Accessions £fl-fitti *A« Shelf Xo. CrWWS. BY / Jerkin J^vt^rc of TSamJI/AmiuI, Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 with funding from Boston Public Library http://www.archive.org/details/digestofstatutes1886bost CITY OF BOSTON. DIGEST STATUTES EELATING TO THE INSPECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 1886. BOSTON: ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS, No. 39 ARCH STREET. 18 8 6. o ORGANIZATION geparhncut f#r %nsptttioxx #f Ipiiilclvugs, Inspector, at" Biulomcfs. JOHN S. DAMRELL 47 Hancock Street. Clerk of I3cpartment. CHARLES S. DAMRELL 47 Hancock Street. Assistant Inspectors. MICHAEL W. FITZSIMMONS 12 Worthington Street. WILLIAM FRYE 8 Quincy Street. HARTFORD DAVENPORT . . . Hancock Street, near Columbia Street. GEORGE W. GRIFFIN 40 Pearl Street. LEVI W. SHAW 73 Chandler Street. MARTIN T. GLYNN 8 Gates Street. JOHN KELLEY ......... 96 Bunker Hill Street. JAMES J. BARRY 374 Centre Street. NAHfrM M. MORRISON 1 Morrison Street. JAMES H. COLLINS 45 Laurel Street. WILLIAM J. BURKE 78 Everett Street. THOMAS A. SLATER . .28 Northfield Street. MATTHEW WALSH 22 Concord Street. MICHAEL H. HARTNETT 693 Dudley Street. WILLIAM B. BOTHAMLY '312 Columbia Street. JOHN MARLEY 8 Seneca Street. Office, Old State -House, State Street. Office Hours Saturdays From 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. From 9 A.M. to 2 P.M. STATUTES RELATING TO THE INSPECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. CHAPTER 374. Section 1. There shall be in the city of Boston a depart- ment, to be called the Department for the Inspection of Build- ings, which shall be furnished, at the expense of the city, with office room and such supplies for the transaction of its business as the city council may provide. The compensation of its offi- cers shall be provided for by said city by ordinance. Sect. 2. The chief officer of said department shall be called Title of chief the inspector of buildings, and shall be appointed by the mayor te r m of office. and confirmed by the board of aldermen. He shall hold office for the term of three years, or until his successor shall be appointed and confirmed ; but may be removed by the mayor for malfeasance, incapacity, or neglect of duty. Sect. 3. The other officers of said department shall consist other officers. of a clerk, and such number of assistant-inspectors as the city council may, from time to time, by ordinance determine ; all of whom shall be appointed by the inspector, with the approval of the mayor, and shall hold office during good behavior ; but may be removed by the inspector, with the approval of the mayor, for malfeasance, incapacity, or neglect of duty. Sect. 4. The inspector and assistant-inspectors of the dc- Qualifications. partment shall be able and experienced architects, builders, or mechanics, and shall not be employed or engaged in any other DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Duties of tbe inspector. Appeals. business, or be interested in any contract for building or for furnishing materials. Sect. 5. All said officers may, as far as necessary for the performance of their duties, enter any building or premises in the city of Boston. Sect. 6. The inspector shall keep a record of the business of said department ; submit to the city council a yearly report of such business ; ascertain all facts and make all returns which shall be required by law relative to steam-boilers ; and enter upon the premises wherein any fire has occurred, if necessary, in order to investigate the origin of the fire ; may require plans and specifications of any proposed erection or alteration of any building ; and shall grant permits for such erection or altera- tion, when in conformity with the requirements of this act. Sect. 7. Should the owner of any building object to any order or decision of said inspector, on a matter left by this act to his approval or control, and choose a referee to serve as hereinafter provided, within three days after being notified of such order or decision, the matter shall be referred to three referees, who shall be either architects or master-builders, one chosen by the inspector, one by the owner, and a third by these two ; and the decision thereon in writing of these referees, or a majority of them, shall be final and conclusive. Duties of clerk. Sect. 8. The clerk shall, under the direction of the in- spector, have supervision and direction of the other officers and employes of the department. Sect. 9. The assistant-inspectors of buildings shall attend all fires occurring in the districts to which they are respectively assigned, and report to the chief or assistant engineer of the fire department, present all information they may have relative to the construction and condition of the premises on fire, and also any such information relating to the adjoining buildings. Sect. 10. The inspector, or his assistants, shall examine' all buildings in the course of erection or alteration, as often as practicable, and make a record of all violations of this act, with the sti'eet and number where such violations are found, the names of the owner, architect, and master-mechanics, and all other-matters relative thereto. Duties of assistant- iuspectors. DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. \ Sect. 11. The inspector, or his assistants, shall examine all buildings reported dangerous, or damaged by fire or accident, and make a record of such examinations, including the nature and amount of such damage, with the name of the street and number of the building, the names of owner and occupant and for what purpose occupied, and, in case of fire, the probable origin thereof; examine all buildings for which applications have been made to raise, enlarge, alter, or build upon, and make a record of the same. Said records shall always be open to the inspection of the engineers of the fire department or any officer of the city. Sect. 12. In the absence of the inspector, one of the as- When deputy sistant-inspectors may be appointed by him to act as his deputy, ™ a p 0ir] e ted . who shall exercise all the powers of the inspector. Sect. 13. No work except necessary repairs shall be done Permits, when upon any wall, structure, or building in said Boston without a requilC0 permit from said inspector of buildings, nor except in con- formity with the provisions of this act. Sect. 14. The inspector of buildings shall designate, in Grade of hase- every permit for the erection of a new building, the lowest grade at which the floor of the basement story of said building shall be laid. Sect. 15. The said inspector shall not give a permit for the Piausand erection of any building until he has carefully inspected the t0 be a p in . ved. plans and specifications thereof, ascertained that the building has sufficient strength, and that the means of ingress and egress are sufficient. A copy of plans and specifications of every public building shall be deposited in the office of the inspector. Sect. 16. Every wall, structure, and building hereafter Exemptions, built or altered in said city shall conform to the provisions of this act, so far as they are applicable, except bridges, quays, Avharves, and buildings belonging to the government of the United States or the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Sect. 17. In this act the following terms shall have the Definitions. meanings respectively assigned to them: — "Alteration" means any change or addition except necessary repairs in, to, or upon any building, afleeting an external, 8 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. party, or partition wall, chimney, floor, or stair-way, and "to alter" means to make such change or addition. " Brick building " means a building; the walls of which are built of brick, stone, iron, or other substantial and incombusti- ble materials. " Cellar " means a basement or lower story of any building of which one-half or more of the height from the floor to the ceiling is below the level of the street adjoining. " External wall " means every outer wall or vertical enclos- ure of a building other than a party wall. " Foundation " means that portion of a wall below the level of the street curb, and, where the wall is not on a street, that portion of the wall below the level of the highest ground next to the wall. " Inspector " means the inspector of buildings of the city of Boston. " Lodging-house " means a building in which persons are temporarily accommodated with sleeping apartments, and in- cludes hotels. " Partition wall " means any interior wall of masonry in a building. " Party wall " means every wall used, or built in order to be used, as a separation of two or more buildings. "Public building" means every building used as a church, chapel, or other place of public worship ; also every building used as a college, school, public hall, hospital, theatre, public concert-room, public ball-room, public lecture-room, or for any public assemblage. " Tenement-house " means a building which, or any portion of which, is to be occupied, or is occupied, as a dwelling by more than three families living independently of one another, and doing their cooking upon the premises ; or by more than two families above the second floor, so living and cooking. " Wooden building " means a wooden or frame building. Sect. 18. The height of a wall means the height from the mean grade of the sidewalk or adjoining ground to the highest point of the wall. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 9 Sect. 19. The thickness of a wall means the minimum thickness of such wall. Sect. 20. The city council of said city may by ordinance Clty counci1 J ' - 1 may make make such requirements, in addition to those contained in this regulations for . , ,..-.. , . -. wooden build- act, as the)- may deem expedient in relation to the erection and i ngsout side alteration of wooden buildings outside the building limits. limits - Sect. 21. The city may from time to time, by ordinance, Woodenbuild - ings allowed in extend and establish building-limits in said city, and within buiiding-iimits. those limits every building built after such establishment shall be of brick, stone, iron, or other substantial and incombustible material, and only the following wooden buildings shall be allowed, viz. : Sheds not exceeding twenty-seven feet in height, on wharves, to be used for any lawful purpose ; sheds of same height, in all parts of said limits, to be used for market pur- poses or to facilitate the building of authorized buildings ; and elevators of any height for the storage of coal and grain ; all external parts of which sheds and elevators shall be covered with incombustible material, and the materials used, the mode of construction, and the location shall be approved by the in- spector. Sect. 22. Any wooden building within said limits may be Wooden \ uiId - •i ~ J mgs may be altered or repaired in any manner approved by the inspector, repaired, etc. provided neither its area nor height is increased. Sect. 23. No wooden building within or without the build- Mov ' ng of " wooden ing-limits shall be moved to any lot within said limits where it buildings. would be in violation of law to build such wooden building. Sect. 24. In all calculations for the strength of materials Calculation for ° strength of to be used in any building, the proportion between the safe materials. weight and the breaking- weight shall be as one to three, for all beams, girders, and other pieces subjected to a cross strain ; and as one to six for all posts, columns, and other vertical sup- port, and for all tie-rods, tie-beams, and other pieces subjected to a tensile strain ; and the requisite dimensions of each piece of material are to be ascertained by computation by the rules given by the best authorities, using for constants in the rules only such numbers as have been deduced from experiments on materials of like kind with that proposed to be used. All mortar and cement shall be of the best quality for the purposes for which they are applied, and shall be properly mixed. 10 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Permits required. Bay-windows, etc. External and party walls of tenement and lodging houses to be of brick, etc. Foundations to be laid below frost. Sect. 25. No building now or hereafter built shall be altered until it has been examined and approved by the in- spector as being in a good and safe condition to be altered as proposed, and the alteration so made shall conform to the pro- visions of this act. Sect. 26. No wall of any building now erected, or here- after to be built or erected, shall be cut off or altered, without a permit so to do having been first obtained from the inspector. Every temporary support placed under any structure, wall, girder, beam, or column during the erection, finishing, alter- ing, or repairing of any building, or part thereof, shall be equal in strength to the permanent support required for such construction. And the walls and roof of every building shall be strongly braced from the beams of each story until all the bearing parts of the construction are completed, unless omitted by consent of inspector. Sect. 27. No bay-window or other structure shall be placed upon'any building so as to project over any public way or square, without the permission of the board of aldermen, given after due notice and hearing, and then only in such manner as shall be approved by the inspector. Sect. 28. In the erection or alteration of any building the material of which, in whole or in part, is other than brick, stone, or wood, the thickness of walls, of such material, and the method of construction shall be such as the inspector shall approve. Sect. 29. All buildings in said city, to be used for tene- ment-houses or lodging-houses, and all buildings for any pur- pose within the building limits, except as provided in sections twenty and twenty-one, shall have external and party walls of brick, stone, iron, or other substantial and incombustible mate- rial, and shall be subject to all the requirements for a " brick building," except as otherwise expressly stated. Sect. 30. Every brick building hereafter built in said city shall be built upon a foundation resting not less than four feet below the surface exposed to frost, upon the solid ground, or levelled surfaces of solid rock, or upon piles, concrete, or other solid substructure. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 11 Sect. 31. Whenever any excavation, in the city of Boston, Excavations. is to be carried to the depth of more than ten feet below the grade of street, and there shall be any wall or structure wholly or partly on adjoining land, or near the intended excavation, the party causing such excavation to be made, if afforded the necessary permission to enter on such adjoining land, shall at all times, from the commencement until the completion of such excavation, at his own expense, preserve such wall or structure from injury, and so support the same by proper foundations that it shall remain as stable as before the excavation was com- menced. Should the person making such excavation fail to protect said wall or structure from injury for twenty-four hours after being notified by the inspector of buildings so to do, the inspector may enter upon said premises and employ such labor, and furnish such materials, and take such steps, as in his judg- ment may be necessary to make said wall or structure safe and secure ; and any person or persons doing said work, or any part thereof, by the order and direction of the inspector, may bring and maintain an action against the party causing such excavation to be made for the value of such work. The party causing such excavation to be made may recover compensation from the adjoining owner in case such adjoining owner should, at any time thereafter, make any use of said foundations below said ten feet below grade. Sect. 32. Piles driven for a wall to rest upon shall be not Piling. See less than five inches in diameter at the smallest end, and shall pae be spaced not more than three feet on centres, in the direction of the length of the wall, and nearer if required by the in- spector ; they shall be driven to a solid bearing, to be ascer- tained by boring, at the expense of the owner, when required by the inspector. The inspector shall determine the grade at which piles shall be cut off. Sect. 33. Walls not exceeding twenty feet in height, where ruing, piling is necessary, may rest on a single row of piles, if deemed advisable by the inspector ; walls exceeding twenty feet in height shall rest on not less than two rows of piles. Extra piles shall be driven where required by the inspector. Sect. 34. For brick buildings exceeding thirty-five feet in SeePfotei. 12 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Foundations. See Plate 2. See Plate 3. Foundations. See Plate 4. See Plate 5. height there shall be under all foundation walls, piers, col- umns, posts and pillars resting on the earth, a footing or base course of stone or concrete, which, if under a foundation wall, shall be not less than twelve inches wider than the bottom width of said wall, and not less than twelve inches thick ; and if under piers, columns, posts, and pillars, shall be of stone, and not less than twelve inches wider on all sides than the bot- tom area of said piers, columns, posts, and pillars, and shall be not less than two feet by three feet in area by twelve inches in thickness, and when laid to be thoroughly bedded in cement. If the walls rest on isolated piers, then there must be under such piers, footings, at least sixteen inches thick, thoroughly bedded in cement. All piles shall be capped with block- granite levellers, each stone to have a firm bearing on at least one pile in each row. Sect. 35. Foundation walls of brick buildings, other than dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses, shall be constructed of block stone, laid in horizontal courses, with good bed and build surfaces, wedged with slate stone and laid in cement mortar, and eight inches thicker than the external or party wall immediately above and over the same ; if said foundation is to be set to a depth of more than fifteen feet below the grade of the street, for each and every five feet additional depth greater than fifteen feet below the grade of street it shall be increased four inches in thickness. Foundations of such build- ings not more than forty feet in height may be built of rubble- work laid in cement and sand mortar, if the thickness of the foundation walls is one-fourth greater than given for block stone, and laid as specified in section thirty-six. In case of severe thrust or pressure on said walls, from any cause, there shall be such extra strengthening of said walls by thickening or by buttresses, or both, as the inspector may approve. Sect. 36. Foundation walls of brick buildings to be used as dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses, not exceeding thirty- five feet in height, if laid with block stone in horizontal courses, shall be not less than eighteen inches thick, or, if in brick laid in cement, shall be not less than sixteen inches thick ; exceeding thirty-five and not exceeding sixty feet in height, Crrac/e. /6 . <S " Cell cor- i : 1 LO~£V «*> %/»i « £ ^ a t _- i..j f/%/1 |#* ^c^LA.4,^ - Secttoiv.- J-fcn 'ctftct VI. I IVl.W.F. Ofcl. PL ATE A.I -P/kr- J L Isolcil'tct _ Coltaixix posl' ^ w 7 - IZZ T~7T ~Ml< w - Scclioiv 34-— Jot, brick ~butidaigs e/ceedchy S^'.ohz7iei^hJ: -<SkB s _____ ^ .0 ^ fe 1 ^fs£" Ao* __. v O ^=r "ST _._ . J 3 ! cm. plate: i i r CoHTutU Tc UtS yi f uttrzr t I / ^Mjl\X^d — Sectco7v 34 . — J'or^rock hvotlcliivgs &/ceec4t77c/ 3Sl o'\Itv luiglit. ZA- Jo" ^ 42 ■ Section 35. — Jbtuzctctltorv -far e^fomctZ uscvZZs vf other fhcuz Dwelling ^TaitiiwivTcmcOXoclgLiig Jfouses, 23 3z M.W.F. Del. 4o" 44 PLATE 3. 2,4- 36'' AZ Jo mi elation, for locLvlkj wcMs of oThtT 7/icui, DivclZaia, Jeji&meiiZ cuict Zioclgaiq ^Koitses. 28 3Z 4o" 44" M.W.R Dg7. PLATE 4. s 16 18" J'ouiiclciUoiz walls, M } uuellvng A Jeiteinenlciiidi LocUj(pz<j JCouses : no7'e/ceecCc7io 35. o" high. — Stscttoi'b 36. — &)Lcvulutcj 35 \o] not tfceeoUrtg 6o.o\ai height Zo 2 A" J L A XDL l i^m A K a 3Z JVJ.W.F. Del. 36 42" plate: 5. 24" i 1 1 I I 1 1 1 l i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 h£ 1 1 1 I 1 u 1 1 1 "■^1 1 1 T^ 1 1 ' *q i l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ) 1 _: i i 28" j > * i > ' >• ■ » i ■ i i 36 4o" Seclvoiz 36 ypcuzctcttUnz walls , Dwillavg, Jbzejnaiti' cnzcl ZoclgLizc/ JCoases, zjCcczcLlizc/ 60..0 unci 7iol~ efceecUizg J5 ' - ° " ™ JiAighV. 35" ^u 47 M.W. r. De7. PLATE €. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 13 the foundations shall be not less than twenty-four inches thick, Foundations. if laid in block stone in horizontal courses ; if in brick laid in cement not less than twenty inches thick ; for every fifteen feet additional height the thickness of foundations shall be increased four inches ; if the walls do not exceed seventy-five feet in height the foundation walls may be built of uncoursed rubble- work laid in cement mortar ; but in all cases the thickness shall See Plate 6 - be one-fourth greater than that given for block stone, and the work shall be thoroughly bonded, and, at least, two-thirds of the bulk of the wall shall be through stones, and no round or boulder stones shall be used ; provided, that when such walls are laid on piles the lower course shall be block stone, not less than sixteen inches in height. Sect. 37. All brick walls and buttresses shall be of me r- Wallsand buttresses. chantable, Avell-shaped bricks, well laid and bedded, with well- filled joints, in lime or cement mortar, and well flushed up at every course with mortar ; and all brick used during the warm months shall be well wet at the time they are laid, and shall be dry at the time they are laid during the cold months. Sect. 38. All walls of brick, stone, or other similar mate- WalIs - how built. rial shall be thoroughly and practically bonded and tied, and solidly put together; shall be built to a line, plumb and straight, and laid with mortar or cement, and all supports of the same shall be of iron, brick, or stone, and of sufficient size and strength to safely support the superstructure. Sect. 39. Vaulted walls of the same thickness, independent vaulted walls, of withes, may be used instead of solid walls, and the walls on either side of air space shall be not less than eight inches thick, and tied together perpendicularly with continuous withes of hard-burned brick, of good quality, or other approved mate- rial, which shall be not more than three feet apart, and the air space shall be smoothly plastered. Sect. 40. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice the Stone coruice - greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be on the in- to © side of the face of the wall, so that the cornice shall firmly balance upon the wall. Sect. 41. Every ninth course at least of a brick wall shall Headingor ^ _ _ bonding be a heading or bonding course, except where walls arc faced courses. 14 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Party walls above roof. See Plate 7. Roof and floor timbers. See Plate 8. See Plate 9. External and party walls. See Plate 10. See Plate 11. See Plate 12. See Plate 13. External walls. with face-brick, in which every ninth course shall be bonded with Flemish headers or by cutting the course of the face-brick and putting in diagonal headers behind the same. Sect. 42. Every party wall shall be built through, and at least twelve inches above or distant from, the roof boarding, at every part of the roof; shall be entirely covered with metal securely fastened, and corbelled to the outer edge of all pro- jections ; or a gutter stone of suitable dimensions and properly balanced may be inserted in place of the corbelling. But where the walls extend thirty-six inches above the adjoining building parapet walls may be omitted. Sect. 43. All roof or floor timbers entering the same party wall from opposite sides shall have at least four inches solid brick- work between the ends of said timbers. Sect. 44. External walls of brick buildings to be used as dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, not more than twenty feet in width, and thirty feet in height, and not exceeding forty feet in depth, may have eight-inch walls ; not exceeding sixty feet, shall be not less than twelve inches thick the entire height ; exceeding sixty feet, and not exceeding seventy feet in height, shall be sixteen inches thick to a height of twenty feet, or the top of the second floor, and twelve inches the remaining height ; exceeding seventy feet, and not exceeding eighty feet in height, shall be twenty inches thick to the top of the second floor, and sixteen inches thick to the top of the upper floor, and twelve inches the remaining height, if the upper story is not more than ten feet in height ; exceeding eighty feet, and not exceeding one hundred feet in height, shall be twenty-four inches to the second floor, and sixteen inches thick the remaining height ; ex- ceeding one hundred feet in height, the additional thickness shall be determined by the inspector. Sect. 45. Brick buildings to be used as other than dwell- ing, tenement, or lodging houses, shall have external walls not exceeding forty feet in height, not less than sixteen inches thick to the top of the second floor, and not less than twelve inches thick the remaining height ; exceeding forty feet, and not ex- ceeding sixty feet in height, twenty inches thick to the top of the second floor, and sixteen inches thick to the top of the upper J€yCtt011y 42 "t '(HUtinrtrfttrt MMMtltHtlW tj £ Mwrno. jpxtvly nxc Uslb 7re3cdll~ jtJiro. T^oof. PLATE 7. 8" XI m TVS id iv C 1? % (V r I * «v3 •s'y 8' c gv MET T I.O M.W.F". Oe-1. PLATE V > M.W.F. Oel > 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 ijo"! 1 I ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 £ : i'o ' id FN ' W •5 IX &* r\ otf x^ T x* No * No © »N» I.O * \ so ! « QG ^ mu YAfM ! I'O" J OO PLATE. 7< 1 l-o" > ■ 1 r 1 1 l-o" > ) \'-o" t cC. I I I o £7oot \ l-o" £ ,'_4« D Im.W.F.OcI. -x-- IN ^0 l-O l-O S sTs — v— / !□ ^5K V^7 W l-o z 8 ^_v± 2*0^. f-4-" *Q3 ^ i 7 1 cv ^ plate: lo Ithbe r floor. I ^. ^7 X J c§ riuui . m H2\f/ oor. 2o" K <$\ ywc J2o" SSJ M.W-IT. Oel. plate: II i6 3 .© 16" i 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i ' M.VY.F. Del. PLATE. \Z. * * < o 1 !__ I i i'.o- 1 i i i i ±■1 1_ / : I'd" 3 N> zyiaor. | /: 7 J L IE 16" Si IV s IN IV IV. , IV v> rv3 vi 8 >/Jer floor. M.W.P. Del, PLATE 13 r.d ■ iVi _i — Mfjher f/aor^ • r/! * ^ 1 1 1 — - 1 1 1 1 - L_ J/ 1 1 1 1 J 7 IN 16" ! 1 1 1 ) 1 1 ' 1 — H-f / ^-1 ) 1 1 J 1 - c ; i6" i 1 [ 1 1 1 ) 1 1 ' 1 1 ) 1 / ( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 o o 3'flK OOT. J Zo" ; i i i f i 1 ' / i i /. i i-i— . — ( 20 1 r / s *//oor. i 1_ — / j i i — r ^-^- r M.YV.R Del. PLATEL 14. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 15 floor, and twelve inches thick the remaining height ; exceeding sixty feet, and not exceeding eighty feet, twenty inches thick to the top of the third floor, and sixteen inches thick to the top of the upper floor, and twelve inches thick the remaining height ; exceeding eighty feet, and not exceeding one hundred feet in height, twenty-four inches to the top of the first floor, twenty inches to the top of the third floor, and sixteen inches thick the See Plate u. remaining; height ; exceeding one hundred feet in height, shall be of such additional thickness as shall be determined by the inspector. Sect. 46. The external walls of brick buildings not ex- External walls ceeding thirty-five feet in height and not exceeding two thou- sand superficial feet, to be used for stables or light mechanical purposes, may be twelve inches thick. Sect. 47. Recesses and openings may be made in external Recesses and openings in walls provided that the backs of such recesses are not less than external walls. twelve inches in thickness, and that the areas of such recesses and openings do not, taken together, exceed one-half of the whole area of the wall in which they are made. This restric- tion shall not apply to street fronts properly constructed of iron or iron and masonry. Sect. 48. If the owner shall elect, the amount of material Piers and buttresses. herein specified for external walls in sections forty-four and forty-five may be used either in piers or buttresses, provided the external walls between said piers and buttresses shall not be less than twelve inches thick in buildings less than fifty feet in height ; if in excess of fifty feet, and not over one hundred feet in height, the external walls between said piers and but- tresses shall be not less than sixteen inches thick. No external wall between the window caps and tops of floors at each story shall bo of less thickness than that prescribed for external walls in sections forty-four and forty-five. Sect. 49. In all brick buildings over twenty-five feet in When party c J aud external width, not having either brick partition walls, or girders sup- wails are to -. , , r . •. , . be increased ported by columns running from front to rear, and the entire in thickness. height of tin; building, the external and party walls shall be increased lour inches in thickness for every additional twenty- five feet in the width of said building. 16 DtGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Not to exceed 80 ft. in height. Party walls of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses. See Plate 15. Party walls. See Plate 16. Recess, chase, or flue. Partition walls in dwellings, etc. Partition walls Sect. 50. No building hereafter erected, except churches and grain elevators, shall exceed a height greater than eighty feet to the highest point from the level of the sidewalk, ex- clusive of chimneys and party walls above the roof, unless constructed throughout of incombustible material, excepting interior finish. Sect. 51. Party walls of brick buildings to be used for dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses shall be of the same thickness for different heights as external walls of such build- ings, but in no case less than twelve inches thick, except as provided in section forty-four. Sect. 52. Party walls of brick buildings to be used for other purposes than dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses shall, when not exceeding forty feet in height, be sixteen inches thick to top of second floor, and twelve inches above ; exceed- ing forty feet, and not exceeding sixty-five feet in height, twenty inches to the top of the second floor, and sixteen inches above ; exceeding sixty-five feet, and not exceeding eighty feet in height, twenty-four inches to the top of the first floor, twenty inches to the top of the third floor, and sixteen inches above ; exceeding eighty, and not exceeding one hundred feet in height, twenty-four inches to the top of the third floor, twenty inches to the top of fifth floor, and sixteen inches above. Sect. 53. No continuous vertical recess, chase, or flue shall be made in any party wall so deep that it will leave the thick- ness at the back less than eight inches at any point, and no recess of any kind shall be made in any eight-inch wall. No horizontal recess shall be made in any wall, except by a special permit from the inspector. No continuous vertical recess, other than flues, in stacks, shall be nearer than seven feet to any other recess. Sect. 54. All brick buildings to be used as dwelling, tene- ment, or lodging houses, in excess of thirty feet in width, shall have brick partition walls, not less than twelve inches thick, on which the floor-beams shall rest, and said walls shall not be more than twenty-five feet apart. Sect. 55. Every brick building hereafter erected, more than K- .1% I M.w f o^i ! l-O • ! l-o ! I 51 J< J © X !> CO ^) econcCF/ooT. i ~ I L_ I t i I \ i 16" 1 r m 16" • i id M < X 2o " I o^ £ NO PLATE. 15. 1 1 1 1 1 \ 1 .1 1 V \ \ 16- ; I ^ •& •^ J L i\ i V J L 16" C L fh or. 2o" 53 *> ^ ii a -a. £ 'floor. 2o" & 1° 2o" \=G! wmu 3''fhar. IN. 24- ES3 1 Q=sG /^rfW 24-" OsiOf I l^O MWFOel. PLATE. 16 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 17 thirty feet in width, except dwelling, tenement, or lodging in others than .,.,.,,. -it • i ii i ii dwellings, etc. houses, public buildings, railroad stations, and stables, shall have one or more brick or stone partition walls running from front to rear, and carried up to the full height of the building ; said Avail or walls may be four inches less in thickness than is called for by the provisions relating to the thickness of external walls for a brick building, to be used for the same purpose, unless the wall is used for a floor-bearing wall, which shall in no case be less than twelve inches ; these walls shall be so located that the space between any two of the floor-bearing walls of the building; shall not be over twenty-five feet. Sect. 56. Girders or iron beams and columns may be sub- Girde,S01 * beams and stituted for partition walls in buildings not more than one columns, when hundred feet in width, and shall be made of sufficient strength panVioVwaiiL to bear safely the weight which they are intended to support in addition to the weight of material employed in their con- struction ; but where wooden columns or wooden girders are used the columns shall not be farther apart than twelve feet Sect. 57. Walls may be made with a facing of stone or Walls when J _ y faced with other approved material securely tied to a backing of not less stone. than eight inches of hard brick-work laid in mortar, by means of metal clamps ; but the thickness of facing and backing, taken together, shall not be less than the thickness required for a brick wall of the same height. Sect. 58. No timber shall be used in anv wall of anv brick Notirab01 ' in walls. building except arch forms for interior arched openings. Sect. 59. All lintels used to support walls or other weights Lintels aild c arches. over openings shall be of sufficient strength and bearing to carry the superimposed weights ; and iron beams or lintels shall, when supported at the end by brick walls or brick piers, rest upon an iron plate at least two inches thick, the full size of the bearing, and where beams are not over six feet in length the plates may be omitted. All arches not having sufficient piers or abutments to resist the thrust of the superimposed loads shall have proper and sufficient iron ties. Sect. 60. No side wall of a brick building shall be carried Sidewaiinot , to be in advance up in advance of the rear wall. ofrearwaii. Sect. 61. All walls of a brick building meeting at an angle 18 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Walls to be anchored to each other. Walls to be anchored to beams, and girders to be strapped together. Openings in party walls. Cornices and gutters. Piers how laid. shall be anchored to each other, every ten feet in their height, by tie-anchors, made of at least one and a quarter inch by three-eighths of an inch wrought-iron, which shall be securely built into the side or partition walls not less than thirty-six inches ; and into the front and rear walls at least one-half the thickness of the front and rear walls. Sect. 62. All walls of a brick building on which the ends of beams rest shall be anchored at each tier of beams, at in- tervals of not more than ten feet apart, with good, strong. wrought-iron anchors at least one-half inch by one and one-half inch, well built into the walls and fastened at the top of the beams ; and, where the beams are supported by girders, the ends of the beams resting on the girders shall be butted together, end to end, and strapped by wrought-iron straps or tie-irons, at the same distances apart, and in the same beams as the wall-anchors, and shall be well fastened. Sect. 63. No ope.iing or doorway shall be cut through a party wall of a brick building without a permit from the inspec- tor ; and every such doorway shall have top, bottom, and sides of stone, brick, or iron ; shall be closed by two sets of wrought- iron or metal-covered doors (separated by the thickness of the wall) hung to rabbeted iron frames, or to wooden frames entirely covered with metal, or to iron hinges in brick or stone rabbets ; shall not exceed ten feet in height by eight feet in width ; and any opening other than a doorway shall be protected in a manner satisfactory to the inspector. Sect. 64. All cornices other than brick on brick buildings shall be secured to the walls with iron anchors, independent of any wood-work ; the walls shall be carried up to the boarding of the roof, and where the cornice projects above the roof the wall shall be carried up to the top of the cornice and covered with metal, like parapet walls. All exterior cornices or gutters more than forty-five feet above the level of the sidewalk, hereafter replaced, shall be constructed of or covered with some incombustible material. Sect. 65. All piers shall be built of the best quality of good, well-burnt hard brick, laid in cement and sand mortar, and well wet when laid in warm weather. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 19 Sect. 66. Brick piers under lintels, girders, or columns Piers under lin- of brick buildings shall have a cap-iron at least two inches columns. thick, the full size of the pier. Sect. 67. Brick piers and buttresses shall be bonded with Piers and but - through courses, levelled and bedded, each course, and where their foundations rest upon piles a sufficient number shall be driven to insure a proper support. Sect. 68. Every metal column in a brick building shall Columns. rest on an iron plate of not less thickness than two inches. Wooden columns supporting girders and floors in such build- ings shall set on inch and a half iron plates with sockets or counter sinkages. Sect. 69. Metal columns placed one on top of the other Columns, shall have a plate at the top of each column, with projections on both sides to fit into cap and base of columns, to prevent slipping, and all columns shall have holes bored, where directed by the inspector, into and through the shell at right angles to the shaft, so as to show the thickness of shell. All bearing parts of columns and plates shall be turned or planed to true surfaces. Sect. 70. All chimneys shall hereafter be built of brick, Chimneys. stone, or other incombustible material ; shall be plastered on the outside below the roof after having been inspected, and shall have a footing of masonry or iron supported by iron, or corbels of brick or stone. No chimney shall be hung to an eight-inch wall, or bear or rest upon wood. No chimney corbelled from a wall shall project more than the thickness of the wall. Sect. 71. All brick flues shall hereafter be built of mer- Brick flues. chantable brick, thoroughly slushed and flush -jointed, be smoothly plastered inside with mortar, from top to bottom below the roofing ; be securely built into the brick-work of the walls to which they are hung ; shall be topped out at least four feet above the highest part of roof with brick or stone, and the the topping out shall not have more than two inches projection, unless covered by a cap of approved incombustible material, properly secured ; and in no case shall a nail be driven into the masonry of any flue. 20 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Shell of flues. Sect. 72. The shell of all flues for brick ranges, boilers, furnaces, and ovens shall hereafter be of brickwork eight inches thick, or its equivalent, to a height of twenty-five feet above such ranges, boilers, furnaces, or ovens. Flues to ranges Sect. 73. Kanges or boilers shall have the outside of the or boilers. flue to the same exposed without covering, or if plastered shall be plastered on the outside directly upon the bricks, up to the ceiling of the room, and no wood-work shall be placed on the outside of the same. Headers, trim- Sect. 74. All floor timbers, headers, and trimmers of every rhers, and metal fiie-stops. brick building hereafter erected or altered, in which a chimney is to be built in a brick wall, shall be placed distant at least two inches from the outside of every chimney-flue, and the See plate 17. space between such timbers and the brick-work of chimney shall be closed by a proper fire-stop of incombustible material. Open fireplaces, Sect. 75. All hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches hearths, trim- . . ... mers,arches, etc. ot brick or stone ; or be ot single stones at least six inches thick, and supported entirely by iron beams, one end of which shall be securely built into masonry of chimney or adjoining wall. The brick jambs of every fireplace, range, or grate opening must be at least eight inches wide each, and the backs of such openings must be at least eight inches thick to See plate is. a t least two feet above such openings. All such hearths and supports shall be at least twelve inches longer than the width of such openings, and at least eighteen inches wide in front of the chimney-breast. The brick-work over all fireplace and grate openings shall be supported by proper iron bars or brick or stone arches. Unsafe chim- Sect. 76. If any chimney, flue, or heating apparatus on any neys, flues, and J . OIL J heating ap- premises shall, in the opinion of the inspector, endanger the premises, the inspector shall at once notify in writing the owner or agent of said premises. If such owner or agent fails for a period of forty-eight hours after the service of said notice upon hi in to make such chimney, flue, or heating apparatus safe, he shall be liable to a fine of not less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars for every day's continuance thereof, to be paid into the treasury of said city. smoke-pipe, Sect. 77. Every smoke-pipe in a building entering a chimney how protected. J x k ° ° Jf7cm. Sec7/o?z. I U l nj- 77ZT^. M-7 — tfecTton °/4- - Chimneys, cmcC ctrrci?7<ye77ze.7i/~off/ooT y tt?n- l)zrs f headers cincljrinzmerf, ?neJtcl fire sTdft. ~picti\ . Jec Vtort. J~rr. 3 □ V s ° pj gfgg >'^, »p wm0M i "f i v L_i XI a n a: M.W.F. Oel. ;s p~~ 1 ihiii dvclcC)71*$ J4andy5. > 1 IX. 1 " 'i IW.W.F. Del. PLATE. 18 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 21 flue shall be at least twelve inches from every wooden floor, ceiling, or partition ; shall be guarded by a soapstone ring not less than four inches in thickness, extending through the partition, or by a double metal collar, with an air-space of not less than four inches around the same when running through any stud or wooden partition ; and no smoke-pipe shall project through any external wall or window. Sect. 78. The smoke-pipe of every furnace shall be kept Furnaces and 1 L ^ L smoke-pipes to at least one foot distant from all beams and ceilings not pro- same. tected by a shield of tin plate at least two inches distant from said beams or ceiling ; and no smoke-pipe shall be placed nearer than twelve inches to any beam or ceiling, unless the beam and ceiling are plastered, in which case the pipe may be kept within six inches of the plastering, if protected by the above described shield ; and the top of all heating furnaces set in brick shall be covered with brick, supported by iron bars, and so constructed as to be perfectly tight ; said covering to be in addition to and not less than six inches from the ordinary covering to the hot-air chamber. Sect. 79. jS t o furnace, and no rang-e set in masonry shall Fm-nnces > etc -> ° • permit to set. hereafter be placed or its location changed in any building except as the inspector shall approve. Sect. 80. The top of every heating-furnace not set in brick F urnuces - shall be kept at least six inches below the beams or ceiling, with a shield of tin-plate, made tight, suspended not less than two inches below the said beams or ceiling, and extending one foot beyond the top of the furnace on all sides. If the ceiling- over a furnace is plastered the top of the brick-work may be kept within six inches of the ceiling. Sect. 81. All hot-air register-boxes hereafter placed in the Register-boxes, floors or partitions of buildings shall be set in soapstone borders not less than two inches in width, firmly set in plaster of Paris, or gauged mortar, or such other protection as shall in the judg- ment of the inspector be equivalent to soapstone ; shall be made of tin-plate, with a flange on the top to fit the groove in the soapstone, and shall have an open space of one inch on all sides, extending from the under side of the ceiling, below the register, to the soapstone in the floor or partition ; the outside SJ DIGEST OE BUILDING LAWS. of said space covered with a casing of tin-plate, tight on all sides, and extending from the under side of the aforesaid ceiling up to and turn under the said soapstone ; register-boxes of fifteen by twenty-five inches or more shall have a space of two inches. Hot-air and Sect. 82. No wood work shall hereafter be placed nearer steam-pipes. . . . . i • 1 t than one men to any tin or other metal pipe to be used to convey heated air or steam in any building, unless protected in a manner satisfactory to the inspector ; and such wood-work shall be protected by a soapstone or earthen ring or tube, or a metal casing. steam.*oiie™ to Sect. 83. Every building in which a steam-boiler of ten be enclosed. or more horse-power is placed shall have the space on the floor allotted for said boiler enclosed in incombustible material satisfactory to the inspector, and shall be so arranged that all openings between the said boiler-room and the other parts of the building in which it is placed shall be protected by iron or metal-covered doors, which shall be securely closed at the close of each day. Permit and Sect. 84. Upon a license being granted for the erection of license required ' . ' to erect and set a steam-boiler, engine, or furnace for melting glass or metal, steam-boilers, j q ^^ building, the person or persons receiving such license shall, before setting, erecting, or placing said boiler, engine, or furnace, obtain a permit therefor from the inspector, who shall prescribe such regulation for the setting or placing thereof as the public safety may require. steam-boilers Sect. 85. No boiler to be used for steam or motive power, how set. and no furnace for melting glass or metal, shall be placed on any floor above the cellar or basement floor, unless the same is set upon wrought-iron beams and brick arches, and in no case without a permit from the inspector. All wood-work and timbers shall be removed from the floor under the same. Construction of Sect. 86. All floors shall be constructed to bear a safe weight, per superficial foot, exclusive of materials, as follows : For dwellings, tenements, or lodging-houses, one hundred pounds ; for buildings for light mechanical purposes, and for public buildings, one hundred and fifty pounds ; for storehouses, warehouses, machine-shops, armories, drill-rooms, and riding- DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 23 schools, not less than two hundred and fifty pounds. These requirements shall apply to all alterations, as well as to new buildings. Sect. 87. All timber used in the construction of floors or Roof an d floor roofs of brick buildings shall be straight-grained and free from large and loose knots or weakening shakes. Sect. 88. Every header more than four feet long, used in Headers and any building except a dwelling, shall be hung in stirrup-irons of suitable dimensions for the size of the timbers, and securely joint-bolted. All tail-beams shall be properly framed or hung to headers. Sect. 89. The ends of all floor-beams and rafters of a brick Timbers splayed. building entering a wall shall be cut on a splay of three inches in their width. Sect. 90. All main partitions supporting in any manner Main partitions to head and floor-beams or rafters of a brick building shall be placed directly foot. over each other, shall rest on a wall or metallic girder, and shall head and foot against each other as far as practicable. Sect. 91. No floor timber, header, or trimmer of a brick Timber not to be cut for piping. building shall be cut into more than two inches in depth for piping without permit from the inspector ; and no cutting shall be made in any timber at a greater distance than three feet from its support. Sect. 92. The roof of every brick building hereafter built Roofing and shall be covered with incombustible roofing material, shall be ab0 y e upper constructed not more than one story in height, nor more than floor- twenty feet in height from the upper floor of the building upon which it is placed to the highest part of said roof, unless made of incombustible material throughout. Sect. 93. All brick buildings more than twenty feet in Scuttles and height shall have scuttle-frames not less than two by three feet in size; and covers, or bulkheads and doors, on the roof, made of or covered with some incombustible material ; and every scuttle shall have a stationary step-ladder, and every bulkhead shall have stairs furnished with a sufficient guard or hand rail, all ready for use at all times, and in a tenement-house such scuttle or bulkhead shall never be locked, but may be fastened by a hook on the inside. 24 DIGEST OF BUILDIXG LAWS. Exterior parts of brick building above 45 feet to be covered with non-combustible material. Fire-proof shutters. Grade of cellars. Cellar bottoms on filled land. Drains. Sect. 94. All the exterior parts of every brick building hereafter erected which are more than forty-five feet above the level of the sidewalk shall be made of or covered with incombustible material. Sect. 95. All brick buildings hereafter built to be used for warehouses, stores, storehouses, or manufactories more than forty-five feet in height shall have doors or shutters made of or covered with fire-proof material on every window and en- trance which does not open on a street more than twenty feet in width ; and when such shutters or doors cannot be put on the outside of such door or window they shall be put on the inside, and be hung upon an iron frame independent of the wood-work of the window-frame or door, or to iron hinges in rabbets in the masonry ; and every such door or shutter shall be closed upon the completion of the business of each day, by the occupant having the use or control of the same ; and all fire-proof shutters that now are or may hereafter be put upon any building on the street fronts shall be so constructed as to be closed and opened from the outside above the first story. Sect. 96. No cellar or basement cellar of any building shall be constructed below the grade of twelve feet above mean low water : provided, however, that the board of aldermen may, by license, subject to revocation at any time by them, authorize cellars or basement cellars to be constructed in buildings, no part of which is to be used as a dwelling, so much below said grade as they may designate in each license. Sect. 97. All buildings built upon filled or made land shall have a bed of concrete, of hydraulic cement and gravel, or tar and gravel, or asphalt, not less than two inches in thickness, spread over the cellar bottom , or shall be paved with brick laid in cement, throughout the whole extent of the building : and where there is a basement floor over the cellar bottom there shall be an air-space between the concrete and said floor, unless the floor is planked directly upon the concrete. The air-space shall be properly ventilated. Sect. 98. All buildings hereafter built shall have only iron drains within the buildings and extending five feet outside of the wall of the buildings ; and where the said drain-pipe passes DIGEST OF BUILDING- LAWS. 25 through the wall there shall be a relieving arch, stone lintel, or iron pipe inserted to relieve said iron drain. All drains below cellar-floor or grade twelve shall be laid with proper /all to sewer in a trench, the sides of which shall be walled with brick masonry, and the base in concrete, thoroughly rammed and graded, and made accessible by movable covers. Sect. 99. All drain-pipe hung to wall or ceiling shall be Drain-pipe, how firmly hung. Sect. 100. The roof of every building shall be kept in R°of S tobeke P t J " ° in repair. good repair, and all rain-water shall be so drained or conveyed therefrom as not to drip on the ground or cause dampness in the walls, yard, or area. Sect. 101. All brick buildings shall be kept provided with Leaders or conductors. suitable water-tight metallic leaders, and all other buildings with water-tight metallic or wooden leaders, for conducting the water from the roof to the ground, and all water shall be conducted from a building or from land to the street, gutter, or sewer in such a manner as not to flow upon the sidewalk. Sect. 102. The insides of all furred brick walls of every Firestops ' J where to be brick building hereafter constructed shall have a fire belt or located, and how i c r, P . , , , . . . ! constructed. stop, composed ot some hre-proot material, at least six inches wide, and thoroughly set up between furrings at the top and bottom of each story ; and the whole area of every floor from wall to wall shall be deafened with plaster at least one inch thick, or two thicknesses of asbestos paper, or other incom- bustible material satisfactory to inspector, the same to be placed See riate 19- upon the under or rough flooring ; and in each story in which stud-walls or partitions are constructed and rest on walls or other partitions, said stud-walls and partitions shall have the spaces between the floor-joists immediately under such walls or partitions, and between studs from the under side of said joists to a line six inches above the top of said joists, filled solid and flush with face of plastering on both sides with See Plate 20 - mortar, cement, plaster, or other incombustible material ; and if such studs or partitions shall rest on solid timber or joists for the whole length thereof, such filling as above described shall be placed from the top of such joists to the same height as above specified, or a strip of tin or galvanized iron at least one inch 26 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. See Plate 21. wider than the width of said studding, and continuing under the footing of such walls or partitions, may be substituted for the filling above specified, where there is no partition or wall under. The spaces between stringers or carriages, and between floor-joists of landings, of all wooden staircases, unless such stringers and joists are left exposed and uncovered, shall be pugged solid with mortar or other incombustible material, or the spaces between stringers shall be closed at intervals of three feet by substantial stops of incombustible material. Fh-e-stops. Sect. 103. The various forms of construction tending to create or form air-passages from one story to another, such as spaces around pipes, ventilating-shafts, or chimneys furred off to form breasts, in every brick building hereafter erected or altered, shall have a fire and smoke stop of incombustible material at each floor, approved by the inspector. All venti- lation-ducts shall be of incombustible materials. Fire-proofing, Sect. 104. Upright supports of other material than brick, where required. used below the grade of the street, and cast-iron beams or girders or stone lintels, used for supports in every brick build- ing hereafter erected or altered, shall be protected by fire-proof material. Egress from Sect. 105. Every building occupied above the second floor tenement and lodging house, from the level of the street by two or more families, and every manufa'ctor'' building occupied as a tenement, boarding or lodging house, office, and work- factory, mill or manufactory, or for offices or workshops in which persons are employed above such second floor, and every school building more than two stories in height, and accom- modating, or having the means of accommodating, forty or more persons, shall be provided with such proper facilities for the escape of such persons in case of fire as the inspector may approve ; and where fire-escapes are required on the out- side of a building they shall be provided with suitable con- nections with the ground. Egress for Sect. 106. Every building in which operatives are em- women and m , children. ployed above the second story shall be provided with fire-escapes approved by the inspector ; and women or children shall notbe employed in any building above the second story, unless there are two or more means of exit provided. The owner of any Sectioiv /o2. — !r: Skirting | 2?<J « rt/wg ymi/7>///M//////, / ,/,,,j/ ( ,,7ffi. Wk nrq yr///>w///w///,, ,//,,/, _ floor Joist. jftbrijonfa} 'furring Jforijontal furi-ijij \ I Ok I .0 4 (V1W.F. De7. PLATE, iq 2 i 71 a (0 T3 r > n o f.-^.<iiaiSy J .s.-»/ \ -J,-1v-, T t '" i^ ZS tSecJioiv shaurvrtg dencfit deru/ec(, from Tfie use of fire 6elts anctsJbJos. on floors til. slow ctes7~rtic77o->7; t,?v ccise cffire„ _ Sections lo2~fo3 ~ Jmnsuerse secT/on. — M.W F. Del. PLATE. 2\ DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 27 building provided with a fire-escape shall keep the fire-escape in good repair. Stairs on the outside of the building shall have railed landings at each story above the first, and shall connect with each story of the building by doors or windows ; and no person shall place any obstruction upon any fire-escape. Fire-escapes may project over the line of any public street, highway, or causeway when ordered by the inspector. Sect. 107. All elevator-cars and hoists, not including lifts Elevator-cars, ° etc., to be run twenty-eight inches square, and except those constructed in in shafts. dwelling-houses, shall run in shafts with brick walls not less than eight inches thick, or walls covered with incombustible material, with proper fire-stops, or in the well-room of a fire- proof stair-way enclosed in the same manner and carried up through the roof not less than one foot and six inches ; said shafts to be covered with a ventilating-sky light. Sect. 108. The openings through or upon each floor of any Automatic rails, ir o o i J gates, and trap- building in which there is a hoist or an elevator-car not running doors. in a shaft shall be protected by sufficient automatic rails or gates and trap-doors, or such other mechanical devices as shall be equivalent thereto ; and every elevator-car and hoist shall be provided with some sufficient arrangement to prevent the falling of the car or hoist in case of any accident to the ropes, pulleys, and other hoisting apparatus. Sect. 109. The openings into every hoist shaft hereafter 0p<?niDg8 mt0 *- <-> J shafts, how constructed, except shafts for passenger-elevators, shall be protected. furnished with metal or metal-covered doors hung to rabbeted iron frames, with iron thresholds to the same ; said doors to be kept closed, when not in use, by springs of sufficient strength. Equivalent protection against fire may, in the case of passenger- elevators, be substituted for such doors. Sect. 110. No hoist-way, elevator-car, or hoist shall be used Il01stwa y s > etc -> J to be approved. in any building until approved by the inspector. Sect. 111. The owner, or other party having an interest in , Un f* fe 1 J ° buildings, etc. any building, staging, or other structure, or anything attached to or connected with a building or other structure, which shall be unsafe so as to endanger life, shall, immediately upon notice received from the inspector of buildings, cause the same to be made safe and secure, or taken down ; and where the public 28 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Unsafe buildings, etc. Unsafe buildings, etc. Explosive compounds, etc, Bracing for isolated buildings more than 100 feet in deptb. Exits for public buildings. safety requires immediate action the inspector may enter upon the premises with such assistants as may be necessary, and cause the said structure to be secured or taken down without delay, and the passers-by to be protected at the expense of such owner or party interested. No staging or stand for observation purposes shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of any building in said city. Sect. 112. Every building which shall appear, to the in- spector, to be specially dangerous in case of fire, by reason of bad condition of walls, overloaded floors, defective construction, or other causes, shall be held to be unsafe ; and the inspector, besides proceeding as provided in the preceding section, shall also affix a notice of the dangerous character of the structure to a conspicuous place on the exterior wall of said building ; and any person removing such notice so affixed shall be liable to a fine of not less then ten nor more than fifty dollars for each and every offence, to be paid into the treasury of said city. Sect. 113. The owner, or party having an interest in the unsafe building or structure mentioned in the two preceding sections, being notified thereof in writing by the inspector, shall forfeit and pay a fine to the use of said city, for every day's continuance thereof after such notice, a sum not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars, on complaint before any court of competent jurisdiction. Sect. 114. No explosive or inflammable compound or com- bustible material shall be stored or placed under any stair-way of any building, or used in any such place or manner as to obstruct or render egress hazardous in case of fire. Sect. 115. Any building that may be hereafter erected in an isolated position, and more than one hundred feet in depth, and which shall not have cross-walls, shall be securely braced during construction, both inside and out, if practicable; or if outside bracing is not practicable, it shall be properly braced from the inside, and the braces shall be continued from the foundation upward to at least one-third the height of the build- ing from the sidewalk level. Sect. 116. Every public building hereafter erected, and every building hereafter altered to be used as a public building, DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 29 in addition to all other provisions applicable to such buildings, shall have at least one frontage for its entire height of at least one entire side of the auditorium and lobbies, passages and stair-ways of exit on that side, on a street, court, or open pas- sage-way fifteen feet or more wide, and at least two-thirds of the entire width of exits and entrances shall open on to such street, court, or passage-way ; shall have the doors, halls, corri. neatin g a nd lighting dors, lobbies, stair-ways, passages, and aisles wide, direct, and apparatus to be so constructed and arranged as to afford easv egress for the appHn f e y O Jo inspector. occupants under all circumstances ; and exits and entrances shall, as far as practicable, be identical : shall have all doors open outwards, and of the full width of the passages from which they open ; shall have the passages of exit and stair- ways at least five feet wide, and of an aggregate capacity in width of not less than twenty inches for each one hundred persons that said building may at any time contain. This Fire service and ° apparatus to be provision to apply to the exits from each division, gallery, or provided as the compartment of such building, as well as to the exterior open- ^ssa°y. ^ ings ; shall have the corridors, lobbies, stair-ways, passages, and aisles of equal or increasing width, towards the exits, and without any projection into them within six feet of the floor ; shall have the halls, corridors, doors, stair-ways, seats, and aisles so arranged as to facilitate egress, and as the inspector may approve ; and shall have all pipes and apparatus used in heating or lighting, and all lights, protected to the satisfaction of the inspector ; and shall have such fire service and apparatus for the extinguishment of fire as the inspector may deem neces- sary. All exits from any public building shall be opened for the use of every departing audience. Sect. 117. No temporary seats or other obstructions shall 0bstructions 1 ^ in aisles, etc., be allowed in any aisle, passage-way of exit or entrance, or not allowed. stair-way of a public building ; and no persons shall be allowed to stand or remain therein while the building is in use. Sect. 118. All changes of level in the floors of public Changcsoffloor- 1 levels except buildings, except regular stair-ways, from story to story, and stair. ways. except the necessary steps in galleries and balconies, rising toward the exits, shall be made by inclines of no steeper gradi- 30 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Overheads beneath floors to be protected. Stair-wa3-s, lobbies, corridors, etc., to be enclosed in brick walls. Rails to stairs and landings. Stair 'winders, treads, and risers. Exits of public buildings. Boilers, etc., in public buildings. Lights for public buildings. ent than two in ten within the auditorium, and rising towards the exits, and one in ten for all others. Sect. 119. The overheads immediately beneath the floors of the auditorium, lobbies, hall-room, galleries, stair- ways, landings, and corridors of public buildings shall be protected by some incombustible material, such as wire lathing and plastering ; and the stair-carriages and framing shall be pugged solid to line of treads, risers, and landing floors with some incombustible material. Sect. 120. All partitions of public buildings enclosing the stair-ways, lobbies, and corridors, or separating them from au- ditorium or anterooms, shall be of brick masonry, or of heavy studding, brick-nogged throughout, or otherwise made non- combustible. Sect. 121. All stairs and landings of public buildings shall have proper hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls, or to strong posts and balusters, throughout their entire length ; and wide stair-ways shall have one or more intermediate rails on strong vertical supports, as approved by inspector. Sect. 122. The rise of stairs of public buildings shall not exceed seven and one-half inches, nor the going be less than ten and one-half inches. No winders less than seven inches wide at the narrowest end, or flights of less than three steps, shall be introduced, and there shall be a full landing to at least every fifteen steps. Sect. 123. Every approach or exit of a public building, under or through any other building, shall have solid brick walls, and the floors and ceilings shall be of approved incom- bustible and fire-resisting materials, and there shall be no open- ings through said walls, floors, or ceilings. Sect. 124. No boiler, furnace, engine, or heating apparatus, except steam pipes and radiators, shall be located under the auditorium, nor under any passage or stair-way of exit of a public building. , Sect. 125. The lights for the rear of the auditorium, and for all passages and stair-ways of exit of every public building, shall be independent of the lights of the rest of the auditorium DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 31 and platform, and shall be so arranged that they cannot be turned down or off from the platform. Sect. 126. Every building hereafter built or altered, to be Pu *> Iic 1/0 . buildings to be used as a theatre, for dramatic, operatic, or other similar per- f brick and formances, involving the use of a fixed stage, with movable or J^J^J shifting scenery, curtains and machinery, shall be a brick build- throughout. ing, and be of fire-resisting construction throughout, so far as the nature of its uses will permit, and, in addition to all other provisions applicable to a public building, shall have the highest part of main floor of auditorium not more than seven feet above the sidewalk of the open street, court, or passage-way on which the main doors of exit shall be located ; shall have at least two independent exits for each division, compartment, or gallery of the auditorium ; and for each gallery or division above the first floor shall have independent stair-ways, and such stair- ways and exits shall be located as far apart as practicable. The lobbies shall be separated from the auditorium by brick or other fire- resisting walls ; and all walls, floors, and landings of stair-ways, and all stairs, shall be of incombustible materials ; and all doors from auditorium to lobbies and stair-ways shall be of metal-covered wood and self-closing. There shall be lobbies adjoining each division of the auditorium sufficiently large to furnish standing room for all persons that such division may at any time contain. Sect. 127. In addition to the exits hereinbefore required Additional exits for theatres. for all public buildings, there shall be provided, if practicable, for every theatre, direct exits from the main floor of auditorium to a street, court, or open passage-way ; and these exits shall be provided with such light doors or sashes, opening outwards, and secured only on the inside, as may readily be forced open in case of fire or panic. Sect. 128. The stage of every theatre shall be separated stage of theatre, from the auditorium by a brick wall sixteen inches thick, or its equivalent, which wall shall extend the entire width of the building, and from ground to roof, and from ground to stage floor, and be topped out as a party wall. There shall be no openings through this wall except the curtain opening, and not more than two others, to be located at the level of or below 32 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Proscenium nrch, how carried. Roof trusses. Finish and decorations. Scenery, curtains, etc. Fly-floors, etc. Under side of fly-floors, how protected. Scene docks, carpenter or property shops, and wardrobes. Rooms, how Jocated. the stage ; these latter openings shall not exceed twenty-one superficial feet each, and shall have tinned- wood self-closing doors, securely hung to rabbets in the brick-work. Sect. 129. The Avail over the curtain opening of every theatre shall be carried by a brick arch, or by an iron truss or girder ; and if a truss or girder is used it shall be covered bv materials non-conductive of heat, and a girder shall be spanned by a sufficient relieving arch of brick in cement. Sect. 130. The roof trusses of every theatre shall be covered with incombustible material. Sect. 131. The finish or decorative features around the curtain opening of every theatre shall be of incombustible materials, well secured to masonry. Sect. 132. All scenery, curtains, and exposed wood-work of the stage of every theatre shall be thoroughly covered or saturated, if practicable, with fire-resisting material, approved by inspector. Sect. 133. The fixed portions of stage, fly-floors, and tie- floors of every theatre shall be of approved incombustible material, except that the flooring may be of wood. Sect. 134. The under side of flooring of fly-floors of every theatre shall be covered with approved incombustible materials, and the tie-floors shall have an open flooring of slats, set their full width apart. Sect. 135. All scene docks, carpenter or property shops, and wardrobes of every theatre shall be separated from stage, auditorium, and dressing-room divisions by solid brick walls, not less than twelve inches thick, with no openings to the auditorium or dressing-room divisions ; and all openings to the stage shall have tinned-wood, self-closing doors, securely hung in rabbets in the brick-work. Sect. 136. All rooms and premises in every theatre for the use or occupancy of persons employed therein shall be located in secure positions, and shall have at least two independent exits, as i^emote from the stage as practicable ; and all parts of such rooms and premises, with their passages and stair-ways shall be of fire-resisting construction. Sect. 137. There shall be at least two two -inch hio-h-service DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS- 33 stand-pipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample pro- dumber and rl location of high- vision of hose and nozzles at each level of the stage on each sei vice stand- side, and the water shall be kept turned on during the occu- pipes- pancy of the building. The said pipes shall have two gates, one above the other, with a proper test or waste valve ; the lower gate to be kept open at all times except when testing the upper gate to ascertain if it is in order for use. The prosce- nium opening shall be provided with a two and one-half inch perforated iron pipe, so constructed that, in case of an emer- gency, it will form a complete water curtain for the entire proscenium opening, and there shall be such additional fire apparatus and perforated iron pipes or automatic sprinklers as the inspector shall direct. Said pipes shall be supplied with water by high-pressure service, and be at all times ready for use. Sect. 138. There shall be one or more ventilators near the Numberand location of centre and above the highest portion of stage of every theatre, ventilators,. constructed of incombustible materials, and equal in combined area of opening to one-tenth of the area of stage-floor. Said ventilators shall have valves or louvers so counterbalanced as to open automatically, and shall be kept closed when not in use by cords or wires reaching to the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. There shall also be a proper arrangement of combustible cords or fusible connections to open the ventilating-valves automatically by the action of fire on the stage. Sect. 139. The proscenium or curtain opening of every Curtain. theatre shall have a fire-resisting curtain of incombustible mate- rial, reenforced by wire-netting, or otherwise strengthened ; if of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to lower from the top, it shall be so contrived as to be stopped securely at a height of seven feet above the stage-floor ; the remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire-resisting fabric as above. Such curtain shall be lowered at the besnnnini>- and end of each and every performance, and shall, in its material* construction, and mechanism, be approved by the inspector. Sect. 140. Every brick building hereafter erected or altered, stair - wava . how J constructed in to be used for a tenement or lodging house, except those tenement and lodging houses. 34 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Height of exterior walls of tenement and lodging houses. Hay, straw, hemp, flax, shavings, burning-fluids, turpentine, camphene, and inflammable oil. where there are not more than four families, and having two separate stair- ways, shall have the stair-ways enclosed in brick walls not less than eight inches thick the entire height, and provided with a ventilating-skylight so arranged with fire-proof appliances that it may be operated from the lower hall in a manner satisfactory to the inspector, and the stair-way side of said walls, if plastered, unless it is an outside wall, shall be plastered directly on the brick- work, and no opening or aperture shall be made in said walls except the requisite doors for en- trance thereto and external windows ; and the whole area of stair- way not occupied by well-rooms on each floor shall be deafened as provided in section one hundred and two. Other better fire-proof or fire-resisting construction may be substituted for the wood framing and deafening and wire-lathinGf and plastering by permission of inspector. Every such building, if to be occupied by more than four families above the first floor, shall have such additional staircases or means of egress as in the judgment of the inspector the safety of the occupants shall demand. If such staircase partitions are to commence at a level above the cellar bottom, they may be erected upon iron girders, and properly protected from fire ; and the floor within said walls at the level of the girders shall be entirely of incombustible material. Sect. 141. The exterior walls of every building hereafter erected or altered to be used for a tenement or lodging house, on a street not more than twenty feet in width, shall not exceed thirty feet in height. Sect. 142. No building, of which any part is used for storage or sale of hay, straw, hemp, flax, shavings, burning- fluids, turpentine, camphene, or any inflammable oil, or other highly combustible substances, shall be occupied in any part as a dwelling, tenement or lodging house ; except that rooms for coachmen or grooms may be allowed in connection with the private stables authorized by this act, by permission of inspector. All receptacles for ashes in any tenement or lodging house shall be enclosed with incombustible material satisfactory to inspector. Sect. 143. Every tenement or lodging house shall have DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 35 in the roof, at the top of the hall, a ventilator ; shall also be Additional requirements provided with a fire-escape, or means of escape in case of fire, for tenement both to be approved by the inspector ; shall have in every '™ oua ° a ging room occupied as a sleeping-room, and which does not com- municate directly with the external air, a ventilating or tran- som window, having an opening or area of three square feet over the door leading into and connected with the adjoining room, if such adjoining room communicates with the external air ; and also a ventilating or transom window, of the same opening, in such other place as the inspector may direct ; but no transom-window shall be placed in a partition wall en- closing a main stair-way ; shall also have proper stairs, strong balusters, posts, railings, and kept in good repair. Sect. 144. All ordinances and parts of ordinances of said Ordinances to remain in force city now in force, relating to the building-limits and the in- until repealed spection and survey of buildings, shall remain in force until 01 amended or repealed by said city, and all officers elected or appointed under the provisions of said ordinances or the acts repealed shall continue to hold office for the terms for which they were elected or appointed and until their successors are elected or appointed in accordance with this act, unless sooner removed. Sect. 145. Any court having equity jurisdiction, in term injunctions. time or vacation, may, on the application of the inspector, by any suitable process or decree in equity, enforce the provisions of this act, and may, on such application, issue an injunction to restrain the use or occupation of any building or structure in the city of Boston, erected, altered, maintained, or used in violation of this act. Sect. 146. Any person violating any provision of this act Penalties, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, to be paid into the treasury of said city, unless another penalty is specifically provided herein. Sect. 147. Chapter two hundred and eighty of the acts of Rc P eals - the year eighteen hundred and seventy-one ; chapters two hun- dred and sixty, and three hundred and seventy-one ; and three hundred and seventy-seven of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-two ; chapters two hundred and ninety- 36 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. eight, and three hundred and thirty-eight of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-three ; chapters sixty-nine and one hundred and* seventy-six, of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six ; chapters one hundred and one, and sections three, four, and seven of chapter two hundred and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two ; and chapter one hundred and fifty-five of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three are repealed. INDEX TO CHAPTER 374 OF 1885. Section A. Acts repealed 147 Additional staircases 140 Aldermen, Board, permission 27, 96 Alter, etc., conform to act 25 Alteration means 17, 25, 26 Altered or repaired, wooden building. . . 22 Application to enlarge, etc 11 Approach, public buildings 123 Arch 75 Asbestos paper 102 Ashlar 57 Anchor ties 61, 62 Authorities, strength 24 B. Bay-window 27 Boilers and license. . .72, 78, 83, 84, 85, 124 Boiler-room 83 Bonded 38, 41 Bracing isolated building 115 Brick building furred 102 Brick building means 17 Bricks, merchantable 37, 65, 71 Building altered, examined and approved, 25 Buildings exempt 16 Buildings, inspectors to examine 10 Building limits 21 Building, public, means 17 Building, wooden, means .17, 20, 21, 22, 23 Bulkhead and stairs 93 Buttresses 48, 67 C Section Calculations, strength 24 Capacity of floors 86 Cellar means 17, 96 Cement 24, 37, 38 Changes of levels public buildings 118 Chase or flue 53 Chimneys 70, 74, 76 Churches 50 City Council 20 Clamps 57 Clerk, duties of 8 Coachmen, grooms, etc 142 Coal elevators 21 Columns fire-proofed 104 Columns, posts, etc 34, 104 Combustible material 114, 142 Commonwealth of Massachusetts, exempt, 16 Concrete foundation 30 Conform to act, alter, etc 25 Continuance, notice of 113 Cornices . 64 Cornice stone 40 Curtain, fire 139 Cutting in floor timber 91 D. Dangerous buildings 11, 76, 111, 112 Deafening plaster 102 Definition of terms 17 Department organization 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Deputy, when appointed 12 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 37 Section Doors, outside 95 Doorway 63 Drains 98, 99 E. Egress sufficient and hazardous, 15, 114, 140 Eighty feet -. 50 Elevators 107, 108, 109, 110 Elevators for grain 21, 50 Endanger life Ill Engine 124 Equivalent protection 109 Excavation 31 Explosive compound 114 External walls of dwelling, etc 44 External walls other than dwelling. . .45, 46 External wall means 17 External walls of tenement 29, 141 F. Filled land 97 Fines 76, 112, 113, 146 Fires, inspectors to attend 9 Fires, origin of 11 Fire belt or stop 102, 103 Fire curtain 139 Fire-escapes 105, 106, 143 Fireplace 75 Fireproof supports and material 104 Fire stop 74 Flemish headers 41 Floor-hearing walls 55 Floor timbers and capacity.. 43, 86, 87,89,91 Flue or chase 53, 71, 72, 76 Foundation means 17, 30, 34 Foundation of dwellings 36 Foundation other than dwellings 35 Frost surface exposed 30 Furnaces 72, 73, 78, 79, 80, 84, 85, 124 Furred brick walls 102, 103 G. Galvanized iron 102 Girders 49, 56, 104, 129, 140 Girders, metallic 90 Going of stairs 122 Grade, cellar 96 Grade, lowest 14 Grain elevators 21, 50 Granite levellers 34 Section Grooms, etc 142 Gutter stone 42 H. Hay, straw, etc 142 Headers 88 Hearing, Board Aldermen 27 Hearths , 75 Heating apparatus, public buildings 124 Height of walls means 18 High service, etc 137 Hoistways 107, 108, 109, 110 House tenement means 17 I. Immediate action, unsafe buildings Ill Incombustible material. 21, 29, 64, 71, 74, 102 103, 119, 120, 123, 130, 131, 133, 134 Inflammable compound 114 Ingress sufficient 15 Injunction 145 Inspection of plans, etc 15 Inspector means 17 Inspector shall approve 28, 110 Inspector may approve 105 Iron beams 56 Iron columns, fire-proof 104 Iron plates 59, 66 Iron ties 59 Iron, inspector may approve 105 Isolated buildings 115 Isolated piers 34 J. Joint bolted. Leader, rain-water 101 Levellers, granite 34 Licenses 84, 96 Lights in public buildings 121 Limits, building. 21 Lintels 59 Lodging-house means 17 M. Made land 97 Market purposes 21 Metal clamps 57 Metal-covered doors 63 38 DIGEST OF BUILDIXG LAWS. Section Metal-covered frames 63 Metal covered above forty-five feet .... 64 Metal collar 77 Metal columns 69 Metal pipe 82 Mortar 24, 37, 38 Moving wooden buildings 23 N. Necessary repairs 13 No building, hay, straw, etc 142 Notice, affix 112 Notice, Board of Aldermen 27 O. Observation stands Ill Openings 47, 63, 128 Operatives 106 Ovens 72 Overheads public buildings 119 P. Partition wall means 17, 49, 54, 55 Partitions, fire stop 102, 103 Partitions in public buildings 1 20 Partitions over one another 90 Party wall means 17, 42 Party walls of dwellings, etc 51 Party walls other than dwellings 52 Permission Board of Aldermen 27 Permit lowest grade 14 Permit required 25, 26, 84, 85 Permit not required 13 Piers, columns, etc., buttresses, 34, 48, 66, 67 Piles 32, 33 Plans and specifications 15 Plates 59, 66 Plumb 38 Public building means 17 Public buildings, plans filed 15, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, etc. Public safety Ill Pugging 102, 119 R. Rabbeted iron frames 63 Railings in public buildings 121 Rain-water conductors or leaders 101 Ranges 72, 73, 79 Section Recesses 47, 53 Referees, how chosen 7 Register boxes 81 Relieving arch . . 129 Repairs, necessary 13 Repealed acts 147 Rise of stairs in public buildings 122 Roof, height of 92 Roof in good repair 100 Roof timbers 43 Roof trusses 130 Roofing 92 S. Scuttles and step-ladder 93 Separate stairwa3's 140 Sheds, wooden 21 Shield 78, 80 Shutters 95 Smoke-pipe 77, 78 Smoke-stop 102, 103 Soapstone ring, etc 77, 81, 82 Staging or structure Ill Stairways fire-stop 102, 103 Stairs in public buildings 121, 122 Stand pipe 137 Stirrup irons 88 Stone cornice 40 Stone facing 57 Straight and plumb walls 38 Strength of materials 24 Structure over line of street 27 Sufficient strength 15 Support, temporary 26 T. Temporary seats public buildings 117 Temporary support 26 Tenement house means 17, 140 Tenement house external walls 29 Tenement house party walls 29 Thickness of walls means 19, 28 Through courses 67 Tie anchors 61, 62 Ties, iron 59 Timber in brick wall 58, 59, 74 Trimmer arch 75 Truss or girder '. 129 Trusses, roof 130 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 39 Section TJ. United States exempt 16 Unsafe building Ill, 112, 113 Upright supports 104 V. Vaulted walls 39 Ventilating skylight 140 Ventilation ducts 102, 103 Ventilators 138, 143 W. Wall, external, means 17 Walls, incombustible material 29 Wall partition means 17, 54, 55 Wall party means 17, 51, 52 Walls, height of, means. . , 18 Section Walls, thickness of, means 19 Walls, vaulted 39 Walls, external, dwellings, etc 44 Walls, external, other than dwellings, 45, 46 Walls, floor-bearing 55 Wall, side 60 Wall, rear 60 Water curtain 137 Water gates 137 Winders in public buildings 122 Wire lathing 140 Withes 39 Women and children 106 Wooden building means . .17, 20, 21, 22, 23 Wooden columns 56 Wood-work from chimney 74 Wood-work from pipes , . 82 m DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. INDEX TO DIAGRAMS. PILING And grade for cutting off same FOUNDATIONS. Under isolated piers, columns, posts, and pillars ..... Under piers, columns, posts, and pillars for the support of continuous wall ............. Under external walls of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 feet to 100 feet high ...... Under party walls of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 feet to 100 feet high ...... Under brick buildings used for dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 35 feet to 60 feet high .......... Under brick buildings used for dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses exceeding 60 feet, but not exceeding 75 feet high .... Party walls to be built 1 foot above roofs, and covered with metal EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS. Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 20 feet by 40 feet, and 30 feet high ........... Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 30 feet to 60 feet high Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 60 feet to 70 feet high Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 80 feet high Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 100 feet high . EXTERNAL WALLS. Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 feet and 60 feet high 13 Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenenent, and lodging houses, 80 feet and 100 feet high 14 Plate. Section. la 32 1 34 2 34 3 35 4 35 5 36 6 36 7 42 8 44 9 44 10 44 11 44 12 44 45 45 PARTY WALLS. Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 feet and 65 feet high .15 Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 80 feet and 100 feet high .......... CHIMNEYS, ETC. Chimneys, headers, trimmers, metal fire-stops, etc., construction of Open fire-places, trimmer arches, etc., construction of EIRE-STOPS. Fire-stops at floors, ceilings, and walls, construction of Fire-stops in partitions and stairways ........ 20 Fire-stops — transverse section, showing location of, and their necessity for impeding the progress of fire ........ 21 15 52 16 52 17 74 18 74 &75 19 102 20 102 102 DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 41 CHAPTER 124, ACTS 1810, AS AMENDED BY CHAPTER 109 OF 1860. Stables. Section 1. That from and after the passing of this act no building shall be erected within the town of Boston, and used and improved as a stable, for the taking in and keeping horses or chaises, or other carriages, upon hire, or to let, commonly called livery-stables, within one hundred and seventy feet of any church or meeting-house, erected for the public worship of God, without the consent in writing of the proprietors of such church or meeting-house, or of the religious society or parish worship- ping therein, and the consent of the mayor and aldermen of the city of Boston : provided, however, that this act shall not be so construed as to prevent the finishing of any stable which has been in part erected, if the completion thereof shall be ap- proved by the selectmen of the town of Boston. Sect. 2. Be it further enacted, that for any offence against the provisions of this act, the owner or owners, keeper or keepers, of such building shall forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars for every calendar month during which the same shall be so used and improved, to be recovered by action of debt, one-half thereof to enure to the use of the poor of the town of Boston, and the other half thereof to him or them who shall sue for the same. CHAPTER 369 OF THE ACTS OF THE YEAR 1869. AN ACT CONCERNING THE ERECTION OF STABLES IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. Be it enacted, etc., as follows: — Section 1. No person shall hereafter erect, occupy, or use any building for a stable in the city of Boston, except in such place as the board of aldermen of said city shall first in writing approve and direct, and every person so erecting, using, or occupying a building without such approval shall forfeit a sum 42 DICIEST OF BUILDING LAWS. not exceeding fifty dollars for every month he so uses or oc- cupies such building, and in like proportion for a longer or shorter time ; this act shall not apply to any stable now- erected, occupied, or used, so long as the same is not enlarged or rebuilt. Sect. 2. The supreme judicial court, or any justice thereof, either in term-time or vacation, may issue an injunction to prevent the erection, occupancy, or use of any stable contrary to the provisions of this act. Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in three months after its passage. [Approved June 9, 1869.] CHAPTEE 192 OF THE ACTS OF THE YEAE 1878. AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE REBUILDING AND IMPROVEMENT OF STABLES IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. Be it enacted, etc., as follows : — chap. 280, 1871, Section 1 . Any stable now Qr hereafter legally existing in Chap. 374, 1885. the city of Boston may, with the consent of the mayor and aldermen of said city, be rebuilt, enlarged, and improved, in accordance with the provisions of chapter two hundred and eighty of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy- one, and the several acts in amendment thereof regulating the construction of buildings in the said city. Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved April 26, 1878.] CHAPTEE 252 ACTS OF THE YEAE 1882. Section 1. The city of Boston may, by ordinance, regulate the building, management, and inspection of elevators, hoist- ways, and elevator-shafts in said city. Sect. 2. The said city may, by ordinance, require the regis- tration of all persons carrying on the business of plumbing in said city, and prescribe rules and regulations for the materials, construction, alteration, and inspection of all pipes, tanks, DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 43 faucets, valves, and other fixtures, by and through which water and sewage is used and carried ; and provide that no such pipes, tanks, faucets, valves, or other fixtures shall be placed in any building in said city, except in accordance with plans which shall be approved by the inspector of buildings of said city. Sect. 5. The facts and returns relative to steam-boilers, SeePSChap ' 11, § 92. required to be ascertained by section ninety-two of chapter eleven of the public statutes, shall be ascertained and made in the city of Boston, by the inspector of buildings, and not by the assessors. Sect. 6. The said city may impose penalties not exceeding fifty dollars for each offence, for any violation of the provisions contained in sections one and two of this act. CHAPTER 173 OF THE ACTS OF 1883. If any elevator, whether used for freight or passengers, Unsafe elevators, etc. shall, in the judgment of the inspector of factories and public buildings of the district in which such elevator is used, or, in the city of Boston, of the inspector of buildings of said city, be unsafe or dangerous to use, or has not been constructed in the manner required by law, the said inspector shall immediately placard conspicuously upon the entrance to or door of the cab or car of such elevator a notice of its dangerous condition, and prohibit the use of such elevator until made safe to the satisfac- tion of said inspector. Any person removing such notice or operating such elevator while such notice is placarded as afore- said, without authority from said inspector, shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars for each offence. CHAPTER 251 OF THE ACTS OF 1883. , Section 1. Every keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging watchmen and l • • 1 i i 1 1 ' n red ligbts iu house containing one hundred or more rooms, and being tour hotels, etc. or more stories high, shall have therein at least two competent see chap. 251, watchmen, each properly assigned, and each on duty between 223 \g" 4 iap ' 44 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. the hours of nine o'clock in the afternoon and six o'clock in the forenoon. And every keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging- house containing fifty or more, but less than one hundred, rooms, and being three stories high, shall have between said hours at least one competent watchman on duty therein. And in all such hotels or lodging-houses as are mentioned in this section the halls and stair-ways shall be properly lighted at night, and at the head and foot of each flight of stairs shall be kept during the night a red light ; and one or more proper alarms, or gongs, capable of being heard throughout the house, shall always remain easy of access and ready for use in each of said buildings, to give notice to the inmates in case of fire ; and every keeper of such hotel, boarding or lodging house shall keep posted in a conspicuous place in every sleeping-room a notice descriptive of such means of escape. Fire-escapes Sect. 2. Hotels used and occupied as public houses, for from hotels, etc. 1 L the reception and entertainment of guests, boarding or lodging houses, and school buildings, being three or more stories high, and accommodating or having the means of accommodating thirty or more persons, also factories, workshops, and manu- facturing establishments of said height, in which forty or more persons are employed, shall be supplied inside thereof with proper and sufficient means or appliances for escape, in case of fire, or apparatus for that purpose properly constructed upon the outside thereof, connected through doors or windows ; all such fire-escapes shall be kept in good order and free from obstruc- tions, and shall be approved by the inspector of factories and public buildings, or in the city of Boston by the inspector of buildings. Sect. 3. The inspector of buildings in the city of Boston, the mayor and aldermen of other cities, and the selectmen of towns, shall prescribe as they deem necessary, except so far as is specifically required in the preceding sections, what addi- tional night-watch shall be kept, and what further provisions for the prevention of fires, and for the better protection of life in case of fire shall be made by the several keepers of hotels, boarding or lodging houses within their respective limits ; and no license shall be granted to any keeper of a hotel embraced Watchmen in hotels, etc. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 45 in the provisions of this act until the requirements thereof, so far as applicable, have been complied with. Sect. 4. Whoever neglects or refuses to provide watchmen Penalties. as required by this act shall be punished by a fine not exceed- in o- one thousand dollars for each offence, and whoever violates any of the other provisions of this act shall be subject to the same penalty as is prescribed in section twenty-two of chapter one hundred and four of the Public Statutes. CHAPTER 223 OF THE ACTS OF 1884. Section 1. All hotels, boarding, and lodging houses, sub- ject to the provisions of chapter two hundred and fifty-one of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty- three, adopt- ino- a svstem of electric watch-clocks that shall register at the office the movements of the watchman throughout the house, or adopting in the rooms any system of thermostats, or fire-alarm bells, that shall be approved by the inspector of factories and public buildings, or in the city of Boston, by the inspector of buildings, shall be exempt from maintaining more than one watchman, in addition to the regular night-clerk and porters. Sect. 2. The provisions of this act and of said chapter two hundred and fifty-one of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three shall apply to family hotels. CHAPTER 382 OF THE ACTS OF THE YEAR 1885. AX ACT IN RELATION TO THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH IN BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston used as a dwelling, tenement, or lodging-house, or where persons are employed, shall have at all times such number of good and sufficient water-closets, earth-closets, or privies as the board of health of said city may determine, but the occupants of any • two or more of any such buildings may use such closets or privies in common, provided the access is easy and direct ; and said board shall not require more than one such closet or privy for every twenty persons. 46 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Sect 2. Every such building situated on a street in which there is a sewer shall have water-closets, and shall not have a cesspool or privy connected with it, except where, in the opin- ion of the board of health, it can be allowed to remain for a longer time, and then only as said board shall approve. Sect. 3. No building in the city of Boston shall be con- verted into or used for a tenement or lodging house, unless, in addition to the other requirements of law, it conforms to the provisions of this act. Sect. 4. In this act the following terms shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them, viz.: — " Cellar " means a basement or lower story of any building of which one-half or more of the height from the floor to the ceiling is below the level of the street adjoining. ^Inspector" means inspector of buildings of the city of Boston. " Lodging— house " means a building in which persons are temporarily accommodated with sleeping apartments, and in- cludes hotels. " Tenement— house " means a building which, or any por- tion of which, is to be occupied, or is occupied, as the resi- dence of more than three families living independently of one another, and doing their cooking upon the premises ; or by more than two families upon any floor above the se.cond floor, so living and cooking. Sect. 5. Every tenement or lodging house shall have the yard or area so connected with a sewer that all water and liquid filth will freely flow from it to the sewer, or, if there is no sewer, to the street gutter, by means of a passage under the sidewalk covering, so constructed as to be easily accessible to remove obstructions. Sect. 6. If a building to be used for a tenement or lodging house is on the front of any lot where there is another building on the rear of the same lot, there shall be clear, open space, exclusively belonging to the front building, and extending up- wards from the ground, of at least ten feet between said build- ings, if they are one story high above the level of the ground. If they are two stories high, the distance between them shall DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 47 not be less than fifteen feet ; if they are three stories high, the distance between them shall be not less than twenty feet ; and if they are more than three stories high, the distance between them shall be not less than twenty-five feet. Sect. 7. If such building is on the back part of any lot there shall be a clear, open space of at least ten feet between such building and every other building in its rear. But when thorough ventilation of such open spaces can be otherwise se- cured said distances may be lessened or modified in special cases by a permit from the board of health and the inspector. Sect. 8. Every habitable room of such building not now used, but hereafter used, as a tenement or lodging house shall be, in every part, not less than eight feet in height from the floor to the ceiling, except in the attic, and shall be at least eight feet in height from the floor to the ceiling throughout not less than one-half the area of such room ; and every such room shall have at least one window connecting with the external air, or over the door a suitable ventilator connecting with a room or hall which has a connection with the external air. Sect. 9. The total area of window communicating with the external air, in every room of such building, shall be equal to at least one-tenth of the superficial area of the room ; and the top of one at least of such windows shall be not less than seven feet six inches above the floor, and the upper half of each win- dow shall be so made as to open for the purposes of ventilation. £>ect. 10. Every habitable room of such building, of area less than one hundred superficial feet, which does not com- municate directly with the external air, and is without an open fireplace, shall be provided with special means of ventilation, approved by the board of health and the said inspector. Sect. 11. Every such building shall have adequate chim- neys running through every floor, with an open fireplace or grate, or place for a stove, properly connected with one of said chimneys, for every family and set of apartments ; shall have proper conveniences and non-combustible receptacles for ashes and rubbish ; shall have water furnished at one or more places in such house, or in the yard thereof, so that the same may be adequate and reasonably convenient for the use of the 48 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. « occupants thereof; and shall have the floor of the cellar properly cemented, so as to be water-tight. Sect. 12. Every such building used for a tenement or lodging house shall have suitable receptacles for garbage and other refuse matters, and shall not be used as a place of storage for any combustible article, or any article dangerous to life or detrimental to health ; nor shall any horse, cow, calf, swine, pig, sheep, or goat be kept in said building. Sect. 13. Every such building, and the yard, court, passage, area, and alleys belonging to the same, shall be kept clean and free from any accumulation of dirt, filth, garbage, or other refuse matter, to the satisfaction of the board of health. Sect. 14. The tenant of any lodging-house or tenement- house shall thoroughly cleanse all the rooms, floors, windows, and doors of the house, or part of the house, of which he is the tenant, to the satisfaction of the board of health, and the owner or lessee shall well and sufficiently, to the satisfaction of said board, whitewash or otherwise cleanse the walls and ceilings thereof once at least every year, in the months of April or May, and have the privies, drains, and cesspools kept in good order and the passages and stairs kept clean and in good condition. Sect. 15. The owner, agent of the owner, and keeper of any lodging or tenement house, or part thereof, shall, when any person in such house is sick of fever, or of any infectious, pestilential, or contagious disease, and such sickness is known to such owner, agent, or keeper, give immediate notice thereof to the board of health, and thereupon said board shall cause the same to be inspected and cleansed, or disinfected, at the expense of the owner, in. such manner as they may deem nec- essary ; and may also cause the blankets, bedding, and bedclothes used by any such sick person to be thoroughly cleansed, scoured, and fumigated, and in extreme cases to be destroyed. Sect. 16. The halls on each floor of every such building shall open directly to the external air, with suitable windows, and shall have no room or other obstruction at the end, unless DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 49 sufficient light and ventilation is otherwise provided for said halls, in a manner approved by the board of health. Sect. 17. No person shall, without a permit from the board of health, let or occupy, or suffer to be occupied, separately as a dwelling, or place of lodging and sleeping, any cellar, or underground room whatsoever, unless the same be in every part thereof at least seven feet in height, measured from the floor to the ceiling thereof; nor unless the same shall have been so let or occupied before the passage of this act, nor unless the same be for at least one foot of its height above the surface of the street or ground adjoining, or nearest to the same ; nor unless there be, outside of and adjoining the said vault, cellar, or room, and extending along the entire frontage thereof, and upwards from six inches below the level of the floor thereof, up to the surface of the said street or ground, an open space of at least two feet and six inches wide in every part ; nor unless the same be well and effectually drained by means of a drain, the uppermost part of which is one foot at least below the level of the floor of such vault, cellar, or room ; nor unless there is a clear space of not less than one foot below the level of the floor, except where the same is cemented ; nor unless there be appurtenant to such vault, cellar, or room the use of a water-closet or privy, kept and provided as in this act required ; nor unless the same have an external window-opening of at least nine superficial feet, clear of the sash-frame, in which window-opening there shall be fitted a frame filled in with glazed sashes, at least four and a half superficial feet of which shall be made so so as to open for the purpose of ventilation : provided, however, that in case of an inner, or back vault, cellar, or room, let or occupied along with a front vault, cellar, or room, as a part of the same letting or occupation, it shall be a sufficient compliance with the pro- visions of this act if the front room is provided with a window as hereinbefore provided ; and if the said back vault, cellar, or room, is connected with the front vault, cellar, or room by a door, and also by a proper ventilating or transom window, and, where practicable, also connected by a proper ventilating Or transom window, or by some hall or passage, with the cxtcr- 50 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. nal air : provided, further, that in any area adjoining a vault, cellar, or underground room there may be steps necessary for access to such vault, cellar, or room, if the same be so placed as not to be over, across, or opposite to said external window, and so as to allow between every part of such steps and the external wall of such vault, cellar, or room a clear space of six inches at least, and if the rise of said steps is open : and provided, further, that over or across any such area there may be steps necessary for access to any building above the vault, cellar, or room to which such area adjoins, if the same be so placed as not to be over, across, or opposite to any such external window. Sect. 18. The board of health shall have authority to make such other regulations as to cellars and the ventilation and over-crowding of tenement and lodging houses and buildings where persons are employed as they deem necessary, subject, however, to the laws relating to building in the city of Boston. Sect. 19. Every owner and agent, or person having charge, of a tenement or lodging house shall leave his address with the board of health and shall have legibly posted on the wall or in the entry of such tenement or lodging house the name and address of such owner and of the agent or person having charge of the same ; and service upon parties whose address is out of the city, of any papers or notices required by this act, or any act relating to the preservation of health, or by any proceedings to enforce any of their provisions shall be sufficient, if made by sending a copy of such paper or notice through the mail to the address of the person or persons so designated as owner, agent, or person having charge of such tenement or lodging house ; and service upon parties whose ad- dress is in the city by leaving such copy at said address. Sect. 20. Every officer of the board of health, and every officer upon whom any duty or authority is conferred, shall have free access to every part of any lodging or tenement house, when required in the proper execution of the duties of his office. Sect. 21. Any court having equity jurisdiction, in term time or vacation, may, on the application of the board of DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 51 health, by any suitable process or decree in equity, enforce the provisions of this act, and may, on such application, issue an injunction to restrain the use or occupation of any building or structure in the city of Boston erected, altered, or used in viola- tion of this act. Sect. 22. Any person violating any provision of this act shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or by confinement in the house of correction, not exceeding sixty days, unless another penalty is specifically provided herein . Sect. 23. Every member of said board of health, and every inspector acting under said board, shall, before entering upon the duties of his office, take and subscribe an oath before the citv clerk of said city that he will faithfully and impartially dis- charge such duties, and the city clerk shall make and keep a record of such oath. Every member of said board and every such inspector who enters upon or discharges such duties with- out having taken and subscribed such oath shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars, but such omission shall not render invalid any act or proceeding of said board. CHAPTER 11, SECTION 92— PUBLIC STATUTES. The assessors shall, in each year, on or before the first Monday in August, return to the tax-commissioner a statement showing the whole number of steam-boilers located in their respective cities and towns, on the first day of May then next preceding, by whom and when built, and the aggregate esti- mated amount of horse-power which such boilers are capable of furnishing. Such returns shall also state the number of acci- dents causing permanent injuries to persons which have arisen from the use of such boilers during the year, with the causes thereof, as far as may be ascertained by the assessors. NOTE. See Sect. 5, Chap. 252, Acts of 1882. " " G, " 374, " " 1885. 52 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. CHAPTER 102 — PUBLIC STATUTES. STEAM-ENGINES, FURNACES, AND BOILERS. steam-engines, Section 40. No furnace for melting iron or making glass, etc., not to be . . used, etc., and no stationary steam-engme designed for use in a mill for without license- G-.S. 88, § 33, planing or sawing boards or turning wood, or in which any l Alien, 137. other fuel than coal is used to create steam, shall be erected or put up to be used in a city or town which adopts this and the eight following sections, or has adopted the corresponding sec- tions of earlier statutes, at a legal meeting of the city council of the city, or the inhabitants of the town called for that purpose, unless the mayor and aldermen or selectmen thereof have granted a license therefor prescribing the place where the building shall be erected in which the steam-engine or furnace is to be used, and the materials and construction thereof, with such regulations as to the height of flues and protection against fire as they deem necessary for the safety of the neighborhood. Such license may be granted on a written application, and shall be recorded in the records of the city or toAvn. Public notice of Sect. 41. Upon application for such license, the mayor and g.s. 88,' §34. aldermen or selectmen shall assign a time and place for the consideration of the same, and cause at least fourteen days' public notice thereof to be given, at the expense of the appli- cant, in such manner as they may direct, in order that all per- sons interested may be heard thereon. Municipal Sect. 42. In a city or town which adopts sections forty to officers may . , . regulate steam- forty-eight, inclusive, or has adopted the corresponding sec- Qg D g8 '535 tions of earlier statutes, at a legal meeting of the city council of the city or the inhabitants of the town called for that purpose, the mayor and aldermen or selectmen, after due notice in writ- ing to the owner of such steam-engine or furnace, except for making glass, erected or in use therein before the time of such adoption, and a hearing of the matter, may adjudge the same to be dangerous or a nuisance to the neighborhood, and make and record an order prescribing such rules, restrictions, and alterations as to the building in which the same is constructed or used, the construction and height of its smoke-flues, with DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 53 such other regulations as they may deem necessary for the safety of the neighborhood ; and the city or town clerk shall deliver a copy of such order to a constable, who shall serve on the owner an attested copy thereof, and make return of his doings thereon to said clerk within three days from the delivery thereof to him. Sect. 43. An owner of a steam-engine or furnace who is A PP ealsand ° proceedings aggrieved by such order may, within three days after the ser- thereon. vice upon him of such order, apply to the superior court, or a 1873 26 i_ 117 '_ justice thereof, in vacation, for a jury; and the court or justice Mass. 76-119. Mass. 485-126. shall issue a warrant for a jury to be empanelled by the sheriff Mass. 237-128. Avithin fourteen days from the issuing of the warrant, in like manner as is provided in chapter forty-nine in regard to the laying out of highways ; or, instead thereof, if the applicant so elects, and after such notice as the court or justice shall order to the adverse party or parties, shall direct a trial to be had at the bar of the superior court, in the same manner as other civil cases as there tried by jury. Sect. 44. The court or justice, on granting the application injunction J . pending appeal. for a jury, may issue an injunction restraining the further use g.s. 88, § 37. of such engine or furnace until the final determination of the application. Sect. 45. The jury may find a verdict either affirming or G - s - 88 > § 3 ?- annulling the order in full, or making alterations therein ; which verdict shall be returned by the sheriff, if the trial is had before him, to the next term of the court for acceptance, as in the case of highways ; and the verdict, whether before the sheriff or in the superior court, when accepted, shall take effect as an original order. Sect. 46. If the order is affirmed, costs shall be recovered Jjfjj*^ by the city or town against the applicant ; if it is annulled, damages and costs shall be recovered by the applicant against the city or town ; and if it is altered, the court may render such judgment as to costs as to justice shall appertain. Sect. 47. No stationary engine, propelled by steam or Stationary en- J » ' I I J gines forbidden, other motive power, shall be hereafter erected or put up for when, etc. , . , , . . , 1862-74, §§ 1-3. use in a city or town in winch tins section, or chapter seventy- four of the statutes of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-two 54: DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. has been adopted in the manner provided in section forty of this chapter, within five hundred feet of a dwelling-house or public building, unless a license therefor has been first granted and recorded in a manner herein provided. steam-engines Sect. 48. A steam-engine or furnace erected or used con- when nuisances. .. f» 1 • 1 T • 1111 g.s. ss, § 40. trary to the provisions or the eight preceding sections shall be deemed a common nuisance ; and the mayor and aldermen or selectmen may remove the same in the same manner as boards of health may remove nuisances under sections twenty-one, twenty-two, and twenty-three of chapter eighty. May be ex- Sect. 49. The fire commissioners of the city of Boston, forbidden. the mayor and aldermen of any other city, or the selectmen of g.s. 88, §4i. a town, or anv person bv them authorized, may, after notice to 1880, 116. / 1 J * the parties interested, examine any steam-engine or steam- boiler therein , whether fixed or portable ; and for that purpose may enter any house, shop, or building ; and if upon examina- tion it appears probable that the use of such engine or boiler is unsafe, they may issue a temporary order to suspend such use ; and if, after giving the parties interested, so far as known, an opportunity to be heard, they adjudge such engine or boiler unsafe or defective or unfit to be used, they may pass a per- manent order prohibiting the use thereof until it is rendered safe. If, after notice to the owner or person having charge thereof, such engine or boiler is used contrary to either of such orders, it shall be deemed a common nuisance, without any other proof thereof than its use. May be removed Sect. 50. The fire commissioners, mayor and aldermen, and as nuisances. • i -i g.s. 88, §42. selectmen, may abate or remove a steam-engine or steam-boiler erected or used contrary to the provisions of the preceding section in the same manner as boards of health may remove nuisances under sections twenty-one, twenty-two, and twenty- three of chapter eighty. steam-boiiers to Sect. 51. No person shall manufacture, set up, use, or have safety- . .. ■ i l • l plugs. cause to be used, a steam-boiler, unless it is provided with a g.s. 88, §43. f us ible safety-plug made of lead, or some other equally fusible material, and of a diameter of not less than one-half an inch, placed in the roof of the fire-box, when a fire-box is used, and in all cases in a part of the boiler fully exposed to the action of DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 55 the fire, and as near the top of the water-line as any part of the fire-surface of the boiler ; and for this purpose Ashcroft's "pro- tected safety fusible-plug" may be used. Sect. 52. Whoever, without just and proper cause, removes Penalty for r6£Qovio£? from a boiler the safety-plug thereof, or substitutes therefor safety-plugs. any material more capable of resisting the action of the fire GS- so ' § 44- than the plug so removed, shall be punished by fine not exceed- ing one thousand dollars. Sect. 53. Whoever manufactures, sets up, or knowingly PenaIt >' for making boilers uses or causes to be used for six consecutive days, a steam- without safety. boiler unprovided with a safety fusible-plug, as described in £ U g gS g 8 c 45 section fifty-one, shall be punished by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. m EEVISED OEDINANCES OF 1885. CHAPTER 48. OF THE EEGULATION OF BUILDING. SectiOxV 1. The limits within which all buildings hereafter Building,imits - erected shall be required to conform to the provisions of chapter three hundred and seventy-four of the statutes of the common- wealth, of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-five, and of the acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto, are hereby established and defined as follows : All that portion of the city which is included within a line beginning at the intersection of the centre lines of Dover and Albany streets, and thence running: east through the centre of said Dover street to the harbor commissioners' line ; thence by the said harbor commissioners' line around the northerly portion of the " city proper " to a point on Charles river at the intersection of said line with the boundary line between Brookline and Boston ; thence along said boundary line to the centre of Longwood avenue ; thence through the centre of said avenue to the centre of Bumstead lane ; thence through the centre of said lane to the centre of Ward street ; thence through the centre of said Ward street to the centre of Parker street ; thence through the centre of said Parker street to the centre of Ruggles street ; thence through the centre of said Ruggles street to the centre of Washington street ; thence through the centre of said Washington street to a point opposite the centre of Palmer street ; thence through the centre of said Palmer street and through the centre of Eustis street to the centre of Hampden street; and thence through the centre of said Hampden street and the centre of Albany street to the point of beginning ; the said district being shown on a plan made by the city surveyor, dated June 28, 1881, and deposited in his office. Distance from line of lot. 58 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Sect. 2. Outside the limits defined'in the preceding section wooden buildings may be erected, subject to the following restrictions and regulations : — A wooden building, to be used as a dwelling-house, shall not exceed a height of forty-five feet, and the external side- walls of said building shall not be placed at a less distance than one foot and six inches from the line of the lot upon which the building is to be located, unless a brick external wall is sub- stituted for wooden wall, and of a thickness prescribed by statute law regulating the erection of brick external walls. The brick walls above required shall be built up to the under side of the roof-covering, which shall be laid and embedded in mortar upon the walls. Distance be- Where a wooden building is already erected for dwelling tween dwelling- . houses. purposes upon an adjoining lot, there shall be between the walls of the building erected and the one to be erected, if of wood, a clear open space of three feet between the said buildings. Eiis to dwelling- Wooden ells may be erected in connection with wooden houses. buildings used for dwelling purposes, but the ell shall not exceed thirty feet in length, fifteen feet in width, nor be of a greater height than twenty-five feet, or of any other dimension not in excess of the superficial area of four hundred and fifty square feet. Such ells may be built without the intervention of a brick wall between said ell and the main building. Party walls in j n t] ie erection of wooden buildings in blocks of two or more blocks of two or more. houses, to be occupied for dwelling purposes, the said buildings shall have intercepting brick walls not less than eight inches thick, said brick walls to be carried up and topped out twelve inches above the roof, and covered with metallic covering. see plate a. Wooden buildinos to be used for other purposes than that of Height and g c . range of wooden a dwelling-house shall not exceed a height of fifty-five feet from than dwemn & a tne e ra d e °f the street, court, or place upon which the said building is to be erected; and, if in a range of more than fifty feet, there shall be constructed an intercepting brick wall, not less than twelve inches thick, and carried up to a height of twelve inches above the roof, and the said wall to be covered with metallic covering. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 59 A wooden building to be used for any purpose other than Distances be- ° tween other that of a dwelling-house shall not be erected or placed at a than dwellings. less distance than ten feet from any other wooden building which is twentv-five feet or more in height or at a less distance than four feet from any other wooden building which is less than twenty-five feet in height. In no case shall the sills of any building referred to in this snis, how laid. section be laid below the grade of the street, unless by special permit of the inspector of buildings. Sect. o. The restrictions contained in the preceding sec- Exemptions. tion shall not apply to buildings erected or placed at a distance of fifty feet or more from any other building, and from any street, open or intended to be open, for public passage, whether accepted by the city or not. Sect. 4. All wooden buildings shall be built upon secure Foundations for foundations of stone or brick, carried up to the surface of the buildings. ground. The foundation, if of brick, shall not be less than 8ee pIate B " twelve inches thick, and laid in cement mortar ; if of rubble- stone, it shall not be less than sixteen inches thick, when laid in cement mortar, and not less than twenty inches thick when laid dry ; if of block stone, it shall be not less than sixteen inches thick and laid in cement mortar. All founda- tions shall be laid upon solid ground not less than four feet below the surface which is exposed to frost, or upon piles or other solid substructure. Piles shall be driven to a firm and solid bearing, and the tops of all piles shall be cut off at or below a grade to be prescribed by the inspector of buildings. There shall be at least one row of piles, spaced not over three feet on centres, in the direction of the length of the wall. Piles shall be capped with footing-courses of stone. In the construction of workshops or other buildings of a like character, or for temporary purposes, built upon soft or marshy land, the inspector may, in his discretion, permit the sills to be placed upon mud-sills or blocking, or upon piles cut to height of grade. Sect. 5. All wooden buildings shall be built with posts, Framing, etc., size of posts, girts, and plates, properly mortised, tenoned, braced, and girts, etc. pinned in each story, and supported by suitable studding, thc 8ecpIatoC 60 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Terms. Permits required. Penalties. Fifteen days' notice to be given inspector of proposed build- ing or alteration studs to be not more than thirty-two inches apart, the posts and girts to be not less than four by eight inches, or equivalent thereto, except that the foregoing dimensions for posts and girts shall not apply to buildings not exceeding four hundred feet in area, and less than fifteen feet in height. Sect. 6. No wooden building now erected, or hereafter to be erected, shall be altered, raised, roofed, enlarged, or otherwise built upon in any manner contrary to the terms of the five preceding sections. Sect. 7. No wooden building shall hereafter be erected without a permit being first obtained from the inspector of buildings ; and no alteration of or addition to any such building shall be made without such permit. Sect. 8. Whoever violates any of the provisions of the seven preceding sections, and neglects for twenty-four hours, after written notice from the inspector of buildings, served upon him personally, or posted conspicuously upon the building erected or in process of erection, alteration, or repair in violation of said provisions, to alter said building in conformity with the provisions of this chapter, shall be liable to a penalty of not less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars, and to a like pen- alty for every day's continuance of such violation. Sect. 9. Whoever intends to erect or to make alterations in a building of any description, within ten feet of a public street of the city, shall, fifteen days at least before he proceeds to build or erect the same, or to lay the foundation thereof, or to make the said alterations, or to do any act for carrying into execution his intention to do such things, give to the inspector of build- ings notice in writing of his intention, with the dimensions of the structure proposed, the materials to be used, the number on the street, or the precise location, and the name of the owner or owners of the land, in order that any encroachment or other injury or inconvenience to the public streets which might otherwise happen may be thereby prevented ; and in default thereof the city shall be discharged from all damages, of any nature whatsoever, resulting from the failure to give notice as above provided, particularly from all such damages or expenses Sec too 7 1 <2 OTfoer Than Dime Zlu iqs. DtveZlu iqs, J>me ofJLot. ' ISJ M y * si a ,0 fid *° !? ^ § fid _ JBiu'lctti t ps t/t alack MW.E0e7. LATE A — ^IZSJj^Ml J&cfc^ 7feocsec6 OrcCazcc7ic€s .- lis •4 £1 M.W.F. Del 1 1 1 |2 ^W ^ Ki 1 « PLATE B COREFXTION. Plate C, for word " Stud" substitute word " Floor-timber." M _ jEtlzuaZtcn-L. - Chcdd. 48. Seel' 5. J f euised, Orcluz etizces , IV, Sill. 2 I - 7 7 7rt7^ - M.W.R Dal PLATEC DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 61 as have been enhanced or occasioned by reason of anything done previously to or without such notice. Sect. 10. The number of assistant-inspectors of buildings Number of provided for in section five of chapter three hundred and seventy- inspectors. four of the statutes of the commonwealth of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-five shall be sixteen. CHAPTER 49 — REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. OF THE REGULATION OF PLUMBING. Section 1. No person shall carry on the business of plumb- Plumbers ing unless he shall have first registered his name and place register. of business in the office of the inspector of buildings, and notice of any change in the place of business of a registered plumber shall be immediately given to said inspector. Sect. 2. Every plumber, before doing any work in a build- 2sr ° tices t0 be ing, shall, except in the case of the repair of leaks, file at the plumbing office of the said inspector, upon blanks to be provided for the approved - purpose, a notice of the work to be performed ; and no such work shall be done in any building without the approval of said inspector. Sect. 3. Every building shall be separately and indepen- Buildin s 8 10 be j i i separately dently connected with the public sewer, when such sewer is connected with provided ; and, if such sewer is not provided, with a brick and 8ewer " cement cesspool of a capacity to be approved by the said inspector. Sect. 4. Drains and soil-pipes through which water and Drains and sewage is used and carried shall be of iron, when within a building, and for a distance of not less than five feet outside of the foundation walls thereof. They shall be sound, free from holes and other defects, of a uniform thickness of not less than one-eighth of an inch for a diameter of four inches or less, or five thirty-seconds of an inch for a diameter of five or six inches, witli a proportional increase of thickness for a greater diameter. They shall be securely ironed to walls, laid in trenches to uniform grade, or suspended to floor-timbers by strong iron hangers, as the said inspector may direct. They 62 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Rain-water leaders. Ventilators. Iron pipes. Traps and special air- pipes. Drip or overflow pipes, shall be supplied with a suitable trap, placed, with an accessible clean-out, either outside or inside the foundation wall of the building. They shall have a proper fall towards the drain or sewer, and soil-pipes shall be carried out through the roof, open and undiminished in size, to such height as may be directed by the said inspector ; but no soil-pipe shall be carried to a height less than two feet above the roof. Changes in direction shall be made with curved pipes, and connections with horizontal pipes shall be made with Y branches. Sect. 5. Rain-water leaders, when connected with soil or drain pipes, shall be suitably trapped. Sect. 6. Sewer, soil-pipe or waste-pipe ventilators shall not be constructed of brick, sheet-metal, or earthen-ware, and chimney-flues shall not be used as such ventilators. Sect. 7. Iron pipes, before being put in place, shall be first tested by the water or kerosene test, and then coated inside and out with coal-tar pitch, applied hot, or with paint, or with some equivalent substance. Joints shall be run with molten lead, and thoroughly calked and made tight. Connection of lead pipes with iron pipes shall be made with brass ferrules, properly soldered and calked to the iron. Sect. 8. Every sink, basin, bath-tub, water-closet, slop- hopper, and each set of trays, and every fixture having a waste- pipe, shall be furnished with a trap, which shall be placed as near as practicable to the fixture that it serves. Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air-pressure by special air-pipes of a size not less than the waste-pipe ; but air-pipes for water- closet traps shall be of not less than two-inch bore for thirty feet or less, and of not less than three-inch bore for more than thirty feet. Air-pipes shall be run as direct as practicable, and shall be of not less than four-inch bore where they pass through the roof. Two or more air-pipes may be connected together or with a soil-pipe ; but in every case of connection with a soil-pipe such connection shall be above the upper fixture of the building. Sect. 9. Drip or overflow pipes from safes under water- closets and other fixtures, or from tanks or cisterns, shall be run to some place in open sight, and in no case shall any such DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 63 pipe be connected directly with a drain, waste-pipe, or soil- pipe. Sect. 10. Waste-pipes from refrigerators, or other recep- waste-pipes. tacles in which provisions are stored, shall not be connected with a drain, soil-pipe, or other waste-pipe, unless such waste- pipes are provided with traps, suitably ventilated, and in every case there shall be an open tray between the trap and refrig- erator. Sect. 11. Every water-closet, or line of water-closets, on Water-closet the same floor, shall be supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and the flushing-pipe shall not be less than one inch in diameter ; but this requirement shall not apply to water-closets substituted for vaults, where the same are located outside of the building proper, and water-closets may be arranged so as to receive their supply directly from the main with such fixtures as shall be approved by the inspector of buildings, and by the water board and the board of health. Sect. 12. Pipes and other fixtures shall not be covered or Pipes and concealed from view until after the work has been examined b * concealed by the said inspector, and he shall be notified by the plumber when the work is sufficiently advanced for inspection. Sect. 13. Plumbing w r ork shall not be used unless the same Plumbing to be has first been tested by the said inspector with the peppermint, ether, or water test, and by him found satisfactory. Sect. 14. No steam-exhaust shall be connected with any steam-exhausts. soil or waste pipe, or drain which communicates with a public sewer. Sect. 15. Water-pipes in places exposed to frost shall be WaU ' r " 1,ipc8 ' 1 how packed. packed with mineral wool, or other substance equally good, and they shall be cased to the satisfaction of the said inspector. Sect. 16. A grease-trap shall be constructed under the sink Grease traps. of every hotel, eating-house, restaurant, or other public cooking establishment. Sect. 17. The provisions of sections three to thirteen inclu- sive, and of section fifteen, of this chapter, shall apply only to buildings erected, or to work performed, after the seventeenth day of March in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three. 64 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. CHAPTER 1 — REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. Penalties. Section 5. Whoever violates a provision of any ordinance of the city, whether included in these Revised Ordinances or hereafter enacted, shall, unless other provision is expressly made, be liable to a penalty of not less than two nor more • than fifty dollars for each offence. Sect. 6. When anything is prohibited in an ordinance not only the persons actually doing the prohibited thing but also the employers and all other persons concerned therein shall be liable to the penalty prescribed. Sect. 7. When in an ordinance anything is prohibited from being done without the license or permission of a certain officer or officers, such officer or officers shall have the power to license or permit such thing to be done. Sect. 8. The words "street" and " streets," when used in an ordinance, shall be construed as including alleys, lanes, courts, public squares, public places, and sidewalks, unless such construction would be inconsistent with the manifest in- tent of the ordinance. NOTES. Section 1 of Chapter 48 is authorized by Statute 1885, Chapter 374, Sec- tion 21. Sections 2 to 8 inclusive of this chapter are authorized by Statute 1875, Chapter 374, Section 20. As to the validity of such ordinances as are contained in this chapter, see Salem v. Maynes, 123 Mass., 372. The principal act in force regulating the inspection and construction of buildings in the city of Boston is Statute 1885, Chapter 374. By this statute the following statutes relating to the same subject were repealed : — Statute 1871, Chapter 280. Statute 1872, Chapter 260. " 1872, " 371. " 1872, " 377. 1873, " 298. " 1873, " 338. " 1876, " 69. " 1876, " 176. " 1882, " 101. " 1882, " 252. Sections 3, 4, and 7. It was intimated by Chief Justice Gray in Quinn v. Morse, 130 Mass., 317, 321, that the provisions of the old provincial Statute 1692, Chapter 13, relative to the building of party walls in Boston, had never been repealed and was still in force. Chapter 49 of the regulation of plumbing is authorized by Chapter, 252 Section 2, of the Acts of 1882. DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 65 CHAPTER 23 — REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. VAULTS AND DRAINS. Section 19. The owner, agent, occupant, or other person having the care of a building used as a dwelling, tenement, or lodging house, or where persons are employed, shall furnish the same with one or more suitable water-closets, or, where such building is located on a street in which there is no public sewer, with a suitable privy, the vault of which shall be built in the manner hereinafter prescribed, and shall be of a capacity proportionate to the number of inhabitants of such building, or of those having occasion to use such privy. Every such build- ing situated on a street in which there is a sewer shall have water-closets, and shall not have a cesspool or privy connected with it, except where, in the opinion of the board of health, it can be allowed to remain for a longer time, and then only as said board shall approve. And whoever neglects to comply with the provisions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars, or by confinement in the House of Correction not exceeding sixty days. Sect. 20. Every privy-vault shall be made of brick and cement, and shall be of a capacity of at least eighty cubic feet, and the inside thereof shall be at least two feet distant from the line of any adjoining lot, unless by the consent of the owner of such lot, and at the same distance from any street or public or private passage-way ; and every vault shall be so con- structed as to be conveniently approached, opened, and cleaned, and shall be made tight, so that the contents thereof cannot escape therefrom. Sect. 21. All waste water and all matter discharged from water-closets shall be conveyed through sufficient drains, under ground, to a common sewer, or to such reservoir, sunk under ground, as may be approved by the superintendent of sewers ; and no person shall suffer waste or stagnant water to remain in a cellar or upon a lot or vacant ground owned or occupied l>\ him. 66 DIGEST OF BUILDIXG LAWS. CHAPTER 28 — REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. USE AND OCCUPATION OF STREETS. Section 3. The inspector of buildings shall see that all statutes, ordinances, orders, and regulations respecting the use or occupation of portions of streets for the purpose of erecting, altering, repairing, or removing buildings are observed and en- forced. Sect. 7. Whoever desires to occupy or use a portion of a street for the erection or repair of a building upon land abut- ting thereon shall make application to the inspector of buildings, who, subject to the consent of the superintendent of streets, may grant permits for the occupation or use, for building pur- poses, of such portions of streets, and for such periods of time, and under such limitations and restrictions, as may be required by ordinance or by the public convenience ; and any such per- mit may be revoked by the said inspector at any time when the holder thereof fails to comply with any rule or regulation under which it was granted, or when, in the opinion of the said in- spector, the public good requires such revocation. No part of a street other than that so allotted shall be used for depositing materials for work to be done or for receiving rubbish arising from such work, and all such rubbish shall be carried away, by the person or persons to whom the permit is granted, at such convenient times as the said superintendent of streets or the said inspector may direct; and, in case of the neglect or re- fusal of such person or persons so to remove such rubbish, it shall be removed at their expense by the superintendent of streets. Sect. 8. When a permit is granted under the preceding section the portion of a street thereby allotted shall be enclosed with a sufficient fence, which shall be maintained during the whole time for which the occupation of such portion of the street continues, and a lighted lantern or lanterns, or some other proper and sufficient lights, shall be fixed to some part or parts of such fence, or in some other proper manner, and such lanterns or lights shall be kept lighted from the beginning of DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 67 twilight through the whole of every night daring such occupa- tion. Sect. 9. Whoever maliciously or wantonly, and without legal cause, extinguishes or diminishes a light fixed in accord- ance with the provisions of section six or of section eight shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars. Sect. 10. Whoever violates any of the provisions of section seven or section eight shall be liable to a penalty of not less than two nor more than fifty dollars for each offence, and to a like penalty for every day's continuance of such offence. Sect. 11. No person shall, without a license from the board of aldermen, construct or maintain a cellar-door or cellar- doorway in a sidewalk, or projecting into a street, or construct an entrance or flight of steps descending immediately from a street into a cellar or into the basement story of a building for the purpose of being kept open as an entrance, and all such cellar-doors, doorways, and steps as may be licensed by said board shall be constructed in such manner as said board may direct. Sect. 18. Whoever is duly licensed or permitted to occupy a part of a street, or while erecting, repairing a building, or making an excavation, or for any other purpose, shall provide a safe and convenient passage for public travel around or over the obstruction so caused, and shall be responsible to the city for all injuries sustained in consequence of his neglect so to do, and shall be liable to a penalty of not less than two nor more than fifty dollars for each day's continuance of such neglect ; and he shall at any time, when requested by the superintendent of streets, or by a police officer, exhibit his license or permit for such occupation. CHAPTER 28 — REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. t projections into streets. Section 10. Whoever constructs or places, or causes to be constructed or placed, a portico, porch, door, window, or step projecting into a street, except in accordance with the 68 DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. provisions of the statutes of the commonwealth, shall be liable to a penalty of not less than four nor more than fifty dollars for each offence, and to a like penalty for each clay that such portico, porch, door, window, or step is continued as aforesaid after notice to remove the same, given by the board of alder- men, or by some person authorized by said board to give such notice. USE OF STREETS. Section 33. Whoever, without permission of the board of aldermen, obstructs a street by placing a building therein, or moves a building through or upon a street, and whoever aids and assists in so obstructing a street or moving a building, shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars, and to a like penalty for every twelve hours that such obstruction may continue, or that such building may remain in or upon a street. ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS. 1. The covers of hydrants must be kept clear of all building materials or rubbish, and easy access to such hydrants from the roadway must be provided. 2. If brick, stone, or other building materials are placed within the allotted space, they must be so placed as to allow the free passage of water in the gutter underneath the same. A violation of either of the above regulations will be suffi- cient to cause an immediate revocation of a permit. RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION OF ELECTRIC LIGHTS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. No. 1. The framework to support said lights shall be con- structed of iron, and of such size as the inspector of buildings shall approve. No. 2. The height of said framework shall not be less than nine and one-ha*lf feet from the sidewalk to the lowest point. No. 3. The said framework shall not project farther from DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 69 the building than a point two and one-half feet within the outer line of the curb-stone. No. 4. The location, workmanship, material, and manner of securing said lights to be approved by the inspector of buildings. INDEX TO CHAPTER 48 OF THE REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. Section Building-limits 1 Par. 1 Dwelling-house, height of. 2 Distance from 2 Thickness and height of brick walls if constructed .... 2 Par. 2 Distance required between wooden buildings 2 Par. 3 Wooden ells to wooden dwell- ing-houses 2 Par. 4 Blocks of wooden dwelling- houses 2 Par. 5 Wooden buildings other than dwellings, height and range of 2 Par. 6 Wooden buildings other than dwellings, distance from surround- ing wooden buildings 2 Section Par. 7 Sills of wooden buildings not to be laid below grade of street 2 Wooden buildings exempted 3 Foundations of wooden buildings 4 Framing of wooden buildings 5 Terms for altering, raising, enlarging, etc., wooden buildings 6 Permit required for erecting, altering, or adding to wooden buildings 7 Penalties 8 Buildings within ten feet of line of street not to be erected or altered unless fifteen days' notice has been given to the inspector of buildings, 9 Number of assistant-inspectors 10 INDEX TO CHAPTER 49 OF THE REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. Section Plumbers required to register 1 Notices for plumbing to be filed in the office of inspector of buildings, and all plumbing to be approved by said inspector 2 Buildings to be separately and indepen- dently connected with sewer 3 Drains and soil-pipes 4 Rain-water leaders 5 Sewer, soil, and waste pipe ventilators, how constructed G Iron pipes 7 Traps and special air-pipes 8 Section Drip or overflow pipes 9 Waste-pipes 10 Water-closet tanks 11 Pipes and other fixtures not to be covered or concealed from view until work has been approved by inspector .... 12 Plumbing work not to be used until tested and found to be satisfactory. . 13 Steam-exhausts 14 Water-pipes in exposed places, how packed 15 Grease-traps 1(5 70 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. INDEX TO DIAGKAMS. CHAPTER 48— REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. Plate Section Distances required between wooden buildings and construction of party- walls in blocks of 2 or more ........ A 2 Foundations for wooden buildings ........ B 4 Framing, plan of, size of posts, girts, etc. ...... C 5 (Oct., 1886, 20,000) BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. One volume allowed at a time, and obtained only by card ; to be kept 14 days (or seven days in the case of fiction and juvenile books published within one year,) without fine; not to be renewed; to be reclaimed by messenger after 21 days who will collect 20 cents besides fine of 2 cents a day, includ- ing Sundays and holidays; not to be lent out of the borrower's household, and not to be transferred; to be returned at this Hall. Borrowers finding this book mutilated or unwarrantably defaced, are expected to report it; and also any undue delay in the delivery of books. ***No claim can be established because of the failure of any notice, to or from the Library, through the mail. The record below must not be made or altered by borrower.