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THE DISPATCHES 

OF 

FIELD MARSHAL THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 
DURING HIS VARIOUS CAMPAIGNS 

FROM 

1799 TO 1818. 



" Monumentum sere perennitis." 




HE DISPATCHES 

OF 
FIELD MARSHAL 

THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 

DURING HIS VARIOUS CAMPAIGNS 
IN 

INDIA, DENMARK, PORTUGAL, SPAIN, THE LOW 
COUNTRIES, AND FRANCE, 

FROM 

1799 TO 1818. 



COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL AND AUTHENTIC DOCUMENTS, 
BY 

LIEUT. COLONEL GURWOOD, 

ESQUIRE TO HIS GRACE AS KNIGHT OP THE BATH. 



VOLUME THE FIRST. 
A NEW EDITION. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 




MOCCCXXXVIl. 



LONDON: 

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, 
Stamford Street. 



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LV 

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TO 

HER ROYAL HIGHNESS 

VICTORIA OF KENT, 

PRINCESS OF ENGLAND, 

THIS 

HISTORICAL COMPILATION OF THE DISPATCHES AND DOCUMENTS 

RELATING TO THE VARIOUS CAMPAIGNS 

OF 

FIELD MARSHAL 

THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 

IS 

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 
BY 

HER ROYAL HIGHNESS's 
VERY DUTIFUL AND OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

JOHN GURWOOP. 

London, 1834. 



ORDER OF CONTENTS. 



Dedication. 
Introduction. 

Precis of the commissions, services, official commands, and public honors 
of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington. 

Explanation of Indian terms, titles, and countries. 

The early services of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, in Holland 
in 1794 and 1795, and in the Mysore and Marhatta campaigns in 
India, from 1797 to 1805, arranged from authentic documents, with 
the Official and other dispatches and treaties. 

The Official and other dispatches and treaty relating to the services of 
Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, in Denmark, in 1807. 

The Official and other dispatches and documents relating to the ser- 
vices of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, in Portugal, Spain, 
and the South of France, from Obidds to Toulouse, from 1808 
to 1814. 

The Official and other dispatches and documents relating to the services 
of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington in the Low Countries 
and France, in 1815. 

The Official and other documents of Field Marshal the Duke of Wel- 
lington, when in command of the Army of Occupation in France, 
from 1816 to 1818. 

The Alphabetical Index to the Campaigns, Battles, Sieges, Treaties, 
Embassies, Honors, and Rewards. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE favorable reception of the " GENERAL ORDERS OF THE 
DUKE OF WELLINGTON," in a condensed form, induced the 
Compiler to request permission to publish, as a companion 
to them, the whole of his Grace's Dispatches relating to his 
various military services and commands. The permission 
was accorded by the Duke, in terms that excited every 
exertion to seek for official authorities which might tend to 
elucidate the personal detail of his Grace's professional ser- 
vices, contained in his public Dispatches. 

The victories and successes in the early campaigns of the 
Duke of Wellington in India, have never been generally 
known : their importance having been absorbed by the 
events which were then occurring in Europe, and their cele- 
brity eclipsed by the Duke's subsequent fame. The Dis- 
patches themselves contain much military information and 
instruction in great detail. But an elucidation was neces- 
sary in order to connect them : and this explanation is 
offered as an apology for the presumption that might attach 
to what is not official in the narrative of the Mysore and 
Marhatta campaigns. The Governor General's letters to 



INTRODUCTION. 



Tippoo Sultaun have been inserted, as the best authority of 
the events which led to the campaigns of 1799, in Mysore ; 
to the command of which country Colonel Wellesley was 
appointed, on the fall of Seringapatam. 

The causes and results of his Grace's campaigns in Europe, 
are to be found in the numerous histories of the eventful 
period in which they occurred, which renders it unnecessary 
to recapitulate them. A brief narrative of the events, con- 
necting the subjects of the several Dispatches from Denmark, 
the Peninsula, the Low Countries, and France, is inter- 
spersed with occasional notes, to supply the absence of offi- 
cial details. 

In the compilation there has been an adherence, as strictly 
as possible, to the Calcutta and London Gazettes ; with the 
single omission of the names and lists of the killed and 
wounded, and other returns, which accompanied the Dis- 
patches : the form observed in the Bulletins, printed annually 
during the war for the superior officers in the Government, 
has been followed. 

The Compiler has adhered to the Calcutta Gazettes in 
the orthography of Indian names, and in assimilating the 
English pronunciation to the sound of the Indian character, 
without any reference to more modern authorities, since their 
publication. Not so, however, with the names of battles and 
towns mentioned in the Gazettes of the Peninsular cam- 
paigns, for they will be carefully corrected ; thus, Roli 9 a 
Vimeiro, and others, although erroneously printed in the 
Gazettes, and even in the present day, will be restored to 
the correct spelling of the country. 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

Miiiano's Diccionario Geografico-Estadistico of Spain, 
and Lopez's Maps, have been the authorities for the spelling 
of Spanish names ; and the Mappa de Portugal of Joao 
Baptista de Castro, for that of Portuguese. 

The drafts of various dispatches and letters written in 
India are missing from the Duke of Wellington's Papers ; 
and many of those written in the Peninsula during the 
years 1809, 1810, 1811, and 1812, were lost by shipwreck in 
the Tagus. The Indexes containing the Precis of each 
letter having been fortunately preserved, the Compiler has 
been enabled to replace many of them by applying to those 
to whom the dispatches and letters were addressed, or to 
their representatives. 

From December, 1812, the drafts of the dispatches and 
letters are complete according to the Indexes. 

It is presumed that this compilation will afford, in many 
essential respects, as complete a history of the great military 
achievements of the Duke of Wellington, as can be offered 
to the present age and posterity. His Grace certainly must 
be the best authority for the details of what he knew, and of 
what he saw ; and for what did not actually come under his 
observation, he had the information of all those whose duty 
it was to report to him the results of his orders. No pre- 
sumption of visionary advantages, which might have been 
produced by different conduct, or different circumstances, 
will be attempted : but, what is far better, a simple descrip- 
tion of the events, written as they occurred. The Duke of 
Wellington is therefore now presented to the world, for the 
first time, the historian of his own brilliant career. 



PRECIS 



COMMISSIONS, SERVICES, OFFICIAL COMMANDS, 
AND PUBLIC HONORS 



FIELD MARSHAL 

THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON. 



Born 1 May, 1769 

Ensign 7 Mar. 1787 

Lieutenant 25 Dec. 1 787 

Captain 30 June, 1791 

Major . 30 April, 1793 

Lieutenant Colonel . . * 30 Sept. 1793 

Colonel ,. 3 May, 1796 

Major General . 29 April, 1802 

Lieutenant General 25 April, 1808 

General, in Spain and Portugal . . ^ a . ..^ . , 31 July, 1811 
Field Marshal '... .21 June, 1813 



1794. 

Embarked at Cork in command of the 33rd regiment to join the Duke 

of York's army in the Netherlands, and arrived at Ostend . June. 
Re-embarked and proceeded by the Scheldt to Antwerp . . . July. 

1795. 

As senior officer commanded three battalions on the retreat of the 

army through Holland Jan. 



PRECIS. 



Early in the Spring, on the breaking up of the ice, the army, in- 
cluding the 33rd regiment, re-embarked at Bremen for England. 

On return to England, embarked in the command of the 33rd regi- 
ment for the West Indies, on board the fleet commanded by 
Admiral Christian Oct< 



1796. 



But owing to the heavy equinoctial gales, after being six weeks at 

sea, returned to port ............ 19 Jan. 

Destination of the 33rd regiment changed for India ..... 12 April. 

Joined the 33rd regiment at the Cape of Good Hope ..... Sept. 



1797. 

Arrived in Bengal .............. * e ' 

Formed part of an expedition to Manilla, but recalled on arrival at 

Penang ........ . . ...... Aug. 

Returned to Calcutta ............. Nov - 

1798. 

Proceeded on a visit to Madras ........... J an - 

Returned to Calcutta ............. Mar. 

The 33rd regiment placed on the Madras establishment . . . Sept. 

1799. 

Appointed to command the subsidiary force of the Nizanl, the 33rd 

regiment being attached to it ..... .... Feb. 

Advance of the army on Seringapatam ; Colonel Wellesley moving 

on the right flank, attacked and harassed by the enemy . . 10 Mar. 
Tippoo Sultaun in position at Mallavelly ; the attack and defeat 
of his right flank by the division under Colonel Wellesley, and 
the cavalry under Major General Floyd ....... 27 Mar. 

Arrival of the British army before Seringapatam . ... . . 3 April. 

The army take up their ground before the west face of that fortress : 
first attack on the Sultaunpettah Tope, by the 33rd regt. and 
2nd Bengal Native regt., under Colonel Wellesley .... 5 April. 

Second attack with an increased force, the Scotch Brigade, (94th 

regt.) two battalions of Sepoys, and four guns ..... 6 April. 

Siege of Seringapatam, until ........... 3 May. 

Assault and capture : Colonel Wellesley commanding the reserve in 

the trenches ............. 4 May. 

Colonel Wellesley appointed Governor of Seringapatam ... 6 May. 
A Commission, consisting of Lieut. General Harris, Lieut. Colonel 
Barry Close, Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley, the Hon. H. 



PRECIS. XV 

Wellesley, and Lieut. Colonel Kirkpatrick, appointed by the 
Governor General for the settlement of the Mysore territories 4 June. 

Commission dissolved 8 July. 

Colonel Wellesley appointed to the command of Seringapatam and 

Mysore 9 July. 

1800. 

Colonel Wellesley named to command an expedition against 
Batavia, in conjunction with Admiral Rainier, but declines 
the service, from the greater importance of his command in 
Mysore . '...".. '. May. 

The tranquillity of Mysore troubled by Dhoondiah Waugh, a 
Marhatta freebooter. Colonel Wellesley takes the field against 
him July. 

Defeats him ; death of Dhoondiah, and end of the warfare ... 1 Sept. 

Recalled from Mysore to command a force assembling at Trinco- 

malee Oct. 

Appointed to command this force, to be employed at Mauritius, or 
in the Red Sea, in the event of orders from Europe to that 
effect ; or to be ready to act against any hostile attempt upon 
India 15 Nov. 

1801. 

A dispatch, overland, received by the Governor General, with orders, 

dated 6th Oct., 1800, to send 3000 men to Egypt .... 6 Feb. 

The expedition being ready at Trincomalee, the Governor General 
directed the whole force to proceed to the Red Sea ; and 
appointed General Baird to command in chief, and Colonel 
Wellesley to be second in command 11 Feb. 

In the mean time Colonel Wellesley, having received from the 
Governors of Bombay and Madras copies of the overland 
dispatch from Mr. Dundas, sailed from Trincomalee for Bombay 
in command of the troops 15 Feb. 

Colonel Wellesley, on his way to Bombay, informed of the appoint- 
ment of Major General Baird to the chief command . . . 21 Feb. 

Prevented, by illness, from proceeding on the expedition to Egypt ; 
Colonel Wellesley is ordered to resume his government of 
Mysore 28 April. 

1803. 

Appointed to command a force assembled at Hurryhur to march 

into the Marhatta territory 27 Feb. 

Advance from Hurryhur 9 Mar. 

Arrival at Poonah , . 20 April. 



XVi PRECIS. 

The Peshwah replaced on the musnud 13 May. 

Empowered to exercise the general direction and control of all the 
political and military affairs of the British government in the 
territories of the Nizam, the Peshwah, and of the Marhatta 
States and Chiefs in the Deccan ; similar authority being given 

to General Lake in Hindustan 26 June. 

The Marhatta War commenced 6 Aug. 

Siege and capture of Ahmednuggur 11 Aug. 

Siege and capture of Baroach 29 Aug. 

Battle of Assye 23 Sept. 

Siege and capture of Asseerghur 21 Oct. 

Battle of Argaum 29 Nov. 

Siege and capture of Gawilghur 15 Dec. 

Treaty of peace with the Rajah of Berar 17 Dec. 

w ith Dowlut Rao Scindiah 30 Dec. 

1804. 

Surprise of a body of predatory Marhattas, who were routed and de- 
stroyed, after an extraordinary forced march, near Munkaiseer 6 Feb. 

A sword of the value of 1000 pounds voted to Major General Wel- 

lesley by the British inhabitants of Calcutta 21 Feb. 

Visits Bombay 14 Mar. to 

Fetes and address by the garrison and inhabitants . . . . ( 16 May. 

A golden vase voted to Major General Wellesley, by the officers of 
his division; afterwards changed to a service of plate, embossed 
with "Assye" 26 Feb. 

Returns to the army near Poonah 17 May. 

Resigns the military and political powers vested in him by the 

Governor General 24 June. 

Left the army for Seringapatam 28 June. 

Address voted to Major General Wellesley, on his return from the 

army, by the native inhabitants of Seringapatam .... 6 July. 

Called to Calcutta to assist in military deliberations 

Appointed a Knight Companion of the Bath 1 Sept. 

The civil and military powers vested in him on the 26th of June, 
1803, and resigned on the 24th of June, 1804, renewed by the 
Governor General 9 Nov. 

Returns to Seringapatam by Madras -s^ 30 Nov. 

1805. 

Resigns the political and military powers in the Deccan, and pro- 
poses to embark for Europe 24 Feb. 



PRECIS. XV11 

Addresses on quitting India : 

From the Officers of the division lately under his command 27 Feb. 

Answer 8 Mar. 

From the Officers of the 33rd regt 28 Feb. 

Answer .,...*.,... Mar. 

From the native inhabitants of Seringapatam , . 4 Mar. 

Answer 4 Mar. 

Grand entertainment given to him at the Pantheon at Madras, by 

the civil and military Officers of the Presidency .... 5 Mar, 
Appoints Colonel Wallace, Major Barclay, and Captain Bellingham 

to superintend the prize affairs of the army of the Deccan . . G Mar. 
The Thanks of the King and Parliament for his services in the com- 
mand of the army of the Deccan, communicated in General 

Orders by the Governor General 8 Mar. 

Embarks in his Majesty's ship Trident for England .... Mar. 

Arrival in England Sept. 

Appointed to command a brigade in an expedition to Hanover, under 

Lord Cathcart Nov. 

1806. 

Appointed Colonel of the 33rd regt., vice Marquis Cornwallis, deceased 30 Jan. 
On the return of the expedition from Hanover, appointed to com- 
mand a brigade of infantry in the Sussex district .... Feb. 
Returned to serve in Parliament 

1807. 
Appointed Secretary to Ireland (the Duke of Richmond being Lord 

Lieutenant) 3 April. 

Sworn of His Majesty's Privy Council 8 April. 

Appointed to a command in the army under Lord Cathcart, in the 

expedition against Copenhagen July. 

Affair at Kioge 29 Aug. 

Appointed to negotiate the capitulation of Copenhagen .... 5 Sept. 

1808. 

Receives the Thanks of Parliament for his conduct at Copenhagen, 
in his place in the House of Commons, and replies to the 
Speaker 1 Feb. 

Returns to Ireland . 

Appointed to command an expedition assembled at Cork . . . July. 

The expedition sails for Coruna and Oporto f 12 July. 

Finally lands at the mouth of the river Mondego, in Portugal . 1 to 3 Aug. 

Affair of Obidos 15 Aug. 

Rulira .,..17 Aug. 

6 



xviii PRECIS. 

Battle of Vimeiro 21 Aug. 

Superseded in the command of the army by Lieut. General 

SirH. Burrard . . ............ - . . 21 Aug. 

By the desire of Lieut. General Sir H. Dalrymple, the Commander of 
the Forces, he-signs the armistice with Lieut. Gen. Kellermann, 
which led to the convention of Cintra 22 Aug. 

A piece of plate, commemorating the battle of Vimeiro. voted to 
Lieut. Gen. Sir A.Wellesley, by the General and Field Officers 
who served at it 22 Aug. 

Commands a division of the army under Sir H. Dalryraple ... 22 Aug. 

Convention of Cintra 30 Aug. 

Returns to England 4 Oct. 

Court of Inquiry on the Convention of Cintra 17 Nov. 

His evidence before it 22 Nov. 

Returns to Ireland ., 



1809. 

Receives the Thanks of Parliament for Vimeiro, in his place in the 

House of Commons, and replies to the Speaker 27 Jan. 

Appointed to command the Army in Portugal April. 

Resigns the office of Chief Secretary in Ireland April. 

Arrives at Lisbon, and assumes the command 22 April. 

The Passage of the Douro, and battle of Oporto 12 May. 

By a decree of the Prince Regent of Portugal, appointed Marshal 

General of the Portuguese army 6 July. 

Battle of Talavera de la Reyna 27 and 28 July. 

Created a peer, by the titles of Baron Douro of Wellesley, and 

Viscount Wellington of Talavera 26 Aug. 

Meets Marquis Wellesley at Seville and Cadiz 2 Nov. 

1810. 

Thanks of Parliament voted for Talavera 1 Feb. 

Pension of 2000/. per annum voted to Lord Wellington and his two 

succeeding heirs male 16 Feb. 

Appointed a member of the Regency in Portugal, in conjunction 

with Lord Stuart de Rothesay, then Mr. Stuart, His- Majesty's 

Minister at Lisbon . . . .- ........ .1 ... . . Aug. 

Battle at Busaco - 27 Sept. 

Takes up a position to cover Lisbon in the Lines, from Alhandra on 

the Tagus, to Torres Vedras and the Sea ...... 1 Oct. 

Follows the retreat of the French army, under Marshal Massena, to 

Santarem ........... 16 Nov. 



PRECIS. Xix 

1811. 

Again follows the retreat of the French army to Condeixa, and from! 5 Mar. 
thence" along the line of the Mondego, to Celorico, Sabugal, ? to 

Almeida, and Ciudad Rodrigo .'.'.'. ' 10 Ap. 

Affairs with the French army on its retreat : 

at Pombal . . . 11 Mar. 

at Redinha . 12 Mar. 

at Cazal Nova 14 Mar. 

at the Passage of the Ceira, at Foz d'Arouce 15 Mar. 

at Sabugal .3 April. 

Thanks of Parliament for the liberation of Portugal 26 April. 

Battle of Fuentes de Onoro 3 and 5 May. 

Fall of Almeida 11 May. 

Battle of AJbuera 16 May. 

Siege of Badajoz raised 10 June. 

Concentration of the army on the Caya 19 June. 

Carries the army to the north 1 Aug. 

Affair at EJ Bodon . , 25 Sept. 

at Aldea da Ponte. . 27 Sept. 

License granted in the name of the King, by the Prince Regent, to 
accept the title of Conde do Vimeiro, and the insignia of Knight 
Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword, from the Prince Regent 

of Portugal 26 Oct. 

General Hill's surprise of General Girard, at Arroyo Molinos . . 28 Oct. 

1812. 

Storm of Fort Renaud, near Ciudad Rodrigo 8 Jan. 

Siege and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo 19 Jan. 

Created by the Regency a Grandee of Spain, with the title of Duque 

de Ciudad Rodrigo 

Thanks of Parliament for Ciudad Rodrigo . . ./, , . . . 10 Feb. 
Advanced in the British peerage by the title of Earl of Wellington 18 Feb. 
Vote of Parliament of 2000/. per annum, in addition to the title . 21 Feb. 

Siege and capture of Badajoz 6 April. 

Thanks of Parliament for Badajoz 27 April. 

Forts at Almaraz taken by General Hill 19 May. 

Siege and capture of the fortified convents at Salamanca . . .27 June. 

Battle of Salamanca . . . . . 22 July. 

Charge of Cavalry at La Serna 23 July. 

The Order of the Golden Fleece conferred by the Regency of Spain 

Enters Madrid 12 Aug. 

Appointed Generalissimo of the Spanish armies 

I 2 



XX PRECIS. 

Advanced in the British Peerage by the title of Marquis of Wellington 18 Aug. 

Advanced by the Regent of Portugal, to the title of Marquez de 
Torres Vedras -. 

Marches towards Burgos 4 Sept. 

Siege and failure of Burgos 22 Oct. 

Retreat to the frontier of Portugal, to the 19 Nov. 

Thanks of Parliament voted for Salamanca 3 Dec. 

A grant of 100,000^. from Parliament, to be laid out in the purchase 
of lands to that value, as a reward for his services, and to enable 
him to support the dignity of his peerage 7 Dec. 

Advanced by the Regent of Portugal to the title of Duque da Victoria 18 Dec. 

Visits Cadiz, where he is received by a deputation of the Cortes . . 24 Dec. 

1813. 

Appointed Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards ... 1 Jan. 

Returns to Portugal by Lisbon, where he is received by the whole 

population 1G Jan. 

Fetes given by the Regency, and at San Carlos 

Letter on quitting the 33rd regiment as Colonel 2 Feb. 

Elected a Knight of the Garter 4 Mar. 

Advance into Spain in two columns ; the left column, under Lieut. 
General Sir T. Graham, by the north bank of the Douro; the 
right column to Salamanca G May. 

Quits Freneda for Salamanca 22 May. 

Affair near Salamanca 25 May. 

The Commander of the Forces proceeds to the left column, at 

Miranda de Duero 29 May. 

AiFair of the Hussar brigade at Morales de Toro 2 June. 

Junction of the two columns at Toro, and advance of the army on 

Valladolid and Burgos 4 June. 

The castle of Burgos blown up 12 June. 

The Ebro turned at San Martin and Rocamundo 14 June. 

Affair at San Millan 18 June. 

Battle of Vitoria 21 June. 

Promoted to Field Marshal (Gazette, 3rd July) 21 June. 

Pursuit of the French army to France by Pamplona, and the passes 
of Roncesvalles and Maya in the Pyrenees ; and by Tolosa, 
San Sebastian and Irun 

Thanks of Parliament for Vitoria 8 July. 

Siege of San Sebastian 17 July. 

The Regency of Spain, on the proposition of the Cortes, offer to 
bestow on the Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo the estate of the Soto 
de Roma in Granada, ' in the name of the Spanish nation, in 
testimony of its sincere gratitude' 22 July. 



PRECIS. XXI 

First assault and failure at San Sebastian 25 July. 

Advance of the French array under Marshal Soult, by Maya and"! . . 
Roncesvalles ; the right and centre divisions of the army con- > 
centrating near Pamplona ) 

Battle of Sorauren . . 28 July. 

Retreat of the French array into France 30 July. 

Affair at the Puerto de Echalar 1 Aug. 

Re-occupation of the positions on the Pyrenees by the Allied Armies 2 Aug. 

Second assault and fall of San Sebastian 31 Aug. 

Affairs on the Bidassoa and San Marcial 31 Aug. 

Castle of San Sebastian capitulated 8 Sept. 

Passage of the Bidassoa, and entrance into France 7 Oct. 

Surrender of Pamplona 31 Oct. 

Thanks of Parliament for San Sebastian, and the operations subse- 
quent to Vitoria 8 Oct. 

The whole of the army descend into France ; passage and battle of 

theNivelle. 10 Nov. 

Passage of the Nive 9 Dec. 

Marshal Soult attacks the left and right of the British army, and isj 10 to 
successively defeated f 13 Dec. 

1814. 

Leaves two divisions to blockade Bayonne, and follows Marshal Soult 

with the remainder of the army Feb. 

Affair at Hellette 14 Feb. 

Battle of Orthez . . .'.".. 27 Feb. 

Passage of the Adour at St. Sever . 1 Mar. 

Affair at Aire 2 Mar. 

The permission of the Prince Regent granted to the Marquis of 
Wellington to accept and wear the insignia of the following 

Orders 4 Mar. 

Grand Cross of the Imperial Military Order of Maria Teresa. 

the Imperial Russian Military Order of St. George, 
the Royal Prussian Military Order of the Black Eagle. 
the Royal Swedish Military Order of the Sword. 

Detaches two divisions to Bordeaux 8 Mar. 

Affair at Tarbes 20 Mar. 

Thanks of the Prince Regent and the Parliament for Orthez . . 24 Mar. 

Passage of the Garonne 4 April. 

Battle of Toulouse 10 April. 

Advanced in the British peerage by the titles of Marquis of Douro 

and Duke of Wellington 3 May. 



xxii PRECIS. 

Visits Paris ...... 4 May. 

Visits Madrid. King Ferdinand confirms all the honors and rewards 
conferred upon him in His Majesty's name by the Regency and 
the Cortes 24 May. 

A grant of 400.000Z. voted by Parliament, in addition to the former 

grants June- 
Arrives in England 23 June. 

Proceeds to pay his respects to the Prince Regent, then at Ports- 
mouth with the Allied Monarchs 24 June. 

His reception in the House of Peers on taking his seat as Baron, 

Viscount, Earl, Marquis, and Duke 28 June. 

Returns thanks at the bar of the House of Commons, and is addressed 

by the Speaker 30 June. 

Appointed Ambassador to the Court of France 5 July. 

Banquet given by the Corporation of London . 9 July. 

Heraldic honors bestowed 25 Aug. 

Assists at the Congress at Vienna .......... 1 Nov. 

1815. 

On the arrival of Buonaparte in France, appointed Commander of the 

British Forces on the Continent of Europe, and from Vienna 

joins the army at Bruxelles 11 April. 

Puts himself in communication with Prince Bliicher, in command 

of the Prussian army on the Meuse 2 May. 

Moves the allied army towards Nivelle, on the French army, under 

Buonaparte, crossing the frontier at Charleroi 15 June. 

Battle of Quatre Bras 16 June. 

Retires to a position to cover Bruxelles, on the border of the forest 

of Soignies 17 June. 

Battle of Waterloo 18 June. 

Created Prince of Waterloo by the King of the Netherlands 

Thanks of the Prince Regent and Parliament for Waterloo ... 22 June. 

Pursuit of the fugitive remains of the French army to Paris . 

Surrender of Cambrai 25 June. 

ofPeronne 

Paris capitulated 3 July. 

By his interference, prevents the column in the Place Vendome and 

the Bridge of Jen a being destroyed 6 July. 

A grant of 200,OOOZ. voted by Parliament, in addition to the former 

grants July. 

Appointed Commander in Chief of the Allied Armies of Occupation 

in France .22 Oct. 



PRECIS. xxiii 

1818. 

Assists at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle Oct. 

Appointed Field Marshal in the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian 

Armies Oct. 

The evacuation of France by the Allied Armies 1 Nov. 

Appointed Master General of the Ordnance 26 Dec. 

1819. 
Appointed Governor of Plymouth 9 Dec. 

1820. 
Appointed Colonel in Chief of the Rifle Brigade 19 Feb. 

1821. 
Attends George IV., King of England, to the field of Waterloo . . 1 Oct. 

1822. 
Assists at the Congress of Verona .22 Oct. 

1826. 

Proceeds on an especial embassy to St. Petersburg Feb. 

Removed from the Government of Plymouth to be Constable of the 

Tower of London 29 Dec. 

1827. 

Appointed Colonel of the Grenadier Guards 22 Jan. 

Appointed Commander in Chief 22 Jan. 

Resigns 30 April. 

Re-appointed 27 Aug. 

1828. 
The King having called upon him to serve in the office of First 

Lord of the Treasury, he resigns the command of the army . 15 Feb. 

1829. 
Appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports . 20 Jan. 

1830. 
Resigns the office of First Lord of the Treasury Oct. 

1834. 

Elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford Jan. 

Intrusted by the King with the whole charge of the Government 

and the seals of the three Secretaries of State Nov. 

Continues Secretary of ForeignrAffairs Dec. 

1835. 
Resigns . , , . April. 



Explanation of Indian Terms, Titles, and Countries which 
occur in this Work. 



ACKBAR. A journal, newspaper. 

AMILDAR, or AUMILDAR, AUMILS. 
Native officers, uniting civil, mili- 
tary, and financial powers ; em- 
ployed in the collection of the 
revenue. 

ANNA. The sixteenth part of a 
rupee. 

ATTAVESY.The. A country between 
the Taptee and the Damungunga 
rivers. 

BAEK, BAYE. Princess or lady of 
high rank. 

BAJARY. Millet. 

BALLA, Above Balla-ghaut, above 
the ghaut. Balla killa, the upper 
fort or citadel in a fortress. 

BANDY. A cart or gig. 

BATTA. Field allowance to the army 
in money. 

BAZAAR. Market. One was always 
established in camp. 

BEETEL. See Otter and Paun. 

BKGUM. Lady of high rank ; widow 
of a prince. 

BEHAUDER. Title of courtesy of 
high respect ; literally, Invincible. 

BERAR. A country of the Eastern 
Marhattas, Ellichpoor the capital. 
It was formerly a jaghire of the 
Marhatta empire to the Rajahs of 
the Bhoonslah family, residing at 
Nagpoor, but afterwards declared 
independent. 

BEYAH. The ancient Hyphasis river 
beyond the Sutleje, on the south- 
east frontier of Punjaub. 

BHEELS, The. Supposed to be the 
aborigines of India, inhabiting the 
mountainous districts bordering on 
Candeish and the Northern Con- 
kan. These wild and uncivilized 
people, who usually live by plunder 



and robbery, are governed by chiefs 
called Naiks,most of whom are now 
paid by the British Government. 

BHOONSLAH. The family name of 
the Rajahs of Berar. The name 
and titles of Ihe Rajah, in 1803, 
were Sen ah Saheb Soubah Rago- 
jee Bhoonslah. 

BHOW. A Hindu title. 

BRINJARRIES. Grain dealers who 
supply armies with rice and grain, 
loaded in bags on bullocks. 

BUCKSHEE. Commander in Chief 
of an army, or officer holding that 
rank. 

CAMAVISDAR. A native revenue 
collector in Guzerat. 

CAMPOOS. Brigades of regular in- 
fantry in native armies. 

CANARA. A fertile district below 
the Western Ghauts, between the 
provinces of Goa and Malabar. 

CANDAHAR. A capital of the king 
ofCaubul. 

CANDEISH. A country between the 
Nerbudda and Taptee rivers. 

CARCOON. See Karhoon. 

CARNATIC. The country to the east 
of Mysore, between the Ghauts 
and the sea. 

CASTE. The Hindus are born to 
different ranks and classes, which 
are so called. 

CAUBUL. One of the capitals of the 
kingdom of that name. 

CHINNA. A sort of grain, pulse. 

CHOULTRY. A covered building for 
travellers or for troops. 

CHOUTE. Tribute ; a fourth of the 
revenue exacted as tribute by the 
Marhattas. 



XXVI 



EXPLANATION OF INDIAN TERMS, 



CHOIRE CHITTY. A written order 
or authority on papers. 

CIRCAR, or SIRCAR. The Govern- 
ment ; also a province or geogra- 
phical division of a Soubah. 

COAST, The. Applied formerly to the 
territory subject to the Presidency 
of Madras. 

CONFEDERACY, the Marhatta, as 
mentioned in this work. The al- 
liance formed by Scindiah, Holkar, 
and the Rajah of Berar, against 
the Peshwah, who sought and ob- 
tained British aid. 

CONKAN. See Konkan. 

COOLIES. Men and women of low 
caste, who carry baggage, &c., 
with armies. Porters, laborers. 

COORG, or KOORG. A country in 
the Ghauts between Mysore and 
Malabar. 

COROMANDEL, Coast of. The east- 
ern coast of the peninsula of India. 

Coss. A geographical measure, ir- 
regular, but generally equal to 
two miles. 

COULTHEE. A grain for horses. 

COWLE. Mercy, quarter, protection, 
solemn pledge or promise. 

COWLNAMAH. Paper of protection, 
given usually in time of war ; an 
agreement in writing, a proclama- 
tion. 

CRORE. One hundred lacs, or ten 
millions. 

of Pagodas. About 4,000,000/. 

of Rupees. About 1,000,0001. 

CUSHOONS. Brigades of infantry. 

CUTCH, or KUTCH. A barren but 
strong country in the western part 
of Guzerat. 

CUTTACK. A country on the coast 
to the east of Berar. 

CUTWAHL. Chief officer of police 
and superintendent of Bazaars. 

DAR. When joined to another word, 
means the holder of an office, or an 
officer in charge of a post. See 
Killadar, Soubahdar, Zemindar. 

DAWK. The post, as also the post 



manner of travelling in India, car- 
ried in palanquins by bearers. 

DECCAN, South. Applied to the 
country south of the Nerbudda, 
and between that and the Kistna 



DELTA. A country situated between 
the mouths of rivers, usually ap- 
plied to that of the Ganges. 

DESHMOOK. An officer in the Dec- 
can receiving ten per cent, upon 
the clear revenue of the district. 

DESSARAH. A great military festi- 
val among the Marhattas. 

DEW AN. The principal native mi- 
nister, or chief of the revenue de- 
partment. 

DHURMSALA. A place at or near a 
village for the reception of tra- 
vellers. 

DIVAN. A council of a prince and 
his ministers. 

DOLL. A yellow pulse or pea. 

DOOAB. A country between two 
rivers which run into each other, 
particularly that between the Gan- 
ges and the Jumna, in Hindustan, 
and that between the Kistna and 
the Toombuddra, in the Deccan. 

DOOLIES. Palanquins made light 
for carrying sick and wounded 
soldiers. 

DROOG. A fortified hill or rock. 

DUBASH. An agent. The native 
at Madras who manages the mo- 
ney concerns of Europeans, and 
serves as interpreter. In Bengal 
this person is called Banyan and 
Sircar. 

DUFTER. Record office. 

DURBAR. Court of an independent 
prince ; levee. 

DURRAR of horse. Corps of. 
ENAUM. Grants of land, rent free. 

FANAM. A coin 45 to a pagoda. 
Madras currency 2d. to 2kd. each. 

GOLD. A coin 3? to a rupee. 

Silver and gold coins of the same 
denomination are generally of the 
value of 1 5 to 1 . 



TITLES, AND COUNTRIES. 



XXV11 



FOUJDARRY. See Phousdarry. 
GARCE. A measure containing 4 800 
pucca seers, of 2lbs. each. 

GHAUT. A pass through hills ; a 
ferry over a river; a range of 
mountains. 

GHAUTS. Ranges of mountains 
which separate the upper or table 
land in the Deccan and Mysore 
from the lower countries bordering 
on the sea to the east and west, and 
on the Taptee river to the north. 
The country above the Ghauts is 
called Balla- ghaut; the country 
below is called Payen-ghaut. 

GHEE. A kind of butter made of 
buffalo's milk. 

GHURREE. A gong or bell upon 
which time is struck ; also a wall 
Hanked by towers. 

Go A. A Portuguese settlement on 
the Malabar coast. 

GOLLAH. That part of the camp 
where the brinjarries are stationed. 

GOLUNDAUZE. Artillerymen of na- 
tive troops. 

GOMASTAH of Brinjarries. Agent 
or Commissioner. 

GRAB. A small two-masted vessel, 
chiefly used for coasting in the 
East. 

GRAM. A kind of pulse or grain 
with which the horses and gun 
bullocks are fed in India. 

GUALIOR, GWALIOR. The modern 
capital of Scindiah. 

GUICKWAR. The family name of 
one of the great Marhatta chiefs 
holding Guzerat. The name and 
titles of the chief, in 1 803, were 
Rajah Anund Rao Guickwar. 

GUNNY BAGS. Sacking in which 
rice is carried. 

GUZERAT. Part of the Marhatta 
empire, of which it was formerly a 
jaghire under the Guickwar, who 
afterwards declared it independent. 
Baroda the capital. 

HAVILDAR. A non-commissioned 
officer of native troops, of the rank 
of serjeant. 



HINDUSTAN Proper. The country 
so called between the Indus, the 
Ganges, and the Nerbudda, and 
bounded on the north by the moun- 
tains of Thibet and Tartary. 

HIRCARRAHS. Messengers employed 
to carry letters, generally brah- 
mins. They are sent also to gain 
intelligence and used as guides. 

HOLKAR. The family name of one 
of the great Marhatta chiefs, for- 
merly a jaghiredar of the empire, 
but afterwards declared his inde- 
pendence ; his territory in Malwa, 
and his capital Indore. The name 
of the chief, in 1803, was Jeswunt 
Rao Holkar. 

HURGOORY, or HUZOORIAHS. Per- 
sonal attendants of a chief, of his 
own tribe or caste. 

HYDERABAD. The capital and seat 
of government of the Nizam's do- 
minions. 

INDORE. The capital of Holkar in 
Malwa. 

JAGHIRE. A grant of territory from 
a sovereign prince to a subject. 

JAGHIREDAR. The holder of a jag- 
hiredar, usually for life only. 

JAH. Title of the Nizam and of 
Scindiah. 

JEMIDAR. The junior rank of offi- 
cer in the native troops. 

JOWARRY. A kind of Indian corn. 

JUNGLE. Wood, high grass or reeds, 
waste country. 

KANARA. See Canara. 

KARKOON, or CARKOON. A native 
revenue officer under the collector. 
An agent. 

KHAREETAH. A letter, dispatch. 

KHELAUT. Robe or dress of honor 
with which princes confer digni- 
ties. 

KILLA. Balla Killa, the upper fort 
or citadel of a fortress. 

KILLADAR. The governor of a fort. 

KARK ANA. Term applied to the cat- 
tle department of the army ; and 
where the elephants are kept. 



XXV111 



EXPLANATION OF INDIAN TERMS, 



KISTNA. A large river dividing the 
Deccan from Mysore. 

KONKAN, or CONKAN. The country 
between the Western Ghauts and 
the sea, near Bombay, under the 
Peshwah. 

KOORG, or COORG. A country in 
the ghauts between Mysore and 
Malabar. 

KUR. When attached to a name, 
as Nimbulkur, Nepauneekur, &<., 
designates the chief of that family. 

KURCH, Durbar. Court charges. 

LAC. One hundred thousand. 

of Rupees, at Is., about 1 0,000^. 

of Pagodas, about 40,000/. 

MAHA. Great. 
MAISTRY. Head artisan. 

MALABAR. The country on the 
western coast of the peninsula of 
India. 

MALWA. A country north of the 
Nerbudda, divided between the 
Peshwah, Holkar, and Scindiah. 

MARHATTA EMPIRE. Founded by 
the celebrated Sevajee over a con- 
siderable race of people about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, 
afterwards divided into several 
independent governments ; the 
Rajah of Sattarah, a descendant 
of Sevajee, still being chief, al- 
though only nominally governing 
through the Peshwah, the chief 
magistrate of the empire. The 
principal chiefs of the Marhatta 
empire in 1803, were, 

The Rajah of Sattarah. 
The Peshwah. 
TheRajahofBerar. 
Dowlut Rao Scindiah. 
Jeswunt Rao Holkar. 
Anund Rao Guickwar. 
MATROSS. A bombadier. 

MAUNKARRIES. Men of high caste, 
nobles. 

MEER SUDDOOR. One of the great 
officers of Tippoo's government ; 
his particular charge was the forts, 
&c. 

MOGUL. The title of the Mahome- 



dan 'emperors of Hindustan ; one 
of the sects of Musselmann. 

MOHUR. A cold coin varying in 
value, according to weight, from 
12 to 14 or 15, and even J 6 rupees. 

MOOLUCK-GHERY, MuLUK GEEREK. 

Collection, exaction, or kind of 
revenue, in Guzerat. 

MOONSHEE. Letter writer, tutor, 
secretary. 

MOPLAHS. A race residing in Ma- 
labar Proper, descended from the 
Arabs who colonized on that coast. 

MUCCUDUM of Brinjarries. Con- 
ductor. 
MUSNUD. Throne. 

MUTASEDDEE. Accountant, chief 
clerk, or secretary of brinjarries. 

MUTULUK. Deputy. 

MYSORE. A country south of the 
Deccan, conquered from the native 
Hindu Rajahs by Hyder Ally, 
retaken from Tippoo Sultaun by 
the British, and restored to the 
ancient family on the fall of 
Seringapatam. 

NABOB, or NAWAUB. Mussulman 
king or chief, often a title of 
courtesy unattended with power. 

NAG POOR. The capital and the 
seat of government of the Rajah 
of Berar. 

NAIG, NAIK, or NAIGUE. The 
lowest rank of non-commissioned 
officer in native troops, answering 
to that of corporal. Naik is also a 
title of the chiefs of the Bheels. 

NAIRS. A warlike, race of Hindus, 
inhabiting the mountainous and 
jungly parts of Malabar. 

NANPERVERISH. Persons who are 
destitute. 

FUND. For such as 



are destitute. 

NERBUDDA. A large river dividing 
Hindustan from the Deccan. 

NERRICK. Price-current of the mar- 
ket. 

NIMMUK WALLAH. Literally salt- 
eater. Eating salt in the East is a 
bond of faith and friendship among 



TITLES, AND COUNTRIES. 



XXIX 



the natives, to those with whom 
they eat it. 

NIZAM. The Soubahdar of the Dec- 
can, reigning over a large portion 
of territory between the "VVurda, 
Godavery, and Kistna rivers. Ca- 
pital at Hyderabad. The names 
and titles of the Nizam in 1 803, 
were Nizam and Dowlut, A soph 
Jah, Soubahdar of the Deccan ; he 

' was succeeded in the same year 
by his son, Secundar Jah. 

NOTCH, NOUTCH. A dance, Indian 

fete. 
NULLAH. A stream, watercourse. 

NUZZER. An offering, a present 
made to a superior, a fine or fee. 

OOMRAH. High rank of nobility. 

OTTER and PAU.V. Essence of the 
preparation of beetel nut, present- 
ed to visitors on quitting a durbar. 

OUGEIN. The ancient capital and 
. seat of government of Scindiah in 
Malwa. 
PADDY. Rice in the husk. 

PAGODA. Hindu temple of worship. 
A gold coin, of about eight shillings 
value. 

PAT AN. Name applied to the Af- 
ghan tribes. 

PATKL, or POT AIL. The hereditary 
head manager of a village, and 
the medium of communication be- 
tween a village and a government. 

PAYKN. Lower. Payen-ghaut, the 
country below the Ghauts. 

PEONS. Irregular infantry, armed 
with swords or matchlocks, em- 
ployed chiefly in the defence of 
forts, and in the collection of the 
revenue. 

PERGUNNAH. A district. The 
largest division of land in Zemiu- 
darry. 

PESHCUSH. Tribute, fine, quit rent 
on the stipulated revenue. 

PESH-KANAH. Chief agent, or 
manager to a Resident. 

PESHWAH. Literally, the First. The 
chief magistrate of the Marhatta 
empire, nominally under the Ra- 



jah of Sattarah, but usurping his 
authority. His capital and seat of 
government at Poonah. The names 
and titles of the Peshwah, in 1 803, 
were Sreemunt Bajee Rao, Rago- 
naut Rao, Pundit Purdhaun. 

PETTAH. A suburb, or outwork of a 
fortified place, with wall and ditch. 

PHOUSDARRY, or FOU.IDARRY. The 
criminal court of law in Mysore. 

PINDARRIES. Freebooters, who ra- 
vaged the countries of other nations. 

POLYGARS. Natives who consider 
themselves independent : they in- 
habit forts, hills, and woods, armed 
with pikes and matchlocks. 

POONAH. The capital and seat of 
government of the Peshwah. 

PUNDIT. A learned Brahmin. 

PUNJAUB. Five rivers ; the country 
intersected by, between the Indus 
and the Sutleje. 

PURNEAH, or POURNEYA. The ce- 
lebrated Dewan of Mysore. 

PURWANAH, PURWUNNA. A go- 
vernment, or official order. 

RAHDARRY. An order of route and 
supplies. 

RAJAH. The Hindu title of a prince. 

RAJPOOT. A high caste of Hindu 
soldiers, inhabiting the country 
Rajpootana. 

RANNEE. Hindu princes. The wife 
of a Rajah. 

RAO or How. A title under the 
rank of Rajah. 

RUPEE. A silver coin, value about 
two shillings in the explanation of 
lac, but is sometimes one shilling 
and ten pence : it varies in value 
all over India. Of this coin there 
are several kinds, viz., Chandoree, 
Sicca, Pondicherry, Rajah, &c.; 
all varying in relative value. 

RUSSALAH of horse. A division or 
corps of, less than a durrah. 

RYOT. Peasant or labourer. 

SATTARAH. The capital of the coun- 
try so named. Though the Rajah 
of Sattarah was, as descendant of 
Sevajee, nominally the head of 



XXX 



EXPLANATION OF INDIAN TERMS, 



the Marhatta empire, yet the real 
power had been usurped, and was 
exercised, by the chief magistrate, 
the Peshwah. 

SCINDIAH. The family name of a 
great Marhatta Chief, jaghiredar 
of the empire, but afterwards inde- 
pendent. His territory was in Mal- 
wa, and his capital Ougein. The 
names and titles of the Chief, in 
1803, were Maharajah Ali Jah 
Dowlut Rao Scindiah. He had 
much increased the territory of his 
predecessors by conquest in Hindu- 
stan, and his power at Poonah by 
his influence over the Peshwah. 

SEBUNDY. Irregular native soldiers, 
country militia employed generally 
in the police and revenue. 

SEER. A diy measure, rather more 
than a pint. Or two pounds weight. 

SEPOYS. Native troops. 

SERINJAUMY, or SURINJAM. Grants 
of Jaghires for personal expenses, 
or for raising troops. Charges of 
collection. 

SEVAJEE. The founder of the Mar- 
hatta empire in the seventeenth 
century, whose descendants were 
Rajahs of Sattarah. 

SKWARY, SOUARREE, SOIREE. Re- 
tinue, suite. 
SHEKAR. A hunt. 

SHROFFS. Native bankers, money 
changers. 

SILLADAR. Horsemen bearing arms, 
and finding their own horses and 
equipment. 

SIRCAR. See Circar. 

SIRDAR. Chieftain, captain, head- 
man, gentleman. 

SIRDESHMOOK. See Deshmook. 

SIRLUSHKUR. One of the principal 
officers of state under the Pesh- 
wah. 

SIRSOUBAH. An officer under the 
Soubah. 

SOUBAH. A province. 

SOUBAH, SOUBAHDAR. Governor 
general, prince over other rajahs 
or princes; used indiscriminately 



by General Wellesley and others, 
as applied to the Nizam. Viceroy 
or governor of a soubah or province. 
Subaltern officer in native troops. 

SOUCAR. Banker, merchant, money 
lender. 

SULTAUN. Mussulman king, the 
title assumed by Tippoo. 

SUNGUM. Literally the confluence 
of two rivers. As the British Re- 
sidency at Poonah was situated at 
such a position, the Sungun means 
the Residency. 

SUNNUD. Patent, authority for hold- 
ing land or office. Grant or com- 
mand of a prince or chief. 

TALOOK. Lands and villages under 
the protection of a fort. District 
held under superior authority. 

T AND AH. As applied to brinj arries, 
a body, a horde, an encampment. 

TANK. Reservoir for water. 



TANNAH. 

TAPPALL. 



Police station. 
The Post. 



TITLES. Attached to proper names 
among Hindus, beginning with 
the lowest rank : 

1 st. Rao or Row. 
2nd. Rajah. 
3rd. Wunt. 

Attached to proper names 

among Mahomedans. 

1st. KhanorCawn. 

2nd. Behauder. 

3rd. Jung. 

4th. Dowlut. 

5th. Moolk. 

6th. Oomrah. 

7th. Jah. 

TOPE. A grove or thicket. 

TUNCAWS. Orders for the collection 
of the revenue. 

VAKEEL or VAQUEEL. Envoy, am- 
bassador, agent. 

VISIAPOOR, or BEEJAPOUR. For- 
merly the most splendid Maho- 
medan capital of the Deccan, now 
in decay. It is situated in the 
country between the Kistna and 
Beemah rivers. 



TITLES AND COUNTRIES. 



XXXI 



WHEEL. Called the perambulator, 
to measure distances, always used 
by General Wellesley in India at 
the head of the column of march, 
to regulate the rate of it. 

WYNAAD. A country to the south 
of Coorg, above the Ghauts, be- 
tween Mysore and Malabar, 

ZEAFET. An entertainment, an ex- 
traordinary allowance on particular 
occasions, either in money or pro- 
visions, as a reward to the troops. 

ZEMINDAR. Landholder, govern- 
ment officer, charged with the 
finance department, superintend- 
ence of the land revenue. 



ZENANA. The apartment of the 
women. 

ZEREEN PUTKA. The golden pen- 
non ; the standard of the Marhatta 
empire, which always accompanied 
the Peshwah when he took the 
field in person, and was sometimes 
sent with another commander, 
when the Peshwah chose to re- 
main at Poonah. The charge of 
the zereen putka constituted such 
officer commander in chief. Major 
General Wellesley was anxious 
that this charge should be con- 
ferred on Appah Dessaye, with 
whom he was satisfied : and it 
would have indicated that the 
Peshwah was earnestly engaged 
in the prosecution of the war. 



Names, as written in thin Work, and as they are. sometimes written 
in other Books and Maps. 



Bednore, 

Binkenholy, 

Burhampoor, 

Calpee, 

Candeish, 

Chichkaira, 

Canara, 

Casserbary, 

Cuddapa, 

Darwar, 
Deccan, 

Erroor, 
Ferdapoor, 

Gwalior, 
Gutpurba river, 
Guzerat, 

Kistna river, 

Konkan, 

Koorg, 

Naulniah, 



Biddenoor, Bennoor. 

Bunkinnola. 

Berhampore, Boorhaunpoor. 

Kalpee. 

Khandes. 

Cheesekair, Cheechekhera. 

Karnara, 

Kasarbaree. 

Kurpa. 

Dharwar. 
Dekan, Deckan. 

Enoor. 
Furdapore. 

Gualior. 

Gulpurba. 

Goujerat. 

Krishna. 

Concan, Conkan. 
Coorg. 

Nulnair. 



Panowullah, 
Perinda, 



Panowly, Poonowla, Poonawellee. 
Paraindah. 



XXxii EXPLANATION OF INDIAN TERMS. 

Phoolmurry, Foolmerry. 

Puttun, Moongee Pyetun. 

Pahlood, Palode. 

Rackisbauna, Rakshusbowan. 

Toombuddra river, Tungbudra. 

Umber, Amber. 

Visiapoor, Beejapour. 

The names of Chiefs and towns, are variously written, to signify the same persons 
and places. These, from the liberty observed in Indian orthography, the reader of 
Indian history will understand. The Compiler has adopted the most general spell- 
ing of such names, and has attempted to adhere to it ; but not always, for when he 
had a doubt, he has left it as in the manuscript. 



THE EARLY SERVICES 

OF 

FIELD MARSHAL THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON 

IN 

HOLLAND AND INDIA. 

WITH THE OFFICIAL AND OTHER DISPATCHES. 



LIEUT. COLONEL the Hon. ARTHUR WELLESLEY embarked at 
Cork in command of the 33rd regiment in May, 1794, and 
landed in the month following at Ostend, to join the British 
army under his Royal Highness the Duke of York, then in 
the Low Countries. The approach of the French army under 
General Pichegru rendered it necessary to evacuate Ostend 
without delay ; and the 33rd regiment, with two other batta- 
lions, proceeded round by the Scheldt to Antwerp, where it 
remained encamped during the month of July. On the re- 
treat of the army under the Duke of York from Alost into 
Holland, Lieut. Colonel Wellesley took up his allotted station 
with his regiment, and joined in the retrograde movement on 
Breda and Bois-le-duc. The French army followed; and on 
the 14th of September there was a serious affair near Boxtel. 
The British army afterwards continued to retreat towards 
Nimeguen, and took up a position on the right bank of the 
Waahl. While posted between the Waahl and the Leek, 
several affairs took place with the advance of the French 
army, in which the 33rd were engaged both in the attack on 
Tuyl, on the 30th December, 1794, and at Meteren and Gel- 
dermalsen, on the 5th January, 1795. Crossing the Leek, 
the retreat was continued by Amersfoort, Deventer, and 
Coeverden, to Meppen on the Ems. In these operations, 
Lieut. Colonel Wellesley, as senior officer, commanded a 

VOL. I. B 



2 HOLLAND. BENGAL. 1795-8. 

brigade, consisting of three battalions, in the rear guard ; 
evincing that zeal and intelligence which, in the opinion of 
Sir James Craig and several officers of merit and reputation, 
gave promise of future distinction. The campaign ended 
by the re-embarkation of the British army at Bremen, on the 
breaking up of the ice in the spring of 1795. 

On the return of the army to England, the 33rd regiment 
landed at Harwich, and was for a short time encamped at 
Warley. In the autumn it proceeded to Southampton, and 
Lieut. Colonel Wellesley embarked with it for the West 
Indies, in the fleet commanded by Admiral Christian. After 
many delays from contrary winds the fleet sailed ; but the 
expedition having been about six weeks at sea during the 
most tempestuous weather, in which many of the vessels 
composing it were lost, was obliged to return to Portsmouth. 

The 33rd regiment was landed and quartered at Poole. 
Its destination having been changed for India, it was again 
embarked in the beginning of April, 1796; but Lieut. 
Colonel Wellesley, in consequence of severe illness, was un- 
able to leave the country. He, however, followed shortly 
afterwards, and joined his corps at the Cape of Good Hope. 
He proceeded with it to Bengal, and arrived at Calcutta in 
the beginning of 1797. At the end of that year, the 33rd 
regiment formed part of the expedition from Bengal under 
General St. Leger, projected by the Governor General, Sir 
John Shore, to attack Manilla : but on arriving at Penang, 
where the other part of the expedition from Madras had 
joined, fresh orders were received for the recall of the troops 
to their several presidencies, in consequence of apprehen- 
sions entertained by Lord Hobart, Governor of Fort St. 
George, that Tippoo Sultaun might be induced, by the ab- 
sence of the troops, to invade the Carnatic. 

The 33rd regiment returned to Bengal; and Colonel 
Wellesley soon afterwards went to Madras on a visit to Lord 
Hobart, previously to the departure of his Lordship for 
Europe. After an absence of two months, he returned to 



1798. BENGAL. MYSORE. 3 

Calcutta, having rapidly examined the establishments of 
Madras, and other parts of the Carnatic. 

The Earl of Mornington (afterwards Marquis Wellesley) 
having been appointed to succeed Sir John Shore* as Go- 
vernor General of India, arrived at Calcutta on the 17th of 
May, 1798, after having touched at the Cape of Good Hope, 
and at Madras, where he had remained a few days. 

Lord Mornington had been for some time an active mem- 
ber of the Board of Control, and he had the advantage of 
being well acquainted with the general state of affairs in 
India. 

At the period of his departure from England, it was gene- 
rally believed, and he was himself confident, that he would 
find India in a state of profound peace; and that expectation 
was fully confirmed by the reports which reached him upon 
his arrival at Madras, from the several authorities at the 
different Presidencies of India. 

Internal tranquillity prevailed throughout the Company's 
possessions, and no apprehension was entertained of hostile 
designs on the part of any of the neighbouring states. 

In the absence of all appearance of danger from abroad, 
his Lordship's attention, upon his arrival at Calcutta, was 
principally directed to internal affairs. This state of tran- 
quillity was not, hosvever, of long duration : it was inter- 
rupted by the discovery of the hostile designs and treacher- 
ous conduct of Tippoo Sultaun, and followed by the cam- 
paign of 1799. 

It may be proper here to advert shortly to the circum- 
stances which gave rise to the second Mysore war, as the 
commencement of Colonel Wellesley's military career in 
India ; the more so, as some of the publications, which pro- 
fess to record the events of this period, have ascribed to the 
Indian Government at home, and to the new Governor 
General, an inclination to take advantage of any pretext for 
reducing the power of Tippoo Sultaun, and for removing 

* Afterwards Lord Teignmouth. 

B 2 



MYSORE. 



1798. 



from India the French officers in the service of the native 
princes. This assumption is directly at variance with the 
general tenor of the public records. On the contrary, it 
appears that one of the first acts of the new Governor Gene- 
ral was to address a conciliatory letter to Tippoo Sultaun, 
dated 14th of June, 1798, in reply to an application received 
by Sir John Shore at the moment of his departure, claiming 
restitution of Wynaad, and some other districts on the west- 
ern frontier of Mysore ; which Tippoo alleged had been erro- 
neously transferred to the East India Company, under the 
treaty of Seringapatam in 1797. 

The Governor General to Tippoo Sultaun. 

' Fort William, 14th June, 1798. 

1 Immediately on my arrival in Bengal, Sir Alured Clarke 
communicated to me your friendly letter to him, stating that 
some people of the Koorg country, having descended from 
the woods and mountains, had fixed their residences in the 
villages of Kauntamungle, Coloorbajee, &c. 

(The contents of the letter recapitulated.) 

' Sir Alured Clarke has also communicated to me your 
answer to the letter from the late Governor General, Sir 
John Shore, respecting the claims of the Company and of 
your Highness to the district of Wynaad, bordering on 
Tambercherry. 

' Being anxious to afford you every proof in my power, of 
my sincere desire to maintain the good understanding which 
had so long subsisted between your Highness and the Com- 
pany, I made it one of the first objects of my attention to 
examine all the papers existing on the Company's records, 
as well respecting Wynaad, as the district of Souleah, in 
which it appears that Kauntamungle and Coloorbajee are 
situated. 

' From these papers, I find that not only the right to the 
districts of Wynaad and Souleah has remained in doubt ; 
but also to the district of Amerah and Ersawaraseemy, and 
to some other inconsiderable territories on the side of Mala- 
bar. 

' Your Highness is well aware that it is a maxim among 
states, who are sincerely disposed to maintain the relations 



1798. MYSORE. 5 

of amity and peace, to bring all contested points of this na- 
ture to a speedy determination. 

' A seasonable and temperate discussion of those differ- 
ences of opinion, which must occasionally arise between 
powers of the most pacific disposition, tends to prevent 
quarrels between their subordinate officers, and to obviate 
the misrepresentations which each party is apt, in such cases, 
to make to their respective governments. This is the most 
friendly, as well as the most prudent course, and will always 
defeat the views of interested and designing persons, who 
may wish to foment jealousy and to disturb the blessings of 
peace. 

' For this object Lord Cornwallis, the Nawaub Nizam Ali 
Khan, and the Peshwah Pundit Purdhaun, wisely provided 
in the treaty of peace, concluded with your Highness at 
Seringapatam, by establishing a regular mode of bringing 
to an amicable adjustment, with the knowledge and appro- 
bation of all parties, any questions which might hereafter 
arise between your Highness and any of the Allies respecting 
the boundaries of your adjacent territories. 

' I am persuaded that it is your Highness's disposition to 
maintain faithfully your public engagements with the Com- 
pany. On my part, you will always meet with a religious 
adherence to every article of the treaties subsisting between 
us. On this occasion, therefore, it is my intention to depute 
a respectable and discreet person to meet upon your frontier 
such of your officers as your Highness may please to name, 
for the purpose of conferring together, of discussing the 
grounds of the respective claims, and of satisfying each other 
on all points respecting which any doubts may be entertained 
on either side. 

' It would not be consistent with your Highness's high re- 
putation for justice and good faith, to refuse to enter into 
this candid investigation ; I therefore entertain no doubt 
that, as soon as you shall have fully understood the nature 
of this representation, you will afford every facility to the 
conduct of the necessary inquiries, and will use your endea- 
vors to bring them to a speedy determination ; and, for this 
purpose, that you will, without delay, direct your officers at 
Korial Bunder (or Mangalore) to enter into conference with 
those deputed by the managers of the Honorable Company's 



6 MYSORE. 1798. 

affairs on the coast of Malabar. The result of the confer- 
ences will be communicated to me by the government of 
Bombay, with all practicable dispatch ; and you may rely 
upon it, that after a regular discussion shall have taken place, 
according to the established law of nations, and to the 
practice uniformly observed on every occasion of disputed 
boundary which has arisen between your Highness and the 
Allies, since the conclusion of the treaty of Seringapatam, I 
will not suspend, for one moment, the full acknowledgment 
of whatever shall appear to be your just right. 

' In the mean time, as the districts of Amerah and Souleah 
have been in the possession of the Koorg Rajah for several 
years, your Highness will, no doubt, see the propriety and 
justice of recalling the troops sent into the neighbourhood of 
Souleah. Your Highness must be sensible that, until I have 
been satisfied of the justice of your claims in a regular and 
amicable manner, I will never suffer any of the Company's 
allies or dependents, whose country and interests I consider to 
be, in every respect, the same as those of the Company, to be 
forcibly deprived of territories of which they have so long held 
possession : with the most cordial disposition to maintain the 
intercourse of friendship with your Highness, I trust that I 
shall always meet an equal return on your part ; and, there- 
fore, I cannot but lament that your Highness did not imme- 
diately resort to the established channels of peaceable nego- 
tiation, in place of stationing a military force upon the fron- 
tiers of the territory possessed by an ally of the Company. 

' Confident, however, that your Highness, upon a full 
review of all the circumstances of the case, will be equally 
inclined with myself to conform to the dictates of justice, I 
am satisfied that, after our respective officers shall have con- 
ferred together, and explained to each other all matters that 
remain in doubt, we shall have no difficulty in terminating 
these long depending questions to our mutual satisfaction. 

' Tippoo Sultaun.' ' MoRNINGTON.' 

Tippoo Sultaun's claims were accordingly referred to certain 
Commissioners, then employed in Malabar under the orders 
of the Government of Bombay, for the investigation of claims 
of this nature ; and upon their making a report in favor of the 
Sultaun's pretensions, those districts were immediately re- 



1798. MYSORE. 7 

stored to him, under a Proclamation by the Governor Ge- 
neral. 

This circumstance alone would be sufficient to demonstrate 
Mie pacific intentions of the British Government at that pe- 
riod ; in addition to which, the exhausted state of the Com- 
pany's treasury, and of its credit in India at that moment, 
were also reasons to deter the Governor General from en- 
gaging in war, if it had been possible to avoid it : but the 
destruction of the power of Tippoo Sultaun, or of the in- 
fluence of France in India, did not then form any part of the 
policy, either of the Earl of Mornington or of the British 
ministry, or of the East India government at home. 

Early in the month of June, a paper was received by the 
Governor General, at Calcutta, containing a Proclamation by 
Mons. Malartic, the Governor General of the Isle of France, 
and of the French establishments east of the Cape of Good 
Hope, which announced the arrival of two Ambassadors with 
letters from Tippoo Sultaun, proposing an offensive and de- 
fensive alliance, for the purpose of expelling the English from 
India. This intelligence, which at first appeared incredible, 
was, in a few days, confirmed by a dispatch, received at Cal- 
cutta, from Lord Macartney, the Governor at the Cape of 
Good Hope, conveying a copy of Mons. Malartic's Proclama- 
tion ; and it was further confirmed by the arrival of a ship 
from the Mauritius, the captain of which deposed, upon exa- 
mination before the Governor General, that he was on shore 
when the Proclamation was issued, and that he had witnessed 
the reception of the Ambassadors. 

General Malartic, having no regular troops to spare, in- 
vited all French citizens, so disposed, to join the standard of 
Tippoo : and it is a coincidence worthy of remark, that Tip- 
poo's Ambassadors, with as many Frenchmen as they were 
able to engage for the Sultaun's service, landed from ' La 
Prcneuse' French frigate at Mangalore, on the 'J*th of April, 
1 798 ; l>eing the very same day on which Lord Mornington 
had landed at Madras when on his way to Calcutta. 



g MYSORE. 1798. 

Although Tippoo's hatred of the British nation, and his 
eager desire for vengeance, and for the recovery of the pro- 
vinces which Lord Cornwallis had compelled him to cede to 
the Company and its Allies, in 1791, were well knoAvn ; yet it 
appears that no suspicion was entertained, before the receipt 
of this intelligence from the Mauritius, that he had actually 
adopted such decided measures of hostility. It was, how 
ever, soon afterwards discovered that he was engaged in 
similar negotiations with Zemaun Shah, and several other 
native princes, as well as with the French officers in their 
service ; and it was also ascertained that he had actually 
succeeded in engaging the French officers in the Nizam's 
service to enter into his views. 

His Highness the Nizam, Soubahdar of the Deccan, had 
in his service a force of 14,000 well disciplined infantry, com- 
manded by M. Raymond, with 124 French officers, eager 
partisans of the French republic, and who were on the point 
of erecting the French standard at his capital, Hyderabad. 
The strength and efficiency of this corps, and its position on 
a vulnerable part of the frontiers of the Company's territory, 
demanded immediate attention. By the judicious and prompt 
interference of the Governor General, a British detachment, 
commanded by Lieut. Colonel Roberts, was secretly but ex- 
peditiously dispatched to Hyderabad on the 10th of October, 
1798 ; and on the 22nd of the month, under the orders of the 
Nizam, the whole of the French officers were compelled to 
surrender without firing a shot. His Highness being thus 
relieved from their control, concluded a new treaty of alliance 
with the British Government, whereby he bound himself to 
exclude, not only from his army, but from his dominions, all 
Frenchmen or other adventurers from Europe ; and likewise 
engaged to maintain at his capital a corps of British troops 
for the effectual security of the alliance. A treaty was also 
formed with the Peshwah, the nominal head of the Marhatta 
empire, which secured the neutrality of that Chief, in the ab- 
sence of any other stipulated advantage. 



1798. MYSORE. 9 

Lord Mornington obtained information of all the Sul- 
taun's measures, and prevented their execution with that 
vigor which characterized his administration in India. After 
a very able minute in the Secret department, on the 12th of 
August, 1798, in which he fully and satisfactorily stated the 
grounds and motives of his proceedings, he ordered Lieut. 
General Harris, the Commander in Chief at Madras, to 
assemble the forces of the Company in the Carnatic. His 
Excellency, having written to Tippoo Sultaun the ^following 
letters, proceeded in person to Fort St. George, where he 
arrived on the 31st of December, 1798, for the purpose of 
superintending and directing the preparations for war, in the 
event of failure in negotiation. 

The Governor General to Tippoo Sultaun. 

' Fort William, 8th November, 1 798. 

' I have received your letter informing me (the substance 
of the letter, received on the 24th of October, recited.) 

' It affords me sincere satisfaction to learn that you have 
nominated two persons of integrity and honor to meet and 
confer with the deputies appointed, under my orders, by Mr. 
Duncan, the Governor of Bombay, for the purpose of inves- 
tigating the question regarding the talooks of Amerah and 
Souleah. It is only by means of regular inquiry and amicable 
discussion, that such questions can be adjusted among inde- 
pendent powers. My determination in the case of Wynaad 
was dictated by those principles of justice and moderation 
which always direct the Company's government; nor shall 
my scrupulous adherence to the same principles be less ma- 
nifest, in my decision on your claim to the district at present 
in question : the possession of which shall not be withheld 
from you for an instant, if, after full investigation, I shall be 
satisfied of the justice of your title to them. 

4 It is a well-known truth, that they, who are the most 
ready to respect the just rights of others, are the most vigi- 
lant and resolute to maintain their own. 

' I have understood your sentiments concerning the " tur- 
bulent disposition of interested men, who, by nature, are ever 
seeking opportunities of sowing the seeds of dissension." 



10 MYSORE. 1798. 

For the happiness of mankind it is to be lamented, that these 
authors of confusion are too numerous, assiduous, and suc- 
cessful, in all parts of the world. In no age or country were 
the baneful and insidious arts of intrigue ever cultivated 
with such success, as they are at present by the French 
nation. I sincerely wish that no impression had been pro- 
duced on your discerning mind by that dangerous people ; 
but my situation enables me to know, that they have reached 
your presence, and have endeavored to pervert the wisdom of 
your councils, and to instigate you to war against those who 
have given you no provocation. 

1 It is impossible that you should suppose me to be igno- 
rant of the intercourse which subsists between you and the 
French, whom you know to be the inveterate enemies of the 
Company, and to be now engaged in an unjust war with the 
British nation. You cannot imagine me to be indifferent to 
the transactions which have passed between yovi and the ene- 
mies of my country ; nor does it appear necessary, or proper, 
that I should any longer conceal from you the surprise and 
concern with which I perceived you disposed to involve your- 
self in all the ruinous consequences of a connexion, which 
threatens not only to subvert the foundations of friendship 
between you and the Company, but to introduce into the 
heart of your kingdom the principles of anarchy and confu- 
sion, to shake your own authority, to weaken the obedience of 
your subjects, and to destroy the religion which you revere. 

' Immediately after my arrival in Bengal, I read your cor- 
respondence with the late Governor General. Sir John Shore, 
and with the acting Governor General, Sir Alured Clarke ; 
and I perceived, with great satisfaction, that in all your 
letters you constantly professed a disposition to strengthen 
the bonds of sincere attachment, and the foundations of har- 
mony and concord, established between you and the Honor- 
able Company. I received particular pleasure from reading 
your last letter to Sir John Shore, in which you signified your 
amicable desire that he should impress me with a sense of 
the friendship and unanimity so long subsisting between the 
two states. Your subsequent letters to me have abounded 
with professions of the same friendly nature. 

' Combining these professions of amity on your part, with 
the proofs which the Company's government have constantly 



1798. MYSORE. 11 

given of their sincere disposition to maintain the relations of 
friendship and peace with you ; and adverting at the same 
time to your reputation for wisdom and discernment, it was 
natural for me to be extremely slow to believe the various 
accounts, transmitted to me, of your negotiations with the 
French, and of your military preparations. But whatever 
my reluctance to credit such reports might be, prudence re- 
quired, botli of me and of the Company's allies, that we 
should adopt certain measures of precaution and self-de- 
fence ; and these accordingly have been taken, as you will no 
doubt have observed. The British Government and their 
allies wishing, nevertheless, to live in peace and friendship 
with all their neighbours ; entertaining no projects of ambi- 
tion, nor any views in the least incompatible with their re- 
spective engagements ; and looking to no other objects than 
the permanent security and tranquillity of their own domi- 
nions and subjects, will always be ready, as they now are, to 
afford you every demonstration of these pacific dispositions. 

< The Peshwah, and his Highness the Nizam, concur with 
me in the observations which I have offered to you in this 
letter ; and which, in the name of the Company and of the 
allies, I recommend to your serious consideration. But as I 
am also desirous of communicating to you, on the behalf of 
the Company and of their allies, a plan calculated to promote 
the mutual security and welfare of all parties, I propose to 
depute to you, for this purpose, Major Doveton, who is well 
known to you, and who will explain to you more fully and 
particularly the sole means, which appear to myself and to 
the allies of the Company, to be effectual for the salutary 
purpose of removing all existing distrust and suspicion, and 
of establishing peace and good understanding on the most 
durable foundations. 

' You will, I doubt not, let me know at what time and 
place it will be convenient to you to receive Major Doveton ; 
and as soon as your friendly letter shall reach me, I will 
direct him to proceed to your presence. 

1 I shall expect your answer to this letter, with an earnest 
hope, that it may correspond with the pacific views and wishes 
of the allies ; and that you may be convinced that you cannot 
in any manner better consult your true interests, than by 
meeting with cordiality the present friendly and moderate 
advance to a satisfactory and amicable settlement of all 



12 MYSORE. 

points, on which any doubts or anxiety may have arisen in 
the minds either of yourself or of the allies. 

' Tippoo Sultaun.' ' MoRNINGTON.' 

The Governor General to Tippoo Sultaun. 

' Fort William, 10th December, 1798. 

' I had the honor of addressing a friendly letter to your 
Highness on the 8th of November last, in which I stated a 
variety of important points, to which your Highness would no 
doubt perceive the propriety and necessity of giving your 
earliest and most serious consideration. I particularly hope 
that your Highness will have been sensible of the advantages 
likely to result, to all parties, from the conciliatory measure 
of my deputing Major Doveton to you, which I proposed in 
that letter. 

' I expect to have the pleasure of finding your answer to 
that letter on my arrival at Madras, for which place I am on 
the point of setting out from Calcutta. I hope to arrive at 
Madras about the same time that this letter will reach you ; 
and should any circumstances hitherto have prevented your 
answering my letter of the 8th of November, I assure myself 
that you will immediately, on your receipt of this, dispatch a 
satisfactory reply to it, addressed to me at Madras. 
' Tippoo Sultaun.' ' MoilNINGTON.' 

The 33rd regiment had been in the mean time sent from 
Bengal to be placed on the Madras establishment, where it 
arrived in September, 1798. In November the greater part 
of the troops were assembled and encamped at Wallajahbad, 
under the orders of Colonel Wellesley, with whom the gene- 
ral superintendence remained until February following, when 
General Harris arrived to assume the personal command of 
the army, which had proceeded to Vellore. The attention 
which Colonel Wellesley had bestowed on the discipline and 
well-being of the troops, and in practising them in combined 
field movements, with the admirable system he adopted for 
supplying the bazaars, which were kept constantly well pro- 
vided, attracted general notice and approbation ; and when 
General Harris joined the army to take command, after re- 
ceiving the reports of the heads of corps and departments' 



1798. MYSORE. 13 

he was so pleased with all Colonel Wellesley's arrangements, 
that he conceived it to be an imperative duty to pulilish a 
general order conveying commendation of the merits of 
Colonel Wellesley during his temporary command. 

Soon after the arrival of the Governor General at Fort St. 
George, his Excellency again wrote to Tippoo on the 9th of 
January, recapitulating, at considerable length, the com- 
plaint, contained in the letter of the 8th of November, with 
other details of the whole of the Sultaun's hostile proceedings, 
unnecessary here to be introduced, being subsequently em- 
bodied in the Declaration of War. The Governor General 
requested that a reply might not be deferred for more than 
one day after this communication of the 9th of January should 
reach the Sultaun's presence, or dangerous consequences 
would ensue. No reply, however, having been received, and 
the difficulties inseparable from the equipment of so large a 
force having at length been overcome, the Governor Gene- 
ral, on the 3rd of February, dispatched his commands to 
General Harris, to enter the Mysore territory with the forces 
assembled at Vellore ; and to Lieut. General Stuart to co- 
operate with the Bombay army from Malabar ; while, at the 
same time, he gave intimation to the Allied Courts, and the 
British Admiral on the coast, that he now considered the 
Company at war with Tippoo Sultaun. 

The army assembled at Vellore exceeded 20,000 men, 
whereof 2,600 were cavalry, and 4,300 Europeans. It 
marched on the llth of February, and on the 18th was 
joined by the British detachment serving with the Nizam, 
6,500 strong, under Lieut. Colonel Dalrymple ; with an equal 
number of the Nizam's infantry, including a portion of the 
Sepoys lately under French, but now, according to treaty, 
under British officers, commanded by Captain John Mal- 
colm* ; and a large body of the Nizam's cavalry under Cap- 
tain Walker. 

The whole of the Nizam's force was under the superinten- 
dence of Meer Allum, his Highness's minister, and in order 

* Lieut. General Sir John Malcolm, G.C.B. 



14 MYSORE. 1799. 

to give it the utmost degree of efficiency and respectability, 
it was deemed proper to add one of his Majesty's regiments 
of infantry to the Company's battalions serving with it ; and 
to form the whole into a separate division. Meer All urn ex- 
pressed a wish that the Governor General's brother should 
be appointed to command the Nizam's forces; and General 
Harris felt the importance of selecting an officer who pos- 
sessed his own confidence, and who was likely to enjoy that 
of Meer Allum. The 33rd regiment was accordingly at- 
tached to the Nizam's contingent, as this force was deno- 
minated, and the general command of it was thus given to 
Colonel Wellesley. This arrangement was very agreeable 
to the Nizam and to Meer Allum ; and it contributed very 
much to maintain the good understanding between the Court 
of Hyderabad and the British Government. 

The forces assembled under the orders of General Harris 
consisted of upwards of 30,000 men, and in the words of the 
Governor General, an army more completely appointed, more 
amply and liberally supplied in every department, or more 
perfect in its discipline, and in the acknowledged experience, 
ability, and zeal of its officers, never took the field in India. 
The army of the western coast, equal in excellence, under 
Lieut. General Stuart, consisted of 6,400 fighting men, of 
whom 1,600 were Europeans; whilst a detachment of about 
4,000 under Lieut. Colonel Brown, and another of 5,000 
under Lieut. Colonel Read, marched to co-operate with the 
Commander in Chief, from the southern districts of the Car- 
natic and the Baramahl. 

On the 13th of" February, the Governor General received 
a letter from the Sultaun, to which, on the 22nd, his Excel- 
lency replied ; accompanied by a Declaration of the same date 
from himself and his allies, the Nizam and the Peshwah. 

The Governor General to Tippoo Sultaun. 

' Fort St. George, 22ml February, 1799. 

' I had the honor, on the 13th instant, to receive your 
letter acknowledging the receipt of my two letters of the 9th 



1799. MYSORE. 1 5 

and 1 6th of January, informing mo of your intention to pro- 
ceed on a hunting excursion, and desiring me to dispatch 
Major Doveton, unattended, to you. 

' I lament most sincerely that the friendly intimation, con- 
tained in my letter of the 9th of January, regarding the 
dangers of delay, produced no effect on your discerning 
mind ; and that you deferred your reply to that letter to so 
late a period of the season. Your long silence, on this im- 
portant and pressing occasion, compelled me to adopt the 
resolution of ordering the British forces to advance, in con- 
cert with the armies of the allied powers. You are not ig- 
norant that the period of the season rendered the advance of 
the army absolutely necessary to the common security of the 
allies. This movement of the army is to be imputed entirely 
to your repeated rejection of my amicable proposal of send- 
ing an ambassador to your presence. 

' Under the present circumstances, to send Major Doveton 
to you could not be attended with those advantages which 
would have resulted from his mission at a proper season. 

' The allies, however, retaining an anxious desire to effect 
an adjustment with you, Lieut. General Harris, Commander 
of the British troops, has been empowered to receive any 
embassy which you shall dispatch to him. Lieut. General 
Harris will also authorize such persons as he may think pro- 
per, to concert, in communication with your ambassadors, a 
new treaty of friendship with your Highness, founded on such 
conditions as appear to the allies to be indispensably neces- 
sary to the establishment of a secure and permanent peace. 
' Tippoo Sultaun.' ' MoRNlNGTON.' 

Declaration of the Right Honorable the Governor General in 
Council for all the Forces and Affairs of the British Nation 
in the East Indies, on behalf of the Honorable the East 
India Company, and the Allies of the said Company, their 
Highnesses the Nizam and the Peshwah. 

' Fort St. George, 22nd February, 1799. 

' A solemn treaty of peace and friendship was concluded 
at Seringapatam, between the Honorable Company and 
the Nabob Asoph Jah and the Peshwah on the one part, and 
the Nabob Tippoo Sultaun on the other part ; and from that 



16 MYSORE. 1799. 

day all commotion and hostility ceased. Since that day the 
three allied states have invariably manifested a sacred re- 
gard for the obligations contracted under that treaty with 
the Nabob Tippoo Sultaun. Of this uniform disposition 
abundant proofs have been afforded by each of the allies : 
whatever differences have arisen with regard to the limits of 
the territory of Mysore, have been amicably adjusted with- 
out difficulty, and with the most exact attention to the prin- 
ciples of equity and to the stipulations of the treaty. 

' Such has been the solicitude of the allies for the preserv- 
ation of tranquillity, that they have viewed with forbearance, 
for some years past, various embassies and military prepara- 
tions on the part of Tippoo Sultaun, of a tendency so evi- 
dently hostile to the interests of the allies, as would have 
justified them not only in the most serious remonstrances, 
but even in an appeal to arms. On the part of the British 
Government, every endeavor has been employed to con- 
ciliate the confidence of the Sultaun, and to mitigate his 
vindictive spirit, by the most unequivocal acknowledgment 
and confirmation of his just rights, and by the removal of 
every cause of jealousy which might tend to interrupt the 
continuance of peace. 

' These pacific sentiments have been most particularly 
manifested in the Governor General's recent decision on 
Tippoo Sultaun's claim to the district of Wynaad, and in 
the negotiation opened by his Lordship, with regard to the 
districts of Amerah and Souleah. In every instance, the 
conduct of the British Government in India, towards Tippoo 
Sultaun, has been the natural result of those principles of 
moderation, justice, and good faith, which the legislature of 
Great Britain and the Honorable the East India Company 
have firmly established as the unalterable rule of their inter- 
course with the Native princes and states of India. 

' The exemplary good faith, and the pacific disposition of 
the allies, since the conclusion of the treaty of Seringapatam, 
have never been disputed even by Tippoo Sultaun. Far 
from having attempted to allege even the pretext of a com- 
plaint against their conduct, he has constantly acknowledged 
their justice, sincerity, and good faith ; and has professed, in 
the most cordial terms, his desire to maintain and strengthen 
the foundations of harmony and concord with them. 



1799. MYSORE. 17 

' In the midst of these amicable professions on the part of 
Tippoo Sultaun, and at the moment when the British Go- 
vernment had issued orders for the confirmation of his claim 
to Wynaad, it was with astonishment and indignation that 
the allies discovered the engagements which he had con- 
tracted with the French nation : in direct violation of the 
treaty of Seringapatam, as well as of his own most solemn 
and recent protestations of friendship towards the allies. 

' Under the mask of these specious professions, and of a 
pretended veneration for the obligations of treaty, Tippoo 
Sultaun dispatched ambassadors to the Isle of France, who, 
in a period of profound peace in India, proposed and con- 
cluded, in his name, an offensive alliance with the French, 
for the avowed purpose of commencing a war of aggression 
against the Company ; and consequently against the Peshwah 
and the Nizam, the allies of the Company. 

' The ambassadors, in the name of Tippoo Sultaun, de- 
manded military succours from the French ; and actually 
levied a military force in the Isle of France, with the de- 
clared view of prosecuting the intended war. 

' When the ambassadors returned, in a French ship of 
war, from the Isle of France, Tippoo Sultaun suffered the 
military force, which they had levied for the avowed purpose 
of making war upon the allies, to land in his country, and 
finally he admitted it into his army ; by these personal acts 
ratifying and confirming the proceedings of his ambas- 
sadors. 

' This military force, however, was not sufficiently powerful 
to enable him immediately to attempt his declared purpose 
of attacking the Company's possessions : but, in the mean- 
while, he advanced his hostile preparations, conformably to 
his engagements with the French ; and he was ready to move 
his army into the Company's territories, whenever he might 
obtain from France the effectual succours which he had assi- 
duously solicited from that nation. 

' But the providence of God, and the victorious arms of 
the British nation, frustrated his vain hopes, and checked 
the presumptuous career of the French in Egypt, at the mo- 
ment when he anxiously expected their arrival on the coast 
of Malabar. 

' The British government, the Nizam, and the Peshwah, 

VOL. I. C 



18 MYSORE. 1799. 

had not omitted the necessary precaution of assembling their 
forces, for the joint protection of their respective dominions. 
The strict principles of self-defence would have justified the 
allies, at that period of time, in making an immediate attack 
upon the territories of Tippoo Sultaun ; but even the happy 
intelligence of the glorious success of the British fleet, at the 
mouth of the Nile, did not abate the anxious desire of the 
allies to maintain the relations of amity and peace with 
Tippoo Sultaun : they attempted, by a moderate represen- 
tation, to recall him to a sense of his obligations, and of the 
genuine principles of prudence and policy ; and they em- 
ployed every effort to open the channels of negotiation, and 
to facilitate the means of amicable accommodation. With 
these salutary views, the Governor General, on the 8th of No- 
vember, 1798, in the name of the allies, proposed to dispatch 
an ambassador to Tippoo Sultaun, for the purpose of renew- 
ing the bonds of friendship, and of concluding such an 
arrangement as might afford effectual security against any 
future interruption of the public tranquillity, and his Lord- 
ship repeated the same proposal on the 10th of December, 
1798. 

' Tippoo Sultaun declined, by various evasions and subter- 
fuges, this friendly and moderate advance on the part of the 
allies ; and he manifested an evident disposition to reject the 
means of pacific accommodation, by suddenly breaking up, 
in the month of December, the conferences which had com- 
menced with respect to the districts of Amerah and Souleah ; 
and by interrupting the intercourse between his subjects and 
those of the Company on their respective frontiers. On the 
9th of January, 1799, the Governor General, being arrived at 
Fort St. George, notwithstanding these discouraging cir- 
cumstances in the conduct of Tippoo Sultaun, renewed with 
increased earnestness the expression of his Lordship's 
anxious desire to dispatch an ambassador to the Sultaun. 

' The Governor General expressly solicited the Sultaun 
to return an answer within one day to this letter ; and as it 
involved no proposition either injurious to the rights, dig- 
nity, or honor of the Sultaun, in any degree novel or com- 
plicated, either in form or substance, it could not require a 
longer consideration. The Governor General waited with 
the utmost solicitude for an answer to the reasonable and 



1799. MYSORE. 19 

distinct proposition contained in his letter of the 9th of Ja- 
nuary, 1799. Tippoo Sultaun, however, who must have 
received this letter before the 15th of January, remained 
silent, although the Governor General had plainly apprized 
that prince that dangerous consequences would result from 
that delay. In the meanwhile the season for military opera- 
tions had already advanced to so late a period as to render a 
speedy decision indispensable to the security of the allies. 

' Under these circumstances, on the 3rd of February, eight 
days having elapsed from the period when an answer might 
have been received from Seringapatam to the Governor Ge- 
neral's letter of the 9th of January, his Lordship declared to 
the allies that the necessary measures must now be adopted, 
without delay, for securing such advantages as should place 
the common safety of the allies beyond the reach of the in- 
sincerity of Tippoo Sultaun, and of the violence of the 
French. With this view, the Governor General, on the 3rd 
of February, issued orders to the British armies to march ; 
and signified to the commander of his Majesty's squadron, 
that the obstinate silence of the Sultaun must be considered 
as a rejection of the proposed amicable negotiation. 

' At length, on the 13th of February, a letter from Tippoo 
Sultaun reached the Governor General : in which the Sul- 
taun signifies to his Lordship, " that being frequently dis- 
posed to make excursions and hunt, he was accordingly pro- 
ceeding upon a hunting excursion ;" adding, " that the Go- 
vernor General would be pleased to dispatch Major Doveton 
to him, unattended." 

' The allies will not dwell on the peculiar phrases of this 
letter ; but it must be evident to all the states of India, that 
the answer of the Sultaun has been deferred to this late 
period of the season, with no other view than to preclude the 
allies, by insidious delays, from the benefit of those advan- 
tages which their combined military operations would enable 
them to secure. On those advantages alone, (under the 
recent experience of Tippoo Sultaun's violation of the treaty 
of Seringapatam, and under the peculiar circumstances of 
that prince's offensive alliance with the French,) can the 
allies now venture to rely for the faithful execution of any 
treaty of peace concluded with Tippoo Sultaun. 

' The allies cannot suffer Tippoo Sultaun to profit by his 

c 2 



20 MYSORE. 1799. 

own studied and systematic delay; nor to impede such a 
disposition of their military and naval force as shall appear 
best calculated to give effect to their just views. 

' Bound by the sacred obligations of public faith, profess- 
ing the most amicable disposition, and undisturbed in the 
possession of those dominions secured to him by treaty, 
Tippoo Sultaun wantonly violated the relations of amity and 
peace ; and compelled the allies to arm in defence of their 
rights, their happiness, and their honor. 

' For a period of three months he obstinately rejected 
every pacific overture ; in the hourly expectation of receiving 
that succour which he has eagerly solicited for the prosecu- 
tion of his favorite purposes of ambition and revenge. Dis- 
appointed in his hopes of immediate vengeance and con- 
quest, he now resorts to subterfuge and procrastination ; and 
by a tardy, reluctant, and insidious acquiescence, in a pro- 
position which he had so long and repeatedly declined, he 
endeavors to frustrate the precautions of the allies, and to 
protract every effectual operation until some change of cir- 
cumstances and of season shall revive his expectations of 
disturbing the tranquillity of India, by favoring the irruption 
of a French army. 

' The allies are equally prepared to repel his violence, and 
to counteract his artifices and delays. 

' The allies are therefore resolved to place their army in 
such a position, as shall afford adequate protection against 
any artifice or insincerity, and shall preclude the return of 
that danger which has so lately menaced their possessions. 

' The allies, however, retaining an anxious desire to effect 
an adjustment with Tippoo Sultaun, Lieut. General Harris, 
Commander in Chief of his Majesty's and the Honorable 
Company's forces on the coast of Coromandel and Malabar, 
is authorized to receive any embassy which Tippoo Sultaun 
may dispatch to the head quarters of the British army ; and 
to concert a treaty on such conditions as appear to the allies 
to be indispensably necessary for the establishment of a 
secure and permanent peace. 

' By order of the Right Hon. the Governor General, 

' N. B. EDMONDSTONE.' 

The Bombay army, under Lieut. General Stuart, marched 



1799. MYSORE. 21 

from Cannanorc on the 21st of February: General Harris 
entered the Mysore territory on the 5th of March, and com- 
menced his operations by the reduction of several forts on 
the frontier. 

General Harris was not only invested with unrestricted 
military command, but was empowered to exert all the civil 
authority which would have belonged to the Governor Gene- 
ral in his situation. He was further provided with a poli- 
tical and diplomatic commission, composed of Colonel the 
Hon. A. Wellesley, Lieut. Colonel Barry Close, Lieut. 
Colonel Agnew, and Captain Malcolm, with Captain Macau- 
lay as Secretary. This commission was not, however, en- 
titled to act, except in obedience to the orders of the 
General. 

On the 6th of March, Tippoo Sultaun passed his own 
frontier, and attacked a detachment of the Bombay army 
near Sedaseer. This attack, though sustained by a body 
not exceeding 2000 men, was repulsed, and the enemy 
thrown into disorder, even before General Stuart co\ild col- 
lect the whole of his divided force. After this signal failure 
Tippoo retreated precipitately to his camp at Periapatam, 
and remained there until the llth of March, without makin^ 

O 

any further attempt to molest the Bombay army. He then 
moved to Seringapatam, and afterwards marched from thence 
to meet the Madras army under General Harris. 

The army under General Harris was not ready to make 
its united movement upon Seringapatam until the 9th of 
March. Many delays occurred from the British army being 
overloaded with equipment and materials for siege, in addi- 
tion to the cumbrous baggage of the Nizam's army, a host of 
brinjarries, and the innumerable followers of the camp. The 
draught and carriage bullocks died in great numbers, and 
the arrangements necessary to remedy this evil compelled 
the army to halt on the llth, on the 14th, on the 15th, and 
again on the 18th. 0n the 2 1st, it encamped at Cankanelli ; 
and on the 22nd, two tanks of importance, which the enemy 
had begun to destroy, were secured at Achel. 



22 MYSORE. 1799. 

This slow movement brought the army on the 27th, only 
as far as Mallavelly ; when, on approaching the ground of 
encampment, the army of Tippoo Sultaun was discovered at 
a few miles distance, drawn up on a height. The advanced 
picquets of the British army were attacked by the enemy, 
and more troops being sent out to their aid, a general action 
ensued. The British army, under General Harris, formed 
the right wing ; and the Nizam's army, with the 33rd regi- 
ment, under Colonel Wellesley, formed the left. The right 
wing, having deployed into line, began to advance : an open- 
ing between two brigades tempted the Sultaun, and he 
marched against it in person with a body of cavalry with much 
spirit ; but was unsuccessful, as it produced no disorder in 
the British ranks, which soon outflanked the enemy's left. 
In the meanwhile the division commanded by Colonel 
Wellesley was formed nearly opposite the enemy's extreme 
right, which was strongly posted on the elevated crest of a 
rocky ridge. General Harris having dispatched an aide de 
camp to Colonel Wellesley, approving of the attack he had 
proposed, and also to General Floyd to support it, Colonel 
Wellesley advanced en echelon of battalions, supported by 
three regiments of cavalry ; when a column of the enemy^ 
consisting of about 2000 infantry, moved forward in excel- 
lent order towards the 33rd regiment, which corps, reserving 
its fire, with the utmost steadiness received that of the enemy 
at a distance of about sixty yards ; then quickening its ad- 
vance, the column gave way and was thrown into disorder- 
General Floyd, seizing this critical moment, charged them 
with his cavalry, and destroyed great numbers. 

The army moved on the 28th of March to Sosilay, where 
there is an easy ford to cross the river Cauvery. Tippoo 
Sultaun being thus disappointed in the route which General 
Harris took after the affair of Mallavelly, fell back on Serin- 
gapatam ; and the British army arrived on the ground for 
the siege of that fortress on the 5th of April. A new line of 
intrenchments had been constructed between the Dowlut 
Baug to the Periapatam Bridge, and covered that part of the 



1799. MYSORE. 23 

fort. Between these works and the Cauvery, the infantry of 
Tippoo Sultaun were encamped. Fronting the east, the 
right of the British camp was posted on high commanding 
ground, whence it gradually descended to the left flank 
which was doubly secured by an aqueduct or watercourse, 
and by the Cauvery. From the left of the position, the 
aqueduct took an easterly direction till within 1700 yards of 
the fort, when it turned off towards the Sultaunpettah Tope. 
There were several ruined villages and rocky eminences in 
front that afforded cover, from whence the enemy threw 
rockets, which fell among the tents of the British camp. It 
became, therefore, indispensable to the quiet and security of 
the besieging army to dispossess the enemy of these posts 
without loss of time. For this purpose the 12th regiment 
and two battalions of sepoys, with their guns, under the 
command of Lieut. Colonel Shawe, of his Majesty's 12th regi- 
ment ; and another division, consisting of the 33rd regiment 
and a Native battalion, under Colonel Wellesley, were ordered 
to be in readiness at sunset on the 5th ; and whilst Colonel 
Shawe was to attack the posts at the aqueduct, Colonel Wel- 
lesley was to make a diversion by scouring the Tope. 

The following letter, found amongst the papers of the late 
General Lord Harris, relates to this attack. 

To Lieut. General Harris, Commander in Chief. 
' MY DEAR SIR, 'Camp, 5th April, 1799. 

' I do not know where you mean the post to be established, 
and I shall therefore be obliged to you if you will do me the 
favor to meet me this afternoon in front of the lines and show 
it to me. In the meantime I will order my battalions to be 
in readiness. 

' Upon looking at the Tope as I came in just now, it ap- 
peared to me that when you get possession of the bank of the 
nullah, you have the Tope as a matter of course, as the latter 
is in the rear of the former. However, you are the best 
judge, and I shall be ready. 
' I am, my dear Sir, 

' Your most faithful servant. 
Lieut. General Harris.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



24 MYSORE. 1799. 

Both divisions marched a little after sunset. The dark- 
ness of the night was very unfavorable to their advance. 
Colonel Shawe seized a ruined village within forty yards of 
the aqueduct : Colonel Wellesley advancing about the same 
time with one wing of the 33rd regiment to attack the Tope, 
was, upon entering it, assailed on every side by a hot fire of 
musketry and rockets. This circumstance, joined to the ex- 
treme darkness of the night, the badness of the ground, and 
the uncertainty of the enemy's position, were inducements 
to confine the operations to the object of causing a diversion 
to Colonel Shawe's attack, and to postpone any farther at- 
tempt until a more favorable opportunity should occur ; and 
Colonel Wellesley, after the firing had ceased, returned to 
camp to make his report of the failure of the Commander in 
Chief*. 

* A literal extract from the private Diary of Lieut. General Harris, Commander in 

Chief of the British Army marching in the Mysore country in the year 1799, 

between the 4th and 8ih of April. 

' 4th April. Commissioned General Baird to form a party of not less than 
the flank companies of his brigade, supported by the picquets, to beat up a tope 
in front of the ground the picquet was on, and said to have had parties of men 
with arms assembling on it. It appears to me, from the report, they are only 
intended for rocketing ; but our beating them up, instead of their attempting us, 
will have the best effect ; for if our intelligence is true, his whole army are in a 
complete state of terror ; of course we should keep it so. 

' bth April. Marched to Seringapatam ; rocketed a little on the march. Took 
up our ground nearly for the siege. Concluded the arrangements for detaching 
General Floyd and General Stuart. Formed parties for the attack of the post 
occupied formerly by the Bombay troops, and the tope of Sultaunpettah. Lieut. 
Colonel Shawe to command the detachment for the Bombay post ; Colonel 
Wellesley that of the tope, as being composed of his own people. Remained 
under great anxiety till near twelve at night, from the fear our troops had fired 
on each other. Lieut. Colonel Shawe very soon reported himself in possession 
of the post ; but a second firing commenced, and as he had previously sent to 
know what had become of the two native battalions, I could not be satisfied but 
that, in the dark, they had mistaken each other. It proved that all the firing 
was from the enemy, his Majesty's 12th regiment scarcely firing a shot the 
whole night. Near twelve, Colonel Wellesley came to my tent in a good deal 
of agitation, io say he had not carried the tope. It proved that the 33rd, with 
which he attacked, got into confusion and could not be formed, which was great 
pity, as it must be particularly unpleasant to him. Altogether, circumstances 
considered, we got off very well. General Baird's expedition of last night so 
far answered our expectations, as he fell in with a small party of the enemy's 
horse and cut up eight or ten of them, which will tend to prevent their plaguing 
us with rockets, I trust. He missed his road coming back, although one would 
have thought it impossible ; no wonder night attacks so often fail. 



1799. SER1NGAPATAM. 25 

General Harris, finding that the village occupied by Colonel 
Shawe was very much annoyed by the enemy's musketry from 
the aqueduct, to which the enemy had sent a reinforcement, 
and that the possession of the Sultaunpettah Tope was ab- 
solutely necessary to secure the camp, as well as to support 
Colonel Shawe's post, ordered a new disposition on the morn- 

' 6/A April. Determined to make another attack on the tope ; Lieut. Colonel 
Bowser's and Halyburton's corps with the Scotch Brigade (supported by the 
25th dragoons and 2nd regiment native cavalry, on seeing the Sultaun's cavalry 
appearing from the fort,) were "destined to assist in this service, and, with 
scarcely any opposition, carried it. 

' Sunday, the 7th, Yesterday evening walked down to the advanced post with 
Baird and Macleod. Found it very strong against so contemptible an enemy 
as we have to deal with ; and such as may, with a little trouble, be made very 
strong against any. How fortunate thus to find a good parallel prepared to our 
hands ! The fort fired a great deal yesterday, with no other effect than furnish- 
ing shot to us. A long line of cavalry seen coming out of the fort about twelve ; 
reported at three, by Colonel Wellesley, to have come more round our right ; and 
that he has therefore ordered the battalions we spoke of when looking what they 
were about, on the road which leads to Periapatam. Our foraging party coming 
in fast ; but this cannot be their object, and they would move more rapidly than 
they have done. Great many of us much fatigued. Beatsou, among the rest, 
very much relaxed and weak. Our duties pretty severe ; but if the whole is not 
pressed on with vigor we shall fail ; for no doubt there will be more difficulties to 
overcome than we yet foresee. 

' Monday St/i. Visited the post taken possession of by Colonel Wellesley on 
the 6th instant. Found it a continuation of the nullah which makes Shawe's 
post, but not so favorable in that part for keeping hold of. Directed a burnt 
village on a rise above the nullah, to be made the right-hand post, by barricading 
the streets and cutting down the walls to six feet, thickening them next the fort, 
and putting a banquette within. Brisk cannonade from the fort. Colonel Close 
brought Dallas and Hart to speak .about the bullock drivers, &c.' 

[ The Compiler has thought proper to insert, as a note, a copy of this authen- 
tic document, relating to an affair of little importance, from some circumstances 
attending it having been detailed in the Memoirs of the late General Sir David 
Baird, by Mr. Hook. A conversation is there related as having taken place 
between General Harris and General Baird, on the parade on the morning of 
the fith of April; although there is little doubt that both General Harris and 
General Baird were capable of feeling and acting in the manner represented by 
Mr. Hook, yet as General Harris makes not the slightest mention of it in his 
minute private diary, and as Colonel Wellesley does not allude to it in his several 
letteis to General Harris on that and the following days, and until many 3 ears 
afterwards never even heard of it, it is very possible that Mr. Hook has been 
misinformed. 

The authentic documents relating to the appointment of Colonel Wellesley to 
the command of Seringapatam must exculpate the Commander in Chief for un- 
duly favoring Colonel Wellesley to the prejudice of General Baird, a charge 
which Mr. Hook has permitted himself to cast upon that honorable aud distin- 
guished officer General Harris.] 



26 MYSORE. 1799. 

ing of the 6th, to drive the enemy from their whole line of 
outposts, extending from the Cauvery to the Tope. For 
this purpose he directed that three simultaneous attacks, 
under the orders of Colonel Wellesley, should be made, 
covered by guns previously posted. The troops were pa- 
raded : and, at nine in the morning, Colonel Wellesley, with 
the Scotch brigade, two battalions of sepoys, and four guns, 
in addition to his former force, again advanced on the Tope, 
which was soon carried ; as parties being detached to take 
the enemy in flank threw them into confusion, and obliged 
them to retire with precipitation. Precisely at the same mo- 
ment, Colonel Shawe quitted the ruined village and rushed 
upon the enemy ; whilst Colonel Wallace drove them out of 
a village on the right flank. Lieut. Colonel Barry Close, 
who had accompanied Colonel Wellesley on this service, soon 
came back ; and, on entering General Harris's tent, he an- 
nounced ' It has been done in high style and without loss.' 
The posts evacuated by the enemy were immediately occu- 
pied by the British troops, who thus secured a strong and 
connected advanced line, extending from the Cauvery to the 
village of Sultaunpettah, a distance of two miles ; forming, 
in fact, a line of contravallation, principally by the aqueduct, 
at a convenient distance from the fort, and from the encamp- 
ment of the army. 

The following notes and letters, written by Colonel Wel- 
lesley after this attack, show the terms on which he was with 
his General ; and at the same time substantiate a fact, not 
sufficiently known, that General Harris himself conducted 
the details of the victorious army which he commanded. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 
' MY DEAR SIR, < Camp, 6th April, 1 799. 

' I find that by moving Malcolm's corps to the rear a 
little, and by an arrangement of my posts on my right and 
rear, I shall be able to protect Meer Allum, the brinjarries, 
the park, and the cavalry, from any attempts that may be 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 27 

made by horse and rocket boys, which alone seem to me to 
be destined to annoy us in that quarter. 

' I shall now go out and see what support I can give to 
my post at Sultaunpettah, and will report to you on my re- 
turn. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
' Lieut. General Harris' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

' MY DEAR SIR, 'Camp, 7th April, 1799. 

' I shall be much obliged to you if you will let me know 
whether you think the guards for the outposts can now be 
reduced a little, as between foraging parties and outline 
picquets, we have not men enough left to give a relief. The 
outline picquets were not relieved this morning for want of 
men. You were talking yesterday of looking at these posts 
this afternoon, and if you have an inclination I will go with 
you at any hour you may appoint. I think I can show you 
a situation where two embrasures might be opened in the 
bank of the nullah with advantage, and that would add to 
the strength of the post. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
4 Lieut. General Harris: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

MY DEAR SIR, ' 3 p. M. 7th April, 1799. 

' A body of horse, of about seven or eight hundred, has 
passed, and is getting round by my right and your rear. 
They keep clear of our picquets, and are most probably a 
reconnoitring party. 

' They have some few straggling footmen with them, but 
I have seen no infantry. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Harris.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

< MY DEAR SIR, 'Camp, 7th April, 1799. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you, that the foragers are 
coming in fast, well loaded with forage, and I have therefore 
ordered the battalion to stay where it is, ready to turn out, 



28 MYSORE. 1799. 

but (as battalions arc now scarce articles) not to move till 
further orders. 

' The body of cavalry has passed our right flank, and 
seems inclining rather to its left. It appears more like a line 
of march than a body intended for a coup de main, as there 
are with it bullocks and baggage of different kinds. At all 
events, it can do our right no harm, as, excepting by the 
high road which Malcolm's corps will cover as soon as it shall 
have moved, no cavalry can approach us. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Harris. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I see the cavalry has come more round our right, and I 
have therefore ordered the battalion on to the high road, 
whence it will afford protection to the foragers coming in, as 
well as to the rear of our camp, should they be inclined to 
molest it.' 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

' MY DEAR SIR, 'Camp, 7th April, 1799. 

' I have drawn back the battalion, as the foragers are come 
in, and the cavalry have disappeared. As soon as Schoey's 
brigade shall have taken up its ground, we shall have four 
field pieces, at least, bearing upon that road, when I shall 
have an opportunity of looking at it again. I will let you 
know whether they will be sufficient, or what will. 

' I have fourteen 6 pounders, of which eight are out of the 
lines at the outposts and picquets. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
' Lieut. General Harris.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 
1 MY DEAR SIR, ' Camp, 7th April, 1799. 

' Since I returned home, I have received a report from the 
outposts in Sultaunpettah, that some infantry had passed 
this evening in the same direction in which the cavalry passed 
this morning ; and there are some persons in this camp who 
say they saw guns pass likewise. 

' 1 have not yet received a report from my picquets in my 
front ; when I do I will let you know what it is. 



1799. SEEING APATAM. 29 

' At all events, I am prepared for him, if his attack is 
directed against this flank of your line, whether it be made 
by day or by night. I do not intend to relieve the outposts 
until after it is ascertained whether or not he intends to 
make his push here : if he does attack us here, he will pro- 
bably attack the outposts at the same time ; and, in that case, 
we must depend upon your line for the support of our posts. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Harris. ' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Camp, 7th April, 1799. 

' The Field Officer of the day was at the picquet in my 
front till sunset ; saw cavalry pass, but no infantry, or guns. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
' Lieut. General Harris.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

The siege proceeded, when fresh overtures were made by 
Tippoo Sultaun. The advanced period of the season and the 
failure of provisions made it hazardous to delay the siege for 
an instant; particularly as the Governor General, in his 
letters to the Court of Directors, afterwards described in his 
own words : ' Towards the end of April fresh circumstances 
arose, which disposed me to think that, if the course of the 
war should favor the attempt, it would be prudent and justi- 
fiable entirely to overthrow the power of Tippoo; accord- 
ingly, on the 23rd of April, I signified to Lieut. General 
Harris my wish that the power and resources of Tippoo Sul- 
taun should be reduced to the lowest state ; and even utterly 
destroyed, if the events of the war should furnish the oppor- 
tunity.' 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' 7 A. M., 3rd May. 

' We did all our work last night, except filling the sand- 
bags, Avhich could not be done for want of tools : I shall have 
them filled in the course of this morning, and there will be 
no inconvenience from the delay, as it was not deemed ad- 
visable last night to do more than look for the ford ; and it 



30 MYSORE. 1799- 

is not intended to do anything to it until the night before it 
is to be used. 

' Lieut. Lalor, of the 73rd, crossed over to the glacis, I 
believe, on the left of the breach. He found the wall, which 
he believes to be the retaining wall of the glacis, seven feet 
high, and the water (included in those seven feet) fourteen 
inches deep. It is in no part more so, and the passage by no 
means difficult. Several other officers crossed by different 
routes, but none went so far as Lieut. Lalor. All agree in 
the practicability of crossing with troops. The enemy built 
up the breach in the night with gabions, &c., notwithstand- 
ing the fire which was kept up upon it. It was impossible 
to fire grape, as our working party was in front of the five- 
gun battery, from which alone we could fire, as we repaired 
the other. 

' Lieut. Lalor is now on duty here with his regiment, but 
if you wish it, he will remain here to-night, and try the river 
again. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Harris. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have not heard anything of the 12 pounders ordered to 
a new situation by the general orders of yesterday.' 

On the 3rd of May the breach appeared to be practicable, 
and preparations were eagerly made for the assault. On the 
morning of the 4th, the troops destined for the attack were 
placed in the trenches before daylight, that the enemy might 
not observe any particular movement. The heat of the day, 
when the people of the East, having taken their mid-day re- 
past, give themselves up to repose, and when it was con- 
fidently expected that the troops in the fortress would be least 
prepared to resist, was chosen for the hour of assault ; the 
experience of former wars, and especially of that under Lord 
Cornwallis, having proved that the enemy was always found 
more watchful and alert at night than in the heat of day. 

Two regiments and ten flank companies of Europeans, 
three corps of grenadier sepoys, and 200 of the Nizam's 
troops, formed the storming party, consisting of 2,500 Euro- 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 31 

peans, and 1,900 native infantry. Major General Baird, 
who had solicited the command, divided this force into two 
separate columns, which, on mounting the breach, were to 
file off to the right and left. Colonel Sherbrooke com- 
manded the right column, destined for the attack of the 
southern rampart ; and Lieut. Colonel Dunlop commanded 
the left, to clear the northern rampart. The forlorn hope of 
each attack consisted of a serjeant and twelve Europeans, 
who were followed by two subalterns' parties ; that of the 
right column was commanded by Lieut. Hill of the 74th, and 
the other of the left column by Lieut. Lawrence of the 77th 
regiments. Colonel Wellesley remained in the advanced 
trenches in command of the reserve, to support the troops in 
the assault, in case it should be necessary. 

At one o'clock the troops began to move from the trenches^ 
The width and rocky channel of the Cauvery, though it con- 
tained but little water, its exposure to the fire of the fortress, 
the imperfection of the breach, the strength of the place, the 
numbers, courage, and skill of its defenders, constituted such 
an accumulation of difficulties, that nothing less than un- 
bounded confidence in the force and courage of his men 
could have inspired a prudent general with hopes of success. 
The troops descended into the bed of the river, and ad- 
vanced, regardless of a tremendous fire, towards the opposite 
bank. ' In less than ten minutes from the period of issuing 
from the trenches, the British colors were planted on the 
summit of the breach.' Tippoo Sultaun, although advised 
by the most judicious of his officers, had neglected to cut 
a trench, so as to insulate the angle of the fort in which the 
breach had been effected ; and the assailing parties under 
Major General Baird, Colonel Sherbrooke, and Lieut. Colonel 
Dunlop taking the directions ordered, soon cleared the ram- 
parts. The further details of this eventful enterprise are to 
be found in ' Lieut. Colonel Beatson's Narrative of the 
Operations of the army under Lieut. General Harris, and 
of the Siege of Seringapatam,' from which the foregoing 



32 MYSORE. 1799. 

are chiefly selected; and in which will also be found the 
translations of several State papers, unequivocally proving 
the systematic and unremitting ardour of the late Sultaun 
in his attempts to subvert the British power in India. 

General Harris, the Commander in Chief, in his dispatch to 
the Earl of Mornington, the Governor General, announcing 
the fall of Seringapatam, reports 

' Of the merits of the army I have expressed my opinion 
in Orders, a copy of which I have the honor to enclose ; and 
I trust your- Lordship will point out their services to the 
favorable notice of their King and country. 

' G. O. ' Camp at Seringapatam, 5tli May, 1799. 

' The Commander in Chief congratulates the gallant army 
which he has the honor to command, on the conquest of yes- 
terday. The effects arising from the attainment of such an 
acquisition as far exceed the present limits of detail as the 
unremitting zeal, labor, and unparalleled valor of the troops 
surpass his power of praise. For services so incalculable in 
their consequences, he must consider the army as well en- 
titled to the applause and gratitude of their country at large. 

' While Lieut. General Harris sincerely laments the loss 
sustained in the valuable officers and men who fell in the 
attack, he cannot omit to return his thanks in the warmest 
terms to Major General Baird for the decided and able 
manner in which he conducted the assault, and for the 
humane measures which he subsequently adopted for pre- 
serving order and regularity in the place. He requests that 
Major General Baird will communicate to the officers and 
men, who, on that great occasion, acted under his command, 
the high sense he must entertain of their achievements and 
merits. 

The Commander in Chief requests that Colonel Gent, 
and the corps of engineers under his orders, will accept his 
thanks for their unremitting exertions in conducting the 
duties of that very important department : and his best ac- 
knowledgments are due to Major Beatson, for the essential 
assistance given to this branch of the service by the constant 
exertion of his ability and zeal. 

' The merit of the artillery corps is so strongly expressed 



1799. SE RING A PAT AM. 33 

by the effects of their fire, that the Commander in Chief can 
only desire Colonel Smith to assure the officers and men of 
the excellent corps under his command that he feels most 
fully their claim to approbation. 

' In thus publicly expressing his sense of their good con- 
duct, the Commander in Chief finds himself called upon to 
notice in a most particular manner the exertions of Captain 
Dowse, and his corps of pioneers ; which, during the present 
service, have been equally marked by unremitting labor, and 
the ability with which that labor was applied. 

' On referring to the progress of the siege, so many op- 
portunities have occurred for applause to the troops, that it 
is difficult to particularize individual merit ; but the gallant 
manner in which Lieut. Colonel Shawe, Colonel the Hon. A. 
Welleslcy, Lieut. Colonel Moneypenny, Lieut. Colonel the 
Hon. F. St. John, Major Mac Donald, Major Skelly, and 
Lieut. Colonel Wallace, conducted the attacks on the several 
outworks and posts of the enemy, demands to be recorded. 
And the very spirited attack led by Lieut. Colonel Campbell 
of his Majesty's 74th regiment, which tended so greatly to 
secure the position our troops had attained in the enemy's 
works on the 26th ultimo, claims the strongest approbation 
of the Commander in Chief. 

' The important part taken by the Bombay army, since 
the commencement of the siege, in all the operations which 
led to its honorable conclusion, has been such as well sus- 
tains its long established reputation. The gallant manner 
in which the post at the village of Agrar was seized by the 
force under Colonel Hart, the ability displayed in directing 
the fire of the batteries established there, the vigor with 
which every attack of the enemy on the outposts of that 
army was repulsed, and the spirit shown in the assault of the 
breach by the corps led by Lieut. Colonel Dunlop, are points 
of particular notice ; for which the Commander in Chief re- 
quests Lieut. General Stuart will offer his best thanks to the 
officers and troops employed. 

' Lieut. General Harris trusts that Lieut. General Stuart 
will excuse his thus publicly expressing his sense of the cor- 
dial co-operation and assistance received from him during 
the present service : in the course of which he has ever found 

VOL. i. * D 



34 



MYSORE. 



1799. 



it difficult to separate the sentiments of his public duty from 
the Avarmest feelings of his private friendship. 

' G.O. ' Seringapatam, May 8th, 1799. 

' Lieut. General Harris has particular pleasure in publish- 
ing to the army the following extract of a report, transmitted 
to him yesterday by Major General Baird, as it places in .a 
distinguished point of view the merit of an officer, on the 
very important occasion referred to, whose general gallantry 
and good conduct, since he has served with this army, have 
not failed to recommend him strongly to the Commander in 
Chief. 

f " If, where all behaved nobly, it is proper to mention in- 
" dividual merit, I know no man so justly entitled to praise 
" as Colonel Sherbrooke, to whose exertions I feel myself 
" much indebted for the success of the attack." ' 

Return of the Corps and Regiments which assisted in the Siege 
and the Assault of Seringapatam. 



EUROPEANS. 

Corps of Madras Engineers 
Detachment of Bengal 
1st Batt.) ,, , 
2nd do. I Madras 
Petachment of Bombay 
H. M.'s 12th Regiment 

33rd do. 

73rd do. 

74th do. 

75th do. 

77th do. 

Scotch Brigade 

Regt.deMeuron 
Bombay Regiment of 

European Infantry. 



NATIVE INFANTRY. 



BENGAL. 

1st Batt.i in ., -p 
2nd do. J loth Regl. 

1st do. | 

2nd do. (Volunteers. 

3rd do. } 

BOMBAY. 

1st Batt. ) n , T> 
2nd do. [2ndRegt. 

1st do. 

2nd do. 

1st do. 4th do. 

1st do. 5th do. 



MADRAS. 

1st Batt. 1st Regt. 
2nd do. 2nd do. 

3rd do. 

5th 

6th 

7th 

8th 



J3rd 



2nd do. 
2nd do. 
1st do. 
2nd do. 
1 st do. 
2nd do. 9th 
1st do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



do. 



The Pioneer Co9. The Pioneer Corps. 



General Return of the killed, wounded, and missing, of Corps 
composing the army before Seringapatam, from the 4th of 
April to the 4th of May, 1799 : 



Officers. 

Killed ... 22 
Wounded . . 45 

Missing . . - 



Europeans. 
. 181 
. 622 
22 



Natives. 
119 
420 
100 



In the abstracts it appears that the strength of Tippoo 
Sultaun's forces on the 4th of May, 1799, consisted of 48,000 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 35 

men, about 22,000 of whom were either in the fort or in the 
dependent entrenchments of Serin gapatam ; and that the 
army commanded by Lieut. General Harris consisted of 
8700 Europeans and 27,000 natives, of which force 20,000 
assisted at the siege. 

The Governor General, on the arrival at Madras of the 
dispatch announcing the fall of Seringapatam, issued the 
following General Order to the army in India : 

' General Order by the 
Earl of Mornington, 
Governor General. ' Fort St. George, 15th May, 1799. 

' The Right Honorable the Governor General in Council, 
having this day received from the Commander in Chief of 
the allied army in the field, the official details of the glorious 
and decisive victory obtained at Seringapatam on the 4th of 
May, offers his cordial thanks and sincere congratulations to 
the Commander in Chief, and to all the officers and men 
composing the gallant army, which achieved the conquest of 
the capital of Mysore on that memorable day. 

' His Lordship views with admiration the consummate 
judgment with which the assault was planned, the unequalled 
rapidity, animation, and skill with which it was executed, and 
the humanity which distinguished its final success. 

' Under the favor of Providence, and the justice of our 
cause, the established character of the army had inspired an 
early confidence that the war in which we were engaged 
would be brought to a speedy, prosperous, and honorable 
issue. 

' But the events of the 4th of May, while they have sur- 
passed even the sanguine expectations of the Governor Ge- 
neral in Council, have raised the reputation of the British 
arms in India to a degree of splendor and glory unrivalled in 
the military history of this quarter of the globe, and seldom 
approached in any part of the world. 

' The lustre of this victory can be equalled only by the 
substantial advantages which it promises to establish, in 
restoring the peace and safety of the British possessions in 
India, on a durable foundation of genuine security. 

' The Governor General in Council reflects with pride, 
satisfaction, and gratitude, that, in this arduous crisis, the 

D2 



3G MYSORE. 1799. 

spirit and exertion of our Indian army have kept pace with 
those of our countrymen at home ; and that in India, as in 
Europe, Great Britain has found, in the malevolent designs 
of her enemies, an increasing source of her own prosperity, 
fame, and power. 

1 By order of the Right Honorable the Governor 

' General in Council, 
' JOSIAH WEBBE, Secretary to Government.' 

It may be necessary here to mention that Colonel Wel- 
lesley entered the fort immediately after the assault; and 
was one of the few present when Tippoo Sultaun's body, 
which was still warm, was discovered in the sallyport gate- 
way. 

Major General Baird having desired to be relieved 
Colonel Wellesley, being next on the roster, was ordered on 
the same night to command within the fort. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Ten A.M., 5th 'May. 

' We are in such confusion still, that I recommend it to 
you not to come in till to-morrow, or, at soonest, late this 
evening. Before I came here, General Baird had given the 
treasure in charge to the prize agents. There is a guard 
over it, and it appears to be large. 

' As soon as I can find out where the families of the great 
men are, I shall send guards to take care of them. At pre- 
sent I can find nobody who can give me any information 
upon the subject. I have here now the J.2th, 33rd, and part 
of the 73rd, and the 2nd of the 5th, 2nd of the 9th, and 2nd 
of the 7th. These troops ought to be relieved this day as 
early as possible by two regiments of Europeans and three 
of sepoys. 

' I am, dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Harris. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' There are some tigers here, which I wish Meer Allum 
would send for, or else I must give orders to have them 
shot, as there is no food for them, and nobody to attend 
them, and they are getting violent/ 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 37 

To Lieut. General Harris. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Half past twelve. 

' I wish you would send the provost here, and put him 
under my orders. Until some of the plunderers are hanged, 
it is vain to expect to stop the plunder. 

' I shall be obliged to you, if you will send positive orders 
respecting the treasure. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
' Lieut. General Harris' f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Harris. 
' MY DEAR SlR, ' Seringapatam, 5th May, 1799. 

' Things are better than they were, but they are still very 
bad ; and until the provost executes three or four people, it 
is impossible to expect order, or indeed safety. 

' There are, at this moment, sepoys and soldiers belonging 
to every regiment in your camp and General Stuart's in the 
town. 

' It would surely be advisable to order the rolls to be 
called constantly, and to forbid any people to leave camp. 

* For a few days likewise it would be very advisable that 
the officers of the army should suspend the gratification of 
their curiosity, and that none but those on duty should come 
into the town. It only increases the confusion and the terror 
of the inhabitants. Till both subside in some degree, we 
cannot expect that they will return to their habitations. 

' I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
Lieut. General Hands. ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I hope the relief is coming, and that I shall soon receive 
your orders respecting the treasure.' 

To Lieut. General Harris. 
' MY DEAR SlR, ' Seringapatam, Gth May, 1799." 

' Plunder is stopped, the fires are all extinguished, and 
the inhabitants are returning to their houses fast. I am now 
employed in burying the dead, which I hope will be com- 
pleted this day, particularly if you send me all the pioneers. 

' It is absolutely necessary that you should immediately 



38 MYSORE. 1799. 

appoint a permanent garrison, and a commanding officer to 
the place ; till that is done, the people will have no con- 
fidence in us, and every thing must be in confusion. That 
which I arrange this day, my successor may alter to-morrow, 
and his the next day ; and nothing will ever be settled. A 
garrison which would be likely to remain here, would soon 
make themselves comfortable, although it might be found 
convenient hereafter to change some of the corps sent in : 
but these daily reliefs create much confusion and distrust in 
the inhabitants ; and the camp is at such a distance, that it 
is impossible for the officers or soldiers or sepoys to get down 
their dinners. 

' I shall be obliged to you, if you will order an extra dram 
and biscuit for the 12th, 33rd, and 73rd regiments, who got 
nothing to eat yesterday, and were wet last night. 

' In hopes that you will attend to my recommendation to 
send a garrison in to-morrow, I shall look out for a place to 
accommodate one or two battalions of Europeans and three 
or four of sepoys. 

* I am, my dear Sir, &c. 
' Lieut. General Harris' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY 

Colonel Wellesley exerted himself to the utmost to pre- 
vent excess of every kind ; Cowle flags were hoisted in dif- 
ferent parts of the town, and public notice given that severe 
examples would be made of any persons detected in the act 
of plundering the houses or molesting the inhabitants ; for, 
although General Baird had given protection to some of the 
principal families, and used every means in his power to re- 
store order in the town, yet it could not be expected that the 
tumult and disorder, which were unavoidable in a city so ex- 
tensive taken by assault, could immediately subside ; nor 
was it until four men had been executed for plunder that 
perfect tranquillity was restored. These examples and the 
personal activity of Colonel Wellesley, who went himself to 
the houses of the principal families with safeguards, soon in- 
spired a general confidence. The inhabitants, who had 
quitted the town during the night of the storm, and had 
slept in the open fields, returned quickly to their houses and 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 39 

occupations. In a few days the bazaars were stored with all 
sorts of provisions and merchandise, for which there was a 
ready and advantageous sale ; and the main street of Serin- 
gapatam, three days after the fort was taken, was so much 
crowded, as to be almost impassable, and exhibited more the 
appearance of a fair, than that of a town just taken by 
assault. 

General Harris, on the receipt of Colonel Wellesley's 
report, contained in his letter of the 6th, lost no time in 
carrying into effect the recommendation. He immediately 
directed a regular garrison for Seringapatam, and appointed 
Colonel Wellesley to the command of it, as he felt satisfied 
that he could not confide the complicated and delicate duties 
of a civil and political, as well as of a military nature, re- 
quired from the officer in charge of the capital, to any other 
better qualified to conduct them with advantage. These 
duties of necessity devolved upon the officer in command of 
Seringapatam, in consequence of the sudden and complete 
dissolution of Tippoo's government, the dispersion of all the 
public functionaries, and the helpless situation of the late 
Sultaun's family, then in the palace.* 

* Mr. Hook, in the ' Memoirs of the late General Sir David Baird,' professes 
to give the copies of the letters of remonstrance of that officer to the Commander 
in Chief, on the appointment of Colonel Wellesley to the command of Seringa^ 
patam, as well as to his former appointment to the command of the army of his 
Highness the Nizam. Mr. Hook was probably not aware that the original letters 
remain in the possession of the family of the late Lord Harris ; as, on comparing 
these original letters with those published by Mr. Hook, it appears that some 
passages have been omitted in his publication of them, which in a great measure 
contain in themselves a refutation of the partiality and injustice of which Gene- 
ral Baird complained. 

The great end of history is the exact illustration of events, as they occurred ; 
and there should be neither exaggeration nor concealment to suit angry feelings 
or personal disappointment. It should contain the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth. Mr. Hook has, however, in this respect, wandered from 
his proper province as a historian, at the expense of the reputation of his gal- 
lant hero, by attacking the judgment, justice, impartiality, and duty of the Com- 
mander in Chief and of the Governor Genera), for the purpose of establishing a 
grievance and an insinuation, which the facts and results do not warrant ; and to 
which Sir David Baird, had he been alive, would have never given countenance; 
But Mr. Hook, being a civilian, could not be aware of the impropriety of publish- 
ing these letters of remonstrance^ which are so inconsistent with subordination- 



40 MYSORE. 



1799. 



The complete subjugation of Mysore was the immediate 
consequence of the fall of Seringapatam and the death of 
Tippoo Sultaun. A commission, composed of Lieut. General 
Harris, Lieut. Colonel Barry Close, Colonel the Hon. A. 
Wellesley, the Hon. H. Wellesley, and Lieut. Colonel Kirk- 
patrick, was appointed by the Governor General in Council, 
to carry into effect his arrangements for the settlement of the 
conquered territories. Captains Malcolm and Munro were 
appointed Secretaries to the Commission. The arrange- 
ments for removing the family of the late Sultaun were par- 
ticularly committed to Colonel Wellesley, who had been 
confirmed as Governor subsequent to the capture. ' The de- 
tailing this painful but indispensable measure,' said the 
Governor General, in his instructions, dated 4th June, 1 799, 
' cannot be entrusted to any person more likely to combine 
every office of humanity with the prudential precautions 
required by the occasion, than Colonel Wellesley ; and I 
therefore commit to his discretion, activity, and humanity, 
the whole arrangement, subject always to such suggestions 
as may be offered by the other members of the Commission.' 

On the settlement of the Mysore territory by the Commis- 
sion, the provinces which fell under British protection and 
authority became a distinct command ; and Colonel Wellesley 
was confirmed in it by the Governor General, receiving his 
orders from, and reporting direct to, the Supreme Govern- 
ment at Calcutta. He availed himself of the intelligence 
and experience of all those who had served under Tippoo 
Sultaun, and replaced them in their former posts ; their chief 
security for retaining which rested on the correct discharge 
of their several duties. His active superintendence, discern- 
ment, impartiality, and decision, in the arduous and im- 



and discipline ; particularly when it is known that General Baird requested per- 
mission to withdraw his intemperate appeal, which General Harris, from personal 
regard, allowed to pass without further notice. And certainly, what General 
Baird thought unworthy of him as a soldier, his biographer had no right to 
bring up against him, with no other apparent purpose than that of attacking 
the honor of those who are living, and the memory of those who are dead. 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. " 41 

portant duties of the civil, as well as of the military adminis- 
tration of the command, were such as to have fully warranted 
his brother's judicious selection ; and he soon deserved and 
obtained the gratitude of the conquered people. 

The tranquillity of Mysore was, however, interrupted by 
the celebrated Dhoondiah Waugh, one of those adventurers 
who have so often subverted empires and founded dynasties 
in the East. This freebooter had formerly committed various 
depredations on the territories of Tippoo Sultaun, who hav- 
ing secured his person, compelled him to conform to the 
Mahomedan faith, and afterwards employed him in military 
service ; but either detecting him in some treacherous pro- 
ject, or suspecting his fidelity, the Sultaun confined him in 
irons in Seringapatam. After the assault he was released, 
with several other prisoners, by the inconsiderate humanity 
of the British troops, and immediately fled, accompanied by 
several of Tippoo's disbanded army. He proceeded to Bed- 
nore, and laid that rich country under severe contributions, 
which he exacted with unrelenting cruelty, perpetrating 
throughout the province the most atrocious acts of rapine 
and murder. His band being considerably increased, a light 
corps of cavalry and native infantry, under Lieut. Colonel 
Dalrymple, moved against him from Chittledroog ; and an- 
other light corps, under Colonel Stevenson, advanced into 
Bednore in another direction. Dhoondiah crossed the Toom- 
buddra, followed by these corps, and suffered considerable 
loss ; but he effected his escape into the Marhatta territory ; 
and the pursuit ceased, as the Governor General had strictly 
prohibited any violation of the Marhatta frontier. 

Colonel Wellesley was now in chief command, the follow- 
ing being published in the General Orders of the Commander 
in Chief of the Madras army : 

' G. O. ' Head Quarters, llth Sept. 1799. 

' The Commander in Chief, being about to proceed to the 
Presidency, in obedience to the orders of the Governor Ge- 



42 MYSORE. 1799. 

neral in Council, appoints Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley to 
command the troops serving above the Ghauts.' 

Colonel Wellesley was long occupied in visiting the dif- 
ferent provinces of the late conquest, making roads and com- 
munications, and organizing the civil as well as the military 
establishments. 

To the Right Hon. the Governor General. 
' MY LORD, ' Seringapatam, 19th Aug., 1799. 

' I take the liberty of recommending to your Lordship, 
that out of the fund allotted for the family of the late Tippoo 
Sultaun, a pension of twenty Cantarai pagodas per mensem 
may be allotted to the mother-in-law of Schuckur Oolla, the 
wife of Zeniul ab Dien Taker. She received this sum from 
the late Sultaun. 

' I have the honor to enclose a statement of the numbers 
of the family still remaining in Seringapatam, and an esti- 
mate of the carriage which will be required to take them 
from hence. It does not appear possible to furnish it till 
bring off the army quits the field. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

'The Right Ron < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

the Governor General. 

To Lieut. Colonel Harness, 74th Regt. 

' Camp four miles west of Hullihall, 
1 SlR, 6th October, 1799. 

' I beg that you will be so kind as to desire Captain 
Mackay to order sixty of the Hon. Company's draught bul- 
locks to be taken from the place where they are grazing to 
Seringapatam, where they are to remain in readiness to 
treasure to the army. 

' The person who goes to Seringapatam in charge of the 
bullocks, will receive orders to report himself to the pay- 
master. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

'Lieut. Colonel Harness: ' ARTHUR WELLKSLEY. 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 43 

- ;A -'T . - '.-f <r--t y, -rr ' 

To Lieut. Colonel Harness. 

' Camp four miles west of Hullihall, 
SlR, 6th October, 1799. 

' I enclose you the extract of a letter from the Secretary 
of Government, which I beg that you will be so kind as to 
communicate to the parties concerned. When I return to 
camp, I will arrange the establishment of servants for the 
departments left under the orders of Major Corner and of 
Captain Mackay. 

' By your letter, and some I have received from Captain 
Barclay, I perceive that the brinjarries have been sent across 
the Werdah with a very considerable supply of rice. Three 
hundred bags from the grain department will, therefore, be 
sufficient for the present, and I beg that you will not send 
more, notwithstanding what was ordered in my letter from 
Soopah of the 4th instant. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Harness: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro, Collector at Canara. 

1 Camp in the Province of Loo, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 8th October, 1799. 

' I have received your letter, and as I had some hand in 
sending you to Canara, I am much concerned that your 
situation there is so uncomfortable to yourself. It is one of 
the extraordinary and unaccountable circumstances attend- 
ing the commission at Seringapatam, that my brother and I 
should have imagined that you were desirous of being ap- 
pointed Collector at Canara; that we should have been 
seriously angry with Kirkpatrick, who, it appeared, had pro- 
posed an arrangement for you, of which you did not approve, 
and which had occasioned your refusal of the appointment 
for which you wished ; and yet that, after all, we should have 
done you an injury, instead of a benefit, (as well as one to the 
service,) which we intended. I acknowledge that, knowing 
my own wishes in your favor, and being very sensible of my 
brother's, I cannot but attribute what has happened, to 
yourself. One word from you would have stopped the 
arrangement, and there is every reason to believe that pro- 
vision would have been made for you elsewhere. It is, per- 



44 MYSORE. 1799. 

haps, not now too late. I have written to my brother upon 
the subject ; and I hope that he will make an arrangement 
suitable to your wishes. Whether he does or not, I hope 
that you will believe that your cause has not failed for want 
of zeal on my part. 

' This country, into which I have come to visit my posts on 
the Marhatta frontiers, is worse than that which you curse 
daily. It is literally not worth fighting for. Hereafter, it 
will be necessary to communicate with it from Canara ; and 
I have desired the amildar to make a good road from Soopah 
towards your borders. I am told that Seedasheeghur is not 
more than sixty miles by the road from Soopah, my most 
western post; that in the war of 1780, a detachment of 
Matthews' army advanced upon Soopah by that road. I 
wish that you desire one of your people to communicate 
with the amildar of Soonda respecting this road, and that 
you would have a good one made from Seedasheeghur to 
meet it. 

' The drubbing that we gave to the Marhattas lately has 
had the best effects ; and although all the robbers are in 
motion to cut each other's throats, they treated us with the 
utmost hospitality, and have sent back our people whom 
they had driven away. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Major Munro' ' ARTHUK WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Harness. 

MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp, 28th October, 1799. 

' I received your letter respecting the grain in the grain 
department last night, and I will delay to order the commit- 
tee to sit upon it till I return to camp. Lieutenant Campbell 
arrived this morning, and Colonel Campbell is rather better. 
' I shall be with you on the day after to-morrow. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Harness' ' ARTHUR WKLLESLEY. 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 45 

To Lieut. Colonel Close, Resident at Mysore. ' 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatara, 2nd Dec., 1799. 

* I enclose you sunnuds for pensions for the killadar of 
Chittledroog, the family of Hussein Ali Khan, Abdul Ma- 
homed, the brother of Abdul Kuddars, about whom there 
are orders in the letter from Colonel Kirkpatrick, which I 
showed you; and the nanperverish about which I spoke to 
you. Insert the names of the places at which the pensions 
of the killadars are to be paid. 

' I have besides made out sunnuds, and have given orders 
for the payment of the following pensions up to the 30th of 
November. They stand upon the Family Fund. 

Ibrahims Saheb's family - 3600 rupees annually. 

Ameen Saheb's family ... 600 star pags. , , 
Zeraul Ab Dien Taker's widow - 200 star pags. , , 
Meer Kawder Aly - - - - 400 star pags. ,, 

Jerbent Aly Khan's family - - 400 star pags. , , 

' For all these orders have been received from the Go- 
vernor General. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 7th Dec., 1799. 

' The estimate of the monthly expense of a battalion is 
4000 star pagodas. This is rather above the mark ; but it 
is better to have too much than too little. Mr. Gordon shall 
make arrangements for placing a servant in Soonda, to 
whom this money may be paid. 

' I have settled every thing for the reception of the Pyche 
Eajah in the fort, and I will take charge of him whenever 
Purneah shall send him. ' 

' I shall be obliged to you if you will desire Purneah to 
write to his amildar at Hooley Honore, and direct him to 
send forward to Seringapatam the vakeels of the 1st of the 
1st, and the 1st of the 8th, who are coming there with the 
detachment of these corps. 

' I enclose you the sunnuds for the sirdars. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



46 MYSORE. 1799. 

To Lieut. Colonel Harness. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 8th December, 1799. 

' I have received and am much obliged to you for all your 
letters. I recollect perfectly the paragraph in my instruc- 
tions to Colonel Campbell, a copy of which you have sent 
me, and I have given orders upon the subject of provisions 
for the 74th, which will be transmitted to you this day. 
They should have been issued before now, only that I ima- 
gined that you had a supply for twenty days of every thing 
excepting of arrack, and I knew that you would be able to 
get plenty of that at Bangalore, by the means of the persons 
belonging to the provision department, who had been de- 
tached from the army with you. 

' Colonel Campbell gives a good account of himself, but 
still I wish, for his sake, that he would go to the Carnatic in 
order to insure his recovery. 

' I have written to the Military Board on the subject of 
your tents. It will be necessary that you should have pre- 
pared an estimate of the materials, &c., which will be re- 
quired to repair the tents which the committee have re- 
ported unserviceable ; as, by my letter to Colonel Campbell 
of yesterday's date, you will perceive that I have stated to 
him and to the Military Board the necessity of repairing 
them in case your corps should be moved. We have not a 
single tent in store at Seringapatam. I have desired the 
commissary of supply to be prepared at Bangalore to an- 
swer your indents for every thing that you will want, and I 
imagine that he will have made his arrangements before the 
papers can be returned from Fort St. George. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Harness? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 15th Dec., 1799. 

' I enclose you an extract of a letter from Colonel Kirk- 
patrick, which will account for the excess of the nanperverish 
compared with Macleod's list. There is no such person in 
Macleod's list as " Jybea Ama," as you will perceive by a 
reference to it, and there is in mine. The difference in the 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 47 

amount of the pensions between Macleod's list and mine is 
to be attributed to the alteration of the periods of payment. 
When I came to give the sunnuds I consulted the Paymaster 
respecting the nine payments in the year, and found it to 
be so inconvenient to him, that after having ascertained the 
annual amount of each pension, I thought it better to divide 
it into twelve payments, according to our system. 

' The annual amount, however, is precisely the same as it 
would have been if the pension had been paid in nine pay- 
ments, although the amount of each payment is different. 
The addition which I made to the list is the cause of the 
difference in the annual amount of the whole. 

' As I told you before, I am not so certain about the list 
of nanperverish as about the other pensioners, as some were 
granted by order of Colonel Kirkpatrick, of which I never 
had a return. The best method of proceeding would be to 
keep a certain latitude for them. 

' I intend to include Chiableas in the Family Fund, as we 
settled when I saAv you last. 

' I shall do as you desire respecting the Bengal troops 
when they march. In the meantime I write to Colonel Ste- 
venson this day respecting the conduct of the battalion at 
Chittledroog. 

' I enclose the extract of a letter which I have received 
from Colonel Sherbrooke respecting the conduct of the 
amildar at Chenapatam. In my opinion, the rule of pro- 
ceeding between officers and amildars is, to take the most 
serious notice of the conduct of the former, when it appears 
to have been such as to deserve the complaint of the latter, 
and never to pass over any disrespect from the amildars to 
the officers. Upon that principle I removed the officer from 
Anantpoor, of whose conduct complaint was made. 

' It is a mistake to suppose that the amildars in the coun- 
try are uniformly attentive to the officers, either passing with 
detachments or travelling. They are generally so, I allow ; 
but I have had some serious and well-founded complaints of 
their behavior, which I have not brought forward, and 
Purneah can let you know that I had some reason to com- 
plain of one of them in a case which went to the starving of 
the people who were with me in Soonda. 

' We well know the character of the natives of this 



48 MYSORE. 1799. 

country ; when they are likely to be supported they are the 
most tyrannical and impudent of men, and there is no false- 
hood which they will not tell in support of, or as an excuse 
for their conduct. The unpleasant situation in which officers 
are who travel through the Tanjore country ought to be 
a warning to us here to avoid the error into which the gen- 
tlemen there have fallen, and to take the most serious notice 
of any attempt at disrespect made by people in authority. 
The case is just this; an officer of rank is travelling, he 
sends for the amildar to speak to him, who refuses to attend 
to him. Without entering into the other subjects of dispute, 
or other circumstances which ought to have gained for Co- 
lonel Sherbrooke the greatest respect and attention ; such 
as his having an hircarrah and a purwunnah from Purneah, 
his acquaintance with the amildar, to whom, as commanding 
officer of Seringapatam, he had given a cowlnamah, there is 
enough in that statement to draw upon the amildar the dis- 
pleasure of the Government, if it is to proceed in these kind 
of disputes according to the only rule, which, in my opinion, 
can ensure for the officers who are obliged to travel the con- 
veniences which they have a right to expect, and for the 
amildars good treatment. 

' I have no object upon this subject excepting tranquillity 
in future, and I therefore recommend that whatever com- 
plaint may be made of the officer, the amildar who has shown 
an inclination not to be quite so civil as he ought to be may 
be removed to some situation not immediately on the high 
road to Madras. 

* I have received a letter from Colonel Hart, in which he 
enclosed me an order which he has given to a battalion of 
sepoys to march to relieve the 1st of the 8th in Soonda. I 
had, in consequence, yesterday written to Captain Macfar- 
lane, to order him to begin his march towards Chittledroog 
as soon as he should be relieved. But from what you say in 
your letter, I have this day written to him to desire that he 
will halt at Hullihall till he shall hear further from me ; 
and I have directed him to endeavor to ascertain the truth 
of the intelligence which you have received. The 4th regi- 
ment of cavalry has already arrived at Bangalore, the 1st at 
Chittledroog, the 2nd at Sera ; the 4th could be up with 
them before they could be ready to begin any operations. 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 49 

They ought, however, to be all together, and to be near 
the south Marhatta frontier, according to my former propo- 
sition. 

' In consequence of a letter from Colonel Oliver, an. ex- 
tract of which I enclose, I wrote to Government for an 
allowance for the destruction of tigers in the neighbourhood 
of Chittledroog, similar to that given in the Baramahl. 1 
enclose you the copy of the answer. 

' I have received orders to discharge the bullocks and de- 
partments, which I have completed. 

' Your man has been with me with a statement of the 
quantity of timber which he wanted. I diminished it to that 
which he thought would be sufficient to complete the build- 
ings which you told me you intended to begin immediately. 
Even that the stores could not at this moment supply. 
However, we shall have more very shortly. He has got the 
carts and bullocks to bring the earth for the wells, and 
I believe is going on. 

' I have established the zabeta for the shops in the Fort, 
as fixed by Macleod. It is to be paid annually, and when 
Symonds comes, we can make an arrangement for its collec- 
tion, and for that of the land-rent of the island after the 
present year. The shops in Ganjam are rent free till the 
4th of May, 1800, by agreement. 

4 Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 16th Dec., 1799. 

' I enclose the copy of my letter to Government upon the 
subject of the settlement of the accounts of the Family Fun . 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 17th Dec., 1799. 

' I have received from Government a copy of their letter 
to you of the 10th inst., and I lament that it did not arrive 
before I sent that, a copy of which went to you yesterday. 
By the letter from Government to me, as well as that to you, 

VOL. i. * E 



50 MYSORE. 1799. 

it appears that they were not aware of the letter written 
to me by Colonel Kirkpatrick on the 24th of August, which 
I have considered as sufficient authority for granting the 
pensions asked for in my two letters of the 31st July and 
19th August. I shall this day send to Webbe a copy of 
Colonel Kirkpatrick's letter. 

' The 2nd of the 12th and 1st of the 2nd are to be in Se- 
ringapatam. The 1st of the 8th and 2nd of the 9th go to 
Hyderabad; the 1st of the 1st to Chittledroog. The 77th 
is ordered into Mysore from Malabar, and a battalion of 
sepoys from Canara country into Bednore. It shall go into 
Soonda, where, with two battalions, we shall be very respect- 
able. I have written (privately) to the Adjutant General, 
to inform him that I should not move the 1st of the 8th 
until I heard something more of the intelligence which you 
sent me the other day. 

' I have just heard from Sir William Clerke that he has 
got one regiment of Europeans and two battalions of sepoys 
at Goa, which, being upon the back of the Kolapoor man, 
will make him cautious how he offends us. 

' I enclose you the copy of a letter received from Uhtoffe, 
by which you will perceive that we have but a small chance 
of establishing the tappall to Poonah. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Harness. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 18th December, 1799. 

' You must excuse me for not answering your letters re- 
gularly, but the truth is that I have not time always to write 
to every body to whom answers are due, and I am obliged 
to begin by those which are most pressing. 

' Captain Aytone has my permission to go to Krotenguy 
for the time that you mention. 

' I am glad to find that your quarters are so good, but, as 
the 77th are ordered into this country, I do not imagine that 
you will occupy them for any length of time. I should have 
written to Colonel Campbell to apprize him of this circum- 
stance, but as his state of health is so bad, and I know him 



1799. SERTNGAPATAM. 51 

to be affected by any circumstance which alters the situation 
of the regiment, I have thought it better to communicate 
it to you, and to leave it to you to apprize him of it when 
you think you can do so without injury to himself. 

' I cannot too strongly press upon you the necessity of 
advising him to go to the Carnatic. I should write to him 
again upon this subject, only that it might be considered a 
bore, and might do more harm than good. 

' I have written to the Military Board about your tents, 
and I hope that I shall get the money for them. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Harness' ' ARTHUR WELLES LEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 19th Dec. 1799. 

' I enclose a paper which I have received from Bombay 
about the elephants which had formerly been in the pos- 
session of Syed Saheb. Your works are going on. I have 
some more timber for your man, and I have sent him some 
trees, and shall have some more for him shortly. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close* < ARTHUR WKLLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatara, 20th Dec., 1799. 

' I enclose you an extract of a letter received this day from 
Government. Let me know in what manner I shall proceed 
with your house. It appears to me that the best way would 
be to order your servant to complete your offices according to 
your plan, and to repair the roof of the palace by means of 
the native maistries, and to order payment of his bill. If 
you approve of this, it shall be done. 

' I will order the wardrobe for the women, and we can 
settle the mode of payment hereafter. 

' Colonel Pater has informed me that he has received com- 
plaints from his regiment at Sera that they can get no gram 
there, and that the horse-keepers are obliged to go to a 
great distance for grass. It will probably be in the power 
of Purneah to apply a remedy to the first ; but as to the 
second, I see none, excepting to remove the regiment to a 

E 2 



52 MYSORE. 1799. 

better station. I wish that Government would reconsider 
my proposition to post the cavalry in one place on the bank of 
the Toombuddra, to put one battalion of native infantry into 
Hurryhur, and three between Nuggur and Soonda. That 
frontier is not now secure from insult, and, in my opinion, 
will be insulted, should the Kolapoor man succeed against 
Goklah. 

' You mentioned some time ago that Purneah would 
bid for the gram contract when it Avas offered. In case you 
should not have observed that the Military Board has adver- 
tised it in the newspaper, I mention it to you. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 21st Dec., 1799. 

4 1 have just been down at the Laal Baug, and I find that 
your works are going on well. Your man had begun a wall 
close to the water-course, and if that should at any time here- 
after let any water through, your wall would suffer and pro- 
bably come down. I have therefore desired him to cut away 
half the thickness of the wall which he has begun, to leave 
about a foot distance between the water- course and your 
wall, which may answer for a channel for the water which will 
ooze through, and to add to the other side of the wall the 
thickness which he takes from that on the side of the water- 
course. The foundation of the whole proposed range of 
offices is laid, and the walls about two or three feet above 
the ground. It is unfortunate for the sake of both Gordon 
and you, that he should have built his house in the garden, 
as it prevents either house from being private. What I 
should propose would be to wall off that part occupied by 
him, to have a common entrance where he now drives in his 
phaeton, which might be made in such a manner as that you 
would not interfere with one another. If you wish it, I will 
have this done before your return, and as walls are not very 
handsome, I will cover those which must be near your house 
with a creeper. 

' I have received your letter of the 19th. I wrote to Webbe 
about the bridge, and sent the estimate. 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 53 

' I have sent you some plantain trees, and shall have 
others for you when the season for cutting arrives. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 22nd Dec., 1799. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th inst., from Malla- 
velly, by the hands of Mahomed Yaseen, formerly nanper- 
verish. By the letters from Government it does not appear 
that I have any authority to grant any further pensions, 
and I therefore think that you had better give this man a 
sunnud. 

' It seems that your letter upon this subject was written 
before you received the last intimation from Government. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 24th Dec., 1799. 

' I enclose you a letter from Captain Munro, and I shall 
be obliged to you if yo\i will return it to me. 

' A reference having been made to Government by Captain 
Graham, nothing can be done in the business of which he 
complains till their decision arrives. I have not written to 
Captain Munro, nor shall I. You will probably be near 
him, and instruct him as you think best. I was at your 
house yesterday ; you have many people employed, but your 
work does not advance. I understand that they do not work 
during many hours in the day, and I have therefore desired 
Mr. Piele to speak to your dubash upon the subject. I am 
afraid that by their idleness the work will be more expensive 
than we expected, and that they will bring us to disgrace. 

' I enclose you the copy of a letter from Captain Mackay. 
I do not yet know how many bullocks are added to each 
karkana in consequence of the arrangement which I made 
some time ago, but if any of the calves to which he alludes 
are of a size and age fit for work, it will be desirable to have 
them transferred to Captain Mackay as soon as possible. 



54 MYSORE. 1799. 

' I intend to go to Mysore the day after to-morrow to see 
the Rajah. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, < Seringapatam, 24th Dec., 1799. 

' I have spoken to Barclay respecting Seyd Saheb's 
camels ; he still thinks that they were not bought, but he 
says that, even if they were, they are now dead, and there is 
an end of them. He also says that they might be set off 
against the elephants which Kawder Bodeem has got. 

' I have lately recommended to Government to dispose of 
all the camels ; and it might be proper, instead of paying 
Seyd Saheb, to send him the number which we received 
from him ; of this, however, you are the best judge. 

' There is to be a native corps from the Bombay establish- 
ment at Hullihall in Soonda, another at Nuggur, and another 
European corps at Chittledroog. It appears to me, that the 
best way of paying the first would be for Government to 
order the collector in Canara to make issues to the Bombay 
Paymaster in Canara upon his receipt. Munro and the Pay- 
master can then settle whether the advances shall be made 
in cash below the Ghauts or by bills upon his amildars in 
Soonda. I have written to Hart upon this subject, and he 
thinks that this plan will answer. 

' The best method of paying the Bombay troops at Nuggur 
and at Chittledroog will be by means of our Paymaster. He 
makes advances to the commanding officers of corps upon 
their receipts, and they settle their abstracts, accounts, &c. 
with the officer at Bombay. It will then be necessary to pro- 
vide a sum at Nuggur, amounting to about 3000 pagodas per 
month, and another at Chittledroog, amounting to about 
6000, in addition to what we receive there at present from 
Purneah's amildars. If you approve of all this, let me know 
it, and I will write to Government upon the subject. 

' Munro has paid Macfarlane 3000 Behaudry pagodas, for 
which the latter has given his receipt. I have desired Mr. 
Gordon to send Munro a bill upon the Pay master- General 
at Madras for that sum. Macfarlane's receipt will go back 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 55 

to him, as Mr. Gordon has got his abstracts with a receipt 
to them. 

' I have just received your letter of the 24th. You are 
the best judge what ought to be done with the amildar at 
Chenapatam. Colonel Sherbrooke complains of him, and it 
appears by the man's own account that he had no reason to 
complain of the Colonel. As he had a gentleman with him 
who understands the language, there could be no doubt of 
his having refused to go to Colonel Sherbrooke. This the 
amildar now denies ; but I observe a probability that it is 
true even in the excuse which he makes ; viz., that he had 
not received orders to advance and meet him. Colonel 
Sherbrooke is not a man who requires all the extraordinary 
attentions described in your letter, nor, if he did, is it pro- 
bable that any of the amildars would pay them ; but it is 
proper that he and all the officers passing the road should 
receive civility, and therefore it is that I wish that this amil- 
dar may receive a check for his conduct, which will be an 
example to others. Of this we may be very certain, that the 
officers will not bear incivility, and therefore it is better for 
all parties that the natives should understand at once that 
they are to be attentive to travellers. 

' You must be as sensible of this as I am, and whatever 
you will do will be right. 

' I gave Butcha Rao a letter yesterday to send to Captain 
Deas, with 100 horsekeepers and four gram kettles, which 
he has procured. The Bengal columns have marched, and 
are to go to Madras, to be embarked there for Bengal. I 
enclose the copy of an order which I issued yesterday, and 
I hope that we shall have no complaints of them. 

' It would be very desirable to have an order given out, 
stating the number of coolies which an officer may call for 
from a village, the distance which he may be allowed to take 
them, and the amount which he is to pay to each. If you 
will speak to Purneah upon the subject, and let me know 
his opinion and yours, I will issue orders which will prevent 
complaints (if possible) in future. 

' We can make the payment on the beginning of January 
without the assistance of the lac of Cantaria pagodas which 
you gave to Mr. Gordon. He, however, will require your 
assistance in January, as he did in this month, for the pay- 



56 MYSORE. 1799. 

ments at Bangalore and Chittledroog, and Mr. Gordon will 
let you know to what extent. Let us know as soon as pos- 
sible if Purneah should not be able to lodge money at these 
places, as, if he cannot, we must send it from hence. 

' After the capture of Seringapatam, and before the coun- 
try was given over to the Rajah, some brass swamies, which 
were in the toshekanah, were given to the brahmins of 
different pagodas by order of Macleod and the General. 
The prize agents require payment for them, and say, that 
if they are not paid for, the Committee will charge the value 
against them. This amounts to about 500 pagodas. Butcha 
Rao, to whom I have spoken upon the subject, says that, as 
they were given to the brahmins by order of the General 
and before the country was given to the Rajah, it is not 
proper that he should pay for them. I have desired him to 
give the prize agents a receipt for the swamies, and, as it 
appears that they are to be paid for, you will be the best 
judge, whether by the Rajah, by the Company, or by the 
General. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 28th December, 1799. 

' I was at your house the day before yesterday, and had a 
long conversation with your servant. I find that your works 
are going on, although slowly, yet that he has made such con- 
tracts as will prevent the delay from creating any very great 
expense. I shall go to Laal Baug whenever I have time. 

' I went yesterday to Mysore, and was happy to find the 
Rajah so much improved. It gave me great satisfaction 
also to see the progress which has been made in building the 
palace and the works of the old fort. These are strong 
proofs that the conveniences and prejudices of the family are 
not unattended to. I will not do anything in regard to this 
nanpurverish till I hear further from you. 

' I have written to Campbell a long letter about the 
nerrick of exchange, in which I have endeavored to explain 
the principles of the whole system of shroffing, against the 
evils of which his regulations are to guard. From what I am 
going to mention to you, however, I am afraid that if the 



1799. SERINGAPATAM. 57 

nerrick at Bangalore is permanently fixed, I must loosen my 
system here, and must allow the exchange to fluctuate. 

' In all the conversations which you and I have had upon 
this intricate subject, we have agreed that the shroff derived 
a profit only by fluctuations. It is therefore clear that in 
Seringapatam there is no, or but little profit, and that there 
would be no shroffs here if they did not find one elsewhere, 
or that they would combine to force me to allow the exchange 
to fluctuate. I have lately made inquiries upon the subject, 
and I find that the great shroffs here have houses at Banga- 
lore, at Sera, and at the principal places on the Malabar 
coasts, and they make their profit by the fluctuation at those 
places. 

' Seringapatam is a place of great security, where there is 
much trade, and of course exchange of money. In order to 
have this security, the shroffs forego the advantages which 
they would derive upon the fluctuation in the exchange, and 
they have all the advantages of the fluctuation at places at 
no great distance, where the exchange is not fixed. But fix 
that exchange, and there is an end of their means of liveli- 
hood ; and of course they must either abandon the trade en- 
tirely, or force me to allow a fluctuation in the place where 
they carry it on. 

' I doubt whether the destruction of our fixed nerrick at 
Seringapatam will not be an inconvenience to the country, 
as well as to us ; and therefore nothing ought to be done 
which can endanger it. 

' Let me know your opinion upon this subject. There is 
no reason, however, why Campbell should not now alter the 
nerrick so as to make it more convenient to Purneah. 

' One of the principles resulting from the position that the 
shroffs profit is made by fluctuation is, that if the exchange 
is fixed, it is immaterial what proportions of gold, silver, and 
copper are exchanged for one another. The Company's ex- 
change, therefore, is as convenient as any other, and as near 
the standard relative value of the three metals ; and as the 
fixation of the nerrick, was readily adopted by the shroffs 
in Seringapatam ; in the same manner, if the exchange is 
allowed to fluctuate from month to month in any place, pro- 
vided the shroffs can know in one month what value rela- 
tively to each other the different coins in use will bear in the 



58 MYSORE. 1799. 

next, it is immaterial to them what that value is. By means 
of their correspondents and connexions in other places, they 
will be prepared for, and will gain by it. 

' What I should recommend would be, that Campbell 
should fix a reasonable nerrick, and inform the shroffs that 
in fifteen days that shall have effect ; and then fix another, 
which he must likewise communicate to them, and inform 
them that that must have effect in the following month. 
Thus he will free himself from a part of the grievance felt, 
at the same time that his operations will not affect us here. 
I shall not relieve your cavalry for some time. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 30th Dec., 1799. 

' I enclose a letter which arrived yesterday for you, from 
the Rajah of Koorg, and one which came with it for me. I 
shall write a civil answer, and not enter into any one of the 
topics which he has started. 

' I sent you a letter yesterday from Uhtoffe, which I 
opened, as it was directed to you or to me. 

e I now enclose the order omitted in a former letter. The 
Bengal troops have marched, and I have heard no com- 
plaints ; 1 do not send after them your routes, as I hope 
they will be nearly out of the country before they can re- 
ceive them. 

' When you send me the papers, which you say are in 
your contemplation, I will consider them, and shall issue 
orders to the troops accordingly. 

' I was at your house yesterday, which is getting on tole- 
rably, but not very quickly. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. f Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have written to Munro, to desire that he will give Mac- 
farlane 3000 Behaudry pagodas, in January.' 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 59 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 3rd January, 1800. 

I have received a letter from Lambton, in which he in- 
forms me that he has had a conversation with Mr. Webbe, 
who told him, that his plan for the survey of the Company's 
territories, and those of the Rajah, had the full concurrence 
of Government, and that he had been referred to you for the 
establishment, which he will find necessary to enable him to 
put his plan in execution. He tells me that he shall want 
some people for the carriage of his instruments, a draughts- 
man, and a writer, and a young man from the observatory, 
who will assist him in his calculations, if there should be one 
capable of so doing. As the tent which he will want is an 
observatory, and, as he cannot procure such a one from the 
stores, he is desirous of being put on tent allowance. All 
this appears reasonable. Webbe desired Lambton to send 
for the instruments, which he was desirous of having from 
Bengal ; so that nothing remains to be done but to arrange 
the little matters above mentioned, and to set him to work. 

' I have this day received a letter from Webbe, in which 
he says that, from considerations of expense, they are in- 
clined to decline for the present to adopt any plan for build- 
ing a bridge at Seringapatam. He has, however, written 
upon the subject to Bengal, where I observe that their ideas 
are not quite so economical ; I believe because they do not 
feel so sensibly the pressure for money. 

' I enclose an extract of Webbe's letter upon the subject 
of pensioners, and copy of an endorsement at the back of my 
letter of the 1 6th December (a copy of which I before sent 
you). I understand this to be the arrangement proposed by 
Government, and I shall be obliged to you, if you will let me 
know whether I have formed a correct notion. 

' The family here, and the pensions upon the Family 
Fund, are to be paid by the Paymaster of the stipends at 
Vellore (i. e. Lieutenant Colonel Doveton). The mosques 
and tombs by the Paymaster at Seringapatam, chargeable 
to the Company. The pensioners residing at Seringapatam 
and at Mangalore (not upon the Family Fund) to be paid 
by you, and are chargeable to the Raj all. The pensioners 



60 MYSORE. 1800. 

residing in the Carnatic and Baramalil to be paid by the 
Company's Paymasters, and (I suppose) chargeable to the 
Company ; those at Madras chargeable to the llajah. 

' In conformity to Webbe's desire, stated in the endorse- 
ment, I propose to send him a list of all the pensions which 
I have granted since the receipt of Colonel Kirkpatrick's 
letter of the 24th August, divided into the different classes. 
These will be confirmed, and then the matter will be smooth. 
I likewise propose to transmit to Doveton the account of 
payments to the family here made by me. I will, however, 
send neither of these papers until I hear from you in answer 
to this letter. 

' Webbe tells me that an order upon the subject of prize 
affairs is arrived from Bengal, and will be published here in 
a few days ; he also says that an arrangement is made for 
Tanjore, by which the whole country is permanently annexed 
to the British empire. He says that it will be carried into 
execution in a few days. 

' I enclose you a curious packet of papers which I have 
received from Cummer Oo Dien. I shall send him a civil an- 
swer this day, and inform him that you are gone to the fron- 
tier, where you will settle every thing with him. 

' The walls of your offices are raised to within about four 
feet of the height which it is intended they should be; it will 
take, however, ten or twelve days to build them up, as the 
people cannot build more than about a foot and a half in a 
day, which must be allowed to dry and settle for three or four 
days before more can be added to it. In the mean time the 
doors and door-cases are nearly ready, as is the roof; so 
that I have hopes that the offices Avill be finished by the end 
of the month. 

' I have received a letter from Campbell, in which he says 
that you and Purneah settled the exchange at Bangalore. I 
conclude that he showed you my letter. If you are of the 
same opinion with me upon the subject of fixing permanently 
the nerrick of exchange in the principal places about Serin- 
gapatam; and if, in consequence of leaving it subject to 
variation, the llajah should suffer in his revenues, would it 
not be possible and proper to make the people pay the circar 
according to the exchange fixed at Seringapatam ? This, it 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 61 

must be allowed, is as nearly according to the value of the 
different coins as it can be made. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 7th January, 1800. 

' I some time ago addressed Government upon the subject 
of certain wounded inhabitants of Seringapatam, and sepoys 
in the service of the late Tippoo Sultaun, who had received 
medical assistance, and had been fed since the fall of the 
place by order of the Commander in Chief. Some of them 
still remained in the hospital, and others were disabled by 
their wounds in such a manner as to render it very impro- 
bable that they would again be able to gain their own liveli- 
hood. Government conceiving, as it appears, that these na- 
tives were in the Company's service, desired that I would 
order an invaliding Committee to assemble and examine and 
consider their cases ; and that I should transmit their pro- 
ceedings to the Commander in Chief. Having done so, it 
appears by the enclosed letter that Government now intend 
that these invalids should be pensioned, and that the burthen 
should fall upon the Rajah. 

' There are some of these invalids still in the hospital, and 
they, as well as others who do not require medical assistance, 
but who are entirely disabled by their wounds, receive three 
quarters of a seer of rice and one pice per day ; I propose to 
keep them upon this allowance until you can make a proper 
arrangement for them in concert with Purneah. 

' I will to-morrow transmit you a list of the names of those 
who will receive this allowance, and a copy of the proceedings 
of the invaliding Committee who considered their cases. 

' I enclose you copies of two letters from Captain Macfar- 
lane. If Goklah falls a prey to this Dhoondiah, I think it 
probable that the peace either of the Rajah's, or of the Com- 
pany's territories, will be disturbed. 

' Believe, me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' The 74th regiment are ordered to Trichinopoly, and the 
77th are coming from Cannanore, on their way to Chittle- 



62 MYSORE. 1800. 

droog, where it does not appear that there are any accommo- 
dations for them.' 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 9th January, 1800. 

' I received your letter of the 6th last night. I perceive 
that your ideas and mine agree respecting the pensions, ex- 
cepting in the case of those not upon the Family Fund resid- 
ing in the Company's and the Nabob's territories. Your idea, 
where we differ, appears most correct. I have this day sent 
to Webbe the statement for which he wishes, and of which I 
enclose you a copy. It includes your friend at Mallavelly as 
a nanperverish. 

' To-morrow I shall transmit to Colonel Doveton an ac- 
count of the sums drawn by me from the Family Fund ; and 
then I hope that I shall have done with this business. 

' I have ordered the detachment from Cankanelli, in com- 
pliance with Purneah's wishes. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Captain Munro. I 
have ordered him to remain where he is, or to take up such 
other position as will enable him to fulfil the original object 
of forming his detachment, as well as to protect the country 
from the depredations of the Soonahgul man. 

' As it is probable that Cummer Oo Dien will not now 
attack Punganoor, the two objects may not be incompatible. 
I am obliged to delay till to-morrow to send you the papers 
respecting the wounded inhabitants. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close* < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 10th January, 1800. 

' I enclose two letters from Captain Munro ; I have, in an- 
swer, warned him against committing himself with Cummer 
Oo Dien, against pursuing the Soonahgul man into the Ni- 
zam's territories, or suffering Cummer Oo Dien to come into 
the Rajah's. I have recommended civil unmeaning commu- 
nication, if even any should be desirable. 

' I have arranged for the wounded inhabitants and sepoys 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 63 

as follows ; and I will keep my letter open to the last moment 
to send you lists of them. If you do not get them this day 
you shall to-morrow. 

' They have hitherto received three quarters of a seer of 
rice and three pice, or thirty cash per day : the expense to 
the Company, about one fanam each. As they would be 
much better enabled to live by getting the fanam than by 
getting the rice and the pice, I have determined to give it to 
them. 

' They were nearly all examined by an invaliding Com- 
mittee ; from those which this rejected I have withdrawn 
the allowance, and have extended it to a few who are in the 
general hospital, who were so sick as to be unable to attend 
the invaliding Committee, and whose names do not therefore 
appear on its proceedings. The whole number is under 
ninety, so that the expense will amount to about two pagodas 
per day. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, < Seringapatam, 13th January, 1800. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Captain Macfarlane. 
I have recommended to Government that the 1 st of the 8th 
may be left in Soonda till the event of the approaching con- 
test is known. I likewise enclose some papers received from 
Cummer Oo Dien. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 17th January, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th. Long ere this 
you will have received the account of the wounded inha- 
bitants and sepoys, and will have perceived that the tem- 
porary provision which I have arranged for them is not ex- 
travagant. 

' I saw a letter from Mr. Bowles some time ago, and I 
desired Captain Barclay to inform him, that as I concluded 
he had reported himself to head quarters, he would do well 



64 MYSORE. 1800- 

to apply there for leave for himself, and for orders for his 
detachments to march, which, under the existing circum- 
stances, I could not give him. 

' Your business at the Laal Baug is going on well. In a 
few days the cook room and the remainder of that side of 
the building will be covered in, and I expect that the whole 
will be finished by the end of the month. 

' I have had a conversation with Butcha Rao about the 
roof of the palace, which will be begun in a few days ; your 
doors, painting, &c., are going on well. 

' If possible to obtain it, Mr. Gordon will want, as soon as 
he can get it, about 17,000 rupees at Nuggur; I think you 
told me, in a former letter, that Purneah could give that sum 
there monthly. 

' There has been some difficulty between Munro and Mr. 
Gordon respecting the payment of the Behaudry pagodas, 
which the former advanced to Captain Macfarlane. 

' Mr. Gordon sent him a bill for star pagodas upon the 
Paymaster General, calculating the exchange as ordered 
here by the General, and which is in future the Company's 
exchange. Munro says that he cannot take it, as it is not 
the exchange settled in Canara, which is 10 per cent. I 
have recommended that they should settle the matter, or ra- 
ther that they should shove it off their shoulders on those of 
the Revenue Board, and of Ben Roebuck, by Mr. Gordon 
giving Munro an order upon the Paymaster General for the 
amount in Behaudry pagodas instead of in stars ; I rather 
believe that this expedient will be adopted. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 23rd January, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 20th, and I have, in 
consequence, ordered to Nundydroog the two companies of 
the 5th regiment, now at Bangalore, a troop of cavalry, two 
field pieces and artillery attached. I hope that they will be 
at Nundydroog on the 25th. 

f I have desired Major Cuppage to station Captain Irton 
in Gomnair Pollam, and have left it to his discretion to 
weaken Captain Munro to such extent as he might find 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 65 

necessary : under all the existing circumstances, however, I 
think it desirable that he should be strong. I have ordered 
Major Cuppage to draw in the post from Dronelly, and 
Lieut. Colonel Tolfrey to relieve from Mudgherry that at 
Chenroydroog. If, however, it is clear that the post at the 
latter place will not be wanted, it will be best that it should 
be called to Nundydroog without waiting for the relief. Of 
this, being on the spot, you will be the best judge, and will 
make Major Cuppage acquainted with your wishes. 

' When the whole force shall have arrived at Nundydroog, 
it will be a respectable reinforcement. If it wants an in- 
crease, we must add cavalry to it from Bangalore, until I can 
send more infantry from hence. 

' As two companies, and some cavalry, and two guns, will 
be at Nundydroog on the 25th, and you will probably find 
them sufficient for your purpose, I have not disturbed the 
post at Mudgherry ; but I have written to Colonel Tolfrey to 
desire that he will order the officer there to be in readiness 
to move at a short notice, if you should find it necessary to 
call for him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 24th January, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 21st, with a duplicate 
of that of the 20th, and I am glad to find that the arrange- 
ments, which I communicated to you in my letter of yester- 
day, will meet your wishes. 

' I have given Major Cuppage full power over the detach- 
ments, which are from Nundydroog, so that all will, I trust, 
go on well. I shall leave it to him either to detain or to 
send back the troop of the 4th regiment ordered from Ban- 
galore. I have this day sent a supply of emergent ammu- 
nition. 

' When you shall have settled matters with the Nizam's 
vakeel, there will be no longer any difficulties with the poly- 
gars on the frontier. 

' Mr. Gordon Avill take the money at Nuggur, at the 
Seringapatam exchange. 

VOL. i. p 



66 MYSORE. 1800. 

' The cook room and zodoun at the Laal Baug are covered 
in, and the remainder of the building is ready for the roof, 
which will be on, I hope, by the end of the month. Things 
are going on well inside of the palace ; but I do not like the 
painting of the outer room above stairs. It wants ornament 
sadly, and looks very bare and unfinished, in comparison 
with the other highly ornamented apartments. Nothing has 
yet been done to the roofs ; but I had another conversation 
with Butcha Rao about it yesterday, and pressed him to 
commence upon it. 

' We have had much trouble in procuring dooley boys to 
send away the 74th regiment. There are numbers of them 
in this country, as I am informed ; but Purneah's people, in- 
stead of providing them, have sent to the 74th about half the 
number of coolies ; and even of those that were sent from 
hence one half have deserted, and the remainder refuse to 
carry the doolies. The inconvenience of all this is, that the 
corps is delayed. If Purneah's people had said at first, 
either that they could not get people of the proper kind, or 
that they would not answer for them, I could have sent off 
some of our own dooley bearers who are here, and who were 
to have been employed in emptying our hospitals at Chittle- 
droog, Sera, and Seringapatam. These dooley bearers must 
now be sent to the 74th ; and the hospitals must remain full. 
It is very desirable that Purneah's people should give us all 
the assistance which the country can afford, and that they 
should not deceive us respecting the nature of it. I am 
afraid that it will be imagined at head quarters, either that 
I have not used all the exertion in my power, or that I am 
not inclined to move the 74th. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Closes < ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 25th January, 1800. 

' I have received sad complaints from Colonel Campbell 
about his dooley bearers, but I have applied a remedy by 
sending those belonging to the army, which I had intended 
should be used to carry the convalescents and wounded from 
our different hospitals. It was unfortunate that they de- 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 67 

ceived me by assurances, that the country bearers would not 
disappoint us ; as otherwise I should have had the 74th in 
march about ten days ago. I have long objected to send- 
ing a regiment to Chittledroog, because there is no accom- 
modation for them, and the battalion has been found very 
unhealthy, and I am afraid that the delay of the march of 
the 74th will be attributed to my wish to detain them at 
Bangalore, instead of to its real cause. This makes me feel 
the disappointment more than I should otherwise. 

' I enclose some papers which I have received from Cap- 
tain Mackay, and I shall be obliged to you if you will re- 
quest Purneah to send orders to the amildars to assist our 
bullocks as much as they can. Mackay has sent a man to 
look at a feeding ground, between this place and Periapatam, 
which, he understands, will answer for all the bullocks for 
some time. If it should be found to answer, he will remove 
them thither. 

' I have lately written to Government about them, and 
have recommended that they may be kept as an establish- 
ment, and that the cows, by which the breed is to be kept up, 
may be left in the hands of the Rajah's people. 

' I believe I informed you, some time ago, that while I 
was absent with the army, Colonel Sherbrooke had altered 
the nerrick of artificers, and of all kinds of materials for 
building, at the instigation of Captain Norris. My atten- 
tion has lately been drawn to this subject by intelligence 
^vhich I have received, that the Government intend to put 
the troops in this country on half batta, and to give the 
officers the usual lodging money. As then they will have 
to build their own houses and quarters, the expense of build- 
ing becomes an object ; and, in the examination of the sub- 
ject, a system of engineering has come out well worthy of 
the example set at Madras. 

' I have not yet been able to remedy the mischief done in 
my absence, as we have the advantage here of the assistance 
of some Madras dubashes and maistries : but I have sent 
notice to these gentlemen that, if they do not settle the 
matter to my satisfaction, in the course of a few days, I shall 
send away all the Madras people who are now in this 
place. 

' With this and a remedy for thieving, which, since the 

F2 



68 MYSORE. 1800. 

camp thieves have joined the old gangs upon the island, has 
increased to an immoderate degree, I have been much taken 
up lately; but I hope that I have made some progress in 
applying the cure. I conclude that you will be here in the 
middle of next month. 

' Believe me, &c. 
'Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Butcha Eao has just been with me, and I find that some 
steps have been taken to collect materials for the roof of 
your house. I hope that considerable progress will be made 
in the repair of it before you return.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 26th January, 1800. 

' I enclose a letter from Captain Mackay. I approve of 
his plan for collecting the bullocks in one place, and keep- 
ing them under his own eye. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 29th January, 1800. 

' I have lately received a letter from Captain Macfarlane, 
in which he says that Dhoondiah and Kutraha Pundit had 
received directions from the Kolapoor Rajah to draw nearer 
to Kolapoor. This is attributed to his fears of the force 
coming from Poonah : Goklah had not moved from Savanore, 
but was preparing to do so. 

' A letter has been received by Colonel Campbell, from 
head quarters, which proves that I was not mistaken in my 
conjectures respecting the opinion which would be enter- 
tained in consequence of the delay of the march of the 74th 
regiment. 

' I am glad to find that we are able to keep down the po- 
lygars so easily. Residence with Purneah is an essential 
article in any agreement that may be made with them. 

' Believe me, &c., 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 69 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 31st January, 1800. 

' I am obliged to you for the account of your proceedings 
with the Hyderabad vakeel contained in your letter of the 
28th instant, which I received this morning ; I see plainly 
that we must still keep ourselves strong on that frontier ; 
and accordingly I have made my arrangements for strength- 
ening Major Cuppage to such a degree as to enable him to 
detach to the posts which it appears to be necessary to 
occupy to keep a sufficient garrison in Nundydroog, and to 
have a force ready to send out in pursuit of the robbers who 
are likely to disturb the country. But to do this I am 
obliged to withdraw the troops from Severndroog, and to leave 
nothing there excepting a small guard. This I conceive to 
be of little importance at the present moment, and it will 
enable me to put under the command of Major Cuppage 
nearly fourteen companies of native infantry. These will be 
distributed as follows : two in Gommair, one in Gorrybun- 
dah, one in Busla Gunta, three with Captain Munro, seven 
in Nundydroog. This, with one troop of cavalry, and two 
field-pieces, besides what Captain Munro has, will be suffi- 
cient to answer all calls which may be made either for re- 
inforcements or new detachments. 

' It will be desirable to keep Captain Irton at Nundy- 
droog, in order to send him out in command of any detach- 
ments which it may be necessary to make from that gar- 
rison. 

' I hope that the 74th regiment has marched, and I am 
not very anxious about the immediate removal of the conva- 
lescents from the hospitals. I will not therefore take the 
workmen, who I see are so well employed at Mysore, and I 
will wait with patience until proper bearers can be supplied 
from the country. 

' Mackay's letter will have pointed out the place to which 
he wishes that the bullocks should be taken. 

' I have completely succeeded against the artificers, and 
have made some progress against the thieves : at least, 
thieving is stopped here for the present. I have not re- 
ceived orders to carry into execution the plan for the court 
of justice. I have altered the ornaments of your room, and 



70 MYSORE. 1800. 

wait till it is finished to see whether any more extensive or- 
naments will be necessary ; I will then assemble there the 
Committee which you propose. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Harness. 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 2nd February, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 31st January, which has 
given great satisfaction. It rarely happens (particularly in 
this country) that it is in the power of an officer in command 
to please those who are under his orders ; and when he is so 
fortunate, it is to be attributed as much to their good dispo- 
sition, as to any efforts he may have made for that purpose. 
I regret exceedingly, on public as well as private grounds, 
that the 74th regiment is removed from Bangalore ; but you 
must have been long enough in this country to perceive, that 
the public interest and convenience are not upon all occa- 
sions the cause of the public measures. 

' I do not think that your corps will be drafted, at least 
not for some time ; although I have seen the resolutions of 
thanks from the Court of Directors, and their songs of 
triumph, the burthen of all of which is the prospect of per- 
manent peace in India, and of course the consequent dimi- 
nution of the military establishments and expenses. 

' I think you are right in going to England, even if the 
74th should remain here. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Harness." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

-' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 3rd February, 1800. 

' I have no concern whatever about the dooley boys, ex- 
cepting that the want of them created a delay in the march 
of a corps, and I feared that that delay would be attributed 
to a desire to detain them in this country. Government have 
placed great confidence in me ; and I should be sorry to have 
any thing happen which might have the appearance of a job, 
as that would, in one moment, destroy the whole edifice. 

' I am afraid that it will be impossible to have the 77th 



1800. SERINGAPAfAM. 71 

removed to Bangalore, although I think that Chittledroog is 
at present an improper place for them. My sentiments upon 
this subject, and the grounds upon which I have formed 
them, are known at Madras. 

' Mackay will take the bullocks to the places which I men- 
tioned to you ; and it is certainly very desirable that a per- 
son from Purneah should reside with him. I have strongly 
recommended that the bullocks should be retained as an 
establishment in the Company's service, and have repre- 
sented that to give them gram would be beneficial to them, 
and not add materially to the expense. It does add about 
twenty pagodas per month to the expense of each karkana 
(of which there are thirty five), supposing the gram to be at 
forty two seers for a rupee ; but it is now at fifty two in this 
neighbourhood, and at forty five in the bazaar at Seringapa- 
tam. Every diminution of the expense which can be made 
will be an additional motive for keeping the bullocks, and 
therefore I am desirous of not making a bargain to take 
gram at the price contracted for the cavalry, as the contract 
may be monopolized as it has been hitherto ; but I should 
prefer that Purneah should give it us as he has hitherto, at 
the rate of the country in which the bullocks may be. There 
is, however, no occasion for hurrying a decision upon this 
subject, and it will be as well to defer the further considera- 
tion of it until we meet. 

' The same reason which induces me to wish to keep down 
the expense of gram for the bullocks, induces me to try to 
get the straw for them for nothing. It appears that in the 
distant countries there is no demand and no sale for it, and it 
therefore cannot be stated to be a grievance upon the people 
to take from them that which they cannot use, cannot dis- 
pose of, and must burn. It is but for a short time in the 
year, as I understand, that the bullocks want straw, and at 
that time I should propose that they should be sent to a 
particular place at a distance from any great town, canton- 
ment, or garrison, where a certain proportion of the whole 
quantity of the straw produced might be collected for them 
in each village. This they might get for nothing. 

' Mackay tells me that Purneah has made an arrange- 
ment already similar to the above for the bullocks in the 
neighbourhood of the grazing ground in which they are 



72 MYSORE. 1800. 

now. He has in his hands the order for what is called the 
sircar's share of the straw, which in general rots. I approve 
highly of any arrangement which can be made which will 
give the people a fair price for their straw ; and it is to be 
observed that the lower it is bought the better it is for 
them, provided it is sufficient to pay for the trouble of taking 
care of it, and to compensate them for it. As the straw is to 
be paid for, I agree with you that the whole of it must be 
forthcoming when wanted. The straw for the bullocks stands 
upon a different footing ; and of this it is but fair that the 
ryots should have as much as they can use. Indeed, it is 
taken from them for nothing, only on the principle that they 
cannot make use of it. 

' I wish you joy of the conclusion of your negotiations with 
the Nizam's vakeel. 

' I shall send on Wednesday twenty elephants and one 
hundred draught bullocks for Lady dive's use. She leaves 
Madras in the first week in March, and I propose to go to 
the frontier to meet her. She will do well, in my opinion, to 
stop at Bangalore till the month of June, as April and May 
are very hot here. I have desired Grant to ask her to 
Dowlut Bavig, the zenana of which, when a little improved, 
will accommodate her and her family admirably. Neither of 
the palaces would answer for a woman at all, as they are so 
much exposed. 

* I have already improved your room much, and I wait to 
see the effect of what has been done, when I propose to go 
there with Mr. Gordon ; and if it wants further ornament it 
shall have it. 

' I enclose a letter from Macfarlane. A fellow came here 
this day and informed me that he had come from the Mar- 
hatta country as far as Toomkoor, with a gang employed by 
Dhoondiah to carry me off when I should go out hunting. 
He says that Dhoondiah proposes to collect a large gang in 
this neighbourhood, and to join them himself. In order to 
prove to him how little I fear his gang, I go out hunting 
to-morrow ; but I have desired my friend to join his gang 
again, and I have promised him a reward if he will enable 
me to lay hands upon them in this neighbourhood. 

' I have a letter from Stevenson, who having employed 
some of Oliver's hircarrahs, has got accounts that Scindiah 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 73 

had joined the Kolapoor man; that Nana had sent 50,000 
horse from Poonah to join Appah Saheb ; that Aristo Jah 
v;as discharging all the Nizam's horse, and sending them 
to Dhoondiah; that he was in secret communication with 
Scindiah, and that Scindiah had sent 10,000 northern beggars 
to Beder to escort him from thence into the Marhatta coun- 
try; that he had shut up the gates of Hyderabad, &c. &c. 
all about a cock and a bull ! 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close.' . ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatara, 4th February, 1800. 

' My friend was with Barclay again this morning, and 
repeated his story and assurances of its truth. He added, 
what he only hinted at yesterday, that the gang have some 
designs upon Mysore ; and upon the whole it appears 
more like a plundering party than any thing else. As no- 
thing could be more unpleasant than any accident to the 
family at Mysore, I have apprized the officer in command 
there of the intelligence which I have received, and have put 
him on his guard ; but I have desired him to be cautious to 
do nothing which can in the smallest degree alarm the family. 
I was out hunting this morning, and West * thinks that he 
saw some people, about twenty, on horseback. I acknow- 
ledge that I saw nothing of them. But if they were there, 
and my friend keeps true to us, I shall have them this night. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, February 5th, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 2nd instant. Since 
I wrote to you yesterday I have heard from Captain Stewart, 
who informs me that there had been for some days a bazaar 
report at Mysore that there was a vagabond party of cavalry 
belonging to Dhoondiah in the country ; but he had given no 
credit, nor paid any attention to it. He promises to take all 
the precautions which I pointed out to him. 

* Captain West, 33jd regiment, aide de camp to Colonel Wellesley. 



74 MYSORE. 1800. 

' My opinion is this ; the man who gave me the information 
very probably heard the bazaar report, and thought that by 
adding my name, and informing me that my safety was in 
question, he should get a reward. But I conceive that the 
bazaar report does not add to, indeed I rather think it takes 
from the degree of credit which might be given to the story. 
If it be true that there has been this bazaar report for several 
days, it cannot be true that this man came with the party 
from Savanore, that he left them at Toomkoor, and that he 
arrived here only two days ago. Upon the whole, therefore, 
I think that the business has originated in a bazaar report, 
for which it is probable there is no foundation, as it does not 
appear that the country in this neighbourhood has been at 
all disturbed, which it would have been if such a banditti had 
come into it, or that the Rajah's people have received any 
information of their arrival, which it is certain would have 
been given to them. 

' However, the man who gave the information is now out, 
and I am prepared for any that he may bring. 

' I have still some trouble with brickmakers ; and in order 
to bring matters to rights I am afraid that I must give 
a monopoly ; I have threatened it this day, from which 
I hope the best consequences. They have come down from 
ten rupees a thousand to six ; I want to bring them to five, 
which will answer. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 8th February, 1800. 

My friend came in this morning and gave me informa- 
tion that a party of the people, about whom he had spoken 
to me before, was at Coorghelly, about three coss beyond 
Nunjuncode, and other parties in different villages and in 
the jungles between the two. That four sirdars (two of 
whose names are Imaun Khan and Kawder Saheb, the latter 
of whom had been a russildar, under the orders of Khan 
Jehan Khan) were with their followers, their baggage, and, 
he believes, the treasure, at Nunjuncode, in a large house in 
the fort, inhabited by a musselmann, whose brother is one of 
the party. That this musselmann owner of the house i's the 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 75 

man who formerly, when Dhoondiah was a prisoner, had 
charge of him, and paid him his allowance. That besides 
these parties there is one, at a village about a coss from 
Mysore, called Ennechully, of five Marhattas : and there are 
four musselmenn upon the island of Seringapatam, near the 
Chendgall ford. It is supposed that there are other parties 
in different villages, as by this man's story it appears that 
there is a tappall to these sirdars from hence. 

' I have made the following arrangements, and if there is 
any truth in the story, I hope to have the sirdars in the 
morning. Captain Robertson rides over to Mysore this 
evening ; and about twelve this night will start from thence 
with fifty men ; and in order that he may be able to sur- 
round the house completely, he will take with him from 
Mysore some officers, who went there this morning on a party 
of pleasure. He takes with him the man who has given the 
information, and he will reach Nunjuncode before day, and 
will seize the sirdars. He then sends back a party to En- 
nechully, who it is hoped will catch the Marhattas ; but as 
they have no regular place of abode, and nobody knows 
them, excepting the man who has given the information, and 
who is to return with this party, I do not expect that they 
will be taken. There is a thief here who knows the mussel-* 
menn on the island, and is acquainted with their place of 
abode: I shall send a party towards morning to seize 
them. 

' I think it probable that if we get the sirdars, the people 
at Coorghelly and in the jungles will disperse and be off; at 
all events we could not expect to catch them, and therefore 
I do not send after them. 

' My plan is to give orders that all the principal men may 
be kept separate ; I shall have them examined separately, 
and send to Government copies of their examinations, and 
the story of the man who first gave the information. The 
proper thing to do with them would be to punish them ; but 
it is to be observed that we have no evidence of their evil in- 
tentions, excepting the story of one man, and that as yet 
they have not done any thing to disturb the peace of the 
country. It may be thought better to wait till they do 
something, which can give ground for punishing them on the 
.spot; but to this I answer that it is difficult to obtain a 



76 MYSORE. 1800. 

knowledge of their motions, and that it is probable they 
could find out that I had heard of them, and would quit the 
country ; and that they would certainly do so or would con- 
ceal themselves, so as not to be found out if they should 
ever commit an outrage which would deserve punishment. 
Besides, if there is any truth in the story, I rely a good deal 
upon the contradictory accounts of themselves, which they 
Avill give when examined separately, to elucidate and confirm 
it ; and it is not improbable but that the hopes of pardon 
may get for us another evidence. 

' Upon the whole I have thought it best to endeavor to 
seize them immediately. 

' The man is still positive and consistent, which is very ex- 
traordinary. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I relieve the party at Mysore early in the morning, so 
that we shall have in that quarter to-morrow a respectable 
force.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 9th February, 1800. 

' We were successful last night in taking the people on 
the island, and those at Nunjuncode ; and, by Captain 
Robertson's account, I hope that he will have taken the 
Marhattas this morning. I expect the sirdars in to-mor- 
row, and, after I shall have had them examined, I shall be 
able to form a more decided opinion respecting the business. 
I have formed none from the examination of the persons 
taken upon the island last night. 

' I am much at a loss to know how to form the detach- 
ment for Wynaad. We can spare nothing from Seringa- 
patam, excepting the two flank companies of each of the 
European, and two of each of the native corps. I have or- 
dered a battalion, the 2nd of the 3rd from Chittledroog, the 
1st of the 12th from Paughur, leaving two companies to take 
care of that post and its dependencies, and five troops of the 
2nd regiment of cavalry from Sera. We have here about 
500 pioneers, and they shall accompany the detachment. I 
reckon that the whole will be ready to start from Seringa- 



1800. SER1NGAPATAM. 77 

patam in the second week in March. I doubt whether that 
will be sufficiently early to enable us to conclude matters be- 
fore the setting in of the monsoon. But it will be impossible 
to get the battalion from Chittledroog sooner than the end 
of the first week in that month, and even Tolfrey's battalion 
will not be here above one or two days before it. It is very 
desirable that Purneah should write to the amildars at 
Chittledroog, and at Paughur, to desire that they will assist 
in procuring bullocks for the carriage of the tents of the two 
corps. 

* I reckon the detachment will be strong as follows : 

4 Companies of Europeans - 250 

4 Flank Companies of Sepoys - 400 
2nd of the 3rd - 800 
1st of the 12th - 500 

250 1700 
Pioneers - 500 

5 Troops 2nd Regiment of Cavalry - 250 

250 2450 

' This will be sufficient, with guns and artillery-men, to 
eat the Pyche Rajah ! 

' I intend to proceed with the detachment myself. In the 
meantime every thing shall be prepared here for the arrival 
of the troops. 

' I shall answer your official letter to-morrow. Since 
writing the above, I have made arrangements for the car- 
riage of the tents of the corps, and I hope that they will all 
be here in the first week in March. Tolfrey's, I am afraid, 
will be last. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, < Seringapatam, llth February, 1800. 

' I had not time to write to you yesterday, after the ex- 
amination of the prisoners. Of course they all denied the 
truth of the charge which had been brought against them, 
and all declared that they have resided in the villages, in 
which they were arrested, since the fall of Seringapatara. 



78 MYSORE. 1800; 

There was much inconsistency in the stories of some of 
them, which may be attributed as much to the nature of a 
native of this country, as to the want of truth in the story. 
The amildar of Nunjuncode, and two or three of the prin- 
cipal people from thence, and from Ennechully, where the 
Marhattas were taken, have been sent for. They will throw 
much light upon the whole business, and, in the meantime, 
all the prisoners are kept separately. The informer persists 
in his story, has identified the persons of most of the people 
arrested, and has repeated the charge before them. 

' A circumstance has occurred which shows how cautious 
we should be in receiving the evidence of a native. There 
is a fakir upon the island, who of course knows that he 
exists under the Company's protection. He came forward 
and declared most positively, that two of the people, charged 
as being of the party, had been at his tuckiah ever since the 
fall of the place. Of course this declaration occasioned 
much doubt of the truth of any part of the information ; but 
yesterday he sent word that he should come forward and tell 
the truth if I desired it. Barclay will see him this day. 

' I acknowledge that I have many doubts of the truth of 
every part of the information; but I am the only person 
here who has any. 

' I shall be prepared to march with the detachment at the 
time I stated to you in my public letter. I think that it 
would be very desirable to have one of the surveyors with 
the detachment, and I wish much that you would write to 
Mackenzie upon the subject. I should write to him, only 
that I am afraid he would think it an interference, on my 
part, in business in which I had no concern. Mr. Frazer is 
here, but he is sick, and going on leave to the Carnatic. If 
we have any body, therefore, it must be Mr. Warren, and I 
do not know where he can be employed to greater advan- 
tage than in the Wynaad country. I have written to Cole- 
brooke to desire him to send me some of his native guides 
who are more useful than any people I have yet seen, in 
exploring roads for our troops. They know to a nicety 
where we can go. 

' They are going on well with your house. Doctors dis- 
agree about your principal room ; I therefore think it better 
that just so much should be done to it as can be finished 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 79 

before you return ; and if you should go away again for a 
month, it will be easy to add any ornament which you may 
think necessary. I think it will want but little ; but that 
will depend much upon the mode in which you propose to 
close it in. For this I think that you will approve of the 
mode in which I am closing my rooms. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

< gi Rj ' Seringapatam, 15th Feb., 1800. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Lieut. Colonel Mon- 
tresor. In consequence of your letter of the 9th January, I 
proposed that the 77th should not be taken in the establish- 
ment of the government of Fort St. George until they were 
arrived in their quarters, and should have had time to dis- 
charge their Bombay establishment. The orders from the 
Military Paymaster General were different, and the Pay- 
master was directed to take them on this establishment, and 
to pay them from the day on which they entered the Mysore 
country. It will therefore be necessary that he should be 
further authorized to pay their Bombay field establishment. 

' I have directed Mr. Gordon to prepare as follows for the 
detachment ordered for the field. He is to supply, for 300 
Europeans, three months' arrack ; and for 2500 natives, one 
month's grain, at half allowance. I have thought it proper 
to order this last ; as it is probable that the troops will be but 
ill supplied with bazaars, it will be difficult to collect imme- 
diately those who heretofore attended the camps. And it is 
probable that every thing will be destroyed in the Wynaad 
country before we enter it. I have likewise desired him to 
provide carriages for these provisions, and for about 350 
loads of stores, of which I have sent an account to the 
Military Board. Draught bullocks will not be required, nor 
will carriage for the tents, excepting a few bamboo coolies, 
&c., to bring them with the corps coming from the north- 
ward. 

' It will be necessary to appoint an officer to act as Adju- 
tant and as Quarter Master to the European flank com- 
panies, and one as Adjutant to the native companies ; and, 



80 MYSORE. 1800. 

with the permission of Government, I shall appoint an 
officer of each belonging to the companies employed to act 
in those capacities. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

The Secretary of Government, ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Fort St. George: 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 15th February, 1800. 

1 I have received your letter of the 12th instant. If Pur- 
neah should be desirous of going towards Chittledroog, he 
would do well to go there ; in my opinion the oftener all 
parts of this country are visited for some time the better, and 
he will do right in visiting that part soon. I shall be glad 
if you come with the detachments ; but as you come only out 
of compliment to me, you will do better to consult your own 
convenience. You will probably wish to be here when Lady 
Clive arrives in the country, and in that case it is much 
better that you should not come. 

' At all events I shall t be glad to have Bistnapah's pundit or 
some body belonging to Purneah, who will have influence in 
the country. I am obliged to Purneah for his attention in 
ordering 2000 loads of gram to be collected ; I have ordered 
a month's grain at half allowance for the native troops, to be 
got ready in case of accidents, as I am convinced that the 
first step the Rajah will take will be to destroy every thing in 
the country. It will be well if Purneah orders all kind 
of bazaar articles to be got together. 

' I am glad to hear that we shall see you so soon. I have 
not yet released all the prisoners ; and unless something fur- 
ther appears in their favor, I intend to detain them for 
another day or two. Barclay has been most laborious in his 
investigation of this business, and has brought it to light 
in a masterly manner. He has examined the dates and 
marches of the party as stated by the informant, and what 
is very extraordinary the account comes out right. The man 
first told his story, the number of marches he made, where 
he halted, c. &c. Barclay then questioned him as to the 
time, and made him tell at what places he had seen each new 
moon ; and his answers have corresponded exactly with his 
marches and halts and his arrival here. This is a strong 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 81 

mark of truth, particularly in a native, who never knows 
any thing of time. He is now gone to bring more witnesses, 
and I hope that you will be here before 1 release the pri- 
soners. I acknowledge that the proof of the alibi has much 
weight with me, and that I detain the people now only out 
of respect for the opinions of those who have made the inves- 
tigation, and who do not agree with me. 

' Believe me, &c., 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLES LEY. 

' I enclose advertisements about gram from the Military 
Board/ 

To Colonel Sartorius. 

' SiR, ' Seringapatam, 26th Feb., 1800. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from the Secretary of 
the Government of Fort St. George. 

' I have received your letter of the 18th instant, and 
Lieut. Colonel Close has communicated to me that which 
you wrote to him on the 17th. By both it would appear 
that the Pyche Rajah was in actual possession of the Cotiote 
district, whereas I had always imagined that you had posts 
in it which, not being sufficiently strong to support the Com- 
pany's authority, the Pyche Rajah had an influence in the 
country very prejudicial to the British interests. If I should 
be founded in my conjectures that you have a post in Cotiote, 
I shall be glad if you will let me know it ; and if you will be 
so kind as to make arrangements for posting the detach- 
ments from Cannanore in conformity with the following plan, 
giving me information of the place where it is posted, and 
of the nature of the communication between that place and 
the Wynaad country. 

' The first object in forming both detachments is to esta- 
blish the Company's authority in Wynaad, which is now held 
by the Pyche Rajah. It appears to be your opinion that as 
soon as he is pressed by the detachment from Seringapatam, 
he will move into Cotiote, where his influence is still extensive, 
and where his former successes would give him reason to hope 
for success in future. But if it be true that you have a post 
in Cotiote, and that the Pyche Rajah, instead of being in 
possession of that district, only exercises an influence there, 
VOL. i. G 



82 MYSORE. 1800. 

I should hope that the detachment of the Bombay army 
would be strong enough to support itself against him until 
I could reach him from Wynaad; and that you would find no 
inconvenience, and that there would be no risk in placing 
your detachment, so that it would intercept him on the route 
which you may imagine he follows to his proposed retreat at 
Cotiote. 

' If, then, my conjecture is well founded, I beg that you 
will do me the favor to order the detachment to move for- 
ward to Cotiote, that you will place it so that it may either 
stop the Rajah, or may induce him to take a longer and more 
difficult route to his place of retreat. If, however, the Rajah 
should remain in the Wynaad country contrary to your ex- 
pectation and to mine, it will be necessary that the detach- 
ment from Cannanore should be prepared to move into that 
district likewise. 

' If you should have no posts in Cotiote, the plan must be 
different, although the object will be the same, and must 
depend upon the strength of your detachment compared 
with that which the Pyche Rajah can produce in Cotiote, 
upon the nature and state of the roads, and of the country 
through which it must pass in order to reach the border of 
Wynaad. 

' If the detachment should run any risk in entering the 
Cotiote country, it will be best that it should enter Wynaad 
by the Tambercherry ghaut ; as it is very clear that if the 
Pyche Rajah is so strong in Cotiote that the Bombay de- 
tachment cannot enter it with safety, the Seringapatam de- 
tachment will not be able to drive him out of both Wynaad 
and Cotiote in this season, and that the absence of the 
Bombay detachment may risk success even in the former. 
I therefore propose that the Bombay detachment should 
enter Wynaad by the Tambercherry ghaut, if, as you say, 
the Rajah is in possession of, and strong in Cotiote, instead 
of remaining upon the borders and straitening him in the 
latter. All this, however, depends upon a comparison of 
your strength and his : you will perceive that my plan is, 
that your detachment should move through Cotiote towards, 
or, eventually, into Wynaad, if possible ; but if that should 
not be possible, as the possession of Wynaad is, in the first 
instance, the object, it should move into it by the Tamber- 
cherry ghaut. 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 83 

' As the season is advancing, I cannot sufficiently express 
the anxiety, which I am convinced you feel in common with 
me, that your detachment should move as soon as possible. 
The Right Honorable the Governor General having re- 
solved to get possession of Wynaad, and, with this view, 
having ordered detachments to be prepared in Malabar 
and Mysore, it is not economy to spare money in fitting 
them out. 

' Of this you will be convinced, and I beg therefore that 
you will spare no expense to equip the troops with their 
provisions, stores, carriage, &c. I shall be obliged to you if 
you will let me know when your detachment will be ready to 
move ; the route which, according to either of the foregoing 
plans, it will pursue ; and such other information as it may 
be in your power to favor me with. My detachment is 
already collected and prepared to move. I have posted 
camel hircarrahs upon the road towards Cannanore as far as 
they can go, and I shall be obliged to you if you will give 
directions that your letters may be given to them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Sartorius' ' ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Seringapatam, 2nd March, 1800. 

' Since Colonel Close's return to Seringapatam, I have had 
some conversation with him respecting the thieves in Soonda. 
It has appeared to him and to me, that the only mode by 
which you can expect to get rid of them, is to hunt them out. 
In the province of Bednore we employed some of the Rajah's 
cavalry ; with the support of our infantry, some thieves were 
caught, some of them were hanged, and some severely pu- 
nished in different ways : the consequence has been, that 
lately that country has not been visited by them ; and most 
probably a similar operation in Soonda would have a similar 
effect. I have spoken to Purneah on the subject, and I find 
that he can assist with about two hundred and fifty or three 
hundred horsemen, without inconvenience ; these, divided 
into two or three small parties, supported by our infantry, 
would give a proper shekar ; and .1 strongly advise you not 
to let the Marhatta boundary stop you in the pursuit of your 

o2 



84 MYSORE. 1800. 

game when you shall once have started it. Two or three fair 
hunts, and cutting up about half a dozen, will most probably 
induce the thieves to prefer some other country to Soonda, as 
the scene of their operations. Let me hear from you upon 
this subject, and if you approve of the plan, I will make all 
the arrangements for putting it into execution. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Major Munro." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 4tli March, 1800. 

I enclose letters just received from Madras, which I beg 
you will return to me when you shall have read them. It 
appears that Government is very anxious that the object of 
the detachments should be obtained, but still I conceive that 
our letters will have the effect of stopping operations till the 
next season. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 7th March, 1800. 

' I have received your letters respecting the arms. The 
whole number of serviceable captured English arms is about 
1600, and of these about two thirds have already been de- 
livered to the troops. There are 13,485 repairable English 
arms, and these we can either repair for Purneah, or we can 
deliver them to him, and he can have them repaired for his 
troops. If you approve of this plan, let me know it, and I 
will write to the Military Board, and recommend that I may 
be permitted to issue to Purneah 1000 stand of the repair- 
able arms. It will also be necessary that I should take their 
opinion respecting the issue of the accoutrements. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

< SIR, ' Seringapatam, 9th March, 1800. 

' I enclose copies of two letters from Colonel Sartorius, 
that dated the 5th instant being an answer to one which I 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 85 

wrote to him on the 26th of February, a copy of which I 
likewise enclose. 

'By this and by other information, it appears that the 
Pyche Rajah is in possession -of Cotiote as well as of the 
Wynaad country. 

' In order to put in execution the orders of Government to 
get possession of Wynaad, these methods have been proposed. 
It was first proposed that the detachments of the Bombay 
army should penetrate through Cotiote, while that from 
Mysore should enter from the eastward ; but it appears that 
the influence and strength of the Pyche Rajah in Cotiote is 
much greater than that of the Company, and that a detach- 
ment, such as that proposed to be assembled by Colonel 
Sartorius, cannot pass through without the risk of being 
destroyed. As under the circumstances of the present 
moment it is impossible to collect a larger detachment and 
equip it in time, I am obliged to relinquish that plan, by 
which alone the Pyche Rajah can be completely subdued. 

' Colonel Sartorius then proposes that he should collect 
his detachment at Cotapuramba, on the western borders of 
Cotiote, that it should remain there until the detachment of 
this army shall have penetrated Wynaad, and then that a 
combined attack of the two detachments shall be made on 
the Cotiote district. 

' I am not acquainted with the nature of the Wynaad coun- 
try, and I am not certain that the combined operations of the 
two detachments as ordered by the Government will not be 
necessary to get possession of, and establish the Company's 
authority in, that district. The season is so far advanced as 
to render it very probable that even that object can scarcely 
be effected before the rains set in, and it is certain that both 
objects cannot. Colonel Sartorius proposes that in case it 
should be found that the detachment of this army cannot 
alone get possession of Wynaad, he should embark his troops, 
re-land them at Calicut, and move into Wynaad by the Tam- 
bercherry ghaut ; but I must observe, that the length of time 
which would elapse between the period at which the want 
of his assistance might be felt, that -at which he would 
receive information of this Avant, and that at which he would 
be at the proper place to afford his assistance, would be so 
great, as in all probability to render it useless. 



86 MYSORE. 1800. 

' Upon the whole, then, considering the weakness of the 
Bombay detachment compared with the strength of the 
Pyche Rajah in Cotiote, I have determined not to attempt to 
move it through that district ; and considering the lateness 
of the season, and the orders of Government, I propose to 
desire Colonel Sartorius to collect his detachment at Calicut, 
and to enter Wynaad by the Tambercherry ghaut, while I 
shall enter it from this side. 

' By Colonel Sartorius's letters, it appears that he will be 
prepared to leave Calicut towards the end of this month, or 
in the beginning of the next, and I propose to march from 
hence about the 20th ; my detachment having been col- 
lected and prepared to move since the 26th of last month. 

' The information regarding the weather which I have re- 
ceived from many quarters, but which, by Colonel Sartorius's 
letters, does not appear to be well founded, is, that it begins 
to rain in Wynaad in the middle of this month, that the 
showers increase, and become more frequent gradually, till 
the middle of April, when the rains become violent, and the 
rivers and nullahs fill. 

' If this information be well founded (and the early period 
at which, in comparison with the Cavery, is a proof that the 
rains are early in Wynaad), there will be a further question 
whether the expedition ought to be undertaken at all, if the 
equipment of the Bombay troops is to be delayed beyond 
the end of this month. 

1 Upon this subject it will be necessary to receive the 
orders of Government, on the advantages to be derived from 
prosecuting the expedition in this season ; and that we shall 
obtain a knowledge of the country ; and that we shall be 
enabled to establish at Wynaad a post, from whence we can 
complete the succession of the Pyche Rajah early in the next 
season. 

' The Company's affairs cannot well be worse than they 
are in Cotiote, and therefore no evil is to be apprehended 
from the Rajah seating himself there during the rains. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Secretary of Government, ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Fort St. George.' 



1800. SER1NGAPATAM. 87 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 9th March, 1800. 

' I have made arrangements for sending to Paughur two 
companies of the 1st of the 8th, who, I hope, will keep 
matters quiet. 

' I do not know on what day the Bombay troops will be 
collected at Calicut, but I rather believe at about this time, 
and they will be prepared to march on the 7th or 8th of 
April. I propose, that my troops should cross the rivers to- 
morrow, and march to the Dalway Tank on the next day, 
that is to say, if I am well enough, as I had an attack of 
fever yesterday which kept me in bed all day. 

' We have been perfectly quiet here since I wrote to you. 
The court martial sentenced the four men to be hanged, but 
as I have not the power of putting the sentence in execu- 
tion, excepting in a case of emergency, which, when they had 
finished, their proceedings did not exist, and as the men 
tried were not at the head of the riot, I have had them well 
flogged, and sent about their business. 

' Besides, I do not conceive that the connexion between 
the four men tried and the gang at Caryghaut appears so 
clear upon the face of the proceedings as it was in fact, or as 
I expected it would. It is very certain that the gooroo was 
at the head of the business. 

' Return the court martial, and 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, llth March, 1800. 

' I enclose a memorandum relating to gold mohurs and 
soolacky rupees, which I have received from Mr. Gordon. 
He proposes to coin 100 of each, in order to prove the truth 
of the paper. 

Upon considering Sartorius's letter to Lord Clive, and 
the slight dependence to be placed on 1500 coolies pressed 
and detained by a guard, I have determined to increase our 
supplies of provisions to such extent as may be practicable 
between this and the time of our departure. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



88 MYSORE. 1800. 



To the Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

< SIR, ' Seringapatam, 12th March, 1800. 

' Colonel Sartorius has transmitted me a copy of his letter 
of the 8th instant to the Right Honorable the Governor in 
Council. As from that, it appears that he is obliged to 
depend for supplies for his detachment on 1500 coolies, 
" passed and detained under a guard," I have thought it 
proper to order that the quantity of rice and arrack to 
accompany this detachment may be increased to such extent 
as may be found practicable, between this and the day on 
which I shall march. This will add to my encumbrances, 
and I have therefore ordered the flank companies of the 77th 
regiment from Chittledroog to join me. 

' Colonel Sartorius has proposed to draw from Goa four 
companies of sepoys, but I have desired him not to increase 
his numbers, unless he is certain of being able to feed his 
troops. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Capt. , who 

commands the pioneers on the Bombay establishment, and 
who has been much employed in Cotiote. It does not 
appear possible to bring a detachment through that district 
till we are in possession of Wynaad. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Secretary of Government, ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Fort St. George.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 14th March, 1800. 

' Abdoo Ghoffar's son called upon me this morning. I 
had before examined my papers and made inquiries respect- 
ing him, and I find that he is not included in the list of per- 
sons of the Binky Nabob's family, for whose use the pension 
of 400 star pagodas per annum is granted. It will therefore 
be proper that some provision should be made for him ; and 
as the Binky Nabob's widow and his family are on the Family 
Fund, it will be right that this branch of the same family 
should be upon it likewise. Will you write to Government 
upon the subject ? 

' I have been a little out of order these two last days with 
a cold, but I am getting better. 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 89 

' M'Intire will furnish Purneali with some arms, ammu- 
nition, and flints, for the expedition against Kistnapah 
Naig. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Did you recollect to mention to Purneah the carpenters 
at Nuggur for Grant's cots ? He will likewise want the 
assistance of the village coolies (paying for the same) to carry 
them over to Chittledroog.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 16th March, 1800. 

' We are in want of the dooley bearers, and I shall be 
obliged to you if you will have them sent over. 

' I have had a conversation with Mr. Gordon about money 
matters, and it appears that we begin to want a little, and I 
believe that we shall be obliged to call for some from the 
Presidency. I intend to ask Munro to pay the Bombay 
corps at Nuggur for this month, which will relieve us a little. 
We shall then want about 20,000 pagodas at Chittledroog, 
as much at Bangalore, and about 30,000 here. If the coinage 
succeeds, we shall have money enough for two months ; but 
in the meantime, until all the bad, or rather useless, money 
is recoined, we are in distress. 

' I enclose part of a letter from Sydenham, by which you 
will perceive that the road plan is not entirely abandoned. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

* Will you be so kind as to return Sydenham's letter ?' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 17th March, 1800. 

' Having received the answer from the amildar of Sera 
regarding the carts of the persons named in the agreement 
of the Belgywars and Sonars, I yesterday gave the parties 
counterparts of their paper signed by myself; at the same 
time I called for the two men, who I before told you had 
refused to come into the agreement, informed them of the 



90 MYSORE. 1800. 

answer received from Sera, and desired that they would give 
security for their behavior, and that they would no longer 
disturb the peace of the place. This they positively refused. 
Last night and early this morning parties of Pariah people 
and cook boys went about the streets armed with clubs, and 
threatened the bazaar people in case they should open their 
shops; of these four were caught in the fort in the fact. 
This morning a large body assembled at the Caryghaut, and 
another at the Chendgall Ford, who plundered the country 
people coming with their goods, broke the chatties of those 
bringing milk, and stopped all communication with the 
country by the lower fords. The bazaars in the Fort and 
Ganjam were shut. Under these circumstances it became 
necessary to take some serious and decided steps towards 
restoring peace and confidence. I ordered a small party of 
Europeans out from the garrison to cross at the Chendgall 
Ford, a small party of sepoys from camp to the Caryghaut hill, 
as the largest mob had put themselves at the choultries at 
the bottom of it, and a party of cavalry into the Lockary to 
assist in case they should make off unhurt before the infantry 
should reach them. Notwithstanding repeated messages, 
and that the cavalry was within 100 yards of them for near 
an hour, they remained till the infantry got on both sides of 
them within pistol shot. The infantry fired ; two of them 
and the two head men whom I had sent out were killed, and 
two wounded. The whole dispersed, and the communication 
is going on, and all is as quiet as if nothing had happened. 

1 A native general court martial is now sitting to try the 
fellows who were taken in the fort, and I intend to hang two 
of them if they should be sentenced, as I imagine they will. 
The people concerned were mostly gentlemen's servants, and 
horsekeepers, and soldiers' cooks ; I dare say set on by the 
higher classes in the service of the officers. It is fortunate 
that the attempt has been made whilst I have been here, and 
I dare say it will not be renewed during my absence, or ever 
again. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 91 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatara, 20th March, 1800. 

' I enclose a letter just received from the Secretary of 
Government. I shall be glad to have a little conversation 
with you relative to the disposition of the troops, particularly 
of the 2nd regiment of cavalry. I should go over to you to- 
morrow morning, only that I am not well enough ; but per- 
haps it might not be inconvenient to you to come here. 
Send me back the enclosed letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I think that we might employ some of our troops to ad- 
vantage in clearing the Bissolee ghaut. 

' I have some thoughts of going down to the Malabar coast, 
to have a little conversation with the gentlemen there. Will 
you turn over in your mind whether my going through the 
Koorg country can have any effect upon your negotiations 
with the Rajah ? Perhaps it may be convenient to you to 
meet him at the time when I should wish to go into Mala- 
bar ; that is in about ten days, when I shall have got a little 
strength.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatatn, 23rd March, 1800. 

' I intend to set out for Malabar on Tuesday, and, if you 
will give me leave, I will dine with you at Mysore to-morrow. 

' Believe rne, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp near Seringapatam, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 26th March, 1800. 

4 Mackay was here last night, and I had a long conversa- 
tion with him upon the subject of gram and our bullocks. 
He produced a translation of the account which he had re- 
ceived from Purneah of the gram given to his bullocks ; and 
certainly the prices therein charged are higher than the 
general price of the country, and than the average of the 



92 MYSORE. 1800. 

prices charged by the gram agents of the cavalry ; and 
Captain Mackay says that they are much higher than the 
prices on the spot where the gram was received. The Com- 
pany's bullocks have been at Seringapatam, at Bangalore, 
Nundydroog, Chittledroog, &c. &c., and Captain Mackay 
has vouchers from the officers in charge of them at those 
different places, all of which give the gram cheaper than it 
is given by Purneah ; all these with . the prices charged by 
the gram agents will be before General Sydenham when he 
will have Captain Mackay's accounts under his examination ; 
and he will require some kind of certificate from Purneah, 
that the price charged was paid to him by Captain Mackay. 
If Purneah has been defrauded by those whom he em- 
ployed to furnish the gram for the bullocks, and the prices 
cannot be lowered, the best method of settling the account 
will be to strike an average upon the whole quantity re- 
ceived since he first began to deliver it to our bullocks in the 
month of September, and to let it stand as an agreement 
made between you and me, or with Purneah, for the conve- 
nience of both parties. It was impossible last night to 
strike a correct average, but, from a rough calculation, it 
appears that it will run about thirty seven or thirty eight 
seers for a rupee. If you should see no objection to this, 
the only matter remaining to be settled on this first is the 
number of seers delivered, upon which I imagine there is no 
difference. 

' In September and October the cavalry were in Soonda, 
and got no gram ; but since that period, in general the price 
has been about forty seers for a rupee ; and certainly, the 
cavalry gram is not the cheapest. 

' The only point remaining to be settled is the manner of 
procuring gram for the bullocks in future. Mackay is very 
desirous still to receive it from Purneah ; and if a stated 
price were once fixed, his giving it might be free from the 
detail and trouble of which you complain. But if you should 
be of opinion that it will be attended with inconvenience, 
Captain Mackay does not think that he will find any diffi- 
culty in procuring gram, provided the sircar will relax the 
regulations which restrict the sale of it to such a degree as 
almost to amount to a prohibition. I conclude that these 
restrictions are occasioned by the necessity of furnishing a 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 93 

quantity of gram for the Company's bullocks, and therefore, 
when that necessity no longer exists, there will be no objec- 
tion to allowing the sale of gram to be as general and as 
easy as is the sale of any other commodity. 

' At all events, it will be convenient that Purneah should 
continue to deliver the gram till the end of the month, and 
before then you will have had time to settle both as to the 
mode of payment for that already received, and as to the 
mode of procuring gram for the bullocks in future. Let me 
know when you shall have decided upon these subjects. 

' I have considered the proposition to deliver over entirely 
to the Rajah the stud of cows, and all the calves, and I have 
talked it over with Mackay. He seems to be of opinion, that 
if the bullocks are not occasionally recruited by drafts of 
fresh calves, the establishment will very soon fail entirely. 
I have no doubt but that for purchase it will at all times be 
possible to procure bullocks fit for the draught, and probably 
equal to those already in the Company's service. But I 
know the nature of those to whom all propositions for ex- 
pense to be incurred upon this subject must be submitted, 
and I should as soon expect that they would consent to a 
disbursement of a lac of pagodas as to one of 500 or 1000 
pagodas a vear for a convenient arrangement of this matter 
for the Rajah's Government. I therefore foresee that the 
establishment of bullocks will fall to the ground, or the 
Company must keep the stud which is to support it, or both 
establishment and stud must be given over to the Rajah's 
Government. As a Company's servant, I certainly should 
prefer to have an establishment and stud in the hands of the 
Company. 

' A more convenient arrangement for the Company would 
be that the stud should be in the hands of the Rajah, and 
that the Company should receive supplies from it ; but it 
may be said, why is the Rajah to be fettered with a Com- 
pany's concern ? and we must therefore look to other means 
of taking care of it. We are in possession of the country 
from whence it is said the bullocks were originally brought, 
and the gentlemen in charge may not find it impossible to 
arrange matters so as to give an annual supply of calves 
without incurring expense, which appears to be the object. 
Under this arrangement, the cows will be given over to 



94 MYSORE. 1800. 

them : but I do not conceive that this or any other plan will 
ever answer so well for us as to leave the stud in the hands 
of the Rajah, and to receive from it certain supplies. 

' I have been detained this day for tents, but I shall set 
out early in the morning. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 26th March, 1800. 

' Just before I received your enclosure I had received 
Mr. Smee's dispatch of the 22nd. I now send you that of 
the 21st, being Mr. Smee's letter to me, and copies of a letter 
from the Pyche Rajah. 

' I likewise send a letter about the bullocks which was 
going by tappall. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 26th March, 1800. 

' The particular restriction upon the sale of gram which 
Mackay mentioned, is an order from Purneah to sell no gram 
(or at least a very small quantity) to any person excepting 
to the sircar. As this order has not been given in the neigh- 
bourhood of the cavalry stations, I conclude that it has been 
in the neighbourhood of the places where the bullocks are, 
or have been grazing, merely because he had engaged to 
furnish these with gram, and that he would be more certain 
of performing his engagement in consequence of the restric- 
tion. But it is clear that there will be no occasion for the 
restriction, when he will have nothing to do with the supply 
of the gram, and equally so that Mackay will not be able 
to get any unless it is taken off. 

' Captain Mackay is aware of the road duties, and makes 
no objection to them. 

' As soon as you have settled the average price with 
Purneah, let me know it, and I will write to Mackay to 
settle the account, and there will be no difficulty hereafter. 

' I assure you that I find no fault with Purneah's prices 



1800. VEERAJUNDRAPETT. 95 

for gram ; but as they differ from those of the country which 
have already gone before the person who is to pass the 
accounts, it is necessary that there should be some certificate 
of the cause of the difference, or that the whole should be put 
together, and an average struck, and that the price should 
stand upon some original agreement made for the conve- 
nience of both parties. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Veerajundrapett, 30th March, 1800. 

' I arrived here this morning, in four marches, from 
Seringapatam, but they were very long. It is forty miles 
to Periapatam, and twenty five from thence. The Rajah 
came over from Nauknaar this morning, and I have been to 
see him. He received me well, but spoke but little. He 
complains of sickness, and has really got a fever, and Mr. 
Trevor, surgeon of the 33rd regiment, is going to stay with 
him for a day or two. 

' He received your letter immediately previous to my see- 
ing him ; and as his Persian moonshee was not here, Ogg 
read and interpreted it. I rather think that as he is really 
sick, you will do well to defer your journey and meeting 
with him for a few days. I shall desire Mr. Trevor to let you 
know when he recovers. 

' I have received from Colonel Sartorius the copy of a 
letter written to him by the Commissioners in Malabar, in 
which they desire that at least the native part of the troops 
collected for the expedition into Wynaad may be suffered 
to remain in Malabar, until they shall have had time to con- 
sider of the propriety of making a requisition to employ 
them to the southward. At present I see no objection to 
suffering these troops to remain in Malabar ; but there may 
be very strong objections to their being employed upon any 
wild-goose expedition that the Commissioners may point 
out. When the requisition comes I shall be a better judge 
of the propriety of complying with it. 

The country, from Sedaseer hither, is an almost con- 
tinued jungle : I had scarcely room to encamp at Seedapoor. 



96 MYSORE. 1800. 

In the neighbourhood of this place there is some cultiva- 
tion ; but this magnificent capital is about of the same 
extent, and has a similar appearance to a country town in 
Ireland. 

' I propose to get down the ghaut to-morrosv, and to be 
at Cannanore on the 2nd of April. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Stony River, 3 1st March, 1800. 

1 After I had written to you yesterday, the Rajah sent to 
me to say that he would pay me a visit. He began by say- 
ing that he had intended to meet me at his frontier, but that 
I had not given him notice of the day on which I intended to 
leave Seringapatam ; and that he had been so ill on the day 
when he heard that I was arrived at Periapatam, that he had 
not been able to quit his house. He then said that as I was 
going to Cannanore I should see the Bombay gentlemen, 
and should have an opportunity of conversing with them 
respecting him, and they would tell me whether he was such 
a man as he had been represented to be. I told him that I 
knew no person who had less reason to complain of misre- 
presentation ; that in India, in England, and every where, 
his character was perfectly known and established, and that 
he did not do justice either to himself or to us, in ima- 
gining otherwise. He then, from beginning to end, related 
the history of his connexion with Hyder, and with Tippoo, 
and with us ; and he repeatedly said that the brahmins were 
his enemies. He declared that from the commencement of 
his connexion with the British Government (which was 
founded on their mutual enmity to Tippoo) to this day, he 
had never done any thing relative thereto without an order 
from them, or from their agents, which he could produce, and 
offered to do so for my satisfaction. I then took an oppor- 
tunity of letting him see that I had nothing to do with poli- 
tical matters; that he would soon see you, that you had been 
many years in this country, had a perfect knowledge of its 
affairs, &c. &c., and that you were not ignorant of the nature 
of his connexion with the Company ; and I recommended to 



1800. STONY RIVER. 97 

him to listen to what you should say to him as to the advice 
of his best friend. He said that if he was sufficiently reco- 
vered he would go with me to Seringapatam when I should 
return thither, of which he said he had informed you. After 
having stayed about three hours he went away. 

' It appeared to me that pains had been taken to induce 
him to believe that we (Madras people) were prejudiced 
against him, and that we listened to brahmins, against 
whom he appears to have an inveterate hatred, and who, he 
believes, have an equal one towards him. He repeatedly 
said that we could not be aware of the services which he had 
had it in his power to render to the Company, that we were 
strangers to him and his actions, and that it was natural that 
we should listen to those with whom we had been acquainted, 
and who he knew were his enemies. I am of opinion, how- 
ever, that a little better acquaintance, more intercourse, and 
a little gentle treatment, will remove all these impressions. 

' He speaks Moorish fluently ; but Ogg says, with an idiom 
that belongs, he supposes, to his own language : he has 
more simplicity, and, apparently, more sincerity in his man- 
ners, as well as in what he says, than any native I have ever 
seen. 

' It struck me as remarkable in his conversation, that 
he should have urged repeatedly that he had orders for 
every thing he had ever done either from the Company's Go- 
vernment or their agents ; particularly when I recollected 

that had declined to ask him to give up the families 

which he had seized in Mysore, because they had been seized 
by his desire. 

' The Rajah was better this morning, and went to Nauli- 
nam when I came here. He had still, however, some fever, 
and the doctor accompanies him. 

' I omitted to mention to you, in my letter of yesterday, 
that the amildar at Periapatam proposed to me that he 
should seize some bullocks which had come in there witli 
gram from the Koorg country ; as (he said) some of the 
inhabitants knew them to have belonged to themselves, and 
to have been taken off by the Rajah of Koorg, I recom- 
mended him to take the orders of his sircar before he did 
such a thing. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

VOL. i. n 



98 INDIA. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Cannanore, 3rd April, 1800. 

' I arrived here this morning, having been on the road 
one day longer than I expected. I found the weather ex- 
ceedingly hot, and a want of water upon the road to refresh 
the followers and cattle obliged me to make two marches, 
where, under other circumstances, I should have made only 
one. We have, however, had rain nearly every night since I 
left Seringapatam. 

' I met here Mr. Smee and Captain Moncrieffe. The 
former has induced some of the nairs, under his influence, 
Kydree Amboo at their head, to commence to open a road 
from Cotaparamba by Mananderry to Tutucullum and Ca- 
note, and another by Pyche to Montana ; the latter will not 
be difficult, as Tippoo had made one on the same line for- 
merly. It is intended, if possible, before the rains, to esta- 
blish a post at Canote, and another at Montana, to connect 
them by a road directly across from one to the other, and by 
another road between them by Perrywell, which last requires 
only to be opened. Mr. Smee has no doubt but that the 
nairs will effect these objects ; and in order to facilitate 
them, I have sent in the pioneers and 1200 of the coolies, 
which had been hired for the expedition. If the Pyche 
Rajah is disposed to make an opposition to this measure 
(which Smee and Moncrieffe think he will not), it must then 
be given over; as all parties agree that the force in this 
country is not sufficient to carry it through. If it should be 
necessary to give over the plan, Smee does not apprehend 
that the Company's influence will be diminished in con- 
sequence of the failure, and as every yard of road which is 
made is so much gained towards effecting the great object, 
I have, upon the whole, thought it a measure which ought to 
be attempted. Excepting thirty men employed in guarding 
Kydree Amboo' s house, not a sepoy will be engaged in the 
operation ; so that however anxiously I may look forward for 
its success, I do not conceive that the honour of the Com- 
pany's arms will be engaged in it. As soon as the roads will 
have been completed ; or if it should be necessary to discon- 
tinue them, or, at all events, at the commencement of the 
monsoon, the coolies will be employed in carrying provisions 
to Cotaparamba, where I understand there are sheds and 
buildings sufficient to contain provisions for 3000 men for 



1800. CANNANORE. 99 

two months. If it should be possible to make posts at Mon- 
tana and Canote, they must, in the first instance, be held by 
the friendly nairs till we can move forward our provisions, 
first for a garrison, next for the number of men, and for the 
time above stated. 

' It will be a curious circumstance, if without troops we 
should be able to effect objects which it was imagined the 
largest detachment which could conveniently be brought to- 
gether could not undertake ; but it is to be observed that 
they will be effected by the nairs themselves, with the 
assistance of our people, and not by our force. 

' I have heard from Colonel Mignan that he had received 
a report from the officer commanding the post at Soobra- 
many, stating that Kistnapah Naig had beat the Rajah's 
troops, and had taken Munserabad on the 24th of March. 
As I have not heard from you, or from Colonel Tolfrey, 
I conclude that there is no truth in the report; but if 
it should be true, we must only send off the flank companies 
of the 77th, now at Seringapatam, in readiness to march to 
Tolfrey 's assistance, with orders to storm Munserabad. 

' I enclose a copy of Colonel Mignan's letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
* MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Cannanore, 5th April, 1800. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter which I have received from 
Colonel Tolfrey, and one of a translation of a proclamation 
which he has published. The account I received from Co- 
lonel Mignan cannot be founded. 

' I likewise enclose the copy of a letter from Mr. Hodgson, 
the collector of Cherical to Colonel Sartorius. It appears 
that he has heard of the son of Tippoo, about whom Colonel 
Mignan gave me information, as being the cause of the de- 
sertion among his sepoy recruits. Since the receipt of this 
letter I have seen Mr. Hodgson, and have explained to him 
the present state of Tippoo's family, and the consequent 
impossibility that one of his sons, or even one of Hyder's 
stock, should be in or near the place which he mentions. In 
answer to this he said, that the person alluded to might not 
be one of Tippoo^s sons, or might not belong to the family ; 



100 INDIA. 1800. 

but that there was no doubt that there was a man in the 
southern part of Canara who assumed that character, was 
collecting troops, and was well received, and respectfully 
treated by the disaffected in those parts. I urged him 
strongly to have an eye towards him, and to keep you and me 
informed of his motions, which he promised. But he said, 
that being unacquainted with Munro, in whose district the 
man was, he was fearful of sending any people into it. He 
said that Munro had an amildar in the country, and that it 
might be convenient if that man and he were to communi- 
cate upon these matters which arise occasionally. It will be 
well if you give Munro a hint upon this subject ; and I hope 
that before long we shall discover something interesting 
regarding this impostor. 

' The Commissioners in Malabar will most probably have 
sent you a copy of their letter to Colonel Sartorius, regarding 
the distribution of the troops which I had ordered conse- 
quent to the directions from Government to postpone the 
expedition. I have complied with their wishes regarding 
the native part of the detachment as far as six companies ; 
the other two will go to Cotaparamba to be in readiness to 
occupy our new posts in Cotiote if they should be finished ; 
or if not, they will remain at Cotaparamba as a farther se- 
curity to the stores, which, at all events, will be thrown 
in there during the rains. If we should want more native 
troops in Canara, I must send them from Nuggur. The 
Europeans here join their corps at Mangalore and Goa. 

' The six companies are to be in the southern part of Mala- 
bar, and will keep matters quiet there during the rains; and 
I am now making inquiries relative to the mode of pene- 
trating into that part of Malabar from Wynaad or Mysore, 
should Government think it proper to make a complete 
settlement of all matters in the province in the next season. 

' Our road-making in Cotiote gets on well. I believe 
that it will be open as far as Monanderry this day, that 
is, if the rain and storm of last night has not impeded the 
work. 

' I have received a letter from Disney, who has lost his 
wife, and is attacked by the liver complaint himself, and is 
so much out of sorts altogether as to have determined to 
quit the service and go home immediately. His command, 
which is, on many accounts, a very important one, will 



1800. TELLICHERRY. 101 

devolve upon a Lieutenant in the Bombay army; and I 
assure you, that considering the disturbance on the Mar- 
hatta frontier, the riches of Nuggur, and the general inclina- 
tion of all manner of people to plunder, I am rather uneasy 
at the charge being in the hands of a person who must be so 
inexperienced. Under these circumstances I am desirous of 
sending there Colonel Montresor from Chittledroog, whom I 
do not know, but he bears an excellent character. I shall 
not do so, however, till I hear from you whether there is any 
objection to it. 

f Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Cannanore, 6th April, 1800. 

' I have just received your letter of the 3rd. I hear from 
Koorg that the Rajah is better, although still weak and un- 
well. I propose to go to Tellicherry to-morrow, and I shall 
probably return here on the 10th or llth; and I think 
matters will be so forward in Cotiote as to allow me to 
depart for Mysore on the 15th. I shall let you know whe- 
ther the Rajah will come with me either to Seringapatam or 
Periapatam ; and I will stay with him a day or two in order 
to give you time to set out from Seringapatam if I should find 
him disinclined to do either. If you was to set out about 
the 12th or 13th, and to come as far as Cuttee Mulwary, or 
Periapatam, at all events it would expedite our meeting, and 
I think make it certain that the Rajah will come out to Pe- 
riapatam at least. 

' When I write to you I will send my letters in a separate 
packet. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.'' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Tellicherry, 10th April, 1800. 

' I received last night the accounts of Colonel Tolfrey's 
defeat, and sent off expresses to make the following arrange- 
ment to remedy it. The flank companies of the 77th are on 
their march towards Chittledroog ; and as they are nearest 
to the Rut country, and have all their equipments pre- 
pared, I have ordered them to Ouscota. I have ordered 



102 INDIA. 



1800. 



from Seringapatam, arrack, provisions, and gram, and am- 
munition ; and I have desired that the four companies of the 
4th regiment, under Major Capper, may be sent with these 
articles as an escort. I have no doubt but that the Euro- 
peans will settle all matters without difficulty ; and from the 
accounts received I am at a loss to guess from what cause 
they failed in forcing a barrier to which they could march in 
three columns, one of them in companies, and upon which they 
could bring their guns to bear. Colonel Tolfrey has quitted 
Munserabad, and if he has not thrown into it a proper supply 
of provisions for the garrison, that fort will be lost, as it may 
be depended upon that Kistnapah Naig will occupy all the 
barriers between Munserabad and Ouscota, which it will not 
be an easy matter to force after what has happened ; and I 
do not expect that the Europeans will reach Ouscota till the 
20th at soonest. 

' The post at Anakeery, at which Colonel Tolfrey failed, 
does not lie towards the Bissolee Ghaut, but is situated on 
the right of the road from Ouscota to Munserabad, and is 
apparently between the road and the Hyawatty. The co- 
operation from Canara, therefore, if it were possible, would 
not answer for some time, at least not till the post at Ana- 
kerry shall be forced, and the detachment from this side 
shall be prepared to force the post which Kistnapah Naig has 
on the Bissolee ghaut. But the fact is, that there is not a 
soldier either in Canara or Malabar who can be moved. 
There are 300 sepoys, and 120 Europeans, at Mangalore ; 
of the latter there will be 400 more in about ten days, when 
they will have reached that place from hence. I will order 
them forward to the Soobramany pagoda; and when the 
Bissolee ghaut comes to be attacked on our side, they can 
operate from theirs. There is nothing at Cannanore, nothing 
here, nor nearer to Mangalore than Calicut. They can 
march thither sooner than they can go by sea at this time of 
the year; and if they could move immediately the rains 
would set in before they would arrive at the scene of opera- 
tions. We must make the best of it, and depend upon the 
bayonets of the Europeans ; but I acknowledge myself to be 
much disappointed and vexed at the failure of 1000 sepoys, 
and 1600 of the Rajah's troops against not a larger number 
of ryots, in a country by no means difficult, and from which 
the same peoyjle were driven like sheep, and their fort 



1800. TELLICHERRY. 103 

taken from them in September last by a similar body of 
troops. 

' 1 went this morning to Cotaparamba, which is a neat 
little mud redoubt about nine miles from hence. It contains 
buildings which will hold a large quantity of provision and 
ammunition, with which, please God, they shall be filled in a 
few days. The road-making goes on well, and has not been 
interrupted. On the day after to-morrow I shall occupy 
Pyche fort on the Montana road, and Monanderry pagoda 
on that leading to Canote, and I hope in a few days after- 
wards to be able to take possession of the posts, which will 
be constructed at Montana and Canote. 

' I propose to return to Cannanore on the day after to- 
morrow. Mr. Spencer comes here in the morning, which de- 
tains me till then, and I shall be at Serin gapatam, I hope, on 
the 22nd. 

Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Colonel Montresor will join the detachment with the 
flank companies of the 77th, and will command it ; and, after 
what has happened, I do not think that will do us any 
harm/ 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Tellicherry, llth April, 1800. 

' Since I wrote to you yesterday, I have received your 
letter of the 7th, and Colonel Moneypenny's. As I find 
that the preparations have been made for moving the 
Europeans from Serin gapatam, I have ordered the flank 
companies of the 73rd, as well as those of the 77th, to join 
the detachment at Ouscota ; so that they will now have an 
ample force for everything that it may be necessary to un- 
dertake. I quake for the fort at Munserabad. 

' If there is any difficulty about removing the sick and 
wounded of Tolfrey's detachment, Ouscota will answer to 
hold them till doolies can arrive. 

' I have received a letter from Government, in which I am 
asked for my opinion, whether Bangalore will answer for a 
cantonment for two corps of cavalry. I never thought it 
would answer for one, as I understood that there was a 



104 INDIA. 1800. 

scarcity of wood, water, gram, and grass. I shall be obliged 
to you if you will let me know what you think of it, and 
whether Chenapatam will not answer better for one regi- 
ment at least, if not for both. 

' According to my former plan, I have ordered the 2nd 
regiment to Chenapatam for the present. Before I left Serin- 
gapatam, Colonel Pater desired I would apply to Purneah for 
leave for that corps to cut date trees, or other jungle wood, 
in the forest which runs from Chenapatam to Sultaunpett. 
If there is no impropriety in it, I shall be obliged to you 
if you will speak to Purneah upon the subject, and desire 
him to send orders to the amildar of that district. As these 
corps must draw every thing from Seringapatam when they 
are to take the field, all other things being equal, there is 
no doubt but that Chenapatam will be the most convenient 
situation ; but I believe that it excels Bangalore in many 
respects, besides that it is in the neighbourhood of the place 
from which the corps are to be equipped. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut, Colonel Close.' f ARTHUR WEL LESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

* MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Cannanore, 12th April, 1800. 

' I have ordered a detachment from Mangalore to the 
Soobramany pagoda, which will consist of 400 of the 75th, 
and a detachment of the grenadier battalion, with one 
month's provisions, for which, however, they are not to 
wait, but to proceed with that quantity for which they have 
at present carriage. The remainder will follow, and I have 
sent carriage for it from hence. 

' In order to facilitate the communication between the 
detachment on the Mysore side, and that in Canara, I have 
ordered first, that the officer in command at Jemalabad 
may ascertain the road between his post and the Soobra- 
many pagoda; secondly, that the postmaster in Canara 
may post many runners upon it ; thirdly, that the officer at 
Jemalabad may take care that all letters, between the de- 
tachments, may proceed as addressed. The tappall from 
Seringapatam to Mangalore has, since its interruption by 
Kistnapah Naig, run by Oustara, the Gamut Kull ghaut, 
and Jemalabad. I have, therefore, ordered Colonel Tolfrey, 



1800. STONY RIVER. 103 

fourthly, to post runners from his camp to Oustara; fifthly, 
to correspond with the officer in command at Jemalabad, 
and ascertain the distance from his post to Soobramany, and 
the length of time which the communication will take ; thus 
the chain will be complete, and its length known. 

' Colonel Tolfrey, however, may want a few peons, and, 
to complete the arrangement, there ought to be a steady 
writer at Oustara, who would take care that the packets for 
the officer commanding the detachment on the Mysore side, 
should proceed to him regularly. For this I must request 
your assistance with Mr. Cochrane. 

' I hope that the detachment of the Bombay army will be 
at Soobramany on the 20th ; but, as Anakeery is to be forced 
in the first instance, and as Colonel Tolfrey's re-inforcements 
will not have reached him before that day, the arrangements 
for attacking the post at the Bissolee ghaut will most pro- 
bably not be made till towards the end of the month. I 
hope, however, that, after Anakeery will have been forced, it 
will not be necessary to attack the Bissolee ghaut. 

' I shall be with you in a very few days. I shall not stay 
in Koorg as I proposed in a former letter ; nor, even if the 
Rajah should be inclined to come to Seringapatam, shall I 
wait for him, but push on and leave him with the gentlemen. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Stony River, 15th April, 1800. 

* I have received your letters of the llth and 12th. En- 
closed I send you a letter from the Rajah of Koorg, which, 
in my opinion, affords a symptom of an intention not to 
proceed to Seringapatam. I shall be at Veerajundrapett 
to-morrow, from whence I shall be able to give you more 
certain accounts of his plans. His man says he is really 
ill ; the doctor left him a few days ago free from disorder, 
but weak and wanting appetite. 

' The account which you send me enclosed in your letter 
of the 12th, differs so much from that which I received 
before of the position at Anakeery, and is so little founda- 
tion for the opinions given of its impregnable strength, that I 



INDIA. 1800. 

am at a loss to form any opinion upon the subject. It is 
clear that there are three principal entrances to the place, 
that no one of them can be distant from the other above 
two miles, and that the forest, as it is called, cannot be six 
miles in circumference. Guns were brought to bear with 
grape upon the barrier attacked, and it appears that more 
guns are asked for or expected, therefore the road cannot be 
very difficult ; and, as a havildar is recommended for pro- 
motion, for having got over the barrier, I rather imagine 
that that must be assailable to determined troops. We here 
imagine that the sepoys did not behave with their accus- 
tomed resolution, which was the cause of the failure ; and I 
am the more induced to be of that opinion as Colonel Tolfrey 
particularly praises the European officers, and non-commis- 
sioned officers, and the Rajah's troops, but avoids mention- 
ing the natives in the Company's service. I have, therefore, 
great hopes from the Europeans which will join the detach- 
ment. But it is impossible to say whether the attack ought 
to be made in one body, or two, or three ; and if successful, 
whether, at this season of the year, it would be proper to 
press matters farther than to carry the post at Anakeery. 
For this reason I have determined, if there should be no- 
thing to detain me at Serin gapatam, to join the detachment 
myself. I have but little doubt that, if one barrier is car- 
ried, the whole will be abandoned, or so feebly defended 
that they will fall without much difficulty, notwithstanding 
what Colonel Tolfrey says ; but it will be a question, whether 
we ought to push on to the Bissolee ghaut, which must be de- 
cided by the true state of the case, in regard to the distance; 
(which, by the bye, is greater by half as stated by Colonel 
Tolfrey than as given by Moncrieffe, who has laid down the 
ghaut by survey, and Munsarabad by different bearings,) 
the road, the thickness of the jungle, and the positions said 
to be held by the polygar. Anakeery must be carried at 
all events, on account of the lateness of the season ; the 
other operations may be postponed without disgrace. 

' I shall reach Seringapatam on the 19th in the morning. 
In the meantime, by this post, I order 100 pioneers to be 
got ready to move, and provided with cutting tools. I have 
likewise ordered the grape-shot and other things, for which 
Colonel Tolfrey has asked. 



J800. VEERAJUNDRAPETT. 107 

' The tappalls in Malabar are like every thing else there. 
They are managed by a gentleman in the civil service, who 
resides at Mahee where he is Deputy Commercial Resident. 
It was not easy to get an addition made to the number of 
runners. 

' I hear from the frontier, that Dhoondiah has not yet taken 
Gudduck ; but it was expected that he would attempt to 
storm it in three or four days after the 4th instant. He 
was settling the country, and even had collected from it 
some money. 

* I have this instant received yours of the 13th. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Veerajundrapett, 16th April, 1800. 

' I omitted to enclose the letter, No. 1, in mine of yes- 
terday, from Stony River; the letter No. 2 is just arrived. 
I am informed that the Rajah has a disorder in his bladder 
which confines him to his bed at Nauknaar. I have desired 
his man to inform him that I will return to meet him when 
I hear that he is recovered. 

' I received your letter of the 14th this morning. If 
I find on the road that you have left Seringapatam I shall 
not hurry from Periapatam as I proposed yesterday. 

< An officer is arrived at Hullihall in Soonda; his name is 
Captain Marshall. I this day write to the coast to inquire 
what kind of man he is, and if he should not be fit for his 
station, I will send somebody to take charge of the post. 

' I propose to dsire Sir William Clarke to have an eye to 
that frontier for the present, and to afford it relief if neces- 
sary, as there are no troops in Canara to send to it if it 
should be desirable to reinforce it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have desired Sir William Clarke to make an arrange- 
ment with Uhtoffe for running a tappall between Soopah 
and Goa. It appears that Uhtoffe will be able to settle 
it more easily than Mr. Cochrane, who is so far from the 
road.' 



108 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 21st April, 1800. 

' The circumstance of the charge for working money I 
perfectly recollect, and it was as follows. 

' The right wing of the army was encamped on the Mud- 
door, the Nizam's detachment at Allagoor, the left wing was 
expected at Sultaunpett, and arrived there with the heavy 
train on that evening. A large quantity of forage had been 
discovered on the right of Allagoor, and had been guarded 
by the piquets of the army under Colonel Campbell of the 
74th, and by those of the Nizam's detachment, and in the 
evening by order of the Commander in Chief. This forage 
Avas carried over to Sultaunpett for the use of the bullocks 
of the heavy train by the 2nd batt. llth regiment. This 
enabled the train to get on, at least as was imagined at that 
time. It may be true, as General Sydenham says, that the 
working money ought to have been paid by the bullock 
owners, but at all events the sepoys were entitled to it. Bar- 
clay recollects the circumstance perfectly. 

' I received last night a letter from Colonel Tolfrey, from 
which I guess that he neither thinks his force sufficient to 
force Anakeery, nor does he like his equipments, as he wants 
hand grenades, of which I believe there are none in India, 
certainly none at Seringapatam. I have therefore desired 
him not to attack the post till Colonel Montresor reaches 
him ; and by a letter received from him last night I hope that 
he will join the detachment on the same day, or at least one 
day after the Europeans will reach it. 

' When I found that the Europeans were likely to join the 
detachment before Colonel Montresor could reach it, I wrote 
to Colonel Tolfrey from Tellicherry a letter, which I sent ex- 
press, and desired him to attack the post as soon as he found 
himself sufficiently strong. When a man says that the 
largest equipment which, under the circumstances of the 
moment can be brought together, is n9t sufficient to force a 
post such as Anakeery, it is not very prudent to take upon 
oneself the responsibility of ordering him to attack it. And 
it would be particularly imprudent in me to do so, as Colonel 
Tolfrey having already failed, there is reason to believe that 
he would be very anxious to seize the first opportunity 



1800. SEEING APATAM. 109 

of revenging himself, and, therefore, that he would not ob- 
ject to the size and strength of his detachment upon light 
ground. As hand grenades, however, are upon the whole 
all that are wanting, I have no doubt but that Colonel Mon- 
tresor will find muskets and bayonets sufficient, and that he 
will succeed. 

' I will write this day about the Postmaster at Nuggur. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 23rd April, 1800. 

' I conclude that there will be no impediment to the com- 
munication by the Candulgull ghaut as soon as the post at 
Anakeery will be carried, and, therefore, it is desirable that 
the peons should remain upon the road, and the writer at 
Oustara. I have written to the commanding officer, in Canara, 
to tell him that this interruption of our intercourse is to 
make no alteration in the instructions which I before sent to 
the officer commanding the detachment at Soobramany, and 
that the Post Office people are to be prepared to carry on 
the communication when it may be practicable. 

' I have received a letter from Colonel Sartorius, by which 
it appears that our road was advanced about six miles be- 
yond Pyche on the 18th. 

' Will you and your gentlemen dine with me on Sunday ? 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 26th April, 1800. 

' I enclose an extract from a letter, which I have re- 
ceived from Lieut. Colonel Mignan, which contains uncom- 
fortable news. I have before now received news from this 
same man which has turned out unfounded ; and this fort 
is represented as so strong, and so difficult of access, that, if 
any part of the garrison was on the top of it, I am in hopes 
that it is still in our hands ; I shall know it to-morrow. At 
all events, I have desired Colonel Mignan to equip to take 
it if it has fallen, and in case he should have no howitzers at 



110 MYSORE. 1800. 

Mangalore, I am preparing some here, which I will send 
down. 

' The employment of the 75th at Jemalabad will have no 
immediate effect upon our operations in Bullum, as you may 
recollect ; but, if the fort has fallen, it will have serious con- 
sequences, indeed, upon our means of putting an army into 
the field upon our northern frontier (if that should be neces- 
sary), and upon the operations in the next season in Wynaad 
and Cotiote. I reckoned upon two or three battalions of 
the Bombay army for the former, and all that might be em- 
ployed in the latter will be taken up at this siege, which 
probably cannot be vigorously carried on till after the mon- 
soon. 

' I have received accounts this morning stating, that the 
Nizam's killadar and amildar have left Harponelly and gone 
to Rydroog, the whole frontier is alarmed, &c. Cuppage 
has sent me a letter which he has received from the Gom- 
nair polygar, in which he says plainly, if a certain arrange- 
ment is made of the country, " I will do my best endea- 
vours to regain my rights by arms or other means." And 
the amildar of the district writes to Cuppage, that this 
polygar has got 4000 or 5000 Carnatic peons. Looking at 
the whole of our situation, I have determined that, if Jema- 
labad has really fallen, I will collect as many troops as can 
be spared from the garrisons, as the only means of deterring 
the fellows, by whom we are surrounded, from rising imme- 
diately. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 27th April, 1800. 

' I received a letter from Colonel Mignan this morning, 
dated the 20th, by which it appears that he is not certain 
that Jemalabad is taken. He says that a soubahdar arrived 
on the 20th at Mangalore, from Soobramany, that he must 
have passed very near to Jemalabad, and that he heard no- 
thing of what had happened till he met the 75th regiment, 
which marched from Mangalore on the evening of the 19th 
towards Jemalabad. 

* I have inquired respecting Mirza AH Reza, and I cannot 



1800. SEEING APAT AM. Ill 

find that any such person ever belonged to Tippoo's family, 
or that he is at all known here. 

' Believe me, &c. 
. Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have just received a letter from Colonel Tolfrey, dated 
25th, in which he says that Bishtoo Pundit had informed 
him that he had received a report from the amildar at 
Oustara, stating that the fort of Jemalabad had been sur- 
prised and taken, and the whole garrison put to death. 
There is another letter from Kistnapah Naig, in much the 
same terms as the last. 

' I rather believe that Anakeery will have been attacked 
on this day.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 1st May, 1800. 

' I did not write to you yesterday, when I had ascertained 
that we had entirely lost Jemalabad, because I concluded 
that you would have seen the letter which I wrote to the 
Secretary of Government. The fort was taken, not by Kist- 
napah Naig, but by 150 of the recruits, who deserted from 
Man galore in March, and they were under the orders of the 
havildar, who deserted with them. Colonel Cumine expected 
to take the lower fort without difficulty ; and he has been 
ordered to attempt it : to take the upper fort will be a long 
operation, for which I have made arrangements by collecting 
troops, &c. &c. I have not given orders for collecting the 
troops to the northward as I intended, as really the measure 
appears to me to be one of some consequence. Government 
have had before them, since the 19th of April, the orders for 
putting the cavalry in the field, the information upon which 
they were founded, and such other information as might 
render necessary a more formidable equipment. Upon these 
they have given no opinion ; and, as it is not a measure of 
absolute necessity, I do not like to go any farther. 

' Mr. Cochrane was to arrange with Purneah about sending 
off to Gomnair 450 of the infantry now at Mysore. 

' I expect to hear this evening or to-morrow morning of 
the success of the attack upon Anakeery. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



112 MYSORE. 1800. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 7th May, 1800. 

' As I expected you back, I have not written to you for 
several days. You will have heard from Mr. Webbe of our 
success at Anakeery. By the last letters from Colonel Mon- 
tresor it appears that he was about to march towards the 
Bissolee ghaut with the Europeans and part of the detach- 
ment, and to send Colonel Tolfrey to Saylispoor, with his 
own corps and the Rajah's cavalry and infantry, to complete 
the provisioning of Munserabad. The polygar had occupied 
Anakeery again, and had begun again to establish the bar- 
riers. Indeed they had not had time to destroy the jungle 
entirely, and until that was done it could not be expected 
but that the polygar would still remain in it if possible, and 
endeavor to re-establish himself there. The great object 
has been gained ; he and his people have been made to un- 
derstand that it is not so easy to keep out our troops as they 
imagined, and I am afraid that the further subjection of him 
must be delayed to some future period. I will write to 
Colonel Montresor to desire that, if possible, he will clear out 
the jungle at Anakeery; but it is really not worth while 
to lose any man for that object, as there are many polygar 
stations of the same kind on both sides of the Hynwatty, and 
it will be impossible to destroy them all at present. 

' We have got possession of the lower forts of Jemalabad ; 
but the holders of the upper fort have fired upon Colonel 
Cumine's flag, and refuse to have any communication. I 
have adopted a plan for blowing up the lower part of the 
steps, so as to cut off all hope of relief; and then we shall be 
able to secure the blockade by a force which will be equal to 
the defence of the lower forts against the attempts which 
Kistnapah Naig will make upon them. Howitzers will not 
answer at Jemalabad ; and I have therefore ordered there a 
thirteen and a ten-inch mortar, which must go from Canna- 
nore in order to amuse those in the upper fort during the 
rains. 

' Dhoondiah, it is said, has got possession of Dummul, in the 
same manner that he got Gudduck, and that with his whole 
force he was advancing to Havanoor in the Savanore country, 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 113 

about two coss from Oollall, but on the other side of the 
Toombuddra. The cavalry will be collected by this time at 
Chittledroog ; and I have given orders that they may march 
immediately to Hurryhur, with eight companies of the 1st 
battalion 8th regiment, and four field-pieces, for which I 
have sent bullocks from hence. The 1st regiment will have 
their gallopers, and the 2nd regiment will have theirs in 
a few days, which I have cramped up for them ; it is impos- 
sible to do any thing to those belonging to the 4th regi- 
ment. 

' I have sent orders to occupy Hurryhur with a small 
detachment of this infantry and two guns if necessary ; to 
remain in that neighbourhood with the remainder of the 
force, likewise to occupy Hoonelly with infantry and guns if 
necessary : when the river comes down here the boats will be 
collected. 

' When the rains set in it will not be difficult to ascertain 
Dhoondiah's plans, and to take effectual measures to oppose 
him. He must determine upon an invasion of Bednore and 
Soonda, or of Harponelly, Anagoondy, and Chittledroog. 
If of the former, he will remain on the other side of the Toom- 
buddra till it fills ; if of the latter, he will cross the river early. 
Our boats at Hoonelly, and a little intelligence in the people 
employed on the frontier, will give us great advantages in 
opposing either plan. 

' At Purneah's desire I altered the disposition of the 
infantry as proposed by you. He thought cavalry would 
answer better in Gomnair (and if his description of the 
country be correct, I agree with him), and infantry at Bullum, 
where, by all accounts, the cavalry has not been of much use. 
We have, therefore, drawn away from the latter 200 horse, 
which are ordered to Gomnair, making in the whole 500 
horse on that side, and have sent the infantry into Bullum. I 
saw the corps, and had some of their cartridges changed, 
and other exchanges made at the arsenals, and they are gone 
well equipped. 

' I thought that collecting the army was a more serious 
matter than it appears at first, and I am glad that I have 
omitted to do it, although, as a military measure, it is cer- 
tainly desirable. 

VOL. I. I 



114 MYSORE. 1800. 

' We are getting a grand equipment of field carriages 
from Madras, and I hope that all will go smooth. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

' DEAR MUNRO, ' Seringapatam, 7th May, 1 800. 

' I am glad to find that your people in Canara are so free 
from the foul crime of rebellion. We shall not be able, in 
this year, to make an impression on Kisnapah Naig, which 
will keep him entirely quiet ; but on the 30th of last month 
he received a beating from Colonel Montresor, who took 
from him his post of Anakeery, which will, at least, give him 
reason to believe that it is not easy to keep our troops out 
of any place into which they are ordered to enter. The 
entire subjection of him depends upon the destruction of his 
strong holds ; and for that, as we cannot expect much more 
fair weather, we have not at present a sufficiency of time. 

' Colonel Montresor is now gone through to the Bipolla 
ghaut ; but I do not expect from that, that we shall be able 
to re-establish the tappali upon the road ; that, I am afraid, 
must still go round by Canara. Measures have been taken 

*/ 

for collecting in Canara as many troops as Lieut. Colonel 
Mignan will require : one battalion must come from Goa, if 
he wants it, and another from Malabar. It would not do to 
withdraw every thing from Goa; for in that case how is 
Soonda to be assisted, if it should be attacked ? Not from 
Mysore certainly, for we cannot get there during the rains. 
Not from Canara, where there are no troops ; but from Goa. 

' Soonda appears a favorite place of yours, and it is extra- 
ordinary that you should not have provided for it some way 
or other ; and that you should not allow your amildars to 
assist the paymasters in procuring provisions for the forts 
which are to be kept. 

' I think that upon the whole we are not in the most 
thriving condition in this country. Poly gars, nairs, and 
moplas in arms on all sides of us ; an army full of disaffec- 
tion and discontent, amounting to Lord knows what, on the 
northern frontier, which increases as it advances like a snow- 
ball in snow. To oppose this, we have nothing that ought 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 115 

to be taken from the necessary garrisons, and the corps we 
have in them are incomplete in men and without officers. 
If we go to war in earnest, however, (and if we take the field 
at all, it ought to be in earnest,) I will collect every thing 
that can be brought together from all sides, and we ought 
not to quit the field as long as there is a discontented or un- 
subdued polygar in the country. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Seringapatam, 10th May, 1800. 

' I have again, this morning, received a letter from the 
Commanding Officer at Hullihall, stating that the paymas- 
ter's servant cannot get grain, and that he begins to feel a 
want in the bazaar. 

' I acknowledge, in general, the propriety of the refusal of 
those charged with the civil government to interfere with the 
purchases which it may be necessary to make on account of 
the military ; but there may be cases in which such an inter- 
ference may be not only proper, but absolutely necessary. 
If the paymaster's servant is dishonest, it may be possible 
that nothing more may be required than to turn him out ; 
and an honest servant may be able to procure all he wants, 
notwithstanding the neutrality of the sircar. But it may 
happen that the sircar, or his servants, are not neuter ; and 
that (as it is stated in this instance) the amildar throws 
difficulties in the way of procuring the necessary supplies for 
the troops ; in that case, surely the interference of the col- 
lector is necessary to check the improper conduct of his 
servant. 

' As the frontier is disturbed, it may happen that the 
people are unwilling to part with their grain at any price ; or 
there may be a real scarcity, which may induce the people to 
wish to keep it. But in either of these cases, it surely is 
necessary that the Company's garrisons should be provided; 
and in order to procure a provision, the authority of the civil 
government must be exercised. 

' There are other circumstances under which the inter- 
ference of the civil government might be desirable in order 

i2 



116 MYSORE. 1800. 

to procure supplies; but I only allude to those which it 
appears have hitherto prevented us from making any store 
of grain in Soonda ; and into them I wish you would make 
inquiry, and to take such measures as you may think neces- 
sary to remedy the evil. 

' Government have approved of the measure of throwing 
grain into the garrisons in that country ; they will require 
about one thousand loads ; and all I can say upon the sub- 
ject is, that if the grain is not procured, I do not conceive 
that I am answerable for the consequences. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Seringapatam, 17th May, 1800. 

' You will be glad to hear that I have called away both 
the battalions of native infantry from Goa; and I hope they 
will join the army, which is forming to the northward, by the 
end of the month. 

' I have attended to your suggestion regarding the inter- 
ference of commanding officers of posts in the prices of grain, 
and I have this day issued an order of which the enclosed is 
a copy. 

' An officer of Chandergooty has contrived to drive away 
all the bazaar people ; and if I find upon inquiry that this is 
to be attributed to his improper interference, I shall put in 
execution the threat contained in the order. 

' I hear from Mr. Gordon this morning, that your amildar 
in Soonda has given his servant some assistance, and the 
consequence is, that he has got some grain. I hope the 
assistance given has not been to enable him to get it at 
a low price, but to get it at any price the ryots may ask. 

' You will perceive, by my letters to Colonel Mignan, that 
I am entirely of your opinion regarding the utility of pro- 
viding against disaffection at all points ; we shall do well if 
we can provide against those places where it manifests itself 
by acts of violence and rebellion. I have urged Colonel 
Mignan to provide for a call which you may make upon him 
for troops, to be stationed at Vittell; and as he will not 
require so large a force for the blockade of Jemalabad 



1800. SERINGAPATAM. 117 

as I expected, he will be able to furnish what you may 
require. 

' Colonel Montresor has been very active and successful 
in Bullum. But I am of opinion that nothing has been done 
which can tend effectually to put an end to the rebellion in 
that country ; and that the near approach of the rains renders 
it impossible to do that which alone, in my opinion, will ever 
get the better of Kistnapah Naig. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

f MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 18th May, 1800. 

e In regard to Munro' s public letter I have to answer, that 
the moment I heard of the riot he mentions I wrote to the 
commanding officer in Canara to desire that he would pro- 
vide a force to check it ; and I do not believe there will be 
any difficulty in sending to Vittell the number of troops 
which it appears Munro thinks sufficient. 

' It is very true that the mortars were all at Cannanore at 
the time when Jemalabad was taken ; but it is not true that 
there has been time to get them from thence. I have heard 
that they have left Cannanore ; but as the northerly winds 
prevail at this season of the year, I do not believe that they 
are yet at Mangalore. 

' Munro is mistaken also regarding the howitzer, which he 
says is fitting up at Mangalore. It has been at Jemalabad 
since the 10th. 

' I am sorry that Munro thinks that matters do not go on 
so quickly as they ought in Canara; but one fact proves 
that they have not been very slow there, which is, that the 
fort of Jemalabad was surprised on the 19th, a force was 
before it on the 21st, and the lower forts were retaken in a 
day or two afterwards. That the mortars and shells were in 
Malabar, that they are difficult to move, and that the winds 
are contrary, is no more to be attributed to Colonel Mignan 
than the surprise of the place was. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



118 MYSORE. 180 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, * Camp at Archinelly, 22nd May, 1800. 

' I am obliged to you for your account of the murder, 
which shocked me much. I hear from Colonel Saxon that 
he has taken measures for the apprehension of the perpetra- 
tors of it, in case they should be on the island ; and I have 
hopes that at all events they will be caught, and will meet 
with the punishment which they deserve. 

' We are within three miles of Chinna, have got on well, 
excepting the Company's carts, which already want repair. 
We likewise want some bullock drivers, coolies, spare bul- 
locks, &c. ; but I have threatened a muster at Nagamung- 
lum, which I hope will bring out of Seringapatam all those 
who belong to us, and have remained behind. 

' I have received a letter of the 18th from Colonel Mig- 
nan, in which he says that some fellows had plundered Bunt- 
well in the neighbourhood of Vittell, and about half way on 
the road between Mangalore and Jemalabad. He had sent 
a force there, and there were hopes of being able to cut off 
the upper fort of Jemalabad entirely. 

' I have received a most distressing account of the state 
of the 1st regiment of cavalry ; they had been very sickly; 
latterly some men have died ; the whole regiment are much 
frightened and out of spirits, and about twenty sepoys, nine 
of whom had been many years in the service, have deserted. 
I have desired Pater to halt them at Hurryhur, to put the 
sick under cover, and the whole regiment into the fort, if 
necessary. 

' As Dr. Anderson thinks they will not recover either 
health or spirits till they reach Arcot, I am afraid that I 
shall be obliged to send them to the rear entirely, and 
eventually to the Carnatic. 

' General Braithwaite tells me that he will be obliged to 
call for the 4th regiment, and will send four troops of the 
19th. I have informed him of this circumstance regarding 
the 1st regiment, and I have asked for the whole of the 19th. 
With that, the 25th, and the 2nd regiment, we shall still be 
strong enough. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' The 74th regiment are ordered to halt at Wallajahbad.' 



1800. CHINNA. 119 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Archinelly, 22nd May, 1800, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 9 P. M. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter which I have received from 
Major Browne. Jerrah is in Soonda, about four miles from 
the Werdah, and close to the Marhatta frontier ; it is twelve 
miles from Chundergooty, where we have a post of one 
officer, and a company of sepoys, and there is another at 
Bilghy, twelve miles from thence. 

' To order the cavalry to cross the Toombuddra and the 
Werdah to Jerrah will never answer. The distance would 
be very great ; and the country is so jungly that they could 
not act when they should arrive there. I have written to Sir 
William Clarke letters in triplicate, to inform him of what 
has happened, and I do not doubt but that the party will 
move out of the Company's territories as soon as they hear 
that the battalion is coming up, which must now be far ad- 
vanced on its march from Goa. To attempt any thing else 
will be useless till I approach nearer to the frontier. 

' The communication with our troops in Soonda is cut off, 
as the tappall necessarily passed through Jerrah. 

' I have desired Major Brown to draw the troops from 
Bilghy, to destroy that place entirely, and to re-inforce with 
them the fort at Chandergooty. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' As I think it desirable that Government should receive 
this intelligence as soon as possible, as it may quicken their 
decision regarding our operations, I sent it off this night by 
express.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, two miles north of Chinna, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 23rd May, 1800. 

' I have this morning received a letter from the Adjutant 
General, by which I am ordered to send to Ryacotta two com- 
panies of the 2nd of the 5th. This will weaken us at rather 
a valuable point, but it cannot be helped. There is nothing 
for it but to withdraw some men from Nundydroog, and 
form a little detachment for field service, with guns, under 



120 MYSORE. 3800. 

Cuppage, which might move about from place to place as it 
might be necessary. 

' It is not yet certain that the 74th will come up ; but if 
they do they shall be halted somewhere in front of Banga- 
lore, to give a countenance to our troops thereabouts until 
we absolutely want them in this country. 

' I get on well ; our bazaar is not quite so numerous as I 
expected from the appearance of that which was placed on 
the north side of the river. I rather imagine that the dealers 
there find their situation very advantageous, and that they 
will still remain there ; and if they can, keep the exemption 
from duties which Purneah has been so kind as to allow the 
bazaar hitherto. As this was granted only that they might 
be at all times prepared to take the field with the troops, it 
will be proper to withdraw it now that these are in the field. 
If any of them are staying behind with an intention of 
taking an unfair advantage of Purneah's indulgence, the 
discontinuance of it will bring them out to join us. 

' I desired Captain West to write to Mr. Cochrane to re- 
quest that the runners might be again posted on the road 
between Bangalore and Sera, and that he would write to 
the Post Master General at Fort St. George, to desire that 
letters for the army and the northern garrisons might be 
sent by that road in a separate bag. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. e ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Upon looking over Cuppage's returns, I find that he can 
have a detachment of 4 or 500 men, with two guns, leaving 
his garrison well provided, and a good detachment in Goom- 
nair, which, in case of disturbance, he would of course join. 

' I have desired Barclay to write to Cuppage, and desire 
him to put this measure in execution if he thinks it will 
answer better than the present arrangement ; and I shall, by 
this day's post, desire Mr. Gordon to prepare for it, and 
Maclntire to send muskets and ammunition, which is all 
they can want. 

' Severndroog and Oustraydroog are occupied by small 
parties fron the 2nd of the 5th; will you be so kind as 
to speak to Purneah about placing in those two forts a few 
trusty peons, on whom he can depend, that they will give 
them up to us when we may require them ? I have written 



1800. NAGAMUNGLUM. 121 

to the commanding officer in the Baramahl to desire that he 
will make a similar arrangement with Mr. Graham for occu- 
pying Anchitty Droog, Ratengerry, and Shoolgerry. 

' I enclose a letter from Colonel Pater : will you desire 
Purneah to give orders to the killadar to make the repairs 
to the fort of Hurryhur, and throw in there a supply of 
provisions ?' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

* Camp at Nagamunglum, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 24th May, isoo. 

' I have received a letter from Colonel Pater, in which he 
says, that there are no provisions in Hurryhur. He has, 
however, thrown in there five companies of the 1st of the 
8th, and two guns ; but I am afraid the want of provisions 
will oblige him to withdraw them again. 

' He likewise complains of want of gram. There is plenty 
in the country, and I have informed him that Purneah has 
taken all restrictions oft' the sale of every kind of grain. I 
suspect the gram agents do not exert themselves as they 
ought ; but I have given them a brush through Colonel 
Pater, and have informed him that the system under which 
they are agents, has not been hitherto approved ; and that if 
the service fails for want of gram after all that has been done 
to procure it, it is more than probable that another system 
will be adopted. 

' What do you think of Government having given power 
to the gram agents to draw upon Madras for 4500 pagodas 
each, without saying one word to any of us in this country 
upon the subject; the monthly interest of which sum alone 
is sufficient to pay for the monthly expenditure of gram ? 

' I get on famously, and expect the detachment from 
Bullum to-morrow. 

' The 1st regiment must go to the Carnatic, nothing else 
can save them. 

' I hope the Rajah of Koorg is not dead; we generally 
lose by the transfer of a government from one hand to 
another. 

' The battalion is on its march from Goa. I reckon that 
it will have arrived at Hullihall by this time, and will be at 



122 MYSORE. 1800. 

Hoonelly as soon as I can. I have sent it orders to attack 
OUT friend at Jerrah. 

' Believe me, Sec. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Nagamunglum, 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, 24th May, 1800. 

' I think the plan of marking the calves a very good one, 
and I shall be glad if it is carried into execution. 

' Lieut. Colonel Montresor's detachment is come in, but 
the native corps are miserably weak. Lieut. Colonel Tol- 
frey's battalion has only about 300 men for duty. 

' I have had another letter from Pater, by which it appears 
that he had had an interview with the amildar at Hurry- 
hur, with whom he was perfectly satisfied. The amildar 
had expressed his readiness to do every thing in his power 
to assist the detachment. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

f Camp at Nagamunglum, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 26th May, isoo. 

' I have received from Major Cuppage rather a curious 
account of a fellow who is raising horse in that neighbor- 
hood, with the knowledge of the amildar, and who has not 
communicated to him anything upon the subject; I con- 
clude that you have received the account, and therefore I do 
not send it to you. 

' I march on to-morrow. Purneah has sent some orders 
here to allow all provisions coming to camp to pass free 
of toll. I understood that he had given orders to that 
effect in all parts of the country; and if that is the case, it 
will be better that our brinjarries and bazaar people should 
not have these papers in their hands, of which it may be cer- 
tain that they will make a bad use. 

1 If, however, Purneah prefers that they should have in 
their hands these papers, rather than give one general order 
to all his amildars, &c., upon this subject, it will be necessary 



1800. BELLOOR. 123 

that wo should have more of them in camp. I shall not 
allow any of these orders to be given out till I receive your 
answer to this letter. 

* Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Belloor, 27th May, 1800. 

' I have received yours of the 26th and its enclosures. I 
had already heard of the march of the battalion from Goa, 
and have provided bullocks for them. I did not know of 
their want of money ; but Captain Munro's supply of that, 
and of bullocks, to bring them through Soonda will be very 
acceptable. 

' I enclose you a letter which I received last night, which 
agrees with Captain Munro's account, rather than with that 
of Ram Rao, of the nature of the force which has entered 
Soonda; Ram Rao'& cavalry will have driven them out before 
the Bombay battalion will be near them. It does not come 
by the Budnaghur road, but by that of Soonda and Severy, 
unless the officer commanding it should alter his route upon 
hearing of the irruption of these vagabonds. 

' Whether they belong to Dhoondiah, or are only robbers, 
it is clear that it is necessary that we should come to an 
understanding with the Marhattas regarding that frontier. 

' I enclose you some papers which I received last night 
from Colonel Sartorius, by which it appears that Dhoondiah 
has been meddling in Malabar. I acknowledge that I should 
rather believe the truth to be that the letter to the Cherical 
Rajah was written by the Pyche; but whether it was or not, 
it is very clear that the name of Dhoondiah is made use 
of among all the Company's turbulent subjects, to create 
disturbances ; and it is therefore the more incumbent upon 
our Government to get the better of him. I have received an 
excellent account of Hoonelly from Colonel Pater, who de- 
sired Captain Balfour of the artillery to visit it. He reports 
it to be in a perfect state of defence, guns, powder, shot, pro- 
visions, &c., well arranged and prepared. All appears to be 
so perfect, that I do not propose to put any of our troops 
into the fort unless the killadar wishes it ; and I shall be 



124 MYSORE. 1800. 

obliged to you if you will mention him to Purneah, as a man 
deserving encouragement. The boats are in great forward- 
ness ; and there is a large wooden boat at Hooly Honore, 
which I propose to have brought down to Hoonelly as soon 
as the river fills. 

' I return you the bill for the cook rooms, which I have 
signed, and to which I have annexed a copy of the authority 
which I received from Government to build them. If you 
will send the bill to Gordon he will pay it. 

' The pension to Mahomed Ally is 250 star pagodas per 
annum, payable at Seringapatam on the Family Fund, and 
is in Class No. 1. He received the arrears of it from the 1st 
of January. We agreed about Shah Abbas, as you say. 

' The guards at Severn droog and Oustradroog belong to 
the companies of the 2nd of the 5th, and they will soon 
be withdrawn. This is the reason why I am anxious that 
Purneah should place people in those forts on whom he can 
depend. 

' I write to Colonel Sartorius this day, and I shall desire 
him, in case he perceives any symptoms of serious insurrec- 
tion in Malabar, to begin to bring his forces together in such 
manner as that they will be secure and prepared to join one 
another when the season opens. 

' I conclude that Stevenson will have informed you of the 
attempts which have been made to seduce the sepoys to de- 
sert from the 2nd of the 3rd. A committee was assembled 
to examine into the matter, but they could make nothing of 
it, although Stevenson thinks that Dhoondiah has been en- 
deavoring to raise men at Chittledroog, as it appears that 
Cuppage thinks that he has been making the same endea- 
vor at his post and district. It certainly is very desirable, 
on many accounts, that our troops should be kept separate 
from the inhabitants at Chittledroog, and I accordingly 
desired Stevenson to turn over the subject in his mind, and 
to let me know whether it would not be possible to remove 
all the inhabitants from the fort, properly so called, into 
what I understand is the pettah, although it is equally sur- 
rounded by a strong wall, and that the former might be 
given up solely and entirely to the troops, who should have 
nothing to do with, and should not inhabit the latter. I do 
not know whether Colonel Stevenson has entirely compre- 



1800. CALCUTTA. 125 

bended the meaning of what I wrote to him ; but if he has, 
he appears to be of opinion that it will be practicable, and 
not difficult to remove from the fort all the inhabitants. 

' I shall be glad if you will let me know what you think 
upon this subject, and whether there will be any objection to 
the arrangement on the part of Purneah. I understand that 
the inhabitants of Chittledroog are very numerous, that they 
are of the cast of the old Rajahs, and were, in general, here- 
tofore sepoys and peons in the service of the Sultaun. They 
refuse to take service with us in any manner whatever ; at 
Chittledroog we can get neither recruits, servants, lascars, 
coolies, or bullock drivers ; and I cannot think that it will be 
very safe to leave in a fort with our troops a large number of 
fellows such as these are described to be. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Upon looking over the authority from Government I 
perceive it goes only to repairs; but the building of the 
offices was allowed, I know, in a private letter from Webbe. 
Send the authority to the Paymaster, or not, as you think fit.' 

In May, 1800, whilst occupied in the important command 
of Mysore, Colonel Wellesley received a proposition from his 
brother, Lord Mornington, to be united with Admiral Rainier 
in the charge of an expedition which the Governor General, 
in obedience to the King's orders, had planned against 
Batavia. The letter of the Governor General, and the con- 
sequent correspondence, will best elucidate the motives 
which induced Colonel Wellesley to decline this service. 

To Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. (Extract.) 

' MY DEAR ARTHUR, Calcutta, 13th May, 1800. 

' The object of this letter is to propose to you a situation 
which I think it would be unjust not to submit to your 
option, although I entertain considerable doubts whether 
you will think it eligible with a view to your individual inte- 
rests ; and I am still more apprehensive of the difficulty of 
reconciling it with the exigencies of the public service in 
Mysore at this crisis. You will, however, exercise your own 



126 MYSORE. 1800. 

free judgment on the subject, and I have no doubt that you 
will decide in the manner most honorable to yourself and 
most advantageous to the public. 

' I have received instructions directly from the King, ad- 
dressed to me in my individual capacity, empowering me to 
take measures for the purpose of endeavoring to induce the 
settlement of Batavia to accept his Majesty's protection on 
the same terms lately granted to the colony of Surinam, and 
some time past to those of Demerara and Berbice. 

' It is not the intention of ministers to attempt to reduce, 
or to retain Batavia by force. Indeed, a sufficient force for 
that purpose could not be spared from India at the present 
moment. The plan is, therefore, to send to Batavia several 
ships of war, with a force sufficiently numerous to furnish an 
ostensible justification to the Governor General to surrender 
the colony into our hands. 

' The King has given me the power of selecting the per- 
sons who are to conduct this expedition ; and I have thought 
it, on every ground, most expedient to place the principal 
conduct of the equipment and negotiation in the hand of 
Admiral Rainier. It will be necessary to join a military 
officer in the commission with him, and a conscientious sense 
of duty induces me to think that you are the most fit person 
to be selected for that service, provided you can safely be 
spared from Mysore for the period of the expedition, which 
I imagine may be four or five months, but probably cannot 
be longer. 

' In proposing this service to you, justice requires that I 
should state to you its contingent advantages. I have every 
reason to believe that the warehouses at Batavia contain 
public property to a very large amount. This will neces- 
sarily fall to the crown; and in the instructions for the 
expedition to Surinam, the whole property of the same 
description was reserved expressly for his Majesty's pleasure, 
no part of it being granted to the captors by the tenor of 
those instructions. 

' The instructions, however, are so expressed, as to admit 
little doubt that the King's intention was ultimately to grant 
a proportion, at least, to the captors, of the public property 
at Surinam. My instructions, with relation to this point, 
will be precisely the same as those given in England with 



1800. FORT ST. GEORGE. 127 

respect to Surinam ; and I therefore conclude, that the 
expedition will be very advantageous to the naval and mili- 
tary commanders. 

' The importance of Batavia, especially when considered 
with relation to the illicit and contraband trade, which has 
excited so much alarm in England, will certainly render the 
success of the negotiation creditable to the officers con- 
cerned in conducting it. No previous negotiation has taken 
place with Batavia ; and it is therefore possible, although I 
believe it to be, from all accounts which have reached me, 
highly improbable, that our flag of truce may not be 
favorably received, and that the whole plan may fail of suc- 
cess. 

' Having thus stated the whole of this case to you without 
reserve, I desire you to make your option, upon your own 
view of the question ! with this single reservation, that I am 
persuaded you will be aware of the necessity of postponing 
any decision upon it until you have ascertained that Lord 
Clive can substitute in your present command, during your 
absence, a person completely satisfactory to him in every 
respect. For this purpose, I request you to write privately 
to Lord Clive, and to act according to his wishes. 

' On this part of the question, much will certainly depend 
on the season which the Admiral may choose for the enter- 
prise. I cannot, at present, give you any information on 
that subject ; but I shall request Lord Clive to communicate 
to you the Admiral's intentions by the earliest possible 
opportunity. 

' Believe me, my dear Arthur, 

' Yours most affectionately, 
' Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley.' ' MORNINGTON. 

To Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Fort St. George, 24th May, 1800. 

' I showed you a note from Wilks at Seringapatam, men- 
tioning the receipt of dispatches from hence for restraining 
the Dutch at Batavia ; and I think we agreed that an 
armament against that place would be impracticable, under 
the present circumstances of this government. 

' Since my arrival, I find that orders are arrived from 
Bengal, for equipping a naval and military force for that 



128 MYSORE. 1800. 

purpose ; the latter, however, not to exceed 600 European, 
and 600 natives. Lord Mornington proposes that you 
should command the military ; but no force is to be used, 
and the government of Batavia is to be persuaded to put 
itself under our protection, in the same manner as Surinam: 
this negotiation will be conducted by the Admiral, so that I 
fear you are likely to obtain neither fame nor prize money. 

' I have no doubt, therefore, that you will prefer your 
present independent and extensive command, to being sta- 
tioned at Batavia ; and Lord Clive has made a most earnest 
request to the Governor General, that some other officer 
may be appointed, as his Lordship would not know how to 
supply your temporary absence from Mysore. I hope this 
will be satisfactory to you. 

' The immediate consequence of this order is the counter- 
mand of the 74th ; and the 12th is so sickly, that it is again 
gone into quarters at Ponawally. So that if the expedition 
goes on, we shall be under the unavoidable necessity of 
crippling your detachment. Lord Clive has however recom- 
mended, on the ground of our defective military force on the 
coast, that no detachment should be made from this army 
for the armament ; and I hope that Lord Mornington will 
consent to convert it into a naval blockade. In the event of 
the expedition going on, his Lordship has requested that the 
European regiment may be partly drawn from Goa for the 
service in Mysore. 

( You are to pursue Dhoondiah Waugh wherever you may 
find him, and to hang him on the first tree. For this 
purpose you will receive immediate authority to enter the 
Marhatta frontier. 

' Believe me, &c. 

4 Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley: ' JOSIAH WEBBE. 



To Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

' MY DEAR SlR, * Fort St. George, 26th May, 1800. 

* You have been already apprized by Mr. Webbe, that the 
Governor General has received his Majesty's commands to 
take measures, in conjunction with Vice Admiral Rainier, to 
induce the settlement of Batavia to accept the protection of 
Great Britain ; upon terms similar to those which have been 



1800. FORT ST. GEORGE. 129 

granted to the colony of Surinam. To effect this important 
object, it is intended to open a negotiation with the leading 
people in Batavia ; and in order to give weight to the nego- 
tiation, it is proposed that a considerable portion of the Vice 
Admiral's squadron, accompanied by a land force under the 
command of a respectable officer, should be in readiness to 
blockade the principal Dutch ports in the island of Java. 

' The force allotted for this expedition is to consist of a 
detachment of artillery and 600 Europeans, to be furnished 
by this Presidency and Ceylon, and of the Bengal Marine 
battalion, now encamped in this neighbourhood. 

' By a private communication which I received last night 
from Lord Mornington, I find it is his Lordship's desire, 
that I should inform him how far I may think it advisable 
for you to quit your present command, for a few months, 
that you may be joined with Admiral Rainier in the conduct 
of the negotiation with Batavia, and take the command of 
the troops intended for embarkation. But in all events it is 
his Lordship's wish, that the option between the two situa- 
tions should be left to the decision of your own choice. 

' Previous to my receipt of Lord Mornington's private 
letter, I had, in a dispatch of the 24th instant, fully stated 
to his Lordship my sentiments upon the inexpediency and 
danger of further weakening our present incomplete and 
divided army ; and I have not scrupled to give it as my 
opinion, that in the actual state of affairs in the Carnatic 
and in Mysore, it will be most for the public good to 
attempt the attainment of the object of his Majesty's com- 
mands by a naval blockade only of the principal port of 
Batavia. But whatever may be the result of Lord Morn- 
ington's deliberation upon my dispatch, I have deemed it 
my duty to represent, that it is not possible for you to quit 
your present command, even for a few months, without the 
greatest detriment to the affairs of Mysore; and I have 
made it my earnest request that his Lordship will select 
some other officer for this service. 

' In sending you, therefore, the offer of the command of 
the land forces about to sail to the eastward, I have no hesi- 
tation in recommending in the strongest terms, and in 
requesting you, if I may be permitted so to do, to remain in 
a situation which I have long felt, and still feel, that you fill 

VOL. I. K 



130 MYSORE. 1800. 

with singular advantage to our own country, as well as to 
Mysore ; a situation in which for the prosperous settlement 
of our new acquisitions, integrity and vigilance of conduct 
are indispensable; and in which your acquired knowledge 
and experience, especially in the event of active operations, 
must give you the advantage over other men ; and in which 
I should find it not only difficult, but impossible to replace 
you to my satisfaction. I remain, with respect and sincere 
regard, &c. 
'Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. ' CLIVE. 

' P. S. I learn from Admiral Rainier that the detachment 
of His Majesty's ships, which he proposes to appoint for the 
service in question, will be ready in three weeks.' 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
* MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Curruh, 29th May, 1800. 

' I received yours of the 27th yesterday, and I imme- 
diately wrote to Colonel Stevenson to desire he would inquire 

into the circumstances stated by . I also requested 

him to let know my opinion regarding the conclud- 
ing paragraph of his letter to Mr, Cochrane. 

' I have given out an order to the purport proposed by 
you regarding the disputes of the officers with the Post 
Office people. 

' I arrived here this morning, and I shall halt to-morrow, as 
my cattle have suffered much from the rain and from the 
refusal of the people of the country to sell their straw. The 
protection which has been afforded to the villages has nearly 
ruined us ; but I have pressed my hircarrah and the amildar 
of this place a good deal upon the subject, and I hope to get 
on better. I shall be obliged to you if you will speak to Pur- 
neah upon the subject, and prevail upon him to write to the 
amildars in this country to desire that we may have straw, 
paying for the same at the rate fixed for that delivered to the 
cavalry ; viz. four bullock loads for a rupee. 

* 1 am afraid that I shall not be able to allow Colonel Tol- 
frey's battalion to go to Paughur ; as, however weak it may 
be, we cannot spare it. I may, perhaps, be able to take out 
from Chittledroog one of the battalions which are stronger, 



1800. CURRUH. 131 

and to put his in there ; but as he will not be permanently 
fixed there, I do not think that his situation will be much 
mended by that arrangement, although I shall gain a strong 
instead of a weak battalion. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Colonel the Hon. A. Wettesley. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Laal Baug, 29th May, 1800. 

' I have now to intimate that I have just received a con- 
fidential communication from the Presidency, containing 
matter which quite alarms me. 

' In consequence of orders from home, a force is to be 
sent off from the coast to take charge of Batavia, and it is 
said you are destined to command it. How is this to be 
reconciled? Is not Mysore a great charge, and is not the 
command of the troops in it at the present conjuncture 
particularly important ? Lord Clive, I understand, cannot 
bear the idea of your quitting this country ; and concluding 
that the conduct of the service at Batavia cannot be viewed 
as equally important as your present charge, means to 
solicit Lord Mornington to forbear taking you from Mysore. 
I hope your inclinations go with his Lordship's intention on 
this point. 

' I cannot prevail on myself to look forward to the various 
uncomfortable consequences that would follow your vacating 
the command here. 

' Yours most faithfully, 

' BARRY CLOSE. 

To Josiah Webbe, Esq., Secretary to the Government of 
Fort St. George. 

' MY DEAR WEBBE, 'Camp at Curruh, 29th May, 1800. 

' I have received a letter from Lord Mornington, in which 
he offers me the command of the troops intended against 
Batavia, provided Lord Clive can spare me from this 
country. I have written to Lord Clive upon the subject a 
letter which he will probably communicate to you ; and I 
have left to him to accept for me Lord Mornington's offer or 
not, accordingly as he may find it most convenient for the 

K2 



132 MYSORE. 1800. 

public service, after having ascertained from the Admiral 
the period at which he would propose to depart from the 
coast upon this service. 

' The probable advantages and credit to be gained are 
great ; but I am determined that nothing shall induce me 
to desire to quit this country, until its tranquillity is en- 
sured. The general want of troops, however, at the present 
moment, and the season, may induce the Admiral to be 
desirous to postpone the expedition till late in the year. 
In that case it may be convenient that I should accompany 
him ; but I beg, if you have any conversation with Lord 
Clive, you will assure him, that if it should be in the 
smallest degree otherwise, I shall be very sorry to go. 

( It appears by Lord Mornington's letter to me, that the 
order for the attempt upon Batavia comes direct from the 
King, and that it is reckoned a matter of some importance 
in England. I think it probable that it will be made; 
although not immediately, on account of the great want of 
troops, and the employment already cut out for those we 
have at command. 

' Believe me, &c. 
'Josiah Webbe, Esq. ' ARTHUR WELLKSLEY. 

' P.S. I have just received your letter of the 24th, and 
you will perceive that I have decided upon the offer in the 
manner that Lord Clive would wish. Lord Mornington, in 
his letter to me, seems to think that it will be advantageous 
to me, and from the importance of the object, in England, 
one from which I may derive some credit; but I feel all 
that entirely out of the question, and I leave to Lord Clive 
to decide according to his sense of the public convenience.' 

To Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, 'Camp at Curruh, 29th May, 1800. 

e I have just received a letter from Lord Mornington, by 
which he offers me the military command of certain troops 
intended to be sent on an expedition against Batavia, pro- 
vided your Lordship can spare me from this country. 

' I am fully aware of the advantages which may attend, and 
of the credit which may be gained by the attainment of the 



1800. CURRUH. 133 

object proposed in sending troops to that place ; but, under 
the present circumstances of this country, I cannot express a 
wish to quit it. 

' From the information which your Lordship will have of 
the time at which Admiral Rainier would prepare to go to 
Batavia, you will be enabled to judge whether it may pos- 
sibly be convenient to the public service that I should 
accompany him. I beg, therefore, that your Lordship will 
give Lord Mornington an answer, whether I am to be em- 
ployed on this service or not, according to your Lordship's 
view of the public interest and convenience, after having 
ascertained from the Admiral the period of his departure 
from the coast. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'Lord CliveC ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Earl of Mornington. 
' MY DEAR M., ' Camp at Curruh, 29th May, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th instant, and I am 
very much obliged to you for the offer which you make me of 
sending me with the Admiral to Batavia. 

' I do not deny that I should like much to go ; but you 
will have learned, before you receive this, that my troops are 
in the field, and it is therefore probable that Lord Clive will 
be desirous that I should remain in this country until its 
tranquillity is ensured, and the troops can be sent back to 
their different garrisons. I have written to him upon the 
subject, and I have desired him to accept your offer for me 
or not, as he may find it most convenient for the public ser- 
vice, after having ascertained from the Admiral at what 
time he proposes to depart from the coast on this service. 
If he should not depart until late in the year, I think it 
more than probable that I shall be able to go with him. I 
do not know which of the services will answer best; but 
I am certain that it will be more easy to spare troops from 
the Carnatic and Mysore, towards the end of the year, than 
it is at this moment. 

' Dhoondiah is certainly a despicable enemy ; but, from 
circumstances, he is one against whom we have been obliged 
to make a formidable preparation. It is absolutely neces- 
sary to the peace of this country of Canara and Malabar, 



134 MYSORE. 1800. 

that that man should be given up to us; and I doubt not 
that before now you will have made a demand for him upon 
the government of Poonah. If we do not get him, we must 
expect a general insurrection of all the discontented and dis- 
affected of these countries. I have information that letters 
have been received by most of them, either from him, or 
from others written in his name, calling upon them to take 
the opportunity to rebel against the Company's government, 
or that of their allies ; and his invasion of our territory is 
looked to as a circumstance favorable to their views. 

' The destruction of this man, therefore, is absolutely 
necessary for our tranquillity ; and nothing will be more 
easy, if the Marhattas are really disposed to enter into the 
plan. If they are not, it will be a matter of difficulty, and 
it may become a question whether the whole power of the 
Company ought not to be turned to this object. I was 
aware that this was the case before the troops were col- 
lected ; and although I was certain that it was the only 
mode of saving this country from being plundered, I did not 
like to put it in execution without Lord Clive's orders. 

' It was clear that when an army should be collected to 
oppose a man who had an asylum in the Marhatta country, 
and who may therefore be reckoned a part of the Marhatta 
state, the government would be committed with that of the 
Marhattas, and our honor would require that we should go 
through with the business until that man should be given 
up to us, or that we should have some adequate security for 
his good behaviour. 

' If, then, the government of Poonah is inclined to give 
this man up to us, or to co-operate with us in his destruction, 
it may be possible for me to go to Batavia. If they should 
not, matters here will take a very serious turn, and no pros- 
pect of advantage or of credit to be gained shall induce me 
to quit this country. 

1 Besides the destruction of this Dhoondiah, there are 
other objects, which comparatively, however, are of a trifling 
nature. The attainment of these might be given in charge 
to other people, if it should be thought desirable to postpone 
the expedition to Batavia until matters are settled on the 
Marhatta frontier. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 
' The Earl of Mornington." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. CHEYLOOR. 135 

To Lord Clive. 
* MY LORD, ' Camp at Cheyloor, 31st May, 1800. 

< I had the honor of writing to you on the 29th instant, 
after I had received a letter from Lord Mornington * upon 
the same subject with that from your Lordship of the 26th. 
Since I wrote to you on the 29th, I have received your 
Lordship's instructions of the 25th, which I am proceeding 
to put in execution ; and I beg leave to decline to accept the 
command of the troops destined to sail with the squadron 
under Admiral Rainier. 

' When I wrote to your Lordship on the 29th, I imagined 
that under the present circumstances it might have been 
desirable to postpone to send troops on this service until a 
late period of the year, when it might possibly have been 
convenient that I could accompany them ; but as it appears 
that the Admiral will be prepared to sail in three weeks, I 
cannot think of relinquishing the command with which your 
Lordship has intrusted me at this interesting period, for 
any object of advantage or credit to be gained in another 
place. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'Lord Clive.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp near Cheyloor, 31st May, 1800. 

' I conclude that you will have received a copy of the 
instructions which 1 received yesterday from Government, 
dated the 25th instant, and therefore I do not enclose you 
one. By these I am authorized to enter the Marhatta ter- 
ritory. 

' Upon a consideration of the whole of our situation, it 

* To Colonel ike Hon. A. Wcllesley (Extract). 

' MY DEAR ARTHUR, ' Fort William, 6th June, 1800. 

' Lord Clive has pressed for your continuance in Mysore with an earnestness 
so honorable to you, that I think you cannot accept the command of the forces 
destined for Batavia ; indeed, I suspect that you could not quit Mysore at 
present. Your conduct there has secured your character and advancement for 
the remainder of your life, and you may trust me for makiug the hest use of 
your merits in your future promotion. 

' Ever, my dear Arthur, 

Yours most affectionately, 

' WELHSLKY.' 



136 MYSORE. 1800. 

appears to me that the best thing I can do is to cross 
the Toombuddra immediately, with the troops which I shall 
have with me by the time I reach it, and I think that I 
ought to cross it below O oil all and the junction of the Werdah 
with it; I shall then be in the Marhatta territory, and on the 
same side of the river with Dhoondiah; and if I find it 
necessary I may wait there till I am joined by the 25th dra- 
goons and the money, and I can collect there boats which may 
be wanting to transport across the river brinjarries, &c., 
which will follow me. The advantage in my being across the 
river will be, that when it comes down, there will be less to be 
crossed over than if I remain on this side of it, and by cross- 
ing below Oollall and the junction with the Werdah, I save 
the passage of that river, and the march through the northern 
part of Bednore, and I am in a better place for receiving 
every thing than if I were to go up to Anawooty and Jerrah. 
I might certainly cross the Toombuddra at Hoonelly, and wait 
there in our own territory till 1 should receive every thing ; 
but then I shall have the Werdah to pass after it will have 
filled, and exclusive of the difficulties of the march through 
the Bednore country, the passage of that river will be found as 
difficult as that of the Toombuddra ; therefore, at all events, 
it would seem proper to cross the latter below the junction, 
Avhatever may be the period at which it may be crossed, and 
the question is narrowed to this point, shall I cross it imme- 
diately and wait on the other side, or shall I wait on this side 
till I am joined by every thing I expect ? I acknowledge that 
I think I ought to cross immediately, but I shall be glad to 
have your opinion upon this subject. 

' I believe Ball Kishen Punt is the principal Marhatta 
personage in Savanore, and I ought to write to him. W 7 ould 
it not be advisable also to open a correspondence with 
Appah Saheb and Goklah, Bappojee Scindiah, &c. &c.? Let 
me have your opinion on these points. 

' I think of moving two heavy guns up to Oollall, in case 
I should find them necessary. I have bullocks for them. 

' I made a famous march this morning of fourteen miles in 
four hours. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Captain Macgregor to 
Colonel Pater ; I have written to the latter to inform him 
that I have received repeated letters from you, in which you 



1800. CURRUH. 137 

state that there is no impediment to the sale of gram, or any 
thing else on the part of the sircar, therefore that the gram 
agents have only to offer a good price, and they will get 
what they want ; and if they do not get it, they must expect 
that other means of procuring it will be adopted, which may 
not prove very agreeable to them. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Curruh, 31st May, 1800. 

' I enclose the letter from Major Cuppage, by which you 
will perceive how the matter stands regarding the amildar. 
It appears, however, very clearly that he was mistaken, as 
he reported the matter to Purneah. 

' I received last night a letter from Lord Mornington re- 
garding the offer of the command of the troops intended for 
Batavia. He seems to think it an advantage to me, and 
that some credit will be gained by it, as the object is a great 
one in England ; but I have written to Lord Clive to desire 
that he will accept of it for me, or not, according as he may 
find it most convenient for the public service, after having 
ascertained from the Admiral the period of his departure 
from the coast. A letter received this day from Madras, 
with instructions to enter the Marhatta country, has deter- 
mined me not to accept of it in any event. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

* Have you heard any thing from Macleod, or Munro, or 
Graham, about money ? that is the subject upon which I am 
most anxious at the present moment. 

* What do you think of , who, when the 25th dra- 
goons were about to ascend the Pednaig Durgum pass, 
ordered them round by llyacotta ? I expected them to join 
me at Sera ; they will not now be there for a fortnight ; and 
I cannot guess for what reason they were not allowed to pro- 
ceed by the route first intended.' 

In the mean time that bold adventurer, Dhoondiah 
Waugh, had re-appeared at the head of a very numerous 



138 MYSORE. 1800. 

body, with which he ravaged the Mysore frontier. It was 
found necessary again to send a force to subdue him ; and 
Colonel Wellesley, with detachments of the army of Mysore 
proceeded in person against him. 

The details of the short but decisive campaign against 
Dhoondiah Waugh are described in the following letters : 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

* Camp, two miles south of Columbella, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 1st June, isoo. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th May, from which 
it appears that you and I agree in one point, viz., that, till we 
cross the Toombuddra, we can do nothing effectual towards 
destroying Dhoondiah or dispersing his force. You fear for 
our want of provisions, and I have the pleasure to inform 
you that I have every reason to expect to have really 10,000 
brinjarries. I shall have besides 1200 loads of gram in a 
gram department, and, in the provision department, arrack, 
which I can make to last four or five months, but sheep only 
for one. Of this last we shall find the greatest want. 

' I do not believe that the Savanore country has been 
much laid waste ; that part of it which I saw last year was in 
good order, and appeared well cultivated. Soonda is cer- 
tainly supplied from it ; and, from the price of grain there, 
even when I was in it, I should not imagine that article to be 
scarce in Savanore. We shall certainly have some party in 
the country in our favor, and, if that is the case, we may 
expect to draw some supplies from it. I fear, however, a 
want of gram for the cavalry : the agents are very remiss. 
The regiments have carriage only for fourteen days. There 
will probably be but little gram in the Marhatta country, 
and it is in general an article so cheap and so common that 
it will be difficult to prevail upon the brinjarries to carry 
much of it. I must, however, try that, and I must likewise 
endeavour to remove the depot now collecting at Chittledroog, 
from thence to Hurryhur, or to Oollall, if you should agree 
in opinion with me as to the propriety of crossing the Toom- 
buddra immediately. 

' I see no prospect of co-operation with the Nizam's troops 
if they are to remain north of the Kistna. All these objects 



1800. COLUMBELLA. 139 

of , so incompatible with one another, will at last 

ruin us. If he is in earnest about Dhoondiah, why is not 
the subsidiary force to cross the Kistna and to come near 
him ? But the truth is, that, while he fears Dhoondiah on the 
one hand, he has some wild plan in view to the northwards, 
and, if we do not cross the Toombuddra, Dhoondiah will 

plunder the Dooab, and will not be able to effect his 

purpose with his troops on the north bank of the Kistna ; 
at the same time that they will, most probably, be too far 
removed from the scene of action to be able to give their 
assistance towards forwarding his northern plans. 

4 1 will push off a letter to Lieut. Colonel Maclean, as 
soon as I shall have determined upon my plan after hearing 
from you ; but I think our communication will be useless, as 
he is to remain on the north bank of the Kistna. 

' Your account of the horsemen in the Nundydroog dis- 
trict is unpleasant, but I think that the measures taken by 
Purneah to keep them in check will have its effect, particu- 
larly when Cuppage shall have his detachment in the field. 
The families of these Musselmen are a strong hold upon 
them, and they ought to be prevented from moving either 
with or without them. If there is any serious collection of 
them, would it not be proper to seize the horse of every man 
not in the Rajah's service, or who may not be licensed to 
keep one 1 To do this will require some previous arrange- 
ment to provide for their sudden seizure, and for the care of 
them after they have been seized; but I do not think it 
will be absolutely impracticable. My idea of Chittledroog 
is to separate the garrison and the inhabitants, so that the 
former shall not be liable to be surprised by the latter. This, 
I understand, can be done without removing the inhabit- 
ants from what I improperly called the pettah, but which 
is in reality the fort. If I find that that is the case, I do 
not intend to bear hard upon them ; but, as Purneah agrees 
in the propriety of the measure, I shall request the amildar 
to remove them outside entirely by degrees, and at their 
convenience. 

' I am glad to hear such good accounts from Bullum, as I 
was afraid, from Colonel Montresor's account, that there 
might have been some difficulty in keeping the garrison in 



140 MYSORE. 1800. 

Munserabad during the monsoon. It appears, however, now, 
that they have got confidence in themselves. 

' I have got a long packet from Pater, with what it is use- 
less to trouble you. It is just the old story of opposition on 
the part of the amildar, for which there are secret springs 
which are entirely unaccountable. The pith of it is in the 
enclosed letter. 

' I have written to him again, to tell him that orders have 
been given to sell every thing to his detachment, and that he 
has nothing to do but to pay. I have got on well in every 
respect, and I have not received any complaints respecting 
my followers. We have been well supplied with forage since 
I wrote last on that subject, for which the people pay the re- 
gulated price. The green forage is beginning to appear, 
and we shall then be nearly entirely independent of the dry. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut, Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I enclose the concluding paragraph of Pater's letter, 
which gives some consolation, notwithstanding the " secret 
springs." I likewise enclose a letter which was brought to 
me by mistake last night.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Sera, 2nd June, 1800. 

' I enclose a correspondence with Colonel Stevenson upon 
the subject of and the Postmaster. 

' My opinion of this correspondence is just this ; that I 
ought to put in arrest as soon as I shall have re- 
ceived Colonel Stevenson's answer to my letter of this day, 
and then forward the whole correspondence to headquarters. 
As a trial will be the consequence of this measure, it may be 

doubted, as the issue is always uncertain, and as 's 

letter, however indecent, is so worded as in some parts to 
have two meanings, whether I ought to put him in arrest, and 
whether I ought not to confine myself to the transmission of 
the papers to General Braithwaite ; but the persons to whom 

I have shown 's letter are clearly of opinion that no 

Court Martial can pass it over, and, therefore, I am afraid 



1800. SERA. 141 

that, if I report him without putting him in arrest, 1 shall 
receive from head quarters a censure for not supporting my 
own authority. 

' No man is a competent judge in his own cause, and I 
shall, therefore, be obliged to you for your opinion upon 
this subject, if you will send it to me together with the 
enclosed papers, and either the original letter, written by 
to Mr. Cochrane, or a certified copy, as soon as pos- 
sible. 

' I enclose a letter from Captain Macgregor to Colonel 
Pater, upon which some inquiry may probably be necessary. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Sera, 3rd June, 1800. 

' I am sorry to tell you that there are many complaints 
from the officers who have been here, of the behaviour of the 
amildar. It appears that he sends them insolent messages ; 
that what they want, such as artificers, &c., he will not allow 
them to have without his orders, which he afterwards will 
not give ; that he keeps provisions, meat, &c., at an enormous 
price. I give some credit to these reports, because they are 
confirmed by a very good young man, a Mr. Macgregor, of 
the 73rd, who was some time in the 33rd, and who 1 know 
is not very difficult to please, and would not make the report 
if there was not some foundation for it. It will be proper 
that at all events he should be put upon his guard, as we 
cannot expect moderation from our young men here, if they 
are not civilly treated. 

* The place appears in fine order and getting on, so that it 
would be unfortunate if he were removed from it. 

' I enclose you a Marhatta letter from Purneah to the 
amildar of Buswaputtum, from which I fear that he misunder- 
stood the arrangement we made with him. I intended, and 
so did you, that there should be perfect liberty to purchase 
gram every where for every body, and, so far from wishing 
that Gordon should buy it near Chittledroog, I particularly 
desired him to make his purchases at a distance, in order that 



142 MYSORE. 1800. 

he might not interfere with the cavalry in the field. I am 
afraid that our friend the Paymaster has disobeyed my 
orders, and that he has teased Purneah into giving him or 
his servant the enclosed letter. 

' I enclose the draft of a letter, which I have written to 
the amildar of Buswaputtum, in order, if possible, to avert 
the evil effects of Purneah's letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hurryhur, 4th June, 1800. 

' I enclose an extract of a letter which I have received 
from Major Blaquiere, regarding the complaint of a bazaar 
man at Bangalore, about cumleys purchased by Mr. Ward. 

' Yesterday I sent a patrol to Arnee to reconnaitre the 
place, meaning to attack it this day, as soon as some ladders 
were made. It was evacuated last night; my troops are now 
in the fort, and I propose that it should be delivered over to 
Ball Kishen Punt this afternoon. 

' I hear that Dhoondiah is gone to the northward. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' * ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Woodanelly, 5th June, 1800. 
' Some of our dooley boys from the Carnatic have de- 
serted, and others are likely to follow their example. I shall 
be obliged to you if you will speak to Purneah, and request 
him to give directions to his amildars to stop them or any 
others of our followers that may pass through their districts. 
One deserter stopped and brought back to camp will tend 
greatly to put an end to desertion. I am very anxious to 
receive your answers to my letters of the 1st and the 2nd. 
I have received Colonel Stevenson's answer to the letter, a 
copy of which I enclosed to you, and he says that he does 

not think 's letter in question an improper one. This 

by no means alters the state of the case, unless I choose to 
avail myself of it as being the opinion of an officer of rank 



1800. EYAMUNGALUM. 143 

upon the subject, and to let off by referring all the 

papers to the Commander in Chief. In that case it is not 
unlikely but that Colonel Stevenson may be as severely re- 
primanded for his opinion as will be for his letter. 

' However, I do not feel myself by any means inclined to 
this mode of proceeding ; and I only wait for your answer to 
my letter of the 2nd, in order to put him in arrest. 

' Colonel Pater sent an officer to look at Oollall, who 
reports favorably of it, and of the killadar. They want, 
however, some ammunition and stores, which I will forward 
to them from Chittledroog. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut, Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Eyamungalum, 7th June, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 4th, for which I am 
obliged to you. I shall immediately make my arrangements 
for crossing the river ; but I am afraid I am too late for Sava- 
nore, as it is reported (but by Stevenson's hircarrahs) that 
Dhoondiah has got possession of that fort. Ram Rao wrote 
on the 2nd, that he was still at DummuL 

' I have written to Colonel Maclean, and sent off my letter 
by camel hircarrahs. I have told him that my intention was 
to cross the Toombuddra as soon as I could have represented 
the necessity of his co-operations, and have proposed gene- 
rally that he should cross the Kistna and proceed towards 
the frontier. I have promised that I would write farther 
when I had determined upon my own plan of operations, 
and should have been able to decide in what manner he 
could co-operate in them from a farther knowledge of the 
country, &c. &c. 

' In the mean time his crossing the Kistna and moving 
up the Dooab will place him in such a manner that he will 
be prepared for whatever may be found most proper. 

* I have written to Ball Kishen Punt, and have proposed a 
meeting with him. 

' I stated generally in my letter the outline of Dhoondiah's 
history, as far as we had any thing to do with it, have told 



144 MYSORE. 1800. 

him that we were about to enter the Marhatta territory, 
where we expected to be treated as allies, and have pro- 
mised that I should exert myself to prevent any injury to 
the country in consequence of our army being in it. 

' I have also written to Appah Saheb to tell him ihat 
I was advancing to oppose Dhoondiah, and should be glad 
to communicate with him on our common object. 

' I will let you know about when I hear the result 

of a message which I sent to him this morning. 

' The order which I have already given about the Post 
Office is nearly what you propose, but I will alter it, and 
I will give out the order which you wish for regarding the 
price of straw, &c., on the roads. I have not yet seen any of 
the heads of the brinjarries, although I have sent for them 
frequently; I conclude that Purneah has desired them to 
attend our camp. If he has not I shall be obliged to you 
if you will request him to send them orders to that effect ; at 
all events I have written to Vincatjee to desire that he will 
collect them at Chittledroog as soon as he can. 

' The elephant belongs to the karkana, but you may as 
well keep him with you till we meet. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. 1 f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Chittledroog, June 8, 1800. 

' I told you in my letter of yesterday that I had sent Cap- 
tain West to , to inform him that I conceived his 

letter to be highly disrespectful and improper; as such, that 
I called upon him to withdraw it, and acknowledge his sense 
of its impropriety in a form which I sent him. He had one 
hour to consider of this proposition ; he declined to do as he 
was required, and he was in consequence put in arrest. 

' I sent by this post all the papers, and a statement of the 
case to the Adjutant General. Since I arrived here a gen- 
tleman has come on the part of , to say that he was 

willing to withdraw his letter. I desired him to inform 
that he was now in arrest ; that he had had an op- 
portunity of withdrawing his letter and acknowledging his 
error, which he had not taken, and therefore that all he 



1800. CH1TTLEDROOG. 145 

had to say upon the subject must go to the Commander in 
Chief. 

' I shall be able to make an arrangement of the garrison, 
which will preclude the necessity of hurrying the inhabitants 
out of the outer fort. 

' Dhoondiah has got possession of Savanore, and I must 
lose no time in getting to the river. I believe I must alter 
my plan, and cross it at Hurryhur, or even at Hoonelly, 
rather than at Oollall ; as whilst I am on my road to the 
northward he may cross the Werdah, enter and plunder 
Bednore, before I can get over the Toombuddra to stop him. 
My plan now must be to cross the Toombuddra at Hurry- 
hur, and to move up by the route marked in Little's map 
to Deogerry, and across the Werdah upon Savanore. It 
will still be possible to cross my brinjarries, &c., at Oollall, as 
after the river is full I shall not apprehend for their safety 
on this side of it ; and from Savanore I shall always have it 
in my power to protect their passage of the river and their 
junction with me. 

' There is a man here by name Govind Rao, who I think 
would be very useful to me, and I have requested him to 
prepare to accompany me with his fifty horse and some of his 
peons. 

' He is afraid that Purneah will not be pleased at his 
coming, and I shall therefore be obliged to you if you will 
speak to Purneah upon the subject. As I shall receive your 
answer to this letter before I shall be far from hence, if there 
should be any inconvenience in his being removed from Chit- 
tledroog I will send him back immediately. 

f I have got a cock and bull story from about the 

amildar of Chandergooty having promised Dhoondiah to 
deliver up that fort, and a correspondence between Dhoon- 
diah and Raddamy Bisnapah, a commander of 2000 horse 
in the Rajah's service. This I take to be our friend the 
Pundit in the Bullum country. There is likewise another 
story of the same kind about an attempt to be made by three 
men to murder Purneah. From all which I judge that our 

friend has got hold of his old intelligences, and that 

the sooner I join him the better. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

VOL. i. L 



146 MYSORE. 1800. 

' I hope General Braithwaite will not order a Court Mar- 
tial upon till my hands are less full of business. I 

have hinted this in my letter, and I shall be glad if you will 

give him a line \vpon the subject. In that case shall 

cool his heels or his head at Chittledroog till the campaign 
is over.' 

To Lieut, Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, 'Camp at Chittledroog, 9th June, 1800. 

' Between the officers on the one hand, and the amildars 
on the other, you and I have much trouble. I have given 
out an order which I hope will prevent matters from going 
wrong in future, as they have hitherto, and in which I have 
endeavored to interest the seniors and those who are likely 
to travel. 

' The behavior of the amildar at Sera was ridiculously 
rude to the officers by all accounts ; however, the lecture to 
him will doubtless have its effect. 

' I expect to march from hence on the day after to-mor- 
row ; I wait only to see some of the brinjarries. 

' I got on well in every respect, and I have anxiety only 
about money. Has Munro given no answer to Webbe's 
letter from Seringapatam, to desire him to send to Nuggur 
all he had ? 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Chittledroog, 10th June, 1800. 

' I am afraid that there is some mistake regarding the 
duties. I hear that they still continue to levy them in the 
country; and 1000 grain merchants, not brinjarries, coming 
to our camp, were stopped, and are now detained near 
Paughur. No brinjarries in yet, and I wait only for them. 

' The collection of gram in this country also by the Pay- 
master, contrary to orders, is a sad grievance and difficulty 
but I hope to get over it all by perseverance. 

' I am very anxious to be across the river. It turns out 
now (at least so Govind Rao says) that Dhoondiah is not at 



1800. CHITTLEDROOG. 147 

Savanore, but gone towards Noolgoond, which I acknow- 
ledge I think most probable. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
e MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Chittledroog, llth June, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 8th ; and you will have 
perceived by mine of the same date what steps I have taken 

with . He is in arrest, and all the papers upon the 

subject, among others Colonel Stevenson's opinion, are gone 
before the Commander in Chief. I have heard from Cup- 
page regarding his success against his neighbouring Mus- 
selmen. 

' I have the power of ordering a General Court Martial, 
and I will order one if you think it will answer, which can 
try all fellows of this kind found in correspondence with 
a man against whom there is at present an army in the 
field. 

' Two or three questions occur to me upon this occasion, 
upon which I beg to have your opinion. 

' Is the Court Martial to be composed of European or 
Native officers ? If of Native officers, which is the most 
regular composition, when Natives are to be tried, it is to be 
feared that they will not pass the sentence which the criminals 
deserve, and the expectation of which alone induces us to 
wish for a trial by a General Court Martial. They will not 
pass this sentence certainly, if they have not the assistance 
of a very good judge advocate ; and the question is, is there 
a person in the Nundydroog district, or one who could be 
sent there at present properly qualified for this service ? 
Cuppage I believe is ; but it may be doubted whether it will 
be proper that he should act in that situation. I believe 
there are a sufficient number of Native officers in the Nun- 
dydroog district to compose a General Court Martial. 

' If all these objections to a native Court Martial operate 
to create a preference for one composed of European officers, 
it will be necessary that the criminals should be removed to 
Serin gapatam, or to the army, to be tried, as there are not a 
sufficient number of officers in any other part of Mysore to 
compose one. There must besides be a good judge advo- 

L2 



148 MYSORE. 1800. 

cate; and, I think, I shall find no difficulty in procuring one 
at Serin gapatam. 

' The inconvenience to be apprehended from the removal 
of the prisoners either to Seringapatam, or to the army, 
is, that their punishment will not be so speedy as it ought, 
or so notorious as might be wished in the country in which 
they have resided hitherto, and in which they have all their 
relations, friends, and accomplices. 

' I have written to the officer commanding in Soonda to 
desire him to drive that party out of Budnaghur if possible. 

' It will not answer to put either of the battalions coming 
through that district out of their road for a trifling object of 
that kind, more particularly as it is in the power of the troops 
destined to remain there to perform this operation. 

' I have received a letter from Mr. Gordon, in which 
he mentions that Macleod has in hand one lac of Behaudry 
pagodas, which he will give us if he receives orders, and a 
guard is sent for it. I have ordered the guard to be sent 
forthwith from Seringapatam ; and I shall be obliged to you 
if you will write to Macleod that the money may be given 
to Mr. Gordon's people, who will go for it. I march to- 
morrow. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have heard that another party of people are stopped 
near Paughur for duties.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, four miles west of Burumsagur, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 13th June, isoo. 

' The brinjarries came to me at Chittledroog, and I gave 
them dresses, turbans, &c. &c. 

' I have ordered the guard from Seringapatam into the 
Coimbatoor country for the cash, in order to lose no time ; 
and I have desired the gentlemen at Seringapatam to ap- 
prize Macleod of this arrangement, and to desire him to 
send a person to meet this guard in the Guzzlehutty Pass, 
who will conduct them to the place where they are to receive 
the treasure. There will be no European officer with this 
guard. 



1800. BURUMSAGUR. 149 

' I shall be obliged to you if you will give Macleod a line 
upon this subject. Macleod's account of his warfare is 
excellent. 

' I had received the accounts of the discontinuance of the 
bombardment of Jemalabad, and had given orders that mea- 
sures should be taken for its immediate renewal. I believe, 
however, that the 75th have gone back to Mangalore, 
and that only a sufficient number of troops to ensure the 
blockade of Jemalabad have been left there. That need not 
prevent the renewal of the bombardment as soon as all 
matters shall be prepared for it. 

' I conclude, from the extract from Lieut. Colonel Mig- 
nan's letter to Major Munro, that it is not necessary that 
grain should be stored in any of the forts in Canara ; but I 
will inquire more particularly into this subject. 

' Some time ago I wrote to Government and forwarded a 
proposition from Lieut. Colonel Mignan, that he should be 
permitted to destroy a number of forts which are on the sea- 
coast in Canara, which contained stores of different kinds, 
and which he could not afford troops to guard ; I gave him 
orders to destroy the stores at all events, which could not 
be deserving of our attention, and it might have been un- 
pleasant if they had fallen into the hands of even the well- 
affected inhabitants of Canara. 

' Government have answered Colonel Mignan's proposi- 
tion in a letter which I received last night, of which the en- 
closed is an extract ; and I shall be obliged to you if you will 
ascertain from Major Munro his means of occupying any of 
the posts in question. 

' Most of them are upon the sea-coast; and, in my 
opinion, there can be no doubt whatever of the propriety of 
destroying them ; but Government are right to ask for all 
kind of information upon the subject, and in the meantime 
they must be guarded by somebody. 

' The same letter contained a paragraph from Govern- 
ment regarding the disaffected in Mysore, and in the Com- 
pany's territories, and an authority to try them by military 
process. 

' This authority is certainly entirely distinct from that 
which I hold by General Braithwaite's warrant, and which 
was in my contemplation when I wrote to you on this subject 



150 MYSORE. 1800. 

on the llth instant. Under this authority from Government 
it might perhaps be possible to take the whole matter upon 
myself, having a report made to me in some kind of form of 
the true state of the case. But it appears to me that the best 
mode of proceeding under this authority will be to adhere, as 
nearly as the nature of the case will admit, to the forms of 
General Courts Martial, and under that notion I have 
framed the warrants, instructions, &c. &c., which are en- 
closed in a letter to Major Cuppage. These papers I beg 
you will peruse, and if you approve of every thing they con- 
tain, I beg that you will forward them to Major Cuppage, 
and desire him to put the orders they bring into execution. 
You will easily perceive the difference in the warrant and in 
the other papers from those usually given for a General 
Court Martial; they are such only as are required by the 
nature of the case, and the only material one is in the 
number of members which will be assembled. All that can 
be said upon that is, that it is the largest number which can 
be assembled with convenience ; and that, in fact, it is as 
equal to all purposes of justice as if it were larger. 

' I hope that Lady Clive will stay some time at Banga- 
lore. Desire Brown to give me timely notice of her depar- 
ture, as it is absolutely necessary that I should have an 
officer of intelligence there during the time that I may be in 
the field. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Upon considering the warrant and instructions enclosed 
to Major Cuppage, I am afraid that the officers will have 
some scruple of proceeding to trial on account of the defi- 
ciency of their numbers, &c. &c. : and that they will scruple 
about sentencing death, as they will not have the number of 
members competent to pronounce it. But if you write 
to Cuppage upon the subject, I shall be obliged to you 
if you will desire him to quiet them by assuring the officers 
that in case of any irregularity in their sentence the responsi- 
bility for it will rest upon me, who must confirm it, and must 
order it to be carried into execution.' 



1800. HURRYHUR. 151 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hurry bur, 16th June, 1800. 

' I have received your two letters of the 12th. Captain Bar- 
clay wrote to Major Cuppage an opinion which I delivered, 
in case there was any evidence against the man in question. 
It has since appeared that there is ; but, for many reasons, 
I should prefer his being tried. 

' I send what you say respecting Mr. Ward of the 25th 
dragoons to Major Blaquiere, who will make inquiries into 
the circumstance. It is extraordinary that the bazaar man 
should not have gone to Major Blaquiere, or to Captain 
Brown, to make his complaint, at the moment when cause 
for it was given. 

' I have likewise received your letter of the 13th. I de- 
sired Lieut. Colonel Maclean to communicate my letter to 
Captain Kirkpatrick and to Lieut. Colonel Dalrymple. This 
fully explained my wishes and my own plans as far as was 
practicable at the moment ; I shall, however, write to Cap- 
tain Kirkpatrick upon the subject. 

' I enclose you a letter from Lieut. Colonel Palmer, which 
I received this morning, and which I shall be obliged to you 
if you will return to me deciphered. I beg also that you 
will send me a key of the cipher. The postscript of the let- 
ter is very satisfactory. 

' The river is come down, and I shall be obliged to cross 
every thing in boats. Of these there are scarcely any, and 
no materials here ; notwithstanding that nearly two months 
have elapsed since you and I spoke particularly to Purneah 
upon the subject, and explained to him the necessity of 
having boats at this place, at Hoonelly, and Hooly Honore. 
I besides desired Colonel Pater to give his attention to this 
object : but he says that he never could prevail upon the 
amildar to do any thing in the business. This inattention 
in the amildar is a most serious inconvenience at the pre- 
sent moment, and may be attended with very unpleasant 
consequences. 

' I have to complain of him upon another subject. The 
fort of Arnee is about six miles from hence, and the Bhow's 
killadar of it the brother of the peshwah of Hurryhur. The 
two places were in constant communication. He allows 



152 MYSORE. 1800. 

this killadar to evacuate the fort, without giving any notice 
of this intention to Colonel Pater, who was within six miles 
of him ; when it was evacuated he apprized me of it, and, as 
I was at the distance of sixteen miles from hence, I could not 
send people to take possession. I wrote to him, however, by 
express, and begged that he would send over some people to 
keep possession till I came up ; this he omitted. Dhoondiah's 
people are in the fort, and I must now take it by force. I 
cannot impute treachery to him, but he certainly wants 
ability, and zeal, and activity, and, therefore, ought not now 
to be at this important station. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hurryhur, 16th June, 1800. 

' Since I wrote to you this morning, I have received a let- 
ter from Captain Kirkpatrick, in which he encloses sunnuds 
to all the Nizam's sirdars in this part of the country, and 
another from Colonel Maclean. The latter informs me that 
he has not been joined by Saddoolah Khan, but that he has 
with him 1000 horse. His two corps are about 1400 men 
with eight guns. Saddoolah Khan is at Copaul or at Bellary. 
The Kistna and Toombuddra are both full; Colonel Maclean 
is employed in crossing the former, but he does not know 
whether Saddoolah Khan is in the Dooab or not. 

' I have written to him to desire that he will endeavor to 
communicate with Saddoolah Khan immediately, and form a 
junction with him. If he should be at Copaul that will not 
be difficult, consistently with a compliance with the wish I 
expressed in my letter of the 6th, that the detachment 
should move up the Dooab towards the frontier. If he 
should be at Bellary, and should not yet have commenced 
to cross the Toombuddra, it is not reasonable to expect any 
co-operation from him immediately, and I have, therefore, 
left it to Colonel Maclean to move forward to the frontier or 
not, according as he may think it safe, from the intelligence 
Avhich he will receive, apprizing me of his situation. At the 
same time I have asked Heshmut Jung for the grenadiers 



1800. HURRYHUR. 153 

and the cavalry from Hyderabad, which I expect will be 
well forward before I am across the Werdah. 

* One Goa battalion joined me this day, the other was not 
to leave Hullihall, I believe, till the 8th, and probably later. 

' I have got a battalion and four guns and a regiment of 
cavalry across the river. This day some fellows showed 
themselves in our front in the old way, but went off imme- 
diately. 

' Ball Kishen Punt was expected this night, and I hope I 
shall see him to-morrow. My idea is to give him charge, 
and to make him put tannahs in those forts, &c., which I 
may not think it absolutely necessary for our own safety to 
keep in our own hands. I looked at Arnee this morning, and 
I intend to attack that fort, or Rannee Bednore, as soon as 
I shall have had a conference, and shall have made my 
arrangements with Ball Kishen. 

' By the bye, 1 forgot to mention to you that Grant has 
informed me that duties are levied upon gram coming to 
Seringapatam. Was there any thing settled upon that sub- 
ject lately ? 

' I propose to send a letter to Saddoolah Khan in the 
morning, to desire him to join Lieut. Colonel Maclean as 
soon as he can. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hurryhur, 18th June, 1800. 

* I have been more concerned than I can express at the 
receipt of your letter of the 15th. The misconduct of these 
gentlemen undoubtedly gives you, as well as me, a great 
deal of trouble ; but I declare that it gives me more anxiety 
than any thing in which I have any concern. 

' If I had heard of the circumstance which you mentioned 
to me at Seringapatam previous to the appointment of the 
gentleman in question to his command, he certainly never 
should have been appointed ; and he never should have gone 
to it, if, in the conversation which I had with him at Naga- 
nunglum, he had not expressed himself much like a gentle- 



154 MYSORE. 1800. 

man, and stated a determination to adhere to what had 

been settled by . I acquainted him with every 

circumstance which you told me, and at the same time in- 
formed him of my determination to remove him from his 
command, if I should hear the smallest complaint of his 
dubash. He promised that he would not have one ; and I 
acknowledge I little expected to hear that there were grounds 
of complaints still stronger than they would have been if the 
dubash had been at . 

' He is a gentleman, a man of the world, and one who 
appears to look to his character. I write to him by this 
post, and you may depend upon it that he must either act as 
he ought, or he shall be removed from his command. 

' I acknowledge that, both as an officer and as a gentle- 
man, I should be glad to see all those commands abolished ; 
nothing can be more prejudicial to discipline, and nothing 
more disgraceful to the character and feelings of a gentleman, 
than what goes on almost daily ; but, as long as they are 
even more than tolerated by Government, it is difficult for 
any man in a subordinate situation to draw a line, and these 
kind of unpleasant circumstances must certainly arise : but 
from what you say, I hope ere long to see some arrange- 
ment made which will really abolish the whole. 

' The disputes between the officers and the amildars are 
equally irksome, and, I believe, owe their origin to the same 
circumstance. There is not, at this moment, a post by which 
I do not receive letters of complaint from some man or 
other. To enter into a detailed inquiry upon the subject is 
impossible, and to decide without inquiry would be unjust, 
and one is, therefore, reduced to an impotent expostulation 
to be upon good terms with the officers of the Rajah's 
Government. We have never been hitherto accustomed to 
a native Government, we cannot readily bear the disap- 
pointments and delays which are usual in all their transac- 
tions, prejudices are entertained against them, and all their 
actions are misconstrued, and we mistrust them. I see in- 
stances of this daily in the best of our officers, and I cannot 
but acknowledge that, from the delays of the natives, they 
have sometimes reason to complain ; but they have none to 
ill-use any man. 



1800. HURRY HUR. 155 

' The river has risen, and we get on but slowly. I have 
not yet got over another regiment of cavalry. I expect 
some boats in the course of this night or to-morrow from 
Hoonelly. 

' About 300 horse appeared in our front yesterday, but 
went off immediately after Pater opened his guns upon 
them. 

' Ball Kishen Punt arrived yesterday, and I had a long 
conversation with him. He told me that Appall Saheb and 
Goklah were pressed for money, and had gone towards Kit- 
toor to procure some from the polygar; but they would 
doubtless advance upon Dhoondiah in co-operation with me, 
as soon as I should be prepared to move from the river. He 
said that, as we advanced, we should find plenty of grain, 
forage, &c., and that there was not a fort in the possession 
of Dhoondiah, Dummul excepted, into which we should not 
walk with the greatest ease. He was rather solicitous to 
know our object. I told him that we had none excepting 
to get the better of Dhoondiah, of whom we saw clearly 
that, as long as he existed and had power, the Company's 
territories would never be in tranquillity. I desired him to 
prepare to co-operate with us, and to cross the river with me. 
He has here about 300 or 400 horse. 

' Dhoondiah is still at Savanore with the largest part of 
his force ; there are some troops on this side of the river 
Werdah, but I do not know what number, and I am not 
quite certain that the Werdah has filled. 

' As soon as I find out the general number of troops on 
this side, and if the Werdah fills, I intend to advance Ste- 
venson with the cavalry, and a corps of infantry, guns, &c., 
and hunt out every thing on this side of that river. I have 
desired Ball Kishen Punt to be prepared to throw people 
into Rannee Bednore when we shall get possession of it. 

' I enclose a copy of a proclamation which I propose to 
issue. Ball Kishen Punt has seen it, and approves of it, and 
has even altered some of Ogg's bad Marhatta phraseology. 

' I have just had one of Pater's men with me, who swears 
that Dhoondiah, with his whole army, is on this side of the 
Werdah ; that all his sirdars have sworn to conquer or die ; 
that Purneah, Bishnoo Punt, Kistnapah, Ram Rao, Kistna 



156 MYSORE. 1800. 

Rao, and all the amildars, mutaseddees, &c. of the Rajah's go- 
vernment, and all the musselmen, are on his side, and that he 
is determined that his victorious standard shall fly on Serin- 
gapatam. I have recommended to Pater to confine this fellow, 
at all events till we are stronger, on the other side of the 
river; whether for knavery or folly will be decided hereafter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTFIUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, .' Camp at Hurryhur, 20th June, 1800. 

' I send you an affidavit taken by a brinjarry, regarding 
duties taken from him at Chindgerry. I made him swear to 
his story, in order that there might be no mistake about the 
matter. 

' I have also the pleasure of enclosing you an extract of a 

letter, which I have received this morning, from , 

from which I judge, either that Ram Rao misunderstood 
what passed, or that it has been misrepresented. It is very 
desirable that the matter should be sifted to the bottom. I 
hope, however, from your last letter, that some general 
arrangement will be made which will wipe off at once and 
entirely all these commands. 

' We are getting on by degrees. All the cavalry are 
across the river, and every thing belonging to them. The 
Europeans, and every thing belonging to them, will be across 
early to-rnorrow, and I think every thing will be clear over 
in a few days. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close. 1 ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive, Governor of Fort St. George. 

' MY LORD, ' Camp at Hurryhur, 20th June, 1800. 

' I have received the honor of your Lordship's letter of the 
1 4th instant, in which you desire to have my opinion regard- 
ing the extent of the military force which will be necessary 
for the new territory which your Lordship informs me will 
be assigned by the Nizam to the exclusive management of 
the Company for Mysore, Malabar, Canara, and Goa. It is 



1800. HURRYHUR. 157 

difficult to give an opinion regarding the new territory, of 
which I have but little knowledge, but as your Lordship has 
desired it, I shall proceed to state what has occurred to me 
upon the subject. 

' The question which your Lordship has put to me involves 
considerations affecting the whole of our military system in 
this country. When the country proposed to be ceded to 
the Company is likewise to be defended, its inhabitants to 
be kept in tranquillity, and its revenue to be realized by 
means of the troops, it is impossible to expect to be able to 
effect these objects on the system of weak and dispersed 
garrisons, on which we have been acting hitherto. This 
must be changed ; neither the new territory nor the old can 
be kept in awe by troops dispersed in forts, which they can- 
not quit with safety ; and, therefore, the system which I 
should recommend would be to garrison those posts only 
which are absolutely necessary to us, and to have at all times 
in the field, and in motion, two or three regiments of Euro- 
peans, all the cavalry, and as large a body of native infantry 
as can be got together. This will be a real security, not 
only to the new territory and to Mysore, but to the Carnatic, 
Malabar, and Canara, and nothing else ever will. It will 
appear more clearly that this system is necessary in the new 
territory, when the nature of its inhabitants, and the govern- 
ments to which they have been accustomed, are considered. 

' The whole of the country to be ceded by the Nizam is in- 
habited by petty rajahs and poly gars, who have never been 
entirely subdued, and have never submitted to the species of 
government which must be exercised by the Company's 
servants. They have been accustomed either to the rapacity 
and corruption of Tippoo's government, or to the weakness 
of the Nizam's ; but they are entirely unacquainted with the 
restraint of a regular authority, constructed upon the prin- 
ciples adopted by the Company's Government. This they 
will resist, and they must be kept in awe, particularly at 
first, by a large and an active force. For this purpose troops 
in garrison will never answer; and supposing that your 
Lordship should adopt the system I propose for having, at 
least for some time, a large detachment in the field, I shall 
proceed to estimate the number of troops which will be 
necessary in the garrisons which ought to be occupied. 



158 MYSORE. 1800. 

' The number of troops in Malabar is two companies of 
artillery, one regiment of European infantry, three battalions 
of the Company's sepoys, three battalions of sebundies, and 
three of Travancore troops. 

' The civil government of Malabar is now conducted upon 
such a system, that it is impossible to recommend that this 
force should be weakened ; a partial alteration in any part of 
the civil or military government will not answer. Hereafter, 
when there shall have been time to settle that country, it may 
be practicable to diminish that force considerably. In Canara 
there are one company of artillery, one regiment of Euro- 
peans, and four battalions of the Company's sepoys ; none of 
these battalions are complete ; two of them are of the new 
18th regiment ; and since the loss of Jemalabad, I have been 
obliged to add to this force the flank companies of the native 
corps which were at Goa. I do not think it would be proper 
to diminish it at present. 

' The violence of the monsoon in Malabar and Canara, 
which prevents the troops from keeping the field, will at all 
times operate as a reason for keeping more troops in the 
garrisons which may be in those countries, than would other- 
wise be necessary. The circumstance which made it desirable 
that there should be a British force at Goa no longer exist- 
ing, the troops might perhaps be withdrawn entirely from 
thence for the present, or Goa might be made a station for 
one native battalion. If that arrangement should take place, 
there will be required below the ghauts 

Companies of European Travancore 

Artillery. Regt. B. Sepoys. Sebundies. Regt. 

In Malabar .. 2 .. 1 .. 3 .. 3 .. 3 
In Canara ] ..1 .. 4 

At Goa .. .. 1 



' As long as any of the inhabitants are suffered to remain 
in Seringapatam, there ought not to be a smaller body of 
troops there than are there at this moment ; but if the 
inhabitants were removed to the pettah, a very small gar- 
rison would keep it, excepting at the time when an attack 
upon it might be expected. As, however, the removal of the 
inhabitants must be a work of time, I shall estimate the gar- 
rison of Seringapatam at its present strength : two companies 



1800. HURRYHUR. 159 

of artillery, one regiment of Europeans, two battalions of 
native infantry. 

' There ought to be at Chittledroog at least one company 
of artillery, and two battalions of native infantry. The 
province of Bednore will require one battalion of native 
infantry, and the province of Soonda at least another. There 
ought likewise to be a battalion in the Nundydroog district. 
As Paughur is upon the frontier of the territory to be ceded 
to the Company, it may not perhaps be necessary that there 
should be a battalion there. 

' Thus the troops necessary for garrisons only in the 
Mysore country will be three companies of artillery, one 
regiment of Europeans, and seven battalions of native 
infantry ; but if it should be necessary to have a garrison in 
the Paughur district, another battalion will be required. 
Excepting at Chittledroog, where I have left only one bat- 
talion, and at Paughur, where there are 200 men, I have 
been obliged to leave troops in the garrisons, as I have 
above estimated them. In the new territory there ought to 
be a battalion between Harponelly and Anagoondy, as 
those places are immediately upon the Marhatta frontier ; 
one at Adoni ; one, at least, at Gooty ; one at Kurnool ; one 
at Cuddapa, and one at Gurrumconda. Every other post or 
strong hold in the newly ceded territories, and those in 
Mysore, not occupied by the Honorable Company's troops, 
or those of the Rajah of Mysore, ought to be immediately 
destroyed, and particularly their means of affording water 
ought to be entirely annihilated. Thus the whole body of 
troops which will be required only as garrisons, should your 
Lordship determine to accept the plan of having a strong 
detachment in the field, will be as follows : 



Companies European Travancore 
of Artillery. Begt. B. Sepoys. Sebundies. Regt. 


Malabar 


2 .. 1 


3 


3 .. 3 


Canara 


1 .. 1 


4 


.. 


Goa .. 




1 


.. 


Mysore 


3 .. 1 


7 


.. 


New territory 





6 






21 



' It must however be very clear to your Lordship that 
nothing can be more weak than this distribution, if it is not 



160 MYSORE. 1800. 

strengthened and connected by means of a detachment in 
the field ; and that if you do not adopt this system, the gar- 
risons must be considerably strengthened. 

' Supposing that your Lordship should adopt it, and that 
you will have for the detachments in the field three regiments 
of native cavalry, three of European infantry, and eight bat- 
talions of native infantry, and two companies of artillery, I 
proceed to state what number of troops will be wanting, in 
order to make the number under my command (including 
those at Goa) sufficient. 

Companies European Travancore Native 

of Artillery. Regt. B. Sepoys. Sebundies. Regt. Cavalry. 

Wanting for gar-l g 3 ' 21 3 3 

nsons as above ) 

Wanting for the) 

field j 2 .. 3 .. 

8 6 27 3 3 3 

' Under my command at present 

Companies European B. Travancore Native 

of Artillery. Regt. Sepoys. Sebundies. Regt. Cavalry. 

Bengal Artillery 2 
Coast Artillery 3 

Bombay Artillery 3 
On the Bombay) ,, - 

Establishment) 
On the Coast Es-1 



tablishment 

8 6 18 3 3 3 

' The deficiency of troops will be nine battalions of native 
infantry. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Right Hon. Lord Clive, ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Governor of Fort St. George.'' 

; To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, left bank of the Toombuddra, 
* MY DEAR COLONEL, opposite Hurryhur, 22nd June, 1800. 

' I have not heard from Lieut. Colonel Maclean yet, but I 
sent him a duplicate of my letter, and orders to join himself 
to Saddoolah Khan, by two messengers of his own, some days 
ago. 

' I am glad that you approve of the manner of the Gene- 



1800. ON THE TOOMJJUDDRA. 161 

ral Court Martial. I sent orders into Canara to try by mili- 
tary process all criminals of the same description. 

' The second Bombay battalion is not yet arrived, and I 
felt some little anxiety about it, as it has been reported to 
me that all the cavalry on this side of the Werdah are 
gone towards Shikarpoor and Ondagurry to interrupt its 
junction with me. They amount to about 700 men. I have 
sent Stevenson that way with two regiments of cavalry and 
their guns, and they will give a good account of the fellows, 
who, I now understand, instead of looking after this bat- 
talion, are employed in plundering the country. 

* Ram Rao's cavalry are at Shikarpoor, and I have written 
to Servitun Rao to request that they may be ordered to join 
themselves with the Bombay battalion, and may come with 
them as far as Hoonelly. 

' From a parcel of blunders and surmises, and unnecessary 
precaution in the gentleman in Soonda, &c., this battalion, 
which left Goa on the 2Sth of last month, had not marched 
from Hullihall on the 12th of this, and I do not think 
it was likely to march till the 15th. It had not reached 
Chandergooty on the 20th. 

' Dhoondiah has certainly left Savanore, and he is, I 
believe, gone to Hoobly Darwar. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 Camp, left bank of the Toombuddra, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 23rd June, 1800. 

' I have crossed nearly every thing, and if the 25th dra- 
goons were arrived, and the Bombay battalion in safety, 
1 might advance to-morrow. I have nearly 4000 full brin- 
jarries, and the quantity I before told you I should have in 
the gram department ; there are besides quantities of other 
brinjarries coming on. The difficulty will be to make them 
cross the river and move on, and upon this subject I trouble 
you with a few lines. 

' I had some thought of leaving an officer here, who should 
take charge of every thing that might come forward for the 
troops, and who should send them across the river and on 

VOL. I. M 



162 MYSORE. 1800. 

towards us ; but the scarcity of officers with the corps, the 
difficulty of finding one qualified for the service, and the 
probability that there would be, as usual, a jarring between 
him and the Rajah's officers, have determined me not to 
adopt that plan, from which I could expect nothing but 
failure. It remains then that I must rely upon the exertions 
of the amildar at Hurryhur. 

' The man who is here at present is, I believe, honest and 
willing ; but he is totally incapable of understanding any 
arrangement, or of making any exertion to carry it into exe- 
cution. Accounts have arrived of his mother's death, and he 
is confined to his house, and all business with him is at a 
stand. 

f It is therefore absolutely necessary that some person 
should be sent here on whose abilities and exertions some 
dependence can be placed, and from what I have seen of all 
those in this part of the country, I see no man so fit for the 
charge as Servitun Rao. Purneah, however, is the best 
judge ; and all I can say upon the subject is, that it is essen- 
tially necessary to the troops that it should be a person 
of intelligence and activity. 

' To enter into complaints at present of their general in- 
activity, and of their disobedience of all the orders which I 
believe they have received from Purneah and from you, is 
useless. All that I can say about it is, that they certainly 
want a little looking after in this part of the country ; and I 
think it probable that when you come this way you will find 
some changes necessary. 

4 I think it probable that I shall not march from hence till 
the 27th or 28th. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, left bank of the Toombuddra, 
* MY DEAR COLONEL, 25th June, isoo. 

' I have received your letters of the 21st and 22nd, and I 
am glad to find that there is a prospect that the Court Mar- 
tial will go on. It does not appear to me that nine members 
are necessary. 



1800. ON THE TOOMBUDDRA. 163 

' The court is one held under a civil authority, and 
is therefore the civil court, in which the forms usual in mili- 
tary courts are to be observed, and which is composed of 
military men ; but it is not necessary that it should be com- 
posed of the number of members required by the articles of 
war : provided that the forms of a military process are ob- 
served as required by Government, it is a matter of indiffer- 
ence what number of judges there may be. 

' If there should be any further difficulty upon the subject, 
I must proceed by a court of inquiry, and give orders that 
the criminals shall be executed after the facts shall have 
been clearly ascertained by an examination of witnesses on 
each side. 

' I heard from Nuggur this morning ; Ram Rao only re- 
ceived his orders to join me on the 23rd. Major Munro had 
not received any directions about the money, and even if lie 
had, he did not think that the garrison of Cundapoor could 
afford an escort for it. Major Browne was about to send 
one from Nuggur, in order to lose no time. Upon examining 
the true state of the case regarding the brinjarries, I find 
that I have not so many of them in camp as I ought to have. 
Many of their bullocks are behind and at a distance. They 
complain much of impediments, such as that they are de- 
tained by demands of duties, &c., and that the amildars 
have got the greatest part of the rice of the country in their 
hands, which they are unwilling to part with at present, as 
they have reason to expect that the price of it will rise. 
It besides appears that the accounts of the number of their 
bullocks are very erroneous, and that they are counted over 
in three or four tandahs. I believe, however, that I shall be 
able to move from hence with a stock sufficient to last till I 
shall have cleared out every thing on this side of the Wcrdah ; 
but it will not be safe to cross the Werdah till I have a cer- 
tainty of a larger quantity of supplies. 

* No tidings yet of the Bombay battalion, excepting that 
they had not marched on the 15th. The officer commanding 
in Soonda complains sadly of Major Munro's people, who 
absolutely refuse to give the smallest assistance in forward- 
ing the equipments of this corps. Their demand cannot be 
very heavy, at least if they have not much more baggage 
than their friends, who arrived some days ago. They had 

M2 



164 MYSORE. 1SOO. 

literally nothing, excepting- what was carried by twenty-four 
bullocks, and about fifty coolies : and the private baggage of 
all the officers goes upon sixteen bullocks. 

' From intelligence received in a private letter from Co- 
lonel Dalrymple of the 9th, I was in hopes that the grena- 
diers and the cavalry would have joined Lieut. Colonel 
Maclean, but I now find they have not. If Lieut. Colonel 
Maclean is joined by Saddoolah Khan, which I hope he will, 
it will still do ; if not he will, I am afraid, be too weak. 

' I have not yet heard either from Saddoolah Khan or 
from Lieut. Colonel Maclean, in answer even to my letter of 
the 6th; but as soon as I had reason to believe that the 
grenadiers and the cavalry would join him, I wrote to the 
latter to desire that he would move up towards Copaul. 

' Ball Kishen Show thinks that Dhcondiah will fly to the 
Dooab. I received from Goklah a letter, of which a copy was 
sent to you by Captain Greenlay from Hullihall ; the person 
who brought it is not yet arrived, and I believe will come 
with the Bombay battalion. 

' Stevenson lias had some successes towards the frontier, 
but has not taken possession of Massoor, a strong fort about 
three coss from Shikarpoor. He has, however, driven to the 
northward all the cavalry, which were hanging thereabouts 
for the purpose of annoying the Bombay battalion. I have 
desired Servitun Rao to send his cavalry to join them ; and, 
indeed, I think that that cavalry might be useful at this 
place in bringing forward our convoys, if I should not be 
able entirely to clear this side of the Werdah of all the 
enemy's horse. 

' I shall be able to ascertain this in a few days, and will 
acquaint Ram Rao, if I should find it necessary to call for 
the assistance of his cavalry. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I enclose a letter which I have just received from the 
officer at Sera. I have desired Barclay to acquaint the 
young man that the wholesale price of sheep, as stated in the 
orders, is three for a pagoda ; that of course, when retailed 
in the bazaar, they must be dearer. When you go that way 
you will be able to see how these matters stand at Sera. 



1800. ON THE TOOMBUDDRA. 165 

When I was there they complained that literally the amildar 
would not allow their servants to buy butter, bread, or milk, 
in the bazaar. They did not mention this to me, but to 
some of their friends, and talked of the behavior of this 
man as a tyranny which it was quite painful to be obliged to 
submit to.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

6 Camp, left "bank of the Toombuddra, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 26th June, isoo. 

' I enclose copies of letters which I have received from 
Appah Saheb and Goklah. 

' Goklah's vakeel arrived last night, and I had this 
morning an interview with him. He said that his master 
had received orders to attack and crush Dhoondiah ; that he 
was then at Moorgoor, on the other side of the Malpoorba, 
with 10,000 horse, 5000 infantry, and eight guns ; that he 
wished to be joined by three of our Bombay battalions, which 
he said he heard were coming from Goa, and that he would 
then advance and destroy Dhoondiah without loss of time. 
I told him that it was impossible to detach to him the batta- 
lions in question, as they were either in this camp, or on the 
road to join me, and probably very close. It appeared to 
me, however, that if he had the force which he said he had, 
he would have no difficulty, and would incur no risk in cross- 
ing the Malpoorba, and approaching Dhoondiah' s force at 
the time when I should cross the Wcrdah, and approach him 
from this side. In this the vakeel acquiesced, and pro- 
mised that when I should give him notice that I was going 
to cross the Werdah, Goklah would cross the Malpoorba, 
for which he would make all the arrangements immediately, 
and that when I should be at Savanore he would be at 
Darwar. He then began a long story about his differences 
with Appah Saheb ; said that Appah Saheb had not received 
orders from Poonah to attack Dhoondiah, and that I might 
depend upon it he neither could nor would make any effort 
towards a co-operation in my designs. I asked him whether, 
in case Appah Saheb should co-operate to destroy Dhoon- 
diah, it would at all affect the intended co-operation of his 
master ? He said not in the least ; that to put down Dhoon- 



166 MYSORE. 1800. 

diah was the first object and the most urgent ; and that after 
that was effected, it would not be difficult for Goldah to put in 
execution his own designs, and the orders which he had and 
might hereafter receive from Poonah regarding Appah 
Saheb. 

' It appeared to me to be very desirable to ascertain from 
this vakeel, to whom the administration of this country 
belonged, whether his master had any claim to it ; and whe- 
ther he was likely to be dissatisfied in consequence of the 
arrangements whicji I had made, and according to which 
I propose to act, viz. to hand over to Ball Kishen Bhow all 
the forts which should fall into our hands, and to give over 
the country to his management. Questions were put to him 
leading to these points, and he said that the administration 
of the country belonged to the family of Pursheram Bhow, 
that his master had no claim to it, and that the arrangement 
which had been made was perfectly satisfactory to him, and 
by no means likely to affect his intended co-operation. He 
added, that when Dhoondiah should be driven out, if we 
remain neuter, he should have no difficulty in getting pos- 
session of the country, if he should be so ordered from 
Poonah. 

' Upon the whole the conversation with this man was very 
satisfactory, and proved three things clearly ; first, that 
Gokjah is very desirous, and will co-operate with us in the 
attack upon Dhoondiah ; secondly, that although at enmity 
with Appah Saheb, his co-operation will have no effect upon 
him ; thirdly, that he will be perfectly satisfied with the 
arrangement made, and proposed to give over the country 
to the management of Appah Saheb and his dewan. 

' The difference between Appah Saheb and Goklah seems 
to be more like one originating at Poonah than any thing 
personal between the parties : the vakeel said that orders 
had been received to sequester a part of his (Appah Saheb's) 
country, which he said was a secret. At all events, he said 
that the obedience to that order would be deferred till 
Dhoondiah should be driven out of the country. 

1 I march to-morrow to Rannee Bednore. I have just 
received your letter regarding Lieut. Mackay's bullock muta- 
seddee ; and he writes by this post to desire that he will 



1800. ON THE TOOMBUDDRA. 167 

keep the bullocks at grass at such place as may be most 
convenient to the ryots, and by no means to interfere in the 
business of the country, or with their cultivation. 

' I am quite confounded by the intelligence that we shall 
have no money from Captain Macleod ; we shall really be 
quite aground in August if I do not get a lac of pagodas 
somewhere. 

' Believe me, &c. 
'- Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

' Camp, left bank of the Toombuddra, 
<SlR, 26th June, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 22nd instant, and its 
enclosure; and I am obliged to you for the intelligence 
which you give me, that a lac of Behaudry pagodas, for the 
use of the troops in this country, were likely to leave Cunda- 
poor on the 23rd instant. From a conversation which I had 
with Mr. Webbe at Seringapatam, early in the last month, I 
had reason to expect that this sum would have been at 
Nuggur some time ago. I sent orders to the officer com- 
manding in Soonda to drive the party which had got posses- 
sion of Budnaghur out of that post. He would have done 
this before now, according to the former orders which his 
predecessors received from me, only that he has found it 
impossible to move even a small detachment of the troops 
under his orders, for want of the common assistance which 
the country can afford. 

' This, he informs me, the amildars have refused to give ; 
and I am waiting here at this moment for a battalion of 
Bombay sepoys, which are detained at Hullihall, in Soonda, 
for want of a few bullocks, which cannot be provided without 
the civil government. 

' If the officer commanding in Soonda should be enabled 
to detach a force to get possession of Budnaghur, I do not 
propose to have a post there, and I conceive that it will be 
expedient to raise as many more peons as you can get in 
Soonda. The number of troops allotted to that province, by 
Government, was one battalion ; and although it is certainly 



168 MYSORE. 1800. 

much exposed, I have not means of increasing that force at 
present. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Major Munro.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Rannee Bednore, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 28th June, i sou. 

' I arrived here yesterday, and instantly attacked the fort 
with my piquets, and the 1st of the 1st. The garrison con- 
sisted of 500 men, who fired upon our cavalry as they ap- 
proached, and the greatest part of them were put to death. 
We did not lose a man. 

' Colonel Stevenson goes off to-morrow towards Mussoor 
and Shikarpoor to clear every thing down that way, and to 
bring up the Bombay battalion if it should have reached 
that quarter ; by the time that he will return I hope that I 
shall have been joined by a sufficient number of brinjarries 
to enable me to go forward. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Rannee Bednore, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 29th June, 1800. 

' I have received from Lieut. Colonel Maclean an answer 
to my letter of the 6th instant, dated the 15th; on that day 
he had not made much progress in crossing the Kistna, and 
he did not expect to be in readiness to advance from that 
river till the 1st of July. He proposed, however, to join 
Saddoolah Khan immediately, and to move up to Kan- 
agherry. He expected that Colonel Bowser, with the ca- 
valry and the flank companies, would march from Hydera- 
bad, and he had received orders to have boats in readiness 
that these troops might pass the Kistna with ease; but 
in case they should not have reached the river by the time 
that he should be prepared to advance from it, he did not 
propose to wait for them. 

' Lieut. Colonel Maclean says, that by all accounts Sad- 
doolah Khan's detachment is not half so strong as it is stated 



1800. RANNEE BEDNORE. 169 

to be by Heshmut Jung; and, indeed, he says himself, in a 
note to Lieut. Colonel Maclean, that one-third at least of the 
stated numbers might be subtracted. 

' I received a letter from Lieut. Colonel Dalrymple yester- 
day, dated the 13th, in which he says that the march of the 
cavalry, and of the flank companies had been postponed : but 
it does not appear by his letter that it is determined that 
they should not come at all. I have therefore still hopes 
that they will come. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 Camp at Rannee Bednore, 
'Mr DEAR COLONEL, 30th June, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 27th, and I beg that 
you will tell Purneah that I am much obliged to him for the 
readiness with which he has complied with my request regard- 
ing Servitun Rao. I hear that Ram Rao is arrived at Hurry- 
hur ; but the unfortunate death of the old lady at Benares 
has put a stop to all business, and I shall not see him 
for three or four days more. The passage of the river also 
has been a good deal obstructed since I left Hurryhur; 
but I write to Ram Rao this day upon the subject, and 
I hope that we shall get on better. 

' The road between this and Hurryhur is open ; indeed 1 
understand that Dhoondiah has not a man on this side of the 
Werdah. Stevenson is gone with some infantry, and the 2nd 
regiment of cavalry, to Mussoor, to possess himself of that 
post, and then I expect that I shall have cleared out every 
thing from this side of the river. Dhoondiah has been at 
Hoobly, where he made a composition for 10,000 rupees; he 
then Avent to Misserycotta, of which he had not got pos- 
session on the 28th. Goklah, it is said, had crossed the 
Malpoorba, and was come forward to Jeygoor, with an inten- 
tion of lighting ; but this I doubt. After getting Missery- 
cotta, I think Dhoondiah will either make a dash at Hul- 
lihall, which is about twelve coss distant, or he will move 
upon Goklah. 

* What a pity it is that I cannot move on for want of 



170 MYSORE. 1800. 

grain ! My troops are in high health, order, and spirits ; 
but the unfortunate defect of arrangement in the poor man 
at Chittledroog, previous to my arrival, has ruined every 
thing. 

' I had at one time nearly 4000 loads in camp ; if I had 
been able to reach the river one day sooner I should have 
been across before it filled. The delay in crossing was one 
of about ten days ; during that time we were feeding upon 
the brinjarries, as we did not draw a grain from the country, 
which reduced the full bags in camp to about 2000, and 
about as many more they say on the road. Then comes the 
delay in filling, travelling, passing the river, &c. ; and it be- 
comes absolutely impossible to say at what time we shall 
have a sufficiency to cross the Werdah, although all the 
brinjarries swear that there are large quantities of rice 
coming on to us. 

' All this delay would have been avoided, if, when I wrote 
on the 10th of May, measures had been taken to make them 
all fill, and to collect them together; but instead of that, 
until I wrote on the 5th of June to know what had been 
done, no steps were taken, and I was four days at Chittle- 
droog before I could even see one of the naigs. How true 
it is that in military operations time is every thing ! 

( The three troops of the 19th not having been ordered on 

is a mistake of or . The former swears that 

the interpretation of his letter is, that the dragoons were to 
come on with the army to Chittledroog. I acknowledge that 
it might bear that meaning, but it is not so clear as all 
orders and arrangements ought to be, and as they are in 

general. I write to upon the subject this day. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have just heard of some rice coming into camp from 
Shikarpoor. 

' I hear from Bowser, on the 17th, that he was under orders 
to be in readiness to inarch with the cavalry and the flank 
companies.' 



1800. HAVERY. 171 

To Major Munro. 

' Camp, three miles south of Havery, 
' MY DEAR MUNRO, 3rd July, isoo. 

' 1 do not deny that I did believe that you were not quite 
so ready to assist my wants as you might have been, as I 
understood from Mr. Webbe that you had been desired to 
send to Nuggur all the money which you had in your 
treasury, and which was not immediately wanted for other 
purposes ; and I therefore did not think it necessary to take 
any further steps to procure the money, than to desire the 
officer in command at Nuggur to have in readiness an escort 
to bring it to camp. I also thought, and from the com- 
plaints which have been received it appears to be true, that 
your servant in Soonda gave no assistance whatever to 
enable the battalions, marching through that district, to 
move. For want of money and every thing, one of them has 
not joined me yet; and, from what I am going to tell you, 
you will perceive that it is probable that I shall not see it for 
some time. 

' Dhoondiah has beat Goklah ; and I ajn informed that a 
body of the troops of the latter fled to Hullihall with Chin- 
tomeny Rao, where they are at this moment. 

' Dhoondiah followed them, and if the battalions had not 
marched before the 30th of June, on which day was the 
action, it is probable that Dhoondiah will have kept such a 
watch upon Hullihall, as to have rendered it impossible for 
them to march since. I have no orders to take possession of 
any part of the country, and I have hitherto put the Bhow's 
people in possession of every part that has fallen into my 
hands. I have done this as much because 1 have no troops to 
spare for garrisons, as because it is a most desirable and neces- 
sary thing to me, that the country on this side of the Werdah, 
towards the Rajah's frontier, should be settled, that I may 
draw from it its poor resources, and have my communication 
with Mysore unimpeded. I enjoy all these advantages at 
present ; and I am therefore desirous not to risk the loss of 
them, even for a moment, by asking you to come up to settle 
this country. The change of government would, I fear, 
have this effect ; and, besides, as I already told you, I have 
no order to take possession of the country in any manner. 



172 MYSORE. 1800. 

' I approve of your proposal to advance your peons to 
Hangal, or where else you please, when your amildars hear 
that I have crossed the Werdah. I will also apprize you 
when I shall have done so. It will be proper that I should 
tell the Bhow that I have desired them to enter the Savanore 
country, and to possess themselves of the districts on the 
borders, for the general good. 

' It appears to me, that when at Hangal they will be able 
to assist me with some rice, of which I stand wofully in need : 
all that I have comes from the rice countries in Mysore, 
which are at a distance of about a month's march ; and you 
will perceive that, to bring it to me, will require a tolerably 
large number of brinjarries. If I could get a little at Hangal 
it would be a great relief. 

' Desire your amildars to let me know if they can give me 
any assistance whatever in rice ; from what country it is to 
come ; to what place I am to send for it; the distance such 
place may be from Savanore ; and such other information 
regarding it as they can afford. 

' There is not a single paddy field in this whole country, 
but plenty of cotton-ground swamps, which in this wet wea- 
ther are delightful. 

* Believe me, &c. 
Major Munro.' f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Havery, 4th July, 1800. 

' I send you two papers regarding traitors, which I have 
received from Grant. 

* I have heard no more of Goklah since yesterday. 

' Believe me, c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp en the right bank of the Werdah, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 6th July, 1800. 

' As I found that every thing became settled towards our 
frontier, I have advanced here, and I am making my arrange- 
ments for crossing this river. The brinjarries come on by 



1800. ON THE WERDAH. 173 

degrees, and I hear of some on tlie other side of the Toom- 
buddra, who appear to wait only to be forced to advance. 

' Goklah has certainly been beat and killed, and the cir- 
cumstances of the affair arc nearly as I stated them to you 
in my last letter. The majority of his troops, however, I am 
informed are still together, and can be brought forward. I 
have written respecting them to Chintomeny Rao, and to 
Bappojee Scindiah, and I hope that I shall still derive some 
advantage from him. 

' No accounts yet of the Bombay battalion. It is said 
that Dhoondiah is at Kittoor. 

' I have received, from Colonel Cuppage, the proceedings 
of the Court Martial. Sheik Fereed is found guilty of trea- 
son, and is sentenced to be imprisoned to the end of the 
war ! Hyder Beg is acquitted. I cannot approve of, although 
I have confirmed these sentences, and I have desired Colonel 
Cuppage to keep Hyder Beg in confinement. 

' In future I must proceed by a court of inquiry, which 
shall deliver an opinion whether the prisoner is guilty or not, 
as I find it is impossible to impress officers with an accurate 
notion of the extent and consequences of the crime of trea- 
son, and of the punishment which it deserves and meets in 
all civilized societies. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ARTHUR WELLESLEV. 

' One of my people employed in Dhoondiah's camp has 
sworn, in the most positive manner, that he saw Lingo Punt, 
Goklah's vakeel, with Dhoondiah in the camp. If this is 
true, it may be the clue to the necessity of Goklah's crossing 
the Malpoorba, which he certainly did a very short time after 
Lingo Punt left him. Lingo Punt has been the person em- 
ployed between Dhoondiah and Goklah, and negotiated the 
delivery of the family of the former by the latter; and I do 
not doubt but that he was employed to try to negotiate with 
him before he came to me. 

' Goklah, then, met with the fate which he deserved.' 



174 MYSORE. 1800. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 Camp, right bank of the Werdah, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 8th July, 1800. 

' I received your packet of the 4th last night. A man 
came to me some time ago, and made me an offer similar to 
that which has been made at Hyderabad. These arrange- 
ments answer well there ; but I think them unbecoming in 
an officer at the head of a body of troops, and I, therefore, 
declined to have any thing more to do with the business 
than to hold out a general encouragement. The proposer 
said, that there was a sirdar at the head of a body of horse, 
to whom if I would give a cowle he would come away. I 
gave the cowle, but I do not expect, either that the sirdar 
will come off with his troops, or that the proposed deed will 
be put in execution. Government have authorized me to 
offer a reward for him, and I propose to avail myself of this 
authority as soon as he is at all pressed, and I find that his 
people begin to drop off from him. This will be, in my opi- 
nion, the fittest period. 

' To offer a public reward by proclamation for a man's 
life, and to make a secret bargain to have it taken away, 
are very different things ; the one is to be done, the other, 
in my opinion, cannot by an officer at the head of the 
troops. 

' I have made my arrangements for crossing the river, 
and I hope that I shall have every thing over in a day or 
two. I have made a bridge which answers perfectly for foot 
passengers, and will answer equally for horses and cattle, 
Avhen I shall have given it rather a better footing. I pro- 
pose to leave this bridge here, and a number of boats which 
I have besides. For the care of these and of every thing 
which will come up, I shall establish a post immediately on 
the river side, and I am now constructing a redoubt for their 
security. 

' As soon as this work gets tolerably forward, I shall seize 
Savanore, where I understand there are but few people at 
present. I do not intend to advance from Savanore until I 
shall hear that Bowser is tolerably forward, unless I should 
find it necessary, in order to prevent Dhoondiah from put- 
ting in execution any design, which might tend to give him 



1800. ON THE WERDAH. 175 

more stability in the country, or in order to give assistance 
to our friends at Hullihall, if I find he presses them. 

' I propose to stretch out towards Hangall andBudnaghur, 
in order to clear the Soonda frontier, if the report should be 
true which I hear, that the detachment sent against that 
place has failed in its attack. I can hardly believe it, how- 
ever. 

' I have heard nothing yet of the Bombay battalion, and 
I am much afraid that, for want of money, they did not 
inarch before the 30th, and that Dhoondiah's position near 
them has prevented them from marching since that day. It 
is fortunate that I thought of ordering the provisions to be 
thrown into Hullihall in April. I understand that there 
was a sufficiency for two months for one battalion at the end 
of June. 

' What do you think of taking this opportunity of making 
peace with Kistnapah Naig ? The officers who were in his 
country say that he was well disposed to accept any reason- 
able terms ; and, as our prospects of being able to reduce 
him are very remote, particularly if Heshmut Jung's plan of 
increasing our territory is to be carried into execution, it 
appears desirable to come to a settlement with him on 
almost any terms which he could point out, and for the 
observance of which he would give us security. 

' I write to Major Cuppage this day, and desire him to 
let me know what he wants at Nundydroog, and his wants 
shall be supplied as far as is possible. In the mean time, 
I desire Gordon to be prepared to answer a call for a store 
of rice there. 

' The brinjarries drop in by degrees, and I get a little 
from the country ; but 1 have determined that no more brin- 
jarry rice shall go into the bazaar ; and I have adopted 
a plan for issuing gratis to the troops, and have reduced the 
consumption of the rice of which I have the command to fifty 
bags per diem. At this rate I have, on this side of the 
Toombuddra, at least fifty days' stock ; and my industrious 
followers must live cither upon jowarry, of which there is an 
abundance everywhere, or they must be more industrious in 
procuring rice for themselves in a country which produces 
none, or their friends the brinjarries must come up more 
quickly. From Hangall, however, I expect to draw some 



176 MYSORE. 1SOO. 

rice, which is another reason for extending myself that 
way. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close. * ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

' I have received the proceedings of a court of inquiry 
upon Mahommed Ismael, late Asoph of Chinrcydroog, and 
I have given orders that he may be hanged, and his crime 
published in the district of Nundydroog. Binnillal Khan is 
to remain in confinement in Nundydroog.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, lei't bank of the Werdah, 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, ioih July, isoo. 

' I have received letters from Hullihall up to the 5th of 
July. The circumstances of the defeat of Goklali are nearly 
as they have been already represented to you, and a great 
part of his army are under the walls of that fort. The 1st 
of the 4th are still there, having been detained for money 
till the end of June, and having then found it impracticable 
to move. Dhoondiah was encamped two days ago at Gurry, 
about 4 coss beyond Darwar, and it is said that he intended 
to come this way, that he intended to attack Hullihall, and 
that he intended to move upon Noorgoond. 1 have got 
every thing over the river, excepting the 1st and 4th regi- 
ments of cavalry. My bridge answered for every thing, 
excepting for the followers of the cavalry. Horses, bandies, 
and even camels crossed without difficulty, but the followers 
rushed upon it in such numbers from both sides, and were 
so little subject to regulation, arrangement, or order, that 
they sunk several of the boats, and I have been obliged to 
take the bridge to pieces, before I could get over the two 
last regiments of cavalry. 

* I was in hopes that, hearing nothing of Kistnapah Naig, 
it might have been possible to come to an arrangement with 
him ; but I see that it is not. Our good understanding with 
the Rajah of Koorg, which deprives him of the money which 
he used to get for defending Tippoo's country from the 
Rajah's plunderers, must be rather inconvenient to him, par- 
ticularly as he always understood matters with the Rajah, 
and it was not necessary that he should incur any great 
expense on that account. 



1800. ON THE WERDAH. 177 

c I have not been over at Savanore yet, but it appears to 
be, and I hear it is, in a ruinous condition, and so large, that 
it will not be possible to do any thing with it. We must, 
therefore, press to have Darwar, and Munro might at all 
events make his arrangements for sending grain to Hulli- 
hall. If matters should be settled previous to the time at 
which it will be possible to send up grain from Canara, 
Munro will be no loser, as he will sell it at a large price. I 
doubt whether the Peshwah will be willing, or, if willing, 
whether he will have it in his power to give over to us Darwar. 
If Dhoondiah is able to hold out at all, he will certainly re- 
ceive support against us from the great body of Marhattas. 

' Ram Rao has been with me, and he yesterday went back 
to Shikarpoor, having made arrangements for sending some 
peons into the country on the right bank of the Werdah. I 
do not believe that Servitun Rao is come to Hurryhur, or 
that he is likely to come there, but it would certainly be very 
desirable that either he or Ram Rao should be permanently 
stationed at that place. Probably the latter would be of 
most service, as I understand that he is the head amildar of 
Nuggur, Hurryhur, &c. 

' All the grain which Purneah can collect for us ought to 
be sent to Hurryhur, from whence it will be forwarded with 
other grain from other parts. 

' The people who had possession of Jemalabad found 
means to make their escape over the rock. They left in the 
upper fort four men of the 2nd of the 3rd Bombay regiment, 
being some of those who had been surprised there. These 
men they put in confinement on the day preceding the night 
in which it is supposed they escaped. Above fifty of them 
have been taken by parties sent in pursuit of them, aided by 
the people of the country ; and Lieut. Colonel Mignan in- 
forms me, that he had still hopes that he should be able to 
take Jerim Naik the leader. He proposed to bring them all 
before a General Court Martial, and to hang those to whom 
death might be sentenced in different parts of the province. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

( I have no certain accounts about Budnaghur.' 
VOL. i . N 



178 MYSORE. 1800. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp five miles south of Savanore, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, nth July, isoo. 

' I enclose you the copy of a letter which I have received 
from Lieiit. Colonel Palmer. You will perceive the manner 
in which Appah Saheb stands at Poonah. 

' I am afraid that, having given over the country to Ball 
Kishen Bhow may have the effect of setting the Peshwah, or 
at least Scindiah, against us, although I believe that this is 
not the country which has been sequestered, but it is that of 
Tasgaum and Meritch. I have written to Colonel Palmer a 
letter, the duplicate of which I enclose, and beg you will 
forward by tappall, in which I explain the reasons which 
induced me to give over the country to the Bhow, and the 
grounds which I have for believing that it is possible to 
remedy the evil if it is one. 

{ In truth the Bhow is but a bad manager, and is very 
unpopular in the country ; but he has made no objections to 
the admission of Ram Rao's peons to whatever place I 
pleased. It will, therefore, be a matter of no difficulty to 
make an arrangement to transfer the country to whomsoever 
Colonel Palmer may point out as the rightful owner. 

' It is said that Dhoondiah is coming down towards us ; if 
he does come, I shall certainly dash at him immediately. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I do not place much reliance on the proposed attack of 
Scindiah's troops, but I write this day to their commanding 
officer.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Savanore, 13th July, 1800. 

' I was prevented from answering your letter of the 9th 
yesterday by our march hither from the river, and by my 
preparations to attack Dhoondiah. I reconnaitred this place 
on the llth, and I was induced to move to it because I found 
that Dhoondiah was approaching us, as it was said to en- 
gage us, and I thought that I should perform the operation 
better by being disencumbered of baggage, to receive which 



1800. SAVANORE. 179 

this place appears tolerably well calculated, and that I should 
derive some advantage from making the attack, if he should 
come within reach, instead of by halting upon the Werdah, 
to wait till he should attack me. He is now at Hoondgul, 
about twenty two miles from hence, and, if he moves any 
nearer, I shall certainly leave my baggage here, and attack 
him. 

' The redoubt upon the Werdah is nearly finished, and I 
have left there the pioneers, and two companies of Bombay 
infantry, two 12 pounders, two 6 pounders, ammunition for 
the 12 pounders, &c. These people are to complete the 
work, and half the latter to be its future garrison. It is on 
a fine spot, which commands the banks of the river, and will 
give protection to all our cattle, brinjarries, &c., and con- 
fidence to the latter, which is a great object. 

' By Colonel Palmer's letter, which I sent you the other 
day, you will perceive that whatever may be the real inten- 
tions of Scindiah in this quarter, he declares that he has 
ordered the commanding officer of his troops to attack 
Dhoondiah Waugh. If that be the case Dhoondiah Waugh 
is still in a bad way. 

' I have long regretted that such a body of troops as this 
should be assembled, and that they should have, in fact, no 
object before them. What you point out is certainly the 
right line of proceeding ; but as I informed you in a former 
letter, I do not conceive that the Peshwah either will consent 
to our taking possession of Darwar, or that if he did consent, 
Bappojee Scindiah would give it up to us. It then comes to 
this, if the Peshwah should consent to give us the place, and 
Bappojee Scindiah should withhold it, we must force it from 
him by means of a heavy train. 

' I have nothing here now but two iron twelves ; but the 
eighteens are at Chittledroog, and I could easily get them up 
if that plan is to be adopted : and, certainly, unless it is true 
that Dhoondiah means to fight, I do not see any other mode 
of bringing this warfare to a close. 

' This place is, in fact, little better than a large plain, and 
our troops would walk into it at any time. It will, however, 
keep my baggage in security for a few days if I should wisli 
to attack him. 

' I am afraid that until we get Darwar, or some hold in 

N2 



180 MYSORE. 1800- 

the country, the plan of putting Munro into the management 
of the districts, which have fallen into our hands, will do us 
more harm than good, as, in fact, there would be an interval 
in which they would be under the management of nobody, 
or the people might resist Munro's management, and thus 
we should suffer all the inconveniences, for a time, of a con- 
test in our rear. We get on now, and that is all ; but if we 
come to have a contest in the rear, we must fall back to see 
the end of it. 

' The attack upon Budnagfyur failed, God knows how ; I 
propose to move upon Hoondgul, and to clear that frontier 
if Dhoondiah keeps at a distance ; but if he comes near me 
I think the best method of settling Soonda, and every other 
place, is to attack him. Munro talks of losing the revenues 
of Soonda (as if that was not foreseen and expected at the 
moment we took possession of it) on every occasion where 
there should be confusion in this country ; and certainly confu- 
sion may be expected in this country for some years to come. 

' I recollect that in different conferences which I had with 
you upon this subject at Nuggur, we agreed that this would 
be the case ; I apprized Government of it early, and yet they 
withdrew from it one of the battalions which alone could 
keep it in tranquillity, or make it deserving our attention. 

' I have written to Ram Rao for 500 peons, which I shall 
find of great use. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Sirhitty, 16th July, 1800. 

' On the 13th, after I had written to you, I learned that 
Dhoondiah had come from his camp at Hoondgul, with his 
whole army and his guns, to within about two coss of mine at 
Savanore; this he examined for some time on a hill, and 
then returned towards Hoondgul. I threw my baggage 
into Savanore on the morning of the 14th, and inarched with 
five days' provisions, as light as possible, to Hoondgul ; he 
had gone off six coss to Darwar on the night of the 13th, as 
soon as he heard of my intended march ; so that between the 
morning of the 13th, on which he inarched towards me, and 



1800. SIRHITTY. 181 

that of the 14th, he had gone on the most moderate compu- 
tation about eighteen Sultauny coss. 

' He left a garrison of about 600 men in Hoondgul, which I 
surrounded and stormed on the evening of the 14th, with 
but trifling loss. On the 15th I marched about seventeen 
miles to the eastward to Lukmaisier, which place was eva- 
cuated ; and on this day I have marched about twelve 
to Sirhitty, which place has been surrounded for the last 
three weeks by 4000 men belonging to the Dessayc of Dum- 
mul, and besieged in the country manner. This siege has 
been raised, and I return to-morrow towards Savanore, in 
order to get my baggage, a supply of provisions, &c. 

' Dhoondiah is in the jungles behind Dummul, and already 
his people have begun to desert him in numbers. His 
march to the front was merely to cover the retreat of his 
baggage, which was sent off to Darwar at the same time. 

' As soon as I found that he was gone off to the eastward, 
I wrote to the chiefs of the remnant of Goklah's force, to 
request them to march immediately from Hullihall to join me 
at Savanore, as the road was clear for them : if they should 
comply with this requisition I shall probably find them at 
Savanore on the day after 1 to-morrow, and I shall then move 
forward again with all my baggage, &c. ; and I hope to be 
able (with the assistance of Bowser, who will by that time be 
pretty close on his rear) to run down this fellow completely. 
At all events, by this expedition, I have gained some objects 
of importance ; I have established my superiority in the 
opinions of my own people, of his, and of the country. I 
have cut off one of his garrisons, and have taken from him 
one place of consequence, and I have raised the siege of an- 
other; and if the chiefs of Goklah's force attend to my 
requisitions, which, as their horses are starving at Hulli- 
hall, I hope they will, I shall be joined by that body of 
cavalry which will at least enable me to move with all my 
baggage, and will probably enable me to cut the fellow 
off completely. 

' When I found that he ran away from me at Hoondgul, I 
took the opportunity of offering a reward for his person of 
30,000 rupees, as I was heretofore authorized by Govern- 
ment. This will give a spur to the negotiation at Hydra- 
bad ; and it is not impossible but that some of the hungry 



182 MYSORE. 1800. 

moor-men, who are leaving him, will think that they may as 
well have these rupees as not, and that at least they will en- 
deavor to earn them ; this will increase the confusion which 
I understand is in his camp. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have written to Bowser to order him forward to Copaul, 
and eventually to Dummul. If I find that he is approach- 
ing upon my return to Savanore, I shall move this way 
immediately, and push Dhoondiah so as to secure Bowser's 
march. From all reports, however, of the diminution of his 
numbers, I have reason to believe that Bowser is fully equal 
to him. All has remained quiet at Savanore, and at the 
redoubt on the Werdah, I understand, since I marched.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Savanore, 18th July, 1800. 

' I wrote you on the 16th, on account of the circumstances 
which induced me to march from hence, and of my proceed- 
ings from the 14th to that day. Nothing particular has 
happened since the 16th. I marched to Lukmasier yester- 
day, and to this place this day; and what is very extraordi- 
nary, I saw fewer horse about us than I have seen on any 
day since I quitted the Werdah. Dhoondiah was yesterday 
morning at Unigury, somewhere between Darwar and Dum- 
mul. The remnant of Goklah's army, contrary to my advice, 
and even orders, had marched to Darwar ; and I had intelli- 
gence yesterday, that on the night before they had marched 
from Parwar to join me at this place; but upon this intelli- 
gence I place no reliance whatever. I shall know the truth 
probably this day, and if it is necessary I can march to- 
morrow with my whole force to their assistance. Dhoondiah 
keeps at the distance of about two marches from me, which 
clearly proves that he is not very easy. 

' I have just received your letters of the llth, 12th, 13th, 
14th, to which I am proceeding to reply. 

' I have called upon Ram Rao for some peons to put into 
some of the principal places in the great communications 
with Hurryhur and with Bednore; but the country still 
remains under the management of Ball Kishen Bhow ; and 



1800. SAVANORE. 183 

for the reasons which I stated in ray letter of the 13th, I 
think it will be better to allow it to remain so, at least till we 
have a stronger hold of it. 

' By what has passed in the last five days you will perceive 
that I can have no anxiety about Hullihall. If I had not the 
upper hand I should certainly be reduced to the dilemma to 
which you allude, particularly if I attempted to keep a gar- 
rison in Savanore. But I have at present no such intention. 
I believe I told you that I had been obliged to take to pieces 
my bridge, so that my communication is now kept up by 
boats only ; the redoubt is on the other side of the river, and 
guards them well, and gives good cover to my brinjarries. 
Even if Savanore was a good post it .would not answer 
to cover my boats and brinjarries, as it is seven miles from 
the river, and even at the present moment the communica- 
tion for unarmed people is insecure from the straggling 
horse which are constantly about this camp; it would of 
course be much more so if I had not established the post 
upon the river, and if I was not here myself. Upon the whole 
then, I shall leave Savanore to be occupied by the first 
comer, excepting a body of peons can keep it for me. 

' I have heard from Bowser, but I really cannot tell from 
his letter at what time he was likely to march ; I think, 
however, about the 10th. If he marches at that time he may 
be at Copaul by the 25th, and before then I shall be within 
reach to cover him. I have, however, no apprehension for 
Bowser, but much for my Marhatta friend, who appears 
so little willing to obey orders, and so unable to defend 
himself. 

' I will make arrangements for the payment of the bul- 
locks coming with the 19th dragoons; I shall make an 
arrangement, if possible, this day, for bringing forward 
Munro's amildars upon the frontier, and I will connect their 
operations, if possible, with my own. My next step must of 
course depend a good deal upon the necessity of going to the 
assistance of our allies, upon which I hope to be able to 
decide this afternoon. 

' I can say nothing about the bandies, excepting that it is 
the most scandalous affair that can have happened. We 
have not one at Chittledroog, and all that can be done is to 
get them on to Chittledroog as well as we can. 



184 MYSORE. 1800. 

' The post at Montana has certainly been threatened, and 
I believe attacked; but unless they have been guilty of 
a gross neglect in Malabar, have disobeyed orders, and 
made a false report, the new post at Cotaparamba must be 
well supplied with provisions, and of course in perfect secu- 
rity. If the Pyche Rajah comes into Cotiote, or attacks one 
of these posts in reality, it is certainly necessary to re- 
inforce Tellicherry, if not with a view to the safety of that 
place, at least with one to the ability of assisting the posts 
in advance when they are attacked. There is now nothing 
at Tellicherry excepting a corps of mopla sebundies, con- 
sisting of about 100 men ; and I should certainly look upon 
the loss of that place as a very serious misfortune. 

' I have a letter from Major Walker upon the subject of 
raising a body of nairs: he seems to think that Kydree 
Amboo is at the bottom of what he calls the unfounded 
feuds in Cotiote, and that he wishes to be paid to keep that 
country quiet. If the plan of employing the nairs should be 
connected with this notion of Major Walker's, it will require 
some consideration whether we ought to pay a tribute to 
Kydree Amboo for our tranquillity. The truth is, that the 
posts in Cotiote are fully sufficient to keep it in tranquillity, 
till Colonel Sartorius can find means to reinforce Tcllicherry 
or Cotaparamba, so as to have a little party ready to take 
the field, and make a dash at any thing which the Pyche 
Rajah may attempt to collect together. It is now as easy to 
move troops through that country as through any other that 
I know of. 

* I have spoken to Captain Mackay about his mutaseddy, 
and you will have no further trouble upon that subject. 

' I will write to you again to-morrow. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Savanore, 19th July, 1800. 

' I had received from Mr. Uhtoffe copies of the letters you 
enclosed. The wants of the troops in Soonda have been 
entirely relieved since he wrote. I have written to the 
commanding officer in Soonda to desire him to throw the rice 



1800. SAVANORE. 185 

(now in Sargaum) into Soopah, about which I conclude he 
also wrote to you. Gordon neglected to provide that garri- 
son, and if it falls I am sure I do not know how it is to be 
retaken till after the rains. 

' I have written to the amildar of Bonawasi to desire him to 
collect all the peons he can, and to drive the banditti out of 
Soonda ; also to the commanding officer in Soonda, to desire 
him to assist this amildar, and to make another attempt 
upon Budnaghur in concert with him. If it should fail 
again, I must take an opportunity of stretching out that 
way, and the siege will in the meantime be converted into a 
blockade. The amildar is to advance and take possession of 
Hangal, to give protection to the inhabitants, &c. 

' I have not yet heard any thing of my Marhatta friends, 
and I therefore conclude that they remain in safety under 
the walls of Darwar. I expect to hear from them this even- 
ing, when I shall determine upon my next movement. Mr. 
Wilson's letter to Mr. Smee describes the business which I 
mentioned to you in my letter of yesterday. The advanced 
posts I find from private accounts received by other hands, 
are really as well supplied as they were reported to me 
to be; and I have therefore no fear for them. A small 
corps collected at Tellicherry to move about from post to 
post in the triangle, of which we have the three angles, 
will in my opinion soon send the Pyche Rajah up the 
ghauts. 

' is giving Colonel Stevenson some trouble 

about his allowance, which he receives from the amildar at 
Chittledroog. The service upon which the latter is now 
employed is not one likely to last very long, or one for which 
it is usual to deprive an officer of his command ; and I am 
afraid that if it Avas so, we should not find people so willing 
as they now are to quit their garrisons in order to take the 
field. Our friend here is really most useful to me, and I 
should not like to tempt him back to Chittledroog by stop- 
ping his allowance during his absence. Will you do me the 
favor to settle with Purneah that Colonel Stevenson is to 
receive the allowance, and not ? 

' I am much obliged to you for the trouble you have taken 
about our carts and stores. I was very anxious about the 
gallopers, which, by the by, ought not to have been loaded by 



186 MYSORE. 1800. 

the Commissary stores ; the latter, however, are in general 
to be left at Chittledroog ; and I still hope that the gallopers 
will come in from the Toombuddra with the 19th dragoons. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 
' MY DEAR MuNRO, ' Camp at Savanore, 19th July, 1800. 

( I have received your letters of the 7th and 12th, and I 
have written to your amildar at Bonawasi, to desire him to 
increase his peons as much as possible, to endeavor to drive 
the banditti out of Soonda, and to retake Budnapoor, in 
concert with the officer at Mudnapoor, to whom orders will 
be sent to make another attempt on that place. I have also 
desired the amildars, if the attempt on Budnapoor should 
fail, at all events to turn the siege into a blockade, and to 
advance and take possession of Hangal, and give protection 
to the inhabitants on the borders. If we cannot restore 
tranquillity to Soonda in any other manner, I must stretch 
out that way myself, which will certainly do the business 
effectually. 

' I am prevented from doing so at this moment by the 
necessity of looking out for the safety of Bowser on one side, 
and of the remains of Goklah's army on the other. 

' I have given Dhoondiah one run, and I have established 
an opinion of our superiority in our own people, in his army, 
and in the country in general. His people begin already to 
leave him. I have not time to write you the particulars. 

( Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Camp at Savanore, 20th July, 1800. 

' I was joined last night by Goklah's cavalry, and expect 
to be joined this day by that under Chintomeny Rao. This 
materially alters my situation as it stood in regard to Soonda. 
In order to get the corps from Hillcah, it must now come to 
me ; and, on its route, it may as well clear out Budnaghur, 
and all that country. I have sent orders accordingly ; and 
if guns are wanted for Budnaghur, they will be furnished from 



1800. SAVANORE. 187 

a redoubt which I have upon the Werdah, which is about 
seven miles from Bancapoor. 

' Send orders by express to your people, to use every 
exertion to supply the wants of the corps, and afterwards the 
same exertions to forward supplies to my troops. I wrote to 
Mungush Rao this day upon the subject. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P. S. I have just received your letter of the 1 5th, and I 
shall be obliged to you if you will delay the sale of your rice 
for a short time.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Savanore, 20th July, 1800. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that I was joined in the 
middle of last night by about 1000 of Goklah's horse ; they 
marched from Darwar yesterday, and say that the remainder 
of the party, as well as that under Chintomeny Rao, are on 
the road, and will come in on this day. I have, therefore, 
no longer any uneasiness about them, or about that quarter, 
and look only to Bowser. We have had a terrible day and 
night's rain, which render the roads in this country almost 
impracticable for any troops, excepting like those of Goklah ; 
they are frightened out of their wits. This will prevent my 
marching to-morrow, but I hope on the day after to move 
forward in great style. 

< I have no fears whatever for Hullihall, which place for 
this country is strong at all times ; but in this season nothing 
can hurt it, as it is almost covered by a large tank. I have, 
therefore, written to the commanding officer in Soonda to 
detach the 1st of the 4th to clear out Soonda about Budna- 
ghur, and to get possession of that place ; and if he finds that 
he cannot do so without guns, he is to make a requisition 
for them upon the officer commanding the redoubt on the 
Werdah. 

' They will not be more than two marches from each other. 
After having given a good clearance to Soonda, this corps is 
to move to the redoubt, at which place I shall have occasion 
for it as a convoy for provisions, &c. My route will be by 
Luckmasier, Sirhitty to Doodwar, which place I shall storm, 



188 MYSORE. ]800. 

and then stretch out towards Copaul. I think that I shall 
be able to keep my rear open by means of this Marhatta 
cavalry, and you shall hear from me constantly. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, near Luckmasier, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 23rd July, 1800. 

' In two days at Savanore I was entirely destroyed. I lost, 
upon a moderate calculation, about half my cattle. I have, 
however, contrived to crawl here ; I am in the midst of large 
villages full of cattle, which I am now employed in seizing and 
arranging to departments, and I hope to be able to move on 
to-morrow. Never surely was there any thing so unfortunate ; 
but I hope to remedy it in some degree. There is nothing 
so faulty as our bullock system, and its effects are now most 
severely felt. I assure you that we have never wanted 
forage at Savanore ; it is true the cavalry in the first two 
days used all there was in the fort, notwithstanding the 
orders to cut grass for the horses ; but still forage was plen- 
tiful at the distance of two or three miles. There is, how- 
ever, clearly so little interest in the preservation of the bul- 
locks in the breast of the bullock-men, that they could not 
be prevailed upon to go out these two or three miles to 
bring in forage ; in some instances they were driven out ; the 
weather became severe to a degree, and the consequence has 
been that we have lost half our cattle. We lost only four 
gun bullocks ; and from yesterday's march I should imagine 
that the private cattle of the army, and those belonging to 
the bazaar people, are as well, if not better, than they were 
on the last day's march. 

' I have some suspicion of dubash tricks, such as fictitious 
owners and maistries in camp, the real owners being conico- 
polies in the office at Seringapatam ; and if I find a real and 
clear proof of that transaction, I shall send the whole of it to 
Madras. Mackay swears that it is so. 

' Dhoondiah is gone to the Malpoorba, and I believe in- 
tends to take refuge with the Rajah of Kolapoor. I hear from 
Munro that there is a vakeel from that Rajah on his way 
from Goa to my camp, having left at Goa his fellow. I have 



1800. LUCKMASIER. 189 

written to Uhtoffe to desire him to dispatch the vakeel 
from Goa to inform his master that he must prevent Dhoon- 
diah from crossing the Malpoorba ; and that if he does not 
do so he may possibly be treated as an enemy by the com- 
bined armies of the British, the Nizam, and Goklah. If he 
stops him at the Malpoorba I think we shall give a good 
account of him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have got bullocks, and am able to get on again once 
more.' 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, near Luckraasier, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 24th July, isoo. 

' I have been able to move this day, and I hope to be at 
Dummul on the day after to-morrow, where I have ordered 
Bowser to join me. 

' Dhoondiah certainly wants to cross the Malpoorba, but 
he has no boats, and the river has overflowed its banks. 
General Braithwaite has appointed Nundydroog as the sta- 
tion at which Cuppage's corps is to be raised, and Bangalore 
for that of another person ; it will be necessary to prevail 
upon him to alter that arrangement, and I shall be happy to 
assist in forwarding any view of Cuppage's. 

' In the meantime as it is impossible for Cuppage to 
reside there at present, and as it is absolutely necessary for 
me to have there some body, I have desired Mr. Read of the 
33rd to go over and take charge of the place. He is a sen- 
sible man, and understands the language, and will answer 
well for a time ; either till Cuppage is removed there, and 
able to take charge, or till the officer in command of the 
corps to be raised at Bangalore shall arrive. 

' Cuppage has sent me some papers regarding stores and 
provisions for Nundydroog, which are so incomplete that I 
can make nothing of them, and I have been obliged to 
return them to him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



190 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

< MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Sirhitty, 25th July, 1800. 

' I arrived here this day, and was joined on the march by 
Chintmoney Rao and his party, which is called 3000 horse, 
but is in reality about 1500. Colonel Bowser was at Kane- 
gherry on the 20th, expected to be at Copaul on the 22nd, 
and I have ordered him to join me at Dummul to-morrow. 

' You will observe by my letters that I had, on the 1st of 
July, ordered that a party, such as you proposed, should be 
assembled at Tellicherry, and I have no doubt but that they 
will clear out Cotiote in a short time ; that is to say, if they 
behave like men. 

' The success at Oustara is capital. 

' Bowser has not a grain of any thing. I have in camp 
for my own people twenty six days' rice from the of July, 
and there are 1200 bags at Savanore, which will give Bow- 
ser a supply to the same period ; but send on to us every 
thing that you can get together. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Closq. 

'MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Dummul, 26th July, 1800. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that I stormed and 
got possession of Dummul this morning. I attacked it in 
three places, at the gateway and on two faces, and carried it 
with a trifling loss, which was to be attributed chiefly to the 
eagerness of the soldiers to get upon the ladder, and it 
broke. 

' It is a strong stone fort, well built, with a dry ditch. 
The ladders used were above thirty feet long, and, in my 
opinion, the fort ought not to have been attacked with them. 

' Bowser has not joined me yet; I know he is at Copaul, 
and I ordered him here. I shall not wait for him, however, 
but shall proceed on my march to-morrow morning. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' c ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. ON THE MALPOORBA. 191 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp right of the Malpoorba, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, opposite Manowly, 31st July, 1800. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that I have struck a 
blow against Dhoondiah, which he will feel severely. 

' After the fall of Dummul and Gudduck, I heard that 
Dhoondiah was encamped near Soondootty, west of the 
Pursghur hill, and that his object was to cover the passage 
of his baggage over the Malpoorba at Manowly. I then de- 
termined upon a plan to attack both him and his baggage at 
the same time, in co-operation with Bowser. His detach- 
ment, however, did not arrive at Dummul till the 28th, and 
was two marches in my rear ; but I thought it most impor- 
tant that I should approach Dhoondiah's army at all events, 
and take advantage of any movement which he might make. 
I accordingly moved on, and arrived on the 29th at Alla- 
gawaddy, which is fifteen miles from Soondootty, and twenty 
six from this place. I intended to halt at Allagawaddy till 
the 31st, on which day I expected Colonel Bowser at Nur- 
goond ; but Dhoondiah broke up from Soondootty, as soon as 
he heard of my arrival at Allagawaddy, sent part of his army 
to Doodwar, part towards Jellahaul, and part, with the bag- 
gage, to this place. 

' I then marched on the morning of the 30th, to Hoogur- 
goor, which is east of the Pursghur hill, where I learnt that 
Dhoondiah was here with his baggage. I determined to move 
on and attack him. I surprised his camp at three o'clock in 
the evening, with the cavalry, and we drove into the river or 
destroyed every body that was in it, took an elephant, seve- 
ral camels, bullocks, horses innumerable, families, women, 
and children, &c. &c. 

' The guns were gone over, and we made an attempt to 
dismount them, by a fire from this side ; but it was getting 
dark, my infantry was fatigued by the length of the march ; 
we lost a man or two; and I saw plainly that we should not 
succeed, and I therefore withdrew my guns to my camp. 

' I do not know whether Dhoondiah was with this part of 
his army, but I rather believe he was riot. Bubber Jung 
was in the camp, put on his armour to fight, mounted his 
horse, and rode him into the river, where he was drowned. 
Numbers met with the same fate. 



192 MYSORE. 1800. 

' One tandah of brinjarries, in this neighborhood, has sent 
to me for cowle, and I have got the family of a head brin- 
jarry among those of several others. I have detained them ; 
but have sent cowle to the brinjarry. 

' I hear that every body is deserting Dhoondiah ; and I 
believe it, as my Marhattas are going out this night to 
attack one of his parties gone towards Doodwar. They were 
before very partial to my camp. 

' I have a plan for crossing some Europeans over the river 
to destroy the guns, which I am afraid I cannot bring off; 
and then I think I shall have done this business completely. 
I am not, however, quite certain of success, as the river is 
broad and rapid. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have just returned from the river, and have got the 
guns, six in number. I made the Europeans swim over to 
seize a boat ; the fort was evacuated. We got the boat and 
guns, which I have given to the Marhattas.' 



To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MuNRO, ' Camp at Soondootty, 1st August, 1800. 

' I have received your letters of the 22nd and 23rd. I 
have sent orders to the commanding officers of Hullihall 
and Nuggur to furnish ammunition, in moderate quantities, 
on the requisition of your amildars ; in any quantities you 
please on your own. Do not press Hullihall too much, as I 
know they are not well supplied there. Take what you 
please from Nuggur. 

' I have taken and destroyed Dhoondiah's baggage and 
six guns, and driven into the Malpoorba (where they were 
drowned) about five thousand people ; I stormed Dummul 
on the 26th of July. Dhoondiah's followers are quitting 
him apace, as they do not think the amusement very gratify- 
ing at the present moment. The war, therefore, is nearly at 
an end, and another blow, which I am meditating upon him 
and his brinjarries in the Kittoor country, will most probably 
bring it to a close. 

' 1 must halt here to-morrow, to refresh a little, having 



1800. SOONDOOTTY. 193 

marched every day since the 22nd July ; and on the 30th, 
the day on which I took his baggage, I marched twenty 
six miles, which, let me tell you, is no small affair in this 
country. 

' My troops are in high health and spirits, and their 
pockets full of money, the produce of plunder. I still think, 
however, that a store of rice at Hullihall will do us no harm ; 
and if I should not want it, the expense incurred will not 
signify. 

' Believe me, &c. 

4 Major Munro' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Soondootty, 3rd August, 1800. 

' The Marhattas were so slow in their motions to take 
possession of the fort of Manowly, that the enemy occupied 
it on the night of the 31st before they attempted to get in. 
They also appeared so unable to take away the guns, and 
so unwilling to remain opposite Manowly for their protec- 
tion, that I determined to destroy them, and did so imme- 
diately. I marched here on the 1st, and have halted yester- 
day and this day to refresh a little, and get matters again 
into order. Dhoondiah has brought back from the eastward 
that detachment which he had made to that quarter, and the 
whole of his force is gone along the Malpoorba towards the 
jungles of Kittoor and Soonda. I follow him to-morrow. 

' Bowser's corps, with an additional regiment of cavalry, 
and commanded by Colonel Stevenson, proceeds along the 
Malpoorba, and is to follow his track ; I shall go with my 
troops to-morrow to Belgary, the next day to Kittoor, and 
shall keep at the distance of about fifteen miles from the 
river. 

' The Marhattas will be on the look out between me and 
Stevenson, and me and Darwar, and thus we shall sweep 
along that whole line from Darwar to the river, and Dhoon- 
diah must either go into the jungles, or he must go to the 
southward of Darwar into the open country. If he goes 
into the jungles we shall easily come up with his rear ; if he 
takes to the plain, I shall cross upon him with my detach- 
ment. 

VOL. i. o 



194 MYSORE. 1800. 

' It is now impossible for him to get over the Malpoorba, 
unless that river falls more than is expected at this time of 
the year ; and even if he does contrive to cross in consequence 
of the falling of the river, I hope to have means of stopping 
him on the other side. 

' The vakeel of the Kolapoor Rajah arrived yesterday; I 
had a conversation with him immediately, and made known 
to him very clearly my sentiments regarding his master. I 
told him that if Dhoondiah entered his country, I should 
follow him, and that if he assisted Dhoondiah, he was to un- 
derstand that I should enter the country as an enemy. That 
the fort of Manowly had allowed Dhoondiah's army to en- 
camp under the protection of its guns, and had given shelter 
to the people who escaped from the Company's troops across 
the river Malpoorba, and had fired upon us. That the 
killadar must either have acted in consequence of orders 
from his master, or he must have disobeyed the orders he 
had received; that in the one case the Rajah must be con- 
sidered as having committed an act of hostility against the 
Company, or, in the other, his killadar would deserve a 
punishment which it would be my duty to inflict, and I 
desired that he might be given up to me. 

' The vakeel said that the Rajah was sincerely desirous 
of being on the best terms with the Company ; that he 
would positively prevent Dhoondiah from entering his coun- 
try, and would assemble men for that purpose ; and that the 
killadar of Manowly should be given up. 

' He afterwards, in the course of yesterday, consented on 
the part of the Rajah to admit Baba Sabeb (the younger son 
of Pursheram Bhow), with his army, into the country, in order 
to watch and prevent any attempt of Dhoondiah to cross the 
river. Baba Saheb was yesterday near Badamy ; but I 
have written to him to ascend the river, and he and the 
Rajah's troops will certainly be able to stop Dhoondiah on 
that side. 

' It appears to me very clearly that the Rajah of Kolapoor 
is much afraid of our entering his country at all, on account 
of our connexion with the Bhow's family, as he thinks it pro- 
bable that we should take their part in the quarrel subsisting 
between the two parties. In all the conversations I have 
had with the Bhow's people, I have urged them to make 



1800. SOONDOOTTY. 195 

peace with the Rajah of Kolapoor, as the only means of re- 
establishing their power in this country, or of keeping out 
such people as Dhoondiah. To this idea they at first mani- 
fested strong objections ; but latterly they have listened to 
it a little more, I believe in consequence of finding that I was 
not disposed to listen to their propositions to attack the 
Kolapoor Rajah ; 'and yesterday, in the conference which I 
had with all the parties in order to arrange the expedition 
under Baba Saheb, I again urged them to make peace, and 
desired that both parties should write down what they had to 
say upon the subject. The Bhow, Lingo Punt, and the 
Rajah's vakeel, all then declared that they were persuaded 
it was the only measure which could save the countries, 
and that they would really do their utmost to bring it 
about. 

' I wrote to Colonel Palmer upon the subject some days 
ago ; and if we can only arrange this matter, and get Appah 
Saheb appointed sole zemindar, or jaghiredar, upon this 
frontier, which I also mentioned to Colonel Palmer, we may 
hope to have matters in Soonda and to the northward of 
Mysore in tolerable tranquillity. Our friend Munro has 
sent an amildar into the countries right of the Werdah, who 
is playing the devil. I have, however, ordered him to the 
presence, and have proclaimed in the country that he has no 
authority from me. He is a kind of rights of men man, 
who has ordered the people to pay no revenue to any body, 
and of course is obeyed. One of the consequences of his 
orders is, that the peons put into the different villages and 
forts by the Bhow do not receive their subsistence ; they have 
threatened to hang their havildars, and now plunder the 
country. 

' We have hitherto enjoyed the greatest of all blessings 
for troops, a quiet rear, and a secure communication with 
our own country, and I am anxious, to a degree, that it 
should not be disturbed for any trifling object. 

' I think that matters in Cotiote will soon take a favor- 
able turn ; Sartorius will certainly by this time have marched 
to the assistance of the advanced posts. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



o2 



196 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Kittoor, 5th August, 1800. 

' I arrived here this morning upon the plan which I 
stated to you in my letter of the 3rd. Dhoondiah is gone 
quite into the jungles, and his head is beyond the sources of 
the Malpoorba. Stevenson is at a place called Eytegul, 
about six miles from hence, and will follow the tail of 
Dhoondiah to-morrow, part of which he may probably cut 
off. I halt here to construct boats, to make certain other 
arrangements which I am about to detail. 

' 1st. It is very certain that as Dhoondiah has crossed by 
the sources of the Malpoorba, I could follow him by that 
route ; but I must have a communication with this country, 
which by the same route would be long and difficult, and 
would be liable to constant interruption from the violence of 
the rains in these jungly countries. I have therefore deter- 
mined to have my communication by boats, and at Sungoly, 
which is three coss from hence, and I halt here to construct 
the boats, as it is in the neighborhood of a bamboo jungle, 
and of Darwar, where I can get hides, and it is a plentiful 
country, with rice, green and dry forage, &c. 

' 2ndly. I must throw my sick and wounded into a place 
of security, and none will answer so well as Hullihall, which 
place is five coss from hence. 

' Srdly. I propose to make a collection and depot of rice 
at Hullihall, and that cannot be done unless I go there my- 
self to have a little conversation with the dubash in office. 
What do you think of the difficulties stated in procuring the 
supply for that garrison, when I tell you that about half an 
hour after my arrival, a buccall of this place told me that he 
would let me have 500 bags to-morrow, and would make it 
1000 before eight days elapsed? 

' 4thly. It is necessary to curb Munro's amildars a little, 
who are taking possession of every place in the country, 
whether belonging to friends or to foes, and who have given 
great disgust to the allies. 

' The first is the only reason which induces me to halt ; 
but I shall have a sufficiency of occupation while I am here. 

' I have made all the arrangements for constructing the 
boats ; and I shall go over to Hullihall to-morrow morning 
to settle the other points which are objects of my attention. 



1800. KJTTOOR. 197 

' Although I think I shall be able to fill, in this country, 
3000 empty brinjarries which I have got, let Purneah desire 
his amildars to forward supplies to us as fast as they can. 

' I wait only for Palmer's answer from Poonah to begin 
peace making, according to the plan which I stated to you in 
my letter of the 3rd. All parties appear anxious for it, and 
I think that we ought to be so. 

' Budnaghur is in our hands, and the frontier of Soonda is 
clearer of the banditti. I hear also that the rogues who 
went to Nurjin, in Canara, have withdrawn. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro.' 

' MY DEAR MuNRO, ' Camp at Kittoor, 7th August, 1800. 

' I arrived here on the 5th. Dhoondiah had gone even to 
the sources of the Malpoorba, where he passed, and his bag- 
gage is following him. Colonel Stevenson is after them, and 
will cut oft' part of the tail, I hope. 

' I have halted here in the neighborhood of a bamboo 
jungle, to make boats, which I must have upon the river, in 
order to keep up my communication with my rear. 

' I went yesterday to Hullihall, and was glad to see the 
country so much improved since last year. It is now one 
sheet of cultivation. The dubash there ought to be hanged, 
for having made any difficulties in collecting the rice to be 
stored. 

* My principal objects in going to Hullihall were to con- 
verse with your amildar respecting his operations upon the 
frontier ; and with him and the paymaster's man, respecting 
a depot for my troops, to be made at that place. 

' In regard to the forts, the allies, respecting whom it 
would be inconvenient to convert them into enemies at the 
present moment, are exceedingly offended at their forts 
being taken from them by a parcel of peons. Besides, to 
tell you the truth, now that Dhoondiah is off, I do not see 
what end it will answer to put your guards in the forts on 
the frontier, excepting to perpetuate confusion. 

' The Company do not intend, I believe, in consequence of 
this warfare, to take possession of any territory. To garrison 



198 MYSORE. 1800. 

a fort, then, against the inclination of the person who deems 
himself, and is supposed by the Government to be the right- 
ful owner, will only tend to bring on a kind of minor contest 
on the borders, between your amildars and the Marhatta 
killadars, in which nobody will be gainers, excepting the 
thieves; and which we, above all other people, ought to 
endeavor to avoid. 

' I have, therefore, desired your man to withdraw his 
people from Jeygoor, &c., which are Goklah's jaghires ; and 
to use the peons he has raised in preserving tranquillity in 
that part of Soonda, and not to pass the Company's borders 
till he hears further from me. 

( Many circumstances have tended heretofore to occasion 
this system of thieving upon the borders ; and that of one 
party giving protection to the robbers of the other, which I 
hope will no longer exist. 

' First, the government of this country has been for some 
time in a very disturbed state, and every man has been 
accustomed latterly to do very nearly whatever he chooses. 

' Secondly, the Marhattas undoubtedly took possession of 
Soonda; and if they were not encouraged to do so, they 
were not opposed by us, until a very late period, when they 
broke off a treaty which was pending. They have always, 
therefore, looked at our possession of that country, with a 
jealous and an envious eye ; and of course saw with plea- 
sure, and rather encouraged, any attempt made to disturb 
the tranquillity of the people living there under our pro- 
tection. 

' I hope now, that, before we shall have done in this 
country, (if we do not take it for ourselves,) we shall 
establish in it a strong government one which can keep the 
relations of amity and peace. At all events, we have already 
established a respect for ourselves ; we have gained a know- 
ledge of, and have had a friendly intercourse with, the prin- 
cipal people ; and it is not probable that they will hereafter 
be very forward to encourage any disturbance in our coun- 
try. They see plainly that it is in our power to retaliate ; 
and from what I have seen of their country, and their mode 
of management, I am of opinion, that at present our robbers 
would get more than theirs ; or, in other words, that they 
have more to lose than we have. I have had some conver- 



1800. KITTOOR. 199 

sation with them all upon the subject ; they promise fairly 
that nothing of the kind shall happen in future ; and I 
acknowledge that, if we are not to take possession entirely of 
the country, I rather prefer to trust to what they say, than 
to the desultory operations of amildars and peons. 

' In regard to the storing of rice, the dubash swore that 
he could not get a grain ; although the head man of this 
place, which is only twenty five miles from Hullihall, pro- 
mised a large quantity in eight days, on the evening that I 
arrived here. I was, therefore, under the necessity of de- 
siring your amildar (whom I believe to be the brother of 
Mungush Rao) to exert himself to collect some. He says 
that he will begin to do so immediately ; and he thinks he 
shall be able to procure a quantity in a short time, which 
will be of no use to me. He is to put it with the store at 
Hullihall ; to take the receipt of the dubash, and it is to be 
drawn from thence as I may want it. There was some doubt 
whether the amildar would not want money for his purchases 
of grain upon this occasion, as he had given over to the 
dubash all he had collected. In order to obviate this diffi- 
culty, I have ordered the commanding officer at Hullihall to 
give him whatever money he may want, from the dubash's 
treasury, upon his receipt ; and I have also desired the com- 
manding officer to inform you whenever he will authorize an 
issue of money to him. 

' A store of rice at Hullihall will be a great comfort and 
convenience to me ; and I shall be glad to have it increased 
to any extent that may be practicable. If you should wish 
any other arrangement, either for the mode of collecting it, 
or for that of advancing the money, let me know it, and I 
will alter that above stated accordingly. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Kittoor, 8th August, 1800. 

' I went to Hullihall and returned again on the 6th, having 
arranged there every thing I had to do. 

' Dhoondiah is fairly across the Malpoorba ; he left camels, 
&c., upon the road ; but Stevenson has not been able to 



200 MYSORE. 1800. 

come up with any part of his rear. Stevenson is now en- 
camped at Kanapoor, where he proposes to cross the river. 
Dhoondiah was yesterday morning within three coss of his 
camp, but he marched in the evening (as it is reported) to 
the N.E. My opinion is that he is going towards Bauggree- 
cotta, that he will cross the Gutpurba and the Kistna, and 
get among the polygars of Solapoor, &c., who are dependent 
both upon the Marhattas and the Nizam. 

' There was a mutiny in his camp yesterday morning, and 
there is no doubt whatever that his army is reduced almost 
to nothing : if we are able to push him a little between the 
Gutpurba and Malpoorba, we shall probably reduce him so 
low as to make him a very despicable enemy. In my opinion 
we ought not to cross the Gutpurba, if that should be the 
case ; but ought to confine our endeavors to giving strength 
to the chiefs on the frontier, in order to prevent Dhoon- 
diah's return. 

' The war will literally have no object nor no end, if we 
are to follow a single man with a few horsemen to the end 
of the world ; and at the same time, if we do not take some 
measures to strengthen the frontier, Dhoondiah, or some 
body else, will certainly return as soon as we withdraw to our 
own country. 

' Let me know your opinion upon this subject, in order 
that I may make a proposition to Government without delay. 
I have already taken measures to make peace between the 
Kolapoor Rajah and Appah Saheb. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Kittoor, 10th August, 1800. 

' I omitted to answer one part of your letter of the 
1st instant regarding Reyman Beg, the prisoner at Nundy- 
droog. In my opinion, unless Baba Saheb gives his con- 
sent, he cannot be punished, but that may probably be 
obtained through the means of Captain Kirkpatrick. 

' Nothing new here. Stevenson is crossing the Malpoorba 
at Kanapoor, and I am making preparations to cross it at 
Sungoly. If my native friends were a little alert, I should 
have twenty boats ready to-morrow. 



1800. KITTOOR. 

' I heard from Webbe last night, and I am very much 
concerned to find that he is not going to Poonah. Among 
other things, he informs me that the five companies of the 
12th, and the 2nd of the 5th, are coming up the ghauts, 
as he says, to enable me to oppose the Rajahs in Malabar. 
I have already ordered these corps to Seringapatam, there 
to remain encamped under the Caryghaut hill till further 
orders ; and I have ordered guns to be equipped for them at 
that place, and every thing else to be prepared. 

'.The question is, in what manner shall they be employed 
against the Rajahs in Malabar? In my opinion they ought 
to go below the ghauts as soon as the weather will permit, 
if Purneah's people are able to keep the Rajah at all within 
bounds on the Mysore side of Wynaad ; and if I hear from 
you that that is the case, I shall order them to Cannanore 
without loss of time. The season will be fair by the time 
that they will receive my orders, after I shall have heard 
from you. 

' If they are to oppose the Pyche Rajah on the side 
of Wynaad, they must, I am afraid, remain on the defensive, 
as they are not sufficiently strong by themselves to enter 
that jungly country ; and I am besides informed that it will 
be impossible to commence operations in it till the month of 
November. 

' It may be possible to open the campaign early in 
Cotiote, and push forward the roads, and establish ourselves 
at the foot, if not on the top, of the ghauts ; and then, if I 
am in luck, I shall have settled matters here before Novem- 
ber, and can march down to Wynaad, and settle matters 
there before the setting in of the next rains. 

' Let me hear from you as soon as you can respecting the 
ability of Purneah's troops to confine the Rajah to his 
jungles. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Kistnapah arrived this morning. The 19th not come 
yet.' 



202 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at the right bank of the Malpoorba, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 13th August, isoo. 

' I have received your letter of the 9th instant. The 
loaded bullocks which come from Mysore sell off their goods 
as soon as they arrive in camp. We have a bazaar called 
the Rajah's, into which they go, and I do not believe they 
are detained one day. Among these I do not include the 
brinjarries ; they have been detained, as their rice has been 
issued to the troops through the grain department. But 
even the brinjarries were detained only once, and that was 
while the troops were marching from Savanore to Manowly. 
You may depend upon it that the dealers from Mysore shall 
not be detained one moment after they arrive. 

' I have delayed to send instructions for the 12th regi- 
ment, and the 2nd of the 5th, till I should hear from you ; 
but by your two last letters I perceive that we must use 
these troops in the first instance to regain possession of Eda- 
tera : however, as the 12th will not arrive at Seringapatam 
till the beginning of September, I shall still delay to send 
instructions to the detachment till I hear further from you. 

' Kistnapah is arrived, and is a little wild ; but I have 
given him a check, and I hope he will go on well. 

' I hope that we shall not be involved in a war with the 
Marhattas, on the crude notions of . 

' Is it possible that any man can believe that it is Scin- 
diah's intention to attack the Nizam at this moment, above 
all others ? We have now a strong force in the centre of the 
Marhatta country, and should have on our side, in case of a 
contest with Scindiah, all the Marhattas of these parts, and 
others from the side of Sera, &c. Scindiah's army has 
crossed the Kistna ; and if the armament has been increased 
lately, I conceive that he is desirous of co-operating with us 
in the destruction of Dhoondiah ; and, probably, by means 
of a large force, to check any arrangements of the country on 
our frontier, which we may think it proper to make. A 
strong army will give much weight and effect to his intrigues 
in this part of the country. 

' There is another reason which most probably has weighed 
considerably on producing the armament atPoonah. Goklah 
was looked upon by all the Marhatta chiefs to be invincible, 



1800. ON THE MALPOORBA. 203 

and he was much respected at Poonah. His defeat and 
death have had great effect there, and it is not improbable 
but that these events may have urged the Peshwah to make 
some exertion. Whatever may be the real motive of Scin- 
diah's conduct, it is certainly not his intention to attack the 
Nizam at this moment. 

' I have heard nothing from Colonel Palmer in answer to 
my letters upon the subject of the arrangements of the coun- 
tries in our frontier. I do not think it improbable but that 
Scindiah may himself be desirous of obtaining Darwar and 
Savanore, as well as Meritch and Tasgaum. I should think it 
a misfortune if he were to succeed in that object, as without 
attacking us openly, which in my opinion the Marhattas will 
always avoid, he will contrive to put an end to the tranquil- 
lity of our frontier. If the Bhow's family retain possession 
of these provinces, and we can establish them firmly, we shall 
be quiet, and we ought to be contented. If Scindiah is 
to have them, my opinion is, that we ought to ask for com- 
pensation for our expenses ; that we ought to push ourselves 
at least as far forward as the Werdah, if we do not ask 
for Darwar and the open country bordering upon Soonda. 
When I talk of the Bhow's family retaining possession of 
these provinces, I mention them because they have had them 
hitherto, and are attached to us, and under our influence ; 
any other family under our influence would answer equally 
well after a short time : and when I talk of the bad effects of 
allowing Scindiah to have these provinces, I mean him or 
any of his creatures ; in short, there ought to be a strong 
government in this country, the head of which ought to 
be attached to us ; and I prefer the Bhow's family to any 
other, because they have had possession, and have it now ; 
and if we wish to put in another family, we must have a con- 
test to effect our object. 

' These are my notions, after the fullest consideration, 
of the state of this country. 

' All the jaghiredars hereabouts would of course be averse 
to our strengthening to any considerable degree the hands 
of the Bhow's family, as they thereby become proportion ably 
weak and insignificant. They therefore now bring forward 
to notice every little man who has any claims whatever to the 
soil, such as the Rajah of Kittoor, &c. I receive them all, 



204 MYSORE. 1800. 

call for their co-operation against Dhoondiah in the first 
instance, and refer the consideration of their claims to the 
Bhow and to a future period. Hereafter, if the Bhow is sup- 
ported at Poonah, he will be able to crush all these petty 
Rajahs, and put them on the footingon which they were hereto- 
fore in better times ; if he is not supported at Poonah, and we 
should abandon his cause, the Rajahs will do him no harm. 

' My friend Kistnapah has taken some of these Rajahs in 
hand, and has brought them forward. I have, however, 
given him a hint that the Show's family are my object, and 
that any man who has any thing to say to the country must 
look up to them. 

' I have got three battalions of infantry over the river, and 
many boats prepared, and I shall not be long crossing the 
remainder of the troops. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. 1 ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

* Camp on the Malpoorba, 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, 16th August, isoo. 

' I wrote to you on the 7th, and informed you of the 
manner in which Dhoondiah had escaped. A detachment 
from Stevenson's corps followed his track, and the road was 
covered with dead camels, bullocks, and people ; but we got 
hold of nothing. 

' Bowser has since crossed the river Malpoorba, and has 
advanced to Shawpoor ; and he tells me, that he found many 
dead cattle and people of all ages and sexes on the road. 
The people of the country beyond Shawpoor plundered 4000 
brinjarries. I am now employed in crossing the Malpoorba, 
and I hope to be prepared to advance in two or three days. 
I shall leave something on this side, in case Dhoondiah 
should double back. 

' I wrote you fully respecting your amildars on the 7th : 
since that day I have received a letter from Soubah Rao, 
(whose name, by the by, I never heard till he put himself in 
possession of part of the country,) in which he tells me that 
lie will neither come to me, nor withdraw his tannah, without 
orders from you ; and he makes many bad excuses for this 
determination. I had no idea that he had so many peons as 



1800. ON THE MALPOORBA. 205 

he says he has (1200), or I should not have called him to 
me; and I have since begged of him to go wherever he 
pleases, and never let me see or hear of him again. I 
agree with you, that, provided he does not disturb my rear, 
his expedition will do me more good than harm with my 
allies. 

' I have put them to the test respecting the thieves you 
mention at Mundragoor. They promise that the cattle shall 
be forthwith restored, and that the head men of those vil- 
lages, which, by their own acknowledgment, are inhabited 
by thieves only, shall be given up to me. 

' Your people at Hullihall are behaving capitally : they 
have sent me leather for my boats. 

' Captain Greenlay informs me that they will send me 
some arrack, which I expect from Goa ; and this will be a 
considerable relief to my cattle. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp on the Malpoorba, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 17th August, isoo. 

' I have received your letter of the 12th, and I agree with 
you that I ought not to follow Dhoondiah further than the 
Gutpurba, and I should not even have crossed the Malpoorba 
if it had not been to give confidence to the allies, and to awe 
the Rajah of Kolapoor. 

' This Rajah has positively refused to allow Dhoondiah to 
enter his country, and he has assembled an army to co- 
operate against him ; but it is at such a distance that I can 
make nothing of it at present. This Rajah appears heartily 
tired of Scindiah and his politics, and well inclined towards 
us : if Colonel Palmer is only tolerably firm, this would be 
the time to send Scindiah to Hindustan. 

' I am going to give Dhoondiah one more run between 
the Gutpurba and Malpoorba, and I think I have a chance of 
picking up some baggage, &c. : it is clear I shall never catch 
him. His baggage has only one way to escape, and that is 
to recross the Malpoorba near Badamy ; but I guard against 
that by detaching two corps of Marhattas and a brigade of 
infantry towards Jellahaul, and I pursue him with my troops 



206 MYSORE. 1800. 

along the Malpoorba, Stevenson's along the Gutpurba, and 
Goklah's and the Mogul's between us, as far as the junction 
of those two rivers with the Kistna. I think I shall make 
something of this plan, although I may not probably get 
hold of him. 

' I shall write to Government this day respecting my 
future operations. I can tell you that I have supplies to 
carry me to Poonah, if that were necessary, and my pros- 
pects are improving daily. I was a little anxious about 
arrack for a few days, but Uhtoffe (who is full of zeal) has 
sent me a supply from Goa, which will arrive at Hullihall, I 
believe, this day, and will be here before I can march. 

' I have reports of 10,000 full brinjarries between this and 
the Werdah; and I have 3000 out along the skirts of 
Soonda filling with rice; besides these the Mysore dealers 
come in apace. 

' Our price brings a few sheep from this country ; and I 
have encouraged my (Amut Mahal) friend, by paying him 
for the sheep as they were in numbers at Hurryhur, taking 
upon the Company (which is only fair) all the loss between 
that place and the camp. 

' In short, I have as yet experienced no serious want, and 
I have more of every thing now than I ever had ; I have 
better prospects before me. 

' It is supposed that the rivers Werdah and Malpoorba 
will be fordable in two or three weeks, and that the Gut- 
purba will be fordable in a month. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Montana has been relieved, but with loss on our side.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 20th August, 1800. 

' I return the papers from Major Walker. I had before 
received accounts from Malabar of the relief of the two 
posts. These roads will not answer unless they do as I 
desired them at first; that is, cut the underwood to a consi- 
derable distance on each side of the road. I have ordered 
Sartorius to employ the pioneers and coolies on this work 
immediately, as whatever may be the plan for the next cam- 



1800. HOOBLY. 207 

paign, the communication with Montana must be made 
secure, or all will be lost. It will be fortunate if Purneah 
can check the Nairs on the Mysore side ; if he cannot, the 
12th and 2nd of the 5th must go that way. 

' If he can check them they shall go to Malabar ; and I 
will send orders to begin by pushing the roads to the foot of 
the ghauts. Major Walker's plan of having a force assem- 
bled in Mysore, to give room for apprehension in that 
quarter, would be excellent, if we had troops in Malabar to 
stand even upon the defensive, or to make such improve- 
ments in our roads and posts as are necessary to their 
security, and to give us the means hereafter of deriving a 
full advantage from them. But they are so weak in Mala- 
bar, their force is so dispersed, and it is so difficult to per- 
suade the commissioners to allow it to be collected, that 
I am afraid we shall suffer in Cotiote if we should not 
be able to send thither this reinforcement. However, My- 
sore is the first object, and if Purneah cannot stop the 
Nairs, the 12th and 2nd of the 5th must. 

' I hope to be able to march on the 22nd. Dhoondiah is 
in a bad way; his people are starving, are leaving him, and 
reproach him with their misfortunes. He retorts upon them, 
and desires them to give their wives and daughters to the 
Europeans, whom they are afraid to fight. This is the report, 
and that the Patans have left him. 

' All my arrangements are made, and in a few days I 
shall press upon him at all points at the same moment. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 20th August, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 14th. My state of 
supplies is as follows : I have 1200 loads in the grain de- 
partment, and 1500 full brinjarries in camp ; I am told that I 
have 5000 between the Werdah and Malpoorba; and as the 
head man has not deceived me lately, I believe it. Besides 
that, 3000 brinjarries left me at Kittoor on the 5th, in order 
to fill along the borders of Soonda, Savanore, and Darwar. 
There are 5000 brinjarries full, who are following the Nizam's 
camp ; but some of them, I believe, have only jowarry. 



208 MYSORE. 1800. 

' Now for my consumption. It is impossible to say exactly 
what it is, when every body can get as much rice as he can 
eat ; as Marhattas, Moguls, and all, go to the same bazaar 
on one day, and to different bazaars the next ; and it is not 
practicable to form any rational estimate. 

* The fighting men of the Company's troops, to whom 
alone I allow rice in times of scarcity, consume eighty loads 
a day, including those of Bowser's detachment. Thus, then, 
as long as rice is produced at all in the bazaars, that is to 
say, while we are in a country which produces rice, I allow 
about 100 loads of brinjarry to be sold : or, if the country is 
plentiful, I allow still more. When rice was not to be got in 
the country, as was the case between the Werdah and Toom- 
buddra, and, indeed, till we came to Kittoor, I allowed none 
to be sold by the brinjarries, excepting to the grain depart- 
ment ; and I issued it to the troops at the rate of half a seer 
gratis. They then consumed eighty bags per diem. 

' At this rate of consumption, I have now in camp some 
thirty three days' rice ; and between the rivers, Lord knows 
what. It is, however, very clear that I am now in no want, 
and that I am not likely to suffer any. 

' The brinjarries I look upon in the light of servants of 
the public, of whose grain I have a right to regulate the sale 
as I may find most advantageous to its interests ; always 
taking care that they have a proportionate advantage. But, 
besides these, there are another set of people who have 
attended my camp ; these are dealers from Mysore, of whom 
I have kept no account. They come and sell their grain, 
and go off again ; and, till we arrived at Kittoor, the rice 
they brought was all that was sold. Of these, I am told, 
there are many upon the road at this moment. 

' I look forward in future to the following sources of 
supply : first, a few hundred loads at Hullihall, suppose five 
hundred; secondly, when the season opens, two thousand 
one hundred loads, for which I will make the brinjarries go 
to the Seedasheeghur river; thirdly, as much more from 
Canara as you can let me have. 

' You see, by the state of my supplies, that I can Avait till 
the ghauts are practicable for bullocks ; and I must beg of 
you to let me know the road, and the name of the place 
to which I shall send upon the Seedasheeghur*river ; and 



1800. HOOBLY. 209 

the districts to which you would wish my brinjarries to go in 
future. 

' My ideas of the nature of the Indian governments, of 
their decline and fall, agree fully with yours ; and I acknow- 
ledge that I think it probable that we shall not be able to 
establish a strong government on this frontier. Scindiah's 
influence at Poonah is too great for us ; and I see plainly, 
that, if Colonel Palmer* remains there, we shall not be able 
to curb him without going to war. There was never such 
an opportunity for it as the present moment ; and probably 
by bringing forward, and by establishing in their ancient 
possessions, the Bhow's family under our protection, we 
should counterbalance Scindiah, and secure our own tran- 
quillity for a great length of time. But I despair of it ; and 
I am afraid that we shall be reduced to the alternative of 
allowing Scindiah to be our neighbor upon our old frontier; 
or of taking this country ourselves. 

' If we allow Scindiah to be our neighbor ; or if the 
country goes to any other through his influence, we must 
expect worse than what has passed thieves of all kinds, 
new Dhoondiahs, and probably Dhoondiah himself again. 
If we take the country ourselves, I do not expect much 
tranquillity. 

' In my opinion, the extension of our territory and in- 
fluence has been greater than our means. Besides, we have 
added to the number and the description of our enemies, by 
depriving of employment those who heretofore found it in 
the service of Tippoo, and of the Nizam. Wherever we 
spread ourselves, particularly if we aggrandize ourselves at 
the expense of the Marhattas, we increase this evil. We 
throw out of employment, and of means of subsistence, all 
who have hitherto managed the revenue, commanded or 
served in the armies, or have plundered the country. These 
people become additional enemies : at the same time that, 
by the extension of our territory, our means of supporting 
our government, and of defending ourselves, are propor- 
tionally decreased. 

' Upon all questions of increase of territory, these consi- 
derations have much weight with me, and I am in general 

* Colonel Palmer was the British Resident at Poonah. 
VOL. I. p 



210 MYSORE. 1800. 

inclined to decide that we have enough ; as much, at least, 
if not more than we can defend. 

' I agree with you that we ought to settle this Marhatta 
business, and the Malabar Rajahs, before the French return 
to India; but I am afraid that to extend ourselves will 
rather tend to delay, than accelerate the settlements; and 
that we shall thereby increase, rather than diminish, the 
number of our enemies. 

' As for the wishes of the people, particularly in this 
country, I put them out of the question. They are the only 
philosophers about their governors that ever I met with, 
if indifference constitutes that character. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro." < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 2lst August, 1800. 

' I have just received your letter of the 18th. I am afraid 
that the attempt to establish a depot at Hurryhur, or on the 
Werdah, would ruin us entirely, as I should find that the 
brinjarries, who of course, like the other dealers, object to 
coming to such a distance, would lodge their rice at the 
depot instead of bringing it forward. It would be impos- 
sible to frame any arrangement to prevent that, and the 
idea must therefore be laid aside,, although it would certainly 
be desirable to have a depot, and the nearer the better. 

' If the dealers from Mysore do not like to come forward, 
it cannot be helped, we must do without them. 

' The loss at Montana was very great certainly ; but not 
so much so as is represented by the commissioners, whose 
letters I return. There is a post half way between Cotapa- 
ramba and Montana, called Pyche, which was abandoned, 
but since the roads have been made, at the particular desire 
of Sartorius, who had not troops to take care of it. My 
opinion is, that the Pyche Eajah will now withdraw his 
people from both those posts in Cotiote, where he has lost 
many men, and that he will direct his efforts to the Mysore 
side. If he does withdraw, they should lose no time in 
throwing in a further supply to Montana, and in making 
such improvements on the roads as will render the commu- 
nication more easy in future. 



1800. MODEL*. 211 

' I see no reason why all the troops that can be spared 
should not be immediately collected, be pushed forward to 
Cotaparamba, and employed to cover the working parties 
upon the road between the river and Montana. 

' I have yet received no intelligence whatever from Colonel 
Palmer. I suspect that he has made a proposition of some 
kind to Bajee Rao, as Goklah has just communicated to me 
a letter from him, in which he desires him to join himself 
with Appah Saheb and Chintomoney Rao, and settle the 
country. Baba Saheb and Chintomoney Rao are gone away 
with Capper ; but I do not doubt that they have received 
letters of a similar tendency. 

' The system hitherto has been to divide these chiefs, 
to keep those of the Show's family in the back ground, and 
to bring forward Goklah. 

' I have besides private information from Ball Kishna 
Bhow, that private orders have been sent to Appah Saheb to 
increase his forces to the utmost degree possible ; and Ball 
Kishna Bhow says, that a blow against Scindiah is medi- 
tated, and that he is convinced that I shall receive a requi- 
sition through Colonel Palmer to assist in freeing the Pesh- 
wah from Scindi^h's clutches. 

* There is certainly some change at Poonah, otherwise 
Goklah would not have been desired to join with Appah 
Saheb ; but what that change is, I cannot say. 

' I received a letter this morning: from the commander 

O 

of Scindiah's forces ; they are on this side of the Kistna. 
He says that he also is occupied in the destruction of 
Dhoondiah, and that if he goes towards him he will fall 
upon him and destroy him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I omitted to inform you, that having received some 
dooley bearers from Madras, I have discharged seven sets of 
the Mysore bearers, and have given them their pay to the 
end of September, to carry them to their villages. I found 
them so attentive, and they behaved so well in marching 
with the troops upon all occasions to the attack of all these 
places, and at Manowly, that I gave them a present of 
a pagoda each man at the end of last month.' 

p2 



212 MYSORE. 1800. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. ' 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 25th August, 1800. 

' I enclose two letters from Lieut. Colonel Palmer, from 
which it is clear that no arrangement can be made in this 
country, and I shall therefore confine my endeavors to the 
recommendation of peace to all the parties. In my opinion 
Scindiah will very soon be in possession of Savanore. 

' I received yesterday a letter from the European com- 
manding officer of his troops, by name Dawes, who says that 
they have received no orders to co-operate with me, or to 
interfere at all in the present warfare. 

' Dhoondiah left five guns, a large quantity of ammuni- 
tion, some arms (Company's), in possession of the Jalloor 
polygar, near whose place I encamped the day before yes- 
terday. I sent Colonel Montresor with a detachment yes- 
terday to take and destroy them, and he did so effectually. 

' I hear that Colonel Capper has taken the fort of Hooly, 
which is about six miles east of Soondootty. I had passed 
this place on my way to Manowly, and on the day after the 
action had given it cowle ; whether it was taken possession 
of by some of the fugitives from Manowly, or from what cause 
I know not, but some of the baggage of the dragoons was 
plundered by the people belonging to it. I hear from the 
Marhatta chief that Capper suffered no loss. 

' Dhoondiah made two marches towards Badamy to cross 
the Malpoorba at Tolusgur ; but when he heard of the march 
of Lieut. Colonel Capper (who must have reached Jellahaul 
yesterday), he returned, and is now gone to the junction of 
the Kistna and the Gutpurba. Stevenson is moving down 
the Gutpurba, and I directly upon him, at the distance of 
about one march from each river. I could not move along 
the Malpoorba as I intended, on account of the difficulty of 
the roads ; but I have some Marhattas on all parts of the 
river. 

' I think I have some chance of falling upon him. 

' To do Colonel Stevenson justice, as soon as I mentioned 
to him your notion of Major Isaac's claim to the allowance at 
Chittledroog, he acquiesced in it, and desired that it might 
be paid to the Major. I omitted to write to you upon 
this subject as I ought ; but I had many other things to 
think of. 



1800. HERTY KERNAL. 213 

' I have no power to order the repairs of magazines, store- 
rooms, &c. ; but as soon as Franks sends me the estimates 
you mention, I shall apply to Government that he may be 
allowed to make the repairs. As Macintyre is at Seringapa- 
tam, I shall make the arrangement you propose for the 
pioneers, and do every thing else in my power to make 
Chittledroog a good and useful fort. While writing upon 
this subject, it occurs to me to mention, that in my opinion 
we ought to have a post at Hurryhur, with a granary well 
provided. Hullihall ought to be made a proper post, and to 
be well stored with grain and provisions, and we may then 
defy all the Scindiahs of the Marhatta empire. I shall write 
to Government upon this subject as soon as matters shall 
have become a little settled. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I enclose a letter from Mr. Uhtoffe, which throws further 
light upon the intended co-operation of Scindiah in concert 
with the Kolapoor Rajah.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Herty Kernal, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 28th August, isoo. 

' I am sorry to inform you that Dhoondiah escaped across 
the Malpoorba at Boodeyhaul on the night of the 24th, the 
river having fallen considerably on that day. He is gone 
towards the Nizam's country. 

' Stevenson will be at Boodeyhaul, and, I hope, across the 
river this day ; I shall be at Johughur, and, I hope, across to- 
morrow. I have made all the arrangements for altering the 
line of communication for my suyjplies, and I hope to be able 
to follow Dhoondiah without inconvenience in a day or two. 
As soon as I found that he pointed to the eastward, I wrote 
to Meer Allum, who is at Copaul, and apprized him of the 
possibility that he might cross the Malpoorba, notwithstand- 
ing the measures which I took to stop him ; and I requested 
him to provide for such an event. 

' It is to be hoped, that if he has done so, Dhoondiah will 
not have it in his power to do much mischief before I can 
approach him. It is said that there are some brinjarries 
and baggage still on this side of the river ; I do not know 



214 MYSORE. 1800. 

whether that is true or not, but 1 send a detachment after 
them to-morrow. 

' I have received your letter of the 22nd, and wrote to you 
fully respecting Scindiah and the Kolapoor Rajah some days 
ago ; since that I find that Scindiah's troops south of the 
Kistna have attacked a polygar, who was, at my request, on 
the banks of Gutpurba to stop Dhoondiah; and in his 
absence on this service have taken his fort of Naibaug. I 
send the polygar's letter to Colonel Palmer and to Govern- 
ment. The hircarrahs report that some of his troops are in 
Dhoondiah's camp, but that I do not believe. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

l r To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Jellahaul, 30th August, 1800. 

' I marched seventeen miles yesterday and crossed the 
Malpoorba at the deepest, but in other respects the best, ford . 
that I have seen. 

' My opinion still is that Dhoondiah will go to the Soora- 
poor man ; but he may do otherwise. He may seek to cross 
the Toombuddra and to get among his friends the Patans, 
and the polygars on our frontier, and the Nizams. My 
plan is therefore as follows, to go off myself towards Ka- 
nagherry, and to get well into the Dooab with a large number 
of boats collected at Anagoondy, and when I shall have got 
well forward towards Kanagherry to push Stevenson at him 
from his present encampment on the Malpoorba. The 
Marhattas will be between us. If he commences to cross 
the Kistna, Stevenson may dash at him at once ; if he turns 
back into Savanore, I move again to my left, and cover my 
supplies, Bednore, &c. 

' The Marhattas are so much afraid of him that I can get 
them to do nothing alone : and that is the reason he escaped 
this time. They were ordered to push on in front of Capper, 
and to possess themselves of those parts of the river most 
likely to be fordable and to get intelligence ; but as soon as 
they heard that he intended to cross the Malpoorba, they 
kept in Capper's rear, and no orders or entreaties could get 
them forward. He could not have dared to cross in their 
front, particularly as Capper would have been within a 



1800. JELLAHAUL. 215 

forced march of them ; and at the time he crossed it would 
have been impracticable for him to return to any of the 
upper fords without falling into my hands. 

' I sent Colonel Montresor after the brinjarries, &c. ; he 
informs me that they were last night at the place where 
I heard they were, in number 10,000, and he intended to 
move upon them this morning, so that we shall at least have 
gained so much by our operations. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Badamy, which I passed yesterday, ifc a kind of fortified 
pettah, between two hill forts : these last are much of the 
same construction with those in Mysore.' 



To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Camp at Jellahaul, 1st Sept., 1800. 

' Unfortunately the Malpoorba fell on the 24th ; and 
Dhoondiah crossed it on that night, and the next day, at a 
ford a little above the junction with the Kistna. Lieut. 
Colonel Capper was then at this place ; and although I had 
desired the Marhattas to push on for the very place at which 
Dhoondiah passed, and Colonel Capper entreated them to 
attend to the orders I had given them, and promised to fol- 
low with all expedition, they would not move from the camp. 
If they had occupied that place, Dhoondiah could not have 
passed there; he must have returned to look for another 
ford higher up the river, and would then have fallen into my 
hands. He is gone towards the Nizam's country ; and left 
behind him on the north side of the Malpoorba, a tandah of 
ten thousand brinjarries, which I have got. I likewise took 
and destroyed five excellent guns and carriages, some tum- 
brils (Company's), arms, ammunition, &c. &c., which he had 
left in charge of the Jalloor poly gar. 

' I have crossed the river, and I am going to the Nizam's 
country immediately. 

' I sent off this day eight hundred empty brinjarry bullocks 
to load in Canara, on the Seedasheghur river. I shall desire 
them to go by Hullihall, and shall give them' a letter to your 
amildar there. I shall be obliged to you if you will write to 



216 MYSORE. 

him, and point 'out the place to which you would wish them 
to go to get the rice. 

' I shall also be obliged to you if you will let me know 
what sum of money you can let me have between this time 
and the month of November, after providing for the payment 
of the troops in Canara, till January; when I understand 
that you begin to make your collections. 

' I have money in camp to pay the troops for the months 
of August, September, and nearly for October. 

' I expect at Chittledroog one lac of rupees ; so that you 
see I am not in want ; although it is necessary to look for- 
ward to the means of procuring a supply in future. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Kanagherry, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 7th September, 1800. 

' I arrived here this morning upon the plan which I stated 
to you in my letter of the 30th August. Dhoondiah is for- 
ward in the Dooab, so that so far my plan has succeeded in 
preventing him from making a dash at my communication. 
It is said that he has boats with him ; if so, I shall push on 
with the cavalry in order to impede the operation of crossing 
either of the rivers, and have desired Meer Allum to prepare 
boats for me at Anagoondy, in case Dhoondiah should by 
any means contrive to get any large force over the Toom- 
buddra. 

' Colonel Stevenson is with three battalions and two regi- 
ments of cavalry this day at Moodgul, and I have desired him 
to have an eye to a large number of brinjarries, and some 
baggage which are in the jungles about Deodroog, and 
whose intention it is to cross the Kistna into the country of 
the Soorapoor Rajah. The Marhatta and Mogul cavalry are 
between me and Colonel Stevenson. 

' God knows whether I shall catch Dhoondiah ; but I 
hope I shall prevent him from doing us any mischief. 

' I did not tell you that I had got a tandah of above 
10,000 brinjarries beyond the Malpoorba. I have given 
them 6000 rupees upon good security, and have sent them 



1800. KANAGHERRY. 217 

into Canara to load. I write to Munro upon the subject by 
their opportunity. 

' These brinjarries give a curious account of the manner 
in which Dhoondiah goes on. They say that he has with 
him still above 40,000 of their class, that he employs them 
and gives them the means of living in the following manner. 
When he approaches a village or a town which is unpro- 
tected by a fort, he sends a body of horse, and of brinjarries 
to levy a contribution; he takes to himself all the money 
he can get, and gives them at a certain low price all the 
grain and all the cattle they can find. They pay him this 
price for the gram and cattle, and they are allowed to sell 
them at such profit as his camp will afford. 

' They say that he has with him nearly all the brinjarries 
of this part of India. These people who were taken be- 
longed to the Baramahl, and they say there are many others 
from that country, from the Nizam's and Marhatta country. 
In the latter, indeed, there is not now a brinjarry to be 
found, and, from the state of Colonel Bowser's supplies, I 
should imagine that there can be but few in the Nizam's 
country. 

' I send orders by this opportunity for the march of the 
12th regiment, and 2nd of the 5th to Malabar. 

' For the reasons I heretofore sent to you in my letter of 
the 25th of August, I do not think that we shall be able to 
make any arrangement here. The Show's son Baba Saheb 
spoke to me upon the subject most earnestly a few nights 
ago, and said that he saw plainly that, unless we interfered, 
Scindiah would have every thing. I told him that I had 
seen that long ago, and therefore had urged them to make 
peace with the Kolapoor Rajah. He seemed anxious to 
make peace ; but, by a letter received last night from the 
Kolapoor Rajah, it appears that he will not make peace with 
them, and from the difference of the style of the letter, and 
from the manner of rejecting my offer to bring about a re- 
conciliation, I am of opinion that he must have received some 
new lesson from Scindiah. I was informed lately that, in a 
conversation between Colonel Palmer and Scindiah upon the 
subject of the differences between the Kolapoor Rajah and 
the sons of Pursheram Bhow, the latter asked what right we 
had to interfere in the business, when the former replied 



MYSORE. 1800. 

that we never should give up the claim to a certain sum of 
money due to us by the Rajah. This may not be true, but 
I have no other mode of accounting for the sudden refusal 
of the Rajah to listen to my mediation. 

' The conversation above recited was reported to me by 
Baba Saheb, when I informed him that we certainly should 
not take part in their dispute with the Kolapoor Rajah, un- 
less he gave an asylum to Dhoondiah. 

' The sum of money said to be due is, I believe, the ran- 
som of Malwaur. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut, Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To the Adjutant General of the Army of Fort St. George. 

SIR, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 10th Sept., 1800. 

' After I had crossed the Malpoorba at Jellahaul, I marched 
on the 3rd instant, and entered the Nizam's territories at 
Hunmunsagur on the 5th. As Colonel Stevenson was 
obliged to cross the Malpoorba in boats, he was not able to 
advance from that river till the 4th. It appeared to me pro- 
bable, that when Dhoondiah should be pressed by the whole 
of our force on the northern side of the Dooab, he would 
return into Savanore by Kanagherry and Copaul, and would 
thus impede our communication ; or, if favored by the Patans 
of Kurnool, and the Poligars on the right bank of the Toom- 
buddra, he would pass that river, and would enter the ter- 
ritories of the Rajah of Mysore. I therefore determined to 
bring my detachment to the southward, and to prevent the 
execution of either of those designs, if he had them ; and 
afterwards to push him to the eastward, and to take such 
advantage of his movements as I might be able ; while 
Colonel Stevenson should move by Moodgul and Moosky, 
at the distance of between twelve and twenty miles from the 
Kistna, and the Marhatta and Mogul cavalry collected in 
one body between his corps and mine. 

' I arrived at Kanagherry on the 7th ; and on the 8th 
moved with the cavalry to Buswapoor, and on the 9th to this 
place ; the infantry being on those days at Hutty and Chin- 
noor, about fifteen miles in my rear. On the 9th, in the 
morning, Dhoondiah moved from Mudgherry, a place about 



1800. YEPULPURRY. 219 

twenty five miles from Raichore, at which he had been en- 
camped for some days, towards the Kistna; but on his road 
having seen Colonel Stevenson's camp, he returned and 
encamped about nine miles in my front, between me and 
Bunnoo. It was clear that he did not know that I was so 
near him; and I have reason to know that he believed that 
I was at Chinnoor. 

' I moved forward this evening, and met his army at a 
place called Conahgull, about six miles from hence. He was 
on his march, and to the westward ; apparently with the de- 
sign of passing between the Marhatta and Mogul cavalry 
and my detachment, which he supposed to be at Chinnoor. 
He had only a large body of cavalry, apparently 5000, which 
I immediately attacked with the 19th and 25th dragoons, 
and 1st and 2nd regiments of cavalry. 

* The enemy was strongly posted, with his rear and left 
flank covered by the village and rock of Conahgull, and 
stood for some time with apparent firmness ; but such was 
the rapidity and determination of the charge made by those 
four regiments, which I was obliged to form in one line, in 
order at all to equalize in length that of the enemy, that the 
whole gave way, and were pursued by my cavalry for many 
miles. Many, among others, Dhoondiah, were killed; and 
the whole body dispersed, and were scattered in small parties 
over the face of the country. 

' Part of the enemy's baggage was still remaining in his 
camp about three miles from Conahgull; I returned thither, 
and got possession of elephants, camels, and every thing he 
had*. 

' The complete defeat and dispersion of the enemy's force, 
and, above all, the death of Dhoondiah, put an end to this 
warfare ; and I cannot avoid taking this opportunity of ex- 



* Among the baggage was found Salabuth Khan, a son of Dhoondiah, an 
infant of about four years old. He was taken to Colonel Wellesley's tent, and 
was afterwards most kindly and liberally taken care of by him. Sir Arthur, on 
his departure from India, left some hundred pounds for the use of the boy in 
the hands of Colonel Symmonds, the judge and collector at Seringapatam. When 
Colonel Symmonds retired from service, the Hon. Arthur Cole, the Resident at 
the Court of Mysore, took charge of him, and had him placed in the Rajah's 
service. He was a fine, handsome, intelligent youth. Salabuth Khan died of 
cholera in 1822. 



220 MYSORE. 1800. 

pressing my sense of the conduct of the troops. Upon this 
last occasion, their determined valor and discipline were con- 
spicuous ; and their conduct and that of their commanding 
officers, Colonel Pater, Major Paterson, Major Blaquiere, 
Captain Doveton, and Captain Price, have deserved my most 
particular approbation. At the same time I must inform 
you, that all the troops have undergone, with the greatest 
patience and perseverance, a series of fatiguing services. 

' It is also proper that I should inform you how much 
reason I have to be pleased with the gentlemen charged 
with the business of procuring supplies for the troops. Not- 
withstanding the distance of the scene of my operations 
from the usual sources of supplies, and rapidity of my 
marches ; and the necessity, from the species of warfare car- 
ried on, of perpetually altering their direction, I have always 
been well supplied with every thing which the troops could 
want. 

' The Marhatta and Mogul cavalry are now employed in 
the pursuit of the fugitives; and I propose to draw off 
towards the frontier of the Rajah of Mysore in a few days. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Agnew, f ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 

Adj. Gen." 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Yepulpurry, 
* MY DEAR COLONEL, Hth September, 1800. 

( I have the pleasure to inform you that I gained a com- 
plete victory yesterday in an action with Dhoondiah's army, 
in which he was killed. His body was found and recognized, 
and was brought to the camp on one of the guns attached to 
the 19th dragoons. 

' I had before informed you of my plan of operations in 
the Dooab. I marched from Kanagherry on the 8th, left 
my infantry at Nowly, and proceeded on with the cavalry 
only. I arrived here on the 9th, and the infantry at Shinnoor 
about fifteen miles in my rear. On the 9th Dhoondiah 
marched from Mudgherry, about twenty five miles on this 
side of Raichore, towards the Kistna : but he saw Colonel 
Stevenson's camp, turned back immediately, and encamped 
on that night about nine miles from hence, between this 



1800. YEPULPURRY. 221 

place and Bunnoo. The night was so bad, and my horses 
were so much fatigued, that I could not move till morning, 
although I had intelligence of the place at which he was 
encamped. After passing a most anxious night between the 
9th and 10th, I moved yesterday morning, and met the 
whole of the enemy's army at Conahgull, about six miles 
from hence, and three from the ground on which he had been 
encamped. He had not heard of my being near him, was 
on his march with an intention of passing to the westward 
between my detachment, which he supposed to be at Chin- 
noor, and the Mogul and Marhatta cavalry at Moosky Bil- 
ganoor. He, however, drew up in a remarkably strong 
position when he saw me, and his people, whom I think to 
have been 5000 in number, stood with apparent firmness. 
I charged them with the 19th and 25th dragoons, and the 1st 
and 2nd regiments of native cavalry, and drove them till they 
dispersed, and were scattered over all parts of the country. 
I then returned to the camp and got possession of elephants, 
camels, baggage, &c., which were still upon the ground. If 
the Mogul and Marhatta cavalry had marched in decent 
time, the whole body must have been destroyed, as they fled 
in the line on which they must have met them ; but I imagine 
they did not march till after they had heard that I had 
moved, and of course were late : they have been employed 
in the pursuit since yesterday evening, and, I expect, will 
destroy the whole body. 

' The troops behaved admirably, and I assure you that if 
they had not done so, not a man of us would have quitted 
the field. 

' Thus has ended this warfare, and I propose to draw off 
gradually toward Savanore in a day or two. Lieut. Colonel 
Bowser, and the Mogul cavalry, will be able to set all matters 
to rights in the Nizam's territories, and my Marhattas must 
arrange for themselves. 

' I have this morning received a letter from Colonel 
Palmer, in which he desires me to hand over to Gunput Rao 
all the Peshwah's concerns in this country, which man lias 
to my certain knowledge assisted Dhoondiah, and did so 
even in his escape from me across the Malpoorba. I look 
upon it that I have now nothing to say to the concerns of 
the Marhatta country, excepting to get myself out of it; 



222 MYSORE. 1800. 

and I shall accordingly not interfere in any manner in any 
thing which is going forward. 

' I wish to have your opinion as soon as possible respect- 
ing my route. My own idea is to cross the Werdah at the 
redoubt, to proceed from thence by Shikarpoor, and along 
the left bank of the Toombuddra to Oostara, and thence to 
Serin gapat am. My reason for preferring this road is that I 
may awe Kistnapah Naig into a peace, and next because I 
shall do less injury to the country on that road than on any 
other. It is a grass country ; will afford plenty of forage, 
and as the cultivation is in general paddy, it will not be in- 
jured. You can have no conception of the number of people 
and cattle that I have got with me ; and I shudder at the 
thoughts of the injury which they will do to any dry grain 
country through which they will pass. I had some thoughts 
of crossing the Toombuddra at Anagoondy ; but I should 
lose much time there from the want of boats, the difficulty of 
procuring them, and the rapidity of the river. Besides, it 
will be convenient to pass by the redoubt, in order to get 
some things which are there. If I pass by the redoubt, 
there is no doubt but that the road I propose is the fittest, 
and that on which I am likely to do least damage. Purneah, 
however, will be the best judge on this subject, and I will 
move any way he pleases. Let me hear from you soon, that 
I may make my arrangements accordingly in good time. 

' This country is in a terrible state, almost a desert, and 
where there are inhabitants, no authority. The Nizam's 
killadar of Chinnoor had a regular tappall posted, in order to 
give intelligence to Dhoondiah. He wrote to him on the 
8th, to inform him that I was to be on that day at Nowly, 
and on the 9th at Chinnoor ; and it is incredible what pains 
he took to induce me to go no further. I was not to be pre- 
vailed upon, however, and came on here, and by coming put 
a stop to the communication. Thus Dhoondiah was not ap- 
prised of my situation, and even had reason to believe that 
I was at least fifteen miles farther from him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P.S. It has occurred to me, that now that we shall be 
able to carry on the war in Wynaad, it will not be necessary 



1800. YEPULPURRV. 

to send down the 12th and 2nd batt. of the 5th regiments to 
Malabar ; and it will be very inconvenient to send away the 
latter particularly. We must have some kind of force to the 
northward of Mysore when I go south. I can manage so as 
to have a sufficient number of Europeans for Wynaad, but 
I cannot of natives, without the 5th battalion. Let me hear 
from you upon the subject, Avhat are the intentions of Go- 
vernment.' 

To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MUNRO, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, llth Sept., 1800. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that I gained a com- 
plete victory yesterday, in an action with Dhoondiah's 
army, in which he was killed. His body was recognised, 
and was brought into camp on a gun attached to the 19th 
dragoons. 

' After I had crossed the Malpoorba, it appeared to me 
very clear, that if I pressed upon the King of the Two 
Worlds, with my whole force, on the northern side of the 
Dooab, his Majesty would either cross the Toombuddra with 
the aid of the Patan chiefs, and would then enter Mysore ; 
or he would return into Savanore, and play the devil with my 
peaceable communications. I therefore determined, at all 
events, to prevent his Majesty from putting those designs in 
execution ; and I marched with my army to Kanagherry. 
I sent Stevenson towards Deodroog, and along the Kistna, 
to prevent him from sending his guns and baggage to his 
ally the Rajah of Soorapoor; and I pushed forward the 
whole of the Marhatta and Mogul cavalry in one body, 
between Stevenson's corps and mine. 

' I marched from Kanagherry on the 8th, left my infantry 
at Nowly, and proceeded on with the cavalry only ; and I 
arrived here on the 9th, the infantry at Chinnoor, about 
fifteen miles in my rear. 

' The King of the World broke up on the 9th, from Mal- 
gherry, about twenty five miles on this side of Raichore, and 
proceeded towards the Kistna ; but he saw Colonel Steven- 
son's camp, returned immediately, and encamped on that 
evening about nine miles from hence, between this place 
and Bunnoo. I had early intelligence of his situation ; but 
the night was so bad, and my horses so much fatigued, that 



224 MYSORE. 1800. 

I could not move. After a most anxious night, I marched 
in the morning, and met the King of the World with his 
army, about five thousand horse, at a village called Conah- 
gull, about six miles from hence. He had not known of my 
being so near him in the night, had thought that I was at 
Chinnoor, and was marching to the westward with the inten- 
tion of passing between the Marhatta and Mogul cavalry and 
me. He drew up, however, in a very strong position, as soon 
as he perceived me ; and the victorious army stood for some 
time with apparent firmness. I charged them with the 19th 
and 25th * dragoons, and the 1st and 2nd regiments of ca- 
valry; and drove them before me till they dispersed, and were 
scattered over the face of the country. I then returned and 
attacked the royal camp, and got possession of elephants, 
camels, baggage, &c. &c., which were still upon the ground. 
The Mogul and Marhatta cavalry came up about eleven 
o'clock; and they have been employed ever since in the pur- 
suit and destruction of the scattered fragments of the victo- 
rious army. 

' Thus has ended this warfare f ; and I shall commence 



* Afterwards the 22nd light dragoons, 
t ' G. O. 

By Major General ' ' Head Quarters, Choultry Plain, 

Braithwaite. J 24th Se P*- 180 - 

' The operations of the force employed under the Hon. Colonel Wellesley on 
the frontier of Mysore have been frequently marked by circumstances which 
demanded and obtained the applause of the Commander of the army in Chief; 
but in no instance has judgment in the plan, and gallantry in the execution of 
a military movement, been so eminently conspicuous as in the conclusion of the 
campaign of the lOih instant; when the rebel chief, Dhoondiah Waugh, baffled 
by the judicious disposition of Colonel Stevenson's detachment, in his attempt 
to escape in a northern direction, was intercepted in his retreat at Conahgull by 
Colonel Wellesley, with the cavalry of his division only ; and forced to a decisive 
action, which terminated in his total defeat and death. Colonel Stevenson's 
detachment on the same day dispersing the remnant of his force, then employed 
in crossing the Kistna near Deodroog, and seizing the remaining cannon and 
baggage of the rebel army. 

' Major General Braithwaite requests that Colonel Wellesley will accept this 
public thanks for the judgment with which his measures have been planned, 
and the vigor which has marked every movement of his force. He has parti- 
cular satisfaction in publishing to the army at large, the very honorable report 
Colonel Wellesley has made of Colonel Stevenson's conduct, and the activity of 
the detachment under his command, to which that officer attributes the occur- 
rence of the opportunity he seized of forcing Dhoondiah to a decisive action. 
And the Commander of the army in Chief is happy to record, in honor of his 



1800. YEPULPURRY. 225 

my march in a day or two towards my own country. An 
honest killadar of Chinnoor had written to the King of the 
World by a regular tappall, established for the purpose of 
giving him intelligence that I was to be at Nowly on the 
8th, and at Chinnoor on the 9th. His Majesty was misled 
by this information, and was nearer me than he expected. 
The honest killadar did all he could to detain me at Chin- 
noor, but I was not to be prevailed upon to stop ; and even 
went so far as to threaten to hang a great man sent to show 
me the road, who manifested an inclination to show me a 
good road to a different place. My own and the Marhatta 
cavalry afterwards prevented any communication between 
his Majesty and the killadar. 

' The brinjarry bags must be filled, notwithstanding the 
conclusion of the war, as I imagine that I shall have to carry 
on one in Malabar. 

Believe me, &c. 

Major Munro: < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. ' " 

' MY DEAR CoLONEL, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 12th Sept., 1800. 

I have just received a letter from Government, dated the 
27th of August, and another private letter from Webbe : by 
the former of which I am ordered, at all events, to remain 
some time in the Marhatta territory ; and by the latter the 
cause of this order, and the nature of the negotiations now 
pending at Poonah and Hyderabad, are explained. Of 

Majesty's 19lh and 25th regiments of light dragoons, and the 1st and 2nd regi- 
ments of native cavalry, that those corps, under Colonel Pater, Majors Paterson 
and Blaquiere, and Captains Doveton and Price, composed the line, whose rapid 
charge upon a body of 5000 horse, formed to receive them, achieved this glorious 
conclusion to a campaign, distinguished throughout every stage of its operations 
by peculiar and progressive energy. 

' The Hon. Colonel Wellesley has expressed his obligation to Lieut. Colonel 
Bowser for his services with his detachment from the subsidiary force ; and 
reported, in the warmest terms of praise, the uniform good conduct of the troops 
in general, under circumstances of uncommon fatigue and difficulty, incident to 
the nature of the recent service. The advantages derived from the able arrange- 
ments of the gentlemen charged with the department of supply have been 
pointed out to the particular notice of the Commander of the army in Chit- f ; 
and he is happy in adding this record of their merits to the general expression 
of his thanks to the Hon. Colonel Wellesley, and the army employed under his 
orders, on the recent service on the frontiers of Mysore.' 

VOL. I. Q 



226 MYSORE. 1800- 



course the order must be obeyed, and I shall take up a con- 
venient position in front of Savanore, I now think, on the 
borders of Soonda, in order to get rice ; but it will be neces- 
sary that exertion should be used to force on our brinjar- 
ries, &c. It would be very desirable that they should bring a 
larger proportion of rice, and a smaller of dry grain : they have 
latterly brought little else than gram ; and as for Bowser's 
brinjarries, about whom so much boast has been made at 
Hyderabad, they have brought nothing but dry grain, and 
that chiefly jowarry. There has not been a grain of rice in 
Colonel Bowser's camp that I have not supplied him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 13th Sept., 1800. 

' Ball Kistna Bhow came to me yesterday, and urged me 
in the most pressing manner to give an asylum to his family 
in the Mysore country. He seemed to wish for a place of 
safety for them at Chittledroog ; and I promised him to 
write to you upon the subject, and to request you to mention 
it to Purneah. 

' He says that it is certain that as soon as we withdraw 
from the Savanore country Scindiah will enter it, and will de- 
stroy the whole of the Bhow's family ; they are determined to 
oppose him as well as they can, and they are desirous that 
their families should remain under our protection. 

' To this measure I see no objection, particularly as we 
have reason to believe that the Peshwah secretly favors this 
family ; and as it appears to be the intention of Government 
either to come to an arrangement at Poonah, which will 
drive Scindiah to Hindustan, or to interfere in the Marhatta 
politics in such a manner, that he and his Frenchmen shall 
be kept away from our frontier. 

' The Bhow again yesterday said that something was brew- 
ing at Poonah, and that the Peshwah was determined to 
shake off Scindiah, and had intimated to Appah Saheb his 
wish that he should increase his forces to the utmost extent 
possible. He hinted that their intention was, when they 
should have placed their families in safety under our protec- 



1800. YEPULPURRY. 227 

tion, to go with their light armies to join Amrut Eao, who, 
they say, is collecting troops at or near Bassein. 

' I hear that the treaty at Hyderabad is concluded, and I 
am in momentary dread of receiving an order to detach thi- 
ther the troops which are to form the increased subsidiary 
force. I have only 1892 Coast and 1200 Bombay sepoys, 
and I am sure you know that Mysore cannot afford another. 
I have been obliged to do all the duty of convoys, &c., by 
means of Marhatta and Mysore cavalry and peons ; and if I 
had not done so, my battalions would probably on a march 
have shown about 100 men each. I have written to Webbe, 
however, upon the subject, have stated the impossibility that I 
should be able to make these detachments, and perform the 
other services pointed out for me, and I hope that he will 
adopt some means of procuring the additional subsidiary 
corps without calling upon me. 

' Ball Kistna Bhow says, that all eyes at Poonah are 
directed to this army, and that our movements from this time 
forward will have great effect in determining Scindiah's, 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P.S. I have omitted to mention to you that I have re- 
ceived a report from Colonel Stevenson, stating, that on the 
10th he had come up with the only two remaining pieces of 
cannon the enemy had, baggage, camels, bullocks, &c., brin- 
jarries, &c. ; that he had taken, dispersed, and destroyed 
the whole. The cannon belonged to the Soorapoor polygar, 
and were destroyed in his country. Thus the business has 
been completed.' 

To the Adjutant General of the Army of Fort St. George. 

' SIR, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 13th Sept., 1800. 

* I have the pleasure to inform you that I have this day 
received a report from Colonel Stevenson of his proceedings 
on the 10th instant ; by which it appears that near Deo- 
droog he came up with and took the only two remaining 
guns the enemy had, a quantity of baggage, camels, bullocks, 
brinjarrics, &c., and that he dispersed and threw the whole 
into confusion. Their object had been to pass the Kistna, 
and to go to Soorapoor : the guns belonged to the Soorapoor 

Q 2 



228 MYSORE. 1800. 

polygar, and were destroyed in his country; and Colonel 
Stevenson found his people employed on the Kistna, giving 
assistance to the baggage to pass the river. Thus the ser- 
vice upon which the troops have been employed has been 
completely performed. 

' I attribute the opportunity which was given of destroying 
the enemy's army to the movements of the detachment under 
Colonel Stevenson : in no part of the army has there been 
greater exertion, or more fatigue, nor has it been more 
cheerfully borne ; and I conceive Colonel Stevenson, Lieut. 
Colonel Bowser, and the officers and troops under their 
orders, to be entitled to my approbation, and to the favor- 
able report of their conduct which I now make to you. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Agnew, ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Adj. Gen: 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

( MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 14th Sept., 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 8th. Purneah's obser- 
vations upon the harvest in Bullum had already occurred to 
me, and my idea was to destroy it, if Kisnapah Naig should 
refuse to settle matters with Purneah, when I should ap- 
proach his country with my troops. The fertility of Bullum, 
and the constant intercourse between that district and Koorg, 
to which it will be impossible to put a stop, is what consti- 
tutes the difference between Kisnapah Naig and the Pyche 
Rajah, and render it more desirable to come to an arrange- 
ment with the former than with the latter. If we destroy 
the harvest in Bullum this year, Kisnapah Naig will still 
find means of subsistence, and we must perform the same 
operation in the next year. The Pyche Rajah, on the con- 
trary, has no communication with Koorg, and draws all his 
subsistence either from Mysore or from Malabar, countries 
in our possession. Means might and ought to be taken by 
the Commissioners to stop the trade in grain between the 
coast and Wynaad, and thus the Pyche Rajah would be 
much distressed. But I am afraid that the destruction of 
the harvest in Bullum will do no more than create a tempo- 
rary inconvenience. 

' When I thought that the success of the 10th instant 



1800. YEPULPURRY. 229 

would enable me to return to Mysore immediately, I turned 
over in my mind the propriety of halting the 1 2th regiment 
and the 2nd battalion of the 5th, in order to form a part of the 
corps which should operate upon Wynaad from the Mysore 
side. It appeared that when I should go so far to the 
southward, I ought not to leave the northern frontier so 
much exposed as it has been lately, and that when I should 
have provided sufficiently for the strength of this frontier, I 
should not have a body of troops such as, in my opinion, 
ought to be collected to be sent on the expedition to Wynaad. 
However, upon looking over my papers regarding the relief 
of Montana, I found that at that post they had provisions 
only for fifty two days from the beginning of August, and 
therefore that measures ought to be taken as soon as pos- 
sible to throw in a further supply. I recollected that in one 
of the papers sent to you by the Commissioners, it was 
stated that the post must be relieved again before October, 
and that a large body of troops ought to be collected for 
that purpose; -and I referred to a private letter which I have 
received upon the subject from Disney, who was at Telli- 
cherry, in which he tells me that the troops employed upon 
the last occasion did not behave as grenadiers ought. I 
therefore determined, at all events, that as Government had 
sent these corps to Mysore merely to enable me to oppose 
the Pyche Rajah, they should go, in the first instance to 
Malabar, even if the arrangements to be made to provide a 
sufficient force for the northern frontier, while I should be 
to the southward, should oblige me to bring them back to 
Mysore, in order to form a sufficient detachment to enter 
Wynaad. 

' You are now in possession of all my reflections upon this 
subject, and of the considerations which induced me to allow 
those corps to march to Malabar, even although I thought 
it probable that I should want them in Mysore, for the very 
purpose for which Government sent them to me. You are 
nearer the scene of action, however, than I am ; you must 
have had later intelligence from Malabar than I have, and 
must be a better judge whether it will be necessary that 
those corps should descend the ghauts, in order that Mon- 
tana may be relieved. If you should think that they ought 
allow them to march on according to the orders they have 



230 MYSORE. 1800. 

already received. If you should not think it necessary, send 
the enclosed letters to Lieut. Colonel Harcourt and to 
Colonel Sartorius; and upon hearing from you that you have 
done so, I will transmit further instructions to Lieut. Colonel 
Harcourt. 

' But, to tell you the truth, I do not think that we shall 
ever make any hand of Kisnapah Naig till we can bring 
the army into his country, and can spare troops to establish 
in it a post of our own. 

' Another mode of providing troops for Malabar occurred 
to me, but that again is attended with great inconvenience : it 
is, to send them from Canara, where matters are now tole- 
rably quiet. But they suffered so much inconvenience from 
detaching their old soldiers upon the attack and fall of 
Jemalabad, that I am afraid I should get nothing at pre- 
sent but the recruits. I will speak to Lieut. Colonel Mon- 
tresor respecting the man for M'Kenzie. I have been 
detained here this day on account of a violent fall of rain 
last night, but I march to-morrow. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Colonel Sartorius. 

SIR, ' Camp at Yepulpurry, 14th Sept., 1800. 

' I have been under the necessity of ordering the 12th 
regiment and the 2nd battalion of the 5th to halt at Serin- 
gapatam, if they should still be there, or to return thither if 
they should have inarched from thence, according to my for- 
mer orders, as it is necessary that they should remain in 
Mysore. 

'You will therefore provide for the relief of Montana 
without the assistance of these corps. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Colonel Sartorius.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord dive. 
' MY LORD, 'Camp at Nowly, 16th Sept., 1800. 

' I have this day had the honor of receiving your Lord- 
ship's letter of the 9th instant. 

' My letter to the Chief Secretary of Government, of the 



1800. NOWLY. 231 

12th instant, in answer to his letter of the 27th August, will 
have informed your Lordship that, in obedience to your 
orders, I should remain in the Marhatta territory ; and I 
shall look forward to the measures to be further adopted, in 
case of the occurrence at Poonah of either of the two events 
which the Governor General thinks possible at the present 
crisis. 

' It does not at present occur to me that any place, except- 
ing Darwar, would be of any service to me in the operations 
which may be necessary. I wrote to Lieut. Colonel Palmer 
to request that he would obtain an order from the Peshwah 
to have that post given over to my charge, in case of either 
of the events against which your Lordship is providing. 

' I imagine that the arrangements which I have already 
made of the country which has passed through my hands in 
the course of the contest with Dhoondiah Waugh, viz., to 
give it over to those who had possession, and who enjoyed 
its revenues previous to his rebellion, is perfectly agreeable 
to the Peshwah's wishes and to the laws and customs of the 
Marhatta empire. I know from Lieut. Colonel Palmer that 
it was agreeable to his Highness to have these countries 
delivered to the sons of Pursheram Bhow, and I believe that 
their possessions in the provinces of Darwar and Savanore 
were never confiscated. Those which they had north of the 
Kistna, at Meritch and Tasgaum were confiscated, as Lieut. 
Colonel Palmer says, in consequence of the violence of Scin- 
diah ; the latter were, I understand, strictly military jaghires ; 
the former were given to Pursheram Bhow as payment of a 
debt for expenses incurred in the former Mysore war ; and I 
am informed, and it is probable, that of these they have 
never been deprived. 

1 Those parts of the Marhatta territory in which I have 
been, which are not, as I have above described, in the pos- 
session of the family of the Pursheram Bhow, are either the 
jaghires of other chiefs, who have, or ought to have, bodies 
of troops in the service of the empire, which are maintained 
from the produce of the land ; or they are divided among 
polygars, who pay a peshcush to the Peshwah, or to the 
jaghiredars ; or they belong immediately to the Peshwah, 
and the revenue is collected by the officers of the Poonah 



232 MYSORE. 1800. 

sircar : but there are tuncaws*, either for the payment of dif- 
ferent garrisons, or of the army of Goklah, upon the whole 
amount of the peshcush due by each polygar, and upon the 
whole amount of the revenue of the sircar, not granted to the 
family of the Pursheram Bhow or to the jaghiredars. 

' In the course of the campaign in the Marhatta territory, 
I delivered over to each individual that which belonged to 
him, and to the officers of Government those districts be- 
longing immediately to the Peshwah ; and by this arrange- 
ment I secured the tranquillity of the country, and its 
resources, which was all that I could desire. 

' I do not apprehend that any inconvenience will arise 
hereafter from an adherence to this system ; or that it will 
give reason to the friends of Bajee Rao to doubt of the 
sincere disposition of the British Government to act effec- 
tually in his behalf; and I am afraid that the adoption of 
any other system would deprive me of the cordial co-opera- 
tion and assistance of those chiefs who have acted with me 
hitherto, would create doubts generally of our views, and 
that I should be obliged to break up my force into detach- 
ments, in order to secure any new arrangement of the 
country which I might make. 

'From what I have above mentioned of the state of these 
countries, your Lordship will observe that I should have no 
chance of procuring from them any supplies of money or of 
provisions (excepting for payment) if I were to call for them. 

' The revenue in the Marhatta territory, particularly since 
Dhoondiah's rebellion, is collected only by force, and I 
should get none of it, excepting by making detachments 
from mine. But it is all appropriated to particular pur- 
poses, either to pay a debt, to pay jaghiredars who have 
troops in the service of the empire, or to pay the Peshwah's 
troops and garrisons. These, I must observe, are consider- 
ably in arrears, and all the chiefs have come to me at dif- 
ferent times to request to borrow money to satisfy their 
demands. Thus it is probable that I should find great dif- 
ficulty in procuring any money from the country ; and that 
by the demand of it, I should distress those whose assistance 

* Orders on the collectors of the revenue. 



1800. JJOWLY, 233 

would be very desirable in case of the occurrence of one of 
the events expected at Poonah. 

' The same facts and reasoning apply to the demand of 
provisions ; I get them sent, as I want, for payment ; and I 
am afraid that the demand of them upon receipt would not 
only have the bad effects I have above attributed to the 
demand of supplies of money, but that I should not be able 
to procure them at all when wanted. 

'Excepting to call upon the Rajah of Kolapoor to prevent 
Dhoondiah from entering his country, I have not had any 
communication Avith him. As Scindiah's force south of the 
Kistna is large, as he has lately added to it two battalions, and 
as it may be reinforced by the army of the Kolapoor Rajah, 
I wrote to Captain Kirkpatrick to suggest that, in case the 
subsidiary force at Hyderabad should not be employed 
otherwise, upon the occurrence of one of the expected events 
at Poonah, it might be of importance that I should have the 
power of calling for Lieut. Colonel Bowser's detachment, and, 
therefore, I request that it may be left in the Dooab under 
my orders. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Right Hon. Lord dive: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Nowly, 17th September, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the llth, and I have 
spoken to Captain Mackay respecting the bullock man, to 
whom he writes by this post. All the superannuated bul- 
locks are at the grazing ground near Seringapatam. 

' I enclose you the copy of a letter from the Military 
Board to Government, upon which my opinion has been 
called for. All the places mentioned therein ought to have 
stores of rice, if they are to be kept as garrisons ; but in my 
opinion Cowleydroog ought to be destroyed, as ought Chan- 
dergooty, and the depots of grain for this frontier ought to 
be at Hurryhur and Hullihall. I admire the attention to 
economy in the Military Board, which doubtless induces 
them to lay all the expense and trouble of storing the grain 
on the Rajah's dewan. I shall give Government a hint 
upon this subject in my answer to their letter ; and shall 



234 MYSORE. 1800. 

leave it to you to fight the battle, in order to throw all the 
Company's concerns off the shoulders of Purneah. 

' I enclose the duplicate of a secret dispatch from Colonel 
Kirkpatrick, which will point out that it is probable that we 
must look for the means of establishing depots at stations 
much more forward than are thought of by the Military 
Board. I have received one of a similar tendency from Lord 
dive, of which most probably a copy has been sent to you. 

' I shall remain in preparation in the Marhatta territory. 
I have written to Kirkpatrick to recommend that I may have 
the power of calling for Lieut. Colonel Bowser's detach- 
ment, if it is not intended that the whole subsidiary force 
should act in case of the occurrence of one of the events ex- 
pected at Poonah. I have written to Palmer to request that 
he will ask the Peshwah for an order to the killadar to give 
me Darwar, which order is to be delivered into his hands 
only in case of the occurrence of one of those events. 

' I expect one lac of pagodas in silver from Madras, which 
will pay the troops in November ; I have besides written to 
Munro to know what he can spare, and I expect to get 
50,000 pagodas from him ; if I could besides ease Mackay of 
50,000 pagodas, or Graham, it would enable me to go on till 
the beginning of the year. I expect Munro's answer every 
day. and I shall be obliged to you if you will write to Mac- 
leod and to Captain Graham. The Rajah's monthly pay- 
ments I reckon upon only as sufficient to pay the monthly 
expense in Mysore, and I do not meddle with them for that 
reason. 

' If I do advance to Poonah, we must look out at Bombay 
for money and other supplies in the beginning of the year, 
and I have all the arrangements ready for that purpose. 

' As to money from the Marhatta territory, or provisions 
without paying for them, it is all a joke. The money must 
be collected by a military force, and I have none to spare ; 
and if I was to attempt to take provisions upon receipt, 
I should probably get none for money when I might want 
them. Besides, the whole revenue of the Marhatta territory 
south of the Kistna belongs to jaghiredars, who maintain 
troops, to the Bhow's family, or there are tuncaws upon it 
for the maintenance of the Peshwah's army under Goklah, 
or for that of his garrisons, such as Darwar, c. Not only I 



1800. NOWLT. 235 

should get none of it, but I shouL I distress and dissatisfy 
those who do, from whom I now receive most cordial assist- 
ance. 

' In regard to Colonel Kirkpatrk k's fears respecting the 
transfer of the government of the country to the Bhow's 
family, I have explained to him f illy the nature of their 
claim to any part of it, and that of 1 he arrangement, which I 
have made as follows. The government of Poonah granted 
posts of the Savanore and Darwar countries to Pursheram 
Bhow as payment of a debt for expenses incurred in the 
former Mysore war : I do not imagi no that the family have 
ever been deprived of those possessions by the Peshwah, 
although they have been deprived of their military jaghires 
of Meritch and Tasgaum, which have been surrendered to 
Scindiah. 

* The arrangement which I made was, to give over to 
every man that which he had previous to Dhoondiah's rebel- 
lion, and among others to the Peshwah's officers those parts 
of the country which belonged to the sircar, although there 
were tuncaws upon the revenues : of course the Bhow's 
family received their share of the country among others. I 
do not conceive that there is any thing in this arrangement 
to give to the adherents of Bajee llao reason to doubt of 
our real intentions to act in his behalf; and I think that the 
adoption of any other arrangement at the present moment 
would create numberless doubts, would throw the whole 
country into confusion, and would require an army, which 
I have not, to carry it into execution. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. * ARTHUR WELI.ESLEY. 

' P. S. Since writing the above I have seen Mackay again, 
who proposes that all his bullocks should move up the river 
to Tenaherra, where they were last year, excepting about 
200, which must be near Chittledroog, in order to bring on 
the money when it arrives from Madras. He says that he will 
be glad to delay to give over to Purneah the superannuated 
bullocks till we return to Mysore. At Tenaherra the bul- 
locks can do no harm, and will have plenty of forage, and the 
bullock men cannot interfere with the cultivation.' 



236 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Kanagherry, 18th Sept., 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 14th, from which I 
judge that you will have been agreeably surprised at our 
complete success against Dhoondiah. 

' I am rather desirous to keep the Mysore horse and 
peons for a short time in order to assist my convoys in case 
matters should turn out at Poonah as expected, and my 
friends here should not relish the part which we shall take. 
You have the power to keep the 12th, and 2nd batt. 5th, if 
you wish it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I enclose a duplicate of Lord Olive's letter to me in case 
you should not have received a copy of it.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Copaul, 22nd Sept., 1800. 

' It is wonderful that my letter of the llth did not reach 
you sooner. 

' My bazaars are most capitally supplied ; I have every 
thing that I can want in them. But it will be necessary to 
keep the grain merchants in motion towards us. 

' I have sent near 7000 brinjarry bullocks to Munro, and I 
hope that he will be able to furnish them with loads before 
long; I shall have 1800 loads of rice in the grain depart- 
ment: there is no want of sheep, and I have drawn large 
quantities of arrack from Goa to Hullihall, where I propose 
to have a depot of this necessary article. 

' If we get Darwar I shall move this arrack, the rice 
which I have at Hullihall, the garrison reinforced by some 
Europeans from Goa, and some natives from Canara to the 
former place. 

' In a day or two I shall be able to arrange my bullock 
department in some kind of style. The camp equipage 
presses upon me sadly, and I cannot prevail upon Govern- 
ment to come to the determination to make the officers carry 
their own tents. In bad weather it is impossible to carry 
officers' tents at the rate which we march. 



1800. CADLOOR. 237 

' We have had some very heavy rain here, and the swell- 
ing of a nullah has detained me this day. I am sorry for 
this, as I think that my stay here will give some uneasiness 
to our friend at Hyderabad. 

' Meer Allum told me that the sole object of the Court at 
Hyderabad now was to amass money ; that for this alone 
they sacrificed their territory, their honor, and their troops ; 
that they wanted to involve us in a war with the Marhattas 
for their security, and that when that object should be 
effected they would disband all their troops (of which they 
had but few remaining), save all their money, and depend 
upon us for their defence. He said that the transfer of 
territory to us was a great object to them, as they found 
they could not govern it without troops, which they were 
determined not to raise. He said that he had stated this to 

upon his return from Madras, before he heard 

of his tricks in his family ; but that passions 

had then thrown him into the hands of Aristo Jah, and that 
he would do nothing. 

c Believe me, &c. 
* Lieut. Colonel Close.' * ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, 'Camp at Cadloor, 24th Sept., 1800. 

' The reason why the brinjarries bring so much gram is, 
that in our bazaars it sold for almost as much as rice did. 
Latterly it has fallen, and is now twenty nine seers for a 
rupee. The process was just this : they bought in Mysore 
sixty seers for a rupee, and these they sold here for six 
rupees. They could not have bought sixty seers of rice for 
less than three rupees, and they sold in general at nine seers 
for a rupee. You see that the profit is evidently on the 
side of gram. I write to Seringapatam upon the subject of 
the dealers in Ganjam ; but there has been a system of 
dubashery there lately which has annoyed me considerably, 
and I am afraid that if it has not been put a stop to, in con- 
sequence of what I have already written to Saxon, the 
people, whom I have taken such pains to induce to come to 
the place, will leave it. 

* The grain at Seringapatam is paddy, and the operation 



238 MYSORE. 1800. 

of beating it out is slow All the beaters are now employed 
in beating it, and it is sent forward to the army on the bul- 
locks hired for the public service. If there is more rice 
beat, however, than the -re are bullocks to carry, it might be 
given to the dealers i n Ganjam at a cheap rate, to be 
brought forward to tli'j army, and I will write to settle an 
arrangement upon this subject. 

' I wish that my insti actions permitted me to move for- 
ward to the Kistna iir mediately, as I should do so with 
many advantages. In the first place, I should cut off that 
detachment of Scindiali's troops, now on this side of that 
river, and in the next place I should be certain of the co- 
operation of all my allies. They are now going oif, some to 
keep the Dessarah feast at their jaghires, and others on 
other occasions; and I dare not hint to them that I may 
have further occasion for their services, as they would imme- 
diately discover the object. Colonel Palmer says, in his 
letter of the 7th, " he (the Peshwah) is in a manner a pri- 
soner in the hands of Scindiah, who has posted a large body 
of troops in the city, on pretence of compelling a chief, called 
Prittee Niddee, to dismiss a party of Arabs from his service, 
but in reality to watch and control the- motions of the Pesh- 
wah, whom he suspects of an intention to withdraw." 

' Refer to my instructions from Lord Clive, and the letter 
from Kirkpatrick, and let me know whether you think me 
warranted to advance in consequence of that paragraph. 
The advantage in doing so is evident ; and besides those 
above mentioned there is this additional one, viz., that if the 
crisis does not already exist (if the Peshwah is not already a 
prisoner or has not made his escape), I shall force it forward; 
and otherwise Scindiah by his position in Poonah may keep 
matters in that state that he will be perfectly certain that 
the Peshwah cannot make his escape, although he will not 
have found it necessary further to secure his person. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut, Colonel Close' f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, Dummul, 25th September, 1800. 

' I some time ago promised Mr. Sullivan that a relation of 
his should be recommended for the first vacant ensigncy in 



1800. DUMMUL. 239 

the 33rd regiment, but I rather believe that he has been 
appointed an ensign in another corps. If that should be the 
case, which Lieut. Colonel Shee will know, Mr. Morris will 
be recommended for the ensigncy now vacant in the 33rd. I 
write to Lieut. Colonel Shee upon the subject by this post. 

f Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut, Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

1 P. S. Upon talking with West regarding an ensigncy for 
Mr. Morris, I find that there is no vacancy in the 33rd : there 
ought to be two vacancies ; but we are obliged to keep on 
the strength two gentlemen, whose removals from the regi- 
ment have not been approved of in Europe. I will recollect 
your wishes regarding Mr. Morris.' 

To Major Munro. 
' MY DEAR MuNRO, ' Camp at Dummul, 2fith September, 1800. 

' After receiving my letter of the 14th, I hope that you 
will have sent the rice to Ankola, notwithstanding that you 
will before have stopped it, as you state in your letter of the 
22nd, and that you will have allowed the brinjarries to go 
into Canara by the Arbigh ghaut, as you first proposed. If, 
however, you should have ordered them down to Cundapoor, 
it does not much signify, as I have plenty ; and I am going 
over towards Soonda, from which country I expect to draw 
enough for my consumption during the time that I may find 
it necessary to remain in its neighbourhood. 

' Between ourselves, I imagine that I shall have to carry 
on operations on a much more extended scale than you sus- 
pected ; but I am well prepared for everything. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major Munro: c ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Dummul, 27th Sept., 1800. 

I have received your letter of the 22nd ; I told you 
before what steps I had taken, in order to procure directions 
from the Peshwah to Bappojee Scindiah to give up to me the 
fort of Danvar, and I am in momentary expectation of 
receiving Lieut. Colonel Palmer's answer to my letter upon 



240 MYSORE. 1800. 

that subject, whether the Peshwah complies with my request 
or does not. If I am to advance to the Kistna, I must 
have Darwar ; and I have already made all the arrangements 
for getting into it in some manner or other. I have told 
you that I shall move thither the garrison of Hullihall, 
reinforced by Europeans from Goa, and that I shall esta- 
blish there the supplies of arrack and rice which I have 
collected at Hullihall. This last place shall be given over to 
Mungush Rao and his peons. 

' My force is very respectable, and passes for much more 
than it is; I have besides called upon Kirkpatrick to leave 
Bowser under my orders, if it is not intended that the whole 
of the subsidiary force and of the Nizam's army should 
co-operate on the north side of the Kistna. No answer yet 
from that quarter. 

' My fingers itch to begin; I should break that detach- 
ment to pieces which has been pushed across the Kistna ; 
should by that means gain a powerful body of allies, which 
I reckon upon only as so many taken out of the opposite 
scale, and should have the whole game in my hands imme- 
diately. If the Kistna falls, that detachment will escape to 
the northward; and Scindiah, if he has spirit, will collect 
there, and endeavor to make a stand. 

' I look upon myself to be fully equal to all he can collect, 
if I can keep together my allies. They are of use in pro- 
tecting my rear, my baggage, and my camp. If I had not 
had them my cavalry would have been much distressed; 
and yet they would not have kept off the Pindarry horse 
half so well as the Marhattas did in the late service. 
Scindiah has not got a very large body of country horse ; 
but he will of course have some, and they would distress me 
much if I should have none. 

' The object of the force on this side of the Kistna is to 
seize this country the moment that I shall withdraw from it. 
This is the opinion of Lieut. Colonel Palmer, and he has 
repeatedly so stated it. I do not believe they yet suspect 
our intention to interfere at Poonah. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. SACOONDA. 241 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Sacoonda, 29th Sept., 1800. 

' I had heard, from Mr. Warren, of the behavior of 
Colonel Harcourt's dubash, and I propose to write to the 
Colonel upon the subject this day. 

* A part of our cavalry, viz. a detachment of the 1st regi- 
ment, is at Coimbatoor in the Carnatic; and I am informed 
that many of the men have already recovered. I shall write 
to General Braithwaite to request that your cavalry guard 
may be relieved by a detachment from the 1 st regiment at 
Coimbatoor. I think the state of Mysore will be unpleasant 
when we get to a distance. Seringapatam requires so large 
a garrison that it runs away with all our troops ; if we could 
remove the inhabitants from the fort, one battalion would be 
sufficient for the garrison at present ; but as it is, we cannot 
leave the arsenal there unprotected, and it would be so if the 
garrison were smaller. 

' I have long wished to remove my regiment from thence, 
as they have been uncommonly unhealthy ; and it is Ander- 
son's opinion that they will not recover till they are moved 
out. But we must have there an European regiment as long 
as the inhabitants are there; and how to replace them I 
know not. 

' We have had terrible rains, and I am stopped here. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P. S. I wish that you would take into consideration the 
mode of repairing the buildings to be used as granaries and 
provision store-rooms in Mysore. It is impossible to do it 
by means of the commanding officers. First, they have never 
been a sufficient length of time in a place to be able to do 
much good, and I do not see any probability that this cir- 
cumstance will be altered soon : secondly, it is not to every 
one that I should think it proper to entrust the execution 
of these repairs : and thirdly, they find great difficulty, on 
account of the many works going on in the country, to pro- 
cure workmen to repair the buildings to be occupied by 
themselves and their troops. This being the case it might 

VOL. I. R 



242 MYSORE. 1800. 

perhaps be possible to get the amildars to undertake these 
repairs (after the heavy part of the country work shall be 
gone through), the Company paying the expense. Turn 
this subject over in your mind, and let me know the result. 

' I have written to Government respecting the formation 
of depots of grain, and I have recommended that they 
should be at Chittledroog, Hurryhur, Hullihall, Nundy- 
droog, Serin gapatam. Those at Hurryhur and Hullihall 
will of course be moved forward, if all the pending arrange- 
ments are made. 

' I have scouted the notion of throwing all the expense of 
the depots on the Rajah and the trouble on his servants, on 
the ground of the inexpediency of allowing the servants of 
one government to have any interference or connection with 
the concerns of the other; and have recommended that if 
the expense of forming depots for the Company's troops is 
to be paid by the Rajah, it may be a separate transaction, 
to be arranged in the usual manner; but that the depot 
may be formed by, may be in charge, and be disposed of by 
the Company's servants. 

' I have recommended all that you desired for Chittle- 
droog. I have given orders to have the troops moved from 
Chundergooty and Cowleydroog, and I have desired the 
officers in charge to deliver, the forts, provisions, stores, &c. 
to the amildars, taking their receipts for the same. I shall 
be obliged to you if you will mention this to Purneah. The 
provisions and stores in both these forts belong to the 
Rajah, according to the arrangement of Government made 
last year ; but I think that Purneah will do well to dispose 
of or remove them. 

' I think that a breach ought to be made in Cowleydroog. 
It borders upon the Polygars ; as long as we hold Nuggur 
it can be of no use ; and if it is kept in repair, those circum- 
stances which might render it necessary that we should 
occupy it with troops, Avould render it very inconvenient to 
spare any for that purpose. However, it is an ancient place 
about which prejudices may be entertained, and at all events 
the palace must be kept in repair. 

' I wrote to Purneah a letter in Persian, in which I recom- 
mended his three officers now with me, but particularly 



1800. NALLOODY. 243 

called his attention to Govind Rao. The reason is only 
because he is not so high in the service as the others ; for 
I have had every reason to be pleased with them all. 

' I see that I have made my postscript longer than my 
letter.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Nalloody, 1st Oct., 1800. 

' I have received a letter from Webbe, dated the 25th 
September, in which he informs me that he has written to 
Lieut. Colonel Mackay, to desire him to halt at Seringa- 
patam with his corps. It is intended that it should form a 
part of the Nizam's subsidiary force ; and Webbe proposes 
that it should march through the newly ceded districts to 
join Lieut. Colonel Bowser in the Dooab, as soon as the 
completion of the new treaty at Hyderabad shall be com- 
menced at Madras. 

' I propose to send orders to Lieut. Colonel Mackay to 
move up to Chittledroog, and he can then move to Ana- 
goondy and join Lieut. Colonel Bowser whenever that may 
be thought proper. 

' It appears not to be intended to attempt to make any 
great effort against the Pyche Rajah in this season; and I 
am therefore clearly of opinion that the 1 2th regiment ought 
likewise to be stopped. They will certainly be wanted in 
the Mysore country for one of the many objects in view; 
and as the 88th regiment is expected in Malabar from 
Bombay, the 12th regiment will not be much wanted there. 
If you should agree in opinion with me, I shall be obliged 
to you if you will forward to Lieut. Colonel Harcourt, as 
soon as possible, the letter which I enclose for him. At all 
events, Lieut. Colonel Harcourt is too late to relieve Mon- 
tana, if, as we imagine, that post now wants relief. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Nalloody, 2nd Oct., 1800. 

f I received your letter of the 27th yesterday, and the 
other to the 29th in the course of last night. 



244 MYSORE. 1800. 

' I am obliged to you for the arrangements respecting 
grain. I will take care that the dealers shall not be de- 
tained in camp one moment. 

' Some settlement regarding the camp equipage is abso- 
lutely necessary. 1 am now obliged to take 300 bullocks 
from the grain for that department, and the whole number 
now provided for it since the end of July is 1200. This falls 
entirely upon the grain. 

' As soon as you hear from Webbe, that the money will be 
sent into Canara by one of the ships of the squadron, Munro 
may be desired to send up to Nuggur a sum proportionate 
to that which will be sent round. I will give orders to have 
every thing ready at Nuggur to forward it to the army. 

' The history of Captain 's conduct is quite shocking. 

A particular caution was given by me to Lieut. Colonel 
Mignan, when I desired him to send these troops through 
the Rajah's country; which caution I conclude he gave to 
Captain . There is no remedy for this conduct, ex- 
cepting to bring this gentleman to a Court Martial as soon 
as possible ; and I shall be obliged to you if you will write 
me a public letter upon the subject. 

* The bygarry system is not bearable : it must be abo- 
lished entirely, or so arranged and modified as to render it 
certain that the unfortunate people employed as coolies are 
paid, are not carried farther than their usual stage, and are 
not ill treated. When all that is made certain, it will be 
found cheaper and more convenient for these gentlemen to 
hire coolies than to trust to the chance of procuring brinjarries 
on the roads, and there will be but little call for the latter. 
In truth, the public service but seldom requires the brin- 
jarries : I know of no instance in which they have been 
required, excepting by the Bombay troops, who have no- 
thing of their own, and are unwilling to pay for what they 
get belonging to others. It seldom happens, also, that 
individuals want them ; and when a want of them does exist 
it is generally to be attributed to the laziness, the neglect, 
or the misconduct of the person who suffers it. In my 
opinion, therefore, the system may be abolished without 
inconvenience ; but, in any event, it may be modified,, and 
people may be prevented from calling upon the country for 
brinjarries whenever they think proper. 



1800. NALLOODY. 245 

' Besides Captain , I have another Bombay gentle- 
man in my eye, who has lately come through this country 
with a convoy of arrack, and I suspect played the same 
tricks ; that is to say, never paid the people pressed and 
employed by him in the public service. I have desired that 
inquiries may be made upon the subject, and if I find my 
conjecture to be founded I shall try him at the same time 
with Captain . 

' I informed you yesterday that Webbe had written to 
Lieut. Colonel Mackay, to desire him to halt at Seringapa- 
tam; and as the 12th would certainly be too late for the 
relief of Montana, and the 88th are coming down to Malabar, 
I requested you to forward the letter I sent you some days 

ago to Lieut. Colonel . I received last night a letter 

from that gentleman (from whom and of whom I have re- 
ceived nothing but complaints since he entered the Mysore 
country), in which he informs me, that as Webbe's letter to 
Colonel Mackay was private, and as the orders to halt the 
2nd of the 5th had not come through him, he should not 
allow Lieut. Colonel Mackay to halt, but would march on 
the 30th, according to the orders he had received before 
from me. I have written to him this morning, to desire him 
to halt immediately, and to return to Serin gapatam if he 
should have marched, and to allow Lieut. Colonel Mackay 
to obey any orders he may receive. 

' I think it probable that Lieut. Colonel Mackay will have 
refused to obey his order to march ; and if so, we shall have 
a fine kettle of fish at Seringapatam ; but, in any event, I 
don't think the Government will pass over his refusal to 
allow an officer to obey their orders, although conveyed in a 
letter beginning ' Dear Colonel.' I find that his dubash is 
a fellow, by name Saumy, who had formerly been dubash to 
poor Aston, and who, when I was with the army last year, 
came up to Seringapatam, under pretence of being my 
dubash. He plundered the country all the way up, and, 
when arrived at Seringapatam, began the old dubash tricks, 
to turn people out of their houses, to threaten others 
in various ways with his and my displeasure, in case 
they did not conform to his wishes in every respect. At 
length I heard of him, and wrote to Colonel Sherbroke, to 



246 MYSORE. 1800. 

desire him to turn him out of the town, and of the Mysore 
country. 

' If the Colonel does not dismiss him from his service 
after what I have written him, and the perusal of the papers 
from Ooscotta, &c., which I have sent him, I shall be 
obliged to order him to send him away. There is an officer 
of reputation and rank in the army, of great family connexions, 
&c. &c., ruined in his outset by the scum of the earth. 

' I am obliged to you for your sentiments in answer 
to my letter of the 24th. I have already written to Lieut. 
Colonel Palmer to request from him the earliest and 
most accurate intelligence regarding the crisis wished, 
and waited for; and I conclude, that the Governments 
of Bengal and of Fort St. George will have given him 
directions to communicate to me every thing that passes. 
But I suspect that the communication between Colonel 
Palmer and me, and indeed that between him, and all 
other parts of India, has been interrupted. I do not find 
that Captain Kirkpatrick has heard from him since the 
7th of September, the date of the last letter I received ; 
Uhtoffe certainly has not ; and I suspect that the Govern- 
ment of Fort St. George has not received a letter from him 
even of so late a date as that, as Webbe does not mention 
the state of Poonah (as described by Colonel Palmer) in his 
letter to me of the 25th of September, received yesterday. 

' I will write to him, however, as you propose. There are 
two circumstances which induce me to wish not to begin, as 
you propose, by advancing to the Gutpurba, under the pre- 
tence of seeing how matters stand with my friends the 
Polygars, to the northward of that river. In the first place, 
when I do advance to the Kistna, I must look forward to the 
further operation intended, and must make my arrangements 
accordingly. One of the most important of these is to get 
possession of Darwar. If I go forward, upon the pretence 
under consideration, I cannot take possession of Darwar in 
the name of the Peshwah; indeed I do not see in what 
manner I could demand that place, without declaring war 
against the whole Marhatta race. If I go forward, without 
having possession of Darwar, I must either return to take 
it, or I must make up my mind still to go forward without 



1800. NALLOODY. 

having it in my possession. Either would, in my opinion, 
be attended with infinite disadvantage to the operations 
which are intended hereafter. 

' Secondly, the reason for not making the conduct of 
Scindiah towards my friends, north of the Gutpurba, the pre- 
tence for moving to that river is, that I find that Scindiah is 
strictly right in having taken possession of their places. 
They are dependent upon the jaghire of Meritch and Tas- 
gaum, which has been granted to him by the Peshwah ; and 
although it would have been more generous to desist from 
taking possession of their countries till another opportunity 
he had a right to them, and must eventually have taken 
them. Under these circumstances I am afraid, that to pre- 
tend to move to their assistance will have the effect which 
Government are most desirous I should avoid. It will give 
to the Peshwah's friends doubts, whether our intentions are 
to assist him, or to reinstate in their former power the family 
of Pursheram Bhow. For these reasons, which I think will 
also be conclusive with you, I deem it better not to advance 
till the crisis arrives, which is expected. It may certainly 
fairly be said, that when a man's capital is in the possession 
of the troops of another, all his friends imprisoned, and his 
own person only not under restraint, he is under the power 
of that other. But the danger of acting upon the state of 
affairs, as they are now at Poonah, arises from the indecision, 
the weakness, and duplicity of the Peshwah's own character. 
To these bad qualities I attribute the strictness of the 
orders which I have received, viz., to advance only in case 
he should be in confinement, or should fly. Suppose him 
not to be in confinement, and that I were to adopt the 
measures proposed by Government, were to take possession, 
in his name, of all the countries south of the Kistna, and 
to place garrisons in those situations most convenient to my 
operations ; and that he were to fly off and to declare that I 
had no authority from him, that I was an enemy, and was 
to be treated as such, Government or I w T ould be in a 
scrape, from which it would be difficult to extricate either of 
us. In truth, if the Peshwah is not in confinement he has 
the power to call for our assistance ; and if he does not call 
for it, we have no right to force it upon him. By the same 
reasoning, if, as long as he has the power, he omits to con- 



248 MYSORE. 1800. 

elude with us that treaty so advantageous to him, and so 
often offered, we ought to suspect his sincerity, and ought 
not to interfere in his affairs till the last extremity. From all 
these reasons then, in my opinion, I ought not to move till 
the crisis is certain. 

' I have spoken to Mackay regarding his bullocks near 
Serin gapatam. There are on that grazing ground 500, 
mostly old and unfit for the service; they are placed be- 
tween the road to Periapatam and the river Cauvery, there- 
fore far north of the probable haunt of the Nairs. Mackay 
says, however, that if there is any danger they may as well 
be moved ; and proposes a place for them on the north side 
of the river, also near Serin gapatam, where they were 
heretofore. 

\ ' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Palmer. 

< SIR, Camp at Hoobly, 3rd October, 1800. 

' I had yesterday the honor of receiving your letter of the 
15th of September, which was opened in Scindiah's camp, on 
this side of the Kistna. 

' I conclude you have been furnished with a copy of the 
instructions which I have received from the Right Hon. the 
Governor in Council of Fort St. George. 

' I am directed to maintain my position in the Marhatta 
territory till one of two events expected to occur at Poonah 
takes place, when I am directed to adopt the further mea- 
sures pointed out in my instructions. 

' There will be no difficulty in acting in case of the oc- 
currence of one of the events. If the Peshwah flies from 
Poonah, there can be no ambiguity in that step ; and I shall 
immediately know in what manner I am to act. But it will 
be difficult to judge at what time his person is imprisoned. 

' When you wrote to me on the 7th of September that 
Scindiah had occupied Poonah with his troops under pre- 
tence of disarming a party of Arabs, but really to watch the 
Peshwah, and to prevent him from making his escape, which 
his Highness meditated; and when I heard from other 
quarters that guards had been placed over the houses and 



1800. HOOBLY. 249 

persons of all his Highness's friends and adherents ; and all 
that could be said in regard to the Peshwah was, that he 
was not immediately under a guard, I concluded that the 
crisis was nearly arrived, and I expected every moment to 
receive further intelligence which would enable me to act. 

' But I now find that on the 15th the crisis Avas far- 
ther removed than it was on the 7th ; and it is desirable 
that I should receive from you a statement of your senti- 
ments regarding this part of my instructions. 

' At what time am I to understand that the Peshwah is in 
imprisonment ? The difficulty which occurs in the decision of 
that question arises from the wiliness of Scindiah, and from 
the weakness and duplicity of his Highness's own character. 
When I received information that Scindiah had possession 
of the city, by introducing there his troops, and posting 
guards over the Peshwah's adherents, and had most pro- 
bably taken possession of all the avenues to his Highness's 
palace, I should have had no scruple of acting immediately 
as I was instructed, only that there was reason to fear that 
his Highness would disavow every thing that I should do in 
his behalf. 

' I conceive that this duplicity in his Highness's character 
is the cause of the strictness with which my instructions are 
worded. In truth, if his Highness is at liberty at all, he 
can call for our assistance if he wants it ; and it may not 
be deemed assistance if it is given to him before it is called 
for. What, then, is the degree of duresse which is to con- 
stitute imprisonment ? My opinion is, that when the secret 
provisional commission commences to exercise its functions, 
when Amrut Rao and the Peshwah's friends think that it is 
necessary for them to take a decided part for the restitution 
of his authority, I ought to begin to act, whatever may be 
the degree of restraint in which his Highness's person is 
held. I do not conceive that it will be safe or proper to do 
so in any other case, excepting when I hear that there is 
actually a guard over the person of the Peshwah. I should 
be glad to receive your opinion upon this point. 

* I shall also be much obliged to you if you will be so kind 
as to give me every information of Scindiah's proceedings, 
of his strength, &c. &c., in order that I may be able to act 
promptly, as may appear best for the public interest. 



250 MYSORE. 1800. 

' It is unfortunate that this crisis has not occurred, as I 
should certainly cut off that detachment which has been 
pushed across the Kistna before it could repass that river ; 
as it is, I am afraid that the river will become fordable, and 
that the detachment will find means to escape before the 
occurrence of either of the events which will authorize me 
to act. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Palmer: '' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 

e MY LORD, ' Camp at Hoobly, 3rd October, 1800. 

' I have come here in execution of your Lordship's secret 
instructions of the 9th of September, and I propose to re- 
main in this neighborhood until the occurrence at Poonah 
of one of the events expected by your Lordship. There 
will be some difficulty in ascertaining the exact moment 
at which one of them may occur. From the manner in which 
Scindiah has gone on hitherto, I judge that he may long be 
completely master of the Peshwah's person, and may guide 
all his actions, and there may be no outward sign of his 
Highness's imprisonment ; at the same time, until there is 
such an outward sign, I do not conceive myself authorized 
by your Lordship to act. 

' If, upon conviction that the Peshwah's person is really 
in imprisonment, although he should not be actually under 
a guard, I should take possession of all the countries south 
of the Kistna in his Highness's name, and he should after- 
wards disavow all I should have done, which from the inde- 
cision and duplicity of his character is not improbable, I 
should be in an awkward situation, from which I should find 
it difficult to extricate myself. 

' If he is really under a guard, this cannot happen. Scin- 
diah, however, it is probable will never go so far, although 
he will make it equally certain that the Peshwah cannot 
escape, and cannot act without his knowledge. Thus be- 
tween the weakness and duplicity of one party, and the wili- 
ness of the other, the time of action will pass by. 

' Under these circumstances it has occurred to me to 
address Colonel Palmer a letter, in which I have stated to 



1800. HOOBLY. 251 

him my opinion of the species of duresse, attended by other 
circumstances, which will render it safe for me to act on 
behalf of the Peshwah under your Lordship's instructions, 
short of an actual imprisonment of Ms person under a guard. 

' I have the honor to enclose a copy of my letter to Lieut. 
Colonel Palmer upon this subject. 

' I have received a letter from Captain Kirkpatrick, in 
which he informs me that Lieut. Colonel Bowser's corps will 
remain in the Dooab, liable to be called upon by me if I 
should find its assistance or co-operation necessary. Captain 
Kirkpatrick also informs me that it is intended that a part 
of the remainder of the subsidiary force, and a large propor- 
tion of the Nizam's cavalry and infantry, should likewise 
co-operate with me eventually. 

' I have recommended to Captain Kirkpatrick that maga- 
zines of grain, rice particularly, should be forwarded in the 
Dooab, and on his Highness's frontier, north of the river 
Kistna ; as we may apprehend want when all these troops 
are collected. 

' I also take the liberty of suggesting to your Lordship 
the propriety of requesting the Governor General to have 
sent round to Bombay, as early as possible, a large quantity 
of rice from Bengal ; also that Mr. Duncan should be ap- 
prized of the possibility of a call for rice from Bombay, and 
should be requested to have all the means prepared of trans- 
porting it to the nearest situation, at which it will be most 
convenient for the cattle of the army to receive it. With 
your Lordship's permission I shall immediately communi- 
cate with Mr. Duncan on this point. 

' I have already proposed to Colonel Close the means of 
procuring a supply of money for the month of December : 
I beg leave to submit to your Lordship that there ought 
besides to be one lac of pagodas at Bombay for the use of 
this army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

4 Right Hon. Lord dive: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



252 MYSORE. 1800. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Hoobly, 3rd October, 1800. 

' I omitted to mention to you yesterday that I thought it 
probable that a relief would be required for some of the 
Mysore dooley bearers with the army, who have been with 
it for a considerable length of time. A few in addition to 
those now with it may also be desirable. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 3rd October, 1800. 

' Since I wrote to you yesterday I have received a letter 
from Lieut. Colonel Palmer, dated the 15th September, in 
which he says, " the Peshwah is not at present under that 
degree of restraint in which he was when I had the honor of 
writing to you last, Scindiah having withdrawn all his troops 
except one battalion from the city ; he is however still nar- 
rowly watched and attended by the spies of that chief to 
prevent his flight, which he certainly meditated, though I 
doubt his resolution to attempt it." Thus you see matters 
are farther from the expected crisis than ever, and it behoves 
me to attend strictly to the spirit of my instructions. The 
Peshwah is just in that state from which he can extricate 
himself by the twinkling of an eye if he wishes it; and, 
being in that state, if he does not express a wish for our 
interference or assistance, I do not see in what manner we 
can give it to him. 

' I shall remain in this neighborhood between this place 
and Hullihall until the crisis arrives, or I shall receive orders 
from Government to withdraw from the Marhatta territory 
entirely. In my opinion I shall receive those orders. This 
crisis, which appears farther removed on the 15th than it was 
on the 7th of September, must have been expected and 
talked of early in August, at which time Colonel Palmer 
must have written to Calcutta the circumstances which occa- 
sioned Colonel Kirkpatrick's letter to me of the 25th August. 
The Marhattas, it is true, are slow ; but can it be believed 
that this plan of the Peshwah' s, this secret commission, and 
all these arrangements which have been talked of at Poonah 



]800. HOOBLY. 253 

for the last two months, have not come to the knowledge of 
Scindiah, and that he has not taken every measure in his 
power to prevent their accomplishment ? 

' It appears now by Lieut. Colonel Palmer's letter, that 
the Peshwah has never signed the grant of the jaghires 
of Meritch and Tasgaum to Scindiah ; and the Colonel 
tells me that he has remonstrated strongly against the vio- 
lence used towards my friends north of the Gutpurba. I 
neither know nor care what the result may be. 

' The Peshwah' s conduct in the aifairs of these jaghires 
shows clearly his duplicity, and his fear of our influence. 
When first pressed on the subject by Colonel Palmer at my 
instigation, he would not listen to our proposition to restore 
these jaghires to the Bhow's family, but swore that he had 
been forced by Scindiah to surrender these possessions to 
him. He at the same time told Colonel Palmer that he had 
secretly encouraged the Bhow's sons to oppose Scindiah in 
his attempt to take possession of them. It now turns out 
that he has never given them to Scindiah. At Scindiah's 
solicitation he has sent an order (as Colonel Palmer says) to 
the Bhow's family to give up to the Rajah of Kolapoor the 
fort of Manowly ; at the same time Colonel Palmer says he 
has sent them secret orders to resist that which Scindiah has 
got to deliver the fort to the Kolapoor Rajah, and to assert 
that they have my direction to maintain possession. How is 
it possible to account for this system of deceit ? 

' This appears to be a magnificent place. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major Munro. 

' MY DEAR MuNRO, ' Camp at Hoobly, 6th October, 1800. 

' I have received your letter of the 27th September. I 
have been ordered by Government to remain for some time 
in this country ; and I have come here in order to eat rice, 
which I propose to draw from the borders of Soon da, without 
using any brought from Mysore by my brinjarries. You 
will, therefore, perceive the necessity that my brinjarries 
should return to me to the northward ; but I am not in a 



254 MYSORE. 1800. 

hurry about them ; and it does not much signify if they do 
go to Cundapoor and Mangalore to receive their loads. 

' I fancy that you will have the pleasure of seeing some of 
your grand plans carried into execution ; all that I can say 
is that I am ready primed, and that if all matters suit, I 
shall go off with a dreadful explosion, and shall probably 
destroy some campoos and pultans, which have been indis- 
creetly pushed across the Kistna ; that is to say, if the river 
remains full. 

' I have written to Colonel Close about your money, which 
I shall want. The only reason why I cannot get it is, that 
you are obliged to keep enough in your hands to pay the 
troops in Canara, &c. till January. I have written to 
desire that a sum of money for that purpose may be sent 
round from Madras, in one of the ships of the squadron ; 
and whatever sum I hear that they will send, I will draw 
an equal one from you ; that is the only mode that occurs 
of procuring the supply of money which I shall want in 
December. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Major Munro." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut, Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 7th October, 1800. 
' I enclose the crime on which I propose that Captain 
should be tried. Let me know whether it will be 



convenient that the evidence against Captain should 

come to camp, as otherwise I am afraid that the trial must 
be delayed for some time. If it should be convenient for 
them to come here they shall be detained only while it is 
necessary. 

' I knew that Colonel Harcourt would be too late for the 
relief of Montana. I have received from Colonel Sartorius 
a letter of the 27th September, by which it appears that the 
operations were going on well, and that but little loss had 
been sustained. No news from Poonah. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. HOOBLY. 255 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 

' MY LORD, ' Camp at Hoobly, 9th October, 1800. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's letter 
of the 2nd instant, and I am prepared to proceed to what- 
ever point your Lordship may order me, or to make such 
detachments as you may think proper. The acquaintance 
which I have obtained in the late war of the characters and 
views of the Marhatta chiefs in this part of the empire, 
renders it my duty to state to your Lordship the effects 
which are to be apprehended from weakening, to any degree, 
this body of the troops, by whose exertions we hope to 
accomplish all that is wished at Poonah. 

' The object appears to be to establish the legal power of 
the Peshwah over the Marhatta empire. In order to effect 
this, Scindiah must be removed to his own territories. It 
is not to be supposed that he will relinquish all that he has 
been endeavoring to obtain for the last four or five years 
without a contest ; and all the chiefs of the Marhatta empire 
look to the event of this expected contest with the utmost 
anxiety. They will join the one party or the other, accord- 
ing to their own ideas of their relative strength, and of the 
chances of ultimate success : and in case of our interference, 
which is not expected, the question with them will be, 
whether our force employed is sufficient to get the better 
of that which will be brought against us by Scindiah. 

' It therefore appears necessary that, at least at first, the 
interference of the Company should be by the means of a 
powerful body of troops, such as will convince the whole 
Marhatta empire of our firm determination to attain our 
object, and to establish the Peshwah in the enjoyment of 
the whole of his legal authority. The force which I have 
at present under my command in the field, consists of 690 
European dragoons, 975 native cavalry, 142 British artillery, 
1 160 British infantry, 3538 Native infantry, including sick, 
present and absent, of which there are but few. This force, 
with the assistance which may be expected from the subsi- 
diary troops at Hyderabad, will be fully sufficient ; but any 
diminution of it, or any detachment made to other parts of 
the Company's territories, will occasion doubts of our in- 



256 MYSORE. 1800. 

tentions to adhere steadily to our object till it is accom- 
plished. 

' The assistance of the chiefs of this part of the Marhatta 
empire is necessary to us for several reasons. 

' First ; they give protection to our convoys of provisions 
which must come from Mysore ; if we could suppose that 
they would remain neuter in this contest, we should still 
experience great difficulty and inconvenience from the ne- 
cessity of detaching our own troops from this small force for 
the protection of our convoys. But they will not remain 
neuter. If they do not join the enemy, they will, under 
various pretences, render the communication with Mysore 
so difficult, as to be almost impracticable. 

' Secondly ; by having them with me, the country in my 
rear will certainly be in tranquillity, and I shall draw from 
it all the resources which it can afford. The whole of the 
Marhatta empire is divided in jaghire among the Marhatta 
chiefs or polygars, as I heretofore represented to your Lord- 
ship ; and each of these chiefs can command the resources of 
his own jaghire. The jaghiredar or polygar, who will doubt 
of our success, and will wish well to the cause of the enemy, 
will of course impede our progress by the various means in 
his power. This I experienced in the late contest in several 
instances ; and it is probable I should experience it in many 
more in a contest, the object of which will be, in whose 
hands the power of the empire should be placed hereafter. 

* Thirdly ; by having the Marhatta chiefs with me, I keep 
so many out of the opposite scale. 

' I may therefore conclude that, if this object is to be 
attained with celerity, we must have on our side the largest 
proportion of the Marhatta chiefs in this part of the empire ; 
they will not come forward unless they are clearly convinced 
by the efforts which we shall make, that it is our firm deter- 
mination to attain our object. 

' Under these circumstances it has occurred to me to con- 
sider of the means of collecting a body of troops from Mysore 
for the Ceded countries, which will be at least equal in size 
to that which I should conceive myself authorized by your 
Lordship's orders to detach. 

' In consequence of your Lordship's orders to halt the 



1800. HOOBLY. 257 

2nd batt. 5th regiment, in order that it might join the 
subsidiary force at Hyderabad ; and as I foresaw that there 
would be some difficulty in collecting a force for the districts 
to be ceded by the treaty, which augments the subsidiary 
force, I ordered the five companies of the 12th also to halt 
at Serin gapatam, in order to form a part of the detachment 
to take possession of the Ceded countries. 

' I have reason to believe that the 88th regiment is coming 
to Malabar, and the 12th will be no longer necessary in that 
province. There are eight companies of a battalion of 
Bombay sepoys at Nuggur, which I would propose to re- 
lieve by a small detachment from the province of Canara, 
and to move the former to Chittledroog, when they should 
join the five companies of the 12th, and the 2nd batt. 
of the 5th. I would also propose to add to this detach- 
ment seven companies of the 33rd, leaving at Seringapatam 
only three companies of that corps. There is a detachment 
in the field in the Nundydroog district, which might be 
moved forward into Gurrumconda, and would still cover the 
Rajah's territories. Thus there would be twelve companies 
of Europeans, and eight companies of natives, besides the 
detachment in the Nundydroog district, and guns, which 
could enter the Ceded districts immediately, if your Lordship 
should approve of that arrangement. 

' If the Resident at Hyderabad would consider one of 
the corps of this army as belonging to the subsidiary force, 
the 2nd of the 5th might likewise remain in the Ceded 
countries. 

' I shall propose to your Lordship that this force should 
be kept collected in one body to be thrown on any point 
when their exertions might be necessary ; and that until 
more troops can be spared from other services, a body of 
peons should be retained in the Company's service, by whose 
means the Collector will be able to take possession of the 
country, and to make his arrangements. 

' There are many objections to weakening Seringapatam 
at this moment, but the arrangements which may be made 
at that place will, I hope, keep it in perfect security. 

* If your Lordship approves of this plan, rather than that 
I should weaken the body of the troops in the field in this 

VOL. i. s 



258 MYSORE. 1800. 

country, I shall give orders to have it carried into execution 
without loss of time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Right Hon. Lord Clive: ' ARTHUR WELLE^LEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 10th October, 1800. 

' I have ordered committees to assemble in the different 
garrisons in Mysore, in order to examine and report upon 
the state of their granaries and buildings for containing 
provisions. I gave these orders in consequence of a letter 
from the Military Board, in which they call for detailed 
information upon this subject. All the information which I 
could procure has been before them repeatedly, but they shall 
have it again at one view. I shall send you a copy of these 
reports. 

' I am not surprised that Purneah should be desirous to 
have nothing to do with the Company's concerns ; the com- 
mon practice is to accuse a man of being either a fool or a 
knave. If he is so fortunate as that it is impossible to give 
him the former appellation, it is certain that he will be 
accused of knavery. Our friend, with his sandal wood, has 
done no more than all his fellows have at different times. 

e If we should not permanently keep Darwar, I shall re- 
commend that a granary may be built at Hurryhur. 

' I am more pressed than ever about troops. Lord Clive 
calls upon me to have a detachment ready to take possession 
of the Ceded province, and then to march to Poonah. Sir 
William Clarke and Uhtoffe swear that the French are com- 
ing from Egypt, and want all the native infantry I have got; 
on the other hand, the last relief of Montana cost us 154 
men killed and wounded (most of them coolies, however), 
and they are crying out there because they do not see the 
12th and 2nd of the 5th marching into Cannanore on the 
30th September, on which day they left Seringapatam. My 
business is to get over these difficulties in the best manner I 
can, and what follows is the arrangement which I propose. 
In addition to every thing, I must also inform you that the 
fright which affects Sir William Clarke and Uhtoffe pervades 



1800. HOOBLY. 259 

Bombay, where, on account of the supposed danger, the 
88th, which I expected in Malabar, is detained. 

' Webbe, in a letter of the 4th, which I have just received 
from him, appears doubtful of the propriety of my making a 
detachment from my corps. I wrote to Lord Clive fully 
upon that subject yesterday, and told him that a contest 
with Scindiah for the power of the Marhatta state must 
be entered upon at first, at least, with a powerful body of 
troops, if it is intended that we should have the assistance 
of any of the chiefs of the Marhatta empire. If we have not 
their assistance, we shall want a still larger body of troops, 
and even when we collect them we must expect that the con- 
test will last longer than it would otherwise. I have, there- 
fore, strongly urged that my corps may not be diminished, 
and that I may enter upon the contest in such a manner as 
that all the chiefs may be convinced of our determination to 
attain our object, and punish those who oppose us, and may 
be induced by a sense of their own interests to join my 
standard. 

' But if a corps is to be assembled to take possession of 
the Ceded districts, how am I to collect it ? In the first place 
there are five companies of the 12th, and then I would add 
seven companies of the 33rd, leaving three of that corps in 
Serin gapatam, or, probably, according to your suggestion, 
the whole 33rd, leaving the 12th at Seringapatam ; eight 
companies of the 2nd of the 5th (Bombay) sepoys now at 
Nuggur, which I would relieve by three companies of the 
corps at Cundapore, and one company at Bilghy. Besides 
this I have proposed that one of the native corps of this 
army should be considered as belonging to the Nizam's de- 
tachment, and that the 2nd of the 5th should remain in the 
Ceded countries, at least for a time. This I believe will be 
acquiesced in. Thus I shall have for the Ceded countries 
one regiment of Europeans at least; eight companies of 
sepoys, and one battalion, if the 2nd of the 5th are left. 

' Nuggur will not be weaker than it was before the posts of 
Chandergooty and Cowleydroog were drawn in. 

' Besides this force, it might probably be convenient to 
Cuppage to be able to move forward into Gurrumconda, 
which would add strength to our operations in the Ceded 

s2 



260 MYSORE. 1800. 

countries. Webbe tells me that Munro is appointed Head 
Collector. I shall recommend to him to operate much at 
first by means of peons, which will be attended with a double 
advantage ; and this corps of mine to be assembled, ought 
to be kept in one body. 

' I now come to the most difficult part, which is Malabar. 
They say there is a rebellion in Wynaad, and we may hope, 
like Voltaire, that the Nairs of the Pyche Rajah may be 
strangled with ropes made of the bowels of those on the 
side of Yeman Nair: but still it is necessary to take measures 
for sustaining that post if possible. There is nothing that 
can be done, excepting to send into Malabar half of the 
75th regiment from Mangalore. I gave orders upon that 
subject this day. Thus, then, I shall have provided for all 
the immediate calls for troops, excepting those dictated by 
the fears of an Egyptian invasion. 

* We shall weaken Seringapatam a little, but I shall write 
to Colonel Saxon directions upon that subject, which I hope 
will prevent inconvenience from that measure. The objec- 
tion I have to putting the 12th into Seringapatam, is the 
dubash attached to that corps, who will ruin us there com- 
pletely. I enclose a letter from Lieut. Cafrae, which you 
may find of use. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

* Not a word yet from Madras respecting my last pro- 
posal about money. I am rather anxious about this.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 12th October, 1800. 

' By all means take the 50,000 pagodas from Macleod, 
which he says will be in his hands in November. If I do 
not want that sum here, it will be wanted in the Ceded dis- 
tricts, or in Mysore. We have got in Mysore all the expen- 
sive part of the army, and we certainly ought to get some of 
the money to pay them. 

' I have received a letter from Lieut. Colonel Palmer, 
dated the 1st, in which he does not mention one word of 



1800. HOOBLY. 261 

news, nor does he notice any one of my letters written in 
September. He says, " The Peshwah has not hitherto made 
any remonstrance to me against your continuance in his do- 
minions. I am confident that so long as he may acquiesce 
in your retaining such a position, you will be happy to show 
every attention to his wishes, that the country or individuals 
should not sustain any loss or disturbance." 

' This does not look like calling for our assistance. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, ' Camp at Hoobly, 13th October, 1800. 

' By the last accounts which I have received of the state 
of affairs at Poonah, it appears that Scindiah is acting with 
great caution. He has put a stop to certain operations 
which had been commenced by his troops on the south side 
of the Kistna, and has manifested a disposition to be recon- 
ciled with the family of Pursheram Bhow, and to withdraw 
his pretensions to the possessions of that chief. 

* Lieut. Colonel Palmer writes on the 1st of October;^ 
" The Peshwah has not hitherto made any remonstrance to 
me against your continuance in his dominions." 

' From the circumstances I have above mentioned, it 
appears that the crisis expected by the Governor General 
is far removed ; and by that paragraph in Colonel Palmer's 
letter, I should imagine that he is not certain that the 
Peshwah will not remonstrate against my remaining in his 
Highness's territories. 

' Under these circumstances I shall be glad to receive 
your Lordship's orders whether I am to withdraw from 
the Marhatta territory, if I should receive through Lieut. 
Colonel Palmer a remonstrance from the Peshwah against 
remaining longer within it. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Right Hon. Lord Clive.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

< MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 15th October, 1800. 

' The enclosed extracts of Lieut. Colonel Palmer s dis- 



262 MYSORE. 1800. 

patches to Lord Wellesley, will show you that I was not 
wrong in my conjecture respecting the unsteadiness and 
duplicity of the Peshwah. Either we shall go to Avar in 
grand style with the whole Marhatta nation, or I shall be 
ordered to withdraw; and in my opinion the last will be 
adopted. Lieut. Colonel Palmer hints that I might remain 
in the Marhatta territory, under a pretence of adjusting a 
claim of a debt from the Rajah of Kolapoor; but, first, I do 
not see what end that is to answer ; secondly, it will be tan- 
tamount to a declaration of war against the Peshwah, which 
the measure is intended to avoid. 

' It is evident that his Highness is as much averse to us 
as he is to Scindiah ; that he has now some hopes of freeing 
himself from the latter without our assistance, and without 
being obliged to make the sacrifices which we require, and, 
as Colonel Palmer truly says, " it is the policy of Baajee 
Rao to deceive every body." 

' I write to Webbe this day my opinion of the dispatches, 
that orders will certainly come for me to withdraw ; that it 
is better that I should withdraw immediately, as I shall 
thereby have the whole fair season before me for all that I 
have to do. 

' I think that, besides depriving Dhoondiah's followers of 
their arms and horses, they might for a time be under the 
inspection of the municipality (to use a French phrase). I 
have long thought that it would be proper that orders should 
be given throughout the Rajah's country, that no man should 
be suffered to pass on horseback, or with arms, through or 
near any village where there might be peons, without having 
an order from some regular authority to move through the 
country thus equipped. 

' I shall call for the Court Martial which you mention. 

Colonel lately made a complaint of an Assistant 

Surgeon, just arrived in the country, who disobeyed his 
orders. The young man was put in arrest, and has since 
made the most ample apology. The Colonel will not re- 
ceive the apology, and I am about to send him an order to 
join the army, to prosecute the Assistant Surgeon ; so that 
there is an end of his career for some time. 

' I am in capital style here ; I get as many bullocks as I 
can want, arrack from Goa, and I am thereby enabled to 



1800. HOOBLY. 263 

hand over to the detachments to be formed for the Ceded 
districts the bullocks hired in Mysore, and the arrack on the 
road from Madras. I still want the supplies of rice, which 
they will get of course in the Ceded countries. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 26th Oct., 1800. 

' I am rather anxious about money ; wherever I may go 
I shall want some for December's payment ; and I do not 
see that any arrangement has been made by Webbe to pro- 
vide for it, although it is impossible to adopt that which I 
proposed, as the ships of war do not go to the Malabar 
coast. One lack of pagodas ought to be sent to us by Golali 
Peons as soon as possible. 

' I mentioned the want of money in a letter to Lord Clive; 
but I wish you Avould write to Webbe upon the subject. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, 28th Oct., 1800. 

' I received a letter from Webbe last night, dated the 
20th, in which he informs me that the treaty with the Nizam 
is concluded; and he proposes that I should make my 
arrangements immediately for taking possession of the 
territory ceded to us. I, therefore, march to-morrow with 
my whole force towards Savanore, from whence I shall send 
a detachment directly to Harponelly if the Toombuddra 
should be fordable ; if it should not be so, the detachment 
must go round by Hurryhur. 

' My reasons for moving to Savanore, and there to await 
the further orders of Government with the remainder of the 
army, are as follows : 

' It is clear, from Colonel Palmer's dispatches, that the 
Peshwah is not less adverse to us than he is to Scindiah, and 
that he has some hopes of being freed from the latter 
without our assistance. He has hitherto made no objections 



264 MYSORE. 1800. 

to our remaining in his territory, and it is probable that he 
will make none, as long as he thinks that we are sufficiently 
strong to keep in check Scindiah's army to the southward of 
the Kistna ; but as soon as we begin to weaken ourselves, 
it is probable not only that he will desire that I may with- 
draw, but that he will order some of his officers on this 
frontier to see that his wishes in this respect are complied 
with. I shall then be in an awkward situation, with an 
army unequal to offence, very forward in the Marhatta ter- 
ritory ; and, after having overrun the country, I shall be 
obliged to sneak out of it. That will not answer. 

' If Lord Wellesley proposes that I should remain in the 
Marhatta territory, notwithstanding the contents of the 
dispatches which I sent to you, I shall be better placed at 
Savanore than here for collecting again ; and on the other 
hand, if he proposes that I should withdraw entirely, I shall 
be so much nearer our other objects. 

' Whether I detach from hence and remain here with the 
main body, or go to Savanore and detach from thence, my 
allies will be equally convinced that there is no intention to 
interfere in their affairs. Upon the whole then, in some 
points of view, it is better that I should go to Savanore, and 
in others it is equal; and, as I think I shall be there in 
greater safety, I move that way. 

' I yesterday ordered the Rajah's cavalry to Hurryhur 
from Ranee Bednore. I shall be obliged to you if you will 
request Purneah to allow it to remain at Hurryhur till it is 
decided what is to be done in this country. As soon as I 
receive a copy of the treaty, or information respecting the 
countries ceded to us, I propose to order the Nundydroog 
detachment forward as you wished. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLES LEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoobly, soth Oct., isoo. 

' I am detained here by the rain, which is violent and in- 
cessant. Munro will not be at Hurryhur before the 7th of 
November at soonest ; and if the rains extend to the Bednore 
country, not so soon. I will contrive to have a detachment 



1800. HOOBLY. 265 

across the Toombuddra before that time, if it should become 
at all practicable to move. 

' I have written to Colonel Harcourt again about his 
dubash, and I expect good consequences from his receipt of 
this last letter ; I have also written to Gordon respecting 
victualling the troops, and I have desired him to send into 
the Carnatic immediately the Madras conicopoly belonging 
to the Madras Provision Department, heretofore attached 
to the five companies of the 12th regiment. As soon as I 
receive from Mr. Gordon his answer to my letter, requiring 
the reason for which he did not victual this corps on its 
march to Cannanore as I ordered, I shall issue the order 
which you proposed in your letter of the 24th, or even one 
much stronger if I should find that in truth the dubash 
drove away Mr. Gordon's people. This I now suspect to be 
the case. 

' My allies are much dejected upon receiving information 
of my intention to withdraw. They, however, propose to 
exert themselves in their own defence, to which I have 
strongly urged them. It will be a great object gained, if 
Scindiah is really obliged to go to Hindustan, to prevent 
him from extending and establishing himself to the south- 
ward before he takes his departure. In this view only does 
it appear to me at all desirable that I should remain within 
the Marhatta territory. 

* The allies have again returned to the proposition which 
they made to me some time ago, to allow them an asylum 
for their families in the territories of the Company or of the 
Rajah, only that they have stated precisely their wishes. 

' They desire to be allowed to place their families in one of 
the places mentioned in the enclosed paper, and that Pur- 
neah should employ one of them, or one of their dependants, 
as the aumil of the district, for the revenue of which they 
would be answerable, and allow them to have their tannah in 
the place : if Purneah should object to giving them the ma- 
nagement of the district in which he may allow their families 
to remain, they request that he will at least allow them to 
have their own people and peons in the place; and if he 
should object to that, they beg to have an asylum in any one 
of these places upon an assurance of protection. If it should 
not be convenient to Purneah that they should inhabit any 



266 MYSORE. 1800. 

one of these places, they request that he will appoint any 
other for their residence which shall be contiguous to the 
Marhatta frontier. 

' The only reason why they wish to have the amildary of 
the district, and their own people in the fort with them, 
appears to be the fears which their women and families will 
have among strangers, particularly Europeans. I acknow- 
ledge that I am very anxious that they should be gratified 
to the fullest extent of their wishes ; and I shall be obliged 
to you if you will mention the subject to Purneah, if you do 
not see any impropriety in their requests. 

' The families which will come to us will be that of Appah 
Saheb and his brothers, that of Chintomeney Rao, of Ball 
Kistna Bhow, and probably those of some of their de- 
pendants. 

' If Purneah should have no objection to allowing them to 
hold the amildary of the district immediately contiguous to 
the fort, which he might allow them to inhabit, I will inquire 
from them the name of the person into whose hands they 
may wish it should be placed. 

' I have spoken to Mackay respecting the receipt for the 
young bullocks. He takes them on his returns as received 
from you, and will send you a receipt for them by this 
day's post. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Misserycotta, 31st Oct., 1800. 

' Since I wrote to you yesterday I have received Lord 
Olive's orders of the 24th to enter the Ceded countries with 
my whole force. The intention is, I imagine, to keep it 
together till orders are received from Bengal consequent to 
Palmer's dispatches, which I sent you ; and I believe that 
hereafter, if there is no objection from Bengal, it will be 
broke up, and a part will operate to the westward. 

' I marched this morning, but only a short distance. The 
weather still threatening. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1800. M1SSERYCOTTA. 267 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Misserycotta, 1st Nov., 1800. 

' I received last night your letter of the 25th October ; I 
am detained here by the rain. 

' I do not propose to enter the Ceded districts by Mysore ; 
but I assure you that my numerous followers are in such 
order that I might venture to produce them any where. We 
were a month at Hoobly ; and the grain fields in the middle 
of the camp were not touched, and the people in the neigh- 
boring villages sent to tell me that the safeguards which I 
had given them upon my arrival there were no longer neces- 
sary. Lieut. Colonel Mackay will enter Harponelly from 
Hurryhur, either with Munro, or immediately after him. I 
shall enter that province to the northward with the army, if 
it should be possible to cross the Toombuddra below the 
junction of that river with the Werdah. If that should not 
be possible, I shall continue my march along the left bank of 
the Toombuddra as far as opposite Adoni ; as I conceive it 
to be of the first importance that a strong corps should be in 
the centre of the Ceded districts as soon as possible, and 
Colonel Mackay and Munro will be able to settle the pro- 
vinces of Harponelly and Anagoondy most probably Avithout 
my assistance. It will be hard indeed if the Toombuddra 
should not be fordable by the time that I shall arrive oppo- 
site Adoni. 

' Lord Clive has desired me to join to 

this army, and not to detach him on any account whatever. 
I have therefore ordered him direct from Chittledroog to 
Anao-oondy, where I may expect to be: if I should be 
obliged to march along the left bank of the river, he must 
proceed along the right bank of it. 

' I have not desired him to take any measures for settling 
the country as he comes along, but have merely apprized 
him that he will pass through a strange country, and have 
desired him to be upon his guard. 

' I am obliged to you for your information regarding the 

Ceded countries; I applied to for some, having 

understood that his attention for the last years of his life has 
been entirely taken up by inquiries into and surveys of those 
very countries. In answer to my application he proposes 



268 MYSORE. 1800. 

that I should send him a map of my marches, and all the 
geographical information which I have received from Bom- 
bay (which, by-the-by, is nothing less than true) ; and he 
then promises to make a map of the whole. Into this he 
will most probably insert the result of his own dreams. 

' You some time ago wrote to me about employing 

of the Bombay engineers on the survey of 

Soonda; and having desired that gentleman to undertake 
it, he has desired to have an order which would authorize 
him to draw surveyor's allowances while employed on the 
work. Upon this subject I wish to have your sentiments. 

' Surveyor's allowances given to a man till he completes a 
survey are an encouragement to delay ; and to tell you the 
truth, I am rather anxious that this gentleman should be 
employed as an engineer in the repair and improvement of 
the fort of Hullihall. For these he has given a plan which I 
have already submitted to the Military Board, and during 
the time that they will take to decide upon carrying it into 

execution, I have desired to make the survey 

of Soonda. 

' My idea is to order him surveyor's allowances during the 
time that he may be employed on the survey ; and to inform 
him that I shall order him from the survey as soon as the 
Military Board shall have decided upon his plan for the 
reform and repair of the works at Hullihall. 

' Do you think that this will answer ? 

' You will have heard from Webbe that I am to have the 
money in Canara. I shall send back Bistna Punt, peons, 
&c. Would not you wish that some person should remain 
here in charge of the Amrut Mahal ? 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I enclose a copy of the order which I have given respect- 
ing ; also one of that respecting the employ- 
ment of sepoys to seize sheep. It will be necessary that 
Purneah should give orders throughout the country to 
supply sheep upon these receipts whenever they may be 
required.' 



1800. COPAUL. 269 



To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

* Camp, ten miles south of Copaul, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 13th November, 1800. 

' Our tappall Brahmin has written to Appah to desire 

that peons may be posted up to Anagoondy from Chittledroog 
for the use of the army. As soon as I arrive at Anagoondy, 
and find that these peons are posted, I propose to take off 
those which I have now upon the road from Chittledroog by 
Hurryhur and Savanore. 

' Hereafter I propose that Munro should run a tappall 
from Chittledroog by Rydroog into the Ceded districts ; 
I write to him upon this subject. But in the mean time it is 
desirable that until that tappall can be arranged, and until I 
get more forward into the Ceded districts, the peons should 
be posted direct to Anagoondy as I have above pointed out. 

' I have settled with the Amrut Mahal man to get sheep 
from Mysore, until we can ascertain the state of our supplies 
in the Ceded countries. 

' Bistna Punt did not join from Hoobly till we had got so 
far as to render it advisable that he should return to Mysore 
through the Ceded districts. There are hopes that the river 
will be fordable in a day or two, and he shall go off the 
moment he can cross. 

c Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. 9 < ARTHUR WELLESLEV. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp, ten miles south of Copaul, 
' MY DKAR COLONEL, ieth November, 1800. 

* I have received the orders of Government to break up 
the army, to send a detachment into the Ceded countries, to 
prepare one for Wynaad, and to proceed myself to hold a con- 
ference with the Admiral upon some proposed arrangements. 
X I shall have settled every thing to-morrow, preparatory to 
breaking up the army, and I shall set out immediately for 
Serin gapatam, leaving the troops to follow me. 

' Colonel Moneypenny stays in the Ceded districts, with 
the 25th, 1st, and 4th regiments of cavalry, the 73rd, 2nd, 
4th, 1st, and 12th. 



270 MYSORE. 1800. 

' I shall be at Seringapatam, I hope, by the 26th or 27th. 
I shall proceed by Hurryhur, Hooly Honore, and China- 
patam. 

' General Dugald Campbell commands in the Ceded dis- 
tricts. 

f Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Anajee, in Mysore, 20th Nov., 1800. 

' I have just received your letter of the 16th. I had be- 
fore written to the Commissioners, to desire that they would 
send Yeman Nair to Seringapatam, and that they would 
address him to you, as I thought it probable that I should 
be absent when lie would arrive. 

' I shall be at Seringapatam by the 27th or 28th, and will 
talk over with you then the other points in your letter of the 
16th. I have pressed Webbe hard to be allowed to conduct 
the "Wynaad expedition, and that arrangements should be 
adopted to render my journey to the Carnatic, and my ab- 
sence from Mysore, as short as possible. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' Colonel appears to have mistaken the troops of 

Cummer oo Deen for the garrison of Gurrumconda. I have 
desired him to try to get into the fort at all events ; and if the 
killadar refuses to give him possession, to threaten him with 
the resentment of the Nizam, and with the responsibility for 
all the evil consequences of his disobedience of his master's 
orders. If he still holds out, arrangements must be made 
to get the place by force; have it we must, and that 
speedily.' 

To the Chief Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

' SIR, ' Santa Bednore, 21st November, 1800. 

' In consequence of the orders of the Right Hon. the 
Governor in Council, of the 9th instant, I broke up the 
army on the 16th, on the banks of the Toombuddra, and 
made arrangements, as stated hereafter, for providing a force 



1800. SANTA BEDNORE. 271 

for the Ceded districts, and one for the proposed service in 
the Malabar. 

' I sent into the Ceded districts, under the orders of Lieut. 
Colonel Money penny, the 25th dragoons, the 1st and 4th 
regiments of native cavalry, the 73rd regiment, the 2nd of 
the 4th, and 1st and 12th native infantry, with six field 
pieces, besides the cavalry guns. 

' I made a requisition upon Lieut. Colonel Bowser, who 
was still in the Dooab, for two battalions of native infantry. 

' Lieut. Colonel Mackay has taken possession of Harpo- 
nelly, and is now, with the corps under his command, on his 
march to Rydroog, to get possession of that fort. Major 
Munro is with Lieut. Colonel Mackay. 

( Before I had received his Lordship's orders not to send 
into the Ceded districts any part of the detachment which 
has been hitherto in the iield in the Nundydroog district, I 
had desired Lieut. Colonel Cuppage to send a detachment 
to take possession of the fort of Gurrumconda ; and to post 
the field detachment in the Pollams, between that fort and 
Pennaconda. This arrangement appeared likely to be of 
service both to the territory of the Company and of the 
Rajah. I was in hopes that it was carried into execution 
when I had received his Lordship's orders, and I therefore 
did not countermand it. I have since received a letter from 
Lieut. Colonel Cuppage, from which it appears that the 
troops in the service of the late Cummer oo Deen and of his 
son, had mutinied, and were disposed to plunder the country. 
Lieut. Colonel Cuppage likewise mentions that the troops 
in the fort of Gurrumconda had mutinied, and he did not 
believe that they would allow the fort to be delivered over 
to the Company's troops. The troops within the fort are 
in the service of the Nizam. 

' Under these circumstances, I have considered it of the 
first importance to endeavor to get possession of the fort 
without loss of time, lest the troops of the Nizam and of 
Cummer oo Deen should co-operate to keep it from us: and, 
notwithstanding his Lordship's orders, I have desired Lieut. 
Colonel Cuppage to urge the killadar in the strongest 
manner to give him up the fort, to threaten him with the 
resentment of the Nizam, and with the responsibility for all 
the evil consequences which are likely to result from his 



272 MYSORE. 1800. 

retaining possession after he had received the orders of his 
employer to deliver the fort to the Company's troops. 

' I have desired Lieut. Colonel Moneypenny to cross the 
Toombuddra at the Untoor ghaut, below Anagoondy, to 
proceed by Bellary to Adoni, of which place and of Gooty 
he is to take possession. He has not got from the head 
aumil the orders to the killadars of Bellary and of Gooty, 
to deliver to him the possession of those forts, and it is pro- 
bable he will not receive the orders for some time : I have 
therefore desired him not to delay at Bellary, but to pro- 
ceed with expedition to Adoni, for the delivery of which 
place he has an order. 

' I have supplied Lieut. Colonel Moneypenny with rice, 
provisions, arrack for 50 days, bullocks and military stores, 
and money. I have arranged a communication between his 
detachment and Mysore, by way of Bydroog, by means of 
which I propose to supply him with arrack, rice, and bul- 
locks, until Major General Campbell shall have arranged a 
communication with Madras, from whence he must draw the 
former, and shall have brought forward the resources of the 
Ceded districts in the two latter. I have ordered into the 
Ceded districts immediately for the use of the troops 50,000 
pagodas, in charge of Lieut. Bead, whom I have appointed 
Mr. Gordon's Deputy Paymaster in those countries. This 
officer has lately done the duty of Paymaster at Seringapa- 
tam, and is strongly recommended by Mr. Gordon. 

' The remainder of the army is now crossing the Toom- 
buddra, and will march to Seringapatam immediately. I 
hope to arrive at that place on the 29th, and I shall make 
all the arrangements preparatory to the expedition to the 
westward. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Chief Sec. of Govern: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Vencaty Gherry, 9th December, 1800. 

f I hear from camp that the followers are going on but 
badly ; and as intelligence to a similar purport may have 
reached you, I write to inform you, that I have given a 
strong hint to Colonel Pater upon the subject, and I hope 



1800. FORT ST. GEORGE. 273 

that after he shall have received my letter there will be no 
further reason for complaint. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have this instant heard from Colonel Moneypenny, who 
had arrived, and got possession of, Bellary. He was going 
to Gooty ; all quiet, but the Nizam's horse are going about 
the country squeezing what they can get. Colonel Money- 
penny has sent to Chittledroog the prisoners belonging to 
Mysore, taken by Colonel Bowser in the Dooab after the 
battle of the 10th of September. I spoke to you about them 
on the 29th. 

' I have written to the commanding officer at Chittle- 
droog, to desire that he will take charge of them on their 
arrival, and that he will subsist them at the usual rate (viz., 
one single fanam per diem), till he hears from you regarding 
them. You will probably wish that they should be delivered 
over to the amildar, and that some examination of them 
should be made before they are finally discharged. At all 
events, make known your wishes to the commanding officer 
at Chittledroog.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Fort St. George, 18th December, 1800. 

' I have had some conversation with our friends here re- 
garding the settlement of Wynaad, the arrangement to be 
made with Yeman Nair, and in general the employment of the 
Nairs during the campaign in Wynaad. Our idea of placing 
Wynaad eventually under the same administration with Ma- 
labar has been approved, as has the measure of calling up 
to Seringapatam Yeman Nair and one of the Commissioners 
to Seringapatam. I have informed Webbe that you intend 
to take the field with Stevenson, and have communicated to 
him your notion regarding the council, to consist of the 
Commissioners, Colonel Stevenson, and yourself. It is pro- 
posed to leave to the decision of this council all the future 
arrangements in Wynaad, whether regarding the settlement 
with Yeman Nair, and other chiefs of the same description, 
or the employment of the Nairs in general on the service. 

VOL. i. T 



274 MYSORE. 1800 

f Webbe writes this day to Colonel Stevenson upon the 
subject, and to the Commissioners in Malabar, and you also 
will probably hear from him yourself. 

' The pensioners have been a subject of conversation since 
I have been here. Several modes of relieving the Eajah 
have been proposed, which I will state to you. One was, to 
throw these pensioners upon the Rajah, according to the old 
arrangement, and to relieve Purneah from the engagement 
into which he voluntarily entered lately, to pay the full subsi- 
diary of seven lacs of star pagodas : the second was to throw 
the pensioners upon the Rajah, and to enter into a discussion 
with the Rajah's Government regarding the burthens upon 
him, to compare these with his means, and if the result 
should be that the country is overburthened, that the sub- 
sidy should be permanently lessened : the third was, to leave 
matters as they were originally arranged, and for the Com- 
pany to pay these new pensioners (the Ambassadors), in 
consideration of the heavy burthens upon the Rajah, and of 
the situation of the Ambassadors having been sent to Euro- 
pean powers. I objected to the first mode, because I thought 
it would be disagreeable to Purneah, and because, at all 
events, the relief would be only temporary. I objected 
to the second, because any new discussion upon the Rajah's 
situation would be disagreeable, would be a bad precedent, 
and would tend to shake the first settlement ; and, at all 
events, would create a notion among the natives that that 
settlement was not permanent. I think that the third will 
be adopted, and that the pensions of the Ambassadors will 
be paid by the Company. 

' Upon the whole, this appears to me to be the best arrange- 
ment. I do not like the proposal for a discussion upon the 
Rajah's situation : it would open a door for another discus- 
sion some years hence, and the consequence would be, that 
the settlement made last year, which was certainly intended 
to be permanent, would be overturned by the first Govern- 
ment which should look to Mysore as a place from which it 
might be possible to get a few more pagodas. 

' The officer commanding at Mysore is to have full batta. 

' Webbe proposes to establish the court at Seringapatam : 

he talks of Leith as the Registrar, and rather prefers him to 



1800. FORT ST. GEORGE. 275 

Symonds. If you, however, prefer the latter, I think it 
probable that he will be appointed. I know neither of 
them very well. 

' Pater is appointed to command at Arcot. 

' I enclose a letter from Colonel Cuppage, regarding the 
pensioners in the Nundydroog district ; I shall be obliged to 
you if you will make known to him your wishes regarding 
them. 

' I embark to-morrow for Trincomalee, from whence you 
shall hear further from me. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Chief Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

< SIR, * Fort St. George, 19th Dec., 1800. 

' I have the honor to enclose a copy of a report which I 
have received of the extent, state, and condition of the forts 
in Canara. They all appear to be in ruins, and it is de- 
sirable that they should be entirely destroyed, excepting 
Seedasheeghur, Rajahman-droog, Morjee, Cundapoor, and 
Coomblah. I recommend that these should not be de- 
stroyed, only because they stand at the mouths of the prin- 
cipal rivers in the province of Canara, and it may be 
desirable to retain them ; but some of these may be useless, 
and it may be advisable hereafter to destroy entirely those 
of that description. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Chief Sec. of Government: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major General Braithwaite, Commanding the Army, 
Fort St. George. 

< Sill, ' Fort St. George, 19th Dec., 1800. 

' Having been appointed by the Most Noble the Governor 
General in Council to command a body of troops collected 
for foreign service at Trincomalee, and having been directed 
by his Lordship to appoint a certain staff for conducting the 
duties of those troops, I have to request your permission to 
take from this Presidency, for that purpose, the officers 
whose names are written hereafter. 

T 2 



276 ARMAMENT AT 1800. 

' Lieut. Colonel Coleman, 84tli regiment, 

' Lieut. Colonel Capper, 

' Captain Scott of the artillery, 

' Captain Fitzpatrick, 

' Captain Ogg, 

' Captain West, 33rd regiment, my aide de camp. 
' I likewise request your permission to take Mr. Sechino, 
conductor, in charge of certain provisions embarked in the 
Rockingham for the troops, and that you will be so kind as 
to allow a conductor, with a detachment of tent and store 
lascars, to accompany the ordnance and military stores to be 
sent from Fort St. George. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Braithwaite.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Governor of Ceylon (the Hon. F. North). 

* SlR, ' Trincomalee, 27th Dec. 1800. 

' As it is very desirable that the quantity of provisions 
which will proceed from hence with the armament now lying 
in the harbor should be as large as possible, I shall be 
obliged to you if you will allow the Commissary of provisions 
at Trincomalee to issue, upon my requisition, 150 casks of 
salted beef of 3601bs. each, of those lately received from 
Bengal, and now in his charge, and 4000 bags of rice. I 
shall also be obliged to you if you will order him to supply 
the European troops embarked in the transports, as well as 
those still on shore, with fresh provisions as long as the 
means in his power will permit him to do so, upon their 
regular indents. 

' The consumption of wood on board the transports has 
already been great ; and, as I understand that the Master 
Attendant at this place has a considerable quantity in store, 
I shall be obliged to you if you will give him orders to issue 
it to the ships which may be in want of it, upon the requi- 
sition of either Vice Admiral Rainier or myself. 

' A certain number of hammocks will be wanted for the 
troops ; and as it has been found practicable to make them 
of gunny bags, I shall be obliged to you if you will give 
orders to the Commissary of Stores to issue 5000 gunny 
bags upon my requisition. 



1800. TRINCOMALl'E. 277 

' Tents for the 1 9th and 80th regiments have been em- 
barked at Fort St. George ; but it was impossible to procure 
tonnage for the proportion of lascars which ought to be 
attached to them. I shall be obliged to you if you will 
give orders that ninety lascars, with the proportion of native 
officers, may be added to the armament from Ceylon. Such 
proportion of them as you may think proper to order from 
Trincomalee will embark at this place ; and such proportion 
as you may think proper to order from Colombo will embark 
at Pointe de Galle, with the detachment of the 19th regiment 
now in garrison there. 

' I learn from the Most Noble the Governor General in 
Council, that your Excellency will add a sum of money to 
our military chest ; and I shall be obliged to you if you will 
give orders that the part of it, which it is proposed should 
be furnished from the Pay Office at Trincomalee, should be 
embarked here ; and that the other part of it, which it is 
proposed should be furnished from Colombo, should be 
embarked at Pointe de Galle, in the ships which will receive 
the detachment of the 19th regiment. I request that your 
Excellency will be so kind as to give orders to the proper 
officer to make me acquainted with the sum which he will 
embark at Pointe de Galle in consequence of this arrange- 
ment. 

' I have already given your Excellency much trouble in 
the detail of the wants of the armament, and I have stated 
all that appears necessary at present: but as more wants 
may be discovered hereafter, and as your Excellency is about 
to depart for Pointe de Galle, I shall be obliged to you if 
you would leave orders with the persons in charge of the 
public stores, and the heads of departments at this place, to 
furnish what may be required for the armament, which their 
stores can afford, upon the requisition of Vice Admiral 
Rainier or myself. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

'. The Governor of Ceylon.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLE Y. 

To the Governor of Ceylon. 

SiR, ' Trincomalee, 27th Dec., 1800. 

' It will be attended with great convenience to the troops 



278 ARMAMENT AT 1800. 

and their followers about to embark from Ceylon, if their 
families could be permitted to receive from the paymasters 
in the island those portions of their pay which they may 
think proper to leave for them. If you will be so kind as to 
allow those paymasters to pay such sums, I will give orders 
that the family certificates shall be prepared in the usual 
manner ; copies of which will be given to the paymasters of 
the troops embarked, who will stop from the amount of each 
man's abstract the amount of the family certificate of each 
corps and individual. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Governor of Ceylon. ' ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

' P.S. As I understand that the European women attached 
to the 19th and 80th regiments receive a certain allowance 
from Government, I shall be obliged to your Excellency if 
you will permit that allowance to be continued to them 
during the time that the corps to which they are attached 
may be employed upon service.' 

To the Governor General. 

' MY LORD, ' Trincomalee, 30th Dec., 1800. 

' 1. In obedience to your Lordship's orders, I have come 
here to take the command of the troops assembled at this 
place for service. 

' 2. I shall proceed to state to your Lordship the arrange- 
ments which I have made for conducting the duties of the 
troops under my command, which appear to me to require 
explanation, in consequence of the authority for that purpose 
which I received from your Lordship. 

' 3. I have appointed Lieut. Colonel Coleman Deputy 
Adjutant General, and have directed that he shall receive 
500 rupees per mensem for assistants in addition to his per- 
sonal staff allowance. I could not find that any regulation 
had been made in Bengal, fixing the amount of the allow- 
ance for assistants to a Deputy Adjutant General, and I 
therefore fixed this allowance upon a statement of the 
number of persons to be employed in that manner by Lieut. 
Colonel Coleman. 

' 4. I have appointed Captain Scott, of the Coast artillery, 



1800. TRINCOMALEE. 279 

Commissary of Stores, with an establishment as stated in 
the orders of .... January. The lascars for the camp 
equipage for the 19th and 80th regiments are included in 
this establishment, but they are not yet arrived from Fort 
St. George. 

' 5. I have appointed Mr. Sechino Deputy Commissary of 
Provisions, with an establishment as stated in the orders of 
the .... January. This gentleman has long been employed 
in the provision departments of the Coast army, and his 
services will be absolutely necessary in the event of land- 
ing the troops. The establishment brought from Fort 
St. George with him, although calculated for but a small 
number of men, will serve as a groundwork for that depart- 
ment, which it will be necessary to form for the Commissary 
of Provisions, should the troops land and be employed in 
the field. 

' 6. The Right Honorable the Governor in Council of 
Fort St. George was pleased to send with me, at my request, 
one company of artillery, with three companies of gun 
lascars, and a detachment of pioneers, under Captain Fitz- 
patrick. His Lordship likewise proposes to send camp equi- 
page for the 19th and 80th regiments, with tent and store 
lascars, and artificers for the service of this camp equipage, 
and of the store department ; and certain military stores, of 
which the Commissary of Stores will send a return to the 
military board in Bengal, as soon as they shall be received. 

' 7. He was likewise pleased to send with me Lieut, de 
Haviland, of the corps of engineers, and an establishment 
which appeared necessary, of which a statement is made in 
the orders of the .... January. 

' 8. As these detachments of artillery, gun lascars, and 
pioneers, and the whole of these departments and establish- 
ments, belong to the Coast army, to which they will hereafter 
return, and as it would be inconvenient to alter the rate of 
the pay and allowances which they have hitherto received, 
and which they would receive hereafter, I have thought it 
proper that they should continue to receive the pay and 
allowances which they have received heretofore, and that 
they should be paid in abstracts, made out according to the 
forms in use under the government of Fort St. George. 

' 9. I have therefore furnished the Paymaster with a state- 



280 ARMAMENT AT 1800. 

merit of the rates of pay and allowances on the Coast to all 
descriptions of persons detached from the Coast, and with 
the forms of the abstracts according to which they are to be 
drawn, Copies of which papers I have the honor to enclose. 
I have appointed Captain Fitzpatrick, who was muster 
master in Mysore, to muster the Coast troops and establish- 
ment employed in this service. 

' 10. I have the honor to enclose copies of the orders by 
which these and other arrangements, which do not require 
further explanation, have been made, and I request your 
Lordship's confirmation of them. 

' 11. Besides the appointments made by these orders, I 
have appointed Captain Lowe Agent of Transports, at the 
recommendation of Captain Malcolm*, of his Majesty's ship 
Suffolk, to whom, as well as to myself, this appointment 
appeared absolutely necessary. I beg leave to recommend 
that he may be allowed to draw the salary which was given 
to Captain Kemp, when Agent of Transports to the ex- 
pedition prepared against Manilla. I am unacquainted with 
its amount. 

' 12. I likewise enclose copies and extracts of letters to 
Mr. Rider, in which authority is given for incurring certain 
expenses, of which I request your Lordship's confirmation. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Governor General: ' ARTHUR WEL LESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Trincomalee, 30th December, 1800. 

' Since my arrival here I have received a letter from Lord 
Wellesley, in which he talks of going through Mysore in the 
next season, in execution of a plan which I proposed to him, 
in consequence of a letter which I received from him in No- 
vember, in which he started this notion. 

He proposes to inhabit the Dowlut Baug at Seringa- 
patam, and the palace at Bangalore ; and although I think 
it very probable that the plan will never be put in execution, 
I shall be obliged to you if you will now and then take a 
look at my house, and urge forward the painting of it : and 

* Vice Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm, G.C.B., brother to the late Lieut. 
General Sir Johii Malcolm, G.C.B. 



1800. TRINCOMALEE. 281 

Lord Wellesley has desired me to request that you will have 
the palace at Bangalore put in a state to receive him. 

' The Admiral is not here, and I can tell you nothing of 

our future plans. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Governor General. 
' MY LORD, ' Trincomalee, 22nd January, 1801. 

' A month has nearly elapsed since I arrived here, but I 
have hitherto received no tidings of the Admiral or Mr. 
Stokes. It is evident from the papers received from Mr. 
Stokes, of which I am at present in possession, that he is of 
opinion that the attempt upon Mauritius should not be made, 
if it is not possible to reach the island before the month of 
February. It is probable, therefore, that it will be post- 
poned, and that you will have to determine whether you will 
make the attack on the return of the season in April. 

' As I think it. desirable that you should be acquainted as 
soon as possible with certain circumstances, which in my 
opinion have altered the situation of affairs, I lose no time 
in writing to you. 

' The circumstances of the island have altered in some de- 
gree since Mr. Stokes was there, and procured the informa- 
tion upon which you determined to undertake the expedition. 
In the first place, it is impossible to suppose that the enemy 
will not have suspected the real object of the armament, and 
will not have prepared for defence. Indeed, before I arrived 
at Madras, and before it was known that I was going there, I 
received letters from the western coast, stating that the 
armament was destined either for Mauritius, Egypt, or 
Batavia, and would be commanded by Sir J. Craig. The 
removal of the 88th regiment from Bombay to Pointe de 
Galle has made it very clear that it was not destined for 
Egypt ; and the alteration of the rendezvous, and the re- 
moval of the squadron from the Straits of Malacca to Trin- 
comalee, in consequence of the alteration of the plan, have 
made it equally clear that it was not destined for Batavia. 

' Therefore, those who judge of the intentions of govern- 
ment by their acts, must have found out the real object of 
the expedition. But not only have the French had that 



282 ARMAMENT AT 1800. 

mode of ascertaining our intentions, but Mr. Webbe in- 
formed me of a circumstance at Madras, which proves that 
they must receive intelligence of them from what they must 
have deemed at the time the best authority. 

' A French lady residing at Madras knew that an expedi- 
tion was about to sail against Mauritius, and she had been 
desired to make known the names of her friends upon the 
island, in order that they and their property might be pro- 
tected. It cannot be doubted but that this intelligence flew 
to Tranquebar immediately, and as no object for the arma- 
ment was denned, it must have obtained great credit. It is 
probable, therefore, that the French will be made acquainted 
with the design, and will prepare themselves accordingly. 

' I acknowledge that I have never been very sanguine in 
my expectations of the success of Mr. Stokes's plan to sur- 
prise the place, for many reasons ; but I expected that the 
enemy would not have heard of the armament, would be un- 
prepared, and their works in bad condition: this cannot be 
expected in April. 

' In the second place, the number of men at present upon 
the island is greater than was stated by Mr. Stokes. 

' I conclude that the government of Fort St. George will 
have communicated to you the accounts received at Tran- 
quebar by the Esther. Two ships of war and several mer- 
chant ships intended for privateers had arrived at the island, 
and these must have added to its strength. But if we had 
been able to sail as first proposed, it is probable that we 
should have found that some of them were gone out on 
a cruise, and the others unprepared for their defence. We 
cannot expect in April, that a ship will be out, or a man will 
be absent, and we must therefore reckon upon an addition to 
the numbers stated by Mr. Stokes of at least 1500 men. In 
this calculation I do not reckon upon the troops expected ; 
but only upon the vessels and their men positively stated to 
have arrived. Upon this statement the question is, whether 
our numbers will be sufficient to ensure the object in April ; 
and whether it would be proper to make a trial of Mr. 
Stokes's plan. 

' I want much information, which Mr. Stokes alone can 
give, to enable me to decide upon his plan, and I therefore 
defer to write upon it till I see him. What I have above 



1800. TRINCOMALEE. 

written may be, however, considered as independent of all 
particular plans, and applies only to the general question. 

' The state of our provisions on the first of next month 
will be as follows : 

4 months' provisions remaining, for j i . 1080 men 

4 months' in the Rockingham . - , , , , 100 
6 months' nearly, in the other transports . 500 

5 months' in the ship at Pointe de Galie which 

brought the 88th from Bombay . ".. 600 

' This will give provisions for the whole number of Euro- 
peans for three months and a half, exclusive of some beef 
which I have taken from hence, and will last them more than 
four months, with the savings which I hope will be made 
upon the issue. 

' The difference between this and my former statements 
upon this subject, arises from the want of the ship from 
Madras, which was to have carried 200 men, and to have been 
provided with provisions for them for six months ; from the 
consumption of this month, in the ships occupied by the 10th 
regiment, the Bengal and Madras artillery at this place, and 
by the 88th regiment at Pointe de Galle ; and from the defi- 
ciencies in the Rockinsrham, owing to the difficulty of em- 
barking provisions at Madras in the bad season. 

' I told you heretofore, that no refreshments could be pro- 
cured upon this island for the troops ; that if they had been 
landed, they must have lived upon their sea provisions ; and 
therefore I thought it better to keep them in their ships, than 
to expose them in tents to the worst weather I have seen in 
India. Besides, so long as there was a prospect that the 
Admiral would arrive in such time as to enable us to under- 
take the expedition, I did not wish to increase the difficulty 
and trouble at the moment of our departure, by having so 
many more men to embark. 

' The natives have been on shore ever since they arrived, 
but have been obliged to live upon their sea provisions till 
within this fortnight ; and I propose to land the Europeans 
as soon as I have seen the Admiral, if it shall be determined 
that we are not to sail immediately. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 The Governor General.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



284 ARMAMENT AT 1801, 

To Lord Clive, Governor of Fort St. George. 

< MY LORD, Trincomalee, 28th January, 1801. 

' I have the honor to enclose a list of certain provisions, 
which are required at this place for the use of the armament, 
which should be sent as soon as possible. 

' A large proportion of the troops have been embarked 
nearly two months, and have consumed the provisions laid in 
for that period ; and the quantity of provisions now remain- 
ing in the transports for the whole number of European 
troops, will not be sufficient for more than four months, even 
at a reduced allowance. The 80th regiment, and seven com- 
panies of the 19th, have been subsisted upon the garrison 
stock of Trincomalee, since my arrival at this place, many 
articles of which are already deficient, and the whole will 
shortly be consumed; and as no fresh provisions can be 
procured, it is obvious that if the troops should remain here 
much longer, a supply of provisions must be sent, or so large 
a quantity of those intended for the armament will have 
been used, as to render it impossible to proceed on any ser- 
vice which may be proposed. 

' I have not received any intelligence of Admiral Rainier 
or of the squadron, and there is every reason to believe 
that the armament will be detained at this place for some 
time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lord Clive' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Chief Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

SlR, ' Trincomalee, 7th February, 1801. 

' I have received your dispatch of the 1st instant by the 
Dragon, and I have the honor to enclose the triplicate of a 
letter to the Governor of Bombay, which will point out the 
arrangements which I propose in order to carry into execu- 
tion the plan of the Secretary of State, as detailed in his 
letter to the Most Noble the Governor General of the 6th 
of October. 

' I request that you will do me the favor to forward the 
letter to the Government of Bombay by express. 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 285 

' There will remain in Ceylon, of the body of troops col- 
lected here for service, the 19th regiment, seven companies 
of which are at Trincomalee, and three companies at Pointe 
de Galle. The other corps, exclusive of the artillery, will 
amount to about 2000 firelocks. 

' I have been induced to take from hence a body of Euro- 
pean troops so much larger than that proposed by the 
Secretary of State for the service, 

' First, Because I have not got with me the number of 
sepoys which he proposes should be employed ; and I have 
reason to believe that it will be difficult to collect such a 
body on the western coast of the Peninsula. 

' Secondly, Because I think it probable that the body of 
Europeans, which it is intended should be sent from the 
Cape, will not arrive till the season for sailing up the Red 
Sea will have gone by ; and that it may be thought proper 
to be provided from India with a body of troops which can 
carry into execution the wishes of the Government. 

( Thirdly, Because if the Governor General should think 
proper to stop any part of his European force, and to employ 
upon the proposed service only the proportion stated by Mr. 
Secretary Dundas, I shall, till a late period in the next 
month, have it in my power to receive his Lordship's orders ; 
and at that period the troops will be able either to return to 
this place, or to proceed to any part of India that his Lord- 
ship may think proper to appoint. 

' It is probable, however, that his Lordship may think it 
desirable that the armament should proceed from India in 
full force ; and that even the battalion of sepoys should form 
part of it, for which I have suggested to Mr. Duncan to 
make preparations. 

' I hope that this arrangement, and the reasons on which 
it is founded, will meet with the approbation of the Honor- 
able the Governor in Council ; and if his Lordship will be so 
kind as to send me his orders to Anjengo, Calicut, Canna- 
nore, Mangalore, Goa, or Bombay, I will take measures to 
ensure the receipt of them. 

' The provisions called for in my letter to the Governor of 
Bombay, are in lieu of those which I requested the Right 
Honorable the Governor in Council to send here in my ad- 



286 ARMAMENT AT 1801. 

dress of the 28th. of January. These will not now be wanted, 
excepting for the supply of the garrison of Trincomalee. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 
' The Chief Sec. ofGov. Fort St. George. 1 

To Captain Malcolm, H.M.S. Suffolk, 

< SlR, ' Trincomalee, 7th February, 1801. 

'LI enclose dispatches which I have received this day 
from the government of Fort St. George. 

' 2. I have to inform you that one of the objects for which 
this armament was assembled at this place, was to answer 
the probable demand of his Majesty's ministers for the co- 
operation of a force from India in an attack upon Egypt, 
which demand has now been made in the enclosed dis- 
patches. 

f 3. I am therefore of opinion that it will be proper, that 
measures should be adopted immediately for proceeding to- 
wards the rendezvous pointed out by the Secretary of State ; 
and if you should be of the same opinion, I request that you 
will furnish such convoy for the fleet of transports as you may 
think proper. 

' 4. I have already made known to you the state of the 
provisions in the fleet for the use of the troops, and it will 
probably appear necessary to you, as it does to me, that the 
deficiency should be supplied before the fleet proceeds to the 
Red Sea. With this view, and in order to have an opportu- 
nity of receiving the further orders of the Most Noble the 
Governor General, and his Excellency the Admiral, upon 
the contents of the enclosed dispatches, I should propose to 
proceed in the first instance to Bombay, if the passage to the 
Red Sea would not thereby be materially delayed. 

' 5. If you should approve of this disposition, I will write 
this day to the Governor of Bombay, to request that provi- 
sions, &c. should be prepared for the fleet. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Captain Malcolm, R.N.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 287 

To the Governor of Bombay. 
' HONORABLE SIR, ' Trincomalee, 7th February, 1801. 

' The Right Honorable the Governor of Fort St. George 
has transmitted to me copies of the dispatches which he re- 
ceived from Mr. Dundas and the Secret Committee of the 
Court of Directors, dated the 6th and 10th of October last, 
copies of which papers, it appears, have likewise been sent 
to you. 

' You will have been made acquainted by the Most Noble 
the Governor General with the objects proposed for the body 
of troops collected at this place, and at Pointe de Galle, 
under my command ; and you will have perceived that one 
of his Lordship's reasons for collecting this force was, to be 
prepared to answer the call of his Majesty's Ministers, in the 
quarter for which troops have now been called for by the 
letter of the Secretary of State of the 6th of October. 

' Under these circumstances, and in consequence of a 
letter which I have received from the Chief Secretary of the 
Government of Fort St. George, I propose to proceed to- 
wards the rendezvous pointed out by the Secretary of State, 
with the troops as per margin*, as soon as I shall have been 
joined by the ship Wellesley, which was to leave Madras, 
loaded with stores, on the 3rd instant. 

' You will perceive that I shall have with me a larger pro- 
portion of Europeans, and a smaller proportion of natives, 
than the Secretary of State proposes should be employed on 
the service ; and as the Most Noble the Governor General 
may think proper to withdraw from this force some of the 
Europeans, I take the liberty of suggesting to you the pro- 
priety of making preparations to add to it a battalion of 
native infantry. 

' I shall sail from hence under the convoy of his Majesty's 
ship Suffolk ; and Captain Malcolm is of opinion, that to go 
to Bombay will not materially retard the fleet. I am in- 
duced, therefore, to go there, not only to have the honor of 
paying my respects to you, and to receive the orders which I 
may expect from the Most Noble the Governor General, 

* Bengal, Madras, and Bombay artillery, 10th regiment, 80th regiment, 88th 
regiment, detachment of the 86th regiment, Bengal Volunteer Sepoys, 1st 
battalion. 



288 ARMAMENT AT 1801. 

but to receive certain refreshments and provisions, of which 
the troops are in want, and of which I am about to give you 
a statement 

' As the troops have been for nearly two months at Trin- 
comalee, at which place there are no refreshments, it is 
desirable that they should have the full advantage of those 
which I understand that Bombay can afford ; and that pre- 
parations should be made to supply them as soon as they 
shall arrive in that harbour. 1 hope that I shall be able to 
depart from hence on the 12th instant, and you will be able 
to form a judgment of the period at which it is likely that we 
shall arrive at Bombay. 

' I have the honor to enclose a return of certain articles 
of provision, which it is desirable should be in readiness at 
Bombay, to be embarked on the fleet as soon as it shall 
arrive. 

' It will be very desirable that an addition should be made 
at Bombay to our military chest, if this measure should suit 
the convenience of your government. 

' I shall be obliged to you if you will favor me with such 
intelligence as you may think it proper that I should have, 
while on my passage along the Malabar coast. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Governor of Bombay.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR CoLONEL, ' Trincomalee, 8th February, 1801. 

' I only yesterday received your letter of the 25th of De- 
cember, which Webbe had kept, I imagine, till he was cer- 
tain that I had not left this place. By the same opportunity 
I received a letter from Colonel Stevenson of the 16th of 
January, by which I learn, with great satisfaction, that mat- 
ters are going on in Wynaad in the most prosperous manner, 
and that there was every reason to hope at that time that 
they would be brought to the issue for which we all wish, 
before the conclusion of the fair season. How much I lament 
that I have not had the conduct of the operations which have 
led to this situation of affairs ! But it is useless to regret 
what cannot now be remedied. 

' The expected call has at last been made for the co-ope- 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 289 

ration of a force from India in an attack upon the French in 
Egypt from the Mediterranean by Sir Ralph Abercromby's 
army. The force called for is much smaller in European 
troops than that which is*now collected here ; and it is pro- 
posed by Mr. Dundas that it should be joined by a regiment 
from the Cape of Good Hope. I judge, however, that the 
ships in which these last were to sail from the Cape, would 
not leave England till the beginning of November; and if 
the commanding officer of the squadron pursues what is 
called the shortest route along the coast of Africa, he will 
reach the mouth of the Red Sea at Midsummer. In any 
event, by the other route he must come to India, he will not 
reach the Straits of Babelmandel till the season most favor- 
able for a voyage up the Red Sea has gone by. Under 
these circumstances, I shall have to depend only upon what 
I bring with me from India. I shall leave this place in a 
few days, and proceed to Bombay to take in some provisions, 
as the troops have been obliged to live upon their sea stock 
at this place for the last two months. I shall call upon the 
coast of Malabar, at Calicut, and Cannanore, where I shall 
hear of you, though I am afraid not from you. If, however, 
you should write to me, and desire Colonel Sartorius to for- 
ward your letter to Bombay, in case the fleet should have 
passed Cannanore, I shall receive it. 

' I am not without hopes that I shall be relieved from this 
command, and that I shall soon return to my old situation. 
Lord Wellesley, in a late letter, proposes this measure, and 
I assure you that I shall receive my successor with great 
satisfaction. 

' I am sorry to see that General did mischief to the 

country; I suspected something of the kind, when I read 
General Braithwaite's order. 

' I observe that Mofuhkar ool Dowlah is ambassador to 
Poonah ; and, by a late letter from Tom Sydenham, there 
appears some chance of settling our matters with that court. 
However, I am afraid of the ambassador's temper with the 
Brahmins ; but if he should adopt the interest of the Pesh- 
Avah as that of his employers, as is the case sometimes, there 
is no doubt but that he will bring all matters to bear. 

' Believe me, &c. 
* Lieut. Colonel Close* < ARTHUR WELLESLEV. 

VOL. I. U 



290 ARMAMENT AT 1801. 

To the Governor General. 

' MY LORD, ' Trincomalee, 9lh February, 1801. 

' 1 . The Eight Honorable the ' Governor in Council of 
Fort St. George has transmitted to me copies of the dis- 
patches of the Secretary of State to your Lordship and him- 
self of the 6th of October, and of the letter from the Secret 
Committee of the Court of Directors of the 10th of the same 
month to his Lordship, in a letter from the Chief Secretary 
of the Governor in Council of Fort St. George, of which 
I enclose a copy. 

' 2. These letters have induced me to come to a determi- 
nation to proceed to Bombay, with the troops under my com- 
mand, under convoy of his Majesty's ship Suffolk ; and I have 
the honor to enclose copies of my letters to the governments 
of Fort St. George and Bombay, written in consequence of 
my forming this determination, that will best explain the 
motives which urged me to it, and the arrangements which 
I have proposed to the latter government for the speedy 
supply of the deficiency of provisions required for the 
troops. 

' 3. Since I have formed this determination and have 
written these letters, further information has reached me, 
although through private channels, which has tended to 
confirm me in the opinion which I had formed of its pro- 
priety. 

' 4. I have learned that Vice Admiral Rainier dispatched 
the Cornwallis to your Lordship from Prince of Wales's 
Island on the 24th of December, and Mr. Charles Stokes in 
that ship, in charge of his Excellency's dispatches. It is 
therefore clear, that his Excellency did not think it prac- 
ticable to undertake in this season the expedition, with 
a view to which your Lordship might still wish that the 
troops should remain at Trincomalee ; at the same time 
that, if it should be practicable, and your Lordship should 
wish to undertake it in the approaching season, it will not 
be difficult to bring back the troops, so that they will be at 
Trincomalee long before the period for sailing will arrive. 

' 5. I have besides learned, that on the 31st of December, 
his Excellency the Vice Admiral had received intelligence 
that part of his squadron which had been to the eastward 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 291 

was very unhealthy, and that he had determined to remain 
at Prince of Wales's Island till the end of January. 

' 6. From the whole of this intelligence, and from the 
tenor of your Lordship's dispatches and instructions, I con- 
ceive and hope that I shall conform to your wishes in pro- 
ceeding to Bombay immediately, and eventually to the ren- 
dezvous pointed out by Mr. Secretary Dundas, in his letter 
to your Lordship. 

' 7. I beg leave to recommend, that, if possible, the full 
number of troops, supposed to be required for the proposed 
service, should proceed from India ; as, by my letter to Fort 
St. George, your Lordship will perceive that I fear that the 
squadron under Sir Home Popham will not be able to effect 
its passage in time. There is every reason to believe that it 
will not have sailed from England before the 1st of Novem- 
ber, in which case it cannot arrive in the Red Sea before the 
end of March, and probably later. 

' 8. If your Lordship should determine that the whole of 
the armament required should proceed from India, it will be 
necessary that you should order the Governor of Bombay to 
furnish one battalion of native infantry. 

' 9. My different letters to your Lordship will have pointed 
out to you the want of tonnage for the troops ; and notwith- 
standing that I expect the Wellesley from Madras, I have 
thought it proper to take up the ship Maria Louisa at this 
port. I will hereafter transmit a statement of the terms on 
which this ship is taken up. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Governor General' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



To Vice Admiral Rainier. 

1 H. M. S. Suffolk, Trincomalee, 
MY DEAR SIR, 14th Feb., 1801. 

' I arrived here on the 24th of December last, in conse- 
quence of orders which I received from the Governor 
General, and in hopes that I should have an opportunity of 
aiding you on a service which was proposed for the troops 
assembled at this place and at Pointe de Galle. 

' It is probably fortunate that it has not been possible to 
carry that service into execution, and that the troops are 

u2 



292 ARMAMENT AT 1801. 

still here in preparation to obey the orders of the Secretary 
of State. 

' Captain Malcolm informs me that he will leave here, for 
your perusal, certain dispatches from the Secretary of State 
to the Governor General, and Governor of Fort St. George, 
dated the 6th of October ; and a letter from the Secret Com- 
mittee to the latter government, dated the 10th of October, 
which I received from Lord Clive on the 7th instant. 

' From the tenor of the dispatches of the Governor 
General to yourself and to me, I had not a doubt, upon the 
receipt of those dispatches, but that it was my duty to 
proceed with the troops towards the rendez-vous pointed 
out by Mr. Secretary Dundas ; and accordingly I wrote a 
letter to Captain Malcolm on the 7th instant, of which, and 
of his answer, I understand from him that he sends you 
copies. 

' Captain Malcolm is of opinion, that to go to Bombay 
will not materially retard the fleet ; and we proceed there, 
not only that we may be able to receive the provisions, of 
which there is a deficiency, in consequence of the troops 
having been so long at this place and having lived upon 
salt provisions, but that we may have an opportunity of 
receiving the further orders of the Governor General and of 
yourself. 

' If the Governor General, or you, should still be desirous 
to undertake the expedition which was first proposed, and if 
it should be determined that the troops which I now take 
from hence are to form part of the armament for that 
purpose, I understand that it will not be difficult to bring 
them back to Trincomalee from Bombay, before the season 
will come round at which it would be proper to undertake 
that service. 

' On the other hand, if the Governor General should 
depend upon this body of troops, to carry into execution the 
wishes of his Majesty's Ministers, as stated in the letter of 
Mr. Secretary Dundas of the 6th of October, it is absolutely 
necessary that we should proceed towards the rendez-vous 
pointed out by him without loss of time. 

' These are the considerations which induced me to pro- 
pose to Captain Malcolm to proceed towards Bombay imme- 
diately ; and since I proposed that measure to him, other 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 293 

circumstances have come to my knowledge which have con- 
vinced me of its propriety. 

' I have heard from Mr. North, that the Governor of 
Bombay did not propose to make any preparations to send 
a force to the Eed Sea, in consequence of the letter of Mr. 
Secretary Dundas of the 6th of October, a copy of which was 
sent to him from England, until he heard that the armament 
which was assembled at this place had been otherwise dis- 
posed of; and, besides, I learn that he had only two bat- 
talions of sepoys of 600 men each, of which he could dispose. 
It appears then, not only that he has no troops to answer 
the call of his Majesty's Ministers, but if he had them, or if 
they could be sent to him, it is probable that the prepa- 
rations to be made previous to sending them to the proposed 
rendez-vous would take up so much time, that the season for 
sailing up the Red Sea would be gone by, before they could 
reach its mouth. Therefore some of the troops assembled 
at Ceylon must proceed on that service ; and if it should be 
determined that a part of them should be employed on any 
other service, and should return here, there will be no diffi- 
culty in obeying any orders which may be given to that 
purport, as I have before observed. 

' Captain Malcolm has put up for you a large packet of 
dispatches from the Governor General, some of which I 
opened according to his directions. They are in triplicate, 
and relate principally to the expedition which it was pro- 
posed to carry into execution in December, 

' The Governor General sent here five Assistant Surgeons, 
who, I believe, were intended for the ships, and I have dis- 
posed of them as follows. One of them, Mr. Small, is in the 
Suffolk ; Mr. Rice in the gun boat Fury, and in charge of 
the sick in her and the Wasp ; Mr. Carnegy in the Waller, 
which vessel remains at this place ; and Mr. Pollock in the 
Anna Maria transport. 

' Mr. Cheese is a gentleman much esteemed in Bengal, on 
account of his professional abilities, and he is desirous of 
returning thither. I have allowed him to return to Calcutta, 
as I understand from Captain Malcolm, that it is not likely 
that you will be desirous of detaining him contrary to his 
inclination, particularly as it is not probable that any of the 



294 ARMAMENT AT 1801. 

ships of your squadron will be sent on any service which will 
detain them long at sea. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Vice Admiral Rainier.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Chief Secretary of Government, Fort St. George. 

< SIR, ' H.M.S. Suffolk, off Trincomalee, 15th Feb., 1801. 

' I have the honor to inform you, that the fleet of trans- 
ports went out of the harbour yesterday, and the whole are 
now at sea with a fair wind. The Honorable Company's 
ship Waller remains at this port to receive the orders of the 
Admiral or of Government ; the gun boats Fury and Wasp 
accompany the fleet. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Chief Sec. of Gov. Fort St. George.' ' ARTH UR WELLESLE Y . 

To the Governor of Ceylon. 

< SIR, ' Pointe de Galle, 18th Feb., 1801. 

' I have received your letters of the 17th instant; and as 
I am so unfortunate as to differ in opinion with you, regard- 
ing the propriety of going to Bombay, and as you have 
recorded your opinion, and the communication of it to me, it 
is necessary that I should trouble you at some length, as 
well to justify myself in your eyes, as that those who will 
have to judge hereafter of the propriety of my decision upon 
this occasion, may know the real grounds upon which I 
formed it. 

' First ; I learn from Captain Malcolm that the passage 
from hence to the Red Sea will not be materially retarded 
by going to Bombay ; that the fleet must proceed along the 
coast as far as the Vingorla rocks, to the northward of Goa, 
before it crosses ; and in some cases, that it may be neces- 
sary to go still farther north. 

' Secondly ; Supposing the delay by going to Bombay 
were likely to be greater than it appears at present, it is 
impossible to think of going to the Red Sea until the ships 
and troops are provided with many articles which are at 
present deficient. 



1801. TRINCOMALEE. 295 

' This deficiency has been occasioned by the necessity of 
using at Trincomalee what was intended to be used upon 
the voyage. On the 1st of this month, there were on board the 
fleet about four months' provisions for the whole armament ; 
at this moment this quantity will last three months and a 
half; and supposing my passage to Mocha should be much 
better than even you suppose it would, I should reach that 
station with a sufficiency of provision to last the troops two 
months and a half; and my first thoughts must be directed 
to taking measures for procuring a further supply. 

' You propose that I should send my indent to you for the 
articles which are deficient ; and from the kindness and 
attention which I have already experienced, I should cer- 
tainly have every inclination to do so. But I must observe, 
that you have neither the means of supplying all my wants, 
nor those of transporting to me the articles which you could 
supply. You then propose that they should be supplied 
from the Malabar province, which I beg to inform you is 
equally destitute of what I want as the territories under your 
government. 

' But you propose that I should proceed without the 
articles which I have requested the Governor of Bombay to 
prepare, and you have no doubt but that he or the Governor 
of Fort St. George will send them after me. 

' Articles of provision are not to be trifled with, or left to 
chance ; and there is nothing more clear than that the sub- 
sistence of the troops must be certain upon the proposed 
service, or the service must be relinquished. 

' If there is a chance that by going to Bombay with the 
fleet we shall be late, is it not more probable that the pro- 
visions for which shipping must be prepared at Bombay will 
be late, and is there not a chance that the provisions will miss 
the fleet entirely, and that the troops will be in want ? If 
the provisions are to be supplied from Madras or Calcutta, 
the probability of want is greater in proportion to the greater 
length of the voyage. 

' Upon the whole, then, as far as regards supplies wanted 
for the fleet, I conceive that I act with propriety, and that I 
do that which will tend most to insure the object of the 
armament, by proceeding to Bombay to receive provisions 
on board the ships in which the troops are embarked. 



296 EXPEDITION TO 1801. 

' I have taken every measure which I can think of to 
make it certain that these articles and certain refreshments, 
of which the troops who have been at Trincomalee are greatly 
in want, may be prepared by the time I reach Bombay ; and 
if they are so, I shall certainly be in time for every thing. 
If they are not, and if I am detained at Bombay, I have seen 
letters from Admiral Blanquet, which lead me to be of opi- 
nion, that I shall not be too late for one of the objects pro- 
posed even in the end of April ; and as for the other, it is 
possible to reach it at all seasons. 

' Thirdly : I am very anxious to receive the orders of the 
Governor General regarding the armament, and I can receive 
them only by going to Bombay. The orders of Mr. Secre- 
tary Dundas confine the demand upon India to one regiment 
of Europeans and two battalions of sepoys; and it may pro- 
bably be the intention of his Lordship to employ upon an- 
other service the Europeans which I have under my com- 
mand, which are above the number demanded. It is surely 
my duty to afford his Lordship an opportunity of giving me 
his orders, particularly as I am strongly urged to take the 
steps which will put me in the way of receiving them, by the 
motives which I have above stated, and which affect so nearly 
the final success of the service proposed ; when I learn from 
the best authority that the fleet will not be materially de- 
layed by taking those steps ; and when I have reason to 
believe, from another excellent authority, that even after the 
greatest delay which can possibly be expected, I shall still 
be in good time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Governor of Ceylon' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Hon. Frederick North, Governor of Ceylon. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Pointe de Galle, 18th February, 1801. 

' I have received your letter upon the subject of my pro- 
ceeding to Bombay, to which an answer will accompany this 
letter. 

' I am concerned that you, or General Macdowall* should 
have thought it necessary to write a public letter upon this 
subject, as I hope that I have always shown myself ready to 

* Commanding the forces at Ceylon : he was lost at sea, in returning to Europe. 



1801. EGYPT. 297 

attend to your wishes in whatever manner they may have 
been made known to me. The existence of your public letter 
upon the records of your government increases considerably 
my responsibility upon this occasion. 

' However, notwithstanding that, I conceive the grounds 
upon which I have determined to go to Bombay are so 
strong, and the urgency of the measure is so great, and will 
appear so much so to all those who will have to judge of my 
conduct, that I persist, and I still hope that it will meet with 
your approbation and that of General Macdowall. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' The Hon. Frederick North? f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

t SIR, ' Fort William, 10th February, 1801. 

' 1. Since the date of my last dispatches to you on the 
subject of the intended expeditions against Batavia and the 
Isle of France, I have received dispatches overland from 
England, which have determined me to relinquish for the 
present the prosecution of those expeditions. 

' 2. For the contents of those dispatches, and for the mea- 
sures which I now propose to pursue, I must refer you to my 
instructions, of this date, to Major General Baird, which he 
is directed to communicate to you. 

3. I have appointed Major General Baird to command 
the armament, which is now destined to the Red Sea, and I 
have appointed you second in command on that important 
service. 

* 4. For my instructions for your guidance, I must refer 
you to my above mentioned dispatches of this date, to Major 
General Baird. 

' I have forwarded a copy of this letter to Major General 
Baird for his information and guidance. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley? < WELLESLEY. 

To Major General Baird. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, * On board H.M.S. Suffolk, 21st Feb., 1801. 
' I have just received a letter from Lord Wellesley, dated 
the 2-lth of January, by which I am informed that you are 



298 EXPEDITION TO 1801. 

appointed to take the command of the body of troops which 
have hitherto been under my orders ; that you were likely to 
leave Calcutta for Trincomalee towards the end of the month; 
and that the object was an expedition against the Dutch 
settlement in Java. You will probably be much surprised 
to find that I have left the island of Ceylon with the troops, 
and have gone towards Bombay ; and I write you this letter 
to explain the motives which urged me to take this step 
without waiting for orders from the Governor General. ' 

' On the 7th of February, I received from the Governor of 
Fort St. George a copy of a letter from Mr. Dundas to Lord 
Wellesley, dated the 6th of October, calling for the co-ope- 
ration of a body of troops from India in an attack upon 
Egypt. As the troops were collected in Ceylon, partly with 
a view to be prepared to answer this call, I conceived it to 
be my duty to proceed immediately towards the rendezvous 
pointed out by Mr. Dundas ; and I go to Bombay because I 
understand that it will not materially retard the arrival 
of the fleet in the Red Sea ; because I know that the troops 
are in want of provisions, which can be furnished at Bombay 
only ; and because I am desirous of receiving the orders 
of the Governor General before I proceed finally to the Red 
Sea. 

' In my opinion, the letter from Mr. Dundas, which I have 
above mentioned, will make a considerable alteration in the 
plan which the Governor General had on the 24th of Ja- 
nuary ; and that he will in consequence be obliged either to 
relinquish the attack upon Batavia entirely, or to provide 
another body of troops for that purpose. I therefore pro- 
ceed on my voyage, notwithstanding that I have received his 
orders of the 24th of January. 

' It is true, that the number of European troops, called for 
in Egypt, is not equal to that which I have with me at pre- 
sent, although the number of natives is greater ; and I might 
immediately send back to Trincomalee some of the Euro- 
pean troops, in order to give Lord Wellesley an opportunity 
of sending both expeditions, if he should think it proper. 

' Upon this last notion I must observe, that I do not think 
it probable that he will wish to send both expeditions ; if he 
should wish it, I shall know it upon my arrival at Bombay, 
from the tenor of his orders to Mr. Duncan ; and I can im- 



1801. EGYPT. 299 

mediately send back to Ceylon the troops which it may be 
intended to employ upon the expedition to Batavia. These 
will arrive at Ceylon long before the period for sailing will 
come round. 

' As I before observed to you, I do not think it probable 
that Lord Wellesley would wish to send both expeditions ; 
he will send that to Egypt only : and as I know that it was 
his intention to give you the command of this body of troops, 
in case they should go to Egypt, I recommend you to come 
to Bombay and take the command of them without loss of 
time. 

' If Lord Wellesley should determine to send both the 
expeditions, and if he should wish that you should command 
that to Batavia, you will be with the troops which must go 
on that service. On the other hand, if he should determine 
to send troops to Egypt only, you will be late, unless you 
proceed to Bombay immediately. 

' Believe me, &c. 
'Major General Baird: ARTHUR WELLKSLEY. 

To Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

' MY DEAR ARTHUR, ' Fort William, 3rd March, 1801. 

' I received this day your private letter of the 7th of 
February, and the dispatches noticed in Mr. Barlow's letter 
of this date. 

' Being in hourly expectation of receiving a direct commu- 
nication from you, of the grounds and motives which induced 
you to act upon Mr. Dundas's letter of the 6th of October, 
before you had received any intimation of my intentions with 
respect to the mode of prosecuting the expedition to the Red 
Sea, I have not expressed any official opinion on the subject. 
I entertain a confident hope that you will furnish me, at the 
earliest possible period of time, with such official documents 
as shall enable me to deliver my sentiments in a regular 
form, and in a manner agreeable to my wishes and satisfac- 
tory to you. 

' After the fullest deliberation, my determination is to 
make the most powerful diversion which may be practicable 
on the coasts of the Red Sea, and for that purpose to employ, 



300 EXPEDITION TO 1801. 

in the first instance, the whole force assembled at Ceylon and 
Bombay. If the campaign in Egypt should be protracted, it 
will become a question to what extent the army acting upon 
the coast of the Red Sea may be augmented within the next 
season. 

' My first opinion inclined to the literal execution of the 
King's commands, and to the prosecution of an expedition 
either against the Mauritius or against Batavia, with such 
forces as I might have been able to collect for either purpose 
after having satisfied Mr. Dundas's requisition : under this 
impression I directed Colonel Kirkpatrick to write the private 
letter addressed to Mr. Duncan on the 7th of February ; but 
a fuller consideration of the subject induced me to change 
my opinion. 

' The result of attempting operations in Egypt and in 
India at the same time, would probably have proved an un- 
favorable one to both services; and it is evident that the 
diversion on the coasts of the Red Sea cannot prove advan- 
tageous unless it be powerful, and unless it be prosecuted at 
the earliest possible moment. 

' General Baird will bring you several letters from me, 
which will serve to explain my motives for wishing you 
to retain the second command of "this expedition. I am per- 
suaded that a full consideration of the question will induce 
you to agree with me in opinion, that the extent of the force 
to be employed rendered it necessary to appoint a general 
officer to the chief command ; while the sudden call to active 
service precluded the possibility of removing you from the 
second command without injuring your character, or of 
leaving you officially the power of option, without reproach 
upon the impartiality and justice of my administration. 

' You will, however, exercise your judgment upon the pro- 
priety of desiring leave to return to Mysore ; and if you 
should retain your anxiety on that subject, I shall not 
attempt to obstruct your wishes, nor shall I feel any senti- 
ment of unkindness upon the transaction ; but my decided 
opinion is, that you will best satisfy the call of your public 
duty, and maintain the reputation of your public spirit, by 
serving cheerfully and zealously in your present situation. 

' Henry arrived safe and well on the 22nd of February. I 



1801. EGYPT. 301 

enclose an abstract from the Duke of York's letter * respect- 
ing your future situation in India. 

' Ever, dear ARTHUR, yours most affectionately, 
' Colonel the Hon. A. PFellesley.' WELLESLEY. 

To the Governor General. 
1 MY LORD, ' Bombay, 23rd March, 1801. 

' 1. The letters which I have received since my arrival at 
this place, give me reason to apprehend, that neither my 
departure from Ceylon, nor my coming here have been 
approved by your Excellency. 

' 2. Although my address of the 9th February, with its 
enclosures, stated the outlines of the reasons which induced 
me to take those steps, without waiting for your Excellency's 
orders, I am induced to enter again into further detail of 
them, in order, if possible, to remove an impression which 
has given me great uneasiness ; or at least, to prove that I 
acted upon the most mature deliberation, and did what I 
thought best for the service, and most likely to be agreeable 
to you. 

' 3. I always considered that your Excellency's intentions 
were, that I should attend to the intelligence which I should 
receive from Bombay, of a call from Europe for the co- 
operation of a force from this country in an attack upon the 
French in the Red Sea, which you foresaw would be made ; 
and even that the expedition upon which you ordered that I 
should proceed at the end of December, was to be relin- 
quished in case intelligence came of a call for co-operation 
in the Red Sea. 

' 4. Upon this point I must observe, that the government 
of Fort St. George conceived that I ought to proceed to- 
wards the rendez-vous pointed out by Mr. Secretary Dundas, 
when they sent me the copies of the dispatches, as appears 
by their Secretary's letter of the 1st February, a copy of 



* Extract from the Duke of York's Letter. 

1 Having the pleasure of knowing personally Colonel Wellcsley, I am tho- 
roughly acquainted with his merits, and your Lordship may be assured of the 
satisfaction I shall feel in laying his name before his Majesty, to be placed upon 
the Staff in the East Indies, as soon as his standing in the army shall admit of 
his being promoted to the rank of Major General.' 



302 BOMBAY. 1801. 

which has been already laid before your Excellency ; that 
the government of Bombay expected that I should proceed 
towards it, and therefore did not send the troops which they 
had in preparation ; and that the Governor of Ceylon con- 
ceived that I ought to proceed towards it, and urged me 
repeatedly, in the strongest manner, to lose no time previous 
to my departure. 

' 5. I received the dispatches of the Secretary of State on 
the 7th of February, and I knew that your Excellency could 
not receive them till about the same day. If I had waited 
at Trincomalee, and you had written me your orders imme- 
diately, I should not have received them by post till the 
3rd or 4th of March, and at that time the stock of pro- 
visions for the troops would have been reduced to one, for 
three months. 

' 6. I consulted with Captain Malcolm regarding the pas- 
sage to the Red Sea, the season, and the line which it would 
be most proper to follow. He was of opinion that no time 
ought to be lost ; that it would be necessary to proceed up 
the coast as far as the Vingorla rocks, before the fleet could 
go to the westward ; and that to go to Bombay would not 
create a material delay. Upon this opinion I formed my 
plan, and determined to sail as soon as a vessel loaded with 
military stores, then expected, should arrive from Madras. 

' 1. The only doubt I had upon my mind, was whether 
I should take from Ceylon more than one regiment of Euro- 
peans and the battalion of sepoys, and trust to the pre- 
parations at Bombay for the remainder of the equipment. 
But although the governments of Fort St. George and 
Bombay had been ordered to have troops in readiness in 
case I should want them, I was ignorant of the resources of 
the latter, and I did not believe that they would be able to 
furnish the troops which have been sent to the Red Sea; 
and, therefore, I took with me the whole of the force for 
which I had tonnage, knowing, that if your Excellency 
should wish that some of the troops should be employed 
upon another service, and should return to Ceylon, they 
would be there in good time. 

' 8. I determined to go to Bombay, because, when I 
sailed from Trincomalee, I had provisions for only three and 
a half months; and I knew by your letter of the 1st of 



1801. EGYPT. 303 

December, 1800, that it was your opinion that the troops 
ought not to go to the Red Sea with a smaller quantity than 
for six months. I was very anxious to receive your Excel- 
lency's orders, which would reach me at Bombay ; and as I 
have above stated, I was informed by Captain Malcolm, that 
as the fleet would be obliged to go as far north as the Vin- 
gorla rocks, the passage to Mocha was not likely to be ma- 
terially delayed, by putting into Bombay to receive the 
supply of provisions, which I had requested Mr. Duncan to 
prepare. 

' 9. I have thus laid before your Excellency the grounds 
upon which I conceived myself obliged to come to a decision, 
when I received the dispatches of the Secretary of State ; and 
those upon which I determined to sail immediately with all 
the troops for which I had tonnage, and to go to Bombay ; 
and I now proceed to state the reasons for which I have per- 
sisted in that determination, notwithstanding the receipt of 
subsequent advices from you and Mr. Duncan. 

' 10. When I was off Cape Comorin, I received your Ex- 
cellency's orders of the 24th January, in which you inform 
me that you have appointed Major General Baird to the 
command of the troops, and that you intended to send them 
on an expedition to Batavia. I was certain that you had not 
received the dispatches of the Secretary of State when you 
wrote that letter ; I knew that you must depend for the ex- 
pedition to the Red Sea upon some of the troops which had 
been, till then, under my orders; and as I did not know 
what might be your wishes after you should have received 
the dispatches, I determined to proceed according to my 
original plan ; and I dispatched a letter to Major General 
Baird to Trincomalee, to apprize him of my motions. If 
your Excellency had determined to carry on both expe- 
ditions, the troops for that for Batavia would have been at 
Ceylon, before the season for sailing would have come round; 
and if you determined to carry on only that to the Red Sea, 
they would be at Bombay collected for that purpose. 

' 1 1. I received a letter from Mr. Duncan on the 16th 
instant, in which he enclosed a copy of a letter from Lieut. 
Colonel Kirkpatrick, dated the 7th February, and informed 
me that General Baird was to command the expedition to the 
Red Sea. Notwithstanding the contents of the enclosure, I 



304 BOMBAY. 1801. 

did not know till then of the intention to dispatch from 
Bengal any of the vessels loaded with provisions mentioned 
by Mr. Secretary Barlow. At that time I was so near Bom- 
bay, that I was induced to adhere to my original plan. The 
intelligence received from Mr. Duncan did not state what 
your Excellency's intentions were regarding the proposed 
expedition to Batavia ; although Mr. Duncan informed me 
that Major General Baird was appointed to command the 
expedition to the Red Sea. It was therefore necessary that 
I should come here to receive your orders. The fleet was 
in want of water, which could not be procured at any port to 
the southward of the Vingorla rocks, on account of the want 
of conveniences for that purpose, without losing more time 
than was likely to elapse while it was coining to Bombay ; 
and the troops, in general, wanted refreshments. The 10th 
regiment in particular had become sickly from having been 
so long on board ship, living on salt provisions, and has lost 
men. Upon the whole, therefore, I determined to come on 
to Bombay. 

' 12. Since my arrival here, I have perused your Lord- 
ship's instructions to Major General Baird, and your dis- 
patches to the Governor of Bombay ; and I perceive that I 
have anticipated your wishes in bringing from Ceylon all 
the troops for which I had tonnage. I imagine that I should 
have incurred your disapprobation in a great degree, if I 
had not taken steps to insure the receipt of your Excel- 
lency's orders before the final departure of the troops for 
Mocha ; and I certainly could not have received them, the 
ships would have gone ill supplied with water, and the 
troops in want of refreshments, which no other place can 
afford, if I had not come on to Bombay. 

' 13. Having thus explained all the motives which urged 
me to depart from Ceylon, and to come here, I beg to ob- 
serve, that notwithstanding the unexpected length of the 
passage hitherto, it is probable that the fleet will be at 
Mocha sooner than it would have been had I waited at 
Trincomalee for your Excellency's orders, and certainly 
better refreshed and supplied with water and provisions. 
But whatever may be your Excellency's determination upon 
my conduct, I hope that you will give me credit for having 
maturely considered the points upon which I had to decide ; 



1801. EGYPT. 305 

and for having had an earnest and zealous desire to forward 
the service in view, and to give it the full benefit of your 
Excellency's foresight in collecting the troops in Ceylon. 

' 14. The whole of the fleet is not yet come in, but as the 
ships arrive, 1 will take care that they shall be dispatched as 
soon as they receive their water. All the arrangements are 
made for putting the provisions into the ships, and your 
Lordship may depend upon it that not a moment shall 
be lost. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Governor General." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Hon. Henry Wellesley* 
1 MY DEAR HENRY, ' Bombay, 23rd March, 1801. 

' I have received your note of the 3rd of March, but none 
of your other letters which you say that you have written to 
me. I hope that you received those which I wrote to you 
while you were in England, giving an account of how we 
were going on in this country. I enclosed them to the 
Doctor,f and desired him to destroy those which should 
arrive subsequent to your departure, on your return to this 
country ; so that some of them written lately you will pro- 
bably never see. I was very anxious about you, as you 
must have come from the Cape in the track of the French 
privateers homeward bound ; and you were longer on your 
passage than we had reason to expect you would be. 

' I have written a long letter to Government this day, about 
my departure from Ceylon, which I hope will explain every- 
thing. Whether it does or not, I shall always consider 
these expeditions as the most unfortunate circumstances for 
me, in every point of view, that could have occurred ; and, 
as such, I shall always lament them. 

' I was at the top of the tree in this country ; the govern- 
ments of Forts St. George and Bombay, which I had served, 
placed unlimited confidence in me, and I had received from 
both strong and repeated marks of their approbation. Be- 
fore I quitted the Mysore country, I arranged the plan for 
taking possession of the Ceded Districts, which was done 

* Now Lord Cowley, G.C.B. 

f The Hon. Dr, Gerald Wellesley, now a Prebeud of Durham Cathedral. 
VOL. I. X 



306 BOMBAY. 1801. 

without striking a blow ; and another plan for conquering 
Wynaad and re-conquering Malabar, which I am informed 
has succeeded without loss on our side. But this super- 
cession has ruined all my prospects, founded upon any ser- 
vice that I may have rendered. Upon this point I must 
refer you to the letters written to me and to the Governor of 
Fort St. George in May last, when an expedition to Batavia 
was in contemplation ; and to those written to the govern- 
ments of Fort St. George, Bombay, and Ceylon ; and to the 
Admiral, Colonel Champagne, and myself, when the troops 
were assembled in Ceylon. I then ask you, has there been 
any change whatever of circumstances that was not expected 
when I was appointed to the command ? If there has not, 
(and no one can say there has, without doing injustice to the 
Governor General's foresight,) my supercession must have 
been occasioned, either by my own misconduct, or by an 
alteration of the sentiments of the Governor General. 

' I have not been guilty of robbery or murder, and he has 
certainly changed his mind ; but the world, which is always 
good-natured towards those whose affairs do not exactly 
prosper, will not, or rather does not, fail to suspect that both, 
or worse, have been the occasion of my being banished, like 
General Kray, to my estate in Hungary. 1 did not look, 
and did not wish, for the appointment which was given to 
me ; and I say that it would probably have been more proper 
to give it to some body else ; but when it was given to me, 
and a circular written to the governments upon the subject, 
it would have been fair to allow me to hold it till I did some 
thing to deserve to lose it. 

' I put private considerations out of the question, as they 
ought and have had no weight in causing either my original 
appointment or my supercession. I am not quite satisfied 
with the manner in which I have been treated by Govern- 
ment upon the occasion. However, I have lost neither my 
health, spirits, nor temper in consequence thereof. 

' But it is useless to write any more upon a subject of 
which I wish to retain no remembrance whatever. 

' I enclose a memorandum upon the subject of Trine om alee, 
which will point out to you the inconveniences of that port as 
one of rendezvous or equipment. You will find it of use in 
the next expedition. Remember, also, that it is difficult for 



1801. EGYPT. 307 

ships to get round Ceylon in the south-west monsoon after 
the middle of March. 

* Yours most affectionately, 
' The Hon. Henry Wellesley: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Hon. Henry Wellesley. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, 'Bombay, 25th March, 1801. 

' Letters arrived last night from Muscat, by which I learn 
that it is probable that Sir Ralph Abercrombie has com- 
menced his operations. If the expedition from India against 
Egypt means any thing, it is to encourage the Mamelukes in 
Upper Egypt to rise against the French, and to create a 
diversion in favor of Sir Ralph Abercrombie. This must be 
done immediately, or as soon as possible, or it will be useless. 

' General Baird is not come. They tell me that he will 
find it difficult to get round Ceylon, and the Lord knows 
when he will arrive. I therefore intend to go off immedi- 
ately, and to commence the operations in the Red Sea with 
the troops now there, if General Baird should not be on 
board any of the ships now in the offing. 

' My former letters will have shown you how much this 
will annoy me ; but I have never had much value for the 
public spirit of any man who does not sacrifice his private 
views and convenience, when it is necessary. As all my 
baggage, &c. are on board one of the transports not yet come 
in, I go as bare as is possible. 

' Yours most affectionately, 
' The Hon. Henry Wellesley' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

The Hon. Henry Wellesley and Marquis Wellesley to Colonel the Hon. 
A. Wellesley. 

' MY DEAR ARTHUR, 'Calcutta, 28th March, 1801. 

' You will perceive, by the accompanying dispatch, that 
Mornington has authorized you to return to Mysore, if you 
think proper. I think this is contrary to his own opinion ; 
but Lord Clive and Webbe have strongly urged it. You 
will judge for yourself, after weighing all the advantages and 
disadvantages of your quitting the army under the command 
of Baird ; and it is for the express purpose of enabling you 
to act as you shall think best, that Mornington has furnished 
you with the annexed dispatch. 

x2 



308 BOMBAY. 1801. 

' Perhaps you -will think it better to remain with him, and 
Mornington's objects will then be completely fulfilled, of 
employing the two men of the highest reputation in the 
army, and of combining the talents which are most likely to 
conduce to the success of this most important expedition. 
' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' HENRY WELLESLEY. 

< MY DEAR ARTHUR, ' Calcutta, 28th March, 1801. 

'This letter entirely expresses my sentiments. It may 
not be unpleasant to you to know, privately, that I entirely 
approve of your movement from Ceylon, under all the circum- 
stances of the case, and that I think it will prove a very use- 
ful step. I shall hereafter say a word too, privately, on the 
nature of the precedent which might be created by this step, 
unless guarded by the special exigency of the case, or rather 
(what is much safer) by your knowledge of my intentions 
and objects. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' WELLESLEY. 

' I fear, my dear Arthur, that you will have quitted Bombay 
before this letter can reach you. Act as you shall think best, 
without any apprehension of displeasing Mornington ; for I 
am certain he will approve whatever step you take, upon full 
consideration. No news. Kirkpatrick is gone to Poonah. 
' Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley? ' H. W. 

The Governor General to Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

c SIR, ' Fort William, 28th March, 1801. 

' The several arrangements being now completed, which 
induced me to avail myself of your knowledge and experi- 
ence in the equipment of the expedition to be employed on 
the shores of the Red Sea, it appears to me that your services 
may, at present, be more usefully employed in resuming the 
chief command of the troops stationed in Mysore. You have, 
therefore, my permission to return to that station ; but you 
are to consider this dispatch as containing merely my per- 
mission for your return to Mysore, and not any peremptory 
order to that effect. 



1801. EGYPT. 309 

' You will communicate this dispatch to Major General 
Baird. 

' If the troops now employed in the Red Sea should pro- 
ceed to the Isle of France, after you shall have quitted the 
second command, my intention is, that Colonel Champagne 
should hold it ; and, in this case, should the French islands 
be reduced, I propose to authorize Major General Baird to 
hold the government of that conquest until his Majesty's 
pleasure can be received. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley: ' WELLESLEY. 

The Marquis Wellesley to Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley. 
SlR, ' Fort William, 28th March, 1801. 

' Having judged it expedient to appoint a Major General 
to the chief command of the expedition proceeding to the 
Red Sea, and not thinking it probable that the course of 
events will enable me to call upon you for your service in 
the separate command of any part of the forces now destined 
to act in Egypt, it appears to me that your talents, skill, and 
activity might now be employed, with more public benefit, in 
the chief command of the troops stationed in Mysore, than 
in the station which you hold under my recent orders. 

' You have, therefore, my permission to return to Mysore ; 
but you are to consider this dispatch as containing merely 
my permission for your return to Mysore, and not my 
peremptory order to that effect. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley: ' WELLESLEY. 



To the Governor General. 
' MY LORD, ' Bomhay, 31st March, 1801. 

'I.I have the honor to enclose copies of the orders which 
I have had occasion to issue since the 31st of January last, 
which will require your confirmation. 

' 2. I likewise enclose copies of letters to the Paymaster, 
giving my authority to incur expenses, of which I request 
your approbation. 

' 3. When quitting Ceylon, I received from the Govern- 
ment of that island a sum of money amounting to 55,905 



310 BOMBAY. 1801. 

Porto Novo pagodas and 8000 Bombay rupees, which money 
was brought to this place in his Majesty's ship Suffolk. 

' 4. Mr. Duncan, however, having informed me that those 
coins were current in the countries on the shores of the 
Red Sea, but at a considerable loss, I have requested the 
Governor and Council of Bombay to receive them into the 
treasury; and he proposes to supply the armament, instead 
of them, with a sum nearly equal in Spanish crowns and 
German dollars. 

' 5. I have the honor to enclose the copy of the proceed- 
ings of a committee on some provisions, which have been 
condemned and destroyed in the ship Gabriel. Other com- 
mittees have been assembled at different times, and have 
examined and condemned provisions, and their proceedings 
will come before you in the regular channel ; but the quantity 
examined and condemned by this committee is so large, that 
I have thought it proper to lay its proceedings before you 
without further loss of time. 

' 6. Major General Baird arrived yesterday, and I delivered 
to him the command of the troops. 

' 7. The ships stated in the margin * have received their 
provisions and sailed this morning ; the others will be ready 
to sail when the General may think proper to order them 
to sea. 

' 8. It has been necessary to put into some of the ships 
above 100 tons of ballast, besides their water and provisions, 
which has been the occasion of their being detained so many 
days longer than I expected. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Governor General: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

J 

To the Hon. Henry Wellesley. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Bombay, 31st March, 1801. 

' When I wrote to you on the 25th, I was in hopes that 
should be able to sail the next day ; but on that night I was 
seized with a fever, which has lasted ever since, and of which 
I have not yet recovered. It is of the intermittent kind. 

' General Baird has arrived. I am quite distressed about 
my officers who followed me through the Mysore country. 

* Gabriel, Calcutta, Minerva, Pearl, Eliza, Ruby. 



1801. EGYPT. 311 

However, I have seen enough already to be certain, that if I 
do not go, matters will be uncomfortable ; and if I well can, 
I will go. I have the satisfaction of finding that there is not 
a man here who would have come, had he known what was 
likely to happen to me, if he had the power of refusal. 
Indeed, in this respect the feelings of the greater part of the 
army agree with mine. Mr. Stokes is not yet come. 

' Believe me yours affectionately, 
' The Hon. Henry Wellesley." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Josiah Webbe, Esq., Secretary of Government. 

' MY DEAR WEBBE, ' Bombay, 7th April, 1801. 

' Since I wrote to you last I have had a fever, which pre- 
vented me from putting in execution the intention I then had 
of going to the Red Sea immediately. 

' The General arrived on the 30th, and is gone, and the 
troops are gone likewise. I am not quite well ; and this cir- 
cumstance, together with the probability resulting from the 
contents of the last dispatches from Europe, that Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie's attack on Lower Egypt will be relinquished, 
and, therefore, that our troops will be recalled from the Red 
Sea, and many other good reasons, have made me desirous 
not to go. To this Lord Wellesley has consented in his last 
letter. I shall write to Lord Clive upon the subject as soon 
as I can. If I am well enough, I shall go to Malabar by the 
first opportunity. 

' You will have heard that Coleman has been dismissed 
from his situation, to which I had appointed him. The 
General offered to make him Deputy Quarter Master 
General, which Coleman declined, and he is now here. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Josiah Webbe, Esq." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 

To the Hon. Henry Wellesley. 

< MY DEAR HENRY, ' Bombay, 8th April, 1801. 

' My fever has left me, but I am still weak, and I have got 
another disorder, of which it appears the medical men here 
do not know the nature, and which, I think it probable, will 
oblige me to go to a cold climate. This circumstance, and 
the great probability held out by the late dispatches from 



312 BOMBAY. 1801. 

Europe, that Sir Ralph Abercrombie's attack upon Lower 
Egypt will be postponed, or rather will never take place, and, 
therefore, that the operations proposed in the Red Sea will 
likewise be relinquished, have induced me to determine not to 
go. I shall write to the Governor General upon this subject 
as soon as I am able. 

' In the meantime, it is but justice to General Baird to say, 
that his conduct towards me has by no means occasioned this 
determination, but that it has been perfectly satisfactory. 
He offered Colonel Coleman to appoint him Deputy Quarter 
Master General, which the latter declined. 

' I hope that if the service goes on, matters will be con- 
ducted satisfactorily. I have been a slave to it till this 
moment, notwithstanding I was sick ; and now they have 
only to take care of Avhat they have got, till the operations 
on shore commence. I have given the General my opinion 
fully in writing upon this part of the subject. 

' The ships are all gone, excepting one which came in only 
yesterday, having sprung a leak at sea. Arrangements 
were immediately made to move the troops to other ships, 
and they will go to-morrow. From what I have seen of the 
state of the ships, the troops, the water casks, &c., I am con- 
vinced that if we had not come here, the expedition would 
have been obliged to quit the Red Sea before they would 
have been there one month. The 10th regiment have to a 
man got the scurvy, and lost above twenty men on their 
passage from Ceylon. 

' Affectionately yours, 

The Hon. Henry Welledey^ ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major General Baird. 

* DEAR GENERAL, ' Bombay, 9th April, 1801. 

' The first circumstance I have to detail to you is the state 
of my health, which is indeed the cause of this letter. I have 
had no fever since I saw you, but I am sorry to say that the 
breaking out of which I complained is worse than it was ; 
and has become so bad as to induce Mr. Scott to order me 
to begin a course of nitrous baths. This remedy, exclusive 
of the disease itself, is sufficient to induce me to be desirous 
to wait, at least rather longer than the Susannah will; if 
not to give over all thoughts of joining you. 



1801. EGYPT. 3J3 

' I do this, I assure you, with reluctance, notwithstanding 
I think it very probable that I shall soon hear of your being 
recalled ; however, considering that circumstance, and the 
bad state of my body, and the remedy which I am obliged 
to use, I should be mad if I were to think of going at this 
moment. 

' As I am writing upon this subject, I will freely acknow- 
ledge that my regret at being prevented from accompanying 
you has been greatly increased by the kind, candid, and 
handsome manner in which you have behaved towards me ; 
and I will confess as freely, not only that I did not expect 
such treatment, but that my wishes before you arrived, re- 
garding going upon the expedition, were directly the reverse 
of what they are at this moment. 

' I need not enter further upon this subject, than to en- 
treat you will not attribute my stay to any other motive 
than that to which I have above assigned it ; and to inform 
you, that as I know what has been said and expected by the 
world in general, I propose, as well for my own credit as for 
yours, to make known to my friends and to yours, not only 
the distinguished manner in which you have behaved towards 
me, but the causes which have prevented my demonstrating 
my gratitude, by giving you every assistance in the arduous 
service which you have to conduct. 

' I shall stay here as long as the season will permit, and 
then I propose to go round to Madras ; and if I cannot get 
well, I believe I must try a cold climate. 

' The Maria Louisa is unable to go on at present, and the 
80th regiment will sail by Saturday in the Morad Bey, 150; 
the Nelson, 70 ; the Dundas, 70 ; and about seventy fol- 
lowers distributed in the three ships. They will have six 
months' provisions of every thing, even of meat. The Asia 
would have been taken up for this detachment, according to 
your desire, only that she is dismasted, and wants copper on 
her bottom ; and the owners were desirous she should go 
into dock, if only for three days, before she should take her 
departure for the Red Sea. This operation, however, and 
the equipment of her with masts, &c., were likely to take 
more time than will be lost by the slow sailing of the vessels 
above mentioned; and I therefore preferred them, and 
they will be ready immediately. 



314 EGYPT. 1801. 

' I enclose the memorandum upon your operations, and I 
refer you to my public letter for other matters. Wishing 
you every success, 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major General Baird.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

MEMORANDUM ON THE OPERATIONS IN THE RED SEA. 
[Enclosed by Colonel Wellesley to Major General Baird.] 

' The objects proposed by Mr. Dundas, and by the Go- 
vernor General, in the expedition to the Red Sea, are 

' 1st, To get possession of the forts and ports which the 
French may have on its shores. 

' 2ndly, To urge and encourage the natives of Upper 
Egypt (Mamelukes and Arabs) to commence operations 
against them. 

' 3rdly, To assist the operations of the natives by giving 
them arms and ammunition ; or by a junction with them, 
either of a part or of the whole of the force. 

' The advanced state of the season renders it probable 
that it will be so difficult to reach Suez, that the object is not 
attainable. It is possible, however, that the force which left 
Bombay in December last, under the orders of Admiral 
Blanquet, may have succeeded in effecting the objects in 
vie\v, when it was fitted out, as far as they relate to Suez. 
Cossier will then be the first object of attention, and the 
operations of the army ought to be directed, in the first 
instance, to gain possession of that place. 

' The General is already acquainted with the measures 
which have been taken to facilitate these operations, and it 
is needless to enumerate them here ; and I shall now pro- 
ceed to the second object of the expedition, viz., to encou- 
rage the natives of Upper Egypt to shake off the French 
yoke and to act on our side. The success of this measure, 
it is evident, will operate most forcibly in favor of Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie, and it appears to me to be the principal object 
of the expedition. 

' From the intelligence lately received from the Red Sea, 
I am induced to believe that after the Turkish army was 
beaten by General Kleber, in March last, and after Colonel 
Murray had evacuated Suez, Morad Bey made peace with 



1801. EGYPT. 315 

the French, and that the latter ceded to him all Upper 
Egypt. He is now stationed there, and from the accounts 
and distribution of the French force in Egypt, which I have 
occasionally seen, I am induced to believe that they have no 
troops in Upper Egypt, excepting such as are necessary to 
watch Morad Bey, who are encamped with him, and such as 
are necessary to keep up the communication with their post 
at Cossier. It is probable that when Sir Ralph Aber- 
crombie commences his operations, they will draw to Lower 
Egypt all the troops not absolutely necessary for their safety 
in Upper Egypt ; and thus they will leave to Morad Bey 
the power of acting as his sense of his own interests may 
point out. 

' I have always understood this man to be the head of the 
Mamelukes; and certainly, until the French made peace 
with him, he was supposed to be a friend of the English ; 
and showed his power of doing injury to the French, by 
keeping in constant employment a large part of their army 
under General Dessaix, in pursuit of him. 

' It is very probable that he does not deem his tenure in 
Upper Egypt very secure. He must be aware that, as soon 
as the French gain quiet possession of Lower Egypt, they 
will have the power to break their engagement with him ; 
and from his own experience of their fidelity in adhering to 
treaties, he must expect that they will use that power to his 
disadvantage. Indeed the fact that the French have found 

o 

it necessary to have a body of their troops encamped with 
Morad Bey's army, is a clear proof that they do not place 
much faith in him ; and as he must know that he is sus- 
pected and watched, he has still stronger reason to expect 
that, as soon as the French have the power, they will not 
fail to exert it to get rid of a neighbour and an ally in Avhom 
they have so little confidence. 

' Without being too sanguine, we may expect then that, as 
soon as Morad Bey shall perceive a prospect of driving the 
French from Egypt, he will co-operate and join with those 
employed in that object. For this reason the very first 
opportunity ought to be taken to open a communication 
with him; his situation and his prospects, if the French 
should remain in Egypt, ought to be clearly pointed out to 
him; and he ought to be urged in the strongest manner to 



316 EGYPT. 1801. 

exert himself to shake off the yoke. The power of the 
armies employed on the side of Lower Egypt ought to be 
made known to him ; their prospects of success, founded 
as well on their own strength, as on the impossibility that 
the French should receive assistance, ought to be stated to 
him : and, finally, an offer ought to be made to supply him 
with arms and ammunition, and even to join him with a part 
or the whole of the army in the Red Sea, in order to ensure 
the speedy success of the objects which he, as well as the 
English, must have in view. 

' The possession of the port of Cossier, and of the navi- 
gation of the Red Sea, will be a strong inducement to 
Morad Bey, as the Governor of Upper Egypt, to be favor- 
able to the English. 

' The trade in corn is carried on by this port to Jedda in 
Arabia ; and this trade is such an object both to Upper 
Egypt and Arabia, and to Mecca in particular, that it may 
be expected that the Governor of Upper Egypt will not be 
disinclined towards those who will have it so much in their 
power to annoy him. Having now stated the reasons which 
induce me to believe that it will not be difficult to urge the 
head of the Mamelukes to shake off the French yoke, I 
proceed to the consideration of the third object of the expe- 
dition, viz., to assist the natives with arms and ammunition, 
and even to join them with a part or the whole of the army. 

' The first question which I shall consider, and which will 
lay the grounds for a consideration of, and decision upon 
others, is, whether it would be practicable, or even desirable, 
to cross the Desert from Cossier at all, if that operation is 
not performed in concert and co-operation with a body of 
the natives posted upon the Nile. 

' It is needless to enter into a statement of the difficulties 
to be apprehended in crossing the Desert: they are cer- 
tainly great, but I imagine not insurmountable. But, if it 
is not certain that the army, or detachment which may cross 
the Desert, will partake of the plenty of the banks of the 
Nile, when they reach them ; if they should be certain of 
having water only, and such forage as their cattle should be 
able to pick up, I apprehend that the difficulty will become 
so great, that the operation ought not to be attempted. 

' It is impossible that the Mamelukes in Upper Egypt can 



1801. EGYPT. 317 

be neutral in the contest in contemplation ; they must take 
part with the French or with us. If they take part with 
the French, the army will be in the situation in which I 
have above described it, enjoying no advantage from having 
reached the banks of the Nile, excepting water, and pro- 
bably no forage : and it is needless to point out that, if the 
Desert is to be crossed under these circumstances, care must 
be taken not only to send with the body of troops which 
may cross a very large proportion of provisions, but means 
must be adopted to add to them, until the operations of this 
body shall have given them such a hold of the country, as 
to leave no doubt of their steady supply of provisions. It is 
obvious that this will require a great number of cattle; a 
number much greater than the government of India, with 
all the zealous exercise of their power and means, can 
supply; but there is another consideration connected with 
this subject besides the supply of cattle, and that is the 
means of feeding them when landed from the ships. 

' Upon this point, I need only call to the General's recol- 
lection the difficulties to which he has been a witness in 
moving large supplies of stores and provisions, even in 
fertile, cultivated, and inhabited countries, well supplied 
with well-water, and every other advantage of arrangement 
in the supply, distribution, care, and food of the cattle ; 
and draw a comparison between such difficulties, and those 
to be expected in a march through a desert. But this is 
not the worst that is to be apprehended : the cattle will of 
course land in weak condition, in a desert ; and it must be 
expected that even those which survive the voyage will 
starve, or at least be in such a state before they commence 
their march, as to render it very probable that they will not 
carry their loads to the end of it. Upon the whole, then, I 
am decidedly of opinion that, if the Mamelukes are not on 
our side, no attempt ought to be made to cross the Desert. 

' This opinion, the General will observe, is by no means 
founded on the impracticability of crossing with troops, be- 
cause I am convinced that it can be done ; but it is founded 
upon the danger that the troops will starve, if they do not 
return immediately ; and upon the inutility of the measure, 
if they do. 

' It may be imagined, that supposing the Mamelukes to 



318 EGYPT. 1801. 

be wavering, if an attempt is not made to cross the Desert, 
the advantage of their co-operation will be lost. Upon this 
point I observe, that a knowledge of our strength, not of 
our weakness, will induce them to come forward ; and that 
it might be expected that the sight of our weakness, occa- 
sioned by our march over the Desert without concert with 
them, might induce them to take advantage of it, and to 
join the French. 

' But those who will urge this consideration must suppose 
it possible that the Mamelukes can be neutral for a moment ; 
and this their history from the beginning of time, particu- 
larly since the French invasion, will show to be impossible. 

' I come now to consider the propriety and mode of cross- 
ing the Desert, supposing that the Mamelukes should be 
inclined to shake off the French yoke and to co-operate 
with us. 

' The first point for the General to ascertain is their since- 
rity in the cause, of which, as I have above stated, there is 
every probability. As soon as he shall have ascertained, 
this, it will be necessary that he should make arrangements 
with them for posting a supply of water on that part of the 
Desert where it is most wanted ; and for having a supply of 
provisions ready on the Nile, that he might cross over a part 
of his army immediately. The first object on his arrival on 
the Nile should be to establish a post at Ghennah ; and, if 
possible, another in the Desert, between that place and 
Cossier, in order to ensure his communication between the 
sea and the Nile. At Ghennah he should make the depot 
of his stores, &c., which might be brought across the Desert 
by degrees; and then he might commence his operations 
against the enemy. 

' On the consideration of the question regarding the 
crossing the Desert, I have omitted to mention the interrup- 
tion which may be given to that operation by the enemy ; 
because it is entirely distinct from the difficulties which are 
peculiar to the operation itself. It is obvious, however, that 
if the Mamelukes are not on our side, and if they should 
not have driven out of Upper Egypt the small French force 
supposed to be in that country, before the operation is 
attempted, that force, however small, will greatly increase 
the distress of the British troops who may cross the Desert. 



1801. EGYPT. 319 

< I have not adverted to the supply of arms and ammuni- 
tion to be given to the natives. As long as their co-opera- 
tion is doubtful, these supplies ought to be withheld, but 
promised; when they have shown their sincerity in our 
cause, the arms may be given to almost any extent. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLEY.' 

To Major General Baird. 
' SIR, ' Bombay, 9th April, 1801. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Captain Moor, 
the garrison storekeeper at Bombay, which will explain the 
arrangements which have been made at this port, to com- 
plete the supply of provisions to me for six months for the 
Europeans and natives embarked. Besides the supply 
noticed in the enclosed letter to have been sent, there is a 
further supply on board the other ships dispatched from 
hence ; and one will sail in a few days for the troops on 
board the Wellesley, London, Experiment, Anna Maria, 
Hydra grab, and Fancy brig, of the amount of which Cap- 
tain Moor will apprize you in due course. 

' I likewise enclose a packet, containing the invoices and 
bills of lading of treasure, sent for the service of the arma- 
ment when I had the honor of commanding it. Enclosed 
is the receipt of Mr. Rider, the Paymaster, for the treasure 
on board the Experiment, which he has carried to account. 

' I have the honor to enclose a packet of papers and re- 
turns relating to the amount, the nature of which their 
titles will explain. In obedience to your orders, I dis- 
patched Lieut. Colonel Capper to Sir Ralph Abercrombie on 
the 7th instant with a letter, of which a copy is enclosed. 

* I have the honor to enclose copies of the orders which I 
have signed for money received from the pay office at Bom- 
bay since your departure. 

' When all the troops shall have gone from hence, I 
propose to take up all the vouchers, and to forward them to 
Mr. Rider, and to give the Paymaster General at Bombay a 
receipt according to the form enclosed. I beg leave to refer 
you to my private letter of this date, for a statement of the 
reasons which have prevented me from joining you. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Baird' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



320 BOMBAY. 1801. 

To Major General Baird. 
< g IRj Bombay, llth April, 1801. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Captain Moor, 
giving an account of the provisions which have been em- 
barked in some of the ships in this harbor. 

' I likewise enclose a letter from Colonel Champagne ; and 
a copy of a tetter which I have written to the Governor of 
Bombay, upon the subject of the mode of settling the account 
of the money received from the Paymaster General, since 
the departure of Mr. Rider and yourself. 

' This mode appears well calculated to ensure the satis- 
factory settlement of the account, without the risk of the 
loss of the vouchers. If it should meet with your approba- 
tion, I request you will order Mr. Rider to transmit his 
receipt to the Paymaster General in Bombay, as soon as 
certified copies of the vouchers, as prepared in the enclosed 
copy of my letter to the Governor, may reach him. 

' I have the honor to enclose accounts of the sums of money 
which have been received from the Paymaster General, 
under authority from me since I wrote to you last. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Baird.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, ' Bombay, llth April, 1801. 

' I have to inform you that I have had a fever since I 
arrived here, which has prevented me from accompanying 
the armament to the Red Sea, although I have recovered all 
but my strength. I therefore purpose, with your Lordship's 
permission, to proceed to join my command. 

' I judge by the Governor General's private letters to me, 
that he would have had no objection to this, even if my 
health had not obliged me to give over all thoughts of going 
to the Red Sea ; but, under the present circumstances, he 
must approve of it. 

' I acknowledge that although I expected to return to put 
myself under your Lordship's orders, more worthy of your 
favors than I have been hitherto, I shall even now return 
with the greatest satisfaction. I have not forgot the confi- 
dence which was placed in me, nor the favor with which all 



1801. BOMBAY. 321 

my endeavors to serve the public were viewed, by your Lord- 
ship's government ; and if your Lordship should think 
proper to employ me again in the same situation, an adher- 
ence to the same line of conduct which has heretofore gained 
your approbation will, I hope, gain it again. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Clive.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
( MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Bombay, llth April, 1801. 

'You will be glad to hear that I propose to leave this 
place for Malabar in a day or two. The Governor General 
consented to my return to Mysore if I wished it ; at the 
same time that he said he should regret my quitting the 
army employed on the expedition. Upon the whole, there- 
fore, I determined to go on, notwithstanding that I was 
superseded in the command. 

' When upon the point of carrying into execution this 
laudable but highly disagreeable intention, I was seized by a 
fever, which kept me in bed for some days ; and although I 
have now recovered, I am still weak, and am taking a 
remedy which prevents me from going to sea. It has, there- 
fore, been impossible for me to go on the expedition, and I 
return to my old situation, with a pleasure more than equal 
to the regret which I had on quitting it. 

' I enclose a letter to my friend Quin, to desire that he 
will send my elephants, bullocks and some coolies to meet 
me at Cannanore ; and if he should be out of the way, I 
shall be obliged to you if you will give orders that these 
means of conveying my baggage, &c., may be sent to meet 
me. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Close: e ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

- 

To Colonel Champagne, with the Army under Major General Baird. 
1 MY DEAR CHAMPAGNE, 'Bombay, llth April, 1801. 

' I take the opportunity of the departure of Colonel Ram- 
say to write you a few lines. 

' I am entirely ignorant of the circumstances which have 
caused my removal from the command of the troops ; but I 

VOL. i. Y 



322 BOMBAY. 1801. 

conclude that the Governor General found that he could not 
resist the claims that General Baird had to be employed. I 
believe you know that I always thought that General Baird 
had not been well used, when I was called to the command. 
But I do not think it was proper that I should be dis- 
appointed more than he was, in order that he might have no 
reason to complain. However, this is a matter of little con- 
sequence to any body but myself, therefore I say no more 
on the subject.* 

' Lord Wellesley allowed me to return to my old situation, 
but said that he should regret my doing so ; and for this 
reason, and because I saw in the General the most laudable 
intention to allow me to render him the services I could, I 
determined to proceed upon the expedition. I was, however, 
seized with a fever, and a breaking out all over my body ; 
and here I am under a course of nitrous baths for a cure. 
When I shall be well, God knows ! but, in the mean time, 
I cannot join the armament. 

' I see clearly the evil consequences of all this to my re- 
putation and future views ; but it cannot be helped, and 
to things of that nature I generally contrive to make up my 
mind. 

' I heard you were ill, but I hope not seriously. I thought 
it probable that you would not like to go one step beyond 
this, and that you would take advantage of your illness to 

* G. o. I 

By Government. J ' Fort St. George, 28th April, 1801. 

'Circumstances having occurred which enable the Right Hon. the Governor 
in Council to avail himself again of the services of the Hon. Colonel Wellesley, 
his Lordship in Council is pleased to direct that Colonel Wellesley shall return 
to Seringapatam, and resume the command of the forces in Mysore. a 

'The Governor in Council takes this opportunity of expressing his Lordship's 
high sense and approbation of the conduct of Colonel Stevenson in the command 
of the forces in Mysore during the absence of the Hon. Colonel Wellesley: and 
the eminent success which has attended the operations entrusted to that officer 
in Malabar, having entitled him to a distinguished mark of his Lordship's ap- 
probation, the Governor in Council has resolved to appoint Colonel Stevenson to 
the special command of the provinces of Malabar and Canara, under the orders 
of the officer commanding in Mysore.' 

a During the following year, Colonel Wellesley was fully occupied in organ- 
jzmg the civil and military administration of the important territory of Mysore, 
of which he gave a detailed account to the Governor General in July, 1804, that 
will be inserted according to date. 



1801. BOMBAY. 323 

go home. However, as you are well, you are in the right to 
go on. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Champagne: < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major General Baird. 
' SIR, ' Bombay, 13th April, 1801 

' The detention of the ships till this morning has given 
me an opportunity of sending you a further report on the 
provisions sent from hence. You will observe from that 
report that Major Bell has a tolerably large quantity of 
provisions, besides what he brought here. Allowance ought 
also to be made for about 150 natives, taken out and drafted 
from the Rockingham, which of course leaves a larger share 
of provisions for those who remain. 

' I am sorry to tell 'you that the Dundas and the Nelson 
are so small, and have so little capacity to hold provisions 
and water, that there is not a supply of the latter for more 
than four months on board each of those ships. The Morad 
Bey, however, has provisions and water for six months, as 
indeed have the two others a supply of provisions for the 
same time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Baird. * ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P.S. I must inform you that none of the ships have their 
full quantity of rice : the reason is, that rice is scarce at 
Bombay, and as I knew there were in the fleet about 10,000 
bags of rice, I did not wish to press to have a large quan- 
tity taken from hence.' 

To the Hon. the Governor of Bombay. 

' SIR, ' Bombay, 13th April, 1801. 

' 1 have the honor to inform you that all the ships having 
troops on board, which I have expected at this place, have 
arrived, received their provisions, water, &c., and have sailed 
towards the place of their ultimate destination, excepting 
one ship, the Maria Louisa, from which the troops have been 
removed, and in which it is proposed to send to the Red Sea 
provisions, and water, and forage for the cattle. She will be 
ready to sail in the course of a few days. 

Y2 



324 MYSORE. 1801. 

' As I commanded the expedition when it came here, and 
as all the ships have been revictualled in consequence of 
requisitions made by me, and I have had the best and most 
frequent opportunities of observing the manner in which the 
business was conducted by Captain Moor, it is but justice 
to him to represent to you that some of the ships were com- 
pletely refitted, took in ballast, and received three months' 
water and provisions for their crews and the troops embarked 
in them, and sailed in four days after they arrived ; that five 
ships, which have been added to the armament from this port 
since my arrival, were equipped with six months' provisions, 
&c., and the troops embarked in five days after the requisi- 
tion was made for them ; and that, in short, the whole busi- 
ness has been conducted with regularity and rapidity, and 
satisfaction to myself, and to all the parties concerned. As 
Captain Moor was the only person concerned in making the 
arrangements and conducting the details of the service, I 
cannot but attribute to him all the merit ; and I therefore 
beg leave to recommend him to your notice, and to your 
favorable report of his exertions to the Governor General. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Hon. the Governor of Bombay." < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 1st June, 1801. 

' I have commenced the examination with the complaint 
from the store department, which you mentioned to me some 
time ago. The Lascars, &c., denied any knowledge of the 
letter and petition which had been sent to Madras; and 
when questioned as to the particular grievances alleged in 
the different paragraphs, they denied that they existed. 
They said that they had claims upon the Company for the 
amount of family certificates which had been unpaid, but 

that they did not believe that 's dubash had received 

the money from the Pay Office. The day before I com- 
menced the inquiry I ordered to dismiss the dubash 

from his service, and from all interference in the store 
department; and his house was searched, his doors were 
sealed, and a sentry was placed over the house to prevent 
the removal of property. But still if there was any real 
ground for complaint, his influence over the people was suffi- 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 325 

ciently strong to prevent it from coming out. I have ap- 
pointed Wednesday for continuing the inquiry into the state 
of the family certificates, and I did every thing in my power 
to encourage the people to come forward with their com- 
plaints, if they had any, on that day. 

' I have besides published a proclamation, in which I have 
called upon all persons who have purchased stores to come 
forward and state from whom they have purchased them ; 
and I have promised that no injury shall be done to those 
who come forward voluntarily to make a discovery ; but I 
have stated that those who do not discover, and who shall be 
found to have purchased stores, shall be punished. The con- 
sequence is, that I understand that several people have come 
forward, and have disclosed some valuable secrets ; among 
others, one man has stated that he bought from Colonel 
* * * between three and four hundred maunds of salt- 
petre. You shall hear more upon this subject as we go on. 

' Lord Clive has consented to my plan for filling the ditch, 
and I shall begin that work as soon as Heitland arrives, which 
will be, I believe, on the 3rd of June. I spoke to Purneah 
this morning, and he said that he could furnish any number 
of cammaties we might want without injury to the country, 
as in reality the people were without employment. I have 
therefore asked now for five hundred, and if I find that 
Heitland arranges the work well I shall call for more. I shall 
settle with Butcha Rao the most convenient mode of paying 
these people, working them, &c. 

' Purneah has asked me for another gun, which is the fourth 
I shall have given him. Send me a requisition for a six- 
pounder, its carriage and limber, and ammunition in the 
limber box. As the carriage is old, it would probably be 
better for Purneah if he borrowed it only at present, and if 
he got a gun only. Gordon will hereafter give him an ex- 
cellent new carriage and limber. However, let that be as 
you please. 

' I am glad to hear that you are better, but I hope that 
you will go to Madras. 

' I swear in Captain Symonds on Tuesday. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' P.S. I have been obliged to alter the disposition I had 



326 MYSOKE. 180L 

made of the cavalry, and to send the 2nd regiment to Arcot, 
and keep the 5th regiment in this country. The General 
represented to Lord Clive that if the 5th regiment came it 
would be obliged to return here soon to relieve the 2nd, 
which corps must go down to the Carnatic, and therefore it 
Avas best to send down the latter alone. I have besides 
received an official order through the Adjutant General's 
Office to send the 2nd.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 4th June, 1801. 

' I have been so much taken up by the inquiry into the 
complaints from the store department, that I have not had 
time to write since I received your letter. 

' The result of the inquiry, so far as it has gone, is, that 
* * * took saltpetre from the godown and sold it at his 
house. I have sent the Commander in Chief a copy of the 
evidence against the Colonel, and I think that he will be put 
in arrest forthwith. 

' Our friend, the Commissary, has been guilty of making 
false musters, as appears in the clearest manner ; and I have 
therefore suspended him from his office, and I have appointed 
Captain Browne, of the Bengal artillery, to take charge of 

it. I am afraid, that besides will be found to 

have been concerned in many, if not in all of the evil doings 
of his dubash. 

' . . . does not appear to have been quite clear, and 
I think that the dubash intends to tell the truth, and to 
produce his books, from which he has already told us that he 
will show that he had authority for all he has done from 

.... or from : the false musters clearly proved 

and brought home to the Commissary could not be passed 
over in my opinion, and I believe that upon the whole the 

only chance has of saving his commission eventually 

is to lose his office immediately. 

' You cannot conceive what a scene of villany has come 
out, almost the whole of it since I went to the field last year, 
or when I was away with the army upon the former occasion. 
' I have given orders to have the sentry placed as you wish 
at the Laal Baug. 

' Believe me, &c. 
? Lieut. Colonel Close! ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



180.1. SERINGAPATAM. 327 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 6th June, 1801. 

' Our committee sit daily from nine till four and five, and 
I have not therefore time to write much. 

' has been guilty of an act of great indiscretion. 

The dubash declared publicly before the Committee that he 
had papers which would prove that all that he had done was 

by order from the Commissary or . . . . went 

and broke open the desk, and took away those papers. We 
have forced him, however, to restore some of them, and they 
prove against him every thing that is bad. ... is not 
quite clear, and I think that he will be broke. 

' I received your letter about the Koorg Rajah last night ; 
and according to ypur wish I went out this morning to the 
ground on which the ladies were encamped, under pretence 
of taking leave of them, and mentioned the subject of your 
letter to the vakeel. He said that he would say to the 
llajah what I had desired him. 

' I have recommended that Scott should be made Com- 
missary at Seringapatam, and Browne to act for him till he 
returns from the service on which he is now employed. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' There is a report to the northward that Dhoondiah is 
still alive, but there is no such report here. There is some 
fellow collecting troops about Padshapoor.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
( MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 7th June, 1801. 

' Captain Symonds has pressed me for an opinion regard- 
ing the time to which the reference may be had for the deci- 
sion of causes in his court. I wish to know what you think 
upon this subject. I was formerly of opinion that it would 
be proper not to go farther back than the 4th of May, 1799 
but a better acquaintance with the subjects which will come 
under discussion and for decision before Captain Symonds, 
and a longer consideration of the question, have altered my 
opinion upon it. 

' In the first place, almost all the disputes about proper! y 
had their origin before the place was stormed, when the 



328 MYSORE. 1801. 

people had some property to dispute about. They are, 
in general, cases of deposit of the following nature : a 
moorman, in general, has borrowed from a shroff or chitty a 
certain sum of money upon a pledge of jewels of a greater 
value than the money which he received; the shroff or chitty 
either was or was not plundered (for it is by no means true 
that they were all plundered) of his property, and pleads 
that as an excuse for not paying his debt ; on the other 
hand, the chitty sometimes has the pledge, and knowing 
that the moorman has no money, presses him for payment. 

' This outline is that of nearly every case that is likely to 
come before Captain Symonds, and I acknowledge that I 
conceive that justice will not be done if they are not de- 
cided. Of course the storm of the 4th of May, 1799, must 
always be taken into consideration in all questions of pro- 
perty which arose prior to that day ; and where it can be 
clearly proved, or at least proved to the satisfaction of the 
judge, that the debtor lost all his property in the general 
wreck, the debt must be a matter of composition, and time 
must be given him for payment ; but I acknowledge that I 
think that to consider no question of property which arose 
prior to the 4th of May, or, in other words, to take a sponge 
and wipe away all debts and credits, would not be justice. 

' In the second place, there are some instances in Serin ga- 
patam of property having been plundered by natives from 
natives, either on the 4th of May, or immediately previous 
to it. In the last year I referred a case of this kind to be 
decided by Ogg and Barclay, and Hubbeeb Oollah, and it 
ended in a composition, and a bond from the plunderer for 
the amount of the sum which it was fixed he should pay : 
such cases cannot be decided, and no evidence of facts prior 
to the 4th of May can be had recourse to, if questions which 
arose prior to that period cannot be considered. 

' Thirdly, I believe that it is contrary to the practice of all 
nations to deprive the conquered of all right to property 
which arose prior to the conquest ; and yet this would be the 
effect of the limitation under discussion. 

' Fourthly, the object of the limitation is only to save 
trouble to the judge and his court; and as I have above 
shown that injustice must be the consequence, the value of 
the object is not equal to the evil which it will occasion. 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 329 

These are my sentiments upon the subject, after having long 
considered it, and I shall be obliged to you if you will let me 
know what you think about it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 9th June, 1801. 

' Captain Symonds has mentioned to me, that duties are 
levied at the different chokeys close to the island upon goods 
coming to Seringapatam; and upon inquiry from Butcha 
Rao I received from him a Marhatta paper, of which the 
enclosed is a translation. Probably you settled something 
upon the subject since my departure ; or if you have not, the 
zeal of the amildars on the other side of the river may have 
induced them to levy these duties without orders. At all 
events, let me know your sentiments upon this subject. 

' We have nearly done with the Store Committee ; nothing 

can be so bad as , excepting and * * * *. 

To-morrow will be a most interesting day. The dubash is 
to come forward with a general confession of all the villanies 
in the Store Department since the capture of the place. 

' I hope that you continue in good health. 
' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: < ARTHUR WKLLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, llth June, 1801. 
' The General Court Martial have closed their proceed- 
ings, and have found Mr. guilty of only one of the 

counts, upon which was founded the charge of ungentleman- 
like behavior, viz., that of beating Chunbuswah chitty ; 
but although they have found him guilty of that charge, 
they have honorably acquitted him of the charge of un- 
gentleman-like behaviour. They have found him guilty of 
disobedience of the orders of the Commander in Chief for 
this crime. They have sentenced the president to give him 
a private reprimand. Of course I have sent the proceedings 
to be revised ; but I do not expect much benefit from the 
revision. When they come to me again I shall send them 
to the Commander in Chief, with my remarks upon them ; 



330 MYSORE. 1801. 

and I shall write you a public letter, in which I shall enclose 
a copy of my letter to the Commander in Chief, and one of 
the proceedings and sentence of the Court Martial. 

' You will thus be enabled to fight the battle against 

Mr. by a complaint to Government of his conduct 

on the part of the Rajah's Government, and the least that 

can be done will be to remove him from this country with 

i- 

disgrace. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter from Colonel M'Alister 
upon the subject of the complaints made through Servitun 
Rao. What shall be done upon this occasion ? 

' Yesterday's proceedings of the Committee went more 
against the Commissary than those of any other day. You 
may recollect that I informed you that Roebuck's house had 
employed people to purchase old arms, locks, &c. &c. at 
Seringapatam, and the steps that I took to put a stop to the 

traffic. was acquainted with the circumstance at 

that time by myself, and was particularly warned to look 
after his people. Notwithstanding this, he sent off from the 
arsenal seven bandies loaded with gun-locks as soon as I 
had turned my back to take the field with the army ; and he 
found out the people who were collecting old arms, seized 
all they had collected for his own use, paid 45 pagodas for 
what he seized, and never communicated to me, or to any 
body, one word about the matter. He threw these arms, 
locks, &c. into the arsenal, where they are at this moment. 

' Besides this, it has been proved that he has made 
Purneah pay for a large part of the arms and stores which 
have been issued to him upon your public requisition, and 
by my authority or that of Colonel Stevenson. 

' I wish you would get from Purneah an account of all 
the sums of money which he has paid to * * *, and for what. 

' I hope that we shall close our proceedings this day ; when 
they are closed they shall pass through your hands on their 
way to the Military Board, as I judge that you will be 
curious to peruse them. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from a lady; she 
wishes to pass for the relation of Seid Ibrahim. I have told 
her that I referred the letter to you, who are charged by 
Government with the care of this family. 

' Believe me., &c. 
* Lieut. Colmel Close. " > U ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1801. SERINGA PAT AM. 331 

' I have not got the paper from the relation of Seid Ibra- 
him, but will send it to-morrow. 

' I have received the revised proceeding of the Court 
Martial, which I shall send you also. The honorable ac- 
quittal is omitted ; but the reprimand is to be public by 
myself; still I shall send the Court Martial to the Com- 
mander in Chief.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 12th June, 1801, 

' I send herewith the proceedings of the Court Martial 
and my letter to the Commander in Chief, and I beg that 
you will send them forward when you shall have perused 
them. Probably it would be most proper to delay to send 
you a copy of these papers till I shall have received the 
Commander in Chief's answer ; but if you should think 
otherwise let me know it, and they shall be sent to you im- 
mediately. 

' I have received your letter of the 10th, which I have 
communicated to Captain Symonds, and in consequence he 
begins his proceedings immediately. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLKSLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 13th June, 1801. 

' I have received your letter of the llth of June, upon the 
subject of the duties levied at the chokeys on the river side 
by the Rajah's amildars. 

' I agree in opinion with you, that the price of all articles 
has fallen considerably : I believe that the price of all the 
necessaries of life, excepting firewood and timber for build- 
ing, is lower at Seringapatam than it is in the largest part 
of the territories under the Government of Fort St. George, 
and there were no complaints of a rise in price of any 
article in consequence of the levy of the duties in question. 

' The question, however, does not, in my opinion, rest 
upon those grounds. The Government were very anxious 
that the article should be inserted in the treaty which 
prevents the levy of duties upon goods coming to Seringa- 
patam ; and I think that both parties will eventually derive 



332 MYSORE. 1801. 

more benefit from a strict observance of it, than either could 
derive from a partial departure from it upon the present 
occasion. 

' In the conversations which you and I had upon this 
subject heretofore, it appeared that the object was, that 
Seringapatam should have all the benefit of the treaty ; at 
the satne time, that care was taken that the Rajah should 
not suffer in his revenues by an abuse of the exemption in 
favor of that place, by the general class of dealers in 
Mysore. With this view, it was settled that no duties 
should be levied upon goods coming to Seringapatam nearer 
than thirty or forty miles ; and, that the duties at the 
chokeys at that distance should continue at the rate at 
which they were at the time that we had that conversation. 
I was furnished at that time with a statement of the rates of 
the duties paid at places at that distance. This arrange- 
ment was made to avoid one of two evils which the Rajah's 
country would experience from the operation of the treaty. 
One was, that all dealers passing through his country would 
say that they were coming to Seringapatam, which would 
have occasioned perpeUial disputes and inconveniences. 
The other was a remedy for the first, viz., to give to dealers 
really belonging to Seringapatam passports, of which it was 
feared that they would take advantage to oppress the 
country. There was besides an apprehension of other evils 
from placing the issue of these passports in the hands of the 
commanding officer. 

What is the object proposed in altering this arrange- 
ment? I do not see any, excepting to add to the Rajah's 
revenues what he could collect upon the consumption of 
Seringapatam, and I do not think that it will at all compen- 
sate for the evil to both parties of the smallest departure 
from the treaty. What has happened already shows the 
necessity of adhering to it strictly. Purneah, with the best 
intentions, levied duties upon all articles of consumption, 
excepting on some kinds of grain ; and although it is true 
that no inconvenience has been felt from the levy of those 
duties, it cannot be argued that none would ever have been 
felt from the exercise of the right to increase them, which 
certainly results from the exercise of that of laying them on 
at all. 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 333 

' In writing my opinion upon this subject, I do it as an in- 
dividual much interested in the Rajah's prosperity; the 
decision upon it rests with you. In the same manner I 
shall tell you what I think regarding the continuance of the 
Rajah's duty upon beetle and tobacco, supposing that you 
should be of opinion that it is proper that any duties should 
be levied by his amildars upon goods coming to Seringa- 
patam. 

' The Company, for certain reasons, think it proper to 
raise a revenue from the island of Serin gapatam ; the 
reasons are, to pay the expense of a court of justice there 
established. This certainly must be supposed to be a benefit 
to the inhabitants, and as such it is reasonable that they 
should pay for it. 

4 You are of opinion that if the Company's farm of beetle 
and tobacco is to last, the Rajah's duties ought to continue, 
otherwise that the Company's profit from the farm would be 
so much out of the Rajah's pocket. In the first place, the 
Rajah by treaty ought to levy no duties upon the consump- 
tion of Serin gapatam ; and if it were true that he would lose 
all that, the Company would gain, he must attribute the loss 
to the treaty, and not to the Company's farm or their col- 
lector. In the next place, supposing that you should deter- 
mine that the Rajah should continue to levy the duties, there 
is no reason why the collector should not continue his farm, 
which (by-the-bye) was established during the existence of 
the Rajah's duties. What is the consequence? By this ar- 
rangement the inhabitants of Seringapatam and the troops 
would pay two duties upon the consumption of their articles 
instead of one, viz. one to the Rajah, the other to the Com- 
pany. 

' As the collector may find it necessary, or may think it 
proper to raise revenue from many articles of consumption, 
besides those already farmed out (and it may be depended 
upon that the Board of Revenue will stimulate him to levy 
all he can), it becomes of still more importance to Seringa- 
patam than it has been hitherto, that the treaty should not 
be departed from, at least that it should not be departed 
from in a greater degree than you settled that it should in 
our former conversations upon this subject. 

' I omitted to tell you that a man had come here from 



MYSORE. 1801. 

Baba Saheb, and from Ball Kishna Bhow ; I will send you 
to-morrow the purport of his conversation. It was upon the 
old subject, their desire that we should join them in an 
attack upon the Rajah of Kolapoor, &c. 

' Our Committee has finished its proceedings, and I hope 
to send them off this day. If they do go, it shall be through 
your hands, and I shall be obliged to you if you will forward 
them without delay. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 15th June, 1801. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th ; we have all suf- 
fered from a want of water lately, as the repair of the aque- 
duct is not yet completed, and it will take some days still. 
When that is finished, and, indeed, sooner, if a sufficiency of 
water comes into the nullah, I will take care that your gar- 
den shall not want. The nullah, when completed, will be 
put under Symonds ; and I propose to give out an order, 
and to publish a proclamation to forbid that any mound 
should be built up in it by any body. Thus every body will 
have his share. I go to the Laal Baug occasionally, to see 
how they are going on, and I will take care that the place 
shall not suffer by your absence. 

' I enclose a memorandum of the conversation with the 
Marhatta Vakeel, which was drawn up by Ogg, and is nearly 
word for word accurate. 

' The Military Board permitted some time ago that I 
should give Purneah the three or four elephants which he 
lately returned to the karkana, under an idea that they 
had only been lent to him. If Purneah wants them, he shall 
have them, but I shall be glad to give one of them to Bisna- 
pah. He has a kind of claim upon me for an elephant, 
which Govind Rao's party took during the campaign, and 
which I bought for the Company for 200 pagodas. 1 could 
not give him this elephant without making a reference to 
Government, and should be glad to give him one of those 
which the Military Board permitted me to give to Purneah, 
provided he has no objection. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 335 

' I have just returned from viewing our great work, and 
you cannot conceive how finely we get on. I expect that 
we shall have made great progress before you return.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

* MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 16th June, 1801. 

' Futteh Aly, the son of Ibrahim Saheb, has been missing 
since yesterday morning ; he lived in a house with his mo- 
ther, with the young Savanore Nabob, and it seems that he 
lias lately shown symptoms of insanity, and showed disin- 
clination to go to Vellore, lest he should be obliged to live 
in the house with his father. 

' Butcha llao has people looking out for him in all quar- 
ters, and I have little doubt but that we shall find him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

6 MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 18th June, 1801. 

' I send you a supplement to the proceedings of the Com- 
mittee, and I beg you to forward it to the Military Board 
as soon as you shall have perused it. 

' At this meeting matters come out much worse than any 

that have yet appeared. * * * knew of 's robbery, and 

participated in it. The transaction stood thus: , as 

President of the Committee, sent the saltpetre from the 
godown to the stores, and daily got the receipts of the Com- 
missary for the quantity sent. When the saltpetre was all 
weighed and sent to the stores, and given in charge to the 

Commissary, * * * returned to his receipts for 320 can- 

diea, for which receipts * * * paid him about 950 pagodas, or 
about three pagodas per candy. This saltpetre is still in the 
stores, and is over and above the quantity on the books, for 
which receipts remain in the hands of the Committee for 
the valuation of the prize property ; and it was 's inten- 
tion to sell it when a fair opportunity should offer. 

' This is besides the positive robbery by * * * of the quan- 
tity reported in the proceedings of the Committee, which 
you have already seen. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close. < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



336 MYSORE. 1801. 

' Fiitteh Aly is not yet found. It appears that he was 
much enamored of one of the Koorg Rajah's sisters, and it 
is supposed that he is gone after her.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 2nd July, 1801. 

' Since I wrote to you last, nothing extraordinary has 
occurred here. 

' Major Parkinson was ordered by the General to leave 
at Bangalore his sick officers and men, and a small detach- 
ment to take care of the buildings. I do not know what he 
has done in consequence of this order; indeed I have not yet 
heard that he has marched. If he should not have left a 
Captain at Bangalore, I shall be obliged to you to let me 
know whom you wish that I should send there. 

' I received orders from Government last night to send 
the pioneers to the southward, and to stop our great work at 
this place. I have written to Wilkes, however, and I hope 
to be permitted to recommence it under Mr. Warren. I 
refer you to my letter to Captain Wilkes upon this subject. 

' I am glad to find that you are recovering. I am still 
very well. Our winds are very sharp and boisterous, but 
at the same time dry. The people of the country complain 
that there is a want of rain. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I refer you to a letter which I wrote to Government on 
the 30th, for a statement of the arrangements made for 
carrying on the work at the ditch ; and to one which I sent 
yesterday to Government from Colonel Stevenson, for the 
news from Malabar.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

1 MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 7th July, 1801. 

' I send you a letter from the General upon the subject 
of Mr. 's Court Martial, and one from the Judge Ad- 
vocate. I likewise send you a copy of my letter to the 
General upon this subject, and of the order which I propose 
to issue. Be so kind as to keep these papers, as I shall 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 337 

refer to them all in a public letter which I shall write to you 
as soon as I shall have closed this transaction. 

' I do not agree in the General's notion, that because the 

Court Martial have thought proper to acquit Mr. , 

against the evidence, it is not in the power of Government to 
mark his conduct by their disapprobation. But whatever 
may be their opinion upon that subject, it is absolutely 

necessary that Mr. should be removed from this 

country. 

' I likewise enclose a letter from * * *, and one from 
Servitun Rao. By the latter it appears very clearly that the 
complaint was well founded, and so I have observed to 
* * *. You will be the best judge whether, after what has 
happened, and considering the temper in which * * * is, and 
the probability that it will also pervade the Court Martial, 
it will not be best to reprimand the naig and the conicoply, 
and order them to be dismissed from the guard. Let me 
know your wishes upon this point. If they are to be tried, 
Servitun Rao must be ordered again to send the people 
who can give evidence upon this subject. 

c The river has risen to a greater height than it has been 
known to rise to for some time. It has in consequence de- 
stroyed the glacis on the southern face of the low outwork 
in the fausse braie, which flanks our breach, and I am afraid 
that that outwork will likewise go, if the river does not soon 
fall. It has also destroyed the sluices in the northern glacis. 

' If Government do not soon determine to commence in 
earnest a repair of this fort, the expense will be saved, as 
there will be no fort to repair. Between the river on one 
side, and the weather on the other, the whole is crumbling 
to pieces, and nothing can save it but a speedy repair. I am 
convinced that one lac of pagodas, which could not be laid 
out in less than two years, would complete it. Literally 
nothing has been done to the fort since we came into it, ex- 
cepting to repair part of the breach over which our troops 
marched. I say only part of it, as it is at this moment just 
as easy to get in at the western bastion, and indeed all along 
the southern face, as it was to get into the main breach, on 
the day the fort was stormed. I shall of course report these 
late disasters, as soon as the river shall fall sufficiently low 

VOL. i. 2 



338 MYSORE. 1801. 

to allow me to ascertain their extent ; but I acknowledge I 
am tired of reporting where no remedy is applied. 

' Believe me, &c. 
'Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

( MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 10th July, 1801. 

' My last letter will have pointed out to you what I had 
done in consequence of the refusal of the Commander in 
Chief to interfere in the case of Mr. , and what I pro- 
posed to do hereafter. 

' I have anticipated your wishes respecting the dubash, 
and he is, I believe, at this moment before a native General 
Court Martial which is sitting. I shall send you a copy 
of the proceedings on his trial with the other papers. 

' The General's conduct upon this occasion is certainly 
very extraordinary, but not more so than it has been lately 
in other instances. I rather believe that he has not behaved 
very candidly towards me in making a reference to Govern- 
ment regarding the appointment of certain commissaries in 
Malabar, in the course of the last year. I reported such of 
those appointments as were made in my time in November 
last, and stated particularly the reasons why I had not given 
orders that they might be discontinued, which reasons were 
then deemed satisfactory. When a further reference was 
made regarding them lately, knowing that poor Turing was 
gone, and that Webbe might forget what had passed in No- 
vember last, in the hurry of the present moment, I sent the 
General an extract of my letter to Government of the 14th 
November, in which the appointments had been reported 
along Avith the other papers upon the subject. I am con- 
vinced that he never sent that extract to Government, or 
they would not have written the answer that they have writ- 
ten upon that subject. However, the subject is not deserving 
of further inquiry. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I was last night at Mysore, at the marriage of the Dai- 
way's son. The Rajah and every thing in high style.' 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 339 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Serin gapatam, 1/th July, 1801. 

' I have received from the General an answer to my letter, 
from which I cannot judge whether he approves or not of 

the order which I proposed to issue, regarding Mr. , 

and the Court Martial ; but I shall issue it in the course of 
two or three days, if I do not hear further from him. 

' The dubash has been tried, and sentenced a punishment, 
&c. &c., but in consideration of his having ill treated the 

inhabitants of Chittoor, in the presence of Mr. , and, as 

he says, in his defence, by his particular order, the Court 
Martial have recommended that he should be pardoned the 
punishment. They have sentenced that he should pay all 
the expense of the damage he did, and I have desired that 
they should sentence that he should be banished. 

' I propose to publish the whole at one and the same time, 
and the proceedings of the native Court Martial will make 

a good commentary upon Mr. 's conduct, and upon the 

proceedings of the Court Martial which tried him. 

' I am glad to find that you are recovering ; every thing 
goes on well here. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. Colonel Close." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' SIR, Seringapatam, 22nd July, 1801. 

* In consequence of the complaints which you communi- 
cated to me, of the conduct of Mr. Assistant Surgeon , 

on his journey from Sera to Seringapatam, I ordered a Court 
Martial to assemble for his trial, on charges founded on the 
complaints preferred by the inhabitants of the nearest vil- 
lage, Chittoor. 

' Enclosed I send you a copy of the proceedings of this 
Court Martial, and of a correspondence which I have had 
with the Commander in Chief upon this subject, from which 
you will perceive that I am by no means satisfied with the 
sentence which has been pronounced against Mr. . 

' As it appeared that a dubash, by name Vinket Soubah, 
belonging to Mr. Boxley, a sutler, had been in many cases 
the instrument of the oppression complained of by the in- 

/ 2 



340 MYSORE. 1801. 

habitants, on the road between Sera and Seringapatam ; and 
as he had been particularly active in the village of Chittoor, 
I thought it proper to order that he might be brought be- 
fpre a native General Court Martial, for his conduct in that 
village. 

* I enclose a copy of the proceedings of that Court Mar- 
tial, on the trial of this person, and one of a letter from the 
President to me. I likewise enclose the copy of an order 
which I have issued this day to the troops under my com- 
mand. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Close' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

( MY DEAR COLONEL, Seringapatam, 24th July, 1801. 

' I have this day written to Mr. Piele, to request that he 
would inform Purneah that Baba Saheb's family would soon 
come to Hooly Honore, and to tell him that I should be 
obliged to him if he Avould give his orders to Servitun Rao 
to be prepared for their reception. 

' By a letter received this day by the vakeel, it appears 
that the amildar lately appointed by the Government of 
Poonah is come into the province of Savanore, where it is 
no longer safe for Baba Saheb's family to remain. The 
amildar is backed up by young Goklah, who is now spend- 
ing his leisure time in the plunder of the Chittoor country. 

' I conclude that you will have seen my late letters to 
Webbe, and to Captain Wilkes, giving all the intelligence 
from this country. I believe that the cavalry are by this 
time at Cheyloor. All remains quiet in Malabar and 
Wynaad. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close* ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 29th July, 1801. 

' A servant of Butcha Rao's (a Moorman) lately applied 
to the Cutchery upon a question of divorce from his wife ; 
and after he had been divorced, and had been informed that 
one of the legal consequences of that sentence was, that he 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 341 

was to provide for her support for a certain time, and was 
to pay her dower, he said he was a servant of the Rajah's, 
and desired that the case might be referred to Butcha 
Rao. Butcha Rao joined in this request. 

' In the course of the different conversations which I had 
had with Captain Symonds since the establishment of the 
Adowlut at Seringapatam, I had taken opportunities of 
expressing to him my wish that he should be cautious in 
entertaining complaints of the Rajah's servants, of which I 
thought it probable that many would be made in which the 
courts of Seringapatam can have no concern whatever. 
Accordingly Captain Symonds never had entertained any, 
excepting of the kind above alluded to. However, the 
claim of Butcha Rao to interfere in this case, brought a 
letter from Captain Symonds to me, in which he desired 
that I would consider and state my opinion whether, and 
how far, the Rajah's servants are, and should be, liable to 
the jurisdiction of the court. 

' I have done so nearly to the following purport ; and I 
hope that this opinion, and the practice which I have re- 
commended, will be agreeable to you and to them. In the 
first place, the regulation makes no exception of any persons 
being natives ; all of that description residing upon the 
island of Seringapatam are liable to the jurisdiction of the 
courts which it establishes. It could not have been in the 
contemplation of the Government to make an exception in 
favor of the Rajah's servants, because, in fact, it is not sup- 
posed that they reside on the island ; and the tendency of 
such an exception would have been to confine the jurisdic- 
tion of the court to those who should choose to submit to it, 
and to those of whom it could be proved that they received 
the pay of the Company, or were in the service of some of 
their officers and servants. 

' I have therefore no scruple in laying down the principle 
broadly, that every person being a native, residing in the 
island of Seringapatam, is liable to the jurisdiction of the 
court. 

' I now come to consider the restrictions upon acting upon 
that principle thus laid down, which are required by expe- 
diency, policy, and good manners. Purneah resides in the 
Fort, with all his property and his family ; and the principal 



342 MYSORE. 1801. 

officers of the Rajah's Government reside there likewise. 
I do not see any necessity for restricting the operation of 
that principle in the court of Phousdarry. It is not very 
probable that the persons in whose favor we might wish to 
restrict it, will commit crimes for which they could be tried 
there, and it is clear that their servants and adherents must 
be subject to its jurisdiction, as long as they remain on the 
island. 

' The question is entirely different when the crimes are 
considered, which it is possible might come before the Cut- 
chery. In the course of the administration of the Govern- 
ment of this country, it is not possible but that Purneah, or 
his officers, must occasionally do injury to, or seize private 
property. It would be a curious circumstance if the person 
whose property should thus receive injury, should have a 
right, by taking a house at Seringapatam, to bring Purneah 
into the court of Cutchery. 

' Considering the connexion between the island of Ser- 
ingapatam and the Rajah's country, it is impossible but 
that questions must arise daily between the inhabitants and 
the Rajah's servants residing on the island, some of whom 
it would be highly improper, and others it would be very 
necessary, to bring into the Cutchery : and yet without more 
experience than we have yet had of the operation of the 
court (of the manner in which the machine works), it is not 
possible to define cases so as that Government may enforce 
a regulation which will secure the jurisdiction of the court 
on one hand, and will prevent the Rajah's principal servants 
residing upon the island from suffering inconvenience on the 
other. 

' I have therefore proposed to Captain Symonds the fol- 
lowing arrangement and rules for his proceedings in the 
cases above described. 

' In the first place, I have proposed that whenever a com- 
plaint is made in the court of Cutchery against any of the 
Rajah's principal servants, or any of his servants, for an act 
of Government, the matter of it should be referred to the 
Resident, or to the commanding officer, before any further 
steps should be taken. 

' Secondly ; that whenever a dispute shall be brought into 
the Cutchery between two persons notoriously in the Rajah's 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 343 

service, that dispute shall be referred to the Rajah's tri- 
bunals, provided both parties consent. 

' Thirdly ; that disputes regarding property in which no 
act of the Rajah's government is concerned, and in which 
one of the parties is not one of his principal servants, shall 
be tried and decided in the Cutchery. 

' Notwithstanding my desire to gratify my little friend 
Butcha Rao, I have recommended to Captain Symonds to 
enforce his decision regarding the Moorman's divorce, as 
there appears to be nothing in that, excepting a desire on 
the Moorman's part to get rid of his wife, and to allow her 
to starve, and on Butcha Rao's only a desire to oblige his 
friend the Moorman. 

' I hope that you are getting better. The river is rising 
again, and the weather is very harsh here just now. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Lieut. Colonel Close: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 1st August, 1801. 

* I think it probable that you will be returning to us soon ; 
and before you leave Madras I wish you would hint to our 
friends there the necessity of sending a force to this country 
towards the end of November, in order to enable us to un- 
dertake the Bullum business. We ought to be strong in 
order to be able to do it in style. 

' The river has come down again with some violence, but 
is not so high as it was in the beginning of July by nearly 
two feet. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



MEMORANDUM UPON SERINGAPATAM. 

' 1. In consequence of the possibility that it may be ne- 
cessary to alter the arrangements for the government in 
Mysore after the peace expected in Europe, it has been 
proposed to destroy the fortifications of Seringapatam ; not 
only as a measure of precaution to prevent a fortress so 
difficult of access from falling into the hands of our enemies, 
but as one advisable, even if it were certain that the ar- 



344 MYSORE. 1801. 

rangements for the government of Mysore would remain as 
they are. 

' 2. If there is a prospect that Great Britain will be 
obliged to make a peace so bad, as that Mysore will come 
again into the hands of our enemies, there is no doubt what- 
ever but that the destruction of Seringapatam would be for 
many years a considerable drawback upon them. It would 
be so, however, only till the place could be rebuilt ; the po- 
sition, which is the great strength of Seringapatam, would 
still remain, on which a new and a stronger fort might in 
time be raised. 

' 3. Admitting, however, the propriety of the measure, 
connecting it with a bad peace in Europe, there are several 
considerations which lead me to be of opinion, that it would 
be an improper one, if the present arrangements for the 
government of Mysore are likely to continue. 

' 4. Seringapatam has long been the capital of an ex- 
tensive and powerful empire, the whole of Avhich is now in 
the possession, or under the government, or under the im- 
mediate influence of the Company's government of Fort 
St. George. The conquest of Seringapatam, which, it is 
true, was accompanied by the fall of Tippoo, and the pos- 
session of his principal arsenal, gave the Company the 
possession and the power of disposing of this vast empire. 

' 5. Whatever may be the real state of the case regarding 
the power of Seringapatam, resulting from its strength and 
its position in Mysore, there is no doubt whatever but that 
the natives look to it as the seat of power, and that they 
consider themselves under the government of that power in 
India which has possession of that fortress. 

' 6. There is a double government in Mysore, the opera- 
tions of which are now conducted in such a manner, as that 
there can be no occasion for exerting the influence and 
power in the hands of the Company from the possession of 
the fort of Seringapatam. But however well the person, in 
whose hands the conduct of that government is at present, 
may establish his system, can it be certain that it will last ? 
Is it known who will succeed to him? Who will be the 
native successor of the present Dewan ? If the French are 
to return to India, and particularly if they are to be allowed 
to have any but commercial establishments, is it known the 



1801. SERJNGAPATAM. 345 

effect that such a change may have upon the system of 
government in Mysore ? 

' 7. The treaty with the Rajah provides, that under cer- 
tain circumstances, the country may be resumed by the 
Governor General in Council. It is to be supposed that 
whenever the Governor General shall be desirous of re- 
suming the country, it will be in consequence of the diffi- 
culties in which the general government will be involved by 
the pressure of an extensive warfare. It is hardly possible 
to suppose any other case in which the resumption would be 
justifiable, or could be attempted. In this case, However, it 
will not be possible to spare troops to force the execution of 
the treaty, if the Rajah should be inclined to resist it. Will 
Bangalore or Chittledroog give the power and influence 
over the country which will be necessary under such circum- 
stances, and which doubtless Seringapatam has ? 

' 8. Seringapatam has been found by experience to pos- 
sess means for equipping an army, which no other place 
in the Company's territories or under their influence has, 
Madras exccpted. It is supposed, however, that these 
means are to be attributed to its being the ancient seat of 
empire, to its large garrison, and to the residence of many 
of the Rajah's servants in the fort, and on the island. It is 
also supposed that this effect of its being the ancient seat 
of the empire will soon be done away by the emigration of 
the people who depended upon the former government ; that 
the means which are the consequence of the size of the 
garrison will exist whenever there may be an equal number 
of troops ; and that those which are the consequence of the 
residence of the Rajah's principal servants will remove with 
them to Mysore. 

' 9. Admitting that any other garrison of equal strength 
would draw to it the same number of people that have been 
brought to Seringapatam by the troops, and that the removal 
of the Rajah's servants to Mysore will occasion a diminution 
of the population of Seringapatam, I cannot admit that the 
fall f the empire of Tippoo has diminished, or will diminish, 
its population in the least. In fact, the place is more popu- 
lous now than it ever was, if the armies that Tippoo had are 
struck out of the calculation ; and supposing that those who 
were attached to his government and person should be in- 



346 MYSORE. 1801. 

clined to leave it, which they are not, they would find it 
difficult to pitch upon a place in the peninsula in which they 
would not live under a British government. 

' 10. But I attribute the facility which has been found in 
equipping an army at Seringapatam, the great means which 
that place affords, to its being a British possession, as well 
as to the other causes to which have been attributed those 
excellent effects. Bangalore, Chittledroog, Sera, Nuggur, 
Colar, are nearly, if not equally populous Avith Seringa- 
patam : some of them are places of great trade and riches, 
and all of them might afford, and doubtless afforded to 
Tippoo the means of bringing his troops into the field. 

' 11. When I took the field last year, the Rajah's govern- 
ment had the strongest interest in my success, and I do 
them no more than justice in saying that they did every 
thing in their power to forward it ; yet, notwithstanding 
their exertions, and those of the officers in command of the 
different forts, I did not get a bullock, or a man, or any 
thing which could enable the troops to remain in the field 
from any place excepting Seringapatam. 

' 12. At Chittledroog, there was a numerous, if not a 
more numerous garrison at that time, than at Seringapatam ; 
but still, the followers of the corps at the former were 
brought from the latter ; which fact may be adduced as a 
proof that the means of Seringapatam are not to be attri- 
buted exclusively to the size of its garrison ; and that even 
those means which depend upon its garrison might possibly 
not be removed with it. When the troops were ordered 
into the field, one regiment of cavalry was brought from 
Bangalore, the followers and equipments of which were sent 
from Seringapatam. 

' 13. It may be said that, although the fort of Seringa- 
patam may be destroyed, and its garrison and depot of 
stores removed to another place, the island will still belong 
to the Company; and that the population and means of 
equipment which it affords will still be in our power, and in 
the Mysore country. But admitting that to be true, I con- 
tend for it, that we shall not enjoy the same advantages 
from them which we have hitherto ; we shall not be able to 
apply them with the same readiness to the service, if it 
should be possible to procure them for it at all. 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 347 

' 14. We have experience of the benefit of equipping an 
army at Seringapatam ; we know that those means still 
exist ; and we have reason to believe that they will continue 
as long as the garrison and depot of stores arc at that place. 
We do not know that they would exist at Seringapatam if 
the fort were destroyed and the garrison removed ; and we 
have reason to know from experience, that they would not 
exist at Chittledroog, even if the garrison and stores were 
removed thither ; and I believe that they would not exist at 
Bangalore, if they were removed to that place. 

' 15. But not only have we experience of the singular 
advantage of Seringapatam as a place of equipment, but we 
know it is acknowledged by all parties as the most con- 
venient depot in point of locality for service in the province 
of Malabar: I might also add, in the province of Canara. 
In truth, next to the opinion which universally prevails of 
the power attached to the possession of this fort, this is the 
point of view in which to have possession of it appears to 
me to be the most important. 

' 16. From Goa to Cochin, there is not a single post 
which could be held by any body of troops for a moment. 
The works of Cannanore have been erected at vast expense, 
but the garrison could not remain in that fort opposed to 
the fire of a man of war anchored in the roads. The works 
are commanded in such manner as to render the situation 
of the besieged very disadvantageous, if the fort should be 
attacked on the land side ; and the fort is so small as to be 
incapable of holding even the quantity of stores which are 
necessary for the desultory service in the Malabar province. 
Besides, it is falling down, as appears by the reports made 
to the military board. The stores in Canara are now in the 
open town of Man galore. 

4 17. The state of the seasons on the coast of Coromandel 
and Malabar operates as a strong reason for preserving the 
fort of Seringapatam, and making it the depot of the troops 
in those provinces. The vessels which could be employed 
to convey stores could keep up the communication only in 
the months of January, February, March, April, and part 
of May ; and even during those months with considerable 
difficulty and delay. In the latter part of May, in June, 
July, August, and September, it is impossible for vessels to 



348 MYSORE. 1801. 

approach the Malabar coast; and in October, November, 
and December, it is equally so to approach Madras. It is 
more easy to communicate between Bombay and the coast. 
But the consequence of supplying the troops in those pro- 
vinces with stores either from Madras or Bombay is, that a 
fort must be constructed, and arsenals must be built for 
their preservation. The question is, therefore, whether it is 
better to keep Seringapatam with all its supposed incon- 
veniences, or to build a fort in one of the provinces below 
the ghauts to the westward. 

' 18. Many objections might be urged against building a 
fort in those provinces, the expenses of which are sufficiently 
obvious; but there is one objection, to which particular 
attention is requested, as it may bear upon the general 
question in other respects. 

' 19. A fort situated upon the sea coast is liable to par- 
ticular objections. An enemy, although of inferior strength, 
has the power of attacking it, and unless it is of great 
strength, would possess himself of it before assistance could 
be sent to it. This would certainly be the case, if the sup- 
posed enemy were stronger at sea ; which, it is true, we have 
no reason to expect at the present moment. But it might 
be the case if we were stronger at sea. 

' 20. The extent of the seas under the Admiral in this 
part of the world renders it impossible for him to provide 
for the protection of every part ; and the difficulty, in all 
seasons, of going to all parts of both coasts, must for ever 
render the situation of a fort on the sea coast in some de- 
gree dangerous. 

'21. If such a fort should fall, the enemy has immediately 
an establishment on the coast, to deprive him of which would 
require an army, and the equipment for a siege; whereas, 
his landing under any other circumstances would be an 
event, the bad consequences of which might be defeated as 
soon as the body of troops in the western provinces, sup- 
ported by those above the ghauts, could be collected. 

' 22. In regard to the insurgents in Malabar, the war 
against them cannot be carried on at all without assistance, 
either from Seringapatam, or from Bombay, or Surat. 
Stores, ordnance, and grain, might be sent round from 
Madras, or from Bombay ; but a fort must be built to re- 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 349 

ceivc them, and then there are no means of moving them in 
those provinces independent of the assistance above men- 
tioned. In point of economy, there is no doubt whatever 
but that it is more expedient to supply these means from 
Seringapatam, than from Bombay or Surat. 

' 23. Having thus stated the grounds which I have for 
believing that Seringapatam is the most convenient depot 
for the coast of Malabar, I proceed to consider that place 
in the same point of view in reference to the line of fron- 
tier to the northward. I must first beg, that the prin- 
ciples of European warfare may not be applied to this 
country in arguing this question, to a greater degree 
than they are applied to the service when that is to be 
carried on. 

' 24. It would be convenient that a depot of stores for a 
service intended in any particular country should be as near 
the scene of operations as possible. In European warfare, 
it is absolutely necessary that the expense magazines, &c., 
should be on the spot, and they are usually moved forward 
in proportion as the army is enabled to advance. But ia 
this country, in which armies take the field with such formid- 
able equipments, with arsenals and magazines, in fact, which 
they always carry with them, it is not necessary, however 
convenient it would be, that the depot which is to supply 
those equipments, and the wants of the service, should be 
immediately in the neighbourhood of the scene of action. 

' 25. My experience of service in this country proves the 
truth of that observation. In General Harris's war, not- 
withstanding the number of posts in advance, in which de- 
pots had been formed, every article of provisions and stores 
and ordnance was brought from Madras ; and in fact, if the 
cattle could have been fed in that neighbourhood, and if 
there had not been a necessity of forming a corps of ob- 
servation at Arcot, for the speedy support of which it was 
necessary to provide, General Harris would have gained 
time by collecting his army at Madras, and marching at 
once from thence, instead of collecting at Vellore. In 
the last campaign in the same manner, although Chittle- 
droog was not unprovided with stores, every article was 
brought from Seringapatam. In neither case was there 
either delay or inconvenience ; and in both cases, the armies 



350 MYSORE. 1801. 

would have been as well provided, and equally secure, if 
there had not been a gun or an article of military stores or 
grain in any of the advanced posts. 

' 26. I do not contend that in the one case it would not 
have been convenient to have had the arsenal and means of 
Madras at Vellore or Kistnagherry ; or in the other, that it 
would not have been convenient to have had the arsenal and 
means of Seringapatam at Chittledroog ; but I contend for 
it, that it was not inconvenient to have them otherwise ; and 
that the service, in either case, did not suffer from the dis- 
tance of the depots, as it would have done if the same war- 
fare had been carried on in Europe, without moving forward 
the magazines. 

' 27. This circumstance arises as well from the nature of 
the service in India, in which immense equipments always 
accompany the troops, as from the manner in which those 
troops are usually posted in times of peace. Considerable 
time must elapse before a body of troops can be collected 
on the frontier for service, and the stores required for such 
service would be on the frontier from Seringapatam, as they 
were in the last campaign, before all the troops for the ser- 
vice could be collected. 

' 28. I am aware that the consequence of this reasoning 
goes the length of giving up Chittledroog : upon which I 
have to observe, that if I am to choose between Seringapatam 
and Chittledroog, for a general depot for all possible services, 
I should certainly prefer Seringapatam, and that I have no 
desire to keep the stores in Chittledroog, even for service in 
the Marhatta territory. I prefer by far the fort of Hullihall 
in Soonda, on the one hand, and that of Hurryhur on the 
other, and in these I should desire to have no stores or grain, 
excepting such as I might find it convenient to lodge in them, 
at the time the service should be going on. 

' 29. With a view to service on the frontier, there is but 
little difference in the distance of Seringapatam and of Ban- 
galore from the scene of action. Bangalore is 85 miles 
distant from Sera, Serin gapatam is 104. It is true, that 
those articles of ordnance and stores, which must come from 
the presidency by going to Seringapatam, must thus go 80 
miles more than they would if the depot were fixed at Ban- 
galore. But in the first place it is to be considered, that if 



1801. SEPINGAPATAM. 351 

the resources of the Mysore country are fairly called into 
action, but few articles will be required from the presidency. 
In the next place it is to be recollected, that a large propor- 
tion of those articles which might be wanted from the pre- 
sidency will be required in the western provinces, if it should 
be determined, according to my system, that the corps serving 
in those provinces should be provided from this country ; and, 
therefore, that they will not suffer by being transported at 
once to Seringapatam. But supposing the circuitous route 
to the frontier by Seringapatam should be an objection to 
that place, of such weight as to occasion a preference to Ban- 
galore, let the other advantages of Seringapatam be taken 
into consideration, the general opinion of its power, the 
means which experience has proved it possesses of equipping 
an army, its superior convenience as a depot for the Malabar 
coast, which will more than compensate for the trifling dis- 
advantage of being obliged to go eighty miles of distance to 
reach it. 

' 30. But there are other objections to Seringapatam which, 
if well founded, would be decisive of the question. In the 
first place it is supposed that Seringapatam requires a gar- 
rison, even in times of peace, of one regiment of Europeans, 
three battalions of sepoys, and a large proportion of artillery. 
Seringapatam is full of Moorish inhabitants, and as it con- 
tains a large arsenal, it is not deemed safe to trust this 
arsenal without a large garrison, till these inhabitants are 
removed from the fort. But measures are now taking to 
remove these inhabitants to the pettah, and when they and 
the Rajah's servants shall have left the fort, there will be no 
reason to have any apprehension for the arsenal. The works 
of Seringapatam are in ruins, because they have never been 
repaired since the siege, and the weather and river have done 
them damage to a much greater degree than they would if 
they had been in good repair ; and they are accessible in 
many places. The communication between one part and 
another of these works is not complete, and it is therefore 
necessary that the guns which may be required for the Avorks 
should be always in their places. These two inconveniences, 
which the repair of the fortifications would remedy, create a 
necessity for larger guards, and a greater number of them 
on the works than would otherwise be necessary. The gar- 



352 MYSORE. 1801. 

rison of Seringapatam furnishes the Rajah's guard, and that 
of the Resident. It is the seat of the head quarters of the 
division, which necessarily causes the employment of a num- 
ber of men on duty ; it furnishes the guards for the public 
elephants and cattle, and other small detachments ; and as 
the paymaster, the treasure, and the stores are at Seringa- 
patam, the detachment with the treasure and stores for the 
out stations are furnished from its garrison. These circum- 
stances naturally create a want of troops ; but the removal of 
the Moorish inhabitants, and the repair and completion of 
the fortifications, would enable us to provide for those duties, 
and to keep the arsenal in safety, with as small a body of 
men at Seringapatam, as at any other place in the country. 
In time of war and in case of a siege, Seringapatam would 
require as small, if not a smaller garrison for its defence, than 
any other place that has been proposed as a great depot. 
An army which should besiege Seringapatam must deter- 
mine at once to attack it from the north, or from the south 
side of the river, or from the island. No army could be 
brought there sufficiently numerous to form three divisions, 
or even two- divisions large enough to make two or three 
attacks upon the place, because these divisions would be 
effectually separated from each other, and each must be 
strong enough to defend itself against the army which would 
be employed to raise the siege. In providing a garrison for 
the defence of Seringapatam, if such a measure should ever 
be necessary, no more men will be required than would be 
necessary to defend it on one point of attack. But looking 
to Seringapatam as a place liable to be attacked, it has a 
singular advantage over every other fort in India, viz., that 
from the month of June to the month of December in every 
year, it is impossible to approach it. 

'31. It is also said that Seringapatam is unwholesome, 
and that art cannot remedy that defect ; but that Bangalore 
is otherwise. Seringapatam certainly has been found to be 
unwholesome to the European troops ; and indeed in the last 
year the same objection applied to all parts of the upper 
country. I apprehend, however, that Seringapatam is not 
really more unwholesome than Bangalore, and upon that 
point I should be glad to have the opinion of Mr. Anderson. 
I apprehend that a great part of the sickness at Seringa- 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 353 

patam is to be attributed to the nature of the buildings 
which the officers and the troops have occupied. Open 
choultries and buildings which do not keep out the weather 
cannot be supposed to answer in this country, and have 
been equally fatal in all parts above the ghauts. Since the 
buildings have been improved, the health of the troops has 
improved; and in this season we have not had any sick 
officers, or more sick men than there have been in other 
garrisons. 

' 32. It is also said that the position of Seringapatam is 
bad, not only in reference to a depot for service on the fron- 
tier, but as a fortress to cover the country and stop the 
enemy. In this respect, Seringapatam is not worse than we 
know Chittledroog to have been. Pursheram Bhow passed 
in sight of that fortress more than once, and it appears to 
have been no impediment to his operations in the northern 
parts of Mysore. But, in fact, no fortress is an impediment 
to the operations of an hostile army in this country, excepting 
it lies immediately in the line on which the army must neces- 
sarily march ; or excepting it is provided with a garrison of 
such strength and activity, as to afford detachments to 
operate upon the line of communication of the hostile army 
with its own country. In case the Company should be in- 
volved in hostilities of such extent, as that they should be 
obliged to stand on the defensive in this country, when at 
war with a foreign power, it is not probable that the Govern- 
ment will be able to give garrisons to the fortresses in this 
country, of the strength sufficient to afford detachments to 
operate upon the enemy's line of communication with his own 
country ; and all the fortresses which have been proposed as 
depots would be equally incapable, from situation, of stopping 
an enemy. 

' 33. The advantage of the possession of them, therefore, 
would be the power which each would have over the country, 
and their relative advantage would be in proportion to the 
power of each. I have already pointed out the power which, 
in my opinion, is attached to the possession of Seringapatam ; 
and the history of this country has pointed out more than 
one instance, in which the Mysore country has been overrun 
by a victorious army, which, however, has been obliged to 
quit it, because it had not possession of Seringapatam. 
VOL. i. 2 A 



354 MYSORE. 1801. 

' 34. An objection has been made to Seringapatam, on 
account of the expense of the repairs which will be necessary 
to that place. These repairs will not cost one-third of the 
sum at which they have been estimated ; but it is said, that 
at all events they will be more expensive than the repairs of 
Bangalore. When the buildings required for Bangalore are 
completed, I should much doubt it. But it is forgotten that 
Seringapatam affords cover for one regiment of Europeans 
at least ; and that it will afford cover for two regiments, when 
the family of the Sultaun shall have been removed from the 
place. The buildings at Seringapatam will also give an 
hospital, some quarters for officers, &c. In comparing the 
expense of the repair of Seringapatam with that of Banga- 
lore, and the establishment of the depot at that place or at 
Chittledroog, the expenses of the cantonment, arsenal, 
hospital, &c., to be built, ought to be added to the latter. 
Besides, I have above shown the necessity of building a fort 
on the Malabar coast in case Seringapatam is destroyed, the 
expense of which ought likewise to be added to that of esta- 
blishing the depot at Bangalore or at Chittledroog. 

' 35. There is no doubt but that Seringapatam is better 
provided with timber, than almost any other place in the 
peninsula : that article is cheaper in the bazaar at Seringa- 
patam, than it is at Madras. Provisions and every other 
article are cheap ; firewood alone is dear, but not dearer 
than at Chittledroog, or than it would be at Bangalore, if 
Bangalore were equally populous. The dearness of firewood 
is a necessary, although a greatly inconvenient consequence 
of large populations in almost every part of India. 

' 36. In regard to the inconvenience of the river, it is 
trifling. The communication has seldom been interrupted, 
and never for more than two, or at most three days at a 
time, and even then not entirely. Six iron 18-pounders, 
four 12-pounders and howitzers, with all their equipments, 
were sent to the northward in the year 1799, when the river 
was full, with but little inconvenience ; and in the last year 
(1800,) the army in the Marhatta country received regular 
supplies of every thing from Seringapatam, not only across 
the Cauvery, but across the Toombuddra, Werdah, and 
Malpoorba, by means of basket boats, without any incon- 
venience. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLEY.' 



1801. SERINGAPATAM. 355 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

( MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 6th September, 1801. 

' Before I had received your letter of the 3rd, I had re- 
ceived the intelligence of your appointment to Poonah, 
which I regret much on public, as well as on private accounts. 

' I hope that you will see Malcolm before you go. I 
imagine that Purneah heard some time ago of the proba- 
bility that you would not return to this country ; at least 
Butcha Rao appeared to be acquainted with it. 

' I see clearly that we shall get no troops from the Carnatic 
for the Bullum business in this year ; but if we are fortunate 
in our pursuits of the Pychy Rajah, I am not quite certain that 
I have not under my own command the means of settling it. 
I shall know more about it in the course of a few weeks. 
In the mean time the arrangements going on at Seringa- 
patam to decrease the number of idle Moormen will enable 
me to weaken that garrison considerably for any occasion 
for which troops may be wanted. 

' I find Symonds a most active and able assistant, and 
matters go on very smoothly. 

' I acknowledge that I do not agree with Webbe re- 
specting the destruction of this place. I think that he has 
not considered its utility in some points of view ; that he has 
been misinformed regarding the difference between its dis- 
tance from the frontier and that of Bangalore ; and that he 
has overrated the additional distance occasioned by coming 
here. He has also given more weight than it deserves to 
the consideration that the depot is too far from the frontier, 
and too little to the superior advantage of Seringapatam as 
a place of equipment. 

' In regard to the expense, I believe that it will be equal 
whatever plan is adopted ; but if the destruction of Seringa- 
patam is to be accompanied by the building of a fort in 
Malabar or Canara, which I believe must be the consequence, 
that plan will be the most expensive. The fort of Canna- 
nore is just large enough to contain the Commanding 
Officer's house ; it is tumbling to pieces ; and a frigate in 
the roads would blow a garrison out of it. The stores in 
Canara are in the open town of Mangalore. 

' Webbe talks in his Memorandum of sending stores to 

2A2 



356 MYSORE. 1801. 

the Malabar coast by sea ; but when they arrive there, where 
are they to be kept ? and he has not considered the diffi- 
culty, amounting almost to an impossibility, of communi- 
cating by sea between the two coasts. During the months 
of May, June, July, August, and part of September, it is 
not safe to approach the western coast ; and in October, 
November, and December, equally unsafe to approach the 
eastern. During the remainder of the year the north west 
winds prevail so generally upon the Malabar coast, that it 
is with difficulty that the best ships make their passage to 
the northward, as was found to be the case in the last year ; 
and the kind of vessel in which stores are sent from Madras 
by sea in general, would not be able to get to the north- 
ward at all. But in truth there is such a want of carriage 
upon the coast, and the inland communication along it is so 
difficult, that the troops in those provinces must always in 
a great measure depend upon this country for many of their 
supplies. 

' Has Madras sent any one article to those provinces since 
they have been under its government? Medicines and 
military stores from Seringapatam are the only articles that 
have been supplied to them ; and even the monsoon has not 
stopped the communication. 

' Upon the whole I think it fortunate that the success in 
Europe and Egypt gives us a prospect of a better peace, 
and that we have time to review our opinions upon this sub- 
ject, and to reconsider the question. In a very short time 
Seringapatam will be to be kept with as small a garrison as 
any other place in the country. 

* I gave orders to Gordon to pay the bill for the repairs 
at the Laal Baug at the time that you sent it to me, and I 
understand that he had done so. I shall inquire, however. 

( We are tolerably well here now. No officers sick, and 
but few soldiers. I attribute the healthiness of the soldiers 
to an improvement which I have lately made in their bar- 
racks ; having built up the whole of the verandah in the 
Green Palace in which they are quartered. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close. ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' The Court Martial is sitting on the trial of the offenders 
in the store department.' 



1801. MARHATTA TERRITORY. 357 

MEMORANDUM 
UPON OPERATIONS IN THE MARHATTA TERRITORY. 

' As before long we may look to war with the Marhattas, 
it is proper to consider of the means of carrying it on. The 
experience which has been acquired in the late contest with 
Dhoondiah Waugh, of the seasons, the nature of the country, 
its roads, its produce, and its means of defence, will be of use 
in pointing them out. I shall detail my observations upon 
each of these points, for the benefit of those in whose hands 
may be placed the conduct of the operations of the army in 
case of such a war, as I have above supposed we may expect. 
The season at which it is most convenient to commence a 
campaign with the Marhattas, is that at which the rivers 
which take their rise in the western ghauts, fill. This 
happens generally in the month of June. In this year, the 
Toombuddra was not fordable after the 14th of June, the 
day before the army reached Hurryhur ; and in other seasons, 
I understand that that river fills nearly at the same time. 

' The reasons why I think that the most favorable season 
for operations against the Marhatta nation, are as follow: 

' First. The Marhatta army is principally composed of 
cavalry, and their plan of operations against a British army 
would be to endeavor to cut off its communication with its 
rear, and to impede the junction of its supplies from the 
Mysore country. As the rivers are not fordable, as there 
are no bridges, and no means of passing them excepting by 
basket boats, which it is difficult, and might be rendered 
impossible to procure, the fulness of the rivers operates as a 
barrier. It is certain, that the enemy cannot pass them in 
large numbers, and it is probable that they would not venture 
to throw across a small body, or rather, that they would not 
be able to prevail upon a small body to remain on a different 
side from the main body of their army. 

'The inconvenience and delay which the British army 
experience in crossing the rivers by means of boats, when 
they are full, is trifling ; and in fact they would experience 
no inconvenience or delay, if good pontoons were provided, 
and a bridge were thrown across each river for the passage 
of the army. The communication might afterwards be kept 
up by means of the common basket boats. If the army 



358 MYSORE. 1801. 

should be thus equipped with a bridge, the Marhattas would 
never dare to detach a body across any river, for the purpose 
of annoying our communications. Thus, then, we should 
enjoy all the advantage of a river not fordable, to shorten 
the line of our communication, which river our enemy could 
not pass with a large body of troops, and over which he 
would not dare to detach a small body ; and we should have 
it in our power to pass it with as much ease, and with as 
little inconvenience and delay, as we should experience if the 
river were fordable. 

' Secondly, the Marhatta country in general is but ill 
supplied with water. The rains which fill these rivers, 
although not heavy at the beginning of the rainy season, are 
sufficient to fill many nullahs ; and an army has at this time 
some chance of being supplied with water, of which, in the 
dry season, it is certain it would never find much, and fre- 
quently none. The inconvenience to be apprehended from 
the rains is trifling. It is true, that heavy rain would ruin 
the cattle of the army, and would put the roads in such a 
state as to render them impracticable for wheel carriages. 
But heavy rain for any long continuance is not to be expected 
in the Marhatta territory ; and particularly not early in the 
season. During the last season, which was extraordinarily 
severe upon the coast, we had only two days of distressing 
rain ; but we had some rain nearly on every day. 

' The Marhatta country is in general a fine black soil, very 
fertile and highly cultivated. The roads are all excellent, 
excepting when the rain is heavy. At that time the black 
cotton mould becomes a swamp, through which it is scarcely 
practicable for a man to move ; the wheels of the carriages 
sink to their axletrees, are clogged with mud, and it is im- 
possible for the cattle to draw them. 

' The produce of this fertile country is jowarry principally, 
and other dry grains, but no rice. This is the great diffi- 
culty with which our army would have to contend. The rice 
which must be procured for them must be brought from the 
distant rice countries in Mysore or from Canara, with which 
country, in the rainy season, it is impossible to keep up a 
communication. 

' The army also might depend upon procuring some sheep 
and bullocks in the Marhatta territory ; but if its European 



1801. MARHATTA TERRITORY. 

force should be large, it will certainly require supplies of the 
former from Mysore, and in any case supplies from thence of 
the latter. 

' It is well known that jowarry straw is the best kind of 
forage for horses and cattle, and of this there is an abundance 
everywhere ; and besides this forage, it seldom happens that 
green forage cannot be found. 

' The means of defending this country are trifling ; and it 
must depend upon the strength of the army which is in it, 
compared with that of the British army. All the strong 
places are liable to be carried by assault, excepting, perhaps, 
Darwar or Kooshgul ; and it is doubtful whether these last 
might not be thus taken if attacked by resolute troops. 

' Having thus detailed my observations on the Marhatta 
territory, with a view to operations within it, I come to state 
those which I would recommend, and the preparatory steps 
to be taken in order to have the means of carrying them on 
with vigor, celerity, and effect. The first object in any 
Marhatta war, commenced in the season which I think most 
favorable to a British army, would be to push the enemy 
across the Kistna, and to establish ourselves firmly on that 
river as a barrier, from which we could advance to their 
capital, or to suit other ulterior objects as might be held out. 

' I would propose, then, to assemble the troops at Chittle- 
droog; but they must be provided with every necessary 
before they arrive there, as nothing at all useful to military 
operations can be procured at that place. 

' The army ought to be provided with pontoons and other 
materials for building a bridge. On account of the difficulty 
of procuring rice and arrack in the Marhatta territory, a 
large store ought to be collected and kept at Chittledroog, 
and another at Hurryhur. This last place ought to be re- 
paired, and put in a defensible state for a small garrison, as 
well for a point of communication with the Mysore country 
for the army when it should be advanced into the Marhatta 
territory, as for a post to guard the basket boats, &c., which 
must be made use of to convey over the Toombuddra the 
supplies which must follow the army. The fort at Hullihall, 
in Soonda, ought also to be put in repair. Granaries and 
storehouses for arrack and for military stores ought to be 
built at this station. Large stores of rice and arrack for the 



360 MYSORE. 1801. 

supply of the army, when it should be advanced into the 
Marhatta territory, and certain military stores, ought to be 
collected at Hullihall. This post, if strengthened, would be 
an excellent depot, and would be supplied at all times with- 
out difficulty, from Bombay by Goa. 

' The army being assembled at Chittledroog, should cross 
the Toombuddra at Hurryhur. Its first object should be to 
drive the enemy across the river Werdah, and to establish 
itself between those two rivers. After this shall be effected, 
it might cross the Werdah. The best place for this will be 
between Deogerry and Savanore. It must be recollected, 
that although the army will cross this river by its bridge, it 
will still be necessary that it should be provided with basket 
boats, in order that its supplies may cross the river likewise. 
These, or materials to make them, cannot be procured at or 
near Deogerry, and the boats must therefore be brought 
from the Mysore country. The boatmen must likewise come 
from the Mysore country. 

' It will be necessary to establish a post upon the Werdah 
as a guard for the boats, which otherwise it would be in the 
power of the enemy to seize or destroy, as a link in the com- 
munication with Mysore, and in order effectually to establish 
the British power in the country between that river and the 
Toombuddra. 

' The next object would be to get possession of Darwar. 
The straight road to that place, by Savanore and Hoobly, is 
the best. If the rains should have been heavy, the road to 
Darwar should be from Savanore to Bindigerry, and along 
the Soonda hills. The soil near these hills is red, and the 
roads are practicable, even in rainy weather. 

' In my opinion, Darwar can be taken by a coup de main. 
The attack ought to be made on the south-west side. Means 
might be adopted for keeping down the fire of the besieged, 
by one of cannon from two hills, on which the Bhow's and 
the British batteries were erected in the former war, and by 
an enfilading fire from a height above a tank on the north- 
west angle. 

' The assailants might move under cover of the back of 
that tank to the foot of the glacis, where they would be 
covered from the fire of the besieged. They might move 
along the foot of the glacis till they should come opposite the 



1801. MARHATTA TERRITORY. 361 

hills above mentioned. They ought then to possess them- 
selves of a square and a roundwork in the glacis, by turning 
them by the covert way. They ought to be provided with 
facines to fill a part of the ditch, and they might escalade 
the outer wall, taking care to carry over some ladders for 
the purpose of escalading the inner wall. 

' After having got within the outer wall, they should turn 
to their left, and proceed to a tank between the two walls. 
Along the back of this tank, it is said there is a passage 
over the inner ditch to a gateway. At this gateway the wall 
is not more than twenty feet high, and might easily be esca- 
laded. This passage is represented as being an aqueduct 
from the tank outside, on the north-west angle of the fort, 
into the body of the place. There is a passage for water 
from this tank through the glacis, and it is probable that it 
leads over both the ditches. 

' At the same time that this attack should be made, an- 
other ought to be directed against the gateway, which is on 
the south-east face. 

' There are other gates. The party which should proceed 
on this attack, might also get under the glacis, by the back 
of the tank above mentioned ; only it should proceed along 
the northern face and round to the gateway by that route. 
After blowing open the gates in the outer wall, it is said that 
the inner wall, near its gate, is not more than twenty feet 
high. This party ought also to be provided with scaling 
ladders. 

' If the attack should fail, or if, from any reason, it should 
be thought advisable to attack the place regularly, and to 
effect a breach in the walls, the only mode of doing this is, 
by erecting the breaching battery on the crest of the glacis. 
The face to be attacked will be the same. 

' The troops would establish themselves under the glacis, 
and in the round and square works within it, as I have above 
recommended. These works would be excellent flanks to the 
trenches under the glacis. The troops would have to work 
back to the hills above mentioned, on which the Bhow's bat- 
teries were erected in the last war ; and at which would, of 
course, be collected the reserve for the trenches. 

' Having by one of these modes got possession of Dar- 
war, but particularly if by assault, all the other places in the 



362 MYSORE. 1801. 

country would fall of course. The first object would be to 
establish a garrison and the depots in that place. 

' The garrison, &c., might be moved forward from Hulli- 
hall, which ought still to be held by a small force, as a post 
of communication with the sea coast. The enemy should 
then be driven across the Malpoorba, arid the country be- 
tween the rivers should be cleared entirely. 

'Boats should be made and prepared, and the army 
should cross the Malpoorba between Doodwar and Moor- 
goor. A post should be established on the river for the care 
of the boats. 

' The river Malpoorba is more rapid than the Werdah or 
the Toombuddra, is more liable to rise and fall suddenly, 
and therefore the enemy would be more likely to return from 
the country between that river and the Gutpurba, than from 
that between the Malpoorba and the Werdah. The only 
place which on this route is worthy of attention is Belgaon ; 
this place has a wet ditch, but I am informed that it is dry 
in parts, and that the place is otherwise liable to be taken 
by assault. Belgaon lies to the westward of the high road 
to the Kistna, and is situated in a rice country. It might be 
possible to draw supplies from this country ; and, with this 
view, it might be desirable to have a garrison of British 
troops in Belgaon, otherwise it will be useless. 

' The fort of Badamy, which is esteemed of some strength, 
lies north of the Malpoorba, but about seventy or eighty 
miles from the road to the Kistna. Unless it was found 
that the enemy hung about this fort, it would be better not 
to lose any time in going to attack it, until they are all driven 
across the Kistna. If they hang about Badamy, it must be 
attacked. Badamy ought, more properly, to be called two 
forts than one. There are two forts on two separate hills, 
and a fortified pettah between them. It appears to me that 
the hill forts might be taken by storm, by approaching them 
from the westward. 

' After the enemy should have been driven across the Gut- 
purba, this river ought to be crossed in the same manner as 
the Malpoorba, somewhere near Gokauk, and a post ought 
to be established upon it. 

'Jan., 1801. Since the commencement of this memoran- 
dum was written, the Company have got possession of the 



1801. MARHATTA TERRITORY. 363 

countries to the southward of the Toombuddra, which river 
has become their northern boundary ; and it may, perhaps, 
be thought that the plan of operations, in case of a war with 
the Marhattas, ought to be altered. There are several rea- 
sons, however, for which they should continue to be the same. 

' 1st. The treaty by which the countries to the southward 
of the Toombuddra have been ceded to the Company, has 
allied it more closely with the Nizam, whose interests now 
appear to be inseparable from those of the Company. The 
quarrel of the Company, therefore, with the Marhattas, 
which may create a necessity for any military operations, 
will equally involve the Nizam ; and it will be necessary 
that measures should be taken, either by himself or by the 
Company, to defend the Dooab from the incursions of the 
Marhattas. 

' 2ndly. The defence of the Dooab will provide for that of 
the ceded districts, which that country covers entirely. If 
the Nizam's army is collected at Copaul, and Moodgul is 
occupied with strength, it would be impossible for the Mar- 
hatta army to make any impression of consequence on the 
Dooab, or to penetrate the ceded countries in any strength. 
It may be a question whether, when the British army should 
cross the Toombuddra at Hurryhur, the army of the Nizam 
should not immediately cross the Kistna, and guard his 
Highness's frontier to the northward of that river, if they 
should not operate offensively upon the enemy. At all 
events, they ought to cross the Kistna as soon as the Mar- 
hattas begin to retire from the countries to the southward of 
the rivers which fall into the Kistna. But it may be said, as 
the Company have now got possession of extensive countries 
immediately to the southward of the Toombuddra, and in 
the neighbourhood of the Marhatta territory, they ought to 
carry on their operations from thence, and leave Mysore to 
its own defence. 

' There are several objections to this measure, which I will 
detail. 

'1st. Mysore is very defenceless towards the Marhatta 
territory ; a body of Marhatta horse would overrun the 
whole of the rich province of Bednore, would plunder Bed- 
nore itself, and might push their devastations to within 



364 MYSORE. 1801. 

sixty miles of Seringapatam, without the chance of danger 
or molestation. 

<2ndiy. They would immediately connect themselves, and 
act in co-operation with the polygars along the range of the 
western ghauts, as far as Koorg ; and probably the provinces 
of Malabar and Canara would be the scene of their intrigues, 
and the Company's dependants in those provinces would 
take arms. 

'Srdly. The countries into which they would thus push 
themselves, are those from which supplies of rice for the 
army must be drawn, when it enters the Marhatta territory ; 
and thus rice must come by the road of which the enemy 
would have possession. 

<4thly. The first step to be taken, after crossing the 
Toombuddra (suppose at Anagoondy), would be to clear out 
the countries beyond the Werdah, of the detachments of the 
enemy, which would have entered them, and thus much valu- 
able time would be lost. Therefore, there is no doubt but 
that it would be best to assemble the troops at once at 
Chittledroog, and to cross them quickly over the Toom- 
buddra at Hurryhur, by which measure a stop will be imme- 
diately put to the operations of the enemy in that quarter. 

' In case it should be determined to enter the enemy's 
country by Anagoondy and Copaul, either with the whole 
British army, leaving Mysore defenceless, or with the Ni- 
zam's army in co-operation with the British troops collected 
in Mysore, the first place of consequence which will be met 
with is Dummul. This is a stone fort, the walls of which 
are above thirty-five feet high, with a dry ditch of unequal 
depth. On the south and west sides there is a flank of 
a tank, and some rough ground and buildings which give 
cover to the near approach of a body of troops. In the 
centre nearly of the south side there is an old gateway, now 
blocked up, where the place may be escaladed with ease. 
There is a trench cut across the road that used to lead to the 
gate, which, however, may be easily passed. The gateway 
also, on the north face leading to the pettah, may be 
attacked with advantage. 

' The road from Dummul to Hoobly and Darwar is good 
in dry weather ; but during the heavy rains it is impassable, 



1801. MARHATTA TERRITORY. 365 

as there are about twenty miles of the black cotton soil 
which I have above mentioned. 

' If the rains should be heavy, the best road for a body of 
troops, marching from Dummul to Darwar, would be by 
Sirhitty, Luckmaisir, and Savanore, and along the Soonda 
hills. 

' Kooshgul lies not far from the direct road from Dummul, 
by Hoobly to Darwar. This place is strong from its situa- 
tion and its works. It is situated in the middle of a plain 
of cotton ground. There is no water within several miles of 
it for the supply of an army ; and it is surrounded by two 
walls, two ditches, a covert way and glacis. The ditches, 
however, though deep, are very narrow, and might easily be 
filled up, particularly that one in the glacis. On the east 
side of the south face, there is a dam of some water across 
the outer ditch, over which it would be very practicable to 
pass ; and it appeared to me that it would be most easy to 
assault the inner fort on the same side. It is to be recol- 
lected, however, that after having passed the outer ditch in 
the glacis, the assailants would have to pass into the covert 
way, an inner ditch, the outer wall, and afterwards the inner 
wall, to parts of which there is no ditch. 

' It is clear that this place can be taken by a coup de main, 
and probably in no other manner ; but I strongly recommend 
that it should be avoided if possible, and that its fall should 
be considered as dependent upon that of Darwar. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLEY.' 

To J. H. Piele, Esq. 

' SIR, ' Seringapatam, 30th Nov., 1801. 

' I enclose an extract of a letter which I have received 
from the Chief Secretary of Government, relative to the 
repairs of the fort at Nuggur, respecting which I had a con- 
versation with the Dewan in your presence some time ago. 

' I shall be obliged to you if you will procure from the 
Dewan the estimate of the expense to be incurred in the 
proposed repairs, as mentioned in the first paragraph of the 
enclosed extract (3). 

' I imagine that the repairs which the Dewan proposes to 
give to the fort of Nuggur will not be greater than that 



366 MYSORE. 1801. 

alluded to in the second paragraph (4) of the enclosed ex- 
tract ; and if that should be the case, I will use the discre- 
tion given to me to authorise expense on that account. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' /. H. Piele, Esq.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 

' MY LORD, ' Seringapatam, 28th December, 1801. 

' I enclose you a letter for the Governor General, which 
I have received from Sir William Clarke. That addressed 
to your Lordship, dated the 20th instant, which Sir William 
Clarke mentions therein, has not yet arrived here, at least 
it has not passed through my hands. 

' The Commander in Chief will have acquainted your 
Lordship with the disposition of the troops in the province 
of Canara, made with a view to enable Sir William Clarke 
to hold his position. Besides these troops, I shall march 
from hence towards the Bullum country on the 4th of 
January, and shall be in readiness to move to his assistance 
whenever that may be necessary. 

1 1 have written to Mr. Read, to request that he will take 
care to keep Sir William Clarke supplied with rice from 
the northern parts of Canara by boats ; and I shall write to 
Sir William Clarke this day, to desire that he will bring 
such quantity as he may be able, to last our troops as long 
as their salt provisions will. As, however, Sir William has 
the sea open, and the province of Canara so near him, I do 
not apprehend any thing from the momentary scarcity and 
dearness of rice at Goa. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Right Hon. Lord Clive: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1802. THE DECCAN. 367 



THE MARHATTA WAR IN THE DECCAN. 

IT will be necessary to precede the narrative and dispatches 
relative to the war in the Deccan, which followed in 1803, 
against the Marhatta chiefs, by a brief geographical and 
historical description of the country which was the seat 
of it. 

Hindustan Proper is that part of India north of the Ner- 
budda river; the Deccan is that part between the Ner- 
budda and the Kistna ; and south of the Kistna are the 
Carnatic, Malabar, and the newly conquered territory of 
Mysore. 

A predatory and formidable race, the Marhattas, had long 
subdued a great extent of country, both north and south of 
the Nerbudda, or held the different states composing it 
under regular tribute. The greatest length of what were 
termed the Marhatta territories, from Delhi on the northern 
extremity, to the river Toombuddra on the southern, is 970 
miles ; and the extreme breadth, from east to west, where 
they stretched across the peninsula, from the Bay of Bengal 
to the Gulf of Cambay, is 900 miles. This immense tract of 
country contained the provinces of Delhi, Agra, Ajmeer, 
Malwa, Guzerat, Candeish, Baglana, Beejapoor, the Konkar 
Berar, Cuttack, and part of Dowlutabad. Some of these 
provinces are very fertile and populous, yielding abundance 
of the finest grain, thronged with towns and villages, and 
enriched by a busy internal commerce. The whole popula- 
tion of the Marhatta dominions was computed a-t about forty 
millions, composed of different nations of various tribes, of 
whom nine-tenths were Hindus, and the rest Mahomedans. 

Fortunately, however, for the neighbouring states, the 
power of this immense empire was, soon after its foundation, 
divided amongst five princes or chiefs ; who, although nomi- 
nally united in one general confederacy, under an acknow- 
ledged superior, the Peshwah, had, nevertheless, not only 



368 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1802. 

separate but rival interests ; and were in the constant prac- 
tice of supporting against each other their private and 
individual views. Had it not been for this disunion, their 
collective military strength, consisting of about 200,000 
cavalry, and about 100,000 infantry, would have been 
extremely formidable. 

The principal founder of this extensive empire was the 
celebrated Sevajee, descended from the Rajahs of Chittoor, 
the most ancient of the Hindu princes. He had succeeded 
to his father, the Rajah of Sattarah ; when, after various 
successes, obtained over the veteran armies of the Mogul 
Emperor Aurungzebe, and the disciplined forces of the Por- 
tuguese, he founded the powerful monarchy consisting of the 
various Marhatta provinces. On his death, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Sambajee ; whose imbecile son and suc- 
cessor, Sahojee, delegated the whole of his authority to Bel- 
lajee, his minister. Gaining a complete ascendancy over the 
mind of his master, Bellajee was appointed Peshwah, or 
chief magistrate of the empire ; and he so firmly established 
the power of his family, that his eldest son, Bajee Rao, be- 
came his successor in that office without opposition. Bajee 
Rao, possessing a more adventurous ambition than his father, 
usurped the government; and the Rajah of Sattarah and his 
descendants, who regularly succeeded to the titles and dig- 
nities of nominal sovereigns of the Marhatta dominions, were 
actually kept in a state of imprisonment in their palace at 
Sattarah ; whilst Bajee Rao, as Peshwah, having secured the 
fidelity of the several military chieftains, fixed his place of 
residence at Poonah, established a court there, and invested 
himself with every regal insignia. 

The military chieftains, however, soon viewed the conduct 
of the Peshwah with envy ; and, encouraged by his example, 
they successively established their jaghires into independent 
principalities ; but still acknowledged him as the representa- 
tive of the Rajah of Sattarah. Thus the nominal Marhatta 
empire became afterwards divided, at different periods, into 



1802. THE DECCAN. 3G9 

five separate independent states, under the following princes 
and chiefs. 

BAJEE RAO, the second Peshwah, holding the hereditary 
dominions of the Rajah of Sattarah, in whose name he and 
his descendants governed. His grandson Bajee Rao, second 
Peshwah of that name, succeeded to the musnud of Poonah 
in 1796. 

RAGOJEE BHOONSLAH, the first Rajah of Berar, who had 
been Buckshee, or Commander in Chief, received from the 
Rajah of Sattarah the province of Berar in jaghire, as a 
reward for his eminent services ; but having in his own hands 
the power of asserting his independence, he converted his 
jaghire into a separate state, admitting only the political 
authority of the Peshwah. He died in 1749. Ragojee, his 
grandson, and fourth Rajah of Berar, succeeded his father 
in 1788. 

RANOJEE SCINDIAH commanded the body guard of the 
Peshwah, the first Bajee Rao ; and on the conquest of Malwa 
had part of that province granted to him in jaghire, which, 
with the whole of Candeish, was afterwards formed into a 
powerful state by that distinguished warrior. Madajee, his 
fifth son and successor, increased his territory by possessing 
himself of the person of the Mogul, Shah Allum ; and taking 
the cities of Delhi and Agra with their surrounding dis- 
tricts, the principal part of the valuable province of the 
Dooab, between the Jumna and the Ganges ; and before 
1794, actually extending his sovereignty over the provinces 
of Sirhind and Jallingdoor, on the banks of the Byah or 
Hyphasis river. His seat of government was at Ougein, in 
Malwa ; but, like his nephew and successor, his court was 
generally in his camp. Dowlut Rao Scindiah succeeded his 
uncle, Madajee, in 1794. 

MULHAR RAO HOLKAR, another military officer in the ser- 
vice of the Peshwah, Bajee Rao the first, received also a 
portion of Malwa in jaghire. He likewise established his 
independence, at Indore, and founded a considerable state. 
VOL. i. 2 B 



370 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1802. 

His nephew and successor, Tuckajee, died in 1797, leaving 
two legitimate sons, and two illegitimate; one of these, 
Jeswunt Rao Holkar, became the active and enterprising 
chief in the war which followed with Dowlut Rao Scindiah, 
who had possessed himself of the person of Kundee Rao, 
nephew to Jeswunt, and pretended to govern in his name. 

The GUICKWAR had also contributed, in an eminent de- 
gree, to establish the fame of the Marhatta arms, and had 
obtained, in consequence, some valuable grants in jaghire. 
He afterwards asserted his independence and usurped the 
fertile province of Guzerat, which remained in his family. 

The Marhatta empire, as established by Sevajee in 1680, 
had thus undergone a complete change ; for it had become 
only a nominal confederation of the five powerful chieftains, 
the Peshwah, the Rajah of Berar, Scindiah, Holkar, and the 
Guickwar ; but, in fact, all independent of each other, yet all 
acknowledging a sort of honorary fealty to be due to the 
descendants of Sevajee, on the throne of Sattarah; and 
respecting the office of Peshwah, as the legitimate executive 
authority of the empire. In the intercourse between this 
chief magistrate and his nominal authority, every form of 
respect was observed ; and on the succession of a Peshwah, 
he received the dress of honor from the Rajah of Sattarah, 
before he entered on the administration of his government. 

By this arrangement of political power, and the forms 
with which it was administered, the Marhatta empire, in its 
foreign as in its domestic relations, was considered as a con- 
federation of princes, of which the Peshwah was the acknow- 
ledged organ, as all negotiations with foreign states were 
carried on through him : although, since the death of Bajee 
Rao, first of that name, no Peshwah ventured to conclude 
any treaty with a foreign power, affecting the general inter- 
ests of the empire, without the express concurrence of all 
the principal chieftains. On the other hand, the Peshwah 
always exercised the right of contracting engagements with 
other powers, when involving only his own interest and 



1802. THE DECCAN. 371 

those of his subordinate military tributaries, without any 
reference to the other powerful chieftains; who, on their 
part, uniformly exercised a similar right : thus each of them 
formed alliances, and made war and peace, as it suited his 
own particular views. 

Madajee Scindiah had been indebted for the success of his 
enterprises in Delhi and the Dooab to his military establish- 
ment, planned, formed, and disciplined by Mons. de Boigne,* 
a native of Savoy, who entered his service in 1784, and 
raised eighteen battalions of regular infantry, which he 
officered by European adventurers, chiefly French, and 
formed them into brigades : these, with a body of cavalry 
and a train of well appointed artillery, he disciplined on the 
European system. M. de Boigne afterwards augmented his 
regular infantry to 38,000, his cavalry to 8000, and his artil- 
lery to 120 pieces of iron, and upwards of 150 pieces of brass 
ordnance. On quitting India, he was succeeded in his mili- 
tary command, authority, and titles, by Mons. Perron,f a 
native and subject of France. To this officer Dowlut Rao 
Scindiah confided the government of his northern pro- 
vinces ; whilst he devoted his attention to the politics of the 
Deccan, and to the maintenance of that ascendancy over the 
Peshwah and court of Poonah, which his predecessor had so 
effectually established. In the exercise of this ascendancy, 
it was manifestly the main principle of his policy, under the 
influence of Mons. Perron's advice, to obstruct the interests 
and views of the British government, by every secret means ; 
and to encourage the introduction of French officers, both 
into his own army and that of the Peshwah. 

The absolute control and direction of the councils of 
Poonah, by Scindiah, were, however, viewed by Holkar with 
a jealous animosity, which his inability for a time to prevent 

* Mons. de Boigne returned to Europe with immense wealth, which he ex- 
pended in princely charities at Chamberry in Savoy, where he died in 1830. His 
enterprising career and subsequent honorable retirement form a singular and 
interesting memoir. 

f Mons. Perron returned to France in 1806, but was not very well received by 
Napoleon : he died wealthy, in May, 1834. 

2 B 2 



372 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1802. 

seemed to embitter and increase. In order, therefore, to put 
his army on a footing that might enable it to contend with 
Scindiah in the Deccan, or at least to bear some proportion 
to his vast military establishment, Holkar sought also for 
European officers to discipline and lead his troops ; and as 
at that time there were a greater number of itinerant adven- 
turers from France, than from any other country in Europe, 
who found their way to India, it consequently happened 
that three-fourths of the Europeans introduced into his ser- 
vice were Frenchmen. 

Thus the infantry establishments of the armies of Holkar, 
as well as of Scindiah and the Peshwah, were, in the year 
1800, principally officered by Europeans, three-fourths of 
whom were natives of France. 

It may be necessary here to remark, that the Marhatta 
territories of the Peshwah, Scindiah, and the Rajah of Berar, 
were bounded to the east and to the south by the dominions 
of the Nizam, Soubahdar of the Deccan, who reigned over 
the whole of the country between the Kistna, Godavery, and 
Wurda rivers ; Hyderabad being his chief city and seat of 
government. 

Although the court of Poonah had acquiesced in the jus- 
tice and necessity of the late war against Tippoo Sultaun ; 
the Peshwah, being under the entire control of Scindiah, did 
not fulfil the conditions of the treaty of alliance, concluded 
with him by Marquis Cornwallis : and Scindiah not only 
maintained a secret correspondence with Tippoo, during the 
whole progress of the last Mysore war, but, even after the 
fall of Seringapatam, certain emissaries from Poonah at- 
tempted to excite the family and remaining officers of the 
deceased Sultaun to resist the final settlement of Mysore. 
Marquis Weliesley, however, on framing the settlement, 
omitted not to offer a considerable portion of territory to 
the Peshwah, on the condition of his reviving the alliance 
between the Marhatta empire and the British government, 
on a basis calculated to render it secure and efficient. But 



1802. THE DECCAN. 373 

this proposition, together with others of a like nature, which 
were also at the same time made to Scindiah, were explicitly 
rejected; and, consequently, all the extensive territories of 
Mysore, formerly conquered by Hyder Ally, were divided 
between the British government and the Nizam, excepting a 
portion of the ancient kingdom, which was restored to the 
Hindu Rajahs. 

The unfriendly, if not hostile disposition thus manifested 
by Scindiah towards the British government; and the in- 
creasing strength and influence of Mons. Perron's army, 
then stationed on the most vulnerable part of the British 
possessions in India, induced Marquis Wellesley to form 
alliances which might tend to lessen the influence of Scin- 
diah, in the event of a rupture. With this view, in the 
beginning of 1802, he concluded a subsidiary treaty and 
defensive alliance with the Guickwar, chief of Guzerat ; and 
no time was lost on the part of the Governor General in 
exerting every effort of policy to prevent a French influence 
in the Deccan, which might subsequently extend its autho- 
rity over the whole of the Marhatta chiefs. Accordingly, 
overtures were made, in June, 1802, to the Peshwah by the 
British resident at Poonah, for forming an alliance : he ne- 

C7 

vertheless declined to accede, not only to the specific terms, 
but even to any admissible modification of them. This 
arose entirely from the known wishes of Scindiah on the 
question of an alliance with the English ; for although that 
Chief was then absent in Malwa, carrying on hostilities 
against Holkar, yet his opinions and views continued to rule 
the councils at Poonah. 

Holkar, however, in the mean time, having changed his 
plan of operations, crossed the Nerbudda, and was actually 
but a few days' march from Poonah, at the head of a power- 
ful army ; for the evident purpose not merely of destroying 
Scindiah's ascendancy at that court, but of usurping himself 
the whole authority of the Peshwah, and converting it into a 
useful instrument for his own aggrandizement. 



374 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1802. 

Scindiah immediately dispatched a force under Sud- 
dasheo Bhow, to co-operate in the defence of Poonah ; when, 
after some fruitless negotiation, a general action took place 
near Poonah, between the hostile armies, on the 25th Oc- 
tober, 1802, in which the combined forces of the Peshwah 
and Scindiah sustained a complete defeat ; and the Peshwah 
fled to the maritime province of the Konkan, leaving his 
country to devastation and plunder, and the capital of the 
Marhatta empire to rebels and usurpers. 

On the morning of his defeat, the Peshwah sent his 
minister to the Resident at Poonah, soliciting the aid of a 
British subsidiary force ; and expressing a desire of forming 
a general defensive alliance, founded on the principles of 
that concluded between the English and the Nizam, in 
October, 1800. These propositions were acceded to by the 
Resident; and an agreement was immediately concluded 
with the Peshwah, which was ratified by the Governor 
General on the day he received it at Calcutta. The ratifi- 
cation was returned, accompanied by an assurance from 
Marquis Wellesley, that it was the determination of the 
British Government to employ every justifiable means for 
the restoration of the Peshwah's authority. Judging it also 
to be a fit opportunity to endeavour to extend this alliance 
to the other members of the Marhatta empire, Colonel Col- 
lins was sent as plenipotentiary to Scindiah, in order to 
propose terms on which he might be included in the engage- 
ment just contracted with the Peshwah. 

When Holkar found the Peshwah had effected his retreat 
to the strong fortress of Mhar, in the Konkan, he placed the 
son of Amrut Rao on the musnud of Poonah, and invested 
the father with the office of prime minister ; Holkar assum- 
ing the command of the troops of the state, and adminis- 
tering the government in Amrut Rao's name. Amrut Rao 
was the adopted son of Ragobah Rao ; and, as such, brother 
to the Peshwah, whose authority he was thus unwillingly 
forced to assume. 



1802. THE DECCAN. 375 

In this state of the Marhatta powers, it became indis- 
pensably necessary, as a measure of precaution on the part 
of the British government, to assemble a strong army of 
observation on the southern frontier of the Marhatta do- 
minions, for the security of the British possessions, and those 
of the Nizam and the Rajah of Mysore; for, according to 
the habitual custom of the Marhattas, the military chiefs 
attached to the cause of Holkar would undoubtedly attempt 
to overrun and plunder the territories of their neighbours. 
The government of Madras, aware of the necessity of this 
precaution, without Avaiting for the instructions of the Go- 
vernor General, judiciously assembled, in November, 1802, 
an army of 19,000 men at Hurry hur, on the north west 
frontier of Mysore, under the command of Lieut. General 
Stuart. The Government of Bombay also prepared for 
service the disposable force of that Presidency ; and, at the 
request of the British Resident with the Peshwah, the sub- 
sidiary force at Hyderabad was held in readiness to take the 
field. 

Ably and zealously supported by Lord Clive and Mr. 
Duncan, the Governors of Fort St. George and Bombay, the 
Governor General had been particularly happy in his selec- 
tion of officers of ability and reputation, as the Residents at 
the several durbars of the native princes : and to those only 
who are unacquainted with Indian history will it be necessary 
to mention the names of some of the distinguished diplo- 
matic agents, whose combined talents, at this eventful 
period, assisted the military successes of Generals Lake and 
Wellesley in the extraordinary aggrandizement, and suc- 
cessful administration, of the British empire in India by 
Marquis Wellesley. 

The Residents at the different courts, south of the Ner- 
budda, in 1803 and 1804, were Lieut. Colonel Close with 
the Peshwah at Poonah ; Lieut. Colonel Collins, with Dowlut 
Rao Scindiah ; Major Kirkpatrick, with the Nizam at Hy- 
derabad ; Mr. Webbe, first at Mysore, and afterwards 



376 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

appointed to the durbar of the Eajah of Berar, but who 
died in Scindiah's camp at the end of 1804; and Major 
Malcolm, who accompanied Major General Wellesley to 
Poonah, and, on the removal of Mr. Webbe to the court of 
Nagpoor, became Resident at Mysore. The Hon. Mount- 
Stuart Elphinstone, Mr. Wilks, and Major Munro, employed 
at this period in the Deccan and Mysore, were also constel- 
lations in that galaxy of worth, which shone so conspicuously 
in the government of India under Lord Wellesley. 

It will be seen, by the following Journal and Letters, 
that Major General Wellesley was very attentive to the 
events passing at Poonah ; the peculiar importance of which 
was increased by his local knowledge and personal inter- 
course and influence Avith the Marhatta chieftains on tho 
frontier of Mysore. 

Journal of the Measures taken, Arrangements made, and Orders given 
in consequence of the notice received from Mr. Webbe and the Com- 
mander in Chief, that it was probable that an Army would be 
assembled on the Toombuddra, with a view to Operations in the 
Marhatta Territory. 

' 12th November, 1802. Received a letter from Mr. Webbe, 
dated the 9th, giving me notice of the probability that 
an army would be assembled on the Toombuddra. 

' I had a communication with Mr. Piele, in which I 
urged him to desire Purneah to put the forts of Hurry- 
hur and Hoonelly in decent repair. I gave him notice 
of the probable want of grain and rice, and desired him 
to urge the Dewan to stop the exportation of the 
former entirely, and of the latter from the countries 
bordering on the Ghauts. I likewise desired him to 
give notice to the Dewan that we should want 20,000 
sheep per mensem, and that they ought to begin to 
collect between Sera and Chittledroog. I desired the 
Commissary of Stores of Seringapatam to prepare an 
equipment for a force which would require twenty field 
pieces, and to repair all the carriages that required it 

' I wrote to Captain Johnson, of the Bombay Engi- 
neers, to desire that he would carry into execution his 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 377 

plan for removing six 12 pounders from Goa to Hulli- 
hall. 

' I wrote to Lieut. Dillon, the Acting Resident at Goa, 
to request that he would undertake to remove to Hulli- 
liall all the Company's stores at Goa, beginning Avith 
the arrack and the 12 pounder shot. 

' I wrote to Mr. Reeves, the Paymaster ; Major Doo- 
lan, the commanding officer at Goa ; and Mr. Read, the 
Collector, to urge the adoption of all the measures which 
could facilitate these operations. 

' I ordered Mr. Gordon to lay in thirty garces of rice, 
at Hullihall in Soon da. 

* I wrote to Mr. Read, to request he would facilitate 
this measure, and that he would let me know how much 
more Soonda could supply. 

' Captain Barclay wrote, by my orders, to the Brin- 
jarry gomastah, Mutrin Lallah, to desire him to come 
up from Conjeveram immediately, and to inform him 
that all the brinjarries in the Carnatic, Mysore, and 
Ceded districts, would be immediately wanted; that they 
were to load and join the army. 

' He also wrote to all the naigs of the brinjarries, di- 
recting them to load and wait for orders to move. 

' I received a letter from General Stuart of the 9th, 
ordering certain corps to be prepared for the field, and 
certain other preparations, and desiring my opinions on 
certain points. I gave him those opinions in a letter of 
this date. 

' 13th November. Captain Barclay, by my orders, gave 
directions to the Garrison Storekeeper to prepare 
30,0001bs. of salt beef for the European troops, and 
kegs for it. 

' He also desired him to entertain 3000 carriage bul- 
locks. He also desired him to stop the sale of gram at 
Chittlcdroog. To beat out the paddy at Chittlcdroog 
and Hullihall. To purchase rice in this neighbourhood, 
and to report when 1000 bags should be ready. 

' 14th November. The officers commanding the 5th and 7th 
regiments of cavalry were ordered to hold their corps 



378 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

in readiness for field service, and to make the necessary 
preparations. 

' 15th November. I gave authority to make advances to 
the bullock owners, of two pagodas for each bullock. 

* 16th November. I made a report to General Stuart upon 
the subject of the bullock establishment, in a letter of 
this date. 

' 17th November. I received a letter from the Secretary of 
the Military Board, dated 12th November, ordering 
doolies to be repaired. Ordered. I received from 
General Stuart a letter of the 13th of November, ap- 
prising me of stores being sent from Madras, requiring 
gunny bags from Cannanore and Tellicherry, informa- 
tion regarding the galloper carriages attached to corps 
of cavalry in Mysore, and brinjarries. 

' I reported to the General, in a letter of this date, 
the state of the galloper guns of the regiments ; the 
number of brinjarry cattle, as far as I had accounts of 
them ; the arrangement of the proposed depots at 
Hurryhur. I wrote to Lieut. Colonel Boles, to order 
up the rice bags from Tellicherry and Cannanore. It* 
was reported to me that the arrack kegs in store, at 
Hullihall in Soonda, were in bad order. I wrote to 
Lieut. Dillon, the Acting Eesident at Goa, to desire 
that he would take measures to have them repaired ; I 
desired that he would send for them, if he should 
require them, to carry up the arrack from Goa. I 
apprized him that I had applied for arrack and salt 
provisions to Mr. Duncan, which I begged him to for- 
ward to Hullihall. 

' I wrote to Major Doolan, to desire he would also 
assist in repairing the arrack kegs at Hullihall, and in 
removing them to Goa, if wanted. 

' I wrote to Mr. Duncan, to request that he would 
send arrack in large quantities to Goa, consigned to the 
care of the Acting Resident, and four hundred kegs 
with iron hoops, of four gallons each. Also 30,000 Ibs. 
of salt provisions, packed in kegs of 45 Ibs. each. 

' Captain Barclay gave directions, by my order, to 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 379 

the 1st of the 2nd, 2nd of the 3rd, 2nd of the 18th, and 
2nd of the 10th, to prepare for field service, and to pro- 
vide carriages for the sick. 

' 18th November. I had a conversation with Mr. Anderson 
upon the subject of the medical arrangements of the 
troops in the field; in consequence of which, I gave 
Mr. Piele a memorandum of articles which would be 
required to construct temporary buildings at Hurryhur 
for a field hospital. 

' I reported to General Stuart the request I had made 
to Mr. Duncan, and recommended that a Resident 
might still be kept at Goa, although our troops were 
withdrawn. 

* I ordered fifty artillery men from Malabar, with one 
hundred and twenty gun lascars. 

' 19th November. I forwarded to General Stuart Mr. An- 
derson's proposed medical arrangements, with my 
remarks. I reported to him that there were twenty 
tents in store for the 1st battalion of artillery at Serin- 
gapatam. I ordered that as many gunny bags as could 
be procured in a month should be made a Seringa- 
patam, Chittledroog, Paughur, Hullihall, Mudgerry, 
and Nuggur. 

' Likewise that 30,000 Ibs. of biscuit should be pre- 
pared. 

' 20th November. Received a letter from General Stuart, 
of the 16th, desiring me to order ammunition, &c., to 
be prepared for six 12 pounders, with a proportion of 
shells. Ordered. 

' Likewise allowing me to order lead from Paugher, 
Mudgerry, and Mergasy to Chittledroog, or else- 
where. 

'21st November. I wrote to Captain Baynes, to order it to 
Chittledroog, notwithstanding orders to the contrary he 
might receive from the Military Board. 

' Likewise desiring me to send off as many cattle as 
might be spared from the Mysore equipments. I 
ordered four hundred to Madras. 



380 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

' I received a letter from the Military Board, of the 
16th, ordering 500,000 musket and 20,000 carbine 
balls to be cast ; and wooden bottoms of sizes for shot 
to be prepared in the arsenal of Serin gapatam. Or- 
dered. 

' I received a letter from the Military Board, desiring 
that four howitzer carriages at Serin gapatam might be 
repaired. I reported to the Board that they were re- 
pairable for garrison purposes only, in a letter of this 
date. 

' I wrote a letter to General Stuart, in which I again 
recommended that the cattle might not be sent to the 
Carnatic. 

' I observed upon the number of guns to be sent 
from the Carnatic, and compared them with those 
ordered here, and those that could be provided in this 
country. I recommended that the whole equipment, 
excepting the four 18 pounders and four howitzers, 
might be provided in this country. 

' I received a letter from General Stuart, dated the 
17th, in which he desires I will order Captain Scott to 
prepare platform carts. 

' 22nd November. I wrote to General Stuart, and informed 
him that it appeared that Captain Scott could prepare 
the 6 pounder gallopers, and not the platform carts ; 
that I therefore indented for twenty carts. 

' In consequence of my proposition of yesterday to 
General Stuart, to prepare twenty six field pieces in 
Mysore, I wrote to Colonel Whitelocke, to prepare six 
field pieces, and to send nineteen tumbrils to Seringa- 
patam, by bullocks, which were sent off for that pur- 
pose. 

' To examine the musket ammunition in store. 

' I gave Mr. Piele a detailed memorandum regarding 
the mode of supplying gram for three objects: viz., to 
have 7000 stock in the Gram Agent General's depart- 
ment on the frontier ; to have a bullock load for each 
liorse in the regimental stock on the frontier ; to have 
a supply of gram in stations there, so that none in the 
Gram Agent General's stock should be touched. 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POOXAII. 381 

4 1 ordered up the gun bullocks stationed at Manga- 
lore. 

' 23rd November. I ordered that the gram at Chittledroog, 
and arrack kegs, &c., at Hullihall, might not be sold 
according to the orders of the Military Board, and re- 
ported this to the Commander in Chief. 

' 24th November. I received a letter from General Stuart, 
in which he informed me that he should require field 
pieces from Mysore, only for the seven corps which would 
pass through Mysore from the southward, and come 
from garrisons in this country, and for the 33rd regi- 
ment, and four iron 12 pounders from Chittledroog, 
and in answer to mine of the 13th. 

' I reported to the General, in a letter of this date, 
my notion of a depot at Hurryhur ; likewise the ar- 
rangements made for the supply of gram. 

' I received a report from Colonel Boles, that the 
gunny bags were sand bags. 

' 25th November. In consequence of General Stuart's letter 
of the 19th, I countermanded the 6 pounders ordered 
on the 22nd, at Chittledroog, and directed four iron 18 
pounders to be completed there. 

' I likewise countermanded four G pounders at Se- 
ringapatam, and ordered four tumbrils, with fixed am- 
munition, to be prepared for four iron guns at Chittle- 
droog. 

' I gave Mr. Gordon orders to prepare servants for 
the depot at Hurryhur ; likewise to lay in gram at that 
station. My reason for deferring to give these orders 
to this period is, that I know the gram was to be in 
bags, of which we had none ; that the first of it would 
go from Seringapatam, and that the bullocks are only 
now ready. 

' 26th November. I received a letter from Captain Walker 
of the 23rd, in which he requires the communication of 
my sentiments upon two points connected with his de- 
partment : viz., the mode of paying for gram procured 
in Mysore, and that of procuring it. I answered this 
letter, and gave my opinion upon both points in detail, 



382 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

and pointed out the object of the arrangements for 
procuring gram, and how they were to be carried into 
execution. (Vide letter of this date.) 

' I received a letter from General Stuart of the 22nd 
of November, in which he tells me that he approves of 
not sending the public cattle to Madras. I counter- 
manded those ordered away on the 21st. 

' I gave Mr. Piele a memorandum upon the subject of 
the depot at Hurryhur, in which I required that Pur- 
neah might repair the pagodas there ; that he might 
give me the list of the names of places in that neigh- 
bourhood in which rice could be procured; that he 
would try to get some gunny bags for the service from 
Purneah. 

' 30th November. Received from General Stuart a letter of 
the 26th, in which he details the pieces of ordnance re- 
quired from Mysore, amounting to twenty field pieces. 
In consequence thereof wrote to Colonel Whitelocke, to 
prepare four field pieces, with six tumbrils, including 
the two field pieces heretofore ordered. Desired him 
also to send here only eighteen instead of nineteen 
tumbrils, heretofore ordered. 

* Received a letter from the Military Board of the 
26th, ordering from 2000 to 2500 four and half inch 
shells, 600 to be filled, fused, &c., and arms and 
accoutrements for the 1st of the 3rd. Ordered. 

' I wrote to General Stuart, and pointed out that if 
the shells above mentioned were surplus to 300 he had 
ordered, we should require twelve tumbrils to carry 
them ; if not, six tumbrils. 

' 1 st December. Conceiving there was a mistake respecting 
the report from Colonel Boles, that the gunny bags in 
Malabar were sand bags, I wrote to Colonel Montresor 
to desire that he would inquire whether there were none 
in charge of the Garrison Storekeeper, and if there were 
any, to send them up. 

' 2nd December. I this day ordered Mr. Gordon to enter- 
tain 1000 more bullocks, making in the whole 5000. 

' 4th December. I had a conversation with the vakeel of 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 383 

Goklah, upon the subject of the disposition of his mas- 
ter, and of the other Marhatta chiefs on the frontier, in 
the present crisis, and reported the result to General 
Stuart, in a letter of this date. I desired Butcha Rao 
to send for Govind Rao, whom I intend to dispatch 
into the Marhatta country to gain intelligence upon the 
same points. 

' I wrote to the Resident at Goa, to desire him to 
purchase thirty leguers of arrack, which he reported to 
be in a ship in Goa roads. 

' I wrote to Colonel Montresor, to desire him to send 
the 1st of the 8th out of Wynaad, so that they may be 
here by the 15th.'* 

To Lieut. Dillon, Envoy at Goa. 

' SlR, ' Seringapatara, 17th November, 1802. 

' By a letter transmitted to me by Major Budden, I ob- 
serve that the Governor General has ordered that the troops 
may be withdrawn from Goa. I hope, however, that you 
are to remain ; and, at all events, I beg that you will remain 
there, till you receive the further orders of government. In 
the present situation of affairs, in this part of India, it is 
essentially necessary that a person should reside at Goa, on 
the part of the British government, who possesses the confi- 
dence of, and has an influence over, the persons at the head 
of the government of that settlement. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. Dillon, Goa.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart, Commander in Chief of the Army of Fort 
St. George. 

< SIR, ' Seringapatam, 2nd December, 1802. 

' A vakeel from Goklah, the commanding officer of the 
Peshwah's troops on the frontier, arrived here yesterday, 
and, according to the tenor of the orders I formerly received 
from the Right Honorable the Governor in Council upon 
this subject, I had a communication with him this morning. 

' He brought me a letter from Goklah, and delivered a 

* This Journal was commenced that nothing might be omitted or forgotten 
in the various equipments and arrangements required in the projected expedi- 
tion ; which being completed, the Journal was discontinued. 



384 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

long message from him, translations of which I shall have 
the honor of transmitting to-morrow, as soon as I can pro- 
cure them. The purport of the letter was a history of the 
late transactions at Poonah ; that he and Holkar could not 
agree ; that the Peshwah had fled below the Ghauts, and had 
desired him to join him with his army ; that the road was 
difficult, and if he should go there, his presence would be 
useless ; that he was then encamped upon the Kistna, and 
wanted to know what orders I had to give him. I propose 
to detain the vakeel until I can receive your answer, if 
I may : and I shall be obliged to you if you will give me 
your orders on the subject. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart: < ARTHUR WELLESLKY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

* SlR, ' Seringapatam, 4th December, 1802. 

' It gives me great pleasure to be able to send you so im- 
mediately a satisfactory account of the sentiments of the 
Marhatta chiefs on the frontier. I had a conversation again 
this morning with Goklah's vakeel, the purport of which was 
as follows : 

' He says that Bappojee Goneish Goklah was the person 
who arrested the person of Holkar, afterwards put to death 
by order of the Peshwah ; in consequence thereof he has 
nothing to expect from Jeswunt Rao Holkar; that he is 
determined to be faithful to the Peshwah, whose troops he 
commands, and he wishes to know what orders I have to 
give him. 

' The vakeel appears to think it probable that his master 
will be obliged to retreat from his present position on the 
Kistna; and he wishes to know whether, in that case, he 
could be allowed to retreat with his troops into the territories 
of the Company, or of the Rajah of Mysore ; and he pro- 
mises faithfully, that in case he should receive the permission 
for which he now asks, his troops shall pay for every thing 
they might receive, and no depredation shall be committed. 
The vakeel also requested that an asylum might be afforded 
within the territories of the Company, or of the Rajah of 
Mysore, to the females of Bappojee Goneish Goklah, and 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 385 

those of some of his principal officers. He also presented 
me a letter from Goklah, and another from Lingo Punt, 
translations of which I have the honor to enclose. Lingo 
Punt was the vakeel from the father of Bappojee Goneish, and 
afterwards from his son to me, during the campaign of 1800. 

' In answer to these verbal requests, I told the vakeel that 
it would be necessary that I should refer the matter to Go- 
vernment, and I gave him general assurances of friendship 
and good will. I desired him to wait here until I should 
receive the answers of Government to his requests ; and 
I shall be obliged to you if you will honor me with your 
orders, as well regarding them, as regarding the military 
conduct of Goklah hereafter. In the mean time I propose to 
write general answers to the letters, translations of which 
are enclosed. 

* I took an opportunity this morning of entering into a 
general conversation regarding the views and objects, and 
probable line of conduct, of all the Marhatta chiefs in this 
part of India, in the present crisis of Marhatta affairs. It is 
obvious that Goklah must be very decided in his conduct ; 
he has no favor to expect from Holkar ; and this is probably 
the reason for which he, so immediately after his success, 
dispatched this vakeel to me. The vakeel says that the 
Putwurdun family (Pursheram Bhow's) are exactly in the 
state in which you could wish them to be, viz., in anxious 
expectation of future events, and intending to adopt a line 
of conduct suitable thereto ; or, in other words, to take part 
with the strongest. He says that it is reported that Holkar 
intends to place on the musnud a son of Amrut Rao, and 
that if he adopts that line of conduct, and places some power 
in the hands of Amrut Rao himself, the minds of people in 
general may be more reconciled to him than they are under 
the existing order of things ; for that, at present, every man 
is doubtful, and determined to take part with the strongest. 
He says that Goklah, although he has no hopes from 
Holkar, will hold his ground if power should be thrown into 
the hands of Amrut Rao. I questioned him regarding the 
strength of the chiefs at present; he says that Goklah's 
body of troops consists of 4000 horse, and 3000 foot, with 
some guns. He says the horse are 2000 good, and 2000 
indifferent ; that 500 of the good are pagah, and 1 500 silla- 

VOL. i. 2 c 



386 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

dar; 1000 of the foot are good, commanded by two Euro- 
pean officers, 1000 are Arabs and Rohillas, and 1000, I 
believe, of the ordinary peons of the country. This state 
of Goklah's force I believe to be true ; it is nearly the same 
as I recollect it to have been in 1800. 

' The Putwurdtm have four bodies of troops, nearly of the 
same strength and description as Goklah's; and they are 
situated, for the present, in the neighbourhood of the 
Kistna. One commanded by Appah Saheb, another by 
Baba Saheb, and another by Dada Saheb, being three 
brothers, and sons of Pursheram Bhow, and a fourth by 
Chintomey Rao, who is the son of Pursheram Bhow's brother, 
and is, in fact, the head of the family. I have no doubt 
that all these chiefs will join you forthwith; but I propose 
to send a man into that country to find out their intentions 
exactly, and the strength of their troops, and to discover 
the intentions of Bappojee Scindiah, the killadar of Darwar, 
and of the Rajah of Kittoor. Both these chiefs have now 
bodies of troops on foot. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Purport of a Message delivered by Suddasheo Rao, vakeel from Goklah, 
to major General the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

* Seringapatam, 16th December, 1802. 

' As it is probable that Sree Munt Bajee Rao will claim 
the protection of the English, Goklah has a great desire to 
join their army and to act in their cause ; and Goklah wishes 
to make known to General Wellesley, that should he receive 
orders from Sree Munt Bajee Rao, it is his intention to ac- 
quaint him (the General) with the nature of those orders, to 
take his advice on the subject, and to act accordingly : and 
should he receive any from Amrut Rao, or Jeswunt Rao 
Holkar, he will act in the same manner; as it is his par- 
ticular desire to act agreeably to the General's wishes upon 
every occasion, let his orders from the people above men- 
tioned be what they may. 

' Goklah wishes that the friendly communication which at 
present exists between him and the General may continue ; 
and he will make known to him, in his correspondence, every 
circumstance, of a public nature, which may occur in the 
Marhatta country ; and he hopes that the General will be 



1802. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 387 

kind enough to let him know any of importance, that may 
be determined on, relative to arranging the affairs of the 
Marhatta empire. 

' Goklah has sent his vakeel, Suddasheo Rao, to General 
Wellesley, not only to request a place for his family to re- 
main in, but also to cultivate his friendship.' 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, ' Seringapatam, 19th December, 1802. 

' In consequence of your Lordship's orders of the 8th and 
llth instant, I have had a conference with the vakeel sent 
here by Bappojee Goneish Goklah, the purport of which I 
am about to lay before you. 

' I informed the vakeel of your Lordship's concern at the 
difficulties which opposed the progress of Bappojee Goneish 
to the Konkan with his troops, in obedience to the Peshwah's 
commands ; and that the state of the connexion between his 
Highness and the British Government did not admit of the 
junction of any part of the force under my command with 
that of Goklah. I then pointed out to him the mode of 
political communication between the British government in 
India and the Native states; and informed him that the 
negotiations, then depending between his Excellency the 
Governor General and the Peshwah, had been committed 
exclusively to Lieut. Colonel Close ; and that the result of 
those negotiations must determine the mode of conduct to 
be observed by the British government, in the present con- 
vulsion of Marhatta affairs. I expressed a sanguine ex- 
pectation, however, that the events which had recently hap- 
pened might ultimately tend to augment and corroborate 
the relations of amity between the two states. 

' In respect to the specific proposition of Bappojee Goneish 
Goklah, that his army should be received into the Company's 
territories, and that an asylum should be given to his family 
and to those of his principal officers and adherents, I in- 
formed the vakeel, that no application had been made by 
the Peshwah that any body of Marhatta troops might be 
admitted within the British territories; and consequently, 
that the relations at that moment subsisting between the 
British government and the Marhatta empire did not admit 
of your receiving an armed force. I told him that I had 

2c2 



388 PREPARATIONS FOR 1802. 

received your Lordship's orders to give security, and treat 
with respect such persons as might be obliged to seek pro- 
tection, with their families, within the territories of the 
Company, or of the Rajah of Mysore, under the present 
aspect of public affairs ; and I pointed out Seringapatam, in 
Mysore, as the place to which it would be most convenient 
that such persons should go. At the same time I told him 
positively that no armed men would be admitted within the 
frontier. 

' The vakeel appeared to be satisfied with this communi- 
cation, and then delivered another message from Bappojee 
Goneish Goklah, of which the inclosed paper contains the 
purport. In answer thereto, I referred him to what 1 had 
before said, by your Lordship's orders, and expressed my- 
self much gratified by his confidence in British officers. I 
also stated my sanguine expectation that recent events 
would have the effect of augmenting and strengthening the 
relations of amity between the two states, and those in the 
service of each. 

' The vakeel then asked whether, in case the course of 
events should occasion a junction between the British army 
and that under the command of Bappojee Goneish Goklah, 
it was probable that any pecuniary assistance would be 
afforded by the commander of the former to the latter ? I 
replied that the supposed junction of those two bodies of 
"roops, as well as every arrangement depending thereon, 
and the nature and extent of the assistance to be afforded 
by the one to the other, must depend upon the negotiations 
between the British government and the Peshwah ; which I 
had before informed him were committed exclusively to 
Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Right Hon. Lord dive.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

The Peshwah in the mean time had removed to Severn- 
droog, and afterwards embarked for Bassein, where a treaty 
of alliance was concluded on the 31st of December, 1802, 
between his Highness and Lieut. Colonel Barry Close, the 
Resident at his court. 

The restoration of the Peshwah to the musnud of Poonah, 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 389 

under the exclusive protection of the British power, was very 
essential, as it would necessarily supersede any preponder- 
ating influence at the court of Poonah, by either Scindiah or 
Holkar, who were known to have had personal and interested 
views on the supreme magisterial authority of the empire. 

The Rajah of Berar had also always maintained pre- 
tensions to the supreme authority of the Marhatta empire, 
founded on his affinity to the reigning Rajah of Sattarah ; 
and convinced that the permanency of the defensive alliance, 
lately concluded at Bassein, between the British government 
and the Peshwah, would preclude all future opportunity of 
accomplishing the object of his ambition, the Rajah of Berar 
was equally concerned with Dowlut Rao Scindiah in the 
subversion of that alliance. 

Although the views ascribed to these chieftains were 
manifestly incompatible with the accomplishment of their 
respective designs, the removal of an obstacle which would 
effectually preclude the success of either chieftain, in ob- 
taining an ascendancy at Poonah, constituted an object of 
common interest; and sensible that the combination of their 
power afforded the only prospect of subverting the alliance, 
they apparently agreed to compromise their respective and 
contradictory projects, by an arrangement for the partition 
of the whole power and dominion of the Marhatta state. 

The Governor General lost no time, at this critical period, 
in forwarding instructions to Lord Clive, and to the Resi- 
dents at the several durbars of the Marhatta chiefs. These 
instructions, with the correspondence of Lord Clive and 
Lieut. General Stuart, the Commander in Chief, elucidate 
the preparations made for the advance of a division of the 
British army to Poonah, and the subsequent war in the 
Deccan. 

To the Eight Hon. Lord Clive. 

' MY LORD, ' Serin gapatam, 1st January, 1803. 

' Captain Mahony, heretofore Resident in Koorg, arrived 
at Seringapatam some days ago ; and, in obedience to the 



390 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

orders of the Most Noble the Governor General in Council, 
I have, in communication with that gentleman, taken into 
consideration the proposed plan of remuneration for the ser- 
vices of the Koorg Rajah*. For the reason stated by the 
Governor General in Council, in his Excellency's letter to 
your Lordship upon this subject, I am clearly of opinion, 
not only that no part of the territories of the Rajah of 
Mysore ought to be given to the Rajah of Koorg, but that 
care ought to be taken that the executive government of 
Mysore should not be informed that it was ever in con- 
templation to propose an exchange of territory with the 
Honorable Company, with a view to granting to the Rajah 
of Koorg the territories which they should cede. 

' The services of the Rajah of Koorg, however, still deserve 
remuneration. It appears, by Captain Mahony's accounts, 
that he expended sums of money, and furnished supplies of 
cattle and provisions, in the late war against Tippoo Sultaun, 
of a value amounting in the whole to about four lacs of 
rupees. If he had consented to be reimbursed this expendi- 
ture, he would have received bonds of the Bombay govern- 
ment for this sum of money, bearing an interest at twelve 
per cent, per annum, in the beginning of the year 1 799 ; and 
in this manner would have added nearly two lacs of rupees 
to the sum above mentioned. It may therefore be fairly 
concluded, that by the liberality of the Rajah of Koorg, the 
Company's Treasury is richer at this moment no less than 
six lacs of rupees, than it would have been, if he had taken 
payment of the money expended, and for the supplies fur- 
nished by him. In this view of the question, 1 do not take 
into consideration the nature of his services, or the time at 
which they were rendered; but I have stated particularly 
what the supplies furnished by him would have cost the 
Company, if they had been furnished by any other person, 
as I found thereon the amount of remuneration which I in- 
tend to recommend to your Lordship to grant him. 

' When the arrangements of the territory of the late 

* The Rajah of Koorg was an ally of the Company in the last war of the 
Mysore, and was present at Tippoo's attack on the detachment of the Bombay 
army under General Stuart at Sedaseer. His report of that affair to the Governor 
General is to be found in the Appendix to Colonel Beatson's War ia Mysore. 
There is also an interesting account of this Rajah of Koorg in Captain Basil 
Hall's Fragments of Voyages and Travels, vol. ii. p. 243. 3rd Series. 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 391 

Tippoo Sultaun were made, in the year 1799, the Rajah of 
Koorg was desirous to have the districts of Panjah and 
Bellary in Canara, to which he conceived he had a claim, as 
they had belonged heretofore to his family, and they con- 
nected with Murca and Soobroo, in the same province. It is 
supposed that these districts are worth about six thousand 
canterai pagodas per annum, and they might form part of 
the proposed remuneration to the Rajah of Koorg. 

' The districts in Mysore, to which the Rajah of Koorg in 
like manner stated a claim, are Penapatam, Betudpoor, and 
Akibgoor, the value of which, by the schedule, appears to 
be 17,500 canterai pagodas. It will not be proper to give 
the Rajah those districts ; and I recommend to your Lord- 
ship that others of equal value, connected with Panjah and 
Bellary, and the Bentwall river, in the province of Canara, 
may be ceded to him. 

' Under this arrangement, he will have nearly 24,000 can- 
terai pagodas per annum, which is about the value of the 
sum which the Company have annually, by his forbearing to 
demand payment of the money due to him : he will have two 
districts in Canara, to which he conceived he had a claim, 
and certain other districts in the same province, connecting 
him with the Bentwall river, of the same value with districts 
in Mysore which he is desirous to possess ; but which, under 
existing circumstances, it is not possible to grant him. 

1 I have the honor to be, &c. 
Lord Clive: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

In the autumn of 1802, the advance and capture of Poonah, 
by Jeswunt Rao Holkar, the consequent flight of the Pesh- 
wah, and the warlike preparations of the several chiefs, led 
to the interference of the British Government in the affairs 
of the Marhatta states, in which it will be seen Major 
General Wellesley bore a conspicuous part. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 1st January, 1803. 

' Webbe has desired me to write to you upon the subject 
of our operations to the northward ; and although it is diffi- 
cult to form an opinion on the subject of any military opera- 



392 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

tions without knowing precisely their object, I comply with 
pleasure with his wishes, and I shall be happy if what I may 
write shall prove at all serviceable. 

' I shall suppose our object to be to march the army to 
Poonah, there to re-establish the Peshwah's authority. At 
this season of the year, I do not know of any natural obstacle 
to impede our progress, excepting the great distance. The 
principal obstacle of art is the fort of Darwar, which I con- 
clude that the Peshwah will have ordered the killadar to 
deliver up to vis. If his Highness should not have given 
these orders, or if the killadar should not think it proper, 
we must make ourselves masters of that fortress. I am of 
opinion that it is to be taken by a coup de main, and I should 
certainly attempt it. It may not, however, be thought pro- 
per to attack the place in this manner ; but at all events, I 
do not conceive that it will stop the British army more than 
a few days. It will also take three or four days to arrange 
our garrison in the place, and to remove thither our stores, 
grain, &c., from Hullihall in Soondah. 

' After Darwar shall be in our possession, I do not know 
of any place that will stop the British army for a moment. 

' I will suppose that the army shall have arrived upon the 
Toombuddra, and that General Stuart will be prepared to 
advance from Hurryhur on the 1st of March. 1 do not 
think it possible that he could be there sooner ; he has a 
very large and heavy equipment, which he brings from 
Madras ; he has Carnatic cattle to move it ; and he meets 
with the old disappointments in procuring them. He does 
not quit Madras till the 15th of this month ; his troops and 
stores about the 12th; he has then four hundred miles to 
march to Hurryhur, which will take him more than six weeks. 

' After quitting Hurryhur, he will have eight marches to 
Darwar, and from thence, twenty two to Poonah, by Pad- 
shappoor, Chickoree, Meritch, and Tasgaum ; and one more, 
if he should go by Shahpoor and Belgaum to Meritch. I 
should recommend the latter road, because I believe that it 
will be convenient, if not necessary to us, to have possession 
of Belgaum ; and that by that road we shall be more certain 
of finding water than by the other. 

' According to this account, I do not think that you ought 
to look out for us at Poonah before the end of April. 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 393 

' In this estimate of the time which will elapse before we 
arrive at Poonah, I have concluded that we shall meet with 
no impediments on our progress, occasioned by the efforts of 
the enemy. I am far from thinking, however, that we shall 
not meet with such impediments, and if we do, our progress 
must be considerably slower than I have supposed that it 
will be, and the period of our arrival at Poonah be con- 
siderably delayed. 

' I have not yet had any satisfactory communication from 
the Putwurdun family of their intentions upon the present 
occasion : it appears that they and Rastia's family are 
leagued against Goklah, whose troops they are driving from 
the Kistna towards the Toombuddra. It is possible, that 
when they shall see our army in the field, they may be in- 
duced to join our standard, but at present I very much 
doubt their intentions. It will not be very practicable to 
make great progress through the southern Marhatta terri- 
tories with such a heavy equipment as General Stuart has 
proposed, if the chiefs of this family and Rastia are united 
against us. 

' At all events, at present, owing to the confusion at 
Poonah> and the delay in assembling our troops on the 
frontier, the countries on the other side of the Toombuddra 
are in a sad state of disorder. The heads of districts and 
of villages have seized the supreme authority, and have 
raised troops, and are carrying on against each other a petty 
warfare, which will be as destructive to our supplies and our 
communications with Mysore, as it is to the country itself. 
Unless, therefore, the Putwurdun, and all the chiefs in this 
part of the empire, join cordially with us, and take advan- 
tage of our presence to settle the country, it is very obvious 
that we shall lose our communication with Mysore on the 
day we shall quit the Toombuddra. 

' These circumstances have made me turn my mind se- 
riously to a project which the great distance between Mysore 
and Poonah had induced me before to take into considera- 
tion ; viz., to establish a depot, by means of the Bombay 
government, either at Panwell or Bassein, or some other 
place on the coast opposite to the island of Bombay, or 
Salsette, of not very difficult access from the ghauts : this 
post to be occupied by the Bombay troops, and to be filled 



394 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

with rice, arrack, salt provisions, and military stores for a 
field train, if we should have fought an action. By this 
arrangement we should carry on the war at Poonah with an 
army provided with cattle, &c., from the eastern side of the 
peninsula, and with the resources of Bombay ; and we should 
shorten our line of communication many hundred miles. 

4 I propose this plan to General Stuart, and if he should 
adopt it, I shall write a detail upon the subject to Mr. Dun- 
can. In the mean time, it will be well if you turn it in your 
mind, and if you should agree in opinion with me of its pro- 
priety, and should think it practicable, fix upon a place 
upon the coast which the Peshwah must be requested to 
give up to us. 

' I cannot conclude this letter without letting you know 
how amply Mysore has contributed to the supply and equip- 
ment of the army to be assembled on its frontier, and how 
readily our little friend Purneah has come into all my plans 
for the service. 

' First. I have raised here 8000 bullocks before they had 
got one at Madras; besides the bullocks for the cavalry 
gram. 

' Secondly. At the end of the gram harvest, one month 
before the new gram comes in, the cavalry Gram Agent 
General is supplied with 7000 loads; and the cavalry are 
brought upon the frontier, with 500 loads each regiment, 
where they find 6000 loads to supply their consumption 
while they remain there. 

' Thirdly. A depot is formed of 7000 loads of rice at 
Hurryhur. 

' Fourthly. Mysore alone gives 32,000 brinjarry bullocks 
loaded, which will meet the General at the back of the Chit- 
tledroog hills, at the end of this month. 

' Fifthly. 60,000 sheep, assembled in different flocks be^ 
tween Sera and Chittledroog ; and 

' Sixthly. A body of silladar horse, amounting to above 
5000. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close: < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 395 

To Jonathan Duncan, Esq., the Governor of Bombay. 
1 MY DEAR SIR, ' Seringapatam, 20th Jan., 1803. 

' General Stuart will have informed you that, adverting 
to the probability of the march of the army to Poonah, and 
the possibility that our communication with Mysore and the 
seats of the resources of the army on this side of India might 
be precarious, and at all events would be difficult, on account 
of its length, I had proposed to him a plan for the forma- 
tion of a depot at Panwell or Bassein, or some other place 
on the coast opposite to the islands of Bombay or Salsette, 
by means of the Government of Bombay. He has been 
pleased to approve of this plan, and has desired me to write 
to you upon the subject in detail. You may recollect that 
I before hinted the subject to you, and I should have written 
to you upon it more particularly, before now, if I had seen 
clearly the object which General Stuart proposed for the 
campaign. It is clear now that our object must be Poonah, 
and to re-establish the government of the Peshwah in that 
city ; and we must provide for our subsistence while in that 
neighbourhood, supposing that the object of our enemy 
should be to cut off our communication with the source of 
our supplies, or that, from its length and difficulty, our sub- 
sistence should become precarious. 

' The first point for consideration is the situation for the 
proposed depot. It should be somewhere on the coast, within 
reach of water carriage from Bombay, both that the depot 
may be formed without difficulty or great expense, and that 
it may be in the power of the government of Bombay to 
provide for its defence with ease, supposing that the enemy 
should have a design to attack it. It should be at no great 
distance, and of easy access, from the ghaut leading to 
Poonah. It should have two gates at least, if not more, all 
of easy access to cattle ; and it should be of such strength 
as to render it probable that a small body of troops could 
keep it till reinforcements could be sent from Bombay. I 
say nothing of the buildings which the fort ought to have, in 
order to hold the articles which I am about to detail as a 
list of our probable wants, for I know that temporary build- 
ings can be constructed with great celerity everywhere, par- 



396 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

ticularly when Bombay can furnish such quantities of mate- 
rials and workmen. 

' From this description of the kind of place wanted, and 
of the situation in which it ought to be, you will be the best 
judge on what place upon the coast to fix ; and you will of 
course communicate your wishes upon that subject to Lieut. 
Colonel Close. 

' The articles of which we shall be principally in want, 
are food for our Europeans, for our native troops and fol- 
lowers, and for our horses, military stores, medical stores, 
and money. 

' First. For the Europeans we ought to have 10,000 gal- 
lons of arrack, in kegs of six gallons each, well fortified with 
iron hoops. It will not be possible for you, I should imagine, 
to procure the number of kegs that will be necessary to hold 
all this arrack ; but the greater the number you can procure 
the better : that part for which kegs cannot be procured, 
might be sent in casks of fifty or sixty gallons each, for 
which the General might send his carts, if the state of the 
road would permit it ; and if not, there will be a proportion 
of kegs with the army. 

' For the European troops, 90,000 pounds of salted meat 
will be required, also packed in kegs well fortified, 45 pounds 
in each keg, besides pickle, &c. ; and the same quantity of 
biscuits in round baskets, containing 60 pounds each : these 
baskets to be covered with waxed cloth. Slaughter cattle 
for 3000 Europeans for one month, would likewise be useful; 
but these might remain in a situation in which it would be 
probable they might get some food, and would be attended 
to till the army should be prepared to send for them. 

' Secondly. For the natives, all that we shall require is 
600 garces of rice. Each garce contains 4800 pucca seers, 
each seer two pounds. 

' It would be desirable that encouragement should be 
given to some of the traders at Bombay to have ready for 
those of our camp, ghee, turmerick, doll, and other bazaar 
articles : but in the formation of a depot of this kind, it is 
impossible to enumerate these, or for the Government to lay 
them in. 

' Salt, however, is an article of necessary consumption, 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 397 

both to the European and the native troops ; and of this 
article it is desirable that there should be in the depot 60 
garces. 

' Thirdly. We shall want military stores only in case we 
should have fought an action previously to our arrival at 
Poonah; but it would be as well that they should be pre- 
pared for us : the expense of them is not great, and if we 
do not want them, they will be available hereafter in the 
arsenal of Bombay. 

' Enclosed I have the honor to send an account of the 
ordnance we shall have with us, for which a quarter equip- 
ment ought to be prepared according to the Madras regula- 
tions; or, if that Book should not be at Bombay, according 
to those of the Bombay government. 

' Fourthly. In respect to food for our horses, I am afraid 
that that which they use is not procurable at Bombay, viz., 
coulthee; but if coulthee is procurable, there ought to be 
150 garces of that grain in the depot ; if not, an equal quan- 
tity of chenna. 

' Fifthly. Medical stores we ought to have three months' 
consumption of these for 3000 Europeans and 15,000 native 
troops, particularly bark, Madeira wine, mercurial ointment 
calomel, and not forgetting nitrous acid. 

' Sixthly. In respect to money, I conclude that General 
Stuart will write to you particularly. I have not the means 
of estimating our expenses ; but 1 think you ought to be 
prepared to send us sixteen lacs of rupees. 

' The next point to which I beg to draw your attention, is 
the mode of taking care of this depdt, and in which its con- 
tents are to be delivered to those whom General Stuart will 
send for them. 

' The provision stores for the Europeans will not be very 
bulky, and not very difficult to be counted and delivered 
from the charge of one person to that of another ; it will not 
be necessary therefore to employ many persons in the charge 
of these stores, and they might be under the superintend- 
ence of the person who will have charge of the rice. 

' It is not probable that the rice will remain any length of 
time in store, and therefore there does not appear any neces- 
sity for its being in bags ; particularly as every head of 
cattle which will be sent from the army to carry it away, will 



398 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803- 

have its bags. It is essentially necessary, however., for the 
sake of regularity and expedition, that there should be a 
great number of conicoplies, measuring men, and servers, 
attached to this grain, and that it should be stored in 
buildings in different parts of the fort, all of easy access 
from the gates. One gentleman should be appointed to 
superintend this department, that of the provisions for the 
Europeans, and that of the grain for the horses; for the care, 
measuring, and delivering of which, the same measures 
ought to be taken as for the rice. 

' The medical and military stores ought each to be under 
charge of an officer of the departments to which they belong, 
with the proper number of servants for their care and deli- 
very. The treasure might remain at Bombay till the Gene- 
ral should call for it. 

' It has occurred to me, that you may find some difficulty 
in procuring the large quantity of rice for which I have called 
as above ; but I have provided for this difficulty, and I wish 
I could do so for all the others in which you may be involved 
by this call upon your resources. I have written by desire 
of General Stuart to the collectors in Canara, and have 
apprized them of the possibility of your wanting a large store 
of rice ; and I have requested them to stop the exportation 
from that province till they should hear from you whether 
you would want it or not. If you should want any, they 
could send you any quantity that you could require ; if you 
should not want it, I beg you to desire your secretary to 
apprize them of it, in order that they may take off the em- 
bargo which I conclude they will lay on in consequence of 
my request. 

' I believe that I have now adverted to all the points 
which I had to detail to you ; but if I should not have done 
so, and should recollect any thing further, I am sure that you 
will excuse my troubling you again upon this subject. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Jonathan Duncan, Esq. ( ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

' I have omitted in this letter to mention draught and 
carriage bullocks to you, because General Stuart tells me 
that he has already drawn your attention to this part of our 
equipments. I beg leave, however, to call to your recollec- 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 399 

tion the necessity that every carriage bullock with which you 
will supply the army, should have a saddle. I conclude that 
you will not be able to procure any cattle for hire at Bom- 
bay, as we do in this part of India ; and that all those with 
which you will supply us will be Company's property, and 
their drivers in the Company's service. 

' Wheat is not an article for depot in general ; but it is 
one very necessary for the consumption of the European 
officers and soldiers of the army, and ought not, if pos- 
sible, to be left to chance. It would therefore be very 
desirable that there should be four or five garces of wheat in 
the depot. 

' It is likewise desirable that the traders at Bombay should 
be encouraged to have ready to be purchased by the dealers 
of our camp, sheep, or slaughter cattle.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Seringapatam, 21 Jan., 1803. 

' I have just received from Sir William Clarke a copy of 
your letter of the 6th, to Mr. Grant, the Secretary of 
Government at Bombay, in which you desire to have from 
Sir William a particular account of the intentions of Appah 
Saheb, and the other chiefs in the Marhatta territories 
towards the Toombuddra, in the present crisis of Marhatta 
affairs. In my letter of the 1st instant, I alluded to this 
topic, as the intentions of these chiefs might affect our 
military operations, and might retard our progress towards 
Poonah ; and I stated some facts regarding the Putwurdun, 
and Rastia's family, and Goklah. 

1 Matters regarding these three chiefs remain nearly as 
they were when I then wrote. Goklah is encamped near 
Savanore, and he has a detachment at Anee upon the Toom- 
buddra. Rastia's son has a force near Jellahaul, which 
drove Goklah down to his present position from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Kistna. 

* I have the most positive assurances that our army will 
be joined by Goklah, and I believe them to be sincere ; as 
his vakeel, who was here, told me that his master had nothing 
to hope from Holkar, as he had taken and given up to 
Ballogee Koonger the brother of Holkar, who had been put 
to death. His only reliance, therefore, was upon the English, 



400 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

and their endeavors to restore the power of the Peshwah. 
I have not had hitherto any communication with any of the 
Putwurduns, excepting a civil letter from Chintomeny Rao, 
and an answer from Ball Kischen Show, to a letter which I 
wrote to him and sent by Govind Rao. I at the same time 
desired Govind Rao to discover the intentions of the Put 
wurduns upon the present occasion. Ball Kischen Bhow 
declared that he considered himself as belonging to the 
English, and should join our army himself, and should do 
everything in his power to influence the others to adopt the 
same line of conduct. But he said he could not answer for 
the others of the family ; and he and Govind Rao are gone 
together to Hurrypoor upon the Kistna, where the whole 
family are encamped, to discover their intentions. I shall 
hear from Govind Rao in a few days, and I shall let you 
know what he will write. 

' I have had no communication with Rastia, and do not 
know his intentions ; but I am certain that if I were to go to 
the frontier with the army, I should have vakeels from him 
and all these chiefs. 

' The Rajah of Kittoor has a vakeel here now, with a pro- 
position to join us with 4000 horse and 7000 infantry, and a 
desire to be taken under our protection. I have informed 
Lord Clive of the arrival of this vakeel, and have treated him 
with attention. 

' Futty Sing was encamped with the armies of the Putwur- 
dun at Hurrypoor, and the avowed intention of this junction 
was to punish the Rajah of Kolapoor. But Futty Sing has 
now returned towards Poonah, having been recalled, as it is 
said, by Holkar, as Scindiah's army was advancing rapidly 
to the southward from Burhampoor. 

' I can say nothing positive relating to Appah Saheb's re- 
conciliation with the Peshwah ; but I shall hear every thing 
from Govind Rao, to whom I have given detailed instruc- 
tions to ascertain those points which could lead me to form a 
judgment of the real intentions and wishes of every chief in 
that part of the empire. 

' I have not heard any thing of the horse which you say 
was sent up the ghauts from Mhar, under the chiefs named 
by you, to remain on the road between the Kistna and 
Poonah, 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 401 

' You will hear from Mr. Duncan that General Stuart has 
approved of the plan for the depdt ; and I wrote yesterday 
to Mr. Duncan in detail upon the subject of the General's 
desire. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Close? ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Right Hon. Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, ' Fort William, 2nd February, 1803. 

'I.I have received from the Resident at Poonah, the in- 
timation of his intention to recommend the advance of the 
British army assembled at Hurry hur into the Marliatta terri- 
tory, at the earliest practicable period of time. 

' 2. The situation of the affairs of the Marhatta empire, 
and the views and intentions of the contending parties, were 
not sufficiently decided, when my instructions to the Resident 
at Poonah, of the 29th of November and 30th of December, 
were issued, to enable me to determine the precise extent of 
the force which it might be expedient to advance into the 
Marhatta territory, from the several stations at which troops 
had been ordered to assemble for eventual service. The 
regulation of that question was, therefore, entrusted to the 
discretion of the Resident at Poonah, to be guided by future 
events and circumstances. 

' 3. The length of time required for the complete equip- 
ment of the force which your Lordship had directed to be 
assembled on the frontier of the Marhatta territory, pre- 
cluded the necessity of immediate instructions with regard 
to the ultimate destination of the army. The transactions 
in the Dcccan, and the situations and views of the several 
contending parties, having now assumed a more distinct form, 
I am enabled to apply the general principles by which I 
propose to regulate the proceedings of the British Govern- 
ment in the actual crisis of affairs. 

' 4. The objects of assembling British troops on the fron- 
tier of Mysore were, the effectual defence of our possessions 
during the convulsed state of the Marhatta empire ; and the 
eventual establishment of a subsidiary force at Poonah, 
under the operation of the general defensive alliance con- 
cluded with the Peshwah. 

VOL. i. 2 D 



402 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

' 5. Your Lordship is apprized of my intention (in con- 
formity to the system of alliance, founded by the treaty of 
Hyderabad in 1800) to exert the British influence and 
power for the restoration of the Peshwah to the musnud of 
Poonah, on the basis of the subsidiary treaty, recently con- 
cluded by Colonel Close. In pursuing this intention, it is, 
however, absolutely necessary to attend to the leading 
principles of policy by which my conduct has been governed. 
First, the maintenance of peace with the Marhatta states : 
Secondly, the preservation of the internal tranquillity of the 
British possessions. Our proceedings, in the present crisis 
of affairs, must be strictly conformable to these leading 
principles. 

'6. The stipulations of treaty on which I found my inten- 
tion to facilitate the restoration of the Peshwah's authority, 
originated in a supposition that the majority of the Marhatta 
jaghiredars, and the body of the Peshwah's subjects, enter- 
tain a desire of co-operating in that measure ; justice and 
wisdom would forbid any attempt to impose upon the Mar- 
hattas a ruler, whose restoration to authority was adverse to 
the wishes of every class of his subjects. The recent engage- 
ments with the Peshwah involve no obligation of such an 
extent ; whatever might be the success of our arms, the ulti- 
mate objects of those engagements could not be attained by 
a course of policy so violent and extreme. If, therefore, it 
should appear that a decided opposition to the restoration 
of the Peshwah is to be expected from the majority of the 
Marhatta jaghiredars, and from the body of the Peshwah's 
subjects, I shall instantly relinquish every attempt to restore 
the Peshwah to the musnud of Poonah. 

' 7. Even under an assurance of a decided support and 
co-operation from the jaghiredars, it is, however, advisable 
that such a detachment of British force should advance into 
the Marhatta territory, as shall not endanger the internal 
tranquillity of the Company's territories. The advance of 
the whole of the British army assembled at Hurryhur, into 
the Maihatta territory, would greatly diminish the internal 
security of the Company's possessions in that quarter of 
India ; such a movement would therefore be inconsistent with 
a principal object of this armament. 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 403 

< 8. Under all the circumstances of the case, therefore, I 
consider the advance of the whole English army assembled 
at Hurryhur, to Poonah, to be a measure of such hazard to 
the tranquillity of the English possessions, as could not be 
justified by any probable expectation of a more speedy and 
complete accomplishment of our views at that court. 

' 9. With the view of fulfilling our engagements with the 
Peshwah, without deviating from the principles stated in this 
dispatch, it is my intention ; First, that the whole of the sub- 
sidiary force serving with his Highness the Nizam, together 
with the regiment of Europeans, and the regiment of cavalry 
to be furnished for the service of his Highness, under the 
orders of the Governor General in Council of the 31st 
December, 1802, shall proceed to join the troops of the 
Nizam, assembled on his Highness's western frontier ; and 
that the whole of that force shall occupy, within his High- 
ness's territory, the station nearest to Poonah ; and shall be 
prepared, at a proper season, to advance to that capital. 
Secondly, that as large a proportion of the English army 
assembled at Hurryhur, as can be detached consistently with 
the internal security of the English territories, shall advance, 
in concert and co-operation with such of the Marhatta chiefs 
and jaghiredars, occupying the southern frontier of the 
Marhatta territory, as are attached to the Peshwah's cause ; 
and that the remainder of the English army shall maintain 
its position on the frontier of Mysore, for the combined pur- 
pose of eventually supporting the advanced detachment, and 
of preserving the internal tranquillity of the Company's 
territory. Thirdly, that the advanced detachment shall pro- 
ceed from Hurryhur, together with such of the Marhatta 
forces as may unite with it, either to Meritch, or to any other 
station where the Peshwah may be enabled to join that 
force ; or that the detachment from Hurryhur shall form 
a junction with the combined army of the Nizam, and with 
the English subsidiary troops, on the frontier of his High- 
ness's dominions. The immediate destination of the ad- 
vancing army must necessarily be regulated by contingent 
events ; the extent of the force, to be thus detached from the 
main body of the English army at Hurryhur, must be de- 
cided by the discretion of your Lordship in Council, aided 
by the judgment of the Commander in Chief, and strictly 



404 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

regulated by the principles stated in the preceding part of 
this dispatch. 

f 10. Such detachment of English troops, supported by the 
co-operation of the majority of the southern jaghiredars, or 
by the force united with the army of the Nizam, will be 
sufficient to preclude the opposition of any individual chief- 
tain, who may consider the restoration of the Peshwah to the 
musnud of Poonah to be incompatible with his separate 
interests ; and who might be disposed to resist or embarrass 
the progress of that measure. 

'11. The actual period of the advance of the proposed 
detachment from Hurryhur must be regulated by the infor- 
mation which your Lordship may receive of the progress of 
the subsidiary force from Hyderabad, and of the Nizam's 
troops; and also by the tenor of the advices which may be 
transmitted to your Lordship by the Resident at Poonah. 

' 12. The co-operation of the majority of the Marhatta 
jaghiredars for the restoration of the Peshwah to the due 
exercise of his authority, being considered to form an indis- 
pensable part of the arrangement for the accomplishment of 
that object, it is necessary that your Lordship should be ap- 
prized of my sentiments, with regard to the conduct to be 
observed in encouraging those jaghiredars to co-operate 
with the English troops. 

' 13. It may be expected that those jaghiredars will re- 
quire, as the condition of their support, assurances from the 
English government of security for their respective rights 
and interests, in the general settlement of affairs. Without 
an accurate knowledge of the respective rights of the jag- 
hiredars, and of the Peshwah, we cannot justly pledge the 
faith of the British government to any special engagement 
on this subject. 

* 14. Every practicable means should be employed to con- 
ciliate the good will of those chieftains, and to obtain their 
co-operation in the general object of restoring the Peshwah 
to the due exercise of his authority ; and for that purpose it 
will be proper to afford to the jaghiredars every assurance, 
that the utmost influence of the British government will be 
employed, after the successful restoration of Bajee Rao, to 
provide for the security of the interests of each chieftain, to 
the extent which may be practicable, consistently with the 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 405 

just rights of the Peshwah. Any engagements of a more 
definite nature might involve obligations inconsistent with 
public faith. 

' 15. In framing any engagements with the several Mar- 
hatta jaghiredaro, occupying the frontier of Mysore, for the 
purpose of securing their aid and co-operation on the pre- 
sent occasion, your Lordship may be disposed to avail your- 
self of the services of Major Malcolm, Avhose extensive infor- 
mation with regard to the general political system of India, 
and whose intimate knowledge of my sentiments on this par- 
ticular branch of policy, will furnish peculiar advantages in 
accomplishing the measures which your Lordship may pur- 
sue, for the purpose of securing the support of the Marhatta 
feudatories. Your Lordship may anticipate my approbation 
of any orders which you may issue, for the purpose of em- 
ploying the services of Major Malcolm in the discharge of 
any duty of a political nature, connected with the views and 
interests of the British Government, with the Marhatta 
chieftains, or at the court of Poonali. 

' 16. Your Lordship will issue such instructions to the 
commanding officer of the detachment as may appear to be 
proper, with the view to conciliate the good will of the inha- 
bitants of the country, through which the detachment may 
have occasion to pass, in the Marhatta territory. 

* 17. Copies of this dispatch, together with corresponding 
instructions to the Residents at Poonah and Hyderabad, 
will be forwarded to those officers with all practical expedi- 
tion. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Clive: < WELLESLLY. 

The Governor General to Lord Clive. 

' MY LORD, ' Fort William, 3rd February, 1803. 

' Adverting to the power and influence of Ragojec Bhoons- 
lah, as a branch of the Mahratta state, it is expedient that I 
should possess the means of obtaining timely knowledge of 
that chieftain's views in the present crisis ; and avail myself 
of the favorable opportunity of the important object of com- 
prehending the Rajah of Berar in the system of defensive 
alliance, lately concluded with the Peshwah. These cannot 
be effectually secured otherwise than by the presence of an 



406 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

able and active resident at the Court of Nagpoor. The 
talents, knowledge, and activity of Mr. Webbe qualify him 
in an eminent degree for that station ; and I have resolved 
to appoint him resident at the court of the Rajah of Berar, 
in which capacity I shall furnish him with detailed instruc- 
tions for the regulation of his conduct. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Clive- ' WELLESLEY. 

Memorandum in answer to Captain Moor's Paper, enclosed in a 
Letter from Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' 14th February, 1803. 

*1. I see no material objection to the formation of the 
depot at Bombay, and to the delivery of its contents to the 
army from boats, provided the gentlemen at Bombay are of 
opinion that the navigation to Panwell is practicable during 
the monsoon. If it should not be so, the troops may never 
enjoy the advantage of the depot, unless it should be placed 
in security on the coast before the monsoon sets in. 

' 2. I concur in Captain Moor's proposal in regard to the 
packages, particularly if the contents of the depot are to be 
brought to the coast in boats and delivered as wanted. But 
the rice and the grain ought to be packed in packages, each 
of three mercals, and each mercal twelve pucca seers, each 
seer two pounds. 

' 3. The suggestion in the 10th paragraph must of course 
be attended to. 

' 4. Boats must of course be established on the two rivers 
noticed in paragraphs 23 and 24. There will be no diffi- 
culty in crossing the cattle. 

' 5. The rivers in the southern part of the peninsula, viz., 
the Malpoorba, the Werdah, the Toombuddra, the Cauvery 
and the Cubbany, do not fill till between the 15th and 20th 
of June. I write this from the experience of four years. 
The rains set in to the southward before they begin to the 
northward ; it is therefore to be supposed that the rivers 
which rise in the hills to the southward will fill first. I men- 
tion this in order that the exact time at which these rivers 
may be expected to fill may be investigated ; as to procure 
boats to pass them is an object of much importance, and one 
which will take much time. 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 407 

' 6. Skins to cover the boats, which must be of the basket 
kind, might be prepared at Bombay. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLEY.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp at Hooly Honore, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, 22nd Feb. 1803. 

' I enclose a letter from Govind Rao, and another from 
Ball Kischen Bhow, by which you will perceive that the dis- 
positions of the chiefs of the Putwurdun family are favorable 
to the Peshwah. They are all encamped on the Kistna. I 
shall send you Govind Rao's detail as soon as I receive it. 

' I might arrive at Hurryhur on the 25th, and I am finely 
equipped for the service in every respect. I make long 
marches with the greatest facility, and my cattle are all fresh. 
I wish I could say as much for General Stuart ; but he is 
badly off indeed. He has lost a number of cattle, and those 
which remain are in a very bad state. 

' We are to halt in three divisions ; General Stuart at 
Mayaconda, General Campbell at Harponelly, and myself at 
Hoonelly, till further orders are received. General Stuart's 
cattle will recruit a little there, but not much ; and I see no 
remedy but that which I have recommended to him, viz., to 
diminish his monstrous equipment, and to leave behind every 
thing not absolutely necessary. I shall see him at Maya- 
conda on the 26th, and will try to persuade him to adopt 
this measure. 

' I have not heard where Gungurdhur is, but Bappojee 
Scindiah will certainly refuse to give him up Darwar till he 
sees our army approach it. The threat to use six baums of 
rope may then be useful. But at all events I think we can 
take it by a coup de main. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

Translation of a Memorandum given to Major General 
tVellesley by Goklah's vakeel Ram Rao. 

' 1. Goklali sent a vakeel to Bajee Rao, the Peshwah in 
the Konkan, who represented to his Highness the situation 
of Goklah's affairs. His Highness said, that the country in 
general was in great confusion ; that Goklah must conduct 



403 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

himself according to the wishes of the commanding officer of 
the British forces ; and his Highness was desirous of hear- 
ing of his fidelity to his cause through Lieut. Colonel Close. 
Goklah wished, therefore, that Major General Wellesley 
would write to Lieut. Colonel Close, and inform him that he 
had full confidence in Goldah ; that he was a brave man, &c. 

' 2. Accounts to the following purport have come from 
Poonah. For the settlement of the countries towards the 
Carnatic, Shekamut Khan, M.eer Khan Patan, and Futty 
Sing Maunia, have come with their troops into their zillah of 
Gurkan. Besides these chiefs, others of inferior note are 
about to take their departure. Holkar himself is with his 
army in Poonah. For these reasons Goklah's vakeel at 
Poonah recommends it to him to connect himself with the 
Company, and that speedily, as, without their assistance, there 
is no safety for him. Goklah therefore requests, that if the 
army should not enter the country, some battalions might be 
sent to his assistance, and that a place of safety may be given 
to him for his family. 

' 3. Goklah saw Govind Rao at Nurgoond, who, he con- 
cludes, wrote Major General Wellesley an account of his in- 
terview with him. 

' 4. Goklah's army is in some difficulties for want of pay, 
and the Peshwah, Bajee Rao, is at a great distance. Goklah 
therefore wishes for assistance in a pecuniary way. 

' The conversation which Major General Wellesley had 
with the vakeel, was to the same purport with the memoran- 
dum nearly : The General told Ram Rao, that he would 
write a letter to Lieut. Colonel Close as desired. In regard 
to the second point, he observed to him, that the British 
army was upon the frontier, and therefore there could be no 
great danger to be apprehended from the forces of the chiefs 
mentioned : and in regard to the third, he said, that the 
Company were not bound by treaty to pay the Peshwah's 
troops; that it appeared that his Highness had provided 
already for the payment of the army under Goklah's com- 
mand ; that Goklah should take measures to reap the advan- 
tages of that provision ; and that as no more had been pro- 
vided for the British troops than was absolutely necessary 
for them, he was to expect nothing from the Commander 
in Chief.' 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 409 

Extract from ' The Notes relative to the late Transactions in the 
Marhatta Empire-' 

' The command of the advanced detachment necessarily 
required the united exertion of considerable military skill 
and of great political experience and discretion ; and Lord 
Clivc was therefore of opinion, that it could not be confided> 
with equal prospects of advantage, to any other person than 
the Honorable Major General Wellesley, whose extensive 
local knowledge and personal influence among the Mar- 
hatta chieftains (acquired by his conduct in the command of 
Mysore, and by his victories over Dhoondiah and other 
refractory chiefs) were peculiarly calculated to ensure suc- 
cess to the intended operations. Lord Clivc accordingly 
desired that General Wellesley might be appointed to the 
command of the advanced detachment, under instructions to 
be furnished to him by Lieut. General Stuart, according to 
the spirit of the Governor General's orders of the 2nd of 
February, 1803. 

' In conformity to these instructions, Lieut. General Stuart 
directed a detachment from the main army assembled at 
Hurryhur, to be formed under the command of Major Gene- 
ral Wellesley, for the purpose of advancing into the Marhatta 
territory.' 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

1 SIR, ' Camp at Hoonelly, 2nd March, 1803. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 1st. 
The cavalry of this division will march to-morrow morning 
for Soolekairy. I delayed ordering their march till I should 
arrive here, purposely that I might make arrangements for 
supplying them while at that place. They have all got good 
bazaars, and will take from hence as much rice as their 
bazaar people can carry ; and I shall do my utmost to keep 
them supplied hereafter. I wrote yesterday to Colonel 
Dallas, on this subject, and recommended that in case the 
bullocks attached to the bazaar of this camp could not supply 
his wants regularly, on account of the greater distance, he 
should apply to you, through Lieut. Blacker, for some of the 
brinjarry rice. If you should consent to grant him any, 
their bags may be filled again in the same manner as those 
emptied in your camp. I have, however, hopes that I shall 



410 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

be able to supply his wants without coming upon the brin- 
jarries, or any public store ; the only doubt I have of it is 
the distance he is from me. 

<Mr. Gordon's bullocks that are in this camp are very 
well supplied with drivers, indeed better than any that I 
have yet seen. It is not improbable but that some of the 
drivers of those sent to you may be at Hurryhur with the 
owners and maistries, who are there settling their accounts. 
As soon as I ordered these bullocks to your camp, I sent 
Mr. Gordon's servant from hence to settle their accounts, 
in order that they might be delivered over in every respect 
clear to Major Symons. I dare say they will be found not 
deficient in drivers, and I know that they left Seringapatam 
complete. 

'The bullocks which left Seringapatam on the 18th of 
February, are marching to join you by the road of Sera and 
Chittledroog, and not by the lower road, as I imagined. 
They are in charge of a guard of the 1st of the 2nd, and 
may be expected every day. 

' I had a conversation with the Dewan yesterday respect- 
ing draught cattle ; he promises to supply 400 for sale. They 
will be all trained cattle, and fit for immediate work. I shall 
report upon them from time to time as they arrive. 

' I also mentioned to the Dewan your wishes respecting 
the pay of the shepherds, to which he has readily consented ; 
viz., that they are to have the country pay, 1 pagodas, 
while within the Rajah's territories, and two pagodas when 
they shall pass the frontiers. 

' I settled with him that his servants were to take charge, 
for the Company, of 40,000 sheep, as many within, and as 
many beyond, the frontier as you might think proper ; that 
shepherds were to be entertained and kept up for this num- 
ber ; that he has also to keep up that stock of sheep, and if 
at any time there should be a few more, the same number 
of shepherds should take care of them. 

' By this arrangement much of the expense will be saved, 
you will always have a stock of sheep at your command, and 
a difficulty will be avoided in settling a detailed account of 
shepherds' wages according to the number of sheep in the 
charge of the Rajah's officers, which must vary daily. Be- 
sides, it would be hard to discharge a number of shepherds 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 411 

at a distance from the frontier when the sheep should be 
consumed ; and equally so to throw the expense of main- 
taining them upon the Rajah. By this mode his officers in 
camp, in charge of the sheep concern, will take care to send 
the shepherds back to the depot flock in Mysore, in propor- 
tion as the flocks in camp shall be delivered over to the com- 
missary. 

' I beg to know from you whether you approve of this 
arrangement ? I believe it would be proper that I should 
leave to Colonel Dallas the order of the casting committees 
on the cavalry horses; or if you wish that I should still 
order these committees, and give them instructions according 
to the General Orders of the 28th of February, I shall do 
so, and shall go over to see the horses which the committee 
may cast. 

' Upon a reference to Major Munro's last letter to Captain 
Barclay, I find that he has not received your orders, not to 
forward on to the frontier of Mysore the depot formed at 
Bellary, and he is still paying Wurdy bullocks for this pur- 
pose. The Wurdy bullocks will be useful to you empty, 
and under present arrangements the depot at Bellary will 
be more useful there than it can be elsewhere. 

' It would be well if a hircarrah camel were dispatched 
from your camp to Bellary, with a letter to Mr. Cochrane, 
(Major Munro has gone to Adoni) to desire that he would 
send you the Wurdy bullocks without loads, without loss of 
time, consigned to Major Symons. 

' 1 enclose a memorandum upon the subject of the salary 
of the superintendent of supplies and his establishments, by 
which you will observe that Major Macleod's salary was 300 
pagodas, and not 500, as I imagined ; and that Captain 
Barclay had, when he was acting in that capacity under me, 
100 pagodas, the scale which you fixed as that to be paid to 
Lieutenant Blacker. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

' SIR, ' Camp at Hoonelly, 3rd March, 1803. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 2nd 
instant. The failure of the Seringapatam cattle is very 



412 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

extraordinary indeed. They are not hired under any par- 
ticular bargain, and there is nothing to prevent the rejec- 
tion of those deemed unserviceable. I find that some of the 
drivers were at Hurryhur settling their accounts, which is 
probably one cause of a deficiency of these people found at 
muster. The cattle were very fine and complete in drivers 
when they left Seringapatam. 

1 Besides the cattle in your camp, 973, including spare, 
are gone to Chittledroog, to take thither the loads of stores 
left in that garrison. 

' I now enclose a state of our wheel carriages, and the 
draught cattle required for them. The number of spare is 
180, and they will go off to your camp to-morrow morning. 
This number will soon be increased by the emptying the 
treasure tumbrils, and by transferring to the horses the 
cavalry guns and tumbrils. 

' But till these measures are effected it would answer no 
purpose to send away more bullocks, and would render it 
necessary to leave carriages behind, if you should order me 
suddenly to march. 

' I also expect some deliveries of cattle immediately from 
Purneah ; 136 carriage bullocks will also go to your camp 
to-morrow morning ; these are above the number required 
for this camp, and will make the total number delivered to 
Major Symons stand as follows : mustered by Major Symons 
1928 ; sent to Chittledroog for the stores 973 ; and from this 
camp 136 total 3037. 

'Mr. Gordon's man tells me that the owners will replace 
the bullocks which Major Symons has rejected. I sent some 
rice to Colonel Dallas's camp this morning, and I shall send 
some more to-morrow. 

' Upon looking over the memorandum I sent you this 
morning, I find that the paper No. 1 is erroneous, as it in- 
cludes four tumbrils, with fixed ammunition for iron J2 
pounders, to be transferred from the grand army to this camp, 
whereas these tumbrils are now here. 

'I enclose another paper No. 1, corrected; and I shall be 
obliged to you, if you will destroy that which I sent this 
morning. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Lieut. General Stuart' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 413 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 
1 SIR, ' Camp at Hoonelty, 3rd March, 1803. 

' I have the honor to enclose a memorandum and certain 
other papers, upon the subject on which you have desired 
my sentiments, of which I hope you will approve. 

' It may appear extraordinary that it should be necessary 
that this detachment should be so much stronger than that 
which is advancing from Hyderabad ; but it must be recol- 
lected, first, that the latter will not advance beyond the 
Nizam's frontier, till the former shall be at hand to join it; 
and that the supposed enemy will be much disinclined to 
pass that frontier to attack it. Secondly, that this detach- 
ment must be not only of sufficient strength to defend itself, 
but also to give confidence to, and keep together the Pesh- 
wah's party in the state. 

' It is not so strong in the essential points, cavalry and 
European infantry, as that which I commanded in the coun- 
try heretofore ; but I think it is respectable, and I know it 
is so well equipped, that it will answer all the objects in 
view. 

4 If you should take the command of it yourself, I hope 
you will do me the favor to allow me to accompany you in 
any capacity whatever. All that is known of that country 
and its inhabitants, in a military point of view, was learned 
when I was in it, and I shall do every thing in my power to 
make myself useful to you. If you should not think proper 
to take the command of this detachment yourself, and in 
consideration of the information which I have had opportu- 
nities of gaining of that country and its inhabitants, and the 
communications which I have constantly held with its chiefs, 
you should be pleased to intrust it tome, I shall be infinitely 
gratified, and shall do every thing in my power to forward 
your views. 

' Although I have in this letter adverted to the command 
of the detachment to be sent forward, I am by no means 
desirous to press you to make known your sentiments upon 
it till the proper time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Lieut. General Stuart.' < ARTHUR WICLLESLEY. 



414 PREPARATIONS FOR 1803. 

Memorandum submitted to Lieut. General Stuart. 

* It appears now to be intended that a detachment from 
the army upon the frontier shall enter the Marhatta terri- 
tory, and that the main body shall remain within the terri- 
tories of the Company. 

' Upon this subject several questions are to be considered, 
upon which I shall enter into detail. 

' The first of these is the number and description of the 
troops and equipments that would be required to form a 
detachment which could with safety be trusted within the 
Marhatta frontier, until a junction should be formed with the 
detachment from Hyderabad. 

' Secondly, the quantity of provisions which this detach- 
ment ought to have with it. 

' Thirdly, the mode according to which this detachment is 
to subsist in the Marhatta territories. 

' Fourthly, the situation in which it would be most conve- 
nient for the main body of the army to be placed, with a view 
to the subsistence of the advanced detachment, and giving 
it support and countenance, and to the general defence of 
the frontier. 

' Fifthly, the manner in which the main body of the army 
is to be fed in this position. 

' 1st. It is my opinion that a detachment, consisting of 
either the 25th dragoons and the 1st and 4th regiments of 
cavalry, or the 19th dragoons and the 2nd, 5th, and 7th 
regiments of cavalry, with the five companies of the 33rd 
regiment, another regiment of European infantry (the 73rd 
would answer best, as that corps has been in that country 
before), 150 artillery, six battalions of native infantry, one 
corps of pioneers, four iron 12 pounders, two brass 12 
pounders, sixteen 6 pounders for the line, and as many guns 
drawn by horses as could be fitted out, would be, with the 
Rajah's and Marhatta horse, such a detachment as could be 
sent with safety into the Marhatta territory. The Seringa- 
patam equipment, having ten lacs of musket ammunition, 
would be sufficient for this detachment. 

' 2ndly. It ought to carry with it two months' arrack at 
full allowance; and provisions for 1500 European troops, 
and 2000 loads of rice in the grain department. 

' 3rdly. The Mysore brinjarries, amounting at present to 



1803. THE ADVANCE TO POONAH. 415 

26,000, ought to be sent with it, all full. What will remain 
of the depot collected at Hurryhur, as well as that at Hulli- 
hall, ought to be allotted to it, as well as all the resources 
which the Mysore country can afford. Besides these, the 
bullocks attached to the Mysore bazaar will be able to sup- 
ply the camp with the resources of the country in which the 
detachment may be situated. 

' 4thly. With a view that this advanced detachment may 
have the full advantage of the resources of provisions above 
stated, it would be necessary that the army should move out 
of Mysore as soon as the arrangements for the advance of 
the detachment shall be made. 

' Under present circumstances, the best defensive position 
which the army could take would be in the Ceded districts 
on the Toombuddra, in advance of Bellary, and probably of 
Anagoondy, with Purneah's army in Mysore, on the Toom- 
buddra, near Hoonelly. 

' They would then be able to move forward to the support 
of the advanced detachment ; they would protect the Ceded 
districts, if the enemy should attempt to penetrate into those 
countries, or by a movement to their left, Mysore, if he 
should attempt to penetrate into that country. 

' Sthly. The army might be fed in this position : first, by 
the ',; 2,000 brinjarries belonging to the Ceded districts; 
secondly, by 14,000 brinjarries belonging to the Baramahl, 
and which are now on their march to join the army; thirdly, 
by the depot formed at Bellary, which can be increased to 
any extent that maybe thought proper; and fourthly, by 
the resources of the Ceded districts. The 5000 loads of rice 
also, brought up in the grain department from the Carnatic, 
are not disposed of in this memorandum, and would be appli- 
cable to the subsistence of the main body. 

' The annexed papers will show the detail of every thing 
excepting money, medicines, and gram, that will be required 
by the advanced detachment of the strength supposed. I 
have no means of calculating the two former, and the quan- 
tity of the latter to be sent must depend upon the number 
of horses of which the detachment of cavalry will be com- 
posed. 

' ARTHUR WELLESLKY.' 



416 



ADVANCE TO POONAH. 



1803. 



Lieut. General Stuart to Lord dive. 

' Head Quarters, Camp near Mayaconda, 
' MY LORD, 3rd March, 1803. 

' I this day had the honor to receive your Lordship's dis- 
patch by express, dated the 27th ultimo. I have directed 
the divisions of the army to assemble at Hurryhur on the 
6th instant*, and I expect that the detachment under Major 
General the Honorable Arthur Wellesley will be able to 
commence its march into the Marhatta territory on the 8th. 
I shall have the honor, on my arrival at Hurryhur, of com- 
municating to your Lordship a detail of the arrangements 
which I propose to adopt relative to that movement. 

' I have acquainted the Residents at Poonah and Hydera- 

* Force assembled at Hurryhur under the command of Lieut. General Stuart. 



CAVALRY. Ear. 

H. M.'s 19th dragoons . 413 

25th do. . 562 



1st regiment 
2nd do. 
4th do. 
5th do. 
6th do. 
7th do. 


native cavalry 
do. . 
do. 




437 
433 
438 


do. 
do. 
do. 







421 
434 
438 



Nat. Toted. Grand Total. 



975 



2606 



Artillery .... 390 
Gun Lascars .... 

INFANTRY. 

H. M.'s 3.3rd reg. 5 companies 322 
H. M.'s 73rd do. . . 756 
H. M.'s 74th do. . . 754 
H. M.'s Scotch Brigade . 1013 



1st battalion 2nd regiment N. I. 



5G3 



3581 
390 
563 






2345 



2845 



1st 


do. 


3rd 


do. 


2nd 


do. 


3rd 


do. 


1st 


do. 


4th 


do. 


2nd 


do. 


4th 


do. 


2nd 


do. 


5th 


do. 


1st 


do. 


8th 


do. 


1st 


do. 


12th 


do. 


2nd 


do. 


1 2th 


do. 


2nd 


do. 


18th 


do. 


1st 


do. 


14th 


do. 


1st 


do. 


17th 


do. 



1005 
1109 

998 
1010 
1010 
1014 

997 
1014 
1000 
1014 
1014 

997 



12,182 



Corps of pioneers 



12,182 
800 



Grand Total . 19,798 

With 4 iron twelve and 4 iron eighteen pounders ; 4 brass twelve pounders ; 
40 field pieces, 12 galloper gnus, and 4 howitxers. 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 417 

bad with the period of time when Major General Wellesley's 
detachment will be ordered to advance from the frontier ; 
and I have informed the latter of the arrangement which I 
have made in regard to the junction of an European corps 
with the subsidiary force*. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord dive: < J. STUART. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 
1 SIR, Hoonelly, 4th March, 1803. 

' I had the honor of receiving yesterday your first letter of 
the 3rd, and I have stopped here this day in order to see the 
vakeels, to write letters to the sirdars upon the frontier, and 
to make various arrangements preparatory to the march of 
the troops. I shall go to Hurryhur to-morrow morning, and 
shall join you at Kurdewarrah on the 6th. This division 
will march from hence on the 6th, and will be at Hurryhur 
on the 7th. 

' I have given orders that the brinjarries may be col- 
lected. They will be in good time. Major Robertson will 
give his own directions to Kischen Rao, who is in your camp, 
regarding the sheep; but I have sent to Purneah on the 
subject. 

' I am entirely at a loss whom to recommend for the 
offices mentioned in your second letter of the 3rd ; as all the 
officers who have been employed with me heretofore have been 
selected by you for situations of importance in the army. 

* Subsidiary force attached to the Nizam under Colonel Stevenson. 

CAVALRY. 

rd regt. native cavalry 516 



6th do. 

2nd battalu 
1st do. 
2nd do. 
2nd do. 
1st do. 
2nd do. 

Artillery 




502 


1018 

7182 
168 


INFANTRY. 
>n 2nd regiment native infan 
6th do. 
7th do. 
9th do. 
llth do. 
llth do. 


try 


1275 

1288 
1290 
1286 
1008 
1035 



Total 8368 

With 310 lascars and two companies of pioneers. 

The 94th, then the Scotch brigade, afterwards joined from the advancing di- 
vision under Major General Wellesley. 

VOL, I. 2 E 



418 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

' It occurs to me, however, that as the business of all the 
departments of the army will, under present arrangements, 
be much less than was expected when the appointments 
were made, the business both of the army and of the ad- 
vanced detachment might be done by the same officers, only 
by a different arrangement of it. Major Robertson might 
superintend the business of Major Symons' bullock depart- 
ment in the army, and Major Symons might superintend 
Major Robertson's grain and provision department, and 
Mr. Darval's pay department with the advanced detach- 
ment; or vice versa, Major Robertson might take charge, in 
the advanced detachment, of Major Symons' and Mr. Dar- 
val's departments, and Major Symons of his in the army. 

' I should, however, prefer to have Major Symons with the 
advanced detachment, because he could give me a little 
assistance in the language, of which I stand much in need, 
my Persian interpreter being at Seringapatam, doing his 
duty at that place. 

' In case you should adopt this proposal, it would be 
necessary that the gentlemen at the heads of departments 
should send with the advanced detachment, or leave with 
the army, as the case may be, proper servants to carry on 
their respective duties. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Hoonelly, 4th March, 1803, 

' You will have learned from Lord Olive's instructions to 
General Stuart, of the 27th of February, that every thing 
ends, at last, in my going forward -with a detachment; and 
that the main body of the army is to remain on the frontier 
with a view to its defence, or to giving support to the ad- 
vanced division, if it should be necessary. 

' The army joins, consequently, at Hurry hur, on the 7th, 
and I shall move forward as soon afterwards as circum- 
stances will permit ; but as I sent to General Stuart, yester- 
day, detailed arrangements for detaching a body of about 
the strength stated in Lord Olive's instructions, I imagine 
that all the preparations for my march will be in readiness 
in a very few hours after the army shall join. I shall leave 
this to-morrow for General Stuart's camp, to forward them, 






1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 419 

and you may depend upon my not losing one moment of 
time. 

' I enclose my last letters from Govind Rao, from which 
you will perceive the state of the opinions and intentions of 
the jaghiredars upon the frontier. Besides this, Goklah's 
vakeel in my camp still assures me of the determination of 
his master to adhere to the cause of the Peshwah and to 
join me. 

' I have desired Govind Rao to urge Ball Kischen Gun- 
gurdhur to come and meet me ; and if Darwar is not to be 
got by force, I shall, at least, try what I can do by fair means 
and threats. 

' I return you a copy of Captain Moor's memorandum, 
with a memorandum in answer thereto. I like the depot at 
Bombay well, particularly as I find from General Stuart that 
the harbour at Bombay is, at all seasons, practicable for boats. 

' I shall keep you informed of every thing that occurs. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

' SIR, ' Fort St. George, 7th March, 1803. 

' I have had every reason to be highly satisfied with the 
mode in which the intercourse with the Marhatta jaghire- 
dars has been hitherto carried on through the medium of 
Major General Wellesley ; and the same causes which 
induced me to suggest to your Excellency the expediency of 
employing that officer in the command of the detachment 
destined to advance in co-operation with the southern jag- 
hiredars, lead me to recommend your continuing to take 
every advantage of that officer's personal influence with 
these chiefs, and of his extensive knowledge of their views 
and sentiments, in order to carry the intentions of the 
Governor General into full execution ; and it is by no means 
my intention, when I recommend to your Excellency, in con- 
formity with the wishes of the Governor General, to employ 
the abilities of M ajor Malcolm on such affairs of a political 
nature as may arise, to limit the powers of your Excellency 
in authorising Major General Wellesley, or any other officer, 
to hold direct intercourse, or to negotiate an arrangement 
with any of the Peshwah's officers, upon the principles pre- 



420 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

scribed by the Governor General. I am well convinced your 
Excellency cannot have too great a latitude in this respect, 
and that it is essential to the success of the public service 
that you should feel yourself at perfect liberty to act on 
every emergency that may occur in the mode dictated by 
your own judgment. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart: ' CLIVE. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 

' Camp upon the Toombuddra, 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, opposite Anee, 8th March, 1803. 

' In my last letter I told you that I should not be very 
long arranging the detachment to proceed under my com- 
mand towards Poonah. Accordingly I moved into camp 
yesterday, and am this day six miles in advance of it, and I 
shall proceed on my march to-morrow. I have with me the 
19th Light Dragoons, 4th, 5th, and 7th regiments of cavalry, 
under Colonel Dallas; the 74th and Scotch brigade, and 
six complete battalions of native infantry; four iron 12 
pounders, two brass 12 pounders, sixteen 6 pounders, four 
galloper G pounders, besides the guns attached to the 
cavalry. I cannot cross the river till I shall be opposite 
Havanoor, because there is no water between Rany Bednore 
and Havey. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Close.* f ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

SIR, ' Camp at Gubgurry, 9th March, 1803. 

' Every thing allotted to this detachment arrived in camp 
yesterday evening, excepting the medicines, which I knew 
from Mr. Anderson were not to be sent from the army till 
this morning, and I marched to this place this day. 1 expect 
the medicines this evening, and I propose to commence my 
march to-morrow morning. All the brinjarries have not yet 
joined me ; indeed, some that engaged in the service, I be- 
lieve, will not come at all. I have desired Captain Baynes 
to march on the 12th, with a certain number that will be 
collected at Hurryhur before that day ; and I have requested 
Mr. Piele to arrange that a party of the Rajah's horse shall 
wait for others expected at Hurryhur on the 15th or 16th, 






1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 421 

By taking care to keep the bags filled of those I have with 
me, by giving them orders upon Hurryhur as long as I am 
in this neighbourhood, and upon Hullihall when I get more 
forward, I have little doubt but that I shall have plenty. It 
is necessary, however, that Lieut. Blacker should give direc- 
tions that none of the brinjarries allotted to this detachment 
should be allowed to remain with the army ; and that all the 
persons attached to my bazaar may be sent after me with 
Captain Baynes. 

' I send with this, for Hullihall, to be forwarded by the 
tappal, a letter which contains orders regarding the prepara- 
tions to be made for issuing the supplies at that place, so 
that the cattle, &c., may not be delayed there. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Major General the Hon. A. Wellesley. 

' SIR, ' Head Quarters, Camp at Hurryhur, 9th March, 1803. 

' You have already been apprized of your appointment to 
the command of a detachment destined to advance into the 
Marhatta territory, and of the description and extent of the 
force composing that detachment.* You have also been fur- 

* Force composing the advancing division under Major General the Hon. A. 
Wellesley. 

CAVALRY. Eur. Nat. Total. Grand Total. 

H.M. 19th light dragoons . 412 412 

4th native cavalry . . 433 

5th do. ... 421 

6th do. ... 438 

1297 

INFANTRY. 1709 

H. M. 74th regiment . . 1013 
Scotch Brigade . . . 754 

1767 

1st battalion 2nd regt. native infantry 1005 ' 

1st <lo. 3rd do. 1109 

'Jrul do. 3rd do. 998 

1st do. 8th do. 997 

2nd .lo. 12th do. 1000 

2nd do. 18th do. 1014 

6123 

7890 

Artillery .... 108 108 

Gun lascars ........ 206 

Pioneers . . . 704 



Grand total 10,617 

Major General Wellesley had earnestly proposed that his own regiment, the 
33rd, to which he \vas much attached, should iiconnpany the advancing division 
under his command: but circumstances prevented the desired arrangement. 



422 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

nished with the instructions of his Excellency the Governor 
General and the Right Honorable the Governor of Fort St. 
George, relative to the purposes of its movements, and have 
been supplied with copies of all the public communications 
that I have received regarding the present state of affairs in 
the Marhatta empire, the strength and disposition of Jes- 
wunt Rao Holkar's forces, and the probable objects of his 
designs. The above instructions from government will fully 
explain to you the plan of proceedings, by which the Go- 
vernor General has proposed to re-establish the authority of 
the Peshwah, and fulfil the conditions of the defensive alli- 
ance concluded with his Highness. The information derived 
from these papers, together with your own extensive know- 
ledge of the state of tha subject, has therefore obviated the 
necessity of furnishing you with detailed instructions from 
myself, on the particular measures to be adopted in pursuit 
of those objects ; more especially as the nature of the ser- 
vice upon which you are proceeding, depending on the sen- 
timents of a people, whose views and opinions are but imper- 
fectly known at this distance, and on events of a contingent 
nature, precludes the practicability of ascertaining the exact 
operations which it may be thought proper to undertake. 

' Although I have considered it to be expedient to avoid 
prescribing the particular plan of the operations of your de- 
tachment, yet I judge it necessary to state certain principal 
objects which, in my judgment, ought to regulate the course 
of your proceedings. 

' 1. To encourage the southern jaghiredars to declare in 
favor of the Peshwah's cause ; to employ every means to re- 
concile their mutual animosities, and to induce them to 
unite their forces with the advancing detachment, for the 
purpose of re-establishing his Highness's government. 

' 2. To proceed to Meritch, and form a junction with 
the Peshwah ; or, should that measure be deemed unad- 
visable on the part of his Highness, with such of his chief- 
tains and troops as may be able to meet you there. 

' 3. To open a communication, and form a junction with 
the subsidiary force under Colonel Stevenson, and the con- 
tingent of his Highness the Nizam. 

' 4. To proceed eventually to Poonah, and establish an 
order of things in that capital, favorable to the return of 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 423 

the Pcshwah, and the attainment of the ends of the late 
treaty. 

' The means of accomplishing those objects must be regu- 
lated by your own judgment, in conformity to circumstances. 
It will require every exertion of your ability to unite the 
southern jaghiredars in an effectual support of the Peshwah's 
cause, distracted as they are at present by internal dissen- 
sions and hostilities. The interests and fears, however, of 
those chieftains will render them solicitous to avert the cala- 
mities threatened by the further success of a power, that 
derives its support from contributions and plunder; and 
they must be sensible that the retreat or overthrow of that 
power, and the restoration of a regular government, are the 
only means by which the dangers to which they are now 
exposed can be prevented, and the possession of their tran- 
quillity secured. But in encouraging the co-operation of 
those chieftains, you will carefully abstain from any specific 
engagements of a nature incompatible with the rule esta- 
blished by his Excellency the Governor General for the 
conduct to be observed towards them. You will receive 
herewith duplicates of the letters stated by Lieut. Colonel 
Close to have been transmitted by the Peshwah to the 
chieftains in the neighbourhood of Meritch and the Kistna, 
who are considered to be attached to his cause, enjoining 
them to join and co-operate with the British troops on their 
advance. You will forward those letters to their respective 
addresses, at such times, and accompanying them with such 
instructions to the chieftains on the subject of their co-ope- 
rating with you, as you may find to be most expedient. 

' The general state of affairs renders the rapidity of your 
advance of essential advantage ; as your early arrival upon 
the Kistna, and your junction witli the Peshwah's troops and 
the subsidiary force, will materially contribute to frustrate 
any designs which may be meditated against his Highness's 
interests, or the arrangements of the late treaty, and to give 
union and efficacy to your operations. I consider it there- 
fore of importance that you should employ every practicable 
degree of expedition in collecting the forces of the southern 
jaghiredars, and proceeding in conjunction with them to 
join the Peshwah and the Nizam's force. I attach the 
greatest consequence to the latter junction, and I request 



424 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

that you will keep the means of accomplishing it at all times 
in view. 

' The detachments under you and Colonel Stevenson, 
while separated from each other, are exposed to misfortunes 
from which their united strength would effectually secure 
them. 

' The subsidiary force in particular, destitute of Euro- 
peans, and occupying an advanced position, may be liable 
to the necessity of acting under very unfavorable circum- 
stances. 

' Every view of our situation appears to me to require 
that your junction with Colonel Stevenson's force should be 
effected at the earliest practicable period of time, as that 
measure will secure, more than any other, the safety of the 
British troops, and the general success of the plans of 
government. 

c I have not noticed in the foregoing orders the conduct to 
be observed on your part, in case of the opposition of any 
chieftain ; and in particular of Jeswunt Rao Holkar, from 
whom we are led to expect most opposition to your pro- 
ceedings. 

' The instructions of the Governor General and Lord 
Clive contain no orders, and afford no positive rule to guide 
my determination on this important head. I infer, how- 
ever, from the spirit of those instructions, that if the ma- 
jority of the southern jaghiredars, and the sentiments of the 
body of the people, are found to declare in favor of the 
restoration of Bajee Rao, the British detachment ought to 
persevere in the endeavor to re-establish his authority; 
and should the detachment, during the prosecution of that 
endeavor, encounter the hostility of any individual jaghire- 
dar, that they are to employ, in concert with the well-affected 
jaghiredars, every practicable means to overcome his opposi- 
tion. In the event, therefore, of any single feudatory op- 
posing resistance to the restoration of the Peshwah, after 
you have ascertained that the sentiments of the majority of 
the chieftains are favorable to that measure, I am of opinion 
that the instructions which I have received justify me in 
authorising you to compel his submission. 

' This authority must, however, be understood to apply to 
the case only of your experiencing hostility from any of the 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 425 

Marhatta chiefs, for the principle of his Excellency the Go- 
vernor General's policy is, to avoid a war ; and as his Excel- 
lency has directed me to bear this principle in mind, as the 
rule of our conduct on every emergency that may arise, you 
will carefully forbear from the adoption of any measure that 
is likely to involve the occurrence of hostilities with any of 
the parties of the M arhatta empire. 

' The numerous considerations which recommend the 
early and expeditious advance of the detachment, render it 
unadvisable, in my judgment, to undertake the siege of 
Darwar. 

' The reduction of that fortress might be attended with 
delays extremely detrimental to the success of our cause; 
and I do not apprehend that Bappojee Scindiah, intimi- 
dated, as he will be, by the vicinity of the army under my 
command, and afraid to exasperate his future treatment 
from the Peshwah, will attempt to molest your communica- 
tions. 

' I therefore consider it to be expedient that this fortress, 
notwithstanding the important advantage which would be 
derived to your operations from its possession, at the present 
crisis of affairs, should be permitted to remain under its pre- 
sent killadar. It may, however, be proper that you should 
avail yourself of the impression which the advance of the 
British force will produce upon the minds of the people, to 
require of Bappojee Scindiah his probable views. 

' The instructions to Colonel Stevenson, which I have 
ordered to be furnished to you, will explain the measures 
prescribed to that officer. I have instructed him to commu- 
nicate regular information of his proceedings and situation 
to you, and to obey your orders. When you shall have 
opened a safe communication with this officer's force, you will 
detach his Majesty's Scotch brigade to join it ; and consider 
that corps, from the time of its removal from your detach- 
ment, as attached to the establishment of the subsidiary 
force. Colonel Stevenson, according to the last letter which 
I received from that officer, was to be at Perinda on the 16th 
of March. 

' I have written to the Residents at Poonah and Hyder- 
abad, informing them of your advance, and requesting them 
to communicate with you ; and I am desirous that you should 



426 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

afford them every information regarding your progress that 
it may be requisite for them to know. 

' You are aware of the importance of making me regularly 
acquainted with your operations, with the sentiments of the 
people, and the general state of affairs connected with the 
proceedings of your detachment. It will be particularly 
necessary for you to transmit to me the earliest possible in- 
formation of such circumstances as may be expected to occur, 
to obstruct the progress of the detachment, either from the 
disinclination of the people in general to the cause which it 
supports, or from the opposition of any individual chieftain. 

' The army will take a position in the ceded districts ready 
to support your operations, when support shall appear from 
either of these causes to be necessary. 

' I shall, on receiving information of the probability of 
serious resistance being opposed to your advance, anticipate 
this necessity by a movement of the army to support you. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major Gen. the Hon. A. Wellesley? ' J. STUART. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 
< SIR, ' Camp at Oollull, 10th March, 1803. 

' I have received a letter from the minister of the Rajah of 
Kolapoor, in which he asks me by what route it is proposed 
that the troops shall march, as it is his master's intention to 
join with his troops. The Rajah of Kolapoor is attached to 
Scindiah. 

' I have desired Colonel Carlisle to send the galloper 12 
pounders and their harness to your camp ; also all the bul- 
locks which Mr. Gordon may have hired at Seringapatam. 
I do not want any ; and if I did, those behind me now would 
not be able to catch me. 

' I have ordered a company under an European officer 
from the garrison of Nuggur to Hooly Honore, on the 
Toombuddra, to relieve the escorts from the garrison of Se- 
ringapatam, and to have a look out for all that is coming 
from thence, and to correspond with Colonel Carlisle and 
the gentlemen in your camp. You will find them useful in 
this position. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart." ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 427 

To the Adjutant General. 

' SIR, ' Camp at Oollull, 10th March, 1803. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter which I have received 
from Lieut. Colonel Whitelocke, commanding at Chittle- 
droog, and I beg leave to recommend that Lieut. Moore may 
be appointed to act as Fort Adjutant at Chittledroog, during 
the absence of Lieut. Carfrae. 

' I likewise enclose the proceedings of a committee, which 
has examined the lot of remount horses brought to camp by 
Lieut. Monteith, one of which has been taken by Cornet 
Atkins, in consequence of the permission of the Commander 
in Chief. I have directed that the other horses may be 
divided equally between the 5th and 7th regiments of ca- 
valry. 

' I likewise enclose an order issued by me regarding cer- 
tain horses which I had purchased in consequence of orders 
from the Commander in Chief, and had placed, with his ap- 
probation, in the 2nd regiment of cavalry. I now request 
the confirmation of the enclosed order. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 The Adjutant General: ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, 'Camp at Hurryhur, 10th March, 1803. 

' I have endeavoured, in determining the amount of the 
force of Major General Wellesley's detachment, to adhere as 
nearly as possible to the principles established for the regu- 
lation of that question by his Excellency the Governor Ge- 
neral and by your Lordship ; to render the advancing 
detachment sufficiently strong to maintain its ground until 
sustained ; and to retain at the same time with the army a 
force capable of moving, when requisite, to its support. 

' The strength of the advancing detachment, including 
the regiment destined to join the subsidiary force, is greater 
at present than that of the army : were the former made 
stronger, it would be doubtful whether the army, on an 
emergency, would be able to sustain it, for the same circum- 
stances that might make support necessary to the advancing 
detachment would render it difficult for a weaker body to 



423 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

effect its relief: and were the detachment weaker, it might 
be exposed to serious misfortunes. 

' Upon strict military principles, I should have been soli- 
citous to render a detachment, destined to proceed upon a 
remote service, sufficiently strong to remove the apprehen- 
sion of its requiring support ; and it has appeared to me that 
I ought to recur to those principles as the rule of my con- 
duct, in the event of any serious hostility being offered to the 
force under Major General Wellesley. In that case, there- 
fore, setting aside all secondary considerations connected 
with the temporary tranquillity of the frontier, I shall deem 
it to be the principal object of my duty to secure the general 
safety of the British army, by a prompt movement, to join 
the detachment in advance. 

* I am however led, by a view of present circumstances, to 
think that the support of the army will not be required ; as 
the favorable disposition already manifested by some of the 
southern jaghiredars, and the undecided conduct of those 
from whom opposition might be expected, will, it is pro- 
bable, enable the advancing detachment, the Peshwah's 
troops, and the Nizam's force, to effect a junction. After 
that event, the British army will be equal to the prosecution 
of any service which it may be required to undertake. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Clive.' J. STUART. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

' SlR, ' Camp at Oollull, 1 1th March, 1803. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 10th. 
The tumbrils Avill leave this camp to-morrow morning, but I 
cannot yet say in what numbers, as the Paymaster's people 
have not yet completed their payments, and I do not know 
what sum in silver will remain to be carried in them. None 
of them are very good, and two of them are quite unservice- 
able. Indeed all the tumbrils are old and very bad. They 
have been in every campaign in the Mysore country since 
the year 1798, and I sent the greater number of them into 
Chittledroog in an unserviceable state, in the year 1800. 

' Goklah's letter was only complimentary, and to request 
that I would protect his country. He also informs me that 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 429 

he is sending to me a man, whom I know to be his uncle. I 
have besides received, through Govind Rao, letters from 
Appah Saheb and other sirdars, and one from the killadar of 
Darwar. This man said to Govind Rao that he was the 
Peshwah's servant, and was willing to obey all orders that he 
should receive from him. I learn, however, from a man at 
Darwar, that the killadar is much afraid that we shall attack 
his place ; but I have desired this man to give him assur- 
ances that we were the enemies of nobody ; and that if he 
remained quiet, offered us no interruption, and allowed us to 
enjoy the resources of the country, he should not be mo- 
lested ; and that we were advancing at the call of the Pesh- 
wah, whose orders must be obeyed. 

' The route which I sent you yesterday did not contain the 
marches which must be made to join Colonel Stevenson. 
The reason is, that, from the want of sufficient information, I 
have not yet determined by what route they shall be. I 
am, however, making inquiries upon the subject, and I hope 
in a few days to be able to give you a decided answer upon 
it. I am obliged to conduct these inquiries with caution, 
lest in appearing too anxious to form this junction, they 
should suspect that I think myself weak ; and that the 
junction is absolutely necessary for the safety of both detach- 
ments. 

' The want of water in the country will oblige both de- 
tachments to keep upon the rivers as much as possible ; and 
I rather believe that I must proceed by the way of Beeja- 
poor to the Beemah, and march up that river; and that 
Colonel Stevenson should advance and join me upon it. By 
that mode the Nizam's frontier will not be uncovered for a 
moment. 

' Mr. Darval has equipped us but badly with servants ; 
but that is his own affair ; he will be the loser if the accounts 
are not regularly kept. I take care of the money, which is 
the principal point, and have it always in front of my tent, 
under an officer's guard. 

' I write to Major Robertson also, respecting some shep- 
herds, whom I request he will send with Captain Baynes to- 
morrow. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart-' f ARTHUR WKLLESLEY, 



430 ADVANCE TO POONAH. 1803. 

To Lord Clive. 
' MY LORD, ' Camp at Hurryhur, 12th March, 1803. 

' Major General Wellesley having been entrusted, pre- 
viously to my arrival on the frontier, with the management 
of all communications with the Marhatta chieftains, and 
selected, by your Lordship's desire, for the command of the 
advancing detachment, has been continued in that manage- 
ment ; as I have been desirous to prevent the inconveniences 
which would result to his proceedings from the delays attend- 
ing references to me on the subject of his transactions with 
the chieftains of the Marhatta state. 

' I have informed Major General Wellesley of your Lord- 
ship's wishes regarding the employment of Major Malcolm ; 
and I believe no obstacles will occur to impede the exercise 
of the authority with which your Lordship has judged it ex- 
pedient to furnish that officer, of cultivating an intercourse 
with the Marhatta chieftains, if the progress of affairs should 
render that measure necessary. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Clive' ' J. STUART. 

Extract from ' The Notes relative to the late Transactions in the 
Marhatta Empire' 

' Major General Wellesley commenced his march from 
Hurryhur on the 9th of March, and crossed the Toom- 
buddra river on the 12th. The progress of the British 
troops through the Marhatta territories was most successful. 
They were everywhere received as friends, and almost all the 
chiefs in the vicinity of the route of the detachment joined 
with their forces, and accompanied the British army to 
Poonah. The amicable conduct of the jaghiredars and of 
the inhabitants (arising principally from the fame which the 
British arms had acquired in the campaign under Major 
General Wellesley's command against Dhoondiah Waugh) 
contributed to enable our army to perform this long march, 
at a most unfavorable season of the year, without loss or dis- 
tress. 

' Great merit is also to be ascribed to the ability, temper, 
activity, and skill of Major General Wellesley, in directing 
the system of the supply and movement of the troops, in 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 431 

preventing plunder and all excess, and in conciliating the 
inhabitants of the districts through which his route was 
directed.' 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 
< SIR, ' Camp at Richter, 12th March, 1803. 

' I crossed the Toombuddra into the Marhatta territory 
at Havanoor this morning, and marched to this place, which 
is upon the Werdah. The inhabitants are all in their vil- 
lages, and have promised to supply the camp with every 
thing that the country can afford. 

' I sent off four tumbrils to your camp this morning, some 
of them containing the treasure which remains after paying 
the troops in this camp, out of the lac of pagodas sent here 
for that purpose. I cannot say exactly what the sum is, as I 
could not procure any account of it from Mr. Darval's ser- 
vant. Besides this sum, there are 30,070^ rupees belonging 
to the money allotted to this detachment in Mr. Piele's tum- 
bril. It is part of the 80,000 pagodas sent by Mr. Raven- 
shaw. These rupees were put in Mr. Piele's tumbril for the 
convenience of carriage, and were forgotten by Mr. Darval's 
servants. I have, however, retained 30,070^ rupees of the 
surplus money ; so that I have in camp three lacs of pa- 
godas clear, and I have written to Mr. Piele to request that 
he will pay Mr. Darval the money which he has in his 
tumbril. 

' The money tumbrils are all in a very bad state ; indeed 
I am surprised that even one of them has come on so far as 
it has ; and I think it very probable that, although empty, 
it will not get back to your camp. There are forty eight of 
the Company's draught bullocks drawing these tumbrils. 
?hosc in the cavalry guns cannot be sent yet ; as, owing to 
some mistake between the gentlemen of the cavalry and 
Captain Mackay, the bandy with the harness was left behind 
in the cavalry lines at Gubgurry ; but I hope it will join this 
day, and if it does, these bullocks will also be sent to you to- 
morrow. 

' We had some deserting last night, both of sepoys and 
followers ; many of the bazaar people, and others attached 
to this bazaar with bullocks, have joined the army. How- 
ever, we are well supplied, and by means of the stores at 



432 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1803. 

Hurryhur and Hullihall, I think we shall quit the Malpoorba 
with every bag full. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart.' ' ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To the Governor General. 

1 Camp at Karisgy upon the Werdah, 
' MY LORD, 13th March, 1803. 

t You will be anxious to hear from me as soon as possible, 
after I have entered the Marhatta territory, and I lose no 
time in writing to you. 

' I crossed the Toombuddra at Havanoor yesterday, and 
marched to this river, and made another march towards Sa- 
vanore this day. We have been well received by the inha- 
bitants of the country ; the villages are all full, and the camp 
is well supplied with forage and provisions : I have no doubt 
whatever but that I shall be able to bring forward, for the 
service of the Peshwah, all the jaghiredars in the southern 
part of the empire, and I think that all your plans will be 
carried into execution. 

c This detachment of the army is well supplied with pro- 
visions, and every thing it can want: and excepting in 
forage, for which every large body of troops must depend 
upon the country which is to be the seat of its operations, is 
nearly independent of the resources of this country. We 
owe this state of our supplies to the nourishing resources of 
Mysore, and to the ease with which they are brought forward 
for the use of the British armies. But any change in the 
system of government in that country will be immediately 
felt, and particularly by that body of troops which will be in 
advance. 

' I draw your attention to this subject, because I have 
learned from General Stuart that Lord Clive is going to 
England immediately in the " United Kingdom ;" and I 
suspect that the person who may succeed to him in the govern- 
ment of Fort St. George is not likely to preserve matters in 
Mysore in the state in which they are at present. It is im- 
possible to suppose otherwise than that, after a residence 
there for four years, I have acquired considerable influence 
in that country, which has lately been exerted to bring for- 
ward its resources for the use of the armies, and will have 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 433 

the effect of keeping this body of troops well supplied; but 
this influence depends upon my retaining the command in 
Mysore, of which, I think it probable, that the new Govern- 
ment of Madras will wish to deprive me. 

4 1 had an explanation with General Stuart upon this sub- 
ject some time ago, and he declared that he was determined 
that I should exercise the command in Mysore, while in 
advance with the army, which he then imagined that he should 
lead into the Marhatta territory. When leaving him on 
the 8th of this month, I spoke to him upon it, and he desired 
me to make such arrangements as I might think proper, to 
enable me to exercise the command in Mysore, while in the 
Marhatta territory. I have submitted to him these arrange- 
ments, and he has approved of them. But still I fear the 
new Government of Madras; one of whose objects, I believe, 
is to overturn the existing system in Mysore, of which I 
have hitherto been the principal support. 

' I am willing to resign the command of Mysore as soon 
as this campaign is over ; but I am anxious that this detach- 
ment should be in a state of efficiency and well equipped. 
It can be well supplied only by the resources of Mysore, 
and I am certain of having the use of them, only by keeping 
the command in Mysore in my own hands. I wish, there- 
fore, if it should be possible, that the new Government of Fort 
St. George may be prevented appointing a person to fill my 
situation in Mysore while I am absent. 

' I should not have written to you on this subject, as I 
know that you are unwilling to interfere in matters that con- 
cern the subordinate governments, only that the risk of this 
detachment is great ; and that if the change is intended, 
advantage may be taken of General Stuart's absence from 
Madras to effect it. If he should be consulted, or should 
have time to give his opinion, I know that he will object to 
the measure. 

' Malcolm had not, yesterday, reached General Stuart's 
camp at Hurryhur. 

' I hear nothing of any of Holkar's troops, and I do not 
know that we have an enemy in this country. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
, ' The Governor General* ( ARTHUR WELLKSLKY. 

VOL. T. 2 P 



THE MARHATTA WAR. 1803. 



To Lieut. General Stuart. 
< SIR, ' Camp at Karisgy, 13th March, 1803. 

' The bandy, with the harness, arrived in camp yesterday, 
after I wrote to you ; and to-morrow I shall send you the 
bullocks which have been employed in drawing the cavalry 
guns. I heard yesterday evening that one of the empty 
treasure tumbrils had broken down near Oollull; at which 
indeed I am not astonished, as it has been in a very bad 
state ever since it came from the army. 

' I find that the brinjarries like the mode of filling the 
bags at the stores so well, and are so active in carrying it 
into execution, that I think it probable that I shall be able 
to advance from the Malpoorba with every bag full. In that 
case it will be necessary that I should have 500 bullocks 
more to carry on the salt beef, and 400 kegs of arrack in 
store at Hullihall, and sent from Bombay. I have accord- 
ingly arranged with the bullock owners in this camp to raise 
that number, which they say they can procure with great 
ease. I write to your Secretary on this subject. 

' I have a letter from Seringapatam, by which I learn that 
four carriages, for 6 pounders, with brass naves, are prepar- 
ing at that place. Should you wish that they should be sent 
to your camp ? 

' I enclose a paper of intelligence received from Sir W. 
Clarke. Ram Rao, who resides at Darwar, wrote on the 4th, 
that Bappojee Scindiah was in Darwar with his troops, and 
much afraid of being attacked, and he did not allude in the 
most distant manner to this agent of Holkar, nor have I 
received an account of him from any body else. It is very 
improbable that Bappojee Scindiah will give up his fort to 
a Bramin sent to take it without troops. If his disposition 
be thus friendly to Holkar, he would probably be the fittest 
person for Holkar to leave in charge of the fort, and it would 
not be necessary to send any other to take it. 

' Therefore I do not believe that this intelligence of Sir 
W. Clarke's is true. But if it should be true, it is a matter of 
some consequence. The question, in that case, will be, whe- 
ther we ought not to send for Ball Kischen Gungurdhur, and 
call upon the present possessors of the fort to give it up to 
him, as the killadar appointed by the Peshwah. With such 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 435 

a force as I have, and with all the people of the country on 
our side, I do not think that they would refuse it ; or if they 
did, it is, in fact, not a strong place, nor one which would take 
much time to reduce. I should be glad to be favored with 
your directions upon this subject. 

' I have proceeded hitherto, in regard to Darwar, in this 
manner : I wrote to Ram Rao, and desired him to calm the 
apprehensions of Bappojee Scindiah; to assure him that I 
was not ordered to attack him, or any body, that did not 
molest the British troops ; that the English were the allies 
of the Peshwah, and that all we required from the country 
was, to be treated as friends by his officers and servants, and 
to enjoy our share of its resources which were necessary to 
us. I, at the same time, gave him a hint that the Peshwah's 
orders, whatever they were, must be obeyed ; and I did this, 
lest, notwithstanding the late orders of the Governor of 
Fort St. George, and your present intention that Bappojee 
Scindiah should not be attacked, the Peshwah should press 
the taking possession of the fort for Ball Kischen Gungurd- 
hur, and that it should consequently be necessary to attack 
it with British troops. 

' As I do not credit this intelligence of Sir W. Clarke's, I 
shall still proceed upon the same principle in all my commu- 
nications with Bappojee Scindiah; and as he is a clever 
fellow, it is not improbable but that, if not already in the 
hands of Holkar, we may make him our friend; and the 
fort may be as useful to us in his hands, as if it were in our 
own. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart.' < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Colonel Stevenson. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Deogerry, 14th March, 1803. 
' I arrived here this morning, and I propose to continue 
my marches forward on the day after to-morrow. You will 
probably have received from General Stuart a copy of my 
instructions, in which I am urgently desired to take the 
earliest opportunity of effecting a junction with you. You 
will observe, however, that other objects are also held out to 
my attention ; the collection of, and junction with, the south- 
ern jaghiredars, and the junction with the Peshwah, should 

2F2 



436 



THE MARHATTA WAR. 



1803. 



his Highness come to Meritch. At present, I think that 
none of these objects are incompatible. I can collect and 
join myself with the southern jaghiredars on my road towards 
you ; and if his Highness should come from Bassein, and 
join his army upon the Kistna, I can also join myself to him. 
The only inconveniences attending these different objects 
are, that they will take time, and that I cannot fix that at 
which I shall be in your neighbourhood. However, every 
thing cannot go on as we could wish. 

' 1 shall make you acquainted in this letter with my inten- 
tions, as far as I can determine them, and you must make 
your own calculations where I cannot. I intend to march to 
Meritch on the Kistna, by the route of Darwar, Belgaum, 
and Chickoree. I shall be at Darwar on the 22nd, at Bel- 
gaum on the 27th, at Chickoree on the 1st of April, and at 
Meritch on the 5th. All this, however, will depend much 
upon my being able to find water on the road, of which I 
have not very favourable accounts. If I should be able to 
go by the proposed road, and should not be obliged to de- 
viate from it to find water, I shall certainly make the marches 
above stated. How long I shall be obliged to remain at 
Meritch, God knows ; but my route to join you ought to be 
by Punderpoor. I do not know yet whether there is a road 
direct from Meritch to Punderpoor, or the nature of it ; but 
I imagine there must be one. At all events, there is the 
circuitous road by Beejapoor, mentioned in Moore's book, on 
which I shall certainly be able to march. 

' When once I arrive upon the Beemah our junction will 
not be very difficult. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Stevenson." c ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. General Stuart. 

' SlR, ' Camp at Deogerry, 15th March, 1803. 

' I arrived here yesterday, and halted this day, to give 
some rest to my brinjarries, who have joined, with Captain 
Baynes. Ball Kischen Letchma, one of the Putwurdun 
family, arrived in this camp yesterday evening, and gives 
the strongest assurances of the cordial co-operation of all the 
sirdars of that family, in our measures for the restoration of 
the Peshwah's government. 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 437 

' Govind Rao also, who was employed by me, by your 
desire, for the purpose of ascertaining the dispositions of 
the different chiefs in the same cause, gives a most favorable 
account of them. He had seen the killadar of Darwar, 
Bappojee Scindiah, who told him that it was reported that 
the British troops were to attack the fort ; that it was not 
necessary to attack it, for if we wanted it he would withdraw 
with his family, and would give it up. The garrison is very 
small, consisting of about 500 horse and 1000 peons, ill 
paid ; and Govind Kao has no doubt whatever but that the 
fort would be given up upon our demand of it. I have sent 
off' the letters to the different sirdars, and have written to 
each to inform him of my approach, and to desire he would 
join me. 

' Upon a perusal of the letters respecting the killadary of 
Darwar, I do not find that any mention is made, in the copy 
which I have got, of the delivery of the fort to the officer 
commanding the British troops. It may be mentioned, how- 
ever, in the sealed letter to Ball Kischen Gungurdhur. 
Under these circumstances, I have many doubts whether it 
Avould be proper to take any steps to get possession of this 
fort, even if the measure had been left to my discretion ; 
which, as you have desired to have my opinion upon all 
points, I shall detail to you. 

' The advantage of having this fort is the security it would 
give to our rear, and the hold which it would give us of the 
country. In case of an accident also, it might be ruinous to 
us if in the hands of an enemy. In respect, however, to 
these advantages and benefits, I have to observe, that so 
long as your army remains upon the frontier, we shall enjoy 
them whether we have the fort or not, supposing that the 
killadar should not be decidedly hostile to us ; and if he 
should be so, or should become so, and if any accident should 
happen to us, it would always be in your power to get pos- 
session of that fort. 

' On the other hand, it may not be so certain that Bappo- 
jee Scindiah is inclined or willing to give up this fort ; and 
if it is asked for and refused, it must be taken. To take it 
will not require time, but it may occasion the loss of lives ; 
there will be some wounded, at all events, and it would be 
necessary to halt to make arrangements for establishing an 



438 THE MARHATTA WAR. 1803. 

hospital and a garrison in it. At the same time, I have no 
doubt whatever but that to take the fort, particularly if the 
killadar is friendly to us, and gives promises and security 
that he will not interrupt our communication, will occasion 
great jealousy of our views among the jaghiredars, and will 
make them less hearty in our cause. 

< This will be the case, particularly if it be true that the 
Peshwah has not given an order to Ball Kischen Gungurdhur 
to deliver the fort to the British commander ; which order 
certainly does not appear in the copy of the letter to that 
chief transmitted to me. 

' Upon the whole, therefore, I think that to ask for the 
fort is attended with risk ; that even to have possession 
of it may be disadvantageous to the line of measures which 
are carrying on ; and that all the advantages which can be 
expected from the possession of it will be ours, whether 
we have it or not, in consequence of your position on the 
frontier. 

' A salute in your camp was heard here this morning, by 
which I conclude that Malcolm is arrived ; I do not therefore 
delay to send off this' letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. General Stuart." < ARTHUR WELLESLEY. 

To Lieut. Colonel Close. 
< MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Camp at Kandegy, 16th March, 1803. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that I am getting on 
as well as I could wish. On account of the want of water on 
the direct road from Hurry hur to Savanore, I have been 
obliged to come by a circuitous route, which has detained 
me longer than I should otherwise have been ; but I expect 
to be at or near Darwar on the 21st or 22nd, at Belgaum 
on the 27th, and at Meritch on the 5th of April. From 
thence, even if obliged to go by Punderpoor, to join Colonel 
Stevenson, I shall be at Poonah before the time at which 
I told you, in my letter of the 1st January, that I thought 
it probable that General Stuart would arrive there with his 
army. 

( My cattle are in good order ; I get plenty of forage, and 
I have little doubt of bringing up my detachment in good 
style, at least as far as the Kistna. Our cattle afterwards 



1803. ADVANCE TO POONAH. 439 

will depend upon the state of the country for forage, of 
which, particularly in the neighbourhood of Poonah, I have 
but bad accounts. 

' I have sent the Peshwah's letters to the sirdars to whom 
they were addressed, with a short letter from myself, stating 
that I had entered the country with the army, and was 
anxious to be joined by them. I also enclosed them a copy 
of my proclamation