) of the truth of the 10th chapter of Genesis as 
an ethnographical document of the highest importance. 
Some itTiters push the settlements of Ham still more 
towards the east ; FeldhofT (Die Volkertafel der Genesis, 
p. 69), speaking generally of them, makes them spread, 
not simply to the south and south-west of the plains of 
Shinar, but east and south-east also; he accordingly lo- 
cates some of the family of Cush in the neighborhood 
of the Paropamisus chain [the Hindu Kdsh], which he 
goes so far as to call the centre whence the Cushittf 
emanated, and he peoples the greater part of Hmdiistan, 
Birmah, and China with the posterity of the children of 
Cush (see under their names in this art). Dr. Prichard 
(Analysis of the Egyptian Mythology) compares the phi- 
losophy and the superstitions of the ancient Egyptians 
with those o^the HintH^s, and finds " ao many phenom- 



" These are the sons of HAM, 

after their families (fir'nBO^b, or darn), after their tongues (orbilj^b), 

in their countries (fin'S*nKa)i [and] in their nations" (dn;^i:ia), Gen. z, 20. 



r^ 



HAM. 



I 
LCUSH. 



I 
11. MIZRAIM. 



I 
IILPHUT. 



I 
IV. CANAAN. 



f ^ 

1. 8eba; fiL Hsvilah ; 3. Ssbtah : 
4. Rsamah : tL Sabtechah; «. Nuuton. 



1. Lndim; S. Anamlm ; 3. Lehablm; 

4 Nnpbtahim ; ft. Patbmsim ; 

A. Caslnhlm ; 7. Caphtorim. 



6heba; Dedan. 



Phillstim. 



' " ^ 

1. Sidon ; 2. Heth ; 3. Jebii« 

site : 4. Amorite ; (S. Qir- 

gasite ; 6. Hfvite ; 7. 

Arkite ; 8. Sinite ; 

9. Anradite ; 10. 

Zeroarite ; !!• 

Haroathita. 



HAM 



36 



HAM 



ena of striking oongruity" between these nations that 
he is induced to conclude that they were descended from 
a common origin. Nor ought wc here to omit that the 
Arrainian historian Abulforagius among the countries 
assigned to the sons of Ham expressly includes both 
SciiuUa and Indian by which he means such parts of 
Hindustan as lie west and east of the river Indus (Greg. 
Abul-Pharagii, Jfisf, Dynast. [ecL Pocock, Oxoiu 1673], 
Dyn. i, p. 17). 

The sons of Ham are stated to have been " Cush," and 
Mizratm, and Phut, and Caanan*' ((«en. x, 6 ; comp. 1 
Chron. i, 8). It is remarkable that a dual form (Miz- 
raim) should occur in the first gcnerarion, indicating a 
country, and not a person or a tribe, and we are there- 
fore inclined to suppose that the gentile noun in the plu- 
ral D'^'^^Ct), differing alone in the pointing from D^'^2{p, 
originally stood here, which would be quite consistent 
with the plural forms of the names of the Mizraite tribes 
which follow, and analogous to the singular forms of the 
names of the Canaanite tribes, except the Sidonians, 
who arc mcntione<l, not as a nation, but imder the name 
of their forefather Sidon. 

The name of Ham alone, of the three sons of Noah, 
if our identification be correct, is known to liave been 
given to a country. Eg^-pt is recognised as the ** land 
of Ham" in the Bible (Psa. Ixxviii, 51 ; cv, 23 ; cvi, 22), 
and this, though it does not prove the identity of the 
Egyptian name i^-ith that of the patriarch, certainly fa- 
vors it, and establishes the historical fact that Egypt, 
settled by the descendants of Ham, was peculiarly hb 
territor}*. The name Mizraim we believe to confirm 
this. The restriction of Ham to Egypt, unlike the case, 
if we may reason inferentiaUy, of his brethren, may be 
accounted for by the vexy early civilization of this part 
of the Hamitic territory, while much of the rest was 
comparatively barbarous. Egypt may also have been 
the first settlement of the Hamitcs whence colonies 
went forth, as we know was the case with the Philis- 
tines. See Capiitor. 

I. Cusii (Josephus Xovaog) "reigned over the Ethi- 
opians" [^AJ'rican Ciishites] ; Jerome (in Quasf. Ilebr, in 
Genes,) f "Both the Arabum Etkioput, which was the 
parent countrj', and the African, \i» colony" [Abyssinia = 
Cush in the Yulg. and Syr.] ; but these gradations (con- 
fining Cush first to the western shore of the Red Sea, 
and then extending the nation to the Arabian Peninsu- 
la) require further extension; modem lUscoveries tally 
with this most ancient ethnographical record in placing 
Cush on the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf. When 
RosenmUllcr {Scholia in Ges. ad lor.) claims Josephus 
for an Asiatic Cush as well as an African one, he ex- 
ceeds the testimon}' of the historian, who sa^^s no more 
than that " the Ethiopians of his day called themselves 
Cushites, and not only they, but all the Asiatics also, 
gave them that name" {A nt. i, 6, 2). But Josephus does 
not specify what Ethiopians he means : the form of his 
statement leads to the oppontc conclufiion rather, that 
the Ethiopians were Africans merely, excluded from all 
the Asiatics [vir5 iavraw rt rat rdv iv rg 'Am^ vav' 
rwv], the iavriav referring to the Ai-^tomc just men- 
tioned. (For a better interpretation of Josephus here, 
see Volney, Systeme Geogr. des Hihreux, in OCupres, v, 
224.) The earlist empire, that of Nimrod, was Cushite, 
literally and properly, not per catachresin, as Heeren, 
Bunsen, and others would have it Sir W. Jones (On 
the Or^in and FamUies of Nations, in Works, iii, 202) 
shows an appreciation of the wide extent of the CushUe. 
race in primseyal tiiQ^.which. is much more consistent 
with the discoveries of recent times than the specula- 
tions of the neocritical school prove to be : " The chil- 
dren of Ham," he says, " founded in Iran (the country 
of the lower Euphrates) the monarchy of the first Chal- 
cbeans, invented letters, etc" (compare KosenmUller, as 
alx)ve quoted). According to Volney.. the term Ethio- 
pian, coextensive with Cush, included even the Hin- 
dis ; he seems, however, to mean the southern Arabians, 
who wereii it is certain, sometimes called Indians (in 



Afenoloffio Grteco, part ii, p. 197, " Felix Arabia Tndin 
vocatur . . . ubi fdix vocatur India Arabica, ut ah 
iEthiopica et Gangetica distinguatur," Asscmani, RitL 
Orient, HI, ii, 569), especially the Yemenese; Jones, in- 
deed, on the ground of Sanscrit afiinities (** Cus or Cush 
being among the sons of Brahma, i. e. among the pro- 
genitors of the Hindiis, and at the head of an ancient 
pedigree preserved hi the Ramayan^), goes so far as to 
say, " We can harrlly doubt that the Cush of Moses and 
Valmic was an ancestor of the Indian race." Jones, 
however, might have relied too strongly on the forged 
Purana of Wilford {Asiatic Researches, iii, 432) : still, it 
is certain that Oriental tradition largely (though in its 
usual exaggerated tone) confirms the Mosaic statements 
about the sons of Noah and their settlements. " In the 
Rozit ul'SuJ/ah it is written that God bestoweil <»n Ham 
nine sons," the two which are mentioned at the head of 
the list {lIind,Sind,vfiih whicli comp. Abulfaragius as 
quoted in one of our notices above), expressly connected 
the Hindus with Ham, although not through Cush, who 
occurs as the sixth among the Hamite brethreiu Sec 
the entire extract from the Khelttssut vl-AUtbar of 
Khondemlr in Ilosenmllller {BibL Geogr, AppemL to ch. 
iii, vol. i, p. 109 [ffibl. Cab,']), Bohlen {Genesis, ad locO, 
who has a long but indistinct notice of Cush, with his 
Sanscrit predilections, is for extending Cush " as far as 
the ilark India," claiming for his view the sanction of 
Roseum., Winer, and Schumann. When Job (xxviii, 
19) speaks of "M« topaz of Ethiopia'' (riS-P^SB), 
Bohlen finds a Sanscrit word in r.^hdD, and consequent- 
ly a link between India and Cush (U^S, Ethiopia). He 
refers to the Syriac, Chaldsaan, and Saadias versions as 
having India for Cush, and (after Braun, Dc Vest. Sa- 
cerd, i, 115) assigns Rabbinical authority for it. Aase- 
mani, who is by Bohlen referred to in a futile hope of 
extracting evidence for the identification of Cush and 
India (of the Hindis), has an admirable dissertation on 
the people of Arabia {Bibl, Or. Ill, ii, 552 sq.) ; one cle- 
ement of the Arab population he derives from Cush (see 
below). We thus ocmclude that the children of Ham, 
in the line of Cush, had very extensive settlements th 
Asia, as far as the Euphrates and Persian Gulf at least, 
and probably including the district of the Indus ; while 
m Africa they both spread widely in Ab^'ssinia, and 
had settlements apparently among their kinsmen, the 
Egyptians : this we feel warranted in assuming on the 
testimony of the Arabian geographers; c. g. Abulfeda 
(in his section on Egypt, tables, p. 110 in the original, p^ 
151 trans, by Reinaud) mentions a Cush, or rather Kvs, 
as the most important city in Egj'pt after the capital 
Fosthaht : its port on the Red Sea was Cosseyr, and it 
was a place of great resort by the Mohammedans of the 
west on pilgrimage. "The sons of Cush, where they 
onoe got possession, were never totally ejected. If they 
were at any time driven nway, they returned after a 
time and recovered their ground, for which reason I 
make n^ doubt l>ut many of them in process of time re- 
turned to Chaldiea, and mixed with those of their fam- 
ily who reside<l there. Hence arose the tradition that 
the Babylonians not only conquered Eg}*pt, but that the 
learning of the Eg^'ptians came originally from Chal- 
diea; and the like account from the Eg^'ptians, that 
people from their country had conquered Babylon, and 
that the 'wisdom of the Chalcbeans was derived from 
them" (Bryant, On Ancient Egypt, in Works, vi, 250). 
dee v^usii. 

1. Seba (Josephus "La^aQ) is " universally admitted 
by critics to be the ancient name for the Egj'ptian [Nu- 
bian] Meroe' (Bohlen). This is too laigc a statement ; 
Bochart denies that it could be Meroe, on the assump- 
tion that this city did not exist before Cambyses, rely- 
ing on the statement of Diodorus and Lucius Ampelius. 
Josephus (AfU, ii, 10), however, more accurately saj-s 
that Saba '• was a royal city of Ethiopia [NubiajiirAw-A 
Cambyses afterwards named Meroi, after the name of 
his sister." Bochart would have Seba to be Saba^Ma^ 



HAM 



37 



HAM 



rth in Arabia, oonfoonding cmr Seba (M^O) with Sheba 
(iC^). Mero^f with the district around it, was no 
«Soiil)t settled by oar Seba. (S<!e Gesep. s, v., who quotes 
Burckhardt, Ktippell, and Iloskins; so Com. a Lap., Ro- 
•PiiRi., and Kalisch ; Patrick a^rrees with Bochart y Vol- 
ney [ who differs from Bochart] yet identifies Seba with 
the modem Arabian Sabbea ; Heeren throws his au- 
thority into the scale for the Ethiopian Merue ; so Kno- 
beL) It supports this opinion that Seba is mentioned 
in conjunction with the other Nile lands (Ethiopia and 
EfO-pt) in Isa. xliii, 3, and xlr, 14. C^'he Sheba of 
Arabia, and otir Ethiopian Sfbay as representing oppo- 
fiite shores of the Ked Sea, are contrasted in Psa. Ixxii, 
10.) See Feldhoif {VolkertafeL, p. 71), who, however, 
(liitooverB tmniy S^ba* both in Africa (e\'^en to the south- 
west coast of that continent) and in Asia (on the Per^ 
aian GulO* a circumstance from which he derives the 
idea that, in this grandson of their patriarch, the Ham- 
itcs disidayed the energy of their race by widely-ex- 
tended settlements. See Seba. 

2. HavUah (Joeephus E«nXac), not to be confounded 
(as he is by Koeenm., and apparently by Patrick, after 
Bochart) with the son of Joktan, who is mentioned in 
vcr. 29. Joseph, and Jerome, as quoted by Com. a Lap., 
were not far wrong in making the Geetuliana (the peo- 
ple in the central part of North Africa, between the mod- 
em Niger and the Ked Sea) to be descended fVom the 
Cu»hite Havilah. Kiepert (Btbel^ Atlas, foL I) rightly 
pats our Havilah in Eati Abtfsrimaj by the Straits of 
Bab fl'Mandeb. Gesm., who takes this view, refers to 
Hiny, vi, 28, and Ptolemy, iv, 7, for the A valiiep, now 
Zeilah, and adds that Saadias repeatedly renders nb"^in 

by Zeilah. Bohlen at first identifies the two Havilahs, 
but afterwards so far corrects himself as to admit, very 
properly, that there was probably on the west coast of 
the Red Sea a Ha^nlah as well as on the east of it — 
'*ju9t in the same way as there was one Stba on the 
coast of Arabia, and another opposite to it in Ethiopia.** 
There is no sach difficulty as Kalisch {CenetiSy Pref. p. 
93) supposes in believing that occasionally kindred peO' 
pie ikould have Hke names. It is not more incredible 
that there should be a Havilah both in the family of 
Ham and in that of Shem (Gen. x, ver. 7, comp. with 
Ter. 29) than that there were Enochs and Lamechs 
among the posterities of both Cain and Seth (compare 
VjtR. iv, 17, 18, with ver. 18, 26). Kaliach's cumbrous 
theory of a vast extent of countr}* from the Persian 
Gulf running to the south-west and crossing the Red 
Sea, of the general name of Ha\-ilah (possessed at one 
end by the son of Joktan, and at the other by the son 
of Cush), removes no difficulty, and, indeed, is unneces- 
Miy. There is no "apparent discrepancy** (of which he 
speiUcs, p.249) in the Mosaic statement of two HavUahs 
of dUtiuct races, nor any violation of consistency when 
fairly judged by the nature of the case. Michaelis and 
Feldhoff strangely flounder about in their opposite con- 
jectures : the former supposes our Havilah to be the land 
of the Chralisci, on the Caspian, the latter places it in 
China Ptoper, aJx>u't Pekin (!). See Havilah. 

3. SabtaM (Joseph. TaftaOa^ TafiaOa^) is by Josephus, 
vith great probability, located immediately north of the 
preceding, in the district east of Merotf, between the As- 
tabaras (Tacazze), a tributary of the Nile, and the Red 
8ea, the country of the Astabari, as the Greeks called 
tbem (Sa/3adipH>« bvofidi^ovrai H 'Acrra/Sapot trap 
"EXXifffiy, Ant, i, 6, 2). Kalisch quite agrees in this 
ofnnion, and Gesenius substantially, when he places Sab- 
tah on the south-west coast of the Red Sea, where was 
the Ethiopian city 2)<T/3ar. (See Strabo, xvi, p. 770 
[ed.Caaauh.J, and Ptolemy, iv, 10.) Rosermi., Bohlen, 
and Knobel, with less propriety, place it in Arabia, with 
whom agree Delitsch and Kei'l, while Feldhoff, with his 
anal extravagance, identifies it with Thibet. See Sah- 

TAH. 

4. Raamak (Joaephus 'Piy^a, *PLy ftog) and his two 
nns Sheba (Sa/3ac) and Dedau (lov^d^ac) are separ- 



ated by Joaephns and Jerome, who place the last-men* 
tionedin West AUthiopia (Af^towicov i^voQ ritv 'E<nr<- 
p(«tfv, which J^ome translates Gens Atlthiopue in occi- 
dentali pUiga). Ezekiel, however, in xxvii, 20, 22, men- 
tions these three names together in coimection with 
A rabia» According to Niebuhr, who, in his map of Ye- 
men, has a province called Sabiej and the town of Sab- 
bea (in long. 43*^ 30', lat. 18^), the country south of ^^a- 
Ine abounds with traces of the name and family of Cush. 
Without doubt, we have here veritable Cushite settlers 
in Arabia (Assemani, BibL Oriental III, ii, 554). All 
the commentators whom we have named (with the ex- 
ception of Feldhoff) agree in the Arabian locality of 
these grandsons and son of Cush. A belt of country 
stretching from the Red Sea, opposite the Ethiopian 
Havilah, to the south of the Persian Gulf, across Arabia, 
comprises the settlements of Raamah and his two sons. 
l*he city called 'Pkyfia, or 'P^y^a, by Ptolemy (vi, 7)^ 
within this tract, closely resembles Raamah, as it is 
written in the original (M^^^) ; so does the island Dd^- 

den, in the Persian Gulf, resemble the name of one of 
the sons, Dedan. Sec Dedan. 

5. Sabtechah (Joseph. XafiaKaOdy Sa/3drira0ac) is by 
Kalisch thought to have settled in Ethityyia, and the 
form of the word favors the opinion, the other com- 
pounds of Sab being apparently of Ethiopic or Cushite 
origin. **It8 obvious resemblance to the Ethiopian 
name Subatok, discovered on Egyptian monuments 
(comp. the king K*'.D, in 2 Kings xvii, 4, and the Sebe- 
chus of Manetho), renders its position in Arabia, or at 
the Persian Gulf, iuprobable; but Sumydace, in Gedro- 
sia (as Bochart supposes), or Tubochosta, in Persia (as 
Bohlen suggests), or Satakos, are out of the question. 
The Targum of Jonathan renders it here *^i(2;3T (Zingi)^ 
which b the Arabic name for the African district Zan" 
ffuebar, and which is not inappropriate here'* (Kalisch). 
See Sabteeciiah. 

6. Simrod (Joseph. 'StfifMi\C>, the mighty founder 
of the earliest imperial power, b the grandest name, not 
only among the children of Ham, but in primaeval his- 
tor\'. He seems to have been deified under the title of 
BilU'Xipru, or Bel-Nimrod, which may be translated 
« the god of the chase,** or " the great hunter." (The 
Greek forms 'Stjiputd and 'Sij^pu^B aerve to connect Ni- 
pru with ^"^^d. The native root is thought to be lui- 
par, " to pursue," or " cause to flee," Rawlinson, p. 196.) 
He is noticed here in his place, in passing, because 
around his name and exploits has gatliered a mass of 
Eastern tradition from all sources, which entirely corrob- 
orates the statement of Moses, that the primitive em- 
pire of the Chaldffians was Cushite, and that its i)eople 
were closely connected with Eg^'pt, and Canaan, and 
Ethio|)ia. Rawlinson {Fire Great Mon,, chap, iii) has 
collected much of this tradition, and shmvn that the 
hints of Herodotus as to the existence of an Asiatic 
Ethiopia as well as an African one (iii, W; vii, 70), 
and that the traditional belief which Moses of Chorene, 
the Armenian historian, has, for instance, that Nimrod 
is in fact Belus, and grandson of Cush by Mizraim (a 
statement substantially agreeing with that of the Bi- 
ble), have been too strongly confirmed by all recent re- 
searehcs (among the cuneiform inscriptions) in compar- 
ative philology to be set aside by criticism based on the 
mere conjectures of ingenious men. It would appear 
that Nimrod not only built cities, and conquered exten- 
sive territories, '< subduing or expelling the various tribes 
by which the countrj' was previously occupied" (Raw- 
Unson, p. 195 ; comp. Gen. x, 10-12 [marginal version]), 
but established a dynasty of some eleven or twelve mon- 
arehs. By-and-by (about 1500 B.C. ; see Rawlinson, p. 
228) the ancient Chaldeans, the stock of Cush and )>eu- 
ple of Nimrod, sank into obscurity, crushed by a foreign 
Shemitic stock, destined after some seven or eight cen- 
turies of submission to revive to a second tenure of im- 
perial |)owcr, which cidminated in grandeur under the 
magnificent Nebuchadnezzar. See NuiiiOi>b 



HAM 



38 



HAM 



n. MiZRAnc (Joseph. Mc^patv, Mtarptdfioc), that iSy 
the father of Effyptj is the second son of Cosh. Of this 
dual fonn of a man*s name we have other instances in 
Upkraim and Shaharaim (1 Chron. viii, 8). We um- 
ply call the reader's attention to the fact, vouched for in 
this genealogy oi the HamiteSi of the neamesg of kindred 
between Nimrod and Uizraim. This point is of great 
value in the study of ancient Eastern histoiy, and will 
reconcile many difficulties which would otherwise be 
insoluble. ^ For the last 3000 years it is to the Shemi- 
tic and Indo-European noes that the world has been 
mainly indebted for its advancement; but it was other- 
wise in the first age& ^EffSfpi ond Babylon, Mtzraim 
and Nimrod, both descendants of Ham, led the way and 
acted as the pioneen of mankind in the various untrod- 
den fields of art, literature, and science. Alphabetic 
writing, astronomy, histoiy, chronology, architecture, 
plastic art, sculptuiv, navigation, agriculture, and tex- 
tile industry, seem, all of them, to have had their origin 
in one or other of these two countries" (Rawlinson,p.75). 

If, as some ' suppose, Mizraim in the lists of Gen. x, 
and 1 Chron. i, stands for Mizrim, we should take the 
singular Mazor to be the name of the progenitor of the 
Egyptian tribes. It is remarkable that Mazor appears 
to be identical in signification with Ham, so that it may 
be but another name of the patriarch. See Eoypt. In 
this case the mention of Mizraim (or Mizrim) would be 
geographical, and not indicative of a Mazor, son of HauL 

The Mizraites, like the descendants of Ham, occupy 
a territory wider than that bearing the name of Miz- 
rainu We may, however, suppose that Mizraim in- 
cluded all the first settlements, and that in remote times 
other tribes besides the Philistines migrated, or extend- 
ed their territories. This we may infer to have been 
the case with the Lehabim (Lubim) or Libyans, for 
Manetho speaks of them as in the remotest period of 
Egyptian history subject to the Pharaohs. He tells us 
that under the first king of the third dynasty, of Mem- 
phites, Necherophes, or Necherochis, " the Libyans re- 
volted from the Egyptians, but, on account of a wonder- 
ful increase of the moon, submitted through fear" (Cory's 
Anr. Frag, 2d edit. p. 100, 101). It is unlikely that'at 
this very early time the Memphite kingdom ruled far, 
if at all, beyond the western boundary of Eg^'pt. See 
Mizraim. 

• Land of If am, — "By this and similar poetic terms the 
Psalmist designates £ffgpt in Psa. cv, 23 ("Jacob so- 
journed in the land ofHam^ DH }'!?M2l, here parallel 
and synonymous with D^'ISCp, with which compare ver. 
27, and cvi, 22, 23), and in Psa. Ixxviii, 51 (where ^the 
tabemades of Ham,** nrf'bnfit, is again parallel with 
D^^2Cp). Wliat in these passages is the poetical name 
of Egypt in Hebrew, was among the Egyptians them- 
selves probably the domestic and usual designation of 
their country (Gesenius). According to Gescnius, this 
yiame of Ham (" Coptic Chemip for which Lepsius, how- 
ever, substitutes another word. Hem [Memph.] or Hhem 
[Thebaic]) is derived Crom the swarthy complexion of 
the people (what Gesenius calls Coptic Lepsius desig- 
nates by the now more usual term AfemphUic : Gesenius 
adds the Sahidic [Lepsius's Thebaic] form of " our word 
Kerne [from hen^ black] ; but Lepsius denies that the 
name of Egypt, Ham [DH ], has "■ any direct connection" 
with this word; he substitutes the root him, or him 
[Memphitic], which is softened into hhim, or hhim, iu 
the sister dialect of Thebes ; the meaning of which is to 
be hot [Tattam, Lex, yEgypf, LaL p. 658, 671 ]. Chemi, 
however, and Khem, are, no doubt, the constantly used 
terms for the name of the country [see Tattam, p. 155, 
MO, and Uhlemann, Copt. Gr, et J ax, p. 154]), while 
Lepsius says, ''not from the color of its inhabitants, 
which was red, but from that of its soil, which formed a 
strong contrast with the adjacent countries." (Comp. 
Herodotus's fiiKdyyaiov, ii, 12, and Plutarch's Aiyvr- 
rov IV rote fiakiera fitXayyttov ovftav . . . Xrjfiia 
KoXotlffc, De Itid, et Odr. [ Reiake] vii, 487.) In the hie- 



roglyphic language the name occutB wb KH. The faw 
scription of it, as it frequently occurs on the Koseua 
stone, is pronounced by Champollion, Akerblad, and 
Spohn, Chmi (Gesen. Thet, p. 489). The name by which 
Egypt is commonly called in Hebrew, D^'nzc^Q (*^12ro 
should probably be translated Egypt ui 2 Kings xix, 24 ; 
Isa. xix, 6; xxxvii,25; and Micah vii, 12; Gesen. and 
FUrst, a. v.), was not used by the Egjrptians (Biihr, //e- 
rodot, note, ad L c), but by Atiatica it appears to have 
been much used of the land of the Nile, as is evident 
fipom the cuneiform inscriptions. The Median form of 
the name was Mitzariga; the Babylonian, JfutV ; the 
Assyrian, MvzrL The Arabic name of the present ca|H 
itai of Eg}'pt is El Mazr, and the country also is Miar 
(Siir H. Rawlinson, Jour, R, A $, Soc voL xi v, pt. i, p. 18 ; 
Lepsius, in Hersog, s. v. Egypt). Joeephus {A nt, i, 6, 
2) renders the Hebrew name of Egypt bv Miorprf, and 
of the peoi^e by Miirrpaloi. Whether, however, we re- 
gard the native name from the father, or the Asiatic 
(Vom the son, they both vouch for the HcnmHc character 
of Egypt, which probably differed from all the other set- 
tlements of this race in having Ham himself as the act^ 
ual apxriyoQ of the nation, among whom also he per- 
haps lived and died. This circumstance would afford 
sufficient reason both why the nation itself should re- 
gard the father 9s their eponymus rather than the son, 
who only succeeded him in the work of settlement, aiid 
why, moreo\*er, foreigners with no other interest than 
simply to distinguish one Hamitic colony' finom another 
should have preferred for that purpose the name of the 
son, which would both designate this particular nation, 
and at the same time distinguish it from such as were 
kuidred to it. 

On the sons of Mizraim we roust lie brief, Joaephua 
noticed the different fortune which had attended the 
names of the sons from that of the grandsons of Ham, es- 
pecially in the family of Mizraim ; for while ** time had 
not hurt*' the former, of the latter he says {Ant. i, 6, 2X 
"tre know nothing but their namet,** Jerome (who in 
these points mostly gives us only the echo of Josqihus) 
says similarly: '^Caetene sex gentes ignot» sunt nobis 
. . . quia usque ad oblivionem piietcritorum nominum 
pen'enere.** They both, indeed, except two names from 
the obscurity which had oppressed the other six, Labuu 
and PhUistim, and give them ^ a local habitation with 
their name.*' What this is we shall notice soon ; mean- 
while we briefly state such identifications of the others 
as have occurred to commentators. Josephus, it will be 
obser\'ed, renders all these jo/ura/ Hebrew names by nn- 
gular forms. These plurals seem to indicate clan* tpeah- 
ing their own languc^ea (comp. ver. 20, which surmounts 
our table), centered aiound their patriarch, from whom, 
of course, they derived their gentile name : thus, lAidim 
from Lud; Pathruaim from Pathros, etc (Feldhoff, p. 
94). Lenormant notices the fact of so many nations 
emerging from Egj'pt, and spreading over Africa {L'A He 
Ocddentale^ p. 244), for he understands these names to be 
of peoples, not indi\'idual8 ; so Ikfichaelis, SpicUeg. p. 254, 
who quotes Aben-Ezra for the same opinion. Aben* 
Ezra, however, docs not herein represent the general 

opinion of the Jewish doctors. The relative DCS . . • 
*ltt;K misled him; he thought it necessarily implied lo' 
cality, and not a personal antecedent MendelaBohn de- 
clares him wrong in this view, and refers to Gen. xlix, 
24. *' It is probable," he adds, " that lAuUm and the oth- 
er names were those of men, who gave their names to 
their descendanta. Such was the opinion of Rashi, etc,** 
who takes the same view as the old Jewish historian. 

1. Ludim (Josephus AovduipoQ) is not to be con- 
founded with Shem's son Lud (ver. 22), the progenitor 
of the Lydians. The Ludim are often mentioned in 
Scripture (Isa. Ixvi, 19; Jer. xhi, 9; Ezek. xxvW, 10; 
XXX, 5) as a warlike nation, skilled in the use of spear 
and bow, and seem to have been employed (much as the 
Suviss have been) as mercenary troops (Geseiu Jesaia*, 
iii, 811). Bochart (who placed Gush in Arabia) neerved 



HAM 



39 



HAM 



BlUopia ibr these Lndim ; one of his reasoiiB being baaed 
on their use of the bow, as he learns of Herodotus, Stra- 
bo, Ileliodonis, and Diodorus Siculus. But the people 
of North Africa were equally dexterous with this imple- 
ment of war ; we have therdore no difficulty in connect- 
ing the Ludim with the country through which the 
river lAtd or iMud ran (Pliny, v, 2), in the province of 
Tmgitama (Tangier) ; so B^en, Delitzscb, and Feld- 
hoff, which last writer finds other names of cognate or- 
igin in North Africa, e. g. the tribe called Ludaya, in- 
habiting wie of the oases, and the district of Ludcanary 
in Nigritia. Kalisch suggests the £g>'ptian LefopoUs or 
Lelus, and Clarke the Martotit of Kgypt; while Keil 
suppoees the Berber tribe Lewaiah; and Lenormant 
(VArie Occid. p. 244) the Nubians; they think a prox- 
imity to Egypt would be most compatible with the fact 
that the Ludim were Egj'ptian auxiliaries (Jer. xlvi, 9). 
See LuDiai. 

2. Amamim (Josephus *Eytylfiot') are, with unusual 
wnanimity, placed by the commentators in Egypt. Cal- 
met repiesents the older opinion, quoting Jonathan's 
Targ. for the Mareotia. Knobel (with whom agree De- 
litzscb, Keil, and Feldhofr) places them in the Delta, the 
Sept. rendering 'Evtfuruifi suggesting to him Sanemkitj 
the Eg^-ptian word for north country. The word occurs 
nowhere else in the Old Testament. See Amamim. 

8. Lehabim (Josephus AaPnifif Aa/3i/ioc) is, with ab- 
golnte unanimity, including even Jerome and Josephus 
(who says, A. rov KarouaiaavToc *v AifSvri rat ri^v 
Xwpav a^' aifTov KftXioavrogX identified witli the 
■hoiter word D*^3^b, Lubim, in 2 Chron. xii, 8 ; xvi, 8 ; 
and again in Nahum iii, 9 \ Dan. xi, 43. They are there 
the Libyans ; Bochart limits the word to the Ltby-agyp- 
tO, on the west frontier of Egypt ; so KnobeL The lle- 
brew word has been connected (by Bochart) vrith M^tl^, 
and the plur. of 2tl7, which means ^amf; Bashi sup- 
posing that they are so called '< because their faces were 
inflamed with the suna heat" (Isa. xiii, 8), from their 
icndence so near the torrid zone. Hltzig's idea that 
the Lehabim mav be Nubians is also held bv Lenor- 
mant (^IJ'Asie Occid, p. 244). The opinion of the latter 
is based upon the general principle entertained by him, 
that, as Cush peopled Ethiopia, and Phut Libya, and 
Canaan Phamcia, so to Mizraim must be appropriated 
Egypt, or (at least) the vicinity of that country. There 
is some force in this view, although the application of 
it in the case of Lehabim need not confine his choice to 
Nubia. Libya, with which the name is associated by 
moat writers since Josephus, is contiguous to Egypt, on 
its western frontier, and would answer the conditions aa 
well as Nubia. See Lehabim. 

4. Naphtuhim (Josephus Nl^c/ioc), according to Bo- 
diart and BosenmUller, should be identified with Neph- 
tysj in the north of Egypt ; Bohlen suggests the Nobata, 
in Libya; Com. a Lap. the Nunndians; Patrick (after 
Gfotius) Nfpata, in Ethiopia; but none of these opin- 
ifona appear to us so probable as that of Knobel, who 
thus vindicates for the Memphitic, or Middle Egyptians, 
th« claim to be the Naphtuhim, Memphis was the 
chief seat of the worship of Phthah, an Egyptian deity. 
If the plural possessive particle na=ol Toi (Uhlemann, 
sec. 14, 1) be prefixed, we get the word na-Ptahh, the 
peopU of Phthah, oi rov <Mdr, just as the Moabites are 
designated the people ofChemosh (Numb, xxi, 29; Jer. 
xlviii, 46), and the Hebrews the people of Jehovah (Ezek. 
xxxvi, 20). See NAPirruHiM. 

5. Paihrusim (Josephus ^s^poMrr/ioc) are undoubtedly 
the people of l^'pper Kgypt, or the Thebaid, of which 
the capital, Tbeb^ is moitioned, under the name of No 
«nd No-A man, in Nahum iii, 8 ; Ezek. xxx, 14-10 ; and 
Jec xlvi, 25u Pathros is an Egyptian name, signifiring 
the Scmih country (jpet^res), which may possibly indude 
Nubia also; in Isa. xi, 11, and probably Jer. xliv, 15, 
Fathros is mentioned as cUstinct from, though in close 
connection with, Egypt. By Greek and Roman writ- 

the Thebaid is called Nomas Phaturites (Pliny, JSisL 



Nat. V, 9; PtoL iv, 6, C9). So Bochart, Bohlen, De- 
litzsch, Kalisch, Keil, KnobeL Brugsch*s suggestion 
that our word comes from Pa-IIaihor, that is, the Nome 
of Hathor, an Egyptian deity of the nether world, is 
an improbable one. See Pathrusim. 

6. Casluhint (Josephus XcaXoT/ioc). In addition to 
what is said under the article Casluhim, it may be ob- 
seri'ed that the Coptic (Basmuric) name of the district 
called Casiotis, which RosenmUller writes Chadsaieloihe, 
is compounded of fes, a "mount," and lokh, "to bum,** 
and well indicates a rugged and arid country, out of 
which a colony may be supposed to have emigrated to 
a land called so neariy after their own home. (Comp. 
nib OS, and CheslokJi, and KoXxi'c, with the metathesis 
which Gesenius suggests.) This proximity to south- 
west Palestine of their original abode also exactly cor- 
responds to the relation between these Casluhim and 
the next mentioned people, expressed in the parcnthet* 
ical clause, " Out of whom came Philistim" (Gen. x, 
14) ; L e. the Philistines were a colony, of the Casluhim, 
probably drafted off into the neighboring province in 
consequence of the poverty of their parental home, the 
very cause which we may suppose impelled some of the 
Casluhim themselves to seek a more favorable settle- 
ment on the south-east shore of the Black Sea, in Col- 
chis. 

Philittim (Josephus ^i/Xurrivoc), who, according to 
Josephus, suggested to the Greeks the name of Pales^ 
tine. We here advert to the various readings of the 
Hebrew text suggested by Michaelis {Spidley, p. 278), 
who, after Bashi and Masius, would transpose the sen- 
tence thus: 'bo DiKia ^jcs'^ TiJK Bs-r«i bs'nK'^, 

that IS, "And Casluhim, and Capthorim (out of whom 
came Phihstlm*'). This transposition makes Caphtorim 
the origin of the Philistines, according to Amos ix, 7, 
and perhaps Deut ii, 28 ; Jer. xlvii, 4. KosenmUUer, 
Geaenius, and Bohlen assent to this change, but there is 
no authority for it either in MSS., Targums, or Ver- 
sions ; and another rendering of the passage, " Out of 
whom came Philistim and Caphtorim," is equally with^ 
out fotmdation. In the Hebrew text, as well as the 
Taiigums and the Sept., Philistim alone rppoars as a sub- 
ject, all the other proper names (including the last, 
Caphtorim) have the objective sign HX, T^, and rot^f. 
This is decisive. See Philistines. 

7. Cajythorim (Josephus Xt^opi^oc by Onkelos is 
rendcrecl *^K{?^!!llp, ^^ Cappadocians ^ in the Peshito 
also " Cappadocians*' So the other Targums, and (ac- 
cording to Calmet) " veteres omnes ac recentiores stant 
pro Cappadocibus." See Caphthoil In support of the 
opinion advanced concerning the Caphthorim in this 
article, it may be observed that in the Mishna {Cethu- 
both [Surenh.], iii, 103), the very word of the Targum, 
fif^pIdlDp, Cappadocia, repeatedly occurs; and (what 
escaped the notice of Bochart) Maimonides, an excellent 
authority in Egyptian topography, and Bartenora, both 
in their notes explain this Caphutkaja to be Caphtor, 
and identify it with Damietta, in the north of £g>'pt, in 
the immediate >4cinity of that Casiotis where we placed 
the primitive Casluhim. It may be added, as some 
support to our own opinion, that Benjamin of Tudela 
says (Asher, p. 158; ed. Bohn, p. 121, 128), "Damietta 
is Caphtor in Scripture.*" 

III. Phut (Josephus ^ovtt/c), the thini son of Ham, 
is thus noticed by Josephus (^1 nt. i, 6, 2) : " Phut was 
the founder of Libya ; he called the inhahitauts Phut- 
ites, after himself; there Lb a river in the country of the 
Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we 
may see the greatest part of the Grecian historiograph- 
ers mention that river and the adjoining country by the 
appellation of Phut ; but its present name has l>eeii given 
it from one of the sons of Mizraim, who was called IJbys 
[the progenitor of the /^^aftwn]." Jerome of course 
adopts this view, which has also been endorsed by Bo- 
chart, Michaelis, KosenmUller, Gesenius, Bohlen, De* 



HAM 



40 



HAM 



litxKb, Keil, and Kalisch. Tbe Tenioiis oonobonte it 
also, for in Jer. xlvi, 9 [Sept xxvi, 9], 13^0 {Phut) is 
rendered "Libyans" in the A.y., Libyes in the Vulg., 
and Aipvic in the Sept. Similarly the hd^lB of £zek. 
XXX, 5, is " Libya" in the A.y., Ltbtfes in the Vulg.} and 
AifivtQ in the Sept (so xxxviii, 5). Like some of their 
kindred races, the children of Phut are celebrated in the 
Scriptures " as a warlike, well-armed tribe, sought as 
allies, and dreaded as enemies" (Kalisch). Phut means 
a bow ; and the nation seems to have been skilled in 
archery, according to the statements of the Bible. We 
may add, in confirmation of the preceding view of the 
locality of Phut, that the Coptic name of Libya, nearest 
to Egypt, was Phaiat, The supposition of Hitzig that 
Phut was Uovrta, west of Libya, on the north coast of 
Africa, and of Kalisch that it might have be«n Buto, 
the capital of the Delta, on the south shore of the Butic 
lake, are unlikely to find much acceptance by the side 
of the universal choice of all the chief writers, which 
we have indicated above. (Pliny, Hist. Nat. v, 1, has 
mentioned the river, referred to by Josephus, as the Fut 
[or Phuth^t and Ptolemy, in like manner, as the ^^ov^, 
iv, 1, 8 ; comp. MichaeUs, SpicUeg, i, 160.) It must be 
admitted that Josephus and those who have followed 
him are vague in their identification. Libya was of 
vast extent ; as, however, it extended to the Eg^'ptian 
frontier, it will, perhaps, best fulfil all the conditions of 
the case, keeping in view the military connection which 
seems to have existed between Phut and Egypt, if we 
deposit the posterity of Phut in Eastern Libya contigu- 
ous to Eg^'pti not pressing too exactly the statement of 
Josephus, who probably meant no more, by his reference 
to the countr}' of the Moors and the river Phut, than 
the readily allowed fact that in the vast and unexplored 
regions of Africa might be found traces, in certain local 
names, of this ancient son of Ham. The only objection 
to this extent of Libya is that this part of the country 
has already been assigned to the Lehabim (see above). 
To us, however, it seems suiiicient to obviate this diffi- 
culty to hold that while the Lehabim impinged on the 
border of Upper £g3rpt, the children of Phut were con- 
tiguous to Lower Egypt, and extended westward along 
the north coast of Africa, and into the very interior of 
the continent Phut was no doubt of much greater ex- 
tent than the Lehabim, who were only a branch of Miz- 
raim ; for it will be obserx'ed tliat in the case of Phut, 
unlike his brothers, he is mentioned alone without chil- 
dren. Their settlements are included in the general 
name of their father Phut, without the subdivisions into 
which the districts colonized by his brothers' children 
were arranged. Tbe designation, therefore, of Phut is 
generic ; of' Ludinif Lehabim^ etc., specific, and in terri- 
torv limited. 

IV. Canaan (Josephus Xavdavoo) was the youngest 
of the sons of Ham, and there is less obscurity concern- 
ing his descendants. ** Canaan, the fourth son of Ham," 
■ays Josephus (.4 nt, i, 6, 2), ^ inhabited the country now 
called Judaea (r^v vvv KaXovfttvriv 'lovSaiav. In the 
time of Josephus, it must be recollected, this included 
the entire country which we loosely call the Holy Land), 
and called it after his own name, Canaan." This coun- 
try is more distinctly described than any other in Holy 
Scripture, and in the record of Ham's family in Gen. x, 
its boundary is sketched (see ver. 19), excluding the dis- 
trict east of the Jordan, llie luune Canaofij however, 
is sometimes used in a more lintited sense than is indi- 
cated here and elsewhere. Thus, in Numb, xiii, 29, ** the 
Canaanites*' are said to " dwell bv the sea and*bv the 
coast of the Jordan" (L e. obviously in the lowlands, both 
maritime and inland), in opposition to the Hittites and 
others who occupy the highlands. This limitation prob- 
ably indicates the settlements of Canaan only — as a sep- 
arate tribe, apart from those of his sons — afterwards to be 
enumerated (compare, for a similar limitation of a more 
extensive name, Ceesar, De Bell. Gall, i, 1, where Gallia 
has both a specific and a generic sense ; oomp. also the 



^eific as well as generic meaning of An^ or £V»^fe m 
the Saxon Chronicle [Gibson, p. 13; Thorpe, i,21] "of 
Angle oomon . . . East Engla, Middel Angla"). On 
the much-vexed questions of the curse of Noah (who 
was the object of it, and what was the extent) we can 
here only touch. Sec Noah. What we have akcady 
discovered, however, of the power, energ)', and widely- 
spread dominion of the sons of Ham, whom we have 
hitherto menrioned, offers some guidance to tbe solution 
of at least the latter question. The remarkable enter- 
prise of the Cushite hero, Nimrod { his establishment of 
imperial power, as an advance on patriarchal govern- 
ment ; the strength of the Egypt of Mizraim, and ita 
long domination over tbe house of Israel ; and the evi- 
dence which now and then appears that even Phut (who 
is the most obscure in his fortmies of all the Hamitic 
race) maintained a relation to the descendants of Shcm 
which was far from servile or subject— all clearly tend to 
limit the application of Noah's maledictory prophecy to 
the precise terms in which it was indited : " Cursed be 
Ctmaan ; a servant of servants shall he [not Ciish, not 
Mizraim, not Phut ; but A^j be to his brethren" (Gen. 
ix, 25) ; " that is," says Aben-Ezra, '* to Gush, Mizraim, 
and Phut> his father's sons"— with remarkable inatten- 
tion to the context : ** Blessed be the Lord (^od of Shem, 
and Canaan shall be his servant God shall enlarge Ja^ 
phet . . . and Canaan shall he his servant" (ver. 26, 27). 
If we, then, oonfhie the imprecation to Canaan, we can 
without difficulty trace its accomplishment in the aab- 
jugation of the bribes which issued from him, to the chil- 
dren of Israel from the time of Joshua to that of David. 
Here would be verified Canaan's 8er\'ile relation to Shem; 
and when imperial Rome finally wrested " the sceptre 
from Judah," and (" dwelling in the tents of Shem") oc- 
cupied the East and whatever remnants of Canaan were 
left in it, would not this accomplish that further pre- 
diction that Japhet, too, should be lord of Canaan, and 
that (as it would seem to be tacitly implied) mediately, 
through his occupancy of " the tents of Shem ?" 

1. Sidon (Josephus 'Sxlutv S" v^' 'EXX^i/faiv rai vvv 
KoXtirai, Ant. i, 6, 2) founded the ancient metropolis of 
Phoenicia, the renowned city called after his own name, 
and the mother-city of the still more celebrated Tyre : 
on the commercial enterprise of these cities, which reach- 
ed even to tbe south of Britain, sec Sidon; Tyke. 

2. lleth (Josephus Xerraioc) was the father of the 
well-known Hittites, who lived in the south of Palestine 
around Hebron and Beersheba ; in the former of which 
places the family sepulchre of Abraham was purchased 
of them (Gen. xxiii, 3). Esau married ** two daughters 
of Heth," who gave great sorrow to' their husband's 
mother (Gen. xxvii, 46). 

8. The Jebttsite (Josephus *UfiovoaioQ) had his chief 
residence in and around Jerusalem, which bore the name 
of the patriarch of the tribe, the son of Canaan, Jehus. 
The Jebusites lost their stronghold only in the time of 
David. 

4. The Amorite (Josephus 'Aftoftpaiog) seems to haTe 
been the largest and most powerful of the bribes of Ca- 
naan. (The name **Amorite8'* frequently denotes the 
inhabitants of the entire country.) This tribe occupied 
portions of territory' on both sides of the Jonlan, but its 
strongest hold was in "the hill country" of Judah, as it 
was afterwards called. 

6. The GirgaaUe (Josephus TepytaaioQ) cannot be for 
certain identified. (Origen conjectured that the Gir- 
gasites might be the Gergeaenes of Matt, viii, 18.) 

6. The Hivite (Josephus Ei^/iToc?) lived partly in the 
neighborhood of Shechcm, and partly at the foot of Her-> 
mon and Lcbanoiu 

7. The A rlate (Josephus adds for once a locality — 
'XpovKaloQ Bk [t<TX*''l 'ApKtiv r»/v ip rtf AifiaiHft^ Ant, 
i, 6, 2) lived in the Phoenician city of A rM, iMMth of 
Tripolis. Under the emperors of Home it bore the name 
of Cataarea (Libani). It was long celebrated in the 
time of the Crusades. Its ruins are still extant at TtU 
Arlpa (Burckhardt, Syria^ p. 162). 



HAM 



41 



HAM 



& The Smite (JoMphns £civa7oc) probably dwelt near 
hifl brother, the Arkite, on the mountain fortreas of £ii/- 
ydc, mentioned by Stiabo (xv, 755) and by Jerome. 

9. The A rvadite (Joeephua 'Apovdaiog) is mentioned 
by Joeephos aa occupying an island which was very oel* 
efanted in Fhcenician hiator}'. (Strabo describes it in 
xvi, 768.) " The men of A rvatT are celebrated by £zek. 
xxrii, 8, 1 1. See Arvad. 

10. The Zemarite (Joeephus Zaftapaio^') inhabited 
the town of Sintjfra (Zifivpa^ mentioned by Strabo), 
near the river Ekatherus, at the western extremity of 
the mountains of Lebanon ; extensive ruins of this city 
are found at the present day bearing the name of Sum- 
rak, 

11. llie ffamatkUe (Joaephus 'Afio^ioc). *' The en- 
tering in of J/amatA^ indicates the extreme northern 
frontier of the Holy Land, as ** the river of Egypt" does 
its soathemmost limit (1 Kings viii, 65 aq.). 

lo the verse following the enumeration of these names, 
the sacred writer says, ** Afterwards were the families of 
the Canaanites spread abroad." This seems to indicate 
snbseqoent conquests made by them previous to their 
own subjugation by the Israelites. ^ To show the great 
goodness of God towards Israel,*' says the Jewish com- 
mentator Mendelssohn, ** Moses records in Gen. x the 
origiiud narrow limits of the land ixMsessed by the Ca- 
naanites, which they were permitted to extend by oon- 
qvsst from the neighboring narions, and that (as in the 
case of the Amorite Sihou, Numb, xxi, 26) up to the 
very time when Israel was ready to take |)Osaea8ion of 
the whole. To prepare hia readeis for the great increase 
of the Canaanitish dominiona, the sacred historian (in 
this early chapter, where he mentions their original 
boundaries) takes care to state that subsequently to 
their primitive occupation of the land, * the fiunilies of 
the Canaanites spread abroad,* until their boundaries be- 
came such as are described in Numbers xxxiv.** The 
Uamathites alone of those identified were settled in ear- 
ly times wholly beyond the land of Canaan. Perhaps 
there was a primeval extension of the Canaanitish tribes 
after their first establishment in the land called after 
their ancestor. One of their most important extensions 
wu to the north-eaat, where was a great branch of the 
Hittite nation in the valley of the Orontes, constantly 
mentioned in the wars of the Pharaohs, and in those of 
the kings of Assyria. Two passages which have occa- 
sioned much controversy may here be noticed. In the 
account of Abraharo^s entrance into Palestine it is said, 
''And the Canaanite [was J then in the land'* (Gen. xii, 
6); and as to a somewhat later time, that of the separa- 
tion of Abraham and Lot, we read that "the Canaanite 
and the Perizaute dwelt then in the land" (xiii, 7). These 
passages have been supposed either to be late glosses, 
or to indicate that the Pentateuch was written at a late 
period. A coroi^arison of all the passages referring to 
the primitive history of Palestine and IdumsBa shows 
that there was an earlier population expelled by the 
Hamitic and Abrahamite settlers. This population was 
important in the time of the war of Chedorlaomer ; but 
at the Exodus, more than four hundred years after- 
wards, there was but a remnant of it It is most nat- 
ural, therefore, to infer that the twb passages under con- 
rideration mean that the Canaanitish settlers were al- 
ready in the land, not that they were still there. 

C General ClA^ racferMlMV.— Such were Ham and his 
fDuily, notwithstanding the stigma which adhered to 
that section of them which came into the nearest rela- 
tion to the Israelites afterwards; they were the most en- 
ergetic of the descendants of Noah in the early ages of 
the postdiluvian worid — at least we have a fuller de- 
scription of their enterprise than of their brethren's 9b 
displayed in the primitive ageai The development of 
empire among the Euphratean Cushites was a step 
much in advance of the rest of mankind in political or- 
ganizatton ; nor was the grandson of Ham leas conspicu- 
ous as a eonqutror. The only coherent interpretation 
of the important passage which is contained in Gen. x, 



10-12, is that which is adopted in the maigin of the K 
V. Aifter Nimrod had laid the foundation of his empire 
("the hegvrmmg of his kingdom," ims^^'O JH'^WK^, the 
territory of which it was at first composed — comp. Hos. 
ix, 10, " as the first ripe in the fig-tree inn''ttJX';ja at 
her first time," that is, when the tree first begins to bear 
— Gesen.) in his native Shinar, not satisfied with the . 
splendid acquisitions, which he took at first, no doubt, 
from his own kinsmen, he invaded the north-eastern 
countries, where the children of Shem were for the first 
time disturbed in their patriarchal simplicity : " Out of 
that land [even Shinar, Nimrod] went forth to Asshnr 
[or Assyria], and bnilded Nineveh, and the city Reho- 
both, and Calah, and Kesen, between Nineveh and Ca^ 
lah; the same is a great city," L e. the combination of 
the forementioned four formed, with their interjacent 
spaces, the "great city." (The objection to this ren- 
dering is based by RosenmuUer [^SckoL ad loc), after 
other commentators, on the absence of the n "local" ap- 
pended to 'n!i;i*K [which they say ought to be iTjV,S*X 
to produce the meaning to Assyria], The T\ " local" is, 
however, far from indispensable for the sense we re- 
quire, which has been advocated by authorities of great 
value well versed in Hebrew construction ; Knobel [who 
himself holds our view] mentions Onkelo^, Targ. Jonath., 
Bochart, Clericus, De Wette, Tuch, Baumgarten, De^ 
litzsch, as supporting it He might have added Jose^ 
phus, who makes Nimrod the builder of Babylon [Awt. 
i, 4 ], and Kalisch, and KeiL To make the passage Gen. 
X, 10-12 descriptive of the Sheroitic Asshur, is to do vio- 
lence to the passage itself and its context. Asshur, 
morever, is mentioned in his proper place in ver. 22, 
without, however, the least indication of an intention 
of describing him as the founder of a rival empire to 
that of Nimrod. Gesenius admits the probability of our 
view, without any objection of grammatical structure. 
[ See, for instances of the accus. noun (without the suffix 
of " local" h) after verbs of motion. Numb, xxxiv, 4 ; 
Gen. xxxiii, 18 ; 2 Chron. xx, 86. Compare Gcsenins, 
Grom. p. 130, 172, and Nordheimer's Gram, sec 841 ].) 
This is the opinion of Knobel, answering to the theory 
which has connected the ruins of Khorsabad, Koyunjik, 
NirorAd, and Keremlis together as the remains of a vast 
quadrilateral city, popularly called Nineveh. (For a dif- 
ferent view of the whole subject the reader is referred 
to Mr. liawlinson's recent volume on The Five Great 
Monarchies, i, 81 1-315.) But the genius which moidd- 
cd imperial power at firet,did not avail to retain it long ; 
the sceptre, before many ages, passed to the race of 
Shem (for the Shemitic character of the Arabian tribes 
who crushed the primitive Cushitc power of Babylon, 
see Rawlinson, Great Empires, i, 222, 228. The Arabian 
Hamites of Yemen seem also to have merged, probably 
by conquest, into a Joktanite population of Shemitic de- 
scent [see for these Gen. x, 25-29, and Assemani, Jiibf. 
Orient. Ill, ii, 653, 544]), except in Africa, where Miz- 
raim's descendants had a longer tenure of the Egyptian 
monarchy. It b well to bear in mind (and the more so, 
inasmuch as a difierent theor}' has here greatly obscured 
plain historic truth) that in the primeval Cushite em- 
pire of Babylon considerable progress was made in the 
arts of civilized society (an early allusion to which is 
made in Josh, iidi, 21 ; and a later in Dan. i, 4 : see Kaw- 
linson, First Monarchy, chap. v). 

In the genealogical record of the race of Ham (Gen. 
x) reference is made to the "tonyues" (or dialects) 
which they spoke (ver. 20). Comparative philology, 
which is so rich in illustrations of the unitv of the Indo- 
Germanic languages, has done next to nothing to eluci- 
date the linguistic relations of the families of Ham. 
Philologers are not agreed as to a Hamitic class of hm- 
guages. Recently Bunsen has applied the term " Ham- 
itism," or, as he writes it, Chamitism, to the Egyptian 
language, or, rather, family. He places it at the head 
of the " Shemitic stock," to which he considers it as but 



HAJIC 



42 



HAM 



pirtiaOy beloBging, and thus deMvibes it : ** Chamitisni, 
or ante-hifftorical Shemitiflin : the Chaoiitic deposit in 
Egypt; its daughter, the Demotic Egyptian; and its 
end the Coptic" {Outlines, i, 183). Sir H. Kavrlinson has 
applied the term Cushite to the primitive language of 
Babylonia, and the same term has been used for the an- 
cient language of the southern coast of Arabia. This 
terminology depends in every insunce upon the race of 
the nation' speaking the language, and not upon any 
theory of a Uamitic class. There is evidence which, at 
the first \'iew, ivould incline us to consider that the term 
Shemitic, bb applied to the Syro-Arabic class, should be 
changed to Ilamittc; bat, on a more careful examina- 
tion, it becomes evident that any absolute dassilication 
of languages into groups corresponding to the three 
great Noachian families is not tenable. The Bibhcal 
evidence seems, at first sight, in favor of Hebrew being 
classed as a Hamitic rather than a Shemitic form of 
speech. It is called in the Bible ** the language of Ca- 
naan," "i^^as r&b (Isa. xix, 18), although those speak- 
ing it are elsewhere said to speak r^''*lJtn'', Judaice (2 
Kings x\dii, 26, 28; Isa. xxx^-i, 11, 18; Neh. xiii, 24). 
But the one term, as Gesenius remarks (JJramm. Introd.), 
indicates the country where the language was spoken ; 
the other as evidently indicates a people by whom it 
was spoken t thus the question of its being a Hamitic 
or a Shemitic language is not touched ; for the circum- 
stance that it was the language of Canaan is agreeable 
with its being either indigenous (and therefore either 
Canaanite or Rephaite), or adopted (and therefore per- 
haps Shemitic). The names of Canaanitish persons and 
places, as Gesenius has observed (/L c), conclusively 
show that the Canaanites spoke what we call Hebrew. 
Elsewhere we might find evidence of the use of a so- 
called Shemitic language by nations either partly or 
wholly of Hamitic origin. This evidence would favor 
the theor}' that Hebrew was Hamitic; but, on the other 
hand, we should be unable to dissociate Shemitic lan- 
guages from Shemitic peoples. The EgA^itian language 
would also offer great difficulties, unless it were held to 
be but partly of Hamitic origin, since it b mainly of an 
entirely different class from the Shemitic. It b mainly 
Nigritian, but it also contains Shemitic elements. It is 
the opinion of the latest philologers that the ground- 
work LB Nigritian, and that the Shemitic part is a layer 
added to a complete Nigritian language. The two ele- 
ments are mixed, but not fused. Some Iranian schol- 
ars hold that the two elements are mixed, and that the 
ancient Egyptian represents the transition from Tura- 
nian to Shemitic The only solution of the difficulty 
aeems to be that what we call Shemitic is earlv Noachi- 
an. (See Rawlinson, Five. Great Afofiarchie$y First Mon. 
ch. iv; Lenormant, Introduction a Thistoire de FAsieoc- 
cidentalej 1*' Appendice; Meier, Jleb, WurzeL w. b. S'* 
Anhang ; Gesenius, Sketch of the Ilebr. iMng, (prefixed 
to his Grammar) ; Bunsen, Egypt's Place, etc, voL i, 
Append. 1 ; Wiseman, I^ectures on Science and Revealed 
Religion, p. 445, 2d ed. ; Max MUller, Science of Lan- 
guage, p. 2G9.) See Shemitic Languages. 

Theories more or less specious have been formed to 
account for these afiinities to the Hebrew from so many 
points of the Hamitic nations. None of these theories 
rise above the degree of precarious hypothesis, nor could 
it be expected that they should in the imperfection of 
our present knowledge. It is, indeed, satisfactory to 
observe that the tendency of linguistic inquiries is to 
establish the fact avouched in the Pentateuch of the 
original unity of human speech. The most conspicu- 
ous achievement of comparative philology hitherto has 
been to prove the affinity of the members of that large 
class of iangiu^ces which extend from the Eastern San- 
scrit to the Western Welsh ; parallel with this is the 
comparison among themselves of the various members of 
the Shemitic class of languages, which has demonstra- 
ted their essential identity ; but greater still will be the 
work of establishing^ on certain principles, the natural 



relationship of tongues o^diJermU claases. Among tkmef 
divergences must n^s be wider; but when oocasioiiat 
affinities crop out they will be proportionately valuable 
as evidences of a more ancient and profound agreement. 
It seems to us that the facts, which have thus far trans* 
plred, mdicative of affinity between the languages of 
the Hamitic and Shemitic races, go some way to show 
the probability of the historical and genealogical rectird 
of which we have been treatuig, that the tribes to whom 
the said languages were vernacular were really of near 
kindred and often associated in abode, either by con- 
quest or amicable settlement, with one another. 

An inquiry into the history of the Hamitic nations 
presents considerable (Ufficultiea, smce it caiuiot be de- 
termined in the cases of the most important of those 
commonly held to be Hamite that they were purely of 
that stock. It is certain that the three most illustrious 
Hamitic nations— the Cushites, the llHEnicians, and the 
Eg>'ptians — ^were greatly mixed with foreign peoples. 
In JBabvlonia the Hamitic element seems to have been 
absorbed by the Shemitic, but not in the earliest timea. 
There are some common characteristics, however, which 
appear to connect the different branches of the Hamitic 
family, and to distinguish them from the children of 
Japheth and Shem. Their architecture has a solid 
grandeur that we look for in vain elsewhere. Eg)!)!, 
Babylonia, and Southern Arabia alike afford proofs of 
this, and the few remaining monuments of the Phoeni- 
cians are of the same class. What is very important as 
indicating the purely Hamitic character of the monu- 
ments to which we refer is that the earliest in Egypt 
are the most characteristic, while the earlier in Babylo- 
nia do not >ield in this respect to the later. The na- 
tional mind seems in all thesecases to have marked these 
material forms. The early history of each of the chief 
Hamitic nations shows great power of organizing an ex- 
tensive kingdom, of acquiring material greatness, and 
checking the inroads of neighboring nomadic peoples. 
The Philistines afford a remarkable insUnce of these 
qualities. In every case, however, the more energetic 
sons of Shem or Japheth have at last fallen upon the 
rich Hamitic territories and despoiled them. Egypt, fa- 
vored by a position fenced round with neariy impassable 
barriers — on the north an almost havenless coast, on the 
east and west sterile deserts — held its freedom far longer 
than the rest; yet even in the days of Solomon the 
throne was filled by foreigners, who, if Hamites, were 
Shemitic enough in their belief to revolutionize the re- 
ligion of the country. In Babylonia the Mcdes had 
already captured Nimrod's city more than 2000 yean 
before the Christian era. The Hamites of Southern 
Arabia were so early overthrown by the Joktanitcs that 
the scanty remains of their history are alone known to 
us through tradition. Yet the story of the magnificence 
of the ancient kings of Yemen is so perfectly in accord- 
ance with all we know of the Hamites that it is almost 
enough of itself to prove what other evidence has so 
well established. The history of the Canaanites is sim- 
ilar; and if that of the Ph<Bnicians be an exception, it 
must be recollected that they became a merchant claas^ 
as Ezekiers famous description of Tyre shows (chap, 
xxvii). In speaking of Hamitic characteristics we do 
not intend it to be inferred that they were necessarily 
altogether of Hamitic origin, and not at least partly bor- 
rowed. 

Among other points of general interest, the reader 
will not fail to observe the relations in which the differ- 
ent sections of the Hamitic race stand to each other ; e. 
g. it is important to bear in mind that the Philistines 
were noi Canaanites, as is often assumed through an 
oversight of the fact that the former were descended 
from the second and the latter from the fourth son of 
Ham. The ToMoth Bern Noah of Genesis is a preciouj 
document in many respects, as has often been acknowl- 
edged (see Kawlinson, Bampton Lectures, p. 68) ; bat in 
no respect does it bear a higher value than bb an intro- 
duction, provided by the sacred writer himself, to th« 



HAM 



43 



HAMAKER 



wt wqwBt hiatorr at the Hebrew luttion in its rektions 
t* tKe rest of menkiiid. The intelligent reader of Scrip- 
ture will experience much help in hui study of that his- 
toiT, sod indeed of prophecy also^ by a constant recui^ 
Rnce to the paiticulan of this authoritative ethnolog^ 
iealRcord. 

Wecondude with an extract fiom Mr. Rawlinson's 
Fire Gnat Moiutrckia, which describes, in a favorable 
though hardly exaggerated light, some of the obliga- 
tions under which the primirive race of Ham has laid 
the world : ** Not possessed of many natural anlvantages, 
the Chsktean people yet exhibited a fertility of inven- 
tiao, a genius, and an energy which place them high in 
the flcaie of nations, and more especially in the lut of 
those deicended from the llamitic stock. For the last 
9000 resrs the world has been mainly indebted for its 
sdraneement to the Shemiric and Indo-European races ; 
hit it mu otkerwise m thejlrtt aget. Egypt and Baby- 
lon, Miznam and Nimrod— both descendants of Ham-- 
led the way and acted as pioneers of mankind in the 
Yiriottt untrodden fields of art, literatnre, and science. 
Alphabetic writing, astnmomy, histoiy, chronology, ar^ 
cfaitectttre, plastic art, sculpture, navigation, agricidtuTe, 
textile industry — seem, all of them, to have had their 
origin in one or other of these two coimtries. The be- 
ginnings may often have been humble enough. We 
may laugh at the mde picture-writing, the uncouth 
brick pynmidy the ooatk fabric, the homely and ill- 
ihapen uMraments, as they present themselves to our 
noriee in the remains of these ancient nations, but they 
ate really worthier of our admiration than of our ridi- 
cule. The first inventors of any art are among the 
gmtest benefactors of their race . . . and mankiml at 
tile present day lies under infinite obligations to the ge- 
DUB and indttiiTy of these early ages** (p. 75^ 76).^-Kit- 
to.fi. v.; Smith, &v. 

2. "They op Ham" [or Chain] (fin^jT?; Sept 'Eic 
rwv viwv Xa/i ; Tulg. de $tirpt Cham) are mentioned in 
1 Cbron. iv, 40-— in one of those historical fragments for 
which the early chapters of these Chronicles are so val- 
naUe, as illustrating the private enterprise and valor of 
oenain sectimis of the Hebrew nation. . On the present 
occsson a considerable portion of the tribe of Simeon, 
oonaiiting of thirteen princes and their clansmen, in the 
leign of Hezekiah, sought to extend their territories 
(« hich from the beginning seem to have been too narrow 
fi« their numbers) by migrating '^to the entrance of Ge- 
dor^eren unto the east ade of the valley, to seek pasture 
Ibr their flocks." Finding here a quiet, and, as it would 
aeem, a secure and defenceless population of Hamites 
(the meaning; of 1 Cbron. iv, 40 receives illustration from 
Jtttlg. xviii, 7, 28), the Simeouites attacked them with a 
rigor that reminds us of the times of Joshua, and took 
permanent posaession of the district, which was weU 
adapted for pastoral purposes. The Gedor here meii- 
tiouied cannot be the Gedor (q. v.) of Josh, xv, 58. 
There is strong ground, however, for supposing that it 
Btay oe the Gederah (q. v.) of A'er. 36; or, if we follow 

the Sept. rendering, Tipapa^ and read ^^U for ^^:i, it 
wookl be the well-knAwn Geiar. This last would, of 
coone, if the name could be relied on, fit extremely 
veil; in ita vicinity the patriarchs of old had sojourned 
and fed their flocks and herds (see Gen. xx, 1, 14, 15 ; 
sxri, 1, 6, li, and especially ver. 17~20> Bertheau (die 
B. drr CkramMi on this passage, and Ewald ((7e«cft. ciea 
Kottea Itrmd [ed. 2], i, 322), accept the reading of the 
Sepc and place the Simeonite conquest in the valley of 
Gemr (in WiMiams, Holtg CU^ [2d ed.], i, 463^168, there 
is a Doce, oontribated 1^ the Rev. J. Rowlands, on <^e 
Sevfkeru Border ofPahM^tntj and containing an acoount 
ef his aappoaed disoovesy of the ancient Gerar [called 
A'Atrief d'CtroTf the mins of Gerar] ; see also Tan de 
Tfkle, Mamrir^ p. 814). In the detennination of the 
skimate qoestaon with which thia article is oonoemed, 
it nattoa bot little which of these two localities we ac- 
cept aa tba reasdence of thoae children of Ham whom 



the Simeonites digpo ooca s e d. Both are within the pre* 
ciiicts of the land of the Philistines : the latter, perhaps, 
may be regarded as on the border of the district which 
we assigned in the preceding article to the Cuebihim; 
in either case *^they of Ham," of whom we are writing, 
m 1 Chron. iv, 40, must be regarded as descended from 
Ham through his second son Mizraim. — ^Kitto, s. v. 

3. Ham (Heh. id, DH, with hS, prob. meaning a mul- 
tiiude; FUrst [Lex, s. v.] compares the Lat. Turha and 
Copia as names of places ; the Sept and Vulg. translate 
[a/ia] avToiQy [cvm] eit), in Gen. xiv, 5, if a proper 
name at all, was probably the principal town of a people 
whose name occurs but once in the O. T., " the ZuzinuT 
(as rendered in the A.y.). If these were " the Zamzum- 
mimi* of Deut. ii, 20 (as has been conjectured by Rashi, 
C!almet, Patrick, etc, among the older writers, and Ge- 
senius, RosenmUller, Ewald [ Volke» Israel^ i, 308], De- 
litzsch, Knobel, and Keil among the modems), we have 
some clew to the site; for it appears from the entire 
passage in Deut. that the Zamzuromim were the orig- 
inal occupants of the country of the Ammonites. Tuch 
and others have accordingly supposed that our Ham, 
where the Zuzim were defeated by Chedorlaomer on hia 
second invasion, was the primitive name of Rahbath 
Amsmmi, afterwards Philadelphia (Jerome and Eusebius, 
OnomoMt, 8. V. Amman), the capital of the Ammonitiah 
territory. It is still allied [the ruins of] ^Ammdn, ac- 
cording to Robinson {Reieardu»i iii, 168). There is 
some ^ubt, however, whether the word in Gen. xiv, 5 
be anything more than a pronouiu The Masoretic read- 
ing of the clause, indeed, is DhS D*^T^n*rK% the last 
word of which is pointed, Ona (A. V. " In Ham"), as if 

there were three battles, and one of them had been 
fought at a place so called; and it perhaps makes for 
this reading that, according to Kennicott, seven Samara 

itan MSS. read DHS (with //eM), which can produce no 
other meaning than in Hanif or Cham with the aspirate. 
Yet the other (that is, the pronominal) reading must 
have been recognised in ancient Hebrew MSS. even as 
early as the time of the Sept. translators, who render 
the phrase " together with them ;" as if there were but 
two confiicts, in the former of which the great Eastern 
invader ''smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-Kamaimi 
and the Zuzim [which the Sept. makes an appellative — 
t^vfi itrxppdt ^strong nations^ J along with them,"! as their 
allies. Jerome's Quast. Hebr. Opera (ed. Bcned., Veiu 
17G7, III, ii, 327) proves that the Hebrew MSS. extant 
in his day varied in their readings of this passage. This 
reading he seems to have preferred, Dll^, for in his own 

version [Vulgate] he renders the word like the Sept. 
Onkelos, however, regarded the reading evidently as a 

proper name, for he has translated it by KH^na, ** in 
Hernia,^ and so has the Pseudo-Jonathan's Targum; 
while the Jerusalem has Vina, " tnVA themP Saadias, 
again, has the proper name, ''m Ilamar Hillerus, 
whom RosenmUller quotes, identifies this Ham with the 
famous Amroonitish capital RaJthah (2 Sam. xi, 1 ; 1 
Chron. XX, 1) ; "the two names," he says, "are sjiion- 
ymous — Rabbah meaning populousy as in Lament i, 1, 

where Jerusalem is D5"'^r?-» *'** ^Sf C'^*^ "^**] /"^ 
of people,' while the more ancient name of the same 
city, cn, has the same signification as the collective 
word y\Wy that is, a fiitt2fatocfe."— Kitto, s. v. See Gil- 
bad, 1. 



; Hei:«rich Arens, a Dutch Orientalist, 
was bom at Amsterdam Feb. 25, 1789 ; became profess- 
or of Oriental languages in the Academy of Franeker 
in 1815, assistant professor in 1817, and in 1822 profess- 
or ordinarius of the same in the University of Lcyden, 
where he died Oct. 10, 1835. He was a man of great 
erudition, and was regiyrded as one of the first Oriental 
scholars of Holland. His works are not free from marks 
of n^ligeuoSy due probably to hasty composition and 



HAMAN 



44 



HAMANN 



the great variety of subjects treated. Among them 
may be named OraHo de religione MukammetUeaf magna 
virtutis bellicas apud orientalis incitamento (Leyd. 1817- 
18, 4to):— Specimen CaUdogi Codicum MSS, Orienta- 
Hum Bibliothecte AcademitB Lugduno-Baiavm (Leyden, 
1820, 4to; with valuable notes fVom Oriental MSS.— 4i 
new ed. by Dozy [Leyd. 1848-52, 2 vols. 8vo] contains 
bibliographical notes left in MS. by Hamaker) : — Incerti 
Audoris Liber de Expugnatione Afen^hidia et Aiezan-' 
dricB, etc. (Leyden, 1825, 4to): — MitceUanea Pkoancia 
(Leyden, 1828) : — Commentatio in Hbro de Vita et Morte 
Prophetarum, etc. (Amst 1888, 4to) i—Miecettanea Sa- 
marUana^ a posthumous work edited by Weyers. He 
published also various papers in Armcden of the univer- 
utles of Giittingen (1816-17) and Leyden (1828-24) ; in 
the Bibliotheca Nova of Leyden, Magazin voor Weten^ 
schappen of Van der Kampen, and in the Journal Asia- 
tique of Paris. Others have been posthumously pub- 
lished in the Orienialia (Leyden), vol. i and iL — Pierer, 
s. V. ; Uoefer, Nouv. Biog, Generale, xxiii, 209 ; De Sacy, 
in Jour, des Savants, 1820, 1827, 1829, 1834. (J. W. M.) 



L'man (Heb. Haman', "|^n, perh. from the Pers. 
komam, magfdfaxnt, or the Sanscr. heman^ the planet 
Mercurjf ; Sept 'Afuiv), a favorite and chief minister or 
vizier of the king of Persia, whose history is involved in 
that of Esther and Mordecai (Esther iii, 1 sq.), B.C. 478. 
See Ahasuerus. HeiscalledanAgagite; andasAgag 
was a kind of title of the kings of the Amalekites [see 
Agao], it is supposed that Haman was descended from 
the royal family of that nation (see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. 
p. 20). He or his parents probably found their way to 
Persia as captives or hostages; and that the foreign or- 
igin of Haman was no bar to his advancement at court 
is a circumstance quite in union with the most ancient 
and still subsbting usages of the East Joseph, Daniel, 
and Mordecai affonl other examples of the same kind. 
After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews 
in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows 
which he had erected for MordecaL Most probably he 
is the same Aman who is mentioned as the oppressor of 
Achiachanis (Tobit xiv, 10). The Targum and Jose- 
phus {Ant. xi, 6, 5) interpret the description of him— 
the Agagite — as signifying that he was of Amalekitish 
descent ; but he is called a Macedonian by the Sept in 
Esth. ix, 24 (comp. iii, 1), and a Persian by Sulpicius 
Severus. Pridcaux {Connexwn, anno 458) computes the 
sum which he offered to pay into the royal treasury at 
more than £2,000,000 sterling. Modem Jews are said 
to be in the habit of designating any Christian enemy 
by his name (Eisenmenger, Ent. Jud. i, 721). The cir- 
cumstantial details of the height which he attained, and 
of his sudden downfall, afford, like all the rest of the 
book of Esther, a most fiuthful picture of the customs 
of an Oriental court and government, and furnish invalu- 
able materials for a comparison between the regal usages 
of ancient and modem times. (See Kitto*s Daily Bible 
Ittust. ad loc)— Kitto, s. v. ; Smith, s. v. See Esther, 
Book of. 



I, JoiiANN Georg, an eminent German 
writer and poet, was bom at Kdnigsberg, in Pmssia, on 
the 27th of August, 1730. His early education was mis- 
cellaneous, and to it he attributed the want of taste and 
elegance of hb style. At last, when about sixteen years 
old, his father decided on sending him to the high- 
school. He there acquired a knowledge of Latin and 
of ancient literature. For a while he felt inclined to 
study theology, but an impediment in hb speech, and 
want of memory incident upon a sickness he had while 
at school, made him give it up. Law, for which hb 
parents destined him, was distasteful to him, and he ap- 
plied himself diligently to the study of antiquity, the 
fine arts, and modem literature. In 1751 he clo8e<l his 
course of study at Ktinigsberg with a philosophical dis- 
sertation entitled De sonmo et »ommi$^ and turned his at- 
tention to teaching. After teaching for about eighteen 
months in Courland he returned to Riga, where he be- 



came a friend of John Christopher, son of a rich mer- 
chant named Berens, at whose house he met all the ce- 
lebrities of the day, and for whom, some years after- 
wards, he made a journey through Hamburg, Bremen, 
and .^sterdam, going so far as London to transact busi- 
ness. Before he set out on thb journey, however, he 
lost hb mother, which event deeply aflSacted him. While 
in London he consulted a distinguished physician, hop- 
ing to have the obstmction in hb speedi removed ; dis- 
appointed in that hope, he spent some months in dissi- 
pation; and then, deep in debt, and dbheartened, he 
retired to an obscure part of London, procured a Bible, 
and applied himself diligently to its study. Hb eyes 
were opened, and he beheld hb past life in its trae cd- 
ors, of which he gives .evidence in hb Gedanken Uber 
memen LAendai^f (Thoughts <xi my Life). He then 
returned to Riga, where he resided with hb friend Be- 
rens until family drcumstanoes led to an estrangement 
between them, and in 1759 he returned to his parents* 
house. There he wrote hb Sokraiiacke DenhHirdighei'- 
ten, which were severely criticised at their first appear- 
ance by the majority of the literati of the day, but which 
gained him the esteem and respect of such men as Clau- 
dius, Herder, and Moser, to which we must afterwards 
add Lavater, Jacobi, and Goethe. Hb writings did not 
suffice for his support, and he had to take other employ- 
ment, first as cop3dst, afterwards as clerk in a public oflxce. 
On the slender income derived from these two sources 
Hamann married m 1768 ; but-, unfortunately, thb mar- 
riage cost him many of hb friends, and shortly afterwards 
he lost hb situation. In 1754 he took a journey to Switz- 
erland in the hope of meeting hb friend Moser, who was 
to obtain him emplo>7nent ; but, not meeting writh him, 
we next find him again filling a smail subalccm posi- 
tion. In 1767, hb father having died, he inherited some 
property ; but havuig at the same time to assume the 
charge of an infirm brother, hb woridly position was not 
much Improved thereby. Shortly afterwards, however, 
he obtained another situation, and in 1777 was appoint- 
ed to a good position in the custom-house. From that 
period date hb finest epistolary and miscellaneous writ- 
ings, among which M*e find hb admirable Golgotha cotd 
Scheblimini — " Seat thee at my right" Hb prospects 
now brightened ; one of hb admirers, Francb Buchholz, 
offered him a handsome fortune, with ^1000 towards the 
education of each of hb four children, on the condition 
of hb adopting him. The well-known princess Galit- 
zin having in 1784 become acquainted M-ith his writ- 
ings, was brought over by them to a positive Christian 
belief. In 1787 he came to MUnster with his adopted 
son Buchholz, and became acquainted with the princcn ; 
from thence he went to Pempelfort to the philosopher 
Jacobi, with whom he remained a short time. He in- 
tended to return there once more, but was prevented by 
hb death, which occurred on the 20th of June, 1788. He 
was, by order of the princess (lalitzin, interred ui her 
garden, from whence, in 1851, hb remains wjcre trans- 
ferred to the cathedral at MUnster. 

Among the great men of his country, Hamann b wor- 
thy of a place alongside of Copemicus, Kant, Herder, 
and kindred intellects. Although he cannot be called 
a classical German writer— hb weirtl, irregular style for- 
bids it — yet can he be claimed among the patriarchs of 
the modern school, the uniting link between the old and 
the new (Terman literatures. ** Hamann b one of those 
men of whom it b difficult to give an estimate correct 
and satbfactory in all respects. Our estimation of his 
character cannot be blended with our general opinion 
of the age, as may be done with many other men, be- 
cause he stood rugged and alone, like a rock}' island in 
the midst of the waves of the surrounding ocean. As 
we cannot wholly praise or blame that age, we shall not 
admire, much less censure, all in Hamann*' (Hagenbach, 
German Rationalism^ tr. by Gage, p. •268). Herder aa>*s : 
*' The kemel of Hamann's writings contains many germs 
of great tmths. as well as new observations, and an evi- 
dence of remarkable cmditaon; the shell thereof b a 



^ 



HAMATH 



45 



HAMATH 



kboffioody woven web of pitliy expremons, of hints, 
and dowen of rhetwic"* " His understanding/* says F. 
H. Jaoobi, ^ was penetrating like lightning, and his soul 
was of more than natural greatness." Most of his writ- 
ings are collected in Koth's edition of his works (Berlin, 
1821-43, 8 voh.). See A. W. Mttller's work, entitled 
J. G. Haraann, CkrUtUcke Btkamimate und Ztugniate 
(Mimster, ld2G). — Herzog, Real-EneykhpadUy v, 4^; 
binifntpkie. V, JoL Geo. Hcancmn, by Charles Can-acchi 
(Milnster, 18a5); Hegel, Werkf, xvii, 88; Vilmar, Ge- 
idtickte der daitsckm LUercUur ; Gildemeister, Jlatnatm^s 
Ifbtn wd Sekriften (1864-6, 4 vols.); Saintes, Nutory 
ofMatioMtHtm, ch. viii. 

Ha'math (Heb. Chama1h\ rsW, fnrhreM ; Sept. 
1^'9, kifio^, and 'H/ia3), a large and important city, 
capital of one of the smaller kingdoms of S^nria, of the 
tame name, cm the OronCcs, at the northern boundar}' of 
the Holy Land. Thus it is said (Numix xiii, 21) that the 
fpies " went up and searched the land, from the wilder- 
ness of Zin unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath." Ge- 
ffniitt b probably right in deriWng the word from the 
AnUc root Ckamuy " to defend ;" with this agrees the 
nuMlem name of the city I/amah, The city was at the 
foot of Hermon (Josh, xiii, 5 ; Judg. iii, 8), towards Da- 
nuucus (Zech. ix, 2; Jer. xlix, 20; £zek. xlvii, 16). 
The kingdom of Hamath, or, at least, the southern or 
erntnl parts of it, appear to have nearly corresponded 
with what was afterwanls denominate<l Cale-Syiia (q. 
T.). It is more Adly called Homcufh the Great in Amos 
ri, % or H.vMATii-ZoBAii in 2 Cliron. viii, 3. The coun- 
ht or district around is called " the land of Hamath" (2 
Kings xxiii, 33 ; xxv, 21). 

Hamath is one of the oldest cities in the world. We 
lead in Gen. x, 18 that the youngest or last son of Ca- 
naan was the ^ Hamathite** (q. v.) — apparently so called 
because he and his family founded and colonized Ha- 
math. It was a place of note, and the capital of a prin- 
cipality, when the Israelites conquered Palestine ; and 
iu name is mentioned in almost every passage in which 
the northern bolder of Canaan is deAned (Numb, xiii, 
22; xxxiv, 8; 1 Kings viii, 65; 2 Kings xiv, 25, etc). 
Toi was king of Hamath at the time when David con- 
ctnered the Syrians of Zobah, and it appears that he 
had reason to rejoice in the humiliation of a dangerous 
neighbor, as he sent his own son Joram to congratidate 
the \-ictoT (2 Sam. \'iii, 9, 10), and (api)arently) to put 
Hamath under his protection. Hamath was conquered 
bv Solomon (2 Chron. viii, 8), and its whole territory 
appears to have remained subject to the Israelites dur- 
ing his prosperous reign (ver. 4-6). The ** store-cities" 
which Solomon ** built in Hamath" (2 Chron. viii, 4) 
wen pcrhape for staples of trade, the importance of the 
Orqntes valley as a line of traffic always being great. 
On the death of Stdomon and the separation of the two 
Im^rdumsi, Hamath seems to have regained its indepen- 
deooe. In }be Assyrian inscriptions of the time of Ahab 
(BwC. 900) it appears as a separate power, in alliance 
with the Syrians of Damascus, the Hittites, and the 
PboeniciansL About three quarters of a century later 
Jtfoboam the second ** recovered Hamath" (2 Kings 
xir,2H) ; he seems to have dismantled the place, whence 
(ike propJiet Amoa, who vrrote in his reign (Amos i, 1), 
eeoples ** Hamath the Great" with Gath, as an instance 
of desolation (ib. vi, 2). At this period the kingdom of 
Hamath inchided the valley of the Orontes, from the 
SQuioe of that river to near Antioch (2 Kings xxiii, 33 ; 
XXV, 21). It bordered Damascus on the south, Zobah 
on the east and north, and Phoenicia on the west (1 
Cbxon. xviii, 3; Exek. xlvii, 17 ; xlviii, 1 ; Zech. ix, 2). 
In the time of Uezekiah, the town, along with its terri- 
tffT, was conqnered by the Assyrians (2 Kings xvii, 24 ; 
x^iii, 34 ; xbL, IS ; Isa. x^ 9 ; xi, 11), and afterwards by 
the Chakfaeans (Jer. xxxix, 2, 5). It is mentioned on 
the cuneiliMin inscriptions (q. v.). It must have been 
then a laii^e and influential kingdom, for Amos speaks 
of ** Hamath the Great" (vi, 2) ; and when 



Rabshakeh, the Assyrian general, endeavored to terrify 
king Hezekiah into unconditional surrender, he said, 
" Have the gods of the nations delivered them which 
my- fathers have destroyed, as Gozan, and llaian, and 
Kezeph ? Where is the king of Hamath, and the king 
of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sephan'aim, He- 
na, aiul Ivah?" (Isa. xxx\ni, 12-14; 2 Kings xviii, 84 
sq.). See Ashima. The frequent use of the phrase, 
" the entering in of Hamath," also shows that this king- 
dom was the most important in Northern Syria (Judg. 
iii, 8). Hamath remained under the Assyrian rule till 
the time of Alexander the Great, when it fell into the 
hands of the Greeks. The Greeks introduced their no- 
ble language as well as their government into 8}iia, 
and they even gave Greek luunes to some of the old 
cities ; among these was Hamath, which was called Kpi- 
phcmia (Eifupdvtia)^ in honor of Antiochus Epiphanes 
(Cyril, Commiyvt, ad A mot). 

This change of luune gave rise to considerable doubts 
and difficulties among geographers regarduig the iden- 
tity of Hamath. Jerome affirms that thers were two 
cities of that luime — Great Namathj identical with An- 
tioch, and another Hamath called Epiphania (Comment, 
ad A mot, vi). The Taigiuns in Numb, xiii, 22 render 
Hamath Antukia (ReUnd, PaUest. p. 120). Eusebius 
calls it "a city of Damascus," and affirms that it is not 
the same as Epiphania; but Jerome states, after a care- 
ful investigation, '^reperi iEmath urbem Ccelcs SyrioB 
appellari, qu» nunc GrsBco sermone Epiphania dicitur" 
(Onomiut. 8. V. ^math and Emath). Theodoret says 
that Great Hamath was Emeta, and the other Hamath 
Epiphania {Comment, ad Jerem, iv). Josephus is more 
accurate when he tells us that Hamath " was still called 
in his day by the inhabitants 'Aftd^rj, although the 
Macedonians called it Epiphania" (^4 nt. i, 6, 2). lliere 
is reason to believe that the ancient name Haraath was 
always retained and used by the Aramaio^peaking pop- 
ulation ; and, therefore, when (xreek power declined, and 
the Greek language was forgotten, the ancient name in 

its Arabic form HamdJi became universal (so iVZ'n in 
Ezek. xlvii, 16, first occurrence). There is no ground 
whatever for Reland's theory (Palaat, p. 121) that the 
Hamath spoken of in connection with the northern bor- 
der of Palestine was not Epiphania, but some other city 
much further south. The identification of Kiblah and 
Zedad places the true site of Hamath beyond the possi- 
bility of doubt (Porter, Damcucut, ii, 855, 854). 

Epiphania remaine<l a flourishing city during the 
Roman rule in Syria (Ptolemy, v, 15; Pliny, Hitf. Xaf. 
V, 19). It early became, and still continues, the seat of 
a bishop of the Eastern Church (CaroU a tan. Paulo, 
Geogr. Sac. p. 288). It was taken by the Mohamme- 
dans soon after Damascus. On the death of the great 
Saladin, Hamath was ruled for a long period by his de- 
scendants, the Eiyubites. Abulfe<ta, the celebrated Arab 
historian and geographer of the 14th centurt^was a mem- 
ber of this family and ruler of Hamah (Bohadin, Vita 
Saladim; Schulten's Index Geographicus, s. v. Hamata). 
He correctly states {Tab. Syrice, p. 108) that this city is 
mentioned in the books of the Israelites. He adds : " It 
is reckoned one of the most pleasant towns of S^Tia. 
The Orontes flows round the greater part of the city on 
the east and north. It boasts a lofty and well-built cit- 
adeL Within the town are many dams and water-ma- 
chines, by means of which the water is led off by canals 
to irrigate the gardens and supply private houses. It 
is remarked of this city and of Schiazar that they 
abound more in water-machines than any other cities 
in Syria." 

This description still, in a great degree, applies. Har- 
math is a picturesque town, of considerable circumfer- 
ence, and with wide and convenient streets. In Burck- 
hardt*s time the attached district contained 120 inhab- 
ited villages, and 70 or 80 that lay waste. It is now a 
town of 80,000 inhabitants, of whom about 2500 are 
Greek Christians, a few Syrians, some Jewsy and the 



HAMATH 



46 



HAMATH 



V.o\ Ws\.\\Xi 




J«belHaiiriii 




Hap of the Vicinity of Hamath. 

rest Moslems. It is beautifully situated in the narrow 
and rich valley of the Orontes, thirty-two miles north 
of Emesa, and thirty-six south of the ruins of Assamea 
(Atitottini liinerarium, edit. Wesseling, p. 188). Four 
bridges span the rapid river, and a number of huge 
wheels turned by the current, like those at Verona, raise 
the water into rude aqueducts, which convey it to the 
houses and mosques. There are no remains of antiquity 
now visible. The mound on which the castle stood is 
in the centre of the city, but every trace of the castle 
itself has disappeared. The houses are built of sun-dried 
bricks and timber. Though plain and poor extsnudly, 
some of them have splendid Interiors. They are built 
on the rising banks of the Orontes, and on both sides of 
it, the bottom level being phmted with fruit-trees, which 
flourish in the utmost luxuriance. The western part of 
the district forms the granary of Northern Syria, though 
the han^est never pelds more than a tenfold retuni, 
chiefly on account of the immense numbers of mice, 
which sometimes completely destroy the crops. The 
inhabitants carry on a considerable trade in silks and 
woollen and cotton studs with the Bedawin. A num- 
ber of noble but decayed Moslem families reside in Ha- 
mah, attracted thither by its beauty, salubrity, and 



cheapness (Pooocke, Tropelt, ii, pL i, pi. 148 sq.; BurIe* 
hardt. Travels w Sifria, p. 146 sq. ; Handbook for Syria 
and PaUstuie,UfG20] Richter, WaUfahrttnjp,2Sl; compL 
RosenmUller's Bib. Geogr. ii, 248-246; BihUoth, Sacra, 
1848, p. 680 sq. ; Robinson's Res, new ed. Ui, 551, btSS), 

** The E!rrRANCB of Hamatm," or ^eMttring into Zfo- 
math** (n^n Mia ; Sept. tioiroptvofuvtav dc Ai/iad, 
Vulg. tntroitutn Ematk), is a phrase often used in the 
O. T. as a geographical name. It is of considerable im- 
portance to identify it, as it is one of the chief land- 
marks on the northern border of the land of IsneL 
There can be no doubt that the sacred writers apply the 
phrase to some well-known ^pass" or '^ opening** into 
the kingdom of Hamath (Numb, xxxiv, 8 ; Josh, xtii, 
5). The kingdom of Hamath embraced the g^reat plain 
lying along both banks of the Orontes, from the foun- 
tain near Kiblah on the south to Apamea on the north, 
and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. 
To this plain there are two remarkable "entrances'* — 
one from the south, through the valley of Coele-^yria, 
between the paralld ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Leba- 
non ; the other from the west, between the northern end 
of Lebanon and the Nusaitlyeh Mountains. The former 
is the natural "entrance" from Central Palestine, the 
latter from the sea-coast. The former is on the extreme 
south of the kingdom of Hamath, the latter on its west^ 
eni border. 

Until within the last few yean sacred geogiapherB 
have almost universally maintained that the southern 
opening is the " entrance of Hamath." Reland supposed 
that the entrance described in Numb, xxxiv, 8, 10, did 
not extend further north than the parallel of Sidoib 
Consequently, he holds that the southern extremity of 
the valley of Coele-Syria, at the base of Hermon, is the 
"entrance" of Hamath {Palasfinaj p. 118 sq.). Kitto 
set forth this >*iew in greater detail {Pictorial Bible) ; 
and he would identify the "entrance of Hamath" with 
the expression used in Numb, xiii, 21, " as men come to 
Hamath." Of late, however, some writers regard the 
latter as only intended to define the position of Beth-re- 
hob, which WIS situated on the road leading from Cen- 
tral Palestine to Hamath — " as men come to Hamath ;" 
that u, in the great vaUey of Coele-Syria. Van de Yelde 
appears to locate the "entrance of Hamath" at the north- 
cm end of the vaUey of Coele-Syria {TrareUy ii,470); 
and Stanley adopts the same view {Sinai and Palett. p. 
899). Dr. Keith would place the " entrance of Hamath" 
at that sublime gorge through which the Orontes flows 
from Antioch to the sea {Ixmd q/*/rrac/, p. 112 sq.). A 
careful survey of the whole region, and a study of the 
passages of Scripture on the spot, however, leads Porter 
to conclude that the " entrance of Hamath" must be the 
opening towards the west, between Lebanon and the 
Nusairlyeh Mountains. The reasons are as follow: 1. 
That opening forms a distinct and natural northern 
boundary for the land of Israel, such as is evidently re- 
quired by the following passages : 1 Kings viii, 66 ; 2 
Kings xiv, 25; 1 Chron. xiii, 5; Amos vi, 14. 2. The 
"entrance of Hamath" is spoken of as being from the 
western border or sea-board ; for Moses says, after de- 
scribing the western border, " This shall be your north 
border, /rom the great sea ye shall point out for you 
Mount Hor; from Mount Hor ye shall point out unto 
the entrance of Hamath" (Numb, xxxiv, 7, 8). Com- 
pare this with Ezek. xlvii, 20, " the west side shaU be 
the great sea from the (southern) border, till a man come 
over agavnU Hamath ;" and ver, 16, where the "way <rf 
Hethlon as men go to Zedad" is mentioned, and is man- 
ifestly identical with the "entrance of Hamath," and 
can be none other than the opening here alluded to. 8. 
The "entrance of Hamath" must have been to the north 
of the entire ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon (Joeh. 
xiii, 5; Judg. iii, 3); but the opening from Coele-Syria 
into the plain of Hamath is not so. 4. The territory 
of Hamath was included in the "Ptromised Land," as 
described both by Moses and Exekiel (Nnrob. xxxiv, 8- 
11; Ezek. xlvii, 15-20; xlviii. 1). The "entrance of 



HAMATHTTE 



47 



HAMILTON 



Bamath** is one of the marls of its northern border; but 
the openinf^ from Gcele-Syria is on the extreme wuth 
of the territory of Hamath, and could not, therefore, be 
identical with the ^ entrance of Hamath." ^ The ** en- 
trance to Hamath** was on the eastern border of Pales- 
tine, hot north qflNblah (Numb, xxxiv, 10, 11), which 
is still extant between Hums and the northern point of 
Anti-Lebanon. See Kiblak. 6. This position agrees 
with those of the other names associated on the north- 
erly and easterly boundaries, e. g. Momit Hor, Hazai^ 
Enan, etc (see Porter's Danuueus, fi, 864 sq. ; also I^ob- 
iiBon, BibHcal Res, iii, 568).— Kitto, & v. These argu- 
ments, however, will be found, on a closer inspection, to 
be incorrect (see Keil and Delitzsch, Comment, on Pen- 
tat. iii, 255 sq.). The only real force in any of them 
is that derived from the supposed identity of Zedad (q. 
V.) and Sphron (q. v.); and this is counterbalanced by 
the facts (1) that this district never was actually occu- 
pied by the Israelites, and (2) that the more definite 
description of the boundary of Asher and Naphtali in 
Josh, xix, 24-39 does not extend so far to the north. 
Hence we indine to the older views on this question. 
See Tribe. 

Ha^mathite (Hebrew Chamathi% with th^ article 
^^nn ; Sept. o 'A/io^Oi ^ dengnation ((^n. x, 18 ; 1 
Chion. i, 16) of the last named of the families descended 
from Canaan (q. v.) ; doubtless as having settled (found- 
ed) the city Hamath (q. v.). The Uamathites were 
thus a Hamitic race, but there is no reason to suppose 
with Keiirick (PAosntao, p. 60) that they were ever in 
any sense Phcenicians. We must regard them as close- 
ly akin to the Hittites (q. v.), on whom they bordered, 
and with whom they were generally in alliance. See 
Caicaahit£. 

Ha'math-Zo'bah (Heb. Chamaih' Tsobah', tn^n 
ranx, i. e. Jfamaih ofZdbah ; Sept. Aifid& ILafid v. r. 
B<u9w/3a , Vulg. Emath Subd), a place on the borders of 
Palestine, said to have been attacked and conquered by 
Sokmon (2 Chron. viii, 3). It has been conjectured to 
be the same as Hamath (q. v.), here regarded as in- 
duded in Aram-Zobah — a geographical expression which 
hat usually a narrower meaning. The conjunction of 
the two names here probably indicates nothing more 
than that the whole country round Hamath was brought 
by Solomon under the power of Judah. The poasesaons 
of David extended to Hamath, and included Zobah (1 
Chron. xviii, 8), and Solomon probably added Hamath 
also to his empire ; certain it is that he had possessions 
in that district, and that part of it, at least, was included 
in his dominion (1 Kings ix, 19). See Zobah. 

Haxnbroeck, AirroN, a Protestant missionar}", snr- 
named the *^ Dutch Regulus," was bom in the early part 
of the 17th century. He went as missionary to the 
East Indies, and settled in the island of Formosa, then 
the moat important establishment of the Dutch in the 
China Sea. He converted a large number of natives, 
and the mission was prospering, when the celebrated 
Chineee pirate Coxinga, (hiren away by the Tartars, 
landed in Formosa, and set siege to Tal-Ouan with an 
army of 25,000 men, April 80, 1661. Hambroeck, his 
wife, and two of hb children, were made prisoners, and 
the ibrmer was sent by Coxinga as envoy to the com- 
mander of the town, Frederick Coyet, to adAnse him to 
surrender. Instead of this, he advised him to defend 
the city to the last, and then returned to the camp of 
Coxinga, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Coyet, 
and the prayers of his two daughters, still in Tal-Ouan, 
saying that he ** would not ])ermit heathen to say that 
the fear of death had induced a Christian to violate his 
oath.** Coxinga, enraged at his courage, caused him to 
be beheaded on his return (in 1661), together with the 
other Dutch prisoners, some 500 in number. Coyet was 
nevertheless obliged to capitidate in Jan. 1662. See Du 
Bois, Vie* de$ Gouvemeurs HoUandais (La Haye, 1768, 
4to), p. 210 ; Recueil cfe» Voyaffea gut ont aervi a VMa- 
et auxproffrez de la Compagme de$ Indes ori- 



entaks (Rouen, 1725, 10 vols. 8vo), vol. x ; Kaynal, ITisU 
philotophique des deux fndea (Lond. 1792, 17 vols. 8vo)| 
ii, 26, 27 ; Hoefer, Now. Biog, GerUralej xxiii, 217. 

Hamelmaxm, Hermann, a German Protestant the- 
ologian and historian, was bom at Osnabrtk:k in 1525^ 
He was brought up in the Roman Catholic Church, and 
became curate of Camcm. Having subsequently em- 
braced the doctrines of the Reformation, he lost his posi- 
tion, and went to Wittemberg, where he lived some time 
in intimacy with Melancthon. He afterwards preached 
the Protestant doctrines at Bielefeld and Lemgo, and in 
the counties of Waldeck, Lippe, Spiegelberg, and Pyr- 
mont, and in Holland. He acquired great renown as a 
preacher, and prince William of Orange called him to 
Antwerp, to participate in the preparation of a new ec- 
clesiastical discipline. In 1569 duke Julius of Bruns- 
wick appointed him first superintendent of Gandereheim, 
and his aid was requested by the counts John and Otho 
of Oldenburg, to introduce the Reformation in their 
states. He spent the last years of his life in this occu- 
pation, acting as general superintendent of the Protes- 
tant churches of Oldenburg, Elmenhorst, and Jever. He 
died at Oldenburg June 26, 1595. His theological and 
historical works are valuable for the history of the Refor- 
mation. Among them are De Traditiofi^s verts faU 
sisgue (Frankfort, 1556) : — J>e Eucharistia et controvert 
sits inter Pontificos et Lulheranos hoc de articulo agHatis 
(Frankf. 1656) : — De conjugio sacerdot, brevis interlocuto- 
rius a suffraganeo et diacono (Dortmund, 2d ed. 1582) ' — 
Historia ecciesiastica retiati Evangel (Altenburg, 1686). 
See Hisforische Nachricht Hber d, f^ben, Bedienungen u, 
Schrifien Ham, (Quedlinburg, 1720) ; Burmaiin, SyUog, 
Epist, i, 480; Rotermund, Gelehrtes Hannover^ voL ii, p. 
xliv ; J6cher, A Ug, Gelehrien Lexikotij ii, 1340. 

HamltaL See Hamihtau 

Hamilton, James, D.D., an eminent Presb3rterian 
minuter, wds bora in Strathblane, Scotland, in 1814. 
He commenced his ministry at Abemyte, Scotland, and 
aft«r a short time was called to Edinburgh. In 1841 he 
was called to be pastor of the National Kootch Church, 
Regent's Square, London, and was soon known as one 
of the most eloquent and powerful ministers of the me- 
tropolis. He died in London November 24, 1867. Dr. 
Hamilton's labors as a minister were very successful, and 
he was equally eminent in the field of authorship, espe- 
cially in the field of experimental and practical religion. 
Of his Life in Earnest, scores of editions ha^^e appeared 
in England (sixty-fifth thousand, Lond. 1852) and Amer- 
ica; and his Mount of Olives (sixty-fifth thousand, Lon- 
don, 1858) has been almost as widely circulated. *'He 
was not only one of the most popular religious writers 
of the day, and master of one of the most fascinating 
styles in which Christian truth and feeling were ever 
clothed, but he was also no ordinar}' theologian in the 
proper scientific sense of that term," though he never 
wrote any theological work in scientific form. A com- 
plete edition of his works in six volumes is now (1869) 
publishing in London, as follows : voL i, L\fe in Ear- 
nest; Mount of Olives; A Morning beside the Lake of 
Galilee; Happy Home: — vol. ii, Light for (he Path; 
Emblems from Eden; The Parable of the Prodigal Son; 
The Church in the House; Dew of Hermon; Thankful- 
ness:— voLvA, The Royal Preacher; lessons front (he 
Great Biography : — vol. iv. Notes on Job and Proverbs ; 
Reviews, Essays, and Fugitive Pieces : — vols, v and vi, 
Selections from unqmUished Sermons and MSS, See 
Brit, and For. Evang, Review, Jan. 18C9, art. v. 

Hamilton, Patrick, the first Scotch reformer, 
nephew to James, earl of Arran, was bom in 1503, and 
was educated at St. Andrew's, after which he went to 
Germany, where he imbibed the opinions of Luther, and 
became professor at Marburg. On his return home he vraa 
made abbot of Feme, in the shire of Ross, where he pro- 
mulgated the doctrines of the Ketbrroation with so much 
zeal as to excite the wrath of the clerg}% who caused 
him to be apprehended and sent to Beaton, archbishop 



HAMILTON 



48 



HAMILTON 



of St Andrew's. After a long examination he was burnt 
at the stake, opposite St Salvador's College, Mar. 1, 1527, 
in his 24th year. At the place of execution he gave 
his servant his garments, saying, *^ These arc the last 
things yoa can receive of me, nor have I anything now 
to leave you but the example of my death, which I pray 
you to bear in mind ; for though it be bitter to the flesh, 
and fearful before men, yet it is the entrance into eter- 
nal life, which none shall inherit who deny Jesus Christ 
before this wicked generation." The fire burning slow- 
ly, his sufferings were long and dreadful, but his patience 
and piety were only more fully displayed thereby, in- 
somuch that many were led to inquire into his princi- 
ples, and to abjure the errors of popery. "The smoke 
of Mr. Patrick Hamilton," said a papist, " infected as 
many as it blew upon." His writings called Patrick's 
Places may be found in Richmond's Fathers of the Eng- 
liah Church, i, 475. See Robertson, History of Scotlanclj 
bk. ii ; Fox, Book of Martyrs, bk. viii ; Burnet, History 
of the Reformation, i, 490 sq. ; Hetherington, History of 
the Church of Scotland, i, 36 sq. 

Hamilton, Richard Winter, D.D., an English 
Indq>endent minister, was bom in London July G, 1794, 
and died in 1848. His mother had been a member of 
one of John Wesley's societies, and is mentioned (as 
Miss Ilesketh) in Wesley's Journal, At sixteen he cn- 
tereil the theological college at Hoxton, and even while 
he was a student his talent for preaching and the re- 
markable exuberance of his style attracted great atten- 
tion. Soon after leaving the college (1812 or 1813) he 
was called to the charge of an Independent congrega- 
tion at Leeds, and he held this position during the re- 
mainder of his life. He attained great eminence as a 
preacher, and still greater as a platform speaker. With 
great excellences he combined grave defects: he was 
deficient in taste, and his style was often extravagant 
and pompous ; but there was a wide sweep in his 
thoughts, and he was sometimes eloquent even to sub- 
limity. During his life he was a diligent student. He 
was president' of the Literarj' and Philosophical Society 
of Leeds, and contributed for it many valuable papers, 
some of which were published in his Nugee LUerarics 
(1841, sm. 8vo). His other writings are, The little Sanc- 
tuary (domestic prayers and offices; Lond. 1838, 8vo) : 
Sermons, first series (1837, 8vo; republished by Carlton 
and Lanahan, N. York, 1869) ; second series, 1846, 8vo: 
— The Institutions of popular Education (2d ed- 1846, 
post 8vo) : — The revealed Doctrine of Rewards and Pun- 
ishments (Lond. 1847, 8vo ; N. Y., Carlton and Lanahan, 
1869, 12mo) -.—Hora et Vindicias SabbaJticm (1848, 12mo) : 
MiisUms, their A uthority. Scope, and Encouragement, a 
prize essay, second after Harris's Mammon (2d ed. 1846, 
post 8vo) : — Pastoral Appeals on Personal, Domestic, 
and Social Derotion (2d ed. 1848 ; also Carlton and Lan- 
ahan, N. York, 1869, 12mo) ; besides occasional sermons, 
etc. There is a poor biography of him by Stowcll 
(1850, 8vo). (J.B.L.) 

Hamilton, Samuel, a Methodist Episcopal min- 
ister, was bom in Mouongahela Co., Va^ Dec. 17, 1791, 
and removed to Oliio in 1806; was converted in 1812; 
entered the Ohio Conference in 1815; and died May 4, 
1853. He was a pioneer of Western Methodism, and a 
widely known and excellent minister. As a preacher, 
presiding elder, and delegate to General Conference, he 
was in all respects " a workman that needed not to be 
ashamed." He was *' shrewd, sarcastic, and eloquent," 
and his labors were abundantly successful among all 
classes of society.— 3f in. of Conferences, v, 268; Wake- 
ley, Heroes of Methodism, p. 837. (G. L. T.) 

Hamilton, Sir William, a recent Scotch philos- 
opher, who will probably be regarded as the most subtle 
logician and the most acute metaph^'sician produced in 
Britain suicc Duns Scotus and William of Ockham. (He 
must not be confounded with his scarcely less distin- 
guished contemporarj", Sir William Rowan Hamilton, 
the Irish mathematician.) He is included, and included 



himself, among the adherents of the Scotch whool of 
psychology, but he is not of them, having remodelled. 
Interpreted, expanded, and transmuted their doctrines 
in such a manner as to elevate their character and en- 
tirely change their nature. His potent influence ia man- 
ifested in nearly all the current speculation of the Brit- 
ish Isles. Aft«r having created by the labors of his life 
and by the fascination of his example a new class of in- 
quirers, hb mind still dominates over those who reject 
as well as over those who accept his principles. 

lAfe, — Sir Willidm Hamilton was bom at Glasgow 
March 8, 1780, eight years before the decease of Reid ; 
he died at Edinburgh on May 6, 1856. He thus lived 
through the whole of the re\iolution which convulsed 
the governments, societies, industries, and opinions of 
modem Europe, and prepared the new earth which is 
yet to be revealed. He was the son of Dr. W^iUiam 
Hamilton, professor of aniU»my at Glasgow; but he came 
of a long-descended line. He claimed a hereditary bar- 
onetcy, and deduced his lineage from the ducal and al- 
most royal house of Hamilton and Chastelherault. The 
illustration of his birth was obscured by the splendor of 
his intellectual career. He received his early education 
in his native city. From the University of Glasgow 
he passed to Baliol College, Oxford, and distinguished 
himself by his attainments in both classics and mathe- 
matics. Here he gained his acquaintance with the 
writings of Aristotle, wliich have never been disregard- 
ed in this ancient seat of learning. In the competition 
for graduating honors, he professed his readiness to be 
examined on most of the recognised Greek and Latin 
classics, including many of the works of Plato and Aris- 
totle, and of the writings of the Neo-PIatonists and the 
peripatetic scholiasts. He had, moreover, already ob- 
tained some knowledge of Averroes and Avicenna; of 
the Latin fathers and the great schoolmen ; of Cardan, 
Agricola, Laurentius Valla, and the Sealigers; and had 
formed a less questionable intimacy with Des Cartes, 
Leibnitz, and other luminaries of the Cartesian schooL 

The emditlon of Hamilton commenced early, and was 
extended throughout his life. It was vai^ curious, and 
recondite. It produces amazement by the continual ar- 
ray of forgotten names and miexplored authors— omns 
ignotitm pi'o mirabUi, BiU; it ia needleasl}' ostentatious 
and fiaequently deceptive. It is received yrithout chal- 
lenge, fh>m the inacoesnbility of the authorities alleged, 
and the disinclination to verify citations from unfamiliar 
works. Hare has shown that the imputations against 
Luther rest on Invalid quotations taken at second-hand. 
It is alleged that, in his attack on mathematical studies, 
he has empbyed mangled extracts vrithout r^^arding 
the oontexL His references to Aristotle, and his repre- 
sentations of the doctrines of the Stagyrite, are unrelia- 
ble, being fragmentary, distorted, or misapprehended, 
from ignorance of the tenor of his writings. There is 
too much reason for believing that Hamilton's familial^ 
ity with " many a quaint and curious volume of forgot- 
ten lore" was derived from the diligent consultation of 
indexes, and the hast^' appreciation of passages thus in- 
dicated. 

The young philosopher had been designed for the legal 
profession. He removed to Edinburgh in 1812 to pros- 
ecute his juridical studies, and was called to the Scotch 
bar in 1813. In 1820, on the death of Dr. Thomas 
Brown, he was a candidate for the chair of moral phi- 
losophy in the University of Edinburgh. John Wilson, 
the poet, and editor of Blackwood^s Magazine, was a 
Tory, and, as such, was preferred by the Tory town 
council, which constituted the electoral body. In the 
ootuse of the ensuing year, the defeated candidate, rich 
in brains and various accomplishments, but poor in purse, 
was appointed by the Faculty of Advocates to the chair 
of history. His lectures on this great branch of knowl- 
edge, which is philosophy in its concrete and dynamical 
aspects, are reported to have been vigorous, original, 
leamed, and acute. This period of Sir William's life 
exemplified his indefatigable industry, patient reseaxcb, 



HAMILTON 



49 



HAMILTON 



renatiBty of taknty and sealooB solicitiide for tnith. 
Geoige Combe had attracted much attention in Edin- 
boigh to Phrenology — a nii^icioiia iirovince of specula- 
tion lying along the indistinct boundaiy between intel- 
lectual and physical science. The profession of Hamil- 
ton's father, aiid his own youthful associations, may have 
cherished in him some aptitudes for anatomical and 
physiokiigical inquiries. He now engaged in such pur- 
suits with the earnest pertinacity that had been display- 
ed by Des Cartes when tracing the mechanism of vision 
and endeavoring to discover in the pineal gland the 
domicile of the mind. With saw and scalpel, and tape 
and balance, he divided skulls, dissected, measured, and 
weighed their contents. The conclusions thus reached 
were comnnmicated to the Koyal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1826 and 1827, and dissipated the pretensions of 
Phrenology by demonstrating the falsity of the facts 
alleged aa its foundation. These researches also recti- 
fied some physiological misapprehensions, and enabled 
Sir William to make those delicate observations on the 
ODooposicion and action of the nerves which are intro' 
dnoed into his notes on Beid. 

In 1829, his friend, professor Napier, requested from 
him a philosophical article to inaugurate hb literary 
icign as editor of the Hdaliurgk Review, The paper 
furnished in oomplianee with hte request was the fiist, 
and still remains the most satisfactory expontion of 
Hamilton's roetaphjrsical views. It purported to be a 
notice of Victor Coudn's eclecticism, but it presented 
in broken outlines " the Philosophy of the Conditioned." 
No such tractate had appeared in Britain for centuries. 
It Rcalled the andent glories of the 18th and 14th oen- 
tnriesi It united the speculative subtiety of Bericeley 
with the dialectical skill of the schoohnen. It attract^ 
ed univeiaal admiration at home and abroad, and was 
pnxnpciy translated into foreign languages. It placed 
its author at once among the sovereigns of thought, and 
restored the British Ides to their place among the com- 
batants in the shadowy arena of abstract disputation. 
This remaricaUe production was followed by others 
scsrcely leas remarkable, and similarly distinguished by 
eomprehensive erudition, logical perspicacity, analytic- 
al prectsioD, breadth of reasoning, and profundity of 
thought. Thus his dsims were immeasurably superior 
to those of any other aspirant when the professorship 
of logic and metaphysics in the university became va- 
cant in 1836. He was not elected, however, to this po- 
sition without hesitancy, and the hesitancy was removed 
ddeAy by the earnest testimonials of Victor Cousin, and 
professor firandis, of Bonn. 

In his new domain Sir William commenced the re- 
habilitadon of logical studies, and the restoration of the 
prince of philosophers to the throne from which he had 
been removed by more than two centuries of ignorant 
and miinqniring damor. So far, indeed, as originality 
appertains to his own logical and metaphysical specula^ 
tMOB, it is obtained by recuiience to the instructions or 
to the hints of ''the master of the wise." He held his 
chahr lor twenty years, till his death. To the discharge 
of his academical duties are due the lectures on logic and 
on metaphysics. They afford a very imperfect exhibition 
of either his abilities or his philosophy. They were the 
ftnt-fhrits of his service, hurriedly prepared to satisfy 
immediafe requirements, and precariously modified at 
inegnlar timesu They never received final elaboration 
or systematic revisioo, and were published posthumous- 
ly from such dsetches and loose notes as had been pre- 
served. Throughout the period of their recurrent de- 
liveiy, their development was restrained and distorted 
fay the tiaditions, assodataons^ and expectations of the 
schooL He could not renounce allegiance to Beid, or 
prodaim an independent authority, or render liege-hom- 
age to AristoUe. Hence there is throughout his cszeer 
a oontinual effort to reconcile by ingenious lottr*-die- 
f»rce his own more profound snd oompcehensive views 
with the narrow, shallow, and timid utterances of the 
farotherhood. There is nothing in the j 
IV.-D 



history of philosophy more grotesque, more incondu- 
sive, and better calculated to mislead, than the array of 
the hundred and six witnesses to the universality of 
the philosophy of common sense. What these depo- 
nents unanimously attest is not the truth of Rdd*B char- 
acteristic dogmas, but the necessity of admitting inde- 
monstrable prindples — a thesis which may be, and lias 
been assodated with many dissimilar systems. Sir Wil* 
lism would have been swift to expose this fallacy had . 
such an ignoratio efandkt been detected in any victim of « 
his critical lash. 

Though the lectures of Sir William Hamilton gi^ 
an imperfect idea of his services and teaching, he effi- 
dentiy promoted the cause of genuine philosophy by 
the spirit and breadth of his instructions, by his wonder^ » 
ful display of learning, by the penetration and precision 
of his distinctions, by attracting earnest attention to 
the highest walks of speculation, and by training up a 
generation of enthusisstic inquirers in a branch of knowl- 
edge which had been misconcdved and degraded by 
disregard of its loftiest devdopments. He was untiring 
in encouraging and guiding the studies of his pupils; 
he was exacting in his demands upon their powers; but 
he was remarkably successful in securing their confi- 
dence snd their affection ; and he deepened his influ- 
ence by the affability of his demeanor and by his im- 
pressive bearing. " Sir William," says one of his re- 
viewers, ''enjoyed physicsl advantages almost as un- 
common as his inteUectual attainments. . . . His frame 
was laige and commanding; his head was cast in a 
clasnc mould; his face was handsome and expresdve; 
his voice possessed great compass and mellifluous sweet- 
ness." With such a fortunate combination of natural 
endowments and cultivated acquirements, he was well 
adapted to become the "tnoj^nut Apollo^ of a new sect 
of adorers. System, however, was foreign to his nature : 
the pursuit of truth was more than truth. He never 
evinced any desire to be the founder of a school : he 
may have been consdous that such a desire would have 
been futile, dnce he built on the substructions of Aris- 
toUe, or repainted with his own colors and devices the 
ruinous walls of the peripatetic temple. 

The years of Sir William's scholastic duty were illus- 
trated by other and more important productions than his 
lectures — ^productions which reveal more decisively the 
depth of his genius, and supply the best means for ascei^ 
taining the complexion and constitution of his philoso- 
phy. It seems to be expected of a Scotch professor that 
he should produce a book dther as a titie to office or in 
vindication of his appointment. In accordance with this 
custom, if not in compliance with it, Sir WUliam signal- 
ized his induction into his chair by an edition of Reid's 
works, accompanied with observations and illustrative 
discussions. The manner in which this task was ex- 
ecuted is characteristic of his habits. The notes were 
written as the text passed through the press ; the supple- 
mentary disputations were added some years afterwards: 
they were never completed ; the last that he published 
"breaks off in the middle," like the celebrated canto of 
Hudibrss; and the "copious indices subjoined," which 
had been announced in the title-page, remains an an- 
nouncement—to eternity. Sir William has nowhere 
given any systematic view of his doctrine, either in de- 
tail <» in summary. He has left behind him elaborate 
essays on a few cardinal topics; many fragmentaiy no- 
tices of others; and numerous suggestive, but undevel- 
oped hints. His relics are like the fossil remains of the 
mighty monsters of remote geological periods : here a 
tibia, there a maxilla ; here a huge vertebra, there a 
ponderous scapula; here a tusk, there a claw; but no- 
where is found the complete form, or even the entire 
skeleton. Still, fVom the fragments preserved, the phi- 
losophy of Hamilton may be reconstructed. The in- 
completeness of his labors may be ascribed in part to 
the polemical character of his procedure ; in psrt to the 
absence of distinct originality ; in part to the vast and 
unmanageable extent of his information, to the variety 



HAMILTON 



60 



HAMILTON 



of his meditatioDB, and to the faatidioumess of hiB Judg- 
ment, which sought unattainable fulness and perfection 
In all the details; but much must be attributed to a 
more mournful cause — to the paralysis which crushed 
his strength and deprived him of the use of his right 
hand for the last ten years of his life, compelling him 
to avail himself of the assistance of his wife and fkmily 
for his correspondence and litenry labors. 

During his later years Sir William was chiefly occu- 
pied with the extension and application of his logical in- 
novations. These were expounded to his class as early 
as 1840, and announced to the worid in 1846. They 
provoked a bitter controversy with professor De Mor- 
gan. It is unnecessaiy to enter into the examination 
of a dispute in which the parties are satisfied neither 
with themselves nor with each other, and in which the 
language is so tortuous, rugged, and peculiar as to be al- 
most equally unintelligible in both. 

Some critics have commended the stvle of Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton as ** unequalled for conciseness, precision, 
and force" — as *' a model of philosophical deamess, oon- 
daeness, and energy" (non cuicumque datum est habert 
uasum). Mr. De Morgan characterized the Hamiltonian 
style as ftoia^moiu, whatever that may mean ; and pf 
one expression he says that it is '* hard to make sense or 
English of it'* The censure may be applied to both the 
combatants in this unseemly controversy. Sir William's 
diidoct may be clear, precise, significant, when it has been 
mastered ; but it ia not English. It is a concreto of his 
own compounding, requiring special study just as much 
as any archaic patois. Berkeley and Hume, Stewart 
and Spencer, have shown that it is possible to write 
philosophically, and yet maintain a pure, transparent, 
natural English idiom. This Sir William rarely does. 

Writii^. — ^The published worics of Hamilton embrace 
the lectures on logic and on metaphysics ; an edition of 
Reid, never completed; an edition of the works of Du- 
gald Stewart ; and a volume of Discussions on Philosopky 
and IMerature, Education and University Rsfortn (1852 ; 
2d edit, enlaxged, 1858 ; reprinted by Harper and Broth- 
ers, X. York). There is little evidence of any taste for 
literature, properly so called, in the volume. The only 
essay connected even remotely with polite letters is that 
on the authorship of the Epiriola Obscurorum Virorunif 
which is, in some respects, his most curious contribu- 
tion to periodical literature. A wide chasm separates 
this from the instructive and entertaining papers On the 
Revolutions of Medicine^ and on AfatAematics not PhUoS" 
ophy. Both of these readily consort with the laborious 
aiid learned investigation of the history, condition, ob- 
jects, and possible ameliorations of university educa- 
tion. The remainder of the " Discusaons'* is devoted 
to logic and metaphysics. The former science is illus- 
trated by the essay on Logic contributed to the Edith- 
hmrgk Review in April, 1833 ; and that on Syllogism, its 
Atadt, canons, notations, etc, contained in the appendix. 
The peculiar views of the author are further expounded 
in the Prospectus qfan Essay on the New Analytic of 
Logical Forms, and in the Prise Essay of Thomas Spen- 
eer Baynes on the same subject, to which should be add- 
ed the appendix to the lectures on logic. 

The principal metaphysical papers in the Discussions 
are those on The Philosophy of the Conditioned; on The 
Philosophy of Perception, and On Idealism, with the ap- 
pendix On the Conditions of the Thinkable, In the edi- 
torial labors on Reid, besides many important notes elu- 
cidating, rectifying, developing, or altering the state- 
ments in the text, which merit careful consideration, 
should be specially studied Note A, On the Philosophy 
of Common Sense ; Note B, On Presentative and Repre- 
sentative Knowledge ; and Note D, Distinction of the Prp- 
mary and Secondary Qualities of Body, which, has an 
intimate relation to the theory of immediate or present- 
ative perception. 

Philosophy,— Logic, metaph3rBic8, and ethics are com- 
prised under the general designation of philosophy. 
The last of these divisions is untouched by Sir WiUiam 



Hamilton. In the other two he has poshed his inqui- 
ries far beyond any of his British oontemporariea, and 
with much more brilliant success. In both he evinoed 
signal acutenees ; in both he rendered good service : and 
in both he deemed himself an inventor and reformer, 
and not merely an innovator. 

The character of his metaphysical doctrine is mani- 
fested by the designation which he bestowed upon it — 
The Philosophy of the Conditioned. It is critical m its 
procedure ; it is mainly negative in its results In these 
respects it resembles the philosophy of Kant, to which 
it approximates in many of its developments. It ia a 
crusade against all theories reposing on the absolute and 
the unconditioned. It sets out with affirming the es- 
sential relativity of all knowledge; it concludes with 
the restriction of philosophy to the determination of the 
conditions of thought In this there is nothing new 
but the mode of exposition. It was a familiar aphorism 
of the schoolmen, founded upon the teachings of Aristo- 
tle, that all thought was bounded by the limits of the 
thinking mind — ^omne perceptum est secundum modum 
percipienfis" — ^omne scitum est m sdente secundum nuh- 
dum scientis" — ** specks cogmti est tia cogmMoenteJ* From 
this position Hamilton deduces the invalidity of all con- 
ceptions pretending to be absolute, and hence denies the 
possibility of any positive conception of the infinite. 
Herein he merely repeats Aristotle, but with leas mod- 
eration in his doctrine. This thesis has been violently 
opposed, and usually misapprehended. It was assailed 
by Calderwood, Philosophy of the Ii^fmite, who confounds 
the negation of the Infinite in thought yrith the nega- 
tion of the infinity of God. It has been accepted and 
applied by Mansel to theology in his Limits of Religious 
Thought, The next step is to a purely negative expo- 
sition of causality, as resulting from "mental impotence** 
to conceive an absolute commencement. Sir William 
recognises that this inteipretation conflicts with the idea 
of a great First Cause, and he propounils a very ingeni- 
ous apology for his doctrine. He similariy follows out 
his fundamental tenet to other applications, and arrives 
uniformly at n^ative conclusions. 

The tenet, however, is not presented as an axiom, but 
receives intOTpretation, if not demonstration. It is the 
inevitable consequence of the dualism of our knowledge 
— a thesis contained in Aristotle.- Eveiy act of oon« 
sciousnesB " gives a knowledge of the ego in relation and 
contrast to the non-ego, and a knowledge of the non- 
ego in relation and contrast to the ego. The ^go and 
non-ego are thus given, in an original Bynthesis, as con- 
joined in the unity of knowledge, and in an original 
antithesis, as opposed in the contrariety of existence." 
This "natural dualism^' ia accepted by professor Ferrier 
as the beginnfhg of an antagonistic scheme of philoso- 
phy. With Hamilton it is made to rest upon the baaia 
of immediate perception, and thus he is led to the affir- 
mation of direct or presentative perception in oppoaitJoo 
to the older theory of indirect or representative percep- 
tion. This brings him into aoccHrdance with the school 
of Reid — though Reid and his school would scarcely 
have understood, and certainly could not have appreci- 
ated his delicate distinctions; and it must be acknowl- 
edged that it is a coarse and materialistic conception of 
species, images, and impressions which requires any 
deadly opposition between presentative and representa- 
tive (leroeption. To one cultivadng such diviaona and 
differences, the treatise of Roger Bacon, l)e MultipUca^ 
tione Spederwn — the most marvellous result of medie- 
val science — would be utterly unintelligiUe. 

On Sir William Hamilton's principles, the only object 
of philosophy \s the determination of the limits and re- 
quirements of thought, or, as he phrases it, "the Condi- 
tions of the Thinkable." On this subject he has left an 
admirable and most suggestive p^ier; but his whole 
scheme of speculation is without any basis for certainty, 
without any witness of " the Spirit bearing witness to 
our spirit." It is thus built upon the void; and, like the 
eclecticimn of Cousin, and the tnoaoeiidentahsm of H^- 



HAMILTON 



51 



HAMILTON 



gd and ScheUing, which it was speciafly designed to 
oppose, it tends, however unconsciously, to practical seep- 
tkasm. "Such (ip^avavTa <rwiroi<nv)" says Sir Wil- 
liam, ** are the hints of an undeveloped philosophy, which, 
I am confident, is founded up<m truth." Doubtless this 
philosophy is undeveloped, and doubtless it is founded 
upon truth ; but the foundation may not be homogene- 
ous or sufficient, and the superstructure may not be 
composed of the same materials as the substruction. 
The most dangerous error is that which proceeds from 
mutilated, distorted, or alloyed truth. 

''The views of Sir William Hamilton are before us, 
in certain parts, in his 0¥m exposition ;** they invite 
and require rigorous examination. **That they have 
already been much discussed, and have exerted a pow- 
erful influence on qieculation, is a good omen for phi- 
losophy. We have, especially, his treatment of three 
great problems in philosophy. First, there is the the- 
ory of the two kinds of Jiuman knowledge. Immediate 
and Mediate. Secondly, there is a special application 
<^ this theory to the construction of a theory of Exter- 
nal Perception. Thirdly, there is an exhaustive system 
of Metaphysics Proper, or Ontology, in his * Philosophy 
of the Conditioned' and <Ckmditions of the Thinkable*— 
a vast and noble idea, traced out for us in nothing but a 
tantalizing fragment. His Logical system is to be gath- 
ered from the sources already mentioned. They will 
probably convey no distinct notion of the system, unless 
to readeiB who are fiuniliar with the German methods of 
k^cal analysis since Kant. The leading points may be 
aud to be four; and it is perhaps possible to make these 
intelligible very briefly to persons acqaainted with the 
outlines of the science in its received forms. 1. Hamil- 
tim insists on having, in all propositions through com- 
mon terms which are set forth for logical scrutiny, a 
sign of quantity prefixed to predicate as well as to sub- 
ject. The point, though merely one of form, is curi- 
<'nsiy suggestive of difiiculties, and hence of solutions. 
2. instead of recognising only four forms of propositions, 
the A, £, I, O of the old logicians, he insists on admit- 
ting all the eight forms which are possible. (See 
Thomson aud SoUy.) 3. He widens the range of the 
syUogiam by admitting all moods which can validly be 
eonstructed by any combination of any of his eight kinds 
of propositibns. 4. The Port-Royal doctrine of the in- 
verae ratio of the extension and comprehension of terms 
ia worked out by him in reference to the syllogism. 
This application of the doctrine has certainly not been 
anticipated by any logician; and, when elaborated to 
its results, it throws many new lights on the characters 
and mutual relations of the S}'l]ogistic figures." The 
value of these innovations has not been definitely set- 
tled, nor has it been ascertained whether they were 
overlooked by Aristotle, misapprehended by him, or de- 
libeiately rejected from his Analytics. 

Authorities, — An earnest discussion of Hamilton's 
doctrines may be found in the Methodist Quarterly Re- 
view for 1857 ; a sketch of his metaphysical views is 
given in the Princeton Review for 1855. One of the 
most unfortunate features in the literary history of Sir 
Wmiam was his attack on the reputation of Luther, 
which was fully answered by Hare in his Vindicxiiion of 
Ijuiher, Hare convicts Hamilton of using second-hand 
knowledge as if he had studied the original sources. 
See N, Brit. Rev, Nov. 184«, Feb. 1863, July, 1859 ; Re- 
vme des Deux Mondes, April, 1856; Geniieman's Maga- 
tine, Jane, 1856 ; North A merican Review^ Oct. 1845, p. 
485-9 ; Jan. 1853, art. iu ; British Quarteriy Review^ xvi, 
479; Wight, Philosoj^y of Sir WiUiam HamUon (N. 
T. 1855) ; MUl, ExamtnoctUm of Sir WiUiam HamUton'e 
Pkilosophjf (Lond. 1865) — reviewed in the Westminster 
Review, Jan. 1866, and elaborately answered by H. Lb 
Maneel, Tkb Philosophy of the Conditioned (Lond. 1866) ; 
Be Morgan, Formal Logic (London, 1847) ; Bowen, A 
Treatise on Logic (Cambridge, 1864). The Life of Sir 
Williasn NamUton, by J. Vdtch (1869), which had been 
kog expected, has been recently published. (G. F. H.) 



Hamllne, Leonidas Lkxt, a bishop of the Meth- 
o<Ust Episcopal Church, was bom in BurUngton, Conn., 
May 10, 1797. His early education was obtained with 
some view to the Christian ministry ; but, arriving at 
manhood, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in Lancaster, Ohio. He married in ZanesviUe, Ohio, and 
settled there to practice his profession. The death of a 
little daughter in 1828 led him to seriously consider his 
own moral state, and he joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Chureh in the autumn of 1828. Soon alter he was li- 
censed to exhort, then (1829) to preach. In 1882 he 
was received on trial in the Ohio Conference, and ap- 
pointed to Granville Circuit. In 1833 he travelled Ath- 
ens Circuit, and in 1884 and 1835 he was stationed at 
Wesley Chapel, CindnnatL In 1886 he was elected as- 
sistant editor of the Western Christian Advocate, with 
the Rev. Dr. Charles Elliott. When the Ladies' Repos- 
itory was established in January, 1841, Hamline was as^ 
signed to the work of editing that journal He remain- 
ed in this position until, in 1844, he was elected one of 
the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church. This 
office he filled with great usefulness for eight jrears, when 
ill health compelled him to resign it to the General Con- 
ference of 1852. His name was reattached to the list 
of members of the Ohio Conference, and he was granted 
a superanniuted relation. In 1857 he removed to Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, his former confidential friendship with 
Dr. EUiott, who resided in that place, leading to this 
change. In an account of his life which bishop Ham- 
line wrote for his family, he thus refers to the years from 
1852 to 1860 : *^For eight years I have been superannu- 
ated, and God has 'tried me as silver is tried ^ but he 
has often sweetened those trials by his presence in a 
mar\''ellous manner. And now day by day my fellow- 
ship is with the Father, and with his son Jesus Christ. 
Though almost helpless, and dependent on my devoted, 
affectionate wife for personal attentions, which her ex- 
emplary patience never wearies in bestowing on me 
(thanks be to thy name, O God, for such a gift!), yet I 
am far more contented and cheerful than in the best 
days of my youth." He was taken severely ill Jan. 25, 
1867. On the 10th of Februaiy, having called his fam- 
ily in to pray with them once more, " he uttered remark- 
able expressions of adoration of the Saviour on the throne 
in special reference to his humiliation, crucifixion, res- 
urrection, ascension, exaltation, etc. He prayed for his 
family, the Church, for his own Conference (the Ohio), 
the missions, the countr}', the world. All the forenoon 
he expressed much thankfulness for everything. He 
then had occasion to drink, and his painful thirst re- 
minded him of the exclamation on the cross when the 
Sa^'iour said, ' I thirst.* He then burst into tears, and 
broke out again in praise. He then spoke of his pres- 
ent state as a fresh baptism into Christ, into his glorious 
name, and exclaimed, * rcondroue, wondrous, wondrous 
love P When Mrs. Hamline raised the window-shade 
at sunset he exclaimed, 'O beautifid eky! beautiful 
heaven !' " He died on the 22d of Februar>\ Of the 
character and attainments of bishop Hamline, Dr. El- 
liott sa3rs, '*My pen is wholly incompetent to draw out 
in its full extent an adequate portrait of his high and 
holy character, whether it regards his natural talents 
or his extensive attainments \ but especially the sanc- 
tity and purity of his religious life. As a preacher, 
he was in the first rank in all respects that regard the 
finished pulpit orator. His style as a writer would com- 
pare favorably with the best writers in the English 
language. He had no superior for logic, argument, or 
oratory. He was the subject of much bodily affliction, 
and yet, amid excruciating pains, he retained the full 
exereise of his intellectual powen to the very last hour 
of his life. The leading characteristic of him in hia 
sufferings was his complete patience and -resignation to 
the will of (lod." His principal writings (chiefly ser- 
mons) are given in the Works of L. L» Hcmdine, DJ),^ 
edited by the Rev. F. G. Hibbard, D.D. (N.York, 1869, 
8vo).— See Minutes of Corferences, 1866 ; Meth, Quart. 



HAMMAHLEKOTH 



52 



HAMMERLIN 



Reo, October, 1866; Palmer, TAfe and Letters ofLeofd' 
das L, HamUney D,D, (N. Y. 1866, l2mo). 

Hammahlekoth. See Sela-iiam-Mahlkkoth. 



or rather Chamman (yolH, only in the 
plur. hajnntamm')y signifies images^ iilols of aome kind 
for idulatioiu wonhip (and so the Sept. and Vulg. un- 
derstand it). It is rendered '4mage8*' in Lev. xx\% 
80; 2 Chron* xiv, 6; xxxiv, 7; Isa^ xvii, 8; xxvii, 9; 
Ezek. vi, 4, 6; but in the margin ahnost invariably 
*^sun images" In these passages Hammanim is several 
times joined with Asherim — statues of Astarte; while 
from 2 Chron. xxxiv, 4, it appears further that the H€a»- 
flnonim stood upon the altan of Baal. See Ashkrah; 
Baal. Kimchi, and the Arabic of Erpenius, long ago 
ez(dained the word by mifUf images qfthe sun ; and both 
this interpretation and the tiling itself are now clearly 
illustrated by ten Punic dppi with inscriptions, conse- 
crated to Baal Hamman, L e. to Baal the solar, Baal 
the sun, (See the whole subject discussed in Gescnius's 
Thes, NelK p. 489^91.) The form chamman, solar, is 

from nttn, cham'mah, the sun ; and the plural Uamma- 
mm, in the Old Testament, is put elliptically for Baalim 
ffammanim, and is found in the same context as else- 
where Baalim, images of BaaL— Bastow, s. r. 

Ham'matfa (Heb. Chammath', rSH, warm springs; 
Sept. 'A/io^ v. r. [by incorporation of the following 
name] '0/ia&a^a«iS,yulg. Emath), one of the <* fenced 
cities" of Naphtali, mentioned between Zer and Rak- 
kath (Josh, xix, 85) ; generally thought to be the hot 
spring referred to by Josephus ( War, iv, 1, 8) under the 
name A mmaus (Afifiaovc), near Tiberias {A nt. xviii, 2, 
8) ; which latter is, no doubt, the same with the famous 
warm baths still found on the shore a little south of Ti- 
berias, and called Hummam Tubariyeh (" Bath of Tibe- 
rias") ; properly Hammuih-rakkaik (? the Yamim of 
Gen. xxxvi, 24). See Emmaus. They have been fully 
described by Robinson {Researches, ill, 258 sq. ; see also 
Hackett*s Script, lUust, p. 815). Pliny, speaking of the 
Sea of Galilee, says, " Ab occi<lente Tiberiade, aquis ca- 
lidis salubri" {Hist, Nat. v, 15). Spacious baths were 
built over the principal spring by Ibrahim Pasha; but, 
like everything else in Palestine, they are falling to ruin. 
Ancient ruins are strewn around it, and can be traced 
along the shore for a considerable distance ; these were 
recognised by Irby and Mangles (p.. 89, 6) as the remains 
of Vespasian's camp (Josephus, War, i, 4, 3). There are 
also three smaller warm springs at this place. The war 
ter has a temperature of 144'^ Fahr. ; the taste is ex- 
tremely salt and bitter, and a strong smell of sulphur is 
emitted. The whole surrounding district has a volcanic 
aspect. The warm fountains, the rocks of trap and 
lava, and the frequent earthquakes, prove that the ele- 
ments of destruction are still at work beneath the sur- 
face. It is said that at the time of the great earthquake 
of 1837 the quantity of water issuing from the springs 
was greatly increased, and the temperature much higher 
than ordinarily (Porter, Handbook/or S. and P. ii, 423; 
Thomson, Land and Book, ii, 66 ; Wilson, Lands of the 
Bible, ii, 897 ; Reland, Ptdoisi, p. 302, 703). This spot is 
also mentioned in the Talmud (Schwarz, Palest, p. 182) 
as being situated one mile from Tiberias (Lightfoot, 
Opp, ii, 224). The Hammoth-dor of Josh, xxi, 82 is* 
probably the same place. See Hbmath; Hammon. 

The flamath ofOadara, however, located by the Tal- 
mudists (see Lightfoot, ib,) at the mouth of the Jordan, 
is a different place (see abo Zunz, Appendix to Benj. of 
Tudela, ii, 403) ; doubtless the Amatha (q. v.) of Jose- 
phus {Ant. X, 6, 2), and the modern Amat^ on the 
Yarmuk (Van de Velde, Map). 

Hanuned'atha (Heb. Hammedatha\ Kn^aH; 
Sept 'A/!ia^a9oCf Vulg. Amadathus, but both sometimes 
omit), father of the infamous Haman (q. v.), and com- 
monly designated as ''the Agagite" (Esth. iil, 1, 10; 
▼iii, 5; ix, 24), though also without that title (ix, 10). 
By Gcsenius {Lex, X8d5, p. 689) the name is taken to be 



Afedatha, preceded by the definite article; but Fnrst 
{Lex. s. v.), with more probability, identifies it vrith the 
Zendic hadmSdata, i. e. "given by Horn," one of the 
Izeds. For other explanations, see Simonis {Onomasli' 
con, p. 586), who derives it from a Persian word mean- 
ing ''double.** For the termination, compare Akida- 
THA. B.C. ante 474. 

HaxXL'melech (Heb. ham-Me'lek, T^^^^t which 
is merely ^"0, me'lek, king, with the article prefixed; 
Sept. translates o Pa<nXfv^,yvlg, Ameleeh), the father 
oi Jerahmeel, which latter was one of those commanded 
by Jehoiakim to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch (Jer. 
xxxvi, 26). RC ante 605. It is doubtful whether this 
was the same with the Hamroelech, father of Makhiah, 
into whose dungeon Jeremiah was afterwards cast (Jer. 
xxxviii, 6). KG. ante 589. Others, however, regard 
the word in both cases as an appellative, referring in the 
first passage to Jehoiakim, and in the latter to Zedekialu 
Compare Hammolkketh. 

Ham-menachoth. See Manahrthite. 

Hammer, an indispensable tool designated by sev- 
eral Heb. terms : 1. Paltish' (013fi6, connected etymo- 
logically with varaaam, to strike), which was used by 
the gold-beater (Isa. xli,7, Sept. a^vpa) to overlay with 
silver and " smooth" the surface of the image, as well 
as by the quanyman (Jer. xxiii, 29, SepL iriXvO ; met- 
aphorically of Babylon as a destructive agent (Jer. 1, 23, 
Sept. a^Dpa). This seems to have been the heaviest 
instrument of the kind for hard blows. 2. Makkabah' 
(n!a)9p), propedy a tool for holUnoing, hence a stone* 
cutters mallet (1 Kings vi, 7), and generally any work- 
roan's hammer (Judg. iv, 21 [w^here the form b raj^p, 
makke^beth^; Isa. xliv, 12; Jer. x, 4). In Isaiah the 
Sept. uses reptrpov, a gimlet, in all the rest v^vpa ; Vulg. 
malleus. See MACCABiBUS. 8. Halmuth' (H^isbn), 
used only in Judg. v, 26; Sept. <r^i;pa, Vulg. malld [q. 
d. tlicbn] ; and then with the addition of the word 
" workmen's" by way of explanation, as this is a poet- 
ickl word, used instead of the preceding more prosaic 
term. The pins of the tent of the Bedouin are gener- 
ally of wood, and are driven into the ground by a mal- 
let, which is probably the "hammer" referred to in this 
passage (Thomson, Land and Book, ii, 149). Dr. Hack- 
ett obeen-es (Amer. ed. of Smith's Diet, s. v.) that ** it is 
spoken of as 'the hammer,' being the one kept for that 
purpose;" but the Hebrew term used in Judg. v, 26 (to 
which he refers) is without the art., which is employed, 
however, with that found in Judg. i%', 21. See Naiu 
4. A kind of hammer, named mappets' (yW), 5qt. Ii, 

20 (A. V. " battle-axe"), or mephiW {y^W), Prov. xxv, 
18 (A. V. "maul"), was used as a weapon of war. 5i. 
Only in the plur. {T\'\xh'^':b,keylappath', ScpLXa^vriipuz, 
Vulg. aaciai), a poetic term equivalent to the preceding 
(Pba. Ixxiv, 6). See Hakdickaft. . 

H&mmerlin or Hammerlein, Felix (Lat. 3/a/- 
Uolus), a Swiss theologian, was bom at Zurich in 1389. 
He studied canon law at Erfurt, was in 1421 appointed 
canon of Zofingen, and in 1422 provost of Solothum. 
With the income of these offices he bought a large li- 
brary, and applied himself eaniestly to study. He sub- 
sequently took part in the Council of Basle, where he 
showed great zeal for the restoration of ecclesiastical 
diflcipUne, and thus made himself a number of enemies. 
An attempt was made to assassinate him in 1439, but he 
escaped, though not without being dangerously wound- 
ed. The xxxth chapter of his De N6bUiUxle,\n which 
he abused the confederate cantons which had waged 
war on Zurich in 1443, made him an object of hatred to 
a large party of his countrymen. A number of these, 
having gone to Zurich on the occasion of the Carnival 
of 1454, seized Hiimroerlin, dragged him to Constance, 
and had him thrown into prison. As he refused to re^ 
tract anything he had said or written, he was oondeini^ 



HAMMER-PURGSTALL 



53 



HAMMOND 



e4 to imprisonment for life in a convent. He was ac- 
oovdingly placed in a convent of barefooted monks at 
IfUcecne, where he died some time after 1457, a victim 
to his zeal for justice and truth. He wrote Varia Ob- 
iedatiomM Ojnucula et Tractatus (Basle, 1497, fol), con- 
^aining a number of treatises on exorcism, on monkish 
4i9cipiine, against the Beghards, etc He is ven* se- 
^^ere in these writings against the prevailing corruptions 
of the clergy and the convents. He also left some MSS., 
which are preserved in the collegiate library* of Zurich. 
See Bodmer n. Breitinger, IfelvfUiche Bibliothek (Zurich, 
1735) : Hottinger, Sehola TiffuHna, p. 24 ; Niceron, Mi' 
tmoirejf voL xxviii ; Hoefer, Now. Biog. Genirale^ xxiii, 
268 : Reber, Fdix Hemmerlm (Zurich, 1846). 

Hanuner-Ptirgstall, Joseph von, a German Ori- 
entalist of great celebrity, was bom July 9, 1774, at 
Gratz, in Styria, and died in Vienna Nov. 24, 1856. Hb 
family name was Hammer, and he is frequently referred 
to mider that name, or as Yon Hammer; but hiving in- 
herited in 1837 the estates of the counts of Puigstall, 
he added that name to his own, and was made a baron. 
He entered at an eariy age the Oriental Academy at 
Vieima, and acquired a knowledge of Arabic, Persian, 
and Turkish. Qeing subsequently employed in various 
diplomatic posts in the East, he greatly extended his 
acquaintance with Oriental languiges and literature. 
He wrote and spoke ten foreign luiguages, viz. the three 
above named, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, 
English, and Russian ; but his works show rather varied 
and extensive research and learning than profound mas- 
tery of his subjects. They are by no means free from 
enoTs, though his careful reference to authorities makes 
oociection of mistakes comparatively easy. His writ- 
ings, including contributions to journals and scientific 
aasodations, would make more than 100 octavo volumes, 
and, on the whole, are regarded as among the most valu- 
able contributions of the present century to Oriental hi»- 
toiy and Uterature. They are noticed her^ because of 
the information they give as to the religious history and 
condition of Oriental nations. The most important of 
bis works in this respect are Encydopaditche Ueber- 
siekt der Wissauchdjlen des Orients (Lpz, 1804, 2 vols. 
in l.Svo), a work based on seven Oriental works, espe- 
cially the bibliographical dictionary of Hadgi Khalfa ^— 
A wdaU A Iphabks cmd Hieroglyphic Characters erplam- 
edf with an A oeount of the E^fptian PriestSy their Classes^ 
Imtiafian, and Sacrifees (translated fh>m the Arabic of 
Ahwad bin-Abuhakr bin-Wahshih, London, 1806, small 
4to): — Fundgruben des Orients, etc., ou Mines de POii- 
tnt erphitets (Vienna, 1809-18, 6 voIh. in 3, fol., of which 
Hammer-PurgstaU was the chief editor) :—Morgenldnd- 
isches Kleeblatt (Persian and Arab h^nnns, etc ; Vienna, 
1818, 4to) i—GeschichU der schonen Redekiinste Persiens 
(yienan, 1818, 4to) : — Mgsterium Baphometis revelatum 
(Tienna, 1818, foL ; also in voL vi of Mines de VOrient : 
the author herein seeks to prove from emblems on mon- 
uments once belonging to the Templars that their order 
was guilty ofthe crimes charged to it. Raynouanl [Jbur- 
Mo/ des Savants, 1819] refuted this opinion, but Hammer- 
Puigstall defended it with new arguments in a paper in 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Vixuma, 1865) :— 67f- 
acUcAle der Assassinen (Phris, 1888, 8vo, and an English 
ed. by Wood, History ofthe Assassins, Lond. 1835, 8vo. 
The author makes curious comparisons between the As- 
saBins, the TempUus, the Freemasons, and the Jesuits) : 
— Gesehichte des Osmanisdken Reichs (best ed. Pesth, 
1827-35, 10 vols. 8vo; French translations by Dochez, 
Paria, 1844, 8 vols. 8vo, and by Hellert, with notes and 
an Atlaa, Histoire de V Empire Ottoman, Paris, 1835-43, 
18 rob. 8vo) :— Gesehichte der Osmanischen Dichtkunst 
(Pcflth, 1886-4S8, 10 vols. 8vo— a completer history of 
Turkish poetiy than any existing, even in Turkey it- 
self) : — the celebrated treatise on morals by Ghazali, un- 
der the tide of O Kind! die berUhmie ethische. Abhand- 
hnff GhasaUs (Vienna, 1838,. 12mo) : — Zeitwarte des 
Gfbetes, a prayer-book in Arabic and German (Vienna, 
1844, 8vo) : — lAteratur-Geschichle der A raber (Vienna, 



1856, 7 vols. 4to: this work, as flnt published, enda 
with the Bagdad caliphate, and contains about 10,000 
biographical and bibliographical notices) :—/>as Aro" 
bische Hohe Lied der Liebe, etc., with commentary, and 
an introduction relative to mjrsticinn among the Arabs 
(Vienna, 1854, 8vo). Hammer left an autobiography 
{Denkwurdigheiten aus meinemLeben) and other writings 
in MS., which have been published, or ore publishing, 
under the direction of Auer, director of the imperial 
printing-press of Vienna. — New American Cydopadia, 
viii, 690; Hoefer, A^our. Biog, Generaie, xxiii, 269 sq.; 
Pierer, sl v. ; K. Schlottman, Joseph von Il.^PurgstaU, ein 
kritischer Beitrag zur Gfschichte neuerer deuischer IViS' 
senschajl (Zurich, 1857, [78 p.] 8vo). (J. W. M.) 

Hammoreketh (Heb. ham-Mok'kttk, rs^ish, 
which is the art. prefixed to r2^^, mole'keth, fern. part. 
="the Queen;" Sept. ij MaXf;^IO,Vulg. translates re- 
gina), a woman introduced in the genealogies of Mana»- 
seh as daughter of Machir and sister of GUead (1 Chron. 
vii, 17, 18), and as having among her three children 
Abi-€zcr, from whose family sprang the great judge 
Gideon. B.C. prob. between 1874 and 1658. The Tar- 
gum translates the name by rs?^ '!}, who reigned. The 
Jewish tradition, as preserved by Kimchi in his com- 
mentar>' on the passage, is that ''she used to reign over 
a i)ortion of the land which belonged to (lilead,** and 
that for that reason her lineage has been preserved. — 
Smith, Si V. See Hammelech. 

Ham'mon (Hebi Chammon\ \\W, warm; Sept. 
*Apbtv and Xafiwv), the name of two places. 

1. A town in the tribe of Asher, mentioned between 
Rehob and Kanah (Josh, xix, 28). Dr. Robinson quotes 
the suggestion of Schultz as i^ossible, that it may be the 
ruined town Jfamul, at the head of a wady o\ the same 
name which comes doni to the Mediterranean just 
north of £n-Nakurah, somewhat south of T}Te (new ed. 
of Researches, iii, 66). Schwans thinks it i^ identical 
with a village Ilamani, situated, according to him, two 
miles south by east of Tyre {Palest, p. 192) ; probably 
the place marked on Zimmerman's and Van de Velde^ 
Maps as Hunnaweh. The scriptural text, however, 
would seem to indicate a position on the northern botm- 
dary, about midway between Naphtali (at Rehob) and 
Sidon. Hence Knobel {ErUSr. ad loc.) connects it with 
the village ffammana, ou a wady of the same name east 
of Beyrftt, where there is now a Maronite monastery 
(Seetzen, i, 260); but this, again, is too far north (Keil, 
in Keil and Delitzsch, ad loc.). Van de Velde (Memoir 
and Map) adopts the first of the above sites, which, al* 
though neither the name nor the situation exactly 
agrees, is perhaps the best hitherto suggested. 

2. A LeWtical city of Naphtali, assigned, with ita 
suburbs, to the descendants of Gerahom (1 Chron. vi, 76). 
Schwarz {Palest, p. 183) not improbably conjectures 
that it is the same with Hakmath (Josh, xix, 35). 
Compare Hammoth-dob (Josh, xxi, 32). 

Hammond, Hexry, D.D., a learned divine of the 
English Church, was bom Aug. 18, 1605, at Chcrtsey, 
Surrey. He was sent at an early age to Eton, whence 
he removed to Magdalen College, Oxfonl, and became 
a fellow of that society in 1625. In 1633 the earl of 
Leicester presented him to the rectory of Pcnshurst, 
Rent, where he resided till 1643, when he was made 
archdeacon of Chichester. ^ By birth and education a 
confirmed Royalist, he retired to Oxford soon after the 
civil war broke out, continued to reside there while that 
city was held by the king, and attended the king's com- 
missioners to Uxbridge, where he disputed with Vines, 
a Presbyterian minister. He was appointed canon of 
Christchureh and public orator in 1645, and attended 
Charies I as his chaplain from the time when he fell 
into the hands of the army until the end of 1647, when 
the king's attendants were sent away from him. Ham- 
mond then retimied to Oxford, and was chosen sub- 
, dean of Christchureh, from which situation he was ex- 



HAMMOTH-DOR 



54 



HAMPDEN 



pelled in March, 1648, by the parluunentary vinton, 
and placed for some time in confinement. On his re- 
lease he repaired to Westwood, Worcestershire, the seat 
of Sir John Packwood, where the remainder of his life 
was spent in litenuy labor, ^ doing much good to the 
day of his death, in which time he had the disposal of 
great charities reposed in his hands, as being the most 
zealous promoter of almsgiving that lived in England 
since the change of religion.* ... He died after long 
suffering from a complication of disorders, April 25, 1660. 
It is said that Charles II intended for him the bishopric 
of Worcester. Hammond was a man of great learning, 
as well in the classics and general philology as in doc- 
trinal and school divinity, and possessed great natural 
ability" (Jones, Ckrist, Biogr, p. 210). Of his writings 
the following are some of the most important : Prcuy 
Ucal Catechism (1644): — Paraphrase and Atmotaiions 
on the New Testament (Lond. 1653, 8vo; often reprinted; 
last edition 1845, 4 vols. 8vo). It was translated into 
Latin by Leclerc TAmster. 1698), with observations and 
criticisms. Dr. Johnson wajs verv fond of Hammond's 
AnnotatumSy and recommended them strongly. The 
theology of the work is Arminian. Paraphrase and 
Annotations upon the Psalms (1659, fol. ; new ed. 1850, 2 
vols. 8vo ) : — Discourses on God's Grace and Decrees 
(1660, 8vo), taking the Arminian view: — Annotations 
on the Proverbs (1688, foL) : — ^Serwwiw (1644, foL). 
These, with many valuable writings on the Romish 
controversy, may be found in Fulman's Collected Works 
of Dr, Hammond (8d ed., London, 1774, 4 vols. foL), of 
which the 1st voL contains his Life by Dr. Fell. The 
Life was reprinted in 1849, and may be found in Words- 
worth, Ecdes. Biography, iv, 318. See also Hook, Ecd, 
Biography y v, 534. Hammond's miscellaneous theologic- 
al writings are reprinted in the Library of Angh-Cath- 
olic Theology (Oxford 1847-51, 4 vols. 8vo). 

Ham'moth-dor (Heb. Chammoth'-Dor,'^^1 nan, 
prob. for ^I^TitiH, Ilammath of Dor, but the reason of 
the latter part of the name is not dear ; Sept. *Afia^' 
(9ftfp, Vulg. Jfamoth Dor), a Levitical and refuge city of 
Naphtali (Josh, xxi, 82) ; probably the same elsewhere 
called simply Hammath (Josh, xix, 85). 

Hamon. See B^vai/-h.\mox ; Hamon-goo. 

Hamon, Jean, a distinguished French moralist, 
was bom at Cherbourg in 1618. He was a graduate 
physician of the University of Paris. He had already 
/astablished a great reputation, and ivas offered a good 
charge by his pupil, M. de Harlay (afterwards president 
of the Parliament) ; but, by the advice of his spiritual 
director, Singlin, he sold all his goods, gave the pro- 
ceeds to the poor, and became a hermit of Port Royal 
in 1651. He nevertheless continued practicing medi- 
icine, visiting the poor in the neighborhood of Port Roy- 
al, and administering to them both spiritual advice and 
remedies. The Necrohge de Port Royal saj's: "After 
a life as carefully guarded as though each day was to 
be the last, he ended it joyfully by a peaceful death, as 
he had wished, and entered into eternal life," Feb. 22, 
1687. He wrote Divers Traites de Pieti (Paris, 1675, 2 
vols, 12mo) : — Sur la Prisre et les Devoirs des Pasteurs 
(Par. 1689, 2 vols. 12mo) .—La Pratique de la Priire con- 
tinuelle (Paris, 1702, 12m6):— Explication du Cantique 
des Cantiques, with an introduction by Nicole (Paris, 
1708, 4 vols. 12mo) : — Instructions pour les Religieuses 
de Port Boyal (1727 and 1730, 2 voK):— Instructions sur 
Us Sacraments, sur le JuhUe, etc. (Paris, 1734, 12mo) :— 
Explication de FOraison Dominicak (Par. 1735), besides 
other practical and controversial writings. See Necro- 
hge de Port Royal (Amst, 1723, 4to); Thomas Dufossd, 
Histoire de Port Royal; Mhnoires de Fontaine; Dupin, 
Hist. Eccles,du 17'^ siscle; Hoe{er,Nouc.Biog, Generate, 
xxiii, 272. 



/nah (Heb. Hcmonah', ilj'i^rt, multitude; 
Sept. translates noXvavf^pfov.Yulg. ylmon),a name fig- 
uratively asngned to the sepulchral '* city" of the valley 



in which the slaughter and borial of the forces of Gog 
are prophetically announced to take place (£2ek.xxxix, 
16), emblematiod of the multitude of graves (compare 
Joel iii, 14). See Hamon-gog. 

Ha'mon-gog (Heb. Ilamdn'-GSg, nia *;it)n, muLi- 
tude of Gog; fully with K'^S, vaUey, prefixed; Sept. rb 

Tat TO no\vdvdpu)v tov r<ay, Yviig. Vallis mukituduas 
Gog), the name prophetically ascribed to the valley in 
which the corpses of the slaughtered army of Gog are 
described as to be buried (£zek. xxxix, 11, 15) ; repre- 
sented as situated to the east of the Dead Sea, on the 
thoroughfare of commerce with Arabia (comp. the rout<. 
of the Ishmaelites to whom Joseph was sold, Gen. xvii, 
25), probably the present Haj road between Damascus 
and Mecca, but scarcely referring to any particular spot. 
(See Hilvemick, Commentar, ad loc ; Stuart^s Com- 
ment, on the ApoixUypse, ii, 367.) See Goo. 

Ha'mor (Heb. Chamor", ^•173)1, a he-<us ; Sept '£/«• 
fuitp, N. T. 'Efifiop), a Hivito, from whom (or his sons) 
Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph 
was afterwards buried (Gen. xxxiii,19; Josh, xxi v, 32; 
Acta vii, 15; in which laiA passage the name b Angli- 
cized Emmor), and whose son Shechem seduced Dinah 
(Gren. xxxiv, 2). B*C. cir. 1905. As the latter appears 
to have founded the city of Shechem (q. v.), Hamor ia 
also named as the representative of its inhabitants 
(Judg. ix, 28) in the time of Abimelech (q. v.). H is char- 
acter and influence are indicated by his title (^* prince** 
of the Hivite tribe in that vicinity), and his judicious 
behavior in the case of his son; but neither of these 
saved him from the indiscriminate massacre by Dinah^s 
brothers. See Jacob. 

Hampden, Renn Dickson, D.D., bishop of Here- 
ford, England, a descendant of John Hampden, was bom 
A.D. 1792, in the island of Barbadoes, where his family 
had settled in 1670. He entered Oriel College, Oxford, 
as a commoner, in 1810, and subsequently was admitted 
a fellow, appointed a tutor, and, in 1829 and 1831, was 
public examiner in classics. He delivered the Bamp- 
ton lecture in 1832, choo»ng for his subject The St^o- 
lastic Philosophy considered in its relation to Christian 
Theology (dd edit. liond. 1848, 8vo), and in 1833 was ap- 
pointed principal of St. Mary's Hall In 1834 he was 
elected White's professor of moral philosophy (Oxford), 
and published a pamphlet entitled Observations on Re- 
ligious Dis^nt. The opinions expressed in thb work 
and in his Bampton lecture were made the grounds of 
opposition to his confirmation in 1836 as regius professor 
of divinity (Oxford), to which Lord Melbourne, then 
premier, had appointed him. The controversy over this 
appointment, which assumecl the character of a violent 
struggle, and is known as the First Hampden Case, ap- 
pears to have been based on political feelings as well as 
theoli^ical grounds. His principal opponents were To- 
ries and High-Churchmen, among whom were Dr. Pu- 
sey and J. H. Newman, now a Roman Catholic. A re- 
monstrance against the appointment was sent to the 
archbishop of Canterbury, to be presented to the crown. 
A declaration, condemning Hampden's " mode of view- 
ing the doctrines of the Bible and the Articles of the 
Church'^ was numerously signed by residents of the uni- 
versity, and an effort was made in the House of Convo- 
cation to pass a statute expressing want of confidence 
in his views, which was only frustrateil by the interpo- 
sition of the proctors. The struggle was renewed in the 
Second Hampden Case, occasioned by Hampden's ap- 
pointment to the see of Hereford by lord John RusseU 
in 1847. Thirteen of the bishops remonstrated against 
the appointment, "appealing to the former oontroveny, 
and urging the inexpediency of placing over the deigy 
one whose opinions were rendered suspicious by the de- 
cision of a body like the Univeraity of Oxford." Hamp- 
den's friends replied that a change had taken place in 
the minds of the members of the Convocation of the Uni- 
versity, reducing the proportions of 474 to 94 in 1836, 
to 330 to 219 in 1842, on the proposition to repeal Um 



HAMPDEN CASES 



66 



HANANI 



exp r cMi on of censure ; and further, that many who cen- 
sored Hampden *' objected to the university as an arbi- 
ter of doctrine in the case of Tract xc, and of Mr. Ward's 
Ideal of the Ckurck.^ The opposition, as in the former 
caM, arose mainly from political opponents and from 
TractariansL The government refused to yield, and Dr. 
Hampden was installed as bishop of Hereford, and thence- 
forth devoted himself to his episcopal duties, the attacks 
upon him gradually ceasing. Ho died April 28, 1866. His 
position was that of a moderate churchman, sjid the ex- 
pression of his \iews at this day could hardly provoke 
so fierce an opposition as in 1836. A list of the most 
important pamphlets relating, to the Hampden cases is 
given by Allibone, s. v. Hampden, Besides the works 
mentioned above, Dr. Hampden's most important writ- 
ings are, PkUosopkical Evidence ofChrietianity, etc. (1 827, 
8vo) : — Lectures on Moral PkUoaopky (8vo) : — Parochial 
Sermom (1836, 8vo) -.^Lecture on Tradition (1841, 8vo) : 
before the Umversity of Oxford (1886-1847) : 
Review of the writings of Thomas Aquinas in the 
MetropoHtana, which led Hallam to character- 
ise Hampden ''as the only En^^hman who, since the 
revi\'al of letters, has penetrated into the wildeness of 
scholasticism ;** and the articles on Socrdetj Phdo, and 
A riatc4le^ ui the EncycL BrUamuca, See Englieh Review^ 
viii, 430 ; ix, 229 ; Blackw. Mag, No. 246 (AprU, 1886) ; 
Brit, ami For, Rev, xv, 169; N, Brit, Review, viii, 286 ; 
JSdIm. Rev. Ixiii, 225 ; Praser'a Mag, xxxvii, 105 ; Edec, 
Rev. 4th series, xxiii, 221 ; Allibone, Diet, of A uthore^ i, 
780; Chambeis's Cgdop. of Englieh Literature, it, 738 
(Philada. 1867) ; Booe, in Church liiet,from Thirteenth 
Centvry to Present Time, in crown 8vo edition of Encyd, 
Metrcpotitana, ip, 3So. (J.W.M.) 

Hampden Cases. See Haxpdbn, R. D. 

Hampton-CotiTt Conference. See Confer- 



Rainran See Hebidaiv. 

Bbunn'el (Heb. Chammud\ i^^W, heat [danger 
or Hffifi of God; Sept. 'A/iovqX.Vulg. Hamuel), the son 
of If ishma and (apparently) father of Zacchur, of the 
tribe of Simeon (1 Chron. iv, 26> B.a ante 1046. 

Ha'^mnl (Heb. ChamuV, ^^QH, spared; Sept. 'Ic- 
fcovi|X), the second of the two sons of Fharez, son of Ju- 
dah (1 (^ron. ii, 5). He could not have been bom, 
however, before the migration of Jacob into Eg^'pt (as 
appears to be stated in Gen. xlvi, 12), since Pharcz was 
not at that time grown up (Gen. xxxviil, 1). His de- 
scendants were allied Hamulites (Numb, xxvi, 21). 
&C. between 1870 and 1856. 

Ha'mnlite (Heb. ChamtU% "i^'on, Sept. 'If/iov- 
ipa), u. descendant of Hamul (q. v.), the grandson of 
Jndah (Numb, xxvi, 21). 

Hamu'tal (Heb. ChamutaV, h^^m, kinsman of the 
dew; Sept. 'A/xiraX, but in Jer. Hi, 1 'A/iiraaX, Vulgate 
Amital; bat the Heb. text has h:^^W, ChamitaV [of 
the same import], in 2 Kings xxiv, 18 ; Jer. lii, 1), the 
daughter of Jeremiah of libnah, wife of king Josiah 
and mother of king Jehoahaz (2 Kings xxiii,81), also 
of king Zedekiah (2 Kings xxiv, 18 ; Jer. lii, 1). B.C. 
€32-619. 

Hanam'e^l (Heb. ChanameV, ^K^Sn, perh. i. q. 
Hananeil; SepL 'A vafuriX ,Vu]g. Jfanameel\ son of Shsl- 
Inm and cousin of Jeremiah, to whom, before the siege 
of Jerusalem, he sold a field which he possessed in Ana- 
thoth, a town of the Levites (Jer. xxxii, 6-12). If this 
field belonged to Hanameel as a Levite, the sale of it 
would imply that an ancient law had fallen into disuse 
(Lev. XXV, 34) ; but it is possible that it may have been 
the property of Hanameel in right of his mother. 0>m- 
pare the case of Barnabas, who was also a Levite ; and 
the note of Grotius on Acts iv, 87. Henderson (on Jer. 
xxxii, 7) supposes that a portion of the Levitical estates 
ought be sold within the tribe. Fairbaim (s. v.) sug- 
gists that as this was a typical act, the ordinary civil 



rules do not apply to it. The transaction, however,' 
conducted with all the forms of legal transfer, at the 
special instance of Jehovah, and was intended to evince 
the certainty of restoration from the approaching exile 
by showing that possessions which could be established 
by documents would yet be of future value to the po»> 
sesBor (Jer. xxxii, 13-15). KC 589.— Kitto, s. v. 

Qa'nan (Heb. Chanan', "jan, merciful, or perh. rather 
an abbreviation of •JHil, later John [sec Ananias ; Ha- 
NANi, etc] ; Sept. 'AvaV, but in Jer. xxxv, 4 'Avaviac), 
the name of at least seven men. See also Baal-Ha* 
NAN; Ben-Hanan; Elon-beth-Hanan. 

1. One of the sons (or descendants) of Shsshak, a 
chief of the tribe of Benjamin resident at Jerusalem (1 
Chron. viii, 23). RC. apparently between 1612 and 1098L 

2. Son of Maachah, and one of David's heroes (1 
C^hron. xi, 43). RC. 1 046. 

3. Father of Igdaliah, " a man of (Sod;'' in the cham- 
ber of his sons Jeremiah tested the fidelity of the Rech- 
abites (Jer. xxxv, 4). B.C. ante 606. 

4. The last named of the six sons of Axel the Benja- 
mite (1 Chron. viu, 38 ; ix, 44> RC. cir. 688. 

5. One of the Nethinim whose family returned from 
the captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii, 46; Neh. vii, 
49> RC. ante 53& 

6. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expound- 
ing the law to the i)eople (Neh. viii, 7 ; comp. ix, 4, 5> 
He also subscribed the sacred covenant with Nehemiah 
(Neh. X, 10). From Neh. xiii, 18, it appears that he 
was the son of Zaccur, and, on account of his integrity, 
he was one of those appointed to distribute the Leviti- 
cal revenues among his brethren. RC. dr. 410. 

7. One of the chiefs of the people who subscribed the 
solemn covenant drawn up by Nehemiah (Neh. x, 22). 
In ver. 26 his name appears to be repeated in the same 
list. RC. cir. 410. 

Hanan'elil (Heb. CAafun«>r,^K»n, which God has 
graciously ^'cm ; SepL 'A va^fi^X, Vulgate Uananeel), a 
tower (7^|}^) of Jerusalem, situated on the exterior wall 
beyond the tower of Meah in going from the Sheep- 
gate towards the Fish-gate (Neh. iii, 1 ; xii, 39). It is 
also mentioned iu Jer. xxxi, 88 ; Zech. xiv, 10. Its po- 
sition appears to have been at the north-eastern comer 
of the present mosque uidosure (see Strong's JIarmong 
and Expos,, Append! ii, p. 19). Schwarz {Palest, p. 251) 
also locates it in this vicinity, but absurdly identifies it 
with the tower of Hippicus. See Jerusalem. Gese- 
nius {Thes. Heb. s. v.) suggests that it may have been 
so called from the name of its founder or builder. 

Hana'ni (Heb Chanam', '^m, God has gratified me, 
or an abbieviation of the name Ifananiah ; SepL 'Avavi, 
but 'kvavia in Ezra x, 10, and 'Avaviac in Neh.vii,,2; 
Yulg. Ifanani), the name of at least three men. 

1. One of the sons of Heman, who (with his dcven 
kinsmen) had charge of the eighteenth division of Le- 
Wtical musicians in the appointments of David (1 Chron. 
XXV, 4, 25). RC. 1014. 

2. A prophet who vrai sent to rebuke king Asa for 
his want of faith in subsidizing the king of Syria against 
the rival king Baasha, whereas he should rather have 
seized the occasion to triumph over both (2 Chron. xvi, 
1-10). In punishment for this defection from the true 
God, he was threatene<l with a troublous residue to his 
reign. Sec Asa. Enraged at the prophet's boldness, 
(he king seized and thrust him into prison, from which, 
however, ho appears to have been soon released. RC. 
928. This Hanani is probably the same with the father 
of the prophet Jehu, who denounced king Baasha (t 
Kings xvi, 7), also king Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xix, 2; 
comp. XX, 34). 

3. Apparently a brother of Nehemiah, who went from 
Jerusalem to Shushan, being sent most probably by Ezra, 
and brought that information respecting the miserable 
condition of the returned Jews which led to the missiim 
of Nehemiah (Neh. i, 2). Hauani came back to Judea, 



HANANIAH 



66 



HANBY 



probftbly abng with hU brotheri and, together with one 
Hananiabi was appointed to take charge of the gates of 
Jerusalem, and see that they were opened in the morn- 
ing and closed in the evening at the appointed time 
(Neh. vti, 2). The circumstances of the time and place 
rendered this an important and responsible duty, not 
unattended with danger. B.G. 446. — Kitto, s. v. 

Hanani'ah (HeK [and Chald.] Chanansfah^n^^m, 
also [1 Chron. zxy, 23 ; 2 Chron.xxvi,ll; Jer.xxxvi, 
12] in the prolonged form Chanaaya'hv, ilh^adn, whom 
Jehovah has graciously ffiveny comp. A naniaSf etc ; Sept. 
'Avavia or 'AvaviaCf Vulg. Ilanania), the name of a 
number of men. See also Akaniah ; Ankas, etc 

1. A '*son" of Sbashak, and chief of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin (1 Chron. viii, 24). B.C apparently between 
1612 and 1093. 

2. One of the sons of Heman, who (with eleven of 
his kinsmen) was appointed by David to superintend 
the sixteenth division (blowers on horns) of Levitical 
musicians (1 Chron. xxv, 4, 28). RC 1014 

3. One of king Uzziah's chief military officers (2 
Chron. xxvi, 11). Ra 808. 

4. The father of Shelemiah and grandfather of Irijah, 
which last was the guard of the gate of Benjamin who 
arrested Jeremiah (Jer. xxxvii, 18). RC. considerably 
ante 589. 

5. Father of Zedekiah, which latter was one of the 
''princes" to whom Michaiah reported Baruch's reading 
of Jeremiah's roll (Jer. xxxvi, 12). RC ante 605. 

6. Son of Azur, a false prophet of Gibeon, who, by 
opposing his prophecies to those of Jeremiah, brought 
upon himself the terrible sentence, *' Thou shalt die this 
peaVf because thou hast taught rel)eUion against the 
Lord/' He died accordingly (Jer. xxviii, 1 sq.). RG 
595. — ^Kitto, s. V. Hananlah publicly prophesied in the 
Temple that within two yean Jeooniah and all his fel- 
low-captives, with the vessels of the Lord's house which 
Nebuchadnezzar had taken away to Babylon, should be 
brought back to Jerusalem (Jer. xxviii) : an indication 
that treacherous negotiations were already secretly 
opened with Pharaoh-Hophra (who had just succeeded 
Plsammls on the Egyptian throne), and that strong 
hopes were entertained of the destruction of the Baby- 
Ionian power by him. The preceding chapter (xxvii, 
8) shows further that a league was already in progress 
between Judah and the neighboring nations of Edom, 
Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Zidon, for the purpose of or- 
ganizing resistance to Nebuchadnezzar, in combination, 
no doubt, Mrith the projected movements of Pharaoh- 
Hophra. Ilananiah corroborated his prophecy by tak- 
ing off from the neck of Jeremiah the yoke which he 
wore by divine command (Jer. xxvii) in token of the 
subjection of Judaea and the neighboring countries to 
the Babylonian empire), and breaking it, adding, ^'Thus 
saith Jehovah, Even so will I break the yoke of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, king of Babylon, from the neck of all na- 
tions within the space of two full years." But Jeremi- 
ah was bid to go and tell Hananiah that for the wooden 
yokes which he had broken he should make yokes of 
iron, so firm was the dominion of Babylon destined to 
be for seventy years. The prophet Jeremiah added 
this rebuke and prediction of Hananiah's death, the ful- 
filment of which closes the history of this false prophet. 
The history of Hananiah is of great interest, as throw- 
ing much light upon the Jewish politics of that event- 
ful time, divided as parties were into the partisans of 
Babylon on one hand, and Egypt on the other. It also 
exhibits the machinery of fidae prophecies, by which 
the irreligious party sought to promote their own poli- 
cy, in a very distinct form. At the same time, too, that 
it explains in general the sort of political calculation on 
which such false prophecies were hazardeil, it supplies 
an important clew in particular by which to judge of 
the date of Phariioh-Hophra's (or Apnea's) accession to 
the £g>'ptian throne, and the commencement of his in- 
effectual effort to restore the power of £g>i>t (which 



had been prostrate since Necho's overthrow, Jer. xlvi, 
2) upon the ruins of the Babylonian empire. The lean- 
ing to Egypt indicated by Hananiah's prophecy as bar- 
ing begun m the fourth of Zedekiah, had in the sixth 
of his reign issued in open defection from Nebuchadnez- 
zar, and in the guilt of perjury, which cost Zedekiah his 
crown and his life, as we learn from Ezek. xvii, 12-20; 
the date being fixed by a comparison of Ezek. viii, 1 
with XX, 1. The temporary success of the intrigue^ 
which is described in Jer. xxxvii, was speedily followed 
by the return of the Chaldseans and the destruction of 
the city, according to the prediction of Jeremiah. This 
history of Hananiah also illustrates the manner in which 
the false prophets hindered the mission, and obstructed 
the beneficent effects of the ministry of the true proph- 
ets, and affords a remarkable example of the way in 
which they prophesied smooth things, and said peace 
when there was no peace (compare 1 Kings xxii, 11, 24> 
25). — Smith, s. v. See Jeremiah. 

7. The original name of one of Daniel's youthful 
companions and one of the "three Hebrew children;" 
better known by his Babykmian name Siiadkach (Dan. 
i; v^7). 

8. Son of Zerubbabel, and father of Rephaiah; one 
of the paternal ancestors of Christ (1 Chron. ui, 19, 21). 
(See Strong's Ilamu and Expos, of the Goipels, p. 16, 17.) 
RC. post 536. He is posribly the same with No 10. 
See GbneaijOOy of Christ. 

9. One of the ''sons" of Bebai, an Israelite who re- 
nounced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon 
(Ezra X, 28). RC. 469. 

10. The « ruler of the palace" (n^'^SH *»b), and the 
person who was associated with Nehemiah's brother 
Hanani in the charge of the gates of Jerusalem. See 
Hanani. The high eulogy is bestowed upon him that 
^* he was a faithful man, and feared God above many" 
(Neh. vii, 2). His office seems to have been one of au- 
thority and trust, and perhaps the same as that of Elia- 
kim,who was "over the house" in the reign of Heze- 
kiah. See Euakim. The arrangements for guarding 
the gates of Jerusalem were intrusted to him with Ha- 
nani, the Tirshatha's brother. I'rideaux thinks that 
the appointment of Hanani and Hananiah indicates that 
at this time Nehemlah returned to Persia, but without 
sufficient ground. Nehemiah seems to have been con- 
tinuously at Jerusalem for some time after the comple- 
tion of the wall (vii, 6, 65 ; viii, 9 ; x, 1). If, too, the 
term M'^'^3^ means, as Gesenius supposes, and as the 
use of it in Neh. ii, 8, makes not improbable, not the 
palace, but the fortress of the Temple, called by Josephus 
fiapiC, there is still less reason to imagine Nehemiah's 
absence. In this case Hananiah would be a priest, per- 
haps of the same family as the preceding. The render- 
ing, moreover, of Neh. vii, 2, 8, should probably be,' 
"And I enjoined (or gave orders to) Hanani . . . and 
Hananiah, the captains of the fortress . . . amceminff 
Jerusalem, and said. Let not the gates," etc There is 
no authority for rendering P? ^7 " ovef* — •* He gave 
such an one charge over Jerusalem." The passages 
quoted by Gesenius are not one of them to the poinu — 
Smith, s. V. 

11. The son of "one of the apothecaries" '(or makers 
of the sacred ointments and incense, Exod. xxx, 22-38), 
who repaired part of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 
8) ; possibly the same with No. 9. RC. 446. 

12. A son of Shelemiah, and one of the priests who 
ropaired those parts of the wall of Jerusalem opposito 
their houses (Neh. iii, 30). B.C. 446. 

13. A priest, apparently son of Jeremiah, after tho 
captivity (Neh. xii, 12) ; probably the same with one of 
those who celebrated the completion of the walls of Je> 
rusalem (ver. 41). RC 446. 

Hanby, Thomas, an English Wesleyan preacher, 
was bom at Carlisle Dec 16, 1738 ; was left an orphan 
at seven, and bound to a trade at twelve. He had little 
education, but had serious thoughts from infancy, and 
was confirmed at thirteen. Some time after, through 



HANCOCK 



57 



HAND 



MctbodSBtinftaoioe, he was converted. In 1754 he be- 
gan to pnacfaf and, during his fint year of work, was 
oftn in danger of yiolent death from moba. In 17&5 
lie was admitted into the itinerancy. He afterwarda 
pRtehed in moat of the dtiea of the kingdom. He died 
at Noctingham Dec. 29, 1796. Mr. Hanby'a labors tend- 
ed greatly to the spr^ul of vital religion among some 
of the most abandoned and violent districts of England. 
See Jaek8on,Liiwt o/£ar^ Methodist Preacken, i, 274. 
(G.LT.) 

Hancock, Thoxas, a ]>atron of Harvard College. 
He left most of his property to his nephew, governor 
Hancock, bat yet bequeathed £1000 lor the foundation 
of a profeaaorship of the Hebrew and other Oriental lan- 
goages at Harvard ; £1000 to the Society for propaga- 
ting the Gospel among the Indians, and £600 to the 
town of Boston for the establishment of a hospital for 
the insane. He died at Boston August 1, 1764.— ^mi. 
RtSuler, 1764. 

MandC^,3f6d,theopen^aika\ S)!9, itqpA, the Ao^Zcno 
of the partly^doeed hand; Greek x«Pf 1"*^% yomln'; 
the right hand, itlia ; bisiS, tem6l% the left hand, dpta- 
rff>a',cv«n/v;iov),the pTinci]>al organ of feeling, rightly 
denominated by Galen the instrument of instruments, 
SDce this member is wonderfully adapted to the purposes 
for which it was designed, and serves to illostrate the 
visdom and providence of the great Creator QThe Ifcmd, 
its MeckoMUm and vUai Endowments, as evincmg Desupiy 
bf Sir Charies Bell). Considering the multiplex effica- 
cjr of the human hand, the control which it has given 
man, the oonqueet over the external world which it has 
enabled him to achieve, and the pleasing and useful rev- 
olotions and improvementa which it has brought about, 
we are not sorprised to read the glowing eulogy in 
which Gcero (/>e Tiat. Dear, ii, 60) has indulged on the 
iobject, nor to find how important is the part which the 
hand performs in the records of divine revelation. The 
htnd itself serves to distingmsh man firom other terres- 
trial beings. Of the tvro hands, the right has a prefer- 
ence derived from natural endowment. See Lsifr- 

BASDOK 

Hands are the symbols of human action ; pure hands 
sn pore actions; unjust hands are deeds of injustice; 
hsnb fuD of blood, acUons stained with cruelty, and the 
Eke (Pto. xc, 17; Job ix, 80; 1 Tim. ii, 8; laa. i, 15). 
Waafaing of the hands was the symbol of innocence (PiMu 
zxn,6; IxxiiiflS). Of this Filate fimushes an exam- 
ple (Ifatt. xxvii, 24). It was the custom of the Jews to 
vssh their hands before and after meat (see Mark vii,8; 
Hstt ri, 2; Luke xi, 88). Washing of hands was a 
■jnnbol of expiatum, as might be shown by numerous 
■tfennoes; and of sonc/i/StxtfKm, as appears fimm several 
pi9iBges(lCor.vi,ll; Isa.1,16; PBa.xxiv,8,4). See 
Washcso op Hajids. Paul, in 1 Tim. ii, 8, says, <*I will 
thoefbce that men pray everywhere, lifting vp holy 
iamUT etc. (see Job xi, 18, 14). The elevation or ex- 
tomon of the right hand was also the andent method 
of voting in po^polar assemblies, as indicated by the 
Greek term x^po^*^** (Acts xiv, 23; 2 Cor. viii, 19). 
In IVa. Ixxvii, 2, for ''sare," the margin of our version 
liss''hand;7 said the correct sense is, ^ My hands in the 
sight were spread out, and ceased not" 

Toamite the hands together over the head was a ges- 
tae of despairing grief (2 Sam. xiii, 19; Jer. ii,87). The 
cxpreaaon in Jer. ii, 87, "Thy hands upon thy head," 
BST be expilained 1^ the act of Tamar in laying her 
bsod on her head as a sign of her degradation and sor- 
luw (2 Sam. xiii, 19). The expression ^^ Though hand 
join in hand" in Prov. xi, 21, is simply ** hand to hand," 
Md signifies through all ages and generations, ever: 
"throogh aU generations the wicked shall not go un- 
poniahed." 

To the ri^ hand signified to the south, the southern 
qasrter, as the left hand signified the north (Job xxiii, 
^: 1 Sam. xxiii, 19; 2 Sam. xxiv, 5). The term hand 
need ibr a moaument, a trophy of vustory 



(1 Sam. XV, 12); a sepulchral monument, **AhBtikm*9 
Place," Uterally Absalom's Hand (2 Sam. xviii, 18 ; see 
Erdmann, Monumentum A hsalomij Helmst. 1740). So in 
Isa. Ivi, 5, ** to them will I give a place vritfain my walls 
— a monument (or portion) and a name" (Gesenius, Th^ 
sour. Neb, p. 668). 

To g^ve the right hand was a pledge of fidelity, and 
was considered as confirming a promise or bargain (2 
Kings X, 15 ; Ezra x, 19) ; spoken of the vanquished 
giving their hands as a pledge of submission and fidel- 
ity to the victofli (Ezek. xvii, 18 ; Jer. 1, 15 ; Lam. v, 6) ; 
so to strike hands as a pledge of suretiship (Prov. xvii, 
18 ; xxii, 26 ; 2 Chron. xxx, 8, margin). The right hand 
was lifted up in swearing or taking an oath (Gen. xiv, 
22 : Deut. xxxii, 40 ; Ezek. xx, 28 ; Psa. cxUv, 11 ; Isa. 
Ixif, 8) ; similar is the Arabic oath, " By the right hand 
of AUah." (See Taytor's FragmenU, No. 278.) 

Hand in general is the 8}'mbol of power and strength, 
and the right hand more particularly so. To hold by 
the right hand is the symbol of protection and favor 
(Psa. xviii, 85). To stand or be at one's right hand is 
to aid or assbt any one (Psa. xvi, 8 ; cix, 91 ; ex, 5; 
cxxi, 5) ; so also " man of thy right hand," L e. whom 
thou sostainest, eldest (Psa.lxxx, 17); **my hand is 
with any one," i. e. I aid him, am on liis side (1 Sam. 
xxii, 17 ; 2 Sam. xxiii, 12 ; 2 Kings xxiii, 19) ; and to 
take or hold the right hand, i. e. to sustain, to aid (Psa. 
Ixxiii, 28 ; Isa. xli, 18 ; xiv, 1). So the right hand of 
fellowship (Gal. ii, 9) signifies a communication of the 
same power and authority. To lean upon the hand of 
another is a mark of familiarity and superiority (2 Kings 
V, 18 ; vii, 17). To give the hand, as to a mastei, is 
the token of submission and future obedience. Thus, in 
2 Chron. xxx, 8, the words in the original, ^ Give the 
hand unto the Lord," signify. Yield yourselves unto the 
Lord. The like phrase is used in Paa. Ixviii, 81 ; Lam. 
V, 6. ^ Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the 
hand of their masters, and as the eyes of a maiden unto 
the hand of her mistress, so our eyes wait upon the 
Lord our God" (Psa. cxxiii, 2), which refers to the 
watchful readiness of a servant to obey the least sign of 
command (Kitto's DaUy Bible lUust. ad loc.). To kiss 
the hand is an act of homage (1 Kings xix, 18 ; Job 
xxxi, 27). To pour water on any one's hands signifies 
to serve him (2 Kings iii, 11). 'To "seal up the hand" 
(Job xxxvii, 7) is to place one in charge of any special 
business, for which he will be held accountable. Marks 
in the hands or wrists were the tokens of sen'itude, the 
heathens being wont to imprint marks upon the hands 
of servants, and on such as devoted themselves to some 
false deity. Thus in Zech. xiii, 6, the man, when chal- 
lenged for the scan visible on his hands, would deny 
that they had proceeded from an idolatrous cause, and 
pretend that they were the effects of the wounds he had 
g^ven himself for the loss of his friends. The right 
hand stretched out is the s^inbol of immediate exertion 
of power (Exod. xv, 12); sometimes the exercise of 
mercy (Isa. Ixv, 2 ; Prov. i, 24). 

The hand of God is spoken of as the instrument of 
power, and to it u ascribed that which strictly belongs 
to Grod himself (Job xxvii, 11 ; Psa. xxxi, 16; xcv, 4; 
Isa. Ixii, 8; Prov. xxi, 1 ; Acts iv, 28; 1 Pet. v, 6). So 
the hand of the Lord being upon or with any one de- 
notes divine aid or favor (Ezra vii, 6, 28 ; viii, 18, 22, 
18 ; Neh. ii, 8 ; Isa. i, 25 ; Luke i, 66 ; Acts xi, 21) ; fur- 
ther, the hand of the Lord is upon or against thee, de- 
notes punishment (Exod. ix, 8 ; Deut ii, 15 ; Judg. ii, 
15 ; 1 Sam. vii, 13 ; xii, 15 ; Ezek. xiii, 9 ; Amos i, 8 ; 
Acts xiii, 11). In Job xxxiii, 7, " my hand shall not be 
heavy upon thee," the original term is C]?M, ekeph ; and 
the passage signifies '' my dignity shall not weigh heavy 
upon thee" (Gfesenius, s. v.). The hand of Grod upon a 
prophet signifies the immediate operation of his Holy 
Spirit on the soul or body of the prophet, as in 1 Kings 
xviii, 46 ; 2 Kings iii, 15 ; Ezek. i, 8 ; iii, 22 ; viii, 1. Aa 
the hand, so also the^i^^ of God denotes his power or 
Spirit (see Luke xi, 20, and comp. Matt, xii, 28). Thna 



HAND 



68 



HANDFUL 



our Sftyionr cast out devils or damons by his bare ooin- 
mandf whereas the Jews cast them out only by the in- 
Tocation of the name of God. So in Exod. yiii, 19, the 
fiager of God is a work which none but God could per- 
form. See Arm. 

The hands of the high-priest were laid on the head 
of the scape-goat when the sins of the people were pub- 
licly confessed (Lev. xvi, 21). Witnesses laid their 
hands on the head of the accused person, as it were to 
signify that they cluuged upon him the guilt of his 
blood, and freed themselves firom it (Deut. xiii, 9 ; xvU, 
7). The Hebrews, when presenting their sin-offerings 
at the tabernacle, confessed their sins while they laid 
their hands upon the victim (Lev. i, 4). To ** fill one's 
hands," is to take possession of the priesthood, to perform 
the functions of that office; because in this ceremony 
those parts of the victim which were to be offered were 
put into the hand of the new-made priest (Judg. xvii, 5, 
12 ; Lev. x\'i, 82 ; 1 Kings xiii, 33). Jacob laid his hands 
on Ephraim and Manasseh when he gave them his last 
blessing (Gen. xlviii, 14). The high-priest stretched 
out his hands to the people as oflen as he recited the 
solemn form of blessing (Lev. ix, 22). Our Sa\'iour laid 
his hands upon the children that were presented to him 
and blessed them (^lark x, 16). (See Tiemeroth, De 
XtLi^^iaiq, et xctpoXoyi^, Erford. 1754.) 

Imposition of kandi formed at an early period a part 
of the ceremonial observed on the appointment and con- 
secration of persons to high and holy undertakings. In 
Numb, xxvii, 19, Jehovah is represented as thus speak- 
ing to Moses, " Take thee Joshua, the son of Nun, a 
man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon 
him, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before 
all the congregation, and give him a chaige in their 
sight," etc : where it is obvious that the laying on of 
hands did neither originate nor communicate divine 
gifts; for Joshiui had "the spirit" before he received 
imposition of hands ; but it was merely an instrumental 
sign fur marking him out individually, and setting 
him apart, in sight of the congregation, to his arduous 
work. Similar appears to be the import of the observ- 
ance in the primitive Church of Christ (Acts viii, 15- 
17 ; 1 Tim. iv, 14 ; 2 Tim. i, 6). A corruption of this 
doctrine was that the laying on of hands gave of itself 
divine powers, and on this account Simon, the magician 
(Acts viii, 18), offered money, saying, "Give me also 
this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands he may re- 
ceive the Holy Ghost," intending probably to carry on 
a gainful tratle by communicating the ^ft to others. 
See Imposition of Hands. 

The phrase "sitting at the right hand of God," as 
applied to the Sa\dour, is derived from the fact that 
with earthly princes a position on the right liand of the 
throne was accounted the chief place of honor, dignity, 
and power : " upon thy right hand did stand the queen" 
(Psa., xlv, 9 : com p. 1 Khigs ii, 19 ; Psa. Ixxx, 17). The 
immediate passage out of which sprang the phraseobgy 
employed by Jesus may be found in Psa. ex, 1 : " Jeho- 
vah said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand until 
I make thine enemies thy footstooL" Accordingly the 
Saviour declares before Caiaphas (Matt xxvi, 64 ; Mark 
xiv, 62), " Ye shall aec the Son of man sitting on the 
right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heav- 
en ;" where the meaning obviously is that the Jews of 
that day should have manifest proof that Jesus held the 
most eminent place in the divine favor, and that his 
present humiliation would be succeeded by glon", maj- 
esty, and power (Luke xxiv, 26 ; 1 Tim. iii, 16). So 
when it is said (Mark xvi, 19 ; Rom. viii, 34 ; CoL iii, 1 ; 
1 Pet. iii, 22; Heb. i, 3; viii, 1) that Jesus "sits at the 
right hand of God," "at the right hand of the Majesty 
on high," we are obviously to understand the assertion 
to be that, as his Father, so he worketh always (John 
V, 17) for the advancement of the kingdom of heaven, 
and the salvation of the world. 

In CoL ii, 13, 14, "the law of commandments con- 
tained in ordinances" (Ephes. ii, 15) is designated " the 



hcaidwrititig of ordinances that was against ua," which 
Jesus blotted out, and took away, nailing it to his cross; 
phraseology which indicates the abolition, on the part 
of the Saviour, of the Mosaic kw (Wolfius, Curv PhOo- 
log. in N. T. iii, 16). 

Hand-breadth (Heb. Hfia, te'phach, or ntb, to'- 
phack)i the palmy used as a measure of four fingers, 
equal to about four inches (Exod. xxv, 25; xxxvii, 12; 
1 Kings vii, 26 ; 2 Chron. iv, 5 ; Ezek. xl, 5, 43 ; Jer. Iii, 
21 ). In Psa. xxxix, 5, the expression " Thou hast made 
my days palm-breadths," signifies very short, 

H&ndel, Geokg Friedrich, one of the greatest of 
musical composers and mudcians, was bom at Halle,' in 
the Prussian province of Saxony, Feb. 24, 1684. He 
manifested in early >'outh an extraordinary passion for 
music, and at the age of seven was a good player on the 
piano and the oigan. At the age of nine he began to 
compose for the Church service, and continued doing so 
every week until he was thutcen. In 1698 he was sent 
to Berlin, where he enjoyed the instruction of Attilio. An 
offer by the elector of Brandenburg was declined by his 
father. On the death of the latter in 1703, he went to 
Hambuig, where he played a violin in the orchestra of 
the opera, and composed his first opera, Alminu He 
next visited Italy, where he wrote operas for Florence, 
Venice, and Home. On his return from Rome he waa, 
in 1709, appointed chapel-master by the elector of Han- 
over. In 1710 he paid a short visit to England, and in 
1712 he took up his permanent abode in that oountiy. 
He composed, in honor of the peace of Utrecht, his cele- 
brated Te Deum and Jubilate, and numerous opera& 
A Koyal Academy was established (1720) and placed 
under his management, but his violent temper invQl\'ed 
him in many troubles; an opposition house was started, 
and soon both failed, with a loss to Hilndel of £10,00a 
Soon after he quitted the stage altogether, in order to de- 
vote himself wholly to the composition of oratorios. His 
oratorio Esther had appeared as early as 1720; in 1782 
it was produced at the Haymarket Theatre ten nights 
in succession. In 1733 he produced at Oxfoid the ora- 
torio AthaUa; in 1736, Alexander's Feast; in 1738, Is- 
rael in Egypt and UaUegro td ilpenseroso. On the 12th 
of April, 1741, the Messiah, the most sublime of his 
compositions, was produced for the first time in London, 
where it met, however, with no favor ; while in DuUin, 
on the other hand, it was received with the greatest 
applause. Hflndel remained in Dublin for nine months, 
and met there with a generous support. On his return 
to London he composed his Samson, and for the benefit 
of the Foundling Hospital again produced the Messiah, 
which now secured to him a general admiration ; and, 
being repeated annuallv, brought to the Foundling Hos- 
pital, from 1749 to 1777, £10,300. In 1751 Handel be- 
came blind, but he still continued to compose and to 
play on the plana He died, as he wished, on Good 
Friday, April 13, 1759, "in hopes,** he said, "of meeting 
his good God, his sweet Lord and Sa\aour, on the day 
of his resurrection." Among his works, which are in 
the queen's library, are 50 operas — 8 German, 26 Ital- 
ian, 16 English ; 20 oratorios, a great quantity of Church 
music, cantatas, scHigs, and instrumental pieces. He 
was a wonderful musician, and his compositions are 
often full of grandeur and sublimity. His operas are 
seldom performed, but his oratorios hold the same |daoe 
in music that in the English drama is accorded to the 
plays of Shakspeare; and the H&ndel festivals, lasting 
several days, in which they are performed by thousands 
of singers and musicians, are the grandest musical ex- 
hibitions of our times. See Y. Scholchcr, The Life of 
Handel (London, 1857) ; Chrysander, G, F. Handel (LfM. 
1858) ; Gervinus, Handel und Shakspeare (Lpz. 1868) ; 
Contemporary Review, April, 1869, p. 503. (A. J. S.) 

Handful, a representative in the A. Vers, of several 
Heb. terms and phrases: prop. Tj^ ^fhro, the ^2/ o/* the 
hand (1 Kings zvii, 12), or S|a K^p,'to jStf the kattd 



HANDICRAFT 



69 



HANDICRAFT 



("take a handful,** Jjsv. ix, 17); also f^^'p, a >^full 
(Lev. u, 2; v, 12; vi, 15; but sheaf in Gen. xli. 47), or 
yz'^, topretf, flc the fist full (" take a handful," Numb. 
T,26); and ^TU, the hoUow pahn itself (Isa. xl, 12), 
hence its fill (1 Kings xx, 10; Ezek. xiii, 19) ; less prop. 
D^aari (Exod. ix, 8), the two JUtt (as rendered Prov. 
xxxj 4; elsewhere "hands") improp. '^'^Q^ (Jer. ix, 
22), and rns (Ruth ii, 16), which denotes a sheqf (as 
the former is elsewhere rendered), the one as standing 
uncut, and the other as cut and housed f falsely HDB, 
abundance (Psa. Ixxii, 16). 

Handicraft, a general term (not occurring, how- 
ever, in the Hble) for any manufacture. See Artifi- 
cer. Although the extent cannot be ascertained to 
which thooe aits were carried whose invention is as- 
cribed to Tubal-Cain (Gen. iv, 22), it is probable that 
this was proportionate to the nomadic or settled habits 
of the antedilavian races. Among nomad races, as the 
Bedouin Arabs, or the tribes of Northern and Central 
Asia and of America, the wants of life, as well as the 
arts which supply them, are few ; and It is only among 
the city dwelkrs that both of them are multiplied and 
make progress. The following particulars may be gath- 
ered respecting the various handicrafts mentioned in 
the ScriptureSb See Craftsmak. 

1. The preparation of iron for use either in war, in 
agriculture, or for domestic purposes, was doubtless one 
of the earliest applications of labor ; and, together with 
iron, working in brass, or, rather, copper alloyed with 
tin, bronze (r^np, Cksenius, Thes* Heb, p. 875), is men- 
tkmed in the same passage as practiced in antediluvian 
times (Gen. iv, 22). The use of this last is usually con- 
sidered as an art of higher antiquity even than that of 
iron (Hesiod, Works and Days, p. 150 ; Wilkinson, Anc, 
Eg. ii, 152, abridgment), and there can be no doubt that 
metal, whether iron or Inronze, must have been largely 
used, either in material or in tools, for the construction 
of the ark (Gen. vi, 14, 16). Whether the weapons for 
war or chase used by the early warriors of Syria and 
Assyria, or the arrow-heads of the archer Ishmael, were 
of bronze or iron, cannot be asrrrtained; but we know 
that iron was used for warlike puri'.oflcs fa^' the Assyrians 
(Layard, Nin.andBab. p. 194); and, on the other hand, 
that stone-tipped arrows, as was the case also in Mexi- 
co, were used in the earlier times by the Egyptians, as 
well as the Persians and Greeks, and that stune or Hint 
knives continued to be used by them, and by the inhab- 
itanta of the desert, and aim by the Jews, 
for religious purposes, after the introduction 
of iron into general use (Wilkinson, Anc» 
Eg, i, 353, 354; ii, 168; Prescott, Mexico, i, 
118; Exod. iv, 25; Josh, v, 2; 1st Egypt, 
room, Brit. Mua. case 36, 37). In the con- 
struction of the tabernacle, copper, but no 
iron, appears to have been used, though .the 
utility of iron was at the same period well 
known to the Jews, both from their own use 
of it and from their Egyptian education, 
while the Caoaanitish iiSuibitants of Palea- 
tine and Sjrria were in full possession of 
its nse t)oth for warlike and domestic purposes (Exod. 
XX, 25: XXV, 3; xxvii, 19; NumKxxxv, 16; Deut. ill, 
11 ; iv, 20; viii, 9; Josh, vui, 81 ; xvii, 16, 18). After 
the establishment of the Jews in Canaan, the occupa- 
tion of a smith (l!3^ri) became recognised as a distinct 
employment (1 Sam. xiii, 19> The designer of a higher 
order appears to have been caUed specially !3Un (Ge- 
seniua, pi 531 ; Exod. xxxv, 30, 35; 2 Chron. xxvi, 15 ; 
SaalschUtz, A rch. Hebr, c. 14, § 16). The smith's work 
(including workers in the precious metals) and its re- 
Bolta are often mentioned in Scripture (2 Sam. xii, 31 ; 
1 Kiiig8vi,7; 2 Chrun.xxvi,14; Isa.xliv,12; Uv, 16). 
Among the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchad- 
were 1000 ^ craftsmen'* and smiths, who were 



probably of the superior kind (2 Kings xxiv, 16 ; Jeft 
xxix, 2). See Charashim. 

The worker in gold and silver {V\*y^^ ; dpyvpoK6woc ; 
X*»fVfVTTiCi argentarittSf aztr^ex) must have found em- 
ployment both among the Hebrews and the neighboring 
nations in very early times, as appears from the orna- 
ments sent by Abraham to Kebekah (Gen. xxiv, 22, 58 ; 
xxxv, 4; xxxviii, 18; Deut. vii, 25). But, whatever 
skill the Hebrews possessed, it is quite clear that they 
must have learned much from Egypt and its "iron-fur^ 
naces," both in metal-work and in the arts of setting 
and polishing precious stones; arts which were tum^ 
to account both in the construction of the Tabernacle 
and the making of the priests' ornaments, and also in 
the casting of the golden calf as well as its destruction 
by Moses, probably, as suggested by Goguet, by a meth- 
od whibh he had learnt m Egypt (Gen. xli, 42; Exod. 
iii, 22; xii, 85; xxxi, 4, 5; xxxii, 2, 4, 20, 24; xxxvii, 
17, 24 ; xxxviii, 4, 8, 24, 24, 25 ; xxxix, 6, 89 ; Neh. iu, 
8; Isa. xliv, 12). Various processes of the goldsmiths' 
work, including operations in the raw materiid, are illus- 
trated by Egyptian monuments (Wilkinson, w4nc.ii]7.ii, 
136, 152, 162). See Goldsmith, etc 

Aft;er the conquest, frequent notices are found both of 
moulded and wrought metal, including soldering, which 
last had long been known in Egj-pt; but the Phoeni- 
cians appear to have possessed greater skill than the 
Jews in these arts, at least in Solomon's time (Judg.viii, 
24,27; xvii,4; 1 Kings vii, 18, 45, 46; Isa. xli, 7; Wisd. 
XV, 4 ; Ecclus. xxxviii, 28 ; Bar. vi, 60, 65, 57 ; Wilkin- 
son, ii, 162). See Zarefhath. Even in the desert, 
mention is made of beating gold into plates, cutting it 
into wire, and also of setting precious stones in gold 
(Exod. xxxix, 8, 6, etc. ; Beckmann, Uist. o/Inv. ii, 414 ; 
Gesenius, p. 1229). See Metau 

Among the tools of the smith are mentioned tongs 
(tt^Hp^^, XapiQf forceps, Gesenius, p. 761 ; Isa. vi, 6), 

  • 

hammer (C^ZSB, c<pvpdy iTui^iievj, Gcsen. p. 1101), anvil 
(D^&, Gesenius, p. 1 118), bellows (HDa, ^variriip, svffla' 
torium, Gesenius, p. 896 ; Isa. xli, 7 ; Jer. vi, 29 ; Ecclus. 
xxxviii, 'ii8; Wilkinson, ii, 816). See each word. 

In the N. T., Alexander " the coppersmith" (o x^' 
Kivi) of Ephesus is mentioned, where also was carried 
on that trade in ** silver shrines" {vaoi dpyvpoT) which 
was represented by Demetrius the silversmith {apyvpo' 
kovoq) as being in danger from the spread of Christian- 
ity (Acts xix, 24, 28 ; 2 Tim. iv, 14). See Coppersmitil 

2. The work of the carpenter (n'»S5 ttJ'^rr, rfrrwVy 




Carpenters. (Wilkinson.) 



r, drills • bolt In the Mat of • cbalr, • ; I, r, Xegit of chiUr : «, «. adiw ; 9, % sqiura ; *, nuB 

plmUng or polka ing 4h« leg of a ehalr. 

artifex lignarius) is often mentioned in Scripture (e. g. 
Gen. vi, 14; Exod. xxxvii; Isa. xliv, 13). In the pal- 
ace built by David for himself, the workmen employed 
were chiefly Phoenicians sent by Hiram (2 Sam. v, 11 ; 
1 Chron. xiv, 1), as most probably were those, or at least 
the principal of those who were employed by Solomon 
in his works (1 Kings v, 6). But iu the rei)airs of the 
Temple, executed under Joash, king of Judah, and also 
in the rebuilding under Zerubbabel, no mention is made 
of foreign workmen, though in the latter case the tim- 
ber is expressly said to have been brought by sea to 
Joppa by Zidonians (2 Kings xi, 1 1 ; 2 Chron. xxiv, 12; 
Ezra iii, 7). That the Jewish carpenters must havo 
been able to carve with some skill is evident from Isa. 
xli, 7 ; xliv, 13, in which last passage some of the im- 



HANDICRAFT 




HANDICRAFT 

The B-'A & Rings xii, 13} wm probibly 

MOtterHiiaiDDB (''biu]den,"va'.ll}. Among 
tbeir implaoeDU ire mendooed tlie snr 
(rna^, rpiui'), the phunb-line (TIJX.Gesni. 
p. 316), tha meuoiing^ecd (n:p, toXaitos, 
calamiu, Gaea. p. l!?l). As tbey *lso pre- 
pared the Man«B b^ kaumg {I Chnm. xxii, 
2), they muM have used the chisel tud the 
DMllet (na;3Ta, J Kings vi, 7), though no 
mention or the former occuth in Scriptui^ 
They used stoo the meMuring-iiuc CJ:, Job 
luviii, 5; Zech. i, 16) aiMi the axe CiT^l, 
1 Kingi vi, 7), See each irord. Some of 
these, and slso the chisel and millet, are rep- 
mented on Egyptisn moDumeata (Willtin- 
•on, Aoc EggplioM, BIS, 314), or preserved 
in the British Museum (1st Egypt, room, Nol 
6114,6038). The lat^ scones used in ijoio- 
mon's Temple are said by Josephus to have 
been filled together exactly nithcnit either 
mortar or cnmps, but the roundatjon stone* 
to have been fastened with le&d (Joaephua, 
.4n(.viii,3,3j XV, 11,S). For ordiniiy build- 
ing, moftar, T'iB (Gesen. p. 1928), was uaed ; 
sometimes, perhaps, bitumce. a« was the tasa 
■t Babylon (Gen. xi, 3). Thn lime, clay, and 
straw of which mortar is geofially compoeed 
in the East requires to be very carefully mix- 
ed and united so as to reiust wet (Lane, Mod, 
Eg.i,t!\ Shaw, Traaii, p. 206). The wall 
"daubed with untempered mortar" of Eiekiel 
(xiii, 10) was perhaps  sort of cob-wall oT 
mod or clay without lime [3BB, (Jenenius, p. 
1616), which would Bi%-e way uoder heavy 
rain. The use of whitewash on tombs is re- 
marked by out Lord (SUtL xxiii, 27 i see also 
|j MiBhn.Jf(uuer.Siii7i^v, 1). Housesii' -" 



plements used in the trade are mentioned : the 
rale Oy^t /isrpov, norma, possibly a chalk 
pencil, GescniuB, p. 1S37), messuring-Une C^^, 
Gesellius, p. 1301), compass (n^TIIS, icapa- 
ypa^is, cireimia, Uesenius, p. 45U), plane, oi 
amoDthing iusDumsnt (n3!txp13, coAAd, run- 
elaa (Geaen. p. 1223, 1338), axe Citlli, Gesen. 
p. 902, or Q^7P, Gesen. p. 1236, diii^, kcu- 
rv). Sec each of these words. 

The process of the work, and the 
by ERvptian carpenl«rB, and also coopere and 
wheelw^ighrJ^ are displayed in Egyptian mon- 
uments and relics ; the former, including dovet^ting, ' 
veneering, drilling, glueing, varnishing, and inlaying, 
may be seen in Wilkinson, -1 nc. Eg. ii, 111-119, Of the 
latter, many ipecinjena, including saws, halchcfs, knives, 
bwIa, uails, a hone, and a drill, also turned objects in 
bone, exist m the British Museum, Ist Egypt room, case 
42-43, Soa. 6046-6188. See also Wilkinson, ii, p. 113, 
flg. 896. See CARrsNTEit. 

Jn the N. T. the occupation of a carpenter (jitniv) 
is mentioned in connection with Joseph, the husband of 
the Virgin Mary, and ascribed to our Lord himself by 
way of reproach (Hark vl,S; Matt, xiii, 55 ; and Just. 
Hart dial. Ttyph. c. 88). 

8. The masons {C'l'ni, 2 Kings xii, 12 [18], wall- 
iaSderi, (lescnius, p. 269) employed by David and Solo- 
mon, at least the chief of them, were Phtenicians, as is 
implied also in the word B'b:i|l, men of GeIwI, Jebail, 
Byblni (Gesen. p. 258 ; 1 Kings v, 18; Eiek. xxvii, 9 ; 
Burckhardt, %rid, p. 179). Other terms employed are 
Vp laX ••^•;n,a>orten o/ralUlone (2Sam.v,n; 1 
Chii^'xxii, 15); Q^SXh, Hone-niltm or Uwtn (1 
Chroo. xxii, 2, 16, " worfceia of stme ;" Ezra iii, 7, etc). 





HANDICRAFT 



61 



HANDKERCHIEF 



yrifh Icpixwy wen reqairedby the law to be x«p]astered 
(Lev. xir, 40-45). For kindred works in earth and day, 
see Brick, Potter; Glass, etc 

4. Akin to the craft of the carpenter is that of ship 
and boat building, which must have been exercised to 
some extent for the fishing-vessels on the lake of Gen- 
nesaret (Matt, viii, 23 ; ix, 1 ; John xxi, 8, 8). Solomon 
built at Ezion-Geber ships for his foreign trade, which 
-were manned by Phoenician crews, an exi)eriment which 
Jeboshaphat endeavored in vain to renew (1 Kings ix, 
26, 27; xxii, 48; 2 Chron. xx, 86, 87). The shipmen 
were bsn, a sailor (Jonah i, 6 ; Ezek. xxvii, 8, 27-29 ; 
yavnfCi Acts xxvii, 80; Rev. xviii, 17) i iatlJl a"n, 
sk^muMiter (Jonah i, 6; i/avcXffpoc, Acts xxvii, 11); 
nfrp, marmer (Ezek. xxvii, 9, etc *, Jonah i, 6). See 
Suit. 

5. The perfumes used in the religions services, and in 
later times in the funeral rites of monarchs, imply knowl- 
edge and practice in the art of the ** apothecaries" 
(^*^r^T*» fvpt^l^oif pigmeHtaru), who appear to have 
fonned a guild or association (Exod. xxx, 25,35; Neh. 
ui,8; 2 Chnm. xvi, 14; Eccies. vii, 1; x, 1; Ecdus. 
xxxviii, 8). See Perfuke. 

6. The arts of spinning and wea\'ing both wool and 
linen were carried on in early times, as they still are 
usually among the Bedouins, by women. The women 
SfMui and wove goat's hair and flax for the Tabernacle, 
as in later times their skill was employed in like man- 
ner for idolatrous purposes. One of the excellences at- 
tributed to the good housewife is her skill and industry 
m these arts (Exod. xxxv, 26, 26 ; Lev. xix, 19 ; Deut. 
xxii, 11 ; 2 Kings xxiii,7; Ezek. xvi, 16; Prov. xxxi, 
IS, 24 ; Borckhardt, Notes on Bed, i, 65 ; oomp. Homer, 
JLi, 123; OdL i, 356 ; ii, 104). The loom, with its beam 
(^^.3^ fuodvnovy Uciatorium, 1 Sam. xvii, 7 ; Gesen. p. 
883), pin (^n^,iraff9<iXoc,c2aru4, Jadg. x\'i,14; Gesen. 
p. 643), and shuttle (A'^M, tgoiuv^, Job v-ii, 6 ; G^sen. p. 
146) was, perhaps, introduced later, but as early as Da- 
vids time (I Sam. xvii, 7), and worked by men, as was 
the case in Egypt, contrary to the practice of other na- 
tions. This trade aho appears to have been practised 
hereditarUy (1 Chron. iv, 21; Herod. ii,85; Sophocles, 
(Ed, CoL 339). See Weaviho. 

Together ¥rith weaving we read also of embroidery, 
in which gold and silver threads were interwoven with 
the body of the stuff, sometimes in figure patterns, or 
with precious stones set in the needlework (Exoct xxvi, 
1 ; xxviii, 4 ;• xxxix, &-13). See Embroidery. 

7. Besides these arts, those of dyeing and of dressing 
doUi were practiced in Palestine [see Fuller, etc], and 
those also of tanning and dressing leather (Josh, ii, 15- 
18; 2Kingsi,8; MatLiii,4; Acts ix, 43; Mi8hna,i/e- 
ffUL iii, 2). Shoemakers, barbers, and taUors are men- 
tioned in the Mtshna (Pesat^^ iv, 6) : the barber (la^ft, 
KOMTpivg, Gesenius, p. 283), or his occupation, by Ezekiel 
(v, 1 ; Lev. xiv, 8 ; Numb, vi, 5 ; Josephus, Anl, xvi, 11, 
5; War, i, 27, 5; Mishna, Shabb, i, 2) ; and the tailor (i, 
3), plasterers, glaziers, and glass vessels, painters and 
goUworkers, are mentioned in Mishna {CheL viii, 9; 
xxix, 3,4; xxx, 1). 

The art of setting and engraving precious stones was 
known to the Israelites from a very early period (Exod. 
xxviii, 9 sq.> See Gem. Works in alabaster were also 
oommon among them (1D&3)1 *^P)a, smelling-boxes, or 
bases of perfome ; oomp. Mattxxvi, 7, etc). See Ala- 
BAaTEB. They also adorned their houses and vessels 
with ivory (1 Kings xxii, 39 ; Amoe iii, 15 ; vi, 4 ; Cant. 
T» 14). See IvoRT. 

Tent-makers (ffnfyoircMoO are noticed in the Acts 
(scviii, 3), and frequent allusion ia made to the trade of 
the potters. See each word. 

& Bakers (O'^BK, Gesen. p. 186) are noticed in Scrip- 
tore as carrying on their trade (Jer. xxxvii, 21 ; Hos. 
Ti],4; Mishna, CAelL XV, 2); and the well-known ralley 



Tyropceon probably derived its name fhnn the oocnpfr 
tion of the cheese>makers, its inhabitants (Josephu^ 
Wary V, 4, 1). Butchers, not Jewish, are spoken of in 1 
Cor. X, 25. 

Trade in all its branches was much developed after 
the Captivity ; and for a father to teach his son a trade 
was reckoned not only honorable, but indispensable 
(Mishna, Pirhe ^ 5. ii, 2 ; Kiddush, iv, 14). Some trades, 
however, were regarded as less honorable (Jahn, BibL 
ilrc^§84). 

Some, if not all, trades had special localities, as was 
the case formerly in European and is now in Eastern 
cities (Jer. xxxvii, 21 ; 1 Cor. x, 25; Josephus, War^ v, 
4, 1, and 8, 1 ; Mishna, Becor, v, 1 ; Russell, Alejq>Oj i, 
20; Chardin, Voyages, vii, 274, 394; Lane, Mod Eg. ii, 
145). See B^izaar. 

One feature, distinguishing Jewish from other work- 
men, deserves peculiar notice, viz. that they were not 
slaves, nor were their trades necessarily hereditary, as 
was and is so often the case among other, especially 
heathen nations (Jahn, Bibl,Arch, c v, § 81-84; Saal* 
schutz, flebr. Arch.c. 14).— Smith, s. v. ; Kitto, s. v. See 
Mechanic. 

Handkerchief or napkin (aovBdpiov ; Yulg. su- 
darium) occurs in Luke xix, 20; John xi, 44; xx, 7; 
Acts xix, 12. The Greek word is adopted from the 
Latin, and properiy signifies a steeat-doth, or pocket- 
handkerchief, but in the Greek and Syriac langtuiges it 
denotes chiejiy napkin, wrapper, etc In the first of the 
above passages (Luke xix, 20) it means a icrapper, in 
which the " wicked servant*' had laid up the pound in- 
trusted to him by his master. For references to the 
custom of laying up money, etc, in aovddpia, both in 
classical and rabbinical writers, see Wetstein's X, T. on 
Luke xix, 20. lu the second instance (John xi, 44) it 
appears as a kerchief , or cloth attached to the head of a 
corpse. It was perhaps brought round the forehead 
and under the chin. In many Egyptian mummies it 
does not oor«r the face. In ancient times, among the 
Greeks, it did (Nicolaus, De Grtecor. Luctu^ c iii, § 6, 
ThieL 1697). Maimonides, in his comparatively recent 
times, describes the whole face as being covered, and 
gives a reason for the custom (Tract Iifel, c 4). The 
next instance is that of the oovSdpiov which had been 
'* about the head" of our Lord, but which, after his res- 
urrection, was found rolled up, as if deliberately, and put 
in a place separately from the linen clothes. The last 
instance of the Biblical use of the word (and the only 
one in which it is rendered " handkerchief^) occurs in 
the account of " the special miracles*' wrought by the 
hands of Paul (Acts xix, 11) ; " so that aovidpia (hand- 
kerchiefs, napkins, wrappers, shawls, etc.) were brought 
from his body to the sick; and the diseases departed 
from them, and the eWl spirits went out of them.** The 
Ephesians- had not unnaturaUy inferred that the apos- 
tle's miraculous power could be communicated by such 
a mode of contact ; and certainly cures thus received by 
parties at a distance, among a people famed for their 
addictedness to "curious arts," L e. magical skill, etc, 
would serve to convince them of the truth of the Gos- 
pel by a mode well suited to interest their minds. The 
apostle is not recorded to have expressed any opinion 
respecting the reality of this intermediate means of those 
miracles. He had doubtless sufficiently explained that 
these and all the other miracles ^ wrought by his hands,** 
i. c by his means, were really wrought by God (ver. 11) 
in attestation of the mission of Jesus. If he himself 
did not entertain exactly the same ideas upon the sub- 
ject as they did, he may be considered as conceding to, 
or, rather, not disturbing unnecessarily, popular notions, 
rendered harmless by his previous explanation, and af- 
fording a very convenient medium for achieving much 
higher purposes. If the connection between the second- 
ary cause and the effect was real, it reminds us of our 
Saviour's expression, " I percrave that virtue has gone 
out of me" (Mark v, 30) ; which is, however, regarded 
by many critics as a popular mode of saying that he 



HANDLE 



62 



HANES 



knew that a miracle had been wrought by hia power 
and efficacy — a mode of speaking in unuon at least with 
the belief of the woman that she should be healed if she 
could but touch the hem of his garment unperceived by 
him, and perhaps even conceded to, in accordance with 
the miracles wrought through the medium of contact 
related in the Old Testament (1 Kings xvii, 21 ; 2. Kings 
iv, 29, etc), and in order, by a superior display, in re- 
gard both to speed and extensiveness, to demonstrate 
his supremacy by a mode through which the Jews were 
best prepared to perceive it (Luke vi, 19; see Schwarz, 
ad Olear. de Stylo N. T. p. 129; Soler. De PUeo, p. 17; 
Pierson, ad Mar, p. 848 ; Lydii Fhr, Span, ad Pass, J, 
C p. 6; Drusius, QiuBstL Jleb, c, 2; RosenmUller and 
Kuinol on the paasages)^-Kitto, s. v. See Kerchief ; 
Nafkin; Holy Handkerchief. 

Handle (as a noun) occurs but once (Cant v, 5) in 
the plural (niB?, happdth', lit hands), for the thumb- 
pieces or knobs of the bolt or latch to a door (compare 
ni^*^, arms of a throne, etc, 1 Kings x, 19). See Lock. 

Handmaid or handmaiden (HHBI^, sh^hchah% 
or rr^K, amah' J Gren. xvi, 1, etc ; Ruth iii, 9, etc ; SovXriy 
LukeV48), a maid-^ervani (as both Heb. terms are often I he says, « consists of Englbh, Irish, and Germans, Lu- 



tranalated ; the latter being rendered " handmaid** only 
in a metaphorical or self-deprecatory sense). We find 
on the paintings in the tombs of Egypt various repre- 
sentations of female domestics employed in waiting on 
their mistresses, sometimes at the bath, at others at the 
toilette, and likewise in bringing in refireshments and 



ally rendered), a spear orjavdm (Ezek. xxxiz, 9). Set 
Armor. 

Handa, Impoaition o£ See Imposition of 
Hands; Ordination. 

Handacliiilif John Frederick, was the fifth of the 
earlier ministers sent from Halle to America to labor 
among the German population, and to build up the Re- 
deemer's kingdom in this Western hemisphere. He 
was bom of honorable and pious parentage in Halle Jan. 
14, 1714. He was educated at the imiversity, and set 
apart to the work of the ministry in 1744. He com- 
menced his duties in the large and laborious parish of 
Graba, and labored with great success. But when he 
heard of the spiritual destitution of his brethren in Amer- 
ica, and read their earnest appeals, his sympathies were 
stronglv awakened, and he earnestly desired to go to 
their leUef. He huided in Philadelphia April 5, 174S, 
and was welcomed at the Trappe by Dr. Muhlenberg 
with the salutation, " They that sow in tears shall reap 
in joy.*" He was placed at Lancaster, Pa., where he la- 
bored for several years with great success* The con- 
gregation increased, and under his direction a flourish- 
ing school was established and sustained. ** Our school," 



therans and Reformed ; and so anxious are the people to 
have their children instructed, that it is impossible to 
receive all who apply for admission." He subsequently 
took charge of the churches at New Providence and 
Hanover, and thence was transferred to Germantown, 
Pa., and subsequently to Philadelphia, where he died 
Oct 9, 1764. (M.L.S.) 

Ha'nda (Hebrew Chan£s% Oan, doubdess of 
Egyptian etymology'), a place in Egypt only 
mentioned in Isa. xxx, 4 : " For his princes were 
at Zoan, and his messengers came to HaneSb" 
The Septuagint renders the latter clause koI 
ayyiXot aitrov Trowjpoi, "And his ambassadors 
worthless,^ The copy from which this transla- 
tion was made may have read ^ST^"^ DSH in- 
stead of *\y'^y^ CSri; and it is worthy of note 
that the reading DSn is still found in a number 
of ancient MSS. (De Rossi, Farias Lectiones Vet, 
Test, iii, 29), and is appim'ed by Lowth and J. 
D. Hichaeli& The old Latin version follows the 
Sept., "Nuncii pessimi;" but Jerome translates 
from a text similar to our own, rendering the 
A white and a black female Slave waiting upon an ancient Egyp- clause as follows : ^ £t nuncii tui usque ad Ufanes 




tian Lady at a party. 

handing them round to visitors. An upper servant or 
slave had the office of handing the wine, and a black 
woman sometimes followed, in an inferior capacity, to 
receive an empty cup when the wine had been poured 
into the goblet. The same black slave also carried the 
fruits and other refreshments; and the peculiar mode 
of holding a plate with the hand reversed, so generally 
adopted by women from Africa, is characteristically 
shown in the Thcban paintings (Wilkinson, ^4 nc. Eg. i, 
142 sq., abridgm.). See Banquet. It appears most 
probable that Hagar was given to Sarai as her personal 
attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and 
that she was permitted to retain her when she departed. 
Jewish tradition reports that Hagar was a daughter (by 
a concubine, as some say) of Pharaoh, who, seeing the 
wonders wrought on account of Sarai, said, " It is better 
that my daughter should be a handmaid in this house- 
hold thitn a mistress in another," and therefore gave her 
to Sarai. She was, no doubt, a female slave, and one of 
those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from 
£g}^t These females among the Jews, as they still 
are in the East, are entirely under the control of the 
mistress of the family. See Slave ; Uao ar. 

Hand-milL See Milu 

Hand-Btaif (^S?, makhei', a rod or staff aa usu- 



pervenerunt" (Sabbatier, Biblior, Sacromm Latin. 

Verss,, ad loc.). Jerome adds, in his commen- 
tary on the verBe,"Intelligimus ultimam juxta £thi- 
opas et Blemmyas esse iflgypti civitatem." Vitringa 
would identify Hanes with the Aiutsis ('Ai/v<ric) of 
Herodotus (ii, 137 ; compare Champollion, UEgypte, i, 
309; Quatremere, MemoireSj i, 500), which he, with 
Gesenius and others, supposes to be the same as //«« 
rackopoUs {City of Heratles) of Strabo (xvii, 812), the 
ruins of which are now called Andsieh (Edria, A/rie. 
p. 512). The Coptic name was lines or Ehnes, and it 
was one of the ancient royal cities of Egypt. An&- 
sieh stands on a high mound some distance west of 
the Nile, near the pa^lel of Benisu^f. The great ob- 
jection to this theory is the distance of Annsieh from 
Zoan, which stood in the eastern part of the Delta, near 
the sea. (Tcsenius remarks, as a kind of apolop^ for the 
identification of Hanes with Heradeopolis Magna, that 
the latter was formeriy a royal city. It is true that in 
Manetho's list the 9th and* 10th dynasties are said to 
have been of Heradeopolite kings ; but it has lately been 
suggested, on strong grounds, by Sir Gardner Wilkin- 
son, that this is a mistake in the case of the 9th d3maBty 
for Hermonthites (Rawlinson, Herod, ii, 848). If this 
suppofiiUon be correct as to the 9th dynasty, it murt 
also be so as to the 10th ; but the circumstance of Herm- 
cleopolis being a royal city or not, a thousand yeaia 
before Isaiah's time, is obWously of no consequence here. 



HANGING 6 

Hm pniphKy ia a reproof of the Jews foi trusting in 
Egjpi; ind, icconluif; to the Muoretic text, meadm 
b milf a! sii embuBv. pinhaps from Hoehea, or else 
fram Ahai, iir pombly Mezekiah, to a Pharaoh, As the 
iing whwe aanstatice ia asked ia called Phuiob, he ia 
{vobably iiot an Elhiopian of rlie S5th dynasty, for the 
kisga of that line aiG mentioDed by name — SogTiihakah 
— bat a soverdgti of the 2Sd dynasty, which, according 
lo Hanelho, was oT Tanite kings. It ia supposed that 
the teat kinR of the latler dynasty, Manetbo's Zet, is the 
Setb«orilnodo(ua,the king in whose time Sennache- 
rib*! aimy perished, and who ^peaiB lo have been men- 






hby 



iiiTi,6! i Kinga xviii, SI), though it ia just poaaible 
that Tlriiakah may have been intended. If the refer- 
ence be to an embamy to Zet, Zoan was probably his 
ctpiul, and in any case then the moat important city 
of the eastern part of Lower Egypt, Haues was most 
proliably in its neifrhborhood ; and ve an disposed to 
think that the Cbald. Par^ihr. is right iu identifying it 
with ToApaaieM (Dn^HP, or Dni&nri, once written, 
if the A'ffAA be correct, in the form DISnn, DaphBa), 
I foniSed town on the eastern firontier. Grotiua con- 
■dcrs Hann a contraction of this name (Commtjitar. ad 
Idc). With this may be connected the remark of De 
BiH— •'Codex meus 3fiO poUt ad Ua^.esse ChSEnn, 
Jer.ii,ie-(rar.iert.,Lc). On the whole, this seems 
to be the most probable theory, as Tahpanhes was situ- 
Bled in the eastern part of the Delta, and «aa one of 
the royal cities ibrmt the lime of laaiah. — Kitio, s. v.; 
Uth, s. V. See Tahfakhks, 

Hangilig (as a punishment, S^pirt, to intpaie with 
diabcation of the limbe, Niunlk xxv, 1 ; 2 Sam. xxi, 6, 
9: n^r. to sutpad, as among the Hebrews, Deut. xxi, 
12: theE»o-plians,Gen.x1,19i and (he retBtans.Estti. 
Tii,li):v,14i Kfufiai'vu/ii). See Crl'cifuiion. Haiig- 
E or gibljet ap- 

boilies of criminal^ 
: than a puniihment, 
as modem nations employ 
it. The person suspended 
was considered as a rvnr, 
on abomination iit the sight 
of God, and as reccii'ing 
this token of infamy at his 
hand. The body, never- 
Inpalament ofPrlMntenhe-thelesB, waa to be taken 
fcethe Walls. From the down and buried on the 
issymn Monnmcnu. ,^^ ^^^ ,^^ hanging 
nentioued in 2 Sam. jcxi, 6, was the work of the Gib- 
eoiitea, and not of the Hebrews. Posthumous suspen- 
Bon cd' this kinL for the porpoae of conferring ignominy, 
diifcra materially from the crucifixion tlist was prac- 
ticed 1^ the RonWH, although the Jews fcave such an 
extent lo the law in Deut. xxi, 23, 23, as lo include the 
last-named ponishroent (John xix, 31 ; Acta v, 80; GaL 
iii, 13 ; I Pet. ii, 24). The more recent Jews attributed 
the origin of the punishment of strangulation to Moses, 
and suppnaed it to have been meant In' the phnse, " He 
Shan die the death," but without caiue. See Pt-xisii- 

HANfilNO (aa a curt^n) is the rendering of three 
Heb. terms, two ofihem having reference to the fumi- 
loie of the tabernacle and Temple. 

1. The "hanging" (TJOa, moiak' ; Sept. iitintaa- 
rpov.Tulg. lailoriaBL) was a curtain or cocering (at the 
word mdicsDy means, and aa it is somelimes rendered) 
to cloae an entrance. It was made of variegated aluff 
wroDRht with needlework (compare Eath. i. 6), and (in 
one in-tnnce, at least) waa hung on five pillara of acacia 
wood. The term is applied to a series df curlalna sm- 
poided before the successive qienings of entrance into 
the tafaemack and its patt& Of theae, the first hung 




HANNAH 



before the entrance lo the court of the tabemacls (Exod 
xn-ii,lB; xxxviii, 18; Numb.iv, 26>; Iha second be- 
Ibre the door of the tabernacle (Exod. xxvi, Sfi, 87; 
xxxiK, 88); and the third before the entrance to the 
Most Holy Place, called more fully "Oan riS^B ("vul 
of the covering," Exod. xxiv, 12; x'liix, 34;'xl, 21). 
See Curtain. 

2. The "hangitige" (Cir^p, hlatm' i Sept. iaria, 
Vulg. lailoria) were used for coverinp the walla of the 
labeniade, just as tapestry was in modem limes (Exod. 
xxrii, 9i XXXV, 17; xxxviii, 9; Numb, ill, 26; iv, 26). 
The rendering in the Sept, implies that they were made 
of the same subetance as the sails of a ship, L e. as ex- 
plained by Rashi) "meshy, not woven:" Ihia opinion is, 
however, incorrecl, as the' material of which they were 
csjnstnicted waa " fine Iwmed linen." The hanjpngs 
were carried only five cubits high, or half the height of 
the walls of the court (Exod. xxvii, 18; compare xxvi, 
16). They were fastened to pillara which ran aloDg the 
udcs of the court (xxvii. 19'). Sec TABER.VACI.B. 

8. The "hangings" (C^Pia, toltiia', 2 Kuigs xxiii, 7, 
mari^n knata, which is the literal rendering) are of 
doubtful import. Ewald coujectures thai the reading 
should be B''793, ctotha, and supposes the reference to 
be to dresses for the images of Astartc ; but this ia both 
gratuitous and superfluous. The bollim which these 
women wove were probably cloths for tents used as 
portable sanctuaries.— Kiltti ; Smith. See Iihjlatrv. 

Han'Hl (1 Chron. vii, 39> See Hanniei. 

Htuunet, Herehitii, an Enghsh Chureh historian, 
was bom at Porkington, Shropshire, in IMS. He be- 
came chaplain of Corjius Chrisli College, Oxford, and 
aflerwarda rector of St. Leonard, at Shoreditch, Hera 
he sold the brass omamenls which decorstcil the graves 
of the church, which so displeased his parishionera that 
he was obliged to resign about 1(193. He then went to 
IreUnd, where he was fiuallv maile trcaaurar of Ihe 
Church of the Holy Triuily, Dublin. He died in 160*, 
not without suspicion of suicide. He waa a skilful 
Greek scholar, and well acquainted with Church histo- 
rj-. He wrote Tramlation nj' Ihe andnil trrlttiiufical 
Hiiloriii oflhtfinliixbiaiditd Yean ojier Chritl, orig- 
iaaUg tcrilten h/ Eaiebim,SoeTatri,iaid Kragrisi (1578; 
reprinted in 1585 with the addition of The Litei n/tlit 
ProphfU and Apo^la by Dorolheut, l^iAep of Tyrt) ;-~ 
The Ephemerii of Ihe Saiali of Ireland; aiut Ihe Chnxt- 
ieU of irfland (Dublin, 1633, foL): — .4 ChrnruyraplOf 
(Lond. 1585, fed.). Sec Fuller, Waiihieti Wood, Alhe- 

Sma'aait(Heb.ChannaA',nn,ffraeiaiiiKa; SepL 
"Ahiq ; comp. Akna, a name known lo Ihe Phteniciana 
[Gesen. Mob. Phm. p.- 400"), and attributed by Viigil to 
Dido'a sister), wife of a Levite named Elkanah, and 
mother of Samuel (1 Sam. i, ii). She was very dear to 
her husband, but, Iwing childless, was much aggrieved 
by the iniulla of Elkanah's other wife, I'eninnab, who 
was lleaeed with children. The family lived at Ranu- 
thaim-zophim, and, as the taw required, there was a 
yearly journey to offer sacrilices at the sole altar of Je- 
hovah, which was then at Shiloh. Women were not 
l>ound to attend ; but pious females free from Ihe cares 
of a family often did so, especially when ihe husband 
was a Levite. Every time that Hannah went there 
childless she declined to lake part in the festivittea 
which foltowed the sacrifices, being then, aa it aeemi, 
peculiarly exposed to the taunts of her rival At length, 
on one of these visits to Shiloh, while she prayed before 
returning home, she vowed to devote to the Almighty 
the son which she so earnestly desired (Numb, xxx, I 
sq.). It seems to have been the custom to pronounce 
all vows at Ihe holy place in a loud voice, under the 
immediate notice of the priest (Deut, xxiii, 28; Pm. 
xxvi. 14); but Hannah prayed in a low tone, so that 
her lips only were seen lo move. This attracted Iha ' 
attention of the high-piiest, Eli, who suspected that sh* 



HANNAH 



64 



HANTOf 



had taken too mach wine at the recent feast. From 
this suspicion Hannah easily vindicated herself, and re- 
turned home Mrith a lightened heart. Before the end 
of that year Hannah became the rejoicing mother of a 
son, to whom the name of Samuel was given, and who 
was from his birth placed under the obligations of that 
condition of Nazariteship to which his mother had 
devoted him. B.C.1142. Haraiah went no more to Shi- 
loh till her child was old enough to dispense with her 
maternal sen'iccs, when she took him up with her to 
leave him there, as it appears was the custom when one 
already a Levite was placed under the additional obli- 
gations of Nazariteship. When he was presented in 
due form to the high-priest, the mother took occasion 
to remind him of the former transaction: ''For this 
child," she said, ** I prayed, and the Lord hath given me 
my petition which I asked of him"* (1 Sam. i, 27). Han- 
nah's gladness afterwards found vent in an exulting 
chant, which furnishes a remarkable specimen of the 
early lyric poetry of the Hebrews (see Schlosser, Cantir 
cam Ifamur, Erlangen, 1801), and of which many of the 
ideas and images were in after times repeated by the 
Virgin Mary on a somewhat similar occasion (Luke i, 
46 sq. ; comp. also Psa. cxiii). It is specially remarka- 
ble as containing the first designation of the Messiah 
under that name. In the Targum it has been subjected 
to a process of magniloquent dilution, for which it would 
be difficult to find a parallel even in the pompous vaga- 
ries of that paraphrase (Eichhom, EinL ii, 68). After 
this Hannah failed not to visit Shiloh every year, bring- 
ing a new dress for her son, who remained imder the eye 
and near the person of the high-priest 8ee Sauukl. 
That great personage took kind notice of Hannah on 
these occasions, and bestowed his blessing upon her and 
her husband. The Lord repaid her abundantly for that 
which she had, to use her own expression, ^lent to 
him;*' for she had three sons and two daughters after 
Samuel (see Kitto's Daily Bible Illust.).^Yi\XXo^ s. v. 

Hannah, John, D.D., an eminent Wesleyan minister, 
was bom at Lincoln, Eng., Nov. 3, 1792, After receiving 
a Christian education, he entered the Wesleyan ministry 
in 1814 at Bruton, Somersetshire. From 1815 to 1817, 
inclusive, he was on the Gainsborough Circuit; 1818 to 
1820, Lincoln; 1821 to 1823, Nottingham; 1824 to 1826, 
Leeds; 1827 to 1829, third Manchester Circuit; 1830 to 
1832,Huddersfield; 1838, Liverpool ; and in 1834 he be- 
came theological tutor at the Wesleyan Training Insti- 
tution at Hoxton. In 1842 he was removed to the 
college at Didabur\% where he remained as theological 
tutor till he became a supernumerary at the Conference 
of 1867. In the year that he was removed to Didsbury 
he was elected president of the Conference (London), 
and he was again president in 1851, when the Confer- 
ence>met at Newcastle upon Tyne. He was Conference 
Bccretary in the years 1840, 1841, 1849, 1850, and 1854 
to 1858. On two occasions he represented the Wesley- 
an Conference, once with the Kev. R. Reece, and the 
second time with Dr. J. F. Jobeon, at the General Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United 
States. His full term of service as a Methodist minia- 
ter extended without interruption from 1814 to 1867 — 
J^fiy-three years. After becoming supernumerary in 
1867 be continued to reside at Didsbury, imder an ar- 
rangement liberally devised by Mr. Heald and other 
prominent Wesleyan laymen. He died in Didsbury 
ftom congestion of the lungs, after a brief illness, Dec. 
29, 1867. *<For about thirty -three years he was a 
chief instructor of the young Wesleyan ministry, send- 
ing out such men as Arthur, Hunt, Calvert, etc ; men 
who have attested his salutary power throughout the 
United Kingdom, and in the hardest mission fields of 
the Church. Nearly three hundred preachers were 
trained by him. His influence over the connection 
through these men has been beyond ail estimation. As 
a preacher he was exceedingly interesting and effective 
— ^not remarkably ' fanciful,* seldom rising into declama- 
tion, but full of entertaining and impreasiYe thought, | 



and a certain sweet grace, or, rather, gndoomeas and 
unction, which charmed aU devout listeneia. He was 
singularly pertinent, and often surprisingly beaiuifbl in 
Scripture ciution; his discourses were mosaics of the 
finest gems of the sacred writings. He was a fond stu- 
dent of the sterling old Anglican divines ; he delighted, 
in his vacation excursions, to make pilgrimages to their 
old churches and graves, and his sermons abounded ia 
the golden thoughts of Hooker, South, and like think- 
ers. He was constitutionally a modest man, in eariy 
life nen'ously timid of responsibility, but, whether in 
the pulpit fut on the platform, always acquitted himself 
with ability; and often his sensitive spirit kindled into 
a divine glow that rapt himself and his audience with 
holy enthusiasm. For fifty-three years his labon for 
Methodism had no interruption; they were unobtru- 
sive, steady, quietly energetic, and immeasurably use- 
fuL With Thomas Jackson, he was one of the last of 
that second and mighty rank of Wesleyan preachen^ 
headed by Bunting, Watson, and Newtoi^ who, when 
Wealey*s immediate companions were rapidly disappear- 
ing, caught the Methodistic standard from their trem- 
bling hands, and bore it forward abreast of the advanc- 
ing times, and planted it, especially by the missionary 
enterprise, in the ends of the earth. He was, withal, a 
model of Christian manners— a perfect Christian gentle- 
man ; not in the sense deprecated by Wesley in his old 
Minutes, but in the sense that Wesley himself so com- 
pletely exemplified. His amiability and modesty di^ 
armed envy. No prominent man passed through the 
severe internal controversies of Wesleyan Methodian 
with less crimination from antagonists. The whole 
connection spontaneously recognised him as unimpeach- 
able, amid whatever rumors or damora. All instinc- 
tively turned towards him as an example of serenity, 
purity, and assurance, in whatever doubtful exigenqr. 
The influence of Dr. Hannah^s character, aside fh>m his 
talents, on the large ministry which he educated, has 
been one of the greatest blessings Wesleyan Methodism 
has enjoyed in this generation." — Methodist (newspa- 
per), Jan. 25, 1868; Annual American Cydopeedia for 
1867, p. 601 ; Wesleyan Minutes, 1868, p. 14. 

Han'nathon (Heb. ChannatAon% "('iPin, gradous- 

ly regarded; Sept. 'Awa^uv, v. 'Ewa^w^ and 'Afiw^), 
a place on the northern boundary of Zebulon, I4>parent- 
ly about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the 
valley of Jiphthah-El (Josh, xix, 14) ; probably among 
the range of Jebel Jermik, not far from el-Mughar. 

Han'niSl (Heb. Chanmel\ iX'^SH. grace of God; 
Sept 'Avu^X, Yulg. Hasmid and Hcand), the name of 
two men. 

1. Son of Ephod and phylarch of the tribe of Manas- 
seh, appointed bjr Moses at the divine nomination as 
one of the commissioners to diWde the promised land 
(Numb, xxxiv, 28). B.C. 1618. 

2. One of the sons of Ulla and chief of the tribe of 
Asher (1 Chron. vii, 89, where the name is less correct- 
ly AngUcized " Haniel"> RC ante 720. 

Ha^noch (Gen. xxv, 4 ; xlvi, 9 ; Exod. vi, 14 ; Kamhi 
xxvi, 5 ; 1 Chron. v, 3). See Enoch S, 4. 

Ha'noohite (Heh. CAonoK', *^3'3n; Sept. 'Eywx* 
Vulg. Henockilte, Eng. Vers. '* Hanochites"), a descend- 
ant of Ekocu or Hanoch, the son of Reuben (Numix 
xxvi, 5). 

Hans Saoha. See Sachs. 

Hainan (Heb. Chanun% 'flit^,faoored}, the name 
of three men. 

1. (Sept 'Avwv and *Avav.) The son and su^ 
ceasor of Nahash, king of the Ammonites (2 Sam. x, 1- 
4 ; 1 Chron. xix, 2-6). David, who had in his tzoofales 
been befriended by Nahash, sent, with the kindest inten- 
tions, an embassy to condole with Hanun on the deeth 
of his father, and to congratulate him on his own aooes- 
sion. B.C. cir. 1035. The rash young king, however, 
was led to misi^rehend the motives of this voabtUKj, 



HANWAT 



66 



HAPHTARAH 



Old to treat with grofls and inexpiable indignity the 
hoDQimble penonages whom David had chaxged with 
this wii— inn- Their beaida were kalfthayeD, and their 
robes cat short by the middle, and diey were diamissed 
in this sbamefbl trim, which can be appreciated only 
by thoae who consider how reyerenUy the beard has al- 
ways been regarded by the Orientals. See Beajkd. 
When the news of this affront was brought to David, 
he sent word to the ambassadors to remain at Jericho 
till the growth of their beards enabled them to appear 
with decency in the metropolis. He vowed vengeance 
npoo Hanun for the insult; and the vehemence with 
which the matter was taken up forms an instance, in- 
tocsting from its antiquity, of the respect expected to 
be paid to the pezson and cbaracter of ambassadors. 
Hanon himself looked for nothing less than war as the 
conseqiicnoe of his condnct; and he subsidized Hadare- 
and other Syrian princes to assist him with their 
The power of the Syrians was broken in two 
campaigna, and the Ammonites were left to their fate, 
which was severe even beyond the usual severities of 
war in that remote age. B.CL dr. 1034.— Kitto, s. v. 
Sec AamonrrB; David. 

2. (Sept. 'Avow.') A person who repaired (in con- 
nection with the inhabitanta of Zanoah) the VaDey- 
gate ofJerusalem after the Ci4>tivity(Neh.iii, 18). KG. 
446. 

3. (Sept 'Avw/i.) A son (<<the sixth") of Zalaph, 
who likewise repaired part of the waUs of Jerusalem 
CNeh.iii,80> KG. 446. 

Han'way, Josas, an English, philanthropist, was 
ben at Fbrtamouth in 1712. He established himself as 
a merchant at St. Petenbuig, and became connected, 
through his Russian dealings, with the trade into Persia. 
Boancss having led him into that country, he published 
in 1758 A kittorieal AcootaU of the British Trade over 
the CatgnoM Sea, tnHA a Joumai of Travebfiom London 
tkrouffk Rtuiia into Perria (4 vols. 4to), **a work of no 
pretenaioD to literary elegance, but containing much 
information on the commercial subjects of which he 
speaks, and on the history and manners of Persia. 
The latter part of his life was employed in supporting, 
by his pen and personal exertions, a great variety of 
diaritafaie and philanthropic schemes ; and he gained so 
high and honorable a name that a deputation of the 
chief merchanU of London made it .their request to gov- 
cfmnent that some substantial mark of public favor 
ahonld be conferred on hiuL • He was, in consequence, 
made a commissioner of the navy. The Marine Society 
and the Magdalen Charit}', both still in existence, owe 
their establishment mainly to him; he was also one of 
the great promoters of Smiday-scboQis. He died in 
1786." He published also The Importance of the Ijord^t 
St^fer (London, 1782, 12mo) i—ReJIeetionM on Life and 
BMpom (Lond. 1761), 2 vols. 8vo). See Pugh, Remark- 
abie Oecurreneee in ike L{fe qf Jonas Hanway (London, 
1787, 8vo); English Cydopadia; Allibone, Dictionary 
iffAMtkors, 1,782. 

Muphm'^m (Hebrew Chcqihara'yim, B??&^ ^vo 
fita; Sept. 'A^paffi, Yulg. Hapharaim), a place near 
the bonkt of Issachar, mentioned between Shunem and 
Shihon (Josh, xix, 19). Eusebius {Onomasf, s. v. Ai^a- 
paaift) appears to place it six Boman miles north of Le- 
gk>; the Apocrypha also possibly speaks of the same 
place as Apii^siikiia (Afaiptua, 1 Mace xi, 84; com- 
pare z, 80, 88). Schwarz {Pallettinef p. 166) was unable 
to find iL JiL3epat{}VandkartewmPaUlstina,lSb7)lO' 
ettjen it near the river Kishon, apparently at Tell eth- 
Tkorak (Robinson's Researches, new ed. iii, 115). Dr. 
Thomson (Land and Book, i, 502) imagines it may be 
the modem Shefa Amer (the Shrfa Omar of Robinson, 
Alsaeeiraftef^ new ed. iii 103, ''on a ridge overlooking the 
pfadn** of Megiddo), which, he sa3rs,*'in old Arabic au- 
thon is written Bkephr-omJ* See Issachar. 

Haphtarah, pL HafhtabSth (l^^lph, dwmw- 
i&N^ ni*)Of n)i Thia expression, which is found in 

IV^E 



foot-notes and at the end of many editions of the He- 
brew Bible, denotes the different lessons from the proph- 
ets read in the synagogue every Sabbath and festival 
of the year. As these l«nons have been read ftom time 
immemorial in conjunction with sections ftom the law, 
and as it is to both " the reading of the law and the 
jtrcpheis*' that reference is made in the N. T. (Acts xiii, 
15, etc), we propose to discuss both together in the pres- 
ent article. 

1. CUusificaHon of the Lessons, their Titles, Sigmfica- \ 
Hon, «fe.— There are two classes of lessons indicated in 
the Hebrew Bible : the one consists oijifiy-four secdons, 
into which the entire law or Pentateuch (n*lin) is di- 
vided, and is called Parshioth (py^W^t, plur. of mo^^t, . 
ftom W^t, to separate) ; and the other consists of a cor- 
responding number of sections selected from diflbrent 
parts of the prophets, to be read in conjunction with 
the former, and denominated Haphitaroth, As the sig- 
nification of this term is much disputed, and is intimate- 
ly connected with the view about the origin of these 
prophetic lessons, we must defer the discussion of it to 
section 4. The division of the Pentateuch into jyhf* 
ybttr sections is to provide a lesson for each Sabbath of 
those years which, according to Jewish chronology, 
have fifty-four Sabbaths (see sec 2), and to read through 
the vhole Pentateuch, with large portions of the differ- 
ent prophets, in the course of every year. It mus*^. be 
observed, however, that this annual cycle was not uni- 
versally adopted by the ancient Jews. There were 
some who had a triennial cycle (comp. Megilla, 29, b). 
These divided the Pentateuch into one hundred and 
fifty^hree or Jiftg-five sections^ so as to read through 
the law in Sabbatic lessons once in three years. This 
was still done by some Jews in the days of Maimonides 
(camipenJadHa^^JhazaJBaHilchoih 7<9>AtUb,xiii, 1), and 
Benjamin of Tudela tells us that he found the Syrian 
Jews followed this practice in Memphis (ed. Asher, i, 
148). The sections of the triennial divisbn are called 
by the Masorites Sedarim or Sedaroth (D'^'I'lD, hI'lID), 
as may be seen in the Masoretic note at the end of Ex- 
odus: *'Here endeth the book of Exodus ... it hath 
eleven Parshioth {rW^VS^t, L e. according to the an- 
nual division), twenty-iune Sedaroth (HI'^^D, L e. ac- 
cording to the triennial division), and forty chapters 
(D'^p'^fi)." Besides the Sabbatic lessons, special por- 
tions of the law and propheto are' also read on every 
festival and fast of the year. It must be noticed, more- 
over, that the Jews, who have for some centuries almost 
univerBslly foQowed the annual division of the law, de- 
nominate the Sabbatic section Sidra (K^'7*iC), the 
name which the Masorites give to each portion o( the 
triennial division, and that every one of the fifty-four 
sections has a q)ecial title, which it derives from the 
first or second word with which it commences, and by 
which it is quoted in the Jewish writings. To render 
the following description more intelligible, ss well as t% 
enable the student of Hebrew exegesis to identify the 
quotations from the Pentateuch, we subjoin on the two 
following pages chronological tables of the Sabbatical 
Festival aiid Fast Lessons ftom the Law and Prophets, 
and their titles. (See Clarke's Commentary, s. f. Deu- 
teronomy.) 

2. '' The Reading of the Law and Prophets as indictP' 
ted in the Hebrew Bile, and practiced ly the Jews at the 
present day, — ^As has already been remarked, this divi- 
sion into^fifty-four sections is to provide a special lesson 
for every Sabbath of those years which have fifty-four 
Sabbaths. Thus the intercalary year, in which New Year 
falls on a Thursday, and the months Marcheshvan and 
Kialev have twenty-nine dajrs, has fifty-four Sabbaths 
which require special lessons. But as ordinary years 
have not so many Sabbaths, and those years in which 
New Year falls on a Monday, and the months Marche»- 
van and Kialev have thirty days, or New Year falls on 



HAPHTARAH 



66 



HAPHTABAB 



I. Tabub of Sabbatic Lbssoks. 



Wo. 


llMOfvlle Tltb 
ofthcLaMoo. 


FsrllM of th« law. 


TIm Propfaata. 


1 


crrora 


Gen. 1, 1— vi, 8. 


iBii. xlii, 0-xUli, 10, or* to Isa. zlU, 91. 


S 


na 


vi,0-xl,89. 


Isa. Ut, 1— It, 0, or to 11t, 10. 


8 


i^-p 


xli, 1— xvii, 97. 


Ifia.xl,97-xll,16. 


4 


Dm 


xvlii,l— xzii,94. 


9 Elugs It, 1-87, or to Ter. 98. 





fl"!W ^''H 


zzUi,l-zxv,m 


1 Kings i, 1-81. 


6 


nrrjn 


zzT, 10— zxviil, 9. 


Malachll,l-ii,7. 


7 


•tm 


zxTiii, lO-xxzii, 8L 


Hofl. xl, 7— xii, 19, or to Ter. 18. 


8 


vfyv^ 


xxzil,4-xxzvi,4S. 


Hofl. xy, 18-xiT, 10, or Obad. l-O. 


9 


^trf\ 


xxxvii, 1— xl, 9& 


Amos U, 6-111,8. 


10 


Ypa 


xli,l-xUY,17. 


1 Kings ill, 10-lT, 1. 


11 


WT«1 


xllT,18-xlvll,97. 


Szek. xxxTll, 10-98. 


IS 


Tn 


xlTii, 98— 1,96b 


1 Kings li, 1-19. 


18 


hinv 


Bxod.l,l-vl.l. 


l8a.xxTii,6-xxTm,18: zzlx, 89, 98, or Jer. i, l-il, 8. 


14 


jrwi 


yl, 2-ix, 80. 


Ezek. xxTlU, 9ft-xxlx, 91. 


10 


K2 


x,l-xiU,m 


Jer.xlTi,lfr-88. 


18 


rtJBs 


xUl,17— xvll,16. 


Jndg. It, 4— t, 31, or v, 1-81. 


17 


•nm 


xvlU,l— xx,98. 


Isa. Tl, 1— vll, 6 ; Ix, 0, 6, or Tl, 1-18. 


18 


D^fifDQ 


xxl, 1— xxlv, 18L 


Jer. xxxlT, 8-99 ; xxxUi, 90-96. 


19 




XXT, 1— xxvll, 19. 


lKlug8T,96— tI,18. 


90 


Tntn 


xxvll, 90— xxz, 10. 


Bxek. xtlll, 10-97. 


91 


Kon ^ 


xxz, 11— xxxlv, 8& 


1 Kings xvlli, 1-89, or xrill, 90-89. 


99 


pnpfn 


XXXT, 1— XXXTili, 20. 


1 Kings Tli, 40-00, or vU, 18-96. 


98 


•^V^ 


xxxTlll,91-.x],86. 


1 Kings Til, 01— Till, 91, or vll, 40-00. 


94 


anp^-^ 


Levlt l,l-v.96. 


I88.xim,91— xUt,98. 


90 


nx 


▼i, 1— vlll, 86. 


Jer. Til, 91-TlU, 8 ; ix, 99, 98. 


96 


WOT 


lx,l— xl,47. 


9 Sam. Ti, 1— t11, 17, or vi, 1-19. 


97 


y^Tn 


xli,l-xiU,60. 


9Kingslv,49-T,19. 


98 


jnrRRa 


xlv, 1— XV, 88. 


9 Kings Til, 8-8a 


99 


HUD "nrrjc 


xvl,l— xvm,80. 


Szek. xxii, 1-19. 


80 


OVlTp 


Tlx.l— xx,97. 


Amoa ix, 7-10, or Ezek. zz, 9-90. 


81 


nnoK 


xxl, 1— xxiv, 98. 


Szek. xHv, 10-81. 


89 


•vra 


XXT, 1— xxtI, 9. 


Jer. xxxil, 6-97. 


88 


tT^a 


xxvI,9-xxvU,84. 


Jer. XTi, 10— xvU, 14. 


84 


■Q-rna 


Knmb. i, 1— W, 90. 


Hoe. 11, 1-89. 


80 


Kva 


ly,91— vU,80. 


Jadg. xlil, 9-90. 


86 


Tn'^'jKTa 


Tlii,l— xli,16. 


Zech.ii,14-lT,7. 


87 


-pi^v 


xlii,l-xy,41. 


Josh. 11, 1-94. 


88 


H-ip 


xvi,l— xvlll,89. 


9 Sam. xi, 14— xll, 99. 


80 




xlx,l-xxil,l. 


Jndg. xl, 1-38. 


40 


xxll, 9— XXT, 9. 


MIcali T, 6— tI, 8. 


41 


ZXY, 10— xzx, 1. 


1 Kings xTlii, 46— xfz, 91 if it is before Tammos 17, after 








this date Jer. 1, 1—11, 8. 


49 


ri^Q 


xxz, 9— xxzil, 49. 


Jer. 1.1— 11,8. 


48 


"9073 


XXxUi, 1— XXXTi, 18. 


Jer. 11, 4-90. 


44 


^-nyt 


Dent 1,1-111, 89. 


Isa. 1,1-97. 


46 


•nrmKi 


111,93-yli,ll. 


Isa. xl, 1-96. 


46 


ap5 


Yll,19-xl,90. 


I8a.xlix,14— 11,8L 


47 


nSn 


xi,96-xyl,17. 


Isa. Ut, 11— It, 0. 


48 


Q^BIS 


xvI,18-xx1,9l 


Isa. 11, 19-111,19. 


40 


icxn-o 


ZXi, 10— XXT, 19. 


Isa. Ut, }-10- 


00 


Kian-o 


zxTi, 1— xxix, 8. 


Isa. Ix, 1-29. 


01 


D'*2S3 


xxix, 9— XXX, 90. 


Isa.lxl,10-lxlU,9. 


59 


t'^ 


xxxl, 1-80. 


Isa.lv,6-lTl,8. 


08 


ITTKn 


xxxil, 1-09. 


9 Sam. xxU, 1-01 In some places. Biek. zrll, 99— zriil, S9. 


04 


reran nxn 


zxxiii, 1— zxzlT, 19. 





* The first reference always shows the Haphtarah according to the German and Polish Jews (D'nstDX) ; the second, 
introduced by the dl^nnctive particle ob, is according to the Portngnese Jews (jamraoh 



« Saturday, and the said months are regular, L e. Mar- 
chesyan having twenty-nine days and Kisler thirty, 
have only forty-eeven Sabbaths-^ttrtooi of the fifty- 
four sections, viz. 22 and 23, 27 and 28, 29 and 80, 32 
and 33, 89 and 40, 42 and 43, 60 and 61, have been ap- 
pointed to be read in pairs either whoUy or in part, ac- 
cording to the varying number of Sabbaths in the cur- 
rent year. Thus the whole Pentateach is read through 
every year. The first of these weekly sections is read 
on the first Sabbath after the Feast of Tabernacles, 
which b in the month of Tisri, and begins the civil 
year, and the last is read on the concluding day of this 
festival, Tiaii 23, which is caUed The Rejoidng of the 
Law (yi!V\T^ nn^aV), a day of rejoicing, because on it 
the law is read through. See TABERit acles, Fkast 
OF. According to the triennial divisiou, the reading of 
the law seems to have been as follows : Gen. i, l-£xod. 
xiii, 16, oompriaing hittory from the creation of the 



world to the Exodus, was read in the first year; Exod. 
xiii, 17-Num. vi, 27, embracing the iaw* of both Sinai 
and the tabemade, formed the lessons for the Sabbatha 
of the second year; and Numb, vii, l-Deut xxxiv, 12, 
containing both kittory (L e. the history of thirty-nine 
years* wanderings in the wilderness) and law (i. e. the 
repetition of the Mosaic law), constituted the Sabbatic 
lessons for the third year (compare Jf^jfiBof 29, b, and 
Volkskhrer, ii, 209). 

3. The numner ofrtading the Law a$td the PropheU, 
—Every Sabbatic lesson from the law (IVlinn n«'^'ip) 
is divided into seven sections (evidenUy designed to 
correspond to the seven days of the week), which, in the 
days of our Saviour and afterwards, were read by seven 
different penons (D*^N*1'^p ns^^D), who were called 
upon for this purpose by the congregation or its chief 
Mishna, MegUla, iv, 2; Maimonides, Jad /fa-CAozaia) 
aUckotkTepkaia^jsji,!). Great care is taken that the 



HAPHTARAH 



67 



HAPHTARAH 



n. TiLBLB OF FmTITAL AJITD FaST LttSOKB. 



WUMMtm AKD VAsn. 



Nbw Moom. 

If it Iklls on a Sabbath la read 

On a Sanday 

Fkast or DiDiCAnoir. Day i. 

Day 11. 
Day 1IL 
Day Iv. 
Day T. 
Day tL 
Day vlL 
Day vliL 
Sabbath L 
Sabbath iL 
Fbast or PuaxM. 
Sabbath Pabsiikth SAonoa. 
Sabbath Pawmibth Paka. 
Sabbath PABSttKni Ha-Cbodbbh 



Sabbath Ha-Qaik>u 
Fbabt op Pabbotcb. 



CholMoedt 



DayL 
DayiL 



DayL 
DayiL 

(If it faila on a Sunday the 
nrecedinff lesson la read.) 

Day 111. 
(If on a Monday, the preoed- 
injzlesBon.) 
On a Wednesday or Thnrsday. 

Day iv. 
Snbbath Choi Hoed. 



Day yll. 
DayTllL 



THB LAW. 



• I 



If Sabbath, 

Weekday, 

Fbast or PaimoosT. Day L 

U Sabbath, Day IL 

Week day, 



«t 



Fabt or Tan Nxifra or An. 

Morning. 



NbwTbab. 

Dat or Atdkxmbit. 



FXAST or TaBBBK AOLIS. 



Koon. 
Day L 
DayiL 
Morning. 
Noon. 



CholMoed, 



DayL 

DayiL 

DayL 
DayiL 
Day ML 
Day It. 



Sabbath GliolMoed. 



ShenUni Aiereth, If Sabbath. 

Weekday. 

Simehath Tora. 

Sabbath Sbuba. 
Fast Days generally. 
MonnATs and Tuussdatb all the 
year ronnd. 



Numb, xxvlll, 9-16 {Mc^htir), 

Nnrab. xxTlii, 8-16. 

Nnmb. vU, 1-17. 

Namb. vli, 18-28. 

Knmb. Til, 84-29. 

Numb, vil, 80-8&. 

Nnrab. Til, MMl. 

Numb, vil, 42-47. 

Namb. vil, 48-63. 

Nomb. vil, 64— vill, 4» 



£xod. xvli, 8-16. 

Dent zxv, 17-19 (MaphHr), 

Nnmb. xix, 1-89 {MaphHr), 

Exod.xli,i-90. 

Bxod. xli, 81-4S1 ; Nnmb. zxvlil, 16.86 {MapK- 

Levit. xxll, 86— xxiU, 44 ; Nnmb. xxviU, 16-86 

{MapKtir). 
Bxod. xlli, 1-16 : Namb. xxrlil, 19-86. 
Bxod. xxii-zziil, 19 ; Namb. xxviil, 19>SBL 



Bxod. xxiv, 1-86; Nnmb. xxvlll, 19-8& 
Nnmb. Ix, 1-14 ; xxvlit, 19-86. 
Bxod. xxxiii, 18— xxxlv, 86; Nnmbw zxvlli, 
19-8& 

Bxod. xill, 17— XT, 96; Nnmb. xxviil, 19-96 

{Haphtir), 
Dent xlv, 88— xvl, 17; Nomb. xxvili, 19-96 

{Maphtir). 
Dent. XV, 19— xvl, 17; Nnmb. xxviil, 19-86 

(Maphtir). 
Bxod. xix, 1— XX, 86; Nnmb. xxviil, 96-81 

{Maphtir). 
Dent xlv, 28— xvl, 17. 

Dent XV, 19— xvl, 17; Nnmb. zxvfil, 96<81 
{MaphHr). 

Dent, iv, 86-401 



Gen. xxl, 1-84 ; Nnmb. xxix, 1-6 {Memhtvr), 
Gen. xxll. 1-84 ; Namb. xxlx, 1-6 {MaphHr). 
Levit. xvl, 1-84 ; Namb. xxlx, 7-11 {MaphHr). 
Levit. zvlli, 1-30. 

Levit xxll, 86— xxiU, 44; Nnmb. xxlx, 18-16 

{MaphHr). 
Levit xxlL 86-xxlli, 44; Namb. xxlx, 18-16 

{MaphHPi. 
Nnmb. xxlx, 17-86 ; 17-88 Is repeated. 
Nnmb. xxlx, 80-88 ; 80-86 Is repeated. 
Nnmb. xxix, 83-81 ; 88-88 is repeated. 
Namb. xxlx. 86-84; 86-81 to repeated. 
Bxod. xxxHl, 18— xxxlv, 96; Nnmb. xxlx, 17 

-88, If it is the first day of Choi Moed ; 

Nnmb. xxlx, 88-88. if the third ; Namb. 

xxlx, 26-81, if the fourth day {MaphHr). 
Dent xlv, 28— xvl, 17. 
Deat XV. 19— xvl, 17 ; Nnmb. xxix, 86— xxx, 

1 {MaphHr). 
Deot xxxUi, 1— xxxlv, 12; (3en. 1, 1—11, 8; 

Nomb. xxix, 86— xxx, 1 {MaphHr), 

Bxod. xxxil, 11-14 : xxxlv, 1-10. 
The first section of the Sabbatic lesson from 
the law. 



TUB PBOPHRS. 



Isa. ixvi, 1-84 
1 Samu XX, 18-48. 



Zech.11,14— lv,T. 

1 Kings vlL 40-60. 

TbeKwkofBsther. 

1 Sam. XV, 8-84, or xv, 1-84 

Bzek. xzxvl, 16-88, or to ver. 86. 

Bxek. xlv, K^xlvl, 18, or xlv, 18 

-x1v1,16l 
Mai. UL 4-84. 
Josh. Hi, 6-7; V, 8-16; vi, 87, or 

v, 8-16. 
8 EJngs xxiil, 1.4^; 81-86. 



(Bzek. xxxvl, 8T— zxzvil, 17, or 
•{ xxxvU, 1-14. 
(The Song of Songs. 
8 Sam. zzll, 1-61. 

Isa. X, 88— xU, 6w 

Isa. X, 88— xli, 6. 

Bsek. 1,1-88; 111,18. 

Habak. 11, 20-111, 19, or Hi, 1-19 ; 

Esther. 
Habak. 11, 90-ilf, 19, or Hi, 1-19. 

Jer. vlil, 18— Ix, 88 ; Lamenta- 

tlona. 
Isa. Iv, 6— Ivi, a 
iSauLLl— li.lOi 
Jer. xzxL 8-80. 
Isa. IvU, 14-lvUl, 14 
Jonah. 

Zech. xiv, 1-21. 

1 Kings vlil, 8-81. 



Bzek. xxxvltl, 18— zzzlz, 16; 
Bodesiastes. 



1 Kings vlil, 64-66; Eocleslastea. 

Josh. 1, 1-18. 

Hos. xlv, 8-9 : Joel 11, 16-87. 

Isa.lv,6-lvU,8. 



wbok nation shoold be represented at this reading of 
the Uw and prophets. Heuc6 a Cohen (1^3) or priest 
is called to the reading of the first portion, a Levi {*^*b) 
to the seoond, and an Jgmd (bK^ V^) to the third ; and 
after the three great divisions of the nation have thus 
been duly lepreaented, the remaining four portions are 
assigned to four others with less care. *' Every one 
thna called to the reading of the law must unroll the 
icnill, and, having found the place where he is to begin 
to read, pronoonoes the following benediction — ' Bless 
ye the Loud, who ia ever blessed ;' to which the con^p'e- 
gBtkm ngpffOfA, * Blessed be the Lord, who is blessed for 



evermore.* Whereupon he again pronounces the fol- 
lowing benediction — ^ Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, 
King of the universe, who hast chosen us from among 
all nations, and hast given us thy law. Blessed art 
thou,0 Lord, giver of the law ;* to which all the congre- 
gation respond * Amen.' He then reads the seventh poi^ 
tion of the lesson, and when he has finished, roUs up the 
scroll, and pronounces again the following benediction — 
* Blessed.art thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, 
who hast given us thy law, the law of truth, and hast 
planted among us everlasting life. Blessed art thou, O 
Lord, giver of the law* *' (IVIairoonides, Urid. xli, 5). The 
other six, who are called in rotation to the reading of 



HAPHTARAH 



68 



HAPHTARAH 



the other six portioiu, have to go through the same foi^ 
mularies. llien the mapkUr (l^ZSl)^), o^ the one who 
finiBhea up by the reading of the Ilaphtarah, or the left- 
son from the prophets, ia called. Having read the few 
concluding verses of the lesson from the law, and passed 
through tile same f<)nnularie8 as the other seven, he 
reads the appointed section (Vom the prophets. ^ Before 
reading it, he pronounces the following benediction — 
' Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the uni- 
verse, who hast chosen good prophets, and delighted 
in their words, which were spoken in truth. Blessed 
art thou, O Lord, who hast chosen the law, thy serv- 
ant Moses, thy people Israel, and thy true and right- 
eous prophets;* and after reading, ' Blessed art thou,0 
Lord our God, King of the universe, Rock of all ages, 
righteous in all generations, the faithful God who prom- 
ises and performs, who decrees and accomplishes, for all 
thy words are faithful and just. Faithful art thou. Lord 
our God, and fiidthful are thy words, and not one of thy 
words shall return in vain, for thou art a faithful King. 
Blessed art thou, O Lord, the God who art faithful in all 
thy words.* * Have meroy upon Zion, for it is the dwell- 
ing of iRur life, and save speedily in our days the afflict- 
ed souls. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who wilt make Zion 
rejoice in her children. Cause us to rejoice, O Lord our 
God, in Elijah thy servant, and in the kingdom of the 
house of David thine anointed. May he speedily' come 
and gladden our hearts. Let no stranger sit on his 
throne, and let others no longer inherit his glor^', for 
thou hast sworn unto him by thy holy name that his 
light shall not be extinguished forever and ever. Bless- 
ed art thou, O Lord, the shield of Da\'id.* * For the law, 
the divine service, the prophets, and for ^ this day of 
rest** [or of memorial], this goodly day of holy convoca- 
tion which thou hast given to us, O Lord, for sanctifica- 
tion and rest [on the Sabbath], for honor and glor^' ; for 
all this, O Lord our King, we thank and praise thee. 
Let thy name be praised in the mouth of every U\'ing 
creature forever and ever. Thy word, O our Ring, is 
true, and will abide forever. Blessed art thou, King of 
the whole earth, who hast sanctified the Sabbath, and 
Israel, and the day of memorial' ** (Maimonides, ibid). 
After the Babylonian captivity, when the Hebrew lan- 
guage became an unknown tongue to the common peo- 
ple, an interpreter (*,ia:i*n*tn7S, 'jiaaiin) stood at the 
desk by the side of those who read the lessoni^ and par- 
aphrased the section from the law into Chaldec verse 
by verse, the reader pausing at every venc, whilst the 
lesson from the prophets he paraphrased three verses at 
a time (Mishna, MegiUa., iv, 4) ; and Lightfoot is of 
opinion that St. Paul, in 1 Cor. xiv, 22, refers to this cir- 
cumstance {Hora Hebfxiica in loco). The lesson from the 
law was on these occasions rendered into Chaldee quite 
literally, owing to the fear which both the interpreters 
and the congregation had lest a free explanation of it 
might misrepresent its sense, whilst greater freedom was 
exercised with the lesson from the prophets. Hence 
loose paraphrases and lengthy expositions were tolera- 
ted and looked for both from the professional interpreter 
and those of the congregation who were called up to 
read, and who felt that they could do it with education 
Co the audience. The Sabbatic lesson from the law was, 
as we have seen, divided into seven sections or chapters, 
each of which had at least three verses, according to 
the verses of those days, so that the whole consisted of 
at least twenty-one such verses. The lesson from the 
prophets was not portioned out to seven different indi- 
viduals, but has also at least twenty-one verses (Mishna, 
MegUla, iv, 4 ; Maimonides, Jod Ha-Chezaka Hilchoth 
TepldUa, xii, 13). The lesson from the law for the Day 
of Atonement is divided into six chapters, for festivals 
into five, for new moon into four, and for Mondays and 
Thursdays into three chapters or sections. The num- 
ber of persons called up to the reading of the law always 
corresponds to the number of sections. For MondavB 
and Thursdays^ new moon, and the week days of the 



festivals p9*1ia ^IH), there are no corresponding lea- 
sons from the prophets (ftlishna, MegiUa, iv, 1-8). 

4. The Origin of thia JnsiiluHon. — ^The origin of thia 
custom may easily be traced. The Bible emphatically 
and repeatedly enjoins upcMi every Israekte to study its 
contents (Deut. iv, 9 ; xxxii,4€) ; Moses himself ordiered 
that the whole law should be read publicly at the end 
of every Sabbatic year (xxxi, 10-12), whilst Joshua urg- 
es that it should be studied day and night (i, 8 ; oomp. 
also Psa. i, 2 sq.). Now the desire to carry out this in- 
junction literally, and yet the utter impoanbility of doing 
it on the part of those who had to work for daily bread 
all the week, and who could not afford to buy the nece»- 
saiily expensive scrolls, gave rise to this institution. 
On the Sabbath and festivals all were relieved from 
their labor, and could attend places of worship where 
the inspired writings were deposited, and where care 
could be taken that no private interpretation should be 
palmed upon the Word of God. Hence both James 
(Acts XV, 21) and Josephus (Contra Apion, ii, 17) speak 
of it as a very ancient custom, and the Talmud tells us 
that the division of each Sabbatic lesson mto seven sec- 
tions yrta introduced in honor of the Persian king {Me- 
ffilla, 23), which shows that this custom obtained ante- 
rior to the Persian rule. Indeed Maimonides positive- 
ly asserts that Moses himself ordained the hebdomal 
reading of the law {HOdiolh TepkiUa, xii, 1). Equally 
natural is the division of the law into Sabbatic sections, 
as the whole of it could not be read at once. The only 
difficulty is to ascertain positively whether the annual 
or the triennial division was the more ancient one. A 
triennial division is mentioned in MtgiUa 29, b, as cur- 
rent in Palestine ; with thb agree the reference to 155 
sections of the law in the Midraak, Esther 116, b, and 
the Masoretic division of the Pentateuch into 154 JSe^ 
darim. But, on the other hand, R. Sim<ion b. Eleazai^ 
a ^alesfinumf declared that Moses instituted the reading 
of Lev. xxvi before the Feast of Pentecost, and Deut. 
xxviii before New Year, which most unquestionably pre- 
suppose the amtual dvnnon of the Pentateuch mto 54 
Parahioth, This is, moreover, confirmed by the state- 
ment {lUd 81, a) that the section txsron nKT*l (Dent, 
xxxiii, 1-xxxiv, 12) was read on Ihe ninth day of the 
Feast of Tabernacles, thus terminating the annual cyde, 
as well as by the fact that the annual festival of the re- 
joicing of the law (rnin nn^aC) which commemorates 

the annual finishing of the perusal of the Pentateuch 
[see Tabernacues, Fkast of] was an ancient mstitu- 
tion. We must therefore oondude that the annual cy- 
cle which is now prevalent among the Jews was the 
generally adopted one, at least since the Maccabaum 
times, whilst the trienidal, though the older, was the ex- 
ception. Usage, however, probaUy varied, for we find 
that our Saviour (Luke iv, 16-21), in aooordance with 
this custom, on invitation read and expounded, appar- 
ently on a Sabbath in Januar}*, a passage (Isa. Ixi, 1, 2), 
not contained at all in the present scheme of ffaphtcurotk, 
It is far more difficult to trace the origm of the 
ffaphtarahj or the lesson from the prophets, and its ng- 
nification. A very ancient tradition tells us that the 
Syrians had intenticted the reading of the law, and car- 
ried away the scrolls containing it, and that appropriate 
sections from the prophets were therefore chosen to re- 
place the Pentateuch (Zunz, Gotte$dienttlit^Vor, p. 5), 
whilst Elias Levita traces the origin of the Haphiarah 
to persecutions of Antiochus Kpiphanes. In his Lex, (a. 
V. *mi)) he says, ** The wicked Antiochus, king of Greece, 

prohibited the Jews to read the law publicly. They 
therefore selected sections from Uie prophets of the 
same import as the Sabbatic lessons . . . and though 
this prohibition has now ceased, this custom has not 
been left off, and to this day we read a section from the 
prophets after the reading of the law ;" and we see no 
ceason to reject this account. The objection of Yitrin- 
ga, Fraukcl, Hexzfeld, etc, that Antiochus, who wanted 
to exterminate Judaismj would not wage war againat 



HARA 



69 



HARAN 



the PentAtench eapobuu^, but would equally destroy 
the prophetic books, and th&t this impbes a knowledge 
OQ the part of the soldiers of the distinction between 
the Pentateuch and the other inspired writings, is obvi* 
ated by the fact that there was an external difference 
between the rolls of the Pentateuch and the other sar 
cietl books, that the Jews claimed the Pentateuch as their 
law aDd rule of faith, and that this was the reason why 
tt espedally was destroyed. (The law has two rollers, 
L e. has a roller attached to each oi the two ends of the 
vdlum oa which It is written, and eveiy weekly portion 
when read on the Sabbath is unrolled from the right 
roUer and rolled on the left; so that when the law is 
opened on the next Sabbath the portion appointed for 
that day is at once found. Whereas the prophetic books 
hare only one roller, and the lesson from the prophets 
has to be sought out on every occasion [compare Baba 
Batkra, 14 a].) This is corroborated by 1 Mace, i, 66, 
where the law cnfy is said to have been burned. Ac- 
eoidmgl> SnoBM, from *1h3S, fo liberate^ to fite, signi- 
fies the Uberatwg lesson, the portion from the prophets 
which is read instead of the portion from the Uiw that 
eoukl not be read, and which liberates from the injuno- 
tioo of reading the Pentateuch. For the other opuiions 
about the signification of IIaphtaraA,yre refer to the lit- 
efature quoted below. 

& Literatuir.^Maunomd^Jodffa'Chezala Hilchotk 
TepktUa ,- Bartolooci, BiUiotheca Maffna RahbimcUy ii, 
608 sq. \ Zmiz, Die Gettesdienstlichen Vortrage der Ju- 
dntf cap^i, Frankel, Vorstudien zu der Septuagmta (Leip- 
zig 1841), p. 48 sq.; Rapaport, fnerA J/i2/«n, p. 66 sq.; 
Moma/sehrifi/ur Gesckichte und Wiaaenachafi dee Juden' 
tAMM.i,852; xi,222, Herz{e\d,Geechich/e deaVolkeilS' 
rod, u, 209; Der IsraelHische Volkskhrer, ii, 205; Ben 
Ckamaya, v, 12&— Kitto. s. v. 



L'ra (Heh. Hara', K*7n), a province of Assyria. 
We read that Tiglath-pilneser ^brought the Reuben- 
ites, Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh tmto Ha- 
lah, and Habor, and 7/ara, and to the river Gozan** (1 
Chroo. T, 26). The parallel passage in 2 Kingn xviii, 
11, omits Hara, and adds *^in the cities of the Medes.** 
Bochart consequently supposes that Hara was either a 
part of Media, or another name for that country'. He 
shows that H^odotus (vii,62) and other ancient writers 
call the Modes Ariam., and their country Aria, He 
further supposes that the name Hara, which signifies 
wKmiUamoue, may have been given to that northern sec- 
tion of Media subsequently c<Jled by the Arabs El-ffebal 
(** the mountains ;** see Bcichart, Opp, i, 194). The words 
Aria and //aror, however, are totally different both in 
meaning and origin. The Medes were a branch of the 
great Arian family who came originally firom India, and 
who took their name, aocordmg to MuUer {Science of 
Language, p. 237 sq., 2d ed.), from the Sanscrit word A rya, 
which means noble, " of a good family." Its etymolog- 
ical meaning seems to be "one who tills the ground \* 
and it is thus allied to the Latin arare (see also Raw- 
fiiison*s Uerodotue, i, 401). 

Han is joined with Hala, Habor, and the river Go- 
zan. These were all situated in Western Assyria, be- 
tween the Tigris and Euphtates, and along the banks 
of the Khabdr. We may safely conclude, therefore, 
that Han could not have been far distant from that re- 
gion. It is somewhat remarkable that the name is not 
given in either the SepL or Peshito version. Some 
have hence imagined that the word was interpolated 
after these versions were made. This, however, is a 
nsh criticism, as it exists in all Hebrew MSS., and also 
in Jerome's version (see Bobinson*s Calmet, s. v. Gozan ; 
Grmt^a HetioHan Christians, p. 120). The conjecture 
that Han and Hann are identical cannot be sustained, 
though the situation of the latter might suit the re- 
qosremcnts of the Biblical narrative, and its Greek clas- 
sical name Carrha resembles Hara. See Haran. The 

Hebrew words K*)n and 'pn are radically different. 
Hns nmy perhaps have been a local name applied to 



the mountainous region north of Gozan, called by Stra- 
bo and Ptolemy Mons Afasius, and now Karja Baghlar 
(Strabo, XVI, 23 ; Ptolemy, v, 18, 2).— Kitto, s. t. 

Har'adah (Heb. with the article ha-Charadah', 
^7*?^ the fright; Sept Xapa^a5), the twenty-fifthi 
station of the Israelites in the desert (NumK xxxiii, 
24) ; perhaps at the head of the wadys north-east of Je- 
bel AJraif en-Nakah, on the western brow of the high 
plateau east of Ain el-Mazen. See Exode. 

See House. 



'ran appears in the Eng. BiUe as the name of a 
place and also of three men, which, however, are repre- 
sented by two essentially different Hebrew words. See 
also Beth-Harak. 

1. Haran (HeK ffaran\ "J^h, mountaineer; Sept. 

'Appav), probably the eldest son of Tereh, brother of 
Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Is- 
cah. He died in hie native place before his father Te- 
rah (an event that may in some degree have prepared 
the family to leave Ur), which, from the manner in 
which it is mentioned, appears to have been a much 
rarer case in those days than at the present (Gen. xi, 
27 sq.). RC. 2223-antc 2088.— Kitto. His sepulchre 
was still shown there when Josephus yrroto his hbtory 
{A nt, i, 6, 5). The ancient Jewish tradition is that Ha- 
ran was burnt in the furnace of Nimrod for his wavering 
conduct during the fiery trial of Abraham. (See the' 
Ta^gum p8.-Jonathan ; Jerome's Qftassf, in Genetim, and 
the notes thereto in the edit of Migne.) This tradition 
seems to have originated in a translation of the word 
Ur, which in Hebrew signifies *'fire." — Smith. See 
Abraham. 

2. Charam (Hebw Charon', "i^nn, probably from the 
Arabic, parched; Sept Xappav, also Josephus, ^n^ i, 
16 , N. T., Acts i-ii, 2, where it is Anglicized *' Charran**), 
the name of the place where Abraham, after he htid 
been called from Ur of the Chaldees, tarried till his father 
Tenh died, when he proceeded to the land of Canaan 
(Gen. xi, 31, 38 •, Acts vii, 4). The elder branch of the 
family still remained at Haran, which led to the inter- 
esting Journeys thither described in the patriarchal his- 
tory (see Hauck, DeprofectionSms Abrahand e Charris 
[Lips. 1754, 1776])-^^-firBt, that of Abraham's ser^'ant to 
obtahi a wife for Isaac (Gen. xxiv) ; and, next, that of 
Jacob when he fied to evade the wnth of Esau (Gen« 
xxi-iii, 10^. It is said to be in Mesopotamia (Gen. xxiv, 
10), or, more definitely, in Padan-Aram xxv, 20), which 
is the ** cultivated district at the foot of the hills*" (Stan- 
ley, Syr» and Pal, p. 129, note), a name well applying to 
the beautiful stretch of country which lies below Mount 
Masius, between the Khab<^r and the Euphrates. See 
Padan-Aram. Haran is enumerated among the towns 
which had been taken by the predecessors of Seiwach- 
erib, king of AsB}Tia (1 Kings xix, 12; Isa. xxxvii, 12), 
and it is also mentioned by Ezekiel (xxvii, 23) among 
the places which traded Mrith Tyre. It is alluded to in 
the cuneiform inscriptions (q. v.). Jerome thus de- 
scribes Haran : *' Charran, a city of Mewpotamia be- 
yond Edessa, which to this day is called Pharra, where 
the Roman army was cut off, and Crassus, its leader, 
taken"* (Onomast, a. v. Charran). Guided by these de- 
scriptions and statements, which certainly appear suffi- 
ciently clear and full, sacred geographers have almost 
universally identified Haran with the Carres (Kafipai) 
of classical writers (Herodian. iv, 13, 7; PtoL v, 18, 12; 
Strabo, xvi, 747), and the ffarrdn of the Arabs (Schul- 
tens, Index Geogr, tn Viiam SaladwL s. v.). The plain 
bordering on this town (Ammian. Marc xxiii, 3) is cel- 
ebrated in history as the scene of a battle in which the 
Roman army was defeated by the Parthians, and the 
triumvir Crassus killed (PUn. v, 21 ; Dio Cass, xl, 25; 
Lncan. i, 104). Abulfeda {Tab, Syria^ p. 164) speaks of 
Haran as formerly a great city, which lay in an arid 
and barren tract of country in the province of Diar 
Modhar. About the time of the Christian len it ap- 



HARARITE 



10 



HARBAU6H 



pean to hare been included in the kingdom of Euessa 
(Moe. Chor; ii, 82), which was ruled by Agbanu. Af- 
terwards it passed with that kingdom under the domin- 
ion of the Romans, and appeara as a Roman city in the 
wars of Caracalla (Moe. Chor. ii, 72) and Julian (Jo. Ma- 
laL p. 829). It is remarkable that the people of Har- 
nln retained to a late time the Chaldean language and 
the worship of ChakUean deities (Assemani, BUi, Or, i, 

I 827 ; Chwobon's Saabier ttnd der Saabimms, ii, 39). 

! About midway in the district above designated is a 
town still called Hajran, which really seems never to 

' have changed its appellation, and beyond any reasons^ 
ble doubt is the Haran or Charran of Scripture (Bo- 
chart's Phakg, i, 14 ; £wald*s Gtachickte, i, 884). It is 
only peopled by a few families of wandering Arabs, who 
are led thither by a plentiful supply of water from sev- 
eral small streams. Its situation is fixed by major Ren- 
nell as being twentyniine miles from Orfah, and occu- 
pying a fiat and sandy plain. It lies (according to 
D'Anville) in 86^ 40' N. Ut,, and 89° 2' 45" E. long. 
(See Niebuhr, Traveb, ii,410; Ritter, ErdJ:, x, 244; xi, 
291 ; Cellar, \otit. ii, 726 ; Mannert, v, 2, 280 ; Michae- 
lis, SuppL 930.) Harr&n stands on the banks of a small 
river called Belik, which flows into the Euphrates about 
fifty miles south of the town. From it a number of 
leading roads radiate to the great fords of tho Tigris 
and Euphrates ; and it thus formed an important station 
on the line of commerce between Central and Western 
Asia. This may explain why Terah came to it, and 
why it was mentioned among the places which supplied 
the marts of Tyre (Ezek. xxvii, 28). Crassus was prob- 
ably marching along this great route when he was at- 
tacked by the Parthians. Dr. Beke, in his Origines 
Biblica (p. 122 sq.), made the somewhat startling state- 
ment that Haran must have been near Damascus, and 
that Aram-Naharaim is the country between the Abana 
and Pharpar. After l>'ing dormant for a quarter of a 
century, this theory was again revived in 1860. The 
Rev. J. L. Porter visited and described a small village 
in the plain, four hours east of Damascus, called Harran 
cl-Awamld (^Harran of the oolumns*0> The descrip- 
tion having met the eye of Dr. Beke (in Five Years in 
Damascu*, i, 876), he at once concluded that this village 
was the site of the real ** city of Nahor." He has since 
visited Harran el-Awamld, and travelled from it to Gil- 
ead, and is more confirmed in his view, though he ap- 
pears to stand alone. His arguments have not been 
Bufiicient to set aMde the powerful evidence in favor of 
Harran in Mesopotamia. The student may see the 
whole subject discussed in the Athenaum for Nov. 28, 
80; Dec 7, 1861 ; Feb. 1, 15; March 1, 22, 29; April 6, 
19 ; and May 24, 1862 ; also in Stanley's Lectures an the 
Jewish Churchy i, 447 sq. — Kitto, a. v. ; Smith, a. v. 

3. CiiA&AN (Heb. same as last, meaning here nohley 
according to FUrst ; Sept. 'Appdv v. r. ' Apa/i). The son 
of Caleb of Judah by his concubme Ephah, and father 
of Gasez (1 Chron. ii, 46). RC. between 1618 and 1088. 

4. Harak (Heb. same as No. 1 ; Sept. 'Apav v. r. 
Aav). One of the three sons of Shimei, a Levite of the 
family of Gershon, appointed by David to superintend 
the offices at the tabernacle (1 Chron. xxiii, 9). B.C. 
1014. 

Ha'rarite, the (Heb. always [except in 2 Sam. 
xxiii, 11] with the art ha-Harari,' ^*y^'*^)i a distinc- 
tive epithet of three members of David's body-guard; 
probably as natives of the mountams (*^in, plur. constr. 
'^'i^n) of Judah or Ephraim ; but according to Furst 
' from some town of the name of Har (^H). See David. 

1. " Shabcmah [q. v.], the son of Agee" (2 Sam. xxiU, 
11 [Sept 6 'Apapj v. r. 'ApovxaToc, Vulg. de Arari, A. 
V. *' the Hararite"], 83 [6 'Apwpirrii: v. r. 'Apca^iV^c, 
Aroritesjy which latter verse shows that it was a desig- 
nation of the son and not of the father), a different per- 
son from ** Shammoth the Harorite" [q. v.] (1 Chron. 
xi, 27), or <*Shammah the Harodite" [q. v.] (2 Sam. 
xxiii« 25). See Aobe. 



2. ** JoMATHAM [q. v.], the son of Shage" (1 Chran. 
xi, 84, Sept 6 'Apap(,yidg. A rarite*), mentioned in the 
parallel passage (2 Sam. xxiii, 82) without any such di»- 
tinction. See Shagr. 

8. ** Ahiam [q. V. ], the son of Saear^ (L Chron. xi,85, 
Sept o 'Apapi v. r. 'Axap,Vulg. Araritev), or, in the par- 
allel passage (2 Sam. xxiii, 38), less aocnntely,'' Ahiam, 
[the] son of Sharar [q. v.] the Ararite** (Heb* with the 
art. ha'Arari'y ■''1*^S<h, Sept 6 'Apaiirti^ v. r. 'Apat, 
etc., Yulg. A roritesy A. V. ^ the Hararite**). See Sacab. 

HaraBeth. See Kib-Harabbth. 

Harbangh, Hen^ry, a prominent minister and writer 
of the German Reformed Church in the United States, 
wa8bomOct28,1817,nearWaynesborough,Pa. He was 
descended from a German family, whose name was Hep- 
bach, and which had come to this country in 1786 from 
Switzerland. His father was an elder in the German 
Reformed Church at Waynesborough. In early youth 
he manifested a de^re to study for the ministry, but his 
father was unwilling to allow him to do so. He there- 
fore found emploj^nent first with a carpenter, and sub- 
sequently with a mill-owner. After a time he became 
teacher in a primary schooL The money saved in these 
positions enabled him to enter in 1840 Marshall Collie, 
Meroersburg, which was at that time under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Nevin. Both the students* societies of Mer- 
oersburg College desired to have him a member. ** We 
have maiiy praying members,** the Goetheans represent- 
ed to him ; *' the others have no religion." For Har- 
baugh this was a reason to join the other society, that 
they might have one to do the pra3ring for them. Hia 
financial means did not allow him to finish his course in 
the college and the Theological Seminary. He spent 
two years in the former and one in the latter, and, hav- 
ing passed bis examination, became in 1848 pastor of 
the congregation in Lewisburg. In 1850 he accepted a 
call from the congregation in Lancaster, which he left 
again in 1860 for Lebanon. In 1863 he was elected by 
the Synod professor of theology in the Seminary of Mer- 
cersburg, in the place of Prof. B. C. Wolff. In this posi- 
tion he remained until his death, which occurred Dec 
28, 18G7. Hartuiugh was an indefatigable worker, and 
it was overexertion that brought on the disease of the 
brain by which he was carried off. The loss of his wife 
and a child in 1847 directed his thoughts to a special 
consideration of the state after death, and thus called 
for his works on Heaven^ or the Sainted Dead: — The 
Ileavenhf Home: — The Heavenly Recognition: — Future 
L\fe (3 vols.). Besides these, he wrote The Golden Cen- 
ser, a collection of "hymns and chants" for Sabbath- 
schools*.—^ Child's Catechism t— The Glory of Woman: 
— a volume of Poems : — Union with the Church : — Youth 
in Earnest— L^c of Th, D. Fischer :^-^sidi a Life of Afi-^ 
chael Schlattery one of the founders of the German Re- 
formed Church in America in the last centur}% His 
most important work is the one on The Fathers of the 
German Reformed Church in A merica (2 vols.). At the 
time of his death he was editor of the Mercersburg Re 
vieWy and also a regular contributor to the columns of 
the Reformed Church Messenger, which latter relation 
he sustained during the last six years. He was like- 
wise the orig'uiator of the Guardian, and its editor for 
seventeen years, to the dose of 1866, during four of 
which it was published under the direction of the Board 
of Publication of the German Reformed Church. In 
addition to this, he fumisheil the reading matter for the 
several almanacs published by this board, and edited 
the Child's Treasury for the first year and a half after 
it came under the direct control of the Church Board. 
Dr. Harbaugb also contributed a number of biograph- 
ical articles to this Cyclopaedia. While, for the works 
thus far mentioned, he used the English language, he 
is also the author of several excellent poems in the Ger^ 
man-Pennsylvanian dialect In fact^ the poems of Har- 
baugh belong among the best that have ever been writ- 
ten in this dialect In hia theological views Haihaug^h 



HARBONA 



71 



HARDWICK 



wms one of the foremost repreflentatives of the school 
which emphsazes the efficiency of the sacraments, and 
the priesdy character of the ministry'. In the Order of 
WwnMp of the Crerman Reformed Church, which was 
published in 1866, the burial service was from the pen 
ofHarbnigh. (A.J.S.) 

Harbo'na (lleb. Charbona'^ Kdinnn, prob. Per& 
Ibr as»-drve€r ; SepL 'Oaptputd v. r. Qappd)j one of the 
eeren eunuchs of king Ahasuerus or Xerxes, command- 
ed by him to exhibit the beauty of Yashti (Esth. i, 10). 
He was probably the same with the one called Habbo- 
HAH (Heh. CkarUmah,' MSin^n, tdl ; Sept. changes to 
Bovya3ay), who suggested to the king the idea of hang- 
ing Haman on his own gallows (chap, vii, 9). RC. 483- 
473. 

Harbo'nali (Esth. vii, 9). See Harbotta. 

Hardenberg, Albrecht, an eminent divine, was 
born at Hardenbeig, in Oveiyase], 1510. While study- 
ing theology at Louvain, he imbibed the reformed the- 
ology, and became a friend and follower of Melancthon, 
who sent him to €k)logne. The disturbances there drove 
him to Oldenburg, where, and in Kn^^phausen, he la- 
bored until his death in 1574. He is noted in Church 
History for his attempt, in 1556, to introduce into the re- 
public of Bremen Calvin*8 doctrine respecting the Lord's 
Snpptf. For the controversy to which this gave rise, 
aee Merzog, RealrEneyklopdid&t, s. v. ; also Mosheim, Ch. 
Biat. cent, xvi, sec. iii, pt. ii, ch. ii ; Planck, Hist, Prot, 
TheoL voL v. 

Hardenberg, JacobuB R., D.D.,an eminent min- 
itter of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America, was 
bom at Rosendale, N. i., in 1787. His early opportu- 
oities of edncatioa were limited, but by persevering in- 
dnstry he became a very creditable scholar. He was 
oldained by the **Coetus" in 1757, and in the long strife 
between that party and the ^ Conferenties*' in the Dutch 
Chnrch, he sicled with the former. His talents and rep- 
utadon gave him great influence in the final settlement 
of these disputes. In 1768 he became pastor of the 
ehmch at Raritan, N. J. Queen's College (now Rut- 
gers*) obtained its chartef in 1 770. It languished during 
the Revolutioi, but was resuscitated, with Dr. Harden- 
berg at its head as president, in 1786. He died Oct. 
90, 1790. — Sprague, Awtals, ix, 28. See Reformed 
(Ditch) Church. 

Harding, Stephen, a religious reformer of the 
12th century, was of a noble English family. After 
"**^'"g A pilgrimage to Rome, he entered the Benedic- 
tine convent of St. Chiude de Joux. He subsequently 
was chosen abbot of the monastery of B^ze, with a view 
to the reformation of its discipline. From Beze he was 
tnusferred to Citeaux, of which monaster}' he was elect- 
ed abbot in 1 109, on the death of Alberic. In 11 19 he 
drew up, conjointly with St Bernard (of Clairvaux) and 
other members of the brotherhood, the constitution of 
the Cistercian order, entitled Carta Caritafu, He re- 
mained at the head of the order until his death in 1134. 
See CisTBRciANS. (A. J. S.) 

Harding, Thomas, Jefmit, was bom at Comb-Mar- 
tin, in Devonshire, in 1512, ''and was educated at Barn- 
staple and Winchester, whence he was removed to New 
College, Oxford, of which he became fellow in 1536. In 
1M2 he was chosen Hebrew professor of the university 
by Henry Till ; but iio sooner had Edward YI ascend- 
ed the throne, than Harding became a zealous Prr>tes- 
tant. He seemed, indeed, merely to be restrained by 
pnidence from proceeding to great extremes. In the 
country zealous Protestants were edified by his instruc- 
tiom^ At Oxford, he himself received instruction from 
Peter Martyr. From St. Mary's pulpit he derided the 
Tridentine fathers as iUUerate^ paltry papittt, and in- 
veighed against Romish peculiarities." On the acoes- 
■OD of qoeen Mary he became again a papist, and was 
nade chaplain and confessor to Gardiner, bishop of 
~^ In 1556 he was made treasurer of the ca- 



thedral of Salisbury. ''When Elizabeth came to the 
crown he could not muster face for a new recantation, 
and being deprived of his preferment, fled to Louvain, 
and became, says Wood, "the target of Popery" in a 
warm controversy with bishop Jewel, against whom, be- 
tween 1554 and 1567, he wrote seven pieces." He died 
in 1572. See Ljfe of Jewel; Zurich Letters; Burnet, 
Reformation, l| 271; Wood, Athena Oxonien$e8, vol. i; 
Dodd,CAiirrA Hiit,; Prince, Worthies of Devon; Chal- 
mers, General Biog, DicL ; Hook, JEedes, Biog, voL v. 

Hardouin (Harduinus), Jean, a Jesuit, one of the 
most learned, but most eccentric members of his order, 
wa3 bom A.D. 1646, at Quimper, in Brittany. His par- 
adoxes on ancient history are well known, and had their 
origin chiefly in the vanity which prompted him to ob- 
tain celebrity at any cost He endeavored to prove 
that the iEneid ascribed to Virgil, and the odes attrib- 
uted to Horace, were really composed by some monks 
during the Middle Ages ! He edited an edition of the 
Comicils to the year 1714 (12 vols. foL), which is much 
esteemed. See Concilia. This may appear singular, 
considering that Hardouin looked upon sll councils pre- 
ceding that of Trent as supposititious. Father Brun, 
of the Oratory, knowing the opinions of the Jesuit on 
that point, asked him one day, " How did it happen that 
you published an edition of the Councils?" Hardouin 
answered, " Only God and I know that." He died at 
the College of St. Louis, Paris, Sept. 8, 1729. His most 
noted work is his Chronologia ex Nummts A nOptia rw- 
titutte Prolusio de Nvmmis fferodiadum (Paris, 1698, 
4to), in which he labors to show that, with few excep- 
tions, the writings ascribed to the ancients are wholly 
spurious. He wrote also Chronologia Vet. Tettamenti 
(Paris, 1697, 4to) i—Commentarius in Nov, Test, (Amst 
1741, foL) : — De situ Paradin Terrestris Ditqnintio (in 
his edit, of Pliny) : — PUnH Historia NaturaHs (in the 
Delphin classics) : — (^Dera selecta (1709, foL). His Op- 
era Omnia (Amsterdam, 1788, fol.) contains some curious 
pieces, among which are his Pteudo-Virgilius, Psevdo- 
HoratiuM, and especially his A thei detecti^ against Janse- 
nius, Amauld, Nicole, Pascal, Quesnel, Des Cartes, etc. 
A posthumous work of his. Prolegomena ad Cenntram 
Scriptorum Veterum (1766, 8vo), contains his full theory 
of the production of the classics by the monks of the 
Middle Ages. See P. Oudin, Eloffes de quelgves avteurs 
franfais ; Moreri, Grand Diet, hittor, ; Diipin, BibL des 
auteurs eccU*. xix, 109 ; Joum, des Savants^ June, 1726, 
p. 226; March, 1727, p. 828; January-April, 1728, p. 579; 
La Croze, Dissert, hist, sur divers tujets, p. 281 ; Hoefer, 
Nouv, Biog, G^rale, xxiii, 857. 

Hardt, Hermann von der. See Hebmakn. 

Hardvrick, Charles, a minister of the Church of 
England, was bom at Slingsb}', Yorkshire, September 22, 
1821. At fifteen years of age he became pupil assistant 
teacher iii Thornton Grammar-school, and in 1888 he 
was made assistant tutor in the academy at Malton. In 
1840 he entered the University of Cambridge (Catha- 
rine*s Hall), graduating in 1844 as first senior optime. 
In 1845 he obtained a fellowship in Catharine's Hall; in 
1851 he was appointed Cambridge preacher at the Chap- 
el Royal, Whitehall; and in 1858, professor of divinity 
in Queen's College, Birmingham, which ofiice he held 
only for a few months. In 1855 he was made lecturer 
in divinity in King's College, Cambridge, and " Chris- 
tian Advocate." In fulfilling the latter oflSce, he pre- 
pared a' work (incomplete, but yet of great value to the 
new science of Comparative Theology'), under the title 
Christ and other Af asters; an Historical Inquiry into 
some of the chief ParaUelisms and Contrasts beliceen Chris- 
fianity and the Religious Systems of the Ancient World 
(London and Cambridge, 2d edit 1858, 2 vols. fcp. 8vo). 
During a summer tour he was killed by a fall in the 
Pyrenees, Aug. 18, 1859. His literary activity was very 
great., and it was accompanied by thorough scholarship 
and accuracy. Besides editing a number of works for 
the University press and for the Percy Society, he pub- 



HAEDT 



n 



HARE 



lithcd the tdixiwing, which are likely to hold > donble 
plueintlieologic>llilentuie,Tiz^A Hutiny <i/'lke TMr- 
^•amtArtieia (Cunbridge, IMI ; 2d ed. teviKd, 1859 ; 
Kprint«d in Philadc^ihia, limo} :—TtBm^ SmaanMfor 
Totpa CoitgrtgaSMt (1868, cr, 8vo) -.—A Htilart of lit 
CliritMan Ciun*, Middk Agt (Ombiidge, 1853, fcp. 
Svo) -^A Bitory of Ote Chriitian Ckurck darmg Uui 
StfonaaHon (Cambiidge, lBd6,Tcp.8vo)^-SteHA pn;fix- 
td la leoHd tiHion of Chritl and other Mattart (1863). 

Hardy, Nathonisl, D.D^ m English divine, vu 
bom in Lraidou in ISIS; wu educated at HagiUlen Hall, 
OxToid, and became rector of St. Dtanis Back, Londoo. 
He wa«  decided Royaligt, and f ct remained a popular 
pnacfaer during the Conununwealth. in 1660 he be- 
came archdeacon of Lewes ami dean of Rochester. He 
died in 1870. Ilia publications are, Thefnt Epiillt of 
JiAn aifotded and apptitd (Lond. 1656, 4Io) ■.—Sermtmi 
on i^eim Occcuiora (laiMlon, 1658, i\o) -.—Strmon on tht 
Fire iff London (Uind. 1666, ilo).— Darling, Cjidoji. Bib- 
Sographica, i, 1894. 

Hardy, Robert Spenoe, an English Methodist 
11liaBionaiy,waa bom at pTCflton, Lancashire, July 1,1803, 
and was trained in the house ofhis grandfather, a print- 
er and bookseller in York. Id 1825 he was admitted to 
the British Conference, and appointed missionaiy to Cey .- 
Ion, in which field he labored with f^at zeal for twen- 
ty-thiea years. In 18G2 he was appointed superintend- 
ent of the South Ceylon Mission. To the ordinary U- 
bon of a miasioaary Mr Hardy added an amount ^ lit- 
erary activity aufficient to have occupied the whole life 
of an ordinary man. It is not too much to say that he 
and his colleague Gogerly (q. v.) have thrown more 
light upon the Buddhism of Ceylon, and upon Pali lit- 
erature, than all other English writers. His culture, 
in the course of his itudieh became very wide ; he read 
Latin, Uieek, Hehiew, Fieticb, Portuguese, and Sin- 
ghalesej and his acquaintance with the Pali and Sans- 
crit WIS not only large, but accurate. Towards the end 
of his life he returned to England, and served as minis- 
ter on several important circuits. He died at Heading- 
ley, Yoiksbiie, April 16, 1868. At the lime of his mor- 
tal seizure ho was engaged upon a work entitled Chrii- 
tianty and Buddhism comparrd^ His most important 
publicatioDH are Eajttrn MonachitiJL, an Account of the 
Origin, Iiouit, Diie^inr, Sacrtd lVriling4, rfc. qfihe Or- 
der nfMaidicanU founded by Golama Buddha (London, 
1860, 8\-oJ —A Manual ofBuddhiim « Hi Modern De- 
vdopmaa, tranilatedfrom Singkalttt MS3. (Loud. 1853, 
Svo) -.—The J^gatie and TUoria of the Buddiiili com' 
pared with Hittory and Science (1867, cr. 8vd).— ITcfln- 
on Mimila, 1868, p. 25. 

Hardy, Samuel, an EngUsh divine, was bom in 
1720, and educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
where he became fellow. He was for many years rec- 
tor of Blakenham, Suffolk, and died in 1T98. He pub- 
liahed Nature and End) of the Euchariit (London, 1TS4, 
Svo) -.—fYincipai Prophecies of the 0. and N. TtH. com- 
pared and explained (London, 1770, Bvo) : — fi'ocum Tell. 
Gracum cum tcholOi Ihroloffidt, etc (3d ed. Lond. 1820, 
S vols, B™), the annotations In which are chiefly taken 
ftoco Poole's Syiupus.— Darling, C>ciii^Siittii9nipjiia(, 
1,1395. 

Haie (nsi^X, ame'beUt; according to Bochart 
IHiena. i, BM], from n^N, to crop, and S""?, /mit; 
Arab, arnri and Syr. amebo, a hare ; Sept. i^oipDypvX- 
Xios and Saainrov^, Vulg. lepui and cArcroffrylblt, both 
venions interchanginfc it with " coney") occurs in Lev. 
xl, 6, and Deut. xir, 7, and m both instances it is {OD- 
hibited from being used as food because it chews the 
cod, although it has not the hoof divided. But the 
liare belongs to an order of mammals totally distinct 
fnmi the ruminantia, which are all, without exceptjon, 
bisuica, the camel's hoof alone offering a partial modifi- 
cation (Ehrenberg, Mammalia, pL it). The stomach of 
(odenls is single, and the motion of the roouth, except- 
ing when they masticate some small poitioo oT food re- 



aervad in the bidlow of the cheek, is mora (hat of the 

tips, when in a state of repose the animals are aigaged 
in working the incisor teeth upon each otha. This 
practice is a necosaiy condition o( existence, for the 
friction keepa them fit for the purpose of uibbhng, and 
preventa their growing beyond  proper length. As 
haies do not sutmst on hard substances, like most of tbe 
genera of the order, but on tender shoots and graaees, 
they have more cause, and thereforB a more constant 
craving, to abrade their teeth ; and this they do in  
manner which, combined with the slight trituration of 
the occasional contents of the cheeks, even modem writ- 
ers, not zoologists, have mistaken for real n 




Hara omooDt SlnaL 
Physiological investigatton ha^ng fnll/ deteiminea 
th^ qiKetions, it follows that, both with r^ard to the 

shaphan (" coney"} and the hare, we alundd under- 
sUuid the «iginal in the above pasBages, rendered 
"chewing the cud," as merely implying a second mas- 
tication, more ot less complete, and not necessarily that 
faculty of trae raminants which derives its name from 
a power to draw up aliment after deglutition, when 
worked into a ball, from the first stomach into the 
month, and there to submit it to a second grinding pno- 
cess. The act of "chewing the cud" and " re-chewing" 
being considered identical by the Hebrews, the Bacnd 
lawgiver, not being occupied with the doctrines of sci- 
ence, no doubt used the expreadon in the sense in which 
it was then understood (compare Michaelis, A nmerk. hI 
loc). It may be at" ~ ' 




Hare otHmmt Lebanon. 
sequent rejection of the hare as food, pervaded man^ 
nations of antiquity, who derived thur origin, or their 

doctrines, from a Shemitic source ; and that, among 
others, it existed among the British Cells, probably 
even before they bad any intercourse with Phcmiciao 
merchants. Thus the Turks and Armenians abstun 
from its flesh (Tavemier, Traveli, iii, 154), also the Am- 
bians (Kusaell's Aleppo, ii, 30), ai^ even the Ureeka and 



HARE 7 

Banna •nuded it (Henuann, ad LadoM. amterii. hill. p. 
1S5; P,C»Ullan.i>o«inweni,iii,5,mGn>iiov.J'A(»aur. 
ii) on nniUij- (ctDundi (Aristotle, Jliit, A i&n. iv, 6 ; 
Pliny, n. S. uviii, 79) ; bat tlie Bednrln, who lave > 
peculiar mode oTdreemng it, are fond of its tie«h. 

There are two distinct ipecies of hare in Syria : ona, 
LtpMt Sgriaau, ax Syrian hare, neaiiy equal in lize to 
the common European, having tlie fur ochrj- buff; and 
Lrpui aijuaticai, or hare of the (Icrcit, HmiUer and 
brovniah. They nside in the localitiea indicated by 
their tririal namca, and are dUtinguiahed from the com- 
moo hare by a grealei length of em, and s black tail 
with while frioge. There is found in Egypt, and high- 
er up the Nile, a third ipecies, lepieeenled in Iho out- 
Gdc paintings on ancient monuments, but not colorsl 
uriih that deliotcy of tint required for diatingiuslung it 
frum the others, excepting that it appean to be marked 
with the black speckles which characterize the existing 
apecieB. — Kitto. The ancient Egyptians coursed it with 
greybotmdf ai we do, and sometimes captured it alive 
"Ham an so pleotifiil in the 




Al»cl=ut Kgyj.l .. . ., „M.. I  -11  ;■■■ M'MiLiLiT'lJtS, 

cnrirais of AJej^io.'' saya Dr. Ronelt (ii, 158), " that it 

oat a sporting twice  week letuni with fbor or five 
tncc hung in triamph at the f^rtha of the Mrvanta' 
bosM." Harea are bunted in Syria with gieyhoond 

Hare, Avciutiia William (broChei of Juli 
Charlesi see below), was bom in r 
fasd, became lidlow of New Colle^ and 
of Altoo Barney WHIahire. In conjunctii 
tntber, he wioU Cwnn at TraA (3d ed. Land. 1817, 2 
Tola, Iftoo). Ue also pobtished Sermomt to a CoiaiiTg 
Congngaliim (London, 4th ed. 1839, 7th ed. 1851 ; New 
tart, 18S9, 8vo), which are models of clear and practi- 
cal disooorae from the pulpiL He died in 1S34 at Rome. 

Hars, Bdirarcl, an English Methodist minister, 
was boni at Hull gepL 19, 1774, and received his early 
•daealioD imder Uilner, author of the Church Hittory, 
Having  turn for the sea, he became a sailor, and in 
1798, while a shi[^boy, was converted, and b^^an to hold 
rdigioai Krvico among the sulora. During the French 
war he waa twiee taken prisoner; and alter his second 
libenlwl, in 1796, he ^landoned the sea. He was 
admitted into the itinerant ministry of the Wesleyan 
CInircb in 1796, and for twenty yeara was an acceptabk 
wd bitbTbl miniMer of the OoqicL His last sution 
WM Lceda. He died of consmnption at Eieter in the 
^aing of 1818. Hare was a clear and fbrdble writer, 
■ad pnxtnoed aevenl valoahle apologetioa] and contro- 
vowl works on Uethodist doctrine. Perhaps the mart 
■^lOttaDl of theae are ^ Trtatit o» At Seriftvmt Doe- 
trwit of Jm^katioK (2d ed., with Prebce by T. Jack- 
mm, Idndoo, 1889, ISmo; also reprinted in New York. 
ItDo), Sea also BtnaooM publidtrd from lot Mam- 
terifU, mik a Memoir a/Hart tf Jairpk fiAuon (Lon- 
tm,itai)^WtAtm MimiUa,\Sl9; Ltfa of Dr. Jt^ia 



3 HARE 

Hat*, FranoU, bishop of Chichester, was bom at 
London about 1666. He studied at Eton and at Kii^a 
College, Cambridge ; and, having been employed aa ta^ 
tor to Icffd Blandford, son of the duke of Marlbi^nugh, 
the Latter caused him tu be ^ipcdnted general ch^iUn 
of the army. In consequence of services rendered to 
the Whig psrty, he was successively made dean of 
Worcester in 1708, of St, Paul's in 1726, bishop of St. 
Asaph in 1761, and transferred in the same year to the 
see of Chichester. Hedted in 1740. Hewrolcawork 
on The Difflcuttiet and DuoourafftToenlt atlnUng ihe 
atudii oftht Scr^Ovra in the Way ofprinale JvdgmenI, 
which was condemned for its tendency to scepliciBni. 
He is chiefly famous for his ^ool; of Ptalmi, in Ihe Ht^ 
6mr, jrar ailo the originnl porHcal Mtirt (Psalmorom 
Ijber inTersiculo metrice Divisus,Lond.l736.8i-o),an 
attempt, now deemed hopeless, lo reduce Hebrew poetry 
to metre, in which ho was defended by Dr. Edwards, 
and assailed by Dr. Lowlh. His Wortt were published 
vols, Sro (Lond. 174G), containing, besidefl Ihe wri^ 
above nanted, a number of Sfnnau. See Chal- 
mers, Geural Biog. Did. ; Allibone^ Ifictionary (if Aa- 
(Aorj, i, 786. 
Bar«, Jnllaa ChailM, one of the brightest oma- 
Gflts of the Church of England in the present century, 
was horn Sept 18, 1795, at Huistmonceux, Sussex, his 
father being lord of the manor. After a brilliant prep- 
aration at the Charter House, he went to Cambridge in 
1812, where he graduBled KA. 1810, M.A. 1819, and be- 
came fellow of Trinity. He was instituted to Ihe rec- 
tory of Hurstmonceux (the advoweon of which was in 
his own family) in 1882; was collated to a prebend at 
Chichester in 1851 ; was appointed archdeacon of l*wt« 
byhishopOtter in 1840; and nominated one of her maj- 
'h^ilaina in 1858. He died at the rectorv, Jan. 
28,1855, 

III 1827 he published the first edititm of Giiriiu oi 
Tralh, but hia name was first distinguished in the liter- 
ary world as one of the translatora of Niduhr's Ilitlory 
tfRaait, in conjunction with-Hr. Connop Thirlwall, the 
present bishop of St. David's. Their version was made 
from the second (renmui edition, which msierially dif- 
fered from the first, and it was flrst published in the 
year 1828. It extends to the flnt and second volumes 
only of the standard English edition ; the third and 
fourth were translate<l by Dr. William .Smith and Dr. 
Leonard SchmitE. In 1829Ur. Hare published, at Cam- 
briflge,^ VindicatioiiofNi^mhr'MHiMtonio/Ronitfron 
Iht Charga of lit Quarterly Jtemeie. Archdeacon Hare's 
puUished works extend over a period of nearly thirty 
years. The moot important of them are, Thi Ckildmt 
Hf Light .- a Sermon for Advent (Cambridge, 1828, 8vo) ! 
—Sermimi prtached btfon the Unireriilg ofCarabridgt 
(Feb. 1889) .—The Victory of Faith, and other SrtmooM 
(Cambridge, 1840, 8vo) i—Tht BtUer ProipftU of lAa 
Church.- a Charge (lMI>)—SrrmOMprmcholalIIurM. 
vioBceux Church (18(1, 8roi 2d roL 1849) ;— 7Ae t'Riiy 
yiJie Church- a Sermon preached biforc the Chichester 
Mxetan Auodatioa (1845, 8vo):^7'A« Miitionoflke 
Comforter, and other Servmii,viiikNota (1846,2vola. 
8ro; Anier.ediU Boston, 1854, 12mo):—r**J/raiu of 
Umlg : a Charge, tcilh Kotet, eipedalb/ on Ihe IntlilitlioH 
of Ihe AngiiBon Bithopric at Jeriut^em (1847, 8vo):— 
A Letter on the Agitation excited by the Appointment of 
Dr. Ilampdm to ihe Ste of Hereford (1S48, 8vo) -.—Life 
and Wrilingt qfJokn Sterling (1818, 2 vols. 12mo) i— 
CuusM al Truth, by tvo Brotheri (3d ediL 1848, 2 vols. 
]8mo) -^Tke Conlal mVft Rome, npeeiaOy in reply to 
Dr. Neaman {Loai. \»62,Svo) -.— Vindiaition of Luther 
(Lond. 1854, 8vo). This last is a book of vigorous con- 
troversy, and refutes, both on critical and moral grounds, ' 
tbe charges brought agaiost the memory of Lutber by 
Hallam, Newman, Wani, and Sir WiUi^m Hamilton. 
These writeni are handled by Hate with great, but not 
unjust severity'. There are two admirable articles on 
Hare, giv-inga candid andjudicions criticism of his ca- 
reer as philosopher, controvenialiat, and theidagian, in 



HAREL 



U 



HARLAY-CHANVALLON 



the Metkodigt Qucarterfy Review, April and July, 1856 ; 
reproduced by the author, Rev. J. H. Rigg, in his Mod- 
em Anglican Theology (London, 1858, 12mo). See also 
GenUeman^i Magazine^ April, 1855; Quarterly Review 
(London), July, 1855 ; BUuAwoocPs Afagcaine, xliii, 287 ; 
Allibone, Dictionary o/ Authors, i, 785. 

Harel (Heb. with the art ha-HareV, i«•J>^J^, the 
mount of God; Sept. rb <ipi^X,yulg. ^rie/, EngLVem 
"the altar," maig. *' Harel"), a figurative name for the 
altar of bumtKiffering (Ezek. xliii, 15, first clause), called 
(in the last clause and in ver. 16) Ariel (EngL Version 
also *' altar"). "Junius explains it of the ivxdpa or 
hearth of the altar of bumtoffering, covered by the net- 
work on which the sacrifices were placed over the burn- 
ing wooci This explanation Gesenius adopts, and brings 
forward as a parallel the AraK irek, 'a hearth or fii^ 
place,' akin to the Heb. n!|i(, icr, * light, flame.' Furst 
{ilandw. s. v.) derives it from an unused root M^n, hardy 

* to glow, bum,' with the termination -el; but the only 
authority for the root is its presumed existence in the 
word Harel Ewald {Vie Prophelen det A.B.u^ 373) 
identifies Harel and Ariel, and refers them both to a root 
nnsj, drdh, akui to *|!|«, tir" (Smith, s. v.). 

Harem. See House; Polygamy. 

Haren, Je.\n de, a Belgian theologian, was bom at 
Valenciennes about 1540. While yet a youth he went 
to Geneva, where he was well received by Calvin. He 
was present at the death-bed of the reformer (1564), and 
was for eighteen years a Protestant minister in several 
cities. He finally joined the Roman Catholic Church 
at Antwerp, March 3, 1586, and preached at Venloo, Co- 
logne, Aix-la-Chapelle, Nancy, etc. He returned to Cal- 
vinism in 1610, and died about 1620. He wrote Brief 
Discours det causes justes et iquitables qui ont meues M, 
Jean Haren, jadis mimstre, de quitter la religion prsten- 
due reformee, pour se ranger au giron de VEglise catho- 
lique, etc (Anvers, 1587, 12mo) :— thirteen Catechises con- 
tre Calvin et les calvimstcs, (Saucy, 1599, 12mo) : — Pro- 
fession catholique de Jean Haren (Nancy, 1599, 12mo) : 
— Epitre et Demande chrestienne de Jean Haren a Am- 
hroise Wille, ministre des estrangers walons retirez en la 
vUle d'Aix-la-Chapdle (Nancy, 1699, 12mo). See Cal- 
met, BibL de lA>rraine, p. 479 ; Hoefer, Nouv» Biog, Gen- 
iraie, xxiii,380. 

Ha'reph (Heb. Chareph', S)^n, pludang oif ; Sept. 
'Ap«i V. r. 'Api}i\ the " father" \)f Beth-Gader, and 
" son" of Caleb of Judah by one of his legitimate wives 
(1 Chron. ii, 51). RC cir. 1612. The patronymic 
**Haruphite" (q. v.) seems to connect this with Habipu. 

Haresetli. See Kir-Haresetu. 

Hareoh. See Kib-Habesh. 

Haresha. See TeltHaresha. 

Ha^'reth (Heb. Che'reth, nin, the form nin, Chd'- 
reth, is on account of the pause-accent; prob. i. q. IZJ^H, 
a thickei; Sept. Xap^ v. r. [tv] iroXa [apparently 
reading "^^5 ; so Josephus, Ani, vi, 12, 4], Vulg. Haret), 
a wood O^^) in the mountauis of Judah, where DaWd 
hid himself trcm Saul, at the instance of the prophet 
Gad (1 Sam. xx:i, 5) ; probably situated among the 
hills west of Socho. See Forest. 

Harhai'all (Heb. Charkayah', njnnn, zeal of Je- 
hovah; Sept. 'Apaxiag), the father of Uzziel "of the 
goldsmiths," which latter repaired part of the walls of 
Jerusalem after the Captivitv (Neh. iii, 8). B.C ante 
446. 

Har^liaa (2 Kings xxii, 14). See Hasrak. 

Har^'liur (Heb. Charchur', *in*^n, fever, as in Deut 
xxviii, 22 ; Sept. 'Apot^p), one of the Nethinim whose 
posterity returned from Babvlon with 2ierabbabel (Ezra 
a, 51 ; Neh. vii, 53). RC. 686. 

Harid. See Hadid. 



Ha'rim (Heb. Charim', D'ln, for ti'^*in, i. q. d^'nn, 
jfoZ-nosed ; Sept. 'Hpdfi, but with many v. rr. especial- 
ly Xapfifi in 1 Chron. xxiv, 8, 'Hpi'fc in Ezra ii, 89, 
'Ipdfi in Neh. x, 5, and 'Apt in Neh. xii, 15), the name 
of several men, mostly about the time of the Captivity. 

1. The head of the second "coursed of priests as ar- 
ranged by David (1 Chron. xxiv, 8). RC 1014. 

2. Apparently an Israelite, whose descendants, to the 
number of 820 males, or 1017 in all, returned from Bab- 
ylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii, 32, 39 ; Neh. vii, 85, 42. 
But as among these some are enumerated (Ezra x, 21) 
as priests in the corresponding lists of those who re- 
nounced their Gentile wives, and others (Ezra x, 31) as 
ordinary Israelites, it may be doubted whether Harim 
was not rather a place whose inhabitants arc here iq[K>- 
ken of, like others in the same list Accordingly, 
Schwarz identifies it with a village Charim, situated, 
according to him, on a bay of the sea eight Eng. milea 
north-east of Jaffa {Palest, p. 142). He probably means 
eZ-Z/arom-Ali-Ibn-Aleim (Robinson, Researches, iii, 46), 
but his explanation of the compound name is not at aU 
satisfactory. A better supposition, perhaps, is that Ha- 
rim in these latter passages stands patrouymicaUy as a 
representation of the family, q. d. Bene-Harim, See 
Elam. 

3. The father of Malchijah, which latter repaired 
part of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 11). B.C. ante 
446. Perhaps identical with No. 2. 

4. One of the priests that returned from Babykm 
with Zerubbabel (Neh. xii, 3, whero the name is given 
as Rehum ; but compare ver. 15, where his son Adna is 
named). RC 536. Perhaps the same as No. 8. 

5. One of those named fint among the signers of the 
sacred covenant of Nehemiah (Neh. x, 5). RC cir. 
410. Perhaps i. q. No. 3. 

6. Another, a chief of the people, in the same list 
(ver. 27). RC cir. 410. Perhaps to be explained like 
No. 2. 

Har^iph (Heb. Char^h', ?|'^*^n, autumnal rain; 
Sept. 'AptifM, 'Api0), the name apparently of two men. 

1. Au Israelite whose descendants (or possibly a place 
whose inhabitants), to the number of 112, returned from 
Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. vii, 24). In Ezra ii, 
18, the name is written in the 8}'nonymous form Jorah. 
RC. ante 586. Perhaps identical with the Habei*h of 
1 Chron. ii, 51. See Habuphite. 

2. One of the chief of the people who subscribed the 
covenant of fidelity to Jehovah with Nehemiah (Neh. 
X, 19). RC dr. 410. Perhaps the name is here only 
a patronymic contraction for Bcn-Har^h* See Habibi. 

Harlay-Chanvallon, Francis ije, archbishop 
of Rouen and afterwards of Paris, was bom in the latter 
city Aug. 14, 1625. He studied at the College of Na- 
varre, and was immediately appointed abbot of Jumi^gea 
by his uncle, the archbishop of Rouen, whom he suc- 
ceeded in oflice, Dec. 28, 1651. The looseness of his 
morals ill fitted him for such a position ; yet, connecting 
himself with cardinal Mazarin, he mana^^ to indulge 
his evil propensities without losing his credit. He rep- 
resented the deigy at the coronation of Louis XIT in 
1654, and is said to have ofiiciated at the marriage of 
this king with madame de Maintenon. His name, his 
fortune, and the flatteries he showered upon the kuig 
caused him to be made archbishop of Paris Jan. 8, 1671, 
and he received numerous other marks of the royal fa- 
\'or. He died at Conflana, where he possessed a fine es- 
tate, Aug. 6, 1695. A ready eloquence was joined in 
him to great ambition, the utmost want of prindplea, 
and great intolerance. At Dieppe, where he was mas- 
ter as temporal lord, he obliged the Protestants to come 
to the cathedral and listen to the sermons he delivered 
as spiritual lord. He was one of the prime movers of 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes. Although a 
member of the French Academy, and very fond of mak- 
ing speeches, none of his discourse were published. He 
published, however, the Synodkxn Paridense, an ao- 



HARLOT 



IS 



HARLOT 



eovmt of all the synoda held by his predeceflMn. See 
I.«^ndie, Vie de Harlay (Par. 1720, 4to) ; Sevign^, I.et- 
trtsa (1818), x, 121, 128); Bavsaet, Bist. de Fenelan (2d 
ecL), i, 51, 55; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog. Generale, xxiii, 408. 

Harlot, WHOBE, etc, are terms used Bomewhat pro- 
miacnoualy in the Aath. Vera, for several HeK words of 
widely different import. 

1. Fkoperiy nsit (zonoA', participle from h3T,topfay 
ike kaaioL, Sept. iropviffValg. meretrix, both these latter 
terms referring to prostitation for menxnary motives), 
which occuxB frequently, and b often rendered in our 
▼version by the fint of the above English words, as in 
Gen. xxxiv, 81, etc., and sometimes, without apparent 
reason for the change, by the seconcl, as in Prov. xxiii, 
27,Mid elsewhere. InGen.xxxviii,15,thewordisn3iT, 

'^ harlot,** which, however, becomes changed to nn^p^ 
** hariot,** in vers. 21, 22, which means, literally, a cofwe- 
erated woman, a female (perhaps priestess) devoted to 
piofitituticMi in honor of some heathen idoL The distinc- 
tion shows that Judah supposed Tamar to be a heathen : 
the facts, therefore, do not prove that prostitution was 
then practised between Hdrrews, 

That this condition of perscms existed in the earliest 
states of society is clear from Gen. xxxviii, 15. From 
that account it would appear that the " veil** was at that 
time peculiar to harlots. Judah thought Tamar to be 
such *^becav$e she had covered her face.** Mr. Bucking- 
ham remarks, in reference to this passage, that ^ the 
Turcoman women go unveiled to this day" (Travels in 
Metnpotamia, i, 77). It is contended by Jahn and oth- 
ers that in ancient times all females wore the veil {Btbl. 
ArchceoL p. 127). Posubly some peculiariiy in the size 
of the veil, or the mode of wearing it, may have been 
(Prov. vii, 10) the distinctive dress of the harlot at that 
period (see New Translation, by the Bev. A. De Sola, 
etcy p. 116, 248-9). The priests and the high-priest 
were forlMdden to take a >vife that was (had been, Lev. 
xxi, 14) a harlot. Joeephus extends the law to all the 
Hebrews, and seems to ground it on the prohibition 
aipamst oblations ariang from prostitution, Deut. xxiii, 18 
{A mi. iv, 8, 23). The celebrated case of Rahab has been 
much debated. She is, indeed, called by the word usu- 
ally signifying harlot (Josh, ii, 1 : vi, 17 ; Sept. iroffyrj ; 
Vulg. meretrix ; and in Heb. xi, 31 ; James ii, 25) ; but 
it has been attempted to show that the word may mean 
an innkeeper. See Rahab. If, however, there were 
such persona, considering what we know of CanaaniUsh 
monds (Lev. xviii, 27), we may conclude that they 
would, if women, have been of this class. The next in- 
stance introduces the epithet of "strange woman." It 
is the case of Jephthah's mother (Judg. xi, 2), who is 
ako called a harlot {irSpvtj ; meretrix) ; but the epithet 
r"jnsj TVSti {achereth)^ " $irange woman," merely de- 
uoU»foreiffH extraction, Joeephus says livog irtpi n}v 
pafripa^ "a stnuiger by the mother's side." The mas- 
teriy deacription in Prov. vii, 6, etc. may possibly be that 
of an abandoned married woman (ver. 19, 20), or of the 
sdidtatioos of a courtesan, '^ fair speech," under such a 
pretennoii. The mixture of religious obser\'ances (ver. 
14) seems illustrated by the fact that '' the gods are ac^ 
tually worshipped in many Oriental brothels, and frag- 
ments of the offerings distributed among the frequent- 
ers" (Dr. A. Clarke's Commenl. ad loc). The represen- 
tation given b>' Si^omon is no doubtybttncfecf upon facts, 
and therefore shows that in his time prostitutes plied 
their tnde in the '* streets" (Prov.!*!!, 12; ix, 14, etc.; 
Jer. iii, 2 ; Ezek. xvi, 24, 25, 81). As regards the fash- 
icMis involved in the practice, similar outward marks 
seem to have attended its eariiest forms to those which 
we trace in the clamcal vrriters, e. g. a distinctive dress 
and a seat by the way-side (Gen. xxxviii, 14 ; compare 
Ezek. xvi, 16, 25; Bar. vi, 43; Petron. Arb. Sat, xvi; 
Juv. vi, 118 foli; Doogtaei Anoikid* Sacr, Exc xxiv). 
Public singing in the streets occurs also (Isa. xxiii, 16; 
Kodfu, iX| 4). Thoae who thus published their infamy 



were of the worst repute ; others had houses of resorty 
and both classes seem to have been known among the 
Jews (Prov. vii, 8-12; xxiii, 28; Ecdus. ix, 7, 8); the 
two women, 1 Kings iii, 16, lived as Greek hetseras some- 
times did, in a house together (Smith, i>icf. Gr, andRo' 
man Ant, s. v. Hettera). The baneful fascmation as- 
cribed to them in Prov. vii, 21-28, may be compared 
with what Chardin says of similar effects among the 
young nobility of Persia (Voyages en Perse^ i, 168, ed. 
1711), as also may Luke xv, 80, for the sums lavished on 
them (jb. 162). In earlier times the price of a kid is 
mentioned (Gen. xxxviii), and great wealth doubtless 
sometimes accrued to them (Ezek. xvi, 83, 89 ; xxiii, 26). 
But lust, as distinct from gain, appears as the induce- 
ment in Prov. vii, 14, 15 (see Dougtaei Anal Sacr, ad 
loc), where the victim is further allured by a promised 
sacrificial banquet (comp. Ter. Eun, iii, 8). The ^* har- 
lots" are classed with '' publicans," as those who lay un- 
der the ban of society in the N. T. (llatt. xxi, 82). No 
doubt they multiplied with the increase of polygamy, 
and consequently lowered the estimate of marriage. 
The corrupt practices imported by Gentile converts into 
the Church occasion most of the other passages in which 
allusions to the subject there occur, 1 Cor. v, 1, 9, 11 ; 2 
Cor. xii, 21 ; 1 Thess. iv, 8 ; 1 Tim. i, 10. The decree, 
Acts XV, 29, has occasioned doubts as to the meaning of 
vopviia there, chiefly from its context, which may be 
seen discussed at length in Deyling's Observ. Sacr, ii, 
470, sq. ; Schottgen, Hor, Ifebr, i, 468 ; Spencer and 
Hammond, ad loc. The simplest sense, however, seems 
the most probable. The children of such persons were 
held in contempt, and could not exercise privileges nor 
inherit (John viii, 41 ; Deut. xxiii, 2 ; Judg. xi, 1, 2). 
The term ^ bastard" is not, however, applied to any ille- 
gitimate offspring bom out of wedlock, but is restricted 
by the Rabbins to the issue of any connection within 
the degrees prohibited by the law. A mamzery accord- 
ing to the Mishna (yip5afno/A,iv, 18), is one, says R. Aki- 
ba, who is bom of relations between whom marriage is 
forbidden. Simeon the Temanite says it is every one 
whose parents are liable to the punishment of ^cutting 
off" by the hands of Heaven ; R. Joshua, every one 
whose parents are liable to death by the house of jud^ 
ment, as, for instance, the offspring of adultery. Chi the 
general subject, Michaelis*s Iahcs o/ Moses, bk. v, art. 
268; Selden, De Ux, I/ebr. i, 16; iii. 12; and Be Jur, 
Natur, V, 4, together with Schottgen, and the authori- 
ties there quoted, may be consulted 

The words sixni niwhn, A.V. "and they washed 
his armor** (1 Kings xxii, 88), should be, "and the har- 
lots washed," which is not only the natural rendering, 
but in accordance with the Sept. and Joeephus. 

Since the Hebrews regarded Jehovah as the husband 
of his people, by virtue of the covenant he had made 
with them (Jer. iii, 1), therefore to commit JbmicaUon 
\a a very common metaphor in the Scriptures to de- 
note defection on their part fhim that covenant, and 
especially by the practice of idoUtry. See Fornica- 
tion. Hence the degeneracy of Jerusalem is illustra- 
ted by the sjrmbol of a harlot (Isa. i, 21), and even that 
of heathen cities, as of Nineveh (Nah. iii, 4). Under 
this figure the prophet Ezekiel delivers the tremen- 
dous invectives contained in chaps, xvi, xxiii. In the 
prophecy of Hosea the iUustration is carried to a start- 
ling extent. The prophet seems commanded by the 
Loid to take "a wife of whoredoms and children of 
whoretloms" (i, 2), and " to love an adulteress" (iii, 1). 
It has, indeed, been much disputed whether these trans- 
actions were real, or passed in vision only; but the idea 
itself, and the diversified applications of it throughout 
the prophecy, render it one of the most effective por- 
tions of Scripture. See Ho6ba. 

2. rtttJ^JD (kedeshah% from WU, to consecrate, occurs 
Gen. xxxviii, 16, 21, 22 ; Deut, xxiii, 17 ; Hos. iv, 14). 
It has already been observed that the proper meaning 
of the word is consecrated prostitute. The vexy early 



HARLOT 



W 



HAEIMONY 



aUnsion to sach penoius in the firtA of these pasMgeB, 
agrees with the accounts of them in ancient heathen 
writers. Herodotus refers to the ^ abominable custom 
of the Babylonians, who compelled every native female 
to attend the temple of Venus once in her life, and to 
, prostitute herself in honor of the goddess" (i, 199; Ba- 
luchi vi, 48). Stiabo calls prostitutes, who, it is well 
known, were at Athens dedicated to Venus, lepo^ovXoc 
ywacrcC) ** consecrated servants," "votaries" ((#eoy. viii, 
878; Grotius, Atmotai. on Baruck; Beloe's I/erodotus, 
Notes, i, 272, Lond. 1806). The transaction related in 
Numb. XV, 1-15 (compare Psa. cvi,28) seems connected 
with idolatry. The prohibition in Deut. xxiii, 17, " there 
shall be no H'tS^p, 'whore,' of the daughters of Israel," 
is intended to exclude such devotees from the worship 
of Jehovah (see other allusions. Job xxxvi, 14 ; 1 Kings 
xiv, 24; XV, 12). The law forbids (Lev. xix, 29) the 
father's compelling his daughter to sin, but does not 
mention it as a voluntary mode of life on her part with- 
out his complicity. It could, indeed, hardly be so. The 
provision of Lev. xxi,9, regarding the priest's daughter, 
may have arisen from the fact of his home being less 
guarded, owing to his absence when ministering, as weU 
as from the scandal to sanctity so involved. Perhaps 
such abominations might, if not thus severely marked, 
lead the way to the excesses of Gentile ritualistic forni- 
cation, to which, indeed, when so near the sanctuary, 
they might be >'iewed as approximating (Michaelis, 
Laws o/ Moses f art. 268). Yet it seems to be assumed 
that the harlot class would exist, and the prohibition of 
Deut. xxiii, 18, forbidding offerings from the wages of 
such sin, is perhaps due to the contagion of heathen ex- 
ample, in whose worship practices abounded which the 
Israelites were taught to abhor. The term there espe- 
cially refers to the impure worship of the Syrian Astarte 
(Numb. XXV, 1; comp. Herod, i, 199; Justin, xviii, 5; 
Strabo, viii, 878; xii, 559; VaL Max. ii, 6, 15; August 
De Civ, Deiy iv, 4), whose votaries, as idolatry progress- 
ed, would be recruited ftom the daughters of Israel ; 
. hence the common mention of both these sins in the 
I Prophets, the one, indeed, being a metaphor of the oth- 
er (Isa. i, 21 ; Ivii, 8 ; Jer. ii, 20 ; comp. Exod. xxxiv, 16, 
16; Jer. iii, 1, 2,6; Ezek. xvi,xxui; Hoe. i,2; ii, 4, 6; 
iv, 1 1, 18, 14, 15 ; v, 8). The latter class would grow up 
with the growth of great cities and of foreign inter- 
course, and hardly could enter into the view of the Mo- 
saic institutes. 

8. nj*133 (nokrfyah'f from "ISJ, to iffnore)^ " the strcmge 
woman" (1 Kings xi,l; Prov.v,'20; vi,24; vii,5; xxiii, 
27 ; Sept. dXKorpia ; Vulg. aUena^ extranea). It seems 
probable that some of the Hebrews in later times intei^ 
preted the prohibition against fornication (Deut. xxii, 
41) as limited to females of their own nation, and that 
the "strange women" in question were Ganaanites and 
other GentUes (Josh, xxiii, 18). In the case of Solo- 
mon they are q>ecified as JEtf oabites, Ammonites, Edom- 
ites, Zidonians, and Hitdtes. The passages referred to 
discover the character of these females. To the same 
class belongs JTJT (zaroA', from *1S|t,to turn in as a visit- 
or), "the stranffe woman" (Prov. v, 3, 20; xxii, 14; 
xxiii, 83 ; yvvij wopvtj, dXXorpia ; meretrix, aUena, ex- 
tranea) : it b sometimes found in full, TV^I flUJX (Prov. 
ii, 16; vii, 5). To the same class of females likewise 
belongs n!|i*»p3 ntO^ {kesUuth', foUy), " the foolish 
woman," L e. by a common association of ideas in the 
Shemitic dialects, smfid (Psa. xiv, 1). The description 
in Prov. ix, 14, etc illustrates the character of the fe- 
male so designated. To this may be added t^ nCK 
(ra, wrong\ " the etil woman" (Piov. v, 24). 

In the New Testament tropvri occurs in Matt xxi, 81, 
82; Luke xv,80; 1 00^1-1,15,16; Heb. xi,31; James 
ii, 25. In none of these passages does it neofssarily im- 
ply prostitution for gain. The likeliest is Luke xv, 80. 
It is used symbolically for a city in Rev. xvii, 1, 5, 15, 
16 ; xix, 2, where the term and all the attendant imagery 



are derived from the Old Testament It may be ob* 
served iii regard to Tyre, which (Isa. xxiii, 15. 17) is rep- 
resented as " committing fornication with all the king- 
doms of the world upon the face of the earth," that these 
words, as indeed seems likely from those which follow, 
may relate to the various arts which she had employed 
to induce merchants to trade with her (Patrick, ad loc.). 
So the Sept understood it, torai ifiiroptov vdvaiQ rate 
fiaaiXumc rqc olKovfuvtjQ ivl irp6auTov r^c y^c. 
Schleusner observes that Uie same words in Rev. xviii, 
8 may also relate to commercial dealings. (Fesselii Ad' 
versar, Sacr, ii,27, 1, 2 [VVitteb. 1660] ; Frisch,/fe mii- 
liere peregrina ap, Ifebr, [Lips. 1744]). — ^Kitto, a. v.; 
Smith, s. V. Compare Prostitute. 

Harmer, Thoscas, a learned diasenting divine of 
Englan<l, was bom in Norwich in 1716, and became 
minister of a dissenting congregation at Watteafield, 
Suffolk. He was much esteemed in the literary world 
for his attainments in Oriental literature and for his 
skill in antiquities. Availing himself of some MSS. of 
the celebrated Sir John Chardin, who had travelled into 
Persia and other Eastern countries, Harmer seized the 
idea of ^>plying the informiUion thus obtained to the 
illustration of many portions of the prophetical writings, 
and of the evangelists also. The first volume of the 
Observations on various Passages of Scripture appeared 
in 1764; in 1776 the work again made its appearance in 
two volumes octavo, and in 1787 were published two 
additional volumes; a fourth edition, in four volumes, 
was called for in a short time afterwards, and a fifth 
eiUtion was edited by Adam Clarke (Lond. 1816, 4 vols, 
8vo), with considerable additions and corrections, to 
which is prefixed a life of the author. 3Ir. Harmer also 
published Outlines of a new Commentary on Solomon^s 
Song (LoncL 1768, 8vo) ; and a posthumous volume has 
appeared, entitled The Miscellamous Works of the Rev. 
Thomas Harmer, with an introductory memoir by Wil- 
liam Youngman (Lond. 1823, 8vo). Mr. Harmer died in 
1788.— Jones, Christian Biography ; DarUng, Cydopcedia 
Bibliographica, i, 400. 

HarmonlBts or Harmonites. See Rafpists. 

Harmony, as a technical name of a Biblical work, 
is applied to books the object of which is to arrange the 
Scriptures in chronological order, so that the mutual 
agreement of the several parts may be rendered appar- 
ent, and the true succession of events clearly under- 
stood. With this view various scholars have compiled 
harmonies of the Old Testament, of the New, and of 
particular portions of botK Harmonies of the Old Tes- 
tament exhibit the books disposed in chronological or^ 
der, as is done by Lightfoot in his Chronicle of the Times, 
and the Order of the Texts of the Old Testament, and by 
Townsend in his Old Testament arranged m historical 
and chronological O^-der, Harmonies of the New Tes- 
tament present the gospels and epistles distributed in 
like order, the latter being intersporsed among the Acts 
of the Apostles. In this way Townsend has proceeded 
in his valuable work entitled Ths New Testament ar- 
ranged in chronological and historical Order, Books, 
however, of this kind are so few in number that the 
term hoamunty is almost appropriated by usage to the 
gospels. It is this part of the New Testament which 
has chiefly occupied the attention of those inquirers 
whose object is to arrange the Scriptures in their true 
order. The memoirs of our Lord written by the four 
evangelists have chiefly occupied the thoughts of those 
who wish to show that they idl agree, and mutually au- 
thenticate one another. Accordingly, such compositions 
are exceedingly numerous. The four gospels narrate 
the principal events connected with our Lord's abode on 
earth, firom his birth to his ascension. There must there- 
fore be a general resemblance between them, though 
that of John contains little in common with the others, 
being apparently supplementary to them. Yet there 
are considenble diversities, both in the order in which 
facts are narrated, and in the facts themselves. Henoa 



HARMONY 



77 



HARMONY 



the diiBciilty of wearing the aooonnts of the four into a 
eontinuoitt and chnmological history. Those portions 
of the gospels that relate to the ruurreetion of the Sav- 
iour have always presented the greatest obstacles to the 
oomptlera of hiirmonieSy and it must be candidly admit- 
ted that the accounts of this remarlcable event are not 
easily reconcikd. Yet the labors of West and Town- 
son, especially the latter, have served to remove the 
apparent contiadictions. In addition to them may be 
mentioned Cranfleld and Hales, who have endeavored 
to impiore upon the attempts of their predeoeasors. 



In connection with harmonies the term diateisaron 
fiteqoently occurs. It denotes a continued narrative se- 
lected out of the four gospels, in which all repetitions 
of the same or similar words are avoided. It is thus 
the roniA of a harmony, since the latter, properly speak- 
ings exhibits the entire texts of the four evangelists ar- 
ranged in corresponding columns. In popular language 
the two are often used synonymously. See Diatessa- 

B03C 

The f<dlowing questions relative to harmonies de- 
mand attention; and in treating them, we avail our- 
sdves chiefly of the art. on the subject in Kitto*s Cydo- 
padia, slt. 

1. Have dO or eauf of the evangellBts observed chro- 
nological arrangement in their narratives? It was the 
opinion of Ostuider and his followers that all the evan- 
gelists record the facts of the Saviour's history in their 
true Older. When, therefore, the same tnnsactions are 
placed in a different order by the writers, they were 
supposed to have happened more than once. It was as- 
soaaed that they took place as often as they were dif- 
ferently arranged. This principle is too improbable to 
require refutation. Instead of endeavoring to solve dif- 
ficultiea, it boldly meets them with a clumsy expedient. 
Improbable, however, as the hypothesis is, it has been 
adopted by llacknight It is our decided conviction 
that otf the evangelists have not adhered to chronolog- 
ical arrangement. 

The question then arises, have aB neglected the order 
of time ? Newoome and many others espouse this view. 
** Chnmological order,** saj'S this writer, ''is not precise- 
ly observed by any of the evangelists; John and Mark 
obscrre it most, and Matthew ne^ects it most." Bish- 
op Manb supposes that Matthew probably adhered to 
the Older of time, because he was for the most part an 
eye-witness of the facts. The others, he thinks, neg- 
lected the succession of events. The reason assigned 
fay the learned prdate in favor of Matthew*8 order is of 
no weight as long as the uupiraHon of Mark, Luke, and 
John is maintained. If they were infallibly directed in 
their compositions, they were in a condition equally fa- 
Tonble to ^romological narration. 

A dose inspection of Matthew's Gospel will show that 
be did not intend to mark the true succession of events. 
He gives us no definite expressions to assist in arrang- 
ing his matffialw in their proper order. Yeiy frequent- 
ly he passes from one occurrence to another without any 
note oiftime; sometimes he emplo3rs a rt$rc, sometimes ip 
race ^fUptUQ iKtivai^, Iv Inivi^t rf ttaip^, or ip lictivy 
rfiip^. Rarely is he so minute as to use /icO'ij/upace'l 
(xvii, 1). In short, time and place seem to have been 
subonlinnted to the grand object which he had in view, 
viz. the lively exhibition of Jesus in his person, works, 
and dtsooarses. In pursuing this design, he has often 
brought together similar facts and addresses. Although, 
therefore, Kaiser founds upon the phrases we have ad- 
dooed a conclusion the very reverse of ours, yet we 
believe that Matthew did not propose to follow chrono- 
logical order. The contrary is obviously implied. 

Mark, again, is still more indefinite than Matthew. 
Even the general expressions found in the first gospel 
are wanting in bin The facts themselves, not their 
tnie su cces s i on, were the object of his attention. Chro- 
BokgiGal order is not observed in his gospel, except in 
» fiff as that gospel agrees with Lake's. Yet Cart- 



wright, in his Harmong, published about 1680, makes 
the arrangement of Mark his rule for method. 

With regard to Luke, it is probable that he intended 
to arrange everything in its true place, because at the 
beginning of his work he employs the term KaBiirj^. 
This word is often referred to aucceseion ofevtnts^ with- 
out involving time; but it seems clearly to imply ckro" 
nohgical succession (compare Acts xi, 4). Although, 
therefore, Grotius and many others oppose the latter 
view, we cannot but coincide with Beza when he says : 
** In harmonia £vangelii$tarum scribenda, rectiorem or- 
dinem servari putem si in its qun habent communia, 
reliqui ad Lucam potius accommodentur, quam Lucas 
ad ceteros" (oomp. also Olshausen, Die Echiheit der vier 
CanoH. Evcmg, etc., i, 82-8, 8d ed.). We may therefore 
conclude that this evangelist usually follows the chro- 
nological order, especially when such passages as iii, 1 
and iii, 28 are considered, where exact notices of time 
occur. But as the gospel advances, those exprcsrions 
which relate to time are as indeterminate as Matthew's 
and Mark's. Frequently does he pass fh>m one transac- 
tion to another without any note of time ; and again, he 
has furd ravra, ip fit^ twp y)ftepwv. In consequence 
of this vagueness, it is very difiicult, if not impossible, 
to make out a complete harmony of the goepeb accord- 
ing to the order of Luke, because we have no precise 
data to guide us in inserting the particulars related by 
Matthew and Mark in their proper places in the third 
gospel. All that can be determined with any degree of 
probability is that Luke's order seems to have been 
adopted as the true, chronological one. Whether the 
writer has deviated fh>m it in any case may admit of 
doubt We are inclined to believe that in all mmtte 
partiaUare chronological arrangement is not obser^'ed. 
The general body of facts and events seems to partake 
of this character, not every special drcumstance noticed 
by the evangelist. But we are reminded that the a*- 
ngnme$U of dates is distinct fh)m chronological arrange- 
ment, A writer may narrate all his facts in the order 
in which they occurred, without specifying the particu- 
lar time at which they happened ; or, on the other hand, 
he may mark the dates without arranging his narrative 
in chroncdogical order. But attention to one of these 
will naturslly give rise to a certain opinion with regard 
to the other. The more indeterminate the notification 
of time, the less probable is it that time was an element 
kept before the mind of the writer. If there be a few 
dates assigned with exactness, it is a presumption that 
the true arrangement is observed in other parts where 
no dates occur. In the succession of events Luke and 
Mark generally agree. 

With regard to John's Gospel, it has little in common 
with the rest except the last two chapters. It is obvi- 
ous, however, that his arrangement is chronological. 
He carefully marks, in general, whether one, two, or 
three days happened between certain events. His gos- 
pel is therefore of great use in compiling a synopsis. 

It thus appears that no one gospel taken singly is 
sufficient to form a guide for the Gospel harmonist ; nor 
LB he justified in selecting taty one evangelist as a gen- 
eral guide, modifying that single narrative only as ab- 
solutely demanded by the statements of the other three. 
He must place them all together, and select from among 
them as the exigencies in each particular case may re- 
quire. Of course he will take definite notes of time as a 
peremptory direction wherever they occur, and in the 
absence of these he will naturally follow the order of 
the majority of the Gospel narratives. Nor in this 
matter is he at liberty, as Stier has too often done 
(Words ofJegus, Am. ed., i, 81), to prefer one evange- 
Ust's authority to another, e. g. Matthew or John to 
Mark or Luke, on the ground that the former were 
apostles and the latter not, for they are all equally in- 
spired. Again, the same liberty or discretion that is 
called for in arranging the order and date of the acts 
and journeys of our Lord must be exercised in adjusting 
his words and teachings ; that is, the simple juxtaposi- 



HARMONY 



18 



HARMONY 



tion of pasnages is not absolute evidence of ooinddence 
in time and immediate connection in utterance without 
some express intimation to that effect; so that incohe- 
rence, where palpable, or want of unanimity in this par- 
ticular among the Gospel reports or summaries them- 
selves, requires the harmonizer to exercise the same 
judgment in the adjustment as in other particulars. 
(See the Meth, Quart. Review^ Jan. 1854, p. 79.) With 
these points premised and duly observed, there is no 
greater difficulty in adjusting the four accounts of our 
Lord's life and labors with a reasonable degree of cer- 
tainty than there would be in harmonizing into one 
consistent account the separate and independent deposi- 
tions of as many honest witnesses in any case of law. 
The only real questions of serious dispute in fact, aside 
from the main one presently to be mentioned, are those 
of a purely chronological character affecting the general 
date of Christ*8 ministry om a whole, and the particular 
sp<4 where certain incidents or discourses transpired; 
the relative order and position of nearly everything is 
but little disturbed bv the various theories or views as 
to even these points. Hence is evident the rashness of 
those who assert, like Stier (Pref. to Matt, and Mark, in 
Wordt of Jesus), that the construction of a Harmony of 
the Gospels is impracticable ; for in the very same work 
he forthwith proceeds to construct and publish one him- 
self! 

2. What was the duration of oar Lord's ministiy? 
This is a question upon which the opinions of the learn- 
ed have been much divided, and which cannot be settled 
with conclusive certainty. In order to resolve it, it is 
necessary to mark the different Passovers which Christ 
attended. Looking to the gospels by Matthew, Mark, 
and Luke, we should infer that he was present at no 
more than two : the first at the time of his bq>tism, the 
second immediately before his crucifixion. But in John's 
gospel three Passovers at least are named daring the pe- 
rio(l of our Lord's ministry ^ii, 13 ; vi, 4 ; xi, 65). It is 
true that some writers have endeavored Ut adapt the 
gospel of John to the other three by reducing the Pass- 
overs mentioned in the former to two. So Priestley, 
Yoesius, and Mann. In order to accomplish this, it was 
conjectured that irdffxa, in ch. vi, 4,is an mterpolation, 
and then that ioprfi denotes some other Jewish festival. 
Bishop Pearoe went so far as to conjecture that the eti" 
tire verge has been interpolated. For these rash specu- 
lations there is no authority. The received reading 
must here be foUowed (LUcke*s CommetUar Uber Johan- 
wsy 8d ed. ii, 104). In addition to these passages, it has 
been thought by many that another Passover is referred 
to in V, 1, where, although jedtrxa does not occur, i) iop' 
Tti is supposed to denote the same feast. But this is a 
subject of dispute. Irenieus is the oldest authority for 
explaining it of the Passover. Cyril and Chrysostom, 
however, referred it to the Feast of Pentecost, an opin- 
ion approved of by Erasmus, Calvin, and Beza; but Lu- 
ther, Chemnitz, CaloWus, Scaliger, Grotius, and Light- 
foot returned to tlie ancient view of Irenseus. Keppler 
seems to have been the first who conjectured that it 
meant the Feast of Purim immediately preceding the 
second Passover. He was foUoweil by Petau, Lamy, 
D'Outrein, etc Cocceius, followed by Kaiser, referred 
li to the Feast of Tabernacles ; while Keppler and Pe- 
tau intimated that it ma^f possibly have been the Feast 
of Dedioatioru Bengel defended the opinion of Chry- 
sostom; while Hug, with much plausibility, endeavors 
to show that it alludes to the feast ot Purim immedi- 
ately before the Passover. The latter view is adopted 
by Tholuck, Olshausen, and Clausen, though Greswell 
maintains that the Passover is meant. It would occu- 
py too much space to adduce the various considerations 
that have been ui^ged for and against the two leading 
opinions, viz. the Passover and the Fetist o/Purviu The 
true meaning of ioprii (for Lachmann has rightly omit- 
ted the article from before it; see Tischendorf, Ntnr, 
Test. 7th ed. ad loc.) is still indeterminate (see especial- 
ly Alford, Gr, Test, ad loc). To us it appears most prob- 



able that the moat ancient hypothesis is correct, al* 
though the circumstances urged against it are neithef 
few nor feeble. The following arguments, however, seem 
to determine the question in favor of the Passover: 1. 
Had any less noted festival been meant, it would, as in 
other cases (see chap, vii, 2 ; x, 22), have been specified; 
but in the present case not even the article was required 
to distinguish it; whereas John in one instance only 
(vi, 4) uses ledoxa to qualify a followuig iopri}, when 
the latter is thus ddined by rStv 'lov^aiwv. 2. The en- 
suing Sabbath (^cvr<f>oirp«iiroc ^ Luke vi, 1) can only 
be that which was second after the offering of the wave- 
sheaf, and first after the Passover-week, and, however 
interpreted, shows that a Passover had just preceded, 
for the harvest was just ripe. See Passovkr. 

Sir Isaac Newton and Macknight suppose that jSm 
Passovers intervened between our Lord's baptism and 
cnicifixion. This assumption rests on no foundation. 
Perhaps the term ioprii in John vii, 2 may have given 
rise to it, although koprii ia explained in that passage 
by tnajvomjyia. 

During the first three centuries it was commonly be- 
lieved that Christ's ministry lasted but one year, or one 
year and a few months (Routh, Reliq. JSacr, iv, 218). 
Such was the opinion of Clemens Alexandrinus {8tro- 
mata, i, 21; vi, 11) and Origen {de Pnuc^pUs, iv, 5). 
EusebiuB thought that it continued for above three 
years, which hypothesis became general The ancient 
hypothesiB, which confined the time to one year, was re- 
vived by Mann and Priestley; but Newcome, with more 
judgment, defended the common view, and refute 
Priestley's arguments. The one-year view has found 
few late advocates except Jarvis {ItOrod. to History of 
Church) and Browne {Ordo Sadorum). It has beoi 
well remarked by bishop Marsh that the Gospel of John 
presents almost insuperable obstacles to the opinion of 
those who confine Christ's ministry to one year. If 
John mentions but three Passovers, its duration mint 
have exceeded two years; but if he mentions ybtrr, it 
must have been longer than three years. In interweav- 
ing the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke with that 
of John, the uitervals between the Passovers are filled 
up by various transactions. Were the number of these 
feasts determinate and precise, there would be a general 
agreement in the filling up of the times between them ; 
but in consequence of the uncertainty attachuig to the 
subject, Harmonies are found materially to differ in their 
modes of arrangement One thing is evident, that the 
modems, in their endeavors after a chronological dispo- 
sition of the gospels, adopt a far more ratioiud course 
than the ancienta. The latter strangely supposed that 
the first tax. chapters of John's Gospel relate to a period 
of Christ's ministry prior to that with which the other 
three evangelists begin their accounts of the miracles. 
Thus John alone was supposed to narrate the events be- 
longing to the earlier part of his ministry, while Mat- 
thew, Mark, and Luke related the transactions of the last 
year. 

The most ancient Harmony of the Gospels of which 
we have any account was composed by Tatian of Syria 
in the 2d century, but it is now lost (see H. A. Daniel's 
TaHanus der Apologei. Halle, 1887, 8vo). In the 3d 
century, Ammonius was the author of a Harmony sup- 
posed to be still extant Eusebius of Caesarea also com- 
posed a Harmony of the Gospels about A.D. 81 a. In it 
he divided the Gospel history into ten canons or tables, 
according as different facts are related by one or more 
of the evangelists. These ancient Harmonies, however, 
differ in character from such as belong to modem times. 
They are tummaries of the life of Christ, or indexes to 
the four gospels, rather than a chronological arrango- 
ment of d^erent facts, accompanied by a reconciliation 
of apparent contradicti<Mis. (See Scrivener, /nfrodL to 
N. T. p. 50.) In modem times, Andreaa Osiander pub- 
lished his Harmemf of the Gospels in 1587. He adopted 
the principle that the evangelists constantly^ wrote in 
chronological order. Combos 



HARMONY 



19 



HARMONY 



~i 



COMPARATIVB TABLE OF DIFFERENT HARMONIES. 

NoTS.— This Table comprises only a few of those adUnstments of the Gospels (whether tabnlar or In flill). which 
hftTe become best known In America. The figures refer to the sections as they are unmbered in Strong's Hat' 
mmy^ and thetr order in each colnmn shows ihe reUUHfe position assi^nied by the several aathors to the correspond- 
ing events. An asterisk [*] poinu out a marked difference ft'om the arrangement of that work in the partieulara 
of any event or passage ; an obelisk [t] indicates a clear repetition of some of the prominent incidents in another 
place: a doable dagger rt] is prefixed to those sections in ine arrangement of which the majority of faarmonlzerfl 
'^indde ; and parallels [I] are set to those concerning the position of which there is little or no dispnte. 



Protebb 



II 

Vs 

14 
15 



16 

Vt 
Vb 

110 

111 

 • 

lis 
lis 

lU 
115 
IK 
ilT 



118 
119 
ISO 

• • 

in 

122 
123 
124 
125 
120 
127 
t28 
129 

1*30 
131 

1*32 

138 



134 
135 

130 

  

tS7 



I3S 
130 

140 



142 
t4S 
144 
45 
140 
147 
148 
i4» 
150 



t51 
60 
l» 
164 
(65 
t60 
57 



EVENT. 
(» m raniaPAL rsATvan.) 



Lnke*s Prefkce 

J<Au*8 Introdaction 



John's birth predicted. 
Annunciation to Mary. 
Mary visits Elizabeth.. 



Birth of John 



Joseph's vision. 



Nativity of Jesns 

Genealogies 

The shepherds* vision 
Circnmcision of Jesns 



Presentation in the Temple. , 

Visit of the Magi 

Flleht into Egypt , 

Betnlehemite massacre 

Return from Egypt 

Boyhood of Jesns 



Mission of John 

Baptism of Jesns 

Temptation of Christ. 



John's testimony 

Christ's first disciples. 

Water changed to wine. . . . 

Visit at Capernaum 

Traders expelled 

VlKit of Nicodemns 

Farther testimony of John 

John imprisoned 

Samaritan woman 



Teaching in Galilee. . 
Nobleman's son 



Rejection at Nazareth 
Draught of fishes 



Demoniac eared 

Peter's mother-ln>law 
First tour in Galilee . . 



Leper cured 



Paralytic cured.. 
Call of Matthew. 



Impotent man cured. 
Ears of com plucked 



Withered hand cured 

Multitudes cured 

Apostles choeen 

Sermon on the Mount. . . . 
Centurion's servant cured 

Widow's son raised 

John's message 

Kind offices of a woman. . 
Second tonr of Galilee. . . . 



Daemonlac cured 

Discourse on providence. 
The sower, tares, etc. . . . . 

Parables explained 

Crossing the lake 

Demon lAcs cured 

Matthew's feast 



3? 
ll 



1 

9 



8 

4 
5 

to 

7 




8 



10 
11 



12 
IS 
14 
15 
18 
17 



IS 
19 
20 



21 
22 
28 
24 
26 
20 
27 
28 
29 

•  

80 
81 



S2 
■88 



84 
86 

tso 

 • 

87 



88 
89 

• • 

40 
41 



42 

48 
44 

•45 
40 

47 
48 
49 
60 



tBl 
•62 
53 
54 
66 
66 
67 



2- 



1 

2 

« 

8 

4 
5 



7 
9 
8 

*10 
11 

• • 

12 

18 

14 

15 

10 

17 



18 
19 
20 

m m 

91 
22 

28 
24 
20 
20 
27 
28 
29 

» • 

80 
81 

•  

82 



84 

86 

80 

45t 

87 



88 
89 

• • 

40 
41 



42 
48 
44 

• • 

40 
47 

48 
49 
60 



51 

• • 

58 
54 
56 
60 
67 



it 

B m 



1 

2 

« 

8 

4 
5 





to 

7 

• • 

8 

• a 

10 

11 

• • 

12 
18 
14 
15 
10 
17 



18 
19 
20 

•  

21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
20 

2ir 

• • 

29 

•28 

80 

81 

tM 
88 
88 
t46 
t87 
84 
85 



60 
66 

88 
89 



67 
58 
09 



44 

t46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
40 
41 
42 

t61 

• • 

68 
54 



So 

if 



2 

 

8 

4 
5 





• • 

7 

•  

8 

9 

10 

11 

  

12 
18 
14 
16 
10 
17 



18 
19 
90 

21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
28 
27 
28 
29 

•  

80 
81 

• « 

82 



84 

85 
88 

• " 

87 



88 
89 

•  

40 

41 

•  

• • 

42 

48 

44 

•45 

40 
47 
48 
49 
60 



61 
•02 
63 
54 
56 
•60 
67 



1 
9 

« 

8 

4 
5 



6 



8 

9 

10 

11 

 • 

12 
18 
14 
15 
16 
17 



18 
19 
20 

• • 

21 
22 

28 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 

• • 

80 
81 

• • 

82 



84 
85 
80 

• « 

87 



88 
89 

• « 

40 
41 



42 
48 
44 

45 
40 

47 
48 
40 
60 



51 

• a 

68 
54 
66 
60 
67 



53 



8 

4 
5 

• 

7 




8 

• • 

10 
11 

9 
12 
13 
14 
15 
10 
17 

2 

 a 

18 
19 
20 

• • 

21 
22 

28 
24 
25 
28 

27 

  

29 

•28 

80 

181 

• « 

82 

t88 



84 
86 
86 

'45t 
87 



88 
89 
t67 
40 
41 



42 
48 
44 

 • 

40 
47 
48 
49 
60 



t61 

• • 

66 

•64 

60 

60 



2 
1 



8 

4 
5 



8 

9 

10 

11 

« • 

12 
18 
U 
15 
18 
17 



18 
19 
20 

• • 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 

• • 

80 
81 

• • 

82 



84 
86 
SO 

 • 

87 



88 
89 
57 
40 
41 



42 
48 
44 

t45 
40 
47 
48 
49 
60 



61 

• • 

68 
64 
66 

60 



8 

4 
5 



8 

• a 

10 

11 

•  

12 
18 
14 
15 
10 
17 

• • 

9 

18 
19 
20 
2 
21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 

• • 

80 
81 

• • 

82 



84 
85 
80 

37 



88 
89 

• • 

40 
41 



42 
44 
44 

•46 
40 
47 
48 
49 
60 



61 
•62 
68 
54 
66 
66 
67 



2 

1 

9 
8 

4 





»  

7 

> • 

8 

  

10 
11 

 • 

12 
18 
14 
15 
10 
17 



18 
19 
90 

ii 

22 

28 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 

 • 

80 
81 
40 
82 
88 



84 
85 

SO 

87 



88 
89 
57 

• • 

41 



49 
48 
44 
46 
40 
47 
48 
49 
60 



t51 

• • 

53 
54 
55 
60 






^ 



HARMONY 



80 



HARMONY 



COMPASATIVB TABUS OF DnTFEREKT HAKMONIES.— (Omtintied.) 



Probftble 
Ordar. 



xoa 

100 
161 
168 
168 
164 
166 

iw 

t6T 
168 
169 
t70 
ITl 
ITS 
173 
174 
175 
176 
I7T 

a  

78 
T9 

iio 

t81 



83 

t84 

4 80 

86 



87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 



t94 



95 



96 

• • 

197 



198 
199 

1100 



1101 



IIOS 
1103 



EVENT. 



Jaini8*s daaghter raised 

Blind men, etc., cared 

Second rejection at Nazaretli. 

Mission oi the apostles 

John beheaded 

Five thousand fed 

Walking on the water 

Discnssion in the synagogue.. 



Third passover 

Pharisees conftited 

syro-Ph(eniciau woman . . . 

Four thousand fed. 

A sign demanded 

Blind man cured 

Passion predicted 

Transfiguration 

Dflemomac cured 

Passion again predicted . . . 

Tax-money provided , 

Bxhortattons to kindness., 



Mission of the seventy. 
Departure from Galilee. 



Festival of tabernacles ... 

Adulteress pardoned 

Violence oifsred to Christ , 



Return of the seventy . . 
Love to one*s neighbor. 

Visit at Bethany 

The Lord*s Prayer 



Blind man cured 

Investigation by the Sanhedrim. 

Festival of dedication 

Teaching at the Jordan 

Laxarus raised 

Resolution of the Sanhedrim . . . . 
Teaching at Bphraim, etc , 



• • • • ft 



Infirm woman cured. 



Sets out for Jerusalem. 



Warning against Herod 






58 
69 
60 
•61 
62 
68 
64 
66 



66 

67 



70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
75 
T6 
77 
79 
•78 



80 
81 
88 



88 

84 

86 

t86 



87 
88 
89 



94 



Discourse at a Pharisee's 



The tower built, war made, etc. 

The prodigal son, etc 

The niithless steward. 



Dives &nd Lazarus 



Messiah already come . 
Ui^ust Judge, publican. 



96 
98 
97 



98 

99 

100 



101 



•96 



102 
108 



90 



68 
60 
60 
•61 
62 
68 
64 
66 
67 
66 

• • 

68 
69 
t70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
76 
76 
77 

• « 

•78 



80 
81 
88 



88 

84 

86 

t86 



•62 
94 



95 






96 

ft • 

97 



98 

99 

100 



101 
79 



• ft 

• m 



102 
108 



87 
88 
90 







Is 


M 


% 


• ft 


68 




60 


60 


60 


teif 


•61 


62 


62 


68 


68 


64 


64 


66 


66 


ft ft 


ft ft 


t66 


66 


67 


6T 


08 


68 


69 


69 


70 


•70 


71 


71 


79 


72 


78 


78 


74 


74 


75 


76 


76 


76 


77 


77 


• ft 


• • 


• ft 


•78 


ft • 


ft • 


«8 


ft ft 


80 


80 


81 


81 


82 


82 


87 


87 


88 


88 


•79 


ft • 


78 


ft ft 


88 


88 


84 


84 


86 


ft  


ft ft 


t86 


ft ft 


ft ft 
ft • 


ft ft 
ft ft 

89 


ft ft 
ft ft 
« ft 


90 


• ft 


* ft 


ft ft 


• • 


• ft 


ft « 


ft ft 


t86 


ft ft 


68 


ft ft 


94 


94 


« ft 


ft ft 


• • 


ft ft 


• • 


ft ft 


ft ft 


ft ft 


95 

• ft 

• • 


96 

ft ft 
ft ft 


ft • 
ft ft 

90 


• • 
ft ft 
ft • 

96 


ft • 

•7 


ft ft 

97 


• • 


• ft 


■98 


ft • 

98 


99 


99 


100 


100 


ft ft 


• 

• ft 


 • 

101 


ft • 

101 


ft • 


79 


• • 
ft • 
ft  


• ft 

• ft 
ft ft 


ft ft 
ft ft 

91 


ft ft 

• ft 

• • 


92 

ft ft 


ft ft 
 ft 


• ft 

• • 

102 


ft ft 
ft • 

102 


108 


103 


ft ft 


86 


« • 
• • 


89 

ft ft 


• • 
ft  


• ft 

90 



68 
59 
60 
•61 
62 
68 
64 
66 

ft ft 

66 

67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
75 
76 
77 

•78 



80 
81 
82 



84 

86 

t86 

ft ft 

• ft 

• • 



•62 
94 
79 
89 

87 
88 
90 



97 



98 
99 

100 
104 
106 
101 



96 

96 

102 

108 



« ft 
• • 

ft ft 



68 
69 
60 
•61 
62 
68 
64 
65 



67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
T2 
78 
74 
75 
76 
t77 



80 

81 
82 



87 
88 
89 
99 
91 
92 
93 



•96t 
•78 
88 
84 
86 
86 



t97 
•62 
94 
96 
98 
99 
100 



101 
t79 



102 

108 






66 
09 
60 
•61 
02 
68 
64 
66 

ft ft 

66 

67 
68 
69 
t70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
76 
76 
77 

•78 



• • 

'84 
85 

t86 



•52 
94 



68 

ft ft 
• • 
ft ft 

96 

ft V 

97 



96 
99 

100 



101 
•79 
80 
81 
82 
87 
88 



102 
108 



68 
60 
60 
•61 
62 
68 
64 
66 

• ft 

66 

67 
68 
09 

t70 
Tl 
72 
78 
74 
76 
76 
77 

•78 
79 

ft m 

80 
81 

82 



84 

86 

t86 

• • 

88 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
98 



94 

ft ft 

ft V 



96 



2- 



68 

ft ft 

60 
61 
09 
03 
64 
66 



67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
78 
74 
76 
76 
t77 



t79 

ft ft 

80 
81 

82 
87 
68 

ft ft 

78 
88 
84 
86 
86 
60 



02 
94 

ft ft 

89 



90 
96 



90 

> ft 

97 



98 

99 

100 



101 



96 

ft ft 

97 



96 
99 

100 



101 



91 
92 



108 
108 



•108 
106 

«  

 • 



HARMONY 



81 



HARMONY 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF DIFFERENT RAKbLONUSS.-^Continved.) 



IVotabU 
<Mar. 



tlOi 
tlQ6 
1106 



1108 
1109 
1110 



111 
1118 



lis 

• • 

1114 
1115 
1116 
1117 
Ills 
1119 
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im 

lis 

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im 

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1134 

Ills 



1136 
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1138 



189 



140 
tUl 

14S 
1148 
1144 
1145 
1146 
t14T 
1148 
1140 



EVENT. 
(b m rmnicxrix fSAirxaa.) 



DoctriDe of divorce. 
Children receired . . 
Rich yoQDg man.. . . 



Pawlon again predicted , 

Ambition of James and John.. 

Bartimfens cared 

y 1 ait with Zacchsos 



• •■•••< 



Feast at Bethany , 

Entrance Into Jerusalem 



Traders again expelled. 



The barren flg-tree cnrsed 

His authority demanded 

The tribute question 

The resurrection question 

The sreatest commandment 

MesnaVs paternity 

H ierarchy denounced 

The widow's gift 

Interrlew wiu» the Greelcs 

I>08truction of Jerusalem, etc. 

Plots against Jesus 



Preparation for Passover 

Incidents of the meal 

Agony, etc., in Oetheemnne. 

Examination before Annas 

Arraignment before the banhedrim 



Accusation before Pilate. 



Talcen before Herod. 
Sentence from Pilate . 

Sniclde of Judas , 

Crucifixion Incidents . 
Barial of Jesus , 



Sepulchre guarded 

Preparation for emlMlming. 
Release from the tomb 



Appearance to the women , 



Report of the watch , 

Peter and John at the sepulchre 

Appearance to Mary 

Appearance at Emmans , 

Seen by ten apostles , 

Seen by eleven apostles , 

Seen by seven apostles , 

Appearance to all the disciples , 

Ascension 

(inclusion 



3? 



n 






104 
106 
106 



107 
106 
109 
110 



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131 
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185 



186 
187 
138 

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141 



139 



140 



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144 
146 
140 
147 
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149 



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106 

106 

91 

92 

93 

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107 
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111 

lis 



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114 
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190 

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185 
133 

130 
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138 

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141 

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189 



140 



143 

144 
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104 
105 
106 



107 
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till 
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180 
183 
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136 

188 
tl41 
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189 



140 



143 
144 
146 
146 
147 
148 
149 



f=2 

I 



91 
92 
98 

104 
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107 
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109 
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113 



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136 
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II 



104 
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107 
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«2^ 



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105 
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107 
106 
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116 
116 
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lis 

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196 
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A90 

180 


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KeaageUca was publbhed in 1549. Martin Chemnitz's 
H tumumtf was fint published in 1598, and afterwards, 
with the oontinoations of Leyser and Gerhard, in 1628. 
Chemnitz stands at the head of that class of hannonists 
who maintain that in one or more of the four gospels 
chioDolpgical order has been ne^^ted, while Osiander 
is at the head of thoee harmonists who maintain that 
all the gospels are ananged in chronological order. Oth-> 
cr harmonies were pnbUslied by Stephens <1553), Calvin 
(1668),Ga]izt (ie24), Gartwright (1627), Cluster (1628), 
Iigh^»i (1664), Cndock (1668), Calov (1680), Sand- 
(1684), Bnntiiig (1689), Lamy (1689), Le Qero 



(1699),Toinard (1707),Whi8ton (1702), Burmann (1712), 
Rus (1727-8-30), Bengel (1786), Hauber (1737), BUach- 
ing (1766), Doddridge (1739 and 40), Pilkington (1747), 
Macknight (1756), BertHng (1767), Griesbach (1776,97, 
1809,22),Newcome (1778), Priestley (1777 in Greek, and 
1780 in English), Michaelis (1788,* in his Ifitroduction), 
White (1799), KeUer (1802), Mutschelle (1806), Sebaa- 
tiani (1806), Planck (1809), De Wette and Lttcke (1818), 
Heaa (1822), Matthaei (1826), Kaiser (1828), Rddiger 
(1829),CUusen (1829),Greswell (1880), Chapman (1836), 
Carpenter (1888), Reichel (1 840), Gehringer (1842), Over- 
beck (1848), Robinson (Greek, 1846; English, 1846), 



HARMS 



82 



HARMS 



Ang«r (1851),TiBchendorf (1851), Strong (English, 1&52 ; 
Greek, 1854), Strouil (1858), Douglas (1859). Other sim- 
ilar works are mentioned in Fabridus, BMiotheca Gree- 
ea, voL iv, ed. Harles ; Walch, BibUotheca Theoloffuxi, 
ToL iv; Michaelis, Introd, voL iii, cd. Marsh ; Hase, Ije- 
hen Jesuj § 27; Danz, Worterb, d. TheoL Lit, s. v. ; Dar- 
ling, Cycbpcsd. BiUioffraph. col. 1 19, 136, 761. See Bri/, 
and For. Reviewy Oct 1856 ; Jour, Sac. Liter. 1852, p. 60 
sq. ; Wieseler, Chron. SynopHt of Gospels (tr. by Vena- 
bles, Lond. 1864, 8vo). See Jusus Christ. 

Harmfl, Clatw, a German revivalist, was bom at 
Fahrstedt, in Holstein, May 25, 1778. lie showed at an 
early age signs of a deep and devotional piety. He 
made rapid progress at school, and at eighteen entered 
the University of Kiel Young and ardent, the skepti- 
cal spirit of the time could not but have some effect 
on him ; its influence, however, was counteracted by 
Schleiermachefs Ifeden ub. d. Religinnf which brought 
him back to the simple faith of childhood, from whence 
he never afterwards strayed. In 1802 he passed his ex- 
amination in thcolog}', and in 1806 was appointed dea- 
con in Lundcn. The fame of his talent as a preacher, 
and of his devotion to pastoral labor, soon spread abroad. 
His first publication was Winter-PostiUe (Kiel, 1808), 
which was followed by Summer - PostUU (Kiel, 1809). 
Two Catechisms^ published by Harms soon afterwardH, 
ran through many editions. In 181 G he was appointed 
archdeacon of St. Nicholas at KieL In this position he 
was at first highly esteemed, and afterwards bitterl}' o}>- 
posed on account of his so-called pietism. The opposi- 
tion against him culminated at the occasion of the ju- 
bilee of the Reformation held in 1817. It became dailv 

• 

more apparent to him that the Church in Germany was 
steadily receding from the principles of the Kefurma* 
tion and of the Holy Scriptures. He therefore gave 
out that he was prepared at any time to sustain, demon- 
strate, and defend Luther's 95 theses, with 95 additional 
ones of his own, against any one who chos? to dispute 
with him. His first point, *' When our Lord Jesus Christ 
says 'repent,' he means that we shall conform to his 
precepts, not that his precepts shall be conformed to us, 
as is done in our da^^s to suit the public mind," was 
striking at the very root of the then wide-spread relig- 
ious indifference. The discussions which ensued gave 
rise to a vast number of publications, many of which 
were very bitter. The effect, on the whole, was a deep 
awakening in the Churct). The theological faculty of 
Kiel, which, with the exception of the celebrated Klcu- 
ker and Twesten, had bitterly opposed Harms, was in 
alter years almost exclusively brought over to his side. 
Ills publications after this (showing his theological 
views more fully) include the following, viz:, Predif/fen 
(1820, 1822, 1824, 1827, 1838, 1852) i—Beliffumshandiun- 
gen der LutheriicJien Kirche (1839) :—Christliche Glaube 
(1830-1834) :— Vatemnser (1838) :— </. Berffrede d. iferm 
(1841): — d. OJjfenharung Johannis (1844) : — /Jerfm an 
Theologie-studirende (3 vols. : i, d. Prediger ; ii, d, Priest- 
er; iii, d. Pastor, Kiel, 1830-34). Many beautiful hymns 
by Harms may be found in the Gesibtge f. d. gemtnn- 
schq/}liche u.f.d. einsame Andacht (1828). In 1841, on 
the 25th anniversary of his entering on his pastoral du- 
ties at Kiel, a great jubilee was held there, and a fund 
having been formod to defray his travelling expenses, 
he was named " Oberconsistorialrath." His eyesigth 
failed him a few years after, but he still continue*! writ- 
ing, and published a revised edition of his works (1851). 
He died peacefuUy Feb. 1, 1855. See Harms's Selbsl-bi- 
offraphie {Jena, 1818); Renter's Repertoruim (1849); 
Baumgarten, Ehi Denkmalf. C. Uarms (1855) ; Her/og, 
Beal'Enajklopadie, v, 567. 

HamnB, Louis, usually known as Pastor JlarmSf 
one of the most eminent among the Lutheran pastors in 
Germany. He was bom in Herrmansburg, in the king- 
dom of Hanover, about the year 1809. His father was 
pastor of the church in Herrmansburg before him, and 
w«8 remarkable for the strict disdplkie of his family. 



As a boy, Louis excelled all his comrades in wrestlini;, 
boxing, and other athletic sports. He prepared for tlie 
university at the gymnasium of Celle, completing the 
course in two years. From 1827 till 1830 he studied at 
the Uni\'ersity of Gottingen with signal ardor and suc- 
cess. He was repelle<l from theology at this time partly 
on account of the state of the science, partly owing to 
difficulties in his own mind, devoting himself to mathe- 
matics, astronomy, philosophy, and the languages, in- 
cluding the Spanish, Sanscrit, and Chaldee. To the last 
he was an enthusiastic student of Tacitus. His conver- 
sion, which probably occurred soon after leaving the 
university, was of a very thorough character. ^ I have 
never in my life," said he,''knoM-n what fear was; but 
when I came to the knowledge of my sins, then I quaked 
before the wrath of God, so that my hmbs trembled.*^ 
A Christian hope soon took com}>lete and ever-increasini; 
possession of his mind, and in 1844 we find him engaged 
in preaching at Herrmansburg, begiiming his labors as 
an assistant to his father. 

With the settlement of this young minister, a mighty 
influence began to go forth from the little German vil- 
lage, which soon changed the aspect of the countni* 
around him, and before his own ileath it was felt all 
over the world. The minds of the people had been be- 
numbed by Kalionalism or bv a dead orthodoxy, whicli 
vanished like a cloud before the apostolic ardor of Harms. 
All in the neighborhood became at once regidar attend- 
ants at church, devout obsei^'ers of the Sabliaih, and 
St rict in maintaining family prayer. Young H arms hochi 
found himself to be virtuidly the pastor of a region ten 
miles square, containing seven villages, which in an in- 
credibly short time he brought into a state of working 
religious activity. 

And now, having regulated affairs immediately aroiiiKl 
him, this extraordinary man began to feel the care of 
the whole world upon his mind. He felt responsible 
even for Africa and the East Indies. But how to bring 
the moral force of his little German \illage to bear upon 
the continent of Africa was the problem. The result 
formed one of the most remarkable feats of spiritual en- 
terprise ever recordeiL Harms first worked through the 
North German Missionary' Society. But he soon be- 
came dissatisfied, and resolved to have a mitsiou which 
should carry out his own ideas and be under his owii 
controL He proposed to select pious and intelligent 
young men from the peasantry around him, who were 
already masters of some trade, give them a theological 
training of four year^ in length, and then send them 
forth, ordained as missionaries, to the heal hen. Twelve 
young men presented themselves at once, but Harms 
had not the means of educating them. His best friends 
hinted to him that he was a little out of his senses. He 
then, to use his own expression, ** knocked on the dear 
Lonl Ml prayer.** His mind had been powerfully im- 
pressed by the words of a courtier, spoken to duke George 
of Saxony, who had lain on his death-bed hesitating 
whether to flee for salvation to the Saviour or to the 
pope. " Your grace," said the courtier, " Straightforward 
is the best runner.** In a few moments the purpose of 
Harms was formed so completely that no doubt ever 
again occurred to him. His plan of action was struck 
out at once. Without ever asking a single man. he 
praye<l to God for money. Funds poured in upon him. 
He built a large edifice for his missionaiy college. More 
students came than he could accommodate. He prayed 
for more money. It came to him from (iermanv, Rus- 
sia, England, America, and Australia. He erected an- 
other building. The fact of his not asking any money 
at aU became the most efficient advertisement of hia 
cause which could be made. He calle<l hb missioii 
school ** Swimming Iron.** Soon the first class of mis> 
sionary candidates graduated and were ready for Af- 
rica, but the pastor had no means of sending them there. 
'* Straightforward is the best runner,** said Harms ; again 
he prayed to Ctod for counsel, and decided to build a 
ship. The project was rather original, aa Henmanabaiip 



HARMS 



83 



HARMS 



was idxty miles from the sea, and most of the people had 
never seen a ship. Again Hamis prared for the neces- 
aaiy money. Funds came as usual, and the ship was 
built and launched* As the day of sailing approached, 
the simple llerrmansbui^ers brought to the vessel fruits 
and flowen, grain and meats, ploughs, harrows, hoes, and 
a Christmas-tree, that the missionaries might have the 
means of celebrating that festival upon the seas. The 
day of sailing, Oct. 18, 18a8, was held as a gala by the 
simple people ; but soon news came that the ship was 
lost. ** What shall we do?** said the people. <' Hum- 
ble cMinelvea, and build a new ship," said the minister. 
The report proved untrue, and that vessel is still pljing 
her miaaonar^' voyages between Hambuig and Africa. 
Ilamib's preachers have also penetrated to Australia, 
the East Indies, and our Western States. 

In 1854 Harms f(?lt the need of diffusing missionary' 
intelligence among his own countrymen, and arousing a 
more univerral interest in the cause. He desired to es- 
tablish a journal devoted to missions, but his friends did 
not see how it could be published. "Let us have a 
priDting-presB upon the heath,'* said Harms. At once 
be asketl God for the money, and it reached him as 
usiiaL The missionary journal was soon established, 
and in a few years it attained a circulation of fourteen 
thouaaiid copies, only two periodicals in all Germany 
having a larger edition. It still abounds with racy let- 
ters from the missionaries, and the stirring essays of 
Harms formed its chief attraction until his death.' He 
also established a missionary festival, held anniuilly in 
June in the open air on LUneberger Heath. On some 
yean this festival was attended by six thousand people, 
iociuding strangers from all parts of Europe. " How 
enchanting,'' said he, " are such Christian popular festi- 
vals, under the open sky, with God's dear Word, and ac- 
counts of his kingdom and prayer, and loud»«ounding 
hymns and tones of the trumpet!"* 

The peculiar character and enormous amount of Pas- 
tor Harms's work can be better understood from the ac- 
count of a traveller from our own country who spent a 
Sabbath with him in the autumn of 1868. The de- 
acription which follows may be considered a specimen 
of bis usual Sabbath-day's work. After speaking of 
his diurch edifice, which was nine hundred and seventv- 
five yean» old, and which Harms refused to have pulled 
down, considering its antiquity a means of influence, the 
writer proceeds : *^ Strangers were obliged to take seats 
at half past nine on Sabbath morning, in order to secure 
them ; service commenced at half past ten. When the 
pastor entered, the vast audience rose with as much awe 
as if he were an apostle. His form was bent, his face 
pale and indescribably solemn. He appeared utterly ex- 
hausted, and leaned against the altar for support. In a 
low, t remulous tone, he chaiitetl a prayer. Without look- 
ing at the Bible, he then lecitecl a psalm, commenting 
upon e^'ery verse. He then read the same psalm from 
the Bible, by the inflecticHis of his voice gathering up 
and impressing his previous comments. He next ad- 
ministered the ordiiuuice of baptism to those infanta 
who had been bom since the previous Sabbath, an<l ad- 
dressed the sponsors. After announcing his iexU he 
gave a rich exposition of it ; a prayer folIowe<l, and he 
preached his sermon, which was very impressive and di- 
rect, though the voice of the preacher was often shrill. 
After another prayer, be administered the Lord's Supper 
to about two hundred persons, one tenth of his churoh 
partaking of the ordiiuince everj' Sabbath day. The 
female communicants were dressed appropriately for the 
occasion. The people were dismissed after a 8er\'ice of 
three hours and forty minutes in length. After an 
hoor^s intermission the audience assembled again. The 
pastor recited a chapter from the New Testament^ com- 
menting upon each verse, and then read from the book 
as before. After nnging by the congregation, he cate- 
chise<l the audience, walking up and down the aisle, 
questioning children and adults. The audience seemed 
tnaHfonned into a vast Bible-dass. This sendee of 



three hours' length closed with singing and prayer. At 
seven in the evening two hundred villagers assembled 
in the hall of the parsonage, and he preached to them 
in Low German, after which he held a missionary con- 
cert, reading letters from his missionaries, dated from 
Africa, Australia, and the United States. He seemed to 
have his hand upon all parts of the earth. Evidently 
the congregation felt responsible for the whole world. 
At the close of the service he shook hands with each 
one of the people in turn, saying, " May the Redeemer 
bless you." At ten in the evening the neighbors ss- 
sembled at the parsonage to join with the pastor in 
family prayer. He reciled from the Bible, commenting 
as before, and offered a prayer which was rich in devo- 
tion, but distressing to listen to, so great was his fatigue.'* 
Besides these enormous labors on each Sabbath, Pas- 
tor Harms wrote incessantly for his mifaionary maga- 
zine, published a large number of books, and sent about 
three thousaml letters a year, mostly to his missioiuuries. 
His method of keeping his missionary accounts was to 
take what money he got and pay what he owed; nor 
was he ever troubled, though the expense of his mis- 
sions was about forty thousand dollars a year. He re- 
cords a hundred instances of the exact amount of money 
reaching him at just the time he wanted it. For four 
hours every day he held a levee for his parishioners, 
who consu1te<l him freely, not only about religious sub- 
jects, but upon ever^'thing which interested them — the 
state of their health or the tillage of their land. So 
crowded were these levees, that often a stranger waited 
four days for his turn to see the pastor. The independ- 
ence of Pastor Harms was singularly manifested. The 
king of Hanover, at one time, knowing that his eminent 
subject was in the city, sent a high officer of govern- 
ment, with one of the state carriages, to invite him to 
the palace. " G ive my regards to the king," said Harms ; 
" I would obey his order, if duty allowed ; but I must go 
home and attend to my parish." The officer was indigo 
nant as he delivered the message ; but the king said, 
^ Harms is the man for me." Though a rigid monarch- 
ist, the pastor often preached against the government, 
and prepared his people to resist it. He often entered 
into sharp conflict with the government officers, espe- 
cially in regard to the obserx'ance of the Sabbath, and 
was reported by them sixty-five tim^ but escaped un- 
hurt. With characteristic boldness, he warned the 
churches not to endure unbelieving ministers in the pul- 
pit, although the ministen held their places from the 
king. He defied the democracy as well as the court, 
and publicly advised them, if they were discontented, 
to go to Africa in a bo(h'. He was vehemently opposed 
to the popular amusements, declaring that men ^^ acted 
themselvra into heU from the theatre, and danced them- 
selves int hell from t he ballroom." The Calvinistic doc- 
trines and the Congregational polity were objects of his 
marked aversion. He declared that the Baptists who 
postponed the baptism of their children were robbera 
and mimlercra of those children's souls. Nor would he 
ever insure his seminary buildings, thinking that God 
would protect them, and he had an idea that insurance 
against accident involved a certain defiance of Jehovah. 
When he catechised the congregation, and children fail- 
c<l in the exercise, he would sometimes punish them in 
public. He required his missionary students to perform 
a daily task of manual labor, not only for economical 
reasons, but also '* that they might be kept humble, and 
not be ashamed of their work, any more than Paul was 
of his tent-making." As he never asked from any one 
but God, he had a violent antipathy to beggars, and 
none were ever found in his parish. Almost adored by 
his people as a species of rural pope, he maintained the 
utmost care and watchfuhiess to preserve his own hu- 
mility while breathing the atmosphere of their homage. 
He yielded not a particle of his activity to the very last. 
When he could no longer ascend his pulpit, he preached 
standing at the altar; when he could not preach stand- 
ing, he preached sitting; when he could no longer sit,' 



HAKNEPHER 



84 



HAROD 



he prayed that God would take him away as a burden. 
He (lied on the 14th of November, 1866, at the age of 
tifty-seven, and waa buried amid the tears of his people 
on his beloved LUneberger Heath. 

It is difficult to form a just estimate of this remarka- 
ble man. The. keynote of Harros's character was his 
union with God. Yet so rare is any high degree of this 
quality, that its possession makes the man's character 
stand original and alone, and it seems as though *' one of 
the prophets had risen again.'* Another world had laid 
hold with a strong grasp upon his mind, so real was it to 
him that he appeared to walk not by faith, but by sight. 
He lived among us like a being of another race detained 
here in the body, and acted with a moral insight and 
directness which no human standard can comprehend. 
Yet this wonderful spirituality was often marred by big- 
otry; sometimes it bordered upon the superstitious; at 
times his apostolic fervor was tinged with self-will, and 
we are astonished at the alternate breadth and narrow- 
ness of his mind. He made his most opposite powers 
assist each other ; to carry out the moral intention of an 
angel, he brovght a worldly wisdom which no one could 
surpass ; in comprehension of detail and fertility of expe- 
dients he could have taught the ablest men of business. 
His spirituality acted upon the world through an all- 
consuming, almost morbid activity. He saw nothing 
before him but a succession of duties, yet his mind found 
an unconscious delight in the extent and variety of its 
own eflforts, and his zeal was doubtless enhanced by the 
continual joy of attempt and success. It is hanl to ac- 
quit him of a species of suicide; in spite of every warn- 
ing of nature, he overworked himself incessantly, and 
pressed on to the heavens whither he was tending long 
before he could be spared by the world below. His 
amazing spirituality, the closeness to another sphere 
with which he lived, would have elevated him beyoml 
our sight; but the eccentricities which slightly marred 
so grand a character showed that he was human, and 
lowereil him to a point nearer the sympathy of man- 
kind. To the last, the world must stand astonished at 
the moral power of a man who could make a little coun- 
try church in a remote part of Germany giixUe the earth 
with its influence, and llarms alone is an answer to the 
Saviour's question, " When the Son of man cometh, shall 
he find faith on the earth ?*" At intervals God giv<es 
such a one to the Church, to show to the world the 
spiritual power of one soul wliich is really in earnest. 
Harms has lived, and Germany, Africa, and the East In- 
dies have felt the consequence. He was one of those 
blocks from whom, in earlier ages, the Catholic Church 
would have hewn her saints and her martyrs; he was a 
Protestant Loyola; had he left the world a few centu- 
ries before, he would assuredly have been canonized as 
a Domnic or St, Francis ; his remains would have per- 
formed miracles without end ; romantic tradition would 
have sprung from and twined around his memory; or- 
ders of priests and stately cathedrals would have borne 
his name ; and thousands of devotees might to-day be 
worshipping at his shrine. (W. E. P.) 

Harne^pher (Heb. Chame'pher, "iW^n, perhaps 
Morer; Sept, 'Apva^, Vulg. Hamapher)] one of the 
sons of Zophah, a chief of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 
vii, 86). B.C. between 1612 and 1053. 

Harness occurs in several senses in the Eng. Vera, 
as the rendering of different Heb. words. 

1. ■1D^J ((Mor', prop, to hmd, as it is generally ren- 
dered) b sometimes applied to the act of fastening ani- 
mals to a cart or vehicle, e. g. yoking kine (1 Sam. vi, 7, 
10, "tie") or horses (Jer. xlvi, 4, "harness"), ffearwg a 
chariot (CJen. xlvi, 29; Exod. xiv, 6; 2 Kings ix, 21, 
;* make ready"), or absolutely (I Kings xxdii, 44 ; 2 Kings 
ix, 21, " prepare"). From the monuments we see that 
the harness of the Egyptian war-chariots was composed 
of leather, and the trappings were richly decorated, be- 
ing stained with a great variety of colors, and studded 
with gold and silver. See Chariot. 



2. In the old English sense for armor (ptiS or p1$9, 
ne'shek'y warlike accoutrements, elsewhere " armor^" 
" weapons," etc), 2 Chron. ix, 24. See Aiaion. 

3. In a like sense for IJ'nd (shiryan', 1 Kings xxii, 
84 ; 2 Chron. xviii, 33), a coat of mail (" breastplate,** 
Isa. lix, 17). See Akmoil 

4. " Harnessed" (D*^tp^n, chamuhim', from Opn, 
in the sense of being ./Serce for battle) is the expression 
used to represent the equipped condition of the Israel- 
ites as they paa8e<l out of £g>'pt (Exod. xiii, 18; "arm- 
ed," Josh, i, 14; iv, 12, Judg.\-ii, 11), and seems to de- 
note their onleriy and intrepid disposal as if to meet a 
foe (the ancient versions interpret genendly/K^^rmed). 
(See Gesenius, Lex. s. v.) 

Ha'rod (Heb. Ckarod% ^h'^TTi-, Sept. 'Apdd v. r. 
'Apa(3), a brook or place Cj^?, a spring or fountain^ 
"well," Sept. irtiyi)) not far from Jczreel and Mount 
Gilboa ("Gaead,"Judg.vU,3),by (b?) which Gideon 
and his great army encamped on the morning of the 
day which ended in the rout of the Midianites (Judg. 
vii, 1), and where the trial of the people by their mode 
of drinking apparently took place. See Gideon. The 
name means ^* palpiiaiion" and it has been suggested 
that it originated in consequence of (he alarm and ter* 
ror of most of the men who were here tested by Gideoa 
(vcr. 3, 5) ; but this supposition seems very far-fetched, 
and the name more probably arose from some peculiar* 
ity in the outflow of the stream, or from some perscm or 
circumstance otherwise unknown. The wonl, slightly al- 
tered, recurs in the proclamation to the host — ** Whoeo- 
ever is fearful and trembling C^^H, chared% let him re- 
turn" (ver. 3) ; but it does not follow that the name Cha- 
rod was, as Prof. Stanley proposes, bestowed on account 
of the trembling, for the mention of the trembling may 
have been suggested by the previously existing name of 
the fountain : either would suit the paronomastic vein in 
which these ancient records so delight llie word cAa- 
red (A.V. "was afraid") recurs in the description of an- 
other event which took place in this neighborhood, pos- 
sibly at this very spot— Saul's last encounter with the 
Philistines— when he "was afraid, and his heart trem- 
bled greatly" at the sight of their fierce hosts (1 Sam. 
xxviii, 5). It ¥ras sitnated south of the hill Moi^h, 
where the Midianites were encamped in the valley of 
Jezreel (ver. 1), and on the brow of the hills overlook- 
ing that plain on the south (ver. 8). As the camps were 
not far distant from each other (compare ver. 10-15), it 
must have been in a narrow part of the valley, and prob- 
ably near its head (for the invaders came from the east, 
chap, vi, 8, and fled down the eastern defiles, chap, vii, 
22). Hence the position of the present Ain Jalud, 
south of Jezreel, is very probably that of the fountun in 
question (Stanley's Sinai and Palest, p. 884-^86). This 
spring, which gives rise to a small stream flowing east- 
ward down the wady of the same name, is evidently the 
representative of the ancient name Gilead applied to 
this spot [see Gilead, 2], and has thus supplanted the 
other name Harod. Indeed it is probable that the lat- 
ter was rather the name of a town in the neighborhood, 
since we find mention of its inhabitants (2 Sam. xxiii, 
25). SeellAitoDrrE. "The valley of Jezreel" referred 
to is an eastern arm of the great plain of Esdraelon, 
bounded on the south by Gilboa, and on the north by a 
parallel ridge called the "hill of Moreh" (q. v.). It is 
about three miles wide. See Jezreel. The Midianites 
were encamped along the base of Moreh, and probably 
near the toM'n of Shunem. On the south side of the 
valley, at the base of Gilboa, and nearly opposite Shu- 
nem, is the fountain of Ain Jalud. It is about a mile 
east of Jezreel, and hence it was also called the "foun- 
tain of JezreeL" The water bursts out from a rude 
gmtto in a waU of conglomerate rock, which here forma 
the base of Gilboa. It first flows into a large but shal- 
low pond, and then winds away through the rich green 
vale past the ruins of JBethshean to the Jordan. The 



HARODITE 



86 



HARP 



side of GQboa rises over the fountain uteep and ntfc^d. 
Some have thought it strange that the Midianitei should 
not have seized on this fountain : but, as many of the 
Israelites probably lurked in the mountain, the Midian- 
ites may have deemed it more pnident to encamp in the 
open plam to the north, where there are also Tountains. 
The Jerusalem Itinerarv' seems to indicate that the name 
Aim Jalud (q. d. "Fountain of Goliath") arose from an 
ancient tradition that the adjoining vaUey was the site 
of David's victory orer the giant (eii. Wesseling, p. 586). 
The fountain was a noted camping-ground for both 
Chiiatians and Saracens dnring the Crusades. William 
of Tyre calls it Tubanut (Gesta Dei per Francos, p. 1087 ; 
Bohadin, Vita Saladini, p. 68). The valley of Jezreel 
still foniw a favorite haunt of the wild Bedawin, who 
periodically cross from the east side of the Jordan, as in 
Judg. vi, 5 : " They came up with their cattle and their 
tents, and they came as grasshoppers for multitude; 
both they and th^r camels were witlioul number*' (Por- 
ter, Handbook for Syr. and PaL ii, 355 : Robinson, BUk 
ii, 324)^Kitto, a. v. ; Smith, s. v. 



I'rodite (Hcb. Charodi\ "^nnn. Sept 'Apo^O, an 
epithet of Shammah and Elika, two of Davids heroes 
(i Sam. xxiii, 25), probably from their being natives of 
Uaroia, a place near the fountain of the same name 
(Judg. vii, 1). See Harorite. 

/ISh (I Chron. ii, 52). See Rkaiah. 
I'rorlte (Heb. Charori\ '^'I'i'^H, prob. by errone- 
tzanacription for '*7''^r!» IfarodUe; Sept has Oo^i, 
Volg. A roritfM), an epithet of Shammoth, one of David's 
heroes (1 Chron. xi, 27) ; for which the parallel passage 
(2 Sam. xxiii, 25) more correctly reads Haroditk (q. v). 

ECar'osheth (Heb. Charo'sheth) of the Gentiles 
(S^ISn riO*nn* ^(^rhnanship of ike ruUiom, t e. city 
of handicrafta; Sept. *Apt9ii*9 rwv ^9v«!;v, Vulg. J/aro- 
teih getdutm\ a city supposed to have been situated 
near Hazor, in the noithem parts of Canaan, afterwards 
called Upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles, from 
the mixed races inhabiting it. See Galilee, llaro- 
abeth ia aaid to have been the residence of Sisera, the 
general of the armies of Jabin,'king of Canaan, who 
Rigned in Hazor (Jodg. iv, 2). Here the army and 
chariots of Jabin were marshalled under the great cap- 
tnn before they in\'aded Israel, aiid defiled from the 
northern mountains into the broad batile-ficid of Esdra- 
eloo (ver. 13). After the terrible defeat and slaughter 
on the banks of the Kishon, to this place the fugitives 
of the army returned, a shattered and |)anic-Btrickcn 
remnant. Barak and hia victorious tr»o|XH followed them 
into the fastnesses of their own mountainis to the ver}- 
gates of Haroeheth (ver. 16). The ciry is not again 
mentioned in the Bible, nor is it referred to by Jose- 
phm^ Jerome, or any ancient writer. It was at the ex- 
treme of Jabin*s territory, opposite the Kinhon (ver. 13), 
and also at a good distance from Tabor (ver. 14). It is 
aapposed to have stood on the west coast of the lake 
Merom (el-Huleh), from which the Jonlan issues forth 
in one unbroken stream, and in the portion of the tribe 
of Na^tali. Jabin*s capital, Hazor, one of the fenced 
cities asngned to the children of Naphtali (Josh, xix, 
86), lay to the north-west of it. Probably from inter- 
marriage with the conquered Canaanites, the name of 
Sisera afterwards became a family name (Ezra ii, 53). 
Neither ia it irrelevant to allude to this coincidence in 
connection with the moral effects of this dpcisive victo- 
ry; for Hazor, once "the head of all those kingdoms" 
(Josh, xl, 6, 10), had been taken and burnt by Joshua; 
its king, Jabin I, put to the sword ; and the whole con- 
federation of the Canaanites of the north broken and 
slaughtered in the celebrated battle of the waters of 
Henm (Josh, xi, 5-14) — the first time that '* chariots 
and hones" appear iu array against the invading host, 
and are so summarily disposed of, according to divine 
command, under Joshua, but which subsequently the 
children iji Joseph feared to iaoe in the valley of Jez- 



reel (Josh, xvii, 16-18), and before which Judah actual- 
ly failed in the Philistine plain (Judg. i, 19). Herein 
was the great difficulty of subduing plains, similar to 
that of the Jonlan, beside which Harosheth stood. It 
was not till the Israelites had asked for and obtained a 
king that they b^an "■ to multiply chariots and horses'' 
to themselves, contrary to the express words of the law 
(Deut. xvii, 16), as it were to fight the enemy with his 
own weapons. (The first instance occurs 2 Sam. viii, 4 \ 
comp. 1 Chron. xviii, 4 ; next in the histories of Absa- 
lom, 2 Sam. XV, 1, and of Adonijah, 1 Kings i, 5; while 
the climax was reache<1 under Solomon, 1 Kings iv, 26.) 
Then it was that the Hebrews* decadence set in ! ITiey 
were strong in faith when they hamstrung the horses 
and bunied with fire the chariots of the kings of Ha- 
zor, of Madon, of Shimron, and of Achshaph (.loeh. xi, 1 ). 
Yet so rapidly did they decline when their illustrious 
leader was no more that the city of Hazor ha<l risen 
from its ruins; and,iu contrast with the kings of Meso- 
potamia and Moab (Judg. iii), who were both foreign po- 
tentates, another Jabin, the territory of whose ancestors 
had been assigned to the tribe of Naphtali, claimed the 
distinction of being the first to revolt against and shake 
off the dominion of Israel in his newly acquired inherit- 
ance. But the victor)' won by Deborah and Barak was 
well worthy of the song of triumph which it inspired 
(Judg. v), and of the proverbial celebrity which ever 
afterwards attached to it (Psa. Ixxxiii, 9, 10; a luissage 
which shows that the fugitives were overtaken as far as 
Endor). The whole territon* was gradually won back, 
to be held iierraanently, as it would seem (Judg. iv, 24); 
at all events, we hear nothing more of Hazor, Haro- 
sheth, or the Canaanites of the north in the succeeding 
wars. The etymology of the name J/arotheth, q. d. 
" wood-TM/^trw/jr," joined with the above facts, may jua- 
lify us in locating the city on the upland plaiiu of Naph- 
tali, probably on one of those ruin-crowned eminences 
still existing, from which the mother of Sisera, looking 
out from her lattice<l window, could see far along that 
road by which she expected to see her Fon return in tri- 
umph (Judg. V, 28). Deborah, in her beautiful ode, 
doubtless depicted the true features of the fcene. Rem- 
nants of the old forests of oak and terebuith still wave 
here over the ruins of the ancient cities, and travellers 
may see the black tents of the Arabs — fit representa- 
tives of the Kenites (iv, 17) — pitched beneath their 
shade (Porter, l/atulbook/or Syr. and Palest, ii, 442 sq. ; 
Stanley, Jeicish Churchy i, 859). — Kitto, a. v. ; Smith, s. 
v. Schwarz {Palestine^ ]). 184) thinks it identical with 
the village Girth, sitiuitcd on a high mount one Eng- 
lish mile west (on Zimmerman's Map north-west) of 
Jacob's bridge across the Jordan, and nearly destroy- 
ed by an earthquake in 1837. Dr. Thomson, however, 
who gives a vivid description of the geographical feat- 
ures of Barak^s victory {Land and Book, ii, 142 sq.), re- 
gards the site as that of the juresent village Jlarofhith 
(a name, according to him, giving the exact Arabic 
form of the Hebrew), an enormous double mound or tell 
along the Kishon, about eight miles from Alcgiddo, cov- 
ered with the remains of old walls and buildings. 

Harp is the rendering in the AuthVcrs. of the fal- 
lowing terms in the original : usually '^'iSS, kirmor* 

(whence the (Jreek nvvpa). the lyre or cythara (inva- 
riably rendere<l " harp*'), N. Test, Kiddpa (1 Cor. xiv, 7 ; 
Rev. V, 8; xiv, 2; xv, 2), whaice the verb Ki^api^w (I 
Cor. xiv, 7 ; Rev. xiv, 2), and the compound noun jri^a- 
p</#(^oc ("harper," Rev. xiv, 2; xviii, 22); elsewhere only 

of the ChakL DHn*^!?, kitharot' (text of Dan. iii, 5, 7, 10, 

15), or Oi^T^pjkaihros^ (margin), from the latter Greek 
term. See Music. 

The " harp** was Da^nd's favorite instrument, on which 
he was a proficient (see Drcschler, J)e cithara David, 
Lips. 1712 ; aim) in Ugolino, xxxii). It probably did nut 
essentially differ from the modem Arabic cifkere (Nie- 
buhr, Trav. i, 177, pi. 26 ; DeJtcripf, de VEgypte, xvii, 365, 
pL BB, fig. 12, 13).— Winer, ii, 124. See David. 




Geaeniiu ijicUms to the opiniun Ihat *^il3 is ilerived 
rrom 'lis, taaar', "uiuniiseilonDniatopoelic root which 
meina lo give fonh a cremiiloua anil striiluloiu Kiuiiit. 
like [hit or s string vrhen touched." The itvBwr via 




quaintctl, aa the writer oT the Pentateuch ugij^ its id- 
rention, togetbtr with Ihit of the 3345, i/yd£', incor- 
nctlv translated "organ" in the A.V., lo (he ante<l{lu- 
viin'period (Gen. iv, 21). Kaliich (//iff. and CrU. Com. 
nn tkt Old Tat.) considers kiimor to stand for the whole 
cluaofatringed iiiatiumenta (w^tnarA), aa n//riA,uyg he, 
"is the t>-pc of all vrinit instrriincntit." AVritera who 

(lo (iimm(),ponjeotUTC that this instrument was only em- 
|)lo)'ed b]' the Ureelra on occaaiona of aorrow and diatites. 
If this were the case with the Greeks, it was far iliffei- 
ent with the Hebrews, amongst whom Ihe tinnor served 
S3 an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness and n 
aa nell aa of praise and thaukagiving to the supreme 
lleing(Gfn.]uxi,27; I Sam.itvi,2fl; 2 Chrou. xx,;* 
l'sa.iiiixiii,2),and was wry rarely used, if ever, in tin 
of private or nation^ affliction. The ilewish bard Hi 
no employment for the Himor during Ihe Babyloni 
cqitivilf, but ileaciibes it aa put aside or auspeiHled 




Forma of Audent Egjptlan Hrnpa. 



6 HARP 

tbs willows (Pm. cxxxvit, 2) ; and in like maniwi Job'B 
haip "is changed into mauniing" (xxx, 31) while Qta 
hand of grief pressed heavily u|xin Uim. The passage 
" mv bowels ahall aouoii like a liarp for Moab" (Iia. xvi, 
II) has impressed some Itiblleal critics vith the idea 
that the Idmar had a lu^^brious sound; but this ii an 
error, aince icn^ "ii:;3 refen lo the vAralioii of Ita 
ckirdi, and not to the souiul of the instrument (Gaaen. 
and Hiuig, in Co-mam'.). 

Touching the ahapc of the tanor, ^ great dltTerencc 
of opinion prevails. The aulhoi olShtlle llagg^iborim 
(c I!) describes it aa resembling the modem harp ; Ifeif- 
fei gives it the form of agnitar; andSI^Jennnedeclam 
that it resembled in diape the Greek teller (Mru (quoted 
by Joel Brill in the preface to MendeL'euhii'B PtaliM). 
Josephua recotdi {AnI. vii, 12,8) that the Unnr hacf 
ten airings (compare Theoilorvt, QaaH. M on 1 Kings), 
and that it was played on with the plectrum; olhera 
asHfrn lo it twenly-fouri and in the Siille llaggibboriBt 
it is said lo have had Tony-seven. Joaephua's state- 
ment, however, ought not lo be received aa conduaive, 
aa it ia in open contrailictiini lo what is set forth in Ihe 
1st book of Samuel (xvi, S3; .iviii, 10), that David play- 
ed on the Honor with his Itimd. As it is reasonable lo 
suppose that there was a smaller and a larger jtinnor, in- 
asmuch as it was aomelitnes jiUyed by the Israelites 
whilst walking (I Sam. x, 5), the ofiinion'of Munk— "On 
jouait peut-ftre des deux manierea, suivant leg dimcn- 
Huns tie ru>strumeiit''— is well enlitled lo conridention. 
The Talmud (Btracholli) lias preserved a curious tradi- 
tion, to the effect that over Ihe bed of Diviil, facing th« 
north, a kimor was suspended, aiul that when at mid- 
night the north wind touched Ihe chords ihey vibrated. 
ami produced musical somuls. 




!. l,S,p1nTed 
Is anppoaeu to 



Kionllnn ncurci 
wiihniiLsud 8,4, wllh the ijlectnimt < 
be the Hebrew lyre. 

The T.-'VUSn i? 1133— "harp Ml the Sheroinith" 
(1 ChrmL XV, 21) — was so called from its eight siringH, 
Uany learned wHien, includiiig the auchui of ShUtm 
— • ■• iiy Ihe wonl "shemuiith" with the 




Ancient uraod EgjpUan Harpo. 



It HebreflTH imdCTBtood the o< 
imploj-K 






e in prednly the 



SuBXiMiTH. The >kiU of tlie Jaws oii the Knnor ap- 
peMn to h»Te reached iw highat point of perfection in 
Uw BKC of David, the effect uf vhow peiformuicea, as 
well aa of thoae by the members uf the " schools of the 
proiibels," aie described as truly marvelloiu (compare 1 

Two inftruments of the lyre spedea are delineated on 
a ban-relief of the Anyiian monuments, representing; 
the retiUD of a monanh celebrated by a prDcesaion uf 
momduu (Layud, A neccA and Bab. p. 388 aq.). The 





•ncient Bibylonian instnimenC a probably that repre- 
aenteil in a aingle instance on the Assyrian monoments 
M Kboraabad. depicting three short-beiinled perforaiera 
on the lyre ushered into the great chamber by twrf eu- 
nuchs. 'The musiciatu are clid in a «bnrt tunic held 
tast by a ginlle, and their hair is dravrii back, and termi- 
nates above the shoulders in a f ingie luvf of curls. They 
ptDceel with measured atep, singing and twanging their 
lyres, which are suspended by a broad band passing over 
the right shoulder. The inturumcnt itself somewhat re- 
sembles the (ireek lyre i it has a 
aquarv body and upright aides, the 
latter being eonnccled by a cross- 
to which are Hxed strings that 
1 to has-e been rather numer- 
for wo can count eight at least, 
in the psrt that is coirodeil 
^ away there is room fot three or foui 
. . . , more. E.iactly umilar instnimenta 
Lyre. ■" ""^ '^'" '" N""" ■"" ^ongo- 

la; and the mode of playingia that 
the right hand holils a ahort plectrum to strike the in- 
torab, while the left is used to stop and twang the 

Harps or guitars are constantly, in (he Holy Scrip- 
tnrea, instiumenta ofjoy. They are mentioned in very 
aodent times as musicBl instrumenls, used both by Jews 
and Gentiles, and their employment in the Temple wor- 
dup frequently occurs. Moses has named their oriRiaal 
inmiloi in Uen. jv, 21, viz. Jubal; and in Gen. xxxi, 
Si.Laban says to Jacob, "Why did you not Cell me, that 
I might hav^ aeul you away with mirth and songs, with 
ubret and with karpf E\'en in that very ancient 
writing, the book of Job(xxi, 12), that patriarch, speak- 
ing of the prcoperity of the wicked, says, "They take 
the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the 
otgan-" So, when complaining of his own condition 
<xxx,31),heaa)-<^''My harp also is turned into monm- 
ii^, and my organ to the voice of Ihem that weep." 
Isuali speaks of the harp under the same character, as 
to instrument ofjoy (xxiv, 8). Divine iubjecUi use.1 
to be brought forward with the accompaniments of ihe 
baip(PH. xlix,£), and the high praises of God were so 
cdebraled(P3a.xxxiii,2i 11111,41 Ivii, 8; see also I'sa. 

That harps are used to celebrate the pnises of heroes is 
well known. Harps, in Solornon's day, were made of 
the almu|{-tree, as our tranalatora have it (1 Kings x, 
11,12). They were often gilded, and hence called gold- 
en hnpa (Rev. v, 8). A harp of ei^l strings is men- 
tioned (1 Chion. x.v, 21), called in our veruon "harp 
M the Sheminith." But amongst theGreeks itha(l,rar 
lbs most put, wvcn sttinga. Joeepbus (_AiU. rii, 12) 



7 HARPHIUS 

describes a harp of ten strings. The distinct sounds ut- 
tered by tliese airings or chords are alluded to by Paul 
in I Cor. xiv,7. lis soothing effect was exemplified in 
calming down the furious spirit of Saul (L Mam. Kvi, 17, 
24; xviii,9i xiK, S). The apirit of prophecy appeara 
to have been excited by instrumental music of this kind 
(2 Kings iii, 15). Harpers held the instrument in the 
hand, or placed it on a pillar, or sat down by a river 
side (Ovid, fiali, ii, IIS). Sometimes they suspended 
them from trees, tu which there is an allusion in Psa. 
cxxxvii, 1, 2. The harp was used in procefeions and 
public triumphs, in worship and Ihe offiees of religion, 
and was sametimes accompanied with dancing (Psa. 
cxlix, S). Thev were also used after succesefid battles 
(aee 2 C^ron. xx, 28; 1 Mace xiii, Ijl> Isaiah alludes 
lo this cuBlom (xxx, 32). So in the victory of the Lamb 
(Kev. xiv, 1,2): "I hcanl the voice of harpers harping 
with their harps;" the Church in heaven being repre- 
sented as composing a grand chorus, in celebration of 
the triumphs of the Kcdcemer. At solemn feasts, and 
especially of Ibe uupiial kind, harps were employed. 
To this the prophet Isaiah alludes (v, 1 1 , 12). The use 
of harps in worship hna already been adverted to, and 
that the heathen employed them on auch occasions ap- 
pears from Dan. iii, o, 7, 15. "Harps of <iod' (Rev. 
XV, 2) are either a Hebraism lo show their excellence, 
as the addition of God Dlten signifies (Ihe most excel- 
lent things in their kind being in Ihe Scriptures said to 
l>c of God), as a prince of (tod (Gen. xxiii, G, in Ihe 
original), the mwintaina of God (Pea. xxxvi, G. In the 
original), cedars of God (Psa. Ixxx, II, in Ihe original), 
an<l the like; or else they mean harps pven as from 
God ; or harps of God may b« harps used In Ihe sen-ice 
of God, in oppoMtion to harps common and profane (1 
Chron, xvi, 42 ; 2 Chron. vii, G).— Weroyss, a. v. 

HarpUus, HEsni, a Fiemiah mystic, was bom at 
Erp (whence ho b sometimes called also Enplfs or Eb- 
PE>), in Brabant, towards the beginning of the 16th 
ceiituiy. He entered the order of Si. Francis, in which 
he soon became dislingnislied lor his learning, particu- 
larly in myslicat tlieology. He attained ihe highest 
cligniliesofthe order, and succeeded in restoring the dis- 
cipline in several convents of gray fri:j3 whei« it had 
been relaxeil. lie died at llechlin Feb. 22, 1478. The 
Franciscans count liim among the blessed, yet Boasoet 
seems lo have conudcred him oidy as an enlhusisst and 
visionary. He wrote 1^ fHrfdolii dei Cimlrmplalifi 
(first published in Low Dutch, then in Latin by Blome- 
ven, under the title DirMorium imrrtin ContfnipIaHm- 
ram (Cologne, 1513, 8vo, Antw. 1513. 12mu): there are 
generally three other works of Harphiua published with 
it: TractatBidr Effanom Cordit :~-.*lodai Ifi/mdi i-ota- 
n'uBi V'irgina Maria i — Raaedia ennlra Dalrtiiliona. 
The Direaoriam aarmm was republished with commen- 
taries and corrections (Paris, without date, 12mo; Co- 
logne, 1537, 12mo; 1611, 16mo; l((45,ro1.; Antwerp,I58S, 
12mo; Cologne, ISoS.loL; Rome, 1585, 4 to; Brescia,ieai, 
4to; translated inttr French by Mme. E. B., Paris, 1652, 
l6mo) i— SfTiBOBM, ele.,»wilh Tmii Parlia di la Phi' 
ton and Triple A einemeat de Jimt Ckntt (these works, 
written St Hrst In Flemish, were tranaiated into Latin, 
Nuremberg, 1481,4lo; Spire, 1484. 4to) ;— SpwufmB cm- 
Tiam dmm Pne>yploram Dei, etc. (Mayence, 1474, 4to) : 
—Speeulum Prrfedioiai (Venice, I bii, 12mo ; transL into 
Italian, 1M6, 12mo);— i>p(i™/io mccmcta el peripicua 
.Vorsn Rapiani (of Suso), written first in Low Dulcl^ 
then transL into latin bv Suriua, and inserted in the 
Opera onmia ofHeury Siiso (Cokene, 1533, 1555, 1588, 
and 1S15, 12nKi; Naples, 165H, l2mo):—l>e Morlifica- 
liotie praroram Afeetaum (Cologne, 1G04, 16mo) :— Cm- 
lici CaiUkoriim mgtiiett KiptkaUo (Cologiie, 1564, foL). 
See Trithemiu^/»e ScriplorUmf eceUfioMtidi (coLHli); 
Bellarmin, De Scriptor^ni trrltriiafieii, p. 416; Wad- 
ding, ^cripr. Ordimi Minoram, p. 164 ; Fleury, lliil. Eo- 
cUtiuiliguf. vol. xvi, lib. Ixxix. p. 5 ; Qu^tif and Echard, 
Scrip'. Ordiaii Pradimlorum, ii, 558 ; Hoefer, A'our. Hi- 
<fgr.(jintraU,xjia\,Vi9; Dupin,fccclM. Ifrtfer^ ceiit.xr< 



HARPSFELD 



88 



HARRIS 



Harpafeld or Haxpsfield, John, was bom about 
1510, and died in London in 1578. He was educated at 
Winchester School and New CoUege, Oxford, whereof he 
was admitted fellow in 1584. He became chaplain to 
bishop Bonner, whose bitter persecuting spirit he shared, 
and was collated to St. Martin's, Ludgate, in 1554, but 
resigned in 1558, on being presented to the living of 
Layndon in Essex. Shortly before the death of queen 
Maxy he was made dean of Norwich, but on the acces- 
sion of Elizabeth was deprived of that post, and com- 
mitted to the Fleet Prison until he gave security for his 
good behavior. His published works are Concio ad CU- 
rum (London, 1558, 8vo) '.—UoniiUet (London, 1554-56; 
he wrole 9 of Bonner's Homilies) : — Supputaiio tempo- 
rum a dUuvio adcuD, 1559 (London, 1560). He wrote 
also some Disputations and Epistles to be found in Fox's 
Acts and Monuments. — Kose, New Gen. Biog. Did, viii, 
212; Hoefer, A'otcr. jSccN/. Generale, xxUi,442; AUiboife, 
Dictionary of Authors, i, 788 ; Wood, A then, Oxon, L (J. 
W.M.) 

Harpsfield, Nicholas, an English Roman Catho- 
lic historian, and brother of the preceding, was also edu- 
cated at Winchester School and New College, Oxford, 
where he was admitted fellow in 1536, and bachelor of 
lavrs in 1543. He was made principal of Whitehall in 
1544, regius professor of Greek in 1546, archdeacon of 
Canterbury and prebendary of St. Paul's in 1554. He 
also received the living of Layndon, but resigned it to 
his brother John in 1558. He was a very zealous Ro- 
man Cathohc, and, on the accession of Elizabeth, refus- 
ing to acknowledge her supremacy, he was deprived of 
his prefennents and imprisoned, or at least kept under 
restraint until his death in 1583. During his imprison- 
ment (receiving every needed help from his custodian, 
bishop Parker) he composed his Jiistoria AngUcana Ec- 
desiastica (Douay, 1622, foL). To thb there is append- 
ed, according to Nutt's catalogue (1887), a treatise en- 
titled Brevis Narratio de Dicortio Henrid VIII . . . . 
ab E. Campiana, which may be the " Treatise concerning 
Marriage'^ mentioned by Wood (see Appendix to But- 
ler^s Hist, of JRe/ormaiion). His other works are His- 
toria haresis WicJdiffianm (published with Hist. A ng.) ; — 
Chronkon a DUuvio Noe ad annum 1559 ; and a ver>' bit- 
ter attack upon the Protestant ecclesiastical historians, 
Fox in particular, which was conveyed secretly to the 
Netherlands, and published by his friend Alan Cope un- 
der his own name, to screen the real author from pun- 
ishment at the hiuids of Elizabeth— the title in fuU is 
AUmi Copt Dialogi vi contra Summi Ponlificatus, Mo- 
nasticm Vitce Sanctorum, S. Imaginum oppugnatores et 
pseudo-Martgres: in quibus Centurionum Magdebur- 
gensium, Auctorum Apologias Anglicana, Pseudo-Mar' 
tyrohgicorum nostri temporiSy maxime vero Joh. Foxi 
et aliorumj varies fraudes, putidm calummee et insignia 
mendaciaf deteguntur (Antwerp, Plautin, 1 556, 4 to). He 
left also many MSS. — Rose, Xew Gen. Biog, Diet, viii, 
212 ; Hoefer, Aouv. Biog. Generate^ xxiii, 442 ; Allibone, 
Did. of A utkorSf i, 788. (J. \^. M). 

Harris, Ho'well, an eminent Welsh evangelist, was 
bom at Trevecca in 1714. In 1785 he went to Oxford 
to study for the Church, but disgust at the infidelity and 
immorality which prevailed there drove him away. Re- 
turning to' Wales, he began to exhort the neglected poor 
in their cottages, and was so successful that in a few 
months he formed several societies among them, thus 
affording another of those providential coincidences 
which mark the religious history of the times. Thirty 
of these organizations were sustained by him at the time 
of Whitefield's arrival in Wales in 1739, and in three 
years more they numbered three hundred. He lived 
and died a Churchman, but received little sympathy 
from the established clergy, and, until the viats of the 
Methodist founders, pursued his evangelical labors al- 
most alone, apparently without anticipating that they 
would result in a wide-spread evangelical dissent. In 
1715 there were only thirty Dissenting chai^els in the 



principality, and in 1786 only six in all north Wales; in 
1860 there were 2000. Harris was a lay preacher ; he 
applied repeatedly for ordination, but was denied it by 
the bishops on account of his irregular modes of lAbfw. 
Whitefield passed from Kingswood to Cardiff, and there 
saw him for the first time. Their souls met and blend- 
ed like two flames, and ^ set the whole principality in a 
blaze." For years the laborious layman travelled, and 
preached twice or three times every day. ^ He is full 
of the Holy Ghost," wrote Whitcfiekl ; " blessed be God, 
there seems a noble spirit gone out into Wales." Wes- 
ley speaks of him as "a powerful orator" {Journal^ 1756). 
He was repeatedly assaiUted by mobs, and suffered many 
forms of persecution from the magistrates, clergy, and 
people, but his courage and zeal never failed. At last 
his health declined, and he returned to Trevecca, where 
he organized a Christian household, built a chapel, and 
arranged his grounds with great taste. Wesley calls it 
''one of the most beautiful places in Wales" {Journal^ 
1763, p. 156). In the French war, when England w^as 
threatened with invasion, he thought it his duty to take 
a commission in the army, which he held for three years, 
preaching wherever he went with hb regiment. He 
died in great peace, July 21, 1778. See Jackson, Chris-' 
tian Biography^ xii, 168 ; Stevens, History cf Methodism^ 
i,118; ii,86. 

Harris, John, D.D., F.R.S., an English di>'ine, was 
bom about 1667. He studied at St John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and became successively rector of St. Mildred's, 
London ; perpetual curate of Stroud, prebendary of Roch- 
ester, and fellow, secretary, and vice-president of the 
Royal Society. He died in 1719. Dr. Harris was the 
first compiler of a dictioiuuy of arts and sciences in Eng- 
land (1708, 2 vols. foL), and was a careful and able edi- 
tor; but he was improvident, and died completely des- 
titute. He wrote A Refutation of the atheistical Ohjee- 
fions against the Being and A ttributes o/* God (London, 
l69Sj4to) -^Sermon, John xvi,2v—The Wickethtess of the 
Pretence of Treason and RthelUonfor God's sake (Nov. 
5th) (London, 1715, 8vo) ; and compiled a Collection of 
Voyages and Travels (Lond. 1702 ; revised by Campbell, 
1744, 2 vols. foL). — Darling, Cydopaxiia Bibliographical 
i, 1403 \ Allibone, Dictionary ^Authors, i, 790. 

Harris, John, D.D., an eminent Independent miiw 
ister and scholar, was bom at Ugborough, in Devonshire, 
March 8, 1802, and was admitted a student at the Hox- 
ton Academy for the education of ministers belonging^ 
to the Independent denomination in 1821. In 1827 ho 
settled at Epsom as a minister amongst the Independ- 
ents. His first literary work, entitled The Great Teach-' 
cTy was favorably received ; but he became most widely 
known as the successful competitor for a prize of one 
himdred guineas, offered by Dr. Conquest for the best 
essay on the subject of ^ Covctousness." Mr. Harris's 
essay was entitled Mammon, and had a large sale, up- 
wards of thirty thousand copies having been sold in a 
few years. He subsequently obtained two other prizes 
for essays — one entitled " Eritannia on the Condition and 
Claims of Sailors;" the other on Missions, with the title 
The Great Commission, " On account of the reputation 
brought by these works, be received the degree of D.D. 
from Amherst College, and was olso invited to fill the 
post of president in lady Huntingdon's Theologicel Col- 
lege at Cheshunt. Here he remained till the union of 
the three Independent colleges of Highbury", Homerton, 
and Coward in New College, when he accepted the office 
of principal, and conducted several of the theological 
courses in that institution. He filled this position with 
efficiency, and by his industry and amiable character 
contributed to the success which has attended this es- 
tablishment. Whilst at Cheshunt, Dr. Harris published 
the first of a series of works, in which his object was to 
illustrate the history of man from a theological point of 
view. The first volume was entitied The Pre-Adamite 
Earth (1847). In it he displayed a great amount of 
learning, and especially an acquaintance with the naU 



HARRIS 



89 



HARROW 



mal tdencesy which he brought to bear on his theolog- 
ical Tiew& The second volume of the Beriea was enti- 
tfed Mom Primeeal (1849), in which the intellectual, 
mocai, and religioua character of man lb discusaed. A 
third volume, entitled Patriarchy, or the Family, appear- 
ed in 1854. Two other volumes were to have oompdeted 
the series, and to have been devoted to the * State,' or 
the political condition of man, and the ' Church,* or his 
leligiotts relations; but the plan was cut short by the 
death of Dr. Haixia, Dec 21, 1856." These writings 
evince careful study and a broad range of thought. Dr. 
Hanis's practical writings have had an immense circula- 
tion both in England and America. See Fish, Pu(pi^ 1,7- 
o^Hemx (1857) ; GilfiUan, Modem Afa^erpiecet of Pulpit 
Oratory ; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog, Generale, xxiii, 455 ; Brit- 
i$h Qfiartarfy RevieWf v, 887; N. American Review, hex, 
391; A]libone,Z>K:tio}Kiry of Authors, i, 791. 

Harris, Robert, D.D., a pious and learned Puritan 
divine, was bom in Gloucestershire, 1578, and was edu- 
cated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford. He aflerwards took 
oideri, and obtained the living of HanweU, near Ban- 
bury, Oxfordshire, where he was extremely useful in 
confirming the people's minds in the Protestant faith. 
On the commencement of the C^vil War he removed to 
London, and became a member of the Assembly of Di- 
vioea, but appears to have taken no active part in their 
proceedings. He officiated at the church of St. Botolph, 
Bisbopflgate Street, until 1648, when he was appointed 
peadent of Trinity OoU^^ which offic^ he retained 
until his death in 1658. His works include The Way 
to True Happiness, in twenty-four sermons on the Be- 
atitudes ; and A Treatise on the New Covenant, which, 
with other writings, were publishe<l in his Works, re- 
vised and collected (Lond. 1654, foL).— Hook, Ace/. Biog, 
v,546. 

Hairlflv Samnel, D.D., '<was bom in the county 
of Middlesex about the year 1683. He was educated in 
Iferehant Taylor's school, of which he was head boy in 
1697, and was admitted a pensioner of Peter House, 
Cambridge, May 15, 1700. Upon the foundation of the 
chair of Modem History in the University of Cambridge 
by George I in 1724, Harris was appointed the first pro- 
temar. He died Dec. 21, 1733. He was the author of, 
1. Scripture knowledge promoted by catechizing (London, 
1712, 8vo) ^— 2. A Commentary on the F^fty-third chapter 
oflscnak, with an appendix ^Queries concerning Divers 
Ancient ReHgious Traditions and Practices, and the sense 
of many texts of Scripture whidi seem to allade to or ex- 
press tken^ (Lond. 1735 [not 1739, as frequently stated], 
4fco). In some copies this work has a different title- 
page, namely, Observatunu, Critical and Miscellaneous, 
on several remarkable Texts of the Old Testament, to which 
is added a Commentary, etc Prefixed are three disser- 
tations, 1. On a Gnozer or Advocate ; 2. On a Dour or 
Generation ; and, 3. On the ancient method of propound- 
ing important points by way of question. This work 
was published shortly afler the death of the author by 
Ids widow. It exhibits much curious learning, aiid is 
several times referred to by Doddridge in his tectures." 
— Kitto, Cydopeedia, ii, 236. 

Harris, ThaddeoB MaBon, D.D., a Unitarian di- 
vine, was bom in Charlestown, Mass., in 1768, graduated 
AB. at Harvard in 1787, and became pastor at Dorches- 
ter in 1793. He was librarian of Harvard College from 
1791 to 1793, and afterwards librarian of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society till hu death in 1842. His most 
important publication is a Natural History of the BiUe 
(1798, 12mo; again in Boston, 1821, 8vo; also published 
in London, with additions, under the title Dictionary of 
the Natural History of the Bible, 1824; new ed. by Con- 
der, 1838, 12dio). This work received great praise for 
its accnracy and utility (see Home, Bib^ographical Ap- 
pendix). Dr. Harris also published Memorials of the 
faU Church in Dorchester (Boston, 1830, 8vo) :— Dis- 
courses on Freemasonry (Charlestown, 6801 [ 1801 J, 8vo). 
See AUibone, Dictionary of Authors, i, 792. 



Harris, Walter, D.D., a Congregational minister, 
was bom in Lebanon, Conn., in 1761. He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1787, was ordained pastor at Dun- 
barton Aug. 26, 1789, and died Dec. 25, 1843. Dr. Har- 
ris published An Address before the Pastoral Convention 
of New Hampshire (1834), and a number of occasional 
sermons. — Sprague, Annals, ii, 277. 

Harris, 'WiUiam, D.D., an eminent English dis- 
senting divine, is supposed to have been bom at London 
about 1675. He became pastor of a church at Cmtched 
Friars, London, in 1698. He was also for some thirty 
years one of the preachers of a Friday evening lecture 
at the Weigh-house, and succeeded Mr.Tong as lecturer 
at Salter's Hall. He died in 1740. "He was a con- 
cise, clear, and nervous vrriter; his works evince a 
strong sense joined to a lively imagination, and regu- 
lated with judgment." He was one of the continuators 
of Matthew Henry's Commentary (those on Philtppiaus 
and Colossians). Besides a number of occasional ser- 
mons, he wrote Funeral Discourses, in two Parts: (/) 
Consolations on the Death of our Fri''nds; {II) Prepa- 
rations for our own Death (Lond. 1736, 8vo) : — The Life 
and Character of Dr. Thomas Manton (London, 1725, 
8vo) : — A practical Illustration of the Book of Esther 
(London, 1787, 8vo), etc — Darling, Cychptedia Biblio- 
graphica, \, 1406; Bogue and Bennett, History of Dit^ 
senters, ii, 372. 

Harris, "William, D.D., a Protestant Episcopal 
minister, was bom at Springfield, Mass., and passed ABb 
at Harvard College in 1786. He was first licensed as a 
minister in the (Congregational Church, but, on i)erusing 
a compend of Hooker's Ecdesiastical Polity, his mind 
and feelings were drawn to the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, in which he was shortly after ordained. He 
then took charge of St Michael's Church, Marblehead, 
and in 1802 became rector of St. Mark's, New York. In 
1811 he was chosen president of Columbia College. In 
1816 he resigned his rectorship, and attended thereafter 
exclusively to the presidency of the college. He died 
Oct. 18, 1829. He published several occasional sermons. 
— Sprague, Annals, \, 383. 

Harrison, William Henry, D.D., was bom Jan. 
12, 1819, in Frederick County, Md. He entered the 
preparatory department of Pennsylvania College in 1838, 
and was graduated in 1843 with the valedictory of his 
class. He early developed a taste for literary research ; 
and, while others were often engaged in recreation and 
amusement, he was in his room busily engaged in the 
investigation of some questimi of interest, and in the 
acquisition of knowledge. The one thing in which, 
perhaps, he excelled all others was the moral influence 
which he exercised over his companions. His very 
presence, even when he kept silent, was felt. Immedi- 
ately after his graduation in college he commenced his 
theological studies in the Theological Seminary at Get- 
tysburg. On their completion in 1845 he was licensed 
to preach the Gospel by the Synod of Maryland. He 
was elected assistant professor of ancient languages in 
Pennsylvania College, and served for a season as general 
agent of the Parent Education Society. The following 
year he accepted a call to the English Lutheran Church 
of Cincinnati, as he felt that he could be more useful 
and efiicient in the pastoral work. Here he labored 
with great success till his death. His labors were mi- 
wearied-and abundant. His life was regarded as a sac- 
rifice to the cause of humanity and religion. He died 
of Asiatic cholera during the prevalence of the epidemic 
in Cincinnati, Nov. 8, 1866, and, although comparative- 
ly a young man, he was at the time of his death the se- 
nior pastor of the city. He was a good scholar, a sound 
theologian, and a clear, practical, and instructive preach- 
er. He received the doctorate from Wittenberg 0>1- 
lege in 1861. (M. L. S.) 

Harrow is the rendering in the Eng. Vers, of the 
following Hebrew words : V*^*^^, charits' (liL a cutting, 
hence a sUce of curdled milk, " cheese^" 1 Sam* zvii, 18}, 



HARSA S 

a tribttbm or thmhing (q. t.) tltdgi (! Sam. xii, 31 ; 1 
Chnin. XX, S) -, ebewhero only the verb ^"ys, tudad' 
(lit.to tnrloir),to harrow a fieltl (Job xxxix,IU; "Iinak 
lheclodB,"IJia.xxvui,4: Hoe. x, 11). See Kilto, floaj 
J]ible lautl. iii,89, vi,397. The form of the siicienl 



thpm, and thnr equivc 
claiming; that in hU v 
the {irimili 




Modem EgTplIsD Kl x/bd re od cmehing nit 
Hebre V hamm if any uiBImtnont properly correepond 

as 81 ill in ERj-pt (Nitbuhr, Trae. i, 161).mere1y a board, 
which was dragged over the fields to level Ihe lumpe. 
Among tlte KominB it contiBted o( a hunle (cru/ri) of 
mla with teetli (Iliny, xviii,43; cmnp.'Mrg. Gtorg. i, 
94). See t^erally UgoUni, Cotnmi. ile re miliea tttt. 
JItbr. v,31 (iu hia TAMimr. xxix, p. 38a >q.); Paulwii, 
Adxi-b. p. ail.— Winer, it, aSG, '■In modem ralealine, 
oxen are sometimea tuiTi«l in to trample the cloda, and 
in some pans of Asia a buah t>( thorns is dnggc<l ovei 
the suirace; but all these processes, ir used, occur (not 
after, but) before Ihe seed is committed to the soil" 
(Smith, B. v.). ISee AumcuLTi he. 

Haraa. See Tei^Habb*. 

Har'8tia(Heb.Cinrita',XU';in,aChaldal2incfoim. 
Korjtfrfir mrittBier; Sept. 'Apoo aiid 'Aroirov), one of 
the Hethinim whose descendanta (nr rather, perhaps, a 
place whose inbabitanis) relumed froin Babvlon with 
Zerubbabc! (Eira it, 52; Nch.vii,54). B.C." ante 536. 
.ScbwBiz (Palesl. p. 1 16) thinks tt may lie identical with 
the mins called by the Arabs Clmriia (on Zimtnennan's 
map, Khurot), silunted south of wady Snr, about half 
way between Itcit-Jibrin (Eleuiherojwlis) on the W., 
■lid .ledui (Uetlor) on Ihe E. 

Harettet, Sanl'^l, archbishop of York, wis bom al 
Colchester in luGI ; was educated as a bizi:r at Kinq's 
College, Cambridge ; anil was subeequenlly elected fel- 
low of I'embroke IlalL In luHO he look the degree of 
B.A., and in IjSi that of M.A. lie then applied liim- 
Vlf to thcohigi', in which be aoon made his mark by a 
sermon preached in 1594 at St. Paul's Cross (flrsi printed 
at the end of three of Di. Stewart's sermons iu ie5H), 
iu wliich he boldly attacked the doctrine of uncondi- 
tional predestination, then to some extent prei'ailinR in 
the Church of KngUnd. lie became successively pn>c- 
tor of the university in 1592, vicar of CbiFCWcU, in Es- 
sex, in 1596, and archdeacon of Essex in 1662, but it- 
signeil alt these offices on beiri( appointed rcclor of 
Shcnfleld, in Essex, and of St. Margaret's, New Fish 
Street, 1/indon, in 1604. lie became master of Pern- 
brake CoUe^ in 16U5, and bishop of Chi 



He 

lalter s 



ransliled to Norwich ii 



While in Ihe 



e, the Dissenters prevailing in Ihe lloiue of 
is. lie was accuned before the last Parliament of 
James I of several misdemeaaois, and of Romanist ten- 
dencies, lie made a defense, in which, lunong olher 
points, lie says " that popery is a fire that never will be 
quiet ; he had jireaehed a thousand setmons, and noth- 



That t 



itofai 



lions." Ile coneluded by pro- 
' the Church of England come 
! Church, and that its principles 
were not derived from 
WicklifT, Hubs, or Lu- 
ther, but from the four 
lint cenluriea alter 
Christ. This defense 
was considered valid, 
andinlGSSDr.Harsnet 
WIS translated to I ha 
arehlrishopric of York. 
He died in Slay, 1691. 
Among his worka wb 
notice A Discorery of 
fhrjraudiilml iVorfto* 
o/JahaDarrt/I,Iladl- 
rlor of A m, etc. (LoDd. 
1599,410): — iJecte™- 
rton affgngioat Pllpilh 
Injioatvrrr, etc. (Lend. 
;hfne after plonehlBE 1603, 4to), against on 

ex TcisC named Edmo idt^ alias Weston,  Jesuit. See 
Collier, A'crtfi. //isTory ,- Sm'pe,iVnHoria&,- Siiig,Brit.s 
Hook, t^cciea, Biogt-ophy, v, 54G sq. 

Hatt (^^M, osaV, always masc., but in Psa. ulii, 1, 
joined with  fem. noun to denote a hind),!, itag or mole 
deer, but used by the Hebrews also lo denote all the va- 
rious species of deer and antelopes, which resemble loige 
rams. See Dekk. The hart is reckoned among the 
clean animals (Deut. xii, lb; xiv, 5; xv, 22), and seems, 
from the passages quoted, as well as fmm 1 Kings iv, 
33, lo have been commonly lulled for food. Its activity 
furaishea an apt comparison in Isa. xxxv, G, though in 
this respect the bind was more commonly selected try Ihc 
sacred wiileis. Ilie proper uameAjslonis derived from 
in/iil, and implies that harts were numerous in the neigh- 
borhood. SceGoAT. Thelleb.masc.nounnyd/, which 
is always rendered tXn^oc by the Sept., denotes, there 

either Ihe Damn rulgoru, fallow-deer, or Ihe Cermt 
Barianii. Ihe Barbary deer, the soulhem representative 
of the European slag (C elnp&ai). which orcurs in Tu- 
nis and ihe coast of Barbari'. We have, however, no 
evidence that the Barbary deer ever inhabited Pales- 
tine, though it may have dune so in primitive timea. 




Crths fiortorva. 



HART 



91 



HARTLEY 



Haaselqttist (Trav, pw 211) observed the fallow-deer on 
Mount Tabor. Sir G. Wilkinaon says {Anc, Egypt, i, 
227, abridgm.), "^ The stag with branching homa tigured 
at Beni Uaasan is also unknown in the valley of the 
Nile, but it is still aeen in the vicinity of the natron 
lakea, as mbout Tunia, though not in the desert between 
the river and the Sed Sea." This is doubtless the Cer- 
vuM BarbantSn See Stag. 

Most of the deer tribe are careful to conceal their 
calves aflcr birth for a time. May there not be some 
allusion to this cimunstance in Job xxxix, 1," Canst 
thou mark when the hinds do calve?*' etc. Perhaps, 
as the SepL wiiformly renders aydl by tXa^i:, we may 
incline to the belief that the Cervus Barbarus is the 
deer denoted. The feminine noun I^^^^, ayaldk, oc- 
curs frequently in the O. T.— Smith, s. v. See Hind. 

Hart, Levi D.D., a Congregational minister, was 
bom April 10, 1T38, at Southinglon, Conn. He gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1760, stiuiied under Dr. Bellamy, 
was licensed June 2, 1761, and was ordained pastor M 
Griswold, Conn., Nov. 4, 1762, where he Ubored until his 
death, Oct. 27, 1808. During his long career as pastor 
he trained many young men for the ministry. In 1784 
he was made a member of Dartmouth College Corpora- 
tion, and of Yale in 1791. He published several occa- 
aonal sermons. — Sprague, ^nnaZf, i, 590. 

Hart, OliTer, a Baptist minister, was bom in War- 
minster, Pa., July 5, 17^, joined the Baptist Church in 
1741. was licensed to preach in 1746, and was ordained 
in 1749. In that year he became pastor of the Baptist 
ehurrh in Charleston, S. C, and remained in that office 
thirty years, with eminent success both as preacher and 
pastor. In the Revolution he espoused the Whig cause 
with great ardor, and had to flee from Charleston in 1780 
to avoid falling into the hands of the British. He set- 
tled as pastor of the Baptist Church at Hopewell, N. J., 
where he died Dec. 31, 1795. He publishe<1 a Ditcourse 
<m tke Death of W. Temtent :— Dancing Exploded:— The 
Christum Temple : — A Gospel Church portrayed,— 'Bene- 
dict, Hist, of the Baptists, voL ii ; Sprague, A nnals, vi, 47. 

Hartley, David, an English practitioner of medi- 
cine, and a philosopher of coiL.4(brable, but transitory 
reputation. The Scotch school of metaphysics borrow- 
ed miurh from his conclusions; and the long-prevalent 
theory of Beauty, which was elaborated in Alison's 
Principles of Taste, derived from them its cardinal doc- 
trines. Dr. Hartley occupies a notable position in the 
hi^oTV of speculation on other grounds. He presented 
a curious example of the partial conciliation of Des 
Cartes, Newton, and Locke ; he inaugurated the impulse 
which transmuted the system of the last of these great 
men into the materialLsm of the French Encydopcsdia ; 
he preceded Bonnet, of Geneva, in applying phA'siolog- 
ical observation to psychological discussion, and thus 
became the precursor of Cabanis and Broussais, of Mole- 
achott and Huxley. He was contemporary with Col- 
lier, and Berkeley, and Hume, and Reid. While the 
two first were undermining the philosophy of Ix>cke by 
questioning the credibility of the senses, and Hume was 
achieving a similar result by impugning the evidences 
of consciousness, to be imperfectly refute<l by Reid's 
exi^q^ation of the reliability of external perception, 
Uartiey was still further invalidating the authority of 
Locke by proposing a purely mechanical explanation of 
the processes of thought He is thus even more note- 
worthy for his relations to the revolutions of opinion in 
the 18th century than for the positive additions he is 
supposed to have made to the science of the human 
mind. lie was ona of the dominant spirits of that agi- 
tation of 4he intellectual waters which heralded and 
pfoduoed the political convulsions of the last century. 
At the same time, he is the link between widely sepa- 
rated dogmas: furnishing a bond between Des Cartes 
and Stewart; connecting Locke with Condillac and 
f^eacb aeosationalism ; reWving neglected positions of 



Aristotle, and prefiguring many of the latest manifesta- 
tions of scientitic materialism. 

JAfe. — ^The biography of Dr. Hartley is singularly 
devoid of salient incidents and of general interest. He 
belonged to that numerous class of very worthy men 
who run their eminently useful career without experi- 
encing or occasioning violent excitement of any kincL 
But for his philosophical productions, his epitaph might 
have been Y'ivens moriensque fefellii. He was the son 
of a respectable clergyman, and was bom Aug. 80, 1705, 
at Armley, Yorkshire, of which parish his lather was 
vicar. He completed his education at Jesus College, 
Cambridge, and was designed for the paternal vocation. 
But he was induced to divert his attention to medicine, 
in consequence of scruples about subscribing the XXXIX 
Articles, for religious opiaion vrithin the bosom of the 
Anglican Church was much divided at the time by the 
recent issues of the "Bangorian Controversy." His 
experience was frequently repeated in other cases in the 
ensuing years. He retainetl, however, the fervent but 
simple piety appropriate to his meditated profession, 
and never withdrew his interest from the subjects which 
attract the intelligent theologian. He informs us that 
the seeds of his own doctrine began to germinate when 
he was twenty-five years of age, though their elabora- 
tion was not completed till he was more than forty. 
His views were given to the world in 1749, in a work 
entitled Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duties, his 
Expectations, He survived its publication about eight 
years, and died at Bath Aug. 28, 1757, when within a 
fortnight of completing his fiay-third year. His life 
had been expended in the diligent and kindly pursuit of 
his calling at Newark, Bury St. Edmund's, London, and 
Bath. 

Mackintosh and Coleridge, while presenting diverse 
views of Hartley*s doctrine, are lavish of encomiums 
upon his Airtues and purity of character. A very brief 
and very dry biography was composed by his son, with 
tilial reganl and quaint delineation. A few fragments 
from this recondite production will present the philoso- 
pher 'Mn the habit and manner as he lived." ^His 
person was of middle size, and well proportioned. His 
complexion fair, his features regular and handsome. 
His countenance open, ingenuous, and animated. He 
was peculiarly neat in person and attire. He lived in 
personal intimacy with the learned men of his age," 
among whom are enumerated Law, bishop of Carlisle ; 
Butler, bishop of Durham ; Warburton,bbhop of Glouces- 
ter; Hoadley, snccessively bishop of Bangor, Hereford, 
and Winch<»ter; Pope and Young; Dr. Jortin and Dr. 
Byrom; Hawkins, Browne, and Hooke, the forgotten 
historian of Rome. The list is sufficiently heterogene- 
ous. " His mind was formed to benevolence and uni- 
versal philanthropy. His genius was penetrating and 
active, his industry indefatigable, his philosophical ob- 
servations and attentions unremitting. His natural 
temper was gay, cheerful, and sociable. He was ad- 
dicted to no vice in any part of his life, neither to pride, 
nor to sensuality, nor intemperance, nor ostentation, nor 
envy, nor to any sordid self-interest ; but Ids heart was 
replete with every contrary virtue." 

Philosophy, — Hartley neither proclaimed nor pro- 
duced any scheme of specidation, nor did he pretend 
that his views were characterized by any marked de- 
gree of originality. He investigated and endeavored 
to explain certain phenomena of the human mind, and 
to discover the machinery of thought. He has be- 
queathed a doctrine which has been in part generally 
adopted, and which has been frequently exaggerated 
by admirers who have repudiated, ignored, or been ig- 
norant of the characteristic ground-work on which it 
liad been erected. The source and filiation of his tenets 
have been indicated by hun with what Sir James Mack- 
intosh conceives to have been extravagant generosity. 
Hartley's acknowledgments are, however, made in igno- 
rance of his much larger, but more remote obligations 
to Aristotle. ^ About eighteen years ago," says he, in 



HARTLEY 



92 



HARTWIG 



the preface of his work, ^ I was informed that the Rev. 
Mr. Gay, then living, asserted the possibility of deduc- 
ing all our intellectual pleasures and pains from associa- 
tion. This put me upon considering the power of asso- 
ciation. By degrees many disquisitions foreign to the 
doctrine of association, or, at least, not immediately 
connected with it, intermixed themselves." ** I think, 
however, that I cannot be called a s>'8tem maker, since 
I did not first form a system, and then suit the facta to 
it^ but was carried on by a train of thoughts from one 
thing to another, frequently without any express de- 
sign, or even any previous suspicion of the consequences 
tlut might arise." Assuredly this is neither a syste- 
matic nor a philosophical method of procedure. But 
this easy disagation of thought explains thd instability, 
want of consistency, and partial incoherence of Hart- 
ley's speculations. It also explains the facility and un- 
suspected inconsequence with which a portion of the 
doctrine has been separated tram its accompaniments for 
special acceptance and development. 

The chazacteristic tenets of Hartley have been very 
clearly and concisely stated by MorelL **The objects 
of the external world affect in some manner the extreme 
ends of the nerves, which spread fnm the brain as a 
centre to every part of the body. This affection pro- 
duces a vibration, which is continued along the nerve 
by the agency of an elastic ether until it reaches the 
brain, where it produces the phenomenon we term sen- 
sation. When a sensation has been ex|)erienced several 
times, the vibratory movement from which it arises ac- 
quires the tendency to repeat itself spontaneously, even 
when the external object is not present. These repeti- 
tions, or relics of sensation, are ideasy which in their 
turn possess the property of recalling each other by vir- 
tue of mutual association among themselves. .... 
The subordinate effects of these principles are easy to 
be imagined. If all our ideas are but relics of sensa- 
tions, and all excited spontaneously by the laws of asso- 
ciation, it is abundantly evident that the power of the 
will must be a nonentity, that man can really have no 
\oontrol of his own mind, that he is the creature of irre- 
sistible necessity. Hartley was accordingly a firm nec- 
essarian. Another natural efiect of the theory of vibra- 
tions is materialism." The pernicious consequences of 
their dogmas are perspicaciously displayed by Coleridge, 
who had at one time been so devoted to their teachings 
that he bestowed the name of their author upon his son, 
Hartley Coleridge. 

In this speculation there are three distinct but inti- 
mately connected doctrines. 1. The theory of the asso- 
ciation of ideas. 2. The ph>*8iological and physical 
mode of accounting for this association and for percep- 
tion by the vibrations of an elastic ether through the 
medullary substance of the nerx-es. 8. The assertion of 
the necessity of human actions. The last of these con- 
nects itself with the optimism of Leilmitz and the fatal- 
ism of Spinoza, through King's Origin of Etnl, The 
second dogma was early abandoned, at least in the form 
in which it was presented by this author. It was not 
entirely novel, but it was the most original portion of 
Hartley*s labors, and through it he mainly influenced 
the development of the French philosophy. It was 
suggested by one of the queries in Newton*s Optics, and 
may be traced through the animal spirits of I^cke and 
Des Cartes, and the vortices and elastic ether of Des 
Cartes to the earlier philosophers, and up to Epicurus 
and Leueippus. It may merit renewed consideration if 
the physiological psychology now in prospect should 
gain acceptiuice. The doctrine of Association is re- 
garded as being peculiarly Hartley's own. It was not 
altogether novel : he himself ascribes its first suggestion 
to Gay. It is presupposed in many suggestions of 
Locke, and is descended from a more remote and illus- 
trious ancestrj", which runs back to the Stagyrite — the 
reputed fountain of so much error, the father of so much 
wisdom. It received, however, such an ingenious and 
extensive development from Hartley that Sir James 



Mackintosh rightly disregards the claims of Gay, but 
wrongly neglects earlier obligations. It is laigely in- 
corporated into recent schemes of metaphysics, ethic8» 
and aesthetics, but severed from the mechanical hypoth- 
esis which gave it its chief originality and its distinc- 
tive complexion. In tliis mutilated form it possesses 
unquestionable truth ; but still it is only an imperfect 
explaiution of a limited class of mental and moral phe- 
nomena, and is easily pressed, as it has often been push* 
ed, to absurd and hazardous conclusions. Coleridge has 
forcibly signalized its dangers, and has declared that, 
wherever it deviates from the simpler exposition of Aris- 
totle, it declines into error and immoral ooursca. 

/,tV«*ari/>-p.— Hartley, Obserrations on Man, his Framej 
his Dufffy his JCxpectatioHS, with Notes and Additions by 
Herman Andrew Pistorius (Lond. 1791 , 3 vols. 8vo). An 
abridgment of the original edition had been publbhcd by 
Dr. Priestley (Lond. 1775), with the omission of the doc- 
trine of vibrations and vibratiuncules. It is from this 
mutilated presentment that the theory of Association 
has been principally derived. Hume, Inquiry concern- 
ing Ike Human Understandinfff sec. ii-vii ; Reid, On the 
InteUfctucd Powers^ Essay ii, ch. iii, ed. Hamilton — un- 
fortunately, Sir William never supplied the notes to 
Reid, which he indicates by numbers : Mackintosh, On 
the Progress of Ethical Philosophg ; Dugald Stewart, 
On the Progress of Mftaphywtal, Kthical, and Political 
Philosophy (Philosophical Essays, Works, edit. Sir W. 
Hamilton) ; Coleridge, Biographia LUerariOj ch. v~vii ; 
Morell, history of Modem Philosophy. (G. F. H.) 

Hartlib, Samukl, an English n-riter of the 17th 
century, was bom of Polish Protestant parents. He 
came to England about 1640, took an active part in the 
theological questions of the day, and endeavored to 
bring about a union of the different churches. He af- 
terwards devoted himself to the improvement of agri- 
culture, etc Having spent all his fortune in these at- 
tempts, he received from Cromwell a {tension of £300, 
which was suppressed at the Restoration. He Fpent the 
latter part of his life in retirement, and perhaps in want. 
The exact time of his death is unknown. He wrote A 
Relation of that trhich hath been latily attempted to pro- 
cure Ecclesiastical Peace among Protestants (Lond. 1641) : 
— Considerations concerning England's JRtformation in 
Church and State (1647, 4to) : — Ticisse^s doubting con- 
science resolved (1652, 8vo) ; some works on Husbandry', 
etc Milton addressed his Essay on Education to Hart- 
lib. See Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxii ; Censura litera- 
ria, voL iii ; Chalmers, General Biographical Diction- 
ary, 

Hartmann, Anton Theodor, a German Protestant 
theologian and Orientalist, was bom at DUsseldorf June 
25, 1774. He studied at Osnabrack, Dortmund, and Got- 
tingen. After being successively co-rector of the gymnap- 
slum of Soest in 1797, rector of the gymnasium of Her- 
ford in 1799, and professor in that of Oldenburg in 1804y 
he was appointed professor of theolog}* in the Universi- 
ty of Rostock in 1811. He died at'Rostock April 21, 
1838. He is especially known for his works on antiqui- 
ties, and on Hebrew and Arabic literature, the principal 
of which are A uflddrung fi. Asien f Bibefforsc/ier (Ol- 
denburg, 1806-7, 2 vols. 8vo) : — Die JJebrderin am Putz- 
tische u, als Braut (Amst. 1809-1810, 8 vols. 8vo) i—Sup- 
plementa ad J, Buxtorjii et W. GesenH Lexic (Rostock, 
1813, 4to) : — Thesauri Linguts JJebraicoe e Michna au- 
gendi (Rostock, 1825-1826, 3 parts, 4to) :—Linguistische 
Einleitung in d, Studium der Bucher dies A, T, (Rostock, 
1818, 8vo) :— /7m/. Krit. Forschungen Hber die Bildung, cf. 
Zeitalter u. Plan d,funfBiicher Moses (Rostock et Gu»- 
trow, 1831, 8vo) : — Die enge Verbinditmg d. A.T, mit d, 
iV. (Hamb. 1831, 8vo) .^Blidce m d, Geist d. Urchristen- 
thums (Dusseldorf, 1802, 8vo). See Haag, La France 
Proiestcmte ; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Generak, xxiii, 474. 



, Joi» Christopher, came to America as 
chaplain to a (rerman regiment in the 8er\'ice of Eng- 
land during the first French war, as it is called. He 



HASUM 

rH  uKBiher or the fireC Lathenn nnai hclil in thi> 
CDOnlii-in 174H, Hu tinL ngulAr chAn^e combined ser- 
sil crmgnfttioDi in Hunlndou Ox, N. J. He laboied 
lur 1 brier period in PeaiiBylruiiB, but the luRer portion 
uf hii minisrv wu Bpenl in Ibe Mite o( New Yark. 
lit ilied in 1796. The manner of his ileath rumi^ei * 
Rmirluible instance of the power or the ima^nBlion. 
Funy vein berore, the impreaidon ttom a dream on bii 
liinhdiT, that he would live just Torly yean lunger, had 
becwne » Arong that he felt peraoaded the dream would 
be (uUlM, and hii life proDacted la the dose of his 
eighlietb year. On the day pncedin); its completion 
he came to the reaidencA of the Hon. J. K. Ij^dngston, 
and siHuanaal that he had come to his house to die. 
In the fi-ming h« conducted the family devotions, and 
ib« next mofnin); arose in apparent health. He break- 
laud with the ramilj, and Altered freely into conver- 
Biiun oniil the ippmach of the hnur, as be supposed, 
fuf hia drpaiture, 1 1 o'clock A.1S. A few minutes before 
ibe time, he requested permission to retire- Mr. lAv- 
inpun, unolneivnl by him, fallowed, and noticed that 
be vu luidlESanjc. Just as the clock tidied the hour, 
lie iru in the act of remodog the stock frum the neck ; 
n that moment he Tell back and eirpireiL Notwith- 
Kimling his eccenuieilica, he posmmeil many noUe qual- 
ilirs. and his name will ever be associated with the in- 
•iilulinninOt«^oCo.,N.V.,whichl>earshianamc,and 
of which he may be lalil lobe the (bunder. The tract 
of Imd he rec«TM) fur hb services as chaplain he be- 
qnaibed principally for the establishment of  theolog- 
ical md Duarionary institution for the instruction of pi- 
Ms ymmg men for the Lutheran ministry, and for the 
edajzotton of Indians in the Christian reii^on as mis- 
■miiria aoKnig their own tribes (M. U S.) 

Ha'mm. 01^1^ Ilarin', Dih, tkcaled; Sept. 'In- 
pii>|, the lather of Aharhel, the " families" of which lat- 
ter sre enumerated among the posterity of Coz, of Che 
nibeo(Jndali(lChron,iv,8), aCpostlGli 

Sam'mm.'ptiQltb.Chantmaph^'^'q'rn.iiuib-iioted: 
Sept. 'Ejw/iaf v. r. 'Ep4j/i<a), " fsther" of Jedaiah, which 
Inter was one of the priests trha rFpaiied part of the 
■lib of Jerusalem (Neh. iii,10). KC.Bn1e44e. 

Ha'ntphlte (Heb. Charuphi', '^B^^n, with the art; 
ix which the Uaaoretic margin more correctly reads 
'Vnri, liariphiU! SepL 'Apau^i v. r, Xapi^yjX.Vulg. 
llarapiila), an epithet of Shephatiah, one of the brave 
•dventuren who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. xii, 
B| : » called, probably, as being a native of Hakii-h. 
'Jtaabsd the Gederathite," of the preceding verse, was 
pmbably Skota the sanie place; and a* he wu 



I resident of Gedor (q. v.), it would aeeiK 
(let " Haruphile" was an equivalent one, as 
friini Hareph (q. v.), the founder of Ueder 
(1 Chron. u, 61). 

Ha'nu (Heb. Ciamu; )"nn, eaper, as in Proi-. nii, 
27, etc.; Sept. 'Apovc), a citizen' of Jotbah, and father 
orM«ihuUvmelh,who became the wife ofkingManss- 
seh, and mother of king Amon {2 Kings Jcxi, 19). aCl 
ante OH. 

Harvaid, Joiik. founder of Harvard CoDege, Cam- 
bridge, HtM.. was bom in England, studied at Kmanuel 
I College. Cambridge, where he became A. JI. in 1<>3&, anil 
: entered into the ministry among the Ulssentets. Emi- 
grating to America, he became pastor of a Cuiigrega- 
lional Bocielv at Charlestown, Mam., where he preached 
but a Dhort'time, and died Sept. 14, 1038. In his will 
he left a legacy of nearly £800 to (he high-school of 
Cambridge. This bequest laid the foundaticm of the 
college, lu which the trustees gave the name of its bene- 

Harvakt H'^Xi?, taUir', L e. napmg; 3ipi7/ut), 
the season of gathering grain or Ihiiti. In general, this 
fen, as now in Palestine, in the miiklle of April or Ahib 
(John iv, 85), although in many pails, e. g. at Jericho 
(whose inhalants were the first to present the first- 
fruits, Hiahna, Faach, ir, S), it began as early aa March 
(Shaw, rror. p. 391). (Sec Gerdes, Dt Itn^rt moat 
JIfbraorum, UtiEcht, I'M.) Dr. Kohinson says: "On 
the 4th and 5lh of June, the people of Hebron were just 
beginning to gather their wheat; on the 11th and IJth, 
the threshing-iloora on the Mount of Olives were in full 
operation. We had already seen the harvest in the 
same Mate of progims on the plains of tiaia on the 19tli 
of May; while at Jericho, on the 12th of May, the threah- 
ing-floors had nearly completed their work" {Bib.Hfi.u, 
W, 100). On the sixteenth day of the flisl month, Abib 
or Nisan (Joscphus, /loT.iii, 11)^6), a handful of ripe eaii 
was offered before the Lonl as the llrst-lniits ; after 
which it was lawrul to put the sickle to the com (Lev. 
jtxiii, 9-14). (See Schramm, Ilr manipvlo kordrncro, 
Frckft. a. 0. 1706.) The har\-eel is described as begin- 
ning with the barlev, and with the festival of the Pass- 
over (Lev. xxiii, 9-14 ; 2 Sam. xxi, 9, 10 ; Uuth ii, 23), 
and ending with the wheat (Gcii.xxx,14; £xad.XKxiv, 
22), and with the festival uf Pentecost (Kxod. xxiii, 16). 
(Sec Oiho. I,fr. Rabb. p. 684.) In the must aiidcnt 
times the corn was |ducked up by the rootju ^lien' the 
sickle was used, the wheat was cither cropped off under 
the ear, or cut ckiac to the ground ; in the former case, 
the straw was afterwards plucked up for use ; in the lat- 
ter, the stubble was IsA and burnt gn ' 




Ancient BgypUan Harvest rcene. (From Wilkinson } 

"SE n,n,<sii»i«i'u!fi™i»"ip''u,°piL5'u!3L°"' 



HARWOOD 



04 



HASENUAH 



manure (laa. xvii, 6 ; Job xxiv, 24). The sheaves were 
collected into a heap, or removed to the threshing-floor 
(Gen. xxxvii, 7; Lev, xxiii, 10-15; Ruth ii, 7-15; Job 
xxiv, 10 f Jer. ix, 22 ; Mic iv, 12 ; Amos ii, 13). In 
Palestine at the present day, the grain is not bound into 
sheaves,. but is gathered into two large bundles, which 
are carried home on either side of the backs of animals 
(Thomson, Land and Booky ii, 323). The reaiiers were 
the owners and their children, and men and women 
servants (Ruth ii, 4, 8, 21, 23 ; John iv, 36 ; James v, 4). 
Refreshments were provided for them, especially drink, 
of which the gleaners were often allowed to {>artake 
(Ruth ii, 9) ; so in the EgA'ptian scenes we see reapers 
drinking, and the gleaners applying to share the draught. 
The time of harvest was a season of ver>' great enjoy- 
ment, especially when the crops had been plentiful (Psa. 
cxxvi, 1 -6 ; Isa. ix, 3). The han^est in Scripture is like- 
wise put for a time of destruction (Hos. vi, 11), according 
to Newcome ; but, according to Horsley, for a time of 
merq/. Of the former sense there is an example in Jer. 
Ii, 83, plainly referring to the judgments of God upon 
Babylon. So in the oracle concerning Damascus (Isa. 
xvii, 5), as Lowth observes, the king of Assyria shall 
sweep away the whole body of the people, as the reap- 
er strips off the whole crop of com, and the remnant 
shall bia no more in proportion than the scattered ears 
left to the gleaner. In Joel iii, 18, the last words ex- 
plain the figurative language which precedes : they are 
ripe for excision. The same comparison is used in Rev. 
xiv, 14; XV, 18, where the person referred to as execu- 
ting vengeance is Jesus Christ himself, though angels 
assist in the execution. But harvest is also used in a 
good sense, as in Matt ix, 87 ; Luke x, 2 ; John iv, 85. 
So in Jer. viii, 20, *^ The harN'est is past, the summer is 
ended, and we are not saved;*' L c. the time in which 
we expected to be saved is past. The harvest^ in agri- 
cu]t4uill reckoning, is considered to be the end of the 
season, being the time appointed for gathering in the 
fmits of the earth, and finishing the labors of the year. 
So, in Matt, xiii, 39, our Lord says, **The harvest is the 
end of the world, and the reapers are the angels.*" In 
Matt, ix, 36, our Lord, seeing multitudes coming to hear 
him, remarks, "The han-est truly is plenteous;'' i. e. 
many are willing to receive instmction. See Agricul- 

TURK. 

Harwood, Edward, a learned LTnitarian minister, 
was bom in 1729 in Lancashire. In 1754 he became 
master of a school at Congleton, in Clieshirc, from whence 
he removed in 1765 to Bristol, where he was ordained 
over a Presbyterian congregation. In 1768 he obtained 
his degree of D.D. from Edinburgh, through the inter- 
est of Dr. Chandler, whose daughter he marrie<L His 
character, however, was so immoral that his congrega- 
tion dismissed him; on which he came to London, 
where he supported himself by teaching the classics 
and correcting the press. He died poor in 1794. His 
principal works are, 1. A Vietv of the variovs editions of 
the Greek andRotnan Classics (London, 4th edit., 1791, 
12mo) : — 2, A n Introduction to the New Testament (I^nd. 
1773-81, 2 vol8.8vo) :— 8. An edition of the Greek Testa- 
ment (2 vols. 8vo) :— 4. A Liberal Translation of the New 
Testament into polite English (or, in other words, a bur- 
lesque of the sacred Scriptures) (Lond. 1768, 2 vols. 8vo) : 
— 5. The Neto Testament, collated tnith the most approved 
MSS,j with select Notes (1776, 2 vols. 12mo). See Gen- 
Ueman^s Maff, vols. Ixii-lxiv ; Watt, BiU^ Britannica. 

Hascall, Daniei^ a Baptist minister, was bom at 
Bennington, Vt., Feb. 24, 1782, graduated at Middlebury 
College h) 1806, and afterwards studied theolog>^ while 
engaged as a teacher in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1808 he 
became pastor of the Baptist church in Elizabeth town, 
Essex Co., N. Y., where he was ordained Sept. 7th. and 
in 1813 he accepted a call from the Baptist Church of 
Hamilton, N. Y. In 1815 he began to receive pupils in 
theology, and after establishing the Baptist Education 
Society of New York in 1817, his little school was in 



1820 transformed into the ^ Hamilton Literarv and The* 
ological Institution" (now Madison University), which 
was opened under his charge, and to which he after- 
wards exclusively devoted himself, dissolving his pas- 
toral connecdon in 1828. He however left it in 1835, 
and gave his attention to an academy which, two years 
before, had been started mainly through his agency in 
Florence, Oneida Co., N. Y. In 1848 he resumed his 
ministerial labors as pastor of the Baptist Church in 
Lebanon, N. Y. He died June 28, 1852. Mr. Hascall's 
publications were, Elements of Theology^ debigned for 
family reading and Bible-dasses ; a smaller work of the 
same kind for Sabbath-schools; Caution against False 
Philosophy, a sermon (1817) ; and a pamphlet entitled 
Definitions of the Greek Bapto, Baptizo, etc. (1818)-— 
Sprague, A nnals, vi, 547. 

Hasadl^'ah {Ueh, Chasadyah', TT^^^W, favored by 

* — 

Jehovah ; Sept. 'Atsalia), one of the five sons of Pedaiah 
(not of Zenibbabel, who was a sixth), of the descendants 
of David (1 Chron. iii, 20) ; probably the same otherwise 
called Jubiiab-Heskd in the same verse (see Strong^s 
Harm, and Expos, of the Gospels, p. 17). B.C. cir. 53G. 

HaBenkamp, the family name of several German 
theologians. 

JoHAMN Gerhard was bom in Wechte, Pkiissia, June 
12, 1736. Having become a student at the Academy of 
Lingen, 1753-55, he distinguished himself by an eager 
thirst for knowledge, and by great earnestness of relig- 
ious activity. For preaching without license he was 
several times arrested. After eleven years' suspension 
he was made rector of the Gymnasium in Dui&burg in 
1766, and soon after married, and settled down earnestly 
to his work of restoring the fallen fortunes of the gym- 
nasium. His reUp'Tous tendencies always uiclined him 
to favor pietism, and to urge the necessity of deep Chris- 
tian experience. He therefore sj-mpathizcd fully with 
CoUenbusch (q. v.) and Oetinger (q. v.). He was again 
siu)pende<l as a *' mystic" and disturber, but was m)oii re- 
stored by the higher Church authorities at Berlin. He 
died July 10, 1771. His autobiography, extending to 
1766, and co: tinned by his son, was publi^hcfl in the 
journal Wahrheit z. Gottseligktit (vol. ii, 5, 6, 1836). He 
also published Predifften 4t. d. Geschmack der drd ersten 
Jahrkunderte (Frankfort, 1772). His other writings are 
of litUe importance. 

Fried RICH Arkou), liis half-brother, bom Jan. 11, 
1747, succeeded Johann as rector of Duisburg, and mar- 
ried his widow. Following in the footsteps of his broth- 
er, he shared his religious opinions and feelings, and 
wTote several pamplilets in exposition of the views of 
the so-called ** mystical" school of Stilling and Lavatcr. 
He also wrote against Semler and other rationalists, who 
fared badly under his fiery attacks. See his U. die rer^ 
dunkdnde Atfkldrunff (Duisb. 1789) : — Briefe uber Prth' 
pheten (Duisb. 1791), etc. He died in 1795. 

Johann Heinrich, another brother, was bom Sept. 
19, 1750. After helping his parents until he was sixteen 
years old, he began his studies, was from 1776 to 1779 
rector at Emmerich, and, having been appointed pastor 
of a small congregation near Altona, remained there 
during the last thirty-five years of his life. The loneli- 
ness of his life in the solitude of his remote parish influ- 
enced his character, yet he is the most genial of the 
three brothers, as is seen in his Chrisfliche Schrifien 
(Munster, 1816-19, 2 vols.). He died July 17, 1814.— 
Herzog, Real-Encyldop. ; Pierer, Universal-Lexihon, s. v. 
(J. N. P.) 

Hasenu'ah, or rather Senuaii (HMil^b, a hrist- 
ling [Gesen.] or hated [FUrst], with the art. riK«l5^n, 
haS'Senuah^, the name of two Benjamites (but the 
name has the fem. temiination). 

1. (Sept. 'Atrapova, Eng. Vers. "Hasenuah,'^ Far- 
ther of Hodaviah and ancestor of Sallu, which last was 
a chief resident of Jerusalem, apparently after the Cap- 
tivity (1 Chron. ix, 7). B.C. ante 686. 

2.' (Sept. 'Aoava, Eng. Vers. '' Senuah.*0 Father of 



HASHABIAH 



95 



HASPEYA 



Jndah, which Utter was ** second over the dty," after 
the return from Babylon (Neh. xi, 9). B.C. cir. 440. 

Haahabi'ah (Heb. Chcuhab^ah', H'^S^n [and in 
1 Chron. XXV, 3 ; xxvi, 20 ; 2 Chron. xxxv, 9, the pro- 
longed form Ckashabya'huj ^n*^3I?n]| regarded by Je- 

iorciA ; Sept. 'Aoi^i, 'A<rbtj3, 'Aatjiiac, 'A(ra/3ia, etc.)i 
the name of at least nine descendants of Levi 

1. Son of Amaziah and father of Malluch, of the fam- 
ily of Herari (1 Chron. vi, 45). B.C. long ante 1014. 

2. A son of Jeduthun, appointed by David aver the 
twelfth course of Levitical singers (1 Chron. xxv, 8, 19). 
RC. 1014. 

3. Son of Kemuel, of Hebron, appointed by David at 
the head of the oflScers to take charge of the sacred rev- 
enue west of the Jordan (1 Chron. xxvi, 80; xxvii, 17). 
RC 1014. 

4. One of the chief Levites who made voluntary of- 
ferings of victims for the renewal of the Temple services 
under Josiah (2 Chron. xxxv, 9). RC. 623. 

5. Son of Bunni and father of Azrikam, of the family 
of Merari (1 Chron. ix, 14 ; Neh. xi, 15). RC. consid- 
ermbly ante 440. 

6. Son of liAttaniah and father of Bani, Levites 
(Neh. xi, 22). RC. ante 440. 

7. One of the chief priests intrusted by Ezra with 
the buUkm and other valuables for the sacred vessels at 
Jerusalem (Ezra viii, 24). He is probably the same 
whose father Ililkiah is mentioned in Neh. xii, 21. RC. 
536. 

8. A descendant of Merari, who complied with Ezra's 
sammons for persons to perform the proper Levitical 
fimctioDS at Jerusalem (Ezra viii, 19). RC. 536. 

9. A chief of the Levites (Neh. xii, 24), ^ ruler of the 
hali part of Keilah," who repaired part of the walls of 
Jerusalem (iii, 17), and subscribed the covenant of fidel- 
ity to Jehovah (x, 11). B.C. 446-410. 

Hashab'nah (Heb. Choihabnah', HSncn, prob. 
for ST^a^n, Haskahiak; Sept. 'Ecro/SavajVulg. f{asd>- 
na), one of the chief of the people who subscribed Ne- 
hemiah's covenant (Neh. x, 25). RC. cir. 410. 

Hashabni'ah (Heb. ChMhabngyah', n*^33un, L q. 
tlQ^^n, Hathabnah ; SepL Acpaviay £«/3aj/i), the name 
of two men about the time of the return from Babvlon. 

* 

1. Father of Hattush, which lattei repaired part of 
the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 10). RC. ante 446. 

2. One of the Levites appointed by Ezra to interpret 
the law to the people (Neh. ix, 5). RC cir. 410. 

Haahbad'ana (Heb. Chaskbaddanah', n9^aon,for 
ro^9 3TSn, eomideration injudgu^, perh. q. d. consid- 
erate pulge; Sept. 'A<rafiaSfid, ^^MH' Uatbadana)^ one 
ef these who stood at Ezra's left hand while he read the 
law to the people (Neh. viii, 4). RC. cir. 410. 

See Maiieb-Shalal-Hash-B^vz. 



Ha'shem (Heb. Ilashem', fion, perh. L q. ZW, 
fai; Sept 'A<ra/i,yulg. AaMoi^, a native of Gizoh, and 
ancestor of two of David's heroes (1 Cliron. xi,34; the 
JasHEN (q. v.) of 2 Sam. xxiii, 32). RC ante 1014. 

Haahlabim. See Assassins. 

Haahmannlm (Hebrew CAa«Anuzfimm',fi*^SiQVn; 
Sept. irp«<r/3ftCi Vulg. Iffjfati)^ a plur. form occurring only 
in the Heb. of Psa. Ixviii, 81 : ^Ifcuhmatmim [A. Vers. 
** princes"] shall come out of Egypt, Cush shall make 
her hands to hasten to God.** The word has usually 
been derived from the Arabic Mashmm, richj hence in- 
fluential or noble ; but a derivation from the civil name 
of Hermopolis Magna in the Heptanomis, preserved in 
the modem Arabic Ashmumfenj 'Hhe two AshmAns,** 
seems more reasonable. The ancient Eg^'ptian name is 
ffa-^kmen or Ha$kmunt** the abode of eight ;** the sound 
of the signs for eight, however, we take alone from the 
Coptic, and Bnigsch reads them Seaermu ((jeog. In»chr, 
i, 219, 220), but hardly on conclusive grounds. If we 
nppose that Hashmannim is a proper name and signi- 



fies IlermopoUtes, the mention might be explained by 
the circumstance that Hermopolis Magna was the great 
dty of the Egyptian Hermes, Thoth, the god of wisdom ; 
and the meaning might therefore be that even the tcigett 
Egyptians should come to the Temple, as well as the 
distant Cushites. — Smith, s. v. We may add that the 
name Ilaamoneany which was given to the Maccabees or 
Jewish princes in the interval between the O. and N. T., 
was, it is supposed, derived from Hashmannim (Heng- 
stenberg, Psalms, ii, 869).— Kitto, s. v. 

Haahino'nah (Heb. Chashmmah'j n3i^^n,/a^ 
ness; Sept. 'AawfuavatV, r. 'AfftXfiUivd and ScX|/u>va), 
the thirtieth station of the Israelites 'during their wan- 
dering, situated not far from Mount Hor (Moseroth), in 
the direction of the desert (Nurab. xxxiii, 29, 30) ; ap- 
parently near the intersection of wady el-Jerafeh with 
wady el-Jeib, in the Arabah. See Exodk. 

Ha'shnb (Heb. Chashskub'f n^trtl, intelligent; Sept. 
'A(Tov/3, in Neh. xi, 1 5 *Aaaovp^ in 1 Chron. ix, 14 ' Affi^/3 ; 
Yulg. Ilasubj in 1 Chron. ix, 14 Ilassub), the name of 
two or three men about the time of tlie return from 
Babylon. 

1. A Levite of the family of Merari, son of Azrikam 
and father of Shemaiah, which last was one of those 
resident in the *^ villages of the Netophathites,*' and 
having general oversight over the Temple (Neh. xi, 15; 
1 Chron. ix, 14, in wliich latter passage the name is 
more accurately Anglicized " Hasslmb"). B.C. ante 440. 

2. A person who repaired part of the walls of Jerusa- 
lem opposite his house (Neh. ill, 21) ; perhaps the same 
with the foregoing. RC. 446. 

3. *• Son" of Pahath-Moab, and one of those who re- 
paired part of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 1 1 ) . RC. 
446. He is probably the same with one of the chief 
Israelites who joined in the sacred covenant of Nehemi- 
ah (Neh. x, 23) B.C. cir. 410. 

Hashu'bah (Heb. Chashubah^ nirn, esteemed, a 
Chaldaizing form for atOT; Sept, 'Affe/3a,Vulg.//aia- 
ban), one ot the five sons (exclusive of Zcrubbabel) of 
Pedalah, the descendant of David (1 Chron. iii, 20) ; 
not of Zerubbabel, as at first appears (see Strong's Har- 
mony and Expos, of the Gospels, p. 17). RC. cir. 536. 

Ha'ahnm (Heb. Chashum', Qdn, opulent; Sept. 

AtTovfi, *A(rr}fi, 'H<Ta/ii, 'Q(t«/i, 'Hto/i), the name ap- 
parently of two or three men about the time of the Cap- 
tivity. 

1. An Israelite whose posterity (or rather, perhaps, a 
place whose inhabitants), to the number of 223 males, 
or 828 in all, returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel 
(Ezra ii, 19; Neh. vii, 22); some of whom afterwards 
divorced their Gentile wives (Ezra x, 83). The asso- 
ciated names seem to indicate a locality in the north- 
western part of the territory of Benjamin. RC. ante 
536. 

2. One of those who stood at Eznfs left hand while 
he was reading the law to the people (Neh. viii, 4); 
probably the same with one of the chief of the people 
who subscribed Nehemiah's covenant (Neh. x, 18). RC 
cir. 410. 

Haahu'pha (Neh. vii, 46). See Hasupiia. 

HaskeU, Daniel, a Congregational minister, was 
bom at Preston, Conn., June, 1784. He graduated at 
Yale College, 1802 ; was installed pastor in Burlington, 
Vt., April 10, 1810, where he remained until 1821, when 
he was made president of the University of Vermont, 
He resigned this office in 1824, and died Aug. 9, 1848. 
Mr. HaskeU published an ordination sermon (1814) ; M-ith 
the assistance of J. C. Smith, A Gazetteer of the United 
States (1843, 8vo) ; Chronological Vieio of the World 
(1845, 12mo) ; and a few occasional discourses. He also 
edited McCulloch*s Geographical Dictionar>', published 
by the Har[>ers (1843^44) . --Sprague, vIrim)/^, ii, 526. 

See AsMON.<i£AN. 



Haapeya (d<*i&On), a river and town of Palestine 



HASRAH 



96 



HATTEMTST8 



near Lebanon, mentioned in the Talmud (Demay^ ii) ; 
according to Schwarz {Pakst, p. 65), identical with the 
modem Arabic Korom, near the source of the Jordan; 
evidently the modem Hcubna, an important place in 
that region (Robinson, ReteardieB, new ed. iii, sk)). 

Has'rah (Heb. Chasrah't ITItpn, poverty; Sept. 'Ecr- 
ffipi V. r. 'Apaff, Vulg. Jlcura), the father (or mother) of 
Tikbath, and grandfather of Shallum, which last was 
husband of liuldah the prophetess (2 Chron. xxxiv, 22). 
The parallel passage (2 Kings xxU, 14) gives the name, 
prob. by transposition, in the form Haruas (Dn*in^ 

Sept. 'Apac, Vulg. A racu). Hasrah is said to have been 
" keeper of the wardrobe," perhaps the sacerdotal vest- 
ments ; if, indeed, that epithet does not rather refer to 
Shallum. B.C considerably ante 623. 

See Assassins. 
), Friedrich Rudolf, a German theologian, 
was bom at Dresden June 29, 1808. After studying at 
Leipzic and Berlin, he established himself, in 1834, at 
the univeruty of the latter city as privatdocerU ; in 1836 
he became extraordinary professof of Church History at 
the University of Greifswald, and in 1841 ordinary pro- 
fessor at the University of Bonn. Subeequentl}' he was 
also appointed consistorial councillor. He died m 1862. 
His principal work is the excellent monograph Anselm 
von CanteHwry (Leips. 1843-52, 2 vols.), one of the best 
works of this class, and which had the merit of causing 
a more scientific treatment of the history of scholasti- 
cism. His Gtickichte des alten Bundes (Leips. 1863) is 
a course of lectures, and, as such, is meritorious. Hu 
Kirchengeschichte was published after his death by Koh- 
ler (Leips. 1864, 3 vols.). See Krafft, F, S, Haste (Bonn, 
1865) ; StudUin u. Kritkien, 1867, p. 823. 

Hasaena'ah (Neh. iii, 3). See Sbnaaii. 

Has'shnb (1 Chron. ix, 14). See Hashub. 

Hasu'plia (Heb. Chatupha^ K&^isn, uncovered f 
Sept. 'Affov^a, *Aau^d ; Vulg. JIarupha), one of the 
Nethinim whose descendants returned from Babylon 
with Zembbabel (Ezra ii, 43 ; Neh. vii, 46, in which lat- 
ter passage the name is less correctly Anglicized ^Hash- 
vphaT). KC. ante 536. 

Hat is the rendering of the Eng. Bible for the Chald. 
K^a^iS {]carhela\ according to Gesenius from ^^*^3, to 
gird or dothe, as in 1 Chron. xv, 27), a mcaUle or pal- 
lium (Dan. iii, 21 ; marg. '' turbans"). See Dress. 

Ha'tach (Heb. Haihakfj "^nri, perhaps from Persic, 
verify ; Sept. 'Apxn^atoc,Vulg. A thach), one of the eu- 
nuchs in the palace of Xerxes, appointed to wait on Es- 
ther, whom she employed in her communications with 
Mordecai (Esth. iv, 5, 6, 9, 10). RC. 474. 

Hatchment, a word corrapted from achievemad, 
and signifying, in heraldry, the armorial bearings of any 
person fully emblazoned with shield, crest, supporters, 
etc The word is used in England for the escutcheon 
hung up over a door after a funeral, and often in the 
church. Heraldry is thus supposed to have been for- 
merly connected with religion. The coat was said to be 
assumed with religious feeling, and at length restored to 
the sanctuary, in token of thankful acknowledgment to 
Almighty God.-— Farrar, Ecdes, Dictionary, s. v. 

Hate (properly KSiS, /iifflin), to regard with a pas- 
sion contrary to love (Jer. xliv, 4). God's hatred is to- 
wards all sinful thoughts and ways. It is a feeling of 
which all holy beings are conscious in view of sin, and 
b wholly unlike the hatred which is mentioned in the 
Scriptures among the works of the flesh (GaL v, 20). 
See Anger. When the Hebrews compared a stronger 
affection with a weaker one, they called the first hce^ 
and the other hatred, meaning to love in a less degree 
— " Jacob have I loved, and Eisau have I hated" (Rom. 
ix, 13) ; L e. on Jacob have I bestowed privileges and 
blessings such as are the proofs of affection ; I have 
tzeated him as one treats a friend whom he loves; but 



from Esau have I withheld these privikges and ble»* 
ings, and therefore treated him aa one is wont to treat 
those whom he dblikes. That this refers to the bestofw- 
ment of temporal blessings, and the withholding of them, 
is clear, not only from this passage, but from comparing 
MaLi,2,3; G€n.xxv,23; xxvii,27-29,87-40. Indeed, 
as to kaiedf its meaning here is rather privative thaa 
positive, SO) *' If a man have two wives, one beloved 
and another hated" (Deut. xxi, 15) ; L e. less beloved. 
When our Saviour says that he wlio would follow him 
must hcste father and mother, he means that even these 
dearest earthly friends must be loved in a subordinate 
degree ; so, in the same sense, the follower of Christ is 
to hate his own life, or be willing to sacrifice it for the 
love and service of the Redeemer (Gen. xxix, 80 ; Dent, 
xxi, 16; Prov. xiii, 24; Matt vi, 24; x, 37; Luke xiv, 
26 ; xvi, 13 ; John xii, 25) Bastow. See Love. 

Ha'thath (Heb. Ckathath', nrn, terror, as in Job 
vi, 21 ; Sept 'A^a3), son of Othniel aAd grandson of 
Kenaz, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. iv, 13), conse- 
quently also grand-nephew and grandson of Caleb, son 
of Jephunneh (see ver. 15, and comp. Judg* i, 13). B.C. 
post 1612. 

Hat'ipba [many HaH'pka] (Hebrew ChaHpka\ 
»fc*^I3n, captured; Sept 'An^a, 'Arufa), one of the 
Nethinim whose posterity returned from Babylon with 
Zembbabel (Ezra ii, 54 ; Neh. vii, 56). RC. ante 536. 

Hat'ita [some HaH'ta] (Heb. Chatita', K^'^ISH, 
exploration; Sept 'Arira), one of the "porters" (i. e. 
Levitical Temple -/amfora) whose posterity returned 
from Babylon with Zembbabel (Ezra ii, 42; Neh. vii. 
45). B.C. anto 536. 

Hatai ham-Mennohotli (nnnaisn *isr|, Ckat- 
si', etc., midst of the resting-places; Sept *E<wi 'Afifia^ 
vi^, Vulg. dimidium requietionum, Eng. Vers, **half of 
the Manahethites," marg. " half of the Menuchites," or 
** Hatsiham-Menuchoth"), one of the two sons of Sho- 
bal, the "father" of Kirjath-Jearim (I Chron. ii, 52) ; 
whence the patronymic for his descendants, Hatsi-hax- 
Manachthites C'Finaan *^^n, Sept ^/uav r»7c Ma- 
va^,Yu\g, dimidium reguietionis, Eng.Yers. "half of the 
Manahethites," or " hidf of the Menuchites*^, in verse 
54. B.C. between 1612 and 1098. See MENCrcumE. 

Hat-Temarixn. See Ir-hat-Temarik, 

Hat-Taavab. See Kibboth-hat-Taavah. 

Hat-Ticon. See Ha;:ar-hat-Tioo27. 

ISattem, Poktiax van. See Hattemists. 

Hattemiflts, a Dutch sect, named from Pontianns 
van Hattem, a minister in Zealand towards the dose of 
the 18th century, who imbibed the sentiments of Spino- 
za, and was degraded from the pastoral office. He wrote 
a treatise on the Heidelberg Cateclusm. The Yerscho- 
rists (q. V.) and Hattemists resemble each other, though 
Van Hattem tried in vain to unite the Verschorists 
with his own followers. "The founders of these secta 
followed the doctrine of absolute decrees into its farthest 
logical results ; they denied the difference between moral 
good and evil, and the coimption of human nature ; from 
whence they further concluded that the whole of rdigion 
consisted, not in acting, but in suffering; and that all the 
precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this one — ^that 
we bear with cheerfulness and patience the events that 
happen to us through the divine will, and make it our 
constant and only study to maintain a perfect tranquil- 
lity of mind. Thus far they agreed ; but the Hattem* 
ists further affirmed that Christ made no expiation for 
the sins of men by his death, but had only suggested to 
us, by his mediation, that there was noting in us that 
could offend the Deity : this, they say, waa Christ's man* 
ner of justifying hisservanta,aiid presenting them blame- 
less before the tribunal of God. It was one of their die- 
tinguishing tenets that God does not punidi meajbr 
their sins, but by their sins."— See MoflheiiiH Ck, History 



HATTIL 



W 



HAURAN 



cent xTii, ate ii, pL ii, ch. ii ; Buck, Theological DicHon^ 
cay, B, V. ; Paquot, Memoires pour sertfir a Vhiitoire des 
Paga-Basy iz, 96-98; Uoefer, Nouvdk Biog. Generale, 
sxiii,539. 

Hat'ta(Heb.Ciiatfi?',b'^Bn,war»i^; Sept-'ArriX, 

'BiTifX), one of the descendants of" Solomon^s sen'ants" 
|Le.pcrh.GibeonitLsh Temple sUves), whose posterity 
feturned from Babylon with Zembbabel (Ezra ii, 57 ; 
Neh. vii, 59.) B.a ante 536. 

Hatto, bishop of Basel, was bom 763, made bishop in 
805, and abbot of Keicheoau in 806^ He was employed 
by Cfaariemagne in an embassy to the Greek emperor 
IHcephonis, to settle the boundaries of both empirea 
Having, in 823, laid aside his titles and dignities, he died 
in 836 as a simple monk at Reichenau. Two of his 
works have descended to us : Z^e vinone WeUini (Visions 
of iw dUciple Wettin on those suffering in Purgatory 
and on the Glory of Saints, done into verses by Walafrid 
Strabo, and printed in Mabillon, Acta S, Bened. iv, 1, 
273); 26 co/n^a (/>Uc*en; i,584).— Herzog,i2ca/-£>iey- 
UopoAe, 8. T. ; Clarke, Succession of Sac, Liter, ii, 471. 
(J.N. P.) 

Hatto or Otho I, tenth archbishop of Mentz. 
The time and place of his birth are unknomi. In 888 
he succeeded Budolf as abbot of Reichenau, then one of 
the richest monasteries in Germany. He was in such 
lavor with king Amulf— thanks to his skill and utter 
want of principle — that he is said to have held at the 
same time eleven other abbeys. In 891 he was elected 
archbishop of Mentz: here he built a church to St. 
Geoige, having obtained the head and another part of 
the body of the saint from pope Formosus ! In August^ 
895, he presided at the GouncU of Tribur, where the em- 
peior ami 22 bishops were present. They voted 58 can- 
ons, m<»tly for the repression of crime. The 8th canon 
gives an idea of the power Rome held even at that pe- 
riod over the German churches : Jlonoremus sanctum ro- 
mojutm €t apostolicam aedem, ut qua nobis sacerdotalis 
mater esi d^stiiatiSf debeat esse magisira ecdesiasticce ra- 

iioms quare, Ucet vixjerendum ab ilia saacta 

sede ia^nmatur jugum,conferamus et pia devoHone toler' 
cButc After Louis*s death, in October, 911, Hatto was 
letuned in the council of his auccessor, Conrad. Hav- 
ing departed on a journey to Rome, March 13, 913, he 
died a few days after of fever, according to one account ; 
but, aooording to others, he was killed at the battle of 
Ueresburg in January, 918. — Hoefer, Nouv, Biog. Gene- 
rait, xxiii, 539 sq. ; Mabillon, Acta Sonet. Ord. Bened, 
vu,118. (J.N. P.) 

Hatto or Otho H, sumamed Bonose, 15th arch- 
Inshop of Mentz. He was abbot of Fulda, and, at the 
death of archbishop William of Saxony, March 2, 968, 
was appointed his successor by Emperor Otho T. Hatto 
died in 969. The Magdeburg Centuries state that he 
was eaten alive by rats as a punishment for his avarice, 
and because he had, during a famine, compared the poor 
to these animals ; and he is the subject of the well-known 
legend of the Rat Tower on the Rhine. — See Gallia 
CkrisHoKa^ v, coL 456; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, 
xxiii, 541. (J. N. P.) 



/tnah (Heb. Chattusk'y ^r^n, prob. assembled 
[FURst, eoniendery, Sept. 'Arrovc* but XtrrovQ in 1 
Chroo. iii, 22, and v. r. Aarrovc in Ezra viii, 2), the 
name of several men about or after the time of the rc- 
temfrom Babylon. 

1. A priest who returned to Jerusalem with Zemb- 
babel (Neh. xii, 2). B.C. 536. 

2. A descendant of David who accompanied Ezra to 
Jeraaalem (Ezrm viii, 2). AC. 459. See No. 5. 

3. Son of Hashabniah, and one of those who rebuilt 
the walla of Jerusalem (Neh. iii, 10). B.C. 446. He 

possibly the same with No. 2. 

4. One of the priests who united in the sacred cove- 
with Nehemiah (Neh. x, 4). B.C. cir. 410. 

5. Ooe of the sons of Shemalah, among the posterity 



of Zembbabel (1 Chron. iii, 22), and contemporary with 
the Nagge of Luke iii, 25 (see Strong's Harm, and Ax- 
pos, of the Gospels, p. 17). B.C. somewhat post 406. 
By some he is identified with No. 2 above, reading Ezra 
viii, 2 (after the (Sept) thus : " of the sons of Da\4d : 
Hattush. of the sons of Shechaniah." This, however, 
is not only forbidden by other chronological notices [see 
Darius ; Zerl'bbabbl], but rests on the too slender 
support for the genuineness of the text itself in ques- 
tion ; where, as in ver. 5, we may suppose that a name 
is missing, or that the name Shechaniah itself has crept 
in from the latter verse, since it appears nowhere else 
as that ofafamilv head See Shkghanlvh. 

Hatigeans (Hangeanere). Hans Nielsen Hauge 
was bom in Norway April 3, 1771. He had strong relig- 
ious impressions in youth, which produced a gloomy state 
of mind. But in 1795 he passed through a change which 
filled him with joy. Ever after, amid all vicissitudes, 
he was a cheerful Christian. He soon began to preach, 
and made a powerful impression on the public mind. He 
travelled extensively in Norway and Denmark, wrote 
many tracts, and in 1804 established a printing-office in 
Chrlstiansand to disseminate his sentiments. He ob- 
tained many followers, but finally, through the influence 
of the clergy, was punished with a heavy fine and im- 
prisonment. After this he lived in retirement till his 
death in 1824. In doctrine, Hauge differed from evan- 
gelical Protestants in general in but few pomts: e. g. he 
held that the ministry is a common duty, and that spe- 
cially ordained and separated ministers are unnecessary' ; 
also that Church creeds and Confessions are of no great 
account. He properly placed great stress upon faith and 
its effects, but it was in a one-sided way. Nevertheless, 
his laliors contributed largely to the revival of evangel- 
ical religion. The party called Haugeans is still numer- 
ous in Norway: they contend against the laxness of 
Church discipline and against Rationalism, and have 
much influence with the people. See Hase, Church Hist, 
p. 547 ; Grcgoire, Hist, des Sectes Relig. t. v. ; Stfiudlin 
and Tschimer, A rchiv, /, Kirchengeschichte, ii, 854; Ha- 
genbach. Hist, of the Church in ISth and I9th Centuries, 
transl. by Hurst, ii, 389 ; Stud, w. Kritiken, 1849, p. 749 sq. 

Han'ran (Heb. Chavran% Tj^in ; Sept. Aupavinc 
and 'QpavXriQ, the AvranUis of Josephus and others, 
the Hauran of the Arabs, so called prob. from the mul- 
titude of caves, "tin, found there, which even at the 
present day serve as dwellings for the inhabitants), a 
tract or region of Syria, south of Damascus, east of 
Gaulonitis (Golan) and Bashan, and west of Trachoni- 
tis, extending from the Jabbok to the territory of Da- 
mascene-Syria; mentioned only in Ezek. xlvii, 16, 18, 
in defining the north-eastern border of the Promised 
Land. It was probably of small extent originally, but 
received extensive additions from the Romans imder 
the name o{ Auranitis. Josephus frequently mentions 
Auranitis in connection with Trachonitis, Batamea, and 
Gaulonitis, which with it constituted the ancient king- 
dom of Bashan {War, i, 20, 4; ii, 17, 4). It formed 
part of that Tpaxn^viTioog X'^P^ referred to by Luke 
(iii, 1) as subject to Philip the tetrarch (com p. Joseph. 
Ant, xvii, 11,4). It is bounded on the west by Gaulo- 
nitis, on the north by the wild and rocky district of 
Trachonitis, on the east by the mountainous region of 
Batansa, and on the south by the great plain of Moab 
(Jer. xlviii, 21). Some Arab geographers have de- 
scribed the Hauran as much more extensive than here 
stated (Bohaed. Vit, SaL ed. Schtdt. p. 70 ; Abulfed. Tab. 
Sgr, s. V.) ; and at the present day the name is applied 
by those at a distance to the whole country east of Jau- 
Ian; but the inhabitants themselves define it as above. 
It is represented by Burckhardt {Travels i/t Syria, p. 
51, 211, 285, 291) as a volcanic region, composed of po- 
rous tufa, pumice, and basalt, with the remains of a cra- 
ter on the tell Shoba, which is on its eastern border. It 
produces, however, crops of com, and has many patches 
of luxuriant herbage, which are frequented in summef 



HAURANNE 



98 



HAVEN 



hy the Arab tribes for pasturage. The surface is pa^ 
fectly flat| and not a stone is to be seen save on the 
few low volcanic telis that rise up here and there like 
islands in a sea. It contains upwards of a hundred 
towns and villages, roost of them now deserted, though 
not ruined. The buildings in many of these arc re- 
markable, the waUs are of great thickness, and the roofs 
and doors are of stone, evidently of remote antiquity 
(see Porter's Five Yean in Damxuau, voL ii). Accord- 
ing to £. Smith (in Robinson's Researches^ iii, Append, 
p. 150-157), the modem pro\ince of Hauran is regarded 
by the natives as consisting of three parts, called en- 
Nukrah, e/-/>/aA, and el-JebeL The first of these terms 
designates the plain of Hauran as above defined, ex- 
tending through its whole length, from wady el-Ajam 
on the north to the desert on the south. On the west 
of it is Jeidur, Jaulan, and Jebcl Ajlun ; and on the east 
the Lejah and Jebel Hauran. It has a gentle imdulat- 
ing surface, is arable throughout, and, in general, very 
fertile. With the rest of Hauran, it is the granary of 
Damascus. The soil belongs to the government, and 
nothing but grain is cultivated. Hardly a tree appears 
anywhere. The region still abounds in caves, which 
the old inhabitants excavated partly to serve as cisterns 
for the collection of water, and partly for granaries in 
w^hich to secure their grain from plunderers. Eshmis- 
kin is considered the capital of the whole Hauran, being 
the residence of the chief of all its sheiks. The inhab- 
itants of this district are chiefly Muslcms, who in man- 
ners and dress resemble the Beilawln, but there is a 
sprinkling also of professed Christians, and latterly of 
the Druses (Murray's Handbook^ p. 499). The second 
division, or el-Lejah, lying east of the Nukrah and 
north of the mountains, has an elevation about the same 
as that of the Nukrah, but it is said to be almost a com- 
plete labyrinth of ])assages among rocks. The Lejah is 
the resort of several small tribes of Bedawln, who make 
it their home, and who continually issue forth from 
their rocky fastnesses on predatory excursions, and at- 
tack, plunder, or destroy, as suits their purpose. They 
have had the same character from a very remote pe- 
riod. The thinl divbion is the mountain of Hauran, 
and appears from the north-west, as an isolated range, 
with the conical peak called Kelb and Kuleib Hauran 
(the dog)y which is probably an extinct volcano, near 
its southern extremity. But from the neighborhood of 
Busrah it is discovered that a lower continuation ex- 
tends southward as far as the eve can see. On this 
lower range stands the castle of Sulkhad, distinctly seen 
from Busrah. This momitain is perhaps the Alsada- 
mus of Ptolemy. (See Lightfoot, Op. i, 316; ii, 474; 
Reland, Palatt. p. 190; Joum, of Sac Lit, July, 1854; 
Graham, in Joum, Roy, Geol. Sac, 1858, p. 254; Porter, 
Handbook, ii, 507 ; Stanley, Jewish Church, i, 213.) 

Hanranne. See Dia'ergier. 

Hanamaim, Nicolaus, an intimate friend of Lu- 
ther, and the reformer of the city of Zwickau and the 
duchy of Anhalt, was bom in 1479 at Freiberg. He be- 
came at first preacher at Schneeberg, subsequently at 
Zwickau, where he had man}*- and severe controversies 
with the adherents of Thomas Munzer. In 1532 he was 
appointed pastor of Dessau, having been warmly recom- 
mended by Luther. In 1538 he accepted a call as su- 
l^erintendent to his native town Freiberg, but while 
preaching his first sermon (Nov. G) he was stmck with 
apoplexy, which caused his immediate death. Luther 
deeply bemoaned his death, and praised him as a man 
of profound piety. Two opinions of Hausmann on the 
reformation in Zwickau have been published by Prellcr 
(Z(dt8chriJ}/ur die higtorische Theoloffie, 1852). See O. 
0. Schmidt, Xic, Hausmann, der Freund Luthers (Lpz. 
1860). (A. J. S.) 

Hantefage, Jbax, a French Roman Catholic theo- 
logian, was bom at Puy Morin, near Toulouse, in 1735. 
He was educated by the Jesuits, but left them, and be- 
came a Jaoseciat. Having been ordained priest, he be- 



came vicar in a country church of the diocese of Toa« 
louse, but his opinions being suspected, he was suspend- 
ed. In 1766 he became subrector of the college of Aux- 
erre, and canon of that city, but his Jansenistic views 
caused him to be again persecuted, and in 1773 he was 
condemned to be whipped, branded, and sent to hard 
labor for life. He fled, and was declared innocent by 
Parliament Jan. 25, 1776. During his exile Hautcfage 
had travelled through Southern Europe in company yniYk 
another abbot, Duparc de Bellegarde, preaching his doc- 
trines everywhere^ ^^'bile at Lausanne in 1775 and the 
followmg years, they published CEuvren d'Antome Ar- 
nauld (42 vols. 4to). Ailer his return to Paris, Haute* 
fage pnblbhed an abridgment of the Institution et /i»- 
struction chretiennes (1785, 12mo), and the 8d part of the 
Nouvelles eccletiastiqves, 1761-1790 (1791, 4to). During 
the Revolution, and witil his death, Feb. 18, 1816, he de- 
voted himself to teaching. See Sihy, Eloffe de M. Vahbi 
Ilautefage (Paris, 1816, 8vo) ; Darbier, JHct, des Anony-^ 
mes ; Hoefer, Nouv, Biog, Generate, xxiii, 574. 

Havelock, Hrnrv, an eminent English soldier and 
Christian, was bom at Bishop Wearmouth in 1795. He 
was educated under the Rev. J. Bradley, curate of Dart- 
ford, Kent, until 1804, when he was sent to the Chaiter- 
house. In 1814 he became a pupil of Chitty, the great 
special pleader of the day, to study law ; but in the fol- 
lo^nng year he followed his brother William into the 
army, and was appointed to the Rifle Brigade, then the 
95th. After serving in England, Ireland, and Scotland, 
Havelock embarked for India in 1828. To serve in that 
part of the world was his own choice, for which he had 
qualified himself by studying Hindostanee and Persian 
before leaving England. During the voj^age a great 
change passed on his religions views, and on arri\dng 
with his regiment in India, ho determined to devote his 
attention to the spiritual welfare of his men, and to as* 
semble them together, as opportunity afforded, for read- 
ing the Scriptures and devotional exercises, which he 
continued to do throughout the whole of his after ca« 
rcer. In 1841 he was appointed Persian interpreter to 
general Elphinstone, and took put in the memorable 
defence of Jellalabad. On the completion of the works, 
Havelock suggested to general Sale to assemble the gar- 
rison and give thanks to Almighty God, who had ena- 
bled them to complete the fortifications necessary for 
their protection. ** The suggestion was approved, and 
the command given. * Let us pray,* said a well-known 
voice. It was Havelock^s. ' Let us pray !' and down be- 
fore the presence of the great God those soldiers rever- 
ently bowed, one and all of them, whilst at the impulse 
of a devout and grateful heart he poured forth supplica- 
tion and praise in the name of the Great High-Priest.** 
This incident is an illustration of Havelock^s religioua 
life during the whole of his military career. In the 
great Indian rebellion of 1857 he distinguished himself 
by a series of the most brilliant achievements in the an- 
nals of warfare ; but stiU he was distinguished most by 
his personal piety, which shone resplendently amid the 
horrors of war. He died of d^^sentery at Alumbagh, 
Nov. 25, 1857, one day before the atmouncement of his 
elevation to the baronetcy under the title " Havelock of 
Lucknow," which was inherited by his eldest son, Heoiy 
Marshman Havelock (bom 1830). He wrote. History 
of the Ava Campair/ns (London, 1827) : — Memoir of the 
Afghan Campniffn (I/>nd. 1841). See Brock, Bioffraph" 
ical Sketch of Uarelock (Lond. 18.58, 12mo) ; Marshman, 
Memoir* of Sir /fenry Havelock (Lond. 1868). 

Haven (r|in, ch/iph, Gen. xliv, 13, a aesrside or 
"coast," as elsewhere rendered; Tin^, machdz', a ref- 
Vffe, hence a harbor, Psa. cvii, 30 ; Xiftfjv, Acts xxvii, 12), 
The Phcenician part of the coast of Pidestine had sev- 
eral fine harbors [see Phcknicia], and some such were 
also in possession of the Hebrews: such were Csssarea 
and Joppa (i\. v. severally), which were especially made 
use of for coastwise communication (1 Mace, xlv, 5,34( 
Josephus, Ant. xv, 9, 6). The port (D^ KiS^) of Ty« 






HAVENS 



99 



HAVILAH 



(q.T.) was the moet famous on the whole Mediterranean 
shore (Ezek. xxvii, 3). A harbor is called K'^pK in 
Chaldee, abo in Samaritan.^ — ^Winer, i, 454. See Navi- 

OATIOX. 

The Cretan harbor called Fair Havens (q. y.), KoXoc 
Aifiimct is inddentally mentioned in the N. T. (Acts 
xsrii, 8). See Crete. 

Havens, Jamies, a minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, was bom in Mason Co., Ky., December 26, 
1793. At eighteen he received license to preach, and in 
1820 be entered the travelling ministry in the Ohio Con- 
ference. He served twelve years in circuits, and twen- 
ty-four as presiding elder. Possessing a strong consti- 
tution and vigorous intellect, he taxed them both to the 
utmost in remedying the defects of his early education, 
and in making ^ full proof of his ministry." He became 
one of the most powerful preachers of his time, and con- 
tributed perhaps as much as any other man to build up 
the Church in the West, especially in Indiana, where 
the list forty years of his life were spent. He died in 
November, 1864.— Jftnu/e* of Coirftrences, 1865, p. 190. 

Hlvemick, Heixrich Andreas Christopii, a 
German theologian, was bom at Kroplin, in Mecklen- 
burg, in 1805. He studied at Halle, and was one of 
the two rtadents whose notes on the theological lec- 
tures of Wegscheider and Gesenius were used to insti- 
tute a trial against those prominent champions of 
Rationalism. At the Univigsity of Berlin he closely 
attached himself to Hengstenberg. In 1834 he estab- 
lished himself as pritfcUdocent at Rostock, and in 1841 
he became ordinary professor of theology at Kdnigs- 
beig. He died in 1845 at New Strelitz. The exegetical 
works of HSvemick are counted among the most learn- 
ed of the orthodox school. The most important of 
them are Commentar. Uber dcu Buck Daniel (Hamburg, 
1832) i—3relanges de (Aeologie reformee (Geneva, 1883 
sq.) •.—//a>Ki&uc& der hist.-krit. Ehdeitung in das A, T, 
(Eriangen, 1836-39, 2 vols. ; 2d ed. by Keil, 1849-54) :— 
Neue Krit^ UrUersuchungen «. das Buck Daniel (Hamb. 
1838) :^Commentar xum Buche Ezekiel; Vorlesungen H. 
dTAtfo^o^dM^.r. (ed.byHahn,Frankf.l848; 2ded. 
by Schultz, Frankf. 1863). Translations : Gen, Introd, to 
0, T. (Edinb. 1852) ; Introd. to the Pentateuch (Edmb. 
1850). 

HaT^Uah (Heb. Chamlah% rib'^'^n, signif. unknown; 
Sept. EvtXa, but El/etXd in Gen. x, 29, E^cXdr in Gen. 
ii, 11, and Ewe in 1 Chron. i, 29 ; Vulg. Ifeuikty but Ileuir 
lath in Gen. ii, 11), the name of two or three regions; 
perhaps also of two men (RC. cir. 2400). 

1. A land rich in gold, bdellium, and shoham, men- 
tioned in Gen. ii, 11, as flowed around (or through) by 
the river Pishon, in the geographical description of Par- 
adise. Some identify this Havilah with one of those 
foUowing; but others take it to be the Chwala, on the 
Caspian Sea, whence that sea itself is said to have de- 
rived the Russian name of Chwaltnskoy more (Sea of 
Chwala) ; and others suppose it a general name for In- 
dia, in which case the river Pison, mentioned as sur- 
rounding it, would be identified with the Ganges, or 
even the Indus. Others again, who regard the Pishon 
as the PhasLs, make Havikh to be Colchis, for which 
some think there b the distinctive name in Scripture 
of the "Caaluhim'' (q. v.). In Gen. ii, 11, 12, it is fur- 
ther described as the land where the best gold was 
found, and which was, besides, rich in the treasures of 
the bedolaeh and the stone shoham. That the name is 
derived from some natural peculiarity is evident from 
the presence of the article with all the terms. AVhat- 
ever maybe the trae meaning of bedolach^he it carbun- 
cle, cry^^al, bdellium, ebony, pepper, cloves, berj'l, pearl, 
diamond, or emerald, all critics detect its presence, un- 
der one or other of these forms, in the country which 
they select as the Havilah most appropriate to their 
own theory. As little difficulty is presented by the 
thohfSM : call it onyx, sardonyx, emerald, sapphire, 
keiyl, or sardius, it would be hard indeed if some of 



these precious stones could not be found in any conceiv- 
able locality to support even the most far-fetched and 
improbable conjecture. That Havilah is that part of 
India through which the Ganges flows, and, more gen- 
erally, the eastern region of the earth ; that it is t/.> be 
found in Susiana (Ilopkinson), in Ava (Buttmann), or 
in the Ural region (Kaumer), are conclusions necessarily 
following upon the assumptions with regard to the Pi- 
son. Hartmann, Reland, and Rosenmtiller are in favor 
of Colchis, the scene of the legend of the Golden Fleece. 
The Phasis was said to flow over golden sands, and gold 
was carried down by the mountain-torrents (Strabo. xi, 
2, § 19). The crystal (bedolacA) of Scythia was re- 
nowned (Solinus, c. xx), and the emeralds (sitokam) of 
this country were as for superior to other emeralds as 
the latter were to other precious stones (Pliny, Ifist, 
Nat. xxxvii, 17), all which seems to prove that Havilah 
was Colchis. RosenmUller argues, with much force, (/* 
the Phasis be the Pison, the land of Havilah must be 
Colchis, supposing that by this country the Hebrews 
had the idea of a Pontic or Northern India. In like 
manner Leclerc, having previously determined that the 
Pison must be the Chr^'sorrhoas, finds Havilah not far 
from Oele-Syria. Hasse {Kntdeck. p. 49, 50, quoted by 
Rosenmllller) compares Havilah with the 'YXai'a of 
Herodotus (iv, 9), in the neighborhood of the Arimas- 
pians, and the dragon which guarded the land of gold. 
Discussions about the site or Ilavilah will be found in 
all the chief Biblical commentators ancient and rood- 
em, as well as in Hottinger (Ktmeus Dissert.), Huct 
{De Lit. Farad.), Bochart {Phaletj, ii, 28), Michaelis 
(Spicileffium, p. 202 ; Supplem, p. 685), Schultess (Par- 
adies, p. 105), Niebuhr and many other writers. The 
clearest and best account of any may be derived from 
Kalisch (Genesis, p. 93, 249, 287, etc!), who also gives 
a long list of those who have examined the subject (p. 
109-102). — Smith, s. v. ; Kitto, s. v. The Paradisaic 
Havilah cannot well be identified with cither of those 
mentioned below, since they were evidently in or near 
Arabia; and the associated regions in the Edcnic ac- 
count are all in the neighborhood of Armenia or Ara- 
rat, near the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates. The 
mo3t consistent conclusion, therefore, Ij that which lo- 
cates the Havilah in question at the north-eastern cor- 
ner of Asia Minor, i. e. substantially Colchis. See Pisosr. 
2. A district in Arabia Felix, deriving its name from 
the second son of Cush (Gen. x, 7) ; or, according to 
others, from the second son of Joktan (Gen. x, 29 ; com- 
pare XXV, 18). Siiice in the other places where the 
word occurs it is always use<l to designate a country, 
some doubt whether />er«on« of this name ever existed; 
the more so as other names of countries (Ophir, Miz- 
raim, Canaan, Sidon), and the collective names of tribes 
(Kittim, Dodanim), are freely introduced into the gen- 
ealogy, which is undoubtedly arranged with partial 
reference to geographical distribution, as well as direct 
descent [see Sheba; Dedan, etc.] (see Kalisch, Cenc- 
sis, p. 287). On this supposition it is not difficult to 
account for the fact that the people of Havilah appear 
as descendants both of the Hamites and of the Shemites. 
If they were originally of Shemitic extraction (and on 
this point we have no data which could enable us to 
decide), we must suppose that by peaceful emigration 
or hostile invasion they overflowed into the territory 
occupied by Hamites, or adopted the name and habits 
of their neighbors in consequence of commerce or inter- 
marriage, and are therefore mentioned twice over by 
reason of their local position in two distinct regions. 
It would depend on circumstances whether an invading 
or encroaching tribe gave its name to or derived its name 
from the tribe it dispossessed, so that whether Havilah 
was originally Cushite or Joktanite must be a matter 
of mere conjecture; but by admitting some such princi- 
ple as the one mentioned we remove from the book of 
Genesis a number of apparent perplexities (Kalisch, 
Gen. p. 454). See Ur. To regard the repetition of the 
name as due to carelessness or error is a method of ex- 



^ 



HAVOTHJAIR 



100 



HAWES 



{Sanation which does notdespn'e the name of criticism. 
See Ham. 

Awniming, then, that the districts indicated in Gen. 
X, 7 J 29, were contenninous, if not in reality identical, 
we have to fix on their geographical position. Various 
derivations of the word have been suggested, but the 
most probable one, from bin, sand (Bochart, Pkakg, ii, 

29), is too vague to give us any assistance. Looking 
for preciser indications, we find in Gen. xxv, 18 that the 
descendants of Ishmael ^ dwelt yrom J/avilah unto Shur 
that is before Egypt an thou goest towards Assyria;** 
and in 1 Sam. xv, 7 we read that Saul " smote the Amal- 
ekites from Havilah until thou corneal to Shur that u 
over against Egypt.** Without entering into the ques- 
tion why the Amalekites are represented as possessing 
the country which formerly belonged to the Ishmael- 
ites, it is clear that these verses fix the general position 
of Havilah as a country lying somewhere to the south- 
ward and eastward of Palestine. Further than this, 
the Cushite Havilah in Gen. x, 7 is mentioned in con- 
nection with Seba, Sabtah, and Baamah ; and the Jok- 
tanite Havilah (Gen. x, 29) in connection with Ophir, 
Jobab, etc Now, as aU these places lay on or between 
the Arabian and Persian gulfs, we may infer, with tol- 
erable certainty, that Havilah *^ in both instances des- 
ignates the same country, extending at least from the 
Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast 
extent easily divided into two distinct parts** (KaUach, 
Gen, p. 98). See Shur. 

The only method of fixing more nearly the centres 
of these two divisions of Havilah is to look for some 
trace of the name yet existing. But, although Oriental 
names linger with great vitality in the regions where 
they have arisen, yet the frequent transference of names, 
caused by trade or by political revolutions, renders such 
indication very uncertain (Von Bohlen, on Gen, x, 7). 
We shall therefore content ourselves with mentioning 
that Strabo, quoting Eratosthenes, places the XavXo- 
racoi near the Nabathoei, north of the Arabian Gulf 
(Strabo, xvi, 4), and that Ptolemy ^v, 7) mentions the 
AvoXcrat, on the African coast, near Bab-el-Mandeb, the 
modem Zeylah (comp. Plin. vi, 28 ; Gesen. Thes. i, 452). 
Niebuhr also finds two Khawlans in Yemen, one a town 
between Sanaa and Mecca, the other a district some 
miles to the south-east of Sanaa {Bfsckr, Arab, p. 270, 
280; see further, Bllschung, Erdbeachr,Y, i, 601; Hi- 
chaelis, Spicilcg, i, 189; ii, 202; Forster, Geog, of Arab, 
i, 40, 41, etc). These names may very possibly he 
traces of the great Biblical country of Ha^'ilah. — Kitto, 
8. V. See Etiixology. 

The district of Kh&wlan lies between the city of Sa- 
na and the Hijaz, i. e. in the north-western portion of 
the Yemen. It took its name, according to the Arabs, 
from Khawlan, a descendant of Kahtan [see Joktax] 
{Mardaid, s. v.), or, as some say, of Kahlan, brother of 
Himyer (Caussin, Essai, i, 113, and Tab. ii). This gen- 
ealogy says little more than that the name was Joktan- 
ite; and the difference between Kahtan and Kahlan 
may be neglected, both being descendants of the first 
Joktanite settler, and the whole of these early tradi- 
tions pointing to a Joktanite settlement, without per- 
haps a distinct preservation of Joktan*s name, and cer- 
tainly none of a correct genealogy from him downwards. 

Khawlan is a fertile territory, embracing a large part 
of myrrhiferous Arabia, mountainous, with plenty of 
water, and supporting a large population. It is a tract 
of Arabia better known to both ancients and modems 
than the rest of the Yemen, and the eastern and central 
proWnccs. It adjoins Nejran (the district and town of 
that name), mentioned in the account of the expedition 
of iElius (irallus, and the scene of great persecutions of 
the Christians by Dhu-Nuwas, the last of the Tubbaas 
before the Abyssinian conquest of Arabia, in the year 
528 of our mra (compare Caussin, Estai, i, 121 sq.). — 
Smith, s. V. 

'voth-Jalr (Heb. Chatfvoth' Yafr% I'^KJ nJin, 



hamlets ofJair [L e. the enliffhtenerl; Sept. liravXui 
and Kufftai 'latp, Oat/cii^, etc ; Vulg. vicusy or vicubOf 
or Havoth Jair^ etc), the name of a settlement or di8> 
trict east of the Jordan. The word ChawaAy which oc- 
curs in the Bible in this connection only, is perhaps best 
explained by the similar term in modem AJrabic, which 
denotes a small collection of huts or hovels in a country 
place (see the citations in Gesenius, Thesaur, p. 451 ; and 
Stanley, Sinai and PaL App. § 84), such as constitutes 
an Arab village or small towiu See Topographical 
Terms. 

(1.) The earliest notice of the Havoth-jair is in Numb. 
xxxii,41, in the account of the settlement of the trans- 
Jordanic country, where Jair, son of Manasseh, is stated 
to have taken some villages (A. V. ''the small towns;** 
but there is no article in the Hebrew) of Gilead, which 
was allotted to his tribe, and to have named them after 
himself, Havvoth-jair. (2.) In Deut. iii, 14 it is said 
that Jair ''took all the tract of Argob unto the boundary 
of the Geshurite and the Maacathite, and called them 
[i. e, the places of that region] afrer his own name, Ba- 
shan-havoth-jair.*' (3.) In the records of Manasseh in 
Josh, xiii, 30, and 1 Chron. ii, 23 (A. V., in both "towns 
of Jair"), the Havvoth-jair are reckoned with other dis- 
tricts as making up sixty " cities'* (D*^*^^). In 1 Kings 

iv, 18 they are named as part of the commissariat dis- 
trict of Ben-geber, next in order to the " sixty great cit- 
ies" of Argob, as the Eng.,Vcfs. has it ; but probably the 
lattn de«gnation is only added for definitencss, and re- 
fers to the same region. (4.) No less doubtful is the 
number of the Hawoth-jair. In 1 Chron. ii, 22 1 hey are 
q)ecified as twenty-three, but in Jndg. x, 4, as thirty* — 
Smith, B. v. See Jair. 

From these statements some have inferred that there 
were two separate districts called Chav^'oth-Yur (see 
Reland, Pakest, p. 488), one in Gilead, and the other in 
Bashan (Porter, Damascus^ ii, 270) . But in order to rec- 
oncile the different passages where they are spoken of, 
it is only necessary to suppose that having first been 
captured by the original Jair when they were mere no- 
made hamlets, and but 23 in number, they were after- 
wards occupied and increased to 30 by the judge Jair, 
and that they were usually regarded ws part of the sixty 
conuderable places comprised within the general tract 
of Bashan, including Gilead. See Argob. 

Haweifl, Thomas, an English theologian, was bom 
at Truro (Cornwall) in 1784. He was first apprenticed 
to a draggist, but afterwards studied at Christ College^ 
Cambridge, and took the degree of RL. He soon after 
entered the Church, and became assistant of Madan, 
chaplain of Lock Hospital. The latter afterwards gave 
him the rectorship of All Saints (Northamptonshire) ; 
and the countess of Huntingdon gave him ako the di- 
rection of several chapels she had erected, and of her 
seminary for theological students. He became director 
of the London Missionary Society at its foundation, and 
died in 1820. He published several books of practical, 
but not of scientific value ; among them are Jlisfory of 
the Church (Lond. 1800, 8 vols. 8vo) i—Life of the Rev, 
William Romaine (Lond. 1798,8vo) instate of the Evan^ 
geUcal Religion throvfihout the World (8vo) :—The Eran- 
gdical Expositor , a Comment on the Bible (Lond. 1765, 2 
vols. foL : of little value) : — New Translation of the New 
Testament (Lond. 1795, 8vo) i — CommunicanCs Companion 
(Lond. 1763, 12mo; often reprinted): — Eifieen Sermon* 
(new ed. Oxford, 1885, 12mo). See Bose, New Gen. Btoy, 
Diet, ; Hoefer, Abur. Bioff, Ghtirale, xxiii, 624. 

Hawes, Joet^ D.D.. a Congregational minister, was 
bom in Medway, Mass., Dec. 22, 1789. His parents were 
poor, and his early opportunities of education were there- 
fore limited. After his conversion in 1807, he gave all the 
time he could spare from his trade to study, and in 1809 
he entered Broum University. During his' college course 
he supported himself chiefly by work during term time, 
and by teaching school in vacation. He graduatied A.6L 
with honor in 1813. After completing the theolon^cii 



HAWK 

nxme at Andovei (1818), he wu tcttled m putor of the 
Firat Uingregatioiul Church of Hirtrunl, ui which be 
rcuumed until lH62,when the Kev. G. H. Gould wi 
(lalkdu pastor. E>i.Hav,-es,hawever,reniunedup(u- 
tor rmtritat, preaching frequently, as hU Mrength would 
■ilmiL He died at Gilead, Coun., June S, 1067. Uii 
loog paatnratc al Hartford wu ominenlly hicccbsTuI: 
more ibui 1500 [lersons joined the Church under hia 
minisn-. The great Chnniaii enUiprisra, such as the 
Foreien Miaiion cauie. Home Hiaeions, Bible and Tract 
DiSribulion, the Christian Pttsi, Education Tor the Min- 
istiv, lay near hia heart, and occupied a verylai;^ iihare 
of his time and iabon. Hia writings were chiefly prac- 
tical, and include /xAira to Youag Mai (18-28, which 
had an immense circulaCion both in America anil ia Great 
Britain) -.—Tribatt to tkt POgrimt (1830) ;— J/emoir (ff 
Xi>rmaiidSmH/i(,lS39y^LeamoaUnicermium(^l8mo): 
CkaracieT trtr^ingfar the Young (1843) -.—The RtUg- 
ion of Ike EaU (1845) -^A n OffervigfoT Rome i/iwion- 
ona (a voltune areermons,Drwliich he gave 800 cojuei 
to the Home Mianonary Society for distribution).— /»- 
(J^MKJn/.JuDa 13, I8G7; CoHfr^sctfionaiiii', June, 1667. 

Hawk (yl, neTf, (him its swift ^^A(; ScpCU^f; 
Vulg. rae^ntrr), an English name in an altered fonn of 
the old word^vt ra folic, and in natural history repre- 
lenting KTeral genera of i^itorial birds ; ai does the 
Arabic luz, and no doubt, also, the Hebrew wft, a term 
expressive ofstrong and rapid (light, and therefore high- 
ly appropriate to the bawk: the similihty of the l^tin 
name nuuj is worthy of notice Tbe hawk ia noticed 
» an unclean bird (Lev. si, 16 ; Deut. :<lv, 15), and as 
"rtietching het wings toward the south" (Job x> ' 
38) — an espreaaion which has been variously unden 
a> TeTerring either to the migratory hibita of the 
one epeeiee alone being an excepliou to the general rule 
in this respect (Pliny, i, 9) ; or to its raoidting, ami seek- 
ing tbe warmth of the sun's rays in consequence (tio- 
chart, //teroi. iii,9) ; or, lastly, to the opinion prevalent 
in ancient times, that it was the only bird whose keei 
e}-e could bear the direct raya or the sun (ifilian, n. A 
X, 14). The hawk, though not xatgnXary in all coun- 
irire, b BO in the south of Europe and in parts of Asia 
It was common in Syria and the surrounding countries 
Id Egypt one species waa t^ardcd as sacn^j, and fre- 
qumllv appears on the ancient monuments.— Smith, 
T. Western Aaia and Lower Egypt, and consequent 
the intermediate territory of Syria and Paleatine, a 
the habitation or transitory teadence of a considerable 
mmiber of species of the order RnpUtrei, which, even in- 
dudingthe ahortest-winged, have great powers of flight, 
are remarkablj enterprising, live to a great age, are mi- 
gnlory, or folkiwen upon birds of passage, or remun in 
a r^kn so abondantly stocked with pigeon and turtle- 
dmv as lUestine, and affotding such a variety of ground 
Id bunt their particular prey, abounding as it does in 
mmntain and forest, plain, desert, marsh, river, and sea- 
tMM — EUtto, s; 7. See NiGirr-iiAuic. 

Filoonsi or the " noble" birds nf prey used for hawk- 
buc hare fix many ages been objects of great interest. 




and still cont 
Tbe FaUo co 

diffused as to occur even in New Holland and South 
America, As a type of tbe genus, we may add that it hai 
the two fbremoM qulU-realhers ot almost equal length, 
and that when the wings are closed they nearly teach 
the end of the tail On each Hde of the crooked point of 
the bill there ia an angle or prominent tooth, and from 
tbe nostrils backwards a black streak passes beneath the 
eye and forms a patch on each side of the throat, gii-ing 
tbe bird and its congeners a whiskered and menacing j 
aspect. Nejtt we may place f'alco A rorrit, the aacred 
hawk of Egypt, in reality the same as, or a mere variety 
of the per^^ne. Innumerable representations of it oc- 

hal, or hlnl of victory ; also an emblem of Be, tbe Sun, 
and numerous other divinities (Sir J. G. Wilkinson's 
lUanatTW atid Ciulotm of Ihe A mnt Egyptian; 2d se- 
ries). The hobby, Fako luhbulio, ia no doubt, a aeconil 
or third species of sacred hawk, having similar whlskera. 
Both this bird and the tiacl^le merlin, Falco antan, 
ar« used in tbe blconry of the inferior Moslem land-own- 
ers of Asiatic Turkey. Besides thenr, the kestril, Ftiico 
linmiaailin, occurs in S3-ria, and Falco Hununailoidet, or 
EKJTt; a -   






ilmg 



the H 



add Ihe gerfalcon, Falm gyr- 
fulco, which is one third larger than the peregrine : it 
is imported from Tartary, and sold at Constantinople, 
Aleppo, and Damascus. The great birds fly at ante- 
lopes, bustards, cranes, etc; and of the genua Ailur, 
with shorter wings than true falcona, the gmhawk, FaltB 
paiumbariai, and the falcon gentii, falco gatUii, are 
Hther imported, or taken in their nests, and used to fly 
at lower and aquatic game. It is among the above thai 
the seven species of hunting hawks enumerated by Dr. 
Rusell must be sought ; though, from the circumstance 
that tbe Arabic names of the birds alone were known u> 



tiona. The smaller and less povterful hawks of the ge- 
nus ^'ttua are mostly in use on account of the sport they 
afford, being lees fatiguing, ss they are employed to fly 
at pigeons, partridges, quails, pterodes, katta, and other 
speries of ganga. There are various other rqitni^ 
Urds, not here enumerated, found in Syria, Ar^ia, and 
Egj-pt— Kitto, a. V. SccEaoi^; Glkde! Kitbi 0»- 

The generic character of Ihe Heb. word mft qqicara 
from the expresuon in Deut. and Lev. " after hia kind," 
as including various species of the Falcomdaj with HMn 
especial allusion, perhaps, (o the small diurnal bird^ 
such as the kestrel (Fako fimsiciilui), the hohbf (ffju 
potriordut abbuteo), tbe gregarious laner kestril {Tt*-- 
mmcubu efnchrv), common about the ruins in tbe plain 
districts of Palestine, all of which were probably known 
to the ancient Hebrews. With respect to the panage 
in Job (L c), which appears to allude to tbe migratory 
habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten 
or twelve lesser raptors of Psleatine, neariy all are sum- 
mer Diigranta. The kestrel remaina all tbe year, but T, 
cenci™, MicronUtu gabar, Jlj/p. tieoaorv, and J'', mda- 
noptmu, are all migrants from the south. Besides tha 
above-named smaller hawks, the two magnilicent qie- 
cies, Z'. Aif«r and /'. /awrnuf, are summer viai tors to Pal- 
estine. These two species of falcons, and pcthapa the 
hobby and goshawk {Ailar palumbariui), are employed 
by the Arabs in Syria and Palestine for the purpose of 
taking partridges, sand-grouse, quails, heroim, gazeUea, 
hares, etc Dr. Ruseell (Aur. Iliil. ofAlrppo, ii, 196, Sd 

is probable that some at least of these names apply rath- 
er to the diflerent sexes than to distinct species. See a 
graphic description ot the sport of falconry, as puisued 
by tbe Arabs of M. Africa, in the Ibii. i, 284. No rep- 
resentation of such a sport occura on tbe monuments of 
ancient Eg>-pt (see Wilkinson, /Inc. £;. i, 221), neither 
is there any definite allusion to falconry in thf Bible. 




V^thregaTd.hnwever.tothenfgitive «ndeiice Buppli«d 

4i*w & concluMon, Tur the camel ia not ivprarntnl, 
though we hmve BiUlicil evidence to show that this ani- 
Dul WM u>ed by the Egyptian! u early us the time of 
Abraham ; still, ai iiwUiicea of vorioiu modee of cap- 
turing tish, game, and wild animals are not unfrequent 
on the monumenta, it seema probable that the art wta 
not hiiowii la the £g>'ptiana. Kolhing defiiule tan be 
kamt (Tom the passage in 1 8am. xxvi, 20, which apeaks 
of " a partridge hunted on the mounlaina," is this may 
■Uude to the method of taking i hoc birds by " throw- 
aticks,"etc. See PARTRiixiE. Tbehind orhart "psnl- 
ing after the water-brooka" (Psa. itlii,!) may api«ai at 
Gtst sight to refer to (be mode at prfsent adnpled in 
the East of taking gazelles, deer, and bustarde irith the 
united aiit of falcon and greyhound; but, as Ifengaten- 
berg (Commenl. on Pio.\.c) has ar^ie(l,it seems pretty 
clear that the enhauetion spoken of is to lie underslood 
as ariung, not from pursuit, but frofn some prevailing 
draught, as in Psa. Ixiii, I, "My soul thireteth for Ihee 
inadrs limd." (See also Joel i, 20.) The poetical ver- 
UOD of Brady and Tate, 

"Aspantt [he hart fbr cooling streania 
When heated la tbe chase," 
has theTefnre somewhat prejudged the matter. For the 
question as to whether falconry was known to the an- 
cient <JreekB, see Beckmann, Hilary of Imm/ioat (i, 
198-203, liohn'i ed.).— Smith, 8. V, See Falcon. 

Ha^rker, Roneirr. D.D,, in English divine, was 
bom at Exeter, Eiiglanl, in I7!i3, and educated at Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford. He obtained the vicarage oC 
Chartecs Plymouth, which he held until his death in 
1837, with the respect and love of his people. In doc- 
trine he was a Calvinist, with a atrong Anlinomian ten- 
dency. His writings art, Th( Poor ilan'i Cotawitary 
on O. and N. T. (last edit. Lond. S toIs. 4to) i—Sennotu, 
Mediation; Ijrlurrt, etc, included in his ll'orli, jri/h n 
Manoir o/kU Li/', by the Bev. J, Williams, D.D. <Lond. 
1831, 10 \-ols. Svo). See Burt, Obierr. on Dr. HaalcrT'i 
The^ogss Bennett, Itu/.o/Diiinilm (Lond. 1839),p.S44. 

Hsvrklna, Wii.i.iax, an English clergyman, was 
bnm in lTi2, and was educated at Pembroke College, 
Oxford, where he became fellow, and was made profess- 
or of poetry in 1751. He was afterwards succesMvely 
prebendary of Wells, rector of Caalerton. and lioar of 
Whitchurch, Dorsetshire. He cUed in IXOI. He pub- 
lished Ditcoiirtet on Scrip/ure Mytlfriff, Bampton Lec- 
tures for 1787 (Oxford, 1787, 8vo) ; and a number of 
occaHonal sennona. — Darling, Cyd'^. BUtuigrtiphica, i, 
1422; itiiiibonis,DietKmaryo/AiilAor»,\,eOi. 



)2 HAWKS 

Hsirka, Cicero Stephen, D.D,, a bishop of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church, was bom at Newbem, N, 
C,in 1812. He passed A.aat the University of North 
Carolina in 1830, and studied law, but nc^-er practised. 
In 18M he was ordained deacon, and in 1835 priest, in 
the I'roteatant Episcopal Church. His first parish was 
.Trinity Church, Sau«ertie8,N.y.(1836)j in 18S7 he rt- 
Rioved to BulMo, ;}. ¥., and shortly aflerwards to Christ 
Church, St. Louis, Mo. In 18<14 he was consecrated 
bishop of the diocese of Missouri, in which office he la- 
bored diligcnlly and succemfully until his health gave 
way. He died at St. Louis April 19, 1868. 

Ha-wks, Francis Llstei, D.D., an eminent min. 
ister of the Protestant Episcopal Church, was bom at 
Newbem, N. C, June 10, 1798. He passed A.B. at the 
Univetsi tvofNorth Carolina in 1815 ;ar^rwanls studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 181R. In 1828 he 
was elected to the Legislature of N.C., and soon became 
distinguished for eloquence. After a few yeara of very 
successftd practice as a lawyer, he determined to enter 
the ministij-, and became a student lutder Dr. Green, of 
HiUsboTo' (afterwards bishq) Green). In I8S7 he was 
ordained deacon; and in I8'i!9 became assistant In Dr. 
Croswell, rector of Trinity Cliurch, Kew Haven, l^nn. 
In the same year he was called la lie assistant to bishop 
White, then rector of Sl James's Church. PhilnklphiL 
In 1830 he was elected professor of divinity in Wash* 
ington College (now Trinity), IIartfortt,C<nin.; in 1831 
he became rector of St. Stephen's, New York, and at once 
was recngni8e<l as among the chief pidpil oralon of tbo 
citv. In the same j'ear lie was called lo the rectorehip 
of Si. Thomas's Church,N.Y. Ill 1835 he was elected 
mifi^onary bishop of the South-west, but declined tb« 
appointment. In the same year Ihc tlencral Conven- 
tion appointed him to collect documents on the history 
o( the Church, and to Bet as conservator of the same. 
He spent several months in England in 1830, and re- 
lumeil nilh eighteen folio volumes of manuscript, illus- 
iralive of the planting and early history of the Protes- 
tant E[>i£capal Church. From these materials he pre- 
pared his Confribationi lo the Ketirriiulical IliMory of 
Ihe Vailed Slain (voL i, Tirginiu, 1B3S ; voL ii, Mary- 
land, 1839). It is greatly to be regretted that Dr, Hawks 
did not continue this valuable work. In 1837, in con- 
nection with the Bev. C. S. Hem;;', he established Ihe 
New VorkArrtnCitquarteriyjoutiiBlof very highrhai^ 
actcr, of which ten volumes were published. In 1839 
he founded a school called -St. Thomas's Hall, at Flush- 
ing, L. I., and made heavy outlays upon the buildings, 
grounds, etc., which involved him in serious financial 
embanassmente, ending in the ruiuof theiclioolin 1843. 
He was charged with extravagance, if cot with dishon- 
esty; but noonenowbelicvesthelanercharge. How- 
ever, he resigned his charge of St. Thomas's Church, 
aiui removed to Missisappi, where he established a school 
at Holly brings. In 1844 he was elected bishop of 
Miadsnppi; objections were made on account of his 
troubles in connecliun with St. Thomas's Hall, but his 
vindication was so complete that the Convention adopt- 
ed a resolution declaring hia iimoceiice. Nevertheless, 
he declined Ihe bishopric, and accepted the rectorship 
of Christ Church, New Orleans, where he remained for 
five years, during part of which time he served as pn«- 
idenl of the Univeiwly of Louiinana. In 1849 ho ac- 
ce])ted the rectonhip of the Church of the Mediator, 
New York, which was afterwards mci^ in Calvary 
parish, of which he remained rector until 1802. Hu 
friends raised tBO,000 to clear his church of debt, and 
ailjust certain old claims iTom St. Thomas's Hall; Ibey 
also settled upon him a liberal salary. Here he regain- 
ed hia old pre-eminence as a preacher, and at the same 
time devoted himself to active litctart- labors. In 1852 
was elected bishop of Rhode Island, but declined the 






ed Ihe rectorehip of Calvarj' ; 



vnceeofnpiiii 
thcCivillVat 



Baltimore, he was called to take charge ol 



HAWLEY 



103 



HATMO 



iah of Our Saviour in Xew York. His last public labor 
waa a service at the laying of the corner-stone of the 
neir church, Sept. 4, 1866; on the 26th of that month 
be died. Dr. Uawks's writings include, beades Imv> Re- 
port*, the following : ContribuHona to the Ecdenagtical 
JlUtory of the United States (1836-39, 2 vols. 8vo) :— 
CommeHtartf an tie CanttittUion and Canom of the Prot- 
estant Epimpal Church in the United States ( 1841, 8vo) : 
—Eggpt and its Monuments (N. Y. 1849, 8vo) :^A uricu- 
iar Cott/Mon (1849, 12mo) • — Docamemtary History of 
the Prot. K. Church, containing Documents concerning the 
Church in Connecticut (edited in connection with W. S. 
Perry, N. Y. 1863^, 2 vols. 8vo) ; besides several histor- 
ical and juvenile books. He also contributed largely to 
the Xew York Remew, the Church Record, and other pe- 
riodicals— w4iRer. Quarterbf Chur^ Review, 1867, art. 1 ; 
iilibone, Diet, of A uthors, i, 804. 

Ha^ey, Gideon, a Congregational minister, was 
bom Nov. 5, 1727 (O. S.), in Bridgeport, Conn. He 
gradaated at Yale College in 1749, and, having entered 
the ministry, went to Stockbridgc in 1752 as missionary 
to the Indiana. In May, 1753, in company with Timo- 
thy Woodbridge, he started through the wilderness, and 
reached the Susquehanna at Onohoghgwage, where he 
planted a mission, but was compelled to leave it by the 
French War, May, 1756. Having returned to Boston, 
he went as chaplain under colonel Gridley to Crown 
Point ; and April 10, 1758, was installed pastor over the 
Indians at Marshpee, where he remained until his death, 
Oct. S, 1807. — Sprague, AmuUsj i, 495. 



(T^XIJ, (Aatsir*, grass, Job viii, 12; xl, 15; 
Pn. civ, 14; leeks. Numb, xi, 15; also a court-yard, 
h^ xxxiv, 13 ; xxxv, 7 ; Greek X"P^oc, fodder, i. e. 
grass or herbage. Matt vi, 30, etc., or growing grain. 
Matt, xiit, 26, etc). We are not to suppose that this 
wrad, as used in the Bible, denotes dried grass, as it 
does with us. The management of grass by the He- 
brews, as food for cattle, was entirely different from 
oora. Indeed, hay was not in use, straw being used as 
provender. The grass was cut green, as it was wanted ; 
and the phrase moum-grass (Psa. Ixxii, 6) would be 
more properly roidered grcus that has just been fed off. 
So In Prov. xxvii, 25, the word translated hay means 
the first shoots of the grass; and the whole passage 
might better be rendered, ^'The grass appeareth, and 
the green herb showeth itself, and the plants of the 
mountains are gathered.*' In Isa. xv, 6, hay is put for 
irrass. In summer, when the plains are parch^ with 
drought, and every green herb Is dried up, the nomades 
proceed northwards, or into the mountains, or to the 
banks of riven ; and in winter and spring, when the 
rains have recbthed the plains with verdure, and filled 
the water-courses, they return. — Bastow. See Grass ; 
Lkkk: Fuel.; Mowing. 

Ebydn, Joseph, one of the greatest composers of 
Church music in modem times, was bom March 31, 1782, 
at Rohran, in Austria. The son of parents who were 
very fond of music, he showed from his earliest youth a 
remarkable talent for the art. He studied first with a 
relative ui Haimburg; and, from his eighth to his six- 
teenth year, he was in the choir of St. Stephen's Cathe- 
dral at Vienna. Ailer this, for a time, he supported 
himself by giving private instruction. The first six 
piano-sonatas of Eul Bach fell into his hands by acci- 
dent, and filled him with enthusiasm. The celebrated 
Italian singer Porpora, whom he accompanied on the 
piano in musical circles, mtroduced him into the high- 
est classes of society. Encouraged from all sides, he 
wrote several quartettes (which, however, did not es- 
cape censore) and tricjs, and his first opera, Der hin- 
hade Teufd, for which he received 24 ducats. In 1759 
be received from count Morzin an appointment as mu- 
sical director, and soon after contracted a marriage, 
which, however, remained without children, and was, in 
general, not a happy one. In 1760 he was appointed by 



prince Esterhazy as chapel-master, which position al- 
lowed him for thirty years to (^ve free play to his music- 
al genius. During this time, which was mostly spent at 
Eisenstadt, Hungary, or (during winter months) in Vi- 
enna, he composed most of his symphonies, many quar- 
tettes, trios, etc., 168 compositions for the baryton (the 
favorite instrument of the prince), eighteen operas, the 
oratorio // Ritomo di Tobia (1774), fifteen masses and 
other ecclesiastical works, music for Goethe's *'Gdtz 
von Berlichingen," and the composition of the ** Seven 
Words," which in 1795 was ordered from Cadiz as an in- 
strumental composition to be played between the lessons 
of the Seven Words. Dismissed from his position after 
the death of prince Esterhazy (1790), but retaining his 
title and his salary, he went as concert director to Lon- 
don, where he attained the zenith of his artistic career. 
During his two stays in London (1790-92 and 1794-95) 
he wrote the operas Orfeo and Eurydice, his 12 so-called 
English symphonies, quartettes, and other works. He 
was constantly employed as leader in concerts and socie- 
ties, and was overwhelmed with marks of love and af- 
fection. After returning to Vienna, he composed, in 1797, 
his great oratorio The Creation, which was finished in 
April, 1798, and produced for the first time on March 19, 
1799, in Vienna, and soon after in all the large cities of 
Europe, with immense applause. It remains to this day 
the greatest of sacred oratorios, except H£lndel*s Jfps- 
siah In the mean while he finished his last oratorio, 
The four Seasons (text by Van Swieten after Thomson), 
which was produced for the first time April 24, 1801. 
He died May 31, 1809. According to a list of his works, 
prepared by Haydn himself, they comprise 118 sympho- 
nies, 83 quartettes, 24 trios, 19 operas, 5 oratorios, 168 
compositions for the baryton, 24 concerts for different 
instmments, 15 masses, 44 piano sonatas, 42 German and 
Italian hymns, 39 canons, 10 Church compositions, 18 
songs in three or four parts, the harmony and the ac- 
companiment for 365 old Scotch airs, and several smaller 
pieces. In the library of the Esterhazy family at Eisen- 
stadt, many unpublished manuscripts are said to be stiU 
extant. See Framery, Notice sur J, H, (Paris, 1810); 
Pohl, Mozart und Haydn in London (Viexma, 1867, 2 
vols.). (A.J.S.) 

Haymo, Haimon, Haimo, or Aimo, a theolo- 
gian of the 9th century, the place of whose birth (about 
A.D. 778) is uncertain. In his youth he embraced the 
rule of St Benedict in the abbey of Fulda ; afterwards 
he studied under Alcuin, at St. Martin of Tours, with 
Rabanus Maurus. He then appears successively as 
teacher at Fulda, as abbot of Hirschfeld, in the diocese 
of Mentz, and finally bishop of Halberstadt (Saxony) 
in 841. He was present at the Council of Mentz in 
847, and died March 28 (or 26), 858. His writings, 
which are chiefly compilations from the fathers, enjoy- 
ed great reputation; they consist of, Glosses continua 
super Psalterium (Colon. 1528, 8vo; 1561, 8vo) : — In 
Cantica Cantieorum (Colon. 1519, foL; Worms, 1631, 
8vo, etc) : — Glosses in Isaiam (Colon, and Paris, 1531, 
8vo) : — Glosses in Jeremiam, Ezechielem, et Damelem (so 
scarce that some doubt their having been printed at 
all) : — In duodedm Prophetas ininores (Colon. 1519, et 
al.) : — HomiUcB super Evangelia totius anni (Colon. 1531 ; 
Paris, 1533; Antw. 1559) :~/n Epistolas S. Pauli (now 
generally supposed, however, to be by St Remy of Au- 
xerre): — Super Apocalypsim Explanatio (Colon, and 
Paris, 1581, 8vo): — De Corpore et Sanguine Christi 
(D'Achery, Spicilegium, i, 42) : — De varietaie librorum 
tres Ubri (Paris and Colon. 1531, 8vo) : — Bremarium His- 
torioB ecdesiastica (Colon. 1531, 8vo; often reprinted). 
Other works have been ascribed to him by Johannes 
Trithemius, but it is not certain tliat they were by him ; 
and, at any rate, they are now lost His writings are col- 
lected in Migne, Patrol Latina, vols, cxvi, cxvii, cxviii 
See Lelong, BihL Sacra ; Trithemius, De cedes. Script. ; 
Hist. Utter, de la France, v, 1 11-126 ; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. 
Genir, xxiii, 121 ; Clarke, Succession of Sac. Literature, 
ii, 506; Mosheim, Ch. History, cent ix, pt ii, ch. ii, n. 50. • 



HATNES 



104 



HAZAEL 



Baynes, Lehubl, & Congregational minister of 
New England, a mulatto. He was bom at West Hart- 
ford, Conn., July 18, 176B, and was educated in tlie fam- 
ily of Mr. Kose, of Granville, Mass. In 1774 he enlisted 
in the Continental army, and in 1775 was in the expe- 
dition against Ticonderoga. Soon after thi:» he com- 
menced study with the Key. Daniel Ferrand, and on 
Nov. 7, 1780, his credentials as a minister were granted. 
Soon afterwards he received a call to take charge of 
the Granville church. Here he labored five years with 
great acceptability. Di 1788 he married Miss Elizabeth 
Babbit, a white lady of good intellect and sincere piety. 
Soon after this he was ordained, and went to Farming- 
ton, Conn., and thence to Vermont, and spent thirty 
years as pastor of a Congr^;ational church at Rutland, 
whence he removed to Manchester, where he was in- 
Tolved in a very singular and noted trial for murder, not 
as accomplice, but as a defender of the accused. In 1822 
he was called to the charge of the church in Granville, 
N. Y., an offshoot of the former in Massachusetts. Here 
he remained till hb death in September, 1834. Mr. 
Haynes was characterized from early life by a swift and 
subtle intellect, and a restless thirst for knowledge. He 
read Greek and Latin with critical accurac>'. His wit 
was proverbial and refined. In Vermont he was very 
successful in opposing infiddity. Many anecdotes of 
his shrewd and sensible wit are on record. — Sher- 
man, New England JHvwet, p. 267 ; Sprague, Annals, ii, 
176. 

Hayti, a name sometimes given to the second lar- 
gest island in the West Indies. The more usual name 
is San Domingo, under which head all that is common 
to the whole island will be treated. Hayti proper is the 
western and French-^)eaking part of the island, which 
in 1808 was organized as a separate commonwealth 
under president Christophe, who in 1811 had himself 
crowned as hereditary emperor under the name of Henry 
I. In 1822 the French and the Spanish portions of the 
island were again united into one republic under gen- 
eral Boyer. This union lasted untU 1844, when not 
only the Spanish portion became again an independent 
state, but the French part split into two, which were 
harassed by almost uninterrupted conflicts between the 
blacks and the mulattoes. The brief and beneficent ad- 
ministration of general Richer (1846-47) was followed 
by that of general Faustin Soulouque, who undertook an 
unfortunate campaign against the Dominicans, and in 
August, 1849, proclaimed himself emperor, mider the 
name of Faustin I. He was in 1858 overthrown I y 
general Geflrard, who, as president, introduced many 
reforms, and was, in turn, overthrown in February, 1867, 
by Salnave, under whose administration the country 
was disturbed by uninterrupted civil wars, until his 
overthrow and execution, January, 1870. 

The area of the republic is estimated at 10,205 square 
miles, the population at about 570,000. Nominally near- 
ly the entire population belongs to the Roman Catholic 
Church; but, even according to Roman Catholic writers, 
many of the population are even to-day more pagan 
than Christian. The frightful religious and moral con- 
dition of the people is attributed by Roman Catholic 
writers to the habit of the French government of not es- 
tablishing regular bishoprics, but of leaving the adminis- 
tration of ecclesiastical affairs in the hands of apostolical 
prefects, who had neither the influence nor the power of 
bishops, were more dependent upon the colonial govern- 
ment, and could not defend the interests of the Church 
and of religion against the secular power and the plant- 
ers, who were chiefly intent on making the most out of 
slave labor. The care of the parishes was, before the 
banning of the French rule, almost exclusively in the 
hands of the Capuchins and Dominicans. In 1708 the 
Capuchins left their parishes, and were succeeded by the 
Jesuits, who took charge of the districts from Samana to 
the Atrabonite, while the Dominicans assumed the ad- 
ministration of those from the Atrabonite to Cape Tibu- 
xon. Secular priests were left only in the churches of 



Vache Island. When the Jesuits were expelled in 1768^ 
they were again followed by the Capuchuis. During the 
war of independence nearly all the chmvhes were dosed, 
and the celebration of divine service was almost whol- 
ly suspended ; but, the war being ended, the Omatitii- 
tion of 1807 declared the Catholic Church the only form 
of religion recognised by the government, and Chris- 
tophe, by a decree issued in 1811, announced the es- 
tablishment of one archbishopric and three btshopricsL 
The pope was asked to sanction this arrangement, but, 
owing to the death of Christophe, which occurred sooo 
after, and to other causes, the plan was never carried 
out In 1822, when the whole island was under one 
government, the archbishop of San Domingo appoint- 
ed for the western part two vicars general, of whom the 
one resided at Capo Hayti, and the other at Port-au- 
Rrince. In 1827 Pope Leo XII again conferred upon 
the archbishop of San Domingo the jurisdiction over the 
whole bland; but the religious condition of the people 
grew worse and worse. There was an almost absolute 
want of priests, and the few who were to be found were 
mostly worthless characters, who had for immoral con- 
duct been expelled from other dioceses. In 1842, bishop 
Rosati, of St. Louis, was commissioned by pope Gregory 
XVI to viidt Hayti, and, as apostolical delegate, to con- 
clude a Concordat with president Boyer; but this st^ 
also was thwarted by the overthrow of his admuiistra- 
tion (1843). The emperor Soulouque protected and en- 
dowed the Roman Catholic Church, but at the same 
time introduced religious toleration, and thus enabled 
Protestant missionaries to organize a few missions. In 
1852 pope Pius IX sent bishop Spaocapietra to Hayti to 
make another effort to conclude a Concordat. The mis- 
sion was agab) unsuccessful; and in an allocutian of 
Dec 19, 1853, the pope complained that the emperor 
and his government had a false idea concerning the 
Church, and that, as a great portion of the clerg>' were 
unwilling to adopt a strict rule of life, the bishop waa 
compelled to leave the country. Negotiations with 
president Gefftard were more successful, and on Sepk 
16, 1861, a Concordat was promulgated. According to 
it, one archbishopric (Port-au-Prince) and four bishop- 
rics (Les Cayes, Cape Hayti, Gonaives, and Port de Paix) 
were established in 1862; the archbishop (a French- 
man, Testard du Cosquer) was appointed in 1868, baft 
none of the four episcopal sees had been filled up to Jan- 
uary, 1870. The number of parishes is 49. For pub- 
lic education very little has as yet been done. There 
were in 1868 about 150 public scho< Is, with about 13,000 
pupils. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States 
sustained in December, 1869, missionaries at Port-an- 
Prince, Cabaret Quatre, and at Cape Haytien. In Port^ 
au-Prince a church and a rectory were erected in 1868; 
the missions of this place and of Cabaret Quatre had to- 
gether, in May, 1869, 102 communicants. 

The English Wesleyans, who were the first IVotes* 
tant body to establish a Protestant mission in Hayti, 
bad in 1868 6 circuits, 6 chapels, 4 other preaching- 
places, 210 members, and about 890 regular attendants 
on public worship. — Ncher, Kirckl. Geogr, und Staiistii, 
voLiii,1869. (AJ.S.) 



'za<II (Heb. ChazaiV, ^Ktri, also bKHtn, whom 
God beholds, l e. cares for ; SepL 'i^a^X, Vulg. Hazael^ 
but Azael in Amos i, 4 ; hence Latin A ztlus, Justin. 
xxxvi, 2), an officer of Benhadad, king of Syria, whnee 
eventual accession to the throne of that kingdom was 
revealed to Elijah (1 Kings xix, 15),B.C. cir. 907; and 
who, when Elisha was at Damascus, was sent by his 
master, who was then ill, to consult the prophet respect- 
ing his recovery (2 Kings viii, 8). RC. dr. 884. He 
was followed by forty camels bearing presents from the 
king. The answer was, that he mi^ certainly recover. 
" Howbeit," added the prophet, ** the Lord hath showed 
me that he shall surely die." He then looked steadfast- 
ly at Hazael till he became confused, on which the man 



HAZAIAH 



105 



HAZARMAVETH 



of God wept ; aiid when Hazael respectfoUy inquiied 
the came of this outboist, Elisha replied by describing 
the vivid picture then present to his mind of all the 
cvik which the man now before him would inflict upon 
Israel Hazael exclaimed, " But what is thy servant, 
the [not a] dog, that he should do this great thing?" 
The prophet explained that it was as king of Syria he 
should i> it. Haaad then returned, and delivered to 
his master that portion of the prophetic response which 
was intended for him. But the very next day this man, 
cool and *^L^'T^*J"g in his cruel ambition, took a thick 
doth, and, having dipped it in water, spread it over the 
fsce of the king, who, in his feebleness, and probably in 
hi» deep, was snwthered by its weight, and died w^hat 
seemed to his people a natural death (2 Kings viii, 16). 
We are not to imagine that such a project as this was 
conceived and executed in a day, or that it was suggest; 
ed by the words of Elisha. His discomposure at the 
earnest gaze of the prophet, and other circumstances, 
show that Hazael at that moment regarded EUsha as 
one to whom his secret purposes were known. (See 
Kitto's Dail^ BibU I Oust, ad loc.)^Kitto, s. v. He was 
soon engaged in hostilities with Ahaziah, king of Judah, 
and Jehoram, king of Israel, for the possession of the 
aiy of Ramoth-gilead (2 Kings viii, 28). The Assyrian 
inscriptions show that about this time a bloody and 
destmctive war was waged between the Assyrians on 
the one side, and the Syrians, Hittites, Hamathites, and 
Phcenidans on the other. See Cuneiform Inscrip- 
Tioxa. Benhadad (q. v.) had recently snflfered several 
severe defeats at the hands of the Assyrian king, and 
upon the accessiofi of Hazael the war was speedily re- 
newed. Hazael took up a position in the fastnesses of 
the Anti-Libanns, but was there attacked by the Assyr- 
ians, who defeated him with great loss, killing 16,000 of 
his wamora, and capturing more than 1100 chariots. 
Three 3rear8 later the Assyrians once more entered Syria 
in force; but on this occasion Hazael submitted, and 
helped to fumiah the invaden with supplies. After 
this, internal troubles appear to have occupied the at- 
tention of the Assyrians, who made no more expeditions 
into these parts for about a century. The Syrians rap- 
idly recovered their loasefs and towards the close of the 
iei«n of Jehu, Uazael led them against the Israelites 
(EC. cir. 860), whom he "* smote in all their coasts" (2 
Kings X, 82), thus accomplishing the prophecy of Elisha 
(2 Kings viii, 12). His main attack fell upon the east- 
em provinces, where he ravaged ** all the land of Gilead, 
the Gadites, and the Reuboutes, and the Manassites, 
from Aroer, which is by the river Amon, even Gilead 
and Bashan" (2 Kings x, 83). After this he seems to 
have held the kingdom of Israel in a species of subjec- 
tion (2 Kings xiii, 8-7, and 22), and towards the close 
of his life he even threatened the kingdom of Judah. 
Having taken Oath (2 Kings xii, 17 ; comp. Amos vi, 
2), he proceeded to attack Jerusalem, defeated the Jews 
in an engagement (2 ChroiL xxiv, 24), and was about to 
assault the dty, when Joash induced him to retire by 
presenting him with " all the gold that was found in the 
treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king's 
house" (2 Kings xii, 18).~Smith, s. v. This able and 
suooesBful, bva unprindpded usurper left the throne at his 
death to his son Benhadad (2 Kings xiil,24). B.a cir. 
880. Such was the prosperity and influence of his reign 
that the phrase ** house of Hazael" occurs in prophet- 
ical denunciation (Amos i, 4) as a designation of the 
kingdom of Damascene Syria. See Damascus. 

HaxaSi'ah (Heh. Chazoj^', n;tn, whom JTekovah 
hekoldtf Sept. 'O^i'a), son of Adaiah^and father of Col- 
hozeh, a descendant of Pharez (Neh. xi, 5). B.CX con- 
■derably ante 586. 

Haxar- (also Hazor-) is frequently prefixed to ge- 
ogr^ibical namea^ in order to indicate their dependence 
as nUages O^pJ, chatter'^ a kcankt ; see Village) upon 
some town or other noted spot, or in order to distinguish 
them from it; e.g. those following. ** The word i/azar, 



when joined to places situated in the desert or on the 
outskirts of the inhabited country, as it frequently is, 
probably denoted a piece of ground surrounded by a 
rude but strong fence, where tents could be pitched, and 
cattle kept in safety from marauders. Such places are 
very common at the present day in the outlying dis- 
tricts of Palestine. In other cases Hazar may denote a 
*• castle' or * fortified town' " (Kitto). Omp. Hazer. 

Haz'ar - ad'dar (Heb. ChaUar'-Addar', -IXH 
■^IX, village of Addar; Sept. tvavkiQ *kpdi, v. r. 'kd- 
8apd and ^pada)^ a place on the southern bounda- 
ry of Palestine, between Kadesh-Bamea and Azmon 
(Numb, xxxiv, 4) ; elsewhere called simply Adab 
(Josh. XV, 8). See Hazbrim. It probably lay in the 
desert west of Kadesh-Bamea (q. v.), perhaps at the 
junction of wadys £I-Fukreh and £1-Madurah, east of 
Jebel Madurah. See Tribe. Rev. J. Rowlands thought 
he discovered both this locality and that of the adjoin- 
ing Azmon in the fountains which he calls Addrat and 
Ateimet, west of wady el-Arish (Williams, Holy CHy, 
i, 467) ; but the names are more correctly Kudeirat and 
Kusaimet, and the locality is too far west. 

Ha'»ar-e'nan (Heh, ChatMr'-Eynan',)^^:^ ^Sn, 
village of/ourUainSf also [in Ezek. xlvii, 17] Ha'jsar- 
b'kon, Chataar^'Eywrn', "^3*^9 *^^n, idL; Sept 'AcrcfH 

vatv or r) aiikfi rov kivav), a place on the boundary 
of Palestine, apparently at the north-eastern comer, 
between Ziphron and Shepham (Numb, xxxiv, 9, 10), 
not far from the district of Hamath, in Damascene 
Syria (Ezek. xlvii, 17 ; xlviii, 1). Schwarz {Palestine^ 
p. 20, note) thinks it identical with the village Dtir- 
Hanorif m the valley of the Fijeh or Amana, near Da-, 
mascus; but there is no probability that this was in- 
cluded within the limits of Canaan. '^ Porter would 
identify Hazar-enan ¥nth Kuryetein-=*iYi6 two cities,* 
a village more than sixty miles ^ast-north-^ast of Dar 
mascus, the chief ground for the identification appar- 
ently being the presence at Kuryetein of * large foun- 
tains,' the only ones in that * vast region,' a circumstance 
with which the name of Hazar-enan well agrees (Z>a- 
fn€ucuSf i, 252 ; ii, 858). The great distance from Da- 
mascus and the body of Palestine is the main impedi- 
ment to the reception of this identification" (Smith). 
We must therefore seek for Hazar-enan somewhere in 
the well-watered tract at the north-westem foot of Mount 
Hermon, perhaps the present HatbeyOj near which are 
four springs (Ain Kunieb, A. Tinta, A. Ata, and A. Her^ 
sha). See Haspeya. 

Ha'zar-gad'dah (Heb. Chattar^'Gaddah', -nxn 
tl*^!, village ofjbrtune; Sept. *kffipyaSSa v. r. Sipcifi), 
a ci^ on the southern border of Judah, mentioned be- 
tween Moladah and Heshmon (Josh, xv, 27). Modem 
writers (see Reland, PaleuL p. 707), following the sug^ 
gestion of Jerome {Ononuut. s. v. ; who, as suggested by 
Schwarz, PaluHney p. 100, has probably confounded thk 
place with En-Gedi), have sought for it near the Dead 
Sea ; but the associated names appear to locate it nearer 
midway towards the Mediterranean. See Hazerim. 
Mr. Grove suggests (Smith, Did, s. v.) that it is posably 
the modem ruined site marked as Jurrah on Van de 
Vekle's Map, west of el-Melh (Moladah), ^ by the change 
so frequent in the East (?) of D. to R." See Judau, 
Tribe of. 

Ha'sar-hat'tdcon (Hebrew Chatsar' hal'Tik6n% 
"jis'^PlSl "^^n, hamlet of the midway, q. d. middle village ; 

Sept. confusedly Evcrdv rac tov EOvuv v. r. avXt) rov 
l^waVf Vulg. domus Tichon), a place on the northem 
boundary of Palestine, near Hamath, and in the confines 
of Hauran (Ezek. xlvii, 16) ; apparently, therefore, on 
the northem brow of Mount Hermon, which may have 
given origin to the name as a point of division between 
Coele-Syria and Damascene Syria. It is possibly only 
an epithet of the Hazor (q. v.) of NaphtaU. 

Haaanna'Teth (Hebrew Cbatsas-ma'vex^ 



HAZARSHUAL 1( 

riB^XTT, arnrt i^f dtalh ; Sept. Sop/iu} uid 'ApapuS, 
Vulg. AtarmotA), Che nime of the tliird bod of Joktui, 
or, rathn-, of  district of AnbU Felix setiled by bim 
(Gen. X, 26; 1 Cbton. i, 20) ; supposed (o be presen-ed 
in the modem province or Hadramaiil, situated un the 
Indian Oceaji, and abouiHling in frankinecose, myrrb, 
and sloe; but (as intimated in the ominous name) noted 
Toi Che insalubrity or Che climate (Ahuireda, JroiiVi, p. 
4fi; Niebuhr, iffKArKi.d«-^rai. p.28a; Kitter, AWjt. 
Xi, iii, 609). U was known aln to the cluuol wiiiers 
pLaT^ajUftTfirait xvi, 768; Xorpa/i/jFrai or XoTpafiu/- 
vlrai, PtoL vi, 7, 25 : A Iramila, DioiL Ptrvg. 9ft" ; Xa- 
TpaiiuiTir>){, Steph. Byi. p. Too). — Winer; (ieseniug. 
This idencilicatioii of the locality rests not only on Che 
occunence of Che name, but is supported by the proved 
bcC chat Joktan settled in Che Yemen, aloni; the south 
coast of Arabia, by the phyaicil chuaeleriiitics of the 
inhabitants of this region, and by the idcniiRcalion of 
the names of aereral others of the sous of Joktan. The 
province of Hadnunaut is situaled east of the modern 
Yemen (anciently, as shown in the aiticle Arabia, the 









ofcbe south of the ^>eiunBula),cxtGnduigtocbe districts 
of Shihr and Mahreh. Its capital is Shibaoi, a very 
andent city, of which Cbe native wriCeis give curious 
•ccaants, and ita cliief port^ are Mirbat, Zafari [see Se- 
PHAk], and Kishltn, whence a greaC trade was carried 
on in ancient limes with India and Africa. Hidramaut 
itself is generally cultivalHl, in contnut with the contifi- 
Doos sandy deserts (called El-Ahkaf, where Uved the 
gigantic race of Ad), is partly mountainous, with wb> 
leiHi valleys, and is siill celebrated for its frankincense 
(El-ldnsl, ed. Jomatd, i, 54 ; Niebuht, Dttaip. p 245), 
exporting also gum-anluc, myrrh, dragon's blood, and 
bIom, Che latter, however, being chiefly from t^ocotra, 
which is under the rule of the sheik of Kesblm (Nie- 
bubr, Lc sq.). The early kings of Hadiamaut weic 
Joktsnites, distinct Inm the descendants of Yaarub, the 
progenitor of the JoktaniCe Arabs generally; and it is 
haice to be inferred that they were separately descend- 
ed from Ilaiamiavelh. They maintained their inde- 
pendence against the powerful kings of Hioiycr until 
the latter were subdued at the Abyssinian invaaion 
. (Ibn-Kbaldan, ap. Causdn, Et»ai, i, 136 sq.), The mod- 
em people, although mixed with othei races, are strong- 
ly charaderized by fierce, fanatical, and restieas dispo. 
aitioDS. They are enterprisng roerchsnls, well known 
for their trading and tnvelling propensities. — Smith, 

Hs'sar-Bhn'al (Hebrew OtaUar'-Slaial', "^xri 
99^10, vitlagt of the Jackal ; Sept. 'Aaapaiaika, 'Eotp- 
aovaX and Un/HoiciX), a city on the southern border 
of Judah (Josh, xv, 2H; Neh. xi, 26, where it is men- 
tioned between Beth-palet and Beer4heba), afterwards 
included in the territory of Simeon (Josh, xix, 8; t 
Chron. iv, 28, where it is mentioned between Moladah 
and Balah) ; hence probably midway between the Dead 
Sea and the Hcdil«nnean. See Hakkrim. Van de 
Telde, on his Map, conjectures the Hie to be that of 
the ruins Savxh, which he locates nearly halfway be- 

. tween Beer^heba and Moladah. But see Shioia. 

HH'xar-nn'aah (Hebrew Chaltar'-Saiah', IXri 
riDID, Ti/loge of the hnrie, Josh, xix, 6j Sept, 'Atrtp.' 
ODiwi/i.Vulg, lloirrtum), or HA'ZAB-SU'SIM {Chal- 
Ktr'-Sutim; a''b1D ISn, vUiage afborwi, 1 Chron. iv, 
81 ; Sept fi/«(Tf &j<r<>,VuIg. Haitnunm), a city of the 
tribe of Simeon, mentioned between Beth-marcaboth 
and Beth-lcbaoth or Beth-birei ; doubtlesti, as Ibougbt 
by SchwBn (PaUH. p. 124), the same as Sassakxah, 
in the south border of Judah (Josh, xv, 31), one of Sol- 
omon's "chariot-cities" (2 Chron. i, 14). See Haze- 
RDL It is true that "neither it nor its companion, 
Beth-hakcabotii, the 'house of chariots,' is named in 
Che lisc of the towns of Judah in chap, xv, hue Ihey are 

.included in those of Simeon in J Chrim. iv, 31, wich the 



« HAZEL 

express statement that they exited before and op ta 
the time of David" (Smith). Stanley soggesta, "In 
Biihrnarkahotk, ' the house c^ chariots,' and Hamr-m- 
tim, ' the village of horses,' we recognise the ddpeca and 
stationsfor the hones and chariots, such as those which 
in Solomon's time went to and fro between Egypt and 
falestine" (Sin.<aidPaL p. 160). " It is doubtful wheth- 
er there was any such communication between those 
countries as early as the time of Joshua; but may not 
the rich grassy plains around Beersheba (Robinson, flifc 
Rtt. i. 20») have been used at certain seasons by the 
ancient tribes of Sonthem Palestine for pasturing their 
war and chariot horseB,Just as the grassy plains of Jau- 
Inn are used at the present day by the Druse chiefs of 
Lebanon, and the Turkish cavalrv and artillerv at Da- 
mascus?" (Kitto). "Still it is 'scraiewhat difficult to 
ascribe to so early a date the urdks of places utuatcd, 
as these were, in the Bedouin country, where a chariot 
must bare been unknown, and where even horses seem 
carefully excluded IVom the poBseasions of the inhabit- 
ants — ' camels, sheep, oxen, and asses' (1 San. xxvii, 9)* 
(Smith). 
Hai'aEon-ta'mar (2 Chron. xx, 2). See Haib- 

Haiel (f 1^, Hit, of doiditliil etymology [see Ltz] ; 
Sept. lapmiii.Vtilgate uny^dafnuj), apparently a nul- 
besring tree, which ' " ..- . 



the cattle. Autboriiiesare divided between the kaul 
or Tcalnut and tlie ubwrKJ-lree, as represenlinf; the lii ,- 
in favor of the former we have Kimchi, Jarcbi, Lullicr, 
and others ; while the Vulgate, Saailias, and Geseniua 
adopt the bitter view. The rendering in the Sept, is 
equally applicable to cither. On the one hand is ad- 
duced the fact that in the Arabic wo have torn, whkh 
is indeed the same won), and denotes the almond. Thus 
Abu1-Pa[M), as quoted by Celuus (l/ierobal. i, 2ft4}, say^ 
Lout est arbur nota,et magna, foliis moUibus. Species 






Hon 


















Other Aral* a 
the almond underjhe naroe of lout. 
tbiB name was well known to the Hebrews as indi- 
ng the abnond; for B. Saadias, in Ab. Esra'a Com- 
I,, as quoted by Celsius (p. 253), remaiks: "Lus eat 
amygdaluB, quia ila earn appellant Arabes; namlucduA 
lingus, et I^yriaca, ejusdcm sunt families" It is also al- 
leged that tliere is another word in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, rgoi (T^3K), which is applicable to the hazel tu 




HAZELELPONI 



107 



HAZEROTH 



wahmt. See Nirr. The stTongest argnment on the oth- 
er aide ariaes ffom the circumstance of another word, 
tkdttd n^^)' ha^'uig reference to the almond; it is 
soppocied, however, that the latter applies to the fruit 
exclufiivelyi and the word under discuBsion to the tree ; 
BosenmUUer identifies the shaked with the ctdtivated, 
and iiz with the wild almond tree — Kitto; Smith. See 

Fruit, 

The almond is diffused by^ culture ftom China to Spain, 
and is found to bear fruit well on both sides of the Med- 
itetranean ; but there is no region where it thrives bet- 
ter than Syria, or where it is so truly at home. Accord- 
ingly, when Jacob was sending a present of those pro- 
ductions of Canaan which were likely to be accepuble 
to an Egyptian grandee, " the best fruits of the land," 
besides balm, and mjnrrh, and honey, he bade his sons 
take " nuts and almonds'* (Gen. xliii, 11) ; and the orig- 
inal name of that place so endeared to his memory as 
Bethel, originally catted Luz, was probably derived from 
some well-known tree of this species. To this day ** Jor- 
dan almonds'* is the recognised market^name for the 
best samples of this fruit, in common with Tafilat dates, 
Eleme figs, etc The name, however, is little more than 
a tradition. The best ** Joidan almonds" come from Mal- 
aga.— Faiibaim. See Almond. 

Haselelpo'^ni, or rather Zelklpoki ("^piubbs, 
siode looking upon me [or protection of the presence^ sc 
God; Fttiat], with the arUde, ^^aiaftsin, hats-TseUl- 
pomi\ strictly, perhaps, rather an epithet, the ZeUlpomte^ 
q. d. OKertkadofctd ; Sept. 'EtnyXcX^oiv.Vulg. Aselelpku- 
m), the sister of Jezrecl and others, of the descendants 
of Hezron, son of Judah (1 Chron. iv, 3). KC. cir. 1612. 

HazeliUB, Erxbst Lewis, D.D., was bom in Neu- 
salz. Pmssia, Sept 6, 1777. He was descended from a 
long line of Lutheran ministers. His theological stud- 
ies were pursued at Niesky, a Moravian institution un- 
der the superintendence of bishop Anders. In 1800 he 
was appointed teacher of the classics in the Moravian 
Seminary at Nazareth, Pa. The position he accepted in 
opposition to the wishes of his friends, and at once em- 
barked for America.' In this institution he labored with 
efficienc}' for eight years, and was advanced to be head- 
teacher and professor of theology. Differing from his 
brethren in their views of church government and disci- 
pline, he concluded to change his ecclesiastical relations, 
«iid to unite with the Lutheran Church, in whose serv- 
iee his lathers had so long lived and labored. In 1809 
he removed to Philadelphia, and for a time had charge 
of a private classical schooL For several years he la- 
bored as a pastor in New Jersey, and in 1815 was elected 
professor of theology in Hartwick Seminary, and princi- 
pal of the classical department. In 1890 he was chosen 
professor of Biblical and Oriental literature, and of the 
German language, in the seminary at Gettysburg, Pa. ; 
and in 1834 he accepted the appointment of professor in 
the theological seminary of the Synod of South Caro- 
lina. All these positions he fitted with abiUty and great 
satiaraction to the Church. He died Feb. 20, 18&8. As 
a Bcholar he occupied a high rank. The doctorate he 
received simultaneously firom Union and Columbia Col- 
kf^ea, K. Y. His attainments in Uterature were varied 
and extensive; He published Life ^flAUher (1818) * — 
MtxUriah for Catediuation (1828) -.-^Augtburg Confet- 
Mionj wiik A nnotatUmt : — History of the Christian Church 
(1842) :—//««/. of the American Lutheran Church (1842) : 
^Life of J, H. Stimng (1881 ). (M. L. a) 

Sa'zer p3Cn, Chafser'y from "isn, to surround or 
inckMe), a word which is of not unfrequent occurrence 
in the Bible in the sense of a ** court" or quadrangle to 
a palace or other building, but which topographicaUy 
aeems geiieraUy employed for the " villages" of people in 
a roving and unsettled life, the semi-permanent ooUec- 
tioDs of dwellings described by traveUers among the 
modem Arabs as consisting of rough stone walls cover- 
ed with the tent-dothsy and thus holding a middle po- 



sition between the tent of the wanderer— so tranmtory 
as to furnish an image of the sudden termination of life 
(Isa. xxxviii, 12)— and the settled, permanent town. See 
ToPOOR/VPHiCAL Terms. 

As a proper name it appears in the A.V. : 1. In the 
plural, Hazkrim, and Hazeroth, for which see below. 
2. In the sUghtly different form of Hazor. 3. In com- 
position with other words, giving a special designation 
to the particular "village" intended. When thus in 
union with another word the name is H azar (q. v.). It 
should not be overlooked that the places so named are 
aU in the wilderness itself, or else quite on the confines 
of civilized country. — Smith, s. v. 

Has'eriin [many Haze'rim] (Hebrew Chatserim', 
D*^'nsn, villages; Sept. 'A^njpw^, Vulg. Haserim), the 
name of a place, or perh. rather a general designation of 
the temporary villages in which the nomade Avites re- 
sided, especiaUy between Gaza and " the river of Egypt" 
or el-Arish (Dent ii, 23). Schwarz suggests {Palestine, 
p. 93) that these " Hazerim" may be a general designa- 
tion of the many towns by the name of Hazor and Ha^ 
ZAR found in this region ; if so, these probably all lay 
near each other; and it is a singular fact that the sites 
of at least two of them, Hazar-gaddah and Hazar-snsah, 
seem to have been immediately adjoining one another. 

Haz'erotb [many Haze' roth] (Heb. Chatseroth% 
ni^sn, villages; Sept 'Aotjoi^, but AvXutv in Deut. i, 
1), the sixteenth station of the IsraeUtes, their third af- 
ter leaving Sinai, and either four or five days' march 
from that mountain towards Canaan (Numb, xi, 35 ; xii, 
16 ; xxxiii, 17, 18 ; Deut i, 1 ; comp. Numb, x, 33). It 
was also the first place after Sinai where the camp re- 
mained for a number of da^'s. Here Aaron and I^Iiriam 
attempted to excite a rebellion against Moses ; and here 
the gtdlty Miriam was smitten with leprosy (Numb. xii). 
Burckhardt suggested {Travelsy p. 495) that it is to be 
found in Aia el-J/udhera, near the usual route from Si- 
nai to the eastern arm of the Red Sea; an identification 
that has generaUy been acquiesced in by subsequent 
traveUers. It is described by Dr. Robinson as a foun- 
tain of tolerably good water, the only perennial one in 
that region, with several low palm-trees aromid it; he 
also remarks that the identification of this spot with 
Hazeroth is important as showing the route of the Is- 
raeUtes from Sinai to the Arabah, which, if it passed 
through this place, must have continued down the val- 
ley to the Red Sea, and could not have diverged through 
the high western plateau of the wUdemess {Restardies^ 
i, 223). See Exode. " Its distance from Sinai accords 
with the Scripture narrative, and would seem to war- 
rant us in identifying it with Hazeroth. There is some 
difiiculty, however, in the position. The country around 
the fountain is exceedingly rugged, and the approaches 
to it difiicult It does not seem a suitable place for a 
large camp. Dr. Wilson mentions an undulating plain 
about fifteen miles north of Sinai, and running * a long 
way to the eastward,' catted el-IIadherah ; and here he 
would locate Hazeroth (Lands of the BiUe, i, 256). Stan- 
ley thinks that the fountain catted el-Ain, some distance 
north of the fountain of Hudhcrah, ought rather to be 
regarded as the site of Hazeroth, because 'Ain is the 
most important spring in this region, ^and must there- 
fore have attracted around it any nomadic settlements, 
such as are impUed in the name Hazeroth, and such as 
that of Israel might have been' {Sinai and PaL p. 82). 
The approach to 'Ain b easy ; the glens around it pos- 
sess some good pastures; and the road from it to the 
i£Umitic Gulf, along whose shore the IsraeUtes appear 
to have marched, is open through the sublime ravine of 
Wetlr. Stitt, those famttiar with the East know with 
what tenacity old names cling to old sites ; and it seems 
in the highest degree probable that the old name Haz- 
eroth is retained in Hudherah. But probably the name 
may have been given to a wide district (Porter, Hand' 
book for S. and PaL i, 87 aq.)" (Kitto, s. v.). Schwarz, 
however {Palest, p. 212), regards the. site as that.of ilm 



HAZEZON-TAMAR 



108 



HAZOR 



d-Kudeirah, a large fountain of sweet running water at 
some distance beyond the ridge which bounds the west- 
ern edge of the interior plateau of the desert et-Tih 
(Robinson's Reaearchet, i, 280) ; a position far too north- 
ward. 

Haz^'ezon-ta'tnar (Hebrew Ch(xttal»on''Tamar% 

"^^Pj V^^?» ^^* ^^f ^« ^P^ 'Avaffov^afiap), or 
Ha1:'AZ0N-TA'>IAR (Heb. [precisely the converse of 
the rendering in the A^Y.] ChatteUon'-Tamar^ "p^iisn 
*^'Qt\ 2 Chron. xx, 2 ; SepL 'Affaaav Oa/iop), the name 
under which, at a veiy early period in the history of 
Palestine, and in a document believed by many to be 
the oldest of all these early records, we first hear of the 
place which afterwards became £n-gedi (q. v.). The 
Amorites were dwelling at Hazazon-Tamar when the 
four kings made their incursion, and fought their suc- 
cessful battle with the five (Gen. xiv, 7). The name 
occurs only once again — ^in the records of the reign of 
Hezekiah (2 Chron. xx, 2) — ^when he b warned of the 
approach of the horde of Ammonites, Moabites, Mehu- 
nim, and men of Mount Seir, whom he afterwards so 
completely destroyed, and who were no doubt pursuing 
thus far exactly the same route as the Assjnrians had 
done a thousand years before them. Here the expla- 
nation, " which is En-gedi," is added. The exbteuce of 
the earlier appellation, after £n-gedi had been so long 
ill use, is a remarkable instance of the tenacity of these 
old Oriental namefs of which more modem instances 
are frequent. See Accho; BETHSAiDA,etc Schwaiz, 
howe%'cr, unnecessarily supposes {Palett, p. 21) the two 
passages to refer to dififerent localities, the earlier of 
which he assigns (on Talmudical evLdenoe) to Zoar (q. 
v.). 

Hazazon-tamar is interpreted in Hebrew to mean the 
"pruning or felling of the pcUmT (Gesen. The$. p. 512), 
or perhaps better, ** a row of painp-trcesT (FUrst, Lex, s. 
v.). Jerome {QueuL in Gen,) renders it urht pahnarum. 
This interpretation of the name is borne out by the an- 
cient reputation of the palms of £n-gedi (Ecdus. xxiv, 
14, and the citations from Pliny, given under that name). 
The Samaritan Vernon has "^ns rbB=the VaUey of 

Cadi, possibly a corruption of En-gedL The Targums 
have En-gedu Perhaps this was the '^dty of palm- 
trees^ (/r hat'temarwn) out of which the Kenites, the 
tribe of Moses's father-in-law, went up into the wilder- 
ness of Judah, after the conquest of the country (Judg. 
i, 16). If this were so, the allusion of Balaam to the 
Kenite (Numb, xxiv, 21) is at once explained. Stand- 
ing as he was on one of the lofty points of the highlands 
opposite Jericho, the western shore of the Dead Sea as 
far as £n-geiU would be before him, and the cliff, in the 
clefts of which the Kenites had fixed their secure 
** nest," would be a prominent object in the view. This 
has been alluded to by Ftof. Stanley {S, and P. p. 225, 
n. 4).— Smith, s. v. De Saulcy (XarraUvej i, 149) and 
Schwaix {Palestine, p. 109) think that a trace of the 
ancient name is preserved in the tract and wady el'ffu- 
tasah (Robinson's Retearcket, ii, 243, 244), a litde north 
of Ain-Jidy. 

Ha'ziel (Heb. OUiziel'y ivc^in, vition of God; Sept 
'A^c^X V. r. 'UiriX), a ^son" of the Gershonite Shimei, 
and chief of the family of Laadan (1 Chron. xxiii, 9). 
B.a 1014. 



I'zo (Heb. Chazo', ITH, perhaps for MITH, vinon; 
Sept. 'A^ai;,Yulg. J zau), one of the sons of Nahor by 
MUcah (Gen. xxii, 22> B.a cir. 2040. The only clew 
to the locality settled by him is to be found in the iden- 
tification of Chesed, and the other sons of Nahor ; and 
hence he must, in idl likelihood, be placed in Ur of the 
Chaldecs, or the adjacent countries. Bunsen {Bibel- 
tcerk, I, ii, 49) suggests Chazene by the Euphrates (Ste- 
phan. Byzaiit.), in Mesopotamia, or the Chazene (Xa- 
iflVTi) in Ass^-ria (Strabo, xvi, p. 736). — Smith. 

'zor (Heb. ChaUwr', 'lixn, viUagt [see Ha- 



ZER-] ; Sept 'Affitfp, but »/ atiKii in Jer. xHx, 28, 80, 88), 
the name of several plaoes. See also £n-Hazob ; Baai^- 
Hazor; Hazor-Hadattah; Hazerim. 

1. A city near the waters of lake Merom (Huleh), 
the seat of Jabin, a powerful Canaanitish king, as ap- 
pears from the summons sent by him to all the neighbor- 
ing kings to assist him against the Israelites (Josh, xi, 1 
-5). He and his confederates were, however, defeated 
and slain by Joshua, and the city burned to the ground 
(Josh, xi, 10-18 ; Josephus, iln/. v, 5, 1) : being the only 
one of those northern cities which was burned by Joshua, 
doubtless because it was too strong and important to 
leave standing in his rear. It was the principal city of 
the whole of North Palestine, ** the head of all those 
kingdoms" (Josh, x, 10; see Jerome, Onomatt, s. v. Asor). 
Like the other strong places of that part, it stood on an 
eminence (bpl. Josh, xi, 13, A.T. '^strength'^y but the 
district around mnst have been on the whole flat, and 
suitable for the manoeuvres of the *^ very many" chariots 
and horses which fonned part of the forces of the king 
of Hazor and his confederates (Josh, xi, 4, 6, 9; Judg. 
iv, 8). But by the time of Deborah and Barak the 
Canaanites had recovered part of the territory then 
lost, had rebuilt Hazor, and were ruled by a king with 
the ancient royal name of Jabin, under whose power 
the Israelites were, in punishment for their sins, re- 
duced. From this yoke they were delivered by Debo- 
rah and Barak, after which Hazor remained in quiet 
possession of the Israelites, and belonged to the tribe of 
Naphtali (Josh, xix, 86; Judg. iv, 2; 1 Sam. zii, 9). 
Solomon did not overlook so important a post, and the 
fortification of Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer, the points 
of defence for the entrance from Syria and Assyria, the 
plain of £sdraelon, and the great maritime lowland re- 
spectively, was one of the chief pretexts for his levy of 
taxes (1 Kings ix, 15). Later still it is mentioned in 
the list of the towns and districts whose inhabitants 
were carried off to Assyria by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 
XV, 29 ; Josephus, A nt, ix, U, 1). We encounter it once 
more in 1 Mace, xi, 67, where Jonathan, after encamp- 
ing for the night at the " water of Gennesar," advances 
to the "plain of Asor" (Josephus, Ant. xiii, 5, 7 ; the 
Greek text of the Maccabees has prefixed an n fh>m the 
preceding word iridiov ; A. Y. '^ Nasor") to meet Deme- 
trius, who was in possession of Kadesh (xi, 68; Jose- 
phus as above). See Nasor. Sauroer queries wheth- 
er it may not have been the ancient town of Naa$tm, 
which king Baldwin IV passed on his way from Tibe- 
riss to Saphet (WilL Tyr. p. 1014) ; and his reason for 
this conjecture is that the Vulgate gives Naason for the 
A»or (Auutp) of Tobit i, 1 (Raimier, Palastina, p. 114, n.). 
SeeAfiOR. 

The name Hazor still lingers in several places around 
the upper valley of the Jordan (Robinson, J9. J?, iii, 68^ 
81, 401). There is one Uazury on a commanding site 
above Csesarea Philippi, and dose to the great castle of 
Subeibeh. Here Keith {Land of Israel, p. 874) and 
Stanley {Sin, and PaL p. 889) would place the ancient 
capital of Canaan. But the territory of Ni^htali hard- 
ly extended so far eastward. Another HatAr is in the 
plain, a few miles west of the site of Dan; but neither 
does this site quite accord with the Scripture notioee 
(Porter's Damascus, i, 304; Van de Velcte, Memoir, p. 
318). Schwarz {Palest, p. 91) thinks a viUage which 
he calls Azur, between Banias and Meshdel (el-Mejel), 
may be the ancient Hazor; he probably refers to the 
Ain d^Uazury marked on Zimmerman's Map a little 
north-east of Banias, which, however, is too far east. 
There is a place marked as Azur on Zimmerman's Map^ 
a little north-east of Kedes (Kadesh), which unques- 
tionably lay in Naphtali ; but M. De Saulcy {NarraL 
ii, 406) denies that this can have been the Hazor of Ja- 
bin (which he distinguishes from the Hazor of Solo- 
mon), and in a long aigument (p. 400-405) he contends 
that it was situated on the site of some extensive ruins, 
which he reports at a place called indefinitely eZ-JTAon, 
on the hills skirting the north-easteriy shore of the lake 



HAZOR 



109 



HEAD 



d-HoIeh, in the direction of Banias. V«n de Ydde 
{MemoiTf p. 818) likewise thinks the Hazor of Joshua 
dxlbrent fiom that of Judges (although both were ruled 
by a Jabin, evidently a hereditary title), and inclines 
to regard £n-Hazor (Josh, xix, 87) as identical with 
the latter, and with a ruined Hazur in the middle of 
Galilee (about two hours from Bint Jebeil) ; while he 
seems to acquiesce in the identification of the eastern 
Hazor with a Hazur (Porter, Damascus, i, 804) or Kasr 
Autar (Seetzen), or, as he himself calls it, Teil Haze, 
covered with remains, and jutting out from Merj A3nm 
towards the Huleh plain. The Hazor of Josh, xix, 86, 
he believes to be TtU Hazur, south-east of Ramah. All 
this, however, la vague and confused. Mr. Thomson, 
who visited this regbn in 1843, believed Hazor may be 
identified with the present castie of Hunin, north of the 
Htdeh {BibaoiJu Sacra, 1816, p. 202). The editor (Dr. 
Robinson), however, thinks the arguments adduced more 
plausible than sound {ib. p. 212), and advocates the opin- 
km of Rev. £. Smith, that Tell Kkurabeh, at the south 
end of the plain of Kedes, is better entided to be re- 
garded as the site of Hazor (BtbUotheca Sacra, 1847, p. 
409). Accordingly, in the new ed. of his Researches, 
after noticing and rejecting several other sites proposed 
(iii, 63, 81, 402), ho at length fixes upon this as best 
agreeing with the ancient notices of this city (ib, p. 
365). There are, as the name Khureibeh, ^ ruins," im- 
plies, some ancient ruins on the tell, but they are those 
of a village. There are still other ruins of an ancient 
town which occupy a commanding site on the south 
bank of wady Hendaj, overlooking the vaUey and lake 
of Merom, and about six miles south of Kedesh, which 
a a not improbable site for the ancient Hazor (Robin- 
son, B&L Res. iii, 863, 365) ; and the plain beneath it, 
stretching to the shore of the lake, might take the name 
of the city Asur, as Josephus seems to indicate (L c). 
Bitter (Erdk, xv, 260) accepts the Hazury proposed by 
Borckhardt {Trav. p. 44) ; apparently the inconsidera- 
ble ruin on the rocky declivity above Banias (Robinson, 
Res, new ed. ill, 402). Captain Wilson prefers the iso- 
lated TeU Harah, covered with ruins, about two miles 
south-east of Kedesh {Jour, Sac Lit, 1866, p. 245). But 
none of these last cited places retain the ancient name. 
Finally, Dr. Thomson is confident (Land and Book, i, 
439) that the true spot is Hazere (the above Hazur of 
Tan de Velde, east of a more northern Ramah), in the 
centre of the mountainous region overhanging lake 
Hokh on the north-west, cont«ning numerous ancient 
remains, and locally connected by tndition with the Is- 
raditiah victory; although Dr. Robinson (incorrectly) 
objects to this site {Bib, Res, new ed. iii, 63) that it is 
too far from the lake, and within the territory of Asber. 

2. A city in the south of Judah (but probably not 
one of those assigned to Simeon, since it is not named in 
the list. Josh, xix, 1-9), mentioned between Kedesh (Ka- 
dcdi-Bamea) and Ithnan (Josh, xv, 23, where the Vat 
ILSL of the Sept. unites with the following name, 'A(rop- 
tmvav, Alex. MSb omits, Vulg. A sor). We may reason- 
ably coDjectore that this was the central town of that 
name, the other Hazors of the same connection (Hazor- 
Uadattah, and Kerioth-Hezron or Hazor-Amam) being 
probably so called for distinction' sake ; and in that case 
we may perhaps locate it at a mined site marked on 
Van de Velde's JTop as Tc^ibeh (the et-Taiyib of Rob- 
inson, Res, iii. Appendix, p. 114), on a tell around the 
south-west base of which runs the wady ed-Dheib, 
emptying into the Dead Sea. See Nos. 8 and 4. 

3. Hazob-Hadattah (for so the Heb. nWlT\ "lisn, 
Le. iVev Hazor, should be understood; since there is no 
copula between the words, and the sense in verse 32 re- 
quires this condensation ; Sept. omits, Yulg. A sor nova), 
a city in the south of Judah (but not the extreme Sim- 
eonite portion), mentioned between Bealoth and Keri- 
ctik (Josh. XV, 25) ; probably, as suggested in Keil and 
Dditz8ch*8 Commentary, ad loc (Edinb. ed. p. 160), the 
nnned site el-Hud&airah of Robinson's Researches (iii, 
Appeod. p. 114), south of Hebron, in the immediate vi- 



cinity of el-Beyndh (the Beiyudh of Van de Yelde'a 
Map, about haif way between Kerioth and Arad). See 
Kos. 2. and 4. 

4. Hazor- Amax (to be so joined for the same rea- 
sons as in No. 2). probably identified with Kenoth-Her- 
zon (in the Heb. the four names stand li'^^H m'*^;? 
OW nisn tiC^r},viUages o/Cheisron which isCAotoor- 
Amam; Sept ai voXtig *A*n(mv [v. r. 'A(rep4a/iJ, aUnj 
iari 'Affwp, rai 'A^a^ [v. r. 'Affepa;/xa/x] ; Vulg. Carioth, 
Hesron, hoc est A sor, Amam), a town in the south of 
Judah (but apparentiy not in the SLmeonite territory'), 
mentioned between Bealoth and Shema (Josh, xv, 24- 
26) ; no doubt (if thus combined) the modem el-KhU' 
reyetem, as suggested by Robinson {Researches, iii, Ap- 
pend, p. 114). See Kerioth. 

5. (Vat. MS. of Sept omits; Vulg. A sor.) A city 
inhabited by the Benjamites ailer the Captivity, men- 
tioned between Ananiah and Ramah (Neh. xi, 33) ; pos- 
sibly the modem Gazur, a short distance east of Jaffa 
(for others of the associated names, although likewise 
within the ancient territor}'^ of Dan, are also assigned to 
Benjamin), since Eusebius and Jerome {Ononuist, s. v. 
Asor) mention a Hazor in the vicinity of Ascalon, al- 
though they assign it to Judah, and confound it with 
those m the south of that tribe- (Robuison's Researches, 
ii, 370, note). From the places mentioned with it, as 
Anathoth, Nob, Ramah, etc., it would seem to have lain 
north of Jerusalem, and at no great distance therefrom. 
Schwaiz thinks it is called Chasor C-iDH) m the Tal- 
mudical writers {Palest, p. 162). Robinson suggests the 
identity of Hazor and the modem TeU A sur, a ruin on a 
little hill about six miles north of Bethel {Bib, Res. li, 
264, note). This, however, appears to be too far from 
Ramah. Tobler mentions a ruin called Khurbet A rsur, 
near Ramah, a littie to the west, the situation of which 
would answer better to Hazor {Topogr, ii,400; Van de 
Velde, Memoir, p. 319). The place in question is prob- 
ably the same with the Baal-hazor (q. v.) of 2 Sam. 
xui,23. 

6. A region of Arabia, spoken of as an important 
place, in the vicinity of Kedar, in the prophetic denun- 
ciations of desolation upon both by Nebuchadnezzar 
(Jer. xlix, 28-33). It can hardly be Petra, as supposed 
by Vitringa {on Isa,, i, p. 624), nor the Asor placed by 
Eusebius 8 miles west of Philadelphia ( Hitzig, /effoia^ 
p. 196), but probably is a designation of the confines of 
Arabia with south-eastern Palestine, inhabited by no- 
made tribes dwelling in mere encampments. See Ha- 

ZAR. 

HazBurlm. See Hblkath-hazzurim. 

Head (properly X^TX^, rosh, Ki^akri), the topmost 

part of the human body. 

I. AnatojnicaUy considered, the general character of 
the human head is such as to establish the identity of 
the human race, and to distinguish man from every oth- 
er animaL At the same time, diflerent families of man- 
kind are marked by peculiarities of construction in the 
head, which, though in individual cases, and when ex- 
tremes are compared together, they run one into the 
other, to the entire loss of distinctive lines, yet are in the 
general broadly contrasted one with the other. These 
peculiarities in the structure of the skull give rise to and 
are connected with other peculiarities of feature and 
general contour of face. In the union of cranial pecul- 
iarities with those of the face, certain clear marks are 
presented, by which physiologists have been able to 
range the individuals of our race into a few great class- 
es, and in so doing to afford an unmtentional corroborar 
tion of the information which the Scriptures afford re- 
garding the origin and dispersion of mankind. Cam- 
per, one of the most learned and clear-mhided phj^- 
cians of the 18th century, has the credit of being the 
first who drew attention to the classification of the hu- 
man features, and endeavored, by means of what he 
termed the facial angle, to furnish a method for distin- 
guishing different nations and races of men, whichi be> 



^ 



HEAD 



110 



HEAD 



ing himself an eminent limner, he derigned for applica- 
tion chiefly in the art of drawing, and which, though 
far from producing strictly definite and 8ci^ntific results, 
jret afTords views that are not without interest, and ap- 
proximations that at least prepared the way for some- 
thing better (see a collection of Campers pieces entitled 
(Euvres qui outpour Ob/et VHistoire NaturdU, la Phytir' 
(Aogie^ et VA natomie comparh, Paris, 1803). It is, how- 
ever, to the celebrated J. F. Blumenbaeh, whose merits 
in the entire sphere of natural history are so transcend- 
ent, that we are mainly indebted for the accurate and 
satisfactory classifications in regard to cranial structure 
which now prevail. Camper had observed that the 
breadth of the head difTers in dilTerent nations; that 
the heads of Asiatics (the Kalmucs) have the greatest 
breadth ; that those of Europeans have a middle degree 
of breadth ; and that the skuUs of the African negroes 
are the narrowest of alL This circumstance was by Blu- 
menbaeh made the foundation of his arrangement and 
description of skulls. By comparing different forms of 
the human cranium together, that eminent physiologist 
was led to recognise three groat t^'pes, to yrhich all oth- 
ers could be referred — the Caucasian, Mongolian, and 
Ethiopic These three differ more w^idely from each 
other than any other that can be found; but to these 
three, Blumenbaeh, in his classification of skulls, and of 
the races of men to which they belong, added two oth- 
ers, in many respects intermediate between the three 
forms already mentioned. In this way five classes arc 
established, corresponding with five great familiee. 1. 





Forms oi ^$knIls of different races: 1, Ethiopian : 8, Mon- 
golian ; 3, Cancasian ; 4, Malay ; 6, American Savage. 

The Caucasian family, comprising the nations of Europe, 
some of the Western Asiatics, etc, have the head of the 
most symmetrical shape, almost round, the forehead of 
moderate extent, the cheek-bones rather narrow, with- 
out any projection, but a direction downwards from the 
molar process of the firontal bone ; the alveolar edge 
well rounded; the front teeth of each jaw placed per- 
pendicularly ; the face of oral shape, straight, features 
moderately prominent; forehead arched; nose narrow, 
slightly arched; mouth small; chin full and round. 2. 
The second is the Mongolian variety. 8. Ethiopian. 4. 
Malay and South Sea Islanders. 6. American. The de- 
scription of their peculiarities may be found in Prich- 
ard's Researches into the Phytical History o/M(m,2d ed. 
i, 167 sq. The reader may also consult Lawrence's />(- 
turet on the Natural History qfMan; J. Muller's Uandr 



tecA der Pkysiologie. But the moat recent, if not the 
best work on the subject before us is Prichard*s NcUtuvl 
History of Man (1843), a woik which comprises and re- 
views, in the spirit of a sound philoaophy, aU that has 
hitherto been written and discovered on the origin, phys- 
ical structure, and propagation over the earth of the race 
of man. In this invaluable work full details may be 
found of the methods of studying the human head of 
which we have spoken, and of some others, not leas in- 
teresting in themselves, nor less valuable in their results 
(see particularly p. 116 sq.)« — Kltto, a. v. 

II. Scriptural References^— Thla part of the human 
body has generally been considered as the abode of in- 
telligence, while the heart, or the parts placed near it, 
have been accounted the place where the afTectiona lie 
(Gen. iii, 15 ; Psa. iii, 3 ; Eccles. ii, 14). The head and 
the heart are sometimes taken for the entire person (Isa. 
i, 5). Even the head alone, as being the chief member, 
frequently stands for the man (Prov. x, 6). The head 
also denotes sovereignty (1 Cor. xi, 3). Covering the 
head, and cutting off the hair, were signs of mourning 
and tokens of distress, which were enhanced by throw- 
ing ashes on the head, together with sackcloth (Amos 
viii, 10; Job i, 20 ; Lev. xxi, 5 ; Deut. xiv, 1 ; 2 Sam. xiii, 
10; Esth.iv, 1); while anointing the head was practised 
on festive occasions, and considered an emblem of fe- 
licity (Eccle& ix, 8 ; Pml xxiii, 5 ; Luke vii, 46). See 
ANoiirr. It was not unusual to swear by the head 
(Matt. V, 86).— Kitto, s. v. The phrase to lift up the head 
of any one, is to exalt him (Psa. iii, 8 ; ex, 7) ; and to 
return or yire hack upon one*s head, is to be requited, rec- 
ompensed (Psa. vii, 16 ; Joel iii, 4 ; Ezek. ix, 10 ; xi, 21 ; 
xvi, 43 ; xWi, 19 ; xxii, 81). So, your blood be on your 
otm heads (Acts xviii, 6) ; the guilt of your destruction 
rests upon yourselves (2 Sam. i, 16; 1 Kings ii, 83, 87). 
The term head is used to signify the chief one to whom 
others are subordinate; the ^^mce of a people or stilto 
(Judg. x, 18; xi, 8; 1 Sam. xv, 17; Psa. xviii, 43; Isa. 
\\\, 8, 9) ; of a family, the head, chief, patriarch (Exod. 
\'i, 14; Numb, vii, 2; 1 Chron. v, 24) ; of a husband in 
relation to a wife (Gen. iii, 16 ; 1 Cor. xi, 3 ; Eph. v, 23). 
So of Christ the head in relation to his Church, which is 
his body, and its members his members (1 Cor. xii, 27 ; 
xi,3; Eph. i, 22; iv,16; v,28; CoLi,I8; ii,10,19); of 
God in relation to Christ (1 Cor. xi, 8). Jlead is also 
used for what is highest, uppermost ; the top, summit of a 
mountain (Gen. xiu, 6 ; Exod. xvii, 9, 10 ; xix, 20). The 
mountain of the Lord's house shall be established at the 
head of the mountains, and shall be higher than the 
hills, L e. it shall be a prince among the mountains (Isa. 
ii, 2). Four heads of rivers, i. e. four rivers into which 
the waters di\nde themselves (Gen. ii, 10). Head stone 
of the comer (Psa. cxviii, 22), either the highest, form- 
ing the top or coping of the comer; or lowest, which 
forms the foundation of the buDding. — Bastow, See 
Corner. 

IIL Hair of the Head (5'?B) was by the Hebrews 
worn thick and full as an ornament of the person (comp. 
Ezek. viii, 8 ; Jer. vii, 29) ; a bald head, besides exposing 
one to the suspicion of leprosy (Lev. xiii, 43 sq.), was al- 
ways a cause of mortification (2 Kings ii. 23 ; Isa. iii, 17, 
24 ; cnmp. Sueton. Ctes. 45 ; Domit, 18 ; Homer, Iliad, ii, 
219; Hariri, 10, p. 99, ed. Sacy) ; among the priestly or- 
der it therefore amounted to a positive disqualification 
(Lev. xxi, 20 ; Mishna, Bechoroth, vii, 2) ; among the 
Egyptians, on the contrary, the hair was regnlariy 
shorn (Gen. xli, 14), and only allowed to go imcut in 
seasons of mouming (Herod, ii, 36). Hair so long as to 
descend to the shoulders, however, seems only in early 
times to have been the habit, in the male sex, with 
youth (2 Sam. xiv, 16; Joseph. Ant. viii, 7, 3; Horace, 
Od. ii, 5, 21 ; iii, 20, 14). Men cropped it from time to 
time with shears C^^P), fl^l^; comp. Ezek. xliv, 20, 
and the ko/iti fiiKpa of the Babylonians, Strabo xvi, 746). 
See, however, Nazarite. Among the late Jews long 
hair in men was esteemed a weakness (1 Cor. xi, 14; 



HEAD 



111 



HEAD-DRESS 



comp. Flntarch, QucBtf, Rom, xiv ; Clem. Alex. PcbcL iii, 
106 ; Epiphui. Hter. Ixvtii, 6 ; Jerome ad JCtecJu xliv) ; 
but it waa otherwise in Sparta (Aristot Rhet, i, 9 ; He- 
rod, i, 82 ; Xenoph. Lac. xi, 3 ; comp. Ari«toph. A n, 1287 
sq.) ; and to the priests any curtailment of it was for- 
bidden (Otho, Lex. Rabb. p. 118; for the long hair on 
the Pexsepolitan remains, see Niebuhr, Trav» iu 128 ; and 
for that of the Asiatic priests in general, see Movers, 
PkSmc i, 682 : on the Assyrian monuments it is always, 
in the case of natives at least, represented as long and 
elaborately curled; see LAyard, passim). Only in cases 
of religious vows did males suffer it to grow uncut (Acts 
xvUi, 18; see Kuinol, ad loc.). Females, on the contra- 
rv, set great value upon the hair (1 Cor. L c. ; compare 
Cant, iv, 1 ; Luke vii, 88; John xi, 2 [Rev. ix, 8] ; Phi- 
kistr. Ep. 26 ; Plutareh, De vit mre aL iii ; Harmer, iii, 
319; Rosenmttller, MorgenL vi, 108; Kype, Obserw. ii, 
220). There were various modes of putting up the hair 
(Ezek. xliv, 20 ; comp. Herod, iv, 175, 191) ; and it was a 
statate that men should not cut off the earlocks (nXB 
"iljjn. Lev. xix, 27 ; A. V. " round the comers of the 
head*^). Women, especially, were wont to curl the hair 
(Fsa. iii, 24; see (aesen. ad loc ; comp. Serv. ad ^n. xii, 
98), and to biaid it (2 Kings ix, 30 ; Judith x, 8 ; 1 Pet, 
iii, 3 ; 1 Hm. ii, 9 ; comp. Joseph. War, iv, 9, 10 ; Homer, 
ILUSaO; xiv, 175; Harmer, ii, 881 : to go with dishev- 
elled hair Ipassis erimbus] was a mark of grief, 8 Mace, i, 
9: comp. Luke vii, 38; Light foot, t>/>p. p. 1081; but rus- 
tic maidens often let the hair fall in loose tresses [}^^^, 
Cjnt. vii, 6 ; comp. Anacr. xxix, 7 ], merely bound v^-ith a 
ribbon), or even to interweave it with gems or other 
finery (//iad^xvii,52), and in later times to ornament it 
mQ3t elaborately (see Lightfoot,0/3/7.p.498; Hartmaun, 
J/rbr, ii, 208 sq.). See Head-dress. Even men some- 
times appeared with curls (Joseph. A nt, xiv, 9, 4 ; comp. 
ir/fr,iv,9,10; PhUo,t>/!p.ii,479; Plutarch, /.yciin;. 22), 
which, however, was generally disapproved (Philo, Opp, 
ii,306,479; Cicero,^«f.8; Artemid.ii,6; Martial, ii, 36; 
Phocj-L Senieat. 194 sq.; Clement Alexand. Pad, iii, p. 
101 ). Combi are nowhere mentioned in the O. T. (other 
nations knew them, Ovid, Fast, i, 405 ; Petron. Sat, 126 ; 
ApuL.45ui. ii, p. 213; comp. Hind, xiv, 176), although 
they, as well as hair-pins, are refer:?d to in the Talmud 
(llartmann, p. 224 sq.). Hair-powii?r was unknown to 
the ancientjb O.i the other hand, they used to anoint 
the hair with costly oils (Psa. xxiii, 6 ; cxxxiii, 2 : Matt 
vi, 17 ; Luke vii, 46; Joseph. ArU, xix, 4, 1 ; as alao non- 
Jewbh nations, Plutarch, Praop/>^a conjug, 29; Horace, 
OJL ii, 11, 16; iii, 29, 2; Ovid, Ars Am. i, 505; Tibul. i, 
751 ; Suetonius, Ctts. 67 ; ApuL Metam, ii, 30, Bip.), and 
^ave it a brilliant lustre by a mixture of gold-dust in 
these unguents (Joseph. A nt, viii, 7, 3 ; comp. Lamprid. 
Commod, 17), as the hair of Orientals is generally black 
(Cant, iv, 1 ; v, 11 : David's rufous hair is named as pe- 
culiar, 1 Sam. xvl, 12). A common method of dressing 
the hair among many ancient tuitions (Pliny, xv, 24 ; 
xxiii, 32, 46 ; xxvi, 93 ; xxviii, 51 ; Athen. xii, 542 ; VaL 
Uax. ii, 1, 5 ; Diod. Sic. v, 28 ; but not among the (creeks, 
noiarch, ApoiAt, reg, p. 19, Tauchn.), and one highly 
esteemed by modern Orientals, namely, to stain it red- 
ciifih-yeliow by means of heima [see Camphire], al- 
though perhaps not unknown to the Hebrewesses (see 
Cant, vii, 5), as an imitation of the generally prized 
gulden-hued locks {,fiaci crmet) of antiquitv (//wrf, i, 
i97; ij,642; Viig.y*;«.iv,549; Ovid, /Vm/.u; 763; Stat. 
AchiL i, 162 ; Petron. Sat. 105 ; Apul Afetam. ii, 25, Bip. ; 
see BjDockhus. ad TtbuU, i, 6, 8), was a practice that 
does not appear to have anciently prevailed in the East ; 
and modem Arabs are only accustomed to dye the hair 
when gray (Niebuhr, TVor, i, 803). False hair has been 
incorrectly inferred from the Mishiui {Shabb. vi, 5), al- 
though used among the Medians (comp. Xenoph. Cyr. i, 
3, 2; Kofuxi rpoa^tTot), and occasionally by old men 
(Ovid, vl r«^jn. iii, 16), or for some special purpose (Polyb. 
iii, 78; Petron. Sat. 110; Juven. Sat, vi, 120: Josephus 
cjoodemna its ose^ ircptdfrj) icoptj, lA/e, 11) ; but wigs, 



although common in ancient Egypt (see Wilkinson, idfia 
ICff, ii, 325, 326, 329), are unknown in the modem East 
(see Nikolai, Ceb. d, faUchen JIaare u. Periidben in aU, 
u, n. Zei/, Berl 1801 ; Heindorf, on Horat Satir, p. 183; 
Beroald, on ApoL Met. p. 244; Fabric. BibUoffr. Antiq. p. 
847). See generally Schwebel, De vett. in capiUis or- 
nandis studio (Onold. 1768). On the treatment of the 
hair in mourning, see Grief. See Junius, De oomoj c 
animad.Gmteri (Amst 1708) ; Salmasius, De ctesarie vi- 
ror. ft coma mulier. (L R 1644) ; Henning, De capillis 
vett. (Magdeb. 1678).— Winer, i,449. Compare Hair. 

Head-band (only in pL D'^'^ll'p, kishshurim', from 
"^^i^i to ff*'f^j rather a girdle or belt, probably for the 
waist, as a female ornament (Isa. iii, 20; ** attire," Jer. 
ii, 32). See Head-dress. 

Headdi. See Heddx 

Head-dreBB. The Hebrews do not appear to have 
regarded a covering for the head as an essential article 
of ever^'-day dress. See H ead-band. The earliest no- 
tice we have of such a thing is in connection with the 
sacerdotal vestments, and in this case it is described as 
an ornamental appendage *'for glor>' and for beauty" 
(Exod. xxviii, 40). See Mitre. The absence of any 
allusion to a head-dress in passages where we should 
exi^ect to meet with it, as in the trial of jealousy (Numb, 
v, 18), and the regulations regarding the leper (Lev. 
xiii, 45), in both of which the " uncovering of the head" 
refers undoubtedly to the hair, leads to the inference 
that it was not ordinarily worn in the Mosaic age ; and 
this is confirmed by the practice, frequently alluded to, 
of covering the head with the mantle. Even in after 
times it seems to have been resented especially for pur- 
poses of ornament : thus the tsaniph' (^*^3^) is noticed 
as being worn by the nobles (Job xxix, 14), ladies (Isa. 
iii, 23), and kings (Isa. Ixii, 3), while the peir' pMB) 
was an article of holiday dress (Isa. Ixi, 3, Auth.yer8. 
"beauty;" Ezek. xxiv, 17, 23), and was worn at wed- 
dings (Isa. Ixi, 10) : the use of the pir^ was restricted 
to similar occasions (Judith xvi, 8; Bar. v, 2). The 
former of these terms undoubtedlv describes a kind of 
turban : its primary sense (7|93C, ^ to roll around") ex- 
presses the folds of linen wound round the head, and its 
form probably resembled that of the high-priest*s mits- 
ne'pheth (a word derived from the same root, and iden- 
tical in meaning, for in Zech. iii, 5, tsaniph— mitsne' 
pheth), as described by Josephus {Ant, iii, 7, 3). The 
renderings of the term in the A. V., " hood" (Isa. iii, 23), 
"diadem" (Job xxix, 14; Isa. Ixii, 3), "mitre" (Zech. 
iii, 5), do not convey the right idea of its meaning. The 
other term, peer, primarily means an ornament , and is 
so rendered in the A. V. (Isa. Ixi, 10; see also verse 3, 
" beauty"), and is specifically applied to the head-dress 
from its ornamental character. See Diadem.  It is 
uncertain what the term properly describes : the mod- 
em turban consists of two parts, the kaukf a stiff, round 
cap occasionally rising to a considerable height, and the 
ahashf a long piece of muslin wound about it (Russell, 
Aleppoj i, 104) : Josephus's account of the high-priest's 
head-<lres8 implies a similar constraction, for he says 
that it was made of tliick bands of linen doubled round 
many times, and sewn together, the whole covered by 
a piece of tine linen to conceal the seams. SaalschUtz 
(.4rc^a;o/. i, 27, note) suggests that the tsaniph and the 
pe^r represent the shash and the haul', the latter rising 
high above the other, and so the most prominent and 
striking feature. In favor of this explanation it may be 
remarked that the peir is more particularly connected 
with the migbaah, the high cap of the ordinary priests, 
in Exod. xxxix, 28, while the tsaniph, as we have seen, 
resembled the high-priest's mitre, in which the cap was 
concealed by the linen folds. The objection, however, 
to this explanation is that the et^onological fbrce of 
peir is not brought out : may not that term have ap- 
plied to the Jewels and other ornaments with which the 
turban is frequently decorated (Russell, i, 106). The 



HEAD-DRESS 




Hcii-ittttm of Ar»bl«n «ud Tnrklib Fcnmles. 




ID. (From I^nt.) 



term used for putting on dther tlie tiatiSpi or Uu ptir 
UC5n,"tobinilroiiiiil" (Exod. xxix, 9 ; Lev. viii, [3) ; 
hence tbe wonU in Ezek. xvi, 1 0, " 1 ginlpd t\ux iboul 
with Uric linen," are to be underBtood ot the lurbin; 
and by the use of the same term Jonah (ii, fi) reprtscnu 
[he weeds wrapped as a liitban ronml his head. The 
turban, as iiour worn in the East, varies vety mucli iu 
Bhape (Russell's Altj^, i, 102). It appean that fre- 
quently the raba niiiplied the place o^ahesd-dtes^ be- 
ing BO ample that they might be throtiu over the head 
■t pleasure : the radid and the Itdlph, it all events, wen 
so used [see Dkebs], anil the veil served a umilar pur- 
poee. SeeVEiL. Thcoidinaij-hcwI-dresaoftlieBcclouin 
consists of the krffiyeh, a square handkerchief, getienlly 
of red and yellow cotton, or cotton and ulk, fulikd to 
that three of tbe comers hang down over the back acil 
ahoulden, leaving the face exposed, KoA boiuid mind 
the head by a cord (Burckhaidt. AVm, i, 48). It ia not 
iniproliable that a similar covering wu used by the He- 
lirewB on certain occaiions: tbe "keichJeP in Ezek. 
itiii, 18 has been so understood by tome writers |Hai- 
mer, (MufTro/u™, ii, 398), though the word more prob- 
ably lefen to a species of veili and the m^iiiivSiav 




Yarions Forms of the modem Terbsn. 




Bedouin Be>d.dRsa, or Krglyth. 
K, 12, A.Ten.''apron'0, as e:iplained 1^ Suidas 



(rd rqc Jtt^X^c fifnipa), was applicable to the pur- 
poses of a heart-dreaa. See llAMDKEitritiEP. Neither 
of Iherc cased, however, supplies positive evidence on 
the point, and the jfenenl absence of allusions leads to 
the inference that the head was uFually unrovercd. as is 
still the case in many parts of Arabia (Wellsteil, Trar- 
(fa,i,73). TheinlroductionoftheCJreek hat (iriraao%.) 
hy Jason, as an article of drew adapted to the i^ynmn- 
num, wsB legarded as a national diBbonor (2 Mace iv, 
12) : in shi4>e and material the prtami very^ much re- 
sembled the common felt hats of this cmmtry <.SiDilh, 
i)irf.o//litf.8.v.Kleus).— Smith,B.v. Sec BosKhrr. 

The monanients and paintings in the toml>s of £f^-^ 
supply us with numerous fonns of head-d wm a t » ; aii^ 
there'is no duubt that many of these weic the prevail- 
ing eoatume at the period when the Israelites soJouttic^ 
there. Among the ruins of PersepoliB are fnund nu 
merous sculptures which gire the shape of VBritms cot- 



HEAD-DRESS 




^n tbii lart oT the toilet uiiDng the AssyrUn* end 

BiMixiiiiB is ■bundintly illuatrited in the voluiiKS of 
Bmi iDd Layud. "The Afflymn head-dre« ii de- 




njln of C7TIU : B, SiCTO^ 
•Tibed in Ezek. xxiii, 15, under the Urna ^rw^D 
=*^p,'exceedini; in dyed attire;' it is doubtful, how- 
Tir. whetber btdttn describee the colored nulcriBl of 
 (ftont  coloiibui qnibua tineta: Biiil); 
a haa been aMgned to it more ■ppmpiiMt 
IV.— H 



HEAL 



tothedeacriptioii oritiiriian (JokHi iiirali!il,Geaemxa, 
Tietcainu, p. Mi). The uKKiited lEmi leruchiy ex- 
prenei the tioviug chtrsctcr of the Eutem head-dret^ 
■3 it fkUi down ovei the back (Uyuil, AawTfA, ii,S08). 
The word rendered ' hate" in Dan. iii, SI (Xb?"??) prop- 
erly applies la  cfcoit" (Smith). 

The Dia'^at^, t/atiiim' (laa. iii, 18), rendered in our 
Tenion "caul^'or, uin the mar^n, "neln-orki," were 
moat proliabiy some kind oTreticulateil heid-drcraes, and 
BO the word 'a luideTBtood in the Talmud. See Cavi. 

A very peculiar kind of heid-drew worn in some 
parts of Palestine, eepecially by the Druses of Mount 
Lebanon, and Ihooght to be referred to by the 'i~^p., te'- 
ren, or "horn" of 1 Sara, ii, 1, is the laalura'. ' It is 
nude of gold or silver, frequently of other metal either 
gilt orailvet-platedjandsonielinieBof mere vfood. The 
more coetlj ones are highly ornamented, and occauou- 




ith jewels ; but the length and position of 
tnem is tnat upon which the tr&veller looks with the 
greatest interest, as illustrating and explaining a lamit 
iar expiession of Scripture. The young, the rich, and 
(be vain wear the taaitira of great lengtli, standing 
straight up fVom the top of the Ibiehead ; whereas the 
bumble, the poor, and the aged place it upon the ude 
of the bead, much shorter, and spreading at the end like 
a trumpet. See Horn. 

For other forms of royal head-dreBsea, lee Crowk. 
For mllitaiy ones, see Helmbt. 

Head of the Church, a title which propeHy be- 
longs only to Christ (Ephes. v, 23), as the Suprane Gov- 
tntor of the whale bodg at the foithfuL It ia apphed to 
the SDTeitign of Great Britain as the nder of the tem- 
poralities ei the Church. "Some have imagined (the 
memben of the Komish Church, for uistaace) that the 
Christian workl is 'permat^nlly,' and from generation 
to generation, aubjcct to some one spiritual ruler (wheth- 
er an indii-idual man or a Church), the delegate, repre- 
sentative, and vicegerent of Christ, whose authority 
should be binding on the eonscience of all, and decisive 
on every point of faith." But, had such been our Lord's 
deugiv he could not possibly have bukd, when promis- 
ing h'la disciples "another Comforter, who should abide 
with them forever," to refer Ihem to the man or body 
of men who should, in perpetual succession, be the de- 
pository of this divine consolation and supremacy. It 
is also ijicredible, had such been our Lord's purpose, that 
tte himself should be perpetually spoken of and alluded 
to as the Head of his Church, without any reference to 
any supreme head on earth as fully reptesenting him, 
and bearing universal rule in his name. It is clear, 
therefore, that the Christian Church universal has no 
spiritual head on earth (Eden, Ckurdmuais DiclionarT/, 
a. v.). See Pope j Papacy ; Prihact. 

He&I (properly M'^,Sipairii<a) is used in Scripture 

the wider sense of airing in general, as applied to 






>e of restoring from apostasy. See 



HEAP 



114 



HEART 



Heap. The Hebrew word lS^7Ji, ffodith', rendered 
<( tomb" in Job xxi, 32, and ** heap*' in the margin, prop- 
erly signifies a ttatkj a heap, hence a tomb, tunmltu, a 
•epulchral monnd that was made by a pile of earth or 
stones. The ancient tumuli were heaps of earth or 
stone, and probably sach a pile was usuaUy made over 
a grave as a monument. Travellers in the East have 
often seen heapn of stones covering over or marking the 

place of graves. The Hebrew phrase b^ji D^32K b|i, 
gcd abamm' gadol', rendered '^ a great heap of stones," 
refers to the heaps or tumuli which were raised over 
those whose death was either infamous or attended with 
some very remarkable circumstances. Such was the 
monument raised over the grave of Achan (Josh, vii, 
26) ; and Over that of the king of Ai (Josh, viii, 29). 
The burying of Absalom was distinguished by a similar 
erection, as a monument of his disgrace to future ages 

(2 Sam. xviii, 17). The same word b|i, gal, is com- 
monly used in reference to the heaps or ruuu of waUs 
and cities (Job viii, 17 ; Isa. xxv, 2 ; li, 87; Jcr. ix, 10). 
Modem travellers abundantly testify to the accurate 
fulfilment of Scripture prophecy in relation to the sites 
of numerous ancient cities, particularly of such as were 
doomed to become desolate heaps (Bastow). See PiLr 
lar; Stone. Other Heb. terms translated heap are: 
nphy cho'mer, a pik (Exod. viii, 14, elsewhere a ho- 
XER, as a measure) ; "^I^IS, m«t', a heap of rubbish (Isa. 
xvii, 1) ; *73, ned, a mound (Isa. xvii, 11 ; poet, of waves, 
Exod. XV, 8; Josh, iii, 18, 16; Psa. xxxiii, 7; Ixxviii, 
18) ; n^1^9, aremah', a pile (e. g. of rubbish, Neh. iii, 
84 ; of grain. Cant vii, 8 ; of sheaves, Ruth iii, 7 ; Nch. 
xiii, 15; Hag. ii, 16, etc) ; bt|}, lei, a hill (Josh, xi, 13 ; 
espec. a mound of rubbish, DeuL xii, 17 ; Josh, viii, 28 ; 
Jer. xlix, 2, etc) ; with others of a more miscellaneous 
ugnification. See Mound. 

HearexB (audientei), a name ^vcn to a class of 
catechumens in the early Church who were admitted 
to hear sermons and scriptures read in the church, but 
were not allowed to share in the prayers. The Apos- 
tolical Constitutions (lib. viii, c 5) orders the deacon to 
dismisB them with the words Ne quit audtentium, ne 
quis infidelium (" I^et none of the hearers, let none of the 
unbelievers, be present"), before the proper liturgy be- 
gan. See Bingham, Or^. Eedes, bk. viii, cL. 4 ; bk. x, 
ch. 2 ; bk. xviii, ch. 1. 

Heane or Hene (from Lat. herpix, Low Lat her^ 
da, French hene, a harrow). The Low Latin hercia also 
signified a candelabrum, shaped like a harrow, which was 
placed at the head of a grave, a coflSn, or a cenotaph. In 
the Middle Ages the name herse was applied to a cano- 
py (in Italian, catafaloo), which was placed over the cof- 
fins of the distingiushed dead, while they were kept in 
the chureh previous to interment Herses were also 
frequently prepared to receive the bodies of the dead in 
churches, at stations along the route^ where they were 
being borne to a distance for final interment Herses 
were often made with great magnificence. They were 
frequently adorned with illustrations of the last judg- 
ment, and other subjecta taken from the Scriptures. 
Candles were set in sockets in great numbers, and were 
kept burning as long as the corpse remained in the 
herse. The name herse was also applied to a frame of 
wood or of metal that was placed over some of the re- 
clining statues which were so frequently put over the 
tombs of distinguished persons. Over this herse a pall 
was frequently hung. The modem use of the word 
hearse is confined to a frame-work or a wagon to bear 




the dead to the grave. The hearse varies greatly in 
form and ornamentation in different countries. — Diez, 
Etymoloffisches Wdrterbuch (Bonn, 1861) ; Parker, Diet, 
of Architecture (Oxford, 1850) ; Migne, Dictiomnaire des 
Origines (Paris, 1864). (G. F. C) 

Heart, in the Biblical sense (xapiia ; db or ^3^, 
often exchanged for 21? J?, in a more extended sense, as 
in Psa. xxxix,3,4; cix, 22; 1 Sam. xxv,37, the whole 
region of the chest, with its contents ; see Delitzsch, 
System of Biblical Psychology, § 12, 13. According to 
Hupfeld, Sbn, m Paa. xvii, 10, and Ixxiii, 7, means aim- 
ply the heart, which is not very likely). 

1. In the Biblical point of view, human life, in all ita 
operations, is centred in the heart. The heart is the 
central organ of the physical circulation ; hence the ne- 
cessity for strengthening the body as a support for the 
heart (sb ISO, Gen. xviii, 6; Judges xix, 5; Pisa, dv, 
15) ; and the exhaustion of physical power is called a 
drying up of the heart (Psa. cii, 5; xxii, 15, etc). So, 
also, is the heart the centre of spiritual activity; for 
all spiritual aims, whether belonging to the intellectu- 
al, moral, or pathological spheres, are elaborated in the 
heart, and again carried out by the heart In fact, the 
whole life of the soul, in the lower and sensual, as well 
as in the higher spheres, has its origin in the heart 
(Prov. iv, 23, " For out of it are the issues of life"). In 
order to follow this train of thought, and to establish in 
a clearer light the Biblical view of the heart, it will be 
best to consider the relation the heart bean to the aoul 

(i^XV) ^9.?)* "^^^ ^ o°<^ ^^ ^^c difficult questions in 
Biblical psychology; Olshausen (in the Abh.de naturm 
humana irichotomia, opusc, theol. p. 159) saj's, " Omnium 
longe difHcillimum est accurate definire quidnam discri- 
men in N. T. inter yf/vxnv ct Kapiiap intercedat" "Sex- 
ertheless, the task is fVicilitated by the fact that there is 
essential agreement on this point in the anthropologies 
of the Old and New Testament 

(1) We first note that, while, as before said, the heart 
is the centre of all the functions of the soul's life, the 
terms " heart" and ^' pouI" are often used interchangea- 
bly in Scripture. Thus, in Deut vi, 5 (compare Matt 
xxii, 87; Mark xii, 80, 88; Luke x, 27), and xxvi, 16, 
we are commanded to love God and obey his com- 
mandments with all our heart and all our soul (com- 
pare 1 Chron. xxviii, 9) ; the union of the faithful, 
in Acts iv, 12, is designated as ^ 7/ Kapila cat tj 
^X'^ ftia. (In these passages, as in others, for in- 
stance, Deut. xi, 18 ; xxx, 2 ; Jcr. xxxii, 41, there 
is, moreover, to be noticed that the heart is always 
named first) Thus the indecision and division of the 
inner life can be designated either by ii\lftfXos (Jtmes i, 
8) or by xap^ia ctotrtj. It is said of both ayviiuv rnp- 
diac (James iv, 8) and ayviiiuv V^x^C (^ P<^*» h 22) ; 
also trB9 T\t^ (I^sa- zlii,5; comp. Job xxx, 16) and 
iab tjBd (Lam. ii,10; Psa.lxii,9), the self-impelling 
to the love of God iq)pUe8 as well to the soul (Psa. 
ciii) as to the D*^^?)?, of which the heart is the centre, 
etc But in the majority of passages, where cither the 
heart or the soul are separately spoken of, the term 
" heart"* can either not be exchanged at all for the term 
" soul," or else only with some modification in the mean- 
ing. 

(2) Note also the following fundamental distinction: 
The soul is the bearer of the personality (L e. of the ego, 
the proper Bclf) of man, in \'irtue of the indwelling jptrie 
(Prov. XX, 27 ; 1 Cor. ii, 11), but yet is not itself the j^er- 
son of roan ; the heart, on the contrary (the 'jOS '*^*Trtj 

Prov. XX, 27), is the j)lace where the process of self-con- 
sciousness is developed, in which the soul finds itself, 
and thus becomes conscious of its actions and impre»> 
sions as its own (*' in corde actiones animss humanss ad 
ipsam redeunt," as is concisely and correctly said by 
Roos in his Fundam, psychoL ear s, scr^ 1769, p. 99). Ao« 
oordingly the soul, not the heart, is spoken of when the 



HEART 



115 



HEART 



whole human being as such, and his pbyrical or spiritu- 
al welfare or perdition are meant. This is seen on com- 
paring such pasMges as Job xxxiii, 18, 22, 28 ; Psa. xciv, 
17 ; and the expressions of the N. T. w(pt9roii7<nv ^X^f 
(ileh.x,39) ; airoXsvcu rv/v i^x^v (Mark yiii,35 ; comp. 
Matt, x, 39 ; James i, 21) ; etarfjpia \hx*^*' i\ ^^^ ^* ^) ^ 
ayairawnv tvphiatv toiq ^xaig (Matt. xi,29). The 
sool being the subject of salvation (Matt« xvi, 26), it is 
said, in regard to the carnal desires, which endanger its 
salvation, that they war agamst the souly orpaTtvovrai 
Kara ri/c >f^9C (1 Pet. u, 11 ; comp, Prov. vi, 26). In 
an these passages it were impossible to substitute ^b 
or KapSia, for tZJBS or yj^xn ; nor can we make the tvi' 
eKorog riav ^x^ (^ ^^ ^> ^) equivalent to the 
KapSwyvwrnj^ (Acts i, 24) ; nor could we substitute 
''heart'* for ^'soul'' with regard to the oath in 2 Cor. 
i, 23) ; neUher can iab be said of the 'Tni'* "IDS (Psa. 
xxii, 30), instead of rtJH fiib 1*1:583, for ^^^ M^n 
(Paa. xxil, 27 ; Ixix, 33) has an essentially different 
meaning from 1SS3 nr*^}l (comp. Jer. xxxviii, 17, 20). 
When Nabal lost consciousness in consequence of fear, 
his soul still dwelt in him (see Acts xx, 10) ; but yet, ac- 
cording to 1 Sam. XXV, 37, his heart died within hun. 
When fear suspends consciousness the heart fails (Gen. 
xlii,26). On the other hand, '^tp^ HK^;; (Cant v, 6), 
which commentators combine with 2? K2C% has an en- 
Urely difTerent meaning, namely, that the very self of 
the lover draws the b^ved after it. Moreover, when 
expressing inward contemplation, some feeling or action 
taking place within man, the elaboration of a plan or 
resoiotion, we find almost invariably the heart named, 
and not the soul (Boos, Fundam, psjfchoL : " Dum ipsa 
[anima] sibi aliquid oetendit ac proponit, ad cor suum 
loqai dicitnr; dum suarum actionum sibi conscia est et 
illanmi innooenUam vel turpitudinem ipsa scntit, id ad 
cor refertur. Anima humana ut i/a;xv suavia appetit, 
ut spiritus scrutatur, etc, sed qnatenus cor habet, ipsa 
novit, 88 hoc agere et ideas reflexas habet"). To this 
head belong the expressions 3?^^ 133? D9 (Deut viii, 

6); iab-bs n'^ian (isa. xUv, i9,etc); isVbx -irx 

(this is even applied to God, Gen. viii, 21) ; *^2^3 ■'^'^K') 

"^sb 05, '^snba, ab b? e-'b, anb ni^^sai (PbL 

Ixxiii, 7) ; lb ''Sn?^ (Prov. xvi, 1) (for the particu- 
lars of these, see a lexicon) ; among the expressions of 
the N.T. diodoi iv rg KapBi^ (Luke i,66) ; iv^vfuio^ai 
kv rate Kapciaic (Matt ix, 4) ; SiaXoyi^tadai Iv Kap- 
iiaic (Luke iii, 15; Mark ii, 8; comp. Luke xxiv, 28) ; 
fiovkai Ttav Kapdi&v (1 Cor. iv, 6, etc). 

(3) But the heart is not merely the organ of pure inward 
self-coDsciousnesa, but also of all the functions of percep- 
tion in general, so that ^b, in a restricted sense, acquires 
the signification of mind or understanding ; for instance, 
nab ■»»?«» wt oordaH (Job xxxiv, 10) ; sb "i-^X =b5b 
(Jer, ii, 21 ; comp. Prov. xvii, 16) ; also of Gotl ns ^I'^iaS 
5b (Job xxxvi,5) ; sb Sn'l (1 Kings v,9). The passage 
Psa. cxix, 32, and the very variously interpreted passage 
2 Kings v, 26, are also to be understood in that mamier. 
The Sept, therefore, often translates nb simply by vovq 
(Exod. vii, 23 ; Isa. x, 7, etc). On the close connection 
between these two \*iews, see Beck, ChriafL Ijekrwisam- 
aeka/t (i,233). There are, of course, exceptions. The 
soul is also presented as the subject of perception (Prov. 
xix, 2 ; Psa. cxxxix, 14) ; the thoughts which influence 
man are also called the lang^uage and thoughts of the 
soul (Lam. iii, 20, 24; 1 Sam. xx, 4). The soul is the 
seat of imagination (Esth. iv, 13), the place where coun- 
sel is taken (Psa. xiii,2 sq.). Yet such passages are 
comparatively few (comp. DelitKacb, § xii), and even in 
them the soul sometimes appears to be mentioned, as in 
the laat^Hiamol passage, only in consequence of the ne- 
cessity of a second expression in the parallelisms. 

(4) On the other hand, the diaposition of mind and pas- 



sion are as often attributed to the soul as to the heart, 
according as they are considered either as pervading 
the whole personality of man, or a disposition governing 
the whole inner nature of man. It is said in Matt xxvi, 
38, vipikvirog iimv rj "^nrxjn ftov ; John xii, 27, 17 ^nfxh 
ftov rerapcun-ai ; while in John xvi, 6, it says 7} Xvinj 
TTiirKijfmKfv vfiiav r^ KapSiav (oomp.Kom. ix, 2) ; xvi, 
1, fiif^ rapaaaifT^ia vfiutv t) Kopiia ; 2 Cor. ii, 4, ^Xiijnc 
Kai awoxn teapSiaq, etc We find also grief and care, 
fear and terror, joy and confidence, etc., attributed in- 
differently to the heart or to the soul in the O, T. (see 
Deut. xxviii,6o; Prov. xii, 25; Eccles. xi, 10; Jer. xv, 
16 ; 1 Sam. ii, 1 ; Psa. xxviii, 7 ; Exod. xxiii, 9 (whero 
Luther translates ^^3 by heart) ; Psa. vi, 4; xlii, 6, 7 ; 
Isa. Ixi, 10; Psa. Ixii, 2; cxxxi, 2; cxvi, 7). Custom 
has here established arbitrary distinctions between the 
different expressions: thus ^yo and its derivatives are 
generally connected with UC3, and M'Qb and its deriv- 
atives with lb. The passage Prov. xiv, 10 is of espe- 
cial interest in this respect On the contrary, we find 
dB3 instead of lb when speaking of those functions in 
which the subject is apprehended as acting on an object 
A remarkable passage in this sense is found in Jer. iv, 
19 : the soul hears tiie noise of war, and the heart is 
pained and grieved by it (in an entirely different sense 
we find ?pi^ 2b, 1 Kings iii, 9). Here we must, how- 
ever, notice that, as Delitzsch (p. 162) very correctly 
remarks, in the conception of CBS, ^vxhi the idea of de- 
sire is evidently prevalent over all others. All the im- 
pulses by which human actions are governed (see Exod. 
XXXV, 5,22, 29), the disposition of mind which regulates 
them, the wishes, desires, etc, originate in the heart 
(comp. Ezek. xi, 21; xx, 16; xxxiii, 31; Deut xi, 16; 
Job xxxi, 7, 9, 27 ; Psa. Ixvi, 18 ; Prov. vi, 25 ; Matt v, 
28) ; but as soon as the disposition of the will turns to 
an outward manifestation of the desires, the \:3&3, i/^x^i 
comes into plav. Yet the root n*iK and its derivatives 

T T . 

are almost exclusively connected with CG.3 (only in Psa. 
xxi, 3 do we find ab r^S<ri ; comp. itn^tfiiai rStv xap- 
Siufv, Rom. i, 24 ; see other passages, like Psa. Ixxxiv, 3 ; 
cxix, 20, 81 ; Isa. xxvi, 8, 9 ; Jer. xxii, 7). We even 
find CB3 used sometimes to signify the desire itself, as 
particularly in EccL vi, 7, 9. Thus we can explain 
ttj?3 n'^ri'^^ri (laa. v, 14; Hab. ii,5; Prov. xiu,2) and 
ti&3 DH*! (Ptov. xxviii, 26) ; the latter is distinct IVom 

Db DITi (Psa. ci, 6), which Ewald erroneously trans- 
lates by " covetous heart," while in Prov. xxi, 4 it sig- 
nifies the advancing certainty. 

2. From the foregoing explanations we can deduce 
the ethical and religious signification of the word heart. 
(1) As the heart is the home of the personal life, the 
workshop where all personal appropriation and elabora- 
tion of spiritual things have their seat, it follows that 
the moral and religious development of man^in fact, his 
whole moral personality, is also centred in it Only that 
which has entered the heart constitutes a possession, hav- 
ing a moral worth, while only that which comes from the 
heart is a moral product From the nature and contents 
of the heart, by a law of natural connection — similar to 
that which exists between the tree and its fruits (l^Iatt 
xii, 33 sq.) — results the individual's course of life as a 
whole; and from them all his personal acts derive their 
character and moral signification. Hence U KapciaQ is 
applied to whatever is of a real moral nature in contra- 
distinction from mere outward appearance (Rom. vi, 17; 
comp. Matt xv, 8 ; 1 Tim. i, 5). Even in speaking of God 
we find it said, in order to express the distinction between 
what is essential to his nature and the appearance as 
perceived by man, "He doth not 'iSlb^ vyiUmgly afflict" 
(Lam. iii, 83). That the divine j udgment on man will be 
directed by what he is, not by what he may appear to be, 
is described as a looking upon his heart (1 SaJoi. xvi, 7 ; 
Jer. XX, 12) ; a knowinj^ or trying of the heart (1 Kings 



HEART 



116 



HEART 



yiu,89; Luke xvi, 16; Prov. xvii,8; P^ vii, 10; xvii, 
8 ; Jer. xi, 20). Therefore also man is designated ac- 
cording to his heart in all that relates to habitual moral 
qualities; thus we read of a wise heart (1 Kings v, 12 ; 
Ftov. X, 8, etc), a pure heart (Pta. xli, 12 ; Matt, y, 8 ; 
1 Tim. if 6; 2 Tim. ii, 22), an upright and righteous 
heart (Gen. XX, 5, 6; Psa.xi,2; lxxviii,72; ci,2),a8in- 
gle heart (Eph. v, 5; CoL iii,22),a pious and good heart 
(Luke viii, 15), a lowly heart (Matt xi, 29), etc. In all 
these places it would be difficult to introduce tiB.9 or 

(2) We must also observe that the original divine rule 
of conduct for man was implanted in his heart, and there- 
fore the heart is the seat of the ffvvii$fi<jiQf or cofucienee, 
which has a mission to proclaim that rule (Rom. ii, 15). 
AU subsequent divine revelations were also directed to 
the heart (Deut. >a, 6) ; so the law demands that God 
should be loved with the whole heart, and then, as though 
by radiation from this centre, with the whole soul (oomp. 
I>eut. xi, 18 ; Pisa, cxix, 11, etc). The teaching of wis- 
dom also enters the heart, and from thence spreads its 
healing and vivifying influence through the whole organ- 
ism (Prov. iv, 21-23). The prophetic consolations must 
speak to the heart (Isa. xl, 2), in contradistinction from 
such consolations as do not reach the bottom of human 
nature ; thus also, in Matt, xiii, 9 ; Luke viii, 15, we find 
the heart described as the gromid on which the seed of 
the divine Word is to be sowed. That which becomes 
assimilated to the heart constitutes the ^aavphg r r/c 
KopSiac (Matt xii,35). This, however, may not only 
be dya^oQ, but also Troviypo^ ; for the human heart is 
not only a recipient of divine principles of life, but also 
of eviL 

(8) Li opposition to the superficial doctrine which 
makes man in regard to morals an indifferent being, Scrip- 
ture presents to us the doctrine of the natural wicked- 
ness of the human heart, the D^ ^.2C7 (GeiL viii, 21), or, 
more completely, *^^'2 sb niaOTiQ (vi, 5; compare 1 
Chron. xxviii,9), and considers sin as ha\*ing penetrated 
the centre of life, from whence it contaminates its whole 
oouiBc " How can ye, being evil, speak good things ? 
for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speak- 
eth" (Matt xii, 84; corop. Eocles. viii, 11 ; Psa. Ixxiii, 
7) ; and those things which come out of the heart defile 
the man (Matt xv, 18). The heart is described as " de- 
ceitful (or, more properly, dp3?, crooked^ the opposite of 
"^ttS^, straight) above all things, and desperately w^ick- 
ed" (D^ISM) (Jer. xvii, 9) ; so that God alone can thoi^ 
oughly sound the depths of its wickedness (compare 1 
John iii, 20). Hence the prayer in P&a. cxxxix, 23. In 
this natural state of tuisusceptibility for good the heart 
is called uncircumcised, ^1)9 (Numb. xx\'i, 41 ; compare 
Deut X, 16; £zek. xliv, 9). Man, frightened at the 
manifestation of divine holiness, may take within him- 
self the resolution of fulfilling the divine commands 
(Deut. V, 24) ; yet the divine voice complains (v, 29), 
"Oh that there were such a heart in them that they 
would fear me !" etc Therefore the whole Revelation has 
for its object to change the heart of man ; and its whole 
aim is to destroy, by virtue of its divine efficacy, the un- 
susceptibiUty (^ stupiditas, qua centrum animse laborat," 
as Roos expresses it, p. 153) and the antagonisim of the 
heart, and to substitute for them the fear of God in the 
heart (Jer. xxxii, 40), so that the law may be admitted 
(Jer. xxxi, 33). This is the effect of the operations of 
the Holy Spirit, whose workings, as shown in the O.T., 
point to the regeneration of the heart in redemption 
(E2sek. xxxvi, 26 sq. ; xi, 19), transforming the prophets 
into new creatures by means of a change of heart (1 
Sam. X, 6, 9), and implanting a willingness to obey God's 
law in the pious (Psa. li, 12-14). 

(4) On the part of roan, the process of salvation begins 
in the heart by the faith awakened by the testimony of 
revelation ; which, as giving a new direction to the inner 
life, belongs entirely to the sphere of the heart, and is de- 



scribed as a fastening (according to the original mean* 
ing of '■'OKll), a strengthening (^''^aSKH, Pte. xxvii, 
14 ; xxxi, 24), a supporting of the heart (comp. partic- 
ularly Psa. cxii, 7) on the grciuid which is God him- 
self, the Xh iqs (Psa. Ixxiii, 26). The N. T. says in 
the same manner : icapdiy, viartmrai (Rom. x, 9, 10), 
viarfvuv t^ oXijg T/jg leapdiag; faith is a ^17 iiagpi- 
veodai Iv KopSi^ (Mark xxi, 23). God purifies the 
heart by faith in Christ (Acts xv, 9), for by the sprink- 
ling of the blood of atonement the heart is rid of the 
bad conscience (Heb. x, 22; compare 1 John iii, 19-21), 
and the love of God is shed in it by the Holy Ghoet 
(Rom. V, 5). The same spirit also seals in the heart 
the assurance of being a child of God (2 Cor. i, 22) ; the 
heart becomes the abode of Christ (Eph. iii, 16), is pre- 
ser^^ed in Christ (Col iii, 15; Phil iv, 7), and strength- 
ened in sanctification (1 Thes. iii, 18, etc). 

When, on the contrary, mar. rejects the testimony of 
revelation, the heart becomes hardened, turns to stone 
(nDp?7, Psa. xc\'i, 8 ; ftov. xxviii, 14 ; "j'SX, 2 Chron. 
xxxv'i, 18; pjn, Exod. iv, 21 ; nss, 1 Sam. vi, 6), for 
which we find it also said that the heart is shut (Isa. 
xliv, 18), made fat (Isa. vi, 10 ; compare Psa. cxix, 70). 
In the N. Test we find vutpwaiQ xap^iag (Mark iii, 5 ; 
Eph. iv, 18) ; (TicKrjpoKapita (MatL xix, 8, etc). The 
most important passage in this respect is Isa. ^i, 10, 
where we find it particidarly stated how the unsuscepti- 
ble heart renders one unable to see the work of God, to 
hear his Word, and how thb inability reacts on the 
heart, and renders its state incurable. 

8. Finally, the question of the position the heart, as 
centre of the spiritual life of the soul, holds in regard t<» 
the heart, considered as the centre of the organic (phys- 
ical) life, cannot be fully treated except in a thorough in- 
vestigarion of the relations between the body and soul in 
general We will only remark here that the Scriptures 
not only draw a parallel between the body and the soul, 
by virtue of which the bodily actions are considered as 
sjnnbols of the spiritual, but also establish the position 
that the soul, which is the bearer of the personality, is 
the same which directs also the life and actions; and 
thus the bodily oi^gans, in their higher functions, become 
its adjuncts. Now, in view of the well-known fact that 

emotions and sufferings affect the physical economy* 

for example, that the pulsations of the heart are affected 
by them— no one will consider it a mere figure of speech 
when the Psalmist says, "My heart was hot witliin me" 
(Psa. xxxix, 3), or Jeremiah speaks of "a burning fire 
shut up in his bones" (Jer. xx, 9 ; comp. iv. 19 ; xxiii, 9). 

But there is one point worthy of special attention in 
Biblical anthropology, namely, the specific relation the 
Bible establishes between certain parts of the bodily or- 
ganism and particular actions (see what Delitzsch,*£t&- 
lical Psychohgy, § 12, 13, deduces from the Biblical sig^ 
nification of the D'^^sn'^, the itrw, the hidney»\ and then 
the part attributed to the heart in knowledge and will, 
considered aside from the head and brain. It is well 
known that all antiquity agreed with the Biblical views 
in these respects. In regard to Homer's doctrine, see 
Nagelsbach's Homer, Theologie, p. 382 sq. We may also 
on this point recall the expressions cordatua^ recordari, 
vecorsy excors, etc. (see especiaUy Cicero, 7\tsc, i, 9, 18, 
and Hato, Phad. c, 45, and the commentators on these 
passages). As Delitzsch correctly observes, the spiritu- 
al signification of the heart cannot be traced back to it 
from the mere fact of its being the central organ of the 
circulation. The manner in which that writer has made 
use of the phenomena of somnambulism to explain this 
is deser\-ing of due notice, yet physiology has thus fax 
been unable to throw any light on the subject. — Oehler, 
in Herzog, Real^EncyHnp, vi, 15 sq. 

4. The heart expresses the middle of anything : "Tyre 
is in the heart," in the midst, "of the sea" (Ezek. xxvii, 
4). " We will not fear, though the mountains be car- 
ried into the heart of the sea" (Psa. xlvi, 2). "As Jo- 
nah was three days and three nights in the whalers 



HEARTH 



117 



HE-ASS 



bellf, 00 shall the Son of man be three days tnd three 
nights in the heart of the earth" (Matt xii, 40). Mo- 
tes, speaking to the Israelites, says, "And the mountain 
burnt with fire, onto the heart of heaven f the flame 
rose as high as the clouds (Calmet, s. v.). 

To "say in one*s heart** is a Hebrew expression for 
ikinkmy (Psa. x, 6 ; xiv, 1). See Souu 

&. Of special religious importance are the following 
practical uses of the word : 

Jiardmsa of heart is ** that state in which a sinner is 
inclined to and actually goes on in rebellion against 
God. This state evidences itself by light views of the 
evil of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of 
it; frequent commission of it; pride and conceit; in- 
gratitude; unconcern about the Word and ordinances 
of God; inattention to divine providences; stifling con- 
victions of conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, 
and general ignorance of di^'ine things." 

Ktepmg the heart is "a duty enjoined in the sacred 
Scriptures. It consbts, says Flavel, in the diligent 
and constant use and impnn-ement of all holy means 
and duties to preserve the soul from fdn, and maintain 
communion with God ; and this, he properly observes, 
npposes a previous work of sanctification, which hath 
Kt the heart right by giving it a new bent and incli- 
nation. 1 . It includes frequent observation of the frame 
of the heart (Psa. Ixxvii, 6). 2. Deep humiliation for 
heart evils and disorders (2 Chron. xxxii, 26). 8. Ear- 
nest supplication for heart purifying and rectifying 
grace (Faa. xix, 12). 4. A constant holy Jealousy over 
our hearts (Prov. xxvii, 14). 5. It includes the realiz- 
ii^ of God's piesenoe with us, and setting him before 
us (Fte. xvi, 8; Gen. xvil, 1). This is, 1. The hardest 
traik; heart work is hard work indeed. 2. Constant 
irork (Exod. xvii, 12). 8. The most important work 
(Prov. xitiii, 28). This is a ditty which should be at- 
tended to if we consider it in connection with, 1. The honor 
of God (Isa. Ixvi, 3). 2. The sincerity of our profession 
(2 Kin^ X, 81 ; Ezek. xxxii, 81, 82). 8. The beauty 
of our conversation (Prov. xii, 26 ; Psa. xlv, 1). 4. The 
cjmfort of oar souls (2 Cor. xiii, 5). 5. The improve- 
meat of our graces (Psa. Ixiii, 5, 6). 6. The stabiUty of 
oar souls in the hour of temptation (1 Cor. xvi, 13). 
The seasons m which we should more particularly ke^ 
<mr hearts are^ 1. The time of our prosperity (Deut. vi, 
10, 12). 2. Under afflictions (Heb. vil, 5, 6). 8. The 
time of Sion*s troubles (Psa. xlvi, 1, 4). 4. In the time 
of great and threatening danger (Isa. xxvi, 20, 21). 6. 
Under great wants (Phil, iv, 6, 7). 6. In the time of 
duty (Lev. x, 8). 7. Under injuries received (Rom. xii, 
17, etc). 8. In the critical hour of temptation (Matt. 
xxvi, 41). 9. Under dark and doubting seasons (Heb. 
xii, 8; IsiL 1, 10). 10. In time of opposition and suffer- 
ing (1 Pet. iv, 12, 13). 11. The time of sickness and 
death (Jer. xlix, 11). The means to he made use qfto 
keep our hearts are, 1. Watchfulness (Mark xiii, 37). 2. 
Examination (Prov. iv, 26). 8. Prayer (Luke xviii, 1). 
A. Beading God*s Word (John v, 89). 5. Dependence 
on divine grace (Paa. Ixxxvi, 11). See Flavel, On 
Keepmg the Heart; Jamieson, Sermons on the Heart,'^ 
—Buck, Theoi, Dictionary , s. v. 



is the representative in the Eng. Version of 
several Heb. words. H&t, ach (Sept. j^xapO) Vulg. aru- 

la), a large jiof, like a brazier (Gesenius, Thes, p. 69), a 
portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's 
winter apartment (Jer. xxxvi, 22, 28). At the present 
day the Orientals sometimes make use of such stoves in- 
stttd of fireplaoes for warming rooms; they are called 
in Persian and Turkish tammr. They have the form of 
a large pitcher, and are pUced in a cavity sunk in the 
nnddle of the apartment When the fire has done 
burning, a frame like a table is placed over the pot, and 
the whole is then covered with a carpet ; and those who 
wish to warm themselves rit upon the floor, and thrust 
their feet and legs, and even the lower part of their 
bofics^ under the carpet. "11^3, A%^, a fire-pan or 



small hasin for holding fire (Zech. xii, 6 ; elsewhere fot 
roasting in, 1 Sam. ii, 14; or generally for washing, 
"laver," Exod. xxx, 18, etc). *7]5i^, mohcd', a burn- 
ing (as rendered in Isa. xxiii, 14), hence a fagot as 
fuel ("hearth," Psa. cii, 4); and from the same root 
l^p^, yakud' (literally kindied), a btuming mass upon a 
hearth (Isa. xxx, 14). The Heb. word T\MS, uggoth'; 
Sept iyrpv^iai, refers to cakes baked in the ashes 
(Gen. xviii, 6). These cakes serve in the East at the 
present day for ordinary food, especially upon journeys 
and in haste. By the hearth we are to understand, 
according to the present usage in the East, that a fire is 
made in the middle of the room, and, when the bread is 
ready for baking, a comer of the hearth is swept, the 
bread is laid upon it, and covered with ashes and em- 
bers; in a quarter of an hour they turn it. Sometimes 
they use convex pistes of iron (Arabic tujen, whence the 
Gr. rqyavov), which are most common in Persia and 
among the nomadic tribes, as being the easiest way of 
baking and done with the least expense, for the bread 
is extremely thin and soon prepared. See Bread. 
This iron plate is either laid on, or supported on legs 
above the vessel sunk in the ground, which forms the 
oven. See Oven. (Burckhardt, Notes on Bed, i, 58; 
P. della Yalle, Viaggiy i, 436; Harmer, Obt. i, 477, and 
note; Rauwolff, Travels, ap. Ray, ii, 163; Shaw, Trav- 
els, p. 281 ; Nlcbuhr, Descr. de FA rabie, p. 45 ; Schleua- 
ner. Lex, Vd. Test, s. v. rfiyavov ; Gesenius, s. v. nii9, 
p. 997). See Fire. 



;, *n^H, chamdr^ (Gen. xii, 16; elsewhere 
simply ^ueT), the general designation of the donkey 
(Exod. xiii, 18, etc.) for carrying burdens (Exod. xiii, 
26) and ploughing (Isa. xxx, 24), being regarded as a 
patient ((iien. xlix, 14) and contented animal for riding 
in time of peace (2 Sam. xix, 27 ; Zech. ix, 9) ; different 
from the proud (Eccles. x, 9) and warlike horse (Isa. xx, 
16). As a beast of burden, it was eaten only in times 
of famme (2 Kings vi, 25). See Ass's Head. 

The prohibition of the use of horses to Israel caused 
the ass to be held in higher estimation than it holds in 
our times. It was, at least down to the days of Solo- 
mon, the principal beast of burden. But we must not 
attribute this election wholly to the absence or scarcity 
of the horse, for in Western Asia the ass is still largely 
used for the saddle. Though inferior in dignity to the 
horse, he is still, in his native regions, a very superior 
animal to the poor, weather-beaten, stunted, ha]f-star\'ed 
beast of our commons. Chardin and others describe the 
Arabian ass as a really elegant creature. The coat is 
smooth and clean, the carriage is erect and proud; the 
limbs are dean, well-formed, and muscular, and are well 
thrown out in walking or galloping. Asses of this Arab 
breed are used exclusively for the saddle, and are im- 
ported into Syria and Persia, where they are highly 
valued, especially by the mollahs or lawyers, the sheiks 
or reli^ous teachers, and elderly persons of the opulent 
classes. They are fed and dressed with the same care 
as horses, the head-gear is highly ornamented, and the 
saddle is covered with a fine carpet They are active, 
spirited, and yet sufficiently docile. Other breeds are 
equally useful in the more humble labors of ploughing 
and carrying burdens. White asses, distinguished not 
only by their color, but by their stature and symmetry, 
are frequently seen in Western Asia, and are always 
more highly esteemed than those of more ordinary hue. 
The editor of the Pictorial Bible says that these "are 
usually in every respect the finest of their species, and 
their owners certainly take more pride in them than in 
any other of their asses. They sell at a much higher 
price ; and those hackney ass-men who make a liveli- 
hood by hiring out their asses to persons who want a 
ride, always expect better pay for the white ass than 
for any of the others.*' After describing their more 
highly ornamented trappings, he obserN^es, ^ But, above 
all, their white hides are fantastically streaked and spot- 




IB pbuil,  barborou 



Hodirn EgTpttldB 
, ted with the red auins of the hi 
kind or omuneiit which the We 
of applyitifc to their own beards, uid to t 
tsilB oftheir white hotse*." See Korbe. 

The cooBdUUion of the ue is farmed for s dr}-,mg;red 
region,  rocky wilderm™. Its hoofa are long, ' 
iMmealb, with very sharp edge*, b peculiarity 
nuk« it lure-fooled in uceiidinj; and ilescending Ueep 
UMMUitain paHeB, where the flat hoof uflhe horae would 
be imecure. It prefers aromatic, dry, prickly herhe 
the moet succulent and lender gnm ; is fond of rolling 
in the dry dust; sutFers but little from IhirsC or heat; 
drinks Kldom aiid little; iitdBecms to bare no sensible 
penpiralion, ill skin beinj; hard, tough, and mseiuitive. 
AH these chsracieis suit the arid. Tocky wildemeMes ol 
Perm and IVeecem Asia, the native country of this val- 
uable animal FairbairiL Sec Asa. 

H«at (usually Dfl, tMm, nan, chaaBna/t', or ITOn, 
fAemoA'), besides its ordinary meaning, has several pe- 
culiar uses in Scripture. In Isa. xlix, 10, and Kev. vii, 
IG, there ia a reference to the burning wind of the des- 
ert, the limoom or lamitl. described by travellers as ex- 
ceedingly pestilential and fataL It is highly probable 
that this waslhc instrument witb which God destroyed 
the army of Sennacherib (2 Kings Jtix, 7, 85), IM ef- 
fects are evidently alluded to in Pia. ciii, 16, 16, and in 
Jer. iv, 11. Thevennt mentions such a wind, which in 
16M tuflbcsled 20.000 men in one nighl, and another 
which in 16&5 suffocated 4000 persons. It sometimes 
boms up the cum when near its maturity, and bence 
the imsge of " corn blasted before it be grown up," used 
in 2 Kings xix, S6. Its cB^t is iwt only Co render the 
air extremely hot and scorching, but to fill it witb poi- 
sonous and suffocating vapois. The most violent storms 
that Judfca was subject to came from the deserts of 
Arabia. "Out of the »urA comeththe whirlwind," says 
Job (xxxvii, 9); "And there came a great wind from 
Hie aUdrmai' (Job i, 19). Zech. ix, 14 ; " 
vah shall appear over them, and his arrow shall go fbnh 
aa the lightning ; and the Lord Jehovah shall sound th< 
trumpet, and sliall march in the whirlwinds of /A* soufA. 
The Slat Psahn, which speaks of divine protection, de 
scribes the plague as arrows, snd in thoee winds there 

in which the plague was inflicted upon the Israelites 
for that reason called TabtroA, L e. a burning. A plague 
ia called "H'l, ddrr; a* a desert is called "^^"^V, M«/- 
5ar', because those winds came from the desert, and are 
real plagues. Tliis Aof tcind, when used as a symliol, 
signiiies the dre o( peritauion, or else some prodigioue 
wars which dettioy tnau For irnif signifies iror ; and 



HEATH 



teorchbig htat signifies persecution 
 Jlalt. siii, 6,-il, and Luke viii, 6-iB, Ami is tribul*. 
lion, temptation, or persecution ; and in I IVt. iv, 1!, 
hanmg tends to temptation. A gentle heat of the sun, 
according to the Oriental interpreters, signifies the favor 
and boimiy of the prince ; but great heat denotes pun- 
ishment. Hence the burning of the hearens is a por- 
tent ex(dained in Livy (iii. 6) of slaughter. Thus in 
■" Tire sun shall not nnite thee hj- day, not 
the moon by night," is in tbe ttext place explained ibus : 
Jehovah sliall preserve thee ftam all evil; be shall pre- 
ave thy seui"— Wemyss, See Fire. 

Heatta (^57?, arar\ Jer. ivU, G; Sept. dypioiivft- 
e^, Vulg. mjrrim ,■ or ^5iH?,oro*r',Jer. ilviii,G; Sept. 

»C uj'pioc, perh. by readiug 1^^7, a wild ass; Vulg. 

itcir) has been variously translated, as mj/rka, lama- 

ama, that is, the laoom ; and also, as in Ihe frencb 
d English versions, truurr, kruih, which is, perhaps^ 
t most incorrect of all, tbough ilasselquist mcniima 
dnding heath near Jericho, in Syria. (lesenius, how- 
remlen it mtu in the latter of Che above pas- 
sages (aa in Isa. xvii,2), and mtdg in the former (aa in 
"IB). As far as the context is concerned, some 
of the plants named, as the rtlaia and lamaritt, would 
very well [see Tamarisk]; but Ihe Arainc 
Tar, is applied to a totally different plant, a ape- 
juniper, SB has been clearly shown by CilsiuB 
{IlUrobol. ii, 195), who atates that Arias MonUnus is 
the only one who has so translated the Hebrew in Ihe 
lirst of the passages in question (Jer. xvii.G): "For he 
shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not sec 
when good cometh.but shall inhsbit Ihe parched places 
in Ihe wilderness, in a salt land, and not inhahiled." 
Both the Heb. woids arc (Vom the root 1^7, " to be 
naked," in allusion to the bare naturo of Ihe mcks on 
which the Junipei often grows (comp.I^cii,lT,r^En 
^5irn,"the prayer ofihe destitute," ot ill-clad). Sev- 
eral upctics of juniper are no doubt found in Syria and 
Palestine. See Cedar; JixirEn. Dr. Robinson met 
with some in proceeding from Hebron 10 wady Musa, 
near Che romantic pass of Neniela : " (hi Ihe rocks alxn'o 
we found the jmiiper-lree, Arabic co-'or; its berries have 
the sppearaiice and (astc of the common juniper, except 
that there is more of the atoms of Ihe pine. These 
trees were ten or fifteen feet in height, and hung upon 
the rocks even to the summits of tlie cliffs and needles" 
{BOL HfKarcha, ii, 606). In proceeding S.E. he sUtes ; 
" Large tree* of the juniper become quiie common in 
the wadys and on the rocks." It ia mentioned in the 
same situations by other travellers, and is no doubt com- 
mon enough, particulariy in wild, uncultivated, and of- 
ten inaccessible situations, ind is ihus suitable Co Jer. 
xlviit, 6; ''Flee, sai'e your lives, and be like the ArorA 
in the wilderness." — Kitlo. This appears to be Ihe Ju- 
nipmit Sabbia, or savin, with smaU scale-like leaves, 
which are pressed close to the stem, and n hich is de- 
scribed as being a gloomy-looking bush inhabiting the 
most sterile soil (ace Engtiih Cj/rtop. A'. //if*. iii,3II); a 
character which is obviously well suited to the naird or 
dtiHlale tree tqnken of by Ihe prophet. RoaaunUller'a 
expknatiooorthe Hebrew word, which ia also adopted 
by Maurer,''qui destitulus versstu["(5cAi)(.oifjFr. xvii, 
G), is very untatisfaclury. Not to mention Ihe lamnea 
of the comparison, it Is evidently contradicted by the an- 
tithesis in ver. G : " Cursed is he Chat trustecli in man 
... he shall be like the Juniper Chat gron-a on the bare 
rocks of the desert : Blessed is the man that Crusteth in 
the Lord ... he shall be as a tree plcnted by the wa- 
ters." The contrast between the shrub of the arid des- 
ert and the tree growing by tbe wsters is very striking; 
but Roeenmltller'a interpretation appears tji us to spoil 

(.Si;^ Ux. Ileb. p. 1971), who thinks " Guinea-beDs" 

leiigrv) are intended! (iesenius (_TheM.p. 

'' eae two Heh, terms to denole 



HEATH 



119 



HEATHEN 



^'ptrietxiiB, sdificU erem" (ruins); bat it is more in 
aoooidance with the acriptoni passages to suppose that 
lone tne is intended, which explanation, moreover, has 
the sinctioa of the Sept. and Vulgate, and of the mod- 
em me of a kindred Arabic wonL — Smith. Modem 
mrelleiB do not mention the species ; but those which 
have been named as growing in Palestine are the Phcs- 
nidan juniper, the oomnoon savin, and the brown-ber- 
ried juniper. The first of these is a tree of about twen- 
ty feet high, growing with its branches in a pynunidal 
fonn. RosenmUller states that ^'Forskal found it fre- 
quentlT in the sandy heaths about Suez. The caravans 
me it for fneL" The species best known in America are 
the common red cedar ( Jun. Virgimana) and the Ber- 
muda cedar, from which the wood of lead-pencils is man- 
ofjctured. They all have long, narrow, prickly leaves, 
and bear a soft, pulpy bcm', from which a carminative 
oil is extracted. The wood is light, highly odoroufl^ and 
ren' duimble. See Jusipes. 

Heath, Asa, a Methodist Episoipal minister, was 
bon at Hillsdale, N. Y., July 81, 1776. His parents were 
Cbq^r^ationalists. At thirteen he was converted, un- 
der the ministry of the Rev. F. Garrettson (q. v.). He 
began to preach in 1797 on Cambridge Circuit, N. York, 
under the directioa of the Rev. Sylvester Hutchinson. 
In 1798 he was stationed at PomAet, Conn., with Dan- 
iel Oatrander. In 1799 he was sent to the province of 
Kaiae. and starioned on the Kennebec Circuit, embra- 
ciaic all the territoiy from Waterville to the Canada line, 
maJdng more than two hundred miles travel to reach 
an Che appointments^ In 1800 Portland was his field of 
labor: laoi, Readfield; 1802, Faknouth ; 1804>o, Scar- 
boio*; in 1806 he located in consequence of bodily in- 
frmitiea. In 1818 he re-entered the traveling connec- 
lioo, snd was appointed presiding elder of Portland dis- 
trict, which position he occupied for three years; 1821, 
tScarboro*; 1822, Kennebec; in 1823 he again located, 
•ad removed to Monmouth, Me. ; in 1827 he re-entered 
the txaveUhig ministry again, and held an effective re- 
lation to the Conference fifteen years. In 1842 he be- 
came superannuate, and this relation continued until 
Sept, 1, I860, when he died in peace. As a preacher, 
he was soiftid in doctrine, clear in exposition, simple yet 
forcible in iUnstration, and impressive in delivery.^ — Z»- 
<ms Hfraldj Oct. 5, 1860. 

Heathcote, Ralph, D.D., an English divine, was 

bom in 1721 , and died May 28, 1795. He was educated 

at JesDs College, Cambridge; ^k orders, and in 1748 

vaa made vicar of Barkby, near Leicester; assistant 

preacher of Lincc^*s Inn in 17o8; succeeded his father 

as vicarof Sileby in 1765; became rector of Sawtry-all- 

Saints, Huntingdonshire, in 1766 ; a prebend in the col- 

leieiate church in Southwell in 1768; and in 1788 vicar- 

generai of Southwell Church. Besides works on other 

mbjecta, he wrote Curtory Ammadvertioru upon the Mid- 

AtoiMM Controvtrgif in general (1752) :— Remarks upon 

Dr.Ckapman*M Charge (1752) -^Letter to Rev, T, Fother- 

W (1768):— iSfe/cA of Lord BoHngbroke's PhOoeophg 

(17J<5, 8vo) : — The Use of Reason asserted in If otters of 

BtUgkm (1756, 8vo; and a defence of the same, in 1766, 

dvo) '.r—Diseomrte on the Being of God, agatnst A theisis, 

» two SenmoMM. Cbeing the only ones of his twenty-four 

Boyle aamoDB which he published, 1763, 4to). Dr. 

Heathoote wrote aeveral articles for the first edition of 

the Oemral Biagraphieal Dictionary, and assisted Nich- 

ds in editing a new edition of the same, published in 

17*4. 12 volsL 8va— AUibone, Diet, of Authors, i, 814; 

iiose. Aw Gen. Biog. Diet, viii, 241 ; Gentlenutn*s Maga- 

Jie, btv, IxTi, IxxL (J.W.M.) 

Heathen. The Hebrew word '^IJ, gog (plur. D^ha, 
9%MiO» tof^ether with ita Greek equivadent Wvo^ 
[^^vfl\ ha» been somewhat arbitrarily rendered ^ na- 
tions'' « gentiles,** and ** heathen" in the A. V. It will 
be interesting to trace the nuuiner in which a term, pri- 
■arihr and eaeentially general in its signification, ac- 
qved that more restricted sense which was afterwards 



attached to it. Its development is parallel with that 
of the Hebrew people, and its meaning at any period 
may be taken as significant of their relative position 
with regard to the surrounding nations. 

1. While as yet the Jewish nation had no political 
existence, g&yvn denoted generally the nations of the 
world, especially including the immediate descendants 
of Abraham (Gen. xviii, 18 ; compare GaL iii, 16). The 
latter, as they grew in numbers and importance, were 
distinguished in a most marked manner from the na- 
tions by whom they were surrounded, and were pro- 
vided with a code of laws and a religious ritual which 
made the distinction still more peculiar. They were 
essentially a separate people (Lev. xx, 23) ; separate in 
habits, morals, and religion, and bound to mamtain their 
separate character by denunciations of the most terrible 
judgments (Lev. xxvi, 14-88 ; Deut. xxviii). On their 
march through the desert they encountered the most 
obstinate resistance from Amalek, ** chief of the gSyim** 
(Numb, xxiv, 20), in whose sight the deliverance from 
Egypt was achieved (Lev. xxvi, 45). During the con- 
quest of Canaan, and the subsequent wan of extermina- 
tion which the Israelites for several generations carried 
on against their enemies, the seven nations of the Ca- 
naanites, Amorites, Hittites, Hivites, Jebusites, Pena- 
zites, and Girgashites (Exod. xxxiv, 24), together with 
the remnants of them who were left to prove Israel 
(Josh, xxiii, 13 ; Judg. iii, 1 ; Psa. Ixxviii, 55), and teach 
them war (Judg. iii, 2), received the especial appella- 
tion oigi'/yxm. With these the Israelites were forbidden 
to associate (Josh, xxiii, 7) ; intermarriages were pro- 
hibited (Josh, xxiii, 12 ; 1 Kings xi, 2) ; and, as a warn- 
ing against disobedience, the fate of the nations of Ca- 
naan was constantly kept before their eyes (Lev. xviii, 
24, 25 ; Deut. xviii, 12). They are ever associated with 
the worship of false gods and the foul practices of idol- 
aters (Lev, xviii, xx), and these constituted their chief 
distinctions, as gogim, from the worshippers of the one 
God, the people of Jehovah (Numb, xv, 41 ; Deut. xxviii, 
10). This distinction was maintained in its full force 
during the early times of the monarchy (2 Sam. vii, 28; 
1 Kings xi, 4-8; xiv, 24; Psa. c\-i, 35). It was from 
among the gSgim, the degraded tribes who submitted to 
their arms, that the Israelites were permitted to pur- 
chase their bond-ser%'ants (Lev. xxv, 44, 45), and this 
special enactment seems to have had the effect of giv- 
ing to a national tradition the force and sanction of a 
law (comp. Gen. xxi, 15). In later times this regulation 
was strictly adbere<l to. To the words of Ecdes. ii, 7, 
** I bought men-eer\'anta and maid-servants," the Tar- 
gum adds, ''of the children of Ham, and the rest of the 
foreign nations." Not only were the Israelites forbid- 
den to intermarry with these gdyim, but the latter were 
virtually excluded from the possibility of becoming nat- 
uralized. An Ammonite or Moabite was shut out from 
the congregation of Jehovah even to the tenth generar 
tion (Deut. xxiii, 3), while an Edomite or Egyptian was 
admitted in the third (verses 7, 8). The necessity of 
maintaining a separation so broadly marked is ever more 
and more manifest as we follow the Israelites through 
their histon*, and obsen-e their constantly recurring 
tendency to idolatry. Offence and punishment followed 
each other vrith ill the regularity of cause and effect 
(Judg. ii, 12 ; iii, 6-8, etc). 

2. But^ even in early Jewbh times, the tenn gdgim 
received by anticipation a significance of wider ranga 
than the national experience (Lev. xx^'i, 83, 88; Deut. 
XXX, 1), and, as the latter was gradually developed dur- 
ing the prosperous times of the monarchy, the gogim 
were the surrounding nations generally, with whom the 
Israelites were brought into contact by the extension 
of their commerce, and whose idolatrous practices they 
readily adopted (Ezek. xxiii, 30; Amos v, 26). Later 
still, it is applied to the Babylonians who took Jerusa- 
lem (Neh. V, 8; Pmu Ixxix, 1, 6, 10), to the destroyers 
of Moab (Isa. xvi, 8), and to the several tuitions among 
whom the Jews were scattered during the Captivity 



HEATHEN 



120 



HEATHEN 



(Psa. evi, 47 ; Jer. xlvi, 28 ; Lem. i, 3, etc), the practice 
of idolatr}' still being their characteristic distinction 
(Isa. xxxvi, 18 ; Jer. x, 2, 8 ; xiv, 22). This significa- 
tion it retained after the return from Babylon, though 
it was used in a more limited sense as denoting the 
mixed race of colonists who settled in Palestine during 
the Captivity (Neh. v, 17), and who are described as 
feanng Jehovah while ser\'ing their own gods (2 Kings 
xWi, 29-33 ; Ezra \t, 21). 

Tracing the synonymous term tOvri through the 
apocryphal writings, we find that it is applied to the 
nations around Palestine (1 Maoc. i, 11), including the 
S\Tuins and Philistines of the army of Gorgias (1 Maoc. 
iii, 41 , iv, 7, 11, 14), as well as the people of Ptolemais, 
TjTe, and Sidon (1 Maoc %', 9, 10, 15), They were im- 
age-worshippers (1 Mace, iii, 48 ; Wisd. xv, 15), whose 
customs and fashions the Jews seem still to have had 
an unconquerable propensity to imitate, but on whom 
they were bound by national tradition to take ven- 
geance (1 Mace, ii, 68 ; 1 Esdr. viii, 85), Following the 
customs of the ffoyim at this period denoterl the neglect 
or concealment of circumcision (1 Mace, i, 15), disregard 
of sacrifices, profanation of the Sabbath, eating of swine's 
flesh and meat offered to idols (2 Mace, vi, 6-9, 18 ; xv, 
1, 2), and adoption of the Greek national games (2 Mace 
iv, 12, 14). In all points Judaism and heathenism are 
strongly contrasted. The " barbarous multitude" in 2 
Mace, ii, 21 are opposed to those who played the man 
for Judaism, and the distinction now becomes an eccle- 
siastical one (comp. Matt, xviii, 17). In 2 Esdr. iii, 38, 
34, the "gentes** are defined as those "qui habitant in 
sseculo** (comp. Matt vi, 32 ; Luke xii, 30). 

As the Greek influence became more extensively felt 
in Asia Minor, and the Greek language was generally 
used, Hellenism and heathenism became convertible 
terms, and a Greek was synonymous with a foreigner 
of any nation. This is singularly e\ndent in the Syriac 
of 2 Mace V, 9, 10, 13 ; comp, John vii, 35 ; 1 Cor. x, 82 ; 
2 Mace xi, 2. 

In the N. T., again, wc find various shades of mean- 
ing attached to tOvrf. In its narrowest sense it is op- 
posed to " those of the circumcision" (Acts x, 45 ; comp. 
Estb. xiv, 15, where aXXorp(oc=airf(}(r^i}rof), and is 
contrasted with Israel, the people of Jehovah (Luke ii, 
82), thus representing the Hebrew D^iSi at one stage of 
its history. But, like ffdyimy it also denotes the people 
of the earth generally (Acts xxii, 26; Gal. iii, 14). In 
Matt vi, 7, WvtKoc is applied to an idolater. 

But, in addition to its significance as an ethnograph- 
ical term, gSyim had a moral sense which must not be 
overlooked. In Psa. ix, 5, 15, 17 (comp. Ezek. ^di, 21) 
the word stands in parallelism with rd^, reuhd', the 
wicked, as distinguished by his moral obliquity (see 
Hupfeld on Psa. i, 1) ; and in verse 17 the people thus 
designated are described as " forgetters of God," that 
know not Jehovah (Jer. x, 25). Again, in Psa. lix, 5, 
it is to some extent commensiurate in meaning ^vith 
13? *^t??''*> ''iniquitous transgressora;" and in these pas- 
sages, as well as in Psa. x, 15, it has a deeper signifi- 
cance than that of a merely national distinction, al- 
though the latter idea is never entirely kwt sight of. 

In later Jewish literature a technical definition of the 
word is laid down which is certainly not of universal 
application. Elias Levita (quoted by Eisenmenger, 
Kntdecktea Judenthumj i, 665) explains the sing. ff6y as 
denoting one who is not of Israelitish birth. This can 
only have reference to its after signification ; in the O. 
T. the singular is never used of an individual, but is a 
collective term, applied equally to the Israelites (Josh, 
iii, 17) as to the nations of Canaan (Lev. xx, 23), and 
denotes simply a body politic Another distinction, 
equally unsupported, b made between a^ift, goyim, and 
C^tiK, umminif the former being defined as the nations 
who had served Israel, while the hitter were those who 
had not (Jalkul ChadasA, foL 20, note 20 ; Eisenmenger, 
i, 667), Abarbanel, on Joel iii, 2, applies the former to 



both Christians and Turks, or Ishmaelites, while in Se* 
pher Juchasin (foL 148, coL 2) the Christians alone are 
distinguished by this appellation. Eisenmenger gives 
some curious examples of the disabilities under which a 
gdy labored. One who kept Sabbaths was Judged de- 
ser\'ing of death (ii, 206), and the study of the law was 
prohibited to him under the same penalty , but on the 
latter point the doctors are at issue (ii, 209),— Smith, s. 
v. Sec Gentile. 

3. In modem use, the word heathen (probably a cor- 
ruption of kOviKOQf ethnkus, of which it is a tnuisUition ; 
or derived from heath, that is, people who live in the 
wilderness, as pagan from pagusy a village) is applied 
to aU imtions that are strangers to re^'^ealed religion, 
that is to say, to all except Christiaius Jews, and Mo- 
hammedans. It is nearly s\iion}nnous with GenfUea (q. 
V.) and Pagans (q. v.). ' At the time of the Crusades 
the Moslems were also called heathen ; but as they re- 
ceive the doctrine of the one God from the O. T., they 
arc not proijerly e» called. On the relation of the hea- 
then to Judaism, see above, and also the articHe Gbx- 
TiLES. See also the same article (vol. iii, p. 789) for 
their relation to Christianity at its origin. We add the 
foUowing statements : 

"The old Oriental forms of heathenism, the religion 
of the Chinese (Confucius, about 550 B.C.), the Brah- 
minism, and the later Buddhism of the Hindoos (per- 
haps 1000 B.C.), the religion of the Persians (Zoroaster, 
700 B.C.), and the Egj-ptians (* the religion of enig- 
ma'), have only a remote and indirect concern with the 
introduction of Christianity. But they form to some 
extent the historical basis of the Western religions ; and 
the Persian dualism, especially, was not without influ- 
ence on the earlier sects (the Gnostic and the Manlchs- 
an) of the Christian Church. The flower of paganism 
appeara in the two great nations of classic antiqiut\' 
Greece and Bome. With the hmguage, morality, liter- 
ature, and religion of these nations the apostl^ came 
directly into contact, and through the whole first age 
the Church moves on the basis of these nationalities. 
These, together with the Jews, were the chosen nations 
of the ancient world, and shared the earth among them. 
The Jeivs were chosen for things eternal, to keep the 
sanctuary of the true religion. The Greeks prepared 
the elements of natural cultiuv, of science and art, for 
the use of the Church. The Bumans developed the idea 
of law, and organized the civilized world in a universal 
empire, ready to ser\e the spiritual universality of the 
GospeL Both Greeks Ibid Romans were unconscious 
ser\'ant8 of Jesus Christ, * the unknown God.* Theeo 
three nations, by nature at bitter enmity among them- 
selves, jouied hands in the superscription on the craea, 
where the holy name and the royal title of the Bedeem- 
er stood written, by the command of the heathen Pilate, 
'in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin' " (Schaff, i/»to7v of 
fie Christian Churchy i, 44). 

4. As to the religion of heathenism, it is « a wild 
growth on the soil of fallen human nature, a darkening 
of the original consciousness of God, a deification of the 
rational and irrational creature, and a corresponding 
corruption of the moral sense, giving the sanction of re- 
ligion to natural and unnatural vices. Even the relig- 
ion of Greece, which, as an artistic product of the imag- 
ination, has been justly styled the religion of beauty, ia 
deformed by this moral distortion. It utterly lacks the 
true conception of sin, and consequently the true con- 
ception of holiness. It regards sui not as a perverae- 
ness of will and an oflence against the gods, but as a 
folly of the understanding, and an offence against men. 
often even proceeding from the gods themselves; for 
infatuation is a daughter of Jove.' Then these goda 
themselves are mere men, in whom Homer and the pop- 
ular faith saw and worshipped the weaknesses and vices 
of the Grecian character, as well as iu Wrtues, in im- 
mensely magnified forms. They have bodies and senses, 
like moruls, only in colossal proportions. They eat and 
drink, though only nectar and ambrosia. They are lim- 



HEATHEN 



121 



HEATHEN 



ited, Uke men, to time and space. Though sometimes 
honored with the ftttributes of omnipotence and onmi- 
scienoe, yet they are subject to an iron fate, fall wider 
delusion, and reproach each other with folly. Their 
heavenly happiness is disturbed by all the troubles of 
earthly life. Jupiter threaten^ his fellows with blows 
and. death, and makes Olympus tremble when he shakes 
Ills dark locks in anger. The gentle Venus bleeds from 
a spear-wouiid on her finger. Mars is felled with a 
stone by Diomedea. Neptune and Apollo have to serve 
for hire, and are cheated. The gods are involved by 
their marriages in perpetual jefdousies and quarrels. 
Though called holy and Just, they are full of envy and 
wrath, hatred and lust, and provoke each other to lying 
and crudty, perjury and adultery. Notwithstanding 
this essential apostasy from truth and holiness, heathen- 
ism was religion, a groping after * the unknown God.^ 
By its superstition it betrayed the need of faith. Its 
polytheism rested on a dim monotheistic background ; 
it subjected all the gods to Jupiter, and Jupiter himself 
to a mysterious fate. It had at tmttom the feeling of 
dependence on higher powers, and reverence for divine 
things. It preserved the memory of a golden age and 
of a falL It had the voice of conscience and a sense, 
obscure though it was, of guilt. It felt the need of rec- 
onciliation with deity, and sought that reconciliation by 
prayer, penxmce, and sacrifice. Many of its religious 
traditions and usages were faint echoes of the primal re- 
ligion ; and its mythological dreams of the mingling of 
the gods with men, of demigods, of Prometheus deliv- 
ered by Hercules from hla helpless sufferings, were un- 
coDflcious prophecies and fleshy anticipations of Chris- 
tian truths. This alone explains the great readiness 
with which heathens embraced the Gospd, to the shame 
of the Jews. These elements of truth, morality, and 
piety in heathenism may be ascribed to three sources. 
In the first place, man, even in his fallen state, retains 
some traces of the divine image, a consciousness of God, 
however weak, conscience, and a deep longing for union 
with the Godhead, for truth and for righteousness. In 
this view we may, with Tertullian, call the beautiful and 
true sentences of the classics, of a Socrates, a Plato, an 
Aristotle, of Pindar, Sophocles, Plutarch, Cicero, Virgil, 
Seneca, ' the testimonies of a soul constitutionally Chrij»- 
tian,* of a nature predestined to Christianity. Second- 
ly, some account must be made of traditions and recol- 
lections, however faint, coming down from the general 
primal revelations to Adam and Noah. But the third 
and most important source of the heathen anticipations 
of truth is the all-ruling providence of God, who has 
never left himself without a witness. Particularly must 
we consider the influence of the divine Logos before his 
incarnation, the tutor of mankind, the original light of 
reason, shining in the darkness and lighting every man, 
the sower scattering in the soil of heathendom the seeds 
of truth, beauty, and virtue** (Schaff, Higtory of the Ckria- 
Han Church, % 12). 

The question of the »€dvatum of the heathen has been 
a subject of much discussion. ''The great body of 
the Jews, from the earliest ages, denied salvation to the 
heathen on the principle extra ecdesiam rum dart $cUu- 
tem. But this is entirely opposed both to the Old Tes- 
tament and to the spirit of Christianity. Even Mo- 
hammed did not go to this degree of exdusiveness. 
Nor did the more ancient Grecian fathers deny salvation 
to the heathen, although they philosophized about it 
after their manner. £. g. Justin Martyr and Clement 
of Alexandria held that the Aoyog exerted an agency 
upon the heathen by means of reason, and that the 
heathen philosophers were called, justified, and saved 
by philosophy. But afterwards, especially after the 8d 
century, when the false Jewish notions respecting the 
Church were introduced into the West, and the maxim 
was adopted, Extra ecdettam non dart saluiem (which 
wai the case after the age of Augustine), they then be- 
gan to deny the salvation of the heathen, though there 
were always some who judged more favorably. Thus 



Zwingle, Curio, and others believed that God would 
pardon the heathen on account of Christ, although in 
this life they had no knowledge of his merits. See the 
historical account in Beykert's Diss. J)e salute gentium 
(Strasburg, 1777), and a short statement of the opinions 
of others in Moms, p. 128, 129, where he justly recom- 
mends to our imitation the exemplary modesty of the 
apostles when speaking on this point. The whole sub- 
ject was investigated anew on occasion of the violent 
attack which Uofstede, a preacher in Holland, made 
upon the Belisaire of MarmontoL This gave rise to 
Eberhaid's Apologie de Socrdies, Compare also ToUner, 
Beweis doM Gott die Mentchen ouch durch seine Offen- 
barung in der Naiurzur Seliffkeitjuhre'* (Knapp, Chris- 
tian Theologjf, § 121). ''The truth seems to be this, 
that none of the heathens will be condemned for not 
believing the Gospel, but they are liable to condemna- 
tion for the breach of God's natural law ; nevertheless, 
if there be any of them in whom there is a prevailing 
love to the Divine Being, there seems reason to believe 
that, for the sake of Christ, though to them unknown, 
they may be accepted by God; and so much the rather, 
as the ancient Jews, and even the apostles, during the 
time of our Saviour's abode on earth, seem to have had 
but little notion of those doctrines which those who 
deny the salvability of the heathen are most apt to im- 
agine to be fundamentaL Comp. Kom. ii, 10, 26 ; Acts 
X, 34, 86; Matt viii, 11, 12; 1 John ii, 2" (Doddridge, 
Lectures on DivinUy, lect. 172). The question is very 
ably treated in an article on " The true Theory of Mis- 
sions" in the Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1858. The writer 
states that the extreme evangelical theory, which as- 
sumes the certain damnation of all who have not learned 
the name and faith of Christ, is "the accepted theory 
of the Romish Church, and of a part of the Protestant 
Church, perhaps of the majority of the latter." He 
adds in a note the following: " The Presbyterian Con- 
fession of Faith (chap, x, § 4) uses language of remark- 
able boldness on this point, saying, ' Others not elect- 
ed, although they may be called by the ministry of 
the Word, and may have some common operations of 
the Spirit, yet they never truly come to Christ, and 
therefore cannot be saved; much less can men not 
professing the Christian religion be saved in any other 
way whatever, be ihejf never so diligent to frame their 
lives according to the light of nature and the law of that 
religion they do profess; and to assert and maintain 
that they may is very pernicious and to be detested.* 
This is sufficiently positive, especially as it contradicU 
both our Saviour' and the apostle Paul. It represents 
heathen who live according to their light as ^much lest^ 
able to be saved than men who hear the Gospel and re- 
ject it, thus direcUy contradicting our Saviour, who de- 
clared that those who rejected his words would receive 
a heavier condemnation than even the depraved, unre- 
pentant inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, or Tyre 
and Sidon (Matt, xi, 20-24). The ' Confession of Faith' 
declares the salvation of conscientious heathen to be 
' much less' possible than that of unbelieving hearers of 
the Gospel; while Christ asserts that even the most 
flagrant sinners of the heathen shall find it 'more toler- 
able' in the day of judgment than such unbelievers. 
Equally at variance with the ' Confession of Faith' is 
the declaration of Paul in Rom. ii, 14, 26, 27, in which 
he shows how those ' having not the law may be a law 
unto themselves,' and how their ' uncircumcision shall 
be counted for circumcision. '^ . . . " The facts of human 
history and the declarations of the Bible alike declare 
that mercy is a prominent attribute of the divine char- 
acter, and that this world is for some reason, kuovm or 
unknown, imder its care. We cannot, therefore, resist 
the conviction — it is an affirmation of the moral sense 
of all men— that, guilty though the human race may 
be, and deserving of destruction, yet every man lives 
under a dispensation of mercy, and has an opportunity 
for salvation. To assert gravely, then, that the hea- 
then who have never heard of Christ are shut out from 



HEATHEN 



122 



HEAVEN 



an posBtble hope of pardon, and are not in a aalrable po- 
sition in their present circumstances, is to offend the 
moral sense of the thoughtful men as well as that of the 
common multitude. It is worse than denying that an 
atonement has been made for all mankind, and restrict* 
ing it to the elect alone; for that doctrine, however theo- 
retically untrue, is saved ftom much of its practical evil 
by our inability to point out the elect in advance, so 
that our hopes are not cut off for any particular man. 
But this theory points to actual masses of men, to the 
entire population of whole countries, and dooms them 
to a necessary perdition with no present hope of pardon; 
and it extends this judgment backwards to generations 
in the past who are represented as having had no share 
in that mercy which we have such reason to believe to 
be universal in its offers. Such a theory practically 
denies the divine grace by suspending its exercise, so 
fiur as the heathen (the majority of the human race) are 
concerned, upon the action of those already enlightened. 
It declares that there is no possible mercy for the hea- 
then unless Chrittians choose to carry the Gospel to 
them. Does it seem rational, or in harmony with the 
wuversality and freedom of God's grace, that the only 
possibility of salvation for the mass of mankind should 
be suspended, not on anything within their control, but 
on the conduct of men on the opposite side of the globe? 
By such representations the minds of men are shocked, 
and a reaction takes place, which is unfavorable not only 
to the cause of missions, but to e^'angelical religion as 
well. They are led to think of ex^angelical reUgion as 
a severe, gloomy, remorseless system, which represents 
God as without mercy, or which confines that mercy 
within an exceedingly narrow compass. By describing 
the salvation of pagans as absolutely impossible, an in- 
fluence is exerted in favor of univenalism and infideli- 
ty." The writer further asserts that no passage in the 
Bible asserts this theory, nor does any doctrine of the 
Bible imply it. John Wesley's views on this subject 
are given in his sermon on Living without God^ from 
which we extract the follovring : " I have no authority 
itom the Word of God to * judge thoee that are without,' 
nor do I conceive that any man has a right to sentence 
an the heathen and Mohammedan world to damnation" 
(^Worla, N. Y. cd. ii, 485). Again, the Minutes of Aug. 
8, 1770, declare that ^ he that feareth God and worketh 
righteousness, according to the Ught he has, is accepted 
of GodL" For this Wedev was attacked bv Shirlev and 
others, and defended by Fletcher, in his First Check to 
A ntinomianism (New York edit), i, 41 . See, besides the 
works above cited, Watson, Theolog, Institutes^ ii, 446 ; 
Whately, Future State^ p. 207 ; Constant, De la Religion 
(BruxeUes, 1824) ; Rougemont, Le Peuple PrimUif^sx- 
is, 1855-57, 8 vols. 8vo) ; Pressens^, Hist, des Trois Pre- 
miers SikcUs de Teglise, voL i ; translated under the title 
The Religions before Christ (Edinb. 1862, 8vo) ; Sepp, 
Das Heidenthum (Regensb. 1853, 8 vols.) ; Maurice, Relig- 
ions of the World (Beaton, 1854, 18mo); Trench, I/ulsean 
Lectures for 1846 (PhiUdel. 1850, 12mo); Wuttke, Gesch. 
des HeidenthttmSf etc. (Bresl. 1858. 8vo) ; Hardwick, Christ 
and other Masters (1855, 2 vols. 8vo) ; Schaff, ApostoL 
Churchy p. 139 sq. ; Scholten, Gesch. d. Religion u, Phihso- 
phie (Elberf. 1868, 8vo) ; Pfleidcier, Die Religion, ihr We- 
sen und ihre Geschichie (Leipsic, 1869, 2 vols. 8vo) ; Dol- 
Unger, The Gentile and the Jero in the Courts of the Tem- 
ple of Christy trans, by DameU (Lond. 1862, 2'vols. 8vo) ; 
N. British Review, December, 1867, art i ; Baring-Gould, 
Origin and Development of Religious Belief (Lond. 1869- 
70, 2 vols. 8vo). 

Heathenlam. See Paganism. 

Heaven. There is, says Daubuz, a threefold world, 
and therefore a threefold heaven — the invisible, the vis- 
ible, and the political among men, which last may be 
either civil or ecdesiasticoL We shaU consider these in 
the inverse order. 

A. Terrestrially and Figuratively regarded, — Wherever 
the scene of a prophetic vision is laid, heaven signifies 
symbolicaUy the riding power or government ; that is, 



tl. e ▼. hole assembly of the xuUng powers, which, iu to* 
spect to the subjects on earth, are a poUtical heaven, be- 
ing over and ruling the subjects, as the natural heaven 
stands over and rules the earth. Thus, according to the 
subject, is the term to be limited ; and therefore Artem- 
idorus, writing in the times of the Roman eroperoTB, 
makes Italy to be the heaven: ''As heaven," says he, 
*' is the abode of gods, so is Italy of kings." The Chi- 
nese call their monarch Tiencu, the son of heaven, mean- 
ing thereby the most powerful monarch. And thus, in 
Matt, xxiv, 30, heaveh is anonymous to powers <md glo- 
ry; and when Jesus says, **The powera of the heaven 
shall be shaken," it is easy to conceive that he meant 
that the kingdoms of the world should be overthrown 
to submit to his kingdom. Any government is a world ; 
and therefore, in Isa. Ii, 15, 16, heaven and earth signify 
a political universe, a kingdom or polity. In Isa. Ixv, 17, 
a new heaven and a new earth signify a new government, 
new kingdom, new i)eople. — ^Wemyss, a. v. See Heav- 
en AND EAirrn. 

R Physically treated, — ^I. Definitions and Distinetions, 
— The ancient Hebrews, for want of a single term like 
the Koapof and the mundus of the Greeks and the Lat- 
ins, used the phrase heaven and earth (bb in Gen. i, 1 ; 
Jer. xxiii, 24 ; and Acts x\ii, 24, where "//. and EJ* =■ 
*' the world and all things therein") to indicate the uni- 
verse, or (as Barrow, Sermons on the Creed, Works [Ox- 
ford ed.], iv, 556, expresses it) ^ those two regions, supe- 
rior and inferior, into which the whole system of things 
is divided, together with all the beings that do reside 
in them, or do belong unto them, or are comprehended 
by them" (compare Pearson, On the Creed, w^ho, on art. i 
[** Maker of H. and £."], adduces the Rabbiuical names 
of a triple division of the universe, making the sea, C^, 
distinct from the 2'U*^, i} olKovpimj. Compare abo the 
Nicene Creed, where another division occurs of the uni- 
verse into ^things visHAe and wvisible"). Deducting 
from this aggregate the idea expressed by ''earth" [see 
Earth ; GEOtjRAPHY], we get a residue of signification 
which exactly embraces " heaven." Barrow (L c) well 
defines it as *' all the superior region encompassing the 
globe of the earth, and from it on all sides extended to 
a distance inconceivably vast and spacious, with all its 
parts, and furniture, and inhabitants — not only such 
things in it as are visible and material, but also those 
which are immaterial and invisible (Col. i, 16)." 

1. Wetstein (in a learned note on 2 Cor. xii, 2) and 
Eisenmcnger (Entdecktes JuJenthum, i, 4G0) state the 
Rabbinical opinion as asserting seven heavens. For the 
substance of Wetstein's note, see Stanley, Cortnthiun^y 
\ c. This number arises confessedly from the mystic 
value of the numeral seven ; " omnis septenarius dilectus 
est in sanrulum — in superis." According to Rabbi Abia, 
there were six antechambers, as it were, or steps to the 
seventh heaven, which was the " ra/ttlov in quo Rex 
habitat" — the very presence-chamber of the divine King 
himself. Compare Origen, Contra Celsum, vi, 289, and 
Clemens Alex. Stromata, i v, 636 ; v, 692. In t he last of 
these passages the prophet Zeplianiah is mentioned, af- 
ter some apocrj^hal tradition, to have been caught up 
into " the^A heaven, the dwelling-place of the angels, 
in a glory sevenfold greater than the brightness of the 
sun." In the Rabbinical point of view, the superb throne 
of king Solomon, with the six steps leading up to it, was 
a symbol of the highest heaven with the throne of the 
Eternal, above the six inferior heavens (1 Kings x, 18- 
20). These gradations of the celestial regions are prob- 
ably meant in Amos ix, 6, where, however, the entire 
creation is beautifully described by " the stories [or steps J 
of the heaven," for the empyreal heaven ; " the troop [or 
globular aggregate, the terra frma ; see A. Lapide, ad 
loc.] of the earth," and " the waters of the sea" [includ- 
ing the atmosphere, whence the watera are " poured out 
upon the face of the earth"]. As for the threefold di- 
\nsion of the celestial regions mentioned in the text, 
Meyer thuiks it to be a fiction of the learned Grotius, 
on the ground of the Rabbinical seven heavens. Bat 



HEAVEN 



123 



HEAVEN 



tliii ce uguf c is premature; for (1) it is very cloubtful 
whether this Mdomadal division is as old as Paul's 
time; (2) it is certain that the Rabbinical doctors are 
not onanimoas about the number seven. Rabbi Judah 
(Ckagiffaj foL xii, 2, and Aboth NcUhan^ 87) says there 
are ** two heavens^** after Deut. x, 14. This agrees with 

Gn>tias*8 statement, if we combine his nuhiferum (^^p^^ 
and cutri/erum (D*^Qd) into one region of physical heav- 
au (as indeed Moses does himself in Gen. i, 14, 15, 17, 
20), and reserve bis ca^Uferum for the D'^Q1!7n '^T^HSj 
*^ the heaven of heavens," the supernal region of spirit- 
ual beings, Milton's ** £mp>Tean" (P. L. vii, sub Jin,). See 
bishop Feaiaon's note, On the Creed (ed. Chevallier), p^ 
91. The learned note of De Wette on 2 Cor. xii, 2 is 
also worth oonsnlting. (8) The Taigum on 2 Chron. 
%*i, 18 (as quoted by Dr. Gill, Comment. 2 Corinth. L c.), 
expressly mentions the triple distinction oftupraney mid- 
dUj and lower heavena. Indeed, there is an accumula- 
tion of the threefold classification. Thus, in Tseror 
UammoTy foL i, 4, and ill, 2, 3, and Ixxxii, 2, three worlds 
are mentioned. The doctors of the Cabbala also hold 
the opinion of tkrw worlds, Zohar, Numb. foL Ixvi, 8. 
And of the highest world there is further a tripartite 
division, of cavfeU, Q'^3Mbatl cbS? ; of souls, nilSBp ; 
snd of ^riisy D'^H^nn Q^i^. See Buxtorfs Ijex, Rah- 
Ufc, cxA, 1620, who refers to D. Kimchi on Psa. xix, 9. 
Fsnl, besides the well-known 2 Cor. xii, 2, refers again, 
only less pointedly, to a pluralOy of heavens, as in £ph. 
iv, IOl See Olshausen (ed. Clark) on the former passage. 

2. Accordingly, Barrow (p. 558, with whom compare 
Giotius and Drusius on 2 Cor. xii, 2) ascribes to the Jews 
the notion that there are three heixoens: CoBlum nubi/e-' 
rvrn, or the firmament; Cedtun astr\ferutnj the starry 
heavens ; Cctlum angelifirum, or *' the heaven of heav- 
ens," where the angels reside, " the third heaven** of 
PauL This same notion prevails in the fathers. Thus 
Sl Gregory of Nyssa (^exaem. i, 42) describes the first 
of these heavens as the KmUed space of the denser air 
(rdy opop roi) jraxvpfptmpou dipoc), tnthin which 
range the chuds, the teisids, and the birds; the second is 
the region in which wander thepUmets <md the stars {iv 
f a irXaviirai rwv d<rri(mv Biawopivovrat), hence apt- 
ly called by Hesychius Karriorpiofuvov rotrov, locum 
stdtifemm ; while the third is the very summit of the vis- 
ible ereoHon (to ouv OKporarov rov aladrirov Koapov), 
Pants third heaven, higher than the aerial and stdlar 
world, cotpnzabU [not by the eye, but] by the mind alone 
(tv araaipifi xai vorirg iftvou ytvopevoif), which Dam- 
■eeene calls the heaven of heavens, the prime heaven be- 
yond all others (pupavoQ rov ovpavov, 6 trpwroQ oOpa- 
voQ, Orthod, Fid. lib. ii, c vi, p. 83) ; or, according to St. 
Basil (/it Jesaiam, visions ii, torn, i, 813), the throne of 
God (^poyo^ Oeov), and to Justin Martyr {Qutest. et 
Reqt. ad Graeos, ad ult. QftcesL p. 236), the house and 
throne of God (otjcoc cat dpovoQ rov 6foD). 

n. Scripture Passayes arranged according to these Die- 
tinctions. — This latter diviaon of the celestial regions is 
very convenient and quite BiblicaL (I.) Under the first 
head, ecdum nuhiferum, the following phrases naturally 
lUl-^a) ** Fowl," or « fowls of the heaven, of the air," 
see Gen. ii, 19; vU, 8, 23; ix, 2; Deut. iv, 17; xxviii, 
26; 1 Kings xxi,24; Jobxii,7; xxviii, 21; xxxv, 11; 
Pki. viii, 8; Ixxix, 2; civ, 12; Jer. vii, 38 et passim; 
£iek. xxix, 5 et passim; Dan. ii, 38; Hoe. ii, 18; iv, 8 ; 
vii, 12; Zeph. i,3; Mark iv, 8 (rd vtriiva rov obpa- 
yov); Lake viii, 5; ix,58; xiii,19; Acts x, 12; xi,6— 
in all which passages the same original words in the 
Hebrew, Chaldee, and Greek Scriptures (O^^^, l??^i 
ovpavoi) are vrith equal propriety rendered indifferently 
"flw" and "heaven^ — similariy we read of " the path of 
the ea|!^e tn the air^ (Prov. xxx, 19) ; of ** the eagles of 
heaven" (Lun. iv, 19) ; of ** the stork of the heaven^ (Jer. 
viii, 7) ; and of *^ birds of hewoeni* iii general (EccL x, 20 ; 
Jer. iv, 26). In addition to these zoological terms, we 
hare meteorological £M!t8 included under the same orig- 



inal words; e. g. (&) "•The dew of heaven** (Gen. xxvii, 
28, 39 ; Deut xxxiii, 28 ; Dan. iv, 15 et passim ; Hag. i, 
10; Zech. viii, 12) : (c) « The clouds of heaven** (1 Kings 
xviii, 45; Pss. cxlvii, 8; Dan. vii, 18; Matt, xxiv, 30; 
xxvi, 64; Mark xiv,62) : (d) The frost of heaven (Job 
xxxviii, 29): («) The winds of heaven (1 Kings xviii, 
55 ; Pss. Ixxviii, 26 ; Dan. viii, 8 ; xi, 4 ; Zech. ii, 6 ; vi, 
5 [see maiginj ; Matt, xxiv, 31 ; Mark xiii, 27) : (/) 
The rain of heaven (Gen. viii, 2; Deut xi, 11; xxviii, 
12; Jer. xlv,22; Acts xiv,17 loOpavo^tv ititovc] ; Jaa. 
V, 18; Rev. xviii, 6): (g) Lightning, with thunder (Job 
xxxvii,8, 4; Luke xvii, 24). (11.) Calum astrtferum. 
The vast spaces of which astronomy takes cognizance 
are frequently referred to: e. g. {a) in the phrase ^^host 
of heaven^ in Deut. xvii, 8 ; Jer. viii, 2 : Matt xxiv, 29 
[(^wapitQ tUv ovpavdfv'] ; a sense which is obviously 
not to be confounded with another signification of the 
same phrase, as in Luke ii, 13 [see Angels ] : (6) Lights 
of heaven (Gen. i, 14, 15, 16 ; Ezek. xxxii, 8) : (c) Stars 
of heaven (Gen. xxii, 17; xxvi, 4; £xod. xxxii, 18; 
Deut i, 10; x,22; xxviii, 62; Judg.v,20; Neh.ix,28; 
Isa. xiii, 10; Nah. iii, 16; Heb. xi, 12). (III.) Calum 
angeltferum. It would exceed our limiu if we were to 
collect the descriptive phrases which revelation has 
given us of heaven in its sublimest sense; we content 
ourselves with indicating one or two of the most obvi- 
ous: (a) The heaven of heavens (Deut x, 14; 1 Kings 
viii, 27; 2 Chion. ii, 6, 18; Neh. ix, 6; Psa. cxv, 16; 
cxlviii, 4 : (6) The third heavens (2 Cor. xii, 2) : (c) The 
high rnul lofty [place^ (Isa. xlvu, 15) : (d) The highest 
(^latt xxi, 9; Mark xi, 10; Luke ii, 14, compared with 
Psa. clxviii, 1). This heavenly sublimity was gracious- 
ly brought down to Jewish apprehension in the sacred 
symbol of their Tabernacle and Temple, which they rev- 
erenced (especially in the adytum of " the Holy of Ho- 
lies") as " the pUce where God's honor dwelt" (Psa. xxvi, 
8), and amidst the sculptured types of his celestial reti- 
nue, in the cherubim of the mercy-seat (2 Kings xix, 
15; Pda. Ixxx, 1 : Isa. xxxvii, 16). 

III. Meaning of the Terms used in the Original — 1. By 
far the most frequent designation of hear^ in the He- 
brew Scriptures is tS^^l^^ shama'yim, which the older 
lexicographers [see Cocceius, Tax, s. v.] regarded as the 
dual, but which Geseuius and FUrst have restored to the 
dignity, which St Jerome gave it, of the plural of an 
obsolete noun, *^pd as (p*y\9kplur. of "^lA and D^P from 
"^p). According to these recent scholars, the idea ex- 
pressed by the word is height, elevation (Gesenius, Thes. 
p. 1453 ; FUrst, Hebr. Wort, ii, 467). In this respect of 
its essential meaning it resembles the Greek obpavoc 
[from the radical op, denoting height'\ (Pott, EtymoL 
Forsch. i, 123, ed. 1). Pott's rendering of this root bp, 
by "sich erAebm," reminds us of our own beautiful word 
heaven, which thus enters into brotherhood of significa- 
tion with the grand idea of the Hebrew, Chaldee, and 
Greek. Professor Bosworth, in his Anglo-Sax. Diet, 
under the verb hebban, to raise or elevate, gives the kin- 
dred words of the whole Teutonic family, and deduces 
therefrom the noun heofon or heofen, in the sense of 
heaven. And although the primary notion of the Latin 
coelum (akin to KoXkoi and our hollow) is the less sub- 
lime one of a covered or vaulted space, yet the loftier 
sense of elevation has prevailed, both in the original (see 
White and Kiddle, s. v. Coelum) and in the derived lan- 
guages (comp. French del, and the English word ceil' 

ing). 

2. Closely allied in meaning, though unconnected m 

origin with fi^pid, is the od-recurring fiiltt, manm'. 
This word is never Englished heaven, but " heights,** or 
" A^A place,** or " Ai^A places.** There can, however, be 
no doubt of its celestial signification (and that in the 
grandest degree) in such passages as Psa. Ixviii, 18 
[Hebr. 19] ; xciii, 4; cii, 19 [or in the Hebr. Bib. 20, 
where itip Bliaa is equal to the D'^Q^^'Q of the 
parallel clause]; similarly, Job xxxi, 2; Isa. Ivii, 15; 
Jer. XXV, 30. Dr. Kalisch (Genesis, Introd. p. 21) says, 



HEAVEN 



124 



HEAVEN 



^ It was a common belief among all ancient nations that 
at the summit of the shadow of the earth, or on the top 
of the highest mowitain of the earth, which reaches 
with its crest into heaven . . . the gods have their pal- 
ace or hall of assembly,** and he instances "the Babylo- 
nian Albordahj the chief abode of Ormuzd, among the 
heights of the Caucasus; and the Hindoo Aleru; and 
the Chinese Kulhtn (or Kaen-luu) ; and the Greek Olyvt^ 
pus (and Atlas) ; and the Arabian Caf; and the Parsee 
TireA.*' He, however, while strongly and indeed most 
properly censuring the identification of Mount Meru 
wiih Mount Moriah (which had hastily been conjec- 
tured from " the accidental resemblance of the names**), 
deems it improbable that the Israelites should have en- 
tertained, like other ancient nations, the notion of local 
height for the abode of him whose " glory the heaven 
and the heaven of heavens cannot contain ;** and this 
he supposes on the ground that such a notion " rest* e»- 
tentiallif on polytheistic ideas,^ Surely the learned com- 
mentAtor is premature in both these statements. (1.) 
No such improbability, in/act, unhappily, can be predi- 
cated of the Israelites, who in ancient times (notwith- 
standing the divine prohibitions) exhibited a constant 

tendency to the ritual of their niQ^, or *^ high places J* 
Gesenius makes a more correct statement when he says 
[^Hebr, Ijcx, by Robinson, p. 138], "The Hebrews, like 
most other ancient nations, supposed that sacred rites 
performed on high places were pvticulariy acceptable to 
the Deity. Hence they were accustomed to offer sacri- 
fices upon mountains and hills, both to idols and to God 
himself (1 Sam.ix,12 sq.; 1 Chron.xiii,29 sq.; 1 Kings 
iii, 4 ; 2 Kings xii, 2,.8 ; Isa. xlv, 7) ; and also to buUd 
there chapels^fanes, tabernacles (Pliioart "^riS, 1 Kings 
xiii,d2; 2 Kings xvii, 29), with their priests and other 
ministers of the sacred rites (ni^atl ^^ilis, 1 Kings xii, 

82 ; 2 Kings xvii, 82). So tenacious of this ancient cus- 
tom were not only the ten tribes, but also all the Jews, 
that, even after the building of Solomon's Temple, in 
spite of the express law of Deut xii, they continued to 
erect such chapels on the mountains around Jerusalem.** 
(2.) Neither from the character of Jehovah, as the God 
of Israel, can the improbability be maintained, as if it 
were of the essence o( polytheism only to localize Deity 
on mountain heights. " The high and lofty One that 
inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy,** in the procla- 
mation which he is pleased to make of his own style, 
does not limit his abode to celestial sublimities; in one 
of the finest passages of even Isaiah*s poetiy, God claims 
as one of the stations of his glory the shrine of " a con- 
trite and humble spirit** (Isa. l\% 15). His loftiest at- 
tributes, therefore, are not compromised, nor is the am- 
plitude of his omnipresence compressed by an earthly 
residence. Accordingly, the same Jehovah who " walk- 
eth on the high places^ ni^S, of the earth** (Amos iv, 18) ; 
who " treadeth on the fastnesses, ^1^^, of the sea** (Job 
iz, 8) ; and " who ascendeth above the heights, H'^.TSa, of 
the clouds,** was pleased to consecrate Zion as his dwell- 
ing-place (Psa. Ixxxvii, 2), and his rest (Psa. cxxxii, 18, 
14). Hence we find the same word, DI'nTS, which is of- 
ten descriptive of the sublimest heaven, used of Zion, 
which Kzekiel calls "the mountain of the height of Is- 
rael,*' b^niS^ Sn« 'in (xvii, 23; xx,40; xxxiv, 14). 

8. b&^A, galgal'. This word, which literally mean- 
ing a wheel, admirably expresses rotatory movemeni, is 
actually rendered "heaverC* in the A.y. of Pisa. Ixxvii, 
18 : " The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven,*' 
^l>^l^9 [Sept, kv rt^ rpox«p; Vulg. in rota], Luther's 
version agrees with the A. Vers, in Hhnmel; and Dathe 
lenders per orhem, which is ambiguous, being as expres- 
sive, to say the IcASt, of the globe of the earth as of the 
dide of heaven. The Targum (in Walton, vol iii) on 

the passage gives Kbllb^Sl (in rota), which is as inde- 
terminate as the original, as the Syriac also seems to be. 
De Wette (and after him Justus Olshausen, Die Ps, er- 



Mdrt, 1. c.) renden the phrase "in the whiihrind.* 
Maurer, who disapproves of this rendering, explains the 
phrase "rotated.** But, amidst the uncertainty of the 
versions, we are disposed to think that it was not with- 
out good reason that our tnnsIatorB, in departing from 
the previous version (see Psalter, ad loc, which has, 
" the voice of thy thunder was heard round abouf*), de- 
liberately rendered the passage tn the, heaxen, as if the 
^A^ were the correlative of ^^H, both being -poetic 
words, and both together equaUed the heaven cmd the 
earth. In Jas. iii, 6, the remarkable phrase, rbv rpo' 
Xov Ttfg yewVfitfC, t/«c course, circuit, or wheel of nature, 
is akin to our '^Ax (The Syriac renders the rpo^ov 
by the same word, which occurs in the psalm as the 
equivalent of ^Abft, Schaafs Lex. Syr, ; and of the same 

indefiniteness of signification.) That the general sense 
"heaven^ best expresses the force of Psa. Ixxvii, 18, is 
rendered probable, moreover, by the description which 
Josephus gives {A nt, ii, 16, 8) of the destruction of Pha- 
rBoh*s host in the Red Sea, the subject of that part of 
the psalm, " Showers of rain descendcdyVom heavai, dr 
olfpavov, with dreadful thunders and lightning, and 
flashes of fire; thunderbolts were darted upon them, 
nor were there any indications of God*s wrath upon 
men wanting on that dark and dismal night.** 

4. As the words we have reviewed indicate the height 
and rotation of the heavens, so the two we have yet to 
examine exhibit another characteristic of equal promi- 
nence, the breadth and expanse of the celestial regiona 
These are pnp, shach'ak (generally used in the plural) 
and 9*^p"X They occur together in Job xxxvii, 18: 
" Hast thou with him spread out ($*^p']tr|) thesiky or 
expanse of heaven?**— (D^pHlsb, where b is the rign 
of the objective). We must examine them separately. 
The root p^"^ is explained by Gesenius to grind to 
powder, and then to expand by rubbing or beating, Meier 
(//eir. Wurzel-^.-b, p. 446) compares it with the Arabic 
shachaka, to make fine, to attenuate (whence the noun 
shachim, a thin doud). With him agrees FUnt (Jlebr,- 
ir.-5. ii, 438). The Heb. subst is therefore well adapted 
to designate the diyey region of heaven with its doud- 
dust, whether fine or dense. Accordin^y, the meaning 
of the word ui its various passages curiously osrillatfe 
between sky and doud. When Moses, in Deut. xxxiii, 
26, lauds Jehovah's "riding in his excellence on the sky ;*' 
and when, in 2 Sam. xxii, 12, and repeated in Psa. xviii, 
1 1 (12), David speaks of " the thick clouds of the skies ,•** 
when Job (xxxvii, 18) asks, " Hast thou with him spread 
out the skyf" when the Psalmist (PSa. Ixxvii, 17 [18 J) 
speaks of " the skies sending out a sound,** and the proph- 
et (Isa. xlv, 8), figuratively, of their "pouring down 
righteousness;** when, finally, Jeremiah (Ii, 9), by a fre- 
quently occuiring simile [comp. Rev. xviii, 5, liroXov- 
^Titrav avrrjc at afutpriai dxpi tov oipavov], describes 
the judgment of Babylon as " lilted up even to the skies,** 
in every instance our word D*^pril^ in the pbiral is 
employed. The same word in the same form is tran»- 
lated ^^doudiT in Job xxxv, 6; xxxvi, 28; xxxvii, 21 ; 
xxxviii, 87; in Psa. xxxvi, 5 (6); Ivii, 10 (11); Ixviii, 
84 (36) [margin, "Aearfu***]; Ixxviii, 28; in l*rov. iii, 
20 ; %'iii, 28. The prevalent sense of this word, we thus 
see, is a meteorological one, and falls under oiur fint head 
of ccdum nubiferum : its connection with the other two 
heads is much slighter. It bean probably an asfronon^ 
ical sense in Pta. Ixxxix, 87 (88), where "the faithful 
witness in heaven'* seems to be in apposition to the son 
and the moon (Bellarmine, ad loc.) , although some sup- 
pose the expression to mean the rainbow, " the witneaa** 
of God's covenant with Noah ; Gen. ix, 13 sq. (see J. Ols- 
hausen, ad loc). This is perhaps the only instance of 
its falling under the class ccelum astr\ferum ; nor have 
we a much more frequent reference to the higher sense 
of the oodum angeUferum (PSa. Ixxxix, 6 containing the 
only explicit allusion to this sense) ', unless, with Gea»- 



HEAVEN 



125 



HEAVEN 



nioa, Tke$. s. v., we refer Faa. Ixviii, 85 also to it. More 
probsbly in Deat. xxxiii, 26 (where it is parallel with 
C^^O, and in the highly poetical passages of Isa. xlv, 
8, and Jer. li, 9, our word D*^pnd may be best regarded 
as designating the empyreal heavens. 

& We have already noticed the connection between 
D**pra and oar only remaining word ?*^p'^, raki'a, 
from their being associated by the sacred vmter in the 
Mime sentence (Job xxxvii, 18) ; it tends to corroborate 
this connection that, on comparing Gen. i^ 6 (and seven 
other passages in the same chapter) with Deut. xxxiii, 
26, we find ?*^p*^ of the former sentence, and D*^pno 
of the latter, both rendered by the Sept orepsta^a and 
famamattum in the Vulg., whence the word ^firmament 
passed into our A.y. This word is now a well-under- 
stood term in astronomy, synonymous with sky or else 
the general heavens, undivested by the discoveries of 
science of the special rignification which it bore in the 
ancient astronomy. See Firmament. For a dear ex- 
poation of all the Scripture passages which bear on the 
subject, we may refer the reader to professor Dawson's 
ArdkaicUi especially chap, viii, and to Dr. M*Cau] on Tht 
Mo$(dc Record of Crtation (or, what is substantially the 
lame treatise in a more accesnble form, his Note$ on ike 
Fint dkapier of Genesiiy sec ix, p. 82-44). We must 
be content here, in reference to our term $*^p'^^ to ob- 
serve that, when we regard its origin (from the root 
7p"l, to spread out or expand by beating ; Gesen. s. v. ; 
Fidlsr, Misc. Sacr. i, 6 ; FUrst, Iltbr.^w.'h, s. v.), and its 
connection with, and illustration by, such words as 
D**pn3, eioudSf and the verbs Hfia (Isa. xlviii, 13, 
"My right hand hath spread out the heavens") and 
rD3 (Isa. xl, 22, '* Who ttretchetk out the heavens like a 
caxtain" [literally, like Jmeness\ *'and spreadetk them 
on/ as a tent"), we are astonished at certain rationalistic 
attempts to control the meaning of an intelligible term, 
which fita in eamly and consistently with the nature 
of things, by a few poetical metaphors, that are them- 
selves capable of a consistent sense when held subordi- 
nate to the plainer passages of proee.^Kitto. The full- 
er expreasion is Q^^^H S^l^p*^ (Gen. i, 14 sq.). That 
Moses understood it to mean a solid expanse is clear 
from his representing it as the barrier between the up- 
per and lower waters (Gen. i, 6 sq.), i e. as separating 
the reservoir of the celestial ocean (F&a. civ, 8 ; xxix, 8) 
from the waters of the earth, or those on which the 
caith was soppoeed to float (Psa. cxxxvi, 6). Through 
its open lattices (riS'^X, Gen. vii, 11 ; 2 Kings vii, 2, 
19; compare kovkivov, Aristophanes, Nub, 873) or doors 
(b^rb^t Pta. Ixxviii, 28) the dew, and snow, and hail 
are povired upon the earth (Job xxxviii, 22, 87, where 
we have the curious expression '* bottles of heaven," 
**iitres ooeli"). This firm vault, which Job describes as 
being '^ strong as a molten looking-glass" (xxxvii, 18), 
is tran^Mirent, like pellucid sapphire, and splendid as 
oystal (Dan. xii, 8; Exod. xxiv, 10; Ezek. i, 22; Rev. 
iv, 6), over which rests the throne of God (Isa. Ixvi, 1 ; 
Ezek. i, 26), and which is opened for the descent of an- 
geis, or for prophetic visions (Gen. xxviii, 17 ; Ezek. i, 
1; Acts vii, 56; x, 11). In it, like gems or golden 
Ismpfl^ the stars are fixed to give light to the earth, and 
regulate the seasons (Gen. i, 14-19); and the whole 
magnificent, immeasurable structure (Jer. xxxi, 87) is 
supported by the mountains as its pillars, or strong 
foundations (Psa. xviii, 7 ; 2 Sam. xxii, 8 ; Job xxiv, 
IIX Similarly the Greeks believed in an ovpavoQ voX" 
vxakKo^ (Uom. //. v, 504), or oiiripio^ (Horn. Od, xv, 
9^\ or AcafuuxTOQ (Orph. Hymn, ad Ccdurn), which the 
philoaopheis called oTipf/tviov or KfnwraXXoudic (£m- 
pedodesy c^. Plut, de PhiL plac ii, 11 ; Artemid. ap. Sen. 
NaL QfiasL vii, 13; quoted by Gesenius^ s. v.). It is 
dear that very many of the idMve notions were meta- 
phoia resulting from the simple primitive conception, 
and that hter writers among the Hebrews had arrived 



at more scientific views, although, of course, they re^ 
tained much of the old phraseology, and are fluctuating 
and undecided in their terms. Elsewhere, for instance, 
the heavens are likened to a curtain (Psa. civ, 2 ; Isa. 
xl, 22). — Smith. See Cosmogony. 

rV. Metaphorical Application of the Visible Heavens, 
— ^A door opened in heaven is the beginning of a new 
re%'elation. To ascend up into heaven signifies to be in 
full power. Thus is the symbol to be understood in Isa. 
xiv, 18, 14, where the king of Babylon says, " I will as- 
cend into heaven; I will exalt my throne above the 
stars of God." To descend from heaven signifies, sym- 
bolically, to act by a commission from heaven. Thus 
our Saviour uses the word *' descending" (John i, 51) in 
speaking of the angels acting by divine commission, at 
the command of the Son of man. To fall from heaven 
signifies to lose power and authority, to be deprived of 
the power to govern, to revolt or apostatize. 

The heaven opened. The natural heaven, being the 
symbol of the governing part of the political world, a 
new face in the natural, represents a new face in the 
politicaL Or the heaven may be said to be opened when 
the day appears, and consequently shut when night 
comes on, as appears from Virgil {ACn, x, 1), " The gates 
of heaven unfold," etc. Thus the Scripture, in a poet- 
ical manner, speaks of the doors of heaven (Psa. Ixxviii, 
28) ; of the heaven being shut (1 Kings viii, 85) ; and in 
Ezek. i, 1, the heaven is said to be opened. 

Midst, of heaven may be the air, or the region be- 
tween heaven and earth ; or the middle station between 
the corrupted earth and the throne of God in heaven. 
In this sense, the air is the proper place where God*8 
threatenings and judgments should be denounced. Thus^ 
in 1 Chron. xxi, 16, it is said that David saw the angel 
of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven as 
he was just going to destroy Jerusalem with the pesti- 
lence. The angel's hovering there was to show that 
there was room to pray for mercy, just as God was go- 
ing to inflict the punishment : it had not as yet done 
any execution. — ^Wemyss. 

C. Spiritual and Everlasting Sense, i. e. the state and 
place of blessedness in the life to come. Of the nature 
of this blessedness it is not poosible that we should form 
any adequate conception, and, consequently, that any 
precise information respecting it should be given to us. 
Man, indeed, usually conceives the joys of heaven to be 
the same as, or at least to resemble, the pleasines of this 
world ; and each one hopes to obtain with certainty, and 
to enjoy in full measure beyond the grave, that which 
he holds most dear upon earth — those favorite employ- 
ments or particular delights which he ardently longs 
for here, but which he can seldom or never enjoy in this 
world, or in the enjoyment of which he is never fully 
satbfied. But one who reflects soberly on the subject 
will readily see that the happiness of heaven must be a 
very different thing from earthly happiness. In this 
world the highest pleasures of which our nature is ca- 
pable satiate by their continuance, and soon lose the 
power of giving positive enjoyment. This alone is suf- 
ficient to show that the bliss of the future world must 
be of an entirely different kind from what is called 
earthly joy and happiness, if we are to be there truly 
happy, and happy ybrwer. But since we can have no 
distinct conception of those joys which never have been 
and never will be experienced by us here in their full 
extent, we have, of course, no words in human language 
to express them, and cannot therefore expect any clear 
description of them even in the holy Scriptures. Hence 
the Bible describes this happiness sometimes in general 
terms, designating its greatness (as in Rom. viii, 18-22; 
2 Cor. iv, 17, 18), and sometimes by various figurative 
images and modes of speech, borrowed from everything 
which we know to be attractive and desirable. 

The greater part of these images were already com- 
mon among the Jewish contemporaries of Christ ; but 
Christ and his apostles employed them in a purer sense 
than the great multitude of the Jews. The Orientals 



HEAVEN 



126 



HEAYEN 



ate rich in tach figiures. They urere employed by Mo- 
hammed, who carried them, as his manner was, to an 
extravagant excess, but who at the same time said ex- 
pressly that they were mere figures, although many of 
his followers afterwards understood them literally, as has 
been often done in a similar way by many Christians. 

The following are the principal terms, both literal 
and figurative, which are applied in Scripture to the 
condition of future happiness. 

a. Among the literal appellations we find ^w^, ^m) 
aiitfvioc, which, according to Hebrew usage, signify '^a 
happy life," or *' eternal well-being," and are the words 
rendered *'life," "eternal life," and "life everhwting" in 
the A. Vers. (e. g» Matt, vii, 14 ; xix, 16, 29 ; xxv, 46) : 
do^a, (ioKa rov e€Ov, " glory," " the glory of God" (Rom. 
ii, 7, 10 ; V, 2) ; and eip^vi?, " peace" (Kom, ii, 10). Also 
aiwiov papoQ BoKvSi " *n eternal weight of glory" (2 
Cor. iv, 17); and atanypia, ffianjpia aiwvioQ, '^ulvar 
tion," " eternal salvation" (Heb. v, 9), etc 

b. Among the^fiffurative representations we may place 
the word " heaven" itself. The abode of departed spir- 
its, to us who live upon the earth, and while we remain 
here, is invisible and ituux^ssible, beyond the bounds of 
the visible world, and entirely separated from it. There 
they live in the highest well-being, and in a nearer 
connection with God and Christ than here below. This 
place and state camiot be designated by any more fit 
and brief expression than that which is found in almost 
every language, namely, " heaven" — a word in its pri- 
mary and material signification denoting the region of 
the skies, or the visible heavens. This word, in Heb. 
Q*^pd, in Gr. ovpavoQ, is therefore frequently employ- 
ed by the sacred writers, as above exemplified. It is 
there that the highest sanctuary or temple of God is 
situated, i. e. it is there that the omnipresent God most 
gloriously reveals himself. This, too, is the abode of 
God's highest spiritual creation. Thither Christ was 
transported : he caUs it the house of his Father, and 
says that he has therein prepared an abode for his fol- 
lowers (John xiv, 2). 

This place, this " heaven," was never conceived of in 
ancient times, as it has been by some modern writers, 
as a particular planet or world, but as the wide expanse 
of heaven, high above the atmosphere or starry heav- 
ens ; hence it is sometimes called the third heaven, as 
being neither the atmosphere nor the starry heavens. 

Another figurative name is " Paradise," taken from 
the abode of our first parents in their state of innocence, 
and transferred to the abode of the blessed (Luke xxiii, 
48 ; 2 Cor. xii, 4 ; Kev. ii, 7 ; xxii, 2). 

Again, this place is calle<l " the heavenly Jerusalem" 
(GaL iv, 26 ; Heb. xii, 22 ; Kev. iii, 12), because the 
earthly Jerusalem was the capital city of the Jews, the 
royal residence, and the scat of divine worship; the 
" kingdom of heaven" (Matt, xxv, 1 ; Jaa. ii, 6) ; the 
" heavenly kingdom" (2 Tim. iv, 18) ; the " eternal king- 
dom" (2 Pet. i, 11). It is also callccl an " eternal inher- 
itance" (1 Pet. i, 4 ; Heb. ix, 15), meaning the posses- 
sion and full enjoyment of happiness, typified by the 
residence- of the ancient Hebrews in Palestine. The 
blessed are said " to sit down at table with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob," that is, to be a sharer with the saints 
of old in the jo3rs of salvation ; " to be in Abraham's bo- 
som" (Luke xvi,22; Matt, viii, 11), that is, to sit near 
or next to Abraham [see Bosom] ; " to reign with 
Christ" (2 Tim. ii, 11), i. e. to be distinguished, honored, 
and happy as he is — ^to enjoy regal felicities ; to enjoy 
"a Sabbath," or "re«t" (Heb.iv, 10, 11), indicating the 
happiness of pious Christians both in this life and in the 
life to come. 

All that we can with certainty know or infer from 
Scripture or reason respecting the blessedness of the life 
to come may be arranged under the following particu- 
lars : I. We shall hereafter be entirely freed from the 
BufTerings and adversities of this life. II. Our future 
blessedness will involve a continuance of the real happi- 
ness of this life. • 



L The entire exemption from suflering, and all that 
causes suffering here, is expressed in Scripture by words 
which denote rest, repose, refreshment, after performing 
labor and enduring affliction. But all the terms which 
are employe'd to express this condition define (in the 
original) the promised " rest" as rest after labor, and ex- 
emption from toil and grief, and not the absence of em- 
plo3rment, not inactivity or indolence (2 Thess. i, 7 ; Hebw 
iv, 9, 1 1 ; Rev. xiv, 13 ; compare vii, 17). This deliver- 
ance from the evils of oiur present life includes, 

1. Deliveranoe from this earthly body, the seat of the 
lower principles of oior nature and of our sinful corrup- 
tion, and the source of so many evils and sufferings (2 
Cor. vi, 1, 2; 1 Cor. xv, 42-^). * 

2. Entire separation from the society of wicked and 
evil-disposed persons, who in various ways injure the 
righteous man and embitter his life on earth (2 Tim. iv, 
18). It is hence accounted a part of the felicity even 
of Christ himself in heaven to be "separate from sin- 
ners" (Heb. vii, 26). 

8. Upon this earth everything b inconstant and sub- 
ject to perpetual change, and nothing is capable of 
completely satisfying our expectations and dedres. But 
in the world to come it will be different. The bliss of 
the saints will continue without interruption or change^ 
without fear of termination, and without satietv (Luke 
xx,S6; 2 Cor. iv, 16, 18; lPet.i,4; v,10; lJo'hniii,2 
sq.). 

II. Besides being exempt from all earthly trials, and 
ha^dng a continuance of that happiness which we had 
begun to enjoy even here, we have good reason to ex- 
pect hereafter other rewards and joys, which stand in 
no natural or necessary connection with the present life ; 
for our entire felicity would be extremely defective and 
scanty were it to be confined merely to that which we 
carry with us from the present world, to that peace and 
joy of soul which result from reflecting on what we may 
have done which is good and pleasing in the sight of 
God, since even the best men will always discover great 
imperfections in all that they have done. Our felicity 
would also be incomplete were we compelled to stop short 
with that meagre and elementary knowledge which we 
take with us from this world — that knowledge so broken, 
up into fragments, and yielding so little fruit, and which, 
poor as it is, many good men, from lack of opportunity, 
and without any fault on their part, never here acquire. 
Besides the natural rewards of goodness, there must 
therefore be others which are positive, and dependent 
on the will of the supreme Legislator. 

On this point almost all philosophers are, for the 
above reasons, agreed — even those who will adroit of no 
positive purUshnumts in the world to come. But, for want 
of accurate knowledge of the state of things in the fu- 
ture world, we can say nothing definite and certain «a 
to the nature of the positive rewards In the doctrine 
of the New Testament, however, positive rewards are 
considered roost obviously as belonging to our future fe- 
licity, and as constituting a principal part of it; for it 
always represents the joys of heaven as resulting strict- 
ly from the favor of Godj and as being undeserved by 
those on whom they are bestowed. Hence there must 
be something more added to the natural good conse- 
quences of our actions here performed. But on this 
subject we know nothing more in general than thia, 
that God will so appoint and order our circumstances, 
and make such arrangements, that the principal facul- 
ties of our souls, reason and affection, will be heightened 
and developed, so that we shall continually obtain more 
pure and distinct knowledge of the truth, and make con- 
tiniud advances in holiness. 

We may remark that in this life God has very 
wisely allotted various capacities, powers, and talents, 
in different ways and degrees, to different men, accord- 
ing to the various ends for which he designs them, and 
the business on which he employs them. Now there is 
not the least reason to suppose that God will abolish 
I this variety in the future world ; it will rather continue 



HEAVEN 



127 



HEAVE-OFFERING 



there in all its extents We must nippose, then, that 
there will be, even in the heavenly world, a diversity 
of taatesy of laborH, and of employments, and that to one 
person this, to another that field, in the boamlless king- 
dom of truth and of useful occupation, will be assigned 
for his cultivation, according to his peculiar powers, 
qualifications, and tastes. A presentiment of this truth 
is contained in the idea, which was widely diffused 
throughout the ancient world, viz. that the manes will 
continue to prosecute in the future life the employments 
to which they had been here accustomed. At least 
such amngements will doubtless be made by God in 
the future life that each individual will there develop 
more and more the germs implanted within him by the 
hand of the Creator; and will be able, more fully than 
he ever could do here, to satisfy the wants of his iutel- 
lectual nature, and thus to make continual progress in 
the knowledge of everything worthy of being known, 
of which he could only learn the simplest elements in 
this world ; and he will be aUe to do this in such a way 
that the increase of knowledge will not be detrimental 
to piety, as ii often proves on earth, but rather promo- 
tive of it. To the sincere and ardent searcher alter 
truth it is a rejoicing and consoling thought that he 
will be able hereafter to perfect that knowledge which 
hexe has so many deficiencies (1 Cor. xiii, 9). 

But there is danger of going too far on this point, 
and of falling into strange misconceptions. Various as 
the tastes and wants of men in the future world will 
doubtless be, they will still be in many respects differ- 
ent from what they are here, because the whole sphere 
of action, and the objects by which we shall there be 
soiTOunded, will be different. We shall there ha%'e a 
changed and more perfect body, and by this single cir- 
camstanoe shall be freed at once from many of the wants 
and inclinations which have their seat in the earthly 
body. This will also contribute much to rectify, en- 
large, and perfect our knowledge. Many things which 
seem to us very important and essential during this our 
state of infancy upon earth will hereafter doubtless ap- 
pear in a different light : we shall look upon them as 
trifies and children's play, and employ ourselves in more 
important occupations, the utility and interest of which 
we have never before imagined. 

Some theologians have supposed that the saints in 
heaven may be taught by immediate dieine revelatiotu 
(himen glorije), especially those who may enter the 
abodes of the blessed without knowledge, or with only 
a small measure of it; e. g. children and others who 
have died in ignorance, for which they themselves were 
not to blame. On this subject nothing is definitely 
taught in the Scriptures, but both Scripture and reason 
warrant us in believing that provision will be made for 
all Rich persons in the world to come. A principal part 
of our future happiness vrill consist, according to the 
Christian doctrine, in the enlaiging and correcting of 
our knowledge respecting God, his nature, attributes, 
and works, and in the salutary application of this knowl- 
edge to our own moral benefit, to the increase of our 
faith, love, and obedience. There has been some con- 
troversy among theologians with regard to the vision 
of God (visio Dei intnitiva, sensitiva, beatifica, compre- 
hensiva). The question is whether the saints will here- 
after behold God with the eyes of the mind, L e. merely 
know him with the understanding. 

But in the Scriptures God is always represented as a 
being invisible by the bodily eye (adparoc)* ss, indeed, 
every spirit i& The texts of Scripture which speak of 
»ffiag Godh^ve been misunderstood: they signify, some- 
times, tke more distinct knowkdffe of God, as we speak 
of knowing by seeing, of s^Ing with the eyes of the 
mind (John i, 18; 1 John iii, 2; iv, 12; comp. v, 20; 1 
TmL vi, 16); and Paul uses jiXiiruv and ytvwrgttv as 
crnonymous (1 Cor. xiii, 12, 18; comp. v, 10). Again, 
they expiess the idea oi/eUcity, the enjoyment of God's 
favor, the being thought worthy of his friendship, etc 
SliU more frequently are both of these meanings com- 



prehended under the phrsse to see God, The image if 
taken Arom Oriental princes, to see whose fiioe and to 
be in whose presence was esteemed a great favor (Matt. 
V, 8 ; Heb. vii, 14). " Without holiness, ovotiQ o^irai 
Tw Kvpiov." The opposite of this is to be removed 
from God and from his face. But Christ is always rep- 
resented as one who will h^ personally visible to us, and 
whose personal, familiar intercourse and guidance we 
shall enjoy. Herein Christ himself places a chief part 
of the joy of the saints (John xiv, xvii, etc) ; and the 
apostles often describe the blessedness of tlie pious by 
the phrsse being with Christ, To his guidance has God 
intrusted the human race, in heaven and on earth. And 
Paul says (2 Cor. iv, 6), we see " the brightness of the 
divine glory in the face of Christ ;" he is " the visible 
representative of the Invisible God" (Col. i, 15). 

According to the representations contained in the holy 
Scriptures, the saints will dwell together in the future 
world, and form, as it were, a kin^om or state of God 
(Luke xvi ; xx, 88 ; Rom. viii, 10 ; Kev. vii, 9 ; Ileh. xii, 
22). They wUl there partake of a common felicity. 
Their enjoyment will doubtless be very much heighU 
ened by friendship, and by their confiding intercourse 
with each other. We must^ however, separate all earth- 
ly imperfections from our conceptions of this heavenly 
society. But that we sliaU there recognise our former 
friends, and shall be again associated with them, was 
uniformly believed by all antiquity. And when we call 
to mind the affectionate manner in which Christ sooth- 
ed his disciples by the assurance that they should here- 
after see him again, shoidd be with him, and enjoy 
personal intercourse and friendship with him in that 
place to which he was froing (John xiv, 3 ; comp. 1 Pet. 
i, 8), we may gather just grounds for this belief. Paid, 
indeed, S8}*s expressly that we shall be with Christ, in 
company with our friends who died before us (Jifia oi)v 
ai/roiQ, 1 Thess. iv, 17) ; and this presupposes that we 
shall recognise them, and have intercourse with them, as 
with Christ himself.— Kitto, s. v. See Eternal Life. 

HEAVEN AND EARTH is an expression for the 
whole creation (Gen. i, 1). In prophetic language the 
phase often signifies the political state or condition of 
persons of different ranks in this world. The heaven 
of the political world is the sovereignty thereof, whose 
host and stars are the powers that rule, namely, kings, 
princes, counseDors, and magistrates. The earth is the 
peasantry, plebeians, or common race of men, who pos- 
sess no power, but are ruled by superiors. Of such a 
heaven and earth we mav understand mention to Im 
made in Hagg. ii, 6; vii, 21, 22, and referred to in Heb. 
xii, 26. Such modes of speaking were used in Ori- 
ental poetry and philosophy, which made a heaven and 
earth in everything, that is, a superior and inferior in 
every part of nature ; and we learn from Maimonides, 
quoted by Mede, that the Arabians in his time, when 
they woidd express that a man was fallen into some 
great calamity, said, **His heaven has fallen to the 
earth," meaning his superiority or prosperity is much 
diminished. **To look for new heavens and a new 
earth"* (2 Pet. iii, 18) may mean to look for a new order 
of the present world. — ^Wemyss. 

Heave-offering (nr'l'ntn, terumah\ from 6^1*1, to 

be lijh ; Sept. usually d4>aipifia), a term including all 
that the Israelites voluntarily (Exod. xxv, 2 sq. ; xxxv, 
24; xxxvi, 8) or according to a precept (Exod. xxx, 15 ; 
Lev. ^di, 14; Numb, xv, 19 sq.; xviii, 27 8({.; xxi, 29 
sq. ; comp. Ezek. xiv, 18) contributed of their own proi>- 
crty to Jehovah (not as an offering in the usual sense^ 
but) as a present (Isa. xl, 20), to be applied to the regu- 
lar cultua, L e. for the establishment and maintenance 
of the sanctuary and its accessories (Exod. xxv^, 2 sq. ; 
xxx, 13 sq. ; xxv, 6 sq., 21, 24 ; xxvi, 8, 6 ; Ezra viii, 25, 
etc), or fat the support of the priests (Exod. xxix, 28 ; 
Numb. xviii, 8 sq.; v,9). Prescribed contributions were, 
in addition to the annual temple-tax [see Temple], 
chiefly that share of the booty taken in war which b»* 



HEAVE-SHOULDER 



128 



HEBER 



longed to the priests (Niunb. xxi, 29 sq.)? the yearly 
fiiBt-fmits (Numb, xv, 19 sq. ; comp. 2 Sara, i, 21), and 
the tenths which the Levites were required to make 
over to the priests out of the natural tithes paid to them 
(Numb.xviii,26 sq.; what the Levites retained for their 
own use not being thus styled), llie term i1Q!|in 
seems to stand in a narrower sense in Neh. x, 37 ; xii, 
44; xiii,8 [see Firstling], and the Talmudists so call 
only the agricultural first-fruits appropriate to human 
use, together with the Levitical tenths (see the tract 
Terumoth in the Mishna, i, 6). Heave-offerings are coup- 
led with first-fruits in Ezek. xx, 40, and with tithes in 
MaL iii, 8. In Ezek. xlv, 1 ; xlviii, 8 sq., 12, 20 sq., the 
same word Is applied to that portion of the Holy Land 
which is represented as set ajiart for the maintenance 
of the sanctuary and the priests. For the care of all 
such contributions, as well as for voluntary oflRerings and 
tithes in general, a special class of officers was (from 
the time of king Hezekiah) detailed, of whom a higher 
priest had the superintendence (2 Chron. xxi, 11, 12, 
14; Neh. xii, 44; xiii, 5). Heave-offerings could be 
used or consumed only by the priests and their chil- 
dren (Numb, xviii, 19; Lev. xxii, 10). Later regula- 
tions are detailed in the Talmudical tract Terumoth, — 
Winer, i, 470. Compare Wavb-offerino. 

Heave-shoulder (niQii^ri pid, Sept. ppaxliav 
d^atpifiaroc) is the name applied to the (right) shoul- 
der that fell to the priests in the presentation of animals 
as a thank-offering (Lev. vii, 84 ; Numb, vi, 20 ; xviii, 
18), which could be eaten only by such of their families 
as were in a ceremonially clean state (Lev. x, 14). See 
Offering. 

Hebard, Elijah, a Methodist Episcopal minister. 
He was bom at Coxsackie, N. Y., Sept, 8, 1788 ; was con- 
verted at thirteen; entered the New York Oonference in 
May, 1811 ; in 1819 was appointed to New Haven; in 
1820 and 21 to New York; in 1834 was transferred to 
Genesee 0)nference, and stationed at Rochester; was 
presiding elder on Ontario District in 1837-40; in 1846 
he superannuated ; and died at Geneva, N. Y., Jan. 25, 
1858. He was a diligent student, a sound theologian, 
and a good scholar in Greek and Hebrew. — MinuUa of 
Conferences, vii, 205. 

He'ber, the name of seven men, with a difference 
of orthography in the original See also Eber. 

1. Eber (Heb. E'her, ^!1^, one of the other tide, i. e. 

of the river, q. d. immigrant ; Sept ''E/3fp and 'Efiep, 
Vulg. Heher), son of Salah, who became the father of 
Peleg at the age of 34 years, and died at the age of 464 
(Gen. X, 24; xi, 14; 1 Chron. i, 25). His name occurs 
in the genealogy' of Christ (Luke iii, 85, 'E/3ip, ''He- 
ber"). B.C. 2448-1984. There is a degree of interest 
e(Hinected with him from the notion, which the Jews 
themselves entertain, that the name of Hebrews, applied 
to them, was derived from this alleged ancestor of Abra- 
ham. No historical ground appears why this name 
should be derived from him rather than from any other 
personage that occurs in the catalogue of Shem's de- 
scendants; but there are so much stronger objections to 
every other hypothesis, that this, perhaps, is still the 
most probable of any which have yet been started. (See 
Gesenius, Getchichte der Heb,Sprache utid Schrifi,^, 11.) 

Hence ''the children of Ebei^ (IS? ^y^, Gen. x, 21), 
and umply in poetr*' Eber (IS?*^"™^- xxiv,24; Sept, 
'E/3poiot, Vulg. JlebrcBt), L q. Hkbrews (B*^*;!!!?). Sev- 
eral other persons of this (Heb.) name occur, but no 
others are anywhere Anglicized " Heber." 

2. " Eber" (same Heb. word as above; Sept 'Iai/3^^, 
Vulg. IJeber\ the last-named of the seven chiefs of the 
Gadites in Bashan (1 Chron. v, 13, where the name is 
Anglicized « Heber"). RC. between 1612 and 1093. 

3. Eber (same Hebrew word as above; Sept 'Qfir}i, 
Vulg. Heber), apparently one of the sons of Shashak, and 
a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chron. viii, 22, where 
the name is Anglicized ** Heber"). B.C. ante 598. 



4. " Heber" (Che'her, 'nan, commutdty, as in Hoa. vi, 
9; Prov. xxi, 9; or a speU, aa in Deut xviii, 11; Isa. 
xh-ii, 9, 12 ; Sept Xofiop, Xo^ip, Xafitp), son of Beriah, 
and grandson of Asher (Gen. xlvi, 17 ; 1 Chron. vii, 81, 
82). KG. apparently ante 1873. His descendants are 
called Heberites (Heb. Chebri', ■^*l2n, Sept Xofiepi, 
Numb, xxvi, 45, where the name of the progenitor is 
written liH), 

5. ''Heber" (same Heb. word as last, Sept Xafitp, 
Vulg. Huber), '* a descendant of Hobab, which latter was 
son of Jethro, and brother of the wife of Moses. Hia 
wife was the Jael who slew Sisera (B.C. 1409), and he is 
called Heber the Kenite (Judg. iv, 11,17; v, 24), which 
seems to have been a name for the whole family (Judg. 
i, 16). Heber appears to have lived separate from the 
rest of the Kenites, leading a patriarchal life amid his 
tents and flocks. He must have been a person of some 
consequence, from its being stated that there was peace 
between the house of Heber and the powerful king Ja- 
bin. At the time the history brings him under our no- 
tice, his camp was in the plain of Zaanaim, near Kedesh, 
in Naphtali" (Kitto). See jAigL; Kenfte. 

6. '* Heber" (same Heb. word as last, Sept 'A/3ap), 
apparently a son of Mered (of Judah) by Jehudijah, and 
"father" of Socho (1 Chron. iv, 18). B.G post 1612. 
See Mered. 

7. *' Heber" (same Heb. word as last, Sept. *Afiep\ 
one of the "sons" of Elpaal, and a chief of the tribe of 
Benjamin (1 Chron. viii, 17). RC apparently cir. 598L 

Heber, Beoinald, bishop of Calcutta, was bom at 
Malpas, Cheshire, April 21, 1783. He gave earty indi- 
cations of poetical talent At thirteen he was placed in 
the school of a clerg}'man near London ; in November, 
1800, he was entered at Brasenose College, Oxford, and 
in the same year he gained the prize for Latin verse. In 
the spring of 1808 he wrote his prize poem, PakHme, 
which has obtained a permanent place in English liter- 
ature. In 1804 he became a fellow of All Soula. About 
the middle of 1805, in company with Mr. John Thornton, 
he set out on a Contmental tour, and spent a year trav- 
elling through Russia, the Crimea, Hungar\', Austria, 
and Prussia. In 1807 he took orders, and was instituted 
by his brother Kichard to the family living at Hodnet 
Here, as he himself described, he was in a ** halF-way 
situation between a parson and a squire." ^ While dia- 
charging the duties of his parish with great fidelity, he 
was ardently devoted to the pursuits of literature. He 
was a frequent contributor to the Quarterly Remew from 
its commencement. In 1812 he commenced the prepa- 
ration of a Dictionary of the Bible, on which he labored 
with much delight; but other duties compelled him to 
suspend this work, and no part of it was ever published. 
In the same year he published a small volmne of I/ymns 
adapted to the Weekly Church Service (new cd. London, 
1838, 12mo). The composition of his Hymn$, with a 
view of improving the psalmody and devotional poetry 
used in churches, was also a favorite recrearion. He 
^vas an elegant versifier, and continued to indulge hia 
|X)etical talents even while engaged in visiting his dio- 
cese in India. He had a great distaste for controvert 
sial theology, and only once was engaged in a discus- 
sion of this kind, in reply to what he concei^'ed were 
the imwarrantable imputations of a writer in the Brit- 
ish Critic His political views were those of the High- 
Church and Tory party, but quite devoid of bitterness. 
In 1815 he was appointed Bampton lecturer, and the 
subject he selected was The Personality and Office of the 
Christian Comforter (2d ed. Lond. 1818, 8vo). In 1817, 
Dr. Luxmore, the bishop of St Asaph, appointed Heber 
to a stall in that cathedral, at the request of his father- 
in-law the dean. In 18 1 9 he edited the works of bishop 
Jeremy Taylor (15 vols. 8vo, with Life of Taylor), In 
April, 1822, he was elected preacher of lincoln^s Inn, for 
which he had formerly been an unsuccessful candidate." 
In December of that year, the see of Calcutta, vacated 
by the death of bishop Middleton, was offered to hinrt . 



HEBEIR 



129 



HEBREW 



*^ Twice the offer was declined on account of hb wife and 
child, but immediately alter the second refusal he wrote 
(Jan. 12, 1823) stating his willingness to go to India. 
He congratulated himself upon the fact that no worldly 
motives led him to this decision. The prospects of use- 
fulness in so grand a field as India overbore all pecuni- 
ary considerations, and they had no influence in deter- 
mining his conduct when the proposition of going to 
that country was first made to him. Besides, he had 
often expTttsed his liking for such a sphere of action, 
and he had "a lurking fondness for all which belongs 
to India or Asia." On the 22d of April he saw Hodnet 
for the last time, and, after having been consecrated, he 
embarked ibr his diocese on the 16th of June, 1823. 
The diocese of Calcutta extended at this time over the 
whde of India, and embraced Ceylon, the Mauritius, 
and Australasia. In India the field of the bishop*8 la- 
bora was three times larger than Great Britain and Ire- 
land. The number of chaplains who constituted his 
staff at Bengal was fixed at twenty-eight, but this 
number was never completed, and of the number who 
were appointed several were on furlough. The bishop 
had no council to assist him, was required to act on his 
own responsibility, and to write almost every official 
document with his ovm hand. On the 15th of June, 
1824, bishop Heber began the visitation of his vast dio- 
cese. He visited nearly every station of importance in 
the upper provinces of Ben^ and north of Bombay, 
and after an absence from Calcutta of about eleven 
months, during which he had seldom slept out of his 
cabin or tent, he arrived at Bombay. The journal 
which he kept during his visitation (published under 
the title Ntarrativt of a Journey m Upper JmUa, Lond. 
1829, S vols. 8vo, since reprinted in Murray's Home and 
Colonial Library) shows the extent of his observations 
on general subjects, and the g^raphic power which he 
possessed of describing the novel scenes in which he 
was placed. From April to August he remained at 
Bombay to investigate and superintend the interests of 
the western portion of his diocese. On the 15th of Au- 
gust he sailed for Ceylon, and after remaining there 
some time he proceeded to Calcutta, which he reached 
on the 21st of October. If it had been possible to have 
educated his children in India, he was now prepared, he 
states, to end his days among the objects of his solici- 
tude. In Februaxy, 1826, he left Calcutta for Madras 
to visit the southern provinces. On the 1st of April 
he arrived at Trichinopoli, and on the 3d, after investi- 
gating the state of the nussion and confirming fifteen 
natives, on whom he bestowed the episcopal benedic- 
tion in the Tamul language, he retired to use a cold 
bath, in which he was found dead about half an hour 
afterwards. Within less than three weeks he would 
have completed his forty-third year. The candor, mod- 
esty, and simplicity of bishop Heber's manners, his un- 
wearied earnestness, and his mild and steady zeal, com- 
bined with his talents and attainments, had inspired 
venention and respect not only among the Europeim, 
but the native popukUon of India" {English Cychpcsdia, 
& v.). In theology he was an Arminian. His whole 
life, after his elevation to the episcopate, was devoted 
to its great duties. He had a profound faith in the fun- 
damentid doctrines of the Gospel, and of their adaptation 
to the heathen. His heart daily breathed the most ear- 
nest wishes for the diffusion of its precious blessings. His 
tastes and pursuits were all subordinated to that grand 
object, and, bad he been spared to the usual term of life, 
there is no doubt that a career, begun in the spirit and 
prosecuted on the system of itinerancy he had adopted, 
would have yielded a rich harvest of spiritual fruit to 
the Lord of his vineyard. Besides the works above men- 
tioned, he published Pari$h SermonM (Lond. 1844, 5th ed. 
2 vols. 8vo). His Poetical Works are printed in various 
editions. See Life of Heber, by his Widow (Lond. 1830, 
2 vols. 4to) ; Robinson, La^ Days of Heber (1830, 8vo) ; 
Memoir of Heber, abridged from the large ed. (Boston, 
1^, 12mo) ; Kiohn, HU JJben u, Nackrickten, Uber In- 

IV.— I 



dien (Berlin, 1881, 2 vols.) ; Quarter^ Review (London), 
xliii, 366 ; Edinburgh Review^ lii, 431 ; Yillemain, Revue 
des deux Afondes, Dec. 15, 1857 ; Heizog, Real'EncyUop. 
xix,606. 

He'berite (Numb, xxvi, 46). See Heber, 4. 

Hebrew (Heb. Ibn\ i-nas, plur. la'^'isr or Q-^ J-na?, 
Exod. iii, 18 ; fem. nj-ias, « Hebrewess," plur. ni^^DS, 
Greek *£)3paioc), a designation of the people of Israel, 
used first of their progenitor Abraham (Gen. xiv, 13 ; 
Sept. Tif iripdry). This name is never in Scripture ap- 
plied to the Israelites except when the speaker is a for- 
eigner (Gen. xxxix, J4, 17 ; xli, 12 ; Exod. i, 16 ; ii, 6 ; 1 
Sam. iv, 6, 9, etc.), or when Israelites speak of them- 
sdves to one of another nation (Gen. xl, 15 ; Exod. i, 19 ; 
Jonah i, 9, etc), or when they are contrasted with other 
peoples (Gen. xliii, 82; Exod. i, 3, 7, 15 ; Deut. xv, 12; 
1 Sam. xiii, 3, 7). See Gresenius, Tkes, Heb. s. v. (The 
only apparent exception is Jer. xxxiv, 9 ; but here there 
is probably such an implied contrast between the Jews 
and other peoples as would bring the usage under the 
last case.) By the Greek and Latin writers this is the 
name by which the descendants of Jacob are designated 
when they are not cslled Jews (Pausan. v. 5, 2 ; vi, 24, 
6; Pint. Sympos, iv, 6, 1 ; Tacit, Hist, v, 1); and Jose- 
phus, who affects classical peculiarities, constantly uses 
it In the N. T. we find the same contrast between He- 
brews and foreigners (Acts vi, 1 ; FhiL iii, 5) : the He- 
brew language is distinguished from all others (Luke 
xxiii,38; John v, 2; xix, 13; Acts xxi, 40; xxvi, 14; 
Rev. ix, 11) ; while in 2 Cor. xi, 22 the word is used as 
only second to Israelite in the expression of national pe- 
culiarity. , On these facts two opposing hypotheses have 
been raised ; the one that Israelite or Jew was the name 
by which the nation designated itself (just as the Welsh 
call themselves Cymry, though in speaking of themselves 
to a Saxon they would probably use the name Welsh) ; 
the other is that " Hebrew" is a lutional name, merely 
indicative of the people as a people, while Israelite is a 
sacred or religious name appropriate to them as the 
chosen people of God. This latter opinion Gesenius dis- 
misses as " without foundation" (Lexicon by Robinson, 
8. v.), but it has received the deliberate sanction of 
Ewald {Ausflihrl Lehrb, der Heb. Spr, p. 18, 5th ed.). 

DerivatioH of the Name, — I. From Abram, A brai, and 
by euphony Hebron (August., Ambrose). Displaying, as 
it does, the utmost ignorance of the language, this deri- 
vation was never extensively adopted, and was even re- 
tracted by Augustine (Retract, 16). The euphony al- 
leged by Ambrose is quite imperceptible, and there is no 
parallel in the Lat. meridie=medidie. 

II. According to the sacred writer, ^^^39, Hebrew, is 
a derivative from ^13^, Eber, the ancestor of Abraham; 
at least the same persons who are called Hebrews are 
called •nar ^^:ijSons of Eber (Gen. x, 21); and 'll^, 
Eber (Numb, xxiv, 24) ; and this is tantamount to a der- 
ivation of the name Hebrew from Eber. In support of 
this, it may be urged that *^^19 is the proper form 
which a patronymic from ^^S would assume; accord- 
ing to the analogy of *^aMtn, a MoabUe, '^Sni, a Danite, 
•^abs, a CaMrite, etc (Hiller, Onomasf, Sac, c. xiv, p. 281 
sq.). What adds much force to this argument is the ev- 
ident antithesis in Gen. xiv, 13, between *^^a9n D^IK 
and "^"^^K}! K^^Q ; the former of these is as evidently 
a patronymic as the latter. This view is supported 
by Josephus, Suidas, BochartfVatablus, Druuus,yossius, 
Buxtorf, Hottinger, Leusden,Whiston, and Bauer. The- 
odoret (Quasi, in Gen. 61) urges against it that the He- 
brews were not the only descendants of Eber, and, there- 
fore, could not appropriate his name ; and the objection 
has often been repeated. To meet it, recourse has been 
had to the suggestion, first adduced, we believe, by Ibn 
Ezra (Comments ad Jon, i, 9), that the descendants of 
Abraham retained the name Hebrew from Eber, becauas 



^ 



HEBREW 



130 



HEBREW 



they alone of his descendants retained the faith vrhich 
he held. This may be, but we are hardly entitled to 
assume it in order to account for the fact before us. It 
is better to throw the onus probcmdi on the objector, and 
to demand' of him, in our ignorance of what determined 
the use of such patronymics in one line of descent and 
not in others, that he should show cause why it is in- 
conceivable that Abraham might have a good and suffi- 
cient reason for wishing to perpetuate the memory of 
his descent from Eber, which did not apply to the other 
descendants of that patriarch. Why might not one race 
of the descendants of Eber call themselves by pre-emi- 
nence sons of Eber, just as one race of the descendants 
of Abraham caUed themselves by pre-eminence sons of 
Abraham. But Eber, it is objected, is a name of no 
note in the history ; we know nothing of him to entitle 
him to be selected as the person after whom a people 
should call themselves.. But is our ignorance to be the 
measure of the knowledge of Abraham and his descend- 
ants on such a point? Because ire know nothing to ' 
distinguish Eber, does it follow that they knew nothing? | 
Certain it is that he was of sufficient importance to re- I 
fleet a glory on his father Shem, whose highest desig- 
nation is " the father of all the children of Eber" (Gen. 
x,21); and certain it is that his name lingered for many 
generations in the region where he resided, for it was as 
''Eber" that the Mesopotamian prophet knew the de- | 
Boendants of Jacob, and spoke of them when they first 
made their appearance in warlike force on the borders 
of the promised land (Numb, xxiv, 24). 

On the other hand, it is contended that the passage 
Gen. X, 21 is not so much genealogical as ethnograph- 
ical ; and in this view it seems that the words are in- 
tended to contrast Shem with Ham and Japhet, and 
especially with the former. Now Babel \b plainly fixed 
as the extreme east limit of the posterity of Ham (ver. 
10), from whose land Nimrod went out into Assyria 
(ver. 11, margin of A. Vers.): in the next place, Egj^pt 
(ver. 13) is mentioned as the western limit of the same 
great race ; and these two extremes having been ascer- 
tained, the historian proceeds (ver. 15-19) to fill up his 
ethnographic sketch with the intermediate tribes of the 
Canaanites. In short, in ver. &-20 we have indications 
of three geographical points which distinguish the pos- 
terity of Ham, viz. Egypt, Palestine, and Babylon. At 
the last-mentioned city, at the river Euphrates, their 
proper occupancy, unaffected by the exceptional move- 
ment of Asshur, terminated, and at the same point that 
of the descendants of Shem began. Accordingly, the 
sharpest contrast that could be devised is obtained by 
generally classing these latter nations as those beyond 
the river Euphrates ; and the words ^ father of all the 
children of Eber," L e. father of the nations to the east of 
the Euphrates, find an intelligible place in the context 
It must also be confessed that in the genealogical 
scheme in Gen. xi, 10-26, it does not appear that the 
Jews thought of Eber as a source primary, or even sec- 
ondary of the national descent The genealogy neither 
starts from him, nor in its uniform sequence does it rest 
upon him vrith any emphasis. There is nothing to dis- 
tu'^uish Eber above Arphaxad, Peleg, or Serug. Like 
them, he is but a link in the chain by which Shem is 
connected with Abraham. Indeed, the tendency of the 
Iiaelitish retrospect is to stop at Jacob. It is with Ja- 
cob that their history as a nation begins: beyond Jacob 
they held their ancestry in common with the Edomites ; 
beyond Isaac they were in danger of being confounded 
with the Ishmaelites. The predominant figure of the 
emphatically Hebrew Abraham might tempt them be- 
yond those points of affinity with other races, so distaste- 
ful, so anti-national; but it is almost inconceivable that 
they would voluntarily originate and perpetuate an ap- 
pellation of themselves which landed them on a plat- 
form of ancestry where they met the whole population 
of Arabia (Gen. x, 25, 30). 

III. Hence others (as Jerome, Theodoret, Origen, 
Chiysoat, Arias Montanus, R. Bechai, Paul Burg., Mun- 



ster, Grotius, Scaliger, Selden, Rosenm., Gesenius, and 
Eichhom) prefer tracing "^l^^ to the verb *^^^f to pass 
ovetf or the noun ^'2T, the region or country beyml. 
By those who favor the former etymology, *^ Hebrew" is 
regarded as equivalent to "' the man who passed over;** 
by those who favor the latter, it is taken to mean ** the 
man from the region beyond ;" and under both suppo- 
sitions it is held to be applied by the Canaanites to 
Abraham as having crossed the Euphrates, or come 
from the region beyond the Euphrates to Canaan. Of 
these etymologies the former is now generally aban- 
doned; it is felt that the supposition that the crossing 
of the Euphrates was such an unparalleled achievement 
as to fix on him who accomplished it a name that should 
descend to his posterity, and become a national appel- 
lation, is somewhat too violent to be maintained ; and, 
besides, as the verb ^iS? signifies to pass from this side 
to tkat^ not from that side to this, it would not be the 
term applied by the people of Canaan to designate the 
act of one who had come from the other side of the Eu- 
phrates to them. The other etymology has more in its 
favor. It is that sanctioned by the (rreek translatore 
(Sept 6 irtpdrriQy Aq. irfpatTTjc); it w in accordance 
with the usage of the phrase '^•JJH *^??» which waa 
employed to designate the region beyond the Euphra- 
tes (Josh, xxiv, 2, 3; 2 Sam. x, IG; 1 Chron. xix, 16); 
and it is not improbable that Abraham, coming among 
the Canaanites from beyond the Euphrates, might be 
designated by them " the man from the region beyond," 
just as Europeans might call an American "a trans- 
atlantic." But, though Bleek very confidently pro- 
nounces this view ** without doubt the right one" ( AV»- 
leiiung ins A, T. p. 72), it is open to serious, if not fiital 
objections. 

1, There is no instance of 139 by itself denoting the 
region beyond the Euphrates, or any other river; the 
phrase invariably ufed is "^instl 11T, RoscnmUller, 
following Hyde (Jlistor, Relig, Vet, Pert, p. 51), seeks to 
supply this desiderated instance by taking 127 as cp- 
exegetical of IvrK in Numb, xxiv, 24=''affiigant A»- 
sjrriam et totam transfluvialem regionem." But the 
learned writer has in his zeal overlooked the second 
yyS, which quite precludes his exegesis. Knobel avoida 
this error by simply taking 11T2;S=A88}Tria, and 131? 
=Mesopotamia; but in this case it is the proper name 
*137, Eber, and not the preposition IH?, trans, which 
is in question. 2. If "^127 was the proper designation 
of those who lived on the other side of the Euphrates, 
we should find that name applied to such as conHnu^ 
to dwell there, not to a race descended from one who 
had left that region never to return. 8. lliough Abra- 
ham, as having been originally a transfluvian, might be 
so called by the Canaanites, it is improbable that they 
should have extended this name to his posterity, to 
whom it in no sense applied. No one would think of 
continuing the term " transatlantic" to persons bom in 
Britain on the ground that a remote ancestor had come 
from across the Atlantic to settle in that country ! As 
to the sanction which this etymology derives from the 
Sept., no great weight can be attached to that when we 
remember how often these translaton have erred in this 
way ; and also that they have given iftpaiovc as the 
rendering of 12]? *^32 in Numb, xxiv, 24 ; *' Plus Tice 
simplici hallucinati sunt interpretes Gnecl eorum ut no- 
bis standum cadendumve non sit autoritate** (Carpzov, 
Crit. Sac, V, 7*. p. 171). We may add that the author- 
ity of the Sept. and Aquila on such a point is urged 
with a bad grace by those who treat with contempt the 
et\nnologie8 of the Hebrew text as resting on mere 
Jewish tradition ; if a Jewish tradition of the time of 
Moses is subject to suspicion, a fortiori is one of the age 
of Ptolemy Lagi and of Alexandrian origin. Ewakl 
pronounces this derivation " quite uncertain." 4. This 



HEBREW OF THE HEBREWS 131 



HEBREW LANGUAGE 



dfriTBtion is open to the strong objection that Hebrew 
noons ending in *^ are either patronymics or gentilic 
noons (Boxtorf, Leosden). This is a technical objec- 
tion which — though fatal to the vfpartiCt or appellative 
derivation as traced back to the verb— does not apply 
to the same as referred to the noun ^37. The analogy 
of Galliy Angii, Hispani, derived from Gallia, Anglia, 
Ilispania (Leusden), is a complete blunder in ethnogra- 
phy ; and, at any rate, it would confirm rather than de- 
stroy the derivation from the noun. 

rv. Farkhunt, whose works occasionally present sug- 
gestions worth consideration, has advanced the opinion 
that "^ns? is a derivation from the verb '^'2:^ in the 
sense ofpamng through otfrom place to place (compare 
Gen.xTiii,5; £xod. xxxii, 27 ; £zek.xxxv,7; 2 Chron. 
XXX, 10, etc.); so that its meaning would be a sojourn' 
er or pamtr through^ as distinct from a Mftier in the 
land. This undoubtedly exactly describes the condition 
of Abraham and his immediate descendants, and might 
vcTf nAtiomlly be assumed by them as a designation ; 
for, as the apostle says, *'they confessed they were 
stzangers and pilgrims on the earth** (Heb. xi, 13). In 
this case the statement in