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Full text of "Digest of the statutes and of the ordinances relating to the inspection and construction of buildings in the city of Boston"

Accessions 

/ 



Shelf No. 







GIVEX B"V 



M/ <<J , UJ-/&./rviA£ 




M.ulf^ 



CITY OF BOSTON. 



DIGEST 



STATUTES 



AND OF THE 



ORDINANCES 



RELATING TO THE 



INSPECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS 
IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

1889. 




BOSTON : 
ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS, 
No. 39 ARCH STREET. 
18 8 9 . 



ORGANIZATION" 



OF 

^tpnvhntnt far fttspectitftx xrf buildings* 

— — ♦ 

Inspector at BSutlUfngs. 

JOHN S. DAMRELL 47 Hancock Street. 

(Hern of department. 

CHARLES S. DAMRELL 47 Hancock Street. 

Iseitstant^nspectors. 

MICHAEL W. FITZSIMMONS 16 Sheridan Ave. 

WILLIAM ERYE 8 Quincy Street. 

HARTFORD DAVENPORT . . . Hancock Street, near Columbia Street. 

GEORGE W. GRIFFIN 40 Pearl Street. 

LEVI W. SHAW 73 Chandler Street. 

MARTIN T. GLYNN 8 Gates Street. 

JOHN KELLEY 96 Bunker Hill Street. 

JAMES J. BARRY 374 Centre Street. 

NAHUM M. MORRISON 1 Morrison Street. 

JAMES H. COLLINS .... Foster Street, near Mt. Vernon Street. 

THOMAS A. SLATER 28 Northfield Street. 

MATTHEW WALSH . 22 Concord Street. 

MICHAEL H. HARTNETT 6 Batchelder Street. 

WILLIAM B. BOTHAMLY 150 Worcester Street. 

JOHN J. REAGAN 192 Athens Street. 

HENRY L. JONES 57 Marion Street. 

ABRAHAM T. ROGERS .42 Spring P..rk Ave. 

JOHN T. DALY 107 Day Street. 

PATRICK H. COSTELLO 22 Smith Street. 

Office, Old State-House, State Street. 

Office Hours From 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. 

Saturdays From 9 A.M. to 2 P.M. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/digestofstatutes1889bost 



INDEX 



A. 



AGENTS. (See Owners.) 
ADJOINING LOT. 

privy vaults to be two feet distant from 

AIR-DUCTS. 

of wood not allowed 

ALDERMEN, BOARD OF. 

to approve locations of stables 

powers of, in relation to coal-holes, etc 

powers of, in relation to grade of cellars 

ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

definition of 

permit for 

plans to be submitted 

subject to terms of act 

AMUSEMENT, PLACES OF. (See Public Buildings.) 
ANCHORS. 

to be built into walls 

to be fastened to beams 

ANIMALS. 

not to be kept in tenement or lodging houses 

APPEAL. 

owner to have right of 

how and when made 

ASHES. 

tenement and lodging houses to have receptacles for 

ASHLAR. 

to be tied to backing 

ASSISTANT INSPECTORS. 

number to be determined by City Council 

appointment and approval of , 

term of office , 

causes for removal , 

qualifications of 

not to be interested in contracts 

to attend fires 

to examine all buildings in process of erection, alteration, and repair. 

to examine all dangerous or damaged buildings 



D age. 


Section. 


66 


20 


51 


8 


33 


1 


73 


7-8 


20 


96 


4 


17 


3 


13 


2 


6 


3 


13 


14 


61-62 


14 


62 



40 



31 
13 



12 

7 
7 

142 

67 

3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
9 
10 
11 



VI INDEX. 

Page. Section. 
ASSISTANT INSPECTORS, continued. 

to examine all buildings under application to enlarge, alter, or repair. .3 11 

right to enter buildings 2 5 

compensation to be fixed by City Council 1 1 

B. 

BASEMENT CELLAR. (See Cellar.) 

BASEMENT STORY. 

Inspector to give grade of floor of 3 . 14 

BAY-WINDOWS. 

not to project into street 6 27 

BEAMS. 

calculations for strength of 5 24 

to be butted together upon girders 14 62 

to be strapped together 14 62 

BLINDS. 

of stores and storehouses to be fire-proofed 20 95 

how hung 20 95 

BOARD OF ALDERMEN. 

to approve locations of stables 33 1 

powers of, in relation to coal-holes, etc 73 7-8 

powers of, in relation to grade of cellars 20 96 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

to give permit for occupancy of cellars 41 17 

duties of, in regard to infectious diseases 40 15 

authority to make other regulations with regard to tenement and lodg- 
ing houses 42 18 

may allow cesspools or privies 38 2 

BOARD OF SURVEY. 

how appointed 2 7 

BOILER-ROOMS. 

to be constructed of incombustible material 18 83 

doors of, to be iron or metal covered 18 83 

BOILERS. 

flue of, to be eight inches thick 16 72 

permit for, required 18 84 

license for, required 18 84 

not to be located under sidewalk . . . , 72 6 

may be examined, and use forbidden 55 49 

may be removed as nuisance 56 50 

to have safety-plugs 56 51 

penalty for removing safety-plugs 56 52 

penalty for making, without safety-plugs 56 53 

BRICK BUILDING. 

definition of •• 4 17 

BRICK FLUE. 

construction of . . • • 16 71 

BRICK-WORK. 

between floors and roof timbers 10 43 



ESTDEX. Vll 

Page. Section. 

BRIDGES. 

exempt from operations of act 3 16 

BUILDING LIMITS. 

power of City Council to extend and define 5 21 

as established by ordinance 57 1 

no wooden or frame building to be built within 5 21 

no wooden building to be moved within 5 23 

City Council may authorize erection of buildings outside of 5 20 

BUILDINGS. 

fifteen days' notice to be given Inspector of proposed building or 

alterations , 60 9 

exempt from operations of act 3 16 

not to be raised, altered, or built upon, in violation of act 6 25 

to be examined by Inspector before alteration 6 25 

to be of incombustible material when used for tenement or lodging 

houses 6 29 

foundations of 8-9 3-1,35,36 

wooden or frame, not to be built within limits 5 21 

wooden buildings not to be moved 5 23 

wooden buildings in limits used for various purposes 5 21 

power of City Council with regard to 5 20 

wooden buildings may be repaired 5 22 

upon filled land 21 97 

to have partition walls 13 54-55 

to be roofed with non-combustible material 20 92 

to have scuttle or bulkhead 20 93 

exterior to be covered with non-combustible materials 20 93, 94 

to have metallic leaders 21 101 

height of 12 50 

to have step-ladder or stairs 20 93 

in which operatives are employed to have fire-escapes -J " ' 

hoistways to be closed 23 108 

bonding courses 10 41 

not to exceed eighty feet in height, unless constructed throughout with 

incombustible materials 12 50 

means of extinguishing fire in, to be provided 51 9 

when conforming to Chap. 426, 1888, Inspector to issue certificate. ... 49 2 

when such certificate may be revoked 49 2 

a copy of such certificate to be posted on each floor 49 2 

combustible material not to be stored in 31 142 

f 140 

• 141 

tenement and lodging houses 31 -j . , 9 

[l43 
111 



unsafe and dangerous 24, 25 

egress from, in case of fire < 



1 113 



23 105, 106 
47 1 



vill INDEX. 

Page. Section. 

BUILDINGS, continued. 

permit far erection or alteration of 3 13 

bracing for isolated buildings 25 115 

when used for tenement or lodging houses, to conform to Chap. 382 of 

1885 38 3 

Inspector and Assistant Inspectors not to be interested in contracts, or 

furnishing materials for 1 4 

f 3 15 

plans to be submitted ■< 

penalties for violation of building act 32 146 

grade of cellars of , 20 96 

drains in 21 98-99 

moving of, applications, how made 70 1 

moving of, applications, form of 70 2 

moving of, consent of Inspector required 70 3 

moving of, consent of railroad corporations required 70 3 

moving of, permits granted only to practical building-movers 70 4 

moving of, bonds for damages to be filed 70 5 

moving of, shade-trees not to be disturbed 70 6 

moving of, fire-alarm wires not to be disturbed 70 6 

moving of, lamps not to be disturbed 70 6 

wooden 5 regulation of, building limits 57 1 

wooden, distance from line of lot must be kept 58 2 

wooden , distance between 58 2 

wooden, ells to 58 2 

wooden, party walls in blocks of two or more 58 2 

wooden, dwellings, height of 58 2 

wooden, other than dwellings, height of 58 2 

wooden, other than dwellings, range of 58 2 

wooden, other than dwellings, distance between 59 2 

wooden, sills, how laid 59 

wooden , exemptions 59 3 

wooden, foundations of 59 4 

wooden, framing of 59 5 

wooden, posts, size of ■ • 59 5 

wooden, girts, size of 59 5 

wooden, terms for erecting, altering, etc 60 6 

wooden, permit required to build or alter 60 7 

wooden, penalties 60 8 

wooden, notice to be given Inspector of proposed alteration or erec- 
tion 60 9 

BULKHEADS. 

to have guard or hand rail 20 93 

door not to be locked 20 93 

BURNING FLUID. 

, * • ^ (25 114 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses < 

BUTTRESSES. 

how may be built 9 37 



INDEX. 



IX 



Page. Section. 



c. 

CALCULATIONS. 

for strength of materials 5 

CAMPHENE. 

f °5 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses < " 

CELLAE. 

definition of 4 

covering of bottom of 21 

air-space under floor of 21 

act to establish grade of 20 

not to be constructed below grade . 20 

Board of Aldermen may license construction of, below grade 20 

CERTIFICATE. 

when granted 49 

when revoked 49 

a copy of, to be posted on each floor 49 

acknowledgment of 50 

when granted, notice of changes made in a building to be given to 

Inspector 50 

Inspector to notify owners of changes necessary to get certificate 50 

licenses to occupy buildings not to be granted until certificates have 

been issued by Inspector 51 

CESSPOOLS. 

not allowed except by Board of Health 38 

not to be located under sidewalk 72 

CHIMNEYS. 

material for 15 

to be plastered 15 

how supported 15 

height above roof 16 

projection of brick topping 16 

Inspector to notify, if unsafe 17 

penalty for refusal to make safe 17 

CHURCHES. (See Public Buildings.) 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to define building limits 5 

to make terms and conditions for the erection of wooden buildings out- 
side of wooden limits 5 

to establish number of Assistant Inspectors 1 

to fix compensation of officers 1 

CLERK. 

appointment and confirmation of 1 

term of office of 1 

causes for removal 1 

under inspector to have supervision and direction of department 2 

COAL-HOLES. 

under sidewalk 71 

how constructed 71 

walls of 71 



24 

114 
142 

17 
97 
97 
96 
96 
96 

2 
2 
2 
3 

4 
5 



2 

6 

70 
70 
70 
71 
71 
76 
76 



21 

21 
3 

1 

3 
3 
3 



INDEX. 



COAL-HOLES, continued. 

Superintendent of Streets to have supervision of 

owner responsible for damages 

to be kept in repair 

occupants of abutting estates to be responsible for damages 

may be closed up by Aldermen 

may be altered by Board of Aldermen 

not to be left open 

not to be used for other purposes than licensed for 

COLUMNS. 

calculations for strength of 

brick piers under, to have cap iron 

to rest upon iron plate 

when placed one on top of the other 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 

CONDUCTORS. 

all buildings to have 21 

CONSTRUCTION. 

Inspector to pass upon questions relative to - 2 

of coal-holes under sidewalks , 71 

contracts for, — Inspectoi and Assislant Inspectors not to be interested 
in 1 

CORNICE. 

to balance on wall 10 

fire-proof = 15 

COURT. 

privy vaults to be distant from 66 



Page. 


Section. 


72 


3 


72 


4 


72 


4 


72 


5 


73 


7 


73 


8 


73 


9 


73 


10 


5 


24 


15 


66 


15 


68 


15 


69 


("25 
131 


114 


142 



101 

7 
3 



40 
64 

20 



D. 

DANGEROUS STRUCTURES. 

duties of Inspector in regard to -j 



notice to owner. 



{ 



24 



24 



Inspector may affix notice 24 

duties of owner with regard to , 24 

liability for refusal to make safe 25 

penalty for removing notice 24 

proceedings when liable to be dangerous in case of fire 24 

DEFINITION OF TERMS. 3 

DEPARTMENT FOR THE INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS. 

creation of . . . 

designation of 

to be provided with office room and supplies 

chief officer of 

appointment and confirmation of other officers of 



Ill 

112 
111 
112 
112 
111 
113 
112 
112 
17 

1 
1 
1 
2 
3 



LNDEX. XI 

Page. Section. 
DEPARTMENT FOR THE INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS, cont'd. 

term of office of other officers of 1 3 

qualification of other officers of 1 4 

right of officers to enter buildings 2 5 

duties of Inspector 2 6 

duties of Clerk of Department 2 8 

f 9 

duties of Assistant Inspectors J 2-3 10 

1 11 

DOORS. 

in party walls to be metal covered, etc 14 63 

projecting into street 68 11 

of boiler-rooms to be iron or metal covered , 18 83 

stores and store-houses to have fire-proofed doors 20 95 

how hung 20 95 

in public buildings 25 116 

DOOR-WAYS. 

in party walls 14 63 

dimensions of , 14 63 

how closed „ 14 63 

DRAINS. 

material for 21 98 

how laid 21 98 

how hung..... .- 21 99 

DWELLING-HOUSES. 

thickness of external walls , 10 44 

thickness of party walls 12 51 

height of external walls 10 44 

height of party walls 12 51 

combustible materials not to be stored in J 

131 142 

grade of cellar of 20 96 

to have water-closets 37 1 



E. 

EGRESS. 

j-25 116 

from public buildings ^27 126 

(28 127 

from other buildings 23 105-106 

from other buildings. (Special act) 47 1 

where women and children are employed, there must be more than one 

way of egress 48 1 

when owned or occupied jointly, either of said owners or occupants may 

put on fire-escapes , 60 6 

ELECTRIC LIGHTS, ETC. 

construction of, when projecting .... 69 1 

height from sidewalk 69 2 

projection from building 69 3 



Xll INDEX. 

Page. Section. 
ELECTRIC LIGHTS, ETC., continued. 

material of 69 4 

workmanship of 69 4 

ELECTRIC WATCH CLOCKS 37 1 

ELEVATORS. 

for grain or coal , 5 21 

may be regulated by ordinance 34 1 

how protected 23 108 

duties of owners with regard to 23 108 

duties of occupants with regard to 23 108 

duties of lessee with regard to 23 108 

unsafe 35 1 

use of, when prohibited 35 1 

elevator car, etc., not to be used until approved by Inspector 24 110 

elevator cars, except lifts 28 in. sq., to run in brick shafts 23 107 

elevator shafts to be covered with ventilating skylight 23 107 

elevator cars to be provided with safety device 23 108 

elevator openings in floors to be closed each night , 23 108 

ENGINE. 

not to be used without license 53 40 

permit for erection of 18 84 

public notice for hearing of license of 54 41 

municipal officers may regulate 54 42 

appeals and proceedings thereon , .54 43 

injunction pending appeal 54 44 

verdict of jury 55 46 

use of, when forbidden 55 47 

when nuisances 55 48 

may be examined and use forbidden 55 49 

may be removed as nuisances 56 50 

EXCAVATIONS. 

protection of adjoining structures . 7 31 

in streets 71 1 

license for 71 2 

not to be used for other purpose than licensed for 73 10 

EXEMPTIONS 3 16 

EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES. 

not to be stored or placed under stairways 25 114 

not to be stored under sidewalks 72 6 

EXTERNAL WALLS. 

definition of 4 17 

thickness of, of dwellings, etc 10 44 

thickness of , of other than dwellings 11 45 

of stables and work-shops 11 46 

backing of, when faced with stone 13 57 

facings to be tied to backing 13 57 

stone cornice, how laid 15 64 

not to be supported by wood-work 14 58 

to be anchored 14 61-62 

recesses and openings in 11 47 



INDEX. 



Xlll 



Page. Section. 



EXTERNAL WALLS, continued. 

height of, of tenement and lodging houses , 



31 



F. 

FACTORY. 

egress from, in case of fire 

FIRE-ALARM BELLS 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

to be placed on buildings in which operatives are employed 

to be kept in good repair 

no encumbrances to be placed thereon 

on tenement and lodging houses 

certain buildings to have 

certain buildings to have. (Special act) 

when owned or occupied jointly, either of said owners or occupants 

may put on fire-escape , 

FIRE-PROOFING. 



50 



where required 



cornices 

roofs 

shutters, doors, and blinds 

bulkheads 

FIRE-STOPS 

FIRES. 

duties of Assistant Inspectors in case of 

FLAX. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses. 

FLOOR-BEAMS. 

to rest upon a wall or girder 

butts to be splayed 

FLOORS. 

construction of 

FLOOR-TIMBERS. 

to have brick- work between 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue. . 
FLUES. 

of wood not allowed 



19 



to be plastered 

to ranges or boilers ... 

to be built into walls . 

height of, above roof 

distance of wood-work from . 

no nails to be driven into 

Inspector to notify, if unsafe 

penalty for refusal to make safe 

for ranges, boilers, furnaces, and ovens, the shell of, to be eight inches 
thick, or its equivalent 



141 



23 


105 


37 


1 


23 


105 


23 


105 


23 


106 


23 


105 


23 


105 


47 


1 



(20 
1 22 


94 


104 


15 


64 


20 


92 


20 


95 


20 


93 


22 


102-103 



11 



25 


114 


31 


142 


13 


54 


19 


89 



86 



16 


74 


51 


8 


15 


70 


16 


71 


16 


73 


16 


71 


16 


71 


16 


74 


16 


71 


17 


76 


17 


76 



n; 



72 



XIV INDEX. 

Page. Section . 

FOUNDATIONS. 

definition of 4 17 

depth of 7 30 

to rest upon solid substructure 7 30 

under walls 8 34 

under piers 8 34 

under columns 8 34 

under posts .... 8 34 

under pillars , 8 34 

of dwellings, etc., thickness of 9 36 

other than dwellings, etc., thickness of 8 35 

of wooden buildings 59 4 

FURNACE FOR MELTING 18 84 

not to be used without license 53 40 

public notice for hearing of license of 54 41 

municipal officers may regulate 54 42 

appeals and proceedings thereon . 54 43 

injunction pending appeal 54 44 

verdict of jury 55 45 

when nuisances ... 55 48 

FURNACES. 

smoke-pipe of 17 78 

how to be set ... 17 80 

flues of, to be eight inches thick, shell of 16 72 

permit to erect , 17 79 

FENCES. 

erected to annoy 44 1-2 

G. 

GAMBLING RESORTS. 

removal of certain obstructions in 44 1 

GARBAGE. 

tenement-houses to have proper receptacles for 40 12 

GIRDERS. 

calculation for strength of 5 24 

may be substituted for partition walls 13 56 

wooden walls not to be supported by 14 58 

piers under, to have cap iron 15 66 

GRADE. 

Inspector to give, for cutting off piles 7 32 

grade established 20 96 

of basement floor 3 14 

GUTTERS. 

material of 15 64 

H. 

HALLS. 

of tenement and lodging houses 30 140 



INDEX. XV 

Page. Section. 
HAY. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses <. " 

° s 1 31 142 

HEADERS. 

to be hung in stirrup irons 19 88 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue 16 74 

HEADING COURSES 10 41 

HEATING APPARATUS. 

regulations respecting 17 78-79-80 

Inspector to notify if unsafe 17 76 

penalty for refusal to make safe 17 76 

HOISTWAYS. 

how protected , 23 108 

duties of owners, lessees, and occupants with regard to 23 108 

openings into shaft, how protected 24 109 

to be approved before using 24 110 

HOT-AIR PIPES. 

to be kept at least one inch from wood-work 18 82 

HOTELS. 

watchman and red lights in 36 1 

additional requirements for 36 3 

no license for, until requirements have been complied with 36 3 

HOUSES. 

tenement, definition of 4 17 

lodging, definition of 4 17 

I. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

duties of owners of tenement or lodging houses with regard to 40 15 

INFLAMMABLE OIL. 

not to be stored under sidewalk 72 6 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses < " 

t- 31 142 

INJUNCTIONS. 

to forbid or limit the use of buildings 32 145 

to prevent the erection or use of stables 34 2 

to restrain the use or occupation of tenement or lodging houses 43 21 

for temporary purposes 47 2 

for using or occupying a building in violation of Chap. 426, of 1888 ... 52 12 

restraining use of steam-engine or furnace pending appeal 54 44 

INSPECTOR. 

definition of term ,. 4 17 

to examine buildings before alterations 6 25 

to direct and locate construction of sheds upon wharves 5 21 

may authorize the erection of sheds at building sites 5 21 

to give grade for cutting off piles 7 32 

to approve plans and specifications 3 15 

to approve fire-escapes for tenement or lodging houses 31 143 

duty with regard to dangerous structures 24 111-112 



XVI INDEX. 

Page. Section. 
INSPECTOR, continued. 

to issue certificate when buildings conform to Chap. 426, 1888 

when such certificate may be revoked 

a copy of such certificate to be posted on each floor 

to enforce Chapter 426, of 1S88, in Boston 

to issue permits 

appointment and confirmation of 

term of office of 

causes for removal of 

qualifications of 

to keep register of all transactions of his department 

to submit yearly statement to City Council 

to investigate origin of fires 

shall require that plans be submitted 

to examine all buildings in progress of building, alteration, and repair. 

to make a record of all violations 

to examine all dangerous or damaged buildings ... 

to examine all buildings on application to enlarge, alter, or repair . . . 

right to enter buildings 

compensation to be fixed by City Council 

IRON PLATES. 

under lintels 

under columns ... 

IRON WALLS 

L. 

LEADERS. 

all buildings to have 21 101 

LESSEE. {See Owners.) 
LEVELLERS. 

for columns, piers, posts, pillars supporting girders, or walls 

piles to be capped with 

LICENSES. 

for hotels. ■ 

for stables 

to occupy buildings 

for steam-engines and furnaces 

to project cellar doorway 

to make excavations in street (for coal-holes, etc.) 

to project windows, steps, etc. 

to move buildings 

to hoist or lower goods 

to construct cellars below grade 

LINTELS. 

walls not to be supported by wooden 

to be of sufficient strength 

to rest upon iron plate 

piers under, to have cap iron 

lintels and arches 



49 


2 


49 


2 


49 


2 


51 


10 


2 


6 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


6 


2 


6 


3 


11 


3 


15 


2 


10 


2 


10 


3 


11 


6 


25 


2 


5 


1 


1 


15 


66 


15 


68 


6 


28 



8 


34 


8 


34 


36 


3 


33 


1 


51 


7 


53 


40 


68 


11 


71 


1 


68 


19 


70 


(1-6) 


74 


3 


20 


96 


14 


58 


14 


59 


14 


59 


15 


66 


14 


59 



INDEX. XVII 

Page. Section. 

LODGING-HOUSE. 

definition of 4 17 

height of external wall of 31 141 

stairs of SO 140 

hall, partitions of • 30 140 

additional requirements for 31 143 

to have M r ater-closets 37 1 

Inspector to approve plans , 3 15 

material for - 6 29 

ventilation of. ... 31 143 

r23 103 

to have fire-escapes ^30 140 

(31 143 

to have fire-escapes. (Special act) 47 1 

roof to be kept in repair 21 100 

occupancy of cellars of . . . , 41. 17 

to have proper receptacles for garbage - 40 12 

r 25 114 

no dangerous or combustible material to be stored in ) 

(,31 142 

animals not to be kept in 40 12 

cleanliness of - 40 14 

agent's or owner's name to be posted 42 19 

to be whitewashed twice a year 40 14 

to have water-closets 37 1 

when built on front of lot 38 6 

when there is another building on rear of lot 38 6 

when two stories high, distance between 39 6 

when three stories high, distance between 39 6 

when more than three stories high, distance between 39 6 

when built on back part of lot 39 7 

when special means of ventilation are to be furnished 39 10 

the yards, courts, etc., to be kept clean 40 13 

halls to open directly to external air , 41 16 

officers of Board of Health to have access to 43 20 

Board of Health and Inspectors to be sworn 43 23 

infectious disease in 40 15 

* r w i • f 38 6 

provisions for light and air J 

height of rooms 39 8 

construction of windows 39 9 

chimneys of 40 11 

receptacles for ashes 31 142 

water to be furnished 40 11 

cellar to be water-tight 41 17 

halls of 30 140 

Board of Health may make additional regulations 42 18 

penalty for violation of provisions 43 22 



xvm 



INDEX. 



M. 

MAIN PARTITIONS. 

to head and foot 

MANSARD ROOFS. 

height of , 

MANUFACTORY. 

egress from , 

MARKET PURPOSES. 

wooden buildings for 

MASSACHUSETTS, COMMONWEALTH OF. 

buildings belonging to, exempt from operations of act 

MATERIALS. 

calculations for strength of „ 

combustible 

Inspector or Assistant Inspectors not to be interested in contracts for 

furnishing 

Inspector to pass on questions relative to 

MAYOR. 

to appoint Inspector , 

to approve appointments of Clerk and Assistant Inspectors 

MILL. 

egress from «... 23 

MOVING OF BUILDINGS. 

applications, how made 70 

applications, form of 70 

consent of Inspector required 70 

consent of railroad corporations required 70 

permits granted only to practical building-movers 70 

bonds for damages to be filed 70 

shade-trees not to be disturbed , 70 

fire-alarm wires not to be disturbed .... ; , 70 

lamps not to be disturbed , 76 



Page. 


Section. 


19 


90 


20 


92 


23 


105 


5 


21 


3 


16 


5 


24 


r25 


114 


131 


142 


1 


4 


2 


7 


1 


2 


1 


3 



105 

1 
2 
3 
3 
4 
5 
6 
6 
6 



0. 

OCCUPANT. (See Owner.) 

duties of, relative to elevators and hoistways ... 23 108 

duties of, with regard to coal-holes and vaults under sidewalks 72 5 

duties of, in relation to cellars 41 17 

duties of, in relation to privies 65 19 

must carry out provisions of Chap. 426 of 1888 52 12 

penalty for neglect so to do 52 12 

OCCUPATION OF STREETS. 

law, etc., relating to, to be enforced by Inspector 66 3 

for building purposes, permit required ....... 66 7 

fence and lights to be put up 67 8 

penalty for extinguishing lights 67 9 

cellar doorway not to project into street. . 68 11 



INDEX. 



XIX 



Page. Section. 



OCCUPATION OF STREETS, continued. 

safe passage for public travel to be maintained G8 

penalty for neglecting so to do 68 

projections into streets not allowed G8 

penalty for same 68 

obstruction of streets not allowed. . . 68 

penalty for same 68 

hydrant covers to be kept clear 69 

gutters to be kept clear 69 

penalty for neglect so to do 69 

OFFICERS. 

of the Department for the Inspection of Buildings 1 

have the right to enter all buildings ' 2 

OIL. 

f 25 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging house iBl 

not to be stored under sidewalks 72 

OPEN FIRE-PLACES 16 

OPENINGS. 

in external walls 11 

in party walls , 14 

OPERATIVES. 

fire-escapes to be placed on buildings where employed 23 

ORDINANCES. 

to remain in force until repealed or amended 31 

OVENS. 

shell of flues to be eight inches thick or equivalent 16 

OWNERS. 

duties of, with regard to unsafe chimneys 17 

duties of, with regard to defective flues , 17 

duties of, with regard to unsafe heating apparatus 17 

to keep fire-escapes in repair 23 

duties of, with regard to hoistways 23 

duties of, with regard to buildings. (Special act) 52 

to have right of appeal 2 

duties of, with regard to tenement-houses 40 

r 24 

duties of, with regard to unsafe buildings or structures < 2 - 

penalty for violation of building act - . . 32 

duties of, with regard to coal-holes and vaults under sidewalks 72 

duties of, with regard to cellars 41 

duties of, with regard to privies 65 

must carry out provisions of Chap. 426 of 1888 62 

penalty for neglect so to do 52 

P. 
PARAPET WALL. 

may be omitted, when 10 

PARTITION WALLS. 

definition of 4 



18 

18 
19 
19 
33 
33 
1 



2-3 
5 

114 

142 

6 

75 

47 

63 

105 

144 

72 

76 

76 

76 

105 

108 

12 

7 

14-15 

111 

113 

146 

4 

17 

19 

12 

12 



42 
17 



XX INDEX. 

Page. Section. 

PARTITION WALLS, continued. 

may be of less thickness than other walls 13 55 

certain buildings to have 13 54-55 

not to be supported by wood-work , 14 58 

in tenement and lodging houses 30 140 

PARTITIONS. 

when of wood, floor-beams not to be supported on 13 54-55 

to be placed over each other 19 90 

to head and foot against each other 19 90 

to rest upon wall or girder 19 90 

PARTY WALL. 

definition of 4 17 

thickness of, when to be increased 12 49 

thickness of, for dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses 12 51 

thickness of, for other than dwellings 12 52 

vaulted 9 39 

not to be supported by wood-work 14 58 

not to be carried up in advance of rear walls 14 60 

to be anchored 14 Gl-62 

to be carried above roof, and metal covered 10 42 

to be corbelled 10 42 



openings in . 



14 63 



recesses in 13 53 

PENALTIES. 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe chimneys . . 17 76 

for violation of statutes relating to defective flues ... 17 76 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe heating apparatus 17 76 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe buildings 25 113 

for violation of statutes relating to building laws. Chap. 374 of 1885 . . 32 146 

for violation of statutes relating to erection or alteration of stables 33 2 

for violation of statutes relating to occupation of stables 34 1 

for violation of statutes relating to elevators. (Special act) 35 1 

for violation of statutes relating to watchmen 36 4 

for violation of statutes relating to tenement and lodging houses 43 22 

for violation of statutes relating to erection of buildings. (Special act) 47 2 

for violation of statutes for failing to enforce Chap. 426, Acts 1885. 52 12 

for violation of statutes for making boilers without safety-plugs 56 53 

for violation of statutes for removing safety- plugs from boilers 56 52 

for violation of ordinances relating to erection and alteration of wooden 

buildings 60 8 

for violation of ordinances relating to plumbing. . , 65 5 

for violation of ordinances relating to occupancy of streets for build- r 67 10 

ing purposes 1-68 18 

for violation of ordinances relating to projections into streets 68 19 

for violation of ordinances relating to obstructions in street 68 33 

PERMITS. 

to erect buildings 3 13 

f3 13 

to make alterations and repairs i 

to set steam boilers and engines 18 84 



INDEX. XXI 

Page. Section. 

PERMITS, continued. 

to set furnaces, ranges, etc 17 79 

penalty for neglect to obtain 32 146 

PIERS. 

how built . 15 65 

to have cap iron 15 66 

piles under 15 67 

size of footing-course for . 3 34 

PILES. 

how driven 7 32 

Inspector to give grade for cutting off 7 32 

distance apart . ...... 7 32 

under piers or buttresses 15 67 

PLANS. 

to be approved by Inspector 3 15 

to be submitted when required by Inspector 2 6 

PLUMBING (Regulation of). 

plumbers required to register 62 1 

notice of plumbing to be filed at office of Inspector 62 2 

plumbing to be approved by Inspector 62 2 

buildings to be separately connected with sewer 62 3 

drains in buildings 62 4 

soil-pipes in buildings 62 4 

rain-water leaders to be trapped 63 5 

ventilators, material of 63 6 

iron pipes to be tested 63 7 

joints in iron pipes, how made 63 7 

connections in iron pipes, how made 63 7 

traps to fixtures 63 8 

special air-pipes to traps 63 8 

fixtures having waste-pipes to have traps 63 8 

traps to have special air-pipes 63 8 

drip-pipes 63 9 

overflow-pipes ... 63 9 

waste-pipes from refrigerators 63 10 

water- closets to have tanks 64 11 

pipes not to be concealed , 64 12 

fixtures not to be concealed 64 12 

plumbing to be tested ... 64 13 

steam-exliaust 64 14 

water-pipes, how packed 64 15 

grease traps 64 16 

POSTS. 

calculations for strength of 5 24 

PRIVIES. 

not allowed except by Board of Health , 

not to be located under sidewalks , 

PROJECTIONS. 

over street line , 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

definition of 



38 


2 


72 


6 


6 


27 


4 


17 



XX11 INDEX. 

Page. Section. 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS, continued. 

Inspector to approve plans of 3 15 

j-25 116 

egress from -J 27 123 

128 127 

entrances, aisles, passage-ways, or stairways -j "° 

doors opening outward \ 

1 28 127 

endangered by use of combustible material 25 114 

obstructions placed in aisles or passage-ways 26 117 

boilers, etc., in 27 124 

lights, etc., in 27 125 

Theatres. 
hereafter built or altered to be of brick and fire-resisting materials 

throughout 27 126 

main floor to be not over seven feet above street 27 126 

additional exits for 28 127 

stage to be separated from auditorium by brick wall 16 inches in 

thickness 28 128 

proscenium arch, how carried 28 129 

roof trusses 28 130 

finish and decorations 28 131 

scenery, curtains, etc. 28 132 

stage, fly-floors, etc 29 133 

under side of fly-floors, how protected 29 134 

scene-dock, carpenter and property shops, and wardrobes 29 135 

employees' rooms, how located 29 136 

number and location of high-service stand-pipes 29 137 

number and location of ventilators 29 138 

curtain, material, construction and mechanism of 30 139 

curtain to be of fire-resisting material ... 48 1 

copy of plans and specifications of, to be deposited in office of Inspector, 3 15 

heating and lighting apparatus to be approved by Inspector 25 116 

fire service and apparatus to be provided as Inspector deems necessary, 25 116 

changes of floor levels, except stairways . 26 1 18 

overheads beneath floors to be protected 26 119 

stairways, lobbies, corridors, etc., to be enclosed in brick walls 26 120 

rails to stairs and landings 26 121 

stair-winders, treads, and risers 27 122 

exits of public buildings through other buildings 27 123 

Q. 

QUAYS. 

exempt from operation of act 3 16 

R. 

RAFTERS. 

to be straight-grained, etc 19 87 

ends to be splayed 19 89 



INDEX. XXIU 



RANGES. 

permit to set 

inside and outside of flue of same to be plastered on bricks , 



shell of flue to be 8 in. thick, or equivalent. 
RECESSES. 



in walls . 



RECORDS. 

of business of department 

of all violations of act , 

of all examinations of unsafe buildings, etc 

of buildings damaged by fire .*.... 

of buildings damaged by accident 

to be open to inspection of any officer of city , 

RED LIGHTS. 

in hotels, etc. ... 

REFEREES. 

how appointed 

to decide questions 

REGISTERS. 

regulations respecting 

REGULATIONS. 
Wooden buildings. 

for building wooden buildings (building limits) 

distance from line of lot building must be kept 

distance between 

ells to 

party walls in blocks of two or more 

dwellings, height of 

other than dwellings, height of 

other than dwellings, range of 

other than dwellings, distance between 

sills, how laid 

exemptions 

foundations of 

framing of 

posts, size of 

girts, size of 

terms for erecting, altering, etc 

permit required to build or alter 

penalties 

fifteen days' notice to be given Inspector of proposed erection or al- 
teration GO 

of plumbing. 

plumbers required to register , 

notice of plumbing to be filed at office of Inspector 

plumbing to be approved by Inspector 

buildings to be separately connected with sewer , 

drains in buildings 



17 


79 


15 


70 


16 


71 


16 


72 


11 


47 


13 


53 


2 


6 


2 


10 


3 


11 


3 


11 


3 


11 


3 


11 



2 


7 


2 


7 


18 


81 


57 


1 


58 


2 


58 


2 


58 


2 


58 


2 


58 


2 


58 


2 


58 


2 


59 


2 


59 


2 


59 


3 


59 


4 


59 


5 


59 


5 


59 


5 


60 


6 


60 


7 


60 


8 



62 


1 


62 


2 


62 


2 


62 


3 


G2 


4 



XXIV HSTDEX. 

Page. Section. 
REGULATIONS, of plumbing, continued. 

soil-pipes in buildings 62 4 

rain-water leaders to be trapped 63 5 

ventilators , material of..... 63 6 

iron pipes to be tested 63 7 

joints in iron pipes, how made 63 7 

connections in iron pipes, how made 63 7 

traps to fixtures ... 63 8 

special air-pipes to traps 63 8 

fixtures having waste-pipes to have traps 63 8 

traps to have special air -pipes 63 8 

drip-pipes 63 9 

overflow- pipes 63 9 

waste-pipes from refrigerators 63 10 

water-closets to have tanks 64 11 

pipes not to be concealed 64 12 

fixtures not to be concealed 64 12 

plumbing to be tested 64 13 

steam-exhaust 64 14 

water-pipes, how packed 64 15 

grease traps 64 16 

for moving buildings. 

applications , how made 70 1 

applications, form of 70 2 

consent of Inspector required , 70 3 

consent of railroad corporations required 70 3 

permits granted only to practical building-movers 70 4 

bonds for damages to be filed 70 5 

shade-trees not to be disturbed 70 6 

fire-alarm wires not to be disturbed 70 6 

lamps not to be disturbed ... 70 6 

for occupation of streets. 

law, etc., relating to, to be enforced by Inspector 66 3 

for building purposes, permit required 66 7 

fence and lights to be put up 67 8 

penalty for extinguishing lights 67 9 

cellar doorway not to project into street 68 11 

safe passage for public travel to be maintained 68 18 

penalty for neglecting so to do 68 18 

projections into streets not allowed 68 19 

penalty for same , 68 19 

obstruction of street not allowed 68 33 

penalty for same 68 33 

hydrant covers to be kept clear 69 1 

gutters to be kept clear , 69 2 

penalty for neglect so to do 69 3 

excavations in 71 1 

license for excavations in . . 71 2 

boilers, furnaces, water-closets, etc., not to be localjsd under sidewalks, 72 6 

openings in, may be closed by Board of Aldermen 73 7 



INDEX. XXV 

Page. Section. 
REGULATIONS, for occupation of streets, continued. 

coal holes not to be left open 

coal-holes may be closed up by Board of Aldermen 

excavations not to be used for any other purpose than licensed for. 

when hoisting or lowering safes, public to be protected by barriers . , 

hoisting or lowering safes, time limit for 

licensed parties to indemnify the city , 

licenses may be revoked 

hoisting or lowering safes, Inspector to grant permit for 

electric lights, etc. 

construction of, when projecting 

height from sidewalk 

projection from building 

material of 

workmanship of , 

Inspector to make, for setting boilers, engines, and furnaces IS 

REPAIRS. 

how wooden buildings in limits may be 

REPEALS 

ROOFS. 

party walls to be carried above 

roofing materials . . 

to have scuttle or bulkhead 

height of 

fire-proof, regulations relating to 

of every building to be kept in repair 21 

tenement or lodging houses to have ventilator in 

ROOF TIMBERS. 

brick-work between 

ROOMS. 

in tenement or lodging houses 

RUBBISH. 

tenement and lodging houses to have receptacles for 31 142 

s. 

SAFETY-PLUGS. 

steam-boilers to have 

penalty for removing 

penalties for making boilers without 

SCHOOL-HOUSES. {See Public Buildings.) 
SCUTTLE. 

all buildings to have 20 

frames and covers to be covered with non-combustible materials. . 

to have step-ladders or stairs leading to same 

SHAVINGS. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 



73 


9 


73 


7 


73 


10 


73 


1 


7-4 


2 


74 


3 


74 


4 


74 


5 


C9 


1 


69 


2 


69 


3 


69 


4 


69 


4 


18 


84 


5 


22 


32 


147 


10 


42 


20 


92 


20 


93 


20 


92 


20 


92 


21 


100 


31 


143 


10 


43 


31 


143 



SHEDS. 

may be built upon wharves 

Inspector may authorize erection of, at building sites. 



56 


51 


56 


52 


56 


53 


20 


93 


20 


93 


20 


93 


f25 


114 


Ui 


142 


5 


21 


5 


21 



acts concerning erection of < 

13 



XXVI INDEX. 

Page. Section. 

SHELL OF FLUES 1C 72 

SHUTTERS. 

of stores and storehouses to be fire-proof 20 95 

how hung 20 95 

SIDEWALKS. 

construction of coal-holes under 71 3 

permit for excavating under 71 1 

no boiler, steam-shaft, furnace, steam-pipe, water-closet, or com- 
bustible material, to be located under 72 6 

excavations may be filled up or rebuilt by order of the Board of 

Aldermen 73 8 

excavations under, not to be left open 73 9 

excavations under, not to be used for other purposes than licensed for. 73 10 

SMOKE-PIPES. 

how guarded 17 77, 78 

SPECIFICATIONS. 

to be inspected by Inspector 3 15 

copies of, to be deposited in office of Inspector 3 15 

STABLES. 

external walls of , 11 46 

33 1 

34 2 

location to be approved by Board of Aldermen 33 1 

penalties for erecting or occupying, without approval 34 1 

injunction may be issued to prevent the erection or occupying of 34 2 

not allowed within 175 feet of a church 33 1 

STAGING. 

unsafe 24 111 

STAIRS. 

of tenement or lodging houses 30 140 

STEAM-BOILERS. 

6 
5 

how to be set 19 85 

to be enclosed 18 83 

flues of, to be eight inches thick 16 72 

permit for, required 18 84 

license for, required 18 84 

not to be located under sidewalk 72 6 

may be examined, and use forbidden 55 49 

may be removed as nuisance 56 50 

to have safety-plugs 56 51 

penalty for removing safety-plugs • 56 52 

penalty for making, without safety- plugs 56 53 

STEAM-ENGINES. 

not to be used without license 53 40 

permit for erection of 18 84 

public notice for hearing of license of 54 41 

municipal officers may regulate 54 42 

appeals and proceedings thereon 54 43 



returns of, to tax commissioners to be made by Inspector < 

1 3i 



INDEX. 



XXV11 



Page. Section. 
STEAM-ENGINES, continued. 

injunction pending appeal 54 44 

verdict of jury 55 46 

use of, when forbidden 55 47 

when nuisances ; 55 48 

may be examined, and use forbidden 55 49 

may be removed as nuisance , 56 50 

STEAM-PIPE. 

distance from wood-work 18 82 

not to be located under sidewalk 72 6 

STEAM-SHAFT. 

not to be located under sidewalk „ 72 Q 

STEPS. 

not to project into streets 6 27 

STIRRUP-IRONS. 

headers to be hung in 19 88 

STONE CORNICE. 

to balance on wall 10 40 

STONE FACING. 

to be securely clamped , 13 57 

STORAGE. 

sheds for, may be built upon wharves 5 21 

STORES AND STOREHOUSES. 

to have fire-proof doors, blinds, and shutters 20 95 

STRAW. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodginsr houses / 

131 142 

STREETS. 

moving of buildings in. 

applications, how made 70 1 

applications, form of 70 2 

consent of Inspector required 70 3 

consent of railroad corporation required 70 3 

permits granted only to practical building-movers 70 4 

bonds for damages to be filed 70 5 

shade-trees not to be disturbed . . . . k , , 70 6 

lamps not to be disturbed 70 6 

occupation of. 

laws relating to, to be enforced by Inspector 66 3 

for building purposes, permit required 66 7 

fence and lights to be put up 67 8 

penalty for extinguishing lights 67 9 

cellar doorway not to project into street 68 11 

safe passage for public travel to be maintained 68 18 

penalty for neglecting so to do 68 18 

projections into street not allowed 68 19 

penalty for same 68 19 

obstructions of streets not allowed 68 33 

penalty for same 68 33 

hydrant covers to be kept clear 69 1 



XXVlll INDEX. 

Page. Section. 

STREETS, occupation of, continued. 

gutters to be kept clear CO 2 

penalty for same 69 3 

excavations in ... . . . 71 1 

license for excavating in 71 2 

boilers, furnaces, water-closets, etc., not to be located under sidewalks, 72 6 

openings in, may be closed by Board of Aldermen 73 7 

coal-holes_not to be left open 73 9 

coal-holes may be closed up by Board of Aldermen 73 8 

excavations not to be used for other purposes than licensed for 73 10 

when hoisting or lowering safes, public be protected by barriers 73 1 

hoisting or lowering safes, time limit for . 74 2 

licensed parties to indemnify the city 74 3 

licenses may be revoked ... 74 4 

hoisting or lowering safes, Inspector to grant permits for 74 5 

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

calculations for .... 5 24 

STRUCTURES. 

unsafe , / " 

\25 112-113 

SUPERINTENDENT OF STREETS. 

to issue licenses for excavations under sidewalks 71 1 

to supervise the construction of coal-holes and vaults 72 3 

to approve permits for occupancy of streets for building purposes .... 6G 7 

SURVEY. 

how and when made 2 7 

SURVEYORS. 

how and when appointed 2 7 

T. 

TEMPORARY SUPPORTS 6 26 

TENANT. {See Owner.) 

TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

definition of 4 17 

height of external wall of , 31 141 

stairs of 30 140 

hall, partitions of 30 140 

additional requirements for 31 143 

to have water-closets 37 1 

Inspector to approve plans 3 15 

material for . 6 29 

ventilation of 31 143 

723 105 

to have fire-escapes < 30 140 

131 143 

to have fire-escapes. (Special acts) 47 1 

roofs to be kept in repair 21 100 

occupancy of cellars of % 41 17 

to have proper receptacles for garbage , 40 12 



INDEX. 



XXIX 



TENEMENT-HOUSE, continued. 

f 95 

no dangerous or combustible material to be stored in < 

131 

animals not to be kept in 40 

cleanliness of 40 

agent's or owner's name to be posted 42 

to be whitewashed twice a year 40 

to have water-closets 37 

when built on front of lot ... . 38 

when there is another building on rear of lot 38 

when two stories high, distance between 39 

when three stories high, distance between 39 

when more than three stories high, distance between 39 

when built on back part of lot 39 

when special means af ventilation are to be furnished 39 

yards, courts, etc. , to be kept clean 40 

halls to be open directly to external air 41 

officers of Board of Health to have access to 43 

Board of Health and Inspectors to be sworn 43 

infectious disease in 40 

r 38 

provisions for light and air < „„ 

height of rooms 39 

construction of windows 39 

chimneys of 40 

receptacles for ashes 31 

water to be furnished 40 

cellar to be made water-tight 41 

halls of 30 

Board of Health may make additional regulations 42 

penalty for violation of provisions > 43 

TERM OF OFFICE. 

of inspector 1 

of clerk . 1 

of assistant inspectors 1 

THEATRES. (See Public Buildings.) 

hereafter built or altered, to be of brick and fire-resisting materials 

throughout 27 

main floor to be not over 7 feet above street 27 

additional exits for 28 

stage to be separated from auditorium by brick wall 1G inches in thick- 
ness 28 

proscenium arch, how carried .... 28 

roof trusses • 28 

finish and decorations 28 

scenery, curtains, etc 28 

stage, fly-floors, etc 29 

under side of fly-floors, how protected 29 

scene-dock, carpenter and property shops, and wardrobes 29 

employees' rooms, how located 29 



Page. Section. 



114 

142 

12 

14 

19 

14 

1 

G 

6 

6 

6 

6 

7 

10 

13 

16 

20 

23 

15 

6 

7 

8 

9 

11 

142 

11 

17 

140 

18 

22 

2 
3 
3 



126 

126 

127 

128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 



XXX 



INDEX. 



Page. 
THEATRES, continued. 

number and location of high-service stand-pipe 29 

number and location of ventilators 29 

curtain, material, construction and mechanism of 30 

curtain to be of fire- resisting material 48 

copy of plans and specifications of, to be deposited in office of Inspector, 3 

heating and lighting apparatus to be approved by Inspector 25 

fire service and apparatus to be provided as Inspector deems necessary, 25 

changes of floor levels except stairways , 26 

overheads beneath floors to be protected 26 

stairways, lobbies, corridors, etc., to be enclosed in brick walls 26 

rails to stairs and landings 26 

stair- winders, treads, and risers 27 

exit through other buildings . 27 

Inspector to approve plans of 3 

f 25 

egress from -j 27 

1 28 

entrances, aisles, passage-ways, and stairways . . < 

y. 28 

doors opening outwards .... ... .' 25-28 

endangered by use of combustible material 25 

obstructions placed in aisles or passage-ways 26 

boilers, etc. , in 27 

lights, etc. , in 27 

THERMOSTATS. 

when may be substituted for watchmen 37 

TIMBER. 

to be splayed 19 

not to be cut for piping 19 

not to be used in walls 14 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue 16 

TITLE. 

of chief officer .... 1 

TURPENTINE. 

C 25 
not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses . . < 

t 

u. 

UNITED STATES. • 

buildings belonging to, exempt from operations of act 3 

f 24 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS j 25 

UNSAFE CHIMNEYS 17 

UNSAFE HEATING APPARATUS, ETC 17 



Section. 

137 
138 
139 
1 
15 
116 
116 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
15 
116 
123 
127 
116 
127 
116-127 
114 
117 
124 
125 



89 
91 

58 

74 



114 
142 



16 

111 

112 

113 

76 

76 



INDEX. 



XXXI 



Pase. Section. 



V. 



VAULTED WALLS 9 

VAULTS. 

of tenement-houses, etc ; 65 

under sidewalks 71 

how constructed, for privies 66 

how built 71 

Superintendent of Streets to supervise construction of 72 

owner of, to be responsible for damages 72 

to be kept in good repair 72 

occupant of abutting estate to be responsible for damages 72 

may be altered by Board of Aldermen 73 

VENTILATION. 

of tenement and lodging houses 31 

VIOLATION OF ACT. (See Penalties.) 



39 

19 
3 

20 
3 
3 
4 
4 
5 



143 



w. 

WALLS. 

to be properly bonded and solidly built 9 

thickness of, means 5 

height of, how measured 4 

external, definition of 4 

party, definition of 4 

foundation, definition of 4 

partition, definition of 4 

external, of stables and workshops . . . . 11 

vaulted 9 

partition, to be built in certain cases 13 

backing of, when faced with stone 13 

stone, facing of, to be clamped 13 

how built 9 

not to be supported by wood-work 14 

no timber to be used in 14 

side not to be carried up in advance of rear 14 

to be anchored to each other 14 

to be anchored to beams 14 

recesses and openings in < 

of teneme-nt or lodging houses to be of brick 6 

WATCHMAN. 

in hotels, etc 36 

may be omitted, when 37 

WATER. 

for tenement-houses, etc 40 

WATER-CLOSETS. 

for tenement-houses, etc 37 

not to be located under sidewalks . . 72 



38 
19 
18 
17 
17 
17 
17 
46 
39 
54-55 
57 
57 
38 
58 
58 
60 
61 
62 
47 
53 
29 

1 
2 

11 

1 
6 



XXX11 INDEX. 

Page. Section. 

WHARVES. 

exempt from operations of act 3 16 

WINDOWS. 

for ventilating tenement and lodging houses 31 143 

area of openings of, in tenement-houses, etc 39 9 

not to project into street 6 27 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

not to be built within limits except in certain cases. 5 21 

definition of 4 17 

not to be moved within limits 5 23 

Inspector may authorize sheds at building sites 5 21 

sheds may be built upon wharves ... 5 21 

City Council may make requirements concerning erection and alteration 

of outside of limits in addition to those contained in the statutes. ... 5 20 

height of, not to be increased in limits 5 22 

repairs upon, in limits 5 22 

building limits , 57 1 

distance from line of lot must be kept . . 58 2 

distance between 58 2 

ells to 58 2 

party walls, in blocks of two or more 58 2 

height of, other than dwellings 58 2 

range of, other than dwellings 58 2 

height of dwellings 58 2 

distance between, other than dwellings 59 2 

sills, how laid 59 2 

exemptions 59 3 

foundations for 59 4 

framing for 59 5 

posts , size of 59 5 

girts , size of 59 5 

terms for erecting, altering, etc 60 6 

permit required 60 7 

penalties 60 8 

fifteen days' notice to be given Inspector, of proposed alterations or 

building 60 9 

WOODEN FLUES (or air-ducts) . 

not allowed 51 8 

WORK-SHOPS. 

thickness of walls of 11 46 



Y. 

YARDS OR AREAS. 

to be constructed so all liquid matter will flow to sewer 38 



STATUTES 



RELATING TO THE 



INSPECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF 

BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF 

BOSTON. 



CHAPTER 374, ACTS OF 1885. 

Section 1. There shall be in the city of Boston a depart- 
ment, to be called the Department for the Inspection of Build- 
ings, which shall be furnished, at the expense of the city, with 
office room and such supplies for the transaction of its business 
as the city council may provide. The compensation of its offi- 
cers shall be provided for by said city by ordinance. 

Sect. 2. The chief officer of said department shall be called Title of chief 

officer and his 

the inspector of buildings, and shall be appointed by the mayor *erm of office. 
and confirmed by the board of aldermen. He shall hold office 
for the term of three years, or until his successor shall be 
appointed and confirmed ; but may be removed by the mayor 
for malfeasance, incapacity or neglect of duty. 

Sect. 3. The other officers of said department shall consist other officers. 
of a clerk, and such number of assistant inspectors as the city 
council may, from time to time, by ordinance determine ; all 
of whom shall be appointed by the inspector, with the approval 
of the mayor, and shall hold office during good behavior ; but 
may be removed by the inspector, with the approval of the 
mayor, for malfeasance, incapacity or neglect of duty. 

Sect. 4. The inspector and assistant inspectors of the de- Qualifications. 
partment shall be able and experienced architects, builders or 
mechanics, and shall not be employed or engaged in any 



2 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



May enter any 
building. 



Duties of the 
inspector. 



Appeals and 
when and how 
referees may 
be appointed. 



Duties of clerk. 
To have super- 
vision of 
department and 
direction of 
officers and 
employees. 
Duties of 
assistant 
inspectors. 



other business, or be interested in any contract for building 
or for furnishing materials. 

Sect. 5. All said officers may, as far as necessary for the 
performance of their duties, enter any building or premises 
in the city of Boston. 

Sect. 6. The inspector shall keep a record of the business 
of said department ; submit to the city council a yearly report 
of such business ; ascertain all facts and make all returns which 
shall be required by law relative to steam-boilers ; and enter 
upon the premises wherein any fire has occurred, if necessary, 
in order to investigate the origin of the fire ; may require plans 
and specifications of any proposed erection or alteration of 
any buildings ; and shall grant permits for such erection or 
alteration, when in conformity with the requirements of this 
act. 

Sect. 7. Should the owner of any building object to any 
order or decision of said inspector, on a matter left by this act 
to his approval or control, and choose a referee to serve as 
hereinafter provided, within three days after being notified of 
such order or decision, the matter shall be referred to three 
referees, who shall be either architects or master-builders, one 
chosen by the inspector, one by the owner, and a third by these 
two ; and the decision thereon in writing of these referees, or 
a majority of them, shall be final and conclusive. 

Sect. 8. The clerk shall, under the direction of the in- 
spector, have supervision and direction of the other officers 
and employees of the department. 

Sect. 9. The assistant inspectors of buildings shall attend 
all fires occurring in the districts to which they are respectively 
assigned, and report to the chief or assistant engineer of the 
fire department, present, all information they may have rela- 
tive to the construction and condition of the premises on fire, 
and also any such information relating to the adjoining build- 
ings. 

Sect. 10. The inspector, or his assistants, shall examine 
all buildings in the course of erection or alteration, as often as 
practicable, and make a record of all violations of this act, 
with the street and number where such violations are found, 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 6 

the names of the owner, architect and master-mechanics, and 
all other matters relative thereto. 

Sect. 11. The inspector, or his assistants, shall examine 
all buildings reported dangerous, or damaged by fire or acci- 
dent, and make a record of such examinations, including the 
nature and amount of such damage, with the name of the 
street and number of the building, the names of owner and 
occupant and for what purpose occupied, and, in case of fire, 
the probable origin thereof; examine all buildings for which 
applications have been made to raise, enlarge, alter or build 
upon, and make a record of the same. Said records shall 
always be open to the inspection of the engineers of the fire 
department or any officer of the city. 

Sect. 12. In the absence of the inspector, one of the as- when deputy 
sistant inspectors may be appointed by him to act as his ™p y oin e ted . 
deputy, wdio shall exercise all the powers of the inspector. 

Sect. 13. No work except necessary repairs shall be done permits, when 
upon any wall, structure or building in said Boston without a reqmre 
permit from said inspector of buildings, nor except in con- 
formity with the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 14. The inspector of buildings shall designate, in Grade of base- 
every permit for the erection of a new building, the lowest 
grade at which the floor of the basement story of said build- 
ing shall be laid. 

Sect. 15. The said inspector shall not give a permit for Plans and 
the erection of any building until he has carefully inspected t0 be approved, 
the plans and specifications thereof, ascertained that the build- 
ing has sufficient strength, and that the means of ingress and 
egress are sufficient. A copy of plans and specifications of 
every public building shall be deposited in the office of the 
inspector. 

Sect. 16. Every wall, structure and building hereafter Exemptions, 
built or altered in said city shall conform to the provisions of 
this act, so far as they are applicable, except bridges, quays, 
wharves and buildings belonging to the government of the 
United States or the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Sect. 17. In this act the following terms shall have the Definitions, 
meanings respectively assigned to them : — 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

"Alteration " means any change or addition except necessary 
repairs in, to or upon any building, affecting an external, 
party or partition wall, chimney, floor or stairway, and " to 
alter" means to make such change or addition. 

"Brick building" means a building the walls of which are 
built of brick, stone, iron or other substantial and incombus- 
tible materials. 

" Cellar " means a basement or lower story of any building 
of which one-half or more of the height from the floor to the 
ceiling is below the level of the street adjoining. 

" External wall " means every outer wall or vertical enclos- 
ure of a building other than a party wall. 

" Foundation " means that portion of a wall below the level 
of the street curb, and where the wall is not on a street, that 
portion of the wall below the level of the highest ground next 
to the wall. 

" Inspector " means the inspector of buildings of the city 
of Boston. 

" Lodging house " means a building in which persons are 
temporarily accommodated with sleeping apartments, and 
includes hotels. 

" Partition wall " means any interior wall of masonry in a 
building. 

" Party wall " means every wall used, or built in order to 
be used, as a separation of two or more buildings. 

"Public building" means every building used as a church, 
chapel or other place of public worship ; also every building 
used as a college, school, public hall, hospital, theatre, public 
concert-room, public ball-room, public lecture-room or for 
any public assemblage. 

"Tenement house" means a building which, or any portion 
of which, is to be occupied, or is occupied, as a dwelling 
by more than three families living independently of one an- 
other, and doing their cooking upon the premises ; or by 
more than two families above the second floor, so living and 
cooking. 

"Wooden building" means a wooden or frame building. 

Sect. 18. The height of a wall means the height from 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 5 

the mean grade of the sidewalk or adjoining ground to the 
highest point of the wall. 

Sect. 19. The thickness of a wall means the minimum 
thickness of such wall. 

Sect. 20. The city council of said city may by ordinance Cit y council 

, t . .,,.. .,. may make 

make such requirements, in addition to those contained in regulations for 
this act, as they may deem expedient in relation to the erec- woodenbuild - 

■' " L ings outside 

tion and alteration of wooden buildings outside the building; i im i tB - 
limits. 

Sect. 21. The city may from time to time, by ordinance, wooden ouiid- 

-, n i -i* i i *i -f !•• • • i • i • ings allowed in 

extend and establish building limits m said city, and within building limits. 
those limits every building built after such establishment 
shall be of brick, stone, iron or other substantial and incom- 
bustible material, and only the following wooden buildings 
shall be allowed, viz. : Sheds not exceeding twenty-seven 
feet in height, or wharves, to be used for any lawful purpose ; 
sheds of same height, in all parts of said limits, to be used 
for market purposes or to facilitate the building of authorized 
buildings ; and elevators of any height for the storage of coal 
and grain ; all external parts of which sheds and elevators 
shall be covered with incombustible material, and the mate- 
rials used, the mode of construction and the location shall be 
approved by the inspector. 

Sect. 22. Any wooden building within said limits may wooden i>mid- 
be altered or repaired in any manner approved by the in- replug etc. 
spector, provided neither its area nor height is increased. 

Sect. 23. No wooden building within or without the Movin s° f 
building limits shall be moved to any lot within said limits buildings. 
where it would be in violation of law to build such wooden 
building. 

Sect. 24. In all calculations for the strength of materials calculation for 



&■ 



to be used in any building, the proportion between the safe materials" 
weight and the breaking weight shall be as one to three, for 
all beams, girders and other pieces subjected to a cross 
strain ; and as one to six for all posts, columns and other 
vertical support, and for all tie-rods, tie-beams and other 
pieces subjected to a tensile strain ; and the requisite dimen- 
sions of each piece of material are to be ascertained by com- 



6 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS, 



Buildings to be 
inspected before 
alteration. 



Permits 
required. 



Temporary 
supports. 



Bay-windows, 
etc. 



Thickness of 
wails when of 
iron, etc. 



External and 
party walls of 
tenement and 
lodging houses 
to be of brick, 
etc. 



putation by the rules given by the best authorities, using for 
constants in the rules only such numbers as have been de- 
duced from experiments on materials of like kind with that 
proposed to be used. All mortar and cement shall be of the 
best quality for the purposes for which they are applied, and 
shall be properly mixed. 

Sect. 25. No building now or hereafter built shall be 
altered until it has been examined and approved by the in- 
spector as being in a good and safe condition to be altered 
as proposed, and the alteration so made shall conform to the 
provisions of this act. 

Sect. 26. No wall of any building now erected, or here- 
after to be built or erected, shall be cut off or altered, without 
a permit so to do having been first obtained from the in- 
spector. Every temporary support placed under any struc- 
ture, wall, girder, beam or column during the erection, 
finishing, altering or repairing of any building, or part 
thereof, shall be equal in strength to the permanent support 
required for such construction. And the walls and roof of 
every building shall be strongly braced from the beams of 
each story until all the bearing parts of the construction are 
completed, unless omitted by consent of inspector. 

Sect. 27. No bay-window or other structure shall be 
placed upon any building so as to project over any public 
way or square, without the permission of the board of alder- 
men given after due notice and hearing, and then only in 
such manner as shall be approved by the inspector. 

Sect. 28. In the erection or alteration of any building 
the material of which, in whole or in part, is other than 
brick, stone or wood, the thickness of the walls, of such 
material and the method of construction shall be such as the 
inspector shall approve. 

Sect. 29. All buildings in said city, to be used for tene- 
ment-houses or lodging-houses, and all buildings for any 
purpose within the building limits, except as provided in 
sections twenty and twenty-one, shall have external and 
party walls of brick, stone, iron or other substantial and in- 
combustible material, and shall be subject to all the require- 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

ments for a "brick building," except as otherwise expressly 
stated. 

Sect. 30. Every brick building hereafter built in said Foundations 
city shall be built upon a foundation resting not less than four below fr08t . 
feet below the surface exposed to frost, upon the solid 
ground, or levelled surface of solid rock, or upon piles, con- 
crete or other solid substructure. 

Sect. 31. Whenever any excavation, in the city of Bos- Excavations. 
ton, is to be carried to the depth of more than ten feet below adjoining 
the grade of street, and there shall be any wall or structure structure8 - 
wholly or partly on adjoining land, or near the intended ex- 
cavation, the party causing such excavation to be made, if 
afforded the necessary permission to enter on such adjoining 
land, shall at all times, from the commencement until the 
completion of such excavation, at his own expense, preserve 
such wall or structure from injury, and so support the same 
by proper foundations that it shall remain as staple as before 
the excavation was commenced. Should the person making 
such excavation fail to protect said wall or structure from in- 
jury for twenty-four hours after being notified by the in- 
spector of buildings so to do, the inspector may enter upon 
said premises and employ such labor and furnish such mate- 
rials and take such steps as in his judgment may be necessary 
to make said wall or structure safe and secure ; and any per- 
son or persons doing said work, or any part thereof, by the 
order and direction of the inspector, may bring and maintain 
an action against the party causing such excavation to be 
made for the value of such work. The party causing such 
excavation to be made may recover compensation from the 
adjoining owner, in case such adjoining owner should at any 
time thereafter make any use of said foundations below said 
ten feet below grade. 

Sect. 32. Piles driven for a wall to rest upon shall be not piling, see 
less than five inches in diameter at the smallest end, and shall plateA1 - 
be spaced not more than three feet on centres, in the direc- 
tion of the length of the wall, and nearer if required by the 
inspector ; they shall be driven to a solid bearing, to be as- 
certained by boring, at the expense of the owner, when 



8 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Piling. 



See Plate 1. 



Foundations. 



See Plate 2. 



required by the inspector. The inspector shall determine 
the grade at which piles shall be cut off. 

Sect. 33. Walls not exceeding twenty feet in height, 
where piling is necessary, may rest on a single row of piles, 
if deemed advisable by the inspector ; walls exceeding twenty 
feet in height shall rest on not less than two rows of piles. 
Extra piles shall be driven where required by the inspector. 
Sect. 34. For brick buildings exceeding thirty-five feet in 
height, there shall be under all foundation walls, piers, col- 
umns, posts and pillars resting on the earth, a footing or base 
course of stone or concrete, which, if under a foundation 
wall, shall be not less than twelve inches wider than the bot- 
tom width of said wall, and not less than twelve inches thick ; 
and if under piers, columns, posts and pillars, shall be of 
stone, and not less than twelve inches wider on all sides than 
the bottom area of said piers, columns, posts and pillars, and 
shall be not less than two feet by three feet in area by twelve 
inches in thickness, and when laid, to be thoroughly bedded 
in cement. If the walls rest on isolated piers, then there 
must be under such piers, footings, at least sixteen inches 
thick, thoroughly bedded in cement. All piles shall be 
capped with block-granite levellers, each stone to have a firm 
bearing on at least one pile in each row. 

Sect. 35. Foundation walls of brick buildings, other 
than dwelling, tenement or lodging houses, shall be con- 
structed of block stone, laid in horizontal courses, with good 
bed and build surfaces, wedged with slate stone and laid in 
cement mortar, and eight inches thicker than the external or 
party wall immediately above and over the same ; if said 
foundation is to be set to a depth of more than fifteen feet 
below the grade of the street, for each and every five feet 
additional depth greater than fifteen feet below the grade of 
street it shall be increased four inches in thickness. Foun- 
dations of such buildings not more than forty feet in height 

lodging houses. ma y fo e built of rubble-work laid in cement and sand mortar, 
if the thickness of the foundation walls is one-fourth greater 

see Plate 4. than given for block stone, and laid as specified in section 
thirty-six. In case of severe thrust or pressure on said 



See Plate 



Foundations, 
dwelling, 
tenement and 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 9 

walls, from any cause, there shall be such extra strengthen- 
ing of said walls by thickening or by buttresses, or both, as 
the inspector may approve. 

Sect. 36. Foundation walls of brick buildings to be used SeePlate5 - 
as dwelling, tenement or lodging houses, not exceeding thir- 
ty-five feet in height, if laid with bloek stone in horizontal 
courses, shall be not less than eighteen inches thick, or, if in 
brick laid in cement, shall be not less than sixteen inches 
thick ; exceeding thirty-five and not exceeding sixty feet in 
height, the foundations shall be not less than twenty-four Foundations, 
inches thick, if laid in block stone in horizontal courses; if dweiun^tene- 
in brick laid in cement not less than twenty inches thick ; for ment and 

lodging houses. 

every fifteen feet additional height the thickness of founda- 
tions shall be increased four inches ; if the walls do not ex- 
ceed seventy-five feet in height the foundation walls may be 
built of uncoursed rubble- work laid in cement mortar ; but see Plate 6. 
in all cases the thickness shall be one-fourth greater than 
that given for block stone, and the work shall be thoroughly 
bonded, and, at least, two-thirds of the bulk of the wall shall 
be through stones, and no round or boulder stones shall be 
used ; provided, that when such walls are laid on piles the 
lower course shall be block stone, not less than sixteen 
inches in height. 

Sect. 37. All brick walls and buttresses shall be of mer- waiis and 
chantable, well shaped bricks, well laid and bedded, with 
well filled joints, in lime or cement mortar, and well flushed 
up at every course with mortar ; and all brick used during 
the warm months shall be well wet at the time they are laid, 
and shall be dry at the time they are laid during the cold 
months. 

Sect. 38. All walls of brick, stone or other similar mate- waiis.how 
rial shall be thoroughly and practically bonded and tied, and 
solidly put together ; shall be built to a line, plumb and 
straight, and laid with mortar or cement, and all supports of 
the same shall be of iron, brick or stone, and of sufficient 
size and strength to safely support the superstructure. 

Sect. 39. Vaulted walls of the same thickness, independ- vaulted walls. 
ent of withes, may be used instead of solid walls, and the 



10 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Stone cornice. 



Heading or 

bonding 

courses. 



Party walls 
above roof. 



See Plate 7. 



Roof and floor 
timbers. 



See Plate 8. 



External and 
party walls, 
dwelling, tene. 
raent and 
lodging houses, 
See Plate 10. 



See Plate 11. 



walls on either side of air space shall be not less than eight 
inches thick, and tied together perpendicularly with continu- 
ous withes of hard burned brick, of good quality, or other 
approved material, which shall be not more than three feet 
apart, and the air space shall be smoothly plastered. 

Sect. 40. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, 
the greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be on 
the inside of the face of the wall, so that the cornice shall 
firmly balance upon the wall. 

Sect. 41. Every ninth course at least of a brick wall 
shall be a heading or bonding course, except where walls are 
faced with face brick, in which every ninth course shall be 
bonded with Flemish headers or by cutting the course of the 
face brick and putting in diagonal headers behind the same. 

Sect. 42. Every party wall shall be built through, and at 
least twelve inches above or distant from the roof boarding, 
at every part of the roof; shall be entirely covered with 
metal securely fastened, and corbelled to the outer edge of 
all projections ; or a gutter stone of suitable dimensions and 
properly balanced may be inserted in place of the corbelling. 
But where the walls extend thirty-six inches above the ad- 
joining building, parapet walls may be omitted. 

Sect. 43. All roof or floor timbers entering the same 
party wall from opposite sides shall have at least four inches 
solid brick work between the ends of said timbers. 

Sect. 44. External walls of brick buildings to be used 
as dwelling, tenement and lodging houses, not more than 
twenty feet in width, and thirty feet in height, and not ex- 
ceeding forty feet in depth, may have eight inch walls ; not 
exceeding sixty feet, shall be not less than twelve inches 
thick the entire height ; exceeding sixty feet, and not ex- 
ceeding seventy feet in height, shall be sixteen inches thick 
to a height of twenty feet, or the top of the second floor, and 
twelve inches the remaining height ; exceeding seventy feet, 
and not exceeding eighty feet in height, shall be twenty 
inches thick to the top of second floor, and sixteen inches 
thick to the top of the upper floor, and twelve inches the 
remaining height, if the upper story is not more than ten 



DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 11 

feet in height ; exceeding eighty feet, and not exceeding one SeePiatei2. 
hundred feet in height, shall be twenty-four inches to the 
second floor, and sixteen inches thick the remaining height ; 
exceeding one hundred feet in height, the additional thick- 
ness shall be determined by the inspector. 

Sect. 45. Brick buildings to be used as other than dwell- see Plate 13. 
ino", tenement or lodging houses, shall have external walls 
not exceeding forty feet in height, not less than sixteen 
inches thick to the top of the second floor, and not less than 
twelve inches thick the remaining height; exceeding forty External walls, 
feet, and not exceeding sixty feet in height, twenty dweiiing, n tene- 
inches thick to the top of the second floor, and sixteen ment an ^ 

L lodging houses. 

inches thick to the top of the upper floor, and twelve 

inches thick the remaining height ; exceeding sixty feet, and 

not exceeding eighty feet, twenty inches thick to the top of 

the third floor, and sixteen inches thick to the top of the 

upper floor, and twelve inches thick the remaining height ; 

exceeding eighty feet, and not exceeding one hundred feet in 

height, twenty-four inches to the top of the first floor, twenty 

inches to the top of the third floor, and sixteen inches thick seePiateu. 

the remaining height ; exceeding one hundred feet in height, 

shall be of such additional thickness as shall be determined 

by the inspector. 

Sect. 46. The external walls of brick buildings not ex- External waiis 
ceeding thirty-five feet in height and not exceeding two thou- 
sand superficial feet, to be used for stables or light mechanical 
purposes, may be twelve inches thick. 

Sect. 47. Recesses and openings may be made in external Recesses and 

openings in 

walls provided that the backs of such recesses are not less external walls. 
than twelve inches in thickness, and that the areas of such 
recesses and openings do not, taken together, exceed one-half 
of the whole area of the wall in which they are made. This 
restriction shall not apply to street fronts properly con- 
structed of iron or iron and masonry. 

Sect. 48. If the owner shall elect, the amount of mate- Piers and 
rial herein specified for external walls in sections forty-four 
and forty-five may be used either in piers or buttresses, pro- 
vided the external walls between said piers and buttresses 



12 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



When party 
and external 
walls are to 
be increased 
in thickness. 



Not to exceed 
80 ft. in height, 
unless con- 
structed 
throughout of 
incombustible 
materials. 



Party walls of 
dwelling, 
tenement and 
lodging houses. 



See Plate 15. 



Party walls 
other than 
dwelling, 
tenement and 
lodging houses 

See Plate 16. 



shall not be less than twelve inches thick in buildings less 
than fifty feet in height ; if in excess of fifty feet, and not 
over one hundred feet in height, the external walls between 
said piers and buttresses shall be not less than sixteen inches 
thick. No external wall between the window caps and tops 
of floors at each story- shall be of less thickness than that 
prescribed for external walls in sections forty-four and forty- 
five. 

Sect. 49. In all brick buildings over twenty-five feet in 
width, not having either brick partition walls, or girders sup- 
ported by columns running from front to rear, and the entire 
height of the building, the external and party walls shall be 
increased four inches in thickness for every additional twenty- 
five feet in the width of said building. 

Sect. 50. No building hereafter erected, except churches 
and grain elevators, shall exceed a height greater than eighty 
feet to the highest point from the level of the sidewalk, ex- 
clusive of chimneys and party walls above the roof, unless 
constructed throughout of incombustible material, excepting 
interior finish. 

Sect. 51. Party walls of brick buildings to be used for 
dwelling, tenement or lodging houses, shall be of the same 
thickness for different heights as external walls of such build- 
ings, but in no case less than twelve inches thick, except as 
provided in section forty-four. 

Sect. 52. Party walls of brick buildings to be used for 
other purposes than dwelling, tenement or lodging houses, 
shall, when not exceeding forty feet in height, be sixteen 
inches thick to top of second floor, and twelve inches above ; 
exceeding forty feet, and not exceeding sixty-five feet in 
height, twenty inches to the top of the second floor, and six- 
teen inches above; exceeding sixty- five feet, and not ex- 
ceeding eighty feet in height, twenty-four inches to the top 
of the first floor, twenty inches to the top of the third floor, 
and sixteen inches above ; exceeding eighty, and not ex- 
ceeding one hundred feet in height, twenty-four inches to 
the top of the third floor, twenty inches to the top of fifth 
floor, and sixteen inches above. 



DIGEST OF BUILDESTG LAWS. 13 

Sect. 53. No continuous vertical recess, chase or flue Recess, chase 

or iluc 

shall be made in any party wall so deep that it will leave the 
thickness at the back less than eight inches at any point, and 
no recess of any kind shall be made in any eight-inch wall, 
no horizontal recess shall be made in any wall, except 
by a special permit from the inspector. No continuous 
vertical recess, other than flues, in stacks, shall be nearer 
than seven feet to any other recess. 

Sect. 54. All brick buildings to be used as dwelling, Partition wai:s 

in dwellings, 

tenement or lodging houses, in excess of thirty feet in width, etc. 
shall have brick partition walls, not less than twelve inches 
thick, on which the floor beams shall rest, and said walls 
shall not be more than tweiuy-five feet apart. 

Sect. 55. Every brick building hereafter erected, more Partition walls 

, . in other than 

than thirty feet m width, except dwelling, tenement or lodg- dwellings, etc. 
ing houses, public buildings, railroad stations and stables, 
shall have one or more brick or stone partition walls running 
from front to rear, and carried up to the full height of the 
buUcling ; said wall or walls may be four inches less in thick- 
ness than is called for by the provisions relating to the 
thickness of external walls for a brick building, to be used 
for the same purpose, unless the wall is used for a floor 
bearing wall, which shall in no case be less than twelve 
inches ; these walls shall be so located that the space between 
any two of the floor bearing walls of the building shall not 
be over twenty-five feet. 

Sect. 5G. Girders or iron beams and columns may becnrdersor 
substituted for partition walls in buildings not more than one co i U mus, when 
hundred feet in width, and shall be made of sufficient strength subBtituted for 

° partition walls. 

to bear safely the weight which they are intended to support 
in addition to the weight of material employed in their con- 
struction ; but where wooden columns or wooden girders are 
used the columns shall not be further apart than twelve feet. 

Sect. 57. "Walls may be made with a facing of stone or waiia when 
other approved material securely tied to a backing of not stone. Wl 
less than eight inches of hard brick work laid in mortar, by 
means of metal clamps ; but the thickness of facing and 
backing, taken together, shall not be less than the thickness 
required for a brick wall of the same height. 



14 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



No timber 
in walls. 



Lintels and 
arches. 



Side wall not 
to be in advance 
of rear wall. 

Walls to be 
anchored to 
each other. 



Walls to be 
anchored to 
beams, and 
girders to be 
strapped 
together. 



Openings in 
party walls. 



Sect. 58. No timber shall be used in any wall of any 
brick buildings except arch forms for interior arched openings. 

Sect. 59. All lintels used to support walls or other 
weights over openings, shall be of sufficient strength and 
bearing to carry the superimposed weights, and iron beams 
or lintels shall, when supported at the end by brick walls or 
brick piers, rest upon an iron plate at least two inches thick, 
the full size of the bearing, and where beams are not over 
six feet in length the plates may be omitted. All arches not 
having sufficient piers or abutments to resist the thrust of the 
superimposed loads shall have proper and sufficient iron ties. 

Sect. 60. No side wall of a brick buildino; shall be car- 
ried up in advance of the rear wall. 

Sect. 61. All walls of a brick building meeting at an angle 
shall be anchored to each other, every ten feet in their height, 
by tie anchors, made of at least one and a quarter inch by 
three-eighths of an inch wrought iron, which shall be securely 
built into the side or partition walls not less than thirty-six 
inches ; and into the front and rear walls at least one-half the 
thickness of the front and rear walls. 

Sect. 62. All walls of a brick building on which the ends 
of beams rest, shall be anchored at each tier of beams, at in- 
tervals of not more than ten feet apart, with good, strong 
wrought iron anchors at least one-half inch by one and one- 
half inch, well built into the walls and fastened at the top of 
the beams ; and, where the beams are supported by girders, 
the end of the beams resting on the girders shall be butted 
together, end to end, and strapped by wrought iron straps or 
tie irons, at the same distances apart, and in the same beams 
as the wall anchors, and shall be well fastened. 

Sect. 63. No opening or doorway shall be cut through a 
party wall of a brick building without a permit from the in- 
spector ; and every such doorway shall have top, bottom and 
sides of stone, brick or iron ; shall be closed by two sets of 
wrought iron or metal-covered doors (separated by thick- 
ness of the wall) hung to rabbeted iron frames, or to wooden 
frames entirely covered with metal, or to iron hinges in brick 
or stone rabbets ; shall not exceed ten feet in height by eight 



DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 15 

feet in width; and any opening other than a doorway shall 
be protected in a manner satisfactory to the inspector.. 

Sect. 64. All cornices other than brick on brick build- Cornices and 

gutters. 

ings shall be secured to the walls with iron anchors, inde- 
pendent of any wood work ; the wall shall be carried up to 
the boarding of the roof, and where the cornice projects 
above the roof the wall shall be carried up to the top of the 
cornice and covered with metal, like parapet walls. All 
exterior cornices or gutters, more than forty -five feet above 
the level of the sidewalk, hereafter replaced, shall be con- 
structed of or covered with some incombustible material. 

Sect. 65. All piers shall be built of the best quality of Piers, how laid, 
good, well burnt hard brick, laid in cement and sand mortar, 
and well wet when laid in warm weather. 

Sect. 66. Brick piers under lintels, girders or columns Piers under iin- 
of brick buildings shall have a cap iron at least two inches C oiumns. 
thick, the full size of the pier. 

Sect. 67. Brick piers and buttresses shall be bonded P iers an d but- ■ 
with through courses, levelled and bedded, each course, and 
where their foundations rest upon piles, a sufficient number 
shall be driven to insure a proper support. 

Sect. 68. Every metal column in a brick building shall columns, 
rest on an iron plate of not less thickness than two inches. 
"Wooden columns supporting girders and floors in such build- 
ings shall set on inch and a half iron plates with sockets or 
counter sinkages. 

Sect. 69. Metal columns placed one on top of the other columns. 
shall have a plate at the top of each column, with projections 
on both sides to fit into cap and base of columns, to prevent 
slipping, and all columns shall have holes bored, where 
directed by the inspector, into and through the shell at right 
angles to the shaft, so as to show the thickness of shell. All 
bearing parts of columns and plates shall be turned or planed 
to true surfaces. 

Sect. 70. All chimneys shall hereafter be built of brick, chimneys. 
stone or other incombustible material ; shall be plastered on 
the outside below the roof after having been inspected, and 
shall have a footing of masonry, or iron supported by iron, 



16 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

or corbels of brick or stone. No chimney shall be hung to 
an eight inch wall, or bear or rest upon wood. No chimney 
corbelled from a wall shall project more than the thickness of 
the wall. 

Brick flues. Sect. 71. All brick flues shall hereafter be built of mer- 

chantable brick, thoroughly slushed and flush jointed, be 
smoothly plastered inside with mortar, from top to bottom 
below the roofing ; be securely built into the brick work of 
the walls to which they are hung ; shall be topped out at least 
four feet above the highest part of roof with brick or stone, 
and the topping out shall not have more than two inches pro- 
jection, unless covered by a cap of approved incombustible 
material, properly secured ; and in no case shall a nail be 
driven into the masonry of any flue. 

sheii of flues. Sect. 72. The shell of all flues for brick ranges, boilers, 
furnaces and ovens shall hereafter be of brick work eio-ht 
inches thick, or its equivalent, to a height of twenty-five feet 
above such ranges, boilers, furnaces or ovens. 

Fiues to ranges Sect. 73. Kan^es or boilers shall have the outside of the 

or boilers. ^ 

flue to the same exposed without covering, or if plastered 
shall be plastered on the outside directly upon the bricks, up 
to the ceiling of the room, and no wood work shall be placed 
on the outside of the same. 
Headers, trim- Sect. 74. All floor timbers, headers and trimmers of 

mers and metal 

fire stops. every brick building hereafter erected or altered, in which a 

chimney is to be built in a brick wall, shall be placed distant 
at least two inches from the outside of every chimney flue, 

see Plate 17. an( j ^he 8 p ace between such timbers and the brick work of 
chimney shall be closed by a proper fire stop of incombus- 
tible material. 

open fireplaces, Sect. 75. All hearths shall be supported by trimmer 

hearths, trim- ■, /» i • i i i /• • ^ , j i a • 

mers, arches, arches ot brick or stone ; or be or single stones at least six 
etc- inches thick and supported entirely by iron- beams, one end 

of which shall be securely built into masonry of chimney or 
adjoining wall. The brick jams of every fire-place, range or 
grate opening must be at least eight inches wide each, and 
the backs of such openings must be at least eight inches 
see Plate is. thick to at least two feet above such openings. All such 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 17 

hearths and supports shall be at least twelve inches longer 
than the width of such openings, and at least eighteen inches 
wide in front of the chimney breast. The brick work over 
all fire-place and grate openings shall be supported by proper 
iron bars or brick or stone arches. 

Sect. 76. If any chimney, flue or heating apparatus on unsafe cWm- 

i -n • ,1 •• /. ., , , neys, flues aud 

any premises shall, m the opinion ot the inspector, endanger heatingap . 
the premises, the inspector shall at once notify in writing P aratus - 
the owner or agent of said premises. If such owner or 
agent fails for a period of forty-eight hours after the service 
of said notice upon him to make such chimney, flue or heat- 
ing apparatus safe, he shall be liable to a fine of not less 
than twenty nor more than fifty dollars for every day's con- 
tinuance thereof, to be paid into the treasury of said city. 

Sect. 77. Every smoke pipe in a building entering a chim- smoke pipe, 
ney flue shall be at least twelve inches from every wooden 
floor, ceiling or partition ; shall be guarded by a soapstone 
ring not less than four inches in thickness, extending through 
the partition, or by a double metal collar, with an air space 
of not less than four inches around the same when running 
through any stud or wooden partition; and no smoke pipe 
shall project through any external wall or window. 

Sect. 78. The smoke pipe of every furnace shall be kept Furnaces and 
at least one foot distant from all beams and ceilings not pro- !™° epipet 
tected by a shield of tin plate at least two inches distant 
from said beams or ceiling ; and no smoke pipe shall be 
placed nearer than twelve inches to any beam or ceiling, 
unless the beam and ceiling are plastered, in which case the 
pipe may be kept within six inches of the plastering, if pro- 
tected by the above described shield ; and the top of all heat- 
ing furnaces set in brick shall be covered with brick, sup- 
ported by iron bars, and so constructed as to be perfectly 
tight ; said covering to be in addition to and not less than 
six inches from the ordinary covering to the hot air chamber. 

Sect. 79. No furnace and no range set in masonry shall Furnaces, etc , 
hereafter be placed or its location changed in any building 1>e " 
except as the inspector shall approve. 

Sect. 80. The top of every heating furnace not set in Furnaces. 



18 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Register boxes. 



Hot air and 
steam pipes. 



Steam boilers to 
be enclosed. 



Permit and 
license required 
to erect and set 
steam boilers, 
etc. 



brick shall be kept at least six inches below the beams or 
ceiling, with a shield of tin plate, made tight, suspended not 
less than two inches below the said beams or ceiling, and 
extending one foot beyond the top of the furnace on all 
sides. If the ceiling over a furnace is plastered the top of 
the brick work may be kept within six inches of the ceiling. 

Sect. 81. All hot air register boxes hereafter placed in 
the floors or partitions of buildings shall be set in soapstone 
borders not less than two inches in width, firmly set in plas- 
ter of Paris, or gauged mortar, or such other protection as 
shall in the judgment of the inspector be equivalent to soap- 
stone ; shall be made of tin plate, with a flange on the top to 
fit the groove in the soapstone, and shall have an open space 
of one inch on all sides, extending from the under side of 
the ceiling, below the register, to the soapstone in the floor 
or partition ; the outside of said space covered with a casing 
of tin plate, tight on all sides, and extending from the under- 
side of the aforesaid ceiling up to and turn under the said 
soapstone ; register-boxes of fifteen by twenty-five inches 
or more shall have a space of two inches. 

Sect. 82. No wood work shall hereafter be placed nearer 
than one inch to any tin or other metal pipe, to be used to 
convey heated air or steam in any building, unless protected 
in a manner satisfactory to the inspector, and such wood-work 
shall be protected by a soapstone or earthen ring or tube, or 
a metal casing. 

Sect. 83. Every building in which a steam-boiler of ten 
or more horse power is placed shall have the space on the 
floor allotted for said boiler, enclosed in incombustible ma- 
terial satisfactory to the inspector, and shall be so arranged 
that all openings between the said boiler room and the other 
parts of the building in which it is placed shall be protected 
by iron or metal covered doors, which shall be securely 
closed at the close of each day. 

Sect. 84. Upon a license being granted for the erection 
of a steam boiler, engine or furnace for melting glass, or 
metal, in any building, the person or persons receiving such 
license shall, before setting, erecting or placing said boiler, 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 19 

engine or furnace, obtain a permit thereof from the inspector, 
who shall prescribe such regulation for the setting or placing 
thereof as the public safety may require. 

Sect. 85. No boiler to be used for steam or motive steam boners, 
power, and no furnace for melting glass or metal, shall be 
placed on any floor above the cellar or basement floor unless 
the same is set upon wrought iron beams and brick arches, 
and in no case without a permit from the inspector. All 
wood work and timbers shall be removed from the floor under 
the same. 

Sect. 86. All floors shall be constructed to bear a safe construction of 
weight, per superficial foot, exclusive of materials, as follows : 
For dwellings, tenements or lodging houses, one hundred 
pounds ; for buildings for light mechanical purposes, and for 
public buildings, one hundred and fifty pounds ; for store- 
houses, warehouses, machine shops, armories, drill rooms, 
and riding schools, not less than two hundred and fifty 
pounds. These requirements shall apply to all alterations, 
as well as to new buildings. 

Sect. 87. All timber used in the construction of floors or Roof and floor 
roofs of brick buildings shall be straight grained and free from 
large and loose knots or weakening shakes. 

Sect. 88. Every header more than four feet long, used in Headers and 
any building except a dwelling, shall be hung in stirrup irons 
of suitable dimensions for the size of the timbers, and securely 
joint bolted. All tail beams shall be properly framed or hung 
to headers. 

Sect. 89. The ends of all floor beams and rafters of a Timbers 
brick building entering a wall shall be cut on a splay of three Bplayed - 
inches in their width. 

Sect. 90. All main partitions supporting in any manner Main partitions 
floor beams or rafters of a brick building shall be placed di- * * ead and 

o i foot. 

rectly over each other, shall rest on a wall or metallic girder, 
and shall head and foot against each other as far as prac- 
ticable. 

Sect. 91. No floor timber, header or trimmer of a brick Timbcmottobe 

, .. ,. l li i • i i • l i /■ cut for piping. 

building shall be cut into more than two inches in depth for 
piping, without permit from the inspector, and no cutting 



20 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Roofing and 
height of roof 
above upper 
floor. 



Scuttles and 
bulkheads. 



Exterior parts 
of brick 
huilding above 
45 feet to be 
covered with 
incombustible 
material. 
Fire proof 
shutters. 



Grade of 
cellars. 



shall be made in any timber at a greater distance than three 
feet from its support. 

Sect. 92. The roof of every brick building hereafter 
built shall be covered with incombustible roofing material, 
shall be constructed not more than one story in height, nor 
more than twenty feet in height from the upper floor of the 
building upon which it is placed to the highest part of said 
roof, unless made of incombustible material throughout. 

Sect. 93. All brick buildings, more than twenty feet in 
height, shall have scuttle frames not less than two by three 
feet in size ; and covers, or bulkheads and doors, on the roof, 
made of or covered with some incombustible material ; and 
every scuttle shall have a stationary step ladder, and every 
bulkhead shall have stairs furnished with a sufficient 
guard or hand rail, all ready for use at all times, and in a 
tenement house such scuttle or bulkhead shall never be locked, 
but may be fastened by a hook on the inside. 

Sect. 94. All the exterior parts of every brick building 
hereafter erected, which are more than forty-five feet above 
the level of the sidewalk, shall be made of or covered with 
incombustible material. 

Sect. 95. All brick buildings hereafter built to be used 
for warehouses, stores, storehouses, or manufactories, more 
than forty-five feet in height, shall have doors or shutters 
made of or covered with fireproof material on every window 
and entrance which does not open on a street more than 
twenty feet in width ; and when such shutters or doors cannot 
be put on the outside of such door or window, they shall be 
put on the inside, and be hung upon an iron frame independ- 
ent of the wood work of the window frame or door, or to iron 
hinges in rabbets in the masonry ; and every such door or 
shutter shall be closed upon the completion of the business of 
each day, by the occupant having the use or control of the 
same ; and all fireproof shutters that now are or may here- 
after be put upon any building on the street fronts, shall be 
so constructed as to be closed and opened from the outside 
above the first story. 

Sect. 96. No cellar or basement cellar of any building 
shall be constructed below the grade of twelve feet above 



DIGEST OF BUILDIXG LAWS. 21 

mean low water ; provided, however, that the board of alder- 
men may, by license, subject to revocation at any time by 
them, authorize cellars or basement cellars to be constructed 
in buildings, no part of which is to be used as a dwelling, so 
much below said grade as they may designate in each license. 

Sect. 97. All buildings built upon filled or made land Cellav bottoms 

. on filled land. 

shall have a bed of concrete, of hydraulic cement and gravel 
or tar and gravel, or asphalt, not less than two inches in 
thickness, spread over the cellar bottom, or shall be paved 
with brick laid in cement, throughout the whole extent of 
the building ; and where there is a basement floor over the 
cellar bottom, there shall be an air space between the con- 
crete and said floor, unless the floor is planked directly upon 
the concrete. The air space shall be properly ventilated. 

Sect. 98. All buildings hereafter built shall have only iron Drains. 
drains within the buildings and extending five feet outside of 
the wall of the buildings ; and where the said drain pipe 
passes through the wall there shall be a relieving arch, stone 
lintel, or iron pipe inserted to relieve said iron drain. All 
drains below cellar floor or grade twelve shall be laid with 
proper fall to sewer in a trench, the sides of which shall be 
walled with brick masonry, and the base in concrete, thor- 
oughly rammed and graded, and made accessible by movable 
covers. 

Sect. 99. All drain pipe hung to wall or ceiling shall be Drainpipe, 

how hung. 

firmly hung. 

Sect. 100. The roof of every building shall be kept in Roofs to be kept 
good repair, and all ram water shall be so drained or conveyed 
therefrom as not to drip on the ground or cause dampness in 
the walls, yard or area. 

Sect. 101. All brick buildings shall be kept provided with Leaders or 

"~ tii i'it • i conductors. 

suitable watertight metallic leaders, andall otherbuildings with 
water tight metallic or wooden leaders for conducting the water 
from the roof to the ground, and all water shall be conducted 
from a building or from land to the street, gutter or sewer in 
such a manner as not to flow upon the sidewalk. 

Sect. 102. The insides of all furred brick walls of every Fire stops, 

where to be 

brick building hereafter constructed shall have a fire belt or located, and 
stop, composed of some fireproof material, at least six inches J," „,.,"','" 



22 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



See Plate 19. 



Floors to be 
deafened. 



See Plate 20. 



See Plate 21. 



Fire stops. 



Fire proofing, 
where required 



wide, and thoroughly set up between furrings at the top and 
bottom of each story ; and the whole area of every floor from 
Avail to wall shall be deafened with plaster at least one inch 
thick, or two thicknesses of asbestos paper, or other incom- 
bustible material satisfactory to inspector, the same to be placed 
upon the under or rough flooring ; and in each story, in which 
stud walls or partitions are constructed and rest on walls or 
other partitions, said stud walls and partitions shall have the 
spaces between the floor joists immediately under such walls 
or partitions, and between studs from the under side of said 
joists to a line six inches above the top of said joists, filled 
solid and flush with face of plastering on both sides with 
mortar, cement, plaster or other incombustible material ; and 
if such studs or partitions shall rest on solid timber or joists for 
the whole length thereof, such filling as above described shall be 
placed from the top of such joists to the same height as above 
specified, or a strip of tin or galvanized iron at least one inch 
wider than the width of said studding, and continuing under 
the footing of such walls or partitions, may be substituted for 
the filling above specified, where there is no partition or wall 
under. The spaces between stringers or carriages, and between 
floor joists of landings of all wooden staircases, unless such 
stringers and joists are left exposed and uncovered, shall be 
pugged solid with mortar or other incombustible material, or 
the spaces between stringers shall be closed at intervals of 
three feet by substantial stops of incombustible material. 

Sect. 103. The various forms of construction tending to 
create or form air passages from one story to another, such as 
spaces around pipes, ventilating shafts, or chimneys furred off 
to form breasts, in every brick building hereafter erected or 
altered, shall have a fire and smoke stop of incombustible 
material at each floor, approved by the inspector. All ven- 
tilation ducts shall be of incombustible materials. 

Sect. 104. Upright supports of other material than brick, 
used below the grade of the street, and cast iron beams or 
girders or stone lintels, used for supports in every brick build- 
ing, hereafter erected or altered, shall be protected by fire- 
proof material. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 23 

Sect. 105. Every building occupied above the second floor Egress from 
from the level of the street by two or more families and every lodging house, 
building occupied as a tenement, boarding or lodging house, fact0 ?y» miI1 > 

° ° c ° manufactory, 

or for a factory, mill or manufactory, or for offices or work- officeandwork. 
shops in which persons are employed above the second floor, * ° p ' „„„ 01 

A - 1 it/ » loss, c. 366, J 1. 

and every school building more than two stories in height, 
shall be provided with suitable facilities for escape in case of 
fire, in good repair at all times, and sufficient for the safe 
egress in case of fire of all the persons usually employed in or 
frequenting the building ; and where fire-escapes are author- 
ized by the inspector on the outside of a building, they may 
project over the highway, and shall have suitable connection 
with the ground. 

Sect. 106. Any building provided with stairways or fire Egress for 
escapes approved by the inspector, shall be deemed to be chi ^ ren * n 
provided with sufficient facilities for escape in case of fire, isss, c. 366, §2. 
as required by the preceding section. The owner of any 
building which is provided with stairs on the outside shall 
construct such stairs with railed landings at each story above stairways and 
the first, and connect them with each story by doors or win- Jb^Xucted. 
dows. No person shall place any obstruction on any outside 
stairway or fire escape. 

Sect. 107. All elevator cars and hoists, not including lifts Elevator cars, 
twenty-eight inches square, and except those constructed in ^ s j lafts _ 
dwelling houses, shall run in shafts with brick walls not less 
than eight inches thick, or walls covered with incombustible 
material, with proper fire stops, or in the well room of a fire- 
proof stairway enclosed in the same manner and carried up 
through the roof not less than one foot and six inches ; said 
shafts to be covered w r ith a ventilating skylight. 

Sect. 108. Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall Automatic rails, 

/>-. . ... gates and trap 

be protected by sufficient automatic rails or gates and trap doors. 
doors, or such other mechanical devices as shall be equiva- 188S > c - 366 > § :$ - 
lent thereto ; and every elevator car and hoist shall be pro- 
vided with some sufficient arrangement to prevent the falling of 
the car or hoist in case of any accident to the ropes, or other 
hoisting apparatus. Every opening, other than a stairway, 
through the floor, or into an elevator shaft or hoistway, shall 



21 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Openings into 
shafts, how 
protected. 
1888, c. 366, § 4. 



Hoistways, etc. 
to be approved. 

Unsafe 
buildings, etc. 



Unsafe 
buildings, etc. 



be securely closed at the close of each day by the occupant ; 
and, if there is no occupant, by the lessee or owner. 

Sect. 109. All openings within the building into a hoist 
shaft, except shafts for passenger elevators, shall be furnished 
with metal, or metal covered doors, hung to rabbeted iron 
frames, with iron thresholds to the same; and said doors 
shall be kept closed when not in use by springs of sufficient 
strength. Equivalent protection shall be maintained in the 
case of passenger elevators. Windows or openings in an ex- 
ternal wall into a hoistway or elevator shaft shall have three 
iron bars painted red perpendicularly across and equally di- 
viding the window or opening. 

Sect. 110. No hoistway, elevator car, or hoist shall be 
used in any building until approved by the inspector. 

Sect. 111. The owner, or other party having an interest in 
any building, staging or other structure, or anything attached 
to or connected with a building or other structure, which shall 
be unsafe so as to endanger life, shall, immediately upon notice 
received from the inspector of buildings, cause the same 
to be made safe and secure, or taken down ; and where the 
public safety requires immediate action, the inspector may 
enter upon the premises with such assistants as may be 
necessary, and cause the said structure to be secured or 
taken down without delay, and the passers by to be pro- 
tected at the expense of such owner or party interested. No 
staging or stand for observation purposes shall be constructed 
or occupied upon the roof of any building in said city. 

Sect. 112. Every building which shall appear, to the in- 
spector, to be specially dangerous in case of fire, by reason of 
bad condition of walls, overloaded floors, defective construc- 
tion or other causes, shall be held to be unsafe ; and the in- 
spector, besides proceeding as provided in the preceding- 
section, shall also affix a notice of the dangerous character of 
the structure to a conspicuous place on the exterior wall of 
said building ; and any person removing such notice so af- 
fixed shall be liable to a fine of not less than ten nor more 
than fifty dollars for each and every offence, to be paid into 
the treasury of said city. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 25 

Sect. 113. The owner, or party having an interest unsafe 

. fi-iT • -i • i buildings, etc. 

in the unsafe building' or structure, mentioned in the two 
preceding sections, being notified thereof in writing by the 
inspector, shall forfeit and pay a fine to the use of said city, 
for every day's continuance thereof after such notice, a sum 
not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars, on complaint 
before any court of competent jurisdiction. 

Sect. 114. No explosive or inflammable compound or Explosive 
combustible material shall be stored or placed under any etc . )nottobe 
stairway of any building or used in any such place or manner P lacedunder 

"> J ~ J l stairways. 

as to obstruct or render egress hazardous in case of fire. 

Sect. 115. Any building that maybe hereafter erected Bracing for 

• 'it •• i 1 1 i ^> • isolated 

in an isolated position, and more than one hundred teet in buildings more 
depth, and which shall not have cross walls, shall be securely ^° h 100feetin 
braced during construction, both inside and oat, if practi- 
cable ; or if outside bracing is not practicable, it shall be 
properly braced from the inside, and the braces shall be con- 
tinued from the foundation upward to at least one-third the 
height of the building from the sidewalk level. 

Sect. 116. Every public building hereafter erected, and Exits for public 
every building hereafter altered to be used as a public build- 
ing, in addition to all other provisions applicable to such 
buildings, shall have at least one frontage for its entire height 
of at least one entire side of the auditorium and lobbies, 
passages and stairways of exit on that side, on a street, 
court or open passageway fifteen feet or more wide, and at 
least two-thirds of the entire width of exits and entrances 
shall open on to such street, court or passageway ; shall 
have the doors, halls, corridors, lobbies, stairways, passages 
and aisles wide, direct, and so constructed and arranged as to 
afford easy egress for the occupants under all circumstances ; 
and exits and entrances shall, as far as practicable, be iden- 
tical ; shall have all doors open outwards, and of the full 
width of the passages from which they open ; shall have the 
passages of exit and stairways at least five feet wide and of 
an aggregate capacity in width of not less than twenty inches 
for each one hundred persons that said building may at any 
time contain. This provision to apply to the exits from each 



26 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

division, gallery or compartment of such building, as well as 
to the exterior openings ; shall have the corridors, lobbies, 
stairways, passages and aisles of equal or increasing width, 
towards the exits, and without any projection into them 
within six feet of the floor ; shall have the halls, corridors, 
doors, stairways, seats and aisles so arranged as to facilitate 
Heating and egress, and as the inspector may approve ; and shall have all 

lighting 7 ' . 

apparatus to be pipes and apparatus used in heating or lighting, and all 
Rector. 157 lights, protected to the satisfaction of the inspector; and 
Fire service and shall have such fire service and apparatus for the extinguish- 

apparatus to be _ _ . 

provided as the ment ot lire as the inspector may deem necessary. All exits 
inspector deems from pu bli c building shall be opened for the use of every 

necessary. •* *■ ° L •> 

departing audience. 

obstructions Sect. 117. No temporary seats or other obstructions 

in aisles, etc., ■ 

not allowed. shall be allowed in any aisle, passageway of exit or entrance, 
or stairway of a public building ; and no person shall be al- 
lowed to stand or remain therein while the building is in use. 

changes of floor Sect. 118. All changes of level in the floors of public 

levels except x 

stairways. buildings, except regular stairways, from story to story, and 
except the necessary steps in galleries and balconies, rising 
toward the exits, shall be made by inclines of no steeper 
gradient than two in ten within the auditorium, and rising 
toward the exits, and one in ten for all others. 

Overheads Sect. 119. The overheads, immediately beneath the floors 

beneath floors to . in n • 

be protected, ot the auditorium, loobies, hall rooms, galleries, stairways, 
landings and corridors of public buildings shall be protected 
by some incombustible material, such as wire lathing and 
plastering ; and the stair carriages and framing shall be pugged 
solid to line of treads, risers and landing floors with some 
incombustible material. 
stairways, Sect. 120. All partitions of public buildings enclosing the 

conidorc etc. stairways, lobbies and corridors, or separating them from au- 
to be enclosed ditoriuin or anterooms, shall be of brick masonry ; or of heavy 

in brick walls. p , 

studding, brick nogged throughout or otherwise made non- 

combustible. 
Rails to stairs Sect. 121. All stairs and landings of public buildings shall 
and landings. i iave p r0 per hand rails on both sides firmly secured to walls, 

or to strong posts and balusters throughout their entire length ; 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 27 

and wide stairways shall have one or more intermediate rails 
on strong vertical supports, as approved by inspector. 

Sect. 122. The rise of stairs of public buildings shall not stair winders, 

^ treads and 

exceed seven and one-half inches, nor the going be less than risers. 
ten and one-half inches. No winders less than seven inches 
wide at the narrowest end, or flights of less than three steps, 
shall be introduced, and there shall be a full landing to at 
least every fifteen steps. 

Sect. 123. Every approach or exit of a public building, Exits of public 
under or through any other building, shall have solid brick through other 
walls, and the floors and ceilings shall be of approved incom- bmldin §- 
bustible and fire resisting materials, and there shall be no 
openings through said walls, floors or ceilings. 

Sect. 124. Xo boiler, furnace, engine or heating ap- Boners, etc., in 
paratus, except steam pipes and radiators, shall be located ingg . 
under the auditorium, nor under any passage or stairway of 
exit of a public building. 

Sect. 125. The lights for the rear of the auditorium, and Lights for 
for all passages and stairways of exit of every public building, j n u CTS lc 
shall be independent of the lights of the rest of the auditorium 
and platform, and shall be so arranged that they cannot be 
turned down or off from the platform. 

Sect. 12G. Every building hereafter built or altered, to Theatres here, 
be used as a theatre, for dramatic, operatic or other similar aiteredTo i^of 
performances, involving the use of a fixed stasje, with movable brick and ftre 

. , in • resisting con- 

or shifting scenery, curtains and machinery, shall be a brick struction 
building, and be of fire resisting construction throughout, so throu s hout - 
far as the nature of its uses will permit, and in addition to 
all other provisions applicable to a public building, shall have 
the highest part of main floor of auditorium not more than Main floor to be 
seven feet above the sidewalk of the open street, court or f^.^"^ 
passageway on which the main doors of exit shall be located ; street, etc. 
shall have at least two independent exits for each division, 
compartment or gallery of the auditorium ; and for each 
gallery or division above the first floor shall have indepen- 
dent stairways, and such stairways and exits shall be located 
as far apart as practicable. The lobbies shall be separated 
from the auditorium by brick or other fire resisting walls ; 



28 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Additional exits 
for theatres. 



Stage of theatre 
to be separated 
from audi- 
torium by brick 
wa'l sixteen 
inches in thick- 
ness, etc. 



Proscenium 
arch, how 
carried. 



Roof trusses. 



Finish and 
decorations. 



Scenery, 
curtains, etc. 



and all walls, floors and landings of stairways and all stairs 
shall be of incombustible materials ; and all doors from audi- 
torium to lobbies and stairways shall be of metal covered 
wood and self closing. There shall be lobbies adjoining each 
division of the auditorium sufficiently large to furnish standing 
room for all persons that such division may at any time 
contain. 

Sect. 127. In addition to the exits hereinbefore required 
for all public buildings, there shall be provided, if practicable, 
for every theatre, direct exits from the main floor of audi- 
torium to a street, court or open passage way ; and these 
exits shall be provided with such light doors or sashes, open- 
ing outwards, and secured only on the inside, as may readily 
be forced open in case of fire or panic. 

Sect. 128. The stage of every theatre shall be separated 
from the auditorium by a brick wall sixteen inches thick, 
or its equivalent, which wall shall extend the entire width of 
the building, and from ground to roof, and from ground to 
stage floor, and be topped out as a party wall. There shall 
be no openings through this wall except the curtain opening, 
and not more than two others, to be located at the level of or 
below the stage ; these latter openings shall not exceed 
twenty-one superficial feet each, and shall have tinned wood, 
self closing doors, securely hung to rabbets in the brickwork. 

Sect. 129. The wall over the curtain opening of every 
theatre shall be carried by a brick arch, or by an iron truss 
or girder ; and if a truss or girder is used it shall be covered 
by materials non-conductive of heat, and a girder shall be 
spanned by a sufficient relieving arch of brick in cement. 

Sect. 130. The roof trusses of every theatre shall be 
covered with incombustible material. 

Sect. 131. The finish or decorative features around the 
curtain opening of every theatre shall be of incombustible 
materials, well secured to masonry. 

Sect. 132. All scenery, curtains and exposed wood work 
of the stage of every theatre shall be thoroughly covered or 
saturated, if practicable, with fire resisting material, approved 
by inspector. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 29 

Sect. 133. The fixed portions of stage, fly floors and stage, fly floors, 
tie floors of every theatre shall be of approved incombustible 
material, except that the flooring may be of wood. 

Sect. 134. The under side of flooring of fly floors f Undersideof 

, _ fly floors, how 

every theatre shall be covered with approved incombustible protected. 
materials, and the tie floor shall have an open flooring of 
slats, set their full width apart. 

Sect. 135. All scene docks, carpenter or property shops, scene docks, 
and wardrobes of every theatre, shall be separated from propertv shopS) 
stage, auditorium and dressing room divisions by solid brick and wardrobe8 - 
walls, not less than twelve inches thick, with no openings to 
the auditorium or dressing room divisions ; and all openings 
to the stage shall have tinned wood, self-closing doors, 
securely hung in rabbets in the brick work. 

Sect. 136. All rooms and premises in every theatre for Employees' 
the use or occupancy of persons employed therein shall be located. 
located in secure positions, and shall have at least two inde- 
pendent exits, as remote from the stage as practicable ; and 
all parts of such rooms and premises, with their passages and 
stairways, shall be of fire resisting construction. 

Sect. 137. There shall be at least two two-inch high ser- Number and 
vice stand pipes on the staire of every theatre, with ample ocaiouo lg ' 

I i. D •> I service stand 

provision of hose and nozzles at each level of the stage on pjp e9 - 
each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during the 
occupancy of the building. The said pipes shall have two 
gates, one above the other, with a proper test or waste valve ; 
the lower gate to be kept open at all times except when test- 
ing the upper gate to ascertain if it is in order for use. The 
proscenium opening shall be provided with a two and one- 
half inch perforated iron pipe, so constructed that, in case 
of an emergency, it will form a complete water curtain for 
the entire proscenium opening, and there shall be such ad- 
ditional fire apparatus and perforated iron pipes. or automatic 
sprinklers as the inspector shall direct. Said pipes shall be 
supplied with water by high pressure service, and be at all 
times ready for use. 

Sect. 138. There shall be one or more ventilators near Number and 
the centre and above the highest portion of stage of every thea- % ° c n a tu °t r 9 . 



30 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

tre constructed of incombustible materials, and equal in com- 
bined area of opening to one-tenth of the area of stage floor. 
Said ventilators shall have valves or louvers so counterbalanced 
as to open automatically, and shall be kept closed when not 
in use, by cords or wires reaching to. the prompter's desk, 
and readily operated therefrom. There shall also be a proper 
arrangement of combustible cords, or fusible connections to 
open the ventilating valves automatically, by the action of 
fire on the sta^e. 
curtain. Sect. 139. The proscenium or curtain opening of every 

theatre shall have a fire resisting curtain of incombustible 
material, reenforced by wire netting, or otherwise strength- 
ened ; if of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so contrived as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor ; the 
remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance of 
fire resisting fabric as above. Such curtain shall be lowered 
at the beginning and end of each and every performance, and 
shall, in its material, construction and mechanism be approved 
by the inspector 
stairways, how Sect. 140. Every brick building hereafter erected or al- 
constructed m ^ered to be used for a tenement or lodging house, except those 

tenement and O O ' r ~^~ 

lodging houses, where there are not more than four families and having two 
separate stairways, shall have the stairways enclosed in brick 
walls not less than eight inches thick the entire height, and 
provided with a ventilating skylight so arranged with fire 
proof appliances that it may be operated from the lower hall 
in a manner satisfactory to the inspector, and the stairway 
side of said walls, if plastered, unless it is an outside wall, 
shall be plastered directly on the brickwork, and no opening 
or aperture shall be made in said walls except the requi- 
site doors for entrance thereto and external windows ; and 
the whole area of stairway not occupied by well rooms on 
each floor shall be deafened as provided in section one hundred 
and two. Other better fire proof or fire resisting construc- 
tion may be substituted for the wood framing and deafening 
and wire lathing and plastering by permission of inspector. 
Every such building, if to be occupied by more than four 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 31 

families above the first floor, shall have such additional stair- 
cases or means of egress as in the judgment of the inspector 
the safety of the occupants shall demand. If such staircase 
partitions are to commence at a level above the cellar bottom, 
they may be erected upon iron girders, and properly protected 
from fire, and the floor within said walls at the level of the 
girders shall be entirely of incombustible material. 

Sect. 141. The exterior walls of every building hereafter Heightof 
erected or altered to be used for a tenement or lodging house, f tenement 
on a street not more than twenty feet in width, shall not exceed and lodgin s 

^ houses. 

thirty feet in height. 

Sect. 142. No building, of which any part is used for Ha y> straw > 

i /> i i n hemp, flax, 

storage or sale oi hay, straw, hemp, nax, shavings, burning shavings, 
fluid, turpentine, camphene or any inflammable oil, or other burnin s fluid > 

1 i «/ turpentine, 

highly combustible substances, shall be occupied in any part camphene and 
as a dwelling, tenement or lodging house ; except that rooms \ Kl> notto be 
for coachmen or grooms may be allowed in connection with Btored in an y 

° J _ dwelling, 

the private stables authorized by this act, by permission of tenement and 
inspector. All receptacles for ashes in any tenement or ° glu§ 

L l "* Receptacles for 

lodging house shall be enclosed with incombustible material ashes to be of 

,' n , , • . incombustible 

satistactory to inspector. material. 

Sect. 143. Every tenement or lodging house shall have Additional 
in the roof, at the top of the hall, a ventilator ; shall also be ™if™™ tB 

L for tenement 

provided with a fire escape, or means of escape in case of fire, and lodging 

ii i ill* iiii • houses. 

both to be approved by the inspector ; shall have in every 
room occupied as a sleeping room and which does not com- 
municate directly with the external air, a ventilating or tran- 
som window, having an opening or area of three square feet 
over the door leading into and connected with the adjoining 
room, if such adjoining room communicates with the external 
air, and also a ventilating or transom window, of the same 
opening, in such other place as the inspector may direct, but 
no transom window shall be placed in a partition wall en- 
closing a main stairway ; shall also have proper stairs, strong 
balusters, posts, railings, and kept in good repair. 

Sect. 144. All ordinances and parts of ordinances of said ordinances to 

., j, , .,.,,.,.. i ,, remain in force 

city now in torce, relating to the building limits and the m- until rcpealed 
spection and survey of buildings, shall remain in force until or a,nended - 



32 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

amended or repealed by said city, and all officers elected or 
appointed under the provisions of said ordinances or the acts 
repealed, shall continue to hold office for the terms for which 
they were elected or appointed and until their successors are 
elected or appointed in accordance with this act, unless sooner 
removed. 

injunctions. Sect. 145. Any court having equity jurisdiction, in term 

time or vacation, may, on the application of the inspector, 
by any suitable process or decree in equity, enforce the pro- 
visions of this act, and may, on such application, issue an in- 
junction to restrain the use or occupation of any building or 
structure in the city of Boston, erected, altered, maintained 
or used in violation of this act. 

Penalties. Sect. 146. Any person who shall build or alter any wall, 

c.366, §5. | 3u j| ( | m g or ther structure, or part thereof, in violation of 
any provision of this act, or who shall, after twenty-four 
hours' notice from the inspector, maintain or use any such 
wall, building or other structure, or part thereof, so built or 
altered, or shall violate any provision of this act, shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more than five 
hundred dollars, to be paid into the treasury of said city, un- 
less another penalty is hereinbefore specifically provided. 

Repeals. Sect. 147. Chapter two hundred and eighty of the acts of 

the year eighteen hundred and seventy-one, chapters two hun- 
dred and sixty, and three hundred and seventy -one, and three 
hundred and seventy-seven of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and seventy-two, chapters two hundred and ninety- 
eight and three hundred and thirty-eight of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and seventy-three, chapters sixty- 
nine and one hundred and seventy-six of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and seventy-six, chapters one hundred and 
one, and sections three, four and seven of chapter two hun- 
dred and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty -two, and chapter one hundred and fifty-five of the acts 
of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three are repealed. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 33 



CHAPTER 124, ACTS 1810, AS AMENDED BY 
CHAPTER 109 OF 18G0. 

STABLES. 

Section 1. That from and after the passing of this act stabies not 
no building shall be erected within the town of Boston, and rr^etofV 
used and improved as a stable, for the taking in and keeping church. 
horses or chaises, or other carriages, upon hire or to let, com- 
monly called livery stables, within one hundred and seventy 
feet of any church or meeting-house, erected tor the public 
worship of God, without the consent in writing of the pro- 
prietors of such church or meeting-house, or of the religious 
society or parish worshipping therein, and the consent of the 
mayor and aldermen of the city of Boston : Provided, how- 
ever, that this act shall not be so construed as to prevent the 
finishing of any stable which has been in part erected, if the 
completion thereof shall be approved by the selectmen of 
the town of Boston. 

Sect. 2. Be it further enacted, that for any offence against penalty. 
the provisions of this act, the owner or owners, keeper or 
keepers, of such building shall forfeit and pay the sum of 
one hundred dollars for every calendar month during which 
the same shall be so used and improved, to be recovered by 
action of debt, one-half thereof to enure to the use of the 
poor of the. town of Boston, and the other half thereof to 
him or them who shall sue for the same. 



CHAPTER 369, ACTS OF 1869. 

AN ACT CONCERNING THE ERECTION OF STABLES IN THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 

Section 1. No person shall hereafter erect, occupy or Licenses to 
use any buildimr for a stable in the city of Boston, except in ocou ? y j"? bles 

" ° " a required from 

such place as the board of aldermen of said city shall first Board of 

... -, -,. , , ,. Aldermen* 

in writing approve and direct, and every person so erecting, 
using or occupying a building without such approval shall 



34 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Penalty. 



Injunction may 
be issued. 



forfeit a sum not exceeding fifty dollars for every month he 
so uses or occupies such building, and in like proportion for 
a longer or shorter time ; this act shall not apply to any 
stable now erected, occupied or used, so long as the same is 
not enlarged or rebuilt. 

Sect. 2. The supreme judicial court, or any justice 
thereof, either in term time or vacation, may issue an injunc- 
tion to prevent the erection, occupancy or use of any stable 
contrary to the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in three months after its 
passage. [Approved June 9, 1869.~\ 



CHAPTER 192, ACTS OF 1878. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE REBUILDING AND IMPROVEMENT 
OF STABLES IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



Chap. 280, 1871, 
repealed by 
Chap. 374, 1885. 



Section 1 . Any stable now or hereafter legally existing 
in the city of Boston may, with the consent of the mayor and 
aldermen of said city, be rebuilt, enlarged and improved, 
in accordance with the provisions of chapter two hundred 
and eighty of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
seventy-one, and the several acts in amendment thereof 
regulating the construction of buildings in the said city. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 
[Approved April 26, 1878.'] 



CHAPTER 252, ACTS OF 1882. 



Elevators, etc. 
may be 
regulated by 
ordinance. 

City may 1 y 
ordinance 
require regis- 
tration of 
plumbers. 



Section 1. The city of Boston may, by ordinance, regu- 
late the building, management and inspection of elevators, 
hoistways and elevator shafts in said city. 

Sect. 2. The said city may, by ordinance, require the 
registration of all persons carrying on the business of plumb- 
ing in said city, and prescribe rules and regulations for the 
materials, construction, alteration and inspection of all pipes, 
tanks, faucets, valves and other fixtures, by and through 



DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 35 

which water and sewage are used and carried ; and provide May makc rules 

a for governing 

that no such pipes, tanks, faucets, valves or other fixtures plumbing. 
shall be placed in any building in said city, except in accord- 
ance with plans which shall be approved by the inspector of 
buildings of said city. 

Sect. 5. The facts and returns relative to steam boilers, See p - s., chap. 

11, §92. 

required to be ascertained by section ninety-two of chapter gteam boiIer 
eleven of the public statutes, shall be ascertained and made returns to be 

made by 

in the city of Boston, by the inspector of buildings, and not inspector of 

i . i buildings. 

by the assessors. 

Sect. 6. The said city may impose penalties not exceed- Penalties that 

may be imposed. 

ing fifty dollars for each offence, for any violation of the 
provisions contained in sections one and two of this act. 



CHAPTER 173, ACTS OF 1883. 

If any elevator, whether used for freight or passengers, unsafe 
shall, in the judgment of the inspector of factories and public 
buildings of the district in which such elevator is used, or, 
in the city of Boston, of the inspector of buildings of said 
city, be unsafe or dangerous to use, or has not been con- 
structed in the manner required by law, the said inspector 
shall immediately placard conspicuously upon the entrance to Use when 
or door of the cab or car of such elevator a notice of its placard, on eie- 
dangerous condition, and prohibit the use of such elevator vator ' cab or 

o ' L car. 

until made safe to the satisfaction of said inspector. Any 
person removing such notice or operating such elevator while Penalty for 

t . . . removing such 

such notice is placarded as aforesaid, without authority from placard, 
said inspector, shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars for each offence. 



36 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



CHAPTER 251, ACTS OF 1883. 



Watchmen and 
red lights in 
hotels, etc. 



See chap. 251, 
18S3, and chap. 
223, 1884. 



Watchmen in 
hotels, etc., 
additional 
requirements. 



No license to 
hotel keepers to 
be granted until 
requirements 
have been com- 
plied with. 



Penalties. 



Section 1. Every keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house containing one hundred or more rooms, and being four 
or more stories high, shall have therein at least two compe- 
tent watchmen, each properly assigned, and each on duty 
between the hours of nine o'clock in the afternoon and six 
o'clock in the forenoon. And every keeper of a hotel, 
boarding or lodging house containing fifty or more, but less 
than one hundred, rooms, and being three stories high, shall 
have between said hours at least one competent watchman on 
duty therein. And in all such hotels or lodging houses as 
are mentioned in this section the halls and stairways shall 
be properly lighted at night, and at the head and foot of each 
flight of stairs shall be kept during the night a red light ; and 
one or more proper alarms, or gongs, capable of being heard 
throughout the house, shall always remain easy of access 
and ready for use in each of said buildings, to give notice to 
the inmates in case of fire ; and every keeper of such hotel, 
boarding or lodging house shall keep posted in a conspicuous 
place in every sleeping room a notice descriptive of such 
means of escape. 1 

Sect. 3. The inspector of buildings in the city of Boston, 
the ma}'or and aldermen of other cities, and the selectmen of 
towns, shall prescribe as they deem necessary, except so far 
as is specifically required in the preceding sections, what addi- 
tional night-watch shall be kept, and what further provisions 
for the prevention of fires, and for the better protection of 
life in case of fire, shall be made by the several keepers of 
hotels, boarding or lodging houses within their respective 
limits ; and no license shall be granted to any keeper of a 
hotel embraced in the provisions of this act until the require- 
ments thereof, so far as applicable, have been complied with. 

Sect. 4. Whoever neglects or refuses to provide watch- 
men as required by this act shall be punished by a fine not 



i Note. — Section 2, relating to fire escapes on hotels, boarding or lodging houses, fac- 
tories, etc., repealed by Sect. 14, Chap, 426, of 188S. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 37 

exceeding one thousand dollars for each offence, and who- 
ever violates any of the other provisions of this act shall be 
subject to the same penalty as is prescribed in section twenty- 
two of chapter one hundred and four of the Public Statutes. 



CHAPTER 223, ACTS OF 1884. 
Section 1. All hotels, boarding and lodging houses, sub- When electric 

watch clocks, 

ject to the provisions of chapter two hundred and fifty-one of thermostats or 
the acts of the venr eighteen hundred and eighty-three, adopt- fire - alarm ^ ells 

•* c o «/ » i ma y b e 8U bsti- 

ing a system of electric watch clocks that shall register at the tuted for watch, 
office the movements of the watchman throughout the house, or 
adopting in the rooms any system of thermostats, or fire-alarm 
bells, that shall be approved by the inspector of factories and 
public buildings, or, in the city of Boston, by the inspector 
of buildings, shall be exempt from maintaining more than one 
watchman, in addition to the regular night-clerk and porters. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of this act and of said chapter two When watch - 

r *■ men may he 

hundred and fifty- one of the acts of the year eighteen hundred omitted. 
and eighty-three shall apply to family hotels, except that the 
maintenance of a watchman shall not be required in family 
hotels in the city of Boston when in the opinion of the 
inspector of buildings of said city, reduced to writing 
and placed on file in his office, such maintenance is un- 
necessary. 



CHAPTER 382, ACTS OF 1885. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH IN 
BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston used as Dwelling, tene- 
a dwelling, tenement or lodging house, or where persons are i Dg houses to be 
employed, shall have at all times such number of good and f " rni8hcd w,lh 

1 J 7 ~ good and stiflj- 

sufficient water closets, earth closets, or privies as the board oient water 
of health of said city may determine, but the occupants of 
any two or more of any such buildings may use such closets 



38 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

or privies in common, provided the access is easy and direct ; 

and said board shall not require more than one such closet or 

privy for every twenty persons. 
cesspools or Sect. 2. Every such building situated on a street in 

lowed except which there is a sewer, shall have water closets, and shall 
by permission no j- nave a cesspool or privy connected with it, except where. 

of board of L f J > I 

health. in the opinion of the board of health, it can be allowed to 

remain for a longer time, and then only as said board shall 
approve. 
Buildings used Sect. 3. No building in the city of Boston shall be con- 
iod riD* houses vei 'ted into, or used for a tenement or lodging house, unless, 
to conform to [ n addition to the other requirements of law, it conforms to 

this act. . . 

the provisions ot this act. 

Sect. 4. In this act the following terms shall have the 
meanings respectively assigned to them, viz. : — 
Definitions. " Cellar " means a basement or lower story of any build- 

ing of which one-half or more of the height from the floor to 
the ceiling is below the level of the street adjoining. 

" Inspector " means inspector of buildings of the city of 
Boston. 

" Lodging house " means a building in which persons are 
temporarily accommodated with sleeping apartments, and 
includes hotels. 

" Tenement house " means a building which, or any por- 
tion of which, is to be occupied, or is occupied as the resi- 
dence of more than three families living independently of 
one another, and doing their cooking upon the premises ; or 
by more than two families upon any floor above the second 
floor, so living and cooking. 
Yards or areas Sect. 5. Every tenement or lodging house shall have the 

to be con- • 

structed so that yard or area so connected with a sewer that all water and 
will flow t7 Uer liquid filth will freely flow from it to the sewer, or, if there 
sewer. } s n0 se vver, to the street gutter, by means of a passage 

under the sidewalk covering, so constructed as to be easily 

accessible to remove obstructions. 
when tenement Sect. 6. If a building to be used for a tenement or lodg- 
house inbuilt on in g house is on the front of any lot where there is another 
front of lot, building on the rear of the same lot, there shall be a clear, 



DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 39 

open space, exclusively belonging to the front building, and there mu*tbean 

ir» i li-ii t> open space ou 

extending upwards from the ground, of at least ten feet be- rear of said 
tvveen said buildings, if they are one story high above the building ' if 

e ' J J ° there is another 

level Of the ground. building in rear 

If they are two stories high, the distance between them ° 
shall not be less than fifteen feet ; if they are three stories 
high, the distance between them shall be not less than twenty 
feet ; and if they are more than three stories high, the 
distance between them shall be not less than twenty-five 
feet. 

Sect. 7. If such building is on the back part of any lot, when on back 
there shall be a clear, open space of at least ten feet between must bc an open 
such building 1 and everv other building in its rear. But when sp:ice between 

° * ° such building 

thorough ventilation of such open spaces can be otherwise and one in the 
secured said distances may be lessened or modified, in spe- 
cial cases, by a permit from the board of health and the in- 
spector. 

Sect. 8. Every habitable room of such building not now Height of 
used but hereafter used as a tenement or lodging house shall 
be, in every part, not less than eight feet in height from the 
floor to the ceiling, except in the attic, and shall be at least 
eight feet in height from the floor to the ceiling throughout 
not less than one-half the area of such room ; and every such 
room shall have at least one window connecting with the 
external air, or over the door a suitable ventilator connecting 
with a room or hall which has a connection with the external 
air. 

Sect. 9. The total area of window communicating with Area of window 
the external air, in every room of such building, shall be 
equal to at least one-tenth of the superficial area of the room ; 
and the top of one at least of such windows shall be not less 
than seven feet six inches above the floor, and the upper 
half of each window shall be so made as to open for the pur- 
poses of ventilation. 

Sect. 10. Every habitable room of such building, of area when special 
less than one hundred superficial feet, which does not com- ku^urc ^obe 
municate directly with the external air, and is without an provided, 
open fireplace, shall be provided with special means of 



40 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Water supply. 



Receptacle for 



Yards, courts, 
alleys, etc., to 
be kept clean. 



Tenants to 
thoroughly 
cleanse all 
rooms. 



Owners to 
whitewash walls 
and have 
privies, etc., 
kept in good 
order. 



Notice to be 
given of infec- 
tious disease. 



ventilation, approved by the board of health and the said 
inspector. 

Sect. 11. Every such building shall have adequate chim- 
neys running through every floor, with an open fireplace or 
grate, or place for a stove, properly connected with one of 
said chimneys, for every family and set of apartments ; shall 
have proper conveniences and non-combustible receptacles 
for ashes and rubbish ; shall have water furnished at one or 
more places in such house, or in the yard thereof, so that the 
same may be adequate and reasonably convenient for the use 
of the occupants thereof; and shall have the floor of the cel- 
lar properly cemented, so as to be water tight. 

Sect. 12. Everv such building used for a tenement or 
lodging house shall have suitable receptacles for garbage and 
other refuse matters, and shall not be used as a place of 
storage for any combustible article, or any article dangerous 
to life or detrimental to health ; nor shall any horse, 
cow, calf, swine, pig, sheep or goat be kept in said build- 
ing. 

Sect. 13. Every such building, and the yard, court, pas- 
sage, area and alleys belonging to the same, shall be kept 
clean and free from any accumulation of dirt, filth, garbage 
or other refuse matter, to the satisfaction of the board of 
health. 

Sect. 14. The tenant of any lodging house or tenement 
house shall thoroughly cleanse all the rooms, floors, windows 
and doors of the house, or part of the house, of which he is 
the tenant, to the satisfaction of the board of health ; and the 
owner or lessee shall well and sufficiently, to the satisfac- 
tion of said board, whitewash or otherwise cleanse the walls 
and ceilings thereof once at least in every year in the months 
of April or May, and have the privies, drains and cesspools 
kept in good order and the passages and stairs kept clean 
and in good condition. 

Sect. 15. The owner, agent of the owner, and keeper of 
any lodging or tenement house, or part thereof, shall, when 
any person in such house is sick of fever, or of any infec- 
tious, pestilential or contagious disease, and such sickness is 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 41 

known to .such owner, agent or keeper, give immediate notice 
thereof to the board of health, and thereupon said board 
shall cause the same to be inspected, and cleansed or disin- 
fected at the expense of the owner, in such manner as they 
may deem necessary ; and may also cause the blankets, bed- 
ding and bedclothes used by any such sick person to be thor- 
oughly cleansed, scoured and fumigated, and, in extreme 
cases, to be destroyed. 

Sect. 16. The halls on each floor of every such building Haiisoneach 

floor to open 

shall open directly to the external air, with suitable windows, directly to 
and shall have no room or other obstruction at the end, un- ex erna air ' 
less sufficient light and ventilation is otherwise provided for 
said halls in a manner approved by the board of health. 

Sect. 17. No person shall, without a permit from the CeIlar or under - 

ground room not 

board of health, let or occupy, or suffer to be occupied, sepa- tobeusedasa 
rately as a dwelling or place of lodging and sleeping, an y dwelllD g> etc - 
cellar or underground room whatsoever, unless the same be 
in every part thereof at least seven feet in height, measured 
from the floor to the ceiling thereof ; nor unless the same shall 
have been so let or occupied before the passage of this act, 
nor unless the same be for at least one foot of its height above 
the surface of the street or ground adjoining, or nearest to 
the same ; nor unless there be, outside of and adjoining the 
said vault, cellar or room, and extending along the entire 
frontage thereof, and upwards from six inches below the 
level of the floor thereof, up' to the surface of the said street 
or ground, an open space of at least two feet and six inches 
wide in every part ; nor unless the same be well and effectu- 
ally drained by means of a drain, the uppermost part of 
which is one foot at least below the level of the floor of such 
vault, cellar or room ; nor unless there is a clear space of not 
less than one foot below the level of the floor, except where 
the same is cemented ; nor unless there be appurtenant to such 
vault, cellar or room the use of a water closet or privy, 
kept and provided as in this act required, nor unless the same 
have an external window opening of at least nine superficial 
feet clear of the sash frame, in which window opening there 
shall be fitted a frame filled in with jjlazed sashes, at least 



42 DIGEST OP BUILDING LAWS. 

four and a half superficial feet of which shall be made so as 
Proviso. to open for the purpose of ventilation ; provided, however, 

that in case of an inner or back vault, cellar or room, let or 
occupied along with a front vault, cellar or room, as a part 
of the same letting or occupation, it shall be a sufficient com- 
. pliance with the provisions of this act if the front room is 
provided with a window as hereinbefore provided, and if the 
said back vault, cellar or room is connected with the front 
vault, cellar or room, by a door, and also by a proper venti- 
lating or transom window, and, where practicable, also con- 
nected by a proper ventilating or transom window, or by 
Proviso. some hall or passage, with the external air ; provided further, 

that in any area adjoining a vault, cellar or underground 
room, there may be steps necessary for access to such vault, 
cellar or room, if the same be so placed as not to be over, 
across or opposite to said external window, and so as to 
allow between every part of such steps and the external wall 
of such vault, cellar or room, a clear space of six inches at 
least, and if the rise of said steps is open, and provided 
further, that over or across any such area there may be 
steps necessary for access to any building above the vault, 
cellar or room, to which such area adjoins, if the same be so 
placed as not to be over, across or opposite to any such ex- 
ternal window. 
Board of health Sect. 18. The board of health shall have authority to 
diXnat reguia. m;1 ke such other regulations as to cellars, and the ventilation 
uons as to an( i overcrowding of tenement and lodging houses and build- 

cellars, etc. 

ings where persons are employed, as they deem necessary, 

subject, however, to the laws relating to building in the city 

of Boston. 

Nameaud Sect. 19. Every owner and agent, or person having 

address of charge, of a tenement or lodsHno- house shall leave his address 

owner aud agent o ' o o 

to be posted. on w ith the board of health, and shall have legibly posted on the 

wall of tene- . 

mentandiodg- wall or in the entry or such tenement or lodging house the 
name and address of such owner and of the agent or person 
having charge of the same ; and service upon parties whose 
address is out of the city, of any papers or notices required 
by this act, or any act relating to the preservation of health, 



Proviso. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 43 

or by any proceedings to enforce any of their provisions, 
shall be sufficient, if made by sending a copy of such paper 
or notice through the mail to the address of the person or 
persons so designated as owner, agent or person having 
charge of such tenement or lodging house ; and service upon 
parties whose address is in the city, by leaving such copy at 
said address. 

Sect. 20. Every officer of the board of health, and every officers to have 

• /• i i 1 1 ^ ree access t0 

officer upon whom any duty or authority is conferred, shall SUC h buildings. 

have free access to every part of any lodging or tenement 

house, when required, in the proper execution of the duties 

of his office. 

Sect. 21. Any court having equity jurisdiction, in term 
time or vacation, may, on the application of the board of 
health, by any suitable process or decree in equity, enforce 
the provisions of this act, and may, on such application, issue 
an injunction to restrain the use or occupation of any build- injunctions. 
ing or structure in the city of Boston, erected, altered or used 
in violation of this act. 

Sect. 22. Any person violating any provision of this act Penalties, 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, 
or by confinement in the house of correction not exceeding- 
sixty days, unless another penalty is specifically provided 
herein. 

Sect. 23. Every member of said board of health, and Board of health 

3 -ii t l 11 i n . and inspectors 

every inspector acting under said board shall, before entering to be sworn _ 
upon the duties of his office take and subscribe an oath before 
the city clerk of said city that he will faithfully and impar- 
tially discharge such duties, and the city clerk shall make 
and keep a record of such oath. Every member of said 
board and every such inspector who enters upon or discharges 
such duties without having taken and subscribed such oath 
shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars, but such 
omission shall not render invalid any act or proceeding of 
said board. 



44 DIGEST OF BUILDLNTG LAWS. 

CHAPTER 348, ACTS OF 1887. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO FENCES AND OTHER STRUCTURES 
ERECTED TO ANNOY, AND FOR THE ABATEMENT OF 

NUISANCES. 

Section 1. Any fence or other structure in the nature of 
a fence, unnecessarily exceeding six feet in height, mali- 
ciously erected or maintained for the purpose of annoying the 
owners or occupants of adjoining property, shall be deemed 
a private nuisance. 

Sect. 2. Any such owner or occupant, injured either in 
his comfort or the enjoyment of his estate by such nuisance, 
may have an action of tort for the damage sustained thereby, 
and the provisions of chapter one hundred and eighty of the 
Public Statutes concerning actions for private nuisances shall 
be applicable thereto. [Approved June 2, 1887. ~\ 



CHAPTER 448, ACTS OF 1887. 

AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE REMOVAL OF CERTAIN 
OBSTRUCTIONS IN GAMBLING RESORTS. 

inspector of Section 1. When any officer empowered to serve crim- 

buiidings to be ma } process finds that access to any common gaming-house, 

notified when 

entrance to or any building, apartment or place, which he has reason- 



able cause to believe is resorted to for the purpose of unlawful 



buildings are 
barred by doors, 

etc., of unusual g am ing, is barred by any obstruction other than what is 

strength. . ,. -, c t • • 1 

usual in ordinary places of business, such as a door, window, 
shutter, screen, bar or grating, of unusual strength, he shall 
at once notify the inspector of buildings, or other public 
officer or officers who may have charge of the construction 
of buildings in his city, or town, of the existence of such 
obstruction. And said inspector or other officer, or officers, 
shall inspect such obstruction, and, if deemed by such officer 
or officers to be unnecessary for the protection of the lawful 
business done on such premises, or to have been built and 
used for the purpose of resisting or delaying the rightful 
entrance of the officers of the law, he or they shall order the 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 45 

same to be removed by the owner, lessee or person having inspector of 

i /»• i . l • i li • • n buildings to 

control ot the building in which such obstruction exists ; and cause such 
in case such officer or officers cannot find either of the per- ° b8truction s to 

r be removed in 

sons mentioned so as to make personal service, said notice case of neglect 
shall be posted upon the outside of said building, and in case persons notified 
of the neglect to remove such obstruction for the space of so t0 d0 " 
seven days from the date of said order, or posting of said 
notice, then the inspector, or other officer, or officers, shall 
cause such obstruction to be removed from such building, 
and the expense of such removal shall be a lien on said 
building, and be collected by the inspector or other officer 
removing such obstruction in the same way as a mechanic's 
lieu is now collected. 

Sect. 2. Section ten of chapter ninety-nine of the Public 
Statutes is hereby amended so as to read as follows : — 
Section 10. If a person makes oath before a trial justice, 
or police, district or municipal court, that he suspects or has 
probable cause to suspect that a house or other building is 
unlawfully used as and for a common gaming house, for the 
purpose of gaming for money or other property, and that idle 
and dissolute persons, or other persons, resort to the same 
for that purpose, such trial justice or court, whether the 
names of the persons last mentioned are known to be the 
complainant or not, shall, in case satisfactory evidence is 
presented, issue a warrant commanding the sheriff or his 
deputy, or any constable or police officer to enter into such 
house or building and there to arrest all persons who are 
there found playing for money or otherwise, and all persons 
who are found present at any game or sport there played for 
money or other thing of value, and also the keepers of the 
same and all persons present, whether engaged in playing or 
not, if the implements of gaming are found in said place, and 
to take into their custody all the implements of gaming as 
aforesaid, and all the personal property, furniture and fixt- 
ures there found, and to keep said persons, implements, 
property, furniture and fixtures so that they may be forth- 
coming before some court or magistrate, to be dealt with 
according to law, and whoever is found so playing or so 



4:6 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS, 

present shall forfeit for every such offence a sum not exceed- 
ing fifty dollars. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 
[Approved June 16, 1887.] 



CHAPTER 316, ACTS OF 1888. 

AN ACT TO REGULATE THE ERECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OP 
CERTAIN BUILDINGS. 

pians of a n pub- Section 1. No building designed to be used in whole or 

lie buildings, . .,.,,. ,. 

etc., must be in part as a public building, public or private institution, 
officTofins ec sc hool-house, church, theatre, public hall, place of assemblage 
tor of buildings, or place of public resort, and no building more than two 
stories in height designed to be used above the second story, 
in whole or in part, as a factory, workshop or mercantile or 
other establishment and having accommodations for ten or more 
employees above said story, and no building more than two 
stories in height designed to be used above the second story, 
in whole or in part, as a hotel, family hotel, apartment house, 
boarding house, lodging house or tenement house and having 
ten or more rooms above said story, shall hereafter be 
erected, unless in process of erection at the date of the pas- 
sage of this act, until a copy of the plans of such building has 
been deposited with the inspector of factories and public build- 
ings for the district in which such building is to be located, if 
outside of the city of Boston, or with the inspector of build- 
ings of the city of Boston, if within said city, together with 
a copy of such portion of the specifications of such building 
as such inspector may require, nor shall any such building 
be so erected without the provision of sufficient ways of 
egress and other means of escape from fire, properly located 
and constructed ; the certificate of the inspector above named 
indorsed, if the building is to be located outside of the city 
of Boston, with the approval of the chief of the district police 
force, shall be conclusive evidence of a compliance with the 
provisions of this act, provided that after the granting of such 
certificate no change is made in the plans or specifications of 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 47 

such ways of egress and means of escape unless a new certifi- 
cate is obtained therefor. Such inspector may require that 
proper fire-stops shall be provided in the floors, walls and 
partitions of such buildings and may make such further re- 
quirements as may be necessary or proper to prevent the 
spread of fire therein or its communication from any steam 
boiler or heating apparatus ; and no pipe for conveying hot 
air or steam in such building shall be placed nearer than one 
inch to any wood work unless protected to the satisfaction of 
such inspector by suitable guards or casings of incombustible 
material, and no wooden flue or air duct for heating or venti- 
lating purposes shall be placed in any such building. 

Sect. 2. Any person erecting or constructing a building Penalties. 
in violation of the provisions of this act shall be punished by 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than one thousand dollars, 
and such erection or construction may be enjoined in a pro- 
ceeding to be had before the superior or supreme judicial 
court at the instance of the inspector above named, and upon 
the filing of a petition for such injunction any justice of the 
court in which such proceeding is pending may issue a tem- 
porary injunction or restraining order, as provided in pro- injunction, 
ceedings in equity. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of Oc- 
tober in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
eight. [Approved May 9, 1888.] 



CHAPTER 426, ACTS OF 1888. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO WAYS OF EGRESS AND MEANS OF 
ESCAPE FROM FIRE IN CERTAIN BUILDINGS. 

Section 1. Every building now or hereafter used, in 
whole or in part, as a public building, public or private insti- 
tution, school house, church, theatre, public hall, place of 
assemblage or place of public resort, and every building in 
which ten or more persons are employed above the second 
story in a factory, workshop or mercantile or other establish- 
ment, and every hotel, family hotel, apartment house, board- 



48 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

ing house, lodging house or tenement house in which ten or 
more persons lodge or reside above the second stoiy, and 
every factory, workshop, mercantile or other establishment 
the owner, lessee, or occupant of which is notified in writing 
by the inspector hereinafter mentioned that the provisions of 
this act are deemed by him applicable thereto, shall be pro- 
vided with proper ways of egress, or other means of escape 
from fire, sufficient for the use of all persons accommodated, 
assembling, employed, lodging or residing in such building ; 
and such ways of egress and means of escape shall be kept 
free from obstruction, in good repair and ready for use. 
Every room above the second story in any such building in 
which ten or more persons are employed shall be provided, if 
the inspector mentioned in the following section shall so direct 
in writing, with more than one way of egress by stairways on 
the inside or outside of the building, placed as near as 
practicable at opposite ends of such room ; stairways on the 
outside of the building shall have suitable railed landings at 
each story above the first, and shall connect with each story 
by doors or windows ; and such landings, doors and windows 
shall be kept clear of ice and snow and other obstructions. 
orchihirenTre Women or children shall not be employed in a factory, work- 
empioyed, there ghop or mercantile or other establishment, in a room above 

must be more , .. n . . . . . '. „ 

than one way of the second story trom which there is only one way ot egress, 
egress. j£ ^ ne inspector mentioned in the following section shall so 

direct in writing. All doors and windows in any building 
subject to the provisions of this section shall open outwardly 
if the inspector mentioned in the following section shall so 
direct in writing. No portable seats shall be allowed in the 
aisles or passageway of such building during any service or 
entertainment held therein. The proscenium or curtain 
opening of all theatres shall have a fire resisting curtain of 
some incombustible material, and such curtain shall be 
properly constructed and shall be operated by proper 
mechanism ; the certificate of the inspector mentioned in the 
following section shall be conclusive evidence of a compliance 
with such requirements. 

Sect. 2. It shall be the duty of such inspectors of fac- 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 49 

tories and public buildings, as may be assigned to such, duty 

by the chief of the district police force, to examine, as soon 

as may be after the passage of this act, and thereafter from 

time to time, all buildings within his district subject to the 

provisions of this act, and it shall be the duty of the inspector 

of buildings of the city of Boston so to examine all such 

buildings within said city. In case any such building con- when any buiid. 

forms in the judgment of such inspector, to the requirements this act, the in- 

of this act, he shall issue to the owner, lessee or occupant of s P ector Bha11 ^ 

issue a certifi- 

such building, or of any portion thereof used as above men- catetothat 
tioned in section one, a certificate to that effect, specify- e ect ' 
ing the number of persons for whom the ways of egress or 
means of escape from fire are deemed to be sufficient. Such 
certificate shall be conclusive evidence, as long as it continues 
in force, of a compliance on the part of the person to whom it 
is issued with the provisions of this act. But such certificate 
shall be of no effect in case a greater number of persons than 
therein specified are accommodated or emploj^ed, or assemble, 
lodge or reside within such building or portion thereof, or in 
case such building is used for any purposes materially different 
from those for which it was used at the time of the errantinc; 
thereof, or in case the internal arrangements of such building 
are materially altered, or in case any ways of egress or means 
of escape from fire existing in such building at the time of 
such granting are stopped up, rendered unavailable or mate- 
rially changed ; and in no case shall such certificate continue 
in force for more than five years from its date. Such cer- 
tificate may be revoked by such inspector at any time upon when such cer« 
written notice to the person holding the same, or occupying reV oked? ay 
the premises for which it was granted, and shall bo so revoked 
whenever, in his opinion, any conditions or circumstances 
have so changed that the existing ways of egress and means 
of escape are no longer proper and sufficient. A copy of the a copy of said 
said certificate shall be kept posted in a conspicuous place posted on each 
upon every floor of such building by the person occupying JJJJjJf J uch 
the premises covered thereby. 

Sect. 3. Upon an application being made to an inspector 
or the granting of a certificate under this act, he shall issue 



50 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

to the person making the same an acknowledgment that such 
certificate has been applied for, and pending the granting or 
refusal of such certificate such acknowledgment shall have for 
a period of ninety days the same effect as such certificate, and 
Acknowiedg- such acknowledgment may be renewed by such inspector with 

ments of appli- , . 

cations for such the same effect tor a further period not exceeding ninety days, 
and may be further renewed by the chief of the district police 
force, until such time as such certificate shall be granted or 
refused. 

Notice of Sect. 4. In case any change is made in any premises for 

changes in a , 1 . , 

bunding for which a certificate has been issued under tnis act, whether in 
which a certi - ^ thereof or otherwise, such as terminates the effect of 

cate has been ' 

issued must be suc h certificate, as above provided in section two, it shall be. 

given to in- n . , . . . . ... 

spector of the duty ot the person making the same to give written 

buildings. notice thereof forthwith to the inspector for the district, or to 

the chief of the district police, if such premises are outside 

of the city of Boston, or to the inspector of buildings of the 

city of Boston, if within said city. 

inspector to Sect. 5. In case any building or portion thereof subject 

notify owners, m m 

etc., of changes to the provisions of this act is found by an inspector to fail 
necessary to ^ conform thereto, or in case any change is made in such 

conform t'j ' J s 

this act. building or portion thereof such as terminates the effect of 

a certificate formerly granted therefor as aforesaid, it shall 

be the duty of such inspector to give notice in writing to the 

owner, lessee or occupant of such building, specifying and 

describing what additional ways of egress or means of escape 

from fire are necessary in the opinion of such inspector in 

order to conform to the provisions of this act and to secure 

the granting of a certificate as aforesaid. Notice to anv 

agent of such owner, lessee or occupant in charge of the 

premises shall be sufficient notice under this section to such 

owner, lessee or occupant. 

when owned or Sect. 6. In case any building subject to the provisions 

any U of e s a aw inty ' of this act is owned, leased or occupied, jointly or in sev- 

ownersoroc era ity ? by different persons, anyone of such persons shall 

cupants may " * 

put on fire have the right to apply to any part of the outside ef such 

escapes, etc. building, and to sustain from any part of the outside wall 

thereof, any way of egress or means of escape from fire 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 51 

specified and described by an inspector as above provided, 
notwithstanding the objection of any other such owner, 
lessee or occupant ; and any such way of egress or means 
of escape may project over the highway. 

Sect. 7. When a license is required by law or municipal Licenses to 
ordinance, in order to authorize any premises to be used for j ng s not to be 
any purpose mentioned in section one, no license for such gran ' ed nnt '' 

J L sr certificates nave 

purpose shall be granted until a certificate for such building been issued by 
or portion thereof shall first have been obtained from an 
inspector as above provided, and no such license hereafter 
issued shall continue in force any longer than such certificate 
remains in force. 

Sect. 8. No wooden flue or air duct for heating or ven- wooden flues 
tilating purposes shall hereafter be placed in any building a n wed. 
subject to the provisions of section one of this act, and no 
pipe for conveying hot air or steam in such building shall be 
placed, or shall remain placed, nearer than one inch to any 
wood-work unless protected to the satisfaction of the said 
inspector by suitable guards or casings of incombustible 
material. 

Sect. 9. Every story above the second of a building Means of ex. 
subject to the provisions of section one shall be supplied with to be provided? 
means of extinguishing fire, consisting either of pails of 
water or other portable apparatus, or of hose attched to 
a suitable water supply and capable of reaching any part of 
such story ; and such means of extinguishing fire shall be 
kept at all times ready for use and in good condition. 

Sect. 10. It shall be the duty of such members of the inspector to 
inspection department of the district police force as may be a e ° °^^ t 
assigned to such duty by the chief of such force to enforce the Boston. 
provisions of this act outside of the city of Boston, and of 
the inspector of buildings of the city of Boston to enforce the 
same within said city, and for such purpose such inspectors 
shall have the right of access to all parts of any buildings 
subject to the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 11. Cities may by ordinance provide that the pro- 
visions of this act shall apply to any buildings three or more 
stories in height within their respective limits. 



enforce tbis act 



52 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

owners, lessees Sect. 12. It shall be the duty of every owner, lessee or 

or occupants 

must carry out occupant of any building or part thereof subject to this act 

this act""* to cause the provisions thereof to be carried out, and any 

owner, lessee or occupant failing to observe such provisions 

shall be subject to a fine of not less than fifty nor more than 

one thousand dollars ; but no prosecution therefor shall be 

Penalty for brought until four weeks after written notice from an inspec- 

neglecting so to 

do. tor, as above provided, of the changes necessary to be made 

in order to conform thereto, nor then if in the meantime such 
changes have been made in accordance with such notification. 
Notice to one member of a firm, or to the clerk or treasurer 
of a corporation, or to the person in charge of the premises, 
shall be deemed a sufficient notice hereunder, and such 
notice may be given in person or by mail. Any such owner, 
lessee or occupant shall be liable for all damages caused by 
his violation of the provisions of this act. Any person using 
or occupying a building contrary to the provisions of this act 
injunction. may be enjoined from such use or occupation in a proceeding 
to be had before the superior court or supreme judicial court at 
the instance of the inspector, and upon the filing of a petition 
therefor any judge or justice of the court in which such pro- 
ceeding is pending may issue a temporary injunction or 
restraining order, as provided in proceedings in equity. 

Sect. 13. The governor of the Commonwealth is hereby 
authorized to appoint from time to time, as may be necessary, 
not exceeding ten additional members of the inspection de- 
partment of the district police force, qualified to perform the 
duties of the members of such department. 

Sect. 14. Sections fifteen to twenty inclusive of chapter 
one hundred and four of the Public Statutes, section two of 
chapter two hundred and fifty-one of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and eighty-three, chapter three hundred 
and twenty-six of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five, chapter two hundred and seven of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, and all acts and 
parts of acts inconsistent herewith, are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 15. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
July in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 
[Approved May 29, 1888.'] 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 53 

CHAPTER 11, SECTION 92, PUBLIC STATUTES. 

The assessors shall, in each year, on or before the first 
Monday in August, return to the tax-commissioner a state- 
ment showing the whole number of steam-boilers located in 
their respective cities and towns on the first day of May then 
next preceding, by whom and when built, and the aggregate 
estimated amount of horse-power which such boilers are 
capable of furnishing. Such returns shall also state the 
number of accidents causing permanent injuries to persons 
which have arisen from the use of such boilers during the 
year, with the causes thereof, as far as may be ascertained 
by the assessors. 

NOTE. 

See Sec. 5, Chap. 252, Acts of 1882. 
" " 6, " 374, " " 1885. 

CHAPTER 102, PUBLIC STATUTES. 

STEAM-ENGINES, FURNACES, AND BOILERS. 

Section 40. No furnace for melting iron or making: glass, steam-engines, 
and no stationary steam-engine designed for use in a mill for ^ n ° t "° with, 
planing or sawing boards or turning wood, or in which any outlicense - 

,?,;,., &.S. 88, §33. 

other fuel than coal is used to create steam, shall be erected i Alien, m. 
or put up to be used in a city or town which adopts this and 
the eight following sections, or has adopted the correspond- 
ing sections of earlier statutes, at a legal meeting of the city 
council of the city, or the inhabitants of the town called for 
that purpose, unless the mayor and aldermen or selectmen 
thereof have granted a license therefor, prescribing the place 
where the building shall be erected in which the steam-engine 
or furnace is to be used, and the materials and construction 
thereof, with such regulations as to the height of flues and 
protection against fire as they deem necessary for the safely 
of the neighborhood. Such license may be granted on a 
written application, and shall be recorded in the records of 
the city or town. 

Sect. 41. Upon application for such license the mayor 



5± 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Public notice of 
hearing. 

G.S. 88, § 34. 



Municipal 
officers may 
regulate steam- 
engines, etc. 
G.S. 88, § 35. 



Appeals and 
proceedings 
thereon. 
G.S. 88, § 36. 
1873, 261-117. 
Mass. 76-119. 
Mass. 485-126. 
Mass. 287-128. 
Mass. 36-347. 



Injunction 
pending appeal 
G.S. 88, § 37. 



and aldermen or selectmen shall assign a time and place for 
the consideration of the same, and cause at least fourteen 
days' public notice thereof to be given, at the expense of the 
applicant, in such manner as they may direct, in order that 
all persons interested may be heard thereon. 

Sect. 42. In a city or town which adopts sections forty 
to forty-eight, inclusive, or has adopted the corresponding 
sections of earlier statutes, at a legal meeting of the city 
council of the city or the inhabitants of the town called for 
that purpose, the mayor and aldermen or selectmen, after due 
notice in writing to the owner of such steam-engine or fur- 
nace, except for making glass, erected or in use therein before 
the time of such adoption, and a hearing of the matter, may 
adjudge the same to be dangerous or a nuisance to the neigh- 
borhood, and make and record an order prescribing such 
rules, restrictions and alterations as to the building in which 
the same is constructed or used, the construction and height 
of its smoke-flues, with such other regulations as they may 
deem necessary for the safety of the neighborhood ; and the 
city or town clerk shall deliver a copy of such order to a 
constable, who shall serve on the owner an attested copy 
thereof, and make return of his doings thereon to said clerk 
within three days from the delivery thereof to him. 

Sect. 43. An owner of a steam-engine or furnace who is 
aggrieved by such order may, within three days after the ser- 
vice upon him of such order, apply to the superior court, or 
a justice thereof, in vacation, for a jury ; and the court or 
justice shall issue a warrant for a jury to be empanelled by 
the sheriff within fourteen days from the issuing of the war- 
rant, in like manner as is provided in chapter forty-nine in 
regard to the laying out of highways ; or, instead thereof, if the 
applicant so elects, and after such notice as the court or jus- 
tice shall order to the adverse party or parties, shall direct a 
trial to be had at the bar of the superior court, in the same 
manner as other civil cases are there tried by jury. 

Sect. 44. The court or justice, on granting the applica- 
tion for a jury, may issue an injunction restraining the further 
use of such engine or furnace until the final determination of 
the application. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 55 

Sect. 45. The jury may find a verdict either affirming or g.s. ss, §37. 
annulling the order in full, or making alterations therein ; 
which verdict shall be returned by the sheriff, if the trial is 
had before him, to the next term of the court for acceptance, 
as in the case of highways ; and the verdict, whether before 
the sheriff or in the superior court, when accepted, shall take 
effect as an original order. 

Sect. 46. If the order is affirmed, costs shall be recovered verdict of jury. 

... . , 1. ./... 111 G.S. SS, § 38. 

by the city or town against the applicant ; it it is annulled, 
damages and costs shall be recovered by the applicant against 
the city or town ; and if it is altered, the court may render 
such judgment as to costs as to justice shall appertain. 

Sect. 47. ]S T o stationary engine, propelled by steam or stationary en- 
other motive power, shall be hereafter erected or put up for W hen, etc. 
use in a city or town in which this section, or chapter seventy- 1S62 -" 4 > §5 i-s- 
four of the statutes of the year eighteen hundred and sixty- 
two, has been adopted in the manner provided in section forty 
of this chapter, within five hundred feet of a dwelling-house 
or public building, unless a license theiefor has been first 
granted and recorded in a manner herein provided. 

Sect. 48. A steam-engine or furnace erected or used con- steam-engines, 
trary to the provisions of the eight preceding sections shall be g-.s. ss, § 40. 
deemed a common nuisance ; and the mayor and aldermen or 1862_74 ' § 2 - 
selectmen may remove the same in the same manner as boards 
of health may remove nuisances under sections twenty-one, 
twenty-two, and twenty-three of chapter eighty. 

Sect. 49. The fire commissioners of the city of Boston, May beex- 
the mayor and aldermen of any other city, or the selectmen of f or bidden. 
a town, or any person by them authorized, may, after notice G f ■ 8S ', § 41, 
to the parties interested, examine any steam-engine or steam- 
boiler therein, whether fixed or portable ; and for that purpose 
may enter any house, shop or building ; and if upon exami- 
nation it appears probable that the use of such engine or boiler 
is unsafe, they may issue a temporary order to suspend such 
use ; and if, after giving to parties interested, so far as known, 
an opportunity to be heard, they adjudge such engine or 
boiler unsafe or defective or unfit to be used, they may pass a 
permanent order prohibiting the use thereof until it is ren- 



56 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



May be removed 
as nuisances. 
G.S. 88, § 42. 



Steam-boilers to 
have safety- 
plugs. 
G.S. 88, § 43. 



Penalty 
for removing 
safety-plugs. 
G.S. 80, § 44. 



Penalty for 
making boilers 
without safety- 
plugs. 
G.S. 88, § 45. 



dered safe. If, after notice to the owner or person having 
charge thereof, such engine or boiler is used contrary to either 
of such orders, it shall be deemed a common nuisance, with- 
out any other proof thereof than its use. 

Sect. 50. The fire commissioners, mayor and aldermen, 
and selectmen, may abate or remove a steam-engine or steam- 
boiler erected or used contrary to the provisions of the pre- 
ceding section in the same manner as boards of health may 
remove nuisances under sections twenty-one, twenty-two, and 
twenty-three of chapter eighty. 

Sect. 51. No person shall manufacture, set up, use or 
cause to be used, a steam-boiler, unless it is provided with a 
fusible safety-plug made of lead, or some other equally fusible 
material, and of a diameter of not less than one half an inch, 
placed in the roof of the fire-box, when a fire-box is used, and 
in all cases in a part of the boiler fully exposed to the action of 
the fire, and as near the top of the water line as any part of 
the fire surface of the boiler ; and for this purpose Ashcroft's 
" protected safety fusible plug" may be used. 

Sect. 52. Whoever, without just and proper cause, re- 
moves from a boiler the safety-plug thereof, or substitutes 
therefor any material more capable of resisting the action of 
the fire than the plug so removed, shall be punished by fine 
not exceeding one thousand dollars. 

Sect. 53. Whoever manufactures, sets up or knowingly 
uses or causes to be used for six consecutive days, a steam- 
boiler unprovided with a safety fusible plug, as described in 
section fifty-one, shall be punished by fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars. 



REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 



CHAPTER 48. 

OF THE REGULATION OF BUILDING. 

Section 1. The limits within which all buildings hereafter Building limits, 
erected shall be required to conform to the provisions of 
chapter three hundred and seventy-four of the statutes of the 
commonwealth of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-five, 
and of the acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto, 
are hereby established and defined as follows : All that por- 
tion of the city which is included within a line beginning at 
the intersection of the centre lines of Dover and Albany 
streets, and thence running east through the centre of said 
Dover street to the harbor commissioners' line ; thence by 
the said harbor commissioners' line around the northerly 
portion of the " city proper " to a point on Charles river at 
the intersection of said line with the boundary line between 
Brookline and Boston ; thence along said boundary line to 
the centre of Longwood avenue ; thence through the centre 
of said avenue to the centre of Bumstead lane ; thence 
through the centre of said lane to the centre of Ward street ; 
thence through the centre of said Ward Street to the 
centre of Parker street ; thence through the centre of 
said Parker street to the centre of Ruggles street ; thence 
through the centre of said Puggles street to the centre of 
Washington street ; thence through the centre of said Wash- 
ington street to a point opposite the centre of Palmer street ; 
thence through the centre of said Palmer street and through 
the centre of Eustis street to the centre of Hampden street; 
and thence through the centre of said Hampden street and the 
centre of Albany street to the point of beginning ; the said 
district being shown on a plan made by the city surveyor, 
dated June 28, 1881, and deposited in his office. 

Sect. 2. Outside the limits defined in the preceding sec- 
tion wooden buildings may be erected, subject to the fol- 
lowing restrictions and regulations : — 



58 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

Distance from A wooden building, to be used as a dwelling house, shall 
not exceed a height of forty-five feet, and the external side- 
walls of said building shall not be placed at a less distance 
than one foot and six inches from the line of the lot upon 
which the building is to be located, unless a brick external 
wall is substituted for wooden wall, and of a thickness pre- 
scribed by statute law regulating the erection of brick exter- 
nal walls. The brick walls above required shall be built up 
to the under side of the roof-covering, which shall be laid 
and embedded in mortar upon the walls. 
Distance be- Where a wooden building is already erected for dwelling 

hIu!es. We "' purposes upon an adjoining lot,' there shall be between the 
walls of the building erected and the one to be erected, if of 
wood, a clear open space of three feet between the said 
buildings. 
eiis to dwelling Wooden ells may be erected in connection with wooden 
buildings used for dwelling purposes, but the ell shall not 
exceed thirty feet in length, fifteen feet in width, nor be of a 
greater height than twenty-five feet, or of any other dimen- 
sion not in excess of the superficial area of four hundred and 
fifty square feet. Such ells may be built without the interven- 
tion of a brick wall between said ell and the main building. 
Party waiis in In the erection of wooden buildings in blocks of two or more 
blocks of two or } louses? to De occupied for dwelling purposes, the said buildings 
shall have intercepting brick walls not less than eight inches 
thick ; said brick walls to be carried up and lopped out twelve 
inches above the roof, and covered with metallic covering ; or 
they may, in the discretion of the inspector of buildings, be 
carried to the under side of the roof covering, which shall be 
laid and imbedded in mortar upon the walls. 
see Plate a. Wooden buildings to be used for other purposes than that 

Height and Q f a Celling house shall not exceed a height of fifty-five feet 

range of wooden o <■-> 

buildings other from the grade of the street, court, or place upon which the 
said building is to be erected ; and, if in a range of more than 
fifty feet, there shall be constructed an intercepting brick 
wall, not less than twelve inches thick and carried up to a 
height of twelve inches above the roof, and the said wall to 
be covered with metallic covering. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 59 

A wooden building to be used for any purpose other than Distance be- 

n . . tween other 

that of a dwelling house shall not be erected or placed at a than dwellings. 
less distance than ten feet from any other wooden building 
which is twenty-five feet or more in height, or at a less dis- 
tance than four feet from any other wooden building which 
is less than twenty-five feet in height. 

In no case shall the sills of any building referred to in this sais, how laid, 
section be laid below the grade of the street, unless by spe- 
cial permit of the inspector of buildings. 

Sect. 3. The restrictions contained in the preceding sec- Exemptions, 
tion shall not apply to buildings erected or placed at a dis- 
tance of fifty feet or more from any other building, and from 
any street, open or intended to be open for public passage, 
whether accepted by the city or not. 

Sect. 4. All wooden buildings shall be built upon secure Foundations for 
foundations of stone or brick, carried up to the surface of building8 . 
the ground. The foundation, if of brick, shall not be less seeriate b. 
than twelve inches thick, and laid in cement mortar ; if of 
rubblestone, it shall not be less than sixteen inches thick, 
when laid in cement mortar, and not less than twenty inches 
thick, when laid dry ; if of blockstone, it shall be not less 
than sixteen inches thick and laid in cement mortar. All 
foundations shall be laid upon solid ground not less than four 
feet below the surface which is exposed to frost, or upon 
piles or other solid substructure. Piles shall be driven to 
a firm and solid bearing, and the tops of all piles shall be cut 
off at or below a grade to be prescribed by the inspector of 
buildings. There shall be at least one row of piles, spaced 
not over three feet on centres, in the direction of the length 
of the wall. Piles shall be capped with footing-courses of 
stone. In the construction of workshops or other buildings 
of a like character or for temporary purposes, built upon 
soft or marshy land, the inspector may, in his discretion, 
permit the sills to be placed upon mud-sills or blocking, or 
upon piles cut to height of grade. 

Sect. 5. All wooden buildings shall be built with posts, Framing, etc., 
girts and plates, properly mortised, tenoned, braced and rf^, *^ 8 * 8 ' 
pinned in, each story, and supported by suitable studding, See Plate c. 



60 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Terms. 



Permits 
required. 



Penalties. 



the studs to be not more than thirty-two inches apart, the 
posts and girts to be not less than four by eight inches or 
equivalent thereto, except that the foregoing dimensions for 
posts and girts shall not apply to buildings not exceeding four 
hundred feet in area, and less than fifteen feet in height. 

Sect. 6. No wooden building now erected, or hereafter 
to be erected, shall be altered, raised, roofed, enlarged, or 
otherwise built upon, in any manner contrary to the terms 
of the five preceding sections. 

Sect. 7. No wooden building shall hereafter be erected 
without a permit being first obtained from the inspector of 
buildings ; and no alteration of or addition to any such build- 
ing shall be made without such permit. 

Sect. 8. Whoever violates any of the provisions of the 
seven preceding sections, and neglects for twenty -four hours, 
after written notice from the inspector of buildings, served 
upon him personally, or posted conspicuously upon the build- 
ing erected or in process of erection, alteration or repair in 
violation of said provisions, to alter said building in con- 
formity with the provisions of this chapter, shall be liable to 
a penalty of not less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars, 
and to a like penalty for every day's continuance of such vio- 
lation. 

Sect. 9. Whoever intends to erect or to make alterations 

in a building of any description, within ten feet of a public 

street of the city, shall, fifteen days at least before he pro- 
proposed build- 
ing or alteration, ceeds to build or erect the same, or to lay the foundation 

thereof, or to make the said alterations, or to do any act for 
carrying into execution his intention to do such things, give 
to the inspector of buildings, notice in writing of his inten- 
tion, with the dimensions of the structure proposed, the 
materials to be used, the number on the street or the precise 
location, and the name of the owner or owners of the land, 
in order that any encroachment or other injury or inconven- 
ience to the public streets which might otherwise happen, 
may be thereby prevented ; and in default thereof the city 
shall be discharged from all damages, of any nature whatso- 
ever, resulting from the failure to give notice as above pro- 



Fifteen days' 
notice to be 
given 
inspector of 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



61 



Number of 
assistant 



vided, particularly from all such damages or expenses as 
have been enhanced or occasioned by reason of anything 
done previously to or without such notice. 

Sect. 10. The number of assistant inspectors of build- 
ings provided for in section three of chapter three hundred inspectors 
and seventy-four of the statutes of the commonwealth of the 
year eighteen hundred and eighty-five shall be twenty. 

Sect. 11. During the recess of the Common Council in 
the months of July and August in each year, a Joint Stand- 
ing Committee of the City Council, thereunto authorized, 
may allow the erection of wooden buildings and wooden ad- 
ditions of a range or size greater than allowed by the " Re- 
vised Ordinances of 1885," upon such terms and conditions 
as said committee may deem expedient. 



NOTES. 

Section 1 of Chapter 48 is authorized by Statute 1885, Chapter 374, Sec- 
tion 21. 

Sections 2 to 8, inclusive, of this chapter are authorized by Statute 1875, 
Chapter 374, Section 20. 

As to the validity of such ordinances as are contained in this chapter, see 
Salem vs. Maynes, 123 Mass., 372. 

The principal act in force regulating the inspection and construction of 
buildings in the city of Boston is Statute 1885, Chapter 374. 

By this statute the following statutes relating to the same subject were 
repealed : — 



1871, 


Chapter 


280. 


Statute 


1872, 


Chapter 


260. 


1872, 


" 


371. 


a 


1872, 


u 


377. 


1873, 


c« 


298. 


cc 


1873, 


(( 


338. 


1876, 


u 


69. 


" 


1876, 


(( 


176. 


1882, 


<< 


101. 


(i 


1882, 


(< 


252, 








Sections 3, 4, 


and 7. 





It was intimated by Chief Justice Gray, in Quinn vs. Morse, 130 Mass., 
317, 321, that the provisions of the old provincial Statute 1692, Chapter 13, 
relative to the building of party walls in Boston, had never been repealed 
and were still in force, but it has been since decided in Wilkinson vs. Jewett, 
139 Mass., 29, that those provisions have never been in force in the Common- 
wealth. 



62 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



CHAPTER 49, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 

OF THE REGULATION OF PLUMBING. 

plumbers Section 1. No person shall carry on the business of 

required to ^ 

register. plumbing unless he shall have first registered his name and 

place of business in the office of the inspector of buildings : 
and notice of any change in the place of business of a regis- 
tered plumber shall be immediately given to said inspector. 

Notices to be Sect. 2. Everv plumber, before doing any work in a 

filed and _ " . . 

plumbing building, shall, except in the case of the repair of leaks, file 

at the office of the said inspector, upon blanks to be provided 
for the purpose, a notice of the work to be performed ; and 
no such work shall be done in any building without the ap- 
proval of said inspector. 

Buildings to be Sect. 3. Every building shall be separately and inde- 

separately , 

connected with pendently connected with the public sewer, when such sewer 
is provide'd ; and, if such sewer is not provided, with a cess- 
pool of such material and capacity as shall be approved by 
the said inspector. 

Drains and Sect. 4. Drains and soil-pipes through which water and 

sewage is used and carried shall be of iron, wdien within a 
building, and for a distance of not less than five feet outside 
of the foundation walls thereof. They shall be sound, free 
from holes and other defects, of a uniform thickness of not 
less than one-eighth of an inch for a diameter of four inches 
or less, or five thirty-seconds of an inch for a diameter of 
five or six inches, with a proportional increase of thickness 
for a greater diameter. They shall be securely ironed to 
walls, laid in trenches to uniform grade, or suspended to 
floor-timbers by strong iron hangers, as the said inspector 
may direct. They shall be supplied with a suitable trap, 
placed, with an accessible clean-out, either outside or inside 
the foundation wall of the building. They shall have a 
proper fall towards the drain or sewer, and soil-pipes shall 
be carried out through the roof, open and undiminished in 
size, to such height as may be directed by the said inspector ; 
but no soil-pipe shall be carried to a height less than two 



soil-pipes. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 63 

feet above the roof. Changes in direction shall be made 
with curved pipes, and connections with horizontal pipes 
shall be made with Y branches. 

Sect. 5. Rain-water leaders, when connected with soil or Rainwater 
drain pipes, shall be suitably trapped. 

Sect. 6. Sewer, soil-pipe or waste-pipe ventilators shall ventilators. 
not be constructed of brick, sheet-metal or earthen- ware, and 
chimney-flues shall not be used as such ventilators. 

Sect. 7. Iron pipes before being put in place shall be iron pipes. 
first tested by the water or kerosene test, and then coated 
inside and out with coal-tar pitch, applied hot, or with paint, 
or with some equivalent substance. Joints shall be run 
with molten lead, and thoroughly calked and made tight. 
Connection of lead pipes with iron pipes shall be made with 
brass ferrules, properly soldered and calked to the iron. 

Sect. 8. Every sink, basin, bath-tub, water-closet, slop- Traps and 
hopper, and each set of trays, and every fixture having a pipea . 
waste-pipe, shall be furnished with a trap, which' shall be 
placed as near as practicable to the fixture that it serves. 
Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air-pressure by 
special air-pipes of a size not less than the waste-pipe ; but 
air-pipes for water-closet traps shall be of not less than two- 
inch bore for thirty feet or less, and of not less than three- 
inch bore for more than thirty feet. Air-pipes shall be run 
as direct as practicable, and shall be of not less than four- 
inch bore where they pass through the roof. Two or more 
air-pipes may be connected together or with a soil-pipe ; but 
in every case of connection with a soil-pipe such connection 
shall be above the upper fixture of the building. 

Sect. 9. Drip or overflow pipes from safes under water- Drip or 
closets and other fixtures, or from tanks or cisterns, shall be 
run to some place in open sight, and in no case shall any 
such pipe be connected directly with a drain, waste-pipe or 
soil-pipe. 

Sect. 10. "Waste-pipes from refrigerators, or other re- Waste-pipes, 
ceptacleo in which provisions are stored, shall not be con- 
nected with a drain, soil-pipe, or other waste-pipe, unless 
such waste-pipes are provided with traps, suitably ventilated, 



64 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Water-closet 
tanks. 



Pipes and 
fixtures not to 
be concealed. 



Plumbing to be 
tested. 



and in every case there shall be an open tray between the 
trap and refrigerator. 

Sect. 11. Every water-closet, or line of water-closets, on 
the same floor, shall be supplied with water from a tank or 
cistern, and the flushing-pipe shall not be less than one inch 
in diameter ; but this requirement shall not apply to water- 
closets substituted for vaults, where the same are located 
outside of the building proper, and water-closets may be ar- 
ranged so as to receive their supply directly from the main, 
with such fixtures as shall be approved by the inspector of 
buildings, and by the water board and the board of health. 

Sect. 12. Pipes and other fixtures shall not be covered or 
concealed from view until after the work has been examined 
by the said inspector, and he shall be notified by the plumber 
when the work is sufficiently advanced for inspection. 

Sect. 13. Plumbing work shall not be used unless the 
same has first been tested by the said inspector with the 
peppermint, ether, or water test, and by him found satisfac- 
tory. 
steam:exhausts. Sect. 14. ~No steam-exhaust shall be connected with any 
soil or waste pipe, or drain which communicates with a 
public sewer. 

Sect. 15. Water-pipes in places exposed to frost shall be 
packed with mineral wool, or other substance equally good, 
and they shall be cased to the satisfaction of the said in- 
spector. 

Sect. 16. A grease-trap shall be constructed under the 
sink of every hotel, eating-house, restaurant, or other public 
cooking establishments. 

Sect. 17. The provisions of sections three to thirteen in- 
clusive, and of section filteen, of this chapter, shall apply 
only to buildings erected, or to work performed, after the 
seventeenth day of March in the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-three. 



Water-pipes, 
how packed. 



Grease-traps. 



NOTE. 

Chapter 49 of the regulation of plumbing is authorized by Chapter 252, 
Section 2, of the Acts of 1882. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 65 



CHAPTER 1, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 

Section 5. Whoever violates a provision of any ordi- penalties, 
nance of the city, whether included in these Revised Ordi- 
nances or hereafter enacted, shall, unless other provision is 
expressly made, be liable to a penalty of not less than two 
nor more than fifty dollars for each offence. 

Sect. 6. When anything is prohibited in an ordinance, Person liable, 
not only the persons actually doing the prohibited thing, but 
also the employers and all other persons concerned therein, 
shall be liable to the penalty prescribed. 

Sect. 7. When in an ordinance anything is prohibited Definition of 
from being done without the license or permission of a cer- streets - 
tain officer or officers, such officer or officers shall have the 
power to license or permit such thing to be done. 

Sect. 8. The words " street " and " streets," when used 
in an ordinance, shall be construed as including alleys, lanes, 
courts, public squares, public places, and sidewalks, unless 
such construction would be inconsistent with the manifest 
intent of the ordinance. 



CHAPTER 23, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 

VAULTS AND DRAINS. 

Section 19. The owner, agent, occupant or other per- Water . cl0sets 
son having the care of a building used as a dwelling, tene- must be pro " 

° ° ° vided and must 

ment or lodging house, or where persons are employed, be connected 
shall furnish the same with one or more suitable water-clos- ^e^etc. 
ets, or where such building is located on a street in which 
there is no public sewer, with a suitable privy, the vault of 
which shall be built in a manner hereinafter prescribed, and 
shall be of a capacity proportionate to the number of inhab- 
itants of such building or of those having occasion to use 
such privy. Every such building situated on a street in 
which there is a sewer shall have water-closets, and shall not 
have a cesspool or privy connected with it, except where, in 
the opinion of the board of health, it can be allowed to re- 



moil sewer. 



66 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

main for a longer time, and then only as said board shall 
approve. And whoever neglects to comply with the pro- 
visions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of not less 
than live nor more than one hundred dollars, or by confine- 
ment in the House of Correction not exceeding sixty days. 
Vaults, how Sect. 20. Every privy vault shall be made of brick and 

constructed. lini c • c j i • 1 

cement, and shall be ot a capacity ot at least eighty cubic 
feet, and the inside thereof shall be at least two feet distant 
from the line of any adjoining lot, unless by the consent of 
the owner of such lot, and at the same distance from any 
street or public or private passage-way ; and every vault 
shall be so constructed as to be conveniently approached, 
opened and cleaned, and shall be made tight, so that the 
contents thereof cannot escape therefrom. 
ah sewage Sect. 21. All waste-water and all matter discharged 

matter to be o 

drained to com. from water-closets shall be conveyed through sufficient 
drains, under ground, to a common sewer, or to such reser- 
voir, sunk under ground, as may be approved by the in- 
spector of buildings ; and no person shall suffer waste or 
stagnant water to remain in a cellar or upon a lot or vacant 
ground owned or occupied by him. 



CHAPTER 28, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 

USE AND OCCUPATION OF STREETS. 

Laws, etc., re- Section 3. The inspector of buildings shall see that all 

lating to use of . . 

streets for build- statutes, ordinances, orders and regulations, respecting the 
be g enforc°ed b° use or occupation of portions of streets for the purpose of 
inspector of erecting, altering, repairing or removing buildings, are ob- 

building. *- 

served and enlorced. 
Permits for Sect. 7. Whoever desires to occupy or use a portion of 

use of steets for . . „ . ., ,. . ■■ 

building pur- a street for the erection or repair of a building upon land 
pose * abutting thereon shall make application to the inspector of 

buildings, who, subject to the consent of the superintendent 
of streets, may grant permits for the occupation or use, for 
building purposes, of such portions of streets, and for such 
periods of time, and under such limitations and restrictions, 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 67 

as may be required by ordinance or by the public conven- 
ience ; and any such permit may be revoked by the said in- 
spector at any time when the holder thereof fails to comply 
with any rule or regulation under which it was granted, or 
when, in the opinion of the said inspector, the public good 
requires such revocation. No part of a street other than 
that so allotted shall be used for depositing materials for 
work to be done or for receiving rubbish arising from such 
work, and all such rubbish shall be carried away, by the per- 
son or persons to whom the permit is granted, at such con- 
venient times as the said superintendent of streets or the 
said inspector may direct ; "and, in case of the neglect or re- 
fusal of such person or persons so to remove such rubbish, 
it shall be removed at their expense by the superintendent of 
streets. 

Sect. 8. When a permit is granted under the preceding Fence and 
section the portion of a street thereby allotted shall be e n- lights 1 tokpM 

1 J up when streets 

closed with a sufficient fence, which shall be maintained dur- are so used, 
ing the whole time for which the occupation of such portion 
of the street continues, and a lighted lantern or lanterns, or 
some other proper and sufficient lights, shall be fixed to some 
part or parts of such fence, or in some other proper manner, 
and such lanterns or lights shall be kept lighted from the be- 
ginning of twilight through the whole of every night during 
such occupation ; and the person to whom such permit is 
granted shall also be required to erect and maintain, during 
his said occupancy of the public street, a way for the use of 
foot-passengers, at such time and in such manner as the said 
inspector shall direct. 

Sect. 9. Whoever maliciously or wantonly, and with- Penalty for 
out legal cause, extinguishes or diminishes a light fixed in JJJJJJ t^'nt"^ 
accordance with the provisions of section six or of section 
eight shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten nor 
more than fifty dollars. 

Sect. 10. Whoever violates any of the provisions of sec- renames for vio. 
tion seven or section eight shall be liable to a penalty of not .itaV^ 
less than two nor more than fifty dollars for each offence, and 
to a like penalty for every day's continuance of such offence. 



68 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Cellar doorway 
not to project 
into street. 



Safe passage for 
public travel to 
be maintained. 



Penalty for 
neglecting so to 
do. 



Projections into 
streets not 
allowed. 



Penalty. 



Obstruction of 
streets not 
allowed. 



Peualty. 



Sect. 11. No person shall, without a license from the 
board of aldermen, construct or maintain a cellar-door or 
cellar-doorway in a sidewalk, or projecting into a street, or 
construct an entrance or flight of steps descending immedi- 
ately from a street into a cellar or into the basement story 
of a building for the purpose of being kept open as an en- 
trance, and all such cellar-doors, door-ways, and steps as 
may be licensed by said board shall be constructed in such 
manner as said board may direct. 

Sect. 18. Whoever is duly licensed or permitted to oc- 
cupy a part of a street, or while erecting, repairing a build- 
ing, or making an excavation, or for any other purpose, shall 
provide a safe and convenient passage for public travel 
around or over the obstruction so caused, and shall be re- 
sponsible to the city for all injuries sustained in consequence 
of his neglect so to do, and shall be liable to a penalty of not 
less than two nor more than fifty dollars for each day's con- 
tinuance of such neglect ; and he shall at any time, when re- 
quested by the superintendent of streets, or by a police 
officer, exhibit his license or permit for such occupation. 

Sect. 19. Whoever constructs or places, or causes to 
be constructed or placed, a portico, porch, door, window 
or step projecting into a street, except in accordance with 
the provisions of the statutes of the commonwealth, shall be 
liable to a penalty of not less than four nor more than fifty 
dollars for each offence, and to a like penalty for each day 
that such portico, porch, door, window or step is continued 
as aforesaid, after notice to remove the same, given by the 
board of aldermen, or by some person authorized by said 
board to give such notice. 

Sect. 33. Whoever, without permission of the board of 
aldermen, obstructs a street by placing a building therein, 
or moves a building through or upon a street, and whoever 
aids and assists in so obstructing a street or moving a build- 
ing, shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten nor 
more than fifty dollars, and to a like penalty for every 
twelve hours that such obstruction may continue, or that 
such building may remain in or upon a street. 



DIGEST OE BUILDING LAWS. 69 



ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS. 

1 . The cover of li ydrants must be kept clear of all build- H y drant cover 

^ to be kept clear. 

ing materials or rubbish, and easy access to such hydrants 
from the road- way must be provided. 

2. If brick, stone or other building materials are placed Gutters to be 

° kept clear. 

within the allotted space, they must be so placed as to allow 
the free passage of water in the gutter underneath the same. 

A violation of either of the above regulations will be suffi- Penalty for such 

. neglect. 

cient to cause an immediate revocation of a permit. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CONSTRUCTION AND 
PROJECTION OF ELECTRIC LIGHTS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

No. 1. The framework to support said lights shall be construction. 
constructed of iron, and of such size as the inspector of build- 
ings shall approve. 

No. 2. The height of said framework shall not be less than Height from 
nine and one-half feet from the sidewalk to the lowest point. 81 ewa 

No. 3. The said framework shall not project farther Projection from 
from the building than a point two and one-half feet within 
the outer line of the curbstone. 

No. 4. The location, workmanship, material and manner Materialand 

# , , workmanship. 

of securing said lights to be approved by the inspector of 
buildings. 

NOTES. 

Section 11. Cellar-doors in Boston are partially regulated by St. 1799, 
c. 31, § 4. 

Sect. 19. The construction of bow-windows, etc., from buildings into 
streets is now controlled mainly by chap. 374, sect. 27 — 1885. See also 
P. S., chap. 28, sect. 24. The earlier provisions of Stat. 1779, chap. 31, 
sect. 5, are apparently now obsolete. An ordinance similar to this section 
was held to be valid in Commonwealth vs. Goodnow, 117 Mass., 114. But 
as to its validity under P. S., chap. 28, sect 24, so far as concerns porticos, 
porches or steps see Cushing vs. Boston, 128 Mass., 330; also, s. c, 122, 
Mass., 172, and 124 Mass., 434. Violation of an ordinance like this section 
does not confer a right of action upon an individual. Jenks vs. Williams, 
115 Mass., 217. 

Sect. 33. See also on the subject of this section P. S., chap. 53, sect. 17; 
Rev. Reg. of aldermen, chap. 5, and Day vs. Green, 4 Cushing, 433, 437. If 
a building is moved through the streets without a permit, it seems that such 
building may be treated as a public nuisance. See Pike vs. Brimmer, 9 Law 
Reporter, 221. 



REVISED STANDING REGULATIONS OF THE BOARD 
OF ALDERMEN. 



CHAPTER 5. 



Applications, 
how made. 



Applications, 
form of. 



Written consent 
of inspector of 
buildings and 
railroad corpo- 
rations re- 
quired. 



Permits to be 
granted only to 
practical build- 
ing-movers. 

Bonds for 
damages to be 
filed. 



Shade trees, fire- 
alarm wires and 
lamps not to be 
disturbed. 



OF THE MOVING OF BUILDINGS IN PUBLIC STREETS. 

Section 1 . All applications for moving buildings through 
the streets of the city shall be made to the board of alder- 
men, and referred to a committee for consideration and re- 
port. 

Sect. 2. Every such application shall state the location 
of the building proposed to be moved, its length, width, 
height, and the principal material of its exterior sides and of 
its roof; and shall definitely describe the route over which 
it is to be moved and the length of time that will be required 
to move it. 

Sect. 3. Every such application shall be accompanied 
by the written consent of the inspector of buildings, to the 
placing of the building on the lot proposed ; and also by the 
written consent of all railroad corporations whose tracks are 
to be crossed or encumbered by the moving of the building. 

Sect. 4. Permits for the moving of buildings shall be 
granted only to practical building-movers, who are known 
to be engaged in such business. 

Sect. 5. Before such a permit is issued, the building- 
mover to whom it is granted shall have filed with the city 
clerk a bond in a sum not less than one thousand dollars and 
with two or more sureties, one of whom shall be the owner 
of the building, to indemnify and save harmless the city 
from all damages which may be caused to persons or prop- 
erty by reason of the moving of the building. 

Sect. 6. No shade tree shall be removed or the branches 
thereof cut or trimmed in order to facilitate the moving of a 
building, except by the written consent of the board of 
aldermen ; no fire-alarm telegraph wire shall be cut for said 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 71 

purpose, except by the written consent of the board of fire 
commissioners ; and no street lamp or lamp-post shall be re- 
moved for said purpose, except by the written consent of 
the superintendent of lamps. 

NOTE. 
By P. S., chap. 53, sect. 17, and P. S., chap. 28, sect. 2, the moving of 
buildings through the streets of cities, except by the written permission of 
the board of aldermen, is forbidden. 



CHAPTER 6. 



OF COAL-HOLES AND VAULTS UNDER SIDEWALKS. 



excavations or 

gs in 
streets or under 



Section 1. The superintendent of streets may issue the Licenses for 

t • c c • excava^" 

licenses mentioned in section five of chapter twenty-eight openin 
of the Revised Ordinances, for the makinsr of excavations or . 

o sidewalks, how 

openings in streets or under sidewalks, and all such licenses issued and 

rtivoliticl. 

shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter, a copy of 
which shall be printed on each license, and a violation of any 
of said provisions shall work a forfeiture of all privileges 
granted by the license. All such licenses may at any time 
be revoked by the board of aldermen. 

Sect. 2. No such license shall be granted, except upon Applications for 

such licenses, 



© etc. 



an application in writing, signed by the applicant and setting 
forth the dimensions of the proposed excavation or opening 
and the purpose for which it is to be used ; and the appli- 
cant shall also be required to sign, before the license is 
granted, an agreement to conform on his part to all the pro- 
visions and requirements of this chapter. 

Sect. 3. Every coal-hole and vault under a sidewalk CoaIhole9and 

vaults under 

shall be constructed as follows : The outer wall next to the sidewalks, how 
carriage-way or road-way shall be formed of heavy granite, 8°^^"* 
of not less than two and one-half feet in thickness, and shall 
be laid with good cement, and no part thereof shall project 
beyond the edgestone ; the sides shall be at least one foot 
thick, and composed of good hard bricks or granite blocks, 
laid in cement mortar ; the top shall be formed either by a 
brick arch or arches turned in a good and substantial man- 



72 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Owners liable 
for injurir s 
caused by de- 
fective coal- 
holes or vaults. 



Occupants of 
estates liable for 
injuries caused 
by insecure 
covering to coal- 
hole or vault. 



Boilers, fur- 
naces, water- 
closets, etc., not 
to be located 
under side- 
walks. 



ner, or by rough-hammered granite at least one foot thick, 
or by bluestone or North-river flagstone at least six inches 
thick, or by iron and glass, or rough surface iron, similar in 
character to the " Hyatt Light," so called. Each coal-hole 
or vault thus constructed shall not exceed eleven feet in 
depth, measuring from the top of the sidewalk. The open- 
ing in a sidewalk over a coal-hole or vault shall not exceed 
eighteen inches in diameter, and shall be covered with a 
substantial iron plate with a rough surface to prevent acci- 
dents. The entire construction of all coal-holes or vaults 
shall be subject to the direction and supervision of the su- 
perintendent of streets, or of such other person as the board 
of aldermen may designate. When a coal-slide is placed in 
a sidewalk it shall be constructed with at least eight-inch 
brick walls, laid in good cement mortar, and the whole shall 
be covered as before mentioned. 

Sect. 4. The owner and tenant of the estate in front of 
which a coal-hole or vault is constructed shall be responsible 
to the city for any and all damages to persons or property in 
consequence of any defect in the construction of such coal- 
hole or vault, or by means of the same or any portion thereof 
being allowed to remain out of repair ; and such owner and 
tenant shall be required to keep the said coal-hole or vault 
and its walls and coverings in £ood order at all times. 

Sect. 5. The occupant of the estate in front of which a 
coal-hole or vault is constructed shall be responsible to the 
city for any and all damages occasioned to persons or prop- 
erty in consequence of the opening in the sidewalk being 
left uncovered, or from the covering thereof being left inse- 
sure or unfastened ; and such occupant shall be required to 
keep such coal-hole or vault cover in good order and safe 
for public travel over the same. 

Sect. 6. No boiler, steam-shaft, furnace, or steam-pipe, 
and no cesspool, privy, or water-closet shall be constructed 
or located for use in a coal-hole or vault under a sidewalk, 
and no explosive substance or inflammable oil shall be stored 
in such a coal-hole or vault, and no such coal-hole or vault 
shall be ventilated into a street. 



DIGEST OE BUILDING LAWS. 73 

Sect. 7. Any excavation under a sidewalk, whether Board of alder - 

■,, . 1 ay men, after pro- 

licensed or not, shall, alter one weeks notice to that effect, per notice, may 

given bv the board of aldermen, be closed and filled up at close up any /*" 

o- «/ ' A cavations under 

the owner's expense. a sidewalk. 

Sect. 8. When a coal-hole or vault under a sidewalk, Board of aider. 

, . . , n . -in. j men may order 

or when an opening constructed in a sidewalk, is not cov- coal _ hol g S and 
ered or secured as provided in section three, or is in the vaultsnot 

properly 

opinion of the board of aldermen unsafe or inconvenient for covered to be 
the public travel, the said board may order the same to be remove ■ 
removed, and a suitable one to be put in its place; and if 
such order is not complied with within ten days from the 
service thereof on the owner or tenant of the premises, or 
other person having the care thereof, the superintendent of 
streets shall make the required change at the expense of 
such owner, tenant, or other person having the care of the 
premises. 

Sect. 9. No person shall leave a coal-hole, excavation coai-noies, etc., 

., •• • -i ii /» , i • . i not to be left 

or other opening in a sidewalk open or unfastened in the n 
daytime, unless while it is in use by some person or persons 
actually attending the same, nor after sunset in any case. 

Sect. 10. An excavation or opening made under a li- Not to be used 
cense shall not, without the consent in writing of the super- po'se thin*"" 
intendent of streets, be used for any other purpose than that licensed for - 
stated in the application, and every license may at any time 
be revoked by the board of aldermen. 



NOTE. 

Sect. 6. P. S., chap. 102, sect. 47, authorizes the board of aldermen to 
license and regulate the use of steam-engines. See Alter vs. Dodge, 140 
Mass., 594. 

CHAPTER 7. 

OF HOISTING GOODS AND SAFES OVER SIDEWALKS. 

Section 1. When goods or merchandise are raised or public to be 
lowered over a street, by virtue of a license from the board J noUcted b f 

' ^ barriers, when 

of aldermen, good and sufficient barriers shall be placed hoisting or 
across the sidewalk, from the wall of the building from 



74 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

which they are so raised or lowered to the curbstone of the 
sidewalk, on each side of the goods or merchandise so raised 
or lowered, and such barriers shall be kept in their places 
during the Avhole time the work of raising or lowering is in 
progress, so as to protect travellers from injury or danger. 
Time limit for Sect. 2. The sidewalk shall not be encumbered by such 

hoisting or > *■ 

lowering goods, goods or merchandise, or by the raising or lowering thereof, 

for more than fifteen minutes at any one time. 
Licensed parties Sect. 3. All persons licensed to raise or lower goods out- 

to indemnify the . , 

city. side of buildings shall indemnify and save the city harmless 

against all damages, costs and expenses to which it shall be 
subjected on account of their acts under such license. 

Licenses may be Sect. 4. Every such license maybe revoked at the pleas- 
ure of the board of aldermen. 

inspector of Sect. 5. The inspector of buildings may grant permits to 

buildings to •,ii , • i i p • . n <• i-ii 

suitable persons to raise and lower safes into and from build- 
ings in the streets of the city, and to occupy in so doing such 
portions of the streets as the said inspector may deem neces- 
sary, subject to such conditions and regulations as he may 
prescribe for the safety and convenience of the public. 



grant permits 
for hoisting or 
lowering safes 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 75 



CITY OF BOSTON. 

In Board of Aldermen, Jan'y 23, 1888. 
Ordered, That the Inspector of Buildings be authorized, 
under the direction of the Committee on the Department for 
the Inspection of Buildings on the part of this Board, to issue 
permits for electric, gas, or oil lamps, or lights to be at- 
tached to buildings, where the same may be demanded by 
the owners or lessees thereof, at such height from the side- 
walks and at such distance from the buildings as the public 
safety and convenience may require, said lamps or lights to 
be in each instance plain and unlettered. 

Passed. 

Approved by the Mayor, Jan. 25, 1888. 
A true copy. 

Attest : 

JOHN T. PRIEST, 

Asst. City Clerk. 



THICKNESS OF WALLS. 



FOUNDATIONS. 



DWELLINGS, ETC. 

35' high or less — 18" block stone. 

16" brick, laid in cement. 
35' to 65' — 24" block stone. 

20'' brick, laid in cement. 
Every additional 15' — 4" thicker. 

OTHER THAN DWELLINGS, ETC. 

Block stone — 8" thicker than walls over same. 

EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS. 

DWELLINGS, ETC. 

20' X 40' — 30' high, 8". 

60' or less in height — 12" entire height. 

60' to 70' — 16" top 2d floor, 12" above. 

70' to 80' — 20" top 2d floor, 16" top upper floor (12" above), 

if the upper story is not more than 10' in height. 
80' to 100' — 24" 2d floor, 16' above. 
100' and over, as required by Inspector. 

EXTERNAL WALLS. 

OTHER THAN DWELLINGS, ETC. 

40' or less — 16" 2d floor, 12" above. 
40' to 60'— 20" 2d floor, 16" upper floor, 12" above. 
60' to 80' — 20" 3d floor, 16" upper floor, 12" above. 
80' to 100' — 24" 1st floor, 20" 3d floor, 16" above. 
100' or over, as Inspector requires. 

PARTY WALLS. 

OTHER THAN DWELLINGS, ETC. 

40' or less — 16" top 2d floor, 12" above. 

40' to 65' — 20" 2d floor, 16" above. 

65' to 80' — 24" 1st floor, 20" 3d floor, 16" above. 

80' to 100' — 24" 3d floor, 20" 5th floor, 16" above. 



INDEX TO DIAGRAMS. 



PILING. 

Plate. Section. 
And grade for cutting off same la 32 

FOUNDATIONS. 

Under isolated piers, columns, posts, and pillars . . . . 1 34. 

Under piers, columns, posts, and pillars for the support of continuous 

wall 2 34 

Under external walls of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, 

and lodging houses, 40 feet to 100 feet high 3 35 

Under party walls of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and 

lodging houses, 40 feet to 100 feet high 4 35 

Under brick buildings used for dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 35 

feet to 60 feet high 5 36 

Under brick buildings used for dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses 

exceeding 60 feet, but not exceeding 75 feet high 6 36 

Party walls to be built one foot above roofs, and covered with metal. ... 7 42 

EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS. 

Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 20 feet by 40 feet, and 30 feet 

high 8 44 

Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 30 feet to 60 feet high 9 44 

Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 60 feet to 70 feet high 10 44 

Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 80 feet high 11 44 

Of dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 100 feet high 12 44 

EXTERNAL WALLS. 
Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 

feet and 60 feet high 13 45 

Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 80 

feet and 100 feet high 14 45 

PARTY WALLS. 
Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 40 

feet and 65 feet high 15 59 

Of brick buildings other than dwelling, tenement, and lodging houses, 80 

feet and 100 feet high 16 52 

CHIMNEYS, ETC. 

Chimneys, headers, trimmers, metal fire-stops, etc., construction of 17 74 

Open fire-places, trimmer arches, etc., construction of . 18 74 & 75 

FIRE-STOPS. 

Fire-stops at floors, ceilings, and walls, construction of 19 102 

Fire-stops in partitions and stairways 20 102 

Fire-stops — transverse section, showing location of, and their necessity for 

impeding the progress of fire 21 102 

CHAPTER 48— REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1885. 

Distances required between wooden buildings and construction of party 

walls in blocks of two or more . ....... A 2 

Foundations for wooden buildings ........ B 4 

Framing, plan of, size of posts, girts, etc. ...... C 5 



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M.W.r. Del. 



PLATE 13 




so 



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M.W.f. 0*). 






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PLATE. 15. 



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plate: 16 



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l>ers f headers cc7iUj7%77z7Jie7^, mtJttl fire sfofo. 
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M.YY.R Del. 



PLATE 



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fVVW.F. Oel. PLATE. 18 



Sectioit /o2. — 



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tSccTloiv sJiau/vntf 6e?zefil~ cferwicO from, 
7'he use of fire 6etfs anctsfojos. on floors etc. 
slow ctosTrticTfoTij tru case cffire- 

Sections /02-/03 _ 




Jrawuerje section. 



M.W F. Del. 



PLATE. 2\\ 



^r 



i 
i 



*** 






■*■ 



Section % — 



* 







• Si 



■*- 



4 



■*■ 



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Oflier Than J)u/e llu ic/s. Du/ellu iqs. 





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M.W.FOel. 



LATE A 



— Chc t ]o.48_. Seo7:4- TfeotsectOTctlizcozces . - 



hi 

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[M.W.F, Del 





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PLATE B. 



M 




Chcdo. 48. Seel' S. J f eccsed O rctaz ctizces , 



m 



siii. 



I 



i 



J>lcni -~ 



M.W.R Dal 



PLATEC 



(Dec, 1888, 20,000) 

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBKARY. 

not to be renewed ; P t be eel imed ? ne - vear > wit "^t fine; 
days, who will collect 20 renri km b ^ mes ^ en ^er after 21 
jncludin, Sunda^s^dlo rdays eS n d o?to n Ce° ent""^ Vty 

WsSSTSJffiXi^^r 1 ° r -varrantablv 
in the delivery of books P ' d a ' S ° an ^ undue del *y 

*** No claim can be established because of th* fo-i 
any not.ee, to or from the Library, SghV^Jtu^ °' 

The record below must not be made or altered b 7 borrower.