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Full text of "Di Rekht Fun Der Froy Als Vayb Un Mentsh"

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STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 
NO. 15027 



DI REKHT FUN DER FROY 
ALS VAYB UN MENTSH 



Shelomoh Ashkenazi 



Permanent presenmtion ofthis book was runde possible 

Inj Patricia and Joshua Becker 

In lionor ofour cliildren: Seih, Aimee, Liza 

& their spouses, Michelle, Misha, Michael 

and our grandclüldren: Shayna, Sopihia, Kayla, Hannah, Lila Vdor v'dor 



*? 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

A M HERST, MASSACIIUS E T T S 
WWW.YIDDISHBOOKClNTIR.ORG 



NATIONAL YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS 

413 256-49OO | YIDDISH@BIKHER.ORG 

WWW.YIDDISHBOOKCENTER.ORG 



MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE 

STEVEN SPIELBERG DIGITAL YIDDISH LIBRARY 

WAS PROVIDED BY: 

Lloyd E. Cotsen Trust 

Arie & Ida Crown Memorial 

The Seymour Grubman Family 

David and Barbara B. Hirschorn Foundation 

Max Palevsky 

Robert Price 

Righteous Persons Foundation 

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Sarah and Ben Torchinsky 

Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation 

AND MEMBERS AND FRIENDS OF THE 

National Yiddish Book Center 



The goldene pave, or golden peacock, is a traditional symbol 

of Yiddish creativity. The inspiration for our colophon comes from 

a design by the noted artist Yechiel Hadani of Jerusalem, Israel. 



The National Yiddish Book Center respects the Copyright and intellectual property rights 

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n*> xix *P° ] ra "iyp?VB jrwT»»B«P3 

nsipn isecn» 113 aasaisra'-K — ,na8?aa*ia pb?s asi 
»asis .ncipn "i»o'»ii pa 2"na» — .a-ii — .lye^iix ]•>» 

— .yannga — .pyw — .pi8»yam — .ya5j?a — ,yij? 
-T'Ibdj? — .ias?K?B"'T — .las^aaj? — ,i38?>?n — ,f »»w 

— .yasser — .ySsant — .^ib — .tas^oii — .psaaw 
49—19 T'T .»isnis — .fsawiga 

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— .yna^K — .8»"i«p» isas' — .»a*s — .jpvö ps snasis 
58—50 T'I .aaianxswa y»*a8»va — .yöiys 

a w Ti o?js »iib im ps uasn h .3 7 a •> b 8 p 
»a wiayasyisra ijri ö?i9 waasra pa 
n** P'XVll P 3 bb5*?i isn ra p»? 

fa*t5 aiij? , 'i3a»i8aa"?a pa tpasa — .aaipiirasaiga 

— .s?agsy=n*iiJ ! )=]aa im ibö •»iib im j-ia aarn — ,Tia5n 
»•i pa paisasn swna *i — ,9y$s»*trv\n>]m im «ra 

— % 5p8Bjr=*rtB5n im nya p?»i8a$n ya*"iiya'>Ti — .b'ibib 
lia minn 'n P8 ]sv\ — .iveagB ist lya^R i»b$b pa Bari 
ist nva nainn »i r— T^xsrwa ^iib lyp'iasB^sa^yi im 

— ."pR*»„ — .imiia ps i»bw pa eas?^ — ,»a8a»=*ji»5n 
sntPiv «'iia iyp>Ha3?B»a?s?t im ps aasn — .niapn yimas 
im ps aarn — ,i»bi» im ps — ,iyaaga im pa »am 

75—59 T"? «B'aja psm^si pPiR — .i&B8fiya*nainn 

a w n b9§ 'na ny? ]u t?asn »i .4 7 ■» s « p 
p« "a jaiayttsiya isn ü'i7 üöajfa ]W 
(IVBii) n.-» p=xvl! 1« tB7jrm3n ra 

— «naina — ,nainn vk isa »11a im pa jasöiga a^^ 

Bssn oagB am — .»ai 1 ?» »aaa„ — ,"?na \xx •'oaa,, — »n 3 

— ? p'iaisa n a»a ]asfaijsa Dm^yii — 4 ]as?ai8B 1*8 t]'i8 
in? «ps bsj;i i 1 »« — .psisisa vk «j^is »1*8 öayi srimas 

— ,.]t»»?B yj?'B"nasj? — .psrBisa oasB |a'l* — .Eoa^iisa 

— .Ba^isntfw — ,1m 3 *? '"» is?a , 8 bbsi yi" 1 « p« s?a"t 

— ,a»aai nsa ih*n — .aa — .»»ssisb^b — ,aa»i'na»78 
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103—76 T"T .]»»iia »E?n» s?üai»? 

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»pnnwas — ,ytzm» »i p« aa^ayasytsa s?ü^a , > , n »i 

— ,]»jaias>as9r?a mmas ]ik isf^'fisasia im pa ]B«p»Ba»i»a. 



« ,i, !S*p'e'n »»•»oin ,|»ü"i — .1870 18B aaiayaxyjya yenSaay 
«ya vw>i»'W>i »*i Tis "yamiiaiug yp'3"K — »las ,8 *fty? 
=ys»? |1K Df>5«ig''S8"> isn "p* "piysga ]»n — .jyiyiayas!;* 
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•«n Tis aasp'üay-iaaswSa pa yyin? »*i — ♦-5*-si2*»*3„ o5s dib 
=ya »/«•»t* »n pk *x — .aaisyaxyrya -iyw*i" *un |»r "»iib 
05*n »astayisytya yfawx n Bajn^y'nB pyn aaisxaxyt 
119 — 104 TT ?*t*/B3*yi t» isra 1 »« BTrsnsa *)ya pv bis? 

p« M 3 spat&gjga ]W 9»afir?*<B .6 ? b ' a 3 p 

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-5»'a p»a i*3 *oonp "3 lyyryao'i» yasasaaa osn -vs'ii 
ly^iyn >i ps Baj"n *t ••>« a"spyri o?8 T*t*»p n— ?ij?b9k 
Jus primae — ♦niisn ywB^ny yiy>t |p*i"is83 o»a 
yayfBO'ij? »*• — ,*B3yay3?j b i3, — ,yaya"8 3"? — .noctis 
silP XIX aa'B pytya — .aaiü-nsa iy?ijyi jr ya»3838a 
153—120 T'T .yjispasp— ".yasasasa *» y5p''» , . *i B»*aw p»a o^n ,Bnyna* n 

iSDsnrsDnp isn pa a«»s»a h .7 ? b » s g p 
'na -un ix ya^sn 

nsn i"B aai'stja -»n pjw öttwi aan yfyaasny »*r 

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BiöaBö'ip» B8*i — .Bss-isBeua — .nainn nyn *ayp tpasp )•»« 
— ?B3y=-iya "iyaya»3 n payr "»x— ,*jiibb*3b ä — .n** IV — 11 ]« 
•wt « aavsss , »*i — ,B3y*i=*yiiB py« fytw y3y5BDB''is ogT 
B , 'i? ,*iib *n Byn *yn— ,o ! ir'aBD , »ip ^•>?'»'Bß*jsB«*''a ]ixa mib 

179—154 T«T ?j88 ib 1 »» Bp>*ü3yi8a3"5a p^tayaurffö *"i ,y*iy5 iysy?ao»*ip iyn 

•"■Tis nsn « y»a ,, ?yi ly® 1 

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is riSa aiaya Bwa t->« ,»iib iyn « tiy5 "iytya»?yi ly»'!" 
pyn aai08BB , 'iK ytt? , ''i» yeviy »*i — o" ar l ü,a T 1 T**3»pM 
— ,y38By»*iyB58?B*B ii«=n>iBVn— .yassy'^ipn^sns—^iiB ifr 
« aavsss *iy3y?B?Baya *ii« myax n»:na niapn yayT>a*")8B 
osn B>» — ,b3">?b yfga^'ssa 8 — .nainn »i — /iib nyi 
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— ,n«*vii lyn « .3"ii ]"t « psn ]sa 
aavssa "n :"j' s ?ai8B — ,»11b yiayis — .isbw — ,naa5» 

205— 180 M .yaityi— /iib im« ya»?yi is»»t» ii« lyoy^BO'ip iyT iib 

B^IP .9 7B'SSp 

in Tis BSü-i yf'rfs ]i« ya-'o^ss ,k " o'ix^yyt »n 
Baypnyas t*k iyray5 V3?yn i"8 — ? aso ip*D3"n d"3 -iis 
lyaaixyayiass , »i— ?in«*s? »'» *'3 *ib aaiayasytya »rv *i 
'i pata ö8n — .lyiay? yBT>T*5'>')V , x »i ••>« »i-ib ist isb 
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10 



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psuw« ]3'insmx p8»M»?a tt jsxn ,0B8»?yi»a nsas?? 
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«»?»a 'i j^aipaa jshst -is?DS?a!y .?a 9 a -wn px pmo^ix 
jaxn -jxaiin ,"pfi Da>x bvb uanswa }axn px nsv'an 
.n .tn .x natpa "isn px cvb ans 1 ?»*, snsnas 

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n "piK nxa /'ansaty min '7 n?a o»'a paus?* -i» üxn 

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12 



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,rrnn ,]Xs?Tin »asTangs ]3XE>s?a j8»x s??x ]ta sö31»?m 
B»o pöiasaax f?« oxt ükh j??xb oxt pa roapn ,D'a'o 

ÜpaiB - 1XSWJ * W* ]» '"ö p'l'M K IIB lipo 1»! 

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amsaxjnsa nsn i»»ns *p?jnKB s tih-ts t« 

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aa^iiBas ist "a >n:n dst ^a s?jp isjiw'isoMigs -ist ]:sni (* 
tnsn osn ,8-)B>b -ist *ps »T»'iMxa8. aiasa i's ,Ä3sayas»TW isrn" -ist jib 
»saspos is >iT8*ti wa bo»ti it ■»■»«« : "na?fl aa^s B^marwa»« 9^» 5»a 

.V'D DT10B .n*ö fllSia) .*»1T« JpDB 118 T>T BTB j?5i$B 08T »!fl KI ,p DST 

p-isa» an:» ist msii *??aa .(.Tis .8 a"'a niaa» *a5triv .i"a nsa »B^sm» 
s 5b3» anaa ist w>bk P8 5sb -ja g .aaiasaxstsa •»»»t» -.st pa cass» 

(.T38 J18 T"B B'nDB 'B5»11» .a"'B fllöa» >»5«N*V .»"S 1^8 t"B »"3 ^»?»1T; fT 

»IIB ist ]1B öds") dst ffis» iaisvasfiTsra ^vwi-n-vwi ist jasii (** 

— unsTairns' XX pa j>»5Tasx k 8* "*n srt»is »t jia rL*:sa 71« ai'-n o?» 

?U">9Si? JMS? J»J« T1X »T p'183 T» .Ci-31» STST2-,!Sa 8 IS TB ]B»na 



13 



•asi «p« jagpsw ?'B yi« ö $n "D'jinnK,, h jib ?»b b 
««ms 1 ]ü-i7 iss7s?n ist *p» ]8 po ns?38 # o»asa jp'Tin 
&» -wt" nsn ]■»« b»p«pbbb»bb>b n btpwhjb bt»i 
]a"*iiy is M*m k Busasaons bxji ]SB»?g .Miasnxyt 
'3»b'ik p»9»BW |&7°ftgiiga oxn ,anao /'miww m^xt^,, 
-ss?ts?5 n»w»i« nsn ]'» t's'o s?3?sni *pR ,pKna msmiw 
T?xa Btiasa jaxn «i ]ix nraoii? nsnK^p pp xbp'j 33iss?3 

.pxni ö-is?sms?-iKs 
pa ,?ib?b nsn p'nBfcnxa ja>insa3$ y\ bxh'o 
]»aj;i dkt .pnsn is ds?3$? ]k isnity "»s»i Büip'o p?sn 

# 193 4 aSST9S S?B5?3"liJK3 * tP'BKÖSÖB'O ] M p BB'J ]'Bl?n? 

naw ,naw ma^n B'a üwk ma?n bbpbshü'ik px bist 
?o>a s isd'ik .?3 .t .x man»*» B'b mm ,n«m' a^a 
.bwjisj asaa »t ]3>3 - impn »p'Ba»n 
■»'Tiynsn pu pssn cxn ,o>*ibo »ff'isasMSTsra n 
\m& "mzwRi'mfw,, n pin x ,p8nB3 ]bxws?3 b«s -i»p 
8 fix s?as?ao 8 ,mwb w bo'ik ]X nx?a>3 p?3s?T ,?ib?b j-ia 

.pXllStt B38T3N »I T'3 PS 0811 ,B81 ]?B M1VB1W1 



^3iay52s?Ts?3 h jasrisa'« nia*<aa ]?s?n ]?xt tb pn 

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TS ]S?3ST 5KT B»*3 .J/3X3B'1X *limi8 BP>3 P8 SKT 
^318 KT TXT B»3 .MK-yn "1X3 08T ]»W VB ,]B'1K KT 
BT" 5 DSH PX '2 ^?»B»B0»B p»ll Ip'S 13?"r ^lO^S^lB 

'i i'« '2 jix s?Bi3 k jsnisa "??aa ■»•na nsn is iH'ssa 
?n»p?»B snina» »a wh ,sn2?osa x piisa 
ajn pinina-px süss :'8 ,]?»bw«bb»b okt na 
-38 "a Bajfn-jyiiB jia ppais s?BBp'B3'ii n ]is n'SBfl 

.1Sp?3?B sis?n. 
,B?S?33S ,?»»? ",»11) 13!^18B-S?BS'2?S?3 Jl» OlÜ^lp 5'B 



14 



tn'ipx p»n »B?ini ,]8Jhsö ]ik ]»B838a ,ii^ip ^»asa 
081 pHasfissnsa ,«nsn3x ?»b p« »nx »tst^i» h pa 
-IS'Iid iid px a»n pK jxa ps |a» l J»ö8nx dsib ns^aKis 

-fc"D18nü^B IST *18B |S?T1?JD'1K BXn 081 >17X»17 ,B3»1 
:TBD'1K li?H33'?XB TIS?? 12 ]SJTMB ^Blpn 1»? 

]« l»ii»3 i'x wnsansn »i i»n ,»t33»a.n«« D'-a 
l»nsa 'iib px ?'SD3xa po pmip'BBiwxa h jsasi /ip» 
•j'ir txyn. ,]8a dst ö»s T ,?m .»aJsrn *isp'3»'ivi»o 
*»B?i?nxa x ,]ss? ps-toso?» p8B 7"bb* bditiu a»n oxt 
jomi ,p»3tr; ,7M'ii -n nxs ,m>n »Y?'ii »l ixb «m 

I* #'1T8 ,]»M« M »1»1 »3S79TÖ83 »15*738 p8 JS»7l ,]»?»? 

.?»ao:8ö *jö'ö üj?'D3yixaa"?a ]»n»a 7>x »na h 

,ma'D ,»»'»838?» 1*?'» 1»T # »J8Tttn8D i?38T 8 

'•na h 78 ,]bix X78 «i'i« iwa»»»»» n t t is'p'iiBa» 

pX 118 ]&S7*pP?'198B D3'K f8?B ]Btt*"l» D»"7 Ba»318B 

.BSga h aaipsa '7 px bb82 , ?s , t»3 nm 
*»t t38n '"HB *n exii"i8B ,1713*0 »BOp'BO'ii n ix 
psm»3 ,üBb*tP?»7U3 -i»i px n»>BB>in h ]»a!)j?xa B?8a 
,138' ö*>a B|?n3BSB*8a tt taxn 7,8a isn :sp'iwii n 
,B»3-inir3 ,t3?T3»a ,tnswi»3 ,fliana n ü»^8s»3 B8n "1» 

3"T? 08T pSpIPT .D*Enn 7»B »p8 p»ll pSBIBB B3»*?B 
,U>J7 ^»SE 1p'» 1»n BBgV '7 .]8» "7»*7 '77 "lsa B»3"I8 
Ü38p /p»77 ]12"8?S?30'18 W»l ?X7 3*0» pH "7» W B 08T 78 

^»aiX'Ti» ö'ö tt üptsByti^a ,a<iBB* n B>i3 ,p» oxt 

|8 "T Ü'X"1»T ,310» p8 1513'i? H Ü'ö p>?8 31Y0 BJPI 
8' T»8*B»-lJm T'8 18» 1»T T8 pX «)?'nD»0 038a D»7 
j]0» IS ttO'TölH ]3»J ÜB*>3 3»11 081 D'K ?'71 ,3113» ]'» 
VX ]'8 0^8 D'8 ÜS13 '7 ,33!13'T?X3 8 "I8B1ST B331S?-)8B »I 

.17 .TX .X tt»318*T'in 
,0'*n IST pX p»7»3 p'3"77 "783 7»8 7,8a TS*! 7» 

p« ü' , »j?2"B8a» , ?8a p8 ü33»ia»33 , ' , 'i8 tst*;93-i83 ü»aa üxn 

-38 B7ia»3 1» B8J1 ,D"H IST )'X ]»77»3 8' 7'8 ">» l»71 



15 



]'R piS^WSl 3723K3 '1 »119 '1 B137T) ,'119 1JH « |3?Ü1p 

-K3 t»s psn *s ]K*Ba»n 't «isna'p 'i isa'8 jw aiB«? 

•8BS1S7X 3??3?'3'?3?1 '1 O'IK tö'BK; DI'B ]1K j??8B ]19 ]SÖ 

bvbs33"8 jsiisj t'K i3?p e ;s?B px B'Ba?y v ?'B "a .03P3 

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BKH »IIB '1 ,3 M YI ] M K '11 ,"1370 BKAS» Btf'3 0X71 ]8B IST»' 

]ik ,]axn ix rninn »b?»h b'ö # is3»ö ]a'?j?»30'iR t t 
i'ia ]"t ]'« a»ri bki |«o ist bö3?3 m^n oxn brbbss. 
)'» tt is |ga dsji )»ö^»3 a"n OKI ö?kös?i B«n ,]"ik 

B1'BS?33"K ]S?n5?3 T'8 ,13)T11 ,1Sp?SJB 5J15713K "3 ; T'W 

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t'8 1S?p?SB ?'B "3 jl^'llB 573113 8 B'73 fllBfiltfa B^H 
BKu "jS7?1"B »3»T13S73-"3 '1 TK ,B1'93J33"R JS11B3 T 1R 
?'B ]1K 1»?T'B Ö^SBSäB'lK BKH 1$3'lSn ,03731.1373 jsö 
.a"ll f"8 B'Ö ]»3»3'3K3 ]TX? BT1Ö373 T T l s £ n 1572S7Ö 
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]1371 IX B3571 OKI BBilSH BKH 1SBW '1 1K3 .1SB5Ö ]"T 
*yj ]»11»3 13'p OKI TK 1'K 1K3 /I3'p 03^9 ]^ÖK3 ]'8 
BKH 13B1B H .11 .8 .8 13'p OKI B3tPT> 'I 1K3 ,0813189 

OKi .BB8ttf?s?n?3 IUI ]'8 ns?i-BB'in h pmpKa nsansi 

,»D8B»*B8B18'1B8Ö '1 12711S73 T'8 
,]B?KnW3^ ÜKH S73KSS7 »p'TRI'1 1S?D3T'1B1K' ?B'll 
-31?? 'T BKH B1K ]"8 «J'18 .]?Sti»«BBSB '13SJ3 131W T'8 
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»3733"8 ]S?n3?3 T'8 BpiK'IBKE 13)1 TK ,1373'T «pK BOlll^a 

16 



/ishböi»* WIM /p'nj ,-iy?aa ziaüB'w »i «a üvb 
wbshi BKBignBxa ohb asia^a-iaa^x JX .nijs .x -ia'3$Bff 

"BiC pB B'Daiy ]1K -UJp'PtfB S1?'11 ?'B "3 Ü3"i1 "|X3 ]»ö 

]?'ö» jib ]»?w»» ?'a *px ^»^siöo'i» ,apnaag ,apn 

/ras .x jxapx jph3>x ]1K 

J31?»B3»X |X ]1?'2120'1K ]X "p öa«il T"113»?0'a 

/ isö»ai8*i?»B -naii |8» 15)7) BBa^aa ]D'i? üj?aiJ? i« 

■Kj?5? »1 tt'ö 7S»XMS ]1X (.11 .TX .X "lJHnXnXB-T»B» ,"11110 
isn ]1B 531?S?Dt^ H "pX *P? D1»*T3» - ]S?33nS?13S? aty>ax3 
]1B ,OS'X'?XB JWöXaXp» a?X .BEXE^aiaa IST PX 'IIB 

pnn übxsisb psn. ,BB*t3tfaao'Ti8 man »na n a^an 
tt p'B oxn ,]?xiip a?g waan aa«T px Daipija na .jxa 

,B3XB »1 BPK3"1XB "IS P,X .BBX» ]1X D1B3»n 
.BK31X'")BXB D31B 3"?13X lai PX 0X1 

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•X?pE? H iai"8 *]X3 331BK?ptyiXB ]»« Pn8-Ö?XB 0X11 ,W3 

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DB'ip - pns ]B»"wxa x ü>ö mino x unan >t jan jir 
man 'T p,x ?»n ia iaa«ii ?b>ti pxn aaa na /t ia 
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l»p n jw aa^pna^mx. t'K«8a«n»3?»n ]x ,?'ii ia ]an 
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.laaaanmai v?'ax p,x 

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.3XB ip'üs^n 

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.33iü"Txa aa?ai n üxnaa o'K ixjj ]axn a^x .03'B 



17 



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,a"ii sean» oxi ,i973"ii9J ,üxn »?xi i»p»t$i 191 ixb 
.t'in |»8 Ö9aix i»i ö'ö B3Xpxa ]9ii9a 19» px 93^911 

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/n9a"ti-oa"p w ixb - 9p>i93>x >i nx nin j»» 
Bxn a«n »oans oxi okii ,xhb»»tip 9i9i3iTxa *? ' 

T TT* - - 

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TT BXD'a .19390 H ]93"1193!|X ja'lfl»»« "pH T T l a8fl 

px B9 - a"ii px b»b p'3«a w ]a'in»Mij 7733 p» 

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TB PX B?"a^3 B1911 93XB9 1»?*p1XnBKB 191 |*B 

tmaipfl 

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.n b ip n 19B19B 191 " a va ]ö?sn B3»n 



13 



1 9 tt> öS 5 

mm m m Wg 'hd iin ad rai n 
DiyiJwiyxixHflTOjraireÄD 

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— .yasnnjja — .jisni» — .jn8»s?asn — .sm5»a — .-]""i 
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ojjb — .spagsw — .y>58ü , '8 — .]^'is — .lag'üon — .psa 
.minas — .^saie 

0X1 pX '113 "I5H 1=13 0357"! H — .T3X?33'15 

pk tjx^wu ]ö?s qpx a"ii px ]«a ] ! i3 ]as?js»xnx 

/isd»hx ~isn px naipfl nsöans nsn pa aaxnsa'K ist 

.03'ips?j nsüsaiy px oa'insa pxnsi xi px 'na n 

*»a Ö»'3 ?Xö3"j? PX 13X?3D'"15 ]Ü?X DPX '113 »1 

b'ö *p'?a ]»3Xüarya >i px "|5??ü3sn ,«pn3»ö»a?»T ]»n 
«srwmix i»\is?ji >r px roinn nsn *iX3 ,♦ jpnxnim'a k 
ist "1X3 psma p»ö?» djh isnx *i»drb djh idikii 
öxn ,pin oaxa am jasnaxa 1x3 oxn »? T?xa »n «nainn 

19 



*»J PK »I }SP?>aXB TK 18D p'BB'tp» IS B"lS?n5?3B'lK »T 
*Stt»J PK BK »T BB'?S7 "IS? .DTOM M R-a"? 03XÖ TR p8/YI 

'$ nSKftB'T |ö?s D3'K aiB»»p'i"iB - Qineceum) Q!,S73t 

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Ö1i?2S?3'a DS7 ]TR?tK;B IS B3XH OKI j 03'B8?p» »1 P-K 
TR BKH B?K»Sn T1K ]1K aiB-OP |'K "183 ÜSHS?a 't ÖKH 

t»K n .p'nsa n bkh isi'i g ]ir BpsTiRB pn onöäi D'3B 

.PBK?pty X 0R11 ,plK p?BIöS7 T1R pRHSJI B?13Rnxa 
ptfllStt B»'] 't PK ,p"l8B»»:i PK |Kö nJH ]»11 «ITBK 
TK ]« p'M^nBK pKllSS PK >1 n»1K "1K3' ,p>73s?Btz;a?sn 

- ökhsj ö»'3 p?»T8 brh »t a'iR - thk 411 jbob^s? 

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«TnO'lR TK B'B Ua»p»a BBPJ T1R »T BKH pKfl 71311111 
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•?sni ,anp psi3K "ishk "unna ,]8a ,nsBRB osn ,?Era} 

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-ISB8B ]1B BSKtyisyn H .n .1 ,p a tria potestas 'T 
•'K bdspi isa ]aya»a n.?a»p dst bkh ^»wp »j hsa'K 






20 



twsn oxt üxnsn tsxn n» ,*|8?pip ovt ts?3'k 'ii ,**t Ts?a 
S3»opsinin i?'3X jüo^j pxn p? oxn |»i ö'ö fit) is 
»pyiix ,p«9» is öa'i?Tsn ]»n»a d'k pk Tsni'p 
t>xn Ts?3'ip tvt a'ix .]B'ipTXB jik prag jx « ]»p3jw 

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pitp os? ti?bxb ist üxn ,?x» "m pxiw* ü"T3X3 rx 

TtfB 594 .' 1'X f»I»3 03X?XD) p'lpTXB Ö3S?pi?3 ttttf'3 "!»» 

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1« ist tj?3X .tsbxb Bin öT»n»a oxn , pa tria potestae 

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]xa ti>t px (Conventio in manus) 18» J« - niinn 

03«T TS?3'X '11 ,Ü3»T STS^yTDKT ]S7»ipX3 T'K TS?3'X ÜKH* 

.« Tsn ]1B ?K3a'0T»T .(filiaefamiliasloco) i»ödxö 8 

^'T.J'ttm'p TS?3TyT"K T»T )»11»3 T'K IX» BIS B"p3T313y3 
-'IIB T»T )3S?JS?3TS?3'K .T3inn TS?T nS?3 ÜKT ]K» TVT 0X11 
•SB») ]ü"p ö'ö '11 /T,'T«1S IS 'T UT3'3 T» TK ,)3»S 8 '11 



21 



1SB57BW ip ]1N T?KJ |».B JU'T DSH ÖBgöX» ]»ö OKH "ISO 

•i»3an ip'ö»m"p h ]ia an» ist .pxnsn dtb»m»k pk 

]1D Ö«p'T$?Ö3Sn H DSWiiTäTT BKH B»l"l )'« Ü"ll '11 

j»n ,nuinn srtgasflaiK ps?n f»isi bxt üp*iikb ,»na ijn 
0"i»ükb w« js^asn "ism»n nainn -"ist i$j t»k »na »i 

(in potestae patris sine convencione in manum 1 rnB '' 1 
p?asnpms ö3s?pya o"s nsns» » 't mn isdkb nsn ]i» 
-3x axn am jsni ,p"B n'"» |öi»d oaiB pnaa^nax .jk» pa 
ü'a l»asTix "MK^aana jia nanT »1 ]»»»:«ns2PK ja'insu 
nsn pa s?ä^9 -iSBSJBSsn -ixn px -px px /iitfhp tx 
»5?a »i . ** psoas bis äansia» wna x ]yaips?;nxa 'na 
jxa nsn oxn ,p*i$n ^B-anp öpmstoo'ix -pT axn wnso 

^B'lpngD ,|»p3S7^p»llS B35?pStt ÖEP3 S"!! ]»! pW ÖXn 



|"t f»Ä"iS7 ?8t'ö ts ,t33ijai»i vwi yms p« man ii»?« ps (* 
Tis .aasa-un a-isnvo ,5jan 8 o'a pr is »ip» arua ist öT>asm , 'K p» "3 
•d»31ra ist nira b»i» .nsg pK t't ^aana ,a5stt a^a |biiw t^Tpja ösn-n 
■j^iin /(fü 'o i"n pnx •>*&&) ?aa ps pNYm a-pasm»»« bj> fs sragasr 

.Biösans «9*>ns»i8a 02 T T ü $n 
•i"K an:» asn pgn (97 .t *i ?3n ,v»titi 111 in) o-»n .n .« a»i? 
»?»a'T»n»i? cgi tjj ,]a5»n »a9»n ,isa>K8"i8p »1 a»5« b^ika 't avsaa 
t« ,nwa |»p psn bp>3 ?8T'a -na px ,"im»„ pa sjsnoBa ja'i? p>r tp«i 
pna o'5i»i h pgn ,"riöi")B» 8 iiasa t»k p*i ^-»i? b»18yi ^ii« »pga i's'o 

»Wijäii /581b»», ,j"a ,isü?85B^öp« p») oa^ngias ."> .asia ts 1 "^ 
pa jvaiisttisa'» spjgo arwa ij?»njia»T ^s93"^ J l81'l P" , "' ]3sn ,(65 't ,1923 

.i»a' , i*i »1 

"W?8"isa'» 1 ? y?s iirasD» w$y\ f« ??sa. aiianstfiya vwm^ n (** 

.8*)ya , 5 1»iim jmst (,ip nga 594 .•> p« ]a8iff»a) isstsJi oajj^jjo jpsnw 

12 »i I» pts?a osn ;(,ij? -18B 621 .■» ps jöBtm) p*»t»a oagpsm 'ti i»? 

.11 ,t« .« 038^80 ^1 ,is?8")y3 , >? i»ii»a iBT>n t»K |sr?Tiijö 



22 



£tfS?p>3Hl 1?KS »D'YlJHl PX 19'BX Piff ÜXÜ 'I ,• ]»3»aim»i 
.S?3BK ttW»3 ,]08?tP»3BK. Bff'3 p» Ü3S7? H jtUit pyTXB 
]X f>W 'T 1XVI B»3 't ,BD8»7»TS>1»2Sö IST J1B tO-)S?13n? 

.Tl .TX .x law X 

SB3>tpyi -isn px naipn »um H ]% *p? aa»n kt 
•xa ]x-t)2"n 'ine h .a^vi ]ix jxa jib |a»?Js?axTis bsib 
isnypnypa x |» nsax ,ffB3ya x -ixb pyri « aaxia 

.|«a -isn 'ii nma 
-573 atyn ya?yn ,33!iay3xyTy3 "iwa'-n nyn a'i? 
»"x ^b bxvi fix ysxvx px lyaoa^y ist ixb B33»n 

»t ]S?33iaS?32JyTS73 Sn»»T ]BXP B»a |3Xn UffllVl S7»'»BXn 

«Tis «pix -]»?3»a minn h px ,nyBOia x "i*$b jsbmpi 
l'ix .»DS?nMi»a 8 (2 p.x minn s?Ty»^?»n x (l : b>3bix 
,f?x px 'IIB »i px / »t»'3' i ?»'i 8 jsnstt px nsinn '■» 
n jnwi 03xa px iy33X3y3nya»x ,b3xb"ixb axn »i oxn 
•s!h&rrci ist ü>i? -iyax. .p^janxB B3yj?y* bbwi$3 axn 
\*w ?'x ,tb3»x i»pmyö»B& x px ysSyn mirm im 
»■na px a?"ay33"x pxnsa »tib -iyn ^b pya-ixs oxt 
exn ,0$T PX p3 .psa-ixB iyi3X (2 |*)X p3 (l : a»p?n 
oxn px minn ist ia psu» tx bxh nnspa oa^n ayn 
•«o'ix a«nna -p px na ?"n /lxs-iyi jxa ayi nsnsj 
■» px p3 jaa* « B3^ty3is a'x axn'a a'ix .'t ]o?xn 
•B'iK T^asnya yii qvi "iy ]yj? /jyaipxa bp>3 B'x axn 

.)r3xa 

1» a»1K .T,y?B*lXllB3R1tfB |XB 1V1 PX |13 pXB 

•« p3 B»T 'T BBIpXa ,'T1B "IST B3 B»3 "iyi8 B3-|XÜff 

■wn nyny3 ,vx b'ö as'ixn ]xa ist pT'93 iyax .pn 
isp'X3WK iyn B'x nya'x t»x iy fix B'x «ix )X3X33'x |i3 
B3xb ,]yay3Bx ]S'ay «a p3 b»t «iixtb anx .n'an^ya 
^lBsan y5yiD3yviy »i « t^ üö s3 ny j|xa nyn a»x 
.n'an»?y3 iynax ]s »n ^wng-Baayna n 3 ist e8ri 
]»'a»n ]B'i? ,]xa -iyn axn p*B n*» ia»*i» jpa 



23 



bxh -is? oxii ,^?x ]fi*»ipijB u Basn o*n oxrin ,ps?Ti?a 
1» oxn ]X p"s n"> puns? ps is?ax ,-p3 o^x isaipxi 
i»o»a sasflasnga h rtta ]B»ip*iKB 12 bds?-i bxi Bxns?a 

,"?{? .3 529 .' ]'S|B fSTSa ]8»38'BD ! P DS?1 B'l? )« p3 Dm 
1S?TX ]B'1p1XB « 'BBSn OKI BKnS?3 ]Xö 1S?n B»'3 DXil 

»3»?a»n8aaw h «o t^x yas^asYixa h wo /j^nxs w 

Bxn ns? jsni Vp'bx ,]*» o?s paipxa Bxn -is? oxii /isb'i 

.nason oa»vi as?i «pnsn js?aiptfa 

•3»YI» li?T TX ,)^1p Üb B3S?1 0X1 B3H 'IIB "IS"! 

»i'in *px 1x3 ps?n öiisingB ?xt p3 D3iB mn n»?»^ö 

*")XB ]Xa IST TX ,}WX B3'BS3 'I 3'1R .MIB^griO'IR 1S?3a?9 
1,1« pKTlStt BBS?"IX"IXB PX "IS? TX "iSHX ,p3 S5?T B"I3S?VI» 
,pS?*?Xa ^S B3SH 0X1 TX B3H ,D'K J1B "]0 X BX13")SB "IS? 
^D'IS'IX TX "IS7B31X |3S?aS?nS?a , »X p'SYl ?XT p3 ISTT TX 

•wt fxi Bis?ns?a ,bj ns?ix b'ib o'fxa dsib ?xa px ?"ii 
*"ixb ü'k |tx? Bty'3 is?ans?n jgp »t ^x tx ix pmx vis 

osn .]xa i»n be"3 »t b3»t ,Ba*ixB» 'iia n a^x 
«37) ö'«ni> s?tx paipxa 7 B3xanxB y oxvi ,??« pix p3 
,Ba-igB» jxa in a>ix .(.11 .tx .x nsnna ,t?üxb ^i*i 
•nam» snsmx di» pp .p3 ds?i pmx 'iib »i Baipxa 
.bb?»3 »T bxh # nsroaxB o?x "o ^"ii o?x *>o ,Bain 

.p»Tl B?yBt2?S?3 B»>3 p3 D^a |3?3Xp D'»X3n QW ]"p 
?XT ]Xa DS?T TX ,]S?aS?30^X # ?»ö? ,B»'3 TT ]Xp 'IIB »f 
•O'l» ö»»3 TT ]5?p 1S?T11 ]Xa 1VT j ITPI 1S?"T |11?ny3 BW'3 
p3 pXB •JS?'?B 1 1XT1B3X 1XB ]"T B»'3 ?XT TS TX 7 ]S?aS?3 

.11 ,T8 .K 

|xa Di?T ps?3 « b»'3 b3s?"i dxt "is?ax bkh 'iis 'i 
«j»ik ]B98nwo'iK ps?n 1» b»'3 px p3 D3iB mn DS?"T 

«liawn ]"t 
nxB BTx?s?3is?a'x bxh n oxn ,p»öi8B B»s?n oxt 
^83 ]»w ]»»sij?8a os? bxm »t is?ix ^nsinn im ixb tt 



24 



nims» ,pa B3'x |»nk oty'3 b»a 0511 jix nann isn 
jix ,?'n »t oxn ,tt>msn ]it} 3s?a >t p'fc « ]X3XJ3'x 

WT OS? .BOSH 5?B013'a 0X7 '«"IST BP'3 BXil ]XB 'w 

0x11 jxa ösn ]s?p3i?imps?nx T/iBisn üDsn 0x7 "irax vk 

.■?'vi »j ?B'n ]!ik ?>n »1 
♦jxa üsn psnstt ixnrp »i is?a'x aasn s?x 
bk>'3 ,B3sn 0x7 faxri i,xa -isn wo px a"ii 0x7 "d 

.m pSnXB IS ,11'BXB Bit? |wp p->73aS733X 
0X11 /IIB 7177 BBIp ,pS?T5H JlP'ag'BOl' BS?7 BW.? 

2.no'Bfl fix paty ,18» asn ÜjgVixB 

IST '33? p'?»BW"l»B3'n ÖlSIttTXa - /] w -j p 3 g •, B 

"pX 9-n /pnp3X73 ]'X B3S?"t S?0»?1»3n'3 DX7 T'X '"HB 

,psnw ,73X?xn ,?xmbisb ,s?'3xsty /niaasop*? ,swa?sa 
p'nw nsn ]ib )»axB3xp an -ist ^wB-osnmp ,pxas3»7 
.Code civil B*n ]** BSi^wxxa ]S?:s?t ss?syi ,.738 .x 
']« w.iB is?t p»Ti s:«wö »7 -T'x »'öonsBp snsa 
- 03"X„ # code Napoleon 1« i»B»» B27 'I 1P^BX3 

*7„ ."W.7B '7 T'X OXT # »»IW.S3K1B Bffij T'X - "IS B3XT 

,tx ra W3 nsnsj ]xa ist is?ax ,]xa bis nsnsa wib 
,D!B3jwk isim» nsansi t'x n ,7in3'p T3ix B'a 'iib h 

-B7S3 B31B DsiBjaw« 0X7 T'X D'13B3nB 1J?7 '11 '1TX Bp3-.3 

."7S3 

nsBxnsj-rmrin isn ]1B oajn h p3ST Tw-ipaxns px 

.nsBxns^nsinn bbw ist ]ib h 'ii ,an»73x W7B 
p'ix'^3 t,x ix' p.2'1 ]is T'x SBxn5?j*n3inn*t:tP3 n 
jx pT !| S p n 8 /jxa ]B'a -jw?3 aasn s?'itx axn jw 

.3?p'ixns?i3'a nsä'x sodbiibibx 
»Stt isn bw? tix) Code civil V* 3 212 .bix ]B'T? 
(p'w isn )ib ]s?3XB3xp an Bin ps r'j^sya j'^B äaiaväsn 

TT p'B"T33' ,, p |1X wiB»3l ]" T yf a«-ji ^^ ^a„ ]B^XT 
'X/TOXT BB"3-1S ]OXB |SS?TS?3 S?^'KpX1B 'T 1S3X ."]B?»n 

.awn.]ix-]xa ]ia f yi ]B?sn s?p'BWT33"p // ypn 



25 



jsas^x rx na »ns n :pxT prsts* WBpgift n 
Oku ,d»?x. ö'ö BSB^xmgB is jjxa asn pt oxtinxnsi 
-txb os? tsj? ns .B3xa-ixs nainn "ist nsa B$n *yib h 

-D'ö TX |« JB'lpXB pX 7BOX9X3 JpSÖXB'n B'B /IBOIJB 

-n«D ,main pxa TSp> "is .nason vx |$ tf'BX nx iHpnm 
Bxn i» .psmin jtx9 n nx psa-ixa oi w vi os*t i?'bv 
l'i7 ojn "isasj*Bsa"ix tk ns jsassixsx Dam oxt i?>bx. 
]Xü3xp "isa-isa D3n* nx sa?st oxd D'x pasYianKB nx 

.<f w YI» "IST ]»8 
JSB13S33X •p'W"' J'X T'X 1881 ?'"1BX ]B-9 OST 

•bx svx js?axt tt lSp a«n oxt tx ,t/stS3 x pxrisj 
öiiB »'aa'ftw "ijn t,x soxj?.-ixbp -ist nx pwnxBP 
»9« o$t ]»a "ist Bxn pTs>]3i?a-iXB ]a'?is nsax .jgs 

♦joni tx jx |sbs3ixbx os osm 

,»K3n OST TT ]SöS31X0nx BOST OXT BXn '"HB »1 

.psa-ixs tx « *|flip pp pi b»»j ?xt ]xa ist t» 

•"IXB TX B3S"I OXT BW'3 T1X '* ü S n ' ,1T 8 ,,,B 8 " lS?a 9 
»"IST l"I ]X .11 .TX .X JXSnXB ,]3TX3 ,JSj?3SBNXj?STlX JJSB 

jsaipxa isa"Yi sbttxbso »t ?axn 1893 "ix> nx 

.psaiXB "i»wi B'a ]B?xm8B ia bost 

|1B TSTX ]XÖ TX J1B D30H OST ]X ]Xp 'IIB »1 
,B0>TSJ |»K |BS"1B0'11X bw>3 ,]TX OlBVlBlBX JTST3X 1» 

nx # »nBons»n nx ?T3xn B'a tt böS3txb »t |sti i?>bx. 
ist B3xi - ] xa tst* : osxxtb x btb *t fsn si?>bx. 
jrffxa 'l-iB »t «pXT - (269 nx 217 ,213 §§) Code civil 
istx s?S3'a'-ip «a -isax /yn oxts-ixnsa O'x na *»t nx 

Bp31B ^S?B1X11B3X^^B p?ij 't !'X 033Sia"lXB SB"X"S'?XB 

»»'3^tx o?sasa nx ^s?BSTB ns«! .]xa "ispnx'^B x m 

fU ,TnP381B l'X »IIB "IST ]1B BPST »T ]3S11 331p1SaKa 
|D*fi Ö3S1 S3 M ?Ä 'S B^n ^ib» psn vi B?13Xn , isn w 

3 ...H^a 



26 



p* t ür'3 'iiB h jyj? nyi3y? yü3xa*iyi y?x h px 
p«?aoxi px ^upg-9'iTS px -m°won "a nn» p»j, 

.(217 ,37 §§) 
ft Ä'IR ,ÖJ X pyiXB IS Ü3S?1 OKI ÜXn ]«ö "1S?T 

p?p »IIB »i pypnyn j-üxtixb px öp'-^pxa tnyn a w n 
pM ]yoM»a3 M i8 axn jxa nyn a>ix ,13a x psnxa DJxayi nx3 
im ]"i D»a Bi'iKii i» ixii »nnl ]a?s?T )'x yüa^yj 

.(230 .018) 

»xa 'tib h onyn üxtixb *ixb tx ,]piyaxa ix 'xna 
■un nyax ,aD'B*i nx' "rix ra D'ann »m pa bbx-ibp 

p8 183 .n .T ,230 • .B"lX ]Ö»V? BBXlÜPXa "1X3 mSHl ]Xö 

]a?ytayT px sas'?»* n pnx/aasa iy |»ri ,?xb ayi 
a?xayn i?'ax nyax .a»ri pT a>a arm ■» um ,T'in 
ra 100 pß «ixiaty.ü'Jya x a>a pr?a aajpBiPxa iy a-iyv» 
•(Code penal ]« 389 p8 337 .tr>8) p3X1B 2000 
t'8 /p'ipasna p s j? ]y3xai!ia n pa piyppnra jb'ö 
pnix 03 nsn 1816 >xa ja-8 pa fs»»*. ps iia» iB'ik 
p8 p» yüxnxsyD «pn pxny* a^ia-ixa px pap-iKs 
.pXYis» avaywx pmx ny rx 1884 .' 
■ur px BX-ngB |nya a»n oxt asx3 ]xa -iyn a'ix 
n pypisn ,*ix*ibp n»*!»* pa »na *iy t'x ,'t ayrimyT 
*xa x> ]xa nsi pnya-imyr nxs ?xb nyn px a-iyn »tib 

.(324 .018) ÜBXIttW 

k a'ina nyaia h nx3 px 137 pspy^aix pxa 

H pa 03y>p»Ö?» yS3X3 OXT j (341 pX 340 §§) p"»ST 

.19B8B ajn nyny; nywp y?xay? 
342 ü"i8) iyB8B bis i3'p oxf nynya öjl x «a 

.(Code Napolem 

]xa ayi astrpyj 'na n axn 1891 pya |ü-9 ]pa 

]ü-9 ps ,0'tym' yiyisx ]"j? jynyj \avfi \msvo \an "1x3 

px pi8 osy-i-ni^iT ]ya!ipxa "»na h pw axn 1891 pya 

,]xa DysyaixB^nsfl b^b iyi3'p öxa >! |»n ,?xb ay-r 



27 



]»« ]37'lia |»ÖWSÄ3K pW |»ö ÜXH 1850 IN» p& 

OXIS s??8 px - 1856 ix» px px Coiege de France 

PX Ü3337S?3 ]5Tö BNH 1886 IN'' V« .1Ö37D'T13?1V31X 57ty'T'lX 

4 .prnia ixb ?w3«n »?8's»so x *p'ij?3Xia 

•IXB 1X9 «IK1D» '1 I'« S7'3?5?a px - ,57 ' Ä 9 37 3 

TIN OnSTI Ü1X1 jT'1j?:i81B pX 0X11 f S73?STH BX1 

»öa'?!H 'i p'ix oa3?3 is? )»n 1x3 o3xiotL>xa ]xa is?i 
»rn ns7i px piw ]»ö rx -öixi k>ox3 jT'in px tt « 

.T'ipglB pX '11 ,'IIB 1577 IS 1S7Ö391SJI ?0'3 X 03'T 

px ?'ao3Ka ü3?i -ins i37i3iTxa .t?3sn D'J'a "112 i57ax 

.]X1XB 01X1 T1X JS73S7T - 'IIB 1371 1X3 137131iK3 
1!7a S7'Ä?37a ]»» °]X3 T'X '1-13 -IST 1X3 BaSl-ntPlV 0X1 
0X1 ÖW'3 M#T Ü1N1 .T'1j?3X19 pX '11 ,1373X'2Zj?X371 

.i»u'p b'x o'a oxn n a'ix i?'ax jxa dsi a«n 

»5733N JBSB'TISni'MK SBT'tfSa '1 ]BXn 1880 IN' pX 

"t jaxn 1890 -ix' px px O3'ü33?-noo jsjösaisHx. ]a'in 
s.jttjsniöo 'i ü'ö 035?i s?3"?j ]S?aij?xa 

»3819 1S?1 pB üSl?B3'"XXa pISOV - ,j?1XaS7 3 371 

1853 P3 ,p8ö»3Sn ]'X 33läs73ES?T5?3 '1 TIN T'X ,1»«PP1X 

«m nr'naa jsnm jas?? px* tx "jin 'iia 'i xi px 
«üibn i$7i is?ü3.ix p'T üTiasa 'T oxn p'i337üty ,p'ixns?n 
•337a ]isi3X ]x isnx ]xa ,i37ina ,1170x0 pa maaii 

D371 p?S'?^D'lX 1371373 Ü337>113?0?37 0X1 ,311p |037? 

.1370X9 
'1 J3N,1 |Ö03'1lNa S?137"T Ö'a ]Ü?8/111KB 12 p'?8 
pB 110' ]B'1X 03371 0X1 ]37aipN3 pixas?3377 ]'X ]37'113 

tx oxn ]xa is?i is?ax a'ix .1880 »x» p*7 pa pm» 

>T T71X P'll^'O 1371X ]2HX33'X ,p?13Ni1 MX Ö?J» |3S75373 

w öp'j isn&a ,p*7aixa ]p'iniBnitya os?7 pa B?-nxn 

,003'IIXB 1371 TX 

»3«?a |»aipX3 ]»'iin 'i ]axn pjso'nsYi'aix 'i px 

-ax ü27'3 t'i?a ]is?n »m .1875 .' px i3?3s?a 'i ta'a wayi 



BP*3 TT pXB W| J1K ttSHtfhpSB "E"'3X7xyB |B>1K ]y»M»a 

6.TBXpXmX B'B ]S?a37J-llJD 

.ya öikt »"nu h pk 1858 "ix"» ]Pa - .psniiy 
-sa Bnaya pnasö» tt ü ? n ' T .pi^^s^'ö m'naa Jini 
-iy-rx isnna ,*xa ,-iyBXB "is rnosiiüiBx -isn isroa« jB3*b 
nynya ÜD3H1XB 71« p»m»B tn .an"? py?3*?a prag 

BVT -|»'?D'» , 3^0'»T» "iBnSJA ö3»>p»D9» OKI ^BnttlB« BSH 

SSÖKB 
•3X PX 0X11 ,pTS?3 ?81»3'? 13?» X ]1B 1331*13 J&'IK 

n pib* jyp ,1874 nyaayxyi *b-u bjh pxnya jyaiaya 

.?>11 n OKU / B03mXB TX B'B "1B 'IIB 
]3Xn BS*'3nB'B03*X S??X3*»Xp H "iX BB5n-?Xn lPBpX 
»1X7 p3X3"3 B3"B «pO pXB BXn5?3 ]»'»1D SB"nyW» »1 l*W 

«tnyi3*n 

Jw-JTaxn yDsny "t *ix op-uwayB nyotm» -iy* 

- 1859 "itt^ms pxnya öyianaya pyritt* j^x px jyviB ixb 

aw ö'iö« x -sa'pxa -yna pxn 1870 "tx? px .1861 

IS pxnya Ba'l?iy"T "I PX - 1898 ]*X P.X B»B»T"I»1T31K 

.TBxpxvnx wo tt paya-ixB 
jynya bixi 'na n px 1863 pa - .i?*aymx3 
-iyB3ix pt Bnaya pnayB» exn *t .p'nxnyM'a m*naa 
pyiax -lyrx. *xa /lyma ,-iyüXB ]» niBBnBis» asn 

.anp py?aya 
*»t ix üdsh bxt paipxa >»i pxn 1870 *ix> px 
•OBinoiBK *"i ia - yBxni?3-n3inn'B , i , "3 "ix rvwnx w a im* 

.-iy73*f **j?a*-x oyB 

.nyBXB Byi -iynya öay*i-pyB9y bxt 
nya x pxnya paiayaax px 1888 »?p ]b-29 asn 
«ya mn tx p?yn pa*n x ,'i-ib nyi yaiaa py-sa ?xis*a'? 
,*xa -isn ByB?xmxa jaya-ixB inifinw ]B'B ,i»?x. tx ->yn 
.p?x »i ByB?xinxB - pya-iXB naianga tx ö'ö nyax 



29 



'1 IS B391-98YI 1891 B3'l JSKH 03'1»?KS-1»"Btf 

.0»13»BSJ 

]3'inS?J3K 1880 ]'K ÜKH B»B»t1»ll'3m 1»38»BB>13 »1 

•1»11»3W '1 ]'8 "1 1»M» 1884 ]'X # 03»Ö3»1W0 ]»a»31X3X 

1895 ]1B ]1K 1»3»a *1 B'B Bj?'B3»1X33»?3 11X1193 JBSB'l 

7 .HBKpXllIX 13*0 J9a»31XB *]'T wi ]39ö 

D3ia niwn i9i i»mix bixi im 'iib 'i-.f'iiip 
]3»bibb im ö»a B»ö?8iii8B i» jp'33»riBx am |ib j7,kb 
.-pip3xiB im oxn ,»3?9ioxi B9B3 - b39> , |39bixb oxi) 
)m isan's im I9ö»m onn ,üD3»nxs im :nx3ö'ix ]» 
b»ibixb is j q«?8 im » es? i»ri93 ,}XB3Kp 19319a im 

.11 .IX .X ]Nt19B ISBni X '33? 'I 
-91 "IS im 19E3&B 091 1X3 B3'1 Ba»1*p»B?S OKI 
-XB3Xp ?»ö |m .19137 »1 ]1B 331'S191 IST 1,3911 BTTI 

-3'j? »im i»am obiibisk fp j»i b»'3 i»biö »i ]»j? |»3 

»IIB 191 pB BSSn-nWT '1 .B'IB 03KÖ pX3 <I?'BX 191 

]»3Kü3Kp an im ,un9i3x ixo3xp ]i»' ]m b»»3 im 

-3X ]"p KOP'3 ]9391'0 ]»11 ,09X0»"! 1X3 3"11 0X1 B3S7T 

.B'ttni' »1»1 
JS'IIB 2 J1B 331p»B9ÜttfX3 X BNH l,KB3Xp 193193 ]»K 

im ,?'ao3xa }»m \it i3«ip'B9BB»8a x oxn ,Bi9n ]a?»ia9i 
-»3 jxmxp i»a'im jm *]»m .]xa 091 i»n»3 bo3'hxb 

,]Ka D»1 C303H1KB im i»n 

*3»in 'i «is B'iB« x paipxs j»»iib |axn 1840 im 
*»ns ]ixn»3 pai3»33x ?3n»iea t»3»i 1864 i»a i»ax ,!,?*» 

.03*>B391!lBO 
BKH 0X11 ,»BXTm ]m B»B'11»ll'3m ISBBn» 1»1 
'1 ]»11»3 l'X - BS»3»13Xaa^« B»B3 1SP11B |»ai3»33^ 

8.1864 .» l'X 1»3'TS 
IS 1»?3» 33!3S3S9T93*'J9 , '11B '1 im XI - .1 3 X ? X H 
]3K?tP931XB B3»aX?1XB |'X im 1883 |'K .1S»'1»1S3X1B 1»1 
»1KB 1»1 j 0391 »P'B'^XB »?1B 'IIB 1»1 J393 IS J1X1193 



30 



]»11 ,1887 VI MUSrng-HW "1»*T *p8 ]M8ÖWM T'8 1«?» 

9 .psn»* ]3ixn»33x p'üTm» i»r i» 
cninain *p» ]R ö»ö 'na h axn *n - .73 8? 33» 

/|8» "lSn 8811 ,W'Ö ]3?»T D"3 JO» t37XÜ»3 ÜE>'3 p'TX 18' 
]1B ]H'D 0^8 .m»7B»3 8»B» 'T ÜKH •]»» T'3 ,p»7 BP>3 

]ix ,p'tPB3Xp x jimxnsj bs?3 p»3'8 pr ,BBXtin»n 03&a 

D»7 ö»a Ü3»"l 0X7 BXn»J IS? ÜXH ,Ö?8YISi. ÜXH 7» TS 

pxn ]"t ?s*»n jö"»tfr ix TR ]ir jsimrs is tt p'PB3xp 

"D ,13!?? 03X8 0»3 "0 ,7»tMÖ >7 BXn 1839 T'3 
Dltt ]"p 7»73'p »TR 7»3'R BXn»3 BP1 ,Ü'1Ü pT 7X3 
•'R 7»73'p '7 1»3'R B3»7 ]"! T'R Ü'lü 03Xa pX3 ,B3»7 
»1 ÜXH 1839 ]'R .Ü?R11»3 ÜXH 7» ]»a»11 43t 7,»J3X3»J7»3 
1»! 3'1R ,7»73'p »TR piTK3 IS B3»7 ]»Ö1pX3 ]'l» 'IIB 

]1B n»o"n T'R 'i i»3x ,]»ai3»3Bx tr iib »*t togn jxa 

TT ]3^?n "t ]1R BD3'7 X '11 ]*1X11»3 B3X7BX3 7»73'p »TR 
.]3?XB IS 'T Ö»Ö3'5B1RD tJ?'B»Jl ütf'3 

jxa 7»7 tx ,pr»3 x pxn»a ]»ai3»a3x T'R 1870 rs 

p»ll »T 7»7"8 7»73'p '7 'IIB ]"T 1« ]»a»34S bbpj j»p 

?o'3 x -jx3 ]»aipx3 »na n oxn 1886 pr jir 7R' 16 b?8 

.7»73'p »TR 7»3'8 B3»7 
3»'ll 0S7 |1D p»a"1XB »3»?a»nS3 DR! DXn 1870 P3 

p'p ^nsn , ?xa3"p ü5xn 3"n 0x7 t'?3 ,]Ka bis ü7»n»> 

7»Ü'3 S3»?3»11R3Ö4R »TR T1R Pl?3 j ÜXH»3 ÜP'3 IM3»»W 
ÜP'3 'T DX.7 ]J»nttD»7313 .8387 »P»ll?"8 8X.7»3 'T BXfl 
7»8'3 »D»?3»11K3a!lR »TR B'ö sfl'BR. B3»7 ORT 0X?1»I 

ö'ö uxn jxa -i»i .]xa D313 nason i»t jr ]io is d»b» 
d»t ]»»M»ara tt ,ü»ü?xn-i83 n»ö'j »3»?3»nx3aix »i 
•3'p üxn»3 tr ü'a üxn *is 3'ir ]ir ]3»? tr n»3 mn 
»t 0R11 y?X .Ü'IÖ TR HR3 nin D»7 ~\n& 1» oa»3 ,1»T 
•83 taxn »i brii ,px 1=18 n3inn tjt "ixb ö3RaiRB üxn 
.]«a q»t n»nya ,n3inn i»t iR3 ]»aip 



31 



ep ,pK txb ts^dtxv^xtxb px ]xa tst Tsa$ 
itbx ivain stx pxx na ts .mjsnaswix b>k exn *? 
ts Tis bttssbstb pas a»*iK ]ix ,n3inn "ist txb |ia 

.bttsj pxa is b"bw ,psaTXB 
B33S1S3 jsnsa Bansa pxa xt 'ins >t px ??aa 

tt?T3XnS3 PX 't |1K ,S3Sa"X*a M ? 03XÖ pxa /?« T*?Sj 

.ispn^nsia'a x tu p$iiM 
•ex jöV?tP n üasi ai» i M p Bxnsa be»3 bxh >t 
x txb ,p»B?»a jsnisj, ö»»a px rums tx i?'bx $px» 

PB BTXim M p IST PK JSMgJXa PK »I DK11 ,pSTaiXB 
BX.T >t a'IX .T^BTKllBaXTKB • JSTISJi IS px ,]8a tk 

tst 'Ti pxnsa BSKiBisa os px ,]"ot x Bsxasa jsray 
,'ii ,m'n-mn osxa est ttt pKiisa Baxasa B?p psw 
txb pnsa px ]xa ist .?a .t .x ?p»k ,tt»b ^j? :?w»? 

.TS'jBTxnBaxTXB tk 
?'b px ]ix psa-iKB "jS?asYixa tx bsi^t jxa "ist 

.psanKB TS?asnxaaix tx tik is B3WT pxs 
•p^snxaaiK ]"i bep: ?xa:"j? bspt a^n oxt 
bep: bxh »t a*»iK ,psa-ixB ps?asnxa pQ ^x psaTXB 
f ?öm x »i B3»T ,tstpj? ]«j? ]xa DsasaTXB&nxa ]B'a 

«BB?»n x - x' bkh ■>! a^x 
*j jsp ,tstst3X tx u»a öj'ikyi jxa ist jsii ^'ßx 
a'ix ,ps"xs Txa 'T t,sj? bj .paipxa ova bj pp "px 
.93 .1 .K aMp'B?8TlS2nXB ,s>ax3'a pk ]xa BST Bp'T'wxa '1 

ist ]13 pa dst a"n bst Bas.Tas.x jg» ist a»ix 

.11 .TX .X 12 OIB X j^XIBP B31B 2 TS B?XHKa ,T$3 
BISnsa B03'TTXB TX BKH 1870 P.B p?TS3 |B>1? 

.p?X TX 

1880 pk jaxn tsb'j sas?asvixaaix j« oansnxa 
'i'jf 8?^ps?. s^x u Basn^xn ipbj?x ]ix ipoxb }saipKa 

.iS3sa n ö'ö "i"?a os^ssib'bo 

MTB H BKH ,1883-1882 ]-IX' 'T ]3B |SSTS3 H ö'l? 



32 



ffMESP^isn D3Ka asn ^i^r j?n3a-ixn tatra ,rms js 

.n ,?x .« 
isa^xa T3X"?tx ]'x |»'na n ]axn 1882 px 

.psn 1891 J'8 11» ÜSPSIB'BOS'X 8?PasiBXp H IS B3Sn-?»ll 

tf»SB8n"K) ]KS ?t3'X D»3"?p B313 B3n»?8S-n» M Btf »1 

.Ö3S7 5?P'B'?XB S??X JSölpXa (73X9338 

*»aso x pxnaa Binanaaa 1X73x9 -px px 1846 rx 

.|»»nna nxa aingj 
nsB^ns x pxnsa Bsnanasn B7X7 px 1P48 rx 
jsaMsaas las^aas px p« 1871 ] 9 x .]SP"nB nxa D^"i»a»a»o 
tfawax psB'nsnräx »7 aa'iJhsn oxii ,?STS?a x pxiwa 
»t tk ,.n .7 / ]Sö8?B»i-Dn' , iöj?8n »i jajra jix jamB ]»a 
naax ^B'nsnvaix P8 ]spiib ]8»s?3is3x mna '7 jaxn 

.»T BSB3'?B7XB'B JX /ÜlP'i 

-l»'HB »7SPSSBO x pxnsa osianasa px 1877 px 

»'3!1K 15M873X5 75?7 BXS 1879 PK P.X PS>73?» 1KB !hW 
787 .|BSB? ! lpKB S5x *pK ]5P"nB ]8ö13833X P10 B8B'n811 

]»»*nB ]»ö»a^s3x ja'insaax bxh ö»B»n»n'aw istpnnaasp 
.1894 px isnnxaepx 787 r.x 1881 pk 

]881j?Xa 1892 ]»« JB'VTB '1 ]2HH 1 3 X ? B X V j'X 

,ÖSB?!|p8B )«?»aX?X?'B OlS 1X3 B'IBIS K 

aaiasaxma »Bp?aas '7 px B7»73irrx' ]ö*19 «yio 

]ib »ao^xnsa'? n ]»n»a Basi-pma p,b b'383 jb'ih 

10 .B383'B3Xj? 78T318 

Bxnsa bxh is?3K»isa is?b?k 787 - ,i3ü7»öwi 
.]s?3S?annns?T px ]B'ij?7XB ,]ax?E> ra "isbbkb pt B387 0x7 
nainn h .nnm* 787 pa ]Bx?»saB'i« jsyism pr »ins *i 
.'i-ia 787 -is?a'x B387 s?« 0X7 ?'aB:sa b»t p838a axn 

*'*n "13?*? ]!|B B19B3"« pSB31K ]838T 1SB?K?B'a PK 

tjx7ipb»h ]'x '"na nsn ]» bds?i "»t - 33!ias?ass?TS?a ^sfß^'a 

.pxnsn BTB-ixas-i p'ii? M a 



33 



IJ jSTIiH KT T'K H"' ]D-16 p'3 'IIB 1S?T J1B »38? H 
-1KB 12 JS'nnsmX TT 'I ÜKH JK il"' ]Ü46 pa ,»"i»o»a 
.]KQ D»T p'3»En»B31X p'135?tW?lB ö"l»ll 'IIB H ,]*l»Jn» 

.n"' |ü-18 «jio jna )x 'itx o?xn axa n»pi$*nn 

.a3ias?ax»T»a Bas^tp'wx ]"p rö»'j px t38?»d»h 1** 
sai3 pk okii -i»aR .s"i»i3K jk bxh p'nxis sis' tts?a3 

.l»?D»ns M » t3S?»3 »?X ]3?3at ,Ö3S>]S'V1B 

jtM9 ]ib «iio d"3 aaismma -i»wi isn ö'i? 

"I»7 "IRB p&JttlXOIR TT DD»"» 0X7 ]Xa QJH 03H ,fr» 

.niBnw ]w TQX?a?»ao»i» msn a»anxB 03"ii as?i tx ,nainn 

»Ö073'a '7 Ö»»3 3"11 OKI BX.7 ,pÜS73 W3 Ü1»TI OKI 3'18 
.03837X3 'I DK11 QS?K 7»a'K n»l 

n»n pa psaiKB ]S3xa |ö'ö asm»oxa»?K3 jxa ist 
minn -i»7 ikb üxn»a üxn »t oxii ,o»7 ta'a "ö j'vib 
»tk .nainn i»i Tja |»aipX3 üxn 't okii ,o»7 d'ö w o jir 

JB'lpIXB J1X ]K?'1Ö0'1K ,]X»nRB 7» ]5?p 7S?Ü'3 S3S?M11sa 
»Ö1K STI'K Ö'Ö .»3"T ]»11»3 ]K pH3»ÖW ]1B 7Ö?X11 »T '11 

.rmn ")»"i «-tsasa px ix? östwngs "i»o'a »3»?asnix3 

- 797R ,D30n TK tt'ö 7R3 7» JXp "T ]B'ap7XB 793S. 
.D'BTVP »TX pfl OSO?! Jö'a - |aiKÖ»»3 T'K 'T a'IK 

psaiKB tk ]is 'na »i |»p ,na3Dn eaxa d»7 jx 

R Pl?3 p'TS 'T ISa^pKa ,TT pi ]D»3 .J3'1p7RB Ü!P'37XJ 
•KB B3»axa D»35?3»a»a J'R T'K OKII ,]3»Ö7RB TK ]*Q BB?9ff 
ORB psaigB TK ]1B "|0 R ÖRfl ]Ra 7»7 J»11 1?'BX .]i$"l 

a'iK .ou?»n x 'ii ,p'T.s i»a aty'3 'T taaipKa ,0913^11» 
ütyyi »i pK oa?»n k d'»ii» »tk |»aip«a ^aiXDw 'T 

OKII ^»aiSB S?23K3 OKT °lS?n^3 Ü3 K "3 .]Ka 0"3 üS'^a 
•3»aXT1S n»"T ]W Ü"X IST )'K I31K111S1 TT |3§iT "T 
-1KB ]3"K TK OKU ,111'T "l»T T'K 0X7 ]»11 1?'BX - ,]3»? 
1»T T'K |xa 1»T ]»11 1?'BX - ,ÜJ3yi3»33^1X DXH |(3»a 

jac'aax toxn m« h ]»n itbx nix oa a3'K i»pH?w 

OK3 üaipxa 3"11 OKT pK ,|Xa D1S f?K n»H»3 - 7 B3'T1KD 



34 



]ia ni033n >i pn wa ]»j? »t i»n ,b?xb»i w?a .bip'i 
•ixa auya B»aiK "jin i9ix psaiKa paipxsp'iix tr 

OKI 'I OXH ,1380^ TK O'l 1 ? ]3S? X ]VB IX '13 ,]5?n 

|mmvi3 ts im 09i jib i9»ipK3 ix o»b» 0391 

]1B 5113 091 13911 TT B?13Xn OS? J911 - ,B3 8 "3 

i»3K ixixb .tti isbkb 191 ni »St« bs"?3 - ,i»ia'p 'i 
-smx B-i9ii n»ia'p »t ]ia 33i'xn9i n j»ti ^xa'üKao'i« 
exi bb»3 Ti8 >t ü5jn b?kö»i 19SK i ibbw 191 oapos 

•1X3 19"? B'O ]B?XTI1KB IX ]18 109101X3 IX «I B391 

n»ax B-i9ii .jk» D"3 i9B"ii B3"?3 B39"i D8i 183 ,p»ö 

19 B81 ,190KB 091 B3pD3931X 1913'p »1 1,13 331'X191 '1 
, W T Ü91Ü-1K3 IS» :]19Ö?S» ]1B 0391 9X383 0X1 "? 193'« 
OKn 1S7ÖW '1 .11 .»8 .K ]a9ö1«3 157"! O'ö B9ü?XniXa 

.H91 ÜW P|? B!tf'3 
900S11B1BX '1 |1»11 a»ll OKI J»p B'lü 03X» ]3X3 
BX1 ]Kö "191 1911 /7X3 091 ]'» "1X3 1913'p ST» 193'X 

.HKllX ]"t ]>K 1^03181193 '1TK 
.1901» '1 183 ]»J»Bn> "1913'p 9?839?»1K 
•93 B^'3 13X?tW1 J'8 'IIB '1 B8H 1900 1K' ]T'3 
,nK11X X "3 ,B3'193 ]'K Dil» ]K J"T IX 0391 OKI OKI 
»T j 1913'p 9393"8 '1 193'X 1?'BK 9B0311Ü13X ]K ]"T IX 
.11 .TK .8 0391^811 YPOKB J1K VPBpX ]"j? 05JH9J BtP'3 OKI 

.9p'ix'i9ia'a x m 'itx opaio 

13X?ttfB"1 l'K PK )9'113 1KB ?l!P3'in 9BtV1 9 '1 

.ai-lSöKn fK 1849 J'8 J18Y193 B3D993 
SÖttn» '1 1181123 0913'1393 911D?1Kp ]'K T'8 1893 ]'K 
13939a T'8 1899 ]'« .B3jn s 03311'391 B'ö 9'TK3»'a'19'113 
19Ö931X38 1T13 '1 ]Ü»B'!1»YPJ1K 9?PB"1 9^8 11X1193 
«9338 7,'IP B1911 't 1911 l^BX 193K j Bty'3 191K 1»'11S 
P"? IX B3»T 081 B39XK1 ]1K 1809B81B 1919' B81 48BU 

.§0911 ]''! «|'11»«f 



35 



ps BBö'naYWiK p« yy pR 7.R3 br.7 woo.ra 
ist *n üssn s?a?s?T 'i Bgnsa w^'3 '"na *7 73r'?wb ,,, 7 

11 ."j«» 

oa«n osn psn f»T»a oan - .pim^R-T,"" 1003 ' 

.]?W7 bis -|»?3» 7» w f pr psan^B 

.BSSH'pSB?» »aS^B'StPB'lK 0R7 BRH 7SBRB "IST 
0»»X Isb'l'W K «pR |SÖS31X B3S7 '7 B'K ]»f'ö 7S2R. 
]3R3 .7S?73'j? '7 Bp>BS?38378B IS? a'IR ,p'73J?Bty »plR 7S78 
»7 7S?a^R OBnölBK-Ö'ö *? ] W I 'IIB '7 ]»p B'IB B3RÖ 

,73773'p 
S7S73K. ]»$ BKP3 pR 7S73'p |»7 Rt3t£?»3 T'R'B 3'1K 
-7KB S7S3R3 DK7 a»'Tl 8R7 "0 ,tRö 7S7 »Ö l33lCi'' ,0'Bm*- 
•S'p "77 T'a 7S7K 7SJ73''p p»p RW3 PR'O a^R J ]3»Ö 
Ö'ö 7W?Jl - 7»73'p "77 |1B 7S?Ö ,' j??H D7S?B R - 7377 

.■una'p- '7 
.B3S7»nn; , n' p»p owa ]2rh 7S73>p »3»?xstsaö ! iK 

.pRSIKB p*73SBlP?W PR B3 

s?« B&n |§ 7R' 24 ps '"na s?BHn$?3-rmrinw3 K 

4 ?'aS3Kö ]B>» 7»?3 B3S?7 »9'ITS 
|»1» 03'7S?KS-7S M Bt? |»»17B »7 p.RH fl"' ]B3S3"3 «J10 
-1?3 *)S?aR jBSPXIB'BOrH S??R31BRp '7 US D33)>?8n BRHXH 

.]RS 71?7 BRH - 7'R 7RB BÖ'ütP 
]S?3HT »pR7p ]1K n»aöS? ,Bt2/5?BR7!lä ,3R7B ,pTI pR 
. -?»11 ,»7 ]1R OXPiK3ö , >J= , }5? , >'nB pRTlStt B3BBSD 1890 1R' ]'« 
|BS7B1X3»78. B3D7 ORT BR.7I73 ]2RH ,Bp'73S»3 "T ]3RH »3 

.BSB'T7BTP3!X P& 
M'7yBB'3'8-MVT?'a »»'7KM1K GR7 BRiV 1895 ]'R 
,p*'7SÖ'7RBpH/7 ]7ST> IS D2S?7 DR7 |»'17B '7 BJS?p7S?3$ 
pR JSöMPMK. ]7»11 IS '73 ,BRn pB35?71BÖ »7SP 7»a$ 
»»a'l?7B7 S?3PXSBB R ]2Ki7 «]'17S?7 BNöStt ^SB'nSll'M« 
»W»3 W 7BB» '7 BRH 1896 pR .B!P7SBB'3'B«:3l7?'a pB »'S 
•7KB) ]3?SR?B'7 |3Rn ORT! ^»'"HB TR ,Ba'l?75n MIT»! 



36 



"t 1X3 TX3 PX iWT3S?rK ?"VI ,»WH3»?0'1« ,T,'T B"Btf 

]"?xi ,}'2p-rj;»oxDj?XT |^b (pa^pxa ix ^s^asraaqK jsnisa 

♦]T2PBj?K*l3 |»Ö 

•-nxa "i'i öa'ühsn ]»'na ]sa bxh 1897 px Bans 

tta'TJhm "IS3X .JÖJJü'nSYPJ!« SBrO»nt3D» '1 *pK ^a"»"»"!^ 
,?tfa? ,'ITS jpSYl JSB135N3K ]n» «I TX ,BBP3 "|X3 BO"H 

1900 pa 1X3 »j?ipj? ]'» öso'nsipa« nsaipsHip n bkh 

i2.(*|3P"nö pj? ]yai3i?33x owi 
«x»T»3;-]»' , nB s?tyon n Bixa m?b ]'x - .7 3 x "Jörn 
-j?3 »BPon'n *is?ax /is?*nsa>9 x ]ib pmi"K ]X urass 

]"X TX / önyö3»?B'lSB '1TX PX B'SSJ DSH »plK J3iaStt2S?3 
]»Ö M B TT BTX^'O ]1K ]B"VIX DSH ÖBPMX BDXa «]X-|3X-|XB 
»11 1SB3«? TT B»B"Ö ASn? TX /P* 'tP'ÜEnXB ,9'lVö '11 

033S?anxB »i Bts"3 psm ruinn isn pn :?pö? ^naia 1 ? 
.'X'Btx? "t iib nsis» 1X3 ,pHniBrmpa a«n -px ]xa ]1B 
j-isb»ti .t/t "ixb n3inn ist -ixb p.b psaigs oxt nsa 
exi ]ix p»D?» sn*x ]ib Ba^pxa a^n oxi oxn ,pa nsn 
w "px i»'i8J ,rmnn "isn -jx3 aaipxa 't oxn ,ps?a-ix9 

»1TX j(B3Sn ]"j? ÖBP3 T 1 " IS? " 1 ö ? n l^ a " 1S? " r l^ I ,,? ^ TH 

ö'a a»n oxt "pik ]yp ,ps?a-ixB pt B'a j$a "isn 'vi bu 



— »iib ]«» »»»p tsiisn "P* 3 pssaiR-n^itto» V K 1^ v * 18S0 T,:a (* 

•sms; ]8 iwiöyarns iaias»"! "wp»T$i ~>sn r« t>k 1900 di*i8 osny ; iswp»'' 

•ipsn T»« ltt-Mrtn »i jus S'aojp Bttn$?n«a is§n y-ioo» 'fl asnasa 
*»s oay? jamyp?s38a »»»»»a^ioi» sp'tnjP »t t« ,MWjnsrs»* "ist « T ya 
ö^sb t»« »5?»i*ib »t ]1K »siaiirisa y^'2»'j»n st33?7i? TJ^a^Tisniso"!« 
-i«Bp^T dvt »i "ists pBVt d»*i »Ti isn) n»i»iüp>8n'")S3»ö "3 »?»n ix T 1 
'muwn o$t vi .\r»y\ vvi d»« »t irü sais »i »n nsra ]ix f»Ä38?i»n o»»a 
»n» , i u, i?<j>t 5 '' , ' , " llD l* 25 " X"i»P 9 » D »öi»!»?'ii'S-ttw»i »i »'a,/ : ^ssp yp'n 
Kobieta Wspöt- '-* 1 ') t> >, p''^yTio , 'i3 yuii'isaaiK ]« psii^A tnsi 
•U© .? czesna", Ksiqzka zbiorowa, Warszawa' 1904. 



» 



,]v>M3 ,]xsn8B ,]BnpKB :9m >t oxn ,11t) ,p?a-)XB int 

4«Ö Q31B n/330n H «ISn p"»12D1KT Bfc»3 
/p ]»a373120>lK B3Sn 0^"T "I B3H H3inn -1S7T "IXB 

.nisww ]«t ?xt pyaixB n»»! 

-IX J3Xa 0«T> ,]3K13K-)KS SDSmX ]K1XB "Wax |S7357T 

*isn 0X11 ,f?X JJ^XB Tip 'IIB H : *?^a? .SBttn& »*T Btf>3 

is?"t px arm in pk ns? 9«n ,]?"»ti pT jib |n* mxi jx» 
is? ixn ,«i jsa'in Tia-aVii oxn tk. /farä? /ist» ^narca 
•jn 3S?a ami ökt $]»3»ikii ?'ii ny ixn ,xi nyix ,B3»i8n 
jni3«?a »öO:pn»T3 n ix lyamix 'T ny jyp /pi »11 pt 

-'1X11 IX ]»M'11X 'T iy ]i?p ,TXK?XB yO'113 |3Ka-|8B 'T 3S?Q 

tP'33?2PT?")$n pT ]X .93 ,T .K ?a'ÖW Dy'lK ]X J'X ]S?3 

,0KB | w p {BBftdWlg B^'3 ,pKB ÖBT'3 fS?31S j?Ä 'T "1XÖ 

.11 .TX .» ]BDXB pj? |S?aS?33K BW>3 

is? >"p33 ]s?3s?t a«n ]i» jxa ]wns B3S>nam» h 
?Bis?B x fix py^aynxaaix D3iB ?ayan x jyaya >t "iy*rx 

.pyanxs jby?ayii§a pB 
•xa 1S7BDXÜ n j|?«ö sa«?* ]»a»ttn> j't »1 -1x3 
-xa |is ?B3X jx ]ix ps??3s?nxaai8 pfl ?B3xnyB x BBip 
-TIK T'3 ISTrp ]"p XBB>3 jysyro a>ix .pya*ix& ]39?a»ll 
»YP1I8. ,]?"Ö S3"?3 ]'K -|S?D3S?B H ]S73»»T /jy?p'3"K 

B»ö'Tn»ll»«8 JB'IR pa^3S733X BP'3 B"1S?11 'IIB H 

J?>11 0X11 ,J5PriB H J1B »B31R11 Dyi ]5?aij?lX3X3 H3 px 

*i?so x pxnswi px^ys a-nanyByß px 1867 pR t'k /[yaiy? 
-93711 ,]yna ixB pnij?*B»p'Tis?ii'3ix isjB'a'S'isrö n»?»'x 

?'B "|X3 BB1S7 .]TKll»a ]OX?B»a p'1« 1882 ]'X T'K "IS?3 

^nxüD'a^a isn bxh ,||ii? , tJBwn ]i« 9s?'stob /jöosbxib 

1XB fW »W3»S»1»Ö X ]5?35?B5? IS öa'1^1S?T 1895 "('K BX1 

?HB »B"3 , 'S''is?a nsraiiaisBSJB. .3 .x amais?B»B ]'x |y'TiB 
w i« B'o »PI» pkiiya y# '*? T'« B3ayya /"jsj'iib nx» 



38 



pKn ori»?'» .xxib 90 .1897 ]'K .n .1 ,"lS?DJ?3ty IX» 

3W»?>lö8p .2X13 5 VI ,»3TI8?0Xn8"lB ]"T ttn&3» Ü"IX"T 
.033*193 »19138 |« .X81S 5 JIX »ff'0380D»ÜXnB |!X 
1839-1886 ]1B HpOBfl |8 Ü'O p'OO'Tp» 1870 J1B 

»o?»n -is ,öB8»3o>ii ]ix -rtüK-i»ü'? ixb joup spnx'^ni 

i3.üTx?»i« p»n |»'iib -p" 1 * 

»WÜ03Xp 1»1 |1B 331T33"X 1»1 P3 - ♦(* p ' 1 B 

1»1 »5132 ]?'1B ]'X ]»3»T 1791 '8ö ]Ü»3 D31B »'X 

»3?911 ,1309 ]!X 1279 ]1B ]S»T»3 H J»ai3»33X ]911»3 !13fllll 

•»uo3'x i»t»'3'?»>]"i s rx ruinn >i tffuxinsB pxn 

.ft'tft 

»1 ÖTP1X?ip90 ÜXn 'KD |ü*3 ]1B »>3HÜ'O03Xp H 

|P3 i»sx ,33!iö"nxa s?»tpx x ]a»3»3ix tx ]ix ruinn 
?« w»n »i rx |3»?»3 n:inn >i "J83 px 1808 'xa |ü»i 

.ö"p3»?oo"3 i»i 

•WlTWngfl D31B f»T»3 P.B 69 .01« B»1 p381 X 

">»1 pXll»3 ]»»i|3»338 1808 >Xa ]ü*l 0»1 T*K ,Qie3ÖBn*B 

-»3 ütb»33»x "Pix px'o p?»n p3XT x , co de Napoleon 
n»i x i»aipxa oxn oa'i»3 oxi px nainn-^'ipx 'i pxn 
isi p,b ö"p'ü?»3aix ,n3inn i»i »313 rx oxu ,f5x -i»a'x 

.03 px s'sxixbsd ,rmnn 

•B'13« PX 0X11 ,j7'13*D»133Xp |1B 0*"0 190P19 191 

•s w x |-i»ö3*x oxn ,1818 fi»a ]o»27 o»i pxii93 jai-ira 

•»31X3 |933ia9"IÜP »193X'Xp891 9p'0'?Xa91 *1 P.B 01?B 

ruinn i9?'irx 191 p»n f9T93 oxi ip'ü»t8a » px?w 
»>siü»ü03'x »i»'Ä»9*n i'n 8 ruinn 191 jib pxa -ist px 
»3»?öonp'0t^3 «|"ix p'ixxa -pix i»t öxm f»t»a oxi) 

0BP3 f9T93 OXT ÜXn D'a»0 9T9>3' , ?91 3P?*X .(09»3'?91 



."W3S?V»Ö»W JO»» « 1»M |»11 H»n 



39 



^a o»7'D?»aaiK ]ik jpsk-ibbso -ma ,aa p»p jstm\w 
n m ,pK?ff8a D M o ist emn 1825 »an 1 » ]B*i eist 

•O'IK öa'9 S'XXTJJByO ]1X B3 ,n31Pn IST ]1B B"p'09'aa:ttS 

Tiainn *n T»a$ ,D3n»a^>Tpa bsib psasaasp tst p« "|»?o»?tf 
*T3 w p3tf?BO"a ist 1=13 psassaxp tst ]»« T,s9a , >'?wö r ix mV? 
»t |»aspS3« B9$nsa tJty'3 axn d»73»?öo w ä 't 
"ist pa owp'ö^'jasi« ,m a^a Bans»«?'!!»* aa^a bssi 
jsast p$a ip'txtbst «p« fn» spsgigisb ^« nainn 

'»J'll'X TST |1K S3Tp IST |tB"»nS pp'?B3$p ]S3KBPB3K 

juiiin »i Bns?pnsn ,aa jasasa bkh aansa o&t .bsk» 
»sa ö»»a »i bkh a«p3»?D0 M a 't tssx ,p'B?'a»w tkb 
Was axn aipo*a "iso9'?i§b "ist ."ai?», pp psa b?$h 
»sa nainn ?xa b»yis st pxn exii ,s?x h ]ST)S3*anna 
»sa axr dxyi "Isis ,aa*OBansa bst pa aaiia p'ix bxh 
-'S >t .p'B^'aa«« txb bts?j?tst nsinn "is"T axn os'i 
ö»'a BaKai^a -»t tk ,BT5?9pTST px bxh asxa s?ni 
psa 12 B^pss^o^a *t ]saa-'Tix ns js?B>a s?xas9 pp 

.*ai?^ 
•ktest ja«p »jaxf x bvbsj pisn psipo'a »t 

TSLM2 "IST J8S? BDB'IB BIX BT3STlSa "p pXH ]*K fSTSa ]p"»l 
T« pPBEHSBai« "I 9XT IS ,(1829-1823 BDB'IB ]SnS3) 

petya ?x? aansa dxt ,B-iSTxasa pxn «t .«pgp "is"! 
•sa 9xt "inssxTB-Bsnsa n ,pstsa siya^sT *t ö»i? 

pTXT S39SYI ,S3»5BD M Ä »T ,S3S?BD M a ^IB pSTI pns? 

pa3i?T3xn-ib"a-aansa h nsa p">T3?sn3x pi pnsa p'tt 
- minn ist ]ia o M p'ö?'aasi» ]m s^ktkbsd ,aa psn 

pXTB p»Ö» ]S3Sp ,9^8? ,]?KT ,B3ST»pK11pCTB ]3KH ]?KI 

-sa s?s">2sbo psn pxiysa ]?»t'o ,*.?a ,t ,k ams »T 
»s-iaija ?Kt ]Ossktb »t «a j n'a»3» sp->?KTT tkb |B3»t 

|?XT "T ^BSpKIlTK 'T |W B^H^TB^BIKIl 'T pSll BSS3 
.11 .TK .H pB'IBriKB SIS'a'?S1 »1 ]Tp'0'1p ]sasp ö»»a 



40 



isn ]*& jinxa |ü'a opnaysa tt oxn «pxp -isn 

•pia'asp j^tis ]« o'a'a» -ixa msaxü-ixssn "isn 
isn msa bkh ny >yi osnsxa ,a3iTasn nswon isn «a 
'*b ons*nsa ]sxn S3?sn # i»aawpi ]»x p^xnyasx aaxns 

t»w?Sa"IXS Oxn ,1836 ."I3S7B ]B=6 ]P3 1835 ,-)3»S ]O*10 

p'üsni px ,]?vis i'K niinn "isn psni paisa s i 'x?Kp'a 

p!MK'Sj?XS1 ]'K ]»33n»13» S7p"»2"X D3XaS?3 ÜXH ISS 15H 
OXB PX IX' ]3?S?T D319 fl»» JO-16 DSH ]1K ü0"3 

•sm'nx oxn ns3?sm .,"iks pa osnpsi x pxri»a ü3s??ü3bs? 

.]3S7? PX fSI&a 5?p'TKTCXT OTB 
pXÜP PK OSWWll ,p?T5?J S?p'TX7 0X1 ]T33"K JO'O 

•vi »i oxn ,33i3S?axs?Ts?a nswon -isn jw ooi?B3 , "xxa 
Balisa oxn »i : nais swo'?xs x oxnya aaiTasn »wo 
B>3S?a p^B |B'iR aarasraxaiya s»'on h jo'nstPO'iK 

flBlSH T1X PK ]T1S |!|B M p3»?0D M a S72PT1ÖXP '1 J^K 

]ia is?upxiK3 pyix'xpxsn osn psxi x ,pnara ]snis?a 

.3313273X^573 ISZPDn W 
JIM B3-13 piS?3 ]B"!'1S3X13 DSH ]1B TEHSOaiK IST 

,]nsn oMoi^xa 1836 ps?a p»i6 ]ia iepdvi jna 1808 'xo 
»»?o?yii k -1X3 nainn *i B3S?p-is?3x oxn sonn» 0x7 oxn 

*^ - I V T TT 

.ns7T37"»a»?»n x -ixa - yoxs?? oxi jix »'sio'ooa'K n»3 
•sa jp'tKiasn *px fsisa »BPon oxi oxn isrsnsn 

.3P0K3KD'1X ]3S?ai?3 miaX ISIS' 0*3 
-'K B35H CXI 03'1S?a IIB ]S?ai3S?;EK OXH pTS?3 0X1 
PK OKU) 3?3Tp "tSn ]3Stty375?3'X OS? "fix H3inn TSn 1^3 

isaipxs »3Tp s?3nx?oxnxiB n oxn Slawin soEPaaa 2?3ia 

.(31X7X3 
»1KB »T5Pa'?!n >7 Ü'V? 7X3 »S?a?p1KB ]Xp ruwn H 

pari ?oa »i ]Kp s»'?'ioxp*B"a'n »i ]t^nx ]ik ]ob»iw 
ige nainn »i pxa dxt tik .is ]«k jia o^io ]0'a ixa 



41 



IST |1B f3S)B8BB$p TSH ]»K BP? »>ä8")KBSB |1S ^Stf'MMl 

.s**pa)ftBb*»J 
;W?an px ix twa |i»n»a amit sn»a a'ix y 
]3»?BB w a Bsn -jin BTswain »i jwns niinn »n Bim 
.Bnjmsn n?a h nsD?sm ix ;*Wtf*i nsn j«i» 
bs? p?sni is ,p'i?a asn jib TS3»?BB»»a nan svik 
wi purp ,"an9& w psa is t t bjxtb3K ,n?a »n imn 
.ja*t?a Bann am ]is ps'SBB»* bis pa&ii "p - 



|S?3'öi?a B^Bitt p'nasBt^ -jn Bxn T ,,,B V K ,riB ,>T 
tsnx ]xa ,isnna ,i»bxb b3ib bxixbpsbxib p»t«w 

.ainp ps?«a psms 

]'X TJ7B3XB J»! p3?3BX B3S?pStt BXfl nSBXB "ISH 

ig .»i jnxixa jib p'nsxa « *}« *na ,j»nx "lSBO^^p « 
•^3'X t'K ,pnxBtPsn pn jxa "im jix Bxn»3 nainn bxpi *t 
Bijnstt Bxn 't a>ix .bbiibibk |x pxns?a BB'Bwxa vx 
fix i»u •vs?a , »x ]s?Diii?ni?a>N jit -h?bbb?st ist Bxn - pi 

.niDBI^BIBK 8XT XP'J'BXB TB23XJI W 
Bttf'3 BXn >? ,«pXB")iJB B31?p5?S B^'ilKJ BXH '1TB H 
.11 ,TX .X JnnS7 pj? ]"T BJP'3 ,TXBBX ]»p ]B'9» B3ypStt 

n a»-i« ^' .p'nxnsm'a wnaa jstim »t t>x pnasaff 
t'K ^Bsnsi-nainn'öt^a x p>?astt -ix> p'XBis pä t»x 'i-ro 

...pnx^iB pxnsa 'i 

•minn-Btt"3 *lSJpnX'=24 1V1 B>3 1768 ftB p?TStt bki 

.B'^nX'^IB ]1B B3STI 'IIB 1SBKHSJ 
)83XU'X Bl?aa }»BUi?33N PX'B 1XTI ,p>lB*eS-U3Xp PK 

■PK ]1B B»p>"?rvisnwa bxt ]Xp Code Napoleon "isn 

•P»YI ]BX?»SaB'lK DH1X Xn»a P.B T.XBBX ]K B'l? p»ö1KD 
©MI DXT BBP3 'VIS "H BXH ,?XB B5H PK tf'BX 1573X 

1« .Ja ,n .x panxs ,ij"ix3 ^paswwpsn» ]is?b"ixb tk 
•Tg» £"T täini ]a»n "? a'ix ,]8ö b3^b wa»a'i? , i» , i n»"f 



42 



w B'aisi b»b?xii"ixb /jxasx ]"p log^sa b»'j psa 

Ö31B ]Bai383BX Bimi ,1825 »W ]B-1 HB fSHM ]B'l? 

3'1K ,ia9öi8B 03»11 |Ö'ö |B?811"1XB IS B35H 0X7 ]Xa 

.0» BiasnangB *i» tx ,]»x*bx?t Bsnxn ort 
•7« ]x ix' ]u-2i jib nx '"na »Bxn&a'ruwn-B»»: '1 
l»t b»'3 # ?wa? ,]8p »») jsöxm'ik sp'3»x b'ö nx pnx' 
okt >t axn ,nsn3'p »pn^nsna»» -i5?a>x sbdbiibibk |*|? 

.jxa ]ö'ö "p^ ö3sn s^'N'* 

,a"ll nX JXB Jff'TlS ÄM*SX3 -)8p'B"!33»p W ]3S?n 

-IX »1 B-iTns?Ji1S?a'K) 1836 p»Ö ]B*16 NB f»TS» 0X1 B3XT 

D3H pXTIStt 1SB135?33X ]838T 0X11 ,187 NX 180 ,179 fS?p>B 

TT pn is anna ]S?3S?t a«ii nx jxa,, :d825 »31» ]ö-i 
p'ia»Btw$ nx J3?s?n ,js'Btm-is?B3ix t t P'b^tm«? ,""ib 

.*]»»sxa T T 
.ns>?a jix noi3 -isrnxaixpo *isa?»nsn osas nx oxi 

»SSXVX 8?X Bl?a3 NX ]83'B5?3 vb DSU ,T33"-|X *1»|?H 
2p'B»T33«p H p811 TT BWO ]B11 ^»MteSHSSnä» S«7» 

s?oix*a n aaip T?xa "is?ax ,a«n nx jxa janis ]bs>?b 
iyi rx »itb h ]?»ö» nb - B M j?3S?pvri »»'xxtxi'b 

-ST3 X ]13 tP»38B8PX2 X NB NX "l»3S?3"8-a M ? X NB S?S1 

-»3 jxa osn j»t na n ,• ]xa *un w*« ,nm» tsnspn 
.n tx .x ?m 18 ixn ,xt pa ,aKT3isn 
a"Ti oxi tixt jxa nsn„ :"is?B"ii mm p?m oxi 

3»11 0X1 .DXT31Xn83 ]"T Q'K «pKl 'I n« ]pH"B1XS 

,]»3'ikti n^x a»a na ,j»»x3*]sn?'axB 03xa osn ]x«aa83 
nx ]xa nsn .B^yop o'x ixn px ?'iv 18 ixn ,xt t, m * 
pixnxs is 'T ,a«n oxt t t " a l ü ^ n 1S bsbo^sixb 
o»?a»a 83 m t B'i? ,tt ap'ü"3 n oxn rx ,D8?x ö'ö 

. w ]B«p 

]^13 ]'X BTSsai»' 1 « T'X oxn ,Code civil QXn ü '' ,,: ' 
pp 'iiB 3?Bxns?3<n3inn*BW3 »1 Bxn ,1808 'xa tb.i i,B3n 



43 



,m*p"i83 namn "i9i n»a B8fl n 08ii ,f?8 b'b j ö3j»r qw 

Ö'ö ,p3KB"lKS IS B3SH Olp BNH 1» .]i?» 191 D»B?8mgB 
9395391183 Djgp IS'IpP S|36 1?'D8 J18 JB08583 IS |p9BXBTI 
«183 03"11 091 pB ppStt BB>"lj?93 P8 0811 ,]39&ngB 
}?33 ]1R 19393-B9318 "PK J13 pü> TK T,9B93SX $ ]B03H 

.o-)S?53nn 't ]sn v^sx ,]ö93"i8 pa is tk p'i^i bw3 
okb wnKä 'i |s?p ]«a D2na tp^s^-wi ist |x 

'T WÖK3) HW ]"p ]9a93SX ÖW»a ,"J£3"»1J? Dff'3 ]18 |B»lp 

•3x ö»'3 ,B3nsj }'R ^-ibotix ött"3 /uasi «nsi öxn 

-38 ?'ll 'T 15'B» 3'1R .11 .TS .8 B3*n93 ]»K ]S'Ö9 J3X9p 
fT ]3Xn 1S191 "pK 't TW ,TXÖ 09393«« 09*7 J38?p 
]393 BB?'3 ,988 1.BX9? ]'» ,VK ?'ll 18» IST a'l« .fflaaori 

1K3 öansa ois paan "p 'i «pgi ,ff>3»a»flhjn pi 

.isi9i w>3$a»tfhjn $ 
»iöib i9"?x »?»3'a^p px BpH^wxa Bi9n 'i tg 

-Ö18T1Ü38"IKB 1XB191 p?& 'T PK ,033913186 911'B81BC'J 
'T »pXl 5K3 091 PK .]8» "lSp'lX'?lB 8 '11 Dp3>» ,1»9 

]'K jösibisd'Iib ^>39a'i?i9i 038» 09i J3XH BP*J 

»IIB H pp |KÖ Q3'-1B tf'3Sa'l?lSn 191 B»ö W'Dg 

.jBps^'ri'x. px -mvi>391 M a nn» pp pt Bff'3 

Ä'1H p»B8B 091 ISSXaS'X p9i!93 B391-p9ü99 >*I 
0321 081 1938 BKH ]8a "^1 .mö?R 191 - B318BG? 1» 

"j$3 *p« !|?'B8 ö3»i«p9B?» 081 ]$?a93isis n?'n*D? TK 

.ö'lö pl 
IUI "l,lB 33i|3"ö '1 B1911 33PXl»l-1913>p 191 "3 

.B381B83' 7/tf J9ÖU93 ÖBT'3 19D1» 

•is a'in» i9Bia >i 183 pk 137 ]?8*9?»w pge 

,5 -pK ?839?ai8 -iSJO B30ail83 B1S11 1836 B3'T) ]3"I8T 

.m3inn nsTS'a^si'Bws 8 pBpsrwa p'iasa i'« oxn #i3'p 
p?83"t8B 08i ^a'ii «rix p« / m3inn 9Bty'a^3 w a 

S9 Wll /18&B& ]8 ]08?^93 B^'3 ttimn *\S1 183 ÜKM 



is?t fix ]a'i?a on»D» "i»*7 ]x -i»B3xb n bb»3 - p»nsa 

.D1S7ÜXS OST - ]W 
XBtf»3 |»35?T'0 ]»VI ,?XB DSn PX "1X3 B3BH' 'IIS H 

isn p» D'wii» »i»i38 ]«p fix nsnrp »?xj»? r»p 

-25 J1B 1» B32H' /WWp 1'7 XBtP>3 PX'O 3'1X_ 

"i»pmnp nsn |« j?'33»nBx ,p»a-ixB 03"ii ]1B .sxib 50 

.D'PTP »j?'*l»3'X »1 ]13 B«pB M ll 
B»l ]1X |8ö B»T B3H ,1825 »IM» ]B*1 ]!|D f»I»3l JB'l? 

,iwn» "ist jw jo» w ja»? txaxa pxs B3»n dnt a«n 
.BTx5»a*i»a->x Bxn n» -i»tx >i üxn 
Code Napoleon 1« 230 jix 229 .bix po Tio' p'ix 
B'x exn a«n oxi 3'ix ,B3 p&tks B3»j?»a jxb ist bxh 

1X3 B3 p»18D B3X?S3 BX?1 3«TI OST 1»ax j TöXTnBD 

»B3'?»a pi ]»ai3S33»"i8 egn ]xa i»t jsn ,?xb b»t px 

.aro» px -pi IS 
•»^xa »i»iw a'?« :B3 p»ikb B3»p»a jaxn »T'a 
pxn»a BsaraiKB px »»t jib pa» an« ,px?p ,i»33ip'i 

*BO»B PX'O 3'1X P.X (255 .BIX) BXB "l»3»?n3S?E> X 1KB 

-bix pxn»a px ]3»?3»a^Tis -i»"t ts ,pxvi»j b?»bip»s 

,T[»?3»*1B"I»1 
BXH ,BXTIX» B3Xa ]3'?W f»a:ipSJ PX B3 TXH 3'1X 

,ixn»e i»t B'a jaxn ruinn B3 px3 B3xp»a bp»3 -i» 

PX B3 1»1 1»ax 3'18 J]BXT"IXB BXfl 1» n»3?»YI B'B 
't BX11 ,B»T pn T'X ,BX1-|8B 03»11 DS1 S»?« ]»BS|p»J- 
1»T 0X11 ,«1X*1BB? -»»S^StlST B'B pXll»J BBXIB^Xa PX 

■m jib ax?is x B'a pxn»a bbx-ibpxs -pix 'T px ,]xa 
.t»in--33'n»B»30''m ix» »ms rs D'inn 
Bi'?-iijB ,öan»i ixB-aaip T?niy pt 3'?« oxn 7 n»T 
-»3»3i?3 ^aex ]8 pn n»ix ,]B3xt»3^ p'ix bssi oxt 

,TX ]Ö"11S D31B J3SB1XB DS3 



45 



PK "is? "isss 3'ix .tsbsd ost psnsa nsT3'p n 

PK o» ans .a M n ms »n psnys ,m dp« TSp'TJw ist 

s?x ixs isis i3'p ps tsb ts ,]"isnr- ö?stwsaDosa 

-?W J3TIT pSYl p'lSTST ]?8T "T TS ,TS0S3 PS TST3">p 

.]»»« 'its ps - jxnss isam s ]ia istx ts ]pn 

]« 1?'B8 |1X m D31S |l3SÜ'?Sa°lSD »T ]TE3-|n OST 

isnsa p« y»sins8»o ]is rrnnn tst pa ö^p'o^jaix ist 

.ünsni^sa pixütf 
o^a TSTPp *3 p^s osxkhb B313 b«s -ist tss'x 
is nwv x ]asn oxii ,b'3'3» stst38 saua "pis .-isoxa 
•sä jvzHpsuK px'o nsi"s 'ii 'its ]a'?as3 f'S ,TST3'p *T 

.1836 IS' IIB fSTS3 OST pxn 
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OST "0 ,]8» QST "6 ü'3 ,183XT |WÖ M T .11S3 ]'X BSÜ 

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OS3S08^SJ BST pST3S IS 03ST OST l'J'aX ]3?n "I 

.1,8008 
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B'a ]is psmKB 03«n ost ü'ö p^xinsa is übst ost 

BtP'3 TS3S ÖSB?S11"I8D TS .miDII TST T.S3 ]1B BD3'TTXB T»8 

.73 ,t .s B'iyia^a ,33its ts ö'ö 

OST "1X3 »T B3'T fSTS3^'lPS ]P'3"*1BDS OST ü'l? 

T't 'jxt'o osn >T,p-B(S ]s |0'9» is ruinn ist -isa oasT 
i?'3s «t |asn H3inn ist °|83 .psaisB oa"ii ost ö'ö 

,T3inn IST TSB BST pST3S IS OSSS Ö'ö B3ST OST öt?»3 
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i4.(T3S9«n - st ,]0»T|?*n"iTa n ]is / t3>??b'B"t - st 

»T ÜKH BSSVJ'TPS p^S'^SÖ'S ]0'1? - .S ' ? K Ö ' s 

♦P?öTXB TS TS3'S Ü^'3 nST BW |"p '1TB 



46 



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.r -{Xsbx üw pp |0'?«y bip'3 ,nns? j»p j"t u»»a f»p 

.11 .Tg 

.TBK» "1KB p'13S7t3W?W T'X B3 13TI 

d m P3s?js7ö »i pxriSM jsyastt '1-ib nsn px 1865 ]'x 

•BJDM )SB "im ]S11 ,?XB DDT f>X "1X3 BJ X pSIXB « 

pt »j'i8-B?8n *u> "isnx ,i»in j'x tt ix »Ba'?M h ]"-ix 
jsüj^x tut Biyvi ex-r ixn ,b-ix -isrus ]x i'x s?t3a'?yi 
.'T'?x3 sniniff x 'na in ixd rx'o ]ix Bpisöxa 

w*n 7.1B B'B BBlpBtfXS '1"IB >1 B1S711 BXY1XB 1IJ» 

•5»nsni b'ö Bsxiü^xa bisii ]Xö *isn ,B'Bnn p'0"Tr ra 
*jra '1 *pK-B?xn is jsni ,9X3 djh px "1x3 «ixibbt "is?a 
oxt i«n ,b*>x lynax tx «pix -ixnx pin px tt "a s?Ba'? 

|1B 355 P.X 353 ,343 § §) BpS?BX3 ]S?»S??X "pV? B"U711 
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]5?ai3y338 13X?3'3 PK P8 1888 ]>X - .T 3 8 9 3 ' £> 

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.code civil W ]9»13933$ 

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«03'B3911BD ]yai3ltt38 ]X 33P»aarB38 1*T'T |13 



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4» PK 0X7 .»pn»08-]1BX IIB ]BXBP S7Bp'3"-|X3 H PK 

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.jsphb i»»u»mk 1835 j'x pp 

TB PK ]»W ]3Xn BlSiainiX' ]B»19 ]1B *|10 pXB 1X3 

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px lix 9p'i9ax om px d'bbw 9W3X'i3'x ?"b M a ,]»? 
•pxis'o siKii .n .i ,]sna «na 9BS9? h "a> 9'3ixq'?kp 
•xo -jx3 px ^lawn-iBna fix 9'113X'?xb 1x3 "Pt bts'b 

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]1B 90pXB »i Ti B?pxn (9pnBX-mTa px bxbw x) xixn 

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;*ti ,b"x iso'nw x *px n«nn ^mx s?sxis *px nainn 

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>*a ,?»a? ,'11 ,üaiy jis WB38 ist "1x3 dkh spaxr'pxs 
»jibx ]!ib B^ntp »»wts'r »*a ,0'Di» nsnxpnox ?'d 
»assn jsiöub^bx h ixii ,"is?p?s?a «a ,-.73X .x s?pns?ax 
jir sma8»?89 ä'^s aivo) ix dishmö ~isn jib 1x3 t>t 
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IST 0X11 ,"1*B "lBa7S?n»1 "pH p"lX BB»3 B"3 >T ^Kö 

b'ib t,ir ]av? vr nsan« nsn ?i Bxn fxa ist ,jxa 
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»*T ]5?773XnX3 IX 'ITX'11 ,]X$t33 SB?SB»S3B0SB J»j? ÖW'3 
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"i »a pr 'i-iB h .»'jpisno nin b»i9 "t "a yt ötb 

IX TT 'ö »1 ÖBP3 "T T T P3'irb TX # p'Dn»in»13'ö '1TK 

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.SpmS'IB »1 ]1B pS?HX B»ll 7'B ÜB"3 
-^8B-B«-X 8 1KB B3H1BX3 'IIB »*T B1»ll niTB ]»« 

jKa ds?t ns ^ixnya ]axtyKa rx oxn ^xr s ikb ,a»nB 



52 



paipxa is ?u'» x ,rpn*üöx? 8 >ti jjjnsaigB jBxanxB tt 

.93 ,1 .X ISTPp S?DS"?SS?T5?J 

isn^n &7sp2pbk tb jaxn tsa'i?isn ]xixp ist 
]»'ns pi?'n in .-pi B^n os? ?b»ii - ^sprBxaix ]ix 

'T 0X11 ,0XT PX SSS'S'BXÜMK >*T ]1X 1i?3"11 StfB'X'DX '1 

]is?B?s? »is»»? ixb px?p ix "j't ödsi oxi jaxn sottns 
'i ]ix ,poi?3 »*t bis?ii oxti ;h?is jx *p» s?'?'öxb isnx 
jwnx s?'üxr?xs s?pxo ö'?a .]Bx?pty Bsas ]93»t SUSI'? 

.iSHXisaaxa n 

mS'Tö 0X11 ,pPl-)B ]»ö X 7.X1X3 1'IK PX "T "3 

,t)«j 15?0>115?J X *p« 

,Bi'3im"x )»n»a • px xt - .y ' a x b x b x o 9 a 

Bp31B ,3"11 X p"lXÖ ]B'1X B3'lp9J -J'T BXM TXa "IST TX 

exn ,]aixBP93 px |xa ist jsrn px m9i3X 09B9 'n 
x 1X3 naa?» »i ja'ipixs » 0391 dxt bxh93 ttni' isn 

.PBX?pP 

i9>vo px i93xix vi - ,s ' v o ]ix 9 » s x i x 
iitbsjü"« snia ]3?9Ta9i px i93"n B3'ip93 *pN jaxn 
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ixb am oxi ]o?xns?j Bxn i9axix i9«r>B"jnxB isn 
i» .ps isn b:»tsj >j Bxn ,b'ib pT 1X3 jeaBS*»« p'T 
boiiüixb *ix3 D'x tt axrro pn ,a«n p'T |3'ibixb Bxn 

IgB pB'3 DTBim M K fl"' JB-7 D3'X BW19 BXH lana px 

-9ä'o jüo"? I9?3»n93i90'ix xi px jbs oxi 193X .nkw 
93igo x„ :nii9 ixb pxT vx » ?xt jxa in tx ,03*3 
: was» Bi9ii B»ai9i ! n'p3<p»*? 8 B19H93) "ip x bxbphx 
19093 T« ?»yi ,93»^ j"p Bttr'3 ,'iiB yü?x ]x üxoit^x 
'1 .B3»3 ]»W 'T t'X B'aisn ii« (...s?3"ir x J1X »331' x 

BX TT pB 'T BßilBiy ]»a 1»1 3'lX .BJPJ ^1K BO"H '113 
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yi bib^'d^ : tPB»B ist T'x oxn ,"Xüxp xBxa „ : is? 

-»1X11 1» Btf>3 TK B»Ö 1»a YT3 g B1B 1» 1S?1X j "pS?11X 



53 



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n» ]»p # n»üna |»a '11 tiox pt tjb txb üo?ki .n -t 
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»n ,jtPB3sa snsnax s??x ]is trumiTSttBx px »i ,• no'an x 
V 'ii ,ono s ]io p'nsn 'T mmi p'T3s?0B? ,• rsnixa g 

TXÜpXT IST l?'aX '1 TXB ,p3X"lp T'K 'T 3'IK .PBX^pff 

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,p-m wsn -isn px pan asn jsa»3 ]ix u« 'T vx jpipxa 

!ö»»a ts?» 
»na ,sn»T ,tsöxb ,]xb tsh txs ist *sa o'3B tx 

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.BpSTIXB |"t «pXT OS 0X11 ,ÜP'3 TXJ JSpöttnXB »3 

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•p$?v i?'bx ]nx tt pn jo'iüBnxB 
♦no'an sp'an* tja*p pTS&SYixfi tst 
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5ü'm "iis i»b3»b 'T ]»as3 ,pT ]"p köw'3 px'o a'ix 

'T öa»3 /ISÜSKÖ )"K KT 1K3 T'K'O 3'1X .ntPlT' TyT pB 

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•xa ,p'Taix ixb |ö?xn»3 xt oisn 'ns h u"ii 'ii 
Tt jaxn n*» ]ü3Si«3 ]ia a'Tux |'x oxii ^pxa "ist öp'h 

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.'IIB 8 ]1B miX 'T T'K'O T» .ÖSXTSUO'IK 



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ca ^y^'K-ä"? s p'-nyot* pk »i-ib »»n«'3 n 

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|o*o üp'ü3»nsa3"?a p'ii?''o pk pjkpd°mp »1 "i^a .'V» 

H0?1j?*a"l»Ö IST J*B 01?B3"R pyü31K - .] 8 B X ' 
B'A 0^11 ,fSli»'8 ]yauy«8 1898 ]'« 03Sa«?18B ivi 08H 
J|3»Ö18B TK Ö'O ]Ü?KinSB IS ]»'?8 D3»"| OKI 'IIB 1S1 
PK p*Mö» IS j OS'SIÜ'003'K »?g3W»P H IS ÜD»-|^fW 

•wax .niüspKin» ]i» fsnya pi'S'Dpxns jik tjyo'nsiPMK 

•B$ü J"T |B'lpl8B IS 03S1 OKI f?8 -JX3 OXfl lyOKD n»*T 

••o jik |tPü3»a yoxnnB »o ,ö"s lyo'iiya 8 «px "iyo 
WPff jnsi u»»3 üsw iy3»7 jik ,p"ig -isptn-iattv pk 
4ni "i8D P$k> fuwn lyoaKO »t v ,K jyp ny ^ynais» 
l&asa is «p uay"i oxn i$3 oxn ]8a lyi .?»n ny ]ya 
y»vw n a'iK /»oa'i» 8 1» iyop8")8a px ,a''ii 8 "NP 
b&ö o'K onyn '? i?'bx a'iK nyi8 ,iyi3'p ]"p bep3 oxn 
•iso»ik ua'?B yay?syTS3 h üff'3 Jkbis ö $n *w .pvwT 
n o$n ,iy*T3'p y3"?p »t b»b 'iio y3yo'iöBH8B h |b?8« 

.0'» jib oxn 
*3ik |8 B3ßyy3 x'pxo pk t»a oxn n*' ]03X3"3 *]io 

.jyrm i8B oyo't-iyit 
•iy ]8 ^"ib "»yi l« yas? »•? pk xt - .jjstr? 

.]KB8' PK '11 ,»»»9 

myinK« ,ppina iscptph -iyr ,8081a - .» * 1 3 ♦ k 

.min yp'13'K n ,'iyn h |y3yw? is »iib nn 
- U80 lyayaayrya lywna»« iy» oa«? - »vw n 



55 



-3>j? SVK D'Ö paKTIS *]1RT 'I j B»ptf?KB ,8181» I>1?3 T»K 

S'ä'?si *r .pnaty jir jtfü"a b'ö psvi BBKiBtPsa ist 

OS** pRrt 3'? J1R T133 pS3BR I'K - 'IIB IST ]1B 

IST IS S'a»?S1 1BBPT3'K IST ]13 MTOIgä "IST ]1B 
J31B»T*?3 VK J3SVI ,iV'a R ]BK> |'1Bf VI ]SÖ ]Sp /IIB 

.ps? pr 

p'33SnDR pS? f3H3 VK 1K3 PR '1TB »»'"tt'K >T 
,-]KD D313 TR31SH ,1SBK3 D313 BPISIS j ?'303RÖ 03« 
JBDB3SR3 03K» OST jtiÖ 1ST8 ,]« 0313 - il3»?K 0?K; 

.311p 

■1K3 IS'13'R D"3 ]Kp ,*l«?pty -IST '11 'HR ,'113 'T 

*pR ,ps? vk ]'K BöipKa >i b$n ,f?K .pxaiKB Btf'l 

J8 VIR 1STR ,H3na K : ]"T BBT'J ?KT'D ]31K ]K 1R3 ORTI 
•3RB pST3K 1STK ,]Ka ,1SBRB VK IISTIS* - pIR pSTJR; 

.j?'33SnSK PR 't p?S11 J1B ,V30 
.JBRaiRB BB"3 PK B'ö*p'?$B 
Ä313S3XSTS3 1 3 R » ]'R "j13 ]B3"3 D313 ^B'SKp K 
a"11 ORT ]SVI ,"?X3 PR B3 ]1B P3S OST BSBT'im PR 
PR 1ST3'p ]"p B2P3 BKn 'I a'IK .1ST3'p ]"p BP'3 BKn 

ä'iK jB3 vk Baif? ,nainn ist im ir-» bsk jib vi?T8b 

BBip - p1R0?PS3 JS3ST »I ]1R 1ST3'p BKnS3 BKn 'I 

.ruinn ist im i*p px b* v« 
.n3»?R »1 pssiaiKB p>MS3 vir pRn is3>»gi3 »t 

miap "IST 1X3 S'T3'K PR |Sö BRiT 1810 PK °JK3 

pRn «t .is3"ii 47 sa-M b3j?i31R3 ö»vb p'birt r jib 

pB1?3 B'ö )S23KnKa ,M$VS PR ,p"H31B-DP |1BS33K VI 

-sa »i pxn ,n^an x bjris:lbk pxn «t »n ,üstsx3 ]ix 

•1i$B M T IST B'l? ]1K ]t?a Q31B TSBISp ]B'lö DST BBNp 
|"I H3inn 1S?BK3 IST B3KÖ B3",T *]K3 .]T811S1 B3ST3 
TS» X»W 1KB H3ö'?R H pK 1K' 6 1STK 5 12 "JVO 

.■jssn nsinn owa ?8M w p 



56 



X ,T'X ,XP3'?5n n5?tt»0*lSB "ISH B'l? - ,S ' T S B 

«B?S11 IST «I'l« "[KT SBOmaiK H »HD »T ,11» X fin 



-9*11 ,157731?? SÖVP?'11'X»BIP>J H ]1B )SS7TS?a 1?7X '1 

»"isbmk-jspi'ib ]1B "itfBDia x jsnjn ,btb'x jaxn tö »a 
»iid "ist ^ Jtft'Jjxa is?"T .msibn?p7P8b*]spvib fix anp'Tt 

.PB35?a ]p'73S?p3V7.W'Nl?5XT> , 'X DSH 1ÖS1B 3.3X 1 ? ptP PX 



TT jäMMp painBops?,, tx ,133x1 0x11 ,?B7s?ii x tnixb 
n?a ü»»a .]ö?9j xt "px jxp ?bisii ap^ix-roxi .*«jna« 
ISttsnsuxa 'ins -isn ix Mipxxa sn"hn nsnx ,s73i?3XD!msx ]x 

"IS?T !|3t 33PXX3 XTX "pH 1X3 /Itfp^B Sn?»TI »1 "3 Tö 
7577 "1KB ?»B»»3 X 1XB ]5?3>7 B35?a5?J. B?XYI 0X11 /IIB 

7s?3xa7>a osn »a ,?wa? .öwrwBasa 7»b7'p?'ypx ii?X3Xi 
dx?bx ]KTB»n ]»x .»»ia'K«»'öna px p'nxns x px xai'a) 

.(Barma - F'^S 1'« Birma 
7>x »*a »t Ba"?a ,n3inn Bxn p5?3xa7>a x jsn 

a«11 X ]1B S79X7 75?"3 IST PX ]B5nB3»7X 7>X .]5?aX3*?7"a 
,75771573. pS7»-|XB TS .B3577 7>X *pX EX B2P37X3 *p BB17 

7377 o'x 1X3 bx'x rix ,n3inn nsn 7xa hi bm >itx 
bw>3 Bxn 7X? .Bty'3 ns?7 üw pp 0577 75?a>x bxh ]xa 
.n .'tx .x nervi» 7'x *px ,bd3>77xb 7»n ns?a'x assn i^j? 
B3»77xb ]5?axnx B75?n oxn ,0X7 7X3 px p5?a7XB maniar 
75?7x ,05?bs7 BB'ip s»?»axB »7 a»ix .a»»n fix jxa -|in 

J1X 03XB D577 |a>7tt>i?33"7X Bj?X 03»X B15711 ,BB'lp7NB 

|ia pa |Bps s>75?73X fix ]Bpx7B3xp ,• ]S?ax3 oa'»n ds?7 

.psrn ]anwsn»BM« sn»»a 
»xasnax dw ]»7 B»a |73ia7XB b&"3 px m 7i?7 
ö'ya ,m p»n s?3'ax ist jib i^xi dstt sma rx'a j o»'3 
öi is?t tmp .»na PX'a px 33ns;?p-iyT »3»?öb'ip 8 



57 



*9»i « 8»Ta r» "'S ''* jMrnüosnaw 4$ Arm 11& Ddp 

.wawvun Wim 
lpm»'iB ms p'iix oa p$a ona cntum oaw 
•jsjöktix i»»m m?a ipvngfi jagn «? o^ii ,091 joxasttgi 
m'?i8D uwimi -un <pn öam o\p .ö7'»o»a 01911 ,}a»J 

.t>a DijngB o$n ,in 

ist « aarsga i»»n ö'ö ibir ]e?^n »a?sii /»"ü»»w # 
i .i»p?»D »ott'9'H'X 9'B 9'awa s 1&B |M*i tasmva »in» 



3 7 B> Ö 8 p 

TUT D'fl MM» W D) D?8 TB IST !1D D3OT 'T 

ir lö-xvn hd dö?w ivi n jr "i arayraiM 

orpas? d'wi nw» n>öB»»n n^Ki 

he?« ainan nwn ,('» ,«"3 nins?) 

aas) minaw pan 5d5 e?'«9 

.(rö ,K»p 

— .Tm5n ]B^5 aaip'BS»n8aa»?a ps tpasa — .Mip*iy»83n$B 
"ist nsa — .wsBS'fiTin'iflö ist igs •»■na ist pß Basi 
•*>n — .onBio »i ps jsmgsyi yo>via »n — .sagas-min»»!!» 
*isb$b pa tjasi — .ya§By<' - i ! )tt?ri ist nsa p?n*i$ayi yp>nsB 
oyt5fi?a?yt inps nainn n t»s pni — .istua^ts ist isa's 

— .»a§B»»nia?n ist nsa nainn »i — ? ^»?s»TP^. »ins wp»i 

— .mapn snsTag — ."pxva» — .i»*Hia ps isbw ps Barn 
i»t ps Bsy>;wn» — .'ins "lypnaaBwaSyi "isn ps Basn 
— .lyBgnsa-nainn ist ps Basn — .isröw ist pa — nsaasB 

.B»a»a pya»?yi pns 

]»r (j?m bis ö»na»a pnam "nains r?» Tis ]"» r» 

1»T ]1B M1"BBKM»; IST ]Ä»TI ]*T»"I TO «11 ,?B'SXj? OSTT 
-»nB lSVl" 1B1 ,! IS ? W D ]D'TW X *>'D ]»?73Xn«3 ,«111» 

]» a"n:x mn psn tik ü1 ? 1 l isn to jaawMX»T»>]v 
■un ]io i»ruy ist »w osn ,uwwxyT3M lsp'iBTiyi 



59 



T« 1j?'SnJ?1 BX TT VlVBV (9933 33133ttXS?Titt ISW'1» 

oik ruia ip's? isi 9"ii ,a>K**pi ns?ax os pno va ."pn 
labyi bsi ]ix 33i9p»ii03X »i jasmisa»« px tnxi sn»i 
bsi isax .öagasHDin oxn p" "3 naina >i 08n ,asni 
MiaraxsTsa-js'nB -ist |ib 33i9p'nü3x s?x3X3 'i px np's? 
81 ]3'3 Ta oxn ,dxt .rmipa sisössp pk Ta ]s?pq»s 
.rmipa snsösaff o'i9 f?x osas px /isa'K 
r,x a"ii o9x 'ins isi ]« oasn »i oxn ,bsi a'9ix 
ipbx BTDsnstM'K Miassasttsa -istyp' isi B'i9 woxm 

*3X "3 a313»3X8TS]l »p'TKTI '11 ,1B»»9 ]P'1" ds?t i»o 

*cix ]9s?wsx bsi psn tt i'a ]9sn ,nsp9sB snsn 

.■YstostfTB 



PK fSTS3 JtP'T' ]Ö'l9 TX ,ffn»Dl B3XT 1*09*1 1S1 

i ,ixa ]ü'a üp'oasnxa3"93 pna»D»?w 'na »i 

BOXBSttB'lX EnSmX OXH 1139*1 191 TX ,0'1X ttP'll 

*'i" isi o'i9 ti« 9»n ^ip'oasixaa'^a p.b ipiiga Qsn 
*b»»3 sisrnx s?9x osas D'i9 'ititx ,3M393X9T9ji isip 
'na »i px ,n"' xiX T 10 l T, a ja» jsiiiasjxsm swi" 

...f»TM 0X1 ]911 ,098381 1X3 Üp'BD5nX33"93 1X3XM'X 

* .ODXioiPsa 
»9x is ]«a ]ö'ö op'039ixa3"93 px »via *i tx 

PK p810tP9319B31K 98a 9'B 99'Xsbo spxo B1S11 ,pX1B» 
,pT93 ]1B ]0?«?3 p»ll TT »9138STO ]911 "1838 2 .Tia9*l 

pns'isia'a 'ii oaxioga ]9xa 9'b pr xi t 1 ** ,t Ö " 1S11 



eyjyS'ivia ?w» »ina n osn juiäirnym "lyttn-r» ibt b»v* (* 

JB^asp ivewn -pi« yr .i i'Trnso) ^smyn bis pyn B?"B*nan8a B»»ä ?s» 

»1 |ynyj p'nR Biya ]»n t's Dy^y^'ima vp'T$Tn B'73 nya§ .?> .i .s (8 

•liY'B^n yp'B«: a'9« p^nya iibbä t»k o«t inj ,'iia ".al ^ D n:: ' iu 



60 



nma nsnspnsrpa x jib w»3»B»»sa x ixb jw n ö iV 

.jxa dhd rsmiin mru 
exi Bxns?3 ibbxb nsi Bxn »axBS-nTiivjna ist -ixb 

•1SB J1X 3]"»BX?pP X IXB 157B3XB J"T ]B'lp-|X3 <I3E Ü3BT 

IB'ipixB « 'i aasn oxnstt nnnx Bxn "is? :x ,-pt b"bw 
•n»T .]3xn nainn vx B'a ?xt i» />x3n nsn *px jxa x ix 
]sm3?;i oaxa isnx bvbixb Bxn p>as? a'ix i'x ,-is?a 

,03p ?'B '1TX |?XS BNBStt -|S7BXB TX 1» DXH ,9t*» 8 

dx?b ja?s?T js^iü 4 .B3xai?3 prn B'ansn d»x Bxn *is? ?B'ii 
»>b» xna tx «i'ix ^»a x Bisnxa Bxn fax? a»in px 
]0'Tis?3 x nj?Bxa tr ]?xs anasu "px ns? Bxn ,i»hm 

"IVBXB "lSTT BXH "1SB3XB ]"T IW'K B3SD »p'TXTT 

.jbiish px ns?B3XB h b?x »ii pi?'n ]x Bsns3 

Öff»3 BXH'B TX ,BVBM3»X ]S7TI»3 *pX 19'BX PX'O 

]3S73S3 wisn Bxn n "isn»x /isbdsö j*>p bbxöiu nainn 
.53 .t .x 7 orBX?ptf iubdxb im ]asattö»ö 6 jnason th 
-axB h ]B>ipnxB ]nya Bxn ninspa s?p'3 M ii -ixa M a 
*?st "$3 px /jiT nsn nsn x »»ns» "pix jxa x M i»ö 
8.ns?Bia ist B3snBS733x »a*isn ]i?a Bxn -issso 
j»>vix 1X3 ]s?ai3»m |»yish ]s?3S7! D'3?i3B »t nsax. 
ü»'n"i»a so'na n .jb3»p s?ty>BX-ipXBO'-ix jix sns3»-i ? m b 

•33JB »1S?"t BB'lpIXB )3Xn »T ,'B3SP| TK DXUSÄO'IK ÖXn 

-»3 't Bxn oxn ,*wn) "i»a*n ixb ,oa>BB?p» nxa "ivb 
j mans B'a b?xsk3 isix ,Bsaixs?aBx vx *ixo Bxn ^B'tp 

IXB ]»n»3 P'IB 1»3»?3"11»3 IST I'X - B?S?3 B'B 3'1X 

n^n: nsix ma^x }x ,-"is?xb p'SBiB - (9*t"b X) a"ii x 
»ns?i3x jwnx ,py?s ii^irn-op'JxB .ii?p'?'a Boxp»3 bxh 
.?3 n .x 9ns?3«n jyaipxs t" 18 /man» 
DiB33»x oxt ]im»a ^3i?T 3"n oxt i^x isbsxb v\ 
Mm .93 »t .x nana # »«?a p'i 'ii Bp3iB ,?'2D3Jia oaiB 



61 



•xb osn "p* 1 1" "> S>T t 33 ^" 1 ' nmi,> "^3X3 w ö ' a l yö 

io.is?d3»ö ]ix n»a"ii onsu 
»sn nix -isesra pixxa twa in ixa nsn oxn an'o 
"isawiiw in « »11 ,a»noa"p> nsnx ,a»»ii pB'ip 

.pBtfpv 
pp taxnstt obn» öxn ntf» *n s» w i jib sa«n a'ix 
prtmn -p ,ff'3»a>i?"»n oa«ii ]ü»a ,*w axn /ism>p 
*i8D (öpaswstt s?d?x?tn yx üxh -ibbxb tk an«) ooan yk 
]axn »393711 ,nsnrp jaxn ix 'ia ,a"noa"p yjh$ ,a M n 8 

,]ÖOJ*l »1 IIB TSU'p H ll .03"!! JTKa Ü33»n»3l pX TT 

bp'3 jaxn 7 o3'BK?pty msmx jib »x ,]üd3h oa»Ti D3iB 'x 

S?5?'X'BX H J1B YH3'p H 0X11 ,ÜSST"» »a?»T'T BXttSM 

•'?3ö'a-nns^a sp'Hssaff jynsa ]»3Si "i i»ax ,-is?a"Ti 

?"n .p jaxn ix j»-ori fsmxasn nsax ?>x np'B nsn 
&3X"iüxa px t»x # ü«p»ün57ii"isi3'a yx pin x ,>iyj »f 

Y-H T.X3 1?'SX 1X2 12.W3SBSWX3 XÖÜ X "IKB |"IX11»]l 

'ins n a'ix tx ,inxo in ja^asa px S3ijBir^nin-|ßo 
|ix as?ü 40 x»ü isiisa 1X3 n t»x ,932« g p'iam tsxn 
|x i&iypvga px ]xa isn a^x 13 .asria 80 - ?T"»a 8 a»ix 
*sa»3 üs-ixi^a c^xia,,) anp -is?B033yx3 pi axn zisni'p 
exn >i Dxn /73>p suans oxn |ix a"ii x "183 J"a?x '** 
BS3»anxüiyi83 ]ib ]»a$a osn |»&ipxä axn ,iYiasa a»x 

.137 pT *T$B Ü3321S73 px "P ü $ n P* 

B3'?3 n tx ,pxris?a üYHasa3"X px px "lyoss» 
»ixüanxB ]B'ix 1X3 Da»? naa?x IST u>a jaxn ix nsinn 

14 .(aa') nsnna eayssa 
»n o'ix ?D»ax Tt ensoya »sxBs-min^na in ns?a 

15 .'na yj*t |ib s?ax9 
/hin», ö'ö ]axn ix minn üishixb b"i»n ?3-mip 

.0»11» H ,3^11 1 » X B D»T OTO«"« )8 "»XB }»3»ETT BXT 
1»! PBX3 .ÜX»3»1383 ?0'a 8 DS13in ]'W Ö1S11 .11 .IX .X HBÖ 



62 



nsas 1» na ,m'BWK pnim ispib T™ P* ™ °* 

ja'ix 'its i$ üff»3 p* ü?3!| p ^ a DSn 16 * ( " n,irin3 nBD * ) 

■pH »1 1» JSp 101 <™8D ,TT ]» )3»1B18B HS a»ll 1»? 
*l ]«p ,]»fl '11 ISO pwpW 'I 1*1 ?'T1 "IS ]Sm BS'R 

.l,Stt3>nX Btf'3 «IS?! 0'8 

,üps -is?8»iKöjn»x -istnsB'na-ixB i»a 8 p» ]k"ikb 

]D'lj? D31B T»l B*T»un»B318 a»11 8 ]B'^ OST p?Sll pH 

-s?nK oaipaa 'ins h 0811 *»?w ,171'B^p^ anani» jy 

form« pB ]?«B 1818B pr IMW'O •JIWH*1 r»3 

*B8 f?« pw " is?nsj; "i* 10 " 1 " inö,/ nsn ,Q,5n30 snsna * i ,Ä 

ja»n »m .a»n nix p* ,ixibh'k nan* t«n?"ö /iw 
osn /jspi-ib p» ]8i8B .Msn-rwvi' is?aij?«a ix ]8 pv 
-»vß.oj??8B psn .osns'nsj? pga osn ,i6 03isa-i8B psn 

.11 .18 .8 19 03'T 
,,.,„ njn p B ü3S?n 9-t Ü38Ö 0'1"I8B tJ'lttT JO'111 8 

pw «a p« ö?s»sn t'a .»DKBSJ.Dnsio isn n»a 'üb i»» 
,isp?s?B ja'T n ö'ö 183 murin sowas» foxa-igo ]»iim 
o»a murin wasi ^kw-P* P« t>a*»iKiT»a psn 0811 
]s?aij?»3 pisi 2i.oa>i?nsn ]»u»i »'« - isp?» snsni» 
jMimvm sowasi losa-iso ??oa jasn pK b'-ibio n 
•wn -»so naio so'm 8 l»ns» »'* ogangB -wp'Tirnsn p« 

•».'IIB "lSW'T» 



•tn» nsn i«a »* ,'V» -wn it» »p-rar-wi*™" " lVÖ » t*™ 3 m ™ n *** 
4« -ist p* rwti »vwarn or*«» p«r ]a*n «awn n»t n»i .»s«mmow 

.('« p^B ,nw>R n«^n- o-an-i) »m» *«n 
.(rr* wib vi) -nisia^ nawan n« nwp» o»»m 

6i 



O8o "im rnia? pnsi pna "t pxn nupn ?'B -j83 
n jp M ?p J18 ]t M B» ix a'ina 't pk "is?»8B nsn n»D 
]« mpn »i j «äi?a '033,, ]i8 '"?na ]»x '033„ ]ie n^pr» 
»n s?X3x* 8 11» ,a"ii »awa | M p pa d»>j ?KT'a j"pR»a„ 
nsn 'aa? j$a bin /iaa'$B")8B op # ni3pn spüa'ii »ist:» 

.»•ha 
ms?os?a*ixs -p N üxn D $n fWB'i« n»p'öa»ii 18a » 

m'3ff* IIB H3pn H pilitt T'8 23,'1"IB "iSn ]19 »38? H 

-nnstya h isb'ir okvi ,]*i»i ö»BP8a s?a?sni ,*nms?9 
- pxn-nainn o«t p8ä%a axn min h »a?»n p'nx ^in^aa'a 
"o ,*pnx "o »nrna j>a»nx 8 pgiigB "p« ft * Wi 

*.B818 
p'B3»8 p'inSMR p8fl D'"IB10 H 0811 ^SÖISB»*! H 

»38Bj?-iia?n -un ]i| a»n38 D»a js?3s?t ,'i-ib ist naiö? 

,p8T)»a 01S?13"-)318B 7'B 
]"I p'lpKB IS B33n 08T ÜT?"IXB 1S7B8B 1»! 

]"i p»a is nairm aasn 08n .pfiK7pv 8 irb n»B08ö 

«a pHJJßnB Bff'J ISSKJS'S ,7>11 IS? ]S?aS?11 ")8B 1570380 
]18 18? «|7STIX 07« B-1S711 't "lSn»8 183 D'8 B3H r n'8 

24 ."mäia,, 8 ms?ii »t isn"R .n /i 3»b 8 u»a B>«nn oj?x?i 

1S7BKB 11?T 18 ,DSn p"p p5nB5?3D>1*l8 "pIR ]S73S?T 7"B 

nsn"8 i?'B8 nsüaxö h pxa ix ruinn assn pgn ?$r 
25.naaon V8 |8 "jnaia„ 8 tnsm 'T 

.p'*T3S7Ö»a?S7t ]X3833'8 'T B1S711 /WaiS. 8 B1ST11 >T T8 

ü8n -ijjöxb "isn a'i8 ,-|'i8 n mini pnaswaftH 
t3»n ns? isn» piKoaraa t>8 ]8B nsn ]18 aaxasa nairm •>! 



-?s? ]»'iis nnnn np^wa^B^aisB ijkösis i's (.lag .s spasröa ,is?3sn8 
?"b na .-n .Tjj .n n»BD»n» ps ijn'-n )^ns ^JJl'^s;^ ,"i»Tj'p tj'a psts 

•Bar pnsne s "jiEs "3^3 •'iib » na ]a^ nurin JSo'nT8.n.T .njsä^p» |s?a!)p»a 



64 



>itx 9»n .26 "mm* x pxnsn -]p rx 'T isn«« ,a»;i »i 
pp B?yi3 !)?'bs /ibüdxü |"t nainn bd^ö ibüxb nsn *»n 

♦27 pH3»BV «l'l» BDSH 5??X VX "lSS'K "IS? BT?"1XB /TTIini. 

•sn ins p'B^a t'k »na "ispHJSBva?»! ist ]« nainn '•? 
rx ]?'ii tn ]i"9 .aaon n»x b»b -ixb.b»ij? >t jsn ,b?xö 

..*28p"»ö?»a öwa 'i 
PK'a a'ix tx ,pm»a jpna "pH jsa bxm "isbsbp 
nsn oxn ,Bsn fin x tw ,]?>ii tn p«p 'ins n anp» 
rx aristo isa-isn fix ns? ansn /jbj 7?xa >t na jxa 
osj'osnssn jnsmx :pK px mp5a ex aaip'o ,piH. am 

•».Bissmsjus a'x p"p psn 
jWigB »dxbs-tibWi "isn ns?3' nnnn »n axn ??aa 

")Sn nr3 NB nS>BpX"lX3 p»?BB»BW>] w "l px ]BX1T1B osn 

- *** .(ptm>p) p« i»p»? M n x pixTisn px px saxss-aTifl -pia 
nj?a "pix 'vib isn Bxn'a oxn jB'Jsa-ptmvp öxi 



TM ,5"B J38T /"HB »T ]"! 13 »1p» ?'a038ö BSH OÄl'IIS'» 3'IX (* 

.{i"p ,3—8"» '»0 ,r¥TM) B1S11 ]3i>?XSTM 8 Jas» fenT>p »1 

1« »jwnai na»?« l« rtfws »ipani...,, :nns ov sp»np opasa« (** 
•« d^w v's? ]n inis ]'p5öi srmai ö*w» «in ,tan , »?y p«m»p 5ip x^i»« 1 
KJ3» n*"ia ywan ö'3on ]3i wisiä tn»iB5 vb5 d>3»w» 5npm .o'?*i» **» 
(593—4 nas» n» niison isi«) nr nsi 5s mia >bi?8 virm i»i>»5ni ?*» 
«?»„ rpirp Tis »«na "n^i-ni na»?« ir n?ina »ipanv :ni5an »irroi.;. 
»a» nru is a*"> msrn ,»33-in .8 .« "jna b»«i5»] "nmia «5» i« nnsna 
,s»"ikv ^ravp?« ,»a»ii8i»38n .ß.tf |ia »»»i3»»*i ,ps 'sst'! ]ib "?8"iw* 
.(;"y "D t"»n« ,3"?"i "> ö ,1878 ,»39^1 ,r"w ,v>"x>-) :y\& vi .1903 

|»3Vt p" »T iBTfl .nil^D »»^B' 58S B'B T^ T T B1S?pi»n ORT [*•* 

w »n3 ,1*1811»^ BTivöSB ^p'» i^i psn a:inn ojp t>8 ,p'ji:3nB8ai8 ]»n»a 

B»T avr.0 B3B> 1'8 B^8 *)i"'T }B?8?n!n *lSB" , n l?8t S3?»T1 /l»":!'? J38J1 

»JsrnB^Bi« vi ]p'T'B*i8fi dis ,)>t ip'y ivt /(insBcü:« Dia' *i»t t^ ,,k 
i»i8 B*>p»Aa» -agais h »»n» ist ^b k^j^tib 8 la^an fs'c }s?n .B"i?is 
,]WB8B S1S138 paipsä n:irn »i ^1* ü 8 n »paiKiwnso ixasai'x i»* n 



65 



SpTSöSBW 0X1 '11 ""1TX) ]35?3 BHBS» S3KBS-TlB7fl IST 

,osn ji'jijjj jsnisn bbps t>x 29 ,0?jun x ö»a pt snpa 
nxa /isDpgi&p ■ ps?BBSim x ]asm B?xnin Bxrra 7"ii 

V ]'K B^XHIXB TT BXn ?XBX ]1B 'IIB >"I ]B»ip 0X1 

|SJ3'n isa ]Kj? ,'itx i'« or tx .B?»a-pBnTp pa anaa 
tnipa a"n exn |8p f5?TS?: ]»'T» ]b>V? oxn f ]ww tix 
■wp'BP'j »tk u»a srrpa »t t>x i» a>ix ,jxa bis psni 

TlB?fl 15H Op ,]WlSn TIX * $ "riBl"lB w X T'K'O '11 ,X?äBB 

dxt anx 3o.naa? aix n'Bvp» jswaitf aaa'a tx ,BjpoB 
B?K11 ,J^B'nK2 IpgJttjDJfVSß x BKnsu b?xii ö?s>]>Bm>p 
B'l? # f»T»a JB?X DW IB^ji ]»8 .Ö18BJNI BP'J 0X1 ]tfa 

nsBxs Bin pxxxa Bnara Bxn ?»aBJsa nsn p9sn 

Sjff'TB?*) 0X1 B3XT ^Bp.XB ISJSOpXmsn | W I "iXfl 1?'B8 
]T3 157B3XB ]"T jaS3 W a'lflB PX 1SBXB 1S1 TX ^»T»! 

31 jn?»a p'xora pöp'a^iiaix nainn vx ix 

IST ]1B "15?Bj?X"lX3 p^BBSE'M D31B SSl^'B^Xä »1 

»bxbs-tiö?*! im n»a T'H jmvp?8STk*ikd tx jut nsinn 
B3^i?? rnw »i^ tx ,ö3kt5?3 Bxn'a tx ,bwh »itx psn« 

Dm»« P"»")X. BIP '3 B"3 ]nn "ISTT TU ,p8 "]11 l'l 

•im D'x o» Bxn n?a »i "isn»x # nsin in i's 



»SKSS-Ylö?« 1SH flj?3 ''11 ^""w tp,* ö, s »p»T1SB M « »n t^ (* 
«an «ra ^pa mpsru : israpsisa p»5cB»»»a v» p»i?n»* nainn n ö$n 
*r>& np* 'S* : «an a^na .. ? snpa »••»n »am ann ff"ai rna^a ne?Kn »wn 
(a** ,ra n»»*iaj '"aaa np mem «jm »ww« : ann a»nai ('t »a onai) -n»« 

*?»'s? n^s np?fl 'a* s?i "n»s »■>« nj?» -o, :n">in ni»f n» •'isa, 
5»» ...»»s 9» -mn? n»8 9» na*n p8i n»8 95 "wn9 y« 9» nams? »as» 
fmTj?) "in^a« 9s -itnn mas 9»a — ? >a 9» *inn »a .mas i9 nia«» diu? 
.(|W8i piß ,m»>s ria9n d"3bt ,a*a ,8"b T>»iT , 'i? ,nT>i»a :*p« »r ,'S 
nsifl? oaaa ]nn pKi^ ,fis i-n n-ivi im»9 : ptw 'i i»8, ( (* «■ 



66 



BXH Jtfö 1V1 '11 ,B5n3XJ ,'1*1B 'T T'X ,7X0« 5»»Ti 

"nonx,, o?x ]3'?aya "lytcii B»a s?D'iiya x ,j»riya npa »i 
ana»*nonR nsn px nsna»? 7»b px) Pin o-is?bxd bpx 

•|'ltnVp DXT BXH ,(»*' ]B35?SaiB ]P3 üTBSa3"K 1»11M 
"PIK P*I JB'l? 49ZN(^a "B11X W B31B BXH 'T 0X11 ,B!>S?3 

bis *]'ix uxn bs?b ja^sn |3'7« 32 .isbxb bis B-iynaa 
Bxn »t isax a'ix 33 .poi-i'x*main3 »1 Bis?n»a is?bxb 
•ya px ]xa na 7 a'ix "isnx ,Baya in px Bsn»a»nainn 
t'K ,p"i35?BE>a?yi pxnsn nuansn px »1 fix ja-ixBi? 



»m »ja? mi Kia' (t"b "t a^pn i»») vn .man n?3 i? jurm 3"«« 
nm s-p'i) "n?3 wn« '3a9 vixa,, ('« 'n n»'i»»n v») 3"nxi ,"yna» •>">s 
jix /'nein im j>x ji»»A'jJn#, btb^b -isn |»3sn "nBin? 0333,, isBisni w .(u 
vv>n pasT "va *n 'itx b»»3 px bopsb |>x Bxwansan« »t -px axn 'its 
biptd i»3?j>ii psn ,nsin n ?wn ."nein ist ix ]»a„ :p.8T ix tM*ixYi»a 

Ö>Ö p^X-iXB ,]1>338B» VB : *p»B3"n »1 0KY1 ,5?3?»TO§T Btf>3 PK ,K1 "ftl 

«sa |»38B»i8ö "fiairu b-ikii psBaix px a»x nsns?' ix .lagiwa p'up b 
tpix px ]"18 Pin px -pr is rtfs »i Baasnasa e^n jx» isn tx />itx pisn 
i^n,,) "pin-risin,, p^jpxsso 8 P« B-isnjnsas^ t>x wn "pt b»x isoman s 
.(T"3 pa^a) pixwa B?»öt?vaa'i8 psnix dst ix px oxn ,('x nai xip'i "nain 
pj?snxa ,"p?sns3„ ,"Bpsmxs„ /'psnix,, »b"d isn px "nain,, 
1?»t snmax ,jB58n8a "pr puxn n*>3»jrn ixii ,d*ix dnt .a*m p»?»B3sra ]id 

,|j?nyn83 bb"3 *>r 

4 K '1 ,B"' D^'aS ; T"B ,3 , ?S1 , >) T y 3D f'X D'PIDB JJ3yT»*18B I« 

b§,t» p5yii pc »osrs^pTs ^Tisa 5gag t'x nsin *t tx ^■'ix fix BP'-n ,(.i3« 
m35n ,d"3?:-i .r'a ,nBio .■> ,)»»n7 ^'ix at) pao'inx px -3"-i8 Bigpw 

.(iax .x "»"b ^w 1 » 

BT>2S?33'nt jyviM n"' |ü-15 D3»X "j!J3 fX ]X3'11N"IB y»B'H ?"B ^X 

Dr. M. Qüdeman: Geschichte des) f ™ )*>8 ^x hbw »n 
Erziehungsvesens und der Cultur der Juden in 
Deutschland wärend des XIV und XV Jahrhunderts 
Verlag Alfred Holder, Wien, 1888, 121—120 ™)'. 

67 



is naina »i isnyj - mm $ tnsn n ist'« itb« 

34 .tk 

■iss'x B3S1 stx ]'x BJiS3s-uxa isö T'x isbiö n 
oxb tx iga bxü »t a'ix .isbsxb ispnxnsia'a isn 

TX B'ö Tt j?'13S3S3S1 Bff'3 ,]KÖ 8 ]3'?j?S30'18 ISO 

tx B3'i ,<"2iiiJi3„ x bisti isboxb h ist'X) mm"ö 
üMü^ga "px'a,, isi .q?sii ö»>j) "]ix'a„ jib bosi oxi 

0X1 '! B8?l ,BP'3 TX B?SBS3 TXB "IST 3'1X TX , /pSI 

tx, :jjxt » nns "nx pa B'Tmsiux isi px bosi 
ex ]ia 't bish B'aisi px "]«» jp'txiasi ow»a tu 

.193 ]«p BB?'3 ^XÖ^X *]1X1 'T 35 ."1B p'13SBt2^1B 

isisb?s isi a'ix ,tix tx bih "Vix'a,, ix bbsi 

36 ,]ijö x ]3'?ps20'ix tx ikb bxh is-nia 

IST ]'X B2S3S13$2 BW'3 t'X J"WX-}XÖÖ B3S1 081 
]Bff1S pX3 'T |2XH 1ST.13 "IST isix ISBia '1 3'1X .?xs 
TX ]2»30'1X 1103 »T ]Sj? ,B38ÖSJ. nM2in 1ST11 pT*]Xaa 
B1S11 'T T'2 TX B3'1 W ]1X'«„ pB B3S1 0X1 37 ,B3S1-pX»Ö 
B3'1 B3S1 Ogl ]S11 ^XB T1X 1S3X ]81XB ."2113113» 8 
35 PS T1X ?XBX J1X IX' 20 B?8 B1S11 't T'3 TX 

* 38 .IX' 
1X3 T'X 0X11 ,'11B 8 1S11S3 BHj?» BX.1 f'BS 3'1X 
1'X |3"j? ,p'13Söü;3?ST l'W t'X 'T 1X3 ,*Ti1S3„ 1"j? BtP'3 
]X "211313, |"p BB?'3 1X3 T'X 0811 SD'JSTX 1S1X ,** JT11 



8 |1S »iVM |B»1» p$VIM DD8ttWB8 T»K "JWS„ ]1S fSTTSl 0$T (* 

5$V» T8 ,]BT1SÄ 1i?nn Ö$?l (1498 "pS? .Btm) Ä1WT»1» ÖHW '"1 08T1 ,JUpfl 

,9"ns .y"> "o ,f rtt ■'"ints nawn) t>a g ^ m^nn bw ]"i? i"t ?»a» ow»a 

.(«"»-) p« n"ap '»e 
»t ü$n laü^a "ivt >i9'S8 a»is is ,üp*isaj<3 y>)V lajjn n»a (** 
BMä n öijn ^n isn ]i« "n^aia«, 8 psiwa r« n ist»k uasMPi nainn 

.p^issrösra?»» 



68 



i^bx ,"]X3 axn -ibbxb -isn oxn ,nsn a'?is isax 
oxo j»t pxa-ix rmnn oasn oxt ,f s?tsi jp>Tia?fl |ts't^ 
jix ,?>yi is? |»ö»n -ixb /rnaia,, x taisni 't isn^x ,nsö 
rx ,D'x ix ?xa asn rx i'ix ns;ns7a ö?»Ä«]»»n»p oxi 
p? a>a pmao»» D»»a ?xt -isjüxb nsn ,xTia x pnw 
tHDsn i» p?sm pc ,2'üiya x ixe pxa.niinn >t p.x asm 

WÖK3 ,QSÜ plH3X )X a»?tt 1SHX ,D?S?5 "p x paipxa « 

»*i )a»n *is?an»i .nsaaxö nsn naia? pT übpj amvo 
pxa nainn öbpj "ixö'ö ix ,]sni»j jpna *na?nn ->aan 
ism» px oxn ,?m« x *ixb ,]xa p?x jx -ixb isaasa h 
4o ."?* .t .x pxn-as? JX IXB ,"IX» 13 ]1D 
n pxn ,<.ip .3 n"' p-m dpx *ps??) isüsbp 
üip>j ??3a "ixa nsraxB in tx ^»nw ]pna Tia?nn*»aan 
axn ]ix ö'i-u tnjm *>t pa ,n»üaxö sa»?p pi pxa nainn 
*.jxa x ]a"?p«o»ix tt j"7x ?aw aun pw 
x ]aw?pxD'iK tt ]w?x ddsh oxi ]">w axn "mna,, x 
,ü3hikb >t oxn ,p?x )-ix o?»a-i»»n'p OXT -p" 18 I w 1 8a 

J»?X |»W |»p 'I 4l.]"?X TX « "l»flS» ,?5 .1 .X BPBStt 

l'K ]ö»nö«o» , n8 psnax jx ]p>M»ö?wxa -ji« psnaomx. 



»3i?ss :iöxni?ian» is ,nat3p K»npa ina n« »Tp 1 »» dt«? nioK„ (* 

h" jawix n»tjyBEr ti« ps is«558?ö'ö j>« ^t in tssn ,*i»m»ö »a"?p 
JiiBovi ^^^ tj^sii ö^t .B"msi»?j? istssyt} »i psa ix nainn BTs'tjpsis 
^■»ug wmia »np? twnij ijks? ,v»aai„ : op'tssyn^a ps bisdwsibb ■»its 
am n»a pB-iD v> ö«i 13*5» lainn ni?>n avi qi» ?Da» mv» r w»n ,ni3Bp 
ni-ü» ina a»M ira ps-'O a»n' «9 pt in«? «rs» ,«*jni ina? Jin? wa? 



«9 



fvän oa'onxa 42 ,psnw pp 't ,|yax3 tx px üsnya 

.11 .TR .X 43 (XB11Ü1BX) S?ÜÖB1"1Ü1BX ]R "I8B 

öjsp-israx u»»3 jaxT-nns tx bish t^kb an p« 

pxWTHS TX fffW ,T,7XB ?'B "1S?SX ]X"1XB 44 ,p'09'a 1XB 

w oa'^axa ,?a»»7 ;f'X 'T .oisni |5s?xst»i x x* oxn 

45 ,1132 X ,110» X ,7mtt» X ,'1? X ,]H3 X T'X 1SH : J3XT 

«ns , ,?a ä .x 47 'maia x nx 't 46 ,mw |"p b»»j t'x »t 

-3J»*f üa"?5Xa 1,5?3S?T # ]»M8BM ]S?11S?3 fftffi 0X11 ,1,S'1-|B 

-xs t'k 't .t"-i ja'^ssn nx »jsp tx ,]3xt 12 nn» p'o»T 
tpiji) t>a x "a frns ]x j»t jxp 'T ,naa' x jasni oa"?a 
.»a üs?srins?a ]ix ]an»3» rx oa ist '11 ]»TS?a axn tx„ 
wn ,pXT sa?yiK; "a 48,naiay |x pxa Tna "a ,("pxn 
*esxa x tx ,-iya"üty ist ü»»a t'X'o ninx -jy^aya bbpj rx'o 
csn 'ins isd9»ii H ,ivnl ,'n ^o^n d»t pyn 7xt 7'a 
,ay^ya x "a »a^axa tix ps ' t >' ? * •*' •** "wnya i«?p 
# ^ö? ,'T rx ,]"?x tt pyn 49.9a /t ,x riToa x »a 
tö T'x jxa "isn w /'iiftiha x j'a'a«, :pxT ix oa'^axa 
ö»'3 bxt bxn'a i'ix) paaxsya pnya pa'B,, ,"p-ixB&>ya 
axnya üxn 'i a'ix 50 .*fh p'?aya pa'D nyax /BOixnya 
D'ttnv oaxa tb"iix ]ib obi-ibisx 'isn px nysya '«nx 
bxh cxn tx ,pxT « Ba»?axa »t t'x ,oyB» tx "a oaxa 
."?a .t ,x 5iT,xa jeany D3i3 paipga »1 
»bx ?«b .pxasx f8**«r a M a tix rx ya"?yT 0x1 
ff« p'BTa pnsT ,]ex?w»a tx pn psni 0x11 ,pxa 
*?wö nxa 'ins h T"»x pi-n'a ]iy'T' ]*ixb 52.ÜW3 ? ,1, b 

,pnxns?i3'a f*^ii 
,"131x11 x ,üia x tx taaxa ,'i-is x t>s?ain okii ,isi 
- .?a .n .x 'T üp'T'?xa ^ixty )is?i3x isnx -ü?sa x 
x p"p ]«»j es 07X11 i» '11 ,01a 'iTx OBxnötfxa oiyii 

53 ,7'aoaxa 
oxn»a ütt»a 'ins *n oxn »axB»»rnin-]Äa ist ns?a 
oxb ]"t ]ix p?xa oxt T'x o?xas?T 7"ii ,öDsrviwn» ] w p 



70 



übx jaxn Bat? p* j« |»'no *i o$u ,Dsn a»?ix ?g 
nwi-p h «3 ?xt ,]ö»iix g |» "iy:ya h ü'a nainn 
px jix pya-iNB'Dp>?XB mib iMi»Bnn»a»K jr jyaipnxB 
.]ü»iix d3ib pawn jb'ir psni *pn ÖB " 3 'S 1 üa ^ 

"183 ,|'l pp BKrm ttff»J ÜXn 0811 /1SDXB g 3'1X 

•?yn ,pyaigB x Btx?ynya>x ö>ib pt ^3 üxn ^jhjssd 
»»! jaxn ,]yayan' t^xiiya xpn jaxn nyüDyü n oya 
■w»a ü'a jaxn ix nawn uwa pt a»nna önaya t»t 
oya onno?x i^ib n»ya h /jb»b9 ,»11 ,öa» payie x iß 
ort |»n ,|iwn-i)»a janin pxa ,nyoyBff -iyax *54.nyj 
px Woyj jsniya twa nya ]»w rx (j??xb pK) "lag? 
trcaya g T8. : niifi "isn na "lymyn »1 ]»a rjxn ,D'B3ff 
•lya'K tk ö?xt ,p pp w>i ogn i» nx p-ixü» nvn 
.wawgi tjny?ya 55""n?b3xb pi ix n?na pi pyj 
im nb pyo» y-iyng h ö>a pa'sayagnx ox/t 
mirsn na nyaaxD h Tg /«an ayn pyn psn oxn ,mw 
öru ox>x i»w pm ,ü3k? ptttayi nB ]ga g a>a jagn 

56.?yiüj?ij jynsa 
rwn n jyn - n üaipxs ,p jg-igB g' i»a»t'o a'ix 
"im jib ?üayy g -igj - nainn vr ix isns sr'irwx» g 
ögn nyügB ijn •♦w.-iyBgB pxa nanv i»a»a»9a»n»a'ii 

y ? o-arn^um «r ps Bsn w» esm »ort t« ,ci« i»5 we 9»k (• 
,et»inja ,üar ^1»»^ k \n "isa&a ts'n pgn « ruinn tsya ibs^siub « 
.»»»ssjjop» e-pösar'K |yii5ra f« ^n" "i Hl 

.(^csgj? ^s-'iaSi pD 54 i:ii?-i9B83i st) ynsa^na» vw»> 
,p»B-iSB nviva^isa oais ?c'5ss s enipss *iyt>3>«B »bob5» »1 (•• 
|« t,s»j>j fä$a ^a^asa th'd onii ^ibist ?bjs;s 8 rsnvi isoast) s"i»JU» »^ 

-»K PK OKI! ,pB1PT ?B3yX 8 — »CIT H ,??n V* ISBOMW IS'ISBl* '^fi 

p»n t»k iv»ijyaD$ |'w tj^n i»bdijb »»»tis »1 n» ,b?*t^3 ,p^ai>"a? 

•V .TB M 



71 



•D»18aS M ?J K 1K3 157B3KB ]"I p»a 12 BDSPI OST "pi* 

* /'"IST 'Um 1ÖP» 8 VK 

TW n • tsnsn ,B^pK-a n oxn ,nanT isn pn 8 
'7 ogii ,nwp p?n nsn pa BT^asm rmnn isn « i»a 
,n»n' isn pa bp'dipsji B-ism 't 6o.|»aw»a ]axn istis 
^öp-wa HKiix ]"t pK os? bkji isrüKD ist a»iK ^bk 
T» pa ösrn >t a»l« tk ,p*?p 'lt«. ] M f n^T 'i ***» P* 
tnsni ,]a M ?a tjswsa i»Tia n "ikb ösyi ,psn Bp'wsn 
o$ii ,okt öi/Tniia,, 8 tnsni *t ra wbbwä tk ps »» 

Dl?! PK pl ")i?BS57? IST) ]«?S 1'« ISiWMi ,B3'"n8S 'T 

irr» in D^iia u?»n isöan» isn pK Bas?3?3] d7m&v ktjbk. 

62.(n:p>r> 8 

»I ]»11 1?'BK /WM»? »TK BEP3 B3KH' IStMö 'T 

l«p tj»»a pn "isna'p ]"j? op'i taTXWisa»» twa ja$n 

ö.Ö'SHV JHSnJK |K1K3 1K3 ]S3BI'0 S'1« /13H3KB 

*xa t«n?"B obsn sn»k psni ,n3irin bkh »na h tk 

.]8» ]1B ]?'T1 Jtt« D31B p'MBrtBK. T"TI?'»Ö ]1K BSSttSTU 
'T ÖT?")8B ,}a»? 01S?BK3 ]m?3 n3*inn BKH »I TK ,?HNö? 
Btt"3 Ögn »T a'IK "183 ]»3SBn» ]Sp 'T ]1K B3Sn«nffVP VK 

»t ."-dt ? sn luw» 8 ööipga n tk /uns. isnna pp 

'1 PB83 ,]H-n'a BIS B3K'5pS?33K p»ll p8 pK?p3K JSp 



,"nyap n5m„ 'o^k t>t Bawa "ist ->sn ib»,, st» fis boj?s?b $ (* 

■»Wn in *va 98i»» n r *nsaw rtfrn,, jw lan» i»i .8"a "o ,1902 ,yviti\ 

1B»* 8 -ISB1Ö n *p8 BS»")» 1389VÖW1 1»K T« ,Ü?-«X"1»1 (1697 .u»sa) 
BJP'a |Ä»»18B 1»* BST) ,1»»1B 1BB8B ^»1 BSIgB» 1S?»»JB f^Yl ,—OT »Sil 

.pT »1 1§3 ,1SB|JB *1»1 ]S?a»»1* 

^sa ornw /'ist "»sn nöfi?« s bwpss ^»bs^b »i a»i» i'8 ,|?'ib p« 
n?na» : ^18 si) |»B8a oann }b»ik ijfa ,iy»8a eiSBasö i»i bj"»i*i tsr»a ö'« 

.(Bi8i , Ä n»a» 



72 



«ron axn »T rix ,nx3 't py fmm -ws^ ,jxa x bxh 
.93 .T .x 64 Bwsa'i?'!»-: 03xa o»i 



*3'X BS?aa »IIB S»'!" »1 PX B>3»3 ]TS?'r?»"l |B'1X 
Ü3»"ia 0X1 ?B'U «]'1X j ]8» ]Ö»Ö Bp'D3»-|X3a"?3 ]X3XJ 

•a'?»n ]»a»3-ixa 15'bx »i 3»a ,rns>3X jib ]x»t»j n bbto 
üxi3s?ao*»*iH p'3«n oxn >iib spt» h pdxd .joax »t»> 
?»b jb»x snsTBnxB rx n»ax p3»t ,ö'a»3 »p'Txioxi 
.]»'nß jiö as»Txa ]»n»3 ti» p« "a 03boxb »ts'3>?sn 

BXfl ]ÜÖK »T»»3'?»1 .Bn'3S?'11»1B *JX3 ?XB?«B T'X 'IIB '1 
»TX 3'?« ,'t PX ]3»j?"l»7 ,]SB»3"I8B 12 B3»"l 0X7 'T 
|>X B"p3»B!|3-|XB J1X /|Ü"j?DXW ,TBBX2>33»X »a»?VBXJ 

•8a - ns?i37 h js'jnsn ]»3»p ?xt 'T na,, ]ix ,ubv 

H J1B ?"B JB'TIJL 8 ] M T « D"pa B0H3 "IS?*7 ]1B Ö"-|B 

»n foxa-ixa öwa n»ax tx px p?B"xa"?a ,m?» mix» 

65 .os? ?>ii ">i a»ix ,]"i ix o"p» 

•B3X» "1»7 OXinXB ,lPBXa "WH ]•»! »pXü ?XT OXT 

«p3XT x px nana n ."iwx *a»s x 1 ?^,, na-ia n oaxa ?»a 
.mixa is?a p>t ix D»pa B"j?a»?as» isn ixb B»a»3 
•JB'» B3'X ]S>1"1B ?»'» "px l 3Kn Ds?ü l a?s?T 13''^ 

X?P„ B3XT»3 ,"131X13 »3ff57»„, HDia 'T BXBP3X ,"I»Ü?X 

66.BW3 nana x fix ,mis» pr o^p» ]»p >i >nana '3t?» 

-■nXD'lX »T»>3>?S"I »WH" H "|' T I axn 9xo 1° 8 

-a»73»a O'ins i»t ix »'a'?»*i »i pxsixix B'axa ]ü»b 
a'ina t»3»t ]»>vib h tx ,j*i x jxixb ,?ar»? ,px'o : ]B"p 

B"BW"IXB 'IIB H 0N11 ,Q»T S'?W 1»aX 67.|»3»11XT is 

B31B ponia^n-D^ai ?"b )axn ^^an-wiTB d»t bbto 
i»t ]"»x ^»nxi • is aa ,, i?n»7 ]»'na »*t i»b?8?b'ö 
na pnx* 'D r w an n»T 68.)»"b^-ixb m i »a?sn ,*ixib» 

p«p ]13»1B»30'11X t'X (1408 .Blf»3 1336 *p»? .a»3 .nc» 
B1'B»33"X ]»ll»3 B"X ]"I "3 ^3 T'X 0X11 / 3H3a B»T 



73 



rjjfcnfö 1sa*'ii h ~iijb exn'a t« ,(SpSI$e%) fcoipsnuo p» 

«34? SS^TIJ "1^3 63 .»'38BV »pH ]a»"WSJ. n?»ÄÖ 8 "j^B Ü3S) M ? 

p»D3"?iBB ix nr ,13TB»«''« ]s?n»3 jjhsh B'snsa sas? 

.]ni3"lÜSn STS?'3'?S71 in'K ]j?'T1B8S IX 'IIB im 
B'9» ]8 IS 1BB D4S pSYl JBnSMlB'lK ÄS?» '1">B H 

up'ttd px 70 j üts'üjpkib öp'j os »iffii ms»« a'?« 1X3) 
■wbk px) Tnoo» ]J« jaxn ry"> piS'm px t« ,d'ik 
pnnß 7i.pni»j nnin?*n?is ppv» osn«? »nsiag px rix 

Ü'a p'T'X'Xia p»B (]KÖ OB3S3"8 DSH pX) TT JW'l« 

i»ö'a ix ,]ü?8n ?"ö px 73]aiT»a ]t2/ü3S?a 72,n!hai1 ,wn'j> 
»w-n «a ^»py ,-is?«» janis ]WB3sa n»a jsasasnra "i 
2s j ]9'ao38a tf'B« p't-x'sia "T p?3»p oa'9-naun «a ig px 
.1^ .k 76 umso sp'-maar 5^8 ps ix rws ]x?3s?i «i 

.11 .IX .X ."»1 

px ]»»na sjp'i" pxn ns?t3?K?t3'a JX38J 03i3 -ppaa 
?'s psn 77.n'X'S ü'a cpjBp-n'n'flj pxnti»* nax?»tt M i 
"t ix ,ö? w snsn tix tnsii nsnas? snsnjg pB ]»'1"ib 
-1166) v\m pa \Wf to min' *1 jvx'X pintas« jaxn 

pJR"ID a"ll |"T ]0"nS73 B8H (1228 .DBWJ :p?KM ? W B .1224 

"n'ian. 8 psn a?»xnsi (1427-1365) *?"nna ns?i *.n'S'X 
jp'iis B3K(?xa öia |sfiisa ö'ix*öi"ii) "wna* jsaxa tü'b 
e'a ]üp«n'?ü s px-msa öxn oxii ,ct38?wo»h px p w »t 
]"t px p?''X"isH (1444-136D nax ia psa» ") 78.n'X'X 
,a»3) nsaasmna onna nxn ,'an ]»r tx ,f*a»fln» ibo 
is naaa «ua osn üaaspsa üxn (1293 .ö»»a ,1230 "p»9 
?«ii /'arua nsbix'ä,, D'x j?H3bi-i3x ,mxpH30 ü'a ppi-is pi 
jff'iix |S'i »ji8T »» 79.ni»':s ]ib ma IST p»p l'8'O 

.11 .T8 .« i»a»» 



# »*»b) n»s>x nw»? nama nvn? ww»9 tmn» üsi »it» niw f&* (* 



W 



osn so ,tnij>'?sa ps Bax dsh jsasriss asa 'ins >*i 

.931 ,t .x 8iBmw ps uas 

1B0 1"T l'K (1806-1727) 'X"?1TX 1VT «JOT D"H 'T 

,-i ,"mr\ >-ib„ jib nana isi tx ,Ba»np "*|0 , p 'ana„ 
,"nnx tu,, i» nana nsn px <1650 .twM) xn?'o -n n'pm 
]»?» "t tx ,B?"xnsn ?axn (1697 .»ws») 'i?n nnx ms "i 

]'R BW'3 *jnK "1»B"»S »3STBnXB ]'K 0'"lX=m"V!) JSJS3 ]2Xn 
47 B»ö jaiXBffSW T'K "»BS»? "I»*T ? M 11 ,B M X -lBa?SnS7 

px *]ö3k»m pxn DN-n ,niBm» |vna (täbsb» -»x> 

"]»j? jim»l Otb»3 JSWST JBpXB »f»lKT1 Tg # B'*IX'B!»»1V0 

.]7SBW83B'"iX 



runs "Tis ^bös s"3i .monw D»va nmw »in T»n n»h n"Din» (* 

mna *ina^ ?"a» "nw*> n?>üaa niwiw a»»a twi i?« m?'?a3V, : '"fs 

»"» ,>a» i??n ,x"j?n ,*pai?«» ,*]0V> »s-ia :>kTitk *m «jev a»n"i) "rperBi 

n"w) n^rms? 19'asri a^waa m»a twtwtw (a"y r"9) DTiara »»«?» iaa„ 

.(s"sp "o ,[a^ifi Dien] vwsaitemn a'"vm 



75 



4 ? B* 9 8 p 

in irfl etcot pk ru oft mid im pg Dan i 
avavn)^ xviiju'DaMn in n jr "iimbaot) 

("I » a n; 

— ,|ij - .naina — .niiftn -vs ^ija »iib nsn fio pwaisö osn 
t]»i« asm oaga öst — . w ai9a »oas» — .*9na ]ns »eai» 
«38 — ? is^pjäs t as?» issm-igs D»3?yn — .jasai&B t« 

1»K ep« Ü3B1 TS — .p»n-!KB YX «|»1« »1»» 039") »1»! 

— .)ö3»5b s?p»ö'»m'>j? - .psa'isB oass fs'is — .ooriisB 

— .tsan-nwi» — .iPT^p »i *isa»« ms-i »i»h p'K m»t 

— .D'aan jikö wä — .01 — .spxsisbsn) — .üsai-naa?« 

— ?)TT1BW JH |»»"P» *ft9*»*\9 'IIB »T SSra ''S — .'ÜTTIÖ» 

•s» üns7ii nauin ist -fts »na i»t jw psaiKD o$i 

fm (mins-maoin p» navra h (l :]?»ö •»■»•ns pk ö?«d 

■jxj na psiisj jans» pk i» »n /Knp'os* -isnx) jtj (2 



/rnrah ibo« asm -pr ta»i»a *«fij?»oa -mv„ s ]ib nois 8 (* 



76 



a"nn» tt PK ]x» i9i oxn ,oxi px naina 'i 
,ü'iü |"T ]is ?xa |»k a»n wn naio^ diso jo'n»a $ 

•.|oar>i ö»n iy a'ix i9ix 
025?» j'x pix 133391a 'ins »i oxn ,?5x oo"n j i 3 

T'ix t'in 
(i :]?«ö "nx px b?*bm I9ü»rt 01911 pa "ist 

,ofla '033,, (2 |n» *?na ]«s '033« 
oxn ,]i3 ip»9 i9i oo"n - '"?Tia jkx '033,, 

Ql^Q 19» ?täm X Ö'O OXXP93SX 01911 IS? '11 D913X3 
»9J3»X 131911 1» ]1X' |X0 191 O'K ü»lj?Xa ,131911 JJ1ÖK 
191 ]'X 1901911 '1 |939T OKI) MVO 191 1,'X 7,3'ltP 

D'x ixa T'» tx» 191 i ,("n>? n?93m K'3n3 ]ii„ : mwa 

,031X13^ 19 191X ,a»'T! 0X1 03 19 a'lX .19?Ü1X1103X1X9 
J939T "?T13 ]XX„ '033 '1 3'1X .1'» IX j?'11X 09 19J1SJ 
JH» ,01911 19p'3"ll ü'10 03XÖ •jll9a 191X t t P 5 l ns?a 



"183 (1184 .■» ]'« .BWSJÄ 1* f8 S1S?13K C1? .m XII «]1B .bpss ,1122 ttj? 

r« *un&i38 1« Tg ,i»5asa iv'1 r«'0 isas /""liB'sn ->bo„ ps nana DS?1 

.nana -ist 
»in :»3i?s p >31?b Kl? in« yx ,i3i "\m„ :boj?sb isn t>« osi 
»pi »ii?d sä? in« i3i .ist? rrn'a »in»a9 83J'n in 53? iam nno »«5» 
»h?b «riBiTi i3i 13 mna rr? 833-rr>i rr>ia ■>3i5s? n>3'i» n>ma n»3i?B 
»ii5b rp-ia? 833'n» nns» «ti na : k:5 im« *31?b p >ai?Bi .«n33aai «ma^a 
»319b mznp nnsn ]'in ?sn *3«a ibi ib >tit -pi p ,"?bi rrma n'3i5a a'cni 
r |in*3*a p'obi »«M awa? nna «ai^a •'»a »-»ipi -nai ]n •oiSbi sr»ma5 pi 
.*n»m5i ist? ^ins^a im in 53i «i'a 'in?i 
»?»nafa niw "i jw »niiBttmBB,, y>8 -pTasrnn nois i»nsi3» ]a 
n"w .a-p ,ma«ia /o ,^»n»p .rr' ,|b? istim n'is st) 72 't ^3i?siasT 

.(.138 .« t"S "'0 ,(3(J1S D1D1) 3iyalSÖS-l» B"inM 

,]3?8B »i ,naiM»niBDi« "isi psn »DiBo-naina ^id B'iii isi jäsii (* 
'•nains 'i. ^a T 1 « ra iisi .n .ts .« nains ]«p bk?'3 t« b»i i» a'is 



77 



-irmix dsh pppnix tk B'tnn x?a"i -isix jxa is?i 
i»a ano pt na?a ianx ,m jns?a pas?T «t a'ix ,• tp 
,tx owa «]ti» -in .i»ns?a ,Bism 
a«n oxi oxn ,ps?aiXB oxi uo»n - w a 1 f a » o o 3 w 
i)"l$ *vx !is ns?ns?yo jp"nx nn osxa rx ]"-ix*maana 

•"isn H033H '1 m?a ,^mxnB3X-lXB 7KB1JH PK ]"?X 'T 

|n»a isix ,"in pa pisa px'o anx jjxa asn is?n»a ^b 
pk /isa anx jppn 't Bxn ,Bis?n isp^n b>ib oaga 

.mn vx o» 
jxs »033,, »n ]»»nx p^'n ist px ,ps?r va »n 
ian mx-it> soen» >i iöb oxn ,cxi "ii?» 'oaa* fix w ?na 

.ÖW'3 - SÜSS?? H 1XB pX B»73S??Ö1gn038"l8D V? JXS 

isnx uaixw |xa im pn ,pmo'iu bis üaip p?'n nsn 

.a«n oxi B3 ix? 

'1 |TS'B»?811p WWW» pX.l ]Ö0'"HÖ?lVD'33n ? M B 

■wb nxB3»ii3'x ]p>is?as?? ]ix px?ptp ,n»B'3 snitfasnixsaw 
ikb -isö'3 »ajtfasnixa Bpsn osn |ix "?na jxx '033 w 
.pixnsra ipaiasmx ütp'3 n»ax px oxi ♦"a'flB '033„ 
}ix ff ?na ]xx 'ooa„ *px pa ]ib aai^öa^x *i 

.dhis s?i»a ]is -jxasx p'i? ixa üaip "ai^a »0B3„ 
*i»*t oxn ,as?a"ixB |na pxi ?»b *pix i»3x jxixb 
,nam» »i stvtil .spixasoxp ib»t B?s?BEwaBOS?B Bxn pi 
tx is?na?a .iax .x nainn ^s?t "]xa 3»n oxn ns b?xb oxn 
*n s?xaxa x 2 ja"a »i >n ,p33iaa'ix3 s?s?a?pi «px 
m ^raaiaanxa »awr «pix tx psrwa pgi snsnax. 

3 .a"sa 
]"p B«r»a B33sna oxn / ps?aixs xtx Bxn »t a'ix 
lö'ip ?xt 't /pxnxs is B3»n oxi |xa isn Bxn ,mn 
mw-T px oxi isax a'in c neaon X' öaama. oxn ^"isjiax 

'T ?"n ,00»! »pnXIOXl BB?'3 IS? BXH /pSB 1 ?!? »T« jlB 

-32?ia «1 ffoxa ,awn i'x ^a ]»a»T pxi n tx 7 pxT ]xp 

4.no3on pv ö»»a pa 



,]ii D319 noaan h is*üöy: j>$a ist oxn ,bxi 
^•-»7*i2 , d , > > ix a*-ina 't rx ns? dxvi ,u" ns^T. üi?*T3naxa msn 
-*na7n -i$n psa pxn ]üBKp*rpi? »7) m? *n ji^KrmB'ix 
usn is? a'i«) ön'a'Di?» a>7nx ,(5iaKiüxa *jb x s?3xs» 
|üoxp 7*-b o'ö psia-ixs 7.5735?! s?D?s?n ,]ü3>7b ]axn tk « 

« "pX p»ö"189 TS "jnD n03DH 'T TK3 B5J11 j|5»1 y» 

ns?n na /n'a-m?» tt aansö» x pi bs? üs?ti ,]ns?ns?3 tk 
vs *px jas» aaiDDX 7xt ,i5?3snxB"i5n -is?a x »ti /jxa 

.73 .i .x 7]a»ai«B 
"1571 BXn "317.8 'B33* "O ,"71*18 ]xx "»od:,, h »o 

jQ'ipnxs ^a^'iüD'ix ,]ss?nx9 « t»sn dxt üb*'! jxa 
^ijS'nsio'iK ]'x pi7a oa'i^nsi d>x px oxt .73 .1 .x 
,*jb"tix ]B'ix Bix ]«« ps -isa'x i'i ]»'s w t a'ix ,7Bra7 
-\s?ax j .7s ,i .x s pxnstt üb5?-)x-ixb p-ixüE* ]5?3S?t "i a'ix 
*ixb n^a ]ix Q3Bn oa^n nm ]3xn rix "^ T,a ,|S ' IS '" 1 
a^n d«3 ]B'ip w t oir/nsws -i5?B'ip in n» - 3"X3 id»i|? 
•jP'T'öisb «psi ns? ]»n T™ 9 «18» n " a 1X3is?i px 
f n*3 "o 3"X3 ?i "o ,ps?anx3 tx *px ö35?i oa^n d»t 
axn ny a'ix lo.fiKBnn-na x ]axn «pisn vx ]ib n» na 
t'x - .7a ,t .x üp3vty3?3ps?nx ,B5t5?nxB ,ömp"iKfi "i 

ll.p'ü7'J ÖB*»3 BV 

't ]sp ,]xa |o»a w-ixn |t ]at-?a ,a"ii bxt "pm 
uxn ,uB'ipixB "T üxn 'i a'ix .a"X3 h ]B'ip-ixs öb"»3 

?! ÜXH 8"3 H .)»a»3«B'5 p'IIS "t 133571 BX1 )Xa "1JH 
]8>B rWIKll >T ]aT-73 1S?3X ,]B'1p1NB « OBjn OXT X' 

't 3'ix ]ix ,'-«1 pB moisn h iyü»n "l» uaipjja ,]»a 

12 ."ll'B'lp |W BX J?n« "I "IS? ÜaS?3 ,]3S?7 ]"T HS?3 Ü31XÖ2* 

.3S?ts , p*;nx is?ix ]B ,, ip-iXB öb*»3 t 18 ps?aiXB tx ]yp 't 

1S?3X 13 ,(X' OXT 'T ]3?p ,7»Ü ü'17) ]Xa D1?3»3"X DS?T ]J?p 
D3?T üp3SK"S?3 nSHX. ^B'lpIXB B»B» D^n )Xa "IVT 3'1K 

i»ö w n i»nw nB33n n ivb^j ,tx is b» öi»n»3 ,a«>i 

14 .D'« 



7§ 



»psonsa o$i la'ipigB is oasi 08i "p 18 ö8n «i 

DIE? ]"p BKM93 B2?'3 ?8»3"p OKI! J8Ö 1S1 p?SYJ fW 

w»n t'2 uxn i$? p?sn |w »jisaigB 8T8 pk o*n joasn 
•<psa ,"t fia ^t bd'iiisi ns? 'ii »it«) BOiKnsu ow»i 

1S1K 1S?Ü8B IST 0811 ,081 j (15 0"3 ]» B3S1 081 "I ]S» 
*]'11S1 "7$T |K0 1jn ,'83fl ]B'0 Bp3S0S3 "PK ]38fl 81S13& 
*lpK3 B8M 'T 0811 ,081 ]18 16Ü3S1DW ]''p J38H Bff'3 

*oio ,13111 ,j3ip'i"?8a ,n?is ]K igs aaspns^öag jsö 

.93 .1 .K 

a^ii |ih |ga ]38n ,-j83isi "o ,n3inn isn 18B "o 

J39018B T8 |1B 1110331 '1 T8 ,]yöS31S0'18 "|H B3JH 081 
T8 Ö'ö 'T 7»p ?8B 091 ]'8 .O'K IS |19nS3 Bff'3 )?8! 

]sp3»»p»n8 ,is9ti&b ,os js'ipigB ,]9?i38n psoia» 

i7.?a .i 'tu 
be>'3 B'a ps on8ii j"T t)P>3 B?8n jmna isi a'i« 
n3s?o d?» ]"p am bis j#o i9i p?p ,]i3 ]ö38ts3« osi 
T8 ]io is? jsj> ,p9öi8B mn »i iys8 a'i« .jägn bip'3 

18.]13 ]B38T9312 D91 ]pS1 12 ]1918B 
»1 '11 190 JB91B83 0*3 '1 'X ^IBISI p*33»nB8öä|8 
■8B V8 'S ,113 D93"?p 8 B33Sn3933»18 OKH 'T 'S ,1*30 
»3'8 081 '1 'S ,]13 JB38T931S OST jajHJHl BtP'3 B8H ISO 
1'8 '33? |80 1S1 B8M - |13 ]"p ]393 IS B#'3 JS383 

D33Sias33"i8 8' B?8ii 'T 'ii ,013 '118 ]ma"nnn 9?8. 

19 .]13 

«I'i8 a"n D9i |asa is a'ina T'8 j^o isi 5"ii 

T8 0'8 1S.1S3 - ,?3 .1 .8 n'3'01^ 3'5lS >331B?8nb'lK 
B8H a"11 081 1938 20 .?3 .1 .8 B3'B93 'T Dgll ,B03'118B 
|"ü ]3S3 BP'3 T1 ?'ll "]'8„ : ]8ö BIS ]S8T IS B391 081 



.(.las .« n"a ,rs ,nissft3 »i) 



m 



y»y\ '? )»n ]w '"jos » ow»3 tö a»a n nr bo3H"ixb 
tr na ns? mr ]3xn ist riBin «pnsn bds-i okt »t bxh 
übt»3 isnK tjxn ixa ist .wasaipo'i» «px ]3»3 wn 

Ta 3'3 ]1X |P»B» BW3 T"T Tll TR* i ]3XT W BOSH 0X7 

21 .'BDJ'TIRB |»'"T BtP'J 

,)om 03xa ]ö»ö ,a"ii oxt 3»a ja»? 03xa ]ns?a 

Tip TR ]1R B?SBSn TR '11 # p»ö18B T'T B'a ]»?13Rn 

22.öi»ii p»?x»iaH x Bxn Tipixa ist» 
oxjbb tr bxh "i»3«r -isnx Banxasj Bxn 't a'ix 
•aiöw tix •jasnxttO'iR os? Bxn n px ]B?xnxa re |asns« 
t'R oxii ?»n ,i?8X8a' is anna ]xa ist px ,nixnn 
|x pb bdsh oxt 'T uxn ^"p^Bxa^xa ist "pw 

23 .osnuiBR 
•SHnsnxa np»s »t iiB j»Bvga oxn ,T,ma"nnn jsra 
ja« ]s?3s?t «tt .'na nsn >33? jxa isn axn - ]p>3 
n» ,B3ixiis?j ansn nsnttTXa 24."j33Tra„ -jan ]ix "minn 
px *b^3*]wxb„ tx )a»j ,p3X-ip px >i jsn ,]?«n >t ?xt 

25.]ma M nnn sp'3»x 1X3 

1?'B8 TT TS? T»X ,nD3"lB TIX 3"11 OSH J3Stt W HS 

26 .|»33'*nx£3 is apna 
•"iS't'in »i?'a»3 a?x ]tbwo'ir apna fx »na »i 
oxb /73»p'o |3"i # ]axp ,]tyxri ,]pRa ,]?xa /?pa? ,1053 
tnsn ,1303h px «-bom »t apx .p»>BP px asa'o ]B»a 
]w *px - "nx 3px jpxn )ix jpxa ,j?xa |ia »*ib >i 

"l»X3i?3 IST PB - 1B03H "TT 3PR ,13'p'O ]3"T PX pXp 

psni bp'3 ?xa3»p jxp 't tx ,onaix w 27 .Bya-ix«pin 
pafH"?,, ?»n ,B»a"i8't»in nsn pa "ib p>i3S?bp?ib 

28 .*niai px nsiiipa « B33»na 

1X3 »T T'X ,33'Tlia X |Tia»3 BXiT 3"11 ORT 3'1R 

]»a ist na |B"vix q» iir i3'p |»r pn is a'ina 
t« ^TBMaMR T'x nnsffa tx rx a'ix 20 .dx ix ]»mh 
•jxa nyi t»x ,in3'p sist^t |"?x bepj p«? oiaaia n 



81 



*pi nnswa ]"T ]'» i?»qx j»a asa ,ax jx pH is a'ina 

30.1»13>p »1»»T ]»?8 p"T B1»Bia »1 TX ,1TB 

d»t pmnBB ts?3s?p ,jxa ipi »»o ,1«ü bxi "b 
i?i« ,nn i»"t pitxa is nnswa iinx p»B?» bwhx 
«t 31 .rr>a*BV?ff bis aansö» x ixb -prxa i»"t |ö?«n »n 

1»18 /pXSlXB'B }Ö"11X D5?1 1»3"X jSJM?T)it D»»J ]S?3»p 

x ,13X? -i»ix DXBty i»i»i38 ]K ]'« p*>3Nin»a , nx "p 
,p« p3'*ixn'B ixn ,b-ix |x px isix. *?xiw> px ]"j? pn 
i»h i»3>ixri3"x an i»i ixn ,bix |x px j»3'ixti "t n»2 
tia i» jix naao x |'x px jxa "i»i i?'bx a>ix .p»-Btf'i 

B»ö BtP'3 "pX T8 |»ö BJJ'IIS ,b>m i»i ]1B p'1?B3X 
32 ."[BmSX 'T B'R BM'llS'ö 1X3 jpK^XB'öfi'k 

i»i |»t BXT3-ixn»A ]tna i»bsxb 'i "b ,]1T "in m b 

fin X ,BXi1 1SBW '1 ]18 ,1570X3 BS1 *YI DfSSB ,1»MÖ 

,i»i3>p n i»a'« »3»i »a?»i bxi ]?kb »3?»S3»x rx 

33.137BXB 1»1 BX11 
,B» B33X?1XB 1SBW '1 3'IX t»X ,B2l J1B ?8B PK 

»i ^x' Bp»T b?x dijmi "i» na i»x «a ]it i»i üa«?a 
k a'ina i»öw ist px jxa "n?t px # ^ia3mv - i57ö3xb 
x p» bxh 'i pn Wbs ,aaiB?xnB'iR is?n ixa pxx 

34.]xa p»vix 
1»M |ö?snnß'is anna nx i»bxbi»i 

35 .1 3 ' j? ?XJS??aiR 

/wia'p »i |B?xn^B'ix a»ina bbpj px isimö »i 

36.BtT>3 Ba$J? 1»BXB 1S»T B»1X 1?»BX 
|"T »'0 ,]»»'Üff8a IS UB»1 BXI BXH 1»ÜXB 1»1 
»BBBI-IÜIBX ]X 18B ,»105716 8 "B P.R 'IIB »3»X»R 

bxh 1S7BXB i»i a'ix j-*is?i3'p »pnx*is?i3'a »3«i i»a'x 
|w 0B11B1BX i^p »t i»a'x toa'Biyxa öw»ä b^ib pt isb 

»B'IX B1»ll ,)l?a'B^Xa «T 1XB ]D?»tX «]1X1 ]*»1'n"»3 8X1 

fl'airp »p"ixni?i3'a »i i»ax .?'aB3xa x 1x3 p^p»3 



82 



un'Uffxa ?xt osi-iüisk-u'ö o?x tx ,]1STxb is bbsi bxt ]axn 

,1X"» 16 ö?S ]>1» ]S3ST D'ÖW» 'T a'IX 37 .'IIB K T.1STI 
]»T ?XT ISDia 1S»T TX /pSIXB IX B3S1 0X1 »1 ]3Xn 

38 .BBlIBlBg 1Sp'X3"X 

ist ixb Bxn os? isn ^ownxa »usn Bana px'o 

1STX ]>T STX # |ga "IST :'1"IB »1 BSIPTSJ »3KB»*DnB10 

•na?*) ist nss tx ,is3n isbx wo ,311p isist3x ]X 

•s»t B3xpsa Bxn *i» .Jirixs Bxnsa jxa ist Bxn sbxss 

tix ]nia M nnn w»i öwa isax ,»"3 »t px a"X3 >t ]S3 

39.isi3'.p s?"px B3PTS3 ]sxn oxt j-nains »t 

T1X Ö3»>n»ä|T 03Xa BST ]S11 ,T,X31ST 1TBX 1V3X 

T'X ,pBO ]1S' ISO'IX JSllSi pff ]S3ST »"3 |!1X 3 W S3 »T 

-3'x '7 jsp "is? ]»n ^'jbik tb jixiis} btbs;3"x T,'ix 
.t»»n? w ö -1X3 istx ,|S3»n' u&'3 TX3xa 
ixa -ist ^sa^o^x TT ^na »i T,xp n3inn -ist ixb 
bp'3 oxt TT Bxn »| itbx a^ix 4o.]»a»»T ewa 'i ?xt 
isti ,nxnx x jaxa 0*3 »1 saua rix ,t ISP /lsausjo'ix 

41 .]S3»»T "T ?XT'0 
]'X ]S3ST ,T"' ]BB?»11S D31B BB^SH ISültflS IST ]'X 
|B'Ö 123S1SS3Xp.Q'33-| Sp'3"X ]1XVIS3 p?«nS3BX -p"^81B 
133"! ]1S 3«p»?"Ö8a IST ö'ö ,m BST fpIXOttflXB «J ?'S 

*3X tw '3«tö pB ]3 ama 'i ,]"axi ,o"3ttn B"an ,an 
*3X ]»'iis jaxn S3?sn ,nBiX''aan >t )1b B">3ai 150 sist 
)ix mn x ]« B^paixn ist ö'ö pnisa ]pna -p 18 l* 15 " 7 

IX"» SBWIS BXT ]31XB2^SJ T'X 3"VI OXT a*lX TX ,H^p X 
,T3'p ]"p ]a^3S3 TX ]1B BBP3 P8'B 7.1X iT3inn IST "|X3 
,]T3 BST ]SaipX3p'TX 0'»1T SI'X 1STX 1SBXB TX ]?XT 

-n3irm ist -JX3 ix' »ö»»hx b$t a'i» 3 - isi'^p ^n» mitx 

S3»'? 1STX 1SBXB IST ]1X BB?SH X ]X» IST Bö^Xa 
ütt"3 -JX3 BX.T IS OXTI ,p3 BST .Bä?SH SB^IIS 'T B'IPT' 
ITBX ,]S3X» IS B3S1 ]»? Bt^'3 ]XB IST BXiT ^SBlptfl 



83 



■wnsa n$» »nx tk3 psmpp 'a^asa tk »is pn'o »im 

*.]8» osn n»n» »X3*U 'T 
•st ,onan ,; ik oft wai ]is rupft isn w iymx?T» 



9» i?i x9a nnat$> Tin nnai ntpx xtnan : B»siaTp Bin »nxsa (• 
-pn an» nsi 5 nais x5a fi'iaai n»B»B>ani tfanan 5a fr»»iv5 inna ,xa»p 
.(A"Bn '»0 ,(aipB bist) a-israasmxia B'ina n"itt?) "»j5i5n»— B»a» 'a 
tiTW ;»3X!»a anaa laa-ii fl?n5 aps?» laaTi 5xia» Mai ia»oin TitfV 
«man 9b 5sr »innnn va nmaai »i»5sn va nmaai niian n5xai aina 
Spilan 5a aw»i iim»» ,xa"p ?» i5i x5a »»xirna 5» nm» Tina nnai n»x 
">bk x'avran »sn a»»n?i vinn? »apn... ...n»fini»i x'avran »3ma5 n»xn»»a»pani 

.(v5pnn »ix A"ip '»b ,a*i8T : t>i« »t ,a"ainn '»b .Bist) "B»na» fin 
piana a'apTBi lasw i»x «aiaia »am» wniai v5nai T^an asaa,, 
»5na mj *wxa n^naa-iai »vax ,nsis »am» "is»ni3»a n5x xa »nn laxai 
jnin^iBBat *ia »a smn» nitaa ; niian n5sa witti 5 pxn a'ao5 xaia-ia 
nna» ^ra nnai na?x xma 5a 5» ,»innnn va nn»mi *i»5y?i va m»?aa 
»ania5 n»xn°»a»ffani pan 9b i»tn»tt? ,i»sw»an naa? tos? n» «a"p Jv n?i x5a 
a»m bv '5 va tai isn ...x»nn töt- ,vra is»»w na .pttnv? ix »'»inan 
,b5w? »mnn nx »an' kfv ,niaa? vn»» na 5s la-m nn ...inwan» bx an? 

,ni5' i5»bx ,»»xi»»3n na» inx nna i5»b«- 
bv T?na »aiaB? ian?»i iwii »x vtö »am 1 i3»5y ia5ap nT "n*n 
x'naa-iai ^»asi ,ib»ibi nsns »am» 5a 5»i »a»5!7 laitai «ainni .iaia inam 
*it ni»T3 B»i?5 bsit 5»i an»?» ,b»bi» ix ai» "firm i??n B»aw»9 T 1 » ,a t?i»i 
.(a"H '»o ,(n3"ia»"ii? bibi) . i"i5?aas?t38"ia anna n'"i») 
»na ia W?« ,n»xa ia ap»» ,i»xa ia 5xia» : n»inn v napn 5si„ 

nnin w ,E3a ,»ia *a SB>in» ni»taai mian n5xa» aina •nrai a»aa-i *"pi 

nna» Tina nnai n^x xman ?a 5» ,»innnn i"a nwaai p»?»n n w a ni'taai 
«»ama? n»xn»'B»m)m x'aiian 5a a»mi "ntn»» ,xa»p 5w n5» x5a a»xi»a 5» 
a»E?n5i i»Tnn? »apn ,a»ae nia9an 5aai Dia»i nia»ia 5a ...i»mii»? ix x»anan 
»t ,n"ann |»x a"p "b ,fa»a B w ina n*w) "a»'na» Tin i?»bb x'anan »sn 
.(ö"S|Hi '»ö ,an iaai5 imn ibb .t"a ,niains »nisovi : "p* 



84 



j'8 pyiws ipna pm M?»n ,(Mainz-p"a 1« Worms 

H ]1D JHpfl »1 Tg ,ÖS8T ?»'1fia ISn *.1220 .' f>8 f3»a 
Min»* /lSn»»?p SH'R ,0*3 »i -px üsüs^d-ikd D"iff.m?'np 

42 .^:»-i.]^n'p ]ix nuflö-nMnn 
oxn /i&öBn» irr piisn pr on «an t& ,0'iR.m M ii 
-asttSm-D'Jai »i jir mpn s?p>a'iR n jsnm jpna bxji 
impa «p» ?n ,]W8ötf»a i» px f» b» n»»i px dxii ;p$a 
•18b o»m ]1K öö*p?wn8B # t3p'öos?Dxa -ixa jaxn ,D'"itp 
,mpn ist pjni mm nsaasHama a"ina .iupA pt a»nsp 

**.da iran jib napn x pxni 'ii 
(Toledo) «Wkö ni?'np »i oxd „mapjn ?»b h lamut 
rnjma'o s»?jm px ]inis» jpna jaxn (Molina ?) 1»'«» 1*8 
a»iR tx ,napa x ixixb "p* t, n ***/wid8i ?aa* aps> # n 
,nawn nsn jid is» ]ö«i« pxj wbs üanxütp a»'ii oxt 
x a»»m» srunax j?tx nsnx nsrosB tx -px jsaipga 
■n>i9 h ]j?sn na |»a ist px ,nvw w ps dbJswi 

43.pDXp 
18 ,B?wsnjn (1865-1812) ÜTRÜiy3T«R tn\1 *3X "1 

-is ,|?'ib px jsaiasmx isnisn -px ]shst o*w nupn *i 
8 ]ib ö'jt^ex ]x "impna opas,, nw^na po -px ümsti 
-8i« pi «px axn "rnmx yanx i»C nsn s?a?s?n ,n3pn 
msni üixn .pnun jpna 1701 .» px pxtfo px nxfiara 



na ,bib? s"f>nna nn» ijünm ninn b*» ispvi mipm i?« ?a„ (» 
,f i»ö D"ina n"w) iian aina ajtaaaa ne aw nas »jb? a^impn nprvt 

.(a-p *e 
»iswibb t»yisji tpfl» t»*w m?»?ip »i ja$n ,1245 .» j>k -p* 

■•f na D*"iaa n*w) -naiwin mra paan i'tnn? an wai r:pn, (•* 

.(fi"y '»o ,0")<ji :"i»i« »t .a*3j? '»o ,(nawi|? oidi) a-iyaiso 
MS i»a |i^n»a BD8D18B iriBT niij?« »t t« ^ir-biwyi B*»ip (*•• 

.Bay?»a B|n (1328 ,vv»x 4250 ti»? .an) b?"«i mn ivb^jb j"t 



•un *jx3 -ig» »m ra öaisö» »no 'i a»ix tx ,mxTsu 
•xb vx is /i»i»?i? svx v?'bx ,n«m» »1 "i»n»a »nainn 

*]3'B PI «TT ]1B jD'WTI' S1SH3X »"PK 12 "ISIX "WD 

isix ns?üXD nsn jik üa?s?n x jxa isn üaipxa - ix* 
]ix ]x -ix» «i^s pa jt>B?s?n snxn3X h o'«ni» snsnsx 
»"lya'x üxn 't "ivax a»iK .jxa osn f?x -ismsu - n»B»vi 

OSH IX -|X> «TT TXB V?'aX ,pX "MTW* /15n3'j? BTX?»3 

tjh Dana vx tuswp rpi map a«ri 0X7 anx) »jxa 

44 .1X0 
T»X ]S?j? ]XÖ IST .JXa ÖSTT ÜP'3 B3tPT> a»"n OXT 

.»tp ]p'S3"K j«t 1X3 psa wr*i nxvix rn ]>x te'Bx 
oxi ns?ax üxn jxa T>n .D'airp n mito? napn x px oxt 
l'x p»"itraax »na Tsnasns x «o ^"ii nsn «o üasn 
45.]3»a ta ixa p? pa ?"ü x nxnx p? 
a"3 h ]»»ns p^n isn öaip ,pTS» ]axn -pa 'ii 
'1 tu ixa isn pvi ^mo'iK oix np>s nsn a"23 h tw 
tk i»«Mpxap>T« «pxn 't r.x üanxüttns pn isnx /"na 
•12 xtx px a w s3 h pmx n öaipxa ?xa dsh px .p3 
•'x D'x "t uxn 'i nsa paiasu -pt jaxn »t m ,13xup 
n uaipxa ,tnsni i»p*a«Ti dx'x pasn «t a'ix .psasansa 
»t ü?x2 - tnsm ns?a pas?s «? a'ix .pi?>n osn B?x2yap'-p.2 
•nwi2 s ixa oxn px - a"3 h p.x .«pi» osn pni2 

.Ö?8öSn TT TS3'DM «I 

- D'«m» !?3' ,, t nsrix ,a"Ti o^jt taa ■»» a'ix - ]xa is?t 



V3 '»o ima-iin p"S5 mapfln epasa pnwn ,napnn ?"n .«"spn na^a psi?o 
vhpk 5» o'iaati t]8 ?sn -nni' a»a» »?ty i»e> ,]atni nyn 'B9 napn la'»»..,, 
•w^i nsna i? »*äö o^a» »»n n» Q'a» »?» inxi 5 ijWWi «»aiian »ania? 
5»an? 5sn "]«» t« ,«a»p yit n? n^n' o« na? ,*9ia 9»an5 »*aa a>w »an 

.(»"a '»d ,iTj?n t a « »aawfl ^ns) "na»v» 
."naina tt„ "\n pa »t "jnai }»aa nuins,, t asj,fl 



86 



]Ü?XniXB IS OSSI 0X1 Otf»3 J3XS1 - 1331X0» 1» 3'1X 
.]?XSX3 IS "I 1XB TX ]1X »"3 »1 1JHX 3"S3 »1 TT 1XB 
46 .]35?3y31S?3'X ]XB DSH ÜXfl 'T 0X11 ,0X1 p»11S 0aipX3 »T 

?xra ,]isixa is oasn oxi Bff»3oxn 3»n oxi tix 

42.a"3 px 3"S3 'i ixb pxsxs tx 

BP'BSHM ]1T J1XB 31S1XB iyü3X0 »1 ÜXH ,03$!!» »11 

■ixa tix oxn rua?x »i issx ,.iBm» oisoxa jib p»n is 
ixb p»3s?3 ix3 p?p> nwi» 'i a»ix /isbskb in ixb 31s 
?x: ,i3a?x »i tx ,nxns 03xa on i?»bx .»t ]« i»3"x 
o»»3 px - pyaixa ] n x ]id |ü?xn»30»ix psni ow'3 

48 .p'Ü?»3 
-83 ,P17l 03XÖ l'K |»3»1X1T IS B3S1 OXn i13a?X '1 

o» oxn »t »ti»i?x «n .ig .x ü9»»nsn psni ,nva9n jyaip 

•BX1X ütP»3 1XB1B1 TX BISll'D i]3»? 03XÖ D»»3 oxn»a 
J1B ÜW'3 ]1X 3"S3 '1 ]1B OtP>3 ,n3iri3 in ]1B 0333153 

uxn 'j t»3 mx ,nonx jx '»soa'ix un»n »t r»a jen ** 
tx ]»a ]»p nsins tx ixb 49.n3ir»3 tx ixb jsawxttBx 

IXB 0» Ö3'B1?3 »t ]»11 '11 ,-(»»18 p?aS?31SBX »S33»11S Btf'3 

50.110 IS p'0"3 

tx t»x ,pin 03xa 03»x 03»ixn rua?x »1 ]ai 93 
,pin j»»t |ib ]3»iss?30'nx tt oxn »t 3»ix .p»ü?»3 nsw* 
th px ,jxa p»»iis x o»a bx.ishi n3inn oxn 't i»ix 

•BP» |X1XB) 0»10 03X3 J3X3 IX» 25 T'3 JP0T3 .13iri3 

,B3ixatP »i tx .(p»o?»3 p»T3»o» px nsms tx tx ,onaix 

03X3 |3X3 "IX» 25 P3 1131113 TX IXB B'Bni» »TX ]»3Xa 

51 .B'IB 

«l'ix nsa?x in ]3»3 is 3»ina ]»3yt d»»t» »t 9»»h 

»»1 ]1B Ü1»YI 'T pT 93 O03H1X0 TX 11K133 # 3310?xnO»l» 

52 .»»T IS tD?X?lV30»lK 

1X3 ,13'p tx ]3»»t « a»ina ÜBP3 PX H3a?x '1 

B9XSX3 Ü1S11 OX 1»1 .DX ]X IS ]1»11 ]3y^3SX «J1XT0 

,p»»t ]»»?x o» ?»n i»ow »1 iyax 3»i« .nwn» *un |W 

87 



tk man os? ps ns isisiag ts?tsp "iss ms-ikb »t üsn 
».nim» ist |w ü?sxxa -is?tsits3 isb-iöt 

üTropKis ,p" "a TB?}*?» t'« j?'xx-ixss?o Ercsa 

.ÖW'3 "!S?aS DJ? T? 

jib ]ni3»j?» »a»?3«?p a»?w aa x hs üaip ?sa ?'a 
j.?a .i ,8 np?na x a.'?is ,D'ns sn w a ]w ts?tx Ds?a«x 
,ntnn tu psa SxataBx pxn ü»tts s?T»a ts?ts ts ps 
pms tf'BX; ]'itp pas?p "T pn ,ö?8a3n ptp an'o "is?as 
s?ms?a h ]ia "isna'p 'T pa ?tu isn $ pxn-nainn ewa 
ma'o s?-is?T3x ?»a a'?ix T,xa jis -lspnsmö x ns psa?» 
i?35?TEnxs ptfa « st a'aga Tia%n-'aan 'T TT pxn 

■TX'?SöKp -)S?S3Xa 8 B»ö ]ÜS?ö'?KaiKS S?3S?TUnK3 .ninain 

pa pp ns nsi"8 ,pxaann ixa ist na nnssxns nsa 
»1 m? r>s naina ist 113 ibs'is nssasa nsn .a»n pi 
paipax öbpj d'k ?kt'ö na» ,pxnsa »axasa •natan-'aan 
pp ]wt cnpa wa ?8t'a tx ,napn 'T 54 .*]Ö1 is u M»"U 

-IST TT ?Kt |«a IST 'T3 TIS PK ,'T BST'a nST'S 'IIB 
ÜKrtJtt P1E? ÜX,T p?X3nXS OST TS 55 .]ÖJ pSll Ott?'! T83 

•'s ?'b 56.pxnsa Disiwsa nsa nxa m nsn t's ,nsT3'p 
n»»»D37»o»»3 x psn »n ,m psn psn Tia?n rx pxa 
nsn »asi - f?jj« .a»n sbkhs oxt pa psn msa 57,axa 
ss/'&aai' nyn ]« 'ins 'T fw 8 ,p"anx3 pa ixp - Tia^n 
is/t w.»bu ao'anga ,m a"n süisns oxt ö'a es? njni w 

».•pjna D's Tis naia 

»i tt pxn # iw?nn'»aan *i »n nsa ?»d t,s3 
- niapn ?'B ]"T |pna ]Din - "D'ann», ]is »D'awKn^ 
aaip osii ,]sa ds?t pxa |is ü'as?a p'is öwsmo'iK 
.nnain s>3s?TtyiKB ^"n p'T ö»ö )m ti 

n3pn 'T t's ,0'asia ds?t tis napn tfüop'as'ii n 

4S öisingB osn ,(1028-960) n?un nisa owna uai jib 



88 



»n 60,-dsü psnanaxa 8 fx m jaw ix atp>3 ??aa an 
spnxTH ]'« axn f»a» a>i» tx ,b"w niT&nj? h ]ib rupn 
naaon »i ]axn anas» ns? axn ,bj jatt b^xyis» asaty 
(1427-1365) ynna nsn .m?»ap »m a?x pa mm n jib 
•D'iiR ,bj s jism |s?aij?s7s D'K ix px oxn ,]ns> «px axn 
inrxxia »i aiawxa bxji i» **.]aoxp »o'tij aa»?aa 
l.n .tx «x ßMs iso'iisa 8 «rix B'x B5"?s?:ax ,m jib 
•e'Tix ]'w bxh fwa dxt a»ix tx /iibd»*?« h ]« napn 'i 
ixa '« "is?>na ja* ix e»'a ,aa psni ?»B"]ix bs*t ]a»asa 

6i.pos pxa asa p'O'm 
»»iixßx na ,pxiistt aaxasn jmst nupa ?'a "jxj 
im asn p'X-ixa ix /p ]m ix p»n asn jxa B"a p?a 
62,01?^ psni ?»insn asm -wax ,a*»x nso'iisa x «pn 
jxa asn jaxanxe Hsna» "pix ]»ö axn p>a M X3"?a is?sx 
<x nsasaty px nana pi a'ix # a«ii pi o»a jwixn ix 

63 .'t tbi 
»i jix T!ia?nn- ,, asn h pxn m b:ib a'as?a p'ix 
?»b \mxh »na "in sBXB»-*na?n nsn "jxa )ia B>aan 
dxii ,aasn s?a»t px axsttsnAga ?»b - ]*$a dsi ,b3»i 



«81» D"n?itt n"w) m?a üjn ]»m s-sra nws? t>a ]n»9 k?» napn„ (• 
t\"\v f« ismm sa^sm »iasn ayaa .a"3-mn '»o ,(au"iB oisi) aisraastj 
j "-o 'a j>5n a"ao .ro^o "Caman niawn,, "ps s?t .a'7 ">o ,fa»a tmnn 
W't y?s ??aa »ii) qwk iiai ps napfl »p'tjj't'T .Orp nw ,p"»ina n'w 
^•iia sp»a>'« p« vasfi» ,y'?8tci? iib p« »i BSBa^DiSB aw»a B^n (rvupn 
,(s"p cnw »p'^ina n"iw) p» sw?8tjas»i8 
easr?»a dgn p?8 i» .na»»» |»n iss |»aiaya iy u^n ts?ya o»t (*• 
•ist ^»t p8<i B"S "isra»» ps o»aan aiTo C8H »aaip'üsswsa 8 ,niasw \it 
mt i"* ap»» 'n .a'^p '»o »ö*» /nx»x»a»ii ,f»y\ »"nn» n"W) "[»»«isb b»» 

.(a*> qn ^"»ina ibd :»tfn 



r\m ix /IT» ,pmm B'asa bst «px b»k öxn nv$ n 
.jxa p>a üp'öD»iKa3"?a Bsaa 'iib ?t pk B»as;i isat 
pas3 w 3»n dxt paj'iix 18 ,D"naiX'KP 8 j8*i8B 

"1S3X 64,ÖXVI8B ]19 ?KQ PX -1X3 B3Xj?S3 pa BXfl I» 

pnsa n w ' jpa?s bst *ps j$ pa p3si bxii # s?is?nj« b>U 

J8a -ist axn ,M«»as»T»a tswt» ist |id B3Spns3x 
Bxn i» pn i?'bx üj pas3 k a«n b$t pai'iix B3Xj?s3 
atsna uan »an» 65 .b»>3 b'x b?sbs3 n tx ,Bn3SBSÄ pi?a 
ansnax »»»nx (1002-iooi "ps?) rar '. jbb?» a«ri38 px Bxn 
tx ö»a nxa bjsj ps?n »xp> >i tk ^susj pna -px iropn 
ts px ,m bst pas3 is »i ountt |xa tst 3'ix .nason 

'T ]1X U ]1B 1S3"*W TST ,18» IST P.X J»B?>3 B12P3 

»»» n iib ?»b TSB'na x pix .bthj px p3Si - nns 

*9'3 *P PX B3 TST TK ,J313"B "IST fx pa»? ÖX11 # B»1Ö1K 
»118 Din J'X p3»? »BaajnSHB'lK »?8 »1 1» ,p?Xn ,p»D 

jx B'a agnsa nainn bsh »na saaya n na ,53g? 

66 .PIST38 

3»ix ,pa |»p ,aa pasa 5x? 'i ,a»T> bxt paa'iix 

'i a»ix ,bx-hxb i8B ;mia ist po psisa n assna n 

TX» pX ÖSP3 BXH '1 3>1K ,]8B ]B>» p3'lXll BW»3 9'lt 

67.93s fix TSTa'p p|? nawin ist ikä 
,'tib S3sawa x pa ü3»j?ya pa öxn rnifi ist b»i? 
bbt'3 |8p'a »n Bi?3iB ix ,pnsa jpna ]axn ansiB >t ixa 

JB3 BtP'3 *pX ]SÖ pp ,]Xa BS3SMVB 8 ]» B3S3 p»N 

»i« na # ]snisa ]pna «i ]axn napn h ,a»n sji^a ]«p 
« a'ina ns px a 9 'ii sssai^a oxt) "npan psn b®'3 ?xi 

P38T 8 /Bin ]»! B3XBS3 BXn B^TÄ 133T TST^X 68.(]?»n 

öxn ,iaa"ii "iis jaxn is ^asaaix iixiisa px'o p?yn 
B8nss /pxnaa sii^a B'x px a«n }»i oxn /isr3»x 8»« 
est Ban isax i a"ii 8 1^ i»a»a is t t B«p3»?3aa 8 
-ist 8 paiipwao'ns Tnai "is 1"i8i '"cwu 133TT ann,, 
ist na .waaT nxa nn'iV B'aaT uisTain jib W3sa»i? 



90 



T» im ,pa4pax 53nÄ vw* O'N 'S* "vm *x» -irpn„ 
*wn oxn ,B'aan jib jayasa ü-ijni -is> p^o ,p>ü?>a o»»a 

w.nsnay? »m v>x jys 
i»t pn ,j?xb*bx3D'ix yp>3"x jxisb T.X3 ]»a»i'o 
)x d'k üaip ny nyax ,"B»3an nxa ijpn,; x öaspxa jxa 

* .iü»pnyw so'na ö»a 
a$n -is a'ix ,iya jxp aa ia»a *x jxa ayn jyaa'ns 
i» a'ix nyix 7o / ?'Ta'Titp x iin jyviya anpa a»n ox-r 
jxa ayn jsm'Tis "pix jxp 'T 71 -]a»? px^yacix jx bvb 
]ib D'x btbbtb /'oiuxb,, *px ai»? ny a»ix ,133 jaya IX 
|ik iyo'ao»B?p x ,nyp>3""VBo>a x im n» a'ix ,txa *i»t 
aaa'iix ?»m ü'i? im ]?xb *)3>b yaxy? »i im .-iyaixa x 
Bxn >i tx ,ena»ö *iy ttmx a'ix ,aa jaya rc am jya 
:p»Böa» typ >t pxn ,nainn isn *ixb aomnya fisisn 
nyax ,p?4ftKti am b*b payp ?»yi nm ,B3»ayj axn'B, 
-si nyax txa a«a 72/'b»'3 oy jxp nm tx ,im st asm 
aoixnya aawin nyi ixb axn ny a'ix tx ,a'aoa y?« jya 
is ]ya3'iix bp'3 »I ayi a'?is n» typ ,p»?»B oa"Yi iib 
ny arix ,öa taya txa ayn jyaa'iw "|' 1S l?P' a 73 - m 1 SÖW 

BBX '7 ÜB1XYI 1» 74,] W T W Htia "l'l 'I 033»!« 

tx msnriKB i» 75,toya x im ny ,310» tis o'i-ix 
jp?« ,a'a:w »i B'?a-Tp irixa 76,]"t ?aN*an3a t"a w 

|57j? 't .T3X .X 77»Ü3S??2T X 183 BW X üaipX3 »t 0X11 

't tx ,Bn3»ü 'i a'ix ,B3 x w |»aa»ns }xa bst ^'Jaa 
c«n ,'nB x tsxn s?3xss?.B'3i«a ist ]ib a^nax ]ra 



j-iHsisu^ia o*"wi8 n*i») "maawaa t« ntuaa |»»s i»a nmsi n'iins nnains 
.(yjj? ">o ,o*i?jn j*pw »t .rrainn ''D ,(äjj*9 didi) 

.(a"j? '»a ,p'» B"in» n"w) *nm5 arts ird»» iv 



91 



■pt oik'ö'3» :n»D nsn jib dmiä ]a>ix tu ö9$tisj taxn 
«px ]ü-ixii tinaw - ("mni»„ jamsmx msni »t) *d»n jnB 

79.D'enn «psra ö* 
dtib» tt n üxn B'irm «psnix »t jib *p?-ixa j'x 
1X3 .jmp nonn osna-in n üs?m -wax ^ttfxno'ix p?x 
usm >t a'v* tx ,ni30 h jsnxlwiwx px'o ?»n /isüsaff 
"nsn main?» ci-ix »i asm ,m t»|? p?aipxa wa i?xa 
oxb o'jixa »1 i,axn ,*t«-wj g &•»» -jaxH nainn "isnx 
j"x na cmn «psrnx jib jmxn |ia t>»x h msasrtp 
oxa ?«B osn ]'X tx ,]»Y>»a ]j?na tix jaxn "t ».cnin 
p'i? oxv» a"3 fix a"xa »i *px laasn j?-pn u»»a *t bv? 

.BSSn »TU »T «I'l« X' ?XB D5H ]»» '! BT'ihXB 110?Ä 

so . "xnaTiaT x:n„ .3 ,x üuxpxa rx p?TS?a oxi 
•a'iix p?p a»n dxt pn ^kb »Baasnsao'ix n pn 
8i .snjnax ?'B i,xiNB pasn ,oa jasa ix jxö bjh ]»a 

«")$a TIN 'IIB H BXn ?XB JÖXS9 ]'X 0X11 ,B'öl»l 

1.XB -|S?T '11 DM >1TN ,pSÖ"18B TN JW JT1?"IXB DBW 

»Sa H B'l} ,TlB »1 PX ,|?'TI ]BU ]B'B B;s?a >T B?X11 

-ns ?»b« x rx pxns?a tti»ö»sa ,"is?u?x5b>» b:is jana 
]ix n:x?rü»*r i« B':an jaxn -isansn .sax? nyoTa»?»n 
a'ix ts ,]»nsa ij?n» n"' p-13 px ]B42 jib TnpaxiB 



jb ,??a kb»m n9 ja»a»a a9n ,rmia p*ia ana psa rt*>» "i„ (• 
-nvop sais in« t»a ea n9 \>2tni h9s ,ns*i»ftiaiji9 9»w» ivua nassn 
-§in D*ina n*w .ti*9 "o ,i*B,niavia ,»"'r*i rp* »i ,s-b '»o ,»"n :a*ao) 

.(.nag .R a*a '»o ,(asiB oibi) aiyaasB 
»«iiao-iaan »t ^a ]a^n n3j?n »1 ts ,aai3"a ist )•>* i»a»r 9"ö 
->sn l'w aav»B»B38 i»t pa B"s sa9»m |g p'a r9« nrag .^-nsa |p/ia 
»lB?an ,|sYi»a ]j?na ropn »i ^aijn »»"iiaD»i:ai »i ts ,]»i«b gsii ,»t .nap« 
■wn B*i9 »yi ,öpnas»Ä *»»b»b» f>i usn »«iiao-pan »i ps yasss? »i t» 
rf»"D>ira »xjiBOWi ,mv» nia9na n*»a nui&»a flinan) yat^is »t )ia äaw»»a 

.("ina^si» fi"i ,a*o 



92 



p»T33S33R üff>3 ,"öowö"irb ano tö pr "is„ jamsa n 
g w bw»3 an* jsa uaa'iix ,dsü T,p>T33i3S3 pST3g pp 

tr asira a'iR tr ,RTa »t tr .o'*ir-bt»ii'o -ir3 
TT boir'ö 'i tr ,Bna»ö 'T t» ii ,m ]"p jsasposiix übp3 
W 'T ]ir t'-öw»3 x ö'ö jaRn-nawn »t ösii ,i,xa na« 
jsnsa ]pna ö'üri *i jaxn dsü dst a^s osn ,pa» tt 

PK ,|'T*T3-pÖ3 pX3 pRll TB 193 DST ]SaipK3 ?XT 'T 
TSaipS3 JS3ST 1»Ö3»0 Sff'T» »T 1R11 ,933 ]»R 7.S11S3 TR3 

]»»ns nis'as n ixn p.x dbxb??sts3 -ise»t»W3 ist pr 
>ti ,s?piKt3iy rik ]sns3 nv»i nsa^tpa ]ns3 pr ]T» 
»ir pr pt tst .sBRT'R'mTö«nR»?8"itMS3: p.b jt m >t »a 

»1 P.B ÖSönRÖ'lK ]3»9« 1X3 pRllS3 ]Sai3S33K DIDSa 
p»TS D'R |S?a t3Xn S3RBS<D'31X3 IST TX3 TS3X .Q»31R3 

♦pTXTlS3BX 

tr w*i ?xa3»p üt?txb n»vw k p.b naina »i 
rpina uwa pr ,n3a?x »t »n eu >itx ,*t tir sz .ü"p'a?'3 

.DR |R « pSTl pS3S3BR «pXT'O TR3 ,T3'p TR J3»»T 13t 

]3»T ]"?X OS ?»11 TSDia »1 a>1R ,]Rö "IST Ü?XS DR "IST 

83.J98X TXBTST TR tta ]8» "IST ]1R MJHRB »T ÜXn 

o«3 T'a pxn nauin wa nxa nsma *jn« naa^x >t 

ORT .Ö'ltS 03Xa |DX3 3SO p'X3"3 TSTX ,Ü3 pX3 3SÜ p'X 

jpir m.jypörö jwö» S3S?T3st3ttnRB ö»ö öSTanasa ansn 
axn »i a'iR 85.]3Rn navin twa *t -irü ,maisa pr >t 
«ns a"?8 tnsn T3»p ort T'a p-ixn »t »pxT ,T3'p'3'iT r 

TS3»R a>lR .T3'p D31D M1U 'T ÜTSTRB '1TR T^l ,-IR' 
86.)Ü1R11 ÜV31R3 'T «JTRT ,3"11 Ö3S3 |»'T p'TS t>aS3 






93 



Yia?fln->aan "n ]axn ,ni3pa sHMsansi y?x »i ftn x 
-ag ?'B pnsn ]pna -px n»B?»s?B»a buib nnan »1 ]ix 
■'»Bö?s 03kö ]w ?xb ]>x 'iid nyn nmo? niapn s?ns?T 
nya piyxa jyjyp bip'3 >t ?xt jxb ist ^loya-ix « B"p 

?"n ,b"x s-ibm»? x *]*i« a»n pD pxBpynx bw>3 "?xt 
•3in p»? ]vp> *»t ijp^saix ?'B jyaipö"mx pngp jwwn 
joni Bf '3 |sisn»n ^xra ^aani jb'ix jaixBP p?p "iy /i»i 

.?3 .1 .8 H313» ]x ja w ?a jxp >t px 
pj myn ,jBys-ix ix p'yaaix ansrn ]xa ist a'ix 

87.|3l?aiKB pT J1B ]B?xny3o'ix a»n 
m'BJMßWK ]»nsra pk ysxBy.iia^n is?"r nya -]X3 

JH»"! p8?»S3 |3Jjn 0811 ,1S?3S?a 1KB |BX"lBty S33S1BI? 
13? «118T ,a M ll pi ]3K?B?»3 BKH |8B IST a*lX 88 .-iya"n 

nyi aosnasna x 'n bw 'Itx ,33ipnypB3X ]?xx vx 

TX 7 B3pDB3?3 BXfl (1153 .B^S73 ,1085 "py? .193} B"a«n 
,V8 B»a TT ßinp TXB "IST fl&a BaiKB^ a^n o*n a>ix 

B""ina i»i go.nviT vx *i?ix aasn oxn iy bt?ixs 
Bxn oxn >py> pix Bin |?x B3"?yj nxn 3iya3yBxna 

9i.a"n pT ]3x?iyy3 
92 irp5x i"a ps 'i ]ia ia*?as» rx oxn /r-ana x |>x 
Ba»niy <K"a«n pB iia?n x jyny3 rx ny .1315 .Btm) 
ismayü h ]ib »nPM Byi w ps?n -pix pma» jwnx iy 
"t pyp KpX'ia'Ti iy3ya sns^T oxn ,p?xa iyi3ix |ib 
tx px?» 12 Ba'tfhsn oy oxn nyn px ...]bo>ib y">y«i 
!"e>b3 »»■?»» aw pp px?» bp'3 -jxi ixb'b j a'm p M x 
,B"an ]ix a"aan ^'n n»i ,nyT-ia «-n h tx ^«snyi ">y 
oxn ,1»! tx ,B3posy3 |axn ,-iyna jyaxanyT tb ya?yii 
]38?»»3 B?xn iy t'?3 ,BBxnBwxa anyii ,a»Ti pt B3x?ty 
]y3yT - nyo'm iy bjxt - i»an»% .^B3ya pa¥ib x 
tj'ix n??p x |ix niT3 x )vo B^panxn nyi B'a itu Ta 
Byn ->y anx /Bin ]'« pyn B3"?ya ?xt iy ,1» ]iy 



94 



örc>3 t»t bvb 'itg ?"t), ,a«n ]"T ]3X?ff IX pSJinsn "pl 
»•pwno'iK i« 1"t m?m*on ütfii *is?axo px... p« ]w»m 

,]J?XB ÖBP3 T31X ]!X ÜX3 "IXB pX?! Kilo Üff»3 BSni 0XY1 

,napn j w T *px 33iB?xno' , ix jyjspoaix a"ii pt jya ?xi 
m9 ]in o'»u» spnnx. n b>i? tx ixb boxb'd 'ii 'nx. 

,ü3pOBg31S TR 03? B7XH'a '11 '1TX Bp31B j 13XBP VX 
."Mll p"Yl X ]»K piTTlX B?X11 ]Xö 1SH X'IK 

.t)Uf»3) p'a o""ina jw nsraasBsno D"*ina -px 

pK?tfr OKU ,H psil JUm»tt»ai8B "1S?p"lK0tt? ö'a psn (1482 
OXT ]3X?W TX ,3313»a "IS?T ]'X J373SN SH"a .lSa"ll SIS'« 

p's 'itx,, :pb3s?» psrux. |x px?p »n /waixn t'k a«n 

p*lXBIP DISHMIXa /'p» ]»p ÖV»3 "lS?aX ,0"13 H -j'T 

Bo»n ,a"n i"t mgfv oxn ,d»t .-is?bxb? is?t o'nx/BsnB 
»'3»a ,mp?a px?i£? ,]»T*m3a ,]'nx oin ]»k p»? i» 
?xt ,Bwa üB?s?n exi a'ix j-jax-ioty 3?3sn'ttnxB B>a |»i 
-isansn ?»n a«n ]»t anx npxnBx B3xn ?i d'k jya 
93.]B3iXBx n?xa 't o»k ]»a narr« ,ba 
D«n -ist ]ib px^psnix öw'3 ??aa -ixb jxa -im 
ex öa'in»*! a>m oxi a>ix ^xn x "piK »n ,n»u»9 
t»a b"x x *px pxBpsmx i» 3i?a jsms? ptfa .b»'3 

94 ."l$» "IT 

,fyns?3 |j?na Bxn oan» ua-i oxn ,mapn rr jff'nx 
«px psnx t'x oxn ,]xa nsn «px onn x 71» "p 03'bsh 
95 .p>3s?an?-isn oa»n jx o'enn jxax )ib nya o"x x 

Bp'Bwsn 3«n oxt üiyn ü"n3TS7nsx 03xa ]n»a 
w^t ]»ai?3BX 3»a 't .üjxa-ixa ]xa iui oxn ,os?x |ib 
•!|S3X ?xaxax3 a'ina twa T'X ain»?sa n»7 ]ix mnn 
/«an )o'a Dnxasj o'x oxn |xa ns?i i?»bx anx /[asn 

|B'lp"lXB ^'Dg 3Sa 'T ja M Yl pT |3S3BX ÜB"3 ?XT ")V 

•a»is?j x üxn «i'ipixs tx ]ix nsu'a »as??3snixaaix »3»»i 
96.]as3sx na ]Ka "i»t ]ix pixa J»a 'i iüsxip »a»T> 



91 



,b"s isatttisn "ps?? pu bbkbp o$ii /p-ans k i'k 
B'aai osn ,iropn tt IM'bs» 97 ,is?B3Kais?i3a'iK is?i oyn 
»13 ,is?ns?a jpna jaKn (Rameru) aTi»"»"! JiK pikb ]tt 
ps?iiK bp'3 i'K ]w ?kt jkb is?i ,a"ii öki is?3S?i8TiKa ** 
ikb niapn s?p'tkti »>fl .ipan «p« i!K?is?a'K n pK 
^wst g ijii« pxapsnig »ijsa»i?iin T8 ]k ikb is?i bb?'3 
ts ]ia is? »jisn ümufeiflhjn 'i ,D>ann isa« jib is?aas?? 
,nns? jik i'i«n'a j« pp'a B"a is?aipKB 
183 jikb is? jKp D'tyin jsaK pa b»s k «r»nx pK 
-i»i t'K is? tk / üas?pns?3K bkh pi-ipa OKI is?n ,B?Kasn 

IS? BKH JS1K ]1S?13K JK «pH S'IK ,?»»? ,]»a31KllS»Ä UK 

pk DKi |srn ,• jo» *pK ]s?3'iikb is ü"pas??as?a |"p wa 
jsn ,tt7Kasi isa djj/i jik ,.?a ,i .8 n'a-'aa pi naia* 

jQi?K?a T8 B'a Bas?? IS? TK ,p8YI»a B?S?BtPS?3BDS?B PK'B 
]S?B8I BttPJ "|'T IS? 1KB # M»1pSS 1*8 D'ö PH IS? a'18 

,u»m p'ifa aaip is? jsyi ]ih ,0'win ops?T ps isaas?? 
.o'win ops?T 03bdi3'b is?bkps pt TK B'a is? na 
*]i8'a"n ikb jp»p jsa is?i na B'tsnn ops?t s?is?' 

.13KBW pi B'l? ,33 ! IB , ?gnö''lK «pK 1S?13'p 

- T-ana is?i Bp'ias?iKB - ]s?ns?a im jaKM i'a„ 
,a»n pt ps pKMSpsni« nais? pp pg& o»'a ?ki is?3"p 
•B8W »i |s?n ,-a"Ti pt B'a ai?tya bep3 Bas?? is? a'iK 
bbp3 is? ?kt ,].s?aipiiSB»n8. Bis?iKBs?aä'iK b'k jasn istpb 

BP'3 B3?11'0 1S711 .D'E^in DpS?T pB 1S7BS7BB? is?a=ipa"nK 

is?i B'a pKns?a jpna jsasi osn ,rii3pfl yp'TKTi pi B«pa 
B^^a iya«p b»k ?kt ,n??p k ]18 ^?b k ^b B^paiKn 

BIS B1K pp ]aS?3 Ö»»3 B'K ]18 B0g3 K 1KB ]»B»aB'18 

]pna iaK.1 o^i w tk ,Ba^T»a bk.i ba iaai„. ]»a'i8ii 
^'aoa p'ia»Bi^ »t B'a ]»3yt tb # »wöwsi8b h ]»tim 

P8 B'lia ?«11 / T , 1p3K1B |1B B'331 SISTSilK B'B '11 '1TK 

.ia»n 118 ikb i^'iisi "Di?iy iy? 

BIP'3 ?8T 1KB 1S?1 TK ^»1183 ]pna BK?1 H"1 1S1 



96 



•psmx tix 'ii -is?22S7? ,b''x 8 *p8 a»»ii ]"t jib psBpsnif 

•fl'3 B21B t£»2S?a'l5:iS?7 "1S?1 B'a "1RJ *]'1K OJH 7.18 ,B'ttnn 

npa?n ,no3is *px ]j?'p vx is? na amn ps?' tx j|»t 

1» "1K0 ,V8 B'B Bl^Ett Bttf'2 IS? 023? nyaxa .?* .1 .x 

T ' T 

98.0"n 1S1 ]1B pKBpyng BETCJ ]X2X3.2'8 
iP'nx T'8 ,]»«»? ]2S?a |SmB '2 ,S73K1B "IS?1 ]'8 

jsnrn "B'2W8"i w »i ]B?>rix is?aa82 |i8 Tiasnn-'aan n 

.jnsn-'p^n s?ö'i*ia 
»"a nsn j»k ]»a»t 0811 ,"B'2i?P8-i„ »t na s??x h 

T9?J"TiVJ TT JBn-lKB ,|5?^S? BP'3 "I8B 'HD H I« ,31213 

bbiyb »i? *■ *rx) o:pnin p "it»'?k "1 jib *is?bis?ii n «rix 
9b,, :» :c."it? .3 73 *ps?9 .Btps?a .?nan "itb'?k h 71X B'K 
]»t B3n»?'o isni) 9o"m?an ms? i?xa ,min ina m 7a?an 

«H3SBIP2XBW B2"1S??S?3 »I Ö?811 "IS? '11 T'8 ,mVl "IS?B38B 
31?j? T'8 'IIB »T) 100 "*]?Ba 8?8 fW8? Jiaan J'8,, A]W? 

oxn ,o'ix bt>'11'o 'ii "is?ax .128 .x (?73'bip a^a -1x2 
bjxtsja os? öxn nx2 ,na?n? üs^üm uw>} oxt -it»>?x i 

1S?a8 ,'11B 1S?T ]1B i?'ÖOnS?BpX"IKB 8 '11 ,BT'"I8BX/ ]8 '11 

ps?mxB 12 na8 ]g «l'i« B3"as?j b'b*is?i be"2 oxn ns? 

.p'TlBtP 0X7 'IIB 121 
,B2XT IS? .B"aai "ISH ]S?28BttnK9 2?j?XB OS? 08 H '1TX 
•S?3 B?X11 'T '11 BKP2 T'8„ min miV? 0811 ,'1"IB 'T TX 

*"iatp jaxn "ixBns?7 bs?ii n„ 1x2 ,"|B"p'i3$?Bt2;38ai8 B2-istf 
'iTX oxn (1216-H66) Tonn mm' '1 "p« 101 .11 tx .x 

1TS?'?8 '1 T8 ,Ü2XT IS? ."1SB1811 B"ITS'?K '1 B0XBS?Ja'18 

nb nnio n 'na ivi ü'a jswis? bp'2 ?xra B2"a5?3 bk?i 

YlB?fi B21B D'2'25? S?B'B H ]1X ("mifl '"inO„) Hllfl H»l 

B'a a'ina i,s?a t'X .mix» ,a'2H isax .("Tiö?fin i?ai» /r ) 
»i ]0'n aa^'2 ,?»»? ,o»ii 'T a'i8„ ?"ii / t,s?31JJ ! ? « tx 
'iT8 ]ix ?natp ]ü'ns8 |s?2»p 't bs?h »11 ,nair ps a'2'i 
^a in'pm ]ia ]b»s »i ]'8... ,rmf> ns?T ]« miaa s??8 



97 



»y* ,S3»5j? ]i» »o»]ra /jynB ]ix paosxa i,axn min' 
ost «a 102 ."O'ttnp px rvnno jib d'3't h VJ'bx üo^kii 
.sisna« t»b $x 103 »"ih vi» p» «««a i»a?»i 
|k BBXsyasx «pi jaxn oxn Äjsft] jib ?'b «»bb. 
,«nvBa Baxiys bhpi Bxn iy tPBxa - patnKBg e-iiy'?x "1 

H 1X3 B3"ay3 ]3Xn - ]3»T99 Bff'3 "1$B 'IIB H IX 

min pyii .anaatp-mw *1 üff'j nyax # nD-?»aw»!nin 
nyax 104 .]s?3is?9 aya 'i tx ,B3posy3 n,'ix »t jaxn ariaarc 
o»? aya 'i ix ,]ü?xn 0x11 ,yj?'3y>-'T jib ?»b isomj.g 
t'x n ix 1X3 ,aya 't ix /t'i?a üw*j Bsposya jaxn ,jy3 

.jys-iy? is a'ina 
nxs B3»aya jyamxox y3"i ü'ö bkh -iiy?x 'i ix 

1» 0X11 ,0XT "pX BI»llXa ,'113 H ']Tin»Dp'XnXD ix 

.]»n»? B3s?ps?a üxn oxn ,a" n g i»a& xpn Bxn ]»?x 
»1 ,öi?tp xa'x nma? yüanxa h jyiiya r*x a^n j w i 

105 .nsa'T ?X'?a3 "I ]1B 1S?ÜDS?11tSr 

psaw 'X3n ns?T exii ,oxn nyax i»x jBOp'ao'iiais 
n"» ]ü»nx dsib öB?37n isoan» "ist ]'S oa^si) 'Xiy ja 
|»*t ]»3"is?? ix a'ina t'x PB3ya -isny,, tx /Baxt (.ip .3 
öXT Bfnxa - m^m" ypp> 83"a -iy tx ."rnifl lyBOxta 
n ix jw ."iaxa pt j'X Dxuxa ny oxn ,"a'ina„ bixti 
oxn ,]ibis?t cix tik Bi^n ,'xty ]a '11 üa™?a no?n 
,B"x ts?t rx "]3a"i ff .j .x -laxa pt B33»na Tia5n in 
ps .3 ,x iBnsjMx Bt27"»3 BiXT bt»ii naxa 0"IT»'9X '1 |yn 

ira/'pa-u, *t 
|| 1'ix Bi^nxa ,'xiy ja >n Ba»?a m">n n tx 

-IXB 'IIB X IX ,B3XT 0X11 ,1ia?fl D31B HO^nfOB "l»nSTOif 

B'a BTii'Bxa Biyn oxt |ix DH'a?n B'a ]»3-iy? bk^'3 
BpxB3xp px ]aaip )anx-r wi ?xi 'ins »i na :my'3X 
B2"3 ^xt 'ino »i ]»n 107 .dh'ö?ii n tia oiyoxa »t B'a 
n ü?T3xn«a bb>'3 iia^n ist -px ö?xn ,]S3Ty? ]txb 
'i oxn ,0X1 ]ix »1ST3X B'a ]y3ny? jya n 's ,y3xno 



ö'ö üvrpDxa u»»a - snsnax. d»o '»an»? db»3 ixb 
jsnsnajj B»a ^ais?? w»a *ikb »i Dxn ,o*n tx jix .mspax 
ja?sr ]a>?ix oxn ,oxn -pix DT»nxa ,ms'3X a»?w nxa rx 

,»3?2?TK ^X D'Tina Q»*7ö?a ]"p ]*»! DE»3 "pX pKB DSD 

j'x jsaip b»»3 ]?xt »i na ,"i»a M n pp bbp3 jaxn bxii 

"108 .D'TÖ?fl SD»"! pS OnStMÖ »1 B'Ö BpXÜ3Xp 

,0X1 t"in Bi»nxa 'xts? ja »yi Ba"?a ni?n »i ix 
]nsa "D ^DSBSJ'Tia^n ist ns?a »o ,]b»x s??x px oxn 
"isB"ijn3*mx» »am» »i px "j«3 i^sx px ,-ij?b?8?b'ö 
"is?a"ii ,]s»ti3 9'B ]»nsn pasi f »3XB»*B3KB93an ist ]ib 
,mb3"p» D«a psBnxB'i» 3»s'a>?xn »B>na ]ia -is?D3yB ]ix 
»as?a -iK3 pk'b ]»n B?xasn px ,]san9? ts3s?ps?a jsxn oxn 
»äs B»a B3is??s?a »i jaxn ,nis»ax »i ]B>nixBx jsnisa -ja? 
•ro?xtp ian^j?a # niBm |B?«n»a ,mw s?x3xa b»ö ,snsn 

,?ä .t ,x .mniewn 
ps B"pBan»5»a "isn psn Bastian p">?x *Tia?n ist 

|jni93 |»3»T »T pB ?"B 1»B'1*13 X BXTI ,]S»inB S?»'"!» ?'B 

»■r /toa? ^naa» "B px ns 9»3» min px »b aanxnxs 
Bin px p»Tin ja rpaan "i ps 'ismaxa »t ,n>*ma irana? 

1« DB?^n nSBB"l» °l$?7 pX B3»?S3) TXB "1 pB 3»11 

n ?x ,tx ps7ii B?»nsn "na?fl nsn ,(.ip .3 n"' ]d"tix 
.D'aai Bisnain^'n "3 "mn$?a»„ öisnawm B3is7?s?a dxh 

»11 '1TX p*T IST! 1?'B8 D3"?3 1ia?fl ]»R "lSDIS? "112 «pK 

* 109 .T539Ö9 '? 



r.ns B57s„ :KT>n«?s» yp^n-uyts^ii »n tk p»Ti b5wx*wt ■'"sn (* 
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ts ü'an b»B' na i'SBiii .n"i»as iai? nmw? vt'ö5fl» ins? nisi {"an'iai? 
f*ni3S7 s'vri) "ssioa nnn» t«ö "1 pjn n»ss npjn ,n? stümi .irsirur 

.(n*"> mr 
b5s b5sb»18b fr Bgn TS» '"1 T» ,b5kt (a"^) ii9apn r^c? 1 ?^ isn 

«"VAW ?S1»» '*)? TlS?m Sil», j 5 « ,]9»1psa TS « I'K ")Jf |1K Tö?fl |«I 



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110 .1SB3XB »B31»?»Jl X BXn$?3 BKJ1 (."lj? .$ 

nsn p« öas?»M ups» na jaru 'i ]ia a M n oxi ,««?'» 

C9U tMSpstt Bxn ,(.ip .3 n*' pn Dana üa?3?n nyö w n* 

.p31S? 

ma'itm "un psni osiaw x üaasnas» tnsm Tia?fl px 
ix in .is?ödxü np .3 308 Tis?? .BP»» ox-ron '1 i« 
n"> ]ös3'b mia ösflsn nsBans? isn px üas??Si) snm 
ii2 * Sfw ]'« "wet soönxa pi jsiisi tsoö bxh c.np .3 
i»a»n |!|» ns?D3s?B ,pma s?öan»?»a »nsnatj *]iu psm jw 
ii3 ,Yia?fl nsn B3xans?*T ^BSünxD'iK si»'a'?sn ps 

]»i Bxn nx" 9 65 rr'öa .?sa) pxnsji b?x px '"an ix 
°3x m?»» Bspsasn }ix «wn^m n.i?xa\* ja*"ws:i nsroax» 
•• /iSBOBYitf ean i3a"i ,nin Sp'S»» ü"w\ im .d , 8 bxb?p 
nna ,a"vi saa i3ai oxn ,Dna ?p'a M » B^ns x &">vn 



T»8 fl»1113 T8 ,1!?5»T T,äf11S.Ä B£»3 ?»8 (1055—993) T'ÄJn 581Ä12? '1 ?8 ,Ö»1'8 BT'«"« 

BgnsM p§n ^»iia ja man 'i ?kt) fi'-iia ja a»33n 'i f,ö isrBagB »i piis* 

.(?j»3is>5 B3»j?s:i pgn ögn ,i$?b33b »»m 
t»8 okii ,isb»»iix ist bibi B3»»»s:i bisii gn ?g ,d»18»bt»»ii (* 

.(ISBiPIS IST) «33 "13 Ö1B1 »11 /ISyöSSa? 18» p'SBIB -p!? »g D»!3 }aigB»B3 

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,r»m ,pi ,i5»S3Söi?a j?ns» 1185 8»sian ,"i?sn3 ixik„) na» n»?s n?ap 
]is Bga»x. est 5*"t2? W3sia ,fais 5"bv i"i is ii'ia pi »'s ,a»a» man» 

.(»"3 ."niaiDR* ibö 

•^1575 ,ö»sa) »ib»i um» ian» ,ima» 'i pa a«n oki pt ost ?«t 

B«n D8ii ,(1174 .a»sa .»pta »"D i'B'3ia pns» 'i jia isbi» »t »ik (ii36 

bis naipn »n "j»i8 st ,3"?nn '»o ,p"iö ,»ann :st) ?niBoin dst Bi»a^si 

.(B"»m ,aia? ,nii ja an3» "i pa *"]ii? ms» 



100 



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■» ]« J9ri9? B3S?j?sa pxn **,doo3 .b»»m ^nan ama 

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]9T 7S73S?p ]9Ö9?X 9«t »t TX ,|BBgP B9ri9T9?a X ]>X pH 

n3'^' s b»a öan»?»a axn - ]9i9a psn b»»j ?xt »i j*k 

# 0««f*np ]D93 1214 .' ]'K ]"W11itt B9a-in»a) nxwi 

?»a ns?i .dimmi ]ia) XT»a-iaa *its?'?x "i pe a M n okt 
115 .nsrn x hbp psp B?xn (."np-in. 

?IB ÖB?»n "1»B»»11S ]'« ,9'?XB'K l'K B39993) X?1XB 

.B»»a> »Tnan« 593 jna "i jia ?p'a M K ]x ,<n w ' ]b392»yt 
ii6 .yM «]»ik »n'B x (üvsxp nsnx) BpHnsnxs uxn ,(H06 

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*«n psn in .]9ns? Bas?p9a axn »t tx ^»»ansT b-wti 
*x ,b? m s"Wt 0*19*11 (1460-1390) i'^ne'x »"-ina jib iww 

j»! I'IK *** .IBIO ?'•»' ]j?T 8 B5?:"X »'3 Bi19?9a BXH »l 



•pt— BTa nnia rrn x? rflsat* tfnaxi »"i »w ma 5 ?«? vfliwu (* 
mo ?3K... sia?» laai 5t- ina na a^-ia nia iraai »;p>r t>kb uai iraa •pani 
fi'TUMi? n9i3* fKWi DHKn» -s jua?? n*)>ana *pn da «ai rm rws ana 
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.(a"aai? n-nn ru^a ra ,*i "'ö »ni-noK 
wins fuwwri pi .M9 a*? 9*mn an:» ia p>ns> "i 5» i^soa^ (*• 

JWB 13 pnS» "1) "i?'3B DTlp p'3'tP t31t3n? f1TS7 JVU3 J18 1B8*B ts5a ma 

r>*» »aa ar ,iawa na'nan ama ia pns» "i ?b? inin« B»?»a nia«, 

.("flisiox^ *ixs ,Di8i ,"nnnj "nsis«) "jrrr» aiun? 
*W» 9*t»» "i law» ins jj>t '3s9 mai? 9*t 5»Tsn ^n^v .»aiian« (.*** 
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118 '.b'i'i «ns |»ti9ä «nna *?*bk ökh *f ,n»nö7 
?8iaty 'i ]« a**?i oki ]83i8? uappsa "pi* tsKn'D 

OH3a 12 ?K1»P 'T ]!|B IM'lf H 129,(1225 .BW93) »KTIM "13 

ö'-msai l^B a»iji 9KT **,(1280 .be?93 ? Falaise?) K^aa 
.9-i8i3K ?'s' ]si« 120(1288 feroa) pi ]« pns' na 

„Zur Geschichte und Lite- 1« 1 M » F* P« Y'l -pa 
„Das jüdische 1^ V» ]'« '»»1 »TnsJ 121 ,ratur M 
.■n 123 /'in n*a? rmnsT,, |'N ansaisna »"k' 122 ,Weib" 
„Geschichte des Erziehungswesens T 2 ]"* V'& ffiyppi 
und der Cultur dar abendländischen Juden während 
des Mittelalters und der neuren zeit" (Verlag R Höl- 
•2S?ia ,»-18138' ?'B ]SiK der, 3 Bände, Wien 1880-4-8) 



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'x ,tbd'18 fp'YWTS "WTiis ngB fiisa s -pK pk ^«iiM mn pl lniKI,,, 

*]»3is5 3s?a'iiB n 
:ni»iK nirn vn "pbwiK rmjts trampn 5"xt ptaan ?w i»k,> (* 
?*n ip?ru nta '3 Kasn :?"ti im isoa 'nKxap ,K3i'3"n ."nana >3&» »5»* 
.(7 't ,bti hififc j?9n »bist) p"m "nana^sws? *?r» "pa 1 ? w ax niruaa 

K"Bf? J0'3 'B ]1K B"p ]1»0 " Jtf'HX iWW'WTp «pK JSÖ^iBIK PK 'I , 

.(i"o nisrt ,]k»b«i nps 1 » ]ib Kiaa ,bikt irr) 
apa »5 max ?"i w»an%, :b5"x")S1 w?bö arua na fttiat? "i (** 
/wm? k"k» »3bö »laia t»»k ani: rr>rw w»n "an ja arnaK vt\ 'an 'iia 
an?a in»nn bki ,n"ntfa f> anai no^s; asa n^'a»^ rtf'as? pa "vw «5 ök 
"laxn ,n9'B5? »aa yisi ;B'*rcnB '33 laaia ,an btit B':nanw '3Ba ,i3"n ,a'3sn 
— trag? t)B? ,D'fiBT asla — fttu? «i» :p'iaKia a'a k?r '?aa 'in k? ,Kiia?n 
.(V3i "ö ,»i*i: niK) " '131 Ta aB'»i &?v taia 



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•?i .1 .K fflSUtf ö'O Ö313?? 



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»35yn Ca ,]sst»a — ?a3wyaxsTya -uwi« "ist "ps Di^g-wa 
ogi — .snsm&s n ^b eist in üss^s aa«sras»ts , a »»»T" n 
jiö aa ! ip , 'ü33?'i833'»?a |« ssts »i — .'"J'wa,, e?8 nitnwi 
*s?a sn» "»i fs 'X — .aaiasaxsTsra -wt» ist fs »iib "ist 
bt$? esn »aaiayassstsa s?8sn»K -h Bssi^symB pyvi aaiayasyr 
? jtssa'n ix isa's wa-issa -wa f w 

234392X3713» n9tt'*T"«W3 ]W "1SB7'*T" IST ]B7'TIX p'BT 
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"IST "1K3 P3 19231393X9Ty2 MSTBngD ]W ]ü?KnS?33K p»n 

*no h pn - 33ia»JSX?Ti?3 tss? 'am nsi ö*i? 
p»33s?ns» 't pk pimm .piasBarooaüjn öw»ä ?ga3"j? 
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g *ix3 tnsm 't 'n ^'135*0^002557- nsooxB n oiyn 

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.]4T in BtP'3 Ü3B*T 

,vno n owa oxn a3i35?3**5?T573 • is^'ö'in -ist ü'i5 

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»1 ,T P? "iwk o^'3 otx5 f a» ä'ix ,rx ^»»»t 1 » is?i 

»1 Ü3*""T ,]'T XI X' ]!*35?-'0 3'1X .157ÜOKO '1 B'X Ü3tt*T 
1571 ]4B ÖÖ4pXa 1S71X 5035722 X 137B3XB 3?D£?13?3-n3inn ÜE*'3 

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os?i a'5is wia i?i!*ö55* i5?ix 2715733" »i i5'bx ps?a 

.]O5Kn5730'lX TX IIB TIX 'I 015711 ,]5?5ü3?3 |"3 

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is?i iis p'Msnsx. t'x ,]25?a - aaiasissrisa ijwa'ii is?i 

1371 D'X pp .]5?33S7123"1X D'X ]»p p3 TX 0X11 ,?1D33n 

]3S?3 12 3'ina tx is* pk ,no3on 37is?03?i3 x 7,57333713 pa 

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eax» bst px psn ,psasa bbpj pa pp tk axn tsö 
-o'i« i'ina px ]ix a-isa^asa BBpaTxa b>ö tk « ]B»»5» 
,p3 Ba3S"iasaa»"ix 8' B'x axn »i pni »o /»i ]B?xn« 

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«k Bis tstsx ]x «p» |S'siS3».T8 p |*wi ST»a a>ix 
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jkb ist p?sn is ,psai8B ?>s pxn 'na n ]xp a3iasa 

8 21*18 '1TS 1'! &ȣ&"& .B3S1 BW pp> pKH BBP3. ?KT 

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lijta ]0'a 

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- ]BX°nxB ...pW3 öü'3' sxi vx px f D33s?.nai8B snsnas 
m psnxB }Xp a«n ox*r ...a^^ivns x 03xa osn px 
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BIST! ]X8 "13)1 JbJrrM&i 335nBP ^?3Wll»jn»0'lK ÜKT1XB 
•1KB »1 BKH 13? a»lX ,«]X"lÜtf 1S1SP pB B"1BXa l5'BX 

!BJ?3"inis7T 'na spnaöxn 
<i§x "iap'S3»x ist ]xa isn px nsii'p n nsa'x 
*u?Bia ■>*? r»i?a px i3>p pgjsflöiR ptj's nasx ,cbtiö 

.pixT -is a'ina 

Sttl33 B"p33S?*lBB; ISEPö'n IST IS IS'H ]'K 

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is B3$n oxT ■pnjrtx-iB px ]xa BaH ö3h ,n»3Dn oa»ni 
a'ix si?'Bs .noaen oa^n ds?i ]x si?'bx ps dj?t ]B'ipixB 
|x?ai?3issx B3S?n oxt ]xa is?t Bxn ,Bii?33in a"ii oxi 

J *' r ^"~ ,p3»n^1XB D*X ]1X pi?OB!?a"lX TK 



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2 9BXT'X IIB 19p?93 »1 M 3 "B''p'üa9193 w H O"»"!» IS» 

•nie »i px liiasüsin n»»ri« i9i ö'i? -pix a'ix 
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P3 tt>BX3 "3191 Ü391 9TK 193X J939T ,]Xa ]Ö'a üp'B 

.tsiwxa ]ix eax px jsaustt pxn9a oxa i9D'ii93 8 
19"t D»a 33139329192 19P'pis3xib "wn is is?3» 
^8) ]»nsa o M x i9üX9? ist 1X3 P3 tix ]»3»t ni»»nx 
,s»jkb» ps i»aaia»:s»iM h (oa«n 1X3 tix ]939t ?"ö 
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/73X .X ]938B 

PS 1870 IX' |t»a 33139329T93 1 9 » ' 9 3 3 V 19T ü'1? 

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•ikb oxi px am exi . a'ix px ,03a9iaixa sflaiwip 
tJBxiö»xa 19 px ,ö»rpT»n» 03xa px pa3X3X3 pjni 
•?'3 't px i?'B» -pipaxia px oxn ,nxna tx .11x1193 
b39i oxi mn ]xa i9i 1x3 ,p'B?'3 bbw xi px ,p'ö 

,119*? KTX BK,1S?a 'IIB >7 BXH PI 9TX 193'X .JBX11KB K 
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.eia'3'a x pa Bxs?39i3xa jan 

BtP'3 ]9ö B3'3£3 33ia9329?92-]9'lia i9E"i" ijn px 
9ö3B9*l930'1X '1 ]1B D»3"X IX 1T3X 0BPÖ39TK 09B9 

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|ga 191 a'i» jB'ipixa ö^»31X3 pyoixa tx jib ]xp 'iis 



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,]a'?nS3 ]1BTST TX3 T'X 0X11 ,OXT p'TIX TX3 'T Utt1pX3 

*t oxn ,t,ibtst BB?s?n x 'ii tsj?'3"ti josTBxa es js?ö 
tst txb ST'a wn bxii ,ü:>st bxt .m3STas:u"TK oxn 
twa "pix pk .JTiBm^'psjaiKB bxt jo'^tmcix ,minn . 
bss3ST3X3 T,'ix psn ?xs xtx tx ?»ii /»ins -ist naiu? 
.tk ^s ima»nnn s?s'tsdkö s?a»-t 

bxt ]xa tst &W3 bxh jttasaxstsjt t»»>i m ist ü'i? 

*"1KB IX 1X3 Öff>3-*ai?ö 'DB3 W "0 ,'"?TTa ]RX '033» 'T "0 ,B3ST 
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a'ix .'IIB tst «a ]B'ip bbhsix naip ist yix ,*"?na 

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»i i?so» ix - asiasio» vi 0^*11 ,9tyH" 'i |?söwjj«p 

- ]«» ist pk'O 'ii 93£? 1939^0391 nsa?»nsn pk '"na 

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isanpixasi» isn |ssn 03Ki93 jagn i'a o«n ,9a79to«i 

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tk oxv» nnriB h rx 0X7 ,Bp3iB nsp'ix-nsi - ,i»p 
]ö»na va oKn /naina n» ^a okt bsötiiw ]"t oäti 

.(pm □*> 
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03xa o»3»aixöwn«D i^B psni bt»bws:l jna nairi' g 
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n jsHsnxiixa « jsmsn jo'ix ]y3sn jxsttra ypnxm 
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-xpy pi oxa lao'im s ]'x ?xt yan -lynxngB ]ix ns?x 

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vx o?xn93 üxn D'xsn 9p'ixi'i ]» ?«b x ]9ii .]39»ixb 

|1B (?X'?Ö3 "1) 193"X BXH ,]9331S$?39iaX3 939TP1X3 ]BXIP 
JBttHS D3'X Ba»?5» BXH 0X11 ,D'K3fl 9B0p'13O"1X3 '1 

]S9T93 9"3 »i «px,., : oama "t is „ip .3 Bi9i3imx' 

'1 JB1X113X T31X T1X B?'TI 1'X 7/IX T T T 19 19a9W 

]ix BiTn93i9S'8 5x» 9p'3"x "is? öxn i9Bii.ni »i 5 ."9ö?x 

T'K 1» ,Ö'1X BT"11'0 TX ,"1'»„ 131X11 D91 B'B BS13X3 T T 

TT |3xn oxn ,o'S3n 'i |b?»hs i9p'S3"x 191 ]9ii9J bb>'3 

=3S?")X33"?3 191 1X3 0£»S?p93 ]1X JSST93 '1 B'Ö 0091^93 

.'IIB 191 ]1B 331p'0 

*i9i bisjti 6iia% Q3'x 19019 91913X ?'B T 1x 

-3"?1 "191 IS B391t3ä?93 )3XH D'X3fl 9391'EnXB '11 ,B?»X 
]1B p'393 939TtmK3 *p N , ' 1 " 19 " ,s? ' r T 13 "'p'BSPIXa 

♦]3S?9 
'11 ,]9T92 T 1x T& l aKn 1S??B'BXp 9p'119'1B »1 pX 
»03X09391 191 ]1B ]1X 19D?X?Ü'Ö D3'X D'331 93S?TS?1XB 
«O'IX ]B'3»a*03a»? 9391'^IXB T 1N B'ÖXa T T l a ? n 93XS9 
-X31S3"?3 'T ]1X »IIB 191 |1B 93X? H ]190931S 

.T,p'B31") 

j9ii / i9ü?x?ü , a i« ni9BB?n sisbs:'d 'i bi?»3 jsm 



115 



'jv-se ja^ss i'K Myasis!»!» B»n» h okyi ,oxi ö»»i 

-Sin ]3?3S?j? UtfTll B'Ö '1 ?KT DKll ^mK-TSÖ'"!«: ]g ]!|B 

»ömkii is?bij k T'i?3 ja'?as?3 ?xöbb$ # ias? D3'K p'B 

JMÄJW'liK »nS*73X JSN ^BSB'nKB'lK BT»'l'5sn H ]1B 

»nB i»^^*tw is?i ^a aa^njasnxaa"?* n b?xti ^la'D 

.psw» "iwn ?»B K»no» 

STWH" H TK ,]3KT SS B'Ö"l!n ötf'J n»3X ]33»a TB ; 
BtK^ ÖXIl ,S?KSn'X '1 plB? PK 'IIB "»H 13S11 3313B3XST5M; 
WH" 'T *]1K7 ?'B "IS'"! .]B?B3»n SS "1J?3'K W3^X3 ISO 
SS BDXB&31S pt ?XT 't '13 ,pSTI BTB*"lXBSn 33SaS?3XS?TSa 

'»B3"n nsn ]« ]smiM' , TKa'03as7 \w ]B'i3ga ^B'ia h 

]l»»a'?jn JSB S?'BX JS3SI ]S»"lXBSn »39STK .B"'S 1»p 

*.Ba'"l?lSl Bp3*B13XBP 



; (rra n^n »«*») "vrna 5si»»s ivna nns\, ts ,?"-p 8 jagn va (* 
,15 T,a r ?fln Riaa) *a*in aipaa ti»?w i^eki ^nnas na^n T^si ssti "asm« 
xwb «?t Kfi?'» 5s :iiB8 'a^en-pai,, ; ("sns5?iv rri ,?"t -man 5«iav 
«in pa? pinvE? ian ?s : Q"m 5"t D^ensafi wn^si /psrao 'piMa p^n»» 
,5ainn pns ,«ap «aa ,t]Oi* 'piaa) "nK^a^i ruiT? ots 5a r>a iwin nasn 
,p"*-.n» .a ,t"» Kip^ ,nwin ?» ]"aain em -s s "p» »t ,'">a'?ipw>„ n"i 
(.las .s nanpn im ps ,t'''3pn ssis-nn ,anrn inn ,: n»a an n .Vx unw 
jagn »a^B»-p3863f3s>i ii?T "jis "[18 isra^^a aais D^aai *i ,Yi»5fl}v>Bsn »i 
Tfia ^s« ]w psstsra »ayfti/igo twiasrsa ,paiija»T isr't? 8 J8 aT>r aa»8 
israaw.ansa-oaasr? n 5»n ,t,ök pnn rs a»x isr't fa d»ti ,d^t Eanas?» 
i^imsK ü3"ps?Ä bwj isa ]'w fasn psisa sü?s *t 5"ti iutivujSBa os? |28?i 

.a»B5?a yiyia« a^is is-ns ,piS«*n 
(np "isa r.''"' ■jB'I) fpTn ?^n 0811 ,?i2Ti"is ]e»18 ,5t9B5 ^imtiims awsa 
.min 'ist pa fsrsa oan p"p witss fs dkii ps jsnisn ipfl» d'k csn 

IST T« ; p»11» t]"181 "E'CSiS -.EIS,, S ^t?» 1 ? ,TIB?n M3 PTflD 8 f»« fSfaST 

«ru^s ,d , '3''t .nag .« "i^'a sas^asiisiaan« ds'bw »t jib s^j-bbs?: ain-5»a 



116 



,TB ]B3X"lÖ8a .10 X "1S?"T ST PK Pi'BIXSSn *2 

?xa ?»a .pts?a«ns'?n ost m »ppayiagag xtx ,?»a? 
a^n ]"i |jm /isnpp ]» B-nxBt? jga isn tx /pi bbshb 
*"ixa ds?t px b?x ö»»3 ns' p'XJKns ]"p ?xaw ixa px 
na .pxn nxs x ß'ip b?x PK 9"i3nna oaxa DsassnsBB» 
risni b?x bbyi Thsnma okt pa jbixii nan?« n pip 
-■»HS 't Ba"?a px» s?üos?a sn»x .ik' is^-n enooTPa 
-isn wn ,w>2 puKuw jsa ud"yi 5xax .mus jx onx 



p« a'">p ''o rs?nx tiö .vs ms»») iia^n pa pn nix t,bti p« i»jst "t 

pa b»3»ä pviK praisssn »i»"i tpi« p^nreas t's BasosisBr» 
.tia?*) pa wi^i »n « mw 8 pa «ni'sa past »t pa ?»a osn ,B3sn»p*viB 
i t»k'd »bss ."p-oi paa nains« pa napxi »i Bssaxri 9b3b pKn »t ,5»a9 

.T*3 '»B ,T"B ,11131X13 »"8") ,X"a X1131X13) XU»» 1SH pa Xt3'?X!»p09 "I1WT»B» 

psn "T j (xra "o ruxiK iib .xiaara T>a» ,bi?ji .t"üb ,xwk xii3?n :a"3an 
is^aviigaai« oa">Bi;v n pa naixts im Bs-Basra "»na »i ts ,pnsa jpr» 
bis im pK wo »B83 /'o-naiywa,, pa "o ,"pmn »3a« pa "o ,p»ansa 
pa ttt»B»ya *pi« pisn lyosya »i ts ;('j? '»o rsxiK) na5n oais xi3?n«po» 
Tia^xi djib xi35n«pOB eis t^xi p» t»k'o »osa »nim^a sxssSamisaais **? 

.na« .* 

-sra pw psxi -va osn |aun /"xmia,, psn napn i>p>B3>ii »n bs>« 
e» tasn Big p« b»x pa paaiaansa »i ?»n ,f58 osn ,4 ?b^bkp p« Biyi 

.Bnsissya 

t» ,oasT ,D»iiin8n ^na »i ps isa"« ,(1831 — 1767) is^5m nwa '1 

B"»S IS»«! T'3 B811 ,D8T ]a'1?1»1 IS B3»1 OST ]38n in py' pB D-'iai «1 

vima3 n»an »n) ikj o» pyn«s |saaia3'i83»oi3y? »i a^i« ,-iidk jsnwa t-»« 
»18T .B*3p '»o ,i"a t]i ,T"apxi ,«a?*»n ,niyaa •'s?« : «"9'sa xnis^a tioi 1 
f :» »b5 ,najiE?a Min ist ?aa na^rt pDB„ : t»i« i» aa^t 5"p "o ,B"a t]i 

.("Dn'xiiBiai Dn'xii??3 »a? ,"inn »ww 



117 



»*& x j*»i 7$b ?rn 79äxiiip 797 -»sjiK ,t»k m'B93 ^'3xn«r 
- üW37X3 öJKangD ns'?n '7 oxn ,d?93 9»io »O'v^ g 
]sn ,]?&b T 18 18">xb « n;ms? 9p'a"x ]« jx't n ua«?a 
w»a oxn -i» 1X3 ,nr?n ps?a ?'ii 793XW -ist i?'bx 
öp'3 txo 79 jix n3i$?o'ik j?k t'x 79) o»p39?39» n 
rx pxa 12 paip is ö"pDs?'9as?a n öbp3 oxn 797X 
.cp ü3'B93 ns^n »i ixn ,73X? 097 

,]1X'013' IIB ]'39 797 TX /OOX ]'« 7X3 ÖS93'» ]91T 

'73 />i7B ist naio? ]93xöknmk; jtf'mi px px nr?n 
7973'p |x jansöw osn ]xa ist a'ix ,1,9397x11x3 12 'T 
x |X la'^a 12 |S?öipo?T» tx ]9p 7 o fix ,]»»«n' o'x ]?xt oxn 
ü?73xii7xa tx -ixb os? t'x ö^s 7jn m ]ix ,79793797 

p'ö'"»3 '11 Ü2'X ]9» ü»BEnXB - p'?3ÜlK ]X ]'X 7,7X1193 

.93 .7 ,x ?n'3?op p9ii p 797 fix .D7xb97 x t»k X7 
797 ns?a 1939T oxn ,]29T93 ]ix ]»anxss?T s??x '*r 

]3Xn ,pX1193 03X1393 WWPB 111373 ]1X S38B»-Tlö?fl 

D3'x rx n?'np h ?"ii ,]79n DTB9337n B39p93 o?x»97 

IX 73XOffM'X J91193 T'X 'T .Ü3X» X 191193 J39? ]^'T' S 
-»3 J1X J9Ö7XB97 9?X 12 J0XB1212 7,'T J80 097 J933'Tl£ 

a M n ]"T ]as?3 öw»3 ?'ii ]xa in tx ,03"n 79ax ,'t29? 
yn?'3'?s?i x DTBsaain tx O'ö 7X3 79 oxn obx oxn) 

J393 ÜP'3 TU 793811W 797 TX ,MTO?8SiD»lX T1X (H3inn 

?jj?33'Tis 12797 "t j9p i»n - .93 .7 .x ii2'?n i"p 

oia' ,9'öRa»?8B ibx^bx 039p93 oxrr» 'ii o« 'itx 
,o»2 797 ]ib ü"pn3s?nü'i3 x 191193 rx'b ?"n ,.?3 .7 .x 

TT ÜTX? ,Ü1S?7KBS?3 09 ]äXn 1933iJ'7Ka03ä»? '7 |"11 
797 IIB ?713 lp'79'17t3 D»7 ]7S?tD3"?7XB ]?XB '7 ]'X 7,'IX 

.'17B 
0X11 / ]9'17B '7 7X3 X7 ]93"Ö TS TX ,T T 0"0a'7XB 
,niS9 ]'l» ]93'B93 9T9'3'?97*BB"3 '7 ?"11 .T9'3'?97 ]939T 
.7903"? pXÖ 12 T>T ]?gB 9?X '7 ]'X 'ITX'll 



118 



'S 7 D'"H0'8 »D^TK J3D p*9 ftyT "ISMO H "pK ]Sm 






119 



6 f * 8 Ig p 

ißönz "2 ;« jr "2 raiJipp pn rartp 

fssni sri?5 n»325t3D ,, ii? isn nana pn^p <»a »»a&agas* 
— ,b»ia «am D*in paa p" »a — .-pm }B'>i5 — .nie m 
«?a»a p^a t»a lacip» "«a pmo'-w s»a«j$3jja a$n 'Inph 
«i»n »n fia üisn »n ps tf'sps'n o?g "p^ »i — » •w?8 
„Jus primae - •witffl s»*a$*is »wt i^T-iaxa a"a is/ar 
sw?uonp 'i — ."osysjnjns« — ,sr:is?i , »«'3"'? — noctis". 
•oim^ XIX a:ia fsyt^a, — .swnsa ns?!>'8sn ]$ s'bbaüps» 
.»nifpjäji? — ,y»8a$i$a pa srsn»« n bp'J-is pga agil ,a*isn 

'ins -isn ]ia dbjti n |ia -p^nxa x pna tb jsni 

*pX ]?S?Ü&'SK *pK *]'! VB J9-IXT ,]1"-öff>3 ]*K ]"P» «3 

•B»'J ]1» ]T" "3 S'BXJIUXÖ ]1X 5?'öXr>?XB ^B JSSTSn 'T 

•lüD'ip ]1» 1*1" "3 fP^TSS ™IS?D^B 1SHX ,]iw 

"ist "3 -|'t p'T3a?sn /lsasaxsTJ» sss?B0'"ip h 
i,*vib -ist 12 MwagnjjaiiKnwiD |ä»ii ans? -i5?Bs??üO'np 
••»a |i« sraxp^B p"p ]ö»nt30'n8 nnasa "isaDxa |axn 

B'B 1S?D^S T'K OKI! .fSTSi Er"»BXaX3$ö »""IV"!,,, ?'Bttr' , »a Ö?» 



120 



,i:»v)xn B»öisn *p* ]?'t> ,]r>-p' iib nx' üspib "paü 
»ii ,'na nsn is nsBasns» rx aHasaxBisa is?"t b"ti 'ii 
ixb nap |«p ö»»a rx'o tx ,-pT B"BBnxB * .s?u"i" "h 
pnsnjiimx' ]B3 M a |t»a dxti ,dkt Mia»axsT»a "iswt» "isn 
.B'bxji^kb üa'T?-isn jsnistt vx B'i? px 

»'öiuxax» maa pjsno'ix wöpija axn "»itx'Ti nsax 
Diü:üonp dxt |»n 'x ? pB'ij? ]ix p" "3 »*öx:p?xb jix 
"jxa ja»? )'x p" «a »1 px sraxjixax» is/ausnax mn 
»1 *?*bk. ,]t3onp n jaxn 'X ? bvbbm«k piis» b .■ -a 
ütbj» ,aiB:üonj? D3is nyawxsTi» ]ix "ijr«BBnxB »Baasn 
"ljrr ]4B jxstsj. snsnax pxn 'X px ?]a»? Bpaxaxixa s 
"isrus? ?'B px "jx3 fsnat »a?»n ,jwasaxst»a nsas??BBnp 
-sa B»'a«is ora /isb'Wb'ö pxa }»iar ]5?ai3s?33x jsiim 
? jpaxaxsxa psni f sisa oxt bskb 

,pxa -i^t^p nix öini pxna sp'ixTi *px is?sb:s? -isn 
jsmno'ix b"üj?xb axn spamaxö jajm psisa oxi »iTg'Ti 
p« "3 px spaxaxaxa »11 ]ix i»p?s?a »as?Bonp h "3 
,-wna nsBisn^mx» ?'b b>» "|X3 pxnsa btx»bj?xib 
.fs?TS?a x pxnsj p» "3 px »i isn»»« 

fSHStt 0X1 PX JH»? IST»'*'?»"! 1»B7H m "im B'l? 

n .pxns» Ba'BB'xs p?x 11BX3 im ]» xpaxaxaxa jia 
Bxn ?'303xa psp ixe tx ,B?»xim rrnoa sept* »B?*rnn 

B3'X ]BgB'X ?'B T^B ]?K ]BXWX3 'IIB ]"X 1X3 BXJ 



n** ft?»a">T j»k wuos^i^s ö"i»iosm»K iswur nsn c;jn *'»8Jg:sx» ?*n 
#1922 ,pi^ ,»:iKa» ein n«3» :. nwnjrM'»» ,r .p :s?:) J33»awi8 fr 's 

.(17 .1 

m 



]ie 1K3 ,93'$asMznipn.»an3 isn ns?a p» »a spagagsg» 

">KS |i?3S?I l»3'")Sn jMÖ3B0»np D31B 331»BPB3K "IST n»3 

.pim s»Hiö?n h Bens pnaasaasa t»k 
b^sehkb |»n»a yaxjtfKB pr "i»p?»B-mtB s??8 »a 
•Boy^« j B3>V5hsn ]»Yi»a p" «a "p» »i p» # i»?syT»3 jir 
5?« ]iR 2i3saypija p*n?Bty 'I "natan-'aan h ]3Kn iton 

WSTWngB B'ö TT "I )3Xn ,]STISJ T^ßÄÖ PK'Ü 5fl'll 

•m-i pii 3KB osn jf'8 tk ,B? M sn»7 Tia?n nsn 
brt ]nKB«r»a pr ^kiw^fi« pp |»Bip»:i pr ipaRan 
jagn tmnn B3ypyj n» b&h -iMnsn jir isna p& 3»n 
,mn äMTTi nyi asn psm bist t»3»9b"t -\p 3 .|nn s'a 
ist nsa 'ii i»o»b» bbpj psns». pnwsmR "p« rx °?fl 

faWTft T»*T .1SP1D "]83 WBR pK mB3BO'")p 231B aM M BWB3& 



Svis* npn «5 nmn« ?« nw«"u : «TpSn {?bo »9a piaan nn (* 
' ■•nv 8?s ,«r»a nninx "nmnx ?s npsu pi» |*ri ."n»na n*5sr nm-i» ni?a9 
n« p da d^xi» 13« -ins Bipaai .ö»sipn nsp taa wan n»»» ,nnKa b'im 
.*"tmt*»»a? vm w»«a pa*ii ia« nsi vas n« »*« air»» p 9s? „ : ntn frsnn 
M»na*. lasa om ,n"D*in ,]>7-ia ,pt?tn iso ,-pfiim) •n'aa'uiaa pi *wbk nn 
,nai n»»Kia .a"a pitnoo , ; a naio :*pK sri .T?sna .b? -n jib *niin»n 
Dr. M. Güdeman : Geschichte •" wia nan inp .rro n«r» 
des Erziehungswesens u. s. w. 11. 165 '*, Wien, 1884. 

Johann David Michaelis: Mosaisches Recht, bei Jo- 
hann Gottlieb Garbe, Frankfurt am Main, 1793, 
Zweitor Theii. 208—171 n. D. Paul Volz : Die Bibli- 
schen fllterthümer, Garber Vereinsbuchhandlung, Zwei- 
te Auflag®, Stuttgart, 1925. 334 i 

122 



-gl «na |P'ö?kös?t |D'i9 axn oxn /'IM}» i'Ji tx ,ü:xt 

\9f> T^* n TS13 '* ün33?Ü 'l™" 1 ö, ° l axn ^VW 1331X1 

p* a-n v axn -px ?"ii ,jaxn ruinn v . ö'ö bb»3 "jap 
.n«nn tx o»a vt axn... sa»x t,x3 ]»a»a bp'3 ixt ixö'3 

•"ia»ni Pf» BW: -JK-? taosn n 
w pyn nvpn 8 px itx?3"t$ b»»i "pi i,?yn va 

B3J?j?ltt B$n 1» )»11 ]!X BpXD DSS? D»T 7/IB B»p'B3'1 

*itk nxa ya^tes-Tiata "wn nya axn'a a*i» nyax ,p>bxb 
ö"x -I»:»' ix ix ,T"i]8ä lyaTia x t,xi oy r»x ^«asj 

,pwi «3 ÖTBM3"« ]»11»Ä y>aXJX3Xa pW PX 

B?»a-iyn p3p?x py-ixa ix na tx ,bjxt Tia?n ist 

**.nya»n »m oxnya axn iy tx ,pws ist 
SBoas??i»' , 'B »i, tx ,a?"x-isn Tia?n iyi oxu ,oxi 
-BT px axa TOS-rwan jynya ]yayi p» »a amo-ai' 
iy3Biya p px ]ya3xay;t0'i-ix ]x?3»t ^5t*8 ?1 jyn /"iiba 
axnya bbpjj jaxn oxii ,n ]ix omna »i jBxsxüyji px 
px ?*r»a s a»ix px ]Stt3X3$?33>nx "pix |»s»t ,")ya"ii p»p 
in pxnya jox^yj aix ]B'ix px ,]?»aya "t pa jray 

,»*T pX B'Tina 1X3 TX ,B"BP Oy 0X11 ,0X1 • ** 4 flVT?ff 

pxw >a w ,"iina„) iya»n ]»p axnsn bbp3 pxn oxn 

iysy» px tx /rix ap'nxa ^»MgasarnB jy3yT ,("ni?x i? 

.btbsmwji ]ynya y>axax3xa p« »a pia> px a»x 



»n?iRa nn« ff ?«a ,»n9m n« n>rm* ]s 9iss9 5ais 89 :9«jn iamn. (* 
kjyu »*n 'a «pma* saivw im b»o»öis3 ,'('i ,'i nn) "»•um? ?3i« s5 »a 
nn»a-im« aoa9 iin »5 n»? snn'» ■>? nw 9» ,'9 pna»? 9'D-» sj» n">9 

."«nn 1 « ^9 n->9T an« nn ^ p*iD... «n9v 
Tswmnwa nma airan :i»8«i»3n »ai na «an 'iow »n? "i* (** 

.(«*» .3»p ,« 9«ia» »t .tra ,9«iaw w*na) "iaja 
»!"« la-nvi srpsa »3»«n»a fnsa f« jnaa n»T ts ,i»an :»« o» (*** 

,>n:a b»t p»n a5"x*>sn oi»ii899 oismg» ^l« ,sn>-asa 



123 



■]»n»a \>w ]i w »»a pr s'axajpxa tx »i^iiija R 

"1KB -|B X T1R 13733?* ,S2KES'11B , 7fl "191 I1S?a BTB9!13' ,, K 

,-|Bi£03isi ]i« nsünsYianfiff ^sjapiNBX ,rii-ia ,, B »jstp 

# ÜB3»Ö X ]1B l'in 0X1„ ,?»»? .118911 ]'X |8J'BJJ TB 0X11 

,naia x Pin pr xi pr'o a'iR, 5j"a"n ]«t pr ori 

SD« X 1'« - a»YI BW X« 6^"a"11 BSH p3X1 X OS PR 

7 ,*"B?aKB ]S35?t rix' »3«! ,]xa tr PK 9'iRii... man 

8 ,'"a»n ]ji'is"is , t»bm x bkh oxn ,-191 - ?Tn pr isn w 

9 /B3S?» pn3SB» fi'R PR ,3WTI B35'?W X OXil'B ISTI. 
X »11 D'R PR >T,, 10,"2RB nSp'13p?R11 X PR ]2S? pl 

«ngB'o isu* 22;wd ist 'n isB'a d'r pr'o,, li/nsis 
]xa -ist a'iR,, 13 j "jBx-nsB tir ö'k »t bsyi ,a«n ] w i bxi 

] M T 1X3 1X3 ,DS3'7 "1RB Bttf'3 IS Ba*tt?BtP — ■ BaiXO» 

»»»a n BaixB^... a M n pT DaixBWo |sasn w ]ix u"a"ii 

»DS^'f B»»3 Ö^B 'T... 15 ]KB TR 1XQ "1X3 ,0S3»p 1XB 
fl... BXTp"lgB B'R pSll B'-IB 93PT... 16 ]XB 091 "1X3 
/p?Jl PR'O... nSBSS'B D'K 0*1911 B?S11 »"T... t>?RB "IST 

n^B«» ]«t PR pxnsji aiin b?xii tpipan-rva ort 'ii 

TT BT"TI IIa"?*! B3»R ■J?SOB* 91913X TB 1X3 P.B 

.»nsawii-^'B is ii" fia ■ßpxxa »ipbr^ss »i o'tir 

a w ll 0X1 a'IR TX ,B3XT BR11 ,fSTS3 sfEPiiö 1 ?*! 0X1 

TR "jRl IX"» ]5?22 ]1B TV?*1KB PR 1913'p ]»'p WW BXJI 

'iw?ü "is-i ns?a tx ,tix oi"nxa ,im ix 't bbib /lumn 
,jp??x2«3^a BTssaa^R jsnsji 01031" o^a pur; pr ,s2xbs 

X 1X3 ]SaS3 "jXI jSp IS ,1BJ 't IS ?RT BR1T1RB ?"11 

oxi ?xb xtx px Bxn 92XBs=t£Hip- t an2 isi nsa ? a^n 

]8Ö 1S1 "191R / D03'>1 TR |3S3S?3 7KB BS1 3"11 S^S'S'BX 
B.W'S B?RB91 BXH B"p''TX'?*1S13 , 'p .a"n K -|R3 ]sms?:x Bxn 
•JS11931 l^'BS 'IIB IST PK'Ö .B3 ]1B J12''0 '1 ]«T B3XpS3 
132 p'SBBlR pSll 12 "J^Sa ■jS'TB'a ]13ST)123X Ba*1?1S*7 
"J1R - fSTSÄ 0X1 'IIS BTlPBXa >f»i TIR 18 .IS^'p ]3XH 

B2s?p brh »»»n ?»n .»'BB'isBps'isa "is ,, i pr oxi 



124 



»s» axn ir ]ix nana iaai oxn /tnsnaimx» ja^s» aa»st 

S?J"T) "IS?a"TI "112t ]"j? ]S?aS?3 tt BP'3 Dlfl J»I ]1S BD1811 

ia nps?' iaan ]i« n'i? po pnsr Man dh'ö?« s?js?s?TS?a3g 
ötii'bxö "\xi ]ix ( v 'tn jia a^an »i jsmya ys?as?T np> 

-K'3»St ]1B ?XB 1'« a"ll OXT JDJ ]1B f»I»a OKT IX ,1V 

•smx jsmaa p" «a j'w px oxii ^"pix^-isnpj? is?pn 
?«ii ,nx9-isn r« ,saxB»-"nö?fl im jib a^nax a»a jsaw 
•.spaxaxaxa öTasaa»»» jsnisra p M "a pitp rx ö?xasn 
axn aena im -isn"x ix: tx ,T»nxa nsnx?? x rx 0x7 
»s?a p» "ä ]»w px ,spaxa>a ]a«p ann ]"i jasasao'ing 

.jpaxaxax» BTBsm^x jsm 
•"iy*i a"n oxt ]BJ as?a'a 'S ,nia?n ]'x xmi?s n 
|ix tx iNB unsasw x b'ö ]axn nainn Tira ?»n ,1x0 
-xa x tix px »»asra'a tx ,aaj?0B 'X3fl px oxn ,0x7 
"a spaxJX3xa ]»w px saxBB-B'xan nsn ns?a tx ,t»ii 

.BTBSm"K pnsn pw 
pxvun i&aissnsx p" "a px spaxaxaxa isn^x *]X3 
oxi asrisa nainn nsn ixb ,a"n oxi axn ,p?s?a o?x 
*s?a aiv'j ?xt is tx ,]xa tx B'a |»a»3«tö'ix tt B3s?n 

•SnO^lX B»»3 '83fi BSH TT BXH »T 3'18 .3"!! X 1X3 JS?a 

,asnax3 "ixa ,3"!! x Txa ]s?as?3 B3s?as?a ns? axn ,]»au 
*o>ix sn^a ]s?p is? tx ,pxns?a a?»ö»»aao»B px'o *n 
•s?a a""ii saan» oxt axn ?kb asn pk tix -is?ax .ja^xn 

-Ö0S7B PX'O JS7H 1TBX 20.]B3 12t >T ]X8 BSH ]»aa*HX B3S?j? 

axn ,ns?a ,, 'n -\o x ]a?xno'ix ]xp ns? tx # |ixiis7a a?s?aiys?a 

axn ?na']na nsri 21 .tb »n ns?a ]s?aa3 anxos?a aa^a is? 

22.a«n px 'n is?a jann anxas?a öwj 



naws) s'xin? mi« l'Bis in?' k?i d'i» " nnu nn»i n^K k»3„ (* 



125 



•n» ]»k tnsni "T-iö?nn-'ö3n n ps ds3"x ]»p pyn 

.*iya"n »iij: jaxji ?§t -i» ,o?»*riJn ura pa 
u'ös-3 okid Rimeras i»B3">»?»a nyappixaxiB *un 
Biöaoenp Q^a bb3»ti8B ]o»tij dst ir'nxa 12 ,33k /pi 
m*»bipb38 ns?T nya tx ,vbo>ir n« aaip cns nsn irb 
-K3KD BTBim"R piiya p« "3 pw pr Bimeonj? 03=13 

23 .»'»R*. 
,pnB01?'R B3S?py3 Tö ]B?R11 JÖp^B ?»B "|K3 ö'ö 
JßPWmR. IST 1KB "JK3 p" "3 PR y'BR3'?RB »118 '11 

.ppya BBaypo px öxyjyiaKa DiBaBonp oaw 

TR ,0'ng TT BP'll |BHyia»J oyn ps pi» iya& 
=S?3 BT>aJ?33»R p" "3 5P73H3lpS» PX fJIBl 0?g t£?DK3 
Itf'tSpgS "mx 'T PX ,11"' JBB?» 3"H3R pH bbh» pxn 
J1X /»3BM1»3 pB U3XSS? HS?*! n»3 JSBMJMR ]»11W ]'1W 
»3^-n'3 ]\t ^13 Q"3 |S»R;B»B38 PR 0X11 ,OWaBDn|> OKI 

ayi brji ,sBpso wi*% r ]»hm a»na8 pi px px px 

•ya3"x oy pK p" »i pB |»o«»]ny3*K VB3"8.3pa83R3xa 

♦fstM o?x /pt M * ön ' s 
•n'3 pa ys^sy isn nya üxn p» m 3 s»öki»?kb 
n Bsn oKänsn pw ,iB?Rna.8 asx? B3xpya w>i >av 
•sbp snyna ns?a x jsaianRB B?x»sn brm »na ww 
Sy-tay? yjpnniaa» y?x px -iy-p'R ,bb8»?»tjmi iyi px mi? 

p»p pX ]BK?W»aB8 jyilSJ, BW'3 PR »T ', 7K"UP'-f 1R |W 

»ya T'x 't ]»n ,]B'n»a bp'j »t bxh nyan p'p ,Qyi^n 

«y* B3R1BR3 BK"3 plW T'X »T .11 .TX .X 0X3 pX p33X3 

PK) b»'s nsas» pa ispiyB y?x By»3 "3 'ii »itx pxn 
pxn IS pwgD 8„ '11 - <B W X 1S?p'D3"n pa "lyp^sB ?'B 

•.(0?»33S) nyi3'p S3»?XyTM 

tt(fn »I 2 , ' , 1K ,3*11 O^T f ^ sjISTa T8 ,f!7T3n SW'T" CSJT p* (* 



126 



1*8 H" »98 ]W'11S T8 ,00*3 "|83 Ö"1K3 BiTT *1»28 

o-pbs:u"k |»hsj ö'»s n»3»' ix rip PK o?»n "isnx3 ist 

.SPÖXJKJSD 
33*»DErü38 *lin "J83 -pK T'K p" ]Bnj 9'B JP'YIX 
.]S7»13S?J3X ]»11M ütrr'3 *]«3 1?'8X3838» Dlü3D0'lp B313 

•B'i-i8 iimmm o«nj 133T osn pxn »593711 ,ni3'o n 

,OXT ]1K PJ9$Rdi ]3"i? (1002-1001 «p»?) Bin DSH ]3»3ri 
pxn .13» .X Jö'fl ,»'980'« ]1B ]V 'T ,"nBO-'9l3 »T BKN 
Oö«ni 133"» DSH J9ÖS3 1?) «pK O^XTIJJJI UW'3 Ü9X»»1 
]B1"13 9"D "2 T'K n"'- ]IM1 B3'R "JH3 TX ,^"11X3 24 ,B"in 
"PIK .B"l'Bim"K ]yil»3 ÜKP3 -|X3 JP8XJX3X» 8*1331" B3'K 
1WT" D3'K ]Bna S3?X3»K "PI 15?3'8S3 3KÜ ]p'Ö3"n B"2 
0811 ,p» nS3»'*l 'T P.K Q'HIBD 9"D ,912789 ,'11 ,j?9K3 
.ÜX3*1XB-S'»X3'9XS P.8 BW'3 JöJSH 
B'l9 # ]»Ö830'1» Pl93 ]S3»t ]BnJ S?39X3"K "!»3X 
,993 ]3Sni ]?möTIK IS 1'T»1K ]8 1*711573 09X11 BS »39911 

•xaixa -i»3»9üBnp ist "3 exn ,okt ,9ty»9 ,'n öj?mb 

- y»X3'9Xß ÜVf!»33"X 3XIM2 B3"H 183 PK S?DpS7D-"[V4 
•3Ü&'*lp> ]p'Ö3»n D"3 TS ,P'11X3 8 "188 ]»3>n BE"3 ]»p 

.S'ÖS3'98B ÖTBST33"« PK B1B 



« »»»sa s« «p» »n ,a"ii 1»t sps apip 1» im ts ,i"ii8a i»p vwi ov 

IT" J»ll ,»3(JSl?»'»11p» , '2nS "ISH 1« tt-»S '1 T>B fT»fin»B318 ?S'B11p> 

« 118 i»*ia»p y»?XBtn ja^n is ?b-b » >r»i« >n ,a»yi )fMR Bpipsa fa^n 

yp-HJ'T 8 »11 ,1"I8H»S B3JJ*)B83 T»8 ,B8?m Bff'J ISWfl *"p J38H 0^11 ,'11D 

im »na im ej»iie spipsrj p" jagn «njnss ibj .psYisa B38^iQ' , i8 fix 

.DlBJBC'lp ]1S M18»aEMS18 1»"» 

»38Bjr-niin»i«a ist 18bi$j nu-anaa « pn oy3?»Ti ,f»T»Ä-m2-' ejp 

B3K-1US3 D1B-IVB5« »'« T'K nsm'p ]8 13")«»» DgT (l jSgSI ]»38CÜBa8 t»U 

,na-;n p» p'?iai» ]8 ikd «•»aoisa Jim» bjji jio rj^-iw s 383 p^VHM 



127 



loo'ip "3 )»t»äo*ik Bim »*ösa?a«a *t 5 ii^« i»ay 
va psn ,isb989b*b psa t'3 ,B"j?3j;?j?-mi narr p» 

|3S?9 "Jff'a8a838a„ ]D'18 j?'9a 8 |B"1X11 pSMl Tö 

oKn ^ssisa ? ,,5 ö «i'iK i DimBonp oms "»»BttnxB h ps 
jop'T'öiSB pH lasnsao'iis. pxn i»»i»n »3»9BB'ip »i 
pp»Ti s ]axn OKn ,B>ana» s3»9bb»»9»im is»t «p* 
.11 .8 .8 pS9*]S'9'B8B ]B'B tn3»ar 
/pnj?381B P« T'8 19BSBP "J'18 pK 1»B989B'B p« 

i»i"K ,is?a üxa BimBonp sw9'ibsj? »ans sxi *irn 
pnsn B"j?3»9B'i »i ,ns?s^n pn B8nx?a ,t2nsn3N pn» 
»w9 8 pnsa nawin >i pk ]$b psa .pxDsn piSBtf 
B'a paraisa piwi pasT BSpasasiBSMiawin 'i .aanraixß 
,?pa9 .pas?3i-n3nrin n isa Bsmi« an9>ii i»93"iism»B'i8 
•s?a p» p'iia 'i tt p»9a B"s?saB:iiK-n3inn isn ns?a 

,'pXB BS3>089S30'18 |« |S38B p8 B5?j?83 pBB'lK 1»3 

bsh'b pn ,pn "D^'s,, x ins p98ns» B98asn oxn'a 
,bb8p9»tsmm»» s pH pa*ps»3 M is pn n pn ,9i»a x 

•»B8BW IS» 0811 ♦..|9"B«l»Bl»p »3SB9XnX3 '1 Bj?Jn»3SX 

bkh ms psasia 8 f?s ,Bsnsa bxh pa» i»a M n s?9»'S 



orss fix rwvntfn-p j"p Bjjrm era bkh »t ,nns?s n jaiSTgs is »ts (J 
1»]? BKnsn t3w»3 osn »t 3*18 .jhjöisb oa^pM Bp»a "ps »t osn enma» 
t'8 v "o ,»Tiasra |if» »sn ]'n«oa«a) jwm bjjjbsi n otyri östi ,">JH3*p 
« (3 ?(-isn3'p> jasjn is |ynsa , »i«i uwa p» t»8 p« a?s "0 ;iui» ;ywi 
n ^is )»iiM»Ba»a o»»a n b.5$ifi i b a'i«) Ba» yvt ^»aiss öxn je^gnisn 

*T ?8T DJH 3'?« T8 ,811» 8 ]»YI91 f>K ,*19"«*p 1"]? ü«n»2 BW»3 B5811 

•bä BS» pk a^fl ö8T 9»m ^« Ba»>nwv |"p ]»aipsa BV3 B"s nsn enj 
-w Bjjfi ,D»Ba» |»8 b?»öm |»Ti»a i»8 las? Ost ti K ö 3^ "uriss ]s ]ia ]vn 
•w'id »t) iasrai8a«oi??8D D31B asiTsnanya 1 »« )x pmpi» Bsspsa osn a»l 

.B3» |»8 Ä«1W 8 pB 33SanSü31K Q»l ]B'.Ti8B » .(4 |<I8 3 ?ö'B8p 



128 



osn üxnya pxn n?i50«H»n' pi?a .b^dmix d'k ]»o 

.]5»B"118"18B IX SPBX3^X5 SWX'BKöl» 'T 0=10 
P8 Pl?3 BBT'3 ^'ÖXP^KB S?SPX'B8a*l8 »1 P8 ??33 

/«nasfl »»*»B§n«K snsnix ?'B pk yix "1x3 /pipsm« 

«WB»n PX .D»PBS?13»BmKB BOa?S?T X "1X3 1. "18113« BD»pB83 
25.BVB}»3"8 ]STIJtt il"' ]ü-17 03'X *JX3 >T PX 13X? 
=>XP 1S11S» -JS3 PS 13X"533$? 75711 ,"1»B?8?B'» 1/1273 

oxn »na 203573 x .pxa-ixs jsnis» 03 ist px , p>!J'ib 
oxn a^n oxi nsax .pnx hsjbb'i?? px tjp'tmxB jsa 
•pi «a |sa»3B'i« /jxa tx ?ib jo'ii fü'a i?'bx ,B35?a5?2 
isnis» *px px üiXT ,oa»?s7a >t ]axn oxn /i»Bn h 
snayiD ]ix nwn jwnx o»a>? "3??'üd"3„ dtbsm"8 

26 .ii?35?a 
,vnp3X-)B px px n*' |p'i3 "ps7? iib B"X ist pr 
ixs psnsw BSXiDxa nsna»? s?-isi3X px |ix i38?ffB»i 
?xt ]xa x tib a^n oxi tx ,Mi3"Bnsi ■iS3S?3* , »ns:i x 

WlTBa BXH 'T 0811 ,]8B ]B»11X X IX ]P'B3S?3 7»3P57118 

1X3 oxn -i»öa»?»a isn .a'9 a'x bxh >i tx ,Bns?pnsn 

TT f T ' , I r 

ÜS711 ,B3X3 15JX3X3 IST "pH TX /p5?W BB1XTX3 TR 18B 

27 ...•)« BNP ]"X Pl?3 »T n» 



"l$a p.'iasa mm ojjii ,1153 *un ümpga cnss »yis s?bxs?5 **i a»?« 

Dr. L. Benzinger: Hebräische Archäologie :T* »0 
2-te Ruflage, Verlag von J. C. B. Mohr, Tübingen, 
288 t 1907. 

Johann David Michaelis: Mosaisches Recht, 
Frankfurt am Main, 1793, bei Johann Gottlieb Garbe 
358 '» 11, 17 't 1. 

D. Paul Volz: Die Biblischen Altertümer, Stutt- 
gart, 1925, Garber vereinsbuchhandlung, 2-te Auf- 
lage, 343 '). 

129 



■»* ja»n Wim 1 } pa i»n»a sniasa ]i« -is«h&n »n 
-»adK jsnistt jsmsj ]?»b »Bönj»»a«pK oxn ,irin p»iB 
jib o'Bxa»?xa ]».ii»j ]$m »i .|»38Jn$-oö3»?ws» ü?§ö 

B"ll 'Htf «fl» PN "IS?T"H X?3?5?TX ]3M»a 081 .*lin»\>13K!P 
»1 T» /"p*iaj» JBtnS? pD 1*$!,, X 1XB ]"IKTI1?3 B3N"lBXa 

ist p» ?x» "iis bjkbo»")». ps» oxn Mn'ajn »»»jm» 

28 ...'ns-iDKj k d»ö Bnxttfa "jxii 
jb'W »3»?a'3Sp »w»?aa» h px »»»puuipB »i p» 
-Vi ]axn »3?ani ^png» »?)?'s»bö jsnsa j?'13S?bp ]»3»? 

«pij ]X3XJ 05?7 ]Ü» 3»3S?fl OSH ]?»B»WX 5?2XJB'1N '1 B»n 

ri»p -un oxn ,o»>pi?pöpSf »i ]»k .i»a"ii s??spipb$bik 
Bp'?"Bxa *pi» t t W #P& Ö 1 5S?,?S B"?B-m sn"T b>ö 

29."I5?3'1 3?"1V"T Ö'ö nS?a"HDS"p ?'B "1J?"! 
]B'1"IJ X BVBSHÖ'IX "JJtf'P'»» ]2Xn "ISÖ?8?B'Ö 03'» 

»n oxn ,Dsn fin x .ns?B>3 swxns >*? p» pran» ?"B 

•3'j? }«r03»»3 ,03'1S73H-T'in '11 ,JBya-IX »"T BTBSaO'IK jaxn 

•»i "Pix m t ]a»n - .11 ,t» .» ^?T'a-aiBi? ,03'3s?s> ,-i»t 
-S73 "t pmn bd*p pstfaya pxa *px .bosm pa'ixa ena 

.11 ,TX .» JIBO'IR PN J1B3X D'N ]B?»n ,1X2 X |B"1MX Btlö 

•ns yBPSBsrnt »t p» p» nsD?»?ö'B oaiB «jio o«a *i§3 



esvi ,]sm^y3sna8a »Ben* »1 .Jjmi3tsajna8a s3jh*»18B p->Bisa , »s p^nym 
»^•»bsb DBs?as?ai8ö»*i83 bjh ]*ib "iswp T8 ,]sfTi»a p>3»i ,p^Ti»a B K ,'B»aa»« ]vm 
vr) .ns^n jasn ts j$p'n ts ]i8 nsnvia oas» ayn 1^3 ^■»t-aa"'» sw 'i rj-isn 
.47—45 i"t »3» n»a \vm , »'' n» bi;? »«a»a a^iasn ?v na->i»n ri3 , >??i ipaia B?»n? , ''ii 

]»yi?l W>1 ]?W I»« 9K1V-P« IBYI ,1»B»B» .(.138 .R "1 niöB'' .t*H d'llJ 

!•>« na»?K »*i ]i« naiJia »i psiiya bi , 'bj»33"8 t'r'b p« B^Baw ]»« ü?«!}»» 

Bgn ^8» "l»T a-» 1 !« 118 B'IB D3S» ^B ?8E V$ B1»a»t"l8B )Srn»5 »1V"B ]»W 

-*!8B o»a* jw naina i^k tsöi3»)B8 -t e^n ,n»iT j"p Bt8?»A*i»a's tt?'i 
»isi38 ]i'BW3'»« ia>ini>J38 T"\8 tv» »^n ,(a'B msvö ,b*5 niaa') psa 



130 



ÜXn UOXJ ]1SP TX ,3H3Ö X ÖVBim"» |»ll»Jl ]B'in S?W'S 
•Stt O'X "3 BXrMS? 0$11 ,Ö"X 1VS3KJ *1SH ISa'K J'IB 1S*T 
122» D'X - ü"pDy?B3"-)SÜ085 ]W pVHO'lK ]X ' '11 / 0?"11 

o$i josnmgB d^x axn jd?sii ,?i"ü>fpn 8 o'o |»ns» 

30 ...a«ii 
]»p ]sni$u o»»3 fna j»»öwn&B D"a jswi jsni ]ix 

*'ops?3p ]« üds?3 x |»n»a i'» «fin ijwspib ins?' 

.»'S1ü»BO«1B is?» 

.»ö m i i'H) o'?'B'o rtfna s?23??os?n h tx ,iü7xn ?"ö 
.»?p»-w nsn p3*n x tsuxtwtux px („franzosenkrankheit" 
]ö»a'i nsn ?-ixp ]is ow?-n»ö'?»a n oxn ,spxxp?x"i8ösn nss 

(1494) 'i'XBXStt JBÖSMWK 1,2X3 jaxn (1498-1483 ür3'p5tt) 
1S?pMKl-|S7T ]*B ]»Ö BXH Ü"X ")S?3SP P3 .B'nBEngB B1KT 
31 .DOlXnSU Ö»»3 ]23X33'X tt w np3B"lp 1S?01K'Ö 
•p3X1S I»« 1p'S7 1S71) JOB*, »t 1,S?3S?T *}SB?K?Ü'Ö ]n»3 

D'n?3 'T übs??»s?3 ]axn oxn ,niaiT o'a ?>b pnsn (-pn 

tt^ltJKp iSnSH ]1K "DnB„ ")S"T JSTISn PK 13X? ÖX7 5>»TI) 
SHTB ]"18Ö 0X11 ,D'n?3 S^'lKXp ?'B mXÜIXB ÖS BXfl 

i»p'n-*TJ8» sns»T px nswii s?3s?3"x ]»p jaxn b»'j 



J1K »113 »231'' 8 J"T 03»» 1319,3 5gT }8» 1S18B5» }g : 9»ö5 .]S3J1X5?J»-)J8S 

nS»*ia s jsaipsa E$n »i -pis : »bö^bb^T! Bjjn lis .(K"p m»3») B*wp8B 

KP11 ]»J3»T1S BB"3 'T ]SB ]Si» J1K BP'3 1»« B5SSJT3 D3> Ijn Tg ,]J8T'W 

.r» D»*m .Tb nsins) nx»5n b»8 jib B»y3 rt i<j3 ,]3$n is mwn b»k b»b 

'('3 11« '8 i?1B DW fl13?n J D"3»*) 
B9811JT3 B$n'» ]Wh ,B»S 8 »»11*3 ]»W T'8 S38BSN*I1»?n 181 AW 

(n"' ]b.ii d3»k) -ijreyEff .(b"? ni»3») ]mvs$ ]SiSii , >x bis» bst'j 

.('N "0 T"»ri8) p81W> BD8tt?y3B8 P'B?»313» 1» V* 

-3»K ,nyo-iyB »i ]ib isasiBsasytn »i p« isisb t»« f»T»a-Di3* d^t 

BW T»8 B3>'H ^83) 1j;p?»B »B?8 S"-|JH38 ]1K ".»»»II ,p*->A ,1»t»3»S ,1»^ 



131 



ttf$Y»sn wa y» B'JsBtPsw*"!? t»t bkh n?3 x a»i» : ]"i» 

H« »Ü0J1S »1 B'ö B?TTS3 O'K "T ]3XH ,]"* "T D'ö 

11« Sodomiten Iß"« "T pxn »T ; ]S"->»?Tt s?B03"astt 
.gm ps?B bti?3 h .m??j? »BBpHtma »i t^a ]B5$wsa 

»B3V1X,, "H .1»T"n«138» »1 p«K3 "1»?'W »"18»! B'Ö ]SÖ 

jik Q'»sia?a»?»ii's JW38. tt ]3s?b b'n?3 h jwns; "sbs? 

IV11S3 T'K 18B1KB ]'K 1KVI # n».t M ri ]8Y!83 ]83S?T'0 

]i» ; B*>n?3 1KB i^aso x - p«3 ]B'iK tw nn-iasn» X 

SW»3$?X»B p?Sn»3 pRBSBKIB >TT T.SKH pK3 ]B>1K HS?a 
-O'IK '1 ]1B JSB'B» »1 B18iT83 JB31H ]fe "p l s « n iflWTf 

/ ]j?3is?aio 'i b'ö ü3*-ips?3 *p pxn oku ^9'iia s?3s?oh?sj 
]ik jti??j? s?is?"T o.i»3«sa sn»"T b>» n8Tx /p jt^ns 
b»>öS3B'ik "p ! a $ n O'*'.»» SüDp'Siaiy >i "i8a>N ]8"-i8?-pt 
l»ii»a naina "p pxn bxyi ,Q'i'ö?n »n tib m?'ip h b>b 

32«i»3i»? pt 

*]K3a "i8ix 03xa «T law bis i»?i"a ]i« ii?a"ii s-yn» 
B>n"?3 h nsa tk ,p'iBxa psisj oxi üxn p" vi .p T i* 
/*»» bis is?bds?b ]ik i8a»vi sns»i ps-nsa'« »»t ra paip» 



»♦38 7«ik y»»38is ?»ö ,pwi ,i»öisb ,)?8J3(«a ,jo»psrPB »i »a Bi>ssm»K 
jbiii »rr» yj»?p> "3 |»»ws?ä3s i>i»n ixa Tis fs'o .la« .« b^bs» yp'^o 
.288!« 273—266 ,114—113 ,104 »*t ,biki ,Benzinger*0 
Paul Volz «n«i. H. d'Almeras : Malzenstwo u röznych 
narodöw, Przekfad Marji Rodysowej, Naklad Gebeth- 
nera i Wolffa, Warszawa, 1904, 141 !« 45 ,27 ,10 »"* 
»8 /p?s?i »wiy?»j 9"t3 .("ns^ns n» iia pa ]•>» bis-» pjrti lysy^Tso 1 '!« 

|W 1S'i:»8 ,133818 »1 f!|S paiWÄlM'»« ]T' H ]38?1 f »TS?1 »pTSTD^I 

.1S01»» 

jw (j'Wisb p« lyirp ]»j? }35jn b»'3 i3»5ix ea psrii fsrtsa 08T 



132 



omn 'i px jtd ix "t /Dib» a'3B naoa "t isyasjaixB'i« 

•pl J«ö p'?8 ]T» »1 pX "ISÖMÖ px 1»a»»11 5n»'»T ]1B 
1»"T pX p»TI ÖlSJÖtf!» Ö»»3 ]?RT D'rttJ H 'TS ,pl5?tt"Tnsn 

sn»"t psmsa'H px ]j?'ö?rto-i8d o"a E>s?a-ix '"is?p?»n„ 

33. ..mar w is?ü3s?ü px -isa»»vi 
•nsn ci"» *is?ü3s?x) Vercelli P B *]xwa w ,i}BBjf 

]Ö?8i1 »'* pD 9'B TX ,S?>7Rti»R pX D'H?3 »1 pSNl Ü?"S 
px JOS »M .t'lfl pX Tt »»3 »»»IIB SJ»DR?SMlO» , IK pHMHJff 

.wia ]x ^?mbs "i u»a jtxrb» ,* »sortis «t b'ö jspsnu 
«]xi^a "iS3xs?-ix nsn oxn ,o*n t»r nsss'Josn *jX3 -wax 
,Consilium) ?'038f i»eö»»i ]B»ir öJitiSJ taxn *]?xjtr 
-»asa üoa'is ps »as? DsssDx^sao'ix dsi psn 091 .' px 
Cr jaxn oxii ,s3s?üo"3 s?x px *is?L>san is?t oi'skb 

psni t>?»sisn Roberto Da Lecce n?J 8 ns3"X 
i» »sn ,n?'B*i "isi nsa tx ,n?a »tf>3s»?Rö»R |ö"ns x 
]S3snxn -pöx?,, ,0'Wbhö n w pssn üsixnp "pi oxn 
"p»i? l»T px ]»öipsM»»lK. t»R ,(Orate foratres) "isria 
,$* : p»"W!Mio»iR is? üxn ,pSBS3 d»r t»k sd?sti ,»nfi R 

•»R |'R SDS?üD"Jl SBBaSrl »T J3.ST» "PV1B »*I T'X |wtf »11 



»Dia» i« ,4 |ik l ]Yi»»8» »n »■»?« t»i8WM8 r>» ,miroi im "jiu "np jsx 
.psm iB»n»5B^ ]M»p ?$t »'»suf^n »is ,d»t a»?w *piK jik f»tya 
w»a vk t»r jb» «wn tu ,ia«t ojjyi ,d^?s'ik»w s jjnB» -pa we 
n*>aa„ picB ,nai b^-mmi t>») «isn tom e«n *n?a tssn ■» ; ft>a » a»ims 
V« v« waip t>j jik (r"»"i p« Tip '»b rm ,1*15 "d era 1 »-) ."nn»E?ai 
"ivas a-'i« ;(!*» ,rB ri»a») i»*ra*p ^*»p tr: is:t?ii»K tsgn n ]sn ,?bb c»i 
BB^p ,iai$rori ]siv\ »t ]w i >»ii''p tssnw "hj 1 » ]ss ]ib «]'i?n«B y* u^n »t 

.üi |»p t>Vi w 
y» y* rm nw pp o»»a t)i»B»a'» |a5»Ti jmyi ,f»Tsa spntfiD^i 

•W - » 1»K |"18 CIH-BT^TI T»K ,(t*0 Möa» ,"131? n»8*l T 1 «* :Bi8t Tl»?n 1JH) 



133 



»IHXTltt \ÜÜ PKH T\'"> ]mS1S?D J1K ]Ü3X""n pB 5P?8B 

- min "ist pa nix» -isb^^s? ijh pa ik: p?xn »t tx 

B"X l"! pB |aX>? 3?3SmX l ?S30''lX »p'IKlOKl B1Xn?'tt>S?3 

(1375-1313 ,Boccacio> K'tfüXpNa -i5??5?ötyüs°nty isn ünti 

.„il Decameron" 1« TT ]'« 
.»3 .1503-1430) "is?üDps?? "IST nsnxöpi?^ BOa^lS nm 
Bxn -is exn ,Bin pn x xtvmxa (1503-1492 mm pn 
Joffre Hero-) "WM'P ?'a "T o.»a px rBa'fin ?»a Bxnsn 
/nsm'p s?3"T ]S?as?T .13X .x nima> izabella, Ludwik Jan 
oxn ,(ü3xpKaa!ix ]i?3i?t o-ibdi» jns»T pa jsaxi h öxvi 
Vanozza de Ca- s»"» ?T ö">a ass^stt ^?b3Es7 -px i» 
# "is7ü3s?ü »m B">a i't »m p'iasa d'k bxh »a?»n ^ane 
♦BBa'iB piim ]»w rx .is »n Dsnaxa - pt p'x 
,?xjsxs3 easn »a»n px paipxa Balisa oxn ns? :x 
B'a x'xsnp^ s?3"w>n ,-is?b3xö isa BaRa^a-runrin i» üxn 
-pi? 'Ti 'itk ni?ax .?xsxs?3 pa pns asn ,s?oos?a 03xa?x 

»D?S?11 /1ST1S8 IS? B33n ,]Xa X BXnStt ]1W BX71 X'XSH 

BisniiP pM pa i*i üo'insi nsnsMg .jsayjnmsn D'x px\ 
pa ruinn »i BBa'ia ist tn»?psn ,bb'V?ü3x. ns px p??© 



330—450) p w "I93">8 WWflSA t5$H S'OISB n»3 »Tl ,")1»"IB VW>1 AaiaSÄSSTS 

»»a sisnas ^i« "t »a prauwn»a»8 p" ta^n b»x isai» p« .(."'p *i«o 

,»p»T»1B 8ü0Sn , 181J»X »1 0»11 ,»»B8a838» ?!T ^18 Tg ,-jV?aBB WT .l^ST 

08i psusa pausm» Ti* jty D!n 3,,9!|X P R psiwa pBianas. tf>$Bin f« 

•13SJ38 t»1Wl ^18 T»8'0) pBHS IIB KXV^BIB 8 r>8 t3»S?Sni ,f»I»J »i?"»Tg*T 

,9»»5 ,'yi |i» tj»a maawa oas^n ]38n cgii ,isp?»B »t>58 snsnag "a pa 
T>i« .las .« "Bwn ,|3"iä »i »a ,[f"B .■> 2250] iai3»as»t»a o'asiingn )">* 

.(.las .8 i»tsi , '3 ,i»*na** »i »a 
0^1 »t ]18 ü , »p'T8?i»i3 , 'i? nyp'i^'asx po fyrsa o»i "0 osfl ,ogi 
<o«i pH "isj?5»B »lejriB i« os?Ba-»8 1"isb318 ^siasm» p" p8i T»t»a-ma» 

134 



i«b na^rr nnr 83x» i'y p» pWssw -^sß *rae3Kü ]»t 

.03X59X pno 

]«t ]!»« uoa'is "ist o*n ,B»*anK »t?»ii n ]»»nx 
■p« t'k »»»ngiBM nainn ■wp'Txrun ns?a pxn winan 
bxd nmso»n3vm h jib iS3«n ix :xp»*n»b»»ii «i piisu 
n» ükh py pxa .p?f»» j»xbib p8?»33»K Boa^ia ivi 

X3»T B»Ö JX3KB IX ]1K BXj?X3 TT JIBIXO'IK pa3111X»a "I 

b*ö i»»3»? j?XBttnsn>3x p»n»a n» Bxn faxe pxa .nxan 

•H .MTB ]B"IKnS?3 "IX BXn »I p»llX ]1X 9*7 p»1K B3>? 

pnaano bti&xa "|X?n»ö XBXptfa *i pgn ivn»i »p'T«n 
...ix?»» n b'ö pwnD'i* tb x?x «pm 
b«i ]!»b x?x «j nuna o9«nm i» B$n 10» p$a 
»9» po »»ruiyiux nxi i'K ,1983 pxn xawii ,HtTl 

•XTI B»B /pJVö *? Bj?>*7?X1tt-l8B ,B0»3 XaXTX^Xaa"* 

»»a in Bgn twbj B»p>BBxenxBöiK "unxoy-ia 8 "iso 
•»3 n» oxn ]n iya f?8 ,B33"x»ao'ix »»a-i« nxp'TXTiX'i 
■nn »px *n»BsnBi8B OBxa„ |ib p*m n px paw 

.ti» 

iy03S?VSS »1»»3 1« X!»ÖXB pt B'ö BOX'lfi IXT 
BXT ]1fi pgllpXa ]1K pagBW» DX?X DX1 »«3 ]X3XT 

...1BD»HI 
f 9X'X'B8MK »T ^B "IX3»X ,KVtm8X 1XTXX J&aTlgp 

]x üxnxa B»n /ixbopxt *isn ■wraRop»?«. ooa'io jib p 
iea»?xa *p Ä "W °$ n ß3n P n »WTi xwx'bröw ?xs V 

.R'xyipw nx»o»iir pi ö»o 



*»T Tt /pt$TIM J«MY.P»M*»II »1T8 ]*!*» MJl ]»MT JMtSi »n»»i »pngTt B|* 

•is ,b*»yi j?8in p'J"H ü B«nsa »»"ins p$» *i»Biyi«n ?»b b»» -\i$i »ig* 
»n t»h ,]f» «a jkibb Bj^fi] t»>ti5»b -pK |yast jsbtm »*t »a^s tk jmm 

m»9»ui p» «j auf 



135 



"nssin,, h üxrm axn oxn ^x-ivuxnxc im i9-r 

DSSaDK^O'-lK 091 ÜX P.9 B"p'?"il IST PK ]9?S»'11X %1 

"lxa-isnr 1498 ix' px 9'S'pnp3'x 191 ]ia pk ,öoa'W 
34.]o , ino»ow» p'ix "pxvi9J ü39na°iXB 
,939?do"j s»»?»iöKp ?'B ]sns?a ]s?3S?t p'iB pk tix 

191 .n93"ll »9»'S'B«aiK ]1K 9?9'2'BX üKnsa ]3XH oxti 

?»'S'bk oxn (n"' pB?9Tis *po) wrwax sipo'3 "wms^p 
-'^TiiKii Bipca isi ;X3Ti3 'Tis i9i ü'a üxn9: minn 
•"x ,• iik?d»o»»t9 i9öö"a p.3 isöko i9i piisi pk ya'3 
ÜKHS3 öxn ö«x 1939' ]w pipo'a -I93T93J 'i pa 193 

OKI (1268 .EW93) JK'X-IÜ p'3X3Xp 191 "pX } ]'T 9p'3»X 

pxn n"' p3ssiB p.k pasi»B px .i9ü39ö ü'a pt üxn9a 
'Kwoi^Tp ptyenxa ,• 939'?bo":l 9iy?'iüxp h üxn93 riMim 
-9Eix H8?0'38öO ^'»Diigip PtPtnxa /(Krzczonow) n$i 

naK ,k 'ponp 

Ö"?3K3 p'139B2T pjsj 939?Ö0"3 ]*B PW939aXP.S '1 

.p'na-psa isöisimh p.b pxrwi 

PK )1K (1418-1414) f3XöD3Xp J'X DÖP?>03Kp »1 IS 

]U) 19p'3"TI W»3 ß&tpft "PIK ]939T (1437-1431) ?9TX3 

39 .p'iiB-pxj taisisin paia 
Tp'a x p'Bixa ixb :ü3pos9a ]3xn p'mtsp 'i 
->9i ji9p'iM3XB? piTK3 ss?a'a ,-s]xiüp pp öbp3 aaip 
/ n»a»'ivoawp ,p'viD-p8a exa9?xa pi pausna 39a i93'i 

üfi?'3 ]939T OKI,, ? M H /BPK-IWK ]X "P'BIXB ]B?»n Q'X 
ÜXH (n"' P'1'7 PK) 9S3X3 Ü'X1T9' 191 ."pXT 9p'D3'VI pp 
'pK"lB IS Ö93X3 »1 0319? 19 p?9Tl PK /]*» X p'lty933X 
]Bn93 ]1911 IS ]"T IS '1K1 '13 ,93'? 9K?'3Ö9? ]TS'Ö 

36...*m?3 9S"?a'n» 
•^nso'-iK ms ns'o 9üOp'ü3'n h tx ,ix-p'3 ?«u 
B->9'n93 bx.i 93?9n rHarffa-pWii ivwipvw i9i ]ib 
paipsyaais ]939T'o i93?9ii a'^is |ik 1434 T'a 1419 ps 

ÄBKT'K ?"ü 190'na S ]W 1^13390 19B3P1B 1901913^ 



136 



•8p> sbiu 8 oxn ,oxi j»ti:m rx - pxns» Bonnxs r»R 
IBHx' |ib isbosiiw h Bp'B?xnsnxB Bxn D'n?3 se»?>ib 

l»X 11X32X10 ]1B XpO'X .(1424-1370) 11X32X113 |1B XpO'X 

•»i isaxis »öansa >i Bin'3XJix bxh oxn ,1s?! piisa 
•|ü'Din isi ö»a Bvosasx ixnsi fix 1419 px S'xi?xn 

37 .nan?a 
,7x3tBX jonisa x ininstt ooans dsi 1x3 oxrra anx 
-üi?3„ jiB psnaixs ]B'ix jsiisj "?ma v?'bx jsa bx.i 
1X3 /jsnsa ?ma in?3 bb»3 Bxrva .(nnis-n?:) "i3xw 
insi nx3 uxrra .jixnsa B3n?isi os nx rtf'nro? i?->bx 
oxn / tj*» i? 3jr?oo«a isi" ns pnx >i px ]n )axn bbixixs 
bxh,, o?xasi .irw jp'nsa x ixb i,5?aipx3 B3sps: oxrra 
(Graf de firmagnaoj ö»ts « ö$n '1TX .'WjWi bxs 
,n?a » )ix isbösiip rn B'a Bxnsa nainn 1452 .' px 
jas»w bxh ,B"?xxxa bu ixbisi jsaipxs bxh oxn 

38 .j'Bm'p 

•1S1 1668 ]'X BXH 1SB3"3 1S1 03i?aS?p BOB'IB 1571 
|B"11X DSI X11SB JX1 J'3Sp ]W'?tf»lB1XB DS71 B3>1? 

1»t ]ia a«Yi ds3stsiisä ]B'a ]axn ix nainn (1705-1648) 

.1371113 
(1484-1471 BDa'lB Jinis») 1SB1SD 1S1 OlBOp'O BOS'IB 

jsaipsnxB ns oxn ,n3inn »*i p'B^'j ixb B3spii?3x Bxn 

13X3'11SB »>?'2P0 |1X ]X3X1X ]1B Jt>3Sp JBnilX 1469 ."» ]'H 

«pH p'iapip wa ,s'?>BOxp |ib possans ,x?i?axrx ?*x 
.»t j^nix BBxty.ianp isb3s$3 ist 

.' ]1B ]?Sp nB ,♦ 1514 ,' ]1B Dm )1B Hö'WI 8 ]'X 
SBa'BttTXS ]S1XB ]S3ST ,1520 .> ]1B T'IXB ]1B NN 1515 
,n?3 X ]?X2 ,?ffa? ,"pKYD ?B'll ,B03nB pXB ]S331?KXBX 
■flXllSÄIXB BXH IS 0X11 ,0X1 pSll IBDa D'X ?XT'0 IX 
•IXB TX ?XT'0 TX ,]?X2 *]1K1 S3X3 X ?B'll i S3X3 X Bp'B 
WBS t'X'O .1SB"11 '1TX ]1X ni3T ]1B 13'I '1 ]1S11 ]3S3 



137 



#3 }axn oxn ^»tx ™b mu 8 p$n»Ji 89.i>b»»3bds» 

MtüttWB -»»3»3"K "l»7 B'Ö Bp*H3'l 
.JlSBWB X 18B ]»3H *plX ]»3»p mö'ttn »p'TX'TH 

.o*i»BO'i9p h px B»p308?»30'ix h |iw»3 pk'o o*n» »w 
px n»a : ppxsa »pHi»B"Ti *t tik j?»s-i»*t d»t pi&Yi 
,(1272-1212) isnm n»i V"i3»n w*i»p» Bxn i3x?33» 
»n raairsa »B»B»oöxna uisaxi j?xp3'9 Bxn 

,]»'l-|fi »?X «I 'S ,"?$nB3Xf 8 ]VS1XD-in H3 ^»BO'^p 

na .ni^na i»?pTii |»3»t ,o"isrt)0'»n?p> »i px p?3»t oxn 
o»3X3 »?k tk /p'iBKa "i» B8n ,j3"sis-i»a'8 vt r' un 

•38p 8 BTDMDT1 BXfI IV pX B»p83 pBO'lX "pt ]9X? 

39 ...?X"IB 

(1510-1445) 3-i»aö-i»t"p iid ns?"3 |8nx' n"9Ji n»n 

OXV) ,»3813 '"T BT183 nWTt »3"T IIS "!»3»X px B8n 
J3»3 >T 1» ?XT 'S :"l»B38ü p'T B'Ö pB «pX"? "l»BXB 8 
BBIp 1» pK ?T'*in-13X» 8 px 'S ,p'18 "l»BD'l?p 8 ]'« 
-?"11 .]""I8 t*>*»n=*73Niy 8 ]'8 1SD"?3 T'8'0 T8 ,")'B0'18 BIS 

^»■Jp pjHpga 'i b»ii t'in^38^ 8 px - i» btti'bxö 
-B'n» pB"i»n "p? |»'»xa 'i b»ii - .11 .ix .8 ii733in p«? 

B»ll 't |18 ]?»B ü!y'3-|83 VX B»ll "l»B0'V?p pX ,• p'"»piS 
40 * .13'T »BÖp'Slöty h 1« p »3 "i»i pX ]»p3'T p'»"K 

«p83XB n pB "l»T?3B'» pB B'^Ög^O'lX ]3»V) 

1»Q B8fl "[<Q 8 P»TI .plXll»3 B1»"l»3 ?'B pltP PK 0371X 

TS ,flin a'?1S 183 »a»?B0"3 plXll»3 ]»3»T »T TX ,B3Xt»3 

.pwiB rc b'-ibis pwaa«? s jaxn ]?xt "i 

]1B |183'D »1 0X11 ,pT»3*Ü8a'?»S 0»! J3»ll TlX 

pK (314) TS38 ,(305 »'38BP-Elvir> TU?» ,(255 ]'X) X3XÜ-|Xp 



.(lasa "»wns ,9as'ns.Dt5Sir9»sa) **WT''n«'Ti8W *8Be>d$ |»T»a 



138 



•ru ttoa'iB -ijn ox*n jix pK^xa jaxn. 014) 5Pii5ts?2zxi?3 
p»B3w öxn (1085-1013) T3*nasn?'n -ii?üi?a'T ist ixj 

1»»'3KB^ "IST ip'S?1»T /■WXSSXT'»«^")^ 1S7T ]}3 pm 
«Ö0"3 SW^lüXp »?K OVüD'?S-|KD Ü'OIST B"p3S??üO"3 
•'lÜNp IST ]13 ]WB>1K S3S7?3S? SHSmx p»H ]4X * s?3y? 

]*b JMO'^w^fi -isn ]ia ma'o »p'ö3'ii 'ii /p»p -ww? 

.]-]XVIS7J ÜTSnStt ?>fl J'W T'K Ü"p3S??Ü'M3W'3 



-w jaxiro oni /unaw swxsbxvx stfx bs?»3 px 
üxn ,-isttnsn ^E^iüxp iiyb ,»3S?üonp »ans tjansn 
oc^ihd'ix »pHX-iia x ttttnun»* 157ö7s?ö>ö jma ns?3'x 
x -I8B pxviyji iä3x-iüxa T'x "-isa"iv?»3 yt ]ix ü»p 

.t3"p3a?T3Sü^-ix3üoa?s;i 
•»«Mwyn n ,a»n 9sp2pbk ]«x pi?a osnsj isax 



•2"!»» |»8 "1BJ BSBS'SBTKB |S11»J t383'?SS IST PK BttnS« (• 
BD3>1S fl« JBIpD'2 S»»?»1B«p »58 T^IS BSBS^BIgB 0» BgH "|$J'nB , T .SB8V8 
'BD*1 'WJ'Wgp 1SX38J IST ÜSBS'SS'ISB Ö'ÖIST BXH ISBSa'T "IST "18JS11 

Jan fllzog: Historja powszechna kosciofa, Na- .ö"i?5»? 
kladem i drukiem B. M. Wolffa, Warszawa, 1860, 
Tom 1, 424—422, 248—247 »t. Ks. Roman flrchu- 
towski : Historja kosciota katolickiego, siödme wy- 
danie, Warszawa, 1926, 60—59 34—33 rt. 

r.3'0 SB0p»B3'YI n "I8B ,U83'5SS OST B?8H (1546—1483) "ISB1? J>B18» 

C. WaleW- "PK »0 «nsp?SB8a S»">5^B8B *T JET'"!^ B^O^SiCI« JW 

ska : Z dziejöw krzywdy kobiet, Wydawca Gebeth- 
nera i Wolffa.. Warszawa, 1908, 16 »"». lgnacy Rad- 
liiiski : M^zczyzna a kobieta, Nakladem kasy prze- 
zornosci i pomocy warszawskich pomocniköw ksiQ- 
garskich, Warszawa, 1918, 153 '». 



139 



ws pxn SD?jm /iBonp »t i$s aiTo pixn »9s'x»b$ 

*S3 DST T > ?SUttnX33''>pü3X ^T m3 313S3 TST$ p">B"3 BKHS1 

lü"»a ]o w n«s«K bkhss »iiö V7 tjw»3 laxn bxti ,'T .psi 
s??s?'S'bk ?'D Bxnss p*»o» ,5 S3* ,), ?a ,bsss tt ]3xn ,fsisj 

,'118 .TS3"Tl03"p B»ö B3S?S3 TS?BSBS "p* J1X TS3"11 
-»3 (561 .BWS3) TXBX'JS 3>3Sp TSttf'pSXTB TST BXH ,?IPÖ? 

■»»i ]is "iis fix i»awii »?»'S'D^ »m pö w »«?a Bxn 

-561 BS'S'pSS) TXa'TXB ]1T ] M T j JTSÖBSIW JSTIS3 TS3ST 
»'113 IST "?TXp 4ljTSa"Vl S?S'3PBX TB BXnSS BXfl (567 

•nsinn jix in l m P* r* lB?xnss Bxn (815-743) tso 
•oa^p «js'b ji« Tsam bdx bxhss ts Bxn ?an T,Ba jagn 

BXfl ,(840-815 BS'S'pSS) TSöilTB TST p'YlW 42 4 TSa»ll 
TT /iSTS'p 2 B'Ö a«ll 8 BXriSS \*W B$iT IS '11 BBT383 
*BWSS) TSB^nX TST TXBX? .S3"X "]X3 TSB13S3 pK JSTIS3 a»'ö 
,B3XTSJ TX |3S11 BKA'») 31S3B'*IB S M TI ]"T Ba»TBT8B (868 

Bxn is TS3?sn ö'ö ,osT>na tx b'ö bss^ss Bxn »i Tg 
pnx tt b»s3 ]i» Bgnss nsirn ts»tb ts» mx b'ö 
p33Vnsss ts btsvi tsbsbp tx' x b'ö pbxb .jtxtT^ii 

T1« HS BS'lKll p>B"XD"?3 1S3X ^STSaB'lB jsbssw p'Tix 
JSTISS) TSB8HS IST 'X^Xp^ BBfi'lfi TST .|TgTT?XTl B'Ö 
OST 3'?1X ]1X {STSaB'IB TXB 7X TT BBS3 (867-858 BBB'IB 

BT3SJVI txbx 1 ? issx pxs'B »m ibiissssöxtix psn ps 
*bd"3 sa'in h "isa'x»BB'ip ,DS'XF3>aaxp ssstehxb |x 

Ü»ö - -JSÖXS OÜDB'IB BST l'X - TX-]TB S39ST1 ,SDS? 

ja>T?TST jix a^x d*k »sw jBipca »t px pxs'o n 
,px-n?xn b'ö )axn ia nsinn ?s*ipbx b'k 

-»S'aöXp S^X 1 J!|B TT BOlinST BBB'IB "IST Ttf 
»Ö1X 1XB |TXJ'0 H J1B |? M BTX »1 TS BTS?p1ST ,BS'S 
]1B ^''''BTnX QST BDX ]'X Bt^'S BOSS TXBX? TS3X .p'WS 
,BBB'1B BIS «1?'H *|X3 JSWpSX. «]TXT TS TX /ISBSBK' XOB'IB 
J"l T,'T ]BT811«TSBS18 JSSSITISSS BTSTI TS ]3^S11 i»?« 



ü»ns pt "ix: ,*ia obp: isax-it^xa *px tnsm ,o??pxa 

*.TXYi?xn a«n 

,a>?'t30Xj? ]1B 5'jyj? ,(1350-1310) 1SüB?y "lai ö:XB?X 

üai^aa -jstfittBa -px ,xnxa a»n ?s?'2'ax p* pn x uxn 
p'iasa o>x dxm aa?an ,]xötm "lxaa^s? a M ivoa»»p> pi 0»» 

.naüDXB px ]!|X p ]"3 

pjpx'sx ^b "lairp »1 jbwix px ü»iö pi -\p 
a»?« nan?o aaaSpaiw s pxnaaao^x a w noa»7 px a"Ti 

.fx-io ]is nm» nsn 
?XBKjr: 1» iwp ,(1458-1335) "iaöma i»t o:nb?x 
■ja^mBa -px ,xnxa a»ii pi pn x bxh ,a»?'»'o fix 
»rtfan /ix'.n an x^nxrixö a"noa"p pt ö'ö üaa?aa 

.laga'Tiaa p pt p'iaaa üxrr 

Üöilj? (1485-1461 BJ»3»p»Jl) naDB?» ~1»T pim? TX 

Ta"?-?"» aBOjaw a?x tx ^'lBxa man ,mxB pp ]x 
oan pan B^aü^a^ix px maaiaaa pxt "p^ag-ia ]w 
puxi3'x öxagBaj. D'x t$q pxn «1 ps aaoaa» h ..a»ayp' 

43.üaj?83 

••»bx ox*i (d e Medicis) oatponaa an xxnsasp tx 
(1559-1547 m'j'paj) laijwiia lan "pa*»n po a«n a?a>x 
bbx oa n üxn ,]xo tx "a paisö^x sass? o?xiiaa tsxn 
a»n ?»'S'bx bw: pt ]ib a»aj?s?Drn3 nah &'a ]waa 



'K nain» lyüwt ist ]»» p* »imijJi? ]ttPiix ]a$n ix n:inn ,ii«? pt px 
0B(j"iB»ua ]sivi fstn dbt t]»i» ]»iwa lais ja^n osn »n p« »*5»ö8b -un 
Dr. Hans Prutz: Staa- ""»wi?» pMttra p^ii »r »11 jppm 
tengeschichte das Abendlandes im Mittelalter, G. Gro- 
te'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin, 1885, I Band, 
.()$u'tis9 .■» ]ib iKsa Dsn jroa'WB (Ts-ans») nssnn -pix vi .85-82 t*i 



141 



.(Diana de poitieres ,1566-1499) VB»W 371 K3Xn 
.nsa M n*D3 M p ?'D ö^ns?5 -jk3 ix? üxn ]X3X'i pn x laax 
3"iiö3"p o?t 1 S11S5 T 'K fTBSW s?i xaxn oxii ,oxi 

0X11 ,ö'aiS?l ItfBBXrVJpS? "]X3 T'X ]B»11X B371 "pa^Tl ]19 

pe'suxiB ix?üxa ]«t ]is 3"n*oa"p öxi ]i?ns?a -p** t»k n 

■plX BXH |1X (1547-1515 Ba>3»p5?a .1547-1494) "ISBBP3 "S71 

44.]xa ]?3?':pbx ]x üxnsi 

ÖBB75M ÖKH (1715-1661 B3'3'p5?3) "13703213731X71 P'llll? ' 

m?'Bn »t Bixrrmo'ix p>ias?t»ff bxh ix? .]3?ana ix?"i x ixb. 
is? .n?"»an x ö?s?aixa ns? öxn ?xm"x pi?a ]ix p'i3i?'3p 
pS3X'Q?a »i BS'BffsaisBaw ^'ii'isrj. s^x boxbss bxh 
»3?> b?b B?a3n»aans ]i?T5?a p>i33?ütp q'k öxrra ,niTa ja'ix. 
.n .tx ,x bj^xbikb pixw 12? üxn ix?3'ir?xp '3 ,B'n?a swö'wi. 

p3Xl X ?X ,B3XTS?a ]S7Ö BXH 3'3X?p pailS Q371 BX ]3S?11 PX 

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ix?a"iiü3"p ?$x x ]« uxnx?a axn is? .Bp'i"?X3 ]ix Bpn 
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1X3 DSXaStt *'T ]!B ?"B 13? BXM HX11S- ]"T ]»K .BaX?2rS7J 

jpnsnsna'a axn isra'x B3s?ai?i ixa bw« ]ix jxans 

.tm'-lXIB pX7?XX?T37J 

?'sty«a x 1X3 Balisa ix? axn mivbb'ik ] m t B'a 

BXH 1S73"X 3'1K T'X ,B"X ]"T ]'X ]1X 138? ]S3XS B371 
TT IS? £3Xn ,3"!! 9737'X'BK 0X1 '11 0X71X73 IVB Bl^3 
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'1 °|' T ÜKn (1793-1774 B3»3'p»3) "1»Ö3S3S?T 1371 p'llll? 

isa -JX3 T'ipagiB j'k jpxxp?Bi$asn 'i ^x B"p30X?5730'ix 

45 .BplXBiyiXB 



142 



»P'3Xj?X"H 'T ÖX1V ,*l»Ban» 1»T 1X»?XB8J 1?'BX -|XS 

IgB B3'7»J ]3X?T 'IIB "l»T »3133 Oj?»"7Xj? ]»! ]13 J2»?»J 

"i»o"ii üxn ,ni3i?» »»'»bxvx ?"ö jo'tu x ?'3»"3 x 
pk »3?»n ,ü"f>3dx?»30'ix jib »'X'ixnü *r üx»t»3"ixb 
j'x nsmswi »»»9'iDjjp.DnB 'i f 11 " PSW» ovb»33"x 

,»?»ö |«T ]1B 0»»1XTXp »T J'X 1?'BX. ÜXn "I» ."|''")i?3X*lB 

ttö'B»X3 ]1» ]»'inB-*|08J 1KB JSM1?"taBX BTBSS3"« "i»B 

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46.]»1S 0»»->XTXp H ]'X ]»'1-|B ]"»'3"l»ll 

"-i»a"ii'?'B yv 0x11' r»x "i»tn»n »vx ü'ö t^'ib "pix 

.p'?»üun»ö3'n ]3'?3»3 owa o"p3Dx?a30'ix px 

,(992-963 B3'3'j?»3 .-)3?0ty"»S? *1»T Xj?»»'») ni$?0'»Ü»'D 

oxb„ -IS7-T ,""-i»3H3x»3 -i»n p"p -israayp -i»ty'T?»n„ i»i 

jwyi ]SSjf 9ii D»1BX3 ,"]?'1B |'X DlD3ÜÜ'-|j? D313 n»ö M 1BBT 
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*ai?»„ jsaipxa "i» öxn ?xa »b'yi oxi jix m»a ?xa 2 1»? 
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.'T 1»! -|X3»13 B03'1B D313 »031X11 JB'IX ÖXn (1079-1058 
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B'a n3inn ?#» ]ü'*n dix üxh ,T'n?»ix 3"n B"na 

18' ]'B»TB 1»T tPö TT 1» üDJpn^B -;X3-1»T ,X3'üO'"I3 



143 



p'p pr tjoa^iB nyi oxn ,*p-isn Bpipya o»»3 |ia ,k^ii 
*jk3 t*K p»»?»*!« ü'ö ruwn »n ? M n ,tk ö'ö rmnn pi 

]SJ'in8' B'ö 12KH « Btf»3 "1S3K D'K OS? B1»Ö» ,p'ö9»I 

*1X3 ny BKn ,n&a M n UBissnsncnK h pn k ,-iyB3j?B »nx 
49.i»na'p - "t |iq \w n»a M iioawp ?'B tigrisa 

.ibpikbip ist DOM'is^m'nB) iyö"iis ist öowik 

p'lB ]1B a»3»P ,(1733-1697 p'lB PN W3'p»J .1733-1660 

-oa*'p Tis>ff k ]K öxnya B^n ,]op8i ]1B Bty-paTip p.k 
•3>p 350 'ii / n»p , 3 ,, ii ö^'i p'iaya d>k p$n oxn ,n»a«Ti 
Bxnsn be?'3 iy bkh a"n 7sps'b$ ft B'a pypnsn ."ijn 
•px iy oxn ,»?« h o»ä pnx "lyatf .p px »vi /iya 
so.isasa Bxnys pxn oxn /i»a"ii -jo x ö»b Bay?y* 

•x»bk 9»b Bxrm pxn n»a?a »p»?»is »nsnas px 

/isa"ii yWx'BxaiK ]w y?y» 

-18B '-t ]ib psnys BS«yao*iK ?xaBBX px p»p h 
»any yiyn ]p»TnB«a is »px ?ö»a o?x nsansn jrjsn»» 
nyi ,9wa? .B^paoK^yjB'i» ]B»»nBEnsB ix ]ix nnxn y^»B 
]»iim px (1547-1491) nyaax ly"? ^lä^n 3'3yp n»B»'?33S 
»ai« iy axn nyasyrnx eiyBi? .p^xaxp nyams*tz»>öK3XB x 

g p'nffSJJK p?8 ??'B8 BXH iy .B3?XB")XB pHimama 

»yo^xo'TX ]X jyaipxa oxn ny oxinxs ipsofl p M p ")ia 
bob'ib ]»ny3) -lyayan ny*r oayay^p bdb'ib |ib 3313 
ayiBxs |'w ."p»v?3 |ib lyx'tyxa,, ?b>b jB'a (1534-1523 
.(p?xa K33H) a»»vi 9y>x»BKaix ]x 03"t B»a Bxn "iy »11 
b»n bkh i»a?»ii) Boa'is ]ia ny B33k?ikb 13'p x Bxnys 
-»n ^ n^a B3ypiy3x prä? pwp piyn |«t ij?b nyna 
g3'iyBi?p a«n ?y'2'B« |»»t o»a nainn h ?xt ny / qp 1 ? 
-na ]«! |ia n3a?K rr /^oyxsns y?p'3KB^ K) ]«3kix ]ib 
d'k oy b?kii Boa'is nyn .p'ö?'3aiK i^a ]iy?pnyi ,-iyT 

TT Ö3'l?»3 B2r'3 'iyaK D»« "]'t B^n /pöSM a'5« i^bk 

D$n KanyBgp ]yayn / nyBB3'B nyi ?n^p b»b p'n^a'm 



144 



»B3x nsansn Q'x o» bxm ooa'iB n»i .rma x msRiwij 
]x=Ba»n i» ,d>x ]x opi3 *pt -ps^n px ixb-i»i .bsxt 

]1B ]3»B"1XB 0X1 ,13X933» PK OP2P9XBXp D»1 ]BX11UÖ'1K 

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'i qx Bi»n»3 ]3»mt?B ]3»93»nsaaiK D3i3 9B0p»i ]»■>« 
H ]ik nai?a i»i naiB? ia B-ppo'S3xp - (D"i»BO'i9p 

.(1534) p">33»nDXaiX tnSNl T3X933» PK "p'p 
•a9»T ]"1X11»3 PK *JT{? SlP'3Kp'933K. »1 1SH M K "|K3 

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B~)»9pi»i ]ix ]iB»3-a>9ix d>k Bxn oxn ,n»3»*np b>xbxü 
"j»9b3b» bxm i» ]ix p'B9'3»i8 ixb ruinn »Bany pt 

-»p IS '13 ,137öSBP .(1533) ]»9X3 X33X B'B BXH»3 rUWrl 

ji M 3an»a>K "i» BO'^n ,"W8ö»»d X33xx> b'ö ]axn ruinn ]»3 
mn b'ib pi pa ]ix p9xa X33X ]=ib "T9xn d«h, b»i 

si.nawn 9xa *m 1X3 i» 

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»nx ö'o p'B«23"93 -i»b=i9 i'Bixa ]is nason n»i B'B 
px isHn8B*s>xKBiKB»i »Banxa >i jib -i»3"x .isa M n 
„der dunkel- o9x Bpxa D»i ^9'Bis B33"XX3 13X9^B"1 
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tion".» 

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n»"T px |a»9 qpx p'BDin »'ax.tx3xa *i ö3»p»a "l 



145 



1?'w«ii Kuranyiiyuy >i j-ib i?>bn i8sk ,n .tk .« iw?a 

-3Ü0'1j? OKI 'ITX'11 ,331?80EnXB 8 T 1K P w Ta ISBIpp 
♦J38? 03'« ÖVBB331 ! I1 s^ags^a >1 ÖXH E1Ö 
IP'TKI 031B TBO'IK J028? 081 pxa T» 181"K 
Bj?'3"K °|^3 *]'1K J?80a>BX 1»»1B "]'I "Pö J?811 ,?Ö^p 

oxn ,i8B?8?ö'a j»k p8?*]8*>?>axB pB?üonp q3'.d pasas» 

]83»B Ta ,]TÖ38'1N t> t I s?s? i1 9 ° ,a *? T 1K "^ ÖS11 
181 ]1S 0381 OKI) „j us primae noctis' 1» SttT« *»l 

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.]8ai3833X ]W Ö"1W18B ]811BJ 

83 «p» oxn „Jus primae noctis" ]« MST 081 

53.fnB qhb isosiöisb i8i oxn 

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146 



* 55 .ÜTS 



->»*«»»* jx m j us primae noctis" im t*s ,9'>b ö»i? (• 
-ya 9t»b d»t B98asn u^jn Bans« .mainivjBSiJ. ]ib yagEi? i»t pB r-rja 
]is msna« o'a T g 8 :nsn jsx ,»ana nsn» Bat? jub istbjjj jb>» lya^xii biw 

.»ans ~iyr 

8TK BVBB'Tj?» ]»Yl ügn'D 18 ,]S?3J7p'"?BJJ JW1B 1»i?'1§tSB'n 5*»ö 

t'K'e .»-äs x5i n»n «9 rx „Jus primae noctis" ^ W B > #»«b 
D'w»» $n wraiu o-isnaiTga .jyiiya. Be»a vfvm *isn epx 9xaa"p ans» sts isa 
(K. Schmidt: Des Jus primae noctis, 01»»» 9-igp wwa s 
.anaa xtx t« ,"jt"n83„ « 73»? px bwb d»x b"ä'd Freiburg, 1881.) 

.öTüonps »»»-a ?j*aa"p o^n 

•81 yrTPBS |818B 7»aSTT'D .KÖ311? B3T3 D'X BB1>3 1»3"p 13SS3 1338 

-jynya tp'öpss t»x anaa nsn ig ,|p»BSB»sa ya9sm,B»x *iaaap ps laayaip 

,BT'Bya3»a 
.rr» fBaxas tk jyyisa ssgi"« y>x -j§a jyasn anaa d»i jib n'aa'O 

jjnxB Tis w „Jus primae noctis" «"" «p* 1 * aawnax J8 
?i9nn *iöbb9 9w;i »»»ain av>? nxp'an n9ina »laxn : nai na«« ii!a?fl px 
iTi2S!f)3 >a?»i*v fx .{"n&wi n?ina« n"T niaoin ,b*i8*i T" 1 ** vt /a maina) 
,nai rpmna) tma *iyn "ps ."n9nn 9yia b-pb^bcx*. Baganyi Tis K-iyn 
»"«n ."n9nn 9yiai öaaa ?Tia rrn ,n5ya9 nrx pa'ta vn»a* aast (ra hbib 
B8T .*n9*>nn *iobb9 ?ya'n9 m9ina 9a 9y a"iay "mar,, : B5»xian (a~a flau?) 
n»i»\v9si "i»w»t» *wb9s *»n ]ia ivbis yisnas \*m Baga-isn "px cnsn 
.(.-:38 .x a ,'i n'anna ,'"»1 ,'b pia ,n>ayn n9'aa : p** st) iib«i»b»? 
.y>a»x i»n»a t'K'd ]»h p« >( J U s primae noctis" i»i w 
j»a:i9ya Br'a aa"n t*a ,Ba8psa tb t'K'b 9'S'n «]'•»» ,t'» ,p« «a b-pb 
t'K anaa im i»n ,)b»x i»tim t»«'o ts fB 1 »"!« bt"Y)'o isag .]9»bitisdb»» 

,p81'^ BTiy98» — T'T B»'3 98T'0 D-I8B 8 18B 0811 V* 11" "3 "P** 

vn» ,»ia w» D'KaiBipn »n»ai. : D'Ton ibd jib *iana nyi s9»anyT »vg 
..(B-x-in "o ,1879 /i , '»8B''jpf ,Tcnn mw'19 nn»en ibo) # n9nu f»wf jnma 



147 



•s'»? x a'ix * .]?»dw T'K yns axn jsbbyi b>» "1x3 ,i3?xn 
^"x-a"? x o'ö Bxnsn*n3inn Bxn f na ]«« |ib isara"« 

15?B"V)X "IST BXH ,B")S?plX3 1JnX f>"lB JB"VI2 X ]1B QStt 

a5?35n , >''x-a"'? ]n»"i3X ]X ]o»ns ein fasäsx btibsj pna 
pxustt a?"üs?s jäns» isna'j? »1 ]ix »3»a M «-a w ? "isnx 

.ö's^s »T»a jfo'Yix 
px *i't aa'syi n»a?sri ,1242 ix' jib BSSB^SI x 
eipo'a x ]»'iis ixasx ]x jsshi ö?«5nsn ,vpd-ix irmiji x 
na ,snsj."x-a M ? s?-is?"t o'a tt jbwb oxn ,f'-ie x px 
■>t ]te p»n oxn ,iyi3'j? h ts px pxa « mwn »t 
*0'a ]»'Tix psn b?"bsx ]?sm ,]"isni p'iastt S73$?j"x-a , ''>? 

56.fnB jix eip 
"IX' 0»!»' TX ,BVB93 "|'T "pX ]3KH B'X'i'S ?"B 

•ruinn "t "px »3»3"x«a M 9 sns«! jsawsMsaxnx »t pxn 
,m»na jSBxnx anxs'a »yi /i93"Bff xtx «px b:>xö93 
"is?t ix .]B9"i9B3 , »x-939tP9p sn9"i b'V? n?a -pt p'iitian 
•930'ix Bty'3 ,Bp*i3'nxB os?ss? b'b "pt bxh "isswx-a" 8 ' 

,"p9"ia")XB„ 1913X ]X ]933i?38a "I9TX BS731X pt 1,9?Bp3'B BVB 

oxi ]»a»3!is |B*a BBxiBtPxa -pix fns nsn a'x Bxn 
IX iasa BDSjn dxt Bxns?3 -pix Bxn ?hb n9i9' 57.ä>»Yi 

58 .9393"« -3«? 93"T 7.1B JT'a X 0*0 B0X3 ]19' |"T 

iSBaxxa pi ff»s8 ">*nx f-ia ins?' bxh 1^'iB px 



bjh ]$ Bsn»a nainn ja$fi sran"K*a"5 **iis ts ,5su » jfcYiära (* 

.*i»ct3'>i?p g pte ]ü5s«rig3 -pt «t ]3sn nainn isn -|$3 Tis ^'is bsid jb*w 
•w'ng wa n?A d»t iB»3»a j« |"is •nä?öb , >i?p» p*k ■jya'ipsÄ r>« p "is "is?t 

B'« Bsn n?5 isn .rp»a'n«3 |a"53 p«? ^ä^s t]-»iK "T bsti n» ts ,ikb 

.(86 .t ,bini .Henryk d'Rlmeras :»0 "ap !"« ;»* P»" 1 * 

148 



oxn ,»3»a"K*a"? x?x i?'br pjsw w Bari oxi Bxn»a 
•ixaix jx ]T'n»3D'i->x üxn n a"»ij» ]ix ,]x» x pp üxn 
.F'»p ovraw fsö^psa *]X3 'i oxn ,b"j?3tib 
t'K OKn /'öasasaxiB* »7 ]ib anaö n»3»}ia»p isi 
# o?»!i« ,fnxö»3sn ,»'3»mx3 ,p»w rx ötbsm»» jsnsa 

I^BK "1(13 T'R ]1R .13X .X ?X3 ! 1Ü"IXB ,y'3£BW ,13X?PB"1 
,»3XBi?=03XO»33n "|»1 )1B a«n3R D"3 pKllSJ B13S?llStt3X 

Bxn ?'303xo "i»i »11 d»idx3 oxn ,jn»i ]»38ö»8a pr 
oxn'o oxn ,?i»o oxn ö'b "üd83»3x-)B a . ^ btbs33ti 

?XT »S ,01?^83 X ]»Ö131?33X öttn» *1» BXH ,B331.ff»;. D'R 

•xib,, jtbsti oxi 59.i3ü"3 's ,]3xn ruinn tr b'ö i» 

."|»?1"Ö ?B'll B'Ö Ö2K?3S"UXa ]»11X?3 BE"3 T'R "BD»:iS3 
1,0 X B'Ö "B3»3»3X1B„ '1 B3XÖ»J3T1 BXH ]t\n "IS1 TK 
*SU3"R 13711372 1,'IK T'R 0X11 ,37130 1X71 BT"UX3 /JH'JT'Ö 

/'BDXsraxiB,, i»i *ixb jnn d»i pxsxa twa tx ,ötb 

]WH p811»3 ]?BBS3 Btt»3 D'R T'R ?l"ö 0X1 1TBX 3'1K 
60.p»Ö?» »TR IS Bp'ty»3BX j?'T,X »t BXH 1» 

"box3»3x-ib„ i»i "jx3 pn> "isi »pxo Bxn ?xöbbx 

,tt ]0'?»ga (Bo^?a»3 bp'3 cx bxh'o *i»ix) B3xj?x?5 öw: 

,9tPö? ,'ITX .ÖtP'3 1»1X 3"11 X *1XB D'X 3'IB H?3 '1 'S 

"ix' ]'x niäeaxn ixb i»bi»b *i»i jxnx' *|»u i»i bxm 

"jx3i»i ]six "bdx3»3xib„ »pnR'3?sn x BsxasnoTi 1378 

6i.pxn»3 Biy'3-ixa t/itip oxn |ia i'x 

•X1B„ »1»»T B3KöyJ3Tl T1X pXfi H"' JB3XB1B Ü3'X 
B'Ö (1493-1415) ISD'll 1»! T1T1B l»T"j? 1»! "B0»3L?2 
l»'f Ö3»ia?R 3RS1»n ,'?X31B1XB ]1B »1X3X»? ]'0»X3'1B 
•J'ITIB ]1B -1»BDXB '1 ,Pl?M»31p ö'ö (1508-1447) 1SÖ"I»B 
|»11X?3 JH3Ö 1»! T'R JB0")X?ÖÖ1X ,13X .X 62 ]B'11 D»l 
»It'B'H *1 ]B"11S 0"l»131TXa |1R 13S'5^B"1 ]'R B"1B!nXB 

63.]Bttn'B 
-OSH ]1R -|S?3»?1»^ 1»11»3 "]X3 ]S?3J;T ,/ B3»3I?3K-|B // '1 
,Ö'Ö1»1 - "B3X3 *l»Bttn» 1»! pB BDSn„ C81 '11 -liD» 1 ? 



149 



j»ia jib ü3»i oxi 1SJHS3 1x3 px sbss? oxi s»ik oxn 

»yriya "ü3»3»a^nB w »i pari ,iyByiBi8B ]»»t p.b i3nx 

^bs^-P^kb yBOöyix »i japn* =i?»B8 ütb»}:'"»» 

oxn ,"33>bo»b i3yn„ ]1b jnaa x Baxpxa -pix px'o 

pk ysuaixsyi »i pa Bi>ay33 M x jsum isx^bxw px px 

,»'isn is?3Kto^Ka px an:» iyi .pxriya otbs7M w » bixi 

•»BS ]B»18 BDyi 0X1 BKilSn J3XH ]?»303Xö »331» »1 ÖX11 
pX3 ]1K IX"» 8 «|»1K 3»»TI X ]3»»5piXD'lX "P T P n 8B D»3 

.pKiisa »»ib p'iix sn»a ]»3»t i$» 

y»öX3X3Xa »1T?X PX p»11X IX' Biyi31H »p>3"8 B»ö 

,»7W^fB SÜ01B X »11 "IX?» BP»3 ]»11»Ä JBOnp «3 

-sBonp oxi px p»nx 18' Biyisin yp»3»»x b'ö ps 

081 'll /1»B»»11 ?U) 1»3383S?3 Bff'3 »»»83838» »3133 D1Ö 

.i3s?33X ]»n»a srax3X3xn px bixi "piK .138?30»13 »b?x 

ÜXH ,3"!! ]?»»X»B8 D3?T f'fl ISSX /'B'3t3'1B ]»X„ jy» 

bkh'o i»a»»ii »7»»2t»BgaiK ?»b»ii jy»y3 msssa ]g» ist 

.t301?3S?3 183 D'K *P ? 

y?8 ÖSOB ]»8 "|X3 J3X.1 fl"» ]B323"3 jlB «pD B»»3 
-?8 ,»'38BW '11 ,iyi3»7 ?»B X PX) 181385 yfo''»B81»»K 
<B3»\1 ^83-»»?8T3»K P8 ]5tl'll$1B ?»»B ,»»11890831' ,»»383 
J1818B ]Xp 'IIB »1 TX ,]X8T83 83?8TX ,?»»? ,ÖVÖO»Tp» 
IS 8B3'?83 '1 ]>»1X*B»83 |X» iyi ]»11 ,?XB ]»K 183 Ö* 
»öa»?»3 P»t «J»1K ÖBP3 B?8n 1» 183X. 3'1K ,'T'IH PX *j»t 
133 P»j? J1818B D^'3 D»X "3 3"11 081 |»lff ]Xp >,*]»| »»3 

18 öxn ,0x11x3 jn»3 a»»n oxi bs>81b i» i8sx 3'ix) 
-830»ix p»t ixb t»i3 x 'ii .qs?3ittirnsn iir »t bo»i exi 

»IXB T8 /03XT D811 ,f8T»3 081 PX BX11XB ]1K B"p308? 
183 BXH 13'p 17KW7&1K p»B ]BS» i ?B ]1X B»'p3y?B1XllB38 

.11 .IX .X 1SÖ10 '1. 

«?yBX3 y^»ai8i »i ?tya? ,B8n rr' |B3S3» , »3 pk ^3 



190 



'T a>iN ]ö'o jbu x ixb jüJXTiyi ynxx»'iw px unyp 
*64.nMnn -wn -ixb irp g üxnsn axn n?3 

1,8 D'3rJ3ö ]1X ]X»T»J yp'TXTH Bff'3 jy3Xaijn 'X 

?' 138933'"« ]B?X |4B "y'»83X3Xö "ly^y'B'SU'IB, IST 

»a s?'ö83X3kö h ö"j?3»?p'n nyn px B'ix-Dyi 'iix 

-X»TS?3 ]1X S7B1»9S?3 S?3»?B0'1p H D'l? T'X B811 ,]BB'"ip 
B3'K B171XB 9XB0XBX ]tD ^B^yll *T '11 B?X '1t» ,"iyayi 

»i„. sm"as?3 nyn )ib isbbb?» lyr, jb3»ö8bb»ö By'3 

**65."2"T> ]»X J1B- "i»3y& ]"! J?8T ny3'T 



JB'IX ÖX'tttfy» B»'J "]»! BXM JT" "3 jr»BK3K3Xtt 



t»»?'W8p h däti ,mn -irD'iKT« ,68*1 "pK pk »"•BO'-iye-pH-nsa (* 
♦tun.« Bsa'?yx .riwis ,ü$s , ")b!5*ba -un ,?»»? .■»in ,]xj?T»a *vk 0">a yavp 
•vi jw wia'nBtp-niB wi « b'b ^b fpvn ö*ti ,p8BpKB yp'BD-m i^jw 

•JyD83 1»3P9t5D'"ip> 191 J»->YIS I»»paOS?yj|0»'MK ]1« i^ngä-SSD ny^s'X'SipiK 
,J18ttyA Ö?»B0SrÄÜO»B -pi« I»K — Jp^Böp »1 ]V>Xl* CnVUlT«» »Älllsp 
]W *B3»i»aynB. ">1 ,BC8ffM"K-3»5 ,"BMSJ IPÜWt» *1ö1 JUJ BSP1. 081 Tg 

•an jib aiwisan«« nir-r ix ]D?8*isAB'a ?hj ^b^m o$ti ,d»j;mn yivi» 

•1P911K iy» f« ,|BO'-|p |»'11X t5"piO$?3ttO'"lK |W »'»8V9K6 iy5y'X'>B8mK 

*»rs"?'iB»tp ist 1» jnanya »i^vm isa /nnsf -ivts /p^nsa BirBarya 
Friedrich Christoph Jo * *») wwv» virus »i ]w m ,B«pay?üo»a 
Fischer : Über die Probenächte der teutschen Bauer- 
.26-1 t-t mädcharvDebit: Rdolf Weigel, Leipzig 1902, 
138—137 r"T ; B3*»ys TJna f9» jagn )w&mr> »T osn ,136 't -iv-ib tik yt 

)** BlpCa t«PttS 18BB8 D»T ,148 '! ; P18B ^K ]5Vp ,B'11 ]«5 ni» 1 "»"! "»1 

pk ,-i»b?*?b»» )">* p*> "3 B'wpsy^B'T 'wt -*b »nsonsepaisa (*» 
-^sn os ': Bsn r»"in oiia n»B .->»»» 8 Bsnya t»^n 'Vis w*v* S 



151 



's'ix b?kii»j ö'ö 't ?xi »d?»ii ,öB8ij? »»n*s snsis$ 

t5p"l»Yl»Ä ]3Xn ,13»? pX »"»aXAXJX» H ]"PB3Tn D»2 

.]'1X "1ETP )1B ?»S»3 »B?»?K1Ka 0X1 .plXBj?XB 3WO»<]»n 

.,?rai»ö x is >ti .»na n»n ix awsxa «i ,ö»p'B3sn»a 

$ -IgS OXTl 12 f»1?»n' ]X ,Ü3»"I »2»?tyü3»a m»t 0X11 
»X3 feW*3 plXB ,1Sn« "I» B3»?E>»3 pX BSXty?»T»5 /T3XÜP 

.»'axs^xa -ist naiB? pptroax axn — psm bxsms"ij 
Bi»n»ASx \>w ,]v "a js:»aD»i8 mn oxi 'itx'ii 



in mn is ts .trciia 'its piisa ?'K isass tk jib nts-ia *n isas .tssain 
"i ,(a-isr:nst3K"M D""ina sis Tis) o"x pi ps B'aai stsosia *i ix Bnasnsa 
pa 'i paamaai« p» T»t3 ps ppa'-itnsn ,paimn « 't p^-isn,, ö'k psi 
>iaa -i?»*»? Kai ,iit3»5 d'ainnn usa a»a» ':b? n-w 5p rras rma) *tj?sii isn 
.:ia«i r^nsP» 'i? laiasi ?B5is?n ja maK?i ima nsaie? ,ma mn? ">nia a« 
'as... iraan ns naini... *wi ja itaa m?'i a'aia? 1 ? mm '5 w* fins na* 
n"D?n :a"aai5 'S"» 1 ! mawn ."min? '5 ii'ruw na'nfl 'a'a ^aa aa^pa» 
cc'nfii iiiinn px jsasn'a vt *pm maina jipbb »asa»« vt .rra "0 ,wrii 
*i» ,rn'n'»na s pns?a ps 'ns ri 18 ,m^r ns? .dmm tngn pk 1» .(rrB ,x"n) 
i»»nsi»?n isn pa *>sag ,"'■? &" nns na,, istnsni n pa 'tniis dj? ma'Ti 
""■nstsasta sp'xa"K ]g agn'a,, wa "'5 er' nns na„ bss tr-nga nwg-ists'? 
8 jasasa tJKn *)S?:p>k ts ,("nstsa»ö rt p'iis sra^'K — 'isBa^o s ajfira* njjj 

a35?")Ö!? •]S^2''''1'1M*)^0^S IS f'K »DT'ISÄJg ">T f1?3 'n^a .15*68 "l»T^ ,»TTB 8 Wp 

.■ii.ts.s (a"3"inn ''o ,a§i3 oidt ,aisaasB§"ia a"ina n"iB>) psiwa üsx'nü^sa 
]T' wii ,i»n3B? »aun^igB j's osn ,0x1 Tis i'8 » , 't5D , ' ,,I iut3psi«3 
»i»?t»«n8B pKYisn jayasao'i")« "T p"p isö?s?ü , 'a )n»a r>x »Ba^siwa jaxn 
»t J»»t« t> t ^"is^ss ort |«t »sisTiu mn tssts^htsi i»«t ögii /jxsnsa 

]»T1XJA T'S (.138 •» pflSa '11) 1Hi:S?? ?"ö ]'8 ,^t£?a^ ,'11 ,Ü , "piD8?S?aD'18 ]1B 

,*n .ig .8 "iyü2KB isns ]it i"s °ik: jasn namn asa t» ps?' «3 Tg ,f»isa 8 
.p" "a nis'as 'T js-iism i'K os pisea? '11 /i»ö?ia *j§a öiw-nsa d§t 



152 



*»a T'R »»amaxa jsni ,msn3im$' \om esn ^§s ]ia 
isü-umin ?'a b'b ^»bx nxa ,ys?ti73i x jsnisj 1*112? p* 
.'■»a s??x h jid M»*snw* tt -p» jaxn - *isp-ib px* 
B"a ,BMsna»a ja'ix jaxn tö sa?sni ,]bj?xb px i?»bw 
■wt nsa p» »a vago^a ]ib a w mx nsn i?»öttao»a 



7 ?tt*58J> 
T!D Vi 8 Tflh TnflHHB TOT I« MW 1 

UP383 IST JMYl BT***»'' B»f »»9M3811» t — ."WSl-wig 

ist ^12 s?$i h - .•'•hD im « s»A'»i -isss^"»")!? ist pn 

•*18B S1ST28 ST 1 « J1K BW3W , *lp 0«T }B"1BBn8B Q^S 'IIB 
•83 JS?B'Ö 8">8B OgTl B>» — .DWJBB'lp DS*T WIB? fBOlH 

— .nief-is — »'ins "ist ps dbids?» 081 DwaBe'np ojn BBttsp» 
BiBiBo^ip o$t - .B^aiBB.Ba — .n:nnn ist \x»p spsp p« 

ISTSa'S »1 JSJST 'S — ."W1BW3B*, — .?!'"> JB1S9— jBwns pa 
*T — .BS8*V)S*hB pSTI fSTSJ S3S?Böa»lB OKT — ?B3S*)SA 
]S*n — ,D1B3B0'")p J»»9*iB8j?»W»3 JTSM 'IIB IST IS UPSgl 
'V»f> p'TaBB»?« J»I ,S1S5 ")S3S?B0np IST B*l? ,*TIB '1 BST» 
?f8» ]B'B Bp'-BSSISa 

*w*y ]w nsarn* ist? isa 'na isn *x aai'XKa h 

wn ,ö»a-iK "i»p»iJp"irT p» '«na prisa 07911 ssi a'7?x 
-isn « ma^p g ]a»n ogn ,p&9?a;pB »1 pnija va 
•v |Wö T»a .]s?7i3snKa ist »agie ypiRTi "p** ' ,<nB 

Wt ,]*öisa »in» k öf"i»n«B dwiihj?» ]»» dksi d^yi 
^Bwreav *n jik i w ruy ist ~isü"vi j»»a'?jn n - j&nsa 



IM 



-r* |» |»n»a a"nax tk j»k px amsms»»* msp a»aa 

"ISH$ j??KB D93»ÄSa»a DJ1B lW?Sn niH ]1B 5«& "ISftg-flSe 

,f w»*u ü )»ö>Bffxa »x *|y?ai?aaiK üx?aa px -.s?ansn ,an?? 
VT üxn'o «n jix s>a»?jn n opnwsa -p axrro wn 

.auasMxsmu n pmnvug 
-3ts?TS?3 stfg oxaa jsayt ypxa ma>o »p»t^tt a'Thx 
i»ik pit * swBmp>$sö ]»ns?a a«m$ njpn rx jBxniwi 

p» ]K pX115?3 "ISB»»r ]»3»T lS5.MaJHX»TSM 5"B l^BX 

•n isn ]ix easas?» . i»T*'ji»5sri n»i nsax pk ,-p ixb 

pBD Dl» ]$ "I »pK SPa>?Sn 1»T ]i|B 01?ßJ"K lyüpm 

.]a>?astt i»t3"ii 
px p?xa amasnsj osn pe spp?m h >it?s a'ix 

■ann bd"j ]a?s?T jca aaiasnxsnya pt -px px ,m»pixB 
es? iswxvitfB ,-npa am jan 'it?x ?»ivö a'ix .fsmi-ns?* 
px p?*?3 px'o ]D?rn ]ib 53ia»3ityis?a n tx ,*p Basmsn 

«|"1KT ,?*psa'9 1SHK «SHOP B'3»a DS?3S?> ISTK QSH «p« 
3'1K ,B"l»p8B -1ST11 J1R ,SW?Sn pj ft |SNQ1p *pK ]S?B 



ijn ]»* |»:»t aaiaMxywa nswr»* isn jw is«n$B 211 isn (* 
»sü^»ü:9» ojp .3ff»tunp$j?a « jimn a*>na$ *vs j>« r« n *ps t» ,mw»»» 
.i8a5"BjrsMiK ,oi'»k pim ra (Jus et fas) »srttara o«n p* jm* 
V 'n *i$b y>t b»ö b?»b» aaiarasrnra ■»»»»t» ">sn jib a»na$ ij?n 

J->S mq ]B\11*B$ j??gB D$T B*J»3»T1BB B$a .j??gB )1K BJja JtWlS (/TIS) 1^3 

.yi a"nn» tt ü$n e»t ]«t 7« f>?«E oip px ,üi5et ]n»a »»d ,B»x.n»n?» 

.)s»Tjra y3»5B»a »i |u»n w ]»b 
|anin bis fa ]a»5i?s aaiasasrtya »e—i" »i r« n:»DB?is dst p« 

.274—272 »'? ,m«i ,Dr. L. Eenzinger: »0 ^».«»i 
« «"*"' J. D. Michaelis 1. .432 't btji ( Dr. Paul Volz: 
V» i»«a d*t ,a*c"tf» jrtv-wss r>» Ä ^ m-iBe? »jöüb "jnm. .228 213 

155 



■*p» b'i» t t ms^x p?>j3 oswasrea asrt p& sw%n »i 
p?p / Q'i'?sn»ai''? ist«. ö"pMyiov tk ö'ö p'aaa »9'TJM 
•h is mpxk3 ktk d'ö "pia? is /|smm pa-csn t™ P" 3 
•JtoD'l« ?§»k tt I3«n naix) O'IK T T ö33 ' ,s PSiB aa?ST 

.aaiarasyTSJ pT t 18 (ö^3 w x 

'T ]»ll»a PK »'J'?»"l T8 ,]3KI Tö ]S3ap ÖDST B'Ö 

.??33 was?3kSVT9a "isn pa mKBiw 
■snxataa »as9Donp pk s»n" H ja^asnsa a"a 

O'll Tl« 1»a'1»1 PX /''l-IS 1S?T pÖ D3S?1 "n pSll ]VMU 

isi ^s mmas sp'TgTi pa MPX$a ri ]sasp ix p'ta 

.»IT» 



038 ]'H i»a«»3 np'snsn 1*a la^tn /»na "»ai is jw? 
isn pi?a b»»a Pk »'?sa2Kiis '1' ?»?ti .S'Wjigny h 

ist-]« aai'xsa ist pan ottxsi oxti /l^öpsa'ösnn 
,ös?t a^ix T m "^ z' 1 " 10 " isn '* y^yi i»a»?Donp 
pn ^ayjnxB'iK ttJS9po»ip ypmytJSBiy n oijn 
m t ]38^» /'na ist pan ]an^aa nsnx öwnya }a«n M t 
,aä?i??Q8i tnTnyjnya'K pH«»«» üaaa -latnan aiai38 d'ö 
-asna 'i .öJ8Jaa Q3n pari pi» brh s'^swia 'i okii 
pa nsp"S3"K nsi ]a s ?naj w»ji pa "laanai pk y?ya 
o^aöiysaöosa pk p'tr/Das. a^n na3?an ,"iXBp8B taüsa 1 ? 
.■»Tis "isn n »'a'?an iS3»?Donp iht pa Mpxsa H 

t]~V3Tim t3p83 Ip'TKT 03^3 ni3'0 SBOp'03'n 'T IX 

*ism n naa |a3KüB?ü38 pk ya^an saa^oonp 'i (i 
H p» Bp3ia*y'X83'a?-ip tr B3«"ui»i ö»n D'vi pa bs8^ 
,|as? ]3a?aa8»?aT»a D3^g ]ü , »3a3 a?s T^ a,1 ~ l P 9 ^as^n 
T'« ,'ns -isn ix a:PXKa »ipüxaaa n p'i3D'?»0'iK öty'3 
B8n am pa pm pxi a w\ti p'ö^snaa janm nyinaT 
*8W i's ]*iai3a örmasa wi T 1H ^na? ssa^oonp *i 



156 



)«na »TS7'ji'?»n s??x px ?«n /ms -isn ix awsga sn'» 
ixn ts'i? ,sp"7smxns -un ]ia poa -isn bttssi axn 

»"t Ö'ö 030H ]'K ,331£>B"ÜD'1X -|B&»Ö0X?X30 n»3S?nSÖ?8?ö»ö 

oxn ,5?'xxa-ix3sn *r (3 .fpj? nsw?'iü*$j? "un ]w |S?mxi 
'X3D isn ö'a oaxM w asn dip i"p egnsa «£"3 pw taxn 
/■na *isn 12 33i'xxa -un px -pix rx ,no'tp nsw'ooxJ 

,Op31E73XBW ]a?STBS1 «pK ]a'?.a»a * ,» Q 3 S ö X IS *11 

.n»p'öOS?^ao '1 oxn 



11H ]1D "l»TB3»ö«p J1X OIBO'-Ip ]13 "ISnxnXB ?»B 

•xixa pn pa tnyao^xa p-iXDw jsasN oxn ,sp?sm8' ! i» 
•i3S?aix ]"t psni j?'"msn px p'os p*t pa ,sn»? -isw? 
,»asnx *1 ikb mxisn nsr oan -ip>» "isn„ ,o"poüM isa»? 

ÜXXW 0?»n H 0K11 ,S?375/TX 1K3 ,ijHi*j? 1XB ,y|?3X1j? 

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n/'üxa i»b ja»? 

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pt sp^ «na ]D"»i?o»ns? "]s??i"a •>! iK3 ]?sn ,^x%) asn ]is «jn 
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„PaweJ, uzywajqc tu wyrazu greckiego p a n- (* 
thos, ma na wzgledzie, jak nasz poiski „panna", nie 
jaj dziewictwo, jako stan fizyologiczny, lecz wyta.cz- 
nie cywilny, to jest, ze nie m^zatka, wi^c wolna, 
,(100 'i ,a-i?n ,|gnacy Radlinski) maja.ca wyjsc zamqz". 



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wt rx T'x ax3„ . v axj ]» nv?a 'i„ psni « /»ana 
■p» B"p39?D93 « "i öa"msn ,•"! Dp^»n bx3 j-a'w 
h,, . Ä ]'a-]$mB n»S3X3 isn üp'? M n»3 msn "i °jnn 
ü'ö aiax3 is?ss?'?tyü3ya isn ]ia fjaxp n9T t*x BBXtyn'pina 
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.11 .TX .X .11 .TX .X 22 /''ITg 

nsinn n "ji'p 'n "p* o'öija pJwn sHsn'iznxB ö'ö 

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.B'mB 1*1911 IS »3»?B0'»3 H ]13 ]933X?-|XB (314) 
•93 ]B"?Xn939X T'X 193?911 ,7X3'B -|9nXT9Sh'93 "19T 

jaxn oxn ,9?jj n ^B-nawri ao^n ,314 ix' ]'x pxi? 
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-ias?ai»s'K fi'p stp^^issp 'T tj$n •^sa'»« qs?t ta ,tik tsfwiiga ,„Virgfnes" 
.(175-173 ri ,ö*)§t Jgnacy Radlinski j^ik »i) ,*t»ö'1*i n )-iö jsa 



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Ö39131K9 1594 .' f8 1939T 3113317?>"H8DÖ83 Ö98!>;9813 
.11 .T8 .8 .11 .T8 .8 "niS^Da,, p»B0SH» "HS ]18H93 
]3'?1X p81193 03213189 »j?'l$'1913'a 1?'BR 1939T Ö181 
PR |939t 1582 ÖOM'IR JÖ-24 D91 ,?PB? ,*J1EP3 pB l&Prl 



172 



pnsM7 8 /'niBiw», jss pxns?3 B3SnanxB BiKb^a-ixi 

.?!"» p'IXMS X B'B ?331' 
B3Sn31XB "niBEttB,, ?'B T,S?31?T flllP IST 7,'X 
JB-15 IT'» ZiaSB l.B-17 IW JS3ST SIT»«»! ]'8 .pXllSJ 

."niD&'aa,, p'O'm-'px-VB pxnsn ösnnsa 1545 »xn 

")!?3'X ]7"BTIX'B'1B ?'B'1TX ]SmS» ]S3ST jnWJWl ]'X 

«am t» pxnxn T'K Dsng o-is7pas?n osn„ tx /'maso», 

J'N |»3»t pS» ]'X j"BS»"I8 nSH 1,10 BOX? "1SH "l»B 

- 1616 .» ,px "mstwa,, p'23s?T pxnsa Bsannsa 1613 

• .11 .X .X .11 .X .X p'XSä'T-'pK.tp'S 
B3S?"I3-|KB 1782 .» ]'X ]»Ö BXn f ' 11 V 1SH |'X 
8 "*JWS J1BB3BX,, BXH 'T ?"11 ,]'T?Xa 833X «TlBIWÖ,, '1 

,»P?»bw x o'a *]xbp x os? jasa p*in 137 |"?p 

„Geschichte der Hexen- T"» 1"» T« 
»axpina spHKTia *i j*p9xo b»"1»8» prozesse" 

.ffB"7 pS |S?'inB 1S?B3T'1B *l»p'5l3»X 7'B H 0X11 ,D'tt» 
-p3Xnß /T3X5BXP ,13^339 ,S?'3XSW ,S7'7$0'K ,f"W ,*?3X? 
*S|S0'1K BXn5?3 pXH -1S713S?? 5?3S??BD'np SHSHaX }1X T'l 
CX11 7.1X «]1E"3 ]'X |S11S3 7Wm "T BXn'B ?"11 ,]"BtP 
OSB"» IST - T.»11S?3 p'735?BW B^aS T'X *]10 "!S?"T 

46 .]B'in 

]S?33!ip'3"B 'T Bp'B"TX3 ]»» BXH V ' ~\ B » |'X 
1788 .' ]'X V'JXBtP ]'X ,1776 .' ]'X "niB»3B„ 1XB 

,11 .X «X 
]S3Sri3 ]1B "B'3P* "ISH "j'lX T'X T'l p'3"ll ttP'3 

oxn ,pisn oxt B3Xpxa px'o .)?'is px "niat^a,, 

P"p ]aS?3S?3D'l-|X 1543 .' ]'X BXH D"0 nSllSpKnp IST 
,»»'? ]'X «JHP3 ]3"p 1564 .' J'X ]1X p'lB ]'X *|1P'3 
,1776 T'3 BBÖB'TBIXB ]3Xn S3?»ll 
■t» |"p »'»„ TX ,B3X5p!?3 TT jya BXH ]?'1B ]'« 

"•^raiTga ,j?'ib ]'x 'ii ,«]itp'3 ?'3'1tk xbip'3 t'X j??xb 



•jm oasnanga j?'ib t« i,3?33?t "t\wm„ ?rx x ix 

■P^lTa TCJÄWS ]»3St 1630-1627 pX' '7 ]'R PT?a ."|"1K11 

Bnsnnn "in pRiisto ö3s?7a-ttjB ]"?x DXBRpo'a iswd 

•31» *1X' ^3'B ]1B fi'^lXS ]'R ",S7325T ?"B B'l?) '''*llBiP3B* 

Bisnain ops?T p^nsa ms?-iaiXB BRSxpö'a ja^snasn is?b 

.("niBwaa* 
WiaiRB srntjn "is?bhr ]3?b bxm 1766 .' ]'R tr3 
br?i (Bg'Yig? isiirk'stb'tbcr) liRasnan p» jir "nsEoa* x 

."niSB'3B„ 14 B337731KB 1775 .' 1,'R ]S» 
■»SB s?^1U? '7 B?mRlljm«R ]B11»I T'R ]?'1B ]'R B"ll '11 

»1 orii ^swiswBa'? ]« "Bpxs ?»d jp'iisa /'niBiwa,, 

»T DRll ,3?p'TR7'7 1M'«| BTBSHO'IK BRPI unSjÄSfiSk 

.p»n"-?Ba px3 pip tö'BR ,*]iB"a l'R i»ns» nrznn mn 

-»nwil TiRB) X31?R3 «1*1X1 T'R T'R 1836 .' /j'R "JX3 

,811iJ3SS »p'IR'-p'XBlB '1 pXTlStt B^B3'*?3?3 (RUR1 

pr oxn ,?xb is? ! pr wBonÄBpsiRB ei3?73iTxa 

-X^O'Sh'ÜO .11KB) llXpWTT J'R ,1873 ,'K» l'R ]SB*pSnRB 
.|l»"i ]'»p pX32?2 Btf?'3 B7X1 T'R B"X SnSMS?? X .(11R11 

»7 pvtw |»3»r jnsn tx / JB i ?xns?Ji pxn o'-i3?'ib '7 

"»Sil JO'll IS '13 .*pX7 ]'R "]'T ]$?3'B3?3 0X11 /'UlBEDB,, 

-ayasnx B?Riiya b'ö ps'is '7 *axn ,m3^3a '7 i,s?3s?t'd 
pxn öir7 /isdrn x 5s "pR7 3313 p'iis s^x ]apB»s 

• : S?a "]'T ]axn DRll ,'7 ]1R B3?pX3 j'iBÖ'lR BttaS?3 ft "T 
*?'B'1TR |1D B"iUTX7113R 7377 PR B3?pX3 IIDISO'IR BÖ»» 
BKA *JX31S?7 .pRllS» ]1B3?3Ö'1R B?R11S?3 B'ö JS7357T ,]?'aD38» 

isa3'B s?ax-i3 '7 niüwwajjtw ' ,7xn '7 btx?$?22 "t jfe 

1SB31R p'IBtt" p'7373'a7»B3"hg ]1R B'B ]1R B32?il 'T ]1B 
•S?3BX7X ?Xa »3379B5? "T J13 37737' J37B BR71 ^aSJlR '7 
S73?i?ll ]1R ]»7R ,1370X11 1,'R »'SRllRB^n X ^B ]BnRll 

/'Bownsa,, i.s'a Dxn hstdrii ]B'ir ]B?sni?a is?33ö? tt bnh'o 

^3S?Bt£" J1S 737133?? S??X J'R T'R 0X7) "HÖI^SÖ,, '7 T'R 'I TR 



174 



.("mBtwtt,, ]S3»pj»i is »itk'ii ,?b>ö "lya*»!,, k ]»n»j ]$ pn 
Bisps» bbwj jasn nn»»iB n o$^ ,Din pastg m?i 
•kii ]B'ix )u?8n»i isma? -pt D # a '*' 1» »a?»"n ,]0'ii 
•kis jn»a nvax .rmanp )$ isrngASttax ^t h rx ,13» 

# BTB1KB DnS'1» H ]P>p ü7X»5n BKH B3XÖ H t$ll ,ÜSS 

,xa jaxn "T oxn ,p3ixvi snsnw fingp pmnB n ]axn 
,"is?o<jn px pxyij» ]B-iKns?53 , »nK ]»3»i "T naa /jsalp 

47.ppSU a»iB p3»T »I ]1B ?»B 
]B'?5» V 1S l 2 S n ""^f DSn P T 8 'T T B»-BttnxB 

48.|»'na s»'i» »pH?wöw ?'B 

W "mBWDÖ,, P3S? DJH "3 "pX JSttSN ^BBBIX '11 

»bbös-ix. h ]»'ns ]w *j»n»i /p b^bpixb ,rmanp np'» 

n )B'?»a ]W"i»n jaxn an'o .Mn»p?SBxa ijn ]id ]B3'ar 

«pro»*. ]S3»t ]SP"nB vi ns?ü?s? oxn ]ix ]»» , n» y»>B"»*p 

* .]?8sw »i ym t>x rmanp Bjyxxns psovu x f ?B 



—1412 Joanna d'arc) pi*"i l«w »oanm n r™ (* 

.?ia?3't]ita , >3 s i« p->p s pim r« (1431 
«»ab§ T'ipj«is isa's nan^a -isn ]■>« Dgn|Ta85aay jp^ ,1428 .' |'R 
•jtt p»aiK swmxjmB »7 lis xvi?b» »t jw ]u"ns p$a pnsa p« p?an 

•WPTlXasiB IST « p8 '1 ]8BN "p B*n37YI ,58Bg"lt:OKB8p BltfB piWA pl 

•aa» »t da pa*p « >ts ,i»a?sr aai5"»B8 p ]5»b-ix tk ?87'a «aai-pasn 
VH BISYl B11C«?S'«)10 "1S38 /pSTlM BSK^ÄD'IK 'I I'* S"ni8 p« .-lsnay* 

.B?'B*)ST WB31K11 

niainsa »ciia ss-ts^sn aai-i'sas i»r "nymig n»a9si m^bbs ?•? 

."Bis yxasa 8 »»jwsBön t« is eaipga ->i ]\* 
-tfa»^ •)• t>jjn mainsa ?'S .p'sp'-iix t»i »a -lya^'a sw?aay o^i 

.]B?8n 

?'lp b OKil» ]1B T1STB 08T "VR IStsail» »5KB 1340 '8a p»24 B3T 

,paa8B»a paiaya B*wn n ]ir 
-bib?s 8 ")SB p»?pis;T "i ?8T'a ,oa^?»a fi ü^n -lytan^ay ••t nss 

.t)5'ii djit'ö ]B'a mainxa ]ü5«nvaB^ usn D8"!i ,]nra8» 



175 



•gnsB»? ssugs x t's n /7 » »bw» a»r J1*? ]B32?3£f "fit 

]1X H1BIP3Ö pX «|1»'3 |W B'BSJ ]B»1K ]»3«t)työ3^ "flÄ 

pk'o Tg ,D'nBiöi rnnix b'ö "jT'iisaB'iR,, bxji »a?5?n 
»smx *p K bxh 'i ."msttoa,, np'3? nin jw «]itt>»a jxixb 

»lTX'll ,"]S?B»Ö„ MSn'BngB ]1X ö»»p»BD»ll IST *pX |T*fl 

,niDW3ö ]i« «|ip»3 "1^3 tt jb'jhxd'ik )ir jsasjpxa nx 
nsans i»k - »»»behsb 12 |ajMM m jaxn - «|W3„ »-ixu 

.11 .TX .X "D13T ]1R H33J »11 
9»D 0X11 ,BK1 T,» 1 ** T '« "SHBI Sp'Bnsnip'l»» OKI . 

pi" 1 ?:* Bttösa "isnx Ba"?3S?a risn pxn *is3»ö-bb8iwo'ti 

totssx t»x # öa«?asa bb?»3 ]n»"i &Kn oxii ,-isn ?»»yi) 

49 .(o-iip'sx ]X »11 p«jn»a üs^ösa 

BIBal SBXT'R ]1B B"ll '1TX ]»»T Btf»J ?XT 5?3>S ]S11 
]1R3'0 *T ]J?YI .BIS"« WIR» ]Ü3S35?T CJ'R ]1X ]ÜBp5?T J»K 

(585 .' px ]ix 583 .» px /rnpjRnB - Macon) ISP»» 1'* 
]5?3BT (1563-1545 pR' H pR) "1X3X6 *1SBJS»1B 1»*T JIR 
,'3»3R3 P»p |»11M B#'3 "|R3 PR'O )5711 ,pRY1S7J p?XnsnBR 



•pltfll 8 »pKB T'K »T TR ,|»Tl»a 0^3075 B?jn B"j?3S?5DO'"a $W>V>V38p '1 

11» ?"BTI8 J8 ]3S5J?5D , 'in8 BgM JP5PT'T!p3»K '1 .B3Srn n f« ?Tl"B B^S Ä"3 

•i»B»» tB'ik ]i$wa aasnaitja (T'-ipagiB — Rouen) P^ V* *** ** 

.{1431) ]B">ia 
]»39T'0 J1K 09SSlS»3 , 'SSB''?'a8nyi V8 jSTS'ipsmiJB PK 1456 .1 ]i» 
iBEHS BOT fPT»33SÖ3'K D "1 Otf'JMWttWa ytP'9333 3?S fl^m B5tfE-0»ÄBO»B 

.ovssib 
•Bsp -in ]tp"iis aauinisa g jaiinsaig i»t Bjjn n""> tB3S3«3 b:'« 

. »p"5»n 8 "I8B »t p»?p15n 12 — B»pSl>?t8"a 
1KB — 1908 }"« ,"»»*iVrVW«, 183 B3JTpiy38 ]»1» »t 131SYI 1904 .» p« 
3Tp'9"n 8 18B BDV19 1»1 »T B1S5p-lSn — 1920 Iß' f-K ]W *BCB3»aW. 

R. Marenholz Joanna d'flrc in Geschichte, Le- '»») 

gende, Dichtung, Leipzig, 1890. Ks. R. Rrchutowski 

,(i»b»ti ]vä 157 '% »o'Sri ,Ignacy Radlinski «iss-is? r» ,bi«i 

1?« 



/jsmnrB-isn 37£ , >331?b msnax fix T,i?3x?»ip578 ,]?'a«axB'iK 

]37* B?X11 - B"pÜ3S?X3 113 S?'T1?'X H ]BXE> ]S?3Xp 0X11 
»'Ä'?Sn 13?P'T3?3'3 "IST ]13 01?S3"X ]X ]3S?11 ]T37*1 t53S?p573l 
»SO ]'X ]*TX3'Ö H ]ia ai?3"X *pR .-|3*33??BD'-|p IST *]'1K 

x bxpi »liB h 's ,Bi)pB 'i ]-ixns?3 B?-3xnxa rx ]xp 

"1573?3?VI p3XT X ,D'BP ]"X BK7'3 J3711 ]1X ? BP'3 'S ,710^3 

'i tx ,ü3pDD3?3 B$n oxn ,B«rns?a x jbspjw "*j'T bxtvo 

'373 S7'3'?3?*l S73»?B0np 'T B?X11 .flöltra X X' BXH 'IIB 
'D3XÖ 1371 1X3 IX ,B3XT 3739*11 ,»l^T!73'3 'T '1T1TX |B?xn 
»OH t'X ?'03Xj? -13?B3S7'1B DS7T «pR *p« .Hö^3 X BX7T ?'3- 
• *.3?3X1B 373373"« 'T ]"1K11S?JI BTBlp 
•»118 JB'IK "pJK T'X *SPX1?XTS7"l* 3?p'TXT7 0X11 ,0X1 
0X11 ,0X1 ??33 7.1X pX113?3 Bp'B3?BK?X3 "?'D3Xp 117B3S? 

b'ö jp'öariPKa ix ]3'ins?33x -j'T |»a bxh b«s ns?3y px 
is T'X /js/'i-ib S7?'?"n is B?ip x ]bxb7 ,ni?Hia yp'?"n 

»»»S'lBgp '*T .]1XBXa"lXBS7n 5nJ?13X ]1X pS?BT? ]yj73KTlXB 
X BB1T3J3 S?'SXa-lXB3J-l "1371 p"j? ^aXj? j'X BXH S?3Vp 

px osn psxi x i't bkh naxs *|ix »na ~>s?~r ]'x sx'bb? 
.Trp .Bsp "1371 t.13 ns?s»n '- üpiXBEnxB oxa -iso'ns» g 

•B'IX »1 }3?3XBUB2X T'X'O ]J711 ,Ü"X laa^Snin IS 
-)5?n3?3 /"?VP'B B31B l'1373'T,, X '11 '113 1371 ]JS7TI 3310X3 

'ina H ?p „Mulier taceat in ecelesia" "itx? "»n T« 



.-isursc'nia "ist ]i« t>k i_t^nx piS'n |»j> ijcp'j r« ,rw'is upn 
.auo'-ij? Diis asi"ü»Bi8 nsn isb "is 1 » oisnain opyr Tis? evi inj 
18 "«i-ib »*i t'k /D'« tj>i5 ,?»Yi ,nw»iii tjpv'iBya tn»rna iyi ü$n ,cia 

.»'3Sfcy»8a j? ,- !8»B ]ik ]"ims 

-S3 ]B8C?R2 TK 81112 Jwfl ,j»1 p8 p 1 »?'^ T'8 IStMÖ D81TIS ";'1X 

üb?^ u^n D8n ,!3i<cc7-2 , 'n53 8 ]8iss T 1 *.« t»k ri'B ^r .n»5^u83 u ira'8 p^Ti 
.73$n nainn üb"3 p^ö psas» sweo'*nia 'i t 1 " 1 « •f 11,1 ' 1 " 



177 



»via sa^üönp n ]m (ttj? ist pia D'a'as n pft p"w 
;• .9t?st tst pa B'asa js?ir Bssasnaxa "px tnsm 
jgmnsmK bxh Müoa'ia ort ]sni ,B3saxa osn B'a 

'T BXH OS? «ffl ,01X1 PX ,B3Xa SasWSTl X "JSaipXa 

«nsnxa 'na ist pa sax? jD9?Dasn n /jyaipxa aaxa 
^ 5o.]ipsa Bisa 

•X3 3VP0Xa93 XTX, BXH TTp Stt^'lBXp 'T "1X3 BEP3 

Tisa Mi'ssa n tir px is?os?a v}w>i ,ma isn fit »i'x 
.pTj? »as5üonp sisnax px nsp'öaxöosüRTS ."ist 
stzpBaxöösax-ia n px ,dpx'?rörp ms isti px 
s??g pa -pi pxifix ]5»p ,0Ka'?sx p»p ,«pa'D p"p TTp 

19tH? J'BIXa t^P ]1» .11 .18 «R B9SH IST ]W Q'JWSfl 

"tan l'« ]99i "isaasp*»'ssanxa»n s-isiax ]nx (1546-1483) 
aai'sxa is"i "i9ax px ,ni9'3| ist ]ia aaiBsn n navm 
i»B7'?»it38p -ist b'ö aaon px p»T39öP asaa 'na -ist ^s 
n tx ,]ö?xn jixB.xaixas?i snsnax px tsöi? tir .TTp 
TR ]?9aga "i tir ,]»a p^u pxii9a jaxtPRa im 'na 
osn "T jd>ti - beps a'iR ,• ]xa 097 p'asmstwm \m is 
-aiR *i9ö"ti pxn s'ExaSxasT n ti« j]a"iBixa n ]xa 
"natwa«, r; pr 'na n *x ,jari5r«HPK an ]o?xn»3"iso 
•isam ist ixa t'R ?xa5"B px ?tp'b mia *|mtp -is?t px 
bkh lax^as pr ?!^a? .-ispixBa? 1X3 ]9ii9a »i "a p'i?a 
"ma^sa,, n p"p }össx-ia ?'B'itx Baxasa atya ?xäa"p pa 
°i2i ]'R 'ii ,9x2 isa'na xtx px Basianxa Bt^a »i px 

.(1643) S'X1?RYI»T TSEPaXB'TS "JS1 pa B"22 

■« nw'B? x pKn oxn ,]ö'a»a snsias «i'i» ti« 

] ! ia naia ds?t ]s?aias?aax »'ssansasn n bxh ,'na nsi 

51."]Tp 1S?t2?'?'1öKp "131 

'T "o ]ix |xa "lyi "o wn ,B'asa sp'sa^x öxt 
<a"?a p',Taaü^?!iB sis?? "i»a»?üonp -ist B'i? ]sayT 'na 
«l'ix .n .n ,nsat» ma?a ]!ia B'aya oxi t'x ,pf »eas^sa 
^»Bonp ist B'i? - 'na n bsh o'ia ]a^a - b?sh T23S' 



178 



*)J? |3Bfll 18 ,Ö"11 »1TK KT B"} ]8»5lD"l»D 1S?p>?»n IUI 

•w üOsn«a ,"p* ]?sn s?a«? ,]»t ]?sn snp?-i :B'aia 
-Israeli H hk,, :w-ö»a is? hr ^spina h pr d^>j -px 
'i na b?2?ti -isn *pR issk 52 w ...isnsa pötya'iR j?sm 
'i ö»n isaRö «« ,pix?r7 sp'jjrtnsMiR oasa asn pi 

*pK 'T DSU jEKTaiRnra Ü't31>3p ]Ka BIH pT Ö»'3 81 

.p^'Ks "Q'a^-rjw?»» 081 

•j S «j _ 9i-|B "IBI PB K3W nsaDSPfl "15H PK DlOSaW 
^ÜSKIKB HR mwi pT BBP3 ?KT OS O'PU »11 .1»?j? 

- snsosna 8 183 ?t pr ,is??p ^n« o»a »na ist is 

WR ilKJ» '1 PK 1238 JBDpnRBtMMX .1S?j? ]3»?BDnp B"2 

■rb&j> -isn Bp»*pnß os? s?a?j?n /ms in ix ajjMtRnsB 



179 



8 ? Ü »S K p 

tb v, b rrfti wr m na xsnp i 

]»JS?P82 IS fl?3 äW5 W>2 PK ,'Tl3 *iS1 IS Sns5 "1ST5PÄ'5sn 

— .'ins ist |j»n s^ossa'is sff'i" 2öDo?s? n — •T'afl jü'b -pi 
oas — .573839 ■ut35s5» , ö'i ! iK=T«5J ! i — .sssas-snpn-'nna 
*isn is wsss , isr:r>-'?E>D:5?B ]ix nispjs nana xmpn »asvip- 
inss os?n B»a — ,öD'9q 77g3g*xita g — rcinn »i — . na 

12H Spin A21'S83 8~!HD 0JJT1 — ? ]2mn TiZmn "Ji?» tp8"T in 3 

•ia — .ru»^' — .■nw'na nsn « — .3"n p: ix ]a§n |8» 
-ist jib 33i»s«3*T : "i"5J-i83 — .'na snasns — ns» 
.srausn — .»■na -un rs »'a»?»n iswi" jir isas^tjonp 

•sn nsa»?i:o'np» nsn jia uraga 'T jstfiaxnsa Q"a 

-K3 IX TT JSWSJ pv"! Ip'S? 1$n PK ,'119 151 IS SPP? 
]1D - a'~i3Dn*1SD ]32?i30np DH9 J2P2K3 "ISH Wli ]»3Sj? 

.'ins nxn *x s»?»M8ii» "ist 

*11?7 pQ 3JP2K3 12n p»ll ]?«DTIK TD j?'fl 1S3K 

}?KT TS ,mSi Ö«P3 PK ,'llfl IST IX S?Jl'7»n nSB7»T* 

]ia Q'naonoso osn ,-pn jia ms ]ü'o pi?a i»asp$a i'i 
°>sn 'iTö , 'ii /]Bi« dsh b'o t"»« i^a ,ruia« nsam» nsn 



180 



i9i pn ,na?n 09i yin pxii93 owo"093ö'ix rx Y'3n 
.n .tx .» i9o?K?o'a D3'x noxi90'? -ta^'aai 

*»a sj?'3"x 1,933913 va psn ,]''etyixB ra oxi na 
oioia 'aa'nn tb'?x »vi ,o?»si9i 012m avx ]'x :r?'Bv 
l«j usivo tx ,p'ii isosii =n ]1X„ :0'18«BVa ]1X pVX 

PS UPS 13319? ]4K Tlö^r» 191 üaij? ."T'in ]"1 j'X Dl?tf 

,2"ii ]"i pxn-3'? üö?xt n : 19 U3»a cxi ix ,j?icb 09i 

"]*! '11 1933X3 100?XT ]ü?Kn 19?19 '1 "J1X ,]»?» "]'I '11 

pa ü"*? so?» 't ]ix„ : rcain cxi 03M ma' maa 1 .]»?» 
.* y isiii3 oasayaisüanxa D9i o'a psi ]ix jan taxoi? 
ex p'a "i ?d»k o'a "t psi oxn„ :Tia?n iri üwü''o 

- 19 191X ,M1» - 19 ]1X 0?X T'X 'I 3'1X : 1129 9013 X 
10D?XT 0X11 1X„ :D'X IS »1 ]3KT ,331' - 'J ]1X o?x 

tuinn ioo?xt oxn is i9ix ,191933» x b»b jaxn ruinn 

]1X pX' 93»1 ]'X 3"11 X D93 ? 19190?9 ]X O'a ]SXH 

]ix 2 "aioar ]»h ]'x ]9»i93'ij? sp'iasoar p»BO'ix bosvi 

.932?39 

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131 



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,]K» G31B tP'3SSSPXa nsp'B 

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?11 ISOIK'Ö TX3 OS? t'X ,"T B1B 'IIB X 3'IX 0X11 ,]DXT 

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184 



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188 



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69 ,»i»b«»j' a«n n» o$n ,a«n 
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ns»t rminn sa?six ]ib p$B >t past ,nTas ]x B'ansi 
D"»k a?sesa er ?»t> ,pasa *is «p^i a»n « 72 .»öas?» 
a^a «,., 73 .B'7'sn^nö« p« BfiK»ai?p t« ,ö"pö3Ts?sa vs 

?XX H ,-]^ a 1'* t'R ''WN ~ T 1 »?*! "Hn 03X! - * w fl 
75JÖU p'T3SL?!2? B'« PK'O 74*,'B?B8B p3ST pX> S3'<T ]'B 

ist»« ,mi'a isp'ansnu« « ö*a pgn ra nainn isa^a 
76jSBas?a? s *i»a«. ,a3!axBE?BX nwi» ]« a"n x b'ö 
]-i« 77ja"ii p'istst 01a « B«n bsn "ist ?-pT px ism 

-BaS?ff ]!X SBaS?tf 8 '11 ,B"1S3"1S pp «Bt^a raispiKB 
- T.ö!»fi "IST B3«T - BC3S?iy 0S1S'„ 78 j '1TB Saya'ISTST 
P»T3SB» T'» ]«a BST ?"11 T9/*Ä W TI B2S?^ ]«p ÖP'3 "»2J*J 

p« 'T w 8ii*a^u isp'T3p?8ii s »n„ v» ]a»? rn »jMSra 



189 



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84 .rns Di:n'a t« pa ew: p» o»n n» 83;]snKtja? 
.«i? r es ]2kh nnnn ?rt t,rö ist ig ,T ,?a t'R'o 
p« ?'irvi - vasn isn mx! - a«n \*v r„ .'na nw 

•ISTö 85";Ü?BXÖ ]»3ST piP »3"I |1{J ?XS H ,' |Xö VK 
ÜRf! 1» 86 1 3"11 B2nK2 X t>X?l IS? 1R ,18» D3'R LJ35Jp 

'13 ,ivrij?s jsviau i»wt ?m ]ik npm ,mff &i)twit\ nimn 
■"o .ii ,t« .r 88 isp'Mxnns'n pt ?xt ü"j?3"ip "i»«i 
p»n tnsn»3 tnsivo 2'ir ,nia9M ä&m "o ja* fpn D3'R 
o»*? u"pa"iy vn an'o tnsii ,pff ]vns?a pr cxn 'na r 
f ]»»i*iB si n v p»n onsn *na?sv "Wr ir ,?rö}»d *89.tM»a 
so*i»3»:y pr sa5»n :v'?jngB R "i ]»'iis vir is üsxa 

.?a .n .r 

•«» "1RB 1SBS»Ö 8»>T» '1 tJVS'B'?RT!p 11Ö?fl IST 

u»a ,]"» pt ]?rt ]S'no sb'H" '*? tr ,j?H3?sn pk 91^2 

'1 ]B?Rm»l ]1R p» p»ll IS 'HX'll »JllS» ?'B "T "IS 

92.BPJ?1"B; 
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■van .D'&'tpsn »asvanKS ö'ö p'X ist vt üns»»j vr tnsu 
24 e>a ovssaciR pin c$i drä tr ,B?"3nsn vöWi 



,^YS£ n^v-n?-»! usb ü^j?:«» jasni <f?as btbi *?i»?ji *iyt (* 
rtSvvan Tia?n ist .sagBS»Yia?n ist m oaspsa |stisa jnn ss?sr 
*ss }*r wan-in* jb'ik ]»:su»sa ?jo?»a ja jwaw pi P* 5$,m«k rs ,?»»? 
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/BBVüieaiiD ]ia »»>ti d$t jsisa Bjjn Ka"»ps«i lega ,p-isti sxwi *sü;t ü^^m 
»ms? nyi p« j9aia ?gag csii 'ins s^'a? s?s cgr» ,»S'^s?s ii* T "s* *#i 
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Dip ,B» , ia , »^rua pisufö y» p»a jniya p« i» tu ^»»ti tSÄFo^ai» -"^ 
j\>ai|ö .i'c ,i?B>a .rts — r» r^-aa .t-s ,r>a**.n .k*!B ,jii^5 iitt .-»i-:--T s 
.(.Tag j* »*b ,vnj> .'3 'er. irres ,B»-na .p*ö 



ibidh xits? 94.pafx ]is?n j?s?ss?3 ?xt »t >i3 ,b'B'»3B 
■lafcn oxn ,is?asnp t» ,is?tis?3 ]pna oxn (p"B n"? pas'B) 
ns ,bs?bp h is?a'x jixböiix ]?xt ,3311'S-p'iiB ö»ö ]j?9 
wj fix p»x « tt B"p3s??as?a x ]3xn t,?xt isanri »i 
♦?* n .« 95is?3S?a s?is?«t ]is?n Bowaigo 
jasm ps?i "0'3nnx„ jix "0'3ipxi,., h jia 5'b "p™ 
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*px n??p 8„ :o'ix*bbii is? tx ,»«11 'itx ü"aii?i ais?a 
* "! u»»a t t ü>1,s l'N 18» 8 t?xn oxn /iiB is?is?> 
lia t/itp x po is- B3ixns?a bis?ii pixoiy onxnaiTxn 
üö»a )'x px oxn 96,CB'3i8'ia w is?ix "O'aiü,., ö'ö) Bin' 

1» Ü3XÖ ,n3'3t£> P»T ]S?11 Ü3XÖ Dg3 TX W {HBlpD 1S?3S?' ]1B 

imö'ö tx 97 j "ninawa s?ph" sp'-ronva 'i «px 1x3 pni »1 
is?i es üasrnxa t,'t B?xira ?n bu 'itx px ,oin' u»a 

,133X01X3 15? 0X11 ,f ?X ]a'1plX3 ?XT WÖ3S?a X„ 98 ,' il3'3&* 

99 i"B3n-Tö?n 8 ]« "i»B3XB g ö'o ]sxn mirm "?xt is? '38 

T1X TX ,1S?3'T PX ,B3n«*Pa?n 8 ]13 1S?B38B 8 Ü»S?3'0 IS? 11 
*»3 BS711 IS? 3'1X ]W B'asn-'Ta^l ]"T )?»11 15?13'p »3»?J 

is?i3'p s?3»t fix ]?s?n ,pxn=Bs? tx jw is?ü3Xü x pa 

Utt>'3 PX 0X11 ,3"11 8 BÖ3?3 OS? 1S?11 100 j B'nxn'BS? |"I 
B33JTIS 15? 101,]1X? «]3'B *]'1X 1311? PX ,B'X 1$B p'Otffi 
T.1X B'X 013'3 X'33.1 liT^X i02,nnSPö P'I *J'1X ilBin 8 

iJb x' B08B oxn ,3''ii 8 Bay3'ö is?n ,-B'x BO"att> bxj 
io3.a'9 a'x üxrt üx3 px in'5x O'x Biznp ,B'X 

X 1X3 ]8» 8 ]»ÖS3 W B31Xliy3 B13?11 'IIB '1 1,'IX 
^IXH'B» ]X 1XB 15?D»XB )»T i!3inn BBXB'O "IS11 ,Oni'ö 
205 3"? 8 n ^ fi 7,31X11L?3 >T B?X11 IS? '11 # T' , ' J T ' K 

»3 w ti ?wa x w .om' b'ö ]'*t iji v» yt ?8t Bin' T8 11» 






191 



liK /jxt w» 8 T'»'o - ]a'*no3"n ?B3>a k b*»ö ppn& 

106 .*t i ö'sn'o 

,0m' «pH B3K ]"WTI»Ä m«?S?l t'K B?KBSn B»ll '11 

:o«s isasp jib anaa "i»p'"n»ö w n isn BP'TiKa 
rms^a pt oxn a»vi k |sai3»a Bxn nw M » a'ix 

H *PI BXH ,B'K "IRO Sp»0KS-BBP3 K "1KB t33X1t3K3 >T DKM 

dkb k B33sna»a ]axn "t .0X5 jb'ö p« B?axnKB nnst^a 
,isna'p »a"?j? »i ixb pKiass os? p» o»a p« jäuxt B*>a 
]asn nsna'p »i nsa .B?axis?2B'iai!s bik^ *pt jaxn o«n 
:p'iwsa nns^a h tonn ,b*3 h tpa paaxi >i BBfcpaa 
ruinn oxn nsnstaw nsnma -isnsp iDian ,p" nsn^a,, 

]3Kn TS ]1K D'K "1KB ßK?'3 BBKB 0K11 ,3"11 K B'B BgnSS 

.-isnsmiK B'B jbpbo»ik BBPa T T *H n s'9'bkb pT ix ,mia 
TT j?st jik p'a w « «i'i« ^spwa k t» tsas?3 ]ik eaip 

BKT) ,1$m>p 'T ".mS?T31X B^a ]8PB0»1K BBP3 "lJni*p S?3"T 
B1SBB3SS3 «1'llSl ]3'KH ,0'3 ]1K ]S?a3XT »1 ]3>?pSÄ |3$il 

PK "iS7innBiPö p: jib pxiisa Bpb'nsaBR int "is?„ :ikd |>k 
sp'iipoxn bkh "is? m innsva pi p.b pxnsa Bpxnsasg 
BiTn»i"isa'« sp3kbstss ssaga n *p Bxn /ttasasx a»Yi 
ix BispsMp'Tix ekh "is,, : BisßBsssa ]3xn *isi3'p >*t p.k 

*io7*!nnBB , a pi 
nsvii ]nss }BO'T>a?n*D'aai jik niB?fln-'»an s?is?iat? 

■IWTj ,0m' 1.1B KpVT B»'3 1.XB X ISTIX 3"11 X ]SBS3 IX 

los.iasy Bim px np">s? i»n 
fis 3*>n x ]»a»a 12 b^'3 -piK B3"i»n iia^n isn 
^paxnp isBB'Bwsa k ]ia bj?üük?k3 pk dkh # nni.v& Ktx 

io9 .ö^n 

•Pß^fi IST 'ITK'll ,(B1K BSJT B'ö fl ]S?3^pS3 TB IX 

]»»na B3 s ? |ns B«p!B3'ii "ist pjni saxis h B"?T3KnK3 



j:^S83 SIVCBÄSJ l'»p Ip-iSüHS IS KWJ PK t»*7p'n-''Sri2 *T T'K (* 

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192 



,Tin3 jasMxex tk jxa ost B?ssxa ">s 'ii ,a"ii jix ji$a 
Yia?n ist 'itk'ii ? c .b3 px xiia -ist ]'x 'i ]b?kh be»3 
tsaiij?xa /»na ist ix ?'303xa n3iB Hi'xxa n oa'apxi 
ti p'ix na^n ist rx B'ansi tx ,j?it73"x qs?t ]sa 
]ix) "n,ä ?t?a* «im,, dst pxntmsx ]ix ]5sasMXM"ps 
.(jansn vt "iS3'x bsh ijsa ns*n *is 

/|**?S )Ka QST T'X - Tlö5fl IST B3XT - 3*'U 0X7„ 

isa »i -is? «jijsn |axn a^„ iio,*"nsB*isp iS3S3»x j«i 'ii 
f?« ,3»'ii ]»i a'9 Bxn fas nsa oxn m/'p»?» tt m 
I« *pK ]W) 112 Tia?nn-»aan »i jib aa'^sa is tnsn -isa 

.(]BOHia?Jn-D'3ai »i 
/'p?*? 1?t 'ii tan pi jaxn a'? bd^t,, pss nsn 
l»a ?xt tt -ixb ii3.3"n asasj."« bis rix tt B'xxa 

03"1-1 ]")X3 ]1X ]ö"p33?asa H ]3'l?n»T0 '11 "lSj?'3"VI ]1B 

öjjtiss'o "isn im i ]B"pss?aya n |S3ST'd 'n -isa - psn 

B"IS11 31SH ]1X llSpmXB T18 O'X 'I BS11 ,3"11 |"T 

w Bar'j ]i« 'na x B'a ]3xn « n3inn bb"3 bsixtisj 

116 .]B3 12 'T ISBSB'tf ,13113 IST B'a VX B'a ]S3'1X11 

va ]S3'SS3 S3XBS«*na?n -is- °\p ]ia cpibo 't ]'X 
önxiisa rx'o pxöip 'n -p'nxa oxn ,]bxb'x ?'b *px 

Sä'? 1Sp'B"T33"j? 13T ]3S11 nXllS3 DT^lUXBXnB pX 

,'ann pa'33 ns ?8'mp' na ?x'iv .a"ii jix jxa |ivns 
:ö3xt (1278 .' j'X p.'-iiys?3) "nnan m?sa„ iso pt ]'x 
,'itk 3'? "t Bxn ,]"?« -j'T 'ii nsa"n s-is"x a'? Bxn,, 

"T B3Ka j]a»n 3'? pX ]?XT "T ,B?K11S3 Ö7811 TX '11 

.11 .tx .x 117 "T? 'ii isa 33its ]ix "is*r"?j? y3"^ 
fiimn Drmx "i bss n8 w ]'?ma w ff -iso ]"t ]'x 

]»'11S S3'? lSp'3"T3a"p ]3S11 nS73'p S3"T (1607 .BPS3) 
]W ?"B BST ]'X ,(1727-1649) |H3n '?D33 .3"11 ]1X ]Xa 

:is B3"i^ ,'na |"t p»n bist na ixn ,nxns j"T 
»3'9 naD'i-13 |"a a'?is isax ,b?x ]'w ]'a tx pbx3» 
"t ]ix ]üya ti ixa ?sni -j'x .TT B'a tx tst 7 tt ix 



1S3 



,trtsni n»sm «i^ik »ne 'itx va ,»p'X"ixn pa ,sa*9 pa 

•jKT ub»S VT... D?mi "191 «I'IK ]91193 Vö IX BD'3 11 '11 

p?n pi jia pt p?n pa ?xt jKan-D?i9 vx B"na9aax 
na» •« ii9'"?Tia pa pi ?xt ?na pi fix 
1»i 'li i»o a"ii oxi |X9tf ix ü?sa«a Tia?n 191 
bxsv, :aaxT (.p.a ,'n*» jö'Yt üa?s?n saan») «an 120 .p?s 
.3 rr» )ö'ii) ia?n 'i 121 /"pan p"> tx B9n ,i9a"n my»»n 
a'iK 5"ii ,a"n pt joax «pgi c?ü3S?a 1919',, :mxT (.ip 
oxa ix a»'ii ]"t ixa 0» 1» axn ,p"> ai9ii tPB39a x 
naa ea"ii B9i a'?ix tx ,B3poB na?a 191 i22."]9paKi 
pxa Tis nsaar |X't ]ix nsnp ]0»i jkb ist ?xt psn 

123 .|"is?ta?j? 9tx ]ia ü'ia 
px oa»n» (1238-1176 Tis?) oa-ixn ]ia iT9?x 'i 
# ^t)3S?a B9i t'k ?'i*ni„, :"npii„ iao pT ix naipn "in 
|»n ,i9ia'p »a»»t ?'ixn ,d'k ?'ikh ,3»ti pT B9aax exn 
124 .("}»?» aiaa waa w ) oüia )'s ]»n aan a«9 
•p* prasixn a"ii oxi jaaij t,ik ]X9tv «pip'a ig 
»Y'inin arm« 'i i9aaxai9i i9'ia i9i aaanütp i9»i 
,iax .x 125(1357 .8ff»3) 'i?n ?xia» j3 iT9?x 1 
ixs» , ]i« ]aax ix öaiKiisa aisii a 5, n oxi t 18 

.•jxa oiri 
l»w i'a jaxn "|9?B'B8p »p'nsnB *i ]ia B9a»'x ]'x 
s?TS?'3'?a?i 9i9iax ]ix o'aai »i oxn ,niapn »i B?i38nxa 
nsn tx ,j939ixilX3 ix na ,pnsn ]pna jaxn ]BSB'i$B'm 
»i»'3'?sn s^w >i 193$ ,a"ii pT ]ax?w wa ?$t jxa 
,a"n pT px?p ix t'i^a twa ]^a dst üislnxa »isl 
- iia?n is?t mxt - öxa w .tx D'a t t pnp ix t 1s 1? 3 
126 j "TT pnp a"iv]ix-]xa 1x11 ,a«j» isn ]ia p»nx-ö w J 
s?ns>Taix D'xnsl a»'ii dhi exn ,aias?a taix ixa t'k o», 
i27/ /o t3»t ]ia la^x taai'iyxa px 1^1:7 
128 ,xna i^t ]'x 3"ii |"t ]B?xn ava nxa |xa ist 
|t5a?2ix ni?iiiy 'i px? S3»'a 129 /]"t is?xa ÖlP'a 'J IXÖ 



194 



.o:xa « tx ,t»x tm»»b&> ixn osn ,)t>s?ani5 x?3?x?tx ü-isai 
twpoöitt jaxn ix7ü?8?B'a ]>ib o»aai n 130 .*ib »»t ?xt ?»a 
pxjaix . 12 a'»n ]»»t »ib ]x?a3X?i8B aa»-. i^jd ]tfa isn ts 
üsxasa tt *axn -ix?a»»n n bxii ,ix» rx ajro 3?3?vtb px 
-ra jisö ]H *b»i? pbxb ,-ösaitf 12 ow»a »»t ]»x anaa x 
nsi3n ,oü383-re-jiat"> ,p»üttnx73xi px paaxa ?rca? jx» 
T,x??B3»?»n3i3n »i nx?a T»i?a ]üx?aix u»*3 »»t *-ixb B*.»»n> 
DJ?*: tix ,13X .x öT'asn h *»x ,ttnn«wxi i3i ,.(tt "xwxna 
,ttar'a ]23xa3"x pxnix T*a»»n tg ,tt btb'b ixn ,bix 

]X7TI tf'BX. 132 .»Xm»112 BE7»3 121XH »XT1X *Xa 1X71 'T 'L?p 

# pnj? «£"3 tx ü»a tt -x?a ixb ,a»»n bsx??!? x tagn'a 
bx?ii ixa-isn ,nna^a px a*?-i8B "x?ax?j px ,1t»?., ixj 
tt 2>ü3x?a ix?ix?' «pxi ??sa 131 /'Di3n»;i bxi »x*t bw»3 ix? 
T'X'o ?»»n 132 ,a"Yi )»»t *ib wümxn ayi |?'B"ix?t 12 ]x?»axa 
« tt i"ist ix? 133 .ü*p *ib p2i d»i ü?»B-ixn ix? t»?*. 

U TT *,»»3 ,X?j-»D|?lXn3»»?j? X T»X 3»»11 ]»»1„ : ]B8312 TX 

»»»i ?xa:»»p °xa ix?i ?xt ,Di?tt> a»?*2 fin 134 ."px tx 
135 .a»»n t,»»t px3i2§x psmsi tt 
?»b Ö1J711 - a»»n *ix ]gö *a»»iix Di?» ]»'t ?xt'b tx 

136 .0:11x112*», ?xa 

•BUS" '1 ]'B .1X112 1X71 ]'X 1X7Ü1X7T» '1 "MST j?'13T1 

»»T ,1Jnj'j? XJ3'»T B31X11 1X7 13?3?X?11 ]»X ,(1660 ,DE*X*3) ?'0 

tx „ :ix?a»»n x?ix?»t B»a ]j»ip üty»3 t* "?xt 

a»»n exi ?»v ,-ix?a'»n xnx?»»x u»a ]j»ip bp»3 tt ü?xi 

.BX5 ]1B T'X Jll'T 1X77X7» »IX ISBISp 1X?'»X »1B ?»»B X T'X 

ixyaMii »i p?xn ix?"o ?xra ,mmx7a *axn D'aan x?i5?T3ix 

Ü?XT ,B?X?3i "JO « 1X?2»»11 »1X7»»X T'X ]13 ]?'ll 1SQX0... 

s^n tx T8 ,]w i»x ?xt oxn ,x»a»? ]»»a : »jht »»t tx 
?]y3?tj isnx ixttsnu Di?tt?von ?xt'3 ,wo?'i* '2 ,*5ttr»i 

,S?3'»a 1SB3X7Ö... |'»B?yiXB ")»»X ]?X711 '»T TX ,1»3»T ]»a'D 
«'»X 12 TT B'SXa / 1X?'T1B ,1X713»p X?11"»X XJ^X ]1X ]113tt> 
a»ix ,1X72a BC»3 »»T D»»l .XJ2»? ]1X TIS Ö ? ö iyxi?a »1» 



195 



P'JHSa'K PT BSP. 0S3 "ISI P3 ,P'*1K 0K3 ]'K P^BPIK. 
]'K "I BJKB1S1 ]1K 101B "I5?35?a »1»"« BJKT DS13K3 pK 

137 ."rums P'B 
,bpb oa"ii ]B'iK ]B!?a is BW3 mikyi pa^a ist 

P'T BSTI - jaiKBP "7KT 3"11 ]"T 0»1K-t3p1p'0 1SYI :T'll 

|kö isn a'iK,, 138 ."jasJhsa'K d'k bs?ii 't tk ,]"T «jio 

,3"11 P'T 1KB 1K3 ,ÖS3"p 1KB BE?'3 T? BaiKBW ,Ba")KOK; 

139 j"ikb tk iKs 1K3 »t BanKü^-BaiKüK- am oki tk t,ik 

BaiKBW'0 JBöSYl«, 140 j ]gÖ TK 1K3 BSl»p BW'3 B?SB 'I 

b?kb nx» j"t.... BSTpiKs ck B»iB spn pxni.... a w ii P'T 

•1P3 OKI '11 ,T'?3 PK'O.... WXPB CK BT»« B9SYI H„., 

141 ."ex pn pk pKiisa aiin b?kii anpan 

T?j?'t3"T33"j? T?1 p»ll B31K11SÄ T1K B1SP1 aiKH 

p.b 3"ii k ,pJsnaK oa'pi isik jkb bbi p,b ssijpT'niKB 

IS?» PW ?$T ,BtPri'Bmp T1K |SB1j?»AB!|K PK 0K11 ,1" K 
1133 0371 3'?1X P.K BK3 P.B 113» ]a>9lX* pKn«n3inn BW'3 
■3"K '1TK PÖ JXaBIK. ]K 1TBK. 142 ."DS?3S?a^S?3aiK 0S1 P.B 
143 .1133 K P'T TK 1XÜ ?KT'0 TK ,rPl? Oa"ll ]"T ]S3BT)K 
PTS *pK1 ,3"11 ]"T J31KÜ?P3?3 PK B'K OKU ]K» "WH 

OKi jsjköisi Bisn ns pr*?a ,3?B"nx k jbbs3 bp'i 53k? 

TK T1K 1SX» TT ]»J»T ]E?B35?a ]S|« ä"ll SSSJaiKBBHKB 
(*D'?n Vftfc) B'aiB'BP "TT JBBp'PPiaiX "IJHK 144 ,B'1B 
]Kö 1SH T1K PK 13p 03"T! ]PT T1K 145 .B'lü TK 1K3 

.n .k .n .tk .k 146 naxa g flvm u 3'ina 



K PK TT Ü3'3S?'^ 'T TW a»?ll OKI BJS3 BKH'a a'lK 
*IS?1S?13K |K PK T'K 'T 1S?1K 5?JK? 1»?»n»BKÖ 1S"lS?lliy 
S!S TK ÜD'^B '1 |Xa DSiSTSllSÄ TK T1K BP? ^IX-Il» 

boi^b n ]3?sn ]is ,a"? i'n,, pk oki t'ii jtfyn 

147 ."]B?KnK3 B«;'3 TT 



196 



ä"!m* ;'?'?3n 'Ot 'd iwn panxa 8 D33"8 13311 
bkh ns? »n B31383 t« ,&?"si3i öi»ti (.ip .3 n w ' jü".iis 
»?3n ]'« ,»3»? I3?3'i3ü8a i3iynty isi ]ib uoi8iii3i in 

-IX ÜI"3P33 »I 13 Ö871 ,2?»TI ]T3VI33 ]»'T "J'T Ü3'333'0 133 

148 .]8a ]Ö"11X T8 Ö'ö J372XT 

jmmi ü3"i8iis?3 oisii ,wnj isn ps?n »11 i3a383 

.n3ö?8 131 

■üip'3 ?8T'a t8 ,ai8n 13"T mi8ii i/'an isn pp 
ö»a T8 12 Tt ]»»ssa #?t ]X'» .ma?« »i ]j?'ni3U3i8 
s??8 |»8 jwtMsra "pi ?8t D83„ '13 ,?'333ü'a ü'a ,rna»nn 

8 T'8 B83„ ?'»11 ,]p'3"B BP'J 't B?8T 1'8 .")Ü8B 33"1 

]i8 ]p'ni3U3i8 »t osn i'8 a'i8 ]W "ni3a?8 |1B i3D3'i 

]'»T "pH «]»18 ]0'30'18„ "157 135711 ,Ü83 IS ]311 BS11 'I 
B3317133,, ]18 831?i> BIS p57T) ]33333133'8 B311 V8 ,"]-|KS 

rma?8 |»»i ]?s?n i3a"n sns?»»« ,ii3w isi B»a ]i3ii 

149 /'B'airi' i3i3'p 3i3"8 ji« 

4181133 JBXWStt .13a?8 131 D31Ö? J333T 123133 ?'3 
»33 »13138 3?8 183 312183 B81 13Ü38B '1 ,?»»? ,'11 
,|33ai8B B333a'?333133'8 OISÖKB D313 ]1311 IS BpB» 
038a B37 .312183 TK '33? p8 D $ n Wo?« '1 1338 
|1311 ÜT"B^33 Biy'3 Ü'lü )'»T "]83 ?8T 713B?8 '1 T8 ,718112 
TK 183 B8*Ba33 'I 150 .p'D?'3 DBT'3 T'8 ,]33aiK3 ]"T ]1B 
0313 ]B08p'n'l? '1 *]'18 W3 Ü3"?3'0 3'18 1?'38 ,7131113 

.11 .T8 .8 151 * ]8B 
»»0 B1311 ,H3a?8 ]18 ntfl13 131 ]3311 '11 1331871 

♦13üia 131 ]3311 D3181133 1ia?fl Oj'H '»0 /pfl ]'K 



**» tai^TSa HX 'TS ,Bn»BSM"* Olir J1B Xfllli "im VR 5»B Ö'l5 (* 

W J»»B Btf'l PK ]1K Ü?J? T>« »t *l5'S8 3»1K ,3'Wa ^1« D3' IHT P« P'T 

.(353 'r ,ßand 11 .a-un J. D. Michaelis '.»Dwv? I«? lasn 



197 



mifi n jxni oxitixb ,pDanxa « B'a iia?*) isn 

J=!K "1SÖKB D»l TIM ]3yJD$ «TlXVa TX BSH ,p»ll Ol»"» 

»1 ixn ,xi fix -isaia h Bsxansn aansns tnsni /lsaia 
aisni ,ris?a?sr H -ixb jaxn xma «pgv» tx ,021x1 mir» 
- na?fl isn a-mraxa - ?«n ? isaia »1 oaxaisi Bens« 
/isbxd asn ins xna isa axn p im tx ,bo->">ii . axa 
'jiawa isn -ixb ]2Kn x-na ?xra ,B3ixvi5?a atjnsnx n» axn 

•>»Ö» "im PK ,1113 ]3SaB8. pni TT B9l3XiYB ]SVI "l»a$ 

man isansn /isana h iasa iaa px p ist tx /ish 
152 .isaga psn atznsnx asixusa xi 
d'X3*i ps |?>BtP"a sttsn'EhXB maxna °na?n isn 
ns ,]»n»j waa-iDia bwb *p pxn oxn ,D'XTiax ]ix 
aarns» pBita 'i '«an asn psni .Dx-"na»a \»x « a"j?a 
ix /na?a nsn B?»änsn (np .3 rr* ]ü"ns qjib as^sn 
4ü"ixa ]'« pVäXBtP t)zw ögn "jsnmö pi nsa /jxaa^x 
asn u a?xn exn ,?p'08B oxi p'isjisa»» tk *p axn 
ö'B »vx nsBaqx t,3s?n sa»n aa^imyaaiix is? axn s\w 

-3"-lX PX »t P3 B3SP1 3tt"T «pX ]5?33Xa!tt 'I PX '1T1J ]1X 

isdw sa?$ pT j»n ,?kö osnsp 153 .asa tk px ]rägMH 
px ,]iB"i5n pao>"nx ijnx as?a px paa^ng a^xiisa axn 
*p i» axn ,pao'nx- , px-pix nyaana pT -px ?xi'o '"ra 
/fsmxasa d»k *px px 'i ]*x tu? ist «px aa^^aiSTax 

154 .?3»iö x «j»!« »n 
-sra axn (.nj? .3 rr» |üm»' «jot h xmax ist tx 
*]'t ?»n'3, : tMXTsa i» axn ^»dw ]"t ^b ana »1 ansn 
.las ,» 155 "]x aaip oxn ,rw'3W ist ">xb psoiPB'iii 
^pai l»t ,B'x ]sa3xssa aayya a'ix tx ,t'x pi ist 
ix» toiBT^n sp'3»»» B'a T'a) nsü^a ist B'a iraxa ]"? 
aisnsa mne^a ssaxa pms ]« |?xs ss^stx ]axn pnix 
awnsns ]T ,,5 ?0'ix ns ^nxi ,(]»j;3M m »isi sss^asa^x h « 



198 



dss?« px |'an |"t ixs-iyi ,tt ^n»i ,*iytna n 
TT jaxn nyBia msn b*b lytaxa nyi a'ix isö ."lytoxa nyi 
-isn 3>ix 157 .]U38 « "]"':; yi"3 a'ina |it t»i px ,01»» 

•B3K'0 7.1X t !,T P* p 8 üTK?S?ai»3'H J1X ]3nKBE>y3 PX n»UKB 

,D'mij? osxa ds?t jix nyBia n»T JBPTIX -p 0D, ° 8 wvv 
,?»11 "1S7Ü1Ö H '11 ,'118 B3«?a ,]^T 0»T jymyi 9XT'0 nyn 

em'as bwj Bxn isbkd n»T 3'ix ?x ,b3$t jh ist »»xa 
h jspxnsn ?xt 3"ii p'T tx ,nxnx is?t px ]3'")pyj3»x 
*?yn ,?'303xa » 1^ |ya»owsa p-ma exi «ps/r ,-iyi3'p 

158 .]»'3n»n "t ?xt iya 
*»ixb »T üa'nnyT nyB?x?B'a jnya Bxrro b»ii *u 
: BpxB iypmyö"ii nyi tw bt»tix3 /lyBia nyT jib asn 
t'k (1105 .Btpya) min' 'aia pnx' n jib 3"ii okt jyn 
/1108 .Bwya) mirr "1 jw |"? ]0"nyj *iy Bxn ^atKö^ys 
•n»a bis T'a jib'b tk fioxa B'vnyo'vnxa ?xt iy 

159 .rmapn 
na» 1 ?» ,nttm3 ,3"n DwyaM« oy*r ix »pn ixa bs»3 
•^T tibJä iyi BD"n 'i-ib "tyiy ix 993a 1x3 /i»bis ]ix 
•"iy-Mia?a nyi .?'303xn x ix »n bu 'itx hibsx b»b ]yxx3 
"iy OKn # B'»iyi 'ine x Bp'i"?x3 Bxn 0511 ,ay3"x pni b?"x 
«iyi ts xa'py 1 Bxn - 0x3 rx sxp d»t öpywMK. vx B^tn 
a"i xniax nyi t" 1 « la.pJ'i Biyir3in tb B3posy3ix -ixa 

TB 'IIB X Balisa BXJ1 </)p .3 183 .393) XiriX 13 XIX 

-rc*Bxp oyn pnyjBxnx vx Bxn iy ?"ii ,p?'j Bnyi3in 
■wi tx /jyny* t'k )n ixi tx ,0'ix bt«h iei .pyT 
üxn ^yösansD » 't 9 i3 /ne x ]« sxp oyn BXBpyro 

.]i?'3 anynsin tb pxsga BTiaya vx 
yaKB»*iw9ii nyi 1x3 |ib jBO'Tia^-D^aT h t 18 

S'1133 y?X )3y3BX TX ]ä|« 'IIB H ]B3X IX p»lBX3 ]3XH 
]Ty BBX"IÜWX3 W)W ]3Xn "T .?'303XB DyT »11 Bp31B 
13'7 33!)pH"?X3 »Ö03y?p H )y33X3X3 t'X 0X11 / 7'303Xa 

-Ta?D x ]« a»»n pxa T8 ,B3posy3 pxn "i m .»ns x 



199 



»p^x D3n»Tö5n asn -ixa ».n pxn px-pi jj?a >q"i»i Q3B 

•B'i« "j'T ji?a «pxi 'na isa?« -isjp'n35P , 'a"a'ixe 8 "ixö 

.11 .tx .x 163 jxa ]ö?g ]k -ixa >n 'itx öp3is ,j 



plK? Ylü |3Xn ?ti'3Xp Ip'TlSnS Q313 3»flJK pX 

isn ix na'o »aan» n piisn rx 3?*»a>?s?-i tx ,Bp-i:sax3 
pa attaswxsHya >i tk j missmlxstsji ist p3 33i , > , >wu3X 
^«ö ix?ixna*ism'x ]x piisn a»mx pn px rx p^xs py 

M1B H JSTStt ]3Xn Tö TK /lSa'ISn ]1X S'1'?S1 p'T ]13 
pX »';»?»"! "W>Y 3 pX "J»3»?O0'1p 15H pB UStf pX 

•»p /iia nsn ix aäi'xxa n»"i a?a aaspxa "pT pxn Ta 

p'T IX «pXYO ?80K?8p '11 ,]?ÄBBn$B pW "pT " 1 ' a l 573 

aasn h jasni imsaxsÄ ny^'T 1 » nsn jbptix pi^n "«n 
-aonp H "a 33ia$?3Xi??2?a isp'TXYisn px *i-ib -isn 7ns 

.nspSSB sas? 

YX ]Xa "l$n 1X3 TX ,Ü3X? ü35?axö8S?Ü "1»»3 13*? 

px px 164 (Qixa oüxa px) "D'n?« o?xa„ pgnsj jsx^xa 

D31D 3313X^X3 ISn p»ll ""j'T DTSYD 1X11 ,Ö1XT /pjfl 

»üX3 — ]»ö»nj t»ix ]»a ]»p /'aixa döm,, px u?ü3s?a 

»X3 PX ?'3D3Xa IST 1X3 TX - ötf'J BS pMöff bhybä 

x *pix i65jö»'3 *i"ia 'i px "n°>n?x d?X3„ p$nsa ]ax?y 
jb»M h ü'ias?3 üxn axa px„ : j ö«rw "fan P x Ü1X ü,,ri2 
x üaxasa yx ]ia px paix ]ia i$?ai35?a mn is? oxn 
aiyaxaösra os»a oi'x *n Y?xa . \>w ixt px - 166 '"»na 
*i3i?3*is?a'x D.imaö'np oxt axn on/t tx ,]»:i»a ixp'a ]ix 
oxi ]"k*bwömö ]ix Yia?n tan is?ax aaip ; Y'an ]ia ]s?a 
uisivo tx ,mxT ]ix /a'iara tsxn is? ]ix) '^a'i,, ü°ixh 
tx ,]ia"*is?T aaa'YT is? px i3XüE?"i^a - "n3 , »a, y oa^asj 
'na ist üxn tsxa tx /jjxt ix pies ist ü3«a ü'aixn 
n'iPKna is?t 167 ? ]xa ds?t n» y'k ,13x12^1x3 n»a psmn 
,,a»x n»a?s?Tis?T in»? px ]s?3kö^E33X m n»a?sn /nai 

200 



ÜJXT ,niP-|S TX3 Btt"3 3'iK ,ÖJSöXBOSÖ "il?"3 1S?7 0X11 

"Bxwxa 'iifi *i tix rH 'l^ a " IS? * T ,ri ^ ,1T £ T ^ /WTrti 

168 ."D'n?x B?xa„, pxru?-, 
,'üb'ix t?X3X-. th i?'bx 3'ix tx ,-sa out ]ia-iin 

TN "D'.T?X 0?X3„ pXllS" ]BKWX3 ÜW'3 T'X 'IIB '1 Tg 
BS? T'X ,03^X00170 D5?"3 D31B IBE'IX !S33?".»X J"'J> BIP'l 
T'X 0X11 ,331DXEB'1X IST IS FX,T3*,'*j? PX ?XB ]ÜC3?3 J'X 
TIX TX ,p" "3 ]l?ai3i?33X ]S11B". B"X TJ3S» J'X -'ltP 
-'IS?! l'X ]1X "DTi/X D?X3„ pXllltt ]BXWXa T'X "»IIB »1 

*itx ?3u> wo ,5-aba.xa "im 'ii ,wo3s?a xtx op3is -ii?a 

1371 '11 "3S? 012 03Sn ?'B '1TX Ep31B OXM |$X 15? '11 Ol* 

ps? pn*n - "f-a?n nsn ossna - p'aoüxa 'x„ .?-ao3£a 

169 "?Öl""" "SPllB ]"K 
OXH 0X3 0X11 ,0X1 TX ,0'lX*Oa*p DlÜÜOO'-lj? "B'l? 
IX 'T '13 ,pT)5Ml 02? T'X ,'11B '1 ]BXtt?X3 EnS?13X V'PB 
»T .?'3D3Xa 0371 p"m3?l IS TX *1S?3'X ]1X ]p'13?T31Sn 

-xa p-nsnio*« j*x ]"iaix ]X nxs oaxnoxs tnsni 'ins 

TX 0X11 ,p2J3'lü7V)''Ü fiSH ,pSTB"lXB X 1XB jtt"3S?B3?ttr 
pM"lBlP1XB ?TI"'Ö OST p?3?n T'X "J'p'EfirtFXa 3?p'X3"X 
03'X ?'3D3Xa Dl?! ]0»10B* IX ]1X B?S11 *1S?1 «pX 13'T 

»"?3 x 'ii oaxnoxa BW3 ^xar-p onsni 'üb 'i ,« ü3itbx 

IX 3X31X ]1X ?BÜ X '11 1X3 ,?'303XÖ "O'a ttfÜ337a 1273 

»3S?oiy Tia cx^i ,]'a psp-isn»: x ]-s BpasBiwxa x 'n ,o'X 

."?'3D3Xa D31B p'33S?nSX ]"T pH 
B?S?BX3 ,*3,10tfSB'lX T?p'TXT)2?l pD XXP-9S1B X '11 
»-IX3 ,?»303N» 012 JJDXBIS.IS TT 'IIB 1371 QlU300np 0X1 
S?p'35?ü-!S?Ü31X 03KO D271 ]"T ,p»T'?310 f?X ,5?p'TX'0 )3''3 
'13 "IX 1T0XB piiSBB^'D ]"T ,p371XB BBr'31.X3 ,]'-|2?3'l 

px •Jivo os?i p?s?n ,?'ao3xa 03?i ]tbixb oiy'3 ?xt 't 

- 03113BX 012 ]Xa D1H ]0'10^ Ütt"3 ]1X DS?31X )"T 
W»Ö13S?ai»a'X 31T0) ]»?0'»«3l3i|D»l üTT3S?aXpl?l ps?n 
•»?»X # "lS;00'l?p-]S?3X3 ,0X3*1X6-03 # HW"1B ;(p"71 'T ]1B 



201 



5"ö38 ]"(? ]S?ÖS2 BP'J ,]T1«W BBT'3 *?XT »IIB »1 ,BX3 

,aiw rx ]S3'BS3 tt p'tssöp ,]as? p»?aa8tp?STS5 Q3'X 
,7'aoaga tst tf'B'jj ,Bax ps^ST pp pas3-i$a urj 
aax ]ts'a'5vn ]»p pas338. obw txb ,a"ii g Bxn oxn 

.?a .t ,8 
'x rjiJa^Hnyn t'8 »i 2>Bxa ,ponp "a s'ax3X3«a 
»?8iB x piu» Ttx i'K 7,18 p" ]i9 pjpisa pattsnsa 

Bp'T'nBSJt ÖP'3 TXT 'T T'K ,]'TBp8T*nWTB IST |*D «XI' 

a'^x nx3 ,p" "a oxvi ,a'asa ya?sin a'?ix psnsj 
•■iss'« i'« oxn ,'na nsT ix m'xxa tbp'T3ü3kt«b ist 

.D'll ]18 T3^?3D*ia ]ö?8 BttB flBNTa p811S3 ]Sa«Sl. 

«p« ]Tms338 pw va pxn ?B'Bxp ip'TisnB ]'« 
pxe "0 Bxn axa-iXB-m tst oxii ,pxa bb3S?p »t 
.ma'o »9« n jbwix tx p.K 'ins ist tkb *o ,9'aBJXa 

IST "3 ö"p38X'?S2iB''l8 1»! IX apTllSJÖ'B ]3XH B3?STI 
■0'i?p*pa$i ,bx3'?sx ,nwTB - ÄMTSp?SB«a TS»*?'lB8p 
•S338 |X BXBTXB-BS. IST BBS3T8fi - .?3 .T .« TBB 

.BIX JBSt 
BXaTXB-BJ IST TX ,]T"TI p'BpXTB 'T ]*8 p'JX? 'T 

.ü«p30X?y3D'l« W OTB 

t;uh« ist |w btsti (??a p« nwns j-i«) »jwb 
IMTtjjb «jwo p M p «pxp ]'« .a&aspxa pnjjbw s'p?st 

T8B OÄTBWl* plBB ]B'18 pSB'TXB'18 SIS'3'?ST T T,'T 

'T oxn - /ria?a tst bjxt - aus* wo ito ."ao'mtw»? 
]"io« ütP'3 -pt bbbtxt n ]ix ütb«S3 tt Bxn min 
aaxi - pas tx 171 .BBxasa Tfla tt axn min >t oxn ,oxt 
'l"' 11 l w p ispa'iö IX BW'3 ti Ti« aas3 - Tia?n IST 

'«TU« TS t'K - BÜXB TS Tg B"IB3 ,TSp'T3'T X TS T'K 
gXT BtP'3 p« p«T 8 TT |1B38 OXT W.3 172 .1Sp'T3'T X 
]I3ST Tp'STST - MW'TSa T'X-OS-SS^S'll 8 ]3XiT ]Ü0XB 

wms «5^-n f y>>i rjxoa e^'3 tt bo?xt w 173 .s'aiü-D'tysa 
|%« «|? c ji oa»B3sa ix paip38 ]BnxT ?xax iao3sp bst 



202 



bjxt üxa... imam ]"j? ]axn ütrr>3 vi *px ]?»ti »»? 
»n : jsa B3«a - "IPB3 p'Tsas? x pi ?xt »aasa tst«, 

'! J3S? ]TX? 1B0?XT ,]aS3S3 TT 3XH TK 0X11 J1ÖW3 

174 .11 .TK .X 

im 7wa?) TSü?x?6'a nais ]BO'TTa?n-D'aaT t,d x 

.«|WO p*'j? o>nx tin jbstb (.Tax .x 175 a"aan 

J"j? TXB ,rtT3S ]»»p 1KB BDXTBX3 BW>3 BTS11 »3'? 

JSST TÖ '11 ,.?3 .T .X BX3 ]1B «JXTDP pj? 1KB ,H??p 

TS0S?BD>Tp TST « T,B\T ]>X .B3saxüDSB ds»3 ]>X OS 

jboxtkb ,?i3Vin uw»a bxh oxn ,dst txb 3>i? jix hi»»ib 
oa»9 Tia?n jb»i? .jaxn niuui p»>3 tu oxn ,ds3»n ]T* 
ist rx nawn h n6 .T3'T jib aaiüST h nainn ist ]'x 
.nis>3X ]ib pij? h .B"j?30x?sae , >ix p"p yw tsbost3 
,o^dv ]»x t'x oxn ,?'SD3xa TSüxns>ji3inn bw>3 x tk„ 
m/'axB ps' ]j?axa pT o>ix bxj bbit ,bp»3 bj?'T3»t 
,i,3xn ruuin a3i> bo'\t sts? sts>j'?st wt» 't 
>itb H bo"»»t ^axn w nsinn 'ins x txb oxn b>b ,631»? 
•t,tt B»a tx is tt |S'sxa ,>t jbss- ,'t ymv ^axna*»? 

'T ]BDXTBX3 ,'T ]TX3BK DE»3 ,TX IX TT JOXBIX ,pN 

-saiXB'a /"tts,,) fB?^nsa ,pTSB M 7a8aoaas? x txb 'no 

'SSTXÜEriXB IST IIB j?3ST3X OST TS»B ]B?XH 178 ,pi»B 

.11 .TX .X .11 <TX .X '1TB TS3 
-TS? 12 TT IBX3TXB B1P'3 TX3 B»'3 PX 'IIB TST 
.]S3TS? T! ?XT >T / ]^B31X11S3 t'X'O ,B^SpTXB TX3 ,1,53 

]as?BBXip?STsa px ]p»?wBxa is tt bost ont bxh 't 

-ST ,S1P>B'?XB ]Sai3TXB BXH P.X ]S?aS3TXB ]Sj? >T ,]aS)9 

,]BÖ8 STST3X ]1X STS'3'7 
,LTX |S ]BSTU1S3X ]B?ST T'X t33SaNBOSB DS"3 TX 

Tsax j 'itb tst ]ia ni?sa n psn ]tst t,'t ?xt os ixn 

"T 0X11 ,DST fin X TX ,B"11 »1TX ]S"3 D'TBO SB"T" H 
# '1TB TST ]1B |BBJJ»33«8 SBM S3ST'13S33'' , 'X 'T pSll |TST 

.B'""f3"V T'X ]3S11 1?'BX "T ]TST 



1« öJ»»ösn« 1S73S7T '»•na nsn psni px jib |»33iBXß* 

tun jjmiixa »v-iB n ta-ixT msni nsD"i» ?»b j»k px *f /3ft 

tx ,xhbxbb'ix h jsaNSMx jsnisa t»x p» »»a *px 
,-is?3s?a h "»n »jwb ö'a *is?a *p |p>'üBi?tPxa ispvib »t 
cxn ,T?an "?i«2r }!jB nwsa h 179 /'rrnn x? nstvaa,, : ?2ra9 

.13X ,X 180 HB^Ba X ]»H3na JB^nSU "p? BKil 

naw ja psaw tx #?»2nsn tnsii m na^n ]'X, 
■ö'io bis öBtpaixa ?kö3 m k B'a uxn (p"s ny» jam». px) 
3?DS39?-i9 n„ :*]'!« asxt *na?r» lin jmswa j?'X3« 
.93 ,7 .x 182 "nawaa x i'K - |»'tib h i,Bmx 
'1 ]tö's ki va ]?s?n ,|'3» asn lÖB'^Ha !12 'IS 
-na x px oKn 183 ,ixt?kb ]ö3$msn ispib jib J3i3»a 

.??3ä lOySXlB^lWB ]1D 3?B3>!P»3 1»T JIB Ö'aStt ]B*1X X3SB 

„Dieser abergläubische Schrecken, diese iBJXT 1» 
grausige Furcht war der überall drohenden, unheim- 
lichen Macht der Dämonen und deren Dieser, der 
Zauberer, ist zu allen Zeiten das Erbteil 
und los aller Völker des Hei denthums 
gewesen. ijpJP »"* 1 » »« ^ W unter diesen Fluche 
des demonisrnus lag die ganze antike Welt gebannt, 
der die stoische und epikureische, überhaupt die phi- 
losophische Weltanschauung keine erläsung fon die- 
sem F'uche bringen konte. Nur ein Volk des Alter- 
thums runden wir dafon befreit — die Hebräer", 
„der Aberglaube bei den He- H» »3XT l»D"ll 
bräern nur als eine von aussen hereingekommene 
Alterürung des nationalen Gotesglaubens und Kultus 

hervortrat". 
„Zur Zeit Christi finden wir *x ,^'BX bsxt i» 
daher die Juden von dem Dämonenglauben Volstän- 
*anai?B i^B pua ]»o B33S73K3 ns?BS?BtP .dig behe'rscht" 



204 



snsmx rx px s>jxbp px p" »a "isBxaawa nsn* 
jwp» oxi tx ,ü:xpxa ö»»3 px os? -is?ax 184 OJnsa? 
jax-wxa px-os-fsni 'jbwps ja-nn osn wi ?xt p>rpa 

.«pspa nxs 
jya^ynira'x ]srp» 7»d oxn tHBJttDnp ein a'ix 
b:ib px xbu y'M |« ;upxxa *i "l*"* px /pn oaiB 
]ä|B n isn»x ,sn5?tp'?x"ixa ?'ö x '"ns "iin « na?n 

»O'llM Ü?X11 SHS??. »DS7?DOnp 'T "p' J ,0'1X-L>I?T'0 

.|»nw oain öttpn*u ]S3'-i3xa s?tsn?x-ixa 
px na?a i»« ,"pn px öbpmxj üs?aa jsj»bsj va 
osrs» TiBxisrtp? isttroan ns»»?»?«?^» nsiMXJ nsn px 
j»rB»a i»a oxn ,'iiB ist 12 mibsx-ixb -isn pa oo»?a» 
M»?uonp n iiö pnsn >i px ,ü3i?at"joso as?"3 ws 
•pix px i?BXBs?*-na?n ist m?a öas?si jaxn oxn ,»p>?»n 

.13?Ü17Bttf 

sw?sn -iswp* isi tri? px »t 19'bx a'ix ^na *i 

o?x öisni tx nsax ,U3sn *?tx px osswusa t"ii?"ü 

.Ü3C't£?S73 Ö1S11 B>D3S?a 

nsn ]1B npxxa ist jwrix p^nxa x üDxa'a tx 

B'PlX üaij? /»IIB IST IX ST?21 l»3J??O0np pX "SWI" 

jsni }«i janns jxixb px oxn ,p?'n wna nsn u?ia 
nsn jwnx pma*ü»x osn Boxiüxa px »ansn "jx: öa»yo 
»bx tsans js?a ]xp> - oyp?sn sn«a n pa mi»öbnmb. 
px pxüXüasaxp »tx ö»ö sp?»mkii» n ö"n 'ii jxxa; 
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»i öjspnsajj f» nsna»s S3?»vi p« — i3.ro jp»öa*»a a"a 
]»a«svas"»A8a h — ?wa5 »»« pa jib Amwssmn yar>i» 
»i ]nast3 c^n — .isni»? srcVr?»iTO n fn* »iib "istt ijjb 
? »iib ist 183 :u!ip'>ö3jn833 , "5A jw israi»p 

JÖOp'MKllX D31S p'?13SX"l$' "IT 2?1Ö D»»3 H ]»K 

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esnash x "px i't öps» (.-rax .x sp^xd'x /smix^sx^' 
ivspig ?'s ]ä»ö& mainsa h isax ,tpasa jp'TXi jb'ix 

,t»Sn S?»11'S STX *ptP 0X11 # |JWpTPf .-»mD "1XTT ]1Q Ö3SH 

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osn »|*m) n""> ]B3X3»3 «jio o"3 Bxnxn bxh 'i 'ii /?'B'itx 
ph n»i3»? jjB03»38BtmBx »n ix ■pnpstno isnw B'3S3. 

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.]?'303xa n B'a -p?* B3sn-?xn ]S?»np 

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T'?3 B33H BttPB'?8B BXHS3 HartfB 1SH "ISO "|X3 JSPTlB 

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p'U'X JB'IH "pH 'IIB »1 PH ,-lS7T3S7? S??i$ '1 PH 

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."B"pB8T3">8n&J» a»n oxi bbps ]»w Bisni» 

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»'3xa»-!»3t*n3inn nsn n»a .?'ao3xa jb'ö Bp'B3snx33"?3 

TH *pX B3S71 DKT ."B»paXT3")Xnm„ BP'3 PW 'T B1B1W 
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»'IS PX /IS3K. ,B35n S?'TPX 37313 t'X 0X11 .?'303Xa p*a 

JÖ-12 pS ]22S?T2?3 H ,?»a? ,'Tl) JtöWiRPfißl 573"?p TSO 

issaa /aasn-nm' psn 1916 psa ]B=i9 px 1914 ,Bpx 
.n"' ]Ema»j «yio o"3 »Ti ]a'?a3?3 ps 

"p?3 »IIB 'T Kl BXfi B31H 9EPÜ'?XB - .pX331X 

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PX ,]TXM1K ]'X *T1B TSH J1B »J«? IST IS "|3??3S? 

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.B3»n s?ni'x 9'B 'na "im jasssfö mn 1921 
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Dz. ÜSt. T» Ö3»?B3B»TgB) 1921 '?!' ]B4 ]1S f»t»Ä P.B 

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l.BB8V19n "UWp-.yö IST IL'D 



-Kux D3iD sms'pyx IST ]>K msipn »*m S?Ö2n» H 
ist p.d :üiXT»j nsosa nsng ,a«ii |ix jj?a |ib jas?a»a 
pk p» ]»3»i ,pxn»2 öBB'pansD px »na »t wj o»s 
.n»ans ist«? wi»i»?'ffi aivo 
p'972i7S"ix> pni ]io «jio o«a ,Q3"n i?>bx nsax 
»oownxaaix 7sn f?x ixj ösn ,öTsnHmg» |ocp'S38iis |« 



»i «2 jops-nainn »i Jid aiivssTn »s bj^n ,ojp ,n«j *pn (* 

|w rmnn isn o>» p*tt»xsw?s üvbbmws be"j p>n )?tiB>Dshft8» p« p« 

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t'epV'iuvm *i twi btb is ist"« ,na8B»'?»w* |w iraasga ist °i$a 
p8fl»i BVByatnrr pk nawin »n »s p»?jpöi$p *p« ,(188§ f« üana pn*) 

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»*Pf»W »S 0«TI ,ni3'0 »BBpWn »1 pD PK ,»ÖOjPB3'» , n »1 BKPa a»i« 

«'tkb pas djh "p« om »'0 ,! nsp'S''S»p'»B ,, t9? »üaijn'nn wib »i 

.jp'Tvnyi ti»b 



214 



'n ,B2*n nya jByaxfi^xax yBOPnxa »i i»»ns n»oop's»r 
Süöi'TIXB ,^iwin » ]1D d«?bh x Bxn o$ti ,'*nB '1 
•jk "laix jtp'ü^KB ,py?BBXP?yfya ,py?BsxEUD>n jb'ix 
oxt Bxny* Bxn »t bxn ,oxi m»2 px'b .B>3yj p»T 
vx ö'ö -jn ?$t'b tx ,»ne x pyvi « p'iasa "p'^aix* 
»i \wm |ü03Wxi3tyj?aD^ d»i B»a 'D ,]y:yayn nyp'3'^i 

.]?'3BJXa yjyJXBPyjBX 

»7 »aiaa *]xa o» b»bp ysxv'x ?»b ]0'ns *$ px 

»IT» ÜS?Ö3 ,yViB'?$B "0 ,y?'ll'X »»0 ,'TID "Wl J1B B3yi 

sbv!'?»ii'x y?« By»3 px .m ]t»au»2 bjib 110 jnys »yi 
?'o »t bv?-ixb ,naiTin *ix3 Bxn 'na h »n px ny-ny? 
BsxangB »1 0x11 ,pya-ixB jb'ö .B3yn y?'ii'X yvx ]ib 
«'ixn «p&i »i .jxa nyi mvo ByB?xinxB ,n3-inn iyn rm 
i7»B8 '» I»i? "isi»? ?'B rx ]ix ?'n iy 1x11 ,x"t ]ya 
-iy-f B3xa ayn jx b«s "lyciiya x «px pxBO'nx b»'j 
•xb x pan* ,lvtii ,?'n ppvw ysna x a»ix .w'aya'i? 
*ys t t JBixro ya?yn iyB3ix ,]b*bxbb pxff "T t/ix pn 
«ya sny«i »a pyia »»t jna ,jBBn«nytMi» yp»3"x jyra 
,IP'&yö»8a b"ixt jix Bjyyn bis ]»a j?xt "t tx ,ixi 
*]bxt ayn pn ») y»»ysxT'x y?x px .p'*i?-iyi «i tx 
a'ix fx ,nyi3y? yövp?'ii'x ynsmx px px cusaiKB 
ox h »t Bv?nxB ^y^y^o'ix jx b>b ruwin Bxn »"na s 
nyrps -wam » i*]X"ibp yBsyiya x) wynyrpa yp>B 
,)?'3B3xa nysx /...yspnx-ia y»H3y?3'x -W3 Bs^ns-ixa 
-nxa -j'T oy Ban voanyn^y^o'ix B'a njinn ]3xn »»t a'ix 
-namn-B^'i n :i?»bx .BBx^nyn'a ny"T «]'ix bx öwj 
]B'a "j"?a Byanx *px B3y"i ]"p be^: bx,t 'iib yBxnya 

.11 .x .n .ts .n ?'3o:sa 
tx ,]axT oxn ,y37yTX jxnxß t 1k ü3,,n W l»a»ro 
^yi »na »7 B3«a # ?»aoajjo ]B»a asyn ya«?a pnnyrxB 

tn:'0 jIBB^B yi'X y?X ]1B TT ]y"1BX3 « 1X3 B'a 

ya"?a pxn ?^t »na n tx # vwj?na»öw^ iyi p'v 



215 



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pW33"*iR B»n 'T a'i« nR ,s?BBRas??Ks jir ns?Bia ,a"ii 

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•rb h jö^n p« s?'?'aKB "is?t ins id"*ibr n |sa bs?ii 
IB'ö asm s?3"?3 jmso i'R i"T T?s'-isn bs?ti s?'?'a 

73RBEnRB TR ?"H ,1KS"1ST T1X ÖW'J TR Baip ?'303Ra 
■BBXIMD'll ?"B) p'SJD BtP'3 T?3"nS?*? T'R »T ,T?3R1U2? R T'R 
1« B"p'»BaiK H Tg ,]9SBENXBD37B TT l»'Ögl "IS?? 
,"1S?p'3"ll B33?ll rilÖ TR ORT! ,llB*lSn TT BSB3 'IIB "iSn 

sptRTT .?3 .1 .r o?>ao3ga bs?t «ii önaän «nsriag nx 

»8"3 »3'in RTR JBB»31SB>1K (BBR?p9S \*W T'R SPIKSKJ 
,tt?'3")S?33? ,p'3'TBBiRHRa ?'B'1Ti? I"? *X ,TB?1p J7j?'B 
'I ,'(.13R .R ?5?nRB) ?'3D3KS 1SH '11 ,.11 .TR .R Bj?'tt?»3 

jpj'?sn : T"iiKa r j?3B? jB'a >ti ,9'bsä p'a ns?a Bas? 

?'283Xa |3'1R '11 ,'VIB 1»i T1R 3^pT11 Jn»Orp R BXn 
R3 H TR ,BT"11R3 »ia»3-1SBn»p TR j(."T3R .R "1SB357BD) 
,.11 .TR .R .11 .TR ,R l'BR?pt£? R "1K3 BÖ'BtPga »T BRH TB 
IST IS ?'3B3Xa B31B 333'XRa H B3«H T'R *l*n 

.71"' ]B323"3 D3'K '11 ,S?T?13R ?3RJ R 'IIB 

B'TWBasa i»B"i't'?'ii'x nsn pB an "isJO'iia ist 

]"1X11S?3 ]BR^Ra B$'3 T'R «IIB 'T TR ,B3"?1 ]'W B"B2nRB 
IS B'R /?'n038B 03» BBXß?3T»? **! |?'BB? IS '13 ,T'1?3 
"ISTR ISTtf'p S739?SSIltt T,aRn IS 'IS ,]3'3»318B ]B8Bn«B 
,-|X?p "I 1RB |'1B? T'R BS? .111'Bfa S?3S?3S SlSnSfc 3>?1S 

'ins 't tt na ,jaa? oa 1 »» ]3R?iwvn t? ]»3»p w hs tr 

]1R S73»l8f^TT»30'l» '"? «]'1R ]1K ?|ÖX *11 p?3SnS118ä 1SB 

•8a3"?a tjt jib ns?BBS?p«a ?b ? |i§ |B3»a«is s?p'3'TaiR 

]^R 8'3RTK B'a "T pS?BB33? - 'IIB IST ]1B Saip'BSi?'") 

.?3«ar"piin r. 

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*«ss33?n38a »?g J1B asip'ö'MRä ns?T igs ^Rp isn bss?t 

^11B 1S?1 }1B a31p'Ba37nSa3"?Ä 1S?p , '13»B»? ! IB 1i?T TgB # ]»a 



216 



]a»? pKVina ]W ps;?öa.w?i?i3?3 |ia p'asa »?» »pK 
»pnxTi ^a M»»5pi'in8a is?!?'Dj?8B ")*n i»fi fix 

.öasn 
tnsnxa pK 9'ao3sa isn »n tpaasa sn? t'k »na n 

.D's o»a tD3sn »a»»?a isanxn 

.p?i$mx ö»»a 33K? 7*»iiz7 ö»ti 'na in ]ia aaipmiseii» 
]ia jsaiga s?"3 12 ö"nt?ü3ya in pa tsnxa nrx 
•tiö?*j? jn»3sn jw "W ]?g»x§o « ,ja»? ps^aas^STas 
•nsn 5"tt j |?2?a jyjxp aa>'3 'na >i -pia asn - jsa-isa 
nsn - jraixö sr'j »p'iip'i « öO'iöp o$n ,ma isa?»: 
-pH ö»n .- osijjpa jik Minnas» n»3»?Tösa ]ia ms 
]öp'a3i?nsa3"?a g 'H ,]S«n n ]»« ]S'srns 'na '7 

♦n»'iaö'ö ]i« nsaljma'a 



I y x i u 1* 13 g 2 

,'t ,na*i n?n? .«"a ,k*b ,ria« .1 
Henryk d'Almeras: Mafzenstwo u röznych » 2 
narodöw, Przeklad Marji Rodysowej, Naklad Gebeth- 
nera i Wolffa, Warszawa, 1904, n»V" "»H P" 

1 ?B*S8p tt 

August Bebel : Die Frau und der Sozialismus -i 

Verlag von I. H. W. Dietz, Stuttgart, •wo»* ]« 46 * 
Franciszek Terlikowski : Zycie publiczne, pry- 
watne i umyslowe starozytnych Greköw i Rzymian, 
Nakladem polskiego towarzystwa pedagogicznego, 

Lwöw, 1912. 
Friedrich Engels : Der Ursprung der Familie, > 2 
des Privat-eigenthums und des Staates, Verlag 1. H. 
W. Dietz, Stuttgart, 1892. 55 )W n rr 
Edward B. Tylor : Antropologja, Przelozyla Rle- 
ksandra Bqkowska, Warszawa, 1911, Rozdziat XVI 
Henryk Korne: Prawo malzenskie obowiazuja.ce 

218 



w b. Krölestwie kongresowym, Nakladem ksisgarnr 
F. Hoesicka, Warszawa, 1924, 26-1 '*' 
L. Bridel : Prawo kobiet i malzehstwo, tlöma- 
czyla Marja Chojecka, Nakladem Gebethnera i Wolffa, 

.136 'I 

Pawel Guirand: Opowiadania Historyczne (Rzym) 
Przelozyl J. L. Poplawski, Nakfadem ksiegarni Teo- 
dora Paprockiego i S-ki, Warszawa, 1896, 127 't oigi 
P. d'Arnay: Zycie prywatne Rzymian, Nakladem Mi- 
.322-272 it chata Grzela, Warszawa, 1768 
.363-359 it ,o-i8T .Franciszek Terlikowski: 
.136 '1 ,Bi8i , Henryk d'Almera : 
»in«» ovwö»Yi$ai»fi?u ,1904 ,sD"i8n ,Yijf?8P8ö t»ru iiM? *?avn 1D0„ 
.270-269 i-T f öi8t ,/lugust Bebel : 3 
„Glos kobiet wsprawiekobiecej" Krakow, 1902-3, 

.11-10 tt ,K. Buwidowa P 3 »'^»isi isi "woaw 
•B*nn ,August Bebel: -* 
,54 't,B^i .Friedrich Engels: 
Lily Braun: Die Frauenfrage ihre geschichtli- 
che Entwicklung und wirtschaftliche Seit, Verlag 
.132 i« ii4 i von L. Hirzel, Leipzig, 1901 
.148 't ,oi8i .Henryk d' Almeras : 
.165 x» 133-131 ,107 ,103-100 ,47 t"i ,Bi8"' ,L. Bridel ; 
.301 tut 84-83 ,10 it , w Q| s kobiet" i t. d. 
Henryk Konic: Dzieje prawa matzeriskiego w 

•6'» krölestwie polskim, Krakow, 1903 
Prawo spadkowe wobec nowoczesnych : t^ymn ]w 
prqdöw w prawie cywilnym, Wydawnictwo Themis 
.13» .r 9 'r polskie, Warszawa, 1925, 
,.oi8i .August Bebel: •* 
.139 'i ,018-j ,Lily Braun : 

.258—158 ,131 ,33 ,27—26 IT ,»181 .L. Bridel l 

U9 



ijM Kobieia wspökzesna", Ksicjika zbiorowa, Na- 

•225 '* klad tygodnika „Btuszcz", Warszawa, 1904, 
.139— 138 n ,B*i8i ,Lüy Braun: * 

.228 p« i5s ,112—109 i*t ,oi8i l s Bridel : 

^8i-258 rt ,„GJos kobiet i t. d." 

.227 .t ,„Kobieta wspökzesna i t. d." 

.112-110 r* ,oi8i ,L. Bridel: » 7 

.284 Tis 281 ,89 t"t lfl Glos kobiet 1 t. d." 

.227 .t )w Kobieta wspökzesna i t. d. M , 

.139 .t ,oup ,Lily Braun : •» 

.144-141 h *R 103-100 n oi8i l # Bridel : 

•ss .i ,„GIos kobiet" 

•50 ." ,„Kobieta wspökzesna i t. d." 

.299 px ,58 .t ,„Gks kobiet i t. d." .9 

.263 .t an*! ,Rugust Bebel : .10 

.125 p* 111 .t ,oi§i ,LiIy Braun : 

.145 px in ,114 r- ,oi8i ,L. Bridel : 

•288—257 ,81 ,39 i"i ,„Gks kobiet i t. d." 

.225 px 90 ,t ,„Kobieta wspökzesna" 

.01^*1 ,"?ni*n ise„ 

.270—267 ri ,oi$i August Bebel: .11 

.142 px 117 .t ,oi8i ,Lily Braun : 

.77 ,1 ,oi8i , Henryk d'Almeras : 

.137 *i* 46 .t ,oi8i ;L. Bridel : 

.298 *•« 87-86 ,79-78 ,57 rt ,„Gk)s kobiet i t. d." 

.ii8 px ii3 ,95 rt .„Kobieta wspökzesna i t. d." 

.oisi ," , 5ni*n iso„ 

.141 .t ,01^1 ,Lüy Braun : -12 

.166-165 ,135 ,25 rr ,oi8i ,L. Bridel ' 

.13-12 n ,oi8i . Henryk Konic: Prawo i t. d. 

.330 ps 88-87 ,64 ,53 t't ,„Gk>S kobiet i t. d." 

.229 p.« 94 .i ,„Kobieta Wspökzesna i t. d." 

2:0 



/»"HP ,Lily Braun: -27i .t ,ü->n .August bebel-. -is . 
.17-.T ;oiri .Henrik Konic : -i« .t ,oyr f L. Bride! : .136" .t 
• 95 « T „Kobieta wspölczesna i t. d", 
Teodor Stanton: Kwestja kobieca w Europie. 
Wydawnictwo Przeglqdu Tygodnioweao, Warszswa, 

.340-297 T"I ,1888 

.tr^n ,"5ai»n isq„ 
Henrik Konic : Prawo malzenskie i t. d. -14 
Dzieje prawa mafzenskiego i t. d. : is«'^ p5»Man jw 
; Prawo spadkowe i t. d. : i»w« punan p» 
Zygmunt Kaczkowski : Kobieta w Polsce, Petersburg» 

1895, Tom U 
•ijs )w 314 .t .„Glos kobiet i t. d." .270 .1 .oiri August Bebe! :- 

.270 .t ,e-np August Bebel : -is 
,45—25 vt ,bi$i ,L. Bride I : .J« .» ,»*np ,LiIy Braun.- 
„Kobieta -»8 .t M ,GIos kobiet i t. d." -«4 p« 137—136 

•228 .t ,wspokzesna i t. d". 
L. Bridel : .140-139 ,120 ,109 .1 .1 ,»i*n ; Liiy Braun : .16 

280 ,66 ,62 T"T „Glos kobiet i t. d.". -45 118 27-25 .T .T ,tn«f 

.230 .1 „Kobiota wspölczesna i t. d.". -2% |» 

Ellen Key: Über Liebe und Ehe, Autorisierte: 
Übertragung von Francis Maro, Verlag S. Fischer, 

•Tia Qua *po Berlin, 1904 
Johan David Michaelis: Mosaisches Recht, bei 
Johann Goctlieb Garbe, Frankfurt am Main, 1793, 

.331-328 t-t .Zweiter Theil, 
•6i8i .August Bebel: 
."1*'' Lily Braun: 
Witold Schreiber: Malzenstwo i jego dzieje, 

Naklad ksiegarni polskiej, Lwow, 1903, 

221 



Remiglusz Kwiatkowski : Literatura chinska, Na- 
— 65 r- ktadem i drukiem M. Arcta, Warszawa, 1907, 
Literatura perska *8?*i8a ]tfwt p« *>80"i8 ja5*?as-< pa .88 ]w 68 
Lite- ."[ya»*»*iv-t ins *nj' , |i« i8?njjB , , h}ö'>i« »a^STriJh *ia .42 .t ,1908 
38-27t"t Literatura indyjska, .14— 13 rr ratura japoriska, 
C. Walewska: Z dziejöw .79—72 vi .Literatura arabska 
krzywdy kobiet, Wydawnictwa Qebethnera i Wolffa, 
„Gtos •-»■#» .Henryk d'Almera : -9 .t Warszawa, 1908, 
„Kobieta Wspölczesna i t. d." kobiet i t. d.". 



3 twmp 12t 

*D ***VTniÖ .1*0 8ttp 833 .V» .DTIOS .2 .1"D ,8Bj" 833 .1 

8*3— )V3 ,3*3 D'IS 1 - ; t"H— 1"0 ,3"3 JllB» .4 .T ,«"3 MB» .3 .138 .8 

Dr. L. Benzin- '-T™ » T • T " :! < n '" r: > i"'»8->a .6 .t>"» ,3-3 0*13*« .5 
ger: Hebräische Archäologie, Verlag von J. C. B. 
Mohr (Paul Siebeck) Zweite Ruflage, Tübingen, 

;B"3 ,V'3 ,«"3 ; *i ,?"0 ri»813 .7 .122 P* 111—110 »"* ,1907 
; n"3— 3 ,B"3 ft*»8*13 .9 .8*9— t ,T"? ; n"2 — 3 ,Y'3 JTl»8*13 ".8 .1? — 1 $ 
— ?K1»» ; 3*' ,8 0*031» ; 0"3— n"3 ,3"3 0**131 ; 1*0 — V'B ,3 ;T ,8"3 fll?:» 
.11 .T"' ,3 8— B"39b ; *."* ,*( ,8 ,*"* 2 — 9»VJ» .10 ."US .8 *"3 ,?r* 8 
8*lp*l ;1"0 ,V"> fll8» .12 .0—1 ,9 ; ü"3 ,T"3 ,0"3 ; 1-3 ,t"ü IV»8ia 

,*."* 3— 5ai»w .v's ,rt"9 nwsna .14 .n"8 ,3'"» Kip'i .13 .n— 8 ,3" 

."■SO"!! "*8 126 'I ,6 .S8p :T1« l'T .1 ,1 nn .T'"> ,2 8— a*3?B .3''' ,7 ,8 

u"ia»a« B*i9ii e$n ,"naw3 *i„ *j*a pa **8 öopsro psa-is 'iip-isBsa ->h 
a*-t"n .16 .y's— o"* ,r"3 anai .«"3— «"* ,3 a*ip->i .15 .pvn 012 

T*"> B'KBl» .1— X ,'"•> ST»in> .18 .t*3 ,V3 — Ä"3 ,3"3 0*18*1 .17 .8 .3"3 
.1 ,T 0**i31 .20 183—182 T"T ,8 ?Ö*B8p St .19 .tl— * ,11 3 — O'S^B .1—3 
3— D*3?B .3 ,8"» 8 — 0*3?» .8"' ,8*3 .3 ,T Q-131 .21 .3 ,8"' « — 0*3?» 
.<? •*« 6 .Bgp »T .23 .n"3— A"3 ,*"' rPBni .*— Ö .B8p SIT» .22 .8 ,3 

' o ,rsn8 ,J"» ,ni3ins .26 .'o n»ia ,na*> n*»R-n .25 .'a ,-iiain» .24 



222 



::r8D .i pmt ,na*i B>v»n v» .a ,]wr>p .28 .1*» ,maui» .27 .rrjp» 
,V8$b>«?t) D^'on ^o ."t pns ,ni»"K jvo5n : B'aai .n*a "D ,'ip p9n 

IJn ]»K 66 .T »t .29 .a"a-X"B '»0 ,T*ynK ,«">pn J1K ü"»» "0 ; (1879 

.*notn, n"*t 'a ,j»«m»p ,niDDW> :tik vi .Bopya pyoaiÄ aaipiya«! 
*"if "ö ,rsnx .a"'p ,D>nos .i*B ,niaina .9 ,|»am»p .31 .a*» ,na» .30 
d»t juni .a nawn ,"1 pis 'biht .33 .«-): ,1 bib ,mairo .32 .-j« .« 
,nv:B?a .34 ."nains »v Tis t>h vb py-i ,TMT«-flairi3 jik pm-noin« 
jfiina' .37 /» ,tfovo .36 .?raj? "0 ryns .n"p ,maa» .35 .tnjp 
fifi ,maa» .39 .rrap '»o t-ihir .ra ;ma .n"p ^iaa» .38 .r*»b ,a-'B 
iiv p9n :a"BB .o-p p«" tro ,maa> .ra — va ,j»»vt»p .'a fiara ,a*» 
,btiob .40 .«"'B fwva ma5n )i» t"b ,™»»r nia?n : B'aai .n*a "0 
«"xä jö'd ,ü*T>en ibö ,n ,y B '»o ,]i»R"i p9n ,a*ao ,\"p ,|'-nnao .tra 

.B*sn ]vt 

Dr. Zunz : Zur Geschichte und Literatur, Ver- 
lag von Veit und Comp. Berlin, 1845, Erster Band, 

.171 ' 

,"iv p9n .rao .vi ,mna Ras .vi .pai-py .42 .'1 ,]»«m»p .41 
,V9M ,n"xin ,b"x '»d ,axi9 bibi »aissasresi» aina n"w .n"» '»c 
'•» .rsr iiR «"bw ,a Ä 3ff ^"aw '»0 ,«"1» :rw .n" Bpnn jir r'pnn 
n"i» |"q» px 1 ">s ,n"ap .'p'ji?«» ,n"i» :(D e, nn} na'-na >i 9kis» 
Rina «aa .t"b ,main3 .a"a ,^b»a .43 .a"x '»0 ,1851 ,aia9 ,fa'a D*nn« 
n»a B-isn ,x""i ps rrm ">ö ,'»2» j?9n ,bbpb ]&\n iib .ra ^■"vrhab .b*b 
»r*i .45 .'? ,ni»ia» .44 .a"y jw r"9 '»b ,p:*a B'ina n"w ,»bv 
njia'ip biet ,ä"is?33s?bjj*ib B^na rr\v .46 .ry— a"» ,i»»i*i'p .n*a ,?i3wn 
.t"B ]<i« b"5 ,maa» t"a ,pB'i .48 ,n"ip '»0 ,t v »n« .47 .**Bp "b 
Bin» n"i» .n"9 jb'b »nii? ri39?i ,)i»ki p9n ,B9»a ^win -ji~iy tn9w .49 
S'"> pns ,^»ii»ä in39a :a"aai .a"3 .tviaina «50 .a"p ps j"s ]b'b «fs^n 
,n*'» ; b»3b^b ,0-1^1 .51 .3"pnn '»0 ,s§-ib dibt ,Äiy3i»B8*ia B""nnB r\"iv 
: j»9iö'>K 9«*)W '"i ; B,,ps ,miv ni39n : B"aai .52 .a*pn p« b*"»^ 
>»aa .a*a ,B>nBB ,'a ,maia .53 .rar '*b ,b"»i ,nK>s»a»n /]»i?i ubiiä 



223 



,jwirp .2"'— a,r? iai»a .54 ,n""> ,po»a 1*0 ,|»*vwao ,a"3 jpn 's ,r» ,»ap 
na>ian mD'5n : pna B?n?'n vi ."pRar .a'a ,a*a n»a»n >*m .1 ,1 — ,t** 
,»»i8W "tiöims,, man nsxin ,'je? n»a jann »a» *i» oip >a»a B'iaan ?» 

,47—45 ,27—25 TT ,1904 

D. Paul Volz: Die Biblischen Altertümer, Garber 
Vereinsbuchhandlung, zweiter Ruf läge, Stuttgart, 1925 

,501 'T 

.180 11» 115 ,108—107 iT ,b.i»i ,Dr. L. Benzinger. 
.138 .* 78 '1 ,138a las»!» ,t3^i > j. £>. Michaelis, 
»aar ,k"j ^o^a ,»Tn .57 ,K*3p ,8*ina «as .56 .'n ,t"a laiaa .55 
,8ina «na ,y— t"o jik a"3 ,niaina ,8*3 ,pa»a .58 .Tvnaia ny»a„ unvaa 
t ntin |a^o ,am9 bim ,jns;a3ffüy*)M B*"ina ww ,59 ,r»j> ">b # rs?i« ,ra 
ps "lnaera "t pis ,niaina .60 .rap ji« rrs— ref» '»0 ,m» j»*a»n 
p5n :a*ao ,61 ,'a pis w« ma?n : B Ä aai ,a*a ,niawa ,ra /1 ps 
,m»*s ma?n : D"aai ,jra ,niaina ,62 ,a**p ">b ,t*yn« .«"b '»b »jwsi 
,i"3 ,pan>a .64 ,8"s ,m?na ms?» :a"aai ,63 ,a*">p '>& ,i"»si8 ,b*">b 
,a8ia öibt ,A"iaa3»ö§-ia B*"ina rrw .a"a ,R*ina «aa .'9 ,msia» ,8*3 ,ptM 
»niBBin ,üi8i .8"? ,p»n»p ,'t nava ,'» pie ,]»»yt»jj ,65 ,13» .« fBp 7, o 

66 XI ">B ,'3 p5n ,1862 ,TBJJB»»I ,Sn*rT 118 ,H3»ttö pris 1 » "1 ."S?"" m 

,ni3i3 ,67 ,7 'i ,o»n nnis p?n ,a"B*in p5ia ,"wv> bj>? j ne?a "ja «jöv S 
♦70 .rrap ">b ,n"i» »»"an ,69 .rrcp?i "b .♦a'niBn ibb ,68 .a"a ,s*a 
oibt ,aisa3st55jia a""Jia m» .71 ,i"3*i '»0 ,'ap?n :aiiT iik ,a"a ,n?»aa 
,ni3ia .72 ,rrp "b ,a«ia oibt ,Äiya3»B§ia B"irta mw .r'ai "b (nsia^p 
n"w ,74 ,3*a ,ma*ia .73 ,K"sn '»b ,»"i»w .51 'r ,'* p?n ,vov ep? .'3 
,8*3a ,nmn'»o ,T*B,a*a ,ntv js.rai '»b »ama bist ,aisra3»B8ia b*"wb 
W3?n ,nm3a ."arm ,77 ,a"a"in "B »oisn .76 .»"Biß ]is n*s»in ''8 
<T"in aia"? ,apa» |a ta*»n9) f'ina ibb :p?ia ?"ao aps' "i .78 .ws** 
"i .79 ,t"o nian 41 ,t ]ik 10 't ,iw8i p?n ,w»? op? n'"» 8 SI •»"? «l"» 
ep!» .a"a ,n^aa .80 .rain '»0 ,1738 ,bi-.b»»8 ,f*a»fl : nas ia pss» 
xiinan bist .vn ,'a p«ib ,?iB'n» ma5n : D"aai ,81 ,12a 't ,}ns>x*> p?n ,ib?i» 

.»vaiawa 



224 



4 ?ö*Ö8p « 



f T'"yn« "iib .t"b p->a ,iws nia?n :a"aa-i ,.vb ,"i piB ,maina .1 
eona jtw ,*i*a ,pais « 3 •i** 8 iiw nwn s D'aai .2 .1*0 ,»0 
"D ,rsn« ♦'* b?"ii» .p"nna m» .»"ijwi b'"i "o ,j,x*is oibi ,i-isaiyB8na 
»nianns .5 .vas ,iVi»*K r>ia?n : B"aan .va ,n"s ,maina .4 ,'x jir r* 
iBOT n*.a5n : o"aa"i .va ,niaina ,»a5mT .t — Va 'n »niaina .r'a ,*ra 
.va ,va ,Aiavo .7 .r'a »va ,niaina .6 .b"b '-o ,T"s?n« tib ,t"»d 
,B"y ^lawa .rra ,pB'a .8 ;b"j? ,n"a— ra ,mawia .rn ,n"B niäina ,^»?b?^» 
,r»n8 ,'x '»0 ,bbe?b pin tib ,a"a ps ,ni»>8 jvia?n : B"aan ,i"o ,maa» 
8aa ,rra tf'wi ,'a ,niawia ,8"a ,b"b ,niaina ,ira ,n"B ^•»b'J .9 .rx '>e 
.ra j»anwi ,pm5p ma?n 71t? a"a pia ,mu>ii ma?n :a"aa") ,b"b ,8-ma 
,-»?»«» .vo ,niaa» ,11 .ra ,pBni»i ]W)v ma?n tfraai ,rrt ,]»o»a .10 
,rra ,sap «aa .va ,ni»a'» .a pia rrsr ,a Ä sr ,'3 ,mama .12 .R"n ,ra ,maa» 
.a"a Pia ,nw>« ma?n : D"ani .«"n ,vb ,mawia ,»n5anv .'3 ,8ira «sa ,'a 
,™>8 nia?.i : Q"aaT .»"»1 ,b"i$t ,B"a ,Rnna Raa .13 .rx ''0 ,*nsn p« 
,a"a '»0 ,7"»n« .s"as ,nw8 nis?n :Q"aa"i ,a"i— r"j ,Rina «aa .14 .a"3B 
.n"B ,d»tti .r"9 ,ma»ifta .16 .'s *»b ,T"s?n8 .a"3B ,rw>K ma?n ia^aai .15 
r"»n» .17 .v'b *'o ,m» :2?"a ,, i ,'a pro ,a<na biet ,;n»aas>BsiB o"*iria n"w 
,ra f>» a"» ,niawia .19 .i"a *»a ,t"sü» .n"a 'jr> 'b ,mavD .18 ,a"a '>a 
,]»ö»a K"a ,ra ,irtaina .20 ,n"s? *'a jrsh* ,n*B p» i"b ,niaina ,»a5tpn> 
nia?n : a"aa"i ,a / "> ,k»»s» «aa ,'"»i .k"a pix t"sr ,m ,T"a »niaina .r"y 
.22 .rp p« a ,n"i ,niaina .21 .12s ,« n"y *»o ,t"jwr ,x*a 'a : nw« 
.23 ."«8 .k i'ann ,»0 ,is"is eian ,s"isa:!iB8na a'"iaa ,n Ä w ,b"3 ,niaina 
.x*a |w t*a— ra .fliaina .24 ,B"ap *'a ,D"iBn n Ä w .a"»h ''d ,b"isi 
iib .ra ,n*B pix r"a ,V0 niai.na .25 .a"aa ,iy\w>* xiia?n :a"sai 
.27 .rap "a ,niiö'*ip Dia-: .Ä"iy33VB><na B"nna n^w .26 .ri "•0 /t*»n« 
]i« b"b ,fliaina .28 .a"Ep ,p*a .r"b ]w b"j ,niaina .T"» ,1"» ^la^na 
.31 ,n"a ,/iiaifla .30 .a *'o ,T"»ns .r*o — b"3 ,riama »*k"i .29 .b*j 
.32 .n*' .'ö ,1 pia ,e"Kn ^"hjt ."j'iav, n": .niBOin .bist ,t*ö »b-hjt 
'»b /*n : i"ao ,r?B , , »B?!?'n^ ,b"hji ,»*"p .Bist ,■> "ji« 'b ,j*b ,t*b ,bijt 
B"ina fl"w ,x*d f »o ,n*i» : ra'i .n*a iir tsb ,mw»K nia!fn : B*ann ,r"b 

225 



r» ">o ,38*ib oi Q1 » b " , ki • Ü " S P l w >**P .">"? '^t 3 ,nai»'»ip tnan .nsaas/cRin 
.a ,b'"> K-!j?'i ,r» ,V'a ,a"a nin» .33 ,A*ia 993 ,e?"kt m» ,3*"in jiR 
,n«s .•>a'?im , > .a"ap ,x>^n ,a'"> ,wnn ,a"?— 5 /psn-rp t t'"> ,r'3 fim 
,'k i?5n ,a"«o .,34 .s"3D ,nw'8 ma?n . a"aä") ,o"n '»o ,R"n : yao .k"b 

,3"B ''B ,T"sn« .36 ,'y '»0 ,T"»n8 .35 .H"39 ,JWR ms^tt :Ö"3a'i ,R"3 ''0 

,Rina *-'aa .a"3 ,]iv>>, ,?"a .niaina .i — yn ,tra ,fnawa .37 .n sj'yo 
»p^a D"inn m» ,sjoi' JV3 ,bi§t ,s'"n pR n"m '*o ,»"n .ra «-n^o ,B"a 
,*t— a"a 'r'p ,mawa .39 .rr'sn *'0 ,r\"vir ; E?"a'i .38 .vs jib r"s ''b 
)m 'd p*ia .nws ma?n : D"am .trn t"a |nK rrn ,n"a ,rnairi3 ,''a'vE?i~) , > 
maina .41 .tra ,Kifia Raa .a"a /fiiawa .40 .«ra ,xii?na ma5n p» s"3 
'»o rsns .V'32?fl pR ts^-in '»ö ,aR*ia eisi ,i°iV23s?tJKia n"nnn ,n"w ,ya 
,ryns ; -piR st ,'b '>o »repn ,y> npsi?o :irw ; ?"ao aps?' ,"i .42 .tro 
mna Raa .45 .a"a ">b ,r y n ,pnx "»i»w .44 .a"p ">o ,t"«riR "iio .43 .ya ''o 
">d ,T-*snK .irapnn ">o ,38ns oist .aisraastssin B"*ina jtw .1*5» )«? R"9 
.ra ,3'"»s ,maim .46 .110 .t ,tn*n Dr. L. Benzinger -Tv- w J"P 
ü"-\ftn m» ,3'"»s .rib'ü ma?n : a"aan .R"a ^o 'R p?n ;a"ab .rs snina,' 
,i"s?n8 .48 ,'t pj'sro ,n"a ">c ,t"sn« .47 .re ">o »asis oiai ,a-»a2Sö8in 
"0 siRan flwwu .a"p ,3"a »maina .n"? — v? .j^im .49 ,a"'i? ps a"s »a 
..e"b *'b ,fiE?si p?n : yao ,ro ^r B"a "b : (5i3Tip .3 jia jasas-ao^is) 
,3«,3 ! ? oi3*r ,a"i^3as!:8in ö"ina r/'v^ .t"' ]ir ?"a 'a ,fiWR m35n : D/'aai 
; i"»ö .a"a ,r,i3W3 .50 .rrjn ''o ,n3i»'ip oiat ^"mi .T'3"ir, ]ir "]*in '»b 
niawa .51 ,n"fp ''o ,n3ia , '"ip dibt ^"isaayö^ia B""inn n"w .R"a ">b ,r"h 

''D ,3135 01BT ,3^3321381» B""!»» 1)"W ,T\"1i "0 ,3"n :a"BB .a"a i3.'"> pis 

,t"!?nR .R"a ">o ,]W8i p?n : .v-ao .53 .a*a ,ni3iri3 .52 .B-'-in pR s"n 
:*j'iR sr .«"a .piKVPj? .55 .o*§ ,maa» ,r"» ,niains .54 .n"s ]>ir t"b ''o 
&"a ,'s ,j'o*a : -pis st ,a"a ,]mnao .57 .ra ,B-nos .56 .a"a ,^aiT» 
jir 2"s? ,'u jftca .59 .a*a ,p*i-.n30 .ss .mh .r b"">b ,nai n»»n*j'a 

JT'V* .61 .7V"3pfl I1R a"3pfl '^0 ,Bfl 123"!? I^H ISO .CO .3"3 ,]^1H30 

.t"s 'fjT ,?'">ina "i&o ,¥."3s ^v.'a ri3?n : B"aai .62 .a"B r?iw ,p'"»ina 
fans .66 ,B"a ,jib»; .65 ,'"a ,d"s ,^b'3 ,64 .-ns .r 't ,pu , >a .63 
ft"\v .3"o niaa' .67 .a"p ,'o ,fi*a a"nna tnv .vap ]is B'^p ,vjp ''o 



226 



,ts"y f?a i*a '-c ,t"s?n8 .s*s*tftfi ;, 'ö ,ä§->s oibt ,a"T*aasB*ha C'ifiä 
ts'iST f a*i»aisMJ»in B**ina m» .69 .y>p ,maa» .8*a ,v»s ,niaa* .£8 

y> D ,T*yn» .70 ,Ü*Dp ]« B"»j? ,« ">B ,T"OTIK ,2"D*irJ1 ]1K a"3p '»o ,atns 

''o a"n n»ao .a*o ,B*ijp ,n*a ,re ,rjiairo .72 .vap '»0,0151 .71 .rs 
,as*>9 oidt ,a^»aa»BKiB tr-ina n*i» .y» b-jp .n w » ,t"s »rnaina .73 .n"a 
»fnayw .76 .r*bi jik T"aj? ">b ,b*wj .75 .yy '»0 ,T"sns .74 »s^aiiri "0 
.79 ,v"»s ,nws nia?n : B*a»*i .a"o ,B*$p .78 .a*» ,B-)ip .77 .k"? 
eisi „ahyaasBma B"-ma rrw .R"s ''b ,»"n : a"0B .80 .ra ,n*B ,maina 
fl"-.na rrw .rs ,niaina .81 ,»"a*i p« ry '»0 rynu ,n"s '>b »ruwip 
,a*8 ,3"'s ,ftiaina .82 .ä"s ''b ,t*sn8 .»"op '»o ,asns biet ^yaüJBjna 
va i?yn an fuy ais .a"3 ">b ,T"sns .s"s '>o ,tm : a"nB .b"j ,ni3ina .83 
: "pR sm ,ea pyn ,-iya'a srp-> , n8B''ii »1 J^a asa^s \>x pypai« ikj "p 
Jözef Goldszmidt: Wyklad Prawa Rozwodowego pod. 
lug ustaw Mojzeszowo-Talmudycznych. Nakfad Wy- 
dawnictwa, St. Czosnowskiego i Spölki, Warszawa, 
•a*a ,a-isT .85 .a— a"a ,r"? ,maa» .ra ,y'b ,m;;a' .84 1871, 
n"a ,irmna .87 .'3 '»0 ,a"n : a"?iD .c .maina ,a— sra ,1"? ,b18*t .86 
,ffiE?>a rna^n : a"aa*i .n"a ,n"a »naina .89 ,t"p ,niBa"> ,a"a ,)"> iinaa .88 
D'"-ina mt? .91 .v:p ,*nna saa ,o"a.En .90 .a"s ">d ,T"»n8 .jraa 
ö^nni fiiwn : isbstji ri .92 ,t"apr,n '>b ,a§iB bist ,a*u'a3yBma 
osagia a*"ina rrw .93 .216 "t K"n ,1896 .sensu /'tpsrm?,, rran nisain 
"'o ,5^-is bist ,aisaa«tnpn a"ina m» ,a— r"s*i ">b .na-i»"»*!? bist ,a*iss 
,r)iairo .94 .*rs '*q ,*rn : a"ao *pK st .j*"s ''o .p a»a B'"iria m» .k"e 
A"w ,a"a"inn "o ,s?ns bist ,ai»aii>B8ia D""ina. «"w .95 .a"c-s"B 
ü'"-ina n"w .'"»1 ,ü-.;n yt ,rrj> ]^ n"a ,niaina .96 ,a"p "b ,p'a B"inH 
»»Ta 1*1 ,97 ,s ''o ,T"rn^ .rra-inn |ts s"'b> '»b ,a^^9 bist ,a*is?a:ii?Bjp» 
«100 .'3 ,?ibio ,99 .v'o ''o ,asr pa*aa »nviaa Y'a ^a^aa .98 .bist :]kb 
i»"»"i .103 .a"»» "B ,B'T't)n isb .102 ,8"b ,n Ä fl rKßn :B"2ai .101 ,1*0 «an» 
,Bni38 |aa .ra "0 ,n"is tjcv n^a ,-a*» "b ,a"n :a"ao .104 ,s"a »fi^^aa 
:»«5nR tii t]CT> dti "1 ,ra*i "b ,T\"t\ ma?n ,nsT niv .bi^jt ,t"b .bist 
Dr. M. Gideman Quel- !T W yT • rK1 ' 1 ' ,D - 1 " r ' 2 "n -ibv »aia 
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s"5 nans ,»5«?a cm» ,i"B ,ü'53 ,bi§i .Q'853 »n .»nseifi ,m ,rnT mia» 
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ibn-iäR na rvpis "1 .114 .us .« "1 m: .«"♦ ,iT?*AB ,v'd ,«1733' .» ^wp 
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»1 si ,118 ,v*5 sp ,5'">nna ibö .in .60—32 n ,n«ni 'i p?n (jww 
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5 9ö«asj? }X 

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.»*■> ,?iBio .3 .64 \w 53 't ,„Gtos kobiet i t. d." «2 .84 .'? 

vo ,0'to .6 .K"a ,rra ,msv>s .5 ,b"se? "0 ,a*a .4 ,ts"i ,'mävOi.« 

.138 .N '3 /HÖW 



6 9ß*SSP « 

ovriwts ?« ruwa-n .k"' jir 7 B"D3iipn ?« fuwsin .b'"> »n» .1 
."■Bt5"Ti bjji "pi s st .1*» pni' Tim ;tp?»?i bi'its? ruipsm ,n ]« n ,9 
Jf fef "0 ,f / '3E?n .rro ,nina» ,a"? ,ni3"ia ,s pia ,mäs .2 .?o*s8p »pn. 

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.151—142 i*i ,pffm j?5n ,-m jva? rmi-oi : nsaiiPia etk : i^x vi ,K"'p 
,a"a .9 ,n"3 ,na» ,8 ,j*8 ,mea> .7 ,1"» ,nBio .6 .n"'j? jisp ,•> ,«aT .5 
,1'inniö .14 .•» «nuiö .13 .0131 ,12 .bist .11 .ro ,ivina' .10 ,n"»p 
.n ,m3*ia : *pa st ,ro ,maa> .17 .trs n'ai mi .16 .bist .15 ,a*a 
,u"d • ,]•>&>* .19 ,*U8 .« n"3 ,ni»3 , > ,sn3sin .n"o .niaai ,18 .3"3 ,p-nn3tj 
■p« y» /Sm 1 » .22 .bist .21 ,iik ,» Y'v ''o ,T"yn« .rro ,niaai .20 .•"» 
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.13 'I m$p .63 .23—12 T"t ,01^1 ,62 .12 'T »jjttjp .61 .32 'l ,Ö*^p .60 

' ,a"» |iw a ,ä ewin-a 5s nsiswin .65 .26 *i ,m§i .64 



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7 ?Ü>BSö « 

I^nacy Radlinski: Mqzczyzna a kobieta, Na- •> 
kladem kasy przezornosci i pomocy warszawskich 
ji8 151 'i ,pomocniköw ksiegarskich, Warszawa, 1918, 
Prof. Adam .3 .59-49 rt ,oisi ,Dr. Felix Dahn: -2 .*»»"i> 
Szela.gov/ski: Historja Starozytna, Warszawa, 1922, 
Ks. Roman Archutowski : Historja kosciola ka- « 338 ' T 
.58 p« 8 'i tolickiego, Vll wydanie, Warszawa, 1926, 
Prof. Adam Szelagowski : Historja Sredniowieczna, 
Nakladem ksiegarni J. Czernieckiego, Warszawa — 
|itn ,5 ,t ,k"» D-"nnipn 9k nsiwsin .4 .20 t .Krakow, 1921, 
August w> otü'X .7 ,s ,'t n«ra-npn 98 naw»nn ,6 ,i— a ,i"> pm* 
mwKin .9 .r? 'i o^miipri 9« nawxin .8 .59—58 t"t ,0*181 ,Bebel : 
.22 'i ,0181 ,Nahima Remy: ö, i 9 ü * ,, ' ö '' s « 10 - r " > > 3 oi'nvanj 9x- 
C. Walew- .ss '1 ,onn , August Bebel: *T* P'»"* »*« °*P 
,a'", /ü '"> »fia .12 .t ,a ,011035 niwsin .11 .las .8 15 't ,o-i8i } ska: 
98 nawKin .15 .rr5r-a"9 ,01x1 .14 .n— t ,r D»m-iipn 98 nawain .13 
O zakonach plci zen- >V •»-* .1 «"«n .16 .»'* ,n ovnwo 
skiej, Naklad i drukiem J. Glüksberga, Warszawa, 
Ernest Legouve : Dzieje mo- w ö-po** - 18 - 5 ' T ,1843, 
ralne kobiet, tfömaczyt z francuskiego Jadwiga 
Trzcinska, Nakladem Red. „Przegla.du Tygodniowe- 
August o'W ow* -i9 .27't >3 o", Warszawa, 1873. Tom 11, 
.35 't ,bikt , Nahida Remy »'W «m*»'* - 20 - 59 ' T ' ü ">t n , Bebel: 
w .21 .las .8 75'T ,öi8i ,Ernest Legouve: Ti« fc"»' , B»s »aJy-osr- 
O zakonach plci ■» .is3 m ,o-i»i ,lgnacy Radlinski: T« 
»Henryk d'AImeras.- .23 ,11s .8 12—3 t ,zenskiej i t. d. 
Jan Alzog: Historja powszechna kosciola - 95 ' T '»"^H 
Nakladem i drukiem M. Wolffa, Warszawa, 1860, 
85-84 n ,B-i8i , Henryk d'/\lmeras: - 24 .248-247 rt j om 1 
Ks Roman Rrchutowski: .6 *o»*8p »• .20 .95 «t ,m«i .25 



231 



.27 .424—422 ,248 t*T ,B1(J1 ^gn AlZOg.« - 59 - 56 /34-33 t"t ,B\H1 

oipi» .29 ,a"? ,n via .28 .96 71« 85 <r ,bi$i .Henryk d'DImeras: 
.» oipia .i"b jik n »na .31 .h"' ,1 B"miipn 5s nsi&Kin .30 ,s"> ,» 
L. Bridel: * 33 ♦' »* B,| P a « 32 ♦"" 1 * .« * ü"fuiipn 5s ruiBrain .r» opi* 
nawmn .35 .147 .1 ,10131 , Henryk d'fllmeras: « 34 « 105 ,f .^r» 
,o»D9ip?i 9« .i"3 — a"s ,n ,Q"Dss*n ?« .36 „«">— t ,1 ,8"' tp'miipn ?« 
Ernest Legouve: w^ ovo"»» .38 .« ,a oiibb? ruwa-n .37 .rv> ,a 
,D-"i"i3 ,ipn ?k ruwKin .41 .aisi .40 .n ,a oibuj 5« ,39 .28—27 rt ,eisi 
Ks. Roman ftr- «43 .i*">— •> ,a övjiwö ?« mwain .42 .i"9 ,1"» 
Soldan-Heppe : -45 .01*1 .44 .62-56 t-t ,»i8i chutpwski: 
Geschichte der Hexenprozesse, München, Verlagt 
iw 563-481 rr ,bisji ,46 .530 'i ,bei Georg Müller, Band I, 
W. E. H. Lecky: Dzieje wolnej mysii w Europie. 
Z osmnastego wydania angielskiego przelozyta Marya 
Feldmanowa, nakJadem ksie.garni Msks. Stiftera i 
£np .167-19 rt ,Rlfreda Sraucha, Lodz, Tom 1, 1908. 
Dr. Jözef Rosenblatt: .47 .47 <t j om 1), Lodz, 1909 
Czarownica Powolana, przyczynek do spraw prze- 
ciw czarownicom w Polsce. Drukiem S. Orgeibranda, 
•»».30 ,ni-Däfi .48 .64-62 ,37 ,29 ,24-23 ,8 rt Warszawa, 1882, 
Soi- -49 .iss .k 490 'i ,bi$i ,Soldan-Heppe: - 18 92 /■»» ISrö'31 |W 
-sn» ,Bi8i ( w. E. H. Lecky: .563-481 rt ,üi$i ,dan-Heppe: 
Dr. Jözef Rosen- .»*nn ,Lily Braun: 465-19 n ,1332 i»d 
LHy .50 .srai3g iw 157 i ,bi»ji > j i Radlinski: >»** blatt: 
i»b»-i» ,bi«i f w. E. H. Lecky: .51 .33 jw 28 1 ,biki ,Braun: 

.78 158 35-26 t"T ,B1$1 ,Lily Braun: .130—123 ,81— 80 ,25 rt ,1383 

.33 'i ,öi8i ,Nahida Remy: & -12 '» ,«1*1 ,Ellen Key: 

.15 j ,öi«i ,lgnacy Radlinski: 



232 



8 T&mp « 

a"3 ,5 niüp .4 «i*o ,a n'iimia .3 .8"p ,b-i81 .2 .a"D .rnaa* .1 

,ru m»» .6 .a"'-j? ,|*»?in .5 ^»iwp .**» ,b'"» Kip">i .5 .t"o ,n b*iai t>i« 

B^BBl» .9 .T— 1 ,n'"> 8 — 581BE? .8 ,tl — 1 -J17?U''£»p Ö»üSW .7 ,8"3 — 3 

a — b»35» .a .b"' .i"3— * ,r> ,3 ,a ,Y'» 8 — b»3?» .a"3— 3"3 ,b ,s ,3"» 
.12 .t"d n^ia ,nai W8i3 .11 ,Y"> ^'aa .10 .a ,n ,t"5— rt 3 t-n ,i 

.T— 1 ,t"3 .9— B"3 ,1"B .H— 1 ,3"' 81pM .13 .»'3 ,Y'3— n"3 ,3"3 ,W"f fi\KV 
.138 .8 A"B ,na*l Klp'n .iTS ,T'B nW» .8"« ,*? R~ 5K172E? .1 ,9 .3 ,1 131U3 

.17 ,n"a ,ni3ia .16 ,r? ,nsp .15 .« ,a .3 ,'a nw ,i— n ,Y'3 rrs»». .14 

p13 ,D'nS1D J133B .19 ,1"D ,8BV .18 ,8"S ,fl3n* PUB ]18 U"B »pPTPp 

b"3 ,niairi3 .23 ,» ,70p iyia .22 .1 ,nai nii .21 .i"3 ,maa' .20 .i"ö 
.v'' n5'a» .27 ,» ,ni3iä .26 ,r"> .n^aa .25 .s"o ,\>wi .24 .«ro jia 

,»»5»!1V .32 ,J131 B^iai .31 .«'"• ,1B10 .30 .fl"0 ,B1181 .29 .V'D ,11131113 .28 

.'3, ,8tw ,Kamn .34 .vo ,nia .33 .rn ,«"b jivasa ,b-ibi t**ti ,i"a .b'höb 
,ni»iin ,36 ,a"»p jik a"s "b ,T"»ii« .«"s ''o ,«"n :3"»o .t"o ,maw3 ,35 
ISO ,8"a ^ünvp .38 .'i ,)mn3D .37 .n"a ,D«asr niana ni3?n :D"sai ,y» 
ibö .ö"B,nai rwaia .8"a ,»>Bm , 'p .40 .a'"> ,]'»n»p ,39 .b"bip '»d ,ö»T>Bn 

ISO .42 .138 .8 8"p ,1WJ3» .1"» ,|»1in3D .41 .138 .8 B"B» ">0 ,B'Y>ön 
•3"D ,fl1»3» .46 .8"» ,W>*tfl .45 .a"Ö ,fiiaa> .44 X9 ,pn?13Ö .43 ,B"SB> '»D ,B'T>ön 

pa 'in ,nai n^aia ." aaio ..49 jn ,B»noa ,48 .d"3 ptwp ,a*>p ,btiöb .47 
,mi3ä , , ö5»^i ; » ^8 a"a ,btiob störnv .50 .a*»a ,iTy58 »an 'pia .a"3 
.54 .ro ,ni»a' ,rt"o ,b*isi .53 .8"a ,main3 .52 .b"3 ,]'»iiv .51 ,i"a 

.56 .B'^p ,8ina 833 .8"? IW 1"3 ,ft'3Sn .55 ,a"J? ,8ttV .B"3 ,]'E? ; lT'p 
♦'"13 ,B"a /B^na .V'O ,J!'B?11 , 'P .58 .V'D ,B'»n3 .57 .«"3 ,]">mv>p StöVftV 

/man .61 ,b"3 ,^nrp .60 .56 ji» 38 't ,Bi8"7 , Nahi da Remy : .59 

'fl131D.64 .t"B,3"3 .63 .335 'I ,B"»8T ,D. Paul Volzi = 62 ' r '^ '» >""B 
•67 .138 .8 T"B ,niaiA3 .65 .T"B ,11131113 ,'B ,p"1B ."> ,111313 .65 ,1"3 

>main3 .70 .1 ,r'3 ö'iai .69 ,'t ,'3 o»iai ,68 .iix .8 »*» ,main3 

.138 .8 T"0 ,1"3 ,B181 ,1"3 '3 fwaia .71 .138 .8 'X\ ,8»1» ,'H ]18 '1 

*K"»1 t*** # a '*o ,t"»n« .ra ,fis "jn jisob .'s ^ii-p .]n: »n nias .72 

U*D ,r,1B3» .74 .8"p ,pii130 .73 ,13g ,8 ä"5— 8"? ,P?ni3 »» jpilllil 0,1138 



233 



/YTip .78 .rra ,na» .77 .K"3pftn ">ö ,0^0)1 Sftö .76 ,n*np ,a*a .75 
.bisi .83 .mgi .82 .a"o ,ni»a» .81 .srap ,a"3 .80 ♦«*> ,na» .79 't 
.b"3 ,ni3ia .87 .v'ö ,?ibid .86 .a"B »rnaa* .85 .8"a ,]'an»y .84 
.t"b ,r'3 .n*» ,a"* nü»«ia .89 s"vt\ »?on »iana »nai»,, pios ,v»n» .88 
'i ,3 .r* 1 » ,« mo8 n^aa .t— a ,8 8— B'psa .a ,»i"a r-9kib» .t'"> ,B"a 
.'3 ,nir nnas ,8"o ,«"3 .pnnae .VB — i"» ^aa ,ra ,mai3 .138 .« 

/TD ,ni3 .•'"ö ,B"B ,d»TO .91 .tt"3 ,3"3 .90 T38 .8 ,1"B ,main3 

.'n ,jBp isia .93 .las .« b— n ,jöp Taia .b"3 .nwins ,b ,na» .92 
j"3 .VD ,niawa .96 .a"B ,s»j? «aa .95 ,n"»Q ,nai n»»«"ia .94 
D^Ton ise ,b"b jö^höb .99 .s^p ,niains .98 .» ,nian , > ,97 ,b ä j> 
ianaa .102 .n"s ,naiB ,8naom .101 .o"a ,B*»nüs .100 .B"»» "0 
jin Y"> ,main3 .B"a ,a->nöa .104 .i"83"»n .» /p»n>p .103 ,8"3a ,nai 
V'a ,btio3 .105 .rxpnn ps v»» ,k"bi ; ?"öp ; b»3b»b : b'twi iso .a"3 
m 't .bist Dr. Zunz : • u " s?s? "° /B^en isb :*pi8 »t .»"a ,a*nöa .106 
/Mains .108 ,8"3a ,nai isiaa .8"a ,f»n*p .^»v .n"3 .niains .107 
annas "1 .rap p« n"?p "a ^i'on ibö ,b"? ,mt am» .a"x ,pn?i38 .n"3 
Dr. M. Qüdeman : Qellenschrif- .»*?—«-? ,i»?nia »» : prnin 
,va ,m»a» .109 , .119—117 t"t ten zur Geschichte u. s. w. 
.8"a /prcn'i? .113 .bi^t .112 .3"o ,maa» .111 .*"2 ,mrua .110 
,maa» .116 ."> ,nBio .115 .va ,p?in .b»3 ,a"a .114 ,vb ,fna "in mas 
Dr. M. Qüdeman. Geschichte u.s. .•0*1? <*w* .«7 .»"9 
Pacing ^»np >iai aai nixns .119 .3"? tp .118 .197 '? w. Band II, 
,niaa' -.120 .a"» tp ,1878 ,»»i8ii ,p8Bö c >?8 , aB p't3ß?9ny it:ü">?8 apsr pa jasra 

'1 .124 ,1"3 p« 8"3 ,]Vp ISia .123 .B181 ,122 ,B"3 ,8S?^» 833 .121 .3*0 

Dr. M. Gudeman: Quel- - 125 ^so ,s»isii ,npii :8t"a^na its?« 
,r?ma »» :riiiw amas «i .123 ]ik 24 'i Ienschriften u s. w. 

«0181 ,pH13 »» ."> ,]»B»a .128 .Ä-3"8 ,f)1B3» .127 .1"» ,HB10 .126 .Ä"?— K"9 

'*o ,Bi8i .132 .8"»in *'o ,a"in iib .131 .**» ,nßio .130 ,a*o ,main3 .129 
ira pa "a^^an -wa rT>*i3s?n n»8R 3sa„ lasa bs?t ,a"öin ,n^asn .i"*»» 
,1896 ,»»i8ii /'sqoK'nK,, nissin ,a"nni nimn : isasrT'a yi, .131 .1S3B81 
433 .rra ,n«s / ,, b5»si'' .132 .n"B t]T ^m««» i8B os? »aasia ,194 '? 8"n 

|<I8 'B ,p»Vt»p ,t*Bp ,lia» .136 .B*!8T -135 .B"3 ,85?'2B 833 .134 ,n?3 n30B 



234 



«ipb$ib D*ma jt"w .b*b ,nai «ip»i .ras ,712t? ,'»?mi» .i"a ,ö 5 ii3 .re 

.138 .B"l$1 ,B»«711p '131 Dil TTiKYlX .137 .138 ,K 8"3p '»D ,Ä{i">a 0121 i™* 

,l»nn30 .141 .k ,nai i»i .140 .s"a ,]»nri3D .139 .'a p-is ,]m »an nias 
fo '»o ,»30 p5n ,1862 »vbsb'bn ,sni7 -rm : tipb 13 pnx» «an .142 .a"3 
U*3 ,p"ia .145 .vom *»o ,o»von iao .144 .7*0 '»0 ,t"sms .rn ,niairD .143 
iWKia .«"' ^k 8*a »niaina »»a^ii» .147 .a"a ]ik 's "o ,T-»as niu .146 
jiibe> .149 .bibi ,»b5pii» .148 .fs ,nan raw .vtib .nai «ipi ,7"»b ,nai 

.15"» ,7"3 .5,°»— 3"» /T3 .3— B"' ,V3 .R„' ,7"B .71"' ,' a->131 .V3— K"3 ,a"a 

„vb »5»a .'a ,rap ."1 ,n*o ö»5nn ,'n ,a »äs?» .'» ,'7 .va ,7*» ,s rr-sw» 
•3S7bsib d"i?ib mt? .151 .87 '7 ,is7»ib si .150 .13« .8 v» ,a"a av« .n"a 
.153 .3"aj? ,]»?in .'5 • ,i»pn»p .152 .a"ai iw vsp s "ö ,naiB»ip oiai ,ais?3 
.157 .3"' .nvnn .156 .bibi .155 .n'"7 ,t,»»n»p .154 ,k"b ,nHs ^wn» 

.V'S ,]"31 1^3 ,139 '7 ,B181 : JSBVI'S 1*1 .159 ,3"p ,71131713 .158 ,R' /! ? ,J»B?11»& 

,>iya:s?B^na D"ina n"w .162 .'3 ,m3ia .161 .i"o ,d»yu .'s ,sap saa .ieo 
.164 .13» .8 srp "o ,D'i'ön ieo .163 ,n"3 "o ,min» ji»3 'Vxi '»o ,a§ls dibi 

ni3 .167 .3"3 ,'3 ,B1$1 .166 ,7"3 '8 /TWRna .165 .'7 ,«"* B"7l3Tipn 5« fl3W81Jl 

,r"? j'ptwp .169 .rra 1,1« a"3E ,nai JW8ia .168 ,tt»3 ,nai jwsia .rra 
,i"b jvstfä .173 ."> ,o»na .172 .»"a ,o»ii3 ,»a5»ii» .171 ,$"a ,i a^iai .170 
,naio .8"» ,7i»3yn :*pK »7 .va ,ni9i ni35n :o"3Bi .175 ,a"a ,o*i8i .174 
.177 .a"s? ,kbi» .n"o jhiawia ,Vo ,maa» .o"3 ,]»i?n»p ,176 ,i3S ,s a"a 

,«"71 ,831 W58 »31 8371 ,T"'S ,7131 fl'PKia .V'O ,71183» .178 .V»p ,B»71D3 

,n.v>.n ^a^ir/n» .181 ,7i"a— 7 ,n"3 t?-58iaa? .180 .?"» ,a"a map .179 .a"a 

Saidon- * 183 • r ' !5D , Q,, " 1B i ö n3 o n « 182 »" ,i8 •« n " a r* 1 *™ 8 >''"^' 1 - s " s 
,ai8i t>i« ?i .184 .26-25 i"7 ,ei§i Heppe.. 



9 ^^'S^!? IS 

1«, Henryk Konic: Prawo Malzenskie i t. d. -i 
Prawo ,ia^aai t« Dzieje prawa Malzenskie ,ia%h3rt 
.28'7,ai«i L. Bridel: •°^ >T »Jözef Qoldszmidt: spadkowe. 

.121 '7 ,Qios kobiet i t. d. 



235 



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i a»?»iT ,*nonn* npnai« mwxn a^sn m-nnoni »"«a wiasr 'wm miiflon 

flian rvwwi ,i"ü»i? , >'T ?K't3'»Bi »«'5s »a-na na>i»a ,*"n3jrn ,os»aru 

.•u» ♦« ^ama ]öiij po "]r>?Kit£^ pKn npina riasm üei?b?i 



:BDJ?SÖ p« ]"")K BB»3 niSTO-'B-?» PK 178 'I «1'IK 

-,niBP3ö »p'is-m *pR nuam p'j? ]a$n öwa ?'ii • v 8 * 
't ji« 25 'i ,1383 i»t3»i» ,wi8T w. E. Lecky. J yj ) *pasna"i8B 

.(unjnsrasa T>« .42 

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nsh"K is? mn psniBosnMB ,*»wp « »a'9 "lspnsö» « 
,]"i8 i"ö p« T3'p ]"t iBisiiisa'ns Bnxss» a'ainp s?3"t pa 

.(81 'i bi$-i) ?YP'Ü pfi !»m OKI JB'ittXBX ]B1K KTg *pK '13 

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