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CO =i 1 

<^sSi i 



1 Dlfl 

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fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

fE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. I'OST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.k.hist.soo. 













o^AT' T 11 

First Printed 1917 
Reprinted 1955 


Printed in Great Britain 

JUL 26 1957 







BOOK LV 376 

INDEX 485 




TaSe iVfffTiv iv r<f ■jtci'ttj/coo't^ irpwry Tuy Alwvos 'Pca/xaiKooy 

a. 'fls Kaiarap viK'f}<ras vepi "Aktiov to irapdvra SifOero. 

fi. llepl 'Avrwvlov Koi KXeoirdrpas Kol o)V Ktrpa^av /tCTcli ttj* 


y. 'D.S ^AvTWPius T)TTr)de\s iv AlyvTTTci) eavrhy airfKTeivtv. 

5. 'Xls Kataap AtyvnTov ixftp(*'OO'T0. 

6. 'Cs Ka7aap is 'PwfjLT]v ^\de koI to. irripiKta fjyayey. 
C 'Us rh ^ou\evTT)piov rh *lovKiov KadLepwdrj. 
7j. 'n,s Mvaia €a.\w. 

Xp6yov irXrjdos to \oiira ttjs Kalffapos rh y koX M, OuaXfplov 
Kopovivov MfaadAov vitarfias Ka\ &\\a €T7J Svo iy oTs dpxovTes oi 
apidfiOv/JLeyoi o'/Se iyfyoyro 

Ka7(Tap rh 5' „ 

M. AiKiyyiQt M. vl. Kpacffos^ 

Koiaop TO e' „ g 

26'|tos 'ATTOi/Xf'tos ' 2e|T0i» v\, 

Toiavrr) ti<; 97 vav^iayjia avrojv ttj Bevrepa tov 

SeTTTe/x/Sptou iyevcTO. tovto Be ovk aXXco? elirop 

{ovBe yap etcoOa avro iroielp) dXX' ort rore 

TTpoiTov 6 Kalaap ro Kpdro^ irdv fiopo^ ecr%ei/, 

2 wcrre koI ttjv dTrapiOfirjaiv tmv rrjf; jjiovapyia^ 

^ Kpdaaos supplied by H. Steph. 

^ 'AiTov\4ios Gary, oTrouA^ios M, a-noviXios V. 



The following is contained in the Fifty- first of Dio's 
Rome : — 
How Caesar after his victory at Actiuin settled matters of 

immediate concern (chaps. 1-4). 
Concerning Antony and Cleopatra and their movements 

after their defeat (chaps, 5-8). 
How Antony, defeated in Egypt, killed himself (chaps. 9-10). 
How Caesar subdued Egypt (chaps. 15-18). 
How Caesar came to Rome and celebrated his triumph 

(chap. 21). 
How the Curia lulia was dedicated (chap. 22). 
How Moesia was conquered (chaps. 23-27). 

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of 
Caesar (III) and M. Valerius Corvinus Messalla, together 
with two additional years, in which there were the magis- 
trates (consuls) here enumerated : — 


30 Caesar (IV), M. Licinius M. F. Crassus. 
29 Caesar (V), Sextus Apuleius Sexti F. 

Such was the naval battle in which they engaged b.c. 31 
on the second of September. I do not mention this 
date without a particular reason, nor am \, in fact, 
accustomed to do so ; but Caesar now for the first 
time held all the power alone, and consequently 

8 wTT. supplied by Bs. 

avTOu CTMP air ixeivrjfi rrjf; rjfiepa^ aKpi^ovaOaL. 

Kol ilT^ aVTTJ T(p T€ ^AtToXXcOVI, tS ^AkTIW TpLTJpTJ 

T€ KoX Terprjpr), rd re aWa to, efr}? p-^XP^ Bck^- 
pov<;, CK Tcov alxP'Ci^^TCOv veStv aveOr^KCy Koi 
vaov fiei^Q) (pKohoprjaev, aySyvd t€ riva koI yvjjL- 
VLKov Kol p.ov(TiKr]<i L7r7roSpop.La<i T€ TTevreTrjpLKov 
lepov (ovrco yap rou? T7)v (TLTrjaiv exovTa<; ovopid- 
^ovat) KuriBei^ev, "Axria avrov Trpoaayopevaa<^. 

3 TToXiv re nva iv tw tov arparoTreBov totto), tou? 
p,ev avvayeipa'i rov^ B* dvaaTrjca^i tmv irKrjato- 
XtopcDv, (TvvwKtae, Nc/coiroXtv 6vop,a avTy Bov<;. 
TO T6 xc^piov iv a> iaKijvr)(r€, XiOoi^ re rerpaTreSoi? 
eKprjiriBwae /cat tol<; dXovaip ip,^6\oi<i eKoapLj]- 
aev, eBo^ ri iv avroi tov ^AiroWcovof; vTraiOpiov 

4 TaOra fiev ixnepov iyivero, Tore Be p,6po^ puev ^ 
Tt TCdv veodv i<i Bico^cv TOV re ^ Avroaviov koI t)}? 
KXeoirdTpa^i eVretXe* Kal iKelvoi iireBiay^av p,ev 
avTOv<;, iirel 3' ovk iv KaToKrj^^ei, ^ i^alvovTo, 
dve^^PV^^^' Tat? Be XoLiral^i to Tacppevpa avrcov, 
p,7)B€vb<; ivavTLovpLevov BC oXtyoTrjra, eXa^e, Ka\ 

pLGTO, TUVTa Kal TOV XoLTTOV ffTpaTOV €9 Ma/Cfi- 

Bovlav aTTLovra KaraXa^cov dp,ax^l 'jrapecrTrjaaTO. 

5 r^Br] Be Kal Btecfivyov dXXoi re Kal TOiV irpcoreov 
ol p,ev 'Fcop^atoi, tt/oo? tov ^Avtcovcov, ol K erepoi 
ol Gvppiax^aavTe^ avTw OLKaBe. ov pbevTOL ye 
Kal avTeiroXeprja-av ovtol ye ere tw Kalaapi, 

* iv KaTa\T}\\>€i R. Steph., iyKaraX-n^l/ei VM. 


the years of his reign are properly reckoned from b.c. 8i 
that day.i In honour of the day he dedicated to 
Apollo of Actium from the total number of the cap- 
tured vessels a trireme^ a quadrireme, and the other 
ships in order up to one of ten banks of oars ; and 
he built a larger temple. He also instituted a quad- 
rennial musical and gymnastic contest, including 
horse-racing, — a "sacred" festival, as they call 
those in connexion with which there is a distribu- 
tion of food, — and entitled it Actia. Furthermore, 
he founded a city on the site of his camp by gather- 
ing together some of the neighbouring peoples and 
dispossessing others, and he named it Nicopolis.^ 
On the spot where he had had his tent, he laid a 
foundation of square stones, adorned it with the 
captured beaks, and erected on it, open to the sky, 
a shrine of Apollo. 

But these things were done later. At the time 
he sent a part of the fleet in pursuit of Antony and 
Cleopatra ; these ships, accordingly, followed after 
the fugitives, but when it became clear that they 
were not going to overtake them, they returned. 
With his remaining vessels he captured the enemy's 
entrenchments, meeting with no opposition because 
of their small numbers, and then overtook and with- 
out a battle won over the rest of the arniy, which 
was retreating into Macedonia. There were various 
important contingents that had already escaped ; of 
these the Romans fled to Antony and the allies to 
their homes. The latter, however, no longer fought 

^ Dio is very careful to date each emperor's reign pre- 
cisely. Cf. Preface to vol. i. p. xiii. 

" i.e. "City of Victory." The same name had been given 
by Pompey to a town founded after his defeat of Mithri- 
dates. See xxxvi. 50, 


aWa Kad* rjavx^'Ci'V kol eKelvoi koI ol Brj/xoi 
Trai^re?, oaoL koI irpoTepov ippcofidi^ov, ol p,ev 
2 evOi)^ ol Se koI fiera tovO' oy/uLoXoyrjaav. kol 6? 
Ta9 fJ-ev TToXei^ ')(pr}ULdr(i)v re ianrpd^eL teal r?}? 
\oL7rrj(; e? rov^; 7ro\LTa<i acj^wv iv ral^ efCKXr](7Lai<^ 
i^ovaia<} TrapaipeaeL ixerrfKde, TOv<i Be Brj BvvdaTa<i 
Tou? re paaikea^ ra jxev 'x^copia, oaa irapa rov 
AvTwviov €l\7](f)eaav, Trai^ra? ttXtjv tov re ^A/jlvv- 

2 TOV Koi rov 'Ap^eXdov d^eiXero, ^iXoirdropa 
Be TOV TapKOvBcjjLOTOV koX Av/cofiyBrjv ev /xepei 
TOV KaTTTraSo/ciKov Hovtov jSaatXevovra tov T€ 
^AXe^avBpov tov tov ^lafi^XL^ov dBeX(f)ov koX 
TMV BvvaaTeicov eiravae' koi tovtov, otl jxktOov 
avTrjv T/79 ifceivov KaTrjjopia^ elXrj^ei, koI e? tcl 

3 eTTiVLKia irapayaycov drreKTeive. Tr]v Be tov Avko- 
/jli]Bov<; Mr)BeL(p tlvI eBco/cev, oti tou? re Mucroi)? 
Tov<i^ ev TTJ ^Aata diro tov ^Avtcovlov irpo t?)? 
vavp.a'xia^i direa-TTjcre, koi p£T uvtmv tol^; iv Trj 
/jLeplBt avTOv ovaiv eTroXe/jLrjcre. KvB(i)vidTa<i * re 
Kul Aa/jL7raLov<i eXevOepov^ d(f>f]/cev, on tlvcl avTw 
GvvqpavTO' Kol Tot? y€ Aa/jL7raL0i<; /cal ttjv ttoXlv 

4 dveaTcoaav avyKaTM/cLae. twv re fiovXevrcov 
Kol Tcov lirirecov tcov re dXXcov tmv Kopvcpalcov 
Tcov avp,7rpa^dvT(ov tl T(p 'AvtmvIo) ttoXXov? /nev 
'^(^pjjfjLaaiv e^r]p,LCi)cr€, iroXXov'^ Be /cal icpovevae, kuL 
TLvwv Koi i(f)eLcraTo. koI ev fiev tovtoi<; 6 re 
^6(Taio<; eTn(^avr]<^ eyeveTO (jroXXd/ci^ re yap 
dvTiiroXep,r)aa'; avrw kol rore cf)vyu)v Kal fcara- 
Kpv(^dei^, 'X^povcp T6 vcTTepov evpeOeh, ofKo^; ea-coOr]) 

5 /cal Mdp/c6<; TC<i ^/cavpo<;' dBeX^6<; re yap tov 
Xe^Tov o/jLo/jLojTpcofi cov Kal OavaTwOrjvai KeXevardeU 

* robs supplied by St. '■^ KvSwviaTas Bk., KuSupeaTas VM. 



against Caesar, but both they and all the peoples b.c. si 
which had long been subject to Rome remained 
quiet and made terms, some at once and others later. 
Caesar now punished the cities by levying money 
and taking away the remnant of authority over their 
citizens that their assemblies still possessed. He 
deprived all the princes and kings except Amyntas 
and Archelaus of the lands which they had received 
from Antony, and he also deposed from their thrones 
Philopator, the son of Tarcondimotus, Lycomedes, the 
king of a part of Cappadocian Pontus, and Alexander, 
the brother of lamblichus. The last-named, because 
he had secured his realm as a reward for accusing 
Caesar, he led in his triumphal procession and after- 
wards put to death. He gave the kingdom of Lyco- 
medes to one Medeius, because the latter had de- 
tached the Mysians in Asia i from Antony before the 
naval battle and with them had waged war upon those 
who were on Antony's side. He gave the people of 
Cydonia and Lampe ^ their liberty, because they had 
rendered him some assistance ; and in the case of 
the Lampaeans he helped them to found anew their 
city, which had been destroyed. As for the senators 
and knights and the other leaders who had aided 
Antony in any way, he imposed fines upon many of 
them, slew many others, and some he actually 
spared. In this last class Sosius was a conspicuous 
example ; for though he had often fought against 
Caesar and was now hiding in exile and was not 
found until later, nevertheless he was saved. Like- 
wise one Marcus Scaurus, a half-brother of Sextus on 
his mother's side, had been condemned to death, 

^ Cf. note on xlix. 36. 
2 Usually called Lappa. 


elra Sia rtjv firjTepa rrjv MovKiav a<f>eiOri. twv 
he KoXaaOevTcov ^AkvXiol re ^Xwpoi koI K^ovpicov 
ovofia fidXco-r ea'xpv, ovro^ fiev on rov KovpLQ)vo<^ 
€K€ivov Tov TTOTE T« Kaiaapi TW TTpoTepw TToWa 

6 (Tvvapa/jiivov f/o? '^v, ol he hrj ^Xwpoi on rov 
erepov tov \a')(ovra KeXevcravTOf; avrov a^a'yrjvai 
d/jL(f)6T€poi hte^Odprjcyav. rjcrav /juev yap irarrjp 
re /cal iraW cw? h* ovTO<i irplv Xayelv avro^ eavrov 
Tw <T(f)ayel eKwv irapehwKe, irepirjXyr^ae re eKelvo<; 
Koi avTO'x^eipia avrw eiranreOavev. 

3 OvTOi fiev ovv oi/tco? dirrjXXa^av, 6 8* opuXo^; 
Twv ^ Avrcovieioyv cTTpancorwv e? ra rov Kai<Tapo<; 
crrparoTreha Karerd^Orj, kol eireira rot/? /nh 
TToXira^ TOL'9 efo) rrj<; rjXcKla^ dir^ d/jL(j)orepa)V, 
IMrjhev fJLrjhevl hov<;, €? Tr]v ^IraXiav aTreTre/jL-^e, 

2 Tou? he ht] XoiTTOu? hieaTreipev eTreihr) yap iv rfj 
^LKcXia ^o^epoi ol fjuerd rrjv vlktjv eyevouro, 
eheiae firj /cal av6c^ Oopv^-qo-wcn, koi hid rovr 
ecTTreuae, irplv Kal onovv iJTTOKCVTjOrjvai, tou9 p^ev 
iravTeXo)^ eic tmv ottXwv direXdaai, rcov he to 

3 ttXyjOo^ hiacTTrdaai. tov? t6 e^eXevOepov^ ht 
vTToyfrlaf; en Kal roTe e^fov Tr)v TeTdprrjv avTol<; 
e(T(f)Opdv dcfyrjfcev, rjv e/c twv irpocrTa^ddevTwv a(j)i(Ti 
y^prfp.dTwv eirw^eiXov, Kal ovTot pev ou^ otl 
eaTeprjvTO tlvwv ep^vtjaiKdKovv en, aXX' 009 Kal 

4 Xa/36vT€<^ oaa p,r) o-vvearjveyKav €)(aLpov' ol T€ iv 
TM Terayp^evco €ti^ Kal Tore 6Vt69, to pev n 7r/0O9 
Twz^ (TTpanapx^v Karexopevoi, to he hrj TrXelaTov 

* ^t: Leuncl., €T€j VM. 


but was later released for the sake of his mother b.c. 31 
Mucia. Of those who were punished, the Aquilii 
Flori and Curio were most talked about, the latter 
because he was a son of that Curio who had once 
been of great assistance to the former Caesar, and 
the Flori because, when Octavius commanded that 
the one of them who should draw the lot should be 
slain, they both perished. They were father and son, 
and when the son, without waiting for the lot, volun- 
tarily offered himself to the executioner, the father 
was exceedingly distressed and died upon his son's 
body by his own hand. 

These men, then, fared in the manner described. 
The mass of Antony's soldiers was incorporated in 
Caesar's legions, and he later sent back to Italy the 
citizens of both forces who were over the military 
age, without giving them anything, and scattered 
the rest. For they had caused him to fear them in 
Sicily after his victory there, and he was afraid they 
might create a disturbance again ; hence he made 
haste, before they gave the least sign of an uprising, 
to discharge some entirely from the service and to 
scatter the majority of the others. As he was still 
at this time suspicious of the freedmen, he remitted 
to them the fourth payment which they still owed of 
the money levied upon them.^ So they no longer bore 
him any grudge because of what had been taken from 
them, but rejoiced as if they had actually received the 
amount they had been relieved from contributing. 
The men still left in the rank and file also made no 
trouble, partly because they were held in check by 
their commanders, but chiefly because of their hopes 

* i.e. one-quarter of the tax of 12^ per cent, levied upon 
them a little earlier. See 1. 10. 4. 


rfj Tov AiyvTTTLOv ttXovtov iXTrlSt,, ovBev iveoy- 
fjLcoaav' 01 he Br) avvvi/cijaavref; avTw koI t% 
<TTpaTeia<; a<f)e6evr€<; ijcr^aWov are firjBev y€pa<; 
evpojievoi, fcal araaid^eiv ovk e? fiUKpav rjp^avTo. 

5 KaiTOi ^ Katcra/3 vTTOTOiTrjaa<; re avrov<;, /cal 
^o/3>;^6t9 fir) TOV Mat,K7)vov, oS koI t6t€ 7) re 'Fcofir] 
Koi r) \oL7rr) ^IraXla irpoaereraKro, Kara^povt)- 
awcTLV OTL iTTTrev'^ Tjv, rov ^AypiTTTrav ax? Kal /car 
aWo Tt 69 Tr)v ^IraXCav eirefji'^e. koX ToaavTr}v 
y eVl TTCLvra Kal eKeivw /cal rat MaiKijva i^ovalav 
eSwKev a)(TT€ a^a^ Kal ra<^ e7riaToXd<;, a? rfj re 
povXf) Kal Tot? dXXoc^ eypacjye, irpoavayiyvdoa-KeLv, 
KOLK TOVTov Kal /jLeraypd^ecv oaa i$ovXovTO. 

6 Kal Bed Tovro Kal BaKTvXiov eXafiov irap avrov, 
%v eTnacfipayi^eo-Oai avrdf; e^wai. BnrXrjv yap 
Br) o-cppaylBa, f) fidXicrra rore exprjTO, e7re'iroir)To, 
<T(\)iyya ev eKarepa ofioiav eKTVircoaa^. varepov 
yap Tr)V elKova rrjv eavrov eyyXv\lra<; eKeivr) rd 

7 Trdvra ear)fiaiveTo. Kal avrfj Kal ol fierd ravra 
avTOKpdTope<^, TrXrjv VdX^ov, e'XP^o'avTO' ovto<; 
ydp TTpoyovLKO) tlvl acjipayua/jiarc, Kvva Ik irpwpa^ 
vecb<; TTpoKVTTTovTa €)(ovTL,^ ivofjLKTev. eireareXXe 
Be Kal eKeivoi<; Kal tol<; dXXoi^ T0i<; irdw <^iXoi,<;, 
oTTore n Beoiro Bi diropprjrcov (T<f)i(Ti Br)X(a(Tat, to 
Bevrepov del aroix^lou rov tm pr)fiaTL irpocrrj- 
KOVTo^ dvT €K€ivov dvreyypd(j)cov. 

4 Kal 6 fiev, CO? ovBevo^ en Beivov irapd rayv 
earparevfjuevcov ea-o/juevov, rd re ev rrj 'EXXdBi 
Bi(pKr)(Te Kal rcjv rolv Oeolv fivar7)pi(ov fiereXa^ev, 
€9 re rr)v ^Kaiav KoixicrOel^ Kal eKelva irpoaKaOi- 

^ KaiTOL M, KaiToi Ka\ V. 
^ ^XovTi Xiph., fx°^'^°- VM. 



of gaining the wealth of Egypt. The men, however, b.c. si 
who had helped Caesar to gain his victory and had 
been dismissed from the service were irritated at 
having obtained no reward, and not much later they 
began to mutiny. But Caesar was suspicious of 
them and, since he feared that Maecenas, to whom 
on this occasion also Rome and the rest of Italy had 
been entrusted, would be despised by them inasmuch 
as he was only a knight, he sent Agrippa to Italy, 
ostensibly on some other mission. He also gave to 
Agrippa and to Maecenas so great authority in all 
matters that they might even read beforehand the 
letters which he wrote to the senate and to others 
and then change whatever they wished in them. - 
To this end they also received from him a ring, 
so that they might be able to seal the letters 
again. For he had caused to be made in duplicate 
the seal which he used most at that time, the design 
being a sphinx, the same on each copy ; since it was 
not till later that he had his own likeness engraved 
upon his seal and sealed everything with that. It 
was this latter that the emperors who succeeded him 
employed, except Galba, who adopted a seal which 
his ancestors had used, its device being a dog 
looking out of a ship's prow. It was the custom of 
Caesar in writing to these two ministers and to his 
other intimate friends, whenever there was need of 
giving them secret information, to substitute in each 
case for the appropriate letter in a word the letter 
next in order after it. 

Now Caesar, believing there would be no further 
danger from the veterans, administered affairs in 
Greece and took part in the Mysteries of the two 
goddesses.^ He then went over into Asia and 

^ Demeter and KorS. 



2 (Traro, rd re rod ^Avtcovlov a/ia CKapaBoKer ou 
<ydp TTCt) (Ta(j)6<; tl otttj 8L67r€(j)6vy€t eireTTvaTO, koI 
7rap€(TKevd^6T0 009 /cal iir avrov opfxriawv, civ tl 
aKpi^coarj. Oopu^-qadvTwv K avrwv iv rovrm 
(j)av€pM<; are Kal ttoXu aTro (Tcfycbv dirapTcovro^ 
auTov, i(j)O0^6rj jxr) ri KaKov irpoa-rdrov rivo^ 

3 \al36fievot Bpd(7Ci)(Ti, Kal Bia rovr ^Avtcoviov fiev 
aXkoL^ dva^TjrijaaL Trpoaera^ev, avTo<; Be e? rrjv 
^IraXtav rjireixOrj /jLe(TovvTo<; rov x^i/icovo^ ev o5 to 
Teraprov jxera ^ M.dpKov Kpdaaov r}p')(ev' ovTO<i 
ydp, Kaiirep rd re rov ^e^rov Kal ra rov ^Avray- 
viov TTpd^a^;, Tore fjirjBe (TTpaTr]yrjaa<; avvvird- 
revaev avrm. eXOcov Be e? to Bpevreaiov ovkctl 

4 irepaiTepw 'jrpov')(^o^p7](Tev. eVel yap ij re yepovala 
TTvOo/jbevTj TOP TTpocTTrXovv avTov iracra eKetae, 
irXrjv Tcov re Brjfidpx^ov Kal (rrparyycov Bvo Kara 
Boyfia Kara/jieLvdvTcov, dTrrjVTTjae, Kal rj linra^ 
Tov re BrjjjLOv ro irXecov Kal erepoi, ol fiev Kara 
irperrfieia^ ol Be eOeXovrai, woWol avvifKOov, 

5 ovKer ovBev vir ovBevo^ irpo^ re rrjv dcpc^tv avrov 
Kal 7rpo9 rrjv rcov irXeLovcov airovBrjv eveoxP'OoOrj. 
Kal ydp eKelvoL, ol p,ev <f>6fi(p, ol Be eXiricTLV, ol Be 
Kal p.erd7rep,7rroi, rrpo^ ^ ro Bpevreo-iov d<^iKovro' 
Kal avrcov 6 K.ataap rot<; jxev dXkoi<; '^pTjp^ara 
eBcoKe, roU Be Bid iravro^t avra> crvarpareva-aa-i 

6 Kal yrjv Trpoa-Kareveip^e.^ rovg ydp Br)p,ov<^ rov^ 

^ fi€Ta M, fifra tov V. ^ nphs M, is V, 

* vpo<TKaT(V€ijj.€ M, irpoffKaTe/jifiye V. 



settled matters there also, keeping watch meanwhile b.< 
upon Antony's movements ; for he had not yet 
learned anything definite regarding the refuge to 
which the other had fled, and so he was making pre- 
parations to proceed against him in case he should 
receive any precise information. But meanwhile the 
veterans made an open demonstration now that he was 
gone so far away from them, and he began to fear 
that if they found a leader they would cause some mis- 
chief. Consequently he assigned to others the task of 
seeking Antony, and hurried to Italy himself, in the 
middle of the winter of the year in which he was 
holding office for the fourth time, along with Marcus b.c 
Crassus. For Crassus, in spite of having sided with 
Sextus and with Antony, was then his fellow-consul 
even though he had not held the praetorship. 
Caesar, then, came to Brundisium, but proceeded no 
farther. For when the senate ascertained that his 
ship was nearing Italy, its members went there to 
meet him, all except the tribunes and two praetors, 
who remained in Rome in pursuance of a decree ; 
and the equestrian order as well as the greater 
part of the populace and still others, some as envoys 
and some of their own accord, came together 
there in large numbers, with the result that there 
was no further act of rebellion on the part of any 
one in view of his arrival and of the enthusiasm of 
the majority. For the veterans, too, had come to 
Brundisium, some of them induced by fear, some by 
hopes, and still others in response to a summons ; 
and Caesar gave money to some of them, while to 
those who had served with him throughout his 
campaigns he also made an additional assignment 
of land. For by turning out of their homes the 



eV Ttj ^IrdXta tou? ra rov ^Avtcovlov <^povrj<javTa^ 
i^0LKiaa<; rot? fjiev o-rpaTKorai'^ ra? re ir6\eL% 
Kol ra ')(wpia avrcov i^apiaaro, eKelvwv he hrj 
TOt? fxev liKeioaL to re Avppd)(tov kol tou? ^l- 
Xi7r7rov<; aXka re iiroiKelv avreScoKe, Tol<i he \oi- 
TTOt? apyvpiov dvrl t?)? ^wyoa? to fiev eveifie to 

7 8' uTrecr^eTO. av^vd fiev yap /cal €K t^9 I'tAtr?? 
eKTYjaaro, ttoWm Be ert TrXeloy dvr]\i(TKe. kol Bid 
TOVTO Kol TTpoeypayfrev ev ra) rrparrjpLw rd re 
eavrov Krrjpura koX rd ra)V eralpcov, iva dv re 
rrpiaaOai ri avrayv dv re kul avriXa/Selv ri<; 

8 iOeXijcrrj, rovro TroiTjar}. kol eTTpdOr} pblv ovBev, 
ovB^ dvreBodrj ovBev Tt? ydp dv koI eroXp^rjaev 
OTTorepovovv avrcov irpd^ai; rrj<; Be Br) eirayyeXia^^ 
dva^oXrjv €K rovrov evTrpeirrj Xa/Swv varepov 
avrrjv ifc rcov Klyvrrriwv Xacpvpcov dm^XXa^e. 

5 Tavrd re ovv koI rd dXXa rd eireiyovra Blol- 
Krj(Ta<s, rol^ re nva dBeiav XajBovon koI ev rfj 
^IraXia Biairdo-Oai (ov ydp e^rjv) Bov<;, Kal rov 
Brjp^ov rov ev rfj 'Voo/ultj viroXeicfydevra irapep^evo^; 
on /JLT} 7r/)09 avrov rjXOev, e? re rrjv 'EXXdBa 
avOi^ rpiaKoarfj p.erd rrjv dcfu^iv rjfiepa aTrype, 

2 Kal Bed rov laOp^ov rov ri)^ TieXoTrovvrjaov rd<; 
vav<; viTo rov ')(eifJLO)vo^ vrrepeveyKODV ovrw Ta%6tt)9 
69 rr)V ^Kalav dveKOpLiaOr] ware Kal rov * Avroovtov 
rrjV re KXeoirdrpav eKarepov dfia, Kal on dcftcop- 

3 /jirjOrj Kal on iiravi^XOe, /laOetv. ft)9 ydp rore eK 
rrj<; vavpax'ia'^ ecpvyov, ftex/Jt pev rrj(; HeXoTTov- 

^ iirayyeXlas Xyl., 0^0776X^01 VM, 


communities in Italy which had sided with Antony b.c. 30 
he was able to grant to his soldiers their cities and 
their farms. To most of those who were dispossessed 
he made compensation by permitting them to settle 
in Dyrrachium, Philippic and elsewhere, while to the 
remainder he either granted money for their land or 
else promised to do so ; for though he had acquired 
great sums by his victory, yet he was spending still 
more by far. For this reason he advertised at 
auction both his own possessions and those of his 
companions, in order that any one who desired to 
purchase any of them, or to take any of them in 
exchange for something else, might do so. And 
although nothing was purchased, and nothing taken 
in exchange, either — for who, pray, would ever have 
dared follow either course ? — yet he secured by this 
means a plausible excuse for delay in carrying out 
his promise, and later he discharged the debt out of 
the spoils of Egypt. 

After settling this and the other business that 
pressed, giving to those who had received a grant of 
amnesty the right also to live in Italy, not before 
permitted them, and forgiving the populace which had 
remained behind in Rome for not having gone to 
meet him, he set out once more for Greece on the 
thirtieth day after his arrival. Then, because it was 
winter, he carried his ships across the isthmus of the 
Peloponnesus ^ and got back to Asia so quickly that 
Antony and Cleopatra learned at one and the same 
time both of his departure and of his return. They, 
it appears, when they had made their escape from the 
naval battle at Actium, had gone as far as the 

1 In order to avoid the dangerous passage around Cape 



vrjXTOv 6/jLov a(f)LKovro, evrevOev Se twv (tvvovtcov 
Tim?, o(rov<i vTrcoTTTevov, aTTOTre/i-^a^'Te? (iroWol 
he Kol aKOVTwv avroiv aTrex^pr^orav) KXeoirdrpa 

fieV €9 T^Z/ AtyVTTTOP, firj TL T^9 (TV/JL(f)Opd<i (X(f)(OV 

4 TTpOTTvOofieVOL V6a)T6pLaO)(TlV, r/TTelx^T), KOl OTTO)? 

7€ KOI Tov TTpoairXovv a(T(j)d\rj TroLtjarjrat,, rd^; re 
7rp(ppa<; co? Kal KeKparrjKvca fcareareyfre koX fS8d<i 
Tiva^ iirLVLKLOV^; utt' av\7]ra>v ySev irrel 8e ev tw 
da(f)aXel iyevero, ttoXXoi'? /jL6v tcop Trpdyroiv, are 
KOL del ol ^ dydop^kvwv koX Tore iirl rfj av/xipopd 

5 avrrji; €7rr}p/jLepcov, €(f)6v€va€, ttoXvv Be Kal ttXovtov 
€fc re roi)V eKeivwv Krrjp.dr(Dv Kal eK tmv dWcov 
Kal oalcov Kal Oeicov, fi-qhevo^i /juyjSe roiv irdvv 
d/Sdroyv lepcov (f)€i8ofievr}, yOpoi^e, Svpd/jL€i<i re 
e^rjpTvero Kal (TV/jL/jLa')(^[a<; Trept-eaKoirei, tov re 
^Ap/jb€viov diTOKTeivaaa rrjv K€(f>a\r)v avrov ro) 
M?j3ft), a>? Kal eiTLKOvprjcrovTL a^LcjL hid tovt , 

6 eTTefju-yfrev. ^Avrcovio^i Be eirXevae jxev i<; rrjv 

All3v7]V TTyOO? TC HlvdpiOV ^KdpiTOV Kal TT/OO? TO 

arpdrev/jLa to fxer avrov eirl ry t?}? Alyvirrov 
(f>v\aKfj ivravOa nTpoavveiKeyp.evov eirel 8' ovre 
TTpoaBe^eaOat avrov ecjurj,^ Kal irpoaeri Kal rov^i 
TT poire /x(l)Oevra<i vir avrov €a(pa^e, twz^ re arpa- 
ricorcov o)v rjpx^^ dyavaKr^aavrd'i riva<; eirl 
rovrw BLe(j)6eLpev, ovro) Brj Kal avrb<i €9 rr)v 
^AXe^dvBpeiav fMrjBev rrepdva^; €Ko/jLia07]. 
6 Kal rd re dXXa a)9 eVt ra')(el TroXefKp irape- 
(TKevd^ovro, Kal rov<i vleh, KXeoirdrpa /xev 
Kaiaapioyva ^Avrcovio^; Be "AvrvXXov, ov €K rrj^f 
^ovXovia^ yevvrjOevra ol e'l')(ev, €9 ecj)7]j3ov<i eae- 

1 ol M, om, V. 

2 f<pT] supplied by Leuncl, 



Peloponnesus together ; from there, after they had b.c. so 
first dismissed a number of their associates whom 
they suspected, — -many, too, withdrew against their 
wishes, — Cleopatra had hastened to Egypt, for fear 
that her subjects would begin a revolt if they heard 
of the disaster before her arrival. And in order 
to make her approach, too, safe she crowned her 
prows with garlands as if she had actually won a 
victory, and had songs of triumph chanted to the 
accompaniment of flute-players. But as soon as she 
had reached safety, she slew many of the foremost 
men, inasmuch as they had always been displeased 
with her and were now elated over her disaster ; 
and she proceeded to gather vast wealth from their 
estates and from various other sources both profane 
and sacred, sparing not even the most holy shrines, 
and also to tit out her forces and to look about for 
allies. She put to death the Armenian king and sent 
his head to the Mede, who might be induced thereby, 
she thought, to aid them. Antony, for his part, had 
sailed to Pinarius Scarpus in Africa and to the army 
under Scarpus' command previously assembled there 
for the protection of Egypt. But when this general 
not only refused to receive him but furthermore slew 
the men sent ahead by Antony, besides executing 
some of the soldiers under his command who showed 
displeasure at this act, then Antony, too, pro- 
ceeded to Alexandria without having accomplished 

Now among the other preparations they made for 
speedy warfare, they enrolled among the youths of 
military age, Cleopatra her son Caesarion and Antony 
his son Antyllus, who had been born to him by 
Fulvia and was then with him. Their purpose was 



ypayjrav, Iv oi t€ AlyvirTtoi co? /cal dvBp6<i Tivo<i 
rfhrj j3aaiXevovT6<; cr<f)cov TrpoOv/jiTjOaxTt, koX ol 
aXKoi TTpoaTara'^ iK€Lvov<;, av ye ri Betvov a(l)ia-i 

2 avfi^fj, e%oi^Te9 Kaprep^acoai,. koX to?? fiev 
fiecpaKLOtf; koI tovto atrcov rov oXiOpov iyivero' 
ovSerepov yap avTcov 6 JLalaap, &>? kuI dvBpwv 
ovTwv Kol TTpoa'X^rjfid ri irpoaraaia'^ i'^ovTcov, 
e^eCa-aro' eKelvoL 8' ovv TrapeaKevd^ovro fiev o)? 
Kal iv rrj KlyvTrrw kol vaval xal ire^St iroXefirj- 

3 crovT€<;, kol eVt rovro) xal rd eOvrj rd op.oywpa 
Tou? re ^aaiXka^ rov<; ^iXiovf; (Tcplac irpocriTape- 
KaXovv, rjTotfjid^ovTO 5' ovSev ^ttov co? Kal e? rrjv 
^l^rjplav, dv Tt KareTrei^rj, irXevaovixevot Kal rd 
eKel dXXco<; re Kal tm irXrjOei, tmv 'x^prjiidrcov 
dTToarrjaovre'i, tj Kal Trpo^ rrjv ipvOpdv ddXaaaav 

4 fi€Ta(TTr](T6/jievoi. Kal oirayf; ye eirl irXelcrrov 
^ovXevofJuevoL ravra BiaXdOcoaiv, rj Kal i^airarrj- 
auxTL irrj rov K.ataapa rj Kal hoXo^ovrjawcnv, 
eareiXdv ripa<; eKelvw fiev Xoyovf; virep elprjvr]<^ 
T0?9 he hrj avvovaiv avrw 'y^ptj/jLara ^epovra^. 

6 Kdv Tovrcp Kal rj KXeoTrdrpa crKTjTrrpov re tl ^ 
-^pvcrovv Kal are^avov ')(^pvaovv rov re B[(f>pov rov 
fiaaiXiKov, Kpv<pa rov ^Avrayviov, ou? Kal rrjv 
dpyrjv ol Be avTMv ^ BtBovaa e7re/jL'\jrev, Xv av Kal 

6 eKelvov e')(9r)pr], aXX' avTrjv ye eXerjarj. 6 Be rd 
fiev Baypa eXafiev olwvov 7roiovp,evo<i, direKpivaro 
Be Tw /JL€V ^Avrwviw ovBev, Tjj Be KXeoTrdrpa 
(pavepco^; fxev dXXa re diretXrjrCKd Kal on, dv tmv 
re ottXcov Kal tt}? ^aaiXeia^ diroarf), ^ovXevaeraL 

1 Ti M, om. V. 

'** avTwv M, aifThv V. 



to arouse the enthusiasm of the Egyptians, who b.c. 30 
would feel that they had at last a man for their 
king, and to cause the rest to continue the struggle 
with these boys as their leaders, in case anything 
untoward should happen to the parents. Now as 
for the lads, this proved one of the causes of their 
undoing ; for Caesar spared neither of them, claiming 
that they were men and were clothed with a sort of 
leadership. But to return to Antony and Cleopatra, 
they were indeed making their preparations with a 
view to waging war in Egypt both on sea and on 
land, and to this end they were calling to their 
aid the neighbouring tribes and the kings who were 
friendly to them ; but they were also making ready, 
none the less, to sail to Spain if need should arise, 
and to stir up a revolt there by their vast resources 
of money and by other means, or even to change 
the base of their operations to the Red Sea. And 
in order that while engaged in these plans they 
might escape observation for the longest possible 
time or even deceive Caesar in some way or actually 
slay him by treachery, they despatched emissaries 
who carried peace proposals to him and bribes of 
money to his followers. Meanwhile Cleopatra, on 
her part, unknown to Antony, sent to him a golden 
sceptre and a golden crown together with the royal 
throne, signifying that through them she offered him 
the kingdom as well ; for she hoped that even if he 
did hate Antony, he would yet take pity on her 
at least. Caesar accepted her gifts as a good omen, 
but made no answer to Antony ; to Cleopatra, how- 
ever, although he publicly sent threatening messages, 
including the announcement that, if she would give 
up her armed forces and renounce her sovereignty, 



mept avTrj<; ocra 'X^pq irpa^ai, XdOpa Be oriy eav 
TOP ^AvTcoviov aiTOKTeivr), koX Tr)V dSecav avTrj koI 
Trjv dp^rjv aKepaiov Booaei. 
7 ^Ev CO Be ravra iyCyvero, Td<i re vau<i ra? iv tm 
Apa/BiKO) koXtto) 7r/)09 top 69 ^ Ttjv ipvOpdv 
BdXaaaav irkovv vav7r'r)>yr]6eLaa<i ol 'ApdjSioi, 
7r€L<TdevT€<; vtto K.vtpTov AtStou rod t/}? %vpla<i 
dp')(ovTO<i, KareTrprjaav, Koi ra? iiriKovpLa^i fcal ol 

2 Brjpoi Kol ol Bwdarai irdvje^ dirrjpvrjcravTO. kul 
fiat- Oavfidaai iTrip'^^erai on dWoc fxev av')(yoi, 
Kaiirep iroWd irap avrcov etX^^^ore?, iyKariXLTTov 
(j(^a<;, ol Be eVl Tat9 6iT\oixa')(iaL<^ iv rot? dnpo- 
Tar a rpecpofievoi, TrpoOv/jila re e? avrov^; TrXelarrj 

3 e'x^prjdavTO Koi dvBpeLOTara T^ycovlaavro. ovrot 
yap iv K.v^bK(p 7r/3o? TOV<i i7rivL/€L0v<=; dywva^i, ov^ 
iirl T(b l^aiaapi d^eiv rfkiri^ov, daKovfievoL, Tore 
iireiBr) Td')(t,aTa tcov yeyovoTCov rjaOovro, Mp/jurjaav 

4 €9 TTjV AcyvTrrov a)9 fcal ^orjOycrovref; avTol<i, koX 
TToWd fiev Tov ^AjjLvvTav iv ttj TaXaria iroWd Be 
KoX T0U9 TOV TapKovBi/jLorov TralBa^; iv ttj KtXtKia, 
<I>l\ov(; fiev (Kpcaiv 69 tol /idXtaTu yevop^evov;, Tore 
Be TTpo'i ra irapovTa peTaa-TdvTa<;, iroWd Be kuI 
TOV AlBiov KcokvovTa a(f)a<i t7}9 BloBov eBpaaav, 

5 ov p,evTOL Kal Biajreaelv 6*9 Tr)V AtyvTTTOv r]Bvvr}- 
drjcrav, aXX* iTreiBr] iravraxoOev TrepieaTOL^i- 
aOrjaav, \6yov p,ev ovB^ &)9 ovBeva, Kairot, tov 
AiBlov av^vd a<pLatv vTria^vovp^evov, irpoaeBe- 

1 is M, irpls V. 


he would consider what ought to be done in her b.c. so 
case, he secretly sent word that, if she would kill 
Antony, he would grant her pardon and leave her 
realm inviolate. 

While these negotiations were proceeding, the 
Arabians, instigated by Quintus Didius, the governor 
of Syria, burned the ships in the Arabian Gulf which 
had been built for the voyage to the Red Sea,^ and 
the peoples and princes without exception refused 
their assistance to Antony. Indeed, I cannot but 
marvel that, while a great many others, though 
they had received numerous gifts from Antony and 
Cleopatra, now left them in the lurch, yet the men 
who were being kept for gladiatorial combats, 
who were among the most despised, showed the 
utmost zeal in their behalf and fought most bravely. 
These men, I should explain, were training in 
Cyzicus for the triumphal games which they were 
expecting to hold in celebration of Caesar's over- 
throw, and as soon as they became aware of what 
had taken place, they set out for Egypt to bear 
aid to their rulers. Many were their exploits 
against Amyntas in Galatia and many against the 
sons of Tarcondimotus in Cilicia, who had been their 
strongest friends but now in view of the changed 
circumstances had gone over to the other side ; 
many also were their exploits against Didius, who 
undertook to prevent their passing through Syria; 
nevertheless, they were unable to force their way 
through to Egypt. Yet even when they were sur- 
rounded on all sides, not even then would they 
accept any terms of surrender, though Didius made 

* The " Red Sea " of the ancients is the Persian Gulf of 
to-day, their "Arabian Gulf" the modern Red Sea. 



^avro, rov he *AvT(t)VLOp /jL6Ta7re/jLyjravT€(i (09 Kal 
€v rfi Xvpia dfieovov fier avrov iroXefirjcrovTe^i, 

6 CTreiT iireihr) licelvof; fjLrjr avro<; /jL1]t ay- 
yeXcav riva avrol^ eTrefjbyjrev, ovrco Srj voixiaavre^ 
avTov aTToXcoXepat fcal dKovre<; GofioXoyr^aav eVt 
Tw fMrjSeTTOTe fiovojjia'xrjaai, koX tyjv ye Adcpvrjv 
rrapd rov A.iSlov, to tmv ^Avrio^ecjv irpodareioVy 
evoiKecv f^ixpi'^ ^v rat KataapL ravra BrjXcoO^ 

7 Kai ol fiev vtto tov MeaadXov varepop dirarr)- 
QePTe<i i'7refi(f>07]aap dXXo<; dXXoae &>? fcal e? rd 
arparoTreSa KaraXe)(^0T]a6/jL€POL, kol eV Tpoirov Brj 

8 TLV0<; 67nT7)helov i^Odpr^aap' *ApTd}pio<i Se Kal 
KXeoTrdrpa aKovaapre^ tmp 7rpeafie(OP rd irapd 
TOV Kalaapof; cr^iaLP iinaTaXePTa, eTre/jiyjrap 
avOL<i, r) fiep y^pi^fxaTa avTO) iroXXd Scocreip viria- 
^(PovixepT), 6 he rf;? re (piXia^; kol tx/? avyyepeia<^ 
avTOP dpafiL/jLP7jaK(i)p, koI TrpoaeTi Kal irepl Trj'^ 
avpovala^; tt}? TTpo? ttjp AlyvTrTiap diroXoyov- 
fM€PO<;, oaa re <7vpr]pda0r)adp iroTe Kal oaa 

2 avpepeaptevaaPTO dXX7j\oL<i i^aptd/j,ov/jLepo<i. Kal 
TeXo<; TiovirXLOP TovpovXXcop (BovXevTrjP t€ opt a 
Kai a<jiayea tov Kaicrapo<; yeyopoTa Tore re 
(f)LXiKa)^ ol avpoPTa e^eScoKep avTw, Kal kavTOP, 
dp ye Kal hid tovO^ y KXeoTruTpa crayOrj, KaTa- 

3 XPV^^^^^^ eirriyyeiXaTO. K.a2aap he top fiep 
TovpovXXiop drreKTeive (Kal eTu^^ ydp ex ttj^ ep 
Kw tov ^AaKXi-jTTLov vXrj^ ^vXa e? pavTiKOP KeKo- 
(f>(o^, hiKijp Tipd Kal T(p Oeu), otc CKel ehiKaicoOr), 
hovpat eho^e), tS) S' ^Aptcoplw ovhep ovhe Tore 

4 direKpivaTo. Tpin^p t€ ovp Trpea/Selap eaTeiXe, 



them many promises. Instead, they sent for Antony, b.c. so 
feeling that they would fight better even in Syria 
if he were with them ; and then, when he neither 
came himself nor sent them any message, they at 
last decided that he had perished and reluctantly 
made terms, on condition that they were never to 
fight as gladiators. And they received from Didius 
Daphne, the suburb of Antioch, to dwell in until 
the matter should be brought to Caesar's attention. 

These men were later deceived by Messalla and 
sent to various places under the pretext that they 
were to be enlisted in the legions, and were then 
put out of the way in some convenient manner. 
Antony and Cleopatra, for their part, upon hearing 
from the envoys the demands which Caesar made of 
them, sent to him again. Cleopatra promised to give 
him large amounts of money, and Antony reminded 
him of their friendship and kinship, made a defence 
also of his connexion with the Egyptian woman, and 
recounted all the amorous adventures and youthful 
pranks which they had shared together. Finally, 
he surrendered to him Publius Turullius, who was a 
senator and one of the assassins of Caesar and was 
then living with Antony as a friend ; and he offered 
to take his own life, if in that way Cleopatra might 
be saved. Caesar put Turullius to death (it chanced 
that this man had cut wood for the fleet from the 
grove of Aesculapius in Cos, and since he was executed 
in Cos, he was thought to be making amends to the 
god as well as to Caesar), but this time also he gave 
no answer to Antony. So Antony despatched a 



Kol TOP vlov Tov^AvrvWov fiera 'x^pvaiov ttoWov 
avTM CTre/uL'sjrev 6 Be ra fiev ')(^prjfjbaTa eXa^ep, 
€Kelvov Se Sia fcevrj^ avTaTrecrreiXe, /irjSefjLLav 
aiTOKpiGiv hov<^. rfj fjLevTOL KXeoTrdrpa TroXXd, 
uxTirep TO irpcoTOV, ovtco kol to Bevrepov ro re 
6 rpiTov Kol iTrrjireiXtiae kol virecrx^TO. (fiO^rjOeU 
B' ovv Kol 0)9 fi^ TTO)? diroyvovre^; (Tvyyvoo/jLrjf; Trap' 
avTov TCv^eaOat BcaKaprepijacoo-i, koL tjtoi Kal 
KaO^ iavToijf; irepLyivayvrai, rj Kal e? rrjv 'l^rjplav 
Tijv re TaXaTLav dirdpwGLV, rj koX ra ')(^pr)iiaTa, 

6 a 7rafi7rXr)0r] rjKovev elvai, (l)6€ip(oaiv (rj yap 
KXeoTrdrpa nravra re avra e? to /jlv7]/jl€lov, o iv 
T(p /3a(TiX€L(p KaT€(TK€va^€P, r)6 poiKei, Kal TrdvTa, 
dv ye Tivo<; Kal eXa^^tcrrou Bia/JidpTrj, KaTaKavcreiv 
fxed^ eavTTJf; rjireiXei), Supcrov e^eXevOepov eavTov 
eirep'^ev dXXa re iroXXd Kal (piXdvOpcoTra avTtj 

7 ipovvTa, Kal otl Kal epwv avTr}<^ Tvy')(^dveL, ei tto)? 
€K ye TOVTov, ola d^tovaa 7rpo<; TrdvTwv dvOpco- 
TTcov epdcrdai, top t€ Aptcopiop dva')(^pijaaiT0 Kal 
eavTTjp Td T€ %/)»7/zaTa aKepaia Trjpijaeie. Kal 
ea^ep oi^Tft)?. 

9 Ilplp Be Bt] ^ TavTa yiypeaOat, /nadcop 6 
*ApTcopto<i otl KoppijXio'i TdXXof; to t€ tov 
^Kopirov (TTpdrevfia irapeiXij^e Kal fieT avTWP 
TO UapaiTOPLOp efat^z^*;? TrapeXOcop KaTecr')(r)Kep, 
€9 jxep Tr)P Xvpiap, KaiTOL fiovXrjOeU Kara ttjp 
Twp popo/iid')(^cop [xeTdirefJi'^iP op/jurjcrai,, ovk iiro- 

2 pevdr), eVl Be eKecpop e%a)/)7;<7ei^ co? fidXtcTTa fxep 
ukopltI tov? (rTpaTt,d)Ta<; irpocrOTjaofiepof; (Jjaap 
yap evpovdp Tipa avrov ck tt)? av(TTpaTeia<i 
exoPTe<;), el Be p,rj, /5/a 76 ')(€ip(oa6pepo^ are Kal 

* 5^ Leuncl., ^5rj VM. 


third embassy, sending him his son Antyllus with 
much gold. Caesar accepted the money, but sent 
the boy back empty-handed, giving him no answer. 
To Cleopatra, however, as in the first instance, so 
again on the second and third occasions, he sent 
many threats and promises alike. Yet he was afraid, 
even so, that they might perhaps despair of obtaining 
pardon from him and so hold out, and either prove 
superior by their own efforts, or set sail for Spain and 
Gaul, or else might destroy their wealth, which he 
kept hearing was of vast extent ; for Cleopatra had 
collected it all in her tomb which she was construct- 
ing in the royal grounds, and she threatened to burn 
it all up with her in case she should fail of even 
the slightest of her demands. So he sent Thyrsus, 
a freedman of his, to say many kind things to her 
and in particular to tell her that he was in love 
with her. He hoped that by this means at least, 
since she thought it her due to be loved by all 
mankind, she would make away with Antony and 
keep herself and her money unharmed. And so it 

But before this happened, Antony learned that 
Cornelius Gallus had taken over Scarpus' army and 
had suddenly marched with these troops upon 
Paraetonium and occupied it. Hence, although he 
wished to set out for Syria in response to the 
summons of the gladiators, he did not go thither, 
but proceeded against Gallus, in the hope of winning 
over the troops without a struggle, if possible, inas- 
much as they had been with him on campaigns and 
were fairly well disposed toward him, but otherwise 
of subduing them by force, since he was leading 



Svvafiiv TToWrjv koX vavriKrjv koI 'jre^rjv cTrayo- 

3 fievo^. ov fievTOi ovhe ^ hia\e')(6r]vai ri avrol^ 
r}hvvr)6r], Kaiirep irpo^ re to rel')(o^ irpoaekOoov 
Koi yeycovov j3orjaa(;' 6 yap TaXko^ Tov<i aaX' 
TTiKTa^^ "^ avv7))(^eLV /ceXeucra? ovBev ovSevl iaaKovaai 
iTrirpe^fre. /cal TrpoaeTi Kal eTre/cSpofifj al(j>vihi(p 
eTrratae, koI fiera tovto koI rat? vavalv ea^akrj. 

4 oKvaei's yap Tiva<; v(f)vSpou(; vvKTwp Bia rov aro- 
fiaro^ Tov Xtfjievo^ 6 TaX\o<^ hiareiva^ ovSe/jLiav 
avrov (papepav <f)v\aKr]v eTrottjaaTO, aWa fcal 
TTcivv d8e(i)<; elcrw fiera Kara^povrjp^aro^ ea- 
'7T\6ovrd<i a^a^ irepielhev iirel jievrot, evhov 
eyevovTO, rd^ re d\v(Tei<i firj^aval^; dvicnraae, Kal 
'7ravra')(p6ev dfia rd^ vav<i avrojv €K re t>}9 7^9 
Kal eK TMV OiKiMV Trj(; T€ 6aXdacrr](i iTepi(T')(a)v 

6 Ta9 jJiev Kareirprjo-e Ta9 he KarenovTcoae. Kdv 
TOVT(p Kal TO YlrfkovaiOv 6 J^alaap, \6ya) fiev 
Kara ro l(T')(ypov epyw he irpohoOev viro Trj<; 
KXeoTtdrpa^, eXa^ev. eKeivvj yap ft)9 ovre Tt9 
e^orjOr)ae acftiat Kal tov Kalaapa dvavraycovi- 
arov ovra ycrdero, to re fieyiarov aKovcraaa T0U9 
Sid TOV SvpcTov ire 11(^6 evTa<^ ol Xoyov^;, eTTiaTevaev 
6vT(o^ epddOai, irpcoTov fiev otl Kal i/SovXeTO, 
eireiTa he otl Kal tov iraTepa avTov tov te 

6 ^ AvTcovLov ofjLoiw^ ihehovXcoTO. KdK tovtov 0V')(^ 
07rft)9 TYjv Te dheiav Kal tyjv tcov AlyvjTTLCov ySa- 
(TiXeiav, dXXd Kal to tcov 'Vwixalwv KpdTO^ e^etv 
TrpoaehoKrja-e, to Te UrjXovaiov €vOv<; avT(p Trporjr- 
KaTO, Kal /jL€Td tovto irpoaeXavvovTi 7rpo<; ttjv 
TToXiv €K(oXvo-€ T0U9 ^ AXe^avhpia^ XdOpa iire^eX- 

1 ovSe Bk., oiJre VM. 

2 ffaXiriKTas M, <Ta\TnyKTiis V. 



against them a large force both of ships and of b.c. so 
infantry. Nevertheless, he was unable even to talk 
with them, although he approached their ramparts 
and raised a mighty shout ; for Gallus ordered his 
trumpeters to sound their instruments all together 
and gave no one a chance to hear a word. More- 
over, Antony also failed in a sudden assault and later 
suffered a reverse with his ships as well. Gallus, 
it seems, caused chains to be stretched at night 
across the mouth of the harbour under water, and 
then took no measures openly to guard against his 
opponents but contemptuously allowed them to sail 
in with perfect immunity. When they were inside, 
however, he drew up the chains by means of machines, 
and encompassing their ships on all sides — from the 
land, from the houses, and from the sea — he burned 
some and sank others. In the meantime Caesar took 
Pelusium, ostensibly by storm, but really because 
it was betrayed by Cleopatra. For she saw that 
no one came to their aid and perceived that Caesar 
was not to be withstood; and, most important of 
all, she listened to the message sent her through 
Thyrsus, and believed that she was really beloved, in 
the first place, because she wished to be, and, in the 
second place, because she had in the same manner 
enslaved Caesar's father and Antony. Consequently 
she expected to gain not only forgiveness and the 
sovereignty over the Egyptians, but the empire ot 
the Romans as well. So she yielded Pelusium to 
him at once ; and later, when he marched against 
the city, she prevented the Alexandrians from making 
a sortie. She accomplished this secretly, of course, 




delvt eirel oaov ye airo fiorj^; kol irdvv (T^a<i 
TTpoerpi-yjraTO tovto TroirjaaL. 
10 'O 8' ovv *AvT(i)vio<; Ik, tov UapaiTovlov 7rp6<; 
Trjv irepl rod UeXovaiov irvo-rtv iTraveXOcbv irpo- 
a7ri]vr')](re irpo r^? ^AXe^avhpeia<^ ru) Kalaapi,, koI 
avTov KefcpLT^Kora e/c t^9 rropeia^ vTroXa^wv rol^; 

2 linrevaiv evUrjcrev, avaOaparjaa^ re €k re rovrov 
Kol OTt, ^LpXla 69 TO aTparoireBov avrov ro^ev- 
fiaa-LV ia-e7re/jL-\lr6 7r€VTaKoaLa<; a-^icri, kol %fcXta9 
SpaxP'^^ VTTKT'xyov fxevo^; , avve^ake kol tm Trefft) 

3 Kal rjTT'^Or)' 6 yap Kataap avTO<; ra ^i^Xia 
eOeXovTr]^; T0t9 arpaTicoracf; dviyvco, tov re 'Aj/to)- 
VLov BiafBoXKwv Kal eKeivov^ e9 re Tr]v t^9 irpo- 
ho(Tia<i alax^vrjv Kal 69 Tr]v virep eavrov irpoOv- 
fiiav dvTiKaOi(TTd<i, twcrre Kal hid tovto avrov'; ttj 
T€ T^9 ireipa'^ dyavaKT'qaeu Kal ttj rod p,7] eOeXo- 

4 KaKelv So^ai ivBel'^ei airovhaaai. Kal 6 fxev eirei- 
Brj irapd ho^av r)Xarr(oOr}, 7rp6<; re to vavriKov 
direKXive, Kal TrapecrKevd^ero a)9 Kal vavfia)(i]ao)v 
rj 7rdvra)<; ye e'9 rrjv ^IjSrjpLav 7rXev(Tovp,evo<;' ISovaa 
he rov6* T) KXeoirdrpa rd'^ re vav<i avro/jLoXrjcrat 

5 erroLijae, Kal avrr) 6*9 ro r/plov e^ai(j)V7}^ iaeTTTJ^Tjae, 
Xoyqy fiev ft)9 rov Kalaapa (poffov/jLevrj Kal irpo- 
hLa<^delpai rpoirov rivd eavrrjv ^ovXo/JLepr), epyw 
Se Kal TOV ^Avrd)viov eKelcre iaeXOelv irpOKaXov- 
fievT)' vireroirei fiev yap rrpohihoadai, ov p^evroi 
Kal erriarevev xjtto rov epcoro^, dXXd Kal p^aXXov 

6 &)9 elrrelv eKeivrjv rj eavrov ^ rjXeeL. oirep ttov r) 
KXeorrdrpa dKpLpM<; elhvla rfXiriaev^ on, dv rvv- 
OrjraL avrrjv rereXevrijKviav, ovk eirt^toiaeraL 
dXXd irapa^pripa dTroOavetrai. Kal Sid rovro 69 

* eavrhv M, eavrijv V. ^ ^K-niaiV M, ^ATri^ei/ V. 



since^ to judge by the outcry she made, she exhorted b.c. so 
them vigorously to do so. 

At the news concerning Pelusium Antony returned 
from Paraetonium and went to meet Caesar in front 
of Alexandria, and attacking him with his cavalry, 
while the other was wearied from his march, he won 
the day. Encouraged by this success, and because he 
had shot arrows into Caesar's camp carrying leaflets 
which promised the men six thousand sesterces, 
he joined battle also with his infantry and was 
defeated. For Caesar of his own accord personally 
read the leaflets to his soldiers, at the same time re- 
viling Antony and trying to turn them to a feeling of 
shame for the suggested treachery and of enthusiasm 
for himself; the result was that they were fired by 
zeal through this very incident, both by reason of 
their indignation at the attempt made upon their 
loyalty and by way of demonstrating that they were 
not subject to the suspicion of being base traitors. 
After his unexpected setback, Antony took refuge 
in his fleet, and was preparing to give battle on the 
sea or at any rate to sail to Spain. But Cleopatra, 
upon perceiving this, caused the ships to desert, and 
she herself rushed suddenly into the mausoleum, 
pretending that she feared Caesar and desired by 
some means or other to forestall him by taking her 
own life, but really as an invitation to Antony to 
enter there also. He had a suspicion, to be sure, 
that he was being betrayed, yet in his infatuation he 
could not believe it, but actually pitied her more, 
one might say, than himself. Cleopatra, doubtless, 
was fully aware of this and hoped that if he should 
be informed that she was dead, he would not wish 
to survive her, but would die at once. Accordingly 



T€ TO fivr)/jL€iov (7VV T€ svvovx^ Ttvl KoX (jvv Oepa- 
iraivai^ hvo icreBpa/ne, /cal eKeWev dyyeXlav avro) 

7 ci)9 Kol aiTo\(o\vla eireix'^e. kol 09 ouKovaa'^ rovro 
ovK ijJbeXk'qaev, a}OC iTrairoOavelv avrrj iTreOv/bLTjae. 
Kal TO fiev TTpMTOv TMV TTapovTcov Tivb<; iherjdr) Xva 
avTOV aTTOKTeivr}' CTrel Se eKelvo^i crrraadfjuevo^; to 
^i<^o^ eavTOV KaTeipydcraTO, ^rjXcoaai re amov 
rjdeXrjae koI eavTOV eTpcoaev, /cal eireae re iirl 
aTOfia Kol Bo^av tol^ irapovaiv 0)9 koX TeOvrjKco^; 

8 7ra/3eo"%e. Oopv^ov t€ eVt tovtw yevo/nevov rjaOeTo 
Te T) KXeoTTaTpa Kal vTrepe/cv^ev virep tov p.vrj- 
fieiov at fiev yap Ovpai avTov avyfcXecaOelcrai 
dira^ ovKeT dvoLX^Vi^cLi' eV /jLrj'^avrjfiaTO'; Tivo<; 
iBvvavTO, TO, S* dv(o irpo^ ttj 6po<f)fj ovBeTrw irav- 

9 T€Xft)9 e^eipyaaTO. ivTCvOev ovv VTrep/cvyjraaav 
avTfjv lB6vT€<; Tivef; dve^orjaav wcrre Kal tov ^Av- 
Twviov iaaKovcrar Kal 69 /JLaOcov otc TrepieaTiv, 
e^aveoTTT} [xev 009 Kal ^rjaai Bvvdfievo^;, irpox^Oev- 
T09 5' avTW TToWov a'tfiaTO^ dirkyvw re Tr)v awTT}- 
piav, Kal iKCTevae Tot'9 rrapovTa^ oirw^; 7rp6<s Te 
TO fjLvrjpa avTov KOfiicrcoat, Kal Bid tmv (T')(^oivi(ov 
T(ov 77/309 TTjV dvo\Kr)v TMV XlOcov Kpc/Jiafievcov dvL- 

Kal 6 fiev evTavOa ovtq) Kal ev Tot<; t^9 KXeo- 
11 wdTpa^ KoXiTOL^ ivaireOavev, eKeivr) Be eddpaijae 
fiev 770)9 TOV, Kal ev6v<; avTw to yeyovo^ 
eBrjXwaev, ov fir)V Kal Trdvv eirlaTeve firjBev KaKov 
ireLO-eaOac. KaTel')(^ev ovv eavTrjv evBov, 'iv el Kal 
Bid firjBev dXXo awOeir], tw ye cjiofio) tmv ^(^prjixd- 
T(ov Kal TTjv dBeiav Kal ttjv PaaCXeiav eK'irpirjTai. 
2 ovTco TTOV Kal TOTS iv TrjXiKavTr) (Tv/jL(f)opa ovaa 
Tfj<; BvvacTTela^ efiefivrjTO, Kal fiaXXov ye ev t€ t& 



she hastened into the tomb with a eunuch and two 
maidservants^ and from there sent a message to him 
from which he should infer that she was dead. 
And he, when he heard it, did not delay, but was 
seized by a desire to follow her in death. He first 
asked one of the bystanders to slay him ; but when 
the man drew his sword and slew himself, Antony 
wished to imitate his courage and so gave himself a 
wound and fell upon his face, causing the bystanders 
to believe that he was dead. At this an outcry was 
raised, and Cleopatra, hearing it, peered out over 
the top of the tomb. By a certain contrivance its 
doors, once closed, could not be opened again, but 
the upper part of it next to the roof was not yet 
fully completed. Now when some of them saw her 
peering out at this point, they raised a shout so that 
even Antony heard. So he, learning that she sur- 
vived, stood up, as if he had still the power to live ; 
but, as he had lost much blood, he despaired of his 
life and besought the bystanders to carry him to the 
monument and to hoist him up by the ropes that 
were hanging there to lift the stone blocks. 

So Antony died there in Cleopatra's bosom ; and 
she now felt a certain confidence in Caesar, and im- 
mediately informed him of what had taken place ; 
still, she was not altogether convinced that she 
would suffer no harm. She accordingly kept herself 
within the building, in order that, even if there 
should be no other motive for her preservation, she 
might at least purchase pardon and her kingdom 
through his fear for the money. So thoroughly 
mindful was she even then, in the midst of her dire 
misfortune, of her royal rank, and chose rather to 



ovo/iiari Koi iv tw a'^rj/iarL avTrj^ airoOavetv r) 
l8i,Q)T€vaaaa ^rjv ypelro. afieXei 6t%e (lev KaX ro 
TTvp cttI Tot9 'X^priixacnv, el^e he fcal aaiTiha^; dWa 
re epirera €(/>' eavrfj, irpoireipadelaa avrcjv ev 
avOpco7roi<;, ovrcva rpoirov eKaarov cr(f)0)V airoKTiv- 

3 vvaL. K^alarap Be eTredvfiec fiev fcal rcov drjaavpMV 
iyKpaTrj<; yeveaOai /cal eKeivr^v ^wadv re avWa- 
pelv Koi €9 TO, vLK7)TrjpLa dvayayelv, ov fievroL fcal 
avTO<; TTLCTTLV TivcL avTrj Sou? aTTarecbv So^ai yeyo- 
vevai rjOeXrjaev, Xv co? kcli aly^\xoCK(£iT(o kol aKOvaia 

4 TpoTTOV TLva 'X^CLpcoOeuTrj y^prjarjTaL. Kol Bta rovr 
eirepL'^e tt/jo? avTr)v Vcllov re UpoKOvXeiov ^ lirTrea 
Kol 'E7ra(l>p68irov i^e\ev9epov, ivTeiXd/jLev6<; acpi- 
atv oaa koi elTrelv /cat irpa^ai e^prjv. /cat ovtco<; 
€KelvoL avfjLfML^avTe^i ry KXeoTrdrpa /cat jxerpid 
TLva BiaXe^xOevTe^;, eireiT' i^ai(f)vr]<; avvrjpTraa-av 

5 avrrjv irpiv n ofjLoXoyrjOrjvai. kuk tovtov i/ciroBcbv 
Trdvra a^' a)V diroOavelv eSvvaro Troirjcrdfiepoi, 
'^/jLepa<; jnev Ti,va<; Kara ')(^(i)pav avrfj to tov ^Av- 
Tfovlov acofia Tapi')(evovar} Biarply^raL eTrerpe'^av, 
eireiTa Be e? rd fiaaiXeia avrrjv rjyayov, /irjre r?}? 
aKoKovOia^ to fir^Te tt}? OepaTreia^ tt}? (TwrjOov^ 
ol 7rapa\vaavTe<;, o7rco<; eTt fcal /idXXov eXiriar) re 
6<Ta effovXero kol fX7]Bev KaKov eavTrjv Bpdarj. 

6 dfjiiXei KoX 6(^6r}vai kol BiaXe^drival tl tw KatcrapL 
eOeXrjo-acra e7reTf%e* koI Xva ye eirl irXelov dira- 
T7)07J, avTo<; d^i^eaOai irpo^ avT7]v uTrecr^ero. 

12 OIkov Te ovv eKTrpeirrj koi kXlvtjv TroXvTeXrj 
irapaaKevdaaaa, koI TrpoaeTi koX eavTrjv y)ixeX7)- 
fiepco<i 7ra)9 KOdfjurjaacra (kuI yap ev tw irevOiiiw 




die with the name and dignity of a sovereign than ao. 
to live in a private station. At all events, she kept 
at hand fire to consume her wealth, and asps and 
other reptiles to destroy herself, and she had the 
latter tried on human beings, to see in what way 
they killed in each case. Now Caesar was anxious 
not only to get possession of her treasures but also to 
seize her alive and to carry her back for his triumph, 
yet he was unwilling to appear to have tricked her 
himself after having given her a kind of pledge, 
since he wished to treat her as a captive and to a 
certain extent subdued against her will. He there- 
fore sent to her Gaius Proculeius, a knight, and 
Epaphroditus, a freedman, giving them directions 
as to what they were to say and do. Following out 
this plan, they obtained an audience with Cleopatra, 
and after discussing with her some moderate pro- 
posals they suddenly seized her before any agree- 
ment was reached. After this they put out of her 
way everything by means of which she could cause 
her own death and allowed her to spend some days 
where she was, occupied in embalming Antony's 
body ; then they took her to the palace, but did not 
remove any of her accustomed retinue or attendants, 
in order that she should entertain more hope than 
ever of accomplishing all she desired, and so should 
do no harm to herself. At any rate, when she ex- 
pressed a desire to appear before Caesar and to have 
an interview with him, she gained her request ; 
and to deceive her still more, he promised that he 
would come to her himself. 

She accordingly prepared a splendid apartment 
and a costly couch, and moreover arrayed herself 
with affected negligence, — indeed, her mourning 



<T')(riiJLaTi B6tv(o<; iveTTpeirev) iKaOi^ero iirl t?}? 
K\Lvr]<;, TToWaq jiev elxova^ rod irarpos; avrov /cal 
'iravToBa7ra<; irapaOefxevr], irdcra^ he ra? iincrTdka^ 
Ta<; Trap' eKeivov ol irefKJ^OeLaaf; e? rov koXitov 

2 Xa^ovaa. koI /lera tovto ecrekOovrof; rov Kai- 
(rapo<; dveTT^Brjae re ippvO/jLia/xivr],^ koI e^rj 
" X^^f'P^ ^ BicTTTOTa' aol fxev yap tovto ^eo? eSco- 
K€v, ifie Be di^ei\eTO. ahJC 6pa<; /lev ttov koX 
avTO<; Tov iraTepa aov tolovtov olo^ 7roXkd/<:L<i 
7rp6<i e/jLe earjXOev, oLKOvei^ Be oVo)? tol re dWa 
eTLfirjae /xe koI Btj koX ^aaCklBa tmv AlyvirTLCov 

3 iiroirjaev. Iva S* ovv tl koI avTov eKeivov irepl 
i/jLov TTvOrj, Xd^e koI dvdyvcoOc tol ypdfjbjjLaTa d 
fjbOL avT0')(eLpia eireaTeiXeJ' 

TavTd Te dfia eXeye, koI iroXXd ical ipcoTiKa 
avTOv prjfiaTa dveylyvcoaKe. koX totc fiev eKXae 
Kal ra? eViCTToXa? /caTecpiXet, Tore Be 7ry0O9 ra? 
eLKova^; avTov irpoaeTrLTTTe Kal eKeiva^ TrpocreKvvet. 

4 Td Te ^Xe^apa e? tov Kaiaapa eireveKXa, Kal 
efjL/jLeXc!)<; dv(iiXo(f>vpeTO, OpviTTLKov Te tl irpoae- 
(pdeyyeTo, dXXoTe piev Xeyovaa " irov pLOi,, 
TavTd aov to, ypdppuaTai'^ dXXoTe Be otl " dX)C 
iv TOVTM Kal av jjlol ^fj^," elTa avOi^ " eWe aov 
iTpoeTedvTjKeiv,^^ Kal /idXa avdi^ " dXXd Kal tovtov 
e^ovaa ae e'X^co. 

5 TocavTT) Tivl iroLKiXia Kal tmv prjfxdTcov Kal t^v 
a^tj/jidTwv e^prjTo, /jLeXL')(^pd aTTa Kal ^ rrpoapXe- 
irovaa avTw Kal XdXovaa. 6 ovv J^ataap avviet 
fiev avTrj<^ Kal iradaLvo/jLevrjf; Kal irXt^KTL^oiievrjf;, 

^ ippvOfiicr/jLeprj is the reading of VM ; some editors have 
preferred ripvOpiaaixevrj, the reading found in Xiphilinus' 
Epitome. ^ koI M, om, V. 



garb wonderfully became her, — and seated herself b.c. so 
upon the couch ; beside her she placed many images 
of his father, of all kinds, and in her bosom she put 
all the letters that his father had sent her. When, 
after this, Caesar entered, she leaped gracefully ^ to 
her feet and cried : " Hail, master — for Heaven has 
granted you the mastery and taken it from me.^ 
But surely you can see with your own eyes how 
your father looked when he visited me on many 
occasions, and you have heard people tell how he 
honoured me in various ways and made me queen of 
the Egyptians. That you may, however, learn some- 
thing about me from him himself, take and read the 
letters which he wrote me with his own hand." 

After she had spoken thus, she proceeded to read 
many passionate expressions of Caesar's. And now 
she would lament and kiss the letters, and again she 
would fall before his images and do them reverence. 
She kept turning her eyes toward Caesar and be- 
wailing her fate in musical accents. She spoke in 
melting tones, saying at one time, " Of what avail to 
me, Caesar, are these thy letters ? " and at another, 
" But in this man here thou also art alive for me " ; 
again, " Would that I had died before thee," and still 
again, "But if I have him, I have thee." 

Such were the subtleties of speech and of attitude 
which she employed, and sweet were the glances she 
cast at him and the words she murmured to him. 
Now Caesar was not insensible to the ardour of her 
speech and the appeal to his passions, but he pre- 

^ Or " blushing," if the variant reading offered by Xiphi- 
liims be accepted. 

* That is, the power she had exercised over Caesar, in 
consequence of which he had become her willing subject, 
was of no avail in the case of Augustus. 



ov jxevTOi Koi TTpoa-eTTOieLTO, aXV e? rrjv yrjv tov<; 
ocfiOaXfiov^ ipeiaa^ rovro /jlovov elirev, " Odpa-ei, o) 
yvvai, KoX Ovfjiov €')(e ayaOov ovhev yap kukov 

6 Tretcr?;." TrepiaXyijcraa-a ovv eKeivr] otl fjbrjre irpocr- 
elhev avrrjv fjbrjTe re fj irepl Trj<; ^acn\€ia<; rj fcal 
ipwTLKov Tf i^Oey^aro, 7rp6<; re ra yovara avrov 
TTpoaeTreae koX avaKkavaaaa " ^rjv fiiv " ecpr], 
" Kalaap, ovre iOeXco ovre 8vva/jiat' ravrrjv Be ae 
Trjv X^P^^ ^^ '^^^ '^^^ rrarpof; fivrjfjirjv acTCO, Xv 
lireiBr) pue ^Avtcovlo) puer eKslvov 6 haipLwv irape- 

7 hwKe, pL€T avTOv koi aTroOdvco. eXOe pLCP yap 
dwcoXcoXecv evOv^ rore puera top Kaiaapa- eVet 
Si pioi Kul TOVTO iraOelv iireTrpoyro, 'Tripbyfrov pie 

TTyOO? ^AVTCOVLOV, pL7]Si pbOL T^9 (TVV aVTO) Ttt^^? 

<^6ovrjar)<;, Tv Mairep Be eKelvov diroOvTqGKoHy ovtco 
Koi iv "AtBov avrw o-vvoifctjaco.*^ 
13 Kat r) ijuev roiavra &)? Kal eXerjOrja-opLevr} eXeye, 
Kalaap Be tt/oo? pev ravra ovBkv direKpivaTO, 
^oPrjOel^i Be pur) eavrrjv Bia)/p7]ar]rat,^ Oapaelv re 
avrfj avOcf} irapeKeXevaaro, kol ovre rrjv 6epa- 
ireiav avrrj^; d(f)€LXero Kal ev eTripLeXeia avrr^v 

2 eTTOielro, otto)? ol ra liriViKia eiriXapLTrpvvr}. tovto 
re ovv viroTOTTijaaaa, Kal pLvpiwv Oavdrcov %aX6- 
TTcorepov avro vopiiaaaa elvai, 6vt(o<; re dirodavelv 
eiredvpLTjae, kol iroXXd pbev rod KaL(7apo<;, otto)? 
TpoTTOv rivd dTToXrjTaL, eBelro, iroXXd Be Kal avrrj 

3 epLrjx^vdro. eirel 8' ovBev eirepaive, pLerayiyva)- 
GKeiv re iirXdcraTO co? Kal eXiriBa ttoXXtjv puev Kal 
€9 eKelvov TToXXrjv Be Kal e? ttjv Atoviav e^pvcTa, 
Kal eKovaia re irXevaelaOai eXeye, Kal KoapLovi 
riva<; diroOerov; e? Bwpa rjroipid^ero, ec 7ra)9 ttl- 

^ Siaxp'ho^V'ra.i R. Steph,, Siaxp'ho'^'''ai' VM. 



tended to be ; and letting his eyes rest upon the b.c. so 
ground, he merely said : " Be of good cheer, woman, 
and keep a stout heart ; for you shall suffer no harm." 
She was greatly distressed because he would neither 
look at her nor say anything about the kingdom nor 
even utter a word of love, and falling at his knees, 
she said with an outburst of sobbing: "I neither 
wish to live nor can I live, Caesar. But this favour 
I beg of you in memory of your father, that, since 
Heaven gave me to Antony after him, I may also 
die with Antony. Would that I had perished then, 
straightway after Caesar ! But since it was decreed 
by fate that I should suffer this affliction also,^ send 
me to Antony; grudge me not burial with him, in 
order that, as it is because of him I die, so I may 
dwell with him even in Hades." 

Such words she uttered, expecting to move him to 
pity, but Caesar made no answer to them ; fearing, 
however, that she might destroy herself, he exhorted 
her again to be of good cheer, and not only did not 
remove any of her attendants but also took special 
care of her, that she might add brilliance to his tri- 
umph. This purpose she suspected, and regarding 
that fate as worse than a thousand deaths, she con- 
ceived a genuine desire to die, and not only addressed 
many entreaties to Caesar that she might perish in 
some manner or other, but also devised many plans 
herself. But when she could accomplish nothing, 
she feigned a change of heart, pretending to set 
great hopes in him and also in Livia. She said she 
would sail of her own free will, and she made ready 
some treasured articles of adornment to use as gifts, 

^ That is, that she had not been able to die with Caesar. 



cTTiv €K rovTcov fiTf TeOvrj^eiv ^ \a/3ovaa rjrrop re 

4 TrjpTjOeir) /cal iavrrjv i^epydaaLTO. o kol iyevero. 
eTreiBr) yap oi re dWoL Koi 6 ^^jTra^pohiro^, Mirep" 
eTrerirpaTrro, 7ncrT€V(TavT€<; ravO^ &)? dXr)0cb<i <^po- 
velv, rrjq dKpL^ov<i (ftvXafcrj^ i^fiiXTjaav, irapeaKev- 
d^ero oTTco^ co? dXvTrorara diroOdvr]. koi ypap.- 
fjunelov TL, Si ov iBerjOr) rov l^ai(japo<i Xva avTr)v 
/jLCra Tov 'AvTcovLov Ta(fir)vaL KeXevarj, avro) tq) 

5 *Fi7ra(f)poBLT(p <T€(T7}/jLaa/jievov, ottcd? irpoc^daei rrj^ 
dTTo/co/JLiBrjf; avrov co? Kal dWo ri e^ovro^; eKiro- 
Scov ol yev7]TaL, Bovaa epyov ei')(^eTo. rrjv re yap 
iaOijra rrjv irepiKaXkea-rdrrjv ivBvaa, Kal eavryv 
evTTperrearTara evOerijaaaa, ro re a^V/^^ "^o fiacn- 
\lkov rrdv dvaXa^ovaa, direOave. 

14 Kat TO fiev aa(f)€<i ovBel<i olBev c5 rpoircp Bt- 
e<p0dprj' Kevrrjfiara yap Xeirrd irepl rov ^pa')(iova 
avrrj's jJiova eupedrj' \eyovcn Be ol jiev on dairiBa 
iv vBpla ^ Tj Kal ev dvOeai rtatv ea-KoixLaOeladv ol 

2 irpoaedero, ol Be on ^e\6v7)v, y rd<; rpL^a<; dv- 
elpev, l& nvi, Byva/iiv rotavrrjv e^ovn ware aX\co<; 
fiev fJirjBev ro aco/jia ^Xdirreiv, av 5' aTpuaro^ Kal 
Ppa'xyrdrov d^^rr^rai, Kal rd^i^ara Kal dXvrrorara 
avro (^Oeipeiv, ^(plaaara tcoj? fiev avrrjv ev rfj 
KecfiaXfj icfiopei coa-irep el(o6eL, rore Be rrpoKaravv- 
^aad n^ rov ^pa')(iova e? to alfjia eve/3aXev. 

3 ovro) jxev, tj on eyyvrara, jxerd rcov Buo Oepa- 
TraiVMV dirwiXero' 6 yap evvov)(o<^ dfxa rco avX- 
Xr)(f)Orjvai, avrrjv to?? re epnrerol^ eavrov iOeXovrrjfi 

^ Tedf-n^eiv Dind., reOvriaeiv VM. 
^ Sirep M, &(nrfp V. 
' vSpla R. Steph., v^p^iai VM. 
4 Tt Oddey, tiA VM. 



in the hope that by these means she might inspire b.c. so 
belief that it was not her purpose to die, and so 
might be less closely guarded and thus be able to 
destroy herself. And so it came about. For as soon as 
the others and Epaphroditus, to whose charge she had 
been committed, had come to believe that she really 
felt as she pretended to, and neglected to keep a 
careful watch, she made her preparations to die as 
painlessly as possible. First she gave a sealed paper, 
in which she begged Caesar to order that she be 
buried beside Antony, to Epaphroditus himself to 
deliver, pretending that it contained some other 
matter, and then, having by this excuse freed herself 
of his presence, she set to her task. She put on her 
most beautiful apparel, arranged her body in most 
seemly fashion, took in her hands all the emblems of 
royalty, and so died. 

No one knows clearly in what way she perished, 
for the only marks on her body were slight pricks on 
the arm. Some say that she applied to herself an 
asp which had been brought in to her in a water-jar, 
or perhaps hidden in some flowers. Others declare 
that she had smeared a pin, with which she was wont to 
fasten her hair, with some poison possessed of such a 
property that in ordinary circumstances it would not 
injure the body at all, but if it came in contact with 
even a drop of blood would destroy the body very 
quickly and painlessly ; and that previous to this time 
she had worn it in her hair as usual, but now had 
made a slight scratch on her arm and had dipped the 
pin in the blood. In this or in some very similar 
way she perished, and her two handmaidens with 
her. As for the eunuch, he had of his own accord 
delivered himself up to the serpents at the very time 



TrapeScoKc, koI hT^'xOel^ vtt^ avrcov €9 aopov irpo- 
7rapecrKevaa/jLev7]v ol iaeireirrihrjKei. aKovaa^ he o 
Kalo-ap Tr)v rekevrrjv avTrj<; e^eTrXdyrj, koI to re 
ao)pba avTrj<; elBe, koI (fydpfiuKa avrw koI "^vX- 

4 A,of 9, el TT(t)'^ dvaa(f)')]Xei6, irpoarjveyKev, ol he hrj 
"Sif^vWoi ovroi dvhpe<; fiiv elat (yvvrj yap ov yi- 
yveiai ^vWa), hvvavrai he iravra re lov iravTo^ 
epTrerov Trapa'X^prjfia, irplv OvrjaKeiv rivd, eKfiv^dv, 
Kol avTol p.r)hev vtto /jL'rjhei'o<; avrcjv hij'^devre^ 

5 ^XdiTTeaOai. (j^vovrai he ef dXkrfKwv, koI hoKi- 
/jbd^ovat rd yevvrjOevra rjroi fier ocpecov irov evdv'^ 
epi^\r)6evTa, t) koI rwv aTrapydvwv avroiv ein- 
pK7)9evTCdV Tiatv ovre yap tm iraihiw ri Xvjxai- 
vovrai, Kol vtto Trj<; ea6rjT0<; avrov vapKcocn. 

6 rovTO jjiev roiovrov iaTiv, 6 he hrj Kalaap /jirjheva 
TpoTTOv dva^Looaaadai rrjv KXeoirdrpav hwrjOeh 
e/ceivrjv pev Kal eOavfiaae Ka\ rj\er)creVy avro^ he 
la'X^vpco'; ekvirrjOrj o)<i koI 7rda7)<; Trjs eirl rfj vIkt} 
h6^r]<; eaT€pr)p>evo<;. 

15 *AvT(t)vio<; piev hrj Kal KXeoTrdrpa, tt'oWcov puev 
T0t9 Alyv7rTiOL<; iroWcov he Kal toI<; 'VQ)pLaLOL<; 
KaKCdV atriOL yevopievoL, ovrco re eiroXepbrjaav Kal 
ovTco<i ireXevrrjaav, ev re tw avT(p Tpoircp erapc- 
')(evd7]aav, Kdv rfj avry 6rjKrj erdcfiTjaav. ea^ov 
he Trjv T€ <j)vai>v t^9 "^v^V^ fcal rrjv TV')(r)v tov 
2 piov Totdvhe. o pev avvelvai re to heov ovhevo'^ 
rfaacov eyevero Kal iroWd d(pp6vco<; eirpa^ev, 
dvhpeia re ev riai hieir pe-xjre Kal vtto heiXia<; av^vd 
ecr(f>d\7], TT] T€ pL€yaXoyjrv)(^La koX ry hovXoiTpeTreia 



of Cleopatra's arrest, and after being bitten by them 
had leaped into a coffin already prepared for him. 
When Caesar heard of Cleopatra's death, he was 
astounded, and not only viewed her body but also 
made use of drugs and Psylli ^ in the hope that she 
might revive. These Psylli are males, for there is no 
woman born in their tribe, and they have the power 
to suck out any poison of any reptile, if use is made 
of them immediately, before the victim dies ; and 
they are not harmed themselves when bitten by any 
such creature. They are propagated from one 
another and they test their offspring either by having 
them thrown among serpents as soon as they are 
born or else by having their swaddling-clothes thrown 
upon serpents ; for the reptiles in the one case do no 
harm to the child, and in the other case are benumbed 
by its clothing. So much for this matter. But Caesar, 
when he could not in any way resuscitate Cleopatra, 
felt both admiration and pity for her, and was ex- 
cessively grieved on his own account, as if he had 
been deprived of all the glory of his victory. 

Thus Antony and Cleopatra, who had caused 
many evils to the Egyptians and many to the Romans, 
made war and met their death in the manner I have 
described ; and they were both embalmed in the 
same fashion and buried in the same tomb. Their 
qualities of character and the fortunes of their lives 
were as follows. Antony had no superior in com- 
prehending his duty, yet he committed many acts 
of folly. He sometimes distinguished himself for 
bravery, yet often failed through cowardice. He 
was characterized equally by greatness of soul 

1 Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxi. 78. 



ef iorov €)(pr]ro, Koi to, re aXkorpia i] pirate koI 
ra oLKeta irpotero, rfKeei re dXoyco'; GV')(yov<; kol 

3 CKoXa^ev clBlkco^ irXeiova^' kolk tovtoov la')(yp6- 
raro^ re ej dadeveardrov kol TrXofcricoTaro? ef 
diropcoTdrov yevo/juevo^; ovSeripov avrwv diTcovrjTo} 
dWd Kal TO Kpdro^ rb rcov 'VwjJLaioiv /jl6vo<; e^eiv 

4 iXiriaa^; avTO<; iavrbv direKTeive. KXeoiraTpa Be 
dirXrjaTO'; fxev ^AcfypoSlrrj^ d7rXr]a-T0<; Be ')(pr)/jLdTO)p 
yevofjuevT], kol TroWrj fiev (f)iXoTc/jiia (piXoBo^w 
TToWrj Be Kal irepLf^povrjaei Opaaeia 'X^prjaafievrj, 
rr)v T€ Paaikeiav rr/i^ tmv AlyvirrLcov vtt epcoro^ 
eKTrjcraro, fcal rrjv tmv 'Vwfxaiwv Xrjy^eadai Bl 
avTOv eKiriaaa-a Tavrrjf; re €a(f)d\rj Kal eKelvrjv 
TTpoaaircoXeae, Bvo re dvBpwv 'Vwfiaiwv rcjv KaO' 
€avrr)v /jLeyuarcDV KareKparrjae, Kal Bid rov rpirov 
eavrrjv Karexprjaaro. 

6 OvroL fiev Br) roiovrol re eyevovro Kal ovrco^ 
dmjWa^av rcbu Be Brj iraiBwv avrcov "AvrvWo<; 
fiev, KaiTOL rtjv re rod KaLaapo<; Ovyarepa 
rjyyvT] p£VO<; ^ Kal e? to toO Trarpo^i avrov rjpwov, 
T) K.\eo7Tdrpa eireiroLrjKeL, Kara(f)vy(ov, evOv<; 
ia^dyrj, K.aiaapio)V Be e? AWcoiriav (pevycov Kare- 

6 \r)(p6rj re ev rrj oBm Kal Bie^Odpr). tj re KXeo- 
rrdrpa 'Ioi;/3a rw rov ^lov^ov iratBl avvwKTjae' 
rovrw yap 6 Kalaap rpa(f)evri re iv rfj IraXua 
Kal (TvarparevaafievM ol ravrrjv re Kal rrjv 
jBaaikeiav rrjv Tvarpwav eBwKe, Kal avrol^ Kal 
rov ^ AXe^avBpov Kal rov UroXe/ialov exapla-aro. 

7 Tat9 re dBeXcpiBat^i, a? €k rov ^Avr covlov r) 'OKra- 
ovia dvrjprjro re Kal ererpo^ei, ')(prjfiara diro 

^ aTruivi]To Naber, airuvaTo VM cod. Peir. 

'^ r]'yyvr]/j.ii'os Dind., iyyeyvr]fX(t'os M, iyy^prj/.i.fuos V. 



and by servility of mind. He would plunder the b.c. so 
property of others and would squander his own. 
He showed compassion to many without cause and 
punished even more without justice. Consequently, 
though he rose from utter weakness to great power, 
and from the depths of poverty to great riches, he 
derived no profit from either circumstance, but after 
hoping to gain single-handed the empire of the 
Romans, he took his own life. Cleopatra was of in- 
satiable passion and insatiable avarice ; she was 
swayed often by laudable ambition, but often by 
overweening effrontery. By love she gained the 
title of Queen of the Egyptians, and when she hoped 
by the same means to win also that of Queen of the 
Romans, she failed of this and lost the other besides. 
She captivated the two greatest Romans of her day, 
and because of the third she destroyed herself 

Such were these two and such was their end. Of 
their children, Antyllus was slain immediately, 
though he was betrothed to the daughter of Caesar 
and had taken refuge in his father's shrine, which 
Cleopatra had built ; and Caesarion while fleeing to 
Ethiopia was overtaken on the road and murdered. 
Cleopatra was married to Juba, the son of Juba ; 
for to this man who had been brought up in Italy 
and had been with him on campaigns, Caesar gave 
both the maid and the kingdom of his fathers, and 
as a favour to them spared the lives of Alex- 
ander and Ptolemy. To his nieces, the daughters 
whom Octavia had had by Antony and had reared, 
he assigned money from their father's estate. He 



rcov 7raTpa)(ov aireveifxe. koX t& ^lovWw rw rov 
^AvTcoviov tt)? t€ ^ov\ovLa<; vlel rov<; i^eXevdepovs 
avTOV TTdvO* oara reXevTcovrd^ cr<f)a<; KaraXiTretv 
avro) Kara tov<; v6/Jiov<; eBei Trapaxpvp^ci Bovvac 
16 cKeXevae. rwv re dWcov ro)v rd rov ^Avtcovlov 
yae^yot Tore Trpa^dvrcov tou? p^ev i/coXaae roij^ Be 
d(f)rJK€V, rj Bi eavTOV t) Bid TOV<i (/)tXou9. iireLBr) 
re <TV')(yo\ irap avrw Kal Bvvao-rcov /cal ^aaiXecov 
TratSe? ol p^ev i(f oprjpela ol Be Kal e^' v^pei 
Tpe<f)6pLevoi evpeOrjaav, tou9 pcv oiKaBe avrwv 
direareiXe, rov<; Be dWrjXoL^ o-vv(pKi(Tev, erepovt; 

2 re Karea-'^ev. cov eyoD tou9 pev dWov<; idaw, 
Bvo Be Brj pLovcop ovopadrl p^vrjaOyaopar rrjv pev 
ydp 'ImTdirijv t& M7]Bay Kara(f)vy6vTt perd rrjv 
rfrrav irpo^ avrbv eKoov aTreBcoKe, t& S' ^Aprd^rj 
Tou? dBe\(l)ov<; Kainrep alTrjaavTL ovk eirepyjrev, 
ore T0U9 v7ro\€L(f)6evTa^ ev rfj 'Appevia 'Vcopaiov^ 

3 Tiepl pLev Bt} toi'9 dWov<; rotavra eyuyveTO, rodv 
Be AlyvTrTLcop tmv re ^AXe^avBpecov irdvTWv 
icpeiaaro ware prj BioXeaai rcvd, to pcev d\7jde<; 
on OVK r]^L(D(7€ roaovTOV<i re avrov^ ovra^ Kai 
'Xp'r)(Tipi(OTdT0v<i T0t9 ^VcopaioL^ €9 iroWa dv yevo- 

4 pevov^ dvrjKearov tl Bpaaai' 7rp6(f)a<TCV Be 6p(D<^ 
irpov^dWero tov re deov rov ^dpaiTLv Kal rov 
^ AXe^avBpov rov otKLarrjv avrcov, Kal rpirov 

"ApeiOV TOV TToXiTrjV, (p TTOV (f)L\oaOCJ)OVVTl T€ Kal 

GvvovTi 01 exprJTo. Kal tov ye \6yov Bi ov 
avveyvco aipiaiv, iXkyvLCTTL, 07rft)9 avvwaLV avTOV, 
6 elire. Kal puerd ravra to puev tov ^AXe^dvBpov 
acopua elBe, Kal avTOV Kal irpoarj'^aTOy w<tt€ ti 
Tr)9 piv6<;, 0)9 <f>a(Tii Opavadrjvai' ra Be Brj tmv 



also ordered Antony's freedmen to give at once b.c. so 
to lullus, the son of Antony and Fulvia, every- 
thing which by law they would have been required 
to bequeath him at their death. As for the rest 
who had been connected with Antony's cause up 
to this time, he punished some and pardoned others, 
either from personal motives or to oblige his friends. 
And since there were found at the court many 
children of princes and kings who were being kept 
there, some as hostages and others out of a spirit 
of arrogance, he sent some back to their homes, 
joined others in marriage with one another, and 
retained still others. I shall omit most of these 
cases and mention only two. Of his own accord he 
restored lotape to the Median king, who had found 
an asylum with him after his defeat ; but he refused 
the request of Artaxes that his brothers be sent to 
him, because this prince had put to death the Romans 
left behind in Armenia. 

This was the disposition he made of such captives ; 
and in the case of the Egyptians and Alexandrians, 
he spared them all, so that none perished. The 
truth was that he did not see fit to inflict any irrepar- 
able injury upon a people so numerous, who might 
prove very useful to the Romans in many ways ; 
nevertheless, he offered as a pretext for his kindness 
their god Serapis, their founder Alexander, and, in 
the third place, their fellow-citizen Areius, of whose 
learning and companionship he availed himself. The 
speech in which he proclaimed to them his pardon 
he delivered in Greek, so that they might under- 
stand him. After this he viewed the body of Alex- 
ander and actually touched it, whereupon, it is said, 
a piece of the nose was broken off. But he declined 



UroXefiaimv, Ka'noL roiv 'AXe^avBpecov (nrovBfj 
l3ovXr)devTa)V avr(p Bel^at, ov/c iOedaaro, elirayv 
on. " ^aatXea aX)C ov veKpov^ ISelv iiredv/irja-a.^^ 
KOiK T^9 auT^9 ravrrj^ alria^s ovBe rS "AttiBl 
€VTV')(elv r)6e\r)(Te, Xiycov 6eov<i aXV o^X^ ySoO? 
17 iTpocjKVvelv eWiadai. etc Be tovtov rrjv re M'yv- 
TTTOV viroreXi] iTToCrjae koI tw VdXXw tw YLopvrjXiw 
iireTpe'^e' 7rp6<; re ^yap to iroXvavBpov koX rSyv 
iroXewv koI ri)^ '^(^cjdpa'i, koX 7rpb<; to paSiov to re 
Kov<pov rcov TpoiTWV avTMV, Tr)v Te anoiroiiTriav 
KoX ra 'X^prifjuara, ovBevl ^ovXevrfj ov-)^ oircof; 
iy^eipiaai avrrjp iroXfirjcrev, dXX' ovBe iveirt- 
Br}/jL€LV avrfi e^ovaiav cBcokcv, dv fit] tivi avTo<; 

2 ovofjuacrri (TV<y)((opt]cry. ov fievToi ovBe €K€LV0L<i 
^ovXevetv iv rfj 'Fco/jlj} icpr/Kev. dXXd T0Z9 fj^ev 
dXXot<; ft)? €KdcrTOL<;, Tot? 8' ^AXe^avBpevcriv dvev 
^ovXeVTCOv TToXireveadat iKeXevac roo-avryv ttov 

3 vewTepoTTodav avroiv Ka'rk'yvai. Kai acjxov ovrco 
Tore raxOki'Tcov rd fiev dXXa koX vvv la')(ypoii<; 
(puXdaaerai, ^ovXevovai Be Brj koX ev rfj 'AXe^av- 
Bpeia, €7rl Xeovrjpov avroKparopo^; dp^dfievoi, koI 
ev rfi 'P(o/jL7j, en ^ Avtcovlpov tov vleo^ avrov 
TTpcoTOV 69 Tr]v yepovauav iaypa^evre^;. 

4 AtyvTTTo^ jxev ovr(o<i eBovXcoOrj- Trdvre'i yap 01 
dvTLa'X^ovre'i avTMV ')(p6vov rivd ix^cpdoOrjaav, 
W9 TTOV KoX TO BaifiovLov (j(f>L(Tiv ivapyearara 
TTpoeBet^ev. vcre re yap ov^ dirw^ vBart, evOa 
fi-qBe iyjrefcaae irore, dXXd Kal al/jLarr ravrd re 
dfia eK Tcov v€<f)coi> e^eTmrre Kal orrrXa rrape- 

5 (pauvero. KTvrrTJfiard Te Tiva eTepcoOt Kal tv/m- 
Trdvwv Kal KVfjL^dXcov Kal /SorjfMaTa Kal avXwv 



fco view the remains of the Ptolemies, though the b.c. so 
Alexandrians were extremely eager to show them, 
remarking, "I wished to see a king, not corpses." 
For this same reason he would not enter the presence 
of Apis, either, declaring that he was accustomed 
to worship gods, not cattle. Afterwards he made 
Egypt tributary and gave it in charge of Cornelius 
Gallus. For in view of the populousness of both the 
cities and country, the facile, fickle character of the 
inhabitants, and the extent of the grain-supply and 
of the wealth, so far from daring to entrust the land 
to any senator, he would not even grant a senator 
permission to live in it, except as he personally made 
the concession to him by name. On the other hand 
he did not allow the Egyptians to be senators in 
Rome ; but whereas he made various dispositions as 
regards the several cities, he commanded the 
Alexandrians to conduct their government without 
senators ; with such capacity for revolution, I suppose, 
did he credit them. And of the system then imposed 
upon them most details are rigorously preserved at 
the present time, but they have their senators both 
in Alexandria, beginning first under the emperor 
Severus, and also in Rome, these having first been 
enrolled in the senate in the reign of Severus' son 

Thus was Egypt enslaved. All the inhabitants 
who resisted for a time were finally subdued, as, 
indeed. Heaven very clearly indicated to them 
beforehand. For it rained not only water where no 
drop had ever fallen previously, but also blood ; and 
there were flashes of armour from the clouds as this 
bloody rain fell from them. Elsewhere there was 
the clashing of drums and cymbals and the notes of 



Kal craXTTLyycov iyiyvero, Kai Ti? BpaKcov vrrrep- 
fieyWr]^ e^ai(j)V'r}f; acpiacv 6(j)6el<; afjbrj'^avov oaov 
e^ecTvpiae. kouv tovtm koI aarepe^ KOfjLrjrat, 
6(opMVTO, fcal V6Kpcov etScoXa icj^avrd^ero, rd re 
dyaXfiara ia/cvOpcoTraae, Kal 6 'Avri? oXo^vpTL/cov 
TL €/jLVKi](TaTO Kal KarehaKpvde. 

6 TaOra jiev ovtco<; iyivero, 'xprj^ara Be iroWd 
fiev iv TO) paaukLKw evpeOrj (jrdvra yap co? elirelv 
Kal rd eK twv dyccordrcov lepcjv dvaO^/jiara 7] 
KXeoTrdrpa dveXofievr] avveirXrjOvae rd Xd(j)vpa 
Tot? 'Fco/naiOKi dvev rtvo<; oiKeiov avrcov fjudafia- 
T09^),7roXXa Be Kal irap eKdarov rwv alrtaOevrcop 

7 Tt ^ rjOpoidOr]. Kal %ft)/ot9 ol XocttoI 7rdvTe<i, oaoi 
firjBev lBlov eyKXrj/jia Xa^eiv iSvvavro, rd Bvo 
fiepT) Tcov ovaicjv yT7]6r)aav.^ Kal dir avrcov 
7rdvT€^ fjuev ol arpaTLwrai rd e7ro(j)€iX6/jievd (Kpcaiv 
eKO/JLio-avro, ol Be Brj Kal rore raJ KaLcrapt avyye- 
vofxevoi TTevTTjKovra Kal BLaKoaia^ BpaxP'd'i, ware 

8 fiT} BtapirdaaL rrjv iroXiv, irpocTeirekaPov. toI<; 
T€ irpoBaveicraai n irdvTa dirriXXdyr], Kal TOL<i 
av/jL/jLeraa^ovo-t rod iroXepbOV Kal rcov jSovXevrcov 
Kal rSyv iTTTrecov rrdpLrroXXa eBoOr), to re avfiTrav 
rj re dpxv V '^^^ 'Vayfjiaicov irrXovriaOr) Kal rd 
lepd avroiv eKoa/jLtjOrj. 

18 *0 3' ovv Kalaap co? rd re TrpoeLprj/jueva errpa^e, 
Kal ttoXlv Kal €K€l ev rSt rrjf; P'd'X^r]^; ')(^copLa) 
avv(i)KL(Te, Kal ro ovofia Kal rov dywva avry 
6fjLOLco(} rfj TTporepa Bov^;, ra? re Bicopv^^af; ra? fjuev 
e^eKdOrjpe Ta9 Be eK KaLV7j<; Bccopv^e, Kal rdXXa 
rd iTpoarjKovra rrpoaBiwK'qaev, e? re rrjv ^Aalav 

^ /j-ida-fiaros M, fiidcrfiaTOS V. ^ ri M, om, V, 

*■ ]jTT]0rjo-ov R. Steph., T]rT-i]Q7](Tav VM. 




flutes and trumpets, and a serpent of huge size b.c. so 
suddenly appeared to them and uttered an incredibly 
loud hiss. Meanwhile comets were seen and dead 
men's ghosts appeared, the statues frowned, and 
Apis bellowed a note of lamentation and burst into 

So much for these events. In the palace quantities 
of treasure were found. For Cleopatra had taken prac- 
tically all the offerings from even the holiest shrines 
and so helped the Romans swell their spoils without 
incurring any defilement on their own part. Large 
sums were also obtained from every man against 
whom any charge of misdemeanour was brought. 
And apart from these, all the rest, even though no 
particular complaint could be lodged against them, 
had two-thirds of their property demanded of them. 
Out of this wealth all the troops received what was 
owing them, and those who were with Caesar at the 
time got in addition a thousand sesterces on con- 
dition of not plundering the city. Repayment was 
made in full to those who had previously advanced 
loans, and to both the senators and the knights who 
had taken part in the war large sums were given. 
In fine, the Roman empire was enriched and its 
temples adorned. 

After accomplishing the things just related Caesar 
founded a city there on the very site of the battle 
and gave to it the same name and the same games as 
to the city he had founded previously.^ He also 
cleared out some of the canals and dug others over 
again, besides attending to other important matters. 
Then he went through Syria into the province of 

^ See chap. 1, 3. 



TO e6vo<; Sia r^? ^vpla^ rjXde, KavravOa irape- 
'X^ei/jiaae, rd re tmv vtttjkocov 0)9 eKuara kol to, 

2 roiv TidpOwv afjba KaOiardixevo^. araaiaaavTcov 
rydp avroiv kul tlvo^ TipiSdrov ^ rw ^padrrj 
i'7ravaardvT0<i, irporepov jxev, koI eo)? en rd rod 
*AvT(ovLOV KOI /jLCrd Tr)V vavfjua^lap dvOeiar'^Ket, 
ov^ ocrov ov irpoaeOeTo tco ^ avrcov avjJLfia'x^Lav 
alrrjadvTcov, dW' ovS* direKpivaTO dXko ovhev rj 
ore ^ovXevaerai, irpo^aaiv filv &)? kol irepl rrjv 
AtyvTrrov da^^oXCav e^o)v, epyw Se Ilv^ i/cTpv)(^co- 

3 Oelev iv rovrw pbayop^evoi 7rp6<; dXk^\ov<;. tot€ 
Se 6Tret,Sr) 6 re ^ Kvtwvlo<; ireXevrrjae, koI eKelvcov 
6 fxev TipiBdrr]<i 'qTTrjOel^ €9 rrfv Zivpiav /carecfyvyev, 
6 Be ^padT7]<; KpaTr)aa<i irpea^ei^ eTre/jLyjre, rovToi<i 
T€ ^LkiKOi^ i'X^prjfidriore, koI tw TipLSdrrj ^orj- 
Orjaeuv fxev ov% L'Trecr^ero hiandaOaL Se iv tj} 
^vpLO, eTrerpe'xjrev, viov re rtva rod ^padrov iv 
evepyecria<; ^ fiepei Trap' avrov Xa/Scov 69 re rrjv 
'Fct)/jLr]v dvtjyaye kol iv 6/jL7)peLa iiroiTJaaTO. 

19 *Ev Be rovTO) kuI ero irporepov av^vd fiev koI 
iirl rfj T^9 vavpa-^la^; vlkyj ol iv olko) 'Pcofiaioi 
iyfrr)(j)L<TavTO. rd re yap vtKrjrypia avra>, 009 /cal ; 
T?79 KX607raT/oa9, Kal aA^tSa rpoTraio^opov ev re 
TO) ^pevreaiw Kal erepav iv rfj Pcofiaua dyopa 
2 eBcoicav rrjv re KprjirlBa rov ^lovXieiov rjpcpov 
roL<; rcjv ai)(/jidXo)rLBo)v vecov eyLt/SoXot9 Koa/j,7]- 
$7]vai, fcal iravrjyvpiv ol TrevrertjplBa dyea6ai, 
ev re T0i9 yevedXioi^ avrov /cal iv rfj rrj<^ dy- 
ye\La<; ri)^ viKr](i rj/Jiepa iepo/i7)VLav elvat, Kal €9 
rr)v iTokiv iaiovrt avrw rd<i re i€p6ia<; rd<i 

^ TipiSdrov Dind., reipiSdrov VM (and so just below). 
■•* T(f M, om. V. ^ evepyeolas M, evepyeaia V. 



Asia and passed the winter there settling the various b.c. so 
affairs of the subject nations as well as those of the 
Parthians. It seems there had been dissension among 
the Parthians and a certain Tiridates had risen 
against Phraates ; and hitherto, as long as Antony's 
opposition lasted, even after the naval battle, Caesar 
had not only not attached himself to either side, 
though they sought his alliance, but had not even 
answered them except to say that he would think the 
matter over. His excuse was that he was busy with 
Egypt, but in reality he wanted them in the mean- 
time to exhaust themselves by fighting against each 
other. But now that Antony was dead and of the two 
combatants Tiridates, defeated, had taken refuge in 
Syria, and Phraates, victorious, had sent envoys, he 
entered into friendly negotiations with the latter ; 
and, without promising to aid Tiridates, he per- 
mitted him to live in Syria. He received from 
Phraates one of his sons by way of conferring a 
favour upon him, and taking him to Rome, kept him 
as a hostage. 

During this time and still earlier the Romans at 
home had passed many resolutions in honour of 
Caesar's naval victory. Thus they granted him a 
triumph, as over Cleopatra, an arch adorned with 
trophies at Brundisium and another in the Roman 
Forum. Moreover, they decreed that the foundation 
of the shrine of Julius should be adorned with the 
beaks of the captured ships and that a festival should 
be held every four years in honour of Octavius ; that 
there should also be a thanksgiving on his birthday 
and on the anniversary of the announcement of his 
victory ; also that when he should enter the city the 



d€i7rap6evov<; ' koX t^i' j3ov\r)V rov re Brj/jLov fjuerd 
T€ r(ov ryvvaLKMV Kol fiera tmv t€Kvcov dirav- 

3 rrjaat eyvwaav. ra? 'ycup €v^d<; ra? ye eiKova^ 
KOI TYjv TTpoeBpiav Kol rdWa ra roLOVTorpoTra 
irepiTTOV icTTLV rjhrj Xeyeiv. t^z/ fiev ovv Trpdorrjv 
iKeiv(p T€^ ravT i'^r)(f)i(TavTO, kol to, tov *Av- 
TCOVLOV KOdfiTjiiaTa ra fiev /caOecXov rd 5' dw^- 
Xeiyfrav, rrjv t€ r^puepav iv y iyeyivvrjro paapdv 
iv6/jLL(Tav, Kal to tov MdpKOV irpocrpr^fia direlTrov 

4 firjBevl T(ov avyyevcov avrov elvai. to? /juevTOi kol 
reOveoira avrov iirvOovro (rjyyiXdT] Be rovro Ki/ce- 
pcovof; rov K.LKep(i)vo<; TratSo? iv fiepec rov erov<; vira- 
r€vovro<;), rovro re rLve<i co? ^ ovk dOeel Br) a-v/jb^dv 
iXd/jifiavov, eireiBrjirep 6 irarrjp avrov viro rov 

5 ^AvrcovLOV on p^dXiar ereOvrjKei, Kal Trpoaeyjrr)- 
<j>i<Tavro TO) }Laiaapi, fcal are<pdvov^ Kal lepop/r)- 
Via<i TToXXa?, Kal avra> Kal erepa emviKLa a)9 Kal 
rwv AlyvTrrLcov dyayelv eBoaav rov ydp^Avrcoviov 
Kal Tou? dXXov<; ^P(Ofiai,ov<; tou? ctvv eKeivw vikt)- 
6€vra<; ovre irporepov ovre rore, co? Kal eoprd^eiv 

6 (r^a9 eV* avroc<i Beov, ct)v6/iaaav. rrjv re r^fiepav 
iv fj T) ^ AXe^dvBpeia edXo), dyadiqv re eivai Kal 
69 rd eireira errj dp')^r]v rijf; drnrapidfirjaeco^; avrcjv 
vofii^ecrOat, Kal rov Y^aicrapa rrjv re i^ovatav 
rr)v ra)v Br)iJidp')(cov Bid /3lov e^eiv, Kal rol^ 
iinfiowfjLevoL^ avrov Kal ivro^i rov 7rco/jbr)pLov Kal 
efft) p^expi'^ oyBoov rffiiaraBiov dpuvveiVy o fMrjBevl 

^ T€ M, om. V. 2 ws supplied by Bk. 



Vestal Virgins and the senate and the people with b.c. 
their wives and children should go out to meet 
him. But it would be quite superfluous to go 
on and mention the prayers^ the images, the 
privilege of the front seat, and all the other honours 
of the sort. At the beginning, then, they not 
only voted him these honours but also either took 
down or effaced the memorials of Antony, declared 
the day on which he had been born accursed, and 
forbade the use of the surname Marcus by any of 
his kin. When, however, they learned of Antony's 
death, the news of which came while Cicero, the son 
of Cicero, was consul for a part of the year, some 
held that it had come to pass not without divine 
direction, since the consul's father had owed his 
death chiefly to Antony ; and they voted to Caesar 
crowns and thanksgivings in great number and 
granted him the privilege of celebrating another 
triumph, this time over the Egyptians. For neither 
on the previous occasion nor at this time did they 
mention by name Antony and the other Romans 
who had been vanquished with him and thus imply 
that it was proper to celebrate their defeat. The 
day on which Alexandria had been captured they 
declared a lucky day, and directed that in future 
years it should be taken by the inhabitants of that 
city as the starting-point in their reckoning of time. 
They also decreed that Caesar should hold the 
tribunician power for life, that he should aid those 
who called upon him for help both within the 
pomerium and outside for a distance of one mile,i — 

1 Literally, " as far as the eighth half- stade," which means 
seven and a half stades, that is, one mile, according to Dio's 
usage. See note on xxxviii. 18. 



7 rS)V SrjfiapxovvTcov e^rjv, eKKXrjTov t€ Si/cd^etv, 
Kol ylrrjcfyov riva avrov iv ttclctl rol<; ScKaaTrjpLoif; 
wcnrep *AOrjvd<i (j)6 peer Oat, rov^ re lepea^ kol 
TCbf; lepeia^ ev rat? virep re rod hrjfiov kol rrj^; 
^ovXrjf; eu^at? koi virep i/ceivov ofioiw^ ^^X^' 
arOai, /cal iv toI<; avao-LTLOi^ ov^ on ro2<i kolvoI^; 
aWa KoX Tol^ IBioifi 7rdvra<i avrw airevheiv 
20 Tore fxev hrj ravT ijvcoaOrj, virarevovTo^i 3' 
avTov TO TTefiiTTOv fiera ^e^rov ^ AnrovKetov rd 
T€ Trpax^evra vir avrov irdvTa iv avry rf} rod 
^lavovapiov vov/jbr]vla opKOi^ i/Se/Batcoaavro, Kal 
eTreiBr) Kal rd irepl rwv YidpOcov ypd/jL/jbara rj\6ev, 
e? T€ Toix; v/jlvov<; avrov ef lctov rol<^ OeoL<; ia-ypd- 

2 (j)eadaL,^ Kal ^vXrjv 'lovXiav irr avrov iirovofid- 
i^ecrOaL, r& re ar€(pdva) ax^rbv rep iTTLViKiq) St,d 
7raaa)v tmv Travrjyvpecov 'x^prjadai, Kal rov<; trvv- 
vtKrjcravrd^ ol /3ov\evrd<i iv 'Trepnrop(fivpoL<i Ijia- 

3 rioL^ rr)v Tro/jbirrjv avrw a-vfXTre/jLyjrai,, rrjv re rjfiepav 
iv y av e? rr)v rroXiv iae\6r) 6vaiaL<i re irav- 
Srj/jLel dyaXdrjvaL Kal lepdv del dyeaOai, lepea^ 
re avrov Kal vrrep rov dpiOpuov, oaov^ dv del 
iOeXrjar), TTpoaipelaOai 7rpocrKarearrj(ravro' oirep 
TTOV ef iKelvov irapaBoOev e? dopiarov iir'r}v^r)6'q^ 
ware fJLTjhev en 'X^prjvaC jxe rrepl rov 7r\rj9ov<^ 

4 avrcov dKpL^oXoyelaOai. 6 ovv Kataap rd fxev 
dXka irX-qv ^paykwv iSe^aro, ro Be Brj avp.- 
TTavra<; avra> rov<; iv rfj iroket, 6vra<; diravrrjaai 

^ e(Typd(p€(TdaL M, iyypdcpeadai V. 

1 The tribunes' authority, as a matter of fact, extended to 
the first mile-stone outside the city ; see Livy iii. 20, 7. 
Die is apparently labouring under a misapprehension. 



a privilege possessed by none ot the tribunes/ — also b.c. so 
that he should judge appealed cases, and that in all 
the courts his vote was to be cast as Athena's vote.- 
The priests and priestesses also in their prayers in 
behalf of the people and the senate were to pray for 
him likewise, and at all banquets, not only public 
but private as well, everybody was to pour a libation 
to him. 

These were the decrees passed at that time ; and b.c. 29 
when he was consul for the fifth time, with Sextus 
Apuleius, they ratified all his acts by oath on the 
very first day of January. When the letter came 
regarding the Parthians, they further arranged that 
his name should be included in their hymns equally 
with those of the gods ; that a tribe should be called 
the ^'^ Julian" after him; that he should wear the 
triumphal crown at all the festivals ; that the senators 
who had participated in his victory should take part 
in the triumphal procession arrayed in purple- 
bordered togas ; that the day on which he entered 
the city should be honoured with sacrifices by the 
whole population and be held sacred for evermore ; 
and that he might choose priests even beyond the 
regular number, — as many, in fact, as he should wish 
on any occasion. This last-named privilege, handed 
down from that time, was afterwards indefinitely 
extended, so that I need not henceforth make a point 
of giving the exact number of such officials. Now 
Caesar accepted all but a few of these honours, 
though he expressly requested that one of them, the 
proposal that the whole population of the city should 

* That is, in case of a tie vote, Caesar's vote, like Athena's 
in the Areopagus at Athens, was to decide in favour of ac- 
quittal. Of. Aesch.,^wmen. 737 ff.; Eur., Iph. T. 965 f., 1472. 



TraprjTrjo-aro avTLKpv^ fir) yevicrOai. ifkelcrTov he 
6/jL(0<; virep Trdvra ra y^rjcfyia-devra ol vireprjaOr] 

OTi Ta9 T€ TTuXa? Ttt? TOV ^laVOV 0)9 Kol TrdvTCop 

a^iaL TMP TToXe/iicDV TravTeXco^ weTravfievoyv exXec- 
v^ orav, Koi ro olcovtcrfia to t^? 'TfyL€ia<i iTTolrjaav 

5 Kal yap rore 8i direp etTTOv hiekeXeLirro. rjaav 
fiev yap iv oirXoi^ ert, Kal TpijovrjpoL ^ K€\tov<; 
iirayayDfievoi Kal KavrajSpoi^ Kal OvaKKalot 
Kal "A(7Tvpe<;' Kal ovtol fiev vtto tov Tavpov rod 
XTariXiov, eKelvoi he vtto l^covlov TdWov Kare- 
<rTpd(f)r]aav' dWa re co? Ka6^ eKacTTOv^; rapax^hrj 
avxv^ eyiyvero' dX>C iireiBr} /jurjSev fxiya dir^ 
avTMV avvrjvix^V' ovre eKelvoi rore iroXefxelaOai 
ivo/jLL^ov ovTe eya) ein^ave^i ri^ irepl avrcov 
ypd-yjrai, e)(^co. 

6 Kalaap Be iv tovto) rd re dXXa e')(^pr}jjidTt^e, 
Kal refievr) rfj re 'Pcofirj Kal ro) irarpl tw 
l^aLaapi, rjpoia avrov ^IovXlov ovo/jidaa^, ev re 
^Ei(f)iaa) Kal iv NiKata yeveaOat icjiijKev avrac yap 
Tore al iroXei^ ev re rfj ^ Kaia Kal ev rfj BcOvvla 

7 iTpoeTerL/jurjvTO. Kal rovrov^ fiev roh 'VcofiaiOL^ 
Tol^ Trap auTOfc? eiroiKovaL rtfidv irpoaera^e' tol<; 
8e Br) ^evoi^i, "FiXXr)vd<; cr(f)a<i e7riKaXe(Ta<;, eavrw 
Tiva, Tot? fjLev ^AaiavoU iv Uepyd/jum toi<; Be 
BiOvvoL^ iv ^CKO/jLr)BeLa, refjievlaai iireTpe'^e. Kal 
TOVT iKelOev dp^d/juevov Kal iir dXXcov avroKpa- 
Topcov ov fJLOvov iv TOt? ' EXXr)viK0L<; eOveaiv, aixd 
Kal iv T0t9 dXXoi^ oaa rcov 'VwjjLaiwv aKovei, 

8 iyevero. iv ydp tol rw darei avrS) rfj re dXXr) 

^ Tp-qovrjpoi Bs. , rprjovpoi VM. 

'^ Kavra^poi R. Steph., &VTafipoi VM. 

' Ti M., om. V. 



go out to meet him, should not be put into effect. 
Nevertheless, the action which pleased him more 
than all the decrees was the closing by the senate of 
the gates of Janus, implying that all their wars had 
entirely ceased, and the taking of the augurium 
salutis, which had at this time fallen into disuse for 
the reasons I have mentioned.^ To be sure, there 
were still under arms the Treveri, who had brought 
in the Germans to help them, and the Cantabri, the 
Vaccaei, and the Astures, — the three last-named of 
whom were later subjugated by Statilius Taurus, and 
the former by Nonius Gallus, — and there were also 
numerous other disturbances going on in various 
regions ; yet inasmuch as nothing of importance 
resulted from them, the Romans at the time did not 
consider that they were engaged in war, nor have I, 
for my part, anything notable to record about them. 
Caesar, meanwhile, besides attending to the gene- 
ral business, gave permission for the dedication of 
sacred precincts in Ephesus and in Nicaea to Rome 
and to Caesar, his father, whom he named the hero 
Julius. 2 These cities had at that time attained chief 
place in Asia and in Bithynia respectively. He 
commanded that the Romans resident in these cities 
should pay honour to these two divinities ; but he 
permitted the aliens, whom he styled Hellenes, to 
consecrate precincts to himself, the Asians to have 
theirs in Pergamum and the Bithynians theirs in 
Nicomedia. This practice, beginning under him, has 
been continued under other emperors, not only in 
the case of the Hellenic nations but also in that of 
all the others, in so far as they are subject to the 
Romans. For in the capital itself and in Italy 

* Cf. xxxvii. 24. ^ i.e. Divus lulius. 



'IraXta ovk eajiv 6aTi<; roiv koX €(^' oiroaovovv 
Xoyov Tivo<; d^itov iroXfjurjcre tovto iroLTjaar fieraX- 
Xd^acTL fxivTOi /cdvravOa tol^ opOoi^ avTapx^j^CLf^i'V 
akXai re iaoBeoi ti/jloI hihovrai koX Br) koI r]p&a 
9 Tavra fiev iv tw ^eiyitwi't iyevero,^ kol eka^ov 
KoX 01 Uepyafirjvol rov dyoova tov lepov odvo/jlu- 
21 a/jL€vov eVt tj} tov vaov avrov rtfi^ iroLelv, rov 
he Bf] Oipovf; e? re rrjv 'EWdSa kol e? rrjv 
'IraXiav 6 Kalaap eTrepaLcoOrj, koI avrov e? 
rr)v rrokiv eae\d6vro<i ol re dWoi eOvaav, oyarrep 
etprjrat, koX 6 viraro^ Ova\ept,o<; Uorlro^;- eKelvo^ 
fxev yap Kal rovro irdv ro ero^, axrirep Kal rd Bvo 
rd irporepa, virdrevae, rov Be Brj Xe^rov o 

2 IIoTiTO? BteBe^aro. ovro<; ovv BrjfjLoaia Kal av- 
T09 VTrep re rov Bt^/nov Kal virep t?}? pov\rj<i 
eirl rrj rov Kaiaapo^ dcpt^et efiovdvrrjaev o 
firjiro) irporepov eirl /jLrjB€Vo<; dWov iyeyovev. 
fierd Be rovro rov<^ re viroarparriyov; Kal eirrj- 

3 veae Kal eri/jbrjaev warrep eWtaro, Kal rov re 
*AypiTT7rav dWoL<; re rial Kal (T7j/jL€i(p Kvavoei- 
Bei vavKparrjriKO) it poaerreaepuvvve, Kal rot? arpa- 
riwrai^ eBcofce riva' rw re BrjjJbw Ka0* eKarov^ 
Bpa'X^/jLd<;, 7rporepoL<i fiev rot? €9 dvBpa<i reXovaiv, 
erreira Be Kal rot? iraial Bid rov MdpKeWov rov 

4 dBeX^iBovv, Bievei/Jie. Kal eirl re rovroi^;, Kal 
on irapd rcov iroXeayv ro)V iv rjj ^IraXia ro 
y^pvaiov ro roi<; o-re(j)dvoi<; TrpoarjKOV ovk eBe^aro, 

^ iyevero V, iyevovro M. ^ cKarhv M, (avrhu V. 

1 Cf. chap. 1, 2. 2 cf. chap. 20, 3. 

^ In earlier times it had been customary, when a general 



generally no emperor, however worthy of renown he b.c. 29 
has been, has dared to do this ; still, even there 
various divine honours are bestowed after their death 
upon such emperors as have ruled uprightly, and, in 
fact, shrines are built to them. 

All this took place in the winter; and the Per- 
gamenians also received authority to hold the 
" sacred " games, as they called them, in honour of 
Caesar's temple.^ In the course of the summer 
Caesar crossed over to Greece and to Italy ; and 
when he entered the city, not only all the citizens 
offered sacrifice, as has l3een mentioned,^ but even 
the consul Valerius Potitus. Caesar, to be sure, was 
consul all that year as for the two preceding years, 
but Potitus was the successor of Sextus. It was he 
who publicly and in person offered sacrifices in behalf 
of the senate and of the people upon Caesar's arrival, 
a thing that had never before been done in the case 
of any other person. After this Caesar bestowed 
eulogies and honours upon his lieutenants, as was 
customary, and to Agrippa he further granted, among 
other distinctions, a dark blue flag in honour of his 
naval victory, and he gave gifts to the soldiers ; to 
the people he distributed four hundred sesterces 
apiece, first to the men who were adults, and after- 
wards to the children because of his nephew Mar- 
cellus. In view of all this, and because he would not 
accept from the cities of Italy the gold required for 
the crowns ^ they had voted him, and because, 

won a triumph, for the cities of his province to send gold 
crowns, which were carried before him in the triumphal pro- 
cession. By Cicero's time it was a common practice to send, 
instead of the crowns themselves, their value in money 
{aureum coronarium) ; and this was now regarded as a form 
of tribute. 





Kol QTL^ Kol Trdvra a re avro'i ft)(/)6tX€ Tiaiv 
direBcoKe, kol a ol dWoi iirocKpeiXov ovk eae- 
irpa^ev, coairep etprjraL, tmp re Bva-j^epwv TrdvTwv 
01 ^Vwpualoi eireXddovTO, koX rd iirivL/cia avrov 
978661)9 ft)? /cal dWo(pv\cov dirdyrcov rcov rjrrr]- 

5 6evT(ov 6vT(ov elBov roaovrov yap to ttXtjOo^ tcov 
')(^p7)/jLdrcov Bid irdar}^ opuoiw^ ttj^ TroXeax} e%6w- 
prjcrev ware rd fiev /CTTj/jbara iTTLrifjLrjOijvat,, rd Be 
Baveiajxara d'ya'mrjTOi^ iirl BpaxP'fj Trporepov ovra 
Tore eirl to5 TpirrjfMopLa) avrrjfi yeveaOuL. ecopraae 
Be rfj fxev Trpcorr} r)p.epa rd re rcov JIavvovLcov kol 
rd TMV AeXfiarcbv, tt}? re 'laTTf 8ta9 ^ Kal tmv 
Trpoa-^copeov (Tcpiai,^ KeXrcov re /cal TaXarcov rtvojv. 

6 Tdio<; ydp lLappiva<; tou9 re Mcopivov<; teal dWov<; 
Tivd<; avveiravao-TavTa^ avTOL<; 6')(eLp^(TaT0, Kal 
T0U9 ^ovrjpov<; rov * ^Vrjvov iirl 77 oXefiw Bia- 
fidvTa<; aTrecoaaro' Kal Bed ravra nqyaye pikv Kal 
eKelvo^ rd viKrjrijpLa, Kairoi rov re 7rarpo<; avrov 
VTTO rov XvXXov Oavara)0evro<;, Kal avro<; dp^ai 
TTore jxerd rcov dXXcov rodv ofiolcov ol KcoXvOei^, 
r\yaye Be Kal 6 Kalaap, eireiBr] r) dva^opd rr\^ 
VLKrj(; rfj avroKpdropi avrov dp')(^ TrpoarjKovaa 

7 Yjv. ev pev ovv rfj Trpcorr) rjpepa ravra Biecoprd- 
ddr], ev Be rfj Bevrepa rj irpo^ rw ^AKriw vav- 
Kparla, Kav rfj rpirr) r] rrj<; Alyvirrov Kara- 
arrpocjiij. eiri^avelf; fiev Brj Kal at dXXac irop.iral 
Bid rd aTT* avrrj^; Xd(f>vpa eyevovro {roaavra ydp 
r/OpoLoOr] Mare irdaai^; eTrapKeaai), rroXvreXeardrr] 

8 5' ovv Kal d^iOTTpeTreardrr) avrr) r] Klyvirria. rd 
re ydp dXXa Kal r] KXeorrdrpa eVt KXivq^ ev r& 

1 oVt Rk., ^Ti VM. 2 ^la-nvhias Xyl., lairvyias VM. 

3 a<\>iai M, om. V. ^ rlv Bk., r6v rt VM. 



furthermore, he not only paid all the debts he himself b.c. 29 
owed to others, as has been stated,^ but also did not 
insist on the payment of others' debts to him, the 
Romans forgot all their unpleasant experiences and 
viewed his triumph with pleasure, quite as if the 
vanquished had all been foreigners. So vast an 
amount of money, in fact, circulated through all parts 
of the city alike, that the price of goods rose and 
loans for which the borrower had been glad to pay 
twelve per cent, could now be had for one third that 
rate. As for the triumph, Caesar celebrated on the 
first day his victories over the Pannonians and Dal- 
matians, the lapydes and their neighbours, and some 
Germans and Gauls. For Gains Carrinas had sub- 
dued the Morini and others who had revolted with 
them, and had repulsed the Suebi, who had crossed the 
Rhine to wage war. Not only did Carrinas, therefore, 
celebrate the triumph, — and that notwithstanding 
that his father had been put to death by Sulla and 
that he himself along with the others in like con- 
dition had once been debarred from holding office, — 
but Caesar also celebrated it, since the credit of the 
victory properly belonged to his position as supreme 
commander. This was the first day's celebration. 
On the second day the naval victory at Actium was 
commemorated, and on the third the subjugation of 
Egypt. Now all the processions proved notable, 
thanks to the spoils from Egypt, — in such quantities, 
indeed, had spoils been gathered there that they 
sufficed for all the processions, — but the Egyptian 
celebration surpassed them all in costliness and mag- 
nificence. Among other features, an effigy of the 
dead Cleopatra upon a couch was carried by, so that 

1 Cf. chap. 17, 8. 


rod Oavdrov fjuifi'^fiaTi Trape/co/jiLcrO'i], ware rpoirov 
TLva Kol €K€Lvr)v /icrd r€ rcov aXXcov al')(fjLa\(OTcov 
KOi fiera rov ^AXe^dvBpov rod kol 'HXlov, tt)? re 
KX€07rdrpa<; r?}? Kal Xe\7]vr}<;, tmv reKvcou, co? 
9 TTop^Trelov 6<f)drjvaL. fiera Se Brj rovro 6 K.aLaap 
i(l> airacTLv avrol^ e(Tekdaa<; rd fiev dWa Kara 
TO vofit^ofievov eTTpa^e, rov Be Br} avvvTrarov tov<; 
re XoLTToixi dp')(^ovTa<; irepielBe irapd rb KaOearrjKcx; 
eTTKriropevov^ ol jxerd rcov Xolttcov ^ovkevrcov rcov 
avvvevcKTjKOTCov elcddeaav yap ol jxev r)yeia6ai ol 
B\ i(f>67rea6ai^ 
22 'EttcI Be ravra BiCTeXeae, to re *A6i]vacov to 
^aXKiBiKov o)VO/jLaapevov /cal to ^ovXevTTjpLov to 
^lovXleiov, TO eVt ry rov iraTpo^ avrov Tififj 
ryevofjuevov, Kadtepwaev. iveaTrjae Be e? avTo to 
dyaXpxi TO T»)9 ^lfcr](i to koI vvv 6v, BrjXSiv, co? 

2 eoiKev, otl irap avT7J<; rrfv dp')(r]v eKTTjaaro' r)v 
Be Br) rcov Tapavrivcov, /cal e/ceiOev 6? ryv 'Fmpbrjv 
KOfJLicrOev ev re tw avveBpiw IBpvOrj koI Alyv- 
TTTtoi? Xa<^vpoL<i eKoaprjOr]. Kal rovro Kal rw rov 

3 ^lovXiov r]pcp(p oaLcoOevri rore vrrrjp^e' av^vd yap 
Kal €9 eKelvo dvereOr), Kal erepa ra> re Ad rw 
^ainrcdXlcp Kal ry "H/aa rrj re *A6r)va lepdoOy, 
rrdvrwv ro)v irporepov evravOa dvaKeladai Bokovv- 
rcov Tj Kal en Keipevcov €k B6yparo<i rore Kadau- 
peOevrwv o)? Kal /nejuiaap^evoyv.^ Kal ovrcof; r] 
K-XeoTrdrpa Kaiirep Kal r/rrrjOeLaa Kal dXovaa 

1 i(p6ir€adai M, cTreaOai V. 

2 ne/xiafffifvuv v. Herwerden, fxefxiafxfxevuy VM. 




in a way she, too, together with the other captives b.o. 29 
and with her children, Alexander, called also Helios, 
and Cleopatra, called also Selene, was a part of the 
spectacle and a trophy in the procession. After 
this came Caesar, riding into the city behind them 
all. He did everything in the customary manner, 
except that he permitted his fellow-consul and the 
other magistrates, contrary to precedent, to follow 
him along with the senators who had participated in 
the victory ; for it was usual for such officials to 
march in advance and for only the senators to 

After finishing this celebration Caesar dedicated 
the temple of Minerva, called also the Chalcidicum, 
and the Curia lulia, which had been built in honour 
of his father. In the latter he set up the statue of 
Victory which is still in existence, thus signifying 
probably that it was from her that he had received the 
empire. It had belonged to the people of Tarentum, 
whence it was now brought to Rome, placed in the 
senate-chamber, and decked with the spoils of Egypt. 
The same course was followed in the case of the 
shrine of Julius which was consecrated at this time, 
for many of these spoils were placed in it also ; and 
others were dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus and to 
Juno and Minerva, after all the objects in these 
temples which were supposed to have been placed 
there previously as dedications, or were actually 
dedications, had by decree been taken down at this 
time as defiled. Thus Cleopatra, though defeated and 
captured, was nevertheless glorified, inasmuch as her 

^)The custom was for the magistrates to issue from the 
city to meet the victorious general, and then to turn and 
march ahead of him. Octavius, by putting them behind him, 
symbolized his position as chief citizen of the state, 



eho^didr], on rd re KocTjjbrjiJLaTa avrrj^; iv tol<; 
lepoLf; r)/jL(ov avaKenai koX avrr) iv rw ^K^pohialo) 
')(^pv(Tri opdrat. 

4 ^Ev 8' ovv rfj Tov rjpMOV oaLcocrei dy6)ve<; re 
iravToBaTTol iyevovro, koX ttjv Tpolav evTrarplBai 
Trat^e? 'iirirevaav, dvSpe^ re ifc rcov ofioicov acptatv 
eiri T6 KeXrjTOdv Kal eVt avvcopiBcov eVt ^ re redpiir- 
TTcov dvTTjycovLo-avTO, K.vlvt6<; ri rt? OviTeWio<; 

6 ^ov\€VTr)<; i/jLovop.d-)(7ja6. Kal Orjpla Kal ^otcl 
dXXa T6 na/inrXrjdrj Kal pivoKepco^; tTrTro? re 
7roTd/jLio<;, irpMTOV Tore iv ry 'Pcop^y o^devra, 
ia<j>dyrj. Kal a /jl€V ltttto^ oTroto? iari, TroXXot? 
T€ etprjTac Kal ttoXv TrXcLoaiv ecoparar 6 Be Brj 
pivoKepco^ rd p^ev dWa iXe^avTU irr) TrpocreoLKe, 
Kepa<; Be ri Kar avrrjv rrjv plva 7rpoae')(^ei,, Kal Bid 

6 Tovro ovro) KeKXrjTat. ravrd re ovv icrrjjddij, 
Kal dOpooi 7r/)09 dWri\ov<^ AaKol re Kal 'Zovtj^ol^o'CLVTO. elcrl Be ovroi p.ev KeXrol, iKelvoL Be 
Br} %Kvdai TpOTTOV Tivd' Kal ol p,ev vrepav tov 
'Ptjvov (W9 ye raKpL^e^ elirelv (ttoWoI yap Kal 
dWoL TOV TMV^ ^ovrj^cov 6v6pLaTO<i dvTLTTOlOVV- 
rat), ol Be eV* dpb<^6Tepa tov "laTpov vepLovTai, 

7 aXV ol p,ev iirl rdBe avrov Kal Trpo? ttj Tpi,- 
^aWtKTJ oLKOvvTe^ 69 T6 TOV T^9 Mfcrta9 vop>ov 
reXovac Kal Mfcrot, TrXrjv irapd Tot9 irdvv iin- 
j(wpLOL^, ovopid^ovTai, ol Be iTreKetva AaKol Ke- 
KXrjvTai, etre Br] VeTat Tivh eiTe Kal SpaKe<; tov 
AaKiKOv yevov<; tov Tr)v 'PoBoTrrjv iroTe ivotKrj- 

8 (TavT0<i 6We9. ovtol ovv ol AaKol iirpea/SevaavTo 

p,ev irpo TOV XP^^^^ tovtov 7r/309 tov Kaiaapa, 

1 ini Polak, Tu,u VM. 

"^ TOV tSiv Pflugk, Toirwp rwv V, rovruv rov M. 




adornments repose as dedications in our temples and b.c. 29 
she herself is seen in gold in the shrine of Venus. 

At the consecration of the shrine to Julius there 
were all kinds of contests, and the boys of the 
patricians performed the equestrian exercisecalled 
"Troy," and men of the same rank cont^aded with 
chargers, with pairs, and with four-horse teams ; 
furthermore, one Quintus Vitellius, a senator, fought 
as a gladiator. Wild beasts and tame animals were 
slain in vast numbers, among them a rhinoceros an"d(^ 
a hippopotamus, beasts then seen for the first time 
in Rome. As regards the nature of the hippopotamus, 
it has been described by many and far more have 
seen it. The rhinoceros, on the other hand, is in 
general somewhat like an elephant, but it has also a 
horn on its very nose and has got its name because of 
this. These beasts, accordingly, were brought in, and 
moreover Dacians and Suebi fought in crowds with 
one another. The latter are Germans, the former 
Scythians of a sort. The Suebi, to be exact, dwell 
beyond the Rhine (though many people elsewhere 
claim their name), and the Dacians on both sides of 
the Ister ; those of the latter, however, who live on 
this side of the river near the country of the Triballi 
are reckoned in with the district of Moesia and are 
called Moesians, except by those living in the 
immediate neighbourhood, while those on the other 
side are called Dacians and are either a branch of 
the Getae or Thracians belonging to the Dacian race 
that once inhabited Rhodope. Now these Dacians 
had before this time sent envoys to Caesar ; but 



<B9 3' ovBevb<; (av iBiovro erv^ov, aireKXivav tt/jo? 
Tov ^AvTcovLov, KoX eKslvov /jL6v ovBcv fJL6ya a)<l>6- 
Xrj(Tay crracndcTavT€<; ev dW'^\oi<;, aX6vT€<; Se ix 
TOVTOV Ttvh eireira rot? Xovrj^oi^i avve^Xrjdrjaav. 
9 eyiveTO Be r) deoypta diraaa iirl TroXXa?, wairep 
eiKOf; rjv, rjjxepa^, ovhe SiiXtire ^ KairoL ^ rod Kat- 
aapo^ dpp(O(TTrj(TavT0<iy dWa koX diT6vT0<; avrov 
8l erepcov iiroirjO-q. koI ev avraU ol ffovXevral 
fiiav TLva ft)9 €fca(TTOi rjfjuepav ev rot? to)v oIkicov 
a(l)a)V irpoOvpoi^ elcrTidOrjaav, ovk olS^ oOev e? 
rovTO 7rpoa')(devTes' ov yap irapaBeBorai. 
23 Tore fiev Bt] ravO* ouro)? e'TTpd')(67], tov Be Br) 
Kai(Tapo<; to TeTapTov €tl viraTevovTO^ 6 Tavpo<; 
6 'EtutlXlo'; OeaTpov tl ev tw ^Apeiw ireBicp 
KVvrjyeTLKov XIOlvov koI e^eTTOirjo-e toI<; eavTOv 
TeXecTL KoX Kadiepcocrev oTrXop.a'xla,, koI Bid tovto 
(TTpaTTiyov eva irapa tov Brjp.ov KaT €T0^ ai- 
pelaOai iXd/ju^ave. 

2 Kara Be Brj tou? avTov<; tovtov<; ')(^p6vov<; ev 
oh TavT eyiyveTO, 6 Yipd(T(T0<i 6 MdpK0<i e? re t^i/ 
MaKeBoviav koI e? ttjv 'EWaSa irepcpOel^ Tot? re 
AaKoh KoX Tot9 ^ ^adTdpvat^ eiroXefirjae. koX 
irepl fjbev eKelvwv, onive'i re elcn koI Bid tl eiro- 

3 Xe/jLcodrjaav, eipTjTar ^aaTdpvai Be X/cvOat t€ 
dfcpL^ay^; vevop^lBaTai, kol tot€ tov "laTpov Bia- 
ySaj/re? t')]v t€ Mvaiav ttjv kut dvTL7repa<; a^wv 
/cat fieTa tovto koX TpL^aXXov<; 6p,6pov^ avTrj 
6Wa9 T0U9 Te AapBdvov^; ev r^ X^P^ '^V ^f^^^^vwv 
oiKOVVTUf; e'XjeipdxTavTO. T6a)9 P'ev ovv tuvt 
eiTOiovv, ovBev acfacrt Trpdyfia 7r/0O9 toi'9 'P&)yu,atou9 

^ SifKive Bk., SicAetTre VM. ^ Kairoi M, Kalroi not V. 

^ TOis supplied by Bk. 




when they obtained none of their requests, they went b.o. 29 
over to Antony. They proved of no great assistance 
to him, however, owing to strife among themselves, 
and some who were afterwards captured were now 
matched against the Suebi. The whole spectacle 
lasted many days, as one would expect, and there 
was no interruption, even though Caesar fell ill, but 
it was carried on in his absence under the direction 
of others. On one of the days of this celebration 
the senators gave banquets in the vestibules of their 
several homes ; but what the occasion was for their 
doing this, I do not know, since it is not recorded. 

These were the events of those days. And while 
Caesar was still in his fourth consulship, Statilius 
Taurus both constructed at his own expense and 
dedicated with a gladiatorial combat a hunting- 
theatre of stone 1 in the Campus Martius. Because 
of this he was permitted by the people to choose one 
of the praetors each year. 

During the same period in which these events 
occurred Marcus Crassus was sent into Macedonia and 
Greece and carried on war with the Dacians and 
Bastarnae. I have already stated who the former were 
and why they had become hostile ; the Bastarnae, on 
the other hand, w^ho are properly classed as Scythians, 
had at this time crossed the Ister and subdued the 
part of Moesia opposite them, and afterwards sub- 
dued the Triballi who adjoin this district and the 
Dardani who inhabit the Triballian country. And as 
long as they were thus engaged, they had no trouble 
^ This was the first stone amphitheatre in Rome. 



4 ^v cTrel 8e tov re AI/jlov virepe^rjaav xal rrjv 
SpaKTjv rrjv AevOeXrjroov evairovhov avTOL<; ovaav 
KareSpa/jLOV, ivravOa 6 Kpaaa-o^ to fiiv tl r& 
Stra Tw TO)v AevdeXrjTcov ^aaiXel TV(f>\a) ovti 
afJLvvcov, TO Be Brj irXelaTov irepl tt} MaKeBovla 
(poffrj^eU avTeirrfkOe (t<J)L(Tl, /cat avTOv<; eic Trj<; 
irpoaoBov /ii6vrj<; KaTaiT\r)^a<; i^icoaev a/jLa)(€l ix 

5 T?}9 ')(^(t}pa<i. KCLK TOVTOV o'iKaBe avaycopovvTa<;^ 
e7Tihi(*)K(ov TrjV t€ ^e<yeTiicr)v Kokov/JievTjv irpoae- 
iroirjaaTO koX e? Tr)v MucrtSa evefiaXe, Koi ttjv t€ 
'X^copav (Tcfiwv CKaKwae koX irpo^ T€t%09 tl KapTepov 
7rpoa€\d(Ta<s tol<; fxev rrpoBpofioi^i eiTTaiae (fiovov^; 
yap avTov<; ol M.vaol olrjOivTC^; elvai eire^oBov 
eiroLTjcravTo), irpoafiorjOTJaafi Si acpLat ttuvtI tw 
XoLTTw cTTpaTev/jiaTi Kol aveKo-y^rev avTov<; /cal 

24 irpoaeBpevaa^ ef etXe. TTpdaaovTO^ Be avTov tuvtu 
ol T^aaTapvai, tt}? tc (j^vyrjf; eTria-^ov /cal tt/jo? tw 
J^eBpw 7roTa/jLa> KaTefjueivav, TreptopcofjievoL to, yevrj- 
ao/jLeva. eireiBri re vtKrjaa^ tou9 Mucroi'? Kal eir 
€K€iVov<; cjpfjLTjcre, irpea^ei^ eirefi^av dirayo- 
pevovT€<; avT(p /jlt) BionKeiv (T^d<;, to? ovBev tov<; 

2 *F(OfjLaiOv<i '^BcKTjKOTef;. Kal avTov<i 6 K.pda(ro<i 
KaTaa')(wv (09 ical ttj varepata ttjv diroKpiaiv 
Bcoacov, ra re dWa e<^i\o<^povr)(TaTO Kal KaTC- 
fieOvcrev wcrre irdvTa to, ^ov\evp,aTa avTCov €k- 
fxaOelv diT\ri(TT(o^ re yap €fjb<f>opelTac rrdv to 
%KvOiKov (f>v\ov otvov, Kol v7repKope<i avTov Ta^v 

3 yiyv€TaL. J^pdacro^ Be ev tovtw Tr]<; vvKTb<; e? 
vXrjv TLvd 7rpo)(copy(Ta<;, Kal irpoaKoirov^ irpo 
avTTJf; KaTaaTijaa^;, dveTrava-e re to crTpdTevfia, 

^ V omits from here to in^ovs in chap. 26, 1, without 
indicating a lacuna. 



with the Romans ; but when they crossed Haemus b.c. 29 
and overran the part of Thrace belonging to the 
Dentheleti, which was under treaty with the Romans, 
then Crassus, partly to defend Sitas, king of the 
Dentheleti, who was blind, but chiefly out of fear for 
Macedonia, went out to meet them. By his mere 
approach he threw them into a panic and drove them 
from the country without a battle. Next he pursued 
them as they were retiring homeward, gained pos- 
session of the region called Segetica, and invading 
Moesia, ravaged the country and made an assault upon 
one of the strongholds. Then, although his advance 
line met with a repulse when the Moesians, thinking 
it an isolated force, made a sortie, nevertheless, when 
he reinforced it with his whole remaining army, he 
hurled the enemy back and besieged and destroyed 
the place. While he was accomplishing this, the 
Bastarnae checked their flight and halted near the 
Cedrus ^ river to observe what would take place. And 
when, after conquering the Moesians, Crassus set out 
against them also, they sent envoys bidding him not 
to pursue them, since they had done the Romans no 
harm. Crassus detained the envoys, on the plea that 
he would give them their answer the following day, 
treated them kindly in various ways, and made them 
drunk, so that he learned all their plans ; for the 
whole Scythian race is insatiable in the use of wine 
and quickly becomes sodden with it. Meanwhile 
Crassus moved forward into a forest during the night, 
stationed scouts in front of it, and halted his army 

1 The spelling is uncertain ; the forms Cebrus, Cibrus, and 
Ciabrus are also found. Now the Tzibritza. , 



Kol fiera tovto twv Baarapvcov /jl6vov<; T€ 
iK€Lvov<; elvai vo/juio-avrMv KaX eTrtSpa/jbovTcov 
a(f)L(Tiv, €9 T6 ra \daia ai>a')(wpovaLv eiraKoXov- 
OrjadvTCOv, 7roWov<; jiev ivravOa ttoXKov^ he kol 

4 (pvyovra^; ecfyOeipev viro re yap twv dpua^wv 
KaroTTLV avroi<; ovawv iverroSiaOrjcrav, kol irpoa- 
6Ti Kal T0U9 TracSa^ ra? re yvvoLKa^ awo-ai 
eOeXrjaavTe^ eirTaiaav. koX tov ye ^aaCkea 
avrayp AeXBcova avrbfs 6 Kyoao-cro? direKreive' kolv 
TO, aKvXa avTOV tS> ^eperpiw Ad co? kol OTrl/Jba 
dveOrjKeVy elirep avroKpdrwp aTpaT7]yo<; eyeyovei. 

5 eKelvd re ovv ovrco^ iTrpd^drjy kol ol Xoiirol ol puev 
€9 d\(ro<i TL Kara^vyovTe^ TrepieTrpi^aOrjcrav, ol 5e 
€9 TeL')(6(; TL eaiTr]hr)(TavT€<^ i^rjpeOrjaav. dWoi €9 
TOV "laTpov epiireaovTe^y dWoi kutcl ttjv ')(^copav 

6 crKehaa9evTe<; e^Odprjaav. irepL\eL^6evT(0v 6' ovv 
Kal ft>9 Tivcov, Kal 'X^copiov la'xypov KaTaXa^ovTwVy 
r}p.epa^ /juev Tt,va<} /jbdTTjv a^iaiv 6 K.pd(To-o<i Trpoa- 
rjhpevcrevy eirecTa 'FcoXov ol TeTcbv tivcov 

7 ^a(n\e(o<; iiriKovprjo-avTO'^ e^elXev avTov^i. Kal 6 
T€ 'l?(oXrj(; 7rpo<; tov Kaiaapa eXOobv (I>l\o<; re iirl 
T0VT(p Kal (Tvp.p,a')(p^ avTOV evo/niaOr), Kal ol 
aixi^obk^'^oL Tol<s aTpaTicoTat^ BieSodrjaav. 

25 Tlpd^a<; 8e TavTa 6 Kpdaao^ iirl tov<; M.vo-ov<; 
eTpdireTO, Kal to, p.ev ireiOcov tlvcl^ tcl 5e eK^oficov 
TO, Be Kal ^la^opevo^, 7rdvTa<; ptev ttXtjv irdvv 
okiywvy eTTLir6v(o<; he hr) Kal eiTiKLvhvvw<; KaTeaTpe- 
2 '\jraT0. Kal tot6 piiv (')(eipa)v yap r)v) €9 Trjv 
^ikiav dv€xd>pv^^y ^roWa pLev viro tov "yfrv^ovt; 


there. Then, when the Bastarnae, in the belief that b.c. 29 
the scouts were all alone^ rushed to attack them and 
pursued them as they retreated into the thick of the 
forest, he destroyed many of them on the spot and 
many others in the rout which followed. For not 
only were they hindered by their waggons, which 
were in their rear, but their desire to save their 
wives- and children was also instrumental in their 
defeat. Crassus himself slew their king Deldo and 
would have dedicated his armour as spolia opima to 
Jupiter Feretrius had he been general in supreme 
command. Such was the nature of this engage- 
ment. As for the remainder of the Bastarnae, some 
perished by taking refuge in a grove, which was 
then set on fire on all sides, and others by rushing 
into a fort, in which they were annihilated ; still 
others were destroyed by leaping into the Ister, 
or as they were scattered here and there through 
the country. But some survived even so and 
seized a strong position, where Crassus besieged 
them in vain for several days. Then with the aid 
of Roles, king of a tribe of the Getae, he destroyed 
them. Now Roles, when he visited Caesar, was 
treated as his friend and ally because of this ser- 
vice ; and the captives were distributed among the 

After accomplishing this task Crassus turned his 
attention to the Moesians ; and partly by persuasion 
in some cases, partly by terrifying them, partly also 
by applying force, he subdued all except a very few, 
though only after great hardships and dangers. And 
for the time being, since it was winter, he retired 
into friendly territory, after suffering greatly from 




TToXXo) Be €TL TrXetco viro tmv @paK(bv, Be Oiv 009 
(fiiXwv iiravyeL, iraOcov oOevirep yvay/jLrjv 6cr')(ev 
apKcaOrjvai TOt§ KaTeipyao-fiivoi^;. koX 'yap Kal 
Ova Lai, Kal viKi]T7]pia ovy^ on tw K.aiaapi dWa 
Kal eK€iV(o 6y^r](^icr6rj' ov pivrot Kal to tov 
avTOKpdropo^ 6vop.a, w? 76 Tivh cf)aaiv, eXa^ev, 

3 dX)C 6 Kalaap p,6vo<; avTo TrpoaeOero. iirel Be ol 
^aarapvai ral<i re avp^opal^ d')(P6p,€voi,, Kal 
/jLrjKer avTov iTno-Tparevaeiv crcfyicn irvOopevoL, 
irpo^ re TOV<i ^evOeXrjTa^ Kal irpo'^ rov Xirdv 
avOi^ CO? Kal alrtcoTarov avTol<; rcov KaKcop 
yeyovoTa erpdirovTO, ovrco Kal aKcov e^avearr], 
Kal (TTrovBfj ')(^(oprjaa^ dvekmaTO^; re avTOt<; iire- 
Treae, Kal KpaTrj(7a<i airovBd^; oiroia^ r]6e\r]aev 

4 eBwKev. 0)9 5' dira^ rcov oirXcov avOu^ rjyjraro, 
eireOvp^rjcTev d/juvvaaOai tol*? SpaKa^ rov<; ev rfj 
dvaKopiBfj rfj ck rr}^ Mfo-ta? Xvirrjaavra^ avrov 
Kal yap rore ^(^copia re evreL')(^i^6p.evoL Kal iroXe- 
IM7]aeiovre^ r/yyeXXovro. Kal (T(f)cov MauBov^i p^ev 
Ka\ XepBov<; pd'X^ai^ re KaraKparcov, Kal ra? 
')(elpa<i ro)V dXicTKopbevwy dirorep^vcov, ovk dirovoi^ 
/xe7^ e^eipcocraro B^ ovv rd B^ dXXa irXrjv rrj<; rcov 

5 ^OBpva&v 7^9 KareBpapie. rovrcov ydp, on, rw 
re Aiovvaw TrpoaKeivrat Kal rore dvev rcov ottXcov 
dTrrjvrTjcrdv 01, e^eicraro' Kal avrol<; Kal rrjv 
'^(opav ev f) Kal rov deov dydXXovaiv ex^^pi'f^ciro, 
1^7}acrov<i TOi'9 Kare^ovra^; avrrjv d(j)€X6p,evo^. 

26 Upda-aovra Be avrov ravra 6 'FcoXr]^ Adirvyv 
VerSyv nvcov Kal avr& ^aaiXel TToXep^codeh fxere- 



the cold and much more still at the hands of the b.o, 29 
Thracians, through whose country he was returning 
in the belief that it was friendly. Hence he de- 
cided to be content with what he had already 
accomplished. For sacrifices and a triumph had 
been voted, not only to Caesar, but to him also ; 
nevertheless, he did not receive the title of imperator, 
as some report, but Caesar alone assumed it. The 
Bastarnae, now, angered at their disasters and 
learning that he would make no further campaigns 
against them, turned again upon the Dentheleti and 
Sitas, whom they regarded as having been the chief 
cause of their evils. Thus it came about that Crassus 
reluctantly took the field ; and falling upon them 
unexpectedly after advancing by forced marches, he 
conquered them and imposed such terms of peace as 
he pleased. And now that he had once taken up 
arms again, he conceived a desire to punish the 
Thracians who had harassed him during his return 
from Moesia ; for it was reported at this time that 
they were fortifying positions and were eager for war. 
He succeeded in subduing some of them, namely 
the Maedi and the Serdi, though not without difficulty, 
by conquering them in battle and cutting off the 
hands of the captives ; and he overran the rest of the 
country except the territory of the Odrysae. These 
he spared because they are attached to the service 
of Dionysus, and had come to meet him on this 
occasion without their arms ; and he also granted 
them the land in which they magnify the god, 
taking it away from the Bessi who were occupy- 
ing it. 

While he was thus engaged. Roles, who had 
become embroiled with Dapyx, himself also king ot 



7r€/jL'\jraT0. koX 09 e7riK0vp^aa<; ol ttjv t6 Xttttov 
T(ov evavTicov €9 Tot'9 7r6fou9 icnjpa^e, kol (TV/jl- 
(j)o^')]aa<; i/c tovtov koI eKeivov^ f^^^XV^ M^^ ovSe- 
fxlav 6T eTTOLrjaaTO, (f)6vov Be Srj ^evyovrcov 

2 e/carepcov ttoXvp elpydaaro. koX fiera tovto top 
AaTTvya 7rpo<; (j)povpi6v ri Karacpvyovra airo- 
\aj3a)v iiroKiopKer kolv rfj irpoaehpeia eWrjvKTTi 
Ti9 avTov aTTO Tov T6i')(ov<; da7raadfievo<i 69 re 
X070U9 ol rjXOe Kol TTpohoaiav avveOero. 6Xl(tk6- 
fxevoi ovv ovTco<; ol fidpBapoi eV* d\X'}]Xov(; cop- 
/jLTjaav, Kol 6 T€ AaTTuf direOave kol dWoi 
TToXkoL. TOV jJbivTOi dSeX^ov avrov ^a)yprjaa<; 6 
Kpdaaof; ov^ otl tl ^ kukov eSpacrev, d\\a /cai 

3 HoLijaa^i Be ravra eVt to cnrrjkaiov ttjv Kelpiv 
KdXov/Jiivrjv iarparevaaTO' rovro yap /jbiyiarov 
T€ dfia Koi i'X^vpcorarop ovtw^ ov ft)9 koI tol'9 
Tnava^i 69 avro fiera rrjv rjrrav ttjv viro tmv Oecov 
Bi] (Tcfiicn yevo/jLevrjv (TvyKaTacpvyetv /jLvOeveaOaL, 
KUTaXa^ovTe'^ ol iiri'^^copLot TrXrjOeL iroXXo) ra 
T€ dXXa TO, Ti/jiicoTaTa kol tcl^; dyeXa<; 69 avTO 

4 irdaa^ iaeKOfxiaavTO. 6 ovv }fipdaao<i tu re 
cTTOfiLa avTov irdvTa aKoXtd kol BvaBiepevvi-jTa 
ovTa dva^rjT7]aa<; dirayKoBo/jbrjae, kuk tovtov KaKei- 
vov<; XtfJLq> KaTeaTpeyjraTO. 0)9 Be TavTa avrw 
7rpoe^a)p7)(T€V, ovBe t(ov dXXwv TeTcov, Kaiirep 

5 fiijBev Tft> Adirvyc TrpoarjKOVTCov, direayeTO, dXX^ 
iirl Vevov/cXa to evepKeaTaTOV t^9 Zvpd^ov dp^r}<; 
Tel')(o^ rjXOev, oti tcl arj/iela, a tov ^Avtwvlov tov 
Tatov ol ^acTTdpvat 7rpo<; Ty tmv ^laTpiavcov ^ 
TToXei d<j)yp7)VT0, evTavOa rjKovev ovtw kol avTO 

^ Tl M, om. V. ^ 'Iffrpiavuu Leuncl., ta-rpdvuv VM. 


a tribe of the Getae, sent for him. Crassus went to b.c. 29 
his aid, and by hurling the horse of his opponents 
back upon their infantry he so thoroughly terrified 
the latter also that what followed was no longer a 
battle but a great slaughter of fleeing men of both 
arms. Next he cut off Dapyx, who had taken refuge 
in a fort, and besieged him. In the course of the 
siege someone hailed him from the walls in Greek, 
obtained a conference with him, and arranged to 
betray the place. The barbarians, thus captured, 
turned upon one another, and Dapyx was killed 
along with many others. His brother, however, 
Crassus took alive, and not only did him no harm but 
actually released him. 

After finishing this campaign Crassus led his troops 
against the cave called Ciris. For the natives in great 
numbers had occupied this cave, which is extremely 
large and so capable of defence that the tradition 
obtains that the Titans took refuge there after their 
defeat suffered at the hands of the gods ; and here 
they had brought together all their herds and their 
other most cherished belongings. Crassus first sought 
out all the entrances to the cave, which are tortuous 
and difficult to discover, walled them up, and in this 
way subdued the men by famine. After this success 
he did not leave in peace the rest of the Getae, either, 
even though they had no connexion with Dapyx, 
but he marched upon Genucla, the most strongly 
defended fortress of the kingdom of Zyraxes, because 
he heard that the standards which the Bastarnae 
had taken from Gaius Antonius ^ near the city of the 
Istrians were there. His assault was made both by 

1 Cf. xxxviii. 10. 



ire^fj T€ a/JLa koI Bia rod "larpov (irpo^ yap ro) 
vBart eireiroXia-To) irpoa/SaXcov ov/c ev iroWw fiev 
y^povw, (jvv TToWw Se Br} ttovw, Kairoc rov Zvpd^ov 
6 /jLT) nrapovTO^, elXev. eKeivo<; yap ct)9 rd')(^L(Tra tt)? 
opfjLT]^ avTov '^aOero, irpo^ re tov<; %Kvda<; iirl 
(rv/jb/jLa'X,('Civ [xeTa rwv 'X^prj/Jbdrcov dirrjpe, /cal ovk 
e^6r) dvaKOfjLKrOel^. 

TaOra jiev ev Ferat? eirpa^e, tcov Be Brj l^vacov 
Tov<i fiev eK TCOV Kexei-pojfievcov i'Travaaravra'; Bl 
21 erepcov dveKTrjaaTo, eirl Be ^ApraKLOv^ dWov<; re 
Tiva<; ovO^ cikovTa^ irore ovr av irpoa^wprjaai ol 
iOeXovra^, Kal avTov<; re /jLeyiarov eVt tovtm 
(ppovovvTUf; Kal rot<; aX\,0L<; opyyv re d/jua Kal 
vecorepia/jLov e/xTTOcovvTa<;, auro? r eirecTTpd- 
revae, Kal acfia^; to, jxev fiia, Bpdaavra^ ovk 
6\iya, rd Be Kal (po/Bw rcov dXiaKO/JLevcov Trpoa- 

2 TaOra jiev ev y^povco eyevero, ypd^co Be rd re 
dWa W9 TTov irapaBeBoTai, Kal avrd rd ovofiara. 
TO fiev yap irdXai MvcroL T6 Kal FeVat Trdaav 
TTjv fieTa^v Tov T€ Ai/jbov Kal Tov "I(TTpov ovaav 
ivefiovTO, 'Trpo'i6vTO<i Be tov 'X^povov Kal e? dWa 

3 Tive<i avTMV ovofxaTa fieTePaXov, Kal /xeTa TavT 
e? TO T% Mucrta? ovo/xa irdvO^ oaa 6 ^dovo<; e9 
TOV "\(TTpov epbjBdWwv, virep re t/}? AeX/xarta? 
Kal virep ttj^ MaKeBovLa<; t^9 tg SpaKr}<^, dirb 
TTJf; Uavvovla<; dcjiopi^ei, avyK€')(Q)pr)Kev. Kal ecTLv 
iv avT0i<; dWa re eOvrj iroWd Kal ol Tpi/3aWol 
TTore irpoaayopevOevTe^, oi t€ AapBdvioL Kal vvv 
ovTco KaXovfievoL, 



land and from the Ister (the city is built upon b.c. 29 
the river), and in a short time, though with much 
toil, despite the absence of Zyraxes, he took the place. 
The king, it seems, as soon as he heard of the 
Romans' approach, had set off with money to the 
Scythians to seek an alliance, and had not returned 
in time. 

These were his achievements among the Getae. 
And when some of the Moesians who had been sub- 
dued rose in revolt, he won them back by the aid 
of lieutenants, while he himself made a campaign 
against the Artacii and a few other tribes who had 
never been captured and would not acknowledge his 
authority, priding themselves greatly upon this point 
and at the same time inspiring in the others both 
anger and a disposition to rebel. He brought them 
to terms, partly by force, after they had made no 
little trouble, and partly by fear for their countrymen 
who were being captured. 

All these operations took a long time ; but the 
facts I record, as well as the names, are in accord- 
ance with the tradition which has been handed down. 
In ancient times, it is true, Moesians and Getae occu- 
pied all the land between Haemus and the Ister; 
but as time went on some of them changed their 
names, and since then there have been included 
under the name of Moesia all the tribes living above 
Dalmatia, Macedonia, and Thrace, and separated from 
Pannonia by the Savus, a tributary of the Ister. 
Two of the many tribes found among them are those 
formerly called the Triballi, and the Dardani, who still 
retain their old name. 



TciSe evcffTiv 4v r^ irevrrjKoarT^ Sevrepcf) twv aIcovos "Pa/xaiKoiy' 

a. 'fly Ka7(rap iffovXevaaTO rijv p.ovapx'i^v a<pe7vai. 
)3. 'fls avTOKpoLToop KaXeladai fjp^aTO. 

Xp6vov it\7}6os to AoiTTct Trjs Kaiaapos rh «' koI^ 2,e^Tov 
'AirovXeiov vTraretas.^ 

Tavra fxev ev re ry ^acriXela Kal iv rfj Btj/jlo- 
Kparia Tai<; re Bvvaar€LaL<;, irevre re Kal eUoai, 
Kal kirraKoaloL'i erea-c, Kal eirpa^av ol 'Pcofiacoi 
Kal erraOov eK he tovtov ixovap^eiaOai av6i<^ 
dKpL/3(x)<; rjp^avTO, KairoL rov K.aiaapo<^ jBovXev- 
(Ta/jL6vov TO. re oirXa KajaOeaOat Kal ra irpd- 
fy/xara rfi re yepovala Kal ra> Brj/xa) eirir pe^^rai. 

2 irroLrjaaro he rr]v SidyvaxTiv fierd re rov ^AypiTr- 
TTOV Kal fjLerd rov M.aiK7]vov (rovroi^ yap rrdvra 
rd drropprjra dveKOivov), Kal avrw o A.ypimra'^ 
7rp6repo<; elire rotdhe' 

2 ** M^ dav/Jidarj<i, ft) J^alcrap, el /iieWco ae drro- 
rpeireiv diro rrj<; fjLOvap')(ia<^, Kaiirep iroWd Kal 
dyaOd diroXavaa^i dp dir^ avrrjf; aov ye avrrjv 
e'X^ovro^. el fiev yap Kal aol oo(f)e\i,/uLo<i yevrjcre- 
aOat e/ieWe, Kal irdw dv avrrjv iairovBaaa' 

2 eTTethr} 8' ovhev ofjLoiov rot<; re avrap')(^ovai, Kal 

^ Koi supplied by R. Steph. 
2 airovheiov virareias M, om. V. 



The following is contained in the Fifty second of Dio's 
Rome : — 
How Caesar planned to lay aside his sovereignty (chaps. 

How he began to be called emperor (chap. 42). 

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of 
Caesar (V) and Sextus Apuleius. (B.C. 29.) 

Such were the achievements of the Romans and b.c. 29 
such their sufferings under the kingship, under the 
republic^ and under the dominion of a few, during a 
period of seven hundred and twenty-five years. 
After this they reverted to what was, strictly 
speaking, a monarchy, although Caesar planned to 
lay down his arms and to entrust the management 
of the state to the senate and the people. He made 
his decision, however, in consultation with Agrippa 
and Maecenas, to whom he was wont to communicate 
all his secret plans ; and Agrippa, taking the lead, 
spoke as follows : 

" Be not surprised, Caesar, if I shall try to turn 
your thoughts away from monarchy, even though I 
should derive many advantages from it, at least if it 
was you who held the position. For if it were to be 
profitable to you also, I should advocate it most 
earnestly ; but since the privileges of a monarchy 



TOL<; (bbXoL^ acpcbv irapixGrai, aXX' oi jmev ical 

KapTTOVvrai, rot? Be koX <f)66vot koI kLvBvvol 
avfjb^aivovaiv, ov to ifiavrov IBiov, coairep ovBe iv 
Tol^ dWocf;, dWd to crov to re kolvov irpolBeaOai 
8 " XKeyfrco/jieOa Be fcaO^ rjavxiav iravra rd 
irpocrovTa avrfj, /cal otttj ttot dv 6 \oyiafMo<; 
r)fjLd<; dydyrj rpaTTcofxeda' ov yap irov Koi ef 
diravTO^ rpoirov ^rjaei ti<; Becv rj/judf; eXeaOac 

4 avTTjVy Kav fjurj XvacreXovcra y. el Be firj, Bo^o- 
/xev^ rjTOL Trj<; re ev7rpayia<; rjrrrjaOai, koX vtto 
Twv KarcopdcojuLevcov €K7re^povr]K€vai, r) koX irdXai 
avTTJ^i e(pLe/jLevot, tov ^ re irarepa koi ttjv e? avrov 
evaepeiav eaKr}<^dai xal tov Btjjjlov Ttjv t€ yepov- 
aiav irpojSePXrjaOaL, ou% 'iva avTOv^ tmv eiri- 
/SovXevadvTCOv crcpio-tv diraXXd^wpbev, dX}C Xva 

5 eavTol<; BovXcoo-cofieOa. exdTepov Be vTraiTiov. Tt? 
jxev yap ovk dv ^ dyavaKTrjaeiev dXXa fjuev opojv 
r}/jLd<i elprjKOTa^;, dXXa Be alaOav6/Jbevo<; irecfipovr)- 
KOTa^; 7rw9 8' ovk dv jmaXXov vvv fnaTjcreiev r)p,d<; 
rj el KaT dp')(^d<; ev6v<; Tr)v Te eiriOvfjiiav dire- 
yvfivooaafiev Kal eVl ttjv jjuovapxi'av dvTLKpv<; 

6 (Mpfirjaapiev; to /jl€V yap /3iai6v tl ToXfidv irpoa- 
rjKeiv 7ra)9 Ty tcov dv6 pcoircov (hvaei, Kdv irXeove- 
KTLKOV elvat Bo/cfj, TreTrlaTevTar Tra? yap 6 irpo- 
(jiipcov ev TLVi TrXeov d^iol tov /cuTaBeeaTepov 
6X*:i'V, Kal KaTopdcoaa^ Te tl e? Tr}V t?;? '>/ru^^9^ 

^ Bo^o/iiev R. Steph., 56^wiJ.€v VM. 

8 rhv M, Th V. 

8 &»/ supplied by St. 

* \pvxris Rk., Tvxvs VM. 



are by no means the same for the rulers as for their b.c. 29 
friends^ but, on the contrary, jealousies and dangers 
fall to the lot of the rulers while their friends reap, 
without incurring either jealousies or dangers, all the 
benefits they can wish for, I have thought it right, 
in this question as in all others, to have regard, not 
for my own interests, but for yours and the state's. 

"Let us consider, now, at our leisure all the 
characteristics of this system of government and 
then shape our course in whichever direction our 
reasoning may lead us. For surely no one will assert 
that we are obliged to choose monarchy in any and 
all circumstances, even if it be not profitable. If we 
choose it, people will think that we have fallen 
victims to our own good fortune and have been bereft 
of our senses by our successes, or else that we have 
been aiming at sovereignty all the while, making of 
our appeals to your father and of our devotion to his 
memory a mere pretext and using the people and the 
senate as a cloak, with the purpose, not of freeing 
these latter from those who plotted against them, 
but of making them slaves to ourselves. And either 
explanation involves censure for us. For who could 
help being indignant when he finds that we have 
said one thing and then discovers that we have 
meant another ? Would he not hate us much more 
now than if we had at the outset laid bare our desires 
and set out directly for the monarchy } To be sure, 
men have come to believe that it somehow is an 
attribute of human nature, however selfish that may 
seem, to resort to deeds of violence ; for every one 
who excels in any respect thinks it right that he 
should have more than his inferior, and if he meets 
with any success, he ascribes his success to the force 



laxvv avacjieperai., koI Sia/uLaptcov tlvo^ rfj rov 
7 SaifiovLov (\)opa TrpoarlOeTai. 6 Be ef €7n^ov\r}^ 
Kat KaKovpyia^ tocovto tl ttoccov irpcoTov jxev 
ookepo^ KoX aKoXtof; koI KaKorj6rj<; koI KaKO- 
T/307ro9 elvai vofu^erat, airep ev oZ8' on irepl 
aou ovBiva av v7ro/jL€iveca<; elireZv rj ^povrfcraL, 
ovB" el 7rdarj(; ck tovtov tt}? ol/cov/jL€vr)<; dp^€La<i' 
eirena he koL KaTOpdcoaa<; dSiKOv ttjv ifXeove^lav 
ireTTOcrjaOai koI cr^aXel^; BiKaiav rrjv fcaKOTrpayiav 
3 el\r}(f>evaL BoKel. tovtov he hr} ovtco^ e^ovTO<;, 
ovhev av yjttov iinKaXeaete rt? rjfiiv Kat el firjhev 
TOiovTov diro irpcoTT)^ evOv 1X7)6 evTe^ eireiTa vvv 
eTTiOvixrjaaLfJLev avTov. to yap tol tmv re irapov- 
Tcov viKaaOac /cal ixrjTe eavTov<i KaTe')(eiv toI^ t€ 
irapa r?)? rvxv^ hodeicrt fxrj Ka\o)<; xPV^^^i' ttoXv 

2 xei/361/ eaTt Tov e/c KaKoirpayia^ dhiKetv Tiva' ol 
fxev yap vtt avToov tmv av/jL(f>op(ov iroWaKL^ 
dvayKa^ovTai 7rpo<; ttjv tov avficftepovTO^ a^Lcn 
XP^^^^ ^^i' ctKOVTe^i TrXrjfjL/jLeXelv, ol h' eOeXovTal 
aKpoLTOpe^ eavTcbv Kat irapa to XvaiTeXovv yl- 
yvovTai. Tou? he hrj fiijd' dirXoT-qTa Tiva ev tyj 
'^^XV e%o^Ta9 yLtr^re to, hoOevTa a(j)taiv dyaOa 
pieTpidaaL hvvafieuov<; 7rw9 av Ti9 TrpoahoKijaeiev 
rjTot TMV dXXcov KaXw^ rjyepi.ovev(jetv rj TaU 

3 (TvpL<f)0pal^ 6p6m xprjaeadat; q)<; ovv firjheTepov 
avTcov TTeirovdoTef;, firjh^ aXoyco^ tl irpd^at em- 
OvfiovvTe^y dXX* 6 Tl iroT av ^ovXevaa/jLevot<; r]puv 
dptcFTOv (^avfi TovO^ alpijao/jtei'ot, ttjv hidyvwa lv 


of his own intelligence, whereas if he fails, he lays b.c. 29 
the blame for his failure upon the influence of the 
divine will. But, on the other hand, the man who, 
in following such a course, resorts to plotting and 
villainy, is, in the first place, held to be crafty and 
crooked, malicious, and depraved, — an opinion w hich 
I know you would not allow anyone to express or to 
entertain about you, even if you might rule the 
whole world by such practices ; and, in the second 
place, if he succeeds, men think that the advantage 
he has gained is unjust, or if he fails, tliat his dis- 
comfiture is merited. This being the case, men 
would reproach us quite as much if we should now, 
after the event, begin to covet that advantage, even 
though we harboured no such intention at the outset. 
For surely it is much worse for men to let circum- 
stances get the better of them and not only to fail 
to hold themselves in check but to abuse the gifts of 
Fortune, than to wrong others in consequence of 
failure. For men who have failed are often compelled 
by their very misfortunes to commit wrongs even 
against their will in order to meet the demands of 
their own interests, whereas the others voluntarily 
abandon their self-control even when it is unprofitable 
to do so. And when men have no straightforwardness 
in their souls, and are incapable of moderation in 
dealing with the blessings bestowed upon them, how 
could one expect them either to rule well over others 
or to conduct themselves properly in adversity ? In 
the conviction, therefore, that we are guilty of 
neither of these shortcomings, and that we have no 
desire to act irrationally, but that we shall choose 
whatever course shall appear to us after deliberation 
to be best, let us proceed to make our decision 



avTOV TTOiTjadofjueOa. Xe^co Sk /jLera irapprjaia'i' 
ovre yap avTO<; aXkoxs civ rt elirelv Svvab/uirjv, oure 
<Tol (TvvoiBa ra yjrevSrj /xera Ko\aK€La<; r)8eQ)<; 


4s " 'H pkv Toivvv laovop,ia to re 7rp6aprjp,a evco- 
vvjxov Kot TO epyov hiKaioTaTOv e'Xjei. Trjv re 
yap (f>v(nv ttjv avTTjV TLva<; elXrj^oTa^; Kal ofxo- 
(jyvKov; aW'^Xoi^ 6vTa<;, ev re T0Z9 avTol<^ i]6e<TC 
Tedpa/jLjubivov^ Kal ev toU ofMoioL^ vofioi^ TreTrac- 

2 hevfjuevov^y Kal koivtjv Kal ttjv tcov (twixcltcov Kal 
Tr]v TOiV '\jrv')((*>v ')(p'fjaiv ttj iraTpihi 7ra/?e%oz/Ta9, 
7rw9 {Jbev ov BiKaiov Kal TaWa iravTa KoivovcrOai, 
7r(W9 S' ovK dpiaTov iv firjhevl rrXrjv air apeTrj<i 

3 irpoTtfidaOai; tj re yap laoyovia iaofioipia^ opi- 
yvaTai, Kal TV^^ovaa fiev avTrj<; yaipei, hiapuap- 
Tovaa Be dx^CTar Kal to dvOpcoTreiov irdvf aTe 
eK T€ Beoiv yeyovo^ Kal 69 Oeov<; dcfirj^ov, dv(o 
fiXeirei, Kal ovTe iOeXec vrro tov avTOv Sid iravTo*; 

4 dp^ecrdat,, ovO^ virofievei tcov /nev ttovcov Kal tmv 
KivBvvcov tS)V re Bairavr^fxaTcov iJLeTe')(pv, 7^9 Be 

' KOLVCOVia^ TMV KpeiTTOVCOV aT€p6/jL€V0V, dXXd Kav 

dvayKacdfi tl tolovtov virodTrjvai, fiiael to /3e- 
^tacTfjuevov, Kav Katpov Xd^TjTao, Ti/jLcopeiTac to 

6 fjbeiJLLO-rj/jievov. dp-^etv re yap 7rdvTe<; d^Lovai, Kal 
Bid TOVTo Kal dp')(^ea6ai ev tw fiepec viro/jievovar 
Kal irXeoveKTelcdai ovk edeXovat, Kal Btd tovto 
ovS* avTol irXeoveKTelv dvayKa^ovTat. Tai^ re 
Tifiai<; Tafc9 irapd tcov ofiOTifJicov x^ipovcrc, Kal 

6 Ta9 TLjuLcopia^i Ta9 eK tcov vo/xcov iiratvovai,. Kav 
ovTO) iroXiTevayvTai, KOLvd ^ jxev Ta dyaOa KOivd 

^ Koivh. Rk., KoX Koiva VM. 



accordingly. I shall speak quite frankly, for I could b.c. 29 
not, for my part, speak otherwise, and I know you 
too well to think that you like to listen to falsehood 
mingled with flattery. 

" Equality before the law has an auspicious name 
and is most just in its workings. For in the case of 
men who are endowed with the same nature, are of 
the same race with one another, have been brought 
up under the same institutions, have been trained in 
laws that are alike, and yield in an equal degree the 
service of their bodies and of their minds to their 
country, is it not just that they should have an equal 
share in all other things also, and is it not best that 
they should secure no distinctions except as the 
result of excellence ? For equality of birth demands 
equality of privilege, and if it attains this object, it is 
glad, but if it fails, it is displeased. And the human 
race everywhere, sprung as it is from the gods and 
destined to return to the gods, gazes upward and is 
not content to be ruled forever by the same person, 
nor will it endure to share in the toils, the dangers, 
and the expenditures and yet be deprived of partner- 
ship in the better things. Or, if it is forced to sub- 
mit to anything of the sort, it hates the power which 
has applied coercion, and if it obtains an opportunity, 
takes vengeance upon what it hates. All men, of 
course, claim the right to rule, and for this reason 
submit to being ruled in turn ; they are unwilling to 
have others overreach them, and therefore are not 
obliged, on their part, to overreach others. They are 
pleased with the honours bestowed upon them by 
their equals, and approve of the penalties inflicted 
upon them by the laws. Now if they live under this 
kind of polity and regard the blessings and also the 



Be Koi ra ivavTLa vo/i1^ovt€<; elvat, ovre ti kukov 
oifSevl T(ov TToXiTcov yCyveaOac jBoiikovTai, koX 
irdvTa ra Kpeirro) Traaiv avrol^ (TvvevxovTai. 

7 Kol av re rt? avro^ apsTrjv nva e^X)* i^cui irpo- 
(f>aiV€c avTTjv Trpo^et/jo)? xal dcTKel TrpoOv/jLcof; koX 
eTriBei/cvvcTiv do-fievearaTa, dv re koI iv eripo) 
iBrj, /cat irpodyeL €roLfico<; kol (rvvav^et (nrovBalayf; 

8 Kal Tifxa XafiTTpoTara. Koi fievrot kclv KaK\}vr]Tal 
Ti9, Tra? avTov {JbLcrel, kclv Bvarv^y, 'ird<^ ekeel, 
KOLvrjv T^9 TToXeax; /cal rrjv ^ij/jitav Kal rrjv ai(j')(yv7]v 
TTjv diT* avTwv elvat vo/il^wv. 

5 " AvTTj puev t) Tcbv BrjiMwv KarddTacTL^;, iv Be Brj 
ral^ TVpavviaL irdvra rdvavrla (TVfjbPaivei. Kal 
rd fiev TToWd ri Bel firjKvveiv XeyovTa; to Be Br) 
Ke<^d\aLov, ')(p7}(TT0V fiev ovBeU ovBev ovr elBevat 
ovr e^etv BoKelv ^ovXerat (rrokefjuov yap avrw 
irdv eirl tovto) to KpaTOvv (09 ifXrjOei yiyveTai), 

2 Tov Be eKeivov ti^ Tpoirov Kavbva tov j3lov 
7roLrjo-d/jLevo<;, 6 ti ttot dv eXTriar) Bi avTOv 
Tr\eoveKTr)(Ta<; dKLvBvvaxi KepBavelv, /JieTepx^Tai. 
Kal Bid Tovd^ ol 7r\eiov<; (r(f)(ou to re Ka6^ eavT0v<;^ 
fiovov (TTTevBovcn Kal 7rdvTa<^ tov<^ dWov^ fii- 
aovcri, Ta9 re evTTpayia<^ avTOiv olKeia<; ^rip,ia^ 
Kal Ta9 av/jbcpopd'; IBua KepBrj TroLov/iievoi. 

3 ** ToiovTcov Be Br] tovtcov ovtcov oij')( opo) tl ttot 
dv elKOTW^ eirdpeie ae fiovap^rjaai eTnOvpLrjaai. 
7r/309 yap tw TOL<i Bij/jLoc^i y^aXeirov elvat to ttoXl- 
Tevfxa, TToXv Bva'^^epeaTepov avTw aot yevotTO dv. 

^ At this point a quaternion (containing the chapters 
down to 20, 4) is missing from M. L', the copy of M, here 
becomes of importance, since the scribe filled the lacuna in 
M from L, which was then complete. See vol. i. p. xxv. 



opposite as belonging to all alike, they not only wish 
no harm to befall any one of the citizens, but devoutly 
hope that nothing but prosperity will fall to the lot 
of each and all. And if one of them possesses any 
excellence himself, he readily makes it known, 
practises it enthusiastically, and exhibits it most 
joyfully ; or if he sees it in another, he readily brings 
it to the light, eagerly takes part in increasing it, 
and bestows the most splendid honours upon it. On 
the other hand, if any one shows himself base, every- 
body hates him, and if any one meets with misfortune, 
everybody pities him ; for each person regards the 
loss and the disgrace that arise therefrom as shared 
in by the whole state. 

"This is the character of democracies. Under 
tyrannies exactly the opposite conditions are found. 
But why go into all the details at length.^ The 
chief thing is that no one is willing to be thought to 
have any superior knowledge or possession, because 
the dominant power generally becomes wholly hostile 
to him on account of such superiority ; on the con- 
trary, every one makes the tyrant's character his 
own standard of life and pursues whatever objects he 
may hope to gain through him by overreaching 
others without personal risk. Consequently, the 
majority of the people are devoted only to their own 
interests and hate all their neighbours, regarding the 
others' successes as their own losses and the others' 
misfortunes as their own gains. 

" Such being the state of the case, I do not see what 
motive could reasonably induce you to desire to 
become sole ruler. For that system, besides being 
difficult to apply to democracies, would be vastly 
more difficult still for you yourself to put into effect. 


-7 ovx opa<; oTTft)? i] re vroXt? kol ra irpdyfjiaTa 

4 avTTJ^; en koI vvv Tapdrrerai; kol 'x^aXeirov /xiv 

iari TO rov ojjliXov tj/jlcov, to(tovtol<^ ereaiv iv 

eKevOepla ffe^icoKOTa, KarakvcraL, %aX€7roz^ Be Kal 

TO TOL'9 0"UyLt//,a^0U9 TOV^ T€ VTTrjKOOVi, TOU? fiev 

diro iraXaiov B'r]fioKpaTOVfjLevov<; tov<; S' v(j)^ yfMMv 
avTcbv y\€v6ep(i)jJLevov<;, e? hovXeiav av6L<i Kara- 
(Trrjaai, ToaovTwv irepu^ TroXefiicov rjfiiv irpoa- 


6 " Ilvu ye aTTo TrpcoTOv rod Ppa')(yTdrov 
dp^wfiai, '^^pij/jLard aot, iroWa Kal 'jravTa')(^66ev 
dvayKolov earai iropi^eLV dBwarov <ydp ra? vvp 
ovaa<i irpoo-oBovf; Trpo? re raWa /cat irpb^ rrjv 
T(x)v arpaTicoToop Tpoj)7)v e^apKeaaL. tovto Be 
ecTTL jjuev KOi iv rat? Br]/jiOKpaTLai<;' ov yap olov re 

2 TTokLreiav nvd avev Bairdvr)^ avarrjvai. dX)C iv 
jxev iKelvaifj fidXiara fiev e/covTe^ ttoWoI TroWa 
iiriBiBoao-Lv, iv ^tXoTi/jLLa<; fjuepei to Trpdy/xa 
TTOiovfievoL Kal Ti/jLa(; dvT avTcov d^la<i dvTi- 
Xajx^dvovTe^i' dv Be nrov Kal dvayKalai irapd 
TrdvTcov e(j<f>opal yevcovTac, eavTov<; tg ^ ireidovTe'; 

3 Kal virep eavTcov avvTeXovvTe^ dveyovTai. iv Be 
Br} Tat9 BvvaaTetat<; to t€ dp^ov 7rdvTe<; jjlovov co? 
Kal virepTrXovTovv d^tovai BairavaaOai, Td<; fiev 
TTpoaoBov^; avTov eTOL/iico<; i^epevvcajiievot, ra S' 
avaXoo/juaTa ovKeO^ 6/jlol(i)<; iKXoyi^o/jievoL' Kal ovt 
IBia r}Be(o<; rj Kal CKovTe*; iinBLBoaaL tl, ovt€ to,^ 

» T€ R. Steph., 76 VL'. 



Or do you not see how the city and its affairs are b,c. 29 
even now in a state of turmoil ? It is difficult, also, 
to overthrow our populace, which has lived for so 
many years in freedom, and difficult, when so many 
enemies beset us round about, to reduce again to 
slavery the allies and subject nations, some of which 
have had a democratic government from of old, 
while others of them have been set free by us our- 

" To begin first with the least important consider- 
ation, it will be necessary that you procure a large 
supply of money from all sides ; for it is impossible 
that our present revenues should suffice for the 
support of the troops, not to speak of the other 
expenses. Now this need of funds, to be sure, 
exists in democracies also, since it is not possible for 
any government to continue without expense. But 
in democracies many citizens make large con- 
tributions, preferably of their own free will, in 
addition to what is required of them, making it a 
matter of patriotic emulation and securing appro- 
priate honours in return for their liberality; or, if 
perchance compulsory levies are also made upon the 
whole body of citizens, they submit to it both because 
it is done with their own consent and because the 
contributions they make are in their own interests. 
In monarchical governments, on the other hand, the 
citizens all think that the ruling power alone, to 
which they credit boundless wealth, should bear the 
expense ; for they are very ready to search out the 
ruler's sources of income, but do not reckon his 
expenses so carefully ; and so they make no con- 
tributions from their private means gladly or of their 
own free will, nor are the public levies they make 



4 KOLvoLfi (TvvTekeia^ avOaip6Tov<; iroiovvrai. eKelvo 
fiev 'yap ovr av eueXr](jeLe rc^ {^ovoe yap ovo 
6p,o\oyi](T6L€V av paBL(o<; TrXovretv) ovre avp,(j)€p6i 
Tft) KparovvTV yiyveaOat' avri/ca yap av Bo^av 
irapa tol<; iroWol'; o)? Kal ^tXoTToXi? e^cov 
oyKwOeiT} Kal vecoTepicreie. to S* erepov irdvv 
TOV<; 7roXXou9 fiapvvet, Kal p^aXicrO^ on rrjv fiev 
^7]fj,[av avTol viropbevova-L, to Be Brj KepSo<; cTCpoi 

5 Xa/Jifidvovaiv. iv p.ev yap rat? BrjfxoKpaTiaL^ Kal 
(TTpaTevovTaL co? irXijdei at tcl y^pr]p,aTa (Tvvea- 

<f)6p0VT€<i, W(TT€ TpOTTOV TIVO, av6c<; aVTO, dlTO- 

XapL^dvovcTLV iv Be Tah fiovapyiait; dWoi, fjtev w? 
TO TToXu Kal yecopyovcTL Kal Brj/jLiovpyovat Kal 
vavTiWovTat, Kal iroXtTCvovTai, irap oivirep Kal 
at \7]yfr€L^ puaXiaTa yiyvovTai, dWoi Be to, oirXa 
€')(pycri' Kal Tov fico-Oov (pepovaiv. 
7 "^^¥iV fiev Brj TOVTo toiovtov ov TrpdyfiaTa aoi 
irape^eL, eTepov Be eKelvo. TrdvTox; /lev Tiva Bel 
Blktjv tov del KaKovpyovvTa BtBovar ovTe yap €k 
vovdea-ia^i ovTe eK TrapaBetyp.dTCdV ol ttoXXoI 
acD^povi^ovTat, dXXd dvdyKTj Trdcra avTOv<; Kal 
aTi/jLLa Kal ^vyy Kal OavdTco ^rj/jUtovaOaiy ola ev 
Te dpxf) TrjXLKavTr] Kal ev TrXrjOeL dvOpcoiroyv 
ToaovTO),^ dX\(o<i T€ Kal iv /neTa^oXy TroXfreta?, 

2 <f)LXel avp^^aiveiv. tovtol<; ^ S* av puev eTepov^ 
BiKacTTa^i KaOl^rji;, aTToXvoLVTo Te av BiaairevBo- 
p,evoi, Kal fidXtcTTa oaov<i av i^dpaiveiv vo/JLia0rj<i' 
Kal yap TTpoairoLrja-iv Tiva i^ovcria<i ol BiKa^ovTC'^ 
Xa/jL0dvovo-Lv, OTav tl irapa to Bokovv tco 

3 KpaTOVVTi Troirjaayar kclv dpa Tive<i dXiaKwvTai,^ 

' roffovr<f St., Toffovrcav VL'. ^ rovrois Xyl., tovtovs YU. 
' aXlffKiovrai R. Steph., aXiffKovrai VL'. 



voted of their own free choice. As for the voluntary b.c. 29 
contributions, no citizen would feel free to make one, 
any more than he would readily admit that he was 
rich, and it is not to the advantage of the ruler that 
he should, for immediately he would acquire a re- 
putation for patriotism among the masses, become 
conceited, and incite a rebellion. On the other 
hand, a general levy weighs heavily upon the masses, 
the more so because they suffer the loss while the 
others reap the gain. Now in democracies those 
who contribute the money as a general rule also 
serve in the army, so that in a way they get their 
money back again ; but in monarchies one set of 
people usually engages in agriculture, manufacturing, 
commerce, and politics, — and these are the classes 
from which the state's receipts are chiefly derived, — 
and a different set is under arms and draws pay. 

" This single circumstance, then, which is as I have 
described it, will cause you trouble. But here is 
another. It is by all means essential that whoever 
from time to time commits a crime should pay some 
penalty. For the majority of men are not brought 
to reason by admonition or by example, but it is 
absolutely necessary to punish them by disfranchise- 
ment, by exile, or by death ; and such punishments 
are often administered in an empire as large as this 
is and in a population as great as ours, especially 
during a change of government. Now if you 
appointed other men to judge these wrongdoers, 
they would vie with each other in acquitting the 
accused, and particularly all whom you might be 
thought to hate ; for judges, you know, gain an 
appearance of authority when they act in any way 
contrary to the wish of the ruler. And if an 




Sia (T€ Bo^ovaiv €k KaTaa/cevda-fxaro^; Kareyjrrj- 
(jilaOai, av 3' avTo<; htKd^rj<;, ttoXXou? dvay- 
Kaa6rj(7r] koX t6)v o/iotl/jLcov Kokd^euv (tovto Be 
ovK evTVX^es:), koX irdvTW^ Tiva<; avrcov opyfj 

4 fxaXkov T) BiKaicocrei, B6^eL<; ^ evOvvecv tov<^ yap 
fit.d^eaOai Bvva/Ji6Vov<; ouSel? BiKd^ovraf; BiKaio- 
Trpayelv TTiCTTevei, dlOC ocovrai irdvTe<^ avrov^ 
a^rj/xa koI g Kiay pa<^iav irokLreia'^ al(T')(vvr) irpo 
rr}? d\r]Oeia<i 7TpOTT6TavvvVTa<^, ovoiian ivvofjiw ^ 
BiKao-Tijpiov rrjv eavrcov eTTiOvfiiav aTroTn/jL- 
TrXdvai. ev fiev ovv rat? fiovapxi'di^ ravO^ ovro) 

6 yiyverar ev Be Br) Tac<; Br]fj,oKparLai<;, av t IBia 
Ti<; dBiKelv alriav \d^r], IBiav BiK'qv irapa BiKa- 
crral^ iaoL<; ^evyet, dv re Brj/ioo-la, koI eKeivM 
BiKaaral KaOl^ovaiv ^ efc tmv o/holcov ov<; av^ 6 
K\rjpo<; diroBei^rj, wo-re paov rd dirofSaivovTa avr' 
auTMV Tov<; dvdp(t)7rov<; (pepeLv, fjurjr Icr'XVi Blku- 
arov fjL7]T€ ')(^dpiTL dvayKaarfi ^ vo/lll^ovtu*; tl 
8 ""Ert roivvv ttoWoI %&)/oi9 tmv tv dBifcovvrrov, 
01 fjbev ykvei, ol Be irXovrrp, oi Be erepcp rivl eirai,- 
po/jbevoi, aA,X&)9 /xev ov /caKol dvBpe^, rfj Be Br) 
irpoaipecreL rf) t?}? fiovap^dia^; evavrioL (pvovrar 
fcal avTOi)<; ovr av^eaOai rt? eo)V da(f)a\a)(; Bvva- 
rai ^Tjv, ovT av KoXoveiv einy^eLpcav BiKatax; 

^ S6^€is L', Sn^rjs V. ^ euvnucf} Naber, iuvojxov VL'. 

^ KaOiCovo-iv Rk., KadiC'eaiv VL'. 

^ ovs hv Xyl., ovaav VL'. 

^ apayKaa-T]] L', ayayKacrdq V. 



occasional criminal is nn fact convicted, it will be b.c. 29 
thought that he has been condemned deliberately, 
in order to please you. But if, on the other hand, 
you sit in judgment yourself, you will be obliged to 
punish many also of your peers— an unfortunate 
situation — and you will certainly be thought to be 
calling some of them to account through resentment 
rather than through a sense of justice. For no one 
believes that those who have the power to use com- 
pulsion are acting honestly when they give judgment, 
but all men think they are led by a sense of shame to 
spread out before the truth a mere semblance and 
illusive picture of a constitutional government, and 
under the legal name of a court of justice are but 
satisfying their own desires. This, then, is what 
happens in monarchies. In democracies, on the 
other hand, when any one is accused of committing 
a private wrong, he is made defendant in a private 
suit before a jury of his equals ; or, if he is accused of 
a public crime, in his case also a jury of his peers, 
men whom the lot shall designate, sits in judgment. 
It is therefore easier for men to bear the decisions 
which proceed from such juries, since they think that 
any penalty dealt out to them has been inflicted 
neither by a judge's power nor as a favour which a 
judge has been forced to grant. 

" Then again, apart from those who are guilty of 
wrongdoing, there are many men who pride them- 
selves, some on their birth, others on their wealth, 
and still others on something else, who, though in 
general not bad men, are yet by nature opposed to 
the principle of monarchy. If a ruler allows these 
men to become strong, he cannot live in safety, 
and if, on the other hand, he undertakes to impose a 



2 TOVTO iroielv. rl ttot ovv *tovtoi<; XP^^Vf '^^^ 
avTOV<; fi€Tax€tpicrr}; av ^lev yap rd re yevTj <T(f>(>)V 
KaOeXr}^ Kol T0U9 ttXovtov^; i\arToo(77)<i rd re 
(ppov^fiara Ta7r€tvcoaT]<; , ovBe/iuav av evvotav irapa 
TMV dp^Ofievcov Xd^oi^' iroi^ 7^P> ^^' jMrjTe yev- 
vqOrival Tft) /co-Xw? firjTe TrXovrrjaai, hiKaia)^, firjT 
la^ypw firjT dvBp6L(p fjLi]Te crvvera) jeveadai i^eirj; 

3 av Sk €darj<; ravO^ co? CKaara av^eiv, ovk av 
pa8ico<; avrd BidOoio. Kal yap el avro<; /jl6vo<; 
iTpo^ T€ TO ^ rd iroXiriKa Kal Trpo? to rd iroXe- 
fjbiKd KaXo)^ Kal Kard Kaipbv irpdrreiv i^rjpKei^y 
Kal fjLTjBevof; avvepyov irpo^ jxrjhev avrcov e^pJlK^'if 

4 erepo^ av riv Xoyo<s' vvv Be it dad ae dvdyKTj 
(Tvvay(dVLard<; iroXXov^, are roaavrrj<; oiKovfievrjf; 
dp^ovra,^ e^^iv, Kal irpoa^Kei ttov irdvra^ avrov^ 
Kal dvBpelovf; Kal (f>povi/jLOV<; elvai. ovkovv av 
fjL€v roiovroi^ rial rd re arparevfiara Kal rd<i 
dpxdf; iyx^i'p^^V^f kIvBvvo^ earai Kal aol Kal rfj 

6 rroXireia KaraXvOrjvar ov yap eariv ovr dvev 
(j)poi"^/iaro<; d^LoXoyov dvBpa <j>vvat, ovr av 
(ppovrjfxa fjbiya Xa^elv €K BovXoTrpeTTOvf; ein- 
rrjBevaeax;, ov JjLtjv ovBe (ppovrjfiariav yevofievov 
/jLT] OVK eXev6epia<^ eTTidvfiyaac Kal irdv to Be- 

6 (TTTO^ov fjLLarjcraL. dv Be Br) rovroL<; /jl€V /nrjBei^ 
eVtT/oeTT?;?, roL<; Be Brj (f)avXoi<; Kal roL<; rv^ovcn 
rd TTpdy/jLara Trpoardaarj^;, rdx^o'ra fiev dv opyrjv 
Trap* eKeivcDV co? diriarov/jLevcov Xd^oi<;, rdx^crra 

7 B^ dv ev Tot? fieylcrroif; rrraia'eia<;. ri /lev ydp dv 
dyaOov dp,aOr)<; rj dyevvr)<; ^ dvOpcoiro^ epydaatro; 
ri<i B' OVK dv Kara<j)pov^(T€iev avrov rcov rroXep^Lcov; 

rh supplied by Bs. ^ g^p^opra LeuncL, &pxoyTas VL'. 
^ ayivvijs V, aycy^s L'. 



check on them, he cannot do so justly. What, then, 
will you do with them? How will you deal with 
them ? If you root out their families, diminish their 
wealth, and humble their pride, you will not have 
the good-will of your subjects. How could you 
have it, if no one is permitted to be born to noble 
rank, or to grow rich honestly, or to become strong or 
brave or intelligent ? Yet if you allow these various 
classes to grow strong, you will not be able to deal 
with them easily. True, if you alone were equal to 
carrying on the business of the state and the business 
of warfare successfully and in a manner to meet the 
demands of each situation, and needed no assistant for 
any of these matters, it would be a different matter. 
As the case stands, however, since you would be 
governing this vast world, it would be quite essential 
for you to have many helpers ; and of course they 
ought all to be both brave and high-spirited. Now 
if you hand over the legions and the offices to men 
of such parts, there will be danger that both you and 
your government will be overthrown. For it is not 
possible either for a man of any real worth to be 
naturally lacking in spirit, or on the other hand for a 
man sprung from a servile sphere of life to acquire a 
proud spirit ; nor, again, if he proves himself a man 
of spirit, can he fail to desire liberty and to hate all 
mastery. If, on the other hand, you entrust nothing 
to these men, but put affairs in charge of common 
men of indifferent origin, you will very soon incur 
the resentment of the first class, who will think 
themselves distrusted, and you will very soon fail 
in the greatest enterprises. For what good thing 
could an ignorant or low-born person accomplish ? 
Who of our enemies would not hold him in con- 



Tt9 8' av 7reiOap)(^y](T€L€v ^ ol rSiV crvfi/jid^cjv; tl^ 
S* ov/c av Kol avroiv rcov arpaTicorMV d7ra^i(oa€i€v 
VTTO roiovrov rivo<; dpx^aOai; koX /jltjv oaa eV 
TOUTOV KUKOL yLjveaOaL Tricpv/ce, tcl fiev dWa 

8 ovSev Beo/iai aot, aa(f)a)<; elSorc Birjyela-dat, €K6lvo 
Be Btj fJLovov dva'^Kalw^ ipoi), on dv fiev /irjSev Beop 6 
ToiovTO^ TTpdrrr), ttoXv TrXeto) dv ae rcov iroXe- 
/XLcov ffXayfreiev, dv Be ri rcov irpoarjKovrwv iroifi, 
Ka\ avTOf; dv croi <^o^epo<^ iK(^povrj(ja<; vtt dirai- 
BevaLa<i yevoLTO. 

9 "Ou fievTOi KoX rat? BijfjLOKpaTiaL'^ tolovto tl 
irpodeariv, dXX* 6a w dv TrXelovi kol Trkovrcoai 
Kal dvBpL^covrai, roaq) fidWov avroi re ^lXoti- 
fiovvrat, KOI rrjv ttoKlv av^ovai, Kai a^iai Kal 
€K€lv7] K6)(pr)rai, Kal y^aipei, ttXtjv dv ti<; rvpav- 
vlBo<; iTTiOviJLrjar)' tovtov yap la-^vpco^; KoXd^ovai. 

2 Kal on ravO^ outo)? e^ei Kal iroXXw KpelrTOV^; al 
BrjfiOKpaTLai rcov /jLOvap^^iwv elm, BrjXol fiev Kal to 
'Ei\X7]VLK6v' rect)? fjuev yap ovtco<; eiroXiTevovTO, 
ovBev /xeya Kareirpa^av, eTreiBr) Be eKeivco^i ^ ^rjv 

3 ijp^avTO, ovojjLaaroTaTOi eyevovro' By]Xol Be Kal 
rd TMV dXXcov dvOpooTTCov, cjv ol fiev ev rvpavvlac 
Kal vvv en, Biayop^evou del re BovXevovau Kal del 
TOi? dp)(ov(7LV eiTL^ovXevovaiv, ol Be Br] irpo- 
GTaTeiai<^ €7reTrjo-LOL<; rj Kal eVl irXelo) nvd ')(^p6vov 
'^pco/ievoi Kal eXevOepot Kal avTovo/xoL BiareXovaiv 

4 6Vt69. dXXd TL Bel r)/j,d(; dXXoTpint^ irapaBei- 
yfxaaiv oUeca e^ovTa^ 'x^prjaOai; rjfieU yap avrol 
ol 'Vcdfialoi dXXa)<; to npcoTOV iroXiTevoixevoi, 

* iKfivus L', 4Ke7vos V. 



tempt ? Who of our allies would obey him ? Who b.c. 29 
even of the soldiers themselves would not disdain to 
be ruled by such a man? And yet 1 need not 
explain to you all the evils that naturally result 
from such a condition, for you know them thor- 
oughly ; but this one thing I shall say, as 1 am con- 
strained to do — that if a minister of this kind failed 
in every duty, he would injure you far more than the 
enemy, while if he met with any success in the 
conduct of his office, his lack of education would 
cause him to lose his head and he as well would 
prove formidable to you. 

" Such a situation, however, does not arise in demo- 
cracies, but the more men there are who are wealthy 
and brave, so much the more do they vie with each 
other and upbuild the state, and the state, on its part, 
rejoices in them, unless one of them conceives a 
desire for tyrannical power ; for the citizens severely 
punish such an one. That this is so, now, and that 
democracies are far superior to monarchies, is shown 
by the experience of Greece. For as long as the 
people had the monarchical form of government, they 
accomplished nothing of importance ; but when they 
began to live under the democratic system they 
became most renowned. It is shown also by the 
experience of the other races of mankind. For those 
which still live under tyrannies are always in slavery 
and are always plotting against their rulers, whereas 
those which have governors chosen for a year or a 
longer period continue to be both free and in- 
dependent. But why should we resort to examples 
furnished by other peoples when we have examples 
here at home .'' We Romans ourselves at first had a 
different form of government, then later, after we 



eireira €7recBr) iroWa /cal Seiva eTrdaxo/JLev, t^9 re 
ekevdepia^ eTreOv/jLTjaa/iev koI \a^6vTe^ avrrjv 
6 TT/oo? ToaovTov oyKov IT porjXd o fiev , ov/c aXXoL^; 
Ttalv rj rot? eV tt)? Br)fjLOKpaTia<; ayaOoU lo'X^' 
aavTe<iy e'f mv rj re^ yepovcrla irpoe/SovXeve koX 6 
B7J/jL0<i eTTe/cvpov TO T€ aTparevofievov TrpoedvpLelro 
Kol TO (TTparrfyovp icjiiXoTL/jLelro. wv ovBev av iv 
TvpavPiBc TTpaxOelr].'^ afieXet roaovrov avT7J<i Sia 
ravra /jll(to<; ol irdXai 'Pa>yLtatot ea^ov coare koI 
iirdpaTov to TToXlrev/jui TTOiijcraaOai. 
10 *' X(Dpl<; Be rovTcov, el Bel tc /cal irepl tcov 
IBla aol avTa> (TVfX(^ep6vT(ov elirelv, tto)^ /jl€P av 
viroixeiveia^ roaavra koI fjued^ r}p,epav Kal vvKTcop 
BiOLKCJVf TTw? 3' av fJLT] vyiaivcov e^apKeaeia<^; 
rivo^ 5* av T(ov dyaOcjv tcjv dv6 pcoirivcov diro- 
Xavcreia^, ttw? K av (rT€p6/jL€vo<; avrwv evBaLfio- 
vrja€ia<i; rivi B^ av aKpi^ax; r^adeij)^, iroTe 5' ovk 

2 av l(T)(ypS3<^ Xv7rr)0€Lr)<;; iraaa yap avdy/crj rov 
rrjXcKavTTjv dp^rjv e^ovra Kal ^povri^etv iroXXa 
Kal BeBievaL iroXXd, Kal tmv jjL€V rjBiareov iXd- 
'^Lo-ra diroXaveiv, to, Be Bua')(^epeaTaTa del Kal 
7ravTa)(^ov Kal aKOveiv Kal opdv Kal iroielv Kal 
7rda')(^eiv. oOev, olfiai, Kal "EXX7}V€<i Kal ^dp- 
/BapoL TLV€<i ovBe BiBofjLeva^; (T<f>i(TL ^aaiXeia^ iBe- 

3 *'TavT ovv TTpolBo/JLevo^;^ TTpo^ovXevaav rrplv 
iv avTol<i yeveaOai' alayjpov ydp, fxaXXov ce Kal 
dBvvarov eari irapaKv-^avrd riva dira^ €? avra 

^ i} Tf L', {} T€ ^ V. 

2 vpaxOelv V, irpoax&eir] L'. 

^ irpoiS6jj.evos Bk., irpoeiSd/Lifvos VL', 



had gone through many bitter experiences, conceived b.o. 
a desire for liberty ; and when we had secured it, we 
advanced to our present proud eminence, strong in 
no advantages save those that come from democracy. 
It was on the strength of these that the senate 
deliberated, the people ratified, the soldiers in the 
ranks were filled with zeal and their commanders 
with ambition. None of these things could happen 
under a tyranny. At any rate the ancient Romans 
came to feel so great a hatred of tyranny for these 
reasons that they even laid that form of government 
under a curse. 

" And apart from these considerations, if one is to 
speak about matters which touch your personal in- 
terests, how could you endure to administer affairs 
so manifold, not only by day but also by night ? 
How could you hold out if your health should fail } 
What human blessings could you enjoy, and how 
could you be happy if deprived of them .'* In what 
could you take genuine pleasure, and when would 
you be free from the keenest pain ? For it is 
quite inevitable that a man who holds an office of 
this kind should have many anxieties, be subject to 
many fears, and have very little enjoyment of what 
is most pleasant, but should always and everywhere 
both see and hear, do and suffer, only that which is 
disagreeable. That, I imagine, is the reason why, in 
certain instances, among both Greeks and barbarians, 
men have refused to accept the office of king when it 
was offered to them. 

" Therefore I would have you foresee all these 
disadvantages and take counsel before you become 
involved in them. For it is disgraceful, or rather 
it is quite impossible, for a man to withdraw when 



avaBvvai. /nrjEe ae i^airaTrjar) jxi^re to fiiyeOof: 
T^9 e^ovaia'^ yurfii* rj Trepiovata tmv KTrifidrcov, 

fXT) TO tTTt^O? TMV aCOfjLaTO(f)V\dK(OV, flT) 6^ 6')(\o<; 

4 TMv OepairevovTCdv, oi re yap ttoXv hwdfievoL 
TToWa TTpdyfjiUTa e^ovai, kol ol (rv)(va kcktt]- 
jxevoi (TV^vd dvaXiaKeiV dvayKd^ovrai, rd re 
ttXtjOt) twv Bopv(p6p(ov Bid rd ttXtJOt] t(ov eiri- 
^ovXevovTcov dOpoL^erat, koI ol Ko\aK6vovT6<; ein- 
Tp[y]reiav dv nva jiaXkov rj adiaeiav,^ MaO^ 
€ve/ca fiev tovtcov ovS" dv eU ev (f)povcov avrap- 
11 'X^^fjaai iTTtOv/jLi^aeiev' el 8' ori, /cal irXovrl^eiv kuI 
aM^eiv Tim? dWa re TroWd xal dyaOd Bpdv ol 
ToiovToc BvvavraL, kol vt) ^la koI v/3pi^€Lv a(pi(n 
KoX KaK(jj<i TToielv ov dv iOeXyacocriv e^earriv, d^iav 
TL^ Btd raura (JTrof St)? rr)v rvpavvlBa elvau vofxi- 

2 fe«, Tov Traz/TO? dfjLaprdvei* to fiev yap daeX- 
yaiv€Lv koX kukov tc ttoleIv ovO* &)? ala)(^pd ouO^ co? 
a(f)a\6pd KoX fjL€/jLLar)fjL€va kuI irpb^ Oewv kuI 7r/?o? 
dvdpcoTTcov eaTL, Beo/jLal aoL Xeyeiv ovTeydp aXXo)? 
TotouTO? el, ovT dv Bed TavTa iMOvap-^rjaai eXoLo. 
Trpoyprj/jbal re iyco vvv ov irdvO^ oaa dv Ti? KaK(o<; 
TO Trpdy/ia /jLeTa')(^eLpL^6fi6Vo<; i^epydaaiTo elirecv, 
dX)C oaa Kal ol irdvv dpLciTa avTw 'y^poofievoi, KaX 

3 TTOielv Kal Trdaj(eiv dvayKd^ovrat. to S' erepov, 
TO Tiva d(j)06vco(; evepyerelv e')(eLV, d^toairovBa- 
oTov fiev, dXX^ ev fxev IBtcoTr) yiyvo/ievov Kal 
KoXov Kal aejjLvov Kal eu/cXee? Kal da(^aXe^ iaTLv, 
ev Be Br) Tat? fiovap)(^Lai<; irpoiTOv fiev ovk uvt- 

^ & supplied by Bk, 

2 iiriTpi\j/eiav . . . aujciav Dind., iTtiTplxpaifv . . . (rdxrauv VL'. 


once he has entered upon the position. And do b.c. 29 
not be deceived, either, by the greatness of its 
authority or the abundance of its possessions, or by 
its array of bodyguards, or by its throng of courtiers. 
For men who have much power have many troubles ; 
those who have large possessions are obliged to 
spend largely ; the multitude of bodyguards is 
gathered merely because of the multitude of con- 
spirators ; and as for the flatterers, they would be 
more likely to destroy you than to save you. Con- 
sequently, in view of these considerations, no sensible 
man would desire to become supreme ruler. But it 
the thought that men in such a station are able to 
enrich others, to save their lives, and to confer many 
other benefits upon them — yes, by heaven, and even 
to insult them and to do harm to whomsoever they 
please — leads anyone to think that tyranny is worth 
striving for, he is utterly mistaken. I need not, 
indeed, tell you that the life of wantonness and evil- 
doing is disgraceful or that it is fraught with peril 
and is hated of both gods and men ; for in any event 
you are not inclined to such things, and you would 
not be led by these considerations to choose to be 
sole ruler. And, besides, 1 have chosen to speak 
now, not of all the mischief one might work who 
managed the task badly, but only of what even those 
who make the very best use of the position are 
obliged both to do and to suffer. But as to the 
other consideration, — that thus one is in a position 
to bestow favours in profusion, — this is indeed a 
privilege worth striving for; yet however noble, 
august, glorious, and safe it is when enjoyed by a 
private citizen, in a king's position it does not, in the 
first place, counterbalance the other considerations 



a^iov Tcov dWcov rSiv aTOTrcorepcov, oiare tlvcl 
Bia TOVTO Kol eKelva ^ kXeaOai, aWco<; re /cal 
fieWovra rrjv fxev i/c tovtov airoXavaiv erepocf; 
12 Saxreiv rrjv Be ef eKeivcdV arjSlav avrov e^eiv, 
eneLTa B^ ovS* airXovVy (w? ri? oterai. ovre 'yap 
av Trdat rot? Beo/juevoc^; tlvo(; iirapKeaeie rt?. ol 
fiev yap a^t-ovvre<; ri Trap* avrov Xafi^dveiv 
7rdvT€<; &)9 elirelv elcrtv dvOpwiroL, kclv /j.r)BefMia 

2 evdu<i evepyeala avrol^ ocpeuXi^TaL' Tra? yap Tt,<; 
<f)v<T€i Kal auT09 eavTO) dpeaKci, /cdyadop tl 
iTravpiaOat irapd tov Bovpac Bwajievov l3ov- 
XeraL' a Be eV^e^erat avTol<; BlBoaOai, (rtyLta? re 
Kul dpxd<i Xeyco, Kal eariv ore /cal ')(^pr)[jbara) 
irdw av evapiOfxr^ra 009 irpo^ roaovro irXrjOo^i 
evpedeirj. tovtov t€ ovtco^ e^ovro^i e)(^Oo<i dv 
avT(p irapa Tcav BiafiapTavovTcop wv ')(pi)^ovai, 
/jloXXov rj <f)iXia irapd tmv TVyxavovToiv virdp- 

3 ^eiev. ol fiev ydp, 0)9 Kal 6(f)eiX6p,ev6v tl Xafx- 
/3dvovTe<;, ovt dXX(o<; fieydXrjp oiovTai Betp tm 
BlBopti avTO ^ X^P^^ e^eip are firjBep irapd Bo^av 
eupiaKOfiepoi, Kal jrpoaeTL Kal oKPOvcn tovto 
iTOLeiP, ipa pur) Kal dpa^L0V<; ep tovto) cr(pd<i tov 

4 KaX(o<; irda^i^LP d'Tro(j)r)P(oaLP' ^ ol Be mp iXiTL- 
^ovatp aTv^ovpTCf; XvirovPTai KaT dp,(f>6T6pa, 
TovTO p,ep ci)9 oIkclov TiPO<i aTepicTKOfjiepov (irdpTef; 
ydp ex^tP rjBr] pop^i^ovacp MP dp eTnOv/jL^acDai,), 
TOVTO Be 6i)9 Kal avTol * eavTMP dBiKiap Tipd 

1 Sia TOVTO Ka\ e/ceiva Bk., 5t' iKUva koI tovto VL'. 

^ avTh L', avToi V. 

' a.Tro(pT]VU)(Tiv St., airocpavovaiv VL'. * avTo\ L', eauTol V. 



of a less agreeable nature, so that a man should be b.c. 29 
induced for the sake of gaining this advantage to 
accept those disadvantages also, especially when the 
sovereign is bound to bestow upon others the benefit 
to be derived from this advantage and to have for 
himself alone the unpleasantness that results from 
the disadvantages. In the second place, this advan- 
tage is not without complications, as people think ; 
for a ruler cannot possibly satisfy all who ask for 
favours. Those, namely, who think they ought to 
receive some gift from the sovereign are practically 
all mankind, even though no favour is due to them 
at the moment ; for every one naturally thinks well 
of himself and wishes to enjoy some benefit at the 
hands of him who is able to bestow it. But the 
benefits which can be given them, — I mean titles 
and offices and sometimes money, — will be found 
very easy to count when compared with the vast 
number of the applicants. This being so, greater 
hostility will inevitably be felt toward the monarch 
by those who fail to get what they want, than friend- 
liness by those who obtain their desires. For the 
latter take what they receive as due them and think 
there is no particular reason for being grateful to 
the giver, since they are getting no more than they 
expected ; besides, they actually shrink from showing 
gratitude for fear they may thereby give evidence of 
their being unworthy of the kindness done them. 
The others, when they are disappointed in their 
hopes, are aggrieved for two reasons : in the first 
place, they feel that they are being robbed of what 
belongs to them, for invariably men think they 
already possess whatever they set their hearts upon ; 
and, in the second place, they feel that, if they are 



KaTa'yi'yv(i)aKOVTe<;, av paBico^; eVl rw firj rv')(elv 

5 MV av irpoa^oKYjacocn ^epwai. kclI yap 6 opOw^ 
hihov^ ra roiavra to re kut a^iav eKCLGTOV BrjXov 

OTi TTpO TTCLVrddV IT pO(T KOirel, Kal TOU? /JL6V TL/Jba TOL/? 

5e Trapopa, Mare Kal ck t/)? i/celvov yvcofi7]<; roU fiev 
(fypovrj/ia rot? 6' ayavaKTTjaiv vtt' avrov rov avvei- 
SoTO^ (Tcficov 7rpo(Tyiyv€(70ai. ft)9 dp ye Tt9 tout' 
€v\aj3ov/JL€VO<; avtojxaXdd^ avra Biavefietv iOeXrjcrrj, 

6 TO (Tvixirav afiapTrjaerai' oX re yap irovqpol irapa 
TO TTpoarJKov Tifi(o/Ji€VOL ^j^eZ/JOU? av, i^roi koI 
iiraivelcrdaL tw? ayaOol rj ttuvtcix; ye Oepaireveadai 
ft)9 (j>ofiepol BoKovvT€<;, ylyvoivro, Kal ol xpV^'^ol 
/jLTjSev TrXelov avrcov evpiaKOfievoi, aX\' ef taov 
a<j)L(TLV ayofjievoi, fxaXXov av eK t^? tt/oo? eKeivov<i 
lao/jLoipia<; Xvttocvto rj tw^ Kal avroi tivo^ a^iov- 

7 aOat 'X^alpoiev,^ kclk tovtov Trjv re iirtrrjSeuaLV 
TOiv KpeLTTovwv Iwev av Kal rrjv ^rjXwa-cv t(ov 
yeipovwv /jL€Tep)(^oivTO, Kal ovtco Kav^ e^ avrwv 
rwv Ti/JLMV ovO^ ol 8iS6vTe<; avTa<; dyaOov re 
KapTTolvTo Kal ol Xa/jb/3dvovTe<; KaKiov<; ylyvoiv- 
To. <wo-T6 <70L TOVTO, o [xdXiaTa av Tiaiv ev 
rah /jLOvapx^cic^ dpeaeie, hvaixeTax^ipiarorarov 

13 ** Tavrd re ovv Kal rdXXa a puKpcp irpoaOev 

* T(jJ supplied by Pflugk. 

* Xaipoicv R. Steph., ;^at/)oje VL', 
3 Kh.v V, Koi L'. 



not indignant at their failure to obtain whatever they b.c. 
expect to get, they are actually acknowledging some 
shortcoming on their own part. The reason for all 
this is, of course, that the ruler who bestows such 
gifts in the right way obviously makes it his first 
business to weigh well the merits of each person, and 
thus he honours some and passes others by, with the 
result that, in consequence of his decision, those who 
are honoured have a further reason for elation, while 
those who are passed by feel a new resentment, each 
class being moved by their own consciousness of 
their respective merits. If, however, a ruler tries to 
avoid this result and decides to award these honours 
capriciously, he will fail utterly. For the base, finding 
themselves honoured contrary to their deserts, would 
become worse, concluding that they were either 
being actually commended as good or at any rate 
were being courted as formidable ; and the upright, 
seeing that they were securing no greater consider- 
ation than the base but were being regarded as being 
merely on an equality with them, would be more 
vexed at being reduced to the level of the others 
than pleased at being thought worthy of some honour 
themselves, and consequently would abandon their 
cultivation of the higher principles of conduct and 
become zealous in the pursuit of the baser. And 
thus the result even of the distribution of honours 
would be this : those who bestowed them would reap 
no benefit from them and those who received them 
would become demoralized. Hence this advantage, 
which some would find the most attractive in mon- 
archies, proves in your case a most diflicult problem 
to deal with. 

" Reflecting upon these considerations and the 



elirov evdv/jLTjOeh ^povrjcrov ecD? e^eari aoi, koX 
a7ro8o9 Tft> hrjixw Koi to. oirXa kcu to, eOvrj koi 
ra<; apxa<; kol ra '^p'tjfiara. av /lev yap ijSr) re 
Kol €KOi)v avTO 7roi,^arj(;, ivBo^6TaT6<i re cifia 
avOpooTTwv ear} fcal dacpaXiaTaro^' av 8* dva- 
luL€Lvrj<; Plav rivd aoi irpoa-axOrjvaL, rd^ dv ri 

2 Seivov fjierd KaKoho^ia<; irdOoi^. reKixrjpiov Be, 
Mtt/?to9 /J'ev KOI Si^XXa? koi MereXXo?, koL IIo/x- 
irrjio^ TO irpSiTOVy ev fcpdrei tmv irpayjjbdrayv 
yevofievoL ovr rjOeXrjaav Bvvaarevaai out' eiraOov 
irapd TOVTO Beivbv ovBiv J^ivva^; Be Sr) fcal Xrpd- 
^cov, 6 re Mdpio<; 6 erepo<; /cal 6 Xeprcopio^, 6 re 
ITo/x-TTT^to? avTO^ jaerd ravra, rrj<; Bwaareia^; eirc- 

3 du/jL^(TavTe<; /caK(Jo<; dircoXovro. Bva^^pe^ J^P 
earc rrjv iroXiv ravTrjv, roaovTOL<; re ereai SeSr;- 
/jLOKpaTTjfjbevrjv Koi Toaovrcov dvOpcoTTCOv dp^ovaav, 
hovXevaai rivi eOeXijaai. koX dKovet<; /xev OTt 
Tov Kd/jLiXXov vTrepdypiaav, eireiBrj XevKoh iTTTrot? 

4 69 rd eiTLviKLa e-x^prjaaro, dKovei^ Be on rov Xki- 
TTicova KareXvaav, iireiBr] rtva irXeove^iav avrov 
Kareyvcoaav, fj,€/jLvr}aai, Be otto)? tw irarpL aov 
TTpoarivex^V^^^i ori rtvd vTroyjriav eV avrov fzovap- 
p^ta9 ea^ov. KairoL rovrcov fjuev dfxeivovi dvBpe<; 
ovBeve<; dXXoi, yeyovacnv, 

6 ** Ou iievroi Kal aTrXw^; ovrco av/n^ovXevco croi 
rrjv dpxv^ d<j)eLvai, dXXd irdvra rd avfjL(j>epovra 
rcb Br)fjLO(TLa) it poir pd^at Kal Boyfiaort Kal vofioi^; d 
TTpoarjKei KaraKXelaat, KaOdirep irov Kal 6 ^vX- 
Xa% iiroLija-e' Kal ydp el' riva avrwv fierd ravra 



others which I mentioned a little while ago, be b.c. 29 
prudent while you may and duly place in the hands 
of the people the army, the provinces, the offices, 
and the public funds. If you do it at once and 
voluntarily, you will be the most famous of men 
and the most secure ; but if you wait for some 
compulsion to be brought to bear upon you, you 
will very likely suffer some disaster and gain in- 
famy besides. Consider the testimony of history : 
Marius and Sulla and Metellus, and Pompey at first, 
when they got control of affairs, not only refused to 
assume sovereign power but also escaped disaster 
thereby ; whereas Cinna and Strabo,^ tlie younger 
Marius and Sertorius, and Pompey himself at a later 
time, conceived a desire for sovereign power and 
perished miserably. For it is a difficult matter to 
induce this city, which has enjoyed a democratic 
government for so many years and holds empire 
over so many people, to consent to become a slave to 
any one. You have heard how the people banished 
Camillus just because he used white horses for his 
triumph ; you have heard how they deposed Scipio 
from power, first condemning him for some act of 
arrogance ; and you remember how they [)roceeded 
against your father just because they conceived a 
suspicion that he desired to be sole ruler. Yet there 
have never been any better men than these. 

"Nevertheless, I do not advise you merely to 
relinquish the sovereignty, but first to take all the 
measures which the public interest demands and by 
decrees and laws to settle definitively all important 
business, just as Sulla did, you recall ; for even if 
some of his ordinances were subsequently overthrown, 

1 Cf. xliv. 2S, 1. 



averpairr], aWa rd ye 7r\ei(o fcal /jl€L^(o hiafxevei. 

6 KoX fit] 6L7rrj<; on, Kal a)9 (naaidcrovGi rive^, 'iva 
fiT) Kal iya) avOi^ elira) OTt, ttoWm fJLoXkov ovk 
av dvd(T')(^otVTo fiovap^ovfievoc. 0)9 etye iravB* 
6a a ivSex^ral real avvevexOrjvac irpocrKOiroifieOa, 
dXoycoTara av ra<; hi')(p(TTaaiaf; Ta<; e/c t^<; 
8Tj/jL0KpaT[a<; (TVfM^aLVOvaa<; <^opr)6eir)ii6v av /naX- 
\ov Tj ra? Tvpavviha^ ra? e/c r?)? [xovap-^ia^ 

7 €K(l)vo/jL€va<;. irepl o)v rrj<^ Beivorrjrof; ovSe eVe- 
'^^eiprjad rv eiTretv' ov yap 5^ ^ Kal KaraSpa/jielv 
a\X&)? evKarrjyoprjTOV ovro) irpayjJLa r)6e\r)aa, 
dWa hel^ai aoi rovd^ ort, tolovtov eVrt rrj ^vaec 
ware firjhe roif^ ^/OTyo-TOU? dvBpa<; ^ , . ,** 

14 **(... ovre irelcai ri pahiw<; vtto irapprjcria^; tou? 
ou% ofioiov^i hvvavjaL) Kav raL<; Trpd^eaiv are (jltj 
6/iioyv(OfjLovovvT(ov o-(l)cov KaropOovaiv. ware ei ri 
K7)Brj Tr}9 7raT/3t8o9, vTrep 779 Toaovrov; TroXejuLovf; 
ireTToXe/iirjKa*;, VTrep 77? ^^t '^V^ 'i^^XV^ r}Be(o<i av 
eiTLBoLrj';, p^erappvOixiaov avrrjv Kal KaraKocrjJLrjdov 
2 7r/)09 TO aaxppoviaTepov, to yap i^elval Tiai 

1 8^R. Steph., 86? VL'. 

2 L' indicates a lacuna at this point, V does not. In their 
common archetype L one folio was lost, containing some 
sixty lines. Zonaras' epitome at this point is as follows : 
i ?€ MaiK7]vas rovvavriov <rvvf$ov\evev, airav d-rrwi' ijSjj t)jv 
fxovapx'^''-^ ^""^ ToAi; hioiKr\aai avrhv Koi avayKoiov elfai Svo7v 
ddrepov, ^ fiuyai iwl rwv avrSov ff airo\4a0ai ravra irpoefitvov^ 



yet the majority of them and the more important b.c. 29 
still remain. And do not say that even then some 
men will indulge in factional quarrels, and thus 
require me, on my part, to say once more that the 
Romans would be much more apt to refuse to sub- 
mit to the rule of a monarch. For if we should 
undertake to provide against all possible con- 
tingencies, it would be utterly absurd for us to be 
more afraid of the dissensions which are but 
incidental to democracy than of the tyrannies which 
are the natural outgrowth of monarchy. Regarding 
the terrible nature of such tyrannies I have not so 
much as attempted to say anything ; for it has not 
been my wish idly to inveigh against a thing that so 
readily admits of condemnation, but rather to show 
you that monarchy is so constituted by nature that 
not even the men of high character. . ." ^ 

"(. . . nor can they easily convince by frank 
argument those who are not in a like situation) and 
they succeed in their enterprises, because their 
subjects are not in accord with one another. Hence, 
if you feel any concern at all for your country, for 
which you have fought so many wars and would so 
gladly give even your life, reorganize it and regulate 
it in the direction of greater moderation. For while 

* The conclusion of Agrippa's speech is missing in our 
MSS., as is also the earlier portion of that of Maecenas 
together with the introduction to it. Zonaras' brief r4swni 
(down through chap. 17) is as follows: "But Maecenas 
advised the contrary course, declaring that he (Caesar) had 
already for a long time been directing the monarchy, and 
tliat he must inevitably do one of two things — either remain 
in the same position or abandon his present course and 



rrdvO* a7rXft>9 oaa^ jSovXovrai Kal irotelv fcal 
Xeyeiv, av fxev iiri tcov ev <j)povovvr(ov i^erdKr)^, 
evBai/jLOVia^ CLTracnv atriov yiyverat, av Be eVt 
T(OV dvor)T(ov, crvfjL^opa<;' Kal 8ia tovto 6 jxlv rot? 
ToiovTOi<; TTjv e^ovaiav BiBov^ iraihl Brj rivi koI 
fjiaLvo/ii€V(p ft<^09 opiyei, 6 5' iK€ivoi<; rd re dWa 
Kot avTOv<; tovtov<; Kal fir} fiov\ofjb€vov<; (ra>^€i. 

3 Bioirep Kal are d^iS) firj irpo^ rd^ evirpeireiaf; roov 
ovo/ndrcov diro^Xe-^jravTa dTrarrjdrjvat, dWd rd 
ytyvofieva ef avrcov TrpoaKoirrja-avTa ttjv re Opa- 
(Tvrr]Ta rov o/iiXov Travaat Kal rr]V BioiKrj<Tiv rSiv 
KOLVoiv eavTw re Kal T0i9 dWot<; to2<; dplaroi'^ 
irpoadelvai, 'iva ^ovXevaxri ^ p,ev ol ^povi/ndoraTOi, 
dpx(^<^^ Be ol (TTparrjyiKcoTaroi,, arparevwvTai Be 
Kal p.ia6o(j)opo}(Tiv oi re la-^vporarot Kal ol ireve- 

4 araroL. ovrco yap rd re eiri^dWovrd o-<J)L(tiv 
CKaaroL rrpoOv/jLco<; iroiovvre^, Kal rd<; oD(f)e\la<; 
dWijXoL^ eroLfiM^; dvriBLB6vT€<;, ovre rcov iXarrco- 
fxdrayvt ev oh KaraBeovai rivcov, eTraLadrjaovrai, 
Kal rrjv Brip^oKparlav rrjv dXrjOrj rrjv re iXevOeplav 

5 rr)V d(r(f)aXrj Krrjaovrai' eKeivrj fiev yap rj rod 
0)(Xov eXevdepia rov re ^eXrlcrrov BovXela iriKpo- 
rdrrj yiyverai Kal kolvov d/ncpotv oXeOpov (pepei, 
avrr) Be to re ao)(f}pov rravraxov Trpori/ncjara Kal ro 
Xaov drraai Kara rrjv d^iav aTrovifiovaa irdvra^i 
6/jLOicof; evBai/jLOva'i rov^; ')(^pci>/jL€vov<i avrfj TToiel. 

* oTrAcSy 8rra Pflugk, Sco airKws VL'. 
fiou\fvwai R. Steph., 0ov\evovai VL', 



the privilege of doing and saying precisely what one b.o. 
pleases becomes, in the case of sensible persons, if you 
examine the matter, a cause of the highest happiness 
to them all, yet in the case of the foolish it becomes 
a cause of disaster. For this reason he who offers 
this privilege to the foolish is virtually putting a sword 
in the hands of a child or a madman ; but he who 
offers it to the prudent is not only preserving all their 
other privileges but is also saving these men them- 
selves even in spite of themselves. Therefore I ask 
you not to fix your gaze upon the specious terms 
applied to these things and thus be deceived, but to 
weigh carefully the results which come from the 
things themselves and then put an end to the 
insolence of the populace and place the management 
of public affairs in the hands of yourself and the 
other best citizens, to the end that the business of 
deliberation may be performed by the most prudent 
and that of ruling by those best fitted for command, 
while the work of serving in the army for pay is left to 
those who are strongest physically and most needy. In 
this way each class of citizens will zealously discharge 
the duties which devolve upon them and will readily 
render to one another such services as are due, and 
will thus be unaware of their inferiority when one 
class is at a disadvantage as compared with another, 
and all will gain the true democracy and the freedom 
which does not fail. For the boasted freedom of the 
mob proves in experience to be the bitterest servitude 
of the best element to the other and brings upon both 
a common destruction ; whereas this freedom of which 
I speak everj'where prefers for honour the men of 
prudence, awarding at the same time equality to all 
according to their deserts, and thus gives happiness 
impartially to all who enjoy this liberty. 


15 " M^ yap Toi olrjOf}<; on rvpavvrjaal aoi, rov 
re BrjfjLov KOL rr)P ^ovXrjv BovXcoaafiivq), irapaivS). 
TovTO fiev yap ovr av iyco irore elirelv ovr av av 
TTpa^ai To\/jL^a€ia<;' eicelva he Br) /cal Ka\a KaX 
'^prjaifia Kal aoi kuI rrj iroXei yevotro av, to 
re iravra ra irpoa-rjKovTa avrov ere jjuera rdv 
dplaTiDV avSp(t)v vofioOerelv, /jLr)B6vb<; tcov iroWcov 
fiYjT avTLkeyovTO^ avTol^ /njr ^ ivavTiovfievov, 

2 Kal TO T0U9 7ro\6/jLOV<i Trpo? ra v/juerepa /SovXrj- 
fiara ScoiKeiaOai, iravrodv avTLKa t(ov dWoop to 
KeXevo/ievov ttoiovvtcov, to re to,^ T(t)v ap^ovToav 
aipecr€L(; e</)* v/jllv elvai, Kal to Ta<i Ti/iia<i to,^ re 
TLfJLcopLa<i v/jLci^ opl^eiv, Xva Kal vofio^; evOv^ y irav 
6 TL av ^ovkevaafjuevw aoi fieTa tcov ofMOTLficov 

3 apear), Kal ol iroXefiLOL Kpvcpa Kal KaTa Kacpov 
TToXefiMVTat, oX re tz lyyeipL^6p,evoi air dp6Trj<; 
dWd /jLT) K\r)p(p Kal aTrovhap)(la diroBeLKVvcovTac, 
Kal ol /lev dyaOol dvev (jiOovov Ti/jLcovTaL, ol Be 

4 KaKol dvev avaTaaeay^; KoXd^cjvTai. ovtco yap 
av fidXtaTa ra re irpaTTOfieva 6pOa)<; BcoiKijOeirj, 
/irjTe €9 TO Koivov dva^epofieva firJTe ev to) 
(pavepti) ^ovXevofJueva jjLrjTe toI^ ^ irapaKeXeva-Tol^ 
eTTLTpeTTO/jLeva fjirjTe eK <piXoTLfiia<; KcvBuvevofieva, 
Kal TCOV vTrap')(^ovT(t)v rjfjitv dyaOwv r}Beco<; diro- 
Xavaaifxev, fir]T€ TroXejiov^ eTriKivBvvovi firjTe 

^ ^i)T* Bk., ixri^e VL'. 
2 Tols Xyl., iv rols YU, 



"For I would not have you think that I am advising b.c. 29 
you to enslave the people and the senate and then 
set up a tyranny. This is a thing I should never 
dare suggest to you nor would you bring yourself to 
do it. The other course, however, would be honour- 
able and expedient both for you and for the city — 
that you should yourself, in consultation with the 
best men, enact all the appropriate laws, without 
the possibility of any opposition or remonstrance 
to these laws on the part of any one from the 
masses ^ ; that you and your counsellors should con- 
duct the wars according to your own wishes, all other 
citizens rendering instant obedience to your com- 
mands ; that the choice of the officials should rest 
with you and your advisers ; and that you and they 
should also determine the honours and the punish- 
ments. The advantage of all this would be that what- 
ever pleased you in consultation with your peers would 
immediately become law ; that our wars against our 
enemies would be waged with secrecy and at the 
opportune time ; that those to whom any task was 
entrusted would be appointed because of their merit 
and not as the result of the lot or rivalry for office ; 
that the good would be honoured without arousing 
jealousy and the bad punished without causing re- 
bellion. Thus whatever business was done would be 
most likely to be managed in the right way, instead 
of being referred to the popular assembly, or de- 
liberated upon openly, or entrusted to partisan dele- 
gates, or exposed to the danger of ambitious rivalry ; 
and we should be happy in the enjoyment of the 
blessings which are vouchsafed to us, instead of 
being embroiled in hazardous wars abroad or in 
* Probably a reference to the tribunes. 



6 crrdaei^ avoaiovi " iroLovfzevoi,. ravra yap iraaa 
fi€v hrjiJLOKpaTia e-^ev ol yap Bvvarcorepoi, rcov re 
Trpcoreicov ^ opeyofievoL kol tov? aaOevearepov^ 
fiiaOoviievoL, iravra avco koI kcltco (f)vpovcn' 
irXeio-ra Be Br] Trap' r^fuv yeyove, Kal ovk edrtv 

6 OTTOJ? aX\&)9 iravaeTai. T€Kfii]piov Be, TrayLtTroXu? 
6f ov y^povo':; Kal TToXefiov/jLev kClI o-racnd^ofxev. 
aiTiov Be TO T€ irXrjdo'; rwv dvOpcoTToyv Kal to 
/jLeye6o<i tcjp irpayfiaTcov eKelvoi re yap iravTO- 
Bairol Kal tcl yevrj Kal Ta<; (f)vaeL<; 6vTe<i Kal 
7roLKi\a<; Kal ra? 6pya<; Kal ra? e7riOv/jLLa<; e')(ovai,, 
Kal TavTa e? ToaovTOv irporJKTac axTTe Kal irdvv 
Bva^epM^ av BioiKTjOrjvai. 
16 " Kal OTL TavTa oXtjOt] Xeyco, fiapTvpel to, 
yeyovoTa. reco? jxev yap ovTe ttoWoI rjfiev ovTe 
fjLeydXtp TLvl twv TrXTjaio^copcov Btecpepofiev, Ka\(o<; 
T€ eTToXiTevojiieOa Kal Traaav oXiyov Tr]v ^iTaXiav 

2 KaTeaTpe'^dfjLeO a' a^' ov Be e^co avTr]<i e^r]^Or]fjLev, 
Kal iirl TToXXd Kal tmv "qirelpcdv Kal tmv vrjcjwv 
iirepaLooOTj/jLev, Kal iraaav fjuev ttjv OdXaaaap 
iraaav Be ttjv yijv kol tov ovo/^iaTO^ Kal t^? 
BvvdfJL€(0<i Tjficov eveTrX^aa/JLev, ovBevo<; %/)7;crT0u 
/jL€Te(T)('t]Ka/Mev, dXXa to fxev irpwTov oXkol Kal 
evT6<i TOV Tei^ovf; KaTO, avaTd(Tet,<; eaTaaidaajxev, 
eireiTa Be Kal €? tcl aTpaToireBa to v6arj/j,a tovto 

3 irporjydyofiev. koI Bia TavO^ rj TroXt? rf/jLMV, Mairep 
oXkcl^; fieydXr} Kal irXrjprj^ o^Xov iravToBairov 
X'^pl'^ KV^epVTjTOv, 7roXXd<; ijBr) yeved<; iv kXvBcdvl 
TToXXo) (pepojuuevT] araXevei re Kal aVret Bevpo 
KaKelae, KaOdrrep dvepfJudTiaTOf; ovcra. /jltjt ovv 

4 ')(eLfxat^opAvr)v It' avTrjv irepiiBrj^, 6pd<; yap co? 

^ avoaiovs Bk. , avoalas VL'. * vpwTtlwv Rk,, irpcaruv VL'. 



unholy civil strife. For these are the evils found in 
every democracy, — the more powerful men, namely, 
in reaching out after the primacy and hiring the 
weaker, turn everything upside down, — but they 
have been most frequent in our country, and there 
is no other way to put a stop to them than the way 
I propose. And the evidence is, that we have now 
for a long time been engaged in wars and civil strife. 
The cause is the multitude of our population and 
the magnitude of the business of our government ; 
for the population embraces men of every kind, in 
respect both to race and to endowment, and both 
their tempers and their desires are manifold ; and 
the business of the state has become so vast 
that it can be administered only with the greatest 

" Witness to the truth of my words is borne by our 
past. For while we were but few in number and 
differed in no important respect from our neighbours, 
we got along well with our government and subjugated 
almost all Italy ; but ever since we were led outside 
the peninsula and crossed over to many continents 
and many islands, filling the whole sea and the 
whole earth with our name and power, nothing good 
has been our lot. At first it was only at home and 
within our walls that we broke up into factions and 
quarrelled, but afterwards we even carried this 
plague out into the legions. Therefore our city, like 
a great merchantman manned with a crew of every 
race and lacking a pilot, has now for many genera- 
tions been rolling and plunging as it has drifted this 
way and that in a heavy sea, a ship as it were 
without ballast. Do not, then, allow her to be 
longer exposed to the tempest ; for you see that she 



virepavrXo^ eari, fitjre irepl epfjua Trepippayrjvai 
ida-fj^, aaOpa fydp iari fcal ovSiva en 'X^povov 
dvTLa'xelv hwrjaeTar oTOC iireLhrjirep ol 6eol 
eXetjaavre^ avTrjv koI iTriyvcofiovd ae Kal iiri- 
ardrr^v avrrj^; iirearyaav, /jltj tt/joSoj? r^y irarpiBa, 
Xv wairep vvv Bid ae puKpov dvaireiTvevKev, ovrco 
teal Tov XoLTTOv alwva fier daf^akeia'^ Biaydyrj. 
17 ** ''On p.6v ovv 6pO(x)<i dOL Trapaivo), pLOvap)(eladaL 
TOV hrfp^ov d^iSyv, TrdXac ae r/ryovfjuai TreTreladar 
TOVTOV he St) outo)? e%oi^T09 Kal eroi/jiayg Kal 
irpodvp.oi^ rrjv TTpoaraalav avrov dvdBe^at, p,d\- 
\ov Be pLT) irpofj. ovBe yap ovB^ virep rod Xa^elv 
Tt ^ovXevop-eOa, aXV virep rov fir) dixoXkaai Kal 

2 irpoaerL Kal KivBvvevcrai. rt<; ydp aov (peiaeTaL, 
dv re €9 TOV Brjfiov Ta Trpdy/xaT dvcoajf^i, dv t6 ^ 
Kal erepfp tlvI iTrLTpeyjrrjf;, iraiMiroXkwv p.ev ovrayv 
T(bv VTTO aov XeXvirrj/xevcov, irdvTwv B^ w? elirelv 
T7]<i fjiovapx^cL<i dvTC7roLr)ao/j.€V(i)v, o)v ovBel<i oure 
fjLT] dfivvaaOal ae €(j) oh 7reiT0L'r)Ka<^ ovt dvTc- 

3 TTaXov vTToXiTreadai, ideXrjaeL. TeKfirjpwv Be on 
Kal 6 Ylo/jL7rrJLO<i iKaTd<i t^9 BwaaTeua^i Kal Kare- 
(PpovijOrj Kal iiTe^ovXevOrj, KaK tovtov firjKeT 
auTTjv dvaXa^elv BvvrjOeh e(j>6dpr], Kal 6 Kataap 
6 Trarrjp 6 a6<i to avTO rovro rroLrjaa^'^ irpoa- 
aircoXeTO. Trdvrco^ B* dv Kal o Ma/Oio? Kal 6 
%vXXa<i ofjLOta auTOL<i iireTrovdeaav, el jjut] irpoere- 

^ trpdynar avwcrT)s &v re Bk. , irpdyfiara ws ■^aay re VL'. 
* Troii]aas V, iroirja-ai idehiiffas L'. 



is waterlogged. And do not let her be pounded to b.c. 29 
pieces upon a reef ^ ; for her timbers are rotten and 
she will not be able to hold out much longer. But 
since the gods have taken pity on her and have set 
you over her as her arbiter and overseer, prove not 
false to her, to the end that, even as now she has 
revived a little by your aid, so she may survive in 
safety for the ages to come. 

" Now I think you have long since been convinced 
that I am right in urging you to give the people a 
monarchical government ; if this is the case, accept 
the leadership over them readily and with en- 
thusiasm — or rather do not throw it away. For the 
question we are deliberating upon is not whether 
we shall take something, but whether we shall de- 
cide not to lose it and by so doing incur danger into 
the bargain. Who, indeed, will spare you if you 
thrust the control of the state into the hands of the 
people, or even if you entrust it to some other 
man, seeing that there are great numbers whom you 
have injured, and that practically all these will 
lay claim to the sovereignty, and yet no one of them 
will wish either that you should go unpunished for 
what you have done or that you should be allowed 
to survive as his rival ? Pompey, for example, once 
he had given up the supreme power, became the 
object of scorn and of secret plotting and conse- 
quently lost his life when he was unable to regain 
his power. Caesar also, your father, lost not only 
his position but also his life for doing precisely what 
you are proposing to do. And Marius and Sulla would 
certainly have suffered a like fate had they not died 

1 Cf. Thucydides vii. 25, a passage which Dio seems to be 



4 dvYiKeaav. kultoi, top ^vXXav ^aai tiv€<; avro 
Tovro fjyo^TjOevTa (j>6r]vat Koi eavrov dva^pv- 
aaaOar (Tv^va ^ovv tmv vofioOerrjOivTcov vir 
avTOV fwj^TO? er avrov XveaOat rjp^aro, coare 
Kol (TV iroWov<; jmIv AcTrtSof? 7roXXou9 ^e Se/o- 
TcopLov<; BpovTov<i Ka(T(7L0v<; jevijaeaOaL aot irpoa- 
18 ** Tavrd re ovv IBcov koX rdWa irdvTa Xoyidd- 
/jLevo<i, fit} TTpofj Kol aeavTov kol rrjp TraTpiSa, 
Xva^ fiT) B6^7]<; Tialv iOe\ovai,o<i rr}? o,p^rj<; 
e<^€la6aL. irpayrov fxev yap, av Koi tovto ti<; 
v7ro7rrev(T7j, ovr cltto tou dvOpcoireiov rpoirov to 
iinOvixrjixd iarit koX Ka\o<; 6 KLvhvvo<i avrov' 
€TT€LTa Be Tt9 ouK olBc Tr)V dvdyKTjv v(f)^ 979 69 TO. 

2 Trpdy/iara ravra nrporj^OT]^; coare eiTrep^ ri 
aLTia/jia avTrj<i ian, tol<; rov 7rarp6<; aov cr(f)a- 
yevcTi SiKaiorara dv ti<; avro eyKoXeaetev el yap 
eKelvov iJLTjT dBiK(o<; firjr oiKrpM^; ovTQ)<i avrov 
direKToveaav, ovr dv rd orrXa dvTTjpo), ovr dv rd 
aTparev/iara avveXe^cOy ovr* dv^ ^Avtcovlm Kal 
AeTTiSo) crvveOov, ovr dv avrov^ exelvovf; rjfjLvvu). 

3 Kal on, fiev 6pO(o<; Kal BiKaid)^ irdvra ravT 
eTroLrjaaq, ovBel<; dyvoel' el S* ovv tl Kal ireirXTj/jL- 
/jbiXrjTai, dXX^ ovn * Kal jneraOecrdaL er dacfjaXax: 
BvvdfieOa. cocrre Kal rj/juayv avrodv eveKa kol t% 
7roX-ea)9 TretaOMfiev r^ '^^XV "^V '^V^ fiovap')(lav aoc 

4 BiBovarj. Kal X^P^^ 7^ /JLeydXr]v avry exf^P'^v, 
OTi pj] p^ovov Twv KaK(>)v Tcov ep,(pvXl(ov direXvaev ^ 

1 Iva L\ 1m H V. 

2 Siare eXirep R. Steph., &<nrfp VL'. 

3 &i/ supplied by St. * oUn Dind., oH rot VL', 
^ airf\vaey Bk., aveirX-nffev VL'. 



first. And yet some say that Sulla, fearing this very b.o. 29 
fate, forestalled it by making away with himself ;i at 
any rate, much of his legislation began to be undone 
while he was yet alive. Therefore you also must 
expect that there will be many a man who will prove 
a Lepidus to you and many a man who will prove 
a Sertorius, a Brutus, or a Cassius. 

" Looking, then, at these facts and reflecting upon 
all the other considerations involved, do not abandon 
yourself and your country merely in order to avoid 
giving the impression to some that you deliberately 
sought the office. For, in the first place, even if men 
do suspect this, the ambition is not inconsistent with 
human nature and the risk involved is a noble one. 
Again, what man is there who does not know the 
circumstances which constrained you to assume your 
present position? Hence, if there be any fault to 
find with these compelling circumstances, one might 
with entire justice lay it upon your father's murderers. 
For if they had not slain him in so unjust and pitiable 
a fashion, you would not have taken up arms, would 
not have gathered your legions, would not have 
made your compact with Antony and Lepidus, and 
would not have had to defend yourself against these 
men themselves. That you were right, however, 
and were justified in doing all this, no one is unaware. 
Therefore, even if some slight error has been com- 
mitted, yet we cannot at this time with safety undo 
anything that has been done. Therefore, for our 
own sake and for that of the state let us obey 
Fortune, who offers you the sole rulership. And let 
us be very grateful to her that she has not only freed 
us from our domestic troubles, but has also placed in 
■^ This tradition is found here only. 



r}^a<;, aXka koX ttjv KardcTTaaLv rrj^i rroXneiafi 
eVt aol TreirolrjTac, 'iv eTrL/uieXrjOeU avrrj<; wairep 
TTpoa^Kei, Bei^T)^ airaaiv dv0p(O7roi,<; on eKelva 
/jL€v ciWot Kal irdpa^av kov eKaKovp^rjaav, av Be 
Brj %/5r7<7T09 eZ. 

5 ** Kal /jL^ fioL TO /xeyeOof; tt)? dp')(rj<^ (l)o^ri6fj<;. 
o(7(p T€ yap TrXelcov ^ virdp^^ec, roaw irXeiw Kal rd 
(Tco^ovra e%e*, Kal fiaKpo) to ipvXd^at tl tov 
KTi](7aadac paov eVrt* irpo^ jxev yap to TaXkoTpia 
7rpoa7roirjaa<rOaL Kal ttovcov Kal klvBvvwv Bet, 
7rpo<; Be to ra virdp^ovTa awaai fipa'^eia ^povTl<^ 

6 dpKel. fxr) fievTOi p/qBe Beiar]^ otl ov')(l Kal 
d(T(f)aXe(TTaTa iv avTrj ^icoay Kal iravTcov tmv iv 
dv6 pc£>'iroi<; dyaOoiV diroXavaei'^, dv ye iOeXrjo-r}^ 
avT-qv o)<; irapatveaco aoi BtoiKrjcraL. Kal fie /iirj 
vopiar)^ dirapTCLV ^ diro rr}? 7rapovar}<; vTroOeaew^ 
TOV Xoyov, dv iirl irXelov (tol irepl avTrj<; Bia- 

7 Xe^Oo)' ov ydp ttov Kal vir dBoX€(T')(^ia<; tlvo^ 
aXXct)? TovTO TTonjaco, dXX^ iva dKpi^w^^ KaTa- 
fjiddr)^ OTi Kal BvvaTov Kal paBtov to3 ye eficfypovi, 
TO Kal KaXco<; Kal dKLvBvvw<; dp^ai, iaTi. 

19 ** 0^/xl TOLvvv ')(prjvai ae KaTa Tr/jcora? evOv<; to 
povXevTLKOv TTCLV Kal (pvXoKpLvijaai^ Kal BiaXe^ai, 
iireiBr) TLve<^ ovk iirLTijBetoi Bid ra? crTda€i<; ySe- 
PovXevKacri, Kal tou? p.ev dpeTijv Tcva avTMV 
€XOVTa<; KaTaa-'y^elv, tov^ Be XoiTrou? dTraXelyjrat. 
2 fir) fievTOt, Kal Bid Trevlav Tivd dyaOov ye dvBpa 
ovTa diraXXd^rff;, dXXd Kal %/9^/zaTa avTM Ta 
dvayKala B6<^. uvtI Be Br] twv dXXcov tov<; re 
yevvaiOTdTovf; Kal tov<! dpiaTov<; tov<; re ttXov- 

^ TrXiicov V, -rrKflou L'. ^ airapTav L', airavTav V. 

* (pvXoKpivriffai V, (piAoKpivrjaai L'. 



your hands the organisation of the state, to the end b.c. 29 
that you, by bestowing due care upon it, may prove 
to all mankind that those troubles were stirred up 
and that mischief wrought by other men, whereas 
you are an upright man. 

" And do not, I beg you, be afraid of the magnitude 
of the empire. For the greater its extent, the more 
numerous are the salutary elements it possesses ; 
also, to guard anything is far easier than to acquire 
it. Toils and dangers are needed to win over what 
belongs to others, but a little care suffices to retain 
what is already yours. Moreover, you need not be 
afraid, either, that you will not live quite safely in 
that office and enjoy all the blessings which men 
know, provided that you will consent to administer 
it as I shall advise you. And do not think that I am 
shifting the discussion from the subject in hand if I 
speak to you at considerable length about the office. 
For of course my purpose in doing this will be, not 
to hear myself talk, but that you may learn by a 
strict demonstration that it is both possible and easy, 
for a man of sense at least, to rule well and without 

" I maintain, therefore, that you ought first and 
foremost to choose and select with discrimination the 
entire senatorial body, inasmuch as some who have 
not been fit have, on account of our dissensions, 
become senators. Such of them as possess any 
excellence you ought to retain, but the rest you 
should erase from the roll. Do not, however, get 
rid of any good man because of his poverty, but even 
give him the money he requires. In the place of 
those who have been dropped introduce the noblest. 



(rioyrdrov^ avreadyaye, firj /xovov ck t^? 'IraXta? 
aWa Kol irapa rwv o-v/jbfid')((ov tmv re vitt^kowv 

3 eTTLXe^d/jLevo^' ovto) yap (Tv re TroXXot? avvepyol^ 
XPV^V> '^^^ T0U9 /copv(f)aLOV<; ef dirdvrcdv tcov 
idvwv ev d(T<f)aX€C iroiTJa-r}, kol ovre eKelva veo- 
')(^fia)(T€i Ti jiTjheva iWoytfiov Trpoo-rdrrjv e^ovra, 
Kal ol 7rpcoT€vovr€<; Trap' avrol^ (jitXyaova-l ere are 
Koi KOLvwvov croi T^9 dpxv^ y€yov6re<;. 

4 "Ta ^e avrd ravra Kal iirl tmv lirirecdv iroirf- 
<TOv. T0U9 yap ra Sevrepela eKaara^odL Kal yevei 
Kal dperfj Kal ttXovtw (f)€po/jLevov<; e? rrjv lirirdha 
KardXe^ov, roaovrovf; eKarepov^ dvreyypdyjra'; 
oaoL ttot' av dpeawai (xe, firjSev irepl rov iTXrjOov^ 
avTCdV aKpipoXoyovfjievo^i' oaw yap av 7rXeiov<; 
evBoKipot dvSp€<; crvvcocrL croi, roaovro) paov avro*^ 

5 re €V heovTL irdrra htoiKTjcrei^, Kal tov<; ^PX^~ 
fi€ifov<i Treiaeif; on ovre d)<; Bov\oi<; <T<f>icnv ovO^ 
ft)9 x^lpocTL rrrj r]p,S)v ovai XPV> dXXa rd re dXXa 
dyaOa nrdvra ra virdpxovra r]pA,v Kal rrjv rjye- 
/lovtav avroi<; ^ kolvoI, 07rft)9 <»9 olKeiav avrrjv 

6 a7rov8d^(oai. Kal roaovrov ye Sico rovS* ft)9 ovk 
6pOa)<; elprjp^evov dvaOeaOai, ware Kal Tr}9 rro- 
Xireia^ rraai acfyiac fierahoOrjvai (fyrjpi Seiv, "va 
Kal TauT^9 i(TopoLpovvre^ Tricrrol (Tvpfiaxot r)pXv 
watv, axTirep riva jjiiav rrjv r)p.erepav rroXiv 
olKOVvre<;, Kal r avrrjv fxev ovrci)<i ttoXlv ra Be Brj 
a^erepa d')pov^ Kal K(o/jia<; vo/jLi^ovre<; elvai, 

^ avTo7s L', avTjjs V, 


the best, and the richest men obtainable, selecting b,c. 29 
them not only from Italy but also from the allies and 
the subject nations. In this way you will have 
many assistants for yourself and will have in safe 
keeping the leading men from all the provinces ; 
thus the provinces, having no leaders of established 
repute, will not begin rebellions, and their prominent 
men will regard you with affection because they have 
been made sharers in your empire. 

"Take these same measures in the case of the 
knights also, by enrolling in the equestrian order 
such men as hold second place in their several 
districts as regards birth, excellence and wealth. 
Register as many new members in both classes as 
you please, without being over particular on the 
score of their number. For the more men of repute 
you have as your associates, the easier you will find 
it, for your own part, to administer everything in 
time of need and, so far as your subjects are con- 
cerned, the more easily will you persuade them that 
you are not treating them as slaves or as in any way 
inferior to us, but that you are sharing with them, 
not only all the other advantages which we ourselves 
enjoy, but also the chief magistracy as well, and thus 
make them as devoted to that office as if it were 
their own. And so far am I from retracting this 
last statement as rashly made, that I declare that 
the citizens ought every one actually to be given a 
share in the government, in order that, being on an 
equality with us in this respect also, they may be 
our faithful allies, living as it were in a single city, 
namely our own, and considering that this is in very 
truth a city, whereas their own homes are but the 
countryside and villages. 



" *AXX,a Trepl fi€v ^ tovtov avOi^ aKpi/Sia-repov 
afceyjro/jLeOa a ')(pr) Trpa^ai, Lva fir) koI irdvra 
^0 adpoa avTol'^ ')(apiaa)/jL€6a' KaraXiyecrdat, Be 'X^pr] 
69 jmIv Tr)v lirirdBa o/CTco/catSe/ceret?, iv yap ravrrj 
ry rjXiKia fiaXiaTa rj re roiv (TuyfidTwv avrayv 
eve^ia fcal rj roiV yjrv^cop eTrtrr^Setorr;? ScacpaLverai, 
€9 he TO (TvveBpLov TrepreKaLetKoo-ierei^' ttw? yap 
ovK al<T')(^pov Kal acpaXepov iari ra fiev olKela 
firjSevl irpo ravrrj^i rr)? rjXiKLa<i eTnTpeireaOaL, ra 
Be Brj/jLoaia Kal vecoTepofi rcalv eyx^t-p^^^aOai; 

2 TafAiev(7avTe<i re Kal dyopavo/j,7]aavTe<; rj Brj/juip^V- 
aavTe<i aTpaTrjyeLTCoaap,^ rpiaKOVTovrav yevo- 
(levoi. TavTa<i re yap ra? dp)(^a<i Kal Td<s ruyp 
vTrdrcov iii6va<; oHkoi, rrj^ re roiv Trarpicov fjLV'^/JL7}<; 
eveKa Kal rod pur) iravreXSi'; Tr]v iroXireiav pieraX- 
Xdrreiv BokcIp, diroBeLKVvvaL ere (pr^pa '^prjpai,. 

3 auT09 pLepToo av 7rdvTa<; avTOV^: alpov, Kal pbrjTe 
iirl Tft) TrXrJ^et rj Kal tw Bijpw ere tlpcl avrcop 
iroirjcrr),^ ajaaidaovai ydp, pLifjre iirl T(p avpeBpiw, 
BiaaTrovBddoprac ydp. pur) puipToi Kal ra<i Bvpd- 
pL€L(; acpcop Ta9 dp^aia^ Trjp'tjarj';, tpa pur) rd avrd 
avdt,^ yevrjrai, dXXd rrjp ptep Tipirjp (l)vXa^op, t>)9 
8* la^vo^i irapdXvaop to<tovtop octop pLrjre rod 
afia)/i,aT09 tl avToyp d^aiprjaeL Kal tol<; pewrepiaai 

4 TL iOeXrjaovai pur} eTnTpe-yjrec^ earat Be tovto, dp 

^ Trepl fxfv L', /ifv irepl V. 

^ arpaT-qyi'iTwaav L', arpaTTfyfirocaav V. 

3 TToi-narj St., iroiiia-ns VL'. * iirnpi^ii V, iviTpf^i] 1/. 



" But regarding this matter we shall at a later time b.c. 29 
examine more carefully the question of what measures 
should be taken to prevent our granting the people 
every privilege at once. As for the matter of 
eligibility for office, now, we should put men on the 
roll of knights when they are eighteen years old, for 
at that age their physical soundness and their mental 
fitness can best be discerned; but we should not 
enrol them in the senate until they are twenty-five 
years old. For is it not disgraceful, and indeed 
hazardous, to entrust the public business to men 
younger than this, when we never commit our 
private affairs to any one before he has reached this 
age ? After they have served as quaestors and 
aediles or tribunes, let them be praetors when they 
reach the age of thirty. For it is my opinion that 
these offices, and that of consul, are the only ones 
at home which you ought to fill by election, and 
these merely out of regard for the institutions of our 
fathers and to avoid the appearance of making a 
complete change in the constitution. But make all 
the appointments yourself and do not any longer 
commit the filling of one or another of these offices 
either to the plebs or to the people,^ for they will 
quarrel over them, or to the senate, for the senators 
will use them to further their private ambitions. 
And do not maintain the traditional powers of these 
offices, either, for fear history may repeat itself, but 
preserve the honour attaching to them, at the same 
time abating their influence to such an extent that, 
although you will be depriving the office of none of 
its prestige, you will still be giving no opportunity 
to those who may desire to stir up a rebellion. Now 

^ i.e. to the concilium plebis or to the comitia. 



rd T€ aWa Kal ivSj]/jLOV(; avTOv<i aTTO^ 771/779, fcal 
jxrjTe iv rat ttj? cLp^7]<; Kaipw oifKa rivl avrcjv 
ey)(eLpiar)<i fxrjre ev9v<;, dWa ')(^p6vov ^leXOovro^, 
ocTov av avrdpKr) e/cdaro) (t^mp vo/jll(tt}<; elvai. 
ovTO) <ydp ovT€ TiV€<; veo'^ficoaovai,, arpaTOTreBcov 
KvpLOL iv Tw TMV ovo/jidTcov (j)povrj/jLaTi yevofievoi,, 
Kal 'x^povov Tvva IBccoreva-avTe^ TreiravOrjaovTaL. 
5 Kal ovroi fiev rd^i re iravi^jvpeif;, oi «ye kol 
irpoarjKOVTe'i a<j)iatv, eTTLTekeiTcocTav, Kal Ta<; 
SiKaf; 7rdvre<i co? CKaaroi, irXrjv TOiv (povLKCov, iv 
Tft) T779 ivhrjiJLOv dp-)(t)^ XP^^V BcKa^ircoa-av avva- 
yiaOci) fxev 'yap ^iKaaTrjpia Kal e/c twj/ dWcov 

^OVkeVTOiV TCOV T€ llTlTeCdV, TO 5* oXoV €9 iKCLVOV^i 

21 ** YloXtapxo^ Se Btj Tt9 €k re rSyv irporjKovrwv 
Kal iK Twv irdvra rd KaOrjKovra irpoTreTToXtrevfie- 
vcov diroBeiKVvaOo), ovx ^W dTroBrj/jirjadvrayv irov 

2 ro)v vTrdrcov dp'X^rj, dXX* Xva rd re dXXa del rr]<; 
7roXea)9 Trpoararij, Kal Ta9 SUa^i rd<i re irapd 
irdvrcov a)v elirov dp)(^6vr(ov i(f)eai/jLov<; re Kal 
dvairo/JLTrl/jLov; Kal rd<} rov Oavdrov rol<=: re iv rfj 
iroXev, irXrjv o)v av etTrco, Kal Tot9 efft> avrrj<; 
fiexpf' irevrrjKOvra Kal eTrraKoo-icov^ araSleov 

3 '*''ET6po9 re rL<i iK rojv o/jlolcov Kal avro<; at- 
peiarOo) ware rd re yevr) Kal rd<; ovaLa<; rov'; re 

^ €VTaKoal(av Casaub., e^aKoaictiv VM. 


this will be accomplished if you assign them on b.c. 29 
appointment chiefly to home affairs and do not 
permit any of them to have armed forces during their 
term of office or immediately afterward, but only after 
the lapse of some time, as much as you think sufficient 
in each instance. In this way they will never be put 
in command of legions while still enjoying the pres- 
tige of their official titles and thus be led to stir up 
rebellions, and after they have been private citizens 
for a time they will be of milder disposition. Let 
these magistrates conduct such of the festivals as 
naturally belong to their office, and let them all 
severally sit as judges in all kinds of cases except 
homicide during their tenure of office in Rome. 
Courts should be established, to be sure, with the 
other senators and knights as members, but final 
authority should rest with these magistrates. 

"As for the prefect of the city, men should be 
appointed to that office who are leading citizens and 
have previously passed through the appropriate 
offices ; it should be the prefect's duty, not to govern 
merely when the consuls are out of town, but in 
general to be at all times in charge of the affairs of 
the city, and to decide the cases which come to him 
from all the other magistrates I have mentioned, 
whether on appeal or for review, together with those 
which involve the death penalty ; and his jurisdiction 
should extend, not only to those who live in the city, 
except such as I shall name, but also to those who 
dwell outside the city for a distance of one hundred 

'' Let still another magistrate be chosen, this man 
also from the class described, whose duties shall be 
to pass upon and supervise all matters pertaining to 



rpoirov^ Koi rcov fiovXevTMV koX tcov iirirewv, av- 
Bpcbv T€ ofjioio}^ KOi Tralhwv 'yvvaiKwv re tcov irpoa- 

4 rjKovacjv avrol^, i^erd^eiv re /cal iTno-Koirelv, /cal 
TO, filv avTOV iiravopOovv oaa fi^re tlvo<; Ttfjba)pLa<; 
a^id icTTi Kol rrapopcofieva iroWcov fcal fieyaXcov 
fcuKcov atria ylyverat, ra Be St] jxei^ca aol iinKOi- 
vovaOai. povkevrfi yap nvi, Kal ra> ye dpiarw 
/lera rov 7To\iap-)(^ov, fiaXXov rj tlvl tcov linrewv 

6 7rpo(TT€Td')(^0ai rovro Bet. Kal to ye ovofia diro 
T>}9 o-r)9 TLfiapx^cL^ (jrdvTto^ yap ere irpoecndvai 
Tftiz^ TLjirjaewv irpocrrjKeC) et/coro)? av XdffoL, axne 
V7roTifJLr)rr)<; /caXelaOai. dp')(era3(Tav he Brj ol Bvo 
ovToi^ Bia piov, av ye firj KaKVvOfj tl<; avrSiv 
TpOTTOV Tiva rj Kal voa(i)8r]<; rj Kal V7repyr]p(D<; 

6 yevrjrai. €k fxev yap rr}? 'X^poviov dp')(rj<i ovBev 
av Beivov, are 6 fiev Trai^TeXco? aoirXo^ wv, 6 8' 
oXlyov^ T€ arpaTL(OTa<; e%ct)i; Kal ev toU aoh 

7 6<f)da\/JL0L<; TO TrXelarov dp')((tiv, epydaaivro' ck Be 
Br) Tov eTeiov ^ Kal OKvrjaeiav ^ av irpocrKpovaal 
TLVi Kal (poprjdetev eppco/jievcof; ri irpa^aL, Trjv re 
eavTMV IBicdreiav Kal ttjv dW(ov^ tlvmv Bvva- 
(TTeiav TTpoopoo/JLevoL. Kal fiiaOov ye riva (fyepe- 
TCioaav Kal t^9 dcr^oXia^ evcKa Kal r^? d^Lca<rea)<;. 

8 " Hepl fiev Br) TOVT(ov TavTr)v aoi t^)V yvoi)fir)v 

^ ovTOL M, om. V. 

2 irfiov Sauppe, €Tf pov VM. 

^ oKV-qadav Dind., 0Kvi]aaL^v VM, 

4 &KKWV Leuncl., HkKtivNU.. 




the families, property, and morals both of the senators b.c. 29 
and of the knights, alike of the men and of their 
wives and children. He should personally correct 
such behaviour as deserves no punishment, yet if 
neglected becomes the cause of many evils; but 
about the more important matters of misconduct he 
should confer with you. For the officer to whom 
these duties are assigned should be a senator, and 
in fact the best one after the prefect of the city, 
rather than one of the knights. As for the title of 
his office, he would naturally receive one derived 
from your censorial functions (for it is certainly 
appropriate that you should be in charge of the 
censuses), and be called sub-censor.^ Let these two, 
the city prefect and the sub-censor, hold office for 
life, unless one of them becomes demoralized in 
some way or is incapacitated by sickness or old age. 
For no harm could result from their holding office 
for life, since the one would be entirely without 
armed forces and the other would have but few 
soldiers and would be acting for the most part under 
your eyes ; whereas the effect of the yearly tenure 
would be that they would shrink from offending 
any one and would be afraid to act with energy, since 
they would be looking ahead to their own retirement 
to private life and to the exercise of the power of 
the office by others. They should also draw a salary, 
not only to compensate them for the loss of their 
leisure but also to enhance the prestige of their 

" This is the opinion I have to give you in regard 

* Cf. Suetonius, Aug. 37. In practice there were six of 
them — three to nominate senators and three to hold a 
review of the knights, 



BiSwfU, 01 Be Brj a-TparrjyijaavTef; dp')(^6Tcoadv Tiva 
dp'xrjv €V TOfc? vTTijKooif; (irplv yap arparrjyrjcrai 
a(f)a<; 01)% rjyovfjLat Belv rovro yiyveaOai' eKelvoc 
S* vTrodrpaTrjyeiTcoaav 0I9 av eiTrco, koX dira^ Koi 
hevrepov), eW ovtod^ VTrarevirayaaVy dv ye KaX 
6pOco<; hidp^(0(Ji, KoX fierd ravra ra? yu-etfof? 
22 rjyefjiovlaf} Xa/jL/Savercoaav. oyBe yap av jx^ovXevo} 
(TOi Biard^aL. Trjv re ^IraXiav irda-av rrjv virep 
irevTTjKovTa KaX eirTaKoalov^ diro t% TroXeo)? 
araBiov; ovaav, koI rdXXa Trdvra rd re iv rat<; 
vr)aoi^ KaX rd ev ral<^ ^ rjireipoi'^ ofioXoyovvTa 
r)/jLLV, Kardveifjbov eKaaTayodi Kard re yevrj KaX 
eOvrj, Td<; re^ 7roXe«9 dirdcra^^, ocra<; ye KaX 
avrapKe<s eariv v^^ evo<; dvSpo<; avroreXov^; dp')(e- 

2 crdaL' KavTavda aTparidyra^; iyKardarrjaov, KaX 
dp')(ovTa^ KaO^ eKdarovf; eva fxev Ik tcop vira- 
TevKOTCov eirX iraai ire/jbTre, Svo Be ck tcjv 
earparrjyrjKOTCov,^ top /juev dpTi €K rrjq TroXew? 
i^iovra, KaX avrw rd re IBicoTiKa irpdyfjuara KaX 
r) Tcov eiTLTrjBeiwv irapaa-Kevrj irpoaKeiaOw, top Be 


TToXecov BiOLKrjaei KaX tmv (tt par lout wv dp^ei, 

3 ttXtjv oaa drifJLia^ r} Oavdrov exerai. ravra yap 
69 fiovov rov vTrarevKora dp')(Ovra dvr]/cer(o, ttXtjv 
irepi re rMV eKarovrdp^cov rcbv ev rol<; KaraX6yot<; 
ovrcov KaX irepX rcov lBi(ora)v rcov irap eKdaroL<i 
TTpcorcov rovrov^ yap Br) eKarepov<i jxrjBevX dXXm 

^ rats R. Steph. , to7s VM. " ^^ supplied by Oddey. 

^ cttI iraci — i(TTpaTr]yr]K6Twu M, om. V« 



to these officials. As for those who have served as 
praetors, let them hold some office among the subject 
nations (before they have been praetors I do not 
think they should have this privilege, but they 
ought first to serve for one or two terms as lieu- 
tenants to the ex-praetors just mentioned) ; then 
they should next hold office as consuls, provided 
that they have proved satisfactory officials to the end 
of their terms, and after that they should receive 
the more important governorships. I advise you, 
namely, to arrange these positions as follows. Take 
Italy as a whole (I mean the part of it which is 
more than one hundred miles from the city), and 
all the rest of the territory which owns our sway, 
the islands and the continents, and divide it into 
districts, in each case according to races and nations, 
and take also all the cities that are strong and in- 
dependent enough to be ruled by one governor with 
full powers. Then station soldiers in them and send 
out as governor to each district or independent city 
one of the ex-consuls, who shall have general charge, 
and two of the ex-praetors. One of the latter, fresh 
from the city, should be put in charge of all matters 
pertaining to persons in private life and of the com- 
missary ; the other, a man who has had special 
training for this work, will administer the public 
business of the cities and will have command of the 
soldiers, except in cases that involve disfranchisement 
or death. Such cases, of course, should be referred to 
the ex-consul who is governor, and to him alone, except 
where the persons involved are centurions recruited 
from the levies or private persons of prominence in 
their respective communities; as for both these classes, 
do not allow anybody but yourself to punish them, 



Ko\d^€LV €7nTp6'ylrrj<;, iva /jlt) ovtq) riva avrwv 

4 ^o^oivrai coare irore fcal kcltcl crov ri irpd^at. o 
8' eliTov, OTL Tov erepov tcov €(7t parrjyijKorcov iwl 
TOi<; arpaTLwrai^ iirireTd^daL hel, tolovtov iariv. 
av jiev oXiyoL rive<; iv ^€vifCot<; retx^o'tv rf /cal ev 
€vl TToXircKO) arparevayvTat, /caXco? e%6t tovto 
yiyveadar av Se Bvo TroXiri/cd arparev/jLara iv 
ravTw edvei 'xeLixd^rj (jTXeiw yap rovrcov ov/c av 
(Tvp^ouXeuo-ai/jii aoi rw avro) dp^ovri i7nrp€'\}rat), 

5 Berjaec irov toi'9 ^vo rov<; iaTparrjyrjKora^ Kal 
iK€LV(ov, ISia eKarepov, Kal tcov dWcov rcov re 
irdXiTLKMV Kal tmv lBlcjtckmv 6/JLOi(o<; it polar aaO at. 
6 h^ ovv vTrarevKOD'^ ravrd re ... ^ Kal Trpoairi Kal 
Ta? BiKa<; rd^; re eKKXrjTOV^ Kal rd<; dvaTro/jLTru/iiov^ 
TO.? diro ^ rcov arparrjycov avro) ^ (j)Oird)aa<; Kpive- 

6 Tft). Kal firj Oavjxddr]^ el Kal rrjv ^IraXiav roiavra 
fieprj vetfiai (Tol Trapatvcj' rroXXr) re yap Kal 
TToXvdvO pwrro^ ovcra dBvvar6<; io-nv vtto rwv iv 
rS> darrei dpyovrtav KaXcj<; SLotKetaOai. Bet yap 
roU re Bi]/jLOL<; rov dp^ovra del irapelvai Kal rol<; 
dp')(^ov<Ti rd Sward Trpoardaaeadai. 

23 " AapL^avircoaav Be fiiaOov irdvre^ ovroi oi Ta9 
efft) tt)? TToXect)? dp)(^d<; iircrpeTro/jievoL, TrXeCco /lev 
ol jxel^ovf;, iXdrro) Be ol KaraBeearepoi, p,eaov Be 
ol /ie(Tor ovre yap diro rcov oiKelcov olov re iariv 
avrov^ iv rfj dXXorpla dirotrfv, our dopiarw Kal 
2 daraO/jiTjrM dvaXcofiart wairep vvv ')(^pri(j6aL, Kal 
dpykrwaav jir^re eXarrov ircov rpicov, el fiij rt<; 
dBiKYjareie Ti, firjre nrXelov irevre, ro fiev on at 

^ Lacuna recognised by Bk. 

2 iiirh Rk., h-nhYM. 

3 avT^ Rk., avTov VM. 



lest they come to fear some of these officials to such an b.c. 29 
extent as to take .measures, on occasion, against you as 
well as against them. As for my suggestion that the 
second of the ex-praetors should be put in charge of 
the soldiers, it is to be understood as follows : if only a 
small body of troops is serving abroad in the military 
posts or at home in a single post, my proposal is 
satisfactory ; but if two citizen legions are wintering 
in the same province (and more than this number I 
should not advise you to trust to one commander), it 
will no doubt be necessary for both the ex-praetors 
to hold the command over them, each having charge 
of one, and for each to have his share of authority 
similarly in matters affecting either the state or 
private citizens. Let the ex-consul, accordingly, 
[have] these [duties], and let him also decide the 
cases which come to him on appeal and those which 
are referred to him by the praetors for review. And 
do not be surprised that I recommend to you the 
dividing of Italy also into these administrative dis- 
tricts. It is large and populous, and so cannot possibly 
be well administered by the magistrates in the city ; 
for a governor ought always to be present in the 
district he governs, and no duties should be laid upon 
our city magistrates which they cannot perform. 

" Let all these men to whom the commands outside 
the city are assigned receive salaries, the more 
important officers more, the less important less, and 
those between an intermediate amount. For they 
cannot live in a foreign land upon their own resources, 
nor should they indulge, as they do now, in unlimited 
and indefinite expenditure. They should hold office 
not less than three years, unless they are guilty of 
misconduct, nor more than five. The reason is that 



iviav(TLOi Koi oXcypxpovioi, ap^al hihd^aaal Ttva<; 
ra avayKata air oirefiTr overt irpiv rt avrwv oLTrohei- 
'XOrjvai, TO he on at fxaKporepai koi TroXv^povtco- 
repai iTTaipovrri ttco<; ttoXXou? kuI e? vewTeporroiiav 
3 e^dyovarL. hioirep ovhe eVaXXT/Xa? ra? /xetfou? 
r)y6fjiovLa<; olfial riai irpocrrjKeLv^ BiBoaOai, ovre 
yap Siacpipei ri dp re iv rat avrw eOveu dv re koi 
ev irXeioaiv e'^ef?}? iirl ixaKporepov rov Seoi^ro? 
dp')(Si(TL' Kol dfjL€ivove<; yiyvovrai, iweiSdv SiaXC- 
iT(0(ji ^ re TLva '^povov /cal oLKaSe iiraveXOwai kol 

**Tou9 fiev Br] ovv l3ovX€VTd<;^ ravrd re Koi ovrco 

24 BieireLV <l>r)/M y^prjvai, tmv Be Br) iTTTrewv Bvo tou9 

dpi(TTOV<; T?}? irepl ae (j)povpa<; dp^etv to re yap 

evl dvBpl avrrjv eTrirpeTreaOai acpaXepov fcal to 

2 irXeioai Tapa')(oyBe^ eari. Bvo re ovv ecrrooaav ol 
eirapx^i' ovroi, tV dv Kal 6 erepo^ avTcov iiral- 
aOrjraL tl tw crco/jLaTi, /jlijti^ ye Kal evBer)<; rov 
^uXafoz/To? ae et'?;?* xal tcadiardadcoaav ifc tmv 
iToXXdKL<; re earparevjievcov Kal iroXXd Kal dXXa 

3 BiwKrjKOTWV. dp^ercoaav Be Brj ^ tS)V re Bopvcpopcov 
Kal T(av XocTTCov arparKorcov rcov ev rjj ^IraXio, 
TrdvTcov, M(TT€ Kal Oavarovv Tov<i dBtKovvTa<i 
avTOJV 7rXr)v twv re CKarovrdp-^cov Kal rwv dXX(ov 
rcov T0t9 CK rov fiovXevriKov dp^ovac rrpoarera- 

4 yixevwv. rovrov^ /lev yap avrol eKelvoi, BtKatov- 

^ irpoaijKeiv Bk., TrpoffTJKOV VM. 

^ ovv /SouAevTos Bs. , (Ty/x^ofXevTay VM. 

* lxi}Ti Dind., liiTiToi VM. * S)j M, om. V. 



offices held for only one year or for short periods b.c. 29 
merely teach the officials their bare duties and then 
dismiss them before they can put any of their acquired 
knowledge into use, while, on the other hand, the 
longer terms of many years' duration somehow have 
the effect, in many cases, of filling the officials with 
conceit and encouraging them to rebellion. Hence, 
again, I think that the more important posts ought in 
no case to be given consecutively to the same man. 
For it makes no difference whether a man is governor 
in the same province or in several in succession, if he 
holds office for a period longer than is advisable ; 
besides, appointees improve when there is an interval 
between their incumbencies during which they return 
home and resume the life of ordinary citizens. 

" As regards the senators, therefore, I declare that 
they ought to discharge the duties named and in the 
way described. Of the knights the two best should 
command the bodyguard which protects you, for it is 
hazardous to entrust it to one man, and sure to lead 
to confusion to entrust it to more than two. There- 
fore let the number of these prefects be two, in order 
that, if one of them feel indisposed, you may still not 
lack a person to guard you. And men should be 
appointed to this office who have served in many 
military campaigns and have, besides, held many 
administrative positions. And they should have com- 
mand both of the Pretorians and of all the other 
soldiers in Italy, with power even to put to death 
any of them who do wrong, with the exception of 
the centurions and of those in general who have 
been assigned to the staffs of magistrates of senatorial 
rank. For these soldiers should be tried by the 



rcoaaVi Itva a7rpo(l>aaL(Tro)<; a^iGL '^prjo'dai, are 
KoX KoXdaac koI Ti/JbrjaaL <T^a<; i^ovaiav €')(0VTe^, 
Bvvcovjar rcav 3' dWcov tmv iv rfj ^IrdXia arpa- 
TLCOTCJV ol eirap^oi' €K€cvol Trpoa-rareLreoaav, virdp- 
Xov<s e^oi^re?, kul Trpoaerc koX rcov KaccrapeLCDV^ 
TOiV re iv rfj Oepaireia aov Svtcop koI tmv dWwv 

5 TciiV \6yov Tivo^ d^lcjv. ravra yap koI Trpocrrj- 
/covra Kal avrdpKrj avrol^ Bidyeiv earai,^ Iva jir) 
Kal ifkelw TTpdy/jLara a)v /caXco? (ftipeiv SvvijaovTai 
i'inTa')(devT€f{ dar^oXot tt/jo? to, dvayicaca rj koI 
dSvvaroi irdvrcdv avrcov irpotcnacrdaL yivcovrai. 

6 Kal ovTOi fxev Sid ^lov, wairep irov Kal 6 ttoXl- 
apxo^ 0^ virorLfir)Tr)<{, rrjv dpxh^ ixercoaav 
vvKTO(f)v\a^ Be erepo^;, Kal eVt rov airov Tr]^; re 
dyopd<; rr^? XoiTT?}? eVepo? €K re rcov iTTTrecov tmv 
irpcoTcov /x€T* eKeivov^i Kal e? raKTov XP^^^^ diro- 
heLKvixjdcdcrav, KaOdirep ol Ik tov /SovXevrt-KOv 

25 Trpox^cpi^^ofjuevoi-. rd<i re BioiKrjo-eL^i to}v xPVP'f^' 
T(DV, Tcov T€ TOV Si]/jlov Kal TOdv T'f]<; dpxv^ Xeyco, 
Kal rd<; iv ry 'Pdy/jbrj rfj re dXXrj ^IraXia Kal rd^i 

2 ef ft) 7rdaa<i ol / tttta}? ^ BLaxecpc^eTcoaav, Kal /jLcaOov 
ovTol re Kal ol dXXoL Trai^re? ol iK tov avrov 
T€Xov<; BiOiKOVVTe^ ti, ol fxev irXeiova ol he iXdT- 
Tova* TTyoo? re to d^iwfxa Kal 7rpo<; to jxeyedo'^ tt}? 

3 TTpd^ecof; (pepeTcoaav, tovto fiev otl ^ ovx olov re 

^ Kaiffapelcou H. Steph., Kanrapiwv VM. 

'■^ Sidy^iv tarai Bs., ZiaflviaQai VM. 

^ l-nirris M (tTrTrfjis), iirircls V. 

* eXoLTToya R. Steph., rhy iAoLTToya VM. ^ ^ri M, om. V. 




senatorial magistrates themselves, in order that tlie b.c. 29 
latter, by virtue of the authority they would thus 
possess of dealing out punishments to them as well 
as honours, may be able to command their un- 
hesitating support. Over all the other soldiers in 
Italy, however, the prefects I have mentioned should 
be in command, having lieutenants under them, and 
likewise over the Caesarians, both those who are in 
attendance upon you and such of the others as are 
of any account. These duties will be both fitting 
and sufficient for them to discharge, for if they have 
more responsibilities assigned to them than they are 
able to carry satisfactorily, there is danger that they 
may have no time for the essential things, or, if they 
have, may prove incompetent to exercise oversight 
over all their duties. These prefects also should hold 
office for life, like the prefect of the city and the sub- 
censor. Let another official be appointed to be com- 
mander of the night-watch ^ and still another to be 
commissioner of grain ^ and of the market in general, 
both of them from the equestrian order and the best 
men after the prefects, and let them hold their posts 
for a definite term, like the magistrates elected from 
the senatorial class. The management of the public 
funds, also, — I mean both those of the people and 
those of the empire, not only in Rome but also in the 
rest of Italy and outside Italy, — should be entirely in 
the hands of the knights, and they, as well as all the 
other members of the equestrian order who are 
charged with an administrative position, should be 
on salary, greater or less in proportion to the dignity 
and importance of their duties. The reason for the 
second part of this suggestion is that it is not possible 

* Praefectus vigilum. ^ Praefectus annonae. 


i(TTiu avTov<i, are fcal irevea-repov^ rcov ^ovXevrSiv 
ovra^i, airo rcov OLKeicov, ovSe iv ry 'Pcofiy ti 
7rpdTT0PTa<i, avaXiaKeiv, eKelvo Se otl fJLTjTe hvva- 


SvvajjL€0)v Kal tcop 'X^pYjjjLdrcov Kvpiov; jiyvecrdai. 

4 TT/oo? 8' eri, Kal KaXax; 6^(^61, Sia irXeiovwv irdvTa 
TO, Tjj 2 dpxy irpoaTjKOPTa Bidyeadat, otto)? kol 
a)(f) eXcovrai djxa av^vol Kal efJUTeipot twz^ irpa- 
y/jATcov yiypcovrar ovtco yap oX re dp^ofMCPOi, 
fiaWop evpoTjaoval aroi, TroXveiSrj aTroXavacp tcop 
KOLPOiP dya6o)P KapTrovjiepoc, Kal or if dcf)6op(OTara 
T0t9 del dpL(TTOL<; Trpo? irdpra rd dpayKala XPl^V' 

6 aTToxPV ^€ €P fiep rfj iroXet, KaO^ CKaaTOP XRV' 
/jLarlcrecofi eI5o9, efo) Be KaO^ eKacrrop eOpo^, eh 
Ti? e/c TCOP iTTTrecop, v7rofieL0Pa<; oaov^ dp r] %/9eta 
dTrairfj ^ ck re tcop linrecop Kal eK rcop i^eXev- 
Oepcop (Tov €%ft)z^' Bel yap Kal toiovtov^ Tipd<; 
av^evypvpai a^iaip, "pa rj re Oepanreia aov dOXop 
TV dp€T7J<f €XV> '^^f' ^^ M dTTOpfi^ Trap' oyp Kal 
dKOPTCop rrjp dXijOeiap, dp ye n TrXrjfxfieXTjOfj, 
fjuaOelp Bvprjarj, 

6 " "OcTTL^ 5* dp TO)P iTTirewp Bid ttoXXwp Bie^eX- 
6oop iXX6yi/jL0<; ware Kal jBovXevaai yeprjrai, [xr^Bev 
avTOP r) rjXLKia e/jLTToBi^ero) irpo^ ro /jlt) ov Kal e<> 
TO (TVpeBpLOP KaraXexOrjpai, dXX' iaypaipeaOcoaap 
Kal ef eKeiPcop, kup XeXoxcty'rjKOTei; ripe<; ep tol<; 
TToXiTiKol'^ arpaT07riBoL<i wac, ttXtjp tcop ep roi 

7 Terayfiepo) iaTparev/jLepayp. tovtcop fiep yap tcop 

^ T« M, om. V. ^ TO ry M, TO iv ry V, 

* avair^ V, dTroiTe* M. 




for the knights, since they are poorer than the b.c 29 
senators, to meet tiieir expenditures out of their 
own means, even when their duties keep them in 
Rome, and for the first point, that it is neither 
practicable nor to your interest that the same men 
should be given authority over both the troops and 
the public funds. And, furthermore, it is well that 
the whole business of the empire should be transacted 
by a number of agents, in order that many may at 
the same time receive the benefits and gain ex- 
perience in public affairs ; for in this way your 
subjects, reaping a manifold enjoyment of the common 
blessings, will be more favourably disposed towards 
you, and you will have at your disposal in the largest 
measure those who are at any particular time the best 
men for all urgent needs. One official of the eques- 
trian order is sufficient for each branch of the fiscal 
service in the city, and, outside the city, for each pro- 
vince, each one of them to have as many subordinates, 
drawn from the knights and from your own freedmen, 
as the needs of the case demand ; for you need to 
associate with the officials such assistants in order 
that your service may offer a prize for merit, and 
that you may not lack those from whom you may 
learn the truth, even contrary to their wishes, in 
case any irregularity is committed. 

" If any of the knights, after passing through many 
branches of the service, distinguishes himself enough 
to become a senator, his age ought not to hinder him 
at all from being enrolled in the senate. Indeed, 
some knights should be received into the senate, 
even if they have seen service only as company com- 
manders in the citizen legions, except such as have 
served in the rank and file. For it is both a shame 



KoX ^op/jLO(f)opr}advTCDV kol \apKO(popr)(Tdvr(i)v koX 
al(7')(pbv /cal eiroveihidTov ianv iv t5> ^ovXevTLKw 
Tiva<; i^erd^eaOar Ik he Br) twv dir^ dp-)(^f}<; i/ca- 
TOVTap')(r)advTwv ovhev KcoXvet rov^; i\\oyt,fi(ord- 
T0U9 avTOV /JLeraXafi^dvetv. 
26 " Uepl fjL€v ovv TMV /SovXevTcov rcov t€ linrecov 
ravrd aoi o-v/iffovXeveiv e^w, Koi vrj l\la /cal 
eKelva} Iva eo)? re en iralBk'^ elaiv, e? ra BlBu- 
GKokela av/jL(pOLTO)(Tt, KoX eireihav e? fxeipdKia 
eK^d\w(JLv, iirl re tov<; tTTTrof? Kal eVl ra oirXa 
TpeiTfovrai, BiBacrKdXovf; eKarepcov Br)fjLoaievovTa<i 

2 e/jifjLLaOov<; e^oi^re?. ovrco yap evOv<; etc iraiBcov 
TrdvO' oaa -x^prj dvBpa<; avTov<i yevo/aevov^i ein- 
reXelv Kal fjia06vT€<; Kal pLeXerrjcravre^ iinrrj- 
Beiorepoi aoL irpo'^ 'Jrdv epyov yevrja-ovrat. rov 
yap dpxovra rov dpiarov, ov re re ocjieXof: iari, 
Bel^ /jLT) fjbovov avTov irdvO^ a TrpoarjKei iroielv, 
dXXa Kal rS)V dXXcov, ottco^ o)? on ^eXnaroi 

3 ylyvcovrau, rrpovoelv. rovro S* vrrdp^eiev dv aot 
ovK dv edcra<i ^ avrov^i oaa ^ovXovrac irpdrreiv, 
eireur eTnnfiafi rot? d/jLaprdpouaiv, dXX^ dp rrpiv 
n TrXijfi/jieXelaOaL, rrpoBiBdaKr]^ irdvO^ oaa daKTj- 
aavre^ ')(pr)aLjjLcorepoc Kal eavrolf; Kal aol yevi!]- 
aovrat, Kal firjBevi ye ro irapdirav rrpo^aaiv 

4 irapexv^J^ fi^re Bed rrXovrov fijjre Bi evyeveiav 
fxrjre Bi dXXo n dperrj<; i'^^ofievov, paOvfjuiav rj 
fiaXaKLav y) Kal eirirrjBevaiv nva kI^BtjXov rrpoa- 
rroieladai. iroXXol yap ^o^ovfievoi /jlt) Kal Bed 

^ Koi vi] A'la Kol ii<:e7va M, om. V. 

2 Selflor., Serv VM. 

3 OVK tLV id(Tas Rk., ou/c tiv id(Tr]is VM flor. (cod. B), il ovk tiv 
fdarjis flor. (cod. A), 

* Trape'xps R. Steph., irapt'xotj VM. 



and a reproach that men of this sort, who have carried b.c. 29 
fViggots and charcoal, should be found on the roll of 
tiie senate ; but in the case of knights who began 
their service with the rank of centurion, there is 
nothing to prevent the most notable of them from 
belonging to the senate. 

"With regard, then, to the senators and the knights, 
this is the advice I have to give you, — yes, and 
this also, that while they are still children they should 
attend the schools, and when they come out of child- 
hood into youth ^ they should turn their minds to 
horses and to arms, and have paid public teachers in 
each of these departments. In this way from their 
very boyhood they will have had both instruction 
and practice in all that they will themselves be 
required to do on reaching manhood, and will thus 
prove more serviceable to you for every undertaking. 
For the best ruler, — the ruler who is worth anything, 
— should not only perform himself all the duties which 
devolve upon him, but should make provision for the 
rest also, that they may become as excellent as possible. 
And this title can be yours, not if you allow them to 
do whatever they please and then censure those who 
err, but if, before any mistakes are made, you give 
them instruction in everything the practice of which 
will render them more useful both to themselves 
and to you, and if you afford nobody any excuse 
whatever, either wealth or nobility of birth or any 
other attribute of excellence, for affecting indolence 
or effeminacy or any other behaviour that is counter- 
feit. For many persons, fearing that, by reason of 

^ The Greek term indicates approximately the age of 



ToiovTO TL Koi <f)9ovr]doiaL Kol /civBvv6V(T(oai, 
TToWa KOL dvd^ia eavrcov iroiovaiv co? koX da(f)a- 
6 Xecrrepov dir aurSiv ^tcoa-o/jievor kolk tovtov 
eKelvoL [lev iXeovvrai 0)9 Kal avro rovro dBcKOv- 
fxevoL, TO firj Bo/celp e^elvai a^Lo-iv 6pOa)<i ^rjv, r(p 
8' dpx^ovTL avTMV Kal ^rj/jLia d/xa dyaOoov dvBpayv 
crrepo/jieva) Kal KaKoBo^la t?}? alrtdcreax; avfjLpatvei. 
fji7]T ovv irepdBr)(; ttotc tovto irpax^ev, fi^r^ au 
BeLar)<; ort Tpa(f)6L<i re rt? kol iraiBevOeh &)9 iyco 

6 Xeyo) ^ vecorepov tl roXp^Tjaei,. irdv yap rovvavriov 
Tov<; re dpuaOel^; Kal tov<; daeXyelf; viroroTrelv Zel''^ 
01 fiev yap tolovtol Trdvra aTrXw? Kal rd ata^tara 
Kal rd Beiporara, irpoirov fiev €9 0"</)a9 avTov<i 
eirena he Kal €9 tol'9 dWov<;, paBCco^ iroielv irpo- 
dyovrat, ol Be Srj KaXca^ rpa^evre^i re Kal TraiSev- 
6evTe<; out dXkov TLvd dBiKelv TrpoaipovvTai, Kal 
irdvTwv rjKL(7Ta top t^9 xe Tpo(f)7J<; Kal t^9 rrai- 

7 Beia^ avTCJV eTn/jbeXijOePTa. dp B' ovp Ti9 Kal 
KaKo<; Kal d')(^dpL(TTO<; yeprjTai, firjBep avrw tolov- 
Top eiTLTpe'^rjf; e^ ov Beipop tl Bpacrau BvpyjacTar 
KttP ye Kal 0)9 veoxP'Warj tl, Kal eXey^^^OrjTco Kal 
KoXaaOrjTOi). /jltj yap Br) (po^rjOfjii OTI ae alridaeTai 
Ti^i eVt TOVTM, dp ye irdpQ' oaa elp'qKa irpaTTrj'^. 

8 av fiep yap ovBep d/jLapTrjarj top dBiKija-aPTa 
Tip,copr](rdfjLepo<;, axrirep ovBe 6 lajpo^ Kavaa<i Tipd 
Kal Teficop' eKSiPOP Be Brj irdpTe^ BcKatcoaova-Lp, 

1 A€7a. R. Steph., Xfyuv VM. « 5^- M, 5)] V. 


some such advantage, they may incur jealousy or b.c. 29 
danger, do many things that are unworthy of them- 
selves, expecting by such behaviour to live in greater 
security. As a consequence, not only do they, on 
their part, become objects of pity as being victims of 
injustice in precisely this respect, that men believe 
that they are deprived of the opportunity of leading 
upright lives, but their ruler also, on his part, suffers 
not only a loss, in that he is robbed of men who 
might have been good, but also ill-repute, because he 
is blamed for the others' condition. Therefore never 
permit this thing to happen, and have no fear, on 
the other hand, that anyone who has been reared 
and educated as I propose will ever venture upon 
a rebelHon. On the contrary, it is the ignorant and 
licentious that you should suspect ; for it is such 
persons who are easily influenced to do absolutely 
any and every thing, even the most disgraceful and 
outrageous, first toward themselves and then toward 
others, whereas those who have been well reared and 
educated do not deliberately do wrong to any one 
else and least of all to the one who has cared for 
their rearing and education. If, however, one of 
these does show himself wicked and ungrateful, you 
have merely to refuse to entrust him with any 
position of such a kind as will enable him to do 
any mischief ; and if even so he rebels, let him be 
convicted and punished. You need not, I assure you, 
be afraid that anyone will blame you for this, pro- 
vided that you carry out all my injunctions. For in 
taking vengeance on the wrongdoer you will be 
guilty of no sin, any more than the physician is who 
resorts to cautery and surgery ; but all men will 
assuredly say that the offender has got his deserts, 



OTL Koi Tpo(j)rj<; Kol TTatScta? Tr)9 avTrj<; rot? aX\oi<!; 
lieTacr')(aiv iire^ovXevae (tol. 

" Yiepi jxev ovv rov^ ^ov\€vra<; rov^; re t7r7rea<? 
27 ravra ycyviaOay tou? Be Brj arpariooTa^; aOavd- 


(TV/Ji/uLd)(^ci)V, rfj fjuev TrXelov^; rfj 8e eKdrrov^;, KaO^ 
CKaarov eOvof;, otto)? av 77 xpeia tmv Trpay/jbdrcov 

2 aTrairf}, rpe^eaOai irpoarjKei, kol avrov^ del, re ev 
Tot? OTrXot? elvac Koi rrjv acTKrjaiv tmv iroXepLiKOiv 
hia iravTO^ rroiela-Oai Bel, x^L/jidBid re ev rot? em- 
KaipoTdroL^ ')(copLOi<; KarecTKevaa/jbevov^; Koi xpovov 
raKTOV aTpaTevofievov<;, toare ri avrol^ koX irpo 

3 rov 717/30)9 T?79 rfKiKia^ Trepielvai. ovre yap eVl 
TMV KaipSiV /3or]0€Lai<; Ttalv eTC 'X^prjcrOai Bvvd- 
fxeOa, avToi re ToaovTOV diro tmv t% dp^ri^i 
ia^^UTiMV aTrrjpTTj/jievoL koX iroXeixiov^ eKaaTayoOi 
irpoGoiKOVVTa<^ eyovTe^' av re eiriTpk^Mpbev iraxn 
T0t9 ev Tjj r)\iKia overt, koi to, oirXa KeKTrjaOai 
Kal TCL e/jLTToXe/JLia dcTKelv, aTdaei^ Kal iroXejioi 

4 o-tt' avTMV e/jL<pv\coi del yevrjaovTai. /cat fjuevTOi 
Kav KMXvaavTe^ acpa^; TavTa irocelv eireiTa av/j,- 
fiax^cL'^ Tivo<; Trap* avTMv BerjOM/iiev, Kivhvvevao- 
jxev^ direipoi^ re /cat dyvpLvdcFTOL^ aTpaTiaoTai^; del 
')(^pMiJLevoL. Bid fiev Brj TavTa yvM/jurjv iroLovfiai, 
TOL'9 ixev dWov^ irdvTa^ dvev re ottXmv Kal dveu 
Teix^^v ^V^> Toi'9 Be ippMfjLeveo-Tdrov; Kal ^iov 
fxdXiaTa Beo/bLevov<; KaTaXeyeaOai re Kal daKelv. 

5 avToi re yap dfieivov iroXepLrjcrovai tovtm /jLovo) 

* KivZvvivaoiJLiv R. Steph., Kiv^vvivawfiiv VM. 


because, after partaking of the same rearing and 
education as the rest, he plotted against you. 

" Let this be your procedure, then, in the case ot 
the senators and the knights. A standing army also 
should be supported, drawn from the citizens, the 
subject nations, and the allies, its size in the several 
provinces being greater or less according as the 
necessities of the case demand ; and these troops 
ought always to be under arms and to engage in the 
practice of warfare continually. They should have 
winter-quarters constructed for them at the most 
advantageous points, and should serve for a stated 
period, so that a portion of life may still be left for 
them between their retirement from service and 
old age. The reason for such a standing army is 
this : far removed as we are from the frontiers of the 
empire, with enemies living near our borders on 
every side, we are no longer able at critical times to 
depend upon expeditionary forces ; and if, on the 
other hand, we permit all the men of military age to 
have arms and to practise warfare, they will always 
be the source of seditions and civil wars. If, however, 
we prevent them from all making arms their pro- 
fession and afterwards need their aid in war, we 
shall be exposed to danger, since we shall never have 
anything but inexperienced and untrained soldiers to 
depend upon. For these reasons I give it as my 
opinion that, while in general the men of military 
age should have nothing to do with arms and walled 
camps during their lives, the hardiest of them and 
those most in need of a livelihood should be enlisted 
as soldiers and given a military training. For they 
will fight better if they devote their time to this one 



TO) €pyw o-^oXafoi^T€9, Kol 01 XoLTTol pdov yeaypyi]- 
(Tovai Koi vavTiXovvrat rd re dWa rd rfj elprjvr} 
TTpoa^Kovra irpd^ovai fxrjre eK^orjOeiv dvayKa^o- 

fJL€VOL KoX 7rpO(f>v\aKd<; (T(l)(OV €Tepov<; €XOVT€<;, TO 

re aKfiaiOTarov kol la^vporarov kol i/c Xyareuaf; 
/jLaXicrra ^rjv dvayKa^o/ievov aXviro)^ rpa^ija-erai, 

KOl TO XOLTTOV ITCiV aKlvSvVCO^; fiL(t)(T€Tai. 

28 " JloOev ovv ')(p^/iiaTa kol e? tovtov^ kol e? rd 
dXKa rd dvayKaico<i dvaXcoOrjo-o/neva ecnai; iyo) 

Kol TOVTO BlBd^CO, (TjJLlKpOV i/Cclvo V7ret7r(OV, OTl 

Kctv Br)/jLOKpaTrjdo!)/JL€V, 7rdvTco<; irov 'X^prjjjLarcDV 
SerjaofieOa'^ ov ydp olov re ovt dvev arpaTicorMV 
rjfjbd^; aay^eaOai ovt dfjuiaOi ^ TLva<; ^ aTpaTev- 

2 eaOai. /jltj ovv ft)9 koI rfj fiovapjd^a fiovrj t^9 
dvayKaia<^ tmv '^^prjfiaTc^v ddpoiaew^ 7rpoa7jfcov(T7]<; 
^apvvay/jLeOa, firjBe Bi avTrjv kol dir eK€LVT)<i 
dTTOTpeirco/jLeda, dXX^ cb? Kal 7rdvTco<; dvayKoiov 
ov rjixlv, 07ra)9 ttot dv iroXiTevdyfieda, koi dpyv- 

3 pi^eaOai Tiva, ovtco * ^ovXevcofxeOa. ^rj/jul tolvvv 
')(^prjvai ae irpoiTOV fiev dirdvTwv rd KTrjjiaTa rd 
iv Tft) Brjfioa-Lw ovTa (iroXXd Be Tavra opw Bid 
TOi'9 7roXe/jLov<; yey ovoto) TrcoXrjo-ai, ttXtjv oXiywv 
TMV Kal Trdvv ')(p7]ai/jL(ov cot Kal dvayKaiwv, Kal 
TO dpyvpLOV TovTO irdv iirl jxeTpioL^ Tial t6koi,<; 

4 eKBavelaaL. ovreo ydp ij re yrj iv€py6<; €(TTai, 
BeairoTac^ avTOvpyoL<; BoOelcra, Kal eKelvoL d(f)op- 
jjbT]v Xal36vT6<; evTTopcorepot yevrjaovTaij to re 

1 dfn<r6ixeea D'md., ScrjeTjo-oVe^o VM. 

2 afiiaei St., a/jLiffdei VM. 

3 Tipas M, Tiva V. * ovTw M, ovtws Y. 



business, and the rest will find it easier to carry on b.c. 29 
their farming, seafaring, and the other pursuits appro- 
priate to peace, if they are not compelled to take 
part in military expeditions but have others to act as 
their defenders. Thus the most active and vigorous 
element of the population, which is generally obliged 
to gain its livelihood by brigandage, will support 
itself without molesting others, while all the rest 
will live without incurring dangers. 

" From what source, then, is the money to be pro- 
vided for these soldiers and for the other expenses 
that will of necessity be incurred ? I shall explain 
this point also, prefacing it with a brief reminder 
that even if we have a democracy we shall in any 
case, of course, need money. For we cannot sur- 
vive without soldiers, and men will not serve as 
soldiers without pay. Therefore let us not be 
oppressed by the idea that the necessity of raising 
money belongs only to a monarchy, and let us not be 
led by that consideration to turn our backs upon this 
form of government, but let us assume in our delibera- 
tions that, under whatever form of government we 
shall live, we shall certainly be constrained to secure 
funds. My proposal, therefore, is that you shall first of 
all sell the property that belongs to the state, — and 
I observe that this has become vast on account of 
the wars, — reserving only a little that is distinctly 
useful or necessary to you ; and that you lend 
out all the money thus realized at a moderate rate 
of interest. In this way not only will the land 
be put under cultivation, being sold to owners who 
will cultivate it themselves, but also the latter will 
acquire a capital and become more prosperous, while 
the treasury will gain a permanent revenue that will 



Srj/jLoaiov hiapKYj /cat aOdvarov irpoaohov e^et. 
elra avWoyiaaaOat ravrd t€ kol raWa ocra gk 
T€ fi€TaXX€La<; /cal el dij iroOev dWoOev /SeySatco? 

5 hvvarat, irpoaievai, KaX fiera tovto avTiXoyiaa- 
crdai fJLT] jxovov ra (TrpartfOTiKa dXka /cal raXXa 
irdvTa hi wv kuXm^ ttoX^? olKelrai, /cat Trpoairi 
KoX oaa €9 T€ T<x? al(j)vt8iov^ arpareia^ Kal e? ra 
Xoiira oaa elwOev eiri Kaipov avp,paiveiv, dvay- 

6 Koiov earai SaTravaaOar kclk tovtov tt/oo? irdv 
TO XeoTTOV (f)6pov re iTTLrd^ai, irdcrLV aTrXw? tol<; 
einKapiriav ^ riva tw KeKTrj/juevq) avra irape'X^ovai, 
Kal reXr] Karaarijaai nrapd irdcTLv q)V dp^ofiev 
(Kal yap Kal SlKaiov Kal TrpoarjKov earv /jbTjBeva 
avTMV dreXij elvai, /jlt) lBi,(OTr)v, firj BrjfjLOV, are Kal 
tt}? ftx^eXta? rrj^ air avrwv ofiOLO)^ roL<; dXXoi^; 

7 d7ro\avaovra<;^), Kal (t^ojv €K'Xoy€a<; rov'i eVt- 
Tpo7revcrovra<; eKaara'^^^oOt Troirjaai, ware avTOv<; 
irdv TO Tw T?79 eiTiT pOTreia^ avrwv xpovw Trpoai]- 
Kov e^ oLTraacov tmv TrpocroBoyv eairpdrreiv. tovto 
yap Kal eKeivoL^ paw ttjv eairpa^iv iroirjorei Kal 
T019 hthovai Tt o}(j)e\iav ovk eXa')(i(TT7)v irape^er 

8 Xeyo) he to ^ KaT ciXiyov cr^a<; ev Tah Ta^eaiv 
oaa ocftelXovat-v ea^epeiv, Kal fiij, ppa-^yv padv- 
/jb'^aavTa^ Xpovov, eiriKe^aXaiwOevTa Trdvra ead- 
ira^ drraiTelaOai. 

29 ** Kat OVK dyvooi fiev on Tcvh tmv t€ (fiopMV Kal 
T03V TeXojv KadicrTa/ubevcov d'^OecrO^aovrar dXXd 
Kal eKelvo olSa oti, av firJTe irpoo-eTrrjped^covTai 
Kal Ta> epyw ireiadcocnv otl irdvTa Tavra Kal 

^ iniKapTTlap M, ^ir\ Kapriav V. 

^ air o\av (TOUT as R. Steph,, cnroXaixrayTas VM, 

8 rh R. Steph., rod VM, 



suffice for its needs. In the second place, I advise b.c. 29 
you to make an estimate of the revenues from this 
source and of all the other revenues which can with 
certainty be derived from the mines or any other 
source, and then to make and balance against this a 
second estimate of all the expenses, not only those 
of the army, but also of all those which contribute to 
the well-being of a state, and furthermore of those 
which will necessarily be incurred for unexpected 
campaigns and the other needs which are wont to 
arise in an emergency. The next step is to provide 
for any deficiency by levying an assessment upon 
absolutely all property which produces any profit for 
its possessors, and by establishing a system of taxes 
among all the peoples we rule. For it is but just and 
proper that no individual or district be exempt from 
these taxes, inasmuch as they are to enjoy the 
benefits derived from the taxation as much as the 
rest. And you should appoint tax-collectors to have 
supervision of this business in each district, and 
cause them to exact the entire amount that falls 
due during the term of their supervision from all the 
sources of revenue. This plan will not only render 
the work of collection easier for these officials, but 
will in particular benefit the tax-payers, inasmuch, I 
mean, as these will bring in what they owe in the 
small instalments appointed, whereas now, if they 
are remiss for a brief period, the entire sum is added 
up and demanded of them in a single payment. 

" I am not unaware that some will object if this 
system of assessments and taxes is established. But 
I know this, too, — that if they are subjected to no 
further abuses and are indeed convinced that all 
these contributions of theirs will make for their own 



vTTCp tt}? (T(OTr)pi,a^ a<l>(bv koX virep tov ra Xoiira 

2 a8ew? KapTTOvadai a-vveaoiarovdi, xal rrpoa-irt ^ 
TO, TrXelo) avTMV ou% erepoi Tive<; aX}C avrol 
eKelvoi, 01 fi€V ap'X^ovre^ ol Be iiTirpoirevovTe^ ol 
he (TTparevofievoi, X^yfrovraL, koX irdvv TroXXrjv 
X^^pi'V elaovrai aot, ^pa')(^ea airo ttoXXcov wv av 
^rjBev eirr^peal^ofjievoL KapTrayvrat BtB6vT€<i, aXXayf; 

T€ KaV 6pa)(TL (T€ a(t)<^p6v(0^ T€ BiaiTCOfJLeVOV KoX 

3 pL7]Bev fiaTTjv irapavaXicrKOVTa. rt? yap ovk av 
IScov ere 7rpb<; fiev ra OLKeta (pecScoXoraTov tt/jo? Be 
ra KOiva a^eiBearaTOV opra, eOeXovrl arvvreXeaeie 
TV, Kal acTcfydXeLav Kal eviropiav eavrov to ae 
TrXovrelv elvai voixi^wv; 

30 ** X^pTjfjbara fiev Brj Kal irdvv iroXXa ck tovtcov 
virdp^eiev dv rd Be By Xonrd rovBe tov Tpoirov 
BiOL/ceiv (TOV TrapaivS). to fiev daTV tovto koI 
KaraKoafj^ei Trdarj iroXvTeXela Kal iiroXd/iTrpvve 
Travrl eiBet Travrjyvpecov' irpoarjKei re yap rj/jbd^ 
TToXXcov dpxovTa<; iv irdai irdvTwv virepeyeLv, Kal 
(pepei 7rft)9 Kal to, TOiavra 7rp6<; re tov<; avfi- 
fjidy^ov^; alBco Kal tt/do? tou9 7roX€fiLov<; Kard- 
2 TrXrj^tv. rd Be Br) rwv dXXcov coSe Bieire. irpoiTov 
jxev ol Brj/uLOi fjurJTe Kvpioi tlvo^ earcoaav jjbrjTe e? 
eKKXriaiav to rrapdirav (poirdrcoaav ovTe yap 
dyadov ^ ovBev <f)povt]cr€iav dv Kal av^vd dv del ^ 
Tapd^eiav. odev ovBe tov Trap' rjpHv Brjfiov ovre * 
69 BiKaa-Trjpiov ovTe €9 apxctipeo-la^, ovTe 69 dXXov 
Tivd TOiovTOV avXXoyov iv c5 ti Kal XPVH^'^^' 

1 irpoaeri R. Steph., irphs iirl VM. 

2 ayadhv M, om. V. 
« ael M, om, V. 

4 oi/T€ R. Steph., ovSi VM. 



security and for their fearless enjoyment of the rest b.c. 29 
of their property, and that, again, the larger part of 
their contributions will be received by none but them- 
selves, as governors, procurators, or soldiers, they 
will be exceedingly grateful to you, since they will 
be giving but a slight portion of the abundance from 
which they derive the benefit without having to 
submit to abuses. Especially will this be true if 
they see that you live temperately and spend nothing « 

foolishly. For who, if he saw that you were quite 
frugal in your expenditures for yourself and quite 
lavish in those for the commonwealth, would not 
wilHngly contribute, believing that your wealth 
meant his own security and prosperity ? 

" So far as funds are concerned, therefore, a 
great abundance would be supplied from these 
sources. And I advise you to conduct as follows 
the administration of such matters as have not yet 
been mentioned. Adorn this capital with utter dis- 
regard of expense and make it magnificent with 
festivals of every kind. For it is fitting that we who 
rule over many people should surpass all men in all 
things, and brilliance of this sort, also, tends in a way 
to inspire our allies with respect for us and our 
enemies with terror. The affairs of the other cities 
you should order in this fashion : In the first place, 
the populace should have no authority in any matter, 
and should not be allowed to convene in any assembly 
at all ; for nothing good would come out of their 
deliberations and they would always be stirring up a 
good deal of turmoil. Hence it is my opinion that 
our populace here in Rome, for that matter, should 
not come together either as a court or to hold the 
elections, or indeed in any meeting whose object is 


3 aOrjvai hel, avvcevaL (f>r]/j,l ^(^prjvai. eiretra Be fi^jr 
olKoSofirj/idrcov irXrjdecTLV rj /cat ^ /leyiOeaiv virep 
ravayKola ')(^pija6coaav, fiijr dycovcov ttoWmp koI 
iravToBaTTCov dvaXco/jiacri hairavdaOcoaav, Iva /jbrjre 
(TTTOvBal^ fiaraiaL^i iKTpv)(^covTai firjTe (^iXorifjiLaLf; 

4 d\6yoi<; TroXe/jLcovTai. e^ercoaav fiev yap koI 
7ravr)yvpei<; koI ^eco/ota? TLvd<;, %&>/3l? t% Itttto- 
BpofjLLa<; T?79 Trap^ rjfxlv Troiov/jLevi]^, /jlt) fievroL ware 
Koi TO Br]fi6aiop rj kuI T01/9 IBlov; o'Ikov^ Xv/xai- 
veaOai, ^evov re tlpu dvay/cd^eadai. Trap* avTOL<i 
Koi OTtovv duaXlaxeiv, koi (tlttjctlu dOdvarov 
irdaiv drr\o)<i tol<; dycjvd riva viKrjcracn BlBoaOai. 

5 Toi/9 re yap eviropov^ aXoyov 6gtlv e^w rt rcov 
irarpiBcdv dvayKaaToi)^ Bairavdv, Kal TOL<i dyco- 
viaral^ diro-^^prj rd ddXa rd irap' 6KdaT0t<; 
TiOe/jLepa, %ft)/3t? rj et r^? avrcov 'OXu/x7rta rj 

6 UvOlu 7] TLva ivravda dywva dviXoLTO'^ tov<; yap 
TOLOVTOV^ fiovov^ aiTCiaOai Bel, iva fi^re at iroXei^; 
fjudrr^v iTTLrpi^covTat fMrjre e^o) Ti9 tmv d^ioviKcov 
da/crj, Bvvd/jL€vo<; dXXo tl 'X^prjai/j.coTepov kol eavTco 
Kal T(p Koivo) fxeTLevaL. irepl pev ovv tovtchv 

7 ravja yiyvc^aKw, ra? B' l7r7roBpo/xla<; ra? dvev tmv 
yvp.viK(ov dydwcdv eir ltcXov jieva^ ovx vyov/xai Beiv 
dXXrj TLvl TToXec iroieiv iiriTpiireiv, oirco^i fxrjTe 
XPVfJ'CiTa irap^TrXrjOfj elKr} TrapairoXXvrjTai p,i]0' 

^ Kol M, om. V. 



to transact business. In tlie second place, the cities b.c. 29 
should not indulge in public buildings unnecessarily 
numerous or large, nor waste their resources on 
expenditures for a large number and variety of 
public games, lest they exhaust themselves in futile 
exertions and be led by unreasonable rivalries to 
quarrel among themselves. They ought, indeed, to 
have their festivals and spectacles, — to say nothing of 
the Circensian games held here in Rome, — but not 
to such an extent that the public treasury or the 
estates of private citizens shall be ruined thereby, or 
that any stranger resident there shall be compelled 
to contribute to their expense, or that maintenance 
for life shall be granted to every one without 
exception who has won a victory in a contest. For 
it is unreasonable that the well-to-do should be put 
under compulsion to spend their money outside 
their own countries ; and as for the competitors in 
the games, the prizes which are offered in each event 
are enough, unless a man wins in the Olympian or 
Pythian games or in some contest here in Rome. 
For these are the only victors who ought to receive 
their maintenance, and then the cities will not be 
wearing themselves out to no purpose nor will any 
athlete go into training except those who have a 
chance of winning ; the rest will be able to follow 
some occupation that will be more profitable both to 
themselves and to the commonwealth. This is my 
opinion about these matters. But as to the horse- 
races in connection with which there are no gymnastic 
contests,^ I think that no city but Rome should be 
permitted to have them, the object being to prevent 
the wanton dissipation of vast sums of money and to 
1 He has reference to the Circensian games in Rome. 



01 dvdpcoTTOL KaKCt}(; eKfjuatvcovrai, /cal to fiiyiaTOV, 
Xv 01 (TTpaTevofxevoL Tol<i apicTTOL^ lttttol^; a^Oo- 

8 1^0)9 ')(^pria6aL e^coai. tovto pblv hrj Sia ravr 
dirayopevco it avr air acre /jirjSa/jLoO l aXkodi irXyv 
ivravOa yiyveadai, ra Be Brj XoLira ifxerpiaaa, Iv 
evSairdvovi Td<; dTToXavaei^ koI twv OecopTjfMCLTcov 
Kol Tcjp dKovcTfidrayv oo? exaaroi Troiov/jievoc xal 
aco(fipov6(rT€pov Kol daraa-Laa-Torepov Scdycoac. 

9 " Mr^re Be voiucrfxara rj Koi araO/id t) fxerpa IBia 
TL<; avTcov €)(^eTco, dWd T0t<i rjiMerepoL^ kol eKelvoL 
Trdvre^i ')(^pr)(j6(Daav' firjre Trpea/Selav rivd tt/jo? 
ae, ttXtjv el tt pay fid tl Bcaypcoaeco^; e-x^ofxevov ecrj, 
ire/JLTrircoaav, dWd Ta> re dp)(0VTL ac^wv BrjXov- 
Tcoa-av oaa ^ovXovraL, koI Bl eKeivov ^ aot ^ ra? 
d^ccoaeL^i, 6aa<i dv BoKCfidarj, it pO(T^eperu>aav. 

10 ovTCi yap ovt dva\cocrouo-i tl ovr ala'^pw'i Bt,a- 
irpd^ovTai, dX)C dKepalov<^ ra? diroKpiaeL'i dvev 
Ba7rdv7}<i rj Kal irpay/jLareLa^; tlvo^ X^yjrovraL. 

31 "Kal jievToi Kal rdWa coS* dv pioi BoK€L<i^ 
dpLara Biard^ai, dv irpSyjov fiev Td(; irpea-jSeiafi 
Ta9 re irapa tcov iroXefJbiwv Kal ra'^ irapd twi' 
ivcTTTovBcov Kal ^aaiXecov Kal Brjjjbcov d(f)CKvovp,eva<i 
69 TO avveBpcov iadyyt; (ra re yap dWa Kal 
ae/jivov Kal d^toXoyov icrri, to Te ttjv l3ovXr)v 
irdvTcov Kvpiav BoKelv elvai, Kal to iroXXovf; tou? 

* iKeivov M, ^Kiivovs V. ''^ (roi V, ffov M. 

» 5o«6ij Bk., SoKYjis VM. 



keep the populace from becoming deplorably crazed b.c. 29 
over such a sport, and, above all, to give those who 
are serving in the army an abundant supply of the 
best horses. It is for these reasons, therefore, that I 
would altogether forbid the holding of such races 
anywhere else than here in Rome ; as to the other 
games, I have proposed to keep them within bounds, 
in order that each community, by putting upon an 
inexpensive basis its entertainments for both eye and 
ear, may live with greater moderation and less 
factious strife. 

" None of the cities should be allowed to have its 
own separate coinage or system of weights and 
measures; they should all be required to use ours. 
They should send no embassy to you, unless its busi- 
ness is one that involves a judicial decision; they 
should rather make what representations they will to 
their governor and through him bring to your attention 
such of their petitions as he shall approve. In this way 
they will be spared expense and be prevented from 
resorting to crooked practices to gain their object ; 
and the answers they receive will be uncontaminated 
by their agents and will involve no expense or red 

" Moreover (to pass to other matters), it seems to 
me that you would be adopting the best arrangement 
if you should, in the first place, introduce before the 
senate the embassies which come from the enemy 
and from those under treaty with us, whether kings 
or democracies ; for, among other considerations, it 
is both awe-inspiring and calculated to arouse com- 
ment for the impression to prevail that the senate 
has full authority in all matters and for all men to be 
fully aware that those envoys who are unfair in their 




avTiTTokov^ TOL<; dyvco/jLOVOvaov avrcov ^aiveo-Oat), 

2 eireiTa he av irdvra rd voixoOerovfieva hi avrcov 
iroiy, KoX firjhev to irapdirav dWo eirl irdvTa^i 
6fjiOLCi)<; <pepy irXrjv tmv ifceiv7j<; hoyfidrcov outo) 
yap TO T6 d^Lo)/jLa to t/)? dp)^rj<; fidXXov dv 
fie^aiolTO, Kal Ta hiKaiMfiaTa ra/c twi^ vojjlwv kol 
dvafi(f>i\oya Kal hidhrjXa Trdauv dfia yiyvoiTo} 

3 TpiTOV, dv Tov^i re ^ov\€VTd<; tov^ Ik Tr]<; yepov- 
(Tta^ Kal Tou? iralha^ Td<i re yvvatKa^ avTcov, dv 
TTore Tcva alriav ^apvTepav, wo-re tov aXovTa 
a'(f)(ov dTifjiiav rj (f)vyrjv rj Kal OdvaTov 6(f)Xelv, 
\d^(0(Jiv, VTTO T€ TO fiov\€VT7]piov virdyr)^ fjbrjhev 

4 irpoKaTayvov^;, Kal eKeivw Trdaav ttjv Trepl avrcov 
hLay\rr)^Lcnv dKepaiov imrpeTrr)'^, IV oX re dhiKovv 
T69 ri ev rrdcL rol<; op.orifjLOL'^ eXeyx^o/iievoL KoXd- 
^covrai ')(copl<^ rod crov (f>d6vov, Kai ol dWoL ravO* 
6pcovTe<^ /SeXrtou? ytyvcovrac (j)6ff(p rod firj Kal 
avrol eKhrj/jboaievdrjvat. 

5 ** Kal ravra jievroi irepl eKeivcov rcov dhiKrj- 
/jbdrcov, irepl oov o'i re vopuoi Kelvrai Kal al KpLaet^; 
al Kar avrov^ yiyvovrai, Xeyco. to yap ore t^? 
eXoihoprjae ere rj Kal erepov n dveinTtjhecov elne^ 
p.r)r dK0var)<; TTore Karrjyopovvro'; tivo<; fiijre 

6 e7r€^eX0rj<;. ala-^pov fiev yap to mareveiv on 
Ti9 iJLr)re tl dhoKovvrd ere Kal evepyerovvra irdvra^; 

1 ylyvoiTO St., yiyvoiVTo VM. 


dealings will have many to oppose them. In the 
second place, you would do well to have all your 
legislation enacted by the senate, and to enforce no 
measure whatever upon all the people alike except 
the decrees of this body. In this way the dignity of 
the empire would be more securely established and 
the judgments rendered in accordance with the laws 
would instantly be free from all dispute or un- 
certainty in the eyes of all the people. In the third 
place, it would be well in the case of the members of 
the senatorial order who are actually members of the 
senate,^ their children, and their wives, if ever they 
are charged with a serious offence for which the 
penalty on conviction would be disfranchisement, 
exile, or even death, that you should bring the 
matter before the senate without prejudgment against 
the accused, and should commit to that body the 
entire decision uninfluenced by your opinion. The 
purpose of this is, that the guilty, thus tried by a 
jury consisting solely of their peers, may be punished 
without there being any resentment against you, and 
that the others, seeing this, may mend their ways 
through fear of being publicly pilloried themselves. 

"These suggestions have to do only with those 
offences regarding which laws have been established 
and judgments are rendered in accordance with these 
laws. For as to a charge that some one has vilified 
you or in some other way has used unseemly language 
regarding you, I would have you neither listen to 
the accuser nor follow up the accusation. For it is 
disgraceful for you to believe that any one has 
wantonly insulted you if you are indeed doing no 

^ As distinguished from those of the senatorial order who 
have not yet gained admission to the senate. 


TT poeTrrfkcLKLaey /cal jjlovol tovto irotovatv ol KaKCJ^; 
ap')(pvTe<i' i/c yap rod o-vveihoTO^; koX to ttkttov 

7 T(ov XeyofjLevcov elprjaOau TefCfiaipomar Becvov Se 
Koi TO 'XjaXe'iraiveLV €7rl to?? tolovtol^, a el fiev 
aXr]6rj etr}, fcpelTTov idTi fjurj Troielv, el Be ^fr€vB7J, 
fir) TTpocnroielaOaiy w? ttoWol ye rjSrj Bia tovtov 
TToXv ifkeiw KOi ')(^aXe7rcoTepa XoyoTroieLaOat KaO^ 

8 eavTCov eiroirjaav. irepl fiev ovv tS)v \6y(p tl 
TTpoinjXaKL^eiv alTia^ofjuevcov TavT eyco (ppovco' 
KpeiTTO) T6 yap koi vyjrrjXoTepov irdar]'^ vffpe(o<; 
elvai are XPV> ^^^^ /^V^^ ^^ evvoidv iroTe pLrjT avTov 
d(^iKvela9ai jxrjTe tov<; aX\ov<; Trpodyeiv OTt 
BvvaTai ti<; daeXyavai tl €9 ere, tV 009 Trepi tmv 
6ecov, ovTco ^ Koi Trepl aov (^povoxiiv otl aeiTTO^; 

9 el. av Be Brj tl<; eTTi^ovXeveiv <tol alTiav Xdfijj 
(yevoLTO yap dv Tt Kal tolovtov), avTO<; /xev fMrjBe 
Trepl eKeivov tl firjTe Bcfcdarj<i jiiijTe irpoBiayvw^ 
(aTOTTOV yap top avTOV Kal KaTrjyopov Kal BcKa- 
(7Tr)V yiyvecrOai)^ virb "^ Be Br) Tr)v l3ovXr)v avTOV 
dyaycbv aTToXoyrjaaaOai re 7roLr)aov, kclv e\ey')(df), 
KoKaaov jieTpLdca^ co? olov re eVrt to Ti,/JLOt)pr))ia, 

10 U'a Kal TTcaTevdy to dBiKyfia, 'X^aXeirdiTaTa yap 
ol TToXXol TreiOovTai oti Ti<; aoTrXo? wv eirtlSov- 
Xevet Tfi3 wirXLo- jievw' koi fiovo)^ av ovto)^ avTMV 
TU%oi9, el iMr)Te irpo^ opyr)v /jliJt dvijKeo-Tcos, e'^' 
oaov ye Kal evBi'xeTai, Tr)v Tificopiav avTov ttoloIo. 
Xeyco Be TUVTa %ft>/3t9 ^ et Tt9 a-TpdTevfid ti €X(ii>i 
1 oSto. M, om. V. 2 hrh Bs., eVi VM. 



wrong and are but conferring benefits upon all^ and b.c. 29 
it is only those who are ruHng badly who believe 
such things ; for they draw evidence from their 
own conscience of the credibility of the alleged 
slanders. And it is, furthermore, a dangerous thing 
even to show anger at such imputations (for if they 
are true, it were better not to be angry, and if they 
are false, it were better to pretend not to be angry), 
since many a man in times past has, by adopting 
this course, caused to be circulated against him- 
self scandals far more numerous and more difficult 
to bear. This, then, is my advice concerning those 
who are accused of calumniating you ; for you 
should be superior to any insult and too exalted to 
be reached by it, and you should never allow your- 
self even to imagine, or lead others to imagine, that 
it is possible for any one to treat you with contumely, 
since you desire that men shall think of you, as they 
do of the gods, that your sanctity is inviolable. If, 
however, any one is accused of plotting against you 
(and such a thing might also happen), refrain, in his 
case also, from either giving judgment yourself or 
prejudging the charge (for it is absurd that the 
same man should be both accuser and judge), but 
bring him before the senate and let him plead his 
defence there, and, if he is convicted, punish him, 
moderating the sentence as far as possible, in order 
that belief in his guilt may be fostered. For most 
men are very reluctant to believe that an unarmed 
man is plotting against one who is armed ; and the 
only way you can win them to the belief is by 
showing, so far as possible, neither resentment nor 
the desire to exact the utmost when you inflict the 
penalty. But I make an exception to this rule in 


avTLKpv^ eiravao-Tair]' ovBe yap Sifcd^eaOai rov 

^rOLOVTOV TTOV 7rpO(T7]fC€V, oXX' eV TToXefllOU fJLOLpa 


32 " Tavrd re ovv ovro), koX raXka rd TrXelcna 
Koi piiyLara tmv tw hrjpoaiw TrpoarjKovroyv, rrj 
yepovata dvariOef rd re yap KOivd kqlvo}<^ Blol- 
Keladat Bel, Kal eari irov irdcriv dv6 pdiiroi^i e/t- 
(j)VTOV Kal TO ')(^aipeLV i(f oU av irapd rov Kpeir- 
Tovc^ &)? Kal laoTip^oi avrw opre^ d^t(o6a)aL, Kal 
TO irdvTa ra pierd acj^cov tlvl yvwaOevTa Kal 
iTraivelv ct)9 olKsla Kal dyairdv ax; avOalpeTa. 

2 69 pev OVV TO ^ovXevTTjpLov Ta TOiavTa e<T(f>epe- 
adai (j)r}p,L ')(^pfjvai,, Kal irepl puev tcjv aXXcov 
irdvra^ 6poia)<; tov<; 7rap6vTa<; yvcoprjv BcBovat, 
orav Be Br) KaTTjyoprjraL ti<; avTMV, prf 7rdvTa<;, 
irXrjv dp tc<: rj pLr^Beirw fiovXevr) t) Kal iv rot? 

3 TST a pLLevKocTtv en wv Kpivrjrai. aTOirov yap rov 
p.rjBeTT(a BeBrjpap^^rjKora rj rjyopavopLrjKOTa yjrrjcfyop 
Kard TLV0<i tmv tolovtcov (pepetv, t) vrj Aia tovtcov 
TLvd Kara twv iarpaTijyrjKOTwv, rj Kal eKeivwv 
Kara tcov vTrarevKOTCov. aW' ovrot puev iirl 
Trai^Ta? Tr)v tov tl aTrocpyvaadai, e^ovaiav ix^Tco- 
aav, 01 5' dWoi eVt re tov^ opuoiov^ Kal iirl toi'9 

33 " AiKa^e Be Kal avTO<; IBla rd re icj^ea-ipa Kal 
rd dvaTTopTTcpa, oaa av irapd re Ta)v pei^ovcov 


the case of a commander of an army who openly b.o. 29 
revolts ; for of course it is fitting that such an one 
should not be tried at all, but chastised as a public 

" These matters, then, should be referred by you 
to the senate, and also those others which are of the 
greatest importance to the state. For interests which 
are shared in common should be administered in 
common. Besides, it is doubtless a quality implanted 
by nature in all men that they take delight in any 
marks of esteem received from a superior which 
imply that they are his equals, and that they not 
only approve of all decisions made by another in 
consultation with themselves, as being their own 
decisions, but also submit to them as having been 
imposed by their own free choice. Therefore I say 
that such business ought to be brought before the 
senate. Furthermore, all the senators alike, that is, 
all who are present, should vote on all other matters ; 
but when one of their own number is accused, not 
all of them should do so, unless the one who is on 
trial is not yet sitting as a senator or is still in the 
ranks of the ex-quaestors. For it is absurd that one 
who has not yet been a tribune or an aedile should 
cast a vote against men who have held those offices, 
or, worse yet, that any one of the latter should vote 
against men who have been praetors, or one of these 
last against men who have been consuls. Rather, let 
the ex-consuls alone have authority to render deci- 
sions in the case of all senators, and let the rest of the 
senators vote only in the cases of senators of a rank 
equal or inferior to their own. 

'^ But do you j udge by yourself alone the cases which 
come to you on appeal or reference from the higher 



apyovT(ov fcal irapa tmv eTrirpoTrcov, tov re 
TToXidp^ov /cat rod v7rorifJLr}rov /cat rwv eirdp')(^[ov 
rod re rov crlrov i7rL(TK07rovvro<; /cat rov vvKro<f>v- 
\aKOvvro<;, d<j)ifcvi]rar firjre jap avr68LKO<; fii]r 
avroreXr)<; ovrco ri^ ro Trapdirav earo) ware firj 

2 ovK €(j>ecri/JL0v dir avrov Mktjv yiyveaOai,. ravrd 
re ovv Kplve,^ Kal irepl twi/ tTrireajv rcov re exarov- 
rdp'Xjcov roiv i/c rov /caraXoyov Kal roiv Ihiwrwu 
rS)v TTpcorcov, orav irepl davarcoaeco^ r) Kal drLfiia^ 
rivb^ dycovi^covraL. aol yap Br) ^ ra roiavra 
povtp irpocTKeiaOa), Kal /jL7}Sel<; aX\o<; irepl avrcov 
avro<; Kad' eavrov, 8l direp elirov, BiKa^irco. 

3 fiera yap Br) aov del fiev at evrLfJuoraroi Kal ro)v 
^ovXevrwv Kal rwv linrecdv, r)Br) Be Kal erepoi 
riv€<; eK re rcov virarevKorwv Kal eK rcov ecrrpa- 
rr)yr)K6roDV dXXoi dXXore BiayiyvwdKerwaaVy Xva 
av re rov<; rpoirov^ avrcov aKpcfiearepov ev rovrco 
TTpOKarafiavOdvcov opOoo^ a(j)iatv e^U^ %/3r}<7^at, 
Kal eKelvoL it po a vy yiyv 6 jjuevot ^ rol^ re r)6eaL Kal 
rol<i povXevfJiaai aov ovrco^ e? rd<; rwv eOvoiv 

4 rjyejJLOVia^; e^icoai. Ta9 fievrot yvco/jua^ avrSiv jxr) ^ 
^avep(b<;, oaai ye Kal e7naKeyjreco<; aKpt^earepa^; 
Beovrat, BtaiTVvOdvov, Xva fxr) T0t9 nrporjKOval ^ 
a^(DV e^eiro/jievoL KaroKvcoai 7rappr)aLd^eaOac, 
dioC 69 ypa/jL/iiarela ypa(j)0/jLeva<i, oh avro<; p,6vo<i 
ivrvxdiv, virep rov /jLr)Bevl aXXo) eKBrjXov(; avrd<; 
yiyveadai, evOeco<i avrd<; diraXei^eadai KeXeve' 
ovrco yap dv jidXiara rr)v eKdarov yv(OfjLr)v BiaKpi- 

1 Kplve R. Steph., Kpivai VM. 

2 S);R. Steph., SerVM. 

^ TTpoffvyyiyvofxevoi Xyl., 7rpo<r(rvyyiyv6fM€voi VM. 

* fii] M, om. V. 

"^ vpo-fiKovai Rk., vpoffiiKovcn VM. 



officials and the procurators^ from the prefect of the 
city, the sub-censor, and from the prefects in charge 
respectively of the grain-supply and the night-watch.^ 
For none of these should have such absolute juris- 
diction and final authority that an appeal cannot 
be made from him. Do you, therefore, pass upon 
these cases and those which involve knights and 
centurions recruited from the levies and the foremost 
private citizens, when they are defendants on a charge 
punishable by death or disfranchisement. For such 
cases should be committed to you alone, and for the 
reasons mentioned no one else should judge them 
solely upon his own responsibility. Indeed, in the 
rendering of decisions generally you should be brought 
into consultation, invariably by the senators and 
knights of highest rank and also, as occasion calls for 
one or another, by the other senators who are ex- 
consuls and ex-praetors, the object being twofold : 
that you on your part may first become more in- 
timately acquainted with their characters and may 
then be able to put them to the right kind of 
employment, and that they, on their part, may first 
become familiar with your habits of mind and your 
plans before they go out to govern the provinces. 
Do not, however, ask for a public expression of their 
opinion on any matter that requires an unusually 
careful consideration, lest they hesitate to speak 
freely, since in giving their opinions they follow 
their superiors in rank ; make them, rather, write 
their opinions on tablets. These you should read in 
private, that they may become known to no one else, 
and should then order the writing to be erased forth- 
with. For the best way for you to get at each man's 

1 Praefectus annonae and prae/ectua vigilum, 



^a)(r€ia<i, el aveXeyKTov avrrjv irapa roh dWoa 
TTKTTevaeiav eaeadai. 

5 *' Kat fxevTOL /cal 7rpo<; ra? BLKa<; ra? re ein- 
(TToXa^ Kal TO, -^ijcjiLa/jiaTa tcov iroKecdv Ta9 re 
TMV IBicoTMV a^Lcoa€i<;, /cal ocra aWa rfj tt}? 
ap'XXI^; BiOLKTjaet irpoarjKei, avv€pyov<; ri Tiva<; koi 
v7rr]p6Ta<; ifc tmv lirirewv e^e' paov re yap out(o<; 
01)9 CKaara Sca')(^(op)]a6i, fcal av ovr avroyvco- 

6 fjLOVoov a<f)a\7]ar) ovt avrovpySiV iKKafifj. rrjv re 
TrapprjCTLav iravTi tw ^ovKofiivw Kal otlovv av/i- 
fBovkevaai aoi fi€Ta aBeia^ ve/xe' dv re yap 
dp€aOfj<; roL(; Xe;\;;^et<7ti^ vtt avrov, TroWa a)(f>6- 
\rj(Tr)} dv T6 Kal /jltj TreiaO^^, ovBev jSXafiijcrr}. 

7 Kal TOi'9 fJL6i^ TvxovTa<i T^9 yvcojj,r]<i Kal eiraivei 
Kal Tifia (T0i9 yap eKeivcov e^evpij/xaaiv auT09 

€vB0KL/jL7]aeL<i), TOI'9 5' ayLtayOTOJ^Ta9 /ji'f]T ClTifJidarji; 

TTOTe jxriT alridar)' rrjv yap Bidvoiav avrcov Bel 
(TKOirelv, a}OC ov rrjv ovk eTTLrvxt^cLv /jiefKpeaOai.. 

8 TO B' avro tovto Kal eirl tmv iroXefiLKCdv (f)v\aTT€, 
Kal jjbrjre iirl Bvarv^dia aKovaiw ')(^a\eTTrjvr](^ tlvI 
fii]T6 eir 6VTV')(ia (pdovrjay'^, iva Kal '7rpo6v/j,a)<i 
Kal rjBeo)^ iravTe^ virep aov KivBvvevwai, jria- 
revovTe<; on ovre 'rrTaiaavre'^ n KoXaaOrjaovrai 

9 0UT6 KaTop9d>aavre<^ iin^ovkevd rjaovrai. rroWol 
yovp TOP irapd roiv to /cpaTd exoi'Tcov (^Oovov 

^ ujcpfXiiaT) R. Steph., lixpfXriaei VM, u)<p^\-qdy]<Tri flor. 


precise opinion would be to give him the certainty b.o. 29 
that liis vote cannot be detected among the rest. 

'^ Moreover, for your judicial work and your cor- 
respondence, to help you attend to the decrees of 
the states and the petitions of private individuals, 
and for all other business which belongs to the ad- 
ministration of the empire, you must have men 
chosen from the knights to be your helpers and 
assistants. For all the details of administration will 
move along more easily in this way, and you will 
neither err through relying upon your own judg- 
ment nor become exhausted through relying upon 
your own efforts. Grant to every one who wishes 
to offer you advice, on any matter whatever, the 
right to speak freely and without fear of the con- 
sequences ; for if you are })leased with what he says 
you will be greatly benefited, and if you are not 
convinced it will do you no harm. Those who win 
your favourable opinion for their suggestions you 
should both commend and honour, since you your- 
self will gain credit through their discoveries ; but 
do not treat with disrespect or criticise those who 
fail of your approval, since it is their intentions that 
you should consider, and their lack of success 
should not call forth your censure. Guard against 
this same mistake in matters of warfare, also ; give 
way neither to anger against a man for an unin- 
tentional misfortune nor to jealousy for a piece of 
good fortune, that all may zealously and gladly 
incur danger for your sake, confident that if they 
meet with any reverse they will not be punished 
for it and that if they gain success they will not 
have snares laid for them. There have been many, 
at any rate, who through fear of jealousy on the 



^o^ovfievoL a<^a\rji>ai ri fiaXkov rj Karairpa^aL 
irpoeikovTO, kolk tovtov to /jlcv ac^aXe? avrol 
ea^ov, TO Be Sr) ^ ^Tj/jLicofjua €/c€lvol<; irpoaerpi- 
yjravro. coare auT09 to Trkelov air^ a/xcjiOTepciyv 
6fioico<i Kol Tcov 'X^ecpovcov Kol Tcov ajxeivovcov arro- 
\avcr(i)v, iirjheiroT edekrjar)^ Xoyw fiev dWoL^; epyco 
Be aavTM <^6ovrjaaL. 
4 ** YVdvd^ oaa tov9 ap^o jxevovf; koX (ppovelv kol 
irpaTTGLV ^ovXei, kol Xeye /cal irotei. ovtco yap 
av fjLoXkov TraiBeiKreios avTOV^ rj rat? eic tcov 
v6/jlo)v TLjuLcopiac^; ^ BeL/jLaT(0(T€La(;' TO fjuev yap ^rjXov 
TO Be ip60ov e^et, Kal paov Tt,<; /jLLfxetTai tcl 
KpeiTTco, opwv epyw yiyvopieva, rj (fyvXarTeTai tcl 

2 )(eLpci), afcovcov X6ya> KeKoyXvfieva. Kal avTo<i fJuev 
aKpi^ax; irdvra irpaTTe, /jLTjBejuLiav avyyvcofirjv 
aeavTW ^ ve/j,cov, coaTe Kal ev €lB(o<; oti irapa- 
XpVf^^ Traz^re? Kal oaa av eXiry^; Kal oaa av 
TTOLTiari^ fiaOrjaovTai. KaOdirep yap ev evi tlvl 
T^9 oXy]^ OLKOV/j.evr]<; OeaTptp ^rjarj, Kal ov)(^ olov 
re aoi eaTai ovBe Ppa')(VTaTov dp^apTovTi Bia- 

3 XaOelv ovTe yap KaTa p,ova^ iroTe dXXa Kal 
fieTa avx^MV del tl Trpafei?, Kal iroXvirpa- 
y/jLovoval ttcd^; tcl vito tmv dp^ovTcov ycyvo/ieva 
Kal ol XoiTTol 7rdvTe<; rjBiaTa, oiaT av dira^ KaTa- 
IxdOcoai ae dXXa /juev avTot^ irpoayopevovTa dXXa 
Be avTOV TTOLovvTa, ov Ta9 direiXaf; aov (j>o/3r]0t]- 
aovTOL * dXXd to, epya /jLLp^rjaovTat. 

4 " Tov Be Br) tmv aXXcov ^lov enriaKoiTeL pev, p.r) 
fievTOi Kol %aX€7rco9 e^eTa^e, dXX^ oaa p.ev av ixf 

1 St] M, om. V flor. ^ rifMccpiais flor., om. VM. 
8 creavro} flor. B, eavrqi VM flor. A. 
* (po^rjd-ftarovrai VM, <pofiT]<rovTat flor, 



part of those in power have chosen to accept defeat 
rather than achieve success, and as a result have 
gained safety for themselves while inflicting the loss 
upon their rulers. Therefore, since you yourself 
stand to reap the major part of the fruits of both 
outcomes, the failures as well as the successes, you 
should never consent to become jealous, nominally 
of others, but really of yourself. 

" Whatever you wish your subjects to think and 
do, this you should always say and do yourself. In 
this way you will be educating them, rather than in- 
timidating them through the punishments prescribed 
by the laws. The former policy inspires zeal, the 
latter fear; and one finds it easier to imitate that 
which is good when he sees it actually practised 
than to avoid that which is evil when he hears it 
forbidden by mere words. Be scrupulous yourself 
in all your actions, showing no mercy to yourself, 
in the full assurance that all men will forthwith 
learn of whatever you say or do. For you will live 
as it were in a theatre in which the spectators are 
the whole world ; and it will not be possible for you 
to escape detection if you make even the most 
trivial mistake. Indeed, you will never be alone, 
but always in the company of many when you do 
anything ; and since the remainder of mankind 
somehow take the keenest delight in prying into 
the conduct of their rulers, if once they ascertain 
that you are recommending to them one course but 
are yourself taking another, instead of fearing your 
threats they will imitate your actions. 

" You should, of course, supervise the lives of your 
subjects, but do not scrutinise them with too much 
rigour. Sit in judgment upon all offences reported 



irepcov rivcov icrdyrjTai, Kplve} oaa 5' av vtto 
fxr)hevo<^ aiTtd^rjrai, firjSe irpocnroLOv elSivat, efo) 

5 TMV 69 TO Br}fi6(Tiov TrXrjfM/jLeXovfjLevMv. ravra fiev 
yap tt)? 7rpoa7)Kov(7rj<; eTncTT po^rj^; , kclv fiTjSeh 
iy/caXfj, Tvyx^veiv o^elXer ra Be dXXa rd 
IBiwriKa caOi jiiev, ipa firj /cal ^ (7^aXf}<; Trore 
dveTTiTyBeUp nvl VTrrfperr) Trpo? ri ')(pr}adfi€vo<i, 

6 fJLTj fjLevToi KoX efeXe7%6. iroXXd yap r) (pvcrif; Kal 
irapd TOP vofjLOv ttoXXou? dpaprdvecv e^dyei, oU 
dv /JL6P dKpifi(o<; Ti<; eVeft?;, r/ riva rj ovSeva dv 
avTMV drL/JLcoprjrov KaraXiTToi, dv 5' dvOpcoirivay^; 
TO iinetKefi rw vevoiJucrfxevw irapaixiyvvrj, '^^X ^^ 

7 fcal a(t)cj)poviaeL€V avTOv<i. 6 fiev yap vofio^;, 
Kairoi ia'Xvpd rd KoXda/jLara dvayKaiw^ iroiov- 
IJi€vo<;, ov Bvvarai t7}9 (j)vaeci)<; del Kparelv rcbv B' 
dvOpocnTcov TLvh XavOdvciv fxev B6^avTe<^ rj Kal 
fierpico^ 7r(o<; vovOerrjOevre^; dfielvov^ yiyvovrat, ol 
fiev alaxwofievoL eXeyx9?]vai ol Be alBov/nevoi 

8 irdXiv ai^aXrjvai, <pav€pco6evTe<; Be Kdl direpvO pid- 
aavre<; rj Kal wepa rod /lerplov KoXaaOeur€<; rd re 
v6V0fjLi-a/jL6va Trdvra GvyyjkovGi Kal Karairarovai, 
Kal /Jb6vat<; ral^ rrj^ ^vaeco^ 6piial<s BovXevovai. 
KaK rovrov ovre ro 7rdvra<; avrov<; KoXd^etv 
paBiov, ovre rb irepiopdv ^avepo)<i riva^ daeXyai- 
vovra<; evirpeire^ yiyverai. 

9 "Ta p^ev Br) ovv d/jiaprt]p.ara tmv dvOpcoTrcov 
rovrov aoi rov rpoirov, irXrjv rcbv irdvv dvrjKearcov, 

* Kp7ve R. Steph., Kpivai VM. 
2 n^ Ka\ M, KoL n^Y, 



to you by others^ but act as if you were not even b.c. 29 
aware of offences concerning wliich no one has made 
accusation — except in tlie case of trespasses against 
the public interest. These ought^ of course, to re- 
ceive proper attention, even if no one files a charge ; 
but as to private shortcomings, while you should 
indeed have knowledge of them, in order that you 
may avoid making a mistake some day by employing 
an unsuitable person as your agent in some matter, 
yet you should not go so far as to convict those who 
are guilty of them. For human nature often tempts 
men to commit many a violation of the law, and if 
you were to prosecute such offences rigorously, you 
would leave unpunished few or none of the offenders; 
but if in a kindly spirit you mix reasonableness with 
the prescriptions of the law, you may succeed in 
bringing the offenders to their senses. The law, 
you know, though it of necessity makes its punish- 
ments severe, cannot always conquer nature. And 
so in the case of some men, if they think that their 
sins have not been discovered, or if they have been 
reproved but not unduly, they reform, either be- 
cause they feel disgraced at having been found out, 
or because their self-respect keeps them from falling 
again ; whereas, if they have been publicly exposed 
and have lost all sense of shame, or have been 
chastised unduly, they overturn and trample under 
foot all the conventions of the law and become 
wholly slaves to the impulses of nature. Therefore 
it is neither easy to punish offenders invariably in 
all cases nor is it seemly to allow them in particular 
cases to flaunt their wickedness openly, 

" Now this is the way I advise you to deal with 
men's shortcomings, with the exception of those 



fierayeipt^eaOai irapaivct), ra 8' opOco^; i/tt' avrcav 
ycyvofjieva koI virep rrjv a^iav tmp epycov Tijiav 
ovTco yap av /jLoXiara Trotrjaeiaf; avrov'^ ro)v re 
')(^eip6vcdv airkyeaQaii rfj ^ikavOpwiria, koI tCov 

10 PeXriovwv i(j)iea6ai, rfj /jLeyaXoBcopua. /jlt] yap tol 
KaTaZeiar)^ fjLrjO^ otl eTTiXei'^eL ae irore rj 'X^prjixara 
rj raWa oU tov<; ayaOov tl 7roLouvTa<; d/Jbei-yjrr) 
(ttoXv yap fj,dWov eycoye eXdrrov^ avrcov tou? ev 
TL iraOelv d^iov<; ol/xac yevrjaeaOai, Toaavrr)<; aov 
Kol yrj^ /col OaXdTT7]<; dp)(^0VT0<;), firjO^ on rcvh 

11 euepyerrjOevre^ d'X^apicnd)^ ri Trpd^ovacv ovBev 
yap OVTCO Kal hovkol Kal olKetovraL nva, kclv 
aXkoTpio'^ KCLV eyOpo^ wv tv^J}} co? to fjL7]T dBi/cel- 
adai Kal irpoaerc koI €v 7rd(T')(^6iv. 

35 ** II/jo? /JL6V ovv Tou? a\Xov<i ovtw oroi Trpoacfye- 
peaOai yvco/xrjv BiScofir aavrw Be Brj p.'^re e^aXXov 
TL jXTjO \j7repr)<^avov fiTjre irapd rcov dWo)v firjre 
irapd tt}? /Sol'X^? t) epyay rj kol \6yw Bodev irepL- 

2 t3?7?. Tot? [xev yap d\\oi<; Koafiov rj irapd ctov 
Ttfjur] <j>6p€i, (7ol 3* avrw fjuet^ov fxev tmv V7rap')(^6v- 
T(ov ovBev av BoOelr], L/Tro-x/r/a B' av fcijSBrjXia^; 
TToWr} TTpoayevoiTO' Kal ydp tol tmv fiev dWcov 
ovBeh 6KCi)v ToiovTo TV TM KpaTOVVTi '\^7](j:>i^ea6 at 
BoK€L, irdvTa Be Brj rt? avTa avTo^ irap eavTov 
XafjL^dvcov ovx ocrov ovk eiraivov Xayei, dXXd Kal 

3 yeXwTa TrpOGO^XiGKdvei, Tiqv re ovv dXXrjv 
Xa/jLTTpoTrjTa aavTO) ^ Bid T(ov dyadcov epycov 
7rapa<TK€va^€, Kal elKova^; arov ^(^pvcTd^ /xev rj Kal 
dpyvpdf; /jLTjBeiroTe eTriTpe^jryf; yeveaOai (ov ydp 
fjLOvov Bairavripal dXXd Kal eveTTi/SovXevTOC Kal 

^ aravr^ R. Steph., ^avr^ VM. 



persons who are utterly incorrigible ; and you should 
honour their good actions even beyond the merits of 
the deeds themselves. For you can best induce men 
to refrain from evil ways by kindness, and to desire 
better ways by liberality. You need have no fear 
that you will ever lack either money or the other 
means of rewarding those who do good deeds. On 
the contrary, I fancy that those who will deserve 
your favours will prove far too few, seeing that you 
hold empire over so vast an extent of land and sea. 
Nor need you fear that any who have received your 
benefactions will ever act ungratefully ; for nothing 
so captivates and conciliates a man, be he foreigner 
or foe, as being not only the object of no wrongs 
but, in addition, the recipient of kindness. 

" As regards your subjects, then, you should so 
conduct yourself, in my opinion. So far as you your- 
self are concerned, permit no exceptional or prodigal 
distinction to be given you, through word or deed, 
either by the senate or by any one else. For whereas 
the honour which you confer upon others lends 
glory to them, yet nothing can be given to you 
that is greater than what you already possess, and, 
besides, no little suspicion of insincerity would 
attach to its giving. No subject, you see, is ever 
supposed to vote any such distinction to his ruler 
of his own free will, and since all such honours as 
a ruler receives he must receive from himself, he 
not only wins no commendation for the honour but 
becomes a laughing-stock besides. You must there- 
fore depend upon your good deeds to provide for 
you any additional splendour. And you should 
never permit gold or silver images of yourself to be 
made, for they are not only costly but also invite 



o\i,yo')(^p6vioi sIglv), dXka<; he iv avral^ rat? rwv 
avOpooircov ^frv^at^; koI a/C7]pdrov<; koI aOavdrovf; 

4 i^ evepyeaiMV Srjfiiovpyei. fir] p^evroi fiyBe vaov 
TTore TvepdZr)^ aavro) yevofievov. /jLarrjv yap 
irajJUTrKt^drj '^ptj/jLara €9 ra roiavra dvaXiafceTai, 
a fcpecTTov iarLV e? rd dvayKOia BaTravaaOai 
(ttXoOto? yap aKpi^ri's ou^ ouro)? e/c rov irdXka 
Xa/jLJSdveiv cw? €k tov /irj TroWd dvaXiorKetv dOpoi- 
^erai), fcal e? evKkaav ovBev dir avrcov irpoayi- 

6 yverai. dperrj /xev yap L(ToOeov<; ttoXXou? iroLel, 
')(^6tpoTCvrjTbf; 5' ovSeh Trcoirore ^eo? eyevero, c5o-Te 
ao\ p.ev dyaOw re ovri /cal /caXw? dp^ovri irdaa 
fjbev yvj refievi(Tp.a ecnai, Trdaai he iroXei^ vaoi,^ 
TrdvTC'^ Se dv6 pwiroi dydXfxara (ev yap rat^ yvcio- 

6 pai,<; avTMV del p^er evho^ia<; evihpvOrjarj), tov<; 3' 
aWft)? 7r&)9 rd Kpdrr) hteirovTa'^ ov povov ov 
aep^vvvei ra Totavra, Kav ev d7rdaaL<; Tal<; iroXecnv 
e^aipeOfi, dWd Kal it poahtalSdXkei, rpoiracd re 
Ttva T?}9 KaKia^ avrcov Kal pbviqpela t% dSiKLa<; 
yiyvopeva' Saw yap dv eirl TrXelov dvrapKearj, 
roaovT(p pdWov Kal rj KaKoho^ia avrcov Siap^evei. 
S6 war etirep dddvaro<; 6vra)<; e7nOvpe?<; yeveaOat, 
ravrd re ovrco irpdrre, Kal Trpoaeri to pev Oelov 
rravrrj 7rdvra)<; avro^; re aefiov Kara rd irdrpia 
Kal T0U9 dWov<; ripdv dvdyKa^e, rov<; Be Srj ^evi- 

2 ^ovrd<; ri irepl avrb Kal plcmi Kal KoXa^e, p,r) 
povov rcav 6eo)v eveKa, wv o ^ Karacf) povi]aa<; ovB* 

^ vaoi M, om. V. 2 (5 supplied by St. 



destruction and last only a brief time ; but rather b.c. 29 
by your benefactions fashion other images in the 
hearts of your people, images wliich will never 
tarnish or perish. Neither should you ever permit 
the raising of a temple to you ; for the expenditure 
of vast sums of money on such objects is sheer 
waste. This money would better be used for neces- 
sary objects ; for wealth which is really wealth is 
gathered, not so much by getting largely, as by 
saving largely. Then, again, from temples comes 
no enhancement of one's glory. For it is virtue 
that raises many men to the level of gods, and no 
man ever became a god by popular vote. Hence, 
if you are upright as a man and honourable as a 
ruler, the whole earth will be your hallowed pre- 
cinct, all cities your temples, and all men your 
statues, since within their thoughts you will ever be 
enshrined and glorified. As for those, on the con- 
trary, who administer their realms in any other way, 
such honours not only do not lend holiness to them, 
even though shrines are set apart for them in all 
their cities, but even bring a greater reproach upon 
them, becoming, as it were, trophies of their base- 
ness and memorials of their injustice ; for the 
longer these temples last, the longer abides the 
memory of their infamy. Therefore, if you desire 
to become in very truth immortal, act as I advise ; 
and, furthermore, do you not only yourself worship 
the Divine Power everywhere and in every way in 
accordance with the traditions of our fathers, but 
compel all others to honour it. Those who attempt 
to distort our religion with strange rites you should 
abhor and punish, not merely for the sake of the 
gods (since if a man despises these he will not pay 



dWov av TLVo<; TTpoTLiJLrj(r€Lev, aXX! on koX Kaivd 
TLva Baifiovia ol rotovrot avTea<^epovT€<i ttoXXou? 
avaireiOovaiv aXXoTpcovofielv, kclk tovtov kol 
(Twcofioalai /cal (Tvardaei'; kraipelal re 'yiyvovTai, 
direp rjKLCFTa jxovap'Xia (TVfi(f>€p€i. /jliJt ovv dOew 

3 T£z/l fiTjre yorjTi (Tvyx^prjar)^ elvai. fiavTiKt) jiev 
yap dvayKala icrrL, kol iravTco^i Tivd<; koI lepoiTTa^ 
/cat ol(DVL(TTd<s diroSei^ov, oI? ol ffov\6/jL€voi ri 
KoivcocraaOaL avvecrovTar tov<; 8e Sr) jxayevra^ 
irdvv ovK eivai irpoarjKei. 7roX\,ov<; yap TroXXa^rt? 
ol TOiovTOt, rd jMev riva dXrjOrj rd Be 8r) irXeia) 

4 -y^evhrj Xiyovre^;, veo^fiovv eiraipovai. ro 8' avro 
TOVTO Kal TOiv ^iXoao(j)€Lv irpoaTTOLOVfjuevcov ov/c 
oXiyoL Bpcoar Slo Kal iKelvov<; (j>vXdaa€adaL aoi 
irapaivo). /ult) yap otl Kal ^Apeiov Kal ^AOrjvo- 
Bcopov /caXcov Kal dyaOcov dvBpo)v ireireipacrai, 
iriareve Kal rov<; dXXov<; Trdvra^ tou? (^iXoaot^elv 
XeyovTa<i 6iJLoiov<; avT0L<; elvar fMvpla yap KaKa 
Kal Brjixov^ Kal IBioaTa^ to Trpoaxv/^^ nve^ rovro 
Trpo^aXXofievoL Bpooai. 

37 ** T^ fjuev ovv yvcofirj Kal tw purjBevo^; irXelovo'^ 
TO)V v'7rap'X,ovTcov eiridvixelv elprjviKWTarov elvai ae 
XPV> '^^^'^ ^^ TvapacTKeval^ iroXe/niKMraTOV, otto)? 
jidXiara fJuev fjbrjre eOeXyarj /jurjre ein')(eLprjar) rt? 
dSiKrjaal ore, el Be firj, paBico^ Kal irapa'xprjfia 
2 KoXaa-Qfj. Kal erreiBr) ye dvayKalov eari Kal Bid 
ravra Kal Bid rdXXa Kal ^raKovareLv Ti,va<; Kal 
BioTrreveiv irdvra rd rfj r^yejiovia aov irpoarjKOvra, 
Iva firfBev tcov <^vXaKrj<; tivo<; Kal iiravopOcoaeoxi 



honour to any other being), but because such men, b.c. 29 
by bringing in new divinities in place of the old, 
persuade many to adopt foreign practices, from which 
spring up conspiracies, factions, and cabals, which 
are far from profitable to a monarchy. Do not, 
therefore, permit anybody to be an atheist or a 
sorcerer. Soothsaying, to be sure, is a necessary 
art, and you should by all means appoint some 
men to be diviners and* augurs, to whom those will 
resort who wish to consult them on any matter; 
but there ought to be no workers in magic at all. 
For such men, by speaking the truth sometimes, 
but generally falsehood, often encourage a great 
many to attempt revolutions. The same thing is 
done also by many who pretend to be philosophers ; 
hence I advise you to be on your guard against them, 
too. Do not, because you have had experience ot 
good and honourable men like Areius and Atheno- 
dorus,^ believe that all the rest who claim to be 
philosophers are like them ; for infinite harm, both 
to communities and to individuals, is worked by cer- 
tain men who but use this profession as a screen. 

" Now you should be wholly inclined to peace, so 
far as your purpose is concerned and your desire for 
nothing more than you now possess, but as regards 
your military preparations you should be distinctly 
warlike, in order that, if possible, no one may either 
wish or attempt to wrong you, but if he should, that 
he may be punished easily and instantly. And inas- 
much as it is necessary, for these and other reasons, 
that there shall be persons who are to keep eyes and 
ears open to anything which affects your imperial 
position, in order that you may not be unaware of 

* For Areius see li. 16, 4 ; for Athenodorus, Ivi. 43, 2. 


Seofjiivoov a<yvofi<^, fjue/jLvrjao on ov ^PV 7r«<Tti^ 
aTrXoo? TOt? XeyofievoL^; vtt avrSyv iriareveiv, aXk! 

3 cLKpL^S)^ avra Staa/coTrelv. (7V)(yo\ yap, ol fiev 
/iiiaovvT€<i Tiva<;, ol 8' eTnOvfjiOvvre^ mv e^ovaiv, 
aXkoL 'X^apL^ofjievoL tktlv, aWoi> ')(pi]/j,aTa alrrj- 
aavrh Tiva<i koI firj XajSovref;, iTrrjped^ova-iv 
avroiff; &>? vecorepc^ovra^ rj /cal ciWo tl aveimrj- 
Bewv Kara rov avrapxovvTO^; i) (^povovvra^ rj 

4 \eyovTa<;. ovkovv evOv^ ovBe /SaStw? irpoaexeLV 
avToh Bel, aWa koI irdw Tj-avra SLeXey^^eiv' 
^paSvva<i fxev yap iv Ta> Tnarevaai riva ovSev 
fiiya dhiKYjOrjar), airevaa'^ he. tol^ av tl koI 
i^afjidproi^;, o /jlt) SwrjOtjarj dpaKeaaaOac. 

5 " Tifidv [lev ovv ae tov<; dyaOov^ Kal twv 
aTreXevdepoov Kal tcop dWayv rSyv avvovrcop aoi 
Kal Bel Kal dvayKalov eajr Kal yap Koapiov Kal 
dcr^dXeidv aoL fieydXriv tovto ocaei. firj fjuevToi 
Kal virepoyKov tl la^^^vercoaav, dWd dKptf3o)<; 
7rdvTe<i aco(ppopebTco(Tav, MaTe ae /jbijSev vir* avTcov 

6 BtafiXi^Orjvaf irdvTa yap ocra dv rj Ka\(o<i rj 
KaKM^ TTpd^coaL, aol nrpocTTeOrjaeTaL, Kal tolouto<; 
avT0<i v<j)^ dirdvTcov vo/jLiaO^o-rj oirola dv eKeivoL^ 
TToieLV i7rLTpe7rr}<;. 

"Tou? fjiev Brj ovv BvvaTOV<; fiy irXeoveKTelv Tiva 
/jLr]Be av avKo^avTela-OaL ew fjurjBe eaTco tlvI avTcov 


any situation that requires measures of precaution or b.c. 29 
correction, you should have such agents, but re- 
member that you should not beHeve absolutely 
everything they say, but should carefully inves- 
tigate their reports. For there are many who, 
from various motives, — either because they hate 
others or covet their possessions, or because they 
want to do a favour to some one else, or because 
they have demanded money from some one and have 
not obtained it, — bring false charges against the 
persons concerned, pretending that they are en- 
gaged in sedition or are planning or saying some- 
thing prejudicial to the ruler. Therefore one ought 
not to give heed to them forthwith or readily, but 
rather should prove everything they say. For if 
you are too slow in placing your trust in one of 
these men, you will suffer no great harm, but if 
you are too hasty you may possibly make a mistake 
which you cannot repair. 

^^Now it is both right and necessary for you to 
honour the good who are associated with you, both 
your freedmen and the rest ; for this course will 
bring you credit and a large measure of security. 
They should not, however, acquire excessive power, 
but should all be rigorously kept under discipline, 
so that you shall never be brought into discredit by 
them. For everything they do, whether good or ill, 
will be set to your account, and you will yourself be 
considered by the world to be of a character akin to 
the conduct which you do not object to in them. 

"As regards the men of power and influence, then, 
vou should not permit them to overreach others, 
nor yet, on the other hand, to be blackmailed by 
others ; neither let the mere fact that a man 



avTo'- TovTO eyKXrjfia, on Svvarai-, kclv iJbr]hev 

7 d/naprdvy. tol<; Be Sr] ttoWol^ dfivve jmev Icrx^' 
pa)<i dScKov/xevoL^, jxr) nrpoaeye he pahi(j)<^ alrioy- 
fievoi^, aXX' avrd rd epya KaO' eavrd e^era^e, 
fxrjTe e? to Trpoe')(pv irdv viroTrrevcov jJLrjre tw 

8 KaTaheearepw iravrl Triarevcov. kol tov<; fjuev 
epya^o/xepovi ')(^prj(TLp,6v re ri T€'Xvci)/JLepov<; rifia, 
TOv<i B\ dpyovvTa<; rj /cal <f)\avp6v ti irpaypLarevo- 
fievov; /j,L(Tei, Lva rcov jxev Btd ra? w^eXta? opcyvco- 
fievoi, T(ov Be Bid ra? ^rj/nia^i d7re)(^6/jL€voi, iTp6<; re 
rd oLKela d/jLeLVOV<; koL irpo^ rd Koivd avficpopco- 
repoi aoL yiyvwvTat,. 

9 " Yiakov /JL6V ovv iari koX to Ta tmv IBlcotcov 
d/jL(j)La-^7jT7]fjLara co? ekd')(^Lara iroiovvra rd<i Bia- 
\va€C<} avTcov co? rd'^^Lara /caOiardvai, KdWiarov 
Be TO Ta? TMV Brjjxwv op/jud^; KokoveLV, kclv eVeu^^o- 
jievoi TLva rfj re dp^fj /cat rrj a-wrrjpla rrj re tvxv 
aov eK^cd^eaOai TLva<; rj irpd^ai ti t) dvakoicraL 

10 irapd Bvvapiv eiriyeipwaiy jxt] eirLTpeireiv, rd^ re 
e^Opa^ avTOiv kol rd<; (^Ckoripiia^ rd<; irpo^; dW?]- 
Xof 9 Travrdiraaiv eKfcoirretv, kol ixrjre i7ro)vvfMLa<i 
rt,vd<i K€vd<i p^Yjr dWo tl e'f ov BLepex0/]aovral 
riatv e(j)Levat a^iai iroielaOai. paBiw; Be croi 
7rdvre<; /cal e? ravra kol e? rd dXka koX IBia kol 
KOLvfj ireiOapxvaovaLVy dv firjBev irapd ravra 

^ abrh M, om. V. 



possesses power be imputed to him as a crime even ac. 29 
though he commit no offence. But in the case of 
the masses, vindicate them vigorously when they are 
wronged and be not too ready to give heed to accu- 
sations against them ; but make the accused persons' 
actions alone and by themselves the object of your 
scrutiny, neither harbouring suspicion against what- 
ever is superior nor placing your trust in whatever is 
inferior. Honour those who are diligent and those 
who by their skill devise something useful, but ab- 
hor those who are slothful or who busy themselves 
with trivial things, in order that your subjects, 
cleaving to the former by reason of your emolu- 
ments and holding themselves aloof from the latter 
by reason of your punishments, may become, as you 
desire, more competent in respect to their private 
affairs and more serviceable in respect to the in- 
terests of the state. 

" It is well to make the number of disputes on the 
part of private citizens as few as possible and to 
render as expeditious as possible their settlement; 
but it is most important to restrain the rash enter- 
prises of communities, and if they are attempting to 
coerce others or to go beyond their capacity or 
means in any undertaking or expenditure, to forbid 
it, even though in their petitions they invoke 
blessings upon the empire and pray for your welfare 
and good fortune. It is important also to eradicate 
their mutual enmities and rivalries, and not to 
permit them to assume empty titles or to do any- 
thing else that will bring them into strife with 
others. And all will readily yield obedience to you, 
both individuals and communities, in this and in every 
other matter, provided that you make no exceptions 



jJLrjheiTOTe avy)(^a)p7]ar)<; tlvl' ^ rj yap avcofxakia Koi 
11 Ta AraXco? TreTrrjyora BtaXveL. /cal Sia tovt ovB' 
alrelv n ap')(i)v, 6 ye firj Soicret?, eir lt peireiv (T<f>iaiv 
6(j>6LX€t<;, aWa kuI avrb tovto nrpoiTov la^vpa)<; 
(jyvXarreLv a<f>a<i avayKa^eiv, to /xrjSev d^iovp tmv 


38 " Tavra fiev irepX eKelvcdV Xeyco, Ka&* aTravrcov 
Be (TOi avfi/SovXevcD /jL7]t d7ro')(p'^(TaadaL ttotc rfj 
i^ovaia, firjr olrjOrjvai fieiwaiv riva avTrjf; elvai av 
firj ircivra cltt a^airXo)^ oaa Bvvaaai koi TroL^arjii- 
aXX' ocTO) fiaXXov irdvO^ ocra dv ^ovXrjOfj'^ kol 
Bvvrjarj irpd^ai, roaw fiaXXop irpoOvixov iravd' 

2 ocra irpoan^icei, fiovXecrOai. kol dei ye avTO<i irapa 
aavTw e^ira^e, etre opOco^; re irotel^ etre kol 
fxrj, TL re Trpdrrovrd ere (^LXrjaovai nve^i koX 
Ti jJLrj, Xva rd fxev irotfj'i avTcov rd Be eicKXivr)^. 
/JLT] yap Brj rjyrjarj " Be6vTW<i tc irapd tovto irpaT- 
Teiv Bo^eiv, dv fj,r)Bevo<i alTiWfjbevov ae dKovcrrjf;' 
/mrjS' dva/jLeiV7)<; ovtco Ttvd eK^povrjcrai TTore coo-re 

3 Goi ^avepo)^ tl i^oveiBiaai. tovto fxev yap ov- 
Be\<i dv TTOLrjaeieVi ovS* el acpoBpa dBiKrjOeir)' irdv 
yap TOvvavTLOV kol eiraivelv ttoXXoI ev ye t& 
(j)av€p(p T0U9 dBiKOVvrd^; a<pa<; dvayKa^ovTai, 
dvTayct)vi^6fjL6voi firj Bo/celv opyl^eaOat,. tov B' 
dp'XpvTa 'X^prj jMY} e^ (ov Xeyovori TLve<^ TeKjxaipe- 
aOai, TYjv Bidvotav avTcov, dXX i^ wv ^povelv 
avTov<; elK6<i iaTi. 

39 ''TavTa ae kuI Ta TOiavTa povXofiaL TrpaTreiv 

* Tiv R. Steph., Tl VM. 2 5^ ^7^?? M, Siriyva-'ni V. 



whatever to this rule as a concession to anybody ; b.o. 29 
for the uneven application of laws nullifies even 
those which are well established. Consequently 
you ought not to allow your subjects even to ask 
you, in the first place, for what you are not going 
to give them, but should compel them strenuously 
to avoid at the outset this very practice of peti- 
tioning for what is prohibited. 

^^So much for these things. And I counsel you 
never to make full use of your power against your 
subjects as a body, nor to consider it any curtailment 
of your power if you do not actually put into effect 
all the measures you are in a position to enforce ; 
but the greater your ability to do all you desire, the 
more eager you should be to desire in all things 
only what it is fitting you should desire. Always 
question your own heart in private whether it is 
right or not to do a given thing, and what you 
should do or refrain from doing to cause men to 
love you, with the purpose of doing the one and 
avoiding the other. For do not imagine that men 
will think you are doing your duty if only you hear 
no word of censure passed upon you ; neither must 
you expect that any man will so abandon his senses 
as to reproach you openly for anything you do. No 
one will do this, no matter how flagrantly he has 
been wronged ; on the contrary, many are com- 
pelled even to commend their oppressors in public, 
though they must struggle to keep from showing 
their resentment. But the ruler must get at the 
disposition of his subjects, not by what they say, 
but by what they in all likelihood think. 

"These are the things I would have you do — these 
and others of like nature ; for there are many which 



TToWa yap koX TrapaXeLTro) Sia ro (jltj olov re elvai 
nravTa avra Kaddira^ crvWa^ovTa elirelv. ev 8' 
ovv ev fC6(f>a\aCq) koX Kara tmv elpr^jjuevcov kol 

2 Kara twv Xolttmv (ppdao). av yap oaa av erepov 
TLva dp^avrd aov iroielv iOekrjcrrj^;, ravra avTO<; 
avTeirdyyekro'^ irpda-arj^i, ovre ri dp^aprrjar) /cal 
Trdvra KaropOooaeL^;, icaK tovtov kuI rjBcara Kal 

3 dKLvhworara ^icoarj. ttco? fMev yap ov"^ co? 
jrarepa, ttw? 3' oi)^ &>? acoTTjpa Kal Trpoao^jrovTal 
a€ diravTe^ Kal ^iXrjCTOvaLV, orav ae opMai 
Koap^iov ev^ioTOV 6V7r6\ep,ov elpr]valov ovra, orav 
prjO' v^pi^r)<; TV pL'^Te irXeoveKTrj^, orav €k rod 

4 6/jLolov affiiat irpocT^epr], Kal p^rj auro? p,6i> 
TrXovrfjf; rov^ B' dXX,ov<; dpyvpoXoyfj^;, p^rjB* avr6<i 
fxev T/)f(^a9 Tot'9 ^' dXXov<; raXamcdpfi^i, p.r)B' 
avTO<^ p.ev dKoXaaTaivrj<^ tov<; S* dXXov<; vovOerfj^, 
dXX! 6? Trdvra Br) irdvrw^i opoiorpoTrcorara avroh 
^fj<i; tiicrr avro^ irapd aavrw pAya (pvXaKrrjpcov 
ev r(p pirjBeva rrore dBiKrjaaL e%ft)z^ Odpaei, Kal 
iriareve p,oi Xeyovri ore ovre p,icrr)6t]crr) rrore ovre 

5 eiTipovXevdrjar). rovrov Be Brj ovr(o<i e)(^ovro<; 
irdad ae dvdyKrj Kal r}Be(o<; ^iMvar rl p,ev yap 
rfBiOV, ri Be evBaip.ovearep6v ean rod irdvrcov rwv 
ev dv0p(O7roL<; dyaO(hv p^er dperrj^ diroXavovra 
Kal roL<; dXXoi<; avra BiBovat BiivaaOai; 

40 *' Tavrd re ovv Kal rdXXa irdvO^ oaa etprjKa ev- 
vot]aa<i TTeLcrOrjri, p,0L, Kal p.r] irpor) rrjv rv)(rjv, rjn^ 
ae CK irdvrcdv eireXe^aro Kal irpoearrjcraro, &)? 


I must pass over, since it is impossible to include b.c. 29 
them all in a single discussion. There is, however, 
one statement which will serve as a summary with 
respect both to what has been said and to what has 
been left unsaid : if you of your own accord do all that 
you would wish another to do if he became your 
ruler, you will err in nothing and succeed in every- 
thing, and in consequence you will find your life 
most happy and utterly free from danger. For how 
can men help regarding you with affection as father 
and saviour, when they see that you are orderly and 
upright in your life, successful in war though in- 
clined to peace ; when you refrain from insolence 
and greed ; when you meet them on a footing of 
equality, do not grow rich yourself while levying 
tribute on them, do not live in luxury yourself 
while imposing hardships upon them, are not licen- 
tious yourself while reproving licentiousness in them, 
— when, instead of all this, your life is in every 
way and manner precisely like theirs ? Therefore, 
since you have in your own hands a mighty means 
of protection, — that you never do wrong to another, 
— be of good courage and believe me when I tell 
you that you will never become the object of hatred 
or of conspiracy. And since this is so, it follows of 
necessity that you will also lead a happy life ; for 
what condition is happier, what more blissful, than, 
possessing virtue, to enjoy all the blessings which 
men can know and to be able to bestow them upon 
others .'' 

" Think upon these things and upon all that I have 
told you, and be persuaded of me, and let not this 
fortune slip which has chosen you from all mankind 
and has set you up as their ruler. For, if you 



€t 76 TO fiev TTpd^fJia to rrj^ ^ovapx^ci^ culpV^ to 8' 
ovojxa TO T^? pa(Ti\eia<^ w? KaX iirdpaTov <^opfj, 
TOVTo fiev fjLT) 7rpo(T\d/3rj<;, tj} Be Brj rov Kaiaapo*; 
2 Trpoa-rjyopia %pcoyLt€f09 avTdp')(eL. el 8' ovv Ka\ 
aX\(ov TLvwv eiTLK\r)aewv irpoaher), Bcocrova-i, fiev 
(TOL rr)v rov avroKparopo';, codTrep koX ro) Trarpi 
oov eBcoKav, ae/Siovcrt Be ae kol erepa rivl irpoa- 
prj(T€i, Mare ae irav to t?}? ^aaiX€ia<; epyov avev 
Tov tt}? eircovvfila^; avrrjf; eTTK^Oovov KapTTOvcrdai. 
41 ^aiKrjva<; fiev ravra elircbv eiravaaro, 6 Be Brj 
J^alcrap djji^OTepov<; jiev a(f)a(; koX eVt rfj iroXvvola 
KoX eVl TT) 7ro\v\oyLa rfj re rrappijaia l(T')(ypod<; 
iiryveae, ra Be Brj rov MaiKijvov jxaWov elXero. 
ov fxevroi koX rrdvra evOv^ coairep virereOeiro 
eiTpa^e, (jjo^rjOeh firj kol (T(j)aXfj ri, dOp6(o<; 

2 fxerappvO fiicraL tou? dv6 pooirov^ ede\ricra<^' dWa 
ra fjuev Trapaxp^/^cc /jiereKoa/jLrjae rd 8* varepov, 
Kai nva kol roU fierd ravra dp^ovac rroirjcrai 
Karekiirev &)? Ka\ Kara /caipov /uloXXov ev rw 
XPoi^V yGvr)a6jjb€va. Ka\ avra> /cal 6 ^ AypiiTTra^ 
7r/oo9 rrdvra, Kalirep rr)v evavriav a^icn, yvco/jLrjv 
Sou?, TTpoOvjiiorara avvrjparo, warrep av el Kal 
ear)y7]rr]<; avrcov eyeyovei. 

3 Tavrd re 6 Kataap, Kal ^ oaa dvco fiot, rov 
\6yov etpTjrai, errpa^ev ev rw eret eKeivtp ev a> 
TO TrejjbiTrov VTrdrevae, Kal rrjv rov avroKpd- 

^ 6 KaTffap Kal R. Steph., /col 6 Kalffap VM. 

1 A reference to the title of "Augustus." The Greek 
verb ffe^St'Cej*', here rendered by this long phrase for the sake 



prefer the monarchy in fact but fear the title of* b.c. 
' king ' as being accursed, you have but to decline 
this title and still be sole ruler under the appel- 
lation of 'Caesar.' And if you require still other 
epithets, your people will give you that of ' iinperator * 
as they gave it to your father ; and they will pay 
reverence to your august position ^ by still another 
term of address, so that you will enjoy fully the 
reality of the kingship without the odium which 
attaches to the name of 'king.' " 

Maecenas thus brought his speech to an end. 
And Caesar heartily commended both him and 
Agrippa for the wealth of their ideas and of their 
arguments and also for their frankness in expressing 
them ; but he preferred to adopt the advice of 
Maecenas. He did not, however, immediately put 
into effect all his suggestions, fearing to meet with 
failure at some point if he purposed to change the 
ways of all mankind at a stroke ; but he introduced 
some reforms at the moment and some at a later 
time, leaving still others for those to effect who 
should subsequently hold the principate, in the 
belief that as time passed a better opportunity would 
be found to put these last into operation. And 
Agrippa, also, although he had advised against these 
policies, cooperated with Caesar most zealously in 
respect to all of them, just as if he had himself pro« 
posed them. 

These and all the rest that I have recorded earlier 
in this narrative were the acts of Caesar in the year 
in which he was consul for the fifth time ; and he 

of the word-play, is from the same root as 2e)3a(rToy, the 
usual term for Augustus (cf. liii. 16, 8). Dio, however, i-egu- 
larly transliterates the Roman title, when he uses it ; but he 
generally refers to Augustus as Caesar. 



Topo? iiriKXr^cnv iireOGTo. keyco he ov rrjv iirl 
rat? vt/cai^; Kara to ap')(^cuov BiBofjbivTjv Tiaiv 
{eKeivqv <yap 7roWdKL<; jxev kol rrporepov iroWoLKi^i 
he Kol varepov air avroi)v rcov epycov eka^ev, 
4 ware kol aira^ icai elKOGaKi<^^ ovo\xa avroicpa- 
TO/309 o''X,€Lv) dWa Tr)V erepav ttjv to KpdTO<; 
ht,a(Tr)fjLaLVovaav, wairep rw re irarpl avrov 
TO) KaLcrapi /cat rot? Tratcrl tol<; re e/cyovoi's^ 
iyjr'^(j>i(7T0. \ 

42 Kal fjbera ravra ri/jLyreixTas crvv rw ^AypiTnra 
dWa re rcva hidypdcoae kol Tr]v ^ovXrjv e^ijraae. 
TToWol fiev yap lirirrj^ ttoXXoI he Kal Trefol irapd 
rrjv d^iav eK tmv e/ii(pv\Lcov TroXeficov e^ovkevov, 
ware Kal e? ^tXtou? to TrX'tj pw/xa r?}? yepovaias 

2 av^7]0r]vai. tovtov<; ovv eKKplvai ffovkrjOeU avTO^ 
fiev ovheva avToyv dTrrjkei-^e, it poT pe's^dfievo'^ he 
a(j)a<; eK tov avveihoTo^ tov re y€Vov<; Kal rod 
^Lov hiKa(TTd<; iavTol^ yeveadai to fiev irpSiTOV 
TTevTrjKOVTa irov eireiaev eOekovTa^ eKaTTjvat tov 
avvehplov, eneiTa he Kal dkkov<; eKaTov Kal retr- 

3 aapaKOVTa /jHfjLijaaaOai (T^a<^ rjvdyKaae. Kal 
avTMi' riTifxcoae fxev ovheva, tcl 8' ovofxaTa twv 
hevTepcov e^edrjKS' rot? yap iTpOTepoi<^, oTt /jurj 
€')(^p6viaav aXX-' evOv<i e7retOdp)(rjo-dv ol, dcprJKe to 
oveihio-fjia, wctt avTOV<i /jltj eKhrjfjLoaievOrjvai. 
ovTOL fiev ovv ^ eKovdLoi hrjOev lht,d)T€vaav, 
KvivTOv he hr) ^TaTikiov Kal irdvv aKOVTa t?}? 

^ aira^ Kol iiKoaaKis Reim., ^v UK6<nv VM. 

^ iKy6voi5 VM, iyy6voi.s Xiph. ^ olv M, om. V, 



assumed the title of imperator. I do not here refer b.o. 
to the title which had occasionally been bestowed, in 
accordance with the ancient custom, upon generals 
in recognition of their victories, — for he had re- 
ceived that many times before this and received it 
many times afterwards in honour merely of his 
achievements, so that he won the name of imperator 
twenty-one times, — but rather the title in its other 
use, which signifies the possession of the supreme 
power, in which sense it had been voted to his 
father Caesar and to the children and descendants of 

After this he became censor with Agrippa as his 
colleague, and in addition to other reforms which he 
instituted, he purged the senate. For as a result of 
the civil wars a large number of knights and even of 
foot-soldiers were in the senate without justification 
in merit, so that the membership of that body had 
been swollen to a thousand. Now though it was 
his wish to remove these men, he did not erase any 
of their names himself, but urged them rather, on the 
strength of their own knowledge of their families and 
their lives, to become their own judges ; he thus first 
persuaded some fifty of them to withdraw from the 
senate voluntarily, and then compelled one hundred 
and forty others to imitate their example. He dis- 
franchised none of them, but posted the names of 
the second group only ; for he spared the members 
of the first group the reproach of the publication ot 
their names, because they had not delayed but had 
straightway obeyed him. So all these men returned 
to private life of their own free will, so far as ap- 
pearances were concerned ; but Quintus Statilius 
was deposed, decidedly against his will, from the 




4 hrjjiapxia^, e? fjv aireheheiKTo, elp^ev. erepouq re 
Tiva<i ^ovXeveiv iiroLTjae, kol e? ye tov<s VTrarevKo- 
Ta9 ^vo dvBpa<; eic t(ov ^ovXevovrcov, KXovoviov 
re TLva kol ^ovpviov Falof?, eyicareXe^ev, on 
TTpoaTToBeBecy/iivoL ovk rjBvv^Orjaav, aXkwv tlvwv 
Ta? ap')(a<i avrcov TTpOKaraXapovrayv, vTrarevcTai,. 

5 TO T€ TMV evTrarpiScov <yevo<i avveirXrjOvae, tt)? 
l3ov\i]<; ol BrjOev i7rLTp6yfrdarj<; rovro iroirjaaL, 
iTreiBrj to re liKeKJiov acfycov diroiXooikei ^ (ovBev 
fydp ovTa)<; &)? to yevvalov iv T0L<i €/i(pv\,Loi,<f TroXi- 
fioLf; dvaXiaKeTai) Kal €9 rrjv iroiTjaiv tmv 

6 Trarpicov duayKalot, del elvai vofii^ovrai. ravrd 
re ovv eirpa^e, koX irpoaairel'TTe Traai T0t<i fiov- 
XevovaL fjurj e/cBr)/jLeLV e^co Trj<i ^\raXia<^, dv fir] 
avr6<; tivl KeXevarj rj koX eTriTpeyjry. Kal tovto 
Kal Bevpo del (f)vXdaraerac' ttXtjv <ydp on e? re 
rrjv ^iKeXiav Kal 69 rr^v VaXariav rr]v nrepl 
^dp^cova, ovBa/JLoae dXXoae ^ovXevrfj diroBr]- 

7 firjaaL e^eanv. eKelae yap Bid re to avveyyv^; 
Kal Bid TO doirXov to re elprjvalov rwu dv6 pcaiTcov 
BeBorai rol^ ye n KeKrrj/jLevoi^; avroOi Kal dvev 
irapairrjo-eo)^, 6adKt<; dv ideXtjcrcoatv, dinevai. 

8 eTreiBrj re iroXXov^i en Kal ro)v jBovXevrwv Kal 
roiv dXXcov rcov rd rov ^ Avrcov lov aTrovBacrdvrcov 
t'7r67rTft)9 7r/909 avrov BiaKeLfievov^ ecopa, Kal 
e(pol3rj6r) jxr] veoxt^diacoai n, iravra €(j)rj rd 
ypdfJLfxara rd ev roL<; Kt^(orLot<; avrov evpeOevra 

araKeKavKevai. Kal ct)9 dXr)6(o<; ye BiecpOdpKei 
TLvd' rd ydp Br) irXeio) Kal irdvv errjpet, ware fir]B^ 
OKVTjaaL varepov avTol<; '^(^pijaacrOat, 

1 hirwh(i\ei Dind., avo\<»)\ei VM. 




tribuneship, to which he had been appointed. And b,c. 29 
Caesar caused some other men to become senators, 
and he enrolled among the ex-consuls two men 
of the senatorial class, a certain Gaius Cluvius 
and Gaius Furnius, because, after- they ha4 already 
been elected consuls, they had been unable to 
serve, since others had occupied their offices first. 
And at the same time he increased the number of 
patrician families, ostensibly with the senate's per- 
mission, inasmuch as the greater part of the patricians 
had perished (indeed no class is so wasted in our 
civil wars as the nobility), and because the patricians 
are always regardv^d as indispensable for the per- 
petuation of our traditional institutions. In addition 
to these measures he forbade all members of the 
senate to go outside of Italy, unless he himself 
should command or permit them to do so. This 
restriction is still observed down to the present day ; 
for no senator is allowed to leave the country for 
the purpose of visiting any place except Sicily and 
Gallia Narbonensis. But in the case of these regions, 
since they are close at hand and the inhabitants are 
unarmed and peaceful, those who have any posses- 
sions there are conceded the right to repair to them 
as often as they like without asking permission. And 
since he saw that many of the senators and others 
who had been partisans of Antony were still inclined 
to be suspicious of him, and was fearful lest they 
might set a revolution on foot, he announced that all 
the letters that had been found in Antony's strong 
boxes had been burned. And it is quite true that 
he had destroyed some of them, but he was very 
careful to keep the larger part, and afterwards he 
did not scruple to make use of them, either. 



43 TovTO re ovv ovrco^; eiroirjcre koX rr}v }^ap')(r)S6va 
€7ra7ra>Ki(T€v, on 6 AemBo'i fMepo^; ri avT7]<; r)p7)T. 
fi(OK€L Kol hia TOVTO Tcu Sl/cata T?}? airoLKLa'^ acpcjv 
XekvKevat iSo/cei,. tov re ^ K.VTio')(pv tov KopL/jLa- 
yrjvov fjL€Te7re/j,yjraT0, otl TLva irpeaffevTrjv viro 
TOV aBeX^ov Bia(j)6pov ol ovto^ cTToXevTa e? Tr]v 
*¥a)/jLr)v iSoXocpovrjae, kol €9 re to avvehpiov 
2 eo-'^yaye koX KaTayjrijcpiaOevTa aireKTeLve. kuI 
Tr]v K.a7rpiav rrrapa Toyv NcottoXltcov, uyvrrep to 
ap')(cuov rjv, avTcBocrei ^(wpa? rjXXd^aTO. KelraL 
Be 01) TToppM T% Kara ZvppevTov^ rjireipov, XPV~ 
(TTOv fiev ovBev, ovo/jlu Be Kal vvv €TI Blol ttjv tov 
Ttf^epiov ivoLKrjatv €')(^ovaa. 

^ "ZvpfiiVThv H. Steph,, ffupevThv VM. 



So much for these matters. Caesar also settled 
Carthage anew^ because Lepidus had laid waste a 
part of it and by this act, it was held, had abrogated 
the rights of the earlier colonists. And he sent a 
summons to Antiochus of Commagene, because he 
had treacherously murdered an envoy who had been 
despatched to Rome by his brother, who was at 
variance with him. Caesar brought him before the 
senate, and when judgment had been passed against 
him, put him to death. He also obtained Capreae 
from the Neapolitans, to whom it originally belonged, 
giving other territory in exchange. It lies not far 
from the mainland in the region of Surrentum and is 
good for nothing, but is renowned even to the 
present day because Tiberius had a residence there. 



TciSe iv^aTiv tv t^ irevTrjKOffrtf rpircf tS>v Aicofos 'FwfMaiKoiv 
a. 'ris 6 Tov 'ATr6\Xwvos vahs iv T(f UaXarlcf KadiepdoQr). 
/3. 'D,s Kdi(Tap iSTj/JLrjyoprjoreu iu ttj yepovaia ws rrjs fxovapxio.s 

a(pt(TrdfjL(Pos Koi /j-CTa tovto to, iQvT) irphs avr^u iyeifxaro. 
y. Tlepl T7JS KaraffTaacas rwv apx^vrwv rwv is ra eOvr) 

5. 'n$ Kouaap AijyovffTos €7re/cA7)07j. 

e. riepl Twv ovofidrcov wv ol avTOKpdropes XafxBdvovaiv. 

^. 'Cls ra aeirra KaBiepuQr]. 

r\. 'CLs Kou(Tap''A.aTvp(Ti koX Kaurd^pois iTro\4fj.r](T€U. 

6. '{Is TaKaria virh 'Pcofiaiwv dpx^crSai ^p|aTo. 

I. 'flj T] aroa ri tov HoaeiSwPos koL rh fiaXavelov tov ^Aypivirov 

K. 'Cls rb TldvQtiov KaOiepwdn}. 

A. 'Cls AijyovaTos atpddri rrjs avdyKiqs tov to7s v6fj.ois ireldfa-dai. 
IJL. 'Hs ctt' 'Apa^iav tV evdalfxova cTTpaTeia eyevcTo. 

Xpovov it\ri0os CTTj e'l, iv oTs &pxovT€s ot apiO/xovfieyoi o'lif 

Kaiffap tJ) f ' * 

M Oui\pdvios A. VI. 'Aypiinras Th fi' ^ 

Kaicrap rh (' „ 

M. Ovi^dvios A. vl. 'Aypiinras rh y 

Korcotp Avyovaros Th t] „ 

T. 5TaTi\tos T. vl}" Taupos rb ;8' " 

AiyovdTos t\> 6' 

M. '\ovvios M. vl 

AGyovtTTos Th t'' « 4 

r. "Swp^avhs r. vl. r. tyy. ^xdKKos 

AijyouTTos rb la „ 4 

Tv. KaXirovpvios^ Tu. vl. Fu. €77. Uktcov^ 


Tore /jiev ravr iyevero, rw he e^rj<^ erec cktov 6 
Kataap rjp^e, Kal rd re aXka Kara rb vo/jll^o- 

1 Th )8' Xyl., rh y' VM. ^ -j- „/ supplied by Bs. 

'^ M. '\ovvios 'S,iKav6s Aijyovcrros rh i' supplied by Xyl., M. vl. 
added by Bs. * vn. supplied by Bs. 



The following is contained in the Fifty-third of Dio's 
Rome : — 
How the temple of Apollo on the Palatine was dedicated 

(chap. 1). 
How Caesar delivered a speech in the senate, as if he were 

retiring from the sole rulership, and afterwards assigned 

to that body its provinces (chaps, 2-12). 
About the appointment of the governors sent to the pro- 
vinces (chaps. 13-15). 
How Caesar was given the title of Augustus (chap. 16). 
About the names which the emperors receive (chaps. 17, 18). 
How the Saepta were dedicated (chap. 23). 
How Caesar fought against the Astures and Cantabri 

(chap. 25). 
How Galatia began to be governed by Romans (chap. 26). 
How the Basilica of Neptune and he Baths of Agrippa were 

dedicated (chap. 27). 
How the Pantheon was dedicated (chap. 27). 
How Augustus was freed from the obligation of obeying the 

laws (chap. 28). 
How an expedition was made against Arabia Felix (chap. 29). 

Duration of time, six years, in which there were the 
magistrates (consuls) here enumerated : — 

28 Caesar (VI), M. Yipsanius L. F. Agrippa (II). 

27 Caesar (VII), M. Vipsanius L. F. Agrippa (III). 

26 Caesar Augustus (VIII), T. Statilius T. F. Taurus (II). 

25 Augustus (IX), M. Junius M. F. Silanus. 

24 Augustus (X), C. Norbanus C. F. C. N. Flaccus. 

23 Augustus (XI), Cn. Calpurnius Cn. F. Cn. N. Piso. 

These were the occurrences at that time. The b.c. 28 
following year Caesar held office for the sixth time 
and conformed in all other respects to the usages 

^ Ka\iTovpvio5 X^d., KaKirovpvivos VM. 
^ riiVa'i/ Dind., iriiffwv VM. 



jjbevov airo rov irdvv apxaiov iiroirjae, Kol rovs 
(f>aKekov<; TMv pd^8(ov Ta> ^AypiTTTra avvdpxovrl 
ol Kara to €7nfidWov irapeBcoKev, avro^ re ral^; 
€T€pai(; i'X^prjaaro, koI Btdp^a<; rov opKov Kara 

2 TCi Trdrpia iirijyaye. koX el puev koX avOi^ ravr 
eiroirjaeVi ovk olBa' rov yap ^ Ay piirTrav e? virep- 
fioXrjv eripba' dfieXeo rrjv re dBeXcpihrjv^ avra> 
(TvvwKiae, Kal (TKr^vrjv, OTTore avarparevoivro, 
6/jiOLav rfi eavTOV 7ra/?et%6, to re avv6rj/j,a Trap' 

3 d/jL(f>OTepci)v a(f)(x)V eSbSoro. ev 8' ovv rw rore 
irapovTi rd re dWa axrirep eWiaro eirpa^e, Kal 
raf; diroypaf^d^; e^ereXeae, Kal ev avrat<; irpo- 
Kpiro<; T^9 yepovcr[a<; eireKXrjdrj, Sarrep ev rfj 
aKpifiel hr)p.OKparia ev€v6fiiaro. to re 'AttoX- 
Xdoviov ^ TO ^ ev Tft) UaXarLO) Kal to refieviafia 
TO Trepl avro, rd<; re diroO'^Ka^ rwv fii^Xicov, 

4 e^eTTOLrjae Kal KaOiipcoae. Kal rrjv iravrjyvpcv 
rrjv errl rfj viKrj rfj tt/jo? r^ ^Aktiw yevojxevri 
yfrrj^taOelaav i]yaye fxerd rov ^AypimroVy Kal 
ev avrfj rrjv iTTTroBpo/juiav Bid re rcov rraiBwv 

5 Kal Bid rwv dvBpwv rcov evyevcov eTTOirjae. Kal 
avrrj fiev Bid rrevre del ircov f^e^p^ "tov * eyi- 
yvero, rai<; reaaapaiv lepaycvvai^ eK rrepirpoirrj^; 
fieXovaa,^ Xeyco Be tov? re 7rovri(\)iKa^ Kal rov^ 
ol(ovi(7rd^ rov<; re eirrd Kal rov^ irevreKaiBeKa. 
dvBpa<i KaXovpLevov<;' rore Be Kal yvjuviKo^; dycov 

^ aSeXcpidriv M (o5eA^tSV)> aSe\cp^v V Xiph. Zon. 

2 'hiroWwviov St., airoXXdiViiov VM. ^ rh Bk., r6 n VM. 

* //.€xpt rov V. Herw. , m^'xp's ol VM. 

^ fifXovffa R. Steph., fifWovora VM. 




handed down from the earliest times, and, in par- 
ticular, he delivered to Agrippa, his colleague, the 
bundles of rods as it was incumbent upon him to do, 
while he himself used the other set,^ and on com- 
pleting his term of office he took the oath according 
to ancestral custom.^ Whether he ever did this 
again, I do not know, for he always paid exceptional 
honour to Agrippa ; thus he gave him his niece in 
marriage, and provided him with a tent similar to 
his own whenever they were campaigning together, 
and the watchword was given out by both of them. 
At this particular time, now, besides attending to his 
other duties as usual, he completed the taking of 
the census, in connection with which his title was 
princeps senatns, as had been the practice when 
Rome was truly a republic. Moreover, he com- 
pleted and dedicated the temple of Apollo on the 
Palatine, the precinct surrounding it, and the 
libraries. He also celebrated in company with 
Agrippa the festival which had been voted in 
honour of the victory won at Actium ; and during 
this celebration he caused the boys and men of the 
nobility to take part in the Circensian games. This 
festival was held for a time every four years and was 
in charge of the four priesthoods in succession — 
I mean the pontifices, the augurs, and the septem- 
viri and quindecimviri, as they were called. On 
the present occasion, moreover, a gymnastic contest 

^ Augustus seems to have used twenty-four lictors until 
29 B.C., and thereafter twelve, first as consul (until 2,3), then 
as proconsul (until 19), and later on all occasions. Cf. liv. 10, 5. 

^ The customary oath taken by the consuls at the close of 
their term of office to the effect that they had done nothing 
contrary to the laws and had acted for the highest interests 
of. the state. Cf. xxxvii. 38, 2, and xxxviii. 12, 3. 



araBiov nvo^ iv tS> ^Apeiw irehiw ^vXivov icaTa- 
(TKevacOevro^; iTTOLrjOrj, oirXo/jLa^la re, e/c tojv al- 

6 ')(^fia\(OT(ov iyevero. koI ravra /cat ^ eVt irXeiov^ 
r)jjbepa<; iTTpd^Orj, ovBe BiiXLTre kultol voarjaavTO^ 
Tov KaL(Tapo<i, aWa koX o)? o ^ Ay piiTiTa^ koI to 
eKeivov ^epo<^ aveirXrjpov. 

2 'O S' ovv Kalaap e? re ra<; 6ewpia<; i/c rojv 
IBlcov BrjOev avr]Ki<JKey Kal iiretBr) ')(^p7]/iidTcov rw 
h'qfjboaiw iBerjaev, iSavelaaro riva Kal eScoKev 
avTWy 7r/309 re rrjv BioiKr^aiv a(f>Q)v Bvo kut ero^; 
CK TMV iarpaTTjyrjKOTcov alpelaOai eKeXevae. Kal 
TO) TrXrjOei rer pairXda tov tov (tltov eveifie, ^ov- 

2 XevTat^ T€ TiGL ')(p7]fjLaTa e')(^apiaaT0' ovrco yap 
Br] TToXXoL acpojv Trez^ryre? eyeyoveaav ware jxr^K 
dyopavo/jbrjaai Tiva Bed to fjbeye6o<i tcoz/ dvaXw- 
fidTCOv ideXrjcraLy dXXd rd re dXXa Kal Ta BiKa- 
aTrjpia Ta ttj dyopavo/jLLa irpoarjKovTa tol<; aTpa- 
TTjyol^, KaOdirep etOiaTO, to, /jlcv /juei^co T(p 
da-TVv6fjL(p Ta Be erepa tw ^eviKw irpoaTa'X^dijvai. 

3 TTyoo? Be Bt) tovtol<; tov daTWopuov avTo<; dire- 
Bei^ev o Kal avOi^ iroXXdKt^; iiroLr^ae. Kal ra? 
eyyva^ Td<; irpo^; to Brjfioaiov irpb ttJ? tt/jo? tw 
\\KTL(p lJLd')(r]<; yevo/JLeva<;, irXrjv tcov ire pi Ta oIko- 
BofJLfjfjLaTa, dirrjXXa^e, rd re iraXaid avpL^oXaia 

4 Twv Tft) Koivw Ti ocpeiXovTcov eKavcre. Kal Ta fiev 
lepd Ta AlyvTTTia ovk iaeBe^aTO ecaco tov Trco/jur)- 
piov, TMV Be Br) vacov irpovoiav eiroirjaaTO' tov<; 
fiev yap vtt IBlwtmv tivcdv yeyevri/jievov<; tol<; re 
Traialv avrcov Kal toI<; eKy6voL<;, ecye Tcve^ Trepirjaav, 
eTTiaKevdaai eKeXevae, tov^ Be Xonroijii avTo<; dve- 

^ KoL M, om. V. 


was held, a wooden stadium having been constructed b.c. 
in the Campus Martius, and there was a gladiatorial 
combat between captives. These events continued 
for several days and were not interrupted even when 
Caesar fell ill ; but Agrippa went on with them even 
so, discharging Caesar's duties as well as his own. 

Now Caesar allowed it to be understood that he 
was spending his private means upon these festivals, 
and when money was needed for the public treasury, 
he borrowed some and supplied the want ; and for 
the management of the funds he ordered two 
annual magistrates to be chosen from among the 
ex-praetors. To the populace he distributed a 
quadruple allowance of grain and to some of the 
senators he made presents of money. For so many 
of them had become impoverished that none was 
willing to hold even the office of aedile because of 
the magnitude of the expenditures involved ; indeed, 
the functions which belonged to that office, and 
particularly the judicial functions, were assigned to 
the praetors, as had been the custom, the more im- 
portant to the praetor urbanus and the rest to the 
praetor peregrinus. In addition to all this, Caesar 
himself appointed the praetor urbanus, as, indeed, 
he often did subsequently. He cancelled all obli- 
gations which had been given to the public treasury 
previous to the battle of Actium, except those 
secured by buildings, and he burned the old notes 
of those who were indebted to the state. As for- 
religious matters, he did not allow the Egyptian rites 
to be celebrated inside the pomerium, but made pro- 
vision for the templesj those which had been built 
by private individuals he ordered their sons and 
descendants, if any survived, to repair, and the rest 



6 KT'^craro. ov jievTOi fcal rrjv Bo^av Trj<; olkoBo/jl'^- 
(T€(t)<; (T<j)coif €(T<f)eTepi(TaTO, aX}C direBcoKev avTol<^ 
Tot9 fcaraaKevdaaaLp avTOv<;. iireihrj re TroWd 
irdvv /card t€ rdf; crracref? Kdv toI<; TroXe/juoK;, 
aXA,a)9 T€ Kal iv rfj rov ^ Avrwviov rov re AeirlBov 
avvapx<^(}> J^clI dvofico^ Kal uBlkco^; irerd^eiy Trdvra 
avrd Bl^ €vb<; 7rpoypd/x/iiaTO<; KareXvaev, opov rrjv 

6 eKTT^v avTov virareiav irpoOei^?- evBoKipLcop re 
ovu eVt T0UT0t9 Kal eiraLvovp^evo^ iiredv/uLrjae Kal 
erepav rivd p>€'ya\o'^v')(Lav BiaBet^aordai, otto)? 
Kal CK Tov TOLOVTOV /jLoXXov TLp^TjOetr], Kal Trap' 
eKOVTOdV Brj rcov dvOpcDirtov rr^v ixovap')(iav /?€- 
^aLooaaaOat Irov ^ firj Bok€lv aKOVTa^ avrov<; ySe- 

7 ^idaOai. KaK tovtov tou? p^dXiara iTrinjBeiov^; 
ol Tcov povXevTOiv 7rapaaK6vdaa<; e? re Trjv 
yepovaiav ia-rfkdev e/SBofjLOV virarevcov, Kal dveyvco 

S " "' KinGTa fjiev ev olB* on Bo^co tktIv vp,(ov,^ 
M irarepe^i TTporjprja-Oai' a yap avro^; eKaaro^; roiv 
aKOVovTwv ovK dv ideXtja-eie iroirjaaiy ravr ovBe 
erepov Xeyovro^; Trtarevetv ffouXerat, Kal p^dXiaO' 
OTL ird^ iravrl Ta> virepe'XpVTL (j)Oovcov eroLfioTepov 

2 d'jnaTel toU iiirep eavrbv Xeyo/juevoLf;. Kal irpoaeTL 
Kal yiyvwaKO) tov6\ oti ol rd p^r) iriCTa BoKOvvra 
elvai Xeyovre^ ov^ oaov ov ireiOovai rti^a?, dXXd 
Kal Ko^aXoL BoKovaiv elvai. ov p^rjv dXX^ el fiev 
TL TOLOVTOV iirrjyyeXXopLTjv o p,r) Trapaxp^jpcu iroirj- 
aeiv ep^eXXov, a^oBpa dv dTrcoKvrjaa avTO €K(f)rjvai, 
p,r) Kal ahlav Tivd p^o'xjd'rjpdv dvTl ')(dpiTO<i Xd^co' 

* vpoOeis Rk., TTpoffOeis VM. 
2 ToC R. Steph., tJ> VM. 
^ {/ft&v M, vin7v V, 



he restored himself. He did not, however, appro- b.o. 28 
priate to himself the credit for their erection, but 
allowed it to go as before to the original builders. 
And inasmuch as he had put into effect very many 
illegal and unjust regulations during the factional 
strife and the wars, especially in the period of his 
joint rule with Antony and Lepidus, he abolished 
I them all by a single decree, setting the end of his 
sixth consulship as the time for their expiration. 
When, now, he obtained approbation and praise for 
this act, he desired to exhibit another instance of 
magnanimity, that by such a policy he might be 
honoured all the more and might have his sovereignty 
voluntarily confirmed by the people, so as to avoid 
the appearance of havirig^lbrced them against their 
will. Therefore, having first primed his most in- 
timate friends among the senators, he entered the 
senate in his seventh consulship and read the fol- b.o. 27 
lowing address : 

" I am sure that 1 shall seem to some of you. Con- 
script Fathers, to have made an incredible choice. 
For what each one of my hearers would not wish 
to do himself, he does not like to believe, either, 
when another claims to have done it, especially as 
everyone is jealous of anybody who is superior to 
him and so is more prone to disbelieve any utter- 
ance that is above his own standard. Besides, I 
know this, that those who say what appears to be 
incredible not only fail to persuade others but also 
appear to be impostors. And indeed, if it were a 
question of my promising something that I was not 
intending to put into effect immediately, I should 
have been exceedingly loath to proclaim it, for fear 
of gaining, instead of gratitude, some grievous im- 



3 pvv S* OTTore €vOv<; koI rrj/juepov iTraKoXovOrjaet to 
epyov avTw, nrcivv Oapcrovvrw'^ e^co jjlt) jjlovov 
pL7]heiJiiav alax^vqv ^^evhoko'yia'^ oc^XrjaeLv, aWa 

4 Koi 7rdvTa<^ avO pco'7rov<; evSo^la viKYjaeiv. on fiev 
fyap Trdpeorri fioL Boa iravro^ vficov dp^eiv, kol 
avTol opdrc to t€ yap dTacndaav irav '^tol 
hiKaiwOev ireiTavTai rj /cal iXerjOev creacd^povL- 
GTai} Ka\ TO avvapdfxevov jjlol ttj re d/ioL^y tmv 
evepyeaicjv (pK6L(DTai /cal tyj kolvcovlci twv irpa- 

2 y/jLUTCOv cd^vpcoTai, axTTe pLr)Te iTTLOvfirja-al TLva 
vewTepwv epycov, kclv dpa ti koI toiovto yevrjTUL, 
TO yovv ^OTjOrjaov r]fuv etol/iov €tl /cal pbdWov 
elvai. Ta re aTpaTLcortKa aKfid^ei /jlol koI evvoia 
Koi pcofiy, Kol ')(^prjiJLaTa eaTi koX avfifia'Xpi, koL 
TO fJueyiCTTOV, ovtco kol v/jl6L<; kol 6 Brj/iot; Bid- 
KeiaOe irpof} fie coaTe kol wdw dv irpoaTaTelaOat ^ 

3 vir' i/xov ideXrjaai. ou fievTOt koI iirl TrXelov 
v/jLd<; €^r]y^(70fiaL, ouSe ipel Ti? co? iyo) t^? 
avTapxi'Ct^ ev6Ka TrdvTa to, TrpoKaTUpyadp.kva 
CTrpa^w dXXd d(j)Lr]/xt Tr]V dp')(riv ciTracrav Koi 
diroBiBwixi v/MV TrdvTa dirXoi^, tcl oirXa tov<; 
vofjLOV^; TCL eOvT), ov')(^ OTTOd^ ifcecva oaa /jlol vp.ei<^ 

4 iTreTpeyjraTe, dWd /cat oaa avTo<i p^eTa TavO iipuv 
TrpoaeKTrjad/jirjv, Xva koX ef avjwv to}v epycov 
KaTap.dOr)T€ tov9\ otl ovS* cltt dp')(r]<i Bvpa- 
(TT€La<; Tivo<i eTredv/jLTjaa, aA-X' 6vtco<; to) t€ iraTpl 
BeLVM^i (KpayevTi Tipcoprjaai fcal ttjv ttoXlv i/c 
/leydXcov Kal eiraWrfKwv KaKOiv i^eXeadat, r/Oi- 

5 Xrjaa, 6(f>€Xov pev yap p^rfBe einaTrjvaL itots 
OVTCO TOL<i TTpdyp^aa-f tovt eaTiv, oipeXov /xt) 

* irpoaraTuaQai M, ■KpocrrareiaBe V. 


putatioii. But as it is, when the performance will b.c. 27 
follow the promise this very day, I feel quite con- 
fident, not only that I shall incur no reproach of 
falsehood, but that I shall surpass all mankind in 
good repute. You see for yourselves, of course, 
that it is in my power to rule over you for life ; for 
every factious element has either been put down 
through the application of justice or brought to its 
senses by receiving mercy, while those who were on 
my side have been made devoted by my reciprocat- 
ing their friendly services and bound fast by having 
a share in the government. Therefore none of them 
desires a revolution, and if anything of the soi-t 
should take place, at least the party which will 
stand by me is even more ready than it was before. 
My military is in the finest condition as regards both / 
loyalty and strength ; there is money and there are 
allies ; and, most important of all, you and the 
people are so disposed toward me that you would 
distinctly wish to have me at your head. However, 
I shall lead you no longer, and no one will be able 
to say that it was to win absolute power that I did 
whatever has hitherto been done. Nay, I give up 
my office completely, and restore to you absolutely / 
everything, — the army, the laws, and the provinces, / 
— not only those which you committed to me, but 
also those which I myself later acquired for you. 
Thus my very deeds also will prove to you that even 
at the outset I desired no position of power, but in 
very truth wished to avenge my father, cruelly 
murdered, and to extricate the city from great evils 
that came on unceasingly. Indeed, I would that I 
had not gone so far as to assume charge of affairs 
as I did ; that is, 1 would that the city had not 



BeBerja-OaL fiov tt/jo? tolovto tl rrjv irokiv, aW 
iv elprjvrj koX o/j^ovolo,, KaOdirep irore koX ol 
irarepe^ r)fjbSiV, koI r^fiaf; tol'9 ev TjjSe ttj rfKiKia 

2 a7r' oLp^Tj^i ^e^L(DK6vai, iirel Be eliiapj-ievrj ri?, 
o)? €OiK€v, €9 TovTO TTpo^yajev vfxa^ Mare fcal 
ifiov, Kaiirep veov en Tore ovro^, Koi ')(^peiav a'xelv 
Kal irelpav Xa/Selv, fie'^^pi jxev ov^ ra irpdy/xaTa 
T?)9 Trap' ijJLOv iwiKOvpiaf; 6')(^prj^6y Trdvra re 
7rpo6v/jL(o<; Kal virep rrjv rjXcrrav iiTOLijo-a /cal 
Trdvra evrv')((i)^ Kal vTrep rrjv BvvaixLV Kareirpa^a' 

3 Kal ovK eornv 6 n rStv Trdvrwv dTrerpeyjri )Lt.e 
KLvBvvevovcTiv vfup iTTCKovpijaai, ov tt6vo<;, ov 
^o/3o9, OVK e')(9p(xiv aTreiXai, ov ^lXcov Berjaec^s, 
ov ro Tr\rj0o<; rcov avvecrrrjKorcov, ov')(^ rj aTTovoia 
rcov avrirerayfievayv, dX)C eTriBcoKa a<3E)etSco9 vfilv 
i/iavrov €9 Trdvra ra TrepiearrjKora, Kal errpa^a 

4 Kal erraOov aTrep tare, ef mv avro^ fxev ovBei 
KeKcpBajKa ttXtjv rov rrjv rrarpCBa TTepiTreTTOirj- 
aOai, vjiel^; Be Kal aco^eaOe Kal aco(f)poveLre. 
eTretBr) Be Ka\co<; rroiovaa r) rv')(rj Kal rrjv elprjvqv 
dBoXov Kal rr)v ofiovoiav daraaiaarov Be ifiov 
vfilv aTToBeBcoKev, aTroXdjBere Kal rhv iXevdepiav 
Kal rrjv BrjfioKpariav, KOfiiaaaOe Kal ra oTrXa 
Kal ra edvrj ra vTnjKoa, Kal TroXireveaOe oiarrep 

6 " Kal ixr]re ^ Oav/idarjre el ravd^ ovroo <j)povcb, 
rrjv re dWrjv eTnetKeidv fiov Kal Trpaorrjra Kal 
dTrpay/jLoavvTjv 6p(ovre<;, Kal TrpoaeKXoyL^ojjuevoL 
on ovBev Trdyrrore ovO^ VTvepoyKov ovO^ vTrep rov(; 
TToWov^, KaiTrep TroWd TroXkdKt<i yjrrjcjiiaap^evcov 

2 v/icov, eBe^d/jLTjv fJLrjr av fxaypiav fiov Karayvcorey 
1 o5 Bk., TTou VM. 2 ^^^5 Bk.^ ^^Tot VM. 



required me for any such task_, but that we of this b.c. 27 
generation also might have Hved from the beginning 
in peace and harmony_, as our fathers hved of yore. 
But since some destiny^ as it appears, brought you 
to a position where you had need even of me, young 
as I still was at the time, and put me to the test, I 
did everything with a zeal even beyond my years 
and accomplished everything with a good fortune 
even beyond my powers, so long as the situation de- 
manded my help. And nothing in the world could 
deter me from aiding you when you were in danger, 
— neither toil, nor fear, nor threats of foes, nor 
prayers of friends, nor the multitude of the conspira- 
tors, nor the desperation of our adversaries ; nay, I 
gave myself to you unstintingly for any and all the 
exigencies which have arisen, and what I did and 
suffered, you know. From all this I have derived 
no gain for myself except that I have kept my 
country from perishing ; but as for you, you are 
enjoying both safety and tranquillity. Since, then. 
Fortune, by using me, has graciously restored to you 
peace without treachery and harmony without 
faction, receive back also your liberty and the re- 
public ; take over the army and the subject pro- 
vinces, and govern yourselves as has been your 
wont. , 

" You should not be surprised at this purpose of 
mine, when you see my reasonableness in other 
respects, my mildness, and my love of quiet, and 
when you reflect, moreover, that 1 have never ac- 
cepted any extraordinary privilege nor anything 
beyond what the many might gain, though you have 
often voted many of them to me. Do not, on the 



on i^ov fiot Kal vfiMv dpx^LV koI rrjXi/cavrrjv 
rjyefioviav TO(Tavrr)<; oIkov ixevrff; e^eti^ ov ^ov- 
XojjbaL. iyo) yap, av re to hiKaiov tl<; e^erd^r}, 
hiKaioraTOV elvai vo/jll^co to ra vfjuirepa v/jLd<; 
SieTreiv, dv re Kal to av/JL^ipov, av/jLcfyopooTaTOv 
iQyov/jLai Kal i/xol to /jli]T€ irpdyfjiaTa e'X^eiv firJTe 
(f)6ov6LaOai jJLrjTe iiri^ovXeveadai Kal vfitv to pier 
iXevOepia^; Kal (Tco^povay^ Kal (f)LXt,Kco<; rroXiTev- 

3 eadar dv re Kal to eu/cXee?, ovirep eve/ca iroWol 
Kal TToXepLelv Kal KLvhvvevevv 7roX\,dKi<; aipovvrai, 
TTCO? pLev ovK evBo^oTaTov pLOi eaTai TrfKiKavTr]^ 
^PX^^ a(^ecr^at, ttw? 3' ovk evKXeearaTOV eK 
ToaovTOU r)yepLOVia<^ oyKov iOeXovTl ISicoTeucrai; 
a>aT et Tt<; vpbwv dTrccrrel ravT ovtw^ Tivd dXXov 
Kal (j)pov7]aai> eir dXr)6eia<; Kal elirelv hvvaaOai, 

4 epboiye TnarevadTW. iroXXa yap Kal pueydXa 
KUTaXe^ac e'xcov oara Kal utt' ipLov Kal vtto tov 
Trarpo? puov evrjpyeTTjade, e</)' 0I9 eiKOTco^ av rjpid^; 
vTTep 7rdvTa<i tov^ dXXov<; Kal (pLXoirjTe Kal ti- 
p,(pr)T€, ovhev av dXXo tovtov pidXXov ecTrocpLi, ovS* 
av evr' dXXw tlvI pboXXov aepvvvaipLrjv, ore ttjv 
pLOvapx^(^v P'VTC eKelvo^ KaiTOi BlSovtcov vpicov 
Xapelv r)0eX7)ae Kal iyo) e^wv dcpirjfit. 

7 "Tt yap dv Ti<; Kal irape^eTdaeiev avrw; ttjv 
VaXaTia^ dXcoaiv 7) ttjv Tlavvovia<i SovXcdctiv rj 
TTjv Mucrta? x^ipcoaiv rj ttjv Alyvirrov Kara- 
GTpocfirjv; dXXd tov ^apvdKrjv tov 'lovfiav tov 
^paaTTjv, T7]v iirl Tov<f l^peTTavov^ aTpareiav, 


other hand, condemn me as foolish because, when it b.c. 27 
is in my power to rule over you and to hold so great 
a sovereignty over this vast world, I do not wish it. 
For, if one looks into the merits of the case from 
the point of view of justice, I regard it as most just 
for you to manage your own affairs ; if from the 
point of view of expediency, I consider it most 
expedient, both that 1 should be free from trouble 
and not be the object of jealousy and intrigue, and 
that you should have a government based upon 
liberty and conducted with moderation and friendly 
feeling ; and if, finally, from the point of view of 
glory, to win which many men are often found ready 
to choose war and personal risk, will it not add most 
to my renown to resign so great an empire, will it 
not add most to my glory to leave so exalted a 
sovereignty and voluntarily become a private citizen ? 
Therefore, if there is any one of you who believes 
that no man except me can really and sincerely hold 
to such ideals and give them utterance, at least let 
him believe it of me. For, though I could recite 
many great benefits conferred upon you both by me 
and by my father, for which we beyond all other 
men could reasonably claim your affection and your 
honour, I could single out no other act in preference 
to this, nor could I feel a greater pride in any other 
thing than in this, — that he refused the monarchy 
although you offered it to him, and that I, when I 
hold it, lay it aside. 

'^What achievement, indeed, could one compare 
with these acts of ours ? The conquest of Gaul, the 
enslavement of Pannonia, the subjugation of Moesia, 
the overthrow of Egypt ? Or Pharnaces, or Juba, or 
Phraates, or the campaign against the Britons, or 



TTjv Tov 'Vrjvov hiafiacnv; fcairot roaavTa Kal 
Toiavra ravrd eariv oaa Kal oca ovBe cru/xTrarre? 
ol 7raT6pe<; tj/jlcov iv iravrl rw irpoadev %/3W&) 

2 ireiroirjKacyLv. aXX! 6fjLa}<; ovre tovtcov rt tcS 
irapovTi 6pj(p Trapa^aXecv icmv a^tov, ov0* otl 
Tov<; i/jL<pv\LOV<i 7roXeyLtoi'9 fcal /neyLarovfi kol iroi- 
Kikwrdrovf; Blo, Trdvrcov yevofievov<i kol BieiToXe- 
fjufjaajxev Kokw^ koX SteOi/ieOa (^LKavOpMirw^, tov 
fiev dvTicrrdvTO<; 0)9 kol iroXefJiiov iravTO^ ^ Kparrj- 
aavre^y to B^ vrrel^av ax; Kal ^iXtov irav Trepiaco- 

3 aavTe<;y w(tt elirep iroTe Kal avdL<; Treir pcofiivov 
ecr] TT]v TToXiv ti/jlcov ^ voarjaaL, tovtov avTrjv tov 
TpoTTOv ev^aadai TLva (TTaaidcrar to ydp tol 
ToaovTov T€ l(T')(V(7avTa<i rj/jLd(i Kal ovtcd Kal Trj 
dperfi Kal Trj TV')(r) dKjjbdaavTa^ wcrre Kal eKovTcov 
Kal aKOVTCov v/jlcov avTapx^aat BvvrjOrjvai, firjT€ 
eK^povrjaai fitjTe t?}? fJLOvap)(^La<; i7nOvfii](rai, 
dWa Kal eKelvov BiBofievrjv avTrjv aTrcoo-ao-dat 
Kal ifJL€ BeBojJbevr^v diToBiBovaL, virep dvOpcoirov 

4 icTTiv. Xeyo) Be TavTa ovk aWw? iiriKOfxiTSyv 
{pvBe jdp av elirov avTa dpxqv, el Kal otiovv 
TrXeoveKTrjaeiv air avTcov rjixeXXov), dX)C Xva 
elBrjTe otl ttoXXcop Kal fieydXcov e? re to kolvov 
evepyeTTjfjidTcov Kal e? to, OLKeia aefivoXoyij/jLaTcov 
r^fuv ovTcov, eirl tovtw fjudXcaTa dyaXXofxeOa otl, 
wv 6T6poi Kal ^ta^o/iievoi rti^a? eiriOvfjiovaL, Tavd^ 

8 r^fjiel^ ovB^ dvayKa^ofxevoL irpoaiefieOa. t/? fiev 
yap av /jbeyaXoyjrv^oTepofi /jlov, iva /xtj Kal tov 
TraTepa tov fjbeTrjXXaxoTa avOL<; eXirWy rt? Be Bai- 
fiovicoTepo^ evpedeur]; 6(TTL<i, w Zev Kal "\ApaKXe^, 

^ iravrhs M, riv'bs V. 



the crossing of the Rhine ? Yet these are greater b.o. 27 
and more important deeds than even all our fore- 
fathers together performed in all previous time. 
Nevertheless^ no one of these exploits deserves a 
place beside my present act, to say nothing of our 
civil wars, of all which have ever occurred the 
greatest and most varied in its changing fortunes, 
which we fought to an honourable conclusion and 
brought to a humane settlement, overpowering as 
enemies all who resisted, but sparing as friends all 
who yielded ; therein setting an example, so that if 
it should be fated that our city should ever again be 
afflicted, one might pray that it should conduct its 
quarrel in the same way. Indeed, I will go further : 
that we, when we possessed a strength so great, and 
when we so clearly stood at the summit of prowess 
and good fortune, that we could exercise over you, 
with or without your consent, our arbitrary rule, did 
not lose our senses or conceive the desire for sole 
supremacy, but that he thrust that supremacy aside 
when it was offered him and that I return it after it 
has been given me, — that, I say, transcends the 
deeds of a man ! I say this, not by way of idle 
boasting, — indeed, I should not have said it at all, if 
I were going to derive any advantage whatever from 
it, — but in order that you may see that, although we 
can point to many benefits conferred upon the state 
at large and to many services rendered to individuals 
of which we might boast, yet we take the greatest 
pride in this, that what others so desire that they are 
even willing to do violence to gain it, this we do not 
accept even under compulsion. Who could be found 
more magnanimous than I, — not to mention again 
my deceased father, — who more nearly divine ? For 



arpaTKara^ ToaovTOv<; /cal toiovtov^, koX irokira^ 
KoX avixfJid')(^ov^, (faXovvrd^ fie e%ft)i^, koI 7rd(T7]<^ 
(xev Trj<; evrb'^ tmv 'HpaKXetcov crrrjXcop 6a\da-crrj<; 
7r\r)v oXljwv Kparcov, ev Tracrai? he rat? r)'jreipoi<i 

2 Kol TTo\ei^ KoX eOpT] KeKTr]/JLevo<;, koI firjr d\\o- 
<j)v\ov Tivo<s eTi TTpoairoXefJiovvTo^ /juoi jjurfT olKeiov 
aTaai,d^ovTO<;, dWa Trdvrcov v/hmv kol elpr)vovv- 


fjLeyiarov iOeXovrrjBbv 7reiOap)(ovPTa)v, eireiO' €kov- 
ato^ avTe7rdyye\T0(; kol dpx^^ TrfKiKavrr)^ d(^i- 
crrafiaL fcal overtax roaavrr)'; diraWdrTOfJiai. 

3 Mar etirep 6 'OpdTLo<; 6 Mou/cio? o K.ovpTCo<; 6 
'F'^yov\o<i 01 AeKtoL koI Kivhwevaau kol diro- 
Oavelv virep rod fieya tl koI koXov ireTroirj/cevai 
ho^ai r)9e\7]aav, 7rw9 ovk av iycb fiaWov iiri- 
Ov/JLijaatfjit TOVTO irpa^ai ef o'v KdKeivov<; koX 
rov<; dWouf; djxa Trai/ra? dvOpcoTrov^ ev/cXeia ^(ov 

4 virep^aXco; firj ydp roc vofiiarj ri? v/jlojv ^ rou? 
fiev TrdXat 'V(opLaiov<; koL dperrj^; fcal evho^ia<; 
e<f)eladaiy vvv Se e^iTifkov ev rfj iroXet irdv to 
dvBpco8e<; yeyovevai. fir] fievTOi firfS* viroTTTevcTTj 
OTL irpoeaOai re vfid^ /cat irovrfpol^; tlctlv dvhpdaiv 
eTTCTpe^frat, rj koI 6)(XoKpaTLa tlvL, e'f r)<; ov fiovov 
Qvhev ')(^prf(TTOV dXXd Kal TrdvTa to, SeiuoTUTa del 
Trdaiv dvOpcoTTOi^i yiyverai, eKSovvat (SovXofiai. 

6 vfuv ydpy vfjiiv T0i<; dpiaTOi^; Kal (j)povifjL(OTdTOi<; 
irdvTa TO, /coivd dvaTiOif^fJLL. CKecvo fiev yap ov- 
BeiroT av eirolrfa-a, ov8' el fivpidKi^ dirodavelv 
rj Kal fjbOvap')(rjaai fie eSer tovto Be Kal virep 

6 ifiavTov Kal virep t?)9 TroXeco? ttoico. uvto^^ re 

^ evdevovvTccv Dind., fvBr]vovvruv Rk., evffdcvovvToov VM. 

2 UfiCOV M, TJ/JLUy V. 



I, — the gods be my witnesses ! — who have so many b.c. 27 
gallant soldiers^ both Romans and allies^ who are 
devoted to me, I, who am supreme over the entire 
sea within the Pillars of Hercules except for a few 
tribes, I who possess both cities and provinces in 
every continent, at a time when there is no longer 
any foreign enemy making war upon me and no one 
at home is engaged in sedition, but when you are all 
at peace, are harmonious and strong, and, greatest of 
all, are content to yield obedience, I, in spite of all 
this, voluntarily and of my own motion resign so 
great a dominion and give up so vast a possession. 
So then, if Horatius, Mucius, Curtius, Regulus, and 
the Decii were willing to encounter danger and to 
die to win the fame of having done a great and 
noble deed, why should not I desire even more to do 
this thing, whereby, without losing my life, I shall 
excel both them and all the rest of mankind in 
glory ? In truth no one of you should think that 
the ancient Romans sought to win fair fame and 
reputation for valour, but that in these days every 
manly virtue has become extinct in the state. And 
further, let no one suspect that 1 wish to betray you 
by delivering you into the hands of a group of wicked 
men, or by giving you over to government by the 
mob, from which nothing good ever comes, but 
rather in all cases and for all mankind nothing but 
the most terrible evils. Nay, it is to you senators, 
to you who are the best and wisest, that I restore 
the entire administration of the state. The other 
.course I should never have followed, even had it 
been necessary for me to die a thousand deaths, or 
even to assume the sole rule ; but this policy I adopt 
both for mjj^ own good and for that of the city. For 



yap Kol ireiTovrjixai /cal TeraXanrcoprjfjbai, koI 
ovKer ovT€ rfj '^v)(^fj ovre tm acofjuari dvT6)(6Lv 
Bvvafxar icai irpoaen koI tov (f)66vov koI to 
fjLL(Tos, a Kol 7rpb<; tov<; apLarov^ avhpa^ iyjiyve- 
ral Tiai, rd<; re ef avrcov iiri/SovXa^; irpoopcop^ai. 
7 KOL Sia ravra kol ISicDTevcrai, paXXov eu/cXew? rj 
p.ovapxv^^i' eTTLKivhvvcc)^ alpovfMai. /cal rd Kotvd 
KOCV(b<; av ttoXv ^iXrtov are ^ Kal vtto ttoWmv 
dpa Scayopeva Kal prj e? eva riva dvrjprrip^va 


9 " Al ovv ravTa Kal iKerevco Kal BiopaL irdvrcov 
vpoiv 6poLO)<; Kal avveiraiveaai Kal avpirpodvpr)- 
Orjvai pot, Xoyiaapevov^ irdvO^ oaa Kal Treiro- 
XeprjKa virep vp,cov Kal ireTroXLTevpai, Kdv tovtw 
irdcrdv pot, rrjv virep avrayv X^P^^ d7roS6vTa<;, iv 
TO) avyxcoprjcrai pot iv rjavx^a ySrj TTore Kara- 
^LWvaL, Xva Kal iKclvo elBrjre on ov povov dp^^cv 
dXXd Kal dpx^f^^^i' iTriarapaL, Kal 7rdv9* oaa dX- 
XoL<; eVerafa, kol avro^ dvTeiriraxOrjvaL Bvvapai. 

2 jj-dXiaTa pev yap Kal da^aXco<; ^rjaeiv Kal prjBev 
VTTO pifjBevo^ prjre epyw prjTe Xoyw KaKov ireiae- 
crOaL irpoaBoKM' roaovrov irov rfj evvoia vpcov, ef 

3 o)V avTO^ epLavTw avvoiBa, maTevco. av Be ri 
Kal TrdOco, ola itoXXoI<; avpbjBaiveL {ovBe yap olov 
re icTTL 7Td<TL riva, dXXco<; re Kal iv ToaovroL<; 
7roXepoL<;, Tols puev 60v€lol<; rot? Be Kal ip^vXloi,^, 
yevopevov Kal rrfkiKavra irpdypara iircTpaTrivra, 
dpeaai), Kal irdvv eroipo)^ Kal irpo tov elpap- 

1 $4\Tiov are Rk., fieXTioud re VM. 


I myself have undergone both labours and hardships b.c. 27. 
and am no longer able to stand the strain, either in 
mind or in body. Furthermore, I foresee the jealousy 
and hatred which are engendered in certain persons 
against even the best men and the plots which arise 
therefrom. It is for these reasons that I choose the 
life of a private citizen and fair fame rather than 
that of a sovereign and constant peril. And as for 
the business of the commonwealth, it would be 
carried on far better by all in common, inasmuch as 
it would be transacted by many men together instead 
of being dependent upon some one man. 

" For these reasons, then, I ask and implore you 
one and all both to approve my course and to 
cooperate heartily with me, reflecting upon all that 
1 have done for you alike in war and in public life, 
and rendering me complete recompense for it all by 
this one favour, — by allowing me at last to be at 
peace as I live out my life. Thus you will come to 
know that I understand not only how to rule but 
also how to submit to rule, and that all the commands 
which I have laid upon others I can endure to have 
laid upon me. I ask this because I expect to live in 
security, if that be possible, and to suffer no harm 
from anybody by either deed or word, — such is the 
confidence, based upon my own conscience, which I 
have in your good-will ; but if some disaster should 
befall me, such as falls to the lot of many (for it is 
not possible for a man to please everybody, especially 
when he has been involved in wars of such magnitude, 
both foreign and civil, and has had affairs of such 
importance entrusted to him), with entire willingness 
I make my choice to die even before my appointed 



fievov fioi %|Ooz^oi; TeXevrrjcrai fiaXkov Ihiwrevaa^, 
Tj KoX aOdvaro^ fiovap')(rj(Ta^ 'yevecrOai, alpovfiai. 

4 e/jLol jJLev yap ev/cXeiav koI avro tovto oXaet on 
ov jJbovov ovK €(j)6v€V(7d TLva vircp Tov Tr)v dpxv^ 
Karao-^elv, dXXd koI irpoaaireOavov virep tov 
1X7] {jLovapx^dar 6 he Srj To\jjL7Jaa<; diroKrelvai 
jie iravTOif; irov Koi virb tov Saifioviov koI v(f>^ 

5 u/jLCOV KoXaaOrjaeTai. direp ttov kol iirl tov 
Trarpo? fiov yiyovev eKelvo^ fiev yap /cal laodeo^ 
dTTehei')(6ri /cal tljxmv diBicov €TV')(ev, ol 8' diro- 
a(l)d^avT6<; avTOV KaKol KaKM<; diroiiKovTO. dOdva- 
TOL /JL€V yap OVK dv BvvTjOeirj/jLev yeveaOai, €k Be 
Bt) tov Ka\(o<; ^rjaaL Kal €k tov /caXco? TeXev- 

6 TTjarai Kal tovto Tpoirov Ttvd KTcofjueOa. d(f 
ovirep Kal eycb to fiev rjBrj €%ft)i^ to Be e^eiv eKiri- 
^cov, diroBiBco/jbL vfjuv Kal to, oirXa Kal ra edvrj ra? 
T6 irpoaoBov'^ Kal tou? vo/xovf;, ToaovTov jjlovov 
VTreiTTCov, iva fi'^Te to pueyeOo^; rj Kal to BvcTfieTa- 
'y^elpicTTOV T(ov Trpayp^dTcov (po/37]0€VTe<; dOvftrjcrrjTe, 
/jLrjT av KaTacf) pov7]a-avTe<i avTMV co? Kal paBtw^ 
BioiKeladat, Bwajxevcov d/jbeXt^o-rjTe. 

10 " KaiTOC Kal Kad^ eKacrTov tmv fiet^ovcov ovk dv 
oKVYjaaifxi vfjulv ev K€(j)aXaloL^ oaa XPV T^pdTTeiv 
virodeadac. Tiva Be raOra ecTTi; TrpcoTOV /xev 
Tov<; K€t/jLevov<; vopuov^ tcr%L'/c>w9 <f>vXdTTeT€, Kal 
/jLTjBeva avTwv p^eTaffdXrjTe' to, yap ev TavTco 
/levovTa, Kav %€t/j&) y, avfKpopcoTepa tcov del 
KaivoTop^ovfievcov, Kav /3eXTt&) elvai Bokj}, eaTLv. 
2 eireiTa Be, oaa irpoaTdTTovcriv v/jllv ovtol iroielv 




time as a private citizen, in preference to living b.c. 27 
forever as the occupant of a throne. Indeed, this 
very choice will bring me renown, — that I not only 
did not deprive another of life in order to win that 
office, but went so far as even to give up my life in 
order to avoid being king ; and the man who dares 
to slay me will certainly be punished, I am sure, both 
by Heaven and by you, as happened, methinks, in 
the case of my father. For he was declared to be 
the equal of the gods and obtained eternal honours, 
whereas those who slew him perished, miserable men, 
by a miserable death. As for immortality, we could 
not possibly achieve it ; but by living nobly and by 
dying nobly we do in a sense gain even this boon. 
Therefore, I, who already possess the first requisite 
and hope to possess the second, return to you the 
armies and the provinces, the revenues and the laws, 
adding only a few words of suggestion, to the end 
that you may not be afraid of the magnitude of the 
business of administration, or of the difficulty of 
handling it and so become discouraged, and that you 
may not, on the other hand, regard it with contempt, 
with the idea that it can easily be managed, and thus 
neglect it. 

^^And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about 
suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to 
be done in each of the leading departments of 
administration. And what are these suggestions ? 
In the first place, guard vigilantly the established 
laws and change none of them ; for what remains 
fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advan- 
tageous than what is always subject to innovations, 
even though it seem to be superior. Next, pay 
strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon 



/cal ocrcov a7rayop€vov(TLV aTre^eo-^at, fjurj tw 
X6y(p jjLOVOv aXka /cal tm epyo), /X7;8' iv rw kolvw 
fjLovov aXka koX Ihia aKpi^S><; TraparrjpelaOe,^ 

3 07X0)9 fJ'T} Ti/jicopLaf; aWa tl/jLcov rvy^dvrjre. ra? 
re oip'xa^ koX ra^; elpr^vLKCif; Kal Ta<; TToXe/if/ca? 
T0t9 ael apicrroLf; re Kal €/ji(j)pov€aTdTOL<; eirt- 
Tpeirere, jirjTe (pOovovvrif; Tiai,'^ p-iqB* vTrep rov 
TOP Selva Tj TOP Betva irXeoveKrrjaai tl, aX)C virep 
rov Ti]v iToXiv Kal crco^eaOai Kal evirpayetv 

4 (fyiKoTLfjbovfJievoi, Kal tou? jxev tolovtov<; ri/jbdre, 

T0U9 S* aXXft)9 TTft)? 7ro\t,T€VO/l€VOV<; K0\d^€T€. Kal 

ra /jL€V iSia kolvcl ry iroXei 7ra/3e%er6, roiv Be 
Br}/jLO(TLQ)v ft)? aXXoTpicov oLTre^^eaOe. Kal ra /u,ev 
virdp^ovO^ vfjblv aKpL^o)^ ^vkdrrere, tmv Be fir) 

5 TrpoarjKovrayv fMr)BafjLci)<; ecj^ieaOe. Kal tov<; fiev 
av/jLfidxov<; Kal tou? VTrrjKoov^ [xtjO^ vjSpi^ere 
/jLrjre eK^prjfiari^ecrOe, rov<; Be TroXe/iiiov^ /jLtJt 
dBiKelre fjbrjre (j>o0eca6e. ra [xev oirXa iv raL<i 
')(epalv del e%€T€, fxr] jievroL fjirjre Kar dWrjXwv 

6 fxrjre Kara ra>v elprjvovvrcov avroi<; ')(^pr]aOe.^ rov<; 
re arparicoraf; rpe(f)ere fiev dpKovvrw^, ware firj- 
Bevo^i rfav dWorpiwv Bl drropiav eiriOvfirja-aL, 
avve')(er€ Be Kal acocppovi^ere, ware p,r)Bev KaKov 
Bia 6 paavrr^ra Bpaaai. 

7 " 'AXXa ri Bel jiaKpoKoyelv, rrdvO^ a TrpoaijKei 
TToieiV vfid<; eire^iovra; Kal yap ra Xoiird paBiw^ 
dv eK rovrwv co? ')(^prj rrpdrreaOat avviBoire.^ 
ev ovv en rovro elircbv •jravaofxai, on dv fiev ovrco 
TroXirevarfaOe, avroL re evBaLfiovrjaere Kal ifiol 

^ irapaTtipeTaOf R. Steph., irapaTt^peiaQai VM. 
2 Tia-i M, rivi V. ^ XPVO'de M, xpv<^0ai V. 

* a-vviSoiTf Pflugk, (TvvelSoiTe VM. 



you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do b.o. a7 
this not only in word but also in deed, not only 
in public but also in private, that you may obtain, 
not penalties, but honours. Entrust the offices both 
of peace and of war to those who are the most 
excellent and the most prudent, harbouring no 
jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to 
advance the private interests of this or that man, 
but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous. 
Honour men who show this spirit, but punish those 
who act otherwise in political life. Treat your private 
means as the common property of the state, but 
refrain from the public funds as belonging to others. 
Guard strictly what you already have, but never 
covet that which does not belong to you. Do not 
treat the allies and subject nations insolently nor 
exploit them for gain, and in dealing with the 
enemy, neither wrong him nor fear him. Have your 
arms always in hand, but do not use them either 
against one another or against those who keep the 
peace. Maintain the soldiers adequately, so that 
they may not on account of want desire anything 
which belongs to others ; keep them in hand and 
under discipline, that they may not become pre- 
sumptuous and do harm. 

" But why make a long speech by going through 
everything in detail which it behooves you to do ? 
For you may easily understand from these hints how 
all other matters should be handled. I will close with 
this one further remark, that if you will conduct the 
government in this manner, you will both enjoy 



'X^DLpieiaOe, oani^i v/JLd<; aTaaid^^ovra'; Ka/cwf; Xa/3oDi> 
8 TOiovTOV<; aireSei^a, av S' aBvrarTjarjre koI otlovv 
avTcov irpa^ai, e/xe fiev fieravorjaai iroirjaere, rrjv 
Be Brj ttoXlv e? re TroXe/iOf? iroWov<; /cal e? klvBv- 
vov<; fM€yaXov<; av6i<i ifi^aXelTe^^ 
11 Totavra rod KaLaapo<; avdkeyovTo<^ ttolklXov 
TL 7ra^09 TOV<; ^ovk€VTa<i KaTeKdjifiavev, oXljoi 
fxev yap ttjv re Btdvocav avrov rjBeaav kvlk tovtov 
KoX avveaiTovBa^ov avTW' rcov S* dXXcov ol fiev 
vTrcoTTTevov ra Xeyofjueva ol Be eTriarevov a^ia-i, 
Kol Bia ravra koX e6avp,a^ov 6/jLolcd<; d/jLcpoTepoi, 

2 ol jiev TTJV irepL'fe'xyr)(7iv avrov ol Be rrjv yvco/jLrjv, 
/cat rj')(Oovro ol /juev rfj irpayp^areia avrov ol Be rfj 
fieravoia. ro re yap Brj/jLOKpariKov i]Br] rivh co? 
Kal crra<Tio!)Be<; efiLaovv, xal rfj fieraardaei rrj^; 
7roXtr€La<i '^pia/covro, rw re Kalo-apc eyaipov. 
Kal aTT* avra>v to?? fiev iraOrjp.aaL BLa^6poL<; rot? 

3 Be eiTiVoriiJLaaLV ofioioi^ i'^pwvro. ovre yap in- 
(rrevaavr€<; dXrjOoj^; avra Xeyeadai ')(aipeiv eBv- 
vavro, ov6^ ol ^ovXajxevoi ^ rovro Bt,a ro Beo^, ov6^ 
ol erepOL Bia ra<; iXTriBaf;' ovr aTnarrjaavre^ 
BiapaXelv re avrov Kal eXey^ai eroXficov, ol fiev 

4 on e^o^ovvro, ol B* on ovk e^ovXovro. oOevirep 
Kal TTiareveiv avra> 7rdvre<; ol fiev rjvayKd^ovro 
ol Be eirXdrrovro. Kal eiraivelv avrov ol fiev ovk 
iOdpaovv ol S* ovk rjOeXov, dXXa iroXXa fiev Kal 
fiera^if dvayLyvooaKOvro<; avrov Bie/Socov iroXXd 
Be Kal fierd rovro, fiovap^elaOal re Beofievoi Kal 

^ fiov\6fjieyoi R. Steph., fiovKevSfiepot VM. 



prosperity yourselves and you will gratify me, who b.o. 27 
found you engaged in wretched strife and made you 
what you now are ; but if there is any part whatever 
of this programme that you shall prove unable to 
carry out, you will cause me to regret my action and 
you will at the same time cast the city again into 
many wars and grave dangers." 

While Caesar was reading this address, varied 
feelings took possession of the senators. A few of 
them knew his real intention and consequently kept 
applauding him enthusiastically ; of the rest, some 
were suspicious of his words, while others believed 
them, and therefore both classes marvelled equally, 
the one at his cunning and the other at his decision, 
and both were displeased, the former at his scheming 
and the latter at his change of mind. For already 
there were some who abhorred the democratic con- 
stitution as a breeder of strife, were pleased at the 
change in government, and took delight in Caesar. 
Consequently, though they were variously affected 
by his announcement, their views were the same. 
For, on the one hand, those who believed he had 
spoken the truth could not show their pleasure, — 
those who wished to do so being restrained by their 
fear and the others by their hopes, — and those, on 
the other hand, who did not believe it did not dare 
accuse him and expose his insincerity, some because 
they were afraid and others because they did not care 
to do so. Hence all the doubters either were com- 
pelled to believe him or else pretended that they did. 
As for praising him, some had not the courage and 
others were unwilling ; on the contrary, both while 
he was reading and afterwards, they kept shouting 
out, begging for a monarchical government and urging 



TTCLVTa ra e? tovto (f>epovTa i7n\ejovT€<;, /^eX/Oi? 
5 ov Karr)vdy/cacrav BrjOev avrov avTap)(^fjcrai. koI 
TrapavTLKa ye rot? Bopvcpop'^aovaiv avrov SiirXd- 
aLov Tov /jbtaOov rov tol<; dWoi'^ ar paTiwrat^ 
B1S0/JL6VOV '\jrr}(t>La67]vaL Bieirpd^aro} otto)? aKpL^rj 
rrjv ^povpdv exj}' ovtco<; oo? d\r]6(o<; KaradecrOac 
rrjv iiovap')(^iav eireOvfJL'qae. 
12 T^i^ fiev ovv rjye/jiovLav rovrw tw ^ rpoirw koI 
irapd Trj<; yepovaia^ rov re BrjfjLOV effefiai,co(rarp, 
^ov\rjOel<i Be Br] koX w? BrjfMorLK6<i rc<i elvai Bo^ai, 
rrjv fjLev (fypovriBa rrjv re rrpoaraa-lav royv kolvmv 
rraaav o)? KaX e7n/jLe'X,eia<; rivo^ Beo/Jievcov vireBe- 
^aro, ovre Be irdvrcov avro<; r(ov eOvcov dp^evv,^ 

2 ov6^ oacov av dp^rj, Bid rravros rovro TToirjaeLv 
e(p7], dWd rd fxev dcrOevearepa cw? kol elprjvaia 
Kol diroXejia direBcoKe rfj ^ovXfj,^ rd S' la')(yp6repa 

( t»9 Kal (T^akepd koI eTriKivBvva koX ijroi iroXe- 
/jLL0V<i rLvd<; rrpoaoLKOv^ e'Xpvra rj kol avrd KaGf 

3 eavrd pueya n vecorepiaat Bvvdp,eva Kareayey \6yw 
fiev 07rft)9 'f] liev yepovaia dBeo)^ rd fcdWiara rr}? 
^/^%% icapTTwro, avro^ Be rov<; re tt6vov<^ kuI rov<i 
KLvBvvov<; e')(r), epyo) Be Xva errl rfj irpo^da-ei 
ravrrj ifcetvoi jjuev Kal doifkoi Kal d/ia')(^oi, cjaiv, 
avro<i Be Brj fiovo'^ Kal oirXa e^y Kal arpari,d)ra<; 

4 rpe^rj. Kal evojiiaOr] Bed ravra r) fiev ^ASpiKr) 
Kal r) ^ovfiiBia rj re 'Acrta Kal t) 'RWd^; fierd 
T^9 ^Yiireipov, Kal ro AeXfiariKov ro re MaAre- 
BoviKov Kal ^LKeXla, Kprjrrj re fierd At/Bvrjfs rrj'i 

^ 5t67rpa|aTO Bk., Ste7rpa|oj'T0 VM Xiph. 
2 T9JXiph.,T6VM. 

3 &p^€iv Bk., Hpx^iv VM Xiph. 
* rp fiovK^ Xiph. Zon., om. VM. 



every argument in its favour, until they forced him, b.c. 27 
as it was made to appear, to assume autocratic power. 
His very first act was to secure a decree granting to 
the men who should compose his bodyguard double 
the pay that was given to the rest of the soldiers, so 
that he might be strictly guarded. When this was 
done, he was eager to establish the monarchy in 
very truth. 

In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the 
senate and by the people as well. But as he wished 
even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted 
all the care and oversight of the public business, on 
the ground that it required some attention on his 
part, yet he declared he would not personally govern 
all the provinces, and that in the case of such pro- 
vinces as he should govern he would not do so 
indefinitely ; and he did, in fact, restore to the 
senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that 
they were peaceful and free from war, while he 
retained the more powerful, alleging that they were 
insecure and precarious and either had enemies on 
their borders or were able on their own account to 
begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this 
was that the senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest 
portion of the empire, while he himself had the 
hardships and the dangers ; but his real purpose was 
that by this arrangement the senators should be 
unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone 
had arms and maintained soldiers. Africa, Numidia, 
Asia, Greece with Epirus, the Dalmatian and Mace- 
donian districts, Crete and the Cyrenaic portion of 




'rrepl K.vp7]vr)v koI ^lOvvia fiera tov Trpoa-Keifiivov 

01 YioVTOV, SapBoO T€ /cat BaiTLKT) TOV T€ SljflOV 

5 KoX Trj<; y€pov(7ia<; elvai, tov Be Br) Kaiaapo'; rj re 
XotTTT) ^l/Srjpia, rj re nrepl Tappd/cwva koI rj Avai- 
Tavia, KoX ToXcLTav irdvTe<;, ol t€ ^ap^wvrjaioi 
KoX ol AovyBovvijaioi, ^Akvituvol tc koX BeXyiKol} 

6 avToi T€ KoX ol eiTOLKoi (T<j)(ov' KcXtmv yap TLve<^y 
otj<; Brj Tep/jiavovf; fcaXoOfxev, iraaav ttjv tt/jo? rro 
*¥^vq) Be\yiKr)v ^ KaTaa'^bvTe^ Tepfiavlav ovo- 
fid^ecrOai eiroirjaaVt ttjv fiev dvco ttjv jjueTa ra? 
TOV TTOTafMOV TTTjydf;, Trjv Be KdTw ttjv p^e^pi tov 

7 cDKeavov tov UpeTTavtKov ovaav. TavTd re ovv 
KoX rj ^vpia rj kolXt} /caXovpevT) yj t€ ^ocvlktj koI 
KiXtKia Koi YivTTpo^ koI XlyvirTioi ev ttj tov 
Kalarapof; /jbepiBt Tore ^ iyevovTO' vtJTepov yap ttjv 
pbev Kvirpov Kal ttjv VaXaTiav ttjv irepl Ndpj3cova 
Tw Br}p.(a aTreBcoKev, avTo<; Be ttjv AeXpaTLav 

8 dvTeXa^e. Kal tovto p,ev Kal eir dXXcov edvMv 
fieTO, TavT e'TTpd')(Pr], w? ttov Kal rj Bie^oBo<; tov 
Xoyov BrjXooaer TavTa Be ovtco KaTeXe^a, otl vvv 
')(copl<; cKacTTov avTcov rjyepjOveveTai, iirel to ye 
dp)(^alov Kal eirl iroXv Kal avvBvo Kal ayvTpia ja 

9 eOvrj dfia ijp^ero. tmv Be Brj Xolttwv ovk e/uLvrj- 
fiovevaa, otl tcl p,ev vdTepov avTcov TrpoaeKTTjOrj,* 
TO, Be, el Kal to re ijBrj cKex^lp^oTO, dX)C ovti ye 
Kal VTTO Tcov ^Viop^aicov i]p')(eTO, aXX* rj avTovofia 
d(j)€iTO rj Kal /3aatXeLat<; Tialv eireTeTpaTTTO' Kal 

1 BeA7i/foi Bs. , ^eXriKoi VM. 

2 BeKyiK^v Bs., jSeArt/c^i/ VM. * tJtc M, ora. V. 
* irpo(rfKT-f}6r] V, irpoacKTriffdri M. 



Libya, Bithynia with Pontus » which adjoined it, b.c. 27 
Sardinia and Baetica were held to belong to the 
people and the senate ; while to Caesar belonged the 
remainder of Spain, — that is, the district of Tarraco 
and Lusitania, — and all the Gauls, — that is, Gallia 
Narbonensis, Gallia Lugdunensis, Aquitania, and 
Belgica, both the natives themselves and the aliens 
among them. For some of the Celts, whom we call 
Germans,^ had occupied all the Belgic territory 
along the Rhine and caused it to be called Germany,^ 
the upper portion extending to the sources of that 
river, and the lower portion reaching to the British 
Ocean. These provinces, then, together with Coele- 
Syria, as it is called, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Cyprus and 
Egypt, fell at that time to Caesar's share ; for after- 
wards he gave Cyprus and Gallia Narbonensis back 
to the people, and for himself took Dalmatia instead. 
This same course was followed subsequently in the 
case of other provinces also, as the progress of my 
narrative will show ; but I have enumerated these 
provinces in this way because at the present time 
each one of them is governed separately, whereas in 
the beginning and for a long period thereafter they 
were administered two and three together. The 
others I have not mentioned because some of them 
were acquired later, and the rest, even if they were 
already subjugated, were not being governed by 
the Romans, but either had been left autonomous or 
had been attached to some kingdom or other.^ All 

^ See note on xxxviii. .34. 

* Dio's name for Germany proper is KfXriK-fi ; when he uses 
the name Tfpfxavia, as here, he refers to the provinces of that 
name, Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, both lying 
west of the Rhine. 

» Cf. chap. 26 and liv. 9. 



avTMV 0(7 a fiera tovt e? rrjv tmv 'Pcofxaicov CLp')(r)v 
a<j)LK€TO, Tft) ael Kparovvri TrpoaereOrj. 
13 Ta fiev ovv eOvrj ovrco SirjpeOyj, ^ovX/qdel^ 5e hr) 
Kal 0)9 o Troppco a^a<; aira'ya'yelv rod ri 
fiovapxtfcov (f)poveLV BoKeiv, 6? Bi/ca errj ttjv apxh^ 
TMV BoOevTwv ol vTrearr]' roaovrw re yap '^p6va> 
KaraaTTjcretv avra UTreo-^ero, fcal irpocreveaviev- 
araro eliroav on, av Kal Oclttov rj/iepcodfj, ddrrov 

2 avTOL<; Kal eKelva airohaxreL* ikclk tovtov trrpcorov 
fiev avTov<; toi'9 /3ov\€VTa<; eKarepcov rcov iOvMV, 
ttXtjv AlyvTTTLcov, ap^eiv KariBei^ev (iKeivoi<; yap 
Br) jULovoL^; rov ODVO/JLaa/jbivov InriTea, Bl airep elirjiv, 
TTpoaeTa^evy eireiTa Be toi'9 p^ev Kal e'jrei7)aiov^ 
Kal K\r]p(OTOv^ elvai, 7r\r)v ei rw iroXviraiBiaf; rj 

3 ydp,ov TTpovofJiia Trpoa-eirj, Kal e/c re rot) kocvov t^9 
yepov(TLa<; avWoyov Trep^Treadai p^rjTe ^i<po^ irapa- 
^(Dvvvfievov<; pu^re a-rpaTKoriKfj icrOrjrL %/c>ft)/A€i/oi'9, 
Kal avdviroLTovfi KaXelaOai p,r) on tou9 Bvo roix; 
viraTevKOTa^i aXka Kal tol'9 aXkov^ toi'9 eK rcov 

4 ea-TparrjyTjKOTCOv r) Bokovvtcov ye ia-TparrjyrjKevai 
pLovov 6pTa<;, paffBov^oi<; re (Kpa^; eKarepov^ 
6(TOi(T7rep Kal ev tw aarei vevofiiarai 'X^pija-Oai, 
Kal ra rrj^ dpXV'^ eTrlarjpia Kal Trapa^ptjfia apua 

1 In li. 17, 1. 

2 The details of the earlier legislation of Augustus (cf. liv. 
16, 1 ; Iv. 2, 6) in the interest of more marriages and larger 
families are not clear ; but as finally embodied in the Lex 
Julia et Papia Poppaea (cf. Ivi. 10), the special privileges of 
a father of three legitimate children (the ius irium liherorum) 



of them which came into the Roman empire after b.c. 27 
this period were added to the provinces of the one 
who was emperor at the time. 

Such, then, was the apportionment of the pro- 
vinces. And wishing, even then, to lead the 
Romans a long way from the idea that he was at all 
monarchical in his purposes, Caesar undertook for v' 
only ten years the government of the provinces 
assigned him ; for he promised to reduce them to 
order within this period, and boastfully added that, 
if they should be pacified sooner, he would the 
sooner restore them, too, to the senate. Thereupon / 
he first appointed the senators themselves to govern 
both classes of provinces, except Egypt. This 
province alone he assigned to a knight, the one we 
have already named,i for the reasons mentioned 
there. Next he ordained that the governors of 
senatorial provinces should be annual magistrates, 
chosen by lot, except when a senator enjoyed a 
special privilege because of the large number of his 
children or because of his marriage.'^ These govern- 
ors were to be sent out by vote of the senate in 
public meeting ; they were to carry no sword at 
their belt nor to wear military uniform ; the name of 
proconsul was to belong not only to the two ex- 
consuls but also to the others who had merely served 
as praetors or who held at least the rank of ex- 
praetors; both classes were to employ as many 
lictors as were usual in the capital ; and they were 

included the right to receive inheritances left to bachelors 
(who could not inherit), preference in standing for the various 
offices, including the right to be a candidate before the regu- 
lar age or without the usual interval between offices, pre- 
cedence before equals and colleagues, and exemption from 
certain civic obligations. 



T(p e^o) rod Trcofirjpiov yeviaOai, TrpoaTiOeaOai koX 
hia 7ravT0<i /jL6^pL<!; av dvaKOfiia-Owo-iv e-)(eiv ixi- 

6 Xeuare. tov<; Se irepovi vtto re eavrov aipetadat 
Koi IT pea ^evTa<; avrov avriarpar^yovfi re ovofid- 
^eaOai, kclv Ik tcov virarevKOTcov wai, BteTa^e. 

/ TMP yap Br) Bvo tovtcov ovofiaTcov iirl ifKelarov iv 
Tfi Brj/jLOKparla dvOrjadvTcov, to fxev rov arparrj- 

ryOV Tol^i alp6T0L<i 'w^i Kal TW TToXeyLtCt) ^ dlTO TOV 

irdvv dp^aiov TrpoarJKOV eBcoKcv, dvTLarparrjyov^ 
(T(pd<i 7rpoa€L7rd)v, to Be Brj tmv virdTcov TOt<i 
eT€p0L<idi<; Kal elprjviKcoTepoif;,, dpOv7rdTov<i avT0v<i 

6 i'7rLKa\ecra<i. avTa fiev yap tcl 6v6p,aTa, to T€ 
TOV (TT parity ov Kal to tov virdTov, iv Tjj 'IraXta 
eT7]pr)a€, to 1)9 Be e^co Trayra? &)<? Kal dvT eKeivwv 
dpxovTa<; irpoar)y6p€vae. ttj t6 ovv eTrcKXijaeL 
TTj TCOV dvTtaTpaTrjycov TOV'i alpeToi)^ y^prjadai,, 
Kal irrl TrXeico Kal iviavrov ')(p6vov, i(f)' oaov av 
eavT(p Bo^y, dp)(^etv iTrourjae, ttjv tc (TTpaTicoTCKrjv 
<TK€vr)v (l>opovvTa<; Kal ^l(j>o(i, ol<i ye Kal aTparcco- 

7 Ta<i BiKaicjaai, e^ecTTLV, e^ovTa<i, dWo) yap ovBevl 
ovTe dvOviraTM ovTe avTuaTparriycp ovTe eiriTpoTru) 
^i(j>r)cl>opeLV BeBoTai, o5 fir) Kal a-TpaTid)T7)v tlvcl 
diroKTelvai e^elvau vev6/jLLaTa.r ov yap oti toU 
f3ov\evTal<i dWd Kal rot? iTnrevaLV, oh rovO^ 

8 virdpX'^i'i i^clI eicelvo (rvyKe)(^ci)pr)Tai,. TavTa fiev ovv 
ovTco({ e^eiy pa^Bov)(OL<; Be Br) TrevTe 7rdvTe<; op^oLCix; 
at dvTL(TTpdTr)yoi ')(^pcovTat, Kal ocroi ye ovk eK tcov 
viruTevKOTcov elai, Kal ovofid^ovTai in avTov tov 

1 Tif noXfjU^ M, TOV TTOXf/XOV V. 

^ Legati Augusti pro praeiore. 

2 The expression to which Dio here refers is apparently 
the adjective quinque/aacalis, found in inscriptionai Latin. 



to assume the insignia of their office immediately b.o. 
upon leaving the pomerium and were to wear them 
constantly until they returned. The other governors, 
on the other hand, were to be chosen by the emperor / 
himself and were to be called his envoys and ^ 
propraetors,^ even if the men selected were ex- 
consuls. Thus, of these two titles which had been 
in vogue so long under the republic, he gave that of 
praetor to the men chosen by him, on the ground 
that from very early times it had been associated 
with warfare, calling them propraetors ; and he gave 
the name of consul to the others, on the ground that 
their duties were more peaceful, styling them pro- 
consuls. For he reserved the full titles of consul 
and praetor for Italy, and designated all the governors 
outside of Italy as acting in their stead. So, then, 
he caused the appointed governors to be known as 
propraetors and to hold office for as much longer 
than a year as should please him ; he made them 
wear the military uniform, and a sword, with which 
they are permitted to execute even soldiers. For 
no one else, whether proconsul, propraetor, or pro- 
curator, has been given the privilege of wearing a 
sword without also having been accorded the right 
to put a soldier to death ; indeed, this right has been 
granted, not only to the senators, but also to the 
knights who are entitled to wear a sword. So much 
for this. All the propraetors alike employ five 
lictors, and, indeed, all of them except those who 
were ex-consuls at the time of appointment to 
governorships receive their title from this very 
number.2 Both classes alike assume the decorations 

All the editions previous to that of Boissevain gave "six 
lictors," an error corrected by Mommsen {ROmischts Staats- 
recht, i^ p. 369, note 4). 



apiO/ULOV TOVTOV. TCL T6 T^9 yyC/jLOVLWi KO(Tfl^fJ,aTa, 

orav T€ €9 T^i^ 7rpo(TT€TajfjLevrjv a(f)Lai ')(^u>pav 
eaeXOayacv, e/cdrepoc 6/jiOL(o<; dpaXafjufidvovac, /cal 
iTreiBdv Bidp^cocnv, evdv<; KararidevTai. 
14 OvT(t> jiev KoX eirl rovTOL<; ek je to}v iarparr)- 
ryrj/coToyv f(al €K tcov virarevfCOTCov dp^ovre'^ d/jL(f>o- 
repcocre irifiTreaSai evofxladrjcrav, koI avTCJV o 
fiev avTOKpdTODp oiroc ri riva koX oirore rjdekev 
eareWe, Kol ttoWoI kuI aTparrjyovvre^ Koi 
virarevovre^ r)y6/jL0i'[a<; eOvSdv ea^ov, b Kal ^ vvv 

2 ecTiv 0T€ yiyverar rfj Be Brj povkfj Ihia ifiev roh 
re vTraTevKoa-i'rijv T€ *A(ppiKr}v Kal rrjv ^Aalav 
Kal TOi? iaTparrjyrjKoa-i rd Xonrd irdvra dTrAz. 
veijJLe, Koipjj Be Br) irdaiv avTol<i dirrjyopevae 
fxrjBeva irpo irevre irajv fxerd to ev rfj iroXei dp^ai 

3 KXrjpova-Oai. Kal ')(^p6v(£> fiev rivi Trai^re? ol 
TOiovTOt, el Kal 7rXelov<; t(ov eOvtav -^aav, iXdy- 
yavov avrd' varrepov Be, eTreiBr] TLve<i avrcov ov 
KaXu)<i ^/5%o^> Tw avTOKpdropi Kal eKelvot, irpoo'- 
€T€Or)aav, Kal ovto) Kal tovtoi^ avro^ Tpoirov 

4 Tivd ra? rjyepLovia^ BlBoxtip. laapi,6/jLov<i re yap 
TOL<; Wveai, kol ov^ dv iOeX^arj, KXr^povaOat 
KeXevei. aipeTov<; re Tive^i Kal eKelae eTrefiyjrav, 
Kal iirl TrXetft) iptavrov ')(^p6pop earip ol? dp^at, 
eTreTpeyap' Kal ripe^ Kal iTnrevacp uptI twp 
^ovXevrcop eOpi} jipd irpoaera^ap. 

1 Koi^., re VM. 


of their position of authority when they enter their b.c. 27 
appointed province and lay them aside immediately 
upon completing their term of office. 

It was thus and on these conditions that the 
custom was established of sending out ex-praetors 
and ex-consuls respectively as governors of the two 
classes of provinces. In the one case, the emperor 
would commission a governor to any province he 
wished and when he wished, and many secured 
provincial commands while still praetors or consuls, 
as sometimes happens even at the present day. In 
the case of the senatorial provinces, he assigned 
Asia and Africa on his own responsibility to the 
ex-consuls, and all the other provinces to the ex- 
praetors ; but by public decree, applicable to all the 
senatorial governors, he forbade the allotment of any 
senator to a governorship before the expiration ot 
five years from the time he had held office in the 
city.^ For a time all who fulfilled these require- 
ments, even if they exceeded the number of the 
provinces, were allotted to governorships ; but later, 
inasmuch as some of them did not govern well, the 
appointment of these officials, too, was put in the 
emperor's hands. And thus it is, in a manner of 
speaking, the emperor who assigns these governors 
also to their commands ; for he always orders the 
allotment of precisely the number of governors that 
there are provinces, and orders to be drawn whom- 
soever he pleases. Some emperors have sent men of 
their own choosing to these provinces also, and have 
allowed certain of them to hold office for more than 
a year ; and some have assigned certain provinces to 
knights instead of to senators. 

^ This was merely a renewal of the decree of 52 B.C. which 
had remained in force. Cf. xl. 46, 2, and Hi. 20, 4. 



5 Tavja fiev ovto) totc Trepl roix; ^ovXeuTa<; 
T0U9 ye Kol Oavarovv tov<; ap')(^ofiivov<; e^ovaiav 
exovTa<i evojilaOrj. ire^iirovTak. JcLp /cal oh ov/c 
e^eari tovto, e? fiev ra rov hrjjxov; r^? re ^ovXrjf, 
Xeyo/jLeva eOvrj oi re TafXLevovTe^y ov<i av 6 Kkyjpo^ 
diroSei^rj, Kal ol irapeBpevovTe'; Toh to Kvpo<; t?}? 

6 ap^Tjf; e^ovcTLv, ovtco yap' av 6pO(o<; avrov<;, ov 
I' 7r/)09 TO ovo/jLai aXXai tt/jo? ttjv TTpa^tf, uKTirep 

ehrov, Ka\eaat/jLL, iirel oi ye ^ aXKoL 7rp€a^€VTa<i 
Kal T0VT0v<i €Xkrjvi^ovTe<i ovoud^ovai. Kal irepl 
fiev T^9 iiTiKXTjaea)^ TavTr)^) apKOvvTco^ iv toU 

7 dvca \6yoi^ etprjTai, tou? 3e Btj TrapeBpov^^ avTo^i 
eavTM efcqiiTO^ alpeLTai, eva (jlIv ol iaTpaTrjyrjKOTCfi 

f CK T(hv 6/wla>v acpiatv rj Kal TOiv v7roBeeaT€po)V, ) 
Tpeis Be 01 viraTevKOTe^ Kal Ik tcoi^ o/jlotliicov, ov<i 
av Kal 6 avTOKpaTCop BoKifjidcrrj. eKcuvoro^Or) 
fxev yap tl Kal KaTO, tovtov^, aXV eVeiS^ Ta^v 
iiravaaTO, d^Keaec t6t6 avTo Xe^dfjvat. jl 

15 / Hepl fjuev ovv to, tov B/jjulov eOvrj ravO' ovtco^ 
yiyveTai' Tre/jLTrovTat Be Kal e? tcl eTepa, to. tov 
Te avTOKpaTopo^; ovofia^o/Jbeva Kal iroXiTCKa orTpa- 
ToireBa TrXeuco €Vo<i €')(ovTa, ol v7rdp^ovT6<i cr<pa)v, 
VTT* avTov eKeivov to fiev irXetcrTov ck tcov iarpa- 
TrjyrjKOTCDV rjBrj Be Kal Ik tcov TeTafiievKOToyv rj 
Kal dWrjv TLvd dp')(}^v tmv Bid /neaov dp^dvTcov J 

1 76 H. Steph., T6 VM. 


These were the principles estabHshed at that b.c 27 
time in regard to the particular class of senators 
who had the right to inflict the death penalty upon 
their subjects in the provinces. For it should be 
stated that there is a class who have not this right, — 
those, namely, who are sent to the provinces styled 
the " provinces of the senate and people," — I mean 
those who serve either as quaestors, being designated 
by lot to this office, or as assessors ^ to those who 
hold the actual authority. For this would be the 
correct way for me to style these officials, having 
regard not to their name, but to their duties as just 
described, although others in hellenizing their title 
call these also " envoys." ^ Concerning this title, 
however, enough has been said in what precedes.^ 
As to assessors in general, each governor chooses his 
own, the ex-praetors selecting one from their peers 
or even from their inferiors, and the ex-consuls three 
from among those of equal rank, subject to the 
emperor's approval. For, although a certain change 
was made in regard to these men also, yet it soon 
lapsed and it will be sufficient to mention it at the 
proper time. 

This is the system followed in the case of the 
provinces of the people. To the others, which are 
called the imperial provinces and have more than 
one citizen-legion, are sent officials who are to govern 
them as lieutenants ; these are appointed by the 
emperor himself, generally from the ex-praetors, 
though also from the ex-quaestors, or men who have-''^ 
held an office between the praetorship and the 

^ Ltgati. Cf. Iv. 27, 6. 

2 irpeaffevTai This, the literal translation of legati, was 
in fact the ordinary Greek term. " See chap. 13, 5. 



2 Tcov fxev St) ovv ^ovXevovTcov ravTa £ ^Ta t(. ex 
Be Sr} roiv iTTTrecov] tou9 re %fcXfca/o%of 9, kol tou? 
^ovXevaovTa^ ^ kol tou? Xocttov^, wv irepl t^? 
Bia(f>opd<i ^vca /jloc tov \6yov TrpoeLpTjTai, auro9 _o_ 

aVTOKpClTCOp TOt'9 /X6I^ 69 TO, iroXtTLKCL Tel^t] fiova 

TOL'9 Be Kcu €9 ra ^evi/ca airodTekXeit wairep Tore 

3 7r/)09 ToO '^ Kala-apof; ivo^laOrj- Kal tou9 iircTpo- 
7rov<; (ovTO) yap tov<; rdf; re Koivaf; 7rpoa6Bov<{ 
eKXiyovra^; Kal ra rrpocneTayiJbeva (tc^lctlv avaXl- 
(TKovTa^ qvg_^d^ofi6v) 69 irdvTa ofioLoxi ra efivr}.!^ rd 
re kavTOv Brj Kal ra tov hrjjxovt tov<; fxev eK tcov 
Innricov rov<; Be Kal ix rcav direXevOepcov ire/jLTrei, 
irXrjV Kad* oaop tou9 <l>6pov<: ol dvOviraroL irap 

4 odv dp^ovoriv i<T7rpd(T(T0V(Tiv» ivToXdq re Ttva<i 
Kal T0i9 e'7rtT/907roi9 Kal Tol<i avdvirdroi^ rol^i re 
avTiarparriyoifi BiBcoaLV, oirax; iirl pr}Tol<i e^mrn'. 
Kal yap tovto Kal to^ fxiaOocjiopdv Kal €K€LVOL<i 

5 Kal T0t9 dXXoi^ BiBoaOai rore ivojuaOr]. to fiev 
yap TrdXuL ipyoXa^ovvrh Tive^ irapa tov By/no- 
aiov; TrdvTa cr(f)Lai tcl 7rp6<i tjjv dpxv^' <f>epovTa 
'irapel)(ov* eirl Be Br] tov K.aiaapo'; irpcorov avTol 
eKeZvoL TaKTov tl Xa/xfidveiv ^p^vjo. Kal tovto * 
fiev ovK Ik tov Xaov iraai acpcaiv, dXX* a>9 ttov 
Kal rj %/36ta dirrjreL, eTd'^Orj- Kal {tol^; ye eTTLTpo- 
7roi<!^Kal avTO to[to£)^ d^idifiaTO^ ovofxa aTrb tov 
dpiOfiov T(ou BiBo/jiivcov avT0L<; 'Xpr) /jidTO)v irpoa- 

^ fiovXevaovTas Dind., $ovXevaavTas VM. 
2 rov Bs., avrov tov VM. ^ rh Bk., t^v VM. 

* TOVTO R. Steph., TOV VM. ^ rh tov Bk., tovto VM. 



These positions, then, appertain to the senators, b.c. 27 
Passing now to the knights, the emperor himself se- 
lects knights to be sent out as military tribunes (both / 
those who are prospective senators and the others ; 
concerning their difference in rank I have already 
spoken 1), despatching some of them to take command 
of the garrisons of purely citizen-legions, and others 
of the foreign legions as well. In this matter he fol- 
lows the custom then instituted by Caesar. The 
procurators (for this is the name we give to the men 
who collect the public revenues and make disburse- 
ments according to the instructions given them) he 
sends out to all the provinces alike, to those of the 
people as well as to his own, and to this office knights 
are sometimes appointed and sometimes even freed- 
men ; but the proconsuls may exact the tribute from 
|. the people they govern. The emperor gives in- 
if. structions to the procurators, tlie proconsuls, and the 
propraetors, in order that they may be under definite 
I orders when they go out to their provinces. For both 
this practice and the giving of salaries to them and to 
the other officials was established at this time. In 
former times, of course, certain persons had made a 
business of furnishing the officials with all they needed 
for the conduct of their office, drawing upon the 
treasury for the money ; but under Caesar these officials 
now for the first time began to receive a fixed salary. 
This was not assigned to them all on the same basis, 
but approximately as their needs required ; and the 
procurators, indeed, get the very title of their rank 
from the amount of the salaries assigned to them.^ 

1 In lii. 25, 6 f. 

2 i.e. centenarii, ducenarii, and trecenarii, receiving one 
hundred, two hundred, and three hundred thousand sesterces 


6 <yi'yveTai, jKelva Be cttI iraa-iv :6/jL0i(o^ evojjboOez, 
TTjdri, /JirJT€ Kara\6yov<; <T<^a<^ iroieladaiy jjltjt 
apyvpioVi€^(a tov rerajfjiivov) iairpdaaeiv, el fit] 
7]roL Tj^ povXr) '\jrr)^L<7aiT0 rj 6^ avroKparoyp /ce- 
\6vaei6V' orav re tco 6 SidSo^^^ot; eXOrj,^ e/c re tov 
eOvov^ avTLKa avrbv i^opfido-Oai Koi eV rfj dva- 
KOjJblhfl /JLT] ey)(povL^€LV, aXX' ivTO<^ Tpiwv /itjvwv 
16/ TaOra fiev ovrco rore m<; ye eiTrelv BteTayOr]' 

1 T(p yap €py(p teal iravrtov koX Bta iTavTo<^i avro^ 6 
Kalcrap, are kuI rcov y^prjixdrwv Kvptevcov (Xoycp 
p,ev yap ra BijpLoaca diro r6)v eKeivov direKeKpLTO, 
epytp he xal ravra Trpo? t^j^ yvco/jirjv avrov avrj- 
XiCTKero) Kal tmv a-Tpariayrcov /cparcov, avrap- 

2 %»;o-eti^ e/JLeWe. rrj<; yovv B€KaerLa<; e^eXOovavj^ 
aXka err) irevre, elra irevre, Kal fiera rovro BeKa 
Kal erepa avOi<; SeKa Kal dWa BeKa,'^ Tre/xTrra/ct? "^ 
avro) eyjrrjcpiad)], ware rfj rcov BeKerrjpiB^v * Bia- 

3 Boxfi Bia piov avTov fiovapxv^^^- KalBia rovroi 
Kal ol_ pera ravra avrotcpdrope'^, Kairoi prjKer ,e? 
raKTOv ')(p6vov^d\K €<i Trdvra KaOdira^ rov fiiov^ 
drroBeiKvvjxevoif opLoy^i Bta rcop BeKa del irSyv ■^ 
ecopraaav &)? Kal rr]v rjyepioviav av6i^ rore dva- 
veovfievoi' Kal rovro Kal vvv yiyverai, 

4 !p 5* ovv Kataap TroWa puev Kal irporepov,^ 
ore rafirepl rrjf; e^cd/jLoo-ia^i rrj<^ p.ovapxi^a<; Kal ra 

[ire pi rrj<; rcov edvwv Biavoixrj<^s^ BieXexOrj,^ eXajSe: 
Kal yap ro re rd<; Bd^va^ hrpo ' rS)v ^aaCkeiwv^ 

1 b supplied by R. Steph. 

2 KoX &K\a SfKu supplied by Mommsen. 
•* irefXTTTaKis Zon., -nffiirTaKis & VM. 

* 5eK€T7]piSo}V Xiph., ScKafrripidwv Zon., SeKfTrjptwv VM. 

^ irp6Tepov Rk., rrpSrfpa VM. '^ Si(\(X&rj M, 5if\4yx^V V. 



The following regulations were laid down for them b.c. 27 
all alike : they were not to raise levies of soldiers or 
to exact money beyond the amount appointed, unless 
the senate should so vote or the emperor so order ; 
and when their successors arrived, they were to leave 
the province at once, and not to delay on the 
return journey, but to get back within three months. ^ 

These regulations were established at that time, 
to speak generally ; for in reality Caesar himself 
was destined to have absolute control of all matters 
for all time, because he was not only master of the 
funds (nominally, to be sure, he had separated the 
public funds from his own, but as a matter of fact, 
he always spent the former also as he saw fit), but 
also commanded the soldiers. At all events, when 
his ten-year period came to an end, there was voted 
to him another five years, then five more, after that 
ten, and again another ten, and then ten for the 
fifth time, so that by the succession of ten-year 
periods he continued to be sole ruler for life. And 
it is for this reason that the subsequent emperors, 
though no longer appointed for a specified period, 
but for their whole life once for all, nevertheless 
always held a celebration every ten years, as if then 
renewing their sovereignty -once more; and this is 
done even at the present day. 

Now Caesar had received many privileges and 
honours even previously, when the question of de- 
clining the sovereignty and that of apportioning the 
provinces were under discussion. For the right to 
place the laurel trees in front of the royal residence 



avTOV TrpoTidecrdai, /cat to rov (rre^avov rov 
hpvLVOVi VTTep avTcbv apraaOaiy Tore ol q)<; koX ael 
T0U9 re iroXep.iov^ vlkmvti koI tov<; 7ro\ira<i 

5 ado^ovTL i^rj^ladrj, (KaXelrai Be ra ^aalXeta 
Trakdriov, ovx oti xal eBo^i nrore ovt(o<; ayra 
ovofJbd^eaOai, dW on kv re rw UaXana) 6 
Kalaap wKet koX eKel to a-Tparrjyiov €t%e, kuv 
TLva Kol irpo^ TTjv Tov *F(o/JLv\ov irpoevoLKYjaiP \ 
(^rjp,r]v ri olffla auTou oltto tov iravTo<i opov^^ y 

6 eka^e' xal (Bca tovtoj Kav dXkoOi ttov q^qlvto- 
KpcLToap KaToXvrj, ttjv tov iraXarlov €7r[,fc\rj(Tiv ^ 
KaTaycoyr) avrov icrx^i), iirel Be kul tw epyo) J 
avTCL iTrereXeaev, ovtw Brj koI to^ tov AvyovaTov^ 
ovofia KOL IT a pd Trj<; pov\rjf;\Ka\ [irapd tov Bij/jlov / 

7 eireOeTO. ^ovXrjOevTcov ydp a^wv IBl(o<; 7ra>9 
avTOV nTpoaenrelv, Kal tmv fiev to tmv Be to koX 
e(T7)yov/jL6V(OV Kal alpovp,ev(oVy o^Kalaap eir^OvfieL 
fiev i(j')(yp(jd^ ^PojfjLvXo^ ovofiaaOijvai, alaOofievo^ 
Be OTt, VTTOTTTeveTai ex tovtov t^? ^a(TLkeia<; 

8 iiTLOv/iietVy ov/ceT avTov avTeiTOL^aaTO, dWd 
Avyov(TTO<i ft)? Koi irkelov ti rj Kara dvOpoiirov^ 
o)v eTTeKkrjOrj' irdvTa ydp Ta ivTijuoTaTa Kal to, 
lepcoTaTa avyovara it pocrayopeveTai* e^ ovirepj 
Kot cre^acTTov avTov Kal eWrjvL^ovTe^ tto)?, ojairep 
Tivd aeTTTOvJ diro tov ae^d^eadatf^jTrpoaelTrop, 

17 OvTQ) fxev Br) TO Te tov B^/jlov fcal to t?)? yeppv- 
aia<; KpdTO<; 7rdi^i<; tov AvyovdTOV) peTeaTrj, Kaldir* 
avTov JKal dKpt^r)<; fjuovapx^ia KaTeo-Trj' fiovapx^ct 
ydp, el Kal Ta pAXtoria Kal Bvo Kal TpeU dp,a 
TO Kvp6<i TTOTe e(T')(pv, dXrjOeaTaTa dv vo/jlI^oito. 

^ opovs R. Steph., opov V, Spou M. 
2 cffid^fadai Zon., aefiiXeadai VM. 



and to hang the crown of oak above them was then b.c. 27 
voted him to symbolize that he was always victor 
over his enemies and the saviour of the citizens. 
The royal residence is called Palatiiim, not because 
it was ever decreed that this should be its name, but 
because Caesar dwelt on the Palatine ^ and had his 
military headquarters there, though his residence 
gained a certain degree of fame from the mount as a 
whole also, because Romulus had once lived there. 
Hence, even if the emperor resides somewhere else, 
his dwelling retains the name of Palatium. And when 
Caesar had actually carried out his promises, the 
name Augustus was at length bestowed upon him by ^ 
the senate and by the people. For when they wished 
to call him by some distinctive title, and men were 
proposing one title and another and urging its 
selection, Caesar was exceedingly desirous of being 
called Romulus, but when he perceived that this 
caused him to be suspected of desiring the kingship, 
he desisted from his efforts to obtain it, and took the 
title of "Augustus," signifying that he was more than ' 
human ; for all the most precious and sacred objects 
are termed augusta. Therefore they addressed him 
also in Greek as Sehastos,^ meaning an august person- 
age, from the passive of the verb sehazo, '' to revere." 

In this way the power of both people and senate 
passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from ; -^ 
his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarchy ; for ^ 
monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter 
if two or three men did later hold the power at the 

^ In both Greek and Latin the common form of the name 
for the Palatine {naXdnov and Palatium) is the same as that 
for the imperial residence. It is hardly necessary to state 
that Palatium has given the English " palace." 

2 Cf. hi. 40. 


2 TO fiev <yap ovojJia avro to fiovap')(^iKov ovrco 8?; ri 
01 ^PcojjLaloi ifxicTrjaav utare /JLi]r€ BtKraropa^; /ntJTc 
^aaiXea<; fiijr dWo n TOLpVTorporrov tov<; avro- 
KpcLTOpd^; (T^cov ovojid^eLVi roy Be Sr) rr)? TroXtreta? 
reXof ? €9 avTov^ dvaKeifievov \ovk. cotlv 07rft)9 ov 

3 PacTikevovrai. at fxev yap d^^l cd ix rcav 
vofJLWV (jt}<; TrXrjOei yevofievai koX vvv irXr^v rrj<; tmv 
Ti/jLTjrcov KaOiaravraL, Sidjerai Se /cal SiOLKecrac 
Trdvra aTrXw? otto)? av 6 del Kparwv iOeXrjar). ^ 
KoX Xva ye fiT) e/c Bwacrreia^;] dXk" ck tmv vojiwv^ 
TOVT ex^iv BoKoxTi, 7rdv6' 6aa[iv rfj Brj/jLOKparia J 
fiiya irap e/covai a(l)Laiv la^^uaev, avTot<; roi^ 
ovofiaat %ft)/>t9 Tov T779 BiKraropia^ TrpoaeTTOirj- 

4 cravTO. virajol re yap irXeKnaici^; y^jyvQVTai, fcal 
dvOviraroL del, ocrdKt^ dv efo) rov Trw/Jiijpiov coaiv, 
opofid^ovrar ttjv re tov avro/cpdropos 7rp6<7pr]cnv j 

Ihid nravro'i] ov /jlovov ol viKrj<iavTe<i riva^ dWd 
Kal ol dXKoi Trdvre^, Trpos BrfKaxTLV rf]<; avrore- 
X0U9 (T(f>(ov e^ovaia<;, dvrl rrj<^ rov paai\e(o<; rov 

6 re BiKTdropo<; eiriKXirjaews €')(ov(tlv. avTd<i jxeV' 
yap eKeiva<; ov ridevraL, eTretSij'jTep dira^ i^k rrj(; 
wo\ireia^]e^eire(ToVy ro^hBr) epyov avrwv rfj rov 
avro/cpdropo<; irpoar^yopia ^e^aiovvrat, KalfeK 
fiev rovrcov r5)V ovo/judrcov KaraXoyov^ re iroiel- 
aOai Kal ')(^prjpLara dOpoi^eiv iTo\epLov<; re dvat- 

6 peladai Kal elprjVT^v a7revSeaOai,(rov re ^eviKov 
Kal rov TToXirLKOVj del Kal Travraxov ofioCax; 
dpx^iv, ware Kal /€vro<; rov Tray/iirjpiov Kal rov<; 
t7r7rea9 Kal rov<; 0ov\€vrd<i Oavarovv BvvaaOat, 



same time.^ The name of monarchy, to be sure^ the b.o. 27 
Romans so detested that they called their emperors 
neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort ; 
yet since the final authority for the government 
devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The 
offices established by the laws, it is true, are main- 
tained even now, except that of censor; but the 
entire direction and administration is absolutely in 
accordance with the wishes of the one in power at 
the time. And yet, in order to preserve the ap- 
pearance of having this power by virtue of the laws 
and not because of their own domination, the em- 
perors have taken to themselves all the functions, 
including the titles, of the offices which under the 
republic and by the free gift of the people were 
powerful, with the single exception of the dictator- 
ship. Thus, they very often became consuls, and 
they are always styled proconsuls whenever they are 
outside the pomerium. The name of '' irnperator" is 
held by them all for life, not only by those who have 
won victories in battle, but also by those who have not, 
in token of their independent authority, and this has 
displaced the titles "king" and "dictator." These 
last titles they have never assumed since the time they 
first fell out of use in the conduct of the government, 
but the functions of those offices are secured to them 
under the appellation of " imperator." By virtue of the 
titles named they secure the right to make levies, to 
collect funds, declare war, make peace, rule foreigners 
and citizens alike everywhere and always, — even to 
the extent of being able to put to death both knights 
and senators inside the pomerium, — and all the other 

1 See note on § 8 inf. 


rd re aXXa ocra Tot<; re v7rdroi<; fcal toi<; dWoi'; 
Tot9 avTap')(rj(raai irore iroielv i^^v, Xa/xfidpovaiv 
tUk Se Srj rod ri/JLTjrevetv frou? re ^lov<; koI tou? 
rpoTTOV^ TjfMcbv i^erd^ovat,, koX d'Troypa<f)d<; ttol- 
ovvrai Kol tou? fxev KaraXeyovcri koI e? ttjv 
iTTTrdBa Koi e? to ^ovXevriKov, rov<; Be koI dira- 

8 \€i<pov(Tiv, OTTco? av auTOt? Bo^r). ' €K re rov (iv 
7rdaai<; rat? lepcoa-vvac^) lepcoaOai koX irpoaert, koX 
TOt? dWoL^ ra? TrXetoL'? <7(pMV BiBovat, dp^i'epedyv 
re riva avrcov, Kciv hiio kclv rpels dfia dp')(wcnv, 
elvai, Trdvrcov avrol koI rcov oo-ucov /cal rcov lepwv^ 

9 Kvpievovaiv. rj re e^ovaia rj Brjpiap'X^iKrj koXov- 
fievT], r)v ol rrdvv rrore dvOriaavre^; ea'^ov, BiBwai 
acpLac rd re emyL'yvop.eva xxfi erepov rivo^^ av f^V 
arvveiraivwcTiy rraveiVy kol jjutjO* v^pi^eo-Oai, kclv 
dpa ri Koi ro jSpa^^vrarov /ir) on epyw dWd kuI 
Xoyo) dBiKelaOai Bo^oxri, /cal ccKpirov rov ttolij- 

10 aavra avro to? xal evayrj diroXkvvat. Brj/xap^elv 
fiev ydpy are koX ' e? rov<; evirarplBa^; rrdvro!)^ 
reXovvre^y ovX oaiov vofxi^ovaiv elvar rrjv Be Brj 
BvvajJLLV rrjv rwv Brjfjudpxf^v irdaav, ocrrjirep rd 
fidXiara iyevero, TrpoariOevrai, /cat Bt avri]<; Kal 
rj e^apidpLrj(TL<; rcov irwv rrj<; dp-^rj^; avrcov, 0)9 Kal 
f /car ero? avrrjv fierd rwv del Brj/nap^ovvrcov 
^ UpS>v R. Steph., Upi<i)v V Xiph., Upfwv M. 

^ Up to the time when Dio wrote these words it was true 
that when two or more jointly held the imperial power (as 
Marcus Aurelius with L. Verus, and Septimius Severus with 



privileges once granted to the consuls and other b.c. 27 
officials possessing independent authority ; and by 
virtue of holding the censorship they investigate our 
lives and morals as well as take the census, enrolling 
some in the equestrian and senatorial classes and 
erasing the names of others from these classes, 
according to their will. By virtue of being con- 
secrated in all the priesthoods and of their right to 
bestow most of these positions upon others, as well 
as from the fact that, even if two or three persons 
hold the imperial office at the same time, one 
of them is high priest,^ they hold in their own 
hands supreme authority over all matters both pro- 
fane and sacred. The tribunician power, as it is 
called, which used to be conferred only upon men of 
the greatest influence, gives them the right to nullify 
the effects of measures taken by any other official, in 
case they do not approve it, and makes them immune 
from scurrilous abuse 2 ; and if they appear to be 
wronged in even the slightest degree, not merely by 
deed, but even by word, they may destroy the guilty 
party, as one accursed, without a trial. The emperors, 
it should be explained, do not think it right to be 
tribunes, inasmuch as they belong altogether to the 
patrician class, but they assume the power of the / 
tribunes to its full extent, as it was when it was 
greatest ; and in numbering the years they have held 
the imperial office they use the tribunician power to 
mark the stages, the theory being that they receive 
it year by year along with those who are regularly 

his two sons) only one of them was pontifex maximus. But 
a few years later, in 238, Balbinus and Maximus both claimed 
the title. 
» Cf. vol. i. p. 127 flf., xlix. 15, 5-6. 



11 XafifiavovTcov, irpo^aivei. ravra fievl ifc rrj<i 
Sr}fj,o/cpaTLas!) 609 TTOV Koi eKaara eypjiicrOri, ovtco 


18 fjLTjSep' avev B6<7e(o<i Tt,vo<i €')(eLV hoKoxnv rihr) (Be 
Kai erepov ri, oi jjLijBevl rcov iraXai ^Vwfiaioiv^ h 
irauTa dvTLKpv<i iBoOji, TrpoaeKryja-avro, ucf) ovirep 
Kol fi6vov]Kal eKclva av koi raWa avTol^ irpdr- 
r€LV i^rjp. XeXvvrai jap Brj rcou vopcov, co? avra 
ra Aarlva pruxara Xeyer tout €(ttlv iXevdepop 
\ drrrb Trao-i;? dvayKaia^ vojjL[cre(i)<:/€Lat fcal ouSevl 
2 Toyv fyeypap,p.ev(iyv ivexovjai. koi ovtco^ [€k 
TOVTCdV TCOV Brj/jbOKpaTlKMV ovofidTcovjTrdaav Trjv 
t/}9 7roXi,T€La<; la-'xvv Trepi^e^Xrjvrai, coare koI rd 
Tuiv ^aaLXewvi irXr)v rov (fiopriKov t^9 Trpoar}- 
yopLUf; avTCJV, e')(eiv. jqi_ fydp Br) rov,<Tapo<i rj 
T€ rov Avyovarov ir poapria L^ Bvvap.iv p.ev ovBe- 
fiiov avToU olfceCav Trpoa-TlO rjai,, B-qXol B^xdXXco^ 
TO p,€V Tr]v rov y€vov<; a<f>a>v BiaBoxv^* to Bk Tr}v 
8 Tov d^i(t)p,aTO<; .XapTrpoTTjTa. koX rj ye rov 
Trarpo^i eTta>vvp,ia rd'X^a pev kol i^ovalav rivd 
avTOL<;, r]v irore ol Trarepe? eirl tou? iralBa'; ecr-^ov, 
Kara irdvTcov rjp.Mv BiBcdcnv, ov p,evTOi Kal eirl 
TovTo dp')(riv eyevero aW* e? re Tiprjv^ Kal\€<; 
Trapaiveaiv, Xv avroC re TOv<i dpxopevov<; co? fcal 

* That is, they measured the length of their reign by 
tribunician years, dating either from the very day when the 
tribunician power was conferred upon them (even if before 



made tribunes.^ These are the institutions which b.c, 27 
they have taken over from the republic, essentially 
in the form in which they severally existed then, 
and also making use of these same names, their 
purpose being to create the impression that they 
possess no power that has not been granted them. 
And further, they have acquired also another pre- 
rogative which was given to none of the ancient 
Romans outright and unreservedly, and the possession 
of this alone would enable them to exercise the 
powers above named and the others besides. For 
they have been released from the laws, as the very 
words in Latin declare ; ^ that is, they are free from 
all compulsion of the laws and are bound by none of 
the written ordinances. Thus by virtue of these 
democratic names they have clothed themselves with 
all the powers of the government, to such an extent 
that they actually possess all the prerogatives of 
kings except their paltry title. For the appellation 
"Caesar" or "Augustus" confers upon them no 
peculiar power, but merely shows in the one case 
that they are heirs of the family to which they 
belong, and in the other the splendour of their 
official position. The term " Father " perhaps gives 
them a certain authority over us all — the authority 
which fathers once had over their children ; yet it 
did not signify this at first, but betokened honour, 
and served as an admonition both to them, that 
they should love their subjects as they would their 

their accession, by way of designating them officially as 
successors to the imperial power), or (beginning with Trajan) 
from December 10th, the date of the regular tribunician 

* Frinceps legihus snlutus est. Ulpian {Digest, i. 3, 31) ; cf. 
Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii*. 728 ff. 



TratSa? ayaiTMev /cat eKelvoi o-^a? &)? koX 7raT€pa<i 

4 Toaavrai re Kal roiavrac at 7rpO(r7}yoplai, ^laliu..^ 
al? o/ TO Kpdro^ €')(pvT€<^ Kara re tou? 1^0/101/9 Koi 

Y Kara to tjSt) irdrpiop vojd^ovg-i. Kal vvv p,ev 
iraaaL a/Ma avTOL<; a)9 to ttoXv, ttXtjv t^? twj' 
TLfjLTjTCOv, BiBovraCf Toi<; Se; Brj irakaL Kara ')(p6vov<i ) 

5 ct)9 €KaaTal'i^lrr]^l^ovTO. ( rrjv yap Brj Tppn^Teiav 
e\a0ov fjiip tiv€<^ Kal rSyv avroKparopcovi Kara to 
dpy(^aloVy eXa^e Be Kal AofjLiTiavo<i^ Bed jSiOV ov 
fxevTOi Kal vvv en tovto yuyverar to yap epyov 
avTf]<i e'XpvTefi ovre alpovvraL iir* avTr]v, ovt€ ^ 
TTj TrpoaKXrjaet ^ avTT]^ 7r\r]V iv Tah d'jroypa<f>al<i ) 

19 "*H yitei^ ovv TToXtreta oi;t&) totc izpo^ T€ to 
^iXrcov) Kal[ 7rp6<; to (ra)Tr}pLQ)Be(TT€pov p.€T€K0- 
afi^Orj' Kal ydp ttov Kal TravTaTracrtv dBwarov 
rjyBrj/jLOKpaTOVfjLevov<i avTOv<i crcodfjvaL. ov fievTOi 
Kal o/jLolco^ To?9 TTpoaOev tcl perd Tavrairpa- 

2 ydkvTa \e')(drivai BvvaTai. irporepov piev yap- 69 
Te Trjv ^ovXrjv }Kal €(i top Brjp,ov Trdvra, Kal el 
TToppcj TTOV (Tvp^air), eae(fiepeT0' Kal Bed tovto) 
7rarT€9 Te avTa epidvOavov Kal ttoWoI avveypa- 
^gvt KaK TovTOV Kal rj d\r}6eia avTwv, el Kal 

/rd paXicTTa/ Kal (t>6ffcp Tvvd Kal %a/[3tTt (l)L\ia 
T€ Kal ex^pf Tialv epp^drj, 'Trapd yovv toU dX- 
Xot9 T0t9 Ta avTd ypdyfraat, T0t9 Te VTrojJ.vijp.aori' 

3 Tor9 Bripoaiot,^ Tpoirov TLvd evplajiExo. ^k Be Br) 
Tov XP^^^^ eKeivov Ta p,ev irXeiw Kpv^a Kal Bt 
diropp^Tcov yly veaOaL rjp^aTO, ellBe irov Tiva Kal 

* Ao/xiTiaphs R. Steph., Sofirfnavhs VM. 
2 Tp irpoa-KXiifffi Bs., rijv ■trp6<rK\'t]<xiv VM. 



children, and to their subjects, that they should b.o. 27 
revere them as they would their fathers. 

Such is the number and nature of the appella- 
tions which those who possess the imperial power 
employ in accordance with the laws and with what 
has now become tradition. At present all of them 
are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one 
and the same time, with the exception of the title 
of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were 
voted separately at different times. As regards 
the censorship, some of them took it in accordance 
with the ancient practice, and Domitian, in fact, 
took it for life, but this is no longer done at the 
present day ; for, inasmuch as they possess its 
powers, they are not elected to the office and do 
not use the title except in connexion with the 
census. . 

In this way the government was changed at that / 
time for the better and in the interest of greater 
security ; for it was no doubt quite impossible for 
the people to be saved under a republic. Never- 
theless, the events occurring after this time can not 
be recorded in the same manner as those of previous 
times. Formerly, as we know, all matters were re- 
ported to the senate and to the people, even if they 
happened at a distance ; hence all learned of them 
and many recorded them, and consequently the 
truth regarding them, no matter to what extent 
fear or favour, friendship or enmity, coloured the 
reports of certain writers, was always to a certain 
extent to be found in the works of the other writers 
who wrote of the same events and in the public 
records. But after this time most things that hap- 
pened began to be kept secret and concealed, and 



Bri/j,oai6v9€Lrj, aWa ave^iXeyKrd ye ^ ovTa airi'^ 
arelTar koI yap XeyecrOat, koX irpaTreaOat iravra 
TT/oo? TO. ToiiV ael KparovvTcov rcov re irapaSwa- 

4 arevovrayv (T<f>iaL ffovXij/MaTa] vTroTrTeverai. Kal 
Kara tovto) iroWa fxev ov yiyvofieva dpvXecrat., 
TToWa Sk '^ Koi iTOkVV av/JL^aivoi^ra aypoelraL, 
TTOLvra 8<^\a)9 elrrelv JiWwf; tto)? fj co? TrpdrTerajL- 
Siadpoecrai. koi /livTOC kol (to:,T7J<; dp')(^fj<; J/ieye- 
6o<;\t6 rejwv TrpayfidrcdvltTXrjOo^i hvax^peardTt^v 

6 Tr)v ^ aKpi^eiav avrSiv Trape'^eraL. €V re yap rfj 
*P(op,7j ayj(va Kol irapa Tq> vTrrjKocp avTr]<; ttoXKo*. 
7r/309 Te TO TToXeiJLiov del Kal jcad^ r)p.epav co? elirelv ) 
yuyveraL rt,^ irepl d)v to p^ev aa(pe<i ouSel? paSLco<; 
e^co TMV iTparrovTCdv aura yiyvcoa/cet, TrXelaToi, S'S^ 

6 oaoi ovB* aKovovai rrjv dp)(^rjv ore yeyovev. odev- 
irep Kal eja> irdvra rd ef ^?, ocra ye * Kal dvay- 
Kalov ecrjai elirelv, W9 ttov Kal BeBrjpLCorat (fypda co, 
etr oVtco? ovtco^ etre Kal erepwf; ttco? €')(eL. irppa- 
eaiai p^evroi tl avTOL<i Kal rr]<; ep^rj^i ho^aaia^, eV 
oaov evBe)(erai, iv 0I9 dXXo ri p.dXXov rj to 6pv- 
Xovp,evov rjBvvijOrjp iK iroXXcov uypdveyvcov rj Kal 
7]Kov(Ta rj Kal elBov TeKprjpaaOac. 
20 Avyov(TTO<; p,ev Br] 6 K.aL(rap, loairep eltrov, 
eTTcovop^daOrj, Kal avrSt ar^pbelov ov orpiKpov evOv<; 
Tore T?)9 vvKTO<i iireyevero' 6 yap TlfiepL^ ireXayL- 
aa<; irdaav tt^u iv T0t9 TreBiot^; 'Foop,r]v KareXa^ev 
coare irXeladai, koi diz avrov ol pdvTejL<i on re 

1 7€ R. Steph., T6 VM Xiph. ^ ^^^ Xiph., om. VM. 
a n VM, Ttm Xiph. * ye H. Steph., re VM. 



even though some things are perchance made pubUc, b.o. 27 
they are distrusted just because they can not be 
verified ; for it is suspected that everything is said 
and done with reference to the wishes of the men 
in power at the time and of their associates. As a 
result, much that never occurs is noised abroad, and 
much tliat happens beyond a doubt is unknown, and 
in the case of nearly every event a version gains 
currency that is different from the way it really 
happened. Furthermore, the very magnitude of the 
empire and the multitude of things that occur 
render accuracy in regard to them most difficult. 
In Rome, for example, much is going on, and much 
in the subject territory, while, as regards our 
enemies, there is something happening all the time, 
in fact, every day, and concerning these things no 
one except the participants can easily have correct 
information, and most people do not even hear of 
them at all. Hence in my own narrative of later 
events, so far as they need to be mentioned, every- 
thing that I shall say will be in accordance with the 
reports that have been given out, whether it be 
really the truth or otherwise. In addition to these 
reports, however, my own opinion will be given, as 
far as possible, whenever I have been able, from the 
abundant evidence which I have gathered from my 
reading, from hearsay, and from what I have seen, 
to form a judgment that differs from the common 

Caesar, as I have said, received the name of 
Augustus, and a sign of no little moment to him • 
occurred that very night ; for the Tiber overflowed 
and covered all of Rome that was on low ground, so 
that it was navigable for boats. From this sign the 



€7rfc /x€7a av^rjcroi koX oti iraaav ttjv ttoXiv vtto- 

2 ')(€ipiav €^oi irpoijvcoaav. ' ^(api^o/JLivcov 5' avrw 
KaO^ VTrepffoXrjv aWwv dWai^^ Xe^ro^ ris JlaKov-- 
oviof;,'^ ft)9 3' erepoL Xiyovqiy 'Attou^^o?, Trdvra^ 
€^evLK7]<Tev*[ iv ryap ra> avveZpifp, eavrov re oi 

TOP rOiV ^IfirjpCOV TpOTTOV Ka6a)(Ti(i)(T€ KoX ToU 

3 d\Xoi<; avve^ovkeve tovto irQirjaai, iirecBi] re 
AvyovaTOfi ifiTroBcov ol iyevero, irpo^ re to 
7r\rj6o<i TO TTpoaecTTO^ i^eTnjBrjaep (eBrjfidp^eL 
yap) Kol 6K€Lvov<i re /cal fiera ravra koI roif^ 
XotTTOu?, Kara re Ta? oSou? Kal Kara tou? arevoy- 
TTOu? irepivocrrrjaa^it KaOiepcoaai acpa^; ra> Av- 

4 yovaro) KarrjvdyKaaep' a^* ovirep Kal vvv nrpoa- 
rperrofievoi^ rov Kparovvra Xiyecv elcoOafxev on 
** (TOi KadcocnoojjLeOa.** 

Kal 6 fiev\Ka\ Ovaai eirl rovrca rravra^s JitoUl. 

\ €v re ru> ofxiXcp) TTore KXijpovofiov ej^rj rov Av- 

yovarov \e^ 'iaov ra> vlel KaraXel'sjrei.v, ou% on 

ri eixev, dXX* on Kal irpoaXa^e'LV i^OeXtjaev, o Kal 

21 iyevero' Avy ovaro^; Be rd re dXXa rd rrj dp^r} 

rrpoariKovra TrpoOvfiorepov, o)? Kal iOeXovrl Brj 

irapd irdvraiv avrrjv €lXr]^d)<;, enrparre, Kal eyq- 

fjLoOereL "jroXXd. ovBev Be Beojiaf. Ka6* eKaarov) 

aKpL^S)^ eTre^ievac, X^P^^ V ocra rfj (Tv<yypa^fi 

2 Trpoacjiopd ean. ro B^ avro rovro KaX\€v ro2<; 

erreira irpaxOelaL^rroLrjaayy Xva firj Kal ^i o^Xov 

^ 8.\\a M, &\\ai V. ^ llaKovovios Bk., vaKov&ios VM. 

* vpoarpeir6fj.ivoi Bk., irpoTpeTT6fxevoi VM. 



soothsayers prophesied that he would rise to great b.c. 27 
heights and hold the whole city under his sway. 
And while various persons were trying to outbid 
one another in different kinds of flattery toward 
hinij one Sextus Pacuvius^ or, as others say, Apudius,^ 
surpassed them all. In the open senate, namely, he 
dedicated himself to him after the fashion of the 
Spaniards'^ and advised the others to do the same. 
And when Augustus hindered him, he rushed out to 
the crowd that was standing near, and, as he was 
tribune, compelled first them and then the rest, as 
he went up and down the streets and lanes, to dedi- 
cate themselves to Augustus. From this episode we 
are wont even now to say, in appealing to the 
sovereign, "We have dedicate'd ourselves to you." 

Pacuvius ordered all to offer sacrifice in view of this 
occurrence, and before the multitude he once declared 
that he was going to make Augustus his heir on equal 
terms with his own son, — not that he had much of any- 
thing, but because he hoped to receive still more ; and 
so it actually turned out. Augustus attended to all the 
business of the empire with more zeal than before, 
as if he had received it as a free gift from all the 
Romans, and in particular he enacted many laws. I 
need not enumerate them all accurately one by one, 
but only those which have a bearing upon my history; 
and I shall follow this same course also in the case 
of later events, in order not to become wearisome 

^ Inasmuch as Sextus Pacuvius Taurus is first heard of (as 
tribune) in B.C. 9, it is probable that Apudius is the proper 
form to be read here. 

^ According to Valerius Maximus (ii. 6, 11), the Celti- 
berians thought it wrong to survive a battle when the leader 
for whose preservation they had vowed their life {spiritum 
devoverant) had perished. Cf. Caesar, B.O. iii. 22. 


fyamixai irdvra to, roiavra eirea^epcov h firjB^ 

3 auTol 01 irdvv avra yLteXerwi^re? d/cpi^ovaiv, ov 
/JL6VT0C Koi TTcivra IhioyvwfiovMV ivojiodeTei', dXX' 
ecTTL fiev a /cal i<; to Brj/jLoaiov Trpoe ^eriOei, ottco^;, 
dv Ti jjbf} dpiarj rivd, TTpo/iaOoov eTravopOcoar)' 
irpoerpeTTero re yap irdvO^ ovtlvovv avfju^ovXeveiv 
01, €t Tt9 Tfc dfietvov avTMV eTTLvorjaeiev, koX irap- 
pTjciav (T(pLaL iroWrjv eve fie, Kai riva kol /xere- 

4 ypa(j)e. to Be, Brj TrXetarov to 1^9 re virdrovf; rj 
rov virarov, oirore /cal avTo<; VTrarevoi, KaK twv 
dWmv dp'XpvTOdv eva . irap e/cdarcov, ck re rod 
XoLTTOv TMV fiovXevTCJV TrXtjOov^; irevreKaiheKa 
Tov<; /cXijpo)^ Xa')(6vTa<^, avjx^ovXov^; [i'^ e^d/nrjvov 
TrapeXdjJL^apev, wcttc 8l avTO)p /cal TOi<; dXXoi<; 
Tract KOiVOvaOai rpoirov Tivaj ra vofjioderovfieva 

5 vofii^ecrOai. eaecpepe fiev ydp rtva koX e? irdaav 
Tr]v yepovaiaVi ^eXriov /juevrot vojil^cov elvat to 

V fxer oXtycov KaO' rjav^^^iav rd re irXeiw koX rd 
/xetfft) irpoaKOirelaOai, tovto re e7rjii£i fcal eariv 

6 ore KoX ehiica^e fier dvrcov,^ cKpcve fxev yap kol 
\ KaO" eavTTjv r) ^ovXrj Trdcra w? fcal irporepov, Kai 

TL(Ti Kai TTpeo-fietaif; Kai KtipvKelaL^; kol BrjpLwv 

Kai jSaatXecov e^yOTy/^aTtfei^, o re Brjfio<; i? Ta? 

apxciipeaia<;) Kai to 7rXrj0o<; av avveXeyero' ov 

\ fxevroi Kai eirpdrrero tl o fi-q Kai eKelvov rjpe<TKe} 

7 TO 1)9 yovv dp^ovTa<; tol'9 fiev avro'i eKXeyofievo*; 
irpoe^dXXeTO, toi'9 Be Kai iirl tm Brjiiw tw re 

^ KX-hptp Xiph., KK-npovs VM. 

2 jjpeffKt Xiph. Zon., iipiorey VM- 



by introducing all that kind of detail that even the b.c. 27 
men who devote themselves to such studies do not 
know to a nicety. He did not, however, enact all 
these laws on his sole responsibility, but some of 
them he brought before the public assembly in 
advance, in order that, if any features caused dis- 
pleasure, he might learn it in time and correct them ; 
for he encouraged everybody whatsoever to give him 
advice, in case any one thought of any possible im- 
provement in them, and he accorded them complete 
liberty of speech, and actually changed some pro- 
visions of the proposed laws. Most important of 
all, he took as advisers for periods of six months the 
consuls (or the other consul, when he himself also held 
the office), one of each of the other kinds of officials, 
and fifteen men chosen by lot from the remainder of 
the senatorial body, with the result that all legislation 
proposed by the emperors is usually communicated 
after a fashion through this body to all the other ' 
senators ; for although he brought certain matters 
before the whole senate, yet he generally followed 
this plan, considering it better to take under pre- 
liminary advisement most matters and the most im- 
portant ones in consultation with a few ; and some- 
times he even sat with these men in the trial of cases. 
The senate as a body, it is true, continued to sit in 
judgment as before, and in certain cases transacted 
business with embassies and heralds, from both 
peoples and kings ; and the people and the plebs, 
moreover, continued to meet for the elections ; but 
nothing was done that did not })lease Caesar. It i ' 
was he, at any rate, who selected and placed in I 
nomination some of the men who were to hold / 
office, and though in the case of others he adhered ' 



ofxiktp Kara to apx(^^ov 7roiovfjL€vo<; eTre/AeXetro 

j oirw^ firjT dv€7nTi]B€ioi /jltjt ck irapaKeXevaew^i rj 

I Kal SeKaa/jLOv aiToSeiKvvcovTai.^ 

22 To fi€v ovv xrvfiirav^VTco rrjv ap')(r}V hid)K7)ae, 

X-efft) he Kal KaO^ e/cacrrov ocra avajKalov icrri 

fiera tmjj vTrdrcov, icf)' ^ (ov ejevero, fivrj/jLOvev- 

eaOat, iv fiev yap tw TrpoeLprj /juivo) erei }ra<; 6Bov<; 

ra? efo> tov T€i)(ov<; Sv(T7rqpevTov<;{vn dpi^ekeia^ ) 

opwif ov(Ta<; Ta<; jjuev aXXa^ aXA-ot? Ttal tmv ^ov- 

XevTcov €171(7 Kev deal roi? oIkgiol^ riXeai ir poai^ 

Tq^e, T^9 Be Brj ^Xaficvia^;^ avro^, eTreiBrjirep 

€K(TTpaT€vaetv [Bi* avTi]<; . i]/J,eXXeVy iiTeixeXrjOr). 

2 KaX f) /jL€v €v0v<; t6t€ eyeyerq, Kal Bid tovtoJ 
Kal eiKove^ avro) J(f>* dyfriBcov. ,€V re rfj rod Ti- 
fiepiBo^i ye^vpaKalev ^Api/xiP(p]€7roirj6r]a-av' aL. 
B' ) dXXaj, varepovy eW ovv^po<; rov Br^fxoaiov/ 
eireiBt] P'fjBel'; rcov fiovXevrcau rjBea)^} dyrjXi(TKeVy 
eXre Kal[7rpo<; rov Kvyovarov ti<^ eiTreiv iOeXei, 

3 iireo-Kevdadrja-av. ov yap Bvvafiai BiaKpivai rov^ 
Or)cravpov<i avrwv, ovB' el ra /adXiara o Av- 
70U(7T09 Kal dvBptavTa<; rivd^ eavrov dpyvpov<;, 

f irpo^ T€^T(ov (piXcoj^ Kal (tt/oo? Brj/jLcov rivwv ye- 
yov6ra<;, 69 vofiicTfia KareKoyjre rov Brj Kal olkoOcv 

4 irdvd^ ocra ye Kal eXeye Baizavdv BoKeiv Kal Bid 

TOVTO OVT €L TTOTe €K TMV BrjflOaiCJV Tl ')(p^/jLdr(t)V I 

o del Kparwv eXa^ev, ovt et ttotc avrq<; eBwKe,* 
yv(o/uL7jv €%ft) avyypdyjrai. rroXXdKi^; re yap eicd- 
repov avTMV eyevero, Kal tl dv ti<; e? Bavela-fiaTa 
rj Kal Bcopedf; ra ToiavTa KaTaXeyoi,^ ottotc Kal 

^ aiTodftKvvcavTai R. Steph., arroSflKyvvTai VM Xiph. Zon. 
2 ^<^' St., v(f>' VM. ^ 'PXafj.ivias R. Steph., <^\a^T/vio$ VM. 

« (SwKe R. Steph., rAa/8e VM. 
^ KaraXiyoi Reim., koL \iyoi VM. 


to the ancient custom and left them under the con- b.o. 27 
trol of the people and the plebs, yet he took care 
that none should be appointed who were unfit or 
as the result of partisan cliques or bribery. 

It was in this way, broadly speaking, that he ad- 
ministered the empire. I shall now relate in detail 
also such of his acts as call for mention, together 
with the names of the consuls under whom they 
were performed. In the year already named, per- 
ceiving that the roads outside the walls had become 
difficult to travel as the result of neglect, he ordered 
various senators to repair the others at their own 
expense, and he himself looked after the Flaminian 
Way, since he was going to lead an army out by that 
route. This road was finished promptly at that time, 
and statues of Augustus were accordingly erected on 
arches on the bridge over the Tiber and at Ariminum ; 
but the other roads were repaired later, at the expense 
either of the public (for none of the senators liked 
to spend money upon them) or of Augustus, as one 
chooses to put it. For I am unable to distinguish 
between the two funds, no matter how extensively 
Augustus coined into money silver statues of himself 
which had been set up by certain of his friends and 
by certain of the subject peoples, purposing thereby 
to make it appear that all the expenditures which 
he claimed to be making were from his own means. 
Therefore I have no opinion to record as to whether 
a particular emperor on a particular occasion got the 
money from the public funds or gave it himself. 
For both courses were frequently followed ; and why 
should one enter such expenditures as loans or as gifts 
respectively, when both the people and the emperor 




TOUTOi? Ka\ iK€iVOl<; KoX 6 B'^0^ KOl 6 aVTOKpUTCOp 

eTTLKOLVOv ael ')(^p(ovTat; 
5 Tore fjLev Br) ravra 6 ^ Avyov(TTO<; eirpa^e, koI 
i^cop/jLijae fjuev oo? koI e? ttjv ^perraviav arpa- 
revacov, e? Be By ra? Ta\aTLa<i iXOcov ivravOa 
epBierpLyjrev' i/C€LV0L re yap eiTLKripvKevaeaQai" 
01 eBoKOVv, Kol ra rovrcov a/cardaraTa en, are 

TWV>v\LCOV TTOXep^COV €vOv<; 6TtI TTj a\(0(T€L (TipCOV 

imrLyevo/jLevcov, rjv. koI avrojv kol d7roypa^a<; 
iiroirjaaTO koI top fflov rrjv re TroXireiav BieKo- 
cr/jLTjae. KavrevOev 69 re ttjv ^I/Srjplav d(^iiceTO, /cal 
KarearrjaaTO fcal eKeivqv. 
23 Mera Be Br) rovro avTo^i re to oyBoov avv tw 
TauyDft) TO) ^TaTi\l(p vifdrevae, koX 6 ^ Ay piiTTras 

2 TO, SeTrra oovofiaafieva KaOiepcoaev oBov jjuev 
yap ^ ovBe/JLiav einaKevdaetv viriax^ro, TavTa Be 
iv Tw 'Apetft) TTeBlw <TToal<^ Treptf viro tov AeirlBov 
TTpo'i ra? (j)v\eTCKd<; dp^aLpe(TLa<; avvwKoSo/jiij/jLeva 
Kul TrXafl \i6ivaL<; Kal t^wypa^ripacTLV iireKO- 
ap^yjjcrev, ^lovXia avTa diro tov Avyovarov nrpoa- 

3 ayilp£p(Ta<^. Kal 6 p,ev ovv OTro)? ^Oovov Tiva eir 
avTol^i oxpXicTKavev, dXXa /cal irdw Kal tt/do? 
avTOV eKeivov Kal nrpo^; tmv dXXcov diravTCdv^ 

4 irip^aTO (aLTLOv Be otl ra (^iXavOpwiroraTa Kal ra 
evKXeea-rara rd re av/j,(f)Opd)TaTa Kal avfi^ov- 
Xevodv ol Kal avjiTrpdrrcov ovB eirl ^pa')(y Trj<; 
Bo^7)(; avTOiv avreiTOielTO, rat? re irap avrov 
TLpal<^ ovT€ €<i irXeove^iav ovre e? drroXavcnp IBiav 
expqTO, aXX* 69 Te to avTw eKeiv(p Kal €9 to 

* b supplied by R. Steph. 

2 iiriKTipvKfvaeadai Cobet, iTriKTjpvKevffaadai VM. 

8 yap M, om. V. 



are constantly resorting to both the one and the b.c. 27 
other indiscriminately ? 

These were the acts of Augustus at that time. He 
also set out to make an expedition into Britain^ but 
on coming to the provinces of Gaul lingered there. 
For the Britons seemed likely to make terms with 
him, and the affairs of the Gauls were still unsettled, 
as the civil wars had begun immediately after their 
subjugation. He took a census of the inhabitants 
and regulated their life and government. From 
Gaul he proceeded into Spain, and established order 
there also. 

After this he became consul for the eighth time, b.c. 26 
together with Statilius Taurus, and Agrippa dedicated 
the structure called the Saepta ; for instead of under- 
taking to repair a road, Agrippa had adorned with 
marble tablets and paintings this edifice in the Cam- 
pus Martius, which had been constructed by Lepidus 
with porticos all around it for the meetings of the 
cornitia tributa, and he named it the Saepta lulia in 
honour of Augustus. And Agrippa not only incurred 
no jealousy on this account, but was greatly honoured 
both by Augustus himself and by all the rest of the 
people. The reason was that he consulted and 
cooperated with Augustus in the most humane, the 
most celebrated, and the most beneficial projects, 
and yet did not claim in the slightest degree a share 
in the glory of them, but used the honours which 
the emperor bestowed, not for personal gain or en- 
joyment, but for the benefit of the donor himself and 



6 To)^ Br)^0(Tia> avfu^epov), o he hr) TdWo<; K.opvi]- 
Xfo? /cal i^v^piaev viro t^9 Tifirj^. ttoWo, jiev 
'yap KOi /jLaraia e? roi^ Avyovarov airekrjpet, 
TToWa Be Koi eiraiTia Trapeirparre' koI yap kuI 
eiKovaf} eavTov iv oXr) &)? eliretv rfj AlyvirTO) 
e(TTr](r€, Kal ra epya oaa eTreiroirjKei 6? Ta<^ wvpa- 

6 ixiha<i eaeypa-^e,^ KarTj^oprjOr) re ovv eV* avroh) 
VTTO Ovakepiov Adpyov, eraipov re ol Kal avp.- 
^icorov 6Wo9, fcal '^TL/KoOrj vtto rod Avyovarov, ) 
&(Tre Kal iv tol<; edveaiv avrov K(o\vOrjvai BiaLrd- 
adai. yevonevov Be tovtov Kal dWot' avro) 
avxvol eireOevTO Kal ypacfxxf; Kar avrov TroWd^ 

7 drrTjveyKav,^ Kal r) yepovala drracra dXS)val re 
avrov ev roL<i BiKaarr^pioi^i Kal (pvyelv tt}? ov(7La<; 
(Trepr)Oevra, Kal ravrrjv re ra> Avyovaro) Bo6r]vaL 
Kal eavrov<i ^ovOvrrjaai €^^71(^1 a aro. Kal o_ fjiev 
rrepLaXyrjaa^i errl rovroi^; eavrov it poKarexp^<^cLTo, 

24 TO Be Br] rwv ttoWcov KL^BrfKov Kal [eK rovrov 
BcrjXeyxOr) on CKeivov re, ov rero? eKoXdKevov, 
ovrco rore BiedrjKav ware Kal avroxeipia diro- 
davelv dvayKdaai, Kal rrpo^ rov Adpyov drre- 
KXivav, iireiB'^Trep av^ecv rip')(ero, jieXXovrh ttov 
Kal Kara rovrov rd avrd, dv ye rt roiovrov ol 
2 avjufifj, yjrrjcpLela-Oai. _j? fievroi TipoKOvXeio^i * 
ovrcd 7rpo<; avrov eayev toar diravrrjaa^i irore 
avra> rrjv re plva Kai ro aro/jia ro eavrov rfj 
X'^i'P^ eTriax^tv, €vBetKvvfievo<i rot? avvovaiv ore 
jxrjB^ dvaTTvevcraL rivv rrapovro'i avrov da<f>dXeia 

^ r(j) cod. Peir., om. VM. 

^ i<Ttypa\p€ Xiph. , (ortypatpe VM cod. Peir. 

' avifveyKav Pflugk, ivfiveyKau VM cod. Peir. 

* npOKOvKflOS BS., VpOKOvKlOS VM Xiph., npOKOV\T}lOS 



of the public. On the other hand, Cornelius Gallus b.c. 26 
was encouraged to insolence by the honour shown 
him. Thus, he indulged in a great deal of dis- 
respectful gossip about Augustus and was guilty of 
many reprehensible actions besides ; for he not only 
set up images of himself practically everywhere in 
Egypt, but also inscribed upon the pyramids a list of 
his achievements. For this act he was accused by 
Valerius Largus, his comrade and intimate, and was 
disfranchised by Augustus, so that he was prevented 
from living in the emperor's provinces. After this 
had happened, many others attacked him and brought 
numerous indictments against him. The senate unani- 
mously voted that he should be convicted in the 
courts, exiled, and deprived of his estate, that this 
estate should be given to Augustus, and that the 
senate itself should offer sacrifices. Overwhelmed by 
grief at this, Gallus committed suicide before the 
decrees took effect ; and the insincerity of the majority 
of people was again proved by his case, in that they 
now treated the man whom formerly they had been 
wont to flatter in such a way that they forced him to 
die by his own hand, and then went over to Largus 
because he was beginning to grow powerful — though 
they were certain to vote the same measures against 
him also, if a similar situation should arise in his case. 
Proculeius, however, conceived such contempt for 
Largus that once, on meeting him, he clapped his 
hand over his nose and mouth, thereby hinting to the 
bystanders that it was not safe even to breathe in the 




3 etr], aXXo9 re tj^? Trpoa^Xde re avrw, Kaiirep 
a'yv(o<; a>v, jxera fiaprupcov, koI eTrrjpero el yvco- 
pi^oi eavrov, iireLSi] re i^T^pvrjaaro, i<i ypa^jiaTelov 
rr]v apVTjaiv avrov iaeypayjrev, coairep ovk c^ov 

T(p KaKfh KOl OV OVK jj^ 1Tp6r6pOV (TVKO^aVTrjdaL. 

4 ovTw 8' ovv ol TToXXol ra epya tlvwv, kolv Trovrjpa 
rj, fjLoXkov ^TjXova-LV T) Tci Tradijfiara (f)v\daaov- 
rat, a>(TT€ Koi Tore MapKO<; ^JLyvdrio'; ^ 'PoO^o? 
dyopavofiijaa^;, kol dXka re iroWd AraXw? irpa^a^; 
Ka\ ral^ olKiac^; rat? [iv rep erei eKeivw i/nrpT]- 
GOeicrai^ eTTLKovpiav fxera rcbv eavrov BovXcov kol 
[fieB* iripcov rivcov ixiadcojoiv 7roLr)ad/j,6vo<s, kol 

5 hia rovTO rd re dvoKdufxara rd ry dp^rj avrov 
irpoarjKovra irapd rov hrjjxov Xaffcov /cal arpa- 
Ti?70? irapavofiay^i diToheL')(6ei<i, eirripOri re utt' 
avrSiv rovrwv kol rov Avyovarov V7rep€(j)p6prjaev, 
ware Kal TrpoypdrjraL on dOpavarov /cal oXoKXrjpov 

6 Tft) hia^o'X^cp rrjv rroXiv rrapehwKev. eV ovv rovrw 
o'i re dWoi wavre^ ol rrpMroi kol avrb'^ on 
fidXiara 6 Avyov(Tro<; opyrjv ecjye^ fcal ifcelvov 
/juev €K8tBd^etv ovk e? puaKpav efieXXe to firj virep 
rov<; TToXXoi)^ (ppovelv, roi<i 8' dyopav6/jbOt<; irapa- 
'^prj/iia eTTiiieXelaOai re oirw^ jjLVjhev e/jLTrifjLTrpTjrai, 
Kav dpa n roiovro av/jL^fj, Karaa^evvvvai ro irvp 

25 Kttz^ Tft) avrSi erec rovrw 6 re UoXe/jLcov 6 iv rw 

ll6vr(p PaaiXevoDV e9 re rov<; ^tXou? Kal e? tou? 

av/jL/jidxov^ rov hrjpbov dveypdcfyri,^ Kal rrpoehpia 

roL<? fiovXevrat^ iv rrdar) rfj dp)(^fj avrov e? rrdvra 

2 rd dearpa ehoOrj' rov re Avyovarov €9 rrjv 

^ ^EyvoLTios H. Steph., alyvdrios VM cod. Peir. 
2 aveypdcpf] Naber, iueypdcpT) VM. 



man's presence. Another man, although unknown to b.c. 26 
him, approached him with witnesses and asked Largus 
if he knew him ; then, when the other replied that 
he did not, he recorded his denial on a tablet, as 
though the rascal could not blackmail even a man 
whom he had not previously known. But we see 
how most men rather emulate the deeds of others, 
even though they be evil deeds, than guard against 
their fate, by what Marcus Egnatius Rufus did at this 
very time. He had been an aedile, and in addition 
to having performed his duties well in many other 
ways, had with his own slaves and other persons 
whom he hired helped to save the houses that took 
fire during his year of office, and in return for all this 
he had received from the people the amount of the 
expenditures incurred in the discharge of his office 
and had been elected praetor contrary to law. But 
he became so elated over these very honours and so 
contemptuous of Augustus, that he issued a bulletin 
to the effect that he had handed the city over 
unimpaired and intact to his successor. All the most 
prominent men became indignant at this, Augustus 
himself most of all ; and he was not long afterward to 
teach the fellow a lesson, not to exalt his mind above 
the mass of mankind. For the time being, howevei^ he 
ordered the aediles to take care that no building 
took fire, and if anything of the sort did happen, to \ 
jmt the fire out. \ 

In this same year Polemon, the king of Pontus, \ 
was enrolled among the friends and allies of the \ 
Roman people ; and the privilege was granted the \ 

senators of occupying the front seats in all the 
theatres of his realm. Augustus was planning an 



^perraviav, eireiBr) firj rjOeXyjaav o/noXoyrjaai, 
(TTpaT€V(T6L0VTa KaTca^ov oi re ^akaaaoi ewava- 
(Trdvres avro) kol ol Kdvrafipot oi re "Aarvpe*; 
•woke 1x036 evre<i. oIkoixtl he e/cetvot fiev viro rd^; 
"AXTTCt?, &(Trrep etprjTai jjloi, ovjot Be ifcdrepot, rov 
re UupTjvaiOV rov ^1 tt/jo? rrj ^lj37]pia ro Kaprepw- 

3 rarov fcal rrjv ireScdSa rrjv vtt avrov ovaav. I hi 
ovv ravra 6 Kvyovaro'^ (jl^V he evarov fierd 
MdpKov ^tXavov vrrdrevev) iirl fxev rov<i 2a- 
Xdaaov^ Tepevriov Ovdppcova €7rep.yjre. kul 09 
TToXXaxv dfjLa, ottco^ jjurj <rvarpa<j)evre<; hva'xeipai- 
rorepoi yevcovrac, e/jiffaXoDV pacrrd re avrov<;, are 
Kol Kar 6\iyov<; 7rpoo-7ri7rrovrd<; cr(f)Laiv, evLKrja-e, 

4 Kal av/jL^rjvac fcaravajKdcra^ dpyvpiov re ri 
prjrov, ft)? Kal /jLrjhev heivov dXXo hpdacov, yrrjae,, 
KaK rovrov ^ wavraxij .'7rpo<; rrjv eairpa^Lv hrjOev 
avrov arparKjura^ hiaireji^'^raf; avveXa/Se re tou? 
eV rfj rjXiKia Kal drrehoro, e<f> 00 fJirjhei^ cr^fov 

5 evro<^ elKoaiv erwv iXevOepcoOeiij. Kal avrcov rj 
dplarr] rf}<; 7^9 rcov re hopv^opwv ricrlv ehoOrj, 
Kal TTokiv rrjv Avyovarav it paired piavwv oDVOfia- 
afievrjv ea'^ev. avrb<; he 6 Avyovcrro<; tt/jo? re tou? 
Aarvpa^ Kal 7rpo<; rou? Viavrd^pov^ d/jLa iiroXe- 
firjae, Kal eireihr) firjre rrpoaexdipovv ol dre^ eirl 

6 Tot? ipvfivoi^; eiraipo/xevoi, fjLijre e? 'y^eipa^ hid re 
ro rw irXt^Oei eXarrovaOai Kal hid ro aKovria-rdf; 
TO irXelarov elvai yaav,^ Kal irpoaeri Kal irpd- 

1 ToC Reim., rov t€ VM. 


3 ol are Dind., are Bk., old re VM. * ^aav Dind., ^<rai/ VM. 


expedition into Britain, since the people there b.o. 26 
would not come to terms, but he was detained by 
the revolt of the Salassi and by the hostility of 
the Cantabri and Astures. The former dwell at the 
foot of the Alps, as 1 have stated,^ whereas both the 
other tribes occupy the strongest part of the 
Pyrenees on the side of Spain, together with the 
plain which lies below. For these reasons Angus- b.c. 25 
tus, who was now consul for the ninth time, with 
Marcus Silanus as colleague, sent Terentius Varro 
against the Salassi. Varro invaded their country at 
many points at the same time, in order that they 
might not join forces and so be more difficult to 
subdue ; and he conquered them very easily, inas- 
much as they attacked his divisions only in small 
groups. After forcing them to come to terms he 
demanded a stated sum of money, as if he were 
going to impose no other punishment ; then, send- 
ing soldiers everywhere ostensibly to collect the 
money, he arrested those who were of military 
age and sold them, on the understanding that none 
of them should be liberated within twenty years. 
The best of their land was given to some of the 
Pretorians, and later on received the city called 
Augusta Praetoria.2 Augustus himself waged war 
upon the Astures and upon the Cantabri at one and 
the same time. But these peoples would neither 
yield to him, because they were confident on account 
of their strongholds, nor would they come to close 
quarters, owing to their inferior numbers and the 
circumstance that most of them were javelin- 
throwers, and, besides, they kept causing him a 

1 Probably in a lost portion of the work, perhaps Book 
xxii. Cf. Frag. 74 and Book xlix. 34. * The modern Aosta. 



^fjbaTa auTft) iroWd, el irov KivTjdetr], rd re virep- 
Be^ca del tt poKaraXaix^dvovre^i koI iv toI<; kol\oi<; 
Tot? T€ v\(i)heaLv iueSpevovTe^; Trapel^ov, iv diropw 

7 TravrdiTadLV iyevero. koI 6 fjuev e/c re rov 
Kapbdrov Kol iic twv (ffpovrlBcov voa'qaa^ i<^ Tappd- 
Kwva ■dv6')((iipr](Te koX eicel rjppcoaTer Tdtos Be 
^AvTiCTTio^ TTpoaeTToXep^rjae re avrol'^ iv tovtm koX 
o-vxvd KaTeipydo-arOy 011% on kol dp^eivcov rov 

8 Avyovarov crTpaTr]yo<i yv, dXTC ore Kara^povrj- 
(Tavre^ avrov ol /Sdp^apoL o/ioae re rol<; *Vwp,aioL<; 
i-^coprjaav /cal ivLKrj6r)aav} koI ovrco<; €fceLv6<i re 
riva eXa^e, koI TLro<i fierd ravra KapJ(rL0<; rrjv 
re KayKiav ro pbeyiarov rcov 'Acrrvpayv iroXiapa 
iKXeic^Bev elXe /cal dXXa iroXXd Trapecrrrjaaro, 

26 {^ Uavaapevov Be rov rroXep.ov rovrov 6 Avyov- 
(Tro^ rov<i fiev d(l)r)XcKearepov<; ro)V arparicorcjv 
d(f)r]Ke, Kol iToXiv avrol^ iv Avairavia rrjv Avyov- 
arav ^Hp^epirav KaXovp.evr]v Krlaac eBcoKC, rot? Be 
,rr)v arpareva-ipov rjXLKiav er e')(^ovai^ea<; rivd<; 
Bid re rov MapKeXXqv koX Bid rov Ti^eplov «>? 
Kal dyopavopbovvrodv iv avroL<^ roi<s (rrparoTreBoif; ^ ' 

2 iTTOirjae. Kal rSt jjuev ^lovfia rrj<; re VairovXia^ 
rCvd dvrl rrj<; 7rarpa>a<i dp')(^rj<;, iireLTrep e? rov rcov 
'Fcopaucov Koa/iiov ol irXeiovi avrcov iaeyeypd(f)aro, 

3 Kal rd rov Boa:;^ou rov re ^oyovov eBcoKe' rov B' 
^A/xvvrov reXevrrjaavro^ ov rols- iratalv avrov rrjv 
dp')(r]V iirerpeyjrev, dXX^ i<; rr)V virrjKoov iarjyaye,, 
Kal ovrco Kal rj TaXaria p,erd rrj<; AvKaovla^;^ 
'Vwpbalov dp')(ovra e<T')(e, rd re ')(wpia rd iK rrjf; 
TiafjLcfivXia^ irporepov rw ^Ap,vvra irpoavep^rj- 

^ iviKr}6r](rav M, fKivridrjffau V. 

* Tols arparoirihois R. Steph., (TTparols VM. 



great deal of annoyance, always forestalling nim by b.c. 26 
seizing the higher ground whenever a manoeuvre 
was attempted, and lying in ambush for him in the 
valleys and woods. Accordingly Augustus found him- 
self in very great embarrassment, and having fallen ill 
from over-exertion and anxiety, he retired to Tarraco 
and there remained in poor health. Meanwhile 
Gaius Antistius fought against them and accom- 
plished a good deal, not because he was a better 
general than Augustus, but because the barbarians 
felt contempt for him and so joined battle with the 
Romans and were defeated. In this way he captured 
a few places, and afterwards Titus ^ Carisius took 
Lancia, the principal fortress of the Astures, after 
it had been abandoned, and also won over many 
other places. 

Upon the conclusion of this war Augustus dis- 
charged the more aged of his soldiers and allowed 
them to found a city in Lusitania, called Augusta 
Emerita.2 For those who were still of military age 
he arranged some exhibitions in the very camps, 
under the direction of Tiberius and Marcellus, since 
they were aediles. To Juba he gave portions of 
Gaetulia in return for the prince's hereditary domain, 
the most of whose inhabitants had been enrolled in 
the Roman state, and also the possessions of Bocchus 
and Bogud. On the death of Amyntas he did not 
entrust his kingdom to the sons of the deceased, 
but made it part of the subject territory. Thus 
Galatia together with Lycaonia obtained a Roman 
governor, and the portions of Pamphylia formerly 
assigned to Amyntas were restored to their own 

1 Possibly this praenomen is an error for Publius. 
* The modern Merida. 



4 devra rw IBUp vofi^ airehoOr]. vtto Se top avrov 
TOVTOV ')(^p6vov MdpKO(; OviviKL0<^ KeXrwi/ TLva<i 
fiereXOcov, on 'Fcofiatou^i avSpa^; e? rrjv "X^aypav 
a<f>(ov Kara rrjv iTri/jbi^iav eaeXOovra^ avWa- 
/36vT€<; e^Oeipav, to ovo/jua koX avTo<; ro rov 

6 auTOKpdropo^ tw Avyovaro) eBwKe. koI iyjrrj- 
^iaOi^ jxev TTOV Kal to, iinviKia avTM koX iirl 
TOVTOL^ Kal eVl toI<; aWoi<; T0t9 rore y€voii6Vot.<;' 
iirel 8' ouK TjOeXr^aev avra irep^y^ai, dyjrt<; re eV 
rat? ^ "AXTrecrt rpoTratocfiopo';^ ol MKoBofjL^drj, Kal 
i^ovaia eBoOrj rov rfj Trpcorj) rov erov<; '^/xepa Kal 
rw ^ are^dvM Kal rfj iaOrjrt rfj viKrjrrjpia del 
XpriaOai. ^ ^ ^ , ^ , ^ 

Avyovarof; jiev ravrd re ev roU '7ro\e/ubOL<; 
eTTpa^e, Kal ro rov ^lavov refievLafia dvpi')^6ev Bi 
27 avrovs; eKXeiaev,^ ^KjpiiT'iTa<; Be ev rovrtd ro darv 
roL<; IBlol<; rekeaiv eireKoajXTjCTe. rovro jiev yap rrjv 
crrodv rr)v rov Tlo(TetB(ovo<; wvo/jiacr/jLevrjv Kal ef «- 
KoB6/jLr](Teve7rlral<;vavKpariaL<;^Kal rfj ro)v ^Apyo- 
vavrcov ypa(f>f} eireXd/jbrrpwe, rovro Be rb Trvpiarij- 
piov ro AaKcovLKov KareaKevaae' AaKwviKov yap 
ro yvjJLvdaiov, eireiBrjirep ol AaKeBaijuovLoi yvfivov- 
aOai re ev rco rore ')(^p6v(p Kal Xiira daKelv fidXiara 

2 eBoKovv, eireKdXeae. ro re Hdvdeiov wvo/jLaa/nevov 
e^ereXeae' irpoaayopeveraL Be ovrco rd^a fxev ort. 

{ ttoXXmv dewv elKova^; ev rot? dydXfJiaa-i, rw re rov 
"Apew^ Kal Tft) rr]<i ^A(j)poBir7j<;, eXafiev, co? Be eyo) 
vofjii^a), on 6oXoei,Befi ov rw ovpavSi irpoaeoLKev. 

3 r}0ovX7]O7] fjuev ovv ^ 6 ^AypLTnraf; Kal rov Avyov- 

^ TOis Bk., rois VM. ^ Tponaiotpopos M, Tpo'jraio<p6pQi5 V. 

^ TflS Rk., T^j T6 VM. * iKKiiffiv M, om. V. 
^ olv M, om. V. 



district. About this same time Marcus Vinicius b.c. 25 
took vengeance upon some of the Germans because 
they liad arrested and slain Romans who entered 
their country to trade with them ; and thus he, too, 
caused the title of imperaior to be bestowed upon 
Augustus. For this and his other exploits of this 
period a triumph, as well as the title, was voted to 
Augustus ; but as he did not care to celebrate it, a 
triumphal arch was erected in the Alps in his honour 
and he was granted the right always to wear both 
the crown and the triumphal garb on the first day 
of the year. 

After these achievements in the wars Augustus 
closed the precinct of Janus, which had been opened 
because of these wars. Meanwhile Agrippa beauti- 
fied the city at his own expense. First, in honour 
of the naval victories he completed the building 
called the Basilica of Neptune and lent it added 
brilliance by the painting representing the Argonauts. 
Next he constructed the Laconian sudatorium. He 
gave the name "Laconian" to the gymnasium be- 
cause the Lacedaemonians had a greater reputation 
at that time than anybody else for stripping and exer- 
cising after anointing themselves with oil. Also he 
completed the building called the Pantheon. It has 
this name, perhaps because it received among the 
images which decorated it the statues of many gods, 
including Mars and Venus ; but my own opinion of 
the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it re- 
sembles the heavens.^ Agrippa, for his part, wished 
to place a statue of Augustus there also and to 

^ The present Pantheon, as is now recognized, dates from 
the reign of Hadrian. The vast rotunda is surmounted bj' a 
dome, in the centre of which there is a circuhir opening 
nearly thirty feet in diameter for the admission of light. 



(TTOv evTavOa ISpvcrai, rrjv re tov epyov iTriKXrjcriv 
avTW Bovvac fxr) Se^afievov Se avrov fjurjSirepov 
€K€l [JLev TOV TTporepov K.aiaapo^} iv he tm 
TTpovdw TOV T€ AvjovaTOv Kol kavTov dvBpidvTa<i 

4 6(TT7]a€. Kol iylyveTO yap tuvtu ovk i^ olvtl- 
irdXov TO) ^AypiTTTra 7r/3o? top KvyovaTov <f)L\o- 
TifiLa<;,' aXX' e/c re t?}? tt/jo? CKelvov Xnrapov^; 
€VPOia<i Kol, CK TYj^i ' 77/30? TO Br)/i6(TWV eV3eX€%o{}? 
a7rovBrj<;, ov fJLovov ovBev avTov eV avTol^ 6 
AvyovaTOf; jjTidaaTO, dWd kol inl irkelov €tI- 

5 /jLTjae. T0U9 t€ yap ydfjuov; r*}? re OvyaTp6<; r?)? 
'louXta? /cal TOV dBek(j)LBov tov MapxiWov fir) 
Bvvqdel'i VTTO t^? voaovi €p ttj 'Pco/jLtj t6t€^ TTOirjaai 

I Bi €K€LPOv Kal diroDP €(opTa(T€' fcal iiretBr) rj oIkIu 
rj \ ip Tw YlaXaTLw opet, rj irpOTepop /lep tov 
^Aptcoplov yepo/iiepr) varepop Be tg) re AypLTTTra 
Kal Tft) Meo-craXa BoOelaa, KaTecfyXe^Orj, tw /xep 
MeaadXa dpyvpiop eyapiaaTOy top Be ^ Ayplirirap 

6 GvpoiKOP €7r ott] a UTO. ovt6<; re ovp eK tovtcop 
ovk direLKOTQ)^ eyavpovTo, kul rt? Tdi,o<i Sopdpio<; 
ahiap dyaOrjp ea'x^ep, oti Brjpiap'X^odP top iraTepa, 
Kaiirep i^eXevOepop tlpo^ opTa, 6? re to OeaTpop 
earjyaye Kal ip tcu Br]pLap')(^LK(p l^dOpw irapeKaOl- 
auTO. riouTrX^o? t6 XepoviXio^; opofia Kal avTo<i 
eXa^ep, otl aTpaTrjycop dpKTOv^ t€ TpiaKoaiaf; 
Kal Ai^vKa €T€pa drjpia la a ip Traprjyvpei tlpI 

28 'E/^ Be TOVTQV BeKaTOP 6 Avyov(TTo<; /jLctol 
Tatov Ncopl3apov yp^e, Kal ep tc Ty povfir^pia 
6pKov<i 7) ^ovXt) /Se/Saiovaa Ta? irpd^eu'^ avTov 

^ Kaiaapos M, KrijfxaTOS V. 
'^ r6r( M, TovTO V, 




bestow upon him the honour of having the structure b.c. 25 
named after him ; but when the emperor would not 
accept either honour, he placed in the temple itself 
a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room 
statues of Augustus and himself. This was done, 
not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa's part 
to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his 
hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the 
public good ; hence Augustus, so far from censuring 
him for it, honoured him the more. For example, 
when he himself was prevented by illness from being 
in Rome at that time and celebrating there the mar- 
riage of his daughter Julia and his nephew Marcellus, 
he commissioned Agrippa to hold the festival in his 
absence ; and when the house on the Palatine Mount 
which had formerly belonged to Antony but had 
later been given to Agrippa and Messalla was burned 
down, he presented money to Messalla, but made 
Agrippa share his own house. Agrippa not un- 
naturally took great pride in these honours. And 
one Gaius Toranius also acquired a good reputation 
because while tribune he brought his father, although 
a freedman of somebody or other, into the theatre 
and made him sit beside him upon the tribunes' 
bench. Publius Servilius, too, made a name for him- 
self because while praetor he caused to be slain at a 
festival three hundred bears and other African wild 
beasts equal in number. 

Augustus now became consul for the tenth time, b.c. 24 
with Gaius Norbanus as colleague, and on the first 
day of the year the senate confirmed his acts by 



eiroLifjaaTO, koX irreLSr} TrXfjaM^eiv re i]Br) ttj iroXet 
yyyeXOrj (viro yap rr}<; app(t)arLa<; 6')(p6vio-€) koI 
T(p BtJ/jlw KaO^ eKarov Bpa^jjua^i Baxretv U7reo-%€TO, 

2 TO re ypd/uLfia to irepl avTcov airrjyopevo'e pur) 
irporepov eKreOrjvai, irplv av koI cKeCvr) avvBo^rj, 
7rd(Trj<; avrov t?}? tojp vopuayv dvdyK7)<; diTrjWa^av, 
Xv y uyairep eLprjrai pLot, /cal avT0T6\r)<; 6Wa)<? Kal 
avTOKpdrwp koX eavrov /cat riav v6pL(ov nrdyra 
T€ oaa fiovXoiTO ttoiolt} koI irdvO^ oaa d^ovXolri ^ 

3 pLT) TTpdrTTj. Tavra puev dTroBrjpuovvTC er avrS 
i^^rrj^LaOif], d^iKopL6V(p Be e? Tr)V 'Fcopurjv dXka 
Tiva CTTL T€ Trj acoTTjpla Kol iirl ry dvaKopbiBfj 
avrov iyevero. tm t€ MapKeWw ^ovXeveiv re' iv 
T0t9 iarpaTrjyrjKocri Kal ttjv vTraretav BeKa Oclttov 
ereaiv rjirep ivevopLLaro alrrjaai, Kal rut lLi^€pi(p 
irevre irpo eKd(TTr}<; dp')(rj<; ereai to avro tovto 

4 TTOiTjaai iBodrj- Kal Trapa'^prjpd ye OVT09 piev 
TapLia<; eKeZvo^i Be dyopav6pLO<; dTTeSel'X^dijo-av. rcop 
re TapLievaoPToyp ip TOt? eOpeaip eTriXetTropreop 
€K\7)pd)0rjaap e? avrd irdpre^ 01 p^e^pi BeKa dpco 
erSiP dpev tou epyov tovtov rerapLLevKore^. 

29 *Ez/ pLep ovp rfi iroXei ravra Tore d^ia pLPrjpLrjfi 
iyepero' ol Be Br) J^dpra^pot oi re "AaTvpe^;, co? 
Ta;^/<rTa o AvyovaTO<i ck Tr? ^l^rjpia^, Kovklop 
KlpbiXiop dp')(OPTa avrrj'i KaTaXiircop, d7rr)XXdyr}, 
eTrapearrjaap, Kal 7repL'\jraPT€<; Trpo? top AlpLiXiop, 
TTplp Kal oTiovp eK(^rjpaL ol, aiTOP Te Kal dXXa 
Tipd ^^apCaaaOai. t& (TTpaTevpLaTi ^ovXeadat, 

^ a&ovKoirj Dind., & fiovXoirjYM.. 


taking oaths. And when word was brought that he b.c. 24 
was ah'eady drawing near the city (for his illness had 
delayed his return), and he promised to give the 
people four hundred sesterces each, though he for- 
bade the posting of the edict concerning the dona- 
tives until the senate should give its approval, they 
freed him from all compulsion of the laws, in order, 
as I have stated,^ that he might be in reality in- 
dependent and supreme over both himself and the 
laws and so might do everything he wished and 
refrain from doing anything he did not wish. This 
right was voted to him while he was yet absent ; 
and upon his arrival in Rome various other privileges 
were accorded him in honour of his recovery and 
return. Marcellus was given the right to be a 
senator among the ex-praetors and to stand for the 
consulship ten years earlier than was customary, 
while Tiberius was permitted to stand for each 
office five years before the regular age ; and he was 
at once elected quaestor and Marcellus aedile. And 
when there were not enough men to serve as 
quaestors in the provinces, all drew lots for the 
places who during the ten years previous had held 
the quaestorship without being assigned to any 

These, then, were the noteworthy occurrences that 
took place in the city at that time. As soon as 
Augustus had departed from Spain, leaving behind 
Lucius Aemilius as its governor, the Cantabri and 
the Astures revolted ; and sending word to Aemilius, 
before revealing to him the least sign whatever of 
their purpose, they said that they wished to make a 
present to his army of grain and other things. Then, 
1 See chap. 18. 




2 e^aaaVi kclk tovtov (TTparLa)Ta<i cru^i^ou? co? Kal 
KOfjiiovvTa<; avra Xa/36pT€<i €? re %ftj/}ta avTov<i 
eTTLTrj^eLCL acpccriv iayyayov /cal Karecjiovevaav. 
ov jxevToi Kal iirl ttoXv rjdOr^aav rr}<; re yap 
')(^ci)pa<i avTcov 8r)a)06Larj<; Kal retx^v tlvcov Kav- 
6evT(DV, TO re fxeyidTov tmv ')(eLpo)v TOL<i del 
dXicTKOfjuevoL^i^^ diroKOTTTOiJLevcov, raxeco^; ex^cpco- 
drjoav. "^ 

3 Ez^ o5 Se ravT eyiyvero, Kal aXXr) tl9 crrpareia 
Kaivrj dp-^rjv re afia Kal TeXo<; ea')(ev enl yap 
^ApaPiav rrjv evSal/uLova KaXovfievrjv, rj^ ^a^oos^ 
e^aaiXevev,^ AtXio? FaXXo? o r?)? Alyvirrov 

4 dp')(^a)v eirea-Tpdrevae. Kal e? fiev oyjnv oySeh 
avTU) rrjv ye Trpcorrjv rfKdev, ov /jirjv Kal dirovco^i 
7rpo€')(^c!)p6L' T] re yap iprj/jbia ^ Kal 6 7]Xio^ rd re 
vhara (pvaTv rivd drorrov e'^ovra rrdvv avrov^ 
iraXanrcopycrev, coare to rrXeTov rov arparov 

5 ^Oaprjvai. to he Br) voarj/jLa ovSevl rcov avvrjOwv 
ojjLOLOv eyiyvero^ dXX* e? rrjv KecpaXrjv evdKrjy^rav 
e^rjpaivev avrrjv, Kal rov<i fiev ttoXXov^; avriKa 
dircoXXve, rcov Be Brj TrepLyiyvojUiivcov e? re rd 
(TKeXrj Karrjei, irdv ro fiera^v rov adyparo^; virep- 
pdv, Kal eKelva ^ eXvpaivero, 1'ap.d re avrov ovBev 
r}v %ft)/ok T) et rL<i ekaiov otvw pep^iypkvov Kal eirie 

6 Kal TjXeiy^aro. oirep rrov rrdvv oXlyoK; acfyayp 
VTTrjp^e TTOLrjaac ovre yap rj %ft)yoa ovBerepov 
avroiv (jiipei avre eKelvoL d(f)Oova avrd irpoirape- 
(jKevdBaro.^ Kdv rw irovw rovr(p\ Kal ol ^dpjSapoi 

^ i8aaL\ev€V M Xiph. (cod. V) Zon., eBanlKfvcrey V Xiph. 
(cod. C). 2 ipvfxia R. Steph., ijpefila VM. 

'^ iKuva Rk., eKflvd re VM. 

* TrpoirapeaKevddaro Bk., irpoirapfaKevdffavro VM, {iKflvois) 
irpoTrapeaKevaaro Zon. 



after securing a considerable number of soldiers, b.o. 24 
ostensibly to take back the presents, they conducted 
them to places suitable for their purpose and mur- 
dered them. Their satisfaction, however, was short- 
lived ; for their country was devastated, some of 
their forts burned, and, worst of all, the hands of all 
who were caught were cut off, and so they were 
quickly subdued. 

While this was going on, another and a new cam- 
paign had at once its beginning and its end. It was 
conducted by Aelius Gallus, the governor of Egypt, 
against the country called Arabia Felix, of which 
Sabos was king. At first Aelius encountered no one, 
yet he did not proceed without difficulty ; for the 
desert, the sun, and the water (which had some 
peculiar nature) all caused his men great distress, so 
that the larger part of the army perished. The 
malady proved to be unlike any of the common com- 
plaints, but attacked the head and caused it to become 
parched, killing forthwith most of those who were 
attacked, but in the case of those who survived this 
stage it descended to the legs, skipping all the inter- 
vening parts of the body, and caused dire injury to 
them. There was no remedy for it except a mixture 
of olive- oil and wine, both taken as a drink and used 
as an ointment ; and this remedy naturally lay within 
reach of only a few of them, since the country pro- 
duces neither of these articles and the men had not 
prepared an abundant supply of them beforehand. 
In the midst of this trouble the barbarians also fell 



7 (T(f>iat TTpoaeireOevTO. reo)? ^ev yap 7]ttov<;, orrore 
76 KoX ^ 'rrpoa/jLL^ecav avTol<^, eyiyvovro, Kai riva 
KoX 'X^cDpia aTri/SaWov Tore he (TVji^idy^w rfj voaw 
avroiv 'X^p-qadpievoL rd re (T<f>eTepa iKop,i(Tavro Koi 
CKeLvcov Tov<; irepiXeLi^OevTa^ i^rfKaaav eK tt}? 

8 ^(W/aa?. irpoiTOL fiev Srj ^'Paypaicov ovtoi, vop,i^o) 
8' ori, Kol pLovoi, TOcrovTOV iirl irokepw t^9 ^Apa- 
pia<; Tavrr)<; ijrrjXOov p^expi^ ycLp twv ^AOXovXcov 
KoXovpevcov, ')((i)pLov TLvo^ i7ri(f)avov<;, i'^ooprjaav. 

30 'O 8' AvyovcTTOf; evheKarov p^erd ILaXiTOvpviov 
Tlidwvo^ dp^a<i '^ppaxTTTjaev avdc<;, axTTC p/rjhepiav 
ekiriha (Tcorrjpla^i a-^eLV irdura yovv eo? Koi 
TekevTTjcraiv BceOeTO, koi ra? re ^ dp^df; tou? re 
aXXou9 Tov<; Trpcorov; kol tcoj/ fiovXevroov kol tmv 
tTTTrecov ddpoLcra<; BidBo)(Ov pev ovBeva direBei^e, 

2 KairoL top MdpKeWop irdvrcov irpoKpiOrjaeaOai e? 
TOVTO irpoa-BoKcovToyv, BiaXexO^l^; Be rtva avToU 
irepl Tcov BrjpLocricov irpaypdrayv tw pev Uiacovt 
ra? T€ Bwdpuei^i /cal Td<; 7rpoa6Bov<; ra? KOLvd<; e? 
f^c/SXiOV e(Typd'ijra<; eBco/ce, tw B^ ^Ayplinra rov 

3 BaKTvkLov evexj^ipKTe. /cal avrov p.rjBev erc^ 
prjhe T(t)v irdvv dvayKaiwv iroielv Bvvdpevov 
^AvTcovLo^i Tt9 Mouo-a? Kal ^frvxpoXov(TLaL<; teal 
yfrvxpoTTOo-Lai^i dveacoae' Kal Bid tovtq Kal XPV~ 
para irapd re rov Avyovarov Kal rrapd t^? 
^ovXrj^ TToXXd Kal to ^j^puo-oZ? BaKrvXloi<i (ttTre- 
XevOepo<; yap rjv) XPV^^^^ '^V^ '^^ dreXetav Kal 
eaurw Kal roh opLorex^oi*;, ou% on, rot? rore 
ovaiv dXXd Kal rot? eireira €cropevoi,<;, eXaffev. 

^ 4 dXX eBei yap avrov rd re t^9 tvxV^ ^^^ "^^ '^^** 

1 ye Kol M Xiph., ye V. ^ ^^^ ^^ Xiph., rds ye VM. 

8 ^Ti " N" in Reimar's ed., 2t. VM. 



upon them. For hitherto they had been defeated b.c. 24 
whenever they joined battle, and had even been 
losing some places ; but now, with the disease as 
their ally, they not only won back their own posses- 
sions, but also drove the survivors of the expedition 
out of the country. These were the first of the 
Romans, and, I believe, the only ones, to traverse 
so much of this part of Arabia for the purpose of 
making war ; for they advanced as far as the place 
called Athlula, a famous locality.^ 

When Augustus was consul for the eleventh time, b.c. 23 
with Calpurnius Piso, he fell so ill once more as to 
have no hope of recovery ; at any rate, he arranged 
everything as if he were about to die, and gathered 
about him the magistrates and the foremost senators 
and knights. He did not, to be sure, appoint a suc- 
cessor, though all were expecting that Marcellus 
would be preferred for this position, but after talking 
with them awhile about the public affairs, he gave 
Piso the list of the forces and of the public revenues 
written in a book, and handed his ring to Agrippa. 
And although he lost the power of attending even 
to the most urgent matters, yet a certain Antonius 
Musa restored him to health by means of cold baths 
and cold potions. For this, Musa received a great deal 
of money from both Augustus and the senate, as well 
as the right to wear gold rings (for he was a freed- 
man), and he was granted exemption from taxes, 
both for himself and for the members of his profes- 
sion, not only those living at the time but also those 
of future generations. But it was fated that he who 
had taken to himself the functions of Fortune or 

1 The place has not been identified ; Strabo (xvi. 4, 24) 
calls it Athrula. 




TreiTpaifievrj^; epya irpoaiTOiovixevov irapa TroSa? 
aXoivai, 6 jjb€V Avyovaro^ ovrw^ eadidrj, 6 he hrj 
y[dpK€X\o<; vo(Trj(Ta<; ov iroWm vcrrepov koI tov 
avrov eKelvov vir avrov tov Moucra Tpoirov 

5 OepaiTev6pi€Vo<^ aireOave. kol avrov 6 Avyovaro^; 
Brj/jLoaia re eda^frev, iiraivea-a'; coairep eWicno, koX 

f i<^ TO fjbvrjfielov o wKoBofjueiTO KaTeOsTO, ^Ty re, 
fivrj/jirfj TOV dedrpov tov irpoKaTa^Xi-jOevTOf; fiev j 

6 viTo TOV l^aiaapo^, M.apK€Wov Be aovo/jLaa/jievov 
€TL/jL7ja€v, Koi ol Kol eLKova Xpvarjv KOL o-TCipavov 

')(^pV(TOVV Bi(j)p0V T€ ap^tKOV 6? T€ TO OcUTpOV €V TTj 

TMV 'Pcop,aL(ov iravrjyvpei ea^epedOai kol e? to 
/jL€(tov tcjv dp)(^6vTa)V tcov Te\ovvT(ov avTCL TiOe- 
a6at eKeXevae. 
31 TavTa fiev vaTepov eirpa^e, TOTe 8e (ToyOeU 
ra? 8iaOr}Ka<; eaiqveyKe fjbev e? to avveSpiov Kal 
dvaXe^aadai '^OeX^jaev, evheiKvvjJLevo^i^ Tot<; dv- 
dpMTTOL^ OTi ovSeva tt}? dp^rjf; Bidho')(pv KaraXe- 
Xoi,7rcb<; r)v, ov fievTot Kal dveyvw ovBeh yap 

2 iireTpe-^ev. eOavfia^ov fievToi /Ka\ irdvv 7rdvTe<; 
avTOV OTL TOV MdpKcXXov Kal ft)9 yap^ffpov Kal 
w? d8eX(j)LBovv dyaTTMv, Kal dXXa<; re avTW Tt/ta? 
BlBoix; Kal ttjv eopTrjv fjv €K Trj<; dyopavojiia^ 

3 eVereXei avvBiaOeh Xap,7rpct)<;, axTTe rijv re dyo- 
pav €v Travrl tw Oepet^ ira pair eT dor fiacn Kard 
Kopv(j)r]v BiaXa^elv Kal 6p')(r)aTr)v Tiva iTnrea 
yvvatKd re iTTLcpavrj e<; tyjv 6p')(rj(TTpav eaayayelv^ 
6/jico<; TTjv /jLovap^lav ovk eTriaTevcrev, oKSm, Kal 

4 Tov ^ AypiTTTrav avTOV irpoerip/r^crev. ovtq)<;, co? 
eoLKev, ovBeTTQ) ttj tov p^eipaKiov yv(o/j,T} eddpaei, 

^ eVSetKi'ujuei'oy M Zon. , evSeiKvviufvois V. 
2 Btpfi Bk. following Xiph., 64pei. ev VM. 



Destiny should speedily be caught in her toils ; for b.c. 23 
though Augustus had been saved in this manner, yet 
when Marcellus fell ill not long afterward and was 
treated in the same way by Musa, he died. Augustus 
gave him a public burial after the customary eulogies, 
placing him in the tomb which he was building, 
and as a memorial to him finished the theatre 
whose foundations had already been laid by the 
former Caesar ^ and which Avas now called the theatre 
of Marcellus, And he ordered also that a golden 
image of the deceased, a golden crown, and a curule 
chair should be carried into the theatre at the Ludi 
Romani and should be placed in the midst of the 
officials having charge of the games. 

This he did later ; at the time, after being restored 
to health, he brought his will into the senate and 
desired to read it, by way of showing people that 
he had left no successor to his realm ; but he did 
not read it, for none would permit it. Absolutely 
everybody, however, was astonished at him because, 
although he loved Marcellus both as son-in-law and 
nephew, and in addition to other honours shown him 
had to such an extent helped him make a brilliant 
success of the festival which he gave as aedile that he 
had sheltered the Forum during the whole summer 
by means of curtains stretched overhead and had 
exhibited on the stage a dancer who was a knight, 
and also a woman of high birth, nevertheless he had 
not entrusted to him the monarchy, but actually had 
preferred Agrippa before him. Thus it would appear 
that he was not yet confident of the youth's judg- 

^ Suetonius {Aug. 29, 4) names this theatre among various 
other buildings which Augustus " nomine alieno . . . fecit." 



aX)C rfTOL rov Srjfiop rrjv e\ev6epiav KOjJblcTaaOai 
Tf Kol rov ^ K^piiTirav rrjv rjyefioviap Trap' €K€ivov 
Xaffelv r}6e\r]aev' €V re yap rjiria-raro iTpo(T<f)t\rj 
a<j>icnv e? ra fiaXicrra avrov ovra, tcaX ovk 
ifiovXero irap eavrov Brj BoKelv avrrjv iimpeire- 
32 aOai. pat(Ta<; 8' ovv, kol fiaOcbv rov MdpKeWov 
OVK i7nrr)B€i(o<; ro) ^Aypirrrra Bia rovr €')(pvra, 
€9 rr)v Xvptav evOi)^ rov ^KypiTrirav, /jbtj kol 
hiarpLpri rt? koI ayjnfiaxta avroL<; 'iv ravrw^ 
ovarL av/jL^f], eareCke. koX 09 iic fiev rrjf; TroXea)? 
€vOv<; e^cop/jLTjaev, ov fievroi koI e? rr)v ^vpiav 
d(f>ifC€ro, aX.X* en koX fidWov fierpid^coy iKeiae 
fiev Tou? vrroa-rparrj'yov^ eTre/xyjrev, avro^ Be iv 
Aia-^tp Sierpiyjre. 

2 / Tavrd re ovrax; 6 Av<yov(rro<; erroirjcre, koI 

3 larparrjyov'; BeKa, ew? ovBev en TrXeiovwv Beojievo^, 
I diri^ei^e' koX rovro koX irrl TrXelco errj lyevero. 

€fjLeXXov Be avroov ol fiev aXXoc rd avrd direp koX 
irpoaOev Troirjaeiv, Bvo Be iirl rfj BioiKrjcret oaa 
3 err} yevrjo-eaOai. Biard^a<; Be ravra a)<; eKaara, 
direlTre rrjv vrrrareiav e? ro ^ ^AX^avbv eXOcov 
ivrel yap avr6<i, ef ovirep rd rrpdy/xara /carearr], 
Kal rcov dXXcov ol 7rXelov<; Bi erov<; rjp^av, eiri- 
(T'X^eLV re rovro avOi^, 07rci)<i on TrXela-roi vrra- 
revcoaiv, '^OeXrjae, Kal e^co rov darea)<; avro 
^ rh supplied by Bs. 

1 D. Magie ("The Mission of Agrippa to the Orient in 
23 B.C.," in Classical Philology, iii., 1908, 145 if.) points out 
the difficulties in the popular version of Agrippa's journey to 
Lesbos, and suggests that he was in reality sent out by 




ment, and that he either wished the people to regain b.c. 28 
their Hberty or for Agrippa to receive the leadership 
from them. For he well understood that Agrippa 
was exceedingly beloved by them and he pre- 
ferred not to seem to be committing the supreme 
power to him on his own responsibility. When he 
recovered, therefore, and learned that Marcellus be- 
cause of this was not friendly toward Agrippa, he 
immediately sent the latter to Syria, so that no 
occasion for scoffing or for skirmishing might arise be- 
tween them by their being together.^ And Agrippa 
straightway set out from the city, but did not reach 
Syria ; instead, acting with even more than his usual 
moderation,^ he sent his lieutenants thither, and 
tarried himself in Lesbos. 

Besides doing all these things in the manner |i 
related, Augustus appointed ten praetors, feeling ! 
that he no longer required a larger number ; ^ and | 
this happened for several years. Most of them were ' 
to perform the same duties as formerly, but two were 
to be in charge of the financial administration each 
year. Having arranged these matters in detail, he ) 
went to the Alban Mount and resigned the consul- 
ship. For ever since conditions had become settled, 
both he himself and most of his colleagues had held 
the office for the whole year, and he now wished to 
end this practice, in order that as many as possible 
might become consuls ; and he resigned outside the 

Augustus on a diplomatic mission calling for secrecy — 
nothing less, in fact, than for the purpose of inducing 
Phraates to return the captured Roman standards and 
receive in return his son. Cf. chap. 33, 2 inf. 

2 Cf. liv. 11, 6. 

* Under Julius Caesar the number had been as high as 
sixteen ; see xliii. 49, 1, and 51, 4. 




4 eirqirjaev, 'iva firj KojXvOfj. koI eVl re tovtm' 
eiraivov €o-')(^e, /cat on Aovkiov avQ^ eavrov ^y- 
(TTLOV avdeiKero, aei re Ta> BjOource) avcnrovBd- 
o-avra koI iv TTaai tol<; '7ro\€/iioi<; WvcjTparev- 
aavra, kol en koX tote koX fivrj/jLovevovra avrov 
Koi elKova^; e^ovra koX eTraivov^ TToiovfievov 
TO T€ 'yap f^iXiKov kol to TTiaTov Tov avBpo^ 
ov fiovov ovK e/uLLCTTjaev dWa koi eri/jurjae. 

5 Kal Bt,a ravd' t) yepovaia hrjfxapxov re avrov 
Sid ffiov elvai i\]r7](f>taaro, Kal %/?77yLtaTtfeti^ 
avrw irepl evo^ nvo^; ottov dv eOekrjarf KaO^ 
eKdarrjv fiovXijv, Kav firj vTrarevrj, eScoKe, rrjv re 
dp^rjv rr)V dvOvTrarov iaael KaOdira^ e)(eLv ware 
fjbi]re iv rfj iaoBo) rfj eccTco rov Trwjjirjpiov Kara- 
riOeadai avrrjv /jurjr av6i<; dvaveovaOai, Kal iv 
Tft) vTrrjKOfp TO TrXetov roiv eKacrrayoOi dpypv- 

6 r(i)V ) la'^veiv iTrerpeyfrev. d<f> ov Brj Kal iKelvo^ \ 
Kal ol fxer avrov avroKpdrope<; iv v6p.(p Br} rivt - 
roL<; re dWoi<; Kal ry i^ovala rfj Br]/iap-)(^tKfj ixprj- 
aavro' ro yap rot ovofia avro ro rcbv Brjfjudp'X^cov 
ovd^ o Avyovaro<; ovr dWo^ ovBeU avroKpdrcop 

33 Kat p^ot BoKel ravd' ovrco rore ovk ck KoXa- ^ 
/^eta? aXV eV dXrjOeiaf; rip,r)del<^ Xafielv. rd re 
yap dXXa 0)9 iXevOepoi^ acjilai 'Trpoaej)epero, Kal 
iTrecBr] 6 p,€V TipiBdrr]<; ^ avr6<i, irapd Be Brj rov 
^padrov Trpea^eL^, 6<^* oh dvreveKaXovv dXXy]- 
Xot<i d(f)iKOvro, €9 rrjv ^ovXtjv, avrom icrriyaye, 
2 Kod per a rovr iinr paired Trap* avrrj<^ rrjv Bid- 

^ TipjSaTTjs Bind., Teipi^arris VM (and similarly just 



city, to prevent being hindered from his purpose, b.c. 23 
For this act he received praise, as also because he 
chose in his stead Lucius Sestius, who had always 
been an enthusiastic follower of Brutus, had fought 
with him in all his wars, and even at this time kept 
alive his memory, had images of him, and delivered 
eulogies upon him. Augustus, it would appear, so far 
from disliking the man's devotion and loyalty, actually 
honoured these qualities in him. And because of 
this the senate voted that Augustus should be 
tribune for life and gave him the privilege of bring- 
ing before the senate at each meeting any one 
matter at whatever time he liked, even if he were 
not consul at the time ; they also permitted him 
to hold once for all and for life the office of pro- 
consul, so that he had neither to lay it down upon 
entering the pomerium nor to have it renewed again, 
and they gave him in the subject territory authority 
superior to that of the governor in each instance. 
As a result both he and the emperors after him 
gained a certain legal right to use the tribunician 
power as well as their other powers ; for the title 
of tribune itself was taken neither by Augustus nor 
by any other emperor.^ 

And it seems to me that he then acquired these 
privileges as related, not by way of flattery, but 
because he was truly honoured ; for in most ways he 
comported himself toward the Romans as if they 
were free citizens. Thus, when Tiridates in person 
and envoys from Phraates came to settle their mutual 
recriminations, he brought them before the senate ; 
and afterwards, when the decision of the question 
had been referred to him by that body, he did not 

1 Cf. chap. 17, 10. 




yvcodiv Tov jjikv Tt,piBdrrjv tw ^padrr) ,ovk 
i^eSfOKev, tov S* vlov avrw, ov irporepov 'rrap' 
eKeivov \apoov el')(ev, dTreTrepbyfrev eVl rqy tou? re 
al'X^pboXwrov'^ koX ra aTjp.e'la ra crrparKOTiKa rd 
€v re rfj rod Kpao-aov /cal iv ry tov ^ Avtwvlov 
(TV/jL<f)opd dXovTa KOfxicracrOat., 

3 , Kai/ T(p avT^ TovTcp erei d^opavoyiov re Tiva 
^biv KaTaSeeaTepcjv diroOavovTa Fato? KaXirovp- 
VL0<;, Ka'iTOL 7rpor}yopavofjLr]K(o<; iv rot? a/xetVocrt, 
SieBi^aTO, oirep eir* ovBevo^; dXXov jjuvrj/iMoveveTai 
fyevo/xevov /cdv Tat<; dvoyal'^ Bvo Ka6^ e/cdaTrjv 
r)p,epav iiroXidp^n^aav, koI €l9 76 rt? avrcov ovS* 
e? fjb€ipd/cid ^ TTft) TcXcov 0/^0)9 rjp^ev. 

4 Alrlav fi€v ovv r) Atovla tov davdrov tov 
MapKeXXov ea-yev, oti^ tmv vlecov avTrj<; irpo€T€- 
TifirjTO' e? d/jL<f)i^oXov S\ovv 77 vTroyjrla avrrj /cal 

/ VTT eKeivov tov eTov^ koI vtto tov eireoTa, ovrco 
vocrcoBoov yevo/Jbivwv^ ware irdw ttoXXou? ev av- 

5 rot? diroXeaOai, Kareo-TTj, /cal <j)iXel ydp Trw? 
aeu TL irpb tcov toiovtcov Trpoo-rjfiaLvecrdaiy totc 
fiev^ XvKO^ re ev tw dcrTei avveXrjcfydrj, /cal irvp 
y^eifjidiiv Te TToXXoL^ OLKoBofirj/jLaaiv eXvfjbrjvaro, 6 re 
Ti^epi<i av^rjOeU ttjv Te ye(f)vpav Ttjv ^vXivr^v 
KaTeavpe Kal Tr]v iroXiv 7rXo)Tr)v eVl Tpel^i y/iepa^ ) 

1 /jLeipaKid V. Herw., fi(ipa.Ki6v VM. 

^ voaw^wv yevofxevwv Bk., voawSovs yevo/xevov VM. 



surrender Tiridates to Phraates, but sent back to the b.c. 28 
latter his son whom he had once received from him 
and was keeping,^ on condition that the captives 
and the miUtary standards taken in the disasters of 
Crassus and of Antony should be returned. 

During this same year one of the minor aediles 
died and Gaius Calpurnius succeded him, in spite of 
having served previously as one of the major aediles.^ 
This is not recorded as having occurred in the case 
of any other man. During the Feriae there were two 
prefects of the city for each day ; and one of them 
held the office in spite of the fact that he had not 
yet the standing even of a youth. 

Livia, now, was accused of having caused the 
death of Marcellus, because he had been preferred 
before her sons ; but the justice of this suspicion be- 
came a matter of controversy by reason of the 
character both of that year and of the year follow- 
ing, which proved so unhealthful that great numbers 
perished during them. And, just as it usually hap- 
pens that some sign occurs before such events, so on 
this occasion a wolf was caught in the city, fire and 
storm damaged many buildings, and the Tiber, ris- 
ing, carried away the wooden bridge and made the 
city navigable for boats during three days. 

» Cf. h. 18, .3. 

2 By "minor" and "major" aediles Dio means the 
plebeian and eurule aediles respectively. 



Ta.S( iv((TTtv ev t<^ irevT'i]KoaT(f rcrapTt^ rwv Aiuvos 'FwfJLaiKwv 

a. 'fls iTTi/xeXriTal ruv b^wv iK rwv €<TTpaTriyT)K6Tcov^ KaT(<TTT]crav. 
fi. 'ris eTTi/ieATjTol Tov (Tirripfcriov ck tuv iaTparriyqKOTwv ^ 

y. 'n? 'N'J'piKov^ €aA«. 
5. 'ns 'PaiTia eaAw. 

f. 'ns afAXiTfis at -KapadaKaffaioi 'Pu^ialcov aKovfiv i^p^avTO. 
^. 'ns rh ^ TOV BdXfiov Qearpov Kadiepudr}. 
T). 'Hy rh ^ rov MapKfWov Qearpov Kadicpwdr]. 
d. 'n.s 'Aypiirnas aivedave kuI tV Xepp6v7i<Tov AHyovaros 

1. 'D,5 TO AvyovardXia KariffTT). 

Xp6yov TrXTJOos ^tt/ rpia /col SeKa, iV ols &pxovT€s ol apidfxovfjL^voi 
o'lSf iytyovTo 

M. KXavSios* M. vl. MdpKcWos Alaepnvos^ « 

A. 'Appovvrios A. vt. 

M. A6k\ios^ M. viJ ^ 

K.^ AifxiKios M. i-iV» AcVtSoy "''• 

M. 'A^ovXe'tos ^'^ Se^i ow vt. ., 

n.$ ^^ n. vl. Nepovas 

r. SevTtos r. vl. '2,aTovpv7vos „ 

K.^^ AouKp'i^Ttos K, vl. OviairiWuv^^ 

Fy. KopP7}\ios A. vl. AevTovXos „ 

n. Kopvr}hios n. ut. AevToCAos MopKeAAti'os 

r. ^ovppios r. ui.^'* 

^ iffTparrjynKSToov M, iK(Trpari\yT)K6T0)V V. 

'^ UdpiKov Bs., UwpiKos VM. ^ T^ supplied by Bs. 

4 KAauStos H. Steph., kA' VM. 

* Alaepvlvos Xyl., aiaepivos M, SiaepTros V. 

* M. AJaAjos supplied by Xyl. 

' M. vt supplied by Bs. " K. supplied by Xyl. 




The following is contained in the Fifty-fourth of Dio's 
Rome : — 

How road commissioners were appointed from among the 

ex-praetors (chap. 8). 
How grain commissioners were appointed from among the 

ex-praetors (chaps. 1 and 17). 
How Noricum was captured (chap. 20). 
How Rhaetia was captured (chap. 22). 
How the Maritime Alps began to yield obedience to the 

Romans (chap. 24). 
How the theatre of Balbus was dedicated (chap. 25). 
How the theatre of Marcellus was dedicated (chap. 26). 
How Agrippa died and Augustus acquired the Chersonese 

(chaps. 28, 29). 
How the Augustalia were instituted (chap. 34). 

Duration of time, thirteen years, in which there were the 
magistrates (consuls) here enumerated : — 


22 M. Claudius M. F. Marcellus Aeserninus, L. Arruntius 

L. F. 
21 M. Lollius M. F., Q. Acmilius M. F. Lepidus. 
20 M. Apuleius Sex. F., P. Silius P. F. Nerva. 
19 C. Sentius C. F. Saturninus, Q. Lucretius Q. F. Vispillo. 
18 Cn. Cornelius L. F., P. Cornelius P. F. Lentulus 

17 C. Furnius C. F., C. lunius C. F. Silanus. 

^ Al/jLiKios M. vl. supplied by Bs. 
^•^ 'AiTOKAt'ios Bs. , airovhios VM. 
" 2i\ios Xyl., aeiK VM. " k. Reim., A. VM. 

^' OvktttIWwv Dind., ovKnridKuv M, oviaaind\uy V. 
" vL M, iir V. 
^* r. 'lovvios Xyl., TT ovlyios VM. 



A. AoixItios Tv. vL^ Tv. ^77. 'Ariv60ap$os^ » 3 

n. KopvTjXios n. vi. n. €77. 'SKiwiuu 

M. Aiovios * A. vt. Apovffos Ai$a>v „ 3 

A. Ka\irovpvios A. vl. Uiawv ^povyi ^ 

M. AikIvvios M. ut. Kpao-ffoj* ,/ 

Tv. Kopvr)\ios Ti'. vl. AevrovKos 

T<)8. K\av8ios ' Tt0. vt. Ne'pwJ' „ 

n. Kuji'tiAjos* Se^Tou i»i. Ovapos 

M. OuaAe'ptos^ M.^*^ i;t. Meoro-aAas Bip^Saros ** „ 

n. '2,ov\iriKios n. ui. Kvpivios 

IloiiAos 4»a)8ios ^'^ K. ui. Md^ifios „ 

K. ArXtos 13 K. vL TovBepuy ^'^' 

'IoGAAos^'* *Ai'Tc6i'tos^^ M. vl. ^ ^g 

AcppiKavhs K. ^dfiios K. u/. 

Tft) S' iirLycyvofjuivo) ^^ ere*, eV o5 MapA:o9 re 
Ma/3/c6XXo? Acal AovKLO<i ^AppovvTio^i vTrdrevaap, 
Tj T€ 7roXt9 'jr€XayLaavTO<; avdi<i tov Trora/jLOv 
iirXevo-drj, kol Kepavvol<^ aXka re iroWa i^XyOrj 
Koi 01 avhpidvre^ ol iv tu> liapOeio), Mare /cal 
TO Sopv Ik TTj^i , TOV AvyovcTTov 'xeipo^ eKirecrelv. 


2 \i/JLov {ev T€ yap ttj 'IraXta irdcr) 6 XoLfioff 
iyev€To kuI t^z^ ')(wpav ovBeU elpydaaTO' Bokco B* 
OTi fcal iv TOt? e^ft) ywploi's to avTo tovto avvq- 
vex^vi) vofjLL(TavT€(; ot, ^Vwp^aioi ovk dXk(o<i acpLo-i 
TUVTa crvp^^e^rjKevai, dXX* otl p,r) kol Tore vira- 

3 TevovTa tov AvyovaTOv ea^pv, BtKTdTOpa avTov 
rjOeXrjaav TTpoxeLpiaaaOaiy koI titjv re l3ovXr)v 

1 Tu. vl. R. Steph., Kv vl. VM. 

2 'Ar)v60ap$os R. Steph., av'n6fiapfios M, ayp6fiapfios V. 
^ vTT. supplied by Bs. 

* Aiovios Leopard, A lovvios M, A ovvios V. 

^ ^povyi {^pvy\) R. Steph., (povprios VM. 

" vl. Kpd<T(Tos supplied by Xyl. 

' Ti$. KKavSios H. Steph., r & kKY, ti^. kA. M. 

s Ki/Ji'TiAtoj Xyl., K VI VM. 




16 L. Domitius Cn. F. Cn. N. Ahenobarbus, P. Cornelius 

P. F. P. N. Scipio. 
15 M. Liviiis L. F. Drusus Libo, L. Calpurnius L. F. Piso 

14 M. Licinius M. F. Crassus, Cn. Cornelius Cn. F. Lentulus. 
13 Tib. Claudius Tib. F. Nero, P. Quintilius Sex. F. Varus. 
12 M. Valerius M. F. Messalla Barbatus, P. Sulpicius P. F. 

11 Paulus Fabius Q. F. Maximus, Q. Aelius Q. F. Tubero. 
10 lullus Antonius M. F., Africanus Q. Fabius Q. F. 

The following year, in which Marcus Marcellus b.c. 22 
and Lucius Arruntius were consuls, the city was 
again submerged by the overflowing of the river, 
and many objects were struck by thunderbolts, 
especially the statues in the Pantheon, so that the 
spear even fell from the hand of Augustus. The 
pestilence raged throughout all Italy so that no one 
tilled the land, and I suppose that the same was the 
case in foreign parts. The Romans, therefore, re- 
duced to dire straits by the disease and by the 
consequent famine, believed that these woes had 
come upon them for no other reason than that they 
did not have Augustus for consul at this time also, 'j 
They accordingly wished to elect him dictator, and I 

^ Ovapos M. Oua\4pios Xyl., ovavrrrfpos ovdpios V, ov avw' 
-yfpoaovdpios M. ^^ M. H. Steph., /xapKou VM. 

1' Mf(T(xd\as Boip$aros Xyl., fi4ar<ra\os &p^aTos VM. 
1? *a/3ios Xyl., (p\ VM. 
1' K. AtXios H. Steph., Kai \ VM. 
1* 'lovWos Bs., lovKtos VM. 

^* 'AvTwuios Xy\., avrccvivos VM. ^^ fin. supplied by Bs. 
1' 4iriyiyvoixfV(i} Bk., iniyevofievu VM. 



KaTaK\€taaPT6<; e? to avvehpiov iirrjvdyKaa-av 
TOVTO '^^'qcjiiaao-daL, aiTeikovvTe^i cr<^a9 KaraTTprj- 
(T€cv, Kol /jb€Ta Tavra Ta<; f)dl3Bov<; Ta9 reaaapa^ 
Kol eiKocri Xa/Soi/re? irpoorriXOov avrw,^ Si/cTdropd 
re dfia Beo/jievoi, \e')(Pr]vaL kol i'mpiekrjT'qv rou 
(TLTOV, Kaddirep irore rov Uo/jiTTrjtop, yeveaOai. 

4 KoX 09 rovro /xev dvayKaico<; iSe^aro, koL eKeXevae 
Bvo dv8pa<; rcov irpo irevre rrov del ircov iarpa- 
rrjyrjKOTCDV irpo^ rrjv rov (tItov Si,avo/jLr}V Kar 
6X09 alpelaOaL, rrjv 8e htKraropiav ov irpoarjKaTO, 
dWd KoX rr)V iadrjra TrpoafcaTepp'^^aTO, eTrecSr) 

1 fjurfSeva rpoirov a\.Xft)9 )(T(j)d<; iina-^elv, fi^re Bta- 

5 \€y6/Ji€P0<; fJirjTe Beo/uevo^;, r]BvvrjOr]' rqv re yap 
e^ovaiav Koi rrjv ri/xrjv koI virep rov^ Bi/crdropa^ 
e%ft)i^, opOw^ TO T€ i7ricj)dovov koI to fiiarjTov 

2 T^9 iiriKkrjorew^ avrcbv ^ ic^vXd^aro. to 8' auTo 
TOUTO /cal TL/nrjTTjv avTov Bid fiiov ')(^eLpoTovr)aai 
^ovkofievoiv iTTOirjaev ovre yap ttjv dp^r)v vire- 
aTT}, Kal €vOv<; irepov^; TC/X7jTd<;, UavXov t€ Alfxi- 
\iov AiiriBov Kal Aovklov Movvdriov UXdyKou, 
TovTov fjL€V dBeX(f)bu tov UXdyKou eKeivov tov 
e'JTLK7)pv')(devT0<^ ovTa, TOV Be Brj AiTrcBov avTov 

2 TOTe OavaTwdevra, direBei^ev, 6a')(^aT0L Brj ^ ovTot^ 
TTjv TL/jL7)T€iav IBL&Tai dfia ea^ov, oyairep ttov 
Kal irapa'X^pTjiJLa avT0c<; eBrfXdiOr)' to yap fiij/xa 
a<^* ov TV TTpd^ecv tcov jrpoarjKOVTcov a^iaLv 

1 avT^ Zon., avThv VM. ^ avTwv M, avrhv V. 

=* 5^ V, om. M. 




shutting the senators up in their meeting place, they 
forced them to vote this measure by threatening to 
burn down the building over their heads. Next 
they took the twenty-four rods ^ and approached 
Augustus, begging him to consent both to being 
named dictator and to becoming commissioner ot 
the grain supply,^ as Pompey had once done.^ He 
accepted the latter duty under compulsion, and 
ordered that two men should be chosen annually, 
from among those who had served as praetors not 
less than five years previously in every case, to at- 
tend to the distribution of the grain. As for the 
dictatorship, however, he did not accept the office, 
but went so far as to rend his garments when he 
found himself unable to restrain the people in any 
other way, either by argument or by entreaty ; for, 
since he was superior to the dictators in the power 
and honour he already possessed, he properly guarded 
against the jealousy and hatred which the title would 
arouse. He took the same course also when they 
wished to elect him censor for life ; for, declining to 
take the office himself, he immediately appointed 
others to be censors, namely Paulus Aemilius 
Lepidus and Lucius Munatius Plancus, the latter a 
brother of that Plancus who had been proscribed, 
and the former a man who had himself been con- 
demned to die at that same time. These were the last 
two private citizens to hold the censorship together, 
which was no doubt the meaning of the sign given 
to them ; for the platform, on which they were to 
perform one of the functions devolving upon them, 

^ The fasces ; the dictator was regularly attended by 
twenty-four lictors. Cf. liii. 1, n. 1. 
■^ Curator annonae. ^ Cf. xxxix. 9. 



Tj^eXKov, avveirecrev avajSdvrcov avTMv ev tjj 
TTpcoTTj TTJ^ ap%^9 Vf^^P^ >^«^ avpeTpL^Tj, Kal fiera 
Tovr ovBev€<; dXKot rc/jLTjral Ofioioi avroL<; djia 

3 i'yevovro. koX rore Be 6 Avjovctto^, KaLTvep 
€K€Lva)v alpeOevTcov, iroXka rwv €9 avTov<; avrj- 


TeXco? KareXvae, rd Be tt/jo? to o-ccx^povearepov 
avveo-reiXe. Kal rot? fiev arparrjyoh ra? iravr)- 
yvpei^i Trdaa^ irpoaera^eVy €K re rov Brj/jioa-iov' 

4 BiBoaOal TC avroU /ceXevaa^;, Kal TTpoaairei'Trcbv 
fjLTjTe €9 eKeiva^ oiKoOev nva ifkelov rov erepov 
dvaXidKeiv f^tjO^ o'TT\ofJLa')(lav firjT dWax; el fir) 
7] ^ovXrj yfrijcfiLcratTo, fjLtjr av 7rXeovdKL<i t) St9 ev 
eKaaro) erec, jJbrjTe irXeiovcov etKoai Kal cKarov 
dvBpwv TTOLelv TOL<; S* dyopav6/jLOt.<; Tot9 Kovpov- 
Xtoi9 Tr)v Twv ifiTTifMirpa/jLevcov ^ Kardo-fieaLV eve- 
')(eLpLaev, k^aKoaiovf; a(f)iai ffo7]0ov<; BovXov<; Bov<^. 

5 eTreiBrj re ^ Kal liTTrijf; ^ Kal yvva2Ke<; eiTK^avel'^ ev 
rfi opxv^Tpa Kal rore ye eireBei^avro, dirrjyopevaev 
0^% ore T0fc9 iraial rwv ^ovXevrcjv, orrep irov Kal 
rrplv €KeK(t}Xvro, dXXd Kal Tot9 eyyovoc^, T0t9 ^e ^ 

I ev rfi iTTirdBi \ BrjXov ore e^era^ofievoL^ , firjBev ere 
roiovro Bpdv. 

3 Kat ev p-ev rovroL<i ro re rov vop^oOerov Kal to 
rov avroKparopo^; Kal o")(^f]fia Kal ovo/xa eireBei- 
Kwro,^ ev Be Br) Tot9 dXXoL'^ ifierpla^ev, a>are Kal 

2 (j>iXoL<i rialv ev6vvop,evoi^ irapayiyveaOaL. Mdp- 
Kov re rLV0<i TLpip^ov airiav e')(ovro^ on, rrj<i 
MaKeBovia<; dp'X^v ^OBpvaai^ err oXe fir) ere, Kal 

^ ifjLTniJ.Trpafj.€VOi}V Dind,, e/JLirnrpafievuv VM. 

2 iireiS-f} T6 V, iireid-f) irep M. ^ iiTTrrjs M, iwe'is V. 

* 7€ Rk., re VM. ** iiredeiKPUTO V, diTreSet/cj'yTo M. 



collapsed as they ascended it on the first day of their b.c. 22 
holding the office, and was shattered in pieces, 
and after that no others of the same rank as these 
became censors together. Even at this time, in 
spite of their having been chosen to the position, 
i\ugustus performed many of the duties belonging 
to their office. Of the public banquets, he abolished 
some altogether and limited the extravagance of 
others. He committed the charge of all the 
festivals to the praetors, commanding that an 
appropriation should be given them from the public 
treasury, and also forbidding any one of them to 
spend more than another from his own means on 
these festivals, or to give a gladiatorial combat unless 
the senate decreed it, or, in fact, oftener than twice 
in each year or with more than one hundred and 
twenty men. To the curule aediles he entrusted 
the putting out of fires, for which purpose he granted 
them six hundred slaves as assistants. And since 
knights and women of rank had given exhibitions 
on the stage even then,^ he forbade not only the 
sons of senators, who had even before this been 
excluded, but also their grandsons, so far, at least, 
as these belonged to the equestrian order, to do 
anything of the sort again. 

Although in these measures he showed himself, in 
form as well as in name, both law-giver and arbitrary 
ruler, in his behaviour generally he was moderate, to 
such a degree, in fact, that he even stood by some of 
his friends when their official conduct was under 
investigation. Also when a certain Marcus Primus 
was accused of having made war upon the Odrysae 
while he was governor of Macedonia, and declared at 

1 Cf. liii. 31. 



\iyovro<; rore /Jiev rfj rov Avyovarov rore Se'ry 
M.apK6XXov yvcofirj rovro TreTTOtrjKevai,, e? re to 
hiKaaTr)piov avreTrdyyeXrof; rjXde, koI eTrepcorr)- 
Oel<; VTTO rov arparrjyov el Trpoard^etev ol iroXe- 

3 firjaac, e^apvo^ iyevero. rov re avvayopevovro^ 
ru) ITpt/zft) AiKiviov ^ Movprjvov aXXa re e? avrovj 
ovK eTnrrjheia diroppL-^avro^, koX irvOofxevov ** rt 
hr) evravOa iTOLelji, koL rt? ore eKaXeaev^ roaovrov 
fjbovov aTreKpLvaro on " ro Br)p6aLov.'^ eirl ovv 
rovroL<i VTTO p,ev rcov ev (^povovvrwv eTrrjvelro, 
a>are /cat ro ri]v ^ouXrjv dOpoi^eiv oaaKL^ av 
eOeXrjcrr) Xa^elv, rcov B\ dXXcov rivh Kare^po- 

4 vrjaav avrov. dpeXei koX rov Hpi/jLov ov/c oXiyoi 
direy^^icTavro, /cat eTTL^ovXrjv erepoi eV avrw) 
(Tvvearriaav. ^dvvLO^ ^ pev yap l^anricov dp'^riyo<i 
avrrf^ iyevero, (TweireXd^ovro he koX dXXor Kal 
a^idi KOL 6 M.ovp'}]va<; avvop,o)poK€vai, ecr ovv 
dXr}d(0(i ecre koI e/c 8ia^oX7]<;, eXe)(6ri^^ eireiSr} /cal'^m 
aKpdrcp KoX KaraKOpel rfj Trapprjaia tt/do? 7rdvra<^^\ 

5 6poLco<i ixprjro. Kal ov yap virepecvav ro SiKa- 
crrrjpiov, eprjpyv pev ob? Kal (pev^opevot rjXfoaav, 
d7rea<f)dyrj(rav Be ov ttoXXo) varepov, ovSe iTrrjp- 
Keaav rw M.ovpr]va ovre 6 UpoKovXeio^;'^ dBeX(f)0'i 
ot)V ovre 6,Kr}va^ rfj dBeX(f>fj avrov avvoiKOdv, 
Kalirep e? rd irpMra viro rov Kvyovarov rip^o)- 

6 pevoL. o)? S* ovv Kal rovrov<i ro)v SiKa^ovrcov '' 
rive^i drreXvaav, evopoOeryjae prjre Kpvcpa rd<; 
■^'^(f)ov<; ev ral^ eprjpoi^ BiKat<^ 4>epeoOai, Kal 
7rdaai<; avral<i rov evOvvopevov aXiGKeaOai. Kal 
on ye ravr ou^ l'tt' opyrj<^ dXX o)? Kal (jvpu^e- 

* AiKiyiov M, XiKivviov V. ^ ^avvios Leuncl. , (pdufios VM. 

* 4\4xOv M, i\4yx0V V. "* npoKOvXtios Bs., vpoKovKios VM. 



one moment that he had done it with the approval b.c. 22 
of Augustus, and at another with that of Marcellus, 
Augustus came of his own accord to the court- 
room ; and upon being asked by tlie praetor whether 
he had instructed the man to make war, he denied 
it. And when the advocate of Primus, Licinius 
Murena, in the course of some rather disrespectful 
remarks that he made to him, enquired : " What are 
you doing here, and who summoned you ? " Augustus 
merely replied: "The public weal." For this he 
received praise from the people of good sense and 
was even given the right to convene the senate 
as often as he pleased ; but some of the others 
despised him. At all events, not a few voted for the 
acquittal of Primus, and others formed a plot against 
Augustus. Fannius Caepio was the instigator of it, 
but others also joined with him. Even Murena was 
reported to be in the conspiracy, whether truly or by 
way of calumny, since he was immoderate and un- 
restrained in his outspokenness toward all alike. 
These men did not stand trial, and so were convicted 
by default, on the supposition that they intended to 
flee ; and a little latter they were slain. Murena 
found neither Proculeius, his brother, nor Mae- 
cenas, his sister's husband, of any avail to save him, 
though these men were most highly honoured by 
Augustus. And inasmuch as some of the jurymen 
voted to acquit even these conspirators, the emperor 
made a law that in trials at which the defendant 
was not present the vote should not be taken 
secretly and the defendant should be convicted only 
by a unanimous vote. Now that he took these 
measures, not in anger, but as really conducive to 



7 povra r& Srj/ioaio) Siera^ev, tcr;^u/)a>9 SieBei^e' rov 
jovv TTttTpo? Tov Kai7rLcovo<i TOP fjLev erepov rwv 
BovXeov roiv avix^v^ovrcov rw vlel iXevdepoiaavTO^, 
on afjLVvai ol OvrjaKovri '^OiXrjo-e, rov Be^ erepov 
TOV TTpoSovra avrbv Bed re r^? dyopd<; /jl€0-7)<; fiera 
ypafijiidrcov rr)V alriav rrj<; Oavarcoaeaxi avTov 
BrjXovvTcov BiayayovTO^; koX fxeTo, ravra dva- 

8 (TTavpdxravTo^y ovk rj'yavdKTricre. kclv i^rjKeaaro 
irdaav rrjv tmv ovk dpea/cofievcov roi? 'jrpa')(^d€L(Ti 
/jL6fJL\lrLv, el /JLT) Kol dvcrla<; &)? ^ kol eirl vIkt) tivI 
KoX yfrr](f>i,a06LO-a<; irepLelBe kol yevojikva^. 

4 Tore 8' ovv kuI ryv KvTrpov kol rrjv TaXarlav 
Tr)V ^apP(DV7](Tiav direBwKe rw Brffiw w? firjBev 
rS)V ottXcov avrov Beofjuiva^;' koX ovtm<; dvOviraroL 

2 KoX €<? ifcelva ra Wvi] irepbTTeadai rjp^avTO. koX 
rov TOV ^io<^ TOV ^povT(ovTO<; iiriKaXov/jievov vaov 
KaO^epwae' irepl ov Byo TavTa irapaBeBoTai, otl 
TOT€ T€ ev TTJ Upovpyla ^povToX eyevovTO, teal 
fieTa ravTa ovap tw Avyovcrrq) TOiovBe eireaTT). 
T(ov yap dvOpMTTcov, to /jbiv ri iTpo<^ to ^evov koI 
TOV ovofjbaTOf; avTOv koX tov etBov^, to Be kol otl 

3 viro TOV AvyovaTov IBpvTO, jxeyiaTov Be otl 
7rp(OT(p ol dviovTe^ e? to KaTTLTCoXiov iveTvyxcivov, 
TTpoo^ep^ofievcov re avTw^ koX ae^ovTcov, eBo^e 
TOV Ata TOV ev tw fieydXw vaQ) ovtu opyrjv &)? 
KOL TO, BevTepa avTOV (pepop^evov 'jToieladai, kol 
eK TovTOV eKelvcp re elirelv eXeyev otl irpocf^vXaKa 

4 TOV lipovTOiVTa e^OL, KOL €7reiBr) rjfxepa eyeveTO, 
icdoBcova avTW TrepLrjyjre, ^e^aLwv ttjv ovelpco^LV ^ 

1 rhp 8e Bk., Tiva Se VM. ^ ^^^j Qvalas us V, om. M. 

3 avT^ R. Steph. , avTuv VM. 
* oveipw^iv M, ovelpa^iv V. 



the public good, he gave very strong proot ; at any b.c. 22 
rate, when Caepio's father freed one of the two 
slaves who had accompanied his son in his flight 
because this slave had wished to defend his young 
master when he met his death, but in the case of 
the second slave, who had deserted his son, led him 
through the midst of the Forum with an inscription 
making known the reason why he was to be put to 
death, and afterwards crucified him, the emperor was 
not vexed. Indeed, he would have allayed all the 
criticism of those who were not pleased with what had 
been done, had he not gone further and permitted 
sacrifices to be both voted and offered as for a victory. 
It was at this time that he restored to the people 
both Cyprus and Gallia Narbonensis as districts no 
longer needing the presence of his armies ; and thus 
proconsuls began to be sent to those provinces also. 
He also dedicated the temple of Jupiter Tonans. 
Concerning this temple two stories have been handed 
down, first, that at that time claps of thunder occurred 
when the ritual was being performed, and, second, 
that at a later time Augustus had a dream as follows. 
The people, he thought, approached Jupiter who is 
called Tonans and did reverence to him, partly be- 
cause of the novelty of his name and of the form of 
his statue, and partly because the statue had been 
set up by Augustus, but chiefly because it was the 
first they encountered as they ascended the Capitol ; 
and thereupon the Jupiter in the great temple 
was angry because he was now reduced to second 
place as compared with the other. At this, Augustus 
related, he said to Jupiter Capitolinus, " You have 
Tonans as your sentinel " ; and when it was day, he 
attached a bell to the statue as confirmation of the 



01 yap ra? avvoiKia^ vvKTcop cf)v\daaovTe<; kcoBmpo- . 
<f)opovcn,v, OTTco^ arjpLaiveLV (K^iaiv oirorav Bctj- 
dcjcrt^ BvvcovTai. 
5 ■ 'El/ fiev -Bt) rfi 'Fco/iir} ravr ijiyvero, vtto he' Brj 
Toi)^ aiirovf; toutou? ')(^p6vov<; koX ol K^avraffpoi 
pi re "Ao-Tf/je? eiroXefir^aav avOi<;,'^ ovroi fxev Bed 
T€ Tpv<f)r)v Kol Bt^ wfxoT'qra rod KapKrlov, ol Be 
Bf] Kdvra^poL, iireiBr) iK6LV0v<i re vewrepil^ovra'^ 
yaOovTo Kol rov dp^^ovro^ a^cov Tatov ^ovpvlov 
KaTe(f)p6vr]aav, otl re vewarl d(j)LKTO kol otl 
direipov avrov tmv Trap* eavTOi<; Trpaypdrcov elvat 

2 eBo^av. ov fievroi kuI ev tm epyw tolovt6<^ (T^iaiv 
6(f>dv7], dX)C riTT7]0evTe<; ajxcporepoi vtt avrov {/cal 
yap rw Kapiala TTpoarjixwev) eBovXd)dr]o-av. Kal 
rS)V fiev Yiavrd^pcdv ov ttoWoI edXcoaav eTreiBr) 
yap dveKinarov rr)v eKevOepiav ea^ov, ovBe t^r}v 

3 i^deXrjaav, dX)C ol jxeV' ra ipv/xara irpoefiTTpr]- 
aavre<; eavrov<; direac^a^av, ol Be Kal eKelvoL^ 
iOeXovral (jvyKareKavOijo-av, aXkoi Brj/jboaia (pap- 
/jidfccov eveTrX'^adrjaav, coo-re ro re rrXelarov Kal 
ro dypidtrarov avrcov (pOaprjvar ol 8' "Aarvpe<i 
ft)? rd')(^Lara 'x^ciyplpv re ri 7roXiopKovvre<; drrrjXd- 
6r)(Tav Kal P'd^r} jiera rovr eviKYjOrjaav, ovKer 
dvrrjpav dXX €v6v<i e^ecpdidr^aav. 

4 'Ttto Be rov avrov rovrov y^povov ol KWiorres 
ol virep AlyvTrrov oiKovvref; 7rpoe-)(^oop7ja-av fjuev 
IJi^XP^ "^^^ TToXeo)? rrj(i^KXe(j)avrLvr}(; ayvo/iaa/jLevrj^;, 
rrdvra ra ev rrocrl 7ropOovvre<;, rjyov/j,evrj<; <T<pLaiv 
KavBdKr]<;' irvOofxevoi Be evravOd ttov Tdiov 
Tlerpcoviov rov r^? Aiyvirrov dpyovra irpocnevai, 

1 5€7j0c!)(n Dind., SuvrjOcicri VM. 

2 aZdis Xyl., ouTors VM 



vision. For those who guard communities at night b.c. 22 
carry a bell, in order to be able to signal to the 
inhabitants whenever they need to do so. 

These were the events that occurred in Rome ; 
and at about this same period the Cantabri and the 
Astures broke out into war again, the Astures on 
account of the luxurious ways and cruelty of Carisius, 
and the Cantabri because they perceived that the 
others were in revolt and because they despised their 
own governor, Gaius Furnius, since he had but 
lately arrived and they supposed that he was 
unacquainted with conditions among them. Never- 
theless, he did not appear to them that sort of man 
when it came to action ; for they were defeated and 
reduced to slavery by him, and the Astures likewise, 
since he also aided Carisius. Not many of the 
Cantabri were captured ; for when they had no 
hope of freedom, they did not chose to live, either, 
but some set their forts on fire and cut their own 
throats, and others of their own choice remained 
with them and were consumed in the flames, while 
yet others took poison in the sight of all. Thus the 
most of them and the fiercest element perished. As 
for the Astures, as soon as they had been repulsed 
while besieging a certain stronghold and had later 
been defeated in battle, they offered no further resist- 
ance, but were promptly subdued. 

About this same time the Ethiopians, who dwell 
beyond Egypt, advanced as far as the city called 
Elephantine, with Candace as their leader, ravaging 
everything they encountered. At Elephantine, how- 
ever, learning that Gaius ^ Petronius, the governor of 
Egypt, was approaching, they hastily retreated before 

' PHny {Xat. Hid. vi. 181) calls him Publius. 




TTpoairrjkdov /juev w? teal Biacpev^o/jLepoi, KaraXr)- 
^6evr€<; Be ev rjj oBw rjrTrjOrjaav, kolk tovtov /cal 

5 €9 TTjv olKeiav avrov eirecnrdcravTO. koI KaXw<; 
KOi i/cet ay(oviG-d/jL6vo<; 7roX,e£9 dXXa<; re ^ fcal rrjv 
l^lairdrrjv^ to PaaiKeiov avrwv ekaj^ev.^ koI 
i/ceivrj /nev KaT€orKd(f>rj, ev ^repw Be tlvl ')((opl(p 
(j)povpd KaTe\€i(f)Orj' ^ 6 yap Uerpcovto^; fi'^re 
TrepatrepcoX Bed re rrjv ci/jl/jlov kal Bid to Kavpa 
TTpoeXOelv firjre Kara ^(^(opav jxerd iravTO^ rod 
arparov fietvai Ka\(o<; BvvriOeU dve)(^(opr]ae, to 

6 TrXelov avTOv e7ray6/jievo<;. Kav tovtco twz^ Kl- 
Olottodv Tot9 <f>povpot<; eirtOe/Jiivayv avOl^i t€ eV 
avTov<; eaTpaTevae, koX tov<; cr(f)eT6pov<i eppvcraTO, 
Kol Tr)v K.avBdKr]v avfjifirjvai ol rjvdyKacrev* 

6 'Ei^ c5 Se TavTa eyiyveTO, 6 Avyov(TTO<; €9 
^ifceXiav rj\9ev, 07rft>9 koI e/ceivrjv koI ToXXa Ta 
fiexpt' '^V^ 'liVpia^ KaTa(TT7](Tr)Tai. koX avTov 
evTavOa er' 6vto<; 6 B7]/jlo<; tmv 'Pcofjiaicov toi'9 
virdTov^ 'X^eipOTOVMv eaTaaiaaev, wcrre koI ck 
tovtov BiaBet'xOrjvaL otl dBvvaTov rjv BrjfioKpaTov- 

2 /iievov<; (7<^d<i awOrivat,. pLLKpov yovv tlvo<; ev Te 
Tal<i dp')(aipe<jiaL^ koI ev Tat9 dpyal'^ avTol^) 
KvpievovTe^ eOopvPrjaav. eTrjpelTO^ fxev yap rj 
eTepa %ft)pa tco A.vy ovcttw, kol Bed tovto M.dpK0<i 
AoXXf09 fcaT dp')^d<; tov 6tou9 /jlovo^ rjp^ev eKei- 
vov Be ^ fir) Be^afjievov avTrjv KvivTo^i Te AeiriBo^ 
Kal AovKio<^ %iXovavo^ eo-TrovBap^Laaav, Kal 
ovTco ye irdvTa avveTdpa^av cocTTe /cal tov Aijyov- 

3 (TTOv VTTO T(ov ifx^povwv dvaKXrjdrjvai. eTreiBr) Be 

1 re supplied by Rk. ^ NairdT7]v Dind., raudinjvYM Xiph. 
' $aalX€iov a.vr5i>v HXa^ev Xiph., BaarlXeiov airfXafiev VM. 
* KaTf\€i<pe'n Xiph., KaTe\-i]<pev "VM. ^ Se M, Se 5^ V. 



he arrived, hoping to make good their escape. But b.c. m 
being overtaken on the road, they were defeated and 
thus drew him after them into their own country. 
There, too, he fought successfully with them, and 
took Napata, their capital, among other cities. This 
place was razed to the ground, and a garrison left at 
another point ; for Petronius, finding himself unable 
either to advance farther, on account of the sand and 
the heat, or advantageously to remain where he was 
with his entire army, withdrew, taking the greater 
part of it with him. Thereupon the Ethiopians at- 
tacked the garrisons, but he again proceeded against 
them, rescued his own men, and compelled Candace 
to make terms with him. 

While this was going on, Augustus went to Sicily in 
order to settle affairs in that island and elsewhere as 
far as Syria. While he was still there, the Roman popu- 
lace fell to quarrelling over the election of the consuls. 
This incident showed clearly that it was impossible for 
a democratic government to be maintained among 
them ; at any rate, although they had but little 
authority either in the matter of the elections or of the 
offices themselves, they fell to rioting. One of the 
consulships, it seems, was being kept for Augustus, 
and accordingly at the beginning of the year Marcus b.c. 21 
Lollius alone entered upon office ; but when the em- 
peror would not accept the position, Quintus Lepidus 
and Lucius Silvanus became rival candidates and threw 
everything into such turmoil that Augustus was sum- 
moned home by those who retained their senses. He 



ot'% vTrearpe^jre jiiv, i\66vTa<; Be avrov^ irpo^i 
avTOV aTreiTefi-^ev iircTL/jb^aaf; acpicn koI K6\€vaa<; 
d/jb(f>OT€pa)v avTCOV clttovtcov rrjv 'y^rjc^ov BoOrjvaL, 
ovBev fiaWov rjav^aaav, aXka koI ttclvv ai)dL<; 
Si7jV€)(07jaav, M(TT€ Tov AimSov oyjre irore alpe- 

4 Orjvai. ayavaKTYjaa^ ovv iirl tovtw o Avyov(TTO<;, 
Koi fJLrjTe fJiovrj rfj 'Fm/jltj a'X^oXd^eiv Bvud/xevo^ fxi^r 
av dvapxov avrrjv KaraXnretv toX/jlcjv, i^rjreL 
TLva avrfj eTnarrjaai, koX eKpive jjbev tov 'Ayplir- 

5 irav eTnrrjBecoTaTOV e? tovto elvai, ^ovXrjOel^i Be 
Br} Kal d^LWfjba avrw [xel^ov TrepiOelvat, 'iva kol Ik 
TOVTOV paov avTMP dp^rj, fjLereTrifi'yjraTO avrov, 
KOL Karavay/cdcra^ rrjv yvvacKa, KaiTrep dBeX^iBrjv 
avTOv ovaaVt diraXXd^avra t^ ^lovXta avvoiKpj- 
aai, 69 Tr)V 'Vco/jltjv 'Trapa')(prjfxa kol eVl rw ydfio) 
KoX eirl rfj tt)? 7roA,e&)9 Btaxeipiaei eTre/iyjre, Bid re 
rdXXa /cal on 6 MaLKTjvas av/jL^ovXevo/jbevo) cJjHl 
irepl avTcov rovrcov elirelv Xeyerat, on " rrjXir^ 
KOVTov avTOV 7re7roi7]Ka<; mctt rj ya/x^pov aov 

6 yeveoQai rj (povevOijvaL' Kal 09 rd fiev dXXa 
olBovvra en evpcov KareaTTJaaro, rd re lepd rd ■, 
AlyvTTTia eireaLovra av6t<i 69 to darv avearecXev, 
direnrcbv /xrjBeva firjBe ev ru) irpoaareUo avrd €vro<^ | 
078001; rj/nLcrraBiOV iroielv rapa^rj^; Be nvo^ irepl ,] 
rr]V ^ rod 7roXidp')(ov rod Bid Ta9 dvo^df; alpov- ;j 
fievov '^eiporoviav (rv/ji^d(T7j<; ov/c eTre/cpdrrjaev 4 
avri]^, dXXd dvev rrj<; dp)(rj<^ ravryf; rov eviavrov 1 
eKelvov Bteyevovro. 

^ T^v supplied by R. Steph. 


would not return^ however, and when the two b.c. 21 
candidates themselves came to him, he rebuked them 
and sent them away, giving orders that the vote 
should be taken during the absence of them both ; 
thereupon the people were no more quiet than 
before, but fell into great strife again, until at last 
Lepidiis was chosen. Augustus was displeased at the 
incident, for he could not devote all his time to Rome i 
alone and did not dare to leave the city in a state of | 
anarchy ; accordingly, he sought for some one to set 
over it, and judged Agrippa to be most suitable for 
the purpose. And as he wished to invest him 
with a dignity above the ordinary, in order that he 
might govern the people more easily, he summoned 
him, compelled him to divorce his wife, although she 
was the emperor's own niece, and to marry Julia ; 
and he sent him to Rome at once to attend both to 
the wedding and to the administration of the city. 
This step is said to have been taken partly on the 
advice of Maecenas, who in counselling him upon 
these very matters said : " You have made him so 
great that he must either become your son-in-law or 
be slain." Agrippa, then, checked whatever other 
y ailments he found still festering, and curtailed the 
Egyptian rites which were again invading the city, 
^forbidding anyone to perform them even in the 
' suburbs within one mile of the city.^ And when a 
■ disturbance arose over the election of the prefect of 
the city, the official chosen on account of the Feriae,^ 
he did not succeed in quelling it, but they went 
through that year without this official. 

1 Cf. note on H. 19, 6. 

"^ The prefect of the city was appointed to have charge of 
the city during the absence of the two consuls in attendance 
upon the celebration at the Alban Mount. 



7 Kal 6 fiev ravT eTrparrev, 6 he Avyovaro^ rd 
T€ aWa ra iv rfj ^c/ceXla SioiKi]aa<i, koI Ta<; 
^vpaKovaa^^ 6repa<; re Tiva<; TroXet?^ diroiKOV'; 
'VcofjLaicov aTToSetl'a? e? ttjv *EWdBa irrepamdrj. 

2 KoX AaKeSat/jLoviovi; jiev rot? re K.vOijpoi'^ /cal rfj 
avcraiTia iripbrjaev, on rj Aiovia, ore ck tt)? 
'IraXta? avv re rS) dvSpl Kal avv ra> vlel ecfivyev, 
€/c€L BLerpLyjrev' ^AOrjvaicov Be ttjv re Ai<^ivav Kal 
TTJV ^Kperpiav {eKapirovvTO yap avrd^), w? nvh 
(f)acnv, d<j)ei\eTo, on rov ^Avrcovwv icTTrovBaaav, 
Kal irpoaen Kal dirrjyopevae a<^i(TL firjSeva ttoXlttjv 

3 dpyvpLov TToielaOai. Kal avTol<^ 69 ravra eSo^e^ 
TO Tft) tt)? 'AOr]vd<; dydXfxan avfi/Sav diroaKrjyjrarl 
iv yap rfj aKpowoXei Trpb^; ^ dvaroXwv ISpv/jbevov 
7r/309 re ra? Sfcr/xa? jjuerear pdcj^rj Kal al/na dire- 

4 irrvaev. 6 h^ ovv * Avyovaro^ to re 'EWtjvlkov 
Bcijyaye Kal e? Xd/iov eifkevaev, ivravOd re e^ei- 
fiaae, Kal e? rrjv ^ Act Lav ev ra> rjpt iv m MdpK0<i 
re 'ATTOf A-e^o? ^ Kal Tlov7fXio<; lEtXto? vrrdrevaav 
KOfxiaOel^ rrdvra rd re eKel Kal ra ev rfj ^tdwia 

6 hiera^ev, oup^ on rov hrjfiov Kal ravra ra eOvrj 
Kal ra tt pore pa ihoKei elvai iv okiyaypia avra 
TTOLrjo-dfievo^;, dWa Kal irdvv irdvrcov a^cov &)? 
Kal eavrov ovrcov i7n/iie\r]6ei<i' rd re yap dWa 
oaarrep Kal TrpoarjKOV rjv iTrrjvcopOcoae, Kal XPV' 
fiara Tot? jiiev irreScoKe rots Be Kal vrrep rov (f)6pov/ 

6 iaeveyKelv Trpoaera^e. rov<; re Kv^tK7jvov<;, on, 
'V(opaLov<; nvd^ iv ardaei jiacrnydiaavre^i drve^.^ 
Kreivav, eBov\d)aaro. Kal rovro Kal rov<i Tvplovf; 

^ 'XvpaKovtras R. Steph., orvpaKovacras VM. 

2 7roA€tf M, om. V. ^ trphs Reim., rfj nphs VM. 

^ b' ovv Pflugk, yovv VM, ^ 'AirovXeios Bs., anouKios VM. 



While Agrippa was thus occupied, Augustus, after b.c. 21 
arranging various matters in Sicily and making 
Roman colonies of Syracuse and certain other 
cities, crossed over into Greece. He honoured the 
Lacedaemonians by giving them Cythera and at- 
tending their public mess, because Livia, when she 
fled from Italy with her husband and son,i had spent 
some time there. But from the Athenians he took 
away Aegina and Eretria, from which they received 
tribute, because, as some say, they had espoused the 
cause of Antony ; and he furthermore forbade them 
to make anyone a citizen for money. And it seemed 
to them that the thing which had happened to the 
statue of Athena was responsible for this misfortune ; 
for this statue on the Acropolis, which was placed 
to face the east, had turned around to the west and 
spat blood. Augustus, now, after transacting what 
business he had in Greece, sailed to Samos, where 
he passed the winter ; and in the spring of the year b.c. 20 
when Marcus Apuleius and Publius Silius were 
consuls, he went on into Asia, and settled everything 
there and in Bithynia. For although these provinces 
as well as those previously mentioned were regarded 
as belonging to the people, he did not for that 
reason neglect them, but gave most careful attention 
to them all, as if they were his own. Thus he 
instituted various refoiTns, so far as seemed desirable, 
and made donations of money to some, at the same 
time commanding others to contribute an amount 
in excess of the tribute. He reduced the people of 
Cyzicus to slavery because during a factious quarrel 
they had flogged and put to death some Romans. 
And when he reached Syria, he took the same action 

» Cf. xlviii. 15. 




8 Kai^ TOVTW 6 ^padrr]<; (^o^7]6e\<^ /jLT] real eTn- 
orTparevarj ol, on jir^heira) tcjv avyKeifxevoov 
eTreiTOLT^Ket tl, rd re aij/iieia avrw ^ Kal tou? 
alxi^ciKcaTOV^, ttXtjv oXiycov ot vir ala')(^uvr]<; a^d<i 
e^dupav f) Kal Kara '^oopav XaOovje^ epLeivav, 

2 diriTre/jLylre. koX avTOv<; eKelvo^ to? Kal iroXejiw 
TLvl Tov Tldpdov veviKijKO)^ eXajSe' Kal yap iirl 
T0VT0fc9* i(j>p6v€t /Jiiya, Xiycov on rd irporepov 
IT ore iv Tat<; fid'X^aL^ diroXo/jLeva aKovin €K€k6- 

3 fiiaro. dfjbeXei Kal Ovaia^ eV avT0L<; Kal vecov 
I "A/?6ft)9 Tt/jLOJpov iv T& KairiTcoXiM, Kara ro rov 

Afco? rov ^eperpiov ^^jXa/xa, tt/do? rrjv rcov 
(TT] fjbeiwv dvddeaLV Kal '\jrr)(j)iaOr]vaL iKeXevae Kal 
iTTOirjae, Kal irpoaen Kal iirl KeXrjro^i e? rrjv 
itoXlv iarfkaae Kal d-^lhi rporraio^opcp in/jiijdrj. 

4 ravra puev eV iKelvoL^ varepov iirpd'x^dr]' fore he 
avr6<; re ir poardrr]<; rcjv rrepl rrjv 'Pco/jLtjv oSmv 
alpeOel^; Kal ro ')(pvaovv jxIXlov KeKXrj/xevov 
earrjore, Kal oBoiroiov'; avral^ iK rwv iarparrjyrj- 
Korwv, pa^Bouxoi^^ Bvo XP^I^^'^^^'^* irpoaera^e. 

5 Kal 7} ^lovXia rov Tdiov ovop^aaOivra ereKe, ffov- 
Ovala re n^ rot? yeveOXioi^; avrov dihio^ iBoOr)' 
Kal rovro /juev iK ylrrjcjiiaparo^, warrep ttoo Kal 

^ T^ M, om. V. 

2 yev6ijL€vos — rhy tov Kvpi (chap. 19, 4) omitted in V, whose 
archetype L had lost five folios at this point. 
^ avT^ Xiph., avTwv M. 
* eTrl TovTois supplied by Reim. from Xiph. 

^ That is, he celebrated an ovatio. "^ Curator viarum. 

^ The milliarium aureum stood at the north end of the 
Forum near the Temple of Saturn, marking the point where 



in the case of the people of Tyre and Sidon on 
account of their factious quarrelling. 

Meanwhile Phraates, fearing that Augustus would 
lead an expedition against him because he had not 
yet performed any of his engagements, sent back to 
him the standards and all the captives, with the 
exception of a few who in shame had destroyed 
themselves or, eluding detection, remained in the 
country. Augustus received them as if he had 
conquered the Parthian in a war ; for he took great 
pride in the achievement, declaring that he had 
recovered without a struggle what had formerly been 
lost in battle. Indeed, in honour of this success he 
commanded that sacrifices be decreed and likewise a 
temple to Mars Ultor on the Capitol, in imitation of 
that of Jupiter Feretrius, in which to dedicate the 
standards ; and he himself carried out both decrees. 
Moreover he rode into the city on horseback ^ and 
was honoured with a triumphal arch. Now all this 
was done later in commemoration of the event ; but 
at the time of which we are speaking he was chosen 
commissioner of all the highways in the neigh- 
bourhood of llome,'^ and in this capacity set up the 
golden mile-stone,^ as it was called, and appointed 
men from the number of the ex-praetors, each with 
two lictors, to attend to the actual construction of 
the roads. And Julia gave birth to a boy, who 
received the name Gains ; and a permanent annual 
sacrifice on his birthday was granted. Now this, like 
all the other acts mentioned, was done in pursuance 

all the great roads met. It was a column covered with gilt 
bronze, and was engraved with the names of the more 
important cities of the empire with their distances from 
Rome. Distances were actuall3^ measured, however, from 
the city gates. 



raXka, iyevero' Ihia he Brj ol ayopavofjuoi linro- 
Bpo/jLiav re iv toI<; rou Avyovarov yeve6\iOL<; kol 
OrjpLcov cr(j)a'ya<; iiroirjorav. 
9 'E^ fiev ovv rfi iroXei, ravr iirpdrrero, 6 Be 
Avyovarof; to fiev vttijkoov Kara ra tmv ^VcofxaioiV 
€07] Bi(p/cei, TO Be evdTTovBov tw iraTp^Kp acfyiai 
TpoTTO) eta ^ dp^eaOar ovS' rj^iwaev ovTe eKelvw ^ 
Tt TTpoaOeaOai ovTe eTepov tc irpoaKTrjaaaOai, 
a}OC cLKpLpoyf; dpKeladaL tol<; virdp^ovcnv eBi- 

2 Kaiov, Kol tovto koX Tfj povXfj eireaTeikev. wo-re 
ttoTU/jLOV fxev ovBev Tore y i^^yjraTo, BvvaaT€ia<; 
Be Bt) ^la/i/SXL'X^a) re tw 'Ia/x^Xt%ou ttjv tcov 
*Apa^lcov TTjv iraTpcpav fcal TapKovBi/jLOTO) tw 
TapKovBi/uLOTOu Tr)v T^9 KtXi/cta?, ^i^ o TraTrjp av- 
Tov ecr^e, ttXtjv irapaOakaacnBLayv tlvmv eBcoKcv 
€K€Lva yap t& * Kp'XjeXdw fiCTa tt)? apuKpoTepa^ 
*ApfjL€VLa^ exccpi'O'ctTO, otl 6 M.riBo<; o Trplv avTT]<; 

3 ^acTiXevcov eTeOvrjKeL. tm tc 'HpcoBTj ZrjvoBoopov 
TiVo<i TeTpap'xJiciv, koX M.tdpiBdTrj tlvI ttjv Koyu,- 
fJLayrjvrjV, eTreiBt] tov iraTepa avTov 6 ^aaLkev^; 
avT7]<; aTre/cTovet, KacTOi, iraiBio-Kw ct ovtl eVe- 

4 Tpe-yjre. tmv re ^Ap/juevLwv TOiv eTepcov tov re 
ApTd^ov ^ KaTTjyoprjadvTcov Koi tov Tiypdvrjv 

TOV dBeXcfyov avTOv iv tjj 'Pco/juy ovTa fieTaiTe/jLyjra- 
fievcov, ecTTeiXe^ tov Ti^epiov, ottco^; tov jxev 
eKJSdXrj tt)? ^acnXeia<;, tov Be e? av-^^v diroKaTa- 

5 (JTrjarj, kol iirpd')(6'r] /lev ovBev t^9 irapaaKevrj^; 
avTOV d^iov ol yap ^ApfxevLOL tov ^ApTd^rjv 
irpoaireKTeLvav' 6 K ovv TL^epto^, aWw? re /ca\ 

1 eTo Leuncl., dei M. ^ cK€iv(f Bk., eKeivuv M. 

' 'ApTo|ou St., aprdCov M (and similarly just below). 
■* ?(rTetA€ Bk., fifTeffrdXf M. 



of a decree ; on their own initiative^ however^ the b.o. 20 
aediles gave games in the Circus and a slaughter of 
wild beasts on Augustus' birthday. 

This is what was going on in the city. Augustus 
administered the subject territory according to the 
customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied na- 
tions to be governed in their own traditional manner ; 
and he did not regard it as desirable either to make 
any additions to the former or to extend the latter 
by any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satis- 
fied with precisely what they already possessed, and 
he communicated this opinion to the senate. There- 
fore he undertook no war, at any rate for the time 
being, but actually gave away certain principalities 
— to lamblichus, the son of lamblichus, his ancestral 
dominion over the Arabians, and to Tarcondimotus, 
the son of Tarcondimotus, the kingdom of Cilicia, 
which his father had held, except for a few places 
on the coast. These latter together with Lesser 
Aniienia he granted to Archelaus, because the Mede, 
who previously had ruled them, was dead. To 
Herod he entrusted the tetrarchy of a certain 
Zenodorus, and to one Mithridates, though still a 
mere boy, he gave Commagene, inasmuch as its king 
had put the boy's father to death. And since the other 
Armenians had preferred charges against Artaxes 
and had summoned his brother Tigranes, who was in 
Rome, the emperor sent Tiberius to drive Artaxes 
out of the kingdom and to reinstate Tigranes. And 
although nothing was accomplished by Tiberius 
commensurate with his preparations, since before his 
arrival the Armenians slew Artaxes, yet he assumed 
a lofty bearing, especially after sacrifices had been 




iTreiBr) Ovaiai cttI tovtco i'yjrr](j)Lcr6rjaav, €ct€/jlvv- 

6 V€TO ft)? Kal Kar aperrjv tl 7roLijaa<;. koI rjhr] ye 
Kol irepl tt)? /jLovap)(^La<; evevoei, eTrecBr) TTyoo? rov^; 
*^L\i7r7rov<i avTOV^ 7rpoae\avvovTo<; 06pv/36<; re 
Ti9 e'/c Tov T?}? /^a^?;? ')(^(opLov &)9 fcal i/c arparo- 
TriSov riKovaOr), /cal irvp 6K tmv /Scoficiv T(ov{V7ro 
TOV ^AvTcovLov €v Tw T a<^ p€v fxaT I IBpvOivrcov avTo- 

7 fiarov aveXafi-y^e. Ti^epco<; /sev Br) i/c tovtcov 
iyavpovTO, 6 Be Kvyovcrro^ €9 re rrjv Sdp,ov 
eiravrjKOe KavravOa avOi,<; i)(^eifxaae, Kal eKeivoi<^ 
re iXevOeptav jjugOov rrj^; BiaTpLJBrj'^ dvreBcoKe, 

8 Kal aX\a ovk oXiya irpoaBLcpKi^ae. TrdfiTroWaL 
yap Br) TTpea/Secai 7rpo9 avrbv d^iKovro, Kal ol 
^\vBol TrpoKijpvKevad/jievot irporepov cj^iXlav rore 
eGTTeicTavTo, Bcopa irifi'^avTe^; dWa re Kal Tiypei<;, 
irpcoTOv Tore toI<; 'Vco/jLaiOi<;, vofii^cd B on Kal 
rol<i "EWijaiv, o<^9eiaa<;. Kai tl Kal pbeipdKiov 
ol dvev wjJLWV, OLOv<^ Tot'9 Fjpfid<; opcofMev, eBcoKav. 

9 Kal fxevTOi tolovtov ov eKelvo €9 TrdvTa toI<^ iroaiv 
are Kal ')(€palv exp^TO, to^ov re avTol^ eireTeive 
Kal /SeXrj TQ(pLec Kal eadX-nL^ev, ovk olB' oirw^' 

10 ypd(f)(o yap to, Xeyo/ieva. et9 5' ovv tcov ^IvBmv 
Zdp/jLapo<;, eiTe Brj tov tcov aocjiiaTCov yevov^ cov, 


yrjpcd^ KaTCL tov rrrdTpiov vo/nov, etre Kal 69 eVt- 
Bei^LV TOV re AvyovaTOv Kal tcov *A6r}vaLcov (Kal 
yap eKelae rjXOev) diroOavelv e6e\rjaa<; i/jLV7]6rj re 
Ta Tolv Oeolv, tcov /jLvaTrjpicov Kaiirep ovk ev tw 

^ avTov Dind., avroii M. 


voted to commemorate what he had done, as though b. 
he had accomplished something by valour. And his 
thoughts were ah-eady on the monarchy, inasmuch as, 
when he was approaching Phihppi, a tumult was 
heard coming from the field of the battle, as if from 
an army, and fire blazed up spontaneously from the 
altars which Antony had built in the fortified camp. 
Tiberius, accordingly, was feeling elated over these 
occurrences. But Augustus, for his part, returned to 
Samos and once more passed the winter there. In 
recognition of his stay he gave the islanders their 
freedom, and he also attended to many matters of 
business. For a great many embassies came to him, 
and the people of India, who had already made over- 
tures, now made a treaty of friendship, sending among 
other gifts tigers, which were then for the first time 
seen by the Romans, as also, I think, by the Greeks. 
They also gave him a boy who had no shoulders or 
arms, like our statues of Hermes. And yet, defective 
as he was, he could use his feet for everything, as it 
they were hands : with them he would stretch a bow, 
shoot missiles, and put a trumpet to his lips. How 
he did this I do not know ; 1 merely state what is 
recorded. One of the Indians, Zarmarus, for some 
reason wished to die, — either because, being of the 
caste of sages, he was on this account moved by 
ambition, or, in accordance with the traditional 
custom of the Indians, because of old age, or be- 
cause he wished to make a display for the benefit 
of Augustus and the Athenians (for Augustus had 
reached Athens) ; — he was therefore initiated into 
the mysteries of the two goddesses,^ which were held 

^ Demeter and Kore. 


KaOrjKovri Kaipw, w? ^acri, Blcl tov Avyovarov 
Kol avTov^ fi6fjLV7}/jL€vov yevofievcov,^ /cat nrvpl 
eavTov ^(ovra i^iScofcev. 
10 'TTrdreve /lev St) iv tw erec 6K€iv(p^ Tdio^ 
Sei^Tfo?" eTrel Se kol tov crwdp^ovra avrw irpoa- 
aTroSec^Orjvat eSec (o "yap Avyovaro<; ovSe rore 
TrjpTjOelcrdv ol ttjv dp')(r)v iSi^aro), ardcTL^ re 
av6i<; iv rfj 'Vdyp^rj avv7]V6')(dri kol cr(j)ayal avvi- 
^rjaav. Mare tol/? ^ov\€VTa<; ^povpav rw ^evTLO) ^ 

2 '^'qjiiaaaOaL. eireLhr) re ^ /x^ ^ i^OeXrjaev avrfj XPV~ 
aaaOat, irpea^eL'^ 7rpo<; tov AvjovaTOv, pLCTa Bvo 
pa^Sov'x^cov eKacFTov, eTrejJb'^av. jxaOcov ovv tuvt 
eKelvo^, Kol (tvvlBodv otl ovSev irepcL^ tov KaKov 
'yevr^aoiTOy ovkst avTOL<i ofiolax; coairep Kal irplv 
'7rpoar}ve)(^dr}, dX)C (etc t€ tmv rrpea^evTOiV avTcov/ 

KvLVTOV KoVKprjTLOV, KaiTTep iv rot? ilTLKl^pV- 

'XOelaiv dvaypa(j)evTa, viraTov diriSei^e, koI avTO<i^ 

3 €9 TT)V 'I*co/jLr]v r)ireL')(67]. kol avTW iirl t€ tovtol'^ 
Kal eVl Tol<; dXKoi<i tol^ iv Tjj aTroSrjpia 'TTpa)(6el(jL 
iToXkd Kal iravTola i^jrycjiLaOr]' a)v ovSev irpoarj- 
KaTO, irXrjv Tv^J} Te ^KTravaycoyw (ovto) ydp 7rw<=; 
avTTjV iKaXeaav) ^(Ofiov IhpvOrjvai, Kal ttjv rj/xepav 
7]v dcpL^ocTO ev T€ Tah i€pofir]VLat<i dpiOfieladai 

4 Kal AvyouaTdXia ovo/id^eaOat. iirel Be Kal o)? at 
T6 dp^al Kal ol dWoi irpoairavTrjaai ol irpo- 
irapeaKevdaavTO, vvKTcop e? Trjv iroXiv iacKO- 
pbLcrOr], Kal ttj vaTepala tw Te Tt/SepLO) Ta9 rcov 
ia-TpaTTjyrjKOTfov Tt^aa? eScoKe, Kal tw Apovao) 
irevTe eTecru Oacraov irapa to, vopLL^ofieva tcl^ 

^ avrhv supplied by Rk. ^ yfvofifvwv Rk., yeu6/j.epov M. 

^ iK(iv(f} Reim., iu S>i M. "* ^(vTicp R. Steph., yevTiui M 
^ re supplied by Bs. ' fii] Dind., ^i^t€ M. 



out of season on account, they say, of Augustus, who b.c. 20 
also was an initiate, and he then threw himself alive 
into the fire. 

The consul that year was Gaius Sentius ; and when b.c. 19 
it became necessary for a colleague to be elected (for 
Augustus on this occasion, also, did not accept the 
position after it had been kept open for him), factious, 
quarrelling again took place and murders occurred,! ■?, 
so that the senators voted a guard for Sentius ; and I 
when he was unwilling to use it, they sent envoys tof 
Augustus, each with two lictors. Now when the 
emperor learned of these things, realizing that there ^, "] 

would be no end to the evil, he did not this time - P'^ 
deal with the matter as he had before, but appointed 
one of the envoys themselves, Quintus Lucretius, to 
the consulship, though this man's name had been 
posted in the list of the proscribed ; and he hastened 
to Rome himself For this and the other things he ' 
had done while absent from the city many honours 
of all sorts were voted him, none of which he would 
accept, save the founding of an altar to Fortuna 
Redux (for this was the name they gave to her), and 
the provision that the day on which he arrived 
should be numbered among the holidays and be 
called Augustalia. Since even then the magistrates 
and the rest made preparations beforehand to go 
out to meet him, he entered the city by night ; and 
on the following day he gave Tiberius the rank of an 
ex-praetor and allowed Drusus to stand for the 
various offices five years earlier than was the practice. 



5 apx^^ alrrjaai eireTpe-^ev. eireihr} re firjSev wfio- 
\6y€L oaa re clttovto^; avrov (TTaaLd^ovTe<^ fcal 
oaa 7rap6vTO<i cJ)o^ov/jl€VOL eirpacraov, eVfyLteXi^TTJ? 
T€ rcov rpoTTCov 69 Trevre err] ^ irapaxXTjOelf; Sr) 
i^eipoTOvrjOr), koX rrjv i^ovaiav rrjv [lev rcov ti/jLT]- 
rayp €9 rov avrov ')(^p6vov rvjv he rcov vrrdrcov Bca 
piov eXa^ev, ware koI rat? ScoBeKa pd^Soc^} del 
Koi iravraxov 'X^prjadai, koX ev [xeaa> rcov del ^ 
v7rarev6vro)v eVl rou dp^i'i^o^ hi^pov KaOi^ecrOai. 

6 '>^r]^LadpLevoL he ravra hiopOovv re irdvra avrov ^ 
Kal vo/jLoOerelv oaa ^ovKotro rj^iovv, Kal rov<i re 
vofiov^i Tou? >ypa(f)r]ao/jLevov<; vtt avrov Avyov- 
o-TOf? e/celdev i'jhrj irpoayyopevov, Kal ifi/Jbevetv^ 
<T(f)Lai,v ofioaaL^ r}6e\ov. 6 he rd fiev dWa co?^ 
Kal dvayKala ehe^aro, tou9 h' opKov^ dcfyr/Kev 

7 avroL<;' Kal yap ev yhet on, el jxev diro yvd)p,r](; ri 
ylrrjcpuaaivro, rr]pr]aov(Ttv ^ avro Kav fit] opioawaiv,^ 
el he /JL7], ovhev avrov, Kciv fjLvpia<^ Triarec^ errayd- 
ywaL, Trpori/jLija-Qvatv.^ 

11 Avyovaro^; fxev hr) ravr eiroieL, Kai ri^i rcov 
dyopavofMcov eOeXovrr]'^ vtto irevia<^ direlrre rrjv 
dpXV^' 'A7pt7r7ra9 he 0)9 rore 69 rrjv 'Fco/iiyv eK 
rr}<i ^LKe\ia^ Tre/jLCpOeh hiwKyae rd Kareireiyovra, 
2 Tat9 TaXariat^ irpoaerdx^V' ^^ '^^ J^P dXX7]XoL(; 
earaaia^ov Kal viro rcov KeXrcov eKaicovvro. 
Karacrr7]CTa<; he Kal eKzlva eV ^l^ripiav fierearr]- 
ol yap KdvrafipoL 01 ^copyrjOevre^; re ev ra> iro- 

^ ^TTj supplied by Xyl. (cf. Zon : ds irfPTaerlav). 
2 acl Bk., aU\ M. ^ avrhv Rk., auro M. 

* (jxfievdv Dind., eju-fifveiv M. 

^ ofiSa-ai Xyl., o/moa-e M. ^ d)$ Bk., is are M. 

^ r7]pi]<Tov(Tiv Reim., Ti]pov(riv M. 
^ ofj.6(Tw(nv Rk., dfioAoyrjffoxni' M. 
® irpoTi[Jii\<Tovcnv Rk. , irpo^eviffcoaiv M. 


And inasmuch as there was no similarity between the b.c 
conduct of the peo[)le during his absence, when they 
quarrelled, and while he was present, when they 
were afraid, he accepted an election, on their in- 
vitation, to the position of supervisor of morals ^ for 
five years, and took the authority of censor for the 
same period and that of consul for life, and in 
consequence had the right to use the twelve rods 
always and everywhere and to sit in the curule 
chair between the two men who were at the time 
consuls. After voting these measures they begged 
him to set everything to rights and to enact what- 
ever laws he liked ; and the laws which should be 
proposed by him they called " leges Augustae " from 
that very moment, and desired to take an oath that 
they would abide by them. He accepted all the 
other measures, believing them to be necessary, but 
did not require the oaths from them ; for he well 
knew that, if any measure they decreed should 
represent their judgment, they would observe it 
even without taking an oath, but if it should not, 
they would pay no heed to it, even if they should 
offer ten thousand guarantees. 

Augustus, then, was engaged with these matters ; 
and one of the aediles voluntarily resigned his office 
by reason of poverty. As for Agrippa, as soon as he 
had settled whatever business was urgent in Rome, 
whither he had been sent from Sicily on the occasion 
mentioned,^ he was then assigned to the provinces 
of Gaul ; for the people there not only were quarrel- 
ling among themselves, but also were being harassed 
by the Germans. After putting a stop to those 
troubles, too, he went over to Spain. It seems that 
the Cantabri who had been captured alive in the war 

^ Praefectus moribus. ^ See chap 6, 5. 


CKaaroL aTrefcreivav, koX irpo<; rrjv olKeiav iirav- 
eXOovref; ttoXXov? crvvaTrearrjaav, fcal /ler avrcov 
^(^wpia KaraXafiovre^ koI evTecx^iadfievot tol^ tcov 

3 'Pco/jLaicov (l>povpoL<; eire^ovXevov. iir ovv rovTov<i 
6 ^AypL7T7ra<; i'm(TTpar6vaa<; ea^e fiev ri kol irpo^ 
Tou? aTpaTicl)Ta<; epyov irpea^vrepoi yap ovk 
ciXiyoL avTOiv 6vre<; koX rfj avve'^eia rwv TroXijucov 
T6Tpi'%a)/xei^0fc, T0U9 re KavTdfipov<i a)9 Kal Bvajro- 

4 Xe/jLijrovi SeSiore?, ovk eireiOovTo avrSi. aXX! 
e/cetVou? pev, ra puev vovderrjaa^ ra Be irapap^vOr)- 
(Tdp,€vo<i ra Be Kal eVeXTrtVa?/ Bca rayecov ireiO- 
ap')(r}(TaL eiroirjae, tt/jo? Be Brj TOi/? Kavrd^pov^: 
TToXXa irpooreTrraiaev' Kal yap ep^ireipia irpayp^d- 
Tcou, are tol<; 'Vcop,aioi(; BeBovXevKOTe^;, Kal diro- 
yvdxrei, rov p,r) av €tl ccoOrjvai dXovTe^ e^cbvro. 

5 reXo? Be irore av^vov^ fiev diro^aXwv rcov arpa- 
TiwrSiv, (TV')(yov^ Be Kal drip.(oa-a<; on rjrrMVTO (rd 
T€ yap aXXa Kal arparoTreBov oXov Avyovarov 
eTTcovopaap^evov eKcoXvaev ovtco<; en KaXeiaOac), 
Tou? re ev rfj rjXiKLa iroXep^Lov^; Trdvra^ oXiyov 
Bie^OeLpe Kal rou? \oL7rov<^ rd re oirXa d^elXeTO 

6 Kal 6? ra ireBia eK rcov epvp,VMV Kare^i^acev. ov 
p,r)v cure eireaTetXe rt rfj fiovXfj irepl avrcop, ovre 
TCL eiriviKLa KairoL eK rrj^ rov AvyovcTTOV irpoa- 
Tafe&)? '\jrr)(j)t.aOepra irpoarjKaTO, dXX* ev re tov- 
roL<i ep,erpia^ev coairep elcoOei, Kal yvcop^rjv irore 

(vTTO rov virdrov \i)7rlp rov dBeXcjiov avrov lepcorr)- 

^ iireKvla-as Bs. , hireXTriffas M. 



and sold, had killed their masters in every case, and b.c. 19 
returning home, had induced many to join in their 
rebellion ; and with the aid of these they had seized 
some positions, walled them in, and were plotting 
against the Roman garrisons. It was against these 
people, then, that Agrippa led an expedition. But 
he had some trouble also with his soldiers ; for not a 
few of them were too old and were exhausted by the 
continual wars ; and fearing the Cantabri as men 
hard to subdue, they would not obey him. Never- 
theless, partly by admonishing and exhorting them, 
and partly by inspiring them with hopes, he soon 
made them yield obedience. In fighting against 
the Cantabri, however, he met with many reverses ; 
for they not only had gained practical experience, as 
a result of having been slaves to the Romans, but 
also despaired of having their lives granted to them 
again if they were taken captive. But finally Agrippa 
was successful ; after losing many of his soldiers, 
and degrading many others because they kept being 
defeated (for example, he gave orders that the 
entire Augustan legion, as it had been called, should 
no longer bear that name), he at length destroyed 
nearly all of the enemy who were of military age, 
deprived the rest of their arms, and forced them to 
come down from their fortresses and live in the 
plains. Yet he sent no communication concerning 
them to the senate, and did not accept a triumph, 
although one was voted at the behest of Augustus, 
but showed moderation in these matters as was his 
wont ; and once, when asked by the consul for his 
opinion about his brother,^ he would not give it. At 

^ Nothing of this sort is recorded elsewhere. The passage 
may be corrupt ; it has been proposed to read irph for uircp, 
" ahead of the consul's brother," i.e. out of his turn. 



7 OeU ovK eBcoKe. to re vBcop to TiapOeviov Kokov- 
fievov rot<; lSloi<; reXeo-iv iaayayoov Avyovorrov 
TTpocrrjyopevcre. Kal ovrco ye eKelvo<; eV avT(p 
e;^at/?ei^ Mare airdveax; ^ irore otvov yevo/Jb€vr]<;, 
fcal TMV avdpdoTTcov Betva Sia^ocovTcov, ifcavcorara 
e(f)rj TOP ^AypiTTirav irpovevor^Kevai (aare /xr) M-^rj 
TTore avTov<; airokeaOaL. 
12 TofOUTO? IM6V Brj ovro<; 6 avrjp rjv tmv Be Brj 
dWcop TLve<s ou% on t<x avra avrw irpdaaovre^, 
aX,V ol fiev Xrjaraf; avWa/jL/Sdvovref; ol he iroXei^ 
araaia^ovaa<; KaraWdaaovre^, Kal eTrcopeyovro 

2 TMV vtK7]rr]pL(ov Kal eirepTTOV avrd. 6 yap Avyov- 
crT09 Kal ravra d(f)6ov(t)<; rial rrjv ye Trpcorrjv 
e')(api^eT0, Kal 8r)/xoaLai<; ra^al^; 7r\eL(Trov<; 6aov<; 
eTLfia. TOiyapovv eKetvot, fiev ev tovtol^ ekajxirpv- 
vovTo, 6 he *Aypi7r7ra<; e? rrjv avrap'X^iav rpoirov 

3 rivd VTT^ aurov Trpo'ij'^Or}. 6 yap Avyovaro^i, ft)9 
rd re kolvcl Oepaireia^ aKpt^ov^; ehecro, Kal ehehiet 
fjurf, ola iv toI<s roiovTOi<; (f)i\et (TU/jL/Salveiv, eirc- 
/SovXevOfj (^pa^v ydp rt Kal afiiKpov rov OcopaKa, 
ov VTTO rfj aroXy iroXXdKi'^ Kal e? avro to crvve- 

4 hpLOv ecriwv el')(ev, eTTiKOVprjaeiv ol evofii^e), irpMTOv 
/JL€V avTO<; irevTe r^? TrpoaTaaia^ eTrj, eireihijTrep 6 
heKeTi]<; ')(^p6vQ<; e^rjKcov rjv, irpoaeOeTO (raOra yap 
TiovTrXiov T€ Kal Vvaiov AevTovXwv'^ viraTevovTwv 
eyeveTo), eireiTa he Kal Ta> ^ Aypiinra aXka re e^ 
laov irrj eavTW Kal ttjv e^ovaiav ttjv hrj papy^LKTjv 

5 6? Tov avTov xpoi^ov ehwKe. ToaavTa ydp a^LGuv^ 
eTT) Tore eirapKeaeiv ecprj- vaTepov yap ov ttoXXo) 

' (Tirdveds Bk., airavios M. 

^ h.evrovX(tiV Bk., \fVTov\ou M. 

^ (T(pi(riv R. Steph., ff(pi(ri M. 


his own expense he brought into the city the water- b.c. 19 
supply known as the Aqua Virgo, and named it the 
Augusta. The emperor took such great dehght in 
this that once, when there was a great scarcity of 
wine and people were loudly complaining, he de- 
clared that Agrippa had in a most competent 
manner seen to it that they should never perish of 

Such was the character of this man ; but others 
both strove for triumphs and celebrated them, not 
only for no exploits comparable to his, but merely 
for arresting robbers or for restoring harmony to 
cities that were torn by factious strife. For Augus- 
tus, at least in the beginning, bestowed these rewards 
lavishly upon certain men, and those whom he hon- 
oured by public funerals were very many. Accord- 
ingly, while these men gained lustre through such 
distinctions, Agrippa was promoted to the supreme 
power, one might say, by him. For Augustus saw 
that the public business required strict attention, 
and feared that he himself might, as often happens 
to men of his position, fall victim to a plot. (As for 
the breastplate which he often wore beneath his 
drefes, even when he entered the senate, he believed 
that it would be of but scanty and slight assistance to 
him.) He therefore first added five years to his own 
term as princeps, since his ten-year period was about 
to expire (this was in the consulship of Publius and b.c. is 
Gnaeus Lentulus), and then he granted to Agrippa 
many privileges almost equal to his own, especially 
the tribunician power for the same length of time. 
For that number of years, he said at the time, would 
be enough for them ; though not long afterward he 



KoX ra dWa irevre^ rr}<^ avTOKpdropo<; rjyefJLOvia^ ) 
iTpodekapev, coa-re avra BeKa av6t<i yeveadai. 

13 T[pd^a<^ he raura to ^ovXevTiKov e^rjTaae- 
iroXkoi re yap koI w? iSoKovv avrw elvat (rrX'^Oei 
Be ovBev vyL€<; evecopa"^), koX Bid [iiaov<^ ov^ on 
Tov<; Kaicia rivl iirtppi^Tov^, dWd koX tou? 

2 KoXaKela eKc^avel^ eiroLelro. koI eireiBr) fiTjre rt? 
CKcov coairep irporepov dTrrjWdrrero, fjbrjT av fi6vo<; 
iv aiTia Tivl yeveadai e^ovXero, avro^; re rpid- 
Kovra dvBpa<; tou? dpi(jrov<i, oirep irov^ kol opKw 
iirta-TcoaaTo, e^eXe^aro, Koi e/ceivov<; eKeXeuae 
Trpoo/jLoaavra^ rov avrov op/cov Kara 7rei>T€, ttXtjv 
Tcov avyyevcov, e? irivd/aa ypd^\ravTa<; eXecrOai. 

3 KoX /jLerd rovro Td<; irefxirdBa^; eKXijpcodev, wcrO' 
€va Kad^ e/cdaTTjv Tov Xa^ovra avrov re ^ovXevaai 
Kul €repov<; irevre eirl roL<i avroU iyypdyfrai. eBei 
TTOV Koi rov^i rpidfcovra ev re rol<s aipovfjLevoi,<; vtto 
r(bv* erepoyv Kal ev roi? KX7]pov/jievoL<; yeveaOai. 
eireiBr] re nve^ avroiv aTreBrj/jbovv, dXXot dvr eKei- 
vwv Xa^ovre^ rd iiri^aXXovrd affytaiv errpa^av. 

4 TO fjLev ovv irpMrov rav6* ovr(o<; iirl rrXeiov; 
r)n,epa<; iyevero' eirel Be eKaKovpyrjdrj rivd, ovre 
eirl rol<; rafMuai^ rd ypapLfxarela eV eiroiriaaro 
ovre en rw KXrjp(p rd<s Tre/iTraSa? eirerpe^jrev, dXX* 
avro^ re rd Xoiira dveXe^aro fcal avro<; tou? 
evBeovra^ TrpoaeiXero, Mare e? e^aKoaiov<; rov<; 

14 '7rdvra<; dTroBet^OijvaL. e/SovXevaaro /nev ydp rpia- 

' }i.\\a TTfi'TC Rk., TrfVre ^AAo Reim., iroWa M. 
' evewpa Rk., ewpa M. ' irov Pflllgk, irco M. 

* invh Twv Capps, v(p' M. 


obtained the other five years of his imperial power in b.c. is 
addition, so that the total number became ten again. 
When he had done this, he purged the senatorial 
body. For the members seemed to him to be too 
numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in a 
large throng ; moreover, he hated not only those 
who were notorious for some baseness, but also those 
who were conspicuous for their flattery. And when, 
as on the previous occasion,^ no one would resign of 
his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not 
wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the 
thirty best men (a point which he afterwards con- 
firmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the 
same oath, choose five at a time, relatives not to be 
included, by writing the names on tablets. After this 
he made the groups of five cast lots, with the arrange- 
ment that the one man in each group who drew the 
lot should be a senator himself and should write 
down five other names according to the same plan. 
The original thirty, of course, were to be included 
among those who were available for selection by 
the second thirty and for the drawing of lots. 
And since some who were chosen were out of 
town, others were drawn in their place and dis- 
charged the duties that belonged to them. At 
first all this went on for several days in the way de- 
scribed ; but when various abuses crept in, Augustus 
no longer entrusted the lists to the quaestors 
and no longer submitted the groups of five to the 
lot, but he himself thenceforth made the selection 
and himself chose the senators who were still re- 
quired in order to make the number of men ap- 
pointed six hundred in all. It had, indeed, been his 

1 Cf. lii. 42. 




Koaiov<; avTOV^ Kara to ap^alov TroLTja-ai, Koi 
TTCLVV ayaTTTjTov vo[jLi^(ov elvai roaovTOV<^ a^iov^ 
Tov avveSpiov crcpcov evpeOrjvar hva')(^epavdvTa3v he 
Trdvrcov ofjuoiw^ (tu> yap ttoXv TrXetou? tmv i/jLfie- 
vovvToav ev aurS tou9 Siaypa^rjcrofievovf; eaeaOac, 
(fyofielaOai, jxaWov avrov^ fir] ISicoreva-coaiv rj 
TrpocrSoKav on koX ^ovXevaovcnv avve/Satve) rov^i 

2 e^aKoaLov<i KareXe^aTO. fcal ovSe evravOa ecrTT], 
dWa Kal jjuera rovro, eTTeihrj Tivej; ovk eTVLTrj^eLOi 
Kol t6t€ eyyey pajjLixevoL rjaav, kol Alkivlo^ re r/.? 
'Pt^youXo?, dyavaKTYjaa'^ on tov t€ vleo<; koI 
dWcov 7roWcoi>, wv^ KpeicFQ'wv elvau rj^lov, Stei- 
XeyfJiivcov dirdXtjXLTTTO, Trjv re iaOrjTa ev avro) rco 

3 ^ov\evT7]pi(p KaTeppij^aTO, kol to aw/Lua yv/xvoliaas 
ra? re (TTpaTeiaf; KaTrjpi,6jjL^aaT0 /cal ra? ov\d<; 
irpoaeTreSeL^e a<^Lai, kol 'ApTLKv\eio<;^ ITatro?^ 
ev fjbev Tot<i jSovXeva-ovcriv wv tw Be Srj iraTpl ck- 
TTeTTTWKOTi TTupax^^pV^^^ '^V^ ^ov\eLa<; d^icov 
LKeTevev, e^eTaajJLov avOL<; o-(j)cov eiroirjaaTO, Kal 

4 Tiva<; diraWd^afi dWov<; avTiKUTeXe^ev. eTreihr) 
T6 TToWol Kal fo)9 hteyeypd(^aTO, /cau tlv6^ avTov 

iBi alTLa^i,* ola ev tw tolovtw ^tXel avfi/SaLvetv, 
0)9 Kal dBiKco<; dTreXrjXa/iievot el^ov, rore re^ 
avTol'i Kal o-vvOedaacrdai, Kal avvecTTidaaadai 
T0i9 /SovXevovaL, ttj avTrj aKevy ')(pw/ievoifi, avve- 
')^d)pr}ae, Kal e9 to eireiTa Ta9 dp')(a<^ ahelv eVe- 

5 Tpeyfre. Kal avTcov ol jxev 7rX€Lov<; eTravrjXOov 

1 wv supplied by R. Steph. 

^ 'ApriKvAeios Gary, 'ApTiKv\r}ios M. 

^ naiTOS Bk., TTiTOS M. 

* ahrhv Si' alrias Bk., avrSiv alrlas M. 
^ T€Bk., 76 M. 



plan to limit the senators to three hundred, as in 
the early times, and he thought he ought to be well 
content if that number of men were found who were 
worthy of the senate. But the number he actually 
enrolled was six hundred, since all alike were dis- 
pleased with the other arrangement ; for it turned 
out that those whose names would be stricken off the 
roll would be much more numerous than those who 
kept their places, so that the present senators were 
more afraid of being reduced to the ranks than hope- 
ful of being in the new senate. Indeed, he did not 
stop even when this was done, but subsequently took 
other measures. It seems that certain unsuitable 
persons were even then found on the lists ; and one 
Licinius Regulus, indignant because his name had 
been erased, whereas his son and several others to 
whom he thought himself superior had been selected 
by the lot, rent his clothing in the very senate, laid 
bare his body, enumerated his campaigns, and showed 
them his scars ; and Articuleius Paetus, one of those 
who were to remain senators, earnestly begged that 
he might retire from his seat in the senate in favour 
of his father, who had been rejected. Consequently 
Augustus purged the senate again, removing some 
and choosing others in their places. And since, even 
so, the names of many had been stricken out, and 
some of them, as usually happens in such a case, 
found fault with him on the ground that they had 
been unjustly expelled, he at that time accorded 
them the right to attend spectacles and celebrate 
festivals along with the senators, wearing the same 
garb as they, and for the future he allowed them to 
stand for the various offices. The majority of them 
came back in the course of time into the senate ; 



Xpov(p e? TO avvehpLOVy oXiyoi Be nve^ iv rSt ^eaw, 
^TjTe T^9 yepovaua'i jJbrjre rov Sij/nov vo/jll^6/jL€vol, 
15 TovTcov ovv ovrco yevofxivoyv erv^vol jiev €vOv<; 
av^vol Be Kol /nera tovto koL eKeivtp fcal rw 
^AypLTTTra eTri^ovXevaaiy eXr ovv a\7j6(o<; etre kol 

2 '\jr€vB(o<;, alrlav ea^ov. ov yap eaTLV dKpi^(o<; ra 
TOtavra toU e^(o avroiv ovaiv elBevav iroWa yap 
a)v av 6 Kparoiv 7rpo<i rifjuaypiav, m /cal ein^e^ov- 
Xevfievo^, r}TOL St eavrov rj Kal Bia t^9 yepovaia^ 
irpd^rj, vTTOTTTeveTai Kar iiTTjpeiav, kclv on fid- 

3 Xiara BiKatorara (Tvp^^fj, yeyovevai. kuI Bed 
TOVTO Kal iyci) yvcofirjv €)(^co irepl irdvTcov twv 
TOWVTOTpoTTcov ttVTa Tu XeyofjLeva avyypd-sjrai, 
/jLTjBev virep tcl BeBr]fio(ri€v/jLevai{'jr\r)v twv irdvv 
<pavepo}v, firjTe iroXvirpayfiovSyv p^i^O^ viroXeywv, 
fjLrjT el BiKai(o<; jJLrjT el dBcKco^ ti yeyove, firjT el 

4 ^frevB&'i fjLTjTe el dXrjOcof; etprjTai, Kal tovto fiev 
fjLoi Kal KaTa tmv fieTa TavTa ypa<j)r)(ro/jL€vcdv 
elp^aOco' iv Be Br) tw t6t€ irapovTC 6 AvyovaTO<i 
dWov<; fiev Tiva^ iBiKaicoae, tov Be Brj AeiriBov 
e/jLLaet fiev Bid t€ TaWa Kal oti 6 f /09 avTOv Kal 
€7re^d)paT0 eTn^ovXevcov avTw Kal eKeKoXaaTO, 
ov p^evTOL Kal diroKTelvai rjOeXrjaev, dXX^ iv Tpoirco 

5 TLvl dXXoTe dXX(p^ irpoeirrfXaKL^ev. e? re yap Tr)v 
ttoXlv] Kal aKOVTa avTov iK tcov dypcov KaTievai 
iKeXeve, Kal 69 Ta9 avvoBov^; del iarjyev, ottco^ otl 
7rXeiaTr]v Kal ^XevaaLav Kal v^ptv 7rp6<i Te ttjv 

1 &\\tp R. Steph., Hwo M. 


but some few were left in an intermediate position, b.c. is 
being regarded as belonging neither to the senate 
nor to the people. 

After these events, many immediately and many 
later were accused, whether truly or falsely, of 
plotting against both the emperor and Agrippa. It 
is not possible, of course, for those on the outside to 
have certain knowledge of such matters ; for what- 
ever measures a ruler takes, either personally or 
through the senate, for the punishment of men for 
alleged plots against himself, are generally looked 
upon with suspicion as having been done out of spite, 
no matter how just such measures may be. For 
this reason it is my purpose to report in all such 
cases simply the recorded version of the affair, with- 
out busying myself with anything beyond the pub- 
lished account, except in perfectly patent cases, or 
giving a hint as to the justice or injustice of the act 
or as to the truth or falsity of the report. Let this 
explanation apply also to everything that I shall 
write hereafter. As for the time of which we are 
speaking, Augustus executed a few men ; in the case 
of Lepidus, however, although he hated the man, 
among other reasons, because his son had been 
detected in a plot against him and had been pun- 
ished, yet he did not wish to put him to death, but 
kept subjecting him to insult from time to time in 
various ways. Thus he would order him to come back 
to the city from his estate in the country,^ whether 
he wished to do so or not, and would always take him 
to the meetings of the senate, in order that he 
might be subjected to the utmost to jeering and 

* At Circeii. 


rrj^ l(j')(vo<^ KoX 7rpo<; rrjv Trj<^ d^LQ)a€co<; /xera/SoXr/i/ 
o^XiaKavr}' koX ovre e? dWo ri. co? Kal a^iw ol 
\6yov i^prjro, t6t6 8h koX rrjv 'yjrrjcfyov votcltw TOiv 

6 virarevKOTcov eTrrjye. tou9 fJ^ev <yap d\\ov<;]iv rfj 
KaOrjicoixTr) rd^ei iTreyjrrjipi^e, tmv 8* virarevKOTCov 
TrpcoTov re rtva Kal hevrepov Tpirov re erepov kol 
rerapTov, rov^ re Xoc7rov<; oyLtoto)?, w? irov koI 
iffovXero' /cal rovro kol ol viraroi iiTOLovv. ovto) 

7 /JL€V Br) rov AeiriBop /lere^etyotfero, Kal eTTeiBrj je 
*AvTL<7TL0<; Aa0€obifi<; tou? fiovXeva-ovra^^iavTov, 
ore rj BLayvcofirj^ eKeivt) iyljvero, eaeypdyjraro, 
nrpwTOV fiev eirLwpKrjKevai re avrov ecpii Kal tl/jLco- 
pTjaeaOac rjireikr^aeVi CTreira Be elirovro^; avrov \ 
*' Kal TL Beivov TreTTOLTjKa Karaa^cbv ev tw avve- 
Bpi(p dvBpa ov av dp'y^iepeayv ert, Kal vvv 7repiopa<; 

8 ovra;^* ovKer ovBe/jLiav opyrjv iTrqij^aarq' ttoX- 
XdKi<; yap Kal IBia Kal Kotvfj Trj<; lepwavvrj^; raur?;? 
d^tov/jievo<; ovk iBiKalwae fwz^To? rov AeirlBov 
XajSelv avrrjv. ^Avtl(Ttio<; fiev ovv rovro re ovk 
diro Kaupov elrrelv eBo^e, Kal irore Xoycov iv rfj 
fiovXfj yLyvo/Jiivcov oo? %y3ea>V €trj rov Avyovarov eV 
BiaBo')(rj^ a^a^ <j)povp€iv, €(f)r], fxrjr avreiirelv roXr. 
pbbiv p^rjre avyKaraOeaOai v7ro/jL€va)v, on " peyKco 
Kal ov BvvafJLai avrov TrpoKoirrjaai." 

16 'OS' ovv Avyovaro<^ dXXa re evo/iioOerrjore, 
Kal rov<; BeKdaavra<; riva<; eirl rai? dp^aU \ eV 

^ fiovXfvffovras R. Steph. , ^ovXeuffavras M. 
^ ore 7) Siayvcafir) Rk. , '6ti idiai yvwfxrji M. 



insults, so that he might realize his loss of power b.c. is 
and dignity. In general he did not treat him as 
wortliy of any consideration on his part, and on the 
occasions referred to called on him for his vote the 
last of all the ex-consuls. For while he was wont 
to put the vote to the other senators in the regular 
order, in the case of the ex-consuls he used to call 
on one first, another second, and others third and 
fourth, and so on, just as he pleased ; and the consuls 
also did the same. Thus it was that he used to treat 
Lepidus. And when Antistius Labeo wrote down 
the name of Lepidus among those who might be 
senators, at the time when the process of selection 
which we have described was being followed, the 
emperor first declared that he had perjured himself,^ 
and he threatened to punish him. Thereupon Labeo 
replied : " Why, what harm have I done by keeping 
in the senate one whom you even now permit to be 
high priest?" At this Augustus desisted from his 
anger ; for though he had often been asked, both 
privately and publicly, to take this priesthood, he 
did not feel that it was right to do so while Lepidus 
lived. 2 This reply of Antistius was regarded as a 
happy one, as was also another remark of his : when 
it was said in the senate, on one occasion, that the 
senators ought to take turns in guarding Augustus, 
Antistius, not daring to speak in opposition nor yet 
willing to assent, remarked, " As for me, I snore, and 
so cannot sleep at the door of his chamber." 

Among the laws that Augustus enacted was one f 
which provided that those who had bribed anyone in ': 
order to gain office should be debarred from office for 

^ Presumably because of the oath the thirty men had 
taken that they would select the best men. 
2 Cf . xlix. 15, 3, and chap. 27, 2 inf. 



irevTe err) avroov elp^e.^ toc<; re dydjULOc^; Kal rah 
dvdvhpoL<; ^apvrepa ra iiTLripLLa eirera^e, Kal 
e/jLiraXiv rod re yd/jLov Kal t^? 7raiBo7roiia<; dOXa 

2 eOrjKev, irrreLhrj re ttoXu likelov to dppev rod 
Or]Xeo<; rod evyevov^i rjv, iTrirpeyjre Kal e^eXevOepas 
rol<; iOeXovai, irXrjv rcbv ^ovXevovrcov, dyeadai, 
evvojxov rr)v reKVOirodav avrodv elvai KeXevaa<;. 

3 Kdv rovro) Kara^orjaew^'^ ev rtp avvehpico irepi 
re Tr}9 rwv yvvatKMV Kal irepl rrj^ rcov veavidKwv 
dKoafjLia'^, TTyoo? diroXoylav hr) riva rov p^rj pahiw^ 
St avrrjv rd<; rcov ydp,(ov (TvvaXXayd<; rroLelaOai, 
yevop.€vr]<;, Kal ivayovrcov avrov Kal eKeivr)v eira- 
vopdcoaac %Xef acr/xft) ore TroXXal^ yvvai^lv exp^TO^ j 

4 TO p,ev TTpcbrov aTTeKplvaro avrot<; ore rd p^ev 
dvayKaiorara Bccopco-rai, rd Be Xonrd dhvvarbv 
eariv o/ioto)? TrapaBoOrjvat, eireira he eK^iaaOeU 
elirev ort " avrol 6(f)€LXer€ ral<; yap^eral^ Kal 
irapaivelv Kal KeXeveiv oaa /SovXeaOe' oirep irov 

5 KOLi iyd) TTOtw." aKovcravre^ ovv ravr eKelvoi 
TToXXd) pbdXXov €V€K€ivro avr<M, fiovXopbevoL rd<; 
irapaLveaei^ d<; rfj Aiovia rrapatvelv e(f>ri p^aOelv. 
Kal 09 aKWV p^v, elire S* ovv riva Kal irepl rrj<; 
e(76rjro<^ Kal irepl rov Xoirrov Koapbov ro)v re 
e^oBayv Kal rrjf; o-(0(f)poavvr]<; avrwv, purjB' oriovv 
<ppovriaa<s ore purj Kal tc3 epya> avrd eiriarovro. 

6 Kal erepov Be ri roiovBe rip,r)revQ)v eirerroirjKeL' 
iireiBr) yap irpoarjyaye ri<i aur(p veavlaKov yvvaiKa 
eK pLOix^taf; yeyap/rjKora, Kal irXelara oaa Karrj- 

1 €lp|6 R. Steph., elp^e M. 

2 Karafio-^fffws R. Steph., KarefiSijorfP M. 


five years. He laid heavier assessments upon the/B.c. 18 
unmarried men and upon the women without hus-' 
bands, and on the other hand offered prizes for 
marriage and the begetting of children. And since 
among the nobility there were far more males than 
females, he allowed all who wished, except the 
senators, to marry freedwomen, and ordered that 
their offspring should be held legitimate. 

Meanwhile a clamor arose in the senate over the 
disorderly conduct of the women and of the young 
men, this being alleged as a reason for their re- 
luctance to enter into the marriage relation ; and 
when they urged him to remedy this abuse also, with 
ironical allusions to his own intimacy with many 
women, he at first replied that the most necessary 
restrictions had been laid down and that anything 
further could not possibly be regulated by decree in 
similar fashion. Then, when he was driven into a 
corner, he said : " You yourselves ought to admonish 
and command your wives as you wish ; that is what I 
do." When they heard that, they plied him with 
questions all the more, wishing to learn what the 
admonitions were which he professed to give Livia. 
He accordingly, though with reluctance, made a few 
remarks about women's dress and their other adorn- 
ment, about their going out and their modest be- 
haviour, not in the least concerned that his actions 
did not lend credence to his words. Another in- 
stance of such inconsistency had occurred while he 
was censor. Some one brought before him a young 
man who had taken as his wife a married woman 
with whom he had previously committed adultery, 
and made ever so many accusations against the 



yoprjaev avrov, hir]iTopr)6r] fiijre irapthelv to 
Trpayfia firjr eTrcTL/jbijo-ai ri ToXfjLi]aa<;, fcal ijlo\l<s ^ 
TTore 6'^e av6V6'yK(i)v " TroXXa," ecfirj, " koX heiva 
at GTaaei^ rjve^Kav, ware eKeivwv fxev dfivrj/jbovco- 
pev, Tov Se Brj Xolttov 7rpovocop,ev ottoj? p.r)8ev roc- 
7 ovTo ytjvijTaiJ^ ft)9 S' ovv ^picprj TLvh iyyvcop,evoi 
ja<i ,pLev TtyLta? twv yeyap^T^KOTfov i/capTrovvro, to 
( hejepyov avTCJV ov irapeiXovTo, irpoaeTa^e p^rjBe- 
fiiav eyy\)r\v layyeiv p.e6* fjv ovSe Svolv ctoIv 
Bl€\66vto)V yap^rjaei^ ri?, tovt €(tti SeKeTiv 
7rdvTa)<; iyyvaadau tov ye tl dir avT7]<; diroXav- 
aovTa' BcoBeKa yap ^ rat? Kopai^ e? Tr)v tov ydp^ov 
wpav 6Tr] TrXrjpT], KaOdirep sIttov, vop,i^€Tac. 
17 TavTd T6 ovv (h(; e/caaTa huevop^oOeTei, Kal Xya 
eVt TTj TOV (TLTOV St,aB6(r€i TTpo^dWcovTai ol^ iv 
rat? dp'xal'^ del oWe? eva exaaTo^^ eK tmv irpo 
TpLcov eT(ov iaTpaTTjyrjKOTajv, koX ef avTcov repL- 
2 aape^ ol \a\6vTef; acToSoTCjaiv eK SLaSo'x^fj'i. tov 
Te TToXiap^ov tov e? ra? dvox^^ KadL<TTdp,evov 
eva del alpelaOai, Kal tcl eirr) to, XtffvWeia eft- 
TTjXa VTTO TOV xpovov yeyovoTa tov<; lepea^ avTO- 
'^eipia eKypdyjraaOac e/ceXevorev, Xva prjBeU eTepo^ 

^ fi6\i5 Pflugk, fiaXiffra M. ^ yafx-fjcrei Zon., yajUL-fjcrji M. 

^ yap supplied by R. Steph. * oi Bk , Kal ol M. 
'^ fKaa-Tos Reim. , '^Kaa-rov M. 


1 Cf. note on liii. 13, 2. 

^ Apparently in a lost portion of his work. 


man, and Augustus was at a loss what to do, not ac. is 
daring to overlook the affair nor yet to administer 
any rebuke. At length, though with difficulty, he 
recovered himself and said : " Our factious quarrels 
have borne many terrible fruits ; let us, then, forget 
them and give our attention to the future, that 
nothing of the sort may occur again." Inasmuch, 
too, as certain men were betrothing themselves to 
infant girls and thus enjoying the privileges granted 
to married men,^ but without rendering the service 
expected of them, he ordered that no betrothal 
should be valid if the man did not marry within two 
years of such betrothal, — that is, that the girl must 
in every case be at least ten years old at her be- 
trothal if the man was to derive any advantages 
from it, since, as I have stated,^ girls are held to 
have reached the marriageable age on the com- 
pletion of twelve full years. 

Besides these several enactments, Augustus further 
provided that, for the distribution of grain, one 
candidate, who must have served as praetor three 
years previously, should be nominated each year by 
each of the officials then serving, and that, from 
these nominees, four men should be chosen by lot 
to serve in succession as distributors of grain. ^ And 
he commanded that the office of prefect of the city, 
who was chosen for the Feriae,* should always be 
filled by the election of one man, and that the 
Sibylline verses, which had become indistinct 
through lapse of time, should be copied off by the 
priests with their own hands, in order that no one 

3 Suetonius [Aug. 37) names among the new offices esta- 
blished by Augustus the '^ curam . . . frumenti populo 

* See note on chap. 6 ; and cf. xli. 14, 4, and xlix. 16, 2, 


3; avTa ava\e^r)Tat, ra? re ap'X^a^ airacrL rot? Se/ea 
^ I jivpidhcov ovaiav exovai, /cal ap-)(^eLV ifc tmv vo/jlwv 

1 SvvafM€VOL<; eira^yyeXkeiv eTrerpe'^^re. roaovrov 'yap 

TO I30V\€VTIK0V TiflTJ/jLa TTjV TTpdOTTJV clvai €Ta^eV, 

eireira koI e? irevre koX eUoaL /jLvpidBa<; avrb 
7rpoi]yay€. Kai tktl rcov ev ^lovvtwv ikdrrco, 
Tore fM€V TMV SeKa, avOL<; Be rcov irevre koX eUoGiy 

4 K€KTr]ixevoi<; ^ i')(^apiaaTO oaov ipeBei. koX hta 
ravra tol<; I3ovXo/jL€vol<; rcov o-TparrjyMV TpnrXd- 
(TLOV Tov Trapd rov Etj/jloctlov ar(f>iaiv 6? to.? iravrj- 
yvpec^ BiBofievov TTpoaavaXio-Keiv 6(prJK€V. c^are 
el Kol TTpo? rrjv dfcpL^etap rcov aXkwv avrov vofJLO- 
6err]fjbdra)v tj-^^^Oovro rive's, dX}C vivo re rovrov, 
KoX on Tiv\dhr]v rtva opxv^'^W ^^^ crrdcrcv e^eXTj- 
Xa/xevov Kari]jayev, ovxer eKeivwv ifiefivrjvro.^ 

5 oOevirep rrdvv <70(/)co? o Ili/XaS?;?, i7n,rLjiioop,evo<i 
vtt' avrov eTreiBr} BaOvXXw op^ore^^fp re ol ovri 
Koi rw MaLKTjva irpoarjKOVTL Stearaaia^ev, elirelv 
Xeyerai on " a-vp.(j)€pet croc, Kalaap, ire pi rj/iidf; 
rov Brjp,ov aTroBiarpi^eaOaiy 

18 Tavra fiev ev eKelvm ra> ereu eyevero- em Be Brj 
Tatov ^ re ^ovpvlov Kal Tatov XtXavov virdroav 
vlov av6i<; 6 ^Aypiirira^ dvelXero rov Aov/clov 
ovop^aaOevra, Kal avrov ev6v<; 6 Avyovarof; p,era 
rov dBeXcjiov rov Tatov eiroirjo-aro, p.r) dvajjLeLva<; 
(T(f)d<; dvBpayOrjvai, dXX^ avroOev BiaBoxov^; r7J<; 

2 dp')(ri^ diroBel^afiy Xv '^rrov ein^ovXevTjrac. rrjv 
re rrj<; Tip.rj<i Kal rr]<; ^Aperr]<; rravrjyvpLv 69 ra? 
vvv r)p.epa<i p,erear7](T€, Kal roL<; ra emvLKLa rrep.- 
irova-ip^ epyov[eK rcov Xacpvpcov 6? rrjv rcov irpd^ecov 


2 Tatov Bk., rov yatov M. 



else might read them. He permitted all to stand • b.c. is 
for office who possessed property worth four hundred 
thousand sesterces and were eligible by the laws to . 
hold office. This was the senatorial rating which ' 
he at first established ; but later he raised it to 
one million sesterces. Upon some of those who lived 
upright lives but possessed less than the four 
hundred thousand sesterces in the first instance, or 
the million in the second, he bestowed the amount 
lacking. And because of this he allowed the 
praetors who so desired to spend on the public 
festivals three times the amount granted them from 
the treasury. Thus, even if some were vexed at 
the strictness of his other regulations, yet by reason 
of this action and also because he restored one 
Pylades, a dancer, who had been exiled on account 
of sedition, they remembered them no longer. 
Hence Pylades is said to have rejoined very cleverly, 
when the emperor rebuked him for having quar- 
relled with Bathyllus, a fellow-artist and a favourite 
of Maecenas ^ : "It is to your advantage, Caesar, that 
the people should devote their spare time to us." 

These were the occurrences of that year. In the b.c. 17 
consulship of Gaius Furnius and Gains Silanus, 
Agrippa again acknowledged the birth of a son, who 
was named Lucius ; and Augustus immediately 
adopted him together with his brother Gaius, not 
waiting for them to become men, but appointing 
them then and there successors to his office, in order 
that fewer plots might be formed against him. He 
transferred the festival of Honor and Virtus to the 
days which are at present theirs, commanded those 
who celebrated triumphs to erect out of their 
» Cf. Tac. Ann. i. 64. 


fjivriiirjv iroielv Trpoaera^e, rd re aaiKovXdpia ra 
Trefjuirra eVereXecre. koI tou? prjropa^; djjLiaOl^ 
avvayopeueiv, rj TerpairXdaiov oaov av Xd^waiv 
3 €KTiV6iV, €K6X€va€. Tot<? 8e hiKa^eiv del Xay^d- 
vovatv direlirev 69 prjhevo^; otKahe rov iviavrov 
6Kelvov ecnevai. eTreihrj re daTrovSel ol ^ fiovXevral 
69 TO avveSpLov avv€(f>oiTcov, €7rr}v^7j(Te Ta9 ^rj/jLta'i 
T0t9 ovK €^ evXoyov tlvo^ aiTia^ vcrrepL^ovai,. 
19 Ko-l fierd ravra €<; rrjv VaXaTiav, Aovklov re 

AofjLLTLOV Kol UoUTrXiOV '^fCHTLCdVO^ V7raT6v6vTO)V, 

MpfiTjae, Trpocfyaaiv tol'9 TroXe/juovf; tou? /car^ ifcelvo 

2 Kivr)6evTa<^ Xa^cov. eVetS?; yap e'7ra%^^9 ttoXXoU 
etc T^?j6V rfi iroXei ')(^poviov Btarpi0f)(; eyeyovec, 
Koi crv)(yov<; fxev e^o) rt tmv Terayixevoov irpdr- 
rovra^ Si/catMV eXvTret, av)(yo)V he kol (f)eLS6jjL€V0'^ 
TO. vevopoderrjfjieva vcf)^ eavrov Trapa^aiveiv r)va- 
yKd^ero, eKBrj/jUrjaaL rpoirov rtvd Kara rov XoXcova 

3 eyvw. /cat, Tive<; kol Bia rrjv Tepevrlav rrjv rov 
MaiKTJvov yvvaiKa dwoBrj/jLTJa-at, avrov vireroirrj- 
aav, Xv eireihi^ TroXXd irepl avrcov ev rfj 'Pco/jLjj 
eXoyoiroielro, dvev Opov tlvo<^ ev rfj aXXoBrj/jbla 
avrf) avvfj' ovrco yap ovv irdvv avrrj(; ypa Mare 
fcal dycoviaaadai rrore avrrjv irepl rov Kd\Xov<i 

4 TT/OO? rrjv Aioviav rrotrjaai. rrplv he rj dcpopfid- . 
a6ai, rov rod Kvplvov vaov KaOtepcoaev e/c /caLvrj<; j 
olKohofjLi](Ta<;. elirovBe rovro on e^ /cal e^ho/jirj- 
Kovra KLoatv avrov e/coafMrjaev, oo-airep rd rrdvra 
errj ^ hieffia), Ka/c rovrov Xoyov rial Trapecrx^v co? 
Kal e^errLrrjhe^ avro dXX" ov Kara rv)(r)v dXXax; 

6 TTpd^a^. e/cetvov re ovv rore eOeiwae, Kal fxovo- 

1 a^uio-ei St., apLine^X M. ^ ^i supplied by Rk, 

^ cTTj Dind., trrj ris VM. 



spoils some monument to commemorate their deeds, b.c. 17 
and held the fifth celebration of the Ludi Saeculares. 
He ordered the orators to give their services as 
advocates without pay, on pain of a fine of four 
times the amount they received ; and he forbade 
those who were drawn as jurymen from time to 
time to enter any person's house during their year 
of service. And since the members of the senate 
showed a lack of interest in attending its sessions, 
he increased the fines for those who were late with- 
out a good excuse. 

Next he set out for Gaul, during the consulship b.c. ig 
of Lucius Domitius and Publius Scipio, making the 
wars that had arisen in that region his excuse. For 
since he had become disliked by many as a result of 
his long stay in the capital, and now was offending 
many who committed some act contrary to his 
decrees by the punishments he was inflicting, and 
at the same time, by sparing many others, was being 
compelled to transgress his own enactments, he 
decided to leave the country, somewhat after the 
manner of Solon. Some even suspected that he 
had gone away on account of Terentia, the wife of 
Maecenas, and intended, inasmuch as there was 
much talk about them in Rome, to live with her 
abroad free from all gossip. So great, indeed, was 
his passion for her that he once made her enter a 
contest of beauty against Livia. Before setting out 
he dedicated the temple of Quirinus, which he had 
rebuilt. I mention this for the reason that he 
adorned it with seventy-six columns, which was the 
exact number of the years he lived, and thus caused 
some to declare that he had chosen this number 
deliberately and not by mere chance. So he dedi- 
cated this temple at that time, and also exhibited 



ixa')^ia<; ay(ava<; Bid re rov Tiffeptov koX hia tov 
ApovaoVy GV'y')(ii)p7)6ev hr) (T(f)caiv virb rr}? ^ov\rj<;, 

6 eOr]K€. Kol ovTO) to fiev aarv rw Tavpo) fxera 
TTJ? dWrj<; 'IraXta? hioiicelv i'7rLTpi'\fra<i {rov re 
yap ^AypiTTTrav €? ttjv ^vpiav avOi^; iarakKei, koI 
Tft),/c^va Bid rrjv yvval/ca ovKeO^ 6fJLOLco<; 
exci'i'pe), TOV Be Br) l^t^ipiov kultoi crTpaTrjyovvTa 
TrapaXafioDV i^cop/jurja-ev. i(TTpaT^yr]a€ yap Katirep 
ra? (TTpaTr}ytKd<; Tifjudf; ep^coz^* /cal ttjv ye dp')(r]v 
avTov Trdcrav 6 Apovcro^; Ik B6yp.aT0<; Birjyayev. 

7 i^e\66vT(ov 3' ovv avTCJV to jrj<i NeoTT/ro? pbeyapov 
viro Tr)P eiTLOvaav vvktu iKaTeKavOrj, koI Bid re 
TOVTO Kol Bed TaWa Ta irpoyevofieva (Xw/to? re 
ydp Bid T% l€pd<; oBov e? Trjv dyopdv eaireaobv 
dv6pco'7rov<i €(j)6eip€, /cal pLvpfir]Ke<; ov^ Troppco t^9 
dyopd<; cK^aveaTaTa ^ (TweaTpd^rjcrav, Xafiird^ 
Te Tt9 diro /jLe(T7]fi^pia<; eVt r^z^ dpKTOv Bid irddTj^; 
T?)? vuKTO^ V^^X^V) €y%a9 VTrep r?}? eiravoBov tov 

8 AvyovaTOV eiroirjaavTo, Kav tovtco /cal ttjv 
TrevTaeTrjpiBa Trj<i dp'X^rjc; avTOV BiecopTaaav, tov 
^AypiTTTTOV (eV ydp rot? TrevTeKauBe/ca dvBpdaiVy 
oh eK tt}? irepiTpoTrrji^ rj Bi,0L/c7jp-i<i avTrj<; eiri^aX- 
\ev, lepcoTo) Bid tmv a-vviepecov dvaXcoaavTo<;. | 

20 UoWd p.ev ovv /cal dWa /caTd tov^; xP^^^^^ 
e/ceivov^i eTapdx^V' '^^^ l^P ^ap'P'OvvLoi koI Ov-^ 
evviOL, ^AXin/cd yevr], oirXa re dvTrjpavTO Kal 
viKr}6evTe<i viro HovttXlov XiXlov ixetpcoOijo-av 
2 Kal ol Uavvovioi ttjv t€ ^laTplav /xeTd ^(opiKcov 

* oh supplied by LeuncL ^ iKipavtcrara M, f/x<pay4aTara V. 


gladiatorial combats, Tiberius and Drusus represent- b.c. 16 
ing him in the matter after the senate had granted 
them permission. Then he committed to Taurus 
the management of the city together with the rest 
of Italy (for he had sent Agrippa again to Syria and 
no longer looked with equal favour upon Maecenas 
because of the latter's wife), and taking Tiberius, 
though praetor at the time, along with him, he set 
out on his journey. Tiberius, it appears, had 
become praetor in spite of his already holding the 
rank of a praetor; and Drusus now performed all 
the duties of his office in pursuance of a decree. 
The night following their departure the temple of 
luventus^ was burned to the ground. Other portents 
also had occurred : a wolf had rushed into the Forum 
by the Sacred Way and had killed people, and not 
far from the Forum ants were conspicuously swarm- 
ing together ; moreover, a flame like a torch had 
shot from the south towards the north all night 
long. Because of all these signs prayers were 
offered for the return of Augustus. Meanwhile they 
held the quadrennial celebration of his sovereignty, 
Agrippa, represented by his fellow-priests, bearing 
the expense ; for he had been consecrated as one of 
the quindecimviri, upon whom the management of 
the festival devolved in regular succession. 

There were many other disturbances, too, during 
that period. The Camunni and Vennii,^ Alpine 
tribes, took up arms against the Romans, but were 
conquered and subdued by Publius Silius. The 
Pannonians in company with the Norici overran 

^ Aedes luveniutis. 

2 Other forms of this name are Vennones, Vennontes, and 


KaTeBpafjLOV, kol avroC re tt/oo? re rov StXtou Kal 
T(ov V7ro(TTpaT^yo}v avrov KaKwOevre^ avOif; q}/xo- 
Xoyyjaav, koI roh NcopuKoi,^ alTLOL t^9 avTrj<i 

3 BovXeta^; iyevovro. rd re eV rfj AeX/jLaria kol ra 
€1^ rfj ^l^rjpia z^eo^/Awcrai^Ta Si' oXiyov Karea-TT), 
Kol rj MaKehovCa vtto re rcov AevOeXrjrcov kol vtto 
tS)V XfcopBi(TK(ov i7rop07]0r). ev re ry SpaKy irpo- 
repov [xev M.apKO^ AoXXto? *Fvp,r]rdXKrj ^ Oelw re 
roiiv rov Korvo? iralBcov kol eirirpoTrw ovrt fiorjOcov 
3r)a(T0v<i Karecrrpe-^aro, eiretra Be Aovklo^ Vdio^ 
Xavpo/jLdra<; ck rrj^ avrP)(; alria<; Kparrjaa<i virep 

4 rov"l(Trpov direcoaaro. 6 Be Br) p,eyicrro<; rcou rore 
avfjiffdprayv rol<i 'Pcopaioi<; iroXejjLwv, oairep ttov 
Kol rov Avyovarov eic tt}? 7r6Xe(o<; e^rjyaye, irpo^ 
rov(; K.eXrov<; iyevero. Xvyafifipol re yap Kal 
OvaiireraL Kal TeyKrrjpoi^'^ ro fiev irpwrov iv rfj 
a^erepa rtm? avrcov avXXa^6vre<i dvearavpcocrav, 

5 eireira Be Kal rov 'Prjvov BiajBavre^; rrjv re Vep- 
/juavLav Kal rrjv TaXariav eXerfXdrTjaav, ro re 
Ittttlkov ro ro3V 'Fcofiaicov eireXOov acjuaLv evrj- 
Bpevaav, Kal (pevyovaLv avroL<; iTrcairofievoc r& re 
AoXXi(p dpxovri avrrj<; everv^ov dveXiTLaroL Kal 

6 evLK7](7av Kal eKelvov. paOcov ovv ravra 6 Av- 
yovaro<i wpfirjae pev eV avrovg, ov p^evrot, Kal 
epyov ri iroXepLov ea)(^ev' ol yap /3dpfiapoi, rov re 
AoXXiov irapacTKeva^opLevov Kal eicelvov arparev- 
ovra 'jTv66p,evoL h re rrjv eavrwv dv€xd)pr]aav Kal 
(T7rovBa<s eiTOLijaavro, oprjpov^; Bovre^;. 

1 Ta)V p>ev ovv ottXwv ovBev Bia rav$\6 Ayyqv- 
aro^ eBetjOi], rd Be By dXXa Ka0i,ardp.evo<; rovrov 

1 'Vufj.-nTa.\Kri R. Steph., pwnvrdXicni VM (but 'PuiJ.r]T(i\Kris 
elsewhere). ^ TeyKTrjpoi R. Steph., riyKp-qroi VM. 



Istria ; but the former, upon being discomfited by b.c. k 
Silius and his lieutenants, both came to terms again 
themselves and caused the Norici to be subjected 
to the same slavery. The uprisings in Dalmatia and 
in Spain were quelled in a short time. Macedonia 
was ravaged by the Dentheleti and the Scordisci. 
In Thrace somewhat earlier, Marcus Lollius, while 
aiding Rhoemetalces, the uncle and guardian of the 
sons of Cotys, had subjugated the Bessi. Later 
Lucius Gallus conquered the Sarmatians for the 
same reason and drove them back across the Ister. 
The greatest, however, of the wars which at that 
time fell to the lot of the Romans, and the one 
presumably which drew Augustus away from the 
city, was that against the Germans. It seems that 
the Sugambri, Usipetes, and Tencteri had first seized 
in their own territory some of the Romans and had 
crucified them, after which they had crossed the 
Rhine and plundered Germania and Gaul. When 
the Roman cavalry approached, they surprised them 
from ambush ; then, pursuing them as they fled, 
they fell in unexpectedly with Lollius, the governor 
of the province, and conquered him also. On 
learning of all this, Augustus hastened against them, 
but found no warfare to carry on ; for the barbarians, 
learning that Lollius was making preparations and 
that the emperor was also taking the field, retired 
into their, own territory and made peace, giving 

For this reason Augustus had no need of arms, 
but in arranging other matters he consumed the 



Tfi Tov ivtavTov KaravaXoyo-e Kal rov vcrrepov, iv 

Q) MdpKO<; T€ AijBcov Kal l^a\iTOvpvLO<; Yiicrwv 

2 VTrdrevaav. iroWa fiev yap /cal virb tmv KcXtcov, 

TToXXa Be Kal viro Alklvlov^ rivof; eTreirovr^vTO^^ 

Kal p.01 8oK€i TOV&'^OTi /XaXlCTTa TO Kr]T6<i (T^L(TL 

7rpoar)/jL7]vaL' ttXcito? p^ev yap iropcdv elKoai p,r)KO^_ 
Sk TpnfKd(Tiov e^ovy Kal yvvaiKl lT\r]v tt}? K€(f>a\rj<; 
ioLKof;, €9 Tr)v yrjv eavrb ck tov cuKeavov i^coK€L- 
8 \€V. 6 Be Br] AiKiVLo^ to pev dp-)(^alov FaXar?;? 
r)v, aXov<; Be e? tou? 'Vaypaiov^i Kal Bov\evaa<^ 
To5 Kalaapt vtto pev eKeivov i^XevOepcoOt], vtto Be 
TOV AvyovaTOV eTrtT/OOTTO? Trjf; TaXaTia^ KaTeaTrj. 

4 0VT09 ovv irXeove^ia pev ^ap/SapiKfj d^tcoaet Be 
*VwpalKfi '^p(i)p,€VO<i, Trdv pev to KpetTTov ttotc 
avTov vopiaOev KaOfipeiy ivdv Be to ev tw irapovTi 
Id'xypov rj^dvL^e, Kal avyvd pep Kal tt/jo? to, 
dvayKaia Trj<; 'Trpoa-TeTaypevr)<; ol ^ BiaK0VLa<; e'fe- 
TTopi^e, av^vd Be Kal iavTw to?? re olk€loi(; Trapef- 

5 eXeye. Kal 69 Toaovrov ye KaKOTpoiria^; ix^- 
pr)(Tev MaTe, eTrecB'^ tivg^ ea(j)Opal KUTa pbrjva irap 
avToh eyiypovTO, TeaaapeaKaiBeKa avTov<;^ Trocrj- 
aac, Xejcov tov pbrjva tovtov tov AeKep^pwv KaXov- > 
pevov BeKaTOv 6vt(o<; elvai, Kal Belv Bed tovtoj 
avTOV<; Kal TOv<i Bvo tov<; ucrraTOf 9/ ayv tov phv 
evBeKaTov tov Be BcoBeKaTOV tovopa^e, vopl^eiv, 
Kal Ta XPV/^^'"'^ '^^ einfidXXovra avTol'^ ea^epeiv. 

6 Bid pev ovv TavTa ra aocplapaTa eKivBvvevaev 

ol ydp TaXdTac tov AvyovaTov Xa^opuevoL Betvd 

^ AiKivlou Xiph., KiKLvviov VM (and similarly just below). 
^ iirfir6vr]pro Rk., eiteirolrjvTO VM. 
8 01 M cod. Peir., avru V. 
^ avTovs Reim., avra V, outos M cod. Peir., rovs /JLrjvas 
Xiph. ^ vardrovs Dind., avyovarovs VM cod. Peir. 



whole of this year, as well as the next, in which b.c. i5 
Marcus Libo and Calpurnius Piso were consuls. 
For not only had the Gauls suffered much at the 
hands of the Germans, but much also at the hands 
of a certain Licinus.^ And of this, I think, the 
sea-monster had given them full warning before- 
hand ; twenty feet broad and three times as long, 
and resembling a woman except for its head, it 
had come in from the ocean and become stranded 
on the shore. Now Licinus was originally a Gaul, 
but after being captured by the Romans and be- 
coming a slave of Caesar's, he had been set free by 
him, and by Augustus had been made procurator of 
Gaul. This man, then, with his combination of bar- 
barian avarice and Roman dignity, tried to overthrow 
every one who was ever counted superior to him and 
to destroy every one who was strong for the time 
being. He not only supplied himself with plenty 
of funds for the requirements of the office to which 
he had been assigned, but also incidentally collected 
plenty for himself and for his friends. His knavery 
went so far that in some cases where the people 
paid their tribute by the month he made the months 
fourteen in number, declaring that the month called 
December was really the tenth, and for that reason 
they must reckon two more (which he called the 
eleventh and the twelfth ^ respectively) as the last, 
and contribute the money that was due for these 
months. It was these quibbles that brought him 
into danger; for the Gauls secured the ear of 
Augustus and protested indignantly, so that the 

^ Licinus appears to be the proper spelling of the name, 
although we &ad Licinius even in some Roman writers. 

* Bekker plausibly suggested 'EvSeKf/xfipiov and Aw5€K«V^pioy, 
i.e. Undecember and Duodecember. 



iiroirjo-av, (ocne koX i/celvov ra jjLev crvvdxO^crOai ^ 
a(f)Lai TCL Se /cat irapairelaOar ayvoelv re riva 
eXeye, /cal TTpoaeiroielro erepa /nr] TTiareveiv, kol 
€<TTLV a KoX avveKpvTTrev, alaxyvoixevo^i on toiov- 

7 Tft) eTTiTpoTTW eW^yOT^TO* ciXXo 8e TOLovhe tl 
re'xyaadixevo^ kol nrdvv iravrcov avrcov i^^J^!^' 
Xaaei'. eTreiSr) yap ^^aXcTTO)? ol rov Avyovarov 
€')(pvTa rjadero /cal KoXaadijaeadat e/jueXXev, e? re 
Tr)v oiKiav avTov ea-rjjaye, Kal TroXXou? /jL€V Kal 
dpyvpiov Kal ')(^pvaiov 07)(Tavpov<^ rroXXa 8e Kal 

8 raXXa (TcoprjSov avvvevrj/jbeva'^ avrw ^et^a?, " ef e- 
TTtrr^Se?," ei^r), " ravra, m Seawora, Kal virep aov 
Kal virep tmv dXXcov 'Pay/jbaLwv TjOpoiaa, iva /jlt) 
ToaovTcov ')(^pr]/jLdTcov eyKpaTel<i ol i'Trf)(d)pioi ovre^ 
diToaToycnv. dfieXei Kal irr/pijad aoc Trdvra avra 
Kal SiScofjitJ'^ X 

Kal 6 fxev oi/TO)?, co? Kal virep rov Avyovarov \ 
rrjv TMV ^apffdpcov 1(T)(^vv eKvevevpiKco^, iacoOrj, 

12 Apova-o<^ 8^ ev rovrq) Kal Tt^epio^; rdBe eirpa^av. 
'Vaj/Tol OLJCoi)vT6<; /j-era^v rov re ^oypiKoy Kal rrj^ 
VaXaria<;, irpo^ ral<i ^'AXireaL ral<s 7r/30<? rfj 
^IraXia ral^ TpihevrivaL<^y tt}? re VaXaria<; rrj<; 
TTpoaopov acplai TToXXd Karerpe^ov Kal Ik rrjt; 
'IraXta?^ dp7rayd<; eirotovvro, rov<^ re oSw rwv 
'Vcofialayv fj Kal rcov (TvpL/jud^wv avrcov Sid tt}? 

2 o-<f)erepa<; 77)9 ^pwyitez^oi;? iXv/juaivovro. Kal ravra 
fjuev Kal avvrjOr) ttox; roh ovk evairovhoL^; iroLelv 
iSoKovv, irdv he St) rb dppev rciiv dXiaKOfjievwv, 1 
ov^ on TO (^aivofxevov dXXd Kal rb ev ral<; 

^ (TvvdxOfo-Oal Xiph,, fix^ea-0at VM, 

2 avvvevT)(x4va Sylburg, (rvviyejxtjfxfua V, avvv€y€/xr]iJ.4va M 
cod. Peir. 

-^ 'IraXlasBk.y iraXlSosYM.. 


emperor in some matters shared their vexation and b.o. 15 
in others tried to excuse Licinus. He claimed to 
be unaware of some of his extortions and affected 
not to believe others, while some matters he actually 
concealed, feeling ashamed to have employed such 
a procurator. Licinus, however, devised another 
scheme as follows, and laughed them all to scorn. 
When he perceived that Augustus was displeased 
with him and that he was likely to be punished, he 
brought the emperor into his house, and showing 
him many treasures of silver and gold and many 
other valuables piled up in heaps, he said : " I have 
gathered all this purposely, master, for you and for 
the rest of the Romans, lest the natives, by having 
control of so much money, should revolt. At any 
rate, I have kept it all for you and now give it to 

Thus Licinus was saved, by pretending that he 
had sapped the strength of the barbarians in order 
to serve Augustus. Drusus and Tiberius in the 
meantime were engaged in the following exploits. 
The Rhaetians, who dwell between Noricum and 
Gaul, near the Tridentine Alps ^ which adjoin Italy, 
were overrunning a large part of the neighbouring 
territory of Gaul and carrying otf plunder even from 
Italy ; and they were harassing such of the Romans 
or their allies as travelled through their country. 
Now these acts of theirs seemed to be about what 
was to be expected of nations which had not accepted 
terms of peace ; but they went further and destroyed 
all the males among their captives, not only those 
who had already come into the world, but also those 
who were still in the women's wombs, the sex of 

* The Alps around Tridentum (Trent). 



yacTTpdaiv en rwv fyvvaiKwv ov fiavT€Lat,<; tlctlv 

3 avevpiaKovTe^, e(j)9eipov. hi ovv ravra 6 Av- 
youaro<i irpcoTov jxev rov Apovaov €7r' avTov<; 
€7refjL'\jr€' koc o<; tou? 7rpoa7ravr7]aavrd<; ol aurwv 
irepl TO, TpihevTiva 6p7] ht.a raxecov erpe-y^aro, 
ware Koi ri/JLa<; (TTpaTr}ytKa<; iirl tovtw Xafielv, 
eireiTa he iireihr) Tr]<; fiev 'IraXta? direfcpov- 
aOqaav, Trj Be hrj TaXaria koX ft)? iveKCLvro, rov 

4 Tipepiov TrpoaaireareiXev. ia^aX6vTe<; ^ ovv e? 
rrjv ')(^copav iroWaxoOe^ d/xa dp^cfyorepoL, avroi re 
Koi hid T(ov viTOCTTpaTriywv, koX 6 ye Ttl36pLO<; Koi 
Bid T?}? \ifxvr)<^ 7r\oioi<; Kop.ia6ei<^, diro re rovrov 
KaTeTrXrj^av avTov<; to? e/cdaroi^; a^iai avpup^i- 
yvvvre^;, rov^ re del e? ')(^elpa<; dcpCKVovfievov^ ov 
')(^a\e7rS<;, are BieaTTaapbevat'^ ral<; BvvdpLeai %/Oft)- 
p.evov^, KareLpydaapTO, /cat rou? \oi.7rov<; daOeve- 
aTepov<; re €k TOinov koI d6vp,oT€pov<; yevop,evov<; 

5 elKov. eTretBij re eTroXvdvBpovv koi eBoKovv ri 
vecorepielv, to re KpdriaTOV kol to irXelaTov t^? 
r)\iKLa<; avrwv e^rjyayov, KaraXLirovTe^ roaovrov^ 
oaoL rrjv pev p^co/jai/ olxeiv l/r.avol veo^^p^Maai, Be r 
dBvvaroi rjaav. 

23 ' Yidv Tw avTw TOVTO) erei Ov7]Blo<; UwXloov 
diredavev, dvrjp dX\,(o<; puev ovBev pLvr)p.7]^ d^iov 
irapaaxopi^vof; (/cal yap i^ direXevOepwv ^ iyeyoveu 
Koi ev Toh linrevacv i^rjrd^ero kol Xapbirpov ovBev 
elpydaaro), eirl Be Brj to) itXovtu) rfj re wp^orr^ri 
ovop^aaroraro^ yev6iievo<i, c^are /cal e? laropla^ 
2 Xoyov eaeXdelv. ovro^ yap rd p^ev dXXa 6a a 
eirparre, Bi o^Xov dv Xeyopueva yevoiro, pLVpaiva^ 

1 ^a^a\6vTfS M, eVySaAAovres V. 

* aiTfKfvdfpwp VM cod. Peir., aireXcvdcpov Xiph. 



whom they discovered by some means of divination. b.c. is 
For these reasons, then, Augustus first sent against 
them Drusus, who speedily routed a detachment ol 
them which came to meet him near the Tridentine 
mountains, and in consequence received the rank of 
praetor. Later, when the Rhaetians had been re- 
pulsed from Italy, but were still harassing Gaul, 
Augustus sent out Tiberius also. Both leaders then 
invaded Rhaetia at many points at the same time, 
either in person or through their lieutenants, and 
Tiberius even crossed the lake ^ with ships. In this 
way, by encountering them separately, they terrified 
them and not only easily overwhelmed those with 
whom they came into close quarters at any time, 
inasmuch as the barbarians had their forces scattered, 
but also captured the remainder, who in consequence 
had become weaker and less spirited. And because 
the land had a large population of males and seemed 
likely to revolt, they deported most of the strongest 
men of military age, leaving behind only enough to 
give the country a population, but too few to begin 
a revolution. 

This same year Vedius Pollio died, a man who in 
general had done nothing deserving of remem- 
brance, as he was sprung from freedmen, belonged to 
the knights, and had performed no brilliant deeds ; but 
he had become very famous for his wealth and for his 
cruelty, so that he has even gained a place in history. 
Most of the things he did it would be wearisome to 
relate, but I may mention that he kept in reservoirs 
^ The Lacus Venetus (Lago di Garda). 



Be SeStBayfiiva^ avd pdairovf; eadUiv ev Be^afxeval^ 
Tp6^(ov T0U9 Bov\ov<; avjal^ ov<; idavdrov irape- 
^aXke} fcai irore rov Avyovarov iartcov, elr 
eTreiEr) 6 olvoxoo<; KvKiKa KpvcrTaWivrjv /carea^ev, 
^ €9 ra? fivpaiva^ avrov, p.r]Be rov Satrvp^ova alBe- 

3 a6€L<;, ip,p\r]9rjvaL irpoaira^ev. 6 ovv KvyovaTo^;, 
irpO(Tirea6vro<i ol rov iraiho^ Kal LK€T€vaavTO<; 
avTov, ra pev irpayra ireiOeiv rov UcoXicova 
eireipoiTO prjBev tolovtov Bpacrai,, co? 8' ov')(^ viri]- 
Kovcrev avra>, " (^epeT ^cprj, " irdvTa raXXa eKTrco- 
para, oaa^ irore roiovTorpoTra rj koI erepd riva 

4 evTipa KeKTTjaai, Lva avroU ^(^prjawpai,.'^ koX 
avra KopbiaOevra (TVVTptfirjvaL eKeXevaev, Ihcov 
he Tovr €K€LV0<; aX-XcD? pev riax^iXX^v, ovre Skj'ov 

61/09 €TL TrOTTJpLOV/TrpO^; TO 7rXr)^09 TCOV dWcOV TMV 

diToXcoXoTcov 6pyr]V e^f^v, ovr av rov BidKovov wv 
lye Kal 6 Av'yov(TTo<; eireTroLr^Ket ripLcopycraa-Oai 

5 BvvdpL€VO^, rj(TV')(iav Kal cikcov ifyaye. roLOVTO<; 
ovv Bi] Tt<; 6 UwXicov o)v ireXevTrjaev aXXoi9 re 
7roX\ot9 TToXXa Kal rw Avyovaro) rov re KXrjpov 
(TV')(yov pepo<; Kal rov ^ Uavo-iXvTrov, ro x^^ptov ro 
pera^v t/}9 re Nea9 TroXeo)? Kal rwv TiovreoXwv 
6v, KaraXtTTcov, rw re Brjpw irepLKaXXe'; epyov 

6 oiKoBoprjdrjvai KeXev(7a<;. 6 ovv Ayyovg-ro^ rrjv 
OLKiav avrov €9 eBa(f)0<; Trpocpdaet rrj<; eKeivov 
KaraaK€V7]<;, ottcd^ purjBev pbvrjpLoavvov ev rfj rroXei, 
^XV> Kara^aXcbv rrepiorrwov wKoBopL^jaaro, Kal ov 

^ irapeBaWe cod. Peir. Xiph. Zon,, irapeBaXe VM. 
2 orro — TqU Koiv^ (chap. 24, 7) omitted by V, whose archetype 
L had lost one folio at this point. ^ rhy M Xiph., rh Xyl. 


huge lampreys that had been trained to eat men, b.c. ii5 
and he was accustomed to throw to them such of his 
slaves as he desired to put to death. Once, when 
ne was entertaining Augustus, his cup-bearer broke 
a crystal goblet, and without regard for his guest, 
PoUio ordered the fellow to be thrown to the 
lampreys. Hereupon the slave fell on his knees 
before Augustus and supplicated him, and Augustus 
at first tried to persuade PoUio not to commit so 
monstrous a deed. Then, when Pollio paid no heed 
to him, the emperor said, " Bring all the rest of the 
drinking vessels which are of like sort or any others 
of value that you possess, in order that I may use 
them," and when they were brought, he ordered 
them to be broken. When Pollio saw this, he was 
vexed, of course ; but since he was no longer 
angry over the one goblet, considering the great 
number of the others that were ruined, and, on the 
other hand, could not punish his servant for what 
Augustus also had done, he held his peace, though 
much against his will. This is the sort of person Pollio 
was, who died at this time. Among his many be- 
quests to many persons he left to Augustus a good 
share of his estate together with Pausilypon,^ the 
place between Neapolis and Puteoli, with instructions 
that some public work of great beauty should be 
erected there. Augustus razed Pollio's house to the 
ground, on the pretext of preparing for the erection 
of the other structure, but really with the purpose 
that Pollio should have no monument in the city ; 

^ The modern Posilipo, between Naples and Pozzuoli. 
The Greek name Pausilypon means " grief -assuaging," thus 
corresponding to such modern names as Sans Souci, Hearts- 
ease, etc. 




TO ovofia TO Tou IIwXwoj/o? aWa to tt}? Aiovlaf; 

7 TovTo /JL6V ovv varepov iiroLrjae, rore he TroXe^S" 
€V T€ T§ TaXaria /cat ev rfj ^Jfirjpia av^^ya^ 
cLTrwKLae, kol Kv^cKrjvoif; rrjv ekevOepiav arriBcoKe, 
^a^^ot9 Te aeio-fiw TroPTJo-aai koI 'X^prjp.ara e^apl- 
aaro koI ttjv ttoXlv Avyovarav KoXelu Kara 

8 Boyfia eTrerpe^e. ravra Be eypa-^a ov'X^ on ov ^ 
Kal dWai^ TToXecTL TroXXat? Kal irporepov kol 
fjuera tovto koI auTo? o Avyovarro^; e^' oixoiav^ 
avfKpopalf; /cat ol fiovXevral iireKOvprjaav, 0)V el 
Tt9 airdvTOiv /jlv7]/jlov€vol, airepavTOV civ to epyov 
Trj<; auyypa(f>7]<i yevoLTO' aXX' otl Kal Tas; eVo)- 
vvfiia<; rat? iroXeaiv r) yepovaia ev fiepec Tipbrj^; 
eve/JL€, Kal ovx (oairep vvv avTol eavTot<; eKaaTOi 
KaTaXoyov^ ovopbaTcov ou? av eOeXrjawcriv co? 
TrXrjdev iroiovvTai. 

24 Tft) 3* eTnyiyvofxevM eVet Ma/j/co? P'ev Kpdaaof; 
Kal Tvaio<; KopvT]Xio<; viraTevaav, ol 8* dyopavojxoi 
01 KOVpovXiov, d7rei7r6vT€<; ttjv dp^r)v otl e^aio-Lcov 
a<j)iai Twv opviOcov yevop.evwv yprjvTo,^ avOc^i 
avTTjv e^co tmv iTaTpi(ov\ ev eTepa eKKXrjaia dve- 

2 Xaffov. ij Te aTod rj UauXeto? eKavdr), Kal to 
TTvp dir avTfj<; Trpo? to 'EaTLacov d(j)i,KeTO, a>aT€ 
Kal Ta lepd e? t€ to UaXdTiov viro TOiv dXXwv 
deiTTapOevoov (j) yap rrrpecr/Sevovaa avTOiv eVe- 
TvcpXcoTo) dvaKOfJLLdOrjvaL Kal €<; ttjv tov lepew^ 

3 ToO Af09 OLKLav TeOrjvai. jj. jjuev ovv cFTod pueTa 


* oh supplied by Bs. {fi^ by Xyl,). 
2 ^prjvTo Rk., t]XpavTo M. 



and he built a colonnade, inscribing on it the name, b.c. is 
not of Pollio, but of Livia. 

However, he did this later. At the time we are 
considering he colonized numerous cities in Gaul and 
in Spain, restored to the people of Cyzicus their 
freedom, and gave money to the Paphians, who 
had suffered from an earthquake, besides allowing 
them, by a decree, to call their city Augusta. I re- 
cord this, not that Augustus and the senators, too, 
did not aid many other cities also both before and 
after this occasion, in case of similar misfortunes, — 
indeed, if one should mention them all, the work in- 
volved in making the record would be endless, — but 
my purpose is to show that the senate even assigned 
names to cities as a mark of honour and that the 
inhabitants did not, as is usually done now, make 
out for themselves in each instance lists of names 
according to their own pleasure. 

The next year Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Corne- bo- ^^ 
lius were consuls ; and the curule aediles, after 
resigning their office because they had been elected 
under unfavourable auspices, received it again, con- 
trary to precedent, at another meeting of the as- 
sembly. The Basilica of Paulus was burned and the 
flames spread from it to the temple of Vesta, so 
that the sacred objects there were carried up to the 
Palatine by the Vestal Virgins,^ — except the eldest, 
who had become blind, — and were placed in the 
house of the priest of Jupiter. The basilica was 
afterwards rebuilt, nominally by Aemilius, who was 
» Cf. xlii. 31, 3. 



TTOiTjaavTO^ irore avrrjv yevo^i ikriKvdd, rw Be 
epyo) VTTO re rod Avyovarov koI viro tmv rov 
UavXov (piXcov dvwKoSo/jL'rjdi]' rore 8e oi re Hav- 
voviOL vecorepio-avre^ av6i<; i')(^6Lpco07jaav, koX at 
"AXireif; at irapadaXao-alhioL vtto Atyvcov rcov 
f€0/jLr]T(bv Kakovfxevwv iXevOepcos en koI rore ve- 

4 /JLO/Jbevai, iSovXcoOrjaav. tcl re iv tm IBodTropo) rw 
Ki,fJLfJL6pLa) v60')(^fMci)aavra fcarearr]. X/cpc^copio^; 
yap TL<; rod re MiOpcSdrov 6yyovo<; elvai kol 
rrapd rod Avyovcrrov Tr)v /SaaiXelav, iireihrjirep 
6 "A(TavBpo<; ireOvijKei, elXrjt^evai Xeycov, tt^v 
yvvacKCf, avrov Avva/iiLV re KaXovjjievr^v real ttjv 
dpx^v Trapa rov dvSpo<;\ iirLrerpa/jLfjievrjv, y^i rov 
re ^apvcLKOV 6vydrr)p kol rov MtOpiBdrov eyyovo^ 
dXrj6(o<i TjVi rjydyero, kol rov ^oarropov Bid 'X^eipb^ 

5 eiroielro. 7rv06/Jievo<; ovv ravra 6 AypiinTa^ rov 
UoXe/jLOJva eV avrov, rov rov Uovrov rov tt/jo? 
rfj KaTTTraBo/cla ovro<i fiaaiXevovra, eVeyLfx^e- Kal 
09 ^KpL^coviov fxev ovKerv irepLovra KareXa^e 
(fjba06vre<i yap ol ^oaTTopioi rrjv iirilSoXrjv ^ avrov 
TTOoaireKreivav avrov), dvrcardvrcov Be ol i/ceivayv 
Beei rov /uurj ^acnXeveaOaL avrw Bodrjvat, eV x^^P^^ 

6 acpiaiv rjXOe. Kal evUrjo-e fiev, ov /u,r)v Kal irape- 
arrjaaro a(f)a<; irplv rov ^ Ay piiv it av 6? Xtvdoirrjv 
iXOelv ft)9 Kal eV avrov^ arparevaovra. ovro) Be 
rd re oirXa Karedevro Kal ra> UoXe/jLoyvi, irapeBo- 
6r}o-av' 7] re yvvrj rj Avva/Jbi^i awMKijaev avrwi rov 

7 Avyovarov BrjXov on ravra BiKaL(joaavro^. / Kal 
^ eir avrol^ Ovaiai fxev rw rov ^ Ay pLirirov ovofian 

iyevovro, ov fievroL Kal rd einvLKia KairoL '\jrrj(f)L- 
aOevra avr^ eTrefi^Or]' ovre yap eypa^^ev dpxh'^ 



the descendant of the family of the man who had b.o. 14 
formerly erected it, but really by Augustus and the 
friends of Paulus. At this time the Pannonians re- 
volted again and were subdued, and the Maritime 
Alps, inhabited by the Ligurians who were called 
Comati/ and were still free even then, were reduced 
to slavery. And the revolt among the tribes of the 
Cimmerian Bosporus was quelled. It seems that one 
Scribonius, who claimed to be a grandson of Mithri- 
dates and to have received the kingdom from Augustus 
after the death of Asander, married Asander's wife, 
named Dynamis, who was really the daughter of 
Pharnaces and the granddaughter of Mithridates and 
had been entrusted with the regency by her husband, 
and thus he was holding Bosporus under his control. 
Agrippa, upon learning of this, sent against him. 
Polemon, the king of that part of Pontus bordering 
on Cappadocia. Polemon found Scribonius no longer 
alive, for the people of Bosporus, learning of his 
advance against them, had already put him to death ; 
but when they resisted Polemon through fear that 
he might be allowed to reign over them, he en- 
gaged them in battle. But although he conquered 
them, he was unable to reduce them to submission 
until Agrippa came to Sinope with the purpose 
of conducting a campaign against them. Then 
they laid down their arms and were delivered up 
to Polemon ; and the woman Dynamis became his 
wife, naturally not without the sanction of Augustus. 
For these successes sacrifices were offered in the 
name of Agrippa, but the triumph which was voted 
him was not celebrated. Indeed, he did not so much 

^ i.e. the " long-haired." Ct. Gallia Comata, xlvi. 55, 5. 



€9 TO (TvviSpcov V7r€p roiv 7rpa')(0evr(ov ovBev, d(f)' 
ov Srj Koi 01 fiera ravra, v6fX(p tlvl tw eKsivov 

TpOTTO) XP(O/Jb€V0C, OvB^ aVTOL Ti TW KOivSt Ct' 

eiriareWov, ovre rrjv ireixy^rLV twi/ vcKrjTTfpLcov 

8 eSi^aro' ^ koI Bia rovro ovS* dW(p tlvI €TL tmv 

6/JLOLCov avTw, M<; ye koX ejo) /cpLVco, iroirjcrai tovto 

iBoOr), aXXa fiovaif; rnu^ eTTiviKioL^ tliioI^ iyav- 


25 *0 S* ovv ^ Avyovaro^ iTreiBrj Trdvra rd re iv 
Tat9 VaXariai^ koI rd iv rat? VepfjiaviaL^ ral^ r 
*1^7}plai<;, TToWd fiev dvaXcoaa^; 0)9 eKdcrroL^ iroX- 
Xd Be Kol Trap eTepcov Xa^cov, rrjv re eXevOepiav 

KoX T7JV TToXlTeiaV T0i9 fJi'eV BoV<; T0U9 5' d(j)€\6/J.6VO<;, 

BitpKTjcraTO, Tov fJL€P Apovcrov iv rfj TepiMavla 
KareKiTrev, avTo<; Be €9 t^z^ *Pd>fjLr}v iiri, re tov 
Ttfiepiov KOL iirl K.vLvr iXtov ^ Ovdpov virdrwv 

2 dveKOfiLdOrf. koI erv^e yap 17 dyyeXia rfj^; d<fii- 
^€co<; avTOV iv iKeivai<; ral^ r]p,epaL^ €9 to darv 
iXOovaa iv al<i K.opv^XLO<} Ba\/5o9 to OeaTpov to 
Kol vvv iir* avTOV /caXov/jievov KaOLepct)aa<; 6ea<; 
iireTeXety iirl t€ tovtw ct)9 koI avTo<; tov AvyovaTOv 
iiravd^wv iae/jLvvvcTO, KaiToi viro tov irXtjOovi 

(tov vBaTo<;, oirep 6 Ti^epL<; irXeovdaa^ iTreTroiyKei, 
/j>r)Be icreXOelv 69 to OeaTpov el firj irXoiw Bvv7)6ei<^y 
Kol 6 Tt)Se/)£09 irpwTov avTov iirl ttj tov OeaTpov 

3 Tififj i7r€yjrtj(l)L(Tev. rj Te yap fiovXrj rjOpolaOrj, Kal 
eBo^e acfuaiv dXXa Te Kal ^(o/jlov iv avrw tw ^ov- 
XevTTjplq) virep t^9 tou AvyovaTov iiravoBov iroiij- 

1 ^Sc'loTO Bk., iS^^avTO VM. ^ 5. ^,5^ Pflugk, yovv VM. 

» KvivTi\iov R. Steph., kvivtiWov VM. 


as notify the senate of what had been aceompHshed, b.c. 14 
and in consequence subsequent conquerors, treating 
his course as a precedent, also gave up the practice 
of sending reports to the public ; and he would 
not accept the celebration of the triumph. For this 
reason, — at least, such is my opinion, — no one else 
of his peers was permitted to do so any longer, 
either, but they enjoyed merely the distinction of 
triumphal honours. 

Now when Augustus had finished all the business 
which occupied him in the several provinces of Gaul, 
of Germany and of Spain,i having spent large sums 
upon special districts and received large sums from 
others, having bestowed freedom and citizenship 
upon some and taken them away from others, he left 
Drusus in Germany and returned to Rome himself in 
the consulship of Tiberius and Quintilius Varus, b.c. 13 
Now it chanced that the news of his coming reached 
the city during those days when Cornelius Balbus 
was celebrating with spectacles the dedication of 
the theatre which is even to-day called by his 
name ; and Balbus accordingly began to put on airs, 
as if it were he himself that was going to bring 
Augustus back, — although he was unable even to 
enter his theatre, except by boat, on account of 
the flood of water caused by the Tiber, which 
had overflowed its banks, — and Tiberius put the 
vote to him first, in honour of his building the 
theatre. For the senate convened, and among its 
other decrees voted to place an altar in the senate- 
chamber itself, to commemorate the return of Augus- 

^ Literally, "in the Gauls, in the Germanics, and the 
Spains." "Germany" here and just below refers to the 
provinces of Upper and Lower Germany, west of the Rhine. 
See note on liii. 12, 6. 

VOL. vr. M 


aaaOai, T0t9 re iKeTevaaaiv avTovi €vto<; tov frm- 
fjLrjpLov ovra dSetav elvai. ov fievroi Kal eSe^aro 
ovherepov, a\ka fcal rrjv aTrdvrrjaiv rou hrjiiov Kal 

4 t6t€ e^earrf' vvkto^ yap e? ryv ttoXlv eaefcofjuiaOr}, 
oirep TTOv Kal ael &>? elirelv, etre I? tcl Trpodareia 
€iT€ Kal dWo(T6 TTOV eKhrjfjLoiif], Kal d(f)opfjL(t)fi€vo<; 
Kal eiraviwv 6/jlolq)<; iiroUt, iva /JbrjSevl auTcov 
oX^^po? €trj, rfj 8' vcTTepaia ev re rw iraXariw 
rov ^rjfiov T^aTrdcraTO, Kal 6? to K^airtrcoXLov dveX- 
6wv TTTjv re Bd(f)vrjv diro twv pd^Scov TrepcelXe Kal 
€? rd TOV A to? ryovara Karedero, tm re ^ S^jfKo 
TTpoLKa rd T€ XovTpd Kal tov<; Kovpea^ rr)v rjfiepav 

6 €KeLvr)v 7rapeo-%e. avvayayoDV Be 6k tovtov to 
povXevrrjpiov avrcx; fiev ovBev elirev vtto ^pdy^ou, 
TO Be Brj Pi^Xiov^ Tm Tafila^ dvayvwvac Bovf; rd 
Te ireirpayixeva ol KarrjpiO jirjcraTo, Kal Btera^e rd 
re eri] oaa ol iroXlraL arparevaoLvro, Kal rd XPV~ 
fxara oaa nravcrd^evoi rrj<; arpareia^;, dvrl rrj<^ 
'y^copa<; rjv dei irore yrovv, XTjyjroLvro, oircok '^ eirl 
f)rjroL<; CKeWev rjBr) KaraXeyopbevoL fJur^Bev rourcov ye 

6 eveKa vewrepil^waiv. fjii Be o re dpidpLo^ rcov ercbv 
Tot? pev Bopv(^6poi<i BcoBeKa TOi? 8' dXXot<; eKKai- 
BeKa, Kal to * dpyvpiov roL<; p,ev eXarrov rol<; Be 
irXelov. ravra Be eKeivoi^ piev ouO^ r}Bovr)v ovr 
6pyr]v ev ye rw rore irapovn eveiroirja-e Bid ro p^ijre 
irdvrwv wv eTreOvpuovv rv^elv pbrjre irdvrwv Bia- 
fiaprelv, roU Be Br} dXXoL<; dya6d<; eXTriBa^ rov 
pbrjKeri rcov Krr]p,dro)V dcpaiped^aeaOai. 
26 Merd Be Brj ravra ro re Oearpov ro rov Map- 
KeXXov KoXovp^evov Kadiepcjo-e, Kav rfj rravrjyvpei 

1 T€ Bk., 5^ VM. 2 ^^^xiov Y, ^v^xiov M. 

» raixl% Bk., TaiiiAai VM. « ri. Bk., tJ> fi^v VM. 


tus, and also voted that those who approached him b,c. is 
as suppliants while he was inside the pomerium 
should not be punished. Nevertheless, he accepted 
neither of these honours, and even avoided en- 
countering the people on this occasion also ; for he 
entered the city at night. This he did nearly always 
whenever he went out to the suburbs or anywhere 
else, both on his way out and on his return, so that 
he might trouble none of the citizens. The next 
day he welcomed the people in the palace, and then, 
ascending the Capitol, took the laurel from around 
his fasces and placed it upon the knees of Jupiter ; 
and he also placed baths and barbers at the service 
of the people free of charge on that day. After 
this he convened the senate, and though he made no 
address himself by reason of hoarseness, he gave his 
manuscript to the quaestor to read and thus enu- 
merated his achievements and promulgated rules as 
to the number of years the citizens should serve in 
the army and as to the amount of money they should 
receive when discharged from service, in lieu of 
the land which they were always demanding. His 
object was that the soldiers, by being enlisted hence- 
forth on certain definite terms, should find no excuse 
for revolt on tliis score. The number of years was 
twelve for the Pretorians and sixteen for the rest ; 
and the money to be distributed was less in some 
cases and more in others. These measures caused 
the soldiers neither pleasure nor anger for the time 
being, because they neither obtained all they desired 
nor yet failed of all ; but in the rest of the popula- 
tion the measures aroused confident hopes that they 
would not in future be robbed of their possessions. 

He next dedicated the theatre named after Mar- 
cellus. In the course of the festival held for tliis 



rfj Bia rovro yevofievrj Trjv re Tpoiav ol TratSe? ol 
evirarpihai oi re oKKoi koI 6 eyyovof; avrov 6 
Tdio<; LTTTrevaav, Koi Orjpla Ai^vkol k^aKoaia 

2 airear^dyrj' rd t€ yeveOXia tov Kvyovarov 6 


LTrTroBpopla koI (T(j)ayaL<; dr]pi(ov ecopraae, fcal ev 
rm K.a7nT(o\ia) koI iicelvov koI rrjv ^ovXrjviKard 
Soy/jua avTrj<; elariaaev. 

3 'Ea: Se rovrovi i^eTa(rt,<; avBi^ rcov fiovkevrMv 
eyevero. eTreihr] yap rb pev irpoirov SeKa pvptd- 
Bcop TO rlprjpa avroh Mpicrro 8ia ro crvxyov^i rwv 
irarpwwv VTTO tojv iroXepayv icrTeprjaOaif 7rpol6vro<; 

Se TOV y^pOVOV KoX TWV dvdpcOTTCOV Tr€pLOV<Tia<i 
KTCOpeVfOV €9 TTeVTE Kol €1X0(70 7rpOT])(^9rj, OVK€T 

4 ouSel? cOcXovtI ^ fiov\€V(T(ov evpiaK6T0, dWa kuI 
TratSe? elalv ot Kal eyy ovoi ^ovXevrwv, ol pev co? 
d\'r]0(o<; irevopevoL ol he koX Ik avpcftopwv irpo- 
yovLKwv TeTaireLvw pevoi, ov)(^ oaov ovfc dvTeiroi- 
ovvTo TOV ^ovXevTiKov aftcoyLtaro?, dWa Kal irpoa- 

5 KaTeCkeypevoL rjhr] i^copvvvTO. Kal Std tovto^ 
TTpoTEpov pevy dTTohrjpovvTO^ €Ti TOV AvyovaTov, 
hoypa eyevero tou9 elKocri KaXovpevov<; dvBpa<; 
ix Ta>v lirirewv dTToBeiKwa-Oar 66 ev ovkct ovBel^ 
kvTCOv 69 TO jSovXevTTjpLov €(Teypd<f)r), prj Kal erepav 
Tivd dpxv^ 'T'wi^ 69 avTO eadyeiv Bvvapevwv Xa^cov. 

6 ol Be Bt} ^ eiKoaiv ovtol dvBpe^ €k tmv ef Kal el- 
Koaiv elaiVy oX Te TpeX<i ol tcl^ tov Oavdrov BlKat 
TTpoaTeraypevoL, Kal ol eTcpoi rpel^; ol to tov 

1 ieeXovrl R. Steph., ieeXovrri VM. 

2 oi 5e 5J) Rk., elre Si) V, ot t« 5ij M. 



purpose the patrician boys, including his grandson b.c. is 
Gaius, performed the equestrian exercise called 
" Troy," ^ and six hundred wild beasts from Africa 
were slain. And to celebrate the birthday of 
Augustus, lullus, the son of Antony, who was 
praetor, gave games in the Circus and a slaughter 
of wild beasts, and entertained both the emperor 
and the senate, in pursuance of a decree of that 
body, upon the Capitol. 

After this there was another purging of the lists 
of the senate. At first, as we have seen, the rating 
of senators had been fixed at four hundred thousand 
sesterces, because many of them had been stripped of 
their ancestral estates by the wars, and then, as time 
went on and men acquired wealth, it had been raised 
to one million sesterces. Consequently no one was 
any longer found who would of his own choice be- ' 
come a senator ; on the contrary, sons and grandsons 
of senators, some of them really poor and others re- 
duced to humble station by the misfortunes of their 
ancestors, not only would not lay claim to the 
senatorial dignity, but also, when already entered on 
the lists, swore that they were ineligible. Therefore, 
previous to this time, while Augustus was still absent 
from the city, a decree had been passed that the i 
Vigintiviri, as they were called, should be appointed 
fr©m the knights ; and thus none of these men 
eligible to be senators was any longer enrolled in , 
the senate without having also held one of the other I 
offices that led to it. These Vigintiviri are what is • 
left of the Vigintisexviri, of whom three '^ are in 
charge of criminal trials, another three ^ attend to 


See xliii, 23, 6, and note. * Ih-esviri capiiales. 
s 2\esviri monetales. 



vofxlajJLaTo^ Koixfia fjueTax^cpt^o/iiepot, ol t€ rea- 
aape^; ol tmv iv rw darei oBmv iTTL/iieXov/jLevoi, koX 
ol SeKa ol irrl rcov BiKaanjpLcov rcov e? tov<; efcarov 

7 avhpa^ K\r)povfi€V(ov aTToheiKvvp.evor ol yap Brj 
Bvo ol Ta<; efft) rov T€L)(^ov<; oSou? €y)(eipt^6/jL€voi, 
ol r€ T€(Taap€<; ol e? rrjv K.afi7ravLav 7re/jL7r6fMevoi, 
KareXeXwro. tovto re ovp ev rfj rov Avyovarov 
€K8r]fila i^ln](j)La^7], koX Xv\ iTreihr) /jLrjBeU en pahi(o<; 
rr)v Srjfjiapx^civ yrei,^ KXrjpco Tive<; ^ 6k t(ou rera- 
IxievKOTwv Kal /jlt^tto) reaaapaKovra errj yeyovoTwv 

8 KadiaTcovTat. Tore Be avTo^i 7rdvTa<; avrov<i e^i]- 
Taae, /cat ra filv rcov virep Tvevre koI rpiaKovra 
err) yeyovoTcov ovk €7roXv7rpay/j,6vr]<re, tou? Be 
evTOf; re rr}? riXtKLWi TavT7)<i oVra? f^al to TL/JLrjfia 
e\ovTa<i jSovXevaat KarTjydyKaae, %ft>/)l9 '^ ec ri^ 

9 dvdirrjpo^; tjv. koX tcl jiep acofiara kolI avrq^ irov 
avTwv^ ecopa, irepl Be Br) roiv ovcricov BpfcoLf; iiri- 
arovTO avTMp re eKeivcov xal erepcov avvo/jLvvvrayv 
a^iai Kal Xoyi<r/jLOV{T7J<; t€ diropla^i dfxa Kal rov 

piov BlBoPTlOV. 

27 Kal OVK ev p,ev TOL<i kolpoU toi,ovto<; ^p, tcjvI^ 
lBlcop * iiraprjfjLeXei, dXXd Kal tS> Ti^epitp iire^j.-^ 
firjaep ort top Tdiop ep rfj iraprjyvpet rrj evKralaJ 
Tjp eirl rfi eirapoBcp avrov BierldeLf TrapeKadidaro^ 
koICtS B'^/xm/ on Kal Kp6Toi<; Kal eiraipoi'^ avrop 
2 eTi/Jir)(Tap. eneiBr] re rod AeiriBov fjueTaXXd^aprofi 

pT<i M, fJTOi V. ^ Tiyes Leuncl., rivas VM. 

avrwy M, avrhv V. * iSiwy cod. Coisl., iSiuruv VM. 



the coinage of the money, four ^ look after the b.c. is 
streets in the city, and ten ^ are assigned to the 
courts which are allotted to the Centumviri ; for the 
two 3 who were once entrusted with the roads out- 
side the walls and the four* who used to be sent to 
Campania had been abolished. This was one decree 
that was passed during the absence of Augustus ; 
there was also another providing that, since no one 
was any longer ready to seek the tribuneship, some 
of the ex-quaestors who were not yet forty years old 
should be appointed to the office by lot. But on the 
present occasion Augustus himself made an investi- 
gation of the whole senatorial class. With those 
who were over thirty-five years of age he did not 
concern himself, but in the case of those who were 
under that age and possessed the requisite rating he 
compelled them to become senators, unless one of 
them was physically disabled. He examined their 
persons himself, but in regard to their property he 
accepted sworn statements, the men themselves and 
others as witnesses taking an oath and rendering an 
account of their poverty as well as of their manner 
of life. 

Nor did he, while showing such strictness in the 
public business, neglect his private affairs ; indeed, 
he rebuked both Tiberius, because at the festival, 
given under Tiberius' management, in fulfilment of 
a vow for the emperor's return, he had seated Gains 
at the emperor's side, and the people for honouring 
Gaius with applause and eulogies.^ On the death of 

^ Quatuorviri viia in urhe purgandis ; cf. chap. 8, 4. 

* Decemmri stlitibus iudicandia. 

* Duoviri viis extra urbem fnirgandis. 

* Quutuor praefecti Capuam Cumas. 
5 Cf. Suet., Aug. 56. 



dpxi'^peco'; aireSeLX^V ^^^ ^^^ rovO' r) /3ov\rf y^'q<\ii- 
craadac . . . .^ avrw^ rjOeXrjaei^, ovre tl avTMV 
TTpoarjcreGOai e^r], koL iyKei/juevcov ol e^aveari] re 

3 Kol i^TjXOev €K rov avveSplov, Kal ovre eKelva 
€T cKvpcoOi] ovT OLKLav Tivo, SijfjLoaLav eXa^evy 
aXXa p,epo<i re tt}? iavrov, on rov dpxt^ipecov ev 
KOLvSi TrdvTcof; oIkelv e^pr iv, ihrjfiociwaev. ttjv 
p^evTOL Tov fiacTiXeax; tcop lepSiv^ rat? deLirapdevoi'^ 
ehwicev, eireihrj^ OMPIGI^? Tat9 olKYjaeaiv avTcov 

4 K.opvr)XLov T€ ^laivpov^ aWiav eVl tw ttj^ yv- 
vaLKO'i ^i(p (j')(^QVTO<iy Kal iv rw avvehpicp elirovro'^ 
on, xal €tSoT09 xal avp^ffovXevaavro^i ol avrov 
r/ydyero avrrfv, irepiopyrj^ re iyevero Kal ej^e fxev 
ovEev ovSe eirpa^e Beivov, eKirTjhrjaa^ Be ' eK rov 
^ovXevTTjpLov CTreira p,er oXLyov e7ravr)X6ev, eXo-_ 
/i,€J^09, (W9 ye Kal toI<^ (plXoL'^ p,erd ravra e^rj, tovto 
p,dXXov KaiTTep ovk opOco^; e)(^ov jroiijaai rj[ Kara 
')(^d)pav pjeiva^i dvayKaaOrjvai tv KaKov Bpdaai. 

28 f K.dv TOVTO) TOV ^AypiTTirav 'CK t^? SvpLa<i ]€X- 
OovTa Ty T€ h-qp.ap'^iKf) e^ovaia av6i<i e? dXXa 
err) ivevTe ipLeydXvve Kal e? ttjv Tlavvoviav iroXe- 
p,7](reL0V(7av e^eirep^e, pel^ov avrw tcov eKaara- 
X^^^ ^'f^ '^V^ *lraXi,a<i dp^oPTcov lax^JO-cii eiriTpk-^ 
2 -vfrci?. fcal 09 TTjv p.ev aTpaTeiav KaiTOt, tov ;!^ei/xwi/09, 
iv ft) MdpKO(; re OvaXepio<i Kal YlovirXLO^i SouAc— 
nriKLO^i virdrevov, evecTrjKOTO^ eiroLrjaaTo, eKirXa- 
yevTwv Be tcov Uavvovicov Trpo^ ttjv e^oBov avTOv 

^ Lacuna recognized by Eisner. ^ ahr^ V, avruv M. 
8 Upo>v Leuncl., Upfov VM. 
* ^7r€t5^ H. Steph., HeX h\ VM. 
^ 'Xiffivvou Glandorp, oiavriov VM. 



Lepidus he was appointed high priest and the senate ac. is 
accordingly wished to vote him [other honours (?)] ; 
but he declared that he would not accept any of 
them^ and when the senators urged him, he rose and 
left the meeting. That measure, therefore, now 
failed of passage, and he also received no official 
residence ; but, inasmuch as it was absolutely neces- 
sary that the high priest should live in a public 
residence, he made a part of his own house public 
property. The house of the rex sacnficulns, how- 
ever, he gave to the Vestal Virgins, because it was 
separated merely by a wall from their apartments. 

When Cornelius Sisenna was censured for the 
conduct of his wife, and stated in the senate that 
he had married her with the knowledge and on 
the advice of the emperor, Augustus became 
exceedingly angry. He did not, to be sure, say or 
do anything violent, but rushed out of the senate- 
house, and then returned a little later, choosing to 
take this course, though it was not the correct thing 
to do, as he said to his friends afterward, rather 
tlian to remain where he was and be compelled to 
do something harsh. 

Meanwhile he increased the power of Agrippa, 
who had returned from Syria, by giving him the 
tribunician power again for another five years, and 
he sent him out to Pannonia, which was eager for 
war, entrusting him with greater authority than 
the officials outside Italy ordinarily possessed. And 
Agrippa set out on the campaign in spite of the fact 
that the winter had already Ijegun (this was the 
year in which Marcus Valerius and Publius Sulpicius b.c 12 
were the consuls) ; but when the Pannonians be- 
came terrified at his approach and gave up their 



Kal firjSev en veayrepiaavToyv eiravrfKOe, koI if 

3 Ka/jL7ravia yevo/nevo^i ivocrrjo-e, irvOofievo^i he tov- 
TO 6 AvyovcrTO<; (eTv^e Be ev rol<; Ylavadrjvaloi^ 
oTrXofiaxi'CL^i ajcovaf; ra> tcov TraiBcov ovofiariJ 
TiOeisi) i^cop/jii]07j, Koi KardXa/Sciiv avrov TeOvriKo- 
ra €9 T€ TO aarv TO acofia avTOV eaeKOfjuiae koX ev 
TTj ayopa TTpoeOrjKe, top Te \6yov tov eV avTOv 
elTre, irapaireTacriJid tc irpo tov veKpov irapaTeivasif 

4 OTTep ej(o jjuev ovk olha hia tl iiroLtjaev, etpTjTCLi.Be 
6/jico<; T0t9 fiev otl dp^Lepecof; rjv, rot? Be OTi tol t(ov 
TifiTjTwv eirpaTTev, ovk 6pOa)<; (ppopovaiv ovt€ yap 
Tft) dp')(^Lepe(p direLpTjTai veKpov opdv ovTe tw tl- 
firjTjjy TrXrjv av to reXo? rat? d'Troypa<^ah fxeWri^ 
eTrd^eiv dv ydp Tiva irpo tov KaOapaiov lBtj, 
dvdBacTTa to. Trpw^OevTa avTw irdvTa yiyveTai, 

5 TovTO T€ ovv qvT(i)<; eBpaae, Kal Tr)v eKCJyopdv avTOV 

/ iv T(£> TpoTTO) ev oS Kol uvTOf; fieTa raOra €^r)VexOr) ^ 
eiroirjaaTOy kol avTov Kal ev Tq> eavTOv ixvr)p,ela> - 
eda-yjre, KaiTOi lBlov ev t« 'Apeto) TreBlw \a^6vTa} 
29 'AypLTTTra^ fiev ovv ovtw fieTrjWa^e, ra re 
dWa dpi(rTO<; tcov kuO^ eavTov dvOpcoircov Bia- 
^av(o<; yevoixevo^, Kal[T7J tov AvyovaTOv ^iXlcl' 

1 irpo^ Te TO avT(o eKeiv(p Kal irpo^ to tm KOtva> 

2 (jvp,(f)Op(jDTaTOV 'X^prjadpLevo^. oaov Te ydp Tov<i 
aXXof? dpeTTj KaTeKpaTei, ToaovTov eKeivov eOe- 
c^vTij^i rjTTOLTO, Kal irdaav avTw ttjv eavTov Kal 
aocfnav Kal dvBpelav e? Ta XvaneXeaTaTa Trape- 

1 \a$6vTa M, ovra V. 



plans for rebellion, he returned, and upon reaching b.c. 12 
Campania, fell ill. Augustus happened to be ex- 
hibiting, in the name of his sons, contests of armed 
warriors at the Panathenaic festival,^ and when he 
learned of Agrippa's illness, he set out for Italy ; 
and finding him dead, he conveyed his body to the 
capital and caused it to lie in state in the Forum. 
He also delivered the eulogy over the dead, after 
first hanging a curtain in front of the corpse. Why 
he did this, I do not know. Some, however, have 
stated that it was because he was high priest, others 
that it was because he was performing the duties of 
censor. But both are mistaken, since neither the 
high priest is forbidden to look at a corpse, nor the 
censor, either, except when he is about to complete 
the census ; but if he looks upon a corpse then, 
before his purification, all his work has to be done 
over again. Now Augustus not only did what I have 
recorded, but also had the funeral procession of 
Agrippa conducted in the manner in which his own 
was afterward conducted, and he buried him in his 
own sepulchre, though Agrippa had taken one for 
himself in the Campus Martins. 

Such was the end of Agrippa, who had in every 
way clearly shown himself the noblest of the men 
of his day and had used the friendship of Augustus 
with a view to the greatest advantage both of the 
emperor himself and of the commonwealth. For 
the more he surpassed others in excellence, the 
more inferior he kept himself of his own free will 
to the emperor ; and while he devoted all the 
wisdom and valour he himself possessed to the 
highest interests of Augustus, he lavished all the 

^ In Athena. 



')(cov iraaav rr^ii irap eKeuvov koX tl/jLtjv koX ^vvafXLv 

3 €9 TO Tou? aWov<; euepyereiv avrjXLaKev. a^' ov 
hr] Koi ra jxakLara ovt avrw irore toS Avyovara) 
iirax^rjf; ovre tol<; aWoL'i eTri^Oovo^ iyei/ero, dXV v 
CKeLvq) T€ rrjv fxovapXf'CLV (^cw? koX hwaareim 0VT(0<i I 
i7n6vfjL7]Tr)<;^) avviaTr]a€f koX Tov Srjfiov evepye- 

4 aLai<i &)9 Kol S7]p,0Ti/c(OTaT0<; irpocreTroi'^craTO. kol 
Tore yovv Krjirov^ re a(f>iai Koi to ^aXavelov to 
erroivvp.ov avrov KareXiTrev, ^crre irpolKa avTOv<; 
Xovadac, '^^aypLa tlvcl e9 rovro rco Avyovarq) Sov<;. 
KOL 09 ov jjLovov ruvr ihrjpLoa-ievaev, aXKa koX 
KaO* eKarov^ Spax/^^^ ^^ Brj/iw 0)9 Koi eKeivov 

5 Ke\evaavro<i SteveijjLe. rcov re yap TrXeia-rcov 
avrov ifcXijpovofirjaev, iv 0I9 aXka re /cat 1) 
yi€pp6v7]ao<i ^v^ 9^ Trpb<i rw '^WrjaTrovrcp, ovk 
oW oira3<i^e<i rov ''AypiTTTrav eXdovaa' koX irdvv 

( €7rl TTO^ul avrov iTrpOrjaev, Kal Bta rovro ] teal 
evrip^ov irapa rw BrjpL(p iTroirjae, rov re vlov rov 
reXevrt]aavri oi yevvqOevra ^AypLTnrav irpoaj]- 

6 yopevaev. ov fievroi ovre rol<; dXXoi<; eKXiirelv rt 
roiv irarpltov, KaiTrep pLySevo^i rcov irpcorcav 69 Ta9 
iravrjyvpei'i airavrrjaai e6eXovro<^, eiTerpe-\\re, Kal 
auT09 Ta9 pbovopaxj^a'i BiereXeae' TToXXdKi<i re * 

7 Kal diTovro<i avrov eirqiovvro. ovrw yovv ovk 
lBlov rovro to rrd6o<i rfj rov ^Ayplmrov OLKia 
dXXa Kal kolvov iraat Tot9 'Pct)/xatoi9 eyivero, s^ 
ware Kal arjpeca oaairpo rcov fMeyuarcov avp(j>opa)v I 

^ in i6v/j.r]T^s Xyl., iiridufxriTrji VM cod. Peir. 

^ iKariv M, '(EKaarov V cod. Peir. 

^ ^v supplied by Ba. * re Bs., 7c VM. 



honour and influence he received from him upon b.c. 12 
benefactions to others. It was because of this in 
particular that he never became obnoxious to 
Augustus himself nor invidious to his fellow-citizens ; 
on the contrary, he helped Augustus to establish the 
monarchy, as if he were really a devoted adherent of 
the principle of autocratic rule, and he won over the 
people by his benefactions, as if he were in the 
highest degree a friend of popular government. At 
any rate, even at his death he left them gardens and 
the baths named after him, so that they might bathe 
free of cost, and for this purpose gave Augustus 
certain estates.^ And the emperor not only turned 
these over to the state, but also distributed to the 
people four hundred sesterces apiece, giving it to be 
understood that Agrippa had so ordered. And, in- 
deed, he had inherited most of Agrippa's property, 
including the Chersonese on the Hellespont, which 
had come in some way or other into Agrippa's hands. 
Augustus felt his loss for a long time and hence 
caused him to be honoured in the eyes of the 
people ; and he named the posthumous son born to 
him Agrippa. Nevertheless, he did not allow the 
citizens at large, although none of the prominent 
men wished to attend the festivals, to omit any of 
the time-honoured observances, and he in person 
superintended the gladiatorial combats, though they 
were often held without his presence. The death of 
Agrippa, far from being merely a private loss to his 
own household, was at any rate such a public loss 
to all the Romans that portents occurred on this 
occasion in such numbers as are wont to happen 

^ For the baths, see liii. 27, 1. The estates here mentioned 
were to provide an income for the maintenance of the baths. 



(TV/jL/3aLV€tv a<f)i(TLV eiwOey koX tot€ avvevexOrjvai. 
fivat T€ yap ttj ttoXci Bie(f>OLTr]<Tav, /cal xepavvb^ 
f €9 Tr]v iu rw ^AX/3avw oIklov, e? fjv ol VTraroc iv 
8 rat? lepovpylat^ KaraXvova^v, eviaKrjyjre. to re 
aarpov 6jco/jLi]Tr]<; d)vo/jLacrjjb€vo<; eVl 7roXXa<; rj/jie- 
pa<; virep avrov rov acnew^ alcoprjOel^ e? Xafi- 
7rdSa<; hieXyd/q, /cat irvpl aXXa re rr}? TroXeco? 
<TV)(^va fcal T} rov 'YcofivXov o-ktjvt] iKavOr], KopaKwv 
Kpka 69 avTTjv i/c ^co/jlov tlvo<; efjuirvpa ififfa- 
SO OvT(o fjbev ra Kara ^ Kypiirirav iyevero' pLcra Be 
Brj ^ TOVTO 6 Avyov(TTO<i e7np.eXr}Trj<; re /cal irrav- 
opOcorrj^ TMV rporrcov 69 erepa err} irevre alpe6ei<i 
(xal yap rovro Kara Trpodea/iiLa^, wcrirep rrov Kal 
rrjv fiovap'x^iav, eXdpL^ave) 6vp,tav re rov^ ^ov- 
Xeura<; ev to3 <Tvvehpl(p, 6<Tdfci<; av ehpa avrcov jj, 
Kal rr)v d(f)i^iv 7r/?09 eavrov /jltj ^ iroielcrOai, to 
p,ev Xva deo(T€/3a)ai, to ^e tV drrovrjrl^ avvLcoacv, 

2 eKeXeucre. rrjv Be Br)/jLapXiav oXlywv (TcftoBpa Bia 
TO rrjv la')(yv acftcov KaraXeXvaOai alrovvrwv, evo- 
/jLoOerrjaev eK rcov iTTTrecov rSyv pur) eXarrov irevre 
Kal ecKoai, /xvptdBa^ KeKrrjp^evwv irpo^dXXeaOai 
rov<; ev ral^ apx^i^ €va e/cao-rov, KaK rovrcov ro 
TrXrjOo^ TOL'9 ivBeovra^ aipetaOai ecf)* w re,^ el /lev 
Kal ^ovXeveiv fierd rovT eOeXotev, el Be pn], €<^ 
rrjv linrdBa av0i<; eiravuvai e^elvai, -v 

3 ^EireiB^ re rj 'Acrta ro e6vo<; eiriKovpia'!; rivo<; J 
, Bia (Teiapiov<; pidXicrra eBetro,^ rov re <f>6pov avrij^i 

^ 5^ V, om. M. 

''' ni) supplied by Bk., following Casaubon. 

^ a-novrirl R. Steph. , cnrovrjTcl VM. 

* e<p' ^ T€ Bk., a(piaiv VM. * i^uTo Dind., ^l^tro VM. 



to them before the greatest calamities. Owls kept b.c. 12 
flitting about the city, and lightning struck the 
house on the Alban Mount where the consuls lodge 
during the sacred rites.^ The star called the comet ^ 
hung for several days over the city and was finally 
dissolved into flashes resembling torches. Many 
buildings in the city were destroyed by fire, among 
them the hut of Romulus,^ which was set ablaze by 
crows which dropped upon it burning meat from 
some altar. 

These were the events connected with Agrippa's 
death. After this Augustus was chosen supervisor 
and corrector of morals ^ for another five years ; for 
he received this office also for limited periods, as he 
did the monarchy. He ordered the senators to 
burn incense in their assembly hall whenever they 
held a session, and not to pay the usual visit to him, 
his purpose being, in the first instance, that they 
should show reverence to the gods, and, in the 
second, that they should not be hindered in con- 
vening. And inasmuch as extremely few candidates 
sought the tribuneship, because its power had been 
abolished, he made a law that the magistrates in 
office should each nominate one of the knights who 
possessed not less than one million sesterces, and 
that the plebs should then fill the vacancies in the 
tribuneship from this list, with the understanding 
that, if the men desired to be senators later, they 
might do so, or otherwise they should return again 
to the equestrian order. 

When the province of Asia was in dire need ot 
assistance on account of earthquakes, he paid into 

* At the Feriae Latinae. ^ i.e. the "hairy" star. 

3 Cf. xlviii. 43, 4. * Pra^ectus morihus. 



rov ereiov Ik tmv eavrov ')(^prj/jLdT(ov tm kolvw 
ia^veyKe, koI dp^ovrd ol i/c rov KXrjpov, dXX ou% 
aiperov, eVl hvo errj irpoaera^e. 

4 Ka/cw? re irore rov ^ATrovXetov ^ koI rov Is/iai- 
KTjvov iv hLKa(Trripi(p rivl poi^eia^;, ovy^ on ri "^ 
Kol avrol v^pifceaav dX>C on rw Kpivop^evcp 
aTTOvSr} arvvrjpovro, aKovovrcov rjXOe re e? to 
BiKaanjpLov, koI iv rfj rod arparrjyov eSpa 
Ka6L^rjaa<i Seivov fiev ovSev eirpa^ev, aTrenroDV 8e 
Tft) Karrjyopfp [xrjre rov<; avyyevel<^ purfre rovs 

5 <j)i,Xov<; avrov TrpoiTTjXaKi^eiv dveari-j. Koi avrbv 
Bid re ravra kol 8ia rd dXXa dvhpLaai re eK 
avvreXeia^ erifiyaav, koI {r& roU re dyvvoi<i Kal 
rai<;^ dvdvSpoL<i Kal avvueaaOai roL<; dXXoi<; Kal 
o-vvBeiTTvelv iv rot? yeveOXiot^ , avrov Sovvai' ov 
yap i^Tjv ovSerepov. 

31 'n? 8' ovv * o ^Aypi7nra<i, ovirep rrov Bi dperrjv 
dXX^ ov Bl dvdyKr)v nva rjydTra, ireOvi^Kei, Kal 
(Tvvepyov 7rpo<; rd irpdypara iroXv rwv dXXwv Kal 

1 rfi rip,fj Kal rfj Bvvdp,ei rrpo(f)epovro<;, Mcrre Kal iv 
Kaipw Kal ydvev (pdovov Kal i'jn^ovXri<; rrdvra 
BtdyecrOai, i^eiTO, rov Tc^epiov Kal aKoay Trpocr- 
etXero' ol yap eyyovoi avrov iv rraiaiv en Kal 

2 rore rjaav. Kal TTpoaTTOo-Trdaa^ Kal eKeivov rrjv 
yvvalKa, Kairot rov re ^ Ay plirTrov Ovyarepa e'f 
dXXrj^; nvo<; yaperrjt; ovaav, Kal reKvov ro pev 
ijBr) rpe(f)Ovaav ro Be iv yaarpl e^ovaav, rr)v re 
'lovXiav ol ijyyvrja-e ^ Kal iirl roi)? Uavvoviov^ 
avrbv i^errep.'yjre' reco^ p^v yap rov ^Aypimrav 

^ aitovXiiov M, airovXiov V Xiph. 

* T< M, om. V. ^ Tois V, Tois M. 

* 6' oly Pflugk, yovy VM. ^ ijyyvTjae V, iyyvrjae M. 



the public treasury from his private funds the b.c. 12 
amount of its annual tribute and assigned to it for 
two years a governor chosen by lot and not 

On one occasion, when Apuleius and Maecenas 
were subjected to abuse in court when a case of 
adultery was being tried, not because they had 
behaved wantonly themselves, but because they 
were actively aiding the man on trial, Augustus 
entered the court-room and sat in the praetor's 
chair ; he took no harsh measures, but simply forbade 
the accuser to insult either his relatives or his friends, 
and then rose and left the room. For this action 
and others the senators honoured him with statues, 
paid for by private subscription, and also by giving 
bachelors and spinsters the right to behold spectacles 
and to attend banquets along with other people on 
his birthday ; for neither of these things had b^^^^ , 
permitted previously. ^ ', ^ 

When now Agrippa, whom he loved because of His 
excellence and not because of any kinship, was 
dead, Augustus felt the need of an assistant in the 
public business, one who would far surpass all the 
others in both rank and influence, so that he might 
transact all business j)romptly and without being 
the object of envy and intrigue. Therefore he 
reluctantly chose Tiberius ; for his own grandsons 
were still boys at this time. He first made him, as 
he had made Agrippa, divorce his wife, though she 
was the daughter of Agrippa by a former marriage 
and was bringing up one child and was about to 
give birth to another ; and having betrothed Julia to 
him, he sent him out against the Pannonians. This 
people had for a time been quiet through fear of 



<f)0^r}6evTe^ rjcrv^aa-av, rore Be T6\€VTi)(TavT0<^ 

3 avTOV €7rav6(TT7]<Tav. Kai cr(f)a<; o lLL^epio<;, TroWa 
fiev T7J9 'X,(opa<; Tropdrjaa^ ttoWcl Be /cat rov^ 
avOpciyrrov^ KaKooaa^, i')(eLp(o(TaTO, rot? ^KOphi- 
aKOL<^} 6fi6poL<^ T€ avTwv Kol 6/jLOcrKevoi<; overt, 
avfjLfid^oi<; on jiaXiGTa 'X^prjad/Jievo';. koX rd re 
oirka (T(f)cov d(j>ei\€To, kol t^? rjXtKia^ to TrXetov 

4 eV i^aycoyfj direBoro. kol avTM Bt,a ravra r) 
fiev ^ouXr) rd ye ^ eTTLviicLa iyjrrj^LO-aTO, 6 B^ Av- 
yovaro^; ravra fiev ovk eTrerpeyjrev eoprdaat, ra? 
^€ Ti/ia? ra? eTTLVLKiov^ dvreBcoKe. 

32 To 8' avro rovro fcal rS) Apovafo avveffrj, rwv 
re yap ^vydfi/Spwv Kal rMV av/jL/j,d')(^cov avrcov Bid 
re rrjv rov Avyovcrrov dirovciav Kal Bia to ^ tou? 
TaXdra<i fir) iOeXoBovXelv iroXefiwOevraiv a^lai, 
ro re virrjKoov tt pOKareXape, tou? 7rp(orov<; avrov, 
7rpo<pdaei rrj^ eoprr)<; fjv Kal vvv irepl rov rov 
Avyovcrrov ^cop^ov ev AovyBovv(p reXovai, fiera- 
7refM'^dp,evo<;, Kal rov<; KeXrou? rr]prjaa<^ rov 
2 ^Vrivov Biafiaivovra^i dveKO-^jre. Kal fxerd rovro 
€<? re rrjv roov Ovcnirercov Kar avrrjv rrjv rwv 
Bardovcov * vt](Tov Bii^rj, Kal irrl rrjv ^vyapuppiBa 
eKeWev eimrapeXdcbv (TV)(ya CTTopdrjaev. €? re 
rov MKeavov Bid rov ^Frjvov KararrXevaa^i rov<; re 
^piabov<; ^ (pKeidxraro, Kal e? rrjv XavKtBa Bid 
TTJf; Xifivr]<; e/i^aXoov iKivBvvevae, rcbv rrXoiwv 
VTTo ^ T^9 rov mKeavov iraXippoiaf; cttI rov ^rjpov 

' (TKOpdlffKOlS M, KOphlcTKOlS V. 

2 7€H. Steph., T€ VM. 

8 rb supplied by R. Steph. 

•* Baraovuiv Leuncl. , UaTaovwv VM. 

^ ^piffiovs Bk., <ppfi(Tiovs VM. 

inh Rk., iirl VM. 




Agrippa, but now after his death they had revolted. b.c. 12 
Tiberius subdued them after ravaging much of their 
country and doing much injury to the inhabitants, 
making as much use as possible of his allies the 
Scordisci, who were neighbours of the Pannonians 
and were similarly equipped. He took away the 
enemy's arms and sold most of the men of military 
age into slavery, to be deported from the country. 
For these achievements the senate voted him a 
triumph, but Augustus did not permit him to cele- 
brate it, though he granted him the triumphal 
honours instead. 

Drusus had this same experience. The Sugambri 
and their allies had resorted to war, owing to the 
absence of Augustus and the fact that the Gauls 
were restive under their slavery, and Drusus there- 
fore seized the subject territory ahead of them, 
sending for the foremost men in it on the pretext of 
the festival which they celebrate even now around 
the altar of Augustus at Lugdunum. He also 
waited for the Germans to cross the Rhine, and 
then repulsed them. Next he crossed over to the 
country of the Usipetes,i passing along the very 
island of the Batavians, and from there marched 
along the river to the Sugambrian territory, where 
he devastated much country. He sailed down the 
Rliine to the ocean, won over the Frisians, and 
crossing the lake,^ invaded the country of the 
Chauci, where he ran into danger, as his ships were 

^ The Usipetes or Usipii dwelt at this time just east of 
the Rliine and north of the Lupia (Lippe). 

'^ Some have taken this to be the Zuyder Zee (Lacws Flevo), 
others the bay at the mouth of the Ems, east of which the 
Chauci lived. Presumably he would already have sailed 
through the Zuyder Zee to reach the Frisians. 



3 yevofievfov. Kal rore /jl€v vtto rSiv ^piaifov ^ 
Treff} (Tvveo-T parevKOTwv avTw crcodelf; avexf^pv^^ 
(^€cp.0DV yap rjv)t Kal e? rrjv 'P(i)/ii7)v i\6oiV dcrrv- 
v6fM0<; eiri re Kvlvtov AlXiov Kal iirl UavXov 
^a^Lov VTrdrcoVy Kaiirep rd^; ar partly lkcl^ rifxa<; 
33 e\^o)v, direhelxpy)' d/ia Be rw r/pi tt/jo? tov iToXepbov 
av6t<; cop/Jbrj(T€, Kal tov re 'Vrjvov iirepaKoOrj Kal 
Tou? OvaiTriraf; KaTeaTpeyjraTO, tov re Aovniav 
efeufe Kal i<; Trjv twv Xvydfifipcov ive/SaXe, Kal Be' 
avTrjf; Kal 69 Ttjv HepovaKiSa irpoe'xoyp'nae ^ fi^XP'' 

2 TOV OvLaovpyov.^ rjBvvrjOr) Be tovto iroirjcrai, otl 
ol Xvyap^pot T0U9 XaTTOU?, /jl6vov<; tmv rrpoa- 
OLKCOV fir) e0ekrj(ravTd<; ^ a(f)iai avfjUfxaxv^CLt, ev 
opyrj o-%oi^T€9 TTavBrj/jLel eV avTov<; i^ecrrpdTeva-av, 
Kav ^ Tft) Kaipa) tovtm eXaOe ^ Tr]V ^wpar avTCJV 
B(€^€\dot)v. Kal Bl€^7] dv Kttl TOV OvlcTovpyov, el 
fit} Tcov T€ eTTLTTjBeLcov e(nrdvL(Te Kal 6 x^^H'^^ 
iveo-TTj Kal tl Kal a/nrjvof; iv t5> aTpaToireBo) avTov 

3 m^Ot], ovt ovv TrepacTepo) Bid TavTa rrpoex'^' 
prj(T€, Kal €9 Tr)v ^tXiav dvaKo/jLL^ofievo^ B€lv(o<; 
€KLvBvv€V(T€V ol ydp TToXe/jLLoi aX,Xa)9 T6 €viBpai<; 
avTOV eKaKwcrav, Kal ttotg 69 cnevov Kal kolXov 
Xfoplov KaTaKXelaavTc^ oklyov BoecpOeipav, Kav 
TracravBl dv^ dirdiXeaav, el /jlt) KaTa^povr)aavTe<^ 
(Ttpcov ft)9 Kal eaXcoKOTcov Kal fxid^ e7nKoiT7]<; ^ 

^ (ppiffioov M, (ppficriav V. 
2 ■irpofX<^P''l<'^^ Leuncl., TrpocexwpTjo'e VM. 
2 Oviaovpyov Leuncl., ovicrovrpov VM. (and similarly just 



left high and dry by the ebb of the ocean. He was b.o. 12 
saved on this occasion by the Frisians, who had 
joined his expedition with their infantry, and with- 
drew, since it was now winter. Upon arriving in b.c. 11 
Rome he was appointed praetor urbanus, in the 
consulship of Quintius AeHus and Pauhis Fabius, 
although he already had the rank ot praetor. At 
the beginning of spring he set out again for the war, 
crossed the Rhine, and subjugated the Usipetes. 
He bridged the Lupia,i invaded the country of the 
Sugambri, and advanced through it into the country 
of the Cherusci, as far as the Visurgis.* He was 
able to do this because the Sugambri, in anger at 
the Chatti, the only tribe among their neighbours 
that had refused to join their alliance, had made a 
campaign against them with all their population ; 
and seizing this opportunity, he traversed their 
country unnoticed. He would have crossed the ^- 
Visurgis also, had he not run short of provisions, 
and had not the winter set in and, besides, a swarm 
of bees been seen in his camp. Consequently he 
proceeded no farther, but retired to friendly terri- 
tory, encountering great dangers on the way. For 
the enemy harassed him everywhere by ambuscades, 
and once they shut him up in a narrow pass and all 
but destroyed his army; indeed, they would have 
annihilated them, had they not conceived a con- 
tempt for them, as if they were already captured 
and needed only the finishing stroke, and so come 

1 The Lippe. « The Weser. 

* ideK-fjaavTas Bk., deX'f^aavTois VM. * Kay Rk., Kal VM. 
« ekade M, Su'Aafle V^. ' &v M, om. V. 

* iviKOvris M, iiriaKOTriis V. 



4 ovTWv ofxoae avrol^ aavvraKTOt ^ eX(*>PV^CLV, vi- 
Krj6€VT€<i yap €K tovtov ovKed^ o/xo/o)? iOpaav- 
vovTO, aXKa iroppwOev fxev a(f)a<i TrapeXvirovv, 
eyyv^ he ov TTpocTT^eaav, o)are rov Apovcrov avri- 
KaTa^povrjaavra avrcjv eKel re f]^ 6 re Aov7rla<i 
Kol 6 ^EiXiacov arvfifMLyvvvrai <f)povpL6v ri (j<f>L(TLV 
eTnret'X^Laai,, koI erepov iv yidrroL^ irap avrSi tS> 

5 'VrjV(p» Bia fjLev ovv ravra ra? re iTriVLKLovf; 
TtfJia^i Ka\ TO eVi xeXrjTO^ e? to ucttv iaekdaai, ttj 
re rod dvOvrrdrov i^ovala, iireihav Siaarpa- 
njy^arrj, ')(^pr]aa(T6ai eka^e. to yap ovofxa to toC 
avTOKpdropo^ €7r€(f)r]/jLi,(T0r) p.ev viro rcov arpa- 
Ti(or(ov Kal eK€iP(p rore Kal tS) Ti^eplo) irporepoVy 
ov^ fjievroL irapa rov Avyovarov iBoOrj, KaLirep 
avrov aTT* apxpoTepiov T(ov epyoov top dpidpov t?}<? 
iTriKXtjaeayf; av^rjcravrofi. 

34 'Ei^ cS S' ovv Apov(TO^ ravT^ eTrpajrep, t] re 
Travrjyvpif; rj rfj arparrjyLa avrov TrpoarjKOvaa 
TToXvrekeardrr) eTroiTjOrj, fcal ra yepedXia rd rov 
Avyovarov xal €P ra> lirrrohpofxw Kal ip rij aXXr; 

2 TToXei TToXXaxoOc Orjpiiop cK^ayal^ erifirjOr]. xal 
rovro fiep, Kairoi /jltj ■yfrrjcptaOiv, ip irdaLP a)9 
elirelp TOt? ereai, tt/do? riPo<i rcop del arparrjyovprcop 
eyiypero' rd he Br] AvyovardXia, d Kal pvp dyerai, 
rore Trpcorop eK B6y/jLaro<; ereXeaOrj. 

3 "O T€ Ttffepto<; rov<i re AeXp^dra^ P€OXP^crcivra<; 
Kal Tou? UappoPLov<i /xerd rovro tt/Oo? re rrjp 
eKeipov Kal 7r/30? rr)P rov irXeLOPo<; arparov dirov- 
alap v€(orepi(Tavra<i ix^ipcoa-aTO, iroXe/jLcop re d/ia 

^ atrvvraKTOi M, aavvTUKrov V. 

2 f M, V V. 

^ irpdrepov ov Leuncl., ov trpdnpov VM. 



to close quarters with them in disorder. This led b.o. ii 
to their bein^ worsted, after which they were no 
longer so bold, but kept up a petty annoyance of 
his troops from a distance, while refusing to come 
nearer. Drusus accordingly conceived a scorn of 
them in his turn and fortified a stronghold against 
them at the point where the Lupia and the Eliso ^ 
unite, and also another among the Chatti on the 
bank of the Rhine. For these successes he received 
the triumphal honours, the right to ride into the 
city on horseback,^ and to exercise the powers of a 
proconsul when he should finish his term as praetor. 
Indeed, the title of imperator was given him by the 
soldiers by acclamation as it had been given to 
Tiberius earlier ; but it was not granted to him by 
Augustus, although the number of times the em- 
peror himself gained this appellation was increased 
as the result of the exploits of these two men. 

While Drusus was thus occupied, the festival 
belonging to his praetorship was celebrated in the 
most costly manner ; and the birthday of Augustus 
was honoured by the slaughter of wild beasts both 
in the Circus and in many other parts of the city. 
This was done almost every year by one of the praetors 
then in office, even if not authorised by a decree ; 
but the Augustalia, which are still observed, were 
then for the first time celebrated in pursuance of 
a decree. 

Tiberius subdued the Dalmatians, who began a 
rebellion, and later the Pannonians, who likewise 
revolted, taking advantage of the absence of himself 
and the larger part of his army. He made war 

^ The Alme, uniting with the Lippe at Padeiboru. The 
usual classical form of the name is Aliso. 
2 That is, to celebrate an ovatio. 



afi<j)OT€poi<;, fcal totc fjuev ry rore Be rf} fiediard- 
jjL€vo<;, Mare kcu tmv aOXcov ^ tmv avrwv rw Apovarw 

4 TV')(^eLu. KCLK rovTOV Kol rj AeX/jLajia ^ rfj rov 
Avyovarov (jipovpa, o)? Koi ottXcov tlvojv aei fcal 
Bl eavTrju koI Sta rrjv rcov Havvoviwv yeLTOvlav 
Seo/jiivr], TrapeBoOrj. 

5 OvToc fxev Brj ravr eirpaaaov' eV Be Brj rot? 
avTOt? rovroi<i 'X^povoL'i Ovo\oyaL(Tr]<; ^ ^pa^ ^V^' 
ao^,* i€p€v<i Tov Trap' avTOL<i Alovvctov, irpoaeTroiij- 
aaro Tiva<; ttoWo, dei,d(ja<i, koX fxer avroiv cltto- 
aTa<; top t€ 'FaaKViropiv tov tov Kotuo? viov 
vi/crjaa^ direKTeive, Kal tov Oelov avTOv tov 'Fv^t}- 
tuXkt^v p,€Ta TavTa d/jiayel ryvfivcoaa^i TOiv Bvvd- 
fiecov Tfi Trapd tov Oeov ^ oo^y ^vyelv eTTOLijcre, Kal 
avTov iTriBLWKoyv €9 t€ Tr)v X€pp6vr]crov ive/SaXe 

6 Kol B€ivM<s avTyv eXvfirjvaTo. co? ovv outo? re 
TavT eiToiei Kal ol XtaXeTai Tr)v MaKeBoviav 
CKaKovpyovv, Aovkio^ TLiawv €K Ila/jL(f>v\ia<;, ^9 
^pX^y TTpoaeTd^Or) a(f)L(Tr Kal TT/aoai^a^co/^T^crai^Tft)!/ 
olKaBe TMV l^rjaacjv eTreiBr) irrvvOdvovTO avTov 
TTpoaiovTa, 69 Te Tr)v yrjv avTcov d<f)i,K6T0, Kal 
i]TTr]de\<i TO irpoiTOV dvT€7r€KpdT7)cre, Kal iKeCvrjv t6 
Kal TTjv Twv 7rpoa)(^copcov Toiiv crvveTravaaTavTcov 

7 a(f)laiv eTTopOrjae. Kal t6t€ tov^ fiev iOeXovTa^ 
rrpoaOefievo^i ^ tou9 B' dK0VTa<; €KTr\^^a<;, Tot9 Be 
Kal €K 7ra/3aTttfe&)9 avvevexPei^;, 7raVTa9 avT0v<i 
vTTTjydyeTo, Kal yuera tovto veoxP'MaavTd^; Tiva'^ 
avTCOv av9L<; KaTeBovXaycraTo. Kal avTU) BiaTavTa 
Kal lepop.i'jvlaL Kal TLfial eTriviKLOt, eBoOi^aav. 

1 6.eKu>p Bk., iAXa)V VM. 2 AcAjuoTto St., 5aA/taTio VM. 

^ OuoKo'yai(n)s Reim., fiov\oyai<Tr]S VM. 

* Bi)aa6s V, $eaa6s M. * deov Bk., deiov VM. i 

^ npoadt/A.fvos Oddey, vpoade/xivovs VM. 



upon both of them at once, shiftmg now to one b.o. n 
front and now to the other. As a result of his 
success he gained the same prizes as Drusus. After 
this Dahnatia was given over into the keeping of 
Augustus, because of the feeling that it would always 
require armed forces both on its own account and 
because of the neighbouring Pannonians. 

These men, then, were thus engaged. At this 
same period Vologaesus, a Bessian from Thrace and 
a priest of the Dionysus worshipped by that people, 
gained a following by practising many divinations, 
and with these adherents revolted. He conquered 
and killed Rhascyporis, the son of Cotys, and after- 
wards, thanks to his reputation for supernatural 
power, he stripped Rhoemetalces, the victim's uncle, 
of his forces without a battle and compelled him to 
take flight. In pursuit of him he invaded the Cher- 
sonese, where he wrought great havoc. Because of 
these deeds of his and because of the injuries the 
Sialetae were causing to Macedonia, Lucius Piso was 
ordered to proceed against them from Pamphylia, 
where he was governor. The Bessi, now, when they 
heard that he was drawing near, retired homeward 
ahead of him. So he came into their country, and 
though defeated at first, vanquished them in turn 
and ravaged both their land and that of the neigh- 
bouring tribes which had taken part in the uprising. 
At this time he reduced all of them to submission, 
winning over some with their consent, terrifying 
others into reluctant surrender, and coming to terras 
with others as the result of battles ; and later, when 
some of them rebelled, he again enslaved them. 
For these successes thanksgivings and triumphal 
honours were granted him. 




35 'Ev o> S* ovp eKelva eyiyveTO, 6 AvyovcrTo^i 
a7roypa(f)d<; re iiroiijaaro, iravra ra virdp-^ovrd ol 
KaOdirep Ti? ISiayrrj^; a7roypa^jrd/JL€Vo<;, kol t^i^ 
^ov\r)v KUTeXi^aro. opoiv he on ov/c del av^vol 
avpeXiyopTO, i/ceXevae rd Soy/juara avrrj^; kuI iv 
iXdrToaiv rj rerpaKoaloL^; ylypeaOar ov yap e^rjp 

2 TLPa eK Tov irpXp dXXw<i xvpovaOai. iTrecB^ re 
dpyvpiop avOif; e? CLKOPa^i avrov ^ koX eKeiPrj kol 6 
Brj/jLo(i avpea^peyxap, eavTOv /jLep ovhefJilap/TyLeia<^ 
he Br]/j,oa[a<i kol irpoaerL koI 'O/jLOpolu^ Wiprjpr]^; 
re e<JTr)(Tep. del re yap co? elrrelp kol . eirl Trdarj 
7rpo(f)dcrei, rovr i-rroLOVP, Kal reXo^; koI ip avry rfj 
irpcoTT} TOV erov; rj/juipa ovKen Ihia irov xare^aX- 
Xop avTO, dXX* avTcp eKeiPO) Trpocjiopre^i ol fiep 

3 TrXelop ol Be eXarrop eBLBoaap. Kal o? irpoadeU 
CLP erepop roaovrop rj Kal irXeop dpreBlBov, ovx 
OTTO)? T0t9 ^ovXevral^; dXXd Kal roi<i dXXot,<i. rjBr] 
Be Kal CKelpo rjKovaa, oti Kal dXXo ri dpyvpiop Ik 
Xoylov TLPO<i Tj Kal opeiparo^ irapd tcop 7rpo(rTV)(6p- 
T(i)v olyd}^ Kal irppaaiTMPjcp pad tov erovf; rj/Jiepa 

4 Kat TOVTO jjuep, eX ye rw inaTOP, ovray TrapaBi- 
Borar ip Be ro) eret eKeipcp rrjp re 'lovXlap Ta> 
Ti/SepLO) avpcpKLae, Kal ttjp ^OKraovlap Tr)P dBeX- 
(f>r)p diroOapovaap TrpoiOero iirl tov ^lovXieiov '^ 
r)pu>ov, TrapaTreTdfTfxaTL Kal t6t€ cttI tov peKpou 

5 %p?;o-tt/iei/o9. kol ai^ro? re eKel top €7rt,Td(f)cop 
elire, Kal 6 Apovao<i eirl tov /3i]fMaT0<{' Brj/jLoaiop 
yap TO TTepOo^ dXXa^ap^epcop Tr}P eaOrJTa Ta>p 
^ovXevTCJP eyepcTo. Kal to /jl€p aco/xa avTTJ^ ol 

' avTov Zon., iavTov VM. 

2 'lou\ifiov Dind., lovviov VM. 



While these events were occurring, Augustus b.c. ii 
took a census, making a list of all his own property 
like any private citizen ; and he also made a roster 
of the senate. As he saw that sometimes there were 
not many present at the meetings of that body, he 
ordered that its decrees should be passed even when 
less than four hundred were present ; for hitherto 
no decree could have validity if passed by a smaller 
number. When the senate and the people once 
more contributed money for statues of Augustus, he 
would set up no statue of himself, but instead set 
up statues of Sal us Publica, Concordia, and Pax. 
The citizens, it seems, were nearly always and on 
every pretext collecting money for this same object, 
and at last they ceased paying it privately, as one 
might call it, but would come to him on the very 
first day of tlie year and give, some more, some less, 
into his own hands ; and he, after adding as much 
or more again, would return it, not only to the 
senators but to all the rest. I have also heard the 
story that on one day of the year, following some 
oracle or dream, he would assume the guise of a 
beggar and would accept money from those who 
came up to him. 

This is the tradition, whether credible to any one 
or not. That year he gave JuHa in marriage to 
Tiberius, and when his sister died, he caused lier 
body to lie in state in the shrine of Julius ; and on 
this occasion also he had a curtain over the corpse.^ 
He himself delivered the funeral oration there, and 
Drusus delivered one from the rostra; for the 
mourning was publicly observed and the senators 
had changed their dress. Her body was carried in 

1 Cf. chap. 28, 3. 



ya/x^pol e^r)ve<yKav, tcl 8e hr) 'y^rj^LaOevTa avrfi ov 
nrdvra 6 Auyovaro^ iSe^aro. 
S6 K.av tS> avTw tovtw 'X^povo) o re i€p€v<; rov Aio? 
TTpoiTov fiera rov MepovXav aireSeix^^f '^^t Tot? 
Tafilai^ ra Boyfiara ra ^ eKaarore yiyvoixeva Sea 
(f)v\aKrj<; TTOietadat, eKcXevcrOr), eTreiSr) oX re B'^- 
fuap^oi, KoX ol ayopavopboi ol irpojepov avra iin- 

T€T pafJL/jL6V0l^ Sia T(ji)V Viri1p€T0)V TOVT eTTpajTOP, 

Kai Tt9 ifc TOVTOV Koi BiafiapTia xal rapaxv 

2 *Eyjrr)<l)L<jd7j fxev ovv top ^lapov top Ti/xcvop w<i 
Koi 7re7ravp,€P0)P rSiP 7ro\ep,(op (upewkto yap) 
K\€iaOi)pai, ov p,ePT0L Kal i/cXelaOr)' ol re yap 
AaKol rop "la-rpov rreiT'qyora Staff dpref; Xeiap ex 
T% Uavvop[a<; direr e/xopro, Kal ol A€\/J,drai ^ 
7r/)09 ra? eairpd^eL^ ra)P XPVf^^"^^^ iTrapecrrrjaap. 

3 Kal rovrov; p,ep 6 Ti,/3epio<i ck rrjf; FaXarta?, e<? r)p 
fxera rov Avyovarov eaeXyXvOec, KaraTTep,<^de\<i 
dveKTrjcrarOt^ rd Be Brj rcop K.e\rcop rcop re dXXcop 
Kal icjp adrrcop (tt/oo? yap rov<; Xvydpuffpov^; 
fierearTjaap, Kal rrj<;^ ^co/oa? avroyp, rjP olicelv irapd 
rSiP *Fa)/jLaLCi)p elX'^cpeaap, e^apearrjaap) 6 Apovao<i 

4 rd fjuep CKdKcoae rd Be exeipoiaaro. Kal p.erd 
rovro €? re rrjp 'Vcofirjp avp rep Avyovcrro) dpeKo- 
fxiaOrjaap (iv ydp rfj AovyBovviBi ^ rd TroWd 
ovro(;^ eyyvQep rot^; KeXrot? e<p€Bpeva)p Bierptffe), 
Kal ocra errl ral<; vLKai<^ i^^rjc^iGro rj Kal aXXo)? 
KadrjKOPra rjp yepeaOat, iTrereXeaap. 

^ TO supplied by Rk. 

* iTriTfTpaiJ.H€Voi R. Steph., fTriyeypufxixfyoi VM. 
' AeX/xdrai St., SaXfidrai VM. 

* ayeKrijcraTo Pflugk, avearriaaTo VM, 



the procession by her sons-in-law ; but not all the b,c. ii 
honours voted for her were accepted by Augustus. 

At this same period the priest of Jupiter was 
appointed for the first time since Merula,^ and the 
quaestors were ordered to preserve the decrees 
passed at various times, inasmuch as the tribunes 
and aediles, who had previously been entrusted with 
this duty, were performing it through their assistants, 
and in consequence some mistakes and confusion 

It was voted that the temple or Janus Geminus, 
which had been opened, should be closed, on the 
ground that the wars had ceased. It was not closed, b.o lo 
however, for the Dacians, crossing the Ister on the 
ice, carried off booty from Pannonia, and the Dal- 
matians rebelled against the exactions of tribute. 
Against these people Tiberius was sent from Gaul, 
whither he had gone in company with Augustus ; 
and he reduced them again to submission. The 
Germans, particularly the Chatti, were eitlier 
harassed or subjugated by Drusus. The Chatti, it 
seems, had gone to join the Sugambri, having 
abandoned their own country, which the Romans 
had given them to dwell in. Afterwards Tiberius 
and Drusus returned to Rome with Augustus, who 
had been tarrying in Lugdunensis much of the time, 
keeping watch on the Gennans from near at hand ; 
and they carried out whatever decrees had been 
passed in honour of their victories or did whatever 
else devolved upon them. 

^ See vol. ii. 477, and note. 

** TTJS Rk., T^J T€ VM. 

^ AovydovplZi R. Steph., Kovyiwyldi VM. 
' ovTos Reim., ovtus VM. 



TcfSe ivtffriv h r^ irevTtjKOirT^ trinirrtf rStv Mwvos 'Pw/xaiKtev 

a. 'Hj ApoixTos airedavev. 

$. 'Cls rh Aiovias Tffievos Ka6iepdi6rj. 

y. 'ris rh 'Aypimrov -jreSlov KaOifpwBt), 

8. 'n? ri) hipifindipiov^ Kadifpwdr]. 

€. 'ds Tifi4pios is 'P65oi' av^X'^PW^v. 

t*. 'ils v AvyovffTOv ayopa KadicpcoOrj. 

Tj. 'Cls 6 rov "Apews vahs 6 iv aurfi tcv KaOiepwdrf. 

0. 'ns Ao^Kios Ka7<rap koI rdios Kaifrap aviQavov. 

1. 'CLs Aijyovaros Tifiepiov iiroi-fiaaro. 

K. 'n.s Aiovia irap-^vfaev Ahyovarip <pi\avdpa>iroTfpop &pXftv. 

\. riepl Tosv arparovfSav Ka\ ws oi to. arpaTiwriKa xp^/^'^o 

iioiK7}(rovT€s KaTfaTTjaav. 
fjL. 'ris 01 yvKTo<pv\aKfS Karfarrirrav. 
V. 'ris AfXfiaTais Kol Uavvovlois Ti^epios iiroXffxrjfffv. 

■ Xp6vov wArj^os €T7J fTTTO/faiSevo, iv oTs &pxovr(s ol apiO/xoifitvoi 
6lS( iyivovTo 

"Nfpcov KXavSios Ti$. vl. ApoviTos „ 
T.^ KvivKnos T. v\. Kpicrir7vos 
r. MdpKios A. vi.^ Kr]v<Ta}p7vos ,, 
r. 'Aaivpios* r. vl. rdXXos ^'^' 
Ti$. K\ovSjoj^ Ti$. vl. Nepwv rh $' „ q 
Tv.^ KaKiTovpvios Tj/.' vl. Uicrwv^ 
AfKijxos AalKios AfKi/xov vl. BaA^Sos „ 
r. 'Avriarios F. vl. Ovcrcp 

* iipt^iTwpiov Bs., detpi^irSpiov M. 

2 T. Bs., Tt M. ^ A. vl. supplied by Bs. 

* 'Aaluuios Bs., aa-idvios M. * KAovSjos Xyl., k\' M. 
« rv. supplied by H. Steph. ' Ti'. H. Steph., y M. 



The following is contained in the Fifty-fifth of Dio's 
Rome : — 

How Drusus died (chaps. 1,2). 

How the Precinct of Livia was dedicated (chap. 8). 

How the Campus Agrippae was dedicated (chap. 8). 

How the Diribitorium was dedicated (chap. 8). 

How Tiberius retired to Rhodes (chap. 9). 

How the Forum of Augustus was dedicated (lacking). 

How the Temple of Mars therein was dedicated (chap. 10). 

How Lucius Caesar and Gains Caesar died (chap. 10 a). 

How Augustus adopted Tiberius (chap. 13). 

How Livia urged Augustus to rule more mercifully (chaps. 

About the legions and how men were appointed to manage 

the military funds (chaps. 23-25). 
How the night-watchmen were appointed (chap. 26). 
How Tiberius fought against the Dalmatians and Pannonians 

(chaps. 29-34). 

Duration of time, seventeen years, in which there were 
the magistrates (consuls) here enumerated :— 


9 Nero Claudius Ti. F. Drusus, T. Quinctius T. F. 

8 C. Marcius L. F. Censorinus, C. Asinius C. F. Callus. 
7 Ti. Claudius Ti. F. Nero (II), Cn. Calpurnius Cn. F. 

6 Decimus Laelius Decimi F. Balbus, C. Antistius C. F. 



Tli<rti)v Borghesi, irloroiv rh StuTtpov M. 
* vn. supplied by Bs. 



AijyovffTos rh t$' „ 

A.* Kopv{)\ios n. vt. 'XvWas 

r. KaXovicrios F. vt. "^a^lvos ., 
. « " « »^ - . 1 vir, 

A. ua<r(rir)V05 . . , vt. Pov<pos 

A.^ Kopv(]\ios A. vl. AevTovXns « 

M. Ova\(pio5 M. vi. MeatrdKas MfaaraXTvos^ 

AtiyovffTos rh ly' „ 

M. n\avTtos M. vi. "XiKovavos 


KSacos Kopv{]\ios Fv. vl AcvtovKos « 

A. KaXiTovpvtos Fv. vl. Hiacnv 

r. Kaiaap Avyovcrrov* vl. 

A. AifiiXios A. vl. Tlav\os 

n. OuivIkios^ M.* vl. 

n. 'AKcp^vos"^ n. vl. Ovap 

A. AfAioj' A. vl. Aanias^° 

M. lS,epovl\ios^^ M. vl. 

2e|Tos AfAtos^^ K. vl. Karor 


r. SeVrioj r. vl. ^arovpvlvos^^ 

A. Oua\€pios JIoTiTov vl. MeaffdXas Ov6\ai(ros^* „ jj 

Fv. Kopyr)\ios A. vl. Klvvas Mdyvos 

M. Alul\ios A. vl. Ae-KiSos „ 

A. AppovvTios A. VI. 

A5\.^^ AiKivios A{jX. vl.^'' Nfpovas^^ liXiavSs'^^ „ ga 

K. KaiKiKtos'^ K. vt.^i MfreWos Kp-nTiK6s "'^' 

M. ^ovpios^^ M.^* vl. KdfiiWos „ 

2f^. Nooj/toj^ r. vl."^^ KuiVTiAioftJs ^'^^ 

TaOra /xei' liri re roO 'louWou ^' ^Avtcovlov koX 
iwl ^afiiov Ma^i/jLov vTrdrcov eyevero,^^ rep he 

€)(^OfJi€Va) €T€l 6 ApOV<TO<: /l€Ta TiTOV KpKTTTLVOV 

* A. Kopvi\\ios . . . vl. 'Fov<f>os supplied bj'^ Xyl. and Bs. 

* A. supplied by R. iSteph. 

3 Mf(r(ra\7vos Mommsen, ^ Mf<r<Ta\7vos M. 

* AvyovffTov Reim., o(;7ot;(rT05 tov AI. 

^ OviviKios Bs. , ovivIkios fi /J.IV0VK10S M. • M. Xyl., J*. M. 

' 'AX0rj»'oj Bs. , iA<^7j>'os ^ aK(t>r}vios M. 

® Ovapos vv. Bs., UTT oijapos M. 

^ A. AJfAtosR. Steph., AatAios M. '" Aa/xmy R. Steph. , rafiias M. 
^^ 2€poi/rA<osR. Staph., (Topoi^iA/osM. ^^ AJfAtos Bs.,ai/i'A'OJ M. 
'•^ SoToupi'rj'os Leuncl. , (roTopi'?»'os M. 
** Ov6Xai(ros Xyl., ovd\ai<ros M. 
^* uir. supplied by Bs, ** A5a. Bs., oSAoj M. 



5' Augustus (XII), L. Cornelius P. F. Sulla. 

4 C. Calvisius C. F. Sabinus (II), L. Passienus . . . F. Rufus. 

3 L. Cornelius L. F. Lentulus, M. Valerius M. F. Messalla 

2 Augustus (XIII), M. Plautius M. F. Silvanus. 
1 Cossus Cornelius Cn. F. Lentulus, L. Calpurnius Cu. F. 



1 C. Caesar Augusti F., L. Aemilius L. F. Paulus. 

2 P. Vinicius M. F., P. Alfenus P. F. Varus. 

3 L. Aelius L. F. Lamia, M. Servilius M. F. 

4 Sextus Aelius Q. F. Catus, C. Sentius C. F. Saturninus. 

5 L. Valerius Potiti F. Messalla Volesus, Cn. Cornelius L. 

F. Cinna Magnus. 

6 M. Aemilius L. F. Lepidus, L. Arruntius L. F. 

,7 A. Licinius A. F. Nerva Silianus, Q. Caecilius Q. F. 

Metellus Creticus. 
8 M. Furius M.* F. Camillus, Sex. Nonius C. F. Quin- 

The events related happened in the consulship of 
luUus Antonius and Fabius Maximus. In the follow- 
ing year Drusus became consul with Titus Crispinus, 

^ Or P., if we follow the form given in the Fasti Capitolini. 

" ACa. vi. supplied by Bs. ^^ Uepovas R. Steph., ovepvas M. 

^3 l.i\iav6s Bs., ai\ai'6s M. ^o k KaitdKios Xyl, k' kuiKios M. 

21 K. vl. supplied by Bs. ^ ujr, supplied by Bs. 

'^^ ^ovpios Xyl., (poupyios M. 

^^ Instead of M. vl. Bs. would read IT. vt. See Fasti Capitol, 

'^5 Nwyios H. Steph., vwvvios M. 

-' A. vi. Leuncl., 7. vl. M. ^7 ^io{,xxov Bs., lovKiov M. 

^ The words ravra . . . iyevero appear at the end of 11 v. in 
VM ; Bk. placed here. V breaks off at this point ; cf, pref. 
to vol. i. p. XXV. 




virdrevae, Koi avrw cnj/jueia ovk ayada avprjve^O 
iroWa fiev jap koX aXka koX ')(€1/jL(oi^i koI Kepavvol^, 
TToWol Be Koi vaoX icpOdprjaav, ioare fcal top rov 
Aio<i rov J^aTTiTcoXiov rcov re avvvdwv avrov Ka- 

2 KooOrjvat,. ov fievTOi koi e^povTiqi ri avTOiv, aW' 
€9 re TTjV TOiv Xdrrcov ia60a\€ kol irporjXde fiexpt 
T>)9 XovYj/Slai;, TTjV re iv iroalv ovk draXaiTToypcos 
')(eipovii€vo^ Kol T0U9 TTpoafjLL'yvvvra'^ ol ovk dvai- 
fjLcorl Kparoiv. KavrevOev 7rp6<i re Trjv XepovaKuSa ^ 
fierea-rr), koX rov Ovicrovpyov ^ Bia^d<; rfkaae 

3 P'^XP'' "^^^ ^AX^LOV, Trdvra rropOMV. eKelvov ydp 
{pet Be eK rwv OvavBakiKcov opcav, koX e? rov 
WKeavov top TrpoadpKriov iroWw p.eyeOeL ckBl- 
BaxTLv) eirex^ipv^^ P'^^ irepaicodrjvac, ovk rjBvvTjOi] 
Be, dWd TpoTrata o-TT^cra? ai/e%co/D^o-6' 71^1^^ ydp 
Tt9 fieL^cov Tj Kara dvOpwirov <f)vatv diravrijaaaa 
avTOi e(j)r} ** ttol Bijra iTreiyy, Apovae aKopeare ; 
ov rrdvTa aoi. ravra IBelv Treirpoyrai. dX)C dinOr 
KOL ydp (TOi Kal rcov epycop kol rov ^iov reXevrrj 

4 7]Brj 7rdpe(TTt.y davpLaarov p.ev ovv to nva (fxoprjv 
"irapa ^ov Bul/jlovIov] roiavTijv tco yeveadaL ov 

pbivrot KUL diTLcrrelv e^w Trapaxp^jp-a yap aTre/Sr), 
(TirovBfi re v7ro(TTpeyjravro<i avrov Kal ev rfj oBw 
v6a<p rivL, TTpLP iirl rov ^Prjvov iXdelv, reXevrrj- 

5 aavro<i. Kal pLOi reKpL7]pWL ro Xex^ev on Kal 
XvKOt, irepl ro arparoireBov vtto rov ddvarov 
avrov 7repLVOcrrovvr€<; oDpvovro, Kal veavlaKOC Bvo 

( Bed p,eaov rov racppevparo^; Bumrevovre^ axpOr)- 
aav, BpTjvo^ re rL<; yvvatKeco^ '^Kovcdrj, Kal dare- 
pcov BtaBpop,al eyevovro. 

^ Xfpov(TKiSa Bk. , x^'pouo-zfiav M. 
* OUaovpyov Reim., oualaovypov M. 



and omens occurred that were anything but favour- b.o. o 
able to him. Many buildings were destroyed by 
storm and by thunderbolts, among them many 
temples; even that of Jupiter Capitolinus and the 
gods worshipped with him was injured. Drusus, 
however, paid no heed to any of these things, but 
invaded the country of the Chatti and advanced as 
far as that of the Suebi, conquering with difficulty 
the territory traversed and defeating the forces that 
attacked him only after considerable bloodshed. 
From there he proceeded to the country of the 
Cherusci, and crossing the Visurgis, advanced as far 
as the Albis,^ pillaging everything on his way. The 
Albis rises in the Vandalic Mountains,^ and empties, 
a mighty river, into the northern ocean, Drusus 
undertook to cross this river, but failing in the 
attempt, set up trophies and withdrew. For a 
woman of superhuman size met him and said : 
"Whither, pray, art thou hastening, insatiable 
Drusus ? It is not fated that thou shalt look upon 
all these lands. But depart ; for the end alike of 
thy labours and of thy life is already at hand." It 
is indeed marvellous that such a voice should have 
come to any man from the Deity, yet I cannot 
discredit the tale ; for Drusus immediately departed, 
and as he was returning in haste, died on the way of 
some disease before reaching the Rhine. And I find 
confirmation of the story in these incidents : wolves 
were prowling about the camp and howling just 
before his death ; two youths were seen riding 
through the midst of the camp ; a sound as of 
women lamenting w^as heard ; and there were 
shooting stars in the sky. So much for these events. 

1 The Elbe. « xhe Riesengebirge. 



2 Tavra fiev ovt(o<; ecr^e, irpoTrvOofMevo^i S* 6 Av- 
<yovcrTO<; on voael (ou fyap r)v Troppco), rbv Tiffeptov 
Kara Ta%09 eTreyLti/re* Kal 09 ep^irvovv re avrov 
KariXa^e koX airoOavovTa i<; rrjv ^Vwpurjv iKopLKie, 
rh p.ev TTpSiTa p^ixpi' tov %€i/xaStou rov aTparov 
Bid T€ Twv eKaTOUTdp)(^(ov Kal Bia rcov x^Xidp^cov, 
€KeWev Se Sea tmv kuO^ eKaa-TTjv rrroXtv irpcorcov 

2 fiaa-Taaa^. Kal avrov iv rfj dyopa tt pored evjo'^ 
BtirXov^i 6 €7rLrd(pi,o^ iXexOi]' 6 re yap Tt/Sepio^ 
euravOa avrov eTrrjveae, Ka\ 6 Avyov(Tro<; iv ra> 
^\ap,ivi(p iTnToSpopa)* i^earpdrevro ydp, Kal ovk 
r^y ol oaiov /jLT) ov ra KadrjKOvra iirl rol<; Karecp- ' 
yaa/Jbivoifi rrap avrrjv rrjv eiaco rov ircopLrjpiov 

3 eaohov eTrcreXeaai. Kal 6 fxev, I9 re ro "Apeiov 
rreSlov vtto rSiv lirTrecov, roiyv re 69 rrjv Imrdha 
dKpcfia)<; reXovvrcDv Kal rcjv €k rov ffovXevrifcov 
yevov^ ovrcdv, ^^e%^?;, KavravOa irvpl SoOeUJ^ to 
rov Avyovarov fivrj/ielov KarereOr], TepfMavt/cgf;. re 
fiera rS>v rraihcdv eirovofiaadeif;, Kal TiyLta9 Kal 
eLKovcov Kal ai^tSo9 Kevora<^iov re 7rpo<; avrw r5> 

4 'O Be Br} liL^epio^ roov re ^eXparcjv Kal roiv 
HavvovLfov viroKLvrjadvrcdV rt av6i,<; ^o)vro^ en 
avrov Kparrjaa^ii rd re irrl rov KeXrjro<i einvLKia 
eirep.y^e, Kal rov B/jp^ov toi'9 p^ev iv rw l^amra)Xi(A 
rov^ 3* dXXoOi, TToXXaxoOi iBeirrvLa-e. Kav touto> 
Kal T) Aiovla pera 7^9 'Ioi'Xta9 ra<i yvvaiKa<i elari- 



Augustus, upon learning of Drusus' illness before b.c 9 
it was far advanced (for he was not far off), had sent 
Tiberius to him in haste. Tiberius found him still 
breathing, and on his death carried the body to 
Rome, causing the centurions and military tribunes 
to carry it over the first stage of the journey, — as 
far as the winter quarters of the army, — and after 
that the foremost men of each city. When the body 
had been laid in state in the Forum, two funeral ora- 
tions were delivered : Tiberius pronounced a eulogy 
there in the Forum, and Augustus pronounced one 
in the Circus Flaminius. The emperor, of course, 
had been away on a campaign, and it was not law- 
ful for him to omit the customary rites in honour 
of his exploits at the time of his entrance inside 
the pomerium.^ The body was borne to the Campus 
Martius by the knights, both those who belonged 
strictly to the equestrian order and those who were 
of senatorial family ; ^ then it was given to the flames 
and the ashes were deposited in the sepulchre ot 
Augustus. Drusus, together with his sons, received 
the title of Germanicus, and he was given the further 
honours of statues, an arch, and a cenotaph on the 
bank of the Rhine itself. 

Tiberius, while Drusus was yet alive, had over- 
come the Dalmatians and Pannonians, who had once 
more begun a rebellion, and he had celebrated the 
equestrian triumph,^ and had feasted the people, 
some on the Capitol and the rest in many other 
places. At the same time Livia, also, with Julia, 
had given a dinner to the women. And the same 

1 He could not return the customary thanks to the gods 
at this time because he was in mourning ; hence he remained 
outside the pomerium until his period of mourning should be 
at an end. ^ q^^ \[y^ 2, 5. ^ The ovatio. 



5 aae. ra 5' avra ravra koI tg) Apovcrm rfroi/xd^eTO' 
Kai ye al avo')(^al Sevrepov t^z^ X^P^^ avrov, 7rpo<; 
TO ra vLKrjTijpia ev eVetVat? avrov eoprdaai, yevy- 
aeaOai efMeWov. aX)C 6 fxev TTpoaircoXeTO, rj he Brj 
AiovLa eiKovcov re iirl irapajjivdia eTv^e, KaX[e<i 

6 Ta9 /Jbr]Tepa<; ra? rpU ^ T€fcovaa<; iaeypdcprj, oU 
yap av ro Satjuoviov, etr" ovv dvBpwv etre yvvai- 
KMV, fir] Sw roaavTdKi<; reKviacraiy tovtcov tl<j\vJ) 
vofJLO';, iTporepov /jiev^pia t^? fiovXrjfi ^vvv SeSta rov 
avTOKpdropos!, to, tmv Tpl<; ^ yeyevvrjKorcov SiKaico- 
fiara yapi^erai, ware a(j>d(; jxrjre rot? tt)? dirai- 
hia^ €7nTipiOi<; ive^'^aOab Ka\ ra tt)? 7ro\v7raLSia<; 

7 dd\a 7r\r)v oXiyccfV tivwv KapirovcrOat. Kal avrd 
ovK dvOpcoTTOO fiovov dwd Kal OeoX evplaKovrai, 
Xv dv Tt? Tt auTOfc? reXevTcov KaTaXuTrrj Xa^i^d- 

S Tovro fiev Br) toiovtov €(Ttiv,o S* Kvyov(TTO<; rd^ 
T€ rrj<; yepovaia<; eSpa? iv pr]ral<i r]fxipaL<i yiyveaOai 
cKeXevaev {iireiBr} yap ovBep irpojepov aKpiffooq 
Trepl avTOJV ereraKTo Kai rive^ Bid tovto 7roXkdKi<; 
varepL^ov, Bvo ^ fiov\d<; Kara fxrjva Kvpia<; diriBei- 
^€V, Mare e? avrd^; eirdvayKe^, ov^ ye Kal 6 v6/jio<; 

2 ifcdXet, (TVfjL(j)0iTdv Kal oirod^; ye jxrjB^ dWrj /nrjBe- 
jxia (TK'i]'\jn<; T7}9 d7rovcria<! avrol^ virdp^r], irpoae- 
ra^e fjbrjre BiKaaTrjpiov fJbrjr dXXo firjBev rcov irpoa- 
TjKovTcov a^iaiv ev eKeiv(p to5 Kaipm ylyveaOai), 
TOP re dpiOfiov tov i<; rrjv Kvpwdiv tmv Boy/Jidrcov^ 

^ Tpls Leuncl., t€ rpls M. ^ rpls supplied by Xyl, 
* Suo supplied by Casaubon. 



festivities were being prepared for Drusus ; even b.c. 
the Feriae were to be held a second time on his 
account, so that he might celebrate his triumph on 
that occasion. But his untimely death upset these 
plans. To Livia statues were voted by way of 
consoling her and she was enrolled among the 
mothers of three children. For in certain cases, 
formerly by act of the senate, but now by the 
emperor's, the law bestows the privileges which 
belong to the parents of three children ^ upon men 
or women to whom Heaven has not granted that 
number of children. In this way they are not 
subject to the penalties imposed for childlessness and 
may receive all but a few of the rewards offered 
for large families ; and not only men but gods also 
may enjoy these rewards, the object being that, 
if any one leaves them a bequest at his death, they 
may receive it.^ 

So much for this matter. As to Augustus, he 
ordered that the sittings of the senate should be 
held on fixed days. Previously, it appears, there had 
been no precise regulation concerning them and it 
often happened that members failed to attend ; he 
accordingly appointed two regular meetings for each 
month, so that they were under compulsion to at- 
tend, — at least those of them whom the law 
summoned, — and in order that they might have no 
other excuse for being absent, he commanded that 
no court or other meeting which required their 
attendance should be held at that time. He also 
fixed by law the number of senators necessary for 

^ See liii. 13, 2 and note. 

^ Certain gods and goddesses (see Ulpian xxii. 6) might 
legally be named as heirs, but it appears that they had to 
fulfil the same conditions as the other heirs. 



ava'yKalov KaO^ CKaarov elho^ avroiyv, 0)9 yei ev 
K€(f)a\aiOt<; elrrelv, Sievo/jLoOerrjo-e, kol tcl ^tj/jliq)- 
fiara Tol<i /jltj Sl* evXojov rtva alriav tt}? avve- 
hpeia<; airoXeLTTOjjbevoL^ eTTTjv^iidev. eirei^rj re ttoX- 
\a\r(t)v Totovrcov viro rov irXtjOovf; jrcov virevOvvcov 
arifKoprjra etayOe ytyveaOai, KXr/pouadal re avTOv<; 
el cTV^vol TOVTO nTOirjcreLav, koI top ael irefiTTJov 
Xayovra o^XiGKaveiv avra ifceXevae. to, re 6p6- 
fiara crvfiiravrcov tmv fiovXevovrcov ]i^ XevKm/na 
avaypa'^ci'; e^edrjKe' koI ef eKeiyov \Ka\ vvv kolt 
erof; rovro TTOLelrai. ravra fiep eVl rfj r?}? av/j,- 
<potrr]a€(o<; avrwv avd'yKrj eirpa^ev el S* ovv irore 
€K (TVVTVX^ia^ Tivo<; fir) (TvXXex^^^^v 6aov<; ri %£eta 
eKCLcnoTe e/cdXet (irXrjv yap on oaaKi,^ av avroq 6 
avTOKpdrcop irapfj, ev ye^ raU aXXat^; rjpbepaif; €<; 
Trdvra oXiyov to tmv dOpoi^o/xivcov TrXrjOo^i /cat 
Tore KoX p,erd ravra aKpL^w^; i^rjrd^ero), e^ov- 
Xevovro fiev Kal i] ye yvco/jurj avv€ypdcf)€ro, ov 
fjbivroi Kal r€Xo<; n co? KeKvpoj/jievrj eXapb/Savev, 
dXXa avfcrcoptra^; eyiyvero, oirco^ ^avepbv ro fiov- 
Xrjfxa avTMv y. roiovrov ydp n rj Svvajiii^ rov 
6v6fiaro<; rovrov BrjXol' eXXijviaat yap avro Kad- 
dira^ dhvvarov ecrn. ro 8' avro rovro Kal eX 
7rore\€V rorro) rivl /jltj vevofiiafievw rj rjfjiepa /jlt] 
KaOrjKova-Tj, rj Kal e^co vofiifiov 'iTapayyeXfiarof;,'J 
VTTO airovSr]^ yOpoiaOrjcrav, rj Kal ivavrifoOevrcov 
nvoiv hrijjbdpX'^v ro fiev Boy /mi ovk rjhvvriOr). yeve- 
adai, rr)v Se Br) yvcofiyv a(pwv ov^, virefxevov diro- jl| 

1 76 Rk.. T« M. 


passing decrees, according to the several kinds of b.c. 9 
decrees, — to state only the chief points of the 
matter ; and he increased the fines of those who 
without good excuse stayed away from the sessions. 
And since many such offences had regularly gone un- 
punished owing to the large number of those who 
were liable to punishment, he commanded that if 
many were guilty, they should draw lots and one 
out of every five, according as the lot should fall, 
should incur the fine. He had the names of all the 
senators entered on a tablet and posted ; and this 
practice, originating with him, is still observed each 
year. Such were the measures he took to compel 
the attendance of the senators ; but if on any 
occasion, as the result of some accident, fewer as- 
sembled than the occasion demanded, — and it should 
be explained that at every session, except when the 
emperor himself was present, the number of those 
in attendance was accurately counted, both at that 
time and later," for practically every matter of 
business, — the senators would proceed with their 
deliberations and their decision would be recorded, 
though it would not go into effect as if regularly 
passed, but instead, their action was what was 
termed auctoritas, the purpose of which was to make 
known their will. For such is the general force of 
this word ; to translate it into Greek by a term that 
will always be applicable is impossible. This same 
custom prevailed in case they ever assembled in 
haste at any but the usual place, or on any but the 
appointed day, or without a legal summons, or if by 
reason of the opposition of some of the tribunes a 
decree could not be passed and yet they were un- 
willing that their opinion should remain unknown ; 



Kpv^drjvaL, ivo/jLi^€TO' /cat avrfj jnera ravra Kal r) 
Kvp(oai<; Kara ra Trdrpia eTrrjyero /cat r) eTTiKXrjo-if; 

6 T) Tov B6yfiaT0<; iirecjjipeTo. tovto re ovv la^vpco<; 
iirl TrXelarov rot? TToXai rrjprjOev e^irrjXov rpoirov 
TLva rjSri yiyove, koX to tmv (TTpaT7)ya)V' Kal yap 
eKelvoL dyavaKTri(7avT€<; otl firihefJiiav yvco/jLtjv, 
tcalroi TMV Brj/jidp^^^cov irpoTeTLfxripevoi, e? ttjv 
ffovXrjv 6<Te<f>€pov, irapd fxev rov Avyovcrrov eXa- 
^ov avTO TTOieiv, virb Se Brj tov 'X^povov dcprjpe- 

4 TauTtt T€ ovv Kal ToXXa a ^ t6t€ evo/jLoOeTrjcrev, e? 
T€ TO (TvvehpLOV ev \€VK(o/jLaaL yeypa/jLp^eva irpoe- 
OrjKe TTplv ')(pr)ixaTi(Tai tl irepl avrooVy Kal to?? 
^ov\evTat<; fied' €Vo<; krepov eaekOovaiv dvayvwvai 
CTreT peyjrev, oirco^ dv ti /jlt) dpear) avTov<i tj kol 
€T€p6v TL /ScXtlov (TV/jL^ovXevaai hvvrjOwaiv eliro)- 

2 (Tiv. ovTco ydp ttov Srj/jLOKpariKO'; rj^iov elvai 


avvrjyoprjfjLaTo^i irap^ avTOv SerjOevTO^; to jnev Trpoi- 
Tov TO)v <f)LXa)V TLvd, ft)9 Kal €v dcryoXia wv, 
(Tvvenrelv avTW KeXevaai, eireiT eTreiBrj €Kelvo<; 
opyKrOei^ €<f)rj " iyoD fxevrot, 6adKt<; iiriKovpia^ 
')(^peiav €(T')^e<;, ovk dXXov Tivd dvT i/iavTov aot 
eTrefJLyjra, dXX^ avTO<; TravTa^ov irpoeKLvhvvevcrd 
aov,^^ €9 T€ TO BiKaaTripLov ecreXOeiv Kal avvT^yoprj- 

3 aai ol. <^iXft) t6 Tivi Blkj]v (j)€vyovTt o-vve^rjTdaOi], 
TTpoeiTLKOivooaaf; avTo tovto tt) yepovala' Kal eKcl- 
vov T€ eacoae, Kal top KaTrjyopov avTov ou^ 07ra)9 

^ h supplied by Rk, 


afterwards the resolution would be ratified according 
to established precedent and would receive the name 
of a decree.^ This method, strictly followed for a 
long period by the men of old time, has in a way 
already become null and void, as has also the special 
privilege of the praetors. For they, becoming in- 
dignant that they could bring no proposal before the 
senate, though they outranked the tribunes, received 
from Augustus the right to do so, but in the course 
of time were deprived of it. 

These and the other laws which Augustus enacted 
at this time he had inscribed on tablets and posted 
in the senate before bringing them up for con- 
sideration, and he allowed the senators to enter the 
chamber in groups of two and read them, so that 
if any provision did not please them, or if they could 
advise anything better, they might speak. He was 
very desirous indeed of being democratic, as one or 
two incidents will illustrate. Once, when one of 
those who had campaigned with him asked him for 
his assistance as advocate, though he at first 
pretended to be busy and bade one of his friends 
speak in the man's behalf, yet when the petitioner 
became angry and said, " But I, whenever you had 
need of my assistance, did not send some one else to 
you in place of myself, but personally encountered 
dangers everywhere in your behalf," the emperor 
then entered the court-room and pleaded his friend's 
cause. He also stood by a friend who was de- 
fendant in a suit, after having first communicated his 
purpose to the senate ; and he saved his friend, but 
was so far from being angry with the friend's ac- 

^ It was now a eenatus consuUum, and no longer merely 
stnatus auctoritas. 




Bi 6pyrj<; e(r%€ Kaiirep irdw iroXkfj irappijaia 
'^prjo-dfjievov, dWa koI evOvvofxevov errl tol<; rpo- 
TTOL^ d(j)7]K€v, elrrcbv dvTLKpv^ ^ on dvayfcaia a<f>Laiv 
T) irapprfGia avrou Bed rrjv tmv iroWcov Trovrjpiav 
€L7}. dX\ov<; y€ fxrjv einfiovkeveLv ol iirjvv6evTa<; 

4 eKoXaae, /cal Tajiia^ ev re rfj nrapaXia rfj tt/jo? 
rrj TToXei Kol iv €TepoL<; ricrl r^? 'IraXta? %a)/3tot9 
dpxecv iiroLTjae' koI tovto kol inl TrXeico errj 

Tore fJL6V ovv ovk rjOekr^aev e? Tr]V ttoXiv Bed rov 

5 rov Apovaov Odvarov, Mairep elirov, eaekOelv, tS> 
Be ef^9 eret, iv o5 'A<rtVto9 re Td\Xo<; kol Tdio^; 
MdpKio^ VTrdrevo-av, Trjv re dcpi^iv eTTOirjaaTO koX 
TTjv Bd(f)vr]v 69 rov Ato9 tov ^eperpLov irapd to 

2 vofii^6/ji€vov ecrrjveyKe. kol at'T09 fiev ovBepiav 
eVt rovToi<; eoprrjv r^yaye, ttoXv irXeiov iv tw rov 
Apovaov oXiOpo) i^rj/jiicoaOao rj iv ral<; vLKai<^ 
od^eXrjdOai vo/jll^cov ol Be Br) viraroi rd re dXXa 
oaa iirl T049 roiovrot<; yiyverai iTroirjaav, kol iic 

3 rMv al')(/jLaX(t)rcov rLvd<; dXXrjXoif; crvve^aXov. Koi 
fierd rovO^ 6 Avyovaro<;, alnaOevrcov koI iKeivwv 
Koi rcov dXXcov dp^ovrcov 01)9 e/c Be/cacr/jbov rivo<; 
dTToBeBecyjiievcov, rovro fiev ovre i^rjXey^ev out* 
dpvhv TT poaernroL^craro elBevar ovre yap KoXdaai 
riva<; ovr av avyyvoivat iXeyxOelo-iv rjOeXijcre' 
rov<i Be Br) (j'TTOvBapX''^vra<; 'X^prjjjLara irpo rwv 
dp'xaipeaiSiV wairep rt ive^vpov 7rpo^rr)(T€v, iirl 
r(p fJi7)Bev roiovro avrov<; irotrjaai f) <7repr)dr)vai 

* i.v7iKpvs is omitted in M, but has been added in the 
margin by an early corrector who indicates its place 
between etTrciJV and '6ri, 




cuser, though this man had indulged in the utmost b.c. 9 
frankness in his speech, that later on, when the same 
man appeared before him, as censor, for a scrutiny 
of his morals, the emperor acquitted him, saying 
openly that the other's frankness was necessary 
for the Romans on account of the baseness of the 
majority of them. However, he punished others 
who were reported to be conspiring against him. 
He also caused quaestors to serve along the coast 
near the city and in certain other parts of Italy ; 
and this practice was followed for many years. 

At the time in question he was unwilling, as I 
have stated,^ to enter the city because of Drusus' 
death ; but the next year, when Asinius Gallus and b.c. 8 
Gaius Marcius were consuls, he made his formal 
return and carried the laurel, contrary to custom, 
into the temple of Jupiter Feretrius. He himself 
did not celebrate any festival in honour of the 
achievements mentioned, feeling that he had lost 
far more in the death of Drusus than he had gained 
in his victories ; but the consuls performed the cere- 
monies usual on such occasions, among other things 
exhibiting combats between some of the captives. 
And later, when both they and the rest of the 
officials were accused of having secured their election 
by bribery, Augustus failed to investigate the matter, 
and furthermore pretended not even to know of it 
at all ; for he was unwilling either to punish any of 
them or yet to pardon them if they were convicted. 
In the case of candidates for office, however, he 
demanded of them in advance of the elections a 
deposit of money on the understanding that they 
should forfeit this money in case they resorted to 

^ 111 chap. 2. 



4 Twv BeBofievtov. /cal tovto jxev 7rdvT€<; iirrivea-av' 
OIL 8' ovK e^ov ov hovkov Kara SecnroTOV ^acravi- 
aOrjvaL eKekeyaeVy ocraArt? av %/3eta roiovrov tlvo<; 
yevTjrai, tw Brj/jLoaLa) avrov rj koI eavrw Tmrpd- 
aKccrOai, oircof; 0)9 aXXorptof; tov Kpivofievov cbv 
i^eTci^ijrac, ol fxev rJTiOivro, on 6 v6/jL0(; rfj tov 
SecTTroTov /neraWayrj KaraXveaOai efxeWeVy ol 8' 
dva^Kotov avro e<^aaKov elvai, oti iroXXol Bid 
rovro Kol eV* avrw eKelvco Kaliirl rat? dpyal^ 

6 Merd Be Br) ravra tyjv re 7)y€ /jLovtav, Kaiirep 
dcfuelff, ei)9 eXejev, eTrecBr) rd Bexa errj rd Bevrepa 
i^eXrjXvOec, aKcov Brjdev av6i^ vTrearrj, koI cttI 
T0U9 KeXroL'? ecnpdrevae. koX avTo^ p.ev iv rf} 
OLKeia virepeLveVt 6 Be Br) Ti/Bepto^; tov 'Vtjpop 

2 Bce^r}. (j)offr]0€VTe<; ovv avTov<; ol ^dp^apoi irXrjp 
TOiv ^vjd/jLJSpcov ^ eireKTjpvKevaavTO, kuI ovTe TOTe 
eTV^ov Tivo<; (0 ydp AvyovaTo<; ovk e<f>r) a(j)iaLv 
dvev eKeivoDv aTrela-eaOai) ovO* vaTcpov. eirepyjrav 

3 fiev ydp Kal ol 'Evyap.fipoL ^ irpeaffecf!, toctovtov 
Be eBerjaav^ BiaiTpd^acrdaL tl axTTC Kal eKeivov^ 
irdvTa^, Kal ttoXXoi)? Kal eXXoyi/jLov*; 6vTa<;, irpoa- 
airoXeaOar 6 re ydp Avyov<TTo<i auXXa^oov 
avTov<i €9 TToXeifi Tivdfj KaTeOcTO, Kal eKetvoi 
BvGava(T')(^eT7]aavT€<i eavTov^ KaTe')(pt]cravT0. kuk 
TOVTOV ^/ooz/oi^ p,ev Tiva rjcrvxao-av, eireiT iirl 
TToXXo) TO TrdOrj/jid acpcov toU ^VwpialoL^ dvTaire- 

^ 'S.vydfx^pav Bucher, Kuvrdfiffpuv M, Kaurdfipuv U". 
^ '2vyan$poi Reim., avyyafx^poi M and U**. 


any illegal methods. This action of his was approved 
by all ; but it was otherwise with another of his 
laws. As it was not permitted that a slave should 
be tortured for evidence against his master, he 
ordered that, as often as the necessity for such a 
course should arise, the slave should be sold either 
to the state or to him, in order that, being now no 
longer the property of the defendant, he might be 
examined. Some found fault with this, on the 
ground that the change of masters would in effect 
nullify the law ; but others declared it to be neces- 
sary, because many were taking advantage of the 
old arrangement and conspiring against both the 
emperor himself and the magistrates. 

After this, now that his second period of ten years 
had expired, Augustus once more accepted the 
supreme power, — though with a show of reluctance, 
— in spite of his oft-expressed desire to lay it down ; 
and he made a campaign against the Germans. He 
himself remained behind in Roman territory, while 
Tiberius crossed the Rhine. Accordingly all the 
barbarians except the Sugambri, through fear of 
them, made overtures of peace ; but they gained 
nothing either at this time, — for Augustus refused 
to conclude a truce with them without the Sugambri, 
— or, indeed, later. To be sure, the Sugambri also 
sent envoys, but so far were they from accom- 
plishing anything that all these envoys, who were 
both many and distinguished, perished into the 
bargain. For Augustus arrested them and placed 
them in various cities ; and they, being greatly dis- 
tressed at this, took their own lives. The Sugambri 
were thereupon quiet for a time, but later they 
amply requited the Romans for their calamity. 



4 ooaav. 5' ovv AvyovaTO<; tovto re outcos 
liroirjae, koX toZ? aTpaTia)rai<; dpyvpiov, ov^ w? 
KOI K6icpaTr]K6(Ti, KULTOL TO Tov avTOKpdropo^ 
ovojia KoX avro<; Xaffcov Kal tcd Tt^epiw Sou?, 
aW' OTL TOV Vdiov iv Tat<; yvjJivaa-laL^ TPTe 
TTpa>TOP o-vve^6Ta^6fi€p6v (T^iaiv ea^ov, i-x^apLaaTo. 

5 TOV 8' ovp Ti^epiov e? ttjp tov avTOKpdTopo<^ 
dpxv^ uvtI tov Apovcrov Trpoayaycov Ty re iirc- 
k\iJ(T€l €fC€ivr) iyavpcoae Kal viraTOV avOi<i dire- 
Bei^e, ypd/jLfiaTd re kuto, to dp^cuov eOo<i, Kal 
TTplv e? Tr)v dpxrjv iaeXOelv, iKOelvai 7rpo<; to 
KOivov iiroLTjae, Kal irpoaeTt. Kal rot? eTrcviKLOi^; 

6 eae/jLVVvev avTO^; yap eKelva fxev ovk rjOekriae 
irifjLyjrat, €9 Be Brj to, yeviOXca linroBpo/jiiav diSiov 
€\a0€. Td T€ TOV TTcofjirjpLov opia iTTijv^rjae, Kal 
TOV fMTJva ^ TOV Xc^tCXlov €7n,KaXovpi€Vov Avyov- 

7 aTov avTuyvojiaae' tcov yap dXXwv tov SeTrreyu.- 
ffpiov oi/Tft)?, i7r€iSt]TT€p cv avTW eyeyevvrjTO, 
irpoaayopevaai ideXrjadvTCoy cKelvov avTov 7r/?pj:^ 
€TL/JLr}<r€v, OTi Kal vTrarp^ ' iv avT& Ito TrpojTOP 
aireheSeiKTO Kal fidxa^; iroXXa<; Kal /ieydXa<i 


7 'EttI iJi€P ovv TovTOi<; iyavpovTO, tov Be Brj 
MaLKtjPOv TeXevTi]<TapTO<i rfXyrjae. iroXXa fxep 
yap Kal dXXa arc* avTov dircoprjTO, oOep Kaiirep-^ 
lirTTel avTw ovtl Kal to aaTV eVt iroXvv %/)OJ^oi/ ) 
€7reT peyjre, fidXiaTa Be 6(TdKC<i aKpaTOTepw t& 
Ovfjbw ixp^TO' TTj^i re yap 6pyrj<i avTov del ^ Trapi' 

2 XV€ Kal 69 TO I^TTLCOTepOV jXediaTT]. T€K/JL7]pL0V Bi, ■ 

BiKd^ovTL TTore avTM irpoaaTd^, Kal IBcov oti 

1 /i^j/o R. Steph., jxkv fA.riva M. 

2 o«i omitted by M, but added in margin by early corrector. 

394 \ 


Besides doing this, Augustus granted money to b,c. 8 
the soldiers, not as to victors, though he himself 
had taken the title of imperaior and had also con- 
ferred it upon Tiberius, but because then for the 
first time they had Gaius taking part with them in 
their exercises. So he advanced Tiberius to the 
position of commander in place of Drusus, and 
besides distinguishing him with the title of imper- 
ator, appointed him consul once more, and in 
accordance with the ancient practice caused him 
to post up a proclamation before entering upon the 
office. He also accorded him the distinction of a 
triumph ; for he did not wish to celebrate one him- 
self, though he accepted the privilege of having his 
birthday permanently commemorated by Circensian 
games. He enlarged the pomerium and changed the 
name of the month called Sextilis to August. The 
people generally wanted September to be so named, 
because he had been born in that month ; but he 
preferred the other month in which he had first 
been elected consul and had won many great 
battles. 1 

All these things filled him with pride ; but he was 
grieved at the death of Maecenas. He had received 
many benefits at his hands, for which reason he had 
entrusted him, though but a knight, with the over- 
sight of the city for a long period ; but he had found 
him of especial service on occasions when his own 
temper was more or less uncontrollable. For 
Maecenas would always banish his anger and bring 
him to a gentler frame of mind. Here is an in- 
stance. Maecenas once came upon him as he was 
holding court, and seeing that he was on the point 

^ Cf. Suet., A^ig. 31. 



iroWoif^ Oavaroiaeiv fieWoi, i'TTe')(^eipr)ae fjuev J 
hLaxraadai rou? irepLecrrriKOTa^ fcal iyyv<; ol 
irpocreXOelv, fir) BvvrjdeU Be eypa^ev e? ypap.- 
fMaretov " avdarrjOi 7]Brj irore, S'^/juie,'^ koI avro 
C09 Koi €T€p6v ri e^ov e? top koKitov avrov ^ 
eppiyfrev, cjar i/celvov firjr airoKTelvai nva koI 

3 ev6v<i i^avaarrrjvai. ov yap oircof; '^yavd/crei toI<^ 
TOiovTOL^, dWa Kol e')(aLpev on oaa avTo^ vno re 
Trj<; eavTOv (j)v<Teco<; koi vtto rrj^ rSyv Trpayfidrojv 
dvdyKT]^ Kal irapa to TTpoarjKov iOvfiovTO, TavTa 

4 TTJ Tcov (fiikcov irapprjaia BicopOovTO. (MeyiGTOV 8* 
ovv Kol eKetvo t?)? tov MaiKr]vov dp€Trj<; Sely/jLa 

TjV, OTL TW T€ Kvy0V(TTW, KaiTOL ITpO^ Ttt? 6pfMd<; 

avTOv du0taTd/jL€PO<i, (^KeieoTO Kal tol<; dWoa 
Trdacv r/peaKCTO, irXelaTOV t€ irap avrw BwrjOeis^. 
&(TT€ TToXXot? fcal TLfjLa<; Kal dp-^df; BovvaL, ovk 
i^e<f)p6v7)aev dXkd ev ^ ro) tcop LTTTrecop reXet Kajez. 

5 ySt&j. TovTcop re ovp epcKa la-)(^upa)<; avrop 6 
AvyovaTO^; iiroOrjae, Kal on Kal KXrjpopofiop 
avTOPt Kalirep iirl Ty yvpaiKl SvaKoXaiPwy, KaTe- 
\i7r€, Kal iir avTw irXrjp iXax^dTwp iiroLrjaaTO 
dp Te TiPi TCOP ^l\(op avTOV Bovpai rt edeXrjar) dp 
T€ Kal fi'^. Toi,ovTO<; fiep 6 MaiKrjva<i iyepcTO, Kal 

6 OVTO) TO) AvyOVCTTW i-^pTJTO' 7rp&>T09 T€ KoXvfM- 

prjOpap OepfjLov vBaTO<; ip tyj ttoXel KaTcaKevaae, 

Kal 7rp(OTO<; o-rj/jLeld ripa ypa/i/Jidrcop irpb^ rd^o^; 

^ iv supplied by Reim, (and so Zon. cod. B). 


of condemning many people to death, he attempted 
to push his way through the bystanders and get 
near him. When he was unable to do this, he 
wrote on a tablet, " Pray rise at last, executioner ! " 
Then he threw the tablet into the lap of Augustus, 
as if it contained some indifferent matter, and the 
emperor imposed no death sentences, but arose and 
departed. Indeed, he not only was not displeased at 
such liberties, but was actually glad of them, because 
whenever he was led into unseemly outbursts of 
passion by his natural disposition or by the stress of 
his affairs, these were corrected by the frank speech 
of his friends. This also was a supreme proof of 
Maecenas' excellence, that he not only made himself 
liked by Augustus, in spite of resisting his impulsive- 
ness, but also pleased everybody else, and though he 
had the greatest influence with the emperor, so that 
he bestowed offices and honours upon many men, 
yet he did not lose his poise, but was content to 
remain in the equestrian order to the end of his life. 
Not only for these reasons, then, did Augustus regret 
his loss exceedingly, but also because Maecenas, 
although vexed at the emperor's relations with his 
wife, had left him as his heir and had empowered 
him to dispose of all his property, with very few 
reservations, in case he wished to make gifts to any 
of his friends or otherwise. Such was the character 
of Maecenas and such was his treatment of Augustus. 
He was the first to construct a swimming-pool of 
warm water in the city, and also the first to devise 
a system of symbols to give speed in writing,^ and 

* This invention is usually ascribed to Tiro, Cicero's 
freedman ; and Aquila is said to have made improvements 
upon his system. 


e^evpe, /cal avra Bca ^AkvXov direXevOipov av- 

8 Ti^epLo^ Be iv rrj vovfMrjvLql iv rj VTrareveiv fiera 
Tvaiov Tlia(ovo<; rjp^aro e? re to ^OfCTaovUiov ^ 
Tyv ^ovXrjp ijdpOLae Bia to e^co rov 7rct)jj,rjpLov 

2 avTO elvai, koI to ^OjjLovoeiov avro^ eavT(p iiTL- 
aKevdaac irpoard^a^, ottox} to t€ iSiov kol to tov 
Apovaov ovopa avT(p ein<y pd'y^ry , ra re VLKrjT^pia 
Tjyaye kol to Tep^eviafia to Alovlov d>vopaap>evov 
Kadiipcoae p^eTcu t% p,r)Tp6'^' kol uvto^ fxev ttjv 
yepovatav iv tm K.a7nT(o\Co), i/ceivrj Be Ta<i yvval- 

3 /ta? IBia irov elaTiaae. koI ov ttoWo) vaTepov 
Kivr)6evT(iiv TLVoiV iv ttj Teppavia i^copptjOr)' ttjv 
Be Bt) iravr^yvpiv ttjv virep t^9 iiravoBov tov 
AvyovaTov yevopevrjv 6 Tdiof; dvT avTOv crvv tw 
TiiacdVL BieOrjKe. to t€ ireBiov to ^AypiirireLov, 
7r\r)v T^9 cTToa?, Kal to Bcpi^LTcopLov ^ avT6<i 6 

4 AvyovaTO^ iBrjpocrievae. tovto p,ev ydp (tjv Be 
olKO^i peyiaTO'^ tu)v irdnroTe piav 6pocf)r)v a^ovTcov 
vvv yap Brj Trdar)<; r^? aTeyr]<^ avTOV KaOatpe- 
6eicrri<i, otl ovk T^BwyOr) av6i<^ avaTrjvai, dyavq^ 
icTTiv) 6 re ^ Ay piiT it a<i oiKoBopovpevov KarekLire, 
Koi T0T6 avv€TeXeaOrj' rj Be iv tw ireBi(p crTod, fjv 
7] TioiXXa 7] aBeX^rj avTov rj kol tov^ Bp6p.ov^ 

5 BiuKoapyjcracra iiroiet, ovBeira) i^eipyaaTo, kuv 
T0VT(p Kol at ^ iiTLTd(j>LOi iirl Tw ^ Ay piiTTra ottXo- 
pa'X^iaL, ^aidv iadrJTa twv re dXXwv ttXt/v tov 
AvyovGTOv Kal avToyv tcov vUcov avTOv XafiovTwv, 

^ * OKTaovicioy Dind., oKraoviov M. 
2 hipi^irdopiov Bk., SfipifiiTwpiov M. 
^ at Dind., 01 M. 


he used Aquila^ a freedman, to train a considerable b.c. 8 
number in the system. 

Tiberius on the first day of the year in which he was » c. 7 
consul with Gnaeus Piso convened the senate in the 
Curia Octaviae, because it was outside the pomerium. 
After assigning to himself the duty of repairing the 
temple of Concord, in order that he might inscribe 
upon it his own name and that of Drusus, he cele- 
brated his triumph, and in company with his mother 
dedicated the precinct called the precinct oi Livia 
He gave a banquet to the senate on the Capitol, and 
she gave one on her own account to the women 
somewhere or other. A little later, when there was 
some disturbance in the province of Germany, he 
took the field. The festival held in honour of the 
return of Augustus was directed by Gaius, in place 
of Tiberius, with the assistance of Piso. The Cam- 
pus Agrippae and the Diribitorium were made public 
property by Augustus himself. The Diribitorium 
was the largest building under a single roof ever 
constructed ; ^ indeed, now that the whole covering 
has been destroyed, the edifice is wide open to 
the sky, since it could not be put together again. 
Agrippa had left it still in process of construction, 
and it was completed at this time. The portico in 
the Campus, however, which was being built by 
Polla, Agrippa's sister, who also adorned the race- 
courses, was not yet finished. Meanwhile the 
funeral combats in honour of Agrippa were given, all 
except Augustus putting on black clothing and even 
Agrippa's sons doing the same. There were not 

^ The Diribitorium was used for the sorting {dirihere) of 
the ballots used in voting. Pliny (Xat. Hist. xvi. 201 and 
xxxvi. 102) speaks of its remarkable roof ; this was destroyed 
by fire in 80 a.d, (of. Dio, Ixvi. 24). 




fcal ero9 TT/oo? eW xal irXecovcov 7r/309 taovffy iv Tot9 
ceTTTOi? 5ta T€ T^i^ 69 Toi^ Ay pLTTTTav ri/jLrjv KolSia 
TO TToWa 7COV irepl rrjv dyopav otKoBo/jLTj/jidTcov K€- 

6 Kavadai^ iyjvovro. koX to fxev rov irvpo^ atriov 
€9 Toi'9 %/oe(»^etX.a9 dve^epero, ft)9 Acal eiTirrihe^ 
avTO 7rapaaK€vd(TavTa<; iv diroKO'^wcri tc twv 
'X^pewv, (TV')(ya ho^avre^ e^rjfjLioidOar erv^ov Be 
eKelvoL fM€v ovSevof;, ol Be Brj crrevcoTrol eTTL/jLeXrjrcov 
TLVwv €K rod BrjpLOVt 01)9 Koi arepwjrdpxovf; koXov- 

7 fiev Kai (T(f>icn koI t§ eadijTL rfj dp)(^LK7J koX 
pa^Bovxoi^ Bvo, iv avToU rol^ ')(coploi<; ojv av 
dp')(^oi)(jiv, r]p,epaL<i rial y^prjaOai eBoOrj, r} re Bov- 
Xeia T) Tot9 dyopav6fJLOi<; rwv e/jLin/jLTrpafjievcop 
eveKa arvvovaa iTrerpdirrj, kultol koI eKelvoDv Ka\ 
Tcov Bi]p,dp')(wv TMV T€ (TTpaTT]y(ov Trdaav ttjv 
TToXiv, BeKareaaapa ^ fiepr) vepirjOelaav, KXrjpo) 
TTpoorrax^evTcov o koI vvv yiyverai. 

9 Toaavra fiev iv tw erei rovrcp iTTpd')(j9r)' iv yap 
Br) rfj Teppavia ovBev d^iov p,prjfjur)<; avve^rj' tw 
Be vareptp, iv c5 Tdi6<; re ^ Kvricmo^; koX AalXiot; 
BaX/3o9 virdrevcrav, IBcov 6 Avyovaro<i rov re 
Tdiov Kal rov Aovklov avrov'i re p^rj irdvv, ola iv 
'f)yep>ovia rpe^opLevov^, rd eavrov rjOri ^rjXovvra<; 
(ou yap on d^porepov Btrjyov, dXXd Kal iOpa- 
Gvvovro' €9 yovv ro Oearpov irore KaO^ eavrov 

2 o AovKLo^ iarfkOe) Kal 7rpb<; irdvrcov rcov( iv rfj 

^ SiKUTiaa-apa R. Steph., Se/car eVorepo M. 


only combats between single champions but also b.c. 7 
between groups of equal numbers on either side ; 
and they were held in the Saepta both as an honour 
to Agrippa and because many of the structures 
around the Forum had been burned. The blame 
for the fire was laid upon the debtor class, who 
were suspected of having contrived it on purpose, 
in order that they might have some of their debts 
remitted when they appeared to have lost heavily. 
They, for their part, however, gained nothing from 
the fire ; but the streets were put in charge of 
supervisors, chosen from the people, whom we call 
street commissioners.^ These men were allowed 
to use the official dress and two lictors, but only in 
the regions under their administration and on certain 
days, and they were given control over the force of 
slaves which had previously been associated with 
the aediles to save buildings that caught fire. The 
aediles, however, together with the tribunes and 
praetors, were still assigned by lot to have charge 
of the whole city, which was divided into fourteen 
wards. This is also the present arrangement. 

These were all events of that year, for nothing 
worthy of mention happened in Germany. The next b.c. 6 
year, in which Gaius Antistius and Laelius Balbus « 
were consuls, Augustus was vexed when he saw that 
Gaius and Lucius were by no means inclined of 
their own choice to emulate his own conduct, as 
became young men who were being reared as mem- 
bers of the imperial house. They not only indulged 
in too great luxury in their lives, but were also 
inclined to insolence ; for example, Lucius on one 
occasion entered the theatre unattended. They 

^ Curatores viarum. 

40 1 


TToXeiy ra fxev yvay/nr} to, Be depaireia, KoXaKevo- 
fM6vov<;^ KCLK TOVTOV €Ti KoX fioXXov 6 pvirTOfjievov^^ 
(rd re yap aWa /cal virarov rov Vdiov firj^e 
€9 €<f)^ffov^ TTCt) reXovvra '7rpoe')(€LpiaavTO ^), r^ya- 
vcLKTqae, fcal Trpoaeirrju^aro fir^hefjiiav roiavTrjv 
Kaipcav dvdyKr]v oiroia Trore ^ avrov KareXa^e 
yeveaOai, ioare riva vecarepov €LKoai€rov<; vira- 

3 T€V(Tai. iireiBr] re koI w? eveKeivro ol, rore e(l)rj'^pr]- 
val rtva rrjv dp')(r)v ravrrjv \a/i^dveiv, orav ixrjre 
n avro^ d/jLaprdvetv kuI rat? rov Bij/iov <T7rovhal<; 

4 dvOicrraaOai hvvqrai. /cal fierd rovO* lepwavvrju 
fxev riva avrw Kal rrjv e? to avveSpiov (TV/j,(f)0ir7](Tt,v 
ro re avvdedadai Kal ro (rvveariaaOai rfj ^ovXfj 
eBcoKe' ^ov\7)6eU Be Brj rporrov * nvd ^ /xdWov 
avroij^ acocppovlaai, rw Ti^epio) rrjv re e^ovaiav 
rrjv Brjfjuap'X^LKrjv €? rrevre_ err) eveifie^ Kal rrjv 
^Apfievtav dWorpiov/nevrfv fierd rov rov Ttypdvov 

5 Sdvarov irpoaera^e? avve^r) B^ avrw Kal eKeivoL^; 
Kal r(p Tij^epLq) fidrrjv irpoaKpovaai, rol<i fiev on 
TrapeoopdaOdL eBo^av, rw Be on rrjv opyrjv avrwv 
ic^ojS^Or). dfieXeL Kal e? '¥6Bov eo? Kal iracBev- 
aeco^'^rivo^ Beofievo^; ea-rdXrj, ixrjr dWov; nvdf; 
pbrjre rrjv Oeparreiav irdaav eVayo/xei^o?, fV* eK- 
TToBdtv o-(f)LaL Kal rfj o-^jrei Kal rol^ epyoi<; yevrjrai. 

6 Kal rrjv re oBov IBtwnKO)^ eTroiijaaro, rrXrjv KaO* 

^ KoKaKivo}xivovSf Opwroixivovs Pflugk, Ko\aKfv6/j.ePos, Opvirri- 

flfVOf M. 

2 irpofX^'pi'^(iVTO Rk., irpo€X^'pi<^f-'^o ^' 

' TTore Xiph. , t6t€ M. 

* Between rpS-jrov and (''A)pet (chap. 10, 2) two folios hav^e 
been lost in M. The text here given is a combination of the 
epitomes of Zon., Xiph., and the Excerpta Valesiana (see 
Introd. to Vol. I. xviii flf.). 




were being flattered by everybody in the city, some- b.o. 6 
times sincerely and sometimes to curry favour, and 
consequently were being spoiled more and more. 
Among other things of this sort, the people had 
elected Gaius consul before he was as yet of military 
age. All this, as I have said, vexed Augustus, and 
he even prayed that no compelling circumstances 
might arise, as had once occurred in his own case, 
such as to require that a man less than twenty 
years old should become consul. When even so the 
people insisted, he then said that one ought not to 
receive the office until one was able not only to 
avoid error oneself but also to resist the ardent im- 
pulses of the populace. After that he gave Gaius a 
priesthood and also the right to attend the meetings 
of the senate and to behold spectacles and be 
present at banquets with that body. And wishing 
in some way to bring Gaius and Lucius to their senses 
still more sharply, he bestowed upon Tiberius the 
tribunician power for five years, and assigned to him 
Armenia, which was becoming estranged since the 
death of Tigranes. The result was that he need- 
lessly offended not only his grandsons but Tiberius as 
well ; for the former felt they had been slighted, and 
Tiberius feared their anger. At any rate he was 
sent to Rhodes on the pretext that he needed in- 
cidentally a bit of instruction ; and he did not even 
take his entire retinue, to say nothing of friends, 
the object being that Gaius and Lucius should be 
relieved both of the sight of him and of his doings. 
He made the journey as a private citizen, though he 

^ riva supplied by scribe of L'. 

^ (Vfijxf Xiph , airevftfie Zon. 

' 7rpo(r€Ta|e Rk., 7rpo(rf)|e Xiph., irpo(TfK\-f]pci)(rev Zon. 


6(T0V TOV<; IlapLOV<; ro Trj<; 'E<7Tta9 dyaX/ut^a ttco- 
Xijaau ol r]vayKaGev, ottco^ ev rw 'OfiovoeUo 
IhpvOfi' Kol e? rrjv vrjaov iXOoov ov8ev oyKijpov 

7 0VT6 eirparrev ovre eXeyev. rj jxev ovv aXrj- 
Oeardrri air la tt}? iKBr)fiLa<; avrov ToiavTTj^ eari, 
Xoyov he riva e%6t fcal Bia rrjv yvvatxa rrjv 
'lovXlav, OTL jJLTiKeT avrrjv (f)6p€iv iSvvaro, tovto 
iTOLrjcrar KareXnre yovv avrrjv ev rrj Vw/jltj. ol 
Be €(j)a(Tav 'X^aXeTrrjvat avrov ort fir) fcal Kacaap 
a'jTehei')(6ri ol he vtt avrov rov Avyovarov &)? Kal 
rol^ iraialv avrov em^ovXevovra €K^X7jOr]vat. 

8 on fiev yap ovre 7rai,B€La<; eveKa ovr a^ovXr)aa<^ 
ra Behoyfieva aTreBrj/jLtjcre, BrjXov e/c re rcov dXXwv 
oiv fiera ravra eirpa^e, Kal eK rov rd<; BiaOt]Ka<; 
avrov ev6v<^ rore ^ Kal Xvcrat Kal rfj firjrpl ray re 
Avyovarco avayvwvai, eyevero' KareiKa^ero irdvO^ 
oaa eVeSexero.— Xiph. 100, 18-30, Exc. V. 177 
(p. 662 sq.), Zon. 10, 35. 

9 Tft> S* €(f)e^7]<; erei BwBeKarov virarevcov 6 Av- 
yovarov et? rov<; e<firjl3ovv rov Tdlov era^e Kal 
€9 ro povXevrr}piov dfia elarjyaye Kal rrpoKpirov 
d7re(f}t]ve t?}? veorrjro'^ IXapyov re (pvXijf; yeveaOai 
eVeT/OG-v/re. — Zon. 10, 35. 

10 Kal fJLer eviavrov Kal 6 Aovklo<; ra? ri/jLd<; 
oaai rw Tatw rw dBeXcfyu) avrov eBeBovro eXa/Sev. 
dOpoiaOevro^i Be rov Brj/jLov Kal eTravopOcoOrjvau 
riva d^iovvrov Kal rov<; Br)p,dp')(pv<^ Bid rovro 
7rpo9 rov Avy ovcrrov Tre/x'v/raz^To?, rjXdev €KeLvo<; 
Kal rrepl wv eBeovro cr^icn o-vvBiecTKe'^aro' Kal 
iirl rovro)^ rjaOrjcrav d7ravre<i. — Zon. 10, 35. 

^ Toiavrr] cod. Peir. , ToiaSe Val. 

2 t({tc Val., rh rSre cod. Peir. 3 Tovrep ABC'', tovto E. 




exercised his authority by compelling the Parian^ to b.c. 6 
sell him the statue of Vesta, in order that it might be 
placed in the temple of Concord ; and when he reached 
Rhodes, he r efrained from hau^^hty conduct in both 
word~^and~3eed. This is the truest explanation oi 
fiis-jottmcy abroad, though there is also a story that 
he toolc" this course on account of his wife Julia, 
because he could no longer endure her ; at any rate, 
she was left behind in Rome. Others said that he 
was angry at not having been designated as Caesar, 
and yet others that he was expelled by Augustus 
himself, on the ground that he was plotting against 
Augustus' sons. But that his departure was not for 
the sake of instruction nor because he was displeased 
at the decrees passed, became plain from many of 
his subsequent actions, and particularly by his open- 
ing his will immediately at that time and reading 
it to his mother and Augustus. But all possible 
conjectures were made. 

The following year Augustus in the course of his b.c. 6 
twelfth consulship placed Gaius among the youths 
of military age, and at the same time introduced him 
into the senate, declared him princeps iuventutis, and 
permitted him to become commander of a division of 

And after the lapse of a year Lucius also obtained b.c. 2 
all the honours that had been granted to his brother 
Gaius. On one occasion, when the people had 
gathered together and were asking that certain 
reforms be instituted and had sent the tribunes to 
Augustus for this purpose, the emperor came and 
consulted with them about their demands ; and at 
this all were pleased. 



10 *0 he AvyovaTO<; to tou (TiTohorov/juevov^ ttXtj- 
6o<; aopiarov ov 69 etKocTL /j,vpt.dBa<i KareKXeiae, 
KaX w? 76 TLve<^ Xiyovai, KaO^ eva e^yjKovra 
Bpaxfici<: eBcoKc. — Xiph. 100, 30—101, 1. 

1* 'n? Tf Avyovarov dyopa /caOiepcoOrj. — Index to 
Bk. LV. 1. 6. 

1^ 'n? o Tov "Apecix; vab<; 6 iv avrfj cjv KaOiepcoOr]. 
—Index to Bk. LV. 1. 7. 

2 ... "Apec," eavrov he koX tov<; iyy6vov<i, octolkl^ 
dv iOeXrjo-waLf tou? re ck tmv Traihcov e^iovra^ 
KoX €9 Tov<; e^T/ySou? eyy pa(j>OfM€vov(; eKetae iravTw^ 
dcfuKveiaOai, /cat tou? eirl ra? dp')(a<; ra? iKhi]/jLov<; , 

3 GTeXXofxevovf; i/celOev d^opfjudcrOat, rdf; re ypQ)/bLa<; 
ra? Trepl tmv VL/crjrrjpLcov. ifcel rrjv ^ovXrjv iroi- 
eladai, /cal tou? wefJU'^avTa^ avrd rw "Apei rovrm / 
Kot TO (TKrjirrpov koI tov aTe^avov dvaTtOevai, 
KoX eKeiPov; t€ koI tou? dX.Xov<; tou? Td<; ewi- 
viKLOv; Tip,d<; XafJifidvovTa^ ev ttj dyopa, ,')(^aXKOv<s 

4 Lo-TaaOai, dv Te iroTe arjfjLeLa aTpaTLcoTiKo, e? 
TToXefiLov; dXovra dvaKopnaO^, e? tov vaov avTa 
TiOeadai, Koi iTavrjyvpiv Tiva 7rpo<; TOi? dva- 
^aafjLo2<; avTov ivTTo twv del IXap^ovvTcov^hroi- 
eladai, rjXov Te avTW vtto tmv Ti/bbrjTevadvTcov 

5 TTpoaTrrjyvvaOai, /cal Trjv Te Trapdcr^ecnv tcov 
LTrircov Tcov e? t^i/ iTnrohpofiiav dycoviovfjuevcov 

* (TiroZoTOvixfvov L', ffiToSovfifyov VC. 

2 "Apfi Morell, pel M. 

^ iXapxovvTwv Bk., iiXapxovvrwy M. 



Augustus limited the number of people to be sup- b.c. 2 
plied with grain, a number not previously fixed, to 
two hundred thousand ; and, as some say, he distri- 
buted a largess of sixty denarii to each man. 
[How the Forum of Augustus was dedicated.] 
How the Temple of Mars therein was dedicated.] 

... to Mars, and that he himself and his grand- 
sons should go there as often as they wished, while 
those who were passing from the class of boys and 
were being enrolled among the youths of military 
age should invariably do so ; that those who were 
sent out to commands abroad should make that their 
starting-point ; that the senate should take its votes 
there in regard to the granting of triumphs, and that 
the victors after celebrating them should dedicate 
to this Mars their sceptre and their crown ; that 
such victors and all others who received triumphal 
honours should have their statues in bronze erected 
in the Forum ; that in case military standards cap- 
tured by the enemy were ever recovered they should 
be placed in the temple ; that a festival should be 
celebrated beside the steps of the temple by the 
cavalry commanders of each year ; ^ that a nail should 
be driven into it by the censors at the close of their 
terms ; ^ and that even senators should have the 
right of contracting to supply the horses that were 
to compete in the Circensian games, and also to take 

^ The seviri equitum. 

'^ This custom is not elsewhere recorded in the case of the 
censors. In early times a nail was driven each j'^ear into the 
side of the cella of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, for 
the purpose of keeping official count of the j^ears. After the 
practice had lapsed for a time, it was again rerived on the 
occasion of great disasters or dangers, as a propitiatory rite, 
and a dictator was sometimes chosen for this sole purpose in 
the absence of both consuls. 



Kol T^j/ Tov vaov (pvXaKrjv fcal /3ov\6vral<i ipyo- 
\a^elv i^elvai, Kaddirep eVt re tov 'AttoXXwi^o? 
Koi iirl TOV Ato? tov Y^ainTOikiov ivevofioOiTtjTo. 

6 'EttI fjL€v TOVTOi<i TO /liyapov ifcelvo 6 AvyovdTO^ 
iOeiwae, KaiToi tw re Tai(p xal to5 Aovklco ttuvtu 
Kaddira^ to, ToiavTa lepovv eTnTpe-^a^ viraTiKy 
TLVL dp-)(ri KUTCL TO irdkaiov ')(^po)/jb6voi<i. fcal ttjv 
ye linrohpop.iav avTol TOTe hieOeaav, Tijv T€ 
Tpoiav Ka\ovfjLevr)v ol iralhe^i ol irpcoTOi /neTa tov 

7 * Ay pLTTirov tov d8€X<f>ov avTCOv ^ cTrireva-av. kol 
\eovT6^ e^tjKOVTu Kol hiaKoaiOL ev tS L7rTro8p6p,a) 
eacjidyrjaap. oifkopa^ia re iv Toh (TiiTTOL<; kol 
vavp.a)(ia ev tw x^plo) iv cS kuI vvv €tc ar) field 
Tiva avTri<; heiKVUTai Uepacov Kal ^AOrjvaicov 
e7roiT]0r)' TavTa yap tu ovo/bLUTa to?9 vavpua^ovacv 

8 eTeOr), kol eviKwv kol t6t€ ol ^A6rjvaioi. /cat fjueTa 
TovTo 6? T€ TOV ^Xa/jLLVcov linTohpopbov vB(op 
eorrj^Or], Kal ev avTo) KpoKoSecXoc ^ ef xal Tpcd- 
KOVTa KaTe/coTrrjcrav. ov fievTOL Kal Sid iraacov 
TMv r)pepo)V TovTCov o AvyovaTO<; virdTevaev, 
dX)C eir 6\lyov dp^a^ dXkcp to ovo/xa r?}? viraTela^; 

9 Ta) fiev ovv "Apei TavT eyeveTo, avTW Se Brj tw 
AvyovaTcp dycov Te lep6<; ev Nea Trokei ^ ttj Kap,- 
7ravLBt,>\6y(p p,ev otl KaKcoOetaav avTyv Kal viro 
aeiapov Kal viro irvpo^ dveXa/Sev, to S' dXr)6e^ 
eTTeihr] ra tmv 'RXXrjvcjv pLovoi twi^ 7rpO(T')(^(opQ)v 

10 TpoTTOv TLvd i^'TjXovv, eyjrrjcfiLaOrj, Kal r} e7rwvvp.ia 
7) TOV 7raT/309 dKpi,^co<; iSoOr)' irpOTepovydp dXX(o<i 

^ avTwv Morelli, ovtov M. 

2 kpok6S(i\oi R. Steph., KopKdSeiXoi M. 

" Ne^ ir6\fi Bk., i>€an6\fi M. 



general charge of the temple, just as had been pro- 
vided by law in the case of the temples of Apollo 
and of Jupiter Capitolinus. 

These matters settled, Augustus dedicated this 
temple of Mars, although he had granted to Gaius 
and Lucius once for all the right to consecrate all 
such buildings by virtue of a kind of consular 
authority that they exercised in the time-honoured 
manner. And they did, in fact, have the manage- 
ment of the Circensian games on this occasion, while 
their brother Agrippa took part along with the boys 
of the first families in the equestrian exercise called 
"Troy." Two hundred and sixty lions were slaugh- 
tered in the Circus. There was a gladiatorial combat 
in the Saepta, and a naval battle between the 
"Persians" and the "Athenians" was given on the 
spot where even to-day some relics of it are still 
pointed out. These, it will be understood, were the 
names given to the contestants ; and the "Athenians " 
prevailed as of old. Afterwards water was let into 
the Circus Flaminius and thirty-six crocodiles were 
there slaughtered. Augustus, however, did not serve 
as consul during all these days, but after holding office 
for a short time, gave the title of the consulship to 

These were the celebrations in honour of Mars. 
To Augustus himself a sacred contest ^ was voted in 
Neapolis, the Campanian city, nominally because he 
had restored it when it was prostrated by earthquake 
and fire, but in reality because its inhabitants, alone 
of the Campanians, tried in a manner to imitate the 
customs of the Greeks. He also was given the strict 
right to the title of " Father " ; for hitherto he had 

1 Cf. li. 1, 2. 



avev •\jr'r}(l)[a/j,aTO'i i7re(j)7jfjLL^6T0. Koi fiivroL kol 
eVa/j^ou? TO)v Sopv(j)6po)p rore irpwrov ¥.viVT0V re 
^OaroopLOV ^KairouXav koi VLovttXlov XaXouiov 
"Airpov aTriSei^ev ovrw yap roc avTOv<; koi iyo) 
fi6vov<; T(ov iirap'XpvTwv rivo^y iTrecSijirep eKvevx- 

11 KY)Kev, ovo/jid^co. 1 iiroirfae jxev ovv kol 6 IluXa^r?? 
6p')(7)o-7'q<; irdvrj'yvpLV tlpu, ovk avTo<; y^eipovp- 
y^cra^i are koI V7repy7]p(0<; (ov, dWa rrj re aKevrj 
rfj dp'^LKT} KoX roL<i dvaXcofiaaiv, eiroirjae he Kal 
Kvtvro<i K.pL(T7rLvo<; arparrjyo^;. Xeyco Be ov rovro 
aX,X' ore avBpe^s re /tttt^? koI yvvacKe^; ovk d^a- 
vet<; €9 rrjv opxv^Tpav en avrov earj')(6ri(jav. 

12 dWa ravra jxev ev ovBevl \6ya) 6 Avyov(Tro<i 
eriderOy rrjp Be Brj ^lovXiav rrjv Ovyarepa daeX- 
yalvovcrav outo)? ware kol ev rfj dyopd Kal eir 
avrov ye rod yS^f/iaTO? , Kal Kco/jbd^etv vvKrcop 
fcal av/jLTTLveiv oyjre irore <j)Ci)pdaa<i vTrepcopylaOrj. 

13 KareiKa^e fiev yap Kal nrporepov ovk opOw^ avrrjp 
^Lovv, ov jxevroL Kal erriarevev' ol yap roi ra? 
r)yeixovla<i e^ovre^i irdvra jidXkov rj rd (T(j)erepa 
yiypcoa-KovaL, Kal ovr avroi n tou? avv6vra<i 
u)v TTOLOvai XavOdvovcTLv ovre rd eKeivcov dKpi- 

14 fiovai. rore B' ovv /laOcov rd irparrop^eva roaov- 
Tft) BvfjbGi eyprjaaro cocrre /jl7]B' oXkol avrd ^ Kara- 
<JX^^^ dXXd Kal ry yepovaia Koivcoaat, KdK 
rovrov eKelvrj fiev e? HavBareplav rr)v irpo^ 
}\.a/jL7ravLa^ vrjaov virepaypiaOr], Kal avrfj Kal 7) 

^ avra Rk., avrhv M, avrhp cod. Peir. Xiph. 
2 Ka/xiravlff Xiph., KUfAiravlav M. 


merely been addressed by that title without the b.c. 2 
formality of a decree. Moreover, he now for the 
first time appointed two prefects over the Praetorians/ 
Quintus Ostorius Scapula and Publius Salvius Aper, 
— for I, too, apply this name *^^ prefect" solely to 
them, of all who exercise a similar office, inasmuch as 
it has won its way into general use. Pylades, the 
dancer, gave a festival, though he did not perform 
any of the work himself, since he was very old, but J]J2j2 
merely wore the insignia of office and provided the 
cost of the entertainment ; and the praetor Quintus 
^--Grispinus also gave one. I mention this only because 
iT was on this occasion that knights and women of 
distinction were brought upon the stage. Of this, 
however, Augustus took no account ; but when he 
at length discovered that his daughter Julia was so 
dissolute in her conduct as actually to take part in 
revels and drinking bouts at night in the Forum and 
on~tlie very rostra, he became exceedingly angry. 
He had surmised even before this time that she was 
^not leading a straight life, but refused to believe it. 
For those who hold positions of command, it appears, 
are acquainted with everything else better than with 
their own affairs ; and although their own deeds do 
not escape the knowledge of their associates, 
have no precise information regarding what tar 
sociates do. In the present instance, when Augs 
learned what was going on, he gave way to a rage so 
violent that he could not keep the matter to himself, 
but went so far as to communicate it to the senate. 
As a result Julia was banished to the island of Pan- 
dateria,2 lying off Campania, and her mother Scribonia 
I ^ Praefecti praetorio. 

^ The modern Ventotene, between the Ponza islands and 





15 ^KpijScovla r) fiyirrjp i/covaa (TVve^eirKevae' twv 
he Brj ')(^p7](rafjL€V(t)v avrfj 6 fiev "lovWo<; ^ 6 ^ 
'AvTcovLO^, ft)9 Kol^ iirl rfj fiovapxia tovto irpd^a^, 
aireOave fier aXkwv tlvmv eTri^avcov dvBpwv, ol_ 
8e XoLiTol e? vrjaov<^ virepcopiaOrjaav. koL iireLSr) 
Kol Bi]/xapxo^ "T**? eV auT0t9 yvy o,v Trporepov irplv 

16 Bidp^ai, * eKpiOrj. ttoWmv Be eV tovtov ^ kuI 
dWcov yvvacKcbv e<^* ofiOLOL^ Ttalv alrlav \affov- 
(Tcov ov Trdam Ta? BiKa<^ iBe^aro, dWd koX y^povov 
Tiva d^copiaev axrre rd irpo eKeivov 'Trpa')(jdevTa 
fiT} TToXvirpayixovelcrOaL. eirl ydp t?}? Ovyarpo^ 
jjLTjBev^ /jL€TpLdaa<;, dWd koI ^r)aa<^ on ^Oi07]<; 
irarrjp fidWov^ rj iic€Lvr)fi yeyovevai ijOeXe, rwp 
dWcov i(j)€bB€TO. ri Be Br) ^oi^r] e^eXevOepa re 
tt)? 'louXia? Kol avvepyo<i ovaa irpoaireOavev 
eKOvarua, BiOTrep koX 6 Avyovcrro^i avrrjv iiryveae. 
— Xiph. 101, 21-32, Exc. V. 178^ 179 (p. 665). 

17 ''On Tdio<; rd o-rparoTreBa rd Trpo? tcG "larpw 
elpT]VLKO)<^ eTTrjei' iroXefJLOv ydp ovBeva eTroXe/jirjcrep, 
0^% ore ovK eyevero, dW on eKelvo<; fxev ev re 
r)(7V')(ia KoX do-cpdXeia dp'X^eiv ipidvOavev, ol Be Brj 
KivBvvoL dWoL^ irpocreTdacrovTO. — Exc. Y. 180 
(p. 665). 

18 Tmv *ApfJL€VLcop Be vecorepLadvTwv koI twv Tidp- 
6cov avTol^ (TvvepyovvTwv aXycov eirl rovTOi<; 6 
Avyovarof; rjiropet, tL dv irpd^r)' ovre ydp avTo<; 
a-rparevcrai ol6<; re rjv Bid yrjpa^;, 6 re Tifiepio^, 
0)9 eiprirai, fierecrrr) rjBrj, dXXov Be nva Tre/jiyjrai 

1 "lovWos Bs., lovKios M. cod. Peir, Xiph. 
'^ 6 supplied by Bk. 

2 Between us Koi and trepovs (10 a, 1) two folios are lacking 
in M. * Sidp^ai Val. , Siapirdffai cod. Peir. 



vjjoluntarily accompanied her. Of the men who had b.c. 2 
enjoyed her favours, lullus Antonius, on the ground 
that his conduct had been prompted by designs upon 
the monarchy, was put to death along with other 
prominent persons, while the remainder were ban- 
ished to islands. And since there was a tribune 
among them, he was not tried until he had completed 
his term of office. As a result of this affair many 
other women, too, were accused of similar behaviour, 
but the emperor would not entertain all the suits ; 
instead, he set a definite date as a limit and forbade 
all prying into what had occurred previous to that 
time. For although in the case of his daughter he 
would show no mercy, remarking that he would 
rather have be^ Phoebe's father than hers, he 
nevertheless was disposed to spare the rest. This 
Phoebe had been a freedvvoman of Julia's and her 
accomplice, and had voluntarily taken her own life 
before she could be punished. It was for this that 
Augustus praised her. 

Gaius assumed command of the legions on the b,c. l 
Ister with peaceful intent. Indeed, he fought no 
war, not because no war broke out, but because he 
was learning to rule in quiet and safety, while the 
dangerous undertakings were regularly assigned to 

When the Armenians revolted and the Parthians 
joined with them, Augustus was distressed and at a 
loss what to do. For he himself was not fit for 
campaigning by reason of age, while Tiberius, as has 
been stated, had already withdrawn, and he did not 

' iK TovTov Exc. Val., om. Xiph. 

* fiV^ev Xiph., /j.^ cod. Peir. 

' irarijp iJ.aWov Xiph., /xaWop iroT)/p cod. Peir. 


Twr hvvaTMV ovK iroX/jLa, 6 Fato? 8e kol 6 Aovkio^ 
veoi Koi TTpay/jLarcov ervyx^vov aireipoi, avdyKr}<i 
8' eTnKei/Jievrjf; rov Tdcov eiXeTO, Kal ttjv re i^ov- 
alav avTw Tr)P dvOvTrarov koI yvvai/ca epwKev, 
Xva KaK rouTov tl irpoaXdffr) d^icofia, Kai ol koX ^ 

19 avfiffovXov^ Trpoaira^e. /cal 6 ixev d(j)cop/jL^Ori 
eVrt/xo)? irapa TrdvTcov v7roBe')(^6fjLevo<i ola tov avro- 
Kpdropo^; ejyovos rj koi iral^ vofii^o/jLevo^;,'^ kcu 6 
Ti^ipLO<; €9 X/ozv iXOcov avrov eOepdirevcre, rd^ 
v7royjrLa<; diroTpt^o/jbevof;' iraTrelvov re yap eavrov 
KOi vTreiTLTnev ov'X^ on tw Vat(p, dWd Kal ^ Tol<i 
fxer avTov ovar direXOow Se eh Tr)v Xvpiav Kal 
firjBev fiiya KarwpdwKoof; irpcodr]. — Zon. 10, 36, 
Xipb. 101, 32-102, 4. 

20 ''Ot^ CO? iirvOovTo ol ffdp^apoL ttjv iiriarpa- 
Teiav TOV Vatov, *t>paTdKr)<;^ eireix'^e irpo'; rov 
Avyovarov, virep twv yeyovorcov diroXoyovixevo^ 
Kal Tou? dhek^ov<i eirl elprj^fTj diraLTOiV' Kal avrw 
eK€2vo<; ^pardKTj ^ a7rXa>9 ^ dvev t?}? tov l3aai\6co<; 
eiTLK\r}(J€a)(;, dvT67riaTeL\a<; , to re ovofia to jSa- 
(tlKlkov KaTaOioOai Kal t^)? ^Kpfieviaf; d7rocrT7]vaL 
TrpocreTa^ev. e(/)' c5 Br) 6 lLldp6o<i ^^X ^(Tov ov 
KaT67rTr]^ev, dXkd Kal dvTeypa-yjriv ol Td t€ dWa 
V7r€p<f)p6v(0<;,^ Kal avTov jjlIv fiaaiXea fiaaiXecov 
eKclvov Be Kaio-apa fjuovov ovofidaa^. 6 Be Br) 
TLypdvr]<; ev6v<; jxev ovk eiTpeapevaaTO, tov Be 
' ApTa/Sd^ov voaw vGTepov TeXevTTjaavTO^ Bcopd t€ 

1 ol Kal AE, ol BCc. 

2 voiJ.i(6iJ.€vos ABC*^, Xoyi^SfiePos E. 
^ Ka\ supplied by Bs. 

* */)OTa«:77s, ^paTOLKr) Bs., (ppardKrrjs, (ppaKTcxKr] (but corrected 
by first hand to (ppajaK-ri) Exc. Urs. cod. A, (pparaKrov Xiph. 
VL', (ppaTaKTOv Xiph. C, <ppara.Krr] Xiph. VOL'. 



dare send any other influential man ; as for Gaius b.c. i 
and Lucius, they were young and inexperienced in 
affairs. Nevertheless, under the stress of necessity, 
he chose Gaius, gave him the proconsular authority 
and a wife, — in order that he might also have the 
increased dignity that attached to a married man,i — 
and appointed advisers to him. Gaius accordingly 
set out and was everywhere received with marks of 
distinction, as befitted one who was the emperor's 
grandson and was even looked upon as his son. 
Even Tiberius went to Chios and paid court to him, 
thus endeavouring to clear himself of suspicion ; 
indeed, he humiliated himself and grovelled at the 
feet, not only of Gaius, but also of all the associates 
of Gaius. And Gaius, after going to Syria and 
meeting with no great success, was wounded. 

When the barbarians heard of Gaius' expedition, 
Phrataces sent men to Augustus to explain what had 
occurred and to demand the return of his brothers 
on condition of his accepting peace. The emperor a.d. i 
sent him a letter in reply, addressed simply to 
" Phrataces," without the appellation of " king," 
in which he directed him to lay aside the royal 
name and to withdraw from Armenia. Thereupon 
the Parthian, so far from being cowed, wrote back 
in a generally haughty tone, styling himself " King 
of Kings " and addressing Augustus simply as 
" Caesar." Tigranes did not at once send any en- 
voys, but when Artabazus somewhat later fell ill 
and died, he sent gifts to Augustus, in view of the 

^ See note on liii. 13, 2. 

^ oLTrKws Xiph., om. Exc. Urs. 

* virfp<pp6vu)S Exc. Urs., inrepTj<pdi'U}S Xiph. 


TO) Avyovaro), to? /cal rod avniraXov vire^ypi]- 
21 fievov 01, eirefjiyjre, to tov /SaaiXico^; ovofia e? rrjv 
€7naTo\r]v /jlt) iy^ypd'y^a^, koI ttjv ^acriKeiav hrjOev 
irap avTOV rjrijcre. Tovroi<; re ^ ovv vira^Oel^; Koi 
rov TToXefJbOv dfia tov YlapOiKov ^ cf)O^7]0€U tcl re 
hodpa iBe^aro, koI fi€T iXirlScov avTov ^PV^'^^^ ^'i 
Trjv l^vpiav irpo^ tov Tdtov eXOelv eKekevaev. — 
Exc. U^ 36 (p. 390), Xiph. 102, 4-^11. 
10a ... 6Tepov<i eV t?}? AlyvirTov eiriaTpaTevaav- 
Ta9 a(piaiv aired) cyavTO, ov irpoTepov t€ eveBoaav 
irplv 'X^iXlap^ov Tt-va eK tov BopvcfioptKOu in av- 
TOv<; 7re/jL(j)67]vai. koL i/celvo^ Be ev XP^^V '^^^ 
KUTaBpOfidf; avTCOv eireaxev, wo"T6 eirl iroXv firj- J 
Beva 0ov\€VTr}v twv TavTy iroXecov dp^ai. 1 

2 TavTd Te ovv dfia /cal tcl twv KeXrcoi^ e/caivdyOr}. 
6 yap AofiLTLO<; irpoTepov /jl€v, €co<i ert twi^ tt/jo? 

Ta> "laTpq) ywpiCOV ^/3%6, TOU? T6 'Ep/jLOVvBovpov^ 

1^ CK T?;? olKeia^ ovfc oW d'jT(»)<^ e^avaaTdvTa^ kul 

i fcaTa ^rjTijaiv eTepa<i 77}? 7r\ avco/ievovf; viroXa/Soov 

ev fiepec r^? M.apKopavv[,Bo<; KaTcoKiae, Kal tov 

^AX^iav p7)Bev6<; ol ivavTiov fievov Bia^d^ (piXiav 

T€ T0t9 eKeivT) ^ap^dpoL<^ avveOeTO Kal (3cop.ov eV 

3 avTov Tw Avyova-T(p IBpvaaTO. tot€ Be Trpo^f Te 
TOV 'Pr]vov fjLeTeX6d>v, Kal eK7reo-ovTa<i Tiva'i Xe- 
poixTKCov KaTayayelv BC eTepwv eOeXrjaa^, eBvGTv- 
XV^^ ^^^ KaTa^povrjaau o-cjxov Kal tov^ aXXov^ 
0apffdpov<i eiroLijaev. ov /xevTOi Kal irXeov tl tw 
€Tei eKelvw vii avTov eirpdxO'r]' Bid yap tov 
UapOtKov TToXe/jLOV viroyvov ovTa ovBefiia avTcov 
iTTKTTpocpr} t6t€ iyevcTO. 

1 T6 A (B ? V ?). 

' rhv TlapeiKhv Bs., tuv ndpOwy Urs., rhv napdhv A (B ? V?). 



fact that his rival had been removed, and though he a,d. i 
did not mention the name " king " in his letter, he 
really did petition Augustus for the kingship. In- 
fluenced by these considerations and at the same time 
fearing the war with the Parthians, the emperor 
accepted the gifts and bade him go with good hopes 
to Gaius in Syria. 

.... others who marched against them from 
Egypt, and did not yield until a tribune from the 
pretorian guard was sent against them. This man in 
the course of time checked their incursions, with 
the result that for a long period no senator governed 
the cities in this region. 

Coincident with these events^ there was an out- 
break on the part of the Germans. Somewhat 
earlier Domitius, while still governing the districts 
along the Ister, had intercepted the Hermunduri, a 
tribe which for some reason or other had left their 
own land and were wandering about in quest of 
another, and he had settled them in a part of the 
Marcomannian territory ; then he had crossed the 
Albis, meeting with no opposition, had made a 
friendly alliance with the barbarians on the further 
side, and had set up an altar to Augustus on the 
bank of the river. Just now he had transferred his 
headquarters to the Rhine, and in his desire to secure 
the return of certain Cheruscan exiles through the 
efforts of other persons had met with a reverse and 
had caused the other barbarians likewise to conceive 
a contempt for the Romans. This was the extent, 
however, of his operations that year ; for in view of 
the Parthian war which was impending no attention 
was paid to the Germans at this time. 




4 Ot* /jLr}v ovBk TOt? Ildp6ot<; eTroXe/x?;^?;. o yap 
^paTd/cr)(; top Tdiov ev re rfj Xvpla ovra kol 
virarevovTa aKOvora^;, koI TrpoaeTL koX ra olKela 
fjLTjhe TTporepov €vvoIkco<; ol 6')(^ovTa vTroroTrtjaa^;, 
irpoKarrjWdyr] eVt rw avro^; re t^9 ^ Appevia^ 
curoaTrjvai koL tou? dheXcjiov^ avrov Trepav 6a- 

6 \daar]<; elvai. ol ye firjv *App,evioc, KaiTrep rod re 
Tiypdvov Ik 7ro\ep,ov tivo^ 0apffaptKov (^6ap€VT0<; 
Kal Trj<; ^Eparov^ Tr)v dp^rjv a^etcTT;?, o/io)? eVetS^ 
*ApLofiap^dv€i TLvl Mt/Sw, 09 TTore fiera rov Tipc- 
Sdrov ^ 7r/309 toi'9 'Pcop^aiov^; u^Ikto, Trapehihovjo, 
e7rokep,7)ordv acpicn tw vareptp erei, ev m Uov- 
irXio^i Tc OviviKioj; Kal IIov7r\io<; Ovdpo<; vird-— 

6 revcrav. Kal aXko puev ovSev d^ioXoyov eSpaaav, 
"ABBcov Be Tt9 ra ^Aprdyeipa Karexfov virrjydyeTo 
Tov Vdiov viro TO T6t;^09 <W9 Kal rcov rov TldpOov 
Tt diToppiJTcov avTO) ^pdacovj Kal erpcoaev avrov, 
KaK rovrov 7ro\iopK7]0el<; errl rrXelarov dvreo-)(^€v. 

7 dX6vro<i S' ovv irore avrov ro re ovofia ro rov 
avroKpdropof; ol'% o Avyovaro<; povov d\Xa Kal o_ 
rat09 erreOero, Kal rrjv ^Appeviav rore pep g^ 
*Apiopap^dvr}^, diroOavovrofi Be avrov ov ttoXXw 
varepov *Aprd^a^o<; 6 vlo<; irapd re rov Avyov- 

8 arov Kal irapa rr)^ jSovXrjf; eXa^ev. 6 5' ovv 
Tdio<i €K rov rpavparo^ '^ppcoartjae, kol eTreiBr] 
p7]B^ aXXft)9 vyieivo'i rjv, vcj)^ ovirep Kal rr)v Bt,d- 
voiav e^eXeXvro, ttoXXo) pdXXov diryjp^XvvOr}. 
Kal TeXo9 IBicoreveiv re r)^iov Kal ev rfj ^vpCa ttov 
Karapelvai rjOeXev, ware rov Avyovcrrov irepiaX- 
yijaavra rfj re yepovaia ro PovXrjp,a avrov 

^ TipiSdruv Dind., Teipiddrov M, 


Nevertheless, war did not break out with the ad. i 
Parthians, either. For Phrataces, hearing that 
Gaius was in Syria, acting as consul, and, further- 
more, having suspicions regarding his own people, 
wlio had even before this been inclined to be disloyal 
to him, forestalled action on their part by coming to 
terms with the Romans, on condition that he him- 
self should renounce Armenia and that his brothers 
should remain beyond the sea. The Armenians, 
however, in spite of the fact that Tigranes had 
perished in a war with barbarians and Erato had 
resigned her sovereignty, nevertheless went to war 
with the Romans because they were being handed 
over to a Mede, Ariobarzanes, who had once come to 
the Romans along with Tiridates. This was in the a.d. 2 
following year, when Publius Vinicius and Publius 
Varus were consuls. And though they accomplished 
nothing worthy of note, a certain Addon, who was (a.d. s) 
holding Artagira, induced Gaius to come up close to 
the wall, pretending that he would reveal to him 
some of the Parthian king's secrets, and then 
wounded him, whereupon he was besieged. He held 
out for a long time ; but when he was at last captured, 
not only Augustus but Gaius also assumed the title 
of imperator, and Armenia was given by Augustus 
and the senate first to Ariobarzanes and then upon 
his death a little later to his son Artabazus. Gaius 
became ill from his wound, and since he was not 
robust to begin with and the condition of his health 
had impaired his mind, this illness blunted his facul- 
ties still more. At last he begged leave to retire to 
private life, and it was his desire to remain some- 
where in Syria. Augustus, accordingly, grieved at 
heart, communicated his wish to the senate, and 



KOLP&aai Kol €K€LVOV 6? yovv TTjv *Ira\iav iXOovra 
9 irpaTTCiv 6 re /SovXoiro iTpoTpeyjraaOai. irdvr 
ovv €vOv<; TO, TTj^ ^PX^^ d(f)€U e? AvKiav iv oXkclSl 
TTapeirXevaey KavTavOa iv Aip,vpoL<; p.eTrjWa^€. 
irplv he Tj rekevrrjcraL avrov 6 Aovkio<; ev Macr- 
aaXia irpoaTrecrPr]' 7roWa')(^fj yap rot, kol eKeluo^ 
aXXore dWrj irefiiropLevo^; ridKelro, koX Td<; ye rov 
Tatou e7rt(7ToXa9 avTo<i ev rfj ^ovXfj, oad/CL^; av 

10 irapeir], dveyiyvwaKev. direOave he e^ai^vr)'^ voarj- 
cra9, Mare eir dfjL(j)orepoi<; a(f)iaL rrjv AiovLav, 
dWaxi re koI ore ev tw y^povw tovtco 6 TL/Sepco^; 
69 TTjv *F(t)p.r)v eK Trj<^ 'Vohov d(f)LK€TO, vnoiTTev- 

11 drjvat. avTo^ re yap €/A7ret/)OT<xT09 T7)9 hid tmv 
darpcov fiavTiKrj<; cov, Kal SpdavWov dvhpa 
7rdcrr)(; darpoXoyla^; hLairef^VKOTa e^f^v, irdvra 
Kal rd eavrw Kal rd eKeivoL^ ireirpcopeva dKpLfi(o<; 

2 ■^TTicTTaTO' Kal Xoyov ye ex^i oti /jL€XXrjaa<; nrore 
ev rfj 'PoSct) rov SpdcrvXXov diro rov rei^ovf;, 
eireihr] p6vo<; avrw irdvd' oca evevoei avvrjhei, 
coaeiv, ovKer avro ^ eiroiTjae aKvOpcoirdaavra 
avrov Ihcov, ovri ye Kal hid rovro, dXX^ on eire- 
p(orrjOel<; hid rl avvvevo(f)6, Kivhvvov riva vtto- 
irreveiv ol yevriaecBai €(jir}' Oavp^daa^ ydp on 
Kal rrjv p^eXXijo-Lv rr)^ eTrL^ovXrj^i^ irpoelhev,^ (jyv- 
Xd^ai avrov eavrw hid rd<; eXTrlha^; r)6eXr]aev. — 
Zon. 10, 36. 

3 Oi/TO) ydp irov irdvra eKelvo^ cra^a)9 jjhei, a>are 
Kal ro irXolov to rr)v dyyeXiav rw Tcfiepicp T'Q? €9 
T^i^ 'Vo!)fjLr)v dvaKOpLihrj^; irapd re rrjf; p,r)rpo<i Kal 

^ avrh Xiph., avTui M. 

2 Between iKi^ovXrjs and Tt^epiov (13, 2) two more folios 
are lacking in M. ' irpoe'iSev supplied by Bs. 



urged him to come at least to Italy and then do as (a.b, s) 
he pleased. So Gaius resigned at once all the duties 
of his office and took a trading vessel to Lycia, 
where, at Limyra, he passed away. But even before (ad. 4) 
Gaius' death the spark of life in Lucius had been 
quenched at Massilia. He, too, was being trained 
to rule by being despatched on missions to many 
places, and it was his custom personally to read the 
letters of Gaius in the senate, whenever he was 
present. His death was due to a sudden illness. 
In connexion with both deaths, therefore, suspicion 
attached to Livia, and particularly because it was 
just at this time that Tiberius returned to Rome 
from Rhodes. Tiberius, it seems, was extremely 
well versed in the art of divination by means of the 
stars, and had with him Thrasyllus, who was a past- 
master of all astrology, so that he had full and accur- 
ate knowledge of what fate had in store both for 
him and for Gaius and Lucius. And the story goes 
that once in Rhodes he was about to push Thrasyllus 
from the walls, because he was the only one who 
shared all his own thoughts ; but he did not carry 
out his intention when he observed that Thrasyllus 
was gloomy, — not, indeed, because of his gloom, but 
because, when asked why his countenance was over- 
cast, the other replied that he had a premonition that 
some peril was in store for him. This answer made 
Tiberius marvel that he could foresee the mere 
project of the plot, and so he conceived the desire 
to keep Thrasyllus for his own purposes because of 
the hopes he entertained. 

Thrasyllus had so clear a knowledge of all matters 
that when he descried, approaching afar off, the ship 
which was bringing to Tiberius the message from his 



irapa rov Avjovcttov (f)€pov TroppwOev KariBoDV 
TTpoaTrXiov, irpoeLirelv avrw a ayyeWeiv epieXke} 
12 ToO he AovKLOV rod re Vatov ra (rcofiara Bid re 
TO)v ')(^LXidp-)(^u)V Kol Bia TMV i<j) e/cdarrj^ TToXeo)? 
TTponTtov e? rr)V 'I^cop,r)V efco/jLiaOr], koI al irekraL 
rd re Sopara, a wapd tmv lirirecdv €9 tou? e<^r)- 
povi €(tl6vt€<; 'X^pvaa elXrjcjyeaav, 69 to ^ovXevrr)- 
pwv dz;6T6<9»7.— Xiph. 102, 25-103, 3. 

2 A60"7roT>?9^ he Trore^ 6 Av'yovaTo<; virb rov 
hrjiMov ovo/jLuaOeU ovx ottco<; diTeliTe /jurjBeva rovrw 
7rpo<; eavrbv tw Trpoaprj^ari 'X^prjaaaOai, dWd fcal 

3 irdvv hia (jivXaicrj^; avro eiroirjaaro. rrXrjpcjOeLarjf; 
Be ol fcal Ti}9 rpirrj^ Befcaerla^ rrjv rjye/jLoviav koX 
rore ro ^ reraprov, eK^iaaOeh BrjOev, vrreBe^aro, 
irpa6rep6<i re koX o/cvrjporepof; viro rov 777/00)9 7r/?09 
ro rcbi^ ^ovXeurcov riaiv direx^dveaOai yeyovQ)<; 
ovBevl er avrcov rrpoaKpoveiv rjOeXev. — Xiph. 103, 
3-11, Zon. 10, 36. 

3a XtXla^ re kol irevraKoala^ fxvpidBa^ Bpa^fiMV 
droKOV^ roi<; Beo/ievocf} Baveuaa^ eV errj rpia, 
errrjvelro irapa irdvrcov koI eaepuvvvero. — Zon.^y, 

loi 36. a 

4 ^EipLTrprja/bLov Be irore rb iraXdriov BLa<^6eipavro<;, 
KOL ttoXXmv avrS) iroXXd BiBovrcop, ovBev eXa^ev 
rj fiovov irapd /lev rcov Brjfxayv ')(pvaovv irapd Be 
rcov IBicorcov Bpa'X^/jurjv. %/9uo-oi)z^ yap Brj Koi iyo) 
rb v6/JLia/Jia rb Ta9 rrevre kol etfcoai Bpa')(/jLa<i 

6 Bvvd.fievov Kara rb e'TTi')((ji)pLOv ovopd^w Kal rcov 
^EXXtjvcov Be rtv€<;, wv rd ^i^Xia iirl rw drriKL^eiv 
dvayivocKTKop,ev, ovr(o<} avrb eicdXecrav. — Xiph. 103, 
11-18, Zon. 10, 36. 

1 e/teWe V, IjfieWe CL'. ^ Btav6T7is VO, /col Seffir6TTis L'. 



mother and Augustus to return to Rome, he told a.d. 2 
him in advance what news it would bring. 

The bodies of Lucius and Gaius were brought to (ad. 4) 
Rome by the military tribunes and by the chief men 
of each city. And the golden targes and spears 
which they had received from the knights on entering 
the class of youths of military age were set up in 
the senate-house. 

When Augustus was once called "master" by the 
people, he not only forbade that any one should use 
this form of address to him, but also took very good 
care to enforce his command. And now that his 
third ten-year period was completed, he accepted 
the leadership for the fourth time, though ostensibly ad. s 
under compulsion. He had become milder through 
age and more reluctant to incur the hatred of any of 
the senators, and hence now wished to offend none 
of them. 

For lending sixty million sesterces for three years 
without interest to such as needed it he was praised 
and magnified by all. 

Once, when a fire destroyed the palace and many 
persons offered him large sums of money, he accepted 
nothing but an aureus from entire communities and 
a denarius from single individuals. I here use the 
name aureus, according to the Roman practice, for 
the coin worth one hundred sesterces. Some of the 
Greeks, also, whose books we read with the object 
of acquiring a pure Attic style, have given it this 

3 WOT€ VC, TOT€ L'. * TOT€ tJ. CL', tJ. V. 


Tlapa Be tol<; ^'KWrjaiv eiKoai Spax/^cov 6 ^Lwv 
^rjal TO ')(pvaovv aWdaaeaOai vofxiafia. — Zon. 
10, 36. 

'O he AvyovcTTO'^ rrjv olKiav olKohofi'^aa^ eSr)- 
fjLoaiwae iraaav, elre Br) Bia rrjv dwreXeiav rrjv 
irapa ^ tov Brjfiov oi yevo/Mevijv, etre Kal on ap')(^te- 
pe(o<; rjv, Iv ev toI^ IBioa dfia Kal ev toI^ KOivo'i<i 


13 Tov Be Bij/JLOV a^oBpa iyKeLfievov rw Kvyovarw 
Xva KaTaydyrj rrjv Ovyarepa avrov, Odaaov ecprj 
TTvp vBart iJLL')(6rj<je(T6aL rj eKeivqv KaTa^OriaeaQai. 
Kol 6 Brjp,o^ TTVpa €9 TOV Ti^epiv TToWa €ve/3a\e' 
Kol t6t6 fiev ovBev r]vvaev, vaTepov Be i^e/SidaaTo 
o)(TTe €9 yovv Tr]V r}TTeipov avTrjv eK 77)9 vrjcrov 
KO/jLiaOrjvaL. — Xiph. 103, 19-28. 
la Mera Be TavTa K.€Xtikov TroXe/juov KeKivqpievov 
avTO<; VTTO re yrjpco^ ^ Kal voaov KeKjju^KO'^ ^X^^ 
TO (T(o/Jia Kal cKaTpaTevaaL fii] 0I09 re wv, irfj jjiev 
viTO TMV Trpay/jbdrwv dvajKaadeh Trfj 5' vtto Tr}<^ 
'lovXiaf; dvaireiaOeU (j]Br) yap avTi] ^ €K t?}9 

2 virepopia^i KaTrjxOil)^ [Zon. 10, 36]. tov^ Ti^epcov 
Kal eiTOLrja-aTO Kal eirl tov<; KeXTOL'9 e^eirepy^re/' 
Tr}v e^ovaiav avTW ttjv Brjfiapx^f^^V^ e'? BeKa eTt] 
Bov<;. Kal pevTOi kol avTov eKelvov^ viT0TTTevaa<; 
ITT) eK^povrjaetv, Kal ^0^7)9 el^ /jLtj Kal v€0)(^fiooaT] 
Ti, TOV TepfiavLKov 01 tov dBeXcpiBovv KauTot Kal 

3 avTQ) vlov e^ovTL iaeTrourjae, KaK tovtcov eiri- 
0ap(T7]aa<i 0)9 kol BiaBo^ovf; Kal ^o7]6ov(; exfov, 
BiaXe^aL Tr]v yepovaiav avOi^ r)6eX7](Te, Kal BeKa 

^ traph. L', in\ ra VC. 

2 yr^poos E (o) corrected from ov), ynpovs ABC<^. 

^ avTT] BC°, Kol avrt] AE. ^ rhv supplied by Bs. 




Among the Greeks^ Dio says, the aureus is ex- a.d. s 
changed for twenty drachmas.^ 

When Augustus had built his house, he made it 
all state property, either on account of the con- 
tributions made by the people or because he was 
high priest and wished to live in apartments that 
were at once private and public. \ . 

The people urged Augustus very strongly to 
restore his daughter from exile, but he answered 
that fire should sooner mix with water than she 
should be restored. And the people threw many 
firebrands into the Tiber ; and though at the time 
they accomplished nothing, yet later on they brought 
such pressure to bear that she was at least brought 
from the island to the mainland. 

Later, when a German war broke out and Augustus a.d. 4 
was worn out in body, by reason of old age and ill- 
ness, and incapable of taking the field, he yielded, 
partly to the force of circumstances and partly to 
the persuasions of Julia^ who had now been restored 
from banishment, and not only adopted Tiberius, but 
also sent him out against the Germans, granting him 
the tribunician power for ten years. Yet suspecting 
that he also would lose his poise somehow or other, j 
and fearing that he would begin a rebellion, he made 1 '' 
him adopt his nephew Germanicus, though Tiberius 
had a son of his own. After this he took courage, 
feeling that he had successors and supporters, and 
he desired to reorganize the senate once more. So 
he nominated the ten senators whom he most highly 

^ That is, for the equivalent of eighty, instead of a hundred, 

* 6|f7re^4'e supplied by Xyl. 

® iK€iyou Xyl., inflvov M. cod. Coisl. 



^ovXevra^ o&? fiaXiara erifia 7rpoffaX6/jL€vo<; ^ 
T/06t9 aTT* avTcov i^eraara^ aTreSet^ev, ov<i o K\7jpo<; 
etkero, ov fievroi Kal ttoWol ovre TrpoKariyvo)- 
trdv (T^(ov €^ovaia<; avroL<; ho9ei<Tr)<:;, axnrep Kal 
TTporepov, ovT aKOVT€<; a'Trrj\i(f>r]aav} 

4 H^ovTO fiev Br) Bi irepcov eirpa^ev, avTo<i Be 
d7roypa<f)a<; roov ev re rfj 'IraXta KaroiKovvTcov 
Kal juLT} iXaTTco irivre fJLvpidBcov ovaiav KeKTrj/juivcov 
eiTOirjaaTO' tou9 yap d(r6eve(TTepov<i tou? t6 ef&) 
Tr}? 'IraXta? olKovvTa<; ovk rjvdyKaaev diroypd- 
yjraadat,, Beicra^ fir) vecoTepLcraxiL rt Ta/}a%^ez^Te?. 

5 Kal OTTO)? 76 /jLT) Bo^etev 0)9 ri/ijL7]Tr)<; avrb iroieiv, 
BC oirep elirov irporepov, dvOvfrarov i^ovaiav 
7r/0O9 re to Te\o9 twv diroypacficov koI Trpo*; ttjv 

6 Tov KaOapaiov iroirjai.v irpoaedeTO, iireiBr) re 
\€rv')(yol rwv veaviaKcov 6k re rod ^ovXevriKOV 
jyevouf; KdK rwv dWfov lirTrewv iirevovro pajBev 

^ [eTTairiov e^ovre'^, rol<i fiev ifKeioaL ro reraypuevov 
IrCpirjpa dveirXvpwaev, oyBoyjKOvra Be riac Kal €9 
T IrpidKovra avro p,vpidBa<; iirrjv^rjcre. ttoWwv re 
TToWovf; dKpLr(i)<i ^ ekevOepovvrwv, Biira^e rrjv re 
rfkiKiav fjv rov re iXevOepcoa-ovrd riva Kal rov 
d<^e6rja6pevov vir avrov €')(eLv Berjaoi, Kal ra 
BtKaicopara oh 01 re aXKoi Trpo^ Tot'9 iXevOepov- 
pL6vou<i Kal avrol ol Bearrorai <r<f)a)V yevofievoi 

14 Tlpdaaovri Be avrw ravra eire^ovXevaav aXXoi 
re Kal Vvalo^ Kopvi]Xio<; 0vyarptBov<; rov /xeydXov 

^ Trpo$a\6iJ.(yos H. Steph., Trpo3a\x6/j.fVos M. 
2 ain]\i(pii\aav St., aTrTjAei^rjirai' M. 
^ oLKpirus Casaub., aKpijSws M. 




honoured and appointed three of them, selected by 
lot, to examine the quaHfications of senators. There 
were not many, however, who were affected, either 
by declaring themselves disqualified when permission 
was given them to do so, as had been done on the 
previous occasion,^ or by having their names erased 
against their will. 

Now Augustus caused others to carry through this 
business for him ; but he himself took a census, but 
only of the inhabitants of Italy who possessed 
property worth at least two hundred thousand ses- 
terces, for he did not compel the poorer citizens or 
those living outside of Italy to be listed, fearing lest 
if they were disturbed, they would become rebellious. 
And in order that he might not appear to be acting 
herein in the capacity of censor, for the reason 1 
mentioned before,^ he assumed the proconsular 
power for the purpose of completing the census and 
performing the purification. Inasmuch, moreover, 
as many of the young men of the senatorial class 
and of the knights as well were poor through no 
fault of their own, he made up to most of them the 
required amount, and in the case of some eighty 
increased it to one million two hundred thousand 
sesterces. Since also many were freeing their slaves 
indiscriminately, he fixed the age which the manu- 
raitter and also the slave to be freed by him must 
have reached and likewise the legal principles which 
should govern the relations of both citizens in 
general and the former masters toward sl^' .r 

were set free. . 

While he was thus occupied, various men lor^ 
plots against him, notably Gnaeus Cornelius, a son 

1 Cf. lii. 42, 2, and liv. 26, 4. « Cf. liv. 1, 5-2, 1. 



Uo/JLTrrjLov coVy ware iu /JieyaXrj avrov afxr^'^avia 
')(^p6vov rtva yevecrOaL, /jurjr aTTOKrelvai <T<^a9, otl 
ovSev irXeov 7rpo<; aa(f)d\€Lav i/c ra)v awoWv/jLevcov 
€(opa ol yiyvoixevov, jxr)T airoKvcjai, yJi] /cal krepov^ 
€K TOVTOV e<^' eavTov iTnairdarjrai, iOekovra. 

2 aTTopovvjl T6 ovv avTtp 6 TL Trpd^rj, KoX ovre 
/jued^ rjfjLepav dcppovTKTretv ovr av vvKTcop drpefiecv 
hvvap,ev(p €(f>ri irore rj Acouia' " rl iaTC tovto, co 
avep ; Sid tl ov Ka6evheL<; ;" 

Kal Avyovaro^' " kov ti? az^," ecTrev, *' m 
yvvai, Kav eXd^i^o-TOV d7ro/ji€p/JL7jpLaei€ roaovrov^ 
re del €)(Opov(; e^f^i^ f^cil avve^fo^ ourct)? aXXoTe 

3 uw dWcov eTTL^ovXevop^evo^; rj ov^ opa<i oaoi 
Kol epjol Koi rfj dp')(ri r]po)v eTririOevrac; Koi 
avTOv^ ouBe at rip^oypiat rcov Si/caLovpevcov dva- 
(TjeXXovcnVy aX\a koi irdv rovvavrlov, coairep 
iir dyaOov ri iireiyopevoi, aTrevSovai koI ol 
XotTTol irpoaaTToXXvaO ai.^^ 

4 ^ AKovaaaa ovv rovrcov 17 Aioviw " to fiev 
iin^ovXeveaOal <re," e^?;, " ovre Oavpaarop 
ovre efo) rov dvOpcoTrelov rpowov eari' kol yap 
'rrpdaaei<; rroXXd are rrfkiKavrrjv dp^rjv e^cov, Kal 
Xv7reL<iy Mairep ei/co9, av')(^vov<;. ov ydp irov Kal 
irdaiv olov re rov dp^ovrd rivcov dpicxKeiv, dXXd 
Kal a7re;^^a:/ecr^at ttoXXo?? Kal rov irdvv 6pOa)<; 

5 jSaaiXevovra dvd^KJ). ttoXXw re ydp 7rXeiov<; 
rwv hiKaiov re irparrovroyv ol dhiKelv ideXovre^ 
elcTLV, o)v dBvvarov iart rd<i €7rtOvpia<; diro- 
TTipbTrXdvar Kal avrcov rcov dperrjv riva i^ovrcov 
ol p.ev Kal TToXXcov Kal jxeydXcov, cav ov Bvvavrat 



of the daughter of Pompey the Great. Augustus a.i>. 4 
was consequently in great perplexity for some time, 
since he neither wished to put the plotters to death, 
inasmuch as he saw that no greater safety would 
accrue to him by their destruction, nor to let them 
go, for fear this might induce others to conspire 
against him. While he was in doubt what to do and 
was finding it impossible either to be free from 
apprehension by day or from restlessness by night, 
Livia one day said to him : *' What means this, 
husband } Why is it that you do not sleep ? " 

And Augustus answered : "What man, wife, could 
even for a moment forget his cares, who always has 
so many enemies and is so constantly the object of 
plots on the part of one set of men or another? Do 
you not see how many are attacking both me and 
our sovereignty ? And not even the punishment of 
those who are brought to justice serves to check 
them ; nay, quite the opposite is the result — those 
who are left are as eager to accomplish their own 
destruction also as if they were striving for some 
honourable thing." 

Then Livia, hearing this, said : " That you should 
be the object of plotting is neither remarkable nor 
contrary to human nature. For you do a great many 
things, possessing so large an empire as you do, 
and naturally cause grief to not a few. A ruler can 
not, of course, please everybody; nay, it is inevitable 
that even a king whose rule is altogether upright 
should make many men his enemies. For those who 
wish to do wrong are far more numerous than those 
who do right, and it is impossible to satisfy their 
desires. Even among such as possess a certain ex- 
cellence, some covet many great rewards which they 




Tf%6ti^, eTTOpeyovrai, ol he kol erepwv iXaTTw- 
6evT€<; d^6ovTai, fcal ovtq)^ ajxcfiorepOL tov Kpa- 

6 Tovvra alriMvrai,. coaT€ €K t6 tovtcov /jlt) elvat 
Ka/cov dfiaprdveLV, koI Trpocreri kol Ik tmv iirtTL- 
Oefievcov ovri ye kol aol dWa rfj rjye/jLOvta. (xe 
jjiev yap IhicojevovTa ovK av eh edeXovrrj<; naKov 
Ti, fjbrjSev ye irpoiraOcov, eTTolrjae' tt)? Se Bt] a/o%% 
Kol rS}v dyadoiv roiv iv avr^ iravre^j koI ol ye 
ev BvvdfjLei tlvI ovre^ nrokv [xaWov twv viroSee- 

7 (rrepcov, opiyvMvrai. tovto yap earc fiev dhiKwv 
dvOpcoTTcov KOL TjKiaTa vovv eyovT(iiv iroielv, oh 
yjqv ahX ev re rfj cfyvaeL avrwv KaOd-nep ri kol 
dWo eveari, Kal ov^ olov re iart rd roiavra ovre 
ireiOovra ovr dvayKd^ovra e^eXeaOai tlvmv 
ovBel<; yap ovre v6/jlo<; ovre <^oySo9 Kpeirrcov tmv 

8 (j)va€i TrecjiVKorcov yiyverai. ravr ovv XoyL^ojxevo^ 
ra? jiev tmv dXX(ov dfxaprLa^; fxr) hva^epaive, 
<jiv\aKr]v S' dKpi^rj Kal aeavrov Kal rrj<i iJiovap')(ia<s 
TTOiov, iva avTT]]' firj eK tov a(f)6Bpa KoXd^eiv rivd^ 
dX}C €K TOV ac^oBpa ^vXaaaeiv da(^a\o)<^ €')(a)/jLev.^^ 

15 11/009 ovv TavTa 6 AvyovaTO^;' " dX)C olha jjuev 
Kal eyco, ft) yvvat, otl ovt dXXo n twv fieydXwv 
e^co (fyOovov Kal i7nl3ovXrj<; KaOeaTrjKev, rjKiaTa 

2 Be avTapy^ia' Kal yap dv Kal laoOeoi rj/juev, el p-rj 
Kal Trpdy/xaTa ^ Kal ^povTiBa^ Kal (f)6^ov^ virep 
TTavTa^ Tov^ IBicoTevovTaf; ety^oixev. e/jue Be Br] Kal 
avTO TOVTO Xvirel, otl Kal dvayKalov ccttl tqvO^ 
ovTco^ yiyveaOai, Kal dBvvaTov Oepairelav TLvd 
avTcbv eiipedrjvaL.^ 

3 "'AXV iireLBt] ye Tive^ toiovtol elcTLv oloi 

^ irpayixara Xiph,, irpayiJLa M. 


can not obtain, and some chafe because they are less a.d. 4 
honoured than others ; hence both these classes find 
fault with the ruler. Therefore it is impossible to 
avoid meeting with mischief, either at the hands ot 
these or, in addition, at the hands of those who 
attack, not you personally, but the monarchy. For 
if you were a private citizen, no one would willingly 
have done you any harm, unless he had previously 
received some injury ; but all men covet the office of 
ruler and the good things that office affords, and 
those who already possess some power covet much 
more than those who are lacking in this respect. It 
is, indeed, the way of men who are wicked and have 
very little sense to do so ; in fact, it is implanted in 
their nature, just like any other instinct, and it is 
impossible either by persuasion or by compulsion to 
destroy such instincts in some of them; for there 
is no law and no fear stronger than the instincts im- 
planted by nature. Reflect on this, therefore, and 
do not be vexed at the shortcomings of the other 
sort of men, but as for your own person and your 
sovereignty, keep close guard of them, that we may 
hold the throne securely, not by the strictness of the 
punishments you inflict upon individuals, but by the 
strictness with which you guard it." 

To this Augustus replied : " But, wife, I, too, am 
aware that no high position is ever free from envy 
and treachery, and least of all a monarchy. Indeed, 
we should be equals of the gods if we had not 
troubles and cares and fears beyond all men in 
private station. But precisely this is what causes my 
grief, — that this is inevitably so and that no remedy 
for it can be found." 

"Yet," said Li via, "since some men are so con- 




TrdvTQx; aBiKelv eOeXeLvT ^lirev 7) Kiovla, "r^jxeh 
ye avTOv<^ ^vXarrco/jLeOa. exojuev Be koX arpa- 
Tfccora? 7roWov<;, mv ol /mev 7r/)o? rov^ TroXefiLOVf; 
avrneTayixevoi ol he koI irepl ae ovre^ (^povpovcnv 
r)/jLd<;, KoX Oepaireiav iroWrjv, coare koX oXkoi Ka< 

4 ^TiroXa/Scov ovv 6 AvyovcrTO<;' *' otl jjuev ttoWoi 
TToWcLKi^ fcal vtt' avTcov ro)v avvovrcov icj^Odpr]- 
crav, ovhev^^ e^?;, ** Seofiat Xiyeiv. 7rpo<; yap 
roL<^ dXXoL<i KOI TOVT iv rat? fjLOvap^iai^ 'x^aXeirco- 
rarov iariv, on /xr) jjlovov tou? iroXepiov^, oiairep 
ol aXXoi, aXXa kol tov<; (piXiov^ ^ cfyo^ov/ieOa. 

5 Kal iToXv ye TrXetou? ifiro tmv tolovtwv, are /cal 
del, Kal fxeO^ rj/jiepav kol vvKTcop, Kal yvpLvovfji,evot<^ 
crcfiiac Kal KaOevBovat atria re Kal irora i/tt' 
avTMV TTapecTKevaa/xeva Xap^/Sdvovai avyyiyvo- 
pievwv, eire^ovXevOrjaav rj vtto tmv [I'qhev irpoar]- 
KovrcDV rd re yap dXXa, Kal irpo^ p.ev eKelvov^ 
ean rovrov<^ dvnrd^ai, Trpo^ Be rovrov<; avr(W<i 

6 ovK eanv dXXw nvl av/jLp.d')(^cp ')(^pi']aaa6aL. coaO' 
r)/jLLV Bid irdvrodv Bglvov fiev r^iy eprjpblav Beivov 
Be Kal TO 7T\7j0o<i, Kal ^o^epov fxev rrjv dcpvXa^lav 
(f)o^epcordrov<i Be avroij^ rov<; (pvXaKa<;, Kal %aXe- 
TTOL"? fjiev rov<; e)(6pov<^ ')(^aX€7rcorepov<; Be rov<:; 
<plXov(; elvar (f)lXov(; yap avdyKt] rrdvra^i a(f)d<;, 

7 Kav fir] Mat, KaXetaOai. el 8' ovv rt? Kal ^(^pi^aroyv 
avrodv rv')(^ot, aXX' ovrt ye ovrto irtarevaetev dv 
acf>taiv Mare Kal^ KaOapa, Kal dcppovrlarM Kal 
dwirorrrw rfj '^vxfj rrpoaopitXelv. rovro re ovv 

^ ipiXiovs M, (pixovs Xiph. 

2 Koi added (between lines) by corrector in M, om. Xiph. 



stituted as to want to do wrong in any event, let us a.d. 4 
guard against them. We have many soldiers who 
protect us, some arrayed against foreign foes and 
others about your person, and also a large retinue, so 
that by their help we may live in security both at 
home and abroad." 

" I do not need to state," Augustus answered and 
said, ^Hhat many men on many occasions have 
perished at the hands of their immediate associates. 
For monarchies have this most serious disadvantage 
in addition to all the rest, that we have not only our 
enemies to fear, as have other men, but also our 
friends. And a far greater number of rulers have 
been plotted against by such persons than by those 
who have no connexion with them at all, inasmuch 
as his friends are with the ruler both day and night, 
when he takes his exercise, when he sleeps, and 
when he takes the food and drink which they have 
prepared. For the ruler labours under this special 
disadvantage as regards his friends, that, although he 
can protect himself from his enemies by arraying 
his friends against them, there is no corresponding 
ally on whom he may rely to protect him from these 
very friends. Consequently we rulers find it to be 
true at all times, that whereas solitude is dreadful, 
company also is dreadful, that whereas unprotected- 
ness is terrifying, the very men who protect us are 
most terrifying, and that whereas our enemies are 
difficult to deal with, our friends are still more 
difficult. ' Friends,' I say, for friends they must all 
be called, even if they are not friends. And even if 
one should find loyal friends, still one could by no 
means so completely trust them as to associate with 
them with a sincere, untroubled, and unsuspecting 




Kal TO tol;9 dWou<; tov^; i7rL^ov\evovTa<; dvay- 
Kotov elvai dfivueaOai irdvheivov iariv. to yap 
Toi TLfjiwpelaOai re koX KoXd^eiv del TLva<^ dvay- 
Ka^ecrOai /leydXrjv d')(6'qh6va to?? ye dyaOot<; 
dvBpdai (pepGL.^^ 
16 " 'AXV opOoi^ ye \eyeL<;y^ direKpLvaTO rj Aiovla, 
" Kal doi yvcofjLTjv Bovvai e%a), dv ye Kal nrpoa- 
Be^aaOai, avTrjv e6e\rjar]<i, Kal fir] Bca/jie/xylrr] ^ otl 
71;^'^ ovaa ToX/JLM aoi crv/n^ovXevaai tl olov ovS' 
dv eU dWo^; ovSe twu irdvu (jiiXcov irapaLveaeiev, 
ov'x^ OTL ovK Lcraaiv avTo, dXX otl ov OapaoOdLv 

2 "heyT ^ 5' 09 6 KvyovaTo^, "6 tl Btj iroTe 
tovto idTLvr 

'H ovv ALOVia " (f)pda(o,^ e(f)r], ** fir^Bev KaTo- 
Kvrjaaaa, are Kal tcl dyaOd Kal tcl KaKa eK tov 
L(TOV (TOL e^ovaa, Kal aw^ofievov ixev gov Kal avTrj 
TO fxepo^ dpxovaa, BeLvov Be tl iraOovTOf;, o /xr] 

3 yevoLTO, avvaTToXovpLevq. el ydp toi rj re ^vaL<; 
T) dvOpwirivr) 7rdvT0)<; tl dfiapTaveLV Tivd<; dva- 
nreiOeL, Kal dfi'^^avov ecTTiv avTyv irpd^ai tl 
d)pfirjp,evr)v iinax^elv, Kal rjBr] ye Kal avTa tcl 
BoKovvTd TLCTLV dyaOcL elvaL, iva /jLT) ra? t(ov 
TToXXxov KaKia<i elira), Kal irdvv av-yvov<i dBLKelv 
eiraipeL {KaL yap yevov^ avxVM'^^ '^^^ ttXovtov 
<ppov7]/jLa TLfirjf; Te fxeyeOo^ Kal eV dpBpeta^ dpdao^ 

4 e^ovaia^i Te 6yK0<i ttoXXov^ e^oKeXXeLV Troiel), Kal 
firJTe TO yevralov Bvayeve<; /jl^Jtc to dvBpelov BeLXov 
fiTjTe TO €p.(j)pov avow ecTTL TTOirjaaL (dBvvaTov 
ydp), jxrjT av tcl^ irepLovaia^ tlvcov irepLKOTTTeLv 

* Sia/AffxrpT] R. Steph., SiaTr4fx\l/ri M Xiph. 

* iv* av5p€i(f Wolf, eV avZpelas M, iv* avSplap Xiph, 




heart. This situation^ then, and the necessity of 
taking measures to protect ourselves against the 
other group of plotters, combine to make our position 
utterly dreadful. For to be always under the neces- 
sity of taking vengeance and inflicting punishments 
is a source of great sorrow, to good men at least." 

" You are indeed right," answered Livia, " and I 
have some advice to give you, — that is, if you are 
willing to receive it, and will not censure me because 
f, though a woman, dare suggest to you something 
which no one else, even of your most intimate 
friends, would venture to suggest, — not because they 
are not aware of it, but because they are not bold 
enough to speak." 

"Speak out," replied Augustus, "whatever it is." 
"I will tell you," said Livia, " without hesitation, 
because 1 have an equal share in your blessings and 
your ills, and as long as you are safe I also have my 
part in reigning, whereas if you come to any harm, 
(which Heaven forbid !), I shall perish with you. If 
it indeed be true that man's nature persuades some 
persons to err under any and all conditions, and that 
there is no way to curb man's nature when it has 
once set out upon a course of action, and that even 
what some men look upon as good conduct (to leave 
out of consideration the vices of the many) is forth- 
with an incentive to wrongdoing to very many men 
(for example, boasting of high birth, pride of wealth, 
loftiness of honours, arrogance of bravery, conceit of 
power — all these bring many to grief) ; if it be true 
that one can not make ignoble that which is noble, 
or cowardly that which is brave, or prudent that 
which is foolish (for that is impossible) ; if, on the 
other hand, one ought not to curtail the abundance 



Yj ra<; (f)t\oTtjjita<; raTTxtvovv firjSev ye TrXyj/iifieXovv- 
Tcov XPV {(^^I'K^ov ydpy, TO T CLfivvoiJievov rj /cal 
TrpofcaraXafi^dvovrd riva<i kol dvido-Oai koX 
KaKoho^eiv dvayKoiov eart, (f)€pe ixera^aXdifxeOa 

5 Kai TLVo<; avTcbv (f)€La(o/jLK0a. Koi jdp /iol ^ Bo- 
K€L 7ro\Xa> TrXelco (^CXavOpcdTTia rj tivl oo/jlotijti 
KaropOovaOai. tov^ fiev yap avyyvw fjuova^ ov 
fiovov ol 6Xer]0evT6<; vir avroyv (j)i\ov(Tip, two-re 
Kol d/jbei/SeaOai (T<j)a(; airovhdl^eiv, dWd kol ol 
dWoL irdyre^ kol alSovvrai kol oe^ovaiv, ware 

6 jXY] evToXjielv avrov^ dBcKeiV' tov^; 3' dTrapaiTtj- 
T0i9 opyai^; y^pwjjievov^ ov/c eKelvoi fxovoL oi n 
<po^ovfjL€voi fxiaovaLV, dWd Koi ol XolttoX 7rdvT€<; 
hvayepaivovaiy kol 6k tovtov /cal iTnSovXevovatv 
auTOL<;, iva fir) irpoairoXwvTaL. 

17 ***H ou% opa<; on kol ol larpol rd^i (lev ro/xdii 
Kol Ta? Kav(T€i,<; (TiravtayTard rial irpoa^epovaLv, 
Xva fir) i^aypiaivw(TLV avroiv rd voarjfiaTa, toZ? 
Se alovy^fiaat /cal roU rjirloif; <pap/jid/coL<; rd irXeico 
pLaXOdaaovre^ OepairevovcTL ; firj ydp, on e/celva 
fiev TMV aco/jbdrcov ravra Be rcov yjrvx^cov Tradrj- 
jxard ian, Bia(j)6peiv n vo/iLarj^; avrd dXXrjXwv. 
2 TrdpLTToXXa ydp opboia rpoTrov nvd kol rat? yvdi- 
/jLaL<; TMV dvdpcoTTcov, /cdv rd fidXtara daco/jLaroi 
u)aiv, /cal '^ Tot9 acop.aai, avpL^aiPei,' avareXXovral 
T€ ydp viro (fiofiov /cal e^oihovaiv vtto Ov/jLov, Xvttt) 
re nva<i /coXovet Kal Odpao^ oyKol, Mar oXiyov 
(r(f)68pa TO TTapaXXdrrov avrcov elvai, Kal Bid 
rovTo /cal TrapaTrXijaLcov iajxdrcov avrd Beladai. 

^ yip /jLoi Pflugk, fioi yap M. 

* S>aiv Koi flor., Sxnv & kuI M (but & deleted by corrector). 



of others or humble their ambitions, when they are a.d. 4 
guilty of no offence (for that were unjust) ; if, finally, 
the policy of defending oneself or even of trying to 
forestall the attacks of others inevitably leads to 
vexation and ill repute — if all this is true, come, let 
us change our policy and spare some of the plotters. 
For it seems to me that far more wrongs are set 
right by kindness than by harshness. For those who 
forgive are not only loved by the objects of their 
clemency, who will therefore even strive to repay the 
favour, but are also respected and revered by all the 
rest, who will therefore not readily venture to harm 
them ; those, on the other hand, who indulge in in- 
exorable resentment are not only hated by those who 
have something to fear, but are also disliked by all 
the rest, and are in consequence even plotted against 
by them in their desire to avoid meeting with 
destruction first. 

" Do you not observe that physicians very rarely 
resort to surgery and cautery, desiring not to ag- 
gravate their patients' maladies, but for the most 
part seek to soothe diseases by the application of 
fomentations and the milder drugs ? Do not think 
that, because these ailments are affections of the 
body while those we have to do with are affections 
of the soul, there is any difference between them. 
For also the minds of men, however incorporeal they 
may be, are subject to a large number of ailments 
which are comparable to those which visit their 
bodies. Thus there is the withering of the mind 
through fear and its swelling through passion ; in 
some cases pain lops it off and arrogance makes it 
grow with conceit ; the disparity, therefore, between 
mind and body being very slight, they accordingly 



X0709 re ^yap TjTrtof; rw Xex^el^; irdv to aypialvov 
avTOV %<xA,a, fcaOdirep rpax^^ erepo^; Kal to dvec- 
fievov opyi^ei' /cal avyyvay/xr) SoOelaa fcal tov 
TTcLvv Opaavv hva')(^ei, KaOdirep r) TLfjbwpia Kal top 
irdvv TTpaov ')(dX67raLveL. at jxev yap ^loioi irpd- 
fci? del irdvTa^;, kclv hiKaiOTaTai Mai, irapo^vv 

4 ovaiv, at he eV^e^/cet? rjfiepovai. Kal Bid tovto 
ireiadel^i dv Ti? pdov Kal ra BeivoTaTa eKcov rj 
Piaa6el<i viro/jieiveiev. Kal ovtco ye (pvaei tivI 
dvayKaia cKdTepov avTwv ^(^prjTai, wGTe Kal twv 
dXoywv ^ojcov tcov fir^heva vovv e-yovTwv iroWd 
jiiev Kal Tcou la)(^vpoTdTcov Kal dypicoTdTcov Oco- 
Treiai^ re Tiai TiOaaeveTai Kal BeXedcr/iacn '^ei- 
povTai, TToXkd Be Kal tcov BeikoTdTcov Kal dcrOe- 
veaTdTCdv \vTrrjixaai re Kal (f)6^oi<; Kal eKTa 
pdTTCTai Kal Trapo^uveTai. 
18 "Kal ov Xeyco tovto oti Bel irdvTOiv dirXo)^ tcov 
dBiKovvTcov (pelSeaOai, dXX^ oti tov fxev lttjv ^ 
Kal TToXvirpdyfjiova Kal KaKorjOr) Kal KaKo^ovXav 
Kal dv7]KeaT(p Tivl Kal BiapKei irovr^pia avvovTa 
eKKOTTTeiv MCTTTep TTov Kal Ta irdvu dviaTa fJiepr] 

2 TCOV acofjidTcov, tmv Be Brj dXXcov oaoi ti veoTrjri 
7) dpaOla 7) dyvoia rj Kal ere pa tivI avvTV^La 01 
fjiev eKOVTe^ ol Be Kal dK0VTe<; dfiapTdvovaiv, tov<; 
fxev Xoyoi^ vovOeTelv, tov<; Be dneiXaU crax^povi- 
^eiv, TOV? Be Kal eTcpov Ttva Tpoirov fxeTpiw^ ttco^; 
fieTax^ip^^eadai, KaOdirep Kal eirl t&v BovXcov 

^ juev trfiv Xiph. , /j-eviT-qv M. 


require cures of a similar nature. Gentle words^ for 
example, cause all one's inflamed passion to subside, 
just as harsh words in another case will stir to wrath 
even the spirit which has been calmed ; and for- 
giveness granted will melt even the utterly arrogant 
man, just as punishment will incense even him who 
is utterly mild. For acts of violence will always in 
every instance, no matter how just they may be, 
exasperate, while considerate treatment mollifies. 
Hence it is that a man will more readily submit to 
the most terrible hardships — and gladly, too, — if he 
has been persuaded, than if compulsion has been 
put upon him. And so true it is that, in following 
both these courses, man is subject to a compelling 
law of nature, that even among the irrational 
animals, which have no intelligence, many of the 
strongest and fiercest are tamed by petting and 
subdued by allurements, while many even of the 
most cowardly and weak are aroused to fury by acts 
of cruelty which excite terror in them. 

" I do not mean by this that we must spare all 
wrongdoers without distinction, but that we must 
cut off the headstrong man, the meddlesome, the 
malicious, the trouble-maker, and the man within 
whom there is an incurable and persistent depravity, 
just as we treat the members of the body that are 
quite beyond all healing. In the case of the rest, how- 
ever, whose errors, committed wilfully or otherwise, 
are due to youth or ignorance or misapprehension 
or some other adventitious circumstance, we should 
in some cases merely rebuke them with words, in 
others bring them to their senses by threats, and in 
still others apply some other form of moderate treat- 
ment, just as in the case of slaves, who commit now 




dWwv d/iapravovTcov dXka ^ tou? fjuev fiei^ocri 

3 Tou? he iXaTToat 7rdvT6<i KoXd^ovatv. cwcrTe /cat 
rd Kara rovrov^ dKLvSvvco<; /jberpid^etv e^eari aoi, 
Tou? fxev (pvyrj rou? Be drLfMia tou? Be ')(^pr)fjLa(Ti 
^7)/jLiovvTt, erepov<; €9 ')(aypia erepov; e? 7roXet9 
Tivd^ KaraTide/JLevo). 

" Kal 7]8r) ye riv€<; Koi viro rov jxr] rv^ecv a)v 
tjXttl^ov /cal viro rov Bia/jLapretv mv e(f)ievTo eacD- 

4 (ppovtaOijaav. eSpac re drLfioi koX orrdcreL^ 
iiroveihiaTOL to re TrpoXvTrrjOrjvat Kal to tt/jo- 
<^opr)6rjvai avx^tov^ ^eXriov^ eiroirjae' Kairoi Kal 
diroOavelv eXoir dv tl^ ev re yeyova)<; Kal dvBpeto^; 
o)v 77 TOLovTo Ti TTaOelv. e^ ovv Tovrwv eKeivoi<i 
fiev ovBev pawv rj Ti/jLcopta, dWd Kal 'x^aXeirwrepa 
yiyvoLT dv, rj/xlv Be Br] to /Jbrjre rivd iirrjyopiav 

5 e'xeiv Kal dacpaXco^ ^rjv virdp^eiev. &>? vvv ye 
TToXX.oL'? fiev opyfj,^ 7roWov<; Be eTrtOufiia XPV- 
pbdrcdv, dWov<; dvBpeia<; <j>6ficp Kal fidXa d\\ov<; 
dperrjf; tlvo^ <f)06v(p Kreiveiv BoKov/Jiev. ovBeU 
yap paBi(o<; ina-Tevei on Ti? ev re e^ovaio. 
Kal ev Bwdfjuei roaavrrj o)v vir^ IBtcorov Tivo<i 
dorr'Xov ^ eir ijBovXevOrjvai Bvvarai, dX)C ol fiev 
ravra XoyoiroLodaiv, ol Be on '\jrevBrj iroWd 
aKOVO/jLev Kal TroXXot? fidrrjv ax; Kal dXrjOeaL 

6 7rpoo-e)(Ofiev. rov<; yap rot Bi,07rrevovrd<; re Kal 
wraKOvarovvra^^ rd rotavra, tou? fiev e'xOpa 

^ SouAwj' SWcDV afxaprav6vrwv &K\a Capps, raWa aixapraviv- 
rwv R. Steph., 5ov\wv rificapiais Rk., tSaAo M Xiph. 

2 iroXKohs fiku opy^ supplied by Bs. M shows a lacuna of 
fourteen to sixteen letters. 

^ aonKov R. Steph., oi'dTrAot; M Xiph. 

■* uraKovffTovyTas Xiph. and corrector in M, wTaKovffrhs M. 



this and now that offence, all men impose greater a.d. 4 
penalties upon some and lesser upon others. Hence, 
so far as these political offenders are concerned, you 
may employ moderation without danger, punishing 
some by banishment, others by disfranchisement, 
still others by a pecuniary fine, and another class 
you may dispose of by placing some in confinement 
in the country and others in certain cities. 

"Experience has shown that men are brought to 
their senses even by failing to obtain what they 
hoped for and by being disappointed in the object 
of their desires. Many men have been made better 
by having assigned to them at the spectacles seats 
which confer no honour, or by being appointed to 
posts to which disgrace attaches, and also by being 
offended or frightened in advance ; and yet a man of 
high birth and spirit would sooner die than suffer 
such humiliation. By such means their plans for 
vengeance would be made no easier, but rather more 
difficult, of accomplishment, while we on our part 
should be able to avoid any reproach and also to live 
in security. As things are now, people think that 
we kill many through resentment, many through 
lust for their money, others through fear of their 
bravery and others actually through jealousy of their 
virtues. For no one finds it easy to believe that a 
ruler who possesses so great authority and power 
can be the object of plotting on the part of an un- 
armed person in private station, but some invent the 
motives I have mentioned, and still others assert 
that many false accusations come to our ears and 
that we give heed to many idle rumours as if they 
were true. Spies, they say, and eavesdroppers get 
hold of such rumours, and then — actuated sometimes 



TOV<! Be opyfj, dWovfj apyvpiov irapa twv i'X^Opcov 
avTOJV \a^ovTa<;, aWov^ irap avrcov eKeivayv fit] 
Xa^ovra^, iroWa kol yjrevSr] aKevwpeladai (^aacv, 
ov jjbovov OTC TL Bccvov 67T pa^dv Tiv€<; rj Kal iroirj- 
(jeiv fxeWovat, Xeyovra^, aXXa Kal on 6 /jl€v 
€(j>d6y^aT0 TOiovhe n, 6 8e uKovaa^ i(Tifow7](r€v, 
aXXo^ eyeXaaev, aWo<; eSaKpvaev. 
19 ** Mvpla av TOiovTOTpoTra elTvelv e^oLfit, a 
el Kal TO, fiaXiCTTa aXrjOrj etr), aX)C ovtl ye Kal 
irpOdrjKovTd eariv ovre TroXvirpay/jLovetaOat, irap 
e\ev9epoL<^ dvOpcoiToif; ovre aol BiayyeXkeaOai. 
XaOovra p.ev yap rd roiavra ovSev dv ae fiXd- 
-^eiev, aKovaOevra he Trapo^vveie Kal ciKovra. 

2 oirep rjKiaTa y^pr] dXXco<; re Kal dpyovrl rcvcov 
(TViMJ3aiveLV. av')(yov<^ yovv €k tovtov, TOV<i fiev 
aKpiTov^ T0U9 he Kal ecTKeuoyprjfjLevT} rivl Kara- 
yvcoaei hiKaaTrjpiOV, dhiK(o<i diroXXvaOai iroXXol ' 
vopii^ovaiv' ovre yap ra? fiapTvpia^ ovre ra? 
^aadvovf; ovr dXXo rt, rcov tolovtwv o)? Kal 

3 dXr]6e<; ov Kar avrSiv TTpoaievrai. ravra yap 
ovrco<;, el Kal p,r] hiKalo)^ eariv a avrcov, dXX^ eirl 
TT avrcov ye ob? ^ eliretv rcov ovrco 6avarovp,eva)V 
OpvXelrai. Kal hel ere, &> Avyovare, pbrj fjuovov 
pLr)hev dhiKelv, dXXd firjhe hoKelv. Ihioirrj puev yap 
dpKel fi7]hev ttXt] fjLfieXelv , dp')(ovri he hrj rrpoarjKei 

4 fJLTjhe hoKrjaiv riva avrov Xafi^dvetv. dvOpcoirayv 
ydp, dXX' ov Otjpicov rjye/ioveveL^i' Kal /jLovoo^ av 

1 iroWol added by corrector in M, cm. Xiph. 

2 cbs Xiph. V, om. M Xiph. C. 



by enmity and sometimes by resentment, in some a,d, 4 
cases because they have received money from the 
foes of their victims, in other cases because they 
have received none from the victims tliemselves — 
concoct many falsehoods, reporting not only that 
such and such persons have committed some out- 
rage or are intending to commit it, but even that 
when so-and-so made such and such a remark, so- 
and-so heard it and was silent, a second person 
laughed, and a third burst into tears. 

" I could cite innumerable instances of such a 
kind, which, no matter how true they may be, are 
surely not proper subjects for gentlemen to concern 
themselves about or to be reported to you. Such 
rumours, if ignored, would do you no harm, but if 
listened to, would irritate you even against your 
will ; and that is a thing by all means to be avoided, 
especially in one who rules over others. It is gener- 
ally believed, at any rate, that many men are un- 
justly put to death as the result of such a feeling, 
some without a trial and others by a prearranged 
conviction in court; for the people will not admit 
that the testimony given or the statements made 
under torture or any evidence of that nature is true 
or suffices for the condemnation of the victims. 
This is the sort of talk that does, in fact, go the 
rounds, even though it is sometimes unjust, in the 
case of practically all who are put to death by action 
of the courts. And you, Augustus, ought not only 
to avoid unjust action, but even the suspicion of it ; 
for though it is sufficient for a person in private 
station not to be guilty of wrongdoing, yet it behooves 
a ruler to incur not even the suspicion of wrong- 
doing. You are ruling over human beings, not wild 


VOL. VI. p 


ovTOi}<; evvoelv aoi avTov<^ dXr)0(o<; 7roLij(reia<;, av 
irawayoQev a(pd<; fcal Bia irdvTwv 6fioL(o<; Tretcr?/? 

OTL /jL7]T€ €KC0V TLva fJirjTe dfCWV dBiK7]a€t<;.^ (fto- 

pelaOat fxev ^dp riva dvayKaadrjvai rt? hvvaraL, 

5 (j)i\6LV Be TTeLaOrjvai o^eikeu. ireWeraL Be e'f wv 
av auTo? T€ ev irdOrj koX erepov^ €vepyeTOV/jbevov<; 
iSy. 6 S* viroTOTTrjaafi /nr) Si/caico^ TLvd diroXo)- 
Xevat KOI (jyoffetrai jjufj irore ri 6/jlolov irdOrj kol 
fiiaelv TOP Spdcravra avrb dvay/cd^erai. to Be Brj 
/iKTelo-Oat viTO TMV dp'x^ofievcov, 7rpo9 tw /jLr]B' 

6 aWft)9 fca\(o<; e-^eiv, aXvaiTeXeaTaTov ecrTt. kol 
yap /cal vofii^ovaLv ol ttoWol Tot<; fiev ciX\oi<; 
dvayKalov elvai irdvTa^; TOv<i kol otlovv dBtKrj- 
aavTd<=; a^a<i dfxvveaOai, Xva fJbrjTe /caTacppovcovTai 
jxrjTe eK tovtov TrXeove/CTcovTai, tov<; S' dp)(0VTa<i 
TOL^ fxev TO KOivov dBiKovdiv eTre^ievai ^(prjvat, 
TOv<; 5' IBla TL €9 auT0U9 TTXrj/jL/jieXelv BoKOvvTa<; 
(fyepeiv iirjTe yap ifc KaTa(^ povr)ae(o<; fJbrjT i^ 
eiriBpo/jLrjf; dBi,K7]dr]vaL acpa^; BvvaaOai Bia to 
iroXXd TO, TTpocpvXdacrovTa avTOv^ elvai. 

9.0 ""flaTe eycoye TavTa re aKOvovaa KOt irpof; 

TavTa dTTOpXeTTOvaa KtvBvvevco /cal iravTeXco^ 

direiTrelv croi jjn^Beva Bid tolovto tl diroKTivvvvai. 

2 ai T6 yap irpoaTaalai, eirl t€ ttj tcov dp)(^o/jLevcov 

(TddTripia KaOiaTavTai, ottco^ fjbrjBev [MrjO^ vtt* dXXi^- 

XCOV /Ji7]0^ VTTO TCOV dXXo(f)vXcOV ^XdlTTCOVTaV, ov 

fid Ala ou^ 07ra)9 vtt^ avTcov e/ceivcov ti XvTTMVTar 

' aSiK-qaeis flor., oSi/cirjaTjJS M, dSt/cTjire/as &v Xiph. 



beasts, and the only way you can make them truly 
well disposed toward you is by convincing them, 
by every means and on every occasion consistently, 
that you will wrong no one, either purposely or un- 
wittingly. A man can be compelled to fear another, 
but he ought to be persuaded to love him ; and he 
is persuaded not only by the good treatment he 
himself receives, but also by the benefits he sees con- 
ferred on others. The man, however, who suspects 
that a certain person has been put to death unjustly 
both fears that he may some day meet a like fate 
and is compelled to hate the one who is responsible 
for the deed. And to be hated by one's subjects, 
quite apart from its being deplorable in general, is 
also exceedingly unprofitable. For most people 
feel that, although all other men must defend them- 
selves against all who wrong them in any way or else 
become objects of contempt and so be oppressed, 
yet rulers ought to prosecute only those who wrong 
the state, tolerating those who are supposed to be 
committing offences against them privately ; rulers, 
they reason, can not themselves be harmed either 
by contempt or by direct attack, inasmuch as there 
are many instrumentalities which protect them from 

" I, therefore, when I hear such considerations 
advanced and turn my thoughts to them, am inclined 
to go so far as to urge you to give up altogether the 
inflicting of the death penalty in any case for reasons 
of this kind. For the office of ruler has been estab- 
lished for the preservation of the governed, to 
prevent them from being injured either by one an- 
other or by foreign peoples, and not for a moment 
that they may be harmed by the rulers themselves ; 

P2 ''^ 


Kol evKXeeararov iariv ov to ttoXXou? tmv ttoXi- 
Twv aTToXkvvai, aWa to 7rdvTa<i, av olov re j7,^ 

3 GOi^eiv BvvaaOai. TraiSeveiv fiev jap avTOv<i /cal 
v6/ioL<; Kol evepyeaiai^ kol vov6eaiai<^ Sec, oirco'; 
(Tdxppoi'coai, /cal TrpoaeTi koX Trjpelv kol (fyvXaTTSLv, 
iva Kav a^LKelv eOeKrjawaL fiy SwrjOcoaiv av he 
Br) voarjar) tl, Oepaireveiv T€ Tpoirov Ttva avTO koX 

4 iiravopOovv, Xva fxr) Trai^reXco? (f)6apfj. to T€ yap 
cfiepeiv to, twv ttoWmv dfiapTTJ/iiaTa Kal irdvv 
fieydXr)'!; Kal (t)povr](Teco<; Kal Swdfieco^ epyov iaTLV 
dv T6 TC<; irdvTa dirXax; to, TOtavTa KaTa Tr]v 
d^iav KoXd^T), Xtjaei tou? irXeiov^ tmv dvdpcoircov 

5 diroXeaafi. oOev Kal Bid TavTa aoL yvco/jLrjv BiBodfjii 
OavdTw fiev /jLTjBeva tmv toiovtcov Ttfioypeta-Oai, 
6X6/00)9 Be irw^ avrovf;, cScrre fit]B€v eTi Beivov 
Bpdcai, acocjypovl^eiv. tl yap dv dBiKrjaeLe tl<; e'? 
vr)aov KaTaKXeL(j6ei<;, rj Kal ev dypw iroXei re Ttvi, 
ov)(^ 07rco<; dvev irXrjOovfi olkctcov t) ')(^p7)/bLdTcov, 
dXXd Kal fxeTa (j^povpd^ mv, dv ye kol tovtov 

6 BerjCTT); el fiev yap iyyv<i irov ivTavOa ol iroXefiioL 
rjaav, rj Kal r/j? OaXdaar]^ TavTr)^ dXXoTpLov tl 
r)Vy wcrre TLvd avTCJV BiaBpdvTa tt/oo? eKeLvov^ 
KaKov TL rj/iidf; ipydaaaOai, 7r6Xei<; re Tive^i ev Ty 
^ It aXia €')(ypal Kal Tel^V ^^^ oirXa e^ovaai VTrrjp- 
XoVy w(TTe Tivd KaTaXa/36vTa avTa^, (pofiepov 

7 rj/Mv yeveaOac, eTepo<^ dv rjv X6yo<;' doirXcov Be Brj 
irdvTcov Tcov TavTrj Kal dTeL'xJiaTwv q)<; irpof; iroXe- 

» ^ R. Steph., ^v M. 



and the greatest glory is gained, not by putting a.d. 4 
many citizens to death, but by being in a position to 
save them all, if that be possible. We must educate 
the citizens by means of laws and benefits and 
admonitions, in order that they may be right- 
minded, and furthermore, we must watch over them 
and guard them, in order that, even if they wish to 
do wrong, they may not be able to do so ; and if 
there is any ailment among them, we must find some 
way to cure it and correct it, in order that the ailing 
member may not be utterly destroyed. To endure 
the offences of the multitude is a task demanding at 
once great prudence and great power; but if any 
one is going to punish them all without distinction 
as they deserve, before he knows it he will have 
destroyed the majority of mankind. Hence and for 
these reasons I give you my opinion to the effect 
that you should not inflict the death penalty upon 
any man for such offences, but should rather bring 
them to their senses in some other way, so that they 
will not in future commit any crime. What wrong- 
doing, indeed, could a man indulge in who is shut up 
on an island, or in the country, or in some city, not 
only deprived of a throng of servants and a supply 
of money, but also under guard, in case this, too, 
is necessary ? Of course, if the enemy were any- 
where near here or if some part of our sea belonged 
to a foreign power, so that one or another of the 
prisoners might escape to them and do us some 
harm, or if, again, there were strong cities in Italy 
with fortifications and armed forces, so that if a man 
seized them, he might become a menace to us, that 
would be a different story. But in fact all the 
places here are unarmed and without walls that 



fJLOV OVTCOV, Koi TCOV TToXe/JiiWV 7rafl7T\7]d€<^ CLTT 

avTcbv a^eari^KOTWv (ttoXX?; fjL€V ^yap OaXaacra 
ttoWt) Be Koi yrj, koi oprj kol TTorafJiOV^ BvaStal3d- 
8 Tou? exovaa, Bia fieaov iari), ri civ r^9 (po^rjdeir) 
Tov helva rj top Betva, yv/jLvov<;, IBicoTevovra^, iv- 
ravOd irov ev fiearj rfj afj dpxfj ovra^ kol €VTO<i 
t6)V acov ottXcov KaTaKeKkeipievov^ ^; iycD fxev yap 
ovT av ivvoTjaai riva tolovtov ovBev, ovt civ, el - 
Kal ra fxaXiara fiaveir] Tt9, BvvaaOau ye ro irpd^ai 


21 " Ylf'lpav ovv dir avrcov fovrcov dp^ci/ievot ttolt]- 
acojjLeda. rd')(^a yap av Kal avrol /jiera/3dXotvTo'^ 
Kal T01/9 dXXovf; d/jL€LVOv<; Tronjcreiav' Kal yap 
6pa<; or I, Kal 6 Kopv7jXio<; Kal evyevr}<; Kal ovo- 
p.acrTO'^ ecTTi, Bet Be irov Kal ravra dvOpcoTrlvco^ 

2 eKXoyi^eadai. ov irdvra rot to ^t0o9 Biairpdr- 
rerac (p'iya yap rjv av * dyaOov, el aw^povl^etv re 
Ttva<; Kal ireiOeiv 7) Kal KaravayKdt^eiv (pcXelv riva 
dXrjOo}^ iBvvaro), dXXd ro fiev aco/jcd rivo<; <^6ei- 
petev av, rd<; Be Brj ro)v dXXoov 1/^1^^619 aXXorpico- 
aeiev ov yap i^ mv av erepot ri/ncoprjOcbaL, irpoa- 
(f)LXearepoL nvi, aXV e^ wv av avrol (j)o^r]6(ocnv, 

3 €X^lov<^ yiyvovrai. Kal ravra fiev ovrw<; e%et, ol 
Be Brj avyyvd)/jL7)<=; riv6<; rv)(^6vre^ Kal pberavoovaiv, 
ala^vvofievoL av6i<; n rov<^ evepyera^ dBiKi]aaL, 
Kal iroXXd avrot<; dvOvirovpyovaiV, eXiri^ovre'^ 
irXeico dvr ev TrelaeaOar^ vcf) ov yap av Tt9 
dBiKr)Oevro^ n awOfj, rovrov ev rraOovra ovBev 6 n 

^ KaTaK€K\eifx4]/ovs Dind., KaTaKeK\€i(Tiu.4vovs M Xiph. 

2 el supplied by Pfiugk. 

^ jxeraddKoiVTO Xiph., /jLerafidWoiVTo M. 

* hv added by corrector of M (in margin), cm. Xiph. flor. 



would be of any value in war, and our enemies are a.d. 4 
separated from them by an immense distance ; much 
sea and much land, including mountains and rivers 
hard to cross, lie between them and us. Why, then, 
should one fear this man or that, defenceless men 
in private station, here in the middle of your empire 
and hemmed in by your armed forces? For my 
part, I do not believe that any one could conceive 
any such plot as 1 have mentioned, or that the 
veriest madman could accomplish anything by it. 

*^ Let us make the experiment, therefore, beginning 
with these very men. Perhaps they may not only 
be reformed themselves, but also make others better ; 
for you see that Cornelius is both of good birth and 
famous, and we ought, I presume, to take human 
nature into account in reasoning out such matters 
also. The sword, surely, can not accomplish every- 
thing for you, — it would indeed be a great boon if it 
could bring men to their senses and persuade them 
or even compel them to love a ruler with genuine 
affection, — but instead, while it will destroy the body 
of one man, it will alienate the minds of the rest. 
For people do not become more attached to any one 
because of the vengeance they see meted out to 
others, but they beome more hostile because of their 
fears. So much for that side ; but as for those who 
are treated in a forgiving spirit, they not only repent, 
because they are ashamed to wrong their benefactors 
again, but also repay them with many services, 
hoping to receive still further kindnesses ; for when 
a man has been spared by one who has been wronged, 
he believes that his rescuer, if fairly treated, will go 

* ai/T* eS irelffiO-Qai Dind. , avTevneiarfcrdai Rk., avduirolaecOai 
M Xiph. 



4 ovK evepyerijaeLV eavTov rjyelrai. ireicrOr^Ti ovv 
fjLOt, (f)L\TaT€, fcal ixera^akov} ovrco fxev yap 
KoX ToKXa TCL hva^epy) Trdvra avdyKrj TreTTOiTj/cevac 
B6^€L^' ov yap eari itoXlv rrjXiKavrrjv €K Btj/jlo- 
Kparia^; irpo^ fMOvapx^'Ctv ayovra di^aifjucorl /nera- 
arrjaar av Be iin rot? avroh iTrtfievpf;, /cal ifcelva 
yvoo/JLT) BeBpaKevat vo/jLiaOrjar}.^' 
22 Tavra r^? Aiovla^ elirovarj'^ 6 Avyovaro^ eVet- 
crOr] re avrfj, Kal dc^rjKe [lev rrdvTa^; tov<; vTraniov; 
\6yoL<; rial vovOenjaa^;, rbv Be Brj KopvrjXLOv /cal 

2 virarov direBei^e.^ kuk tovtov fcal eKelvov Kal 
rov<; XoLTTOv^ dvd p(iiirov<; ol/to)? (pKeiOiaaro &aTe 
fjLTjBeva eT avrw tmv dWcou fju^r ovtw^ eiri^ov- 
XevaaL fxijre Bo^ar r) yap Brj Aiovia alricoTdrr] 
T?}? acoTT]pia<; rw K.opvr}XL(p yevo/juevi] Tj/xeXXev 
avTTj Tr]v alriav rov davdrov rov Avyovcrrov 

3 Tore 8' ovv eiri re rov K.opV7]Xiov Kal eirl 
OvaXepiov ^eaadXov virdrwv aeta-jjioi re e^aiatoi 
avve^rjaav, Kal 6 Tty3e/ot9 rrjv re ye^vpav Kareavpe 
Kal TrXcoTTjv rrjv itoXlv iirl eirrd r)/jLepa<; eTroLrjcTef 
Tov re rjXiov tl eVXtTre? eyevero, Kal Xifi6<i (tvvt)- 

4 ve')(6'q. Kav rQ> avrw erei tovtw 6 re ^AypLinra^; 
69 e(j)r)^ou<;, /jL7]B6vo<; tmv avrcov T0i9 dB€X(j)ol<; 
TV')(^cov, i(T€ypd(j)7)' Kal Ta9 i7r7roBpo/jLia<; %ft)/)l9 fiev 
ol povXevral %ft)pt9 Be ol LTTTrrj^; diro rov Xolttov 

5 ttXtjOov^; elBov, o Kal vvv ylyveTat. eTTeiBrj re ov 
paBico<i ol irdvv evyevel^; Ta9 dvyarepaf; €9 rrjv t% 
*Ecrrta9 lepareiav eir^BiBoaav, evo/jLoOerijdr] Kal i^ 

^ lj.€TaBa\ov Xiph., neraPdWov M. 

^ dTTfSeife M Xiph., irpo(raTr45€i.^€V Zon. 


to any lengths in his benefactions. Heed me, there- ad. 4 
fore, dearest, and change your course ; if you do, all 
your other acts that have caused displeasure will be 
thought to have been dictated by necessity, — indeed, 
it is impossible for a man to guide so great a city 
from democracy to monarchy and make the change 
without bloodshed, — but if you continue in your old 
policy, you will be thought to have done these un- 
pleasant things deliberately." 

Augustus heeded these suggestions of Livia and 
released all the accused with some words of 
admonition ; and he even appointed Cornelius con- 
sul. As a result of this course he so conciliated 
both him and the other persons so treated that 
neither they nor anyone of the rest thereafter either 
actually plotted against him or was suspected of 
doing so. It was rather Livia herself, who was 
chiefly responsible for saving the life of Cornelius, 
that was to be charged with plotting the death oif 

At this time, in the consulship of ^Cornelius and a.d. 5 
Valerius Messalla, violent earthquakes occurred and 
the Tiber carried away the bridge and made the city 
navigable for seven days ; there was also a partial 
eclipse of the sun, and famine set in. This same 
year Agrippa was enrolled among the youths of 
military age, but obtained none of the same 
privileges as his brothers. The senators witnessed 
the Circensian games separately and the knights also 
separately from the remainder of the populace, as is 
the case to-day also. And since the noblest families 
did not show themselves incHned to give their 
daughters to be priestesses of Vesta, a law was 
passed that the daughters of freedmen might like- 



aireXevOepwv 'yeyevvrnxeva'^ lepdadat.^ koX 6 fxev 
K\rjpo<; avTcov, eVel TrXetou? rjiJu^ea^r]TY)aav,^ iv 
rw avvehpicp irapovrcov rcov iraripcov a(l)(bv, oaoi 
ye Xinrevov, iyevero, ov fxevTOL koI rocavrrj rt? 

23 XaXcTTW? Be St) twv arparicoTcov TTyoo? Tr)v rcov 
dO\(i)v o-/jLLKp6rr]Ta Sia tov^ TroXefjuov^ rov<; Tore 
evecrrrjKora^; ov)( ij/cccrra i)(^6vra)V, koI firjSevb^ e^co 
Tov Teray/Jbevov t?}? arpareia^ a(j)iaL 'X^povov oirXa 
Xapelv e6eXovTO<;, iylrr](l)L(T07} toI<; fiev i/c tov Sopv- 
(poptKOv irevTaKia-x^iXia^ S/)a;^/xa9, iireLhav e/cKai- 
Sefca eTT], to?? Be erepoi^ r/Jicr^^tXta?, iireiSav 

2 ecKoat arparevacovrai, hihoo-dai. rpia he Srj rore 
KOi etKoai arparoTreSa, t) w? ye erepoL Xeyovai 
Trevre koX etKoat, ttoXltlkcl erpecfiero. vvv fiev yap 
evveaKaiheKa ef avrwv pbova Sca/jbivec, to re Sev- 
repov TO kvyovdreLov^ ro iv Uperravia rfj avw 
')(eLiJid^ov, KoX ra rpia ra rpura, ro re iv ^olvikt) 
ro VaXariKov, /cal rb iv ^ApajSla rb K.vp7jvaiK6v, 

3 ro re iv Nof/At8ta to Avyovaretov''^ reraprov Xfcv- 
OiKbv iv %vpLa, irefiTrrov M.aKeBovLKbv iv AaKua, 
eicra hvo, o)v rb fiev iv Uperravia rrj /cdrco, rb rcov 
viKTjropcov, rb 8e iv ^lovSata, rb aiSrjpovv, rera- 
Krar xal ol e^Sofioi ol iv rfj Mvala rfj dvco, ot * 
/cal ra pbdXiara KXavSieiot awo/jidSarai, ol re^ 
oyBooi AvyovareLoi,, iv rfj Tepiiavia rfj dvco 6vre<;' 

4 Kal ol heKaroi eKdrepoi,^ oX re iv Xiavvovia rfj dvco 
ol SiBu/jLoc, Kal ol iv ^lovSala' ro re evBe/carov rb 

1 Upaadai R. Steph., lepwadai M. 

2 T]u(pe(r&-fiT7}(Tau Bs., ajx(pe(T^i]rT](Tav M (but in margin yp. 

3 ^v-yovaTiiov Xiph., avyovcTTiot, M (and similarly just below). 


wise become priestesses. Many vied for the honour, 
and so they drew lots in the senate in the presence 
of their fathers, so far as these were knights ; how- 
ever, no priestess was appointed from this class. 

The soldiers were sorely displeased at the paltry 
character of the rewards given them for the wars 
which had been waged at this time and none of them 
consented to bear arms for longer than the regular 
period of his service. It was therefore voted that 
twenty thousand sesterces should be given to members 
of the pretorian guard when they had served sixteen 
years, and twelve thousand to the other soldiers when 
they had served twenty years. Twenty-three, or, as 
others say, twenty-five, legions of citizen soldiers 
were being supported at this time.^ At present only 
nineteen of them still exist, as follows : the Second 
(Augusta), with its winter quarters in Upper Britain ; 
the three Thirds — the Gallica in Phoenicia, the 
Cyrenaica in Arabia, and the Augusta in Numidia ; 
the Fourth (Scythica) in Syria ; the Fifth (Macedonica) 
in Dacia ; the two Sixths, of which the one (Victrix) 
is stationed in Lower Britain, the other (Ferrata) in 
Judaea; the Seventh (generally called Claudia 2) in 
Upper Moesia; the Eighth (Augusta) in Upper 
GeiTQany ; the two Tenths in upper Pannonia 
(Gemina) and in Judaea ; the Eleventh (Claudia) in 

^ The confusion is due to the fact that after the defeat of 
Varus there were but twenty-three legions left (out of 
twenty-six) ; but Augustus later increased the number to 

2 Cf. Ix. 15, 4. 

* ot R. Steph., el M Xiph. 

5 oH T€ Xiph. , 01 56 M. 

^ Se'/coTOi fKarepoi Reim., Se/carepot M, SewoTot Xiph. 



iv M-vaia rfj Karco, to KXavBletov ovro) yap ra 
Bvo crrparoTreBa airb rov KXavStou eTreKXtjOr), on 
avrw iv ttj tov K.afj,iWov eTravaardaeL /nrj dvre- 

5 TToXifirjae' koI to ScoBeKaTOV to iv KaTTTraBoKia 

TO /C6paVV0(f)6p0V, TO T€ TplTOV KOl BcKUTOV TO iv 

AaKia TO BlBv/jlov, koI to TeTapTov Kal Bckutov to 
iv Uavvovla ttj avco to BlBvpov, to re irevTeKaiBe- 

6 KaTov TO ^ KiToXkciveLOV TO iv KaiTTraBoKLa' kolI oi 
elKOdTol oi Koi OuaXepUioL koX viKr)T0pe<^ oivo/jua- 
a pivot Kal iv BpeTTavla ttj dvco oVre?* ov(7Tiva<; 6 
AvyovaTO'i,^ ip^ol BoKelv, peTa twv ttjv T€ tov 
Beinepov Kal ^ elKoaTOv iiTwvvpiav iyovTwv Kal iv ^ 
TT) Tepp^avia ttj dvco ')(€ipa^6vTcov, el Kal to, pd- 
XiaTa prid^ vcp' dirdvTcov OvaXepieioi iTreKXrjdrj- 
aav pLrjTe vvv €TI tjj irpoarjyopia TavTy '^pcovTai, 

7 irapaXa^MV iTijprjae. TavT^ iK tmv AvyovaTeicov 
(TTpaTOTreBoyv crco^eTar tcl yap Brj Xonrd to, pev 
7ravTeXM<; BieXvOrj, tcl Be Kal eTepoL^ Tialv vtto re 
avTOv iKelvov Kal vir dXXcov auTOKpaTopcov dve- 
pl^Orj, d(^ ovirep Kal BLBvpua covopacrp^eva vevo- 

24 'ETretS^ Be dira^ e? tov irepl twv (TTpaToireBcov 
Xoyov TTpor)-^dr]Vy Kal TaXXa to, vvv ovTa, w? rrov 
TTpo^ TOiv peTa TavTa avTapxv^ ^^'^^'^ KaTeXe'xOr], 
cjjpdaco, Ilv evl %a)/9ta) irdvTa yey pappeva paBico^; 
2 TOV povXopevov tl irepl avTMV paOeXv BcBda-Kjj. 6 
T€ yap ^epcov to irpcoTOV to * kol ^iTaXiKov ovo- 
pa^opevov Kal iv ttj kutco Mvaia ')(€ipd^ov, Kal 6 

^ 6 Aiyovaros Bk., avTovs M. 

2 ScvTepov Koi supplied by Mommsen. 

^ 4v supplied by Xyl. 

* irpSiTov rh Bs., irpwrSv re M. 




Lower Moesia (for two legions were thus named after a.d. 6 
Claudius because they had not fought against him in 
the rebellion of Camillus^) ; the Twelfth (Fulminata) 
in Cappadocia ; the Thirteenth (Gemina) in Dacia ; 
the Fourteenth (Gemina) in Upper Pamionia; the 
Fifteenth (Apollinaris) in Cappadocia ; the Twentieth 
(called both Valeria and Victrix) in Upper Britain. 
These latter,! believe, were the troops which Augustus 
took over and retained, along with those called 
the Twenty-second who are quartered in Germany,^ 
— and this in spite of the fact that they were by 
no means called Valerians by all and do not use 
that name any longer. These are the legions that 
still remain out of those of Augustus ; of the rest, 
some were disbanded altogether, and others were 
merged with various legions by Augustus himself 
and by other emperors, in consequence of which such 
legions have come to bear the name Gemina. 

Now that I have once been led into giving an 
account of the legions, I shall speak of the other 
legions also which exist to-day and tell of their 
enlistment by the emperors subsequent to Augustus, 
my purpose being that, if any one desires to learn 
about them, the statement of all the facts in a single 
portion of my book may provide him easily with the 
information. Nero organized the First Legion, 
called the Italica, which has its winter quarters in 

^ Cf. Ix. 15, 4. 

''^ Dio is in error here ; the Twenty-second (Primigenia) 
was organized by Claudius and therefore should be in the list 
of later legions given in chap. 24. 




Td\l3a<; TO re irpcoTOV to eiTLKOVpiicov to iv Trj 

3 Uavvovia ttj kcltw kol to ej^hofxov to BlBv/iov to 
€V ^\^r)pia avvira^av, OveairaaLavo^ to t€ Sev- 
Tepov TO einicovpLKov to iv TiavvovLa Trj kcitw kuI 
TO TeTapTOv TO ^Xaovleiov to eV Mvaia Trj dvo), 
TO Te e/cKaiSeKaTOV to ^Xaovieiov to iv Xvpia, 
Ao/jLiTiavo<i TO TTpMTOv TO ^ AOrjvalov TO iv Tep- 
fiavia Trj kcltw, Tpalavof; to SevTepov to Aiyv- 

4 TTTLov KoX TO Tpia/coaTOV TO TepfxaviKov, a Kul acf)' 
eavTOv iiTCdVOfjiaaev, *Avto)vivo<; 6 MdpK0<; to T€ 
hevTepov to iv ^wpiKcp kol to TpiTov to iv 
^VaiTLCL, a Kol ^ItoXikcl K6K\7]Tai, ^eovrjpo<; tu 


MeoroTTOTafiLa, kol to Bia /juiaov to BevTepov to 
iv Tjj 'IraXta. 

5 H^vv fiev Br) ToaavTa Tei^rj tcov iK tov kutu- 
\6yov aTpaTevofievcov e^co tov re aaTtKov koX tov 
BopvipopiKov eaTi, t6t€ Be iirl tov AvyovaTOV 
TavTa Te, ecT ovv Tpla e'lTe TrevTe Kal eiKOGiv 
ovTU, iTpe(f>€To, KoX avfjL/Jia')(^iKa /cat ire^cov Kal 
liTTrecov Kal vavTcov oaaBrjiroTe rjv ov yap e^o) to 

6 aKpilSe^ elirelv ol tc crojyLtaTO^uXa/ce? fJLvptoi 6Vt69 
Kal BcKaxiJ TeTayfxevoi, Kal ol Trj<i TroXeo)? ^povpol 
e^aKiaxi'^i'Ol Te ovre^i Kal TETpaxfl vevefirj/juevor 

7 ^evot Te iTnrrjf; iiriXeKTOL, oh to tmv IBaTciovcov 
uTTo T?)? BaTttOi^a? tt}? iv tw 'Fr]V(p vrjaov ovofia, 

8 OTi Br] KpcLTLaTOi ImreveLV elal, KeiTac ov jJuevTOi 
apiOfiov avTMV aKpifir), wairep ovBe tcov avaKXrj- 
Tcov, elirelv Bvva/Jbat,. Kal yap toutou? rjp^aTO jxev 
vofiL^etv d(j> ov Tou? avdTpaTevaafievov^ t^ irarpl 




Lower Moesia; Galba the First (Adiutrix), with a.d. 6 
quarters in Lower Pannonia, and the Seventh 
(Gemina)j in Spain ; Vespasian the Second (Adiutrix), 
in Lower Pannonia, the Fourth (Flavia), in Upper 
Moesia, and the Sixteenth (Flavia), in Syria; 
Domitian the First (Minervia), in Lower Germany ; 
Trajan the Second (Aegyptia) and the Thirtieth 
(Germanica), both of which he also named after 
himself; ^ Marcus Antoninus the Second, in Noricum, 
and the Third, in Rhaetia, both of which are called 
Italica ; and Severus the Parthieae — the First and 
Third, quartered in Mesopotamia, and the Second, 
quartered in Italy. 

This is at present the number of the legions of 
regularly enrolled troops, exclusive of the city cohorts 
and the pretorian guard ; but at that time, in the 
days of Augustus, those I have mentioned were 
being maintained, whether the number is twenty- 
three or twenty-five, and there were also allied forces 
of infantry, cavalry, and sailors, whatever their 
numbers may have been (for I can not state the 
exact figures). Then there were the body-guards, 
ten thousand in number and organized in ten 
divisions, and the watchmen of the city, six thousand 
in number and organized in four divisions ; and there 
were also picked foreign horsemen, who were given 
the name of Batavians, after the island of Batavia in 
the Rhine, inasmuch as the Batavians are excellent 
horsemen. I can not, however, give their exact 
number any more than I can that of the Evocati.^ 
These last-named Augustus began to make a practice 
of employing from the time when he called again 

* The Second was called Traiana and the Thirtieth Ulpia. 
2 That is, the " Recalled." Cf. xlv. 12, 3. 



TTyoo? ra oirXa avOi<; eVl tov ^Avtohvlov aveKa- 
X€(T€V, irriprjae he' koI elcrl /cal vvv avarrnia 
iBlov, f)d^Bou<; ^epovT6<^ oiairep ol eKaTovrap^oL. 
9 Ai' ovv ravT airopcov ')(^prj/idrcov, yvcofjLrjv e? rrjv 
^ovXrjv iaijvejKe iropov riva SiapKrj kol deivcov^ 
djrohei')(^drjvaL, oirco^; firjBevo^; e^coOev fxrjhev Xvttov- 
fxevov d(f)66v(o<; i/c rcov reray/jLevcov /cal ttjv rpo(f>r)v 
Kol ra yipa Xafi^dvcoai. /cat 6 fxev i^rjTelTO, 
iireiBj] T€ /jLr)8eh dyopavofirjaai eKoov ^^OeXev, 
'^vajfcdaOijaav e/c re tmv rera/biievKorcov kol ck 
Twz/ BeSij/jLap'x^rjKOTcov /cXrjpo) rcve^ avro iroirjaai, 
525 Kal TOVTO Kal dXXore iroXXdKi^ iyivero' fxera Be 
ravra eiri re AIjjllXlov KeiriBov Kal eirl Aovfciov 
*AppovpTLov virdTcov, eTreiSr) firjSeh Tropo^ ^P^':^m\ 
aK(ov TLcrlv evpiaKero, dXXa /cat irdvv Traz^re? ^7i|^l| 

2 Kal e^rjreLro epapvvovro, iai^veyKev 6 Avyov(TTO(i 
')(pi]fiaTa Kal virep eavrov Kal virep tov Tc^epLov 
€9 TO rafxielov, o Kal arpaTicoriKov eTrcovofiaae, 
Kal Tpiorl TMV eaTparrjyrjKOTCOV roU Xa^ovaiv eirl 
Tpia err] BioiKelv irpoaera^e, pafiBovxot^i r dvd 
Svo Kal Trj akXr} V7rr]peaia rff TTpocrrjKOvarj %/oaj- 

3 fxevoi^. Kal tovto Kal eirl irXeiw err] Kara Bi,a- 
Bo')(r]v eyevero' vvv yap Kal aipovvrai 7rpo<i tov 
del avTOKpdTOpo<i Kal ')((op\<i pa^Bov-^wv irepdaaLV. 
avTO^ Te ovv crvveariveyKe Ttva, H,ai tovto KaT 
6T09 TTpd^eiv vTreaxero, Kal nrapa fiaaiXecov Bi]- 

^ aelfwv Dind., aeiyov M. 


into service against Antony the troops who had a.d. 6 
served with his father, and he maintained them 
afterwards ; they constitute even now a special corps, 
and carry rods, like the centurions. 

Now Augustus lacked funds for all these troops, 
and therefore he introduced a proposal in the senate 
that revenues in sufficient amount and continuing 
from year to year should be set aside, in order that 
the soldiers might receive without stint from the 
taxes levied their maintenance and bonuses without 
any outside source being put to annoyance. The 
means for such a fund were accordingly sought. 
Now when no one showed a willingness to become 
aedile, some men from the ranks of the ex-quaestors 
and ex-tribunes were compelled by lot to take the 
office — a thing which happened on many other 
occasions.^ After this, in the consulship of Aemilius a.d. 6 
Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius, when no revenues for 
the military fund were being discovered that suited 
anybody, but absolutely everybody was vexed because 
such an attempt was even being made, Augustus in 
the name of himself and of Tiberius placed money in 
the treasury which he called the military treasury,^ 
and commanded that three of the ex-praetors, to be 
chosen by lot, should administer it for three years, 
employing two lictors apiece and such further as- 
sistance as was fitting. This method was followed 
with the successive incumbents of the office for 
many years ; but at present they are chosen by the 
emperor and they go about without lictors. Now 
Augustus made a contribution himself toward the 
fund and promised to do so annually, and he also 

1 Cf. xlix. 16, 2; liii. 2, 2; Uv. 11, 1. 

* Atrarium militare. 




jxwv re TLVWV eTrayyekia^ iSe^aro' irapa yap rcov 
IhicoTMV, Kaiirep (tv)(^vmv ideXovri, w? <ye eXeyov, 

4 eiTihihovrwv ri, ovSev eXa^ev. co? S' ovv ravra 
re eXd^Lara 7r/?09 to ttXtjOo^ tcov avaXidKOfxevwv 
Tjv Kol aOavdrov tlvo<^ eviTopia<i iSelro, irpoaera^e 
Tot? l3ov\evTaL<; ^rjrfjaat iropov^; IBia koX KaO^ 
kavTov €KaaTOV, fcal toutou? e? /St^Xia ypd- 
yjravra'i Bovval ol SLaa-KeyjraaOai,, ov^ on ovk 
eirevoet rivd, aXV otto)? otl fidXiara avTov<; 

5 ireiari ov i^ovXero eXeaOai. dfieXei aXXcov dXXa 
€(Tr]y7jo-a/jL6P(ov eKeivwv /juev ovBev ^ iSoKi/iaae, rrjv 

8' elfCOaTTJV TMV T€ KXljpcOV KOL TMV So)p6(OV, a? CiV 

ol reXevTcovre^ Ticn ttXtjv twi^ irdvv orvyyevoiiv 
rj Koi irevrjTCdv KaraXeLTrcoai, KaTearrjo-aTO, (w? 
Kol iv TOfc? Tov YLaicrapo^ virofjivrjixaaL rb reXo^ 

6 TOVTO yey pafifievov evpcov eV^/cro fiev yap fcal 
Trporepov ttotc, KaraXvdev he fiera ravra avOi<; 
rore eiTavy^')(6ri. ra<i /nev ovv irpoaohov^ ovrco^ 
eirrjv^rjae, ra K dvaXcofiara hia rpicov dvSpcov 
virarevKorcov, ou? o KXrjpo^ direcprjve, ra fiev 
avveareiXe rd he Kal iravrdiracn Sieypa-xjre. 

26 Taurd re ovv tou? ^Vwjjbaiov^ eXviret, Kal 
irpoaeri Kal Xifio^; la'xypo'i, ioad'' vir avrov rov^ 
re fiovo/jLa'X^ovvra<; Kal rd dvhpdiroha rd oivia 
virep irevrrjKOvra Kal eirraKoaiov^i arrahiov^; 
i^coaOrjvaL, eK re t/)9 OepaTreia^ Kal rov Avyov- 
arov Kal rov^ aXXov^i rb rrXelov dTTOTrefi-xjraaOai,, 
Kal StKMV dvo')(d<; yeveaOai, eKhrjfielv re rol<; jSov- 
2 Xevral^ evda dv edeXtjacoacv eTnrpaTrrjvai. Kal 
OTTCO'i y dv fjLTjSev eK rovrov rd Boyfiara ifiTroBi- 

^ ovSkv Reim., ovSfpa M. 


accepted voluntary contributions from kings and 
certain communities ; but he took nothing from 
private citizens, although a considerable number 
made offers of their own free will, as they at least 
alleged. But as all this proved very slight in com- 
parison with the amount being spent and there was 
need of some permanent supply, he ordered each one 
of the senators to seek out sources of revenue, each 
independently of the others, to write them in books, 
and give them to him to consider. This was not be- 
cause he had no plan of his own, but as the most 
certain means of persuading them to choose the plan 
he preferred. At all events, when different men 
had proposed different schemes, he approved none of 
them, but established the tax of five per cent, on the 
inheritances and bequests which should be left by 
people at their death to any except very near 
relatives or very poor persons, representing that he 
had found this tax set down in Caesar's memoranda. 
It was, in ftict, a method which had been introduced 
once before, but had been abolished later, and was 
now revived. In this way, then, he increased the 
revenues ; as for the expenditures, he employed three 
ex-consuls, chosen by lot, by whose help he reduced 
some of them and altogether abolished others. 

This was not the only source of trouble to the 
Romans ; for there was also a severe famine. In 
consequence of this, the gladiators, and the slaves 
who were for sale, were banished to a distance of 
one hundred miles, Augustus and the other officials 
dismissed the greater part of their retinues, a recess 
of the courts was taken, and senators were permitted 
to leave the city and to proceed wherever they 
pleased. And in order that their absence might not 




^rjraL, Kvpia irdvra ra ytyvcoaKo/ieva vtto tmi> 
ael TrapovTCov elvai eKcXeuadr). /cat irpoaerL koI 
avSp€<; uTTarevfcore^; eiri re tov airov koX iirl 
rod dpTOV fcaTearrjaav, Mcrre Ta/crov e/cdaro} 

3 TTtirpdaKeaOai. iireBajKe fiev yap /cal Trpol/ca 6 
Kvyovaro^ toI^ (tctoSotov/jLCvol<; roaovrov erepov 
oaov del iXdjxPavov ox? 8' ovhe eKslvo (Ti^iaiv 
i^r}pK€(J€V, ovSe e? ra eavrov <yeve6\ia hrifioala 
avTov^ eariaOrjvac etacrev. 

4 'E7ret8/; re ev rco XP^^^ tovtw iroWa t% 
7roX6<w9 iTvpl Bi€(f)0dp7], dvhpa^ re e^ekevOepov^ 
eiTTaxy TTpo^i rd^ iiriKOvpias avrrj^; /careXe^aro, 
KOI dp^ovra lirirea avrol<; irpoaera^ev, ft)9 koI hi 

5 oXiyov a(pd<; BiaXvawv. ov pbevroL koX eTToirjae 
TOVTO' KarapaOcov yap ix r?^? ireipa^; koX XPV~ 
aipLcordrrjv koX dvayKaiordrrjv rrjv irap avrcjv 
fioTjOeiav ovaav iri^prjaev avTOv<;. kol elal koI 
vvv ol vvKTO^vXaKe^ ovtol cSlov nva rpoirov^^^ 
ovK i/c TMV direXevOepcov 'in fiovov dXXd i^coj^^ 
eK Twv aXXcov aTparevop^evot, koX tclxv '^^ ^^ 
rfj rroXei exovai koI piaOov Ik tov SrjpLoaiov 
(jyepovaiv. ^11 

27 'O 3' ovv ojjiiXof;, ola vtto re tov Xifiov Koi uttoHI 
TOV reXou? toI<^ 0* vivo tov 7rvpo<; diroXcoXoori 
K€KaKO)p€vo(;, T^axcL^Xe, koX iroXXd p,ev KaX <f)a- 
vep(o<; v6(OT€po7roid ^ BteXdXovv, TrXeiw Be Bq 
2 ^LJSXia vvKTwp e^eTiOeaav. koX TavT eXeyeTo 
piev €fc 7rapaaKev7]<; TlovTrXiov tlvo^ 'Vov<pov yi- 
yveaOai, vTTMTTTeveTO Be e? dXXov<;' 6 puev yap 

* vewTepoTToia LeuncL, vewTeporroial (corrected from yec 
Tfpo)voi(ai) M. 




prevent decrees from being passed, a ruling was a.d, 6 
made that all decisions reached by those in atten- 
dance at any meeting should be valid. Moreover, 
ex-consuls were appointed to have oversight over 
the grain and bread supplies, so that only a fixed 
quantity should be sold to each person. Augustus, 
to be sure, gave free of cost to those who were 
receiving doles of corn as much again in every case 
as they were already getting ; but when even that 
did not suffice for their needs, he forbade even the 
holding of public banquets on his birthday. 

When many parts of the city were at this time 
destroyed by fire, he organized a company of freed- 
men, in seven divisions, to render assistance on such 
occasions, and appointed a knight in command over 
them, expecting to disband them in a short time. 
He did not do so, however ; for he found by experi- 
ence that the aid they gave was most valuable and 
necessary, and so retained them. These night- 
watchmen exist to the present day, as a special 
corps, one might say, recruited no longer from the 
freedmen only, but from the other classes as well. 
They have barracks in the city and draw pay from 
the public treasury. 

Now the masses, distressed by the famine and the 
tax and the losses sustained in the fire, were ill at 
ease, and they not only openly discussed numerous 
plans for a revolution, but also posted at night even 
more numerous bulletins. Word was given out that 
all this had been planned and managed by one 
Publius^ Rufus, but suspicion was directed to others ; 

^ The same man, evidently, who is called Plauti us Rufus by 
Suetonius {Aug. 19) ; his whole name may have been Publius 
Plautius Rufus. 



'PoO^o? ovT€ ev6v 117)6 Tjvai tl avrcov ovre irpd^ai 
iBvvaro, erepoi Be tw CKelvov ovofiarc KaTa')(^po)- 
[levoi KaivoTOjji€Li> eTnarevovTo. kol Slcl tovto 
^r]T7j(Ti<; re avrcov e'\jr7](j)iaOr) koX fi7]vvrpa irpoere- 
07]' iMqvvaei^ re iylyvovro, koI rj TroXt? Kal i/c 
rovrcov irapdrrero, /ji€)(pi,<; ov rj re airoBeia 
eiravaaro, koI iiovo[Jba')(^ia<; dya)V€<; iirl rw Apovao) 
7rp6<; re rod VepfiaviKOv rod K.aLaapo<i Kal tt/^o? 
TifSeplov KXavhiov Nep(ovo<i, rcov vleayv avrov, 
eyevovro. rovro re yap avrov<; eirl rfj rod 
Apovaov fivrjfxri TrapejivOijaaro, kol on ro A^ioa- 
KopeLOV ^ o TL^epLc^ KaOLepco<7a<; ov ro eavrov 
fxovov ovofia avrw, KXavSiavov eavrov dvrl rod 
KXavSiov Sid rrjv e? to rod Avyovarov yevo^ 
€K7roL7]aiv 6vofidaa<;, dWa Kal ro eKeivov iire- 
ypa-yjre. rd re yap r6)V iroXe/icov dfia 8i,a>Kei, Kal 
e? rr]v iroXiv, oirore 7rapda')(^oi, avve')(co<; eaecpoira, 
TO fxev rt TTpay/xdrwv rivcov eveKa, ro he Brj irXel- 
arov <j)o^ov/JLevo^ fir] 6 Avyovaro^i dWov rivd 
irapd rr}V dirovaiav avrod TrporLpuriar}. 

Tadrd re ev ra> erei rovrw eyevero, Kal eTrecSri 
6 T^9 'Ai^aia? dp'X^cov ixeaovar]<; irov rrj<i rjyefjLOvia^ 
drredave, rw re rafiua^ Kal rw irapeSprp avrod, ov 
Trpea/Sevrrjv, wairep elirov, KaXodfiev, ro) fiev rd 
evro<; rod laOjJiod rw he rd \oL7rd ScoiKrjcrat rrpoa- 
erd'x^Or]. 6 re 'Hpd)87]<; 6 TlaXaiar'Lvo<;, alriav 
Tivd diTO rcov dSeXcficov Xa^cov, vrrep rd<; "AXireLf; 

^ AiocTKopfiov Dind., SinoTKOvpeiop M. 



for as Rufus could neither have devised nor accom- a.d. 
plished any of these things, it was believed that 
others, making use of his name, were planning a 
revolution. Therefore an investigation of the affair 
was voted for and rewards for information were an- 
nounced. Information began to be offered, and this 
also contributed to the commotion in the city. This 
lasted until the scarcity of grain was at an end and 
gladiatorial games in honour of Drusus were given 
by Germanicus Caesar and Tiberius Claudius Nero, 
his sons. For this mark of honour to the memory of 
Drusus comforted the people, and also the dedication 
by Tiberius of the temple of Castor and Pollux, upon 
which he inscribed not only his own name, — calling 
himself Claudianus instead of Claudius, because of 
his adoption into the family of Augustus, — but also 
that of Drusus. Tiberius, it should be explained, 
continued to carry on the wars, and at the same time 
visited the city repeatedly whenever the opportunity 
offered ; this was partly, to be sure, on account of 
various business, but chiefly because he was afraid 
that Augustus might take advantage of his absence 
to show preference to somebody else. 

These were the events in the city that year. In 
Achaia the governor died in the middle of his term 
and instructions were given to his quaestor and to 
his assessor (whom, as I have stated,^ we call envoy) 
for the former to administer the province as far as 
the Isthmus and the other the remainder. Herod ^ 
of Palestine, who was accused by his brothers of 
some wrongdoing or other, was banished beyond the 

^ Of. hii. 14, 6. 

2 Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, who used the name 
Herod on his coinage. 




VTrepwpiaOr], koI to fi6po<; rr)? ^PXV'^ avrov 
28 K.av Tolf; avrol^ tovtol<; ')(^p6vot<; /cal TroXefioi 
TToWol iyivovTo. koX yap XrjaTal avxya Kare- 
Tp6')(^ov, ware ryv XapSo) /jLtjS' ^ dp^ovra /SouXeu- 
TTjv ereal tkti ar^elv, aWa arpaTicoTaL<^ re Kal 

2 aTpaTtdp)(^ai<i lirirevaiv 67riTpa7rrjvar Kal 7r6XeL<; 
ovK oXiyai ivecoTepi^ov, coare Kal iirl Bvo errj tou? 
avTOV'i iv T0t9 Tov Srj/jLov eOveai, Kal alperov^ ye 
avrl TOiv KXrjpcoTcbv, dp^ar rd yap tov Kauaapo'^ 
Kal a\XcD9 eVt irXeico 'xpovov T0i9 ^ aurot? Trpocr- 
eTaTTCTo, ov fievTOi Kal irepl ttuvtcov avTcov 
dKpi/3(0(; eTre^d^co' ^ iroXXd re yap ft)9 eKdaTOC^; 
Kal OVK d^ioXoya avvrjve'X^Orj, Kal ovSev dv ■* 

3 XeTTToXoyrjOevTa 0}(f)€Xi]aeL6. ra ye fjurjv p,V7]p,r)<; 
Tivo<; d^ia K€^aXaLco(Ta<;, ttXtjv twv /iieyiaTOO^^i 

"laavpoi re yap 6K XrjaTeiafi dp^afxevoL Kal 6? 
TToXepLOV BecvoTTjTa 'jrpor)')(^dr](jav, jxe'y^pL^ ov KaTe- 
hapdaO-qaav Kal VaiTovXoi ^ tm re 'lovjSa tw 
jSaacXel d^Oop^evoc, Kal dp,a dira^iovvTe^ /.lt] ov 

4 Kal avTol vtto tcdv 'Pcop^aicov dp')(^eaOai, eirave- 
(TTTjaav avT(p, Kal ttjv re 7rp6o-)(o)pov iiropOrjaav 
Kal av')(yov^ Kal twv 'Vwpbaiwv einaTpaTevaavTd'^ 
(Tcpiaiv dTrefCTCivav, to t€ avpirav iirl ToaovTov 
€7r7jv^rjOr)aav coaTe K.opp^Xtov J^oaaov tov KaTep- 
yaadp^evov a(f)a<; Tipid^ xe eiriviKiov^ Kal €7rco- 

6 vvpbiav diT avTMV Xa/Setv. TavTu re dp.a eyiyveTo, 
Kal eirl toi)? KeXTOL'9 eaTpdrevaav pev Kal dXXoc 

1 jUTjS' Bk., firjr' M. ^ ro7s Reim., iu rois M. 

^ iire^d^o} Reim., 67re|rj^a) M ■* ovSiv &v Pflugk, ovSeva M. 

^ FaiTouXoi {TaiTovXoi) R. Steph., yerovAoi M. 



Alps and his portion of the domain was confiscated a.d. 
to the state. 

During this same period many wars also took 
place. Pirates overran a good many districts, so 
that Sardinia had no senator as governor for some 
years, but was in charge of soldiers with knights as 
commanders. Not a few cities rebelled, with the 
result that for two years the same men held office in 
the provinces which belonged to the people and 
were appointed ^ instead of being chosen by lot ; of 
course the provinces which belonged to Caesar were, 
in any case, assigned to the same men for a longer 
period. But 1 shall not go into all these matters 
minutely, for many things not worthy of record 
happened in individual instances and their recital in 
detail would serve no useful purpose. I shall give 
simply the events worthy of some mention and very 
briefly at that, except in the case of those of greatest 

The Isaurians began with marauding expeditions, 
but were led on into all the horrors of war, until 
they were utterly subdued. The Gaetulians, also, 
were discontented with their king, Juba, and 
scorning the thought that they, too, should be ruled 
over by the Romans, rose against him. They ravaged 
the neighbouring territory, slew many even of the 
Romans who made a campaign against them, and, in 
fine, gained so great headway that Cornelius Cossus, 
who subjugated them, received triumphal honours 
and also a title from them.^ While these events 
were occurring, expeditions against the Germans 
also were being conducted by various leaders. 

1 By Augustus, naturally. 
^ Gaetulicus. 



TLvh, iarpdrevae Be /col 6 TLjSiptOf;. koL fiexP'' 
ye Tov TTorajiov, irporepov fxev rod Ovtaovpyov,^ 
puera he tovto Kal tov ^AX^lov, Trpoe-x^copijaev, ov 
pLevTOi fcal a^iopLvrjpLovevTov tv Tore ye €7rpd)(^dr], 

6 KaiTOL KOI avrofcpdropo'; pirj on tov AvyovaTOv 
dWd Kal TOV Ti^epLov iir* avTol'i K\r]6evTo<;, 
Kal TLpa^ eirLVLKiovf; Vatov ^evTiov tov t?}? Tep- 
pavLa<; a/j^oi^ro? \a^6vT0<i, eVetS?; p,r} piovov dira^ 
dXka Kal BevTepov, (jiO^rjOevTe^ avTov<;, eairei- 

7 cravTO. acTia Be tov Kaiirep TrapaairovBrjaaai, 
acfyiai Bl okiyov avOi<; ttjv elprjvrjv BoOrjvat Ta re 
TMV AeXpiaTMV Kal to, tmv Uavvovicov, p^ec^ovco^ 
Te Tapa)(6evTa Kal o^eia^; €7ncrTpo(f)7]<; BerjOevTa, 

29 Tat? yap e(T<^opal<; tmv ')(^p7)pLdT(ov ol AeXpudTat 
^apwopevoi tov pev epirpoaOe ')(p6vov Kal aKOVTe^ 
r)av')(a^ov' &)? 8' o re Tt/3epzo9 eVl TOv<i KeXrov^; 
TO BevTepov earpaTevae, Kal Ova\epio<; Meaaa- 
Xivo^i 6 TOTe Kal Trj<; Ae\paTLa<i Kal t>}9 Uavvovia^ 
dpx^ov auTo? re avv eKeuvM iardXt] Kal to tto^u 

2 TOV (TTpaTOv Gvve^rjyaye, Kai Tiva Kal G-(pei<; 
BvvapLiv irepiyjrai Ke\eva6evTe<^ avvrfkOov re eirl 
TOVTW Kal TTjv rjXiKiav a(j)(ov dvdovaav elBov, 
ovKeTt, BiepLeWrjaav, dW* evdyovTO^ avT0v<; otl 
pidXiaTa BttT&)i>09 tivo<; ArjaiBidTOV to pev irpw- 
Tov oXiyoL Tive<; ivecoTepiaav Kal tov<; 'F(opaiov<; 
e7re\06vTa<; a(f)iaLV ea^ifkav, eireiTa Be eK tovtov 

3 Kal ol dWoL TTpoaaireaTr^aav. Kal perd tovto 
Kal ^pevKOL TiavvovLKov e6vo<i, ^drcova Kal avTol 
CTepov TTpoaTTjadpevoi, eiri ts to Xlpp^tov Kal eirl 
TOv<s ev avT(p 'VwpLaiov^ copp^rjaav. Kal eKelvo 

^ Oviaovpyov Reim., aoiypov M. 



especially Tiberius. He advanced first to the river a.i). e 
Visurgis and later as far as the Albis, but nothing 
noteworthy was accomplished at this time, although 
not only Augustus but also Tiberius was called im- 
perator because of the campaign, and Gaius Sentius, 
the governor of Germany, received triumphal honours, 
inasmuch as the Germans, through their fear of the 
Romans, made a truce, not merely once, but twice. 
The reason that peace was granted them a second 
time, in spite of their having broken their truce so 
soon, was that the Dalmatians and Pannonians were 
in a state of great disturbance and required sharp 

The Dalmatians, chafing under the levies of tri- 
bute, had hitherto kept quiet, though unwillingly. 
But when Tiberius made his second campaign against 
the Germans, and Valerius Messallinus, the governor 
of Dalmatia and Pannonia at the time, was sent out 
with him, taking most of his army along, the Dal- 
matians, too, were ordered to send a contingent ; 
and on coming together for this purpose and behold- 
ing the strength of their warriors, they no longer 
delayed, but, under the vehement urging of one 
Bato, a Desidiatian, at first a few revolted and 
defeated the Romans who came against them, and 
then the rest also rebelled in consequence of this 
success. Next the Breucians, a Pannonian tribe, put 
another Bato at their head and marched against 
Sirmium and the Romans in that town. They did 



liev ovK e^eVkov {ala66fi6vo<; 'yap Trj<; iTravaardcrecof; 
avTOiv KacKiva<i^ "^eovr^po^; 6 t% TrXrjaLOXcopov 
Mvcrta? ap^f^v iirijiXde re avTol^ hia Ta'xewv 
irepX rov Apdovov irorafiov ovai koX avfjifiaXcov 
iviKyjaev), ava/xax^creaOai^ 8e ttt} Sia ^pa\eo^, 
iTreiBr) kol tmv 'Pcofiaicov av)(yol iireirTcoKeaav, 
e\iriaavre<i rrpo^ TrapaKkr^o-tv av/jL/ud)(^o)v irpd- 
4 TTOvro. KOL ol fiev avvicrrcov 6aov<; ihvvavro, 
iv Be TOVTW 6 Barwv 6 AeXfidrrj^; eVi XdXcova 
(7TpaTev(Ta<; avro^ fxev XiOqy ^^aXevrw? TrXrjyeU 
ovSev eiTpa^ev, erepov^ he Tiva<; 7re/i\jra<; irdvra rd 
TrapaOaXdaaia fie)(pi Trj<; ^AiroXXcovLaf; iXv/jb^varo, 
/cai TLVL evravOa fid)(r) ^ Be avroiv tol'? irpoa/jiL- 
^avrd^ (T^LCi 'P(ojjLaLOv<i, Kaiirep irporiTrrj6eL<=;,^ 
30 avTeire/cpdrrjae. Tru^oyu-ej^o? ovv ravO^ 6 Ti/9e/oto9, 
Koi <po^r]6el<; /jLtj koI e? rrjv ^IraXiav ecrjBdXwaiv, 
€K T€ T% KeXriKrj<; dveaTpeyjre, koi tov Mecrcra- 
Xlvov IT poire jx^lra^ avTO<; tw irXeiovi tov crrparov 

2 e^eiireTO. alaOofxevo^ Be rrj^; irpoaoBov avrwv 
6 ^drcov dTTrjVTr](je to) yieaaaXiuo), Kaiirep firj- 
BeTTco KaXco^ ^X^^> '^^^ eTTLKparearepo^; avrov iv 
Trapard^ei, <yev6fievo<; eireiT e^ eveBpa^i evLKTjOr). 


r)X6€, Kal KOi,v(oadjjLevo<; avTM tov iroXefiov opo^ 

3 TL ^AXfidv KaTeXa^e' KavravOa 7rpo<; /xev tov 
'I^VfirjTdXfcov TOV SpaK6<;, ir poire fji(^6evT0<; eir 
avTom VTTO TOV ^eovTjpov, fipax^la tlvI fJ^d'^r) 
rjTTijOrjaav, 7rpb<; S* avTov e/cecvov tV;)^f/oco9 dvT- 

4 ea-^ov. /cal fJueTa TavTa tov t€ SeovTjpov e? 
Tr]v M.V(Tiav Bid re TOV<i AaKov^; Kal Bid tou? 

1 KaiKivas R. Steph. , koL Kivvas M. 

2 avo^ax^o'effSoi Dind. , ava/MaxfO'ci.adai M. 




not capture the place, however, for Caecina Severus, a.d. 6 
the governor of the neighbouring province of Moesia, 
marched rapidly against them, when he heard of 
their uprising, and joining battle with them near the 
river Dravus,^ vanquished them ; but hoping in some 
way to renew the struggle soon, since many of the 
Romans also had fallen, they turned their attention 
to summoning their allies and were getting together 
as many as they could. Meanwhile the Dalmatian 
Bato marched upon Salonae, where he was badly 
wounded by a stone missile and so accomplished 
nothing himself; but he sent out some others, who 
wrought havoc along the whole sea-coast as far as 
Apollonia, and at that point, in spite of having been 
first defeated, won a battle in turn against the 
Romans who engaged them. Now when Tiberius 
learned of this, fearing that they might invade Italy, he 
returned from Germany, sending Messallinus ahead 
and following himself with most of his army. But 
Bato learned of their approach, and although not yet 
well, went to meet Messallinus; and though he proved 
stronger than Messallinus in open conflict, he was 
afterward defeated by an ambuscade. Thereupon he 
went to Bato, the Breucian, and making common 
cause with him in the war, occupied a mountain 
named Alma. Here they were defeated by Rhoe- 
metalces, the Thracian, who had been sent ahead 
against them by Severus, but resisted Severus him- 
self vigorously. Later, when Severus withdrew to 
Moesia, because the Dacians and Sarmatians were 

1 The Drave. 

* Tivi . . . fxdxv Oddey, nva . . . ixaxfiv M. 

* irporjTTTjflcis rolak, TjTTrjOf is M. 



'^avpofxara^; iropOovvra'^ avrrjv airdpavTO^, Kal 
Tov Tifieplou rov re MeaaaXivov ev 'XiaKia^ 
e7X/ooi^tcra^'Ta)i^, Trjv re avp.fia')(i8a a<j>(op iire- 

5 hpapov KoX (TV')(yov<i TrpocraTria-rrjaav, koI e? /lev 
')(6ipa<;, Kaiirep rov Tifieplov 7r\r]aidaavr6<i a(f)icrtv, 
ovK rjkdov avr(p, aXkocre he fcal dWoae pediard- 
pevoi TToWd iiropdrjaav' rrj<; re yap ')(^(i)pa<; ipu- 
7r€t/3&)9 e'X^ovre^; koX KOV(f)co<i ia-Kevaapevoi, paStco^ 
OTTr) TTore i^ovXovro ixdypovp. /cat iireiBj] ye 6 
')(eipcdv evearri, iroXv ifKeico eKUKovpyrjaav koX 

6 yap Kal €9 rrjv MaKeSovlav avdL<; ivejBaXov. Kal 
rovrov<; p,ev 6 re 'PvprjrdXKT)^ Kal 6 dSe\(f)o<i 
avrov 'VaaKV7ropL<i pd)(^r) KareXa/Sov ol he Br) 
dXXoL rf) pev %ft>/oa a(f>cov rropdovpevrj perd rovro 
eirl re KaiKiXiov MereXXou Kal irrl AlklvLov ^ 
%iXavov virdrwv ovk errrjpvvav, e? he rd epvpvd 
dva(f)vy6vre<i eKeldev ottji irapeiKoi Karahpopud<; 

81 ovv ravra 6 Avyovaro<;, Kal vrro- 
iTrevaa<s e? rov Tifiepiov &)? hvvnrjOevra p,ev dv hid 
raykfov avroixi Kparrjaai, rpi^ovra he efeTTtrr^Se? 
(V o)? eirl TcXelcrrov ev rol<i oirXoi^ irrl rfj rov 
iroXepov irpo^daeL rj, rrepTvei rov TeppaviKov Kai- 
roL rapievovra, arparicora<i ol ovk evyevel^ povov 
dXXd Kal e^eXev6epov<i hov'^y dXXov<i re Kal 6aov<; 
rrapd re rcov dvhpcov Kal rrapd rcov yvvatKcov 
hovXovff, TTyOO? TO. riprjpara avrcov, avv rpocf)fj 
2 eKprjV(p Xa0Q)v rjXevOepwaev. ov p,6vov he rovro 
TT/oo? rr)v rov iroXepov -^pelav errpa^ev, dXXd Kal 
rrjv i^eracriv rcov linTewv rrjv ev rfj dyopa yiyvo- 

^ 2i<xkI<} Xyl., <T€i(TKiai M. * AikivIov Bk., XiKivviou Al. 




ravaging it, and Tiberius and Messallinus were tarry- ad. e 
ing in Siscia, the Dalmatians overran the territory of 
their allies and caused many more to revolt. And 
although Tiberius approached them, they would 
engage in no pitched battle with him, but kept 
moving from one place to another, causing great 
devastation ; for, owing to their knowledge of the 
country and the lightness of their equipment, they 
could easily proceed wherever they pleased. And 
when winter set in they did much greater damage, 
for they even invaded Macedonia again. As for 
these forces, now, Rhoemetalces and his brother 
Rhascyporis checked them by a battle ; and as for 
the others, they did not come to the defence of their 
country when it was later ravaged (in the consulship a.d. 7 
of Caecilius Metellus and Licinius Silanus), but took 
refuge in the mountain fortresses, from which they 
made raiding expeditions whenever the chance 

When Augustus learned of these things, he began 
to be suspicious of Tiberius, who, as he thought, 
might speedily have overcome the Dalmatians, but \ 
was delaying purposely, in order that he might be 
under arms as long as possible, with the war as his 
excuse. He therefore sent out Germanicus, although 
he was only a quaestor, and gave him an army com- 
posed not only of free-born citizens but also of freed- (,/ 
men, including those whom he had freed from slavery 
by taking them from their masters and mistresses on 
payment of their value and the cost of their mainten- 
ance for six months. This was not the only measure 
he took to meet the need occasioned by the war, 
but he also postponed the review of the knights, 
which was wont to occur in the Forum. And he 




fjbevqv avePakero, Kara, re rrjf; Travrjyvpeco'i r7]<; 
fieyd\rj<; rju^aro,^ on ywrj rt? e? rbv ^payiova 

3 ypd/jL/uLara drra evreixovaa eOeiaae rtva. fjaOero 
ixev yap on ovk ck Oeov Karia-^^riTO aXX eK irapa- 
aK€ur](; avro eTreiroLrjKei,' eTretSrj he to irXrjOo^ 

aXXcO^i T6 Kol Sid TOL'9 TToXe/jLOV'i TOP T6 Xl/jLOV, 

0? /cal Tore avdi^ avvejSr}, Beivo)^ irapdrrero, 
TTLareveLV re koI avTO<i rot? \£')(^del(nv iirXdrrero, 
Kal irdvO' oaa TrapapLvOTJaeadat, rov op,iXov -7/AeX- 

4 Xev ft)? Kol dvayicala eTTparre. kol eiri ye rfj 
anoheia hvo avOi<; etc rcov vTrarevKOTCov eiri- 
/jLeXrjrd^ rod alrov avv pa^Sov)(OL<; aTreSet^e. 
IT poaZeo p,evo<i he Brj ')(^p7jp.dTcov e? re tov'^ iroXepov^ 

KOL 69 T^I' rWV VVKTOCpvXdfCCOV TpOcl)l]V, TO T€ 

TeXos TO T7)<i 7r€VTr}KoaTr}<; eirl ttj tcov dvSpa- 
TToBcov TTpdaei iarjyaye, Kal to dpyvpiov to 
To2<; aTparr^yol^ toI^ ra? OTrXop^a'-^ia^ iroiovcnv 
eK tov S)]pL0(TL0V hihopLsvov CKeXevae /jirjKeT dve^m 
XiaKeaOai. ^H 

32 ^ov he Br) VeppavLKov, dXX! ov tov * AypiTnrdv 
eVfc TOV TToXepov i^eTrepL-^ev, otc BovXoTTpeTrr]'^ t€ 
eKelvo<i rjv Kal rd irXelara rjXieveTO, oOevirep Kal 
TLoaeiBwva eavTov iircovopLa^e, tj} re opyfj irpo- 
2 ireTel i^prJTO, Kal Tr)v Aioviav " to? purjTpvidv 
Bt-e^aXXev, avTO) re tw ^AvyovaTO) 7roXXdKc<; virep 
TOiv iTaTp(p(tiv eTreKdXei,, Kal ov yap ecrcocppo- 
VL^eTO, direKr^pv-^Orjy Kal rj t€ ovaia avTov T(p 
aTpancoTiKw Tapieicp ^ eBoOrj, Kal ai/Vo? €9 IlXa- 
vaaiav ttjv irpo<i K.vpva) vrjaov ive/SXrjOij. 

^ rfij^aro R. Steph., ftj^aro M. 

2 Aioviav Lipsius, 'lovAiav M. 

3 To/iJ6ty Bk., rafMflwt M. 



made a vow with reference to the Megalensian a.p. r 
games because some woman had cut some letters on 
her arm and practised some sort of divination. He 
knew well, to be sure, that she had not been pos- 
sessed by any divine power, but had done this thing 
deliberately ; but inasmuch as the populace was 
terribly wrought up over both the wars and the 
famine (which had now set in once more), he, too, 
affected to believe the common report and proceeded 
to do anything that would make the crowd cheerful, 
regarding such measures as necessary. And in view 
of the dearth of grain he appointed two ex-consuls 
commissioners of the grain supply, granting them 
lictors. And as there was need of more money for 
the wars and for the support of the night-watchmen, 
he introduced the tax of two per cent, on the sale of 
slaves, and he ordered that the money which was 
regularly paid from the public treasury to the prae- 
tors who gave gladiatorial combats should no longer 
be expended. 

The reason why he sent Germanicus and not 
Agrippa to take the field was that the latter pos- 
sessed an illiberal nature, and spent most of his time 
in fishing, by virtue of which he used to call himself 
Neptune. He used to give way to violent anger, 
and spoke ill of Livia as a stepmother, while he often 
reproached Augustus himself for not giving him the 
inheritance his father had left him. When he could 
not be made to moderate his conduct, he was banished 
and his property was given to the military treasury ; 
he himself was put ashore on Planasia, the island 
near Corsica. 



3 Tavra fxev ev rfj ttoXu iyivero' rov Se Brj 
VepixaviKov eV rr]v Yiavvoviav iXOovro^ /cal 
crTparev/jbdrcov iroWaxoOev eKelae (tvviovtcov, 
rr)prjaavT6<; ol Barcoi/e? rov Xeouijpov lie rrj<; 
Mfcrta? TTpocTiovTa eTTeireaov avrS) aTrpoaSofcrjroi, 
aTparoTreSevo/jLevcp tt/oo? rot? Ovo\KaioL<; eXeai, 
KOI TOV<i fjblv efft) rov ra(j>peviJLaTO<^ i<j)6^r](rav koX 
KaTi]pa^av €9 avro, Se^afieuoov Be a^a<; rwv evhov 

4 r}TTi]6r](rav. KoX fxera rov6* ol 'Vdyfialoi vefirj- 
6evT6<;, OTTft)? iroWa^fj cifia rrj? 'x^copa^; Kara- 
rpex^^o'i'^f ol fiev aXkoi ovhev a^cov \6yov rore ye 
eSpaaav, 6 Be Srj TepfiaviK0<i Ma^alov; AeXfiari- 
Kov eOvo^ f^^XV VLKriaa<^ eKcLKCoaev. 

33 'Ez^ fiev Bt} Tft) erec eKelvrp ravr e7rpd)(^07j, 
M^dpKov Be Bt) ^ovpLov fiera Xe^rov Nwvtof 
v7raTevaavT0<; eireOvfii^aav /jlcv koI ol AeXfidrat 
/cal ol Uavvovioi av/ifirjvac Bid to to /jl€V irpwrov 
XifjLw, elra /cat vocrw dir avrov, 7r6ai<; re tktiv 
dWoKoroL'^ /cal pL^ai<; 'x^pM/ievoL, rrovrjOrjvai, ovk 
€7re/cr]pv/cev(ravro Be /ccoXvadvrcov rwv /jajBe/iiav 
rrapd rcov 'Fco/iaicov eXirlBa awrr)pla^ e^ovrcov, 

2 dWd /cal w? dvreL)(^op. Kal X/cev6^apB6<i re Tfc9 
7rpoa7roir)(7d/jLevo<; jxeracrri^aeaOai, Kal 7re/jL\jra<; 
Kar avro rovro Trpo? MdpLov "Evviov <f>povpap')(^ov 
^caKia<; ^ &>? eroi/juof; fxev wv avrojxdXrjaai, BeBm<i 
Be fxr) TTporrddrj ^. . . . 

3 Padus, quern Italiae soli fluviorum regem dicunt 
cognomento Eridanus, ab Augusto imperatore latis- 

* l,i<TK[as Bk., (reiffKias M. 

2 Between irpoiraO-^ and jxtyroi (chap. 34) four folios are 
lacking in M. 



These were the events in the city. After Ger- a,d. 7 
manicus reached Pannonia and armies were assem- 
bling there from many sides, the two Batos waited 
until ^Severus approached from Moesia and then fell 
upon him unexpectedly, while he was encamped near 
the Volcaean marshes. They frightened the pickets 
outside the ramparts and drove them back inside, but 
when the men in the camp stood their ground, the 
attackers were defeated. After this the Romans 
were divided into detachments, in order that they 
might overrun many parts of the country at once; 
most of these detachments did nothing worthy of 
note, at least not at that time, but Germanicus 
conquered in battle and harassed the Mazaei, a 
Dalmatian tribe. 

These were the achievements of that year. In a.i>. 8 
the consulship of Marcus Furius and Sextus Nonius, I 
the Dalmatians and Pannonians desired to make 
terms, because they were afflicted first by famine and 
then by disease that followed it, since they were 
using for food roots and strange herbs. They did 
not, however, make any overtures, being hindered 
by those who had no hope of being spared by the 
Romans, but even in their distress still resisted. 
And one, Scenobardus, who had pretended he was 
going to change sides and with reference to this very 
matter had sent to Manius Ennius, the commander 
of the garrison in Siscia, as if he were ready to 
desert, became afraid that he might suffer harm 
beforehand .... 

The Po, which, under the name Eridanus,^ they 
call the king of the rivers that cleave the soil of Italy, 
had its waters let into a very wide canal by the 

^ This is the usual uame of the river in Greek. 




sima fossa demissus, qui septima sui alvei parte perM 
mediam influit civitatem, ad ostia sua amoenissimum ^' 
portum praebens, classem ducentarum quinquaginta 
navium, Dione referente, tutissima dudum crede- jH 
batur recipere statione. — Jordanes, Get. 29, 150. 

4 AQ)<f)i]aavTO<; Se irore rov \t/jLov, iiri re r^ rov 
TepfiavLKOv ovofiari, 09 rjv rov Apovaov Trat?, 
fcal iirl rM rov dB€X(j)ov avrov, tTTTroS/joyata? 
eTTOirjcre, koI ev avral<i eXe^a? re pivoKepcora 
Karefia^eaaro /cat dvrjp l7r7rev<; rrXovro) irore 
TTpoeveyKODV efiovopid'xrjae. 

5 Kal eireihr] Koi rw yrjpa koX ry rov a(o/iiaro<s 
daOeveia eKafivev, coare firj hvvaaOai irdai rol^i 
Beo/jL€voi<; ri avrov y^prj^ari^eiv, ra fiev dWa 
avr6<; /lera rcov (TvveSpayv Kal Siea/coTrei ^ fcal 
ihiKa^ev, ev rw iraXariw eirl ffi]fMaro<; irpOKa- 
Orjiievo^i, ra? he hrj ^ Trpea^eia^; rd<; re Trapd rcov 
hrjpLWv real rd<; Trapd rcov ^aaCKewv d^iKvov/bueva^ 
rpicrl rwv virarev/corcov eirerpe^^ev, coar avrov<i 
^copl? eKacrrov Kal SiaKoveiv rivojv Kal diroKpiaiv 
avrol<^ BiSovai, irXrjv rMV oaa dvajKaiov rjv rrjv 
re 0ov\r)v Kal eKelvov iiriBiaKpiveiv. — Xiph. 114, 

84 ... jievrot Kal ev roL<; irpcoroiq aXX' ev roi<f 
vardroL^ d'lre^aivero, ottcjH'^ ISio^ovXeiv diracnv 
e^eirj Kal p.rjBeh avrwv rrj<; eavrov jva)/jLr}<;, co? Kal 
dvdjKTjv rivd (TV/Ji(f)povrjaai 01 e')(wVy e^i'arairoy^ 

* S<€<r«-<^7r6t V, SieoTK . , . C, SiecrKf^paro L'. 

2 5)/ V, fi}) C, om. L'. ^ f^ia-raiTo Bk., (^ia-raTai M. 



Emperor Augustus. A seventh part of the stream a.d. 8 
of this river flows through the centre of the city,^ 
affording at its mouth a most attractive harbour, 
which was formerly believed, according to Dio, to be 
a thorouglily safe anchorage for a fleet of two hun- 
dred and fifty ships. 

When at last the famine had abated, he conducted 
games in the Circus in the name of Germanicus, 
who was son of Drusus, and in that of Germanicus' 
brother.2 On this occasion an elephant overcame a 
rhinoceros and a knight who had once been dis- 
tinguished for his wealth fought in single combat. 

Now when Augustus was growing weary by reason 
of old age and the feebleness of his body, so that he 
could not attend to the business of all those who 
needed his care, though he continued personally, 
with his assistants, to investigate judicial cases and to 
pass judgment, seated on the tribunal in the palace, 
he entrusted to three ex-consuls the embassies sent 
to Rome by peoples and kings ; these, sitting sepa- 
rately, gave audience to such embassies and made 
answer to them, except in matters in which the final 
decision had of necessity to be rendered by the 
senate and Augustus. 

[It had been Augustus' practice hitherto to attend 
all the meetings of the senate, though he did not,] 
however, declare his opinion among the first, but 
among the last, his purpose being that all might be 
permitted to form their views independently and no 
one should abandon his own judgment, as though 
he were under any necessity of agreeing with the 
emperor; and he would often sit with the magis- 

* Ravenna. 

^ Claudius, who later became emperor. 



T0t9 re ap^ovai 7roWdKi<; avveBiKa^e' Kal 6(TdKi<; 
ye ol irapehpevovre^ a(j)iaiv iScxoyvoo/jiovovv,^ Kal 
r] eKeivov '\jrfi(f)o<; cltto t?)? ia't]<; ral^ tmv dWcov 

2 rjpiOpbelro. Tore he rfj jxev yepovala Kal dvev 
eavTov ra iroWd hiKa^eLv eireTpeirev, e? he top 
Btj/jLov ovKen iraprjeL, dWd rw /lev irporepco eret 
7TdvTa<; TOi'? dp^ovra^; avro^i, eTreihrjirep eara- 
(Tid^ero, aTreSetfe, tovto) Be Kal rot? eireira 
ypd/jL/jLard rtva eKTcOel^; o-vviarr) rw re irXijOet, 

3 Kal Tw Brj/jL(p oaov<; eairovBa^e. 7rpo<^ fievToi ra? 
TMV TToXe/jLcov Bia')(^eLpiaeL<i ovto)<; eppcoro wgQ\ 
%v eyyvdev Kal iirl toc<; ^eXfidrai^ Kal eirl rot? 
TlavvoviOL<; irav 6 ri y^pr) avpL^ovXeveLV eyr), tt/jo? 
'Api/jLtvov e^cop/jLTjae, Kal eiri re rfj e^oBo) avrov 
evx^u eyevovTO, kcli eirl rrj eirav6B(p al Ovoiau 
Mcrirep eK TToXeiiia^ tlvo<; dvaK0fXL(76evT0<; eVe- 

4 Tavra fiev ev rfj ^Pco/irj eTrpd'^di], ev Be tovtw 
6 hdrcov 6 3p€VK0<;, 6 rov re Uivvrjv irpoBovf; Kal 
fjLLaObp rovTov Tr)v dp')(r]V tojv BpevKcov Xa^cov, 
edXco re vtto rov erepov Bartoz^o? Kal BcecjyOdpr)' 

5 €7reiBr) yap vTroirrevara^; tl €9 to vtt^koov 6/JL7]pov<; 
Ka0* eKacTTOV tmv (f)povpLcov irepawv '^ yrei, fiaOoDv 
TOUT €KeLVO<; evrjBpevae ttov avrov, Kal fid^^rj 
Kparrjaa^ KareKXeiaev e? ret;^©?, Kal fiera rovr 
eKBoOevra vtto rwv evBov Xa^cbv irap^yaye re e? 
TO arpdrevfia, Kal Karay]rr)(f)ta6epra dirodavelv 

6 ev ')(ep(7lv eiroiTjcre. yevofievov Be rovrov av)(yol 
rcov IIavvovi(ov eiravearrjaav, Kal avrol^^ 6 

^ eiiXoyvwiJ.6uovv Morell, eSixoyvw/jLovy M. 
■^ TTcpiiwv R. Steph , ircpiwp M. 
^ avTOiS Rk. , avrhs M. 



trates as they tried cases. Also, whenever those who a.d. 8 
sat in judgment with him found themselves in dis- 
agreement, the emperor's vote was counted as no 
more than equal to that of any other judge. But at 
the time to which I refer, Augustus allowed the 
senate to try most cases without him, and he gave up 
attending the popular assemblies. Instead, he had 
the year before personally appointed all who were to/ 
hold office, because there were factional outbreaks,! s 
and in this and the following years he merely posted: 
a bulletin recommending to the plebs and to the 
people those whom he favoured. Yet he was so 
vigorous when it came to directing campaigns 
against the enemy that he proceeded to Ariminum 
in order that he might be near at hand to give all 
necessary advice in regard to both the Dalmatians 
and the Pannonians. On his departure vows were 
made, and on his return the sacrifices customary 
when he came back from the enemy's country were 

This was what was done in Rome. Meanwhile, 
Bato, the Breucian, who had betrayed Pinnes and had 
received the right to rule over the Breucians as his 
reward, was captured by the other Bato and put to 
death. The Breucian, it seems, had been somewhat 
suspicious of his subject tribes and had gone round 
to each of the garrisons to demand hostages ; and 
the other, learning of this, lay in wait for him some- 
where or other, defeated him in battle, and shut him 
up in a stronghold. Later, when the Breucian was 
delivered over by those inside, he took him and 
brought him before the army, and then, when he 
had been condemned, put him to death on the spot. 
After this many of the Pannonians rose in revolt, 



'^i\ovavo<; €7rtaTpaT€vaa<; tou? re l^p€Vfcov<; evi- 
fcijae Kal tmv aXXcov Tiva<; afui^el TrpoaeTTOirjaaro, 
l8ot)i^ ovv ravra 6 l^drcov r?}? fiev Havvovia^ \ 
ovhefxiav er eXiriha ecr^Cy ra? he €9 rr)v AeX/naTLav 
tf avTTJi; tVoSof? (ppovpaU SiaXa/Soov eKeivr^v 
eiropOei, Kot ovtco koI ol Xonrol rSyv Tiavvoviwv, 
aXXo)? re koX t^9 ')(^copa<; o-^wz^ virb rov ^iXovavov 
fcaKOVfM€i^r)<;, ay/noXoyrjaav, ttXtjv Kad^ oaov \rj- 
(TTiKa riva ola Ik Tapa^V^ ToaavTi]<; eirl irXelov 
KaKovpyovvTa Steyevero, oirep irov Kal del coy 
elirelv irapd re Tot? dX\oL<i Kal irap eKetvoi^ 
fjuaXiaTa av/juffalpeL. 



and Silvanus made a campaign against them, eon- a.d. 8 
quered the Breucians, and won over some of the 
others without a battle. Bato, on seeing this, gave 
up all hope of Pannonia, but occupied the passes 
leading to Dalmatia with garrisons and ravaged that 
country. Then at last the remainder of the Pan- 
nonians also came to terms, chiefly for the reason 
that their country was being harried by Silvanus. 
However, certain bands of brigands continued their 
forays for a long time, as was natural after so great a 
disturbance ; indeed, this nearly always happens, not 
only among other peoples, but especially in the case 
of these tribes. 



(All dates are B.C. unless otherwise stated.) 

Achaia, 465 

Acropolis, the, 299 

Actia, festival in honour of Actium, 

Actium, battle of, 3 f., 15, 61, 195 f. 

Addon, 419 

Aegina, 299 

Aemilius, L. (perhaps the same as 
Paulus Aemilius Lepidus), 267 

Aesculapius, 23 

Africa, 17, 29 

Agrippa, M. Vipsanius, honoured 
after Actium, 11, 59, 195 f. ; 
advises Octavian against estab- 
lishing a monarchy, 79-109, 185 ; 
censor, 187 ; public works super- 
vised by, 253, 263 f., 311 f. ; 
indicated as Augustus' successor, 
271-75 ; retirement to Lesbos, 
275 ; restoration to favour, 297 f. 
319, 355 ; military exploits of, 
309 f., 345 f., 355 ; death and 
character of, 357-65 ; funeral 
games in honour of, 399 f. 

Agrippa Postumus, son of preced- 
ing, 409, 451, 475 

Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (cos. 16), 
329, 417 

Alban Mount, the, 275, 297 n., 361 

Albis, the, 381, 417, 469 

Alexander the Great, 45 

Alexander, brother of lambllchus I., 

Alexander, son of Antony and 
Cleopatra, 43, 63 

Alexandria, 17, 29, 47 f., 53 

Alexandrians, the, 27, 45 f. 

Aliso (or Eliso), the, river in 
Germany, 369 «. 

Alma, mountain in Pannonla, 471 


Alps, the, 259, 263, 467 ; Trlden- 
tine, 337 f. ; Maritime, 345 

Amyntas, king of Galatia, 7, 21, 

Antioch, 23 

Antiochus, king of Commagene, 191 

Antistius, C. See Vetus. 

Antoninus, M. Aurelius, 457 

Antoninus, M. Aurelius (Caracalla), 

Antonius, C. (cos, 63), 75 

Antonius, lullus, son of the trium- 
vir, 45, 351, 379, 413 

Antony, Mark, flight of, after 
Actium, 5, 13 f. ; in Egypt, 15, 
29 ; death of, 31 ; character of, 
41 f. ; other references to, 7 f. 
13, 37 f., 45, 51 f., 67, 119, 189, 
199, 265, 279, 299, 305, 351, 459 

Antyllus, son of preceding, 17 f., 

Aper, P. Salvius, 411 

Apis, 47 f, 

Apollo, 5 ; temple of, on Palatine, 
195, 409 

ApoUonia, 471 

Apudius (or Pacuvius) Sex., 247 

Apuleius, Sex. (cos. 29), 55, 59 

Apuleius, Sex. (cos, a.d. 14), 363 

Aqua Virgo, the, 311 

Aquila, freedman of Maecenas, 397 f. 

Aquitania, 221 

Arabia, 269 f., 453 

Arabian Gulf (the Red Sea), 21 

Arabians, the, 21, 303 

Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, 7, 

Archelaus, king of Judaea, 465 and 

Areiiis, a philosopher, 45, 175 



Argonauts, picture of, 263 

Ariminum, 251, 481 

Ariobarzanes, 419 

Armenia, 45, 303, 403, 415, 419 

Armenians, the, 303, 413, 419 

Arruntius, L. (cos. 22), 283 

Arruntius, L. (cos. A.D. 6), 459 

Artabazus, 415, 419 

Artacii, tiie, 77 

Artagira, 419 

Artavasdes, king of Armenia, 17 

Artavasdes, king of Media, 17, 45, 

Artaxes, 45, 303 
Asander, 345 

Asia, 11, 15, 51, 57, 219, 299, 361 
Asians, tiie, 57 

Astures, the, 57, 259 f., 207 f., 293 
Athena, 55, 299 
Athenians, the, 299, 305 
" Athenians," the, party in naval 

battle given in Rome, 409 
Athenodorus, a pliilosopher, 175 
Athens, 305 
Athlula, 271 

Augurium salutis, the, 57 
August, name given to the month 

Sextilis, 395 
Augusta, name given to Paphos, 

Augusta Emerita, 261 
Augusta Praetoria, 259 
Augustalia, the, 307, 369 
Augustus, passim. Significance of 

name, 185 n., 235, 241, 245 

Baetica, 221 

lialbus, D. Laelius (cos. 6), 401 

Balbus, L. Cornelius, 347 

BasiUca of Neptune, the, 263 

Basilica of Paulus, the, 343 f. 

Bastarnae, the, 67-75 

Batavia, 365, 457 

Batavians, the, 365, 457 

Bathyllus, 327 

Bato, a Breucian chief, 469 f., 477, 

Bato, a Dalmatian chief, 469 f., 

477, 481 f. 
Belgica, 221 
Bessi, the, 73, 333, 371 
Bithynia, 59, 221, 299 
Bocchus, 261 
Bogud, 261 
Bosporus, kingdom of, 345 

Breucians, the, 469 f., 481 f. 
Britain, 253, 259, 453 f. 
British ocean, the, 221 
Britons, the, 205, 253, 277 
Brundisiura, 13, 51 
Brutus, 119 

Caepio, Fannius, father and son, 

289 f. 
Caesar, C. Julius, 7, 9, 27, 35 f., 

117, 187, 273, 335, 461 ; shrines 

of, 43, 57 f. ; assassins of, 23. 

See also Julius. 
Caesar, C. Julius (Octavianus), 

passim. After 29 B.C. styled 

Augustus, q.v. 
Caesar, C, grandson of Augustus, 

327, 331, 351 f., 395, 399-405, 

409, 413-23. 
Caesar, L., brother of preceding, 

327, 331, 399-405, 409, 415, 421 f; 
Caesar, as imperial title, 185, 241 
Caesarians, the (imperial freedmeu), 

Caesarion, 17 f., 43 
Calpurnius, C. (aedile 23), 279 
Caraillus, 107 
Camillus, M. Furius (cos. A.D. 8). 

Camillus, M. Furius (Scribonianus), 

Campania, 353 f., 411 
Campaniaus, the, 409 
Campus Agrippae, the, 399 
Campus Martius, the, 67, 197, 253. 

357, 383 
Camunni, the, 331 
Candace, 293 f. 
Cantabri, the, 57, 259 f., 267 f.,293, 

309 f. 
Capitol, the, 291, 301, 349 f., 383. 

Cappadocia, 345 
Capreae, 191 

Carisius, P. (or T.), 261, 293 
Carrinas, C, 61 
Carthage, 191 
Cassius, il9 

Castor and Pollux, temple of, 465 
Cedrus (or Cebrus), river in Moesia, 

Celts, the, 221 

Censorinus, C. Marcius (cos. 8), 391 
Chalcidicum, name given to temple 

of Minerva, 63 



Chatti, the, 367 f., 375, 381 

Chauci, the, 365 

Chersonesu3, the, 359, 371 

Cherusci. the, 367, 381 

Chios, 415 

Cicero, son of the orator, 53 

Cilicia, 21, 221, 303 

Cinna, 107 

Cinna, Cn. Cornelius (Magnus), 427, 

449 f. 
Circensian games, 153, 195, 303, 

351, 395, 407 f., 451, 479 
arcus Flaminius, the, 383, 409 
Circus Maximus, the, 369, 409 
Clris, a cave, 75 
Claudius, the emperor, 455, 465, 

479 ; cf . 383 
Cleopatra, 3 f., 15-43, 49 f., 61 f. 
Cleopatra, daughter of preceding, 

43, 63 
Cluvius, C, 189 
Coele-Syria, 221 
Commagene, 191, 303 
Concord (Concordia), statue of, 373; 

temple of, 399, 405 
Cornelius, See Cinna and Lentulus 
Corsica, 475 
Cos, 23 

Cossus. See Lentulus 
Cotys, 333, 371 
Crassus, M. Licinius, the triumvir, 

Crassus, M. Licinius (cos. 30), 13, 

Crassus, M. Licinius (cos. 14), 343 
Crete, 219 

Crispinus, Q. (pr. 2), 411 
Crispinus, T. Quinctius (cos. 9), 379 
Curia lulia, the, 63 
Curia Octaviae, the, 399 
Curio, 9 
Curtius, 209 
Cydonia, 7 
Cyprus, 221, 291 
Cyrenaica, the, 219 f . 
Cythera, 299 
Cyzicus, 21, 299, 343 

Dacia, 453 f. 

Dacians, the, 65 f., 375, 471 
Dalmatia, 219 f., 333, 371, 469, 483 
Dalmatians, the, 61, 369, 375, 383, 

469-73, 477, 481 f. 
Daphne, town near Antioch, 23 

Dapyx, chief of a tribe of the Getae, 

73 f. 
Dardani, the, 67, 77 
Decii, the, 209 

Deldo, king of the Bastarnae, 71 
Demeter, 11 n., 305 n. 
Dentheleti, 69, 73, 333 
Didius, Q., 21 f. 
Dionysus, 73, 371 
Diribitorium, the, 399 
Domitian, 273, 457 
Domitius, L. See Ahenobarbus 
Dravus, river in Pannonia, 471 
Drusus, M. Livius (Libo) (cos. 15), 

Drusus, Nero Claudius, 307, 331, 

337 f., 365-85, 391, 395, 399, 465 
Dynamis, wife of Asander, 345 
Dyrrachium, 15 

Egypt,ll, 15, 17, 21, 47, 51, 61 f., 
205, 221 f., 255, 269, 293, 417 

Egyptians, the, 19, 27, 35, 43-47, 

Elephantine, 293 

Eliso (or Aliso), the, 369 

Ennius, M'., 477 

Epaphroditus, a freedman, 33, 39 

Ephesus, 57 

Epirus, 219 

Erato, queen of Armenia, 419 

Eretria, 299 

Eridanus, Greek name for the Po, 

Ethiopia, 43 

Etliiopians, the, 293 f. 

Evocati, the, 457 

Fabius, Paulus (Maximus) (cos, 11), 

Fabius, Africanus Quintus (or Q. 

Fabius Maximus Africanus) (cos. 

10), 379 
Ferlae Latinae, the, 279, 297, 325, 

361 n., 385 
Flaccus, C, Norbanus (cos. 24), 265 
Flaminian Way, the, 251 
Flevo, Batavian lake, 365 n. 
Florus, Aquilius, father and son, 9 
Fortuna Redux, altar of, 307 
Forum of Augustus, the, 407 
Forum Romanum, the, 51, 273, 291, 

301 n., 331, 383, 401, 407, 411, 




Frisians, the, 365 f. 
Pulvia, 17, 45 

Furnius, C. (tr. 50), 189, 293 
Furnius, C. (cos. 17), 327 

GaetuUa, 261 

Gaetulians, the, 467 

Galatia, 21, 261 

Galba, the emperor, 11, 457 

Gallia (Gaul), 25, 205, 221, 253, 309, 

333-39, 343, 347, 375; Lugdu- 

nensis, 375 ; Narbonensis, 189, 

221 291 
Gallus, Aelius, 269 
Gallus, C. Asinius (cos. 8), 391 
Gallus, C. Cornelius, 25 f., 47, 255 
Gallus, Lucius, 333 
Gallus, Nonius, 57 
Gauls, the, 61, 253, 335, 365 
Genucla, 75 
Germanicus, title conferred upon 

Drusus and his sons, 383 
Germanicus, son of Drusus, 425, 

465, 473-79 
Germans, the, 57, 61, 65, 221, 309, 

333 f., 365, 375, 393, 417, 425, 

467 f. 
Germany, 471 ; provinces of, 221, 

333, 347, 399 f., 453-57, 469 
Getae, the, 65, 71, 75 f. 
Greece, 11, 15, 59, 67, 97, 219, 299 
Greeks, the, 99, 305, 409, 423 f. 

Haemus, 69, 77 

Helios, name given to Alexander, 

son of Cleopatra, 63 
Hellenes, name given by Augustus 

to foreigners living in Asiatic 

provinces, 57 
Hercules, Pillars of, 209 
Hermes, statues of, 305 
Hermunduri, the, 417 
Herod the Great, 303 
Herod Archelaus. See Archelaua 
Honor, festival of, 327 
Horatius, 209 

lamblichus I., Arab chieftain, 7, 303 
lamblichus II., son of preceding, 

lapydes, the, 61 
Imperator, use of term under the 

empire, 185 f., 237 
India, 305 

lotape, daughter of Artavasdes of 

Media, 45 
Isaurians, the, 467 
Ister, the, 67, 77, 333, 375, 413. 

Istrians, the, 75 

Isthmus of Corinth, the, 15, 465 
Italy, 9 f., 15, 57 f., 115, 123, 133- 

37, 189, 225, 233, 331, 337 f. 

391, 457, 471, 477 
luUus Antonius. See Antonius 
luventus, temple of, 331 

Janus, temple of, 57, 263, 375 

Juba I., 43, 205 

Juba II., 43, 261, 467 

Judaea, 453 

Julia, daughter of Augustus, 43, 

265, 301, 363, 373, 383, 405, 

411 f., 425 
Juhus, the hero {i.e. Divus), 

shrines of, 51, 57, 63 f., 373 
Juno, 63 
Jup'.ter Capitolinus, 63, 291, 349, 

381, 407 n., 409 ; priest of, 343, 

375. J. Feretrius, 301, 391. 

J. Tonans, 291 

Lacedaemonians, the, 263, 299 
Lacus Flevo, the, 365 n. 
Lacus Venetus, the, 339 and n. 
Lampe (or Lappa), town in Crete, 7 
Lampaeans, the, 7 
Lancia, town in Spain, 261 
Largus Valerius, 251 f. 
Legions, list of, 453-57 
Lentulus, Cn. Cornelius (cos. 18), 

Lentulus, Cn. Cornelius (cos. 14), 

Lentulus, Cossus Cornelius (or Cn. 

Cornelius Lentulus Cossus) (cos. 

1), 467 
Lentulus, P. Cornelius (Marcellinus) 

(cos. 18), 313 
Lepidus, M. Aemilius, the triumvir, 

119, 191, 199, 253, 319 f., 355 
Lepidus, M. Aemilius, son of pre- 
ceding, 319 
Lepidus, M. Aemilius (cos. a.d. 6), 

Lepidus, Paulus Aemilius (cens. 

22), 285, 345. See also Aemilius 
Lepidus, Q- Aemilius (cos. 21), 295 



Lesbos, 275 

Libo, M. See Drusua 

Libya. 219 f. 

Licinus, a Gaul, 335 f. 

Ligurians, the, 345 

Limyra, 421 

Livia, 37, 279, 299, 329, 343, 383 f., 
399, "405, 421, 475 ; advises 
Augustus to be conciliatory 
toward his enemies, 429-51 ; 
precinct dedicated to, 399 

Lollius, M. (cos. 21), 295, 333 

Lucretius, See Vispillo 

Ludi Megalenses, 475 

Ludi Romani, 273 

Ludi Saeculares, 329 

Lugdunum, 365 

Lupia, river in Germany, 365-69 

Lycaonia, 261 

Lycia, 421 

Lycomedes, 7 

Macedonia, 5, 67 t, 77, 219, 287, 

333, 371, 473 
Maecenas, 11, 289, 297, 327, 331, 

363, 395-99; advises Octavian 

in favour of a monarchy, 72, 

Maedi, the, 73 
Marcellus, M. Claudius (Aeserninus) 

(cos. 22), 283, 289 
Marcellus, M. Claudius, nephew of 

Augustus, 59, 261, 265 f., 271-75, 

279, 349 ; theatre of, 273, 349 
Marco maunian territory, the, 417 
Marius, 107, 117 
Marius, the younger, 107 
Mars, statue of, 263 ; Mars Ultor, 

temple of, 301, 407 f. 
Mazaei, the,- 477 
Mede^ the. See Artavasdes 
Medeius, 7 
Merula, 375 
Mesopotamia, 457 
Messalla, L. Valerius (Volesus) (cos. 

A.D. 5), 451 
Messalla, M, Valerius (Corvinus) 

(cos. 31), 23, 265 
Messalla, M. Valerius (Barbatus) 

(cos. 12), 355 
Messalla, M. Valerius (Messallinus) 

(cos. 3), 469-73 
Messalla, Potitus Valerius (cos. 29), 


Metellus, 107 

Metellus, Q. Caecilius (Creticus 
(cos. A.D. 7), 473 

Milliarium aureum, the, 301 

Minerva, temple of, 63 

Mithridates the Great, 5 n., 345 

Mithridates II., king of Comma- 
gene, 303 

Moesia, 6.5-69, 73, 77, 205, 453-57, 
471, 477 

Moesians, the, 65, 69 f., 77 

Morini, the, 61 

Mucia, mother of Sex. Pompey, 9 

Mucius, 209 

Murena, Licinius, 289 

Musa, Antonius, 271 f. 

Mysians, the, 7 

Mysteries of the two goddesses, 11, 

Napata, 295 
Neapolis, 341, 409 
Neapolitans, the, 191, 409 
Neptune, name taken by Agrippa 

Postumus, 475 
Nero, Ti. Claudius, 465. See 

Nero, the emperor, 455 
Nerva, A. Licinius (silianus or 

Silanus) (cos. a.d. 7), 379, 473 
Nerva, P. Silius (cos. 20), 299, 331 f. 
Nicaea, city in Bithynia, 57 
Nicomedia, city in Bithynia, 57 
Nicopolis, city near Actium, 5 
Nicopolis, city in Cappadocia, 5 n. 
Nicopolis, city in Egypt, 49 
Norbanus, C. See Flaccus 
Northern ocean (North Sea), the 

Norici, the, 331 f. 
Noricum, 337, 457 
Numidia, 219, 453 

Octavia, sister of Augustus, 43, 373 
Odrysae, the, 73, 287 
Olympian games, the, 153 

Pacuvius (or Apudius) Sex., 247 
Paetus, Articuleius, 317 
Palatine, the, 195, 235, 265, 343 
Palatium, the, 275, 423 
Palestine, 465 
Pamphylia, 261, 371 
Panathenaic festival, the, 359 



Pandateria, 411 
Pantheon, the, 263, 283 
Pannonia, 77, 205, 355, 375, 453-57, 

469, 477 
Pannonians, the, 61, 331 f., 345, 355, 

363 f., 369 f., 383, 469, 477, 481 f. 
Paphians, the, 343 
Paphos, 343 
Paraetonium. 25, 29 
Parians, the, 405 
Parthians, the, 51, 55, 413, 419 
Paulus, basilica of, 343 1. 
Pausilypon, 341 
Pax, statue of, 373 
Peloponnesus, Isthmus of (Isthmus 

of Corinth), 15 
Pelusiura, 27 f. 
Pergamenians, the, 59 
Pergamum, 57 
Persian Gulf, the, 21 n. 
" Persians," the, party in naval 

battle given at Rome, 409 
Petronius, C. (or P.), 293 f. 
Pharnaces, 205, 345 
Philippi, 15, 305 
Philopator, son of Tarcondimotus, 

Phoebe, freedwoman of Julia, 413 
Phoenicia, 221, 453 
Phraates, 51, 205, 275 n., 277 f., 

Phrataces, 415-19 
Pillars of Hercules, the, 209 
Pinnes, Pannonian chief, 481 
Piso, Cn. Calpurnius (cos. 23), 271 
Piso, Cn. Calpurnius (cos. 7), 399 
Piso, L. Calpurnius (cos. 15), 335, 

Planasla, 475 
Plancus, L. Munatius, 285 
Plancus, L. Plautius, brother of 

preceding, 285 
Po, the. 477 f. 
Polemon, 257, 345 
Polla, sister of Agrippa, 399 
Pollio, Vedius, 339-43 
Pompey the Great, 5 n., 107, 117, 

285 429 
Pompey, Sextus, 7, 13 
Pontus, 7, 221, 257, 345 
Potitus, Valerius. See Messalla 
Praetorians, the, 135, 349, 411 
Primus, M., 287 f. 
Proculeius, C, 33, 255 f., 289 
PsylU, the, 41 

490 ' 

Ptolemies, the, bodies of, 47 
Ptolemy, son of Antony and Cleo- 
patra, 43 
Puteoli, 341 

Pylades, a dancer, 327, 411 
Pyrenees, the, 259 
Pythian games, the, 153 

Quintilianus, Sex. Nonius (cos. 

A.D. 8), 477 
Quirinus, P. Sulpicius (cos. 12), 355 
Quirinus, temple of, 329 

Ravenna, 459 

Red Sea, the, 19 f. 

Regulus, 209 

Regulus, Licinius, 317 

Rhaetia, 457 

Rhaetians, the, 337 f. 

Rhascyporis, a Thraclan prince, 

371, 473 
Rhine, the, 61, 65, 207, 221, 333, 

365-69, 381 f., 393, 417, 457 
Rhodes, 403 f., 421 
Rhodope, 65 
Rhoemetalces, king of Thrace, 333, 

371, 471 f. 
Roles, king of a tribe of the 

Getae, 71 f. 
Romans, the, passim 
Rome, 11-15, 47, 57 f., 63, 153 f. 

245, 283, 297, 301, 309 
Romulus, 235 ; hut of, 361 
Rufus, ai. Egnatius, 257 
Rufus, P., 463 f. 

Sabos, king of Arabia Felix, 269 
Sacred Way, the, 331 ' 
Saepta, the, 253, 401, 409 
Salassi, the, 259 
Salonae, 471 

Salus Publica, statue of, 373 
Samos, 299, 305 
Sardinia, 221, 467 
Sarmatians, the, 333, 471 
Saturn, temple of, 30l n. 
Saturninus, C. Sentius (cos. 19), 307 
Saturninus, C. Sentius (cos. A.D. 4), 

Savus, river in Pannonia, 77 
Scapula, Q. Ostorius, 411 
Scarpus, L. Pinarius, 17, 25 




Scaurus, M., half-brother of Sex. 

Pompey, 7 f. 
Scenobardus, 477 
Scipio, P. Cornelius (Africanus), 

Scipio, P. Cornelius (cos. 16), 329 
Scordisci, the, 333, 365 
Scribonius, pretended grandson of 

Mitliridates, 345 
Scythians, the, 77 ; of. 65 f. 
Segetica, 69 
Selene, name given to Cleopatra, 

daughter of Cleopatra, 63 
Sentius, C. See Saturninus 
September, 3, 395 
Serapis, 45 
Serdi, the, 73 
Sertorius, 119 
Servilius, P. (pr. 25), 265 
Sestius, L. (cos. 23), 277 
Severus, A. Caecina, 471, 477 
Saverus, L. Septimius, emperor, 47 
Sextilis, name of, changed to August, 

Sextus. See Apuleius and 

Sialetae, the, 371 
Sibylline verses, the, 325 
Sicily, 9, 189, 295, 299, 309 
Sidon, 301 

Silanus, M. Junius (cos. 25), 259 
Silanus, Licinius. See Nerva 
Silius, P. See Nerva 
Silvanus, L., 295 f. 
Sinope, 345 

Sirmium, town in Pannonia, 469 f. 
Siscia, town in Pannonia, 477 
Sisenna, Cornelius, 355 
Sitas, king of the Dentheleti, 69, 73 
Solon, 329 
Sosius, C, 7 
Spain, 19, 25, 29, 221, 253, 259, 

267 f., 309, 333, 343, 347, 457 
Spaniards, the, 247 
Spolia opima, the, 71 
Statilius, Q. (tr. 29), 187 
Strabo, 107 

Sudatorium Laconicum, the, 263 
Suebi, the, 61, 65 f., 381 
Sugambri, the, 333, 365 f., 375, 393 
Sulla, 61, 107, 117 f. 
Surrentum, 191 
Syracuse, 299 
Syria, 21-25, 49 f., 275, 295, 299, 

331, 355, 415-19. 453, 459 

Tarcondimotus, king of Cilicia, 7, 
21, 303 

Tarcondimotus, son of preceding, 

Tarentum, 63 

Tarraco, 221,261 

Taurus, T. Statilius (cos. 26), 57, 
67, 253, 331 

Taurus, Sex. Pacuvius, 247 n. 

Tencteri, the, 333 

Terentia, wife of Maecenas, 329 

Theatre of Balbus, 347 ; of Mar- 
cellus, 273, 349 

Thrace, 69, 77, 333, 371 

Thracians, the, 65, 73 

Thrasyllus, 421 f. 

Thucydides, 17 n. 

Thyrsus, a freedman, 25 f. 

Tiber, the, 245, 251, 279, 283, 347, 
425, 451 

Tiberius, political honours received 
by, 261, 267, 307, 331, 347, 363 f., 
399, 403 ; military exploits of, 
303 f., 337 f., 369-75, 383, 393 f., 
469-73 ; sent to Rhodes, 403, 
413 f.,; recalled, 425 ; adopted by 
Augustus, 425 ; other references 
to, 191, 353, 459, 465 

Tigranes, 303, 403, 415, 419 

Tiridates, 51, 277 f., 419 

Tiro, 397 n. 

Titans, the, 75 

Toranius (or Thoranius), C. (tr. 25). 

Trajan, 457 

Treveri, the, 57 

Triballi, the, 65 f., 77 

" Troy," game of, 65, 351 

Tubero, Q. Aelius (cos. 11), 367 

TurulUus, P., 23 

Tyre, 301 

Usipetes, the, 333, 365 f. 

Vaccaei, the, 57 
Valerius, M. See Messalla 
Vandalic mountains, the, 381 
Varro, A. Terentius (Murena) (cos. 

23), 259 
Varus, P. Alfenus (cos, A.D. 2), 419 
Varus, P. QuintiUus (cos. 13), 347, 

453 n. 
Vennii (or Vennones), the, 331 



Venus, temple of, 65 ; statue of, 263 Vispillo (or Vespillo), Q. Lucretius 

Vespasian, 457 (cos. 19), 307 

Vesta, temple of, 343 ; statue of, Visurgis, river in Germany, 367 

405 381, 469 

Vestal Virgins, the, 53, 343, 355, Vitellius, Q , 65 

451 f. Volcaean marshes, the, 477 

Vetus, C. Antistius (cos. 6), 401 Vologaesus, a Thracian chief, 371 
Vir^tory, statue of, 63 

Vi?int{sexviri and Vigintiviri, the, Zarmarus, an Indian, 305 f. 

351 f. Zenodorus, tetrarch of Trachonitis, 

Vi licius, M., 263 303 

Vi licius, P. (cos. A.D. 2), 419 Zyraxes, king of a tribe of the 

Virtus, festival of, 327 Getae, 75 f. 

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Latin Authors 

Ammianus Mabcelmnus. Translated by J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 

(2nd Imp. revised.) 
Apuleius : The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses). W. Adling- 

ton (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. (1th Imp.) 
St. Augustine, Confessions of. W. Watts (1631). 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 6/^1 Imp.) 
St. Augustine, Select Letters. J. H. Baxter. (2nd Imp.) 
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Caesar : Civil Wars. A. G. Peskett. (5th Imp.) 
Caesar : Gallic War. H. J. Edwards. (lOth Imp.) 
Cato : De Re Rustica ; Varro : De Re Rustica. H. B. Ash 

and W. D. Hooper. (3rd Imp.) 
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Cicero : Brutus, and Orator. G. L. Hendrickson and H. M. 

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Oratoria. H. Rackham (With De Oratore, Vol. II.) 

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Louis E, Lord. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
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Rege Deiotaro. N. H. Watts. (2nd Imp.) 
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CoMOEDO, Contra Rullum. J. H. Freese. {3rd Imp.) 
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Claudian. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
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LiVY. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 

Schlesinger. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-XIII. (Vol. I. Uh Imp., 

Vols. II., III., v., and IX. 3rd Imp. ; Vols. IV., VI.- VIII., 

X.-XII. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
LuCAN. J. D. DuflE. {3rd Imp.) 
Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse, {1th Imp. revised.) 
Martial. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vol. II. 

Ath Imp. revised.) 
Minor Latin Poets : from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 

Nemesianus, Avianus, and others with " Aetna " and the 

" Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. {3rd Imp.) 
Ovid : The Art op Love and Other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

{3rd Imp.) 
Ovid : Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. {2nd Imp.) 
Ovid : Heboides and Amores. Grant Showerman. {5th Imp.) 
Ovid : Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. lOth 

Imp., Vol. II. ?,th Imp.) 


Ovid : Tbistia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. (3rd Imp.) 

Persius. Cf. Juvenal. 

Petkonius. M. Heseltine; Seneca Apocolocyntosis. 

W. H. D. Rouse. {8th Imp. revised.) 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 5th Imp., Vol. 

III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Pliny : Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by W. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. {6th Imp.) 
Pliny : Natural History. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and VII. 

W. H. S. Jones. (Vols. I.-III. 3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Pbopertius. H. E. Butler. {6th Imp.) 
Pbudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
QuiNTiLiAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. {3rd Imp.) 
Remains op Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 

(Ennius and Caecilius.) Vol. II. (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius, Accius.) Vol. III. (Lucilius and Laws of XII 

Tables.) Vol. IV. {2nd Imp.) (Archaic Inscriptions.) 
Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. (4/^ Imp. revised.) 
ScBiPTOBES HisTOBiAE AuGUSTAE. D. Magie. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp. revised. Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca : Apocolocyntosis. Cf. Petronius. 
Seneca : Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Seneca : Moral Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. (Vol. II. 

3rd Imp., Vols. I. and III. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seneca : Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Sidonius : Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
SiLius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. {Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 

6th Imp. revised.) 
Tacitus : Dialogus. Sir Wm. Peterson. Agricola and 

Germania. Maurice Hutton. {6ih Imp.) 
Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. Jack- 
son. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III. and IV. 

2nd Imp. ) 
Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. {1th Imp.) 
Tertullian : Apologia and De Spectaculis. T. R. Glover. 

MiNucius Felix. G. H. Rendall. (2nd Imp.) 
Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Varro : De Lingua Latina. R. G. Kent. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. 

revised. ) 
Velleius Paterculus and Res Gestae Divi Augusti. F. W. 

Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Uth Imp., Vol. II. 

\4th Imp. revised.) 
Vitruvius : De Architectura. F. Granger. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 

Greek Authors 

AcmiiLES Tatius. S. Gaselee. (2nd Imp.) 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasandeb. The 

Illinois Greek Club. {2nd Imp.) 
Aeschines. C. D. Adams. {2nd Imp.) 
AESCHYiiXTS. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 6th Imp., 

Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
Alciphron, Aeman, Philostbatus Letters. A. R. Benner 

and F. H. Fobes. 
Andocides, Antiphon. Cf. Minor Attic Obatobs. 
Apollodobus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd 

Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
ApoiiLONius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. {5th Imp.) 
The Apostolic Fathebs. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

8ih Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Appian : Roman Histoby. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vols. II. and IV. 3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 


Abistophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 

trans. {5th Imp.) 
Abistotle: Abt or Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. {3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. {3rd Imp.) 
Abistotle : Genebation of Animals. A. L. Peck. {2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. {3rd Imp.) 
Abistotle : Meteobologica. H. D. P. Lee. 
Abistotle : Minob Wobks. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. {2nd Imp.) 
Abistotle : Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. {6th Imp. 

Aristotle : Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp. 

Abistotle : On Sophistical Refutations, On Coming to be and 

Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. Forster and D. J. Furley. 
Abistotle : On the Soul, Pabva Natubalia, On Bbeath. 

W. S. Hett. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
Abistotle : Obganon. Categobies : On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3rd Imp.) 
Abistotle : Pabts op Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion and 

Pbogbession op Animals. E. S. Forster. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Abistotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Comford. 

2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Abistotle : Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe ; 

Demetbius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. {5th Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Politics. H. Rackham. {Uh Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp. revised.) 

Aristotle : Rhetorica Ad Alexandrtjm (with Problems. 

Vol. II.). H. Rackham. 
Arrian : History or Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

(Vols. I., IV.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
St. Basil : Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. W. 

Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3rd 



Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds : and Parthenius. S, Gaselee. {4:th Imp.) 
Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. I.-XVII. AND XX. J. H. Vince. {2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Legationb. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III : Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

Timocrates and Aristogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vince. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes IV- VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-IX. 2nd Imp.) 
Dio Chrysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 

Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
DiODORUS SicuLus. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

(Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertitts. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. ^th Imp., 

Vol. II. Zrdlmp.) 
DiONYSius OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-V. 

2nd Imp.) 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 1th Imp., 

III. and IV. &th Imp.) Verse trans. 
EusEBius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. Uh Imp.) 
Galen : On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock, {^th Imp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I. and 

II. bth Imp., Vol. III. Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 3rd Imp.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
The frREEK Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. ili. Edmonds. {Ith Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (2nd 

Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 

Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vols. I.-III. 4:th Imp., 

Vol. IV. drdlmp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

{7th Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., 

Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {8th Imp.) 
IsAEUS. E. W. Forster. {3rd Imp.) 
Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. {2nd 

St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
JosEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (Vol. V. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV., VI. and VII. 

2nd Imp. ) 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd 

Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. 4th Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., 

Vol. II. revised and enlarged, and III. 3rd Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell : Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. {2nd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. {4th Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurgus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypereides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
NoNNOS : DiONYSiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Papyri. Non -Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

Vol. I. (Poetry). D. L. Pago. {3rd Imp.) 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 
Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX. ; F. H. Colson. (Vols. II.-III. 

V.-IX. 2nd Imp., Vols. I. and IV., 3rd Imp.) 
Philo : two supplementary Vols. {Translation only.) Ralph 

Philostratus : The Life of Appollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4:th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. {2nd Imp.) 


Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (1th Imp. revised.) 

Plato : Chabmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovebs|, 

Theaoes, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd 

Plato : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

HippiAS. H. N. Fowler. (4/^ Imp.) 
Plato : Euthyphbo, Apology, Cbito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler, {llth Imp.) 
Plato : Laches, Protagoras, Mend, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. {5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5/^ Imp., 

Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Plato : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler ; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. {4ith Imp.) 
Plato : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler, {i^th Imp.) 
Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulab. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch : Moralia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt ; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. (Vols. 

I.-VI. and X. 2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 1 1 Vols. 

(Vols. I., II., VI., VIL, and XI. 3rd Imp. Vols. III.-V. and 

VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Procopius : History op the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Of. Manetho. 

QuLNTUs Smybnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. (3rd Imp.) 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 10th Imp. Vol. II. 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I., V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. {Zrd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 

II., III., and IV. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 

Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 

(3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (2nd Imp.) 


Creek Authors 

Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Callimachus : Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Plotinus : A. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 

St. Augustine : City of God. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Provinciis 
Consularibus, Pro Balbo. J. H. Freese and R. Gardner. 
Phaedrus. Ben E. Perry. 







Roman History