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W. H. LYALL, M.A. 










There are of course many aids to the study of colloquial 
Arabic, especially the dialect of Egypt. I mention here only the 
excellent publications of Spitta Bey, Hartmann and Vollers, to 
say nothing of the numerous conversational guides. If I have 
increased the number of works on the subject by this present 
grammar, I have done so with the object of putting into the hands 
of the student who is not a philologist, who knows neither classical 
Arabic nor one of its modern dialects, a book which, in contrast 
to most works that have as yet appeared on the subject, does not 
presume any previous knowledge on the part of the student, and 
which removes, wherever possible, the difficulties that must arise 
in the study of an idiom so very different from that of the Indo- 
European languages. With this intention I have put the elements 
of the language into lessons, with progressive exercises well adapted 
to the requirements of the beginner; and I have decided to 
abandon any attempt at giving a systematic representation of the 
grammar, which would be unnecessary in the early stages. The 
book is then above all things practical, and I hope it may be 
judged as such. The phrases given at the end of the grammar 
will be found useful ; and the reading-matter at the end, with inter- 
linear translation, will serve to impress on the memory what has 
already been learnt, and will also give a good example of connected 

As regards the use of the book, I should like to make the 
following remarks. In the first place, if possible one should learn 
the pronunciation from some one who knows Egyptian Arabic. 
If this is not practicable one should pronounce the consonants as 
correctly as possible. The consonants in Arabic are of much 
more importance than the vowels; the latter are somewhat vari- 

r/ \ 


able, and are almost always left out in writing ^ Reading the 
chrestomathy slowly aloud will accustom the student to the sound 
of the language. The c i^en) and the hamza must never be slurred 
over and they should always be regarded as definite consonants ; 
s is always sharp like ss ; z is smooth like the s in rose ; a dis- 
tinction must be made between / and d; p does not occur in 
Arabic, so the word pasha must be bdsa and nolpasa. 

The Arabic exercises may be translated into English and then 
back again into Arabic ; in this way additional exercises may be 
formed. The verbs given after each conjugation should be con- 
jugated throughout : the verb is the soul of the Arabic language. 
Of course the learning of a language consists largely in learning 
by heart. 

One should not allow oneself to be frightened by the tales of 
the excessive difficulty of learning Arabic; colloquial Arabic has 
very few stumbling-blocks. Russian and Hungarian are much 
harder ; for my own part I maintain that French necessitates much 
more work. Even in the case of the notorious verb, the student 
will soon see that all its different forms have in reality but one 
conjugation. It really is not very difficult to initiate oneself into 
this vigorous language in a comparatively short time. The student 
who has worked thoroughly through the grammar and the reading- 
matter will soon find his bearings in other books, especially in 
reading-books, and, if he has the good fortune to be able to put 
his knowledge to the practical test in the land of the Pharaohs, he 
will make rapid progress. 

The territory of the modern Arabic dialects stretches over the 
whole of Northern Africa, part of the South, Syria, Palestine, and 
the peninsula of Arabia. 

The dialects vary in the following provinces (according to 
Vollers and Burkitt) : 

1 . Maiiretania (Morocco, Algiers and Tunis). 

2. Egypt, 

3. Syria and Palestine, 

^ This is, however, only true of the short vowels. 


4. j\lesopota7nia. 

5. 'Iraq (Babylonia). 

6. Western Arabia (the Higaz). 

7. Southern Arabia (Yemen and Hadramfit). 

8. Eastern Arabia (Bahren and 'Oman). 

9. Central Arabia (Negd, &c.). 

10. The Arabic of the Bedawin forms a class by itself. 

The dialect of which the present book treats is that of Cairo. 
The language of Egypt is at present only a spoken one of very 
doubtful origin — the Egyptian dialect is not written. The Classical 
or Literary Arabic has been admirably treated in Professor Adolf 
Wahrmund's grammar: it is unnecessary to go into it in the 
present work. If I have devoted a few pages to the Arabic 
alphabet and script, I have done so only to give the student some 
insight into the writing. 

The spoken forms of Egyptian Arabic (according to Spitta Bey) 
are not yet well determined, ' much varies still, and much changes 
continually in the mouth of the people. The natives themselves 
say that their language is bi 'ligtihdd, i. e. according to each one's 
personal fancy. If a man of the uneducated classes is asked what 
is the right expression to use in a certain case, he will frequently 
answer kulloh ze ba'doh, it is all the same.' However, they look 
down on the Arabic of Europeans and Copts. I quote Spitta Bey 
here, but I have often had similar experiences in my intercourse 
with Arabs. 



The Alphabet 




. 10 

Reading jMatter 

. . . 84 

Notes to Reading IMatter 

. 120 

Arabic-English Vocabulary 

. 124 

English-Arabic Vocabulary 

. 140 


. 166 








With pre- 
vious letter. 

On both 

With follow- 
ing letter. 
































































































With pre- 
vious letter. 

On both 

With follow- 
ing letter. 







































d i:^ 

































w,uov 6 














The Arabic alphabet is really composed of consonants alone ; 
to write the vowels recourse must be had to supplementary signs. 

Short vowels, which are nearly always left out in writing, can be 
written as follows * : — 

^ Arabic is written from right to left. 


a, a, ^ by -^ {f^^^) '• ^-S- ^^^ kdtah, he wrote ; J-1. g'dbdl, moun- 
tain. Short t by „- {kesr) : e. g. v_3^c '/r^, he knew ; ^^ shin, 

tooth. Short u by -^ {davwi) : e. g. A*. /«/X'w, judgement ; v.^.S 
kutiih, books. 

Long vowels, on the other hand, must be written : — 

d by means of 1 : e. g. .U ndr^ fire ; i_jU. ^^<5, he brought. 

I by means of (^ : e. g. ^j^ ku, purse ; JJl^ ^«/i7, few. 

7/ by means of j : e.g. JjS ^z7/, say! j^ nur, light; ^__5yj hi/, 

The diphthongs ^« and ei appear in Arabic, but are usually 
found as and /(written ^ and Jl) : e. g.j^ hair = her, goodness ; 
^^ bain = <5/«, between ; 0-0 ^(f?, house ; ^,^1 7iaum = ;z^;7z, sleep ; 

j»j5 ^^"^j clay. 

The diphthongs oi, in, id also occur, but rarely, as moiye, water ; 
iuddn, ears; isiuild, occupation. 

If there is no vowel attached to a consonant the sukun -^ may be 
written over it : e. g. i^Xt^ mulk, property ; ^ sahm, tallow. 

For hamzd * see under pronunciation. 

The tesdid, in shape like a small ^, is placed over a consonant 
to show that it is doubled : e. g. J^ harr, hot ; ^^i hunn, coffee- 

The viadd ^ is placed over 1 to show that there are really two 
ali/s : e. g. ^.il ddam, man. In writing it is usually omitted. 

These short notes on Arabic writing must suffice. Since the 
language treated in this book is only a spoken one, it would be 
waste of time to trouble the student with the many orthographical 
rules which exist in classical Arabic. If the student desires to study 
the written language he can find it in any of the larger grammars. 

Pronunciation of the Consonants. 

1 'a/i/ {hamzd *). This letter has no characteristic sound of its 
own. Whenever it occurs there is a short interval of silence 
(hiatus). The h in the French /a hon/e resembles the sound of 
hamzd. The same sound occurs at the beginning of the German 

B 2 


words ach, oben. In Arabic it frequently occurs in the middle of 
a word, and care must be taken to articulate it. 

Let us take the words sa'al, ask ; 'addib, educate ; yVaddib. In 
these words there mu&t be a sharp pause where is : thus not sddl 
but sd-al ; not yidddib but yi-dddib. Distinction must be made 
between ' by which we transcribe alif (hamza) and ' by which we 
transcribe 'en c (q. v.). 

There are two distinct sounds attached to ', a sharp one and 
a smooth one. The former appears in 'udhul, come in 1 qdl 'Hhrug, 
he said, Go out ! Again, when no vowel follows it : mamur, official, 
or when it stands at the beginning of a syllable and a consonant 
precedes it, as : el 'ahl, the family ; el 'addn, the call to prayer. 
(See also pronunciation of the ^J.) 

The smooth pronunciation is found when a vowel immediately 
follows it, or a vowel or a consonant in close union with it precedes 
it : e. g. md ^ara/s, I do not know ; yidddib, he educates ; ibn 
'ahmed, Ahmed's son. Often, however, the two vowels are con- 
tracted into one, and the hiatus of the hamzd disappears : e.g. md 
'rd/s', ydhmed=yd 'ahmed, Oh Ahmed 1 

i_i b, as in English : e. g. i^^b bdb, door. 

cy /, as in English : e.g. \^\y iordb, dust. 

Kli th, s, properly like the English th, but more often pronounced 
as a /: t.g. j^ ketir, much; j^ tor, ox. Sometimes pronounced 
like s. 

-. g, in Egypt pronounced hard like g in gold, good : e. g. J^**. 
gdbdl, mountain ; .la. gar, neighbour. In Syria it is pronounced 

^ ^, is a strongly aspirated h pronounced very far back in the 
throat, but quite smoothly: e.g. ^^^^^^a. habib, friend, h must be 
distinguished from h and from h. If h stands at the end of a word 
and is preceded by a consonant, a short euphonic vowel must be 
inserted between the two to enable h to be heard : e. g. JZo subh^ 
morning, pronounced sub^h. In the same way, if it closes 
a syllable after z* or ^, a short a is inserted (in the pronunciation 
only) : e. g. Ju mdWh, good ; o^ ri^h, wind ; -^^ sutu'^h, roofs. 


-t h, has a strong guttural sound like tlie German ch in dock, or 
like the Scotch ch in loch. The same rules about insertion of 
a short vowel before it hold as with h : e. g. ^\\i tari'^h, history. 

^ d, as in English : e. g. ajj da/a, pay ; j^, (^^r^, cold. 

3 d, z, formerly sounded like English th. Now either like d: 
e. g. ^^j dahab, gold, or like ^ : e. g. ^^il V2«, permission. 

J r, as in English : e. g. J*.|, ( j4;) rdgil, man ; ^c '/rz/j know ; 
^^. ^£r, well. 

J s, like the soft s in r(?>f^ : e. g. j^ /^^^ almonds ; j>\ zir, large 
pitcher for filtering water. 

ij^ s, 2i sharp sibilant s: e. g. ^!^-j j'/;z«, tooth ; IzL siind, year. 

;^ s, like i-y^ : e. g. ,j***w ^tzwi", sun. 

^j^ J, a sharp s: e. g. J^ ^^j-j, he saw. 

^ d, 2i heavy explosive d\ e.g. t^jjj darab, he struck; J^j 
_/^(f/, goodness. 


i> /, an emphatic / : e. g. ^L>L /z33, medicine ; J^. halt, line. 

Ji> (f, 0, corresponds now to either j or ^^ : e. g. ^c 'izjgf;^, fine, 
grand ; Sjlloo nadddra, spectacles. 

c ', ' is a very difficult sound resembling nothing so much as 
a gurgling in the gullet caused by a sensation of choking. This 
gasping is produced by a forcible contraction of the muscles of the 
throat, and the c with its vowel sounds like a suffocated attempt to 
pronounce ga or gu, with the result that only the vowel is heard, 
struggling as it were with a lump in the throat/ It therefore follows 
that it must have a vowel with it to make it capable of being pro- 
nounced : e. g. ^^ 'en, eye ; j.Ic 'and, at, near, with, ' chez.' After 
I and il, as with h and h, a short vowel is inserted to carry the ' : 
e. g. c^ fulu-'' (sun-)rise ; >uii. sdm'^\ detestable. If it stands at 
the end of a word after a consonant it also has a short a to make 
it pronounceable : e. g. aj^ rub°'\ quarter ; cj^^ /cif'"'', branch. 
Often before a consonant it is changed into h: e. g. ci^^ simft, 
I have heard (pronounced simiht) ; ciA&b) {betd'et) betdht, belong- 
ing to. 

c g, something like the French r grasseje, or the Jjurr of the 


Northumbrian r, but rougher than either : e. g. Jii. sugl^ work ; 
j^ /^r, without ; xB balag, reach, become adult, ripen, 
v^jy^ as in English : e. g.^Jii/aqir, poor. 
^j q, has three sounds in modern Egyptian Arabic : — 
(i) In Alexandria, in the Soudan, and among the peasants generally, 
it is sounded like^ : e. g. Jla gal, he said ; {_p^ gifs, piastre ; 
^y*t siig, market, 
(ii) In the common speech of the towns it is pronounced like alif 

{hamzd)'. e.g. 'dl, 'trs; y}jsiyeul, he says; su. 
(iii) In places, especially among the Bedawin, q has retained its 
proper sound, that is a sound like a k, produced very deep 
down in the throat, thus : qd/, qirl.yequl, siiq. 
liiJ k, as in English : e. g. ^S kiilb, dog ; ^,^ kdiab^ he has 

J /, as in English : e. g. ^^J lab, game (play). 
^ m, as in English : e. g. il^ mdblag, sum. 
^ n, as in English : e. g. .13 ndr, fire ; .y nur, light, n before 
i_> b, and ^i/] is always pronounced like m : e.g. u-^ ^^/;^^, side, 
beside ; ^liil imfdtah, it has been opened. 

5 ^, a soft ^, but always distinctly audible : e. g. i_^ ;^/r/^, he 
fled, escaped ; j^ sahr, month. 
J w, as in English : e. g. jjj waldd, boy, child. 
t5 J/, as in English ; following a consonant at the end of a word 
it is pronounced Hke i: e.g. ^y^ydm, day; ^jl* masi, walk. 

Pronunciation of the Vowels. 

The vowels should be pronounced as given in the transliteration 
in this book, always bearing in mind that they have the Conti- 
nental, and not the English values. Thus a is pronounced ah, e a, 
i ee ; a is, as in the German, nearly the English a. The conso- 
nants 1 all/, J wdw, and {jye, are sometimes the long vowels d, tl {d) 
and f {e). The consonants have a considerable effect on the actual 
pronunciation of the vowels. Thus a is pronounced as a broad a 
with h, /i, h, g, r and q ; whilst with the emphatic consonants (^ 


and w excepted) it somewhat resembles an ; the dentals (with the 
exception of 71) and b and / cause it to be sounded nearly like 
a or e. 

The I is less influenced by its neighbouring consonants ; u has 
a sHght suspicion of after h, h and g. 

We cannot here give all these nuances ^ : the following rule 
should be strictly observed. 

In pronouncing Arabic the pronunciation of the conso- 
nants should be rigorously attended to, whereas the vowels 
need not be so carefully pronounced. The proper nuances 
of the latter will then be attained without much effort. 
The roots of Arabic words consist of consonants and not 
of vowels. 

Help-Vowels and Intermediary Vowels. 

If a word end in two consonants and the following word begin 
with a consonant, a short intermediary vowel is attached to the first 
word : e. g. kulle rdgil, every man ; katdb/imaktub, you have written 
a letter. 

This interposition of a vowel also takes place before suffixes, and 
the negation-particle s i)e) : e. g. katdbiind, you have written to us : 
sugluhum, their work ; gainbhid, beside us ; md katdbtis, you have 
not written ; dardbiukum, I have hit you. (Further particulars are 
given in the chapters on Negation and the Suffixes.) 

The Syllable and the Accent. 

Every syllable in Arabic begins with a consonant. If a syllable 
ends in a vowel it is called open, if in one or more consonants it is 
said to be closed. Thus in the word Jxi yfz7, / is an open syllable, 
'il a closed one. 

There are three sorts of syllables. 

(a) The shori, open syllable, which ends in a short vowel : e. g. 
fi in fill ', da in darab. 

^ Spitta Bey gives copious matter on the influence of the consonants on the 
pronunciation of the vowels in his Grammar. 


{b) The semi-long syllable, which ends in either a long vowel or 
a diphthong, or else in a short vowel with a final consonant : 
e. g. Id, lau, yd, 'il mfiil, rab in darah. 

{c) The long syllable, which ends either in a short vowel followed 
by two consonants, or in a long vowel with one final consonant : 
e. g. 'lit vsxfiilt; mar in homdr ; ndr ; 'id in said. 

The Accent falls as follows : — 

(i) On t\\Qfi?ial syllable if it is long : e. g. kaldm, speech ; gi'bdl, 
mountains ; dardht, you have struck ; fihimt, I understood. 

(ii) On the penultimate syllable if the last is semi-long or short, 
but only if the penultimate syllable is itself semi-long or long: 
e.g. katdbnd, we have written; mohdmmed, Mohammed; qdlu or 
qdluvi, they said ; hdlis, quite. 

If the penultimate syllable is short, but the antepenultimate is 
long or semi-long (or the word altogether is only dissyllabic), the 
penultimate syllable has the accent: e.g. yiktibu, they write; 
mustdfa, IMustafa; mehkamii, tribunal. 

(iii) The antepenultimate syllable has the accent if neither of the 
two last has it. Further back than this the accent cannot be 
thrown. E. g. ddrabu, they struck ; sdgara, tree ; 'drabi, Arabic. 

It should be observed that the conjugation-endings, the suffixes, 
and the negation-particle s affect the accent, since they form one 
syllabic group with the word to which they are attached : e. g. ddrab, 
he has struck ; dardbt, I have struck ; dardbjii, he has struck me ; 
ddrabu, they have struck ; darabilh, they have struck him ; mdda- 
rabUs, they have not struck ; wdyd, with ; waydya, with me ; kUtub, 
books ; hutabna, our books, &c. 

For the purposes of accentuation the intermediary vowels are 
counted as short vowels ; they are capable of being accentuated 
themselves (in which case they become somewhat lengthened) : 
e. g. 'andiha, with her ; gambuhum, beside them ; darabtind, you 
have struck us ; rabbil?id, Our Lord (instead of rabbufia). 

We give the proper accentuation of every word throughout the 

If a short vowel has the accent it is indicated by an acute 
accent ' : e. g. katdbt, you have written ; if in the same word long 


vowels occur they have a horizontal line placed over ihem ~ : 
e. g. dardbnd, he has struck us. 

If a long vowel has the accent it has the circumflex accent 
over it : e. g. qalil, few ; darabHh ^ they have struck him ; sd/nd, 
he has seen us. 

Thus every vowel which has the accent bears either ^ or '. 

The Roots and Forms of Arabic. 

As we mentioned in treating the vowels, the meaning of words 
in Arabic depends on the consonants and not on the vowels. An 
Arabic root then does not consist of a syllable, but of a succession 
of consonants (usually three, occasionally more). The root of the 
words kitdb, book ; kdtab, write ; maktub, written, &c., thus consists 
of the three letters ktb] that of the words mokammed, Mohammed, 
and ha7nd, praise, is hmd. 

The Arabic language is formed of words derived from such 

The root/7 ( Jxs) serves as a pattern for the formation of the 
various forms in Arabic. Thus one says that the word kildb has 
the ioxm Jidl (JUi); the word maktub the form ma/'ul (Jj^ft^) ; the 
word 'iri/ihe. form Ji'i'l (Jji), &c. 

We cannot here discuss at length Arabic forms, as it would take 
up too much space, and would only serve to perplex the beginner ; 
but the student ought to understand what is meant when it is said, 
for instance, that the nominatives of the form/d'il, in the formation 
of the feminine, reject the z and shorten the d into a : in fact that 
the feminine is/d/e. 

^ ^ as a suffix meaning ' him * is not pronounced, so that darab^h they 
have struck him, and ddrabii they have struck, are only distinguishable by 
the accent. 



The Article and the Genitive. 

The Definite Article is el {al) for all genders and numbers. 

The / sound of the article is assimilated to any of the following 
sounds /, d, r, z, j, s, s, d, t, n, and frequendy also g and k : e.g. 
edddr, the house ; essams, the sun ; essultdn, the Sultan (instead of 
elddr^ elsdms, &c.) ; further eggabdlov elgabdl, the mountain ; ekkalun 
or elkalun, the door-lock. The letters /, d, r, z, s, s, s, d, t, n are 
called solar letters. After, or before a vowel, the vowel sound of 
the article is usually omitted : e.g. ddi-rrdgil (instead of ddi- 
errdgil), there is the man ; gdmi' 'Idzhar, the El-Azhar mosque. 

The Indefinite Article is either omitted altogether or else expressed 
by the numeral wdhid, fem. wdhde (sometimes wdhid is used) : 
e.g. wdhid rdgil, a man ; ivdhde bint, a girl. 

The Genitive ^ is usually formed by the mere juxtaposition of the 
two substantives. If both substantives are definite, the first one 
loses its article: e.g. the man's house, bet errdgil] the king's 
daughter, bifit elmalik. In other cases the two stand without 
the article: e.g. bet rdgil, a man's house; bint malik, a king's 

Note. — The formation of our compound substantives is brought 
about in this way by juxtaposition ; attention, however, must be 
given as to whether the substantives have the definite article or the 
indefinite article: e.g. a wardrobe, diildb hudum\ the wardrobe, 
diddb elhiidiim ; a king's daughter, bint malik ; the king's daughter, 
bint elmalik. 

"^ There no longer exists in modern Arabic any real declension. We shall 
learn the weak remnants from the classical language in the course of the lessons. 


Vocabulary. — bdb, pi. bibdn, gate, door^; kalb, p\. ki/db, dog; 
binf, pi. band/, girl, daughter ; muftdh, pi. mafdtih, key ; habib, pi. 
ahbdby friend, lover ; waidd, pi. wildd, boy ; 'a;z(/, with, chez ; 
qudddm, before (of place) ; 'afid elwaldd, with the boy ; quddam 
elbdb, in front of the door. 


waidd elhabib. elkalb"^ quddd?n eggenene (garden). qudddm 

bdb eggenene. {wahde) genene. bdb genene. bdb edduldb. 

bibdfi egge?iene. 'ande waidd elhabib. wildd elhabib. muftdh 
bdb. muftdh elbdb. habib elwildd. 

Where {/en at the end of the sentence) (is) the key ? In front 
of the garden gate. The children of the friends. The bo) 's friend. 
The garden gates. The dog is with the girl's friend. The man's 
boys. The friend's daughters. A door-key. The key of the 
door. The dog is in front of the house door {bdb elbet). The 
garden is in front of the house {bet). The key of the wardrobe 
(jnuftdh diildb elhudum) is in front of the door. 

Gender — the Genitive with beta. 

There are two genders in Arabic, masculine and feminine. The 
masculine nouns have no peculiar disdnguishing feature. 

The following are of iht feminine gender : — 
(i) Living female beings: 'umm, mother; bint^ girl, daughter; 

sidtdne. Sultana. 
(ii) Names of peoples, countries and places : ingeliz, English ; 
feransis, French ; masr, Egypt, Cairo ; essdm, Syria ; 
diniydl, Damietta ; 'bdriz, Paris, 
(iii) The names of those parts of the human body which occur in 
duplicate : '///, eye ; widn, ear ; id, hand ; ?-igl, foot. 

^ For plurals and feminines see next few lessons. 

2 The present tense of the verb ' to be ' is omitted in Arabic. 


(iv) All irregular (broken) plurals (see Lesson III). (If, however, 
these nouns denote living masculine beings, the same con- 
struction can be employed as in the case of regular plurals. 
See Lessons IV and XXIII.) 
(v) A number of words, such as : badan, body ; batn, belly ; 
dukkdn, shop, booth ; rilh, spirit ; nds, mankind, people 
imonde) ; sdmd, heaven ; sdms, sun. 
(vi) Words ending in a, a, e (in classical Arabic »). This class of 
word, when followed by a suffix, or in combination to form 
a genitive, revives the original / : e. g. genenet elw'dldd, the 
boy's garden ; genenetl, my garden ; qdsahet ettdgir, the 
merchant's pipe [qdsabe, a pipe). 
Note. — These feminine substantives frequently reject the short 
vowel before the /, and at the same time shorten the long vowel of 
the penultimate syllable. In this case, however, the accent must 
not be changed (see Accentuation), but it remains on the original 
tonic-syllable : e. g. instead of 'dtabet elbet, the threshold of the 
house, ''dtabt elbet (but not 'atdbt elbet). 

Instead of simple juxtaposition to express the genitive, the word 
betd\ fem. belaet (or betdht), pi. butu, is often used, in which case 
both substantives have the article : e. g. elkdlb betd' errdgi'l, the man's 
dog ; elqdsabe betd'et {be/dhi) ettdgir, the merchant's pipe ; elwildd 
butu elhabib, the friend's children. 

Vocabulary. — hdt, fem. hdt'i, pi. hdtu, give ! yd, Oh ! (sign of 
vocative); 'dndi=:l have (lit. with me, in sense of possession, avoir 
chez or sur soi) ; 'dndak, thou hast (masc.) ; 'dndik, thou hast (fem.) ; 
''dndoh ^, he has ; 'andihd, she has ; 'anduhum, they have ; rdgil, pi. 
rigdl, man ; mdra, pi. niswdn or niswe, wife, woman ; sdhib, 
pi. ashdb, friend, master, owner ; sdhbe, pi. sahbdt, friend (fem.) ; 
*es, bread ; hittet 'es, a piece of bread. 


'dndl 'es. el 'es 'dndi. hdt hittet"" 'es. elwildd butii enniswdn, 
kildb habibi (of my friend). elkildb butit habibi. elmdra betd'ei 

^ The h of the suffixes oh, %ih is very seldom pronounced. 
2 The Accusative does not differ from the Nominative. 


essdhi'h. 'd?idoh Jiittet 'es. zva/dd elmdra. hdt qdsahct crrdgiL 

'andiVium kildb. errdgil 'dndoh 'es. elk'albe qudddm 'diabt elbet. 

yd ivdidd hdt-U (give me) qdsabe. elbint^ 'and? sahbethd (her 

Give me (liye or li) a piece of bread. The men's wives. They 
have dogs (with them). The dog has {elk'albe 'dndoh . . .) a piece 
of bread. The woman's boys. The man is in front of the garden. 
The girl has the pipe {elbinle'afidihd. . .). The man in front of the 
garden has {err . . . qud . . . egg . . . 'dndo/i) the knife {essikkine). 
The dog is with the men. The dogs (are) in front of the threshold 
of the house. The girls are in front of their friend's (fem.) house. 

Formation of the Dual and Plural. 

The Dtial is formed by the addition of the syllable en to the 
singular. Feminine substantives ending in a, a, e insert a / at the 
same time : thus 'iden, two hands ; riglen, two feet ; erriglen, both 
the feet ; nobaien, twice (from 7ioba, a time) ; sehren, two months ; 
sd'alm, two hours. 

Note. — The dual should be made use of rather than the plural 
with etnen (two). 

As far as the Plural is concerned a distinction is made between : 
(i) The outwardly formed, or regular plural, 
and (ii) The inwardly formed, irregular or broken plural [Pluralis 
fr actus). 

The regular plural may be used for either masculine or femi- 
nine substantives. The masculine plural is formed by the addition 
of the syllable in to the singular. The feminine ending is dt. 

in is employed for a large number of substantives, but still oftener 
for adjectives : e.g. naggdr, carpenter, pi. naggdrin', felldh, peasant, 
pi. /el Id kin ; tdiyib, good, pi. taiyibin ; gdli, dear (expensive), pi. 
gdliyin. (The plural of participles is formed in a similar manner ; 
vide Conjugation.) 


The feminine substantives in a, a, e, if they form their plural 
regularly, take di as the termination : e.g. hikdyd^ story, pi. hikdydt] 
saa, hour, pi. sadt) taraheze, table, pi. tarabezdt. 

Many other feminine substantives also form their plural in dt : 
e.g. harim, woman, pi. harlmdt', sitt, lady, pi. sittdt. 

Foreign words also frequently form their plural in dt, but as 
a rule insert a w before the termination : e. g. bdsd^ pasha, pi. 
bdsawdi', agd, eunuch, pi. agdwdi ; but brins, prince, pi. brinsdi] 
hawdga, gentleman, Mr., pi. hawdgdt (form of address to Europeans). 

Names of relationships and grades of society, old and new 
borrowed- words, also take dl in the plural: e.g. 'ab, father, pi. 
'abahdt', hammdm, bath, pi. hammdmdt', gurndl, newspaper, pi. 
gurndldt (also gardmt). 

Amongst words ending in i, dm, awl, gi and It, a plural form is 
often found in lyd, lya: e.g. nemsdwi, German, pi. ?ie??isdwiye ; 
nuqali, fruit-seller, pi. nuqaliyd) 'arbdgi, driver, coachman, pi. 

The rules for the formation of the irregular plural cannot be 
given here, and if given would only perplex the beginner. The 
plural of every substantive in the Vocabularies has been given. 

Vocabulary. — kitdb, pi. Miub, book ; inedine, pi. mudun, town ; 
heme, pi. hiyam, tent; gabdl, pi. gibdl, mountain; husdn, pi. hel, 
horse ; ydm, pi. 'lydm, day ; 'ah \ pi. 'ihwdn, 'ihwe, brother ; kebir, 
great, large ; zugdiyar, little, small ; tawil, pi. iuwdl, long ; hunt, I 
was; kunt, thou wast; kUnti (fem.), thou wast; kdn, he was; 
kdnet, she was ; kunnd, we were ; kiintu, ye were ; kdnu^ they were. 

The Comparative is expressed by 'an with the positive : kebir 'an, 
greater than. 

A Question, especially a direct one, is usually expressed by an 
interrogative tone only: e.g. elwaldd kdn hene ? Was the boy 

Ward, behind ; qussdd, opposite ; we, and (closely connected 
with the word following ; it elides its vowel before another vowel : 
e.g. wiJine, and we); ft, in {el loses its vowel after yz*, and / is 

^ In composition ''a'dil'. e.g. ^a^ilye, my brother; 'aM elwaldd, the boy's 


shortened into i: q.^. filhdrb, in the war; figge?iene, in the garden ; 
fittaraheze, in the table) ; embdreh, yesterday. 


elwaldd filbet. ana (I) kUnte fihnedme. hiinnd'^ fi gejihiet elha- 
wdga. waldd elbdsa tawil (taller) 'aft ehvaldd, elh hifndh (whom 
we saw) embdreh. sufi (I saw) errdgilen. elbdsawdt kdnu filme- 
dine. hmfi qussdd bdb elbet embdreh. huwe (he is) nemsdwl. 
ihne (we are) nemsawiye. elkildb kdnu fi bet elbdsa. bint elha- 
wdga kdnet figgenene betd^et eTdgd. elnuqaliye kdnu filbet. ahil 
'Ibint kdn embdreh fi bet ettdgir. bet elbdsa kebir 'an bet eTdgd. 
bint elmdr'a kdnet fen .^ kdnet filbet (in the house, at home). 

The gates of the town. We were in the pasha's gardens (gend'ln). 
The boy and {we) the brother of the tall man {errdgil ettawil) were 
in Cairo [fi masr). I {ana) am a German. The gentlemen are 
French. Were you in the eunuch's house .!* Behind the pasha's 
garden. In front of Mr. Ahmed's house. Where are the boy's 
books? They are {hum) behind the wardrobe. The garden is 
opposite the house. The prince and the pasha {welbdsa). The 
fruit-sellers and the cab-drivers of Cairo. 


The Adjective— Agreement of the Adjective 
WITH the Substantive. 

The Feminine of most adjectives is formed by the addition of e 
or a to the masculine form : e.g. kebir ^ great, large, fem. kebire; 
kuwdiyis, pretty, nice, fem. kuwaiyise. Adjectives denoting colours, 
or bodily defects, form their feminine by internal changes of the 
consonants : e. g. dhmar, red, fem. hdmrd ; dbyad, white, fem. beda ; 
a ma, blind, fem, 'dmyd. 

^ In Arabic, as in many other languages, the personal pronouns I, thou, 
he, &c., may be left out, if no ambiguity arises therefrom. 


A dual is not formed in the case of adjectives. Substantives in 
the dual take a plural adjective. 

Most adjectives form the Plural in z«, which ending serves for 
both masculine and feminine. 

Note. — The adjectives mentioned above also form an irregular 
plural, as also do a number of other adjectives : e. g. humr, pi. of 
dhmar; bid, pi. oi dbyad; kubdr, pi. oikebir; (uwdl, pi. oi tawil. 

The adjective always follows its substantive, and in the case 
where the substantive has the definite article it takes the article 
too: e.g. a good boy, wdlad tdiyib) the good boy, elw'dldd 

Note. — If a pronominal suffix is attached to a substantive the 
latter at once becomes definite, and the article must be used with 
its qualifying adjective: e.g. his large house, betoh elkebir; my 
small boy, walddi ezzugdiyar. 

The following points should be noted in the agreement of sub- 
stantives and adjectives in number and gender : — 

1. In the singular, adjectives always agree in gender with their 

substantives : e. g. bet kebir, a large house ; elmdra ettdiyibe, 
the good woman; 'en soda, a, black eye (fem. of z'swi'd, 

2. For the dual see above. 

3. In the plural the form of the adjective depends on whether 

the plural is regular or irregular. 

The regular plural is always followed by the plural of the adjec- 
tive : e. g. muslimdn sdlihin, pious Moslems ; bdlawdt 'uzdm, 
powerful pashas ; hikdydt kuwaiyisin, pretty stories. 

The irregular plural, if denoting persons, also has the adjective 
in the plural : masd'ih fudald, honourable sheikhs ; rigdl tuwdl^ 
tall men. If the plural is not personal, the adjective may be either 
in the feminine singular or in the plural : 'lyun sddd or sud, black 
eyes ; qilldl malydmn or malydne, filled water-bottles. 

The adjective used as a predicate agrees with its substantive both 
in number and gender ; however, irregular plurals even in this 
case may take the feminine singular of the adjective : errdgil tdiyib, 
the man is good; elmdra taiyibe, the woman is good; eggdrye 



mugidhide^ the slave-girl is industrious ; errigdl taiyiMn or taiyibe, 
the men are good. 

The following are some of the most employed adjectives : — 










long, tall 










sugar or sugaiyarin 

































Vocabulary. — enhu^ fem. enhi, pi. inhum, who, which? enhil, 
fem. enhi, pi. enhUm, who, which .? (standing alone) ; tdiyib^ ahsdnt, 
good ! allright ! min/ddlak, be so good, please. 


essdmd (sky) zdrqd. essdms kebire qdwi (very). errdgil-dd 
(this man) tawil ketir (very). enhH waidd kdn he'ne (here) ? wdldd 
essugdiyar. hiye (she) mar' a taiyibe. bdsawdt taiyibin. etagdwdt 
ddl (these) hum (they are) rigdl tuwdl. eggibdl dol kwaiyise (or 
kwaiyisin = beautiful). loh (he has) 'tyiin zdrqd (or zurq). min 
fddlak hat qdsabe. ezzdhre di (this flower) hdmrd. tdiyib, rtlh 
(go) bef^ elbdsd. ezzdhre-di lihd (it has) riha (smell) taiyibe. 
lufte (I saw) rdgilen tuwdl fi bet elhawdga webazUnn (and I think) 
hum hardmiye (pi. of hardmi, thief). ezzuhur (pi. of zdhre) essdfrd 
dol kuwaiyisfn. 

These flowers are beautiful. The gentlemen are good. Which 

^ ' to ' can be left out here. 


girl was here ? She is ^ a good girl. The thieves are in the prison 
{kabshdne). We were in the eunuch's garden. These girls are 
pretty. The pasha's boys are big. Mr. All's house is very big ; 
it {hHwd) is in the town. These flowers have (Juhum) a, good 
smell. The girl's two litde hands are pretty. The flowers of this 
garden {eggenene dt) are red and blue. 


Comparison of Adjectives— Personal and 
Possessive Pronouns. 

For the Comparative of an adjective the form d/'al is employed : 
i. e. an a is prefixed to the positive, the vowel between the first and 
second radicals is dropped, and an a is introduced between the 
second and third radicals {w as a first radical changes into u and 
forms the diphthong au) : e. g. 

great, kebir greater, dkbar 

small, sugdiyar smaller, dsgar 

pretty, kuwdiyis prettier, dkwas 

cheap, rahh cheaper, drhas 

dear, gdli dearer, dgld 

ugly, wihis uglier, duhas 

as the comparative of tdiyib, good, ahsan is used (from the old 
form hdsan). 

After the comparative ' than ' is translated by mm ; it is, however, 
more common to express comparison by the use of the positive 
with 'an : for example elkalb dsgar min elhusdn or elkdlb s^diyar 
'an elhusdn, the dog is smaller than the horse. 

In the case of adjectives which have more than three radicals 
dktar or ziydde (more) is added to the positive to express the 

If the comparative is preceded by the definite article, or is 

* We shall not in future put the present tense of the verb 'to be' in 
brackets ; it is to be omitted in translation. 


followed by a genitive or a suffix, it becomes Superlative: e.g. 
hHwa etdkbar, he is the greatest; hiliva 'akhdrhum, he is the 
greatest of them; Miva 'dkbar rigdl elbdldd, he is the greatest 
of the men of the country. 

The Personal Pro?iouns are (the forms in brackets are rarer): — 

dna^ I ihna {zhne, dhne), we 

inle {ente), thou (masc.) mtu [entu, viium), you 

e'nfi {inti), thou (fem.) 

huwa, he hu??i {humd), they. 

Mye^ she 

The following Suffixes are made use of to express possession 
(instead of possessive pronouns) : — 

F, my, after vowels _y5, yd. 
ak, thy, after vowels k. 
I'k, thy (fem.), after vowels h', kt. 
0, u, oh, uh ^, his, after vowels h. 
hd, her. 
na, nd, our. 
kum, ku, your. 
hum, their. 
Points to notice about these suffixes : 

1. That these suffixes influence the accent when they begin with 

a consonant : e. g. hdgar, stone ; hdgart, my stone ; but 
hagdrhd ; hagdrkum ; guna, song ; gundy a ; gundk ; gundh ; 
qdtalu^ they killed ; but qataluh, they killed him. Since the 
h of the suffix is mute in this case, the accent alone decides 
the meaning. 

2. That in the case of a word ending in two consonants a vowel 

must be placed before the suffix (if this latter begin with 
a consonant) for the sake of euphony: this vowel receives 
the accent, which frequently converts it into a long vowel: 
e. g. higl, work, business ; suglihd ; suglmd ; suglilkum ; 
sugliihum -. 

^ The h of both these suffixes is almost always mute. 
^ Thus i (or a) before Ad, i before nd, and u before kum or hum. 
C 2 


These suffixes can also be appended to prepositions : e. g. 'dndl, 
with me; 'andihd, with her; qudddmoh, before him; wardhum, 
behind them ; iahtukum, below you. 

YocKBV'LARY.—/ih,/i, there is, there are {ily a): e.^./th mSiye 
fflkuhbdye di ? Is there any water in this glass? {Y a-t-il de V eau 
dans ce verre ?) ; md fihs, md /is, there is not any {il liy a pas) ; 
ab (compounded with the suffixes abu), pi. 'abahdt, father; ah 
(compounded with the suffixes ahu), pi. 'ihwdn, brother; uht, pi. 
ahawdt, sister ; I'nsdfi, pi. nds, man, mankind, people {inonde) ; 'id, 
pi. 'ayddJ, hand ; yom, pi. 'iydm, day ; sofa, siffe, pi. safd'if, lip ; 
sand, pi. sanawdt or sinin, year ; mar a, pi. niswdn, fiiswe, woman ; 
bahr, pi. bihdr, sea, the Nile ; nahr, pi. anhdr, river ; da, da, fem. <//, 
pi. dol, this, these (placed after the substantive with the article : e. g. 
enndhr da, this river ; el 'ayddi dol, these hands ; it often combines 
with the substantive to form one tonic group, in which the original 
accent is changed : e. g. elmirdya, the mirror ; elmirdyd-di, this 
mirror) ; di'lwaqt, dilwdqte, now ; fen ? where ? (mostly placed at 
end of sentence). 


ahawdtkum fen ? errdgil-dd dtwal min ahuya ^ enndhr -da 
dsgar min ennil (the Nile). fih gdmV (mosque) filbaldd da? 
walddi 'dndak yd hawdga ? Id (no), huwa mus (not) ^dndl, huwa 
'and 'HhtJ. min (of) e'nhi qabile (tribe) inte ? da kitdbt ana (this 
is my book). da mus kitdbak inte, da kitdboh hHwa. aMh fm? 
dmirdyafen? abUkfen? hHwa dilwdqte'dndi. fihndsfilbet 
da? Id, mdfis. enndhr wdrd elbaldd (place, town). dilwdqt 
enfidhr ward?id. 

Of what tribe is this man .-* My book (is lying) before you on 
the table (attarabeze contracted for 'ala eitarabeze). This river is 
the largest of the rivers of this country (baldd). That is your 
(sing.) dog {da ke'lbak inte). The mountain is before us. Is there 
a river opposite us.? {fih nahr . . .). My brother was in the 
largest garden of the town yesterday.. Where is his father ? He 

* a^{i2) with the suffixes: a^iiya; a^M; aljith; aljilha\ a^iind; a^^kum; 
aljilhzim. Similarly a/'(/2) ; alnlyd; abtik ; abtih, Scz. 


is in their house now. There are no mountains in this country. 
Give us our knives, notyour knives. Where is your house ? Our 
house is opposite your brother's garden. Are there people inside 
this mosque ? {gdmi'). My father is in Cairo {/z masr) at present. 
The gardens are behind the town. 


The Suffix — W — "ala — lt — Interrogative and 
Relative Pronouns. 

If a suffix beginning with a consonant is joined to a word which 
ends in a consonant preceded by a long vowel, the long vowel 
is shortened : e. g. duIdbJ, duldbak, but diildbha, duldbkum ; sd/ak, 
he saw thee, but sd/itd, sd/kum, sdfhum, he saw us, you, them. 

On appending the suffixes J, ak, ik^ oh the form fd'il loses its i 
and also generally shortens the a: e. g. hdtir, wish ; hdtrak or 
kdfrak, thy wish ; sdhib, friend ; sdhboh or sdhboh, his friend. 

Note. — The same changes take place also when a feminine 
is formed from ihe fd'il form: e.g. sdhib, friend, master; sahbe 
(fem.) ; 'dh'm, wise man ; 'dime (fem.), singing-girl. 

The / of the feminine substantives in a, a, e reappears before 
these suffixes, in which case, as above, the short vowel before the / 
is rejected, and frequently a long vowel in the penultimate syllable 
is shortened : e. g. hdga, a thing ; hdgtak or hdgiak ; but sahbelak, 
thy mistress (on account of the number of consonants). 

Many prepositions undergo a slight modification when followed 
by suffixes, 'an, of, from, and mtn, from, double the n before 
suffixes commencing with a vowel : 'dnm ; minni ; 'dnnak ; minnik. 
'dla, upon, over, becomes 'ale: e.g. 'aleya; 'alek', 'al^h', 'alena; 
'alekum ; 'alehum, 

IJ, for, to, forms liye, for, to me ; lak (fem. lik) ; loh {luh) ; lihd ; 
Una {lind) ', lUkum ; luhum. These forms of It also do duty for 
the English ' have ' in the sense of possession : I have a house, 
liye bet"^. 

1 Kdn liye, kdn lak, kdn loh, kdnfc liye, &c., I had, thou hadst, &c. yekiln 


* That, those ' is dikhd, dukhd {dukhdwa), fern, dikhd {dikhdya), 
pi. diikhdmma. 

If da, di, dikhd, ddl, &c., precede the substantive, ' is ' or ' are ' 
must be supplied : e. g. errdgil da, this man ; errdgil dikha, that 
man ; but da rdgil, this is a man ; da errdgil, this is the man ; 
dikhd Ubint, that is the girl (who, &c. . . .). 

ahS, fern, ahi, pi. ahom, there he is, she is, they are ! {le, la, 
les voila) ; ddi, look there ! combines with the pronominal suffixes 
in the following manner : ddim, see, here I am ; ddinte, there you 
are ; ddihnd ; ddintu, &c. 

Interrogative Pronomis are min, who .? e or es, what .? {??mi and 
/ are very often placed at the end of the sentence) : e. g. elhawdga 
di min ? who is this gentleman ? 'duz minni e? what do you want 
from me 1 

' He who ' (substantival) is e'lli or vmi : e. g. e'lli (or ?nin) kdn 
hene, he who was here. 

Each, every, kUlle min : e. g. every one who wants anything from 
me, k^lli juin 'duz se minni. 

The one that, elli : what I want to tell you, e'lli hiddi baqul lak. 

' Whoever, whatever ' h ay: e. g. li 'ay sdbab kdn, whatever the 
reason may be ; ay hdga kdn, whatever it may be. 

The reflexive pronoun is treated under the verb. 

The indefinite pronouns are given in the course of the lessons. 

Vocabulary. — badd'a, pi. badai\ wares, goods ; baldd, pi. bildd, 
village ; Ich elbdldd, pi. HyHh elbaldd, head man of the village, 
sheikh ; wdliden, parents ; fars, sofa ; ld??iba, lamp ; seggdde, pi. 
segogid, carpet ; taht, under, below ; foq, upper, above ; ward, 
behind ; kull (with singular), each, every ; kiill (with plural and 
article), all, every ; rdh'^, he went; dahal'^, he entered; sdfir^, he 
travelled ; ??idt, he died (of = mi?i) ; ho/, fear ; ana, inte, hiiwa 
sdkin, I live (or inhabit), thou livest, he lives. 

liye,yekun lak,yekihi loh, I shall have, thou wilt have, &c. E.g. Uye kdn bet 
Jibaldd di, I had a house in this place. 

^ * To, in, into ' may be omitted after verbs of motion. 



esseggdde iaht el-fdrs. hott (place, put) elldviba 'attarabeze. 
ana sdkin filbet dd. elbaddH'' dolnmifen? md kUniis (I was not) 
filbet ellelddi. huwa sdkm filbet beid' esseh, seh elbaldd mdt nun 
hdf. min hilwa, e'lli kdn hene ? kull errigdl 'and esseh. dd seh 
bdl'adna. wdlidenak fen? ddhal bet elbdsa. sdfir elmasr. 
errdgil e'lli sdfir embdreh ahuye. elhawdgdt dot min ? aho mdr- 
haba ! ahom I kdriH fm teme'lli ? adini (here I am) rigit 
(I have returned) min sdfari (my journey). 

Each man entered the house of the village sheikh. Put ijiott) 
the carpet under the sofa. These goods are from here, and those 
are from Cairo. Yesterday my brother set off (for) Syria {bildd 
essdm). Where are my parents ? Is this man your village sheikh ? 
He died of fright. Where do you Hve ? I live in that house. 
Where is the house of the head of the village .? It is opposite us. 
He went to the merchant's house. Did he enter the house ? He 
lives in my house. Look, there he is ! he came back from his 
journey yesterday (he came back = rigi). 

The Relative Pronoun ^7/f— Numerals from i-ic. 

The most frequently used Relative Pronoun is elU, who, which. 
Distinction must be made in relative clauses if the substantive, to 
w^hich the relative refers, is definite or indefinite. If the substantive 
is indefinite the relative is simply left out : e. g. rdgil, kdn hene, 
a man who was here. If, however, the substantive is definite (so 
made by the article, pronominal suffix or genitive) the relative 
clause is introduced by elli: e.g. the boy who was in my garden, 
elwaldd e'lli kdn fz geneneti', the merchant's house which is opposite 
our house, bet ettdgir e'lli qussdd elbet betand, (For this method of 
expressing possession see Lesson II and below.) 

If the relative pronoun is not the nominative, or is governed 
by a preposition, the oblique case is rendered by a suffix which 


is appended to the verb or to the preposition ^ : e. g. the house 
which he has seen, elbet elli sd/oh) a country of which I have 
heard, balad ana simfi ^dnnoh ; the doctor whom I saw, elhakim 
e'lli sUfioh ; the matter of which we have spoken, etamr /lit kallimnd 
fih (kdllim/t, to speak about something). 

The possessive pronouns can also be expressed by the genitival 
particle held" (= belonging to), and the corresponding suffix : e.g. 
elbet betd'i, my house ; elwaldd beid'ak^ your boy ; elmdra betd'eioh, 
his wife ; elbiyut butund, our houses ; elheme betd'ethum^ their tent. 

The Numerals from i-io run as follows : — 

1, I wdhid, fem. wdhdd 

2, r etnen, itnen 

3, r teldt^ teldtd 

4, ^ , I* drbd^ arbd'a, arbdht 

5, hdmas, hdmsd, hamdst 

6, T sitt, sittd 

7, V sab\ sdb'a, sdb'at 

8, A temdnyd, tdman, tdmant 

9, 1 iis'a, th'at 
10, I . 'asara, 'dsarat 

o, . sifr. 

wdhid, wdhdd also serves as the indefinite article, in which case 
it is placed before the substantive ; placed after the substantive it 
means the numeral one : e. g. wdhid rdgil, a man, but rdgi'l wdhid, 
one man. 

For the formation of the dual see Lesson III. After the numerals 
from 2-10 the substantive is in the plural. 

The forms are used indiscriminately ; before a vowel, however, 
a form ending in a consonant is usually employed : e. g. silte ntswe, 
six women; tdmant dgri/e, eight loaves of bread; etnen wildd 
(better wdldden), two boys. 

^ The Accusative of the personal pronouns is the same as the suffixes given 
in Lesson V, with the single exception of the ist pers. sing., of which the 
accusative is m: e.g.gardhiT, he has wounded me ; tdfak, he has seen you. To 
lay special stress on the accusative the full form of the personal pronoun may be 
added : e.g. gardhni ana ; sdfak hite. 


Vocabulary. — gdr, ip\. gi'rdn, neighbour; sikke, pi. si^ak, street; 
sdgare, pi. asgdr, and sagardi, tree; kds, pi. kasdt, cup, goblet; 
fingdn, ^\./endgin, cup; qdhwe, coffee; ??i6iye, water; moiye Mlwe, 
sweet water ; kubbdye, pi. kiibbdydt, glass, tumbler ; sdhib, he accom- 
panied ; gdrah, he wounded ; sH/nd, we have seen ; X'a7a<5, he 
wrote ; istdra, he bought ; zugdiyar (sugdiyar) elqdme, small in 
stature ; filhdre, in the street ; 'dla kisoh, at his expense ; Idkin, 
weldkin, but, however. 


istdra 'dla kisoh elkiidb ill'i gdboh {gdb = he brought) liggdr (to 
the neighbour). Ml U (give me) fingdn qdhwe ao (or) kubbdyet 
mSiye. elwaldd wdlbint kdnu filbet elU Hftoh {hift=yoM have 
seen) embdreh. huwa zugdiyar elqdme, Idkin 'dqloh (his mind, 
intellect) tdiyib ketir. sdhibni kull elleld, su/te (I saw) rdgil ddhal 
bei gdrnd. lirib (he drank) sitte fendgin qdhwe weieldta kubbdydt 
moiye. fih sagaraten teldta (2 or 3 \xt&%) filMrd di. fi 'odet'i 
(my room)/f seggddd tahte kulH/ars. gdr ah wdhid rdgil filbdldd^ 
e'll'i qussdd egg'dbdl hdt Una (give us) fingdnen qdhwe. siifnd 
embdreh send' in buttioh. 


Give me a glass of water. We have seen our village sheikh 
{-nd appended to bdldd) in the coffee-house {qdhwe, pi. qahdwi). 
There are five streets in this village. Six women. Ten cups of 
coffee. Five glasses of water. Three brothers. He wrote the 
letter {gawdb) which you have read {elli qareloh). Is there (fih) 
sweet water in this lake {behera) ? I have seen (sil/toh) how he 
wrote the letter. I was in my neighbour's house, but he was in the 
mosque. He has hurt (gdrah) both his hands (zdenoh). Give these 
cups ! He has kept me company the whole day (all day long = lul 
ennahdr). I have ijiye) two sofas in my room. Where is the 
landlord of the coffee-house ? He is in the garden. 




Numerals from ii upwards. 

The Numerals from 1 1 upwards are : — 





























alf, elf {j^\. did/) 














wdhid wieh'in 


























hadddsar elf 




itndsar elf 


miya, mit 


mit elf 




milyofi, ?}iilyun. 


tultemiya {tult mit) 

The numerals compounded of tens and units are formed by 
prefixing the units to the tens and uniting them by the conjunction 
wa (and): e.g. arbd'a we'esrin, 24; hdmse weteldtin, 35; etnm 
we'arbdin elf suttemiya teldta we'arbdin, 42,643. 

From II upwards the numerals have the singular of the sub- 
stantive after them : thus hadddsar elf and not did/. An adjective 
which qualifies a substantive following a plural numeral must, 
however, always be in the plural : e. g. twenty poor men, esrin nafs 
fHqard (pi. oifaqir^ poor). 


Vocabulary. — dor^ pi. adwar, story, floor ; salltm, pi. salalwi, 
steps, stairs ; ^Sda, pi. 'uwad, room ; qabzv, pi. aqbiye, cellar ; j-^//^, 
pi. suiiih, roof; <5^'f<f, pi. biiada, distant (from = 'an) ; fdqdm^ upper ; 
tahld?it, lower ; harrdniy outer ; guwdm, inner ; z'^wrj saknin^ we 
inhabit ; ^rz//^, I go (to, &c., can be omitted) ; Idzinmi aruh, asdfir, 
dstiri, I must go, go away (travel), buy ; gamb, beside ; qabl, 
before (time) ; hdrig, outside, external ; wust, in the middle (_/f 
wiist) ; nwi 'and, from {de chez) : e. g. gd min 'and 'ahuh, he came 
from his brother's (z7 ve7iait de chez son/rere) ; bUkra, to-morrow ; 
bukra be'dri, to-morrow morning (early to-morrow). 


ihna saknin fidddr elfoqdni wdya wilddnd. suft etndlar rdgil 
fiVdda di. 'ahuyd gd min 'ande gdroh. Idzimni (I require) 
'odalen gamb (beside) 'oda elhawaga e'lll gd embdreh. Idzimni 
dsiiri elbet da. loh ^oda fiddor ettahtdnu bUkra b'ddri asdfir 
eliskendertye (Alexandria), fih etndsar rdgil agniye (pi. of gam, 
rich) ke/ir filmedine di. da se'llim essath. elydm loh arbda 
we'esrin sd'a. kUnie 'and ahilya mUddei'^ ieldta sddt. belt loh 
arbdht adwdr. einen we'arbd'in elf suitemiyd hdmsa welis'in. 
sittd we sab'in elf iultemiyd arbda wetamdnin. ihna sakntn fi 
wiist elbaldd. 

27- 365- 2,534. 28. 11,560. 16. 15. 52. 

I must go home {J)eti or Ubefi, to my house). He lives outside 
the town. Where must you go to {Idzim tesdfir fen) ? I must go 
to Constantinople {stambill). He came from his father's. He lives 
in the lower story of my house. Who is this man.? This is 
a very rich man ; he owns {loh) three houses in the middle of the 
town. She was in the cellar for a space of six hours (see Note i 
below). My house has a cellar, two stories with [bi) twelve 
rooms and a garden. To-morrow morning I must go to my 
neighbour's. Twelve fine horses. Twenty blue flowers. Fifteen 
tall {tawil, pi. tiiwdl) lads [walad). 

^ miiddet meaning a space of time is often employed in such expressions : 
here * for the space of three hours.' 


Ordinal Numerals — Fractions. 

The Ordinal Numerals from ist-ioth are: — 

I St duwal, fern, auwdld {auwilt), pi. auwaldniyin 

(also auwaldnl, fern, auwaldniye) 

2nd idni, fern, tdnye 

3rd tdlit, fern, tdltd 

4th r^3r, fern. r^(5'^ 

5th hdmis, fern, hdmsd 

6th j^^zj, fern, jaafjiz 

7th j(f<5r, fern, sab' a 

8th tdmm, fern, tdmnd 

9th /^jz', fern. /(f/« 

loth '^Izir, fern. '(wr^. 

For the remaining ordinal numerals one employs the cardinal 
numerals with the definite article : e. g. the twentieth regiment, 
etdldy eVesrin. From twentieth upwards the compound ordinals 
are formed of the unit ordinal combined with the higher cardinal 
numeral : e. g. the twenty-third, ettdltt wtesrin ; the forty-seventh, 
essdbt wi*arbdin. 


J nuss pi. ansds 

i tult „ atldt 

J rub' ,, arbd' 

•i- hums ,, ahmds 

■|- suds „ (2j^(i!f 

i sub' „ fzj-^^' 

i /ww;z ,, atmdn 

•i ius' ., atsd' 

Jg- '^^r ,, a'ldr 

If the denominator of a fraction is greater than 10 recourse must 


be had to the word giiz\ pi. agzif, part : e. g. 3^ gilz* min etndlar ; 
^ arbaa agzci viin ielatin. 

One by one, two by two, &c., are rendered simply by repetition : 
e. g. wdhid wdhid, one by one ; they came by two's, gum etnen elnen, 
or eifien bi' elnen ; duwul bduwul, one after the other. 

Once, twice, &c., are translated mdrra wdhde, marraten, tdlat 
marrdl, &c. {?wba and dd/'a have the same meaning as mdrra). 

Vocabulary. — rds^ pi. runs ^rils\ fern, head ; Idr^ the hair 
(collective) ^ ; sdra, a hair, pi. siiiir ; '/«, pi. 'iyHn, dyun, eye ; 
rdqabe, pi. rz'^a<5, neck ; hdiiak, pi. ahtiike, mouth ; zt;z'^«, pi. J</(z« 
or luddn, ear ; ^^^^, pi. hudud, cheek ; ^(?^a', pi. sawdbi\ finger ; 
r/^/, pi. drgul, foot ; r«/^ rndsi^ he went on foot ; dna, inte^ huwa 
'd'uz, I, you, he wishes, wants ; /, what ? (usually at end of sen- 
tence) ; dahdlt^ I entered (with accusative) ; /«, if (always with the 
past tense, see Conjugation); inn, that (this conjunction unites 
with the pronominal suffixes : e. g. he said that you had been with 
him, qdl innak kunii 'dndoh ; I saw that he killed the man, su/t 
innoh qdtal errdgit) ; at midday, at noon, fidduhr ; for example, 
mdsalan ; from fear, for fear, min elhof. 

akHn, I shall be ; tekun, fem. teMni, thou wilt be ; yekHn^ he will 
be ; tekiin, she will be ; nekHn, we shall be ; teMnii, you will be ; 
yekimu, they will be. 

yekun It, yekHn lak, yekHn loh, &c., I shall have, thou wilt have, 
he will have. 


gdni (came to me) waldd md su/los abdddn (whom I had never 
seen). ana dahdlt el'oda e'lli kdntifihd, aho bet rdbi' fissikke di. 
ana 'd'uz (I want) innak tegib-li (you give me) qirlen (two piastres). 
gd he'ne (came here) eVdldy etteldiin. hdmast agzd' min arbahtdlar. 
ddhala (they entered) eggenene ieldtd teldtd. ana kunie fi masr 
marraien, webukra Idzirnm asdfir hendk (there) mdrra idnye (again). 
bUkra nekun 'ande habibak, temfnd (you will see us) hendk. Idziinni 

^ i.e. the generic name, the name of the species ; the name of the single 
specimen is formed from the collective name by the addition of the feminine 
termination a, a ox c: thus Wr the hair, "sdra a hair ; nahl the date-palm, 
ndJile a date-palm. 


rub' mm elmdhlag (sum of money) da. ana Hnte fi bet habib'i 
mUddet nusse sd'a. sd'a wenuss (an hour and a half). essd'a 
wdhde wenuss (half-past one o'clock). teHnu bUkra 'and ahbdbkum ? 
Id {no) yd hawdga nekun filmedine. 

Where were you .? We were in the pasha's gardens for the 
space of two and a half hours. And where will you be to-morrow } 
In Cairo [masr), please God {insalldh) ! ■^. |. Fifteen at a time. 
Ten at a time. They entered the garden four by four. How many 
children have you ? (Translate : How many [kdni] child lak ?) 
I have four children, two boys and two girls. Every fourth man 
died. I was in Egypt for (a space of) two years. They went out 
of the house one after the other [fzli'u mm elbet). Where are my 
children ? Two of them are in your room {etnen minhum . . .). 


The verb gd (come) in the Perfect. 

get {gtt), I came; gel, fem. gefl, thou camest; gd, he came; 
gdt, she came ; gfnd, we came ; gttu, ye came ; gum, they came. 

Vocabulary. — diwa, yes ; naam, yes ; nd'am ? (interrogative), 
I beg your pardon (what did you say) ? end am, certainly, of course ! 
Id, no ; ummdl, indeed ; malum, naturally ; Id budd, it is unavoid- 
able, necessary, must (like all auxiliaries of mood and their circum- 
locutions it has the present after it) ; arilh, I go ; teruh, thou goest ; 
biddJ, btddak, biddoh, I wish, thou wishest, he wishes; mUmkin, 
possible ; ger mUmkin, impossible. 


dilwdqie get min 'and ahuya. da errdgil elli lilftoh embdreh. 
ihne saknin filbet dlli qussdd eggabdl. abuk rdh fen ? rdh 'ande 

habiboh ^ bila sakk (without doubt). hdt-li elkitdb betd'i. huwa 
foq edduldbfi 'ddetl. Id budde terHh 'and elhakim (doctor). gum 

^ The insertion of ^and is necessary here ; without it the sentence would mean 
that his friend went. 


embdreh, Mnu ft masr. yd waldd! ndam, yd hawdga ? Idzim 
teruh 'and elqtuistd (consul). kunt2 fihnedine ? diwa,yd sidi (Sir ! 
to Mohammedans), {dnd) kunt^fi masr. istaret (I bought) seggdde 
'ala sdn (for) abiiya. Idzim yekun elwdhid (in this way the im- 
personal ' one ' can be rendered) rddi (pleased). hiddak e? Mddi 
aruh el'iskendenye, Idzimtii aHn hendk bUkra. suft^ kdm (several) 
rdgil fi genenet elbdsa, wibazUnn (I think) hum hardmiye. 

It is not possible that you go there {hendk). Where are your 
brothers .? They are in Cairo. Did you come here yesterday or 
to-day ? I came from Suez {sues) yesterday. You ! boy ! iSnte, 
yd waldd) who was here ? Your sister was here, Sir, she wants 
(biddihd) to go away (translate : she goes 2iyN2,y—tesdfir) to-morrow. 
That is impossible ; she must stay (ti/dal) here. I was with your 
brother yesterday and I came from him {mm 'dndoh) to-day. Have 
you seen Alexandria (yet) ? Of course, Sir ! I was there for four 
years. The carpet is under the sofa. Put [hott) the lamp upon 
the table i^aitarabeze) ^ or upon the cupboard i^adduldb) \ Put your 
hand into your pocket {geb). Give me my books, my lamp, and 
my carpet. 


The Verb— Introductory— The Triliteral Verb 

The following points are to be noticed in the formation of 
Arabic verbs : — 

(i) If the verb has three (triliteral) or more root consonants. 

(ii) If a w or z-y is one of the consonants. 

(iii) If the second and third radicals are the same. 

From the Simple Form of the verb several Derivative Forms are 
constructed (ten in modern Arabic and fourteen in the classical 
language), each of which causes some modification in the original 
meaning. No verb, however, forms all these derivatives ; of some 

^ Contracted for 'dla ettarabhe and ^dla eddfddb. 


the simple form alone exists, of others only one or more of the 
derivative forms. 

There are Iwo simple Tenses, the Perfect (or past tense) and the 
Present (or future). 

There are two Moods, the hidicative and the Imperative. 

There is only one Voice, viz. the Active, since the Passive can be 
obtained by the use of a derivative form. 

The Regular Triliteral Verb. 

The form in which a verb is given in Arabic is not the infinitive, 
but the 3rd pers. sing, of the past tense : e. g. kdtab, he has 
written; sirib, he has drunk; sUkut, he has been silent. (It 
must therefore be understood that in the vocabularies the Arabic 
verbs are not really in the infinitive, though so translated for the 
sake of brevity.) 

The past tetise of these three forms (the/a'a/, fiil, 2.Yi^fuul forms) 
is as follows : — 

katdbt I have written 

katdbt thou hast written 

katdbti thou hast (fem.) written 

kdtab he has written 

kdtabet she has written 

katdbnd we have written 

katdbtu {katdbtum) you have written 

kdtabii {kdtabum) they have written. 

The past tense of the Jiil and the fu'ul forms is conjugated in 
almost the same manner, except that before vowel terminations 
they frequently drop their second vowel. 

E. g. h'rtbt I have drunk 

siribt thou hast drunk 

hribtl thou hast (fem.) drunk 

sirib he has drunk 

str{i)bei she has drunk 

h'ribnd we have drunk 


h'ribiu [h'rihlinti) you have drunk 

sir{i)bu {hr\j]bu?n) they have drunk. 

In the same way : 

siikiiii I have been silent 

siikuti thou hast been silent 

suliiitt'i ihou hast been (fern.) silent 

s{ikut he has been silent 

siik{u)tet she has been silent 

sukutnd we have been silent 

suHttu (m) you have been silent 

suk[ti)tu {stiktiwi) they have been silent. 

In the same manner are conjugated : 

ddrahy strike, hit (lit. he has struck) ; 
ndsah, copy out ; 
/idil, remain ; 
nizil, descend. 

Vocabulary. — essanis, the sun ; qdmar^ moon ; nigme, pi. nugUm, 
star ; 'ard, earth, land ; tiill, pi. tildl, hill ; moiye, water ; sarbdi, 
sherbet; say, te^i; qdhwe, co^tt] nebtd, yN'me; fingd77,^\./enagiti, 
cup ; 'dmenduzval, last year ; essene eggd'tye, next year ; mim muddet 
simn, for years ; teinelli^ always (without interruption) ; ?nakiub, pi. 
makdtiby letter ; in (iza, laii), if (always has the perfect after it) ; 
ke'inn, as if, as, like (always takes the pronominal suffix : e. g. di 
imdre ke'i?inehd serdye, this is a building like a palace) ; lilbt, for 
sale ; kamdn^ also, again ; le, why } (usually placed at end of 


elhusdn (horse) ///z lUftoh, mus (is not) lilbt. dardbte bdgletak 
{bagle, pi. bigdl, mule) le? nasdht elkitdb elli kdn fi duldb'i? rdh 
filqdhive (cafe) weld ^ lirib hdga (and not drank something = and 
drank nothing). h'ribnd fingdnen qdhwe. sirbet kubbdyet mdiye. 

^ If two sentences are connected and the second one is negative, ' not ' in 
the second is translated by Id ; if the first sentence is also negative nid . . A may 
stand in it (see Lesson XIII). 



\imenduwal kuntefi masr teldtii marrdt. elhet dll 'attalle da eP da 
serdye (palace). nrbu nebid ? Id yd hawdga liribna larbdt. 

nasahnd elmaktiib. kaidbtu elkiidb. elmdra di sukiet min muddet 
kdm (several) sene weld qdlet haga (and has not said anything). 
niz[i)let min eggabdl. essams tili'et (rose tiW)f6q (over) eggibdl. 
in fidilt (if you stay) hene viuddei seneien teldtd (two or three years) 
yeMn lak (you will have) mdl (wealth) kebir. 

Has he copied the letter ? Yes, he has copied it. Where have 
you been ? Last year I was in Suez ; and next year I shall be in 
Rosetta {rasid). She has been silent, but he has told me all {qdl H 
kuUoh). Have you drunk sherbet ? No, we have drunk wine and 
a cup of coffee. Give me wine, water and a glass. Did you stay 
long {zamdn tawil) ? Yes, we stayed five hours. If you write the 
letter come {iddla) to me i^dndi). What is that house which lies at 
the foot (yf safh) of the mountain ? (Translate : That house, 
which is, &c., what T) I do not know {indnn 'dri/) ; it is a building 
like a school {kuttdb\ 


Present — Imperative — Participles and Infini- 
tives — be. 

The following are the Present Forms of the verb : yif'il, yi/'al, 
yu/'id {yi/'td). The second vowel (i. e. the one between the 
second and third radicals) is changed in the present of most verbs ; 
but no definite rules can be given for the change. In this book 
(as in the majority of grammars and dictionaries) the present vowel 
is given after every verb : e. g. kdlab, u, write (present, yUktuh) ; 
lirib, a, drink {"^Yts.yisrab). 

Present of kdtab, write. 

dktub I write or I will write 

liklub thou wilt write 

tikiiibi thou wilt (fem.) write 

yiktub he will write 



she will write 


we will write 



you will write 



they will write. 

Present of strib, drink. 


I drink, I will drink 


thou wilt drink 


thou wilt (fern.) drink 


he will drink 


she will drink 


we will drink 



you will drink 



they will drink. 

The Imperative is formed from the root of the verb with the 
present, vowel and a prefix. This prefix is i if the present vowtI is 
z' or ^ ; u or i if it is u : e. g. inzil, come down ! (from nizil) ; ikltib 
or uktiib, write 1 israb, drink ! idrab, strike ! For the Feminine form 
an I is added ; for the Plural, il : isrdbl, drink (fem.) ! ilrdbu, drink 
ye ! uhi^bi, write (fem.) ! ziktubu, write ye ! Similarly, idrdbi, 

The Agent or Active Participle has the form fail, fem. fa He or 
fd'le, ^l.fVlin : e.g. sdrib, drinking, fem. sdribe or sdrbe, pi. sdrbin ; 
kdtib, writing, fem. kdtibe or kdtbe, pi. kdtbin. 

The Patieiit or Passive Participle has the form mafM, fem. 
maf'tila, pi. inaf'Tclin or mafail : e. g. makttib, written (a written 
thing), fem. maktiibd, pi. maktubin ^ ; maqtHl, killed, fem. maqtHld. 
pi. maqtulin or maqdtil. 

The Lifinitive or Asotin of Action has numerous forms, which are 
all substantives. The Arabic infinitive is only to be used to trans- 
late the English infinitive when the latter can be replaced by a 
verbal substantive. The infinitive must be learnt by practice : darb, 
a striking; fi'l, doing, deed; tuht, ascending, ascension; nuzHl, 
descent, going down ; hirb, drinking, smoking. 

^ In the meaning ' a letter ' ijiaktiib makes plural makdtib. 
D 2 


We repeat here what has been already stated : the pronominal 
suffixes can be used as objectival suffixes for the personal pro- 
nouns. However, in the first person singular m is substituted for 
I', e.g. dardbni^ he has struck me (the accent is altered just as with 
the possessive suffixes) ; qaidlhd, he has killed her ; sirbuh, they 
have drunk it ; katabndkum, we have written you down ; sd/nd, he 
saw us ; 'tmiloh, he has done it. 

As regards the meanings of the tenses : the Perfect tense treats 
of some action in the past ; the Present treats of some action not 
yet finished, and it may be translated by the Present, Future, or 

To express an ivimediate present the letter b {be) may be affixed 
to \hQ present (me in the ist pers. pi.): e.g. 

bdktub I am in the act of writing 

betiktib thou art in the act of writing 

betiktibi thou art in the act of (fern.) writing 

beyiktib he is in the act of writing 

betiktib she is in the act of writing 

menifitib we are in the act of writing 

betiktibu you are in the act of writing 

beyiktibfi they are in the act of writing. 

Conjugate : — gdrah, a, wound ; sdbar, ti, have patience ; misik, i, 

take ; fdtah, a, open ; nddah, a, call (to somebody li) ; kdsar, i, 


Vocabulary. — lahm, meat ; hittet lahm, a piece of meat; Idhme 

masluq, boiled meat ; Idhme mdswi^ roast meat ; duhdn, tobacco ; 

sirib edduhdn, smoke (tobacco) ; hdsfs^ hemp (for smoking) ; hashish, 

grass ; gazzdr, pi. gazzdrin, butcher ; habbdz, pi. habbdzin, baker ; 

kawdltm, pi. kawdlimye, locksmith ; naggdr, pi. naggdrin, carpenter ; 

qidir, a, be able (with following present) ; 'in/, a, know, know how 

to isavoir) (also with present). 


elbdb ma/tHh, indah tilkawdlim yiftahoh ('so that' is left out). 
asbur luwdiye Idmm ~i (wait a little till . . .) gd gdrt. etlarabeze 


maksilra, Idziin yisalldhhCi ennaggdr. hdt-U hi it el Id hue masltiqa ^ 
zndah lilhahbdz. betVrafse ^ iitkdUim biTdrabi P di'wa, yd sidl, 
bd'raf atkallim luwdiye (a little). betiqddrli iiftah bdb eggenene ? 
hetimil e ? {^unil = do, make). bdktiib gawdb. Iwb eddiihdn 
welhalfs yifqir (make poor, impoverish) 7ids ketir (many). gara- 
htaii bisikkine. ilrab fingdn qdhwe, yd habibi. gardhoh biddrbe 
sedide (with a strong blow). elbutt ehnagrdha mdiet (died) emhdreh. 
huwayiiiuidm [in an a ^ a, prevent) 'a7i hirb eddtihdfi. h'ribt emiebid? 
diwa, siribtoh. ennaggdr hilwa sdkinfen > 'irifndh. garahndhd. 
fatahuh. yimsikuni. tiksarih. kasaruh. kdsarfi. *zr/u. 
'irfUh. yiqdar yiftahoh. kdtaboh. kdtabu. katabdh. 

Where is your brother ? He is writing a letter. Do you drink 
coffee or wine .? Give me a glass of wine ; coffee prevents me 
from sleeping i^an ennovi). He has written this letter. Who is 
here ? The locksmith is going to open the door. Call this youth 
(that) he may open the garden gate (translate simply by Present). 
Call this gentleman, he knows Arabic {fieyfraf el 'drabi). Where 
does the baker live .? He lives in that house. Have a little 
patience. Oh girl ! Has he wounded you with a knife ? Coffee- 
and tea-drinking [lurb elqdhwe wessdy) do harm {yedUrr). Give 
me a piece of roast meat, a glass of wine, and then {bdden) a cup 
of coffee and a cigarette {si'gdra). You have wounded him. He 
has opened it {-oh). We have written it. They write. Have 
patience (sing.). Have patience (plural). You have broken it (you 
in plural). You (plural) are breaking it. We have caught hold of 
him. They will catch him. 

Auxiliary and Negative Particles. 

In Upper Egypt (rarely in the towns) the mimediale present is 
often formed from the present with the prefix 'ammdl, fem. 'a?nmdle, 

^ Here fem. because lalune maslHq is collective, by hitte one single morsel is 

- The interrogative particle s {h) is added when an affirmative answer is 


pi. 'ammalin^ shortened to 'avi?na, 'am, ma : e. g. 'dmma ariih^ I am 
in the act of going ; 'am akdlltmoh, I am speaking to him ; ma 
'dktub elgawdb, I am writing the answer. 

The immediate Future, the intention of doing something and 
being on the point of doing something are expressed by the 
present preceded by rath, rah, fem. rd'ihe, rdhe, pi. raihtn, rahin, 
or by rah (unaherable) shortened to ha : e. g. rah yisrab, he is on 
the point of drinking ; rah dnzil, I am going to go down imme- 
diately ; ha tVmil e? What are you going to do now ? 

The I??iper/ect is expressed by the combination of the perfect 
of kdn with the present of the verb : I entered the room and saw 
my friend who was sitting writing, dahdlt et odafeiiifte halihi huwa 
kdn yuqud weyiktib ; I used to cook twice a week, hint atbuh 
filguvia marreien. 

Example of such a combination of kdn with the present : kunf 
dkiib, I was writing; kiinte tiktib, fem. kUnfi tikiibi; kdnyiktib, fem. 
kdfiet tiktib ; kunnd niktib ; kuntu tikiibu ', kdnuyiktibu. 

The Pluperfect is translated by kdn and the perfect of the main 
verb : e. g. kdn 'imil, he had done ; kit?ite katdbt, I had written ; 
kdnu nddahu lilhadddm Idmmd ddhal elqauwds, they had called the 
servant when the cavass (consular servant) came in. 

The Future-perfect is formed by the combination of the present 
of kdn with the perfect of the main verb : e. g. aku7i katdbt, 
I shall have written ; yekun Umil eVsugl, he will have done the 

The Active Participle is often used with the personal pronouns 
to express the present : e.g. dna kdtib, I am writing; iJind 'drfin, 
we know ; ititi 'dmle, thou (fem.) art doing. 

The most common Negation is nid . . . s (cf. ne . . . pas) ; md 
comes before the verb, s is suffixed to the verb. E. g. ?)id katdbs, 
he has not written ; mdmiU (for md a'mils), I am not doing, s and 
and the last syllable of the verb only form one tonic-group ; there- 
fore the position of the accent is frequently altered, and not 
unfrequently a short vowel is inserted : e.g. ddrab but md dardbl', 
dardbt but md dardbtis. 

Certain suffixes are inserted between the verb and the particle s : 


thus md darahiShl or ?}id darab/os, I have not hit him ; md yimsikuhl ', 
they will not catch hold of him. 

If the last radical of the verb is z, s, s or I it is usually assimilated 
to the following I : thus md hulHsl (pronounced hiMss). 

To render negative the present formed from the active participle 
and the pronoun, the negaUve particle is used with the pronoun : 
thus mams, not I ; ??idniis, not you ; mantis (fem.), not you ; mus, 
not he ; mahnds, not we ; manlus, not ye ; mahums or mus, not 
they : e. g. mdnis kdiib, I am not writing ; mantis kdtbd, you (fem.) 
are not writing ; mantHs kdtbin, ye are not writing. 

mus (not), makes single words negative : e. g. da mus kuwdiyis, 
this is not nice ; elbet da mus kebir, this house is not large. 

Vocabulary. — hale, pi. haldt, aunt (maternal) ; 'dmme, pi. 'ammdt, 
aunt (paternal); hdl, pi. ahwdl, uncle (maternal); 'amm, pi. a'mdm, 
uncle (paternal) ; ibn el'ibn, grandson (son of the son) ; ibn elbint, 
grandson (son of the daughter) ; gedd, pi. agddd, grandfather ; 
gedde, pi. gedddt, grandmother ; bint eVibn, bint elbint, grand- 
daughter; ibne'amm, cousin (paternal); ibne Ml, cousin (maternal); 
binte'amm, binte hdl, cousin (fem.); 'arilse, pi. 'arais, bride ; 'aris, 
pi. 'irsdn, bridegroom ; hdtib, fem. hdtbc, match-maker, marriage- 
contractor ; goz, pi. agwdz, husband ; goze, pi. gozdt, wife ; Jidmd, 
father-in-law ; hamdt, mother-in-law ; sahr^ pi. ashdr, son-in-law ; 
kinne, pi. kdnain, daughter-in-law ; 'ala sdn, min sdn, for, because ; 
Id . . . weld, neither . . . nor. 


rdk dfdal hendk teldt iydm. ifdal he'ne, Idzim tiktibli (for me) 
gawdb libne'dmmi" (= li'ibne). in ridit (if it is agreeable to you) 
ab'dt lak (I send you, from bdai) hadddmi. baztinn (I think) hiye 
md katabe'll elgawdb id. mdnis fdkir (remember) kilmdtoh (kilnie, 
pi. dt, word). Id yd sidi dii mus bet ahiiyd. simit (hear) 
elhdbar ? Id md simi'tos (= ?}id simi'tohs). md qibilnds (receive) 

^ Since the h of the suffix is mute there is no difference in pronunciation 
between this and jud yimsikiis, they will not take hold. The context alone 
must supply the meaning. 

^ 11 is used to form the dative. 


elgawdb. 'iza gd maktub 'ala sdni (for me) iqhdloh. ab'dt lak 
erruzma (parcel). mdqbalhds (= ?}id aqbalhds). akun salldht 
elmufidh, 'iza rigVi (come back) ellela di. qibilndh wenib'dtoh 
lihabibnd. {and) hunte nasdht elkitdb, Idmmd (when, as) gd gdri. 
mdfaiahnds. mdfatahndhs. md katabtus. md gardhtis elbint. 
mantus *dmlm. mus kdtib. mantis sdrbd. 

Send me, Sir ; I will do it. He has not done it. You have not 
hurt (wounded) him. In summer (fissef) there is no {nid/is) water 
in this valley {wddt, pi. widydn). What are you doing ? I am 
copying your letter (participial construction). I have not drunk 
(any) wine. I do not drink coffee. We had waited three hours 
in the coffee-house when my servant came (and) called me. Where 
are you living now .? We live in this street now. Will you accept 
the present {hediye) which I sent you .? Yes, Sir, I will accept it. 
We have not wounded him. I have not opened it. She has not 
written it. You are not writing (participle). They have not done 
it. He has not killed him. We do not remember [mah?ids /dknn). 
You have not received it. 

II. Form — Imperative Negative. 

The Second Form of the verb is obtained from the simple form 
by doubling the middle radical. If the first form expresses a state 
or condition, the second form expresses the bringing about of that 
state or condition ; it has also the sense of causing, or being busied 
with : e. g. kUtur, to be much, be numerous, whence the II. form, 
kdliar, to increase ; 'ilim, to know, II. form, 'dllim, to teach, to 
cause to know. 

The Conjugation is very simple, being exactly like that of the 
original verb. 


'allzmi, I taught a'dllim, I teach 

'allimt, fem. 'allimfi li'dlli?n, fem. iValUini 

'dllim, fem. 'dllimet yi'dllim, fem. ti'dllim 










; 'dllim, teach ; fern. 


; pi. 'allimu. 

: vitldlUm ^ 

taught . 

; mekdssar'^, broken in pieces. 


Participle : 
from kdssar, break in pieces (transitive). 

Infinitive: usually has the form ta/'il: e.g. ta'lim,i\\e teaching, 
the instruction ; ta'n/, definition, tariff, from 'drraf, make known. 
(Other forms occur but are rare : e. g. tagnbe, experience ; tikrdr, 

We shall here give the Imperative Negative^ which is rendered 
by the negation nid...s, with the corresponding person of the 
present : e. g. md tikfibs, do not write ! md tindahils, do not call ! 
md tushdfs, do not be silent (fem.) 1 

In the above manner are conjugated : 'drraf, make known ; 
kdssar^ break into fragments ; hdllas, set free, cause to finish ; 
fdrrag (with accusative of the person and 'ala, before the object), 

N.B. — In the II. form the vowels are the same in the perfect and 

Vocabulary. — gdnii', pi. gawdmi', mosque (large) ; mdsgid, pi. 
ffiasdgtd, mosque (small) ; niddnd, pi. mdddin, minaret ; addn, call 
to prayer ; elqordn, the Koran ; qd'ad, u, sit down ; essd'a, the 
hour ; essd'a hdmsa, five o'clock ; essd'a sitte wenuss, half-past six ; 
kiddy so, thus (placed after adjectives: e.g. tawil kidd, so long) ; 
nezzil, let down, sink (trans.) ; kit/, pi. kitdf shoulder ; ennahdrdd^ 
to-day ; min, from, since ; mm tmte, since when ? min zamdn, since 
a long time, a long time ago. 


kuntu fen ennahdrda ? kunnd wdya sdhib (landlord) elloqdnda 
befd'efna, hilwafarrdgnd 'aggdmi' we 'ala viddfieloh. ne'zzil essdlle 

^ me is also found ; especially before dentals and gutturals. 
- No difference is made between the active and passive participles here ; the 
sense determines which is used. 


(pi. si'ldl, basket) viin Mtfak. hukra yifdrrag 'ala 'Vahrdm (pi. of 
hdram, pyramid) we 'afahulhol (sphinx). md tehalldss elkildb. 
mill wife hiiu hem? ihne he'ne min teldta sinin. harragnd (drive 
out) elhardmiye min elbet. ieharrdgni min hetak ? diwa, itld {till , 
go) ! teJidssaliL (reach) masr imie ? nihassdlhd bUkra badri. lissd 
md'rdfs [lissd md = not yet). 'ushit, yd w'dldd, inte kadddb (liar, 
pi. -171). 'dllaq (hang up) hudtimi (my clothes) ! ettarabeze maksHra, 
yisalJdhhi (repair) min ? ii'azzilii (move) ?nin betkum^ dii sahih 
(right, true) ? diwa, nedzzii minnoh, yisdllahoh ennaggdr. kdilar 
qdhwe (increase = take more, drink more) ! sellini 'dla (greet) 
habiboh. md iikattdrs moiye ! md tigrahiiKs. md tihalldss elkildb 
qabl essd'a te?Jidnya. 

Take more water ! What has he shown you .? He has shown 
us the town and its mosques. Take the glass down (tie'zzil) from 
the cupboard. To-morrow morning I shall move from my house 
{cCdzzil min beti). Who can repair this table ? The carpenter will 
repair it. Have you greeted {se'llim 'aid) your teacher .? We have 
moved from this house ; they are going to show us a house oppo- 
site the mosque ; perhaps [riibbama) I shall live {sdkan, u) there 
with {wdya) my brother and my cousin. Do not smoke too much 
tobacco (w(2 iikattdrs edduhdii) ! Do not drink too much wine (see 
last sentence) ! Let the dogs loose at nine o'clock. How long 
(since when) have you been in Egypt .? W^e have been here two 
years and a half (seneten wenicss). Where have you been to-day ? 
They have learnt Arabic {eVdrabi). Come at half-past five (come 
= td'a^ ta'dla, pi. ta'dlu). 


in. Form. 

The IIL form is obtained by inserting a long d between the first 
and second radicals of the simple verb (the second vowel is always i). 
This form denotes an attempt to perform the action expressed by 
the primitive verb or a mutual performing of that action, kdtib, 
correspond, from kdtab, write ; qdtil, fight, from qdlal, kill ; bdhis, 

///. FORM 43 

dispute, from bdhas, inquire after, search for. In many cases the 
derivation of the meaning is not obvious : e. g. qdbi'l^ meet, from 
qibt'l, receive, accept ; sdmih, pardon ; "dmil, manage. 

The conjugation is in this case also simple ; note must, however, 
be made that before a suffix beginning with a vowel the i may be 
dropped and the a shortened. 


kdtik, I have corresponded akdiib, I shall correspond 

kdlibl, fern, kdtibti tikdiib, fem. tikdtibi {tikdib'i) 

kd/ib, fem. kdlbei {kdtibet) yikdtib, fem. iikdtib 

kdtibnd nikdtib 

kdtibtu iikdtbu (tikdtibu) 

kdibu {kdtibu) yikdtbu [yikdlibu). 

Imperative : kdti'b, fem. kdlbl, pi. kdibii. 

Participle : seldom used as anything but a noun or adjective : 
e. g. mebdsir, overseer ; rnendsib, fit, suitable ; mehdfiz, governor. 

Infinitive : also usually used as a substantive : e. g. hisdb, bill, 
reckoning, calculation ; mekdtbe, correspondence ; mehd/za, gover- 

N. B.— All the forms do not occur in all the verbs. 
Many infinitives, participles, &c., are found, of which the 
original root forms do not occur in modern Arabic. 

The following may be conjugated like the above : sdjir, travel ; 
rdhin, go bail for ; sd'id, help. 

Vocabulary.— ;>'(?'/7/ eldhad (or elhdd), Sunday; yom el'etnm, 
Monday ; ydm etteldte, Tuesday ; yotn efdrbd, Wednesday ; yom 
elhamis, Thursday ; ydm eggum'a (or simply eggum'd), Friday ; 
ydm essdbi, Saturday ; gum'a, pi. g{lma\ week ; sahr, pi. hihw', 
month ; sd'a^ pi. sddt, hour ; rub'e sd'a, quarter of an hour ; nusse 
sda, half an hour ; teldt arbd' essd'a, three-quarters of an hour ; 
daqiqCy pi. daqd''iq, minute ; bilkitdbe, in writing ; ahbdrni bilkitdbe, 
he has informed me in writing ; yimkmoh, it is possible for him ; 
Ms, because ; 'ala gdfle, suddenly ; yd dub (adv.), at the most ; 
'alqaltl, bilqalil, at the least; qalil, few, little of; qalil min ennds or 
nds qalil, few people. 


' Too, too much/ may be translated by hhiydde placed after the 
adjective, or (more frequently) omitted altogether : e. g. del sdb 
'aleya, this is too hard for me ; essdgara 'aliye biziydde, the tree is 
too high. 


ahhdrni bilkitdbe, ifinohyigi (he will come) bukra. Idzimni 'alqalil 
gum' a 'aldsdn (for) essiigle da. hunt dkttb, 'alagdfle simihl{simi'l, 
hear) karkdbet ennds. loh mdblag sugdiyar yd diib. elbunduqiye 
(gun) di tawile biziydde, Idzinuii bundiiqiye qusaiydre. yom el'drbd, 
fidilnd fi serdyet elmehdfiz ??iuddet ieldt ao arbda sctdt. mdyim- 
kinis (is it not possible for me) db'af hadddmi, Ms Idzimoh yiltigil 
(that he \\oy\.s) /i betl. eddiildb da 'dli (high) biziydde 'ala sdn 
odeti. 'i/dal he'ne kdmdn Mm (some more) daqiqe. kdnu 
fi'ggdmV qalil min ennds. mdqddrs {=imd 'aqddrs) dfiiiloh, yd 
hawdga, dd sdb 'aleya. hdt bilqalil luwdiye sarbdt, iza md 'anddkl 
nebid (if you have not any wine). kdn qd'id 'al/ars { — 'ala U/drs) 
we'dla gdfle wiqV (fall) viin 'aleh wemdt (die). 

Help me a little ! On Tuesday we shall go to Rosetta. There 
were few people in the town, but I saw more people {dktar ennds) 
in the open {filhdld). I shall stay five weeks in Cairo. He 
corresponds with him (the accusative simply). There were at the 
most five men in the cofiee-house. If you wish to learn Arabic 
{iza kUnte biddak tifdllim efdrabi) you must stay at least two years 
in Egypt. This house is too small for me, I must have {Jdzimni) 
a larger one. It is not possible for you to copy this letter for me 
(translate : you copy . . .). Give her {gib liha) at least some paras 
[fadda, no plural) for her child. I met {qdbil, with accusative) my 
friend yesterday. Excuse me {sdmih, with accusative), Sir, I did 
not know it. He is governor (of) Damietta [dimydi), 

IV. Form. 

The IV. form is obtained by prefixing an a and dropping the first 
vowel. The second vowel is a in the perfect and i in the present. 

IV. FORM 45 

Example : dMar, inform. 


ahbdrt dhbir 

ahbdrt, fern, ahbdrti tihbir, fern, tihbir'i 

dhbar^ fern, ahbdret yihbi?-, fern, iihbir 

ahbdrjid nihbir 

ahbdriu tihbiru 

ahbdru yihbiru. 

Imperative : ihbir, fem. ihbiri, pi. ihbiru. 

Participle: muhbir. Participles used as nouns and adjectives: 
miislim, Mohammedan ; inuJisin, beneficent ; miinikin, possible. 

Infinitive: z7/3ar, information; islam, \kiQ Mohammedan religion 
(lit. submission) ; ihsdn, alms, beneficence. 

The IV. form is seldom used in conversation, its place being 
taken by the II. form; the meaning of the two forms is very 

In like manner the following may be conjugated : dfab, tire 
(somebody) ; d'gab, please ; dzhar, make plain, show ; dshar, 
make publicly known. 

Vocabulary. — kibr^ pride ; budd'a, pi. baddT, wares ; ?nazdd, 
auction ; bihnazdd, by auction ; hadddm, pi. hudddni, servant ; 
tulii^ essamSj sunrise ; gurub essdms, sunset ; ba'd, after ; (/abl, 
before (of time) ; wd//a, wdla, ao, or ; Id . , . weld, neither . . . nor ; 
Idkin, weldkin, but, however ; dmma, but ; 'in/, a, know ; rigi^, a, 
come back ; rdgga\ yirdgga' , bring back. 

* Wish, want,' is often expressed by bidd with the suffixes : 
e. g. biddi, biddak, biddoh, biddind biddHkum, bidduhiim, I want, &c. ; 
thus, I w^ant to write, biddi dktib ; you want to strike him, biddak 

The auxiliary verb ' ought ' is either translated by Idzim in (with 
suffix), or by elwdgib in (likewise with suffix), or, especially in 
dependent sentences, left out and replaced by the present : e. g. 
Tell my servant he ought to come here, qdl lihadddmi,yigi hene\ 
tell the clerk he ought to copy out the letter, qHl lilkdlib, yinsah 


* They say, it is said,' can be rendered in Arabic by yequlu : 
e. g. The king is said to be dead, yequlu in elmalik mat. 


qill (tell) lilhadddm yirdgga' eTdfs (things, luggage) e'lli hddoh 
{had, take) mi'n hene. ha ' dhhirak minnoh (about it). essd'a 
kdtn ? essd'a arbd'a wenuss, nesdfir Mm sd'a qahle tultt eVs'dms. 
yizhir Mbre ketir. nilhir elbud^a di bi'lmazdd. nihbiroh. 
ihbirm in gd elmehdfiz. ashdrna 'a/smd, Idkin md hdddis (no 
one) isiardh (bought it), indah lilhadddm, yerilh 'and elhakiin 
bihes (because) ana 'aiydn (ill). biddind nihbiroh 'an eYsHgl e'lli 
'imilndh. yeqillu in elmehdfiz yigi biikra el' iskefideriye. biddtikum 
tifddlu hene ellela-di ? Id, yd hawdga, md nigddrs (= niqddrs) 
nifdal hene, Idzim ni has sal bdladndelyoju (to-day). md tihassaMhs 
ennahdrda, baladkum be'id min hene weti^ibiu {ti^ib, become tired), 
ive^afdbtu hugiinkum (pi. of hegin, camel for riding). yd hdmmdr 
(donkey-boy) irga' lissd md de/a'lldks ^ {da/a', pay). rdgga' elgdtd 
(cover, lid) elU aqradtihd-lak {dqrad, lend). 

You cannot go away before sunset, stay here. Is there anything 
new {se gedid) ? I know of nothing (translate : I do not know any- 
thing \_hdga']). I ought to have gone to my friend's yesterday 
(translate : it was upon me [kdn 'aleyd] that I [innt] go [aruhi] to 
[It'and^^ . . .). Tell the donkey-boy he ought to come back to- 
morrow. The governor is said to have gone away (to) Keneh 
{qene) on the last of last month (ahir essdhr elmddi). What do you 
want to do ? We must {Idzimnd) tell him of {^afi) this affair i^amr, 
pi. 'umilr). It is all the same to me {di zay bd'doh 'dndi). We 
have spoken about {/i) literature {^ilm elkutiib). We have tired our 
camels, they must rest a little {Idzim yistarihii suwdye). That does 
not please me. 

^ From now on we shall not write the dative of the personal pronoun separate 
from the verb. 

r. FORM 47 

V. Form. 

This form is characterized by the prefixing of a / {ta, ii) and the 
reduplication of the middle radical. If the first radical of the verb 
be a g, d, z, s, s, s, d or /, the / of the prefix is assimilated to it 
(like the / of the article) : e. g. tggduwiz, marry ; issdiyib, be let 
loose; issdkkar, thank (instead of itgduwiz, &c.). The second 
radical is doubled as in II. form. 

The meaning of this form is Reflexive or Passive. 

perfect. present. 

ifahhdrt, I have been delayed afdhhar 

it'ahhdrt, fem. if ahhdrti tifdhhar, fern, ii't'ahhdri 

ifdhhar, fem. it'ahhdret jyifdhhar, fem. tifdhhar 

it'ahhdrnd iiifdhhar 

ifahhdrtu tifahhdru 

Wdhharu yifahhdru. 

Imperative : ifdhhar, ifahhdri, ifahhdru ; further, itfdddal, 
itfadddli, itfadddlu, have the goodness. 

Participle : mifdhhar, or (in classical language) the form 
mutafd"il : e. g. viutameddin, civilized ; mutasekki'r, thankful. 

Infinitive : (rare and only classical) taqdddum, progress ; 
famdddun, civilization. 

In like manner are conjugated : itkellim, speak, converse; itfdrrag 
'ala, look on at ; ifdssam, raise one's hopes, hope ; ifduivad, 
accustom oneself (to = 'ala). 

Vocabulary. — qidir, a (also yigdar), be able, can ; tdbah ii, 
cook ; malik, pi. mtiluk, king ; qird?i, pi. qirdndt, European king ; 
iCduwad'alhdwa, become acclimatized ; viin enhindhya? in which 
direction .? lindhyet . . . , in the direction of ... ; lau, if (with per- 
fect) ; 'ala 'Udr/ dii, 'a/a 'Vsuriit dol, under this (these) cQndition(s). 



magddrs afduwad 'alhdwa ; eddiinyd hdrre mufdttis (the weather 
is stifling hot). ezdy (how) elhdwa (weather, air, climate) ? elhdwa 
mdlih. 'ala 'ssdrt da magddrs afdal hene dktar (any more). 
itfassdhu (go a walk) werdhu (go) lindhyet elbdhr. ana miCduwid 
(participle oiif duwady alasurb edduhdn, mdyedurrims {darr,yedurr, 
do harm). lau kunie hassallim, hmnd sdfirnd sdwa sdwa (we 
would have gone away together). h^rd/setitbuh {coo^), yd wdldd? 
md'rd/s dtbuh ilia (except) kdm akl ( = a few dishes). taqdddum 
masr zdhir (clear) ; masr iiqdddamet iemellt, min muddet Mohammed 
Alt, bdsd elkebir. ifaTsdmt asu/ak (I hoped to see you) bukra, 
Idkin le'znnak tesdfir bilwabur Mm sd'a qahle tuliT essams, itfdddal 
sarrifiii (visit me) elleld-di. itfadddlu, udhulu, nitkellim ffssd/ar 
(about the journey), iitfarrdgu imie 'ala masr? 

We have been delayed. The progress of Egypt is plain {zdhir). 
Have the goodness to come in and we will speak [nitkellim) about 
(/i) progress and civilization. Would you not like to go for 
a little (at end of sentence) walk .? [translate : ma bidddkse, you go 
a walk {it/dssah) a little?]. Can you {=.Hrif) write Arabic? 
I hope to visit (present) the mosques to-morrow. I am accustomed 
to drinking coffee i^surb elqdhwe). You are not very well {sdhhetak 
mil's kwaiyise)] according to my ideas {=z'dndi) you ought (Idzim) 
to go a little walk. Have you become acclimatized (already) ? 
No, Sir ; I cannot accustom myself to the heat (sob). We have 
been delayed a long time ( = kefir). That does not matter 
(md'alehs)] I have entertained myself {ilhdddi/) very well with 
{wdyd) him. 

VI. Form — Reflexive Verb. 

The VI. form is obtained by placing il before the root (see last 
lesson as regards assimilation of the /) and inserting a long a (d) 
between the first and second radicals. What has already been said 


concerning the III. form about the omission of the i holds good 
here also. 

The meaning is reciprocal, implying an effort on both sides : 
e.g. t'tkdlib, correspond (with one another). 

perfect. present. 

i/kCiiibi atkdiib 

itkdiibt, fern, itkatibti titkd/ib, fern, tilkdtbl 

itkdtib, fem. itkdibet yitkdtib^ fem. iitkdtib 

itkdtibna nitkdiib 

itkatibtu titkdtbu 

itkdtbu yitkdtbu. 

Imperative : itkdtib, itkdtbi^ itkdtbu. 

Participle and Infinitive : rare forms, scarcely found except 
in classical Arabic : e. g. mitkdtib, correspondent. 

The following are similarly conjugated : itgdlib, struggle with 
one another ; ithdmq, quarrel with one another ; itqdbil, meet each 

' One another ' is usually expressed by bdd (with the suffixes) : 
e. g. they spoke with one another, katlimu mda bdduhuvi. 

The Reflexive Verb may conveniently be inserted here. Since 
a real reflexive pronoun is wanted in Arabic, recourse must be had 
to one of the words nafs, soul ; zdt, being, person ; 'en, eye ; rds, 
head, with the possessive suffixes : e. g. mduwui ndfsoh, he killed 
himself; qauwdsu nufHshum, they shot themselves ; tihfl nafsdhd, 
she hides herself. 

The word 'self is also expressed by means of these words 
(with bill necessary): e.g. da huwa bi'enoh, that is he himself; 
luft abuk nd/soh, I saw your father himself; qdl fi nd/soh, he was 
speaking to himself, he said within himself. 

* Alone ' is zvdhdJ, wdhdak, &c. : e. g. kdnti filbet dna wdhdt, 
I was alone in the house. 

dhar, fem. iihra, pi. fihar, other : elkitdb eldhar, the other book. 

* Other than, another than ' is gir : e. g. another book than this, 
kitdb ger id ; I have seen another than him, hift geroh. 



Vocabulary.— ^^r zdlik, besides ; in kdn hide, under such circum- 
stances ; 'ala kulli hdl, in any case ; misik min eVid, take by the 
hand ; 'irif mm se, recognize by something ; mirid min se, be ill 
of something; humma, fever; sd'le, kuhha, cough; bunieta, hat; 
gumruk, custom-house ; dermis, pi. dardwis, dervish. 


ana arafoh min hurnetetoh. misikm min 'idl wefarrdgni 'ala 
betoh, huwa mirid min elhUmma. beti'rdfle tiikdllim biljeransdwi ? 
Id, yd hawdga, atkdllim biVdrabi bess (only). in kdn hide, mdtigddrl 
tisdfir waydh, Idzimoh 'ala kulli hdl rafiq (travelling companion), 
yVraf elferansdwi, errafiq qdbl ettariq (way) [Proverb]. luft 
abHyd P sH/te rdgil qurdiyib 'and (near by) betak ; Idkin mdnis 'drif 
iza kdn ^abilk, baztinn (I think) kdn geroh. hdl burneta ger di. 
binti kdnet wahdihd filgenene. qduwas ndfsoh, Idkin md yUrdfle 
(one does not know = it is not known) le. kdn hadddmak ndfsoh, 
kdn yistdgil (work) filbostdn (pi. basdtin, garden). eddardwfs 
itgdlbu withdnqii {^^we'ithdnqii), itqdbilnd qudddm bet elmehdfiz. 
itkdtibnd zamdn tawil. 

Under such circumstances you ought to go at once (qawdm) 
to (^aftd) the doctor. He was ill of fever for a long time. Give 
me another cup. I caught hold of him by the hand and showed 
him my garden. I met him {qdbilloh) in the town. I was alone 
in the coffee-house; my friends did not come {mdgtans). This 
man did not do it, it was another than he. He saw {sdf) himself 
in the mirror. Have you been corresponding for long .? Yes, we 
have been corresponding {itkdtibnd) for four years. Why are you 
quarrelling and fighting ? 

VII. Form. 

This form is obtained by prefixing in to the original verb. The 
meaning is usually passive, sometimes reflexive. The perfect 


always has two ^'s, and the present two z''s : e. g. inkdsar, yinkisir^ 
be broken, be beaten (in battle); inkdtab^yinkitib, be written. 

perfect. present. 

inkasdrt ankisir 

ifikasdrty fem. iiikasdrfi tinkisir, fern, tinkisiri 

tnkdsar, fem. inkdsaret ytnkmr, fem. tinkisir 
inkasdrna ninkisir 

inkasdriii iinkisru. 

inkdsarU yinkisrii. 

Imperative : inkisir^ fem inkisn, pi. inkisrii. 

Participle : not used, replaced by passive participle of the 
I. form : e. g. maksiir, broken ; mabnit, rejoiced, happy, content. 

Infinitive : rare. 

In the same way are conjugated : infdtah^ yinfitih^ be opened ; 
inkdtab, yinkitib, be written ; ititdhan, i, be ground ; inldrab, i, 
be drunk (passive). 

Vocabulary. — qudddm wiss el'dlam, before the eyes of the 
people; dna md-li? What has that to do with me? aho, ahi, 
ahSm (ahtim)y here he is, she is, they are (/<?, la, les voild)', min 
/adlak, be so good as to ... ; elli loh "and (lit. what to him is), 
possessions : e.g. your possessions which are with me, elli lak 'dndi 
(= what I have of yours) ; what we have of his, elli loh 'andind', 
bdrik li, wish good luck to some one ; ahuh, uhte'hd, his like, her 
like (one of a pair) : e.g. hilwa rdgil md loh ahuh fiddHnyd, he 
is a man without his like in the world ; bdgla, pi. bigdl, coll. bagl, 
mule ; humdr, pi. hamir^ donkey ; hammdr, pi. hamvidrin, donkey- 
boy ; gdmal, pi. gimdl, camel ; hegin, pi. hUgun^ dromedary, riding- 
camel ; gammdl, pi. gammalin, camel-driver ; bi-su'Ube, hardly, 
scarcely (with difficulty); kull (invariable), each, every; ddhil^ 
gHway inside, in ; kohl, a black dye for the eyelids ; iftgdrah [min)^ 
be wounded (by) ; insdrab, yinsirib, be drunk, be drinkable ; 
inbd'at, yinbVit, be sent ; intdbd, yintibi', be printed ; inhd7naq, 
yinhimiq, become angry ; ifibdsat (pronounced imb . . .), yinbisit^ 

E 2 



ifibasdtnci ketir 'ala sdn (because of) hediyetkiivi. essd'i {v[iQ?>- 
s,eT\gQT)yi?ibi'it lilgumruk (custom-house). viin fdtah elhdb ? kdn 
biddoh {he'W3.nted)yi/'/a/zoh, Idkin md-yififi fills'^. essd'i dli taldbtoh 
(demand) Ihsd mainbddts. anbmt ketir 'alasdn (because) bukra 
atfdrrag 'ala gdmi^ 'Vdzhar (the el-Azhar mosque). elmoiye di 
md tinsiribs ^ /i buldq (a suburb of Cairo) yintibfu kutub 'drabi ^ 
wi'urubdwi^. huwa mhdmaq 'ala sdn elkubhdye elmaksura. ell'i 
liye 'dndak hamsin fddda, e'lli lukum 'andind kdm (how much) ? 
elgaziye (dancing-girl, pi. gawdzi) betirqiis (from rdqas, dance) 
tdiyib ketir, md liha 'uhtihdfi kull elbaldd (the whole place). md 
tiksirs elmirdyd di, imsikhi biswes (slowly = carefully). elqdhwe 
di md tinsiribs (is undrinkable), hdtli gerh'i. abdriklak, yd sidl, 
md lak ahUkft kull eddunyd. 

The dervishes were beaten yesterday near {biqurb . . .) Wady 
Haifa. Sir, the garden door cannot be opened (simple VII. form), 
the key is broken. This wine {nebid) is not drinkable ; it is (too) 
sour [hdmid). What you owe me is (translate : my possessions 
with you) twelve dollars {riydl). Where was this letter written ? 
It was written in Alexandria. This book was printed in Cairo. 
Do you know the new {gedid, fem. gedidii) street? Have you sent 
the messenger for the doctor ? No, Sir, he has not yet been sent ; 
I will send him now. The thieves were caught {inmdsak, i) in the 
doctor's garden. I wish you good luck, Oh men ! You only owe 
me a few paras {pnXy^bess, after paras = fddda). I\Iy brother's 
house has been burnt (inhdraq, i). Don't come in, Sir ; there are 
{/ih) ladies inside {gmva). 

^ This passive form frequently implies a meaning of possibility or of 
worthiness. Thus in this case : it cannot be opened. Cf. hr'idrab, be drinkable 
(i.e. be worthy of being drunk). 

^ Adjectives in i for the most part remain unchanged. 


VIII. Form. 

The VIII. form can be obtained in two ways : 

1. By prefixing li (assimilation of the / as above) before the simple 

form: e.g. Perf. li/d'al or t't/Vil, Pres. 2\\\^ys ytt/Vil. 
The meaning is generally passive, though sometimes re- 
flexive \ E. g. itqd/al, yitqifil, be shut ; itrikib, be ridden or 
driven; itjnisik {=inmdsak), be caught; ithdmaq {—inhdmaq\ 
become angry ; itldfat, look round. 

2. The second method of obtaining the VIII. form, which is derived 

from the written language, but also employed in colloquial 

Arabic, is to insert a t (assimilation) after the first radical 

and to prefix an i\ Perf. iftd'al, Vr¥.?>. yi/ld'al ox yiftiil 

The meaning is more often reflexive than that of the other 

form, istdgal, yiitigil, busy oneself, work ; i'tdmad, yf timid, 

rely upon, trust ; ittdlab, ask a favour. 

The conjugation is quite regular. (Like the conjugation of the 

VII. form, for example.) The following verbs belong to this form : 

iltdzam, i, bind oneself, engage ; iltdfat, take care for ; istdlam, z', 

receive, take charge of; ifidkar, reflect; imtdhan, i, prove, 


Imperative : istdgal, fem. istdgU, pi. istdglu. 
Participle and Infinitive only of the 2nd form : miltdgal, work- 
ing ; viuntdzim, arranged ; viu'tdinad, trustworthy ; Hstildm, receipt ; 
'irtifd\ height; 'intizd?n, order, arrangement. 

Vocabulary.— /z^/z^j, money; stibh, morning; hikifdye, suffi- 
cient ; 'ummdl^ of course, indeed ; tigdra, trade ; siydsa, politics ; 
murgaha, cradle, swing ; wdrsa, workshop ; kisib, a, earn, win ; 
saal, a, ask (an after) ; tanbiil {ia??ibal), lazy, idle {/i, at, in) ; 
qurdiyib min, near to ; qdrrab 'a?id, bring nearer to ; min qabile, of 
the race of; kursi, pi. kardsi, chair; mitt dhle . . ., of the people 
of ... . 

1 The VII. and VIII. forms are often used indiscriminately. 



elfelldh {^. felldhin, peasant) da yilHgil missuhh {= min essHhh) 
lihddd eVise (till the evening) weld yiksib fulus bikifdyd. kuntu 
sdwa (together) filqdhwe, mus Mdd ? (was it not so ?) diwd kalUmnd 
-fittigdra wesstydsa. md trtimidle *aleh ; huwa mus viiitdmad. 
istaldmu elgawdb^ elli bdattoh. Id, yd sidi, yequlu md yistilimul 
abdddn (never). min /nhi qabile errdgil-da? huwe min qabile 
AH. da ger mumkin, huwa min dhle sues, bd'rafoh min hudumoh. 
hallim (let me) aftikir luwdiye ; lissa md'rd/s iza kdn yimkinm 
(if it is possible for me ; from dmkan, yimkin, be possible), yd 
waldd, 'is'al 'an bet ettdgir. rUh wdrsa emtagdr westif (and look) 
*ala 'Imurgdha, ^lli 'imilhd 'alasdn waliidi. istdgll dktar, yd bint, 
intt tdnbald ft kdlli hdga. qdrrab elkursi 'dndl. dbil 'Ihdl qurdiyib 
min elahrdm. itrikib'^ elMgun dol tul yojii (the whole day) md 
ii'bus (or elhUgun itrikibU). 

If {iza kdn with pres.) any one [wdhid) asks something (Mga) 
of God {min alldK), he will not deny it him {md yimnahhds). We 
have worked very hard (=very much). The garden gate is opened 
at seven o'clock and shut at eleven. This man is not trustworthy, 
he is always praising himself {iftdhar, i) but he never works (never 
z= abdddn). He earns much money. I shall earn still more {kdmdn 
ziyddd). Ask for the workshop of the locksmith, and see i^tlf) if 
{iza) he has mended my key. When {imfe at end of sentence) is 
the pupil's {telmiz, pi. tdldmze) examination i^imtihdn) ? Have you 
thought about {/i) your journey {sdfar) ? I have thought a great 
deal (=much) about it; but I do not yet know when I shall 
go away. Will you examine me ? He quickly got into a passion. 
What (/ at end of sentence) have you done ? Gizeh {elgize) is near 
Cairo. Bring the table near the chair. 

^ See rules for agreement of the verb : Lesson XXIII. 



IX. AND X. Forms. 

The IX. form is only used in speaking of colours. The conju- 
gation differs slightly from the previous ones. 


iJmarret, I have become red 

ihmarret^ fem. ihmarrefi 

ihmarr, fem. iJimdrret 






tihmdrr, fem. tihmdrri 
yihmdrr, fem. tihmdrr 


y ihmdrru. 

Participle : viihmirr^ reddish ; misfirr, yellowish ; viihdirr, 
greenish ; mizriqq, bluish. 

Infinitive : very rare. 

The following are conjugated similarly : iMdrr, be (or become) 
green (shoot of trees) ; isfdrr, be yellow, become yellow ; izrdqq, 
be blue, become blue. 

The X. form takes ista as a prefix. The meaning is best shown 
by the examples. The conjugation is very simple. 


istahsint, I approved of 

istahsint, fem. istahsind 

z'stdhsin, fem. istahsinet 






iistdhsin, fem. Hstahsinl 
yistdhsin, fem. iistdhsin 


y istahsinu. 

Imperative : istdhsin^ fem. istahstm, pi. isfahsinU. 
Participle : mustdhsin, approving ; musfdhdam, an official. 
Infinitive : istihsdn, approval; isti'mdl, application (from istd^mil, 
use, apply). 

In like manner are conjugated : isfdqrab, consider near ; isfdb'id, 


consider distant, consider improbable; tstd'gib, find striking, 
wonder at. 

Vocabulary. — wdraqa, pi. aurdq, leaf of tree, sheet of paper, 
paper ; rabt, spring (season) ; s(f, summer ; harif, autumn ; sitd, 
winter ; /asl, ^\./usul, season ; stmdl, north ; gunub, south ; sarq, 
east ; garb, mdgrib, west ; simdllj northern ; sdrqJ, eastern ; magrdbi, 
pi. miigdrbe, of a western race ; gdrbi, western ; hibr, ink ; nuss, 
half; tsidhmil, put up with, endure ; tsldgil, hasten ; isidksif 'an, 
seek after ; hdlat, u, mix ; masrit, undertaking, project ; dsloh, in 
the beginning, at first ; hdtta, in order that, until, even. 


wdraqa essagdrci di 7iussdhd mtkmirra, nussdhd mihdirra. iza 
kdn wdhid yUhlut dzraq wtdsfar, yihddrr. essdgar tihddrr ^ 
firrabt. mdsiahiiils elhdwa da muddd kebire (or muddd medide, 
a long time). istahmiU sdfari tdiyib ketir, Idkin dilwdqi dna 
tdbdn (tired). mdqddrs astdhsin elmasrzT dd, asloh Idzim afiikir. 
istdgibt 'ala 'ssd/dr, elli 'imiltoh. sdfirt min hene imte ? md 
tistdgilus Mdd ! iistdgiU kidd le ? mdslalwiils idiyib essd/ar bi'lwabur 
(steamer). isidksif an safidtlqi (box), bazwifi huwa lissa filwabur. 
Ustdhsin lugle habibak ? ld\ mdslahhnos (= md'astahsmoKs), Idkin 
bey f 7ml temelli zay md yigiboh (as it pleases him). elhediyd di 
mdqbalhds. kunt istaqrdbt essikke di, wehiye biide 'anna. 

In autumn the leaves turn (become) red. Can you stand the 
climate {Jidwd) of Egypt ? Yes, I stand it very well. When you 
copy this letter use {fiod= take) black ink. Who can endure this 
work 1 I am astonished at your project ; but I do not approve of 
it (accusative), for {hdkini) it is difficult {sdb) for you i^alek). Every 
official uses red ink. First of all I want to consider, wait a moment. 
Make inquiries about i^ari) the way ! I have heard that you {i?i7iak) 
are looking for a house. There is a house {fih bet) for sale (Jilbt) 
not far from here (77ius be'id min hene). It need not be a whole 
house ijmis Idzim i7i7iohyekun bet) ; I want only a few rooms. 

^ Here the collective noun "idgar is treated as feminine. (See Lesson XXIII : 
Laws of Agreement.) 




The conjugation does not present any difficulties. For the second 
vowel the same rules hold good as in the II. form. 


iarbist, I have bolted atdrbis 

iarbist, fem. iarbisti h'ldrbis, fern, iiiarbisi 

tdrbis, fem. iarbiset yitdrbis^ fem. titdrbis 

iarbisnd niidrbis 

iarbistu . titarbisu 

iarbisu yitarbisu. 

Imperative : tdrbis, tarbm, tarbisu. 

Participle : mefdrbis, bolted. 

Infinitive : not used. 

In a similar manner are conjugated : Idhbal, confuse ; mdswaq, 

The quadriliteral verbs have only one derived form, namely the 
V, which is formed by the prefixing of it : e. g. lildhbat, become 
confused ; itwdlwil, groan, mourn. The conjugation is perfectly 
normal, we do not, therefore, give an example of it. The student 
may conjugate the following : ifdfrat, behave like a hobgoblin, do 
something incredible ; itidrbts, become bolted ; izzdlzil, become 

Adverbs. There are two sorts of adverbs, those which are 
purely adverbs, as : hene, here ; imte, when, and those which are 
derived from adjectives and substantives. These latter are usually 
the same as the original form from which they are derived, and 
only here and there have the old accusative termination art : e. g. 
ma/fk, fdiyi'b, good ; qdwJ, strong ; gtddan, very (from gt'dd, zeal, 
earnestness) ; auwdlan, at first. 

Vocabulary. — bdrdi, bdrdak, bdrdoh, I also, thou also, he also ; 
dilwdqte w^rd'ih^ from now on ; berbe'ri, pi. bardbra^ Berberine, 
Nubian; firrif, in the country {dXso fi' Ihdla) \ bdrra {hdn'g) 


elbaldd, outside the town ; hinnahdr^ by day ; hillel, by night ; 
qd'ad 'and ettarabeze, sit at table {pv gamb ettarabeze)] *be called' 
is expressed by * his name,' * my name/ &c. : e.g. What is your 
name ? 'ismak e ? {ism = name) ; 'zsmi yusef, I am called Joseph ; 
What is that called in Arabic ? di 'ismoh e biVdrabi ? What is the 
meaning of that .? fs mVna di? yd'm, that is to say, 'i.e.' 


es mVna di iithdnqti temelti ? isme sahib (landlord) elqdkive di e, 
yd waldd ? ismoh Abdullah. fi'ssef ihna saknin filhdla, weffVsitd 
filmedind. tarbisi edduldb ? diwa, tarbistoh. Id, yd hawdga. md 
yittarbisl (pronounced . . . rbiYs). ifdal Mne wetdrbis hull elbibdn, 
kdn biddoh (he v^2iniedL) yHq'ud gamb ettarabeze^ Idkin mdfis kursi. 
Mwa tambdl ketir^ yindm (he sleeps) binnahdr webillel. ezdy 
(how) ahiik ? Mwa ieme'lU mabsHt (pleased, contented) yitmdshar 
(behave in a silly way) zdyi (like) magnUn (pi. magdnin, fool). 
dafd'tloh mdblag zugdiyar, yd'ni 'esrm riydl (dollars). dilwdqti 
weraih titbUhli (from tdbah^ cook) kHUiyom fdrha (pi. firdh, hen). 
fiVoda di kUlli si meldhbat (in confusion, in disorder). vid rattibos 
(= rattibdJis, set in order) le ? elhdga di 'ismihd e biVdrabi ? ismihd 
kanun (pi. kawdnvi, stove). 

Do you speak Arabic, Sir ? I know (Yn/) Arabic a little ; I have 
only been here {dim qd'id Mne md baqdll ilia) three weeks. Your 
speech {kaldm) is understandable {infdham, i, be understandable), 
although {md'a kSn) your pronunciation {teldffuz) is still {lissd) bad 
{battdl). The Arabic language {lisdn) is more difficult {sdb, com- 
parative, ds'ab) than {mimmd) I had imagined {issduwar). You 
must stay {qd'ad, 6) a long time {mUdde) in the country; then 
{ba'den) talking {elkaldni) will not be very hard for you (be hard for 
some one, ds'ab, yisab 'ala wdhid). What is the meaning of this .? 
everything is in disorder ; it seems that {bdiyin inn) I must send 
you away {sdiyib, yis.). Why do you behave in such a silly 
manner ? Are you a fool .? Sir, pardon me {sd??iih, with accusa- 
tive) I have been drinking wine and I am not accustomed to wine- 
drinking {surb ennebid). 



Irregular Verbs — Verbs with Second and Tfiird 
Radicals the same— Agreement of Subject 
AND Predicate. 

Conjugation of verbs with the second and third radicals the same : 
e.g. madd, stretch out. 


maddei amidd 

maddet, fern. maddeTi temidd, fern, tern id di 

madd, fern. 77idddet yemidd, fern, temidd 

maddend nemidd 

maddetu temiddu 

mdddu yemiddu. 

Imperative : midd, middi, middu. 

Participle : madid, mdddd, maddin. 

Perfect Participle : mamdud, -d, -in. 

Note. — The perfect always has the vowel a ; the present, a, i or 
u. If the present vowel is a the prefix of the 3rd pers. sing. masc. 
is yi : e. g. kabb, yekiibb, pour out, upset ; zann, yeziinn, believe, 
think ; laff, yeliff, wrap up ; lamm, yeltmm, gather, pick up ; but 
sahh, yisdhh, be correct. 

Similarly are conjugated : hatt,yeh6fl, place, put down ; kahh, u, 
cough ; bass, u, look ; haVs, u, come in ; habb, z, love, like ; mass, i, 
touch, handle ; sahL a, be correct. 

Derived forms of these verbs : 

II. Form : g/ddid, renew ; hdssis, cause to sink ; hdnnin 'dla, be 
merciful to (strong, or regular conjugation). 

IV. Form : rare, only occurs in a few participles ; mehill, full of 
holes, riddled ; mesirr, bad-tempered ; mtihimm, important. 

V. Form : igg/ddid, be renewed ; it'dllil, make excuses ; itmdddid, 
stretch oneself out (strong conjugation). 

VII. Form : insdkk, be shut ; inhdit, be put ; inddrr, be damaged ; 
inkdbb, stream, run together (conjugated like viadd). 


VIII. Form: ttldff, be wrapped up; itldmm, be gathered to- 
gether, congregate; itrdss, be sprinkled (conjugated Hke madd\ 
the present takes a). 

X. Form: islahdqq, desire; ^TQ^Qnt,yisiahdqq. 

As regards the Agreement of the Verb with its Subject a distinc- 
tion must be made between those sentences in which the verb 
precedes the subject, and those in which the subject precedes the 
verb. In the latter the verb must agree with its subject, although, 
even in this case, collective nouns and broken plurals are frequently 
regarded as being feminine singular : e. g. elbaqqalin yebi'u huddr, 
the grocers sell vegetables ; sitt Ushur Mlset, six months have been 
completed ; e?iJids beti'raf, people know, it is known. 

If on the other hand the verb precedes the subject the verb is 
usually in 3rd pers. masc. sing.: e.g. gd-7tl asMbi, my friends 
came to me. The broken plural, however, can here also be treated 
as a feminine singular, or even as a plural : e. g. gdt-ni as/idbi, 
my friends came to me ; iirikibet elhuguti, the camels have been 
ridden (or itrikibu elhugun) ; sahbunl elgd/ara, the watchmen have 
escorted me. 

Vocabulary. — zir^ large porous pitcher ; fdl 'dla, pass by ; 
yuraf, it is known ; yugad^ there is ; yuqdl, it is said ; yusd\ the 
report goes ; yuJfsa, it is feared ^ ; dhir, last ; radd, u, give back ; 
nihd'itoh, at the end, finally ; viuddelhii, at the same time ; hos, pi. 
ahwds, court ; mes^ala, question (substantive) ; vidhiya, monthly 
salary ; haqiqi, really, in reality. 


essikak ilrdssu. elkiidb da yihtdss (concern) tCirih elmdh'iq 
(history of the East). gdbli (gave) elbirit mdiye quldiyil^, het 
(pi. hiidn, wall) elbet mehill, Idziin yisdllahoh elbajinain (pi. of bdnnd^ 
mason). hoitu essanddiq (boxes, cases) fiVoda di. itrdss 
eggenene ? iit'dssu elbosldn weUhos. ruddill bukra elfulus ^ elli 

^ These five forms are remnants of the ancient passive. 

^ kettr, much, and quldiyil, little, generally remain unchanged. 

^ fiilus is plural. 


*atethiimlak (I gave you) emhdreh. hihb elmSiye fi'zzir. hattet 
essanduq filhol ao filgeiiene ? nid yisdhhis kidd. elhdhr (i.e. the 
Nile) biMss (= beyihiss) min zdvidn (since long ago). hiff {haff, i, 
dust) edduhib w^ttarabeze w^'lbereh (chest of drawers). elhukiime 
hdssiset (lowered) viCihiya elmdmiir (pi. -in, official) da. buss 
elwdlad da ! rigVet elhuggdg (pi. of hagg, pilgrim) viin mekka 
(Mecca), yusd' in effendinii (the Khedive) yisdfir bUkra listavibfd 
(Constantinople). fdt 'dla 'Igdmi' wesdf (and saw) teldte rigdl, 
yeliffu mddnetoh (who were walking round its minaret). 

Where is the Azhar mosque {gdmV Tdzhar) ? Go round here 
(Jiff min h6ie\ go past the Ashraf mosque (/z// 'dla gdmi' 'Tdsraf) 
and then {wiba'dai) turn round {ddmvar) a litde. Have you dusted 
the wardrobe and the chest of drawers ? You have coughed a 
great deal to-day. Has the court been sprinkled (with water).? 
No, I have not yet sprinkled it. Put the box on the table and 
open it. The people iennds) went round {laff, with accusative) the 
mosque. It is not right thus {kidd). Do not be afraid {jnd-tehdfl) ; 
the dog will not do anything. Stretch out imdddid) your hand. 
Have you shut [sakk, u) the door.? The girl said {qdl or qdlet 
elbinf) that she {innehd) would come back soon (^an qarib). 


The Verbs dlif^. 

Verbs with dli/{hamzd) as the first radical. The conjugation is 
usually quite regular. 
Example : 'dhad^ take. 


'ahddi 'dhod 

'ahddt, fern. 'ahddH idhod, fern, iahodi 

'dhad, fern, 'dhadet ydhod, fem. idhod 

^ahddn'i ndhod 

^ahddtvt tdhSdu 

'dhada yahSda. 


Imperative : hod, hodi, hodu. 

The Active Participle is quite regular, with the exception of: 
'dkal, eat, and 'dhad, take, when it is wdkil and wdhid. 

The student may conjugate 'dkal, eat ; present,_>'i£^«/ ; impera- 
tive, kul, &c. ; 'd??iar, yu 'mur, command. 

Derived forms of the dli/^ verbs. 

II. Form : 'dggar,ye'dggar, hire ; ' dhhar , yi dhhar , delay, retard ; 
'dri'ah, yidrrah, date ; 'dkkid, yidkkid, assure ; (irregular, wdkkil, 

yiwdkkil, give to eat, feed.) 

III. Form: mdiedhiznill min ger mu'dhaza! By your leave! 
Excuse me ! 

IV. Form : not found, except in muzi, good for nothing fellow. 
VIII. Form: itldhid {ittdhad),\)Q i2i\itn', present, yi//d/iid; itidhad^ 

unite (infinitive, ittihdd^ unity) ; ittdkil^ be eatable. 

X. Form : istd 'zin, ask permission ; istdhil, be worthy. 

Vocabulary. — ithdssis, diminish, lessen ; mestdhdivi, official (sub- 
stantive) ; viekt'dbd^ wriiing-desk ; s'dbdb, cause ; mue'llif, composer, 
author ; kef^ desire, wish, caprice ; 'dla kefnd, as we please ; tariq, 
pi. turuq, way ; sd/ar, pi. as/dr, journey ; wdkil, wdkla, waklm, 
eating ; mdkul^ eaten, eatable ; 'akl and wakly food ; Jidnnin 'dla, 
have pity on. 


alldh yihdnnin 'ala 'l/aqir (poor man) da. mdhiyeti ithdssiset. 
nehuls filqdhwa dt, nihdrbar (chat) ^dla kefnd. 'istaqrdbnd 

eitariq da. 'istdgibnd essdfar, ^lli 'imiltdh. istdgilnd 

sa/drnd, hakim elwdbiir yihdssal dilwdqte hdita (even) ehnedd'in 
elbcCide (the most distant towns) qawdm ketir (very quickly). 
astd'zin, Idzim aruh dilwdqi. elwdbdr gd ? Ihsd viagds, bazunn 
it'dhhar luwdiye. essemdm (melon) da md yittdkils, hiiwa murr 
(bitter) biziydde. Idzim tekHn elqdhwe hilwe zdy elmahdbbe ; sodd 
zdy elseidn ; whUhie (hot) zdy gahatuiam (hell). md te'Chiznfs, 
yd hawdga ! wdkkil eVuldd ddl. elhiigun Ihsd md wakkilus. hHwa 
mdyistdhils elmadh (praise) da. 

Sir, have pity on this poor man and give him {gibloh) some 
(a fe\\=:kdm) paras {/ddda). Have you fed the mules? Yes, Sir, 


but the horses have not yet been fed. The messenger is late, he 
must spend the night in Suez (spend the night = hat, yibdi). Do 
as you please ! Do not eat too much ( = kdttar) melon ; it does 
harm to {darr, with ace.) the health {essdhhii). The food is not 
eatable, give me some roast meat. He said {^qdt) that the steamer 
would (will) be late. The author of this book is Ibn Sdid. I did 
not catch {Iihiq, a) the boat ; it went off {rdh) five minutes before 
my arrival {wusul). You (your visit has) have given me much 
pleasure ^ : I hope you will come back again soon {^an qariU). 
Wait a moment {istdiind suwdiye), until {Idinmd) the steamer goes 


The Verbs w'^. 
Verbs which have iv as their first radical. 


wazdnt, I have weighed wiqift, I have stood 

wazdnty fem. wazdnil wiqift, fern, wiqiftl 

wdzan, fem. wdzanet iviqif, fem. wiqfet 

ivazdnnd wiqifnd 

wazdntu wiqifiu 

wdzanii wiqfu. 

In the Present the w is generally changed to ^ : e. g. from 
wdzan ^ weigh. 



tuzi7t, fem. tuzini 
yuzi'n, fem. iuzin 



* ^aitisiim, ^anisttnd, you (sing.) have given me (us) pleasure (entertainment) ; 
^anistCinl, 'anistilna^ you (pi.) have given me (us) pleasure. Formula used in 
speeding the parting guest. 


A second, but rarer, form of the present occurs in which the w 
is entirely rejected and the t of the prefix lengthened : e. g.yiqa\ he 
will fall ; yzqqf, he will stand. 

Imperative : 'iTid, promise ! *uzin, weigh ! 'uqaf, stand ! 

Participle : for the most part regular : wdsi\ wds'a, wds'in, 
wide, roomy. 

Past Participle : mauzun, weighed. 

Infinitive : waz7t, weighing ; wdd, promise. 

Derived Forms. Their conjugation is strong. 

II. Form : wdzzd, distribute (among = hen) ; waffar, spare ; 
wdssa\ widen. 

III. Form : mewdsfa, description (infinitive). 

IV. Form : auhastim, auhasiind, auhastunt, auhaslund, you (sing, 
and pi.) have [i. e. your visit has] given me (us) pleasure. [At the 
reception of guests.] 

VII. Form : inwdlad, be born ; inwdgad, be found. 

VIII. Form: (Assimilation of the w to the inserted /) itfdfaq^ 
yittifiq, agree. Infinitive : ittifdq. 

X. Form : isidiiib, taste, try ; yistdu'ib. Participle : mistdiiib. 
Infinitive: istu'db. 

The following verbs may also be conjugated thus: wdda',yuda\ 
place ; wtsi\yusa\ be wide, be roomy ; wdga',yuga\ pain ; wd'ad, 
yu'idj promise. 

Vocabulary. — hammdra, tavern, hotel ; 'dgab, t, please (with 
ace.) ; Idmba, lamp ; hel-bitt, perhaps ; hdtwa-hdtwa, by steps, by 
degrees ; Mttd-hitla, piece by piece ; 'aguz, old, aged ; ndr, fire ; 
ana barddn, I am cold. 


wurmet 'enz werigli. helbe'ti eJgawdb da teqil w^yikilUf (cost) 
ziydde (more). tesdfir el iskenderiye ? walla' elldmba ! walla' t 
elldmba, yd waldd ? hettlram {wirum, swell) rdst. inwalddt imte ? 

yitwdzzd (be distributed) eVel welmdiye ben (among) ennds. elldmba 
ma iilwalld's, md/fs zei {oW) fihd. huwa yiwdffar fulus ketir ; 
bihes huwa miidddbir (thrifty) ketir, 'em betHrum qdwi, bazunn 

fihd iltihdh (inflammation). wassd'u esstkh, m'migddrl nefut (pass 


by) 'al/iagar (stone, rock) dii. ^uzinu cssaiidilq da, helhett hiliua 
ieqil^ 'ala 'Igimal. iitafaqnCi, nesdfir bUkra sdiva sdiva, wFaidlsam 
nihdssal masr'^ ba'd kdmyom. elbehera di wds'a w^gawita (deep), 
md m'qddrs ni'addihd (cross over it) hila felilke {^Vfelaik, boat). 

Here you are, you have honoured me ! Please come in and sit 
down {qa'ad,yiq'od, imperative liq'ud). Hi, boy, bring some coffee 
and the pipes i^i^id, pi. 'Iddn) ! Where have you been the whole 
time ? I was at home, my children were ill. Light a fire ! I feel 
cold {ana harddti). This street has been widened, because it was 
too {biziydde) narrow {ddiyiq). Mend (set in order = wdddab) the 
lock {kdlwi) of the door. IMy head is aching. He has hurt his foot 
{vigdrahet rigloh), and now it is paining him very much. Does 
the description of the garden please you ? Have you set your 
watch in order ? We have now agreed to buy {imtiri) the house 
and the garden together. When was Mohammed AH, the Great 
Pasha, born ? 


A. The Verbs w^ and y. 

Verbs which have either 3.zv ov Sijy as the middle radical of their 
roots will be dealt with here. 

• There are many verbs which originally were w"^ or y"^ verbs in 
which the azva or the aya has become contracted into d: e.g. qdl, 
speak, from qdwal ; sdr, become, from sdyar. We cannot go into 
these verbs at any length here, but the following points may be 
noted : — If suffixes beginning with a consonant follow the verbal 
stem, awa becomes zi, aya becomes z : e.g. qzdt, I said; szrt, 
I became. In the present wzi changes into it', yi'mio z; wa or 
ya into d: e. g. yeqitl, he says ; yesir, he becomes ; yendm, he 

We here give the conjugations of the verbs qdl, say ; sdr, be- 
come ; ndiji, sleep. 

*• ' Too' must be supplied. 

^ The full name of Cairo is j?iasr elqdhira ' the Victorious.' 




quit, I said 

quit, fern. qHlli 

qdl, fern, qdlet 




aqul, I say 
iequl^ fern. teqUli 
yequl, fern, tequl 


sirt, I became 

sirt, fem. sirtl 

sdr, fem. sdrei 





asir, I become 
ienr, fem. tesirt 
yesir, fem. iesir 

qui, quiz, qulu, 
sir, sin, siru, 
nam, ndm'i, ndmu. 

nimt, I slept 
nimt, fem. mmii 
ndm, fem. ndmet 

andm, I sleep 
iindm, fem. iindmi 
yindm, fem. Hndm 


Either qd'il ; nd'im; sd'ir, or qdyil ; sdyir. 

In the case of the w"^ verbs, if the w is not in the tonic syllable 
it changes into hamzd, if it is in the tonic syllable into y \ e. g. 
M'if, seeing ; ana sayi/kum, I see you. 

Worthy of note are : 'dz, want, wish, desire. Participle, 'd^tz, 
*duz, fem. 'duze, pi. 'duzin ; and rdk, u, go, the participle of which is 
often used to express the immediate future (I am going to . . . See 
Lesson XIII). 

Similarly are conjugated : hd/, yihdf, perf. hift, fear ; gdh, i, 
perf. giht, give, bring; qdm, u, perf. qumt, rise up. 

Vocabulary. — itfdrrag 'dla, look at ; bds, ii, kiss ; gab, i, stray 
away; sdh, i, let go, let loose; viin zdmdn, since a long time; 
hdrah, a, flee ; sdraq, a^ steal ; mdblag, sum of money ; qdm, it, rise 
up ; md'a kSn, although, and likon, because, take the suffixes : e. g. 


although I am ill I shall go out, vid'a kStii diia 'mydn, ha dtla' ; 
because you are tall, likonak inte taivil. 


hiava ha if mm e? blqill ^(= beyiqill)} biqfd, da mdyVgihohs 
(or md yi'gibSs). 7?id'a kon'i ana mus Jilbe/, iiqdar tit/drrag'ala 
'I/drs, elli biddak listerih (buy). in ruhte 'dnde hadddml, qulloh 
innak biddak tiifdrrag 'dia 'I/drs fi 'odefi elbarrdm^ weyifarrdgak 
'aleh. hod elgdta di, mdqddrs andm ^alehd.fih baragit (fleas)yz'/^<2. 
filmisd (in the evening) mdsrdbs dbdddn say, surb essay yimnd'nl 'an 
enjiom (sleep). indah hyilsuf ettawil (the tall Joseph) ; beyiqdar 
yebuss min essibdk, likonoh hilwa tawil. 'duze ii'mili e, yd bint ? 
ana 'duz aftikir asloh, lissd mcirdfl iza 'dndi waqt *dla sdn essHlgl 
da, dna bahdf min elMmma, hawalmd (round about us) fih 
mustdnqd (swamp), wedilwdqt eddHnyd Mr re keiir. yd hawdga^ 
ti'ibnd fiUulii wennuzHl (infinitives of 110" and of nizil) eggibdl ; 
ihna gu'dnin (pi. oi gu'dn, hungry) we' aisdnin (pi. of 'alsan, thirsty) 
wendsdnin (sleepy); wedilwdqte waqt elmizigSrno (time of the 
midday siesta, from Italian mezzogiornd), hdrabet elharamiye min 
elhabshdne (prison). 

B. Derived Forms of the w^ and;;/^ Verbs. 

II. Form : rduwah, go away ; zduwaq, deck out ; hduwud, turn 
aside ; nduwar, lighten (give light) ; Iduwin, colour, part, meldtiwin, 
gay ; mesduwis, unwell ; 'diyat, weep aloud ; 'diyin, appoint ; sdiyib, 
let loose ; gdiyar, change, alter. 

III. Form : qdwil, agree ; tdwi', obey ; 'diyin, perceive ; zdyid, 
increase, rise. 

IV. Form : rare. 

V. Form : iggduwiz, marry ; ithduwis, be preserved ; issdiyihy be 
let loose. 

VI. Form : ittdwib, yawn, gape ; ittdwil 'dla wdhidy behave 
insolently to somebody. 

VII. Form : inbd, be sold ; imdl, be transported. (In the perfect 

F 2 


the a remains before suffixes beginning with a consonant, the same 
is the case in Forms IV, VIII, and IX.) 

VIII. Form : ithds, be kept back ; iibd\ be sold ; istdd, fish, hunt. 

IX. Form: iswddd, be black, become black; ^xt?,Qn\., yiswidd, 
ibyddd, yibyidd, be or become white. 

X. Form : istaqdm, be just, be upright ; tstaddm, to last (present 
yistaqim, yistadini). 

Verbs similarly conjugated : iswddd, be black ; znbd\ be sold ; 
issdiyib^yissdiyib, be set at liberty ; gdiyar^yigdiyar, change. 

Vocabulary. — tdh, u, lose one's way ; dduwar 'dla, look for ; 
behera, lake; hdtir, wish; hardml, pi. -lye, thief; hel, horses; 
gugrdfia, geography; tch'ih, date (of month), history; 'urtlbba, 
Europe ; bildd eVdrab, Arabia ; 'ifrlqiye, Africa ; biUd essdrq, 'dsiya, 
Asia ; 'amirika, America. 


emhdreh effendmd (Khedive) iggduwiz wdya wdhde vmi bandt 
sultan bildd ettiUrk, yd hawdga, gd-ni elyoni (to-day) hadddmak 
weqdlli 'innak saiyibtoh hila sabab (without reason), da sahih ? 
auwdlan, yd sidi, biddi araf mm hadritak (your presence ; polite 
form of address instead of inte) 1 ana 'Iqddi (judge) i'mil mdruf 
(do me the favour) weqidll saiyibtoh le ? saiyibtoh bi/ies hiiwa ittdwil 
*aleya. Idzim yinsdl elbereh da. fiddor elfoqdni. mdt min elkollera 
(cholera) ; wzssoh {wiss, face) iswddd kulloh. qad (already) itbd'ii 
elbiyut dol ? iauwdbid (prolong, extend) elmubdsta (entertainment) 
Idzim nerilh. dauwdrnd 'albdgle i^-=.'ala elb . . .) elli tdhet filhdld, 
elhardmi issdiyib embdreh, we'nnahdrdd misikHh idm (again). nau- 
wdrtii Woda P nauwarndhd. kunte mistdd (part, of istdd fish) fi 
beheret menzdld (Lake Menzaleh) ? ld\ enndhya di (neighbourhood) 
muhifa (dangerous), biddukiwi tesu/u e? Mind. Mlkum dilwdqte 
filhdld. istaraiydhtii (recover, present yisiardiyaJi) luwdiye ? ezei 
(as) nistardiyah (supply : must), ihne teme'lU viasgiilin {vialgul, 
busy). md bidddks tiin (^an, ye in, send for) ettarabeze mi7i 'and 
ennaggdr ? embdreh istddnd gamb el'ahrdm ; we njiahdrda jilfayilm 
(Fayum). md iehdwilnis {Juiivil, cheat) 1 Id, yd hawdga, biddi 
tintdhib {intdhab, choose) 'dla hdtrak {Jidtirak\ 




Verbs with y as the final Radical (y^). 

The Perfect goes either like gdrd, he has run, or Hke rtdi, he 

agreed, was content. 


garet (als 



garet, fem. gareti 

{gi'rii, fem. giriti) 

ridiL fem. 


gdrd, (em.gdrye/ 

{girl), fem. gtryel 

ridJ, fem. 












'dgf'2, I run 'drdd, 

I agree 

tigri, fem. 

figrl /irdd, 

fem. tirdl 

yigrl, fem. 

tigri yirdd, 

fem. iirdd 








"igri, 'zgri, 'igru. 
'irdd, 'trdh 'irdu. 


gar I, fem. gdrye, pi. garyi7i, running. 

rddi, fem. rddyd, pi. rddyin^ content. 
Perf. Part. : e. g. from hdla^ mdhsJ, fem. mahliye, stuffed. 
Infinitive : garaydn, the running (substantive). 
The student may conjugate : rdma, yirmi, throw ; mdla, yimla, 
fill ; hdka,yihki, tell a tale ; sdqa^yisqi, give to drink, water. 

Derived Forms. 

II. Form : kdffa, yekeffi, suffice ; hdlla, yehdlll, let alone, allow 
(the following verb is in the present : e. g. Let me sleep, hallim 


andm /) ; sdhha, yesdhhi, awaken ; sdlla, yisdlli, amuse, {hallik, 
halliku, stay here ! sing, and pi.) 

III. Form : nddd, yenddi, call out publicly (part, menddiy public 

IV. Form: d'ia,yi'ti, give. Infinitive: imda (for imdd'), sig- 

V. Form : itrdbba, ytirdbbl, be brought up, be educated; tssdlla, 
yissdUl, amuse oneself. 

VI. Form: itrdha,yiirdha, be slack. An imp. tddla, fern, tddl'i, 
pi. tddlii, come ! replaces the missing imp. of ^^. 

VII. Form : iJibdna, yinbini^ be built. 

VIII. Form : itrdma, be thrown ; istdra, yistiri, buy ; iltdqa, 
yiliiqi, meet, find. 

X. Form : istdgna, yistigm, consider unnecessary ; miistdgiii, 
without need ; istdbda,yistibdi, begin. 

Vocabulary. — qirl, piastre ; hikdya, story, tale ; Id'b elwdraq, 
game of cards ; sem\ candle ; sugl, pi. asgdl, business, work ; 
frengi, Frank, European ; iarbus, pi. tardbis, fez, tarbush ; si'?-, 


laqet elhoga (teacher)_/^'>z P girind ketir, dilwdqte tfibnd. qiil 
lihadddmi.yistibdi dilwdqte mgloh. iltaret kdm hediye 'ala M71 ah I 
beti (ahl elbet, the family). astigni 'an eVdfle da (this luggage) 
ahibb (=1 prefer) idhod essanduq da. hdimnil (load, with two 
accusatives) elgdmal elhdlm (pi. ahmdl, burden) da. errih hddd 
(quiet down, only used of the wind). elbet elli yimbim {yinbinl) 
dilwdqte 'ala Idn elmehdfiz. iltaqet errigdl e'llt sdalic 'dmiak ? Id 
md 'Itaqethums. wilddi kiiUiihum (all my children) itrdbbu 
filmedreset qasr eVen (name of the school). da indyekefffs. md 
iehallihs yerilh qable-md (before) su/toh. 'zmla elkubbdye 7iebid 
(a double accusative follows the verb to fill). 'imla elkubbdye min 
(from) elhir (fem., pi. biydr, well). vialet elqillld e? malethd 
iiussdhd moiye nussdhd hall (vinegar), essaiydd (fisherman) rdmd 
'ssdbakd (net) talldhd {talld, draw out) iiidfis hdgafihd. ititdfd 
(be extinguished) elldmbd ? (or elldmba iiitdfet ?\ rabbti?ii (the}' 


have educated me) // 'urUbba. iniu radyin bisluglS da ? Id, md 
nirdds. Idqdkfen ? giritu ketir, istaraiydhu luwdiye Mne. iilrab 
qdhwe an neb id ? Id, masrdbs Mga, wdla qdhwe wdla nebid 
(neither . . . nor . . .). dsrab fingdn lay. zssalleiu embdreh ? 
issalleTid ketir, ihne lissd idbdnin. qarend luwdiye iarih, gugrdfia, 

Doubly Weak Verbs. 

Those verbs whose roots contain two weak radicals {w, dlif or y) 
are called doubly weak verbs. The most common are : sdwd,yiswi, 
roast ; wdfd,yufl (with bi), keep one's word; tdwd, yiiwi, fold up, 
infin. tdwi and idiy, rdwd,yirw2, water, rdiy, watering, irrigation ; 
wVi, yua, take care; imper. u'd, tii\ part. wSi^ careful; sdwd^ 
yiswd, be worth ; kdwd, yikwi, iron clothes. 

Derived Forms. 

II. Form: ivdddd, yezidddi, bring, lead; wdrrd. yewdrri, show'. 

III. Form : sdwd,yesdwJ, be worth. 

V. Form : z/rdtiwa, yitrduwi, consult, think over. 

VI. Form : infin. tawdiii, laziness ; bdawd?n, idle. 

VII. Form : i7isdwd,yi?isiwl, be roasted. 

VIII. Form : istdwa, yistiwi^ be ready, be ripe ; part, mistiwi ; 
itrdwa,yitriwi, be watered. 

X. Form: istdhd,yistihi, be alarmed; mistihi, well-behaved. 
'dda, give, and gd, come, specially should be mentioned here. 



'adet, I gave 

'ddi, I give 

'adet, fern, 'adeti 

tidi, fem. tidi 

'add, fem. 'ddet 

yidi, fem. tidi 







1 wdrra, show, and dda, give, are constructed either with two accusatives, or 
with the accusative of the thing and the dative of the person. 


Imperative : di, give ; and from another root gib, gtbt, gihu. 
We have already given the perfect of gd in Lesson X. The 
present runs as follows : — 

'dgt. nigi. 

ligi, fern. tigl. ttgu. 

yigl, fern. tigt. y^gu. 

Imperative : ta'dla, ta'dll, tddlu. 


itwili eVcividvie (turban, pi. 'amaim). elwaldd da yiwaddik 
eggdmi', insdwd elldhm e'lli gibioh-lak? Vmil mdruf warrini 
eVahrdm. qdl-li sdhib elloqdnda, yinsd/u fi Igdu (on the horizon). 
md tistihis ti'mil kidd ? nisit {msl, forget) adduwar sdati dilwdqti 
wdqfe (it has stopped). ti^ibte ketir firrukub (riding) elhegm. 
nisit sanduqi filloqdnda, wemagddrs drgd hendk. hilwa sdhib mdl 
(a well-to-do man). rdh d'mil e? Mlmet Idraf {parole d'hon- 
neur), da md suftSs abadan. 


tann {dann) ; tan — RULES OF SYNTAX. 

' To continue,' ' to go on,' are expressed in Arabic by iaim 
{dann) with the suffixes : e. g. He goes on writing, huwa ddnnoh 

* Just now,' ' this instant,' may be translated by tau, tdwi, with 
the participle : e. g. inte tau gal, you are arriving this very moment. 

The following Genitival-constructions are worthy of particular 
attention, as being peculiar to the Arabic language. 

I. 'dbU (father) serves mostly to call attention to some striking 
peculiarity : e. g. 'dbti 'Ihdl, father of terror, the Sphinx ; 'dbi'c-rds, 
the man with the (big) head ; it is sometimes used in speaking of 
prices : e. g. btisdt 'dbu hdmsd gineh, a five-guinea carpet ; 'umm 
(mother), used similarly for feminine substantives, is rarer. 


2. 'ibn (son), bint (daughter), are used to express age : thus 
huwa Hbii arbain sa?ia, he is forty years old ; 'ibii arbahldsar, the 
son of fourteen (days) : i. e. the full-moon. 

3. kull, the whole, each, all, every ; kidl^ sahr, every month ; 
kiill^ Sana, each year ; hdl e/imu, all the people ; kuH essima, the 
whole year ; all of you, kuUukiim ; all of them, hiMhiun. It can 
also be placed after the substantive, with its proper suffix : e. g. 
e7i7ids kiilMhtun, all the people ; elbei kuUoh, the whole house. 

Two accusatives follow verbs of making, finding, considering, 
filling and dividing (for ' show' and ' give ' see note to last lesson) : 
e.g. 'miloh bauwdb serdyetoh, he made him door-keeper of his 
palace ; laqenCi elbdb maftuh, we found the door open ; imla 'Ififtgdn 
qdhwe, fill the cup with coffee ; iqsim (from qasam, i, divide) erragif 
teldte hitat, divide the loaf into three pieces ; bazHnnoh rdgil battdl, 
I consider him a bad man. 

Vocabulary. — gdzd, yigdzl, punish ; elhoga, the teacher ; hdbar 
e? What's the news .? gar a e? What has happened ? ^dbsar e? What 
do I know? bikdm? at what price, for how much.? (At end of 


gar a e? w'dlddak HW min elmdktab (school) wemd sellimse 
*ala'l-hoga betd'oh wedikhd gdzdh. 'unwoh (his age) kdm sand ? 
huwa 'ibne telatdsar sand. ma stahsins eslugle da, md yingdhs 
{ndgahy succeed). huwa yiiwdqqaf (give way, yield) temelU, 
mdhibbl (= md 'ahibbs) rigdl zdyi da. 'istdnna suwdiye 'drgd bdd 
kdm daqiqa (minute). elqddi gdzdkuUi rdgil wdhid-wdhid. elbdb 
da md yinqifils. elwaldd da mdyinhdbbis (passive of habb, love), 
hHwa battdl ketir. kdn kdtib makldb, 'ala gdfle (suddenly) ddhal 
hadddmoh, gdboh rHzma^ hHwa fdlakoh, idlld minnoh kdm kildb, 
wedd?iftoh kdtib. hiye da?inihd ddrbe wal'ddhd. rdh iVmil e ? 
ana tau kdtib. itfarrdgnd 'ala Tahrdm zv^'al 'dbu-'lhdl. 


Prepositions — Useful Phrases, etc. 

Having given a number of prepositions scattered throughout the 
lessons we will here devote some attention to particular ones ^ It 
must be remembered that the prepositions are capable of combina- 
tion with the suffixes : e. g. qudddmi, in front of me ; 'dtidak, with 
you ; 77id 'ales, never mind, excuse me. 

We here give several prepositions in combinations differing from 
the English usage ; 

bi, by, with, in, at ; bisukkar, with sugar ; bitturki, in Turkish ; 
bilinglizJ, in English ; bikdm, for how much ? 

It corresponds with our ' have ' (in sense of possession). 

mm : min essibdk, out of window ; qurdiyib min, near by ; viin 
viuddet . . . , since the time . . . ; wdhid min ashdbi, one of my 

'an : saal 'an, ask after ; kasaf'an, seek for ; isiagnd 'an, be able 
to do without ; gasb 'an, against one's will ; gasb 'dnni, against 
my wish. 

'ala : 'a/a '/gdz, by gas ; 'ashmd/, to the left ; 'a/a Uyeniin, to the 
right ; sa'b 'a/a, unpleasant, difficult for ; hardm 'a/a, forbidden for ; 
sah/ 'a/a, easy for ; 'eb 'a/eJi, shame upon you, for shame ; 'a/a ku//i 
ha/, in any case ; 'a/a kefak, at your pleasure ; 'a/a '/gaib, by heart ; 
'a/a zdnni, according to my ideas, as I think. 

As regards Conditmia/ Sen/ences a distinction must be made in 
Arabic between real and unreal conditions. Real conditional sen- 
tences are introduced by iza or 171 with the perfect or the present ; 
unreal (hypothetical) conditional sentences by /au, iza or in (nega- 
tive /au-/a-i7i) always with a following perfect : e. g. 'iza lufloh, 
qui/oJi, if you see him, tell him ; /au kunte mftoh, kunte qu/ti/oh, if 
I had seen him, I should have told him ; /au lufioh, kunt ista'gibt, 
if you were to see him, you would be astonished ; negatively ; 
/au-/a i7i kunte lufioh, ?7id kilntis ista'gibt. 

^ See also the colleclion of prepositions at the end of this lesson. 


altagil 'ala 'Igdz. loh kam 'dndi? loh 'dndak arid' a qiiriVs 
(pi. of qirl, piastre), ^eb 'alek, dardbie elwalad edddif da. 'ala 
zdfmJ hiiwa sdfir embdreh, ' anddkse fulus ? 'dndi kdm qirs bess. 
basset viin esstbbdk. lau sdfirt waydyd, kunte firihte ketir. uitii 
'dr/iJi sikket masr ? Idsakk (of course) nirdfhCi tamdm (perfectly, 
exactly), yd wildd, kdm bitridu (from rdd, i, want) i7i sdhibtuni 
(sdhib, accompany) lihddd buldq (suburb of Cairo). di likullinci 
(to each of us) 'alrin fddda. nehditoh wisibiCi (arrive) _/t?'^ rds 
eggdbiil (top of the mountain). 'imilnd suglinii. dilwdqie ni'raf 
nitkdUiin bil 'drabi. ellisdn da sdb keiir^ Idkin vid-hifnds essiiube 
(diflSculty). dilwdqte niqrd (from qdrd^ read) kamdti kdm hikdye. 

Prepositions, Conjunctions, Phrases, etc. 

It is true that we have given a considerable number of these in 
the course of the lessons, but we deem it expedient to append 
a longer list here ; and we recommend the student to form as 
many sentences as possible involving the use of them, and thus to 
gain facility in applying them. 

'ala, 'al^ upon, over, against, to, about ; the / is often assimilated 
to the following consonant, as in the case of the article : e. g. 'ala 
el/ars, on the sofa ; 'attarabeze^ on the table. 

'an, of, about, than, instead : rduwah 'an elbet, he was going 
away from the house (i. e. without having entered it). The n is 
doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel ; 'dmii, 'dnnak, &c. 

'and, at, near, with, ' chez' : 'and elhakim, at the doctor's ; gd min 
'dnde 'dmmoh, he came from his uncle's (// venait de chez son oncle) ; 
riih li'dnd elhakim, go to the doctor's. 

bdd, after (time) : bdd senelen, after two years. 

bdla {bild), without: balds, 'mw2.m, gratis; bi diln,biger, mi'nger, 
are more common than bdla {bilii). 

bdrra, outside. 

ben, between : bhii weben wdhid, between me and between some 
one else ; ben elkursi w^beti eiiarabeze, between the chair and 
the table. 


hi, be, by, with, at ; with the suffixes b^ {biyd) ; bak, fern, bik ; 
boh, fern, bihd] bind, bukum, buhum. 

biddl, instead of, for. 

ft, in : with suffixesy/y^' ; fik, {tm./ikl ; fih, fern, fihd ; find, 
fikum,fihum ; with article _/?/. 

fih, there is, there are ; mdfis, there is not, there are not. 

fSq, on, upon, above, upstairs, over : foq min, above ; foq 'an, 
higher than ; min foq, from above : e. %.foq min essagardt dol, over 
these trees ; min foq essagara, from above the tree. 

ganb (pronounced gamh), beside. 

gHwa, inside. 

hawdlen, round about : before suffixes hawdle {hauwdle). 

hdrig, externally. 

Hid, except. 

qabl, before (time). 

qudddm, before (place). 

qussdd, opposite. 

ger, except, with the exception of. 

li, sign of dative, to, for ; lilhadddm, to the servant ; with the 
suffixes li (Jiyd), lak, fern, lik ; loh, fem. Idhd ; Bid, lukiim, lHhum 
(these forms also do duty for our verb 'have': li bet, I have a 
house) ; Ithddd, until. 

via' a, vid, mi\ with : with suffixes mVdyd, vii'dk, mi'dh, and 
so forth ; md'a zdlik, in spite of. 

min, from, out of, than, since ; doubles its ;/ in a manner similar 
to 'an (q. v.) ; also its n assimilates itself like the / of the article : 
e. g. missd'a hdmsd, since five o'clock. 

nahw, towards (direction) = lindhye. 

tab', belonging to. 

iaht, under, underneath, downstairs : min taht, from under ; 
wFbdss elkdlb min taht elfars, and the dog looked out from under 
the sofa. 

till, during : till elyom, all through the day. 

wa, wi (in oaths) by : e. g. wi?inabi. By the Prophet ! 

wqya, with ; waydyd, with me. 

ward, behind. 


wusi, fi wiisty in the middle : e. g. fi icust essiiq, in the middle 
of the market. 

We specially recommend the study of the following expressions, 
which will simplify the translation of Arabic prepositions. 

Hang up on 
Stick to 

Write to some one 
Doubt something 
Rejoice at 
Knock at the door 
Recognize by something 
Be ill of 
Die of 

Small of stature 
Lay one's hand on 
Marry with 

The donkey with his burden 
Hit with something 
Go by train 
By permission 
Rice with meat 
Meat with potatoes 
Introduce to 
Give an order for 
In pencil 
In the Soudan 
In my whole life 
Be on the point of doing some- 
In the immediate future 
In the beginning 
From now on 
Laugh in somebody's face 
As you please 
As you wish 

'dllaq bi 
liziq bi 

kdtab liwdhid 
sakk/i hdga 
ftrih bi 
hdbat 'albdb 
'in/ 771171 /idga 
mirid 771171 
mdt 771171 
zugdiyar elqdme 
kdbas 'ala 
itgduwiz bi 
elho77idr bihiwidloh 
ddrab biJidga 
rdh bisikket elhadid 

ruzze billahTTi 
Idhme bilbatdtis 
'drraf bi 
wdssd bi 
biqdlam rums 
fi bildd essuddn 
till '6m7'i 

rdhyi'TTiil hdga 

'aTi qarib 

'duwal, 'auwdlatt 

dtlwdqti weraih 

dihik 'dla ddq7ioh 

bikefak ; oftener 'dla kefak 

bihdtrak [bihdlirak) 



To the village 

Towards your parents' house 
Look at 
To the left 
To the right 
Go to 

Ask after 

Make inquiries about 
Something smells of . . . 
Swear by 
By God 1 

By the life of the Prophet ! 
By day, by night 
At table 

Have you upon you ? 
Amongst Europeans 
Go to some one 
In Cairo 

At the time of . . . 
Look out of window 
For example, e.g. 
Love for 
For how much ? 
At the price 
Two metres away 
At . . . piastres 
Send for the doctor 
Lift a thing on the top of some- 
In the street 
In the open (country) 
On the roof 
At his expense 
Rely on some one 

lilbalad{vciore frequently the simple 

'ala bet dhlik 

bass 'dia 


'ala 'lyemin 

rah, rduwah, sdfir (with the accu- 

sd'al 'ala (or 'an) 

istdfhim hdga ; istdhbar 'an 

hdga lihd rihet el . . , 



wahydt ennabi ! 

btnnahdr, billel 

'and {ganb) eUarabeze 

'anddkse ? 

'and eVifrang 

rdh li'dnde wdhid 

bi masr (not common) 
/i waqt el . . . 

bdsse min esstbdk 


mehdbbe li 

bikdm ? 


be' id bimetren 

bi . . . qirs 

nddah lilhaMm 

sdl Mga 'dla se 

firrif, filhdla 
foq essath 
'dla kisoh 
i'idmad 'dla 


In Arabic 

Out of the house 


Upon this condition 

Never mind, it does not matter 

If it is so 

In every case 

Agree upon 

Make a contract with 

Tell about 

Enlighten upon 

Call to 

Desire from 

Prevent from 

Inquire into 

Delay something 

Lazy at 

Moreover, besides that 

Distinguish from 

Hide oneself from 

The relationship with 

Since a long time 

Lose one's temper with 

Distinct from 

Of the race of . . * 

He belongs to us 

Full of 

Reflect upon 

A book about . . . 

Who of you [qui parmi vous) 

mill clbet 
'dla gdfle 
'dia 'ssdrl da 
ind 'alehs 
'iza kdn 'dla kzdd 
'dla kulll Ml 
iiidfaq 'ala kidd 
sdral zvdyd 
haka 'ala 
zdhhar 'ala 
nddah li 
idlab min 
mdna' 'an 

kdlaf'an, t'stdksaf'an 
'dhhar 'an 
tanbal 'an {or/i) 
fddlan 'an zdlik 
mdiyiz 'an 
istahdbb min 
elqurbe min 
min zamdn 
ingdz min 
muhtdlif min 
viin qabile el . . . 
sdr minnd 

malydn min (or with accusative) 
kildbfi . . . 

Parsing is of great use for obtaining a correct knowledge of 
grammar. We therefore give a few sentences, which we strongly 
recommend the student to analyse with as much detail as possible. 

elbet da bet liabfiyd. This house is one of my father's houses. 
(Observe the Arabic rendering of the genitive.) 


aJjdt-lak hadddm Vidinmi^ I am sending you a servant of my 

ld,yd hawdga, elMqqe'alek, elhdqge/i id elqddl, No, Sir, you are 
wrong, the judge is right. 

elhdqqe ' alend Idzivi nidfd^ We are wrong, we must pay. 

bd'de md iili\ gd-jii hadddmoh, After he had gone his servant 
came to me. 

Idmma 'Ihakim simi' kidii, qdl lihadddmoh, hdt essi'kkine, When the 
doctor heard that, he said to his servant : Give the knife. 

ddhalu eVetjim rigdl 'ala 'Iqddi, The two men went in to the 

bass elwdhid 'ala 'Ibdhr weqdl ettdni : qum yd habibi Idzimnd 
neruh^ The one looked out over the sea, and the other said : Rise 
up, Oh my friend ! We must be off. 

gum lilbir, weqdl err e is, e'Ui 'atldnyisrab, They came to the well 
and the captain said : Whoever is thirsty drinks. 

qdletloh elbint id die yd 'amm, ana 'duze 'uqd, The girl said to him : 
Come, uncle, I want a necklace. 

ddhal oda elqddi luwdiye weiiW viinhd 'dhmar ehviss, He went 
into the judge's room a httle and came out from it red in the face. 

In the following sentences especial attention should be paid to 
the agreement of the verb with its subject. 

elhardmiye hdgamet e?i?idg'e wesdraqet minnoh dsye, The thieves 
attacked the camp and stole things from it. 

ms ddhalet he'ne fin7iehdr eggu??i'a, The people came in here on 

hiye gdtnd mirsdl mm 'and 'uhtind, She came to us (as) messenger 
from our sister. 

elbandt gum 'ala bdb elbusldjt, The girls came to the garden-gate. 

ddnnoh Id'ib Idmmd Mlset elhdmsa, He continued playing {IVib, a) 
until the five (viz. paras) were finished. 

gal 'aid elbaUid lilqddi, The people of the village came to the 

milyet errigdl qudddmoh werdhu sdwa lilgdmi\ The men went 
before him, and they went together to the mosque. 


nizilet eimds mcsafrin 'almasr bilwabur, The people who were 
travelling to Cairo by steamer came down. 

idh filgdbe uiqahiluh ehnesd'ih, He lost his way in the wood and 
the sheikhs met him. 

b^tihbir elgurnaldt m qdjlct kordofdn haga7nu 'alehd eVdrab biddu- 
hum yijihabiVid, The papers announce that the Bedawin attacked 
the caravan for Kordofan and wanted to plunder it. 

kdn zvdhid mdr'afi masr, There was a woman in Cairo. 

kd?i sdiiatak e ? What was your trade ? 

The following sentences are illustrative of the manner of expres- 
sing ' so that, that ' in Arabic. 

simVt innak 'd'uz tiliiri husdn, I have heard that you want to buy 
a horse. 

'irbiit kailile tdiyib 7nm sdn mdyusqutse se/eymkhi'r,'Q\ndi every- 
thing well together so that nothing falls and gets broken. 

hotte seggdde 'aleh 'alasdn dq'od viiiWi, Place a carpet upon it so 
that I may sit comfortably. 

ihtirUu in md yisriqiilind se, Take care that no one steals 
anything from us. 

qdb/e kulii se dzr bdlak 'ala in kulli se yekiin hddir, Before every- 
thing be careful that all is ready. 

'atiz minnak kbV-Ii taqin min sdn husdni, I would like you to buy 
me harness for my horse. 

For the sake of completeness we here give a few every-day 
phrases and greetings. 


essaldm 'aiek i^alekum) Peace be upon thee (you) ! 

Ans. wtalek l^alekum) essaJdm And upon you be peace ! 

sabdh biJher Good morning ! 

Ans. yisabbdhak [alldJi) bilher May (God) grant thee a good 

morning ! 
nahdrak sdid May thy day be fortunate ! (Good 

Ans. nahdrak mubdrak ]\Iay thy day be blessed ! 





mi'se Uher 

leltak sdide 
mdrhaba (or dhla^i 


Good evening ! 
Good night ! 

Welcome ! 
Twice welcome ! 


izdy hdlak ? ezdyak ? 
ana tdiyib biher 
we'iydlak i^ahle belak) 
ahwdlhuvi ? 


How do you do ? 
I am perfectly well. 

And how are your family 


*dndak e ? 

What have you .? 

kdn 'dndak e ? 

What was the matter with you ? 

bitugd'ni rdsi 

I have a headache. 

'en essimdl {elyemin) 


My left (right) eye pains me. 

dna viazkum 

I have a cold. 

dna mabhich 

I am hoarse. 

bitugdm 'isndm 

I have toothache. 

mdah lilhakhn, mm . 



Call the doctor, that he may pull 

eddirs ehnhduwas 

out the hollow tooth. 

hddni bard (cold has taken me) 

I have caught cold. 

rdqabti bitugd'nl 

I have a pain in my neck. 

essd'h bit'azzihii 

I am troubled by a cough. 

bitugd'ni bdtnt 

I have a pain in my stomach. 

bi vidqas 

I have colic. 

Uye tuhme 

I feel ill. 

dmdr wdhid biddwd 

Prescribe medicine for some one. 

elhakim biluffii 

The doctor is visiting me. 

dna mahmum 

I have fever. 


Get well. 

miridy a 

Get ilk be ilk 



Weather, climate, air. 


World, weather. 


elhdwd mdWi 

It is good weather. 

elhdivci hattdl 

It is bad weather. 

elhdwd hddi 

It is quite still. (There is not a 

breath of wind.) 

essdmd sdfyc 

The sky is clear. 

eddHnyd diilme 

It is dark. 

eddHnyd sabitra 

It is cloudy. 

heyinzil enndtar {elmdtar) 

Rain is falling. 


It is very hot. 

ana harrdn 

I feel hot. 

dna 'arqdn 

I am perspiring. 

ha iihsul sawd'iq 

A storm is coming. 

harq, pi. hiiriiq 




hMhruq wibMr'ud 

It is lightning and thundering. 

eddiinyd bard 

It is cold. 

bihabb rih sedid 

There is a strong wind blowing. 

biyHqd elbdrad 

It is hailing. 

ennahdrdd bisir gdlid 

It is freezing to-day. 

dab elgdlid 

It has thawed. 

elhdwa mutgdiyar min sd'a Iisd'a 

The weather is changing from 

hour to hour. 

7idlaf elwdhl 

The mud has dried up. 

eiindtar fdt 

The rain is over. 

enndtar yinqas 

The rain is stopping. 

G 2 


He went 

I. Hikayat. 


From Spitta-Bey's Gravnnatik des arabischen VnlgiirdiaJektes in Agypten. 

kdn * rcigil rfiziq biwaldd 

(There) was (a) man he was blessed with (a) child 

wefirih-boh ^. 
and he rejoiced at it. 

Mn Mddoh^ 

He was wishing 

liwdhid naggdr 
to a carpenter 

and said to him : 


wihod elmdhd ya'jii 

and take the cradle, that is to say 

kd7i elhamis. nahdr elgu??i'a 

it was Thursday. (On) Friday 

w^qdl-loh hat elmdhd. 

and said to him : Give (me) the cradle. 

'nnaggdr Ihsa mil's halds. wit'dhhar 

yisieri-loh mahd. 

he buys for him (a) cradle. 

wadd'-loh rndsalan 

and gave him for example 

i' mil-It 
Make me 

(a) dollar 

Said to him 

the carpenter 

Good ! 

(a) cradle. 

elgum'a ta'dla 

of the week (Friday) come 


the man 

ietiidftt iydm 
eight days, 

went to him 

Said to him 

the carpenter : Yet not ready. And delayed the carpenter 


Idf?i?nd mill elwdUid wekihir wegdtnvi'z wastdulid 

till walked the boy and grew up and married and begat 

ivalad qdl h'abtih \fuz mahd lihm. 

(a) boy. He said to his father I want (a) cradle for my son. 

qdlloh ahiVi riih e?maggd?- clfuldm^ 

Said to him his father : Go (to) the carpenter So-and-so, 

dna wassetoh^ bimcihd yibqa^ dihvdqti 

I have commissioned him for (a) cradle, it is now 

'asrm sand hSdoh ininnoh. rah 

twenty years (ago), take it from him. He went 

emiaggdr qdl-loh hat elmahd dli 

(to) the carpenter, he said to him : Give me the cradle which 

wassdk-boh'' ^abuya wadd-Iak 

has commissioned you for it my father and has given you 

riydl. qdl-loh 'finaggd?- hod erriydl 

(a) dollar. Said to him the carpenter take the dollar, 

md ahibbis astdgil essugl. 

I do not like I hurry the work. 


One of the Anecdotes about Abu-NuwAs, court 


From Probst : Arahischer Sprachftikrer in dgyptischem Dialekt. 

vidrra Mn ' dbu-ntiwds qd'id ivdya 'Im'dlik 

Once was Abij-Nuwas sitting with the king 

hdrim errand w^kd?iet eddiiiiyd bdrde'^ qdwi. 

Hariin er-Rashid, and was the world (weather) cold very. 

feqdl elmalik Tdbu-nuwds ymktndkse'^ 

And said the king to Abu-Nuwas : Is it possible for you 


tibdt kull ellela-di 'arydn malt foq essutuh 

you spend all this night naked quite upon the roofs ? 

wVin^ qidirt dn'dm'^ 'alek 

And if you can (could), I will show favour (upon) you 

hihdga kuwaiyise. feqdlloh 'dhu-nuwds 

with (some)thing beautiful. Then said to him Abu-Nuwas : 

nd'am yd malik essddda 'dqdar. wefudqtuh^ 

Yes, O King of good fortune, I can. And in his time 

tiW foq essutuh wimddda kull ellele 

he went up upon the roofs and passed all the night 

'arydfi filbdrd wanndtara. yidh'ah 'arydn 

naked in the cold and the rain. He cried out Ah ! naked 

zdymd wildetoh 'ilmmoh. wetdni ySm 

as bore him his mother. And the next (second) day 

Idnwid till' ennahdr wFgi yisdbbah^ 

when rose the day and he came he wishes Good morning 

'almdltk, sdaloh 'Im'alik ezdy leltak kdnet 

to the king, asked him the king : How thy night was she, 

ydbu-nuwds fegduboh'^ kdnet bdrde 

Abu-Nuwas ? And he answered him : It was cold 

qdwi hdlis wetill ellel bitt 

very very and the (whole) length of the night I spent 

artdis. fisdaloh ebnalik baqa 

1 shiver. And asked him the king : Then you did 

mdddafetsi^ 'ala hdga weld sUfti's 

not warm yourself over (any) thing : and not have you seen 

7idr weld nilr weld 

hdga abdddn ? 

fire and not light and not 

anything at all (never) ? 

fiqdlloh hift 'ala 

mddad essof 

And he said to him : I saw in 

the distance of the view 

;/«/' qandil zei ddif 
light lamp 

you have warmed yourself 

iiiidmiya fehdrag 

favour. Then went out 


feqdlloh 'hidUk : haqa 

oil feeble. And said to him the king : Then 
'aleh wald iistahdqqu 

over it and not do you deserve 

' dhu-nuwds viitkaddcv elhdtir. 
Abu-Nuwas troubled in spirit. 

wiba'dihd bikdm yom dahbdrloh hile 

And hereafter in some days he arranged for himself a piece 

wtdzzim elmalik fi'akl wekdtief 

of cunning and invited the king to dinner and was 

eVoztlme filhala. feldmmd gd waqt eTdkl 

the banquet in the open. And when came the time of the meal 

weMn elmalik gddn fesd'al abu-niiwds 

and was the king hungry and asked Abu-Nuwas: 

feti eTdkl? qdlloh hddir kdmdn 

Where is the dinner .? He said to him : Ready, still 

lahze Idmmd yistiwi ettabih. fesaaloh 

a moment until becomes ready the cooking. And asked 

elmalik tdni vidrra wetdlit 

him the kinp^ a second time and a third 

the time 

the king 

dd'iman : 
always : 



very much ; 


the afternoon. 

and was 


mdrra wekdn 
time, and was 

And hungered 

of Abu-Nuwas 

The cooked stuff 


Ussd mastawas^"^ ya 

not yet is ready, O 

fefdggib elvi'dlik w^qdlloh 

king of good fortune. And wondered the king and said to him : 

warrini ettabih da dvnnd 'ahif le lihdddi 

Show me this cookery, so that I see why until 


dilwdqtt mdstawds. qdlloh tdiyib ! werdhum 

now it is not ready. He said to him : Good ! And they went 

hdliihum sdwa lihddde vidtrah ettahih 

all of them together to the place of the cooking ; 

feldqa Uinalik eiindr 'ald'I'drd fefdggib 

and found the king the fire on the ground, and was astonished 

weqdlloh fen elhaldl 

and said to him : Where (are) the pots and pans 

wattahih ? firddde 'aleh 

and what is being cooked ? And he answered back to him : 

yd vialik essa'dde buss It/oq 

O king of good fortune, look up there, 

tilqihum 1 fib ass laqdhum 

you will find them ! And he looked he found them, 

mitdallaqin fSq 'alassdgar. feqdlloh baqa 

hung up above in the trees. And he said to him : Now, 

yd magnun ezdy yistiwi walhaliil ffssdgar 

fool, how will it get done and the kettles in the trees 

wiimidr ^atdrd? fegduboh dbu-nuwds 

and the fire on the ground ? And answered him Abu-Nuwas : 

we ezdy iddafet mm elqandil illl 

And how have I warmed myself from the lamp which 

luftoh min be id? fambdsat'^'^ elmalik 

1 saw (it) from afar ? And was delighted the king 

wemdt 'ala ruhoh min dikk"^"^ willi 

and died over his spirit of laughter ; and those 

waydh hdt yd hirr^^. webddihd kdn 

with him : Give O kirr. And afterwards was 

'dbu-nuwds muhdddar 'akli tdni 

Abu-Nuwas bringing in a meal a second (another). 


webddenid akhim w^irbum wi?nbdsatti?n. 

And afterwards they ate and they drank and they made merry 

dficwi 'aleh ehnalik bValtye 'aztme. 

together. Showed favour to him the king with a gift lovely. 


Short Anecdotes. 

Translated from Wied's Turkish Grammar *. 

1. adt 'rriydl e'lli lak 'dndi^ viiii 
Here is the dollar which to you (is) with me since 


idiyib, qabl kiifiie nisitoh'^. 
Good, already I was I forgot it. 

via guilds auwdlan le ? 

Not you said so before why .? 

2. kdn rdgil is far a sd'a 'alasdn nd/soh 
There was a man, he bought a watch for himself, 

witamdnhd hamastdsdr riydl^. f^g^b 

and its price (was) fifteen dollars. And he gave 

lissddti hd?nsd riydldt'^ weqdlloh 

to the watchmaker five dollars, and said to him 

afddllak eTasara riydldt viadyim ^ bdd kd?n 

I remain to you (for) the ten dollars debtor. After some 

ydm cssddti tdlab viinnoh clmdblag 

days the watchmaker demanded from him the sum 


* Published by A. Hartleben, Vienna, Buda-Pesth, and Leipzig. 
^ i. e. I am still your debtor to the extent of ten dollars (and mean to remain 
so). The point is that he wishes to remaitt his debtor. 



Said to him 

I remain to you 

3. Mn 
There was 

and he remained 

the man : 


a man 

I cannot 


(I) pay you, 

I wish 

he visits 

his friend, 

yediiqq ^ 
(he knocks) knocking 


was opened 

the door. 

It seems 

(at) the door, 

no one 


a village 

in the house. 

erragil-dd gd 

This man came .x^,... ^ ....^o^ 

webhsabdb-di ithdmaq ivekdtab 

and on this account he got angry and wrote 

bdb elbet. 

the door of the house. 







bdd kdm 
After some 


he met 

the master 

wekdn benhum mehdwara 

and there was between them conversation, 

kunte 'dndak yibqd kdm yom 

I was at your place ago some days, 

in the house. 

fegduboh eTdhar diwa kdii 

Then answered him the other, yes, it was 

of the house, 

fiqdl elwdhid 
and said the one 

wemd kuntil 

and not thou wast 


viin 'en beti'raf inm ^ kHjiti 'dndak ? 

From where do you know that I was at your house } 


katdht 'is??iak fSq elbdb. 

You wrote your name over the door. 

4. kdn rdgil Idf iiirbe iawile keiir. 
There was a man he saw a grave long very. 

fhaal Iiniin etiurbe eitawile 

And he asked : To whom (whose is) the grave the long 

di ? feqdWoh lilbeiraqddr^ fesdal 

this 1 And they said to him : to the standard-bearer. And asked 

er rdgil dafanHh'^ way a 'Ibeiraq? 

the man : they buried him with the flag .? 

5. kdn rdgil kdtab makliib lihabtboh 
There was a man he wrote a letter to his friend, 

weqdl lihadddmoh hod elmakiHb da wehodoh 

and he said to his servant : take the letter this, and take it 

li'dnd elhawdga elfiildn. 

to the gentleman So-and-so. 

rigV elhadddm bdd rHUe sd'a 

Came back the servant after a quarter of an hour. 

fhdal elhawdga hadl 

And asked the gentleman [subject to the verb] : did you take 

elgawdb li'dnde habibi ? 
the letter to my friend .? 

diwa ahddtoh. 
Yes, I took it. 

sdlldmtSloh ? ^ 
Did you give it to him ? 

tdlaboh weldkin ana mddetolos ^. 

He demanded it, but I did not give it to him. 

lidiyi sdbdb ? 

For what reason ? 



qidtill hSdoh Idkin vidqultilis 

You said to me, take it, but you did not tell me : 

sdlldmSloh 'ahddloh 

Give it him ; I took it 

weraggd Uoh m Vdye 

and brought it back with me 

halletoh yiqrdh ? * 

You let him he reads it ? 

elhawdga dihik. 

The gentleman laughed. 

wewarreiSloh ^ 
and showed it to him 





md qdlldks 


Did he not say to you 

anything ? 

diwa qdlli 

homdr Idkin 



Yes, he said to me 

' Ass,' but 

I did 

not understand 

'iza qdloh 'Hi 

do Hlak. 

if he said it for me 

or for you. 


Story of the Prince in Love. 

From Spitta-Bey's Contes arabes modernes : Leyden. E. J. Brill, 1883. 

kdn fih wdhde Id Utihbal^ wdla^ 

[who) neither conceived nor 

ittdlabet mirrahhihd ^ 

she petitioned (from) her God 

hint waldu "^ temiii 

a daughter even if she dies 

qdmet hihlet wcwildet 

Now she conceived and bore 

elhint. Idmmd kihret bdqa 'umrdhd 

the girl. When she grew up (and) now her age (was) 

There was a womj 

brought forth. 

qdmet * 

and said : 

ahtini « 
Give me 

from the smell 

of linen. 


'dsara sinin /(fit ibn elmalik 

ten years, passed (passing) by the son of the king 

vim elhdre qdm sd/hd tdlle'^ min 

in the street. Now he saw her looking out of 

esh'bbdk. qdm huhbe'hd nizil ft 

the window. Now her love (love for her) descended into 

qdlboh. rdtiwah filbei 'aiydjt. itqdlibet^^ 

his heart. He went away to the house ill. (She) there followed 

'aUh elMkama md 'I'r/us dawdh'^'^. qdrnet 

upon him the doctors not they knew his medicine. Now 

tilVet 'dndoh wdhde 'aguze qdlet-hh 

w'ent up to him an old woman, she said to him : 

yd tdra inte 'dhq ^^ wdlld inerdfiq ? ^^ 

Perhaps you are in love or have a loved one ? 

qdl-ldhd dim 'dh'q. qdlet-loh 'dszq 

He said to her I am in love. She said to him in love wiih 

min qdl-ldhd *dh'q hint 

whom ? He said to her : I am in love with the daughter 

etidgir elV 'ismihd sittiikdn 

of the merchant whose (her) name (is) Sittukan. 

qdlet-loh dna 'agibhd-lak. finizlet 

She said to him : I will bring her to you. And went down 

el^agUze qdblet-hd wdqfe ^* 'alalbdb. 

the old woman and met her standing at the door. 

qdlet-ldhd yd binti infi huwaiyise 

She said to her : Oh my daughter you are beautiful 

gdradik ^^ tifallimi 'and elmedllime 

your desire (is that) you learn (at) from the mistress ^ 

betS elkittdn. rdhet elbint 'and 'timmehd 

belonging to the linen. Went ihe girl to her mother ; 

* i.e. the woman that teaches the linen-trade. 



she said to her : 

She said to her : 

Lead me, 

The mistress 

O mother, 

which ? 

filmidllime ! 
to the mistress! 

She said to her : 

viedllinit ^^ 
The mistress 

of linen. 

She said to her : 


bdden temutl. 

afterwards you will die 

bdatethd 'umm^hd 

Sent her her mother 

She said to her : 




the mistress 



my daughter 

mdmut's ^'^. 
I will not die. 

betdht^^ elkittdn. 
of the linen. 

qd^ide tendffad filkittdn ^^ 

She (was) sitting she cleans (in) the linen. 

qdssdye min elkittdii fi shdhhd'^^ bm elldhn 

a thread from the linen into her finger between the flesh 

weddufr. wiqi'et fiTard. qdlu 'alehd 

and the nail. She fell to the ground. They said about her : 

mdtet. bd'atu lummehd wabuhd 

She has died. They sent to her mother and her father, 

qdlu-lhum tddlu silu 

they said to them : Come ye ; take away 

mdtet. rdh abuhd wummehd 

your daughter, 


she has died. Went her father and her mother and people 
'assdn^^ yldjimlhd. qdmet eTagilze 

with her 

in order to they bury her. 

qdlet-l&hum intu nds 



said to them : 

You are 

rich ; 

the old woman 

mtis 'eb 

not shame 

'aleku rdh'^'^ tidfinuhd taht etdrde 

upon you » you are going to (you) bury her under the earth 

fitturdb? 'ibnu-lhd serdyd fi wast elbdhr 

in the dust ? Build for her a palace in 

* Are you not ashamed to ... ? 

middle of the river 



wMllhnd tiiwahhalu'^'^ Idhd terHhu telufuhd. 

and as often as you have a desire for her you go you see her. 




serdye fi ivast 


her father 

built for her 

a palace in the middle 




'dmal-lhd genene 

of the river on 


he made for her a garden 



'lbi7it haitiihd guwa 

inside it. 

And they 

carried away 

the girl laid her in 

' sserir 



wifdtHhd wemisyum. 

the bed, inside 


the palace ; and left her and went away. 

eTagilze lihn ehiialik qdlet-loh 

Went the old woman to the son of the king she said to him : 

ruh silfhd hiye fi ' s serdye fi 

Go ! See her ! She (is) in the palace in 

elbdhr. fibn^* elme'lik had 

of the river. Then the son of the king took 

werdh wetili' ^andihd 

(with him) and went and went up to her 

iltaqdhd maiyite. qd'ad yi'dzyaf 

He found her dead. He sat he weeps 

weyequl afdr 'alehd filgamdl. 

and he says verses over her concerning (her) beauty. 

mdsikhd biqdllib fihd. 

He took hold of her, he turned her (in every direction). 

qdvi misik 'idhd biyuriha"^^ 

Now he caught hold of her hand he shows it 

lilwazir weyeqtll hf rufaiydin ezdy 

to the vizier and he says : See, slight how (how slight 

qdm iltdqa '/qassdya beta' elkittdn 

they are) ! Now he found 

the middle 

the vizier 


over her 

the thread from the linen 


ben edMfr welldhm, qdm natdshd 

between the nail and the flesh, now he took it out 

wetalldhd {wetalldhhd). qdmet elbinte qSi'de 'ala helhd ^^ 

and made it come out. Now the girl sitting upright 

qdlet-loh ana fin? qdl-Idhd inti 

said to him : I (am) where ? He said to her : You are 

'dndl yd hahibet qdlbi. hddhd 

with me, O loved one of my heart. He took her 

ivendm waydhd fisserir arbdin ydm tamdm 

and slept with her in the bed forty days exactly. 

nizil tahi iltdqa 'Iwazir qdid 

He went down downstairs he found the vizier sitting 

btsianndh, tiVum min elbdb guwa 

waiting for him. They went out from the door into 

'Igenene. qdbilhum ehvdrde walyasniin. qdm 'ibn 

the garden. Met them the rose and the jasmine. The son 

elmelik qdl lilwazir bdlak elwdrde 

of the king said to the vizier do you remember the rose 

walyasviin zeyi baydd sittukdn 

and the jasmine (are) like the whiteness of Sittukan 

welwdrde zeyi hududhd. 

and the rose (is) like her cheeks. 

yd ref^"^ elgddab md kdn 

If you will not be angry with me (I shall stay with her) 

waldu kamdn tdlat 'lydm. 

even though it be but three days more. 

iiW^ qd'id 'andihd idlat 'lydm. nizil 

He went up sitting with her three days. He came down 

wemisi huwa walwazir. qdbletoh sag art 

and walked he and the vizier. Met him a tree 


elharrub. qdlloh hdlak 

of carob-beans. He said to him » : Do you remember 

elharrub yd wazir zeyi hawdgib siiiukdn ? 

the carob, Oh ! vizier, is like the eyebrows of Sittukan ? 

yd ret elgddab md kdn 
waldu hamdn tdlat 'tydm. 

tiW qd'i'd 'andihd tdlat 'tydm wenizil 

He went up staying with her three days; and he came down 

mm Idqa fasqiye. qdlluh 

he walked he found a fountain. He said to him : 

bdlak elfasqiyedi yd wazir zeyi suret 

Do you remember this fountain, Oh ! vizier, is like the figure 

sittukdn ? 
of Sittukan ? 

yd ret elgddab vid kdn 
waldu kamdn tdlat 'tydm. 

qdm rigV Idhd. kdnet hiye nizlet min 

He returned to her. Was she come down from 

foq qdlet amm^^ 'ardh aluf huwa biruh'^^ 

upstairs : she said I am going to (I) see he goes 

webirgd 'ala Mn e. nizlet wiqfet wdra 

and comes back why. She went down she stood behind 

'Ibdb webetaili 'aleh wehHwa gal bizHqq 

the door and looked at him and he coming pushes 

elbdb. qdm Mfhd taffe 'ale ha weqdl-ldha 

the door. Now he saw her, he spat on her and said to her : 

^ The prince said to the vizier. 


lomd *{sqik fi Wrigdl 

If not your love (was) for men, 

md kuniis tiqdfi wdra 'Ibibdn. 

not you were you place yourself behind the doors. 

w^fdtha wetdnnoh^^ mdsi. qdmet My a 

And he passed by her and continued walking. Now she 

ziileP^ zd'aP^ hdid whiisyet gHwa 'Igenene 

got into a passion violent and went into the garden 

iltdqet hdtim. atd-Mh hdtim elmulk. 

she found a ring. Now (that was) the ring of kingdom a. 

dd'akei elhdtim. qdm qdl-ldha 

She rubbed the ring. Now it (the ring) said to her 

luhhek es iutim ? qdlet-loh 

at your command what do you desire of me ? She said to it 

dtluh serdye gdmhi serdyet 'ibn elmilik 

I desire a palace beside the palace of the king's son 

wetahtmV^ gamdl ^dhsan mm gamdlu tdllet 

and you give me beauty better than my beauty. She looked 

iltdqet rUhhd gHwd 's serdye gdnibi 

she found herself (her spirit) inside the palace beside 

serdyet 'ibn elm^Iik. qdmet tdllet min 

the palace of the king's son. Now she looked out of 

essibdk. qdm Idfhd 'ibn elmelik 'isiqhd. rdh 

the window. Saw her the king's son he loved her. He went 

Tiimmoh wiqalldha ydmma vid'andiM 

to his mother and said to her : Oh ! mother, have you not 

hdga kuwaiyise tiwaddihd hediye lissitt 

something beautiful you take it (as) a present to the lady 

^ i.e. Solomon's ring, by virtue of which he was the sovereign of spirits. 


/I/i gat gambind di w^tequli-lha itgauwizi 

who has come beside us (this) and you tell her : Marry 

'ibni? qdlei-loh 'dndt idqaien qdsab 

my son ? She said to him I have two pieces of brocade 

inin built elmuluk, qdl-lahd tdiyib 

from tlie belongings of the kings. He said to her : Good, 

waddihCi. ferdhet 'ummoh 'andihd. qdlet-ldhd 

take it. Then went his mother to her. She said to her : 

yd binfi iqbdll 'Ihediyedi 'ibni 'd^iz 

Oh ! my daughter, Accept this present my son wishes 

yitgduwizik. qdmet elbinte nddahet lilgdrye 

he marries you. The girl called to the (female) slave : 

qdlet-ldhd hdd'i qatidi ddl 'imsdhi hihum 

she said to her : Take, cut in pieces these, wipe with them 

elbet. fenizlet 'umm 'ibn elme'lik. 

the house. Then went away the mother of the king's son. 

qdl-ldhd qdlet-lik e ydmiiii ? 

He said to her : She said to you what, Oh 1 my mother ? 

qdlet-loh ddl nds qadrin hddu minni 

She said to him these are people rich ; they took from me 

'Iqdsab 'amaluh mamsdha betd* elbet. 

the brocade they made of it rags for use in the house. 

qdl-ldha fi 'drdik'^^ ydmma. 

He said to her : Under your protection, Oh ! mother. 

md'andikfs kemdn hdga gdliye tiwaddthd ? 

Have you not still something expensive you take to her ? 

qdlet-loh dtia vuTandfs ilia 'Hqde zumtirrud 

She said to him I have not except a necklace (of) emeralds, 

yistdhil 'drbaht did/ gineh. qdl-lahd 

it is worth four thousand guineas. He said to her : 


idiyib waddih. ferdhet iilt'et-ldhd. 

Good, take it (to her). Then she went she went up to her. 

qdlet-lahd 'iqhdli 'Ihediye yd Unti 'ibni 

She said to her : Accept the gift, Oh ! my daughter, my son 

'd'iz yilgduwizik. qdlet-l&hd qihilt 

wishes he marries you. She said to her : I have accepted 

elhedfye yd siiti. nddahet lilgdrye qdlet-lahd 

the gift, Oh ! my lady. She called to the slave ; she said to her 

elhamdm kal wdlld Ussd? qdlet-lahd 'Igdrye 

the pigeons have eaten or not yet ? Said to her the slave 

lissd yd sitti. qdlet-lahd hodi fdrratl^^ 

not yet, Oh ! my lady. She said to her : Take, separate 

el'uqde di wedih lilhamdm ydkluh. 

this necklace and give it to the pigeons (that) they eat it. 

qdmet 'ummoh zVilei weqdlet-ldhd infi 

Now his mother grew angry and said to her : You 

gallihtim yd binfi. quli-li izd hUnfi 

have conquered me, Oh ! my daughter ! Tell me if you are 

*duze titgauwizih wdlld ld\ qdlet-lahd izd kdfi 

willing you marry him or no. She said to her if it was 

hiddik atgduwizoh iihallih yd'mil 

you wish I marry him let him he makes (pretend to be) 

mdiyit wetkaffimh^^ fi sahdht 'ihfdn wetelaffifih 

dead and wrap him up in seven shrouds and lead him round 

elhdldd wetqUli linnds viddfi?iuhs^^ ilia 

the town and say to the people they do not bury him except 

fllbet di. qdlet-lahd tdiyib ana aqUl-loh yd 

in this house. She said lo her : Good, I will tell him. Oh ! 

binii, nizlet. qdlet-loh 'Htnmoh izd 

my daughter. She went down. Told him his mother : If 


kd7i hiddak titgauwizhd <i'?nil mdiyit 

it was you wish you marry her make (pretend to be) dead 

wiyikaffijiiik fi sabdht 'ik/dn^'^ w^liff 

and they will wrap you up in seven shrouds and go around 

elbe'led wetddle nidfijiak 'andihd teqinn 

the town, and come we will bury you by her then ^ 

titgdiavizak. qdl-lahd bessi kide ydinma ? 

she will marry you. He said to her only thus, Oh ! mother ? 

sauwdti weqilli 'zbni mat. sduwatet. sintum 

Cry and say : My son has died. She cried. Heard 

ennds 'tnnuh mdl 'tbn ehndlik itgdmdet^^ 

the people that he has died the king's son ; collected together 

elfUqara welmesdih wMdhalu ^^ 

the Koran-singers and the sheikhs and they came in 

gassiluh wtHmmoh qdlet-luhum 'ibtii 

they washed him ; and his mother said to them : My son 

me ammimii '^^ 'amdne lamm 'amut kaffini 

has imposed upon me an obligation : when I die wrap me up 

fi sabdht 'ikfdn webd'de md yeliffu biye 

in seven shrouds, and then (when) they go round with me 

elbdldd 'tdfimm fi 'sserdye e'lll gambinii. 

(round) the town bury me in the palace which (is) beside us. 

fekaffinuh weldluh fi'lhdsabe. 

Then they wrapped him up and bore him in the coffin. 

wemisyet^^ qudddmoh 'Imasd'ih we'dhl elbdldd 

And went before him the sheikhs and people of the place, 

wUdffu bih wegdbdh tallduh 

and they went round with him and brought him carried him up 

* lit. she will get up. 


into the palace 

and went away. 

aiiwul kd/an 

the first shroud 

and said to him : 

belonging to 

She came in 

up to 

the girl 

to him 

the seventh, 

and they left him 



from him 

upon him 

lomd 'isqak fi'nniswdn 

If not your love (was) for the women 

md kuntis iitkdffin fi sahdht 'ik/dn. 

not you were you are enshrouded in seven shrouds. 

qdm qdl-lahd hilwa infi ? ^^ qdm 'dddi subaoh 

Now he said to her he (is it) you ? He bit 

qdtdoh. weqdadiim wdya bad. 

tore it off ^. And they remained with one another. 

his finger 

Story of the Rhymester and his Son. 

From Spitta- Bey's Contes arabes modernes. 

mitgduwiz wdhde 

kdnfih wdhid geedi 

There was a rhymester 

a woman 


and she conceived 


he found 

yinaffis-hd ^ 
he takes care of her 

married to 

minnoh wegdt tiilid. qdm 

by him and went she brings forth. Now 

fulus *dndoh 'ala sdn 

money in his possession in order to 

w^ydhfi lidddye Hgrei-hd, 

and he gives to the nurse her fee. 

In anger. 


fhVil, wcqdm qdl ammaruh 

And he worried (over it). And now he said I am going 

a^hdi-li hamsaten dhtl lidddya 

I beg for myself two five-para pieces I give to the nurse 

hdmse wagiblik iiiti- hdmsa tegtbibhd 

five and I give you you five ; you get brought for it 

fdrha iaklihCi. fhnili filhdle iltdqa 

a hen you eat it. Then he went into the country he found 

fdrha nd'ime fSq ettdlL qdm misikhd iltdqa 

a hen sleeping on the mound. Now he took her he found 

iahtihd beda. halt elfdrha fi 'ibb. qdl 

under her an ^g%. He put the hen in (his) pocket. He said 

amm'ariih ddi 1/drha di lilmdra tdkHlha 

I am going I give this hen to the wife she will eat it 

wabV^ elbeda bihdmsa wahtihd 

and I shall sell the tg% for five (paras) and I shall give it 

lidddye. qdm qdbloh wdhid yahudi. qdl-loh 

to the nurse. Now met him a Jew. He said to him ^ : 

iihirl elbeda di ? qdlloh 'dndak uwihd 

Will you buy this t%% ? He said to him : Have you of them 

ketir ? 

qdlloh 'liirl 

di weldmma 

(it) many ? He said to him : Buy 

this one and when 


elfdrha hukra 

agiblak bedethd. 

lays an t%z 

the hen to-morrow 

I give you her t%%. 


tdiyib bi'dsara mahbiib^. qdlloh 

He said to him : 

Good ! for ten mahboubs. He said to him : 

yiftah-dllah ^ 

ligdyet hassdlhd-loh 'asrm 

May God open 

; until he obtained from him twenty 

* i.e. the rhymester said to the Jew. 


fekassiboh^. ihtd-loh 'lyaMdi Tasrin makbUb 

and he gained it ^. Gave him the Jew the twenty mahboubs 

weqdl-loh iddle warrini hetak dhqa Mill 

and said to him : Come, show me your house then every 

ySm dgi dhod elbeda wahtilak eVdsrin 

day I come I take the ^gg and I give you the twenty 

viahbub. fehad elge'edi warrd-loh 'Ibet. 

mahboubs. Then took the rhymester showed him the house. 

werdh is tar a limrdtoh firdh weldhmi 

And he went he bought for his wife hens and meat 

we'dtdhd 'l/drha. weqdl-lahd ui 

and gave her the hen. And he said to her: Take care 

tidbdhi 'l/drha di iebid beda hulli yom 

you (don't) kill this hen it lays an egg every day 

nebihhd'^ Ulyahudi bi'asrin mahbub. fidil^ 

we sell it ^ to the Jew for twenty mahboubs. Continued 

dyahudi kullt yom ydhod minhum elbeda 

the Jew every day he takes from them the tgg 

weyaktfhum el'a^rin mahbub. libC 

and he gives them the twenty mahboubs. Became wealthy 

elgeedi w^bdqa 'dndoh mdl ketir wBtdra 

the rhymester and now he has means much and he bought 

g&wdr^ we'abid'^^ wefatdh-loh dukkdn 

slave-girls and slaves and opened for himself a shop 

wibdqa idgir sahir. Idmma kibir 'ibnoh 

and became a merchant well-known. When grew up his son 

band-loh kuitdb 'ala dimmetoh wegd?nd fih 

he built him a school at his own expense and collected in it 

* That is : He made the Jew bid up to twenty mahboubs and then concluded 
the bargain (see note onkdssiU). 
^ ' it ' = the tg<g. 


ennas elfuqara bdqat iiqra ^^ fih. f^gi 

the people the poor and now they read in it. Then went 

elge'edi tilC elhigdz^^ w^qdl 

the rhymester he went (on) the pilgrimage and he said 

limrdioh u't 'lyahildt yidhak 'aleki weydhod 

to his wife: Take care (lest) the Jew laughs at you and takes 

viinnik el/drha. fisdfir elge'edi 'ala 

from you the hen. Then set out the rhymester on 

'Ihi'gdz. hdde guiriaten gi elyahudi hdhat 

the pilgrimage. After two weeks came the Jew knocked 

*ala 'Ibdb hetd'oh nddah limrdt 

at the door belonging to him called to the wife 

elge'edi weqdl-l&hd hahti-lik'^^ sanduq 

of the rhymester and said to her : I will give you a chest 

mdl w^tahitnl el/drha? qdlet-loh ana 

of money and you give me the hen ? She said to him (I) 

gSzi mewassinl ana mdhtd-ldks ger 

my husband ordered me (that) I not give you except 

elbed betdhhd. qdl-lahd md-lkis ddwa 

the eggs belonging to her. He said to her not to you anything 

in zTil 'aleye ddinl maugud ft qalb 

if he is vexed with me, here I am to be found in the heart 

elbeled. firihet elmdra bilmdl wediatoh 

ofthetowna. Rejoiced the woman at the money and gave him 

'l/drha. qdm misikhd dabdhhd 'lyahudl. weqdl-ldhd 

the hen. Now took it (and) killed it the Jew. And said to her: 

hodl naddafihd wutbuMhd w'ln nuqset hitfe 

Take, clean it and cook it ; and if is missing (any) piece, 

* Me voild, devieurant au viilieu de la ville. 


illi ydMlhd dftah bdtnoh wetalldhhd 

of him who eats it I will open his belly and draw it out 

minnoh. qdmet hade'thd minnoh elfdrha wenaddafe'thd 

from him. Now she took (it) from him the hen and cleaned it 

wetahahethd wi'ibn elgiedl gi min 

and cooked it. And the son of the rhymester came from 

elkuiidb fidduhr iltdqa 'ummoh iitdlld 

the school at noon he found his mother she takes out 

elfarha wetehSttihd fi 'ssahn. qdl-ldhd 

the hen and she puts it on the plate. He said to her : 

'dinl hitte yd 'Hmml! qdlet-loh 'i^skut 

Give me a morsel Oh my mother ! She said to him : Be quiet 

di mus betd'eind. qdm }}Mcif elqundse 

this does not belong to us. Now he snatched up the gizzard 

beid' elfdrha wekdlhd. qdmet gdrye min 

belonging to the hen and eat it. Now a slave-girl from 

elguwdr^^ qdlet-loh yd sidi 'ihrab min 

the female slaves said to him : Oh my master flee from 

elbeled-di dhsan elyahUdi yigl yimsikak weyiftah 

this town otherwise the Jew comes he catches you and opens 

bdtnak weydhod minhd elqundse. qdm elwaldd 

your belly and takes from it the gizzard. Now the boy 

rikib elbdgle wisdfir. qdm elyahudi gt 

mounted the mule and went away. Now the Jew came 

tdlab elfdrha iltaqdhd ndqise elqundse. 

demanded the hen he found it wanting the gizzard. 

qdl-ldhd elqundse fen? qdletloh 

He said to her : The gizzard where ? She said to him ; 

elqundse hatdfhd ibni kdlhd min 

the gizzard snatched it away my son he eat it from 


wardye. qdl-laha hCiiih Idmmd niftah 

behind me ^ He said to her: Bring him (here) so that we open 

batnoh wendhSdhd minnoh ana ddfi' fulusl 

his belly and we take it ^ from him ; I am paying my money 

kuUihd 'alasdn elqundse di, qdmet qdletloh elwdled 

all of it for this gizzard. Now she said to him the boy 

hdrab. qdm elyahudi sdfir wardh kullimd 

has fled. Now the Jew travelled after him ; each time 

yinzil fi hiled yisal 'aleh weyidi 

he alights in a place he asks about him, and he gives 

wdsfetoh linnds. yequluloh kdn 

his description to the people. They tell him he was 

bdyit Mne wisdfir. tann elyahudi 

spending the night here and has gone on. Continued the Jew 

Idmmd qdhloh fi 'Ihdle. qdl-loh tddle 

until he met him in the open. He said to him : Come 

hem yd 'ibn elge'edi mm qdl-lak idkul 

here, Oh son of the rhymester, who told you (you) to eat 

elqundse? ana ddfi' fihd sanduq mdl wtdmil 

the gizzard? I am paying for it a chest of money, and I make 

suriit way 'ummak illi ydkul minhd hitte 

terms with your mother, he who eats of it any piece 

'dfiah batnoh wdhodhd minnoh. tddla he'ne 

I open his belly and I take it from him. Come here, 

lamm' dftah bdtnak wdhod elqundse. 

so that I open your belly and I take the gizzard. 

qdlloh tdiyib ! ruh fi-hdlak bdqa ink 

He said to him : Good ! Go about your business now you 

* i.e. behind my back, without my knowledge. ^ viz. elqundse. 


gdi mesdfir wardye 'ala sdn qundse 

coming travelling after me for the sake of a gizzard 

betd' far ha mis {=mus) 'eb 'alek? 

belonging to a hen ; not shame upon you ? ^ 

rdh tiqtilni *ala sdn elqundse? qdm 

Are you going to kill me for the sake of the gizzard ? Now 

elyahudi sdhab essikkine min geboh werdiyih 

the Jew drew the knife from his pocket and going 

yiftah bain elwdled, qdm elwdled miskuh 

he will open the belly of the boy. Now the boy caught him 

h{id wdhd^ w^hdbatoh fi ^tard. nizil 

with hand one, and threw him to the ground. He fell down 

hitet mdt. fifdtoh 'Iwdled wesdjir. 

(in) pieces^ (and) died. Then left him the boy and journeyed. 

fidil mesdfir Idmmd hdssal beled iltdqa 

He kept on travelling till he reached a town (where) he found 

serdye betdht elmelik midllaq 'ala bdbhd 

a palace belonging to the king ; (and) hanging on its gate 

arbdin rds Hlla wdhid. sdal ennds 

(were) forty heads save one. He asked the people : 

elli hum erru'us dSl miallaqin 'ala Idn e? qdlidoh 

These heads (are) hanging up why ? They said to him : 

elmelik 'dndoh bint 'aftye e'lli yehussi 

The king has a daughter strong, he who enters 

yiglibhd^^ yitgauwizhd willi md 

(if) he conquers her marries her, and he who does not 

yiglibhds yiqtdu rdsoh. qdm elwdled ddhal 

conquer her they cut off his head. Now the boy went in 

* Are you not ashamed ? 

^ He was crushed to atoms {ilfut icrasi en nwrceaux). 


'aftd elmilik. qdlloh ana biddi dnzil ana 

to the king. He said to him I wish I go down ^ I 

webintak nesHf *d/iii'^^ walla 

and your daughter we see (whether) my strength or 

'afUhCi'^^. qdni elmilik qdl-loh ruh 

her strength (prevails). Now the king said to him : Go away, 

yd waled vile husdre fiUmSl^'^ wi'dkam^^ 

Oh boy ; you (it is) a pity to the death, and how many 

rig die zeyak gum webifili tigUbhiim. 

men like you have come and my daughter conquers them. 

qdm elwdled dna biddi tigUbni wiliqld'u 

Now the boy (said) I wish she conquers me and ye cut off 

rdsi wele allaquh'i 'ala Ubdb. qdl-loh 

my head and ye hang it up on the gate. Said to him 

^Ime'lik idiyib iktib we'htim 'ala kidd. fekdtab 

the king : Good, write and seal on so b. Then wrote 

elwdlad wehdtam. /e/arrasiim-loh'^^ elhds 

the boy and sealed. Then they covered for him the court 

bilbusdt. wmizlu letnen sdwa hdttu 

with the carpet. And they descended both together, they put 

'bdthum fi 'bdt ba'd. misikhd elwdlad 

their shoulders in shoulder one another c. Took her the boy 

ramdhd fitard. qdmel 'aleh rdmeloh 

threw her to the ground. She got up upon him she threw him 

td7il. hiye fidlet hiye tirmih wehuwa yirmihd. 
again. She continued she throws him and he throws her. 

qdadu sahien"^^ elnen wehuvia waqfin 

They stayed (two) hours two, and they standing 

* i. e. into the arena. ^ Words to that effect, 

^ i. e. They caught hold of each other round the middle of the body (to 
wrestle), bdt contracted from ibdt pi. ibdtdt part under the shoulder, armpit. 


filhindq sdwa. qdm elme'Uk ingdz elli 

in the contest together. Now the king grew angry that 

md galahetds hfye ziydde. qdm elmelik 

she did not conquer him (she) more. Now the king 

qdl-luhum hesse dilwdqt2 hdqat libilkra 

said to them : Enough at present ; now (till) to-morrow 

HnziUi kevidn mdrra filhindq. qdm ehnelik 

come ye down again once to the struggle. Now the king 

nddah lilMkama qdl-luhum elUld-di sammimu 

called to the doctors, he said to them : This night let smell 

elwdlad di ^Ihing wesufdh mehdggib -^ 

this boy the narcotic and look at him (if he) bears a talisman 

wdla Idbts ^ 'ala sdn bintt dna^^ 

or (is) clothed (with) something, because my daughter (I) 

kull elfirsdn betu eddHnya kullimd yigi-lhd 

all the knights of the world as often as comes to her 

wdhid tigliboh ligdyet arbd'm ilia wdhid ezdy 

one she vanquishes him till forty save one like 

wdlad zeyi di md tiglibiis. Idmmd gi 

a boy like this she does not conquer him. When came 

ellel whidm elwdled rdh"^^ elMkavia satiwiivmh 

the night and slept the boy went the doctors made him smell 

elbing bannigHh wikdsa/u 'ala 

the narcotic made him unconscious and searched upon 

gittetoh. iltdqu fi sidroh elqundse betdht 

his body. They found in his breast the gizzard belonging to 

elfdrhd mehdbbibe. rdhum gdbum eTidde 

the hen rolled up. They went they fetched the instruments, 

saraMh'^*- wetdlldu elqundse min sidroh 

they cut into him and drew out the gizzard from his breast 


wehaiyattlh zeyi md hdn. qdm elwalcid fi 

and sewed it up as it used to be. Rose up the boy in 

'ssiibhi min ennSm iltaqa sidroh ia'bdn 

the morning from (the) sleep » he found his breast tired 

wiltdqa ncifsoh md'attdSB 'a/iye ze etduivul. 

and he found himself he has not strength like the former. 

qdm till' hdrab hdf Id 'Ihint^ 

Now he went out he fled he feared lest the girl 

. iigliboh iimduwiioh. fidil mdst filhdle 

conquers him (and) kills him. He kept on walking in the open 

iltaqa ialdte hithdnqiim md'a bdd. 

he found three (men) they fight with each other. 

qdl-luhiim intii bitithdnqum le ? qdliiloh 

He said to them : Ye are fighting why ? They said to him ; 

ihm bhiithdniq 'ala Idn tdlat hagdt. qdl-luhum 

We are fighting on account of three things. He said to them: 

hdgdt e ? qdlu-loh waydnd busdt 

Things what.? They said to him: With us is a carpet 

yetir fi 'ssdma in tdlab elwdhid yerilh 'aleh 

it flies in the air, if desired somebody he goes upon it 

g^bel qdf yerilh. wiwaydnd zuweli iza hdn 

(to) Mount Kaf it goes ^. And we have a bowl, if 

elwdhid yequl itmili fatte"^^ yitmiU. 

somebody says fill thyself with stew (ragout) it fills itself. 

wcwaydnd rahdye e'lli yidauwdrha tindzzil fulus. 

And we have a hand-mill he who turns it it lets fall money. 

a =When he woke up. 

^ That is to say, if any one wishes the carpet to fly with him to Mount Kaf it 
does so. 


qdl-luhum tdiyib war rum 'it^at hdgdt wan! 

He said to them : Good, show me the three things and I 

^a/arrdqhum 'alekum hilhdqq. iallduhum 

will divide them amongst you with justice. They drew them out 

warrdhUm-loh. w?qdl-luhum ifrisu ^® 

(and) showed them to him. And he said to them : Spread out 

elhusdt Idmmd asu/oh tUloh e, wehdtt 

the carpet so that I see it its length what. And he put 

ezzuwell werrahdye fSq-oh. wimisik elmaqrd'a 

the bowl and the hand-mill upon it. And he took the wand 

hetdhioh fi idoh weqdl-luhum diia hdhdif'^'^ 

his own in his hand, and said to them : I am going to throw 

tube bi'tzmi wetigru wardh intu 

a stone with (all) my strength and ye shall run after it ye 

'tteldte elll yimsikhd fi 'Vauwul ydhed'^ 

the three ; whoever gets hold of it in the first shall take 

errahdye betdht elfulus, qdlUloh 

the hand-mill belonging to the money. They said to him : 

tdiyib. femisik ettUbe ramdhd giriyet 

Good. Then he took the stone he threw it they ran * 

etteldte wardhd. huma giryum wehHwa hdbat elhusdt 
the three after it. They ran, and he struck the carpet 

bilmaqrdd weqdl-loh ruh biye 'ala ge'bel qdf. 

with the wand and said to it: Go with me on Mount Kaf. 

fetdr elbusdi hih hdttuh foq ge'bel qdf. 

Then flew the carpet with him put him upon Mount Kaf. 

weqd'ad dduwar errahdye nizletloh fulus 

And he sat he turned the mill fell out to him money 

* The three men ran after it (the verb is fern. sing.). 


minhd. u 


lizzuweli ana 


from it. And he said 

to the bowl I (am) 


1 1 711 ill 


billdhmi halUnl 


fill thyself with 


with meat, let me 

(I) eat. 


uivel'i elfdtt^ wekal. 


It filled itself for h 

im the bowl the stew and he ate. 


md kal 

waddhhum ivetdnnoh 


ir hdtta 

that he had eaten he put them *, and continued flying till 

gdmbe serdyet bint elmelik. widdhal 

beside the palace (of) the king's daughter. And he went in 

qdl-lahd Hnzili nitgdlib sdwa. 

he said to her: Come down we contend together. 

fhiizlet elbinte loh wiqif huwa wehiye 

Then came down the girl to him standing he and she 

foq elbusdt wehdbat elbusdt bilmaqrda 

upon the carpet and he struck the carpet with the wand 

weqdl-loh tir bind ligebel qdf. qdl-ldhd 

and said to it : Fly with us to Mount Kaf. He said to her : 

elmal'ub e'lli 'amaltiih fiye wdla Umarilb-di? 

The trick which you have done to me or this trick ^ t 

qdlet-loh ft 'drdak md'alehsi 

She said to him : I throw myself on your mercy, pardon me, 

raggdni tdni fi serdyet 'abuyd wdjia 

bring me back again into (the) palace of my father ; and I 

agduwizak waqul da galdbni 

will marry you, and I will say : This man has conquered me 

waraggdlak elqutidse zeyi md kdnet 

and I will give back to you the gizzard as it used to be 

* In full : he put the mill and the bowl back on the carpet. 
^ Supply : Which is the better trick ? 



fi sidrak dhsan ma-nmiit Mlgii hem fi 

in your breast otherwise we shall die of hunger here in 

wast eJgahdl. qdl-lahd iiiti gi'dne 

the middle of the mountain. He said to her : You hungry 

dilwdqt ? agib-lik iahih siihni idkll ? 

now ? Shall I bring you cooked stuflf hot (that) you eat ? 

qdlet-loh tdiyih hdtuh warrini. gab 

She said to him : Good, give it show me. He brought 

elqddah weqdl-loh iimili /alii bildlwii. 

the goblet and said to it : Fill thyself with stew with meat. 

kdlum letnen sdwa wewarralhd Wrahdye 

They ate both together, and he showed her the handmill 

elli bitndzzil ddhab. bcidoh qd'adiwi suwdiye sdwa. 
which lets fall gold. Afterwards they sat a little together. 

qdlet-loh qiim Idmma nitfdssah liiwdiye fi 

She said to him : Stand up so that we go a walk a litde in 

wast elgabdl. hdlletoh qdm 

the middle of the mountain. She made him he got up 

wihdtti rigleh 'ala 'lard"^^. whiisket ebnaqrd'a 

and put both his feet on the ground. And she took the stick 

fidhd^^ wehdbatet elbiisdt weqdlet-loh tir 

in her hand and struck the carpet and said to it : Fly, 

waddini fi qasr abiiyd. tar . bihd 

bring me into the castle of my father. It flew with her 

Ubusdt wadddhd fi'lqasr. iviqif 'ibii 

the carpet brought her into the castle. Stood the son 

elgeedi fi wast elgebel liwdhdoh. 

of the rhymester in the middle of the mountain alone. 

misi fi sikke bdqa yi'diyat 'ala 7idfsoh 

He walked on (the) way now he cries over himself 


he continued 

two date-palms 

hdlaJi wdhde 
dates, one 

qdm qdhi 


he cut 



its dates 

a date 

sdfar yom. 
a day's journey ^ 


the middle 


'd/wiar ivewdhde 
red and one 

sdfra zvekdlhd. 
yellow and ate it. 

isldhak fi 

of the mountain 

its dates 


he found 




Now sprang up 

He stretched out his hand took 

elqdnie mirrdsoh ^^. 

the horn from his head. 

ft rdsoh qam 
in his head a horn, it entangled itself in the two date-palms. 

mddde 'idoh gab hdlaha hdmra kdlhd rdh 

a date red ate it, went 

qdm mala 'ibhoh min 

Now he filled his pocket with 

elbdlah eVdJwiar wefdsfar wefidil mesdjir 

the dates the red and the yellow and he continued travelling 

lei maa nahdr lahrm tamdm Idmmd hdssal 

night with day two months exactly until he reached 

elbeled betaet bint elmilik ivegi 

the town belon^ino: to the kins^'s daughter 


esserdye wendda 



and came 

beneath the palace and called and said : Here are the dates 

bint elvielik 
the king's daughter 

min errdgil di. 
from this man. 

.{ we'atilhum 

They bought from him sixteen c dates and gave them 

* i. e. He went on walking for a whole day. 
^ i. e. Which are in season all the year round. 
" tore = an eight (like " a dozen"). (Cf. tme hitiiaine.) 
I 2 

elli man ger 



which are without 

season ^ 


qdlet lilhadddmin 



said to the servants : 

Buy me 


istdrii minnoh 

tor ten 



libint elmelik. Idqaioh bdlah 

to the daughter of the king. She found them (to be) dates 

'ds/ar kale'thum ettorien. till 

yellow she ate them the two batches of eight. Came out 

Idhd tdman qurun fi rdshd kulli arbaa iniskic fi 
to her eight horns in her head each four caught in 

heta. fitgamdet 'alehd ahl esserdye 

a wall. Then assembled about her the people of the palace 

wabUhd qdl elhdbar e? qdlic ihna 

and her father said : The news what ^ ? They said we 

iallena iltaqend tdman qtcrii7t 'ala rdshd 'ala-gdfle 

looked up we found eight horns on her head suddenly, 

wemisku fi 'Ihetdn. gdmcC 

and they fastened themselves in the walls. Assembled 

'abilhd elhukama md 'ir/us yiddwuhd 

her father the doctors not they knew they cure her 

weyigibu elmenasir yinlilru filqurun md 

and they bring the saws they saw into the horns, not 

yitnasrus. qdm 'abilhd idlld menddl ft 

they become sawn ^. Now her father sent out a crier into 

'Ibe'led e'lli yidi ddwa libint 

the town : whoever gives medicine to the daughter 

essultdn wethiff yiigauwizhd weyimil 

of the sultan and she recovers he marries her, and he makes (him) 

waziroh. qdvi rdh 'ib?i elgeedi 'duwul 

his vizier. Now went the son of the rhymester the first 

yom tdlla' bdlaha hdmra wekassdrhd hitat 

day he drew out a date red and broke it in pieces 

a = What is the matter ? ^ i. e. The horns cannot be cut with saws. 


wihattihd ft handkhd. kalethd rah qdrni 

and put it in her mouth. She ate it went away a horn 

mifi nfs/hl. zdgratu 'Ihanni w^firhinn weqalu 

from her head. Cried out the women and rejoiced and said : 

elhakim di Idtir. ivehdhlh fi sserdye 

This doctor (is) clever. And they kept him in the palace 

Idmant Uydm. qdad idmant 'iydm ivekulli yStn 

eight days. He remained eight days, and every day 

yitdlld qarn Idjiima tdlla vwihd 

he made go away a horn until were away from her 

'tfdrjiaji qiirim. weqdm elmalik hastih kdtah 

the eight horns. And now the king kept him back, he wrote 

elkitdb 'alehd ivetgaiiwizhd ive'dmaloh 

the book upon her a, and he married her, and made him 

waziroh. Idmmd ddhal 'alehd qdl-ldhd fen 

his vizier. When he went in to her he said to her : Where is 

elbusdt beta' I welmaqrd'a wazzuweli 

the carpet belonging to me and the wand and the bowl 

ivarrahdye ? qdlet-loh hiliva vite ? qdl-lahd 

andthehandmill? She said to him : He you^.? He said to her: 

viaViibi ivdla inaVubikt' qdlet-loh Id viie 

My trick or your trick c ? She said to him : No, (you) 

maVubak tiW ^aqwa inin maViibi. 

your trick came out stronger than my trick. 

weqdadiim wdya bade filkamdl. 

And they remained with each other in perfect harmony. 

* i. e. He made the marriage contract. ^ Is it you ? 

° Supply : Which has proved the stronger ? 


II. Amsai. 


1. vim gdwir elhadddd yithiriq 


2. 'hmd mill hem ivesdiyib iniii 


3. iftakdrnd 'Iquii gdnd yenutt. 

4. gdb elqutt it ab yd far. 

5. mcissik elqiitia viuftdh elkerdr. 

6. elheta elwaliya kulli nds ye- 

iiuttu 'ale ha. 

7. sukuhid-loh ddhal bihmdroh. 

8. elkutra iigUb essagd'a. 

9. ze elbardbra lis' a yitkellimu 

we ivdhid yhmd . 

10. elnidrldb illi fiha 7'dyism 


11. basal bihdmsa walla bihdmsa 


12. eldgld min eTsetdn. 

Who takes as neighbour the 

smith will be burnt by his fire. 
Hear from here, and let out from 

here. (In at one ear, out at 

the other.) 
We thought of the cat, he came 

to us jumping. (Speak of the 

devil, &c.) 
Away is the cat, play, O mouse! 
He let the cat take the key of 

the larder. 
A low wall every one jumps over 

We kept silence for him, he 

came in with his donkey. 

(Give him an inch, &c.) 
Numbers conquer bravery. 
Like the Berberines, nine jabber 

and one listens. 
The boat which has two captains 

in it w^ill sink. (Too many 

cooks, &c.) 
An onion for five (paras) or for 

five (paras) an onion. (Six 

of one, &c.) 
Haste is of the devil. 

SONGS 119 

III. Mawawil. 


(From Spitta-Bey's Grammatik des arabischen Viilgcirdialektes in Agypten^ 

viin 'amsiyd nds, ahadtund 'dhihbdkum 
hikiim ridind wefflaurdq katahndkiim 
Idmmd ziiimtum webdnei li asdydkum 
qdlbi 'zrif qdm hilif aimdn teharrdmkum 
yd viailin min defaiinid satabndkum. 

Since yesterday, O people, you have taken us as your friends, 
with you we were content, and on the leaves (of friendship) we 
inscribed your names. But when you became proud, and your 
evil doings became known to me, my heart knew you and swore 
an oath, which excommunicates you. Ye fickle ones, we have 
erased your names from our books. 

yd mubtdli, kunte malik eVasr fi tdhtak 
Idmmd 'bialet Idhbat erramdlfi idhtak 
ivdhlak gafilk hdttd 'uvimak wabuk wuhtak 
wemdrkibak rdhet tegiblak ddwa bildd errum 
istaisaruhd 'nnasdra min 'ddam bdhtak. 
O unlucky one, thou wast the king of time on thy throne. 
When thou didst become unlucky the grains of thy sand were 
troubled on thy board. And thy family plagued thee, even thy 
mother, thy father and thy sister. And thy ship, which went forth 
to bring thee physic from the land of the Greeks, that have the 
Chrisiians taken captive, since thy luck has failed. 



I. Mn or hdn fih, there was once. 2. Jin'h hi, to rejoice 

over. 3. ku7ite Mddi, ku7tie biddak, &c. = I wished, thou wishedst, 

&c. 4. elhawdga elfuldiii, Mr. N., Mr. So-and-so. 5. wdssa 

hi, to commission with, give an order for. 6. haqa.yibqa, with 
expressions of time = it is, ago, e. g. yibqa teldt 'lydin, it is three 
days, three days ago {il y a trois jours). *j. =^ wassd-k, has 
commissioned thee; hoh = bi-oh, with it. 8. habb, yehibb, love, 
like, like to do. 


I. eddunyd barde qdwi, it is very cold. 2. dmkan, yimkin, be 

possible. 3. After in the past tense is employed. 4. Should 
really be dfiim, but the t is changed on account of the '. 5. = we 
fi wdqtiih, and in his time =■ immediately. 6. sdbbah 'ala, wish 
somebody good morning ; s^Ilim 'ala, greet somebody. 7. gdwib 

with accusative to answer some one. S. =^ md-idda/ei-si. 9. The 
z'of iddafet is not pronounced because of the preceding a. 10. 

:= 7?id-istdwd-si. II. ^=/e'mbasat. 12. ?ndt'ala ruhoh vmt 

dihk, he nearly laughed himself to death. 13. kirr, is the sound 
of laughter. 


No. 1. I. elli lak 'dfidi, which I owe you. 2. hUnie nisitoh, 

I had forgotten it. 

No. 2. I. After the numerals from 11 upwards the substantive 
is in the singular; and 2. from 2 to 10 in the plural. 

No. 3. 1. /idil yeduqq, he remained, he knocks = he kept on 
knocking ; cf. fidil yigri, he ran the whole time ; bdden fidil 
yisal 'ala bet elhawdga, thereupon he asked further after the gentle- 
man's house ; ive/idil yindah 'alkildb, and he continued to call the 
dogs. 2. tiin, that, is joined to the suffixes. 

No. 4. I. heiraqddr, a Turkish word. 2. It is necessary to 

distinguish between dafajiuh, they buried him, and ddfanu, they 
buried (the h is mute in the first case). 

No. 5. Instead of sdlldmtoh-loh. 2. = fud-adel-oh-Ioh-se, so 

also 3. = warret-oh-loh. 4. Did you let him read it } 



Story of the Prince in Love. 

I. hibil, a, conceive. 2. /a . . . zvdld, neither . . . nor. 3. 
7vf/id,' ^ve birth to, bring forth. 4. literally, she stood up; 

used in the sense of * now,' as we have translated it. 5. Assimi- 

lation of the n of ?nm instead of 7?im rabhihCi. 6. Instead of 
dtim. 7. And even if. 8. For viin rihet (see 5). 9. tail, 

look down upon from above. Here fem. of the participle tdlil 
(elision of the i and shortening of the a into a). 10. itqdlih from 

qdlib {qdlab), turn round. 11. i. e. The physic of which he was 

in need. 12. Participle of 'tsig, love. 13. murdfiq {??ie . . .), 
he who has a loved one. 14. Participle oiiviqif. 15. gdrad, 

wish, goal, object, what is necessary. 16. It has been already 
stated that if the (classical) / appears in substantives ending in 
a, a, the a, a is often rejected, which, however, has no effect on the 
accent: thus me'dllivit and not meallimt. 17. =^ md 'amilts. 

18. betdhl instead of betd'et. 19. ndffad filkiltdn, to clean the 
linen. 20. Instead of sobd'hd; change of the ' into h. 21. 
Instead of 'ala Idn. 22. rdh, as sign of immediate future. 

23. itwdhaVs h\ to have a longing for something, pity some one. 

24. :=/e'ib7i. 25. from aura, yun, show. 26. wiqif 'ahi 
heloh, raise oneself up in bed. 2'^. yd rei =^ Oh that! 28, 
'amma, 'a?jim\ sign of present. 29. = be-yiriih. 30. datin, 
iann, see Lesson XXIX. 31. ztil, get cross, become angry. 
Infin. zaal, zdldn, cross, angry. 32. wetia'tmi, and you give 
"^^- ■^■^. /i'drdik,/i'd}'dak,l entreat your protection. 34. 
fdrrat, to take a necklace to pieces, to separate the parts of it 
thoroughly. 35. kdffifi, enshroud, bury ; itkdffan, to be wrapped 
up in tomb-cloths. 36. dd/ati, bury. 37. kafan, pi. kafandt 
or 'ikfdn, shroud. 38. The verb is 3rd pers. sing. fem. before 
its subject, a broken plural (see Lesson XXIII). On the other 
hand (39) ddhalu,i\\Qy entered in, after the subject. 40. 'dmmam 
'amdfie, impose an obligation. 41. See note 38. 42. We 
have already mentioned in the grammar that when an affirmative 
answer is expected se is used in the question : e. g. 'anddkse/ulus P 
have you any money on you ? hiiwa, Mye, are sometimes used if 
a negative answer is expected : thus hiiwa tiviil kidd ? you surely 
will not do so .? 


Story of the Rhymester and his Son. 

I. ndffas, to nurse a nafsd (i.e. a woman in child-bed). 
2. intl, for emphasis. 3. = we'abf. 4. mahbiib, in Arabic 
stories is usually a gold-piece. The different mahboubs now in 
existence have values from 6J to 9 francs. 5. i. e. May God 
open the gates of gain. The dealer says this to the purchaser 
when he considers the price offered too small. 6. kdssib, when 
the seller accepts an offer the formula runs alldh yikdssibak, may 
the Lord let you prosper in business. 7. ^nebi-hd. ^. fidil 
ydhod, he kept on taking (see note i, No. 3, III). 9. gdrye, pi. 
gtcwdr, slave-girl. 10. 'abd, pi. 'abid, slave ; bt el'abid, slave- 

trade ; baiyd' el'abid, slave-trader ; silq eVabid, slave-market ; 
'obudiye, slavery. 11. tiqra, agrees with 7ids (Lesson XXIII). 

The sense of the sentence is : and now they learn to read in the 
school. 12. Went on pilgrimage to Mecca. 13. Contracted 
from ha dhti {aft). 14. One of the slave-girls; so also bini 

mm bandt elmelik, one of the daughters of the king. 15. gdlab. 

conquer. 16. Instead of 'dfeyeti and 'afiyethd (^d/iye, health, 

strength). 17. rilh till 7Jiot = Go away, boy, it would be a 
shame to kill you. 18. dka7n for kdm. ig. /arras elbtisdt, 

spread out the carpet. 20. Instead of j^f^/^'/z. 21. mehdggib 

[viuh . . .), one who carries a talisman. 22. bmli d7ia, my 

daughter; d77a, emphatical. 23. See rules of agreement, Lesson 
XXIII. 24. sdrah, make an incision. 2^. fatt, which we 
have translated stew (ragout) is a celebrated Arab dish. (The 
receipt for it is given in Spitta-Bey's Co7ites arabes 77ioder7ies, p. 118.) 
26. Heve/dras with one r, to spread out. 27. Jidhdif, composed 
of ha and dhdif from hddaf, sling, throw. 28. ydhed, instead 

oi ydhod. 29. She made him get up and put his feet to the 
ground off the carpet. 30. Instead oi fi idhd, 31. = 771171 




Ix the following small vocabularies we have endeavoured as far 
as possible to give every word occurring in the exercises. The 
plural of every irregular substantive and adjective has been given 
in full, while the terminations -in or -at have been given of those 
which are regular. 

The student will do well to make a list of substantives, whose 
plurals have the same form. In this manner he will obtain an 
insight into Arabic forms and the laws of formation of plurals. 
(Comparison should be made for instance between the following 
substantives : sidr, pi. sudtlr ; 'zrq, pi. 'uruq', qtrd, pi. quriid',faf, 
^l./uriT ; darq, pi. duruq ; harf, pi. huril/.) 

In the case of verbs the Present form is always sufficiently indi- 
cated; for the regular verbs, for those which have 2nd and 3rd 
radicals the same, and for the w^ and y'^ verbs, the Present vowel 
alone is given after the verb ; e. g. qidi'r, a i^yiqdar), be able ; gdz, 
H (jeguz), be allowed ; laff, i {ydiff), wrap up. When the Present 
vowel is the same as that of the Perfect the Present prefix alone 
is given ; if a change of vowels takes place the Present form is gwoi 
in full. Finally, the student should be careful to differentiate 
between masculine substantives ending in a (e. g. hddd, nddd^ hdwa) 
and feminine substantives ending in a, a and e (5 in classical 



The order of the letters is as follows: A/i/'(A, E^ /, 0, ^in- 
cluded), B, D and D, F, G, G (c), H, B, H, ' (c), ^, L, M, N, Q, 
R, S and S, S, 7^ and T, W, F, Z. 

Alif (A, E, 7, O, U). 

'ab{u), \A.'tibahdt (abahdt), father. 

dbti 'Ihol, Sphinx. 

db, August (month). 

abdddji, never, not at all. 

dbnd^ pi. oiihn, son. 

dbsat, yib., rej oice. 

abwdb, pi. of bdb, door, gate, 

abydr, pi. of bir, well. 

ddd^ytdi^ give. 

ddab, pi. dddb, manners, educa- 

addn^ call to prayer. 

addr^ March (month). 

dddib^yi'dddib, educate. 

ddru, pi. of dird, arm. 

dgd, pi. agawdt, esquire, eunuch. 
. agdb, yegib, answer. 

d'gab,yVgib, please. 

agaze, permission, leave. 

agmye, pi. oi gdni, rich. 

agwdz, pi. of goz, spouse, hus- 
band, pair. 

agwibe, pi. of gaivdb, answer, 

dhi, dhS, &c., See ! There she 
is ! he is ! &c. {le voild). 

ahl, pi. ahdli, family, house- 

ahl elbet, family. 

ahwiye, pi. of hdwd, air, climate, 

ahbdb, pi. of habib, friend, lover. 

dlwiar, fem. hdmra, pi. hiimr, 

dhsaji, better. 

ah{u), pi. ihwdn, brother. 

dhad,ydhod, take. 

dhar, fem. iihra, pi. iiha?-, 

a Mar, fem. hddra, pi. hudr, 

dhhar,yfahha?\ delay. 

dhir, last. 

ahwdl, pi. of ^^/, uncle (mother's 

ai-nd'am, of course, certainly. 

atydni, pi. o^ydm, day. 

dhal {kal),ydkul, t.2X. 

dkbar, greater (comp. of kebir). 

akl, food, eating. 

a'XV^r, more (comp. of ketir). 



dkwas^ finer, more beautiful 

(comp. of kuwdiyis). 
die, pi. dldt, instrument, tool. 
alf, pi. dliff7\.n(\ tdiif^ thousand. 
alldh, God. 
ahine, pi. of lisdn, tongue, 

d'me, blind. 

d??iar,yii'f}iur, command. 
d?nir, pi. umara, prince. 
dmkafi,yimki7i, be possible. 
dmma, but, on the other hand. 
amr, pi. umiir, business; com- 
mand (v. awdmtr). 
dna, I. 

anwdr, pi. of tidr, light. 
arbd'a, four. 

ard, pi. arddi, earth, land. 
argi/e, pi. of rt7^|/^ loaf of 

^r^w/, pi. of rig I, foot, 
a^a^j pi. ustid, lion. 

dsdmt, pi. of ?m, name. 

dsfar, yellow. 

dsgar, smaller (comp. of sugdi- 

ashdb, pi. of sdhib, master, pro- 
prietor, friend. 

dsloh, to begin with, at first. 

dsmar, brown. 

dsgdl, pi. of sugl, work, business. 

asydt, pi. of ^/, thing. 

d'td,yftt, give. 

auqdl, pi. of waql, time. 

aw/a^, pi. of wdlad, child, boy. 

durd,yurl, show. 

aurdq, pi. of wdraq, leaf, sheet 

of paper. 
duwal, first {dtiwul). 
awdmi'r, pi. of a;;zr, command. 
dwar, one-eyed. 
i7>'tf^, pi. of 'zV, hand. 
dzhai', yizhir, express, explain, 

dzraq, blue. 
e, es, what ? 
elli {illi), which, who. 
elul, September. 
embdreh, yesterday. 
enhii, enhi {e?ihu, enhi), which } 
enfiahdrdd, to-day. 
etnen, two. 

ibgdl, pi. of bdgle, mule. 
ibn, pi. dbnd {bdni), son. 
ibtddd,yibiidi, begin. 

id, pi. ayddi, hand. 
ifrmg, European. 

iftdkar,yifiikir, think. 

ihmdrr,yih., be red, blush. 

z'/5;z^, we. 

ihtdmal, yihiimil, support, en- 

ihbdr, information. 

ihddrr,yih., turn green, be green. 

ihtdr,yih., choose. 

ihtiydr, pi. -lye, old (aged). 

ihwd7i {ihwe), pi. of ah, brother. 

ihwdt, pi. of uhi, sister. 

///^, except, save. 

imkdn, possibility. 

imte, when. 

in, if, that, to. 


ingeliz, the English. 

ingelizi, English, an Englishman. 

inkdsar , yinkisir , break in pieces 

inn^ so that. 

insdn^ pi. nds, mankind, people. 
inte, fern, intl, thou, you (sing.). 
iniu, you (pi.). 
isfdrr,yisf., become yellow. 
iskenderiye, Alexandria. 
islam, Mohammedanism. 
ism, pi. cisdrnz, name. 
istdbdd,yistdbdi, begin. 
istahdmma,yist., bathe (intr.). 
istdhsin, find nice, approve of. 
isidlam, yistilim, receive. 
istdii7ta,yist., wait. 
istdwd,yistiwi, be ripe, ready. 
istd'zi7i,yist., ask permission. 
iswddd,yis., become black. 
ilgduwiz, yiig. , m arry . 
itkdllim, yitk., speak. 
itqdhil.yitq., meet. 
iuddn, pi. of widii, ear. 
rydm, pi. ofydm, day. 
zza, iza-kdn, if. 
izn, pi. 2/sz/;z, permission. 
oda, pi. Hwad, room. 
ubahdt, pi. of ^^, father. 
«^r^, pi. ugar, wage, 
^^^r, pi. of dhar, other, 
^^ra, others. 
uht^ pi. ahawdi, sister. 
2?/^^, pi. oivjdlad, child, boy. 
z<f.7?z;72j pi. ujiimahdt, mother. 
2^^?zz^r, pi. of amr, affair, business. 

iiriiba, Europe. 

ushur, pi. of Mr, month. 


bd',yebi\ sell. 
<5(iW, a, send. 
(5^(5, pi. (5J<$^;z {abwdb), door, 

gate, chapter. 
(^t2V, after. 

bd'de-md, afterwards. 
badd7i, pi. abddn, trunk of the 

human body. 
bdden, then, afterwards. 
^(To-/^, pi. bigdl, mule. 
(^<7/^r, pi. bihdr, sea. 
<5(7/^r ^;z;zz7, the Nile. 
bdiyin,yib., explain. 
bdla, without. 

baldd, pi. bildd, place, town. 
bdlah, fresh dates. 
(5<^/(f]^, never mind ! in vain, gratis. 
bdnd,yibni, build, 
(^a^ziy, pi. of bint, girl. 
<5i;H, pi. of ibn, son. 
bdqd, yibqd, stay, remain. 
(5(7^(2, <5(i^(7/, however. 
bdqar, cattle. 
bdqara, cow. 
baqsis, present, ' tip.' 
bardbra, pi. of bdrbari, Berbe- 

rine, Nubian. 
bardmt, pi. of borneta, hat. 
bdrbdri, see bardbra. 
bard, cold, coldness. 
^ir^J, bdrdak, &c., I also, thou 

also, &c. 
<^tfr/^, pi. -in, cold (adj.). 



harr, mainland, continent. 

bdrrd, out, outside. 

barrdm, outward. 

bass, only, enough. 

bass, look. 

bdsa, pi. halawdt, Pasha. 

bat, d, spend the night. 

batdtis, potatoes. 

baht, pi. butiln, belly. 

batta, duck; collectively, batt, 

battdl, pi. batidlin, bad. 
bauwdbe, pi. baiiwdbdt, gate. 
^^'^, sale. 
<5f^t7, an egg ; collectively, bed^ 

behera, pi. beherdt, lake. 
^/zV, pi. biiada, distant, far. 
M^z", perhaps. 
<5/;z, between. 
berilsya, Prussia. 

beriisydni, Prussian. 

bess, enough, only. 

bet, pi. biytit. house. 

betd\ betd'a, pi. buti? , belonging 
to (genitival periphrasis). 

bi, in, with, by, at ; also sign of 

bibdn, see bdb. 

biddl, instead of. 

bildd, see baliid. 

bifit, see bandt. 

btr, see btydr. 

bilwes^ slowly. 

Uydr, pi. of bir, well. 

btyiit, see bet. 

bhiydde, more, too much, too 

(with an adjective). 
borneta, see bardtiit. 
bUkra, to-morrow. 
buiitif coffee-beans. 

D and D. 

da, da, fem. di, pi. dol, this, these. 

ddbah, a, slaughter. 

ddfd, a, pay. 

dd/'a, (one) time, (once). 

ddfan, i, bury. 

<^(i/^tz<5, gold. 

dahr, pi. duhfir, back. 

^^'^^/, zz, enter, go in. 

ddif, pi. duafa, weak. 

ddiyiq, narrow. 

ddkdkin, pi. of dtikkdn, shop. 

ddm,yedum, endure (last). 

damm, blood. 

dd7inoh, ddfinihd, he, she con- 

fl'^^w, pi. duqiin, chin, beard. 

^^^^, ?/, pound, knock ; tattoo. 

ddr, pi. diydr, house. 

ddrab, a, strike. 

darb, pi. durub, blow. 

^^rr, 2/, damage. 

dduwar,yid., turn, turn round. 

dduwar 'ala, look for. 

ddwa, pi. adiviye, medicine. 

dawdfir, pi. oi dufr, nail {ongle), 

derwis, pi. ddrdwis, Dervish. 

(/z', see ^<:z. 

G^z", ^z', give ! 


dihik, a, laugh. 

dik, pi. diyuk, cock. 

dilim^ dark. 

dilwdqt, now, immediately. 

dirs^ pi. durus, molar tooth. 

dtydr, see </<fr. 

dohi, millet. 

dol, see ^a. 

dor, pi. adwdr, story of a house, 

^z//r, see dawdfir. 

duhur, see ^^-^r. 

^/a-^r, midday, noon. 

dukkdn, see ddkdkin. 

duldb, pi. dawdlib, cupboard, 

danyd, world, 'it' (in expres- 
sions about the weather). 

duqicn, see daqn. 


y2?,y^, and, then. 
fddi, ^\./adiyin, empty, free. 
/adl, pi. a/ddl, goodness. 
/dhhim,yif., explain. 
fahd, pi. a/had, thigh. 
/aide, ^X.fawd'id, advantage. 
fdkihd, ^X.fawdkih, fruit. 
faqir, Y>^./uqard, poor. 
y27^r, poverty. 
far, ^X.firdny mouse, rat. 
far ansa, France. 
fdras, pi. a/rds^ mare. 
fdrha^ t^\. firdh, hen. 
fdrrag,yif.y show. 
farrdn, pi. -z*//, baker. 

fdrse, bedding, furniture. 

y^j-/, \)\. /usul, chapter; season 
of the year. 

fat, u, pass over, pass by. 

fdtah, a, open. 

fdtar, I, breakfast. 

fawaid, se^/aide. 

fawdkih, ?,tQ/dkihd. 

felaik, pi. oifeluke, boat. 

fen, where ? 

fenagin, pi. oi fijtgdn, cup, bowl. 

feransdwi, Frenchman, French. 

fi, in. 

/■£^, there is. 

fidil, a, remain, be left. 

fihim, a, understand. 

fikr, pi. d/kdr, thoughts. 

fingdn^ %tt fendgin. 

firdh, ste/dj'ha. 

firth, a, rejoice. 

foq, above, upstairs. 

fuqara, ?,&Qfaqir. 

fuldn^ (Mr.) So-and-so. 

fulUs, money. 

fumm, pi. afmdm, mouth, mouth- 
piece, (cigar-) holder. 

furas, pi. oS.furh, brush. 

fusul, see fas I. 

futur, breakfast. 


g^ {g^ykh come. 
gddn, pi. -in, hungry. 
gab, I, bring, fetch. 
gabdly pi. gibdl, mountain. 
gahdnnam^ hell. 



gd^l, pi. -iy(n, coming, future. 
galtd igdlid), ice, ice-cream, 
gama\ a, collect. 
ga?nd^d, people, party. 
gdmal, pi. ginml, camel. 
ganib, pi. agtidby side; near, by 

the side of. 
gdrnf, pi. gawdmr, mosque. 
ganCiye^ company, meeting. 
gamil, pretty, beautiful. 
giimils, pi. gauklmis, buffalo. 
gand'm, pi. oi gene Tie, garden, 
gar, pi. girdn, neighbour. 
gdrd.yigrd, happen. 
gardd, locusts. 
gdrak, a, wound. 
gdrye, pi. gicwdr, female slave. 
gau, atmosphere, sky. 
gduwiz, yig; marry. 
gawdb, pi. agwibe, answer, 

gawdmi\ see gdmi\ 
gawdmis, see gdmils. 
gdzdh'r, pi. o{ gdzira, island. 
gazzdr, pi. -in, butcher. 
gedid, pi. guddd, new. 
genene, see gend'in. 
gibdl, see g'abdl. 
gibne, cheese. 

gidd, pi. agddd, grandfather. 
giddan, very, exceedingly. 
gimdl, see gdmaL 
gins, pi. ag7ids, sort, kind. 
girdn, see gar. 
girl,y{gri, flow, run. 
gism, pi. dgsdm, body. 

gi'zdn, pi. of gSz, spouse, hus- 
band, pair. 

goh, cloth, 

gdz, see gi'zdn. 

gdze, wife. 

guddd, see gedid. 

giim'a, pi. guma\ week. 

gurndl, pi. gurndldt, or gardnil, 

guwa, inside. 

guwdni, inner. 

guwdr, see gdrye. 


^atfa, lunch, midday-meal. 
gddar = ^^V^r. 
^a'z<5, absent. 

gdiyar,yig., alter, change, 
^tf/f, pi. -zy^'w, dear, expensive. 
galatdt, pi. oi gdlta, mistake. 
^i«z, pi. agniye, rich. 
^^r($, west. 
gdsal, I, wash, 
^^/tz, pi. agtiye, lid, cover. 
gawit, deep. 
gazdl, pi. gizldn, gazelle, 
^/r, other than. 
geroh, another than he. 
^iTz, >'^/iz, be dear or expen- 
gine, riches, wealth. 
gizldn, see gazdl. 
gubdr, dust. 
gund, song. 
gurub, sunset. 



hagtn, pi. hugtm, dromedary, 

camel for riding. 
hal-batt, perhaps, probably. 
hamm, care, anxiety. 
hdn, u, be easy, be light. 
hdnian, your good health ! 
hdrab, a, flee. 
hdram, pi. ihrdm^ pyramid. 
hdt, give ! 

hdwd, air, weather, climate. 
hediyCy pi. heddyd, present. 
hendk, there. 
hene, here. 
higra, flight of the Prophet, 

Mye, she. 
hudum, clothes. 
hum, they. 
huwa, he. 


/^^'^^^, Abyssinia. 

MdasI, Abyssinian. 

/ladd, t, love, like. 

/ladid, pi. ahbdh, friend, lover. 

hadddd, pi. -f«, blacksmith. 

hadid, iron. 

hddir, pi. -f>/, present, ready. 

^^«, pi. -^/, thing. 

hdgar, pi. higdra, stone. 

hdkd,ythki, narrate. 

hakim, pi. Mkamd, learned man, 

hdl, pi. ahwdl, state, condition, 


^^/(i?, lawful. 

halib, milk. 

hamdm, pigeons ; hamdme, a 

hamtr, pi. of humdr, donkey, ass. 

ha?)imd77i, pi. havwidmdt, bath. 

hdnak, pi. ahnike, mouth. 

haqiqa, truth. 

haqiqi, real, true. 

/^^^^, pi. hiiquq, justice, right. 

Mr^, pi. -^/, quarter of a town, 

hdram, pi. ahrdm, harem. 

hardm, unlawful. 

hdraq, u, set on fire. 

harf, pi. huruf, letter of the 

harim, pi. -^/, woman, wife. 

^^rr, heat, hot. 

hass^ z, feel. 

hasardi, insects. 

ham, herbs, grass ; hemp pre- 
pared for smoking. 

hdtab, firewood. 

halt, 0, put, place. 

hawdlen, round about. 

hdydif), life. 

hazirdn, June. 

hes, because, since. 

het, pi. hitdn, wall. 

higdra, see hdgar. 

hikdye, pi. -^/, story, tale. 

Mt/^ z*, swear, take an oath. 

hisdb, pi. -dt, bill, account. 

^J/^;/, see ML 

hodn, bosom, embrace. 



hiikama, see hakwi. 

huktlme, government. 

humdr^ see hcmir. 

huqUq, see haqq. 

hiirma, pi. Mram, woman, old 

huriif, see harf. 
htisdn, pi. ahstne, or hel, horse. 


hdbar, pi. ahbdr, news. 

hdbat, a, knock, hit. 

habbdz, pi. -in, baker. 

had,ydhod, take. 

hddam, i, serve. 

hadddm, pi. -fw, servant. 

hddra, fem. of dhdar, green. 

^^ a, fear. 

hafif, pi. ^zf/^, light, easy, 

hatydl, pi. -m, rider, horseman. 
hdiyat^yi'h., sew. 
haiydt, pi. -fVz, tailor. 
M/, pi. ahwdl, uncle (maternal). 
^7(?, country, open. 
hdle, pi. ^^Az/, aunt (maternal). 
hdlis, pi. -f>z, finished, thoroughly, 

hall, vinegar. 

hdllas^yih., make ready, finish. 
hdmas, hdmse, five. 
hdmis, fifth, 
^arz^, pi. -f«, external. 
hdrrag, drive out. 
^7/z<$, betrothed. 
hdtir, wish, desire. 

hawdge, pi. -^/, gentleman ; Sir ! 

(to Europeans.) 
hel, horses (collectively). 
heme, pi. hiyam, tent. 
her, pi. hiydr, good, blessing. 
hiyam, see /zflvz^. 
/2<?<a^, take ! (imperative of ^^a'.) 
^c^^, pi. -dl, teacher. 
hti/d/, see ha/i/. 
hulus, a, be finished. 
hums, pi. ahnds, fifth part. 

'^3^, pi. '(23/V, slave, negro. 

'add, 0, bite. 

'^(5?!?, pi. -dt, habit, custom. 

'^/y, pi. 'afdrit^ demon. 

'afs, things, luggage. 

'agaiz, pi. of '^^z^^, old, aged. 

'dgam, the Persians. 

'dgamt, Persian. 

'dgel, haste, wheel. 

'agib, pi. 'agd'ib, wonderful. 

'^^«2, see 'agd'iz. 

'diya, illness. 

'aiydn, pi. -in, ill, sick. 

'^'zs i^dwuz, 'auz, pi. *duzifi), 

wanting. (Used to express 

the verb * to want.') 
'ala, on, upon, against, over. 
'ala sdn, because of, for. 
'dli, pi. -iyin, high. 
'dlim, pi. 'Ulama, learned. 
'dllaq,yi', hang up. 
'dllim,yi^, teach. 
'amenduwal, last year. 

K 2 



'd?}iil,yi% do. 

'amm, \A.a'md?)i, uncle (paternal). 
'an, of, instead, about, than, from. 
'and, with, at, near, chez. 'dndi, 

'dndak^ I have, thou hast, &c. 
d'qil, ^Viiqala, intelligent, clever. 
'aql, mind, intelligence. 
'drab (collectively), Arabs, Be- 

duins ; ibne 'drab, an Arab. 
'drabi, Arabic, Arab (adj.). 
'arbdgt, pi. -lye, cab-driver, 

'arid, broad. 

'arraf,yi^ make known. 
'dsal, honey. 

'askdri, pi. 'asdkir, soldier. 
'ds, i, live. 
'diara, ten. 
'dsir, tenth. 
'dsrin, twenty. 
'dta'^, thirst. 

'atmn, pi. 'atdsd, thirsty. 
'duz, see 'aiz. 
'dwuz, see 'aiz. 
'dzzil,yi', change (house). 
'en, pi. 'iyun ia'yun), eye, spring 

(of water). 
'iddm, pi. of 'adm, bone. 
'ilbe, pi. 'ilab, case, box. 
'Urn, pi. 'ulil?n, knowledge. 
'will, i, make, do. 
'irif, a, know. 
'itis, a^ thirst. 
'omr, age, life-time. 
'olr, pi. dldr, tenth, tenth part. 
'oziime, banquet. 

ulama, see 'dlim. 
ulum, see 'ilm. 
umr, see 'omr. 
uqala, see d'qil. 
iyun, see 'en. 
uzr, excuse. 

kd'ba, the Kaaba at Mecca. 

kabb, u, pour out. 

kadddb, pi. -in, liar. 

kdfd,yikfi, suffice. 

kdfi, pi. -z>7;z, sufficient. 

;^4)^r, pi. kuffdr, infidel. 

kafr, pi. kufilr, village. 

kahh, u, cough. 

kaldm, speech, affair spoken of. 

kdlb, pi. kildb, dog. 

kdllim,yik., speak. 

kdm, some ; how much .? how 
many ? 

kdmdn, still, again, more. 

kdn,yekiin, be. 

kdnun, pi. kawdnin, stove. 

Mj", pi. y^Jj^/, cup. 

kdsar, a, break. 

kasldn, pi. kasdld, idle, lazy. 

kdtab, i, write. 

kdtabd, pi. of M/z(5, scribe, secre- 
tary, clerk. 

M//(5, j^z'-^., correspond with some 

kdtib, see kdtabd. 

kdttar^yik., increase, make more. 

kawdlim, pi. -iye, locksmith. 

kebir, pi. kuhdr, great, large. 



kef, how ? 

ketir, much, very. 

kibi'r, a, be large, grow. 

kildbj see kiilb. 

kilme, pi. kalimdi, word. 

kifdb, pi. kHiub, book. 

kit/, pi. ^/^At/^ shoulder. 

y^/7/<5, u = kdtab. 

kiibdr, see kebir. 

kiibbdiye, pi. -^z/, drinking-glass. 

kul, eat ! (imperative of dkal, 

X'«//, all, each, every. 
kursl, pi. kdrdsl, chair, stool. 
kuiub, see y^Z/ff^^. 
kutubhdm, pi. -^/, library. 
kuwdiyis, nice, pretty. 

/(7, /^', no, not. 
Az'^, game. 
/ii<5c«, milk. 

/^<$z>, (with ace.) clothed in. 
lahm, pi. luhum, meat, flesh. 
/a^2^, pi. -at, moment, instant. 
Idkin, but. 

ldqd,yilql, meet with, find. 
latif, pi. /z^/^/^ pleasant, agree- 
lau^ if. 

/^2//«, necessary. 
Uy Itsy why ? 
/i"z««, because. 
///, night. 

lele, pi. laydU, a night. 
//, to, for (expresses the dative). 

libis, I, dress oneself. 

lihddd, until. 

lihyd, pi. ///5a, beard. 

//^/(5, a, play. 

//ji^«, pi. a/j-/;/^, tongue, language. 

lissa, still, not yet. 

Uzim, <2, be necessary. 

Ion, pi. alwdn, colour. 

/4?-^, pi. lugdt, language. 

hiMm, see lahm. 

lukdfida, hotel. 

/2^/4/i see latff. 

Itizum, necessity. 


md, not. 

ma\ with. 

??iaddin, pi. of mddne, minaret. 

mdblag,^\.mabdl2g, sum, amount, 

viabsut, pi. -zVz, contented, pleased. 

madd, i, extend. 

viddne, see mdddin. 

maftiih, open, opened. 

magnun, pi. viagmin, crazy. 

mdgrib, west, sunset. 

viahdll, pi. -^/, place, spot. 

mahdtte, pi. -^/, station. 

viahbub, fem. -^, lover, sweet- 

vidhzdn, pi. mahdzin, magazine, 

maktiib, pi. mdkdiib, letter. 

;w^/, pi. dmwdl, property, wealth. 

vidld,yimld, fill. 

OT^'M. pi. ?.'J7/M', king. 


mdluviy known; (adv.) of course, 

mdnmum, pi. -hi, grateful. 

ma^mur^ pi. -in, official. 

md'na, pi. mddni, meaning, idea. 

maqdss, pi. -at, scissors. 

maqbul, accepted. 

mar a, pi. niswdn, woman. 

mdrad, pi. amrdd, illness. 

marid, pi. mdrdd, ill. 

markih, pi. mdrdkib^ ship. 

mdrra, pi. -dt, time (once, &c.). 

mdruf, known; favour, kind- 

masdruwe, pi. oimdsri, Egyptian. 

masr, Egypt, Cairo. 

mdsri, see masdruwe. 

mass, a, touch. 

masd'ih, pi. of seh, sheikh, vil- 
lage elder. 

vialhur, famous. 

vidsn'q, sunrise, morning, east. 

viasrub, pi. -dt, drink, drunk. 

mdswl, roast, roasted. 

mdtar, pi. amtdr, rain, 

mdusim, season. 

mduwit, yim, kill. 

vie'dllim, pi. -l/z, teacher, pro- 

viebi\ sale. 

medduwar, round, turned. 

medine, pi. mudun, town. 

medr^se, pi. maddn's, school. 

mekdtib, pi. -fw, correspondent. 

vielduwin, coloured, painted. 

melih. pi. ;;zz'Af/^, nice, excellent. 

mendil, pi. menddil, pocket-hand- 

mesdfir, pi. -f;z, traveller, pas- 

meskin, pi. mesdkin, poor. 

mhdiyin, pi. -I«, barber. 

wzVz, from ; than. 

min, who ? 

viisd, evening. 

misik, i, take hold of. 

viis, she is not. 

miydh, pi. of m6iye^ water. 

rniye^ hundred. 

vioiye, see miydh. 

mot, death. 

muellif, composer, author. 

mudde, period, space of time. 

mudun, see medine. 

muftdh, pi. mdfdtih, key. 

muhimm, important, interesting. 

muluk, see malik. 

milmkin, possible. 

muslim, pi. -zn, Mohammedan 

mus, he is not, not. 
mustdgil, occupied. 


ndam, yes ; what do you say } 
nabdt, pi. -dt, plant, vegetation. 
nahi, pi. ambiye, prophet, the 

Jidda, yinddi, call out. 
nddah, a (li), call (to). 



jiadddra, pi. -di, spectacles, tele- 

ndddif^yi'n., clean. 

?m/as, breath. 

ndjr, pi. -m, useful. 

naggdr, pi. -in, carpenter. 

nahdr, pi. -at, day (as opposed 
to night). 

nahle, bee ; collectively, 7iahl, 

iiahr, pi. anhdr, river. 

ndhle, a palm-tree ; collectively, 
nahl, date-palms. 

7idl, pi. ni'dl, sandal, sole. 

ndm, dj sleep. 

nemsdwi, Austrian. 

ndr, pi. nlrdn, fire. 

nargile, nargileh (water-pipe for 

nds, man, mankind, people. 

fidsah, u, copy out. 

7ta'sdn, pi. -m, sleepy. 

7idssif, dry. 

77^/^r = mdiar. 

Tiatt, «, jump. 

7idzar, 2i, look, see. 

7/(?(5/(/, wine. 

7iehdye, end. 

;2z^/?z, pi. 7iugu7n, star. 

;7f7, Nile. 

7iird7t, see ;z^r. 

niswdTt (niswd), see 7nd7-''a. 

nilify a, be dry. 

;7f>'f, pi. -^/, intention. 

w/sz'/, ?', descend. 

7iuguj?i, see «z^w. 

;7/7r, pi. a7iwd7-, light. 
W//J-J, pi. a/z^^j, half. 


qaad, 0, sit, sit down. 

qdbil,yiq., meet. 

(7^<5/, before. 

^(7^^^, size, form, quantity. 

qddtj pi. quddh, judge. 

qadim^ pi. ^/^^;^z, old, ancient. 

qd/tle, pi. qaivdfil, caravan. 

qahwdgi, pi. -z^^, coffee-house 

qdhwe, coffee. 

qdhwe, pi. qahdwi, coffee-house, 

qdl, u, say, tell. 

qdla77i, pi. aqldr7i^ reed-pen. 

qalb, pi. ^z//z^<5, heart. 

^<2//7, little of, few. 

qdviar^ moon. 

qaTTih, pi. quTTisdn, shirt. 

qa7tdszl, pi. of qunsul, consul. 

qa7idil, pi. qa7iddil, old-fashioned 

qa7itdra, pi. qa7idtir, bridge. 

^ir^, 5, read. 

qarib, pi. -f>z, near. 

qdrrab,yiqdrrib, approach. 

qasir, pi. -/«, short. 

qdfd, a, cut. 

^^7^/, u, kill, murder. 

qawdTJi^ quickly. 

qdwJ, pi. aqiviye, strong, power- 
ful ; very. 

qidir, a, be able. 


qirdj pi. qurud, monkey. 

qirs, pi. qurus, piastre. 

qudddm, before, in front of. 

qudm, see qadim, 

qullii, pi. qulal^ native water- 

quMb, see qalb. 

qujisul, see qandsil, 

qurdiyib, near. 

qurus, see qirl. 

qusdiyar, pi. -in, short. 

qussdd, opposite to, in front of. 

qut?i, cotton. 

qHtta, pi. qufat, cat ; collectively, 
qutt, cats. 


r^'^^, u, thunder. 

rdbbund, Our Lord. 

rabi\ spring (season). 

j'dd, thunder. 

radd, u, give back, return. 

rddi, pi. -lyzn, content. 

ragif, pi. drgt/e, loaf of bread. 

rdgil, pi. ri'gdle, man. 

r^/^, ^, go, go away. 

r(2^zi', pi. ruhds, cheap. 

rdmd,yirmi, throw. 

rami, sand. 

rdqabd, pi. rzj^tf^^, neck, throat. 

rds (fem.), pi. ru'tis or rus, head. 

ridl,ytrdd, be content. 

rigdle^ see r«^//. 

ri^z", ^, come back. 

rz^/ (fem.), pi. drgul, foot. 

rf/^, pi. riydh, wind. 

rl7z^, odour. 

rikib, a, ride. 

rz'^^<5, see rdqabd. 

rub\ pi. «r3a", a quarter (J). 

ruhds, see /-(J^m". 

r^j", see raj. 

r«s2, rice. 

S and S. 

sd'a, pi. scfdt, hour, watch. 

ja'(2/, a, ask, beg. 

sddii, pi. -iy^, watchmaker. 

sdbd, sabdt, seven. 

sdb, pi. si'db, difficult i^ala^ for). 

sdbab, pi. dsbdb, ground, cause. 

sabdh, morning. 

sdbar, u, be patient. 

siibil, pi. asbild, public fountain. 

sdfar, pi. (2^^r, journey. 

sdfir,yts., travel. 

sdfrd, fem. oi ds/ar, yellow. 

sahk, a, be correct, exact. 

sd/ub, pi. ^i-M^, friend, pro- 

sdhbe, friend, proprietress. 

sahih, pi. suhdk, correct. 

sahl, pi. sukul, easy. 

sdhrd, pi. s a hard, desert. 

j"<2"z'^, pi. suada, happy, for- 

sdid, Upper Egypt. 

sdiyib,yis., leave, let go. 

sdkan, u, dwell. 

sakrdn, pi. sakdra, drunk. 

said tin, pi. oi sidtdn, sultan. 

sallim, pi. saldlim, stairs, steps. 



sdllim,yis. i^ala), salute. 
sdma, pi. samdiudl, heaven. 
sdmih,yis., pardon, forgive. 
sdna {se'ne), pi. suiin [sanawd/), 

sanddiq, pi. of sanduq, box, case. 
sandiiq, see above. 
sdr, I, become. 
sdraq, a, steal, rob. 
sdwd,yiswa, be worth. 
sdwa, together isdiva sdwd). 
sawdbi', pi. of sobd\ finger. 
sef, summer. 

sidr, pi. sudur, breast, chest. 
sigdra, pi. sagd'lr, cigarette. 
stkka, pi. sikak, street, way. 
sikkine, pi. sekdkm, knife. 
simi^, a, hear. 
si'nm, see j-^Vza. 
jz'//, pi. stttdt, lady, 
j'z'//, j'/Z/d', six. 

siydse, politics, diplomacy. 
sobd\ see sawdbi\ 
soda, fem. of /jz£;/^, black. 
siibk, morning. 
Slid {sfiddfi), pi. of iswid. 
suhdh, see sahih. 
suhul, see j^^/. 
sUkkar, sugar. 
«//^z^/, /^, be quiet, be silent. 
sultan, see salatin. 
suq, pi. aswdq, market, bazaar. 

sab'dn, pi. -z;/, satiated. 

j^'^zV, pi. ^/i/(f<3', strong, powerful. 

sdf, u, see, look. 

sa/d'if, pi. of ^"^i^^, lip. 

sdgara, tree ; collectively, J^^^r 

(sdgar), trees. 
Mr, pi. ulhiir, month. 
lahs, pi. as has, person. 
sdkar, u, thank, praise. 
Ml, I, carry, take away. 
Mm, Syria. 

Mmdl {swidl), left (side), north. 
sdms, sun. 
Jr^V, pi. ]^?/z^r, hair. 
M?'af, honour. 
Mrbdt, sherbet. 
larq, east. Orient. 
Mrt, pi. hinit, condition, 

sdwa,yilwi, roast. 
le, pi. ^Jya/, thing. 
sebdbik, pi. oisibbdk, window. 
^'fj, pi. stytih {inaM'ih), sheikh, 

old man. 
sibbdk, see lebdbik. 
life, recovery. 
hffe, see Mfd'if. 
sir lb, a, drink ; Krz'(5 edduhdn, 

sise, hubble-bubble, water-pipe 

(for smoking). 
site, winter, rainy season. 
siyuh, see seh. 

sugl, pi. dsgdl, business, work. 
surba, soup. 
hiruq, sunrise. 
hirtit, see lart. 
luwdiye, some, a little, a few. 


T and T. 

td\i, ta'dld, pi. ia'dlu, Come here ! 

ta'dllam,yit., study. 

ta'b, fatigue. 

tab', nature, disposition. 

tdba\ a, print. 

tdbah, u, cook. 

tdbdn, pi. -in, tired. 

tabta, nature. 

tabib, pi. atibba, physician. 

tdfd, yitfl, extinguish, put out. 

tdgir, pi. tuggdr, merchant. 

tdhan, a, grind. 

iaht, under, down. 

tahin, pi. iHhana, thick, coarse. 

tdiyib, pi. taiyibin, good. 

tdlab, u, demand, ask. 

tdlit, third. 

tall, pi. tildl, hill. 

tdUd,yit., cause to rise, extract. 

tamdm, completely, precisely. 

tdman, price. 

tamdnye, tdmant, eight. 

t'dmbdl, pi. tandble, idle, lazy. 

idmin, eighth. 

tiimmuz, July. 

/^;zz', second. 

taqil, pi. /z/^<2/, heavy. 

tdr, i, fly. 

tarabeze, pi. -oV, table. 

tdrbis,yit.j bolt. 

tarbul, pi. tardbis, tarbush, fez. 

tdrgam,yit., translate. 

/c7r£^, pi. tawdrih, history, date. 

tariq, pi. /^rz/^, way. 

tdsf, ninth. 

/^j^ri/^ pi. -^/, visit ; act of 

tdwd,yitwi, fold. 
tdwi\yit., obey. 
/<zz£;//, pi. fuwdl, long, 
/^/a/, /f/^/^, three. 
iemelli, always, constantly. 
tigdra, trade, commerce. 
tVib, a, become tired. 
tirdn, pi. of tor, ox, bull. 
tis'a, tis'at, nine. 
tor, see /7ra>/. 
tuggdr, see /^zr. 
/z^//, a third (J). 
tulu essdms, sunrise. 
tunm, an eighth (J). 
tdruq, see tariq. 
tus\ a ninth (^). 
tuwdl, see /(2Z£;?7. 


z£;a, z€'^, and. 

wd'ad,yu'ad, promise. 

wdbur, pi, -^/, steamer, steam- 
engine, locomotive. 

wddda,yiwdddt, lead, carry. 

ze;^<3^f, pi. wtdydji, valley. 

wdga\yuga', pain, ache. 

waMdm, single (bachelor). 

wdhid, fem. wdhde, one. 

wdhri, late. 

wdkkil, yiw., give to eat. 

7e;(7^/, pi. ^z/^^/, time. 

wdlad, pi. auldd, wildd, wilddn, 
boy, child. 

wdliden^ both the parents. 



wall, pi. widdh, governor, ruler. 

ivdlld, or. 

ivdra, behind. 

ivdraq, pi. aurdq, leaf, sheet of 

paper, paper. 
ivdrde^ rose ; collectively, ward, 

ivdrrd,ytwdrri, show. 
ivarrdjii, hind one, back one. 
wasi, middle ; fi wast, in the 

wdii, low. 
way a, with. 
wdzan, yuzin, weigh. 
we, see wa. 

wtdn, pi. widdn {iuddn), ear. 
ivfqi',yuqa', fall. 
wildd, see wdlad. 
wilddn, see wdlad. 
wisih, pi. wi'shin, dirty. 

_>/«, Oh ! (sign of vocative.) 
_>'(f . . ._>'4 either ... or. 
ydmin, right (side). 
yiimin. pi. ai'mdji, oath. 
j'a'«/, that means, i. e. 

_>'^/«, pi. aiydm (ly'dm), day 
(twenty-four hours). 

zdhar, a, appear. 

zdhre, pi. dzhdr^ flower ; col- 
lectively, zahr, flowers. 

zdldn, pi. -m, angry, offended, 

zdhale, earthquake. 

zamdn, pi. dzmine, time, long 

zdnbil, pi. zandbil, large native 

0^/z;z, i iu), think, suspect. 

0^rf)^ pi. ziirafa, elegant, nice. 

zdrqa, fem. of dzraq^ blue. 

2^, zay^ ze, as, like. 

2//, oil. 

zibde, butter. 

ziil, a, be angry, irritated. 

ziydde, increase, addition ; bizi- 
ydde, more, too much. 

zugdg, glass ; bottle. 

zugdiyar (= sugdiyar), pi. -m, 

zuqdq, pi. aziqqe, lane, street. 

0«r, forgery, perjury, force. 

zurq, pi. of dzraq, blue. 


able, be, qidir, a (with present 

abode, manzil, pi. mandzil. 

abscess, qilrha, pi. quruh. 
absent, gaib, pi. -in. 
absent, be, gab, i. 
Abyssinia, bildd elhdbas. 
Abyssinian, hdbasi. 
accept, qibil, a ; istdqbal,yist. 
acclimatized, become, ifduwad, 

'ala 'Ihdwd. 
accompany, sahib, yis. 
accusation, Idkwd, pi. sakdwi. 
accustom (oneself to something), 

ifduwad^yif. 'aid hdga. 
accustomed, I am accustomed 

to, 'ddeti, 'ddeiak, &c. ; 'dtti, 

'dttak, &c. with present, 
acre, haql, pi. htiqtcl] /edddn. 
adorn, zdiyin,yiz. 
adventure, muhdtam. 
afraid, be, hdf, yihdf; hife, I 

was afraid. 
Africa, ifriqiye. 
African, ifriqi. 
after (time), bad. 
afternoon, bdd edMhr. 
afterwards, bddcn ; bdde md. 

again, tdni mdrra. 

age, sinn ; 'omr. 

agree upon, iUdfaq,yittifiq 'ala. 

agreeable, latif, pi. lutdf. 

agriculture, y^/^^^, zard'a. 

air, hdwd. 

Aleppo, hdldb. 

Alexandria, iske^ideriye. 

Alexandrian, iskenderdm. 

Algerian, gezairli, 

Algiers, eggezd'ir. 

all, kull, gami\ 

allow, sdmah, a. 

almond, loze ; collectively, loz, 

almost, iaqriban. 
alone, wdhid {wdhdi, wdhdak, 

along, bit-iul. 
also, kdmdn. 

although, we'in, md'dtn. 
always, daiman, temelli. 
America, amirikd. 
American, amiriki. 
amount, mdblag, pi. mabdlig, 
anchor, mirsdt. 
ancient, qadim. 
and, we, wd. 
angry, be, ziHl, a. 
animal, hahvdn, pi. -at. 



answer, gawdb, pi. agwihe. 
answer, gdwib,yig. 
any (some), kdddi. 
anything, hdga. 
apothecary, agzahdnii. 
appetite, sahtye^ Idhwd, 
apple, tiffdha. 
approach, itqdrrab, yitq. 
approve of, istdhsm,yist. 
approximate, bittaqrib. 
April, abril \ nisdn. 
Arab, 'drabi ; collectively, 'drab ; 

'drab, pi. bdni 'drab. 
Arabia, bildd el drab] geziret 

Arabian, Arabic, 'drabi. 
arm (lower), dird\ pi. ddrti, 
arm (upper), sd'id, pi. sawd'id. 
around, hauwdUn. 
arrange, rdttib,yir. 
arrangement, tdriib. 
arrival, wusM. 
arrive, wisil,yiisal. 
arrow, sahm, pi. sihdm. 
as, zay. 

ashamed, be, tstdhya, yistdhi. 
Asia, bildd essarq. 
ask (demand), talab, u. 
ask (question), sd'al, a» 
assent, ridi,yirdd. 
astonished, be, tt'dggdb,yit\ 'ala. 
at, bi. 

atmosphere, hdwd. 
attention, pay, wi'i^ a. 
auction, mazdd. 
August, agHstus. 

aunt, 'dmmd, pi. -dt; (maternal), 

hdle, pi. ~dt. 
Austria, ennimsd. 
Austrian, ni??isdwt. 
author, miiillif. 
authorized, ma'zun, 
authority, hukume. 
autumn, hari/. 
awake (intrans.), sthl, a. 


back, dahr, pi. duMr. 

bad, battdl, pi. -in\ rddl, pi. 

bake (bread), hdbaz, i. 
baker, Jiabbdz^ pi. -in. 
balance (scales), mizdn, pi. 

bale (of goods), yizVdf^, ^\./arddi. 
banker, sarrdf, pi. -in. 
banquet, 'ozuf)ie, pi. 'azaim. 
barber, mhdiyin, pi. -in. 
bark (dogs), ndbah^ a. 
barley, sdir. 

barrel, barmil, pi. bardmil. 
basket, sdlle, pi. sildl\ z'dnbil, 

pi. zandbil. 
bath, hammdm, pi. -dl. 
be, kdft, u. 
bear, dtbbe pi. dibab. 
bear (carry), hdmal, i. 
bear fruit, /aV<2/^, <2. 
beard, lihye, pi. /f/^<z. 
beat, ddrab, a. 
beautiful, kuwdiyis, pi. -in. 


beauty, gamdl. 

because, hes, Winn. 

become, sdr, i. 

hed, /ars,/drsa, ip\./urus ; serfr. 

bee, nd/ile; collectively, naM. 

beer, dfra ; native beer, dzlz. 

beetle, giirdn, pi. ga'drin. 

before (place), qudddm. 

before (time), qabl. 

beforehand, qdblan ; auwdlan. 

beg, Idhat, a. 

beg (request), itrdgga.yit. 

begin, ibtdda^yibiidi. 

beginning, ibtida ; duwul. 

beginning, in the, dsloh. 

behind, ward. 

believe, ^dmin,yi . 

belly, batn, pi. butuft. 

belonging to, beid\ fern, betd'et, 

pi. butu. 
belt, hizdm, pi. -dt. 
bench, mastaba, pi. tnamtib. 
Berberine, bdrbari, pi. bardbra. 
beside, ganb {gamb). 
betimes, badrl. 
better, dhsan. 
bill, htsdb, pi. -dt. 
bird, ter, pi. tiyur. 
birth, wildde. 

bit (harness), ligdm, pi. lUgunu 
bite; ^add^ 0. 
bitter, murr, pi. ^amrdr. 
black, £yw/<^, fern, sodd, pi. j//</. 
bless, bdrik,yi\ 
blessed, mubdrak. 
blind, «"w^, itvci'dmyd^ ipVamydn. 

blood, damm, pi. dmd. 
blossom, zdMar, a. 
blow, ddrbe, hdbia. 
blue, dzraq, fem. 2^r^<^, pi. zz^r^. 
ho^X, /dluke, "^.feld'ik. 
body, ^z>;;2, pi. 'agsdm, 
boiled, masluq. 
bone, 'a^;7z, pi. 'tddjii. 

book, /^?y(7(5, pi. >^2^/z^(5. 

born, be, inwdlad. 

borrow, istdlaf,yist. 

both, eVetnen. 

bowl, ^oj, pi. -^/. 

box, sanduq, pi. sanddiq\ 'dlbe, 

pi. V/a3. 
boy, wdlad, pi. wildd. 
branch,yar*, \)\./urtT. 
brandy, *^r^^ ; kunydk. 
bread, ^es ; home-baked, 'es beti. 
breadth, 'ard. 
break, kdsar, i. ; kdssar, yik. ; 

inkdsar, yinkisir. 
breast, sidr, pi. j-z^^/z^r ; woman's 

breasts, bizz, pi. «32i22 (btzdz). 
breath, ndfas. 
brick, /^/5f2. 

bride, 'aruse, pi. 'ard'is. 
bridegroom, '^rz>, pi. 'irsdn. 
bridge, qantdra, pi. qandtir. 
bring, ^^3, f. 
bring back, rdggd,ytr. 
bring forth, wUidet, tUlid. 
bring near, qdrrab,yiq. 
bring up, rdbbd,ytrdbbu 
broad, zemz"', pi. -in ; '^rf^. 
broom, maqdsld^ pi. -^/. 



brother, 'ah, pi. 'ihwdn, 'ihwe (in 

construction, 'ahil). 
brother-in-law (a man's), sahr, 

pi. ashar. 
brother-in-law (a woman's), silf, 

pi. salaif. 
brown, 'ds??iar, fern, sdmrd, pi. 

\)\M'^,furle, ip\./tiras. 
brush, far r as, yif. 
buffalo, gdmus, pi. gawdmts. 
build, bdnd,yibni. 
building, bhid, pi. ahniye, 
bull, tor, pi. tirdn. 
burden, hdml, pi. ahmdL 
burial, gandze. 
burn, wdla\yiild. 
burn down, inhdraq, i\ ithdraq, i. 
burn up (intrans.), ihtdraq, 

yihtiriq {ithdraq^ 
burn up (trans.), hdraq, u. 
bury, ddfan, i. 
bush, sugera, pi. -^/. 
business, masldha, pi. masdh'h ; 

6^//^/, pi. dsgdl. 
but, /(f^?>z. 

butcher, gazzdr, pi. -f«. 
butter, 2z'($^(?. 
button, 2z>-r, pi. zurdr. 
buy, iltdrd, yiltiri. 
by all means, ummdl, mdlum. 


cab, 'arabiye, pi. -«/. 

cactus, subber. 

cafe (coffee-house), qdhive. 

Cairene, viasrJ, pi. fjiasdruwe. 

Cairo, /7z^j-r ; ;7z^j-r elqdhira. 

calf, 'z^/, pi. *z/^z^/. 

calico, j^fV. 

call, nddah, a (to some one, //). 

call (name), sdnimd, yisdmmi, 

call (= my name is, thy name 

is, &c.), Hsmi, 'tsmak, 'ismoh, 

camel, gdmal, pi. gimdl. 
camel (for riding), ^^^zV?, p], 

candle, le7na, pi. -^/. 
cannon, mddfa\ pi. maddfi. 
captain, re'is, pi. riiasa. 
caravan, qd/ile, pi. qawdfiL 
carcase, ^f)/^, pi. giyaf. 
carpenter, naggdr, pi. -/«. 
carpet, seggdde, pi. segdgid. 
carriage, 'arabiye, pi. -a/, 
carry, hdmal, i. 
castle, serdye, pi. -^/. 
cat, qutta ; collectively, ^z///. 
catarrh, ndzle. 
catch hold, ;;zfVz'-^, t, 
cause, j^(5a3, pi. ^j<5^<^. 
cease, Mlus, a. 
cedar, erz. 

cellar, qabw, pi. aqbiye. 
centre, merkez, pi. mardkiz. 
century, 'tzj-r, pi. dsdr. 
certain, aMd. 

certainly, ummdl) mdlum. 
chair, kHrsi, pi. kdrdst. 
chalk, tabdstr. 
chameleon, hdrbdye. 



change, tegytr ; (money, fdkka) 
ch ange, gdiyar, yig ; bdddil, yih . 
change (house), 'dzzil,yi. 
change (money), sdraf, i. 
changeable, mutgdiyar. 
character, hidq, pi. 'ahlaq. 
charcoal ,y^/^w ; one ^\QQ.Q,fdhme. 
cheap, rahis, pi. ruhds. 
cheat, gall, u. 
cheek, hadd, pi. hudtld. 
cheerful, mabsut, pi. -in. 
cheese, gibne. 
chess, sah'dng. 
chest (human), sidr ; (box), 

chest of drawers, burroh. 
chestnut, kastdne. 
child, wdlad, pi. uldd [wildd). 
chin, daq7t, pi. duqiln, 
China, bildd essin. 
Chinese, sini. 
choose, ndqqd,ymdqqi', intdhab, 

yinidhib \ ihtdr , yihtdr . 
Christ, elmdsih. 
Christian, nasrdnt, pi. nasdrd. 
church, kemse, pi. kdnais. 
cigarette, sigdra, pi. sigd'ir. 
circumstance, hdl, pi. ahwdl. 
cistern, sahrig, pi. sahdrig. 
citadel, qdTa, pi. qild\ 
clean, nadif, pi. nuddf. 
clean, ndddaf,yin, 
clear (plain), zdhir, pi. -in. 
clear, be, ban, a ; zdhar, a. 
clear, make, dzhar, i. 
climate, hdwd. 

cloak, burnils, pi. bardnis ; (Arab), 
'abdye, pi. V($/; (European), 
sdko, pi. sdkawdt. 

cloth (material), ^^^, ^/^^. 

cloth (table-), (5/0 essHfra ; ;;2f- 

clothes, hudiim. 

cloud, ^m, pi. giyilm. 

clover, bersim. 

coast, sdti, pi. sawdti. 

cock, d///^, pi. diyuk. 

coffee (drink), qdhwe] (beans), 

coffee-cup, fingdn, ^X./endgin. 
coffer, sanduq, pi. sanddiq. 
cold, (5^r^ ; adj. bdrid. 
colour, Ion, pi. 'alwdn. 
colour, Iduwan, yilduwin. 
column, 'd7?iild, pi. 'awdmid. 
comb, 7?iist, pi. amldt. 
come, gd,yigi. 
come ! (imperative), /a'tf/^', fern. 

/^'a/z, pi. tddlu. 
command, ''amr, pi. 'awdmir. 
command, 'dmar, yiimur {bi). 
common, wardindrl. 
compare, ddhd. 
complain, iltdka,yistiki. 
compose (write), *dllif,yi\ 
concord, ittihdd\ ittifdq. 
condition. Ml, pi. ahwdl) sart, 

pi. hirut. 
conquer, gdlab, i; gilib, i. 
consent, ridi, a [bi). 
consider, iftdkar,yiftikir. 
Constantinople, istajnbilL 



content, 7'ddi, pi. -lym ; viahsilt. 

convenient, mc?idsib, pi. -i7i. 

conversation, mehdwdra. 

cook, tabbdh, pi. -m. 

cook (trans.), tab ah, u. 

cook (intrans.), gilt, yigli. 

cool, bdrrad, yibdrrid. 

cool oneself, iibdrrad,yitb. 

copper, naJms. 

copy, ndsah, a. 

copy-book, daftiir, pi. dafdiir. 

cord, ^^"<^/, pi. ^zM/. 

corkscrew, barima. 

corn (grain), qamh. 

correct, j^^//^, pi. jzM/z. 

cost, how much does . . . cost ? 

= bikdm ? 
costly, nafis'j tamin. 
cotton, qutn. 
cough, kuhha. 
cough, kahh, u. 
count, hdsab, u 
country, baldd^ pi. bildd. 
cousin, zbjie 'amm ; binte 'a?nvi ; 

tbne Ml ; binte hdl. 
cover, gdtdj pi. agtiye, 
c ve r , gdtta, yigdtti. 
cow, bdqara ; collectively, bdqar. 
cradle, mahd. 

crazy, magniln, pi. magdnin. 
cream, qiUa. 
crier (public), menddi. 
crime, gindye, pi. gandya. 
crocodile, tifnsdh, pi. tamasih. 
cruel, qds'i, pi. -iyin. 
cry, 'diyat,yC. 

cry out (publicly), mf^(7. 
cunning (subs.), M^, pi. Mydl. 
c\Ji^,fingdn,\>\./e7iagm; kds,^\. 

curtain, sitdre, pi. satd'i'r. 
custom, 'dde, pi. -dt. 
custom-house, giimruk, 
customs (duty), gumruk. 
cut, cut off, qdta\ a, 
cypress, sariu 
Cyprus, qubrus. 

dagger, hangar, pi. handgir. 


damage, darr, u. 

Damascus, essdm. 

Damietta, dwiydt. 

dance, rdqas, u. 

dancer (female), gaziye, pi. 

danger, hdtar, pi. ahtdr. 
dark (without Hght), dilim ; (of 

colours), gamiq. 
date (day), tdrih. 
date (fruit), bdlaha ; collectively, 

date-palm, ndhle; collectively, 

daughter, bint, pi. bandi. 
day (twenty-four hours), jj/^w, pi. 

iydm ; (as opposed to night), 

nahdr, pi. -dt. 
day before yesterday, duwal 



day, by, binnahdr. 

dead, mdiyit, pi. amwdt. 

death, mot. 

debtor, viadyun. 

December, desemher (kdniln 

deed (action), fil, pi. af'dL 
deep, gawit. 
delay, ifdhhar, yit'. 
demand, tdlab, u. 
demon, 'afrit, pi. 'a/drit. 
depart, sdfir^yisdjir. 
departure, sdfar. 
Dervish, ddrwis, pi. dardwis. 
descend, ntzil, i. 
describe, wdsaf,yusa/. 
description, wdsfd, mewdsfd. 
desert, sdhrd, pi. sahdrd ; hdld. 
desire, rigib, a. 
devil, ^setdn, pi. laydttn. 
dew, nddd, 

die, mdt, H ; (of = min^ 
difficult, sdb, pi. si'db; this is 

difficult for me, di sdb 'aleyd. 
dig, hdfar, u. 

direction, nahiye, pi. nawdhi. 
director, ndzir. 
dirt, wdsah ; wahl. 
dirty, wisih, pi. wishin. 
discontented, OTz<t5^ rddi] mus 

discover, kdsaf, i. 
disgraceful, fdhil. 
disgusting, qarfdn. 
dish, sahn, pi. suMn. 
disorder, lahhdta. 

distant, be' id, pi. bil'ade; (from 

= 'a7i.) 
ditch, hdndaq, pi. handdiq. 
do, 'f;;«7, z*. 

doctor, hakim, pi. Mkamd. 
dog, /^^7(5, pi. ^z7(!f<5. 
dollar, rzy^/, pi. -^/. 
donkey, humdr, pi. hamir. 
door, ($^<5, pi. abwdb or 3J3^«, 
door-keeper, bauwdb, pi. -z1^. 
doubt, ]^iz/^y^, pi. M^/^ ; without 

doubt, ^//a j«/^^. 
doubt, sakk,yesiikk. 
down, taht. 
dragoman, iergumdn, pi. iard- 

draw (design), sduwar,yis. 
drawer, durg, pi. durHg. 
drawers, libds, pi. dlbise. 
dress, ldbbis,yiL 
dress oneself, //($/j, ^. 
drink, masrub, pi. -^/; w3. 
drink, Krz'3, ^. 
drive, rah, U {bilwabilr, biVara- 

driver, 'arbdgi, pi. -lye. 
dromedary, hagin, pi. hUgun. 
drop, w^^/^, pi. 7itiqat. 
drunk (intoxicated), sakrdn, pi. 

dry, w^j^z/", pi. -in. 
dry (intrans.), ;?/^z/] ^. 
dry (trans.), ?idssif,yin. 
duck, ^^7/^ ; collectively, batL 
duration, mUdde, 
dust, tiirdb. 



duty, ivdgib, wdgbe, pi. -at. 

dwell, sdkan, ti. 

dwelling, jjianzil, pi. mandziL 


each, kull^ ivdhid. 

ear, widn, pi. oddn or iuddn. 

early, badri. 

earth, '^r^. 

earthquake, zdhale, pi. zaldziL 

east, elmdlriq. 

east wind, >^(2W^ ^^ir^F. 

eastern, ^^r^J. 

easy, .r^/^/, pi. jz/>^/// ; hdiyifi. 

eat, akal,ydkiiL 

edge, /^V<^/i pi. (7/r^ 

egg, (^^''^cz, pi. beddt ; collectively, 

Egypt, niasr ; elmasr. 
Egyptian, mdsri. 
either . . . ox, yd . . ._;'«'. 
elbow, hi', pi. /^J'«'/z. 
elegant, zarff, pi. zilrafa. 
elephant,/"//, pi. afydl. 
emerald, zumilrrud. 
emperor, imberatur. 
employment, lugl, pi. dsgdl. 
empty, y^^f, pi. -iyin. 
end, nihdye. 

endure (bear), ihtdmmal,yiht. 
endure (last), istaqdm, yastaqim. 
enemy, 'adu, pi. ddd. 
England, bildd etingeliz. 
English, ingelizi. 
enough, bi-kifdye ; bess. 
enter, ddhaL u. 

entertainment, mubdsta. 

entirely, hdlis. 

entrance (coming in), 7?iadhul, 

pi. -dL 
entrance (way in), diihuL 
envelope, zarf, pi. zuruf. 
envelope, laff, i. 
errand, miswdr, pi. mdldwir, 
txroT, gdlfa, t^\. galatdl. 
eunuch, dga, pi. agdwdt. 
Europe, 'urubbd. 
European, 'urubbdwi \ frengi. 
even, hdtta. 
evening, rnisd) 'esd. 
events, at all, 'ala kulli Ml. 
every, hull (unchangeable), 
everywhere,/*/ kulli vidtrah, 
examination, ivitihdn, pi. -dt. 
examine, imtdhan, yimiihin. 
example, mdsal, pi. avisdl. 
e. g., mdsalan. 
excellent, 'azim, pi. 'uzdm. 
except, ger ; tlld. 
excuse oneself, Cldzar, yiUizir 

exist, kdn, u. 
existence, wiigud. 
expense, at his, ^ala Msoh. 
experience, tagribe, pi. tagdrib. 
explanation, tafsir. 
expression, 'ebdra. 
extend, madd, i. 
extinguish, tdfd,yitfi. 
eye, 'en, pi. 'lytin, d'yun. 
eye-brow, hdgib, pi. hawdgib. 
eye-glass, nadddra, pi. -dt. 

L 2 



eye-lash, rems, pi. remus, 
eye-lid, gi/n, pi. gufiin. 


fable, kikdya, pi. -at. 

face, wisSj pi. wusus. 

faith, 'imd7z. 

faithful, mumin, pi. -/;/. 

fall, wiqt\yuqa'. 

false, vihduwar. 

falsify, zduwar,yiz. 

fa.mQ, /a/ir. 

fan, maf'wdka, pi. mdrdwih. 

far, ^/fi:/, pi. buada. 

farewell, zfz't/o" 

fast, sdm, u. 

fast-month, ramaddn. 

fat (adj.), mudhin) semin. 

fate, qisma, 

father, 'ah (in construction, 'abu). 

fault, ^^/«/. 

favour, mdruf) do me the 

favour, i'milli mdruf. 
fear, ^^ 
feather, r/1^. 

February, y?3r^'zr {subdt). 
feed, wdkkil,yiw. ; 'dllak,yi\ 
feel, -^^JJ, z'. 
festival, 'z1^, pi. «3^tf<3^. 
fetch, ^a<5, I. 
fever, humma. 
few, a, M/;z (with sing.), 
fez, tarbus, pi. tardbis. 
fig, /w^ ; collectively, //;/. 
fig-tree, sdgart fin. 

figure, siira, pi. suivar. 
fill, vidld,yimld. 
finally, nihaitoh. 
find, wdgad,yugid. 
fine, ro/T {ru/diyd). 
finger, j^^^', pi. sawdbi'. 
finish, hdUas,yih. 
finished, mistiwi. 
finished, become, istdwd,yisi. 
fire, ndr, pi. nirdn. 
fire-wood, hdtab. 
firm (adj.), sddid, pi. j^z'(5f'ad/. 
firstly, qdblan ; atiwdlaji. 
fish, sdmakd ; collectively, sdmak. 
fish, sdiyad,yis, 

fit (of clothes, &c.), gd,yig'i 'ala. 
flame, //M(5. 
flat, mesdttah. 
flea, bargtit, pi. hardgit. 
flee, hdrab, a. 

flight (of the Prophet), ^z^r^. 
floor, ardiye. 

flower, zdhre, pi. zuMr [azhdr). 
fly, dibbdne ; collectively, dibhdn. 
fly, /^r, z. 

foal, ;?2//>^;-, pi. amhdr. 
foam, rdgwa. 
fog, sdbura. 
fold, tdwd,yitw'i. 
fool, mag?tu?t, pi. mdgdnin. 
foot, r/^/, pi. (ir^z^/. 
foot (of a mountain), j-^t/^. 
foot-path, /«r/^, pi. /i^r^^. 
foot-stool, /^«rjf, pi. kdrdsl. 
for, //; wm ]^^;/ ; '«/a J^tz;z; 



forbid, mdna', a. 
forbidden, mamiitV ; hardin. 
fore (adj.), auwal. 
fore-arm, dird\ pi. ddni. 
forehead, gebm, pi. agbdn. 
foreign, garib, pi. gtiraha ; har- 

forenoon, qabl edduhr. 
forget, nisi^ a. 
■fork, Idka, pi. sHivak. 
forward, _>'^//a ; yalldh. 
FTa.nce, /rdnsd. 
PVank (European), ifrdngi. 
fraud, hidd' ; gus. 
free, horr, pi. 'ahrdr, 
free, set, sdiyib,yis. 
Fre n ch , feransdwi. 
fresh, /^VJ; /^s^. 
Friday, _>'^w eggiinta. 
friend, ^a3/<^, pi. ahbdb\ sahib ^ 

pi. ashdb. 
friend (fem.), ja/z<5f, pi. -a/, 
friendship, mahdbbe\ suhbe. 
frog, M/dd, pi. dafddV. 
from, ;;zz';z; mtn'and] 'an. 
full, vialydn. 
funeral, gandze. 
furniture, viobiliya ; y^zr]^. 
future, vnistdqbal. 

gain, -^/'j'z'<5, /. 
gallop, r«/;z^. 

game (play), /^r^^, pi. aTdb. 

garden, genene^ pi. gcnam ; 

bosldti, pi. basatin. 
gardener, gend'im, pi. -f)/(?. 
gate, bauwdbe, pi. -^/; (5^(5, pi. 

gather, gdmd, a. 
gay (colour), milduwin. 
gazelle, gazdl, pi. gizldn, 
general (adj.), 'umumJ. 
generally, 'timilinan ; gdliban. 
genuine, haqiqi^ pi. -z>/f>z. 
geography, gugrd/fya. 
German, abndni] berusidni. 
get up, ^^/;z, yequm. 
gift, 'atiye, pi. ^atdyd. 
giraffe, ztirdfe. 
girdle, hizd?n, pi. -tf/. 
girl, sabiye, pi. sabdyd; bin/, pi. 

give, d'/d,yf/i; dda,yidi. 
glass (material), zugdg ; (vessel), 

kubbdye, pi. -a/, 
go, r^/z, z/; ??mi,yimsi. 
go (on foot), r^/^ z«^lf. 
go asleep, ;?^7;2, ^. 
go away, /f//', ^ ; rduwah. 
go out, /f//', « ; hdrag, u. 
God, ^//a/^. Please God, z«-]^^- 

^//c!^. Praise God, elhdmdu 

gold, ddhab. 
good, /^/y/<^5 pi. -zVz ; mdlih, pi. 

goodness, /ad/, pi. <7/^(^/. 
goose, z€7ssf ; collectively, zvizz. 
government, hukilme, pi. -d/. 


gown (man's), quftdn,^\.qafdtin ', 

gracious, karim. 
gradually, biswes. 
grain, qa?}ih. 
granddaughter, hint etibji) bint 

grandfather, gedd, pi. agddd. 
grandmother, gedde, pi. -dt. 
grandson, 'ibn etibn ; 'ibn elbint, 
grass, hasfs. 

grave (subs.), turbe, pi. iHrab. 
gray (ash-coloured), ramddi. 
Greek, riimi. 
green, dhdar, fern, hddra, pi. 

greet, sdllim,yis. 
greeting, saldfn, pi. -dt. 
grind, tdka?i, a. 
grow (plants), ndbat, u ; (men 

and animals), Mbir, i. 
guest, def, pi. diyuf. 
gun, bunduqtye, pi. -at. 

hail, bdrad. 

hair, J«V ; one hair, sd're, pi. 

half, nuss. 

half-moon, hildl. 

\i2im,gaj)ibim (cf. French ja7nhofi). 

hand, z<:/, pi. ayddi. 

handwriting, hatt, pi. ^w/z//. 

hang, 'dllaq,yi\ 

happen, gdrd.yigri. 

harbour, viina, pi. viiyen or mindt. 

hare, drndb, pi. ardnib. 

harem, harim, 

harvest (crop), hdsad. 

harvest (season), mdusim. 

hashish, hail's. 

hashish-smoker, haVsds, pi. -in. 

haste, 'a^^/. 

hat, bur?ieta, pi. bardnit. 

hatchet, bdlia^ pi. (5z^/fl/. 

have (possess) = liye,lakJoh,8ic. 

have (upon one) = 'dndi, 'dndak, 

head, rds^ pi. r^^'^i'j'. 
heal (intrans.), tab, i ', (trans.), 

sd/d, yisft. 
healing, st/d. 
health, sihhe ; 'dfiye. 
healthy, sdlim, pi. -in. 
hear, simi\ a. 
heart, qalb, pi. qulub. 
heart, by, 'a/(2 'Igd'ib. 
heat, /2«;'r. 

heaven, j'^/;^^, pi. samdwdt. 
heavy, taqii, pi. ttiqdl. 
heel, X'a'(5, pi. /^z^'^<5. 
hell, gehdniiam. 
hemp (prepared for smoking), 

hen, ydrha, pl.Jirdh. 
herbs, hasis. 
here, hene. 

hesitate, itwdqqa/lyit. 
hide, istaMbba,yist. ; hdfa,yihfi. 
hideous, IdnV , pi. lunda. 
high, V/z, pi. -iyin. 
hill, A/7/, pi. /z7«7. 



hire, Mr a ; Hgra. 

hire, istagar,yist.\ kdra^yikri. 

history, tCirih. 

hit, ddrab, a. 

hither, iihene. 

hoarse, mabhiih. 

hold, misik, i. 

home, wdtan, pi. aiitdn. 

honest, amin^ pi. timdna. 

honey, 'asal. 

honour, Idraf. 

horn, qarn, pi. qiwiin. 

horse, husdn, pi. ahsine or ^/ ; 

X£i2.XQ,fdras, pi. ^oV. 
hospital, 'isbitdliya. 
host, j'«'/^/'<5 f/<$f7. 
hot, j/z/z;?. 

hotel, liikdfida, pi. -<f/. 
hour, sd'a, pi. -^/. 
house, M, pi. biyul. 
how ? (fs^^' ? 
however, Idkin ; 'ammd ; mda 

human, msd?ii. 
hunger, gtV. 

hungry, gi'dri (gu'd/i), pi. -m. 
hungry, be, gd', ii\ 
hunt, is tad, y is. 
hurry, istd"gil,yist. 
hurt, wdga\yugd. 
hut, ^wJ-J, pi. ahsds. 


ice, gelid; tdlg. 
ichneumon, 7iims, pi. nunuis. 
idea,//'/', pi. a/Xw. 

idle, kasldn, pi. kasdla ; taiibal. 

if, zza ; /(2« ; /;/. 

ill, 'aiydn, pi. -i;/ ; mdrid, pi. 

illness, '«'z>'^ ; mdrad. 
imagine, issduwar,yiss. 
immediately, dilwdqt. 
impossible, ?;z///^cf/; rniis mUmkin. 
improbable, beid. 
improbable, consider, istdUid. 

incredulity, kufr. 

India, bildd elhind. 

Indian, hijidl ; collectively, hind. 

indigestion, tiihme. 

inform, dhbar,yihbir. 

in front of, qudddm. 

inhabit, sdkan, u, 

inhabitant, sdki?i, pi. siikkdti. 

ink, hebr. 

in particular, 'ala 'Ihiisiis. 

inquire after, istdhbar,yist. 'an. 

inscription, kiidbe, pi. -di, 

insects, hasardt. 

inside, giiwa ; ddhiL 

insolent, be, ittdivil, yitj. (to = 

instant, I'dhza. 
instead of, biddl. 
instruction, tdlim, pi. -dt. 
intellect, 'aql. 
intention, niye, pi. 7nydt. 
interest (advantage), na/\ 
interpreter, iai-giimdn, pi. tard- 

in vain, balal. 


invent, ihidra\yihtdri\ 

iron, hadid. 

irresolute, be, itwdqqqf, yit. 

irrigate, sdqa,ytsql. 

Islamism, islam. 

island, gdzira, pi. gdzd'ir. 

Italian, italydiii, pi. -in. 

Italy, itdliya. 

ivory, sinn elfil. 


jacket, zaketta ; (waistcoat), m- 

derl ; (ladies), antdri. 
]2inud.ry,yand'ir {kdniln ettdnt). 
Jerusalem, elquds. 
Jew, Jewish, jj'^/zz/(/z. 
Joseph, j7/j-^. 

journey, sdfar, pi. asfdr ; nidiy. 
judge, qddi, pi. quddh. 
judgement, hiikm, pi. ahkdm. 
jug, ibriq {ahriq), pi. ahdriq. 
]\i\y,yulyo {tiimmuz^. 
jump, natt, u. 
June, yum'o [hazirdn). 
justice, 'adl, insdf. 

keep, hd/az, a. 

keep one's promise, wd/a,yufi. 

kettle, halld, pi. haldl. 

key, viuftdh, pi. viafdtih. 

kill, mduwaf,yim. 

king, malik, pi. viiduk. 

kiss, (^2^5^ ; collectively, <5z7j. 

kiss, (^^j-, 7^. 

kitchen, mdthah, pi. matdbih. 

knee, rukbe, pi. riikab. 

knife, sikkme, pi. sekdkin. 

knock, ^^^^, z^ ; hdbat, a, 

know, '/rz/^ «. 

knowledge, 'z'/w ; mdn/d, pi. 

known, mdluni. 
Koran, elqordn. 


ladder, se'llim, pi. seldlim. 

lady, J-///, pi. -^/. 

lake, be her a, pi. -^/; 3/r^^, pi. 

lamb, harilf, pi. hawdrif, 
lame, a' rag] mekdssah. 
lamp, Idmba. 
land, fl/'f^. 

land (disembark), /i?/', a 'albdrr. 
landlord, lokafiddgi, pi. -/>'<? ; 

^^^/^ ^/<$//. 
lane, M;'(?, pi. -^/. 
language, //j-^/z, pi. alsme; luga. 
large, >^^(5/r, pi. kubdr. 
last, ^^/r; the last time, ^^/r 

last year, ^ amenduwal. 
late, wdhri. 
lately, 'tz/z ^ar/<5. 
later, bdden. 

laugh, (/f/^//^, z' (at = '^/a). 
law, qd?mn, pi. qawdnin. 
law-suit, dd'wa, pi. dddwi. 
laziness, kdsal] tdmbala. 
lazy, kasldn, pi. kasdla ; t'dnbal. 
lead (metal), riisds. 



leaf, wdraqa, pi. 'aiirdq. 

lean, nahif, pi. nuhafa. 

learn, it'dllam,yiC. 

learned-man, 'dlifn, pi. '{ilama. 

leather, gild, pi. guldd. 

leave, take leave of, wdddd, yiw. 

left (hand), h'mdL 

lemon, Umtln. 

lend, dqrad,yiqrid. 

length, /?^/. 

lesson, ^Jrj, pi. durds. 

letter, i^/Va^, pi. y^-w///^^ ; gawdb, 

pi. gawdhdt. 
letter (of the alphabet), /^^r/; 

pi. huruf. 
library, hduhhdrie, 
lie (tell lies), kidib, i', kdddab. 
lie (rest), rdqad, w, omitted in 

the case of things : e. g. the 

book lies on the table, elkitdb 

'ala 'ttarabeze. 
life, 'omr] hdya [haydi). 
lift, rdfd, a. 

light (subs.), 7mr, pi. anwdr. 
Hght (adj.), hafif, pi. hifdf. 
light (vb.), wdlld ,yiw. 
lightning, barq^ pi. biiruq. 
like, 0^. 
lime, ^/r. 

line, ^«//, pi. hutut. 
linen, kittdn. 
lion, ^j-a^, pi. ?/jz/^; j^i^'a, pi. 

lip, ^zy^, pi. sa/ai/. 
little, ^t7/// {quldiyil). 
little, a, suivdiye. 

ive, ^?jr, z. 

living, ^/^/, pi. 'j^j'(Z. 
lizard, dabb, pi. {//M(^. 
load, hdmmil,yih. 
loaf (bread), r^^i/", pi. argife. 
loathing, qdraf. 
lobster, abii galdmbo. 
lock, kdhm, pi. kawdlin. 
lock, j^-^/^, «. 
locust, gardde ; collectively, 

long, /^z£;/7, pi. tuwdL 
long ago, ;7zm zarnd?!. 
look, ^^, z^ ; (5^^^, z^ ; ndzar, ii. 
\oo^tn,fakk^ u ; /^«//, /. 
lord, rabb. Our Lord, rabbiind. 
lose, ddzyd, yid. 
loudly, (5z7^/f. 
love, viahdbbe. 
love, ^^(^(5, z'. 
loved, in love, 'dhq, pi. -in 

i^ussdq) ; mahbiib. 
lover, z^^^/^^. 
lower than, /j/z/ '«;z. 
luggage, 'afs. 

lunatic asylum, mdristdn, pi. -at. 


machine, jndkina, pi. -^/. 
magazine, vidhzdn, pi. ?nahdzi?i. 
IMahometan (subs.), muslim^ pi. 

IMahometan (adj.), isldnii. 
maid, hadddt?ie, pi. -^/. 
maiden, <^z>z/, pi. bandt. 


mainland, barr. 

maize, durra. 

make,yif'a/, a\ 'imil, i. 

man, rdgil, pi. rigdl. 

manager, ndzir. 

mankind, insdn, pi. nds. 

map, hdrta. 

March (month), mars (addr). 

market, siiq, pi. aswdq ; bazar, 

pi. -dt. 
Marocco, mardkil. 
marriage, gawdz. 
married, viitgduwiz. 
marry, itgduwiz,yitg. 
Mary, mdryavi. 
mast, sdri, pi. sawdri. 
master, sid, pi. t'sydd; -workman, 

asta, pi. ustawdt. 
master (of a house), sdhib elbet. 
mat, has ire, pi. husr. 
mat-weaver, husari. 
matches, kibrit. 
matter, it does not, md'ales. 
May (month), ?7idyo {lydr). 
meadow, marg, pi. vuiriig. 
meal, akl, pi. mdkuldi; dkle, pi. 

mean (signify), 'ana,ya'm. 
means, \\.,ydm; vidndh. 
meat, lahm, pi. luMm. 
Mecca, mekka, 
medicine, ddwd, pi. adwtye. 
Medina, medind. 
Mediterranean Sea, elbahr etdb- 

meet, qdbil,yiqdbil. 

melon, baitihe; sammdme. 
merchant, tdgir, pi. tiiggdr. 
merit, istahdqq,yist. 
metal, md'dan, pi. mdddin. 
meter (metre), w^/r, pi. avitdr. 
midday, duhr. 
midday-meal, gddd, gddwe. 
middle, wast. 
middle, in the,y/ wast. 
midnight, nuss ellel. 
milk, Idban ; halib. 
mill, tdhufie, pi. tawdhin. 
miller, iahhdn, pi. -in. 
minaret, mddne, pi. mdddin. 
mind,M//r. Nevermind, ;7Z(?a//]^. 

Mind! /^«V3 ! 
minute, daqiqa, pi. daqd'iq. 
mirror, mirdye, pi. mar ay a. 
miserable, masMii, pi. masdkin. 
misfortune, musibe, pi. masd'ib. 
mistake, gdlia, pi. galatdt. 
mister, ^<7/z/(5, pi. ashdb. Sir ! 

(to Europeans), j'^ hawdga ; 

(to natives), j^^j^zVf. 
mix, ^J/<2/, u. 
mockery, mashdra. 
modesty, hdyd. 
moisture, rutube. 
moment, lahze. 
Monday,^<?>72 eVetnen. 
money, /zdtis. 
monkey, qird, pi. qiirud. 
month, lahr, pi. suhur {ushur). 
monthly-pay, mdhiya. 
moon, qdmar. 
more, dktar ; ziydde ; kamdn. 



morning, subh ; sabdh. 
mosque, garni' ^ pi. gawdniV ; 

masgid, pi. viasdgid ) zdwiye, 

pi. zawdyd. 
mosquito, ndmilse, pi. -dt, 
most, at the, bil dktar. 
mostly, bitdglab. 
mother, 'iwim, pi. 'ummdhdt. 
mountain, gdbdl, pi. gibdl. 
mouse,/ffr^, p\./lrdn. 
moustache, sawdrib ; sandb. 
mouth, hdnak, pi. ahnike ; /zz/^z. 
much, >^^/iV-. 
mule, <54^/^, pi. z'<^^a/. 
murder, qatl. 
murder, qdtal, u. 
murderer, qdtil, pi. quttdl. 
music, mazika. 
must (auxiliary verb) = Idzim. 


nail {clou), vnisvidr, pi. mdsdmir. 
nail {pngle), dufr, pi. dawdfir. 
nail (verb), mdsmar, yivi. 
naked, 'arydn, pi. 'ardyd. 
name, 'z>;;z, pi. dsdmi. 
H3,i^'km,/ufa, pl./uwaL 
nargileh (water-pipe), nargfk 

narrow, ddiyiq. 

native, ibn elbaldd] ahl elbaldd. 
native (adj.), balddi. 
nature, tabt'a. 
near, qarib, pi. aqriha (to = nmi). 

necessary, Idzim, pi. -in. 
neck, rdqabe, pi. rz'^^<^. 
need, ihtiydg^ pi. -«/. 
need, 'dz,ye*i1z. 
negro, iswid, pi. suddn. 
neighbour, ^cr, pi. gtrdn. 
neither . . . nor, ld\ . . weld\ 
nephew, 'ibn (pi. bdni) el' ah ; 

ibn etiiht. 
net (fishing-), sdbakd, pi. -dt. 
new, gedid, pi. guddd. 
new-moon, /z/M. 
newspaper, gurndl, pi. -«V (or 

niece, (5z>z/ (pi. bandi) el' ah ; ^z>z/ 

nigger, iswid, pi. j-z/^ or siiddn. 
night, ///, /^7^, pi. liydl. 
nightingale, bUlbul, pi. baldbil. 
Nile, (5(7^r emiil\ White Nile. 

bahr efdbyad\ Blue Nile, 

bahr etdzraq. 
no, /a". 

noise, kdrkabe. 
none, ;?/^ -.y. I have no money, 

md'dndis/uliis . 
north, limdl. 
northern, limdll. 
nose, minhdr, pi. mandhir ; «;?/^ 
not, md) la. 
nothing, md -se. 
November, no/ember (lisrin 

now, dilwdqt. From now on, 

dilwdqte werd'ih. 
Nubia, bildd elbardbra. 


Nubian, barbdri, pi. hardhra. 
number, 'ddad, pi. dddd) nm?'a. 

oak, sdgaret elballut. 
oar, mnqdaf, pi. maqddif. 
oasis, wdha, pi. -at. 
02it\i, yemin, pi. aymdn. 
obey, idwt',yiL 
obligation, mamnmiiya. 
occupy oneself, istdgal,yistigiL 
October, oktober {tih'iti eTduwaT). 
office, mdktab, pi. vidMtib ; 

official, ma'mur, pi. ~ift. 
often, ketir. 
oh ! j'^ ! 
oil, zei. 
old (things), qadfm, pi. ^//c?/?? ; 

(persons), /^^^/r. 
old man, 'aguz ; ihtiydr, pi. -lye. 
old woman, 'agiiza, pi. 'agaiz. 
olive, zetune ; collectively, S(?/z/7z. 
on account of, bisdbah. 
one, wdhid. 
one-eyed, a' war, fem. '<iz^rt7, pi. 

onion, basdle ; collectively, 3^^-^/. 
only, bess. 

open (adj.), maftuh. 
oipen,/d/a^, a, 
opinion, rd'I ; fikr. 
opposite, qiissdd. 
or, imlla ; ^z^. 

order, 'dmar, yH'mtit", zvdssd, 

Orient, ebndsn'q. 

Oriental, sdrqJ. 

origin, asl, pi. usul. 

ostrich, nddme ; collectively, 

other, dhar, fem. Hhra, pi. uhar ; 

ger ; /^;«f, fem. idnya. 
ought, expressed by, Idzim. 
out, bdrrd. 
outer, bar r dm. 
outside, bdrrd', hdrig. 
over, W^; /^^; the upper, 

ow QY come, giltb, i. 
overseer, ndzir, pi. nuzzdr. 
ox, /^r, pi. firdn. 


pack up, hdzam, i. 

packet, ruzma, pi. riizam. 

pain, ^/^;;z, pi. a/tf;;? ; wagd. 

paint, ^//)/^. 

paint (artist), sduivar, yis. ; 

(house), ddrab buyafi. 
painter (artist), musauwerdli, pi. 

pair, ^<?2^, pi. agwdz. 
palace, qasr, pi. ^z/jz^r ; serdye, 

pi. -^/ or serdyd. 
palm-tree, ndhle ; collectively, 

paper, ivdraq ; a sheet of paper, 

wdraqe, pi. aurdq. 
para {com), /ddda (no plural), 
paralytic, maflilg. 
pardon, sdmih, yis. 



parents, wdlideii. 

part, qism, pi. aqsd?n. 

Pasha, bdsd, pi. baiaivdt. 

pass hy, /df, u. 

pass the night, bdi, f. 

past, mddi. 


patience, sabr. 

pay, '^^r^, pi. V^^r. 

pay, dd/d, a. 

pear, kume'tra. 

pearl, /////?, pi. //^/z'; ^//rr, pi. -dt, 

peas, bise'Ila. 

peasant, y^//(7/^, pi. -/«. 

pen, m^/ >^//a(5^ ; qdlam. 

pencil, qdlam (pi. aqldin) rusds. 

people, nds ; bdm ddam ; (na- 
tion), sdb, pi. j«V<5. 

pepper, /r^/. 

perhaps, b'dlki; rubbamd', yim- 

permission, 't'zn ; 'agdza. 

Persia, bildd eTdgam. 

Persian, 'dgaml. 

person, sahs, pi. ashds. 

petroleum, gdz {gdz). 

philosopher, ///aj-^ ph/e/ds/a. 

piaster (2|^.), qi'rs, pi. quriTs. 

picture, sdra, pi. sHwar. 

pig, hanzfr, pi. handzir. 

pigeon, hamdme, 

pipe, 'w^, pi. *lddn\ (smoking), 
biba. See Nargileh. 

pitch, zi/t. 

pitcher, zir. 

pity, hd?imn,yih (^ald). 

place, mdtrah, pi. matdrih ; 

mahdll, pi. -a/, 
place, /z^//, (?. 

plain, be, bdn, a ; zdhar, a. 
plant, «^(^a/, pi. -^f/. 
plate, sahn, pi. siihiiw, fdbaq, 

pi. '^/%. 
please, d' gab, ye gib. 
please! Vmilmdruf', minfddlak. 
pleasant, lattf, pi. /zz/tz^C 
pleased, juabsuL 
pleasure, mbisdt. 
plum, barquqa. 
plump, semin. 
pocket, geb, pi. giytlb. 
pocket-handkerchief, viendil, pi. 

pocket-knife, mdiwa, pi. matdw'u 
poem, iVr, pi. (zi^'^r. 
poet, M'h', pi. su'ard. 
poetry, 1/V. 
pointed, murduwas. 
poison, si'mm. 
police, bulls. 
politics, siydse. 
pond, birke, pi. birak. 
T^oov, /aqir, ^]./uqard. 
port (harbour), mina. 
porter, saiydl] hall-porter, bau- 

wdb, pi. -in. 
possessor, sahib, pi. ashdb. 
possible, mUmkin. 
possible, be, dmkan,yimkin. 
possibility, imkdn. 
post, busia ; bosta. 
pot, sdlya, pi. saivdli. 



potatoes, batdtis. 

pour, sabb,yesiibb. 

pour out, kabb, u. 

poverty, y2z^r. 

powerful, qdwi, pi. aqwiye. 

praise, hamd. Praise God ! 

elhdmdu lilldh. 
pray, sdlld,ytsdlli. 
prayer, dii'd, pi. ad'iye', saldt. 
present (subs.), hedtye, pi. heddyd. 
present (adj.), hddir, pi. -in. 
pretty, 2arif, pi. zUra/a ; ku- 

prevent, mdnd, a (from = 'ajt). 
price, tdman, pi. aimdn. 
pride, Mbriyd. 

prince, brins ; 'amir, pi. 'umara. 
print, /^(5«', «. 
prison, habshdne ; j^^;^. 
probably, (5a"m ; gdliban. 
proclamation, z''/(f«, pi. -dt. 
profession, sdria, pi. sa7tai\ 
progress, taqdddam. 
project (subs.), masru\ 
promise, wd'ad,yu'id. 
prophet, nabt, pi. anbiye. 
prosperous, sdid, pi. su'ada. 
proverb, mdsal, pi. amsdl. 
Prussia, berHsya. 
Prussian, berusidm\ berusidwi. 
pulse, nabd. 
punishment, gdzd. 
pupil, idlmiz, pi. idldmze. 
pure, J<2/*f. 
purse, kis, pi. dkyds. 

put, /^(7//, ^. 

put on (clothes), libts, i. 
put out (extinguish), taffa, i. 
put up with, sdbar, u. 
pyramid, hdram, pi. ahrdm. 


quality, jf>^, pi. sifdt. 

quantity, mi'qddr, pi. maqddir ; 

(= much), /^z//r<?. 
quarter {\), rub\ 
quarter (of a town), hdra, pi. -^/. 
quarters (dwelling), mdnzil, pi. 

queen, malikd. 
question, sudl, pi. ^j'z7^. 


rags, kUhnd. 

railway, j-z'-^/^f/ (pi. sikak) elhadid. 

rain, ;z^7(7r {mdtar), pi. amtdr, 

rain, ndfar, u. 

raise, r^f/a', a. 

raven, gurdb, pi. agribe. 

read, qdrd^yiqrd. 

ready, M//r, pi. -f«. 

ready, be, Mllus, a. 

ready, make, hdUas,yih. 

real, haqiqi, pi. -z^m. 

reason, '^^/. 

reasonable, 'i/^z'/, pi. 'icqala. 

receipt, zi^^zj/, pi. wusul. 

receive, dhad,ydhod\ qdbad, a. 

recently, 'an qarib. 

reception, istiqbdl. 

reckon, hdsab, z ; hisib, i. 

recommend, zvdssd,yizvdssJ. 



recover (from illness), sihl, 

red, dhmar, fern, hdinra, pi. 

reflect, iftdkar,yiftikir. 
refuse, rdfad, u. 
rein (bridle), ser, pi. siyHr. 
lepice, /in'^, a; inhdsat,yinbisit. 
relate, hdkd,yihkt. 
relation, qarib, pi. qarat'b. 
remain,//^//, a. 
remaining, bdql, pi. -lyin. 
remember, iftdkar.yifiikir. 
renew, geddid,yig. 
repair, sdllah,yis. 
.repeat kdrrar,yikdrnr. 
report, hdbar, pi. ahbdr) the 

report x\x^^,yuld\ 
request, rdgd. 
rest (remains), baqiye) (ease, 

rest, irtdh^ yirtdh; istardiyah, 

restrain, mdnd, a (from = 'a7i). 
retard, dhhar,yi\ 
return (bring back), rdgga\yir. 
return (come back), rigi\ a. 
rib, dir, pi. didu\ 
rice, ruzz. 

rich, gdm, pi. agniye. 
ride, rikib, a. 
right, I 2.m,'dndi elkaqq] elhdqq 

fi 'idl. 
right {\^2xv'^^, yemin. 
right, to the, 'alyemm. 
rind, ^/fr, pi. qtisur. 

ring, kalaqa, pi. hulqdti ; (signet), 

hdiim, pi. hawdtiin. 
ring the bell, ^aV«3 elgdras, 
ripen, tstdwd,ytstiwi. 
rise (sun-), /z//zr (mawj). 
rise, ///z'', a. 

river, ;7^/^r, pi. anhdr\ bahr. 
roast, sdwd.yilwi. 
roasted, mdlwi. 
rob, ndhab, a. 
robber, hardmi, pi. -f^^. 
Rome, r^z^z^. 
roof (flat), safh, pi. sutuh. 
rope, ^ci;^^/, pi. /^z'(5(f/. 
rose, wdrde ; collectively, ward. 
Rosetta, rasid. 
rotten, medffin. 
rough, hilin. 
round (adj.), medduwar. 
round (prep.), hawalen. 
rule (dominion), hukm] mulk. 
rule (instrument), mastdra, pi. 

ruler (sovereign), vielik ; sultdn. 
run, gdrd,yigri. 
Russia, btidd elmoskuf. 
Russian, moskufi ; collectively, 


sabre, j^ pi. siyiif. 

sack, i^/!y, pi. dkyds. 

sad, mahzun. 

saddle, sa7g,^\.sun1g] (donkey's), 

bardda, pi. barddt^, 
saddle-animal, rukube,^\. rakdib. 


saddler, surHgi, pi. lye. 
safe, emin, pi. Umand. 
saffron, za'/ardn. 
sailing-vessel, mdrkib (mardkib ; 

salad, sdlata. 
salary, 'iigra, pi. 'iigar. 
sale, bt. 
salt, wz7^. 

salute, salHm,yis. {'aid). 
sand, r(2w/. 
sandal, ndl, pi. 77r<2/. 
satiate, sfbt'. 
satiated, sab'd?t, pi. -f«. 
satisfy, Mfa,yikfi. 
Saturday, _>'^w essdbi. 
save, wdffar,yiw. 
say, ^a/, ^. 
scent, riha. 

scholar, tdbjiiz, pi. tdldmze. 
school, kuttdb, pi. katdtib ; 

(higher), medrese, pi. maddris. 
schoolmaster, ^(^^. 
scissors, maqdss, pi. -^/. 
scribe, y^ff/z'^, pi. kdtabd. 
sea, 3a^r, pi. bihdr. 
SQ2LTc\\,/dttis,yi/.', dduwar (for 

= W«). 
sea-shore, j^^z7, pi. sawdhil. 
se2iSon,/bsl, T^l./usilL 
seat, kHrsl, pi. kdrdsJ. 
see, ^^ 2^ ; (^^j^, z^ ; ndzar, u. 
self, «^ ; myself, itd/st, &c. 
send, drsal,ytrsil ', bd'at, a. 
September, sebtember i^'elul). 
servant, hadddm, pi. hiidddm. 

servant (female), hadddme, pi. 

serve, hddam, i. 
service, hidme, pi. hidam. 
several, kd7?i. 
sew, hdiyat,yih, 
shade, sz7/. 
shame, V<5. 
shape, sikl, pi. a^M/. 
sharp, ^f;7^F. 
shawl, Idl, pi. -^/. 
sheep, gdname ; collectively, 

sheikh, seh. 
sherbet, sarbdt. 
shibuk (pipe), stbuk. 
ship, mdrkib, pi. mardkib. 
shirt, qamh, pi. qumsdn. 
shoe (Oriental), markub, pi. 

mardkib ; (European), g'dzmd ; 

qundura, pi. qanddir. 
shop, dukkdn, pi. dakdkin. 
shore, j^f^/'/, pi. sawdhil. 
short, qusdiyar (qasir), pi. qusdr. 
shoulder, >^//y^ pi. «>^/iz/'. 
show, '<ira</, /; wdrrd, yiwdrrl 

(with two accusatives) ;yffrr<7^ 

shrub, lugtra, pi. -^/. 

shut, ^^/, /. 

shutter, sdmsiye, pi. samdsi. 

side, gamb, pi. agndb] tdraf, 

pi. (^/r^ 
side, on the oihtx^fittdra/el'dhar. 
silence, sukiit. 
silent, be, j-z^X^w/, z^. 



silk, harir; (raw), qazz. 

silken, mi'n harir. 

sWvtr, /ddda. 

similar, musdbih ; ashah {di). 

simple (easy), hdiyin. 

sin, hatiye, pi. hatdyd. 

since, min ; mm wdqtoh. 

since a long time, viin zamdn. 

sing, gdnnd.yigdnm. 

singer ( female), '^/;;z^, pi. 'awdltm. 

sister, uhi, pi. ahawdt. 

sister-in-law, silfe^ pi. saWif. 

sit, qd'ad, o. 

size, >^?^3r. 

skilled, j^/zr, pi. suftdr. 

skin, ^z7^, pi. gulud. 

slack, merdhrah, 

slack, be, z'/ro'^. 

slave (masc), '^3^, pi. *ahid. 

slave (girl), *^(5^^, pi. -dt. 

sleep, wtJ'/w. 

sleep, «a;7z, d. 

sleepy, ndsdn, pi. -z«. 

slender, quldiyil\ raqiq,^\, ruqdq. 

slowly, hiswes. 

small, zugdiyar, pi. sz^^r or -in. 

smile, itbdssam.yitb. 

smith, hadddd, pi. -z«. 

smoke (tobacco), j^fr/-^,^ edduhdn. 

snake, hdiye, pi. ^^'^5 ; Wbdn, 

pi. tddbin. 
snow, /d'7^, pi. /zz/z7^. 
snow (verb), mzil {J) eitdlg. 
so much, Mdd. 
sofa, diwdn, pi. ddwdwin. 
soft, Idiyin. 

soil, (Tr^f ; tiirdb. 

soldier, 'askdrl, pi. 'asdki'r ; col- 
lectively, 'dskar. 

somebody, wdhid] hdddi. 

something, ]^^"; ^t^^^. 

son, V<5«, pi. 3«';zf; waV^z^, pi. 

song,muwdi,p\. fnawawil; guna. 

soon, ^an qarib ; 3«V(? Iwdiye. 

sort, ^zwj", pi. z^«£r. 

soul, nafs, pi. ;zz^z^j {tm/us). 

soup, j(5r3^. 

sour, hdmid. 

south, gunub ; ^/(^/F. 

speak, itkdllwi.yitk. 

special, mahsus. 

speech, kaldm. What is being 
spoken about .? elkaldm 'ala e ? 

spend (money), sdraf, i. 

spend (the night), bdt, d. 

sphynx, abu'lhdl. 

spice, bahdr, pi. -^/. 

spider, ^enkabut. 

spirit, r«^, pi. arwdh. 

splendid, 'azim, pi. 'uzd?ji. 

spoil (something), hdssar,yih. 

spoon, mdlaqa, pi. mddliq. 

sport, jf^. 

sportsman, saiydd, pi. -f«. 

spouse, ^<?!s; ^^s^. 

spread out, 7}iadd, i. 

spring (season), ra^f. 

spring (water), 'en, pi. *rrz?;z. 

squinting, dhwal, fem. /z(^/J, pi. 

stairs, sdllim, pi. sdldlim. 


Stand, iviqif, yuqaf. 

star, nigme, pi. iiugum. 

station (railway), mahdtta, pi. -at. 

?>i'a.)\/idil, a. 

steal, sdraq, a. 

steamer, wabur ibahur). 

steel, sulh. 

step (walking), hdtwa, pi. hata- 

ivdt'j ddrage, pi. -at. 
step (of stairs), sdllim, pi. saldlim. 
still (adv.), kdmdn ; /w^i^:. 
stomach, ^i/V^, pi. mdiddt \ hatn. 
stone, hdgar, pi. higdra. 
stool, /^wrjF, pi. kdrdsi. 
story (tale), hikdye, pi. -^/. 
story (floor), fl^^?/-, pi. adwdr. 
stove, kd?iii?i, pi. kawdnin. 
strange, '^^/^. 
strange, find, istagib. 
street, ^/H-^, pi. j/-^a^. 
string, ^7j pl- b^^f^^'y hd^l, pi* 

strong, W/</, pi. siddd] qdwi, 

pi. aqiviye. 
stump (of tree), qurme, pi. 

suddenly, 'cz/a ^4^^. 
suffer, ihtdmal., yihtdvial, 
sugar, siikkar. 
suit (of clothes), badldit). 
suitable, muwdfiq ; viundsib. 
summer, j^ 
summit, nfj, pi. rits. 
sun, ]^c>";7/j-. 

sunrise, tuh? essdvis. 
Sunday, _;'c5'/;i el' d had {elhdd). 

sunshade, sdvisiye. 
supper, 'ise, pi. dsfye. 
surface, sath, pi. sutuh. 
surrender, sallim,yis. 
swear, MHf, i. 
sweet, hilw, pi. hilwin. 
swollen, wdrim. 
sword, sef, pi. siyuf. 
syntax, nahw. 
Syria, bildd essdm. 
Syrian, sdmu 


table, tarabeze, pi. -dt. 

tail, <///, pi. diyilL 

tailor, haiydt, pi. -m. 

take, ^>^^^ ihad),ydhod. 

take hold, w/j-z'/^, z'. 

take off (clothes), qdid, a. 

tale, hikdye, pi. -^/. 

talk, itkdllam,yitk. 

tall, /^z^/7, pi. tuwdl. 

tallow, i^(2^;7z. 

taste, ddq, u. 

tatters, kUhnd. 

tea, Idy. 

teach, 'dllim,yi\ 

teacher, medllim, pi. -m. 

telescope, nadddra. 

tender, tdri. 

tent, heme, pi. hiyam. 

terrible, mahul. 

than, z?zz>2 (with comparative) ; 

'an (with positive), 
thank, Idkar, u. 
thanks, hikr. 



thank you, kdt/ar herak. 

then, dikha 'Iwdqt. 

there, hetidk. 

there is ; there are,y7/^. 

there is not, mafi^. 

thief, Jiardml, pi. -lye. 

thigh.y^/i^, pi. afhdd. 

thin, riifdiyd ; r^r. 

thing, ^/, pi. alydt ; /^^, pi. -^/. 

think, ifidkar^yifiikir. 

thirst, 'i/^j. 

thirst (verb), 'itil, a. 

thirsty, 'afsdn, pi. -in. 

thought,//^/-, pi. d/kdr. 

thread, M, pi. hitdn, 

threshold, 'diabe. 

throw, rdma^yirmi. 

thunder, rdd. 

Thursday,_>'^;;^ elhamis. 

thus, kidd. 

till, lihddd. 

time, waqt^ pi. ^z/^oV. 

time (once), vidrra ; w^?^^, pi. -dt. 

tire, ^/^, z'. 

tire (intrans.), iVib, a, 

tired, tdhdn, pi, -f«. 

to, towards, li\ lihadd; often 

omitted after verbs of motion, 
tobacco, duhdn. 
to-day, ennahdrda ; elydm. 
to-morrow, bUkra. 
to-morrow morning, bilkra badri 

tongue, lisdn, pi. alsme, 
tooth, Sinn, pi. estid?t; (molar), 

di'rs, pi. durils. 

top, r^j, pi. riis. 

touch, W(7JJ-, ?*. 

towards, /f ; lindhyet. 
\.o\\Q\,/iita, ^X.fdwat. 
town, ^(^AzV/, pi. ^2'/^^; ??iedi7i€, 

pi. miidun. 
trade, tigdra. 
trade, tdgir,yit. 
trader, baiyd\ pi. -m ; /^zr, pi. 

translate, tdrgam.yit, 
translation, targdme. 
treasure, ?;m/, pi. aniwdl. 
tree, sdgara, pi. -a/ (sdgard) ; 

collectively, sdgar. 
tribe, qabile, pi. qabd'H; sdb, pi. 

tribunal, mehkame, pi. mahdkim. 
trousers (Arab), sarwdl, pi. i^^'nz- 

true, f;;^/«, pi. uma7ia ; j-^/^/^ ; 

truth, haqiqa. 
Tuesday, _>'^/7/ etteldta. 
turban, 'dmdme, pi. 'amd'i'm. 
TmkJurkdwJ; collectively, ///r/^. 
Turkey (country), ^z7^(/ eiturk. 
turkey (bird), ^/>^ r^wJ. 
Turkish, /z^ry^J. 
turn, dduwar,yid. 
Iwine, ^<?7 ; duhdra. 


umbrella, sdmsiye, pi. -a/, 
uncle, 'am?n, pi. dmdm ; /zj/, pi. 


unclean, lufsih, pi. -in. 
under; underneath, tahf. 
understand,yK^zw, a. 
understanding, 'aql. 
unjust, zdlim, pi. -i7t. 
unnecessary, mus Idzim. 
until, hdtta ; Idmmd. 
upon, *ala. 
use, istd'mal,yist. 
useful, ndfi\ pi. -in ; mufid. 
useless, balds. 

utmost, to the, fi dhir eddd- 

valley, wddi, pi. ividydft. 
vegetable, huddr, pi. hadrawdt. 
vein, *irq, pi. 'urilq. 
very, ketir ; ^(iwJ ; giddan. 
vile, ^a;2z, pi. zyfVz ; qabih, pi. 

village, /^^, pi. kufur ; 3^7^'</, 

pi. bildd. 
vinegar, hall. 
violet, benafsdg. 
visit, zdr.yezur. 
\iz., yd'ni. 
voice, ^<?/, pi. aswdt. 


wages, 'ugra, pi. t^gar ; (daily), 

walk, go a, sdmmi {i) elhdwd. 
wall, /^//, pi. hitdn. 
want, 'az, ^. 
war, /^^r(5, pi. huriib. 

wardrobe, duldb, pi. dawdlib. 

ware, badd'a, pi. badai\ 

warm, ddffd,yiddffi. 

\42i^h, gdsal, I. 

wasp, dabbur, pi. dabdbir. 

watch (timepiece), j^'^, pi. -a/. 

watchmaker, j<?«VJ, pi. ?y^. 

watchman, gafir, pi. giifdra. 

water, w<5Vi/^. 

water (sprinkle), rass,yeruss. 

water-pipe (smoking), //i^^ ; 7tar- 

water-skin, qirbe, pi. qirab. 
wave, z?Z(^, pi. amwdg. 
wax, j^w'. 
way, /^r/^, pi. iw'uq\ sikke, pi. 

w. c, kenif, pi. «y^;7z/^ ; <5// el- 

we, f^WfZ, f^;^^? {ahna). 
weak, ^^'^/^ pi. du'a/a. 
weather, hdwd; dmiya. 
wedding, gawdz. 
Wednesday, j>^^/;z eUdrbd, 
week, gilm'a, pi. gumd, 
weigh, zdn,yezin. 
welcome, mdrhaban ; dhlan we- 

well (water), bi?', pi. (5zyffr (fern.), 
west, garb ; mdgrib. 
wet, r«/3; mablul. 
what? /; ^.'' 
when, Idmmd. 
when.? vntet 

whence } min en ; minfen 1 
where ? fen ? 



wherefore ? 'alasdfi e\ IP. 

■which ? enhu ? 

which (relative), illi {illi). 

whip, viasivdqa, pi. masdiviq ; 
kurbdg, pi. kardbig. 

white, 'dbyad, fern, beda, pi. ^/(Z. 

whither ? /en ? 

who ? mifi ? 

why ? le] 'ala sdn e} 

wind, Jidivu', rih. 

wind, hot deadly, savmm. 

window, sibbdk, pi. lebdbik. 

wine, ;zt'(5/V. 

wing, gcmdh, pi. agnihe. 

winter, KA;. 

wise, hakim, pi. hukama\ sdtir, 
pi. suttdr. 

wish, merdd ; irdde. 

wish, ^r^^, f ; (5zV/^-, with pro- 
nominal suffixes. 

with, »zfl"a ; z£;ij/a ; bi. 

without, bila ; viin ger. 

witness, sdhid, pi. hihiid. 

wolf, t/Zi^, pi. diydb. 

woman, vidra, pi. w/j-z^;^ (7zz>- 
wdn) ; J-///, pi. j-i^/if/ ; harwi. 

wood (forest), ^^^^, pi. -dL 

wood (timber), hdsab. 

word, ^z7»2^, pi. -a/. 

work, higl, pi. asgdl] 'dmal, pi. 

work, is/dgal, yistigil. 

worker, saggdl, pi, -?*;/. 
worm, fl^«a<^, pi. fl'w^. 
worn out, kuhnii. 
worth, qime ; tdman. 
worthy, mustdhil. 
wound, garh, pi. giiriih. 
wound, gdrah, a. 
wrap up, laff, u 
write, X'a/rt<^ ; ktiib, i. 
writing, hatt, pi. hidiit. 
writing, in, bilkiidbe. 

yawn, iltdivib,yit. 

year, sene, pi. jz>z/';z [sanawdt^. 

year, last, 'amenduwal. 

year, next, ^ jj/;z^ ^ggd'rye. 

yearly, sanawi \ kulli sdna. 

yellow, dsfar, fern. ^4^"^^' P^- 

yes, ^zze^a ; nd'am. 
yesterday, embdreh, 
yet, /I'j'j'^. 

yet, not, lissd md {ind . .V), 
young, zugdiyar, pi. -in. 
youth, }dbdb 


zinc, tutiya ; z'lnko. 
zoological gardens, genenet elhay- 


Page 23, line 5, for leh read seh 

29, line I, iox guz\ agzd' read^^^z, agza 

38, line 13, foryuqud re2idj'uq'iid 

44, line II, for 'is it not . . / read ' it is not . . .' 

46, line 9, for yeruk>eri1k 

50, line 3, for ??ifrid read ??i2n'd 

50, line 4, for humma read huinma 

57, line 15, for Idhhat read Idhbat 

64, line 2 from foot, for <5//2^'i' read 32%^^ 

7 o, line 1 1 from foot, for elhdlm read elhdml 

80, line 3, for/f z'V ^/j^^^z read// '/^ ^/^^^f 

81, line 18, for ind yisriqiilinli l^read mdyisriqulinds se 
118, last line, for eldglii read eTdgld 






FEB 5 193'T 


RCTD i;£i; — ngST 




T.;< 7&N DEPT. 



LD 21-95m-7,'37 


571 i;ii