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Full text of "A directory of crocodilian farming operations"

A Directory of 
Crocodilian Farming 
Operations 








^13) 



A Directory of Crocodilian Farming Operations 



A Directory of Crocodilian Farming Operations 



Repertoire des elevages de crocodi liens 



Una gufa de criaderos de cocodrilos 



R.A. Luxmoore, J.G. Barzdo, S.R. Broad and D.A. Jones 

Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit 
lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 
219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, UK. 



1985 

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 

Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 



A joint publication of the International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources (lUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
U.K. and the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Lausanne, Switzerland. 
1985. 



The publishers acknowledge the financial support of the International 
Fur Trade Federation in the preparation of this report. 



(g) International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources 1985 

ISBN 2-88032-809-8 

Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Cambridge. 



Cover photo :WWF/Gerald Cubitt. Mugger Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris 
at breeding station in Sasan Gir, Gujarat, India. 

Cover design by James Butler 

The presentation of material in this document and the geographical 
designations employed do not imply the expression of any opinion 
whatsoever on the part of lUCN or CITES concerning the legal status of 
any country, territory, or area, or concerning the delimitation of its 
frontiers or boundaries. 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 

Introduction Francais 

Introduccion Espagnol 

Tables 

CITES Resolutions 

Australia Northern Territory 

Australia Queensland 

Bangladesh 

Bolivia 

Botswana 

Brazil 

Brunei 

Burma 

Cameroon 

Chad 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Ethiopia 

France 

Greece 

India 

Indonesia 

Indonesia 

Indonesia 

Indonesia 

Indonesia 

Israel 

Italy 

Ivory Coast 

Jamaica 

Japan 

Kenya 

Madagascar 

Malaysia 

Mali 

Mauritius 

Mexico 

Mozambique 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Papua New Guinea 

PNG Commercial ranches 

Philippines 

Rwanda 

Senegal 

Singapore 

South Africa Cape Province 

South Africa Natal 

South Africa Transvaal 



General Information 

Irian Jaya 

Java 

Sumatra 

Kalimantan & Mentawai 



1 
11 
23 

35 

41 

51 

55 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

71 

72 

73 

75 

76 

77 

78 

81 

84 

91 

93 

94 

95 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

103 

106 

109 

110 

111 

115 

116 

118 

119 

122 

129 

131 

132 

133 

136 

111 

142 



Spain 146 

Sri Lanka 147 

Suriname 148 

Taiwan 149 

Tanzania 151 

Thailand 152 

Togo 157 

Uganda 158 

United States General 159 

United States Louisiana 162 

United States Florida 170 

Uruguay 182 

Venezuela 183 

Western Samoa 184 

Zambia 185 

Zimbabwe General 187 

Zimbabwe The Operations 191 

References 197 



INTRODUCTION 

Crocodilians have long been exploited conunercially for their 
skins which attract a high price. Until relatively recently the demand 
for skins was met exclusively from the hunting of wild populations, 
but in the last few years a great expansion has taken place in the 
farming of crocodilians. The earliest so-called "farms" were 
undoubtedly for the purpose of public display, more in the nature of 
zoos, and many today still fulfil this role. However farming for the 
commercial production of skins is increasingly being practised. Some 
farms also sell crocodile meat and, as in Taiwan, this may 
occasionally provide the major source of income. 

The reasons for the rise in popularity of the farming of 
crocodilians are difficult to assess, but they undoubtedly include the 
reduction in the supply of wild skins. In part this has been due to a 
decline in wild populations through over-hunting, persecution and 
habitat destruction, but legal controls may have been more important. 
Chief amongst these is the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The majority of 
crocodilians are in Appendix I of CITES (see Table 1) which means that 
nearly all commercial trade between party nations is prohibited unless 
the specimens derive from captive-bred populations. Since the 
Convention came into force, in 1975, the efficacy of the controls on 
trade has been increasing as more countries have become party to the 
Convention and as enforcement procedures have improved. The demand for 
the higher value "classic" crocodilian skins, especially those of 
Crocodylus niloticus and Crocodylus porosus , has remained high and, as 
other legal sources of skins have been shut off, farming appears to 
have prospered. 

This directory of crocodilian farming operations was compiled 
partially to assist in the enforcement of CITES controls, by 
identifying captive-breeding operations and so-called "farms" which 
are not breeding crocodilians, and also to ascertain the extent of 
farming so that its effect on crocodilian conservation can be 
assessed. It attempts to list all commercial crocodilian farms, giving 
details of their stock, production, breeding success and husbandry. 
The survey was designed primarily to locate commercial farming 
operations but large conservation-orientated crocodilian-breeding 
centres have also been included, partially because some may develop 
into commercial farms in the future. Proposed plans for commercial 
farming have also received attention for the same reason. In this 
directory the term "farm" has been used to denote any operation 
rearing crocodilians in captivity; it therefore includes both ranches, 
which obtain stock from the wild, and captive-breeding operations. 
Crocodilians are kept, and regularly breed, in zoos around the world, 
but these have not been considered. 

It must be stressed that the listing of a farm in this 

directory does not in any way imply that the farm meets the 

requirements of CITES for recognition as a captive-breeding operation. 

This function is fulfilled by the register of such operations 



Introduction 

maintained by the CITES Secretariat, as explained in the following 
section. 

CITES controls on trade 

Because CITES controls are so important to the understanding of 
the farming of crocodilians, and because so much confusion surrounds 
their interpretation, the following section is provided as a summary 
of the requirements in relation to trade in crocodilian products. 

All trade involving countries party to the Convention is 
subject to the terms of the Convention unless it involves products 
acquired prior to the Convention's coming into force or unless the 
country holds a reservation for the species involved, in which case it 
is treated as a non-Party. Countries currently holding reservations on 
crocodilians are shown in Table 1. Other countries, notably Italy and 
France, have held reservations in the past, but these have now been 
withdrawn. 

All crocodilians are afforded protection under the Convention 
by being listed in either Appendix I or Appendix II. 

Appendix I lists those taxa which are threatened with 
extinction which are, or may be, affected by trade. Virtually all 
international trade in these species is prohibited unless the 
exporting Party grants an export permit. This may only be done if the 
trade is not detrimental to the survival of the wild population and if 
a permit has been issued by the importing Party stating that the 
animals or products are not to be used for primarily commercial 
purposes. There are few exceptions to this, the major one being if the 
animals traded derive from populations bred in captivity in accordance 
with the conditions described below. Such animals are treated as being 
in Appendix II. 

Appendix II lists those taxa in which trade must be subject to 
strict regulation in order to prevent them, or similar species in the 
list, becoming threatened with extinction in the future. Trade is 
therefore permitted only when the exporting country issues an export 
permit indicating that the trade is not detrimental to the survival of 
the wild population. 

Countries which are party to the Convention must treat 
non-party states more or less as if they were also Parties. In other 
words, if a trader in a party state wants to import a species in 
Appendix II from a non-Party then he must obtain a CITES-equivalent 
export permit. 

Captive-breeding 

The conditions under which specimens of an Appendix I species 
may be considered "captive-bred* were defined at the CITES Meeting in 
San Jose, Costa Rica, in 1979 and are set out in CITES Resolution 
Conf. 2.12. Briefly these state that: 



Introduction 

1. Animals may only be traded as captive-bred if they are born 
in captivity and are the offspring of parents which mated in captivity 
(or a "controlled environment"). 

2. The parental breeding stock must be (i) obtained in a 
manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild; 
(ii) maintained without augmentation from the wild population except 
for occasional introductions for the purposes of genetic improvement; 
and (iii) managed in a manner which has been demonstrated to be 
capable of reliably producing second generation captive-bred offspring. 

It should be noted that second generation offspring do not 
actually need to have been produced on the farm provided it is using a 
husbandry technique which has been demonstrated elsewhere to have been 
capable of producing such offspring. 

Register of captive-breeding operations 

These regulations are open to abuse by unscrupulous dealers who 
merely collect animals from the wild and sell them, claiming that they 
were captive-bred. There is therefore a need for an authoritative 
register of approved operations which are producing captive-bred 
Appendix I species. This need was recognised at the CITES Meeting in 
Gabarone, Botswana, in 1983 when a Resolution (Conf. 4.15) was adopted 
recommending that commercial trade in captive-bred Appendix I species 
should only be permitted from operations which are registered with the 
CITES Secretariat. Registration is achieved when the CITES Management 
Authority in the country of origin reports to the Secretariat details 
of the farm (specified in CITES Notification to the Parties No. 233, 
13 October 1983) and confirms that it complies with conditions set out 
in Resolution Conf. 2.12. At the date of going to press there are only 
five registered operations breeding Appendix I crocodilians, one in 
Madagascar, one in Queensland, Australia, one in Thailand, and two in 
South Africa. 

Ranching 

It has been recognised that some populations of species in 
Appendix I have recovered as a result of conservation, and are now no 
longer endangered. They may be capable of sustaining a controlled 
level of exploitation, and indeed may even benefit from it. A 
procedure was therefore recommended at the CITES Meeting in New Delhi, 
India, in 1981, whereby populations of species in Appendix I which 
would benefit from ranching could be transferred to Appendix II (Conf. 
3.15). Ranching is defined as the rearing in a controlled environment 
of specimens taken from the wild, for the purposes of trade. In order 
to be eligible, the ranching scheme must be beneficial to the wild 
population and the products of it must be marked so that they may be 
distinguished from the products of other populations of the same 
species in Appendix I. 

It should be noted that, as there is potentially a continuous 
interchange between the ranch-reared and wild populations in the 



Introduction 

country, they are treated identically in the eyes of CITES and may 
both be traded. It is up to the local Management Authority to set 
regulations which differentiate between ranch-reared and wild-caught 
products. However a Resolution adopted in 1985 (Conf. 5.16) now 
requires that any conditions specified in the original ranching 
proposal must be observed by all Parties trading in specimens from the 
ranched population. Thus since the Australian proposal for ranching C. 
porosus states that the sale of skins from animals which have not been 
kept on a ranch for at least one year is prohibited, other Parties 
should not accept imports of such skins. 

The population of C. niloticus in Zimbabwe was transferred to 
Appendix II in 1983 as a result of a ranching scheme, and the 
population of C. porosus in Australia was transferred in 1985 under a 
similar scheme. 

A further Resolution was adopted at Buenos Aires in 1985 on the 
trade in ranched specimens which recommended, among other things, that 
ranched products should not be exported to non-Parties nor to Parties 
holding reservations on the ranched species, and that imports of 
ranched products should not be accepted from such states. Some of the 
ramifications of this are that exports of ranched C. porosus skins 
should not be permitted from Australia to Singapore, as it is a 
non-Party, nor to Japan, as it has a reservation on this species. 

The Meeting at Buenos Aires, Argentina, was notable for a 
change in the procedure for transferring, from Appendix I to Appendix 
II, those species which had been listed in Appendix I before the 
agreement of scientific criteria for so doing, and which could 
withstand some exploitation. The new procedure involves the setting of 
a quota for each country wishing to trade in these species, in 
conjunction with an approved management plan. Under this procedure, 
the populations of C. niloticus in nine African countries listed in 
Table 2 were transferred to Appendix II with the quotas indicated. The 
population of C. porosus in Indonesia was transferred to Appendix II 
with an annual quota of 2000 skins, although in this case the 
population is still endangered (204). 

Ranching programmes have many advantages over direct harvesting 
in that they permit a greater offtake from a given wild population, 
they produce higher quality skins and they are easier to police. They 
are, however, more difficult to set up and are more capital-intensive. 
It is therefore ironic that the developments at Buenos Aires have 
removed some of the economic advantages of establishing ranching 
programmes for Appendix I species, in that their potential markets are 
now restricted, while the quota system for transferring populations to 
Appendix II is permitted greater flexibility of marketing. 



METHODS 

The survey was undertaken during 1983 and 1984. The CITES 
Secretariat sent a Notification to all CITES Parties of the need to 
register all commercial captive-breeding operations involving Appendix 



Introduction 

I species. The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit also approached the 
wildlife management authorities of non-CITES governments. Contact was 
made with members of the SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, with 
crocodile farmers associations and with other individuals 
knowledgeable on the subject. Wherever possible, questionnaires were 
sent to the farms themselves requesting details of their stocks, 
breeding, wild capture, commercial production and husbandry. The 
results presented in this paper are drawn from the responses to these 
enquiries and also from published and unpublished material and press 
reports. In the directory the results are arranged by country. 



RESOLTS AND DISCUSSION 

The countries and species mentioned in the text are listed in 
Table 3, which also indicates where commercial operations are found. 
The species most widely farmed are C. niloticus and C. porosus ; this 
partially reflects their widespread distribution, but also the value 
of their skins, as they are both highly esteemed by the skin industry. 

The numbers of the main species kept on commercial farms are 
shown in Table 4, where it can be seen that Alligator mississippiensis 
is probably the most numerous species although C. niloticus and C. 
porosus are kept in similar numbers, and the data on these species are 
less complete. The total number of farms is shown on Table 5 together 
with other data relating to their production. There are thought to be 
other farms, for instance in Singapore and Malaysia, for which details 
were not obtained. Of the 152 farms known in 1985 fewer than 20 were in 
existence in 1974, and all the indications are that the rapid growth is 
continuing. The total crocodilian stock of 161 603 is also evidently 
growing. Recruitment from the collection of wild animals and captive 
breeding is running at some 72 000 a year. 

As would be expected from such a young industry, skin production 
is relatively low while farmers are apparently attempting to build up 
their stocks. Prior to 1979 when the farms in Papua New Guinea started 
production the only appreciable quantities of skins being sold from 
farms originated in Zimbabwe. This survey has shown that at least 
14 769 farm skins were marketed in 1983/84. If it is assumed that the 
majority of the recruitment to farm stocks is to be slaughtered in four 
years time, then production might rise to 60 000 by 1989, although it 
is unlikely that the growth will be so fast. 

Finances 

Although legislative controls on hunting wild crocodilians 
undoubtedly play an important part in generating favourable conditions 
for the establishment of farms, the factor which will ultimately 
determine their continued survival is their financial success. 

Commercial companies are understandably reluctant to release 
their accounts for scrutiny, and so it is difficult to assess their 
profitability. In addition most farms are currently in the development 
phase and would consequently be expected to be in negative cash balance 



Introduction 

until they reach full production. As a starting point it therefore 
seems reasonable to examine first the oldest-established farms. 

One of the oldest farms in the world is the Samutprakan farm in 
Thailand. In 1983 this was said to have a stock of some 30 000 
crocodilians, but produced only 200 skins. It could clearly not have 
been financially viable purely on skin sales, but the operation derives 
the major part of its income from tourists and claims to be self- 
financing on this basis. 

The farms in the USA similarly have a poor stock/production 
ratio, although they also sell meat as well as skins which may help to 
boost their profits. Some farms generate additional income by selling 
livestock to other farmers and some also rely partially on tourist 
income. A recent analysis (96) suggested that value of an animal at 
slaughter was US$200-300 while production costs including feeding, 
labour and hatchling acquisition, were US$85-110. This gives a 
calculated profit, after allowing for a 10% mortality, of US$80-192 for 
each animal. Set against this are the capital investment costs, 
estimated to be US$50 000-200 000 (40), the interest on which would be 
worth some US$5000-20 000 a year for four years, before any production 
took place. On the most pessimistic estimates a farmer would therefore 
need to sell 345 animals merely to pay off his interest before starting 
to recoup any of his initial investment. 

The growth in the number of farms in the USA was slow until 1982 
and it has been suggested that the chief reason for farming was an 
interest in alligators, which could be indulged only by rich 
individuals not unduly interested in swift profits (123). However the 
rapid increase in the last two years in the number of farmers, 
particularly in Florida, suggests that substantial profits are 
expected, if not yet realised. This may be associated with the 
increasing availability of hatchlings from wild-collected eggs from 
Louisiana Rockefeller Refuge and, particularly, the Florida supplement 
programme. 

The farms in Zimbabwe also benefit from a state-run egg 
collection programme and Magnusson (123) attributes their apparent 
profitability to cheap labour and a plentiful supply of cheap protein 
food for the crocodiles, both of which he suggests may decline in the 
future. Several of these farms also derive a substantial part of their 
income from tourists and the sale of curios (179). 

The crocodile ranching industry in Papua New Guinea provides a 
model which other countries are attempting to emulate and which 
contributes the bulk of the world production of farmed skins (Table 5). 
Although many of the small farms initially established have been 
discontinued, those that survive are apparently capable of running at a 
profit, almost exclusively on skin sales (85). An analysis of the 
proposed ranching industry in Australia, also using C. porosus , 
estimated that total acquisition and rearing costs per hatchling were 
A$35-55 to a slaughter size of 5-6 ft (1.52-1.83 m), at which point the 
skins were valued at A$150-180 (192). 



Introduction 

It is clear that the captive-breeding of crocodilians requires 
more money, both in terms of the running costs of maintaining 
broodstock and in the initial capital outlay required to install 
breeding facilities, than the rearing of wild-caught eggs or young. 
Magnusson (123) has pointed out that the majority of the financially 
successful operations depend on wild populations of crocodilians for 
the bulk of their rearing stock. It is therefore slightly surprising 
that the farms in Zimbabwe and the USA are breeding increasing 
quantities of their own stock, and breeding is being investigated more 
seriously in Papua New Guinea. One possible explanation is that many 
captive-breeding operations rely, at least partially, on tourist 
income. Indeed the needs of tourists and of breeding facilities are 
similar, both requiring large, mature animals and semi-natural ponds; 
and the large sums invested in new tourist-orientated farms indicate 
that the financial backers, at least, anticipate making money from this 
type of venture. 



Crocodilian farming and its impact on conservation 

Controversy has raged over whether or not the farming of 
crocodilians may be desirable on conservation grounds. The arguments 
for and against farming may be summarised as follows: 

Diversion of trade 

Given that there is a market for crocodilian products which 
otherwise would be supplied by hunting wild populations, the 
availability of the same products from farmed stock may meet some of 
the demand and reduce the need for hunting. Whether this works in 
practice or whether farmed products merely add to the size of the 
market, is open to debate. The chief effect is likely to be economic, 
by reducing the price of skins and thereby reducing the profit margins 
of hunting to unacceptable levels. This effect is particularly marked 
where the hunting operation is poorly managed and the wild population 
is nearing "commercial extinction". Farmed skins tend to be of higher 
and more uniform quality than wild-caught ones which gives them a 
competitive advantage in the market, although they may consequently 
command a higher price. 

In contrast it has been suggested that if illegal trade has been 
successfully reduced by control measures, public demand will also drop. 
Any renewed stimulation of the market by the introduction of farmed 
products will increase the demand once more and possibly renew hunting 
pressure on the wild populations. This effect is likely to be greatest 
where trade has virtually ceased, in general for species in Appendix I. 

Both arguments are affected by the relative sizes of the 
supplies of farm-raised and wild-caught skins. International trade in 
crocodilian skins has recently been reviewed by Hemley and Caldwell 
(94) who found that trade in the major species, excluding Caiman 
crocodilus , reported to CITES was at least 82 000 a year although they 
cautioned that this was certainly an under-estimate. Farm production of 
12 000 skins is already a significant proportion of this market, and 
its importance is destined to increase. However, the major trade is 



Introduction 

undoubtedly in C. crocodilus skins, some 700 thousand reported annually 
to CITES with the true trade figure probably being in excess of a 
million (94). Taiwan is the only country farming this species in large 
numbers, primarily because the low commercial value of the skins means 
that farming is not economic unless other products can also be 
marketed. It is therefore unlikely that farming will ever supply a 
significant proportion of the world market for C. crocodilus , or for 
crocodilian skins as a whole, unless trade in wild-caught caiman skins 
is drastically curtailed. 



Control of trade 

Control of illegal trade in the products of endangered species 
is rendered more difficult by introducing legally acquired farmed 
products into the market. This problem has been addressed by the CITES 
Resolutions on both captive-breeding (Conf. 2.12) and ranching (Conf. 
3.15) which recommend that the products be adequately marked to 
distinguish them from products of wild-taken animals. However it is 
still feared that unscrupulous traders may use farms as a front for 
disposal of illegally acquired, wild-caught skins, either directly from 
the farm or on re-export from an intermediate country. Several 
countries with crocodilian farming industries have elaborate licensing 
and inspection procedures designed to prevent this, but allegations of 
"laundering" illegal skins have certainly been levelled at some farms. 
This directory may be helpful in countering this problem as it has 
attempted to ascertain current stocking levels and breeding success. 
Any so-called farmed skin production in excess of known capacity or 
from countries not known to have farms should require further 
investigation. 



Effects on wild populations 

If a species has become depleted or even endangered in the wild, 
captive rearing may provide protection for a significant proportion of 
the population. If breeding can also be achieved, the population can be 
augmented until ultimately it may be possible to reintroduce 
captive-bred stock to the wild. Several crocodilian breeding operations 
have undoubtedly achieved this, notably with Crocodylus moreletii , C. 
intermedius and Gavialis gangeticus , but these are all conservation 
operations and not intended to be commercial. The only commercial 
operation currently using a seriously endangered species, Crocodylus 
siamensis , is the Samutprakan farm in Thailand. The Zapata Swamp farm 
in Cuba also breeds Crocodylus rhombifer and C. acutus but the degree 
of commercial involvement of this farm is not known. However it is by 
no means certain that reintroductions of farmed stock would be 
desirable because of genetic alteration, either through artificial 
selection or hybridization. Both the Samutprakan Farm and the Zapata 
Swamp farm already have substantial populations of hybrid animals. 

Captive-breeding is seldom completely independent of the wild 
population and the capture of wild animals is often necessary, if not 
for direct rearing, at least for the acquisition of breeding stock. 
Thus even captive-breeding operations usually result in a net drain, 
albeit small, on the wild stock. A fully developed ranching operation 

8 



Introduction 

removes far more animals from the wild but, even if reintroductions are 
not carried out, one of the chief prerequisites for approval of a 
ranching scheme under the provisions of CITES Resolution Conf. 3.15 is 
that it should, on balance, be beneficial to the wild population, 
although this only affects those species in Appendix I. 

Habitat and species preservation 

Crocodilians have in the past been persecuted as vermin, and 
their swampy habitat is frequently destroyed to make way for "more 
productive" forms of land use. The demonstrable ability of crocodilians 
to generate income may help to promote the conservation of healthy wild 
populations. This is particularly so with ranching, where the whole 
operation depends on the maintenance of a wild breeding stock, but to a 
much lesser extent captive-breeding farms may encourage the 
conservation of wild stock for periodic genetic enhancement. The 
maintenance of a wild population of crocodilians necessitates the 
preservation of their habitat, which benefits the other organisms in 
the same environment. The financial incentive of crocodilian 
exploitation therefore also reduces the economic pressure for wetland 
reclamation. 

Cultural preservation 

Crocodilian ranching techniques can be adapted to conditions of 
village technology suitable for integration in the culture and economy 
of rural communities. The ranching progreimmes in Papua New Guinea and 
Northern Australia have the declared objectives of providing employment 
for indigenous peoples. Alternative schemes for the generation of 
income frequently entail far greater technological input and social 
disruption. 



Genetic mixing and disease risk 

Other potential disadvantages include the accidental 
introduction of non-indigenous species or distinct genetic races from 
escapes, and the spread of disease from farm to wild stock. 



THE OUTLOOK 



In most countries that host a crocodilian farming industry it 
appears to be growing, in terms of the number of farms, the number of 
animals and the production of skins. The technical problems of farming 
have largely been surmounted, but whether this growth continues or 
whether the industry collapses will depend on its long-term financial 
viability. One factor which is of importance to the conservation of 
crocodilians is the relative reliance on wild-caught animals 
("ranching") and on captive-breeding. The total number of animals being 
bred on farms appears to be increasing, and may now account for some 
40% of recruitment to farm stocks each year. At first sight this might 
seem to be encouraging but this requires further consideration. 

Captive-breeding has played an important role in the 
conservation of several seriously depleted crocodilian species, but 
these have mostly been non-commercial operations. Commercial 



Introduction 

captive-breeding, as discussed earlier, does less to further 
conservation, and it should not be seen, as it often is, as an 
alternative to habitat conservation. Ranching, on the other hand, may 
be far more beneficial as it requires the maintenance of a healthy wild 
population and the habitat which supports it (123). In essence it is 
little different from a controlled harvest of larger animals for skins; 
in the USA and Papua New Guinea the two types of exploitation run side 
by side. Ranching has some advantages over a direct harvest as it may 
be easier to regulate, particularly if, as in Zimbabwe, the USA and 
Australia, the collection of eggs is carried out entirely by Government 
staff or under their close control. The maintenance of a separate 
ranched stock also provides a degree of insurance in the event of an 
environmental disaster or breakdown of effective control of harvesting, 
owing, for instance, to political instability. 

The cause of crocodilian conservation may therefore best be 
served, not by a cessation of all wild harvesting and a development of 
farming, but by the implementation of effective management plans for 
wild populations, involving ranching, direct harvest, or a combination 
of the two. The success of any such management plan is entirely 
dependent on thorough background research to determine existing 
population levels, and on the ability to conduct the exploitation in a 
controlled manner. The high levels of illegal trade in crocodilian 
products (94) suggests that the current degree of control is far from 
adequate in many parts of the world. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Funds for this survey were generously provided by the 
International Fur Trade Federation and lUCN. This survey would have 
been quite impossible without the willing assistance and co-operation 
of the numerous correspondents who replied to letters and filled in 
questionnaires. Their help has been credited wherever possible in the 
references, and the authors would here like to express their gratitude. 



10 



INTRODUCTION 
Les crocodi liens sont exploites pour le commerce de leurs peaux 
qui atteignent des prix eleves. Jusqu'a une epoque relativement 
recente, la demande de peaux etait satisfaite exclusivement par la 
chasse des populations sauvages mais, ces dernieres annees, I'elevage 
des crocodiliens s'est fortement etendue. Les premieres "fermes", 
selon 1' appellation qui leur est donnee, ont sans aucun doute ete 
crees a 1' intention du public, ayant davantage la nature de zoos, et 
nombre d'entres elles continuent de jouer ce role. Cependant, 
I'elevage pour la production commerciale de peaux est de plus en plus 
pratique. Certaines fermes vendent aussi de la viande de crocodile 
et, comme a Taiwan, ceci peut parfois fournir la principale source de 
revenu. 

Les raisons de cette popularite accrue de I'elevage des 
crocodiliens sont difficiles a evaluer, mais elles comprennent 
certainement la reduction apparue dans I'approvisionnement en peaux 
sauvages, Ceci est du, en partie, au declin des populations sauvages 
du fait d'une chasse excessive, de la persecution et de la destruction 
des habitats, mais les controles exerces en application des lois 
pourraient avoir une plus grande importance encore. En tete de 
ceux-ci se trouve la Convention sur le commerce international des 
especes de faune et de flore sauvages menacees d'extinction (CITES). 
La majorite des crocodiliens sont inscrits a I'Annexe I de la 
Convention (voir Tableau 1), ce qui signifie que presque toutes les 
transactions commerciales entre les pays Parties sont interdites, a 
moins que les specimens proviennent de populations elevees en 
captivite. Depuis I'entree en vigueur de la Convention, en 1975, 
I'efficacite des controles du commerce s'est accrue, car davantage de 
pays en sont devenus Parties et les procedures d' execution se sont 
ameliorees. La demande de peaux "classiques" de crocodiliens les plus 
precieuses, tout specialement celles des especes Crocodylus niloticus 
et Crocodylus porosus , est restee forte et, les autres sources 
limitees de peaux ayant ete fermees, I'elevage parait avoir prospere. 

Ce repertoire des elevages de crocodiliens a ete elabore, en 
partie, pour faciliter I'execution des controles CITES, en identitiant 
les elevages et les soi-disantes "fermes" qui ne procedent pas a la 
reproduction, et aussi pour determiner I'importance de I'elevage, en 
vue d'evaluer ses effets sur la conservation des crocodiliens. II 
tente d'etablir une liste de toutes les fermes commerciales de 
crocodiliens et donne des informations detaillees sur leur cheptel, 
leur production, leur reussite en matiere de reproduction et sur les 
techniques d'elevage. L'enquete a ete con?ue, en premier lieu, afin 
de localiser les elevages commerciaux, mais les grands centres de 
reproduction de crocodiliens orientes vers la conservation y ont aussi 
ete inclus, notamment parce que certains pourraient devenir des 
elevages commerciaux a I'avenir. Pour la meme raison, I'attention a 
egalement ete portee sur les projets d'elevages commerciaux. Dans ce 
repertoire, le terme "ferme" est utilise pour designer tout elevage, 
au sens le plus large du terme, en captivite (soit la detention 
pendant au moins une certaine periode); il comprend done les ranches 
dont le cheptel a ete preleve a I'etat sauvage et les elevages qui 



11 



Introduction 

pratiquent la reproduction en captivite. Des crocodiliens sont gardes 
dans des zoos du monde entier, ou ils se reproduisent, mais ils n'ont 
pas ete pris en consideration. 

II faut souligner que 1' inscription d'un elevage dans ce 
repertoire n'implique en aucune fagon que la ferme satisfait aux 
exigences CITES qui lui permettraient d'etre reconnue en tant 
qu'elevage en captivite. Ce role est rempli par le Registre des 
etablissements pratiquant I'elevage en captivite tenu par le 
Secretariat CITES, ainsi qu'il est explique dans la section suivante. 

Controles CITES du commerce 

Etant donne 1' importance des controles CITES pour comprendre le 
pourquoi de I'elevage des crocodiliens et en raison de la confusion 
qui regne au sujet de leur interpretation, la section qui suit est 
redigee en tant que resume des exigences relatives au commerce des 
produits de crocodiliens. 

Tout le commerce qui concerne des pays Parties a la Convention est 
soumis aux dispositions de celle-ci, a moins qu'il ne se rapporte a 
des specimens acquis avant que la Convention soit entree en vigueur ou 
a moins que le pays ait formule une reserve a I'egard de I'espece en 
question, auquel cas ce pays est considere comme un Etat non-Partie. 
Les pays qui ont formule des reserves a I'egard de crocodiliens sont 
mentionnes dans le Tableau 1. D'autres pays, notamment I'ltalie et la 
France, avaient des reserves dans le passe, mais elles les ont 
maintenant retirees. 

Tous les crocodiliens beneficient d'une protection au titre de la 
Convention, car ils sont inscrits soit a I'Annexe I, soit a I'Annexe 
II. 

A I'Annexe I sont inscrits les taxons menaces d' extinction qui 
sont affectes par le commerce, ou qui pourraient I'etre. Pratiquement 
tout le commerce international de ces especes est interdit, a moins 
que la Partie exportatrice delivre un permis d' exportation. Ceci ne 
peut se faire que si le commerce ne nuit pas a la survie de la 
population sauvage et si un permis a ete delivre par la Partie 
importatrice qui declare ainsi que les animaux ou les produits ne 
seront pas utilises a des fins principalement commerciales. II y a 
quelques exceptions, la principale concernant le commerce d' animaux 
provenant de populations elevees en captivite conformement aux 
conditions decrites ci-dessous. Ces animaux sont traites comme s'ils 
etaient inscrits a I'Annexe'lI. 

A I'Annexe II sont inscrits les taxons dont le commerce doit etre 
soumis a une reglementation stricte ayant pour but d'eviter" qu'eux, ou 
des especes semblables de cette mime annexe, ne deviennent menaces 
d'extinction a I'avenir. Le commerce n'est done permis que lorsque le 
pays d'exportation delivre un permis d' exportation, ce qui signifie 
que le commerce ne nuit pas a la survie de la population sauvage. 



12 



Introduction 

Les pays qui sont Parties a la Conventioii doivent traiter les 
Etats non-Parties plus ou moins comme s'ils etaient aussi des 
Parties. En d'autres termes, si un conunergant d'un Etat Partie 
souhaite importer une espece de 1" Annexe II d'un Etat non-Partie, il 
doit obtenir un document equivalent au permis d' exportation CITES. 

Elevage en captivite 

Les conditions dans lesquelles des specimens d'une espece inscrite 
a I'Annexe I peuvent etre consideres comme "eleves en captivite" ont 
ete definies lors de la session CITES de San Jose, Costa Rica, en 1979 
et elles sont presentees dans la resolution CITES Conf. 2.12. En 
bref, elles sont les suivantes: 

1. Des animaux ne peuvent etre commercialises en tant que 
specimens eleves en captivite que s'ils sont nes en captivite 
et sont les descendants de parents s'etant decouples en 
captivite (ou dans un "environnement controls). 

2. Le stock parental doit etre (i) obtenu de fagon a ne pas 
nuire a la survie de I'espece a I'etat sauvage; (ii) 
maintenu sans augmentation a partir de la population sauvage 
a 1' exception d'apports occasionnels aux fins d' amelioration 
genetique; et (iii) geres d'une maniere ayant apporte la 
preuve qu'elle permet de produire de fagon sure une 
descendance de deuxieme generation. 

II convient de remarquer qu'il n'est pas necessaire de produire 
une descendance de deuxieme generation dans I'etablissement, a 
condition que les techniques qu'il applique aient fourni la preuve, 
ailleurs, qu' elles permettent de produire une telle descendance. 

Registre des etablissements pratiquant 1' elevage en captivite 

Des commergants peu scrupuleux peuvent abuser de ces 
reglementations en prelevant simplement des animaux a I'etat sauvage 
et en les vendant en pretendant qu'ils ont ete eleves en captivite. 
II est done necessaire d' avoir un registre faisant foi des elevages 
agrees qui produisent des specimens d'especes de I'Annexe I eleves en 
captivite. Ce besoin fut reconnu a la session CITES de Gaborone, 
Botswana, en 1983, ou une resolution (Conf. "4. 15) a ete adoptee pour 
recommander que les transactions commerciales touchant les especes de 
I'Annexe I elevees en captivite ne soient autorisees que pour des 
etablissements enregistres aupres du Secretariat CITES. 
L' enregistrement est effectif lorsque I'organe de gestion CITES du 
pays d'origine a transmis au Secretariat des informations detaillees 
au sujet de la ferme (information precisees dans la notification aux 
Parties No. 233 du 13 octobre 1983) et a confirme qu'elle respecte les 
conditions presentees dans la resolution Conf. 2.12. A la mise 
sous presse de ce repertoire, seuls cinq etablissements elevant des 
crocodiliens inscrits a I'Annexe I avaient ete enregistres, un a 
Madagascar, un au Queensland, Australie, un en Thailande et deux en 
Afrique du Sud. 

13 



Introduction 

Elevage en ranch 

Le fait a ete admis que certaines populations d'especes inscrites 
a I'Annexe I se sont reconstituees, par suite de mesures de 
conservation, et qu'elles ne sont plus menacees d' extinction. Elles 
peuvent etre a meme de supporter un niveau d' exploitation controle et, 
il est vrai, peuvent meme en profiter. C'est pourquoi, une procedure 
a ete recommandee lors de la session CITES de New Delhi, Inde, en 
1981, procedure par laquelle des populations d'especes inscrites a 
I'Annexe I, qui pourraient profiter des effets de I'elevage en ranch, 
pourraient etre transferees a I'Annexe II (Conf. 3.15). L'elevage en 
ranch est defini comme etant I'elevage dans un environnement controle 
de specimens preleves a I'etat sauvage, en vue de les commercialiser. 
Pour pouvoir etre agree, I'elevage doit etre favorable a la population 
sauvage et ses produits doivent etre marques, afin qu'il soit possible 
de les distinguer des produits d'autres populations, de la meme 
espece, inscrites a I'Annexe I. 

II convient de noter que, etant donne qu'un echange continuel 
existe potentiellement entre les populations elevees en ranch et 
vivant a I'etat sauvage dans le pays, elles sont traitees de fagon 
identique aux yeux de la Convention et peuvent toutes deux faire 
I'objet d'un commerce. II appartient a I'organe de gestion local 
d'elaborer les reglementations qui permettent de faire la difference 
entre les produits provenant d'animaux eleves en ranch et d'animaux 
sauvages. Cependant, une resolution adoptee en 1985 (Conf. 5.16) 
demande maintenant que toutes les conditions precisees dans la 
proposition originale d' elevage en ranch soient observees par toutes 
les Parties faisant commerce des specimens de la population elevee en 
ranch. Ainsi, etant donne que la proposition australienne relative a 
I'elevage en ranch de C_. porosus stipule que la vente de peaux 
d'animaux qui n'ont pas ete detenus dans un ranch pour au moins un an 
est interdite, les autres Parties ne devraient pas autoriser 
1' importation de telles peaux. 

La population de C^. niloticus du Zimbabwe a ete transferee a 
I'Annexe II, en 1983, sur la base d'un programme d'elevage en ranch et 
la population australienne de C_. porosus I'a ete, en 1985, sur la base 
d'un programme du meme genre. 

Une autre resolution a ete adoptee a Buenos Aires, en 1985, au 
sujet du commerce des specimens eleves en ranch. Elle recommande, 
entre autres, que les produits provenant d'elevages en ranch ne soient 
exportes ni vers des Etats non-Parties ni vers des Parties ayant 
formule des reserves a I'egard des especes faisant I'objet d'un 
elevage en ranch, et que les importations de c^ produits en 
provenance de tels Etats ne soient pas acceptees. Certaines des 
ramifications de ce qui precede font que les exportations de peaux de 
C. " porosus eleves en ranch ne devraient pas etre autorisees par 
I'Australie si elles etaient destinies a Singapour, qui n'est pas 
Partie, ou au Japon, qui a formule une reserve a I'egard de cette 
espece. 



14 



Introduction 

La session de Buenos Aires, Argentine, fut remarquable, en ce sens 
que la procedure pour le transfert, de 1' Annexe I a I'Annexe II, des 
especes ayant ete inscribes a I'Annexe I avant 1' adoption des criteres 
scientifiques prevus a cet effet et qui, de toute evidence, peuvent 
supporter un certain niveau d' exploitation, y a ete modifiee. La 
nouvelle procedure prevoit I'etablissement d'un quota pour chaque pays 
souhaitant commercialiser ces especes, dans le cadre d'un plan de 
gestion agree. En vertu de cette procedure, la population de £. 
porosus de I'Indonesie a ete transferee a I'Annexe II avec un quota de 
2000 peaux. Les populations de £. niloticus des neuf pays africains 
mentionnes au Tableau 2 ont aussi ete transferees § I'Annexe II avec 
les quotas indiques. 

Les programmes d'elevage en ranch ont de nombreux avantages par 
rapport a I'exploitation directe, car ils permettent des prelevements 
plus importants dans une population sauvage donnee, ils produisent des 
peaux de meilleure qualite et, avec eux, il est plus facile de 
s' assurer que la reglementation est appliquee. Cependant, il est plus 
difficile de les mettre sur pied et ils exigent davantage de 
capitaux. II parait done paradoxal que les decisions prises a Buenos 
Aires aient elimine certains des avantages economiques des programmes 
d'elevage en ranch d' especes inscrites a I'Annexe I - leurs marches 
potentiels sont maintenant reduits - alors que le systeme de quotas 
pour le transfert de populations a I'Annexe II beneficie d'une plus 
grande flexibilite en ce qui concerne la mise des produits sur le 
marche. 



METHODES 

L'enquete a ete effectuee en 1983 et 1984. Le Secretariat CITES a 
envoye une notification a toutes les Parties a la Convention au sujet 
de la necessite d'enregistrer tous les etablissements pratiquant 
I'elevage en captivite, a des fins commerciales, d'especes inscrites a 
I'Annexe I. L'Unite de surveillance continue du commerce de la faune 
et de la flore sauvages a pris contact egalement avec les autorites 
competentes en matiere de gestion de la faune sauvage des 
gouvernements des Etats non-Parties. Des contacts ont aussi ete 
etablis avec les membres du Groupe de specialistes des crocodiles de 
la CSE, avec des associations d'eleveurs et avec d'autres 
personnalites connaissant le sujet. Chaque foi^s que possible, des 
questionnaires ont ete envoyes aux fermes elles-memes en vue d'obtenir 
des informations detaillees sur leur cheptel, sur la reproduction, sur 
les captures a I'etat sauvage, sur leur production commerciale et sur 
leurs techniques d'elevage. Les resultats presentes dans ce document 
sont tires des reponses a ces requites, et aussi de materiels publies 
et non publies et de rapports de presse. Dans le repertoire, les 
resultats sont presentes pays par pays. 



RESULTATS ET DISCUSSION 

Les pays et les especes mentionnes dans le texte sont enumeres au 
Tableau 3, lequel signale egalement 1' emplacement des etablissements. 

15 



Introduction 

Les especes les plus largement elevees dans les fermes sont C. 
niloticus et £. porosus ; ceci est, en partie, le reflet de leur 
repartition etendue, mais aussi de la valeur de leurs peaux, puisque 
toutes deux sont hautement estimees par 1' Industrie du cuir. 

Les effectifs des principales especes detenus dans des fermes a 
vocation conunerciale sont presentes au Tableau 4, ou I'on peut voir 
qu' Alliqator mississippiensis est problablement I'espece la plus 
abondante, bien que C. niloticus et C. porosus atteignent^ des 
effectifs du meme ordre de grandeur, les donnees sur ces especes etant 
pourtant moins completes. Le nombre total de fermes est indique au 
Tableau 5, ensemble avec d'autres renseignements relatifs a leur 
production. On pense qu'il existe d'autres fermes, par exemple a 
Singapour et en Malaisie, mais aucune information a leur sujet n'a pu 
etre obtenue. Sur les 152 fermes connues, en 1985, moins de 20 
existaient en 1974 et tout porte a croire que cette extension rapide 
se poursuit. Le cheptel en crocodiliens de 161*603 s'accroit 
evidemment aussi. L' augmentation du cheptel du fait de la capture 
d'animaux sauvages et de la reproduction en captivite atteint environ 
72'000 tetes par an. 

Comme on peut s'y attendre pour une Industrie aussi jeune, la 
production de peaux est relativeraent faible, les fermiers essayant 
apparemment de constituer leur cheptel. Avant 1979, alors que les 
fermes de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee commengaient a produire, les 
seules quantites appreciables de peaux vendues par des fermes 
provenaient du Zimbabwe. Cette enquete a montre qu'au moins 14*769 
peaux de ferme avaient ete mises sur le marche en 1983/84. si l*on 
prend pour hypothese que la plus grande partie de 1* accroissement du 
cheptel des fermes est destine a l*abattage dans un delai de quatre 
ans, la production pour rait atteindre 60*000 peaux vers 1989, bien 
qu'il soit peu probable que la croissance soit aussi rapide. 

Finances 

Bien que les controles exerces sur la chasse aux crocodiliens, en 
vertu de 1' application des lois, jouent sous aucun doute un role 
important en creant des conditions favorables a I'etablissement de 
fermes, le facteur qui, en fin de compte, determinera leur avenir est 
leur succes financier. 

Les compagnies commerciales, on peut le comprendre, rechignent a 
ouvrir leurs comptes pour permettre une etude et, ainsi, il est 
difficile d'evaluer leur rentabilite. De plus, la plupart des fermes 
se trouvent actuellement en phase de developpement et I'on peut done 
s*attendre a ce que leur bilan reste negatif tant qu'elles n*auront 
pas atteint leur pleine production. Pour commencer, il parait done 
raisonnable d* examiner de prime abord les fermes les plus anciennes. 

L'une des fermes les plus anciennes du monde est celle de 
Samutprakan, en Tha'ilande. En 1983, on disait qu*elle disposait d*un 
cheptel de 30*000 crocodiliens, mais elle n'a produit que 200 peaux. 
Financierement, il est evident qu'elle ne pouvait survivre du produit 
de la seule vente des peaux, mais I'etablissement tirait la majortie 

16 



Introduction 

de ses revenus des touristes et elle pretendait s'autofinancer de 
cette fagon. 

Les fermes des Etats-Unis d'Amerique, elles aussi, presentent un 
mauvais rapport cheptel/production, bien qu' elles vendent aussi bien 
de la viande que des peaux, ce qui devrait contribuer a augmenter 
leurs benefices. Certaines fermes creent d'autres sources de revenu 
en vendant des animaux vivants a d'autres fermes et certaines comptent 
aussi sur les revenus produits par le tourisme. Une analyse recente 
(96) indique que la valeur d'un animal a I'abattage est de US$ 
200-300, alors que les frais de production, comprenant 1' alimentation, 
le travail et 1' acquisition de nouveau-nes, atteignent US$"85-110. 
Cela donne un benefice calculi de US$ 80-192 par animal en tenant 
compte d'une mortalite de 10%. A cote de cela, il y a les frais du 
capital investi, estime entre US$ SO'OOO et US$ 200'000 (40), dont les 
interets seraient de I'ordre de US$ S'OOO a US$ 20'000 par an pendant 
quatre ans avant 1' entree en production. Sur la base de 1' estimation 
la plus pessimiste, un fermier devra done vendre 345 animaux, pour 
payer ses interets, avant de commencer a recuperer son investissement 
initial. 

L'augmentation du nombre de fermes, aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique, 
etait lente jusqu'en 1982 et on a pense que la principale raison 
poussant a I'elevage residait dans I'interet porte aux alligators, 
lequel ne pouvait provenir que de personnes aisees et non interessees 
a la realisation de benefices rapides (123). Cependant, 
l'augmentation acceleree du nombre de fermes, ces deux dernieres 
annees, en Floride en particulier, donne a penser que des profits 
substantiels peuvent etre esperes, s'ils n'ont encore ete realises. 
Ceci peut etre lie a l'augmentation du nombre de nouveau-nes, issus 
d'oeufs recoltes a I'etat sauvage, disponibles et provenant du 
Louisiana Rockefeller Refuge et, tout particulierement, du programme 
special de la Floride. 

Les fermes du Zimbabwe beneficient aussi d'un programme officiel 
de recolte d'oeufs et Magnusson (123) attribue leur rentabilite 
apparente au fait que la main d'oeuvre est bon marche et que 
I'approvisionnement en aliments proteiniques pour les crocodiles est 
peu couteux et abondant, elements qui pourraient tous deux, selon lui, 
se reduire a I'avenir. Plusieurs de ces fermes tirent aussi une part 
importante de leurs recettes du tourisme et de la vente de souvenirs 
(179). 

En Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee, I'elevage en ranch des crocodiles 
constitue un modele que d'autres pays tentent d'imiter et qui 
contribue a 1' ensemble de la production mondiale de peaux provenant^de 
fermes (Tableau 5). Bien que de nombreuses petites fermes installees 
initialement aient disparu, celles qui se raaintiennent sont 
apparemment capables de realiser un benefice, presque exclusi vement 
sur la vente des peaux (85). Une analyse de I'elevage en ranch en 
Australie, qui concerne aussi C, porosus , estimait les frais totaux 
d' acquisition et d'elevage par animal a A$ 35-55 pour une taiUe a 
I'abattage de 5-6 ft (1,52-1,83 m) . A ce stade, la valeur des peaux 
etait evaluee a A$n50-180 (192). 

17 



Introduction 

II est evident que I'elevage en captivite des crocodiliens 
requiert davantage d' argent, tant en ce qui concerne les frais 
courants de garde du stock reproducteur que les capitaux necessaires a 
la mise en place des installations de reproduction, que I'elevage a 
partir d'oeufs ou de jeunes preleves a I'etat sauvage. Magnusson 
(123) a mis en evidence le fait que la majorite des etablissements qui 
ont obtenu des resultats financiers favorables dependent des 
populations sauvages pour la plus grande partie de leur cheptel. II 
est done quelque peu surprenant que les fermes du Zimbabwe et des 
Etats-Onis d'Amerique fassent de plus en plus d'elevage a partir de 
leur propre cheptel et que la reproduction soit envisagee de plus en 
plus serieusement en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee. Ceci peut trouver une 
explication dans le fait que de nombreux etablissements dependent, en 
partie tout au moins, des recettes fournies par le tourisme. Une 
similarite existe veritablement entre ce qui est necessaire pour 
satisfaire les touristes et ce qui I'est pour pratiquer la 
reproduction, soit des animaux adultes et de grande taille et des 
bassins semi-naturels; et les sommes importantes investies dans les 
nouvelles fermes orientees vers le tourisme montrent que les 
investisseurs esperent, a tout le moins, gagner de 1' argent en prenant 
ce genre de risque. 

L'elevage des crocodiliens et ses effets sur la conservation 

Le fait de savoir si I'elevage de crocodiliens est souhaitable du 
point de vue de la conservation a donne le jour a une controverse 
animee. Les arguments en faveur et centre I'elevage sont resumes 
comme suit: 

Diversion du commerce 

Etant donne qu'un marche existe pour les produits de crocodiliens 
et qu'il serait autrement approvisionne par la chasse exercee sur les 
populations sauvages, la mise a disposition des mimes produits a 
partir d' animaux eleves dans des fermes pourrait satisfaire une partie 
de la demande et reduire la necessite de chasser. La question de 
savoir si cela se passe ainsi dans la pra.tique ou de savoir si les 
produits des fermes n'augmentent pas simplement les dimensions du 
marche peut etre discutee. L'effet principal devrait 
vraisemblablement etre d'ordre economique: en reduisant le prix des 
peaux, on reduit les marges beneficiaires fournies par la chasse a des 
niveaux inacceptables. Get effet est particulierement marque la ou la 
chasse est mal geree et la population sauvage proche de 1* "extinction 
commerciale". Les peaux d'elevage tendent a etre de meilleure et de 
plus uniforme qualite que les peaux sauvages, ce qui leur donne un 
avantage concurrentiel sur le marche, bien qu'elles puissent, de ce 
fait, se vendre a un prix plus eleve. 

En contrepartie, on a emis I'hypothese que si le commerce illicite 
a ete reduit avec succes grace aux mesures de controle, la demande de 
la part du public se reduira egalement. Toute nouvelle stimulation du 
marche du fait de 1' introduction de produits de fermes augmentera la 
demande une fois de plus et renouvellera peut-etre la pression, due a 
la chasse, s'exergant sur les populations sauvages. Get effet devrait 
probablement etre plus grand la ou le commerce a pratiquement cesse, 

18 



Introduction 

soit en regie generale en ce qui concerne les especes inscrites a 
1' Annexe I, 

Les deux arguments sent influences par 1' importance relative des 
approvisionneraents en peaux provenant des fermes et en peaux d'origine 
sauvage. Le commerce international des peux de crocodiliens a 
recemment fait I'objet d'une etude par Hemley et Caldwell (94) qui ont 
trouve que celui des principales especes, a 1' exception de Caiman 
crocodilus , ayant fait I'objet de rapports CITES atteignait au moins 
82*000 animaux par an, bien qu'ils attirent I'attention sur le fait 
qu'il s'agit certainement d'une sous-estimation. La production 
fermiere de 12 '000 peaux constitue deja une part importante de ce 
marche et cette importance s'accroitra. Cependant, la majeure partie 
du commerce concerne sans aucun doute C_. crocodilus , puisque les 
rapports CITES portent sur 700 '000 peaux par annee et que le nombre 
reel est probablement superieur au million (94). Taiwan est le seul 
territoire sur lequel cette espece est elevee en grands nombres et 
cela surtout parce que la faible valeur commerciale des peaux signifie 
que I'elevage n'est economiquement rentable que si d'autres produits 
peuvent aussi etre commercialises. II est done peu probable que 
I'elevage produise un jour une part importante du marche mondial des 
peaux de C_. crocodilus , ou des peaux de crocodiliens dans leur 
ensemble, a moins que le commerce des peaux de caimans sauvages ne 
soit drastiquement restreint. 

Controle du commerce 

Le controle du commerce illicite de produits d' especes menacees 
d' extinction est complique par 1' introduction sur le marche de 
produits fermiers acquis legalement. Ce probleme a ete aborde par les 
resolutions CITES sur I'elevage en captivite (Conf. 2.12.) et sur 
I'elevage en ranch (Conf. 3,15) qui recommandent le marquage approprie 
des produits, afin qu'ils puissent etre distingues des produits 
provenant d' animaux preleves a I'etat sauvage. Cependant, on peut 
toujours craindre que des commergants sans scrupules fassent usage de 
I'existence des fermes pour disposer de peaux sauvages illegalement 
acquises, soit directement a partir de la ferme, soit par le biais de 
reexportations a partir de pays tiers. Plusieurs pays ayant des 
elevages de crocodiliens ont elabore des procedures en matiere de 
permis et d' inspection dont le but est de prevenir ce genre 
d'activite, mais des allegations de "blanchissage" de peaux illicites 
ont certainement ete formulees a I'egard de certaines fermes. Ce 
repertoire peut etre utile pour contrer ce probleme, puisqu'il tente 
de fournir le niveau reel des stocks actuels et de faire etat des 
reussites effectivement obtenues en ce qui concerne la reproduction. 
Toute production de peaux dites fermieres qui depasse la capacite de 
production reconnue ou qui provient de pays qui n'ont pas la 
reputation de disposer de fermes devrait faire I'objet d'une enquete 
complementaire. 

Effets sur les populations sauvages 

Si une espece voit ses effectifs diminuer ou si elle devient 
menacee d'extinction a I'etat sauvage, I'elevage en captivite peut 
avoir un effet protecteur pour une partie importante de la 
population. Si la reproduction peut aussi etre assuree, la population 

19 



Introduction 

peut etre accrue jusqu'au point ou il peut etre possible de 
reintroduire des animaux reproduits en captivite dans la nature. 
Plusieurs etablissements pratiquant la reproduction de crocodiliens 
sont sans aucun doute parvenus a ce stade, notanunent avec les especes 
Crocodylus moreletii , £. intermedius et Gavialis gangeticus , mais il 
s'agissait toujours d' etablissements orientes vers la conservation et 
sans intentions commerciales. Le seul etablissement conunercial 
utilisant actuellement une espece serieusement menacee d'extinction, 
Crocodylus siamensis , est la ferme de Samutprakan en Thailande. La 
ferme des marais de Zapata a Cuba pratique aussi la reproduction de 
Crocodylus rhombifer et de £."acutus, mais on ne salt pas a quel point 
cette ferme est concernee par le commerce. Cependant, il n'esten 
aucune fagon certain que les reintroductions d' animaux fermiers soient 
souhaitables, a cause de leur alteration genetique due soit a une 
selection artificielle soit a 1' hybridation. La ferme de Samutprakan 
et celle des marais de Zapata possedent deja des cheptels substantiels 
d' animaux hybrides. 

L'elevage en captivite est rarement totalement independant de la 
population sauvage et la capture d' animaux sauvages est souvent 
necessaire, sinon pour les elever directement, du moins pour 
I'acquisiton du stock reproducteur. Ainsi, meme les etablissements 
assurant la reproduction en captivite ont pour consequence un drainage 
net, bien que reduit, sur les effectifs sauvages. Un elevage en ranch 
en plein developpement preleve beaucoup plus d' animaux dans la nature, 
mais, meme s'il n'est procede a aucune reintroduction, I'une des 
principales conditions pour 1' approbation d'un programme d' elevage en 
ranch au titre de la resolution Conf. 3.15 est qu'il devrait, en 
contrepartie, profiter a la population sauvage, cela ne concernant 
toutefois que les especes inscrites a I'Annexe I. 

Protection de 1' habitat et des especes 

Dans le passe, les crocodiliens etaient persecutes en tant que 
vermine et leur habitat marecageux est souvent detruit afin d'ouvrir 
la voie a une utilisation des sols "plus productive". La capacite des 
crocodiliens, qui a ete demontree, de creer un revenu peut aider a la 
promotion de la conservation de populations sauvages saines. Ceci 
s'applique en particulier a l'elevage en ranch, pour lequel I'ensemble 
de 1' operation depend du maintien d'un stock reproducteur sauvage; 
mais, dans une moindre mesure, les fermes pratiquant la reproduction 
artificielle peuvent encourager la conservation d'effectifs a I'etat 
sauvage aux fins d' ameliorations genetiques periodiques. Le maintien 
d'une population sauvage de crocodiliens est conditionne par la 
preservation de leur habitat, lequel est favorable a d'autres 
organismes du meme milieu. Ainsi,^ I'attrait financier de 
1' exploitation des crocodiliens reduit aussi la pression economique 
qui s'exerce en faveur de I'assechement des zones humides. 

Protection culturelle 

Les techniques d' elevage en ranch des crocodiliens peuvent etre 
adaptees aux conditions d'une technologie villageoise permettant leur 
integration dans la culture et I'economie des communautes rurales. 
Les programmes d' elevage en ranch de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee et 
d'Australie septentrionale ont pour objectif declare de fournir des 

20 



Introduction 

emplois aux indigenes. D'autres programmes visant a la realisation 
d'un revenu entrainent frequemment des effets technologiques largement 
plus importants et provoquent une dislocation sur le plan social. 

Melange genetique et risque de maladie 

Les autres inconvenients potentiels comprennent 1' introduction 
accidentelle d'especes non indigenes ou de races genetiqueraent 
distinctes parmi la population sauvage, parce que des animaux se sont 
echappes de la ferme, ainsi que la dissemination de maladies. 



PERSPECTIVES D'AVENIR 

Dans la plupart des pays qui arbritent des elevages de 
crocodiliens, il apparait qu'ils augmentent en nombre et en nombre 
d' animaux, et que la production de peaux s'accroit. Les problemes 
techniques poses par I'elevage ont ete surmontes, dans une large 
mesure, mais quant a savoir si cette croissance se poursuivra ou si 
cette Industrie disparaitra, cela dependra de sa rentabilite a long 
terme. Le rapport entre le nombre d' animaux preleves a I'etat sauvage 
("elevage en ranch") et le nombre d' animaux reproduits en captivite 
constitue un facteur important du point de vue de la conservation. Le 
nombre total d' animaux reproduits dans des fermes semble s'accroitre 
et pourrait representer quelques 40% du nombre total d' animaux 
s'ajoutant chaque annee au cheptel de cps fermes. A premiere vue, 
cela parait encourageant, mais merite un examen plus approfondi. 

La reproduction en captivite a joue un role important pour la 
conservation de plusieurs especes de crocodiliens serieusement 
reduites en nombre, mais il s'agissait le plus souvent d' operations 
non commerciales. L' elevage en captivite a des fins commerciales, 
ainsi qu'on I'a vu plus haut, fait moins en faveur de la conservation 
et ne devrait pas etre considere, comme il I'est souvent, comme une 
alternative a la conservation des habitats. L'elevage en ranch, par 
centre, peut etre beaucoup plus favorable, car il requiert le maintien 
d'une population sauvage saine et de I'habitat qui I'abrite (123). 
Dans le fond, il differe peu d'une exploitation controlee des grands 
animaux pour leurs peaux; aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique et en 
Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinee, les deux types d' exploitation sont conduits 
cote a cote. L'elevage en ranch presente certains avantages sur la 
recolte directe car il parait plus facile de le regulariser, en 
particulier si, comme au Zimbabwe, aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique et en 
Australie, la recolte des oeufs est entierement effectuee par le 
personnel gouvernemental ou sous son etroit controle. Le maintien 
d'un cheptel eleve en ranch separe donnerait aussi une assurance, 
jusqu'a un certain point, au cas ou un desastre se produirait dans le 
milieu naturel ou si le controle effectif de la recolte etait rompu en 
raison, par exemple, d'une instabilite politique. 

C'est pourquoi, la cause de la conservation des crocodiliens 
pourrait etre mieux servie par la mise en place de plans efficaces de 
gestion des populations sauvages, lesquels comprendraient I'elevage en 
ranch, la recolte directe ou une combinaison des deux, que par un 
arret total de 1' exploitation a I'etat sauvage et le developpement de 

21 



Introduction 

I'elevage en captivite. Le succes de tout plan de gestion de ce type 
depend entierement d'une recherche de base minutieuse permettant de 
determiner les niveaux des populations existantes et de 1' aptitude a 
conduire I'exploitation de fagon controlee. Le niveau eleve du 
commerce illicite de produits de crocodiliens (94) donne a penser que 
le degre actuel de controle est loin d'etre adequat dans de nombreuses 
parties du globe. 



REMERCIEMENTS 

La realisation de cette enquete aurait ete totalement impossible 
sans I'aide et la cooperation accordees par les tres nombreux 
correspondants qui ont repondu a nos lettres et rempli les 
questionnaires. Leur aide a ete mentionnee chaque fois que possible 
dans les references, mais les auteurs souhaitent leur exprimer leur 
gratitude ici-meme. Les fonds necessaires a la realisation de cette 
enquete ont ete genereusement fournis par 1' International Fur Trade 
Federation et par I'UICN. 



22 



IMTRODOCCION 



Los cocodrilos se explotan en forma intensiva para la 
comercializacion de sus pieles las cuales alcanzan precios muy 
elevados. Hasta hace poco tiempo, la demanda de pieles se basaba 
exclusivamente en la caza de las poblaciones silvestres, pero en los 
ultimos anos se ha notado un gran incremento de criaderos de 
cocodrilos. Los primeros de ellos, denominados "granjas", estaban 
destinados, sin ningun lugar a dudas, al publico en general, mas bien 
en el sentido de zoologicos, y muchos de ellos aun conservan ese 
caracter. Sin embargo, la cr£a para la produccion comercial de pieles 
se practica cada vez mas. Algunas granjas venden tambien carne de 
cocodrilo y, en Taiwan, este fin provee algunas veces la fuente 
principal de ingresos. 

La razon de este avunento de popularidad de la cria de cocodrilos 
es difxcil de evaluar, pero tiene que ver ciertamente con la reduccion 
registrada en el aprovisionamiento de pieles silvestres. Este aumento 
se debe en parte, a la declinacion de las poblaciones silvestres 
debido a la caza excesiva, a la persecucion y a la destruccion del 
habitat, pero el control relative a la aplicacion de las leyes podria 
tener una importancia aun mayor. La principal de ellas es la 
Convencion sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de 
Fauna y Flora Silvestres (CITES). La mayoria de los cocodrilos estan 
incluidos en el Apendice I de la Convencion (ver Cuadro I), lo que 
significa que todas las transacciones comerciales entre los palses 
Partes estan prohibidas a menos que los especlmenes provengan de 
poblaciones criadas en cautividad. Desde la entrada en vigor de la 
Convencion, en 1975, la eficacia de los controles comerciales ha 
aumentado, debido a que un mayor numero de paises son ahora Partes de 
la Convencion y tambien a que se ha registrado una mejora en los 
procedimientos de aplicacion. La demanda de pieles "clasicas" de 
cocodrilos mas solicitadas, especialmente las de Crocodylus niloticus 
y Crocodylus porosus , se mantiene a un nivel alto y, como las otras 
fuentes de pieles se han cerrado, las operaciones de crIa en granjas 
parecen haber prosperado. 

Esta Guia de criaderos de cocodrilos fue elaborada, en parte, para 
facilitar la aplicacion de los controles CITES, identificando los 
criaderos y las denominadas "granjas" que no realizan la reproduccion 
de cocodrilos, y tambien para determinar la importancia del criadero, 
con miras a evaluar sus efectos sobre la conservacion de los 
cocodrilos. Tambien trata de establecer una lista de todas las granjas 
comerciales de cocodrilos y ofrece informaciones detalladas de sus 
stocks, produccion, logros en materia de reproduccion as£ como sobre 
las tecnicas de cria. La encuesta fue elaborada, en primer lugar, con 
el objeto de localizar los criaderos comerciales, pero tambien se han 
incluido a los grandes centres de reproduccion de cocodrilos 
orientados hacia la conservacion, en parte porque algunos de ellos 
podrlan transf ormarse en futures criaderos comerciales. Por esa misma 
razon, se tuvieron tambien en cuenta los proyectos de criaderos 
comerciales. En la presente Guia, la palabra "granja" se utiliza para 
designar cualquier criadero en cautividad, en el sentido mas amplio 
del termino (es decir tambien la detencion durante por lo menos un 

23 



Introduccion 

cierto periodo); comprende entonces a los criaderos cuyo plantel fue 
obtenido de la naturaleza y a los criaderos que practican la 
reproduccion en cautividad. Los zool5gicos del mundo entero poseen 
cocodrilos que se reproducer!, pero no se los ha tornado en 
consideracion. 

Cabe senalar que la inclusion de un criadero en la presente Guia 
no implica de ninguna forma que la granja satisfaga las exigencias de 
CITES relativas a su reconocimiento como cria en cautividad. Esa 
funcion la realiza la Secretaria CITES por medio del Registro de 
establecimientos que practican la cria en cautividad, segun la 
explicacion ofrecida en la seccion siguiente. 

Controles CITES del comercio 

Debido a que los controles CITES son muy importantes para 
comprender la cria de cocodrilos y a la confusion que reina al 
respecto de su interpretacion, la siguiente seccion resume las 
exigencias relativas al comercio de productos de cocodrilos. 

Todo el comercio concerniente a los paises Partes de la Convencion 
se halla sometido a las disposiciones de ella, diempre que no se trate 
de especimenes adquiridos antes de que la Convencion haya entrado en 
vigor o a menos de que el pais haya formulado una reserva con respecto 
a la especie en cuestion, en ese caso, ese pais es considerado como un 
Estado no Parte. Los paises que formularon reservas con respecto a los 
cocodrilos se mencionan en el Cuadro I. Otros paises, como por ejemplo 
Italia y Francia, habian formulado reservas, pero actualmente las han 
retirado. 

Todos los cocodrilos gozan de proteccion de acuerdo con la 
Convencion ya que se hallan incluidos en el Apendice I o en el 
Apendice II. 

En el Apendice I se hallan incluidos los taxa amenazados de 
extincion que estan o podrian estar amenazados por el comercio. En la 
practica, el comercio internacional de esas especies se halla 
prohibido, siempre que la Parte exportadora no emita un permiso de 
exportacion. Esto solamente puede hacerse si el comercio no perjudica 
a la supervivencia de la poblacion silvestre y si la Parte importadora 
emitio un permiso declarando que los animales o los productos no seran 
utilizados con fines primordialmente comerciales. Existen algunas 
excepciones, la principal concierne al comercio de animales que 
provienen de poblaciones criadas en cautividad de acuerdo con las 
condiciones indicadas mas aba jo. Esos animales son tratados como si 
estuvieran incluidos en el Apendice II. 

En el Apendice II estan incluidos los taxa cuyo comercio debe 
estar sometido a una reglamentacion estricta con el objetivo de evitar 
que ellos, o las especies similares incluidas en ese mismo Apendice, 
no esten amenazadas de extincion en el future. Por lo tanto, el 
comercio esta solamente permitido cuando el pais de exportacion emite 
un permiso de exportacion que indica que el comercio no perjudica a la 
supervivencia de la poblacion silvestre. 

24 



Introduccion 

Los paases Partes de la Convencion deben tratar a los Estados no 
Partes casi como si estos fueran Partes. En otros terminos, si iin 
comerciante de un Estado Parte desea importar una especie del Apendice 
II de un Estado no Parte debe obtener un documento equivalente al 
permiso de exportacion CITES. 

Cria en cautividad 

En la reunion CITES de San Jose, Costa Rica, 1979, se definieron 
las condiciones por las cuales los especimenes de una especie incluida 
en el Apendice I pueden ser considerados como "criados en cautividad", 
las cuales se especifican en la resolucion CITES Conf. 2.12. 
Resumiendo, esas condiciones son las siguientes» 

1. Los animales pueden solamente ser comercializados como 
especimenes criados en cautividad si nacieron en cautividad y 
si descienden de padres que se reprodujeron en cautividad (o 
en un "medio controlado" ) . 

2. El stock parental debe ser (i) obtenido sin perjudicar la 
supervivencia de la especie al estado silvestre; (ii) 
mantenido sin incrementos provenientes de las poblaciones 
silvestres, except© aquellos aportes ocasionales con fines de 
mejoramiento genetico; (iii) administrados de forma que se 
pueda ofrecer la prueba de que epe stock permite producir en 
forma segura una descendencia de segunda generacion. 

Conviene senalar que las granjas no necesitan producir descendencia de 
segunda generacion siempre que las tecnicas que se aplican hayan 
ofrecido la prueba, en otro sitio, de que se puede producir ese tipo 
de descendencia. 

Registro de establecimientos que realizan cria en cautividad 

Algunos comerciantes poco escrupulosos pueden abusar de esas 
reglamentaciones simplemente obteniendo animales del medio silvestre y 
vendiendolos pretendiendo de que fueron criados en cautividad. Por lo 
tanto es necesario establecer un registro efectivo de los criaderos 
reconocidos que producen especimenes de especies del Apendice I 
criados en cautividad. Esta necesidad fue reconocida en la reunior de 
CITES de Gaborone, Botswana, en 1983, donde se adopto una resolucion 
(Conf. 4.15) que recomienda que las transacciones comerciales 
relativas a especies del Apendice I criadas en cautividad esten 
solamente autorizadas para los establecimientos registrados por la 
Secretaria CITES. El registro se hace efectivo cuando la Autoridad 
Admini strati va CITES del pais de origen comunico a la Secretaria 
informacion detallada con respecto a la granja (informacion que se 
especifica en la notificacion a las Partes No. 223 del 13 de octubre 
de 1983) y cuando confirmo que se respetan las condiciones 
especificadas en la resolucion Conf. 2.12. Al memento de la impresion 
de esta Guia, solo se habian registrado cuatro establecimientos que 
crian cocodrilos incluidos en el Apendice I, uno en Madagascar, uno en 
Queensland, Australia, uno en Tailandia y el Qltimo en Transvaal, 
Sudafrica. 

25 



Introduccion 

Cr£a en gran j as 

Se ha reconocido que algunas poblaciones de especies incluidas en 
el Apendice I se han reconstituido debido a las medidas de 
conservacion/ por lo que ya no se encuentran mas amenazadas. Estas 
poblaciones pueden soportar un nivel de explotacion controlado y 
pueden por lo tanto beneficiarse de ello, Por tal motivo, se recomend6 
un procedimiento en la reunion de CITES de Nueva Delhi, India, 1981, 
por el cual algunas poblaciones de especies incluidas en el Apendice I 
que podian gozar de los efectos de la cria en granjas podlan ser 
transferidas al Apendice II (Conf. 3.15). La crIa en granjas se define 
como la cria en un medio ambiente controlado, de especlmenes obtenidos 
de la naturaleza, con miras a su comercializacion. Para que sea 
reconocido, el criadero debe favorecer a la poblacion silvestre y sus 
productos deben ser marcados para que puedan ser diferenciados de los 
otros productos provenientes de otras poblaciones de la misma especie 
incluidas en el Apendice I. 

Conviene senalar que, dado que existe un intercambio potencial 
continue entre las poblaciones criadas en granjas y aquellas que viven 
al estado silvestre en el pais, se las trata en forma similar desde el 
punto de vista de la Convencion y ambas pueden ser objeto de comercio. 
Corresponde a la Autoridad Administrativa local elaborar las 
reglamentaciones que permitan diferenciar los productos provenientes 
de animales criados en granjas de aquellos provenientes del medio 
natural. Sin embargo, en 1985 se adopt6 una resolucion (Conf. 5.16) 
que solicita que todas las condiciones establecidas en la propuesta 
original de cria en granjas sean respetadas por todas las Partes que 
realizan comercio de especimenes de la poblacion criada en granjas. De 
esta forma y dado que la propuesta australiana relativa a la cria en 
granjas de C. porosus estipula la prohibicion de vender pieles de 
animales que no se encuentran en una granja desde hace por lo menos un 
ano, las otras Partes no deberian autorizar la importaciones de dichas 
pieles. 

La poblacion de C. niloticus de Zimbabwe fue transferida al 

Apendice II en 1983 sobre la base de un programa de cria en granjas y 

la poblacion australiana de C. porosus fue transferida en 1985 sobre 
la base de un programa del mismo tipo. 

En 1985, en Buenos Aires se adopto otra resolucion con respecto al 
comercio de especimenes criados en granjas. La misma recomienda, entre 
otras cosas, que los productos provenientes de cria en granjas no se 
exporten hacia Estados no Partes ni hacia Partes que hayan formulado 
reservas con respecto a las especies que son objeto de una cria en 
granjas, y que no se acepten las importaciones de productos 
provenientes de esos Estados. Algunas connotaciones de lo que precede 
hacen que Australia no deberia autorizar las exportaciones de pieles 
de C. porosus criados en granjas si su destine es Singapur, que no es 
Parte, o Japon que ha formulado una reserva con respecto a esa especie. 

La reuni6n de Buenos Aires, Argentina, fue notable en el sentido 
de que se modifico el procedimiento para transferir del Apendice I al 
Apendice II, de las especies que fueron incluidas en el Apendice I 

26 



Introduccion 

antes de la adopcion de los criterios cientlficos a tal efecto y que 
evidentemente pueden soportar un cierto nivel de explotacion. El nuevo 
procedimiento preve el establecimiento de un cupo para cada pals que 
desea comercializar esas especies, dentro del marco de un plan de 
mane jo reconocido. Por medio de este procedimiento, la poblacion de C. 
porosus de Indonesia fue transferida al Apendice II con un cupo de^ 
2000 pieles. Las poblaciones de C. niloticus de los nueve paises 
africanos mencionados en el Cuadro 2 tambien fueron transferidas al 
Apendice II con los cupos indicados. 

Los programas de crxa en granjas poseen numerosas ventajas con 
respecto a la explotacion directa, ya que permiten capturas mas 
importantes de una determinada poblacion silvestre, producen pieles de 
mejor calidad y, con ellos, es mas facil asegurarse que se aplica la 
reglamentacion. Sin embargo, es mas dificil aplicarlos y necesitan 
capitales mas importantes. En consecuencia parece paradojico que las 
decisiones tomadas en Buenos Aires hayan eliminado ciertas ventajas 
economicas de los programas de cria en granjas de especies incluidas 
en el Apendice I - sus mercados potenciales son actualmente menores - 
mientras que el sistema de cupos para la transferencia de poblaciones 
al Apendice II goza de una mayor flexibilidad en lo que respecta a la 
disponibilidad de los productos en el mercado. 

METODOS 

La encuesta fue efectuada en 1983 y 1984. La Secretaria CITES 
envio una notificacion a las Partes de la Convencion con respecto a la 
necesidad de registrar todos los establecimientos que realizan la cria 
en cautividad con fines comerciales de especies incluidas en el 
Apendice I. La Unidad de Vigilancia continua del Comercio de Fauna y 
Flora Silvestre tambien tomo contacto con las autoridades competentes 
en materia de manejo de fauna silvestre de los gobiernos de los 
Estados no Partes. Tambien se establecieron contactos con los miembros 
del Grupo de Especialistas de Cocodrilos de la CSE, con las 
asociaciones de criadores y con otras personalidades que conocen el 
tema. Siempre que fue posible, se enviaron cuestionarios a las granjas 
mismas con el objeto de obtener informacion detallada sobre sus 
stocks, la reproduccion, la captura al estado silvestre, su produccion 
comercial y sus tecnicas de cria. Los resultados presentados en este 
documento provienen de las respuestas a esas encuestas, y tambien de 
materiales publicados y no publicados y de informes de prensa. En la 
Gula, los resultados se presentan por pais. 

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION 

Los paises y las especies mencionadas en el texto se enumeran en 
el Cuadro 3, el cual indica tambien donde se encuentran los 
establecimientos. Las especies mas intensivamente criadas en granjas 
son C. niloticus y C. porosus » estoes, en parte, el reflejo de su 
amplia distribucion, pero ademas el valor de sus pieles, ya que ambas 
son muy estimadas por la industria del cuero. 

27 



Introduccion 

Los efectivos de las principales especies que se encuentran en las 
granjas de tipo comercial se presentan en el Cuadro 4, donde se puede 
ver que el Alligator mississippiensis es probablemente la especie mas 
abundante, aunque C. niloticus y C. porosus alcanzan efectivos del 
mismo orden de tamano, los datos sobre esas especies son sin embargo 
bastante incompletes. El nCmero total de granjas se indica en el 
Cuadro 5, junto a otras informaciones relativas a su produccion. Se 
cree que existen otras formas, por ejemplo en Singapur y en Malasia, 
pero no se ha podido obtener ninguna otra informacion. De las 152 
granjas conocidas en 1985, menos de 20 existlan en 1974 y todo indica 
que esa rapida expansion continua. El plantel de cocodrilos de 161.603 
evidentemente tambien aumenta. El aumento del plantel debido a la 
captura de animales silvestres y a la reproducci5n en cautividad 
alcanza aproximadamente 72.000 cabezas por ano. 

Como es de esperar con una industria tan joven, la produccion de 
pieles es relativamente baja, los criadores tratan aparentemente de 
constituir sus planteles. Antes de 1979, mientras las granjas de Papua 
Nueva Guinea comenzaban a producir, las unicas cantidades apreciables 
de pieles vendidas por las granjas provenlan de Zimbabwe. Esta 
encuesta demostro que por lo menos 14.769 pieles de granja habian 
entrado en el mercado en 1983/84. Si se considera la hipotesis de que 
la mayor parte del aumento del plantel de granjas esta destinado a la 
matanza en un plazo de cuatro anos, la producci6n podrlan alcanzar 
60.000 pieles hacia 1989, aunque es poco probable que el aumento sea 
tan rapido. 

Finanzas 

Aunque los controles ejercidos, sobre la caza de cocodrilos en 
virtud de la aplicacion de las leyes juega sin ninguna duda un papel 
muy importante creando condiciones favorables al establecimiento de 
granjas, el factor que, en fin de cuentas, determinara su future es el 
exito financiero. 

Las compaiilas comerciales, se lo puede comprender, no estSn muy 
dispuestas a mostrar sus cuentas para permitir un estudio y, de esta 
forma, es dificil evaluar su rentabilidad. AdemSs, la mayoria de las 
granjas se encuentran actualmente en una etapa de desarrollo y por lo 
tanto se puede esperar que el balance sea negative hasta que no se 
alcance la plena produccion. Para cemenzar, parece entonces razenable 
examinar primeramente las granjas mas antiguas. 

Una de las granjas mSs antiguas del mundo es la de Samutprakan en 
Tailandia. En 1983, se decla de que disponia de un plantel de 30.0 00 
cocodrilos, pero solamente produjo 200 pieles. Financieramente es 
evidente que ella no podia solamente sobrevivir del producto de la 
venta de pieles, el establecimiento obtenia la mayor parte de sus 
ingresos de los turistas y pretendla autofinanciarse de esa forma. 

Tambien las granjas de los Estados Unidos, presentaban una mala 
relaci6n plantel/produccion, aunque ellas venden tambien carne y 
pieles, lo que deber£a contribuir a aumentar sus beneficios. Algunas 
granjas crean otras fuentes de ingresos vendiendo animales vivos a 

28 



Introduccion 

otras granjas y algunas cuentan tambien con los ingresos producidos 
por el turismo. Un analisis reciente (96) indica que el valor de un 
animal en el matadero es de US$200-30 0, mientras que los gastos de 
produccion, que comprenden la alimentacion, el trabajo y la 
adquisicion de recien nacidos, alcanzan US$85-100. Esto ofrece un 
beneficio estimado de US$80-192 por animal tomando en cuenta una 
mortalidad del 10%. Ante esto el costo del capital invertido, estimado 
a ser US$50. 000-200. 000 (40), cuyo interes tendria un valor de 
US$5000-20.000 al afio por cuatro anos antes de que ninguna produccion 
tomara lugar. Con las estimaciones mas pesimistas, un granjero 
necesitarxa pues vender 345 animales solamente para pagar el interes 
autres de recuperar su inversion inicial. 

El aumento del numero de granjas en los Estados Unidos de America 
fue lento hasta 1982 y se creyo que la causa principal en favor de los 
criaderos residia en el interes que existia con respecto a los 
aligatores, el cual podia solamente provenir de personas ricas y no 
interesadas en la obtencion de beneficios rapidos (123). Sin embargo, 
el aumento acelerado del numero de granjas durante estos dos ultimos 
anos, especialmente en Florida, hace pensar que se pueden esperar 
ganancias substanciales, si es que ya no se ban obtenido. Esto puede 
estar ligado al aumento del numero de recien nacidos, eclosionados de 
huevos recogidos en la naturaleza, disponibles y provenientes del 
Louisiana Rockefeller Refuge y especialmente del programa especial de 
Florida. 

Las granjas de Zimbabwe gozan tambien de un programa oficial de 
recoleccion de huevos y Magnusson (123) atribuye su aparente 
rentabilidad al hecho de que la mano de obra es barata y a que el 
aprovisionamiento en alimentos ricos en proteinas para los cocodrilos 
es poco costoso y abundante, ambos elementos podrian, segun ese autor, 
disminuir en el futuro. Varias de esas granjas tambien obtienen una 
parte importante de sus ingresos del turismo y de la venta de 
recuerdos para el turista (179). 

La cria en granjas de cocodrilos en Papua Nueva Guinea constituye 
un modelo que otros parses tratan de imitar y que contribuye al 
conjunto de la produccion mundial de pieles provenientes de granjas 
(Cuadro 5). Aunque numerosas pequenas granjas inicialmente instaladas 
ya han desaparecido, las que se mantienen son aparentemente capaces de 
realizar un beneficio, casi exclusivamente sobre la venta de pieles 
(85). Un analisis de la cria en granjas en Australia, que concierne 
tambien C. porosus , estimaba los gastos totales de adquisicion y de 
cria por animal a A$35-55 para un tamano de matadero de 5-6 pies 
(1,52-1,83 m). A este nivel, el valor de las pieles estaba evaluado a 
A$150-180 (192). 

Es evidente que la cria en cautividad de cocodrilos requiere mSs 
dinero, en lo que respecta a los gastos corrientes y de conservacion 
del stock reproductor, que el capital inicial necesario al 
establecimiento de las instalaciones de reproduccion, que la cria a 
partir de huevos o de juveniles obtenidos al estado silvestre. 
Magnusson (123) ha indicado que la mayoria de los establecimientos que 
logran un exito financiero son aquellos cuyos stocks de crianza 

29 



Introduccion 

dependen en su mayor parte de las poblaciones silvestres de 
cocodrilos. Por lo tanto, es un poco soprendente que las granjas de 
Zimbabwe y de los Estados Unidos de America realizan cada vez mas 
crias a parti r de sus propios planteles y la reproduccion es tratada 
cada vez mas seriamente en Papua Nueva Guinea. Esto puede explicarse 
por el hecho de que numerosos establecimientos dependen, por lo menos 
en parte, de los ingresos provenientes del turismo. Existe una 
verdadera semejanza entre lo requerido para satisfacer a los turistas 
y lo requerido para practicar la reproduccion, es decir animales 
adultos y de gran tamano y piletones seminaturales; y los importantes 
capitales invertidos en las nuevas granjas orientadas hacia el turismo 
demuestran que los financistas esperan, finalmente, ganar dinero al 
hacerse cargo de ese tipo de riesgo. 

La cria de cocodrilos y sus efectos sobre la conservacion 

El hecho de saber si la cria de cocodrilos es deseable desde el 
punto de vista de la conservacion origino una aniroada controversia. 
los arg\imentos en favor y en contra de la cria se resumen a 
continuacion t 

Desviacion del comercio 

Dado que existe un mercado para los productos de cocodrilos que de 
otra forma seria aprovisionado por la caza de las poblaciones 
silvestres, disponer de esos mismos productos a partir de animales 
criados en granjas podrxa satisfacer una parte de la demanda y reducir 
la necesidad de caza. Puede discutirse la cuestion de saber si eso 
ocurre en la practica o si los productos de las granjas aumentan 
simplemente la amplitud del mercado. Nonnalmente, el efecto principal 
deberla ser de orden economico; disminuyendo el precio de las pieles o 
reduciendo a niveles inaceptables el margen de ganancia ofrecido por 
la caza. Este efecto es particularmente notable cuando la operacion de 
caza es manejada pobremente y la poblacion silvestre se aproxima hacia 
la "extinccion comercial". Las pieles de criadero tienden a ser de 
mejores y de calidad mas uniforme que las pieles silvestres, lo que le 
ofrece una ventaja competitiva en el mercado, aunque puedan, por eso 
mismo, venderse a un precio mas elevado. 

Por otro lado se ha emitido la hipotesis de que si el comercio 
ilegal se pudo reducir con exito gracias a medidas de control, la 
demanda del publico tambien disminuira. Cualquier nueva estimulacion 
del mercado debido a la introduccion de productos de granja aumentara 
la demanda aun mas y renovara quizas la presion de caza sobre las 
poblaciones silvestres. Este efecto deberla tambien ser mas importante 
en los sitios donde el comercio ha practicamente cesado, en general 
para las especies incluidas en el Apendice 1. 

Ambos argumentos estan inf luenciados por la importancia relativa 
de los aprovisionamientos en pieles provenientes de granjas y del 
medio silvestre. Recientemente el comercio internacional de pieles de 
cocodrilos ha sido estudiado por Hemley y Caldwell (94) que 
encontraron que el comercio de las principales especies, excepto 
Caiman crocodilus , mencionados en los informes CITES alcanzaron por lo 
menos 82.000 animales por ano, aunque senalan que se trata ciertamente 

30 



Introduccion 

de una subestimacion. La produccion en granjas de 12.000 pieles ya 
constituye una parte importante de ese mercado y esta importacion ira 
en aumento. Sin embargo, la mayor parte del comercio concierne sin 
ninguna duda a C. crocodilus , ya que los informes CITES indican 
700.000 pieles por ano y que el numero real es probablemente superior 
al millon (94). Taiwan es el unico territorio en el cual esta especie 
es criada en gran cantidad, principalmente porque el bajo valor 
comercial de las pieles significa que el criadero es economicamente 
rentable solamente si se pueden comercializar otros productos. En 
consecuencia, es poco probable que la crxa produzca alguna vez una 
parte importante del mercado mundial de pieles de C. crocodilus, o de 
pieles de cocodrilos en su con junto, a menos que el comercio de pieles 
de caimanes silvestres disminuya en forma drastica. 

Control del comercio 

El control del comercio ilegal de productos de especies amenazadas 
de extincion se complica por la introduccion en el mercado de 
productos de granja adquiridos legalmente. Este problema fue tratado 
por las resoluciones CITES sobre la cria en cautividad (Conf. 2.12) y 
sobre la cria en granjas (Conf. 3.15) que recomiendan el marcado 
apropiado de los productos , con el ob jeto de que puedan ser 
distinguidos de los productos provenientes de animales obtenidos de la 
naturaleza. Sin embargo, siempre se teme que algunos comerciantes sin 
escrQpulos utilicen a las granjas para disponer de pieles silvestres 
adquiridas en forma ilegal, ya sea en forma directa a partir de la 
granja, o por medio de reexportaciones a partir de otros paises. 
Varies paises que poseen criaderos de cocodrilos elaboraron 
procedimientos en materia de permisos y de inspeccion cuyo objetivo es 
prevenir ese tipo de actividad, pero se ban senalado operaciones de 
"blanqueo" de pieles ilegales realizadas por algunas granjas. La 
presente Guia puede ser util para evitar ese problema ya que se trata 
de ofrecer un nivel real de los stocks actuales y de informar sobre 
los exitos efectivos obtenidos con respecto a la reproduccion. 
Cualquier produccion de pieles provenientes de granjas que sobrepase 
la capacidad de produccion reconocida o que provengan de paises que no 
disponen de granjas deberian ser investigados. 

Efecto sobre las poblaciones silvestres 

Si los efectivos de una especie disminuyen o si se encuentran 
amenazados de extincion al estado silvestre, la cria en cautividad 
puede tener un efecto de proteccion para una parte importante de la 
poblacion. Si la reproduccion puede tambien asegurarse, la poblacion 
puede aumentar hasta un punto en que puede ser posible la 
reintroduccion de animales reproducidos en cautividad en la 
naturaleza. Varies establecimientos que practican la reproduccion de 
cocodrilos ban logrado sin lugar a dudas alcanzar ese nivel, 
especialmente con las especies Crocodylus moreletii , Crocodylus 
intermedius y Gavialis gangeticus , pero siempre se trato de 
establecimientos orientados hacia la conservacion y sin intenciones 
comerciales. El unico establecimiento comercial que utiliza 
actualmente una especie seriamente amenazada de extinci6n, Crocodylus 
siamensis , es la granja de Samutprakan en Tailandia. La granja de los 

31 



Introduccion 

pantanos de Zapata en Cuba practica tambien la reproduccion de 
Crocodylus rhombifer y Crocodylus acutus , pero no se conoce el nivel 
en que esta granja esta concernida por el comercio. Sin embargo, no se 
ha podido determinar si es de desear la reintroduccion de animales 
provenientes de granjas, a causa de su alteraci6n genetica debido a la 
seleccion artificial o a la hibridacion. La granja de Samutprakan y la 
de los pantanos de Zapata ya poseen importantes planteles 
substanciales de animales hibridos. 

Muy raramente la cria en cautividad es totalmente independiente de 
la poblacion silvestre y a menudo es necesario la captura de animales 
silvestres, si no es para criarlos directamente por lo menos para 
adquirir un stock reproductor. De esta forma, mismo los 
establecimientos que aseguran la reproduccion en cautividad tienen en 
consecuencia un drenado neto, aunque reducido, de los efectivos 
silvestres. Una cria en granjas en pleno desarrollo captura muchos mas 
animales de la naturaleza, pero, aunque no realice ninguna 
reintroduccion, una de las condiciones principales para la aprobacion 
de un programa de cria en granjas de acuerdo con la resolucion Conf. 
3.15 es que deberia, como contrapartida, beneficiar a la poblacion 
silvestre, esto concierne solamente a las especies incluidas en el 
Apendice I . 

Proteccion del habitat y de las especies 

En el pasado, los cocodrilos eran perseguidos como animales 
per judiciales y a menudo sus habitats pantanosos se destruyen con el 
objeto de abrir una via a una utilizacion del suelo "mas productiva". 
La capacidad de los cocodrilos de producir fuentes de ingresos, que ya 
se ha demostrado, puede ayudar a promover la conservacion de 
poblaciones silvestres sanas. Esto se aplica en particular a la cria 
en granjas, para la cual el con junto de la operacion depende del 
mantenimiento de un stock reproductor silvestre pero, en mucha menor 
medida, las granjas que practican la reproduccion artificial pueden 
alentar la conservacion de efectivos al estado silvestre con el objeto 
de periodicas mejoras geneticas. El mantenimiento de una poblacion 
silvestre de cocodrilos se halla condicionado por la preservacion de 
su habitat, el cual es favorable a los otros organismos que viven en 
el mismo medio. En consecuencia, la atraccion financiera de la 
explotacion de cocodrilos reduce tambien la presion economica que se 
ejerce en favor del secado de las zonas hiimedas. 

Protecci6n cultural 

Las tecnicas de cria de cocodrilos en granjas pueden ser adaptadas 
a las condiciones de una tecnologia de pueblo para permitir la 
integracion de la cultura y de la economla de las comunidades rurales. 
Los programas de cria en granja de Papua Nueva Guinea y de Australia 
septentrional declaran como objetivo el ofrecimiento de empleos a los 
indlgenas. Frecuentemente , otros programas que tienden a obtener un 
ingreso provocan problemas a nivel social. 

32 



Introduccion 
Mezcla genetica y riesgos de enfermedades 

Los otros inconvenientes potenciales comprenden la introduccion 
accidental de especies no indlgenas o de razas geneticamente 
diferentes en la poblacion silvestre, porque algiinos animales se 
escaparon de la granja, asi como la diseminacion de enfermedades, 
propias a las granjas, a las poblaciones silvestres. 

PERSPECTIVAS FDTURAS 

En la mayoria de los paises que realizan operaciones de cria en 
granjas de cocodrilos parece que estos establecimientos aumentan en 
niSmero asl como en cantidad de animales y que la produccion de pieles 
aumenta. Los problemas tecnicos originados de la cria ban sido, en 
gran medida, solucionados, pero saber si este crecimiento continuara o 
si esta industria desaparecera depende de su rentabilidad a largo 
plazo. El nlimero de animales silvestres capturados en la naturaleza 
("cria en granjas") y el numero de animales reproducidos en cautividad 
constituye un factor importante desde el punto de vista de la 
conservacion. El numero total de animales reproducidos en las granjas 
parece aumentar y podria representar el 40% del numero total de 
animales que se agregan anualmente al plantel de esas granjas. A 
primera vista, esto parece alentador, pero merece un examen mas 
prof undo . 

La reproduccion en cautividad tuvo un importante papel en la 
conservacion de varias especies de cocodrilos seriamente reducidas en 
nCmero, pero se trataba a menudo de operaciones no comerciales. La 
cr£a en cautividad con fines comerciales, tal como se lo explica mas 
arriba, no es tan beneficiosa para la conservacion, y por lo tanto no 
deberia ser vista, como frequentemente es, como una alternativa a la 
conservacion del habitat. En cambio, la cria en granjas, puede ser 
mucho mas beneficiosa ya que requiere el mantenimiento de una 
poblacion silvestre sana as! como del habitat que la alberga (123) En 
esencia, difiere poco de una explotacion controlada de pieles de 
grandes animales; en los Estados Unidos de America y en Papua Nueva 
Guinea, los dos tipos de explotacion se llevan paralelamente. La cria 
en granjas presenta ciertas ventajas sobre la recoleccion directa ya 
que parece mas facil reglamentar, especialmente si, como en Zimbabwe, 
Estados Unidos de America y en Australia, la recoleccion de huevos es 
totalmente efectuada por personal del gobierno o bajo su estricto 
control. El mantenimiento por separado de un plantel en granjas ofrece 
tambien cierta garantia, en el caso de que hubiera un desastre en el 
medio natural o en el caso de que se interrumpiera el control efectivo 
de la recoleccion debido por ejemplo a la inestabilidad polltica. 

Por tal motive, la causa de la conservacion de cocodrilos estaria 
mejor servida si se estableciera un plan de manejo eficaz de las 
poblaciones silvestres, el cual comprenderla la cria en granjas, la 
recoleccion directa o una combinacion de ambas, en lugar del paro 
total de la explotacion al estado silvestre y el desarrollo de la cria 
en cautividad. El exito de cualquier plan de manejo de ese tipo 
depende totalmente de una investigacion de base minuciosa que permita 

33 



Introduccion 

detenninar los niveles de las poblaciones existentes y de la aptitud 
para conducir la explotacion en forma controlada. El alto nivel del 
comercio ilegal de productos de cocodrilos (94) hace pensar que el 
grado actual de control dista mucho de ser el adecuado en numerosas 
partes del mundo. 

AGRADECIMIENTOS 

Los fondos necesarios para la realizacion de esta encuesta fueron 
generosamente ofrecidos por la International Fur Trade Federation y 
por la UICN. La realizacion de esta encuesta no hubiera sido posible 
sin la ayuda y colaboracion acordada por las numerosas personas que 
respondieron a nuestras cartas y cuestionarios. Se hace referenda a 
esa ayuda cada vez que es posible y los autores desean expresar aqui 
mismo su inmensa gratitud. 



34 



Table 1 Species of crocodilian mentioned in the text, giving the English names 
and status in the CITES Appendices. 



Scientific name 



English names 



CITES Countries 
Appendix which hold 
reservations 
(July 1985) 



Alligator mississippiensis 
Alligator sinensis 
Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis 
Caiman crocodilus crocodilus 
Caiman crocodilus fuscus 
Caiman crocodilus yacare 
Caiman latirostris 
Melanosuchus niger 
Paleosuchus palpebrosus 

Paleosuchus trigonatus 

Crocodylus acutus 
Crocodylus cataphractus 

Crocodylus intermedius 
Crocodylus johnsoni 

Crocodylus moreletii 
Crocodylus niloticus 



American alligator ii 
Chinese alligator I 

Rio Apaporis caiman I 
Spectacled caiman II 

Brown caiman II 

Yacare caiman II 

Broad-nosed caiman I 
Black caiman I 

Dwarf caiman, Cuvier's II 
smooth-fronted caiman 
Schneider's smooth-fronted II 
caiman 

American crocodile 
African sharp-nosed 
crocodile 
Orinoco crocodile 
Australian freshwater or 
Johntson's crocodile 
Morelet's crocodile 
Nile crocodile 

(II in Cameroon*, Congo*, Kenya", 
Madagascar , Malawi , Mozambique , 
Sudan , Tanzania , Zambia , Zimbabwe"*') 









Austria, 




Zambia 






II 










Botswana, Sudan 




Zambia, Zimbabwe 



C. novaeguineae novaeguineae 



New Guinea crocodile 
Freshwater crocodile 



II 



C. novaeguineae mindorensis 
(=Crocodylus mindorensis) 
Crocodylus palustris 

Crocodylus porosus 

Crocodylus rhombifer 
Crocodylus siamensis 
Osteolaemus tetraspis 


Mindoro crocodile I 

Mugger, marsh crocodile, I 
broad-snouted crocodile 
Estuarine crocodile, I 
Saltwater crocodile 
(II in PNG, Australia*, Indone; 
Cuban crocodile I 
Siamese crocodile I 
W. African dwarf crocodile I 
False gharial, false gavial I 
Gharial, gavial I 


Austria, Japan, 
Thailand 
3ia*) 

Thailand 


Tomistoma schlegelii 
Gavialis ganqeticus 




* Subject to quotas 
+ Ranching programmes 




35 



Table 2. Quotas of C. niloticus skins which may be exported from nine African 
Parties where the populations have been transferred to Appendix II. 



Country Estimated population No. of 

of C. niloticus animals 



Cameroon 5 000 

Congo 40 000 

Kenya 40 000 

Madagascar 30 000 

Malawi 28 300 

Mozambique 202 000 

Sudan 250 000 

Tanzania 74 000 

Zambia 150 000 





20 


1 


000 




150 


1 


000 




500 


1 


000 


5 


000 


1 


000 


2 


000 



36 



Table 3 Species o£ crocodi 
a large scale, f: 
operations, s: mai 



lian kept in dif 
farmed on a smal 
nly conservation 



ferent countries. KEY ; P: farmed on 
1 scale, c: conservation/research 
but some sales may take place. 



p: proposed 


operations. 


?: 


Status 


uncertain. 




















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F . 


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p • 




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. 






. 








Botswana 




















f . 






• • 








Brazil 




P • 
















• 






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Brunei 




















. 






p . 








Burma 




















. . 






f . 








Cameroon 




















p ■ 






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p ■ 






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China 




















. 






• 








Colombia 




c 
















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. f 
















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• 






• 








Ethiopia 




















f 






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f 






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India 




















. 






3 C 








Indonesia 




















. 1 






, F 








Israel 




















f 






. 








Italy 




















• 






• • 








Ivory Coast 




















c 






> * 








Jamaica 




















> . 






• 








Japan 




















' • 






c 








Kenya 




















. f 






• • 








Madagascar 




















. f 






• • 








Malawi 




















• p 






• • 








Malaysia 




















• • 






. p 








Mali 




















. f 






• • 








Mauritius 




















. f 






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Mexico 


















. 


5 • 






• • 








Mozambique 




















. f 






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• • • • 


Nepal 




















• 






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c 


Pakistan 




















• • 






p 




. . . p 


PNG 




















. . 






, F 








Philippines 




















• 






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Rwanda 




















. f 






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W. Samoa 




















• • 






? 








Senegal 




















. p 






. . 








Singapore 




















• 






p 








South Africa 




















p 






• 




c . 




Spain 




















. p 






. . 








Sri Lanka 




















• • 






? 








Suriname 




















• 






• 








Taiwan 




















. p 






. f 




s 




Tanzania 




















7 






• 








Thailand 




s s 
















. . 






F 


s 






Togo 




















. P 






• 








Uganda 
USA 




c c 








C C 


c 






c 
c c 






c 


c 


c c 




Uruguay 






P 














• 






• • 








Venezuela 




. p 
















• 






• • 








Zambia 




















F 






• 








Zimbabwe 






, 










. 










F 








• 






• 


• 





Table 4 Approximate numbers of each species of crocodilian kept on commercial 
farms in different countries. "?" indicates species is present, but 
numbers unknown. 



c 








0) 








<v 








as 








-p4 








<U 








a 






m 


c 




m 


•r-4 


o 




•H 


3 


■rH 




•H 


••-4 


■H 




c 


O 


3 


M 


M 


.-H 


M 


(0 


o 


•^^ 


U 


3 


C 


(U 


m 


3 


w 


4J 


<U 


W 


(1) 


a 


>(-f 


i-H 


c 


O 


Hi 


o 


e 


0) 


m 


•H 


x: 


I-H 


> 


u 


(0 


■-< 


m 


■D 


o 


•H 


o 


O 


•H 


x: 


-H 


O 


■n 


c 


c 


a 


(0 


o 


g 


O 












to 




o 


W 


CO 


n 


M 


0) 




u 


u 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


(0 


o 


V 


<-t 


i-l 


I-H 


I-H 


r-H 


e 


JJ 




> 

■a 


> 


> 


> 


> 


o 


<a 


c 


■a 


■D 


•V 


■a 


4J 


o 


re 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


W 


-H 


E 


o 


o 


U 


u 


o 


• p-l 


•-I 


•H 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


e 


i-H 


<8 


U 


U 


u 


u 


u 





< 


U 


CJ 


u 


U 


U 


u 


i-i 



Australia 


- 


- 


Bolivia 


- 


? 


Botswana 


- 


- 


Burma 


- 


- 


Costa Rica 


- 


100 


Ethiopia 


- 


- 


Greece 


- 


- 


Indonesia 


- 


- 


Israel 


302 


- 


Kenya 


- 


- 


Madagascar 


- 


- 


Malawi 


- 


- 


Malaysia 


- 


- 


Mali 


- 


- 


Mauritius 


- 


- 


Mozambique 


- 


- 


PNG 


- 


- 


Singapore 


- 


- 


South Africa 


- 


- 


Suriname 


- 


7 


Taiwan 


- 


8000 


Thailand 


2 


225 


USA 


49022 + 


- 


Zambia 


- 


- 


Zimbabwe 


- 


- 



6612 



70 + 



4351 



900 + 



? 


- 


- 


- 


- 


150 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2000 + 


1630 + 


J 


120 


209 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1509 


- 


- 


- 


- 


454 


- 


- 


- 


- 




_ 


2385 + 


- 


10 


34 + 


- 


- 


- 


- 


88 


- 


- 


- 


- 


32 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


21000 


9000 


- 


- 


- 


? 


6600 + 


- 


24 


2204 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


300 


_ 


15 


- 


- 


1755 


7780 


85 



2798 + 
27704 



TOTAL 



49326 



8325 



6612 



35252 23000 26651 7780 



254 



38 



Table 5 Summary of most recent figures for the stock, annual production, 
breeding and wild-collection of commercial crocodilian farms in 
different countries. Where no production had definitely been recorded 
the date of expected production is indicated. 





Numbe 


r 


Total 




Current 


Intake 


of 


Farm-bred 




of farms 


crocodilian 


production 


egc 


is/juvs 


hat 


ichlings 








stock 




of skins 


from wi 


Id 






Australia 


5 




10 


963 






100 


7 


500 


c 


1 


043 


Bolivia 


1 






? 











- 









Botswana 


2 






70 


+ 




e 


2 


000 


c 




? 


Burma 


1 






900 


+ 




b 




465 






?.a 


Costa Rica 


1 






100 











- 






- 


Ethiopia 


1 






7 






f 




? 









Greece 


1 






150 


c 



















Indonesia 


17 


+ 


5 


701 


+ 




?.b 




? 









Israel 


2 






511 


















180 


Kenya 


2 




1 


509 











310 






56 


Madagascar 


1 






454 






7 











100 


Malawi 


1 






7 











- 









Malaysia 


11 




2 


395 


+ 




7 




? 






? 


Mali 


1 






34 


+ 




d 




- 









Mauritius 


1 






88 





















Mozambique 


1 






32 






- 











- 


PNG 


11 


+ 


30 


000 




7 


755 + 


4 


419 









Singapore 


5 


+ 


6 


600 


+ 




7 




7 






? 


South Africa 


12 




2 


204 






e 




137 






51 + 


Taiwan 


35 




8 


600 




2 


000 




- 




2 


000 


Thailand 


1 




10 


568 






200 









3 


085 


USA 


29 




49 


022 




1 


851 


8 


267 




5 


875 


Zambia 


4 




2 


798 


+ 




?.a 


9 


025 


+ 







Zimbabwe 


6 




27 


704 




2 


890 + 


14 


000 




13 


440 c 


TOTAL 


152 


+ 


161 


603 


+ 


14 


796 + 


46 


123 


+ 


25 


830 + 



? Believed to occur. 

No information 

3 Planned for 1983 

b Planned for 1984 

c Planned for 1985 

^ Planned for 1986 

e Planned for 1988 

f Planned for 1989 



numbers unknown 



39 



Conf. 2.12 * 

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES 
OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA 

SECOND MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 
San Jose (Costa Rica), 19 to 30 March 1979 

RESOLUTION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 

Specimens Bred in Captivity or Artificially Propagated 

CONSIDERING that the Convention provides for special treatment of 
wildlife that are bred in captivity and plant specimens that are 
artificially propagated; 

RECOGNIZING the need for the Parties to agree on a standard 
interpretation of those provisions; 

RECOGNIZING also the need to apply these provisions in a way that will 
not be detrimental to the survival of wild populations; 

RECALLING that in the case of wildlife these provisions were intended 
to apply only to captive populations sustained without augmentation 
from the wild; 

THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION 

RECOMMENDS 

a) that the provisions of Article VII, paragraph 4, of the 
Convention be applied separately from those of Article VII, 
paragraph 5. Specimens of animal species in Appendix I bred in 
captivity for commercial purposes shall be treated as if they 
were in Appendix II, and shall not be exempted from the 
provisions of Article IV by the granting of certificates to the 
effect that they were bred in captivity or artificially 
propagated; 

b) that the term "bred in captivity" be interpreted to refer only to 
offspring, including eggs, born or otherwise produced in a 
controlled environment, either of parents that mated or otherwise 
transferred gametes in a controlled environment, if reproduction 
is sexual, or of parents that were in a controlled environment 
when development of the offspring began, if reproduction is 
asexual. The parental breeding stock must be to the satisfaction 
of the competent government authorities of the relevant country: 

i) established in a manner not detrimental to the survival of 
the species in the wild; 



* This document was prepared after the meeting from document Com. 2.5 
adopted after being amended. (Note from the Secretariat). 



41 



ii) maintained without augmentation from the wild, except for 
the occasional addition of animals, eggs or gametes from 
wild populations to prevent deleterious inbreeding, with the 
magnitude of such addition determined by the need for new 
genetic material and not by other factors, and 

iii) managed in a manner designed to maintain the breeding stock 
indefinitely. 

A controlled environment for animals is an environment that 
is intensively manipulated by man for the purpose of 
producing the species in question, and that has boundaries 
designed to prevent animals, eggs or gametes of the selected 
species from entering or leaving the controlled 
environment. General characteristics of a controlled 
environment may include but are not limited to artificial 
housing, waste removal, health care, protection from 
predators, and artificially supplied food. A parental 
breeding stock shall be considered to be "managed in a 
manner designed to maintain the breeding stock indefinitely" 
only if it is managed in a manner which has been 
demonstrated to be capable of reliably producing 
second-generation offspring in a controlled environment; 

c) that the term "artificially propagated" be interpreted to refer 
only to plants grown by man from seeds, cuttings, callus tissue, 
spores or other propagules under controlled conditions. The 
artificially propagated stock must be: 

i) established and maintained in a manner not detrimental to 
the survival of the species in the wild, and 

ii) managed in a manner designed to maintain the artificially 
propagated stock indefinitely. 

Controlled conditions for plants is under an environment 
that is intensively manipulated by man for the purpose of 
producing selected species. General characteristics of 
controlled conditions may include but are not limited to 
tilliage, fertilization, week control, irrigation, or 
nursery operations such as potting, bedding, or protection 
from weather; and 

d) that the competent government authorities of countries exporting 
live animals, parts and derivatives of specimens bred in 
captivity of species listed in Appendix I endeavour, where 
possible, to ensure that these be made identifiable by means 
other than documentation alone. 



42 



Conf. 3.15 * 

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES 
OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA 

THIRD MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 
New Delhi (India), 25 February to 8 March 1981 

RESOLUTION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 

Ranching 

CONSIDERING that the provisions of Article III of the Convention 
control international commercial trade in specimens of species 
included in Appendix I; 

RECOGNIZING that this control of trade in species included in Appendix 
I is intended to improve the status of their wild populations; 

RECOGNIZING that as a result of this control, the population of 
species included in Appendix I may vary between the countries in which 
they occur in the degree to which they are endangered; 

RECOGNIZING the importance of maintaining Appendix I protection in 
those countries where the wild population is still endangered; 

RECALLING that the terms of the Resolution on specimens bred in 
captivity or artificially propagated (Conf. 2.12), adopted at its 
second meeting (San Jose, 1979), do not allow the entry into trade of 
specimens of species included in Appendix I which have been reared in 
captivity following collection from the wild; 

RECOGNIZING the desire of some Parties with successful programmes for 
the conservation of certain species to restore those species into 
international trade as soon as to do so is no longer detrimental to 
the survival of their wild populations of those species; 

THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION 

RECOMMENDS 

a) that populations of species included in Appendix I, which occur 
within the jurisdiction of Parties, but which are deemed by the 
Parties to be no longer endangered and to benefit by ranching (by 



This document was prepared after the meeting from document Com. 
3.12 adopted after having been amended. (Note from the 
Secretariat) . 



43 



-2- 



which is meant the rearing in a controlled environment of 
specimens taken from the wild) with the intention of trade be 
included in Appendix II; 

b) that, in order to be considered by the Parties, any proposal to 
transfer a population to Appendix II in order to conduct a 
ranching operation satisfy the following general criteria: 

i) the operation must be primarily beneficial to the 
conservation of the local population (i.e., where 
applicable, contribute to its increase in the wild); and 

ii) the products of the operation must be adequately identified 
and documented to ensure that they can be readily 
distinguished from products of Appendix I populations; 

c) that for obtaining approval for transfer to Appendix II of the 
country's population, or a smaller geographically separate 
population of the species involved, in order to conduct a 
ranching operation, the Management Authority submit a proposal to 
the Secretariat, such a proposal containing the following: 

i) evidence that the taking from the wild shall have no 
significant detrimental impact on wild populations; 

ii) an assessment of the likelihood of the biological and 
economic success of the ranching operation; 

iii) assurance that the operation shall be carried out at all 
stages in a humane (non-cruel) manner; 

iv) assurance that the operation will be beneficial to the wild 
population through reintroduction or in other ways; 

v) a description of the methods to be used to identify the 
products through marking and/or documentation; and 

vi ) assurance that the criteria continue to be met, with records 
open to scrutiny by the Secretariat, and that the Management 
Authority shall include in its reports to the Secretariat 
sufficient detail concerning the status of its population 
and concerning the performance of any ranching operation to 
satisfy the Parties that these criteria continue to be met; 
and 

d) that in order to be discussed at the next meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties any proposal for amendment of the 
appendices pursuant to this resolution be received by the 
Secretariat at least 330 days before that meeting; the 
Secretariat will consult with the Standing Committee in seeking 
such appropriate scientific and technical advice to verify that 



44 



the criteria specified under b) and c) have been met; if in the 
opinion of the Secretariat further information concerning the criteria 
is required, the Secretariat shall request information from the 
proposing Party within 150 days after receipt; thereafter, the 
Secretariat shall communicate with the Parties in accordance with 
Article XV of the Convention. 



^ 



45 



Conf. 4.15 

CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES 
OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA 

FOURTH MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 
Gaborone (Botswana), 19 to 30 April 1983 

RESOLUTION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES 

Control of Captive Breeding Operations in Appendix I Species 

RECOGNIZING that under the provision of Article VII, paragraph 4, of 
the Convention, specimens of species included in Appendix I which are 
bred in captivity for commercial purposes shall be deemed to be 
specimens of species included in Appendix II; 

RECALLING that Resolution Conf. 2.12, adopted at the second meeting of 
the Conference of the Parties (San Jose, 1979), precisely defines the 
expression "bred in captivity"; 

AWARE that any exemptions may lead to abuses, notably from states 
which are not Patties to the Convention; 

CONSIDERING that a uniform implementation of the provisions of the 
Convention is necessary for it to function well; 

THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION 

RECOMMENDS 

a) that Parties provide the Secretariat with any appropriate 
information on the operations occurring in their territories 
which regularly breed in captivity, for commercial purposes, 
specimens of species included in Appendix I to which Article VII, 
paragraph 4, of the Convention applies, or, if appropriate, that 
they inform the Secretariat that such operations do not exist; 

b) that Parties strictly implement the provisions of Article IV of 
the Convention with respect to specimens of species included in 
Appendix I originating from operations which breed such specimens 
in captivity for commercial purposes; 

c) that Parties reject any document granted under Article VII, 
paragraph 4, of the Convention, if the specimens concerned do not 
originate from an operation duly registered by the Secretariat; 

d) that comparable documentation granted under Article VII, 
paragraph 4, of the Convention by states which are not Parties to 
the Convention not be accepted by the Parties without 
consultation with the Secretariat; and 



46 



-2- 

e) that Parties collaborate as much as possible on the Survey on 

Farming and Ranching undertaken by the Wildlife Trade Monitoring 
Unit (WTMU); and 

REQUESTS the Secretariat to compile and update a Register of the 
operations which breed specimens of species included in Appendix I in 
captivity for commercial purposes, on the basis of the information 
received from the Parties and other sources, and that it communicate 
this Register to the Parties. 



47 



Crocodilian farming operations 



The following section reviews the status of crocodilian farming by 
country. Countries are arranged in alphabetical order. Wherever 
possible details of individual farms have been presented. 



AOSTRALIA 

Crocodile harvesting in the past has caused depletion of the 
crocodile populations in Australia. The saltwater crocodile Crocodylus 
porosus was particularly severely affected and the species was 
protected in 1971. As a result of protection the numbers increased and 
in 1983 the Australian Council of Nature Conservation Ministers 
(CONCOM) prepared a proposal for the fourth meeting of the Conference 
of the Parties to CITES, at Gabarone, Botswana, to transfer the 
Australian population of C. porosus to Appendix II supported by a 
ranching programme. This proposal was withdrawn prior to the meeting in 
the face of opposition from the lUCN/ssc Crocodile Specialist Group. 
The proposal was rewritten after the collection of further information 
on the status of crocodile populations and submitted to the fifth CITES 
meeting, at Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1985, where it was approved. 

The first crocodile farm was established in Queensland in 1973 and 
achieved captive breeding shortly afterwards. In 1984 it became the 
second farm in the world to be registered with the CITES Secretariat as 
a recognised captive-breeding operation. A further three farms were 
established in the Northern Territory and one in Queensland in the 
early 1980s. 

The Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, which 
carries out much of the research on crocodile biology, has supervised 
the wild-capture of the animals held on the three farms in the 
Territory. It has organised trials to quantify a sustainable level of 
annual harvest within specified management areas. A number of animals 
have been removed from areas in which they were considered a potential 
hazard to the public (51). 

All stages of the farming process are subject to regulatory 
control. Licences to farm are only granted to those with suitable 
experience, and require prior submission of farm design, husbandry, 
development and financial plans. Licensees are required to submit 
monthly reports of stock and are subject to random spot checks by the 
Conservation Commission. Permits are required to slaughter stock, the 
dates of slaughter being specified, and serially numbered tags are 
issued for all skins. Tag numbers are specified on permits for all 
skins exported. The Conservation Commission keeps computer records of 
all farms, which allows for checking of authorised stocks and skins at 
all times (192). 

A trial egg harvest for C. porosus has been proposed which would 
involve the taking of 4000 eggs a year for three years from the 
Northern Territory. These eggs will be supplied to the three farms in 
the Territory. No harvest is planned for Queensland. Hatchlings 
totalling 5% of the number of eggs collected must be made available for 
release at one year old should this be required by the Conservation 
Commission. 

A trial harvest of up to 200 juvenile C. porosus (0.6-2 m) was 
planned to assess the effect of this in comparison to egg harvest. 

Experience with rearing C. johnsoni has shown that 90% survival to 
slaughter age is expected. Some problems with feeding in C. porosus 
have resulted in survival falling to 50%, but the Edward River Farm in 
Queensland has demonstrated 80% survival with a minor alteration to the 
diet (192). 



51 



Australia 

Both species have bred on farms and it is expected that 100 nests 
of C. porosus will be laid on farms in 1984/85 (70 in Queensland and 30 
in Northern Territory), equivalent to 5200 eggs. Less than 5% of the 
eggs of later clutches are infertile although the percentage is higher 
in first clutches (192). 

All the farms are associated with enterprises which supply food at 
minimal cost. In 1984 Government economists re-assessed the long-term 
financial viability of farms and found them favourable, even given the 
prevailing depressed skin prices. The financial analysis assumed at 
least a 5% return of raised juveniles to the wild. A trial harvest of 
C. porosus eggs in 1983/84 showed that collection by helicopter and 
incubation costs amounted to A$5 a hatchling, and that the cost of 
raising each hatchling to a size of 5-6 ft was A$30-40. The skin of an 
animal of this size was worth A$150-180 in 1984 (192). 

Whitaker et al. (204) quoted the prices of dried meat and gall 
bladders in Australia as US$15 kg~l and US$245 kg~l respectively in 
1985. 



The operations 

Northern Territory 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocodile Farm (N.T.) Pty Ltd 

P.O.Box 4694 

Farm Site 

Darwin, N.T. 

Director: Mr Michael Hannon. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 (51) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The stock of Crocodylus johnsoni and Crocodylus porosus held in 
June 1984 (192) or December 1983 (51) was: 

Species Hatchlings Juveniles Adults TOTAL 
C. porosus 331 185 108 624 (192) 

C. johnsoni 1089 1194 96 2379 (51) 

2368 (192) 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm has not started production but expects to do so in 1985. 
Trade is expected to involve the export of raw hides to Asian and 
European markets (51). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The animals have been obtained as eggs, hatchlings and some adult 
'problem animals', from the wild under the supervision of the 
Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (51). 
BREEDING 

It was anticipated that C. porosus would produce up to 30 clutches 
of eggs on this farm in 1984/85. At a mean clutch size of 52 this would 
represent up to 1560 eggs (192). 



52 



Australia 

OTHER INFORMATION 

It was reported in 1983 that this farm was involved with the 
tourist side of the industry (187). The farm has made a substantial 
investment in tourist facilities from which some return is being 
realised (51). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Letaba Crocodile Rearing Station 

P.O. Box 2351 

Darwin N.T. 5794. 

Operated by: Hilton D. Graham. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation was established in 1982 (51). In June 1983 the farm 
was still under construction (88), but was in operation by late 1984 
(192). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The stock of Crocodylus johnsoni and Crocodylus porosus held in 
June 1984 (192) or December 1983 (51) was: 

Species Hatchlings Juveniles Adults TOTAL 
C. porosus 172 49 221 (192) 

C. johnsoni 1820 1820 (51) 

1707 (192) 

PRODUCTION ATID TRADE 

The farm has not started production but expects to do so in 1985. 
Trade is expected to involve the export of raw hides to Asian and 
European markets (51). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In June 1983 a small "nucleus" stock of crocodiles for Letaba 
Crocodile Rearing Station was being held at Janamba Crocodile Farm 
(88). All of the animals held were obtained as eggs, hatchlings and 
some adult 'problem animals', from the wild under the supervision of 
the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (51). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Janamba Crocodile Farm 

Box 92 

Humpty Doo 

NT 5791. 

The Director of the farm was Alistair Graham, but recent reports 
suggest that he no longer holds this post. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

November 1982 



53 



24 


838 (192) 





2589 (51) 




2389 (192) 



Australia 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The stock of Crocodylus johnsoni and Crocodylus porosus held in 
June 1984 (192) or December 1983 (51) was: 

Species Hatchlings Juveniles Adults TOTAL 
C. porosus 807 27 
C. johnsoni 2589 



PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins are to be produced but production has not yet started (86). 
It was expected to begin production in 1985 for export to European and 
Asian markets (51). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The numbers of animals obtained from the wild up to mid-1983 were: 
Adults Juveniles 

1982 - 3300 

1983 5 - (86) 

Survival rate of hatchlings was 100% until unsuitable diet caused 
a loss of nearly 9%, the problem is now thought to have been resolved. 
In 1982 the operation was based on the harvest of hatchlings but in 
1983 egg harvesting was to be tried as an alternative. 

Regulations are set by the Government to control wild capture (86). 
BREEDING 

None reported up to 1983, but the farm plans to be self-sufficient 
eventually. 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are kept in open-air enclosures with aquatic 
vegetation; feeding is on a daily basis with a mixture of poultry, fish 
and beef (86). The second partner in the operation runs a chicken farm 
which provides ex-production birds as the main food supply for the 
crocodiles (87). 
FINANCES 

The operation was financed by Mr Graham and a partner but is 
expected to become self-financing after production has been under way 
for a while (87). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research was carried out by Alistair Graham in collaboration with 
the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory (86). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

All wild animals in the N.T. remain the property of the Government 
so that control of the resource is entirely in their hands. Regular 
reports are made to the Government on all management activities, with a 
view to publication (86). 



54 



Australia 



Queensland 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Edward River Crocodile Farm Pty Ltd (formerly Applied Ecology Pty 



Ltd) 



Edward River, Cape York, Queensland 4871 
Postal address: 



P.O.Box 669 

Cairns 

Queensland 4870. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation started in 1973 and aimed 
commercial operation in 1984 (134). The farm 



to start production and 
was registered with the 



CITES Secretariat as an approved captive-breeding operation for 
Crocodylus porosus in November 1984. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus porosus , stock in 1980 (133): 

Age Category (Years) 

Source 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5 plus Total 



Wild-caught 


- 


- 


Wild-taken Eggs/ 






Farm-raised 


90 


27 


Farm-bred and 






-raised 


159 


25 



132 34 



18 



75 
87 



75 
388 
184 



Total 



249 



52 



132 34 



18 



162 



647 



In 1983 the number of C. porosus was 1006, plus 627 hatchlings 
(160). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation produces skins and live animals. In 1980 40 skins 
were produced under licence as part of a feasibility study for 
commercial production. When commercial production was envisaged in 
1980, a figure of 3000 skins a year was the proposed output and this 
figure remained the production target for commercial operations to 
begin in 1984 (134). It is proposed that all killing and skinning 
operations will be carried out on the farm and thus the farm staff have 
been instructed in the various skills required (133). 

Live animals have been sold to zoos, for research and to other 
crocodile farms. 

Live animal production 1980-83 (134): 

Year Number of animals Destination 



1980 
1981 
1982 
1983 



5 

10 
35 
20 



Zoos 

Zoos 

Zoos and research 

Breeding stock for another farm 



In 1980 40 skins were sold to destinations in Australia, France, 
Singapore and Italy. All live sales have been within Australia. All 



55 



Australia 

specimens and skins ace accompanied by required state and/or federal 
permits (134). The first commercial export of 100 skins to Singapore 
took place in 1984. 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The farm had received many wild-caught animals up to 1979. The 
operation was originally established primarily as a conservation- 
-orientated project; so most of the animals were eventually released 
back into the wild. In 1979 wild capture ceased and the operation 
became a closed cycle (134). 
BREEDING 

C. porosus have been bred on the farm for a number of years. The 
breeding stock of about 100 females is kept separate from the rearing 
pens and eggs are hatched in an artificial incubator. 





Breed 


Lng 


success 1980- 


-83 


(134) 


z 


Year 




Number bred 
in captivity. 






Number survived 
30 days. 


1980 






179 






140 


1981 






302 






267 


1982 






591 






561 


1983 






769 






741 


1984 






1043 






- 



The survival rate to 30 days has therefore increased from 78% in 
1980 to 96% in 1983. 

It is anticipated that 70 clutches of C. porosus eggs will be laid 
on the farm in 1984/85. At a mean clutch size of 52 this would 
represent 3640 eggs (192). 
HUSBANDRY 

The large breeding crocodiles are kept in a natural enclosed 
lagoon covering about 20 ha with a water area, when full, of 13 ha. 
Hatchlings after incubation are kept in tanks in a large shed until 
they start to feed. From the tanks the young crocodiles are then 
transferred to a series of 16 pens all with continuously flowing water. 

The crocodiles are moved through the series of pens as they grow, 
until an age of 2-3 years when they are moved to 'finishing' 
enclosures. These enclosures are 2.2 ha each with 1-ha water areas, and 
house the animals until they reach optimum size of belly skin width 
40 cm and 1.5 m body length (about four years of age). The creek 
systems are drained and swept out six times a week, whereas the 
enclosures are permanent water areas. Bore water is pumped into all 
enclosures in the dry season. 

The breeding lagoon animals are fed once a week, those in the 
finishing enclosures five times a week, and those in the rearing pens 
six times a week, on a variety of foods including wild-pig, scrub 
cattle and fish, with a vitamin and mineral supplement (134). 
FINANCES 

The farm is run by a private company (Edward River Crocodile Farm 
Pty Ltd) owned and funded by the Australian Government through the 
Department of Aboriginal Affairs. In 1984 the operation was not 
self-financing (134). 

56 



Australia 

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is carried out by Professor Gordon Grigg, of Sydney 
University, who visits each year for 3-4 weeks with some of his 
post-graduate students (134). 

In the past there have been other research workers including Steve 
Garnett of James Cook University of North Queensland who looked at 
various components of the farming operation (133). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The operation changed from Applied Ecology Pty Ltd to Edward River 
Crocodile Farm Pty Ltd on 1 July 1983. Applied Ecology used to be 
involved with a number of projects associated with wildlife management 
and the Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander communities, but this 
involvement has now ceased. 

The farm was established primarily as a conservation measure but 
later shifted emphasis to researching the viability of crocodile 
farming and the development of a commercial farm (13). It is hoped that 
as soon as production, processing techniques and markets are firmly 
established, the farm will be handed over to the Edward River 
Aboriginal community. The operation should provide direct employment 
for at least 15 Aborigines and would form the basis of the community's 
first major income-producing enterprise. (16) 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Koorana Crocodile Farm 

M.S.F. 76, Rockhampton Mail Centre 

Rockhampton 

Queensland 4700. 

Operated by: John Lever. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus porosus 111 

Crocodylus johnsoni 148 in June 1984 (192) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Production had not started by 1984, but is expected to involve 
skins and by-products such as gall bladders and 'musk glands'. The 
skins are to be exported to French tanneries (161). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Crocodylus porosus : native animals are collected after being 
declared rogue by the Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service. 

Crocodylus johnsoni : 200 animals (60 adults and 140 juveniles) 
were removed from the wild under permit in conjunction with a 
Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service research programme. It 
was expected that no further introductions from the wild would be 
necessary and that the operation would become a closed cycle (122). 

Pour C. johnsoni and two C. porosus have been obtained from other 
captive stocks. In July 1983 the farm was reported to be negotiating 
with Edward River Crocodile Farm to purchase 30 female C. porosus (161). 
BREEDING 

The C. porosus were put together for mating in 1983 for the first 
time (122). It is not known whether successful breeding occurred. 

57 



Australia 

HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are held in 25 concrete tanks with wire enclosures, 
7 dams (reservoirs) and one lake. All of the crocodiles are fed fish 
and poultry (122). 
FIHANCBS 

The operation is financed by a private individual and was not 
self-financing in 1983 (122). 
RESEARCH AMD PUBLICATIONS 

Research was planned in conjunction with the Queensland National 
Parks and Wildlife Service and the Capricorn Institute for Advanced 
Education (122). 



58 



BANGLADESH 
General Information ; 

In 1982 Whi taker (198) proposed the establishment of a central 
crocodile hatchery and nursery and four model crocodile demonstration 
ranches. The main species involved would be Crocodylus porosus and 
Gavialis gangeticus . Breeding would be carried out on an experimental 
basis. The major part of the operation would involve taking C. porosus 
eggs from the wild in the Sunderbans and rearing them for skin trade 
and release to the wild. It was proposed that the system should be 
established by the Sunderbans Forest Department with the central 
hatchery situated at Dhangmari, Sutar Khali, Chandpai and the four 
model demonstration farms at Khulna, Dacca, Chittagong and Sythet 
(198). As far as is known no steps had been taken to implement the 
proposal by 1985. 

The plan was to rear C. porosus to 1 m for release to the wild and 
to 1.75 m for cropping. The central hatchery would supply 6-months to 
1-year-old crocodiles to the Demonstration farms. The Demonstration 
farms' eventual output would be 250 skins a year, plus a number of 
yearlings for restocking the Sunderbans. Crocodylus palustris and G. 
gangeticus are considered unsuitable for this sort of ranching in 
Bangladesh because of their low populations. However, the Central 
Hatchery would hatch and rear some C. palustris from eggs collected at 
Bagerhat, near Khulna. The Dacca model demonstration farm would also 
hatch and rear some G. gangeticus from eggs collected at Rajshahi. 

A study of wild living crocodiles would need to be undertaken to 
establish a management scheme for Sunderbans crocodile populations and 
for identifying areas for restocking with farm-reared animals (198). 

In Bangladesh in 1982 it was estimated that there was a total 
captive population of three C. porosus , five G. gangeticus and three C. 
palustris (197). 



59 



BOLIVIA 

ASICUSA (Asociacion de Curtidones de Cuetos de Saurios), based in 
Cochabamba and comprising four companies, Tomy, Alligator, Dorado and 
Moxos, all involved in the tanning and processing of caiman skins in 
Bolivia, was reported in 1982 to be establishing a crocodilian farm in 
Bolivia (46). In 1983 it was claimed that the stock included 2000 
crocodilians comprising Caiman crocodilus crocodilus . Caiman crocodilus 
yacare , Helanosuchus niger and "another species of Caiman ' (47). 
However Quaino, Director of "Moxos" Alligator Ranch, Casilla Correo No. 
44, Trinidad-Beni, stated that his ranch was only in a very preliminary 
phase and contained only Caiman crocodilus i n 1983 (151). It is 
extremely unlikely that any breeding has taken place on any farm in 
Bolivia. A report in 1982 stated categorically that no breeding had 
occurred at that stage (46). 



60 



BOTSWANA 

Two farms for Crocodylus niloticus are reported to have been 
established since 1983 in Botswana: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Okavango Swamps Crocodile Farm (Botswana) Pty Ltd 

P.O.Box 448, Maun, 

Managing Director: John J. Seaman. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

January 1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus : 

In 1983 the farm held 70 adult breeding crocodiles, 80% of which 
were male. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

It is hoped to sell live animals to other farmers and zoos. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

70 adult crocodiles have been captured in local drought areas where 
they were thought to be under threat. It was anticipated that in 1984 
there would be another severe drought and facilities were being built 
to cater for a larger number of crocodiles. It was planned to collect 
2000 eggs a year over the following three seasons. It was also planned 
to reinstate 5% of the 1-m sized crocodiles into the wild (162). 

A number of crocodiles were caught in 1984 at Lake Ngami which was 
badly affected by the drought. Several nuisance crocodiles have been 
obtained after complaints of attacks on livestock or humans (144). 
BREEDING 

The crocodiles had just started breeding in 1983. It was hoped that 
the breeding stock could be built up to 300 over the next three years 
(162). Successful breeding was also reported in 1984 (144). 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in near-natural pools in a typical Okavango 
back-water area. Water access is from a main stream nearby. There is a 
dual perimeter fence made of reeds. The pens are 45 m long and 40 m 
wide covered two thirds by water of varying depths with islands and the 
natural vegetation (162). A temperature-controlled building is used for 
rearing hatchlings (144). 

The crocodiles are reported to stop feeding for four months in the 
winter when the temperature falls below 20°C (144). They are fed on 
donkey meat and catfish (162). 
FINANCES 

It is intended that most of the income will be obtained from the 
sale and export of live animals. Tourists are also admitted to the farm 
(144). The operation was not self-financing in 1983, being supported by 
private investment (162). 

The farm employs 53 local people (144). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is planned in conjunction with the Rockefeller Refuge, 
Louisiana, USA (162). 



Another farm was reported to have been established in Botswana in 
1984 by Mike Slogrove, the owner of a crocodile farm in Transvaal, 
South Africa (54) . 

61 



BRAZIL 

No commercial crocodilian farming has taken place in Brazil but 
I.B.D.F. (Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal) has 
initiated some experimental farming of Caiman crocodilus . One breeding 
centre operated by I.B.D.F. outside Manaus, the Centre Experimental de 
Criagao em Cativeiro de Animals Natives de Interesse Cientifico e 
Economico (CECAN), formerly held small numbers of Caiman crocodilus and 
Paleosuchus trigonatus but these have since been disposed of. 

Melanosuchus niger is kept in small numbers only by zoos and 
research institutes. 



NAME OP OPERATION 

An experimental farm has been set up in Pantanal about 150 km from 
Pocone, Mato Grosso. The project is managed by: 

Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (I.B.D.F.) 

Ed. Palacio Desenvolvimento, 12° 

70.000 Brasilia-DF 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Caiman crocodilus yacare ; numbers unknown 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibility of caiman 
ranching in the Pantanal. Eggs are collected from the wild, incubated 
and hatchlings are to be released later. Few results are available as 
yet. 

There is also some experimental work with capybara at the farm 
(154). 



62 



BRUNEI 



A combined fish and crocodile farming operation ( Crocodylus 
porosus ?) is under consideration. A feasibility study was being carried 
out in 1984 (43). 



63 



BDRMA 

Only one crocodile farm is known to exist in Burma: 

NAME OP OPERATION 

The People's Pearl and Fisheries Corporation Crocodile Farm 

(PPFC) 

Thaketa, Rangoon. 

Operated by: The Government of the Socialist Republic of the Union 
of Burma (63). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1978 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus porosus ; about 900 were held in 1980 (63). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The main aim of the farm is to produce skins but it is thought that 
in 1983 no animals had reached marketable size (158). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

Young animals are taken as hatchlings or yearlings from the eastern 
side of the Irrawaddy Delta where the PPFC has set up a number of 
collection centres. There is evidence that the total recruitment of 
crocodiles was being taken by the PPFC in the Tawbaing Chaung area 
(63). From 1978 to 1983 an average of 465 hatchlings were obtained from 
the wild each year (158). 
BREEDING 

The farm is intended to be self-sustaining when its breeding 
programme is fully established. Successful breeding was expected by 
1983 (63). The farm has recently been successful in inducing nesting 
but most of the stock of hatchlings continues to come from the 
remaining wild population in the Irrawaddy Delta (158). 
HUSBANDRY 

Young animals are kept in a series of tanks and there is a 1.5-ha 
breeding/nesting enclosure (158). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is to be carried out by U. Aung Moe, under the direction 
of U. Than Nyunt (farm manager), with possible help from an FAO 
consultant, in an honorary capacity, if necessary. The proposed 
research is into food quality and quantity required for maximum growth 
rates (63). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The crocodile farm is a large, modern, commercial enterprise 
modelled on farms in Thailand and Singapore (62). The PPFC has also 
proposed to turn Meinmahla Kyun, an island of some 50 square miles in 
the Irrawaddy Delta, into a 'crocodile sanctuary' where 
re-introductions from the the crocodile farm would supplement the 
remaining wild population and provide the basis for eventual sustained- 
-yield harvest (158). 

The farm was reported to be in need of technical and development 
assistance in 1984 (201). 



64 



CAMEROON 



A French/Belgian concern is reported to be planning a crocodile 
farming project in the Cameroon with the intention of exporting skins 
(43). 



65 



CHAD 

An experimental programme to evaluate the possibilities of 
crocodile farming ( Crocodylus niloticus ) was undertaken from 1972 to 
1973 under the auspices of the Centre Technique du Cuir, Lyon (119). 
The farm was situated at Djimtilo, a vilage near Lake Chad, and funding 
was partially supplied by the Centre Technique Forestier Tropicale 
(C.T.F.T.), 45 bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94130 
Nogent-sur-Maine, France (119). Although much valuable information was 
obtained during this experiment, it was not intended to be a commercial 
proposition but merely to assess the possibilities of breeding 
crocodiles under controlled conditions. It is understood that the 
experiment was discontinued in 1973 (188). 

An experimental crocodile farm was reported to have been started 
in 1943 but since the "recent disturbances" it is believed to have been 
abandoned (43). 



66 



CHINA 

A substantial investment has been made in alligator ranching/ 
farming by both national and local authorities in China. There is a 
growing number of operations, mainly intended as conservation measures, 
but there is considerable potential for sale of live animals or 
products derived from them (189). There are unconfirmed reports that 
sales of alligators may have taken place (29). 

Huang Chu-Chien (98) names five operations managing Alligator 
sinensis ; 

Name of operation Number of adults Number of juveniles 

Anhui Xuancheng farm 100 plus 380 

Chekiang Anchi farm 3 - 

Chekiang Changhsing farm 7 - 

Chekiang Ningpo zoo 3 11 

Shanghai zoo 10 27 



The first of these is the only one operating on a large scale at 
the moment. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Xiadu Commune Tree rarm 

Xuancheng County, Anhui Province. 

Operated by: Forestry Bureau, Anhui Province. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis ; The station held about 90 individuals, mostly 
adults, in July 1981 (89). By summer 1982 Huang reported some 130-140 
animals on the farm (190). In 1983 he reported the presence of over 100 
adults and 380 juveniles (98). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Chinese alligators are not known to be used for food or skins 
(190), but there are unconfirmed reports of commercial sales from this 
farm (29). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Peasant excavations of alligator dens are frequent in mountainous 
areas of Anhui Province. Animals captured are sold to dealers who, in 
turn, try to sell them to zoos or to the alligator farm. 

Local residents are being encouraged to bring alligators that they 
capture to the farm rather than kill them or sell them elsewhere. The 
farm will pay in excess of one yuan a pound (US$1.32 kg-1). Alligator 
eggs are also bought at one yuan each. It is reported that even eggs 
that have been rotated, and so are probably dead, are bought (190). 

Local workers are also asked to inform farm personnel of the 
presence of nests containing eggs within their communes (89). 
BREEDING 

No captive breeding is known but wild-collected eggs are 
incubated. Over 200 wild-taken eggs were incubated in 1981: 
approximately 40 hatched of which 24 survived until hibernation in 
October; 18 survived the winter but all died before the summer of 1982 
(190). In 1983 300 alligators were sucessfully hatched (201). 
HUSBANDRY 

In 1981 the farm consisted of two triangular concrete pools with 
sloping bottoms, c. 10 m x 10 m x 15 m (curved side), the maximum water 

67 



China 

depth being 2 m but not constant; several 'natural type' pools dug 
straight into the earth, each containing four to seven adult female 
alligators, and measuring approximately 4m x 5m x 3m deep but 
providing no cover for the alligators; and a large circular pool 30 m 
in diameter with a circular central island 20 m in diameter and stocked 
with 60 adult alligators and several turtles ( Chinemys reevesi ). The 
large circular pool has concrete walls and a mud bottom, with a maximum 
water depth of 1 m. The island has 0.3-m concrete pipes placed around 
its periphery in which the alligators shelter; it was also planned to 
plant the island with bamboo (190). 

The farm has no natural alligator habitat and no natural water 
supply above ground (190), but a large natural enclosure was scheduled 
for completion in 1984 (201). 

The alligators are fed several times a week on locally available 
freshwater fish and live ducklings (190). 
FINANCES 

The farm receives financial support from the Ministry of Forestry 
in Central Government (189). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm covered an area of 89 ha in 1981 but there were plans to 
increase this to 3335 ha (190). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

"Wan" Production Unit 

Cheunghing County (=Changhsing?) 

Chekiang Province. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis ; 10 adults (23). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers a total area of 500 acres of groves of bamboo and 
trees. Two acres of ponds have been fenced off as a production unit 
(23). 
FINANCES 

The farm receives limited financial support from the Provincial 
Forestry Bureau (189). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Ling Fung Temple Plantation, 

Ankut County (=Anchi?), 

Chekiang Province. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis : more than 10 alligators (23). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers 50 acres of bamboo groves, 1.2 acres of ponds and 
70 acres of paddy fields and open space (23). 
FINANCES 

The farm receives limited financial support from the Provincial 
Forestry Bureau (189). 



68 



China 

OTHER INFORMATION 

Another farm is planned at Yeehing Caves, Kiangsu Province, for 
the purpose of tourist viewing (23). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Shanghai Zoo 

Shanghai. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis 
BREEDING 

There has been considerable success in breeding Yangtze 
alligators. Five adults have had clutches of eggs ranging in size from 
8 to 41. Eggs are laid early in the morning over a period of about 
30-40 minutes. Incubation lasts 67-83 days. 

12 young were hatched in 1980 and 7 in 1981 (191). 
HOSBANDRY 

Growth rate varied with the feeding regime. Of three groups of 
young, the fastest-growing group reached 60 g in one month, 270 g after 
a year and 800 g after two years. Comparable figures for the slowest- 
-growing group were 24 g, 65 g and 230 g 

Adults were fed on fish and waste from a slaughter-house (23). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Ningpo Zoo 

Chekiang Province. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis 
BREEDING 

The Zoo has bred from one pair of adults. Eggs were laid on 12 
August 1982, and after artificial incubation the first hatched on 21 
October. After five days there were a total of 9 with a mean weight of 
29.5 g and length of 20 cm (23). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Beijing Zoo 

Beijing. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Alligator sinensis ; over 30 adults (23). 
BREEDING 

A single egg was laid in 1982 but it was hoped that breeding in 
outdoor pools would start in 1983 (23). 
HUSBANDRY 

The enclosure was reported to be extremely over-crowded in 1981, 
and barely suitable for 10 animals (191). 



69 



China 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Swato Crocodile Farm. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

Prior to 1981 (191). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Unknown 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Charoon Youngprapakorn of Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, Thailand 
reports having given assistance in the establishment of this farm (211). 



70 



(Institute de Recursos Naturales y del 



COLOMBIA 

No conunercial crocodilian breeding operations exist in Colombia, 
but there are two (formerly three) breeding centres for conservation or 
scientific purposes. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Estacion de Biologia Tropical 

Roberto Franco Station 

Villavicencio (Meta) 

Apartado aereo 22-61. 

Operated by: INDERENA 
Ambiente) . 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus intermedius ; two pairs (127). 

Caiman crocodilus ; 17 animals. 

Paleosuchus palpebrosus ; 12 animals. 

Paleosuchus trigonatus ; 5 animals. 
BREEDING 

C. crocodilus a nd P. palpebrosus have both bred several times at 
the station. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The operation is an outstation of the National University, in 
Bogota, and carries out studies on the biology of crocodiles and 
turtles, with the aim of applying the information gained to 
conservation (128). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Los Cocos Breeding Station 

Salamanca Island. 

Operated by: INDERENA (Institute de Recursos Naturales y del 
Ambiente) . 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus acutus : 30 were reported to be maintained in 1980, 3 
adults and 27 juveniles. 
BREEDING 

A breeding programme exists but up to 1980 had yet to achieve 
results. Eggs were laid in 1977 and 1978 but did not hatch (126). 



de Recursos Naturales y del 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Cienaga Grande Management Station 

Cienaga Grande. 

Operated by: INDERENA (Institute 
Ambiente) . 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Caiman crocodilus fuscus 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Apparently only a few animals were kept at the station, which does 
not seem to be operating any longer. Of these some were stolen by local 
residents who sold them in Baranquilla, and the rest escaped during a 
flood (126). 

71 



COSTA RICA 

A conunercial farm was being set up in the country in 1984 by a 
commercial company acting in conjunction with the Ministry of 
Agriculture. They had a stock of about 100 young animals, probably 
Caiman crocodilus , ranging from hatchlings to about three years old 
(153). 



72 



CUBA 

There are no commercial crocodile farms in Cuba but there is one 
large conservation-orientated operation at Laguna del Tesoro. A second 
conservation operation was established more recently at Tasajera, also 
in the Zapata Swamp. There are reports that some skins are sold from 
the farms. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Centre de Cria de Cocodrilos 

Laguna del Tesoro (Treasure Lagoon) 

Zapata Swamp. 

Operated by: Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera, 

Direccion Ramal de Acuicultura. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1965 (92) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The total adult population was about 1000 in 1981 of which about 
80% were Crocodylus rhombifer , 5% were Crocodylus acutus and 15% 
hybrids of these two species. 

There were also about 5000 immature crocodiles of a similar species 
composition; these were made up of about 2500 from the 1981 hatch, 1500 
produced during 1979 and 1980, and 1000 of older age groups (64) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Some of the large crocodiles have been slaughtered for hides (185), 
meat is sold locally and skins are exported (92). Considerable 
quantities of skios of unknown source are said to be exported from 
Cuba, especially to the German Democratic Republic (188). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The local populations of both species were moved to the operation 
to ensure their survival (185), Over the years almost 36 000 C. 
rhombifer have reportedly been removed from wild populations and placed 
on experimental farms (130). 
BREEDING 

The two species have inter-bred in the past, but recently attempts 
have been made to keep the two stocks apart. The breeding (and 
presumably mating) seasons of the two species show little overlap which 
must reduce inter-breeding. Female hybrids are certainly fertile but 
the fertility of the male hybrids is unknown (64). Most eggs are laid 
on islands in the lagoons. Up to 25 eggs are collected from each nest 
and hatched in incubators (92). Some eggs are hatched in semi-natural 
conditions, buried in soil in a hatching enclosure (64). When the young 
are born they are removed to rearing pens before being put back into 
the lagoons. It is reported that the mortality of the C. acutus young 
is much higher than that for C. rhombifer (135). 

In 1981 eggs were collected from 600 nests. The mean clutch sizes 
were C. rhombifer 35 eggs, C. acutus 48 eggs, and hybrids 42 eggs. The 
hatching rate for all groups was similar and averaged 46%. The total 
number of young hatched was about 10 000 (64). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers an area of 15 ha and includes breeding pens, 
rearing pens, brooding pens, infirmary pens and administrative 
buildings. It has a workforce of 23 people. Most of the adult 
crocodiles are kept in a large (8 ha) breeding pen, but there is also a 
smaller breeding pen containing only C. rhombifer , selected as having 
the best specific characteristics (64). 

73 



Cuba 

The animals are fed fish and scraps from a cattle slaughter-house 
and some rotted fruit (92). Small crocodiles are fed on fish 10-12 cm 
long three to five times a week; adults are fed twice a week. Freezer 
facilities are not available, the food being obtained locally and 
brought by truck as required (64). The young grow at about 1.5 ft 
(0.46 m) a year, and reach adult size at about 7 years (92). They are 
kept in small lagoons with natural vegetation and are separated by age 
class to prevent the older animals from killing the young (135). 
Mortality is high during the first year of life but decreases 
thereafter (64). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

There are no details of published research but many of the details 
quoted by Ottenwalder (135) are translated from: 

Anon (1979). Cienaga de Zapata, paraiso al Sur: reservorio de flora 

y fauna. Prisma Latinoamericano , July. 

Garrido, O. (1980). Los vertebrados terrestres de la Peninsula de 

Zapata. Poeyana , 203: 1-49. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The operation was set up to preserve the two species involved. Some 
of the C. rhombifer were moved to the Tasajera operation to breed pure 
individuals of the species (185). It is hoped to release pure-bred C. 
rhombifer into Zapata Swamp (92). 

Up to 200 tourists a day, mostly from Havana, visit the farm but no 
entrance charge is made (64). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Tasajera 

southwest of Zapata 

Habana Province. 

Operated by: Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera, 

Direccion Ramal de Acuicultura. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Thought to be 1978 or 1979 (135). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus rhombifer 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation seems to be conservation-orientated. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The animals were transferred from the farm at Laguna del Tesoro in 
order to breed pure captive C. rhombifer as the number of crocodiles 
produced at Laguna del Tesoro that were pure-bred was not thought to be 
sufficient (185). 



74 



ETHIOPIA 

In 1981 a proposal was put forward for a crocodile farm, expected 
to grow from pilot phase to producing about 20 000 skins a year within 
five years. Farming of fish, rabbits, rodents and fowl as food was 
considered. No further progress is known (43). 

In 1983 the FAO provided assistance to a crocodile management 
programme. Funds were made available in 1984 for a Government pilot 
rearing station at Arba Minch near Lake Abaya. Fishery wastes and 
associated culled wildlife were to be used as food. Construction was 
under way in 1984, and it was hoped to increase production to 1500 
skins a year in five years (43). 

The farm covered an area of 3 ha and was surrounded by a fence 2 m 
high. It included a block of 50 ponds for hatchlings, and incubation 
facilities were also planned. Suitable nesting sites around Lake Abaya 
had been surveyed and it was hoped to collect the first batch of eggs 
for hatching on the farm in 1985 (58). 



75 



FRANCE 

It was reported in 1985 that experiments were to be conducted to 
test the feasibility of rearing crocodilians in Provence using thermal 
effluent from a C.E.A. nuclear power station at Bollene, near Avignon. 
It was planned to conduct growth trials using 'young crocodiles" 
( Caiman crocodilus? Helanosuchus niger? ) imported from "Guyana" (French 
Guiana?). If these proved successful financial backers would need to be 
sought. The nearby tanneries of Annonay or Saint-Chamond were mentioned 
as being potentially interested (99). 



76 



GREECE 

Plans for a crocodile farm were reported in 1984 but recent 
information suggests that progress may have been delayed. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Crocodos 

Rhodian Crocodile Farm Ltd 

Tris Area P.O. Box 331.85100 

Rhodes. 
The farm is to be situated at Kalavarda on the north coast of Rhodes 
and is a subsidiary of: 

Clal Crocodile Farms Ltd 

5 Druyanov street 

Tel-aviv 63143. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Building was expected to start in 1984 but was delayed by 
bureaucratic problems. The first crocodiles were to be obtained in 1985 
(153). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus : about 150. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation is intended primarily as a tourist attraction but 
skins will also be produced. (153). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All the animals were to be purchased from farms in Zimbabwe in 
March 1985 (153). - 
BREEDING 

Breeding is planned when the stock is mature (153). 
HUSBANDRY 

Breeding stock are to be kept in outdoor display ponds but there 
are also to be some indoor ponds for rearing juveniles (153). 
FINANCES 

The operation intends to derive a large part of its income from 
tourists (153). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The Ministry of Agriculture in Greece is co-operating in the 
establishment of this farm. 



77 



INDIA 

General Information 

The Government of India initiated a Crocodile Breeding and 
Management Project as a conservation measure in 1975 with preliminary 
surveys being undertaken in 1974. The project operated until 1982 on 
advice from a UN/FAO Chief Technical Adviser with finance from UNDP 
(89). 

The project involves collecting eggs from the wild, incubating them 
and rearing the hatchlings up to a size at which they can be released. 
Thirty-four crocodile rehabilitation stations have been established 
throughout the country comprising 13 specially created sanctuaries and 
a further 21 National Parks or other sanctuaries, covering a total area 
of 20 399 km2. Crocodiles have been released in the majority of these 
areas. The numbers of each species handled under the scheme are given 
below (167) : 



Eggs 
handled 



Hatchlings 
handled 



Animals 
released 



Gavialis gangeticus 
Crocodylus porosus 
Crocodylus palustris 



6000 
2500 
9000 



4000 
1700 
6000 



1185 
408 
502 



Captive rearing or breeding schemes for crocodilians in India (167). 
X - species reared; A - breeding attempted; B - breeding successful 





G. qanqeticus ( 


Z. porosus 


Port Blair 


Andaman Nicobar 


• 


X 


Hyderabad 


Andhra Pradesh 


X 


X 


Nagar junasagar 


m 


• 






Mutta 


Bihar 


• 






Sasan Gir 


Gujarat 


• 






Banarghatta 


Karnataka 


A 






Neyyar 


Kerala 


• 






Peruvannamuzhy 


m 


• 






Deori 


Madhya Pradesh 


X 






Tadoba 


Maharastra 


• 






Dangamal 


Orissa 


• 


B 


Nandankanan 


m 


B 


A 


Ramatirtha 


m 


• 


• 


Tikerpada 


m 


X 






Kota 


Rajasthan 


X 






Amaravati 


Tamilnadu 


• 






Hogemnakal 


m 


• 






Masinagudi 


m 


• 






Madras 


■ 


• 






Sathanur 


w 


• 






Katerniyaghat 


Uttar Pradesh 


X 






Kukrail 


■ 


X 






Bhagabatpur 


West Bengal 


• 


I 


) 



B 
X 
A 
X 
B 
X 
X 



B 
B 
B 
X 
B 
A 
X 
B 
B 
A 
A 



78 



India 

More than 2000 eggs a year are collected for captive hatching by 
different state crocodile projects in India (89). 

Captive rearing or breeding is being attempted at the locations 
listed below, sites at which breeding has been attempted or successful 
are indicated. All of these schemes have been established since 1975. 
Captive breeding has also been achieved at five zoos and at the Madras 
Snake Park (167). 

The rehabilitation schemes which have taken place within India have 
shown the potential of C. palustris as a subject for commercial 
utilization through farming or free-range sustained-yield exploitation 
(89). Following clearance from the Indian Bureau of Wildlife, a 
proposal was under consideration in 1984 for the experimental farming 
of C. palustris under closed-cycle conditions (167). 



Selected operations : 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Amaravathi Crocodile Farm. 

One of two main crocodile rearing centres (the other being Sathanur 
Reservoir) of the Tamilnadu Forest Department is at Amaravathi 
Reservoir, where Crocodylus palustris has been bred since 1983. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus palustris ; about 600 reported (70). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Currently an experimental commercial operation to assess the 
feasibility of crocodile farming: it is hoped to commence production by 
1990 (165). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Eggs are collected from Dhuvanam area of the Amaravathi Reservoir 
and taken to the farm to be hatched and reared. 15 nests are known in 
the wild in this area (70). 
BREEDING 

The farm has a breeding stock of 8 adults, which produced 5 nests 
in 1983. This stock is from the 1975/76 wild-caught females. A low 
hatching percentage of 20-30% is thought to be due to the intense heat 
in the hatchery (70). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are reared in concrete ponds which are being altered 
as they are thought to be too shallow. Water comes chiefly from a 
percolation well. 
FINANCES 

The farm was set up by the Tamilnadu Forest Department. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

After the success of the Rehabilitation Programme of Gavialis 
gangeticus and Crocodylus palustris , the Government of India decided to 
make a start with crocodile farming (131). The current operation is a 
pilot project investigating the commercial viability of crocodile 
farming in India. It is likely that several of the other Indian states 
will also set up farming and ranching operations once the wild 
population is established (197). 

A proposed crocodile farm site of the Tamilnadu Forest Department 
is in Kilikudi Village, near Kallanai about 10 km from Tiruchirapalli. 
In 1974 the proposed area was described as follows: "at the proposed 

79 



India 

site is a three to four acre (1.2-1.6 ha) pond, 6-10 m deep. About 20 
crocodiles are believed to be naturally resident and breeding there, 
where they are protected and regularly fed by the Forest Dept. At 
night, they move between the pond and the Grand Anicut of the Coleroon 
River, about 300 m away." (193) 



NAME OF OPERATION 

The Madras Crocodile Bank Trust 

Vadanemmeli Village, Perur P.O. 

Mahabalipuram Road 

Chingleput District 

Madras-603 104. 

Managed by: Romulus Whitaker. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

In 1975 an Indian Government/FAO/UNDP project was started, to 
rehabilitate wild populations of crocodiles. Madras Crocodile Bank 
Trust was set up as an offshoot of Madras Snake Park (a non-government 
trust) in 1975, with help from the World Wildlife Fund (197). The 
Crocodile Bank Trust is situated about 40 km South of the Madras Snake 
Park. In 1977 the Trustees agreed to set up the Madras Crocodile Bank 
as an international bank to establish a gene pool of every species of 
crocodilian. This received the approval of the lUCN/ssC Crocodilian 
Specialist Group in 1978 (202). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus palustris ; 8 breeding females, 1100 immature (201) 

Crocodylus porosus ; 1 breeding female, 48 immature (202) 

Caiman crocodilus ; 4 breeding females, 109 immature (202) 

Gavialis gangeticus 

Alligator mississippiensis 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

This is a conservation operation. 465 C. palustris were supplied to 
State rehabilitation programmes from 1976-1982 (202). 
BREEDING 

The following breeding success has been achieved at the Madras 
Crocodile Bank (202) : 

Years No. of No. of eggs Hatching 
nested females produced percentage 
C. palustris 7 8 2433 63 

C. porosus 2 1 106 46 

C. crocodilus 3 4 341 33 

The C. palustris have been reported to produce two clutches of eggs 
within one breeding season, the size and hatching success of the second 
clutch being similar to the first (199). 
FINANCES 

Income from the entry fees of 25 000 visitors a month makes the 
Crocodile Bank financially self-sufficient. Crocodiles supplied to 
State projects and National Parks are paid for on the basis of their 
feeding and maintenance costs alone, at no profit (197). 



80 



INDONESIA 



General Information 

Crocodiles have been exploited in Irian Jaya for some time and 
there is evidence that the wild populations have declined through 
over-hunting (142). At the fifth meeting of the Conference of the 
Parties to CITES in 1985 a proposal was approved whereby the Indonesian 
population of Crocodylus porosus was transferred from Appendix I to 
Appendix II with the imposition of a maximum annual quota of 2000 skins 
and provision that they should all be tagged. 

A survey was carried out in late 1984 which ascertained that 
considerable hunting was still occurring in spite of the ban which was 
supposed to have been in force since 1980 and that several thousand 
skins annually were being illegally exported from Irian Jaya. Many 
local crocodile populations had been wiped out and most of the others 
were severely depleted. Crocodylus porosus was particularly severely 
affected as it occurs in the larger, more accessible waterways than 
Crocodylus novaeguineae (204). 

It is the expressed aim of the Government to institute a farming 
programme similar to that of Papua New Guinea (61), and a scheme was 
initiated in 1980 when legislation protecting the wild population was 
enacted. The project is being carried out under the title 'Crocodile 
conservation and industry development in Irian Jaya', involving a 
number of consultants, which started with a survey in October 1984 for 
an initial period of _four months (143). The purpose is to promote the 
conservation of crocodiles by utilizing them as a resource to benefit 
the indigenous communities. The primary aim is to establish the most 
suitable areas to set up collecting farms, determine the numbers of 
crocodiles that will need to be collected, investigate the economics, 
and recommend appropriate legislation. It is proposed that skin 
exporters will only be able to obtain live crocodiles from collection 
farms, and that strict quotas will be set for the exploitation (34). 

Farming was started in 1976, but the Government stopped further 
expansion until the ability of wild stocks to support a farming 
industry had been assessed. The system relies on the capture of young 
crocodiles from the wild, and rearing them until they are large enough 
to slaughter. In 1980 there were 4000-5000 crocodiles on farms in Irian 
Jaya. The farms were reported to be of varying size and were, on the 
whole, poorly managed and uneconomic. Most of the farms started because 
the Government obliged all companies wanting to export skins, to 
operate a crocodile farm. Therefore economics have not been of prime 
importance, but rather the farms have been established to comply with 
Government regulations. However, by 1980 it had been realised that 
farms would have to be more efficient as the wild population would not 
support indiscriminate hunting indefinitely. At that time it was found 
that management was poor on the existing farms, that pen design and 
general health of the crocodiles was only fair and that there was a 
great need for management training and advice (121). 

The next survey, conducted in late 1984, reported a total 
population of 4051 crocodiles on 12 major farms in Irian Jaya but with 
no indication of the species composition. The survey concluded that the 
survival of the crocodile population depended on the establishment of 
an adequately controlled ranching programme. Initially it was 

81 



Indonesia 

recommended that the scheme should be confined to C. novaeguineae , as 
the C. porosus populations were too severely depleted to sustain any 
exploitation. Three large rearing farms should be established in 
Merauke, Jayapura and Sorong, each to house 5000-10 000 crocodiles. A 
scheme to buy 7000-10 000 young C. novaeguineae annually from villagers 
and take them to about 25 collecting farms should be established, and 
the villagers should be given shares in the farms to provide them with 
a long-term interest. Resources of trash fish available were assessed 
to be adequate for such a scheme (101). 

Everywhere in the Mamberamo delta and along the river up to 
Kasonoweja (Pioniersbivak) local people were reported in 1979 to keep 
crocodiles in often very dirty enclosures fenced by corrugated iron 
(112). Scattered small-scale enclosures were also mentioned in 1984 
(101). Skins of crocodiles reared by the villagers are often bought by 
the local government employees who then sell them to the large trading 
companies. The main centres for crocodile hunting in the area are 
Merauke, Jayapura, and Serui on the island of Japen (112). 

Most of the skins exported go to Singapore; in 1980 the average 
skin size exported was 15.5 inches (38 cm) belly width; of these skins 
10% were Crocodylus porosus and 90% Crocodylus novaeguineae (121). 

The prices quoted in Paris in 1984 for salted skins were US$9 and 
US$12 per inch belly width (US$3.54 and US$4.72 cm"!) for C. 
novaeguineae and C. porosus respectively. It «i/as estimated that the 
sale of by-products could increase the value of each crocodile by a 
further 30% (101). 

According to official figures in the proposal submitted to the 
fifth CITES Meeting (32) the annual totals of skins exported from 1980 
to 1983 were 4953, 200, 360 and 1180 . There are indications that the 
true level of exports was considerably higher than this (101). It has 
been reported that rearing farms are "obliged to release to the wild 
habitat at least 10% of their rearing products, and they are obliged to 
develop themselves fully into breeding farms" (32). There is no 
evidence that any deliberate releases have taken place and no breeding 
taking place on farms in Irian Jaya (143), although limited breeding 
has been reported in Java. The survey in 1984 concluded that none of 
the farms in Irian Jaya was commercially viable, and that the most of 
the skins exported were from the wild (101). 

A list of 15 registered crocodile farming companies was supplied 
by the Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in 
1984, 12 in Irian Jaya and 3 in Sumatra (157): 

1. C.V. Kiman Raya, Jl. Raya Mandala 14, Merauke, Irian Jaya. 

2. P.T. Wana Nusantara, Jl. Raya Mandala, Merauke, Irian Jaya. 

3. P.T. Buma Kumawa, Jl. Izak Telussa 16, Fakfak, Irian Jaya. 

4. C.V. Doom, Jl. Trikora, Sorong, Irian Jaya. 

5. C.V. Sinar Asahan, Jl. Sam Ratulangi, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

6. C.V. Skyline Raya, Jl. Pembangunan 11, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

7. C.V. Sinar Moy, Jl. Burung Kakatua 5071 Remu, Sorong, Irian Jaya. 

8. C.V. Bintang Dial, Jl. Kalibaru Apo 37, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

9. C.V. Jaya Abadi, Jl. Raya Mandala, Merauke, Irian Jaya. 

10. P.T. Jaya Agung, Jl. Raya Mandala, Merauke, Irian Jaya. 

11. C.V. Manturi, Bintuni, Manokwari, Irian Jaya. 

12. Fa. Giat Maju, Jl. Pemuda Nabire, Irian Jaya. 

13. Allan Ruswan, Jl. Ampelas 1-A, Medan, Sumatera Utara. 

14. C.V. stock Borsuma, Jl. Kartini 4-A, Palembang, Sumatera Selatan. 

82 



Indonesia 

15. C.V. Reptil Corporation, Jl. H.z. Arifin Dalam No. 116-A, Medan, 
Sumatera Utara. 

It was reported that three of the registered farms (presumably 
numbers 1, 2 and 4) in Irian Jaya were not operational in 1984, but 
other farms were reported to be in existence (101). 

The total number of crocodile farms in Indonesia is thus thought 
to be in excess of 17 farms, comprising something over 12 in Irian 
Jaya, three in Sumatra, one in Java, one in the Mentawai Islands and 
possibly a few in Kalimantan. 



83 



Indonesia 

Irian Jaya 

The following operations were described in surveys of Irian Jaya 
conducted in 1980 and 1984, the species involved were C. porosus and/or 
C. novaeguineae . There is some confusion of identifying the individual 
farms and relating them to those listed above. 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: P.T. Buma Kumawa. 

Jl. Izak Telussa 16, Fakfak, Irian Jaya (157). 

Located at: Sarmi, Jayapura District (101) (see no. 3 in list?) 
P.T. Buma Kumawa was given an address in Fakfak by the Director Gereral 
of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (157), but the company was 
reported to be operating a farm in the Jayapura district in 1984 (101). 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

60 animals were kept in 1984 (101). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Sinar Asahan. 

Jl. Sam Ratulangi, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Sentani. (see no. 5 in list) 

(C.V. Sinar Asahan formerly operated a second farm in the Jayapura 
district, see below). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be operating in 1978 (101). ' 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1978 the stock was reported to be 1165 (101). 350 animals were 
kept in 1980 (121), but only 260 in 1984 (101). 
TRADE 

Between November 1976 and November 1977 C.V. sinar Asahan (an 
export firm) sold 15 828 inches (40 293 cm) of hide to Singapore (112). 
It is not known whether this was from wild-caught animals or from farms. 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were kept in 8 ponds of concrete and iron with 
concrete feeding platforms. The water was changed by natural flow into 
the swamp. Management was reported to be fair and the stock looked 
healthy in 1980, but there were problems with theft of crocodiles (121). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Skyline Raya. 

Jl. Pembangunan 11, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Jayapura. (see no. 6 in list) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

800 animals were kept in 1980 (121). By 1984 the stock had 
increased to 2000 (101). It was hoped that the operation would 
eventually expand to 10 000 animals (121). 



84 



Indonesia 

TRADE 

It was claimed in 1980 that the farm did not buy skins (121). 
HUSBANDRY 

The diet consists of chicken offal from an adjoining poultry 
production operation. The farm was reported to have a good layout with 
concrete and brick pens. Breeding was planned and the level of 
management was described as "fair" in 1980 (121). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Sinar Moy. 

Jl. Burung Kakatua, 5071 Remu, Sorong, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Sorong (see no. 7 in list) 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

7 animals were kept in 1984 (101). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. eintang Diai. 

Jl. Kalibaru Apo 37, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Dabra (see no. 8 in list) 
DATE OF establishment" 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121), 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

43 animals were kept in 1984 (101). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Jaya Abadi. 

Jl. Raya Mandala, Merauke, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Okaba, Merauke. (see no. 9 in list) 
The company was reported to own another farm at Kepi with approximately 
100 crocodiles in 1980 (121). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be operating in 1978 (101). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1978 the stock was reported to be 352 (101). 417 animals were 
kept in 1980, 70% C. novaeguineae and 30% C. porosus (121). In 1984 the 
stock was not inspected, but was estimated to be about 400 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

In 1980 the farm was reported to be poorly managed and to have 
experienced thefts (121). 



85 



Indonesia 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Jaya Agung. 

Jl. Raya Mandala, Merauke, P.O. Box 223, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Kimaam (101), (Kumbis, P. Dolok (121)?) Merauke. (see 
no. 10 in list) 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

Established in 1976 (121), although it has been reported that this 
farm had been authorised by the Government to breed crocodiles as early 
as 1974 (42). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1978 the stock was reported to be 200 (101). 300 animals were 
kept in 1980, 40% C. novaeguineae and 60% C. porosus (121). In 1984 the 
stock was not inspected, but was estimated to be about 600 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were kept in well designed pens of earth and 
concrete/brick in 1980; management was fair (121). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: Fa. Giat Maju. 

Jl. Pemuda Nabire, Irian Jaya. 

Located at: Nabire, Paniai District, (see no. 12 in list) 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

19 animals were kept in 1984 (101). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: P.T. Pengkaran Rakyat, 

Located at: Sikari, Jayapura. Irian Jaya. 
This farm was apparently not registered with the Director General of 
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in 1984 (157). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1984 the stock was not inspected, but was estimated to be about 
400 (101). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Nikmat. 

Located at: Merauke. Irian Jaya. 
This farm was apparently not registered with the Director General of 
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in 1984 (157). 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1984 the stock was reported to be 187 (101). 



86 



Indonesia 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: Fa. Modan Baru, 

Located at: Sorong. Irian Jaya. 
This farm was apparently not registered with the Director General of 
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in 1984 (157). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1984 the stock was reported to be 15 (101). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: Toko Sulawesi, 

Located at: Kaimana, Fak Fak. Irian Jaya. 
This farm was apparently not registered with the Director General of 
Forest Protection and Nature Conservation in 1984 (157). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

There was no record of this farm in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1984 the stock was reported to be 25 (101). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.VT Siola Jaya. 

Located at: Jayapura. Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

200 crocodiles were kept in 1980, and the farm hoped eventually to 
house 2000 animals (121). There are no indications that this farm was 
continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals were kept in small concrete pens. Management level was 
reported to be poor and the crocodiles were unhealthy (121). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Siola Jaya. 

Located at: Mudie. Irian Jaya. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1976. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

2000 crocodiles were kept in 1980. The farm hoped to expand to 
5000 animals (121). There are no indications that this farm was 
continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The ponds were constructed of plastic covered by iron wood. The 
farm employed 10 permanent labourers and 140 contract hunters for skins 
and live crocodiles (121). 



87 



Indonesia 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Operator unknown. 

Sentani, Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

100 animals were kept in 1980 (121). There are no indications that 
this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were brought from Mamberamo. They were fed with 
fish (tilapia) which had to be purchased. Management was reported to be 
poor (121). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. sinar Asahan. 

Jayapura, Irian Jaya. 
This is the second of two farms operated by C.V. Sinar Asahan reported 
in 1980. The company was reported (101) as operating only one farm in 
1984, at Sentani, Jayapura (see above). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

250 animals were kept in 1980, mainly C. novaeguineae (121). There 
are no indications that this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 
(101). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins. The farm bought young crocodiles at 5- to 8-inch (13- to 
20-cm) belly width and slaughtered them at a belly width of about 12 
inches (30 cm) 18-24 months later (121). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

These came from local wild populations. In October 1977 the farm 
received 200 young crocodiles from the Mamberamo area (112). 
HUSBANDRY 

The pens were made of brick and concrete, management level was 
described as fair. The diet consisted of fish which was purchased 
locally (121). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: a resident army officer. 

Kimam, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

25 animals were kept in 1980 (121). There are no indications that 
this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were kept in a 'back-yard pond', the water being 
changed only when it rained. Management was reported to be poor. Food 
was purchased from local villagers (121). 



88 



Indonesia 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Bangun Jaya. 

Merauke, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

50 animals were kept in 1980. The owner hoped to expand to 500-600 
animals (121). There are no indications that this farm was continuing 
to operate in 1984 (101). 
TRADE 

It was claimed in 1980 that the farm did not buy skins (121). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm had concrete-walled pens capable of accommodating 1000 
crocodiles but claimed to have been limited by the Government. 
Management was reported to be fair (121). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: C.V. Sumber Usaha. 

Merauke, Irian Jaya. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "only new" in 1980 (121). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

230 animals were kept in 1980, 50% C. novaeguineae and 50% c. 
porosus (121). There are no indications that this farm was continuing 
to operate in 1984 (lOJ.). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were kept in brick pens. The water supply from a 
well was "insufficient". Mortality rate was 5-7%, management reported 
to be fair (121). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: Roger Fidelis. 

Sorong, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

85 animals were kept in 1980 (121). There are no indications that 
this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The crocodiles were collected from the Vogelkop area. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm was built to accommodate 600 crocodiles. The diet 
consisted of chicken offal and fish. Management was reported to be good 
and the crocodiles healthy. Water was supplied by tidal ebb and flow 
(121). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: P.T. Pabnuamakmur. 

Sorong, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

115 animals were kept in 1980, mainly C. porosus (121). There are 
no indications that this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 

89 



Indonesia 

HUSBANDRY 

The operation was run in conjunction with a poultry and pig farm. 
There were 12 pens with space for 600 animals. Management was reported 
to be good and the crocodiles healthy (121). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: Aken Tjong Min Liang, 

Merauke, Irian Jaya. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

30 animals were kept in 1980 (121). There are no indications that 
this farm was continuing to operate in 1984 (101). 
HUSBANDRY 

The operation was not thought to have potential owing to the 
expense of purchasing food and water. Management was reported to be 
poor but the crocodiles were healthy (121). 



90 



Indonesia 
Java 

There are a few rearing farms in the vicinity of Jakarta, which 
are dependent on eggs and young taken from the wild. Very little 
breeding takes place on these farms (112). 

Details of one farm at Yayasan were given in 1980 when it was 
reported that relocation was being considered (121). It is thought that 
this may now have been achieved and that the new farm is located at 
Pluit, North Jakarta. Details of both sites are given: 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Jakarta Crocodile Farm 

Yayasan, Jakarta, Java. 

Operated by: Lukman Arifin. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

1959 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1980 it was reported that 500-600 crocodiles were being held, 
including 120 Tomistoma schlegelii , some C. porosus and C. siamensis 
(121). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation derived income from tourists and from sale of live 
animals. No details of skin production were obtained (121). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

90% of the animals were obtained from Sumatra and Kalimantan. They 
were purchased at 40=-70 cm length but the smallest of these usually 
died (121). 
BREEDING 

In 1978 large numbers of eggs were laid but few hatched and none 
survived two weeks. In 1979 the eggs laid were transferred to 
artificial nests but only 15 hatched; several of the hatchlings died 
and the remainder were being kept in an open plastic bucket and were 
looking week. They had deformities indicative of incorrect nest 
temperatures. It was reported that the owner's knowledge of crocodile 
biology was not sufficient to succeed with crocodile propagation. It 
was thought that the farm would have to be relocated in order to 
succeed with a breeding progranune, as the existing facilities were 
inadequate (121). 
HUSBANDRY 

The ponds were of insufficient depth and much fighting occurred. 
The nesting boxes were too small and contained little nesting material. 
Breeding C. porosus and C. siamensis were being kept together under 
crowded conditions (121). 
FINANCES 

The farm was open to the public and claimed to have an attendance 
of 4000 a week (121). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The stock was thought to have great potential for breeding and 
production, however both the management and conditions in 1980 were 
unsuitable (121). 



91 



Indonesia 

It was reported that a new crocodile farm had been created at 
Pluit, North Jakarta (24). It is not clear whether this replaced the 
farm at Yayasan, but this is thought to be the case as it was also run 
by Mr Arifin: 

NAME OP OPERATION 

? Crocodile Farm 

Pluit, North Jakarta, Java. 

Operated by: Mr Arifin. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was planned by and received approval from the Governor in 
1976 (24). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1984 there were reported to be 500 crocodiles at the farm, 
species unknown (24). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation derives income from tourists and provides displays, 
such as wrestling with crocodiles and snakes. Food is also sold, snake 
sate, obon made from snakes and monitor lizards, and various medicinal 
preparations for the treatment of skin diseases and irritations (24). 
BREEDING 

The farm was reported to be used for crocodile breeding (24). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has a total area of 2 ha, and was reported to be 
extremely overcrowded. 9 crocodiles had already died of disease in 
1984. The water in the ponds was said to be "brackish", and funds were 
not available to rectify this (24). 
FINANCES 

The new farm was reported to be receiving fewer visitors than the 
old farm and it was suggested that the whole farm needed upgrading if 
it were to provide a worthwhile recreational facility (24). 

The farm was opened with the assistance of the Jakarta 
administration as part of the Pluit Environmental Development Project. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm also keeps other species, including snakes, which are 
used in the displays (24). 



92 



1 



Indonesia 
Sumatra 

The Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation 
listed three farms in Sumatra (numbers 13-15 in the list) in 1984 
(157). Details were acquired of a farm near Medan, which probably 
corresponds with number 15. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

A crocodile farm is located at a village 12 km from Medan: 

Desa Asam Kumbang 

Kecamantan Pasar Lima 

Medan 

North Sumatra. 

Managed by: Mr Lo Than Muk. 

A breeding licence for three years was granted to C.V. Reptil 
Corporation, Medan, on behalf of the farm in 1931 by the Direktorat 
Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam. Renewal of the 
licence was delayed in 1985 until further clarification of details of 
the farm was obtained (169). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm started in 1959 in Jalan Gurami, with 12 crocodiles, but 
when the stock increased to 200 the farm moved to a new, larger site 
(36). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus porosus : 1138 (including 311 females "in nature") 

Tomistoma schlegelii : 12 (169) 
The farm was reported to have 200 breeding females in 1985 (36). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm is reported to sell skins (36). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

No animals have been obtained from the wild since 1975, and all 
new stock is bred on the farm (169). 
BREEDING 

Breeding is reported to have first occurred in 1979 when 200 eggs 
were hatched. It is reported that the 200 breeding females now produce 
"a minimum of 6000" hatchlings a year (36). These figures seem unlikely 
to be correct. 

The maximum hatching success is reported to be 80% (169). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers an area of 0.539 ha, comprising (169): 

Earth pond for mature females 900 m^ 

Cement pond for mature females 750 m^ 

Cement pond for young 230 m^ 

Earth breeding pond 2437 m^ 

Housing and other 1073 m^ 

Food is obtained from one shrimp enterprise, 20 poultry farms and 
C.V. Reptil Corporation in Medan (169). 
FINANCES 

The farm has been open to tourists since April 1983 (169). 
Entrance fees were Rp300 for adults and Rpl50 for children in 1985. 
300-400 people visit the farm on Sundays (36). 



93 



Indonesia 

Kalimantan 

When the wild population became too scarce to support hide 
hunting, owing to over-exploitation and habitat destruction, eggs and 
young were captured for rearing in farms in Kalimantan, Java and 
Singapore. A number of these farms were in operation in Kalimantan at 
Samarinda on the Mahakam River, and at Tanjung Redeb on the Berau 
River, and at Bandjarmasin. Most of these farms were closed by the 
mid-1970s because the growing rarity of the wild crocodiles made it 
difficult to secure the eggs and young needed (112). 



Mentawai Islands 

A rearing farm for eggs and young taken from the wild was reported 
at Sikakap on Pagai Island (112). 



94 



ISRAEL 

In 1985 there were two crocodilian farms in Israel, but one of the 
companies, which has crocodile-farming interests in several countries, 
intended establishing other farms in the country in the future. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Alligator Farm 

Hammat Gader Hot Springs 

Hammat Gader 

D.N. Rammat Hagolan 12480. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

August 1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock in 1983 (49) : 

Alligator mississippiensis ; 302 

Crocodylus niloticus suchus ; 4 

Osteolaemus tetraspis osborni ; 3 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation in 1983 was run solely for tourists but it was 
intended that live sales to zoos and commercial operations would take 
place in the future. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In 1981 120 A. mississippiensis were obtained from a farm in 
Florida, four O. tetraspis and four C. niloticus were subsequently 
obtained from the University of Tel-Aviv (48). 
BREEDING 

The initial stock of alligators is reported to have come from 
farm-bred alligators making the stock born on this farm, in effect, 
second generation captive-bred. However A. mississippiensis has not yet 
been bred through two generations on the farm. The farm incubator has a 
capacity of over 300 eggs (49). 
The numbers of A. mississippiensis bred in 1982/83 were as follows: 

Year Number bred Number survived 30 days 

1982 4 4 

1983 184 ISO (49) 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in one large pond (4000 m2) divided into 
three sections, five small concrete pools (each 1.5 m^) and a 
hothouse with seven pools. The large pond is surrounded by 5000 m2 of 
grass and contains a natural swampy area. It has a constant flow of 
spring water at 28''C. Even on the coldest nights the temperature in the 
large pool was not found to fall below 20°C and in the small pools it 
was in excess of 25''C. This is sufficient to prevent the onset of 
winter dormancy and the animals were found to be eating 50-70% of their 
summer diet during the winter. The animals are fed 50% poultry, 30% 
beef and 20% fish, the proportions varying with availability, at about 
8% of body weight each week (48). 
FINANCES 

The operation is self-financing as part of a large tourist complex. 



95 



Israel 

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Results were presented at the 6th working meeting of the lUCN/SSC 
Crocodilian Specialist group (See 48). 

Research is carried out by the farm staff, in co-operation with 
the University of Tel-Aviv. 10% of the eggs are given to the University 
for research, after which the hatchlings are returned to the farm. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm is situated in a region of warm springs in the vicinity 
of the Yarmuk river. There are plans to expand the population of 
alligators and eventually to sell excess stock of one-year-olds, to 
commercial operations. The operators would also like to increase their 
range of species and to attempt breeding of other species (49), 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Clal Crocodile Farms Ltd 

5 Druyanov Street 

Tel-Aviv 63143. 

General Manager: Shlomi Ranot. 
The farm is situated at Kibbutz Ganshmuel, 60 km North of Tel-Aviv and 
5 km from the coast. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The first crocodiles were obtained in November 1984. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock in 1984 (153) : 

Crocodylus niloticus : 5 adult males 

40 immature males (2 m, 5 yr-old) 
160 immature females (2 m, 5 yr-old) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation intends to produce skins eventually but also admits 
tourists. It is hoped to supply breeding stock which may be used by 
other farms to be set up in Israel by the company. The animals at 
present on the farm should breed in 1986, in which case the first skin 
production would be in 1989 (153). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All the animals were purchased from farms in Zimbabwe in November 
1984. It was hoped to obtain some additional hatchlings from the same 
source (153). 
BREEDING 

The breeding stock should be mature in 1986 (153). 
FINANCES 

The operation intends to derive a large part of its income from 
tourists (153). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Clal Crocodile Farms Ltd owns other crocodile farms in Kenya and 
Greece, and intends setting up a total of 7 farms in other countries, 
including the Caribbean and Israel. 



96 



ITALY 

Only one crocodilian farm is reported to have operated in Italy, 
but it is now thought to have closed down. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Compagnia Internazional Allevamento Animali Esotici (C.I.A.A.E.) 

Conmune di Presicce 

nr. Brindisi 

Provincia Di Leceo. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1980. No recent information regarding this farm has been received 
and it is presumed to be no longer in existence. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Claimed to be ' Caiman latirostris originating in Colombia" (147), 
however this species does not occur in Colombia (89) and no captive 
sources are known; so the animals must either have originated elsewhere 
or be of a different species, probably Caiman crocodilus . 

There were 406 surviving caiman in January 1981 (147), 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins were reported to be provided to the Italian leather industry. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The entire stock originated in Colombia, supplied by a reptile 
dealer named Simon Daza, of Baranquilla. In December 1980 3000 animals 
were imported to Italy for the farm, and a further 1500 were due to 
arrive on 20 April, 1981 from the same source (147). 
BREEDING 

None. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm was surveyed by A.C. Pooley in January 1981. The 3000 
caiman which were to form the initial farm stock left Colombia during 
the Colombian summer period all packed in one crate, suitable for only 
1000 animals at the most, and arrived in Italy during the Italian 
winter when temperatures were around 0°C. About 1500 animals died 
before reaching the farm. Between the last week of December 1980, and 
the second week of February 1981 a further 1094 animals died, probably 
due to Salmonella poisoning and fungal disease. The remaining 406 
animals were still being kept in poor conditions at the time the farm 
was surveyed and it was estimated that 100-150 were on the verge of 
death. It was suggested to the Managing Director of the firm, Senor 
Lili del Saudia, to postpone the further order of caiman from Colombia 
(147). 

The animals were reportedly kept in ponds which were "overcrowded, 
unsanitary, stagnant, surrounded by faeces-laden sand, and with 
insufficient heating". They had been fed on a diet of fatty mince and 
were suffering from malnutrition (147). 
FINANCES 

The operation was privately financed, with backing from the Italian 
reptile leather industry (76). 



97 



IVORY COAST 

In 1980 a consultant was engaged by the firm FGU-Kronberg 
Unternehmensberatung GMB Kronberg, F.R. Germany, to advise on the 
potential for crocodile farming in the Ivory Coast in connection with 
the German Wildlife Project. Interest centred on Crocodylus niloticus 
and Crocodylus cataphractus . Surveys revealed severe depletion of 
crocodile populations which were not thought capable of sustaining 
commercial ranching schemes at that stage. It was recommended that a 
pilot scheme at Abidjan Zoo be expanded to develop husbandry techniques 
for commercial farms in the future, and to supply crocodiles for 
restocking. In 1981 the zoo held 7 Osteolaemus tetraspis , 4 Crocodylus 
niloticus and 3 Crocodylus cataphractus (52). 

Nile crocodiles are also kept in a moat surrounding the 
presidential palace in Yamoussoukro. It is not known whether any 
breeding has taken place there. 



98 



JAMAICA 

There is reported to be one crocodilian farm in Jamaica, primarily 
orientated towards tourists: 

NAME OP OPERATION 

swamp Safari, situated about 20 miles East of Montego Bay. 

The farm is owned by the Tourist Board of Jamaica but is held on a 
five-year lease by a commercial company, Cherokee Enterprises. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

About 1970 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus acutus ; approximately 50 in 1984. 
BREEDING 

22 young were hatched in 1984. 
OTHER INPORMATION 

The farm is primarily a tourist attraction but commercial 
production is apparently under consideration (153). 



99 



JAPAN 

The Atagawa Tropical Garden and Alligator Farm, Shizuoka, Japan, 
is a long-established display farm holding a very wide variety of 
crocodilian species. It is situated in a area of thermal springs which 
are used to heat the crocodile ponds (100). It acquired five Crocodylus 
johnsoni from the Northern Territory of Australia in 1984 at which time 
its stock also included Crocodylus porosus and Gavialis gangeticus 
(27). Eight captive-born Crocodylus moreletii , one of the few species 
missing from the collection, were supplied by the Atlanta Zoological 
Park, USA, in 1984 (33). The farm caters purely for tourists and, so 
far as is known, does not engage in skin sales (100). 



100 



KENYA 
There are two crocodile farms in Kenya, both situated near Mombasa: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Baobab Farm Limited 

P.O. Box 90202 

Mombasa. 

Managing Director: R.D. Haller. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm is primarily concerned with arable crops, domestic stock 
and fish (tilapia) culture (91), as part of a rehabilitation project to 
reafforest a worked-out limestone quarry. In 1975 crocodile hatchlings 
were introduced as part of the ecosystem (43). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus ; 9 adults 

600 hatchlings in 1984 (43). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

In 1977 the Government of Kenya passed a law forbidding the sale 
of most wild animal products in the country. This has prevented the 
farm from operating commercially. Crocodile farming is being developed 
for future production when allowed. This would probably be based on 
skin production (116). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The original stock were wild-caught as hatchlings in 1975. Of 
these, 9 adults survived in 1984. Since 1982, eggs have also been 
collected from the wild (43): 

211 in 1982, 

685 in 1983, and 
60 in 1984 (43). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are kept in tanks of water supplied by run-off from 
the fish tanks. The pens range from 20 to 600 m^ with natural or 
artificial ponds and are surrounded by concrete walls or diamond-mesh 
fences. 

Tilapia of non-commercial size which are discarded by the fish 
farm, or carcases from the livestock section are provided as food (43). 
BREEDING 

The captive-reared adults have bred since 1982; 9 young were 
hatched in 1982 and 13 in 1983 but all failed to survive. 25 hatched in 
1984 and two of these survived for 30 days. It was hoped to supplement 
the breeding stock with some wild-caught nuisance animals (43). 

The following success with the hatching of wild-collected eggs has 
been reported (43): 

Eggs Eggs Survived 

collected hatched 30 days 

1982 211 198 189 

1983 685 542 505 

1984 60 56 52 

FINANCES 

The company is a subsidiary of Bamburi Portland Cement Co. Ltd and 
all research is funded by a grant from the parent company. 

101 



Kenya 

Some income is obtained from tourism as part of a larger Nature 
Trail complex which was opened in 1983 (43), 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is conducted by R.D. Haller & J.D. Balarin on feeding 
rates, grading, pathology, pen design, breeding and social behaviour as 
well as census surveys of the wild population (43). 

Balarin, J.D. (1982). The suitability of farm-reared fish ( Tilapia 
spp.) as a food for juvenile crocodiles ( Crocodylus niloticus ). 
Proceedings of the lOCN/SSC Crocodilian Specialist Group Meeting, 
Victoria Falls . 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The initial three-year pilot phase of the farm was completed in 
1984. Permission was being sought to be allowed to trade commercially. 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Mamba Village, Kenya Crocodile Farm Ltd 

PO Box 85723 

Mombasa. 

Organiser: Clal Crocodile Farms, Israel. 
The crocodile farm is located in a 20-acre (8.1-ha) disused quarry at 
Nyali, north of Mombasa. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Probably late 1983 (170). 

The first phase of construction, comprising a tourist centre and 
aquascape of 1-2 ha of ponds was completed in 1984 when the venture was 
opened to tourists (43). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus , target stock of 20 000 by 1986 (28). 

The original stock of 650 in 1983 (28) has been supplemented by 
hatchlings in 1984 believed to amount to some 250-300 (43). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Full production, once achieved, should be 3000 skins a year with a 
value of about US$70 000 (28). 

The venture is also intended to cater for tourists (170). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The original stock of 650 crocodiles was trapped along the Tana 
River in a three-month exercise (28). Crocodiles were reported to be 
being trapped from Garsen to Wenje in 1984 (124). The company holds a 
licence from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources to 
collect eggs, and has a monopoly in this respect (153). 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in concrete ponds, surrounded by wire mesh. 
Some adult animals were present in 1984 in addition to 400-500 
juveniles of about 40 cm length (170). 
BREEDING 

About 250-300 eggs are believed to have hatched in 1984 (43). 



102 



MADAGASCAR 

Only one crocodile farm is known to exist in Madagascar. This was 
the first farm to have been registered with the CITES Secretariat as a 
recognised captive-breeding operation. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Elevage de crocodiles d' "Antsobolo" 

Antsobolo 

Ampanotokana Ambohidratrimo 

Madagascar. 

Director: M. Charles A. De Lanessan. 
This farm has also been referred to as the "Mahitsy Crocodile Farm". 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was set up in 1969 and started commercial production in 
1974, 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus In April 1983 the farm held a total of 454 
crocodiles divided by size as follows:- 

Over 2.5 m 5 

1.5-2.0 m 52 

1.0-1.5 m 116 

0.7-1.0 m 124 

Less than 0.7 m 157 (50) 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Crocodiles are killed at about 3.5 years of age. About half the 
skins are tanned in Madagascar for use in the manufacture of goods. The 
remainder are used for taxidermy. None is reported to be exported (14), 
however the Madagascar CITES annual reports list the export of 4, 20 
and 29 skins of captive-bred C. niloticus for the years 1981, 1982 and 
1983 respectively. The small quantities involved suggest that these may 
have been trade samples. 

In 1985 live crocodiles were supplied to a new farm in Mauritius 
(164). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The original stock was taken from the wild in the form of young 
animals less than one year old. These have been raised to form a 
captive breeding stock. In 1980 the capture of wild animals ceased (50). 
BREEDING 

It took about 10 years to produce the first captive-bred 
generation in 1980 (72). About one hundred juveniles are now hatched on 
the farm each year and it is hoped that this figure will improve as the 
breeding stock continues to mature (50). 

Breeding since 1980: 

1980 39 from 1 female 

1981 109 from 8 females 

1982 76 from 2 females (72) 

HUSBANDRY 

Total area 1300 m2. This includes 700 m2 of ponds, and 
600 m2 of open space divided into 8 enclosed areas of pond and open 
land (72). 

Gravid females are separated from the rest and the eggs are 
collected. They are then put in another pen, with sand banks, to hatch 
(14). 

103 



Madagascar 

The hatchlings are fed on frogs and insects. Dog meat, which is 
readily available locally, is the main food for adults. Feeding has 
been reduced from three times a week to twice a week to reduce sickness 
and diarrhoea (14). 

Water supply is from a permanent creek. The temperature is low 
owing to the high altitude, and so the water is allowed to flow over an 
area of flat concrete to warm it up, apparently by as much as ICC. 
During the winter the crocodiles hibernate in tunnels in the earth side 
of each pen for up to four months (14). 
FINANCES 

The operation is self-financing from the sale of skins (72). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

General research into improvement of the operation is carried out 
by the Director, Charles De Lanessan. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

National legislation forbids the export of skins unless they are 
from captive-bred animals (72). 



104 



MALAWI 

A proposal submitted to CITES in 1985 suggested that controlled 
hunting of Crocodylus niloticus in Malawi was preferable to a ranching 
scheme, however one pilot project was reported to be in existence (30). 
This crocodile farm was started at Mangochi in 1981, but it has not so 
far obtained a licence to trade (43). 

Mr Khalid Hassan was reported to be trapping crocodiles in 1984 on 
the Shire River for a proposed farm on Lake Malawi (183). 



105 



MALAYSIA 

There are believed to be 7 crocodile farms in Peninsular Malaysia, 
one in Sabah and about three or four in Sarawak. The native Crocodylus 
porosus population is thought to be essentially extinct in the 
peninsula (112), 



Peninsular Malaysia 

The Government Department of Wildlife and National Parks supplied 
the following information about farms keeping Crocodylus porosus ; 
stocks of Crocodylus porosus held in 1984 are indicated. The first of 
these farms is the only one which may be undertaking breeding. 
Tomistoma schlegelii are not used commercially. 

Tulin Enterprise 264 

Jalan Pondok Upeh 
Balik Pulau 
Pulau Pinang 

Chuah Teong Chew 181 

No: 30, Main Road 
Simpang Taiping 
Perak, West Malaysia 



Kok Cheong Be 54 

@ Kuck Aik Leng 

No: 16 Jalan Menggala 

Matang, Taiping 

Perak 

Lean Kim Huat 7 

30 Jalan Telok Kertang 
Matang, Taiping 
Perak 

Hasan Basri b. Ismail 19 

St. 8, Jebong Kiri 
Matang, Taiping 
Perak 

Chong Kew Meng 13 

Bagan Sg. Pulai 
Sabak Bernam 
Selangor 

Ang Kok Leong 12 

222, Kg. Baru 
Jenjarum, Kuala Langat 
Selangor 



105 



Malaysia 
Sabah 

Eggs and young of C. porosus are taken from the wild for rearing in 
Sabah and Singapore hide farms, but the wild populations are so reduced 
that this trade has decreased in recent years (112). One rearing farm 
(see below), located just outside Sandakan, Sabah has been rearing C. 
porosus for export since about 1970 (14). Following a survey of 
crocodiles in Sabah in 1984, whitaker (200) recommended the 
establishment of an exploitation project including a Government 
research farm at Sepilok, encouragement of private investment to 
develop large commercial farms, and initiation of an egg-collection 
project involving local people. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Chai mei Hwa Crocodile Farms 

P.O. Box 633 

Sandakan 

Sabah. 
Owner: Chai Yau Look. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

About 1970 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. porosus ; 1035 individuals in 1984 (7). 

These included 6 adults and a further 40 which would mature within 
the next few years (200). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The crocodiles are reared for their skins and for meat which is 
marketed locally (7). 

Since 1973 skins have been sold to a dealer, Mr Tan, for export to 
Singapore and Japan. Meat is also exported to Hong Kong (14). 

A total of about 2000 skins have been cropped in the last 15 years, 
30% of which were males and 70% females. Since the Government ban on 
collection of animals from the wild, all cropping has ceased and the 
stock is being saved for breeding (200). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The original crocodiles were wild-caught but this is now illegal 
(7). 
BREEDING 

In 1984 the crocodiles had not yet bred, but a breeding programme 
had been initiated with a 30-m diameter pen containing four females and 
two males (200) . 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are kept in an enclosure with an area of 1000 ft^ 
(93 m2) containing a natural pond. The pool has a maximum depth of 
15 ft (4.6 m) and is 30-40 ft (9-12 m) in diameter. In 1978 an unknown 
epidemic killed over 200 crocodiles, mostly juveniles (14). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The owner informed Mr Andau that young crocodiles are smuggled in 
from Kalimantan, Indonesia (7). 



107 



Malaysia 

Sarawak 

Rearing farms exist which raise wild C, porosus hatchlings. About 
10 Tomistoma schlegelii are also thought to be present in the farms, 
the skins of which will probably eventually be sent to Singapore (89). 

There are reported to be three or four farms run by families in the 
area (117). Two operations are described: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

? Crocodile Farm 

Pedada Road 

Sarawak. 
Operated by the Wong family. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. porosus : over 100 are kept (117). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The crocodiles are raised for skins and meat. Skins are sold to a 
merchant in Singapore to be made into handbags belts and shoes. Meat is 
sold locally, and is considered a delicacy in the area (117). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Animals are obtained from local fishermen (117). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are raised to a length of around 4 m on a diet of 
pig livers, intestines and chicken meat (117). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Owner: "Johnson* Jong Joon Song 

P.O. Box 670 

Kuching 

Sarawak. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. porosus ; 100 hatchlings and 600 "full-grown" animals (207). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins are sold to Hong Kong and Europe. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

It was hoped that increased breeding success in 1985 would obviate 
the need to purchase crocodiles (207). 
HUSBANDRY 

The main breeding pen is 100 ft long (30 m) and contains 50 adults 
(200). The hatchlings are fed on prawns. There are at least three 
farmhands (207). 
BREEDING 

Breeding has been achieved since 1981, a total of 21 nests having 
been laid from 1980-83. In 1983 7 females laid eggs but only two 
clutches produced young. Considerable effort has been directed towards 
developing breeding and incubation techniques and careful records are 
kept of reproductive data (200). 

Initially the hatching success was low, in the region of 20%, but 
this increased to 85% in 1983 (207). 
FINANCES 

Annual expenditure is in the region of M$80 000 and the farm is 
still running at a loss (207). 

108 



MALI 

A private company named Mali Reptiles plans to operate a crocodile 
farm near Bamako, in Mali, involving Crocodylus niloticus but the farm 
had not reached commercial status in 1983. A small pilot-scale farm has 
been operated since 1979 with 34 C. niloticus captured from Segou. The 
crocodiles are held in ponds with feeding installations and provision 
for cleaning the water. Research carried out since 1980, with FAO 
co-operation, has shown the project to be viable. Projected production 
is between 1000 and 3000 skins by 1986. The farm is financed by a 
private grant of MF90 000 000 put up by European partners (159). 



109 



MAORITIOS 

The first crocodile farm started operation in Mauritius in 1985. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Bioculture (Mauritius) Ltd 
Senneville 

Riviere des Anguilles 
Mauritius. 
Owner: Mr Owen Griffiths. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1935 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 7 February 1985 (164): 
Crocodylus niloticus ; Breeders 5 

4 yr-old 21 
3 yr-old 15 
0-2 yr-old 47 

TOTAL 88 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

It is hoped to harvest 300 skins a year after three years, 
eventually increasing this output (164). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The original stock was obtained on 7 February 1985 from the Mahitsy 
Crocodile Farm in Madagascar (164). 
HUSBANDRY 

The original capacity of the farm in 1985 was for 250 animals, but 
it was hoped to increase this to 2000 (164). 



110 



MEXICO 

There are two Government departments in Mexico which are involved 
in the setting up of crocodilian farms, the Secretaria de Pesca and the 
Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE). Between them they 
operate a total of seven breeding centres, with others planned. There 
is one farm operated by the Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Sobre 
Recursos Bioticos (INIREB) and two private farms. So far as is known, 
none of the farms is yet producing skins commercially, although this is 
clearly the ultimate intention. The Secretaria de Pesca generally only 
involves itself in commercially related ventures. 

A farm in Chiapas, the original funding for which was partially 
provided by the World Wildlife Fund, was forced to close because of oil 
pollution (118). 

The Direccion General de Flora y Fauna Silvestre, a division of 
SEDUE, has also expressed an interest in starting a farm for Crocodylus 
acutus in Quintana Roo and for Crocodylus moreletii in Yucatan (118). 

It was reported that the Mexican Government had established farms 
for Crocodylus moreletii in Veracruz (22), but Lazcano-Barrero (118) 
doubts that farms have ever existed in that state. 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Municipio de Acapetahua 

Chiapas. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Pesca. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS _ 

Crocodylus moreletii (95). 

In 1984 the farm was reported (118) as containing mostly Crocodylus 
moreletii and "a few caimans". 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Municipio Temaxcal 

Presa Miguel Aleman 

Oaxaca. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Pesca. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii : only a few animals (95). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Municipio del Centre 

Ejido de Buenavista 

Tabasco. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Pesca. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii : approximately 200 adults (95) 



111 



Mexico 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Lazaro Cardenas 

Located in the estuary of the Rio Balsas, Michoacan. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Pesca. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Believed to be Crocodylus acutus (95). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Municipio Ciudad del Carmen 

Ciudad del Carmen, "El Fenix" 

Campeche. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), 

Direccion General de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 

(This farm was recently transferred from the control of the Secretaria 

de Pesca). 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii : approximately 200 adults (95). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Lagunas de Chacahua 

Municipio Tututepec-Juquila 

Oaxaca. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), 

Direccion General de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii : approximately 43 adults (95). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Laguna Coyuca 

Municipio Acapulco 

Guerrero. 

Believed to be operated by: Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia 

(SEDUE), Direccion General de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 

DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "very recent" in June 1985 (95). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii (95). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Selva Lacadona 

Chiapas. 

Operated by: Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos 

Bioticos (INIREB). 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "planned" in 1984 (118) and "operating" 
by June 1985 (95). 

112 



Mexico 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii and Crocodylus acutus (95). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm plans to breed Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletii 
for commercial and conservation purposes, and will be managed by the 
rural people of the Lacadon Jungle. It will also serve as a tourist 
attraction and research centre. Funding is being supplied by INIREB, 
the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria de 
Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (118). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Cuernavaca 

Morelos. 

The farm is privately owned (95). 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii (95). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Cancun 

Quintana Roo. 

The farm is privately owned, and is supported by the National Bank, 

SOMEX, who have made an initial investment of 60 million pesos (95). 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "projected" in June 1985 (95). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii ; when operational, it is anticipated that this 
will be the largest crocodilian farm in Mexico (95). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

San Felipe Bacalar (?) 

Quintana Roo. 

Operated by: Centre de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo (CIQRO). 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "projected" in June 1985 (95). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii (95). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Municipio Tecoman 

Laguna de Alcozahue 

Ejido Cofradia de Hidalgo 

Colima. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), 

Direccion General de Flora y Fauna silvestre. 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "in project" in June 1985 (95). 

113 



Mexico 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus moreletii and Crocodylus acutus (95) 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Municipio de San Bias, 

Laguna "El Tanque", 

Ejido "La Palma", 

Nayarit. 

Operated by: Secretaria de Desacrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), 

Direccion General de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 

DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be "in project" in June 1985 (95). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus acutus (95). 



114 



MOZAMBIQUE 

Interest was expressed in developing a ranching programme for 
Crocodylus niloticus in Mozambique in 1981, and a pilot hatchery and 
hatchling pond was established at Marromeu. 7 nests were collected in 
December 1981, but the hatchery has potential for at least 30 nests 
(1500 eggs) (196). This farm was still operating on a small scale in 
1984 (31). 

A proposal was submitted to develop a ranch at Mungari Camp, 
Marromeu, utilizing waste meat and offal from mammal culling operations 
in the Zambezi Wildlife Utilization Area which totals 2.5 t a month, 
and should be sufficient for 2000 animals. A second ranch at Cubo 
village, Messingir, was proposed initially with 200 animals, but 
building up to 2000. This would utilize waste from the Tilapia and 
Clarias fishery in Messingir Reservoir (196). Captive-breeding 
operations for certain birds, reptiles and frogs were also being 
considered (175). 

The ranching programme was still in the proposal phase in 1984, 
only one crocodile rearing station being reported at that time (31). 
The farm, EMOFAUNA Crocodile Farm, had 32 three-year-old crocodiles and 
had not collected any eggs in 1984. Previously the farm had held up to 
800 crocodiles, and future expansion was still planned (176). 



I 

I 115 



NEPAL 

There ate no conunercial crocodilian farms in Nepal, but there is 
large breeding centre for gharial in the Royal Chitwan National Park, 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Gharial Breeding Farm 

Royal Chitwan National Park 

Kasara, Chitwan 

Nepal. 

Senior Warden: T.M. Maskey 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1979 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Gavialis gangeticus ; 255 animals in 1983 (125). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The Gharial Breeding Farm is not at present a commercial operation, 
however future commerce does not appear to have been ruled out. 

Production of G. gangeticus for release to the wild can be 
summarised thus: 

Year Place of release Age Number 



(125) 



1981 


Narayani River 


3 yrs 


50 


1982 


Narayani River 


3 yrs 


50 


1983 


Narayani River 


3 yrs 


50 


1983 


Koshi River 


3 yrs 


42 



All of the animals released are tagged and some have been fitted 
with radio telemetry collars to allow monitoring (89). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All of the animals have been obtained from the wild. The eggs are 
collected within Nepal. 

Number of eggs obtained 1979-81 



1979 


543 


1980 


350 


1981 


150 



(125) 



BREEDING 

The animals do breed at the farm, however the main source 
animals is from the hatching of wild-obtained eggs. A hatch rate 
approximately 50% has been achieved. 



of 
of 



Number of eggs hatched and survival of hatchlings, 1979-81 



Year 



Number hatched 



1979 


294 


1980 


187 


1981 


64 



Number survived 
30 days 

200 68% 

140 75% 

30 46% 



(125) 



HUSBANDRY 

For the first year hatchlings are kept in the hatchling pools of 
size 2 m x 2 m x 0.5 m. They are next moved to the yearling pool of 
size 4 m X 4 m X 1 m. The pools are concrete and have a running water 
supply. 

The animals are fed daily on locally available fish (125). 



116 



Nepal 

FINANCES 

The sponsors for the operation are His Majesty's Government of 
Nepal, the Frankfurt Zoological Society and the Smithsonian Institution. 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is carried out by T.M. Maskey. 
Some results of the operation have been published: 

Maskey, T.M. and H.R. Mishra (1981). Conservation of Gharial in 

Nepal. In Majpuria, T.C. (Ed.) Wild is beautiful , pp. 185-196. 

Maskey, T.M. (1982). Progress report on Gharial conservation 

project in Nepal . (Official memo). 

Mishra, H.R. and T.M. Maskey (1982). zuruck in die Plusse. Tier, 

Die Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Tier, Meuch und Natur , June. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

This operation is at present purely conservation orientated (125). 

It was estimated that there were a total of 250 captive G. 
gangeticus and 10 captive C. palustris in Nepal in 1982 (197). 



117 



PAKISTAN 

Interest in a crocodile conservation/management programme was 
expressed (201), and a Government plan to breed crocodiles and 
gharials in the Punjab and Sind was being considered for 1984 (163). 

In 1979 Mr S. Aftab Alam acting for IGUANA (2), a leather company 
of Pakistan, stated that the company intended to set up a commercial 
breeding programme involving Crocodylus palustris and Gavialis 
qanqeticus , and that advice had been sought from WWF headquarters. The 
farm was planned to follow the pattern of Samutprakan, Thailand, but 
would not be started until a similar project, of greater priority to 
the company, involving Varanus griseus (desert monitor) had been 
established (3). 
Address: 

IGUANA 

(Manufacturers of Reptile Skins and Leather Goods, 
Suede Wear and Footwear) 

Noor Estate 

Main Drigh Road 

Karachi 8 

PAKISTAN 

The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Co-operatives stated, in 
1983, that IGUANA had not implemented their plan to breed Varanus and 
were unlikely to start breeding crocodiles (163). 

The estimated total number of captive C. palustris in Pakistan in 
1982 was 50 (197). 



118 



PAPUA NEW GaiNEA 

Most of the information in the Papua New Guinea section of this 
report was provided by Martin Hollands. 

In the raid-1960s the Government of Papua New Guinea became 
concerned about the future of the crocodile industry in the country. 
In only two decades, unrestricted skin hunting had reduced the readily 
accessible populations to the extent that the harvests of both 
Crocodylus porosus and Crocodylus novaeguineae had tailed off 
dramatically. Further indications about the state of the industry came 
from the size of skins exported; despite there being a marked 
preference for large skins the average size exported was down to below 
8 inches (203 mm) in belly width. 

This concern led to the introduction of the Crocodile Trade 
Protection Act (1966), which set a maximum size on skins which could 
be traded, in an attempt to protect the remaining breeding stock. The 
Government's wildlife Division also adopted a National Policy on 
Crocodile Farming, to try and substantially increase the potential 
revenue to the rural people from a sustained-yield management 
programme. This would be done by cropping at the readily-replaced 
hatchling level, with captive rearing of these to a commercially 
acceptable size. It was envisaged that the killing of wild crocodiles 
for their skins would slowly be replaced by the establishment of 
hundreds of small village crocodile ranches. 

Although the implementation of a ranching network, if somewhat 
different from that originally proposed, is progressing well, with 
nearly 30 000 crocodiies now on ranches, it will be a number of years 
before ranched skins comprise the bulk of the trade of Papua New 
Guinea. However the harvesting of both skins and live crocodiles is 
now conducted in a controlled manner, with a monitoring programme to 
assess its impact. During the 1970s and early 1980s Papua New Guinea 
had been exporting a sustainable annual harvest of 15 000-35 000 C. 
novaeguineae skins, and 7 000-11 000 C. porosus skins. This earns the 
country approximately US$2 million a year. 

Papua New Guinea now has a diverse, and somewhat confusing, range 
of crocodile ranching operations. These range from small village pens, 
which might never hold more than 25 animals, to large commercial 
ranches with up to 15 000 which are still expanding. To appreciate the 
reasons for these, and to understand their respective roles it is 
necessary briefly to review the development of crocodile ranching in 
Papua New Guinea. 

The original concept was that ranching would be on a village 
level. Virtually every village in crocodile areas would have a small, 
■bush material" pen, and feed a hundred or so crocodiles on fish. To 
encourage the development of these village operations the Government 
built a number of demonstration ranches in appropriate areas of the 
country. These would be used as models for village ranches, and as 
bases for extension work on crocodile husbandry, pen construction, 
skinning and skin treatment. Realizing the enormity of the task the 
Government requested, and received advice from the lUCN SSC Crocodile 
Specialist Group, and considerable assistance from the United Nations. 

Between 1975 and 1979 considerable effort was put into the 
village ranching programme. At its paak there were approximately 200 
village ranches operating, with a total stock of 8000 animals. However 
it soon became apparent that locating the rearing operations in the 

119 



Papua New Guinea 

crocodile swamp areas had numerous problems, particularly ensuring a 
year round food supply, and siting the pens so that water is available 
in the dry season, without flooding in the wet season. It was realized 
that if village people were to be encouraged to keep crocodiles it 
would be necessary to develop a back-up rearing system, to which 
villagers could readily sell their animals when necessary. The opening 
of two large-scale commercial operations was therefore encouraged for 
development as the final rearing point for surplus village stock. 
These ranches were set up to utilise the large volume of cheap feed 
available as waste from the country's main poultry operations. Their 
location and available funding would allow many management and 
husbandry problems encountered in village operations to be overcome. 

It was therefore essential to develop a live-purchase system 
capable of safely moving large numbers of small live crocodiles from 
villages to these commercial ranches. The basis of this network was to 
be the Government demonstration ranches, already built in the right 
places. These ranches took on the extra duties of acting as collection 
centres, and extensive patrols gave the village people the chance to 
sell stock they did not wish to rear themselves. By Government control 
of the price system it was ensured that prices of live animals were 
kept high enough to encourage hunters to spend their time trying to 
catch livestock instead of just skins. These Government ranches would 
continue buying stock until they had 300-400 crocodiles between about 
50 and 90 cm total length. Representatives of one of the commercial 
ranches would then fly in a light aircraft to collect these. Specially 
designed cardboard tubes and boxes allowed the efficient loading of 
the animals, and their transport with extremely low mortality. 

A number of private ranches also started selling direct to the 
commercial ranches. Some of these existed solely by catching and 
selling stock; others rear some stock and sell off any surplus. As 
feed is a greater constraint than crocodile availability, in virtually 
all places a "combined operations" ranch is the ideal. All live 
crocodiles brought in to these by outsiders can be purchased, hence 
helping the intended shift to ranching; those not too big to be kept 
on the available food are reared to culling size, any surplus is sold 
to the large commercial ranches. The Government is actively 
encouraging the development of these "midi-ranches" at abattoirs and 
fish plants throughout the country. The two already established at 
such localities are running very successfully; other operations in 
this category run well on locally-caught fish. 

The details of the operations, included at the end of this 
section, only cover ranches involved in rearing; village ranches are 
not detailed, and operations which only sell live crocodiles are 
excluded. Skins both from ranches and the wild are sold through 
licensed exporters, and all shipments are checked and tagged by 
Government inspectors. Other crocodile products may only be sold by 
commercial ranches (97). 

The total number of crocodile skins exported from Papua New 
Guinea since 1976 from both wild harvest and farms is shown in the 
following table. In 1983 farm production was running at about 10% of 
the wild harvest but this seemed set to rise in the following two 
years. C. porosus comprised 18% of all wild-caught crocodiles but 29% 
of all skins exported from farms. This reflects the fact that it is 

120 



Papua New Guinea 

preferentially kept on farms as it has a higher-value skin and it is 
easier to keep. 

Crocodile skins exported from Papua New Guinea from 1976 onwards. 







C. novaeg 


uineae 


C. po 


rosus 


Total 








Wild 




Farm 


Wild 


Farm 


Wild 


Farm 


1976 




23379 






6257 




29636 




1977 




26571 






6618 




33189 




1978 




30886 






7157 




38043 




1979 




34836 




646 


7442 


184 


42278 


830 


1980 




27249 




460 


5717 


80 


32966 


540 


1981 




14291 




731 


3915 


366 


18206 


1097 


1982 




23259 




1474 


3923 


927 


27182 


2401 


1983 




13786 




1304 


3155 


301 


16941 


1605 


1984 


(P 


rejected 


from farm 


stock flow) 






5600 


1985 


( 






m 


) 






4000 



In 1982 France imported 63% of all the skins exported by Papua 
New Guinea, Japan imported 34% and Singapore 3%. In 1983 the 
corresponding figures -were France 37%, Japan 62% and Singapore 0.5%. 

The Crocodile Trade (Protection) Act 1974 established very firm 
controls over crocodile exploitation. Only citizens of Papua New Guinea 
may hunt or kill crocodiles, and licences are needed to trade in them. 
Traders must have lived in the country for at least two years and may 
only trade within a specified area. A separate licence is needed to 
export skins. Additional regulations were introduced in 1981 to control 
farms and the sizes of crocodiles exploited. No crocodile with a belly 
width greater than 510 mm may be traded or kept on farms, and 
crocodiles of less than 180 mm belly width may only be traded live for 
the purpose of stocking farms. Crocodile farms with more than 200 
animals must acquire a licence, the conditions of which include 
completing 6-monthly stock returns and notifying the authorities of the 
outbreak of any disease (137). 

The following summary details the numbers of live crocodiles 
taken onto ranches from the wild (97). 



Year 


C. novaequineae 


C. porosus 


Total 


1979 


3 958 


974 


4 932 


1980 


7 669 


2 141 


9 810 


1981 


8 118 


2 17a 


10 296 


1982 


8 602 


2 799 


11 401 


1983 


2 518 


1 091 


4 419 


Total 


30 865 


9 993 


40 858 



121 



Papua New Guinea 

Commercial ranches 

The large commercial ranches will be the final rearing station for 
the bulk of ranched crocodiles in Papua New Guinea. Rather than 
location being determined by crocodile distribution, the ranches are 
located where there is a plentiful supply of cheap food. The two 
already operating are in association with the countries two largest 
poultry operations, one in Port Moresby and one in Lae. 

Details of pen design, husbandry, feed consumption, mortality and 
growth rates are in Melvin Bolton's 'Crocodile Husbandry in Papua New 
Guinea", available from the Crocodile Project, Box 2141 Boroko, Papua 
New Guinea. 

These ranches have now been granted permission to start breeding 
programmes, and it is probable that the considerably easier supervision 
of such large, centralised operations will allow them to be granted 
special dispensations on the size of skins they can market; they are 
already permitted to sell by-products, both domestically and for export 
(97). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Mainland Reptiles 

P.O. Box 196 

Lae 

Morobe Province. 

Operated by: Mainland Holdings Pty. Ltd 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

Approved and established in August 1979. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

11 250 C. novaequineae 
3 750 C. porosus (97). 

The total stock in March 1983 was 14 000 animals (78). 

By early 1984 the number had risen to 15 000 (97). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Production is primarily aimed at skins but meat and other 
by-products which may have a commercial value are being examined (97). 
The meat cannot be sold locally as a Government licence is needed to 
buy or own any crocodile, or part thereof. Crocodile meat in a dried 
form is worth around S$23 kg~l in Singapore, but as a 30-kg crocodile 
yields only around 2 kg of dried meat this means crocodile meat is of 
little economic significance to the ranch. The managers are 
investigating the commercial possibilities of producing crocodile oil 
for the perfume industry (84). 

Skins produced (84, #85) 

YEAR C. porosus C. novaeguineae DESTINATIONS 

1980 15 

1981 318 250 

1982 459 804 
1984* 1279 6476 

* estimated figures. These are artificially inflated as few animals 
were slaughtered in 1983 owing to the low price of skins (85). 

122 



Japan 


France 


Japan 


Prance 


Japan 


Prance 


Japan 


France 



Papua New Guinea 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Stock is mainly obtained from village type holding farms in the 
Sepik River area of north-east Papua New Guinea. These farms catch 
small crocodiles from the wild which are then transported by aeroplane 
to Lae. Mainland Holdings stated in 1983 that they prefer animals 
between 0.5 m and 1.0 m in length as these are easily transportable and 
have a lower mortality rate once introduced to the farm than smaller 
animals; 7% rather than 25%. Prices paid for these animals are 
estimated on a sliding scale according to size, the highest price being 
paid for the 1.0-m animals. No extra is paid for animals over this 
size. In 1983 surplus stock was also taken from other farms (84). 

Numbers of juveniles obtained from the wild, 1980 to 1982 



YEAR 




£ 


. porosus C. novaeguineae 


TOTAL 


1980 






2469 5343 


7812 


1981 






1159 4722 


5881 


1982 






1813 3917 


5730 (84) 


1983 






no details 


1998 (97) 


BREEDING 










Breedi 


• ng 


of 


C. porosus is intended. 


Breeding st 



selected from animals reared on the farm and it is hoped to have 300 
breeding females by the end of 1985. Breeding had not taken place by 
August 1983 (84). A breeding licence was granted in 1983. The 
Government have also loaned the operation 28 C. porosus adults as 
breeding stock. Selected rearing stock of C. porosus will also be kept 
as breeders ( 97) . 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has at its disposal an area approximately 0.75 km2. 
Stock is held in ponds and divided by size of animals. The animals are 
fed on chicken offal from the adjoining poultry farm. At present total 
food consumption by stock is about 10 t a week. Breeding stock is to be 
kept in natural-type earth ponds with an initial male to female ratio 
of 1:1. The entire stock is counted once every year, each animal being 
measured and its condition examined (84). Overall natural farm 
mortality averages 4.5% a year (97). 
FINANCES 

The crocodile farm is run in conjunction with a large commercial 
chicken farm. It is therefore not always possible to separate the costs 
of the two enterprises adequately; however it is considered to be a 
fully self-financing commercial venture. 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

A four-year study of growth and feeding trials is being carried out 
and the results are to be published. 

Research on the growth and feeding of crocodiles has been carried 
out by Mark Rose (84). 



123 



Papua New Guinea 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Ilimo Farm 

P.O. Box 1885 Botoko 

Port Moresby 

N.C.D. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1979 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

In 1979 2423 animals were held on the farm (2). By early 1984 this 
total was 5000: 3000 C. novaeguineae 
and 2000 C. porosus (97). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Production is mainly of skins but also of meat, gall-bladders and 
penes. Production of other by-products is being considered (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All stock originates from wild-caught hatchlings (97) and has been 
almost entirely supplied, at Government-controlled prices, through the 
Government buying and redistribution schemes (115). 
BREEDING 

In 1983 a breeding licence was approved, and an initial breeding 
colony of 17 females and 7 males was loaned by the Government. Selected 
rearing stock will be kept for breeding (97). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm is associated with the poultry industry and therefore has 
an assured supply of minced and chopped chicken offal from the local 
processing plant (97). 



' Midi-ranches * 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Angoram Crocodile Farm 

Angoram, East Sepik 

Government of Papua New Guinea. 

Previously a National Government demonstration, farm now operated 
by the East Sepik Provincial Government (97). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1979 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

350 C. novaeguineae 

150 C. porosus (97). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

A small number of skins are produced, the farm mainly sells live 
animals to the commercial farms (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaeguineae C. porosus 

1981 2161 406 

1982 599 153 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are fed on fish which is purchased locally (97). 

124 



I 



Papua New Guinea 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Boboa Crocodile Farm 

Boboa, Lake Murray 

Western Province. 

Previously a National Government demonstration farm, now run 
commercially by the provincial Government. It is proposed that the farm 
be handed over to the local council when proved commercially viable 
(97). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1968 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. novaeguineae and C. porosus 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm sells approximately 250 skins a year, and some livestock 
to the commercial farms (97). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaeguineae C. porosus 

1981 950 27 

1982 583 12 
HUSBANDRY 

The diet consists of locally-caught fish (97). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Baimuru Crocodile Farm 

c/o Fish Plant 

Baimuru 

Gulf Province. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. novaeguineae and C. porosus 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm started production in 1984 of approximately 200 skins a 
year. Livestock is sold to the commercial farms (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaeguineae C. porosus 

1982 127 302 

HUSBANDRY 

The farm is part of a fish processing plant (97). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Crocodiles on the farm have shown extremely high growth rates (97). 



125 



Papua New Guinea 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Kikori Crocodile Farm 

Kikori 

Gulf Province. 

Previously a National Government demonstration farm, now run 
commercially by the provincial Government. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1977 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. novaequineae and C. porosus 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm produces 100 - 200 skins a year. Livestock is sold to the 
commercial farms (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaequineae C. porosus 

1981 163 599 

1982 97 177 
HUSBANDRY 

Pood consists of locally-caught fish and waste from a small fish 
plant (97). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Maningulai Import/Export 

P.O. Box 46 

Angoram 

East Sepik. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Approximately 1400 C. novaequineae 

Approximately 600 C. porosus (97) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm will produce skins and sell livestock (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaequineae C. porosus 

1982 2232 616 

HUSBANDRY 

Diet consists of locally-bought fish. The operators are one of 
Papua New Guinea's main exporters of wild skins (97). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Micro Enterprises 
P.O. Box 995 
Madang 

126 



Papua New Guinea 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1980 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Approximately 800 C. novaeguineae 

Approximately 200 C. porosus (97) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm produces skins and sells livestock to the commercial farms 
(97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaeguineae C. porosus 

1982 1921 113 

HUSBANDRY 

Food is obtained from a poultry operation. The company also deals 
in "wild-caught skins (97). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Moitaka Crocodile Farm 

Department of National Parks 

P.O. Box 6601, Bocoko 

N.C.D. 

The operation was a Government demonstration farm but is currently 
run by the Department of National Parks as an educational/public 
display facility and for research by the Crocodile Management Project 
(97). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Early 1970s 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. novaeguineae - adults and C. porosus - adults. 

In 1979 a total of 1150 crocodiles were held on the farm (194). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm produced skins until 1982. There is no longer any 
commercial production from the farm (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All stock was originally wild-caught. There is no input of animals 
now (97). 
BREEDING 

Both C. novaeguineae and C. porosus were bred and reared at the 
farm experimentally with the aim of improving rearing standards at the 
village level (194). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

A number of C. porosus reared at Moitaka were used for re-stocking 
depleted wild stocks in Gulf Province. By January 1981, 43 C. porosus 
from Moitaka had been released in Gulf Province for this purpose (59). 



127 



Papua New Guinea 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Pagwi Crocodile Farm 

Pagwi 

East Sepik Province. 

An ex-demonstration farm. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1975 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Approximately 300 C. novaeguineae 

Approximately 100 C. porosus (97) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation produces a small number of skins, but mainly sells 
livestock to commercial farms. A few breeding-size animals are kept 
(97). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

All animals are obtained from the wild (97): 

YEAR C. novaeguineae C. porosus 

1981 1515 384 

1982 293 195 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are fed on locally purchased fish (97). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The maximum holding capacity of the farm in 1982 was about 3000 
animals (59). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Urimo Crocodile Farm 

East Sepik Province. 

The operation is intended as a rearing station for East Sepik 
provincial Government stock. It is owned by the provincial Government 
(97). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

350 C. novaeguineae 

150 C. porosus (97) 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation will produce a few hundred skins a year and will 
possibly sell livestock to commercial farms (97). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In 1983 a total of 500 animals (detailed above) were obtained from 
the Angoram and Pagwi farms (97). 
HUSBANDRY 

The food is obtained from a local abbatoir (97). 



128 



PHILIPPINES 
At present there is one conservation-orientated operation breeding 
crocodiles in the Philippines, but no authenticated commercial farms. 
There is reported to be one private farm of unknown status. A Japanese 
consortium has expressed interest in establishing a commercial farm. 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Crocodile Breeding Project 

Silliman University Marine Laboratory 

near Dumaguete City 

Negros Island. 

Operated by the Silliman University Environmental Centre in 
conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and the World Wildlife 
Fund. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1980 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis ; 25 including two breeding 
pairs and 11 hatchlings in September 1984 (4). 

In 1982 the farm held an additional female C. n. mindorensis and 
one Crocodylus porosus (5). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation is an experimental project investigating conservation 
techniques and the viability of commercial farming. At present there is 
no commercial production. 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

All of the croco'diles have been obtained from captive sources, 
including both private collections and government projects on Mindanao 
and Luzon Islands (20). 
BREEDING 

The first pair of adults was acquired in 1980. In 1984 a second 
breeding pair was obtained (5); it was hoped that they would breed in 
1985 (4). 

One female C. n. mindorensis laid three clutches totalling 32 eggs 
in 1981, however no surviving offspring were produced. In 1982 10 young 
were produced from 33 eggs, and 7 in 1983 from 20 eggs. This represents 
the first known captive propagation of this subspecies (5). Breeding 
took place again in 1984 when 12 young were hatched from 25 eggs laid 
(5). By September 1984 eleven of these were still alive (4). 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in two pens. One is used as a breeding pen 
(15 m X 11.6 m), and has a large central oval pond (11.1 m x 3.8 m x 
1 m deep) with three small peripheral concrete ponds (5). The second 
pen is used for holding the animals; insufficient depth of water makes 
it unsuitable for breeding (20). 

A second breeding pen measuring 14.5 x 6 m with equal areas of land 
and water was built in 1984 (4). 

The crocodiles are fed on locally caught and donated bats, cats, 
rats, dogs, frogs and insects. The carcases of experimental animals 
from the University are also used when available (20). 
FINANCES 

The Silliman University Environmental Centre, Smithsonian 
Institution, the World Wildlife Fund and donations from government 
agencies finance the project (20). 

129 



Philippines 

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Areas of study include reproductive biology of the crocodile, 
growth in captivity, distribution and status of wild populations, 
feasibility of commercial crocodile farming and the use of crocodiles 
as an additional component of fish farming. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The operators are looking for additional crocodiles for the 
breeding project. One of the objectives of the programme is to 
establish sanctuaries for release of captive-bred crocodiles. The farm 
is also being used as an educational base for crocodile conservation 
(20). 

Two three-year-old crocodiles were planned to be released in 
Calauit Wildlife Sanctuary in late 1984 (4). 

There are known to be a further 17 C. n. mindorensis in captivity 
in the islands of Luzon, Cebu and Negros (5). 



An association of 50 Japanese companies that manufacture products 
made from reptile skins has obtained financial support from the 
Japanese Government to start a crocodile breeding project (35): 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Japan Crocodile Farming Institute in the Philippines (Palawan) 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Proposed for 1987 (35). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. n. mindorensis : It is intended to start initially with a stock 
of 150 females and 50 males (26). (As the wild population is estimated 
to be less than 100 (5) it is difficult to see where these would come 
from. ) 

It is hoped eventually to breed 3000 crocodiles annually (35). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The aim of the project is to conserve the near-extinct crocodile 
population in the area, eventually to re-introduce it to suitable areas 
to produce a sustainable yield of crocodile products. 

The Institute intends to train project personnel and local 
residents in crocodile-farming techniques. The 6-year project is being 
jointly negotiated between the Japanese and Philippine Governments (26). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Name unknown. 

At San Ramon, Floridablanca, Pampanga. 

Operated by: Mr Romeo Saldana. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus porosus : parental breeding stock of 28 animals, 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Reported in 1983 to be in initial stages (6). 



130 



RWANDA 



In 1984 the Office Rwandais du Tourisme et des Pares Nationaux 
reported having given approval to a private enterprise to establish a 
wildlife farm utilizing crocodiles and several species of large mammals 
(90). A pilot project farming Crocodylus niloticus was reported to be 
in operation in 1984 (30). 



131 



SENEGAL 



It was reported in 1983 that there was a proposal to establish a 
crocodile (presumably Crocodylus niloticus ) farm in Casamance and that 
funds were being sought (77). 



132 



SINGAPORE 

A survey of crocodile farming operations, carried out by 
Internationaler Reptilleder-Verband E.V. established that there were 
three crocodile farms in Singapore (74). However it is apparent that 
there are considerably more than this; many small-time farmers, who 
keep primarily pigs and chickens, feed the waste offal and carcases to 
some crocodiles (120). 

Many crocodile skin businesses keep or have kept young wild 
crocodiles in back-yard enclosures, raising them until they are about 
two years old. Some of these establishments kept as many as 400 
animals. The young animals were reported to be fed on a diet of shrimps 
and small fish until about 2 ft (60 cm) long. They were then fed on a 
diet of animal skins and intestines from abattoirs until they reached a 
length of 4 ft (121 cm) when they were killed (Singapore Trade, June 
1961, fide 12). 

According to King et al . (112), Crocodylus porosus has been extinct 
as a breeding resident in Singapore for over 30 years. The large number 
of rearing farms flourishes in Singapore by importing eggs and young 
from other Asian and Pacific areas, stock is known to have been 
imported from Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the 
Philippines. Some limited breeding is done on the farms. Output from 
these farms is expected to decline as surrounding stocks decline. 

Whitaker (200) visited two farms in 1984 and confirmed the presence 
of some Crocodylus novaeguineae . He asserted that "in general, claims 
of breeding can be discounted though an occasional nest may be 
produced". 

Caiman crocodilus crocodilus and Crocodylus novaeguineae are both 
reported to be raised for both meat and skins in Singapore (65). 

The Operations 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Tan Moh Hong Reptile Skin and Crocodile Farm 

or Singapore Crocodile Farm. 

782/790 Upper Serangoon Road, Singapore - 19. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was established in 1945, and occupies a site of one acre 
(0.4 ha) of residential land (37). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A brochure produced by the farm shows photographs of Crocodylus 
porosus and Tomistoma schlegelii (37). 

A newspaper article mentions "sea crocodiles", "river crocodiles" 
and "alligators", reportedly from South-east Asia (10). Total stock 
approximately 600 (37). 

Monitor lizards and pythons are also reported to be kept (37). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm is an integrated operation incorporating tanning and 
manufacturing facilities. Handbags, purses, wallets, belts, shoes and 
other souvenir items are produced. Crocodile meat is also sold, both as 
a delicacy and for medicinal use. The crocodiles are slaughtered at 3-5 
years old. The products are sold in a farm shop and are also exported 
all round the world. Some whole skins are exported to F.R. Germany, 
France, Japan and other countries (37). 

Some of the skins processed on the farm are imported (10). 



133 



Singapore 

In promotional literature the farm states that "sea crocs offer the 
best skins. A handbag with the familiar sea croc markings of small 
scales can cost as much as S$850, and river crocodile is next down the 
'scale', oddly because the scales are larger. Then comes the 
alligator." The farm sells belts from 3$15 to S$95, and small 
alligator wallets from S$24. (10) 

The farm receives 300-400 visitors a day (37). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Some young reptiles are imported from Asian countries while most 

are "bred locally" (37). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are kept in large concrete pools (10). The juveniles 
are fed on prawns and mussels while the older animals eat pigs' lungs 
and fish (37). 

The farm is linked to a country farm outside Singapore where some 
250 crocodiles are kept (10). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Singapore Crocodilarium Pte Ltd 

730 East Coast Parkway. 

Parent company: Kaiyo Reptile Pte Ltd. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1979 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Several hundred C. porosus are maintained as are a few dozen 
Tomistoma schlegelii (102). 
BREEDING 

A 9-year breeding programme was initiated in 1982 (174). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The operation takes the form of ranching and has been operating for 
several years (132). It is open to the tourists for exhibition of the 
live animals and for sale of crocodilian skin products (102). Depending 
on the success of the breeding programme, further similar farms may 
also be set up (174). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

544-C Lim Chu Rang Road, 

Singapore (2470). 

Owner: Mr Eng Gee Seng, 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

About 1975 (150) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The total stock was over 1800 in 1985. A photograph shows some 
Crocodylus porosus (150). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins are sold to local manufacturers of leather goods. The price 
was reported to be between S$100 and S$600 each (150). 



134 



Singapore 

SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The initial stock of 80 animals was obtained from Indonesia. In 
1985 the farm was receiving about 50 young animals a month from 
Indonesia (150). 
BREEDING 

No breeding had taken place prior to 1985, but it was under 
consideration (150). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are fed on chicken or pig offal, fish, prawns and 
cockles (150). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm also has about 600 pigs, some ducks and chickens (150). It 
is in an area where the Government has announced the intention of 
phasing out pig farms (120). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Track 13 

Punggol Road 

Singapore (1954). 

Owner: Mr Yang. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to be operating in 1980 (15). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The total stock was about 1000 in I'^SO. A photograph shows some 
Crocodylus porosus (15). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins were sold to local tanners about twice a year. Total annual 
production was about 400 in 1980 (15). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Animals were obtained from Indonesia (15). 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles were kept in 15 enclosures (15). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm also had about 30 000 poultry (15). 



A fifth farm is reported to exist in Singapore which is operated by 
Leah Liang Joo. The farm started in 1970 with 60 crocodiles. By 1976 
the stock had increased in size to 3000. Most of the crocodiles are 
probably C. porosus although some are reported to have been obtained 
from South America (208). 



135 



SOUTH AFRICA 

The first crocodile farm in South Africa was established in 1968 
outside Pretoria and has bred crocodiles regularly since 1970. From 
1977 onwards several more farms were established around the country, 
and in 1983 formed themselves into the South African Crocodile Farmers' 
Association. In 1984 there were at least 12 farms with a total stock of 
about 2200 C. niloticus , mostly juveniles obtained from farms in 
Zimbabwe and South Africa. Breeding is planned at all farms but by 1983 
had only occurred at three. The wild population of crocodiles in South 
Africa is very low, and to survive indefinitely all farms must 
therefore operate on a closed cycle. Many of the farms obtain income 
from tourists and the sale of livestock but none, except the original 
farm, anticipates being able to sell skins until at least 1988. It is 
not clear whether the latter has yet done so. 

Cape Province 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Cango Crocodile Ranch Pty Ltd 

Private Box 559 

Oudtshoorn 6620. 

Director: P.H.S. Arnold. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was established in 1977 and since chat date has acted as a 
tourist interpretative centre but is not yet of commercial standing. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus ; stock totals over 200 animals (39). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

In 1983 it was thought unlikely that this farm and others which 
belong to the South African Crocodile Farmers' Association would be 
able to produce skins before 1988 (38). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The farm was established in 1977 with a stock of 120 animals. One 
of these was an adult male supplied by the then Rhodesian Parks Board 
and the rest were reared from wild-taken eggs supplied by Spencer's 
Creek Crocodile Farm, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. In 1978 a further five 
wild-caught animals were obtained from the Rhodesian Parks Board. In 
1979 60 ranched hatchlings were obtained from Sengwa Mouth Crocodile 
Ranch, Zimbabwe (39). All stock obtained since then has been purchased 
from the Natal Parks Board in the form of captive-bred juveniles of 
wild-caught parentage, totalling 50 animals in 1981 and 100 in 1982 
(38). 
BREEDING 

In 1981 6 crocodiles were bred on the farm and in 1982 13 were bred. 
HUSBANDRY 

Hatchling crocodiles are kept in tiled 'environmental tanks' which 
are temperature-controlled. Older/adult animals are kept in open air 
enclosures, half land, half water, which have heated retreats for the 
crocodiles. 

The diet consists of liver, offal, and ostrich by-products. 
FINANCES 

The operation is self-financing. Some income is obtained from 
tourists (39). 



136 



South Africa 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Glenashby Crocodile Ranch 

Glenashby 

P. Bag X 513 

East London 

Cape Province. 

Director: Ivan A. Kirk. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; 48 juvenile animals are kept. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

None as yet, production will eventually be of skins. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The juvenile animals were obtained from Zimbabwe but it is not yet 
clear whether they were from wild sources or from Zimbabwe crocodile 
ranches. 
BREEDING 

A breeding programme is planned. 
HUSBANDRY 

The stock is held indoors in heated pools and is fed two or three 
times a week. 
FINANCES 

The farm is privately financed by the operator (113). 



i 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Stewart's Farm 

P.O. Box 4 

Nkwalini 

Cape Province. 

Director: G.R.C. Stewart. 

This farm was registered with the CITES Secretariat as a recognised 
captive-breeding operation in August 1985 (101). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1979 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; total stock, 80 animals in 1983 (171). 

215 in 1984 (101). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The first skins from the farm were exported in 1985 (101). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Three adult wild crocodiles have been caught in South Africa. 

Captive animals have been obtained as follows (171): 

Year Adults Juveniles 

1931 25 

1982 1 13 

BREEDING 

It was reported in 1984 that some breeding had taken place. 27 out 
of 29 eggs kept in an incubator hatched successfully (93). 

137 



South Africa 

HUSBANDRY 

Adult crocodiles are kept in open ponds. Juveniles are kept in hot 
houses. The diet comprises chicken, fish and beef (171). 

A new hothouse is being built with viewing facilities for tourists 
(93). 
FINANCES 

The operation is said to be self-financing (171). 



138 



South Africa 
Natal 

NAME OF OPERATION 

St Lucia Crocodile Centre 

Private Bag 

St Lucia Estuary 

Natal 3936 

Operated by the Natal Parks Board. 

Director: D. Blake. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; main breeding enclosure contains 14 females, 5 males 
and young of unknown sex. 

Osteolaemus tetraspis ; 1 pair, 

Crocodylus cataphractus ; 2 males, 1 female (54). 

In mid-1983 the Centre had 9 female, 2 male and 6 juvenile C. 
niloticus (148). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Over 400 live animals have been produced for sale to crocodile 
farmers, at R20 each (148). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

St Lucia Crocodile Centre caters mainly for tourists, and is 
orientated towards public education on crocodiles. It has a small 
museum, a shop, aquaria and some live crocodiles. 

Hatchling crocodiles are produced for restocking purposes and also 
for sale to crocodile farmers. 

The Centre has a -research role with a brief to monitor crocodile 
farming in Natal, and also to carry out- investigations and produce 
recommendations on crocodile populations with special reference to Lake 
St Lucia. It has also functioned as an lUCN/ssC Crocodilian Specialist 
Group breeding bank since 1975 (54). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

River Bend Crocodile Farm 

P.O. Box 245 

Ramsgate 4285 

Natal. 

Director: N.H. Kelly. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

October 1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : total stock 117 animals in 1983 (111). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No products had been marketed by 1983 but it was planned that stock 
would be killed for their skins from 1987 onwards. 

Live animals have been provided to two parks (111). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Animals have been obtained from crocodile ranches in Zimbabwe and 
from crocodile farms in South Africa (148). Stock has been obtained as 
follows (111): 

Year Adults Juveniles 



139 



1981 





70 


1982 


2 





1983 


1 


44 



South Africa 

BREEDING 

A breeding programme is planned and it was hoped that stock would 
first produce eggs in the 1983/1984 breeding season (111), 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has large open breeding pools with five different levels 
varying from 2 m to 2 cm deep and stocked with two species of fish. 
Sand nesting areas are provided as well as shade, lawned area and 
cement basking area. Indoor accommodation has under-floor and ceiling 
heating and solar-heated water is provided for crocodiles under 1.5 m. 
The stock is fed on fish and chicken; the animals kept outside are fed 
one whole chicken rolled in bone meal each week (111). 
FINANCES 

The farm is self-financing, depending on tourists for income. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Educational slide shows are offered to the public on open days. The 
farm is a member of the South African Crocodile Farmers' Association. 
(111). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocworld 

Crookes Brothers Ltd 

P.O. Renishaw 

South Coast Natal, 4181. 

Manager: A.C. Pooley. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

January 1984. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; a permit is held for keeping a total stock of 8500 
crocodiles (149). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

It is envisaged that the first hides will be available for sale in 
1987/88. Income will also be derived from a tourist complex (149). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

A permit has been granted to obtain 72 adult crocodiles (60 females 
and 12 males) from Malawi during 1984. It was hoped to purchase 1500 
hatchlings from commercial farms in Zimbabwe. Thereafter the farm will 
be self-supporting (149). 
BREEDING 

A breeding programme is planned. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has four controlled-environment buildings to house up to 
2000 hatchlings for the first year of life. The buildings are designed 
to take advantage of winter sunshine, and are air-conditioned for the 
hot summer weather. From one year until slaughter at about 3.5 years 
the crocodiles will be kept in open stock ponds where they will be 
regularly graded. Breeding ponds are laid out in areas of natural bush 
with viewing paths and walkways for visitors. There is an incubation 
room with capacity for 5000 eggs under controlled temperature and 
humidity. A cool store has been built to contain up to 40 tons of food 
(149). 



140 



South Africa 

OTHER INFORMATION 

Tourism will be an important aspect of the farm. A scenic drive has 
been built from the main coast road and there will be a large 
restaurant with a playground and curio shops; this complex should be 
open by the end of 1984. Educational facilities are planned with a 
lecture room and nature trails. There will also be wildlife exhibits, 
possibly including some exotics. 

In the longer term, fish farming is being considered, using the 
effluent from the rearing ponds for catfish ( Clarias spp. ) and Tilapia 
spp. The fish will eventually be fed to the crocodiles (149). 



141 



South Africa 

Transvaal 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Croco Farm 

De Wildt 

near Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Postal address: P.O. Box 18100, Hercules, 0030 Pretoria. 

Director: Jan-Gerd Kuhlmann. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

Project started privately in 1968 (114); became commercial in 1978. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : Total stock about 600-700 animals (182). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The purpose of the farm is to provide crocodiles for restocking 
into game reserves, as well as for commercial use (114). Although some 
reports indicate that crocodiles are released into South African rivers 
(11), there appears to have been no release to the wild so far. A 1978 
report indicated the aim of the farm to produce 2000 crocodiles a year 
(9). 

Crocodile products entering trade from the farm are marked to show 
that they are not from wild animals (114). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The farm was established with 14 mature 'nuisance' crocodiles 
caught in the Republic of South Africa under permit from the South 
African Nature Conservation Division. This is the only stock gained 
from the wild by the farm (114). 

It is reported that 20 unsexed two-year-old crocodiles were 
purchased from Binga Crocodile Farm, Zimbabwe in August 1976 (182). 
BREEDING 

All breeding has been from the original 14 crocodiles, which have 
been breeding in captivity since 1970. The farm is now beginning to 
breed third generation captive stock and is said to be a closed-cycle 
operation (114). 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers 20 ha (145). Breeding crocodiles are kept in 
landscaped concrete pools; eggs are hatched in incubators; hatchlings 
are kept in nurseries under controlled conditions; and young crocodiles 
are kept in hot-houses until they are ready for marketing (114), 
FINANCES 

The farm is privately financed by Jan-Gerd Kuhlmann (114). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Sabie Crocodile Farm 

P.O. Box 1410 

Pretoria 0001. 

Director: Trevor C. Bond. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

May 1981 

This farm and its stock were reported to be for sale in 1984 (54). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : in April 1983 stock totalled 444 animals, 12 adults, 
394 juveniles and 38 animals under one year old. 

142 



South Africa 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation was not producing conmercially in 1983. Production 
will be based on skins. Skins produced on the farm will be marked to 
indicate that they are from farmed animals. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Two animals were obtained under permit from the Kruger National 
Park, onto which the farm borders, in March 1931. 

Stock has been obtained from the Natal Parks Board, the Cango 
Crocodile Ranch and Kariba Crocodile Farm in Zimbabwe as follows: 

Year Adults Juveniles 

1981 8 144 

1982 4 250 

BREEDING 

In the 1982/1983 breeding season 38 animals were bred on the farm. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has earth-floored breeding pens skirted by concrete and 
containing natural and concrete rearing pens which are scrubbed out 
every 24 hours. Each pen type is surrounded by chain-link fence, has 
flowing water and natural shade. Further shade is provided by large 
cloths where necessary. The crocodiles are fed on meat provided by the 
culling operation in the Kruger National Park. 
FINANCES 

The farm is a commercial enterprise, run by five partners. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The taking of wild crocodiles in South Africa is controlled by the 
Transvaal, Natal, Cape Province and Orange Free State Governmental 
Administrations. 

The breeding which occurred in 1982/1983 was the first captive 
breeding to have taken place in the Transvaal. 

Infertile or arrested eggs are blown and sold as curios. There are 
tourist facilities and a shop. The farm is situated on the main road 
near the Skukuza Gate of the Kruger Park, and is therefore well-placed 
for attracting tourists (60). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocodile farm 

Post Locker 21 

1565 Volkskas Centre 

Pretoria 0002. 

Director: H.O. Penzhorn. 

This farm was registered with the CITES Secretariat as a recognised 
captive-breeding operation in July 1985 (101). 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

February 1982 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : total stock 200 in 1983 (140). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

It is thought that skins from the farm were exported in 1985 (101). 

143 



South Africa 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

No Stock has been taken from the wild. The following stock has been 
obtained (140): 

Year Adults Juveniles 

1982 100 

1983 100 
BREEDING 

None by 1983 (140). 
FINANCES 

The farm is privately financed but was not self-financing in 1983 
(140). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocodile farm 

Tzaneen (Farm Langbult) 

Aqatha 

Transvaal. 

Director: Milan Darazs. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

November 1982 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : a total of 36 animals were held in 1983; 3 adults and 
33 juveniles (69). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

None by 1983 (69). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The stock has been obtained from Zimbabwe and from an aquarium in 
Pretoria, South Africa (69). It is not yet clear whether the animals 
from Zimbabwe are of ranch or wild origin. 
BREEDING 

There are plans for a breeding programme. 
HUSBANDRY 

The stock is held in three enclosures, each 20 m x 30 m and is fed 
on fish and chicken (69). 
FINANCES 

The farm is privately financed (69). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocgrove Farm 

Box 112 

Schagen 1204 

Transvaal. 

Director: Michael Slogrove. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : about 50 adults and sub-adults. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation was not producing commercially in 1983. Production 
will be based on skins (168). 

144 



South Africa 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

About 50 animals, mainly females with enough males for breeding, 
were captured in the Caprivi strip (Namibia) and imported under permit 
(168). 
BREEDING 

It is intended that breeding will take place. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm has large open-air ponds, surrounded by concrete and 
chain-link fence in which the broodstock are kept. It is intended that 
eggs will be laid in the soil amongst natural vegetation surrounding 
the ponds. Concrete rearing pens have been constructed to house any 
hatchlings and there is also a new block of buildings including an 
incubator room and food store (168). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Lomati Estates 

Malelane 

Transvaal. 

Director: P.J. Schoeman. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; 14 breeding females 
6 breeding males 
20O- hatchlings 
20+ production stock (32). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation was not producing commercially in 1985, Production 
will be based on skins (82). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The broodstock was imported from Zimbabwe (82). 
BREEDING 

In 1984 approximately 200 hatchlings were produced from eggs laid 
on the farm. About 500 eggs were laid in 1985 which were expected to 
yield some 400 hatchlings (82). 
HUSBANDRY 

The broodstock is kept in an open pen of about 100 m by 30 m 
containing an artificial lake with a maximum depth of 2 m. Breeding 
cubicles are located around the perimeter wall, and are floored with 
clean sand. The eggs are removed within 24 h of laying and are 
incubated in polystyrene boxes filled with vermiculite. After hatching, 
the young are transferred to circular corrugated iron tanks, about 2 m 
in diameter, and kept at SO^C for about the first year of life. Later 
they are moved to a hothouse with a transparent roof, where they are 
kept in concrete pens with sloping floors. Each pen holds about 20 
females which are being raised as broodstock. Water temperature is not 
controlled and all heating is by natural sunlight. 

Chicken carcases are provided as food, supplemented with vitamins 
and minerals ( 82) . 
FINANCES 

It is planned to slaughter the animals at about three years old 
when they have reached a minimum of 30 cm belly width. Current skin 
prices were estimated to be RlOO to R150 in 1985 (82). 

145 



SPAIN 



A company known as Iberia Enterprises Ltd. requested "as many 
crocodiles as could be supplied" from the Natal Parks Board, Republic 
of South Africa, for unspecified purposes in 1979. The request was 
turned down. The species involved would have been Crocodylus niloticus . 
The address of the company is: 

Iberia Enterprises Ltd 

Felipe Bertron y Guell 

3 tda 4 

Barcelona. 
Directors: W. Martin Schutte; Roy Bates; Carmen Cano Canalis (146). 



146 



* 



SRI LANKA 



The CITES Management Authority reported in 1983 that there were no 
farms or ranches in Sri Lanka, although there had been several attempts 
to start such operations (71). The estimated total number of captive 
Crocodylus palustris in Sri Lanka in 1982 was 20 (197). 



147 



SURINAME 

A caiman farm was reported to exist in Suriname in 1979 (155); 
however no further confirmation of this farm has been found and its 
continued existence must be considered as dubious: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocodile Farm of Suriname, N.V. 

Groningen, District Saramacca. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Caiman crocodilus ; numbers unknown. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins were reported to be being exported, most likely to France, 
but possibly to the Netherlands and Germany (155). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The animals on the farm were probably caught on the Coesewijne 
River (155). 



148 



TAIWAN 

The Taiwan Provincial Department of Agriculture and Forestry 
supplied the following details of crocodilian farms in Taiwan (177, 178): 

There are 35 farms in Taiwan, the first of which was established in 
1976 ( 177 ) . 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

■south American short-mouthed caiman" ( Caiman crocodilus ) : about 8000 
"Indian sharp-mouthed crocodile" ( Gavialis gangeticus ) : about 300 
"SE Asia estuary crocodile and others" ( Crocodylus porosus): about 300 
(177). 

Fuchs (79) reported that there were some Tomistoma schlegelii on 
one farm, but Tsai (178) also confirmed the existence of some G^ 
gangeticus. There are unconfirmed reports that some Alligator 
mississi ppiensis were obtained from the USA during 1984 by Taiwanese 
farmers. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Annual production from all farms (US$1 = NT$39): 

Product 

Skins 

Meat 

Other 

Most of this is sold within Taiwan but some is exported to Japan and 
Korea (177). 

The meat is sold for food rather than medicinal use, except those parts 
of the skeleton, blood, and male genitalia which have medicinal value. The 
skin is processed for leather manufacture (178). 
BREEDING 

About 2000 hatchlings are produced each year on the farms. Each mature 
female lays about 25-45 eggs with a hatching rate of 45% (177). 
HUSBANDRY 

Ponds are usually of concrete with a soil bottom and are surrounded by 
brick walls. 

Juvenile crocodilians under 10 inches (25 cm) are fed on small fish and 
insects while larger animals are fed chickens and pig offal (177). 



Weight ( 


kg) 


Value (NT$) 


12 500 




10 million 


30 000 




12 million 


7 500 




8 million 



Fuchs (79) supplied the following details of a farm that he had visited: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Taiwan Crocodile Ltd 
Nr. 225 Shin Chung Road 
Matou/Tainan 



I 



149 



Taiwan 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Caiman crocodilus crocodilus ; a total of 5200 are kept: 

4800 3 months old, 0.3 m long. 

80 1.5 years old, 1.2 m long. 

320 7 years old, 2.4 m long. 

Crocodylus porosus : a total of 30 one-year-old animals. 

Tomistoma schlegelii ; A total of 15 one-year-old animals. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Skins and meat. The meat is worth US$26.7 kg-1 including bones. 
BREEDING 

2700 eggs are laid each year on the farm with a hatching success rate 
of 13% to 15%. It appears that 300 of the breeding stock were bred on the 
farm. 
HUSBANDRY 

The farm covers an area of 7500 m^ with two 60 m x 60 m 'natural' 
lakes; four 10 m x 10 m concrete ponds; two gas-heated greenhouses, each 
20 m X 10 m and containing twelve 2.5 m x 2.5 m concrete ponds. Crocodiles 
are killed at two years old when they are about 1.5 m long and weigh about 
15 kg. The crocodiles are fed on chicken and freshwater fish (79). 



The following company wanted to purchase 1000 live hatchling 
C. niloticus , from the Natal Parks Board, Republic of South Africa, for 
import to Taiwan in 1979; the purpose was unspecified. 

The EHISN International Corporation, 

6th Fl. Chinar Rebar Building, 

372 Lin Sen Nurih Building, 372 Lin Sen Nurih Rd, 

Taipei (146). 



150 



TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF 

One crocodile farm was established in 1981 but closed down within four 
years for financial reasons. There are plans to establish another farm in 
another locality where there is readily available cheap food (176). Details 
of the original farm are given: 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Crocodile Farm (Tanzania) Ltd 

Kondo Village 

Kunduchi 

P.O. Box 4382 

Dar es Salaam 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus . Between 1200 and 1500 were kept (108). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Stock was obtained from the Ruvu and Rufiji Rivers, Tanzania. Prior tc 
April 1983 80 adults and 1400 eggs had been taken from the wild. 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm sought advice on its establishment from crocodile farms in 
India, Bangkok, Abidjan, and Spencer's Creek Crocodile Ranch, Zimbabwe 
(108). 

It was reported to have closed down in 1985 owing to a shortage of 
cheap food for the crocodiles (176). 



151 



THAILAND 

There is only known to be one crocodilian farm in Thailand. In 1985 
this farm achieved regognition by the CITES Secretariat as an approved 
captive-breeding operation for Crocodylus siamensis , Crocodylus porosus 
and hybrids between the two. It is not yet (June 1985) an approved 
breeding operation for the other Appendix I species kept ( Tomi stoma 
schlegelii , Crocodylus rhombifer , Alligator sinensis ) . 



NAME OF OPERATION 

The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo Co. Ltd 

777 Mou 4 Taiban Road 

Samutprakan 

Thailand. 

Founder: Utai Youngprapakorn. General Manager: Charoon 
Youngprapakorn. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1950. Became commercial in 1960. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Over the years the total farm stock has been reported as follows: 
Year Numbers 



1972 
1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 
1980 
1983 
1984 



12 378 (212) 

13 637 (212) 
12 517 (212) 
16 980 (212) 
20 300 (212) 
24 500 (173) 
30 000 (211) 
10 568 (172) 



The age and species composition of the stock in 1984 was reported 
to be (172) : 





Breeding 


stock 




Immatures 


Total 




Male 


Female 


1-5 y 


rs 


6-9 yrs 




C. siamensis 


1157 


1713 


3860 




850 


7780 * 


C. porosus 


290 


540 


510 




415 


1755 


Hybrids 


112 


208 


270 




120 


710 


T. schlegelii 


2 


3 







80 


85 


C. crocodilus 


8 


15 


202 







225 


C. novaeguineae 


2 


3 










5 


A. sinensis 


1 


1 










2 


A. mississippiensis 1 


1 










2 


C. rhombifer 








4 







4 



TOTAL 



10568 



* Including 200 additional animals over 9 yrs old. 

This represents a considerable reduction from the stocks of 11 700 

Crocodylus siamensis , 8550 Crocodylus porosus and 4100 hybrid C. 

siamensis x C. porosus reported earlier (173). Whitaker (203) reported 



152 



Thailand 

170 T. schleqelii, of all sizes, in 1981. In 1982 the farm also had one 
Caiman latirostris and one Paleosuchus palpebrosus (173). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The crocodiles are bred for meat, skins and teeth, and are a 
tourist attraction. An average three-year-old C. porosus weighs 
10-18 kg. Of the average 14 kg, approximately 5-7 kg of meat is 
marketable (173). 

Crocodiles reared for skins are usually slaughtered at three years. 
Between 1980 and 1982 skins were produced as follows (209): 

Year No. of skins 
produced 

1980 1500 

1981 900 

1982 200 (few were slaughtered due to 

low market price for skins) 

The marked reduction in the total stock of crocodilians from 30 000 
in 1983 to 10 568 in 1984 suggests either that the earlier figure was 
incorrect or that substantial slaughtering or other mortality occurred 
during 1983 and 1984. 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Sixty percent of the skins are processed and sold locally, mostly 
to tourists, while the other 40% are salted and shipped abroad (173). 
In 1974 the farm was -supplying 80% of the Thai crocodile skin trade. 
The skins traded are not marked to show their origin (209). Early trade 
used to be directed towards Europe alone, mostly France (211). 

Of the skins produced on the farm in 1980, 700 were sold to France 
and 800 to Japan, in 1981 400 to France and 500 to Japan, and in 1982 
all the skins were sold to Japan (209). 

The meat is sold locally, mostly to restaurants as a delicacy (for 
US$5 kg-1); it is also used as a treatment for asthma (173). The meat 
is sold fresh on the local market with the surplus being dried and sold 
to Chinese tourists at the farm's shop. 

The average value of a crocodile (skin plus meat) was about US$320 
in 1983. The skin business has slowed down since mid-1982. It is 
reported that the unprocessed skin of a three-year-old C. porosus sold 
for about US$250 and the skin of C. siamensis sold for about 10% less 
(173). A more recent report (1984) put the value of skins at US$90 each 
(57). 

Other trade is in teeth, which can be used as an ingredient of Thai 
medicine (210), and in live animals to zoos (209). Whitaker et al. 
quote values of US$10 a kg for dried meat, US$15 for lacquered heads 
and US$3 for feet in Thailand (204). 

In 1980 only one crocodile, an albino C. porosus female, was sold 
to a zoo, the Glady Porter Zoo, Brownsville, Texas. No crocodiles were 
sold to zoos during 1981 or 1982 (210). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The operation began with 20 wild-caught C. siamensis in 1950. 
According to Youngprapakorn (209) no animals (presumably of C. 
siamensis and C. porosus ) have been taken from the wild since 1952. The 
C. crocodilus , C. novaeguineae , A. sinensis , C. latirostris and P. 
palpebrosus were acquired through the efforts of lUCN/ssc Crocodile 
Specialist Group, New York Zoological Society and the first working 

153 



Thailand 



meeting of the lUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group in 1971 (173). 

Six Cuban crocodiles have been obtained through a dealer from a zoo 
in Czechoslovakia (211). 
BREEDING 

In 1960 150 young were hatched; in 1970 the hatch was 3500 (12). 
Between 1950 and 1972 the farm's crocodile population increased at 
10-15% annually (40). 

In 1975 the farm held a breeding herd of 1000 animals; by 1975 this 
had increased to 3000. In 1976 the farm reported that 5740 eggs had 
been laid in captivity, with a 60% hatching success (40). 

C. porosus , C. siamensis and C. crocodilus a re regularly bred 
beyond second generation; T. schlegelii has bred to Fl (209). 

In C. porosus hatch rate is 40-50%; in C. siamensis hatch rate is 
50-60%. From 10-15% of hatchlings (or up to 30% according to Leather 
magazine (12)) die in their first year, then mortality drops to below 
5% (173). 
Recent breeding (209, 210): 







Number ha 


tched 


Number survived 






in 


captivity 


30 days (* 


C. porosus 
















1980 




1200 




1165 


(209) 




1981 




1320 




1280 


(209) 




1982 




1410 




1375 


(209) 




1984 




399 




365 


(172) 


C. siamensis 
















1980 




3550 




3515 


(209) 




1981 




3670 




3625 


(209) 




1982 




3750 




3730 


(209) 




1984 




2050 




* 1855 


(172) 


Caiman crocod 


ilus 














1980 




16 




14 


(210) 




1981 




4 




3 


(210) 




1982 




7 




6 


(210) 




1984 




32 




* 32 


(172) 


Tomistoma schlegelii 














1980 




15 




12 


(210) 




1981 




20 




18 


(210) 




1982 




22 




20 


(210) 



The breeding success in 1984 was reported (172) to be: 





No. of 




Eggs/clutch 


Hatchl 


ings/c 


lutch 




clutches 


Max 


Min 


Mean 


Max 


Min 


Mean 


C. siamensis 


100 


45 


20 


32.5 


41 





20.5 


C. porosus 


17 


55 


26 


40.5 


47 





21.5 


Hybrids 


17 


58 


30 


44.0 


53 


23 


37.5 


C. crocodilus 


2 


20 


14 


17.0 


20 


12 


16.0 



154 



Thailand 

HUSBANDRY 

The total area of the farm in 1984 was 24,25 acres (9.81 ha) but 
there was a further 8.08 acres (3.27 ha) available for expansion in the 
future (172). Pond facilities were listed as follows: 

Breeding ponds (172): 



Dimensions (m) 


Water 




Land 




Species 






area 


(ha) 


area 


(ha) 




44.5 X 


146 


0.34 




0.34 




C. siamensis 


37 X 


44 


0.09 




0.06 




Hybrid 


65 X 


81 


0.27 




0.27 




C. siamensis 


27.5 X 


43 


0.03 




0.08 




T. schleqelii 


84.5 X 


9 


0.07 




0.03 




C. siamensis 


12 X 


12 


0.01 




0.01 




C. crocodilus 


36 X 


39 


0.05 




0.10 




C. porosus 


73.5 X 


60 


0.30 




0.15 




C. porosus 



Rearing ponds for immature animals (172) 



Dimensions (cm) 



No. of ponds 



200 


X 


200 


1600 


X 


800 


800 


X 


600 


400 


X 


400 


25 


X 


50 


50 


X 


65 


300 


X 


300 


1000 


X 


500 



60 

35 
6 

50 
240 

51 
4 
1 



Each pond is surrounded by a land area larger than the water crea, 
with areas of sand and grass and trees to provide shade. The breeding 
ponds are 1.5 m deep, irregular in shape, with circulating fresh water. 
Fish are dumped in adjacent feeding ponds at 18.00 hours every day. 
These pools are cleaned out daily after feeding and any excess food is 
removed (173). 

In each breeding pool the sex ratio is one male to three females. 
Crocodiles are fed on waste fish, but if the supply is inadequate it is 
supplemented with chicken wings, legs and necks. The young do not feed 
for the first 7-10 days but are then fed coarsely-chopped fish until 
large enough to be fed on whole fish (173). 

Around the breeding ponds are 150 roofless nesting stalls, each 
with a drainage ditch and each approximately 4 x 4 m with a 60 x 60 cm 
door facing the pool. Nesting material (dried grass and other 
vegetation) is provided for both C. siamensis and C. porosus , by 
placing it in the stalls. Once the eggs are laid, the females are 
chased out of the pens and all further care is carried out by the farm 



155 



Thailand 

staff. The nest temperature is checked at regular intervals each day 
and steps are taken to keep the temperature at 95-98"»F (35-37°C). The 
humidity is also monitored and kept as constant as possible. Upon 
hatching, the young are placed in a concrete nursery pool 30 m x 2 m 
for 7-10 days. As the young animals grow they are moved to successively 
larger tanks but are always kept in crowded conditions with others of 
the same age (173). 
FINANCES 

The farm was opened to the public in 1969 and by 1971 was receiving 
3000 visitors a week at a cost of 30/6 each adult, 15ii each child, and 
$1 for foreign tourists. The farm now receives about one million 
visitors annually. Income also accrues from a gift shop, refreshment 
stands, elephant rides, photographers with tame pythons, stands selling 
fish to feed the crocodiles and assorted amusements. Some of the 
first-year hatchlings that die naturally are stuffed and sold as 
souvenirs (173). 

The major continuing cost is food; approximately 4000-5000 kg of 
waste fish are needed daily at a cost of US$0.20 kg~l (173). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

The farm was established with the following objectives (212):- 

a) Preservation of crocodiles; 

b) Commercial production; 

c) Tourism. 

It is the only major farm in that part of the world producing 
commercial quantities of crocodiles (40). Tiger, snake and lizard farms 
are also planned by the farm (173). 

Besides the crocodilians there are 48 other species of native and 
exotic reptiles on show (173), as well as birds and mammals. Pythons 
are kept in large numbers and are bred (211). Other species kept 
include elephant, lion, tiger, leopard, chimpanzee, gibbon, deer, 
bears, wild pigs, civets, wild cats and birds (57, 172). The animals 
are reported to be kept in small, dirty pens (57). 

'Leather' magazine (12) named Samutprakan Crocodile Farm, near 
Bangkok, as the 'Gordon Choisy Crocodile Farm'. Gordon Choisy own a 
leather tannery in Paris, France. 



156 



TOGO 



A crocodile (presumably Crocodylus niloticus ) farming project was 
expected in 1983 to be set up "in the near future" (75). 



157 



UGANDA 

The Kajansi Pish Culture Station, 12 km south of Kampala, 
introduced a crocodile-rearing programme, in 1959, as a conservation 
measure. In 1984, 18 very large Crocodylus niloticus and a number of 
smaller animals were being kept in neglected pens. The Station is in 
danger of discontinuing its crocodile rearing as it cannot afford food 
for the crocodiles (43). 



158 



gNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



General Information 



The first records of "farming" alligators in the USA date from the 
end of the last century when a few entrepreneurs started keeping 
alligators as tourist attractions (40). such operators continue today 
and, in Louisiana, are now termed "exhibitors" to distinguish them from 
"farmers" who are interested in the commercial products of alligators: 
skins, meat and live sales. The first commercial farms started in 
Louisiana, in 1954, but very few skins were produced (105). Farms were 
later established in Florida but they developed at a slow rate, and it 
was not until the summer of 1978 that they sold their first 
captive-raised skins (40). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

The only species of crocodilian which is farmed commercially in the 
USA is Alligator mississippiensis . The table gives a summary of the 
numbers of farms which have been in existence in Louisiana (LA) and 
Florida (FL). Although the total numbers of farms in Louisiana has not 
changed much, many individual farms have been put into liquidation and 
new farms have started up. One farm is reported in Texas. 







No. Of 


Alligator 


Skins 


Nests on 


Hatchlings 








farms 


stock 


harvested 


farms 


produced 




1954 


LA 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


(105) 


1975 


LA 


8 


8357 


_ 


26 


493 


(105) 


1976 


LA 


7 


8261 


- 


42 


713 


(105) 


1977 


LA 


9 


9162 


- 


59 


889 


(105) 


1980 


LA 


8 


13000 


— 


_ 


1500 


(40) 




PL 


5 


7000 


- 


- 


2500 


(40) 


1983 


FL 


12 


- 


- 


- 


- 


(83) 


1984 


LA 


9 


16829 


1113 


73 


1800 


(103) 




FL 


19 


32193 


738 


335 + 


4075 


(67) 



Many zoos and exhibitors keep a variety of other crocodilian 
species, one of the most important conservation operations being for 
Crocodylus moreletii , which has been bred in large numbers by the 
Atlanta Zoological Society. About 150 of these have subsequently been 
released in Mexico. Other species which have been bred include 
Crocodylus intermedius , Crocodylus siamensis , Crocodylus acutus , 
Crocodylus niloticus , Crocodylus porosus , Crocodylus rhombifer , 
Crocodylus cataphractus . Alligator sinensis . Caiman crocodilus , 
Osteolaemus tetraspis and Paleosuchus trigonatus (186). 



159 



U.S.A. 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

Harvesting of wild alligators takes place in Florida, Louisiana 
and on a small scale in Texas. In 1983 the harvest in Louisiana 
amounted to 16 154 alligators, 8% of the estimated population, and 
produced 100 000 lb (45.5 t) of meat (195). The total skin production 
from farms in the State in 1984 was 1113 (103). Total farm skin 
production in Florida was 112 in 1983 but a further 1031 live animals 
were sold (25). In 1984 a total of 738 skins were produced from farms 
in Florida (67) . 

In 1981 there were more than 200 restaurants serving alligator 
meat in Florida. Farm-raised meat was said to fetch a premium price 
because of better processing and to have sold for US$10 a pound 
($22 kg~l). Other by-products such as feet and heads as curios and 
gall bladders and penes for the Far Eastern market were said to be 
potentially valued at up US$20-50 per animal although with current 
marketing practice US$5 would be a more reasonable sum (41). whi taker 
et al. (204) quoted more modest prices in 1985 of US$10 kg~l for meat 
and US$20 for lacquered skulls in the USA, with US$25 kg~l for oil, 
US$5 each for dried gall bladders and US$5 a pair of dried scent glands 
obtainable in Hong Kong. 

In Florida licences are issued to take "nuisance" alligators, and 
up to 1980 about 2000 such animals were being taken each year (30). An 
experimental harvest was initiated in 1981 on the Orange and Lochloosa 
Lakes and, until 1984, an annual average harvest of 330 alligators 
greater than 1.2 m in length was taken (96). 

All trade in alligator products, whether farmed or wild-caught, is 
strictly regulated. Skins and meat must be tagged or labelled with tags 
issued by the State Authorities, and the killing and sale or processing 
of products of alligators also require licences. Alligator 
mi ssi ssippiensi s is listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and 
tanners of alligator skins and buyers who wish to engage in inter-state 
commerce of raw skins must hold a permit from the US Fish and Wildlife 
Service (USFWS). The killing of alligators reared in captivity requires 
a Federal farming permit from the USFWS. Full details of the stock held 
and whether it derives from the wild or is captive-born must be 
submitted with the permit application. 

Health regulations are set in each State controlling the slaughter 
and processing conditions for meat destined for human consumption. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The Louisiana ranch stocks are being supplemented with wild-caught 
animals during their first five to seven years of operation to help 
them acquire breeding stock and expand their operations. The farms so 
supplied must comply with specified standards of facilities and 
planning. Some type of environmental chamber to house juvenile 
alligators over winter must be available, and farmers must, if 
required, return to the State live alligators of length 0.9 m 
representing 5% of the hatchlings supplied. Periodic inspections are 
carried out, and farmers must submit annual reports of stock and 
husbandry records (105). In 1984 Louisiana Rockefeller Refuge supplied 
a total of 5050 hatchlings to farmers in the State, two-thirds of which 
derived from wild-collected eggs, and the remainder from eggs laid in 
captivity (103). 

In Florida a programme to evaluate the impact of removing eggs and 
hatchlings from the wild was initiated in 1981. This relies on a 

160 



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U.S.A. 

helicopter to locate the nests, directing ground teams in airboats to 
make the collection. Using three boats, up to 1800 eggs have been 
collected in an 8-hour period. Hatchlings are mostly collected at night 
from boats. Collection costs in 1984 were about US$5 an egg and 
US$7. 32-12. 86 a hatchling (96). At least 3217 hatchlings were supplied 
to farmers in 1984 by this supplement programme (67). 
BREEDING 

In 1980 the five active Florida ranches were collectively 
producing an average of 2500 hatchlings a year (40). In 1983 2635 
hatchlings were produced from 6 ranches (25). In 1984 breeding took 
place on 11 ranches, producing a total of 4075 surviving hatchlings. 
These were derived from a total of 11 818 eggs laid, giving a mean 
hatching succcess rate of 34% (range 0-81%). The mean number of eggs 
per nest was 33.0 (67). 

Only one of the Louisiana ranches was breeding alligators in 1984, 
when it produced 1800 hatchlings (103). 
HUSBANDRY 

According to Ashley (40) an area of at least 10 acres (4.2 ha) is 
needed for an alligator farm. Breeding ponds have to be constructed, 
and wells and pumps adequate to maintain water levels are essential. 
Concrete rearing pools capable of housing 500 to 1000 alligators of 
each age class would also have to be constructed. Storage facilities, 
freezers, coolers, food preparation areas, and skinning and handling 
areas are also needed. 
FINANCES 

Running costs for an alligator ranch were estimated in 1980 to 
total between US$50 000 and US$200 000 over the first three years (40). 

Based on average values of US$49.21 a linear metre for skins and 
US$11.02 kg-1 for meat, farmed animals were worth about US$200-300 at 
slaughter in 1984. The costs of raising a hatchling to this size were 
estimated to be US$75-100 which, assuming a 90% survival rate, gave a 
profit of US$125 per animal. Very large wild-killed animals of 3.5 m 
have raised over US$1000 each (96). Ashley (41) gave a value in 1981 of 
US$355 for each animal, comprising US$170 for a 17" (43-cm) belly-width 
hide and US$175 for 25 lb of meat (US$15.4 kg-1). 



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U.S.A. 

Louisiana 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, captive propagation project 

Rockefeller Refuge, Grand Chenier, Louisiana. 

Operated by: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

In 1959 the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries 
initiated an alligator research programme involving Alligator 
mississippiensis , in two parts: 

i) field studies on life history; 

ii) a culture programme incorporating the facts derived from the 
field study (considering reproductive activity, stocking density, food 
requirements and social order). 

The aim of the programme was to demonstrate the feasibility of 
raising alligators in captivity (104). 

The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries controls all 
alligator harvest and farming activities in the State. The Rockefeller 
Refuge maintains incubation facilities to supply hatchlings to farmers. 
In 1984 two-thirds of the hatchlings supplied to farmers in the State 
derived from wild-collected eggs and one third from eggs laid at the 
Refuge (103). 

In 1976 an Alligator sinensis propagation programme was begun (107). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : about 200 broodstock were kept in 1978 (105). 

A. sinensis ; this operation is based on three mature alligators 
(44). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The operation is a conservation project and does not produce 
animals for trade (107). It does, however, supply the hatchlings from 
wild-collected, artificially incubated eggs to farmers. In 1984 a total 
of 5050 hatchlings were supplied to 9 farmers (103). The A. sinensis 
offspring produced have been transferred to the New York Zoological 
Park and the Texas Zoological Park at Houston (45). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

A. mississippiensis : This operation was based on wild-caught stock 
and eggs. The eggs collected from the wild within 24 hours of being 
laid or after the 4th week of incubation produced the greatest success 
in the farm-incubation (104). 

A. sinensis : All of the animals were obtained from captive 
sources. The original four adult alligators were from the New York 
Zoological Park and the U.S. National Zoological Park (107). 
BREEDING 

A. mississippiensis : The first farming efforts involved capturing 
wild alligators and housing them in large breeding ponds. A stocking 
rate of one male and one female in each pen (0.4 ha) produced 
successful nesting. Attempts to keep several females with one male 
resulted in fighting and mortality. Subsequent improvements to the pen 
design to mimic natural conditions allowed higher stocking rates. 
Multiple nesting of wild adult females was achieved only after small 
isolation ponds were added to the breeding enclosures (104). 

Use of wild-caught adults as breeders proved impractical because 
they were found to require more space than animals reared in captivity; 
but these animals did provide a source of eggs which later formed the 



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U.S.A. 

basis for future breeding stock for a commercially acceptable breeding 
programme (107). 

Age at first nesting, for alligators raised in chambers for three 
years then transferred to outside pens, was 5 years 10 months compared 
to 9 years 10 months for wild animals, but reproductive success may not 
be comparable until the captive-reared animals reach 10 years. The 
fecundity, fertility and hatching success all increased with age. By 
the fourth year of breeding the clutch size was approaching 39 eggs, 
the average for wild nests. Egg fertility of cultured stock averaged 
only 47% over three years, compared with 87.5% for wild-caught animals 
reared in pens. Hatchability was also lower at 44% compared to 58% for 
wild-caught animals (107). 

Eggs were incubated at 29-33°c in trays, supported over water, 
completely enclosed in natural nesting materials to aid degradation of 
the eggshell (104). Hatching success was found to be best at a 
temperature of 31-31. 7°C (105). 

A. sinensis ; The operation had some trouble in producing offspring 
at first but after a change in the diet, has had some success. In 1977 
one hatchling was produced, however it died within six weeks. In 1979 
four young were successfully raised and in 1980, 24 were raised. Over 
this period the hatching success rate works out to be approximately 50% 
(45). 
HUSBANDRY 

Wild-caught adults were found to require 10 times more space than 
captive-reared animal-s. Stocking rates for captive-reared animals 
ranged from 12-46 adults 0.4 ha-1. Juveniles up to three years of age 
were kept in environmental chambers maintained at 29-32°C. stocking 
densities were held at 10 m-2 for the first year and were then 
reduced to 3.3 m-2 for older animals (107). 

The feeding rate was 25% of body weight a week for the first year 
reducing to 18% by the end of the third year. The alligators were fed 
on fish ( Micropogon undulatus ) or nutria ( Myocastor coypus ) . The 
nutria-fed animals were 20% heavier and 3% longer on average than the 
fish-fed animals, at the end of the study. Behavioural differences were 
also observed, the nutria-fed animals being more active and aggressive. 
On a fish diet 49.5% of the dry weight of food fed was converted to 
body weight over a 33-month period. The feeding rate of adults in 
outside pens was approximately 6-7% of body weight a week (104). 

Mortality of hatched animals was less than 5% for the three-year 
study (104). 
FINANCES 

In 1973-75 it was estimated that it cost US$20 to raise one 
alligator to an age of 33 months. This included all running costs, but 
excluded labour and capital outlay (107). 

The A. sinensis project is financed by the New York Zoological 
Society (107). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Researchers who have worked at Rockefeller Refuge include M.J.W. 
Ferguson, from Manchester University, and V. Lance from Tourlane 
University, New Orleans. 

Results from the operation have been published in a number of 
articles including those used as references here. 



163 



U.S.A. 

OTHER INFORMATION 

The A. sinensis project was initiated in response to the decline of 
the species in the wild and began with a pooling of adult specimens 
already in the USA for propagation purposes. The Rockefeller Refuge was 
chosen as the site for the captive-breeding project as this was seen to 
be the closest possible substitute for the animals natural habitat 
available in the USA. Production of offspring from the operation is 
hoped to provide a source of animals for the captive population (45). 

NAME OP OPERATION 
Cocodrie Farms 
9034 S. Vignes 
Baton Rouge, 
LA. 70817. 

Operated by: D.R. Keller. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation was established in 1977 and became commercial in 1980 
(109). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 400 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

325 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
125 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
140 over 4 ft, including 9 breeding males and 
33 breeding females 

TOTAL 990 (136) 

A. mississippiensis ; in 1984 stock held before the harvest was 1215 
immature and 42 adults (103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The following numbers of skins have been produced on the ranch: 

Trade destination 

USA and Japan (109) 

Japan (109) 

USA and Japan (109) 

? (136) 

? (103) 

All skins produced are tagged according to regulations set by the 
Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries so they may be 
distinguished as being from captive-raised animals (109). 

Animals are also being kept for breeding purposes. 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All ranch stock has been obtained from the Louisiana Department of 
Wildlife as juvenile animals which are raised at the Louisiana 
Department of Wildlife Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, Grand Chenier, 
Louisiana (110). Numbers are as follows: 



Year 


Skins produced 


1980 


225 


1981 


250 


1982 


200 


1983 


161 


1984 


200 



164 



O.S.A. 



Year Numbers of animals 

1980 250 

1981 375 

1982 350 (109) 

1983 400 (136) 

1984 500 (103) 
BREEDING 

In 1983 and 1984 a total of 42 five-year-old alligators were being 
kept to establish a breeding programme. As these animals mature and 
begin to breed successfully the ranch should become self-sustaining 
with regard to stock (110). During 1983 these animals first attempted 
nesting. Four clutches comprising 113 eggs were laid, from which 14 
young hatched (136). 
HUSBANDRY 

The adult animals are kept in a 1.5-acre (0.62-ha) 'natural 
habitat' enclosure enclosed by a 6 ft (1.83-m) chain-link fence. The 
juveniles are kept in completely enclosed heated chambers measuring 
10 ft X 32 ft (3.05 m x 9.75 m), with drains and a fresh water source 
(109). 

The alligators are fed mainly on non-oily saltwater fish but also 
on red meat procured during the local trapping season (110). 
FINANCES 

The operation is privately financed and was not self-financing in 
1983 (109). 






NAME OP OPERATION 

Sauros Inc. 

RTI Box 27 OA 

Bell City 

LA 70630. 

Operated by: Emilie D. Perkins. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation was started in June 
October 1981. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 1050 less than 

987 between 2 
995 between 3 
277 over 4 ft 



1979 and became commercial in 



2 ft (0.61 m) 

ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 

ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 



A. 



TOTAL 3309 
mi ssi ssi ppi ensi s : in 



1984 stock 



(136) 
held before 



the harvest 



totalled 3950, all immature (103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The ranch hopes eventually to produce alligator meat, skins and 
teeth as commercial products, but as yet no animals have been killed. 
Alligators are also kept alive for medical research, release to the 
wild and to provide breeding stock for other alligator ranches. There 
was no production in 1980. 



165 



U.S.A. 



In 1981 and 1982 the ranch produced the following: 



Year 



1981 



1982 



1983 
1984 



Product 

Live animals for 
medical research. 
Live animals for 
breeding stock. 
Live animals for 
medical research. 
Live animals for 
breeding stock. 

Skins harvested 



No. of animals 
involved 

52 

400 

50 

500 

? 

400 



Destination of 
product 

Canada & USA 

USA 

Canada & USA 

USA (141) 

? (103) 



During the period 
released in Louisiana: 



1980-82, the following live alligators were 



Year 



Age of animals 



Numbers of animals 





released 


released 


1980 


2 years 


35 


1981 


2 years 


50 


1982 


1 year 


100 




2 years 


50 (141) 


1984 


■> 


50 (103) 



SOURCE OF AMIMALS 

Between 1980 and 1982 all stock was obtained from the Louisiana 
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. This stock was captive-bred from 
animals which had themselves been "bred in captivity" (141). The 
numbers obtained are as follows: 



Year 


No. of animals 


1980 


700 


1981 


1000 


1982 


1000 (141) 


1983 


1050 (136) 


1984 


1000 (103) 



BREEDING 

Breeding stock is apparently being built up on the ranch, but as 
yet all the stock is too young to breed. 
HUSBANDRY 

The stock is kept in fibreglass tanks in heated buildings until 
three years old and is then kept in fenced outdoor ponds designed for 
breeding. The alligators are fed on the waste products of the local 
fur trapping and fishing industries (141). 
FINANCES 

The operation is privately financed and is not yet self-financing. 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Breeding results will be published after the breeding programme 
has been established. 

Research work is carried out by the Louisiana Department of 
Wildlife and Fisheries. 



166 



U.S.A. 

OTHER INFORMATION 

The ranch operates on a co-operative basis with the Louisiana 
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and is being supplied with P2 
hatchlings over a period of seven years after which the breeding stock 
will have matured and the operation will become a closed-cycle (141). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

General Delivery 

Springfield, LA 70462. 

Operated by: Leonard K. Coats 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The first hatchlings were obtained in 1984 (103). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 500 immature in 1984 (103). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

500 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No Skins were being harvested in 1984 (103). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

703 Thompson Drive 
Hammond, LA 70401. 
Operated by: Robert Kliebert. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 3200 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

3700 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
2400 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
1100 over 4 ft, including 52 breeding males 
L and 91 breeding females 

TOTAL 10400 (136) 

»In 1984 the stock before the harvest was reported to be 300 
adults and 7300 immature (103). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

300 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
k (103). 

^UPRODUCTION AND TRADE 

^P 408 skins were harvested in 1984 (103). 
BREEDING 

917 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 33 clutches. From these 
■ 700 hatched (136). 

73 nests were laid on the farm in 1984, from which 1800 
hatchlings were produced (103). 



167 



U.S.A. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Operated by: George Bartmess. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The first hatchlings were obtained in 1984 (103). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 500 immature in 1984 (103). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

500 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No animals were old enough to harvest skins in 1984 (103), 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Louisiana Land and Exploration. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The first hatchlings were obtained in 1984 (103). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 500 immature in 1984 (103). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

500 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No animals were old enough to harvest skins in 1984 (103). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

10555 Barbara Drive 

Baton Rouge 

LA 70130. 

Operated by: Steele B. McAndrews. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 995 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

125 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
332 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
319 over 4 ft 

TOTAL 1771 (136) 

In 1984 the stock before the harvest was reported to be 1772 
immature (103). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

1000 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

105 skins were harvested in 1984 (103). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: Robert Ferrington. 



168 



U.S.A. 

DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The first hatchlings were obtained in 1984 (103). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 500 immature in 1984 (103). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

500 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No animals were old enough to harvest skins in 1984 (103). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Operated by: Travis Barron. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The first hatchlings were obtained in 1984 (103). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 250 immature in 1984 (103). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

250 hatchlings were obtained from the Rockefeller Refuge in 1984 
(103). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No animals were old enough tp harvest skins in 1984 (103). 



The addresses of 10 other alligator breeders in 1983 are given 
below. The first five are exhibitors and the remaining five 
non-commercial, merely keeping alligators as a hobby (103): 

1. City of Alexandria zoological Park, P.O. Box 71, Alexandria, LA 
71301. 

2. Greater Baton Rouge Zoo, P.O. Box 60, Baker, LA 70704. 

3. Audubon Park Commission, P.O. Box 4327, New Orleans, LA 70173. 

4. Snake Farm, P.O. Box 96, LaPlace, LA 70068. 

5. La Purchase Gardens and Zoo, P.O. Box 123, Monroe, LA 71201. 

6. John Paul Crain, P.O. Box 118, Grand Chenier, LA 70643. 

7. Norman Perrilloux, 700 Glockner Ct., Mandeville, LA 70448. 

8. Ernest Lile Jr., Star Route A, Box 411, Franklin, LA 70538. 

9. Hazel Rottman, Star Route Box 206-A, Ponchatoula, LA 70454. 

10. Ernest Winbourne, Gator, Inc., 4616 Beau Lac Lane, Metairie, 
LA 70001. 



169 



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Florida 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Gator Jungle 

26205 Hy 50 

PC Box 209 

Christmas 

Florida 32709. 

Operated by: H.W. Brooks. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation was established and became commercial in 1970. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 



Stock at 31 December 
A. mississippiensis ; 



1983: 
500 less than 
600 between 2 
450 between 3 



1970 



2 ft (0.61 m) 
ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
over 4 ft, including 280 breeding males 
and 200 breeding females 



TOTAL 



3520 



(136) 



The total stock at 31 December 1984 was 3947 A. mississippiensis 
and 15 Crocodylus niloticus (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The alligators are reared for their skins and meat. Some stock is 
being reared for breeding purposes. 

Skins entering trade, produced on the ranch, are marked by means 
of tags attached to the hide so indicating that the hide is of ranched 
origin. Alligator meat produced on the ranch is packaged in boxes 
marked with seals. 

No skins were sold in 1983 (136) or 1984 (67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

A total of 200 juvenile alligators were taken from the wild in 
1981 (62). A further 200 juveniles were acquired from the Florida Game 
and Freshwater Fish Commission in 1983 (136) and 500 in 1984 (67). 
BREEDING 

Breeding has occurred as follows: 



Year 


Number Bred in 


Number Survived 




Captivi 


^ 


30 Days 


1980 


861 




860 


1981 


688 




681 


1982 


300 




280 (62) 


1983 


191 




180 (136) 


1984 


147 




? (67) 



A total of 21 clutches of eggs were laid in 1983, comprising 800 
eggs (136). 657 eggs were laid in 1984 (67). 
HUSBANDRY 

The stock is kept in five lakes and ponds, and 45 concrete tanks. 
FINANCES 

The operation is privately financed. 



170 



U.S.A. 

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is carried out by the Florida Alligator Farmers 
Association and the University of Florida. The results of the 
operation are published (62). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

CST Gator Farm 
P.O. Drawer 1208 
Keystone Heights 
Florida 32656. 
Operated by: Don R. Morgan. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation was established in June 1980, and was planned to be 
commercial by September 1984. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 988 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

114 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
176 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
500 over 4 ft, including 72 breeding males 
and 157 breeding females 

TOTAL 1178 (25) 

2406 alligators were held on 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

It is intended that the operation will produce meat and skins as 
well as animals for release to the wild (129). 

This farm is allowed to harvest skins but no permit was applied 
for in 1983 and no sales took place (25). 42 hides were sold in 1984 
(67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Alligators have been obtained from the wild within the State of 
Florida as follows: 

Year Number obtained Number survived 







30 days 


1981 


1000 


995 


1982 


800 


740 (129) 


1983 


1000 


988 (25) 


1984 


■> 


506 (67) 



Capture is regulated by the Florida Game and Fish Department. 

275 animals were obtained in 1980 from other alligator ranches 
(129). 
BREEDING 

In 1982 15 young were bred in captivity and 150 wild-collected 
eggs were hatched. The number of hatchlings to survive to 30 days from 
the wild eggs was 148, mortality just over 1% (129). 

In 1983 13 clutches of eggs were laid with a total of 205 eggs, 
of which only one hatched (25). 

In 1984 35 clutches were laid with a total of 1105 eggs, of which 
122 hatched (67). 



171 



U.S.A. 

HUSBANDRY 

The alligators are kept in an environmentally controlled concrete 
building, and also in lakes. They are fed all year (129). 
FINANCES 

The operation is privately financed and is not yet self-financing 
(129). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Dr Paul Cardeilhac carries out research at the operation (129). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Froehlich's Gator Country 
26256 E. Hwy 50 
Christmas 
FL 32709. 

Operated by: Ed Froehlich. 
This farm moved from 8900 w Lake Park Road, Lake Park, FL 33401 to 
Christmas in 1983 (186). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 2000 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

1050 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
1500 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
1000 over 4 ft, including 68 breeding males 
andl22 breeding females 

TOTAL 5550 (25) 

The total stock at 31 December 1984 was 3845 alligators (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The farm is allowed to harvest skins but the permit to sell skins 
was not renewed in 1983 as no request was received. A total of 1031 
live alligators were sold during 1983, 996 juveniles and 35 breeding 
stock (25). No skins were sold in 1984 (67). 
BREEDING 

1389 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 46 clutches. Prom these 
1053 hatched, of which 1000 survived until 31 December 1983 (25). 

At Lake Park the broodstock was kept in two natural ponds, 
several acres in size. In 1980 40 nests were laid, from which it was 
hoped to hatch 800 young at an average hatching rate of 65%. Eggs are 
removed from the nests and incubated artificially in trays containing 
decomposing vegetation (30). 
HUSBANDRY 

At Lake Park hatchlings up to one year old were reared in 
enclosed chambers measuring 5 ft x 6 ft x 14 in (1.52 m x 1.83 m x 
0.36 m) with 100 in each. 100 two-year-olds were reared in each open 
pen measuring 6 ft x 12 ft (1.83 m x 3.66 m), and 3- to 4-year-olds 
are kept in larger pens, measuring 20 ft x 20 ft (6.10 m) , again with 
100 in each. Alligators reared in these pens were found to be more 
easy to manage than those reared in natural pens (30). 

It is not known what facilities are available at the new site at 
Christmas. 

Food is mostly mixed saltwater fish and chicken necks. Breeding 
females are given vitamin supplements (30). 

172 



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U.S.A. 

FINANCES 

In 1980 skins were selling at about US$7 a belly inch 
($2.76 cm~l), and the meat, which was supplied to local gourmet 
restaurants, at US$6 lb-1 ($13.20 kg-1). A 6-ft (1.83-m) alligator 
weighs about 80 lb (36 kg), half of which is meat. This therefore 
fetched twice the value of the skin (30). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Turtles ( Trionyx spp.) were also being bred for the pet trade, 
hatchlings fetching US$2 each (30). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Rt. 1, Box 340 
Bell 

PL 32619. 

Operated by: Joel W. Smith. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 597 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

480 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
542 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
2251 over 4 ft, including 158 breeding males 
and 494 breeding females 

TOTAL 3870 (136) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 4282 alligators (67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

No animals were acquired from captive sources during 1983 (25). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

118 skins were sold in 1983 (136) and 540 in 1984 (67). 

The farm also sells alligator meat (166). 
BREEDING 

2104 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 57 clutches. Prom these 
670 hatched, of which 665 survived until 31 December 1983 (136). 

In 1984, 94 nests were laid, totalling 2777 eggs, from which 1023 
hatchlings were produced (67). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

A few freshwater turtles are also kept at the farm (166). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Hunt's Alligator Breeding 

Route 1, Box 25 

Gator Farm Road 

Bushnell 

PL 33513. 
Operated by: Clyde Hunt. 



173 



U.S.A. 

SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 1060 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

243 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
705 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
1331 over 4 ft, including 113 breeding males 
and 178 breeding females 

TOTAL 3339 (25) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 4026 alligators (67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

None during 1983 (25). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

65 skins were sold in 1983 (25) and 78 in 1984 (67). 
BREEDING 

2545 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 65 clutches. Prom these 
768 hatched, of which 755 survived until 31 December 1983 (25). 

In 1984, 49 clutches, totalling 2121 eggs were laid, from which 
717 hatchlings survived (67). 

All offspring are captive-bred and no eggs or hatchlings are 
taken from the wild (186). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Godwin's Gatorland, Inc. 
Hwy 441 North 
Kissimmee 
PL 32741. 

Operated by: Frank Godwin. 
(The US Fish and Wildlife Service supplied a different address for 
this operation in 1985: Gatorland Zoo, 14501 S. Orange Blossom Trail, 
Orlando, FL 32821). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 996 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

777 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
857 between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
90 over 4 ft 
+ approximately 1000 breeding animals 

TOTAL 3720 (25) 

At 31 December 1984 the farm held a total of: 
4181 A. mississippiensis 
36 Crocodylus acutus 
23 Caiman crocodilus 
1 Crocodylus porosus 
1 Crocodylus moreletii (67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

952 young were supplied by the Florida supplement programme in 
1983 (25) and 788 in 1984 (67). 



174 



U.S.A. 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1983, The farm is allowed to harvest skins 
but did not request a permit in 1983 (25). 78 hides were sold in 1984 
(67). 
BREEDING 

1241 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 47 clutches. From these 
55 hatched (25). 

In 1984, 35 nests, totalling 1074 eggs were laid, from which 238 
hatchlings survived (67). 
HUSBANDRY 

The breeding stock is kept in one large open pond, making an 
accurate census impossible (25). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

J. & M. Game Farm 

PO Box 24 

Kir by Thompson Road 

Palmdale 

PL 33935. 

Operated by: James L. and Maduine Posey. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was established prior to 1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 1 less than 1 ft (0.30 m) 

57 between 1 ft and 2 ft (0.61 m) 
22 between 2 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
47 between 4 ft and 6 ft (1.83 m) 
16 over 8 ft (2.44 m) 

TOTAL 143 (25) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 367 alligators (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1983. The farm has no permit to harvest 
skins (25). 
BREEDING 

252 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 6 clutches. From these 
58 hatched of which all were surviving on 31 December (136). 

In 1984, 7 nests were laid, totalling 277 eggs, from which 224 
hatchlings survived (67). 
HUSBANDRY 

The breeding stock is kept in one large open pond, having an area 
of about 0.5 ha. There is a separate 1-ha rearing enclosure with a 
similar-sized pond. 

An incubator constructed from a converted freezer truck is also 
present (25). 



175 



U.S.A. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Limestone Farms, Inc. 

1419 Taylor Road 

Brandon 

FL 33511. 

Operated by: John W. Evans & Mr Davis. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 91 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

34 between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
over 3 ft 
TOTAL 125 (25) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 124 alligators (67). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

All the animals were obtained from the Savage Alligator Farm 
during 1983 (25). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No permit to harvest skins was issued in 1983 as the farm was new 
(25). 
BREEDING 

None reported in 1983 (25) or 1984 (67). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

357 S. Orange Street 

Sebring 

FL 33807. 

Operated by: Steve Kackley. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis : 292 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

116 over 6 ft (1.83 m) 

TOTAL 408 (25) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 1074 alligators (67). 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No permit to harvest skins was issued in 1983 as the farm was new 

(25). 

BREEDING 

41 nests were laid in 1984, totalling 1145 eggs, from which 666 

hatchlings survived (67). 



176 



U.S.A. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Howell Alligator Farm 

Route 1, Box 1675 

Plant City 

FL 33566. 

Operated by: John T, Howell. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December: 

A. mississippiensis : 230 in 1983 (25) 

158 in 1984 (67) 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No permit to harvest skins was issued in 1983 as the farm was new 
(25). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984 (67). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Swampy Farms (AKA Hilltop Farms) 

PO Box 818 

1107 West Main Street 

Avon Park 

FL 33825. 

Operated by: Lawler M. Wells. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 30 June 1984: 

A. mississippiensis ; 172 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

939 between 2 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
713 between 4 ft and 6 ft (1.83 m) 
206 between 6 ft and 8 ft (2.44 m) 
189 over 8 ft 

TOTAL 2219 (25) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 2689 alligators (67). 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 

as the farm was new (25). 

BREEDING 

31 nests were laid in 1984, containing 1066 eggs, from which 377 

hatchlings survived (67). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Circle G Alligator Ranch 

Route 3, Box 219 

Bushnell 

FL 33513. 

Operated by: John F. Galvin. 



177 



U.S.A. 

DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1983, and was probably 
established in April 1982 (83). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : 59 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
as the farm was new (25). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Nelson Fence Co. 
Exotic breeders 
755 South Little John Road 
Inverness 
PL 32650. 

Operated by: Ron Nelson. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1984: 
2 Paleosuchus sp. 

2 Crocodylus acutus 

3 Crocodylus niloticus 

1 Crocodylus siamensis (67). 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. The farm only intends to breed 
animals for live sale (25). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984 (67). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Flying "P" Ranch 
PC Box 892, Hwy 471 North 
Bushnell 
PL 33513. 

Operated by: George 0. Parrot. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to exist prior to July 1983 (83). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 673 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
70 over 4 ft, including 19 breeding males 
and 51 breeding females 

TOTAL 743 (136) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 1256 alligators (67). 



178 



U.S.A. 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

453 hatchlings were obtained from the US Fish & Wildlife 
Co-operative Research Unit in 1983 (136). 

544 hatchlings were obtained from the State in 1984 (67). 

107 hatchlings were obtained from another alligator farmer in 
1983 (136). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No Skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest sltins was issued 
(25). 
BREEDING 

299 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 8 different clutches. 
Prom these 114 hatched (136). 

In 1984, 26 nests were laid, totalling 1092 eggs, from which 292 
hatchlings survived (67). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Bonnie Farms 
PO Box 313, Hwy 621 East 
Lake Placid 
FL 33852. 

Operated by: Joe Tillman. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to exist prior to July 1983 (83). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Stock at 31 December 1983: 

A. mississippiensis ; 407 less than 2 ft (0.61 m) 

between 2 ft and 3 ft (0.91 m) 
between 3 ft and 4 ft (1.22 m) 
131 over 4 ft, including 12 breeding males 
and 22 breeding females 

TOTAL 538 (136) 

Total stock at 31 December 1984 was 1581 alligators (67). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

175 hatchlings were obtained from the Florida Game & Fish 
Supplement Programme in 1983 (136) and 879 in 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
(25). 
BREEDING 

264 eggs were laid in 1983 in a total of 9 clutches. From these, 
144 hatched of which 144 survived until 31 December (136). 

In 1984, 16 nests were laid, totalling 369 eggs, from which 213 
hatchlings survived (67). 



179 



U.S.A. 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Gomes Gator Farm 

Route 1, Box 484 

Riverview 

FL 33569. 

Operated by: Prank R. Gomes. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was reported to exist prior to July 1983 (83). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : 53 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
(25). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984 (67). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Ken's Land Clearing 

2460 State Road 17 South 

Avon Park 

FL 33825. 

Operated by: Ken Geiger. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : 200 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
as the farm was new (25). 
BREEDING 

No successful breeding took place in 1984, although one nest of 
34 eggs was laid (67). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Gator Jungle of Plant City 

Route 2, Box 884 

Plant City 

PL 33527. 

Operated by: Tracy Howell. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : 365 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
as the farm was new (25). 
BREEDING 

56 hatchlings were produced in 1984 from 101 eggs (67). 



180 



U.S.A. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

904 Lake Josephine Drive 

Sebring 

PL 33511. 

Operated by: Edward E. (Gene) and Dennis R. Pella. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was described as "new" in 1984 (25). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis ; 200 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins were sold in 1984. No permit to harvest skins was issued 
as the farm was new (25). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984 (67). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Gator Acres, Inc. 

Rt. 2, Box 335-K 

Gainesville 

PL 32601 

Operated by: Craig A. Lycan. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The farm was established in 1984 (20=^). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

A. mississippiensis : 110 at 31 December 1984 (67). 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

Broodstock was purchased in 1984 (205). 
BREEDING 

No breeding took place in 1984 (67). 



I 



One farm was reported to exist in July 1983, by the Florida Game 
and Freshwater Fish Commission (83) but not in 1984: 

Savage Gator Farm, Route 1, Box 142, Arcadia, FL 33812. 

Limestone Farms report having purchased livestock from this farm 
in 1984 (25). 

The address of a further farm was supplied by the US Fish and 
Wildlife Service in 1985 (136): 

Thomas A. Taylor, Gatorland Alligator Farm, Rt. 3, Box 27B, St 
Augustine, FL 32084. 



Texas 

The address of one farm was supplied by the US Fish and Wildlife 
Service in 1985 (136) : 

Warren Lynch, Star Rt. 1, Box 624-A, Rockport, TX 78382. 



181 



A project involving the captive breeding of Caiman latirostris for 
conservation purposes was planned in 1977 (8) but has not so far been 
implemented (1). 



182 



VBME2UELA 

Following excessive hunting, all crocodilians were protected in 
Venezuela. However the Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales 
Renovables (MARNR), encouraged by the recovery of wild populations of 
Caiman crocodilus , has recently proposed a possible multi-level 
management scheme for skin exploitation of this species. An 
experimental scheme allows for a controlled harvest of caimans mainly 
on private ranches, based on population estimates conducted by MARNR 
(152). The means by which these estimates are produced and the level of 
the harvest are under discussion. 

It is proposed that the population should receive continued 
protection outwith the licensed harvest and several measures have been 
suggested to encourage the wild population. At the lowest level this 
would involve the protection of nesting areas and ponds from 
agricultural pressures. More active assistance could be provided by 
constructing ponds in regions where they normally dry up in the dry 
season, the relocation of threatened groups of juveniles, and the 
control or exclusion of predators. 

Other options under consideration are ranching, either by 
collecting and incubating caiman eggs and releasing the juveniles, or 
by rearing them to commercial size in captivity. The MARNR already runs 
an experimental centre to investigate techniques of captive rearing. As 
a result of this experience it recommended, in 1982, taking eggs from 
the nests of wild crocodiles, and incubating them; raising the 
hatchlings in 1 m x 3 m tanks, with 100 animals to a tank, for one 
year; feeding the young on small fish, finely chopped meat and insects, 
which would be attracted to the tanks at night by bright lights hanging 
above. After one year the young caiman would be returned to semi-wild 
conditions in the form of fenced-off natural lakes and rivers where 
again they would be fed on fish and meat. The animals would be 
harvested after three years for their skins, the meat being fed back to 
the younger stock (17). 

Two private ranches in the Llanos region, Hato Masaguaral and Hato 
El Frio, have been keeping Crocodylus intermedius and have succeeded in 
breeding them. Some hatchlings have been released to the wild, but this 
is purely a conservation exercise, as the wild population is too low to 
allow exploitation at present. Experiments have also begun on 
collecting and incubating eggs of Caiman crocodilus to evaluate the 
SSSS5lf^ FSjf^^-'-"^ juveniles, on the potential harvest of the wild 



183 



WESTERN SAMOA 



According to a newspaper report in 1981, a West German proposed to 
build a crocodile farm on the island (21). No more has been heard of 
the proposal, but the Government Director of Agriculture and Forests 
declared that there was no wildlife farming of any kind in 1983 (156). 



184 



ZAMBIA 

There are up to four crocodile farms in Zambia, but only two of 
these are operating on a large scale. The first was established in 1980. 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Kariba Crocodile and Fish Farms Ltd 

P.O. Box 34284 

Lusaka 

Zambia. 

Director: Mr G.J. Parker. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus ; around 2000 crocodiles were held in 1984, 
consisting of 800 two-year-olds, 800 one-year-olds and 400 hatchlings 
(139). 

The stock later in 1984 was reported to be 2273 animals (176). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

In 1982, 90 farm-raised crocodiles were expected to be ready for 
marketing by the end of 1983 (18), however no commercial production 
took place (138). It was hoped that the sale of skins to French tanners 
would commence in 1985 (139). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

All stock has been obtained from the wild. Eggs have been collected 
in Zambia under Government licence and hatched at the farm. The 
Government controls the number of eggs allowed to be taken and the 
areas from which this can be done. They then demand the release of 10% 
of the stock after two years (138). 

Eggs obtained from the wild and hatching success 1981-82 



Year 


Number of eggs 
obtained 


Number hatched 


Hatch rate 


1981 


1655 


1417 


86% 


1982 


880 


794 


90% (138) 



I 



The quota for the collection of eggs in 1984 was 4000 (176). 

The operation hoped to be permitted to catch adult animals for 
breeding purposes in 1984. The Zambian Government requires the 
operation to have suitable holding facilities prepared before they will 
issue licences to capture adult crocodiles (139). 
BREEDING 

Breeding has not yet commenced on the farm as the rearing stock is 
still immature (138), however there are plans to acquire a breeding 
nucleus of 10 females and two males from the wild (176). 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are held in concrete enclosures of approximately 60% 
land and 40% water. They are fed on small whole fish, obtained from the 
fishing aspect of the operation, and some goat meat (138). 

The farm was reported to be experiencing difficulties with the 
water system and hygiene in 1984 (176). 
FINANCES 

The operation depends upon the commercial fishery run in 
conjunction with it on Lake Kariba, Zambia, for both income and feed 
(138). 

185 



Zambia 

RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research is carried out by Gordon Parker mainly for the Zambian 
Government. Nesting data are collected for Mr G.B. Kaweche, Chief 
Research Officer of the Zambia National Parks and Wildlife Service, and 
it is proposed that data on reproductive biology will be collected when 
breeding starts (138). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

Eggs are collected from Game Management areas and Open Areas only 
(138). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

The farm is located by Lake Tanganyika. 

Director: Mr A. Carr. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

About 1980 (176) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; around 500 crocodiles are held, - estimated from 
photographs seen by K. Van Jaarsveldt (183). 
PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

No skins had been sold by 1984 (176). 
OTHER INFORMATION 

In 1985 the farm was reported to have serious management problems 
and to be in danger of being closed down by the Wildlife Authorities 
(176). 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Luangwa Crocodile and Safaris 

P.O. Box 37542 

Lusaka. 

Directors: Mr K. Asherwood and Mr C. Beukes. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

1984 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; it was intended to collect about 5000 eggs to operate 
along the lines of the farms in Zimbabwe (183). 

The target is for a stock of 9000 crocodiles (176). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

The farm had a quota to collect 5000 eggs and 25 adult breeding 
crocodiles in 1984 (176). 



A farm owned by Mr A. Bowyer is reported to exist at Siavonga, on 
Lake Kariba. In 1982 he obtained permission to collect 1000 eggs on the 
Zambezi (206). The present status is uncertain, and the farm was not 
mentioned by Tello in 1985 (176). 



186 



ZIMBABWE 
General Information 

Nile crocodiles have been ranched in Zimbabwe since 1965; there are 
now six crocodile ranches in existence there. Three further ranches 
existed previously but were all short-lived. Binga Ranch, Karoi Ranch 
and Mini Crocodile Ranch were established at Lake Kariba in 1965, 1966 
and 1967 respectively, but all closed within two years (66). 



SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

Crocodylus niloticus ; In 1984 there were a total of 27 704 animals on 
the ranches comprising 16 000 rearing stock, 11 466 hatchlings, 52 
mature males and 186 mature females (55). 

Approximate figures for the total stock on farms in previous years 
are given below (66): 

Year stock Year stock 



1967 


1400 


1968 


2400 


1969 


3700 


1970 


5000 


1971 


6000 


1972 


6600 


1973 


7300 


1974 


7100 


1975 


9000 


1976 


- 



1977 


9000 


1978 


- 


1979 


15500 


1980 


20000 


1981 


20000 


1982 


24000 


1983 


28500 



PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

In the 1981 season, 2890 skins were produced for export from 
Zimbabwe (179). On projected hatching of juveniles in 1984/85 the 
potential production in 1987/88 is 13 850 skins (55). 

Approximately 10-34% of the animals over one year of age are 
slaughtered each year, skin sales from farms can be expected to grow at 
about 22% a year. In 1984 the industry was said to generate US$334 000 
a year in foreign exchange (66). 

Zimbabwe's annual report to CITES for 1983 reported the following 
commercial exports of skins and live animals: 



Quantity 


Product 


427 


Live 


66 


Skins 


25 


Skins 


860 


Skins 



Destination 

South Africa 
South Africa 
UK 
France 



All exports are currently through the Crocodile Farmers Association 
of Zimbabwe. When the Zimbabwe population of Crocodylus niloticus was 
on CITES App. I the skins were marketed only in France. However, 
enquiries about the purchase of products had come from the UK, F.R. 
Germany, Switzerland, USA, Canada and Japan (179). The population was 
transferred to Appendix II in 1983 and sales are now also made to other 
countries. 

The skins of animals ranched in Zimbabwe are tagged to show their 
origin and the numbers of the tags on skins exported must correspond 



187 



Zimbabwe 

with the record on the export permit; the records are also kept by the 
Zimbabwe Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management. The 
tags come in two parts which, once clipped together, cannot be reused. 
Prior to issue the two sections are kept separately, one kept by the 
Crocodile Farmers' Association and one by the Department. Skins must be 
tagged on a specified margin which is varied from time to time (66). 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Crocodile ranching was experimentally introduced into Zimbabwe with 
the emphasis placed on collecting eggs from good breeding population 
areas, artificially incubating them and rearing the hatchlings (40). 
Prom 1967 to 1973 a total of 22 679 eggs were collected and 16 679 were 
hatched, giving a mean hatching success rate of 73.5% (40). From 1979 
to 1983 a total of 38 077 eggs were collected, hatching with a success 
of 88.6% (66). 

Eggs are normally collected in early November, 50-60 days after 
laying, when they may be moved with less danger of damage. Experienced 
collectors can distinguish between fertile and infertile eggs, and 
collect only the former. This may explain some of the reported improved 
hatching percentage. The eggs are incubated in moist vermiculite in 
styrofoam boxes stored in a temperature-controlled shed at about 32°C. 
Hatching usually occurs in late December (66). 

The stocks come from "Government egg supplementary programmes" and 
each ranch is annually designated an egg-collecting area and a number 
of eggs that may be collected (180): 

Egg-collecting Captive-breeding stock 



Station 


Current 
quota 


Increase 


Total 


Females 


Males 


Binga 


2500 


- 


2500 


72 (40) 


15 (10) 


Kariba 


2000 


- 


2000 


62 (40) 


20 (10) 


Rokari 


1000 


1000 


2000 


(40) 


(10) 


Sengwa Mouth 


2000 


500 


2500 


(40) 


(10) 


Spencers Creek 


2500 


- 


2500 


■ 94 (30) 


20 



(figures in brackets "are from present capture programmes initiated 
by National Parks and Wild Life Management and should be completed 
before May 1983. Unbracketed figures are stock on hand currently 
capable of breeding" in 1982 180) The capture programme will probably 
not be completed until 1985 (182). 

The captive-breeding stock comes from the ranches' own hatched 
stock or from problem-animal control programmes. Every effort is made 
by the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management to capture 
problem animals from the wild, and there are severe and strictly 
enforced penalties for poaching and unauthorised killings. A maximum of 
twelve crocodiles a year have been allocated to registered safari 
hunting operations. The ranches provide a safe repository for wild 
animals which have genuinely become a menace to humans and livestock 
(179). 



188 



Zimbabwe 

The total numbers of eggs collected from the wild from 1979 to 1983 
and the hatching success is given below (66): 



Year 


No. 


No. 


Hatching 




collected 


hatched 


success 


1979 


5279 


4497 


85.2% 


1980 


8079 


7069 


87.5% 


1981 


8768 


7879 


89.9% 


1982 


10389 


8943 


86.1% 


1983 


10908 


9961 


91.3% 



BREEDING 

The ranches had breeding facilities involving 152 crocodiles and a 
production of 3000 eggs in 1982. The hatching percentage and numbers 
are expected to increase each year, however, to retain viability it is 
necessary to supplement the breeding stocks with the collection of eggs 
from the wild (179). 

In 1984 there was a total breeding stock of 186 females which were 
expected to produce 13 440 hatchlings in 1984/85 (55). Initially equal 
numbers of males and females were kept but this was found to be 
unnecessary as each male can serve up to 20 females (66). 

From 1979 to 1983 a total of 8828 eggs were laid at two farms, 
which had an average hatching success of 72.7% (66). 

HUSBANDRY 

All five ranches operate under a closed incubation/hatchery 
construction. 

Hatchlings are removed to open pens, are graded by size and 
condition and are housed in densities calculated to minimise stress. 
Originally earth ponds were used but problems were experienced with 
burrowing, and now most ponds are of concrete. In the first year of 
life about 150-200 animals are kept in each pen, comprising two ponds 
10-15 m long by 1,5 m wide by 60 cm deep. Later they are moved to 
larger pens (ca^ 20 m by 8 m) with 75-100 animals in each. They are 
initially fed on freshwater sardine known as kapenta ( Limnothrissa 
miodon ) and later on elephant meat (supplied under special permit from 
the Dept. of National Parks and Wild Life Management) to which is added 
bone meal, vitamins and trace elements (66). 

The animals are normally slaughtered at 2-4 years old at a length 
of 1.5 m, when their belly skin is about 35 cm wide. Each animal is 
shot in the head with a short .22 bullet. Eviscerated carcases are fed 
back to the other crocodiles as no market has been developed for the 
meat (66). 

FINANCES 

A financial analysis reported in 1982 that the average cost per egg 
was US$2.49 for those collected from the wild and US$1.25 for those 
laid on the farm. It was found that the cost of feeding one male and 10 
females was US$457 a year, food consumption averaging at 5.6% of the 
body weight a year (80). 

Whitaker et al. reported that lacquered skulls and feet sold as 
curios for US$10 and US$2.5 respectively. Back skins, for use in belt 
manufacture, were worth a further US$20 (204). 

189 



Zimbabwe 

OTHER INFORMATION 

Crocodile farmers in Zimbabwe must provide the Department of 
National Parks and Wild Life Management with a monthly return of stock 
on hand, hatchlings, deaths, killings, eggs collected and hatches. 
Government policy requires that some suitably-sized crocodiles be made 
available for reintroduction for conservation purposes. Originally this 
was set at 10% of the eggs or hatchlings collected, but this was later 
reduced to 5% (66). This availability "is in the form of crocodiles of 
a size suitable for restocking denuded habitats, augmenting wild 
populations, research or the meeting of international obligations" 
(179). No return of stock took place from 1978 to 1984 and the 
Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management has waived its 
right to its quota for these years (55). A total of 910 animals have 
been returned to the wild under this scheme, and a further 30 used for 
research or donated to other countries (66). 



190 



Zimbabwe 



The Operations 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Binga Crocodile Farm 

P.O.Box 16, Binga, Lake Kariba West. 

Operators: K.R. & A. Van Jaarsveldt. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

The ranch was established in August 1967 and became commercial in 
1970 (184). 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : the ranch on average holds a stock of around 4000 
animals but this may increase annually to around 7000 as a result of 
breeding, before decreasing as stock is slaughtered (181). 



Stock held in January 1982 (19) 
Hatchlings 2137 
Slaughter Stock 3715 
Breeding Stock 30 
Total 5882 



Stock held in December 1982 (68) 
Hatchlings 1865 
Rearing 3622 
Breeding 33 
Total 5520 



PRODUCTION AND TRADE 



Product 




Date 


of 


Quant] 


■ty 


Destination 






production 








Skins 




1980 




774 




France (184) 


Skins 




1981 




1414 




France and Japan 
(184) 


Skins 




1982 




1039 




France (184) 


Live Ani 


mals 


1982 




Nil 




(68) 



SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In 1982, 1865 hatchlings were produced from eggs of wild origin. 
The ranch holds 6 problem animals which have been included as breeding 
stock in the figures above (68). See also General Information, above. 

Stock taken from the wild: 

Date Adults Eggs Country of origin 



1980 


Q 


2047 


Zimbabwe 




1981 





2491 


Zimbabwe 




1982 


6 


2058 


Zimbabwe 


(184) 


1983 


- 


2518 


Zimbabwe 


(66) 



Hatching success of the wild-taken eggs: 

No. of eggs No. of hatchlings survived 

over 30 days 



Date 

1980 
1981 
1982 



hatched 


1789 
2145 
1865 



1757 
2137 
1803 



(184) 



BREEDING 

Provision for breeding on the ranch was first made in 1982. A total 
breeding stock of 33 animals (30 females and 3 males) exists; 27 six- 
-year-old ranch-reared crocodiles, and 6 wild-caught animals purchased 



191 



Zimbabwe 

from the National Parks. The breeding stock is held in separate 
breeding pens (184). 

The first breeding occurred on the farm in 1983 when a total of 60 
eggs were laid (66). 

See also General Information, above. 
HUSBANDRY 

The crocodiles are kept in two types of enclosures: 

a) Concrete pools with cement feeding apron and areas of lawn grass, 
enclosed by brick walls; 

b) Natural earth ponds enclosed by sheet metal fencing. 

Fresh food is provided to all pools in the form of freshwater 
sardine and elephant meat (184). 

Mortality of animals in excess of one year-old averaged 5% from 
1981 to 1983. Hatchling mortality averaged 28.4% over the same period 
(66). 
FINANCES 

Private (68). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research has been carried out by Dr C. Foggin, Veterinary 
Department, Zimbabwe (184). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Kariba Crocodile Farm (Pvt) Ltd 

Nyodza River, Lake Kariba East. 

Postal address: P.O.Box 55, Kariba. 

Operators: K. Yates and Miss K. Sutherland. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

December 1965 (66) 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus: 



Stock held in January 1982 (19) 

Hatchlings 1879 

Slaughter Stock 3170 
Breeding Stock 44 

Total 4093 



Stock held in December 1982 (68) 
Hatchlings 1762 
Rearing 3955 
Breeding 41 
Total 4758 



PRODUCTION AND TRADE (68) 



Product 


Date 


of 


Quanti 


Jtl 


Destination 






production 










Skins 


1982 




186 




France 




Live Animals: 


1982 












yearlings 






240 




South African 
farmers. 


croc 


3 year-olds 






40 




South African 
farmers. 


croc 


c. 15 year-olds 






3 




South African 
farmers. 


croc 



192 



Zimbabwe 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In December 1982 the ranch held five problem animals which have 
been included in the breeding stock figures above (68). 

Total numbers of eggs collected from the wild were as follows (66): 



Year 


No. collected 


Hatching 
success 


1979 


1323 


89.4% 


1980 


2019 


82.5% 


1981 


1847 


91.7% 


1982 


1687 


76.7% 


1983 


1876 


97.3% 



BREEDING 

In December 1982 the ranch held a breeding stock of 41 animals. Of 
these, 36 were ranch-reared and five were problem animals (68). 

Total production of eggs laid on the farm was as follows (66): 



Year 


No. laid 


Hatching 
success 


1979 


565 


59.8% 


1980 


292 


82.5% 


1981 


310 


71.6% 


1982 


602 


77.4% 


1983 


505 


95.0% 



HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in enclosures surrounded by either cement 
blocks or security fencing, with either earth or concrete ponds (68). 

Mortality of animals in excess of one yeac-old averaged 1.4% from 
1980 to 1983. Hatchling mortality averaged 30.9% over the same period 
(66). 
FINANCES 

Private (68). Entrance fees paid by tourists to view the crocodiles 
are an important part of the total income. Handicraft and curio shops 
are supplied by local craftsmen (179). 



NAME OF OPERATION 

Game and Fishing (Pty) Ltd 

P.O.Box 381, Marondera, Bumi River, Lake Kariba. 

Operator: S.P. Grobler. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

November 1981 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus : 

Stock held in January 1982 (19) stock held in December 1982 (68) 

Hatchlings 997 Hatchlings 1487 

Slaughter Stock Rearing 900 

Breeding Stock Breeding 

Total 997 Total 2387 



193 



Zimbabwe 

PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

The crocodiles are being raised for their skins, but by 1983 no 
crocodile products from the ranch had entered trade (184). 

SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

Eggs taken from the wild. 

Date Eggs Country of origin 

1980 Zimbabwe 

1981 1000 Zimbabwe 

1982 2000 Zimbabwe (184) 

1983 1889 Zimbabwe (66) 

Hatching success of wild-taken eggs. 





No. of eggs 


No. 


of hatchlings survived 


Date 


hatched 




over 30 days 


1980 










1981 


980 




960 


1982 


1927 




1846 (184) 


1983 


1791 




(66) 



See also General Information, above. 
BREEDING 

Some of the animals being reared are to be used for breeding 
purposes. 
HUSBANDRY 

The animals are kept in enclosures with concrete ponds (68) 
surrounded by 4 ft (1.2 m) high concrete walls (184). They are fed on 
fish and game meat (184). 

Mortality of animals in excess of one year-old averaged 2.0% from 
1982 to 1983. Hatchling mortality averaged 16.4% over the same period 
(66). 
FINANCES 

Private (68). 
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS 

Research has been carried out by Dr C. Foggin, Veterinary 
Department, Zimbabwe and R. Taylor (184). 

NAME OP OPERATION 

Spencer's Creek Crocodile Ranch (Pvt) Ltd 

P.O.Box 18, Zambezi River, Victoria Falls. 

Operators: R. Gee, S. Brown, D. Higgins. 
DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

The operation started in July 1971 and became commercial in 1975. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; 

Stock held in January 1982 (19) Stock held in December 1982 (68) 
Hatchlings 3408 Hatchlings 1934 

Slaughter Stock 1518 Rearing 2719 

Breeding Stock 75 Breeding 70 

Total 5001 Total 4723 



194 



Zimbabwe 



PRODUCTION AND TRADE (68) 



Product 


Date of 


Quantity 


Destination 






production 










Skins 


1982 


128 




France 




Live Animals 












( 3 years old) 


1982 


128 




South African 
farmers. 


croc. 



Live Animals 
(12 years old) 



1982 



13 



South African croc, 
farmers. 



Meat from the crocodiles is also utilised (81). 
SOURCE OF ANIMALS 

In 1982 593 hatchlings were produced from eggs of wild origin. 
See also General Information, above. 
Animals taken from the wild: 
Year Country in which Form & number taken Survival rate 





taken 


Adults 


Juveni 


les 


Egqs 


Adu 


Its 


Egcjs 


1980 


Zimbabwe 


3 







1868 


3 




1569 


1981 


Zimbabwe 










1296 







1024 


1982 


Zimbabwe 


1 







748 


1 




688 (81) 


1983 










1053 






(66) 



900 animals were obtained from Sengwa Mouth Rearing station in 1982. 
BREEDING 

The breeding stock consists of 41 ranch-reared animals and 29 
problem animals (63). 

Total production of eggs laid on the farm was as follows (66): 
Year No. laid Hatching 

success 



1979 


1341 


1980 


1499 


1981 


1895 


1982 


1790 


1983 


1819 



69 


8% 


67 


2% 


72. 


6% 


75. 


8% 


74. 


3% 



See also General Information, above. 
HUSBANDRY 

The ranch has rearing and breeding ponds; the rearing ponds are of 
concrete and the breeding ponds are of earth and are positioned on a 
natural stream bed. The enclosures have cement-block walls and a 
security fence (68). Mortality of animals in excess of one year-old 
averaged 30.2% from 1980 to 1983. Hatchling mortality averaged 60.7% 
over the same period (66). 
FINANCES 

Private (68). Entrance fees paid by tourists to view the crocodiles 
are an important part of the total income. Handicraft and curio shops at 
the ranch are supplied by local craftsmen (179). 



NAME OP OPERATION 

Sengwa Mouth Rearing Station 
Sengwa Mouth, Lake Kariba. 
Operator: R. Van Der Riet. 



195 



Zimbabwe 



DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT 

October 1977. 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus ; 
Stock held in January 1982 (19) 



Hatchlings 


1925 


Slaughter Stock 


4339 


Breeding Stock 





Total 


6264 


PRODUCTION AND TRADE 


(68) 


Product 


Date of 


J^ 


reduction 


Skins 


1982 


Live Animals 


1982 



(hatchlings) 
SOURCE OP ANIMALS 

The ranch holds ten problem 
breeding stock figures above (68). 

The numbers of eggs collected 
below ( 66) : 

Year No. collected 

1979 2067 

1980 2145 

1981 2079 

1982 3854 

1983 3572 



Stock held in December 1982 (68) 
Hatchlings 3312 
Rearing 5112 
Breeding 83 
Total 8507 



Quantity Destination 

575 France 
900 Spencer Creek Croc. 
Farm, Zimbabwe. 

animals which are included in the 

and the hatching success are given 

Hatching 

success 

96.0% 

96.9% 

94.6% 

85.9% 

91.2% 



See also General Information, above. 
BREEDING 

In December 1932 the ranch's breeding stock consisted of 73 
immature, ranch-reared animals as well as the 10 problem animals (68). 

See also General Information, above. 
HUSBANDRY 

Mortality of animals in excess of one year-old averaged 1.9% from 
1980 to 1983. Hatchling mortality averaged 13.3% over the same period 
(66). 
FINANCES 

Private (68). 



Basic details of a sixth farm were given by G. Child (66): 

NAME OF OPERATION 

Mcllwaine/Harare area. 

Operator: V.H. Bristow. 
DATE OP ESTABLISHMENT 

November 1983 
SPECIES AND NUMBERS 

C. niloticus: 



196 



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204