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Full text of "Directions for cooking by troops : in camp and hospital"

€<J0KIN<5 BY TROOPS, 

IN' 

CAilfiP Al\l> IIOSPITAI., 

WITH 

TAKING FOOD & WHAT FOOD, 

BY 

i FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. 



J. W. BANDOLPH, Bichmond, Va. 



I-- 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 

GIFT OF 



DR. AND MRS. ELMER BELT 



DIRECTIONS 



FOR 



COOKl'iNG BY TROOPS, 



IN 



CAMP AND HOSPITAL, 



PREPAKED FOR THE ARMY OF VIRGINIA, AND PUBLISHED 
BY ORDER OF THE SURGEON GENERAL: 



WITH ESSAYS ON 



'TAKING FOOD," AND "WHAT FOOD/ 



BY FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. 



J. W. RANDOLPH: 

121 MAIN STREET, RICHMOND, VA, 
1861. 



Ac 

I? 



Directions for Cooking in Camp. 



No. 1. 

COFFEE FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN, ONE PINT EACH. 

Put 12 gallons water into a suitable vessel (or divide 
if necessary), on the fire ; when boiling, add 3 lbs. 
ground coffee . mix well with a spoon ; leave on the fivt 
a few minutes longer; take it off, and pour in ^ a gal- 
lon cold water ; let it stand till the dregs subside, say 
from 5 to 10 minutes : then pour off, and add 6 lbs. 
sugar. If milk is used, put in 12 pints, and diminish 
the water by that amount. 



No. 2. 

FRESH BEEF SOUP FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN. 

Take 75 lbs. beef; cut into pieces of about ^ lb. 
each ; 15 gallons water ; 8 lbs. mixed vegetables ; 10 
^mall tablespoonfuls salt ; 2 small tablespoonfuls gi-ound 
pepper ; some cold bread, ci'ackers, or 3 lbs. rice, to 
thicken ; place on the fire : let it come to aboil ; then 
-immer for 3 hours. Skim off the fat and serve. 



4 DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. 

No. 3. 

soter's stew for owe hundred men. 

Cut 50 lbs. fresh beef in piece.s of about ^ lb. each, 
and with 18 quarts of water put into the boiler; add 10 
tabiespoonfuls of salt, two of pepper, 7 lbs. onions, cut 
in slices, and 20 lbs. potatoes peeled and sliced ; stir 
well, and let it boil for 20 or 30 minutes ; then add 1| 
lbs. flour previously mixed with water; mix well to- 
gether, and with a moderate heat simmer for about two 
hours. Mutton, veal or pork can be stewed in a similar 
n-anner, but will take half an hour less cooking. A 
pound of lice or plain dumplings may be added with 
sreat advanta2:e. 



No. 4. 

suet dumplings. 

Take 10 lbs. flour, 15 teaspoonfuls of salt, 7 of ground 
pepper, 7 lbs. chopped fat pork or suet, 5 pints water ; 
mix v.ell together ; divide into about 150 pieces ; which 
roll in flour, and boil with meat for 20 or 30 minutes. — • 
Jf no fat or suet can be obtained, take the same ingre- 
dients, adding a little more water, and boil about 10 
iTiinute.?. Serve with the meat. 



No. 5. 

TO FRY MEAT. 

pan on the fire for a minute or so: wipe it 
clean ; when t!ie pan is hot, put in either fat or butter 



DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. 5 

(fat from salt meat is preferable) ; then add the meat 
yoLi are going to cook; turn it several times, to have it 
equally done ; season to each pound a small teaspoon- 
ful of salt and a quarter of pepper. A few onions in 
the remaining fat, with the addition of a little flour, a 
quarter pint of water, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, o;- 
a few chopped pickles, will be very relishing. 



No. 6. 



TO COOK SALT BEEF OR PORK. 

Put the meat, cut in pieces of from 3 to 4 lbs., to 
soak the night before ; in the morning wash in fresh 
water, and squeeze well with the hands to extract the 
salt; after which, put in your kettle with a pint of v.a- 
ter to each pound, and boil from 2 to 3 hours. 



No. 7. 

SALT BEEF OR PORK, WITH MASHED BEAXS. FOR 0:\E 
HUNDRED MEN. 

Put in two vessels 37^ lbs. meat each ; divide 24 lb.-:, 
oeans in four pudding cloths, loosely tied ; putting to 
boil at the same time as your meat, in sufficient water : 
let all boil gently for two hours ; take out the meat and 
beans ; put all the meat into one boiler, and remove the 
liquor from the other; into which turn out the beans; 
add to them two teaspoonfuls of pepper, a pound of fat, 
and with the wooden spatular mash the beans, and serve 
with the meat. Six sliced onions fried and added im.- 
proves the dish. 



6 DIRECTIONS FOR COOKINO. 

[Note. — -In cooking all kinds of meat, be careful to 
preserve the grease, which can be easily done by put- 
ting the liquor in which it is boiled, by till it cools ; 
then skim off and place in a clean covered vessel. It 
is an excellent substitute for butter; is useful for cook- 
ing purposes, and will burn in a common lamp or tin 
plate with a piece of old cotton twisted up for a wick.1 



Directions for Cooliing in Hospital. 



No. 1. 

MUTTON STEWED AND SOUP FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN. 

Put in a convenient sized vessel 16 gallons water, 60 
■lbs. meat, 12 lbs. plain mixed vegetables, 9 lbs. pearl 
barley or rice (or 4| lbs. each), 1| lbs. salt, 1^ lbs. 
flour, 1 oz. pepper. Put all the ingiedients, except the 
flour, into the pan ; set it on the fire, and when begin- 
ning to boil, diminish the beat, and simmer gently for 
two hours and a half,-^ take the meat out and keep 
warm ; add to the soup your flour, which you have 
mixed with enough water to form a light batter; stir 
well together with a large spoon ; boil another half 
hour; skim off* the fat, and serve the meat and soup 
separate. The soup should be stirred occar:ionallv 
while making, to prevent burning or sticking. 



No. 2. 

BEEF SOUP. 

Proceed the same as for mutton, only leave the meat 
in till servino;, as it takes longer to cook than mutton. 
The pieces are not to be above 4 or 5 lbs, weight each. 



8 DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. 

No. 3. 

BEEF TEA, SIX PINTS. 

Cut three pounds lean beef into pieces the size of 
walnuts, and break up the bones (if any) ; put it into a 
convenient sized kettle, with ^ lb. mixed vegetables 
(onions, celery, turnips, carrots, or one or two of these, 
if all are not to be obtained), 1 oz. salt, a little pepper, 
2 oz. butter, | pint of water. Set it on a sharp fire for 
15 minutes, stirring occasionally, till it forms a rather 
thick gravy at the bottom, but not brown ; then add 7 
pints of hot water; simmer gently for'an hour. Skim 
off all the fat, strain through a sieve and serve. 



No. 4. 

THICK BEEF TEA. 

Dissolve a teaspoonful of arrow-root in a gill of water, 
and pour it into the beef tea twenty minutes before 
passing through the seive, or add ^ oz. gelatine to the 
above quantity of beef tea, when cooking. 

Mutton and veal will make good tea, by proceeding 
the same as above. 



No. 5. 

ESSENCE OF BEEF. 

Take 1 lb. lean beef, cut fine; put it into a porter 
bottle with a tea cup of water, ^ teaspoonful of salt, a 
little pepper, and 6 grains allspice ; tork loosely, and 
place in a saucepan of cold water ; then with a gentle 
heat let it simmer till sufficient quantity of the essence 
is obtained. Serve either warm or cold. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. y 

No. 6. 
CHICKEN BROTH. 

Put in a stew-pan a fowl, .3 pints water, 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of rice, 1 of salt, a little pepper and a small onion, 
or two ounces of mixed vegetables ; boil the whole gent- 
ly for one hour (if an old fowl, simmer for two hours, 
adding one pint more water.) Skim off the fat and 
serve. 

A light mutton broth may be made in the same way, 
taking 1^ pounds mutton — neck if convenient. 



No. 7. 

PLAIN BOILED RICE. 

Put 2 quarts water in a steW' pan with a teaspoonful 
of salt ; when boiling, add to it | pound rice, well 
washed ; boil for ten minutes; drain off the water and 
slightly grease the pan with butter; put the rice back, 
and let it swell slowly for about twenty minutes, near 
the fire. Each grain will then swell up, and be well 
separated. Flavor with nutmeg or cinnamon, and 
sweeten to taste. 

No. 8. 

SAGO JELLY. 

Put in a pan with 3 pints water, 3 oz. sago, 1^ oz. 
sugar, half a lemon peel, cut very thin, ^ teaspoonful of 
ground cinnamon, or a small stick of the same, and a 
little salt; boil about 15 minutes, stirring constantly, 
then add a little port, sherry or madeira wine, as the 
case will admit. 



10 DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. 



No. 9. 



ARROW-ROOT MILK. 

Put in a pan 4 oz. arrow-root, 3 oz. sugar, the peel of 
half a lemon, ^ teaspoonful of >salt, 2^ pints of milk; 
set it on the fire ; stir gently ; boil for ten minutes, and 
serve. 

If no lemons at hand, a little essence of any kind 
will do. 

When short of milk, use half water — -half an ounce 
of butter is an improvement. 



No. 10. 

ARROW-ROOT WATER. 

Put in a pan 3 oz. arrow-root. 2 oz. white sugar, the 
peel of a lemon, ^ teaspoonful of salt, and 4 pints water; 
mix well, set on the fire, and boil for ten minutes. 
Serve hot or cold. 



No. 11. 

RICE WATER. 

Put 7 pints water to boil ; add 2 oz. rice, washed, 2 
oz. sugar, the peel of two-thirds of a lemon, boil gently 
for three quarters of an hour, or til! reduced to 5 pints. 
Strain and serve — use as a beverage. 



No. i2. 



BARLEY WATER. 



Put in a saucepan 7 pints water, 2 oz. pearl barley ; 
stir now and then w^hen boiling: add 2 oz. white sugar, 



DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING. 11 

the rind of half a lemon, thinly peeled ; boil gently for 
two hours, and serve, either strained or with the barley 
left in. 

No. 13. 

CRIMEAN LEMONADE. 

Put in a basin 2 tablespoon fu Is of white or brown 
sugar, ^ a tablespoonful of lime juice, nnix well together. 
and add one pint of water. 

No. 14. 

CITRIC ACID LEMONADE, 

Dissolve 1 oz. citric acid in one pint of cold water ;^ 
add 1 lb. 9 oz. white sugar, mix well to form a thick 
syrup; then put in 19 pints cold water, slowly mixing 
well. 



No. 15. 

TOAST AND WATER. 

Cut a piece of crusty bread about ^ lb. ; toast gently 
and uniformly to a light yellow color; then place near 
the fire, and when of a good brown chocolate, put in a 
pitcher; pour on it 3 pii.ts boiling water; cover the 
pitcher, and when cold, strain — it is then ready for use. 
Neverleave the toast in, as it causes fermentation in a 
short time. 

A piece of apple, slowly toasted till it gets quite black. 
and added to the above, makes a very refreshing drink. 



ii 



T^KliSra FOOD." 



<i 



TAKING FOOD." • 



Every careful observer of the sick will agree in this, 
that thousands of patients are annually starved in the 
midst of plenty, from want of attention to the ways 
which alone make it possible for them to take food. 
This want of attention is as remarkable in those who 
urge upon the sick to do what is quite impossible to 
them, as in the sick themselves who will not make the 
effort to do what is perfectly possible to them. 

For instance, to the large majority of very weak pa- 
tients it is quite impossible to take any solid food before 
11 A. M,, nor then, if their strength is still further ex- 
hausted hy fasting till that hour. For weak patients 
have generally feverish nights, and, in the morning, dr}' 
mouths ; and, if they could eat with those dry mouths, 
it would be the worse for them. A spoonful of beef-tea, 
of arrowroot and wine, of egg flip, every hour, will give 
them the requisite nourishment, and pievent them from 
being too much exhausted to take at a later hour the 
solid food, which is necessary for their recovery. And 
every patient who can swallow at all can swallow these 
liquid things, if he chooses. But how often do we hear 
a mutton-chop, an egg, a bit of bacon, ordered to a pa- 
tient for breakfast, to whom (as a moment's considera- 
tion would show us) it must be quite impossible to mas- 
ticate such things at that hour. 



16 TAKING FOOD. 

Again, a nurse is ordered to give a patient a tea-cup 
full of some article of food every three hours. The pa- 
tient's storricich rejects it. If so, try a table-spoonfull 
every hour; if this will not do, a tea-spoonfull every 
quarter of an hour. 

I am bound to say, that I think more patients are lost 
by want of care and ingenuity in these momentous mi- 
nutiae in private nursing than in public hospitals. And 
I think there is more of the entente cordiah to assist one 
another's hands between the Doctor and his head Nurse 
in the latter institutions, than between the doctor and 
the patient's friends in the private house. 

If we did but know the consequences which may en- 
sue, in very weak patients, from ten minutes' fasting or 
repletion (I call it repletion when they are obliged to let 
too small an interval elapse between taking food and 
some other exertion, owing to the nurse's unpunctuality), 
we should be more careful never to let this occur. In 
very \\e2tk patients there is often a nervous difficulty of 
swallowing, which is so much increased by any other 
call upon their strength that, unless they have their food 
punctually at the minute, which minute again must be 
arranged so as to fall in with no other minute's occupa- 
tion, they can take nothing till the next respite occurs — 
so that an unpunctuality or delay of ten minutes may 
very well turn out to be one of two or three hours. And 
why is it not as easy to be punctual to a minute ? Life 
often literally hangs upon the^e minutes. 

In acute cases, where life or death is to be determined 
in a few^ hours, these matters are very generally at- 
tended to, especiall3Mn Hospitals; and the number of 
cases is large where the patient is, as it were, brought 
back to life by exceeding care on the part of the Doctor 



TAKING FOOD. 17 

or Nurse, or both, in ordering and giving nourishment 
with minute selection and punctuality. 

But in chronic cases, lasting over months and years, 
where the fatal issue is often determined at last by mere 
protracted starvation, I had rather not enumerate the 
instances which I have known where a little ingenuity, 
and a great deal of perseverance, might, in all probabil- 
ity, have averted the result. The consulting the hours 
when the patient can take food, the observation of the 
times, often varying, w'hen he is most faint, the alter- 
ing seasons of taking food, in order to anticipate and 
prevent such times — all this, which requires observation, 
ingenuity, and perseverance (and these really constitute 
the good Nurse), might save more lives than we wot of.* 

To leave the patient's untasted food by his side, Irom 
meal to meal, in hopes that he will eat it in the interval, 
is simply to prevent him from taking any food at all. I 
have known patients literally incapacitated from taking 
one article of food after another, by this piece of igno- 
rance. Let the food come at the right time, and be taken 
awa}^ eaten or uneaten, at the right time; but never 
let a patient have " something always standing" by him, 
if you dont wish to disgust him of everything. 

On the other hand, I have known a patient's life 
saved (he was sinking for want of food) by the-simple 
question, put to him by the doctor, " But is there no 
hour when you feel yoti could eat?" " Oh, yes," he said, 
"I could always take something at — o'clock and — 
o'clock." The thing was tried and succeeded. Patients 
very seldom, however, can tell this; it is for you to 
watch and find it out. 

-• A patient should never be asked if he will have any particular 
article of food; let it be prepared, and broug-ht to him, without 
any questioning on the part of the nurse. 



18 TAKING FOOD. 

A patient should, if possible, not see or smell either 
fhe food of others, or a greater amount of food than he 
himself can consume at one time, or even hear food 
talked about or see it in the raw state. I know of no 
exception to the above rule. The breaking of it always 
induces a greater or less incapacity of taking food. 

In hospital wards it is of course impossible to observe 
all this ; and in single wards, where a patient ,must be 
continuousl}' and closely watched, it is frequently im- 
possible to relieve the attendant, so that his or her own 
meals can be taken out of the ward. But it is not the 
less true that, in such cases, even where the patient is 
not himself aware of it, his possibility of taking food is 
limited by seeing the attendant eating meals under his 
observation. In some cases the sick are aware of it, and 
complain. A case where the patient was supposed to 
be insensible, but complained as soon as able to speak, 
is now present to my recollection. 

'Remember, however, that the extreme punctuality in 
well-ordered hospitals, the rule that nothing shall be 
done in the ward while the patients are having their 
meals, go far to counterbalance what unavoidable evil 
cliere is in having patients together. I have often seen 
the private nurse go on dusting or fidgeting about in a 
sick room all the while the patient is eating or trying to 
eat. 

That the more alone an invalid can be when taking 
food, the better, is unquestionable ; and, even if he inust 
be fed, the nurse should not allow him to talk, or talk to 
him, especially about food, while eating. 

When a person is compelled, by the pressure of occu- 
pation, to continue his business while sick, it ought to be 
a rule without any exception whatever, that no one 
shall bring business to him. or talk to him while he is 



TAKING FOOD. 19 

faking food, nor go on talking to him on interesting sub- 
jects up to the last moment before his meals, nor make 
an engagement with him immediately after, so that there 
be an}' hurry of mind while taking thern. 

Upon the observance of these rules, especially the 
first, often depends the patient's capability of taking 
food at all, or, if he is amiable and forces himself to 
take food, of deriving any nourishment from it. 

A nurse should never put before a patient milk that 
is sour ; meat or soup that is turned, an egg that is bad. 
or vegetables undone. Yet often I have seen these 
things brought in to the sick in a state perfectly percep- 
tible to every nose or eye except the nurse's. It is here 
that the clever nurse appears ; she will not bring in the 
peccant article, but, not to disappoint the patient, she 
will whip up something else in a few minutes. Remem- 
ber that sick cookery should half, do the work of your 
poor patient's weak digestion. But if you further im- 
pair it with your bad articles, I know not what is to be- 
come of him or of it. 

If the nurse is an intelligent being, and not a mere 
carrier of diets to and from the patient, let her exercise 
her intelligence in these things. How often we have 
known a patient eat nothing at all in ihe day, because 
one meal was left untasted (at that time he was incapa- 
ble of eating), at another the milk was sour, the third 
was spoiled by some other accident. And it never oc- 
curred to the nurse to extemporize some expedient, — 
it never occurred to her that as he had had no solid 
food that day he might eat a bit of toast (say) with his 
tea in the evening, or he might have some meal an hour 
earlier. A patient who cannot to'.ich his dinner at two, 
will often accept it gladly, if brought to him at seven. 
But some how nurses never " think of these thinsrs." 



20 TAKING FOOD. 

One would imagine they did not consider themselves 
bound to exercise their judgment; they leave it to the 
patient. Now I am quite sure that it is better for a pa- 
tient rather to suffer these neglects than to try to teach 
his nurse to nurse him, if she does not know how. 
It ruffies him, and if he is ill he is in no condition to 
teach, especially upon himself. The above remarks ap- 
ply much more to private nursing than to hospitals. 

I would say to the nurse, have a rule of thought 
about your patient's diet ; consider, remember how 
much he has had, and how much he ought to have to- 
day. Generally, the only rule of the private patient's diet 
is what the nurse has to ^ive. It is true she cannot o-ive 
him what she has not got; but his stomach does not 
wait for her convenience, or even her necessity.* If it is 
used to having its stimulus at one hour to-day, and to- 
morrow it does not have it, because she has failed in get- 
ting it, he will suffer. She must be always exercising 
her ingenuity to supply defects, and to remedy accidents 
which will happen among the best contrivers, but from 
which the patient does not suffer the less, because "they 
cannot be helped." 

One very minute caution, — take care not to spill into 
your patient's saucer, in other words, take care that the 
outside bottom rim of his cup shall be quite dry and clean ; 

*Why, because the nurse has not got some food'to-day %vhicl. 
the patient takes, can the patient %vait four hours for food to-day, 
^vho could not wait two hours yesterday ? Yet this is the only 
logic one generally hears. On the other hand, the other logic, 
viz ; of the nurse giving the patient a thing because she has got it, 
is equally fatal. If she happens to have a fresh jelly, or fresh fruit, 
she will frequently give it to the patient half an hour after his 
dinner, or at his dinner, when he cannot possibly eat that and the 
broth too — or, worse still, leave it by his bed-side till he is so sick- 
ened with the sight of it, that he cannot eat it at alL 



TAKING FOOD. 21 

if, every time he lifts his cup to his lips, he has to carry 
the saucer with it, or else to drop the liquid upon, and to 
soil his sheet, or his bed-gown, or pillow, or if he is sit- 
ing up, his dress, you have no idea what a difference 
this minute want of care on your part makes to his com- 
fort and even to his willingness for food. 



"^WH^T FOOD." 



2S 



''WHAT FOOD.'' 



i will mention one or two of the most common errors 
among women in charge of sick respecting sick diet. — ^ 
One is the belief that beef tea is the most nutritive of all 
articles. Now, just try and boil down a lb. of beef 
into beef tea, evaporate your beef tea and see what is 
left of your beef. You will find that there is barely a 
teaspoonful of solid nourishment to half a pint of water 
in beef tea ; nevertheless there is a certain reparative 
quality in it, we do not know what, as there is in tea; — 
but it may safely be given in almpst any inflammatory dis- 
ease, and is as little to be depended upon with the healthy 
or convalescent where much nouri?-hment is required. 
Again, it is an ever ready saw that an egg is equivalent 
to a lb. of meat, -^whereas it is not at all so. Also, it is 
seldom noticed with how many patients, particularly of 
nervous or bilious temperament, eggs disagree. All 
puddings made with eggs, are distasteful to them in con^ 
sequence. An egg, whipped up with wine, is often the 
only form in which they can take this kind of nourish- 
ment. Again, if the patient has attained to eating 
nrieat, it is supposed that to give him meat is the only 
thing needful for his recovery ; whereas scorbutic sores 
have been actually known to appear among sick persons 
living in the mid.^t of plenty in England, which could 
be traced to no other source than this; viz. : that the 
nurse, depending on meat alone, had allowed the patient 



26 WHAT FOOD? 

to be without vegetables for a considerable time, these 
latter being 80 badly cooked that he always left them 
untouched. Arrow-root is another grand dependence of 
the nurse. As a vehicle for wine, and as a restorative 
quickly prepared, it is all very well But it 'is nothing 
but starch and water. Flour is both more nutritive, and 
less liable to ferment, and is preferable wherever it can 
be used. 

Again, milk, and the preparations from milk, are a 
most important article of food for the vsick. Butter is 
the lightest kind of animal fat, and though it wants the 
sugar and some of the other elements which there are in 
milk, yet it is most valuable both in itself and in ena- 
bling the patient to eat more bread. Flour, oats, groats,* 
barley, and their kind, are, as we have already said; pre- 
ferable in all their preparations to all the preparations of 
arrowroot, sago, tapioca, and their kind. Cream, in many 
long chronic diseases, i> quite irreplaceable by any other 
article whatevtT. It seems to act in the same manner as 
beef tea. and to most it is much easier of digestion than 
milk. In fact, it seldom disagrees. Cheese is not usu- 
ally digestible by the sick, but it is pure nourishment 
for repairing waste ; and I have seen sick, and not a fevjr 
either, whose craving for cheese showed how much it 
was needed by them.f 

■••'■ " Groats," or grits, a coarse gronnd corn meal, or very small 
hominy, fanned and sifted. Tliis can be prepared at any country 
corn mill, is a cheap and valuable article of diet for the sick. It can 
be boiled or baked. In the latter form, a sauce made with a little 
sugar, butter and lemon juice, or vinegar, renders it very palata 
ble. When boiled it is usually eaten with a little butter and salt, 

tin the diseases produced by bad food, such as scorbutic 
dysentery and diarrhoea, the patient's stomach often craves for 
and digests things, some of which certainly would be laid down 



WHAT FOOD ? '.2t 

But, if fre^h milk is so valuable a food for the sick, 
the least ch mge or sourness in it, makes it of all arti- 
cles, perhaps, the most injurious ; diarrhcea is a commoQ 
result of fresh milk allowed to become at all sour. The 
nurse therefore ought to exercise her utmost care in this. 
In large institutions for the sick, even the poorest, the 
utmost care is exercised. Wenham Lake ice is used for 
this express purpose every summer, while the private 
patient, perhaps, never tastes a drop of iTiilk that is not 
sour, all through the hot weather, so little does the pri- 
vate nurse understand the necessity of such care. Yet, 
if you consider that the only drop of real nourishment in 
your patient's tea is the drop of milk, and how much 
almost all En^^lish patients depend upon their tea, you 
will see the great importance of not depriving your pa- 
tient of this drop of milk. Buttermilk, a totally differ- 
ent thing, is often very useful, especially in fevers. 

In laying down rules of diet, by the amounts of 
" solid nutriment " in different kinds of food, it is con- 
stantly lost sight of what the patient requires to repair 
his waste, what he can take and what he can't. You 
cannot diet a patient from a book, you cannot make up 
the human body as you would make up a prescription, — 
so many parts "carboniferous," so many parts " nitro- 
geneous" will constitute a perfect diet for the patient. 
The nurse's observation hei-e will materially assist the 

in no dietary that ever was invented for sick, and especially not 
for such sick These are fruit, pickles, jams, gingerbread, fat of 
ham or bacon, suei, cheese, butter, milk. These cases I have seen 
not by ones, nor by tens, but by hundreds. And the patient's 
stomach was right and the book was wrong. The articles craved 
for, in these cases, might have been principally*arranged under 
the two heads of fiit and vegetable acids. 

There is often a marked difference between im?n and women in 
this matter ot sick feeling. Women's digestion is genei'aUy slower. 



28 WHAT FOOD? 

Doctor — the patient's "fancies " will nnaterially assist the 
nurse. For instance, sugar is one of the nnost nutritive 
of all articles, being pure carbon, and is particularly re- 
commended in some books. But the vast majority of 
all patients in England, young and old, male and female, 
rich and poor, hospital and private, dislike sweet things, 
— and wMiile I have never known a person take to 
sweets when he was ill who disliked them when he was 
well, I have known many fond of them when in health 
who in sickness would leave off anything sweet, even 
to sugar in tea, — sweet puddings, sweet drinks, are 
their aversion ; the furred tongue almost always likes 
what is sharp or pungent. Scorbutic patients are an ex- 
ception. They often crave for sweetmeats and jams. 

Jelly is another article of diet in great favor with 
nurses and friends of the sick ; even if it could be eaten 
solid, it would not nourish; but it is simpl}^ the heightof 
folly to take ^ oz. of gelatine and make it into a certain 
bulk by dissolving it in water and then to give it to the 
sick, as if the mere bulk represented nourishment. It is 
now known that jelly does not nourish, that it has a ten- 
dency to produce diarrhoea,— and to trust to it to repair 
the waste of a diseased constitution is simply to starve 
the sick under the guise of feeding them. If 100 spoon- 
fuls of jelly were given in the course of the day, you 
would have given one spoonful of gelatine, which spoon- 
ful has no nutritive power whatever. 

And, nevertheless, gelatine contains a large quantity 
of nitrogen, which is one of the most powerful elements 
in nutrition ; on the other hand, beef tea may be chosen 
as an illustration of great nutrient power in sickness, co- 
existing with'a very small amount of solid nitrogenous 
matter. 

Dr. Christison says that •' every one will be struck 



WHAT POOD? 29 

with the readiness with which" certain classes of " pa- 
tients will often take diluted meat juice or beef tea re- 
peatedly, when they refuse all other kinds of food." 
This is particularly remarkable in " cases of gastric fever 
in which," he says, "little or nothing else besides beef 
tea or diluted meat juice" has been taken for weeks or 
even months, " and yet a pint of beef tea contains 
scarcely ^ oz. of anything but water," — the result is so 
striking that he asks what is its mode of action ? " Not 
simply nutrient — ^ oz. of the most nutritive material 
cannot nearly replace the daily wear and tear of the tis- 
sues in any circumstances. Possibly,'' he says, " it be- 
longs to a new denomination of remedies."* 

It has been observed that a small quantity of beef tea 
added to other articles of nutrition augments their power 
out of all proportion to the additional amount of solid 
matter. 

The reason why jellyt should be innutritious and leef 
too nutritious to the sick, is a secret yet undiscovered, 
but it clearly shows that careful observation of the sick 
is the only clue to the best dietary. 

Chemistry has as yet afforded little insight into the 
dieting of sick. All that chemistry can tell us is the 

* Chicken broth, with the fat well skimme.d off, is, to most pa- 
tients, more palatable than beef tea. 

t Another most excellent dietetic article is biscuit jelly, made 
according to the following formula : 

Biscuit Jelly. — Biscuit^ crushed, 4 oz. — cold water, 2 quarts; 
soak for some hours ; boil to one ha!f ; strain ; evaporate to one 
pint ; then flavor with sugar, red wine and cinnamon. 

Parched Corn, powdered and sweetened to suit the taste, is re- 
commended as a pleasant and nutritious diet for invalids. 

In a Southern convalescent, one of the most desirable things 
that can be given them is thin corn meal,-ground, well boiled, 
seasoned with salt, and presented while hot. 



30 WHAT FOOD ? 

amount of " carboniferous" or " nitrogenous " elements 
discoverable in different dietetic articles. It has given 
us li?ts of dietetic substances, arranged in the order of 
their richness in one or other of these principles ; but 
that is all. In the great majority of cases, the stomach 
of the patient is guided by other principles of selection 
than merely the amount of carbon or nitrogen in the diet. 
No doubt, in this as in other things, nature has very 
definite rules for her guidance, but these rules can only 
be ascertained by the most careful observation at the 
b?d-side. She there teaches us that living chemistry, 
the chemistry of reparation, is something different from 
the chemistry of the laboratory. Organic chemistry is 
useful, as all knowledge is, when we cotne face to face 
with nature; but it by no meaiis follows that we should 
learn in the laboratory any one of the reparative pro- 
cesses going on in disease. 

Again, the nutritive power of milk and of the prepa- 
rations fiom milk, is veiy much undervalued ; there is 
nearly as much nourishment in half a pint of milk as 
there is in a quarter of a lb. of meat. But this is not the 
whole question or nearly the whole. The main question 
is what the patient's stomach can assimilate or derive 
nourishment from, and of this the patient's stomach is 
the sole judge. Chemistry cannot tell this. The patients 
stomach must be its own chemist. The diet which will 
keep the healthy man healthy, will kill the sick one. The 
same beef which is the most nutritive of all meat and 
which nourishes the healthy man, is the least nourishing 
of all food to the sick man, whose half-dead stomach can 
assimilaie no part of it, that is, make no food out of it. 
On a diet of beef tea healthy men on the other hand 
speedily lose their strength. 

I have known patients live for many months without 



WHAT FOOD ? 31 

touching bread, because they could not eat bakers' 
bread. Theee were mostly country patients, but not 
all. Homemade bread or brown bread is a most im- 
portant article of diet for many patients. The use of 
apeiients may be entirely superseded by it. Oat cake 
is another. 

To watch for the opinions, then, which the patient's 
stomach gives, rather than to read "analyses of foods," 
is the business of all those who have to settle what 
the patient is to eat — perhaps the most important 
thing to be provided for him after the air he is to 
breathe. 

Now the medical man who sees the patient only 
once a day, or even only once or twice a week, cantiot 
possibly tell this without the assistance of the patient 
himself, or of those who are in con>tant observation on 
the patient. The utmost the medical man can tell is 
whether the patient is weaker or stronger at this visit 
than he was at the last visit. [ should, therefore, say 
that incomparably the most important office of the nurse 
after she has taken care of the patient's air, is to take 
care to observe the effect of his food, and report it to 
the medical attendant. 

It is quite incalculable the good that would certainly 
come fiom such sound and close observation in this 
almost neglected branch of nursing, or the help it 
W'ould give to the medical man. 

A great deal too much against tea* is said b}' wise 



* It is made a frequfcnt recommendation to persons about to 
incur great exhaustion, either from the nature of the service, or 
from their being not in a state fit for it, to eat a fjiece of Inead 
before they go. 1 wish the recommenders would themseFves try 
the experiment of substituting a piece of bread for a cup of tea 
or coffee, or beef tea, as a refresher. They would find it a very 



32 WHAT FOOD? 

people, and a great deal too much of tea is given to 
the sick by foolish people. When you see the natural 
and almost universal craving in English sick for their 
"tea," you cannot but feel that nature knows what she 
is about. But a little tea or coffee restores them quite 
as much as a gieat deal, and a great deal of tea, and 
especially of coffee, impairs the little power of diges- 
tion they have. Yet a nurse, because she sees how 
one or two cups of tea or coffee restores her patient, 
thinks that three or four cups will do twice as much. 
This is not the case at all; it is, however, certain 
that there is nothing yet discovered which is a substi- 
tute to the English patient for his cup of tea ; he can 
take it when he can take nothing else, and he often 
can't take anything else if he has it not. I should be 
very glad if any of the abusers of tea would point out 
what to give to an English patient after a sleepless 

poor comfort. Wheti soldiers have to set out fasting on fatiguing 
duty, when nurses have to go tasting in to their patients, it is a 
hot rest-orative they want, and ought to have, before they go, not 
a cold bit of bread. And dreadful have been the consequences 
of neglecting this. If they can take a bit of bread tvith the hot 
cup of tea, so much the better, but not inslead of it. The fact that 
their is more nourishment in bread than in almost anything -elSe 
has probably induced th« mistake. That it is a fatal mistake 
there is no doubt. It seems, though very little is known on the 
subject, that what ''assimilates" itself directly, and with the least 
trouble of digestion with the human body, is the best for the above 
circumstances. Bread requires two or three processes of assimila- 
tion, before it becomes like the human body. 

The almost universal testimony of English men and women who 
liave undergone great fatigue, such as riding long journeys without 
stopping or sitting up for several nights in succession, is that they 
could do it best upon an occasional cup of tea — and nothing 
else. 

Let experience, not theory, decide upon this as upon all other 
things. 



WHAT FOOD? 33 

night, instead of tea. If you give it at 5 or 6 o'clock 
in the morning, he may even sometimes fall asleep af- 
ter it, and get perhaps his only two or three hours' 
sleep during the twenty-four. At the same time you 
never should give tea or coffee to the siok, as a rule, 
after 5 o'clock in the afternoon. Sleeplessness in the 
early night is from excitement generally, and is in- 
creased by tea or coffee ; sleeplessness which contin- 
ues to the early morning is fiom exhaustion often, and 
is relieved by tea. The only English patients I have 
ever known refuse tea, have been typhus cases, and 
the first sigii of their getting better was their cra- 
ving ao:ain for tea. In general, the dry and dirty 
tongue always prefers tea to coffee, and will quite 
decline milk, unless with tea. Coffee is a better re- 
storative than tea, but a greater impairer of the diges- 
tion. Let the patient's taste decide. You will say 
that, in cases of great thirst, the patient's craving de- 
cides that it will drink a great deal of tea, and that 
you cannot help it. But in these cases be sure that 
the patient require? diluents for quite other purposes 
than quenching the thirst ; he wants a great deal of some 
drink, not only of tea, and tiie doctor will order what 
he is to have, barley water or lemonade, or soda water 
and milk, as the case may be. 

Le;iman, quoted by Dr. Christison, says that, among 
the well and active, "the infusion of 1 oz. of roasted 
coffee daily will diminish the waste going on in the 
body by one-fourth," -and Dr. Christison adds that tea 
has the same property. Now this is actual experi- 
ment. Lehmaa weighs the man and finds the fact 
fiom his weight. It is not deduced from any "analy- 



34 WHAT FOOD? 

sis" of food. All experience among the sick shows the 
same thing.* 

Cocoa is often reconimended to the sick in lieu of 
tea or coffee. But independently of the fact that Eng- 
lish sick very generally dislike cocoa, it has quite a 
different effect from tea or coffee. It is an oily starchy 
nut, having no restoritive at all, but simply increasing 
fat. It is pure mockery of the sick, therefore, to call 
it a substitute for tea. For any renovating stimulus it 
has, you might just as well offer them chestnuts instead 
of tea. 

An almost universal error among nurses is in the bulk 
of the food, and especially the drinks they offer totheir 
patients. Suppose a patient ordered 4 oz. . brandy du- 
ring the day, how is he to take this if you make it into 
four pints with diluting it? The same with tea and 
beef tea, with arrowroot, milk, &c. You have not in- 

* 111 making coffee, it is absolulel y iiecessary to buy it in the 
berry and grind it at home. Otherwise you may reckon upon its 
containing a certain amount of chicory, at least. This is not a 
question of the taste, or of the wholesoraeness of chicory. It is 
that chicory has nothing at all of the properiies for which you 
give coffee. And therefore you may as well not give it. 

Again, all laundresses, mistresses of dairy-farms, head nurses, 
(I speak of the good old sort only — women who unite a good deal 
of hard man-ual labor with the head-work necessary for arrang- 
ing the day's business, so that none of it shall tread upon the 
heels of something else,) set great value, I have observed, upon 
liaving a high-priced tea. This is called extravagant. But these 
women are '^extravagant" in nothing else. And they ate right 
in this. Real tea-leaf tea alone contains'the restorative they want ; 
which is not to be found in sloe-leaf tea. 

The mistresses of houses, who cannot even go over their own 
house once a day, are incapable of judging for these women. For 
they are incapable themselves, to all appearance, of the spirit of 
arrangement (no small task) necessary for managing a large waro 
or dairv. 



WHAT FOOD? 35 

creased the nourishment, you have not increased the 
renovating power of these articles, by increasina: their 
bulk', you have very likely diminished both by giving 
the patient's digestion more to do, and most likely of 
all, the patient will leave half of what he has been or- 
dered to take, because he cannot swallow the bulk with 
which you have been pleased to invest it. It requires 
very nice observation and care (and meets with hardly 
any) to determine what will not be too thick or strong 
for the patient to take, while giving him no more than 
^he bulk which he is able to swallow,- 



SCIENCE OF WAR! 
TA.CTICS 

FOR 

OFFICERS 

OF 

INFANTRY, CAVALRY AND ARTILLERY. 

ARRANGED AND COMPILED BY 

I. V. BTJCKHOLTZ. 

Oue Volume, 12mo, Price 75 cts. by mail, post paid. 

ARMORY, RICf^MOND, VA., Jan'y 8, 1861. 

J. W. Bandolph — Dear Sir: — I have only had time to look 
over the Military work of Capt. Jjuckholiz, hecsiuse of my pressing 
duties, yet I am satisfied that, if printed, much valuable informa* 
tion to our citizen soldiery will be furnished. 

The popular works upon military matters, now before the pub- 
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of Artillery, Cavalry, Infantry and Rifle, as taught in their respec- 
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should be selected for battle and encampment — what precautions to 
be taken when advancing or retreating-^when to act in column-^ 
when in line, how to post the different arms to act most favorabl}^ 
— information most essential to success, and without which, no 
matter how personally brave troops may be, they are exposed to 
almost certain disaster in prc^sence of an equal number of well 
drilled and well manoeuvered troops, and this information Capt. 
Buckholtz furnishes in his work. 

I have no hesitation in recommending it. 
Very respectfully yours, 

CHARLES DIMMOCK, Capt., ^'c, cj'c. 

Published and for sale by 

J. W. RANDOLPH, Richmond, Va. 

Also for sale by Booksellers generally. 



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ESTABLISHSD 1833. 

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OflTers on the best terms for cash or approved credit, the largest assort 
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Catalogues will be mail-^d to all who send a stamp to pay the postage. 

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Taken in Exchange for New "Works. 

J. W. RANDOLPH, 

121 MAIN STREET, Richmond, Va. 



NEW MILITARY WORK 



INFANTRY CAMP DUTY, FIELD FORTIFICATION, AND 
COAST DEFENSE. 

Prepared and arranged by Capt. L. v. Buckholtz, with plates, 16mo, 
muslin. Price 50 cts. by mail, post paid. 



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J. W. RANDOLPH, Richmond, Ta. 
Also for sale by Booksellers generally. 



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' Published and for sale by 

J. W. RANDOLPH, Richmond, Va. 
Also for sale by Booksellers generally.