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DIOfePOLIS PARVA 

TllE CEMETERIES OF AilVUIYEH AND im 

1898-9 

Br 
W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 

iloN, D.CL., LiTT.D,, LL.D., Ph.D., 

KDW4KD8 FItOriMtUK or KGVFti 
MMHBtlt or THK IMPKai*!. B 
CuHSBttr'iNliJNG Mr.)tBHB 'it SUtlRTir C 



With Chapters bij 
A. C. MAGE 



SPKCJAL EXTRA I'UKMCATION OF 

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND 



TVnuSBSD BY OKDES OF TUK VUHUnTKE 



LONDON 

T,. OFKICKS OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION PUND. 37. G„„ E„»,«.. ,s,..„. W.C. 
AXD 5P. Tebi-lb Stiuikt, Bostos, Mass.. a S.A. 
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B. .JUAKITCH. 15. P,o«.,u.,. W., ASHER * Co.. Li, B.„„„ .s„„,, 0„.„ G..«»., W.C. 

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DIOSPOLIS PABVA 



THE CEMETERIES OF ABADIYEH AND HU 



1898-9 



BY 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 

Hon. D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D., Ph.D., 

KDWARD8 PROFS880R OF B6YPT0L06T, UN1YBR8ITT COLLEGE, LONDON; 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE; 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN; 

MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTiqUARIES. 



With Chapters by 
A. C. MACE 






SPECIAL EXTRA PUBLICATION OF 

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND 



• I* 



■* •■ ■ • • 



«• « « » • 



• • ••• • • 



• • • • • 



.-• • 



PUBLISHED BY OBDEB OF THE COMMITTEE 



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•-• 



• • • 



LONDON 

SOLD AT 

Thb offices of the EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 37, Gbbat Russbll Strbbt, W.C. 

AND AT 59, TsMPLB Stbbbt, Bostok, MaS8., U.S.A. 

AND BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Patbbmostbb Housb, CHABnre Cboos Road, W.C. 

B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ; ASHER & Co., 13, Bbdford Stebbt, Covbht Gardbh, W.C. 

1901 



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W V 



EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND. 



SIE JOHN EVANS, K.O.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.B.S. 



Wcc^pxcBibcntB. 



Sir E. Maundb Thompson, K.C.B., D.O.L., 
LL.D. 

Lt. - General Sir Francis Grenfell, 
G.C.M.G., G.O.B. 

The Rev. Prop. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. 

The Rev. W. C. Winslow, D.D., D.O.L. 
(U.S.A.). 



The Hon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.). 
Prop. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (France). 
Prop. Ad. Erman, Ph.D. (Germany). 
JosiAH Mullens, Esq. (Australia). 
M. Charles Hentsch (Switzerland). 



fbon. JLtcnentcxe. 
H. A. Grubber, Esq., F.S.A. F. 0. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.). 



J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. 



fbon. Scctctatice. 

The Rev. W. C. Winslow, D.D. (Boston, U.S.A.). 



Aembets 

T. H. Batlis, Esq., M.A., Q.C., V.D. 

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). 

Arthur Gates, Esq., F.S.A. 

SoMERS Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. 

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

F. Ll. Grippith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Mrs. F. Ll. Grippith. 

T. Farmer Hall, Esq. 

F. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. 

Mrs. McClure. 

The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A. 

A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 



ot Committee. 

The Marquis op Northampton. 

Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Prop. W. M. F. Petrie, D.C.L., LL.D. 

F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., F.S.A. 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Sc.D. (for 

Pennsylvania). 
Mrs. Tirard. 

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. 
Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., Q.C. 
Sir Hermann Weber, Esq., M.D. 
E. TowRY Whyte, Esq., F.S.A. 
Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson 

K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



^ T ^ ?) ^ 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

MOT. PAOB 

1. The work and site .... 1 

2. Previous prehistoric discoveries . . 2 

CHAPTER I. 
The Sequence of Prehistobic Remains. 



3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



The problem of sequences . 

Sorting graves by degradation 

Extending a series by proportions 

Preliminary tabulation 

Final tabulation 

Ranges of Black-topped pottery 

Polished red pottery 
Fancy pottery . 
Cross-lined pottery 
Incised pottery . 
Wavy-handled pottery 
Decorated pottery 
Rough-faced pottery 
Late pottery 

Examples of dating of graves 

Results of sequence dating . 

CHAPTER II. 

The Pottery. 

Black-topped pottery 
Polished red pottery . 
Cross-lined pottery . 
Fancy and incised pottery 
Wavy-handled pottery 
Decorated pottery 
Rough-faced pottery . 
Late pottery 



4 
5 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
9 
9 




1 
1 
2 



13 
1.3 
14 
14 
15 
15 
16 
16 



CHAPTER III. 

The Stone Vases. 

8E0T. 

27. The forms .... 

28. The materials 



CHAPTER IV. 
The Slate Palettes and Ivories. 

29. The forms 

30. The use of malachite . 

3 1. Ivory combs and pins 

32. „ tusks .... 

33. Armlets and pendants 



CHAPTER V. 
Tools op Stone and Metal, 

34. Flaking and grinding 

35. Forms of flints . 

36. Mace heads 

37. Copper tools 

38. „ ornaments 

39. Silver, gold, lead, &c. 



CHAPTER VI. 
Amulets and Beads. 

40. Human figures . 

4 1. Bull's head amulets . 

42. Animal and other amulets . 

43. Beads .... 



PAOB 

18 
19 



20 
20 
21 
21 
21 



23 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 



26 
26 
26 
27 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VIL 



Outline of the Prehistoric Periods. 



SECT. 

44. Beginning of cultivation 

45. The earliest civilization 

46. The later prehistoric people 

47. Richest age and decline 

48. Connection with the historic 



PAOE 

28 
28 
29 
30 
30 



CHAPTER VIII. 
The Cemeteries. 

49. The position of the cemeteries 

50. The graves of cemetery B . 

5 1. Cemetery C . . . 

52. ,, H . 

53. ,, R 



54. 



?? 



J> 



U 



31 
32 
34 
35 
35 
35 



CHAPTER IX. 



Tombs of the VIth to XIth Dynasties. 



55. Cemetery D . . . 

56. „ N . . . 

57. ., W and characteristics 

58. „ Y (Mr. Mace) . 

59. Steles " . 



37 
38 
38 
39 
41 



CHAPTER X. 

Tombs of the XIIth Dynasty. 
Cemeteries W and Y. 

60. Characteristics of XIIth Dynasty 

6 1. Direction of tombs .... 

62. Pre-Usertesen tombs, W . . . 

63. XIIth Dynasty tombs, W . 

64. „ ,, Y (Mr. Mace) 



42 
42 
43 
43 
44 



CHAPTER XI. 
The Pan Graves. 

SBOT. PAGB 

65. A new class of graves . . .45 

66. The graves and bodies . . .45 

67. The animal heads . . .46 

68. Dress and ornaments . . . .46 

69. Utensils, &c 47 

70. XIIth Dynasty objects , .47 

7 1. Pan-grave pottery . . . .47 

72. Black incised pottery . . .48 

73. Dogs' graves 48 

74. Age and source of the people . . 48 



CHAPTER XII. 

Tombs of XIIIth — XVIIIth Dynasties. 

Cemetery Y, 





By Mr. Maee. 




75. 


The Cemetery 


, 50 


76. 


Connections with XIIth Dynasty 


50 


77. 


„ XVIIIth Dynasty . 


. 51 


78. 


„ Pan-graves 


, 51 


79. 


The graves 


. 51 


80. 


The pottery .... 


. 51 


81. 


The stone figures and vases 


, 62 


82. 


The copper implements 


, 52 


83. 


Other objects . , . . . 


52 


84. 


Special graves . . . . , 


, 53 


85. 


XVIIIth Dynasty remains . 


. 53 



CHAPTER XIII. 
The Ptolemaic and Roman Period. 

86. Ptolemaic remains . . . .54 

87. The temple enclosure . . .54 

88. Account by Nestor L'Hote . . 55 

89. Causeway, houses, &c. . . .55 

90. Roman pottery and marks . .56 

9 1. Asianic ostrakon . . . .56 

92. Roman graffiti . . . . .57 

93. Modelled head 57 



INDEX 



59 



LIST OF PLATES 



(WITH BBFEBEN0E3). 



Plate 
Fro7itispiece. 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XL 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

xvm. 

XIX. 
XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 



PAGE 



Classes of prehistoric pot- 
tery . . 13-17 
Map of cemeteries . . .31 
Pottery of successive periods . 5 
Sequence of stone vases, slate 

palettes, and ivories 18-22 

Sequence of flints, copper, 
beads, ensigns, and amulets 23-27 
Prehistoric groups 13, 32, 33, 36 

21, 32-5 
flints 22-4, 32-6 

23, 32-6 

Stone vases and ivories 1 8-21, 32-6 

Ivories .... 21-4 

Slate palettes . . 20, 32-6 

„ ... 20, 32—6 



9? 



99 



• s 



Pottery, Classes B and P 

„ ,, F, C, and N 



97 



>J 



J> 



JJ 



JJ 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



13 
14 
15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
29 
29 
29 
29 

Plan, cemet. D and Fort 37, 54-6 

Objects of Vlth— Xlth 

Dynasties 37, 41, 43, 52 



WandD 
D 
R 
L 
L 
Marks on pottery . 






» 



)> 



5' 



Plate 

XXVI. 
XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

A.A.A.il. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 
XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 
XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 



PAGE 



Figures of XITth Dynasty 43, 52, 53 
Ornaments, &c., Xllth 

Dynasty . . . 43, 53 
Stone vases, Vlth — Xth 

Dynasties. . 86,38-40 

Xllth Dynasty 42-4 

Kohl vases „ 44, 52 

Copper mirrors 37-44, 52 

„ weapons, &c. 41, 44, 52 

Pottery, Vlth— Xllth 

Dynasties 39, 43, 44 
Xllth— XVIIIth 
Dynasties . . 43 
., of cemetery Y 51, 52 

Marks on pottery, Y 51, 52 

Pan grave, E 2 . . .45 
Pan graves, Egyptian pot- 
tery ... 46, 47 
Pan graves, pottery . . 47 
Scarabs, cartonnage, &c. 39, 41, 

44,56 
Figures, Ptolemaic and 

Roman 
Ptolemaic temple blocks 
Roman drawings . 
Marks on Roman pottery 



'9 



99 



19 



•1 



99 



S9 



• 1 



99 



54-57 
54 
57 
56 
56 
56 
56 



DIOSPOLIS PAEVA. 



INTEODUCTION. 



1. The present volume has been delayed 
owing to the gi'eat importance of the subse- 
quent work on the Royal Tombs of Abydos, 
which made it desirable to issue the account of 
the remains of the 1st Dynasty as soon as 
possible. This volume, though delayed, is, 
however, one of the most essential to our view 
of the past, as the whole subject of the pre- 
historic age of Egypt is for the first time 
classified and reduced to order. 

In dealing with the prehistoric age it has 
been difficult to state enough of what is already 
known without repeating too much. To place 
any one in possession of the facts and materials 
it would be needful to repeat nearly all of the 
eighty-six plates of my volume on Naqada^ 
published in 1896 by Quaritch. Yet as the 
time has not yet come for a final corpus of all 
that is known completely systematized, it would 
be undesirable to go to the expense of repeating 
so much material at present. It is, therefore, 
necessary to make many of the plates here 
merely supplementary to the previous publica- 
tion, and to refer readers to that earlier volume 
for the larger mass of material, especially on 
pottery. This is a disadvantage, the more so 
as most of the supporters of the Exploration 
Fund have not yet seen that earlier volume, 
which was published separately. To those, 
however, who wish to follow out the subject, 
that account is essential ; and I must often 



refer to it as a necessary basis. Some day a 
great work embodying aU that is known of the 
pre-dynastic ages, and placing aU the changes of 
peoples and of fashions in their true order, 
must be brought out ; but the present account 
is only a first stage towards that final work, 
giving for the first time the methods of 
systematizing and of historical sequence in a 
complete and easily worked form. 

Beside the prehistoric subjects this year's 
work has also included much on the dark ages 
of the Vlth to the Xlth Dynasties, and the 
Xlllth to the XVIIth Dynasties, through 
which Ave can now see the continuity of the 
styles of vases, both of stone and of pottery. 
Much of the Xllth Dynasty, an entirely new 
class of tombs of foreigners just after that, and 
a few important pieces of Roman age, were 
also brought to light. 

The ground examined lay between Dendereh, 
the site of the year before, and Abydos, the site 
of the following year. At first our party was 
settled at Abadiyeh, on the edge of the desert, 
about a dozen miles west of Dendereh. From 
that centre all the desert to about three miles 
east was exhausted. AU the ground between 
that and our next settlement at Hu was also 
cleared ; and the desert for two miles west 
of Hu. It is from this latter site that the 
name of Diospolis Parva is adopted for this 
volume. 



B 



o 



DI08POLI8 PARVA. 



Our working party consisted of Mr. Maclver 
and Mr. Mace, as in the year before, who each 
took a part of the excavations ; Miss Lawes 
gave attention to drawing the pottery, &c. ; 
and Miss Orme, with my wife, drew the marks 
on pottery and the slates, and shared in the 
heavy work of numbering skeletons and pottery 
and the general orderliness of the ever-growing 
collections. - 

2. Before entering on the account of the 
present work it may be useful to some readers 
to have an outline of the discoveries of the early 
times that have been made in the last few years. 

In 1893-4 I went to Koptos, to search for 
remains of the dynastic race, which presumably 
had entered Egypt at that point from the Red 
Sea. In the lowest part of the temple founda- 
tions we found parts of three colossal figures of 
the local god Min, each with surface carvings 
of animals, &c. They obviously belonged to 
a far earlier art than anything known in 
Egypt, and all later discoveries confirm their 
being placed as the earliest works of the 
dynastic race from the Red Sea, long before 
the establishment of the Dynasties. One figm'e 
is at Cairo, and two are in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford. Beside these there were 
found pieces of what we now know to be early 
prehistoric pottery, showing that Koptos was 
a site dating from the earliest continuous 
civilization ; and also examples of early model- 
ling in pottery. All of this was published in 
Koptos. 

In 1894-5 I went to a wide site opposite to 
Koptos, between Naqada and Ballas. There 
we opened nearly 3000 graves, which belonged 
to a civilization different from that of the 
historic Egyptians. Our party anxiously 
debated day by day what might be their 
period ; and the limitations of our knowledge 
about the types of Old Kingdom vases led to 
our placing some tombs at Ballas to the Old 
Kingdom, which we now know to be earlier. 
This led in turn to our dating the great mass of 



new remains to the Vllth to Xth Dynasties. 
This conclusion was the only legitimate one 
from the facts as then known ; but it is not the 
first time that caution has led to too late a 
period being assigned to remains. I believe I 
have never erred in over-estimating a date. 
As we saw that these remains belonged to a 
different race to the ordinary Egyptian, quite 
new to us, we provisionally termed them the 
New Race ; not as referring to their intrinsic 
age, but much as New Holland was named, 
although in itself a far older land than Holland. 
The full account of all this civilization was 
given in the volume Naqada and Ballas. 

In 1895-6, M. de Morgan examined some 
cemeteries of the same age, and published his 
results in a volume in which he assigned them 
all to the prehistoric time, together with much 
material which is certainly of well-known 
dynastic ages. The total absence of any 
archaeological evidences or proofs of age in this 
work, rendered it but a happy guess, without 
any solid argument. The evidence still 
remained against such an early dating. 

In 1896-7, M. de Morgan found a very early 
king s tomb, since identified as that of Mena ; 
and the presence of objects of the latest " New 
Race " style in it was the first real evidence 
of their truly pre-dynastic date. 

In 1897-8, the final proof that the "New 
Race" remains were pre-dynastic was reached 
at Dendereh, where I worked through a 
cemetery ranging from the Vlth to the Xlth 
dynasty, and so finally ejected the New Race 
remains from the only dynastic period they 
could have occupied, thus by exclusion proving 
their prehistoric age. 

Lastly, in 1898-9, we have found several 
more cemeteries of this prehistoric age at 
Abadiyeh and Hu. Already in Naqada we 
had made a corpus of over 700 forms of 
pottery of that age, and by using those plates 
we were able to accurately record every piece 
of pottery that we found; and the great mass 



INTRODUCTION. 



of precise information thus obtained, together 
with the records of the Naqada tombs, has 
made it possible to sort the various changes 
into their original order, and so reconstruct a 
consecutive account of the whole of the pre- 
historic age. 

In the preparation of this volume many 
hands have helped. Mr. Mace has written the 
account of the cemeteries which he worked. 
Miss Orme and my wife have drawn nearly all 



the pottery marks and arranged the plates, 
besides continual work in registering and 
attending to pottery. Miss Lawes drew most 
of the p^tte-yo. J spot, and has since inked 
in the plates ; besides also copying the 
Ptolemaic inscriptions. The bulk of the plates 
are my own drawings and photographs. The 
long map of the desert was sketched in by 
Mr. Maclver, Mr. Mace, and myself; and the 
fort plan made by my wife and myself. 



B 2 



DIOSPOLIS PABVA. 



CHAPTEE I 



THE SEQUENCE OF PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 



3. As it will be necessary in the account of 
these cemeteries to continually refer to the 
relative ages of the tombs, it will be better to 
begin with a discussion of the method by which 
the prehistoric age of Egy^^t has been subdivided 
and reduced to a defined order. 

Hitherto it has been taken for granted that 
when no exact age could be stated for a par- 
ticular civilization it must fall into a general 
limbo of '^ prehistoric times " ; and the utmost 
that could be done was to name some periods 
irom the places where they were best represented 
— such as Chellian, Mousterian, Hallstattian, 
and to generally say that one such period was 
before another. Such a system is cumbrous, 
and gives no scope for exact definition. 

But if we can use any definite scale of sequence, 
where the scale of absolute time is unknown, we 
can at once deal with a period as simply and 
clearly as if the scale of years was provided. 
Such a scale of sequence we have in the numbers 
of the burials ; and if we can only succeed in 
writing down the graves in their original order 
of time, we can then be as definite in fixing their 
contents in a scale of graves as we would in a 
scale of years. 

The problem then is, if we have the contents 
of hundreds of graves accurately recorded, how 
can we sort those out into their original order, 
and so construct a scale ? 

First, we need to be able to write out the 
record of the contents of a grave in such a way 
that it can be rapidly compared with every 
other grave. To draw figures of all the objects 
would be impossible, because they would need to 
be large enough to show small variations, and it 



would be impossible to compare hundreds of 
such together and observe their differences. It is 
necessary then to begin by forming a corpus of 
all the forms, numbered in order, and then to 
denote each form by its number. 

To deal simultaneously with the records of 
some hundreds of graves, it is needful to state 
them as compactly as possible. This was done 
by writing out the numbers, which express the 
forms of pottery that were found, on a separate 
slip of card for each tomb. The slips were 
^ inch wide and 7 inches long. All the slips were 
ruled in 9 columns, one for each kind of pottery. 
Every form of pottery found in a given tomb 
was then expressed by writing the number of 
that form in the column of that kind of pottery. 
Thus the whole of the pottery found in a given 
tomb was shown by a row of numbers which 
could be rapidly compared with the numbers of 
any other tomb record. The means were thus 
provided for exact definition and rapid 
comparison. 

Having the material in suitable form we can 
proceed to arrange it. The general principles 
of arrangement I have stated in a paper in the 
Anthropological Journal (xxix. 295, 1900) ; here 
it will be more to the point to state the actual 
stages and details. The pottery alone is dealt 
with for arranging the graves, as it is very 
abundant and varied : and the other objects — 
stone vases, slate palettes, flints, &c. — when 
arranged according to the results of the study 
of the pottery serve as checks on the correctness 
of those results. 

The general result of the classification of the 
tombs and their contained pottery may be seen 



THE SEQUENCE OF PBEHISTORIC rERIODS. 



on pi. ii. ; and a brief view of this, to begin 
with, will help in explaining the processes by 
which such a result is reached. Here a series of 
seven stages is chosen to show the manner in 
which each period is linked to those which are 
before and after it. Of course more or fewer 
stages might have been illustrated here ; but 
these suffice to show how any period is linked to 
others, and to give a general idea of the varying 
styles of the periods. It would be clearly im- 
possible to transpose any two of these groups, 
of the forms which are found together, without 
disconnecting them with those before and after. 
It is needful therefore to have a m>ich finer 
gradation than seven stages to express the 
relative ages of varieties ; and practically fifty 
stages were adopted to cover all this period. 
As some earlier periods may yet be found, the 
scale begins at 3U ; and running to 80, it leaves 
enough numbers before 100 to join up to the 
historic times in future. Thus the actual 
numbers assigned are pui'ely arbitrary ; but the 
order of the stages they represent is certain, and 
each number represents an equal quantity of 
burials. Now we turn to the series of steps 
whereby a card catalogue of grave contents was 
arranged in nearly the original order or sequence 
of the graves. 

4, 1st step. The most clear series of derived 
forms is that of the wavy handled vases, some of 
which are given as the first figures in the five 
lower stages of pi. ii. Beginning almost 
globular, with pronounced ledge-handles, waved, 
(as in stage 35 to 42), they next become more 
upright, then narrowei- with degraded handles, 
then the handle becomes a mere wavy line, and 
lastly an upright cylinder with an arched 
pattern or a mere cord line around it. Some oi' 
the new varieties, which also show this, are 
given on pi. xv. ; and the full series of changes in 
Naqada xxxi., xxxii. The order of the changes 
is also shown by the contents ; at first full of a 
strongly aromatic ointment, later with a layer of 
clay over it, next with mainly clay only scented 1 



with ointment, lastly filled vnth merely solid 
clay, as in the cylinder jars. The degi'adation of 
contents to a worthless substitute proves from 
which end of the scale the changes proceed. 
Here we have then a good series with which to 
begin a classification. To some small extent 
these varieties were overlapping in time, as we 
find cognate forms in one grave. How then are 
the gi'oups which contain one type of wavy- 
handle [W] to be subdivided ? Side by side 
with this W pottery there is a class which since 
1896 we have seen to be later than the rest, aa 
it links on to the forms of historic age ; it is 
lettered L, and new varieties are shown on pis, 
xviii., xix. : for the series see Nnqada sxxix. to 
xli, In any given group of W we can then sort 
out the slips, placing firstly those which contain 
L types that occur before, and lastly those with 
fresh types of L pottery. Thus the large groups 
are subdivided. 

2nd step. Having the slips thus coarsely 
sorted into a few groups, by W and L, we can 
next sort each group by the types of Black- 
topped pottery [B], Polished-red pottery [P], 
and Rough-faced pottery [R] (see frontispiece 
and pis. xiii., xvii.), according as the slips 
contain types occurring before or not. This 
rough placing can be further improved by bring- 
ing together as close as may be the earliest and 
latest examples of any type ; as it is clear that 
any disturbance of the original order will tend 
to scatter the types wider, therefore the shortest 
range possible for each type is the most probable 
truth. 

3rd step. Having then all the slips which 
contain W sorted into approximately theii' 
original order, by the distribution of the other 
kinds of pottery which occur with them, we see 
that all the L pottery falls within the range of 
W, It is practicable, therefore, to bring into the 
series all the slips with L, though without W. 
These are incorporated in the series by looking 
for the first and last example of every type of 
pottery occurring on a slip, and then placing it 



DTOSPOLTS PARVA. 



BO that it shall be after all the first examples and 
before any of the last examples. If it is contra- 
dictory, as the last example of some kind of 
pottery was passed before the first example of 
some other kind is reached, then either the order 
previously arranged must be altered, or else we 
must acknowledge that the new slip contains the 
earliest or latest example of one of its types. 
In this and all the later stages only graves with 
at least five different types of pottery were 
classified, as poorer instances do not give 
enough ground for study. 

5. 4th step. So far we have only arranged 
the material which falls within the range of a 
clear series of derivation in the W types : but 
we now have a very different problem. How 
can we project our stages backward beyond the 
range of a connected series of forms ? There is 
much material, hundreds of slips, which do not 
fall into the period of W pottery, and we need to 
classify and connect it to the beginning of the 
W period. First we arrange the slips that are 
without W, in the order of the number of types 
of B, P, R, found with W. Thus we have graves 
with 

12 3 4 5 6 and more 
types in common with those of the W period. 
And we find that looking to the pottery mth 
white cross lines (C) (see Front.) these succes- 
sive classes of slips contain on the average 

i h A 

of the C pottery. Hence it is clear that the C 
pottery is at the beginning, and separated by 
some interval from the W period. 

5th step. Make a list of all types of B, P, R 
pottery found >vith C, as these will be the earliest 
types. 

6th step. Next we can try the above classes 
of graves which contain different numbers of 
types in common with W, and see how many 
types they contain in common with C. 

Graves with 

1 2 3 4 5 and more 
in common with W, have also on an average 



2-0 1-2 -67 -25 -1 -1 
in common with C. 

This regular disappearance of types associated 
with C, as types associated with W increase, 
gives good ground for adopting these groups as 
a true classification of the period before W. 

7th step. Thus classifying the period before 
W, we can classify the C end of this scale accord- 
ing to the proportion of B, P, R types found with 
C which they contain ; and the W end of the 
inter\'al by the proportion of types found also 
with the W period. 

8th step. Finally arrange the C period by 
grouping the instances of each type of C as 
near together as may be ; and group similar 
types together so far as allowed by other kinds 
of pottery. 

9th step. The decorated pottery [D] (see 
pis. XV., xvi.,andA'(!5ad«pls. xxsiii. — xxsv.) has 
so far received no attention ; but as the graves 
containing it have at this stage been already 
roughly sorted by the statistics of the other 
pottery found with it, we can now use it as 
a means of further sorting. It is valuable 
material for this purpose, as the detail of the 
decoration is more likely to vary than the mere 
form which we have to judge by in other 
classes. Each type of D was therefore 
examined, and its occurrences concentrated 
together, as far as was possible without up- 
setting the W series, or spreading out the range 
of other kinds of pottery. 

6. lOth step. Having now about 700 slips 
of graves sorted into their original order by 
these various considerations, we now make a 
first division into fifty equal stages, numbered 
30 to 80, termed sequence dates or s.d., and 
then make a list of all the types of pottery, 
stating the sequence date of every example 
that occurs in these graves. 

11th step. So far only graves containing 
pottery of weU*mai-ked characters, as C, W, L, 
&c., have been dealt with. Now on the basis 
of the list made in the last step we incorporate 



THE SEQUENCE UF PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 



all the other graves which contain enough 
pottery to define their position. So far as they 
may modify our views of the s.d.'s of the 
types, the list of s.d.'s is amended. 

12th step. All of the material being now 
built together, and in approximate order, the 
further processes are for more exact arrange- 
ment in detail. All the slips containing C 
pottery were placed together at the beginning ; 
but there is also a large number of slips which 
come before D and W, but which do not 
contain C pottery. Should these really be 
interspersed among the graves which contain C, 
and is it a mere accident that these do not 
contain C ? The only test for this is the 
frequency of new types of other classes of 
pottery. If the post-C graves are really of the 
period of C graves we should find iewer new 
types beginning in post-C, as they would have 
been already anticipated in C, Or if C and 
post-C graves are already in their true order, 
the frequency of new types should be the same 
throughout. Taking the new forms we find 
that on each slip on an average there are of 
new types 



D 



R 



in C period 1-3 -59 -07 -07 "U 
in post-C -26 -19 -05 -03 -28 
Hence many post-C slips should go into 0, 
as the new types have already been largely 
anticipated in C. There are some other con- 
siderations, rather too complex and detailed to 
state fully here, from the actual number of pots 
of new types, the starting point of R pottery, &c. 
Finally, instead of 44 graves being of C and 148 
of post-C, 47 were transferred to the C period, 
leaving 91 in C and 104 in post-C; some of 
these were however retunied back again on 
studying the range of each type. The motives 
of arrangement have therefore come to- a 
balance, and it is unlikely that there is any 
serious error of sequence. 

13th step. The previous aiTaugement is 
confirmed ii' we ignore the C pottei-y entirely, ; 



and date all its slips solely by the other pottery 
which they contain. 

7. 14th step. After this re-arrangement of 
the whole period before W, the sequence dates 
of the types of potteiy were all retabulated. 

15th step. Having exhausted the statistical 
methods of arrangement, and obtained all we 
can from them, we now turn to the treatment 
by the extent of range of each type of pottery. 
As already mentioned, the shortest range of 
any type is probably the nearest to the truth. 
Hence we look over the list of s.d.'s of each 
type, in the list of types ; and wherever the 
first or last example is far out from the rest, 
the slip containing it is examined to see 
whether it can be brought closer to the others. 
We may graphically imagine this sorting to be 
represented by an elastic thread for each type, 
attached to all the slips containing that type, 
and then the residtant position of all the slips 
under the tension of all the threads will be the 
probable truth ; the weakness of each thread 
being in proportiou to the true extent of 
diffusion of its type. Every instance of wide 
dispersion is also examined, and concentrated as 
much as is possible without scattering another 
type. Thus the position of many slips has to 
be a compiomise between bringing one type 
early or taking another late ; and the likelihood 
of a type being extended is judged by the 
range of the other types most alike it. Often 
several types hang together, and must all be 
transferred if one is moved, and then the ranges 
of twenty or thirty types have all to be reviewed 
at once. Most of these changes are however 
but small, not extending beyond one or t^vo 
stages of the whole range of tilty. 

lijth step. The material thus mechanically 
arranged in its main outUnes by various tests, 
is then subject to an ai'tistic and subjective 
review, as to credibility of style and develop- 
ment, and similax'ity of forms in dilierent classes 
of pottery ; any likely alterations which do not 
violate the statistical probabilities are then 



8 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



made ; but this is only a finishing matter, and 
is not allowed to weigh against the more solid 
facts. 

17th step. The whole series (900 slips) is 
then re-divided into 50 equal groups ; and the 
list of the s.D.'s of each type is re-formed 
accordingly. 

18th step. A list of all the graves that have 
been entered on slips, and of all others not yet 
examined, is then formed, with the sequence 
date of each grave stated in accordance with 
the ranges of its pottery types. This list serves 
for the subsequent dating of all the other 
objects found in the graves. 

At the end of the period the question of 
whether the cylinder jars of pottery were all 
descended from the wavy-handled vases, or 
were copied from the earlier stone vases, was 
also tested statistically by the number of types 
of other pottery ; but the results showed that 
that they must be connected with the wavy- 
handled pottery jars. A class of the rudest 
shallow graves, with only black topped pots, 
was classed as 30, as they were clearly before 
the C pottery beginning at 31. 

It should be observed that these various steps 
of arrangement cannot be taken in a different 
order; but that each has its proper place in 
relation to other steps. 

The resulting sequence dates for each class of 
objects will be afterward discussed in dealing 
with the stone vases, flints, metals, &c. Here 
we give the sequence dates for all the varieties 
of pottery known, both those in the corpus of 
forms in Naqaduj and those new forms published 
here in the plates xiii. — xix. These tables are 
the essential basis for all farther study of the 
prehistoric, and from them the relative age of 
any newly-discovered tombs containing pottery 
can be at once read off. Examples of this use 
for dating are given at the end of the tables. 

The range of each type is stated thus 
37 — 45 ; if a stray example is far from the rest, 
and may be accidental, it is separately stated as 



37—45, 62; meaning that most instances lie 
between 37 and 45, but one is found as late as 
62, which should not be relied on : where only 
commas appear between numbers, as 37, 45, 62, 
it means that only those three instances are 
known. If numbers are in loops as (37 — 45) 
it means that only one instance is known, in a 
grave with that uncertainty of age. 

8. Black topped Pottery [B] pi. xiii. ; 
Naqada xviii. — xxi. 



Type. 


S.D. 


Type. 


S.D. 


Type. 


S.D. 


la 


31—70 


22h 


31—48 


40c 


38 


b 


35—50 


23a 


31 38 


41 


40—45 


c 


32,58 


b 


34—46 


42a 


37, 57, 70 


d 


32,38 


c 


(60—61) 


b 


31—50, 63 


e 


35, 52, 70 


21a 


57,64 


43 


51,59 


2 


(38—61) 


b 


(44 50) 


44a 


37—46 


3a 


35,46 


c 


39 


b 


40—44 


b 


(31 55) 


25a 


31 55 


45 


(52—68) 


4 


(42 70) 


b 


30 38,59 


46 


41 51 


5 


48,62 


c 


31—41 


47 


32—80 


6 


34—46 


d 


34—50 


49 


36-55 


8 


56 


e 


31 55 


50 


48—66 


10 


37 


f 


30—50 


51 


36,47 


Ua 


35 51.61 


g 


31 56 


53a 


38—66 


b 


31 56 


h 


36—50 


b 


40—75 


c 


37^ 


26a 


31—50, 69 


d 


62,65 


d 


31—44 


b 


31 51 


54a 


33 64 


e 


36—63 


c 


31 56 


b 


35,36 


f 


31—63 


27a 


32—48 


55 


36 39 


12 


57 


b 


33—43, 63 


56 


41,48 


13a 


60 


c 


33—45, 62 


57a 


31—62 


b 


59 


d 


31 55 


b 


31—61, 75 


15 


31—61 


e 


32—41 


58a 


35—68 


17a 


31 33 


f 


34—46 


b 


35—43 


b 


37 


g 


35,36 


58c 


35 55 


18a 


36—43 


29a 


30 34 


61 


34,54 


b 


33 62 


b 


34, 41, 58 


62a 


37 57 


c 


34—56 


d 


33 35 


b 


34—59 


d 


31 63 


33 


38 


63a 


36,48 


e 


76 


35a 


32—43 


b 


35 39 


19a 


30—47 


b 


38—46 


64a 


41—43 


b 


33—46 


c 


36—51, 70 


b 


37 


21a 


33—47, 69 


d 


34—43 


c 


36,38 


b 


30—47, 62 


36 


35—46 


d 


34,37 


c 


31—68 


37a 


36—51 


65 


72 


d 


35 37 


b 


63? 


66a 


34-63 


22a 


31—52 


38a 


43,66 


b 


36,44 


b 


30—37 


b 


33,34 


67 


42,53 


c 


32—44 


c 


31—74 


68a 


37—61 


d 


31 38 


d 


37 


b 


31—61 


e 


37,50 


39a 


44 61 


69a 


43,45 


f 


30—36 


b 


39,63 


b 


43,44 


? 


31-34 


c 


63,64 


71b 


38,43 



THE SEQUENCE OF PBEHISTORIO PERIODS. 



9 



72a 


31—46, 63 


76b 


b 


35—51 


77a 


c 


33-47 


b 


74a 


31—61 


78a 


b 


33 57, 76 


b 


c 


33—55, 73 


c 


d 


32 


78a 


75a 


40 57 


b 


b 


31 57 


c 


c 


43 


81a 


d 


43 


82 


76a 


35—46 


83a 



43 

34-41 

34,36 

34—51 
33__47, 72 

38,43 

31—48 

32—46 

35 

34,37 

40 

45 



84 30 

85 30 

86a (32-48) 

b (40-43) 

87 36 

92a 37 

b 31,37 

9Sa 47 

b 44—63 

94a 38 

b 37 

c 36 



9. Polished red Pottery [P] pi. xiii. ; 
Naqada xxii. — xxiv. 



la 32—54,68 

b 31,37,61 

2a 31—52,63 

b 32—41 

4 34—38, 61 

Sa 32,35 

b 32 

C 46 

6 36 

7 32,34 
8b 37,43 
9 40,42 

Ua 31-63,80 

b 35-71 

C 35, 40, 63 

d 31—65 

13a 32,33 

b 35 

14 39—63 

15a 32-47 

b 32—39 

16 33—58, 72 

17 30-42 

18 39—43 
19a 38,46 
21a 35,48 
22 33—80 
23a 38—73 

b 41—72 

C 35—68, 80 

d 66 

24a 32 

b 32 

25 33 

26a 34 

b 32—50 

27 45 

28a 35.39,72 

b 43 

29 (37-39) 



30 (33—47) 

31a 43,80 

b 36 

33 35 

34a 50 

b 41,46 

C 40—58 

d (33-80) 

35 41 

36a 42 

b 42,68 

C 38 

37 36, 39 

38 49-66 
40a 39—70 

b 34--70 

C 40—65 

d 57,64 

e 42—70 

41a 42,53 

b 42,44 

C 35,43 

42 48—65 

43 38—55 

44 70 
45a 42—59 

b 43—56 

C 38 

46a 63—76 

b 38, 72, 75 

C 63—75 

d 71 

e 69, 75 

f 76 

47a 34--61 

b 44^-63 

51 47 

53 35, 37 

54 35—50 

55 (38—43) 



56a 

b 

57a 

b 

58a 

b 

50 

60 

Ola 

62a 

g 
63 

64 

b 
65 
66 
67 
68a 

b 
69a 

b 
70 
72a 

b 
73 
74 
75a 
76 
77 
78a 

c 
81a 

b 
82a 

b 

c 
84a 
85a 

b 
I 86a 



31—56 

31—58 

39—73 

48—74 

40—72 

32—55 

38—58 

37—62 

35 

34 

71 

31—44 

42 

(59—66) 

33—37 

34,41 

(58—65) 

31,39 

31,34 

37 

33,34 

38—47 

(52—68) 

37 

43,50 

43—62 

38—71 

43,45 

38, 75 

68 

68 

57—69 

41—72 

43—57 

58—79 

43—59 

50, 63, 72 

53,59 

46 

63,71 



86b 75 

87a 4^.50 
b 50 

64. 71 
69, 72 
9Sa 48—68 
b 37—67 



88 
91 



93c 
d 

94a 
b 
c 

95a 



52—68 

40—70 

50,51 

46 

43,44 

37—71 



95b 46—72 

96a (35-53) 

b (31-46) 

97 63,64 

96a 50—65 

b 57—64 



10. Fancy forms [F] pi. xiv. ; Naqadob 
XXV. — xxvii. 



Ua 
b 

12 

14 

15 

19a 
b 

24b 

25 

27 

30 

31a 
b 



c 
d 

34a 

40 

41 

42b 



31 54 


43b 


34 




' 70a 


36,37 


36,38 


44 


50? 




; 72a 


36 


36-44 


51a 


39, 


47 


b 


34 


35 53 


b 


38 




c 


37 


34 56 


52 


38 




' 80a 


47—61 


39 


58a 


40- 


-50 


b 


37,53 


35 


b 


43 




c 


(50 69) 


45 


e 


61 




81a 


48 


35 


62a 


36 




: b 


34 


37, 38, 56 


b 


36 




c 


39 


(36—63) 


64 


37 




83 


42 


52 


65 


55 




, 85a 


31 73 


53,57 


66 


34 




b 


45 


40—61 


67 


61 




91 


(33-45) 


45 56 


68a 


38 




92 


35 


42,43 


b 


40 




! 96a 


38 


51 


c 


33 




• b 


34 


40 


d 


34, 


58 


96 


51 


50 


68a 


50 









11. White cross-lined Pottery [C] pi. 
xiv. ; Naqada xxviii., xxix. 



1 
2 
6 
7 
8 

11 

12 

13 

14 

16 

18 

21 

22 

26 

27 

28 

30 

31a 
b 
c 

32 



31 

32 

31 

31 

31 

31 

31 

34 

32.33 

31 

31,32 

33 

31 

34 

32 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 

34 



34 


31 


74 


33 


36 


31 


75a 


32 


38 


31 


b 


31 


40 


32 


76 


31,32 


42 


32 


77 


32 


43a 


34 . 


78 


31 


44 


33 


79a 


32 


46 


31 


80 


32 


48 


32 


81 


33 


52 


32 


84 


33 


54 


32 


85a 


32 


56 


32 


b 


31 


60 


32 


c 


32 


61 


31 


d 


31 


63 


32 


86 


32 


64 


32 


91 


32 


65 


32,33 


98a 


32 


67 


33 


b 


34 


68 


33 


95 


32 


69 


33 


96a 


33 



10 



DI08POLI8 PARVA. 



12. Black incised Potteby [N] pi. xiv. ; 
Naqada 



2 


51 


ao 


38 


1 

30 


54 


6 


42—47 


22 


42 63 


1 31 


54 


10 


57 


24 


46 


32 


47 


19 


38 


26 


46 


55 


33 


15 


35 


28 


50,52 


67 


68 



13. Wavy-handled Pottery [W] pi. xv. ; 
Saqada xxxi., xxxii. 



1 


40 


25 


58—62, 73 


55a 


72—78 


2a 


52, 62 


31 


65 


b 


72 78 


b 


61,62 


37 


64 


60 


70—72 


3a 


42,53 


41 


63,64 


61 


73 79 


b 


42,43 


42 


62 72 


62a 


75 79 


4 


46—61 


43 


59 66 


b 


77,78 


6 


46,53 


47 


66—71 


71a 


78—80 


8 


52,68 


51a 


71 75 


80 


79,80 


14 


46—68 


b 


71 75 


85 


78, 80 


19 


52—66 


54 


72 


90 


80 


23 


61 63 











14. Decorated Pottery [D] pis. xv., xvi.; 
Naqada xxxiii. — xxxvi. 



1 


63 


19 


2a 


52 


20a 


3a 


62 


c 


4a 


49 


21 


b 


49,50 


24 


c 


52.53 


b 


e 


52 


25a 


5a 


42—63 


26a 


b 


44,45 


27 


6 


63 


29a 


7a 


40.44 


31a 


b 


33—63 


b 


c 


61 


32a 


8a 


44 


b 


b 


31, 41. 61 


35a 


c 


46—63 


b 


d 


46-48 


c 


11 


44 


36a 


12 


49—63 


b 


14 


48 


c 


15 


31 


d 


16b 


66 


37 


17a 


40-60 


40 


b 


46.47 


41a 


18a 


44 


b 


c 


66 


42 



60 

62—71 

75 

75 

61-63 

72 

69 

74 

69—75 

37 

47,48 

40—45 

55 

63 

40—52 

46—52, 59 

43 

40,54 

55 

40 

48 

(>3 

4<>. ()3 

51—63 

4<> 

48 



43 

45 

47 

48 
a 

50 

51a 

52 

53a 
b 
c 

54 

55 

56a 
b 

57a 
b 

58 

58a 
b 
c 
d 

60 

61 

62 

63a 



40—63 

46 

52, 53 

45 

63 

46—53 

48,49 

42 

42 

60 

63 

60 

46,61 

47 

46 

46 

47 

62 

56 

46—60 

46 

46,47 

49, 59 

43—59 

47—71 

48—63 



63b 43 

C 36, 41 

64 60 

65 63 

66 69, 75 
67a 46,57 

C AA^-U 

68 39—61 

71 46 



72 32 

74a 80 

75a 65 

b 48 

76 34 

78a 52 

b &^ 

79 60 

80 52 



81 
83 



32—36 
37 



88a 41 

b 37 

C 34 

91c 41 

92 40,41 

gSb (3&-43) 



15. Rough-faced Pottery [R] pi. xvii. ; 
Naqada xxxviii., xxxvii. 



la 50,80 

b 37—72 

C 38—63 

d 63 

e 51—63 

2 (37-74) 

3a 33—64 

b 41 

C 42—63 

4a 58 

5c ^^ 

6 41,45 

10a 40—52,80 

b 39—60 

11 45, 57 

e 51, 63 

12b 34,62 

C 35 

14 44 

15 38—47 

16a 51 

b 54—78 

17 43—70 

18 73, 80 
20 65 

21a 70 

b 34,65 

d 36—58 

22a 35—80 

b 44—79 

C 75 

23a 39—73 

b 37—75 

C 36—80 

24 42—80 

26a 55—80 

b 80 

27 53, 72, 78 

28 41, 66—80 
C 59 

30a (36-56) 



32a 
b 
c 

33 

34a 
b 
c 

36 

38 

39 

406 

41 

42c 

43 

44 

45a 

46 

47 

50 

51 

53 

55a 
b 

57a 
b 
c 
d 

58 

59 

Ola 
b 
c 

62 

63 

65a 
b 
c 
d 

66 

67 

68a 



57 

54,62 

54 

43.66 

44—79 

43—64 

43—73 

53—77 

37—75 

36,39 

63 

38 

53 

52, 58 

60 

52—63 

79 

38 

36—67 

33,44 

68—80 

34—74 

51—73 

34—75 

57—68 

43—72 

44 

46 

42 

56 

60,61 

63 

42—77 

50—80 

49—68 

47—65 

60—73 

65—72 

42—77 

39—74 

40—53 



68b 

69a 
b 
c 
d 

71a 

72 
c 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

81a 
b 
c 

82a 
b 
c 

83a 
b 

84 

85 

86 

88 

89 

90 

91a 
b 
c 

92 

gsa 

b 
94 
95a 
96 
97 
98 



(44—57) 

53—66 

36—71 

36—68 

43, 44, 63 

55,63 

37 

(36—63) 

50—78 

43—70 

47—78 

50,71 

36—72 

41—73 

38—67 

(59—66) 

44,56 

44 

38,41 

38—65 

36—44 

43—78 

33 

52—76 

47,61 

72, 7^ 

59,61 

41,42 

63, 1^ 

41—65 

36—30 

36, 39, 62 

44—61 

37—46 

39 

49,53 



51 



37, 72, 74 

63 

44 



THE SEQUENCE OF PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 



16. Late Pottery [L] pis. xviii., xix. 
Naqada xxxix. — xli. 



1 


«8 


25a 


64—75 


53b 


55- 


-74 


2ii 


73,76 


b 


70 


c 


54—80 


b 


73-78 


26a 


46— 7li 


d 


(55 


-74), 78 


c 


69 


b 


59 


e 


70 




3 


78 


28a 


64. 73 


f 


73, 


78 


4 


GO, 68 


b 


73 


54a 


72 




fo 


73 


29a 


73 


b 


80 




b 


60. 63. 80 


30a 


68-78 


55b 


48- 


-74 


c 


77 


b 


58—76 


S6a 


73 




7a 


53—58. 78 


31 


72,74 


b 


71- 


-72 


b 


39—76 


33a 


73-79 


c 


74 




c 


55—76 


c 


71.78 


57a 


80 




d 


60—69 


34a 


71—80 


b 


68 




8 


65—78 


b 


65—80 


S8a 


68- 


-78 


9!l 


43. 70? 


c 


71 


b 


72 




10 


63. 69, 80 


35a 


79 


59a 


75, 


78 


12a 


.50—73 


36a 


58—80 


60 


60-78 


b 


47-68 


b 


65—80 


62 


77 




c 


47-79 


c 


65-78 


64 


72 




d 


68-78 


38a 


70-80 


66 


72 




14 


54—76 


b 


74 


67 


68 




16a 


43—78 


39 


43 


69 


78 




b 


58-7S 


40a 


57—76 


71 


71 




c 


71-78 


42a 


58. 75 


72 


73 




17a 


.59—78 


b 


70—78 


74 


70 




b 


56—78 


d 


69 


76 


79 




c 


45—78 


43 


60.69 


78a 


73 




d 


67,68 


44a 


60—78 


c 


73 




e 


56—78 


b 


60-78 


82 


70 




f 


53.80 


46 


60,68 


84b 


72, 


76 


18 


68—74 


47a 


76 


85 


71, 


74 


iga 


70. 78 


b 


56 


8ea 


72, 


76 


b 


.54—76 


SOa 


67—79 


b 


80 




c 


35—80 


b 


78 


88 


76 




20 


55—58 


51 


70, 73 


94 


70 




21 


56. 63 


52 


60, 72 


cist 


65 




21 


73 


53a 


48-74 









Those readers who are actually working on 
the subject are recommended to insert these 
sequence dates on the plates of the pottery. 

17. Now, to give some instances of the use 
of such tables, we will take the fullest and most 
varied groups found in tombs at Abydos, after 
the tables were made ; and show how the date 
of a tomb is quickly delimited from the sequence 
dates of the various kinds of pottery found in 
it, and how in some cases we obtain fresh infor- 
mation about the range of types. 



Tomb -^ 22. 

S.D. 

B 22b 30—37 

B 25f 30—50 

P 11a 31—63 

P lib 35—71 

Limits 35 — 37 



P la 
P 17 
P68b 



Here in the first tomb we see from the ranges 
of types that it cannot be before 35, by P lib ; 
nor after 37, by B 22b. The latest date of 
beginning of a type, and the earliest date of 
ending of a type, are the limits of uncertainty 
a& to the age of the tomb. Similarly the second 
tomb is between 32 and 34. 



Tomb x 10. 
W 51b 71—73 
W 55 72— 7S 
B 22a 35—80 
E 65d 65 (—72) 
L 30 68—78 



P 57a 39—62 (- 
W 55 72—78 
W 61 73—79 
B 23c 
B 65c 
L 30 



60—72 (—73) 
t>8— 78 



Here in the first tomb there was a contradic- 
tion, according to the ranges first used ; W 55 
does not begin till 72, while the only examples 
known of R 65d were at 65 ; hence it was 
needful to suppose that R 65d continued in use 
down to 72, and the range is corrected accord- 
ingly. In the second tomb we find likewise 
that P 57a, formerly credited as 39 — 62, must 
extend to 73, which is very likely, as the 
similar form P 57b goes on to 74 ; also R (iSc 
must run to 73 instead of 72. 

Other examples of tombs are, — 



X 


;o. 


X 


0. 


w 55 


72—78 


B 38a 


43—66 


K 26 


55—80 


w 42 


62—72 


L 17e 


51-78 


E 23o 


36-80 


L 36a 


58—80 


R 65a 


49-68 


L 63a 


48—74 


R 80 


41-72 







L 53c 


54—80 




12 



BIOBPOLIS PARVA. 



X 


59. 


X 


79. 


D24 


61 72 


P23c 


35 68 


L 12d 


68—78 


S23c 


36—80 


L30 


68—78 


B60c 


86—68 


Lfi3o 


64—80 


L 12d 
L 30 


68—78 
68—78 








68—72 


L43a 


60—69 



68 



In the last we see how closely the age is fixed 
by two types not beginning till 68, and two 
disappearing in 68. 

Of course, where only a few pots of wide- 
spread types occur, it is naturally impossible on 
any system to define the age closely; but 
where there are several well-fixed types it is 
generally possible to limit the age to three or 
four grades, or within a twelfth or fifteenth of 
the whole period, and often we find it limited 
to a single grade. 

1 8. Now, were these various sequence dates, 
here assigned to the pottery types, a mere 
fantasy (as doubtless many people will conclude 
who do not take the trouble to understand 
them), it is clear that we should find it impos- 
sible to use the dates to closely fix the age of 
fresh tombs, as there would be ceaseless contra- 
dictions in any baseless system. Of course, 
here and there it is only reasonable that we 
should find that the full range of a type has not 
been yet reached, especially that types ran on 
in a few instances later than their general use ; 
but such occasional extensions can generally be 
justified by the range of a fellow-form already 
determined. 

When, moreover, we find that on dating the 
tombs by this system we obtain a consistent and 
regularly developing history of the stone vases, 
slates, tools, &c., we have the strongest con- 
firmation of the solidity of the general results. 
I should be far from supposing that small 



changes may not be needed, or small errors 
detected by more study, but the main outlines 
of the prehistoric age are now decisively fixed. 

It would be useless to enter here on tracing 
the details of the successive changes of the 
various forms of the pottery, without having a 
series of plates to show the transformations. 
Some general remarks may however be made. 

The date of the introduction of a form is far 
more important than that of its last appearance, 
as all forms went on being copied mechanically, 
often long after the original taste for them was 
past. Hence the date of first appearances show 
the point of greatest activity in any style ; and 
the date of the mid-most of the first appearances 
in each class is the point of its greatest import- 
ance. Tested thus the most flourishing period 
of each of the classes is as follows : — 

C 32 sequence date 

B 84^5 

P 39 

R 43 

D 46—7 

N 46—7 

L 68—9 

It is found in several instances that the same 
form is contemporary in diiFerent classes ; for 
example P 38 begins at 49 and is commonest at 
53, D 47 is of 52 and 53, and L 53a begins at 
48 and is commonest at 58, the form thus 
occurring together in three classes. The 
presence of brims or lips is not common in 
early forms, mostly occurring between 50 and 
60. The taste for oval forms begins with the 
open dishes, F 11 to 24, which all start in the 
thirties, and none extend beyond 56 ; whereas 
the oval vases, F 30, 31, do not begin at all till 
40, and are commonest in the fifties. Thus the 
pottery agrees with the stone-work, as the oval 
stone vases, S 71 — 75, begin at 38 and are also 
commonest from 50 to 60. 



CHAPTEB II. 



THE POTTERY. 



19. Before reading this chapter it vrill be 
be3t to turn to the coloured key (Frontispiece), 
which shows the varioits classes of pottery and 
the principal forms known of each. Further, 
on pi. ii., is shown the manner in which certain 
types belong to one period, and are connected 
with both the previous and the following periods. 
And on pis, xiii. — xix. are shown all the new 
types found at Abadiyeh and Hu. Those who 
want the full series of types already known 
must refer to Naqnda, pis. xviii. — xli. 

Black Topped Pottery. Class B. 
The oldest pottery yet known is the red 
burnished pottery with black tops, pis. front., 
ii. ; Naijada xviii. — xxi. This, like all the pre- 
historic pottery, was entirely made by hand, 
without the wheel. The material is a fine 
grained sandy and micaceous clay, apparently 
Nile mud tempered with as much of the Jiinterial 
of a Nile sand-bank as it will carry. It is soft 
and triable, but the outside is smoothed with a 
coating of haematite (or burnt ochre), highly 
burnished up and down. All these pots were 
baked mouth down in a fire, the ashes of which 
formed a bed a couple of inches deep, and so 
deoxidized the haematite around the mouth of 
the jar. In good examples the haematite has 
not only been reduced to black magnetic oxide, 
but the black has the highest polish, as seen on 
fine Greek vases. This is probably due to the 
formation of carbonyl gas in the smothered fire ; 
this gas acts as a solvent of magnetic oxide, 
and hence allows it to assume a new surface, 
like the glassy surface of some marbles subjected 
to solution in water. 



The oldest tvpes of this pottery are appai'ently 
the very simple cup forms (top line, pi. ii.) 
which are found only one in a grave, of the 
rudest and earliest age of the prehistoric. 
These graves were in a small cemetery on a 
little hill near Abadiyeh ; shallow saucer-shaped 
pits, just large enough to hold a contracted 
body, and about a foot or twenty inches deep. 
The bodies were closely doubled up, generally 
with head to the south, and lying indifferently 
on either side (see pi. v., fig. 1.) They were 
wrapped in goat skins, never in woven stuff; 
but copper was known, as a pin was found. 
Slate palettes rarely occur, and only rhombic 
in form. Every detail points to these being the 
earliest graves known ; and they resemble in 
form and depth the later burials of Libyans 
who came in after the Xllth Dynasty. They 
are therefore probably of the Libyan type first 
brought in. before the development of a fresh 
civilization in the new and fertile land of the 
Nile. 

It seems probable that in these earliest types 
we see the origin of every form adopted for this 
black topped pottery ; these cylindrical and 
open cup forms passed into the various dishes 
and narrow-necked jare which appear through- 
out the earlier half of the prehistoric ages. 

20, PoLisHEo Red I'dttkuy. Class P. 
Even in the earliest period, the graves of 
which have l>een above described, the advance 
had been made of supporting pottery above the 
ashes of the fire, and so attaining a uniform 
red all over. Probably the black top was felt 
to be a defect, though certainly later on it was 



TIIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



treated as an ornament, just as many defects of 
manufacture become so familiar that they are 
afterwards deliberately imitated. The oldest 
form of polished ,red is the small open pan, 
P 17, at the end of the top row in pi. ii. (see 
iVaqada xxn. — xxiv.). But the plain red quickly 
came into use, a third of the known types being- 
brought in between 32 and 36. The forms ! 
difi'er, however, from those of the black topped, | 
The lip is genei-ally turned out by the black 
topped, B, but turned in by the polished red, 
P. The cylinder is a main stock of B types, 
while the spheroidal jar with a brim is common 
in P types. The narrow-necked bottle is rare 
in B, but usual in P. 

The red polished lasted on later than the 
black topped class ; the majority of the B types 
is over by 50, while the same majority of P 
types is not over till 60. The finest examples 
of this class are the noble spheroidal jars, P 40, 
which often have a beautiful variety of tints, 
varying from purple red to dai'k orange accord- 
ing to the air in the furnace ; from these tints 
they commonly have the name of " plum jars." 

21. Cbosb Lined PoTTEBy. Class C. 
Immediately after the start of the polished 
red pottery we find that ware ornamented with 
white cross lines in various patterns, see pis. 
Front., siv. ; Naqada sxviii., xxix. This class 
only lasted in Egypt for a short time, from 31 
to 34 sequence date, or but an eighth of the 
whole history of the polished red. It is, how- 
ever, apparently connected with the Kabyle 
hand-made pottery, of red with white lines, 
which is of the same colours and similar in 
patterns. It seems therefore as if this had been 
brought in by the Libyan settlers, and then lost 
to use in the new civilization which grew in 
Egypt. The patterns are copied from basket 
work ; the earlier are the bowls with centre 
circles, and tall jars with chevron lines ; the 
latest are the bowls with blank centres, 
Animals are often represented, usually goats ; 



but boats never appear. In one case a combat 
between two men is shown, the oldest human 
figures known (F. P. coll.). 

22. Fancy furmr of Pottery. Class F. 

Many strange forms occur of the black topped 
or polished red ware, which cannot be classed as 
ordinary pottery, see pis. Front., ii,, xiv, ; NaqmUt 
XXV. — xxvii. The oval dishes, sometimes on feet, 
the oval jars, double jars, spout jars, square 
bottles, fishes, birds, imitations of stone vases, 
&c., are found side by side with regular pottery 
of the same colour ; mostly between 31 and 50, 
only a third of the types running on later. They 
belong therefore distinctly to the earlier age of 
the prehistoric times. 

Black incised Pottery. Class N. 
This ware differs entirely from any other 
known in Egypt ; and is only found singly and 
in rare instances in prehistoric times, see pis. 
Front,, ii., xiv ; Noqada xxx. It is akin to other 
such ware found in the 1st Dynasty (Abydos), in 
the Ilird Dynasty (Dahshur and Dendereh), in 
the Xllth Dynasty (Kahun and Khataneh), in 
the "pan graves" of Libyans in the Xlllth 
Dynasty (Hu), and on to the XVIIth or XVIIIth. 
It is closely hke in material and pattern to 
pottery found at Ciempozuelos near Madrid, at 
Butmir in Bosnia, and in the lower levels of 
Hissarlik, As in no period is there any Egyptian 
pottery which is connected with such a style, we 
must look therefore to some foreign source for it, 
such as Libya, Sicily or Italy. The material is 
always a soft, fat clay, not much baked, thick in 
early times, thin in the Xllth Dynasty. The 
pattern always imitates basket work, and is 
pricked on the pottery ; in later times with a 
toothed comb. The incision is always filled in 
with a white clay. The forms of the prehistoric 
time are almost always deep bowls ; and some- 
times imitations of baskets with lids, as 07, 68, 
on pi. xiv. In the Xllth Dynasty, elegant 
narrow necked jugs were made, with loop 



THE POTTERY. 



handles, distinctly Italian in style. The source 
of this pottery would be a matter of great 
interest to discover, as being a centre of the 
early Mediterranean trade and influence. 

23. Wavy handlkd PorrKBY. Class W, 
This is one of the most variable classes of 
pottery ; and by its manifest course of degrada- 
tion it serves as the best clue to the order of the 
successive periods, see pis. Front., ii., xv.; Ntiqada 
xxxi., xxxii. The main changes are shown on 
the left hand side of pi. ii. Beginning in the third 
row as globular vases, with ledge handles of wavy 
form, it passes through continuous degradation, 
until it is assimilated to the cylindrical atone jare 
with cord line around the neck. The material 
is hard light drab pottery, well baked, a fat clay 
without much sand. No paintings are known on 
this pottery except cordage pattern at about 
Ih. The latest of these cylinder forms appears 
in the tomb of Mena, and they then dwindle 
during the 1st Dynasty until they become merely 
the roughest little tubes. The wavy handle, as 
on the earlier types, is a characteristic of early 
Palestine pottery ; and a connection can be more 
readily granted as the mode of surface scraping 
with a comb is found in both the 1st Dynasty and 
also on the wavy-handled jars in Judaea. The 
constant use for these jars was to contain oint- 
ment, apparently palm oil ; and in later times 
mud was added, until at last only mud was used. 

24. Decorated Pottery. Class D. 

The material of this is like the wavy-handled 
and some of the late pottery, but its distinction 
is in the painting of designs and figures on it in 
dull red colour. See pis. Front., ii., xv. ; Naqada 
xxxiii. — xxxvi. None of the patterns are derived 
from basket work ; but some come from cordage 
and rush covering (like modem oil flasks) and 
some patterns from marbling. There is not a 
single point in common between these patterns 
and those of the cross-lined pottery, C. 

Two types, 8b, 15, begin very early, in 



s.n. 31 ; and the model boats, 81, begin in 
s.D. ;^2 ; then follow the squat vases, 7b, in 
H.n. 33 ; the earliest imitation marble, 63c, in 
H.D. 36 ; a chequer pattern, 20, in s.d. 37 ; and 
squat vases, 68, with cordage pattern in s.d. 39. 
All of these are, however, \-ery scarce in the 
thirties, and need not be more than importations, 
like the black incised potteiy ; they are not a 
twelfth of all the types, and are themselves much 
commoner later on. The main appearance of 
this decorated pottery is in the forties, when 48 
new types come in, followed by 33 in the fifties 
and sixties, and only four in the seventies. This 
pottery essentially belongs then to the middle of 
the prehistoric time. The principal types and 
their ranges are as follo-\vs : — 

Cordage pattern . . . .3 1 — 63 

Marbling 36—63 

Spirals, on upright pots . . 40 — 52 

Spirals, on squat pots . . . 39 — 64 

Aloes (?) 40—54 

Boats 40—63 

Three handled, with boats . . 46 
Three handled, with ostriches . 46 — 53 

Hills 46—56 

Splashed 47—71 

"Wavy parallel lines in short groups 61—75 
The boat or ship pattern is the most important, 
both for its variety and for the light it throws 
on the commerce of the time, When these 
drawings were first described and figured (see 
Naqada xxxiv., 40^-i7, Ixvi., Ixvii.) there were 
objections raised to identifying them as boats. 
But the discovery of much larger and more 
elaborate paintings on the walls of a tomb at 
Hierakonpolis (see the Egyptian Kesearch 
Account volume, Hieralconpolis, part ii.), have 
abundantly proved that we have here the earliest 
shipping yet known. The number of oars is 
sometimes as many as sixty ; and mthout sup- 
posing this to be an exact drawing, yet it 
shows that galleys with several dozen rowers were 
then well known. The prow of the galley has a 
branch of a tree upright on it, to serve as a 



DI0SP0LI8 PARVA. 



shade for the look-out maa ; belowa hangs the 
tying-up rope ; the stem has sometimes the 
great steering oars (Xaij. Lsvii. 14, and Hiera- 
konpolis tomb). In the mid-ships are always 
two cabins, and in the Hierakonpolis drawings 
a quantity of material is shown stowed on the 
roofs of them. The hinder cabin always has the 
ensign of the boat on a tall pole behind it. These 
ensigns are shown classed according to sequence 
dates on pi. iv. The earliest are here put to 
S.D. 36 ; but the jar which shows both of these 
ia only dated by one other jar, B 21d, which 
might very possibly be as late as the forties, like 
the other B 21 types, These seem to be possibly 
garland ensigns. The hill ensigns, with from 
two to five hills belong to the forties ; and also 
the hawk on a crescent, which lasted through the 
1st on to the Vlth Dynasty. The Z sign is 
unexplained ; it occurs among pottery marks, 
and on a slate palette. The elephant was 
probably a small one stuffed, like the stuffed 
crocodiles hung over shop doors in Cairo, The 
cross lines seem as if they were the arrows of 
the goddess Neit, as in the 1st Dynasty, The 
two pairs of horns and other objects are not yet 
explained. The group nf hills, two to iive, 
show that these ensigns were the mark of the 
port fmrn which the boat came, rather than the 
emblems of owners. That Mediterranean ships 
had ensigns in late times is shown by the tale of 
an ensign of Gades found in the Red Sea, and 
set up in Alexandria in order to be identified. 

The other figures on these decorated jars are 
difficult to understand. One of the most usual 
is a tree {Naq. xxsiv. 30, 37), which has been 
termed an aloe by Schweinfurth ; it is more 
like that than like any other plant, and as it is 
always represented in a tub or pot it seems con- 
nected with the present taste for aloes growing 
in pots, which are common in the cemeteries of 
Egypt and Noi-th Africa. Bushes seem also to 
be shown, as suggesting a landscape. The 
frequent figures of men, animals, and trees, above 
the boats, merely point to the boats being seen 



in a creek or harbour with the shore behind 
them. 

The more specialized patterns seem to have 
only been made during a brief time. The 
common types of the spiral, the aloe, and the ■ 
boat, lasted about twenty stages, from 40 to 60 ; 
but the large three-handled jars with boats, the 
large lipped jars, and the long rows of ostriches, 
eacii belong to a narrow period. Very probably 
some types were only made during a year or 
two, or even for only one single furnace load. 

25. Rough-paced Pottery. Class R. 
This class is not very definite, yet it is quite 
distinct from any of the other classes, and so 
forms a group by itself. The most usual types 
are given in Frontispiece ; and all the forms in 
pis. xviii. and Natjada xxxvii., xxx\-iii. The 
principal use of it was for the great jars of ashes 
buried in the graves. Sometimes as many as 
fifty, or even eighty jars, weighing twenty or 
thirty pounds each, full of ashes or burnt earth, 
are found in a single grave. These ash jars 
begin with a narrow neck, R 7!), at s.D. 36 ; but 
very soon, at S.D. 38, the wide-mouthed conical 
ash-jar, R 81, came in, and then both forms con- 
tinue in use till about 70, yet they are seldom if 
ever found mixed together in one gi-ave. At '68 
the ash jars become much narrower with long 
solid bottoms, L 30, but these are classed in the 
late pottery, next described. Another frequent 
type of rough pottery is a small conical jar, 
beginning with a contracted mouth, R 75 in 
s.D. 43, widening in R 76 at s.D. 47, and becom- 
ing a simple cone R 77 at 8,D. 66. These jars 
are only found one in a grave ; they never con- 
tain ashes, and are always at one end of the grave. 
Two other types are common, the little pointed 
vases. R 65 to 69, which run from .s.d, 36 to 74 ; 
and the narrow-necked bottles, R 91. 93, which 
run from s.D. 36 to 65. 

26. Late Pottery, Class L. 
This class is somewhat mixed in materials, 



THE POTTERY. 



17 



but was set apaxt when classifying the pottery, as 
being introduced distinctly later than all the 
other classes, having ugly and degraded forms, 
and being linked on to the historical pottery. 
The general types are in Frontispiece, the fresh 
forms in pis. xviii., xix., and the main body in 
Naqada xxxix. — xli. The material is generally 
hard, and in the larger jars pinky on the surface ; 
the smaller cups and bowls are often salmon 
coloured or light orange-red, thin, and coarsely 
burnished in parallel lines. The ash-jars, L 30 
— 36, are mostly of soft rough brown pottery. 

The rise of this class is much later than any 
other. Only a tenth of the types are known 
before s.d. 50, and those are almost all open 



bowls : the main production is at s.d. 70, when 
the other classes have almost died out. The 
late examples of decorated and wavy handled 
pottery are practically the same material as the 
usual late pottery. The close of the late pottery 
joins into the early historic ; the pottery of the 
Mena tomb being all akin to late types, but yet 
later in each case than what is here put to 
S.D. 80. This period between the s.d. 80 and the 
series well fixed now in the 1st Dynasty tombs 
of Abydos, is not yet cleared up. Many types 
lead on from one age to the other, and we may 
hope that farther excavation will thoroughly 
connect the close of the series of sequence dates 
with the beginning of the historical time. 



18 



PlOSPOIilS PABVA. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE STONE VASES. 



27. Throughout the whole prehistoric age, 
from immediately after the rude savage burials 
of s.D. 30, down to the end, stone vases are 
abundant. Moreover the taste for hard stone 
was kept up in the historic times ; hundreds of 
stone bowls were buried with each king of the 
1st Dynasty, and many are found in tombs of 
the Ilird and IVth Dynasties. But in the 
Xllth Dynasty the softer serpentine and 
alabaster supplanted the fine diorites and por- 
phyries, and in the XVIIIth Dynasty the art 
of working hard stones was forgotten for any- 
thing but statuary. From the point of view 
of magnificence and skill in using hard and 
beautiful stones we must say that the Egyptians 
gradually rose to their highest level in the later 
prehistoric and early dynastic times, and that the 
Vlth, Xllth or XVIIIth Dynasties cannot for 
a momeint compare with the archaic grandeurs. 

The various types of stone vases are divided 
in two classes, the hanging vases with ears, and 
the standing vases ; there are no forms that 
require a ring stand, as in the pottery. Indeed 
nearly all the hanging types will also stand 
upright. The types known before are given in 
Naqada, pis. viii. to xvi., where the last four 
plates are of the later prehistoric and early 
historic : and the new types of this year are 
given on pL ix. The history of the intro- 
duction and changes of types is given on 
pi. iii. Each principal form is drawn with its 
top at the date where it was first used and a 
line continues its course down to the date where j 
it disappears. Where the range of a vase is i 



very short it is marked by a line at the side 
of the figure. Of course many stone vases 
are found in graves which are not closely 
dated by pottery, and so are not entered in this 
table, as only the weU fixed examples can be 
marked. Indeed it appears as if the pottery 
vases were looked on as a substitute for stone 
vases, as often a grave with some good stone 
vases will have little or no pottery with them. 
Possibly this points to there being a difference 
of origin between the families who buried stone 
and those who buried pottery; or it may be 
merely that where stone vases were buried it 
was thought superfluous to add pottery. 

The earlier types from 31 to 39 are essentially 
cylindrical, and these continue down to about 
60 or 70. The later types are barrel-shaped, 
beginning about 43 and continuing to the end. 
In short the cylindrical types come in and go 
out with the black topped and polished red 
potteiy; the barrel types go with the decorated 
and late pottery. But during the time when 
all the forms were in common use, from 45 to 
60, there is no preference for either class of 
stone vases to accompany either class of 
pottery. There was no trace of separation 
between the users of the earlier and later 
styles. 

A distinct conical foot is generally added to 
the cylindrical hanging vases ; whereas the 
barrel vases only have a slight ring or beading 
around the base. 

The stone bowls do not show distinct 
changes ; on the whole the earlier forms are 



THE STONE VASES. 



19 



shallower, and were probably used more as 
dishes. The later deep forms are much corroded 
inside by being used as drinking bowls. 

28. The materials are of all kinds. At the 
beginning the soft limestone and alabaster were 
used, and also the hard basalt, syenite and 
porphyry. About s.D. 40 slate, grey lime- 
stone, and breccia came into use. Black lime- 



stone appears at 51, serpentine at 61, and 
diorite was not used till 73, but continued to 
be the favourite stone in the pyramid times. 

All of these stone vases were shaped by hand 
without any lathe or turning instrument, the 
lines of scraping and polishing running 
diagonally ; the insides were ground out by 
blocks of sandstone or emery. 



p? 



20 



DIOSPOLIS PAEVA. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE SLATE PALETTES AND IVORIES. 



29. One of the most usual objects in the 
graves is a small slab of slate. When in a 
fresh condition these slates have generally some 
green paint on one side, and others have a 
hollow worn where paint has been groimd. 
Bags of the green malachite used for grinding 
are found near the slate ; and a brown pebble 
from the desert generally lies by the slate, 
sometimes with green paint also upon it, 
showing that it was used for crushing and 
grinding the malachite upon the slate. Thus 
there is every link of the process, — the colour 
in lump, with the palette, and the crusher, both 
coated with the colour. From lack of first- 
hand acquaintance with these slates some 
writers have named them amulets, &c. ; but the 
facts of their condition, and the objects found 
with them, leave no possible doubt as to their 
use. 

The surface is sometimes engraved with 
figures of animals ; and in later times, at the 
beginning of the dynastic race, the slates were 
made of the same form, but larger, and covered 
with groups of animals and historical scenes. 
In all of these, however, the circular hollow for 
grinding the paint was carefully kept, and was 
the centre of the decoration. 

Various forms of these slates are shown in 
pis. xi., xii., and the bulk of the forms is in 
Naqada xlvii. to 1. ; the sequence of the various 
forms is here given in pi. iii. The rhomb is the 
earliest form of all ; two such are found in the 
earliest cemetery of s.d. 30, with bodies in 
goat-skins and single cups of black topped 
pottery. This form was probably suggested by 
some natural cross cleavages of the slate rock. 



Immediately after that, there came in some 
elaborate animal forms, the stags in s.d. 31, 
the hippopotamus in s.d. 34, the bird in 
S.D. 35, the turtle or tortoise in s.d. 36, and 
the double bird about s.d. 40. All of these 
forms underwent degradation, slight at first, 
but becoming so great that the original form was 
entirely lost. The quadrupeds became irregular 
lumps with traces of projecting limbs, the 
turtles became notched discs, the fish became 
notched ovals, and the birds became rude lumps 
with a head. The square form came in at 
s.d. 37 ; by s.d. 53 lines were scratched along 
the sides ; notches appear at 67, and zigzag 
borders at 72. Some of the latest have an 
Oxford-frame border (at 74), with rope pattern, 
and slight feet below. Thus rhombs and good 
animal figures belong to the thirties and early 
forties; squares and poor figures belong to 
forties to sixties; and notched and shapeless 
outlines are of the seventies. 

30. The green paint, which is thus seen 
to be a standard toilet article, was used for 
surrounding the eye. On the earliest sculptures 
the face around the eye and below it is green, 
as on the figures of Sokhar-kha-bau (Cairo) and 
Abu-en-suten (B.M.). The purpose of using 
malachite was probably originally medicinal. 
Livingstone mentions that when in Central 
Africa he found that obstinate sores were best 
treated with powdered malachite, which the 
natives provided for him. A further use of 
coating the skin round the eye would be to 
stop out the glare of the desert, as the Eskimo 
blackens the skin to save the eye from the glare 
of snow. In the 1st Dynasty malachite-powder 



THE SLATE PALETTES ANT) IVOaiBS. 



is found as an eye paint, in a duck-shapctl dish 
from Abydos {tomb M. 1) ; in thellird Dynasty 
it is named at Medum ; and it is found in the 
Xllth and XlXth Dynasties in tubes for eye 
paint. This custom of painting must have 
belonged to tlie earliest people that we know 
of in Egypt, as 8hown by their use of 
palettes. 

The Ivory Carvings. 

31 . One of the pilncipal uses of ivory and 
bone was for the combs and hair-pins. The 
forms lately found are sho^vn in pis, is., x., and 
the ivories known before are in Naqada lix., 
Ixi.— Ixiv. Tlie history of the various forms is 
given in the diagram pi. iii. 

The earliest combs are fairly carved with 
deer (Naq. 59—63) or birds {N<nj. 6i, &c.) ; 
but they deteriorate, like the slate figures, 
though as they do not continue so late as slates 
they never become so corrupt. Plain combs 
without figures were also made in the thirties. 
Human heads arc brought in at the forties. 
All of these combs have long teeth to retain 
a coil of hair in place, and the animals to 
fierve as personal ornaments. They begin at 
s.D, 32 and continue common till s.D. 44 ; after 
that only two or three are known, and those 
very rudely carved. 

The later combs were nut for securing the 
hair, but merely to scratch the head ; they have | 
very short teeth, or a mere notching of the edge j 
{Naij. 51 — 54). The same form is also foimd , 
in limestone and transparent serpentine. These 
begin at s.D. 40, and are commonest at s.n. | 
57 — 60, after which they cease. 

A combined comb and hair-pin (Naq. 53) 
came into use from s.n. 39 to 60 ; the short 
scratching comb standing out from the head as 
an ornament when the pin was in use. In one 
very well-preserved burial, this comb-pin, two 
bird pins, and a spoon were all stuck into the 
hair, see pi. vi., tomb B 378. 

Other forms of hair pins have a small bird 



carved on the top {Naq. 47 — 50, 75 — 84) ; and 
this was so usual in all periods, from s.D. 31 to 
80, and on into the 1st Dynasty, that it is 
omitted in the historical diagram. There are 
also the flat pins, with or without a bird, which 
are early, from s.D. 34 to about 40. The round 
I pin with a double bird head is later, about 
s.D. 70, It is strange how the retaining comb, 
I to hold the back hair, disappears only a third of 
the way through the prehistoric ; vas long hair 
not worn later ? Also how the scratching 
combs disappear two-thirds through, and 
nothing seems to take their pliur.e. The later 
prehistoric folk seem to have neglected their 
hair, and to have been on a lower level in 
peraonal matters as well as in artistic .sense. 

32. Another frequent use of ivory is for 
carved horns and tusks. Many pegs of ivory 
and bone are found, ornamented with spirals or 
zigzags (see pi. iii,; Naq. 1, 28, 29, 32, 39, 
44^46, 95 — 97). These have always a groove 
around the thick end ; and on some of these, 
and some similar pegs of limestone, portions of 
leather tying remain around them, and through 
the perforated holes. These were certainly 
ornamental, and attached to some leather work. 
It seems most likely that they were used for 
securing the leg holes and other openings in 
water-skins. These belong to the first period, 
beginning at s.D. 31, and coming doivn as late 
as s.D. 55. 

Other carved tusks, about six or seven inches 
long, have a human face marked at the end, or 
a head carved in the solid (Naq. 35, 81). 
These tusks are found in pairs, one solid, the 
other hollowed. It seems not improbable that 
they belong to some magic operation, such as 
the catching of a man's spirit in a tusk, as 
negroes now do. These also are of the first 
period, ranging in date from s.D. 33 to 44. 

33. Armlets and bracelets of ivory and 
bone are common in most periods, but they are 
thicker at the beginning, and become thinner in 
the later times (see pi. x.). Finger rings occur 



22 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



eai'Iy, at s.d. 34, 35. One ring has two lions 
attached to it {Naq. Ixiv. 78), found in a grave 
of between s.d. 33 and 55. A larger ring has 
four hawks on it, see pi. ix. 23, and is later, of 

S.D. 71. 

A very curious carving is that of a pair of 
sandals, painted in red, see pi. x. 19 ; these are 
as early as s.d. 32, and show how remote is the 
use of sandals. 

Harpoons of bone and ivory are frequent. 
The earlier have two teeth and are well worked, 
in the thirties ; later on only one tooth appears, 
at about the fifties, and the work is coarser 
{Naq. Ixi. 12—16). 

Spoons entirely belong to the later age. One 
curious spoon with a slate bowl, and a copper 
wire stem on which stone beads are threaded, 
occurs at s.d. 42 {Naq. Ixi. 6). But the earliest 
ivory spoon yet known is in the forties or 
perhaps s.d. 50, delicately carved with thin 
bowl, and stem like a straw, widened for a small 
hole at the end {Naq. Ixi. 8, and in diagram 
pi. iii.). The later examples are coarser and 
thicker, down to s.d. 74. Some elaborate 



spoons have animals in relief upon the handle ; 
one is but vaguely dated to between s.d. 31 
and 63, the other not dated at all. 

Of personal ornaments there are model tusks 
(pi. X. 27—29 ; Naq. 91—3), which begin at 
S.D. 38 and go on to about 70. Face pendants 
are usually of shell, but sometimes of limestone or 
copper (see end of diagram, pi. iii.) ; the earliest 
dated is of s.d. 50, and the latest is at s.d. 61. 
There are, however, some more elaborate ones 
carved in patterns or as female figures ; but as 
they have only been obtained through dealers 
their age is unknown. That these oval plates 
are intended as forehead pendants is sho\vn by 
their curve well fitting the forehead, and one 
being found in place on the forehead of a skull. 
The hook at the lower end of some appears as 
if intended to hold up a face veil. If so it 
would be the prototype of the modem gold 
ornament for the forehead, through which the 
face veil is held up. Though the usage of a 
face veil has not been continuous in Egypt, it 
may have been brought in from the Arabian 
side twice over in history. 



CHAPTER V. 



TOOLS OF STONE AND METAL. 



34, The earliest examples of finely 6aked 
flints arc those in graves at s.u, 32 ; as, how- 
ever, only about one grave in tiventy contains 
woi-ked flints, the absence of any in the dozen 
graves of s.D. 30, and about twenty of 8.1). 31, 
hardly implies that they were not then in use. 
Those found at s.D. 32 are splendid examples, 
the largest of the double-edged knives, about 
fifteen inches long, and the forked lances with a 
shallow space between the prongs (see the types 
at the top of the diagram of flints, pi, iv. ; 
2<a(jiida Ixxii. 52, 66), Following on these is 
the knife with rounded butt and curved blade, 
beginning about s.d. 33. The flaking in the 
earlier examples is quite irregular ; and though 
they are worked down very thin, still the power 
of regulating the chips seems not to have yet 
been acquired. Even at s.n, 38 there is only 
the beginning of serial flaking along the edges 
of the forked lances. And the same is on the 
edges of the pointed lances at s.D. 40 (see pi. 
vii., fig. U 259). At s.D. 45 there is more 
regularity in the position of the surface flakes 
of the long scimetar knives {Nai/, Ixxiv. 84) ; 
but still each flake is quite ragged at its edges. 
The tiiic serial flaking, in which each flake has 
smooth edges and a regular width, ivas first 
developed on the triangular knives. Tliese 
knives are rough, and with but little detailed 
work, in the thirties (see top of disigram, pi. iv. ; 
.Wfj. 6-1); but in the forties they were worked 
up with flaking across mowt of the wide face, 
and completely regular all along the back. 
This serial flaking -was almost perfected at 
about s.D. 56 (see the knife B 1 !U of that age 
no pi. vii.) ; and the finest specimens belong to 



s,D. 58 to 66 (see B 217 of s.D. 66, pi, vii. ; and 
Naq. 82, 86 of s.D. 58). After s.u. 66 no such 
tine work is found ; in the seventies it becomes 
coarser, and the body of the flint is thicker. In 
the Ist Dynasty the regularity of flaking has 
entirely disappeared, and was never recovered. 
We see in this history of flaking how consistent 
the course of it is, as traced out by the sequence 
dates. 

Tlie method of grinding the surface before 
the final flaking seems to have been necessary 
for the best serial flaking ; and the long regular 
flakes could only be stnick on the flat surface 
of either a large natural flat fracture or an 
artificially prepared ground surface. 

35. The forms of the flints show a regular 
order. The bilateral types are the earlier (see 
diagram, pi iv.). The long double-edged knives 
have been first found at s.n. 32, of a large size ; 
the smaller sizes continue to about s.D. 46. 
The pointed dagger with rough tang occurs 
from s.u. 40 to 52 ; with a round butt at s.D. 
.56. The forked lance is wide and shallow in 
the fork at s.u. 32 to about s.D. 43 ; the saw 
edge begins at s.n. 32, but the knife edge form 
at s.D, 35. The fork becomes deeper at s.D. 38, 
and continues thus to late times. The separate 
outline of the tang is a late form of about 
s.D. 70. 

The earliest unilateral knife is of the roimded 
butt " comma " type, beginning probably by 
s.D. 33, and continuing certainly till s.D. 39, 
and probably later: small examples are found 
at s.D. 56. Tt seems to be succeeded by the 
scimetar knife, which lasted from s.d. 45 — 65. 
Tlie triangular flake knife began in the thirties, 



DI0SP0LI8 PARVA. 



developed to a larger size by about s.d. 40, and 
continued to s.d. G1, or in a slighter, narrower 
form to the end of the prehistoric. Probably 
from this type the fine serial-flaked knife was 
developed ; this is first found at s.d. .57, and on 
to 8.D. 66 ; while the same outline with coarser 
work lasts on to the age of Mena. 

The circular scraper (Na//. 32) is found at 
about s.n. 40, and probably continued later, but 
is not dated. The square-ended flake is fir&t 
found (Naq. 99) at s.d. 63, rather irregular ; at 
B.D, 70 it is finely parallel in its planes {Naq. 
97), and continued thus until the 1st Dynasty, 
■when the ends were more usually curved, 

36. Lastly, in the same diagram, pi. iv., are 
shown the mace-heads. These are made of 
various stones; syenite, porphyry, and rarely 
alabaster, for the disc form ; basalt, haematite, 
breccia, alabaster, but mostly hard white lime- 
stone, for the pear form. On looking to the 
dates the disc form is clearly the earlier ; it 
begins at s.d. 31, and is rarely found after 
S.D. 40, ending at s.d. 53. The pear form, on 
the other hand, is not found before 42, is moat 
frequent in the fifties, and continued on to the 
1st Dynasty, or even to the IV th Dynasty in 
actual examples. The general use of white 
stone tor the peai" mace-head gave rise to its 
being figured for the idea of " white " or 
" bright" in the hieroglyph hez. 

The actual examples of the disc mace-heads, 
with handles complete, are shown in pi. v., 
grave B 86, which is between s.d. 36 and 40, 
One handle is of ivory, the other of horn ; they 
were found in a rich grave, containing also the 
seven forked lances and two other flints shown 
in pi. vii. 

Metal Tools. 

37. We tuni now to the metal tools. 
These appear to be of copper, so far as tlie con- 
dition of the metal shows ; it has very httle 
oxidation or change, and is still quite flexible. 
For the forms and their dates see the diagram 
on pi. iv. I 



The earliest use of metal in Egypt seems to 
have been for pins to fasten the goat-skins round 
the body ; one such was found in the oldest 
group of graves (s.d. 30), the shallow circular 
pits with one or two black topped pots in each, 
and the bodies wrapped in skins. Nest after 
that, harpoons were made of metal ; a small one 
occurring at s.d. 34 — 38, and larger ones at s.d. 
54 and (Jl. The forms of these were copied 
from bone harpoons. The third use of metals 
was for small chisels for wood-working, which 
appear at S.D, 38 and onward ; the large chisel 
has not been found before the close of the pre- 
historic at S.D. 78. After these uses there 
comes the first needle at s.n. 48, or perhaps 
even at s.d. 43 ; and the broad curved flaying 
knife at s.d. 49, All of these tools are on a small 
scale, showing that copper was yet valuable. 
The first large tool found is the adze for wood- 
working, beginning at s.d. 56 : it became 
thicker and with a rounded top at s.d, 78 ; and 
had the same rounded top at the close of the 
Illrd Dynasty. The very well-formed dagger 
appears in a grave which must be dated some- 
where between s.d. 42 and tiS, and probably 
between 55 and 60. Fortunately it was found 
with the best authentication ; I was clearing 
the grave with my own hands, and there was a 
green stain on the thigh bone where the copper 
had rested ; the objects in the grave were 
clearly of a good prehistoric age, and there was 
no trace of disturbance. The rarity of such 
weapons is fully accounted for by nearly all the 
graves having been plundered for metal at an 
early time : this grave was one of the very few 
intact ones that we found. The curious double- 
ended blade, at the base of pi, s., is very 
late, being of s.lt. 80, or perhaps therefore m 
Dynasty 0, The form, sharp at both ends, is 
unique ; and it looks as if it must have been 
mounted across a handle, T-shapc, so as to cut 
both ways ; see the double axe in " Royal 
Tombs," vii. 12. A bodkin of thin sheet copper 
was found with some very slender needles at 



TOOLS OF STONE AND METAL. 



25 



s.D. 71. And a grave of s.d. 78 yielded a fine 
set of an adze, chisel, and axe-blade, all of 
which are now in the Cairo Museum, and are 
shown in the last group on pi. vii. 

38. A copper-foil face-pendant is found at 
s.D. 61. Strips of copper sheet were used for 
bracelets at s.d. 34 and 42 ; and copper wire 
for bracelets later on, at s.d. 52 and 57. Copper 
wire was used for lashing woodwork at s.d. 62, 
and this use continued on to the 1st Dynasty, 
when much copper wire lashing and binding is 
found. This wire was not drawn, but cut and 
hammered ; just as in Exodus xxxix. 3, " they 
did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it 
into wires, to work it in the blue." There is no 
example of drawn wire in ancient Egypt so far 
as I have seen, but it is always facetted with a 
hammer. 

39. Of other metals there are but few 



examples. Silver beads are found at s.d. 42, a 
silver spoon between s.d. 57 and 64, and a thin 
silver ring at s.d. 61. Gold is found in a sheet 
pendant {Nag. Ixv. 16) at s.d. 44 ; a gold wire 
ring between s.d. 40 and 52 ; and small gold 
beads between s.d. 49 and 53. Thin foil of base 
gold was also worked over beads of limestone. 
Of course the minute quantity of gold and silver 
that we find is but a small fraction left behind 
after very active plundering in the past. An 
armlet of a hard white metal was found, of between 
s.d. 32 and 48 ; it is not yet analyzed, but may 
be a silver-copper alloy. Lead we know to 
have been used early, as a prehistoric statuette 
shows us ; and a piece of a sheet lead hawk 
dates between s.d. 44 and 64. As galena is 
often found in the graves, placed with malachite 
as an eye paint, it is natural that metallic lead 
should also have been known. 



2« 



DIOSPOLIS PAEVA. 



CHAPTEE VI. 



AMULETS AND BEADS. 



40. Aniulets ill general are not found till 
well into the second prehistoric age, at about 
s.D. 50. But perhaps the rudely formed human 
figures and animals, of slate, ivory, and ala- 
baster, found at about s.i). 40, may be included 
as amulets. The figures are of two classes, 
rounded and flat. The rounded are of ivory 
(with a pot on the head) at s.i). 38; of 
vegetable paste moulded on a stick and painted 
red and black at the same age ; and of ivory 
and alabaster, of uncertain age (see Nat], lix. 
7, 11, 3). The flat forms are of slate at s.D. 38 
and 41, and of bone at s.D. 42 (see Nnq. lix. 2, 
4, 8 — 10). But possibly the rounded figures 
may represent buried slaves, as a row of four 
figures was found {Nnq. p. 21) ; and the 
smaller flat figures may be objects for exorcism 
or magic; at least none of these were worn 
about the body. 

41 . The oldest form of amulet found is the 
bull's head, the first in the diagram pi. iv. 
The origin of this form was a puzzle until 
an example was found at Abydos, on which the 
flat front and muzzle form of the lower end left 
no doubt that it must be copied from a bull. 
It begins at s.D. 46 or earlier, and continues in 
use till s.D. 67, when it is very degraded. A 
form apparently continued from this is found in 
blue marble with beads of the Xllth Djmasty, 
so it may even have lasted on as late. But the 
connection with the bull's head had disappeared 
early, while the idea of such an amulet seems to 
have continued, iis we find well-made bull's 
head amulets of carnelian at about the close of 
the prehistoric (base of diagram), and such 
continued to be used in the Vth and Vlth 



Dynasties, gradually dwindling in size. We 
can hardly avoid connecting these with the 
large numbers of painted skulls of oxen and 
sheep which were prepared to hang up on a 
wall, and then buried with barbaric Libyan (?) 
invaders after the Xllth Dynasty, as described 
under the Pan Graves, later on in this volimie. 
Looking to the west we find bronze bull's head 
amulets in Spain, and large bronze bull's heads 
to hang up on buildings in Majorca {Rev. 
Archeoloijique^ 1897, 138) ; gold bull's head 
amulets are found in Cyprus and Mykenae ; 
and at present cows' skulls are hung on houses 
in Malta, and on finiit trees in Sicily and 
Algiers, to avert the evil eye. The whole 
subject of bucrania is opened by these pre- 
historic bull's head amulets. 

42. A favourite amulet was the fly. It 
begins about s.D. 48, is found at s.D. 60 and 67, 
and reappears in historic times on necklaces 
of the Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties, and on a 
large scale in gold as a token of royal favoui* in 
the XVIIIth. The prehistoric materials are 
slate, lazuli, and serpentine. 

The hawk is found as a flat figure in serpen- 
tine, at s.D. 56 and (57. But rounded figures 
on a larger scale were made in glazed quartz, 
limestone and bone (see Naq. Ix. 14, 15, 
18 — 20). It continued to be a favourite 
amulet in the Xllth Dynasty and later. 
Other animals found are the crocodile, in 
serpentine, at s.D. 52 ; and the frog, in lime- 
stone, at s.D. 65. 

An unexplained form is a sort of trident, in 
serpentine, at s.D. 52. It seems like the 
hieroglyph -'^Tp* in its earlier form, as in Medum 



AMULETS AND BEADS. 



27 



xxi. A ball-shaped amulet might possibly be 
intended as a vase ; much such a form occurs 
in polished red pottery, mainly about s.d. 50 
to 70, and this amulet is always in red carne- 
lian beginning at s.d. 68 and going on to 80. 
A vase amulet continued to be used in the VI th 
to Xllth Dynasties. The claw amulet is in 
serpentine and red porphyry ; it occurs at s.d, 60, 
along with the spear-head in serpentine. A late 
amulet is the scorpion made of camelian ; begin- 
ning at about s.d. 70, it continues tiU 80, is after 
that abundant in the stone and glazed figures of 
Narmer (probably before Mena), and continued 
in use in the Vlth and Xllth Dynasties. 

We are at last in a position to attempt a 
history of amulets in Egypt. Till a few years 
ago none were known except a few of the 
Xllth Dynasty and the usual mummy amulets 
of late times. Now we have the prehistoric 
amulets discriminated in period, and those of 
the Vth, Vlth, Vllth, IXth, Xllth, XVIIIth 
and later Dynasties, all well known. 

Beads. 

43. The beads, which are found abundantly 
in the prehistoric graves, have been very com- 
pletely catalogued and classified. But it does not 
appear that any of the forms are characteristic 
of any one period. Small ring and tube beads 
of glazed pottery appear in all ages from s.d. 31 



to 80. Disc and cylinder beads of stone are 
similarly of all ages. The only types which 
may be delimited are perhaps the disc beads 
facetted with an edge round the middle — the 
frustra of two pyramids joined, and the tube 
beads of drop form thickening at one end, both of 
these seem to belong to the sixties and seventies. 

The case is different, however, when we 
examine the materials. Some run through the 
whole time, such as quartz, agate, camelian, 
brown and white quartz pebbles, steatite, calcite, 
and glazed pottery. These are therefore not 
placed in the diagram on pi. iv. But other 
materials have a definite range ; and some are 
only known in a brief period, such as green 
glazed stone s.d. 52 — 57, blue glazed stone 
52 — 73, turquoise 55 — 63, amethyst 55 and 70. 
Broadly, the materials used before s.d. 40 last 
on through all the time ; while one group 
(lazuli, serpentine, haematite, and silver) came 
in at S.D. 40, and disappear about 60 ; and 
another group (turquoise, amethyst, obsidian, 
porphyry, and gold) belong to the fifties. This 
implies a growth in resources up to about 
S.D. 60, and then a rapid decline ; exactly what 
is seen in the styles of the pottery. 

Some other materials may very likely have 
longer ranges than have yet been found, such 
as shell, beginning in s^d. 53, coral tubes in 
S.D. 36, 38, and limestone in s.d. 48, 52. 



i2K 



DIOSPOLIS PABVA- 



CHAPTEE VII. 



OUTLINE OF THE PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 



44. Having described the various classes 
of objects I'oiind with the prehistoric burials, 
we may now sum up the results that we 
gather us to the changes during the whole 
j)eriod. 

The earliest graves of all, in cemetery C, are 
here termed s.d. 30. They are all shallow 
circular hollows in the marly rock ; the bodies 
are all contracted, and have usually one black 
topped cup, and no other furniture. In one 
case a copper pin was found, showing that 
metal was ah*eady known. According to one 
school this debars us from calling this age neo- 
lithic ; but a more reasonable school agrees in 
including the age when stone was still the main 
material, as being neolithic. On this termino- 
logy the prehistoric age, certainly down to 
s.D. (50, should be called neolithic, if not even 
down to dynastic times. Where, then, are we 
to look for the people ignorant of metal, if the 
earliest graves known contain copper? Was 
there ever an entirely neolithic people in Egypt ? 
There are palaeolithic implements abundantly, 
both in the high Nile gravels, on the top 
plateau, and on the surface down to the present 
Nile level. Palaeolithic man continued in the 
land until its present climate was reached. A 
fixed population, such as we find among 
neolithic people elsewhere, was, however, an 
impossibility without cultivable land. And no 
land can be cultivated in Egypt except the Nile 
mud. How old, then, is the deposit of Nile 
mud ? Several borings have shown that there 
is a depth of about eight metres of deposit ; 
and as various data agree on a metre being 
deposited in 1000 yours (or even 800 years), 



the age of the deposit, if uniform, is about 8000 
yeai-s. As our dating reaches back over nearly 
half of the period, it is a good scale to trust ; 
but as the deposit may naturally have at first 
increased gradually, perhaps 9000 years would 
be the most reasonable age for cultivated land in 
Egypt, or beginning at about 7000 B.C. It is 
improbable that any but nomadic hunters lived 
in the land before that time. 

45. Now historically we must place the 
djmasty of kings before Mena as beginning 
about 5000 B.C. And for the length of the 
prehistoric age there is no direct evidence ; but 
looking to the number of graves as compared 
with historic times, and to the changes of styles 
and of people, it would seem that 1000 years 
would be decidedly too short a time to allow, 
and that 2000 years would be more likely. 
Thus we are led to place the earliest graves to 
about 7000 B.C., which is as soon as there seems 
to have been any opening for a settled popula- 
tion. It is, then, useless to look for the earlier 
stages, before the use of metal, in Egypt itself ; 
rather should we suppose that a Libyan 
people passed through the neolithic stages, 
and acquired copper, while Egypt was yet the 
haunt of palaeolithic wandering hunters ; then, 
a.s soon as rich and fertile soil began to accumu- 
late in the valley, the copper-users pushed in 
and occupied the land. So fine a land, with 
the stimulus of the mixture of two races, gave 
that start which enabled the rude people 
Avrapped in goatskins to rapidly develop within 
two or three centuries the skilful prehistoric 
civilization which we find at about s.D. 35 — 40. 

The conclusion, then, is that the palaeolithic 



nDTLINE OF THE PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 



hunters occupied Egypt until the beginning of ' 
the Nile deposits, about 7000 B.C. Then came 
in a Libyan race, already pastoral and probably 
agricultural, making pottery, and knowing the 
use of copper. These people in a century or 
two developed a profusion of fine hand-made 
pottery, black topped, red polished, and orna- 
mented with white cross lines ; also stone vases 
of limestone, alabaster, basalt, &c. ; carved slate 
palettes, carved ivory, splendid flint work, and 
the art of weaving. A free use of personal 
signs for marking property is also found. This 
irivilization shows no signs of weakness or decay 
for some centuries, but seems to have settled 
into a permanent condition from about s.n. 32 
till near s.i). 40. 

46. But wide-spread alteration begins to 
show itself about s.d. 38 ; we can roughly 
estimate its place by tabulating how many 
classes or styles begin or end in each unit 

of S.D, 

S.D. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 4? 48 

End ... 1 1 2 - 2 4 3 - 1 - 1 

Begm .. 3 3 4 1 4 -' - - 2 - - 

Thus new classes were beginning actively in 
S.D, 38 — 40, and freely on to s.d, 43. While 
old classes were vanishing mainly at about 
S.D. 40 — 44. This probably marks the inilux 
of a rather different people at s.d. 38 — 40, and 
their styles driving out those of the older 
people from 40 — 44. Roughly, the influjc 
covered two or three generations, and the 
subsequent changes took effect in four or five 
generations. We will now note these changes 
in each class. 

In the pottery ; the starting of new types ol' 
black topped slacked greatly at s.d. 39, and 
scarcely any new ones begin after 43 ; the red 
polished pottery has very few new types aftei' 
S.D. 43 ; the cross lined was e.\tinct in 35 ; 
new types of fancy pottery cease to arise after 
S.D, 40 ; the decorated pottery types are very 
few, perhaps only imported, until 4iJ. when they 



suddenly spring forward ; the late pottery 
begins practically in 43. 

In the stone vases ; the tubular forms with 
handles cease at s.d. 40 ; and the ban-el forms 
l)egin at s.d. 39 and are in full career by 42, 

In the flint working; the forked lances begin 
the deep V notch at s.d, 38 ; the round butt 
kuife ceases at 39 ; the pointed lance begins at 
40 ; the finely-flaked triangular blade begins at 
41 ; the long bilateral knife disappears after 43. 
and the sickle knife begins at s.d, 45, The 
mace-heads show a sharp change ; the disc mace 
is almost extinct in s.d. 40 ; and the pear mace 
is not found till s.d. 4.2. 

Ill the slate palettes ; the rhombs almost cease 
at S.D. 42 ; the animal forms greatly degrade 
after 40 ; the squares begin at 37 ; and the 
double birds begin at 40. 

In the ivories : the long-toothed combs almost 
disappear after s.d, 44 ; while the notched combs 
begin at 40 ; the flat hair-pins cease at 40 ; ol' 
spoons the earliest is at 42, and they ai'e not 
usual till 50 ; the model tusks, perhaps amulets, 
begin s.d. 38. 

In the beads, silver begins at s.d, 38, lazuli at 
3!1, serpentine and haematite at 40, after which 
there is no new material till the fifties. 

In the amulets, &c., human figures range from 
S.D. 34 — 44, after which they are very rare ; 
the steatopygous statuettes belong solely to the 
early times, 35 — 38, and may represent survivals 
of palaeolithic race. Animal figure amulets 
begin at about a.D. 45. 

The animal signs on pottery cease after 
s,D. 46 ; and signs in general are commonest 
from s.n. 30 — 48, greatly checked from 48 — fi4, 
and almost extinct from 64 to the end. The 
boat ensigns are first seen at s.d. 35 ; they become 
common at 44 — 55, and finally cease at G3. 

The multiple burials are common before 40 
and last to 43. Single burials belong to the 
later age. 

We now see how almost every kind of product 
ivas cliafiged at about s.d. 40 ; and that we must 



30 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



look probably to some new influx of people to 
account for such a wide-spread difference. Many 
of the things are similar in character but different 
in form, and therefore the earlier and later 
people were probably of the same stock but 
diverse in the development of their civilization. 
The earlier people seem to be connected most 
with the west ; their most characteristic pottery, 
with white lines, is closely like that of the modem 
Kabyles, and their disregard of amulets is like 
the same people. But the second people show 
more an eastern affinity: they used amulets 
largely, and also the face pendant, implying a 
face veil, both of which are Arabic customs; 
their characteristic pottery was the wavy handled, 
like the early pottery of Palestine ; and they 
brought in silver, lazuli, and haematite, all 
Syrian products. We are led, then, to regard 
the earlier race as Libyan, and the later as 
Syrian, probably of the Amorite stock, which 
was one in origin with the Libyan. 

47. After the fine early time of the thirties, 
which was the best artistically, the age from 
s.D. 50 — 60 is the acme of the prehistoric 
civilization. We see then the most elaborate 
flint working, with perfect serial flaking ; the 
best metal work, with the beautiful copper 
dagger ; the more valuable beads of gold, 
turquoise, and amethyst ; the greatest profusion 
of hard stone vases ; and the greatest amount of 
decorated pottery (perhaps rather from 45 — 55). 
We may suspect some fresh influx in this age, 
as at about s.D. 60 is a time of change, the 
close of some classes, as the decorated pottery. 



the combs, the carved tusks, the boat signs ; 
and the beginning of standing stone vases of 
barrel form, deep stone bowls, and coarser flint 
work. Such may, however, only have been 
natural changes in the people ; and there is no 
such break as took place at s.D. 40. 

After s.D. 60 there is only a steady degrada- 
tion in every respect. The finer kinds of pottery 
disappear ; the decorated becomes quite rude, 
with only rough parallel lines ; there is hardly 
any but the rough and late kinds, and they are 
coarse and poor in form. The stone vases are 
clumsy and scarce, the flint working becomes 
coarse, the finer stones for beads disappear, the 
amulets are reduced to only two or three forms, 
the slate palettes have lost nearly all trace of 
their original types, and ivory working is rare. 
The poverty of material, of taste, and of ability is 
painfully clear in all of the graves of this 
decadent age. 

48. There is apparently some interval 
between s.d. 80 and the first Dynasty ; as the 
pottery of Narmer is later than anything that is 
classed as prehistoric, though it still shows a 
very degraded form of the black topped pottery. 
Under Mena the types are all clearly later than 
those forms found at s.D. 80 ; and in the 1st 
Dynasty tombs we see a steady drift onward 
into still more divergent forms. It seems then 
that provisionally we should put the time of 
s.D. 80, or the close of our present scale of the 
prehistoric, to the beginning of the Dynasty 
of Thinis, 350 years before Menes, the first 
domination of the dynastic race. 




CHAPTEE VIIT. 

THE CEMETERIES. 



49. The map of about ten miles of the 
desert edge between How and Seraaineh is given 
on pi. i. : it is divided in four pieces of two and 
a half miles each, to fit the page. It was 
planned by using the telegraph poles, which are 
marked hero by spots, and each tenth pole here 
numbered, The deflections of the line of poles 
were noted approximately ; and the various 
valleys were sketched in with paced distances. 
Such a plan is sufficient for showing any 
topogi'aphical points that need reference ; and 
the exact relation of it to a general map of the 
country can alwavs be fixed by the dyke to 
How, and the village of Shekh Ali. It is 
approximately north upward. 

Beginning at the top we see fii-st the XVIIIth 
Dynasty cemetery, which had been thoroughly 
plundered by dealers recently. Behind it is the 
Coptic cemetery attached to the Deir, which is 
used by all the Copts of this district. Our relations 
with the priests were very friendly, and they 
allowed Mr. Mace to work close up to their 
present cemetery. Next is the cemetery Y ; of 
the Vlth to the Xllth Djniasty, and the shallow 
surface graves of the Xllth to XVIIlth Dynasty 
marked YS. In the sides of the valley are long 
shallow graves of the VI — Vllth Dynasty. On 
the tongue of land in the valley is cemetery X 
of the Pan graves, the burials of foreign in- 
vaders just after the Xllth DjTiasty. Cemetery 
W is of Xllth Dynasty, with reburials of 
XVIIIth Dynasty, and a great <|uantity of 
late Ptolemaic and Konian burials near the 
Fort. 

The Fort (see pi. xxiv.) was originally the 
temenos of a late Ptolemaic temple, to whicli 



were added round bastions in Roman times, 
probably of the Ilnd century, when the garrison 
of Diospolis Parva lived here. Our huts were 
built against the north end of the east side, 
overlooking the valley. The west side of the 
valley is covered with llonian potsherds. The 
tongue of land in the valley and the east side 
are pierced with dozens of old rock tombs ; but 
so many burials have been made here in recent 
times (particularly from the fatal accident at the 
Farshut bridge, the many deaths from which 
were largely concealed) that the natives will not 
allow the graves to be examined. From the 
square Shekh 's tomb at the corner for half a 
mile inwai'd are many modem tombs, up to the 
I great modem cemetery, at which it is said that 
seventy towns and villages now bury. As there 
is no other dyke up to the desieil; for many miles. 
this is the only outlet for the burials of a large 
population. 

The cemetery U at post 180, is entirely of the 
prehistonc. beginning at the earliest age. It 
was cleared by Mr. Maclver, About 140 to 150 
ai-e little patches of cultivation in the mouths of 
the valleys. At post 12(> is the cemetery R. 
whicli is also prehistoric, cleared by Mr. Maclver, 
Behind 120 is a mound with Roman pottery, 
iiack in the desert, which would seem to have 
been an outpost fort, abnut four miles from the 
large fort at Diospolis. After passing low 
broken gi-ound, much used ior ;\.rab encamp- 
ments, we roach the village of Shekh Ali. .fust 
east of that i.'* the cemetery N, the only impor- 
tant tomb in which is of the Vlth Dyna.stv. (Jn 
the next hill east is a cemetery nf the IVth — 
VTth Dynasties, entirely destroyed by dealers ; 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



and beyond that the site of a prehistoric village, 
also entirely ]jUindered, 

The cemetery A is also of the Old Kingdom, 
with XVIIIth Dynasty reburials, but entirely 
plundered, as well as the mastaba. Our huts 
were built hfire for our work of the earlier half 
of the season, before we moved to tlie fort of 
Diospoli^. This region belongs to the village of 
Abadiyeh. 

The line cemetery li proWded a large 
quantity of good prehistoric things ; and the 
isolated hill C, with shallow circular gi-aves, 
seems to be the oldest cemetery that has yet 
been found. D is a group of mastabas and 
tombs of the A'^Ith Dynasty, shown in detail on 
pi. xxiv. At L, M, E are a few tombs of the 
Xllth Xllltli Dyna^fties. At F are prehistoric 
settlements. 

H is a prehistoric cemetery of the later period ; 
and the great cemetery J is of the early XVIIIth 
Dynasty, but utterly plundered of late years 
by dealers, being the source of all the objects 
described as from Semalneh. K is a Roman 
cemetery. Beyond that is the large modem 
cemetery, in which a great festival is held at 
Beiram, attended by thousands of persons. 

50, Having now described the general 
position of the various cemeteries, the peculiar 
and important graves in each cemetery will be 
noted here, first taking the cemeteries of pre- 
historic age, A, B, C, H, R, U ; and then those 
of historic periods, D, E, N, W, X, Y. 

Cemetery A. This was nearly alt of historic 
age. In one place was a curious burial of very 
large black topped jars (B ii2a) ; five lying side 
by side, flat in the ground : the longest was 26 
inches high. 

A 13 was a very late prehistoric tomb of 
brick, with top roofed by bricks on end leaning 
together ; the burial of a child was full length, in 
a wooden coffin, with pottery, F 2.'>m (pi. xiv.), 
R26, L I7g. 

Cemetery B was one of the largest and best, 
and was oarefully recorded by myself, B 17 



(s.D. 30 — 50} was the intact grave of an 
elderly man, contracted, head S. ; only 14 lower 
vertebrae were in line, the skull placed with its 
!)ase against the upper vertebra, facing back- 
wards, the jaw detached, in front of the face ; 
one scapula and arm united, the other scattered. 
A jar by the head contained 3(i scarab beetles, 
two-thirds full grown, a third small. 

B 18 (s.D. 57} liad 10 jars and bowls in place ; 
on the top of the ashes in a jar was a film of 
brown matter, apparently dried dregs of hazeh 
beer. 

B 24 (s.D. 41 — 65}. the trunk was dried in 
one piece with the skin on, the skull before the 
chest, and a piece of skin with hair laid over 
the severed end of the spine ; one humerus in 
place, but all other long bones scattered. 

B 37 (s.n. 31) two bodies supei'posed ; the 
lower buried without flesh, a goat skin being 
wrapped close against the bare sacrum and 
lumbar vertebrae on the inner side ; the upper 
bodv entirely dissevered, only -1 vertebrae 
together, no ribs attached, the long bones com- 
pletely separated, and stacked in handsful 
together, scapula between jaws, left condyle 
broken. Over both bodies was a covering of 
goat skins. 

B 51 (s.D. about 40). Body destroyed, but 
iibjects apparently placed in front near the 
hands : see photograph of group pi. vi., slate, 
pi. sii. 

B 56 (s.D. 34), parts of two bodies left. Pottery 
and stone vases at north end, with clay balls ; 
see group pi. v., and stone vases on pi. ix. 

B 57 (s.D. 47 — 62), see group pi. vi. ; the 
copper bangles were on the arm, the stone vases 
in front of the elbow. ■ 

B GO (s.D. 62 — 64), a curious small square 
pit, 35 X 20 inches, with four jai-s, but no body. 

B H3 (s.D. 33— 4K), see group, pi. vi. The 
grave was broken up, and the clay toys scat- 
tered in the filling ; the most remarkable is 
the model of the town wall, witli men looking 
over it. 



THE CEMETERIES. 



B 8G (s.n. 35—40) was one of the finest 
graves, having two bodies, contracted, one before 
the other, and a tliird body further along in 
the grave. Of the fii-st two bodies, one had no 
head, and of the other only the pelvis, one 
thigh, and the shins were there ; the third 
body was quite complete. The grave appeared 
to be quite undisturbed, and had behind the 
imperfect bodies two maces with an ivory and 
a horn handle complete (see pi. v.), the only 
handles yet found (Ashmolean Museum). Be- 
hind the perfect body were the nine flint lances, 
&c. (see pi. vii.), and another disc mace head. 
It would seem that the perfect body was the 
main interment, and the others were portions 
of relatives who were re-interred here. 

B 101 (s.D, 34) was the largest and fullest 
gi-ave that I found, although the body had been 
plundered out. The top was roofed over with 
sticks 1|- to 2 inches thick, placed about 8 
inches apart, and covered with matting: such 
covering to graves is therefore quite early in 
date, although it was the prototype of the 
roofing of the royal tombs of the 1st Dynasty. 
At the north end of the grave was a great 
mass of fine pottery of nineteen varieties (see 
groups on pi. v.), hippopotamus and rhombic 
slates (see pis, xi., xii.), six whitened clay 
models of ostrich eggs, one very large one 
with black zigzag lines imitating cordage 
around it, paste figures, stone hippopotami, 
stone cones with leather, ivory combs, clay 
beads, &c. One arm of a girl remained with 
carnelian bead bracelet. 

B 102 (s.D. 33 — 41) was another important 
tomb (see groups on pi. v.), with five bodies. 
One man was on his back, but with sacrum, 
shin, and arm bones stacked together at the 
middle of the body ; a second man had no 
head, and the long bones were stacked together ; 
the third was only a cluster of leg bones ; the 
fourth was a man's head with bones entirely 
confused ; the fifth ivas a child in the comer ; 
beside these, two skulls of women lay uncon- 



' nected in the grave (see 3 vases and 2 combs 
in pi. ix.). 

B 103 (s.n. 3.5) was another joint grave, the 
bodies were all contracted as usual ; at the 
back a man ; close before him, with pelvis in 
contact, was a woman ; on her thigh another 
woman, and on her thigh a third woman. 

B 107 (s.D. 33?) another grave with three 
bodies, but disturbed. 

B 109 (s.D. 44) a fine burial of a woman, 
with many small objects placed in front of the 
body (see pi. vi, ; slates, pis. xi., xii.). 

B 119 was all disturbed; it contained a 
dog's skull, an ox bone, a mace head, and clay 
figures of a man, a chisel, and a hoe (see pi. vi.). 

B 125 was a family grave ; at the back a 
fine man, a young woman close befoi-e him. an 
old woman before her, and another old woman 
beneath the latter. 

B 140, a joint grave ; a man at the Iiack and 
a woman before him. 

B 190 (s.D. 65) contained a large square cist 
of pottery (see pi. vi.), Avith three rough jars 
outside of it, and two small vases and four 
saucers, all rough, inside it. 

B 21 7 (s.D. 6G) was one of the largest graves, 
80 X 220 inches. The body and all the middle 
was plundered out, but in the filling were the 
pieces of a large flint knife (pi. vii.), now at 
New York. The north end still contained 24 
jars of R 80 type, and G pans ; the east side 40 
pots, mostly small. In the north-east comer 
stood a lai'ge jai- (L 40 type) full of thousands 
of small beetles and dozens of the larger desert 
beetle, but no true scarabaeus beetles; in another 
jar were two large and many small scarab 
beetles. These jars, and the jars of beetles in 
B 17, B 234, B 328, show that the scarab was 
already notable in the prehistoric time (though 
not necessarily before s.D. 50), and prepares 
us to find it used as an amulet in the Old 
Kingdom. For the stone jar see pi, ix. 

B 234 (.s.D. 66) a long grave, 35 x 75 ; the 
body conti'actcd at the south end, and at the 
D 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



north end foor jars and a boll's head and horns 
complete. The spine was completely anchjlosed 
from the top to the sacmm : but the head was 
off^ and turned base to the wall, with unbroken 
pottery placed over it. A pointed jar (type 
B 53b) was before the head* with scarabaeus 
beetles in it. 

B. 236 (s.D. 43 — 48) contained four bodies 
of men, with flint lances and stone vases, see 
pL tL 

B 323 (s.D. fiO} contained many pots, but no 
bones ; also a lazuli fly pendant with gold head, 
and a forehead shell pendant fpl. vii.). 

B 328 Ts.D. 53) had many jars, two stone 
vases (H 9, H 43 types), and two jars with 
beetles in them. 

B 378 (s.D. 52) was an oval pit with a recess 
at the side for the body of a woman, qoite com- 
plete, with three hair-pins and a spoon stuck 
in the hair. The head, intact, is photographed, 
also the group of objects, and the hand with a 
copper bangle on it, pL vi. 

B. 379 (s.D. 66), a very perfect burial of a 
man is photographed intact to show the 
character of these burials, pi. v. It is not 
usual, however, for the face to be turned up- 
ward in this manner. A fine late decorated 
jar is in the comer. D 78b on pL xvi. 

This cemetery B went up to 570 graves, but 
there was nothing new or important in the 
others. The position of the bodies, on left 
side, head south, is fully described in Xaqada. 

51 . Cemetery C was on the top of a low, 
isolated hill of the desert edge. The graves 
were not long, oval, or straight-sided square^ 
as in the cemeterv B, but were all circular, 
generally about forty inches across and 10 to 
20 inches deep, in soft marly rock. The bodies 
were all contracted, except one on its back with 
knees bent. A regular example Ls shown at 
the beginning of pi. v. The bodies of which the 
sex is recorded are five men, three women. The 
pottery is almost all black topped, generally a 



single cup of elementary form ; the types are 
B IDa, 21b, 22b, 22f, '25b, 25t 29a,' 84, 85, 
P 17. The slates are only two rhombic (pL 
3di. 47), one with a brown jasper grinder pebble 
under it. In one grave was a string of brown 
steatite beads, small discs, with a brown and 
white quartz pebble pendant, around the neck. 
In another grave was a small copper pin. This 
was the sole furniture in sixteen such graves 
that we found. The bodies were wrapped in 
goat skins, and a lump of skins thrown in oxer 
them in some 



From the very early style of the ponery, the 
single jars placed with the bodies, the absence of 
woven cloth, and wrapping in goat skins, and the 
different type of the grave (like that of the Li- 
byans of the Xnith Dynasty), it seems that we 
must see in these the earliest stage yet known of 
the continuous Egyptian race, the first successors 
of palaeolithic man, that have yet come to light. 
This group is therefore dated as s.D. 30. 

By the side of C, at the mouth of the valley 
of B cemetery, some pits were sunk to see 
what the vallev bed consisted of, and if there 
were graves under the blown sand. The results 
were : — 

Near cultiration. 3«) feet south. dO feet fartlier. 

Blown sand 90 inches 80 inches 40 inches 

Under the blown sand and pebbles was a 
sloping bed of clean water-laid sand, into which 
we sank 90 inches more, interstratified with layers 
of marly mud two or three inches thick. This 
must be the Nile deposit of the ages before the 
present low Xile; the blown sand over it 
proves that it is not of recent times, and in 
the prehistoric days the Xile was some 20 feet 
lower than at present, having raised its bed by 
deposits since. So we see that the desert valleys 
were eroded, and then filled with Xile wash 
before the low Nile age, and that about seven or 
eicrht feet of blown sand has since accumulated 
in the valley mouths. Further west, in the 
vaUey mouth west of cemetery A, we found a 
i wide-spread burnt stratum about eight feet down, 



THE CEMETERIKR. 



the result of gi-eat tires, as the sand was 
reddened for nearly a foot deep. It seems not 
impossible that this was one of the burning 
places for the prehistoric offerings, of which 
such great quantities of the ashes were buried 
in jars in the graves. 



52. Cemetery H was ivorked by Mr. Mace 
and Mr. lies, and the following results are from 
their notes. All the burials are late prehistoric. 

H 14 (s.n. 58 — 75), a contracted burial, with 
bones approximately in place ; but the. leg and 
arm bones wrapped up, fibula and tibia each 
wrapped and then joined, knee-caps in place. 
Skull on knees, no jaw-bone. 

H 16 (s.D. fiS)), balls of both thighs turned 
away from their sockets ; bones wrapped in 
bark, tibia and fibula together ; lower ver- 
tebrae wrapped round. Upper part of body 
plundered , 

H 17, IS (s.D. 60), 27 (s.D. 72), 30 (k.d. 77), 
31 (s.D. 73 — 79), 36 (s.d. 78), bones wrapped 
in cloth separately. 

H 36 (s.n. 78), not only were the bones each 
^vrapped separately in bark fibre and rejoined, 
but the skull was wrapped up with a camelian 
bead in each eye. 

H 39 (s.D. 72), only two vertebrae remained 
with the head ; all tlie other bones were piled 
in a square heap. 

H 56 (s.D. 72) had a square wooden coffin: 
body perfect, contracted. Remains of a wooden 
figure by it, eaten by white ants. 

H GO (s.D. 80), a similar burial. 

H 76 (s.D. 68—78), lower bones, pelvis, most 
of vertebrae, and one humerus in place : other 
bones neatly piled over pelvis. 

II 86 (s.P, 74), complete skeleton, contracted ; 
string of blue glazed beads around head. 

H 90 (s.D. 80), complete skeleton, contracted, 
in wooden coffin ; necklace and right armlet of 
camelian ; behind head a basket of ashes. 

The whole of this cemetery is of small oval 



graves ; there was not one laj'ge square grave, 
nor any but single burials. Though cemetery 
B comes do^vn largely to the fifties and sixties, 
yet no multiple burials are found in it later 
than one at 43, and sis other such are all before 
40. They seem, therefore, to belong to the 
earlier prehistoric people. AVhereas cemetery 
U, which is entirely after 60, and nearly all 
after 70, has not one multiple burial. 



53. Cemetery 11 was partly worked by Mi-. 
Maclver, partly by Mr. Mace. It has a few 
burials of the earlier age, but is mostly of the 
later prehistoric, 50 to 80 s.D. 

R 4 (s.D. 58—76). bones all sorted, and laid 
out side by side in a row; arm bones, leg 
bones, pelvis, ribs, and head, 

R 5 (s.D. 70). scarabaeus beetles in a wavy- 
handled jar. 

R 18 (s.D. 76), two scarabaeua beetles in ajar. 

K 111 (s.n. 72) upper bones all packed into 
a square foot, the humeri sticking straight into 
the ground, head in centre, one ilium on top of 
it, ribs jammed around ; all flanked by the 
pots which hold the pile together. 

R 112 (s.D. 70), leg and arm bones packed 
together parallel, scapulae, pelvis, &c,, missing. 

R 121 (s.D. 56), a double string of small 
carnelian and blue glaze beads around head, 
just above eyes. 

R 134 s.n. 41), body contracted in middle of 
larger square tomb : pottery and turtle slate 
nine inches over it in sand ; large pottery 
hippopotamus at west end (pi. vi. bottom), and 
two quadruple pots, type D 91c, pi. x\i. 



54, Cemetery U was a large and important 
one of all prehistoric periods, worked by Mr, 
Maclver ; it contains about twice as many 
graves of the thirties as of any other decade, 
but is otbenvise nearly uniform down to 
s.D. 80. 

D 3 



^>* 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



The graves were entirely recorded by Mr. 
Maclver, from whose account the following are 
the more noticeable examples. 

U 12 (s.D. 74), contained a pottery cist ; 
bones of a man, camelian beads, and double 
bird slate, inside it ; pottery at south end 
outside. 

The depth of some of these tombs is very 
unusual ; U 36 (s.d. 55 — 68) is 10 feet deep ; 
U 39 (s.d. 60) is 11 feet deep; U 44 
(s.d. 41—68) is 10 feet. 

U 67 (s.d. 65 — 75), an infant. Beads, long 
and disc blue glazed, in a string over head and 
round neck ; and a bracelet of blue glazed 
coarse cruciform and star beads with shells. 

U 74 (s.D. 78) was a plundered grave ; 
but contained about the middle, on the floor, 
the copper axe, chisel and adze (see base of 
pi. vii.) which are the most important examples 
of the beginning of such tools (Cairo Museum) ; 
the half of a flint knife was loose in the filling. 

U 96 (s.D. 36) contained all the bones 
stacked together as a tight oblong mass, 
wrapped in a reed mat as usual ; the legs 
above the arms, no skull, scapulae, fingers, or 
toes. Two clay figures of men, coloured red, 
were in the filling (see pis. x., and base v.). 

U 151 (s.D. 35 — 55), body closely contracted, 
lying on a basket-work tray of twigs ^-inch 
thick ; short blocks of wood at top of head and 
back of sacrum. Disc mace head of diorite, 
therefore probably s.d. 35 — 40. 

U 261 (s.d. 55 — 74), long bones dismem- 
bered and stacked parallel. 

U 349 (s.D. 71) string of green glazed 
disc beads round the head. 



U 354 (s.D. 70—80) had six flint bracelets 
on the left arm ; necklace of tubular black 
steatite and ivory; many minute black beads 
all up the legs. 

U 364 (s.D. 65—76), string of small black 
beads about hips ; by head, a string of small 
green glazed and small white beads. Ivory 
cylinder inscribed (sec pi. x., base), by right 
shoulder. 

We have now summarized the methods that 
have been developed for working out the 
sequence of prehistoric Egypt, and the results 
of this systematic treatment of the remains. 
We have for the first time seen the whole 
prehistoric times of a country arranged in an 
exactly graded order and development. To 
have given more minute detail of the thousands 
of graves recorded would have overwhelmed the 
view without adding to its value. Every useful 
detail has been tabulated, and has thus helped to 
produce the general systematized view here 
given; probably furtlier questions will arise, 
and further results be Avorked out from the note- 
books of records. But for the present here is a 
connected view of each kind of remains, and of 
the whole historical result; and every con- 
clusion is stated with such detail that all 
succeeding exploration of this period can be 
joined on to the present results, and be used to 
correct and supplement them. In future ex- 
ploration every grave can be dated as it is 
opened, and the importance of any new results 
can be at once seen, and corresponding care 
taken to certify whatever facts Avill further ex- 
tend our present knowledge. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TOMBS OF THE VIth TO Xth DYNASTIES. 



55. In foui- cemeteries, D, N, W, and Y, 
tombs were found which may be safely dated 
before the Xllth Dynasty. The cemeteries D 
and W wore worked by myself; N consisted of 
very few tombs, worked by Mr. Maclver ; Y 
was a large cemetery worked by Mr. MacSj who 
will describe it himself in chapter xii. 
Broadly we are dealing here with all the graves 
which, though not assignable to the IVth oi' 
Vth Dynasties, yet belong distinctively to an 
earlier date thaa the well-known ege of the 
Xllth Dynasty, with its many distinctive 
manufactures. In cemetery W there are 66 
tombs belonging clearly to the Xllth Dynasty, 
and 40 of an earlier age, extending back to pro- 
bably the VIth ; a proportion which la not 
astonishing when we consider the relative 
wealth of the periods. 

The plan of cemetery D is given on pi. xxiv., 
it is probably of the VIth Dynasty, and was all 
worked by myself. D 4 is a shallow pit, pro- 
baljly a plundered prehistoric grave. D 5 is a 
large mastaba ; see separate plan below general 
plan. A rare form of cornice had crowned the 
doorway, representing rooting with round poles 
(see top pi. xxv) ; now in British Museum. With 
it were fragments of two inscriptions, of the 
style of the VIth Dynasty, so well fixed at 
Dendereh ; one in relief, the other incised, 
naming the amakha kher Asar Ady. The tomb 
front had six false doors on either side of the 
entrance ; the whole floor of the entrance was a 
single block of limestone 10.3 X 46 x G inches; 
and traces on it showed that the passage was 
lined with blocks lOJ- {or ^ cubit) thick, leaving 
a clear entrance of 27 inches. The central pit 



at 10 feet down was filled with bones, mostly 
human, with some of ox, and an ass's skull. 
These continued from 10 to 20 feet down, to the 
level of the chamber top. The date of their 
burial was shown by a small plaque and a blue 
glass ear-ring of the XVIIIth Dynasty and 
pottery of the XVIIIth— XlXth Dynasty. All 
of the bones were separate, and only one spine 
was in line with the skull ; yet between the 
bones was much brown earth from decomposed 
flesh, and the bones were by no means clean 
when buried. The skulls were equally male and 
female. Why dozens of human bodies should 
thus be cut up, and buried pell mell with those 
of animals, in an old tomb pit in the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, is quite inexplicable. 

D was a simple pit 10 feet deep, without a 
chamber ; it contained at the bottom 1 1 gazelle 
heads without bodies, at 5 feet up a man's 
skeleton, and a foot higher a ^voman'8 skeleton. 

D 7 had remains of a burial ; model dishes in 
copper and two curious open work fans (?) of 
copper sheet and wire (see top pi. xxv., Phila- 
delphia) ; evidently the same furniture as in 
the tomb of Meru (see Dendereh, xxii.). 

D 8 had the doorway leading southward to 
the chamber blocked with four rows of big 
stones, without mud. The body was laid full 
length, head N., face E. ; on the neck, wrists, 
and ankles were five wires of copper with a 
few beads on them, and two copper armlets on 
the arms. Upon the jaws rested a pottery pan ; 
and in front of the head was the large copper 
mirror shown in pi. xxxi. A jar was in the 
N.W. comer of the chamber. 

D 9 had been opened, and only contained 



38 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



some small blue beads on the neck, and one jar 
in N.E. comer. 

D 10 contained three pots along with the 
skeleton in the chamber. 

D 12 was apparently a later (? Roman) 
burial of a dried body, in a shallow grave with 
side recess. 

D 13 was 18 feet deep ; chamber to S. 
closed with stones ; body of man full length, 
head N., face E. One copper needle lay by the 
collar bone. A jar in N.E. corner. 

D 14, similar tomb and position, a woman of 
about 23 years. A large mirror before the 
head (see top pi. xxxi.) ; four small stone vases 
in front of the body (see pi. xxviii.), one pointed 
vase of limestone, a dish of diorite, and two vases 
of alabaster (compare Dendereh xxi., mid top). 
About the neck, beads of green glaze and cor- 
nelian ; note on the bottom striog the two leg 
amulets and hand, of camelian ; and next above 
that the very degraded form of the prehistoric 
bull's head amulet, along with the later forms of 
dynastic bulls' heads. 

D 15 had a walled-up recess on the west, 
with body, head N., and some camelian and 
small green beads on neck (Liverpool). 

DIG was opened anciently and broken up ; 
one pot left. 

D 21, pit about 13 feet deep, no chamber; 
at 12 feet down an ox body and head, at 8 feet 
down two dog and six gazelle heads, at 7 feet 
down a female burial with a scarab of Ram- 
essu I. 

D 24 had a disturbed burial, with beads of 
XVIIIth Dynasty, halfway down. 

D 25, a large mastaba, much ruined ; about 
it were found a drum lintel with name heq hat 
Uha, a scrap of another lintel Avith Beba, and a 
piece of good relief inscription, all evidently of 
Vlth Dynasty. In the filling of the chamber 
were four skulls (one male, three female) high up, 
mixed with Old Kingdom pottery, but no other 
bones. We can sum up this cemetery as clearly 
of Vlth Dynasty, by the inscriptions of the two 



large mastabas, by the copper models and by the 
: stone vases already shown to be Vlth at Den- 
: dereh. We have thus a good fixed point for the 
I beads and amulets in D 14. At the N.W. of 
each mastaba isapit(D 7, D21) with heads of 
gazelles, &c., evidently a part of the funeral 
sacrifices. At Medum are small oflfering pits, 
but in the body of the mastaba, and S. W. of the 
tomb {Medum, p. 20, 21) ; at Dendereh the well 
for oflferings of prince Mena is to the W. of the 
tomb pit. The human burials higher up in pit 
6 are probably secondar}^ as that in pit 21 is 
certainly of XlXth Dynasty. Examples of all 
of the animal bones were sent to the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington. 

56. In cemetery N the only tomb which 
need be noted here is N 19, recorded by 
Mr. Maclvcr, a well with chamber to the S., 
containing the body of a young girl, head 
N., face E. ; the legs bent square at hips and 
knees. Before the hands was the copper mirror 
on pi. xxxi., with inscription of the royal 
noble, priestess of Hathor, Bebt-tua : and 
before that were four small pointed vases of 
alabaster, see top of pi. xxviii. Around the 
head was a necklace of several strinsfs of lime- 
stone beads, covered with gold foil, camelian 
amulets, eye, and jackal's head, Horus of 
green felspar and blue glazed beads ; tortoise- 
shell bracelets on arms. Traces of a stuccoed 
wood coffin around the body (Philadelphia). 
This buiial, from the forms of the vases, is 
clearly of the Vlth Dyniisty. 

57. The cemetery W is the large and 
important cemetery of Hu at the end of the 
dyke, worked by myself, and Y is another por- 
tion of the same further north, worked by Mr. 
Mace. We here select those graves of W which 
are earlier than the Xllth Dynasty. 

After seeing above the characteristic fonns of 
the stone vases of the Vlth Dynasty, small, 
pointed, with a concave collar neck (see pi. 
xxxviii., N 19 and D 14), the similar and rather 
clumsier forms in other graves may be assigned 



TOMBS OF THE Vim TO Xtu DYNASTIES, 



to the Vlth and Vllth Dyuaritiuri, Such are ou 
pi. xxviii,, tht! wroup W 83 (twice in plate, 
Aberdeen), the giwip W lUO, and the vase W 
177: Jill of these are so closely of the Vlth 
Dynasty Ibrras that they must be almost of that 
age. Now with these forms were the pottery W 
S3, pi. XXV., which is also clearly of this age, by 
comparison with the Dendci'eh pottery ; the 
button, W 90, pi. XXV,, agreeing with the Vlth 
Dynasty date o1' a button at Dendereh ; the 
mirror {pi. xxxi.), button, and beads, "W 100 
(pi. xxviii,), placed with a long burial in a box 
coffin with a sti'ing of small gold beads roimd 
neck, a string of white shell beads down the 
front, and a mass of blue and black glazed disc 
beads at the waist (at Manchester), and this 
dates these long lines of such beads in other 
graves; and in \V 177 (at Melbourne) was a 
string of black disc beads, and a scarab with a 
rabbit (see pi. xxviii.). Tiiese beads then take 
W 163 {at Aberdeen) to the same date, a full 
length Ijody in a coffin, buried only two feet 
down. And like this is also W 165 with the 
pyramidal geometi'ic figure seal (pi. xxv.). 
Associated with 177, in the same small group 
of similar graves, were W 173, 174, shallow 
brick graves, two feet deep, and W 175 
(Chicago), 17(i, with hemi-cylindrical seals, 
shown in pis. xxv. and xli. 1, 2, 3. These 
seals beloag to the same class as the geometrical 
patterns of buttons of this age, which are derived 
from figures of men and animals. 

Hence we find iis characteristic of the VI — 
Vlllth Dynasties, pointed alabasters of good 
forms, growing clumsy in the later cases, 
buttons and hemi- cylinders with geometrical 
patterns, long strings of black and blue glazed 
disc beads, canielian amulets of bull's head, 
hand, and leg. 

Judging by the forms of the alabaster vases, 
the group W 157 {pi. xxix.) must be rather 
later than those we have noted, and so about 
the Xth Dynasty ; with these were beads of 
carnelian, black and blue glaze. The clumsy 



forms of the tivo kohl pots, W 98, pi. xxviii., 
seems to point to their being also about the Xth 
Dynasty. Next to these are the vases X 59 
(from close to W cemetery) which are clearly of 
the same age, or perhaps as early as the Vllth — 
VIITtli Dynasties ; \vith them were minute gold 
Ijcads aud peudauts, disc shell beads, small blue 
glazed beads, a long string of black glaze and 
shell beads all up the body, and some canielian 
beads and amulets : the kohl pot next to the 
shell (xxviii. left side, third line) is of dark blue 
glaze (University College, London). 

58. The burials of the same period in 
cemetery Y are described by Mr. Mace, as 
follows : — 

•* In cemetery Y we have a series of tombs 
running right through from the Vlth to the 
XVII Ith Dynasty. These may be divided 
into four classes — 

"'I. Shallow graves, Vlth — Vllth Dynasty. 

"/j. Pi1>tombs, Vlth— Xlth Dynasty. 

" c. ■' " , Xlth— Xllth Dynasty. 

"f/. YS shallow graves, Xllth— XVIIIth 
Dynasty. 

"The graves of the class ('() were situated on 
the edge of the valley which separates the W 
and Y cemeteries (see plan). The graves were 
small, but two to three feet deep, and, in the 
majority of cases, they faced north. The bodies, 
which had originally been enclosed in coffins of 
plain wood, or wood stuccoed, lay for the most 
part with head north, facing east, legs slightly 
bent, left arm by side, right laid across body. 
In some cases, however, the hands met before 
the face, while the legs were bent back from the 
knee so sharijly that the feet rested against the 
pelvis. A few instances seem to point to a partial 
cutting up of the body before burial, e.g.: — ■ 

"110. Two skeletons: upper part of both 
undistui'bed, leg bones more or less scattered, 
but with two of the femora laid approximately 
in position with the ilia, the ball of one being 
turned directly away from the socket. 

•■ IJ7. Burial beneath au inverted pottery 



40 



DIOSPOLIS I'ARVA. 



cofTin : upper part of body inUxct^ but head ! 
turned the wrong way : lower bones out of 
position. 

^* 1 34. Two skeletons : (a) skull turned round 
so that the vault rested against the upper 
vertebra?, both scapuhc lying close together near 
the pelvis : other bones in position, (fi) Arm 
bones disarranged, pelvis in position, leg bones 
lying all together, ribs piled neatly in a heap 
unbroken, skull, with lower jaw attached, rest- 
ing on pelvis. 

" These must have been the gi'aves of the ver}' 
poorest of the people, none of them containing 
more than a pot or two, and a few beads and 
amulets. The pottery consisted of flat dishes of 
the well-known Vlth Dynasty form, and vases 
of the type xxxiii. 6. Among the beads were 
small blue and black glazed disc, shell disc, blue 
glazed cylinder, flattened crumb, and i large 
barrel-shaped camelian. Grave 103 had a 
necklace of glazed amulets, including hawk and 
bulls' heads, frogs, and fishes; 104 contained 
glazed teeth amulets and an ivory drop pendant ; 
110, an ivory button (pi. xxv.). 

(6) Among the pit-tombs there are several 
which may be put down pretty definitely as 
pre-XIth Dynasty. Tombs 6, 8, and 9 are the 
earliest, probably Vlth — Vllth : all three face 
north, and have their chambers opening from 
the side of the pit and not from the end ; 
6 contained a small alabaster (Boston) ; 8, 
a bronze mirror, an ivory spoon, and three 
alabasters (Melbourne) ; 9, a small diorite 
vase (Boston). For this last, and the alabasters, 
see plate xxviii. The alabaster, 16, from the 
same group in plate xxviii., belongs, from its 
shape, to this period, but the tomb contained 
also a headless stone statuette giving the name 
Iteu'Senh^ which could hardly occur so early. 
The tomb was plundered, so the alabaster 
may belong to an earlier burial. 

" Several of the pits seem to have been used as 
regular family vaults. For example, 73 ran 
east and west, and had a chamber opening from 



each end : in the west chamber were eiorht 
burials, three men, three women, a baby, and a 
young child, all in normal position ; in the cast, 
three buiials, (a) a man in normal position, {fi) 
a woman in contracted position with a tiny 
baby by her side, (y) a man, contracted. The 
skuUsof the two last (/8 and y) show a. decided 
tendency to prognathism ; this, taken in con- 
junction with the position of the body, suggests 
that they belong to the old pre-dynastic race, 
which had not yet become entirely merged into 
the dynastic. We have another example of 
this in 63 : the west chamber contained one 
skeleton in normal position; the east, which 
was carefully bricked up, contained one skeleton 
in normal position, and beneath it two others 
sharply contracted, possibly servants sacrificed 
at the funeral. In the fiUing of pit 56 (E. — W.) 
there were four skeletons, and several pots of 
Vlth — Xlth Dynasty tjrpe ; both chambers at 
the bottom were bricked up ; the west contained 
the skeleton of a man, the east those of two 
women, one with a necklace of small glazed 
beads; all three skeletons were originally 
enclosed in stuccoed wooden coffins. 

" Among other tombs of this period we may 
note the following: — 35 (E. — W.), skeleton of 
a Avoman ; by the head a small gold hawk 
with double crown (xxv.) ; round the neck 
several strings of small camelian beads, one 
having a centre of four large camelians and a 
glazed scarab ; roimd the body strings of small 
camelian beads, and small glazed beads with 
occasional large camelians ; lower down a string 
of large green glazed beads ; on the left arm were 
two bracelets, one of tiny camelians, the other 
of small gold beads and glazed amulets ; in front 
of the face was a small alabaster (xxix.), and on 
the north side of the chamber was a large shell 
containing kohl, and a pot of the type xxxiii. 
U (Chicago). Pit 90 (E.— W.), bricked up 
chamber to W. ; skeleton of a woman, position 
normal, head W. ; behind the head a fine pointed 
alabaster vase (xx\iii.) ; by the neck two long 



TOMBS OF THE VIth TO Xth DYNASTIES. 



41 



glazed cylinder beads ; round the waist a girdle 
of beadwork some ten inches broad, consisting 
of rows of blue and black glaze and shell strung 
together irregularly, with an outer fringe of 
common shells (Boston). These rows of beads 
hiid been sewn on to some material, possibly 
leather, but this had been completely rotted 
away by the damp. 92 (E. — W.), chamber to W.; 
skeleton of a woman, head W., position normal, 
but head disturbed by plunderers ; seven of 
the vertebra) joined in one place ; two neck- 
laces, one of small gold beads Avith a gold frog 
amulet, the other of tiny blue glaze ; behind the 
head a limestone jar (xxviii.), and a bronze 
mirror (xxxi.) ; before the face a pot of type 
xxxiii. 14 (Manchester). 

" To this period also must be assigned the 



camelian and gold Hathor amulet (61) on plate 
XXV. (British Museum) ; the hemi-cylinder (78) 
on plate xli. (Philadelphia) ; the bronze axe with 
handle (162) on plate xxxii. (Philadelphia) ; the 
alabasters and granite mortar (182) on plate 
xxviii. ; and the alabaster vases of 250 on plate 
xxviii. (Ashmolean)." 

59. Apparently to the earlier part of the 
Xlth Dynasty must be ascribed the only two 
steles found in the whole cemetery (pi. xxv.), 
those of Nekhtyk, and of Hotep-aqera with his 
two wives, Khut and Apu. The title mcuit- 
kheru on both steles points to their not being 
before the Xlth Dynasty {Denderehj p. 51.), and 
the style and names prevent our dating them in 
the Xllth or any later age. Nothing noticeable 
was found with either of them. 



DIOSPOLIS I'ARVA. 



CHAFTEK X. 



TOMBS OF THE XIItm DYNASTY. 



60. It will be best in dealing with this 
period to state first what wc have found to be 
characteristic of this time. 

1. I'ale hive marble of tine grain, veiy com- 
monly used for kohl pots ; in no case has this 
yet been found fixed to any period cither before 
or after the Xllth Dynasty. At Dendereh 
nearly all of the tombs were before the Xllth 
Dynasty, and not a single piece oi" blue marble 
was found in any such ; one or two tombs wei'e 
fixed to Xllth Dynasty by scarabs and dift'or- 
ent style of ol)jects, and only in these was blue 
marble found. Not a single piece occui*s in W 
or Y cemeteries with objects before the Xllth 
Dynasty. The earliest dated example is of 
Usertesen 1. (Brit. Mus.). Nor has this marble 
ever been found with objects later than Xllth, 
except in a few cases of mixed tombs, with 
Xllth and XVIIIth objects together. 

2. Amethyst, bends were in no case associated 
in W or Y with objects that could be dated 
either before or after the Xllth Dynasty. A 
few are known in prehistoric times, and occasion- 
ally an amidet, a .scarab, or a bead may be of 
the Old Kingdom or XVHIth Dynasties ; but 
no string of amethyst beads is known outside 
of the Xllth Dynasty, until the very different 
style of the Roman times. 

3. Hall tieadu of glaze, amethyst, camelian, 
&c., are peculiar to the Xllth when of large 
size ; and even small sizes are but seldom 
found of the regularity and polish of those of 
the Xllth Dynasty, and then only of camelian. 
The large brilliantly glazed balls and amethysts, 
up to hidf-inch diameter, are absolutely charai'- 
teristic. Sometimes they have gold or silver 



caps at the ends, or tubes through them. 
Rhombic flat centre beads of camelian arc all of 
Xllth Dynasty, so far as known. 

4. In ahibasfer. round-bottomed viises and 
shori cups with straight conical sides are in 
every dateable case entirely of the Xllth 
Dynasty. 

5. In cojjper irorlc, axes very shallow, 
symmetrical, to fix in a stick with but slight 
projection, are of Vth Dynasty ; I'ather deeper in 
Vlllth ; full semi-circle or rather more in Xlth, 
but flat on sides ; with fat convex sides and 
incui-ved edges in Xllth ; thin, long, but sym- 
metrical, in XlVth (Suazenra) ; uusymmetrical, 
back sloped, in XV— XVIIIth Dynasty. 

Daggers arc ([uadrangular with curved sides 
in prehistoric times ; have fluted ribs down 
the middle in the Xlth Dynasty, and in Xllth (?) ; 
no fluting, only a broad slight band on middle 
in XlVth and on to XVIIIth. 

61 . We now descriije such of the tombs of 
the Xllth Dynasty as are notable for complete- 
ness of information. These tombs usually com- 
prise an oblong pit about 8 ft. X 3 ft., 
descending 10 to 120 ft. ; with a chamber open- 
ing out of one end, or sometimes one at each 
end, or even two or three superposed at one or 
at both ends. 

The direction of the tombs is first to be 
noticed. At Dendereh the tombs 

Of YIth and Vf 1th Dynasty, are N.— S. ; 
Of IXth— Xltli Dynasty, are E.— W. 

On tabulating the present tombs, we find that 
those with the hemi-cyUnders of geometrical 
patterns, which wc attributed 

To about Vlltli Dynasty, are N.— S. 



TOMBS OF THE Xlliu DYNASTY, 



r 



iter tombs with blauk and blue disc beads, 
pointed alabastei's, and potteiy, assigned to the 
Xth Dynasty, attributed so far to the 

Vlth— Xth Dynaaty, are E.— W. , 

Further, another large cln9a with pottery 
attributed to tlie Xlth and Xllth Dynasties, 
amal] dark bine ring beads, black beads, car- 
nelian rhomb, a scarab, and an engraved shell, 
both of Uaertesen I., and in oiir case small ball 
beads of cameliau and amethyst of Xllth 
Dynasty style, in short, 

Xlth Dynasty to Userteseu I., are K. — W. 
But all tombs with ball beads of blue glaze and 
amethyst, serpentine figures, blue marble, and 
globular vases, in short. 

Usual Xllth Dynasty, are N.— S. 
The summaiy therefore is that the direction of i 
the tomb was in ' 

Vlth to Vllth Dynasty, .V.~S. : I 

Vlllth— Xlth and to Userteseu T., E.— W. | 
(and perhaps earlier). [ 

Userteseu I. aud Xllth, N.—ti, \ 

Of beads the black and blue disc are Vllth — 
Xth ; the small blue rings probably Xlth (as at ' 
Dendereh) ; and the ball beads of glaze, and ' 
amethyst, and the blue marble — the (.:haracteris- ' 
tics of Xllth Dynasty — begin about Usertesen I. 

62. Of the pre-Usertesen tombs lying E. — W. 
may be noted, — 

W 65, containing the ribbed copper dagger, 
pi, xxxii. 4 ; with some jars of globular form, 
pi. xxxiii. I() (Chicago). 

"W 70, with the curious tray of offerings, or 
" soul house," in pottery, pi, xxv. base. The 
tank by the side of the hut, with holes for 
sticks to support an awning is uew to us 
(Pitt Rivei-8 Mus., Oxford). 

W 84 had copper models of chisel, adze, saw 
and axe (pi. xxxii. 5 to 8) lying on the floor 
uf the pit, with one jar, pi, xxxiii. 15 (N'cw 
York). 

63. Of the Xllth Dynasty tombs lying N.—S. 
may be noted, 



W 'iy, in the corner of the north chamber 
wjis a group of two statuettes in black serpen- 
tine, ou a limestone base ■with steps (see pi. 
XXV!., top). Ai-ound the base is initten in 



ilii at ht Amr Sent (Cairo 



iuk, ifuleii livteji 
Museum). 

\V 32 was a tine uutouched tomb of a 
lying full lengtli, head to north. The ^mall 
objects are shown in pi. xxvii., top : the mirror 
in pi. xxxi., the alabastei-s in pi. xxix. Imme- 
diately inside the blocking of the door were 
four pottery pans, one still containing dates, 
and on the esist side of the coffin were fifteen 
more pans aud jars of the type xxxiii. 22 : in 
some of these pans were dates, birds' bones, and 
lea\es. Also the bladc-bono and hoof of an 
ox. In the wooden coffin was the alabaster 
kohl pot and lid above the head; two fishes, 
one gold, one silver, on the crown of the head ; 
the copper mirror was in front of the body. 
The globular vase of blue marble lay on the 
middle of the shins. The tubular carnelian 
beads were at long intervals between the ame- 
thyst balls ; the ball camelians had the silver 
hawk pendant as a middle; piece. On the 
right wrist were three tine amethyst scarabs. 
The whole burial is now arranged complete in 
Philadelphia, as there is no museum in England 
that can take in such entire tombs. 

W 38 was a rich tomb, though entirely 
turned over by plunderers. The small objects 
are shown in pi. xxvil. ; in the middle of the 
top line a tish of green felspar with electrum 
fins, an ivory kohl stick, and a wire with 
beads of coloured stones (imitation amulet case) 
on either side : below, one of the spout dishes of 
alabaster, like two others in pi. xxx., top ; such 
seem to belong to the Xlltb Dynasty. A dark 
brown serpentine usbabti, i»I. xNvi. (at Cam- 
bridge), some big jars, sbghtly longer than 
xxxiii. 22, and blue ball beads, were in other 
chambei's ol' this tomb. 

W 72 was probably the richest tomb of all, 
for the number ol burials. It had been com- 



DIOSPOLIS PART A, 



pletely turned over by ijlundercrs, and tilled 
with earth Wiished in ; so tliat it occupied about 
two weeks to entirely clear it. In it was the 
ivory doll with silver wire earrings, pottery doll, 
pottery ass with packs, and a great quantity of 
beads, of which a sample is shown with the 
figures in pL xxvi. Four alabasters and a 
pottery bowl from this are shown in pi, xxix. 
Beside these there were haematite beads, many 
strings of large and small ball beads aud fluted 
ball beads (Cambridge). 

W 161 was an unusual burial of objetts in an 
open pit, without any chamber, see base of pi. 
xxix. At the top is a fish vase of alabaster ; 
a blue glazed hedgehog ; and a copper vrive 
ring. Below, a lipless vase of alabaster, a kohl 
pot, and parts of a dish (Philadelphia). 

64. Mr, Mace will next deal with the tombs 
of the Xllth Dynasty fouud in cemetery Y : — 

" As regards direction of pits cemetery Y 
supports very fairly the conclusions which have 
been drawn from \V, i.e. — 

"VI.— VIL,N.— S.; 
"VII.— XL, E.— W.; 
"XII., N.— S. 
There are, however, a lew instances which show 
that the eastward direction was not entirely 
unknown in the Xllth, perhaps later than 
Usertesen I,, to which it is a.ssigned above, For 
example, pits 15, 34, and 96 contained glazed 
ball beads ; 5 1 contained amethyst beads and a 
specimen of blue marble ; 66 a bine mai'ble 
kohl pot : all these ran east and west. In 
almost every instance the burials of this period 
had been plundered ; ^ve note two or three of 
the more important. 15 lay E, — W, with a 
chamber at each end ; the west chamber had 
been completely plundex-ed out ; the east, which 
was bricked up, contained an untouched burial. 
The skeleton had originally been enclosed in a 
painted and stuccoed wooden coffin, and from 



the remains of the top band of inscription one 
could just distinguish the name of ' the priest 
jVbmu ': roimd the neck there were two strings 
of beads, one of alternate large glazed ball and 
small glazed cylinder, the other of small glazed 
ball (British Museum). Scattered in the pit 
of 51 (E. — W.) were found the group of 
vases on pi. xxix. (top right), consisting of 
four alabaster kohl pots, one blue marble kohl 
pot, a slender alabaster vase, a small limestone 
jar and a broken alabaster saucer; also a bronze 
mirror, an amethyst scarab, a green jasper 
scarab, two gold fly amulets, and some fine 
carnelian and amethyst beads (Pittsburgh). 
91 (N. — S.) had been a rich tomb, but had not 
escaped the plunderer : it contained an alabaster 
vase and two bronze mirrors (xxix.), a quantity 
of very tine amethyst, carnelian and garnet 
beads, two amethyst scarabs, two glazed scarabs, 
three small bird amulets in serpentine, and a 
large hawk amulet in silver-plated pottery 
(Manchester). No. 6 (E. — AV.) of cemetery G 
(further north) was an open grave, about four 
feet deep, containing the skeleton of a young 
girl (head west) : the skull and upper part of 
the body were disturbed, but the arms and lower 
part were in position ; on the right wrist there 
were two bead bracelets, one of tiny green glaze, 
the other of carnelian, haematite and white fel- 
spar; round the elbow a string of haematite 
beads, with two amethysts and one carnelian ; 
on the left arm a bracelet of carnelian, haema- 
tite and white felspar, and round the body a 
string of the same three stones (New York). 
Other objects from the pit tombs of this period 
noted in the plates are — the scarab of Dad-uah- 
an-neferka (66), in pi. xxv. and xli. ; the alabas- 
ters of 152 and 189, in pi. xxix.; the bronze 
tweezers and knife (176), in pi. xxix. and xxx., 
and the blue marble of 66 and the alabasters of 
4, 5, 34 and 75, in pi. xxx." 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE PAN GRAVES. 



65. While -working at Abadiyeh Mr. Mace 
found a grave (E 2) which puzzled ub greatly ; 
the known pottery of it was clearly of the 
Xllth— Xlllth Dynasty style, but with that 
were several cups of black topped red pottery : 
the fabric of these latter being like the pre- 
historic, while the forms were new to us. The 
whole of the contents are shown by photo- 
graphs in pi. xxxviii. 

Again in the top edge of cemetery B, I found 
several shallow little graves, all plundered ; but 
containing scraps of black topped pottery, and 
many slips of shell, which we afterwards knew 
to belong to bracelets. But we could not find 
any evidence of the age of these pits. 

During my work at Hu I found a small 
cemetery (X) with a similar mixture of pottery, 
and I cleared over fifty deposits of this age ; 
but by no means all graves, as twenty-two 
deposits were placed apart from any bones. 
Briefly the characteristics of this class are : — 
shallow pan-shaped graves, bracelets of shell 
strips threaded together, gi'oups of animal iieads 
prepared to hang on a wall, and a mixture of 
black topped pottery with late pottery and 
worn-out stone vases of the Middle Kingdom, 
The period must evidently be after the Xllth 
Dynasty. We now describe the details of these 
deposits : — 

66. The. Graren. — Thcae are usually circular 
or oval, about 30 to 40 inches across, and sunk 
about 10 to 15 inches in the hard marl, above 
which lay about 10 inches of loose dust. The 
positions of the gi-aves, and of the separate 



deposits in the dust, are quite iiTcgular, and it 
is needful to turn over every inch of the soil of 
such a cemetery in order to avoid missing any 
deposits. 

The BoiJies. — In only nine cases was the posi- 
tion of the body ascertained (12, 16, 17, 27, 38, 
39, 03, fiG, 74). as the others had been cut up or 
plundered ; all of these lay on the right side, 
head or top of body to W. ; face or front of body 
to S. The hips slightly bent, or at riglit angles ; 
the knees sharply bent, with feet below or 
behind the body. This direction differs from 
that of all other periods kno^vn to us. 

But there are several evidences that the body 
was often more or less cut up, though many 
graves have been disturbed by plunderers. In 
X 17 the bones were wrapped in cloth and 
sheepskin, and the sacrum had been pai-ted 
from the iliac boneB. In X 38 the head of the 
child was missing, the spine was complete, and 
the top vertebra was close against the side of 
the grave, without any room for the skull. In 
39 the head of the old woman was removed, 
and lay on the chest, with the top vertebrffi 
attached ; only 1 8 vertebra; of the spine re- 
mained. In 24 were strings of beads wound 
round the clavicle, and on the ui)])er ends of the 
humerus and femur ; and the bones were all 
dissevered and mixed up completely witli bones 
of an ox and sheep. In 32 was a string of 
beads around the humerus, but the grave had 
been plundered. In 26 the ribs were together, 
under and through the loose jaw ; the long 
bones and vertebrte scattered. In 25 the bones 



iQ 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



were loosely piled together, a foot high. Though 
some of these conditions might be due to 
plundering, yet the top of the spine against the 
wall, and the beads wound round the bones, 
could not be supposed to be other than original 
arrangements. 

In one case woolly l^rown hair was scattered 
in the grave. 

67. The Animal TTeads. — In one case a 
grave, and in ten cases separate pits, containing 
animal skulls were found. All of those skulls 
were cut away at the back, so as to only leave 
the frontal bones and enough to hold the horns 
in place, see pi. xxxix. All, or nearly all, were 
painted with spots or stripes, of red ochre and 
black soot, laid on with the finger. They were 
clearly intended to hang up on a wall. Only 
once was an ox head found entire, with the 
jaws. The largest deposit was in X 57, con- 
taining 138 goat heads, 5 of oxen, 5 of calves, 
and 1 sheep's head ; these were all stacked in 
rows, leaning one on the other, noses to W., 
horns to B., in an area about 70 inches E. — W., 
40 inches N. — S. A pair of copper tweezers 
was with them. 

In 61 WB^ a row of goats' heads stacked 
against each other, leaning against a jar and 
cup, facing eastwards. In 62 a similar row 
leaning against a jar, facing S.E. : one head 
had blue beads with it. In 72 a similar row of 
goat heads facing S.W., a bowl inverted over 
them. 

Smaller groups were in X 23, 5 goat and 
2 ox heads ; in 47, 3 goat and 3 sheep heads, 
heaped on E. and S. of a jar ; in 49, head of 
a young calf, 2 gazelles, 5 goats, a kid, and 
2 sheep, with a cup and a grinding stone ; in 
65 were heads of an ox, 8 goats, and 2 sheep, 
with alabaster jar, 2 rubber stones, basket, 
beads, &c. ; in 67, heads of an ox, a calf, 
9 goats, and a sheep, with a worn kohl pot, 
rubber, and bowl ; in 71 were 2 ox heads, a 
calf, a sheep, and some goat heads, with a jar. 
The numbers of heads in these deposits, there- 



fore, varies much ; but there are always half- 
a-dozen or more, and usually one or two 
ox heads with those of lesser animals. These 
regular stacks of heads never occur in a grave, 
but always as a separate deposit. 

68. Of Dress there are sometimes goat- 
skins ; in X 68, some coarse linen cloth, and 
also matting below the body ; in 29, a leather 
sandal. 

Orruiments of shell and beads are abimdant. 
The characteristic decoration is the wearing of 
three shell bracelets on each forearm. These 
bracelets are made of slips of shell (see base of 
pi. xl.), threaded together through each end ; 
two threads of sinew were passed through each 
hole, crossing, and one passing along each side ; 
this is an efficient way of making a flexible 
band for a bracelet, as seen in the strips photo- 
graphed, which are re-threaded in the ancient 
manner. The slips are usually each about 
•8 to '9 inches long ; the number in a bracelet 
is 18 and 21 in the photograph (X 29), and in 
other cases lengths of 12, 16, 17, 18, 21, 24, 35, 
and 38 slips have been found. Large numbers 
of these slips were found a few years ago by 
natives, and sold in long strings by the Luxor 
dealers, with beads between them; but the 
original disposition of the slips was always edge 
to edge, with a double thread crossing in the 
holes, in every case that I found. 

The beads that may be attributed to these 
people are of white shell, and small rings of 
black or blue glaze ; but with them are stray 
beads of the usual Xllth Dynasty style, in 
garnet, gold, and blue glazed balls. Beads are 
usually in long strings, sometimes all of one 
colour, black, blue, or white; sometimes in 
short lengths, 7 white and 7 black alternate ; 
usually 1 white alternating with 2 or 3 blue or 
black. One body that had 3 slip bracelets 
on each arm, had also on each ankle 3 strings 
of black and white beads alternate. 

Other bead work is found, both on interwoven 
threads and also stitched on to a basis of leather, 



THE TAN GRAVER. 



In 68 were shell beads threaded in four 
parallel lines. In (15 was a band of parallel 
columns of shell-beads, each 7 beads long, like 
a usual Egyptian bead anklet. In 31 were 
lines of shell-beads edge to edge, sewn on 
leather, the lines "8 inch apart. In 29 were 
lines of 4 shell-beads each in parallel columns, 
sewn diagonally on a leather band ; and also of 
the same pattern without a backing, but with a 
twisted sinew edging. \a 50 was leather sewn 
together, with shell-beads put into the seam as 
a piping. 

69. Of Utensih there was very little in 
copper, only a knife with wooden handle in E 2 
(pi, xxxviii., top), and simple tweezers in X 57 
and 71, evidently old Xllth Dynasty articles 
descended. Baskets were found in 58. 65, and 
74, the latter about 8 by 6 inches. Grinder 
stones of sandstone, of small size, are found in 
five graves ; in two cases a pair together. No 
mace-heads or worked flints were ibund, not 
even any flakes. 

Of minor things may be noted a mud brick 
in grave 25, which might, however, have been 
taken from a Xllth Dynasty tomb, as a ring- 
stand of that age was with it. Some malachite 
in a cloth was in grave 24, showing that it was 
used as by the prehistoric people ; and in a 
jar of Egyptian form in grave 21 (see base of 
pi. xxxix.) were about fifty of the common black 
desert beetle, like the burials of beetles in jars 
in the prehistoric tombs. 

70. Thr Xllth Dynasty Objects are the 
materials for dating these graves. The kolil 
vases, &c., were nearly all broken, damaged, or 
worn, showing that they were old ones re-nsed ; 
the pottery was never of the thin, drab, globular 
type which led from the Xlth into the Xllth 
Dynasty, but mostly of the late XlUh Dynasty 
forms, leading on to the early XVlIIth Dynasty. 
The Xllth Dynasty Egyptian objects figured 
here are in pi. xl. ; in group 3G, on the left 
two broken kohl pots of black and white lime- 
stone and brown limestone, on the right a blue 



marble pot ; these were found with the two 
black and red bowls, a large black bowl (top 
mid. of plate) full of ointment, and a sandstone 
rubber, all in a small group together. In 78, a 
broken kohl pot. In •IG, a broken kohl pot of 
alabaster, and a blue glazed i-ing-stand (below 
it in plate). In :^3. broken alabaster vase. In 
6.J, a globular alabaster vase, broken. In 13, a 
broken and a perfect alabaster kohl pot and the 
bottom of a large vase of brown serpentine. In 
70, a small black basalt vase. In 74, a small 
perfect kohl pot and lid. 

Of the pottery a selection is here photo- 
graphed, omitting duplicate examples or small 
variations. Several of the forms on pi. xxxviii. 
and all the jars on plate xxxix. are clearly of 
Egyptian make, and intennediatc between the 
Xllth and XVIIIth Djmasty styles; on the 
whole nearer those of the latter than of the 
former date. The small ring-stands on pi. xl., 
groups 7, 8, 2"i, 46, ai-e also clearly Egyptian. 

71. The Paii-(jrave I'otlory. — But besides the 
Egyptian pottery there is also a class of bowls 
which is entirely diff^erent. These are mainly 
shown on pi. si. The largest are always thick 
and black, patterned with a band of diagonal 
lines round the upper part, and sometimes (as 
in X 25) a square of incised pattern on the 
bottom, showing that they were inverted when 
empt)'. These large bowls, as well as the 
Egyptian jars in these deposits, were usually 
filled with ointment, or aromatic fat, so usual 
in the prehistoric time, and found also in the 
XVIIIth Dynasty. Smaller bowls were usually 
thinner, and with a narrow brim of ornament, 
as in graves 17, 16 ; the finest and most 
decorated of this form has basket pattern 
incised all over the outside (see group 36). 
Moat of the rest of the pottery is of simpler or 
rougher woi-k on these forms. But in E 2 
(pi. xxxviii.) there is a finer class, red with 
black top, as the prehistoric pottery, but of 
hard ware and very thin and light (see top 
group) ; and the form gi-acefully turned out 



DIORPOLIS PAEVA. 



at the lip. The coarse black pottery with 
diagonal incised lines had heen found l)efore at 
Kahun, at Ballas, and at Nubt, in each case 
assignable to the Xllth Dynasty, and therefore 
it does not belong to any merely local class, but 
was general at its o^vn period. 

72. The lihK-h Indued Po/foi/.— Beside the 
barbaric pottery proper to these pan graves, 
there are also some pieces of a refined and 
beautiful class which descends from the incised 
pottery of the prehistoric times. This black 
pottery, with pricked patterns filled in with 
white, begins as early as s.n. 33, and is found 
down to s.D, G8 ; it appears to be a foreign 
importation. Following that is the incised 
bowl of about the 1st Dynasty, found at 
Abydos; the incised bowls of the Ilird 
Dynasty (Dendereh, xxi. ; and from Dahshur. 
De Morgan, liecherches, i., pi. xi.) ; and then 
the narrow -necked vases found at Kahun 
(Kahim, sxvii. 199—202; lUahuii, i. 17, 20, 
21), at Khataaneh, and at Tell el Yehudiyeh, 
all attributed to the Xllth or Xlllth 
Dynasties. In pi. si. is seen a perfect vase of 
this type, grave 41, but of red pottery and not 
incised ; and below that, group 43, are pieces 
of vases of the same form, but of black ware, 
and with the typical vandyke patterns filled in 
with pricked spots. This whole class is 
entirely un-Egyptian, and due to foreign im- 
portation. 

73. The Dogs' Graves found here are also 
un-Egyptian ; two instances were found of 
circular graves filled solely ivith dogs' bodies ; 
in another, an existing Vlth — Xllth Dynasty 
full-length bricked grave, about 6 feet deep, 
hod been enijitied, and a layer of dogs' skulls 
and bones were put in the bottom foot depth. 
This is like the grave with about twenty dogs' 
bodies found in cemetery T at Naqada(iV(((/fl(/n, 

2ti, sec No. 286). 

74. The Age and Source of the pan-gi-avc 
people is now tolerably clear. The abundance 
of worn-out objects of the Xllth Dynasty, and 



the pottery intermediate between the Xllth 
and XVIIlth Dynasties, shows that these people 
must have come into Egypt after the fall of the 
Middle Kingdom. The presence of their 
pottery at Kahun and Nubt, already dated to 
about the Xllth Dynasty, shows the same age, 
and proves that they were spread over the 
western edge of the desert for some 250 miles. 
They were a barbaric people, not working 
either stone or metal, and dependent on the 
Egyptians for everything except pottery. They 
were closely akin, however, to the prehistoric 
Egyptians, as is shown by — 

1. The pan-graves, like the earliest pre- 
historic ; 

2. Red and black pottery, as early pre- 
historic ; . 

3. The burial of malachite ; 

4. Beetles buried in jars ; 

5. Bucrania on buildings ; 

6. Burial of dogs in cemeteries ; 

7. Burial of jars of ointment ; 

and in all of these points, except the last, there 
is no connection with the later Egyptians of 
historic times. We therefore conclude that 
these people were a later branch of that same 
Libyan race which had formed the prehistoric 
population of Egypt. 

The bucrania, or skulls of oxen, goats, &c., 
prepared and painted to hang on the walls, are 
decidedly western. In the age of Narraer, just 
before Mena, they ai'e shown on an ivory 
carving as being actually hung over the doors 
of a building (see llieral-onpulis, i., pi, xiv.) ; 
and in chapter vi. of this volume are mentioned 
the various instances of the use of the buU's 
head, which belongs particularly to Libya and 
southern Europe. 

The museums where this class of pan-grave 
remains can be seen are here stated, with the 
reference numbei*s of the deposits presented to 
each, all from cemetery X, uuless otherwise 
stated. 
British Museum . . 17, 41. 



THE PAN GRAVES. 



49 



Ashmolean, Oxford 



Cambridge, Ethnological 

Univ. Coll., London 

Owen's Coll., Manchester 

Liverpool 

Bolton .... 

Edinburgh 



E2; X 11, 16, 24, 
25, 26, 36, 41, 43, 
46,47,69; WlO, 
58, 80, 102. 

1, 2, 9, 21, 67, 68, 
70. 

8, 25. 

7, 22, 28, 67. 

38, 65, 74. 

50, 65, 11, 80. 

10, 23, 58, 64. 



Brussels 
Melbourne 

Sydney 
Philadelphia . 



Chicago 



Connecticut . 



11, 48, 63. 

32, 58, 61, 78, 79 ; 
Y417. 

11, 13, 58, 73. 

2, 21, 30, 57, 58; 
W 101, 164; Y 
300. 

29, 33, 42, 49, 51, 70, 
76 ; Y 490. 

1, 52, 58, 62, 63. 



50 



DIOSPOLIS PABVA. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE TOMBS OF THE XIIIth TO XVIIIth DYNASTIES. 



By a. C. Mace. 



75. The YS (shallow) cemetery, worked by- 
Mr. Randall-Maclver and myself, lay imme- 
diately south of the Y pits, and extended right 
up to the modem Coptic cemetery (see plan). 
The first few graves cleared were poor and 
badly plundered, and seemed to contain merely 
a mixture of Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties 
pottery. As we went on, however, we were 
forced to the conclusion that the contents of 
each tomb must belong to a single burial ; and 
therefore, that the cemetery, containing as it 
did remains which presented characteristics of 
both Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties, must be 
put down as intermediate between those two 
Dynasties. We noted the contents of some 
three hundred graves, and in none of these, if 
we except a few Roman skeletons, buried a foot 
or two below the surface, was there any later 
re-burial. Where there were two skeletons in 
one grave, which occurred only three or four 
times, both were clearly of the same age. The 
majority of the graves were plundered, and as 
the surface of the desert was absolutely level, 
and gave no indication of burials beneath, this 
plimdering must have taken place anciently. 
In two or three cases we found plunderers' 
scrapers, made from XVIIIth Dynasty painted 
pottery, and therefore it was in this Dynasty 
in all probability that the plundering took 
place ; plundering due in part, it may be, to 
racial hatred, since the occupants of the YS 
cemetery were closely connected with the 
foreign " Pan-grave " people. 

In the following three sections we give the 
chief characteristics in each case, which show 



the connection between the objects found in 
these tombs and the well-knoAvn types of Xllth 
and XVIIIth Dynasties, and " Pan-graves " re- 
spectively. 

76. Connections with Xllth. — Of scarabs with 
Xllth Dynasty names we found four — one very 
fine gold-plated one in amethyst of Usertesen I. 
(xli. 7, Philadelphia), one in glaze of the same 
king (xli. 8, Chicago), and two in glaze of 
Amenemhat III. (xli. 9 and 10, Cambridge). 
This proves that the graves containing these 
scarabs are not pre- Xllth Dynasty, but does 
not necessarily imply that they are definitely 
Xllth Dynasty ; scarabs, especially fine ones, 
would be very likely to be handed down for 
two or three generations. 

The pottery connections are striking ; of the 
Vlth — Xlth Dynasties style, which we know so 
well from Dendereh, there was but one example 
(150) in the whole cemetery. Real Xllth 
Dynasty types, however, are common ; many of 
the dishes on pi. xxxv., notably 92, 104, 109, 
119, 123, and of the vases in pi. xxxvi., e.g. 
140, 142, 153, 166, and 169 are of well-known 
Xllth Dynasty shape. No, 169, which is one 
of the commonest of Xllth Dynasty pots, had, 
in two examples, the characteristic XVIIIth 
D3masty whitening of the rim. Twelfth Dynasty 
" wavy " and " scrabble " patterns we find in 
103, 112, 118, 119, 142, 153, and 179. The 
ring-stands show a tendency to lose their Xllth 
Dynasty symmetry, and adopt the XVIIIth 
thickening of the base. Two or three examples 
of soul-houses occur. 

Another connecting link with the Xllth 



TUMnS OF THE XUItii TO XVIIItu DYNASTIES, 



Si 



Dynasty is found in tlie presence of blue marble 
and amethyst : these occur but rarely, aiitl 
were evidently going out of use. The blue 
marble kohl pots were generally old and 
chipped, and in two or three cases they had 
had alabaster lids fitted to them : the amethyst 
beads were of the ordinary small globular type. 

77. Coiiiieclioiif! with XVIIIth Dijiiastij. — 
That the cemetery must be assigned to a period 
not very long before the XVIIIth Dynasty is 
evident from the shape of the bronze axe-heads 
and ivory wands (see pi, xxvii, and xxxii,). 
Both are of well-kno^vn XVIIIth Dynasty style 
(e,g. the wand of Aahmes, and the axe-heads of 
Karnes and Aah-hetep in the Cairo Museum), 
and need not be dwelt on further here. 

The pottery is almost as conclusive: 110, 
12o, 130, 136, 17:i, and 175 on pi, xxxv. and 
xxsvi. are regular XVIIIth Dynasty shapes. 
Several, moreover, were smeared with white 
paint on the rim and inside, a practice which 
was common enough in XVIIIth, but, so far 
as we know, unknown in XUth Dynasty. 

78. Gnnnections with " Pan - graves." — 
Though the graves of this cemetery are 
Egyptian, both by their shape and the mode 
of burial, yet they are closely connected with 
the " Pan-graves." Many of the graves con- 
tained specimens of the incised and black 
topped pottery common in the X cemetery, 
and also of the fine, thin, polished variety 
which was found in grave E 2 (see pi, 
xxxviii, — xl., and also xxxvi. ISo). Animal 
hones, generally those of gazelles, were common, 
and there were several instances of bucrania, 
both plain and painted. Sheep or goat skins, 
leather work, and twisted fibre are very 
common, as they were in X : many of the 
pots were filled with aromatic fat : one grave 
contained the fragments of an ostrich egg. 
All these things occur frequently enough in the 
" Pan-graves," but are, if not unknoivn in all 
cases, at any rate uncommon, in the ordinary 
tombs of the period. Shell and blue glaze disc 



beadi^ of the " Pan-grave " type also occur in 
great number. 

79. The Graves, which in almost every case 
faced north, were open oblong pits, 4 to 10 feet 
deep, 5 to 8 feet long. 2^ to 4 feet wide. 
The bodies were originally enclosed in stuccoed 
and painted wooden coffins, but these had in 
every case been destroyed by white ants, and 
only stray fragments of the inscriptions could 
be recovered : these were of the ordinary Xllth 
Dynasty style (hieroglyphs of birds without len;s, 
kc). In two cases pottery coffins were used. 
The few skeletons found in situ were in normal 
position, head usually south, facing east or west. 
The body, which was only slightly, if at all, 
mummified, was first wrapped round with 
cloth ; then a lajer of stucco was superposed ; 
a mask, painted, and partially covered mth 
gold foil, was moulded over the face, and some- 
times the whole was enveloped in a second 
wrapping of cloth. The hair of the men was 
short and dark, that of the women was tied up 
in innumerable plaits, and fashioned into a 
cumbrous wig on the top of the head, a pig- 
tail being sometimes left to hang down behind 
(see two examples in pi. xxv.). The daggera 
and axes were naturally found with the male 
skeletons : the scarabs, as usually in Egyptian 
graves, with the female, 

80. The Pottery. — (Plates xxxv. and xxxvi.) 
Thinking it advisable to get as far as possible a 
complete set of the pottery of this period, we 
had all the types drawn, even when the example 
was incomplete. 

The boivls, which were of great variety, were 
for the most part rough, and of a dull red 
colour ; a few, such as 94 and 96, were pebble- 
burnished, and a few — e.g., 97, which was 
decorated on the inside with a scrabble pattern 
— were light drab. Potsof shapes 130 and 173, 
as commonly in XVIIIth Dynasty, presented 
a brilliant red polished surface : some of the 
smaller types, such as 152, 154, and 161, were 
Hkewise polished, but in a very pale salmon 
£ 2 






DIOSPOLIS PAEVA. 



tint, in some cases almost white. This latter 
burnish also occurs in the " Pan-grave " pottery, 
and seems to be peculiar to the period. Types 
155 and 160 were sometimes black all over, 
and unpolished ; 145, 146, and 168 were usually 
drab ; 156 and 157 usually contained aromatic 
fat. Many of the smaller pots were fitted with 
lids, which appear to have been ground down 
from any fragment of pottery that lay handy. 

Beside the " Pan-grave '* pottery, we foimd 
three or four specimens of the black incised 
Italiot ware (xxxvi. 186, 187, 188), found by M. 
Naville at Khataanah, and assigned by him to 
the Xlllth Dynasty. No. 184 (see also photo- 
graph on plate xxv.) is a curious piece ; the ring 
(broken in this example) is hollow, and connects 
with the lower pipe, which is open at the end : 
obviously it was used for some kind of liquid, 
which was poured in at the cup, ran round the 
circle, and out from the pipe ; but what kind of 
liquid it was, and why it was passed through in 
this way, we are at present quite unable to say. 
The two flat-bottomed pots, with moveable 
doors, on plate xxv., are also a puzzle : many 
suggestions have been made as to their use, 
model corn-bins being perhaps the most likely. 

For the pot marks, of which there were a 
great number, see plate xxxvii. 

81. Stone. — Of stone statuettes there were 
three, all in limestone (plate xxvi.). No. 247, 
at the top left-hand comer, represents a woman, 
apparently plaiting the hair of a little girl, who 
is sitting on her knee (Cairo). 471, just below, 
is the figure of a boy, who from his side-lock 
was a prince ; at the back there is a band of 
inscription, giving the seten ta hetep formula, 
which unfortimately breaks off just before the 
name. 524, in the middle of the plate, has a 
line of inscription down the back which gives 
the name Ta-sekt (Boston). The base of a 
fourth statuette, found in grave 208, gives the 
names of IJOt:^? Ws father ^ °, and his 
mother w <=> ( . 

Two fragments of rough stelae in limestone 



give the names of fl U 

_ 1 I /NA/VSAA I I 11 • 



:$=, and of the 






The stone vases, which were of alabaster, blue 
marble, and serpentine, were small and poor. 
The kohl pots, of alabaster and blue marble, 
were of the ordinary Xllth Djmasty shape, and 
had for the most part seen a good deal of service : 
one in alabaster had been broken anciently, and 
refitted with a limestone rim. Alabaster was 
also found in drop- shaped vases, such as 461 in 
plate XXX., and in small dishes, such as 448. 
Blue marble occurs also in 461 and 502: 
serpentine only occurs in shapes such as 
245 — 502 on plate xxix. 

82. Copper. — ^The most important object 
foimd in this cemetery was the dagger of King 
Suazenra of the XlVth Dynasty (237, plate 
xxxii. 17) : the crescent handle is of ivory, and 
the nail holes on the shaft are covered with 
silver rosettes (Cairo). With it was the axe- 
head, No. 22 on the same plate. No. 16 is 
another dagger of the same type, but of inferior 
workmanship (New York). Nos. 4, 18, 26, and 
27 also belong to this cemetery, and with 18 
was foimd the axe-head No. 15. With the 
exception of 1 and 20 all the axes on this plate 
(xxxii.) were found in YS, and show well the 
development from the thick, stumpy axe of the 
Xllth (3) into the long thin type of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty (25) ; 13 and 21 have remains of the 
wooden handles, and 21 shows the method of 
fastening, by a cap of copper which fitted over 
the end of the handle, and the comer of the axe. 
Nos. 2, 9, and 10 are thin, almost flexible, sheets 
of copper, of which we do not know the use ; 1 1 
and 12 are tweezers of the ordinary type, but 
11 was fitted with a block of wood, evidently 
for safety in carrying. The razors, 33, 34, fish- 
hooks, 29, 30, and snake, 19, also belong to this 
cemetery. 

Mirrors were found in graves 236, 238, 258, 
285, 336, 365, 436, and 445 (plate xxxi.) 

83. Of the other objects found in this 
cemetery we will first note the scarabs. Two 



THE TOMBS OF THE XIITth TO XVIIIth DYNASTIES. 



53 



other names occur, besides those already 
mentioned, namely, Shesha (Chicago) and 
Ya qebher (Cairo). These were found in graves, 
plundered indeed, but showing no signs of re- 
burial, with pottery of the regular intermediate 
type ; and we have no hesitation in putting 
them down to the same date as the rest of the 
cemetery. If, however, we allow that these two 
kings are intermediate, we must also be pre- 
pared to admit that the whole Khyan group of 
kings, whose scarabs are identical in style, 
belongs to this period also. The other scarabs 
found in this cemetery (xli. 13, 14, 15, 16), 
which are certainly intermediate, point to the 
same conclusion ; the characters on 1 6 are so 
exactly similar in style to those of the Lanzone 
cylinder of Khyan, that there can be very 
little doubt that the age of both is identical. 

Many of the smaller scarabs were inscribed 
with the formula O <=> a—a (see photograph on 
plate xxvii.). In ivory we have a pair of wands, 
inscribed with the name of ^* the servant of 
the Heqt, Sit-hathor" (plate xxvii., British 
Museum and Chicago), and on the right hand 
top corner of plate xxvi. a very finely carved 
hair-pin, representing a lion standing erect, and 
holding a man between its paws (British 
Museum). Pottery dolls, of the large- wigged 
type, were found in 216 and 320 (plate xxvi., 
Cambridge) : at the bottom of plate xxvi. there 
is the horn of an animal, which had apparently 
been used as a musical instrument, the scale of 
millimetres shews the distances of the holes. 
The commonest forms of beads were the blue 
glaze and shell disc, which we have mentioned 
in the " Pan-grave " connection ; other varieties 
were small carnelian and amethyst, glazed 
quartz, tiny gold and crumb beads. 

84. Of special graves we may note the 



following : — 196. The tomb of "the servant of 
the Heqt, Sit-hathor": 8 ft. deep, 7 long, 4 
wide : remains of a stuccoed wooden coffin, 
painted on the outside Avith alternate vertical 
lines of white, blue, and red, and horizontal 
lines of white and red ; body straight out, 
turned over on to the chest, arms meeting 
together at the back ; bones covered by a layer 
of painted stucco between two wrappings of 
cloth ; mask over face, covered with gold foil ; 
hair in tiny plaits ; one small glaze bead by the 
feet, another near the pelvis ; by the left hand 
a twist of fibre ; at the south-east end a few 
gazelle bones ; behind the head one of the ivory 
wands : the other ivory wand, with a few of the 
ordinary pots, was found in the filling of the 
grave. 

448 was a plundered grave, but a recess cut 
half way down, at the north end, had escaped 
notice.; in it there were the remains of two 
wooden boxes, one inlaid with ivory, containing 
a copper needle, the other, which was stuccoed 
and painted with chess board pattern, contain- 
ing a small blue marble kohl pot, a shell used for 
kohl, and a string of shell and glaze beads ; 
also, loose, the group of alabasters at the top 
left comer of plate xxx., and two large carnelian 
beads (Edinburgh). 

505. Remains of wooden coffin ; skeleton of 
a man in usual position ; bones wrapped in 
leather ; stucco mask over face ; on the skull a 
quantity of short, dark, curly hair; by the 
right hand a copper axe-head ; in the filling of 
the grave several broken pots of the usual type. 

85. Of real XVIIIth Dynasty reinains we 
found a few shallow graves scattered among the 
pit tombs: from these come the later scarabs 
on plate xli. 



54 



DIOSl'OLIS PABVA. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 



THE PTOLEMAIC AND ROMAN PERIOD. 



86. Of the late remains at Hu there is not 
much to be said, although we found hundreds 
of mummies of Roman age ; nearly all were of a 
uniform poorness, with no objects or decoration 
of any kind. 

In one of the pit tombs of older date were 
found the two open-work glazed beads, shoAvn 
at the top of pi. xlii. These are probably about 
the XXIst — XXIInd Djmasty. 

A fine gilt cartonnage of Ptolemaic times was 
found, of which the bust and foot case are in 
pi. xlii. The name is on a fillet round the 
head, Pedu-nefer-hotep, son of Hor-uza. This, 
together with the gilded body covering, is 
now at Philadelphia. 

While digging about the Roman cemetery, 
south of the fort at Hu, we found a small white 
marble head of a young king (see pi. xlii.) ; 
and though we thoroughly searched the whole 
top dust in which it lay, and all the graves 
within ten yards of it, not a chip more was to 
be found of the statue. From the work, and 
the quality of the stone, it seems to be early 
Ptolemaic ; but if a Ptolemy, it cannot be earlier 
thdn Ptolemy v., 204 — 181, B.C., by the por- 
traiture (Boston). 

87. The great temple enclosure at Hu (see 
pi. xxiv.) which was later made into a Roman 
fort, is so much like the brick enclosures of 
temples of the XVIIIth Dynasty, at Gurob and 
Nubt, that I supposed at first that remains of 
that time would be found. I therefore sank 
pits, and afterwards trenched, in much of the 
area, particularly about the temple sites in the 
enclosure ; but no trace could be found of build- 
ings, pottery, or other remains, older than the 



Ptolemies. Moreover, the wall was seen to be 
built over some tomb-pits, containing burials of 
Ptolemaic age. It seems therefore that we can- 
not place any building here to an earlier date 
than Ptolemy VIL,Philometor (181— 14G B.C.), 
whose name is on a block of sandstone archi- 
trave. Professor Sayce informs me of a block 
of Ptolemy X. seen here. 

The plan of the enclosure, with its two temple 
sites, is confused. The small middle site is 
apparently that of Philometor, while the only 
name in the site toward the S.W. corner is that 
of Nerva. The causeway leading in from the 
N. gate across the site is paved, and has small 
portions of a raised .edging with rounded top ; 
it runs toward the temple of Nerva. Thus 
there are two systems of construction, askew to 
each other. Firstly, there is the main outline 
of the enclosure, with the Ptolemaic temple in 
its axis. Secondly, there is the Roman temple 
built on a new site, necessarily out of the axis, 
then the road up to it is therefore askew, the 
temple sides are adjusted to this road, the 
clearest line of street and the large brick build- 
ing on the east conform also to this road, and 
the older wall was breached on the E. side, and 
rebuilt conformably to the road upon loose 
rubbish. After that date probably the rounded 
ba.stions were added, as one of them is attached 
to the skew wall. 

The enclosure wall is built in short separate 
lengths, in the usual Egyptian manner; each 
cross joint of it is left white in the plan. The 
two southern comers are square, but the sides 
are all more or less bent. The later alterations 
of it were the overthrow of the middle of the 



THE PTOLEMAIC AND ROMAN PERIOD. 



E. side, and its rebuilding for at least half its 
length in the middle, where it rests on loose 
rubbish 1 3 ft. deep ; also the thickening of the 
N. or front wall, and building on it the houses 
of the chief officers of the garrison. Along the 
inside of the W. wall a lining was added after a 
great tire ; and the owners of houses along this 
side cut out recesses, cellars, and hiding-places 
in this wall, as also was done on the inside of 
the front wall. All of these were cleared out, 
and also the recesses of the earlier time, which 
were covered by the lining wall ; but no jmpyrus 
or anything of importance was found. 

The Ptolemaic temple had the traditional 
deep foundation of sand to it, for ivhich a 
great hollow was cut in the native marl over 10 
feet deep. The plan of it is curiously divided ; 
but no foundations even remained to show its 
detail, and only a few blocks were discovered 
loose in the rubbish. 

The Roman temple site was not so deeply 
hollowed ; we traced it along the whole S. side 
and parts of the other sides, but only a few 
fragments of sculpture remained, one with the 
name of Nei-va. Professor Sayce also informs me 
of a block of Hadrian seen here. The building 
has been caiTied away for stone within this cen- 
tury, as it is described by Nestor L'Hute, who, 
however, seems to have seen a Ptolemaic name 
on it ; he may have been misled by the Ptolemaic 
inscription of the other temple, of which he did 
not suspect the existence. As his letters are 
not well known generally, I transcribe the 
essential part of his account: — 

88. •' On trouve de ce cutd a I'entree du 
desert, une enceinte carrtc en briques crues 
renfermant des restes de construction, des osse- 
raents et autrea d<;bris de momies, et des frag- 
ments d'architecture dgyptienne. Vers Tangle 
sud-est (an error for S.W.), a I'inttirieur de cette 
enceinte, il y a un petit edifice en gres, espece 
de chapelle a. une seule chambre, construite et 
sculptee sous le regne des Lagides ; le plafond 
est dctruit ainsi que la partie superieure du 



monument, a la hauteur des frises; I'edifice a 
et6 constniit dans une intention fun^i'aire et au 
nom d'un pr6tre, scribe royal, attach^ au service 
d'un Ptoltim^e. On ne trouve de ce prince que 
le cartouche nom propre, et parmi les inscrip- 
tions, que cet autre cartouche renfermant le 
titre tjrande deineure. . . . Au milieu de la 
parol du fond de cette chapelle est une niche 
carree dans laquelle on a sculpti5 et peint le 
dieu Sokar-Osiris tenant le flc;au et le crochet ; 
il est accompagne Ji droit et a gauche de la 
dcesse Tm^ avec ses attributs ordinaires . . . 
(after describing scenes of judgment and Duaf) 
Je pcnse que ces figures reprcsentent les heures 
du jour et de la nuit, sujet observe par Cham- 
pollion dans les tombes royales de Biban-el- 
Molouk et ailleurs. J'ai copi(!J dans ce monu- 
ment le parol du fond enti&re et quetques 
des autrea," — " Lettresd'Egypte," Nestor L'Hote, 
pp. 109—111. 

89. The causeway leading up to the Roman 
temple must be as late as that, as it points to it, 
and is askew to the enclosure. It was paved 
with blocks of stone, laid in between raised 
edgings 14 to Ifi inches thick, with a half-round 
top. Portions of this edging were foun,d by 
trenching, and are here inserted as the evidence 
for the position of the road. The breadth of the 
road in its best preserved part was 210^ inches 
between the edgings. This seems rather too 
much for 10 cubits, as even in Roman time that 
would not exceed 208 inches; but it might 
be 18 Roman feet, as that would amount to 
209'5. or, in the usual longer foot of Africa, 
210-2 inches. 

The brick buildings are mostly very ruined 
houses, destroyed by sebal-h diggers; but one 
on the cast side is noticeable for the size of the 
plan, and the beauty of the brickwork. The 
mud bricks are of unusual flatness and evenness, 
and laid with very close joints ; they measure 
with the joints 14^x7|xo|^ inches, the thickest 
bricks of that length I have seen. The building 
seems therefore to have been for some pulilic 



BI0SP0LI8 PARVA. 



purpose ; and I carefully cleared out all the cham- 
bers, but without finding anything. What re- 
mains of it IB only the substructure, sunk through 
7 or 8 feet of town rubbish to a rock basis ; 
without any doorways between the chambers, 
which were merely cellar pits under the apparent 
floor level. The four main dimensions of this 
building seem to be laid out by the Greek foot. 
suggesting an Attic architect. 

Length . . . 550-^45=12-22 inches 

Breadth. . . 539-^44=12-25 „ 

Longest chamber . 305 -j- 25 = 12-20 „ 

Next chamber . 183-5^15=12-23 



Mean 



12-22 inches 



Around this were found scattered near by four 
blocks of stone, evidently used for station marks 
in a survey or plan. The sides were approxi- 
mately squared, slightly sloping inward ; on the 
top a slight circular hollow 5-40 inches in 
diameter, coloured red, and across it two faint 
lines scratched on the diagonals of the block, 
and a minute hole at their crossing. It would 
be impossible to have a better station mark, 
very visible white stone, with a bright red disc, 
and delicate lines crossing in the middle of it. 
Such stones may perhaps have been used in 
setting out the fine buildings around which they 
were found, 

The houses were irregular in most of the area, 
but one long street could be traced, belonging 
to the later orientation of the plan. On the 
front ^vall were arched cellars o!" houses remain- 
ing ; and in the west half a deeji well went down 
through the wall, and the hill below, to water 
level. This was cleared as far as we could ; the 
iron sword was found in it (ba.se of pi. xlii.), 
and the bronze busts and other small objects 
were found in the well or the chamber above it 
(now at Sydney). lu the lowest level of the 
chamber were coins, mostly of Nero, and some 
of Hadrian and Antonhaus ; while on a higher 
level were other coins down to Gallienus. So the 



occupation of these houses was from about 60 to 
270 A.D. No coins of the Constantine family 
were found, either in the chamber or the town ; 
so the fort was abandoned probably at the defeat 
of jEmiiian, or that of Domitius. 

90. A new class of pottery here belongs 
apparently to Roman age. Enormous niunbers 
of stands are found (see pi. xlii.), with a 
conical base, and a saucer-shaped top ; but as 
they are all pierced through they can only have 
been for supporting a dish or tray. These 
lie in thousands of fragments on the rubbish 
mounds, thrown out of the E. gate of the town 
into a small ravine at the side : and they are 
also in the rubbish beneath the rebuilt E. 
wall. From their numbers they belong to 
a large popidation here, and therefore to the 
Roman gan'ison, which seems to have begun in 
the middle of the 1st centuiy ; and they were 
thrown away earlier than the wall, which was 
built between the time of Nerva and perhaps 
Aurelius, or Gallienus at latest. So they must 
belong pretty closely to the end of the 1st and 
beginning of the 2nd century a.d. 

Upon them are scratched a great variety of 
marks, the same mark being, however, often 
repeated, probably as a personal sign. These 
marks are all copied and published here in pis. 
x!v. — xlviii. Such a large system of marks, 
which are quite apart from the known alphabets, 
raises a serious question as to their origin. 
And we need not suppose that they belong to 
Egypt, an there was a Roman garrison, drawn 
from some other parts of the empire, stationed 
here. 

91 . Another trace of such foreigners is found 
on a sherd of pottery of Roman age, with part 
of six lines of inscription scratched upon it (see 
pi. xli). This ostrakon is a token of some 
troops from the south of Asia Minor ; and it is 
known that in the 1st century there was a large 
number of Galatians among the troops as far up 
as Thebes. It seems not unlikely that these 
numerous marks on the pottery, as well as the 



THE PTOLEMAIC AND ROMAN PERIOD. 



67 



ostrakon inscription, are due to southern Gala- 
tian soldiers. 

Of the ostrakon, Prof. Sayce writes : — 
"(1) The alphabet is not Karian, though 
closely allied to the latter. It may perhaps be 
Eaunian. 

" (2) The Avi'iting is partly boustrophedon, as 
is shown by the position of the B. 

" (3) The left hand sign in the 4:th line, which 
is not found in the Karian alphabet, is the 
Kypriote to. 

" I read therefore 

(1) e-a 

l(?) 
(2) r-a B-a-iU 
son of Baul 
(3) l-e (?) a-h'ti 

(4) . . . . w-a-b-i'l O'Ue-to 

(5) e-a A'b'tO'h-e d . . . . 

I (?) the Abydian 
(G) . . rf (?)-i;-u-A-e d(?)-a-e r(?)-(i gi^ya-u 

son of (?) Kau (nos) ? " 
This ostrakon is in the Ashmolean Museum; 
and though when found I at once showed it to 
all the workmen, and encouraged them to look 
for such inscriptions, and also searched himdreds 
of similar sherds myself, we did not find another 
fragment. 

92. The graffiti of Roman age that we found 
(pi. xliv.) were on the inner side of the west 
wall of the town, from opposite the middle of 
the temple of Nerva northward to the first 
cross wall. This wall was probably therefore a 
part of the barracks. There had been a first 
coat of plaster, of which some part showed re- 
mains of figures painted in fresco, of apparently 



the 1st or 2nd century a.d. Over that had 
been spread a later coat of plaster, which was 
nearly covered with grey scrawling, done with a 
charred stick. Much of it was quite senseless, 
and much had decayed, so far as to be illegible ; 
but I copied many names and sketches, all of 
which were verified by my fellow-workers. 

The names of Aurelios Germanos (2), Aure- 
lius, son of Diogenes (1), Theodosios, the philo- 
sopher (6), Tiaos (4), and others can be traced. 
From the frequent occurrence of Aurelios these 
are clearly of the 3rd century ; but the name 
Theodosios cannot warrant bringing this group 
to the 5th century, in view of the general uni- 
formity of it, and the absence of any signs of 
occupation later than Gallienus. Some drawings 
are, however, of purely Egyptian source, as the 
hawk (5) which intei'sects the Theodosios in- 
scription at *; and the Coptic letters (10). 

93. The only Roman object from the tombs 
is the finely modelled head in coloured plaster, 
on pi. xlii. It is shown first in three- 
quarter view alone ; and then in front view and 
profile, along with the skull of the man. I 
took photographs of the skull with the space 
between the eyes and lips as in the photographs 
of the head, and then adjusted the two photo- 
gi'aphs together, and printed the composite. 
In the profile it is surprising how exactly true 
the face modelling proves to be ; the excess of 
the plaster beyond the skull outline is exactly 
what would be accounted for by the living flesh. 
We have for the first time an evidence of the 
skill of the Roman modeller, and an example of 
the appearance of the living person to compare 
with the aspect of the skull alone. 



59 



I N D E X 



Abadiyeh .... 


• • • 


. 1,2,13 


Beadwork 


. 46 


Ady, tomb of . 


• • • 


. 37 


Beba, tomb of 


. 38 


Adze, copper . 


■ • • 


. 24, 36 


Bebt-tha, tomb of . . , 


. 38 


Agate .... 


• • • 


. 27 


Beer, dregs of 


. 32 


Alabaster vases dated, Vlth- 


-Vllth Dynast; 


Y . 38,40 


Beetles in jar 


. 32-4,47 


,, Xth Dynasty . 


. 39 


Bird offered in tomb 


. 43 


Xllth 


Dynasty 


. 42, 53 


Black incised pottery 


. 10,14,48,52 


Amenemat III., scarab of 




. 50 


Black polish of vases 


. 13 


Amethyst 




. 27 


Black pottery, coarse 


47-8 


,, of XII th Dynasty 




. 42-4,53 


Black-topped pottery 


. 13,45,47,51 


Amorite connection . 




. 32 


„ sequence dates of 


. 8 


Amulets, prehistoric 




. 26, 30 


Blue marble 


. 42-4, 47, 51-3 


Vlth Dynasty . 




. 38-9,40 


Bodkin, copper .... 


. 24 


„ Xllth Dynasty . 




43-4 


Bones wrapped separately 


. 35 


Anchylosis of spine . 




. 34 


,, of XVIIIth Dynasty buried loose 


. 37 


Animal head buried . 




. 46 


Bracelets of beads .... 


. 33 


Animal bones alone . 




37-8 


,, of copper .... 


. 37 


Animals on combs . 




. 21 


,, of flint .... 


. 36 


Armlets, ivory . 




. 21 


,, of ivory .... 


. 21 


Asianic ostrakon 




. 56 


„ of shell strips . 


45-6 


Aurelios Germanos . 




. 57 


,, three on fore-arm 


. 46 


Aurelios son of Diogenes . 




. 57 


Brick building,, fine .... 


. 65 


Axe, copper 




25, 36, 51-2 


Bucrania 


. 26,46,48,61 


,, double 




. 24 


Bull's head buried .... 


. 34 


„ of different periods . 




. 42, 52 


Bull's head amulets 
Burials, contracted historic 


. 26, 3&-40 
. 38, 40 


Ball amulet 




. 27 


„ position of bodies 


. 32, 34, 37-8 


Ballas .... 




. 2 


,, of mutilated bodies . . 32 


-3, 35-6, 39, 45 


Bangles of copper 
Basket-work patterns 
Baskets .... 




32, 34, 37 

. 14 
. 47 


,, of two or more bodies 
Burnt stratum in valley . . . , 
Butmir, pottery from . . . . 


. 32-3,35 
. 34 
. 14 


Beads .... 




. 27 


Buttons, dated 


39-40 


,, around skull . 




. 35, 38 






,, in eyes of skull 




. 35 


Calcite 


. 27 


„ on bones 




. 45 


Carbonyl gas 


. 13 


,, cruciform and star 




. 36 


Card catalogue of graves . . . . 


. 5 


„ Vlth-VIIth Dynasty 




39, 40 


Carnelian 

* 


26-7 


„ Xllth Dynasty 




42, 44 


Cartonnage gilt 


. 54 


„ of Pan -graves 




. 46 


Cemeteries excavated . . . . 


31-2 


„ Xlllth XVIIth Dynasty . 


. 53 


Cemetery A 


. 32 


„ XXIInd Dynasty . 


• • t 


. 54 


„ B 


. 32 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



X 



24,: 
33,^ 



YS. 

ChiseU, copper 
„ model 

Ciempoznelos, pottery from 

Cist of pottery 

GlaBsificatioQ of periods . 

Claw amulet . 

Coffin of wood . 

Combs, ivory 

Copper axes of different periods .... 

bangles 32, 34, 

..foil 

„ models of vases, ko 37, 

„ needle 24, 38, 

„ pin, earliest 13, 24, 28, 

„ tools 24, 36, 



35, 38-9, 43-4, 51, 53 



Coral tubes 

Corn-bin models 

Cornice of poles 

Crocodile amulets 

Cross-lined pottery . . . . ^ . 6, 
,, sequence dates of . . . 

Cruciform beads 

Cut up bodies 32-3, 

Cylinder, ivory, inscribed 

,, of copper 



Dagger, flint 23 

,, forms of 42 

„ of Suazenra 52 

Dates offered in tomb 43 

Decorated pottery 6, 15 

,, sequence dates of ... 10 

,, age of designs . .15 

Degradation of pottery forms . 5, 15 

of slates 20 

Dendereh 2 

Deposit of mud, rate of . . . . .28 

Diorite vases 40 

Direction of tombs 42 



j Dogs, buried 
Doll, ivory 
., pottery . 

Egga, models of 
Ensigns of ships 
Eye-paint, green 



Face pendants 22, 25 

Face-veil 22 

Fancy forms of pottery 14 

,, sequence dates of . . 9 

Fat in jars 15, 47, 61 

Felspar, green 38, 43 

Figures of men 26, 36 

Finger rings, ivory 21 

Fish amulets 40, 43 

Fish hooks 52 

Fish vase 44 

Flaying knife, copper 24 

Flint bracelets 36 

Flint forms, history of 23 

Flint working, history of 23-4 

Fly amulet 26, 34, 44 

Forehead pendants 22, 34 

Forked lance of flint 23 

Foundation of sand 65 

Frog amulets 26, 40 



Galatians . 66 

Galeno 25 

Galleys, as figured on pottory 15 

Garnet beads 44 

Glazed pottery beads 27 

,. quartz 26 

Goat heads, bung up 46 

Goat skins 13, 32, 34, 36 

Gold foil over limestone 26, 38 

Gold objects ... 25, 27, 39, 40-1, 43-4, 53 

Graffiti, Bomau 67 

Graves, direction of 42-3, 51 

,, earliest known 13 

,, sequence dates of, worked out . . 11, 12 
,, shallow pan-shaped ... 13, 28. 46 

Green eye-paint 20, 47 

Griudcr stones 47 



27, 44 

Hair-pins, ivory 21 

Hand amulet 39 

Eland-working of atone 19 



INDEX. 



61 



Harpoons 22 

Hathor amulet 41 

Hawk amulets 26, 40, 44 

Hawks on ring *. 22 

Hedgehog, blue glazed 44 

Hez hieroglyph, origin 24 

Hippopotami, figures of 33, 35 

Hissarlix, pottery from 14 

Hoe model 33 

Horn, musical 53 

HOTEP-AQERA, stelo 41 

Hu temple enclosure 54 

Human figures 

Incised black pottery, sequence dates of . . .10 
Intermediate pottery, Xlllth — XVIIth Dynasties . 50 

Italiot pottery 52 

Ivory carvings 21 

„ cylinder inscribed 36 

„ doll 44 



Eabyle pottery 
Earian alphabet 
Eaunian alphabet 
Ehyan scarabs 
Knives of flint . 
Eoptos, work at 



14,30 
57 
57 
53 
23 
2 



Lances of flint 23, 33 

Late pottery 5, 16 

„ sequence dates of 11 

Lawes, Miss 2, 3 

Lazuli . . 26-7 

Lead objects 25 

Leather work 47, 51 

Leg amulets 38-9 

Libyans 13, 29 

Linen cloth 46 

Lions on ring 22 

Lion and man, on pin 53 

Livingstone's use of malachite 20 



Mace-heads 

Maces with handles . 

Mace, Mr. 

Mac-Iver, Mr. . 

Majorca, bronze bulls' heads 

Malachite eye-paint . 

Marble head of king 

Marble, pale blue 

Marks on pottery 



. 24 

24,33 

.2,3 

.2,3 

. 26 

20,47 

. 54 

42-4, 47, 51-3 

29, 52, 56 



51,53 

55-6 

2,15 

2 



Masks on heads 

Measures 

Mena, tomb of 

Min, statues of 

Mirrors 38-9,43,52 

Modelled head in stucco 57 

Morgan, M. do 2 

Mutilated burials ... .... 32 

Naqada 2 

Needles of copper 24, 38, 53 

Nbkhtyk stele 41 

Neolithic age 28 

Nestor L'H6te quoted 55 

Nile depoMts 28 

Obsidian 27 

Offering pits 37-8 

Offerings, tray of .43 

Ointment in jars 15, 47, 51 

Orme, Miss 2, 3 

Ox heads hung on buildings 26 



Paint on animal skulls .... 

Palaeolithic age 

Palestine pottery 

Pan graves 

Pebble grinders 

Pedunefer hotep, cartonnage of . 

Pegs of ivory 

Pendants for forehead .... 

Pins of copper 

Pits, for offerings 

Polished red pottery .... 

„ sequence dates of 

Porphyry, red, amulet .... 
Pottery used for arranging sequence 

sequence dates of . . . 
descriptions of . 

material of 

buried alone 
large amount in grave . 
of Pan-graves .... 
of Xllth Dynasty . ... 
between Xlllth— XVIIth Dynasties 
Prehistoric age : — 
Past work on . 
Sequence of periods 
Pottery 

Earliest stage . 
Early age 
Decadence of . 



46,51 
. 28 

15,30 
45-9 

20,34 
. 54 



. 21 

. 22 

. 24 

. 37 

. 13 

9 

. 27 

. 4-7 

8-11 

13-17 

, 13 

32,45 

. 33 

. 47 

. 50 

50-1 

.2,3 

4-8 28-30 

8-11 

28, 34 

. 29 

. 30 



62 



DIOSPOLIS PARVA. 



Late age 


. 30 


Sites excavated 


• 


■ 




. 1 


Length of 


. 28 


SiTHATHOR, wands of 


» • 


. 53 


Changes in style i 


J9, 30 


Slate palettes . 


> 


i 


13, 20, 34 


Very late tomb 


. 32 


„ use of . 


• 


• 


. 20 


Ptolemaic temple 


. 64 


Slave figures buried . 


• 


• 


. 26 






Slip catalogue of graves . 


• 


• 




4 


Quartz 

,, glazed S 


. 27 
56,27 


Soul-house 
Spear-head amulet . 
Spoons, ivory . 


• 
• 






. 43 

. 27 
. 21-2,34 


Bansenb, statuette of 

Bazors 

Bhombic beads 

Bing-jar 

Bings with animal figures .... 

Boofing of tomb 

„ with round poles .... 

Bough-faced pottery 

,, sequence dates of 


. 40 
. 52 
. 42 
. 52 
. 22 
. 33 
. 37 
. 16 
. 10 


Star beads . . . , 
Station-marks of surveyor 
Statistical sorting of types 
Statuettes .... 
Steatite beads . 
Stone vases .... 
„ types of 
,, materials of . 
Stucco mask on heads 
,, modelled head 


• 

• 

• 

• 

1 t 

» ■ 

• 


B 


. 36 

. 56 

6 

40, 43-4, 52, 54 
27, 34, 36 
. 18 
. 18 
. 19 
51, 53 
. 57 


Sand blown in valleys 

SandalSi ivory model of 


. 34 
. 22 


Suazenra, dagger of . 

Sword, iron .... 


• 
• 






. 52 
. 56 


„ leather 


. 46 




Saucer-shaped graves 


. 13 


Ta-bekt statuette 62 


Scarab beetles in jar 


32-5 


Theodosios the philosopher 


1 


. 67 


Scarabs 4 


2,52 


Tiaos 




. 57 


* 

,, found with women .... 


. 51 


Tombs, direction of 


« 


. 42 


Scorpion amulet 


. 27 


„ sequence dates of, worked out 


• 


11,12 


Scraper of flint 


. 24 


Tools of copper ..... 


« 


. 24 


Scratch combs 


. 21 


Tray of offerings 


• 


. 43 


Seal of Vlth Dynasty 


. 39 


Turquoise 


• 


. 27 


Sebekhotbp, statuette of .... 


. 52 


Tusks of ivory 


» 1 


. 21 


Sent, statuette of 


. 43 


Tweezers on block 


• 


. 52 


Sequence of prehistoric ages 


4 


Uha, tomb of 


• 


. 38 


„ dates 


4 


Usertesen I., scarab of . 


• 


. 50 


„ „ scale of 


5 


Ushabti of Xllth Dynasty 


■ 


. 43 


,, „ mode of arranging 


6-8 


Vase amulet 


• 


. 27 


„ „ list of types 


8-11 


Wall model, with men .... 


• 


. 32 


„ „ of tombs worked out . 1 


1-12 


Wavy-handled jars 


• 


5,15 


Serpentine; transparent 2 


1,26 


„ sequence dates of 


• 


. 10 


Servants, burials of 


40 


White paint on pottery .... 


• 


. 51 


Sewn leather 


47 


Wire 


• 


. 25 


Shesha, scarabs of 


52 


Woman plaiting child's hair, statuette 


• 


. 62 


Ships figured on pottery 


15 


Wooden coffins 


• 


. 35 


Signs, use of 


29 


Yaqebher, scarab of 


• 


. 63 


Silver objects 2 


6,27 


Yi, statuette of . . . 


• 


• 


• 


. 62 



LONDON : 

6ILBBBT AND BIVINGTON, LIMITED, 

LITTLX SUTTON 8TBBBT, CLXBKBNWELL, B.C. 



CEMETERIES OF ABADIYEH AND HOW. 



HOW 




■Ucr*'^^;/] 









S E M A I N E H 




POTTERY OF SUCCESSIVE PREHISTORIC PERIODS. 




1:6 SEQUENCE OF STONE VASES, SLATE PALETTES AND IVORIES. 



n 



Stone Vases. 



-0- 



D 



oQo 



H 



"O 



o: 



o 



\JP- 



c 



u 



oO 



i<C?' 



^/^ Slate Palettes 






-cz;^ 






o 







O 



<::^ 



o 



o^ 



Ivories 



Pll'Wil^ 






□ 



^ 



TO' 



^ 



DIAGRAMS OF SEQUENCE DATES OF PREHISTORIC TOOLS, tie. 




1 


1 


-0 


M 


4 



FLINT IMPLEMENTS COPPER IMPLEMENTS 

MATERIALS OF BEADS STANDARDS OF SHIPS AMULETS 



D 2 t ' 
N jl h ■ 

< 2 5 : 



6 > " 



Y 



^ 



(§) 



/i 



<» 



^^ 



c^ 






-3^ 



ABADIYEH. PREHISTORIC. 



^^i 




ABADIYEH. PREHISTORIC FLINTS. 




\l/:. 




iij ii| !\ //I w: ■ 

iU, g,. y fri ^ i; g \u, 

rr 



Vu 



"^'« 



,y 






■5 



uS6r .».*.V l/ui>* 



ABADIYEH. STONE VASES AND IVORIES. 




ABADIYEH. CEMETERY U. IVORY, &0., PREHISTORIC. 




--M4S SOir-7i ly.myu.^r 



1:4 



DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC SLATE PALETTES. 



XI. 










U89 





B447 




Bl50 




656S 




Ul9l 




H23 



R 4-0 



UlTS 




30 




R123 
Tap, rtfinnet number; iate, tomb number; middle, t/pe number. 




1:4 



DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC SLATE PALETTES. 



XII. 




35 




r 
1 

i 



34 



> 



no 



74 A 



--- U 




RI09 



51 




U59 



36 

\ 63A y 

Bsi 





Bl07 



\65A/ 

Bl09 




49 



95 a 



52 




Ull4 




39 40 




BI06 
41 



BIOS 





42 



'i 



B4M B4I4 




U232 




BlOl 




_ 54 



/^ 



\O0h 



55 



lOOA 



56 




102 A 




--'Ul3i 



H90 



Ul30 




H54 




^ 



114 



59 



\j \p 

U8I 



1:6 



BLACK-TOPPED POTTERY, B 6-99. 



Xill. 



Si 





6i 





if 





IIK. 



I8e 




ys^c 




76* 



76 c 



81 » 



98 




83 c 





94. c 






95' 







V 



lb 




\ih 



\9i 



POLISHED RED POTTERY, P 1-90. 



i9c 




ZICL 



lib 




IZb 



23 c 




23cL 



Z2.C 






71 1 



46cl 




4-6 e 





23e 




7i* 




rott^A 



7 5-c 







ft^f 



FANCY FORMS OF POTTERY, F. 




WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY. C. 



BLACK INCISED, N. 




WAVY-HANDLED POTTERY, W 3-63. 






DECORATED POTTERY. D 2-29. 
3i 4f 4-3 







(II III 






DECORATED POTTERY, D 39-03. 




1:6 



ROUGH-FACED POTTERY. R4-99. 



XVII. 





2.5 <Z 



2.6i 





33 



39 





40 



43.S 






4-2. c 





A-Sh 








' 80 




ail 





QIC 



82. d 



83 & 







1 :6 



LATER POTTERY, L2-43. 



XVIII. 




9» 




I6i 



ilA 



l?c 



IZi 





30b 




16c 



32.01 




34 c 




3Sb 



17 t vat 




3Zb 




36c 





IJt 



nf 





38& 




2.6 



33 c 




41 1 




43 ^ 




1:6 



LATER POTTERY, L 44-87. 



XIX. 





SOc 



5ro& 





53 c 




53 <I 





Sie, 





sr6i 




68 



ni 



I 



S6i 






s-9 




HV 



5r9n 









86^ 



RI3I 







DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC DRAWINGS AND MARKS. 



as V' si 

A 



^-i^^ 









1:4 



DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC MARKS. 



XXII. 



125 



126 



RiS 





U.R 



127 



k 




Uipy 



128 



N 




198 I U 



188 



184 

430 



180 



T^ 



181 



1^. 



262 





199 



A 



188 

B432 



187 




140 



346 



141 



\ 



148 

> 



ft.M»^ 




430 



189 



145 



Uaoa 

B 





144 



ra5e 



6129 
148 1^7 148 

X X n 



149 



160 101 



182 



190 151 «a ^** ^^ 



159 



p^y^ 



X 

154 



155 



U195 



i 3-14 

1^ 



158 



157 



U 




ash ash 



V' T 



X >^-n 



256 



178 



171 



188 



U 



^, 



«M ' f 106 
W 



/ 



X 



180 



187 



188 



189 



170 



VVV\ M/\ 

^**' Insirferwn Inside rim *^^ 



^n^J 



90 




f 



172 



133 



174 



'J 



u 



175 U38 



t 



178 



177 



394 



178 



179 



H 



566 



180 



181 




rf 




182 
3^4 



T^ 



188 



194 



ITu. ^ 



184 



tf 



186 



187 



40S . 188 



191 




180 




«I95 



lit 




189 




190 
338 



J 



192 




198 



194 




40V 



195 




21S 



196 



197 



V 



J»a 




Ul9f 



198 



199 



200 



ras« 








379 



U 





46h 



201 

in 



208 




208 



209 



210 



207 



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218 



214 




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211 



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215 



217 



218 




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218 



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LATER POTTERY, L2-43. 



XVIIi. 





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LATER POTTERY, L 44-87. 



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DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC DRAWINGS AND MARKS. 










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DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC MARKS. 



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DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC MARKS. 



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126 



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160 151 162 



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160 161 ^W 



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178 



171 



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176 



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180 



181 




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DIOSPOLIS. PREHISTORIC MARKS. 



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224 



228 



229 






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226 








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299 294 

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240 



241 



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269 



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276 



274 





325 



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281 



280 



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217 



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287 



288 



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206 
206 ^ ^3 




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1 : 1000 ABADIYEH. CEMETERY D. 



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HU. POTTERY. XII-XVIII DYNASTY. CEMETERY Y S. 




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