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Full text of "Digest of the statutes and of the ordinances relating to the construction, maintenance, and inspection of buildings in the City of Boston, 1895"

6> '■? ry; 6 7 



CITY OF BOSTON 



DIGEST 



STATUTES 



iND OF THE 



ORDINANCES 



RELATING TO THE 



CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE, AND INSPECTION 
OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON 



'» 



i 8 



9S 



*•>■ 



•■X 




\ 




B OSTO N 

ROCKWELL AND CHU '.CHILL, CITY PRINTERS 
- 3 9 5 



6355 
.67 
1895 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/digestofstatutes1895bost 



ORGANIZATION 



BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 



Builoittg Commissioner. 

JOHN S. DAMEELL 47 Hancock Street. 

(Klerft of ©rpartment. 

CHAELES S. DAMEELL . . . .47 Hancock Street. 



Organisation of Boarti of appeal. 

George R. Swasey {Chairman) 39 Court Street, Boston. 

Arthur G. Everett {Secretary) .... 60 Devonshire Street, Boston. 
William H. Sayward 166 Devonshire Street, Boston. 



ORGANIZATION. 



Builtimg Inspectors. 



Detailed on Construction. 

Hartford Davenport, Residence, 29 Hancock Street, near Columbia Street, Dorchester. 

District No. 1 includes Wards 1 and 2, Breed's Island, and Harbor. 
John T. Daly Residence, 107 Day Street, Roxbury. 

District No. 2 includes Wards 3, 4, and 5. 
George W. Griffin ..... Residence, 40 Pearl Street, Charlestown. 

District No. 3 includes Wards 6 and 8. 
John Kelley ..... Residence, 96 Bunker Hill Street, Charlestown. 

District No. 4 includes Wards 9, 10, and 11. 
William Frye ....... Residence, 8 Quincy Street, Roxbury. 

District No. 5 includes Ward 7. 
John B. Fitzpatrick .... Residence, 485 Main Street, Charlestown. 

District No. 6 includes Wards 13, 14, and 15, and that portion of Ward 16 north 
of Massachusetts Avenue. 
George McDonnell Residence, 29 Mercer Street, So. Boston. 

District No. 7 includes Wards 12, 17, and 18. 
John Currie Residence, 75 West Seventh Street, So. Boston. 

District No. 8 includes Wards 19, 21, and 22. 
Nahum M. Morrison .... Residence, 1 Morrison Street, West Roxbury. 

District No. 9 includes Ward 20, and that part of Ward 16 south of Massachu- 
setts Avenue. 
Henry L. Jones . . . Residence, Standish Street, near Harvard, Dorchester. 

District No. 10 includes Ward 24. 
Thomas A. Slater . . . . . . Residence, 104 West Concord Street. 

District No. 11 includes Ward 23. 
James H. Collins Residence, 40 Hancock Street, City Proper. 

District No. 12 includes Ward 25. 

Detailed on Plumbing. 

Matthew Walsh Residence, 32 Green Street, Charlestown. 

District No. 1 includes Wards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 
John J. Reagan .... Residence, 22 Sheridan Street, Jamaica Plain. 

District No. 2 includes Wards 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 25. 
Michael H. Hartnett .... Residence, 8 Batchelder Street, Dorchester. 

District No. 3 includes Wards 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 24. 
William B. Bothamly .... Residence, 298 Columbia Street, Dorchester. 

District No. 4 includes Wards 17, 21, 22, 23. 



ORGANIZATION. 5 

Detailed on Egress. 

Levi W. Shaw (Supervisor of Egress) . . Residence, 73 Chandler Street, Boston. 
District No. 1 comprises East Boston and all that portion of Boston commencing 
at Chelsea Ferry at the left-hand side of Hanover Street and Washington Street 
to the Hyde Park line. 

J. Homer Edgerlt Residence, 1413 Washington Street. 

District No. 2 includes Charlestown and all that portion of Boston commencing 
at Chelsea Ferry at the right-hand side of Hanover Street and Washington 
Street to Hyde Park line. 

Detailed on Inspection of Elevators and Steam Boilers. 

Abraham T. Rogers . . . Residence, 6 Robinwood Avenue, Jamaica Plain. 

District No. 1 includes East Boston and all that portion of Boston on the left- 
hand side of Hanover Street commencing at Chelsea Ferry and extending from 
said Hanover Street through Washington Street to the Hyde Park line. 

Patrick H. Costello Residence, 24 Smith Street, Roxbury 

District No. 2 includes Charlestown and, commencing at Chelsea Ferry, at foot of 
Hanover Street, all that portion of Boston on the right-hand side of said Han- 
over Street and Washington Street to Hyde Park line. 



Michael W. Fitzsimmons (Supervisor of Plans), Residence, 1G Sheridan Street, J. P. 
Detailed on Examination and approval of Plans, and Special Work. 



James J. Barry (Supervisor of Construction), Residence, 374 Centre St., Jamaica Plain. 
Detailed on Prosecutions and Special Work. 



Office, Old Court-House, Room 14. 



Office Hours From 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. 

Saturdays From 9 A.M. to 2 P.M. 



STATUTES 



KELATING TO 



INSPECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS 
IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



Commonfoealtjj of Jlassarijusrtts. 



CHAPTER 419 OF 1892. 

AN ACT RELATING TO THE CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE, 
AND INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF 
BOSTON. 

This Act was Approved June^l6, and went into effect July 16, 1892. 
CREATION OF DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. There shall be in the city of Boston a de- Building 
partment, to be called the building department, which shall ^ ™ 4 t, n j 894 
be furnished, at the expense of the city, with office room Seet.i. 

Chap. 449, 

and such supplies for the transaction of its business as the sect. 24, 1895. 
city council may provide. The compensation of its officers 
shall be provided for by said city by ordinance. 

CHIEF OFFICER OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

Sect. 2. The chief officer of said department shall be Qualifications 
called the building commissioner, and shall be either an arch- 8 i 0nei .. 
itect, builder, or civil engineer, and shall be appointed by 
the mayor and confirmed by the board of aldermen. He Termofoffice 
shall hold office for the term of three years or until his sue- S i 0ne r. 
cessor shall be appointed and confirmed, but may be re- Chap - 449 ' 

1 ' . J Seel. 24, 1895. 

moved by the mayor for malfeasance, incapacity, or neglect 
of duty. 

Note. — [Chapter 443, of 1894, amending Chapter 419, of 1892.] An act rela- 
tive to the construction and repair of buildings in the city of Boston. Went into 
effect July 1, 1894. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



OTHER OFFICERS. 

Term of office Segt. 3. The other officers of said department shall 

of clerk and . . _ , 

other officers, consist ot a clerk and such number ot building inspectors 
chap. 449, § 24, . lll( | c j v ji engineers as the city council may from time to 

1895. ° J j 

time by ordinance determine. All of said officers shall be 
appointed by the commissioner, with the approval of the 
mayor, and shall hold office during good behavior ; but may 
be removed by the commissioner, with the approval of the 
mayor, for malfeasance, incapacity, or neglect of duty. 

Sect. 4. None of the aforesaid officers of the department 
shall be employed or engaged in any other business, or be 
interested in any contract for building, or for furnishing 
materials to be used for building, in the city of Boston. 



CLERK OF DEPARTMENT. 

when deputy Sect. 5. In case of the temporary absence or disability 
pTintedT 1 '" of the commissioner, he may appoint one of the building in- 
ohap. 449, § 24, spectors as his deputy, and such deputy shall, during such 
absence or disability, exercise all the powers of the com- 
missioner. 
cierk to have flie c ] er k f the department shall, under the direction of 

management of . ...,., 

department. the commissioner, have supervision and direction of the other 
i895 P 449 ' § 24 ' °ffi cers an d employees of said department. 



Records to be 
kept and an an- 
nual report 
submitted to 
city council. 
Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 

Plans and speci- 
fications to be 
submitted. 



Record of vio- 
lations to be 
made. 

Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 



DUTIES OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

Sect. 6. The commissioner shall keep a record of the 
business of said department, submit to the city council a 
yearly report of such business, ascertain all facts and make all 
returns required by law relative to steam-boilers, and enter, 
if necessary, upon the premises wherein any fire hasoccurred, 
in order to investigate the origin of the fire. He may re- 
quire plans and specifications of any proposed erections or 
alterations of buildings, to be filed with him, and shall grant 
permits for such erections or alterations when in conformity 
with the requirements of this act. 

Sect. 7. The commissioner or his assistants shall examine 
all buildings in the course of erection or alteration, as often 
as practicable, and make a record of all violations of this act, 



DIGEST OFj BUILDING LAWS. 9 

with the street and number where such violations are found, 
with names of the owner, architect, and master mechanics, 
and all other matters relative thereto. 

Sect. 8. The commissioner or his assistants shall examine Records to be 

,.,.,-,. , j -i j tip • made of build- 

all buildings reported dangerous or damaged by fire or acci- ings damagcd 

dent, and make a record of such examinations, stating the by fire or acci " 

. /. i i , /. de- 

nature and amount ot such damage, the name of the street chap. 449, § 24, 

and number of the building, with names of the owner and oc- ls95 ' 
cupant, and the purpose for which it is occupied, and in case 
of fire the probable origin thereof; shall examine all build- 
ings for which applications have been made for permits to 
raise, enlarge, alter, build upon, or tear down, and make a 
record of such examination. The records required by this 
section shall always be open to the inspection of the en- 
gineers of the fire department or any officer of the city, and 
of any other parties the value of whose property may be 
affected by the matters to which such records relate. 

Sect. 9. The building inspectors shall attend all fires Building in- 
occurring in the districts to which they are respectively ^nTfires. 
assigned; shall report to the chief or assistant engineer of Cha P- m > § 24 » 
the fire department, and present all information they may 
have relative to the construction and condition of the prem- 
ises on fire, and of the adjoining buildings. 

Sect. 10. It shall be the duty of the engineers, upon the Engineers to 

n , 1 .. /. . 1 i -1^ 11 • make computn- 

request ot the commissioner or ot the board of appeal herein- tion80 f strength 
after provided, to make all necessary computations as to the of materials, 
strength of materials, and to furnish expert assistance with chap.449, §24, 
regard to the mode of construction of any building subject 1895, 
to the provisions of this act. 



PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

Sect. 11. The commissioner shall not give a permit for the nans and epeci- 
erection of any building until he has carefully inspected the ncV^ndingrto 
plans and specifications thereof, ascertained that the build- befiled - 

. . . Chap. 449, § 24, 

inghas sufficient strength, and that the means of ingress and 1895. 
egress are sufficient. A copy of the plans and specifications 
of every public building shall be deposited in the office of the 
commissioner. The commissioner may require any applicant 



10 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



for a permit to give notice of the application to any persons 
whose interests may be affected by the proposed work. 



To consist of 



Term of office 



BOARD OF APPEAL. 

Creation of Sect. 12. There shall be in said Boston a board, to be 

ch^.^gfni! called the board of appeal from the building commissioner, 
1895. which board shall consist of three members, to be appointed 

as follows : 

One person, who shall be appointed by the mayor, with 
the approval of the board of aldermen, and who shall hold 
his office for three years from the date of his appointment. 

One architect, who shall be appointed, with the approval 
of the mayor, by the Boston chapter of the American So- 
ciety of Architects, such appointment being duly certified 
by the proper recording officer of said chapter, and who 
shall hold his office for two years from the date of his 
appointment. 

One master builder, who shall be appointed, with the ap- 
proval of the mayor, by the Master Builders' Association, 
such appointment being duly certified by the proper record- 
ino- officer of such association, and who shall hold his office 
for one year from the date of his appointment. The terms 
of the several members of said board shall be three years 
each, after the expiration of the first terms. 

Any member of said board may be removed by the mayor 
for malfeasance, incapacity, or neglect of duty. Each mem- 
ber of said board shall be paid by the city a compensation 
of five dollars for each hour of actual service, but not ex- 
ceeding one thousand dollars per annum. The reasonable 
expenses of said board, including clerical assistance and 
office expenses if required, shall be paid by the city of 
Boston. No member of said board shall sit in a case in 
which he is interested, and in case of such disqualification, 
or of the necessary absence of any member, the two other 
members shall appoint a substitute. If two or more mem- 
24, hers are so disqualified or absent, the commissioner shall ap- 
point one substitute, the appellant another, and the two so 
appointed shall, if necessary, appoint a third. 



Compensation 
of. 



Chap. 449, 
1895. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. ^ 

Sect. 13. Any applicant for a permit from the building Whena PP eai B 
commissioner required by this act, whose application has been may be made " 
refused, or any person who|has been ordered by the commis- Section 2, chap, 
sioner to incur any expense, may, within fifteen days after 443 ' 1894 ' 
being notified of such refusal or order, appeal from the de- chap. 449, § 24, 
cision of the commissioner by giving to the commissioner Sap. 464, § i, 
notice in writing that he does so appeal. Any person, the 1893 - 
value of whose property may be affected by work to be done 
under any permit granted by the building commissioner, may, 
within three days after the issuing of such permit, appeal by 
giving to the commissioner notice in writing that he does so 
appeal. All cases in which appeals have been taken as above 
provided shall be referred to the board of appeal, and said 
board shall, after hearing, direct the commissioner to issue his 
permit under such conditions, if any, as they may require, 
or to withhold the same. In such cases as are not provided 
for in this act, and in allowing the use of constructive ma- 
terials not mentioned in this act, and only in such cases, the 
board of appeal may exercise discretionary powers. When- 
ever the commissioner shall have rendered a decision involv- 
ing the construction and effect of any portion of this act, any 
citizen of Boston may obtain the opinion of the board of ap- 
peal as to the true construction of the language under which 
said decision was rendered, in the following manner : " Such 
citizen shall file with the board of appeal an application in 
writing for such opinion, setting forth the language concern- 
ing which an opinion is desired, and also a statement, if 
practicable, of the construction adopted by the commissioner. 
Such application must be filed within ninety days of the date 
of the decision referred to. The board shall, after notice to 
the commissioner and such further notice and hearing as they 
may deem proper, place upon their records for public inspec- 
tion, and send to said commissioner, a written statement of 
their opinion us to the true meaning and effect of the lan- 
guage set forth in the application, and said commissioner 
shall thereafter conform to said opinion in issuing permits. 
All expense arising from proceedings to obtain an opinion of 
the board, as above provided, shall be paid by the applicant. 
Sect. 14. Any member of the board of appeal and any 



12 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

officer of the building department may, so far as may be 
necessary for the performance of his duties, enter any build- 
ing or premises in the city of Boston. 

PERMITS. 

Permits re- Sect. 15. Hereafter in the city of Boston no building 

building^, alter- s hall oe erected or altered, and no building damaged by fire 
ations, etc. or other casualty shall be repaired or restored to its former 
Section 3, chap, condition, and no work which impairs the strength or in- 

443,1894. ' L ° 

, e creases the tire risk of any wall, structure, or building shall 

Chap. 449, § 24, ^ ° 

is95. be done, except upon a permit from the commissioner, and in 

Exemptions, conformity with the provisions of this act ; provided, how- 
ever, that this act shall not apply to bridges, quays, or 
wharves, or buildings on land ceded to the United States. 
Section 4, chap. Sect. 16. Any alteration made in a structure shall con- 
form to the provisions of this act for a new structure ; but if 
Alterations to the alteration to be made is of such extent as, when done, 
new°bSidta f 1 to practically produce a new structure or impair the stability 
or increase the fire risk of the structure as a whole, then the 
entire structure shall be made to conform to the provisions 
Buildings dam. f ^ s act f or a new structure. A building damaged by fire 

aged by fire may 

be repaired, or other casualty may be repaired or restored so as to con- 
form to its original condition, or may be reconstructed in 
certain or all of its parts, so as to conform to the require- 
ments of this act for new buildings, as the commissioner, 
with the approval of the board of appeal, may specify in 
his permit. 

DEFINITIONS. 

section 5, chap. Sect. 17. In this act the following terms shall have the 
443, is94. meanings respectively assigned to them. " Alteration " means 

any change or addition. " Building of the first class " means 
building of fireproof construction throughout. " Building of 
the second class " means all buildings not of the first class, 
the external and party walls of which are of brick, stone, 
iron, or other equally substantial and incombustible material. 
" Building of the third class " means any building not of the 
first or second class. "Cellar" or "basement" is a lower 
story of which one-half or more of the height from the cellar 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 13 

bottom to the underside of the floor joists of the story above 
is below the grade of the street or ground at the principal 
front of the building-, provided said grade of the ground is 
not below the grade of the street at said front. " Founda- 
tion" means that portion of a wall below the level of the 
street curb, and where the wall is not on a street, that por- 
tion of the wall below the level of the highest ground next to 
the wall ; but if under party or partition walls, may be con- 
strued by the commissioner to mean that portion below the Chap. 449, § -a, 
cellar floor. "Height of a building" means the vertical dis- 
tance of the highest point of the roof above the highest 
grade of the street or ground at the principal front of the 
building, provided said grade of the ground is not below 
the grade of the street at said front. " Height of a wall " 
means the height from the mean grade of the sidewalk or 
adjoining ground to the highest point of the wall. "Com- 
missioner " means the building commissioner of the city 
of Boston. "Lodging-house" means a building in which 
persons arc accommodated with sleeping apartments, and 
includes hotels and apartment houses where cooking is not 
done in the several apartments. "Party wall" means every 
wall used, or built in order to be used, as a separation of 
two or more buildings. " Partition wall " means any interior 
wall of masonry in a building. "External wall" means 
every outer wall or vertical enclosure of a building other than 
a party wall. "Repairs" means the reconstruction or re- 
newal of any existing part of a building, or of its fixtures or 
appurtenances, by which the strength or fire risk is not 
affected or modified, and not made, in the opinion of the 
commissioner, for the purpose of converting the building in 
whole or in part to a new one. " Story of a building " means 
that portion of the building between the level of the bottom 
of the floor beams and the top of the ceiling beams of that 
story. "Tenement house" means a building which, or any 
portion of which, is occupied, or intended to be occupied, as 
a dwelling by more than three families living independently 
of one another, and doing their cooking upon the premises ; 
or by more than two families above the second floor, so liv- 
ing and cooking. " Thickness of a wall " means the mini- 



14 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Height of 
limited. 



To be covered 
with incombus- 
tible material. 

Location and 
construction of 
to be approved 
by the commis- 
sioner. Chap. 
449, § 24, 1895. 



mum thickness of such wall. "Theatre" means a building 
or portion of a building in which it is designed to make a 
business of the presentation of dramatic, operatic, or other 
performances or shows for the entertainment of spectators, 
and having a permanent stage for said performances which 
can be used for scenery and other stage appliances. 

WOODEN BUILDINGS WITHIN BUILDING LIMITS. 

Sect. 18. The city of Boston may from time to time, by 
ordinance, extend the building limits in said city, and may 
establish other limits in any districts of said city, and within 
such limits every building built after the establishment 
thereof shall be of the first or second class, and only the 
following third-class structures shall be allowed, viz. : 

The wharves and sheds on wharves not exceeding twenty- 
seven feet in height. 

Sheds not exceeding the same height to be used for market 
purposes, or to facilitate the building of authorized build- 
ings. 

Elevators of any height, for the storage of coal and grain, 
but all external parts of said sheds and elevators shall be 
covered with slate, tile, metal, or other equally incombusti- 
ble material, and their mode of construction and location 
shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner. 

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

Sect. 19. The stresses in materials hereafter used in con- 
struction, produced by the calculated strains due to their 
own weight and applied loads, shall not exceed the following : 



TIMBER. 

Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 



On Extreme Fibre. 


Shearing along 
Grain. 


Compression Perpendic- 
ular to Grain. 


White pine and spruce 


. 750 


80 


150 




1,000 


150 


250 


Yellow pine (long-leaved) . . 


.1,250 


100 


250 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



15 



Stresses due to transverse strains combined with direct 
tension or compression, not to exceed extreme fibre stresses 
given above. 

Deflection. — Modulus oj Elasticity. 

White pine 750,000 

Spruce 900,000 

Yellow pine (long-leaved) . . . '. .1,300,000 
White oak 860,000 

For Posts with Flat Ends. 
The stresses given in the following table, in which L = 
length of post, D = least diameter of post, and S = stress 
per square inch. 



White Pine and Spruce. 


Long-leaved. 


Yellow Tine. 


White Oak. 


L. S. 
D. 


L. 


S. 


s. 


Oto 10 625 


to 15 
15 " 30 
30 " 40 
40 " 45 
45 " 50 


1,000 
875 
750 
625 
500 


750 
650 
560 
470 
375 


45 " 50 250 



WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL. 

Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 



Extreme fibre stress, rolled beams, and shapes.. 

Tension . . . , 

Compression in flanges of built beams 

Shearing 

Direct bearing, including pins and rivets 

Bending on pins 



W. I. 



12,000 
12,000 
10,000 
9,000 
15,000 
18,000 



Steel. 



16,000 
15,000 
12,000 
10,000 
18,000 
22,500 



16 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

For columns and members acting as such, ten thousand 
for iron and twelve thousand for steel, reduced for ratio of 
length of column to its least radius of gyration by approved 
modern formulas. 

Stresses due to transverse strains, combined with direct 
tension or compression, not to exceed extreme fibre stress 
given above for rolled beams and shapes, or in case of built 
members the above tension and compression stresses. 

Compression flanges of beams to be proportioned to resist 
lateral flexure unless properly stayed or secured against same. 

Deflection. — Modulus of Elasticity. 

Iron 27,000,000 

Steel 29,000,000 

Stresses for steel are those for " medium steel," having an 
ultimate tensile strength of 60,000 to 68,000 pounds per 
square inch, an elastic limit of not less than 35,000 pounds 
per square inch, and minimum elongation in eight inches of 
twenty per cent. 

CAST IRON. 

Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 

Extreme fibre stress, tension .... 2,500 
Extreme fibre stress, compression . . . 8,000 

For Columns. 
The stresses given in the following table, in which L = 
length of column in feet, D = external diameter, or at least 
side of rectangle in inches, and S = stress in pounds per 
square inch. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



17 



Round Columns. 


Rectangular Columns. 


L. 


S. 


S. 


s. 


S. 


S. 


s. 


D. 


Square 
Faced Bear- 
ings. 


Round and 
Faced Bear- 
ings. 


Round 
Bearings. 


Square 
Faced Bear- 
ings. 


Round and 
Faced Bear- 
ings. 


Round 
Bearings. 


] .0 


8,480 


7,870 


7,350 


8,810 


8,320 


7,870 


1.1 


8,210 


7,540 


6,970 


8,600 


8,030 


7,540 


1.2 


7,940 


7,200 


6,590 


8,3S0 


7,740 


7,200 


1.3 


7,670 


6,870 


6,220 


8,140 


7,450 


6,870 


1.4 


7,390 


6,540 


5,860 


7,910 


7,160 


6,450 


1.5 


7,120 


6,220 


5,530 


7,670 


6,870 


6,220 


1.6 


6,850 


5,910 


5,200 


7,430 


6,590 


5,910 


1.7 


6,580 


5,620 


4,900 


7,190 


6,310 


5,620 


1.8 


6,320 


5,330 


4,620 


6,960 


6,040 


5,330 


1.9 


6,060 


5,060 


4,350 


6,730 


5,780 


5,060 


2.0 


5,810 


4,810 


4,100 


6,490 


5,530 


4,810 


2.1 


5,580 


4,570 


3,870 


6,270 


5,280 


4,570 


2.2 


5,340 


4,340 


3,650 


6,050 


5,050 


4,340 


2.3 


5,120 


4,120 


3,440 


5,830 


4,830 


4,120 


2.4 


4,910 


3,910 


3,250 


5,620 


4,620 


3,910 


2.5 


4,710 


3,720 


3,080 


5,420 


4,410 


3,720 


2.6 


4,510 


3,540 


2,910 


5,230 


4,220 


3,540 


2.7 


4,330 


3,370 


2,760 


5,040 


4,040 


3,370 


2.8 


4,150 


3,210 


2,620 


4,860 


3,870 


3,210 


2.9 


3,980 


3,060 


2,480 


4,680 


3,700 


3,0G0 


3.0 


3,820 


2,920 


2,360 


4,520 


3,540 


2,920 


3.1 


3,6G0 


2,780 


2,240 


4,350 


3,390 


2,780 


3.2 


3,520 


2,660 


2,130 


4,200 


3,250 


2,660 


3.3 


3,380 


2,540 


2,030 


4,050 


3,120 


2,540 


3.4 


3,250 


2,430 


1,940 


3,910 


2,990 


2,430 



18 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



STONEWORK. 

{Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square 

Foot. 

First quality, dressed beds and builds, laid solid in cement 
mortar. 

Granite ......... GO 

Marble and limestone ....... 40 

Sandstone ......... 30 

In cases where poorer mortar is used, to avoid stain from 
cement, stresses to be less than above, and to be approved 
by inspector. 

In ashlar-faced work no allowance over strength of brick- 
work is to be made for ashlar less than eight inches thick. 
For eight inches thick and over, the excess over four inches 
shall be allowed. 

BRICKWORK. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square 

Foot. 

First-class work, of hard-burned bricks, and including 
piers in which height does not exceed six times the least 
dimensions, laid in — 

(a) One part cement, two parts sand . . .15 

(b) One part cement, one part lime, and eight parts 



sand .... 
(c) Lime mortar ' . 

Brick piers of hard-burned bricks 



. 12 

. 8 

in which height is 



from six to twelve times the least dimension. 

Mortar "a" 13 

Mortar "b" ........ 10 

Mortar "c" 7 

For " light hard " bricks, stresses not to exceed two-thirds 
of above. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 19 



IN GENERAL. 

Stresses for materials and forms of same, not herein 
mentioned, shall be those determined by best modern au- 
thorities. 

QUALITY OF MATERIALS. 

All materials are to be of good quality for the purpose for To be satisfac 
which they are to be used, are to conform to legal, trade, 



tory to com- 
missioner. 

and manufacturers' standards, and to be subject to the an- C1,a1 '- 44 "> * - 4 

. 1895. 

proval ot the commissioner. 

MORTARS. 

All mortars shall be made with such proportion of sand How made - 

•11 i /■ i i , t Cbap. 449, § '24, 

as will ensure a proper degree or cohesion and tenacity, and 1395. 
secure thorough adhesion to the material with which they are 
to be used, and the commissioner shall condemn all mortars 
not so made. The following rules must be complied with : 

Mortar below level of water shall be no poorer than one Below level of 
part cement and two parts sand. water- 

Mortar for first-class buildings shall for one-half their For flrst-ciass 
height 'be no poorer than one part cement, two parts sand, 
above, equal parts of cement and lime, and the proper pro- 
portion of sand. 

Mortar for second-class buildings, and for such parts of For second -class 

, 1 . t i 1 ., t ,, ,, , , /., .i ,, buildings. 

third-class buildings as are below the level of the sidewalk, 
shall be no poorer than equal parts of lime and cement, with 
a proper proportion of sand. 

Mortar for third-class buildings above ground shall be no For third class 

,, ,, , , 1 . . buildings. 

poorer than the best lime mortar. 

Exceptions by the commissioner may be made for mortar 
used in setting stone where cement will stain. 

WOODEN BUILDINGS WITHIN BUILDING LIMITS. 

Sect. 20. No alteration or repairs shall be made on when they can 
any third-class building within the building limits without" 
a permit from the building commissioner, and no permit chap.44.3, 1894, 
to increase the height or area of any such building shall be chap. 449, § J4, 
granted. No permit for the alteration or repair of a third- 1S95 ' 



20 • DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

class building within the limits shall be granted if the cost 
of the proposed alteration, using new materials, exceed 
fifty per cent, of the cost of renewing the building. 
cannot be Sect. 21. No third-class building within or without 

moved, when. 



& 



the building limits shall be moved to any position within 
Section 7.' said limits, except that a third-class building within said 
Chap. 449, § 24, i mi it. s ma y ) )e moved to another position on the same lot, by 



1ft ir>. 



permission of the commissioner, 



POWERS OF CITY COUNCIL. 

May regulate Sect. 22. The city council of said city may by ordi- 

the construction . . . 

and alteration of nance make such requirements, m addition to those con- 
wooden bmid- Alined \ n this ac + as they may deem expedient in relation to 

mgs without the ./ ./ i 

building limits, the erection and alteration of wooden buildings outside the 
building limits. 



FIRST-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

Requirements Sect. 23. A first-class building shall consist of non- 
inflammable material throughout, with floors constructed of 
iron or steel beams filled in between with terra-cotta or other 
masonry arches, except that wood may be used for under 
and upper floors, window and door frames, sashes, doors, 
standing finish, hand rails for stairs, necessary sleepers 
bedded in concrete, and for isolated furring blocks bedded in 

Air space not the plaster. There shall be no air space between the top of 
any floor arches and the floor boarding, and no air space 
behind any woodwork. 

Buildings Sect. 24. Every building hereafter erected over seventy 

quired to be feet high shall be a first-class building; and this provision 

first class. 
Chap. 443, 1S94, 



shall apply to all buildings hereafter increased in height 
Section s. to over seventy feet. Every building hereafter erected or 
enlarged or converted to use as a hotel, for the accommoda- 
tion of guests, and containing more than fifty rooms above 
the first floor, shall be a first-class building. 
chap. 443, 1894, Sect. 25. No building or other structure hereafter 
erected, except a church spire, shall be of a height exceed- 
ing two and one half times the width of the widest street on 
which the building or structure stands, whether such street 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 21 

is a public street or place, or a private way existing at 
the passage of this act or thereafter approved as provided 
by law, nor exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in Height not to 

1 _ t exceed 125 feet; 

any case; such width to be the width from the face of the nor two and 
building or structure to the line of the street on the other ': uhaU f times 

© width of street. 

side, or if the street is of uneven width, such width to be 
the average width of the part of the street opposite the 
building or structure. If the effective width of the street is 
increased by an area or set-back the space between the face 
of the main building and the lawfully established line of the 
street may be built upon the height of twenty feet. 

EXCAVATION. 

Sect. 26. Every portion of every structure in process of Neighboring 

j »• ii.i - • ij • 1 structures to be 

construction, alteration, repair, or removal, and every neigh- Bufflciently and 
boring structure or portion thereof affected by such process, properly sup- 
or by any excavation, shall be properly constructed and suf- construction. 
ficiently supported during such process. The commissioner Cha P-* 49 > §' 24 > 
may take such measures as the public safety requires to 
carry this section into effect, and any expense so incurred 
may be recovered by the city from the owner of the de- 
fective structure. 

PILING. 

Sect. 27. Where the nature of the ground requires it, To t>e spaced 

& 1 ' not over 3 feet 

all buildings shall be supported on foundation piles, not j," ^direction 
more than three feet apart on centres in the direction of the section 10. 18 ° 4, 
wall, and the number, diameter, and bearing of such piles is95 P ' J ' s " ' 
shall be sufficient to support the superstructure proposed. 
The walls of buildings over seventy feet in height shall rest, 70 feet in height 

° J . ° to have three 

where the nature of the ground permits, upon at least three rows of piles. 

Grade for cut- 

rows of piles, or an equivalent number of piles arranged in ting off plies to 

L x * ~ be determined 

less than three rows. The commissioner shall determine the b .y commis - 

sioner. 

grade at which the piles shall be cut. All piles shall be Pilestobe 
capped with block granite levellers, each leveller having a granite levellers, 
firm bearing on the pile or piles it covers. The commis- Nature of 
sioner mav require any applicant for a permit to ascertain s roundtob< f 

1 " L L L ascertained by 

by boring the nature of the ground on which he proposes boring. 
to build. 



22 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



FOUNDATIONS. 

To be 4 feet be- Sect. 28. The walls and piers of every building shall 
posed to frost, have a foundation; the bearing of which shall be not less 
chap. 443, sec- than four feet below any adjoining surface exposed to frost, 

tion 11, 1S94. . . . . 

and such foundation, with the superstructure which it sup- 
ports, shall not overload the material on which it rests. 
Grade of base- Sect. 29. The building commissioner shall designate in 

nient floors. ... V „ ., ,. "~ 

chap. 443, Sec every permit for the erection of a new building, the lowest 
turn 12, 1894. grade at which the cellar bottom of such building may be 

Chap. 449, § 24, & ° J 

i«95. laid. 

Rubble founda- Sect. 30. Foundations shall be built of rubble, block 
lowed and how granite, or brick, laid in mortar, as provided in section nine- 
to be bunt. teen. Foundation walls of rubble shall not be used in build- 

Chap. 449, § 24, , 

1895. ings over forty feet in height, except third-class buildings 

outside the limits. Where rubble is used, two-thirds of the 
bulk of the wall shall be built of through stone, thoroughly 

Round or bonded. No round or bowlder stone shall be used, and if the 

bowlder stone , .... ., ., liii ^ i i l 

not allowed. foundation is on piles, the lower course shall be ot block stone 
not under sixteen inches high. Foundations of rubble shall 
be twenty-five per cent, thicker than is required for granite 

Foundations of foundations. Foundations of block granite shall be at least 

quirementsfor. eight inches thicker than the walls next above them to a 
depth of twelve feet below the street grade ; and for every 
additional ten feet, or part thereof, deeper, they shall be 

Foundations of increased four inches in thickness. Foundations of brick 

ments for!" 16 shall be at least twelve inches thick, and at least four inches 
thicker than the walls next above them to a depth of twelve 
feet below the street grade ; and for every additional ten 
feet, or part thereof, deeper, they shall be increased four 
inches in thickness. Foundations shall be thick enough to 
resist any lateral pressure, and the commissioner may order 

Footings. an increase of thickness for that purpose. The footing shall 

be of stone or concrete, or both, or of concrete and stepped-up 
brickwork, of sufficient thickness and area to safely bear the 
weight to be imposed thereon, and to properly distribute 

if of concrete, such weight upon the surface on which it rests. If of con- 
crete, the concrete shall not be less than twelve inches 

n of stone. thick. If of stone, the stones shall not be less than sixteen 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 23 

inches in thickness, and at least twelve inches wider than 

the bottom width of the foundation walls, and at least twelve 

inches wider on all sides than the bottom width of any piers, 

columns, or posts resting upon them. All footing stones shall 

be well bedded, and laid crosswise, edge to edge. If stepped- when stepped- 

up footings of brick are used in place of stone, above the con- brick^e^ed. 

crete, the steps or offsets, if laid in single courses, shall each 

not exceed one and a half inches ; or if laid in double courses, 

then each shall not exceed three inches. 

CELLARS. 

Sect. 31. The cellar of every dwelling hereafter built Cellar bottoms, 
on filled or made land, or where the grade or nature of the Chap ^ 1894j 
ground requires, shall be sufficiently protected from water Section 13 - 
and damp by a bed at least two inches thick over the whole, 
of concrete, cement, and gravel, tar and gravel, or asphalt, 
or by bricks laid in cement. The space between any floor 
and the cellar bottom shall be well ventilated. No cellar or ceiiai or base- 
basement floor of any building shall be constructed below ° ,e , nt f?° r ° ° ot 

J o to be laid below 

the grade of twelve feet above mean low water; provided, graded. 
however, that the board of aldermen may, by license, subject chap. 449, §24, 
to revocation by them at any time for sufficient reason of 1895- 
public health, authorize cellar or basement floors to be con- 
structed in buildings, no part of which is to be used as a 
dwelling, so much below said grade as they may designate 
in such license. All metal foundations and all constructional 
ironwork under ground shall be protected from dampness 
by concrete, in addition to two coats of red lead, or other 
material approved by the commissioner. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

Sect. 32. All excavations shall be so protected, by sheet To be protected 

... . 1 ii ,1 . 1 by sheet piling 

piling it necessary, by the persons causing the same to be when neceSBary . 
made, that the adjoining soil shall not cave in by reason of 
its own weight. It shall be the duty of the owner of every 
building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such support 
that his building shall not be endangered by any excavation : 
provided, that the owner of any building which is endan- 



24 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Permanent ex- 
cavations to be 
protected by 
retaining walls. 



Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 



Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 



Walls to be 
properly and 
securely bonded 
and tied. 

Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 



oered by an excavation carried by an adjoining owner more 
than ten feet below the grade of the street, may recover the 
expense so caused of supporting such building from the 
parties causing such excavations to be made. All permanent 
excavations within the building limits shall be protected by 
retaining walls. In case of any failure to comply with the 
provisions of this section, the commissioner may enter upon 
the premises and may furnish such support as the circum- 
stances may require. Any expense so incurred may be 
recovered by the city from the parties required by law to 
furnish support. 

QUALITY OF BRICKWORK. 

Sect. 33. All brickwork shall be of merchantable, 
well-shaped bricks, well laid and bedded, and well-tilled 
joints, in mortar, as required by section nineteen, and well 
flushed up at every course with mortar. Bricks when laid 
shall be wet or dry, as the commissioner may direct. 

Sect. 34. All walls of brick, stone, or other similar 
material, shall be well built, properly bonded and tied, and 
laid with mortar, as required by section nineteen. The 
inside four inches of any wall may, upon a special permit 
issued by the commissioner, be built of hard-burnt, hollow, 
clay bricks, of quality and dimensions satisfactory to the com- 
missioner, and thoroughly tied and bonded into the wall. 



Every eighth 
course a bond- 
ing course. 



BONDING COURSES. 

Sect. 35. Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall 
shall be a heading or bonding course, except where walls 
are faced with face brick, in which case every eighth course 
shall be bonded with Flemish headers, or by cutting the 
corners of the face brick and putting in diagonal headers 
behind the same. 



EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS OF BRICK DWELLING-HOUSES. 

ft'TsTt. hi^h 40 Sect. 36. The external and party walls above the foun- 
may have 8-in. dation of d wclling-houses of the first or second class, here- 
after built, not over twenty feet wide, or thirty-three feet 
high, or forty feet deep, shall be not less than eight inches 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 25 

thick. Such walls of dwellings of the first or second class Thirty-three ft. 
hereafter built thirty-three feet or over, but not over sixty ° 
feet high, shall be not less than twelve inches thick. Such sixty ft. 
walls of such dwellings sixtv feet or over, but not ovel•' f l ^ 1,5 !1■ 

o «/ to 2d floor, 12 

seventy feet high, shall be sixteen inches to the height of ™. above. 
the top of the second floor, and twelve inches for the re- 
maining height. Such walls of such dwellings seventy feet &? v P ? nt < 5 r * t - *? 

o & o J 80 ft., 20 in. to 

or over, but not over eighty feet high, shall be twenty to upper floor' 
inches to the top of the second floor, sixteen inches to the '^t^/roof" 
top of the upper floor, and to within fifteen feet of the roof, in * a ove " 

and twelve inches the remaining height. Such walls of such More than soft. 
dwellings of eighty feet or more in height shall have for 
the upper eighty feet the thickness required for buildings 
between seventy and eighty feet in height, and every sec- 
tion of twenty-live feet or part thereof below such upper 
eighty feet shall have a thickness of four inches more than is 
required for the section next above it. 

EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS OF BRICK BUILDINGS OTHER 
THAN DWELLING-HOUSES. 

Sect. 37. The external and party walls above the foun- Forty ft. or less 
dation of every building of the first or second class hereafter "o -ja'tiooV 
built, other than dwellings, forty feet or less in height, shall 12 in. above, 
be sixteen inches thick to the top of second floor, and twelve 
inches for the remaining height. Such walls of such build- Forty feet to 
ings of forty feet or over, but not over sixty feet in height, 2d fl0 ' ^ 16in 
twenty inches to the top of second floor, sixteen inches above - 
the remaining height. Such walls of such buildings of sixty ft. to 

,. , . , „ , , . . ,80 ft., 24 in. to 

sixty reet or over, but not over eighty teet nigh, twenty- l6t floor> . 20 iu . 
four inches to the top of the first floor, twenty inches to t0 upper floor 

1 . " and to within 

the top of the upper floor, and to within fifteen feet of the 15 ft. of roof, 
roof, and sixteen inches above. Such walls of such build- 16m ' above ' 
ings of eighty feet or more in height shall have for the upper over so ft. 
eighty feet the thickness required for buildings between 
seventy and eighty feet in height, and every section of 
twenty-five feet or part thereof below such upper eighty feet 
shall have a thickness of four inches more than is required 
for the section next above it. 



26 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Construction of. 

Chap. 443, 1894, 
Section 14. 



To be 4 in. 
in thickness at 
least, and prop- 
erly held by 
metal clamps. 
Chap. 443, 1894, 
Section 15. 



VAULTED WALLS. 

Sect. 38. Vaulted walls shall contain, exclusive of 
withes, the same amount of material as is required for 
solid walls, and the walls on either side of the air space in a 
wall carrying a floor shall be not less than eight inches 
thick, and shall be securely tied together with ties not more 
than two feet apart. 

Sect. 39. In reckoning the thickness of walls ashlar 
shall not be included unless it be at least eight inches thick. 
In walls required to be sixteen inches thick or over the full 
thickness of the ashlar shall be allowed; in walls less than 
sixteen inches thick only half the thickness of the ashlar 
shall be included. Ashlar shall be at least four inches 
thick, and properly held by metal clamps to the backing, 
or properly bonded to the same. 



To be of suffi- 
cient strength 
and tire- 
proofed. 



IllON OR STEEL EXTERNAL WALLS. 

Sect. 40. External walls may be built in part of iron or 
steel, and when so built may be of less thickness than is 
above required for external walls, provided such walls meet 
the requirements of this act as to strength, and provided 
that all constructional parts are wholly protected from heat 
by brick or terra-cotta, or by plastering three-quarters of an 
inch thick, with iron furring and wiring. 



PARTY AND BEARING PARTITION WALLS OF BRICK 
BUILDINGS. 

To be of brick Sect. 41. In first and second class buildings all party 
uttheTor pias- anc ^ bearing partition walls above the foundation shall be of 
tered on waii. brick, and no such party or partition wall shall hereafter 

1893. 

chap. 464, §2, be furred with wood, but all such walls if plastered, shall be 
approved June p] as tered on masonrv or on metal lathing; provided, that 

9, 1893. l " . 

chap. 443, Sec- wood furrings for nai lings may be bedded flush in mortar, 
tionie, 1894. ] e a V i n g no a i r space behind any woodwork. No wall in any 
second-class building shall be increased in height unless the 
entire building is so altered as to conform to the require- 
ments of this act. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 27 

Sect. 42. In buildings hereafter built all party walls To be carried 
and the partition walls required by this act shall be built m etai-cov°re<L 
through, and at least thirty inches above or distant from 1893 - 

, . . . . Chap. 464, § 3, 

the roof boarding, at the nearest point; shall be entirely approved June 
covered with stone or metal securely fastened, and corbelled 9 ' 1893, 
to the outer edge of all projections ; provided, that a gutter Gutter stone, 
stone of suitable dimensions and properly balanced may be 
inserted in place of the corbelling; and provided, farther, 
that in the case of buildings not over forty-five feet in height 
the distance that any wall is carried above the roof boarding 
need not exceed twelve inches. 

OPENINGS, RECESSES, AND BUTTRESSES. 

Sect. 43. When openings or recesses, or both, occur in in external 
an external wall, or when buttresses are used, the piers shall 
be of sufficient strength to comply with the clauses of this 
act prescribing strength of materials, and not less in thickness 
than is above specified, and no other portion of the wall shall 
be less than twelve inches thick in buildings under seventy 
feet in height, or less than sixteen inches thick in buildings 
seventy feet or over in height. 

Sect. 44. No recess, chase, or flue shall be made in any Thickness of 

.. , . . mi i i i • i i backing to be 

party wall so deep that it will leave the thickness at the no t lees than 
back less than eight inches at any point, and no recess, 8in-atany 

° J * point. 

chase, or flue, not vertical, shall be made without the special Chap. 449, § 24, 
permit of the commissioner. No vertical recess, other than Vert ' ical re 
flues, in stacks, shall be nearer than seven feet to any other cesses t0 be not 

. . . . . ,. . . . ... nearer than 7 ft. 

recess, unless by special permit of the commissioner. All t0 one another. 
flues in a party wall shall be lined with terra-cotta flue ^ p ' 443, § 17 ' 

1 J 1S94. 

linings. 

TRUSSES, COLUMNS, AND GIRDERS. 

Sect. 45. First and second class buildings hereafter Floor-bearing 
built shall have floor-bearing supports not over thirty feet ™tover3o ft 
apart. These supports may be brick walls, trusses, or a P art - 
columns and girders. Such brick walls may be four inches Such supports, 
less in thickness than is required by this act for external be notieesthan 
and party walls of the same height, provided they comply 12 in. thick, 
with the provisions of this act as to the strength of materials, 



28 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

when trusses j lu £ j n no case i ess than twelve inches thick. When trusses 

are used, walls . 

to be at least are used, the walls upon which they rest shall be at least 
4 m. thicker ^^ mcDes thicker than is otherwise required by sections 

than otherwise - 1 ^ 

required. thirty-six and thirty-seven, for every addition of twenty-five 

feet or part thereof to the length of the truss over thirty 
teet. 

BRICK PARTITION WALLS, WHEN NECESSARY. 

Areas not to Sect. 46. Second-class buildings hereafter built shall 

exceed 8,000 . . . „ 

B q.ft. be so divided by brick patition walls ot the thickness pre- 

^ 93- scribed for bearing partition walls, and carried thirty inches 

Chap. 464, § 4, . . . 

approved June above the roof, that no space inside any such building shall 
exceed in area eight thousand square feet, and no existing 
wall in any second-class building shall be removed so as to 
leave an area not so enclosed of more than eight thousand 
square feet ; provided, that in buildings having a height of 
not over forty-five feet, the height above the roof of the said 
brick partition walls need not exceed twelve inches. 



WALLS HOW ANCHORED. 

To be anchored Sect. 47. All walls of a first or second class building 
meeting at an angle shall be united every ten feet of their 
height by anchors made of at least two inches by half an 
inch wrought iron securely built into the side or partition 
walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into the front and 
rear walls at least one-half the thickness of such walls. 



OPENINGS IN PARTY WALLS. 

To be not over Sect. 48. Openings or doorways in party walls or in 

two openings to . . .. • -i i ■ ■ j i n j_ ii 

each story. partition walls required by this act shall not exceed two in 
openings not to number for each floor, and the combined area of such open- 
g q f e t ings on each floor shall not exceed one hundred square feet. 

To be provided Each opening must be provided with two sets of metal- 
with double covered doors separated by the thickness of wall, hung to 

metal-covered ... 

doors. rabbeted iron frames, or to iron hinges in brick or iron 

rabbets ; provided, that this section shall not apply to 
theatres. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 29 



COLUMNS. 

Sect. 49. Every column shall rest upon a cap or plate Torestonca P 8 
sufficient to properly distribute the load. Columns set one chap. 449, § 24, 
above another shall have proper connections. All bearing; 1895- 

& Bearing parts to 

parts of columns or plates shall be turned or planed to true be planed to 
surfaces. The commissioner may require columns to be ^^druTd 
drilled for inspection. for inspection 

when required. 
PIERS. 

Sect. 50. Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, shaiihave caps 
where needed, sufficient to properly distribute the load. 



fire-proofing . 
Sect. 51. All weight-bearing metal in first and second In brick build " 

1 l-iT 1 r im 1111 ings all weight- 

ChlSS buildings hereafter built shall be protected by brick, bearing metai to 

terra-cotta, or plastering on metal laths or furring, or other 5,? fire ' p , r J "*!*?' 

. ° Chap. 443, § 18, 

incombustible material approved by the board of appeal : 189*. 
provided, hoivever, that the commissioner may, with the ap-j^' ' 

proval of the board of appeal, authorize the omission of such 
protection from the whole or any part of said weight-bearing 
metal in one-story structures, or in buildings specially de- 
signed and constructed for a use which will destroy, nullify, 
or render useless such form of protection. 

Sect. 52. Isolated upright supports of other material In brick build " 

,i 1*111 ja e ■ a • i ings all upright 

than brick, below the first floor in first and second class supports to be 
buildings hereafter erected, shall be protected by a iacket f flre P ,oofed - 

° *■ J J Chap. 443, § 19, 

brick or terra-cotta, at least four inches thick, or by a coat- 1894. 
ing of plaster one inch thick on wire or metal lathing, or 
other substantial fire-proof material. 

Sect. 53. Partitions supporting floors or roofs shall rest Floor - beai ' in g 

partitions to 

upon girders, trusses, or walls. rest on girders, 

trusses, or 
walls. 
CORNICES. 

Sect. 54. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, cornices to be 
the greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be on bie material. " 
the inside of the face of the wall. All cornices hereafter 
built or replaced shall be of brick or other incombustible 
material, and the walls shall be carried up to the boardino- 



30 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof 
the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice and 
covered with metal, like parapet walls. 

FLOORS. 

To be con. Sect. 55. All new or renewed floors shall be so con- 

r "t to safely structed as to carry safely-the weight to which the proposed 



cicn 



cany the weight f ^ Du j] ( ]j n <y will subject them, and every permit 

to which they & *' . 

will he sub- grunted shall state for what purpose the building is designed 

chl^so, is95. to t> e use( l S 1)ut tue l east capacity per superficial square foot, 

Approved April exclusive of materials, shall be : 

chap. 449, § 24, For floors of dwellings, fifty pounds. 

1895 - For office floors, one hundred pounds. 

For floors of public buildings, one hundred and fifty 
pounds. 

For store floors, floors of warehouses and mercantile build- 
ings of like character, drill-rooms, and riding-schools, at 
least two hundred and fifty pounds. 

The weight for floors not included in this classification 
shall be determined by said commissioner, subject to appeal 
as provided by law. 

Floors not to be Sect. 56. In every building hereafter built or altered, 

loaded beyond ^ GYe $\ m \\ } )e posted and maintained in every room used for 

their capacity. l 

chap. 449, § 24, mechanical or mercantile purposes, the commissioner's cer- 
tificate of the weight-bearing capacity of the floor. No part 
of any floor of such room shall be loaded beyond its capacity 
as certified. 

ROOF AND FLOOR TIMBERS. 

To be separated Sect. 57. All roof or floor timbers entering the same 
by4in. of Dar tv wall from opposite sides shall have at least four inches 

brickwork. r J a i- 

solid brickwork between the ends of said timbers. 
Roof and floor Sect. 58. The ends of all wooden floor or roof beams in 
beams to enter fi t x A secon d c i ass buildings shall enter the wall to a 

wall at least ° 

4 in., or have depth of at least four inches, unless the wall is properly cor- 
talrt4to. at belled so as to give a bearing of at least four inches ; and 
the ends of all such beams shall be so shaped or arranged 
that in case of fire they may fall without injury to the wall. 

1 In first-class buildings, wooden floor or roof beams arc prohibited. See Section 23. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 31 

Sect. 59. Each floor in first or second class buildings Floor beams to 
shall have its beams so tied to the walls and to each other be " e(1 10 7 alls 

and to each 

with wrought-iron straps or anchors at least three-eighths of other - 
an inch thick by one and one-half inch wide, as to form con- 
tinuous ties across the building not more than ten feet apart. 
Walls running parallel or nearly parallel with floor beams 
shall be properly tied once in ten feet to the floor beams by 
iron straps or anchors of the size above specified. 

HEADERS AND TRIMMERS. 

Sect. 60. Every wooden header or trimmer more than Wuen t0 be 

„ „ . •diic t hung in stirrup 

tour teet long, carrying a floor load ot over seventy pounds i, 



rons. 



per square foot, shall, at connections with other, beams, be 

hung in stirrup irons and joint bolted. All tail beams and Tail beams t0 

•ii c , 1*111 l . . be hung in 

similar beams ot wood shall be trained or hung in stirrup stirrup iron B . 
irons. All iron beams shall have proper connections. 

Sect. 61. Cutting for piping or other purposes shall not Piping, 
be done so as to reduce the strength of the supporting parts 
below that required by the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 62. No part of any floor timber shall be within 
two inches of any chimney. No studding or furring shall 
be within one inch of any chimney. 

Sect. 63. Every second-class building hereafter built, Fire-stops to be 
except as hereinafter provided, shall have a sufficient fire- each floor. 
stop at each floor, covering the whole floor of each story ^- 464 s 5 
through all stud partitions, and extending to the masonry 9 P ^s9-7. ed June 
walls. Every air-duct, except those expressly sanctioned To c °y er whole 

J l L J fl oor through 

by this act, shall be effectually stopped at each story, ^m wa?i to° ns 
Every such fire-stop shall consist of a solid, air-tight cohe- Z M ' • , 

^ «■ "To consist of 

sive layer, at least one inch thick, of tile, brick, terra-cotta, tiie, brick, terra- 

l • l £t i i--iii_ .L-i i cotta, plaster, 

or like tire-made material, plaster, cement, cinder, or ashes, cemen t ciuder 
or of a combination of the same, or of equally non-inflam- or ashe8 > or 

ii i i . i ,/ . i i equally non-iu- 

maole, non-heat conducting materials, laid between the flammable, non- 
upper and under floors, or occupying all the space between heat conductiIlg 
the timbers under the under floors ; provided, that all second- to be laid be- 
class buildings hereafter erected, of forty-five feet or more tween upper 

m and under floor. 

in height, which are used above the first floor as storage 
stores, warehouses, or stores for the storage and sale of 



32 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

Tonguedand merchandise, shall have a tight splined or tongued and 
grooved floors, d nder floor of . lt i east two-inch plank, with an 

etc., when re- ts * 

quired. upper floor one-inch thick, matched and breaking joints, 

and in such buildings fire-stops need not be used ; and in 
all second-class buildings of the character described, all 
stairways shall be enclosed in walls or shafts of non-inflam- 
mable material, and all openings in said walls or shafts 
shall be provided with metal-covered doors hung to rab- 
Footingsof stud beted iron frames with iron thresholds. The foot of each 
hive nre -stops, partition, and of each tier of studding or furring, shall 
be filled solid between the uprights to the full width 
thereof, and to the height of six inches above the floor, 
with the same incombustibles as above prescribed for fire- 
stops, or some combination thereof. The spaces between 
such parts of floor joists as rest upon partition heads shall 
staircases to be filled with the materials above required. The spaces 
have nre-stops. between stringers of staircases and joists of landings, unless 
unceiled, shall be so stopped with some of the incombus- 
tibles above mentioned, at three places at least in every 
flight of stairs, as to prevent the passage of air. 

EOOFS. 

Roofs of certain Sect. 64. No part of the roof of any first or second 
IXcVove^'o t0 class building hereafter built over sixty feet high, to be 
degrees. used f or mercantile, manufacturing, or storage purposes, or 

Chap. 449, § 24, , m i -i t i 11 

1895. as a theatre, hotel, apartment-house, or office building, shall 

Roof s to cany i nive a pjt, c h of over twenty degrees. All new or renewed 

a load of 25 lbs. t "' „ - . , , . ■ 

per superficial roofs shall be so constructed as to bear sately, in addition to 

foot in excess of t j we j ff ht of the material, twenty-five pounds per super- 
weight of O . 

material and ficial foot of area covered with proper additional allowance 
chap P 44 e 3, B §'2o, for a horizontal wind pressure of thirty pounds per square 
1S94 - foot. All thin glass skylights upon roofs shall be covered by 

a -wire netting, when in the opinion of the commissioner 

such protection is needed. 

Roofs to be Sect. G5. The roof of every second-class building here- 

covered with ,.11111 1 ' •,! • li 1 

nou-combusti- after built shall be covered with tin, iron, slate, gravel, 
bie roofing composition, or like substantial roofing material not readily 

material. "■ ° 

chap. 443, § 20, inflammable; if such roof comprises more than one story, or 
is over twenty feet in height in any part from the nearest 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



floor, except in a church or drill shed one story in height, in Not to exceed 
which the top of the first floor is not more than six feet above 
the grade at the building, such roof shall be of the construc- 
tion required for first-class buildings. 

METALLIC LEADERS. 

Sect. 66. All buildings over forty-five feet high shall have watemot to 
suitable water-tight metallic leaders, and all buildings shall fl ° wov ® r 

c ~ sidewalk. 

have leaders sufficient to carry all the water to the street, 
gutter, or sewer, in such a manner as not to flow upon the 
sidewalk, or to cause dampness on any wall, yard, or area. 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

Sect. 67. No staging or stand for observation purposes 
shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of any build- 
ing in said city. 

CHIMNEYS. 

Sect. 68. No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall Not to be cor. 
more than the thickness of the wall, nor be hung from a m 0r e t h^ nwa 
wall less than twelve inches thick, nor rest upon wood, thickness of 

a ii i • i ti n i m, c 1 • i i • wall, nor rest 

All chimneys shall be built ot brick, stone, or other incom- upon wood . 

bustible material. Brick chimneys shall have walls at least Chap- 443 ' § ' 21 ' 

. . 1894 - 

eight inches thick, unless terra-cotta flue linings are used, 

in which case four inches of brickwork may be omitted. 

Other chimneys shall have walls at least eight inches thick, waiisof ehim- 

and shall have in addition a lining of four inches of brick- neys t0 be at 

~ least 8 in. 

work, or a terra-cotta flue lining. The inside of all brick thick, 
flues shall have struck joints. No wood furring shall be chimneys to 

t . , . i i . • ,-* . he plastered on 

used against any chimney or around any chimney in a first brickwork 01 . 
or second class building, but the plastering shall be directly ou metal 

lathing. 

on the masonry or on metal lathing. All chimneys shall 

be topped out at least four feet above the highest point of To be topped 

• i i . _ T -i i ii i i ■ • out 4 ft. above 

contact with the roof. No nail shall be driven into the r00 f at least, 
masonry of any chimney. 

FLUES. 

Sect. 69. Flues of ranges and boilers, and other similar 
flues, shall have the outside exposed to the height of the 
ceiling, or be plastered directly upon the bricks. 



34 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



How to be 
supported. 



Backs of fire- 
places to be at 
least 8 in. 
thick. 

Hearths to be 
12 iD. wider 
on each side 
than openings 
of fireplaces, 
etc. 



When soft coal 
or wood is 
burned. 



HEARTHS AND TRIMMER ARCHES. 

Sect. 70. All hearths shall be supported by trimmer 
arches of brick or stone ; or be of single stones at least six 
inches thick, built into the chimney and supported by iron 
beams, one end of which shall be securely built into the 
masonry of a chimney or an adjoining wall, or which shall 
otherwise rest upon incombustible support. The brick 
jambs of every fireplace, range, or grate opening shall be at 
least eight inches wide each, and the backs of such openings 
shall be at least eight inches thick. All hearths and trim- 
mer arches shall be at least twelve inches longer on either 
side than the width of such openings, and at least eighteen 
inches wide in front of the chimney breast. Brickwork over 
fireplaces and grate openings shall be supported by proper 
iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

Sect. 71. Every chimney flue in which soft coal or wood 
is burned shall be carried to a height sufficient to protect 
neio-hborino- buildings from fire and smoke. 



Not to project 
through exter- 
nal walls or 
windows. 

When passing 
through wooden 
partitions to 
have soapstone 
collar, etc. 
Not to be placed 
within 8 in. of 
woodwork 
unless protected 
by a metal 
shield, etc. 
Heating fur- 
naces set in 
brick, how con- 
structed. 



Heating fur- 
naces not set ; 
brick, how 
constructed. 



HOT-AIR AND SMOKE PIPES AND REGISTER BOXES. 

Sect. 72. No smoke-pipe shall project through any ex- 
ternal wall or window. No smoke-pipe shall pass through 
any wooden partition, without a soapstone ring of the thick- 
ness of the partition, and extending four inches from the 
pipe, or a double metal collar of the thickness of the parti- 
tion, with a ventilated air space of not less than four inches 
around the pipe ; nor shall be placed within eight inches of 
any wood unless such wood is plastered and protected by a 
metal shield two inches distant from the wood, in which case 
the smoke-pipe shall not be less than six inches from the 
wood. The tops of all heating furnaces set in brick shall be 
covered with brick, supported by iron bars, and so constructed 
as to be perfectly tight ; said covering to be in addition to 
and not less than six inches from the ordinary covering of 
the hot-air chamber. The tops of all heating furnaces not 
set in brick shall be at least eight inches below the nearest 
wooden beams or ceiling, with a shield of tin plate made 
tight, suspended not less than two inches below such beams 



DtGEST OF BUILDTNG LAWS. ^g 

or ceiling, and extending one foot beyond the top of the 

furnaces on all sides. All hot-air register boxes hereafter Hot-air register 

placed in the floors of partitions of buildings shall be set in p ^ x c e e s ( j ow 

soapstone or equally incombustible borders not less than two 

inches in width, and shall be made of tin plate, and have 

double pipes and boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. 

Hot-air pipes and register boxes shall be at least one inch Hotair pip<*, 

. ,„ etc., to be at 

from any woodwork, and register boxes fifteen inches by least one inch 
twenty-five inches, or larger, and their connecting pipes, fro ™ wood - 
shall be two inches from any woodwork. The requirements Chap. 449, § 24, 
of this section may be modified or dispensed with by the 
commissioner, in first-class buildings. 

Sect. 73. No woodwork shall be placed within one inch woodwork to 
of any metal pipe to be used to convey heated air or steam, n e tachfrom 
unless such 'pipe is protected by a soapstone or earthen ring h ? t - air or Bteam 
or tube, or a metal casing. 

SETTING OF BOILERS, FURNACES, ETC. 

Sect. 74. No boiler to be used for steam heat or motive when located 
power, and no furnace or hot-water heater shall be placed on abovec ^ llar - 

1 L how to be 

any floor above the cellar floor, unless the same is set on non- placed. 
combustible beams and arches, and in no case without a permit 189 5 P " 
from the commissioner. Every steam-boiler in a building to Permit to set 
be used for office, mercantile or manufacturing purposes, or to ™ q " irecL 

o r 1 ' Boilers to be 

be used as a lodging or tenement house, shall be enclosed in a enclosed in fire- 



proof room. 

1893. 



fire-proofroom of brick, terra-cotta, stone, iron, or other simi- 
lar incombustible material, with openings closed by metal- Cha P- 46i - ? 6 - 

■ . approved June 

covered doors, hung to rabbeted iron frames, or to iron 9,1893. 
hinges in brick or iron rabbets. No range, stove, oven, or Permit to set 
boiler shall be used for cooking in a hotel or restaurant, or range *' etc -' rt ' 

~ ' quired. 

for manufacturing purposes, until the same has been ex- 
amined and approved by the commissioner. 

Sect. 75. In every second-class building hereafter External parts 

J ° of second-class 

erected, all exterior parts more than forty-five feet above buildings to be 

1 # "* constructed of 

the sidewalk, except window-frame sashes and blinds, shall incombustible 

1 material. 

be made of metal, stone, brick, or other equally incom- ^- 46A 6 7 
bustible material. 7J%IT X Jun * 

Chap. 443, § 29, 
1894. 



36 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

SHUTTERS. 

when required. Sect. 76. Outside openings of the classes hereinafter 
specified, in any first or second class building of more than 
one story in height, hereafter built or altered, and contain- 
ing above the first story any room of over six hundred feet 
area, used for any purposes except domestic cooking, of 
greater fire risk than offices, counting-rooms, and dwelling- 

Howcon- rooms, shall be protected by shutters. Such shutters shall 

stnicted. L ~ 

be covered on both sides with tin, or made of other substan- 
tial fire-resisting material, and hung on the outside, if practi- 
cable, and otherwise on the inside, either upon independent 
iron frames or upon iron hinges rabbeted to the masonry, 
and made to be handled from the outside. The above re- 
quirement shall apply to any opening in any such building, 
which opening is above and within thirty feet of the roof 
of another building, or within thirty feet of another opening 
in an opposite wall, or in a wall the outside face of which 
diverges at an angle of less than one hundred and thirty-five 
degrees from the outside face of the wall in which the open- 
ins; is and leaves an open space between the openings and 
outside of the walls. 

ELEVATORS AND HOISTWAYS. 

whennotabove Sect. 77. Elevators or hoists for freight which do not 

first floor lev.el. , ... .. , „ , . , tjl 

pass the ceiling of the first story may be constructed without 

when elevators fire-proof enclosures above the basement. In existing build- 
may be placed . • 1 .1 T 1 C 1 • I' •,! 

in areas or haii- ings, or in buildings hereafter erected in compliance with 
this act, freight and passenger elevators without fire-proof 
enclosures may be placed in areas or hallways which are 
continuous and unbroken, no part being separated from 
another part by an intervening floor ; provided, that no ad- 
ditional draught of air is thereby created. In such buildings 
such elevators may pass through the first floor of any area or 
hallway ; provided, a fire-proof enclosure be carried up to the 
ah shafts here- first floor. Except as above provided, all shafts hereafter 
co^rncted°of be built for elevators, hoists, dumb-waiters, lifts, light and 
non-inflarama ventilating shafts or other air ducts, shall be constructed 
of, and if they do not pass the upper floor their tops shall 
be covered with, some substantial material not inflammable. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 37 

AH such shafts which pass the top fioor shall be carried at Shafts alread y 

i -i -i i i oil i-i constructed to 

least eighteen inches above the root and be covered with be tin-iined. 
a skylight. Such shafts already constructed, except lifts 
twenty-eight inches square or of less area, and except in 
dwelling-houses to be occupied by not more than one family, 
shall lie lined with tin or plastered on wire lathing, or other- 
wise rendered non-inflammable on the inside. Such shafts 
hereafter built for freight and passenger elevators shall be of 
brick at least eight inches thick, or of metal covered on both 
sides with at least one inch of plaster applied immediately to 
the metal, or with some other equally substantial non-inflam- 
mable non-conducting material. Every entrance opening in openings into 

°. , J , l ° shafts to be 

a shaft or hoistway within two and one-half feet above the protected. 

floor shall be protected by sufficient rails, gates, trap-doors, or 

such other device as shall be equivalent thereto. Every ele- Safet y- St °p t0 

1 " be provided. 

vator shall be provided with some other sufficient arrange- 
ment to prevent the falling of the car in case of accident. 
Overhead elevator machinery shall have underneath it a 
grille sufficient to protect the car from falling material. 
Every opening into an elevator shaft or hoistway, and every °P eQin g sinto 

~ r ° J ■> J shafts, etc., to 

opening through a floor other than a stairway, shall be closed be closed when 

when not in use. All inside elevator shaft-openings, other notlu Ufle ' 

than openings in passenger-elevator shafts, shall be furnished 

with metal-covered doors hung to rabbeted iron frames, and 

shall have iron thresholds, and said doors shall be kept doVL'o'f shafts 

ii'i ,. /-\ i • -i i • r» t( > have three 

closed when not in use. Outside windows or openings of vertical red- 

ij_ i /* i i i i i • i • • -i P a 'nted Iron 

every elevator shaft shall have three vertical iron bars painted bars. 
red, equally dividing the opening. Every part of any elevator Wheu wire 

x J oio ./i J grilles are re- 

not enclosed in a shaft shall be protected by a wire grille. quired. 

Sect. 78. No elevator shall be used in any building until g«££g "^ t0 
after written approval by the commissioner. cbap .^', § 24, 

Sect. 79. In case any freight or passenger elevator is! T 89o ' ft , 

J & i. O Use of to be 

not constructed and furnished in compliance with this act, or prohibited 

, , j, . , . . in • when unsafe. 

has become unsafe, the commissioner shall post a conspicu- hap. 449, § 24» 
ous warning and prohibition at each entrance to such elevator. 1895 - 
It shall thereafter, until a new written permit is given by the 
commissioner, be a penal offence hereunder to operate said 
elevator, or remove or deface said notice. No freight or 



38 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

Elevator to be passenger elevator shall be operated for more than six 
Annually by an months after the .date of the commissioner's permit, unless a 
elevator builder, certificate signed by some elevator builder that the elevator 
eateofits is safe and in good order has been furnished within six 
safety posted m mon ^| lg an( j - g p 0S t ec [ j n tj ie car or a t ^he entrance. 

the car. *■ 

ACCESS TO ROOFS. 

Permanent step- Sect. 80. All buildings over twenty feet high shall have 

ladders or " 

stairs required permanent means or access to the root from the inside. The 
opening shall be not less than eighteen inches by thirty 
inches. 

EGRESS. 

when required. g ECT . 81. Every building hereafter built, and every 

Chap. 314, 1895, # J ° J 

approved April building occupied by two or more families, or as a tenement, 
Cha 9 449 s 24 hoarding or lodging house, or as a factory or workshop, 
i89 5 - shall have, with reference to its height, condition, construc- 

tion, surroundings, character o£ occupation, and number of 
occupants, one or more safe means of egress in case of tire, 
satisfactory to said commissioner. 

certificate to be Sect. 83. Any owner or lessee responsible for the con- 
issued, when, 
chap. 449, §24, ditioii of a building shall be entitled to a certificate, or if the 

original has been issued, an exhibition of the duplicate 
thereof on the commissioner's records, to the effect that his 
building is provided with safe means of egress, if and when- 
ever such is the case in the commissioner's opinion. Any 
tenant of or person employed in any private building, and, 
in the case of any public building or public school, any 
citizen of Boston, shall be entitled to an exhibition of the 
commissioner's record, and if no certificate has been issued, 
may apply to have a certificate or order issued. 
Explosive ma- Sect. 84. No explosive or inflammable compound or 

terial, etc., not L r 

to be stored combustible material shall be stored or placed under any 
stairway of any building, or used in any such place or man- 
ner as to obstruct or render egress hazardous in case of fire. 

Fire-escapes to Sect,. 85. The platforms, landings, and stairway steps of 
every fire-escape shall be strong enough to carry a load of 
seventy pounds to the square foot in addition to the weight 
of materia] . 

Note. — Section 82 repealed. See chapter 293, Acts of 1S93, Appendix G. 



under stair- 
ways, etc 



be sufficiently 
etron 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 39 

BAY-WINDOWS. 

Sect. 86. Except as provided in section eighty-two, no Not to project 
bay-window or other structure shall be placed upon any ov " hl ? hwa y 

^ *■■•.«/ without permis- 

building so as to project over any public way or square, sion of board of 
without the permission of the board of aldermen given chatTl^g Ym 
after due notice and hearing, and then only in such manner 1895 - 
as shall be approved by the commissioner. 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS, ETC. 

Sect. 87. Every structure and part thereof, and a p- ° wnert08ecuie 

same forthwith 

purtenance thereto, within the city of Boston, shall be so or take down. 
constructed and maintained in such repair as not to be dan- 1S ^' 449 ' §24 ' 
gerous, and the owner of any premises within said city, upon 
notice from the commissioner that such premises are danger- 
ous, shall forthwith remedy the cause of danger by removal 
or repair. In case public safety requires immediate action, Whencommis - 

1 L " J sioner may 

the commissioner may forthwith, by repair or temporary pro- secure or take 
tection, prevent danger ; or may, subject to appeal as provided 
for in section thirteen, remove the dangerous structure ; and 
his reasonable and necessary expenses may be recovered by 
the city of Boston of the owner. 

Sect. 88. Any building which, by defect, accident, May be vacated, 
decay, or overloading, is unsafe, shall be vacated forthwith chap. 449, §24, 
if and when the commissioner shall so order, notwithstanding 1895 - 
an appeal from such order be pending. The commissioner To be placarded 
shall affix and maintain on the exterior of every such building unsa e ' w en ' 
a conspicuous notice of its character. The removing or ren- 
dering illegible of such notice shall be a penal offence here- 
under. 

Sect. 89. In case of any change, alteration, or addition When addi - 

. _ . , tional rent may 

not in the nature ot ordinary repairs, renewals, or restora- be collected, 
tions, being required under the terms of this act upon a 
building wholly or partly under lease containing no provi- 
sion for such a case, the owner shall pay the expense, and 
may collect of the lessee an additional rent for the portion 
so leased equal to eight per cent, per annum on that propor- 
tion of the sum paid which the leased portion bears to the 
whole building. 



40 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Shall be first- 
class buildings. 
Chap. 443, §23, 
1894. 



Stage level not 
to exceed 5 ft. 
above street 
level. 

Each division, 
gallery, etc., to 
have at least 
two indepen- 
dent exits. 

Width of such 
exits. 



Fronts of such 
buildings to be 
full width of 
auditorium, in- 
cluding lobbies, 
side passages, 
i tc, and to be 
located on a 
street or area 
open to the sky, 
at least 30 ft. 
wide. 



Additional 
exits. 



THEATRES, PUBLIC BUILDINGS, ETC. 

Sect. 90. Every building, except armories, and 
churches wherein the floor of the assembly hall is not more 
than seven feet above the grade at the principal entrance, 
hereafter so built or altered as to contain an audience or 
assembly hall, capable of seating eight hundred persons or 
more, in sight or hearing of the stage, allowing the minimum 
width for aisles and corridors permitted by this act, and 
every theatre hereafter built, shall be a first-class building. 
In all theatres hereafter erected, the level of the stage above 
the street level shall not exceed five feet. The audience 
hall and each compartment, division, and gallery of every 
such building shall respectively have at least two indepen- 
dent exits, as far apart as may be. Every such exit shall 
have a width of at least twenty inches for every hundred 
persons which the hall, compartment, division, or gallery 
from which it leads is capable of containing; provided, that 
two or more exits of the same aggregate width may be sub- 
stituted for either of the two exits above required. None of 
the exits above required shall be less then five feet wide. 

Sect. 91. Every building of the classes referred to by 
section ninety hereafter built shall have a frontage as wide 
as the widest part of the auditorium or assembly hall, in- 
cluding side passages or lobbies, the whole width and height 
of which frontage shall be upon a street, court, passageway, 
or area open to the sky, and at least thirty feet wide 
opposite the entire frontage. Such court, passageway, or 
area shall have an unobstructed way at least thirty feet wide, 
either through a first-class building, without openings into 
any second or third class building, or wholly open to the 
sky, connecting it with a public street at least thirty feet 
wide. There shall be at least one exit on this front which 
shall be in no case less than five feet in width, and of such 
greater width as an allowance of twenty inches for each one 
hundred persons which the building may at any time con- 
tain will in the aggregate require. There shall be another 
independent exit of the same capacity, or independent exits 
of the same aggregate capacity, either through a first-class 
building without openings into any second or third class 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 41 

building:, or through a passageway open to the sky. All A,ld001st0 

1 , ,, i , ! open outward. 

doors shall open outward, and shall not be so placed as to 
reduce the width of the passage above required. All Allies, stair- 
aisles, stairways, and passages in such buildings shall be of sageways to be 
even or increasing width toward the exit, at least seven feet of even or in_ 

*- _ creasing width 

high throughout, without obstruction below that height, throughout. 
properly arranged for the easy egress of the audience, and 
of a width in respect of each division, gallery, or compart- 
ment, computed according to the above rule. No aisle or Aisle > etc -> t0 

, . , , . have a rising 

passage in such building rising toward its exit, except not over two in 
stairways from story to story and necessary steps in gal- ten - 
leries and balconies, shall have a gradient within the audi- 
torium of more than two in ten, nor elsewhere of more than 
one in ten. 

Sect. 92. In buildings of the classes referred to in sec- Risers of Btair - 

° stringers not to 

tion ninety hereafter built, the cut of the stair stringers shall exceed t\ in., 



not exceed seven and one-half inches rise, nor be less than 



and treads to be 
not lest 

ten and one-half inches tread. No winders shall be less than lojin. 
seven inches wide at the narrowest part. There shall be no Length of 
flights of more than fifteen or less than three steps between 
landings. Every landing shall be at least four feet wide Width of Iand " 

~ •> ~ mgs. 

from step to step. 

Sect. 93. All stairs and landings of all buildings of the Handrails, 
classes referred to by section ninety hereafter built shall 
have throughout proper hand rails on both sides firmly 
secured to walls, or to strong posts and balusters. Stair- 
ways twelve feet or more wide shall have one or more 
intermediate rails not more than eight feet apart and prop- 
erly supported. 

Sect. 94. No boiler, furnace, engine, or heating-appara- Boilers, etc., 

1 T 1 IT 1 UOt t0 be l0 " 

tus, except steam or hot-air pipes and radiators, shall be ca ted under 
located under the auditorium nor under any passage or stair- auditorium, pas- 

"* ' '-' sageways, or 

way of any exit of any building of the classes referred to by stairways. 
section ninety. 

Sect. 95. The lights for the rear of the auditorium, and Lights of stair- 

, t ~. ... n i'it c ways aud exits 

for all passages and stairways ot exits of every building ot tobeindepen- 
the classes referred to by section ninety, hereafter built, shall dent of lights of 

• ; •> rest of building. 

be independent of the lights of the rest of the auditorium and 



42 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

of the platform or stage, .and shall be so arranged that they 
cannot be turned down or off from the platform or stage. 
aii exits to be Sect. 95. All exits from every building of the classes 

opened for de- . nl , ,, , c 

parting audi- referred to by section ninety shall be opened tor the use of 



cnce. 



every departing audience ; and shall have fastenings on the 
Plans to be inside only. Plans showing the exits and stairways shall 

printed on , 

playbills. be printed on every programme or playbill. 

obstructions Sect. 97. No temporary seats or other obstructions 

aisles, etc. shall be allowed in any aisle, passageway, or stairway of 

a building of the classes referred to by section ninety, 
standing room. &n ^ no person shall be allowed to remain in any aisle, 

passageway, or stairway of any such building during any 

performance. 
Proscenium Sect. 98. The stage of every theatre hereafter built shall 

wall, thickness, ° t 

width, and be separated from the auditorium by a brick Avail sixteen 

height of. inches thick, which wall shall extend the entire width and 

height of the building, and two feet six inches above the 

openings roof, like a party wall. There shall be no openings through 

through. . . .. . 

this wall except the curtain opening, and not more than two 
others, which shall be located at or below the level of the 
stage ; these latter openings shall not exceed twenty-one 
superficial feet each, and shall have tinned wood self-closing- 
doors, securely hung to rabbeted iron frames or rabbets in 
the brickwork. The finish or decorative features around 
the curtain opening of every theatre shall be of incombus- 

scenery.cur- tible materials, well secured to masonry. All scenery, cur- 
tains, and wood- i 11 i 
work to be cov- tains, and woodwork of the stage of every theatre shall be 

eredorsatu- thoroughly covered, and, if practicable, saturated with fire- 
rated with fire- » «/ i 

resistingma- resisting material. No fixed portion of the stage shall be of 

terial. -. 

wood. 
Lobbies re- Sect. 99. There shall be lobbies adjoining each division 

qmred. Q £ t ^ e auditorium of every theatre hereafter built, separated 

therefrom by a partition of brick or other equally incombus- 
tible material, and sufficiently large to furnish standing- 
room for all persons that such division lmvy at any time 
contain. There shall be no openings in such partition ex- 
cept such as are required by section ninety, and such open- 
ings shall not be more than eight feet high. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 43 

Sect. 100. The proscenium or curtain opening of every Fireproof cur- 
theatre shall have a fire-resisting curtain of incombustible 
material, reenforced by wire netting, or otherwise strength- 
ened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so contrived as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor ; the 
remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance of 
fire-resisting fabric. Such curtain shall be raised at the To be rai8ed 

, before and low- 

beginning and lowered at the end ot each and every per- er ed after each 

formance, and shall be of proper material, construction, and P erformance - 

mechanism. 

Sect. 101. All scene docks, carpenter or property shops, scene docks, 

and wardrobes of every theatre hereafter built shall be sep- pr0 perty shops, 

aratedfrom the stage, auditorium, and dressing-room divisions wardrobes, 

, , dressing-rooms, 

by solid brick walls not less than twelve inches thick, with etc. 
no openings to the auditorium or dressing-room divisions ; 
and all openings to the stage shall have tinned wood self-clos- 
ing doors, securely hung to rabbets in the brickwork. 

Sect. 102. All rooms in theatres for the use of persons Exits from em- 
employed therein shall have at least two independent exits. to^tudepTn- 6 
All stage gaslights shall be protected by proper nettings. dent and at least 

o mi -i two in number. 

Sect. 103. There shall be one or more ventilators near the ventilators over 
centre and above the highest portion of the stage of every stage ' area and r 

o J. ° " construction of. 

theatre, equal in combined area of opening to one-tenth of the 
area of stage floor. Every such ventilator shall have a valve 
or louvre so counterbalanced as to open automatically, and 
shall be kept closed, when not in use, by a cord reaching to 
the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. Such 
cord shall be of combustible material, and so arranged that 
if it is severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

Sect. 104. There shall be at least two two-inch high-service High-service 
standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample provision ^ d etg es re . 
of hose and nozzles at each level of the stage on each side, quired, 
and the water shall be kept turned on during the occupa- 
tion of the building by any audience. The said pipes shall 
have two gates, one above the other, with a proper test or 
waste valve ; the lower gate to be kept open at all times. 
The proscenium opening of every theatre shall be provided 1 A e V r f r e eq 8 l fired k for 
with a two and one-half inch perforated iron pipe or equiv- opening!"" 1 



44: DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

alent equipment of automatic or open .sprinklers, as the 

commissioner may direct, so constructed as to form when in 

operation a complete water curtain for the entire proscenium 

Fire apparatus opening, an d there shall be for the rest of the stage a 

and additional r ° t " . . . 

sprinklers re- complete system of fire apparatus and perforated iron pipes, 
chTf-wo S24 automatic or open sprinklers. Said pipes or sprinklers shall 
is95. « be supplied with water by high-pressure service, and be at 

all times ready for use. 
System of ven- S ECT . 105. Every hall, auditorium, or room of every 

tilatiou for 

school-houses, building hereafter erected for or converted to use as a school- 
theatres, public h ouse f. lc tory, theatre, or place of public assembly or enter- 

bmklmgs, and J ' L l J 

factories re- tainment shall have in continuous operation while occupied a 
system of ventilation so contrived as to provide fifty cubic 
feet per minute of outer air for each light other than an 
electric light for each occupant. 

TENEMENT AND LODGING HOUSES. 

Exterior waiis Sect. 107. The exterior walls of every building here- 

not to exceed _ „ , -, -/ . 

30 ft. in height after erected tor or converted to use as a tenement or lodging 
unless located i louse an( j no t having an exposure or an open space, street, 

on an open o i i >- 

space more court, or passageway more than twenty feet in width, shall 

than 20 ft. wide. . -■ . ■ . , /■ . . i • i . 

not exceed thirtv teet m height. 
Areaoftene- Sect. 108. No building hereafter erected for or con- 

ment-houses, ° . 

when restricted verted to use as a tenement or lodging house, and no build- 
ch dh °239 5 24 ' n S' hereafter enlarged for said purposes, shall occupy above 
1895. the level of the second floor more than sixty-five one- 

Aprn°6, e is95. hundredth parts of the area of the lot measured to the middle 
line of the street or streets, or passageways, on which it 
abuts. Every such building shall have on at least two ex- 
posures, on land of the owner or as part of public ways, 
open spaces of at least ten feet in width, which spaces shall 
have an aggregate length of one foot for every twenty-five 
square feet of superficial area actually occupied by the build- 
ing. Such spaces shall be open to the sky, and shall remain 
undiminished so long as the building is occupied as a tene- 
ment or lodging house. A clear space open from the ground 
to the sky shall be maintained across the whole rear of 

Note. — Section 100 repealed March 7, 1895. See chapter 97, Acts of 1S95, Appendix Q. 
Chapter 443, § 24, 1894. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 45 

every such building, and of a depth equal to one-half of the chap. 449, § 24, 

. . . 1S95. 

width of the street in front of such building; provided, that 
such space need not exceed the depth of twenty feet ; and 
provided, further, that an equivalent area of open space in 
the rear of such building may be provided of different 
dimensions, with the consent of the building commissioner. 

Sect. 109. Every existing tenement or lodging house ventilation of 
shall have in every sleeping-room, not communicating s,ee P iD g looms 

~ in tenement- 

directly with the external air, two ventilating or transom houses. 
windows of not less than six square feet area each, one windows in 
opening into another room or passage having an external walla of 8ta "'~ 

1 •- 1 >_ o ways not 

window of not less than six square feet area, with movable allowed. 
sashes. No transom window shall be placed in a partition 
wall enclosing a main stairway. 

Sect. 110. Every room in every tenement or lodging Rooms of teue- 
house hereafter built, and in every building hereafter altered "e°s ftlTn dea". 
to be used as such, shall be not less than eight feet in height 
in the clear in every story, except that in the attic it may 
be less than eight feet high for one-half the area of the 
room. Every such room shall have one or more windows windows in 

..■ . , , ,, , such rooms to 

on an open-air space with an area at least one-tenth as great pen on area at 
as that of the room. The top of at least one window on least onetenth 

area of room. 

such air space in each room shall be at least seven feet six 
inches from the floor, and the upper sash of the same win- 
dow shall be movable. 

Sect. 111. No building of which any part is used for Buildings used 

, i c i , i ij i • i • for storage or 

storage or sale ot hay, straw, hemp, flax, shavings, burning- sa]eofh * 
fluid, turpentine, camphcne, or any inflammable oil or stmw > burning- 

i'ii -ii • i • fluids, etc., not 

other highly combustible substance, shall be occupied in any to be occupied 
part as a dwelling, tenement, or lodging house, except that fordwelIing 

1 ~ '- o L purposes. 

rooms for coachmen or grooms maybe allowed in private Chap. 449, §24, 
stables authorized by this act, upon special permit from the 
commissioner. 

Sect. 112. All receptacles for ashes, waste, and other Receptacle for 
substances, liable, by spontaneous combustion or otherwise, bemadeofin- 
to cause a fire, shall be made of incombustible material satis- combustible 

. . . „ „ . material. 

factory to the commissioner. Every building used as a tene- 

. Tlace of deposit. 

ment or lodging house shall have outside and appurtenant for garbage re- 
quired. 



46 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 

When watch- 
men are neces- 
sary and the 
number re- 
quired. 



Thermostats 
may be substi- 
tuted for watch- 
men when ap- 
proved by 
commissioner. 
Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 

Red lights, 
gongs, etc., re- 
quired. 



Additional 
safeguards to be 
made if re- 
quired by com- 
missioner. 

When innhold- 
er's license 
shall be for- 
feited. 

Water-closets, 
regulations 
relative to. 



to it a suitable space satisfactory to the commissioner for 
the temporary deposit of garbage and other refuse matter. 

Sect. 113. Every lodging-house containing over fifty 
rooms above the first tloor, and every tenement-house con- 
taining more than fifty sleeping-rooms above the first floor, 
shall have at least one night watchman exclusively so em- 
ployed on duty every night from nine o'clock at night until 
six o'clock- in the morning; and every lodging-house of the 
second or third class containing more than one hundred 
rooms above the first floor, and every tenement-house con- 
taining more than one hundred sleeping-rooms above the 
first floor, shall have at least two night watchmen, exclu- 
sively so employed on duty every night from nine o'clock 
at night until six o'clock in the morning. But in the latter 
class of lodging and tenement houses a proper system of 
thermostats, or automatic fire-alarms, approved in writing 
by the commissioner, may be substituted for one of the watch- 
men. In all lodging or tenement houses of either of the 
above classes a red light shall be kept burning at night at 
the head and foot of every flight of stairs, and one or more 
gongs shall be so placed, and be of such size and number, 
as to give the alarm throughout the house in case of fire ; 
and in every sleeping-room there shall be conspicuously 
posted directions for escape in case of tire. The commissioner 
may make such other or further requirements for prevention 
of and escape from fire as may be reasonably necessary 
under the conditions of each case. Airv innholder who fails 
to comply with the provisions of this section shall thereby 
forfeit his license. 

Sect. 114. Every dwelling, tenement, or lodging house, 
every school-house, and every building where operatives are 
employed, shall have at least one water-closet or privy, and 
at least one water-closet or privy for every twenty persons 
therein living, attending, or employed; and in buildings 
where operatives of both sexes are employed, separate 
accommodations shall be furnished for men and women. 
Privies or cesspools shall not be allowed wdiere a sewer 
makes water-closets practicable. Every water-closet in 
every building hereafter erected for, or converted to use as, 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 47 

a tenement-house, family hotel, or apartment-house, shall 
have a window on the open air. 

STABLES. 

Sect. 115. No building, any part of which is within the To be kept 40 ft. 
limits or within forty feet of the property of an adjoining property/ ' 
owner, shall be erected for or converted to use as a stable, 
without the consent of the mayor and aldermen after public To he licensed 
hearing; had, after written notice to the adjoining owners, by niayor and 

O ' J & » aldermen. 

and after public notice published at least three times, and Public notice 
at least ten days before the hearing, in at least two news- ,eqi " ,etL 
papers published in Boston. 

GRAIN ELEVATORS, CHEMICAL MANUFACTORIES, ETC. 

Sect. 11G. 1 No grain elevator, or building for the stor- J 3 ™^ elevators, 

~ buildings for 

ing or manufacture of high combustibles or explosives, or storag , e ° r „ 

~ O I ' manufacture of 

for chemical or rendering works, shall be erected, and no bifs^expio- 1 
engine, dynamo, boiler, or furnace, except exclusively for 7reudering Cal 
the heating of, or to raise elevators in, the building in which ^ynamos/^on 8 ' 
it is, shall be placed in any building without a permit issued nac'e's, a special 
under the provisions of the following sections. necessary.' 

Sect. 117. Every application for a permit required by Formofappiica- 
section one hundred and sixteen shall be filed with the com- Chap 449; § 2 4, 
missioner in writing, and shall set forth the location and char- 1S95 - 
acter of the building, the size, power, and purpose of the 
apparatus, with such further information as the commissioner 
may require. 

Sect. 118. Every such application shall be published in To be published 

1 ± l-i t i • t-« 11 ^ n daily papers. 

at least two daily papers published in Boston, and at least 

three days in each ; and the applicant shall also, if so directed To be posted on 

, ,. . . • 1 j ii • premises, copies 

by the commissioner, conspicuously post on the premises a t0 be delive)ed 
copy of an application, and deliver copies thereof to such t0 certain P er 

1 J L l , l sons, affidavit 

persons as the commissioner may direct/and shall file an affi- to be aied with 
davit with the commissioner that the notice required has been °° mmi !!i 0I !f»!. 

1 Chap. 449, § 24, 

duly given. If no objection is filed with the commissioner 1395. 
before the expiration of ten days from the time of the first 
publication of notice, or within ten days of the delivery and 
first posting of notice, if required, the commissioner shall, if 

1 See also chapter 399, Acts of 1894, Appendix M. 



48 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

the arrangement, location, and construction of the proposed 

apparatus is proper, and in accordance with the terms of this 

when objection act, issue a permit for the same. But if such objection is 

ferred tiTspeclal filed, tne application shall be referred to the board of appeal, 

commission. y ]e chairman of the board of health, and the fire commis- 

Chap. 449, § 9, . . 

1895. sioner, together sitting as a commission, or such members 

of said boards respectively as, in case of the absence or 
disability of the chairman, the standing members of the 
board of appeal, or their duly appointed substitutes, shall in 
each case appoint. The two members of said commission 
sitting with the board of appeal shall receive the same com- 
pensation as the members of that board. 
Notice of hear- Sect. 119. Said commissioners shall in each case cause 
to^iiparttel? 11 due notice to be given to all parties of the time and place of 
chap. 449, §24, hearing, and after hearing the parties shall authorize the com- 

1895. 

missioner to issue a permit, under such conditions as may be 
costs of appeal, prescribed by said commission, or to withhold the same. If 
how pmd. t j ie p erm j t j s re f use d, the applicant, and if it is granted, the 
objectors, shall pay such costs as the commission may deter- 
mine. 

PLUMBING. 

only plumbers Sect. 120. No person shall carry on the business of plumb- 
form plumbing, ing unless he is a plumber and shall have first registered his 

Must register name a nd place of business in the office of the building com- 
as such at office L . 

ofcommis- missioner ; and notice of any change in the place of business 

cha ei 449 §24 9* a registered plumber shall be immediately given to said 

1895 - commissioner. 
permit neces- Sect. 121. Every plumber, before doing any work in a 

sary before . n \ r i i ni 

work is per- building, shall, except in the case of the repair of leaks, tile 
formed. .^ ^ O fg oe f the sa icl commissioner, upon blanks for that 

Chap. 449, § 24, 

is95. purpose, a notice of the work to be performed ; and no such 

work shall be done in any building without the approval of 

said commissioner. 

Buildings to be Sect. 122. The plumbing of every building shall be sep- 

ind^radeiTuy arately and independently connected with the public sewer, 

connected with wneil sucn sewer is provided, or with a proper and sufficient 

drain connected thereto outside of the building, and it a 

sewer is not accessible, with a proper cesspool. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 49 

Sect. 123. Pipes and other fixtures shall not be covered Plumbing not 

, , (. . ,., i i ji • , to be concealed 

or concealed from view until approved by the inspector, who f romv i ewnn . 
shall examine the same within two working days after notice m a PP roved b y 

° inspector. 

that they are ready for inspection. 

Sect. 124. Plumbing work shall not be used unless the Plumbing to be 
same has first been tested in the presence of the inspector 1^™/ before 
with the water test, or if that is not practicable, with the used - 
peppermint or other reliable test, and approved by him in 
writing. 

Sect. 125. Drain and connecting ventilating pipes shall Size andm:v 

i r rr* • . ii<'j- it terial of drain 

be of sufficient size, and made of cast iron or standard and ventilating 
wrought iron within the building, and for a distance of at pipes ' and 

'-' quality of same. 

least ten feet outside, except that lead pipes may be used 1893. 

for short connections exposed to view. Such pipes, if of approved May's, 

wrought iron, shall be of standard weight and strength, 1893 - 

and if of cast iron, shall be of uniform thickness throughout, 

and shall have an average weight not less than that below 

specified, viz. : 

2- inch pipe ..... 5^ pounds per foot. 

3-inch pipe ..... 9^ pounds per foot. 

4-inch pipe ..... 13 pounds per foot. 

5-inch pipe . . . . .17 pounds per foot. 

6-inch pipe ..... 20 pounds per foot. 

8-inch pipe ..... 33£ pounds per foot. 

10-inch pipe ..... 45 pounds per foot. 

12-inch pipe ..... 54 pounds per foot. 

Drain-pipes shall be properly secured by irons to walls, Drainpipes, 
laid in trenches to uniform grade, or suspended to floor tim- 
bers by strong iron hangers. Every drain-pipe shall be sup- to have run- 
plied with a suitable trap, placed with an accessible clean-out, ning trap wit)l 

accessible clean 

at or near the point where it leaves the building, and shall out. 
have a proper fall. Drain-pipes shall be carried above the To be carried 
roof open and undiminished in size, and to a sufficient height * ea ° s tYfT and 
not less than two feet above the roof, and not less than five undiminished in 
feet above the top of any window within fifteen feet. Changes changes in di 
in direction shall be made with curved pipes, and all con- rectlon t0 bt ' 

1 l made with 

nections with horizontal or vertical pipes shall be made with curved pipe. 



50 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

ah connections y branches. All drain-pipes shall he exposed to sight where 
y branched' practicable within the building, and shall not be exposed to 
Drainpipe be- p,- esS ure where they pass through walls. Every part of 
to be laid in every drain-pipe below a cellar floor shall be laid in a brick 
b.ick trench, trench with a concrete base, and shall be accessible through 

sufficient unattached covers. 
Rainwater Seot. 126. Rain-water leaders when connected with soil 

or drain pipes shall be suitably trapped. 
iron pipes to be Sect. 127. Iron pipes used in plumbing shall, before 
coatei "with hot being put in place, be first tested by the water or kerosene 
coai-tar pitch in- tes |. an( j t j ien coa ted inside and out with coal-tar pitch, ap- 

side and outside. . 

1893. plied hot, or with paint, or with some equivalent substance. 

Chap. 297, §2. j j nts Q f W rought-iron pipes shall be made bv screwing the 

Joints to be ~ "- "■ - ° 

calked, etc. same into double heavy cast-iron fittings tapped with stand- 
Sad^ndiron ard screw thread ; joints of cast-iron pipes shall be made by 
pipes to be thoroughly calking the same with molten lead ; joints of lead 

made with brass . , . • tut t i i j • a1 

ferrules, prop- pipes with iron pipes shall be made by soldering the same 
eriy calked, etc. j nto ^ YSlSS ferrules, and calking the ferrules to cast-iron pipes 

or screwing them to wrought-iron pipes. 
Waste-pipe of Sect. 128. The waste-pipe of each and every sink, 
feturTtr/have basin, bath-tub, water-closet, slop-hopper, and of each set 
a separate trap. f t ra ys or other fixtures, shall be furnished with a separate 

trap, which shall be placed as near as practicable to the fixt- 
Trapstohave U re that it serves. Traps shall be protected from siphonage 
speoia air- or a i r pressure by special cast-iron air-pipes of a size not 

less than the waste-pipes they serve placed outside or below 

the trap. Lead air-pipes may be used only where they are 
Air-pipes to be exposed to view. Air-pipes for water-closet traps shall be 
earned above f two-inch bore if thirty feet or less in length, and of three- 

roof or con- J '- 

nected with inch bore if more than thirty feet in length. Air-pipes shall 
iTetapper he run as direct as practicable. Two or more air-pipes may 
fixture. De com iected together or with a drain-pipe ; but in every 

case of connection with a drain-pipe such connection shall be 

above the upper fixture of the building. 
Drip or over- Sect. 129. Drip or overflow pipes, from safes under 

f owpipe t no , tto water-closets and other fixtures, or from tanks or cisterns, 

be connected 

with drainpipe, shall be run to some place in open sight, and in no case shall 
waste-pipe an y sucn pjp e ne connected directly with a drain-pipe. No 
1^™., not' to waste-pipe from a refrigerator, or other receptacle in which 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 51 

provisions are stored, shall be connected with a'drain-pipe or be connected 

.1 , with drain-pipe. 

other waste-pipe. 

Sect. 130. Every water-closet, or line of water-closets water-ciosets 
on the same floor, shall be supplied with water from a tank f ° * l uv . v Iec 

I r trom cistern. 

or cistern, and shall have a flushing-pipe of not less than Fiushing-pipes 
one inch in diameter; but this requirement shall not apply ^n one Inch 
to water-closets substituted for vaults, where the same are 
located outside of the building proper ; and such water- Exceptions. 
closets may be arranged so as to receive their supply directly 189 ! p ' 9 ' ; 
from the main, with proper fixtures approved by the com- 
missioner, the water board, and the board of health. 

Sect. 131. Every privy-vault shall be of brick and Pri ^y -vaults, 

_ . . . i • /• p capacity and 

cement, ot a capacity not less than eighty cubic teet, or easy construction of. 
access, convenient to open and clean, and made tight. The 
inside shall be at least two feet from the next lot and from 
any public or private way. 

Sect. 132. No steam-exhaust shall be connected with steam exhau8t8 

... . . not to be con- 

aiiy public sewer or with any soil or waste pipe or drain U ected with 

which communicates with a public sewer. public sewer. 

Sect. 133. Water-pipes in exposed places shall be 
properly protected from frost. 

Sect. 134. A grease-trap shall be constructed under the Grease-traps, 
sink of every hotel, eating-house, restaurant, or other pub- 
lic cooking establishment, so as to be easily accessible for 
inspection and cleaning. 

Sect. 135. All ordinances and parts of ordinances f Citymayby 

1 ordinance regu 

the city of Boston now in force relating to the building late the manage- 
limits and the inspection and survey of buildings shall re- Section of 1 
main in force until amended or repealed by said city. Said elevators and 

, -.. . . , . hoistways. 

city may, by ordinance, regulate the management and in- Chap . 449) § 2 4, 
spection of elevator hoistways and elevator shafts in said ,895 - 
city. The officers of the building department of said city officers of de- 

i ii J.- /v <• 1 r i'ii partments to 

shall continue to hold ofhce for the terms tor which they hold office for 
were appointed, and until their successors are appointed j n te, ' msforwhioh 

- L they were ap- 

accordance with this act, unless sooner removed. pointed. 



52 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



INJUNCTIONS. 

injunction to be Seot. 136. 1 Any court having equity jurisdiction, in 

issued on appli- . . , . 

cation of city of term time or vacation, may, on the application of the city 
Boston, by its f g os (; 0n Dv jts attornev, by any suitable process or decree 

attorney. ' J . . 

Chap. 170, §1, in equity, enforce the provisions of this act, and may, on 
Approved April sllcn application, issue an injunction to restrain the erec- 
7,1893. tion, alteration, use, or occupation of any building or 

structure in the city of Boston, erected, altered, maintained, 

or used in violation of this act. 



PENALTY. 

Any person Sect. 137. Any person who shall build or alter any wall, 

violating any 
provision of 



building or other structure, or part thereof, in violation of any 
this act shall be provision of this act, or who shall, after twenty-four hours' 

punished by a . - . . . , . i n 

tine not exceed- notice from the commissioner, maintain or use any such wall, 
in g $i,ooo. building, or other structure, or part thereof, so built or 

Chap. 449, § 24, ° . .... 

1S95. altered, or shall violate any provision of this act, shall be 

punished by a line not exceeding one thousand dollars, to be 
paid into the treasury of the city of Boston. 

REPEALS. 

chap. 102, p.s. Sect. 138. Sections forty to fifty-three inclusive of 
chapter one hundred and two of the Public Statutes are 
hereby repealed in so far as they relate to the city of Boston. 

chap. 124 of Chapter one hundred and twenty-four of the acts of the year 

chap. 369 of eighteen hundred and ten, chapter three hundred and sixty- 
nine of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, 

chap. 192 of chapter one hundred and ninety-two of the acts of the year 

1878. l J J 

chap. 252 of eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, chapter two hundred 
and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 

i883 P ' 173of eighty-two, chapter one hundred and seventy-three and chap- 

chap. 251 of ter two hundred and fifty-one of the acts of the year eighteen 

chap 223 of hundred and eighty -three, chapter two hundred and twenty- 

1884. three of the acts of the year eighteeu hundred and eighty-four, 
chap. 374 of chapter three hundred and seventy-four of the acts of the 
chap 382 of year eighteen hundred and eighty-five, sections two, four, 

1885. sects.2,4, anc l fi ve to ten inclusive of chapter three hundred and eighty- 

(5 to 10) . 

1 Also see chapter 257, Acts of 1894, Appendix J. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 53 

two of the acts of the same year, chapter three hundred and cim P .3i6of 
sixteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty- Bost ' on * aIve 
eight, so far as it relates to the city of Boston, sections one chap. 426 of 
to eight inclusive of chapter four hundred and twenty-six of 1S88 * Sects - (1 10 

* J # 8) relative to 

the acts of the same year, so far as they relate to the city of Boston, and an 
Boston, and all acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith, :a ' 8aiul P a,t » of 

1 ' acts mconsist- 

are hereby repealed. All provisions of this act which are ent with tins act, 
the same in effect as those hereinbefore repealed shall be 
construed as continuations and reenactments, and in all 
such cases the provisions shall take effect as of the date when 
they were first enacted. No repeal hereby enacted shall 
have the effect of reviving any act or part of an act hereto- 
fore repealed. 

Approved by Governor, June 16, 1892. 
This act took effect July 16, 1892. 



54 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 



EXTERNAL AND PARTY WALLS. 

DWELLINGS, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS BUILDINGS. 

20 feet X 40 feet, 33 feet high, not less than 8 inches. 

33 feet to 60 feet high, 12 inches. 

60 feet to 70 feet high, 16 inches to second floor, 12 inches above. 

70 feet to 80 feet high, 20 inches to second floor, 16 inches to 

upper floor, and 12 inches above. 
More than 80 feet, see Special Requirements, Section 36. 



OTHER THAN DWELLINGS, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS 
BUILDINGS. 

40 feet or less in height, 16 inches to top of second floor, 12 

inches above. 
40 feet to 60 feet high, 20 inches to second floor, 16 inches above. 
60 feet to 80 feet, 24 inches to first floor, 20 inches to upper floor, 

16 inches above. 
Over 80 feet, see Special Requirements, Section 37. 

VAULTED WALLS. 

Shall contain, exclusive of withes, same amount of material as solid 
walls. 

Walls on either side of air-space shall be not less than 8 inches thick. 

ASHLAR. 

Less than 8 inches thick not to be reckoned in thickness of wall. 
Eight inches or over in thickness, excess over 4 inches may be reckoned 
in thickness of wall. Shall be at least 4 inches thick. 

IRON AND STEEL EXTERNAL WALLS. 



May be of less thickness than brick external walls when requirements 
for strength are complied with : provided, all constructional parts are 
wholly protected from heat by brick or terra-cotta, etc. 

PILING. 

See Special Requirements, Section 27. 



FOUNDATIONS. 



See Special Requirements, Sections 28 and 30. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



55 



Table showing Safe Load in Tons. Cylindrical Iron Columns, 1-Inch Shell. 



Length of 






Diameter Columns 


Outside. 






Columns. 


6-in. 


7-in. 


8-in. 


9-in. 


10-in. 


11-iu. 


12-in. 


6 feet 


66.6 














7 ' 




64.4 


79.7 












8 ' 




60.2 


77.1 


93.2 










9 ' 




55.8 


74.6 


90.3 


106.4 








10 ' 




53.7 


69.4 


87.3 


103. 


119.5 






11 ' 




49.6 


66.9 


84.3 


99.6 


115.7 


133.1 




12 ' 




45.6 


61.8 


7S.3 


96.2 


111.9 




146.2 


13 ' 




43.8 


59.4 


75.3 


92.7 


108.1 


128.8 




14 ' 




40.1 


54.6 


72.3 


89.3 


104.6 


124.6 


141.6 


15 ' 




36.9 


52.4 


69.5 


85.9 


100.3 


120.4 


136.9 


16 ' 




35.4 


50.1 


63.9 - 


S2.5 


96.5 


116. 


132.3 


17 ' 




32.5 


48.1 


61.3 


79.3 


92.7 


111.7 


127.4 


18 ' 




29.9 


44.2 


5S.7 


72.9 


89.1 


107.5 


122.S 


19 ' 




28.7 


40.7 


56.3 


70. 


S5.4 


103.3 




20 ' 




26.5 


39. 


51.8 


67. 


81.9 


99.2 


11S.1 








Metal area, square i 


nches. 










15.71 


18.82 


22.00 


25.14 


28.27 


31.41 


34.56 



56 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS, 



Table showing Safe Load in Tons. Cylindrical Columns, l'j-incli Shell. 









Diameter Columns 


Outside. 




















Columns. 


6-in. 


7-in. 


S-iu. 


9-in. 


10-in. 


11-iu. 


12-in. 


6 feet 


79. 














7 ' 




76. 


95. 










* 


8 ' 




71. 


92. 


112. 










9 ' 




66. 


89. 


108.7 


12S.S 








10 ' 




63.7 


• 83. 


105. 


124.7 


145. 






11 ' 




58.7 


SO. 


101.6 


120.6 


140.8 


161.9 




12 ' 




54. 


74. 


94. 


116.5 


136. 




178.9 


13 ' 




51.8 


71. 


90.7 


112. 


131.5 


156.8 




14 ' 




47.6 


65. 


87. 


108. 


126.7 


151.6 


173. 


15 ' 




43.S 


62.7 


S3.7 


104. 


122. 


146. 


167.5 


16 ' 




41.9 


60. 


76.9 


100. 


117. 


141. 


161 .8 


17 ' 






55. 
52.9 

48.7 
46.6 


73.9 
70.7 
67.8 
62. 


96. 
88. 
84.8 
81. 


112.8 
108. 
103.9 
99.6 


135.9 

129.S 
125.6 
120.7 


157.9 


IS ' 






150. 


19 ' 








20 






144.5 








Metal area, square 


nches. 










18.65 


22.58 


26.52 


30.44 


34.36 


38.29 


42.22 



PIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS, 



57 



Table showing Safe Load in Tons. Cylindrical Iron Columns, l'.-inch Shell. 









Diameter Columns 


Outside. 






Length of 














Columns. 


















8-in. 


9-in. 


10-in. 


11-iu. 


12-irj. 


13-iu. 


14-in. 




129.7 














9 " 


125.6 


149.6 














121. 


144.9 


169.6 












117. 


140. 


164. 


189.5 










10S.9 


135. 


158.8 




209. 






13 " 


104.S 


130. 


153. 


183. 




229. 




14 «■ 


100.6 


125.6 


147.8 


177. 


202.7 




249.7 


15 " 


96.6 


120.9 


142. 


171. 


196. 


222. 




16 " 


88.8 


116. 


137. 


1C5. 


189. 


214.7 


241.7 


17 " 


85. 


111.5 


131.6 


159. 


182.5 


207. 


233.8 


18 " 


76.7 


102.5 


126. 


153. 


175.8 








78. 


98. 


121. 


147. 




199.8 


225.8 


•20 " 


72. 


94. 


116. 


141. 


169. 


192.5 


217.6 








Metal area, square 


inches. 






• 


30.63 


35.34 


40.06 


44.77 


49.48 


54.19 


58.90 



58 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



WOODEN BEAMS. 



Uniformly distributed Load in Pounds Wor Rectangular Reams ~~, in which 
li = Span of Beam in Feet and b = Width of Beam in Inches. 

Values of C for different depths of beams. 



Depth of Beam. 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

11 

15 

16 



Spetjce. 

At 750 lbs. per sq. 
inch. 



333 

750 

1,333 

2,083 

3,000 

4,083 

5,333 

6,750 

8,333 

10,083 

12,000 

14,083 

16,333 

18,750 

21,333 



Hakd Pine. 

At 1,250 lbs. per sq. 
inch. 



555 

1,250 

2,222 

3,472 

5,000 

6,805 

8,889 

11,250 

13,889 

16,805 

20,000 

23,472 

27,222 

31,250 

35,556 



APPENDIX. 



A. 
CHAPTER 382, ACTS OF 1885. 

This Act took effect June 19, 1SS5. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH IN 
BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston used as Dwelling, tene- 
a dwelling, tenement, or lodging house, or where persons ^houses to be 
are employed, shall have at all times such number of o- od furnished with 

. ° good and suffi- 

and sufficient water-closets, earth-closets, or privies as the cient water- 
board of health of said city may determine ; but the occu- closets - 
pants of any two or more of any such buildings may use 
such closets or privies in common, provided the access is 
easy and direct ; and said board shall not require more than 
one such closet or privy for every twenty persons. 

Sect. 3. No building in the city of Boston shall be con- Tenement and 
verted into, or used for a tenement or lodging house, unless, to^ctnforTto 9 
in addition to the other requirements of law, it conforms to tlliB act - 
the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 11. Every such building shall have adequate chim- Adequate chim- 

,ii ,« . i n neys. 

neys running through every noor, with an open fireplace or 

grate, or place for a stove, properly connected with one of 

said chimneys, for every family and set of apartments ; shall 

have proper conveniences and non-combustible receptacles Receptacles for 

for ashes and rubbish ; shall have water furnished at one or Adequate and 

more places in such house, or in the yard thereof, so that convenient 

i ii i ii n water-supply 

the same may be adequate and reasonably convenient tor the and cemented 
use of the occupants thereof; and shall have the floor of the cellar floors re - 

, quired. 

cellar properly cemented, so as to be water tight. 

Sect. 12. Every such building used for a tenement or Receptacle for 
lodging house shall have suitable receptacles for garbage and fy^f 6 re ~ 
other refuse matter, and shall not be used as a place or 
storage for any combustible article, or any article dangerous 

,./. i . lii i ii Horse, cow, 

to life or detrimental to health; nor shall any horse, cow, pig, etc., not 
calf, swine, pio- sheep, or swat ue kept in said building;. to be kept in 

1 °' I ' o l & said building. 



62 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

Yards, courts, Sect. 13. Every such building, and the yard, court, 

alleys, etc., to . 

be kept clean, passage, area, and alleys belonging to the same, shall be 

kept clean and free from any accumulation of dirt, filth, 

2;arbao;e, or other refuse matter, to the satisfaction of the 

board of health. 

Tenants to Sect. 14. The tenant of any lodging-house or tenement- 

cieanseaii house shall thoroughly cleanse all the rooms, floors, windows, 



rooms. 



and doors of the house, or part of the house, of which he is 

the tenant, to the satisfaction of the board of health : 

Owners to an d the owner or lessee shall well and sufficiently, to the 

waiis and have satisfaction of said board, whitewash or otherwise cleanse 

privies, etc., ^ e wa n s anc ] ceilings thereof once at least in every year in 

kept in good _° 

order. the months of April or May, and have the privies, drains, 

and cesspools kept in good order and the passages and stairs 
kept clean and in good condition. 

Notice to be Sect. 15. The owner, agent of the owner, and keeper 

fr iV6D of in- 

fectious disease, of any lodging or tenement house, or part thereof, shall, 
when any person in such house is sick of fever, or of any 
infectious, pestilential, or contagious disease, and such 
sickness is known to such owner, agent, or keeper, give 
immediate notice thereof to the board of health, and there- 
upon said board shall cause the same to be inspected, and 
cleansed or disinfected at the expense of the owner, in 
such manner as they may deem necessary ; and may also 
cause the blankets, bedding, N and bedclothes used by any 
such sick person to be thoroughly cleansed, scoured, and 
fumigated, and, in extreme cases, to be destroyed. 

Hails on each Sect. 1(1. The halls on each floor of every such building 

floor to open , _ ° 

directly to es- shall open directly to the external air, with suitable win- 
dows, and shall have no room or other obstruction at the 
end, unless sufficient light and ventilation is otherwise pro- 
vided for said halls in a manner approved by the board of 
health . 
cellar or under- Sect. 17. No person shall, without a permit from the 
not to be used as board of health, let or occupy, or suffer to be occupied, 
a dwelling, etc. separately as a dwelling or place of lodging and sleeping, 
any cellar or underground room whatsoever, unless the 
same be in every part thereof at least seven feet in height, 
measured from the floor to the ceiling thereof; nor unless 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. (J3 

the same shall have been so let or occupied before the 
passage of this act, nor unless the same be for at least 
one foot of its height above the surface of the street or 
ground adjoining, or nearest to the same ; nor unless there 
be, outside of and adjoining the said vault, cellar, or room, 
and extending along the entire frontage thereof, and up- 
wards from six inches below the level of the floor thereof, 
up to the surface of the said street or ground, an open space 
of at least two feet and six inches wide in every part; nor 
unless the same be well and effectually drained by means of 
a drain, the uppermost part of which is one foot at least 
below the level of the floor of such vault, cellar, or room ; 
nor unless there is a clear space of not less than one foot 
below the level of the floor, except where the same is 
cemented ; nor unless there be appurtenant to such vault, 
cellar, or room the use of a water-closet or privy, kept 
and provided as in this act required ; nor unless the same 
have an external window opening of at least nine super- 
ficial feet clear of the sash frame, in which window opening 
there shall be fitted a frame filled in with glazed sashes, at 
least four and a half superficial feet of which shall be made 
so as to open for the purpose of ventilation ; provided, how- proviso. 
ever, that in case of an inner or back vault, cellar, or room, 
let or occupied along with a front vault, cellar, or room, as 
a part of the same letting or occupation, it shall be a suffi- 
cient compliance with the provisions of this act if the front 
room is provided with a window as hereinbefore provided, 
and if the said back vault, cellar, or room is connected with 
the front vault, cellar, or room, hy a door, and also by a 
proper ventilating or transom window, and, where practicable, 
also connected by a proper ventilating or transom window, or 
by some hall or passage, with the external air; provided fur- p 10 viso. 
(her, that in any area adjoining a vault, cellar, or underground 
room, there may be steps necessary for access to such vault, 
cellar, or room, if the same be so placed as not to be over, 
across, or opposite to said external window, and so as to allow 
between every part of such steps and the external wall of such 
vault, cellar, or room a clear space of six inches at least, and 
if the rise of said steps is open; and provided further, that proviso, 



(34 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

over or across any such area there may be steps necessary for 
access to an}' building above the vault, cellar, or room, to 
which such area adjoins, if the same be so placed as not to be 
over, across, or opposite to any such external window. 
Board of Health g ECT> 18. The board of health shall have authority to 

may make addi- 
tional regula- make such other regulations as to cellars, and the ventilation 

tionsasto ^ overcrowding' of tenement and lodging houses and build- 

eellars, etc. ~ • ~ ~ 

ings where persons are employed, as they deem necessary, 
subject, however, to the laws relating to building in the city 
of Boston. 
Name and ad- Sect. 19. Every owner and agent, or person having 

dress of owner . 

and agent to be charge, of a tenement or lodging house shall leave his address 
posted on wan j th the board of j^]^ an( j s h a jj have legibly posted on 

of tenement and ° ^ x 

lodging houses, the wall or in the entry of such tenement or lodging house 
the name and address of such owner and of the agent or 
person having charge of the same ; and service upon parties 
whose address is out of the city, of any papers or notice re- 
quired by this act, or any act relating to the preservation of 
health, or by any proceedings to enforce any of their provi- 
sions, shall be sufficient, if made by sending a copy of such 
paper or notice through the mail to the address of the person 
or persons so designated as owner, agent, or person having 
charge of such tenement or lodging house ; and service upon 
parties whose address is in the city, by leaving such copy at 
said address. 

officers to have Sect. 20. Every officer of the board of health, and every 

free access to . . . _ ' .. . . . 

such buildings, officer upon whom any duty or authority is .conferred, shall 
have free access to every part of any lodging or tenement 
house, when required, in the proper execution of the duties 
of his office. 

injunctions. Sect. 21. Any court having equity jurisdiction, in term 

time or vacation, may, on the application of the board of 
health, by any suitable process of decree in equity, enforce 
the provisions of this act, and may, on such application, 
issue an injunction to restrain the use or occupation of any 
building or structure in the city of Boston, erected, altered, 
or used in violation of this act. 

Penalties. Sect. 22. Any person violating any provision of this act 

shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. Q5 

or by confinement in the house of correction not exceeding 
sixty days, unless another penalty is specifically provided 
herein . 

Sect. 23. Every member of said board of health, and Board of heflllh 

and inspectors 

every inspector acting under said board, shall before entering to be sworn. 
upon the duties of his office take and subscribe an oath before 
the city clerk of said city that he will faithfully and impar- 
tially discharge such duties, and the city clerk shall make 
and keep a record of such oath. Every member of said 
board and every such inspector who enters upon or discharges 
such duties without having taken and subscribed such oath 
shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars; but such 
omission shall not render invalid any act or proceeding of 
such board. 



B. 

CHAPTER 348, ACTS OF 1887. 

AN ACT RELATING TO FENCES AND OTHER STRUCTURES 
ERECTED TO ANNOY, AND FOR THE ABATEMENT OF NUI- 
SANCES. 

Be it enacted, etc., os follows: 

Section 1. Any fence or other structure in the nature 
of a fence, unnecessarily exceeding six feet in height, 
maliciously erected or maintained for the purpose of annoy- 
ing the owners or occupants of adjoining property, shall be 
deemed a private nuisance. 

Sect. 2. Any such owner or occupant, injured either in 
his comfort or the enjoyment of his estate by such nuisance, 
may have an action of tort for the damage sustained thereby, 
and the provisions of chapter one hundred and eighty of 
the Public Statutes concerning actions for private nuisances 
shall be applicable thereto. 

Approved June 2, 1887. 



G6 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

o, 

CHAPTER 89, ACTS OF 1889. 

AN ACT RELATING TO THE USE OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY 
OF BOSTON FOR STABLES. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No person shall hereafter occupy or use any 
building in the city of Boston for a stable unless first 
authorized thereto by the board of health of said city, and 
in such case only to the extent so authorized ; provided, that 
this act shall not prevent any such occupation and use 
authorized by law at the time of the passage of this act, to 
the extent so authorized. 

Sect. 2. Any person violating any provision of this act 
shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five dollars for each 
and every day that such violation continues, and any court 
having jurisdiction in equity may restrain such use and 
occupation. 

Sect. 3. Chapter three hundred and sixty-nine of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, chapter 
one hundred and ninety-two of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and seventy-eight, and all acts and parts of acts in- 
consistent herewith are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved March 8, 1889. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1889. 

AN ACT RELATING TO BUILDINGS IN THE PUBLIC PARKS OF 
THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1 . The park commissioners of the city of 
Boston may erect in the parks of said city that now are or 
hereafter may be under their control, except the common, 
public garden, and public squares, structures for the shelter 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 67 

and refreshment of persons frequenting such parks and for 
other park purposes, of such materials and in such places 
as in the opinion of the fire commissioners of said city do 
not endanger buildings beyond the limits of the park. 
Section sixteen of chapter fifty-four of the Public Statutes 
and chapter three hundred and seventy-four of the acts of 
the year eighteen hundred and eighty-five shall not apply to 
such buildings. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved March 19, 1S89. 



E. 
CHAPTER 90, ACTS OF 1890. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF CUSTODIANS 
OF ELEVATORS. 

Section 1. No person, firm or corporation shall employ 
or permit any person under fifteen years of age to have the 
care, custody, management or operation of any elevator, or 
shall employ or permit any person under eighteen years of 
age to have the care, custody, management or operation of 
any elevator running at a speed of over two hundred feet a 
minute. 

Sect. 2. Whoever violates the provisions of this act 
shall forfeit a sum not less than twenty-five dollars nor more 
than one hundred dollars for each offence. 

Approved March 13, 1890. 



F. 
CHAPTER 323, ACTS OF 1891. 

AS AMENDED BY SECTION 4, CHAPTER 418, ACTS OF 1892. 

Section 9. If any building shall hereafter be placed or Buildings to be 

erected in said city at a jjrade other than the grade therefor, P laCL ' dat s rade 

* , of street re- 

recorded in the office of the city surveyor, and which the corded in office 

city surveyor shall furnish on the request of the owner of the of city8urveyor - 



68 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

land on which the building is to be placed, or if any building 
shall be placed or erected within the boundaries of any way 
shown on any of the plans hereinbefore provided for, after 
the filing of the plan as aforesaid, and not removed at the 
expense of the owner when required by said board of street 
commissioners, no damage occasioned to the estate, of which 
the land on which the building was so placed formed a part 
at the date of the first advertisement of the first notice given 
by said board, relating to the plan on which any part of said 
estate is shown, or to any part of said estate, by any subse- 
quent establishment of any grade of any highway or by any 
subsequent change of any grade of any highway, shall be re- 
covered, or be paid to the owner of the whole or of any 
part of such estate. 

Sect. 11. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved June 16, 1892. 



G. 
CHAPTER 293, ACTSOF 1893. 

AN ACT RELATING TO THE CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE, 
AND INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No building two stories or more in height, 
hereafter erected in the city of Boston, and no such building 
in said city not used at the passage of this act as a school- 
house, church, theatre, public building, hall, place of assem- 
bly or public resort, tenement-house, boarding-house, or 
lodging-house, or as a factory or workshop where ten or 
more persons are employed, or used above the second story 
as a dwelling by two or more families, shall be used for any 
of said purposes unless such building is provided with at 
least two independent and sufficient ways of egress. One 
of said ways of egress shall consist of a flight of stairs ex- 
tending from the lowest to the highest floor, made of fire- 
proof material and enclosed in brick walls, with the enclosed 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 69 

space or stairway provided with a ventilating skylight which 

can be opened and closed from every floor, and having no 0ha P- 449 > § 2 *> 

opening other than for said skylight, and for doors from 

apartments and corridors. The other way of egress shall 

be a flight of stairs approved by the building commissioner, 

and may project over a public way. Every way of egress 

from every such building shall be kept in good repair and 

unobstructed. 

Sect. 2. Section eighty-two of chapter four hundred and 
nineteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
two is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved May 3, 1893. 



H. 
CHAPTER 312, ACTS OF 1893. 

AN ACT RELATING TO THE REPAIR OF PRIVATE DRAINS IN 
STREETS OR WAYS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every owner of an estate which drains into 
a private drain in a public or private street or way, who shall 
neglect to put such drain in good repair and condition for ten 
days after being notified by the board of health of the city or 
town that the drain is out of repair and condition, shall be 
liable to a fine not exceeding twenty dollars for every day 
that such neglect continues after the expiration of said ten 
days. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect in any city when ac- 
cepted by the city council thereof, and in any town when 
accepted by a majority vote of the voters of such town 
present and voting at a meeting of said town duly called for 
that purpose. 

Approved May 4, 1893. 



70 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

I. 

CHAPTER 462, ACTS OF 1893. 

AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BUILDING- 
LINE ON PUBLIC WAYS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The board or officers having authority to lay 
out city or town ways may, in the manner prescribed by law 
for giving notice of an intention to lay out any such way, 
give notice of an intention to establish a building-line paral- 
lel to, and not more than twenty-tive feet distant from, any 
exterior line of a highway or city or town way, and after 
said notice may pass a vote establishing such building-line, 
and in the case of a city, upon the recording of said vote in 
the records of the city, or in a town, upon the acceptance of 
said vote by the inhabitants of the town at a town meeting 
called as provided by law, said building-law shall be estab- 
lished ; and until another building-line shall thereafter be es- 
tablished in the same manner, no structure shall thereafter be 
erected, placed, or maintained between such building-line and 
such way, except that steps, windows, porticos, and such usual 
projections appurtenant to the front wall of a building may 
be allowed in such restricted space, to the extent prescribed 
in the vote establishing such building-line. 

Sect. 2. Any person sustaining damage by reason of 
the establishment of such building-line shall have the same 
remedies for obtaining payment therefor as may be pre- 
scribed by law for obtaining payment for damages sustained 
by the laying out of a highway in such city or town. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in any city when ac- 
cepted by the city coiracil thereof, and in any town when 
accepted by a majority of the legal voters thereof present and 
voting thereon at a town meeting called for the purpose. 

Approved Jane 9, 1893. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 71 

J. 

CHAPTER 257, ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT RELATING TO THE ERECTION OR ALTERATION OF 
STRUCTURES IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The supreme judicial court, or any justice 
thereof, and the superior court, or any justice thereof, in 
term time or vacation, shall, on the application of the city of 
Boston by its attorney, have jurisdiction in equity to enforce 
or preve-nt the violation of the provisions of the acts relating 
to the erection or alteration of buildings or other structures 
in the city of Boston, and may, on such application, restrain 
the erection, alteration, use, or occupation of any such build- 
ing or structure which is being or has been erected or altered 
in violation of any of the provisions of said acts. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved April 16, 1894. 



K. 
CHAPTER 337, ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO FIRE-ESCAPES IN SCHOOL-HOUSES. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

In case a school-house situated in any city has not been pro- 
vided with a safe and proper way of egress or other means of 
escape from fire, as required by chapter four hundred and 
twenty-six of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-eight, within six months after the written notice 
therein provided for, the mayor of such city, for the pur- 
pose of carrying out the provisions of said act, may, upon 
petition of one hundred citizens or taxpayers in said city, 
authorize the expenditure upon any such school-house of not 
exceeding fifteen per cent, of the cost thereof, payable from 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 
\ 

any moneys in the treasury of said city not otherwise appro- 
priated. 

Sects. 1 to 8, inclusive, so far as relate to Boston, of 
chapter 426 of 1888, repealed by section 138, chapter 419, 
1892. Passed June 16, 1892. 

Approved May 4, 1894. 



L. 
CHAPTER 341, ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT FOll THE BETTER PROTECTION OF HUMAN LIFE IN 
LODGING-HOUSES IN CASE OF FIRE. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every owner, lessee, proprietor, or manager 
of a lodging-house containing ten or more rooms above the 
second story shall, on or before the first day of October in 
the year eighteen hundred and ninety-four, place or cause to 
be placed a knotted rope or other better appliance for use 
as a fire-escape, in every room in said lodging-house used as 
a lodging-room, except rooms on the ground floor. Such 
rope or other better appliance shall be securely fastened, 
coiled, and exposed, and shall contain knots and a loop, and 
shall conform in size and length and in all other respects to 
the requirements of section one of chapter three hundred and 
seven of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of sections two and three of said 
chapter three hundred and seven shall be applicable to the 
provisions of section one of this act. 

Approved May 4, 1894. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. id 

M. 

CHAPTER 399, ACTS OF 1694. 

AN ACT CONCERNING THE STORAGE OF PETROLEUM OR ANY 
OF ITS PRODUCTS, AND THE ERECTION AND USE OF BUILD- 
INGS THEREFOR. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No building for the storage, keeping, manu- 
facture, or refining of crude petroleum, or any of its products, 
shall be erected in any city or town unless the mayor and 
aldermen or selectmen thereof have granted a license there- 
for, prescribing the place where such building shall be 
erected, and the particular location, materials, and construc- 
tion thereof, with such regulations as to the height of chim- 
neys, dimensions of building, and protection against tire as 
they deem necessary for the safety of the neighborhood ; 
and no building heretofore erected and not now used for the 
storage, keeping, manufacture, or refining of crude petroleum, 
or any of its products, shall be hereafter used for any of 
said purposes in any city or town, unless the mayor and 
aldermen or selectmen thereof have granted a license there- 
for, with such regulations as to the height of chimneys and 
protection against fire as they deem necessary for the safety 
of the- neighborhood. 

Sect. 2. Any license, as hereinbefore provided for, may 
be granted on a written application, and shall be recorded in 
the records of the city or town. Upon application for such 
license the mayor and aldermen or selectmen shall assign a 
time and place for the consideration of the same, and cause 
at least fourteen days' public notice thereof to be given at 
the expense of the applicant, in such manner as they may 
direct, in order that all persons interested may be heard 
thereon. 

Sect. 3. Any person, firm, or corporation engaged in 
the business of, or using a building for, the storage, keep- 
ing, manufacture, or refining of crude petroleum, or any of 
its products, in any city or town, shall conform to such 



74 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

regulations as to the height of chimneys and protection 
against tire as the mayor and aldermen or selectmen of such 
city or town shall deem necessary for the safety of the 
neighborhood ; but no regulations which the mayor and 
aldermen or selectmen have not now authority to impose 
shall be imposed upon or apply to a building or premises 
now and heretofore used for the business aforesaid. 

Sect. 4. Any person erecting, occupying, or using a 
building, or occupying or using a building erected, in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this aet, or of any license or regula- 
tions granted or made as hereinbefore provided, shall be 
punished by line not exceeding one hundred dollars, or by 
imprisonment in the jail or house of correction not exceed- 
ing one month, or by both, in the discretion of the court. 

Sect. 5. The supreme judicial court, or a justice there- 
of, or the superior court, or a justice thereof, in term time 
or vacation, may, by injunction or other suitable process in 
equity, restrain the erection, occupation, or use of a building, 
or the occupation or use of a building erected, in violation 
of the provisions of this act, or of any license or regulations 
granted or made as hereinbefore provided. 

Sect. (J. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved May 18, 1894. 



CHAPTER 414, ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT TO REGULATE PUBLIC LODGING-HOUSES IN THE CITY 

OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston not 
licensed as an inn, in which ten or more persons are lodged 
for a price for a single night of twenty-live cents or less for 
each person, shall be deemed a public lodging-house within 
the meaning of this act. 

Sect. 2. The board of police for said city may license 
persons to keep public lodging-houses in said city. Xo fee 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 75 

shall be charged for such license, and it shall expire on the 
thirtieth day of April next after the granting of the same. 
Every such license shall specify the street or other place, 
and the number of the building, or give some other particular 
description thereof, where the licensee shall exercise his 
employment : and the license shall not protect a person 
exercising his employment in any other place than that so 
specified. 

Skct. 3. Xo such license shall be granted until the in- 
spector of buildings of said city has certified that the build- 
ing is provided with sufficient means to escape in case of 
fire, and that suitable appliances are provided for ex- 
tinguishing fires and for giving alarm to the inmates in case 
of fire : and said inspector may from time to time require 
such alterations to be made or such additional appliances to 
be provided as may in his judgment be necessary for the 
protection of life and property in case of fire. 

Sect. 4. Xo such license shall be granted until the 
board of health has certified that the building is provided 
with a sufficient number of water-closets and urinals, and 
with good and sufficient means of ventilation ; and said board 
may from time to time require the licensee to thoroughly 
cleanse and disinfect all parts of said building and the 
furniture therein, to the satisfaction of said board. 

Sect. 5. In every public lodging-house a register shall 
be kept in which shall be entered the name and address of 
each lodger, together with the time of his arrival and depart- 
ure, and such register shall at all times be open to the 
inspection of the police. 

Sect. 6. The keeper of every public lodging-house shall 
at all times when required by any officer of the building 
department, the health department, or the police depart- 
ment, give him free access to said house or any part thereof. 

Sect. 7. Whoever presumes to keep a public lodging- 
house, or is concerned or in any way interested therein, 
without being duly licensed as hereinbefore provided, shall 
be punished by fine not exceeding one hundred dollars ; and 
any keeper of a public lodging-house who violates any of 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

the provisions of this act shall be punished by a fine of one 
hundred dollars, and the licensing board shall immediately 
revoke his license. 

Sect. 8. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved May 19, 1894. 



O. 
CHAPTER 455, ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE LICENSING OF PLUMBERS AND 
THE SUPERVISION OF THE BUSINESS OF PLUMBING. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 
only licensed Section 1. No person, firm, or corporation shall engage 

plumbers al- , . . „ . . . . . 

lowed to engage m ol * worlc a ^ the business oi plumbing, either as a master 
in or work at or employing plumber, or as a journeyman plumber, unless 

plumbing. I J O I J J . , ' 

such person, firm, or corporation has received a license or 

certificate therefor in accordance with the provisions of this 

Practical act> T/h e words " practical plumber," as used in this act, 

plumber. 

shall be deemed to mean a person who has learned the busi- 
ness of plumbing, by working for at least two years either 
as an apprentice or under a verbal agreement for instruction, 
and who has then worked for at least oue year as a first-class 

journeyman, journeyman plumber. The word "journeyman," as used in 
this act, shall be deemed to mean one who personally does 
any work in plumbing which is subject to inspection, under 
chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-two, or under any ordinance, 
by-law, rule, or regulation made under the authority of this 
act. 

Application for Sect. 2. Any person not engaged in or working at the 

examination to . . „ - . . . , , , c T , • . ,, 

be made to in. business ot plumbing prior to the tenth day ot July in the 
spector. y eaT eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and desiring to en- 

gage in or work at said business, either as a master or em- 
ploying plumber, or as a journeyman plumber, shall apply 
to the board of health having jurisdiction in the locality 
where he intends to engage in or work at said business, 
except in cities or towns where the inspector of buildings 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 77 

has control of the enforcement of the regulations regarding 
plumbing, where such application shall be made to the in- 
spector of buildings, and shall, at such time and place as 
may be designated by the board of examiners hereinafter 
provided for, to whom such applications shall be referred, 
be examined as to his qualifications for such business. On 
or before the first day of September in the year eighteen After Sept. i, 
hundred and ninety-four every master or employing plumber, tered aud li- 8 "* 
and every journeyman plumber, engaged in or working at censed plumb- 

.. . . _ .. . era allowed to 

the business ot plumbing m this Commonwealth prior to the perform piumb- 

tenth day of July in the year eighteen hundred and ninety- mg * 

three, and desiring to engage in or work at said business in 

any city or town where licenses for plumbers are required, 

shall personally register his name and address at the office of 

the board of health or of the inspector of buildings to whom 

applications for licenses are to be made in such city or town, 

and state after being sworn where and how long he has been 

engaged in or has worked at said business and whether as a 

master or employing plumber, or as a journeyman plumber. 

Said board of health or inspector of buildings, if satisfied 

that the person so registering was actually engaged in or 

working at said business prior to said date shall thereupon 

issue to him a certificate, setting forth that he was eno.aL>ed Registration, 

. ., . . method of. 

in or working at the business of plumbing either as a master 
or employing plumber, or as a journeyman plumber, as the 
case may be, prior to the tenth day of July in the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and authorizing him to 
engage in or work at said business, either as a master or 
employing plumber, or as a journeyman plumber. The fee Fee for license. 
for a certificate for a master or employing plumber shall be 
two dollars ; for a journeyman plumber it shall be fifty cents. 
Said certificates shall be valid and have force throughout the 
Commonwealth. In the case of a firm or corporation the 
examination and licensing of, or the registration of and 
granting a certificate to, any one member of the firm or the 
manager of the corporation shall satisfy the requirements of 
this act. 

Sect. 3. There shall be in every city, and in each town 
of five thousand inhabitants or more, and in each town hav- 



78 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

ing a system of water supply or sewerage, a board of exam- 
iners of plumbers, consisting of the chairman or such other 
organization of member of the board of health as said board may designate, 

board of exami- . . . .. _. . 

ners , and in cities or towns having an inspector ot buildings, the 

inspector of buildings of said city or town, who shall be 
members ex officio of said board and serve without compen- 
sation, and a third member, who shall be a practical plumber 
of at least five years' continued practical experience either as 
a master or as a journeyman during the years next preced- 
ing the date of appointment. Said third member shall be 
appointed by the board of health of said city or town within 
three months from the passage of this act, for the term of 
one year from the first day of May in the year of appoint- 
ment, and thereafter annually before the first day of June, 
and shall be allowed a sum not exceeding five dollars for 
each day of actual service, to be paid from the treasury of 
said city or town ; provided, that if in any city or town there 
is no inspector of buildings, said board of health shall also 
appoint the second member of said board of examiners, 
whose term of office and compensation shall be the same as 
is heretofore provided for said third member. 

Sect. 4. Said board of examiners shall, as soon as may 
be after the appointment of said third member, meet and 
organize by the selection of a chairman, and shall then 
designate the times and places for the examination of all 
applicants desiring to engage in or work at the business of 
plumbing within their respective jurisdictions. Said board 

Examination to shall examine said applicants as to their practical knowledge 
of plumbing, house drainage and plumbing ventilation, and 
shall submit the applicant to some satisfactory form of prac- 
tical test, and if satisfied of the competency of the applicant 
shall so certify to the board of health or inspector of build- 
ings in their respective city or town. Said board or in- 
spector shall thereupon issue a license to such applicant, 
authorizing him to engage in or work at the business of 
plumbing, either as a master or employing plumber, or as a 
journeyman plumber. The fee for a license for a master or 
employing plumber shall be two dollars ; for a journeyman 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 79 

plumber it shall be fifty cents. Said licenses shall be valid Licenses to be 
and have force throughout the Commonwealth, and shall be va,id thr ™s h - 

~ out the state and 

renewed annually upon a payment of a fee of fifty cents. In to be renewed 
case of removal beyond the jurisdiction of the board or in- a ' 
spector issuing the original license it may be renewed by 
any board having like authority. 

Sect. 5. The board of health, or inspector of buildings 
where such inspector has control of the enforcement of the 
regulations regarding plumbing, of each city and town men- 
tioned in section three of this act, shall, within three months 
from the passage of this act, appoint one or more inspectors 
of plumbing, who shall be practical plumbers of at least five 
years' continued practical experience, either as masters or as 
journeymen, during the years next precediug the date of 
appointment, and who shall hold office until removed by said 
board or inspector for cause, which must be shown. All inspectors of 
such inspectors shall before appointment be subjected to an ^pointed! 
examination before the civil service commission. The com- 
pensation of such inspectors shall be determined by the board 
or inspector appointing them, subject to the approval of the 
city council or selectmen, and shall be paid from the treasury 
of their respective cities or towns. Said inspectors shall in- Duties of 
spect all plumbing work for which permits arc hereafter Rectors. 8 
granted within their respective jurisdiction, in process of 
construction, alteration, or repair, and shall report to said 
board or inspector all violations of any law, ordinance, by- 
law, rule, or regulation relating to plumbing work : and also 
perform such other appropriate duties as may be required. 
The approval of any plumbing by any other inspectors than 
those provided for under this act shall not be deemed a com- 
pliance with the provisions thereof. 

Sp:ct. fi. No inspector of plumbing in any city or town 
shall inspect or approve any plumbing work done by him- 
self, or any person by whom he is employed, or who is em- 
ployed by or with him, but in each city or town subject to 
the provisions of this act the board of health shall appoint an 
additional inspector of plumbing, in the same manner and 
subject to the same qualifications as the regular inspector of 



80 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

plumbing, whose duty it shall be to inspect, in the manner 
prescribed in this act, plumbing work done by the regular 
inspector or any person by whom he is employed, or who is 
employed by or with him. Said additional inspector shall 
have authority to act in case of the absence or inability of 
the regular inspector, and shall receive for his services such 
compensation as the regular inspector would for a like duty. 
tms section not rp| ie p rov j 8 j ons f this section shall not apply to any city or 

to apply where L ' 

there is an in- town which has heretofore established or may hereafter estab- 
Sutbing with lisu an annual salary for the position of inspector of plumb- 
an annual j n cr, and in any such city or town no inspector of plumbing 
shall engage in or work at the business of plumbing. 

Sect. 7. Each city or town of five thousand inhabitants 
or more, and every town having a system of water supply or 
sewerage, shall by ordinance or by-law, within six months 
from the passage of this act, prescribe rules and regulations 
for the materials, construction, alteration, and inspection of 
all pipes, tanks, faucets, valves, and other fixtures by and 
through which waste water or sewage is used and carried ; 
and provide that no such pipes, tanks, faucets, valves, or 
other fixtures shall be placed in any building in such city or 
town except in accordance with plans which shall be approved 
by the board of health of such city or town, or the inspector 
of buildings, where such inspector has control of the enforce- 
ments of the regulations regarding plumbing ; and shall 
further provide that no plumbing work shall be done, except 
in the case of repair of leaks, without a permit being first 
issued therefor, upon such terms and conditions as such 
cities or towns shall prescribe. But nothing in this section 
shall prevent boards of health from making such rules and 
regulations in regard to plumbing and house drainage 
hitherto authorized by law, which are not inconsistent with 
any ordinance or by-law made under the authority of this 
section by the respective cities or towns within which such 
This section boards of heal th have jurisdiction. The provisions of this 
shaii not apply seet j on S \ VA \\ not apply to the city of Boston or to any offi- 

to Boston. l L J ./ ^ 

cer or board thereof. 

Sect. 8. Any person violating any provision of this act, 
or any ordinance, by-law, rule, or regulation made there- 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 81 

under, shall be deemed 'guilty of a misdemeanor, and be Penalty. 
subject to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars for each and 
every violation thereof, and if such person has received a 
license under this act his license may be revoked by the Licenses maj be 
board or inspector issuing the same; and if such violation revo e ' w tn- 
was committed in a city or town other than that where he re- 
ceived his license, the board of health or inspector of build- 
ings having jurisdiction may forbid him to engage in or 
work at the business of plumbing for a period not exceeding 
one year in the city or town where the violation was com- 
mitted. If any person to whom a certificate has been 
issued under this act violate any provision thereof, or any 
ordinance, by-law, rule, or regulation made thereunder, 
either the board of health or inspector of buildings issuing 
his certificate, or the board of health or inspector of build- 
ings having jurisdiction where such violation was committed, 
may forbid him to engage in or work at the business of Plumbers may 
plumbing in such city or town for a period not exceeding one be * 01 ' blddtn 

r " •/ c a working at 

year. Any person engaging in or working at the business plumbing for a 
of plumbing in any city or town where he has been forbid- ^1,° wheiT 
den so to do under this section shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and be subject to a fine not exceeding one 
hundred dollars for every such offence. Any city or town 
mentioned in section three of this act refusing to comply with 
any of the provisions of this act shall forfeit the sum of fifty 
dollars to the use of the Commonwealth for every month 
during which such neglect may continue. 

Sect. 9. The provisions of this act shall apply to all to whom the 
persons who are now or may be hereafter learning the busi- this apply, 
ness of plumbing, when they are sent out to do the work of 
a journeyman plumber. 

Sect. 10. Any person now holding an appointment as 
inspector of plumbing may retain his position, and, without 
further examination, be deemed to have been appointed 
under this act. 

Sect. 11. The boards of health and inspectors of build- inspector may 
ings hereinbefore mentioned may expend such portion of all 
fees collected by them under this act as shall become neces- 
sary to properly perform all duties imposed by the passage 



expend fees, 
when. 



8^ DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

of this act. The said boards or inspectors shall annually, 
before the first day of June, make a full report in detail to 
their respective cities or towns of all their proceedings 
during the year under this act. 
Repeals. Sect. 12. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith 

are hereby repealed. The provisions of this act so far as 
they are the same as those of chapter four hundred and 
seventy-seven of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-three shall be construed as a continuation of that 
chapter and not as new enactments. 

Approved June 6, 1894. 



P. 

CHAPTER 481. ACTS OF 1894. 

AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE INSPECTION DEPARTMENTS 
OF THE DISTRICT POLICE AND THE INSPECTION OF 
BUILDINGS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

1 Section 44. Every owner, lessee, proprietor or man- 
ager of a hotel situated in this Commonwealth, wdiich is not 
otherwise suitably provided with fire escapes for the protec- 
tion of human life in case of fire, or of a lodging-house 
containing ten or more rooms above the second story, shall 
place or cause to be placed a knotted rope or other better 
appliance for use as a fire-escape in every room of said hotel 
used as a lodging-room, except rooms on the ground lioor, 
which knotted rope or other better appliance shall be se- 
curely fastened at one end of it to a suitable iron hook or 
eye to be securely screwed into one of the joists or timbers 
next adjoining the frame of the window, or one of the win- 
dows of said room at least five feet from the floor, which 
rope shall be at all times kept coiled and exposed to the plain 
view of any occupant of said room ; the coil to be fastened 

1 The Acts of 1894, chapter 481, section 44, seems to be in conflict with chapter 341, 
of 1894, and as it is a subsequent act, and chapter 481 repeals all acts and parts of acts 
inconsistent with it, it would seem as if chapter 341, of 1894, was repealed. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 83 

in such manner as to be easily and quickly loosened and un- 
coiled ; such rope shall contain knots not more than eighteen 
inches apart, and a loop on the end at least three inches in 
length, and shall not be less than one-half inch in diameter, 
and of sufficient length to reach from such window to the 
ground. Such rope, iron hook or eye and fastenings shall 
be of sufficient strength to sustain a weight of four hundred 
pounds, and there shall be plain directions how to use such 
rope or other better appliance printed and posted within six 
inches of the hook or eye to which the rope is fastened. 

Sect. 45. It shall be the duty of the inspector of build- 
ings of every city or town in the Commonwealth, or if there 
is no such officer, of the chief engineer of the fire department 
of every city or town in the Commonwealth, in the month 
of May of each year, to inspect every room of every hotel 
and lodging-house of ten or more rooms above the second 
story in the city or town in which he is performing the duty 
of inspector of buildings, or of chief engineer, and to ascer- 
tain if the provisions of this act are complied with, and to 
report the condition of the rope or other better appliance to 
the chief of the district police. 

Sect. 58. Any person violating the provisions of sec- 
tions forty-four and forty-five of this act as to lire-ropes in 
hotels shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hun- 
dred dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail or house 
of correction for not more than six months, or by both such 
fine and imprisonment. 

Sect. 63. Section eleven of chapter one hundred and 
three, and sections one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, 
eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen, 
twenty-one, twenty-two, and twenty-four, of chapter one 
hundred and four of the Public Statutes ; chapters two hun- 
dred and eight and two hundred and sixty-six of the acts of 
the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two ; chapter one 
hundred and seventy-three of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and eighty-three ; chapter fifty-two of the acts of 
the year eighteen hundred and eighty-four; chapters one 
hundred and seventy-three and two hundred and sixty of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-six; chapters 



&4 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

one hundred and thirteen, three hundred and ninety-nine, 
and four hundred and twenty-six of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and eighty-eight ; chapters eighty-three, 
one hundred and seventy-nine, three hundred and seven, and 
four hundred and thirty- eight of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety ; chapter three hundred and two of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-one ; chapters 
one hundred and eleven, one hundred and ninety-nine, and 
three hundred and eighty-seven of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and chapters three hun- 
dred and thirty-seven and three hundred and forty-one of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-four, and 
all acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith, are hereby 

repealed. 

Approved June 16, 1894. 



Q. 

CHAPTEE 97, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE ERECTION AND ALTERATION OF 
BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as jolloivs: 

Section 1. No building hereafter erected in the city of 
Boston shall be occupied above the second story by more 
than one family, unless it is a first or second class building, 
and no second-class building more than sixty-five feet in 
height above the cellar bottom, or third-class building more 
than three stories in height, shall be erected, enlarged or 
altered, and occupied as a lodging-house, tenement-house, 
or dwelling-house, unless the basement and first story shall 
be constructed in the manner provided for the basement and 
first story of first-class buildings, under section twenty-three 
of chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-two. 

Sect. 2. Section one hundred and six of said chapter 
four hundred and nineteen, and acts or parts of acts in 
amendment thereof, are hereby repealed. 

Approved March 7, 1895. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 85 

R. 

CHAPTER 213, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE LICENSING AND REGULATING OF 
STABLES IN CITIES. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No person shall hereafter erect, occupy or 
use for a stable any building in any city whose population 
exceeds fifty thousand, unless first licensed so to do by the 
board of health of said city, and in such case only to the 
extent so licensed. 

Sect. 2. The foregoing provisions shall not be construed 
to prevent any such occupation and use which may be 
authorized by law at the time of the passage of this act, to 
the extent and by the person or persons so authorized ; pro- 
vided, however, that the board of health of any such city 
may make such regulations or orders respecting the drainage, 
ventilation, number of animals, and the storage and handling 
of manure, in any existing stables in their respective cities 
as in their judgment the public health requires. 

Sect. 3. Whoever violates the provisions of this act, or 
of any regulation or order made pursuant thereto, shall be 
punished by a fine of five dollars for each day such offence 
continues ; and any court having equity jurisdiction may 
restrain any such erection, occupation or use contrary to the 
provisions of this act. 

Approved April 4, 1895. 



s. 

CHAPTER 352, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO ADVERTISING SIGNS AND STRUCTURES 
ENCROACHING ON PUBLIC WAYS IN THE CITY OF 
BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

No person shall place or maintain any sign or advertising 
device upon any post in any public way in the city of Boston 



86 [DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

other than by painting ; nor place or maintain upon any build- 
ing or other structure any sign projecting' into any such way 
more than one foot, nor any other thing projecting into any 
such way more than four feet, nor any sign or other projec- 
tion the lowest part of which is less than ten feet above the 
sidewalk thereof, except that any awning, lamp, illuminated 
sign, and the fixtures thereof, the lowest part of which is 
not less than seven feet six inches above the surface of the 
sidewalk, may, until the right to maintain the same is re- 
voked, be maintained as it is at present, or, if hereafter 
placed, be maintained as specified in any permit issued 
therefor by the officer appointed to have charge of the 
repairs of such ways ; and any person violating any of the 
preceding provisions for more than five days after he is 
notified by said officer that he is so doing shall be punished 
by a fine of two dollars for each day that such violation con- 
tinues after said notice. 

Approved May 2, 1895. 



T. 
CHAPTER 227, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT RELATIVE TO LAYING SEWERS IN PRIVATE STREETS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Any city or town may, if the city council of such city or 
the legal voters of such town so vote, provide by ordinance 
or by-law, with a penalty not exceeding twenty dollars for 
its violation, that every sewer or drain laid in any land or 
street or way, public or private, opened or proposed to be 
opened for public travel and accommodation, shall be deemed 
to be a main drain or common sewer, and that no such drain 
or sewer shall be laid or connected with any existing common 
sewer, except by the board of officers of such town or city 
authorized to lay,, make and maintain main drains or common 
sewers. When such sewer or drain is laid in any private 
way or land, such owner or owners shall not be liable to 
any assessment levied or to be levied for such sewer or 
drain, except for the cost of connecting such sewer or drain 
with common sewers or drains already established. 

Approved April 4, 1895. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 87 

u. 

CHAPTER 389, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT TO ABATE THE SMOKE NUISANCE IN THE CITY 

OE BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc. , as follows : 

Section 1. In the city of Boston the emission into the 
open air of dark smoke or thick gray smoke for more than 
five minutes continuously, or the emission of such smoke 
during more than twenty-five per cent, of any continuous 
period of twelve hours, is hereby declared a nuisance. 

Sect. 2. Whoever commits such nuisance, or suffers the 
same to be committed, upon any premises owned or occupied 
by him, or in any way participates in committing the same, 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more 
than one hundred dollars for each week during any part of 
which such nuisance exists. 

Sect. 3. The mayor of said city shall, within one month 
from the passage of this act, designate some proper person . 
from among the officers of said city, who shall be charged 
with its enforcement. Such designation shall thereafter be 
made in January of each year, but shall be subject to 
change at any time. 

Sect. 4. The officer so designated may apply to the 
supreme judicial or superior court, or any justice thereof, 
for an injunction to restrain the further operation of any 
steam boiler or boilers which are being operated in such a 
manner as to create a nuisance under the provisions of this 
act. And said court or justice may, after hearing the 
parties, enjoin the further operation of any such boiler or 
boilers, and may also, if deemed just and necessary, annul 
any license or permit which may have been granted for the 
maintenance or operation of the same. 

Sect. 5. Chapter three hundred and fifty-three of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-three is hereby 
repealed ; but this act shall not affect any act done or prose- 
cution pending at the time when it takes effect. 

Sect. 6. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
July, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five. 

Approved May 17, 1895. 



88 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

V. 
CHAPTER 449, ACTS OF 1895. 

AN ACT TO REVISE THE CHARTER OF THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 24. The department for the inspection of build- 
ings of the city of Boston shall hereafter be known as the 
building department, and the title of the officer in charge 
thereof shall be the building commissioner, and all the 
powers and duties of the inspector of buildings of said city 
shall be exercised by said building commissioner. The 
officers appointed as deputies under said commissioner shall 
hereafter be termed building inspectors. 



ORDINANCES 



A. 
ORDINANCES OF 1892 — CHAPTER 3, 



CONCERNING 



THE USE OF BITUMINOUS COAL. 



In the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Ninety-two. 



AN ORDINANCE TO AMEND CHAPTER FORTY-THREE OF THE 
REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1892. 

Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. Chapter 43 of the Eevised Ordinances of 
1892 is hereby amended by inserting between sections 
ninety-eight and ninety-nine the following new section to be 
numbered ninety-nine, and sections now numbered ninety- 
nine to one hundred and three, inclusive, with said amend- 
ment, to be renumbered one hundred to one hundred and 
four respectively. 

Sect. 99. No person shall use bituminous coal for the 
purpose of generating steam in boilers in any building, unless 
the furnace in which said coal is burned is provided with 
some effectual device for consuming its own smoke. 



B. 
EEVISED ORDINANCES OF 1892, CHAPTER 17. 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The building department shall be under the Cha P- 449 > § 24 > 
charge of the building commissioner, who shall, in accord- 
ance with the statutes and ordinances, issue permits for and 



92 DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 

inspect the erection and alteration of buildings in the city ; 
shall keep a register of the names of all persons carrying 
on the business of plumbing, who shall apply to him to be 
registered; shall issue permits for doing plumbing work, and 
shall, by himself or one of his assistants, inspect the plumb- 
ing work in a building within forty-eight hours after a notice 
of the completion of such work, required by the ordinances 
to be given, has been left at the office of said commissioner; 
and may appoint, not exceeding twenty-four, building in- 
spectors for duty in his department. 



o. 

REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1892, CHAPTER 42. 

ERECTION AND REPAIR OF WOODEN BUILDINGS OUTSIDE 
BUILDING LIMITS. 

Building limits. Section 30. The building limits provided for in section 
21, chapter 374, of the acts of the year 1885, are hereby 
established as follows : All that portion of the city which is 
included within a line beginning at the intersection of the 
centre lines of Dover and Albany streets, and thence running 
east through the centre of said Dover street to the harbor 
commissioners' line ; thence by the said harbor commission- 
ers' line around the northerly portion of the city to a point 
on Charles river at the intersection of said line with the 
easterly line of St. Mary's street extended ; thence along 
said easterly line of St. Mary's street and the boundary line 
between Brookline and Boston, to the centre of Longwood 
avenue ; thence through the centre of said avenue to the 
centre of Bumstead lane ; thence through the centre of said 
lane to the centre of Ward street ; thence through the centre 
of said Ward street to the centre of Parker street ; thence 
through the centre of said Parker street to the centre of 
Ruggles street ; thence through the centre of said Ruggles 
street to the centre of Washington street ; thence through 
the centre of said Washington street to a point opposite the 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 93 

centre of Palmer street; thence through the centre of said 
Palmer street and through the centre of Eustis street to the 
centre of Hampden street ; and thence through the centre of 
said Hampden street and the centre of Albany street to the 
point of beginning; the said district being shown on a plan 
made by the city surveyor, dated June 28, 1881, and de- 
posited in his office. 

Sect. 31. Every person proposing to erect a wooden Cha P- • U9 > § 24 > 
building outside the building limits, or in any manner to 
alter one already erected, shall, fifteen days at least before 
commencing work thereon, file an application with the said 
commissioner for a permit thereof, containing a statement of 
the dimensions of the structure proposed, and of the material 
to be used therefor, or of the alteration to be made, the num- 
ber or precise location on the street, and the name of the 
owner or owners of the land. 

Sect. 32. Every such building shall have a foundation Foundations. 
of stone or brick carried up to the surface of the ground, 189 g p ' 449 ' § 24 ' 
and the foundation, if of brick, shall not be less than twelve 
inches thick, and laid in cement mortar; if of rubble-stone, 
shall not be less than sixteen inches thick when laid in 
cement mortar, and not less than twenty inches thick when 
laid dry ; if of block stone, shall not be less than sixteen 
inches thick, and laid in cement mortar ; all such founda- 
tions shall be laid not less than four feet below the surface 
which is exposed to frost, and upon the solid ground, or 
upon at least one row of piles spaced not over three feet on 
centres, in the direction of the length of the wall, driven to 
a solid bearing, with the tops cut off at a proper grade, and 
capped with footing courses of stone, or shall rest upon other 
solid superstructure ; if the building is to be used for a 
workshop or other like purpose, or for a temporary struct- 
ure, and built upon soft and marshy land, the foundation 
may consist of mud sills, or blocking, or piles cut to the 
height of grade, as the commissioner may deem best. 

Sect. 33. Every such wooden building shall be built Framing. 

Note. — Attention is called to the requirements of the statutes regulating mortar, 
party-walls above roofs, chimney construction, fireplaces, floor timbers, etc., espe- I 

cially where the Ordinances are repugnant to the Statutes. The Statutes always 
take precedence to an Ordinance. 



94 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



L to dwelling 



with posts, girts, and plates, properly mortised, tenoned, 

braced, and pinned in each story, and supported by suitable 

studs, not more than thirty-two inches apart; if the building 

exceeds four hundred feet in area and fifteen feet in height, 

the posts and girts shall not be less than four by eight 

inches. 

Dwellings to be Sect. 34. Every such wooden building to be used as a 

from line of lot dwelling-house shall not be more than forty-five feet in height 

and 3 feet from f rom j-] ]e or rac ] e of the street or place upon which it is to 

wooden build- ~ 

ing. be erected, nor shall any wall thereof (unless made of 

brick at least eight inches thick, and built up to the under 
side of the roof-covering, -and the said covering laid and 
embedded in mortar upon the wall or built up twelve inches 
above the roof and covered with metallic covering) be nearer 
than one foot six inches to the line of any adjoining lot, nor 
if there is a dwelling-house upon the adjoining lot, be nearer 
than three feet to such dwelling-house. 

Sect. 35. Every such wooden building to be used as an 
L to a dwelling-house shall not exceed twenty-five feet in 
height, nor more than four hundred and fifty square feet in 
area ; such L may be built without a brick wall between it 
and the main building. 

Sect. 36. Every such wooden building to be a block of 
two or more dwelling-houses shall have brick walls between 
the houses not less than eight inches thick, built up to the 
under side of the roof covering, and the said covering laid 
and embedded in mortar upon the walls or built up twelve 
inches above the roof and covered with metallic covering. 

Sect. 37. Every such wooden building to be used for 
any purpose other than that of a dwelling-house shall not 
exceed fifty-five feet in height from the grade of the street 
or place upon which it is to be erected, nor shall any wall 
thereof (unless made of brick at least twelve inches thick, 
and built up to the under side of the roof covering, and the 
said covering laid and embedded in mortar upon the wall or 
built up twelve inches above the roof and covered with 
metallic covering) be nearer than four feet to any other 
wooden building which is less than twenty-five feet in 
height, nor nearer than ten feet to any other wooden build- 



Blocks of 2 or 
more to have 
party wall of 
brick. 



Other than 
dwellings. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 95 

ing which is twenty-five feet or more in height, but the ex- 
ception hereinbefore mentioned shall not apply to stables. 

Sect. 38. Every such wooden building, to be used for 
any purpose other than that of a dwelling-house built in a 
range of more than fifty feet, shall have an intercepting brick 
wall not less than twelve inches thick built up to the under 
side of the roof covering, and the said covering laid and 
embedded in mortar upon the wall or built up twelve inches 
above the roof, and covered with metallic covering. 

Sect. 39. The requirements contained in the preceding Exemption. 
five sections shall not apply to buildings erected or placed 
at a distance of fifty feet or more from every other building-, 
and from every street or way used for public passage. 



D. 

Rp:VISED ORDINANCES OF 1892, CHAPTER 43. 
No person shall connect any steam exhaust pipe with anv Section27 - 

. . l L J Steam exhaust 

ventilating, waste, or dram pipe in a building, inside of the not to connect 
trap of the drain-pipe placed near the foundation wall of the ^ ™f Iating 
building. 

No person shall discharge any waste water or water from Section 28. 

. | . . . Waste water 

a sink or water-closet, except through a drain into a sewer from sinks, etc., 
or cesspool, or in accordance with a permit from the board tobedischarged 

l only through 

or health. drain. 

DRAINS. 

No person shall discharge into a public drain or sewer section 31. 
any steam, nor any other matter or thing which may tend ^*^^ arge 
to cause an obstruction thereof, or a deposit therein, or intosewR1 - 
any injury thereto. 

openings in, and projections into streets. 
No person shall make any permanent excavation under Section 51 - 

. „ c . Permanent ex- 

the surface ot a street, the inner face of the wall of which cavationsin 
extends farther under the street than to a line eighteen 8 . treet8 ' con : 

O struction of. 

inches inside the line of the outer edge of the curbstone or 
sidewalk. 



96 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 



Section 52. 
Gratings in 
streets. 



Section 53. 
Coal-holes and 
openings in 
streets. 

Section 54. 
Entrance by 
descending 
steps to be 
guarded. 
Section 55. 
Erection of 
canopy, awn- 
ings, etc. 

Section 56. 
Not to insert 
sign in side- 
walks, nor pro- 
ject signs, etc., 
except. 

Section 57. 
Not to open or 
use street with- 
out permit. 



No person shall place or maintain a grating in a street, 
the spaces between the bars of which are more than one inch 
in width ; nor shall he extend any such grating more than 
eighteen inches from a building into a street. 

No person shall make a coal-hole or other opening in a 
street, except in accordance with a permit from the super- 
intendent of streets. 

No person shall maintain an entrance to his estate by steps 
descending immediately from or near the line of a public 
street, unless the same is securely guarded. 

No person shall erect any canopy, awning, shade, shade- 
frame, or shade-curtain in any street, except in accordance 
with a permit from the superintendent of streets. 

No person shall insert a sign in any sidewalk, nor place 
or maintain a sign, show-bill, lantern, show-board, goods, 
wares, or other articles, so as to project into or overhang 
any street, except in accordance with a permit from the 
board of aldermen. 

No person shall open, occupy, or use any portion of a 
street, except in accordance with a permit from the super- 
intendent of streets, nor without exhibiting such permit to 
any police officer, when requested by him so to do. 



WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

section ioo. No person shall erect, or in any manner altera wooden 

alterations building outside the building limits of the city, in violation 
wooden buiid- f the requirements of the ordinances of the city, nor 

ings. 

See ord. 1892, except in accordance with a permit from the building com- 
™ 3,I \1q 8 ' r <m missioner. 

Chap. 449, § 24, 
1895. 

PENALTY FOR VIOLATIONS. 



Section 104. 
Penalties for 
violation of 
provisions of 
this chapter. 



Whoever violates any provision of section eightj-four of 
this chapter shall be punished by a tine not exceeding ten 
dollars for each offence, and whoever violates any provision 
of any other section of this chapter shall be punished by a 
tine not exceeding twenty dollars for each offence, and not 
only the person actually doing the prohibited thing, but also 
his employer and every other person concerned in so doing 
shall be punished by the said fine. 

Approved March 3, 1892. 



DIGEST OF BUILDING LAWS. 97 



E. 

CHAPTER 3, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1892. 

Every officer or board in charge of a department issuing a Section 2i. 

i 11 • "i t • 11 Violation of 

license or permit, shall insert therein a condition that the term of permit 
person accepting the same shall conform to the statutes and or of i )laDS and 

1 L O specifications 

ordinances and the specifications in the license or permit ; approved 
that the license or permit may be revoked at any time by n ^, u android" 
the authority issuing it ; that the violation of any of its 
specifications shall work an immediate revocation of the 
license or permit, and that such person shall indemnify and 
save harmless the city from any damage it may sustain, or 
be required to pay, by reason of the doing of the work 
licensed or permitted, or by reason of an act or neglect of 
himself or of any of his employees relating to such work, or 
by reason of any violation of any specification; provided, 
that nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent 
the insertion of any other specifications deemed advisable by 
the authority issuing such license or permit. 



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Note. — Where the building is under 70 feet in height. 



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Note. — Block-stone foundation and piling under buildings where the walls are 
8 inches and 12 inches, respectively. 






A/ofe^CCccT'/nd' 




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Mwf^ Del 



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Note. — For buildings over 45 feet in height said walls shall be built 30 inches 
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Note. — Revised Ordinances of 1892, Chapter 42, Sections 30 to 39. 







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Note. — Revised Ordinances of 1892, Chapter 42, Sections 30 to 39. 



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Plate 40. 

Note. — To be not less than 18 inches from line of lot, and not less than 3 feet from 
any other wooden building. — Revised Ordinances of 1S92, Chapter 42, Section 34. 



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Note. — Showing size of posts and girts, and method of short bracing in wooden frame buildings. 



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Plate 44. 
Note.— Showing size of posts anil girts, and method of long bracing in wooden frame buildings. 




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INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Section. Plate. 

Piling for foundations of buildings under 70 feet in height 27 1 

Rubble wall on pile foundation, under 8-inch and 12-inch walls . . 27-30 2 

Block-stone on piling, under 8-inch and 12-inch walls 27-30 3 

Rubble wall on pile foundation, under 16-inch and 20-inch walls 27-30 4 

Block-stone wall on pile foundation, under 16-inch and 20-inch walls .... 27-30 5 

Block-stone wall on piling, under 24-inch walls, and 

Block-stone on earth or concrete, under 24-inch walls 27-30 6 

Piling for foundations of buildings over 70 feet in height 27-30 7 

Rubble foundation on earth or concrete, under 8-inch and 12-inch walls .... 30 8 

Block-granite foundation on earth or concrete, under 8-inch and 12-inch 

walls 30 9 

Rubble foundation on earth or concrete, under 16-inch and 20-inch walls.. 30 10 

Block-stone foundation on earth or concrete, under 16-inch and 20-inch 

walls 30 11 

Foundations for piers, columns, and posts 30 12 

External and party walls of dwellings of the first or second class, not 

exceeding 33 feet in height, with rubble foundation , 36 13 

External and party walls of dwellings of the first or second class, 20 feet X 

40 feet, 33 feet high .. 36 14 

External and party w r alls of dwellings of the first or second class, 33 feet to 

60 feet high 36 15 

External and party walls of dwellings of the first or second class, 60 feet 

to 70 feet high 36 16 

External and party walls of dwellings of the first or second class, 70 feet 

to 80 feet high 36 17 

External and party walls of dwellings of the first or second class, 80 feet or 

more in height 36 18 

Party and external walls of other than dwellings, of the first or second 

class; with rubble foundation, 40 feet or less in height 37 19 

Party and external walls of other than dwellings of the first or second class, 

40 feet in height 37 20 

Party and external walls of other than dwellings of the first or second class, 

40 feet to 60 feet in height , 37 21 

External walls of other than dwellings of the first or second class, 60 feet 

to 80 feet high, and 80 feet or more in height 37 22 

Party walls of other than dwellings of the first or second class, 60 feet to 

80 feet high, and 80 feet or more in height , 

Party and partition walls built through roof 

Sections showing fire-stops on floors 

Construction showing fire-stop between timbers 

(99) 



37 


23 


42 


24 


63 


25 


63 


26 



100 INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Construction of floors where fire-stops may be omitted in certain buildings, 
Construction of floors where fire-stops may be omitted in certain buildings, 

Showing fire-stop in stairs 

Showing fire-stops under floors and on top of partitions 

Isometric view showing fire-stop under floors and on top of partitions 

Showing fire-stop under all partitions 

Isometric view showing fire-stop under partitions 

Diagram showing incline of roofs of buildings under 60 feet in height 

Arrangement of floor timbers, headers, trimmers, and fire-stop around 

chimney 63- 

Showing fireplace construction 

Section showing sanitary arrangement 122-134 

Dwelling-houses in a block, plan and elevation of, showing height, range, 

and direction between buildings and distance from line of lot. (Ord. C.) 38 

Other than dwellings in a block, plan and elevation of, showing height, 

range, and direction of between buildings and distance from line of lot. 

( Ordinance C.) 39 

Dwelling for one family, floor plan, etc. {Ordinance C.) 40 

First-floor framing and second-floor plan of dwelling-house for one or two 

families, etc. ( Ordinance C.) 41 

Front-elevation framing, showing short bracing, etc. (Ordinance C.) .... 42 

Side-elevation framing, showing short bracing, etc. (Ordinance C.) 43 

Front-elevation framing, showing long bracing, etc. (Ordinance C.) 44 

Side-elevation framing, showing long bracing, etc. (Ordinance C) 45 

Isometric, showing framing and fire-stops, etc. ( Ordinance C.) 46 



Section. 


Plate. 


63 


27 


63 


28 


63 


29 


63 


30 


63 


31 


63 


22 


63 


33 


64 


34 


63-68 


35 


70 


36 


22-134 


37 



EECAPITULATIOTsL 



CHAPTER 419, ACTS OF 1892. 

As amended by Chapter 170 of 1893, Chapter 297 of 1893, Chapter 404 of 
1893, Chapter 443 of 1894, Chapter 239 of 1895, Chapter 280 of 1895, 
Chapter' 314 of 1895, and Chapter 449 of 1895. 

Section 1. 
Creation of department. Compensation — how fixed. 

Section 2. 
Chief officer. Profession. How appointed. Term of office. Removal . 

Section 3. 
Subordinate officers. How appointed. Term. Removal. 

Section 4. 
Non-employment of officers in other business. 

Section 5. 
Deputy inspector in absence of chief. Clerk to have supervision of 
other officers and employees. 

Section 6. 

Records of department. Returns relative to steam-boilers. Investiga- 
tion to discover origin of fires. Plans and specifications to be filed when 
required. Permits to be granted. 

Section 7. 
Inspection of buildings in process of erection or alteration. Record of 

violations of this act. 

Section 8. 

Inspection of buildings damaged by fire or other casualty, or to be 
raised, altered, enlarged, torn down, etc. Records to be open to inspection. 

Section 9. 
Building inspectors to attend all fires in their districts and report 
thereon to the chief of the fire department. 

Section 10. 
Duties of civil engineers in the work of the department. 



102 RECAPITULATION. 

Section 11. 
Commissioner to examine plans and specifications for proposed build- 
ings before issuing permits. Plans of public buildings to be filed. ISTotice 

to interested parties. 

Section 12. 

Creation of board of appeal. Constitution of board. Terms of members. 
Compensation. Disqualification. 

Section 13. 
Conditions under which appeals to board of appeal may be made. 

Section 14. 
Right of entrance to buildings by officers of department and by members 

of the board of appeal. 

Section 15. 

Permits. No work to be done without permit. Exceptions. 

Section 16. 

Alterations. Restoration of buildings damaged by fire or other casualty. 

Section 17. 
Definition of terms. " Alteration." " Building of first class." " Build- 
ing of second class." "Building of third class." " Cellar" or " Basement." 
" Foundation." " Height of building." " Height of wall." " Commis- 
sioner." "Lodging-house." "Party-wall." "Partition-wail." "External 
wall." "Repairs." "Story of a building." "Tenement-house." "Thick- 
ness of a wall." " Theatre." 

Section 18. 

Building limits. Character of structures permitted therein. 

Section 19. 
Stresses in material. Character and quality of same. 

Section 20. 
Alterations and repairs of third-class buildings within building limits. 

Section 21. 
Moving of third-class building within building limits. 

Section 22. 
City Council may make ordinances in addition to requirements of this 
act in relation to wooden buildings outside the building limits. 

Section 23. 
Description of first-class building in detail. 



RECAPITULATION. 103 

Section 24. 

Buildings above certain height to be of first-class construction. Hotels 
to be first-class buildings. 

Section 25. 

Height of buildings not to exceed one hundred and twenty-five feet, nor 
two and one-half times width of street, etc. 

Section 26. 
Protection of structures during progress of work. 

Section 27. 
Piling for foundations. 

Section 28. 

Foundations. Depth below frost, etc. 

Section 29. 
Grade of cellar bottom. 

Section 30. 

Foundations. Materials and construction. 

Section 31. 
Cellars. Protection of same from water and dampness. 

Section 32. 
Excavations. Protection of same during progress of work. 

Section 33. 
Brickwork. Quality and method of construction. 

Section 34. 
Bonding and tying of brick, stone, or other walls. 

Section 35. 
Bonding of brick walls with headers. 

Section 36. 
Thickness of walls of first and second class dwelling-houses. 

Section 37. 

Thickness of walls of first and second class buildings other than dwell- 
ings. 

Section 38. 
Vaulted walls. 

Section 39. 

Ashlar. Least thickness and thickness to be included in reck< triaig 
thickness of walls. 



J 04 RECAPITULATION. 

Section 40. 
External walls of iron or steel. Such walls must be protected from heat 
and of sufficient strength. 

Section 41. 

Bearing partition- walls and party-walls in first and second class build- 
ings to be of brick. Plastering such walls. Increase of height of walls in 
second-class building. 

Section 42. 

Party and partition walls to be carried through roof. Gutter stone. 

Section 43. 
Strength and thickness of walls where openings or recesses occur or 

buttresses are used. 

Section 44. 

Recesses, chases, and Hues in party walls. 

Section 45. 
Floor bearings. Not to be more than thirty feet apart. Character of 
such bearings. When trusses are used. 

Section 46. 
Area of spaces in second-class buildings not to exceed eight thousand- 
square feet. 

Section 47. 

Anchors for walls of first and second class buildings. 

Section 48. 
Openings or doorways in party or partition walls. 

Section 49. 
Column plates and caps. 

Section -50. 
Pier and wall plates and caps. 

Section 51. 
Protection of weight-bearing metal. 

Section 52. 
Protection of isolated upright supports. 

Section 53. 
Bearings of partitions which support floors or roofs. 

Section 54. 
Cornices. Material, projection, aud protection of same. 



RECAPITULATION. 105 

Section 55. 
Weight-bearing capacity of floors. 

Section" 56. 
Commissioner's certificate of weight-bearing capacity of floors to be 
posted and maintained. Floors not to be loaded beyond their capacity. 

Section 57. 
Brickwork between ends of floor-timbers entering party-wall from oppo- 
site sides. 

Section 58. 

Bearing of wooden floor or roof-beams in first or second class buildings. 

Section 59. 
Tying of floor-beams in first or second class buildings. 

Section GO. 
Stirrup iron for wooden headers, trimmers, and tail-pieces. Connec- 
tions for iron beams. 

Section 61. 

Cutting for pipes or other purposes must not weaken supporting parts. 

Section 62. 
Distance of woodwork from chimneys. 

Section 63. 
Fire-stops in second-class buildings. 

Section 64. 
Pitch of roofs of buildings for mercantile, manufacturing, or storage 
purposes, or for theatre, hotel, apartment, or office building. Strength of 
roofs. Skylights upon roofs to be protected with netting. 

Section 65. 
Covering of roofs of second-class buildings. 

Section 66. 
Water conductors. 

Section 67. 
Observation-stands on roofs. 

Section 68. 
Chimneys. 

Section 69. 

Flues of ranges, boilers, etc. 



106 RECAPITULATION. 

Section 70. 
Hearths and trimmer-arches. Fireplaces. 

Section 71. 
Height of chimneys where soft coal or wood is to be burned. 

Section 72. 
Protection of smoke-pipes and furnaces. Register boxes. Setting of 
heating furnaces. 

Section 73. 

Distance of woodwork from hot-air or steam pipes. 

Section 74. 
Regulations in reference to boilers, furnaces, and hot-water heaters. 

Section 75. 
Exterior parts of second-class buildings to be of incombustible material. 

Section 76. 
Shutters for outside openings. 

Section 77. 
Regulations in relation to elevators, hoists, etc. 

Section 78. 
Commissioner's written approval of elevators. 

Section 79. 
Commissioner's notice as to unsafe elevators, etc. Operation of ele- 
vators. 

Section 80. 
Access to roof. 

Section 81. 

Egress in case of fire from buildings occupied by more than one family. 

Section 82. 
Egress from school-houses, churches, theatres, and other public build- 
ings. Repealed ; see Appendix Gr. 

Section 83. 
Commissioner's certificate as to safe means of egress. 

Section 84. 
Explosives and inflammable compounds not to be stored or placed so as 
to hazard modes of egress. 



RECAPITULATION. 107 

Section 85. 
Strength of platforms, landings, and. stairways of fire-escapes. 

Section 86. 
Projection -of bay-windows or other structures over public ways. 

Section 87. 

Dangerous structures. 

Section 88. 

Buildings becoming unsafe by defect, accident, or overloading. 

Section 89. 
Cost to lease-holders on account of alterations required by this act, not 
in the nature of ordinary repairs. 

Section 90. 
When buildings containing assembly halls are to be made first class. 
Regulations as to exits for such buildings. 

Section 91. 
Frontage of buildings containing assembly halls. Passageways in such 
buildings. Exits, etc. 

Section 92. 

Stairs in buildings containing assembly halls. 

Section 93. 
Stair hand-rails in buildings containing assembly halls. 

Section 94. 
Boiler, furnaces, or heating apparatus in buildings containing assembly 

halls. 

Section 95. 

Lights in buildings containing assembly halls. 

Section 96. 
All exits in buildings containing assembly halls to be open during 
departure of audiences. Plans showing exits to be displayed. 

Section 97. 

No temporary seats in aisles or passageways of buildings containing 
assembly halls. 

Section 98. 
Stages in theatres. 

Section 99. 
Lobbies in theatres. 



108 RECAPITULATION, 

Section" 100. 
Curtain openings and curtains in theatres. 

Section 101. 
Scene docks, carpenter, and property shops in theatres. 

Section 102. 
Exits from theatres for employees. Protection of gaslights. 

Section 103. 
Ventilators over stages in theatres. 

Section 104. 
Standpipes and sprinklers in theatres. 

Section 105. 
Ventilation for buildings used as school-houses, theatres, factories, or 
place of public assembly or entertainment. 

Section 106. 
Buildings for more than one family above second story to be first or 
second class. When lodging or dwelling houses shall be first class. Re- 
pealed. See Appendix Q. 

Section 107. 

Limit in height of walls of buildings used as tenement or lodging- 
houses. 

Section 108. 

Limit of area of tenement or lodging houses in relation to area of lot on 
which they are placed. Exposure of such buildings on open spaces. 

Section 109. 
Ventilation of sleeping-rooms in tenement or lodging houses. 

Section 110. 
Height of rooms in tenement or lodging houses. Windows in such 
rooms. 

Section 111. 

Buildings used for storage of highly combustible substances not to be 
occupied as tenement or lodging houses. 

Section 112. 
Receptacles for ashes, waste, and garbage. 

Section 113. 
Night watchmen in lodging and tenement houses. Thermostats or fire- 



RECAPITULATION. 109 

alarms may be substituted for watchmen. Lights to be kept burning at 
head and foot of stairs. Directions for escape in case of tire. 

Section 114. 

Water-closets or privies for tenement or lodging houses and in buildings 
where operatives are employed. 

Section 115. 

Stables. 

Section 116 

Grain elevators or buildings for storage or manufacture of explosives, 

etc, 

Section 117. 

Applications for permits for buildings referred to in section one hundred 
and sixteen. 

Section 118. 

Applications for permits for buildings referred to in section one hundred 
and sixteen to be advertised. Objections and reference of same to com- 
mission. 

Section 119. 

Notices of hearings by commission provided for in section one hundred 
and eighteen. Kesult of hearings and cost of same. 

Section 120. 
Registration of plumbers. 

Section 121. 
Notices of contemplated plumbing work to be filed. 

Section 122. 
Plumbing of every building to be independently connected with sewer 
or cesspool. 

Section 123. 

Pipes and fixtures to be inspected. 

Section 124. 
Plumbing work to be tested in presence of an inspector. 

Section 125. 
Size and weight of drain and ventilating pipes. Manner of securing, 
suspending, or laying drain-pipes. Traps. Drain-pipes carried above roof. 
Drain-pipes below cellar floors to be laid in trenches. 

Section 126. 
Rain-water conductors to be, trapped. 



110 RECAPITULATION. 

Section 127. 
Testing of iron plumbing pipes. Joints of wrought and cast iron 
plumbing pipes and of lead with iron pipes. 

Section 128. 
Waste-pipes, traps, and air-pipes. 

Section 129. 
Drip, overflow, or waste-pipes. 

Section 130. 
Water-supply for water-closets. 

Section 131. 

Privy vaults. 

Section 132. 

Steam-exhaust not to be connected with soil or waste pipe. 

Section 133. 

Protection of water-pipes from frost. 

Section P34. 
Grease-traps. 

Section 135. 

Building limits. Management of elevators and hoistways. Term of 
officers of department. 

Section 136. 
Court of equity may enforce provisions of this act. 

Section 137. 
Fine for violation of this act. 

Section 138. 
Repeal of conflicting statutes. 



APPENDIX. Ill 



APPENDIX. 



A. An Act in relation to preservation of health in buildings in the city of 

Boston. 

B. An Act in relation to fences and other structures erected to annoy, and 

for the abatement of nuisances. 

C. An Act relating to the use of buildings in the city of Boston for stables. 

D. An Act relating to buildings in the public parks in the city of Boston. 

E. An Act in relation to the employment of custodians of elevators. 

F. An Act relating to the location, laying out, and construction of highways 

in the city of Boston. 

G. An Act relating to the construction, maintenance, and inspection of 

buildings in the city of Boston. 
H. An Act relating to the repair of private drains in streets or ways. 
I. An Act to authorize the establishment of a building line on public 

ways. 
J. An Act relating to the erection or alteration of buildings in the city of 

Boston. 
K. An Act relative to fire-escapes in school-houses. 
L. An Act for the better protection of human life in lodging-houses in case 

of fire. 
M. An Act concerning the storage of petroleum or any of its products, and 

_ the erection and use of buildings therefor. 
N. An Act to regulate public lodging-houses in the city of Boston. 
0. An Act relative to the licensing of 'plumbers and the supervision of the 

business of plumbing. 
P. An Act in relation to the inspection department of the district police 

and the inspection of buildings. 
Q. An Act relative to the erection and alteration of buildings in the city of 

Boston. 
E. An Act relative to the licensing and regulating of stables in cities. 
S. An Act relative to advertising signs and structures encroaching on 

public ways in the city of Boston. 
T. An Act relative to laying sewers in private streets. 
U. An Act to abate the smoke nuisance in the city of Boston. 
V. An Act to revise the charter of the city of Boston. 



112 ORDINANCES. 



OKDINAlSrCES. 



A. Concerning the use of bituminous coal. 

B. Concerning the building department. 

C. Concerning the erection and repair of wooden buildings outside the 

building limits. 

D. Concerning steam exhausts, waste water, drains, openings in and pro- 

jections into streets, wooden buildings, and penalties. 

E. Concerning the violations of conditions of permits and their revocation. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Section. Page. 

ACCESS TO ROOFS 80 38 

ACCESSIBLE CLEAN-OUT. 

to running traps required 125 49 

ADDITIONAL RENT. 

may be collected, when 89 39 

ADDITIONAL SAFEGUARDS. 

for lodging and tenement houses, may be required by commissioner. . . 113 4G 

ADJOINING LOT. 

privy-vaults to be two feet distant from 131 51 

AFFIDAVIT. 

to be made, when 118 47 

AGENTS. (See Owners.) 
AIR-DUCTS. 

of wood not allowed 77 36 

AIR-PIPES. 

to traps required 

to be carried above roof or connected with drain-pipe above upper fixture, 
AIR-SPACES. 

behind woodwork, etc., not allowed 

in vaulted walls 

in first-class buildings, not allowed 

ALDERMEN, BOARD OF. (See Board of Aldermen.) 

to license stables 

lower grade of cellars, may license 

ALL ACTS. 

inconsistent with this act, repealed 138 52 

ALL CONNECTIONS. 

with horizontal or vertical pipe to be made with Y branches 125 49 

of lead and iron pipe to be made with brass ferrules, etc 127 50 

ALL FIXTURES. 

waste-pipes of, to have separate traps 128 50 

ALL WAYS OF EGRESS. 

to be kept in repair and free from obstructions. (Appendix G.) 1 08 

ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

definition of 17 12 

permit for 15, 16 12 

plans to be submitted 6 8 

subject to terms of act 15, 16 12 

of third-class buildings (outside building limits) . 22 20 

owner to pay expense of, when 89 39 

(113) 



128 


50 


128 


50 


23 


20 


38 


26 


23 


20 


115 


47 


31 


23 



47 


28 


59 


31 


59 


31 


59 


31 



64 


32 


1 


G8 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


13 


11 



114 INDEX. 

Section. 
AMUSEMENT, PLACES OF. (See Public Buildings.) 
ANCHORS. 

to be built into walls ... 

to be fastened to beams 

of floors. . . . , . , , 

of beams 

ANGLE. 

walls forming, to be anchored ........ 47 28 

ANIMALS. 

not to be kept in tenement or lodging house. (Appendix A.) 12 61 

ANY PERSON VIOLATING THIS ACT. 

shall be punished by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars 137 52 

APARTMENT-HOUSE. (See Tenement-House.) 

roof of, over sixty feet in height 

egress from. (Appendix G.) 

APPEAL, BOARD OF. 

how appointed 

terms of office of 

compensation of 

powers and duties of 

APPEALS. 

maybe taken, when ... 13, 87, 116-119 11,39,47,48 

hearing thereon to be given 13,119 11,48 

cost of, and by whom to be paid 119 48 

to be filed with commissioner in writing 13, 118 11, 47 

notice of, to be given all parties interested 119 48 

to be published in daily papers 118 47 

APPELLANT. 

rights of - 12 10 

APPLICANT. 

to bore for foundation when required ... 27 21 

APPLICATIONS. 

for building and alterations, required 

to take down buildings, required 

to set boilers, engines, furnaces, dynamos, etc., required 

to perform plumbing, required . 121 

for boilers, etc. 

to be published in at least two daily papers 

to be posted on premises, etc 

copies of, to be delivered to certain persons 

to be referred to board of appeal when objections are filed with 
commissioner , 

hearing thereon to be giveu, when, and cost of 

notice of, to be given to interested persons 

for injunction to be made by commissioner 

ARCHES. 

trimmer 

under boilers 

AREA. 

elevator in 77 36 



15 


12 


8 


9 


117 


47 


121 


48 


118 


47 


118 


47 


118 


47 


118 


47 


119 


48 


11 


9 


136 


52 


70 


34 


74 


35 



INDEX. 115 

Section. Page. 
AREA, continued. 

dampness in' 

in front of theatre, etc., to be open to sky, and at least thirty feet wide, 

of openings, in party and partition walls 

of tenement and lodging house, restriction of 

not to exceed eight thousand square feet in second-class buildings . . . 
ASHES. 

tenement and lodging houses to have incombustible receptacles for. 
(Appendix A.~) 

receptacles for, to be of incombustible material 

ASHLAR. 

to be at least four inches thick 

to be tied to backing, or properly bonded 

AUDIENCE OR ASSEMBLY HALL. (See Public Buildings.) 

to be first-class building 

exits in 

front of, to be on a thirty-foot street, etc 

front of, to be full width of auditorium , ... 

additional exits in „ . . 

all doors to open outward , 

aisles, gradient of 

risers of stair stringers not to exceed seven and one-half inches 

treads to be not less than ten and one-half inches 

length of flights in 

width of landings in .... 

hand-rails lo stairs and landings in , 

boilers or heating-apparatus not to be located under auditorium, pas- 
sageways, or stairways . 

all exits in, to be opened for departing audience 

plans of, showing exits to be printed on programmes 

aisles of, not to be obstructed .... 

persons not allowed to stand in aisles of 

to be provided with a system of ventilation 105 

AUDITORIUM. 

lobbies to 

ventilation of 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-ALARMS. 

when required 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS. 

when required 

AWNING. 

erection of, in street. ( Ordinance D.) 



66 


33 


91 


40 


48 


28 


108 


44 


46 


28 


11 


61 


112 


45 


39 


26 


39 


26 


90 


40 


90 


40 


91 


40 


91 


40 


91 


40 


91 


40 


91 


40 


92 


41 


92 


41 


92 


41 


92 


41 


93 


41 


94 


41 


96 


42 


9G 


42 


97 


42 


97 


42 


105 


44 


99 


42 


105 


44 


113 


46 


104 


43 


55 


96 



B. 

BASEMENT CELLAR. (See Cellar.) 
BASEMENT STORY. 

grade of 29, 31 22, 23 

BAY-WINDOWS. 

not to project into street ... ... 86 39 



116 INDEX. 



Section. Page. 



19 


14 


59 


31 


60 


31 


60 


31 


41 


26 


42 


27 


1 


87 




91 


76 


36 


76 


36 



BEAMS. 

calculations_for strength of 

to be strapped together 

of iron, to have proper connections 

of wood, tail beams, etc., to be hung in stirrup irons 

BEARING PARTITION WALLS. 

to be of brick and metal lathed, or plastered on wall 

to be carried above roof and two inches metal covered 

BITUMINOUS COAL. 

use prohibited unless smoke consumer is used. < S Q > ^ en A \ 

BLINDS. {See Shutters.) 

to be fire-proof, when 

how hung 

BLOCK-STONE FOUNDATIONS. 

thickness of * 30 22 

BOARD OF ALDERMEN. 

permit from, for projections into street, etc. {Orel. D.) 

to approve location of stables , . , 

powers of, in relation to grade of cellars 

BOARD OF APPEAL. {See Appeals.) 

creation of . 

to consist of 

term of office of 

duties of 13, 118, 

compensation of 

right to enter buildings 

questions to be referred to . 13, 118, 119 1 1, 47, 48 

to give hearing on appeals 13 11 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may give permit for occupancy of cellars, when. {Appendix A.) 17 62 

duties of, in regard to infectious diseases. {Appendix A.) 15 62 

authority to make other regulations with regard to tenement and 

lodging houses. {Appendix A.) 18 64 

BOARDING-HOUSE. 

egress from. {Appendix 6?.) 1 68 

BOILER-ROOMS. 

to be constructed of incombustible material 74 35 

doors of, to be iron or metal covered 74 35 

BOILERS. 

flue of, to be eight inches thick 68 33 

permit to set, required 74, 116 35, 47 

form of application to set 117 47 

application for, to be published in daily papers 118 47 

copy of application of, to be posted on premises US 47 

copies of application of, to be delivered to interested parties 118 47 

affidavit of posting and serving copies to be made to department 118 47 

when objections are filed, to be referred to special commission 118 47 

notice of hearing to be given all parties 119 48 

cost of appeal, how paid 119 4S 

flues of . 96 42 



115 






31 




23 


12 




10 


12 




10 


12 




10 


19 11, 


47 


,48 


12 




10 


14 




11 



INDEX. 



117 



Section. Page. 

BOILERS, continued. 

not to be located under stairways, hallways, etc 94 41 

when located in cellar, how to be placed 74 35 

to be enclosed in fire-proof room 74 35 

returns of 6 8 

BONDING COURSE. 

every eighth course to be bonded 35 24 

BOULDER STONES. 

not allowed in foundations 30 22 

BRICK BUILDING. 

definition of {see Building of First or Second Class) 17 12 

dwelling-house, thickness of external and party walls 36 24 

other than dwelling, thickness of external and party walls . . 37 25 

all weight-bearing metal in, to be fire-proofed 51-52 29 

BRICK FLUE. 

construction of 68 33 

BRICK FOUNDATIONS. 

thickness of 30 22 

BRICK PARTITION-WALLS. 

when required ■ ■ 46 28 

BRICK WALLS. 

to be properly and securely bonded and tied 34 24 

BRICKWORK. 

quality of 33 24 

stresses for 19, 33, 35 14, 24 

between ends of floors and roof timbers 57 30 

BRIDGES. 

exempt from operations of law 16 12 

BUILDING INSPECTORS. 

number to be determined by city council 3 8 

appointment and approval of 3 8 

term of office 3 8 

causes for removal 3 8 

not to be interested in contracts 4 8 

to attend fires .... 9 9 

to examine all buildings in process of erection, alteration and repair, etc., 8 9 

to examine all dangerous or damaged buildings • . 8 9 

to examine all buildings under application to enlarge, alter or repair, etc., 8 9 

right to enter buildings 14 11 

compensation to be fixed by city council . • . , 1 7 

BUILDING LIMITS. 

power of city council to extend and define IS 14 

as established by ordinance. ( Orel. C.) 30 94 

no wooden or frame building to be built within 18 14 

buildings within, allowable 18 14 

buildings within, height of, limited 18 14 

buildings within, location and construction of to be approved by 

commissioner 18 14 

no wooden buildings to be moved within 21 20 

city council may authorize erection of wooden buildings outside of . . 22 20 



118 



INDEX. 



BUILDINGS. 

Board of Appeal. 

appeals from commissioner, referred to and heard by 

engineers to make necessary computations when required by 

established, to consist of three members 

expenses of, to be paid by city 

commissioner may be directed to issue or withhold permits, etc., by, 
proceedings of, in cases where permit refused to erect grain 

elevator . 

or building to store combustibles, etc.. 

or placing of engines, dynamos, etc., in buildings 

appointment of 

architect, with approval of mayor , 

master builder, with approval of mayor 

mayor to appoint one, subject to confirmation 

compensation of 

disqualification of, if interested in case, proceedings upon .... 

may enter buildings in performance of duty , 

removal of, by mayor , 

substitute, appointment of, in cases of disqualification 

tenure of office of 

Building Limits. 

alteration, etc., of third-class buildings within 

city may establish and extend, from time to time 

classes of buildings allowed within, established and defined., 
commissioner, permit from, required for alteration of third-class 

buildings within 

moving of third-class buildings within 

ordinances relating to, to remain in force, until, etc 

wooden buildings outside, erection, etc., additional requirements 

may be made by ordinance 

courts having equity jurisdiction may enforce laws relative to. . . 
Building Department. 

clerk of, appointment of, by commissioner, subject, etc 

to have supervision of other officers, etc 

civil engineers, officers of, to include such number of, as city 

council may determine 

to make necessary computations upon request of commissioner, 

etc. 

established 

building commissioner, to be chief officer of 

commissioner may appoint an inspector as his deputy, when 

to keep record of business, and make yearly report to city 

council 

office room and supplies for, to be furnished by city 

officers of, compensation ofJ to be provided by ordinance 

may enter buildings in performance of duty 

officers of, not to engage in other business, or be interested in 

building contracts 

number of, to be determined by ordinance 

tenure of office of^not affected by 1892, 419 135 



Section. 


Page. 


12 


10 


10 


9 


12 


10 


12 


10 


13 


11 


116 


47 


116 


47 


116 


47 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


14 


11 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


20 


19 


IS 


14 


18 


14 


20 


19 


21 


20 


135 


51 


22 


20 


136 


52 



10 

1 



2 


7 


5 


8 


6 


8 


1 


7 


1 


7 


14 


11 


4 


8 


3 


8 


35 


51 



INDEX. 119 

Section. Page. 

BUILDINGS, continued. 
Commissioner of. 

appointment 2 7 

deputy may be appointed by 5 ,8 

officers of department of, to be appointed by 3 8 

qualifications of 7 

removal of, by mayor 2 7 

tenure of office of 2 7 

to be chief officer of department of 2 7 

yearly report to be made to city council by 6 8 

inspectors, appointment and duties 7-10 8, 9 

Powers and Duties of Commissioner. 

appeal from orders of, notice of, to be given to, by appellant 13 11 

how taken and heard 13 11 

ashes, receptacles to be made of incombustible material satisfac- 
tory to 112 45 

bay-windows, etc., construction of, over public ways, subject to 

approval of 

board of appeal from, created 

substitute may be appointed by, to act as member of 

buildings in course of erection, etc.,tobe examined by, or assistants, 
to be raised, enlarged, etc., to be examined by, or assistants. . 

records of examination of, to be made by 

open to inspection 

boilers, to make returns required by law relative to 6 

and furnaces above cellar floor, location, etc., permit from, 

required for 74 

for cooking or manufacturing, to be examined, etc., by, before 

use 

bricks to be laid wet or dry, as directed by 

certificate of, as to weight-bearing capacity of floor, to be posted, 

etc.... 

chemical works not to be erected without permit from 116 

columns to be drilled for inspection, if required by 

dangerous or damaged buildings to be examined by 

may be repaired or removed by, subject to appeal 

record of examination of, to be made by 

to be rendered safe upon notice from 

dynamos not to be placed in buildings without permit from 

egress, ways of, owner, etc., entitled to certificate of safety of, from, 

elevators not to be used until approved by 

improperly constructed or unsafe , prohibition to be posted on , by, 

operation of, forbidden until new permit from 

engines, etc., not to be placed in buildings without permit from, 

except 

engineers to make necessary computations when required by 

erection, alteration, etc., of buildings forbidden without permit 

from 

duties of, before granting permit for 

excavations, supports for, may be furnished by, when 



86 


39 


12 


10 


12 


10 


7 


8 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 



74 


35 


33 


24 


56 


30 


116 


47 


49 


29 


8 


8 


88 


39 


8 


8 


87 


39 


116 


47 


83 


38 


78 


37 


79 


37 


79 


37 


116 


47 


10 


9 


15 


12 


11 


9 


32 


23 



120 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

Powers and Duties of Commissioner, continued. 

fire, may enter premises to investigate origin of = 6 8 

escapes, may project into streets when ordered by. {Ap- 
pendix G. ) . 1 68 

flues, except vertical ones, not to be made without permit from. . . 44 27 
foundations, increased thickness to resist lateral pressure, may 

be ordered by 30 22 

grain elevator not to be erected without permit from 116 47 

ingress, ways of, sufficiency of, to be ascertained by, before grant- 
ing permit 11 9 

injunction, etc., may be issued on application of.. 136 52 

" commissioner," meaning of term defined 17 12 

mortars not properly made, to be condemned by 19 14 

used in settiug stone, exceptions may be made by 19 14 

permits for erections, etc., to be granted by 6 8 

applicants for, may be recpiired to give notice, etc., by 11 9 

if refused, may appeal 13 11 

may be required to ascertain nature of ground, etc 27 21 

for building inside of walls 34 24 

board of appeal may order issuing of, by 13 11 

duties of, before granting 11 9 

lowest grade of basement to be designated in, by 29 22 

recesses, etc., not vertical, not to be constructed except upon, 44 27 
third-class buildings, within building limits, alterations, etc., 

of, prohibited without ... 20 19 

not to be granted, if outlay exceeds, etc. , 20 19 

persons affected by issuing of, may appeal 13 11 

to erect grain elevators, store combustibles, etc., proceedings 

upon application for 117 47 

piles, grade at which to be cut to be determined by 27 21 

plans, etc., of proposed erections to be filed with, if required 6 8 

public buildings, copy of, to be deposited in office of 11 9 

plumbers, name and place of busiuess of, to be registered in office of. 120 48 

notice of change in place of business to be given to 120 48 

notice of work to be done to be filed in office of 121 48 

plumbing, pipes, etc., not to be covered until approved by 123 49 

work not to be done by, until approved by 121 48 

not to be used until tested in presence of 1 24 49 

public buildings, copy of plans of, to be deposited in office of 11 9 

record of violations of building laws to be made by 7 8 

rendering-works not to be erected without permit from 116 47 

requirements as to protection of pipes, etc., may be dispensed with 

by 72 34 

skylights to have wire netting when required by 64 32 

stables, rooms in, for coachmen, etc., may be authorized by Ill " 45 

stairways used for egress may project over public ways, when 

permitted by. {Appendix G.) 1 "° 

stonework, stresses in, may be less, if approved by 19 14 

supports of structures in process of construction, etc 26 21 



INDEX. 



Section. 



121 

Page. 



BUILDINGS, continued, 

Powers and Duties of Commissioner, continued. 

tenement-houses, etc., to have space satisfactory to, for deposit of 

garbage 

tenement-houses, etc., fire-alarm system in, may be substituted 

for watchmen, if approved by 

tenement-houses, etc., prevention, etc., of fire in, additional re- 
quirements may be made by 

unsafe buildings to be vacated upon notice from 

notice of its unsafe character to be posted on exterior of, by., 
vertical recesses, etc., to be distant seven feet from other recess, 

except by permit of 

walls, inside four inches of, may be built to satisfaction of, etc. . . 

water-closets, fixtures for certain, to be approved by 

Regulations as to Construction and Maintenance of. 

accident, buildings damaged by, to be examined by commissioner. 

" alteration," meaning of term 

alterations, plans, etc., of proposed, to be filed with commissioner, 

permit required to make , , 

ashlar, use of, in walls, etc .... 

basement story, commissioner to designate grade of 

bay-windows not to project over public ways, etc., except 

beams, iron, to bave proper connections 

tail, to be hung in iron, etc 

boilers, location and protection of 

to be examined and approved before use 

returns relative to, to be made by commissioner 

brick jambs of fireplaces, width of. 

brickwork, how laid, etc 

quality of ... 

supports of, over fireplaces 

bridges, building law not to apply to 

Building of the First Class. 

air-spaces in, regulations concerning 

beams, floor or roof, entering walls, how arranged 

building containing audience hall of certain capacity to be 

floor-bearing supports in, distance between, materials, etc., of.... 

floors, construction of, in 

height 

hotels, certain, to be included in 

material, non-inflammable, to be used in construction of 

meaning of term defined. {See terms used in building law.) 

metal, weight-bearing, to be protected 

mortars used in construction of, how made . . 

openings, outside, to be protected by shutters 

piles, to have three rows of, etc., for foundation ... 

shutters for protection of openings in 

supports, uprigbt, protection of 

theatres hereafter built to be 

walls of, meeting at angle, to be anchored 



112 



113 



46 



113 


46 


88 


39 


88 


39 


4-1 


27 


34 


24 


130 


51 


8 


9 


17 


12 


6 


8 


15 


12 


39 


26 


29 


22 


86 


39 


60 


31 


60 


31 


74 


35 


74 


35 


6 


8 


70 


34 


33 


24 


33 


24 


70 


34 


15 


12 


23 


20 


58 


30 


90 


40 


45 


27 


23 


20 


24 


20 


24 


20 


23 


20 


51 


29 


19 


14 


76 


36 


27 


21 


76 


36 


52 


29 


90 


40 


47 


28 



122 



INDEX. 



Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

Building of the First Class, continued. 

walls, thickness of external and party 37 25 

party, etc., to be of brick 41 26 

furring and plastering of 41 26 

wood, use of, in construction of 23 20 

Building of the Second Class. 

air-ducts in, to be stopped at each story 63 31 

beams, floor or roof, entering walls, how arranged . . 58 30 

how secured to walls 59 31 

exterior parts of certain, to be of incombustible material 74 35 

fire-stops in, how constructed 63 31 

floor-bearing supports in, distance between materials, etc., of.... 45 27 
meaning of term defined. {See terms used in building law.) 

metal, weight-bearing, to be protected ...".. 51 29 

mortars used in construction of, how made 19 14 

openings outside, to be protected by shutters 76 36 

roofs, capacity of new roofs 64 32 

covering of . 65 32 

pitch, not to be over twenty degrees 64 32 

skylight to be covered with netting, when 64 32 

space in, how divided by brick partition walls 46 28 

shutters for protection of openings in 76 36 

walls of, meeting at angle, to be anchored, etc 47 28 

thickness of external and party 36 24 

party, etc., to be of brick 41 26 

furring and plastering of 41 26 

to be tied to floor-beams 59 31 

Building of the Third Class. 

alterations, etc., on, within building limits, how made 20 19 

area of, within building limits not to be increased 20 19 

construction and location of certain, subject to approval of com- 
missioner 81 38 

external parts to be covered with slate, etc 18 14 

height of, within building limits, not to be increased 20 19 

meaning of term defined. (See terms used in building law.) 

mortars used in construction of, how made . . 19 14 

moving of, within building limits, not allowed 21 20 

within building limits, what allowed 18 14 

building law not to apply to United States government 15 12 

building laws not to apply to certain structures 15 12 

buildings to be raised, etc., to be examined before granting permit. ... 8 9 

" cellar," meaning of term defined 17 12 

cellar of dwelling-houses, how protected from water, etc 3L 23 

cellar of dwelling-houses, grade of 31 23 

space beneath to be ventilated 31 23 

chemical works, erection of, proceedings on application for permit for, 117 47 
Chimneys. 

chimney flues, height of 71 34 

corbellinsr of 68 33 



INDEX. 



BUILDINGS, continued. 
Chimneys, continued. 

furring not to be used around , 

incombustible material to be used for 

lining of . . . - , 

nails not to be driven into masonry of 

tbickness of walls of 

topping of 

churcb spires, height of 

columns, bearing parts of, to have true surfaces 

to be drilled for inspection, if required 

to have proper connections 

combustibles, etc., not to be stored under stairways, etc 

cornices, regulations concerning. ........ 

courts having equity jurisdiction to enforce laws relating to 136 

cutting for pipe, how done, etc 

dwelling-house. (See Tenement-Hodse.) 

dangerous buildings, etc., to be examined by commissioner 

owner of, to remedy same on notice 

removal of, by commissioner, when necessary 

egress, ways of, in case of fire, building to have sufficient ... 

explosives, etc., not to be placed so as to obstruct , 

obstructions not to be placed on. (Appendix G.) ... 

regulations concerning. (Appendix G.) 

safety of, to be certified by commissioner. (Appendix G.) 

sufficiency of, to be determined by commissioner, when 

to be kept in good repair. (Appendix G.) 

Elevators. 

approval of, by commissioner required before use 

construction of 

machinery of, protection of 

openings into, protection of 

shafts, covering of top, lining, etc ... 

material of 

unsafe, use of, to be prohibited „ 

erections, plans, etc., of proposed, to be filed with commissioner, etc. 

to be inspected before permit is granted for 

excavations adjoining buildings, how protected from 

adjoining soil, protection of, from ... 

permanent, to have retaining-walls 

expense of alterations, apportionment of, between owner and lessee . 

explosives, etc., not to be stored under stairways, etc 

" external wall," meaning of term defined 

factories, ventilation of 

fire, buildings damaged by, to be examined by commrnissioner 

fire, egress in case of, buildings to have one or more means of 

fire-escapes, capacity of platforms, steps, etc., of 

fireplaces, openings of 

flues to have outside surface exposed 

foundation, bearing of • • 





123 


iion. 


Page. 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


6S 


33 


68 


33 


25 


20 


49 


29 


49 


29 


49 


29 


84 


38 


54 


29 


136 


52 


61 


31 


8 


9 


87 


39 


87 


39 


81 


38 


84 


38 


1 


68 


1 


68 


1 


68 


11 


9 


1 


68 


78 


37 


77 


36 


77 


36 


77 


36 


77 


36 


77 


36 


79 


37 


6 


8 


11 


9 


32 


23 


32 


23 


32 


23 


89 


39 


84 


38 


17 


12 


105 


44 


8 


9 


81 


38 


85 


38 


70 


34 


69 


33 


28 


22 



124 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

foundation, construction, footing, thickness, etc., of ... 30 22 

meaning of term defined 17 12 

foundation piles, buildings to be supported on, if necessary 27 21 

furring, distance of, from chimneys . . 62 31 

floors, construction and capacity of new or renewed 55 30 

commissioner's certificate of weight-bearing capacity of, to be 

posted in certain 56 30 

floor-timbers in party walls 57 30 

distance of, from chimneys 62 31 

grain elevators, erection of, proceedings upon application for permit- .117 47 

headers, wooden, etc. , how hung 60 31 

hearths, to be supported by trimmer arches, etc 70 34 

size of ... 70 34 

Heating-Furnaces. 

tops of, to be covered 72 34 

distance of, from beams or ceiling 72 34 

height of, restricted to 125 feet, except 25 20 

how determined 25 20 

" height of a wall," meaning defined 17 12 

" height of a building," meaning defined 17 12 

hot-air pipes, distance of, from woodwork 72 34 

hot-air register boxes to be set in soapstone 72 34 

hotels, etc., grease-trap to be constructed under sinks of 134 51 

leaders, all buildings to have sufficient water 66 33 

rain-water, to be suitably trapped 126 50 

water-tight, metallic, required for certain 66 33 

leased premises, expenses of alterations, etc., on, how paid 89 39 

" lodging-house," meaning defined 17 12 

materials used in construction, strength of 19 14 

quality of subject to approval of commissioner 19 14 

mortars, how made 19 14 

observation stands not allowed on roofs 67 33 

occupied above second story, to be first or second class. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

owners of, may collect of lessees expense of alterations, etc., when ... 89 39 
parks, building laws not to apply to certain structures erected in. 

(Appendix Z>.) 1 66 

partitions supporting floor, etc., to rest on girders, etc 53 29 

" partition wall," meaning defined 17 12 

" party wall," meaning defined 17 12 

penalty for violation of building law 137 52 

permits, alterations, etc., to be granted by commissioner 6 8 

applicants for, may be required to give notice 11 9 

may appeal, if refused 13 11 

persons affected by granting of, may appeal 13 11 

piers to have sufficient caps or plates, etc 50 29 

piles, foundation, how laid, capped, etc - 27 21 

grade for cutting, inspector to determine 27 21 

plumbers, regulations concerning 120 48 



INDEX. 125 

Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

plumbing, air-pipes, use and connections of 128 50 

connection with public sewer to be separate, etc 122 48 

drain-pipes, size of and regulations concerning 125 49 

drip or overflow pipes, connections, etc 129 50 

grease-traps, construction of 134 51 

iron pipes, joints and connections of 127 50 

test of and coating 127 50 

pipes, etc., not to be covered until examined and approved 123 49 

privy-vaults, construction, ^etc, of 131 51 

rain-water leaders, to be suitably trapped 66 33 

steam-exhaust not to connect with sewer, etc.. 132 5 1 

use of, prohibited until tested and approved 124 49 

waste-pipes to have separate trap 128 50 

from refrigerators 129 50 

water-closets, regulations concerning , 130 51 

water-pipes, protection of, from frost 133 51 

Public Buildings. 

egress, ways of, in, regulations concerning. {Appendix G.) 1 68 

floors of, capacity of * 55 30 

plans of, copy of, to be deposited witli commissioner 11 9 

quays, building law not to apply to 15 12 

recess, vertical, distance of, from other recesses 44 27 

" repairs," meaning of term defined 17 12 

rendering-work, erection of, proceedings upon application for permit 

for 117 47 

roofs, means of access to, size, etc. 80 38 

school-houses, ventilation of 105 44 

smoke-pipes, location and protection 72 34 

stables, erection, etc., of, public hearing to be given on question of use 

of buildings for, to be authorized by board of health. {Appendix C.) 1 GG 

staging for observation purposes not to be placed on roof 67 33 

stairways, explosives, etc., not to be stored under 84 38 

stoves for certain purposes to be examined and approved 74 35 

stresses for timber, iron, etc., table of 19 14 

studding, distance of, from chimneys .... 62 31 

supports used in construction, etc 26 21 

Tenement and Lodging Houses. 

ashes, etc., receptacles for, in 112 45 

Appendix A , 11 61 

animals, certain, not to be kept in {Appendix A.) 12 61 

buildings converted into, to conform to laws relating to health. 

{Appendix A.) 3 61 

for storage, etc., of inflammable materials, not to be used as. Ill 45 

cellar floors to be made water-tight. {Appendix A.) 11 61 

chimneys, requirements concerning. {Appendix A.) 11 61 

cleanliness of. {Appendix A.) 13 62 

closet not to be constructed under first-story staircase, when. 

{Appendix $ •) 1 84 



120 



INDEX. 



Section. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

Tenement and Lodging Houses, continued. 

combustible materials not to be stored in Ill 

courts having equity jurisdiction may enforce laws relating to. . . . 136 

Appendix A 21 

exterior walls of certain, width of 107 

fire-alarm, automatic, may be substituted for watchman in 113 

five stories high, basement of, how constructed. {Appendix Q.) . . 1 

gongs to be used in, in case of fire 113 

halls of, to open to external air, unless, etc. {Appendix A.) 16 

health, board of, officers of, to have free access to. {Appendix A.^) 20 

light to be kept burning at night 113 

not to occupy above second floor over three-fourths of area of lot, 108 

penalty for Violation of laws relating to 137 

receptacles for ashes, garbage, etc., material and use of 112 

Appendix A 11 

rooms in, height and ventilation 110 

underground, not to be used for sleeping. {Appendix A.) ... 17 

spaces between and adjoining buildings 108 

for deposit of garbage, etc., to be provided 112 

Appendix A 11 

" tenement-house," meaning defined 17 

watchman, night, to be employed in certain 113 

water-closets in, regulations concerning 114 

supply in. {Appendix A.) 11 

windows in, number and area of. ... 109 

Terms used in Building Law, Meaning of, defined. 

' ' alteration " 17 

" building of the first class " 17 

' ' building of the second class " 17 

" building of the third class " -. . 17 

"cellar" 17 

" foundation " . . . . 17 

" height of a building " 17 

" height of a wall " 17 

" commissioner " . 17 

" lodging-house " 17 

" party wall " 17 

' ' partition wall " 17 

' ' external wall " 17 

" repairs " 17 

" story of a building," 17 

" tenement-house " 17 

" thickness of a wall " • 17 

" theatre," 17 

Theatres. 

aisles, passageways, etc., arrangement of 91 

temporary seats not to be allowed in. 97 

doors of, to open outward 91 

boilers, furnaces, not to be located under auditorium, etc 94 



Page. 



45 
52 
64 
44 
46 
84 
46 
62 
64 
46 
44 
52 
45 
61 
45 
62 
44 
45 
61 
12 
46 
46 
61 
45 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
14 

40 
42 
40 
41 



INDEX. 127 

Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued, 
Theatres, continued. 

curtain, construction and use of 100 43 

curtain-opening, finish and decorations of . 98 42 

to be provided with perforated iron pipes, etc. . . 104 43 

exits, rooms for employees in, to have two independent 102 43 

to be opened for each audience 96 42 

to be printed on programmes 96 42 

frontage, width, and location 91 40 

hereafter built to be first-class buildings 90 40 

bindings, width of 92 41 

lights in, independent sets to be maintained 95 41 

lobbies, brick partitions to separate from auditorium 99 42 

openings of, into courts, etc 91 40 

plans showing exits, etc., to be printed on programmes, etc., of.. . 96 42 

proscenium to have fire-resisting curtain 100 43 

rooms for employees in, to have two independent exits 102 4 3 

scenery, curtains, etc., to be covered, etc., with fire-resisting 

material 98 42 

scene docks, etc., brick walls to separate from stage, etc 101 43 

stage to be separated from auditorium by brick wall, etc 98 42 

fixed portions of, not to be of wood 98 42 

gaslights to be protected by nettings 102 43 

high-service standpipes to be placed on . . . , 104 43 

level of, above street 90 40 

stairs and landings in, to have proper hand-rails .... 93 41 

stairways in, rails for. 93 41 

steps, number of, in flights 92 41 

stringers, cut of , ....,.- 92 41 

tread of 92 41 

ventilation of . . 105 44 

ventilators over stage, construction and operation of 103 43 

winders, width of 92 41 

" thickness of a wall," meaning defined 17 13 

strength of materials used in construction of . . . , . 19 14 

to be placed at grade of street recorded in office of city surveyor. 

(Appendix F.) 9 67 

unsafe buildings, notice to be affixed on exterior 88 39 

removal of, a penal offence . . 88 39 

to be vacated on order of commissioner 88 39 

walls, bonding of, etc 34 24 

caps, to have sufficient, to distribute load 50 29 

construction of 34 24 

external, may be built in part of iron or steel 40 26 

" height of a wall," meaning of term defined 17 13 

openings or recesses in, thickness of piers for 43 27 

walls, party walls to be built through roof, and covered 42 27 

opening of doorways in, not to exceed two 48 28 

party walls, metal-covered doors to be provided for. 48 28 



128 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

walls, thickness of external and party 37 25 

thickness of, allowance of ashlar in reckoning 39 26 

vaulted, thickness of . • • 38 26 

recesses, chases, flues, etc. , in 44 27 

water-closets, regulations concerning 114 46 

wharves not subject to building law, when 15 12 

work affecting strength of, not to be done without permit 15 12 

woodwork not to be placed near certain pipes 73 35 

fifteen clays' notice to be given commissioner of proposed building or 

alterations. (Orel. 0.) 31 93 

to be examined by commissioner before alteration 8 9 

to tear down, permit required 8 9 

to erect, alter, enlarge, etc., permit required 15, 20 12, 19 

record of, damaged by fire or accident, to be made 8 9 

not to be raised, altered, or built upon, in violation of act 15-16 12 

exempt from operations of act 15 12 

plans to be submitted for new buildings, alterations, etc 6, 11 8,9 

height of, definition of 17 12 

foundations of 28, 30 22 

upon filled land 31 23 

to have metallic leaders 6G 33 

commissioner and inspectors not to be interested in contracts, or 

furnishing materials for 4 8 

grade of cellars of 31 23 

bonding courses 35 24 

hoistways to be closed , 77 36 

to have step-ladder or stairs to roof • • 80 38 

to have permanent means of access to roof - . 80 38 

commissioner to issue certificate, when . . 83 3S 

when such certificate may be revoked 83 38 

combustible material not to be stored in 84, 111 38, 45 

drains in 125 49 

to be kept in repair -, 87 39 

not to be occupied for dwelling purposes when used for storage, etc.. Ill 45 

shall be vacated when deemed unsafe by commissioner 88 39 

unsafe, owner to secure or take down 87 39 

when inspector may secure or take down ... S7 39 

egress from, in case of fire. (Appendix G.) . . - • 1 68 

to be separately and independently connected with sewer 122 48 

in public parks. (Appendix Z>.) 1 66 

not to exceed seventy feet in height, unless constructed throughout with 

incombustible materials 24 20 

means of extinguishing fire in, to be provided- . . 113 46 

tenement and lodging houses . 81, 107-114 38, 44-46 

to be of incombustible material when used for tenement or lodging 

houses. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

when used for tenement or lodging houses, to conform to Chap. 382 of 

1885. (Appendix A.) 1,3,11-23 61,65 



INDEX. 



129 



Section. 



BUILDINGS, continued. 
First Class. 

definition of 

mortar for, below level of water 

mortar for . . 

requirements for 

air-spaces not allowed in 

buildings whicb are required to be first class 

heigbt not to exceed one hundred and twenty-five feet 

height not to exceed two and one-half times width of street 

Second Class. 

definition of 

mortar for 

shall have brick partition walls 

to be roofed with non-combustible material 

external parts above forty-five feet to be of incombustible 

material ..... 

Third Class. 

definition of ....... . 

mortar for 

within building limits 

not to be increased in height or area 

cannot be moved to any position in said limits 

erection and alteration of, when outside limits 

exterior to be covered with non-combustible materials 

cannot be repaired, when 

not to be built within limits 

power of city council with regard to, outside limits 

penalties for violation of building act 

moving of. (See Regulations of Board of Aldermen.) 

wooden, regulation of, building limits. ( Ortl. C.) 

wooden, distance from line of lot must be kept. (Ord. C.) ... ... 

wooden, distance between. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, ells to. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, party walls in blocks of two or more. (Ord. 0.) . . . 

wooden, dwellings, height of. (Ord. 0.) 

wooden, otlier than dwellings, height of. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, other than dwellings, range of. (Ord. C.) . 

wooden, other than dwellings, distance between. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, exemptions. (Ord. 0.) 

wooden, foundations of. (Ord. G.) , 

wooden, framing of. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, posts, size of. ( Ord. C.) 

wooden, girts, size of. (Ord. C.) 

wooden, terms of erecting, altering, etc. ( Ord. C.) 

wooden, permit required to build or alter. (Ord. D.) 

wooden, penalties. (Ord. D.) , 

wooden notice to be given commissioner of proposed alteration 
or erection. ( Ord,. C.) 



Page. 



17 


12 


19 


14 


19 


14 


23 


20 


23 


20 


24, 90 


20, -10 


25 


20 


25 


20 


17 


12 


19 


14 


46 


28 


65 


32 



75 



17 


12 


19 


14 


20 


19 


20 


19 


21 


20 


22 


20 


18 


14 


20 


19 


18 


14 


22 


20 


137 


52 


30 


92 


34 


94 


34,37 


94 


35 


94 


36 


94 


34 


94 


37 


94 


38 


94 


37 


94 


39 


95 


32 


93 


33 


93 


33 


93 


33 


93 


31 


93 


100 


96 


104 


96 



31 



93 



130 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 
BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

creation of ... 1 7 

duties of. (Orcl.B.) 1 91 

BURNING- FLUID. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 84, 111 38, 45 

BUTTRESSES. 

how may be built, when used to be of sufficient strength, etc 43 27 

c. 

CALCULATIONS. 

for strength of materials 

CAMPHENE. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 84, 1] 

CANOPY. 

erection of, in street. ( Orel. D.) 

CAPACITY OF FLOORS 

CAPS OR PLATES. 

walls and piers to have 

CAST IRON. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 

CELLAR. 

definition of 

covering of bottom of 

air-space under floor of '• 

act to establish grade of 

not to be constructed below grade twelve 

board of aldermen may license construction of, below grade 

not to be used for dwelling purposes. (Appendix A.) 

CERTIFICATE. 

when granted 56, 83 30, 38 

CESSPOOLS. 

not allowed except by board of health 

Appendix A 

CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF PIPE. 

to be made with curved pipe . . * 

CHASE. 

thickness of backing to be not less than eight inches 

CHEMICAL MANUFACTORIES. 

special permit for, necessary. (See Grain Elevator ) . .«. 

CHIEF OFFICER OF DEPARTMENT. 

to be called ' ' commissioner " 

qualifications of 

term of office of 

CHIMNEYS. 

material for 

to be plastered on brickwork or metal lathing 

how supported 

not to be corbelled from wall more than thickness of wall 

not to rest upon wood 

walls of, to be at least eight inches thick 



19 


14 


LI 


38, 45 


55 


96 


55 


30 


50 


29 


19 


14 


17 


12 


31 


23 


31 


23 


31 


23 


31 


23 


31 


23 


17 


62 



114 


46 


1 


61 


125 


49 


44 


27 


16 


47 


2 


7 


2 


7 


2 


7 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


GS 


33 



68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


68 


33 


71 


34 


71 


34 


87 


39 


62 


31 


62 


31 



22 


20 


3 


8 


1 


7 


3 


8 


3 


8 


3 


8 


5 


8 



INDEX. 131 

Section. Page. 

CHIMNEYS, continued. 

inside of all flues to have struck joints 

no wood furring to be used against or around 

to be topped out at least four feet above roof , 

no nail to be driven into masonry of 

flues in which soft coal or wood is burned 

to be carried up to a sufficient height 

commissioner to notify, if unsafe 

floor timbers to be two inches from 

studding or furring to be one inch from . 

CHURCHES. (See Public Buildings.) 
CITY COUNCIL. 

to define building limits 18 14 

to make terms and conditions for the erection of wooden buildings out- 
side of wooden limits 

to establish number of building inspectors 

to fix compensation of officers ; 

CLERK OF DEPARTMENT. 

appointment and confirmation of 

term of office of , 

causes for removal 

under commissioner to have supervision and direction of department. 
COAL-HOLE. 

in street. (Orel. D.) 53 96 

COLUMNS. 

calculations for strength of , 

bearing parts to be planed to true surfaces 

to be drilled for inspection When required 

brick piers under, to have cap iron 

to rest upon iron plates 

when placed one on top of the other 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 84, 11 1 38, 45 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. 

definition of term 

to direct and locate construction of sheds upon wharves , 

may authorize the erection of sheds at building sites 

to give grade for cutting off piles 

to approve plans and specifications ■. 6, 11 

to approve fire-escapes for tenement or lodging houses. (Appendix G.) 81, 1 

duty with regard to dangerous structures 87-6 

to issue certificate, when 56, 83 

to issue permits 

appointment and confirmation of - 

term of office of . 

causes for removal of 

qualifications of 

to keep register of all transactions of his department 

to submit yearly statement to city council ... , 

to investigate origin of fires 



19 


14 


49 


29 


49 


29 


50 


29 


49 


29 


49 


19 



17 


12 


18 


14 


18 


14 


27 


21 


11 


8, 9 


, 1 


38, 68 


-88 


39 


83 


30, 38 


6 


8 


2 


7 


2 


7 


2 


7 


2 


7 


6 


8 


C 


8 


6 


8 



132 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING, continued. 

shall require that plans be submitted (1,11 8,9 

to examine all buildings in process of building, alteration, and repair, 7 8 

to make a record of all violations 7 8 

to examine all dangerous or damaged buildings 8 9 

to examine all buildings on application to enlarge, alter, or repair, etc. . . 8 9 

right to enter buildings 14 11 

compensation to be fixed by city council 1 7 

CONDUCTORS. 

all buildings to have 66 33 

CONNECTIONS. 

of lead and iron pipe, how made . 125 49 

CONSTRUCTION. 

contracts for, commissioner and inspectors not to be interested in 4 8 

CORNICE. 

to balance on wall 54 29 

fire-proof 54 29 

COURT. 

privy-vaults to be distant from 131 51 

COURTS. 

may grant injunction to restrain erection, elevation, use, or occupa- . 

tion, when 136 52 

CREATION OF DEPARTMENT 1 7 

CUTTING FOR PIPING, ETC 61 31 

D. 

DANGEROUS STRUCTURES. 

duties of commissioner in regard^to 87, 88 39 

notice to owner , 87, 88 39 

commissioner may affix notice 88 39 

duties of owners with regard to 87 39 

liability for refusal to make safe 137 52 

penalt}' for removing notice 88 39 

proceedings when liable to be dangerous in case of fire 88 39 

DEFINITION OF TERMS 17 12 

DEFLECTION. 

of timber, — modulus of elasticity 19 14 

of iron and steel, — modulus of elasticity 19 14 

DEPARTMENT, BUILDING. 

creation of 1 7 

designation of 1 7 

to be provided with office room and supplies 1 7 

chief officer of 2 7 

appointment and confirmation of other officers of 3 8 

term of office of other officers of 3 8 

right of officers to enter buildings „ 14 11 

duties of commissioner 6 8 

duties of clerk of department 5 8 

duties of inspectors 7,8.9 8,9 

duties of. (Ord. B.) 1 91 



INDEX. 

Section. 



-i oo 

loo 



DOORS. 

in party walls to be double metal-covered, etc 48 28 

of boiler-rooms to be of incombustible material 74 35 

in public buildings, etc., to open outward 91 40 

DOOR-WAYS. 

in party walls 48 28 

dimensions of 48 28 

in party walls, bow closed - • • • 48 28 

DRAINS. 

material for ■ • • • 125 49 

bow laid 125 49 

bow bung 125 49 

to bave running trap, to be carried above roof, etc 125 49 

changes in direction to be made with curved pipe 125 49 

all connections to be made with Y branches 125 49 

below cellar floor to be laid in brick trench ... 125 49 

DRESSING-ROOMS. 

of theatres 101 43 

DUTIES OF DEPARTMENT 6,10 8,9 

DWELLING-HOUSES. 

thickness of external walls • 36 24 

thickness of party walls ■ ■ • 36 24 

height of external walls 36 24 

height of party walls • • • 36 24 

combustible materials not to be stored in 84, 111 38, 45 

grade of cellar of 31 23 

to have water-closets 114 46 

Appendix A 1 61 

DYNAMOS. 

special permit for, necessary . 116 47 

application for, to be published in daily papers 118 47 

copy of publication of, to be filed with commissioner, etc 118 47 

E. 

EGRESS. 

every building hereafter built and every building occupied by more 
than one family shall have safe means of 

school-houses, churches, theatres, public buildings, halls, etc., to have 
at least two independent means of exit. (Appendix G.) 

tenement-houses, boarding-houses, lodging-houses to have at least two 
independent means of exit. {Appendix G.) .. 

factories and workshops where ten or more persons are employed to 
have at least two independent means of exit. (Appendix G.) 

all ways of, to be kept in repair and free from obstructions. (Appen- 
dix G.) 

fire-escapes may project over public ways, when. (Appendix G.) .... 

certificate of, to be issued, when 83 38 

from public buildings 90-91, 96, 102 40,42,43 

from other buildings. (Appendix G.) ■ • 81-1 38-68 

fire-escapes to be sufficiently strong 85 38 



134 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 

ELECTRIC WATCH CLOCKS. (See Thermostats.) 

ELEVATORS. 

for grain or coal, special permit for, necessary 18, 116-119 14,47,48 

how protected 77 36 

wlien not above first-floor level, may be constructed without fireproof 

enclosure above basement 77 36 

may be placed in areas or hallways, when . . . 77 36 

shafts hereafter built to be constructed of incombustible materials. ... 77 36 

shafts already constructed to be tin lined 77 36 

shafts, openings into, to be protected 77 36 

shafts, external windows of, to have three vertical red-painted iron bars, 77 36 

machinery, when overhead, shall have grille to protect car from falling 

material . 77 36 

not enclosed, to be protected by wire grille 77 36 

elevator car, etc., not to be used until approved by commissioner 78 37 

shafts to be covered with ventilating skylight 77 36 

cars to be provided with safety device . - 77 36 

openings in floors to be closed when not in use , 77 36 

to be inspected semi-annually by elevator builder, and his certificate of 

safety to be posted in car 79 37 

use of, when prohibited 79 37 

unsafe 79 37 

may be regulated by ordinance 135 51 

ENGINE. 

permit for erection of, required 116 47 

public notice for hearing of erection of 119 48 

appeals and proceedings thereon . . 116,117,118,119 47,48 

not to be placed under auditorium or exits of public buildings 94 41 

ENGINEERS. 

to make computations of strength of materials, etc ... 10 9 

ENTRANCE. 

to estate, by descending steps, to be guarded. ( Orel. D.) 

ERECTIONS IN STREET. (Ord. D.) ....'. . 

EXCAVATIONS. 

permanent, in street, construction of. {Orel. D.) 

neighboring structures to be sufficiently and properly supported 

to be protected by sheet piling when necessary 

to be protected by retaining-walls when permanent 

EXEMPTIONS 

EXHAUSTS. 

steam, not to be connected with sewer 

EXITS. 

of public buildings, to be opened for departing audiences 

theatres, to have at least two from every compartment, division, or 

gallery, independent of each other 

width of, in theatres 

additional exits to theatres 

plans of, to be printed on playbills of public buildings • 

from employees' rooms in theatres, to be independent of each other, and 
at least two in number 102 43 



54 


96 


55 


96 


51 


95 


26 


21 


32 


23 


32 


23 


15 


12 


32 


51 


95 


41 


90 


40 


90 


40 


91 


40 


96 


42 



INDEX. 



135 



Section. 



EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES. 

not to be stored or placed under stairways 

EXTERIOR PARTS. 

of second-class buildings, above forty-five feet, to be of incombustible 

material 

EXTERNAL WALLS. 

definition of 

thickness of, of brick dwellings, etc 

thickness of, of other than brick dwellings 

backing of, when faced with stone . ., 

facings of, to be tied to backings 

when of steel or iron 

to be anchored 

stone cornice, how laid 

recesses and openings in 

height of, of tenement and lodging houses 25, 



84 



75 



Page. 

38 



35 



17 


12 


36 


24 


37 


25 


39 


2G 


39 


26 


40 


26 


47 


28 


54 


29 


43 


27 


07 


20, 44 



F. 

FACTORY. 

egress from. {Appendix 67.) ■ 

FENCES. 

erected to annoj'. (Appendix B.) 

FIRES. 

building inspectors to attend 

record of, to be made by commissioner . . 

FIRE-ALARM GONGS 

FIRE APPARATUS. 

in theatres, etc 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

to be placed on buildings in which operatives are employed. (Ap- 
pendix 67. ) 

to be kept in good repair. (Appendix 67.) 

no encumbrances to be placed thereon. (Appendix 67.) 

on tenement and lodging houses. (Appendix 67.) . . 

certain buildings to have. (Appendix 67. ) , 

to be strong enough to carry a load of seventy pounds per square 

foot ... 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

roofs 

shutters and doors 

of iron or steel external walls 

in first and second class building, — all weight-bearing metal to be 
protected 

upright supports, other than brick, to be protected 

fire-proof rooms, — boilers to be enclosed in, when , 

fire-proof curtains, — in theatres, etc 

FIRE-STOPS. 

to be provided at each floor 

to cover whole floor from wall to wall 



1 

1-2 

9 

8 

113 

104 

;i- 



95 



68 

65 

9 
9 

46 

43 



38-68 
68 
68 
68 
68 

41 



65 


32 


76 


36 


40 


26 


51 


29 


52 


29 


74 


35 


100 


43 


63 


31 


63 


31 



136 



INDEX. 



Section. 
FIRE-STOPS, continued. 

to consist of tile, brick, terra-cotta, etc., or of equally non-inflammable, 

non-heat-resisting materials 68 

to be laid between upper and under floors or to occupy all the space 
between timbers and under floor 

footing of stud partitions to have 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDING. 

definition of 

mortar for 

requirements for .... 

FLAT-ENDED POSTS. 

stresses of : 

FLAX. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 

FLOORS. 

to be constructed sufficient to carry subjected weight 

capacity for dwellings, fifty pounds , 

capacity for offices, one hundred pounds . . .,. . . 

capacity for public buildings, one hundred and fifty pounds 

capacity for warehouses, stores, storehouses, and mercantile buildings 
of like character, factories, drill-rooms, and riding-schools, two 
hundred and fifty pounds 

not to be overloaded ... 

FLOOR BEAMS. 

to rest upon a wall or girder 

butts to be splayed 

to be tied to walls, and to each other 

floor and roof beams, — to have a bearing of at least four inches 

FLOOR-BEARING PARTITIONS. 

to rest on girders, trusses, or walls 53 

FLOOR-BEARING SUPPORTS. 

in first and second class building, to be not over thirty feet apart. . . . 

if of brick, to be not less than twelve inches in thickness 

when trusses are used, walls to be four inches thicker.. . 

FLOOR TIMBERS. 

to have four inches of brickwork between 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue 

FLUES. 

of wood not allowed '.. 

height of, above roof ; 68, 71 

distance of woodwork from 

no nails to be driven into 

commissioner to notify, if unsafe , 

penalty for refusal to make safe 137 

for ranges, boilers, furnaces, and ovens, the shell of, to be eight inches 
thick , 

in external party wall, thickness of backing to be not less than eight 

inches at any point 44 

not vertical, not allowed, without special permit from commissioner . . 44 

of ranges,' boilers, etc., to be plastered on brickwork or left exposed 

to height of ceiling 69 



Page. 



31 



63 


31 


63 


31 


17 


12 


19 


14 


23 


20 


19 


14 


.11 


45 


55 


30 


55 


30 


55 


30 


55 


30 


55 


30 


56 


30 


53 


29 


58 


30 


59 


31 


58 


30 



68 



29 



45 


27 


45 


27 


45 


27 


57 


30 


62 


31 


77 


36 


71 


33, 34 


68 


33 


68 


33 


87 


39 


37 


52 



33 



27 
27 



33 



INDEX. 



137 



FLUSHING PIPES. 

to water-closets, to be not less than one inch in diameter 

FOUNDATIONS. 

definition of 

to rest upon solid substructure 

under walls 

under piers 

under columns . , 

under posts 

under pillars 

of dwellings, etc., thickness of 

other than dwellings, etc., thickness of. 

to be four feet below surface exposed to frost 

when of rubble stone 

round or boulder stone not allowed in 

when of block stone 

when of brick 

footings of 

footings of, when of concrete 

footings of, when of stone 

footings of, when of concrete and stepped-up brickwork 

FREIGHT ELEVATOR. 

requirements for 77, 78, 79 

FRONTS. 

of theatres, etc., to be full width of auditorium, including lobbies, 
etc., and to be on a street or area open to the sky at least thirty feet 

wide 

FURNACES. 

smoke-pipe of 

how to be set 72, 74 

flues of, shell of to be eight inches thick 68 

permit to erect , . , 74, 1 16 

when set in brickwork, tops shall be covered with brick, etc 72 

when not set in brickwork, shall be at least eight inches below the 

ceiling or nearest wooden beams, and have a tin shield 72 

not to be placed above cellar floor unless set on non-combustible 

beams and arches 74 

in theatres, etc., not to be placed under auditorium, stairways, or 

passageways of exit 94 

FURRING. 

to be at least one inch from any chimney 62 

in first and second class building, on party or bearing walls to be of 

metal 41 



tSection. 


Page. 


130 


51 


17 


12 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


28 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 


30 


22 



91 



72 



36, 37 



40 

34 

34, 35 
33 

35, 47 
34 

34 

35 

41 

31 

26 



G. 

GARBAGE. 

tenement-ho uses to have proper receptacles for. 112 45 

Appendix A 11 61 

GIRDERS. 

calculations for strength of 19 14 



138 



INDEX. 



Section. Page. 

GIRDERS, continued. 

may be substituted for partition walls 45 27 

piers under, to have cap iron 50 29 

when floor-bearing supports 45 27 

in first and second class buildings, to be fireproofed 5L 29 

GOODS. 

placing of, on street. ( Ord. D.) 56 30 

GRADE. 

commissioner to give, for cutting off piles 27 21 

of basement floor 29,31 22,23 

of street recorded in office of city surveyor, buildings to be placed at. 

{Appendix F.) - 9 67 

GRAIN ELEVATOR. 

requirements for 116,117,118,119 47,48 

GREASE-TRAPS. 

required under sinks in hotels, restaurants, etc 134 51 

GUTTERS. 

material of 6Q 33 

GUTTER-STONE. 

may be substituted for corbelling 42 27 

H. 

HALLS. 

of tenement and lodging houses. {Appendix A.) , 16 62 

HAND-RAILS. 

required on stairs of theatres, public buildings, etc. „. 93 41 

HAY. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses Ill 45 

HEADERS. 

to be hung in stirrup-irons 60 31 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue 62 31 

HEADING COURSES 35 24 

HEARTHS. 

to be twelve inches wider on each side than opening of fireplace 70 34 

HEARTHS AND TRIMMER ARCHES. 

how to be supported 70 34 

HEATING-APPARATUS. 

regulations respecting 72, 73, 74 34, 35 

commissioner to notify if unsafe S7 39 

penalty for refusal to make safe 137 52 

not to be located under auditorium, stairways, etc., in theatres, public 

buildings, etc 94 41 

HEATING-FURNACES. 

when set in brickwork 72 34 

when not set in brickwork 72 34 

HEIGHT. 

of a building, definition of 17 12 

of a wall, definition of 17 12 

of wooden buildings in limits, not to exceed twenty-seven feet, except 

elevators, for coal or grain . 18 14 



20 


19 


25 


20 


25 


20 



INDEX. 139 

Section. Page. 

HEIGHT, continued. 

of wooden buildings in limits not to be increased 

of buildings not to exceed one hundred and twenty-five feet 

of buildings not to exceed two and one-half times width of street. . . . 

HIGH-SERVICE STAND-PIPES. 

to be provided in theatres, public buildings, etc 104 43 

HOISTWAYS. 

how protected 77 36 

openings into shaft, how protected 77 36 

to be approved before using 78 37 

HOT-AIR PIPES. 

to be kept at least one inch from woodwork 72-73 34, 35 

HOT-AIR REGISTER BOXES. 

how placed . . . 72 34 

HOTELS. 

watchman and red lights in . 113 46 

additional requirements for 113 46 

innholder to forfeit license, if requirements are not complied with .... 113 46 

HOUSES. 

tenement, definition of , 17 12 

lodging, definition of . . . 17 12 

I. 

INDEPENDENT CONNECTIONS. 

with sewer, required for each building 122 48 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

duties of owners of tenement or lodging houses with regard to. (.Ap- 
pendix A.) 15 62 

INFLAMMABLE OIL. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses . Ill 45 

INJUNCTIONS. 

may be issued on application of city of Boston, by its attorney, to 
restrain the erection, alteration, use, or occupation of any building, 
when 

to prevent the erection or use of stables 

to restrain the use or occupation of tenement or lodging houses 

Appendix A 

IRON BEAMS. 

cast, stresses in pounds per square inch 

cast, columns, round and rectangular, stresses in pounds per square inch, 
IRON PIPES. 

to be tested before being put in place 

to be coated inside and outside with hot coal-tar pitch 

joints of, to be thoroughly calked, etc. 

connections of, with lead pipes to be made with brass ferrules, and 

properly soldered and calked 127 50 

IRON PLATES. 

under lintels . 50 29 

under columns 49 29 



136 


52 


136 


52 


136 


52 


21 


64 


19 


14 


19 


14 


127 


50 


127 


50 


127 


50 



1^0 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 
IRON AND STEEL BEAMS. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

deflection, — modulus of elasticity 19 14 

L. 
LANTERN. 

projection of, in street. ( Orel. Z>.) 56 96 

LEADERS. 

all buildings to have, to carry waiter to street, gutter, or sewer 66 33 

to be trapped when connected with sewer 126 50 

LESSEE. (See Owners.) 

LEVELLERS. 

for columns, piers, posts, pillars supporting girders, or walls 30 22 

piles to be capped with 27 21 

LICENSES. 

for hotels, may be revoked, when 113 46 

to project windows, steps, etc 86 39 

to construct cellars below grade twelve 31 23 

LIGHTS. 

in theatres, public buildings, etc., for stairways and exits to be inde- 
pendent of all otlier lights 95 41 

LIMITS. (See Building Limits.) 

LINTELS. 

to be of sufficient strength 19, 45 14, 27 

to rest upon iron plate 50 29 

piers under, to have cap-iron 50 29 

LOBBIES (for theatres). 

to be separated from auditorium by brick walls 99 42 

required for each division of auditorium . . . . 99 42 

to be sufficiently large to furnish standing-room for all persons audi- 
torium may, at any time, contain 99 42 

LODGING-HOUSE. (Also includes hotels and apartment-houses.) 

definition of . . .... 17 12 

height of external wall of . . 107 44 

stairs of, to be enclosed in brick walls. (Appendix G.) 1 68 

to have water-closets 114 46 

Appendix A. . . : 1 61 

commissioner to approve plans 6, 11 8,9 

material for. (Appendix Q.) , 1 84 

ventilation of ..109-110 45 

to have fire-escapes. (Appendix G.) 81-1 38, 68 

to be a first or second class building. (Aj)pendix Q.) 1 84 

when basement and first story must be constructed of incombustible 

materials. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

not to exceed thirty feet in height unless located on an exposure thirty 

feet in width 107 44 

area of, when restricted, and how 108 44 

stairway walls, transom window openings in, not allowed 109 45 

rooms in, to be not less than eight feet in height in clear ] 10 45 



INDEX. 141 

Section. Page. 
LODGING-HOUSE, continued. 

rooms in, to have windows on open area not less than one-tenth size of 

room 110 45 

when night watchmen are necessary, and number required 113 46 

thermostats may be substituted for watchmen, when 113 46 

red lights, gongs, etc., in, when required 113 46 

additional safeguards to be made when required by commissioner. . .. 113 46 

when innholder's license shall be forfeited 113 46 

to have one water-closet for every twenty persons 114 46 

to have separate water-closets for each sex 114 46 

animals not to be kept in. {Appendix A.) 12 61 

occupancy of cellars of. {Appendix A.) 17 62 

to have proper receptacles for garbage 112 45 

Appendix A 11 61 

no dangerous or combustible material to be stored in Ill 45 

Appendix A. . . 12 61 

cleanliness of. (Appendix A. y 13-14 62 

agent's or owner's name to be posted. (Appendix A.~) 19 64 

to be whitewashed once a year. (Appendix A.) 14 62 

yards, courts, etc., to be kept clean. (Appendix A.) 13 62 

halls to open directly to external air. (Appendix A.) 15 62 

officers of board of health to have access to. (Appendix A.) 20 64 

board of health and inspectors to be sworn. (Appendix A.) 23 25 

infectious disease in. (Appendix A.) 15 62 

provisions for light and air 108, 109, 110 44, 45 

chimneys of 112 45 

Appendix A 11 01 

receptacles for ashes 112 45 

Appendix A 11 61 

water to be furnished. (Appendix A.) 11 61 

cellar to be water-tight. (Appendix A.) 11 61 

halls of. (Appendix A.) . . 16 62 

board of health may make additional regulations. (Appendix A.) ... 18 64 

penalty for violation of provisions 137 52 

Appendix A 22 64 



M. 

MANUFACTORY. 

egress from. (Appendix G.) 81-1 38, 68 

MARKET PURPOSES. 

wooden buildings for 18 14 

MATERIALS. 

calculations for strength of 19 14 

combustible , 84, 1 1 1 45 

commissioner and inspectors not to be interested in contracts for 

furnishing - ■ 4 8 

commissioner to pass on questions relative to 19 14 

size and quality of, for drain and ventilating pipes 125 49 



142 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 

MAYOR. 

to appoint commissioner 2 7 

to approve appointments of clerk and inspectors 3 8 

METALLIC LEADERS. (See Leaders.) 

MILL. 

egress from. (Appendix 67.) 81-1 38-68 

MORTARS. 

how made 19 14 

when below level of water .... 19 14 

for first-class buildings 19 14 

for second-class buildings 19 14 

for third-class buildings 19 14 

MOVING OF BUILDINGS. (See Regulations of Board of Aldermen.) 

0. 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

cannot be constructed nor occupied on roofs 67 33 

OBSTRUCTIONS. 

in aisles of theatres, public buildings, etc., not allowed 97 42 

OCCUPANT. (See Owners.) 

duties of, in relation to cellars. (Appendix A.) 17 62 

OCCUPATION OF STREETS. (See Revised Ordinances of 1892, 
chapter 36.) 

OFFICERS. 

of the building department . . . , 1 , 2, 3 7,8 

have the right to enter all buildings 14 11 

duties of 4-10 8,9 

titles, qualifications, and terms of office 1, 2, 3 7,8 

to hold office for terms for which appointed 135 51 

OIL. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging house 84,111 38, 45 

OPEN FIREPLACES 70 34 

OPENINGS. 

in streets. ( Ord. D.) 53, 57 96 

permit for. (Ord. D.) 53, 57 96 

in external walls 43 27 

in party walls not to exceed two in each story 48 28 

in party walls not to exceed one hundred square feet in each story .... 48 28 

in party walls to have double metal-covered doors 48 28 

into elevator shaft to be protected 77 36 

into elevator shaft to be closed when not in use 77 36 

in proscenium wall of tbeatre 98 42 

OWNERS. 

duties of, with regard to unsafe chimneys S7 39 

duties of, with regard to defective flues 87 39 

duties of, with regard to unsafe heating-apparatus 87 39 

to keep fire-escapes in repair. (Appendix G.) 1 68 

duties of, with regard to hoistways 77 36 

to have right of appeal 13 11 

duties of, with regard to tenement-houses. (Appendix A.) . ■ 14-15 62 



INDEX. 



143 



OWNERS, continued. 

duties of, with regard to unsafe buildings or structures 
duties of, with regard to cellars. {Appendix A.) . . . . 



Section. 



17 



Pase. 



39 
62 



p. 

PARTITION WALLS. 

definition of . 17 

certain buildings to have 46 

thickness of 45-46 

when floor bearing, of brick buildings, to be of brick 41 

of brick buildings, to be metal lathed or plastered on wall 41 

to be carried above roof and metal covered 42 

when required, areas not to exceed eight thousand square feet 46 

openings in 48 

PARTITIONS. 

when of wood, floor-beams not to be supported on 53 

to rest upon a wall or girder 53 

supporting floors or roofs, to rest upon girders, trusses, or walls 53 

PARTY WALL. 

definition of . 17 

thickness of, for dwellings 36 

thickness of, for other than dwellings 37 

vaulted , 38 

to be anchored 48 

to be carried above roof, and metal covered 42 

to be corbelled .... , . . 42 

openings in 48 

recesses in 44 

PENALTIES. 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe chimneys 137 

for violation of statutes relating to defective flues 137 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe heating-apparatus 137 

for violation of statutes relating to unsafe buildings 137 

for violation of statutes relating to building laws, chap. 419, of 1892.. 137 
for violation of statutes relating to erection or alteration of stables .. .. 137 
for violation of statutes relating to occupation of stables. (Appen- 
dix C.) 2 

for violation of statutes relating to watchmen . 137 

for violation of statutes relating to tenement and lodging houses 137 

Appendix A 22 

for violation of statutes relating to plumbing . . 137 

for violation of statutes relating to projections into streets .... 137 

for violation of ordinances relating to erection and alteration of wooden 

buildings, (Ord. D.) 104 

PENALTY. 

for violation of chapter 43, R.O. 1892. (Ord. D.) 104 

PERMANENT EXCAVATIONS. 

to be protected by retaining-walls , 32 



12 

28 

27, 28 

26 

26 

27 
28 
28 

29 
29 
29 

12 
24 

25 
26 

28 
27 
27 
28 
27 



52 

52 
52 
52 
52 



66 
52 
52 
64 
52 
52 

96 

96 

23 



144 



INDEX. 



Section. Page. 

PERMITS. 

to erect buildings 15-16 12 

to make alterations and repairs 15-16 1 2 

to set steam-boilers, engines, dynamos, etc 74, 116, 117, 118, 119 35,47,48 

to set furnaces, ranges, etc 74-116 35, 47 

penalty for neglect to obtain 137 52 

to make coal-bole or openings in street. {Ord. Z>.) 28, 57 9c 

for erections in streets, necessary. {Ord. D.) 55 

for projections into street, from board of aldermen. {Ord. D.) 56 

to insert sign in sidewalk, etc. ( Ord. D.) 56 

for use or occupancy of street. {Ord. /).) 57 

to be exbibited to police officer, when requested. {Ord. D.) 57 

for erection and alteration of wooden buildings, outside the building 

limits, necessary. ( Ord. D.) 100 

PIERS. 

how built 43 

to have cap-iron or plates 50 

piles under . 27 

size of footing, course for " 30 

PILES. 

how driven 27 

commissioner to give grade for cutting off 27 

under piers or buttresses 27 

to be spaced not over three feet in direction of wall 27 

buildings over seventy feet to have three rows at least. . . 27 

to be capped with granite levellers 27 

PLANS. 

to be approved by commissioner 6, 11 

to be submitted 6, 11 

PLUMBING, Regulation of. 

rain-water leaders to be trapped , 1 26 

iron pipes to be tested 127 

joints in iron pipes to be calked, etc . 127 

connections of iron and lead pipes to be made with brass ferrules 127 

traps to fixtures 1 28 

special air-pipes, material of 127 

special air-pipes to traps 12S 

fixtures having waste-pipes to have separate traps 128 

water-closets to have tanks or cisterns 130 

pipes not to be concealed until approved by inspector 123 

fixtures not to be concealed 123 

plumbing to be tested by water-pressure before being used 124 

steam-exhaust to be provided with condenser 132 

water-pipes to be protected from frost 133 

air-pipes to be carried above roof or connected with drain-pipe above 

upper fixture 128 

drip or overflow pipes not to be connected with drain-pipe 129 

waste-pipe from refrigerators not to be connected with drain-pipe 129 

flushing-pipes to be not less than one inch ... . 130 

steam not allowed to exhaust into public sewer ... 132 



96 

27 
29 
21 



21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 

8,9 
S, 9 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
51 
49 
49 
49 
51 
51 

50 
50 
50 
51 
51 



INDEX. 



145 



Section. Page. 
PLUMBING, Regulation of, continued. 

water-pipes to be protected from frost 133 51 

grease-trap to be constructed under sinks of hotels, etc. . 134 51 

only plumbers allowed to perform plumbing 120 48 

plumbers must register as such at office of commissioner 120 48 

permit for, necessary before work is performed 121 48 

of every building to be separately and independently connected with 

public sewer if sewer is accessible 122 48 

size, material, and quality of drain and ventilating pipes 125 49 

drain-pipes, how laid 125 49 

drain-pipes to be carried at least two feet above roof, full size 125 49 

drain-pipe to have running trap with accessible clean-out 125 49 

changes in direction to be made with curved pipe . . 125 49 

connections to be made with Y branches 125 49 

drain-pipe below cellar floor to be laid in brick trench 125 49 

POSTS. 

calculations for strength of , . . 19 14 

POWERS OF CITY COUNCIL. 

may by ordinance regulate the management and inspection of elevators 

and hoistways 135 51 

may by ordinance make requirements in addition to the statutes, rela- 
tive to wooden buildings without the building limits 22 20 

may establish building limits . 18 14 

PRIVIES. 

not allowed where sewer is accessible 114 46 

PROJECTIONS. 

over street line 86 39 

PROSCENIUM WALL. 

thickness, width, and height of 98 42 

openings through 98 42 

opening to be provided with a fire-proof curtain . . 100 43 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to approve plans of 11 9 

egress from. (Appendix G.) 1, 90 68, 40 

entrances, aisles, passageways, or stairways 91, 93 40, 41 

doors shall open outward . 91 40 

endangered by use of combustible material . 84 38 

obstructions not allowed in aisles, passageways, stairways, etc 97 42 

shall be first-class building 90 40 

stage to be not over five feet above street 90 40 

each division to have at least two independent exits 90 40 

width of exits 90 40 

fronts to be full width of auditorium, including lobbies, etc 91 40 

front to be located on area open to sky at least thirty feet wide 91 40 

additional exits necessary 91 40 

aisles, stairways, and passageways, etc., to be of even or increasing 

width throughout 91 40 

aisles, etc., to have a rising not over two in ten in auditorium; else- 
where not over one in ten 91 40 

risers of stair stringers not to exceed seven and one-half inches ..... 92 41 



146 



INDEX. 



Section. Page. 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS, continued. 

treads to be not less than ten and one-half inches 92 41 

flights of stairs not to be more than fifteen nor less than three stairs 

between landings 92 41 

stairs and landings to have hand-rails on both sides , . 93 41 

stairways twelve feet or more wide to have one or more intermediate 

rails, not more than eight feet apart, properly supported 93 41 

boilers, etc., not to be located under auditorium, passageways, or 

stairways 94 41 

lights of stairways and exits to be independent of lights of rest of 

building 95 41 

all exits to be opened for departing audience 96 42 

plan to be printed on playbills, showing exits, etc 96 42 

standing in aisles, passageways, stairways, etc., not allowed during 

performances 97 42 

to have a system of ventilation provided 105 44 

Q. 

QUALITY OF MATERIALS. 

to be satisfactory to commissioner 19 14 

QUAYS. 

exempt from operation of act 15 12 

R. 

RAFTERS. 

ends to be splayed 58 30 

RANGES. 

permit to set 74 35 

outside of flue of same to be plastered on bricks 69 33 

shell of flue to be at least eight inches thick 68 33 

RECEPTACLES. 

for ashes, to be made of incombustible material 112 45 

for garbage required 112 45 

RECESSES. 

in external walls 43 27 

in party walls, thickness of backing to be not less than eight inches at 

any point 44 27 

in party walls, other than flues in stacks, to be at least seven feet apart, 44 27 

RECORDS. 

of business of department , 6 8 

of all violations of act 7 8 

of all examinations of unsafe buildings, etc 8 9 

of buildings damaged by fire 8 9 

of buildings damaged by accident 8 9 

to be open to inspection of any officer of city 8 9 

of steam-boiler examinations to be made , 6 8 

of permits to raise, enlarge, alter, build, or tear down, to be made. ... 9 9 

to be open to parties whose property may be affected 8 9 

RED LIGHTS. 

in hotels, etc 113 46 





147 


tion. 


Page. 


72 


34 


72 


34 


72 


34 


34 


94 


,37 


94 


35 


94 


36 


94 


34 


94 


37 


94 


37 


94 


37 


94 


39 


95 


32 


93 


33 


93 


33 


93 


33 


93 


31 


93 


100 


96 


104 


9G 



INDEX. 



REFEREES. (See Board of Appeal.) 
REGISTERS. 

regulations respecting 

to be set in soapstone borders two inches in width 

to be constructed of tin plate with double pipes and boxes 

REGULATIONS. (Of Wooden Buildings outside building limits.) 

distance from line of lot building must be kept. ( Orel. 0.) 

distance between. ( Ord. C.) 34, 37 

ells to. (Ord. C.) 

party walls in blocks of two or more. ( Ord. 0.) 

dwellings, height of. ( Ord. C.) 

other than dwellings, height of. ( Ord. 0.) 

other than dwellings, range of. ( Ord. C.) 

other than dwellings, distance between. (Ord. 0.) 

exemptions. ( Ord,. C.) 

foundations of. ( Ord. C. ) • 

framing of. ( Ord. C.) 

posts, size of. (Ord. C.) 

girts, size of. (Ord. C.) 

terms for erecting, altering, etc. ( Ord. C.) 

permit required to build or alter. ( Ord. D.) ... 

penalties. (Ord. D.) , 

notice to be given commissioner of proposed erection or alteration. 

( Ord. C.) 31 

of plumbing. (See Plumbing.) 

for moving buildings. (See Regulations of Board of Aldermen.) 

for occupation of streets, (gee Revised Ordinances, regulating occu- 
pancy of streets, chap. 36, of 1892.) 
REPAIRS. 

how wooden buildings in limits may be 

definition of 

REPEALS 

ROOFS. 

party walls to be carried above 

fire-proof, regulations relating to 

of certain buildings not to pitch over twenty degrees 

to carry a load of twenty-five pounds per superficial foot in excess of 
weight of material and wind pressure 

to be covered with non-combustible roofing material 

not to exceed one story nor twenty feet in height unless constructed as 

required for roofs of first-class buildings 65 32 

ROOF TIMBERS. 

to be separated by four inches of brickwork , 57 30 

to enter wall at least four inches or have a bearing of four inches 58 30 

ROOMS. 

in tenement and lodging houses 109-110 45 

ROUND STONES. 

in foundations, not allowed 30 22 

RUBBISH. 

tenement and lodging houses to have receptacles for 112 45 

Appendix A 1 1 Q \ 



20 


19 


17 


12 


138 


52 


42 


27 


65 


32 


64 


32 


64 


32 


Go 


32 



148 index. 

Section. Page. 

HUBBLE FOUNDATIONS. 

when allowed, and how to be built 30 22 

s. 

SCENE DOCKS, ETC. 

to be separated from auditorium, stage, and dressing-rooms by solid 

brick walls 101 43 

SCENERY. 

to be covered or saturated with fire-proof materials 98 42 

SCHOOL-HOUSES. (See Public Buildings.) 
SCUTTLE. 

all buildings to have 80 38 

frames and covers to be covered with non-combustible materials 75 35 

shall have permanent step-ladders or stairs leading to same 80 38 

SHADE. 

erection of, in street. (Ord. Z>.) 55 96 

SHADE-CURTAIN. 

erection of, in street. ( Ord. Z>.) 55 96 

SHADE-FRAME. 

erection of, in street. ( Ord. D.) 55 96 

SHAVINGS. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses Ill 45 

SHEDS. 

may be built upon wharves 18 14 

commissioner may authorize erection of, at building sites 18 14 

SHELL OF FLUES. 

thickness of 68 33 

SHOW-BILL. 

placing and maintaining, in street. (Ord. D.) 56 96 

SHOW-BOARD. 

placing and maintaining, in street. (Ord. V.) 56 96 

SHUTTERS. 

how hung 76 36 

to be fire-proof, when 76 36 

SIDEWALK. 

sign not to be inserted in, except. (Ord. D.) 56 96 

SIDEWALKS. (See Revised Ordinances of 1892, chap. 36.) 
SIGN. 

not to be inserted in sidewalk, except. ( Ord. D.~) . . . 56 96 

SMOKE-CONSUMING DEVICE. 

to be provided, when. (Ord. A. and Appendix U.) 99-1 91-87 

SMOKE-PIPES. 

not to project through any external wall or window . 72 34 

when passing through wooden partitions to have a soapstone ring or 

double metal collar 72 34 

not to be placed within eight inches of woodwork unless protected by 

a metal shield 72 34 

SPECIFICATIONS. 

to be approved by commissioner 11 9 

copies of, to be deposited in office of commissioner .... 6,11 8, 9 



INDEX. 140 

Sectiou. Page.' 

STABLES. 

acts concerning erection of 115 47 

Appendix G. 1 66 

location to be approved by board of aldermen 115 47 

penalties for erecting or occupying, without approval 137 52 

Appendix G. 1 66 

injunction may be issued to prevent occupying of 136 52 

Appendix G 1 66 

to be kept forty feet from adjoining property unless licensed by 

mayor and board of aldermen 115 47 

STAGING. 

unsafe 87 39 

STAIRCASES. 

to have fire-stops 63 31 

STANDING ROOM. 

in public buildings, theatres, etc , 98 42 

STEAM, ETC. 

not to be discharged into public drain or sewer. (Ord. D.) 31 95 

STEAM-BOILERS. 

returns of, to tax commissioners to be made by commissioner ■ . 6 S 

how to be set 74 35 

to be enclosed in fire-proof room 74 35 

shell of flues of, to be eight inches thick , 68 33 

permit for, required .... 74, 116 35, 47 

appeals and proceedings thereon 118, 119 47, 48 

STEAM-ENGINES. (See Steam-Boilers.) 

permit for erection of 116 47 

STEAM-EXHAUST. 

not to be connected with public sewer 

not to connect with ventilation-pipe, etc. (Ord. D.~) > 

STEAM-PIPE. 

to be kept at least one inch from woodwork 

STEEL OR IRON EXTERNAL WALLS. 

to be of sufficient strength and fire-proofed 

STEPS. (See Bay-Windows.) 
STIRRUP IRONS. 

headers to be hung in , 

STONE CORNICE. 

to balance on wall 

STONE PACING. 

to be securely clamped , 

STONEWORK. 

stresses in tons of two thousand pounds per square foot 

STORAGE. 

' sheds for, may be built upon wharves 

STRAW. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses 

STREETS. (See Revised Ordinances of 1892, chap. 36.) 

permanent excavations in, etc. ( Ord. D.) 

superintendent of, permit from, necessary for coal-holes or openings 
in. (Ord. D.) 



132 


51 


27 


95 


73 


35 


40 


26 


60 


31 


54 


29 


39 


26 


19 


14 


18 


14 


111 


45 


51 


95 


53 


96 



150 INDEX. 

Section. Page. 

STREETS, continued. 

projections into. (Orel. D.) 56 96 

superintendent of , permit from, for erections in. (Ord. D.) 55 96 

board of aldermen, permit from, for projections into. (Ord. D.) 56 96 

superintendent of, permit from, for occupancy or use of. (Ord. D.) . 57 96 

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 
Timber. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

deflection, — modulus of elasticity 19 14 

posts with flat ends, stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

Wrought Iron and Steel. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

deflection, — modulus of elasticity 19 14 

Cast Iron. 

stresses in pounds per square inch , . 19 14 

Round and Rectangular Columns. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

Stonework. 

stresses in tons of two thousand pounds per square foot 19 14 

Brickwork. 

stresses in tons of two thousand pounds per square foot 19 14 

In General. 

stresses and forms to be determined by best authorities 19 14 

STRUCTURES. 

unsafe 1 87-88 39 

SURVEY. 

how and when made 7-8 8-9 

SURVEYORS. (See Board of Appeal.) 
SYSTEM OF VENTILATION. 

theatres, public buildings, school-houses, factories, etc., required to 

have 105 44 



T. 

TAIL BEAMS. 

to be framed or hung in stirrup irons. 60 31 

TEMPORARY SUPPORTS 26 21 

TENANT. (See Owner.) 

TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

definition of 17 12 

stairs of. (Appendix G.) 1 68 

to have water-closets 114 46 

Appendix A 1 61 

commissioner to approve plans 6-11 8-9 

material for. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

ventilation of. 109-110 45 

to have fire-escapes. (Appendix G.) 81-1 38, 68 

to be a first-class building, when. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

basement and first story to be fire-proof, when. (Appendix Q.) 1 84 

exterior walls, when not to exceed thirty feet in height 107 44 



INDEX. 151 

Section. Page. 

TENEMENT-HOUSE, continued. 

area of, when restricted, and how 108 44 

ventilation of sleeping-rooms in 109 45 

windows in stairway walls not allowed 109 45 

rooms to be at least eight feet in clear , 110 45 

windows to open on area one-tenth that of the room 110 45 

when watchmen are necessary, and the number required 113 46 

when thermostats may be substituted for watchmen 113 46 

red lights, gongs, etc., required, when 113 46 

additional safeguards to be made when required by commissioner 113 46 

water-closets to have a window on open air 114 46 

when innholder's license shall be forfeited 1 13 46 

occupancy of cellars of. {Appendix A.) .... 17 62 

to have proper receptacles for garbage - 112 45 

Appendix A 11 61 

no dangerous or combustible material to be stored in Ill 45 

Appendix A. 12 61 

animals not to be kept in. {Appendix .4.) 12 61 

cleanliness of. {Appendix A.) , . . 13-14 62 

agent's or owner's name to be posted. {Appendix A.~) 11 61 

to be whitewashed once a year. {Appendix A.) 14 62 

yards, courts, etc., to be kept clean. {Appendix A.) 13 62 

halls to open directly to external air. {Appendix A.) 15 62 

officers of board of health to have access to. {Appendix A.*) 20 64 

board of health and inspectors to be sworn. {Appendix A.) 23 65 

infectious disease in. {Appendix A.) 15 62 

provisions for light and air 109-110 45 

height of rooms 1 10 45 

chimneys of 112 45 

Appendix A • 11 61 

receptacles for ashes - ■■ 112 45 

* Appendix A 11 61 

water to be furnished. {Appendix A.) . . 1 1 61 

cellar to be made water-tight. {Appendix A.) 11 61 

halls of. (Appendix A.) • 16 62 

board of health may make additional regulations. (Appendix A.) 18 64 

penalty for violation of provisions 137 52 

Appendix A 22 64 

TERM OF OFFICE. 

of commissioner 2 7 

of clerk of department 3 8 

of building inspectors 3 8 

of board of appeal 12 10 

TESTS. 

plumbing to be tested with water test before used 124 49 

iron pipe to be tested before put in place 127 50 

THEATRES. (See Public Buildings.) 

hereafter erected, shall be first-class building 90 40 

stage level not to exceed five feet above street level 90 40 

each division, gallery, etc, to have at least two independent exits 90 40 



152 



INDEX. 



Section. Page. 
THEATRES, continued. 

width of such exits 90 40 

front to be full width of auditorium, including lobbies, etc 91 40 

front to be located on a street or area at least thirty feet wide, and open 

to the sky 91 40 

aisles, stairways, and passageways to be of even or increasing width . 91 40 

aisles to have a rising of not over two in ten 91 40 

risers of stair stringers not to exceed seven and one-half inches 92 41 

treads to be of not less than ten and one-half inches 92 41 

length of flights 92 41 

width of landings 92 41 

boilers, etc., not to be located under auditorium, passageways, or stair- 
ways , 94 41 

lights of stairways and exits to be independent of the other lights 95 41 

all exits to be opened for departing audience 96 42 

plans showing exits and stairways to be printed on playbills 96 42 

obstructions in aisles, etc., not allowed 97 42 

standing room 97 42 

proscenium walls, thickness, width, and height of 98 42 

proscenium wall, openings through 98 42 

scenery, curtain, and woodwork to be covered or saturated with fire- 
resisting materials 98 42 

additional exits for 91 40 

stage to be separated from auditorium by brick wall sixteen inches in 

thickness 98 42 

finish and decorations 98 42 

stage, etc 98 42 

number and location of high-service standpipes , . . 104 43 

number and location of ventilators 103, 105 43, 44 

curtain, material, construction, and mechanism of. , 100 43 

curtain to be of fire-resisting material 98 42 

copy of plans and specifications of, to be deposited in office of building 

commissioner - 11 9 

heating and lighting apparatus 94-95 41 

fire service and apparatus to be provided as building commissioner 

deems necessary • • 104 43 

changes of floor levels except stairways 91 40 

stairways, lobbies, corridors, etc., to be enclosed in brick walls. ..... 99 42 

rails to stairs and landings 93 41 

exit through other buildings 91 40 

building commissioner to approve plans of 11 9 

fire-proof curtain to be raised before and lowered after each per- 
formance 100 43 

scene docks, carpenter and property shops, and wardrobes to be separated 

from stage, auditorium, and dressing-rooms by solid brick walls 101 43 

exits from employees' rooms to be independent and at least two in 

number 102 43 

water-sprinklers, over proscenium arch, required 104 43 

additional sprinklers for stage, required 104 43 

egress from 90-9 1 40 



58 


30 


61 


31 


62 


31 


19 


14 


19 


14 


19 


14 



INDEX. 153 

Section. Page. 

THEATRES, continued. 

entrances, aisles, passageways, and stairways 91. 92, 93 40, 41 

all doors shall open outward 91 40 

stage gas-lights 102 43 

THERMOSTATS. 

when may be substituted for watchmen 113 46 

THICKNESS OF A WALL. 

definition of 17 12 

TIMBER. 

to be splayed 

not to be cut for piping 

not to be placed nearer than two inches of chimney flue 

stresses in pounds per square inch 

deflection, — modulus of elasticity 

stresses for posts with flat ends .... 

TITLE. 

of chief officer ' ' building commissioner " 2 7 

TRAPS. 

rain-water leaders when connected with drain, to have 126 50 

required to waste-pipe of each and every fixture . . 128 50 

to be protected from siphonage by special air-pipes 128 50 

required under hotel sinks, etc 134 5 1 

TRIMMER ARCHES. 

to support hearths 70 34 

TRIMMERS. 

to be hung in stirrup irons, when 60 31 

TRUSSES. 

when used as floor-bearing supports 45 27 

TURPENTINE. 

not to be stored in dwelling, tenement, or lodging houses Ill 45 

u. 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

buildings belonging to, exempt from operations of act 15 12 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

owner to secure forthwith or take down 

when commissioner may secure or take down . 

may be vacated, when 

to be placarded " unsafe," when , 

penalty for neglecting to secure 

UNSAFE CHIMNEYS 

UNSAFE HEATING-APPARATUS, ETC 



V. 

VAULTED WALLS 38 26 

VENTILATION. 

of tenement and lodging houses 109-110 45 

of theatres, public buildings, schools, etc 105 44 



87 


39 


87 


39 


88 


39 


88 


39 


137 


52 


87 


39 


87 


39 



154 



INDEX. 



VENTILATORS. 

over theatre stage, area and construction of 

VERTICAL RECESSES. 

to be not nearer than seven feet to one another. . . 
VIOLATION. 

of chapter 419, Acts of 1892. (See Penalties.) 

of chapter 43, R.O. 1892, penalty for. (Ord. D.) 



Section. Page. 

103 43 

44 27 



104 



96 



w. 

WALLS. 

to be properly bonded and solidly built 

thickness of, means ... 

height of, how measured 

external, definition of. . . , 

party, definition of 

foundation , definition of 

partition, definition of 

vaulted 

partition, to he built in certain cases 

backing of, when faced with stone 

stone, facing of, to be clamped 

how built 

to be anchored to each other 

to be anchored to beams ' 

recesses and openings in . . 43, 

of tenement or lodging houses to be of brick. (Appendix Q.) 

every eighth course to be a bonding course 

for dwellings of first or second class, thickness of external and 
party 

for other than dwellings of first or second class, thickness of external 
and party 

external, of iron or steel 

hearing partition, to be plastered on brick, etc 

party, to be plastered on brick, etc 

bearing partition, to be carried above roof, etc 

party, to be carried above roof, etc 

buttresses to 

enclosing stairways of tenement-houses, etc., windows in, not al- 
lowed 

WARES. 

placing and maintaining, in street. (Ord. Z>.) 

WASTE-PIPES. 

each and every one to have a separate and independent trap, etc 

from refrigerators not to be connected with drain 

WATCHMAN. 

iu hotels, etc 

may be omitted, when 

WATER. 

for tenement-houses, etc. (Appendix A.) 



34 


24 


17 


12 


25 


20 


17 


12 


17 


12 


17 


12 


17 


12 


38 


26 


46 


28 


39 


26 


39 


26 


34 


24 


47 


28 


59 


31 


44, 48 : 


27, 28 


1 


84 


35 


24 



36 



24 



37 


25 


40 


26 


41 


26 


41 


26 


42 


27 


42 


27 


43 


27 


110 


45 


56 


96 


129 


50 


129 


50 


113 


46 


113 


46 



11 



61 



INDEX. 



155 



Section. 
WATER-CLOSETS. 

for tenement-houses, etc. 114 

Appendix A 1 

to be supplied from cistern, etc 130 

WHARVES. 

exempt from operations of act, when 15 

WINDOWS. 

for ventilating tenement and lodging houses 109 

area of opening of, in tenement-houses, etc 109 

not to project into street 80 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

erection and alteration of, outside building limits. (Ord. D.) 100 

permit for, necessary. ( Ord. D.) 100 

Within Building Limits : 

not to be built within limits except in certain cases 18 

definition of 17 

commissioner may authorize sheds at building sites 18 

height of, not to be increased in limits 20 

repairs upon, in limits 20 

without building limits, cannot be moved into said limits . . 21 

city council may extend limits IS 

city council may establish limits in other districts 18 

nature of buildings allowed 18 

height of such buildings 18 

location and construction of such buildings to be approved by com- 
missioner 18 

to be covered with incombustible material 18 

not to be repaired or altered without permit from commis- 
sioner 20 

not to be repaired if outlay exceeds fifty per cent, of cost of 

renewal • 20 

cannot be moved to any position in limits 21 

Outside Building Limits : 

city council may make requirements concerning erection and 
alteration outside of limits, in addition to those contained in 

statutes 22 

distance from line of lot must be kept. ( Ord. C.) 34 

distance between. ( Ord. C. ) 34, 37 

ells to. ( Ord. C.) 35 

party walls, in blocks of two or more. (Ord. C.) 36 

height of, other than dwellings. ( Ord. C.) 37 

range of, other than dwellings. (Ord. C.) 38 

height of dwellings. (Ord. O.) 34 

distance between, other than dwellings. ( Ord. C.) 37 

exemptions. (Ord. C.) 39 

foundations for. ( Ord. C.) 32 

framing for. ( Ord. 0.) 33 

posts, size of. (Ord. O.) 33 

girts, size of. (Ord. C) 33 

terms for erecting, altering, etc. (Ord. C.) • 31 



4G 
61 
51 

12 

45 

45 
39 

96 
96 

14 
12 
14 
19 
19 
20 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 

14 

19 

19 
20 



20 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
95 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 



156 INDEX. 

Section. 
WOODEN BUILDINGS, continued. 

Outside Building Limits, continued. 

permit required. (Ord. D.~) 100 96 

penalties. (Ord.D.) 104 96 

notice to be given commissioner of proposed alterations of build- 
ing. (Ord. C.) 31 93 

WOODEN FLUES (or air ducts). 

not allowed. ,,,„,..., 77 36 

WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL. 

stresses in pounds per square inch 19 14 

deflection, — modulus of elasticity 19 14